Ocean Noise: Turn it down - Ocean Conservation Research

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Ocean Noise: Turn it down - Ocean Conservation Research

Page 4 Contents

Contents

Foreword.......................................................................................................................................................................................

Summary: Farewell to the Silent World......................................................................................................... 6

Where sound is king......................................................................................................................................................... 8

Man-made ocean noise: the invisible pollution.................................................................................... 10

� Commercial shipping......................................................................................................................................................... 10

� Airguns.................................................................................................................................................................................. 12

� Sonar...................................................................................................................................................................................... 12

� Other sources....................................................................................................................................................................... 12

� Examples of ocean noise pollution sources in the North Sea................................................................................... 14

Sound effects: how noise risks harming marine animals........................................................... 16

� Measuring sound................................................................................................................................................................ 18

� Case histories...................................................................................................................................................................... 20

� Death on the beach.................................................................................................................................................. 20

� Harbour porpoises: driven out by noise .............................................................................................................. 20

� The threatened whales of Sakhalin...................................................................................................................... 22

� Humpback whales: singing a new song.............................................................................................................. 22

� Killer whales: struggling to be heard................................................................................................................... 24

� Other marine victims of ocean noise pollution.................................................................................................. 24

� Summary: effects of ocean noise pollution............................................................................................................. 25

Recognition of the threat: international calls for action.............................................................. 26

� Instruments for the regulation of ocean noise pollution............................................................................................. 28

IFAW: taking action on ocean noise pollution........................................................................................ 29

� Naval sonar litigation......................................................................................................................................................... 29

� EU policy work.................................................................................................................................................................... 29

� IFAW’s Song of the Whale................................................................................................................................................ 30

Tackling ocean noise pollution: the need for precautionary action................................ 32

� Reducing shipping noise pollution.................................................................................................................................. 32

� Mitigation measures for military sonar.......................................................................................................................... 34

� Mitigation measures for seismic surveys...................................................................................................................... 36

� Mitigation measures for off-shore pile driving............................................................................................................. 36

� Mitigation measures for acoustic harassment devices.............................................................................................. 36

� Mitigation measures for recreational boating.............................................................................................................. 36

Conclusions and Recommendations................................................................................................................ 38

References.................................................................................................................................................................................

Appendix 1: Examples of international agreements and bodies.....................................................................................

that provide opportunities to address ocean noise pollution

Appendix 2: United Nations’ calls for action on man-made ocean noise.....................................................................

Appendix 3: Other international calls for action................................................................................................................

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