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Cultural Dimensions of Elite Formation in Transylvania (1770–1950)

Cultural Dimensions of Elite Formation in Transylvania (1770–1950)

Mariana Hausleitner

Mariana Hausleitner Union was not interested in such an exchange. After June 1941, Nistor justified the conquest of Transnistria as the liberation of local Romanians. 19 Parallel to my analysis of the governmental policies, I also examined the positions of the organizations of the non-Romanians and found that in Bukovina the representatives of Germans, Jews and Ukrainians acted united against the Romanianization of their schools until 1928. This cooperation was sustained by the fact that the social-democratic deputy of Chernowitz, Jakob Pistiner also supported the common cause of all ethnic groups. 20 After 1933, the representatives of the non-Romanians seldomly acted in unison. This had many reasons. The deterioration of the relations between Germans and Jews is generally attributed to the influence of national-socialist ideas on the German minority. The influence became especially visible when in 1933 Jewish organizations called for a boycott of German products in order to draw attention to the persecution of Jews in the German Reich. Representatives of the German minority claimed that this was atrocity propaganda and in turn called for a boycott of the three daily newspapers published by Jews in Chernowitz. 21 Within the Ukrainian minority population a process of radicalization also started at that time: The moderate minority leaders were marginalized by forces on the political right calling for a greater Ukrainian state. 22 The fact that the Germans and the Ukrainians did not see themselves as members of minority groups but as part of external nations was in my view mainly the result of the failed negotiations about concessions from the National Liberal Party government. The Jewish candidates, who had run on the ballot of Romanian parties until 1931 and started then a separate Jewish list, remained isolated after 1933. Many of the adolescent Jews saw a future only in Palestine or the Soviet Union. 23 In order to establish what kind of influence the organizations of non- Romanians actually exerted, I have not only examined their publications, but also studied the files of the security police, Siguranţa, on a regional level. These are almost completely present at the regional archive of Chernowitz. By comparing them with the dossiers of the central government agencies in Bucharest, I was able to determine which measures were initiated by the Bucharest center and which by the regional elites. Until the mid-twenties endeavors to marginalize the minorities were carried out by local Romanian 19 Ion Nistor, “De ce luptăm dincolo de Nistru?” [Why do we fight beyond the Nistru] Bucovina 72, no. 1 (October 4, 1941). See also Mariana Hausleitner, “Ethnische Homogenisierung als Prinzip der Bevölkerungspolitik? Das Beispiel der Bukowina 1918–1944”, in Migration im südöstlichen Mitteleuropa. Auswanderung, Flucht, Deportation, Exil im 20. Jahrhundert, ed. Krista Zach (Munich: IKGS- Verlag, 2005), 135–154,137–141. 20 Hausleitner, Die Rumänisierung, 201–204. 21 Hausleitner, Die Rumänisierung, 275–291. Also: Hildrun Glass, Zerbrochene Nachbarschaft. Das deutsch-jüdische Verhältnis in Rumänien 1918-1938 (Munich: R. 0ldenbourg-Verlag, 1996), 357–381. 22 Hausleitner, Die Rumänisierung, 266–275. See also: Frank Golczewski, “Die ukrainische Emigration”, in Geschichte der Ukraine, ed. Frank Golczewski (Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1993), 237. 23 Hausleitner, Die Rumänisierung, 291–301. See also: Carol Iancu, Evreii din România 1919- 1938. De la emancipare la marginalizare (Bucureşti: Editura Humanitas, 2000), 228. 264

Minorities and Sociopolitical Crises in Three Regional Societies: leaders; it was only afterwards that the Bucharest ministries took direct initiatives to deprive the minorities of power through legal means. Bessarabia In the case of Bessarabia I have mainly investigated the situation of Germans and Jews in the 19th and 20th century on the basis of the dossiers of the state archives in Chişinău and in Bucharest. I will limit here my presentation to those aspects of the interwar years which differ markedly from the situation in Bukovina and Transylvania. The extent of violence experienced through the hands of the state by minorities was already much larger in Bessarabia than in other parts of the country. The Romanian army killed hundreds of Ukrainians during the uprisings of Hotin and Bender in 1919 as well as the one of Tatar Bunar in 1924. Such massacres only took place in this territory, where the military administration was able to point to the infiltration by Bolsheviks. While this did take place, it found support with some farmers because the land reform had not satisfied their hopes. 24 Ever since the Entente had embarked upon the policy of the cordon sanitaire around the Soviet state, only some politically engaged authors such as Henri Barbusse, or organizations on the political left took up the topic of repression in these regions. 25 In Bukovina, in contrast to Bessarabia, social democracy was already well established by the beginning of the 1920s so as to channel social protest institutionally. In Bessarabia, however, all political organizations of the left had been crushed after 1918. Of the Jewish Workers’ Union (Allgemeiner Jüdischer Arbeiterbund in Rumänien or Bund, by its popular name) only its cultural section (Kulturlige) remained still active. Its support for Yiddish language schools, however, was prosecuted as if it represented an act of high treason. The police tried to lock away well-known Bundists as Bolsheviks. 26 Yet, just a small number of communists were working underground and were trying to reach the minorities with separatist demands. 27 24 Mariana Hausleitner, Deutsche und Juden in Bessarabien 1814-1941. Zur Minderheitenpolitik Russlands und Großrumäniens (Munich: IKGS, 2005), 90-98. The French consul in Chişinău wrote in 1924 that much more than 300 people – which were the official number – had been executed. See Valeriu Florin Dobrinescu and Ion Pătroiu, eds., Documente străine despre Basarabia şi Bucovina 1918–1944 [Foreign documents about Bessarabia and Bukovina, 1918–1944] (Bucureşti: Editura Vremea, 2003), 54, 62. 25 Henri Barbusse, Die Henker (Stuttgart: Verlag Öffentliches Leben, 1927), 120–121. About the Cordon sanitaire: Dan Diner, Das Jahrhundert verstehen. Eine universalhistorische Deutung (Munich: Luchterhand, 1999), 99. 26 For example the trial against Hersch Gilischenski in 1921. See: Hausleitner, Deutsche, 121–123; and Joseph Kissman, “Zur Geschichte der jüdischen Arbeiterbewegung ‘Bund’ in der Bukowina”, in Geschichte der Juden in der Bukowina, vo1. 1, ed. Hugo Gold (Tel Aviv: Olamenu, 1958), 138–142. 27 Hausleitner, Deutsche, 123. See Vladimir Tismaneanu, Stalinism for All Seasons. A Political History of Romanian Communism (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2003), 52–56. 265

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    Cultural Dimensions of Elite Format

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    III. Comparative Perspectives MARIU

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    Introduction Roman Catholics (13.4%

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    Introduction contributors to this v

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    Introduction in an administrative s

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    Introduction official nationalist p

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    Joachim von Puttkamer schools that

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    Joachim von Puttkamer of the monarc

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    SEVER CRISTIAN OANCEA The Lutheran

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    Sever Cristian Oancea Undoubtedly,

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    Sever Cristian Oancea professors. G

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    Sever Cristian Oancea only one year

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    ZOLTÁN PÁLFY Ethnoconfessional Pa

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    Zoltán Pálfy with Magyar-sounding

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    Zoltán Pálfy attempts. 7 Moreover

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    Zoltán Pálfy In general, the avai

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    Zoltán Pálfy detriment of ethnic

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    Zoltán Pálfy state had manifestly

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    Zoltán Pálfy Totals of the 1900-1

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    Zoltán Pálfy Table 7. Ethnic Roma

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    Zoltán Pálfy atypically ‘modern

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    Victor Karady added for each denomi

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    Victor Karady significant proportio

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    Victor Karady Transylvanian countie

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    Victor Karady Transylvanian countie

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    Victor Karady Transylvanian countie

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    Victor Karady Transylvanian countie

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    Victor Karady Transylvanian countie

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    Victor Karady Transylvanian countie

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    Teodora Daniela Sechel published in

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    Teodora Daniela Sechel The Medical

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    Teodora Daniela Sechel state became

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    Teodora Daniela Sechel I healed man

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    Teodora Daniela Sechel The Physicia

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    Borbála Zsuzsanna Török Conclusi

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    JUDIT PÁL The Transylvanian Lord-L

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    Judit Pál Transylvania in the Reic

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    GÁBOR EGRY Minority Elite, Continu

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    Gábor Egry minister) in the title

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    Gábor Egry The leadership of the H

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    Gábor Egry important role in their

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    Gábor Egry role on the county leve

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    Gábor Egry The easiest way is to i

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    Gábor Egry Szőcs’s position cam

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    Gábor Egry The Transylvanian Allia

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    Gábor Egry Many members of the All

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    Gábor Egry classical tenet was bas

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    Gábor Egry public officials coming

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    Gábor Egry Hungarians of Transylva

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    Gábor Egry the ruling race in the

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    Gábor Egry discourse, and sometime

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  • Page 248 and 249: Marius Lazăr 248 dethroned Prince
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  • Page 260 and 261: MARIANA HAUSLEITNER Minorities and
  • Page 262 and 263: Mariana Hausleitner Peasant Party h
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  • Page 270 and 271: Mariana Hausleitner the global expr
  • Page 272 and 273: The Authors research on the topic o
  • Page 275 and 276: Index Abády, Bálint - 170 Abafáy
  • Page 277 and 278: György, Béla - 192, 196 Hajek, Eg
  • Page 279 and 280: Ónodi-Weress, Károly - 159 Orosz,
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