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<strong>Management</strong> <strong>Communication</strong><br />

Quarterly<br />

http://mcq.sagepub.com/<br />

<strong>Organizational</strong> <strong>Communication</strong> <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> <strong>Third</strong> <strong>Sector</strong>: An Alternative<br />

Perspective<br />

Cicilia M. Krohl<strong>in</strong>g Peruzzo<br />

<strong>Management</strong> <strong>Communication</strong> Quarterly published onl<strong>in</strong>e 9 March 2009<br />

DOI: 10.1177/0893318909332277<br />

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<strong>Management</strong> <strong>Communication</strong> Quarterly Onl<strong>in</strong>eFirst, published on March 9, 2009 as<br />

doi:10.1177/0893318909332277<br />

<strong>Organizational</strong><br />

<strong>Communication</strong><br />

<strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> <strong>Third</strong> <strong>Sector</strong><br />

An Alternative Perspective<br />

Cicilia M. Krohl<strong>in</strong>g Peruzzo<br />

Universidade Metodista de São Paulo<br />

<strong>Management</strong><br />

<strong>Communication</strong> Quarterly<br />

Volume XX Number X<br />

Month XXXX xx-xx<br />

© 2009 SAge Publications<br />

10.1177/0893318909332277<br />

http://mcq.sagepub.com<br />

hosted at<br />

http://onl<strong>in</strong>e.sagepub.com<br />

Brazilian society is marked by profound contradictions. These contradictions<br />

contribute to <strong>the</strong> rise of social movements and to autonomous<br />

civil organizations that advocate for <strong>the</strong> needs and claims of <strong>the</strong> poor who<br />

are subjected to conditions of oppression. Through <strong>the</strong>se dynamics, such<br />

organizations forge <strong>the</strong>ir own communication processes and become alternative<br />

sites for <strong>the</strong> study and practice of organizational communication.<br />

This essay focuses on communication processes <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> third sector, an arena<br />

aimed at social transformation and <strong>the</strong> exercise of citizenship. Drawn from<br />

bibliographic research, this essay exam<strong>in</strong>es an alternative perspective for<br />

<strong>the</strong> study and practice of organizational communication.<br />

In <strong>the</strong> 1970s, amid <strong>the</strong> harsh military dictatorship <strong>in</strong> Brazil, social movements<br />

and o<strong>the</strong>r civil society organizations began to mobilize aga<strong>in</strong>st<br />

political control, degrad<strong>in</strong>g liv<strong>in</strong>g conditions, and <strong>the</strong> disrespect of human<br />

rights evident at that time. 1 Dur<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> years of this authoritarian military<br />

regime (1964–1984), democracy was banned and political opponents faced<br />

imprisonment, execution, and exile. The government monitored <strong>in</strong>dividual<br />

and collective freedoms and censured <strong>the</strong> mass media. Work<strong>in</strong>g-class salaries<br />

failed to cover basic family needs, <strong>in</strong>clud<strong>in</strong>g hous<strong>in</strong>g, day care, health,<br />

and education. Civil society slowly became conscious of <strong>the</strong> situation and<br />

began to mobilize for <strong>the</strong> right to participate politically and to overcome<br />

social antagonisms.<br />

Alternative nonprofit, community-based organizations grew out of this<br />

context. At <strong>the</strong> same time, exist<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong>stitutions, such as <strong>the</strong> church, engaged<br />

<strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> social battle by support<strong>in</strong>g civil causes, work<strong>in</strong>g to solve problems that<br />

affected people’s daily lives, and f<strong>in</strong>d<strong>in</strong>g ways to broaden <strong>the</strong> rights of citizenship.<br />

These <strong>in</strong>itiatives formed what is known as “<strong>the</strong> third sector,” or<br />

“private, non-governmental, non-lucrative, voluntary association organizations”<br />

(Acotto & Manzur, cited <strong>in</strong> Montaño, 2002, p. 55). <strong>Third</strong> sector<br />

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2 <strong>Management</strong> <strong>Communication</strong> Quarterly<br />

organizations, such as NgOs, <strong>in</strong>stitutes, community associations, social<br />

movements, foundations, and philanthropic <strong>in</strong>stitutions, were configured<br />

as private but developed a public character that operated <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> collective<br />

<strong>in</strong>terest.<br />

Unlike <strong>the</strong> state which forms <strong>the</strong> first sector and <strong>the</strong> market which constitutes<br />

<strong>the</strong> second sector, third sector organizations operate <strong>in</strong> nonprofit<br />

and nongovernmental arenas that function outside <strong>the</strong> “laws” of profitability.<br />

In contrast to <strong>the</strong> first and second sectors, <strong>the</strong> goals and communication<br />

processes of third sector organizations are driven by political and ideological<br />

values and <strong>the</strong> diverse <strong>in</strong>tentions of actors. In effect, third sector organizations<br />

are an important avenue for civil action, and <strong>the</strong>y also engage <strong>in</strong><br />

public–private partnerships. In 2004, Brazil had 276,000 nonprofit private<br />

<strong>in</strong>stitutions. 2 Moreover, private foundations and nonprofit associations<br />

employed 1.5 million people and paid approximately $10 billion <strong>in</strong> salaries<br />

and o<strong>the</strong>r remunerations. 3<br />

Essential Considerations for <strong>the</strong> <strong>Third</strong> <strong>Sector</strong><br />

“<strong>Organizational</strong> communication,” <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> third sector, 4 does not have a<br />

s<strong>in</strong>gle mean<strong>in</strong>g. These different connotations occur <strong>in</strong> work-related sett<strong>in</strong>gs as<br />

well as <strong>in</strong> social movements, community associations, nongovernmental<br />

organizations, and o<strong>the</strong>r nonprofit <strong>in</strong>stitutions. They differ from <strong>the</strong> approaches<br />

that characterize bus<strong>in</strong>ess corporations, governments, and o<strong>the</strong>r <strong>in</strong>stitutions<br />

outside <strong>the</strong> third sector.<br />

From <strong>the</strong> perspective of community associations, new pr<strong>in</strong>ciples structure<br />

<strong>the</strong> practices and concepts of communication. <strong>Communication</strong> <strong>in</strong><br />

third sector organizations focuses on social action and human development<br />

on behalf of <strong>the</strong> community and provides an alternative to traditional<br />

professional practice. What is at stake is <strong>the</strong> broaden<strong>in</strong>g of <strong>the</strong><br />

rights and duties of citizenship and not <strong>the</strong> fulfillment of bus<strong>in</strong>ess and<br />

governmental <strong>in</strong>terests. These pr<strong>in</strong>ciples do not replace traditional organizational<br />

communication, although <strong>the</strong>y require some conceptual and practical<br />

revision of tra<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> this area.<br />

In this way, <strong>the</strong> goals and practices of third sector organizations come<br />

toge<strong>the</strong>r to support changes <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> public <strong>in</strong>terest. Accord<strong>in</strong>g to Peter<br />

Drucker (2001), nonprofit organizations are agents of human change whose<br />

goals can be a healed patient, a child who learns, or a young person who<br />

develops <strong>in</strong>to an adult with self-respect. In Brazilian and Lat<strong>in</strong> American<br />

societies, <strong>the</strong> third sector’s objectives are to keep a child off <strong>the</strong> streets and<br />

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Peruzzo / <strong>Organizational</strong> <strong>Communication</strong> <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> <strong>Third</strong> <strong>Sector</strong> 3<br />

away from drug traffic and forced labor and to guarantee this child a comfortable<br />

bed and <strong>the</strong> right to play and attend school. In addition to help<strong>in</strong>g<br />

children, third sector associations strive to end all forms of violence, to<br />

preserve or restore <strong>the</strong> environment, to respect <strong>the</strong> rights of each and every<br />

human be<strong>in</strong>g, and to help human be<strong>in</strong>gs achieve <strong>the</strong>ir potential through<br />

be<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong>volved <strong>in</strong> active <strong>in</strong>tervention for change. Accord<strong>in</strong>g to Pedro Demo<br />

(1988), citizenship is an accomplishment. It is never a concession by <strong>the</strong><br />

rulers. Only social pressure causes its quality to <strong>in</strong>crease, and third sector<br />

organizations focus on exert<strong>in</strong>g this social pressure.<br />

even though third sector organizations are not homogeneous (Peruzzo,<br />

2007), <strong>the</strong>y share a goal, which is to promote changes that place a premium<br />

on human development. Therefore, <strong>the</strong>ir strategies also change, based on<br />

what <strong>the</strong> organization wants to accomplish. In <strong>the</strong> process of promot<strong>in</strong>g<br />

social transformations, third sector organizations use certa<strong>in</strong> tactics to<br />

stimulate active participation of citizens and facilitate personal <strong>in</strong>volvement<br />

and self-emancipation aimed at build<strong>in</strong>g a more egalitarian society. Citizen<br />

participation <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> role of <strong>the</strong> protagonists is fundamental <strong>in</strong> achiev<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong><br />

proposed changes.<br />

The modus operandi of organizational communication, public relations,<br />

journalism, and o<strong>the</strong>r communication specialties also changes dur<strong>in</strong>g this<br />

transformation. Professional practice requires a facilitation approach and a<br />

commitment to participative processes that extend beyond empower<strong>in</strong>g<br />

citizens with technical abilities, which are usually under <strong>the</strong> authority of<br />

specialists. Mobiliz<strong>in</strong>g communication, such as form<strong>in</strong>g relationships with<br />

<strong>the</strong> beneficiary public, is developed from <strong>the</strong> group’s demands and presupposes<br />

respect for <strong>the</strong> movement’s <strong>in</strong>ternal and collective dynamics as well<br />

as for <strong>the</strong> public <strong>in</strong> question. It is not simply about listen<strong>in</strong>g to <strong>the</strong> public to<br />

better adapt to <strong>the</strong>ir <strong>in</strong>terests <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> way that companies do, but it focuses<br />

on meet<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> public’s needs. In contrast, <strong>in</strong>stitutional communication,<br />

directed to external publics, aims to <strong>in</strong>fluence <strong>the</strong> public’s impressions and<br />

to shape a favorable organizational reputation. Moreover, traditional <strong>in</strong>stitutional<br />

communication does not just serve an organization’s <strong>in</strong>terests;<br />

ra<strong>the</strong>r, it occupies a political space <strong>in</strong> develop<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> collective cultural and<br />

societal hegemony.<br />

Therefore, with this new model, a communication professional who<br />

serves foundations, bus<strong>in</strong>ess corporations, governmental <strong>in</strong>stitutions, or<br />

philanthropic agencies and has an <strong>in</strong>terest <strong>in</strong> promot<strong>in</strong>g change will move<br />

beyond creat<strong>in</strong>g market<strong>in</strong>g strategies and will develop skills <strong>in</strong> listen<strong>in</strong>g and<br />

<strong>in</strong>corporat<strong>in</strong>g citizen <strong>in</strong>put <strong>in</strong> this social change effort. In work<strong>in</strong>g as a professional<br />

or a voluntary member of a social movement, <strong>the</strong> communication<br />

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4 <strong>Management</strong> <strong>Communication</strong> Quarterly<br />

professional needs to support <strong>the</strong> social actors <strong>in</strong> question and be <strong>in</strong> harmony<br />

with <strong>the</strong> causes that motivate <strong>the</strong>m. In effect, <strong>the</strong> organizational communication<br />

specialist, who works with<strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> third sector, is not someone who enters<br />

from outside <strong>the</strong> system to control it but ra<strong>the</strong>r a professional who works<br />

with<strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> dynamics of <strong>the</strong> represented groups, respects <strong>the</strong>m, and allows <strong>the</strong><br />

thoughts, knowledge, and decisions to emerge from <strong>the</strong>m.<br />

Specifically, <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> third sector, <strong>the</strong> mak<strong>in</strong>g of a social movement’s home<br />

page or newsletter, <strong>the</strong> creation of a video, and <strong>the</strong> development of educational<br />

campaign materials are not primarily based on <strong>the</strong> communication<br />

professional’s competence. With this model, <strong>the</strong> collective arrives at <strong>the</strong><br />

appropriate course of action for each situation. It is not simply master<strong>in</strong>g<br />

techniques that only <strong>the</strong> professionals feel are right. In o<strong>the</strong>r words, communication<br />

at this level occurs with<strong>in</strong> an organization’s broad sphere of<br />

practice, not from <strong>the</strong> <strong>in</strong>tervention of an external party or <strong>the</strong> actions of a<br />

specialist <strong>in</strong> isolation. 5 It stems from a holistic framework and a multidiscipl<strong>in</strong>ary<br />

perspective for mobiliz<strong>in</strong>g organizational practices. Interpersonal,<br />

group, and technological communication (radio, video, etc.) work toge<strong>the</strong>r,<br />

and <strong>the</strong> subfields of public relations, journalism, advertis<strong>in</strong>g, and organizational<br />

communication <strong>in</strong>terconnect and complement each o<strong>the</strong>r.<br />

In <strong>the</strong> third sector, <strong>the</strong> ma<strong>in</strong> beneficiary is <strong>the</strong> public, and communication<br />

aims to fulfill <strong>the</strong> <strong>in</strong>terests and needs of <strong>the</strong> o<strong>the</strong>r; work<strong>in</strong>g on behalf of <strong>the</strong><br />

public is <strong>the</strong> organization’s “reason for be<strong>in</strong>g” ra<strong>the</strong>r than serv<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> narrow<br />

needs of <strong>the</strong> <strong>in</strong>stitution itself. This is why NgOs, associations, and social<br />

movements <strong>in</strong> Brazil place a high priority on communication with <strong>the</strong> public<br />

ra<strong>the</strong>r than on <strong>the</strong> organizational communication from <strong>the</strong> <strong>in</strong>stitution.<br />

Prioritiz<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Communication</strong> for Mobilization<br />

<strong>Organizational</strong> communication <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> third sector <strong>in</strong>volves two levels:<br />

(a) us<strong>in</strong>g direct <strong>in</strong>teraction to mobilize <strong>the</strong> public(s) and <strong>in</strong>terconnect<strong>in</strong>g to<br />

develop concrete actions for promot<strong>in</strong>g citizenship and (b) provid<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong>stitutional<br />

messages to <strong>the</strong> public aimed at build<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> reputation, image, and<br />

political ideology of a particular organization. These two levels are very different<br />

spheres, even though a relationship exists between <strong>the</strong>m. In <strong>the</strong> first<br />

level, communication professionals develop <strong>the</strong> <strong>in</strong>teractive processes and<br />

pedagogical materials (e.g., video clips, radio and television programs, educational<br />

campaigns, face-to-face contacts, newsletters, sign-<strong>in</strong> forms, blogs,<br />

cordels [a type of popular poetry], etc.) needed to work with an organization’s<br />

beneficiary public. <strong>Communication</strong> is more strongly developed at this level<br />

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Peruzzo / <strong>Organizational</strong> <strong>Communication</strong> <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> <strong>Third</strong> <strong>Sector</strong> 5<br />

than at <strong>the</strong> second level because of <strong>the</strong> necessity to carry out an organization’s<br />

objectives of contribut<strong>in</strong>g to social change. At <strong>the</strong> second level, practitioners<br />

create communication channels (e.g., Web sites, letters, memos, flyers, photographs,<br />

petitions, documentaries, press releases, videos, press kits, reports, and<br />

projects) to spread <strong>in</strong>formation and to externalize demands and justifications.<br />

<strong>Third</strong> sector organizations also enact self-managed systems that stem<br />

from <strong>the</strong> history and development of social movements. As a result of <strong>the</strong>se<br />

dynamics, leaders typically form direct relationships with <strong>the</strong>ir publics and<br />

decide, sometimes with <strong>the</strong> aid of volunteers, on communication materials<br />

<strong>in</strong> accordance with <strong>the</strong>ir needs for expression and mobilization. exceptions<br />

to this pattern are found <strong>in</strong> unions, well-structured social movements, and<br />

large NgOs that are f<strong>in</strong>ancially strong and usually aim to communicate<br />

with society as a whole. These types of organizations typically hire communication<br />

professionals, especially journalists, to mobilize <strong>the</strong> public.<br />

Recent discussions raise <strong>the</strong> question of “professionaliz<strong>in</strong>g” this type of<br />

communication practice. Although many scholars are <strong>in</strong> favor of it, <strong>the</strong> idea<br />

has clear political implications. Not all professionals meet <strong>the</strong> requirements<br />

for this type of organization, <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong>ir academic backgrounds, <strong>the</strong>ir tra<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g<br />

for <strong>the</strong> market, or <strong>the</strong>ir own ideological choices. The conceptual foundations<br />

described <strong>in</strong> this article underscore <strong>the</strong> importance of a new model for<br />

practitioners who work <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> third sector <strong>in</strong> order to contribute effectively<br />

to social change.<br />

Trends <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> Research<br />

Research on organizational communication <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> third sector reveals<br />

four ma<strong>in</strong> threads. The first, and most prom<strong>in</strong>ent, highlights <strong>the</strong> advantages<br />

of communication <strong>in</strong> this arena, along with offer<strong>in</strong>g recommendations for<br />

ways to improve communication, especially public relations, <strong>in</strong> shap<strong>in</strong>g an<br />

organization’s social role and <strong>in</strong> connect<strong>in</strong>g with allies (see Kunsch, 2003;<br />

Oliveira, 2002). This thread also <strong>in</strong>cludes demonstrat<strong>in</strong>g ways that companies<br />

can address social responsibilities and enhance corporate identity. A<br />

second research thread reveals that NgOs and social movement groups tend<br />

to underuse communication as a way of mak<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong>mselves visible (Castro<br />

& Mendonça, 2003; Menezes, 2005; Picc<strong>in</strong>, 2005). It argues for add<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong><br />

second level of communication practices <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong>se organizations.<br />

The third thread exam<strong>in</strong>es <strong>the</strong> “way of do<strong>in</strong>g” and <strong>the</strong> applicability of<br />

organizational communication to social movements and nonprofit organizations,<br />

based on <strong>the</strong> particularities of this arena (Meneghetti, 2001). A fourth<br />

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6 <strong>Management</strong> <strong>Communication</strong> Quarterly<br />

thread is start<strong>in</strong>g to develop (Cesar, 1999; Henriques, Braga, Silva, & Mafra,<br />

2004; Mafra, 2006; Peruzzo, 1993, 2004, 2007, 2008). This thread, as exemplified<br />

<strong>in</strong> this article, exam<strong>in</strong>es <strong>the</strong> type of communication that third sector<br />

organizations produce with<strong>in</strong> a broad political context and with efforts to<br />

mobilize social change.<br />

Conclusion<br />

This article contends that <strong>the</strong>oretical pr<strong>in</strong>ciples and traditional organizational<br />

communication practices developed for bus<strong>in</strong>esses and governmental<br />

<strong>in</strong>stitutions <strong>in</strong> Brazil cannot be simply transferred and reproduced <strong>in</strong> third<br />

sector organizations, especially <strong>in</strong> nonprofits and social movements aimed<br />

at mobiliz<strong>in</strong>g social change. <strong>Communication</strong> <strong>in</strong> this arena stems from a set<br />

of premises and actions aimed at chang<strong>in</strong>g people’s lives as well as establish<strong>in</strong>g<br />

and facilitat<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> relationship among organizations, <strong>the</strong>ir publics,<br />

and society at large.<br />

Notes<br />

1. These collectives fought for access to land and hous<strong>in</strong>g, improvements <strong>in</strong> public transportation<br />

and health care, protection of <strong>the</strong> environment, respect for <strong>the</strong> rights of women,<br />

protection of children, and political amnesty (gohn, 2004).<br />

2. These organizations often share <strong>the</strong> same volunteers, are both autonomous and private,<br />

and are made up of citizens who ga<strong>the</strong>r freely around common objectives. In contrast,<br />

market-oriented and government-regulated associations are ones that have a specific jurisdictional<br />

structure, such as political organizations, unions, and consortiums (Sistema de Apoio<br />

Institucional, 2004).<br />

3. These figures are from <strong>the</strong> System for Institutional Support of <strong>the</strong> Brazilian Institute of<br />

geography and Statistics. Complete data are available at http://www.siai.org.br/noticia.<br />

4. This is also valid for community public relations.<br />

5. However, <strong>the</strong>re are situations (e.g., <strong>in</strong> certa<strong>in</strong> large NgOs) where specialists are hired or<br />

firms are contracted.<br />

References<br />

Castro, g. L. de, & Mendonça, M. L. M. de. (2003, September 5). Comunicação no terceiro<br />

setor: Tendências e desafios [<strong>Communication</strong> <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> third sector: Tendencies and challenges].<br />

Paper presented at <strong>the</strong> 26th Brazilian Intercom Congress of Sciences of<br />

<strong>Communication</strong>, Belo Horizonte, Brazil.<br />

Cesar, R. C. e. (1999). As relações públicas frente ao desenvolvimento comunitário [The public<br />

relations versus community development]. Comunicação e Sociedade, 32, 89-112.<br />

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Demo, P. (1988). Participação é conquista [Participation is achievement]. São Paulo, Brazil:<br />

Cortez.<br />

Drucker, P. F. (2001). Adm<strong>in</strong>istração de organizações sem f<strong>in</strong>s lucrativos: Pr<strong>in</strong>cípios e práticas<br />

[Adm<strong>in</strong>istration of non-profit organizations: Pr<strong>in</strong>ciples and practices]. São Paulo, Brazil:<br />

Pioneira.<br />

gohn, M. g. (2004). Teorias dos movimentos sociais [Theories of social movements]. São<br />

Paulo, Brazil: Loyola.<br />

Henriques, M. S., Braga, C. S., Silva, D. B. C., & Mafra, R. L. M. (2004). Relações públicas em<br />

projetos de mobilização social: Funções e características [Public relations <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> social mobilization<br />

projects: Functions and characteristics]. In M. S. Henriques (ed.), Comunicação e<br />

estratégias de mobilização sócia (2nd ed., pp. 17-32). Belo Horizonte, Brazil: Autêntica.<br />

Kunsch, M. M. K. (2003). Planejamento de relações públicas na comunicação <strong>in</strong>tegrada<br />

[Plann<strong>in</strong>g of public relations <strong>in</strong>tegrated communication] (4th ed.). São Paulo, Brazil:<br />

Summus.<br />

Mafra, R. (2006). Entre o espetáculo, a festa e a argumentação: Mídia comunicação<br />

[Between <strong>the</strong> spectacle, <strong>the</strong> party and <strong>the</strong> argumentation: Media communication]. Belo<br />

Horizonte, Brazil: Autêntica.<br />

Meneghetti, S. B. (2001). Comunicação e market<strong>in</strong>g: Fazendo a diferença no dia-a-dia de<br />

organizações da sociedade civil [<strong>Communication</strong> and market<strong>in</strong>g: Mak<strong>in</strong>g <strong>the</strong> difference <strong>in</strong><br />

<strong>the</strong> day by day of civil society organizations]. São Paulo, Brazil: global/Instituto Fonte.<br />

Menezes, D. (2005, July 1-30). Comunicação nas ONGs: luxo ou necessidade [<strong>Communication</strong><br />

<strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> nongovernmental organizations: Luxury or necessity]. Paper presented at <strong>the</strong> 2nd<br />

CONVICOM conference, São Paulo, Brazil. Retrieved May 2, 2006, from http://www.<br />

comtexto.com.br<br />

Montaño, Carlos. (2002). Terceiro setor e questão social: Crítica ao padrão emergente de<br />

<strong>in</strong>tervenção social [<strong>Third</strong> sector and social matter criticism to <strong>the</strong> emergent standard of<br />

social <strong>in</strong>tervention]. São Paulo, Brazil: Cortez.<br />

Oliveira, F. R. M. de. (2002). Relações públicas e a comunicação na empresa cidadã<br />

[Public relations and <strong>the</strong> communication <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> “citzens” companies]. In Responsabilidade<br />

social das empresas. Prêmio ethos—Valor (pp. 195-228). São Paulo, Brazil: Peirópolis,<br />

Peruzzo, C. M. K. (1993). Relações públicas, movimentos populares e transformação social<br />

[Public relations, social movements and social change]. Revista Brasileira de Comunicação,<br />

16(2), 125-133. Retrieved September 20, 2008, from http://www.bocc.ubi.pt<br />

Peruzzo, C. M. K. (2004). Relações públicas no modo de produção capitalista [Public relations<br />

<strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> capitalist production system] (4th ed.). São Paulo, Brazil: Cortez.<br />

Peruzzo, C. M. K. (2007). Comunicação e terceiro setor [<strong>Communication</strong> and third sector]. In<br />

J. Duarte (ed.), Comunicação pública: Estado, mercado, sociedade e <strong>in</strong>teresse público<br />

(pp. 154-173). São Paulo, Brazil: Atlas.<br />

Peruzzo, C. M. K. (2008). Relações públicas nos movimentos sociais e “comunidades”: Pr<strong>in</strong>cípios,<br />

estratégias e atividades [Public relations <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> social movements and communities:<br />

Pr<strong>in</strong>ciples, strategies and activities]. São Paulo: Prelo.<br />

Picc<strong>in</strong>, P. (2005, July). A importância da comunicação em organizações não-governamentais [The<br />

importance of <strong>the</strong> communication <strong>in</strong> non-profit organizations]. Paper Presented at <strong>the</strong> 2nd<br />

CONVICOM conference, São Paulo, Brazil. Retrieved September 15, 2006, from http://<br />

www.comtexto.com.br<br />

Sistema de Apoio Institucional. (2004). Terceiro setor emprega 1,5 milhão de pessoas<br />

(Pesquisa do IBge/IPeA/ABONg) [<strong>Third</strong> sector employs 1.5 million people (Research of<br />

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8 <strong>Management</strong> <strong>Communication</strong> Quarterly<br />

IBge/IPeA/ABONg)]. Retrieved October 14, 2006, from http://www.siai.org.br/notícia/<br />

ver.php?id=33<br />

Cicilia M. Krohl<strong>in</strong>g Peruzzo (Doctoral Degree, Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil, 1991) is<br />

a full professor <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> graduate Program <strong>in</strong> Social <strong>Communication</strong> at <strong>the</strong> Universidade<br />

Metodista de São Paulo, Brazil. Her ma<strong>in</strong> research <strong>in</strong>terests <strong>in</strong>clude communication <strong>in</strong> social<br />

movements, participative communication, alternative public relations, and organizational<br />

communication <strong>in</strong> <strong>the</strong> third sector.<br />

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