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eTheses Repository - University of Birmingham

eTheses Repository - University of Birmingham

eTheses Repository - University of

MODELLING THE IMPACT OF URBANISATION ON THE REGIONAL CLIMATE OF THE GREATER LONDON AREA by HEATHER L. THOMPSON A thesis submitted to The University of Birmingham for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY School of Geography The University of Birmingham September 2008

  • Page 2 and 3: University of Birmingham Research A
  • Page 4 and 5: Acknowledgments This thesis could n
  • Page 6 and 7: Table of Contents Chapter 1: Introd
  • Page 8 and 9: 7.1.1 EXPANSION series.............
  • Page 10 and 11: Figure 4.6: Vertical section at y=0
  • Page 12 and 13: Figure 5.12: Diurnal cycle of the w
  • Page 14 and 15: List of tables Table 2.1: SWOT anal
  • Page 16 and 17: Human activities in urban areas are
  • Page 18 and 19: 1.1 Aims and Objectives The aim of
  • Page 20 and 21: types, building heights, and differ
  • Page 22 and 23: Chapter 2: Literature review This t
  • Page 24 and 25: 2.1.2 Thermal effects In urban area
  • Page 26 and 27: Evaluating the magnitude of the ant
  • Page 28 and 29: consists of interacting wakes and p
  • Page 30 and 31: city scale, although their dispersi
  • Page 32 and 33: A single, distinct type of UHI does
  • Page 34 and 35: accompanied by a reduction in city
  • Page 36 and 37: smaller green areas can also influe
  • Page 38 and 39: 2.2 The impact of urbanisation on l
  • Page 40 and 41: experimental methods to investigate
  • Page 42 and 43: characterised by appropriate values
  • Page 44 and 45: Pino et al. 2004), convective activ
  • Page 46 and 47: More recent efforts to parameterise
  • Page 48 and 49: (2005), which uses a simple energy
  • Page 50 and 51: Table 2.1: SWOT analysis for the BE
  • Page 52 and 53:

    2.4 Urbanisation of the South East

  • Page 54 and 55:

    • Water resources (reduction in s

  • Page 56 and 57:

    eyond the boundaries of the continu

  • Page 58 and 59:

    Figure 2.6: Built up area for Londo

  • Page 60 and 61:

    Figure 2.7: Urban classes taken fro

  • Page 62 and 63:

    In 1965 Chandler observed that the

  • Page 64 and 65:

    the seasonal/annual frequency of su

  • Page 66 and 67:

    2.5 Summary This review has conside

  • Page 68 and 69:

    Chapter 3: Methods In this section

  • Page 70 and 71:

    Figure 3.1: Three dimensional repre

  • Page 72 and 73:

    than the mesoscale phenomena being

  • Page 74 and 75:

    u * = κV ( z k= 1 * χ = κ[ χ (

  • Page 76 and 77:

    A force restore model is used to so

  • Page 78 and 79:

    For the temperature the surface ene

  • Page 80 and 81:

    initialisation phase lasting 2-8 ho

  • Page 82 and 83:

    defined for the horizontal grid in

  • Page 84 and 85:

    ort where U is the wind component o

  • Page 86 and 87:

    ∂Ts 1 ( 1− α) Rs + Rd − εσ

  • Page 88 and 89:

    greater than zero, the model will u

  • Page 90 and 91:

    3.5 Data sources This section descr

  • Page 92 and 93:

    Percentage of Meadows [%] Percentag

  • Page 94 and 95:

    parameters. As accurate data source

  • Page 96 and 97:

    3.5.5 Meteorological data for model

  • Page 98 and 99:

    Figure 3.6: Locations of Met Office

  • Page 100 and 101:

    Chapter 4: Results from the impleme

  • Page 102 and 103:

    on the 1 st July at 00:00. The cent

  • Page 104 and 105:

    for the implementation of BEP in th

  • Page 106 and 107:

    TKE [m 2 s -2 ] Figure 4.3: Vertica

  • Page 108 and 109:

    (2006) find a spatial displacement

  • Page 110 and 111:

    presence of the dome of warmer air

  • Page 112 and 113:

    (a) Potential temperature [K] (b) W

  • Page 114 and 115:

    urban core, with differences of 300

  • Page 116 and 117:

    Wind speed [ms -1 ] Figure 4.11: Ve

  • Page 118 and 119:

    the UHI intensity is constant, it t

  • Page 120 and 121:

    4.3 Sensitivity tests In Section 4.

  • Page 122 and 123:

    different building heights will aff

  • Page 124 and 125:

    4.3.2 Sensitivity to the temperatur

  • Page 126 and 127:

    expected if the difference between

  • Page 128 and 129:

    simulation was carried out in which

  • Page 130 and 131:

    climate (Jonsson 2004). Increasing

  • Page 132 and 133:

    Figure 4.18 shows the diurnal varia

  • Page 134 and 135:

    conservatively estimated the potent

  • Page 136 and 137:

    Potential temperature [K] Figure 4.

  • Page 138 and 139:

    UHI intensity (K) 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

  • Page 140 and 141:

    Figure 4.22 shows the vertical prof

  • Page 142 and 143:

    (a) Wind speed (wind 2 ms -1 ) (b)

  • Page 144 and 145:

    4.4 Summary The results presented i

  • Page 146 and 147:

    The mitigating potential of the urb

  • Page 148 and 149:

    5.1 Set up of the model for London

  • Page 150 and 151:

    whether high or low pressure respec

  • Page 152 and 153:

    Centre (LWC) were used in order to

  • Page 154 and 155:

    5.2 Model evaluation It was difficu

  • Page 156 and 157:

    which is considerably lower. The fa

  • Page 158 and 159:

    Air temperature ( o C) 35 30 25 20

  • Page 160 and 161:

    Air temperature ( o C) 35 30 25 20

  • Page 162 and 163:

    the minimum temperature by 2.6 ºC.

  • Page 164 and 165:

    Air temperature ( o C) 30 25 20 15

  • Page 166 and 167:

    expected that wind speed will be ex

  • Page 168 and 169:

    It is also interesting to look at t

  • Page 170 and 171:

    Figure 5.12 shows the 10 m wind spe

  • Page 172 and 173:

    5.3 Summary and discussion of the e

  • Page 174 and 175:

    heterogeneity of the surface which

  • Page 176 and 177:

    mesoscale model METRAS for this pre

  • Page 178 and 179:

    6.1.2 NOURB CASE The NOURB land cov

  • Page 180 and 181:

    Literature review in Chapter 2. The

  • Page 182 and 183:

    Table 6.4: Summary of simulations w

  • Page 184 and 185:

    Potential temperature (URB_BASE-NOU

  • Page 186 and 187:

    at 04:00 is (1.29 ± 0.33) K, and a

  • Page 188 and 189:

    equation (Harman et al. 2004). For

  • Page 190 and 191:

    daytime UHI intensity reaches a pea

  • Page 192 and 193:

    Figure 6.3: Diurnal variation of th

  • Page 194 and 195:

    Wind speed (URB_BASE-NOURB) (ms -1

  • Page 196 and 197:

    Aaffected _ rural ( ψ ) + Aaffecte

  • Page 198 and 199:

    6.3 Effects of the past radial expa

  • Page 200 and 201:

    • Spatially averaged near surface

  • Page 202 and 203:

    Mean potential temperature at 04:00

  • Page 204 and 205:

    compared to the RADIUS series for s

  • Page 206 and 207:

    the COMBINED series, for which the

  • Page 208 and 209:

    6.3.3 Effect of urban growth on the

  • Page 210 and 211:

    For the minimum diurnal temperature

  • Page 212 and 213:

    Maximum UHI intensity (K) 3.0 2.5 2

  • Page 214 and 215:

    By studying data from meteorologica

  • Page 216 and 217:

    Figure 6.16 shows the same results

  • Page 218 and 219:

    6.4 Summary and discussion The aim

  • Page 220 and 221:

    due to the consequent increase in t

  • Page 222 and 223:

    The effects of future urban expansi

  • Page 224 and 225:

    The METRAS+BEP model was run under

  • Page 226 and 227:

    Model simulation name Description u

  • Page 228 and 229:

    2004). Both forms of urban expansio

  • Page 230 and 231:

    Mean near surface potential tempera

  • Page 232 and 233:

    important implications for the mana

  • Page 234 and 235:

    Chapter 6 that the increase in the

  • Page 236 and 237:

    A reason for the sharp increase in

  • Page 238 and 239:

    URB_BASE case in Chapter 6 of just

  • Page 240 and 241:

    Change in the fraction of urban lan

  • Page 242 and 243:

    Change in the near surface temperat

  • Page 244 and 245:

    Summary and discussion Future urban

  • Page 246 and 247:

    BEP urban scheme at the city scale

  • Page 248 and 249:

    Chapter 8: Conclusions and recommen

  • Page 250 and 251:

    cover change and its impact of thes

  • Page 252 and 253:

    (LCCP 2006). It is considered that

  • Page 254 and 255:

    8.2 Improvements and recommendation

  • Page 256 and 257:

    This work could also be extended by

  • Page 258 and 259:

    Baklanov, A., P. G. Mestayer, A. Cl

  • Page 260 and 261:

    Chandler, T. J. (1962). "London's U

  • Page 262 and 263:

    Figueroa, P. I. and N. A. Mazzeo (1

  • Page 264 and 265:

    Hulme, M. and E. Barrow (1997). The

  • Page 266 and 267:

    Kovats, R. S., S. Hajat and P. Wilk

  • Page 268 and 269:

    Martilli, A. (2007). "Current resea

  • Page 270 and 271:

    Oleson, K. W., G. B. Bonan, J. Fedd

  • Page 272 and 273:

    Roth, H., T. R. Oke and W. J. Emery

  • Page 274 and 275:

    Stewart, I. D. (2007). "Landscape r

  • Page 276 and 277:

    Uno, I., H. Ueda and S. Wakamatsu (

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