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PhD Thesis - Cranfield University

PhD Thesis - Cranfield University

PhD Thesis - Cranfield

Power and Energy Management of Multiple Energy Storage Systems in Electric Vehicles PhD Thesis Leon C Rosario June 2007 Department of Aerospace Power & Sensors Cranfield University, DCMT Shrivenham Swindon, Wiltshire, SN6 8LA, United Kingdom

  • Page 2 and 3: Power and Energy Management of Mult
  • Page 4 and 5: ABSTRACT This dissertation contribu
  • Page 6 and 7: Notation Description Unit FTR Tract
  • Page 8 and 9: Contents CONTENTS List of Figures..
  • Page 10 and 11: Contents 7.10 Converter Switching C
  • Page 12 and 13: List of Figures Figure 4.3 EV accel
  • Page 14 and 15: List of Tables List of Tables Table
  • Page 16 and 17: Chapter 1 1.1 Motivation This resea
  • Page 18 and 19: Chapter 1 has become generally acce
  • Page 20 and 21: Chapter 1 The reason for this new f
  • Page 22 and 23: Chapter 1 Considerable work in ener
  • Page 24 and 25: Chapter 1 and energy management pro
  • Page 26 and 27: Chapter 1 The research into power a
  • Page 28 and 29: Chapter 1 The key contributions as
  • Page 30 and 31: Chapter 1 Chapter 4 presents the ap
  • Page 32 and 33: Chapter 1 Publications 1. L.C. Rosa
  • Page 34 and 35: Chapter 2 2.1 Overview Published wo
  • Page 36 and 37: Chapter 2 electro-mechanically via
  • Page 38 and 39: Chapter 2 showed that the battery S
  • Page 40 and 41: Chapter 2 by Guzzella and Sciarrett
  • Page 42 and 43: Chapter 2 insights to the problem d
  • Page 44 and 45: Chapter 2 (a) From US Patent 280061
  • Page 46 and 47: Chapter 2 PROPERTY NEAR TERM TARGET
  • Page 48 and 49: Chapter 2 The most basic method in
  • Page 50 and 51: Chapter 2 need for precise energy m
  • Page 52 and 53:

    Chapter 2 Arnet and Haines [70] des

  • Page 54 and 55:

    Chapter 2 converter proposed by Tod

  • Page 56 and 57:

    Chapter 2 system. Theoretically, th

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    Chapter 2 For a multi energy storag

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    Chapter 2 Rapid deep discharge cycl

  • Page 62 and 63:

    Chapter 3 CHAPTER 3 EV BATTERIES AN

  • Page 64 and 65:

    Chapter 3 Positive Electrode e - Ca

  • Page 66 and 67:

    Chapter 3 Battery Technology Type C

  • Page 68 and 69:

    Chapter 3 3.4 Battery Specific Ener

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    Chapter 3 continuously discharge th

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    Chapter 3 3.10 Battery Modelling Th

  • Page 74 and 75:

    Chapter 3 Since DoD(t 0)= 0 when th

  • Page 76 and 77:

    Chapter 3 3.12 Battery State of Cha

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    Chapter 3 Battery Voc Ri Vb i Test

  • Page 80 and 81:

    Chapter 3 Maximum Charging Power Si

  • Page 82 and 83:

    Chapter 3 charge and discharge cycl

  • Page 84 and 85:

    Chapter 3 3.16 Extended Battery equ

  • Page 86 and 87:

    Chapter 3 Surewaard et al.[99] prod

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    Chapter 3 models are very similar (

  • Page 90 and 91:

    Chapter 3 Positive Terminal Current

  • Page 92 and 93:

    Chapter 3 − t EPR = ⎛V2 ⎞ ln

  • Page 94 and 95:

    Chapter 3 where, C0 1 b ≡ , c ≡

  • Page 96 and 97:

    Chapter 3 Using (3.40), the followi

  • Page 98 and 99:

    Chapter 3 t → ∞ , k= 1 and the

  • Page 100 and 101:

    Chapter 3 In the circuit configurat

  • Page 102 and 103:

    Chapter 3 83.50 50.00 Current (A) 0

  • Page 104 and 105:

    Chapter 3 83.50 50.00 Current (A) 0

  • Page 106 and 107:

    Chapter 4 CHAPTER 4 ELECTRIC VEHICL

  • Page 108 and 109:

    Chapter 4 Linear acceleration force

  • Page 110 and 111:

    Chapter 4 4.2 Vehicle Propulsion Po

  • Page 112 and 113:

    Chapter 4 P TR (t) P T P TR 0 ∆t

  • Page 114 and 115:

    Chapter 4 Energy Storage System Cha

  • Page 116 and 117:

    Chapter 4 1 2 2 1 2 2 m( vs max −

  • Page 118 and 119:

    Chapter 4 4.6 Case study of the eff

  • Page 120 and 121:

    Chapter 4 Velocity (km/h) Drive Pro

  • Page 122 and 123:

    Chapter 4 Power (W) Profile 1 - Pow

  • Page 124 and 125:

    Chapter 4 Velocity (km/h) Drive Pro

  • Page 126 and 127:

    Chapter 4 Power (W) Profile 2 - Pow

  • Page 128 and 129:

    Chapter 4 Velocity (km/h) Drive Pro

  • Page 130 and 131:

    Chapter 4 power is provided by the

  • Page 132 and 133:

    Chapter 4 A situation such as this

  • Page 134 and 135:

    Chapter 5 presented. Following this

  • Page 136 and 137:

    Chapter 5 Hierarchy Process Dissemi

  • Page 138 and 139:

    Chapter 5 5.2 Adaptation of hierarc

  • Page 140 and 141:

    Chapter 5 than power management. Th

  • Page 142 and 143:

    Chapter 5 Short/Immediate term obje

  • Page 144 and 145:

    Chapter 5 distribution commands or

  • Page 146 and 147:

    Chapter 5 the required controlled s

  • Page 148 and 149:

    Chapter 5 5.8 Implementation of a P

  • Page 150 and 151:

    Chapter 5 For the battery system, t

  • Page 152 and 153:

    Chapter 5 policy, since the policy

  • Page 154 and 155:

    Chapter 5 To enforce and guarantee

  • Page 156 and 157:

    Chapter 5 output fuzzy set is produ

  • Page 158 and 159:

    Chapter 5 By regulating the paramet

  • Page 160 and 161:

    Chapter 5 (W) (km/h) (pu) 1 Figure

  • Page 162 and 163:

    Chapter 5 5.11 Implementation of a

  • Page 164 and 165:

    Chapter 5 START STOP Pb=0 Puc=+ve P

  • Page 166 and 167:

    Chapter 5 With the reference power

  • Page 168 and 169:

    Chapter 5 ⎡S ⎢ S= ⎢ S ⎢S

  • Page 170 and 171:

    Chapter 6 CHAPTER 6 HARDWARE DESCRI

  • Page 172 and 173:

    Chapter 6 Figure 6.2 shows the subs

  • Page 174 and 175:

    Chapter 6 this case 400A.. Using ma

  • Page 176 and 177:

    Chapter 6 Drive Cycle Profiler In o

  • Page 178 and 179:

    Chapter 6 With reference to the PES

  • Page 180 and 181:

    Chapter 7 7.1 Design Rationale A po

  • Page 182 and 183:

    Chapter 7 batteries and ultracapaci

  • Page 184 and 185:

    Chapter 7 7.5 Battery Boost Mode -

  • Page 186 and 187:

    Chapter 7 Thus, the boost or discha

  • Page 188 and 189:

    Chapter 7 I Load Pmax max = V nom D

  • Page 190 and 191:

    Chapter 7 rearranging, V ( 1− D 1

  • Page 192 and 193:

    Chapter 7 ∆i L = ( Vout )( 1 DT1

  • Page 194 and 195:

    Chapter 7 electrical and thermal st

  • Page 196 and 197:

    Chapter 7 ( 45)( 12. 5 ⋅10 = 2 =

  • Page 198 and 199:

    Chapter 7 Selection of inductive an

  • Page 200 and 201:

    Chapter 7 Similarly, from (7-29), t

  • Page 202 and 203:

    Chapter 7 The practical approach us

  • Page 204 and 205:

    Chapter 7 Based on the previous des

  • Page 206 and 207:

    Chapter 7 period of the digital con

  • Page 208 and 209:

    Chapter 7 chapters, the power manag

  • Page 210 and 211:

    Chapter 7 In terms of capacitor vol

  • Page 212 and 213:

    Chapter 7 Power Losses in the PE sw

  • Page 214 and 215:

    Chapter 7 Power Loss (W) 1800 1600

  • Page 216 and 217:

    Chapter 8 8.1. Experiment 1: Model

  • Page 218 and 219:

    Chapter 8 Segment 1 Battery Voltage

  • Page 220 and 221:

    Chapter 8 8.2. Experiment 2: Empiri

  • Page 222 and 223:

    Chapter 8 Figure 8.6 shows the batt

  • Page 224 and 225:

    Chapter 8 From the results of the e

  • Page 226 and 227:

    Chapter 8 Implementation of the PMS

  • Page 228 and 229:

    Chapter 8 Test Segment 2 Power (W)

  • Page 230 and 231:

    Chapter 8 Test Segment 4 Power (W)

  • Page 232 and 233:

    Chapter 8 Battery Current (A) Batte

  • Page 234 and 235:

    Chapter 8 Figure 8.21 provides a co

  • Page 236 and 237:

    Chapter 8 Results: Figure 8.23 pres

  • Page 238 and 239:

    Chapter 8 Discussion: Results of th

  • Page 240 and 241:

    Chapter 9 9.1. Conclusions General

  • Page 242 and 243:

    Chapter 9 energy management strateg

  • Page 244 and 245:

    Chapter 9 9.2. Future work In the v

  • Page 246 and 247:

    References REFERENCES [1] I. Husain

  • Page 248 and 249:

    References [30] J. Moreno, M. E. Or

  • Page 250 and 251:

    References [59] E. Ozatay, B. Zile,

  • Page 252 and 253:

    References [86] E. Takahara, H. Sat

  • Page 254 and 255:

    References [116] H. A. Wheeler, "Si

  • Page 256 and 257:

    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 A PIC 1 PIC 2 - + Bat

  • Page 258 and 259:

    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 A see Dwg -ELE -010 f

  • Page 260 and 261:

    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 A ID B C D E F G H I

  • Page 262 and 263:

    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 A Enable Key switch I

  • Page 264 and 265:

    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 A To CFP Systems. Ana

  • Page 266 and 267:

    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 A ID B C D E F G H I

  • Page 268 and 269:

    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 A START STOP START ST

  • Page 270 and 271:

    Type Test- 01 Type tests of the PWM

  • Page 272 and 273:

    Type Test- 02 Type tests of the RCD

  • Page 274 and 275:

    Power converter section - pre and p

  • Page 276:

    When its all been said and done All

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