The connoisseur - Index of

The connoisseur - Index of


An Illustrated Magazine

For Collectors

Edited by C. Reginald Grundy

Vol. LI.



Published by thi Proprietor, W. CLAUDE JOHNSON, ai ih

Ediiorial and Advertisement Offices of Tin i

at i, Duki Street, St. I


vmi .





tH 6 {R

Answers to t orrespomlent, ... 60, I

Artists \\n Km.ku kks.

(Heialdii 6 i, i

. i). Wynne. Rose, The

Edmund. Duchesse de Mazarin ..

Balthazar, Gerbier. Portrait oi a Man ..

i, T.

Bowyer Bower, Esq., Lwerne


Francis John Browne, Esq., Frampton ..

George Damer, Lord Milton

John VV. Smith, Esq., Sydling

f. Meggs, Esq., Piddlehinton

'in. - i impton, Esq., Moreton

Portrait ol i Man


Richard Erie DraN Grosvenor, Esq., t h .1


Rii hard I ravers, Esq . Up Loders

Weld, Esq

Clavell, I sq . Smedmore ...

William Churchill, Esq

William Woodfall

Beale, Mary. Catherine Sedh


Bell, K. Arming. Mary in the I

Benoist, A.

Pamela dividing her clothes into three bun

P .



hi . hildren



Mrs. Graham

linn. James rofts

Bond, W. Wearj Sportsman

and Miss G lv

!•'. Boucher, Head of a Girl

Chardin, J. B. S. Butcher, The ...

Lady Dysarl

Landsi ipe

i Corot, B

Cosway, R . R.A.

Portrait of a Nobleman

Rt. II

Two sons ol M r. J. B. Church

William Jones

in -rough

I I Devisj Arthui

D is m,


Louise, Duchess of Portsmouth

Nell Gwynn

Downman, John. Sir Robert Alien romby





AuiiM-. 1x11 K\'.tuu> cittimted.

Leonardo da Vinci. Lucrezia Crevelli

Linnell, J. The Windmill

McColl, D. s Scarborough, 1913 ...

Mans, Matthew.

Baby in Cradle

King's Children

Meyer, H. Portrait ol a Girl

Morland, George,

B01 employed Burning Weeds

< !onstani \


Weary Sportsman

Moronobou. Boats on the Sumida ...

( Ipie, I. Louisa, Marchioness ol Sligo

Peat. Dr. Moss

Petil ie.111, I-'. An moins soj ez disi ret

I 'Inner, Andrew.

1 '..unless ol Mornington

Mr. Jerningham, of Costessey

Thomas Ireland

Pliiner, Nathaniel. Portrait ol a Man

Pollard, .las.

Chaplin of the Chase, The

Doncaster Race-course

Old Farm House, Woodgreen, llomsey

1 Hd Kennington Tollgate

( lid Wlnie Lion, Edgware Road ...

I Inmibus, Early

Queen Victoria on horsebai k

Royal Procession ..I Her Majestj Queen


at Ascot Rai es

Sketch lor shooting subject

Sketches (two)

Raeburn, Sir Henry. Mrs. Archer ...

Reid, Stephen. Macbeth, Act III., Scene

Reynolds, S. \\ .

Louis.,, Marchioness ol Sligo, al'tei I


Mr.. Arbuthnot

Roberts, David, R.A. Jerusalem iron, Mou

Roberts and Stadler. Caledonia in .. Keel

Roe, Fred, R.I. Afti m prayers al We

...I W.

I' , «.eo.

I I cidj mily Ma, I

Lad; Hamilton a

Rubens, Peter I'.,

Holofemes in

Russell, John, R.A.

Sai , W.

Rembram '. P

Scouler, James. Portrail ol n Lad

Simpson. Miss Mar; II urn.


Smart, lohn. Colonel W ,. on

Smarl the N oungei Admiral Rob< Willi Henrj Roope

.1 lohn Henderson

Mitsu 10I Emperor, Kao sung


J'ruch; . I. P imela on hi 1 knei I" for. thi

1 ,,,,,.-, ,i| i; 1



Walton, H. Mr,. 1 urtis


< holmondley


1 1 • H 11 Weeds ...




Watteau, Antoine. Harlequin and Columbine

Watts, G. V., R.A. Ariadne in Naxos ...

Wheatley, F., R.A. A New Love Song ...

Young. J.


Boi 'K-. RgCEN ed—continued,

" Royal Academy Illustrated," igi8

" Stamp Collections lot Museums,'

I Melville

• Story of P. iris Churches," by Jetta T. W

." l'.in \'., by Muirhea I

Bookshell 48, to2, 17s,

Bristol Delft. Bj C. Hemming

British Military War Medals

China Fat tor; al Wirksworth, in I >i rb;

an -I 1 I01


1 offei s,


I 1 que. Bj I

Col. II C. T. Littledale's Old 1

red Roe, R.I.

>ak B\ Fred Roe,


Engravings in the Collection of Mrs. fohn Mango,

Part I. By The Editor

Mi i

. in:.'. \\ :..:.\\ ( "i.ll.-i iii -n ••! Miniatures

and Drawings, Part I. By 1 »r. \\ il

Conversation Piece by I. Highmore. By C. H 1


Current Art Notes 50, 109, 168,

De F01


English School Pictures tor National Gallery

Engraviiu n of Mrs. fohn M



I. By The Editor

Guildhall Gallery

International Society of Sculptors and Gravers

Naval Photographs

New English Art Club

Old Prints in Colour

Royal Institute of Painters in VVatei Colours

Royal Society of British Artists

Royal Srjcietj ol Miniature Painters

Royal Society of Portrait Painters



. Pari II. Bj Pi

isll Class

Imperial Arts League

Judith with 1





1 Holofernes

1 , Welsh. Bj W. I-

Medals, Bi \\ li

Monlil for making Pi]

Musii Book ol tl P


Admiral Robert Williams. By Smart the Younger

Afternoon prayers at Westminster School in Wartime.

By Fred Roe, R.I

Ariadne in Naxos. By G. F. Watts, R.A

Arundel, wife of Henry Wyndham, and her daughter

Latitia. By J. Highmore

Au Moins Sc.yez Disc ret. By Petitjean

Baby in Cradle. By Matthew Maris

ll,,ats on the Sumida. B> Moronobou

Bowyer Bower, Esq., Iwerne. By T. Beach

Byron. By G. H. Harlow

Caledonia in a Reel. By Roberts and Stadler, after

A. Buck

Canal, Holland. Bj Charles Job

Captain Lee. By G. Kngleheart

Chaplin of the Chase. By James Pollard

Colonel Graham. By Bogle

Colonel Watson. By John Smart

Contemplation. By Ozias Humphry

I'ountess of Cliolmomlley and Son. By C. I urnet,

after I. Hoppner

Countess of Mornington. By Andrew Plimer

Crofts, |. ones. By Boit

Doncaster Race-course. By J. Pollard

Dr. Moss. B> Peat

Duchesse de Mazarin. By Edmund Ashfield

Early Omnibus. By Jas. Pollard

Eldest Princesses.


By Gainsborough Dupont, aftei

Francis lolm Browne, Esq., Frampton. By Thos

Be. ,,1,

Gainsborough. By Samuel Cotes

George Darner, Lord Milton. By Thomas Bra, I, ..

George Frederick Handel. Bj Bernard Lens ..

George Komnev. By Ozias Humphry

Han Emperor, Kao Tsuug, ascribed to Tosa Mil


Henry Roope. By Spicer

Hon. Francis Columbine and his Wife. li>

J. Fabe

James V. of Scotland. By Holbein

fames Frampton, Esq., Moreton. By Thos. Bead

J. Meggs, Esq., Piddlehinton. By Thomas Head

King's Children. Bj Matthew Mans

Lady Anne Lambton and her Children. By J

Young, after Hoppner

Ladj Charlotte


Greville. B> J. Young, afte

I ad: ' n»l> Macleod Bj Ceo, Rornnej

Ladj Harrington and hei Son,. By Grimaldi

Ladj in a Park. By Arthur Devis

Landscape ascribed to Kano Motonobou

Louisa Mud, :ss ol SI. go. Bj S. W. Reynolds

aftei Opie

Louis,-, Duchess ol Portsmouth. B\ Nicholas Dixo:

I !,. h, An III.. Scene a. Bj Stephen Reid ..




Man (unknown) B; Beach

M „

Miss Choi,, By < Izias Humphry

Miss M irj Hume. Bj Simpson

the house ol Elizabeth. Bj R. Anning Be

Miss Payne. Bj Ozias Humphrj

I Englehi arl

Miss Seaton B; I

Mr. Jerningham, ol Costessey. Bj Andrew I'lnm

H S. U Reynolds, aftei Hoppm



Mi irbutl

Mi Vrcher. Bj Sir Henrj Raeburn

Mrs Curtis. Bj H Hud on ifti Henrj Walto


hti kks ami Drawings and Engravings—conli

Mrs. litzherbert. By Janvry

Mrs. Graham. By Bogle

Mrs. Gwyn. By Daniel Gardner

Mrs. Harris and her Son. By J. Highmore

Mrs. Law. By G. Kngleheart

Nell Gwyn. By Nicholas Dixon

Old Farmhouse at Wood Green, Hornsey.

James Pollard

Old Kennington Tollgate. By James Pollard

Old White Lion, Edgware Road. By James Po

Pamela dividing her clothes into three bundles.

A. Benoist, after J. Highmore ISO

Pamela on her knees before her father. By L.

Trudiy, after J. Highmore 187

Portrait of a Girl. By Meyer 74

Portrait of a Lady. By Lawrence 73

Portrait ol a Lady. By James Scolder 69

Portrait of a Man. By Balthazar Cerbier 65

Portrait of a Man. By Nathaniel Plimer 67

Portrait of Mrs. Hawley. By Joseph Highmore... iSq

Portrait of a Nobleman. By R. Cosway, R.A. ... 67

Prince of Wales. By Jean

Prince Shotoku, Kakemono, ascribed to Hato No




Princess Charlotte 39

Queen Henrietta Maria. By Hoskins 66

Queen Victoria on Horseback, By Jas. Pollard ... 21

Richard Erie Drax Grosvenor, Esq., Charborough

Park. By Thomas Beach 142

Richard Travers, Esq., Up Coders. By Thos. Beach 145

Rt. Hon. George Rose. By R. Cosway, R.A. ... 67

Rose, The. By O. Wynne Apperley 58

Royal Procession of Her Majesty Queen Victoria,

at Ascot Races. By Jas. Pollard 19

Scarborough, 1013. By D. S. McColl i7.s

Shooting. By James Pollard ")

Sir Robert Abercomby and his Secretary.


B> John


Sketch lor Shooting subject. By James Pollard ... l.s

Sketches (two). By James Pollard 17

Smith, J. \Y., Esq., Sydling. Bj Thos. Beach ... 142

Thomas, Lord Fairfax. Bj Hoskins 66

Thomas Weld, Esq., Lulworth Castle. By Tims.



Two Sons of Mr.


I. B. Church. By R. Cosway,

f) "

William Churchill, Esq., Henbury, By Thos. Bead, .4"

William Clavell, Esq., Smedmore. Bj Thos. Brad, 14S

William Jones. Bj Richard Cosway 67

William Woodfall. By Thos. Bead, 139


alter George Mi

iier, The. By J. J

tancj Bj Willia w.

Cues oi London. A New Po.

WI, .alley

Family Croup. By Joseph Highi

c,,, bin, old English Glass

Harlequin and Columbine. Bj

Head oi a Girl. By P. Boucher

Rub, ,



v F.


Lad II imilton as " .\.

Landscape. Bj J. B. C. Corot

By Romney

Crevelli. By Leonardo da Vinci

Mrs. Shurlock. Bj John Russell, K A

November; Bj D. Gardner

Portrait of Dutch Officer. Bj G. Bonthorsl

Promenade by the Sea. Bj Eugene Gabriel Isabe}

Rembrandt's Peasant Girl. By \V. S.iy

Setting Sun (Godsal Children). By J. Voung, after

J. Hoppnei

Varietj . Bj

W. \\ trd, <


i i Fei ing to !upid. Bj I . B. ireuze

Wearj Sportsman. Bj W. Bond, after Morland ...


Bow Figures, Set of, representing the four quarters

oi the Globe

Bristol Delft.


Plates, Punch and Possel Bowls 205

Rose water Bottle

I "lielst- .i.

Bacchanalian subject

• Hee


" M.Ik Jug




Chelsea-Derby Plateau

Longton Hall Porcelain Vases

Marks on Bow, Chelsea, Chelsea-Derby, Derby,

and Longton Hall


Bowl (Oriental)

Antiquities, Egyptian, Roman, ami

Asms and *

' ' rman)

- Black Rock Hoard "

Breech-loading Sporting Arquebus

t'antle 1


Chaufron (German)

Foining Sword (Italian)

Gauntlets (Milanese)

Helmet (Pisan)

Pistols, pair (Italian)

Pistols, pair (North It


Spot.. 1

Sword (Italian)

Sixteenth Centurj

- iddle I

pillow type (Vienna) ...


Wirksworth continued.

Cu] I

I .11 . nl

Fragn 1

Cell Set




I r ...

Saui er

Jug (Fluted) ...

Manor Housi I'e Set


I I apots (two) ...

Wall Set

'rin< ess 1

lharlotti Sim

St \l lurii e with a Donor

Sculpture, Vimalakirti. By Jokei

Sketch by Prim ess 1 harlotte

Speakers' Plate, The

Tankard (Silver)


Adoration oi the Infant Saviour (Flen

Drapery in gamut ol four tints

[ndigitation of tints

Months of Mareli and April (Brussels)

Pity restraining Justice from striking

Three Fates, The (Flemish)

War I

roj (Flemish)

ubanclhu. By Unker

;els (Japanese

Washington Teapot

Welsh Love S] is



28, 2g

.. 30

2S ,





.. 26


General Wolfe to his uncle, Major Wolfe ...

George Washington to Miss Fairfax

Goldsmith, Oliver, to David Garrick (Letter)

Hardy, Thos. Far from the Madding Crowd

Johnson's " Life," Pocket Book, contai

memoranda lor

Keats to Fanny Brawne (Letter)

Kipling, Rudyard. Ballad of the Bolivat ...

La Fontaine to Duchesse de Bouillon (Letter)

Lamb, Charles, to Coleridge (Letter)

Lloyd George's " Go on or go under " speech

Si ii. it to Abbot de la Chaise-Dieu

Stuart to Duchess of Guise

Stuart to Henry III. of France


Stuarl to Philip II. of Spain ...


Napoleon I. to Josephine

Napoleon I. to Louis VIII

Rabelais to the Bishop of Maillezais ...

Rabelais to Bude

Rembrandt to Constantine Huygens ...

Robespierre to Danton

Shelley to Lewis, 1816 (Letter)

Thackeraj to My dear old Forster (Lette

Titian to Emperor Charles V

Voltaire to Frederick the Great (Letter)

Wellington, Duke of, to Lord Berresford

1815 (Letter)

Wellington, Duke of.

Holograph despatch, suggesting plans

insurrection in Spain, etc

Holograph draft to Mr. Pinkney ...

Letter to Marquis Wellesley, alter

Tippoo Sahib

Letter to Marquis Wellesley, alter de


Letter to Marquis Wellesley, relative



\, kermann, R.

Marquis Wellesle

.[. II. Piele, contn

History of the Colleges ol Winchester, 1


1 ryo

Mici ,

the Universitj of Cambridge

I Ion

Pictui le roui oi the English Lakes


Alamanni, Luigi. La Colivatione al Chris

Re fr.iii, cm,, I'nmo

Vmadis de Gaula. Florisando

Anthologia pigrammatum Graecorum Cr.i

1 A 1 iosto 1 ill. 111, 1, I so

Art ol Co 11 a,t. The

Audubon, [ohn rames. Birds ol imerii

Augustine, St., Di I ii il ite Dei Libn siii

B Instauratio Magna

Ban ,

! t»

[ngoldsb Li Is

1 \l

1 1 1


In til il .m Monti Sancto

Bewick. British Land and U lird

Biblia Paupei




Bible (illuminated)

Bible, Prayer, and Metrical Psalms

Blake, William.

French Revolution

Marriage of Heaven and Hell

Vala, or the Death and Judgement of Ancient Man

Boccaccio. Libro di Madonna Fiametta

link, of the Common Praier and Administration of

thee Sacramentes, and other Rytes and Ceremonies

of the Churche, after the Use of the

Churche of Fnglande, The

Bonifacius III. Sextus Decretalium Liber

Boydell, J. cV J.

Collection of Prints illustrating the Dramatic

Works of Shakespeare

Collection of Prints

Picturesque Scenery of Norway

Boys, T. S.

Original Views of London as it is

Picturesque Architecture in Paris, Ghent, Antwerp,

and Rouen

Brome, R. Lachrymal Musarum

Burnet, Bishop. History of his own time

Burtius. Opusculum

Cervantes. Don Quixote

Cess,, lis. Game and Playe of Chesse moralised .

Chansons Francaises


Chaucer's Workes

Clarendon, Edward, Karl of. History of ih

Rebellion and Civil Wars in England

Clark. Views in Scotland

ol Ladies' Costumes

Columna, Francesco de. Hypnerotomachia ,



Byr.l. Psalmes, Sonets

Carroll, Lewis. Alice's Adventures in Wonderlam 1 226


African Scenery and Animals, Part 1

New Plan of ye Great Town of Boston

Oriental Scenery: Views in Hindoostan

laniell, Win., and R. Ayton. Voyage round Grea




De Bello Peloponnesiac

Dibdin. Bibliographica


American Notes

Oliver Twist ...

Sketches bj B02

1 Iryden.

Rival Ladies

I , mpest, I he

I hi Maurice, ('.. Trilby

Early English Text Society's Publi

Ellis, 1- S. Works oi Geoffrej C



. 161

Florian. Galatee

Charles Dickens

Fundatio Ecclesiae >le Burgo Sancti Petri Fratris

VValteri cle Witilsl hi de Hurt;..

Sti Petri

Galeric de Rubens

Gentleman's Calling

Glanrille. Bartholomeus de Proprietatibus Rerum

Goldsmith, O.

She Stoops to Conquer

\ ii 11 ol W ikefield

Cr.iv, Thomas. < >des

'• Great She " Bible

Higden. Poloi hronii on

Pi rtraits ol illusl is persons of the

Court of Henry VIII

Homer. Opera Omnia 161,

II Trionfo \

I, I). T. on. Ion

o , Virginis 99,

Ireland, Samuel. Picturesque Views

Gravures historiques des Principaux Evenements

depuis l'Ouverture des Etats Gene>aux

Vues Pittoresques des 1'rin. ipaux Edifices de


fennen, Frederick of. Tins Mater treateth ol a


Kipling, Rud ird.

Depa 'in ies

Si lionllio l.\ rii s

[ 1 mtaine.

l-'.il>]es 1 'hoisies

elles en Vers

mrs de Cupidon


. .

Lawes, II. S \\


Lawrence, Mai

Le Chevalier de Querelles

Le 1 r mcois Patissier ...

Le Livre intiu


Parish of St. Marj , Islington ...

Lilly, John. I uphues 1


. .1 Mil.,


POberland Berne

Lucanus. La Pharsale de I. main

Martius. Koi G Species I


British Diving Ducks

;. anon Prai

I. ('... R.X.V.R.

Natural Histoi ol British Game Birds


Missah I


M usii us Apparatus Acadi n -

I, Ps


Hi I

.. m, In-

Bonnes Mi



I Patrii Epipli

Poel Graei


H ria


Psalter of David nev


Quest 10


son, \ ol. I.

S.i in. 1 11. r

to tli-

Senfel. Liber S

mutetas appe

Shake >iii-,in-.

Comedies, Histoi

Hem IV.

Henry V

King Lear





1 emmes illustres, .



os eriamoi ados

Gn 111

rid Mi

-),. Atkii



Merrj Wives ol Windsoi ...

Romeo and Juliel

1 1

Sir John Oldcastle

red; ol Hamlet

Sibthorp, John. Mora Grid 1

Southwell, R. St. Peter' 1

1, R. L.

Inland Voyage

I'niin Whistle

i eem

South' Sea

Travels with a Donkej

Stevenson, R. I., and Mrs

Temple. Modem Spanish

rhackera . \


de r \. I r.


V., I . I CEuvres I



Hanging J.i

from Par

Virgil. This boke treath ol the lyfe ol \ irKiliu- ..

Voltaire. La Pucelle d'Orleans

\-„es Remarquables des Montagne de la Suisse

U ,i,l 1


Westall, V\ '- •-.-.

• . nd S 1 n Picl [ue Tour

\\, -,-, I \'o:

-.- Pitl -.- --, 1






1 I

Whole Psalmi

Wilson, Alexin, In.


Am 1,1 Ornithology

\\ I. \ iews in Kent

Wordsw an rical Ballads ..

Wyclif, John. New festamenl

1 ,n



Carpets, Needlework, \\i> Tapestry—continued

Panels, Petit-point embroidery


Brussels, Sixteenth-Century

English Panel, Eighteenth-Century

Flemish Panels, Sixteenth-Century

Gobelin Silk


Affleck, A. I'. Burgos

Bartolozzi, F. Twelve Months


First Impressions

Cameron, D. V.

Souvenir d'Amsterdam

Stirling Castle

Cheesman, T. The Spinster (Lady Hamilto

Cousins, S. Master Lambton

Dickinson, W. Elizabeth, Countess of Derby

Durer, Albrecht.

Apocalypse of St. John


'oat ..I Arms, with a Cock

Dream, The

Emperor Maximilian adoring the Almighty

Holy Family with a Butterfly

Little Courier

Portrait of Emperor Maximilian I.

Prodigal Son

St. Anne and the Infant Virgin

St. Jerome in his Study

Small War Horse


Two Angels with the Holy Handkerchief ...

Virgin with a Pear

Fisher, E.

Gaugain, T.

Lady Sarah Hunting

Castle in Danger


Farm Yard

farmer's Stable

How Smooth, Brother ; leel again !

Godley, J., and Merke, II.

Duck Shooting

Rabbit Shooting

Green, Valentine.

Emily Man, Countess ol Salisbury

Georgiana, Duchess ol Devonshire

Portrait ol a Voung Man

i Irozei . J


Happ Cottagers

Houston, R.


[acobe, I





French Commode, Boulle, bearing arm

Louis XVI . Mai

various woods

Parqueterie, I

ouis XVI., inl

French gilt Fauteuils

Grandfather Clock with Westminster and \\

tington chimes




Chairs, Mahoganj

Side hoard. Mahogany

Italian Spinet

Italian tt ilnul



Cabinet, Charles II


Cabinet, Queen Anne

< >ld English

Louis XV. Writing-table

\ I . Settee,

back Gobelin tapi

Louis XVI. Settee and four Fauteuils, gill

Mahogany Side-table

Marqueterie Cabinet, Seventeenth-Centurj ...


Cabinets (pain. Satinwood

Circular Table

le, Marqueterie

Settee, Satinwood

Writing table

hell and Boulle Commodes

Tudor Panelling

Walnut Arm-Chairs, Seventeenth-Centurj ...

Walnut Buffet, Sixteenth-Century

t'.l ISS.


Irish Candlesticks

Waterford Sweetmeat Stand

Brilliant Chain

Brilliant Necklace

i i..l

I liamond, 1 ellow

P. irl Necklace

w an h (B ron)


ii RES.

Brilliant Pendant

Elizabeth, Countess Waldegrave

Ladj Charlotte

Lady Mary Howard

Gafurius '


I ampbell

- musii e dii ipline

torum super Magn

La Borde. Choix de Chanson



Theorii i Mu Pi

Watson,! E irsl sett of Italian Madrig

' ii

Ut. etc.

Biberon, Rock Crystal




Caskets (pair), earlj Eigl


i Ibjets d'Ari eti inued.


Boulle bracket

Louis X\ I.. l by 'licreullc

Old English


I I. ir;

Five guinea Pie< e, < leorge I 1 I

French Clock movement, by Lapaute ...


( ioblet, I' rem h, Sei enl


Group oi Ingi tnd hild, carved ivory

Lock and Key, Charles II

Locket, gold pi rl bi >rder

Medal, gold, George Lewis, Duk< Iru




ii n onlimied.

Blake, William—continued.

1 dward I

Europe, A design from

Figure chained to a Rock

Ghost oi .1 Flea

i.i ive, The

Hiding oi Moses

Jerusalem, the emanation oi the Giant Albion ...

Michael foretelling the Crucifixion to A. lam


" Paradise Regained," Drawings illustrating ...

Richard Cceur .It- Lion

Satan watching i lie endearments oi Adam and Eve

Six orieinal sketches for first part of Book of



There is Natural Religi

I fhree lespond Persons, The

Wat Tyler

\\ ise and the foolish Virgins, Th(

Boilly, L. Greeting, The

Bosbi i, J.

Int. nor of :i Cathedral

Interioi of Treves Cathedral

Gude Kirk, Amsterdam

Botticelli, School of. Saint Ursula :

Boucher, Triumph

1' .

of Venus


A Landscape

A View in .i Park

Briton Riviere. Wounded Adonis

Burne-Jones, Sir ]'..

Beguiling ol Merlin

Garden of Pan

Canaletto. View ol Venice ...

Collier, Hon. John. Blank Canvas

Collier, 'I'. f ath So tie

( instable, I. On the Stour ...

Cooper, I' s

('.roup of C





Shepherd's Sabbath

Com,, 11- de 'on \

Beam il le Rogt

i II- .ol. Scene

t Mvvper, F. i


Blank ^,„ ...

I n- |), \ \

i Un

i . Giovanni

llol I


i, The



I ... I

In V'ois, \ \ io 'I.,

Dicksee, I, Blank


ii res- <


ildes, Sir Luke. Portrait oi His Majestj the King

osti i. Birket.

At the top of the Hill

Bird Nesting

Cathedral Town, A

Richmond, Yorkshire

San Georgio and La Salute, Venire

Story Hook, The

Surrey Homestead, and On the Thames

Timber Waggon

Venice from the Lagoons

Miss Elizabeth Dymock

Mrs. Devonport

Portrait of Captain rhomas Cornewa

Co.lley, J., Merke, II. , and Clark, J.


Guardi, F Scl 1 of St. Mark's, Venii

Hals. Drinking Party

" Hon John," winner of the St. Leger

• Touchstone," wanner of the Ascot Gold C

Two Racehorses

one. N. Portrait of Hon. Thomas Windsor


; 'atherine, daughter ol Lord [astmgs

Angelica. Portrait ol Captain Read

Marquise .1.- Blaise

Mrs. William l.o. k.

Leader, H. W.

Cambria's Coasl

( In .1.- River Llugv

Welsh \ alley, A

Leighton, 1 1 Me

I'm II res .


Linnell, John continued.

Red Sunset, A

Fa's the Eve

Thomas Carlyle

\\ ,.,..1 i iiiicr. The

Mantegna, Andrea. Scourging

M .I.-. James.

\ terdam


lit. Evening

Old House, Amsterdam

M iris, Matthew.

Cathedral by Moonlight

Head of t N oung Lady

taking the Veil


[•he SiM.-r.

I %\ < "\^

Veiled I. .uly

Marlow, VV. V iew ol Blai kfri n

from the River

I ielcl

Masson, A. Guillaume !rpen, W .


Blank Canvas

Pater, J. B.

hampetre, A

I.,- Bain des Nymphes

er, W.

l g> l><

\I in with '• h nded Sword

rd Bearer

. Pilgrim, Jean Clrii Alcon

i ,. Sir Henry.

killing the Set

lei Mai kenzie

Colin Mackenzie

Lieut. -Col. Alexander Mackenzi



Lieut. " n M

M istei \: < mdei Ma, kenzie

Miss Annie Moir

V, ,dci




Raeburn, Sir Henrj continued.


I'orti !


Portrait of Mr-. Allen


Porti Mrs. I

1 mes 1 .<

Sir James Mont) er> ol Stanhope, Bart.

s.i Willis orb B i

Sii Willi .n> I

R, n .Ids, Sir Josl


orbes, ;>li Ban

Lad: Hamilton 13

. Porti Hem ,; Earl of Pembroke

Portraits ol Miss Pain Polly Paine



daughti Paine, litect

Rii ki H-. s. Depo

Robetta, Christofano. D< ith Vbi '""I appeal

ing to



Colonel Braddyll

Lieut. Gen. Hon. Sir Charles Stuarl

Mrs. Montague Hurgoyne

Portrait ol Alii ia Dundas

Portrail ol Mrs. Williams


Ri bi t, l

' avalier

Russell, .1. Young ( liild

Shannon, Chas. Bath ol Venus

Shannon, I. J. Blank Canvas

Shaver, W., sen. Gipsj Encampment

| harles.

Blank Canvas


Stark, .1. Duck I Korfoll

A ilson ElTecl o H in

Strudwick, .1. M. Passing Da: -

Stuart. George Washington

I'horni \\ Iv. Cornfield in Inverness ...

Tiiimi.n . Si hool of. < Irucifixion

Troyon, C. Plough, The

l'n Ti res— continued.

Van Meckcnein, Israhel.

Adoration of the Kings


Immaculate Virgin

Organ Player

Van Os. Flower Pieces

Van del Weyden, Roger. Portrail oi a I

Watt, G. Fiddes. Blank Canvas

Watts, G. F. Ariadne in Naxos

Wint. P. ile. Newark Bridge and Castl

Zwolle. Last Supper


Candelabra with fluted stems




Scent Bottle

Vase and Cover

Vases and Covers


Figures. Ho Ho Birds

Figure oi Kien-Lung, Ming

Vase, famille noire

Vase, K'ang-hsi

\ ases, famille-verte. Kang-He

\ ases, Ming

Dresden Centre-piece

Flight. Dessert Service

Italian Fair Figures, late Sixteenth-Cent

Louis XVI. Vases, bronze and ormolu

Louis XVI. Vases, gros-bleu porcelain




Ralph Wood Jug

Salt ('.laze Cup, t

Salt Jar

Salt Glaze Jug

Sail Glaze Mug

Toby-Filpol Jug

Wedgwood Dessei

\\,,r, ester Vase

Apostle Spoon, Henry VIII. ...

Beaker, Charles II

Bottle-stand, 1723

Cake Basket, George III.

Casket, Charles II

Chalice, silver-gilt, Elizabethan

Cup and Cover, George I.

Dish, " Jerusalem "


Kettle-stand and lamp

Porringer, Charles II., silver gi

Sauce boats, George II.

Statuette, Italian, attributed t

of Padua

Sweetmeat Basket

Tankard, Charles II

Tankard, Peg, Charles II.

Tazza, Elizabethan

Tazza, Queen Anne

Tiger-ware Jug, Elizabethan

Tureen and cover

Wine Cistern

The Imperial Museum, ToKio

The Imperial Mus

near that university where


re who

like t" recount

their 1 'i


I him,

nor ha \ e t he

,i i a d e in i c

a uthorit ies

i erect

a tablet to his


i ordinglythe

universi ty is a



den ta 1 « a n-

i lerer in

feels in

to visit, taking

the din

m, hi


r< > u n *> • -

fully ti i

height, sur-


i hen.

ing with

I LJeno 'ark, the

its k i n il in

T 6 k i o,

J a pa n h a



J *>'

' havin

t -» f / augural



t ha n twenty


( ~'' t ^

is a big

\ > j£ , mus t ei

'^r .* threi

t.-jy -'


if that on the

mind the name

|4k inappropriate-

all) pa

n ol the



while though the edifice on the thi right in turn recalls

though the edifii «

The Connoisseur


Wren, in summer it is so thoroughly hidden with

leaves that it does not clash with the central and

largest structure, essentially Oriental, with its minarets,

its serried arches, and walls of deep red. It forms a

[ovely pii ture from many view -points in the park, and

duly has by its entrance what everyone has dreamt ol

in connection with Japan- -a pond with gold-fish.

It is gratifying to find that the first Japanese \n

( iallery is in su< h -oat degree of an apposite charac-

ter. But indeed it is a mistake to imagine that Japan

is now virtually Westernised, the prevalence of that

idea being trai eabli . doubtli ss, to people who have

tayed, whilst in the Celestial Empire, only in hotels

conducted in European fashion. True that much ol

modern I okio is painfull) like ( :hicago, and that

much of it lias a strong resemblance to Glasgow.


Nevertheless, living actually among the Japai

the humbl >rt, it i liscovi red thai to this

day nearly all ol them i

an draw, and draw wi 11

ound how slightly they have shed as yet their

, onnoisseurship in domestii utensils, charming

|,\ the '

- which custo edin

u i


fan bi in u d i

. jinrikisha

ven in the diminu

men. Mon

I loll ; i till i nai ti d annually

hildren, the Noh I irama still playi d

Bui perhap il bi I


, : connected

tion i

with both ol

pli tit) in the museum.


si ulptun doubl)


valuable to students since it includes copies of numer-

ous large works in temples, where the privilege to

duplicate them is granted merely on rare occasions;

while in addition to this Japanese work there is a

probably unique gathering of Chinese clay statuettes,

dug from graves, and supposed to date from the Tang

period (a.d. 6 1 S 907). The) arc mostl) about the

size of the hand, some bearing traces of glazed colour;

and many are at once so beautiful, and so Greek in

temper, that it is strange Fenollosa makes no refer-

eni e to this particular class of things in his elaborate

stud) ol Hellenic influence on the Far East.* Like-

wise in his tribute to the tenth-century Chinese master,

Zegetsu Daishi, he might well have referred to the

museum's picture by him, entitled Arhats (which sig-

nifies a member of a Buddhistic sect vowed to constant

austerities), this painting being much superior to the

example of Zegetsu which fenollosa prints. l'.iu

possibly the former has been brought to Tokio sim e

the authoi 1


An- not Western writers on Japan prom to la) nil

due stress on her debt to her predecessors in artistic

( 'lima and Korea:-' Professor fowler, in

what is in all likelihood the most comprehensive ac-


1 ountol the world's sculpture, maintains thai Japanese

Ion, [91 ;

1 Chinese

and Japanese Art, pages 73 115,

il •are, page 415- (New v,,rU - """>

work in that arl

rived entirely fromChina,

at first through K.on a ;

thing is km iwni

ese sculpture b

adds that "no-

introduction ol I

ism." that faith

ing cu rre nl in t h e

Celestial Empii

sixthcentury v.d. Now,

however greatl) a young

artist of genius is influ-

enced by Ins si i

cannot possibl) acquire

from them t li<

bis skill ; heshows some-

thing of promise in his

fforts. And thus

destined to make beau-

tiful art, an exi

illustration lying in Lhe

primith e sculp

Tokio. In Japan it was

. when

men of note died, to

bury human sai

along with them, which

practice wa s gradually

waived in favour ol sur-

rounding the dead with

i i lay figures alii d Han

ni- wa, u hi eh si m ply

means "circles

According to the Nihon-


ti ilerably

i ipanese

of procedure became a

fait accompli just before

1 istian

era ; while

antiq uarians in Japan

hold that the use ol thi

clay figures was contin-

ued, in the wildei

of the i ountry, ti

the sixth centurj

height in general rather

lessthan thi

. reflei i '•»"

towards the simulation i

Translation published by [apan Society.

The In i fieri(i I Muse I ok w

form, notwithstanding

which, some of them

remarquabli d

low that

tion," « hich arc t he

ding qualities ol

mature Japan*

I ol



was making this pristine

sculpture, Japan was alommunication

with K


'lima. But In r 1 1, in-

ni -wa beat no n sem-

blance to the coeval art

ol bei i" ighbours. Hlt

skill was nol "derived

entirel) " from either of

them : it was necessarily

born with her, not made

Loin- i

some Japanese sculpture

in f ranee whii h

ly akin t Egyptian

work,* I a pan's i


tiinis to ancient Egypt


matter on which little

has been said. So it is

in. nsi l\ mi. resting to

find at To k i o some

« i ii idi n figures of men,

i ai li « ith t h e angular

heard salient in I

statuary, the land i il the

being ine> it-

ably recalled again by

the guise of two wooden

.logs with huge manes.

Al 1 designated "Goi

things -

style that th


wrought very little later



is . ii ini .mm \ a I ili- that

the di

time when S hin

was still the sole CUlt 111


the entrance to

marl y c\ cry

Shinto sin ine.

Howi ver,asthe

initial Japanesi

religion never

broughl sculp-

ture of the human

form into

its service, the

figurines must


after the advent

of Buddhism.


K Japan mas-

teredsi ulptural

technique, al

the era of that

advent, i



5v^J; 'K^

^ ^



-& m (?


workmanship of a

quartet of anonymous

things of the

thirteenth century,

their title Shitenno,

which means four


The line demark-

ing sculpture from

allied arts has per-

haps never yet been

satisfactorily map-

ped. The best of the

Sevres biscuit statu-

ettes, I',, r example,

usually listed as

" ceramics," surely

merit an honoured

plai e m the history

ot French sculpture,

a kmilreil place be-

ing due to the best

Louis XVI. ormolu

mounts, although

their authors are

commonly styled

merely ciseleurs.

Japan, on the con-

trary, has long been

wont to give tin

name of Jissaku

i true sculptors) to

tin- cleverest ol hei

< arvers of the wooden

masks used m

i In- Null plays.

\ el the boundary at

issue is notably de-

batable in her case,


considering the beauty of her reliefs on bronze mir-

rors, and chiselling on sword-guards; while miniature

fa'ienct sculpture is a medium in which she has been

signally triumphant in expressing her idiosyni rasy, in

partii ular her light-hcartedness, her abundant sense ol

humour, her keen love ol the quaint ami grotesque.

i. Vazubandhi , anil Vimalakirti at

originals of the first two I

ing ii Kofukuji, where- Vimalakii


. though now ti mporarily domiciled

in the Nara Museum. The prints here arc from the originals.

in from the Noh Duma was beautifully

v hand in 1916 at the Cuala Press, Dundrum, Count)

Dublin, Ireland, entitled Certain noble Plays ofJapan, from

The ( 'onnoisseur

chosen and finished by

I I '.

- nind, with an introduction by William B ei

Witness innumerable

Studies Of

Hotei, the C,o,l ol

P 1 e 11 1 y , a g e in

among such at the

museum being one

made at Miha/uki

by the famous Ro-

kubei(i737-i79 9 );

while two neighbouring


which must be cited

are a lion in black

and yellow b y the

Kyoto man, Ogata


celebrated in Japan

by the name of

K e n /an, u n d e

which he worked,

and a human face

Ii y the renowned

Tokio master of

the nineteenth Cen-

tury, Kenya Miura.

lint loveli er than

any of this trio, in-

deed a masterpiece,

is a tiny Kwannon,

its colour a delii ati

blue, its modelling

so sharp at places

as to be rcminis-

. ent of pen-drawing,

this work

revealing 110 mark

whereby to identify

It is a region of

conjecture which is entered, too, on passing to study

the antique vessels of unglazed clay, many of them

from graves encircled by Han-ni-wa. Clearly these

vessels were made with a wheel, and it has been

observed by William (lowland (some time in the

employment of the Japanese Mint) that in this tact

Iks a vitiation of "the old anil oft-repeated legend

attributing the introduction [to Japan] of the potter's

wheel from China in tin seventh or eighth century."

He fails, however, to note thai a species ol jar, fre-

quently found in these old graves, is identical with one

which was often modelled by Chinese artists ol the

I Ian period (:oli B.C. A.D. 22l), its distinguishing

/afan Society Publications,

feature .1 series ol

small spouts round

the mouth. But,

mi the other hand,

a wealth

tive Japanese uten-

sils ha \ e contours

seldom seen in earl)

Korean 01 < Ihini si

\\urk, numerous ol

yet familia

: iurs


t hey h.i\ e been

lavishly Us, ,1 by

most European

si li ">ls, wherein

may lie confirmation

ol tin tl

duced, for instani e,

bj tin gifted Irish

writer Brinkley,

the influi 1

in imbibed

rectly, nol

; h ru ug

( !hina. I Making

with especial bi aut)

1 vasi which anticipates

the modern

\\ ine-glass, thesi

pristine 1

• 1 ramii 1

misi than


finer pro-

ture, howexquisitel)

that prom i se was

fulfilled bi

1; rokio,

less by porcelain

than by stonewan


majority of fairest artii les ol this sorl are from Arita

Vide prim in Fenull

Japan and l.ileralu

"cramics." (Boston and Toki

The 'Imperii}/ Museum, Tbkio

1 IOK1-.I I ill. i/ I il Vi IIKOMA1 I' 'TURE IN WOOIi


parts being .

small bird 01

in relief. It

'nni thai Mo! '



,1 1

tain intei

ing to the absence

from man)

ot tin- •

for this,

together with their

vi simpli-

city, hints thai thi >i

vi n in actua lity

designed for the use

of the in 1

oi rich people. < ' in-

versely spli ndour,

without on

is the genius of a jai

from Taka

Muku/u kiiA.n:

while another piece

il rare quality is a

set of bo

K e n /u n, who has


1 11 1 differently

here from on hislion

I In n is,

furthermore, a large

number of teapots

by the gn 1

potti 1

Ol the nine-

teenth century,

M ok iilni (whosi

iignal un 1- in each

ease on the lower

idi -I the lid),

hem one

among t

!in h. 11

li il Ill like.

.1 lemon, is

are. the sole glazed

,n the one side and a

Inly coloured, and

nl ol prime inspira-

nl in ived thi most original littli

work, quite different from the rest of his art. if not

unii |ue in Japanese


Turning now to

the relics from old

k< in .in graves, it is

learnt that the

melon-shaped teapot—of

all things

that with which the

fame of Korea is

most closel) asso-

ciated — was sometimes


beautifully even by

the country's earli-

est potters, using

coarse brown clay.

There is h m-

ten stagainin mark-

ing the s t r o n

insignia of Arabian

influence in the

Siamese faience.

And, lea vi ng the

i' era m i CS, it is a

charm of the most

persuasive kind

which is found in

the Japanese dolls

of the seventeenth

and eighteenth

OLD JAPAN! -F hnl. I., A- I

centuries. About a thousand years ago the Celestial

Empire had a queen devoted to children's gamr-

nearly to the end of her long life : and it is in her

mi mory that, in homes where there are little girls,

thi re takes place in March the Ningyo Matsuri, which


The Connoisseur


-111 IN I UK


. |j|<

consists in a teaparty

followed by

marshalling a great

procession of dolls

fro m the door of

the house to its

mai n dwelli ng -

room, where the

array leads up to a

pair dressed as Em-

peror and Empress.

the others being

likewise clad to sug-

gest a variety of

professions. H o w

characteristic of

Japan to have given

an often impeccable

artistry to the mak-

ing of dolls, these

being among the

most individual of

her achievements :

perhaps more individual

than her

miniature sculpture,

and certainly harder

to find a parallel for

than her far-famed

U k i y O e WOOdcUtS,

callousness towards

on the part of Japanese connoisseurs tin ni-

is reproached in the West. Be that charge

liisi or not, the Tokio Gallery duly possesses a collei -

tion of chromoxylographs, and ol such as are by artists

names would seem to be as yet little familiar

! ro,

,0 ntalcol cti rs, the best are those ol Sugakudo,

.md Hidemaro. Sugakudo wrought his

bold, simple .irt early in the ninetei try, while

the other two men lived tow

- n hundreds, and were both disciples ol

Utamaro, whom Hidemaro, in fact, helped with thai

prime of the various books illustrated by tl

text b) the no

The Imperial Museum, Tokio

i] Annual of the

d the Dii kens of Japan.

In his Pages on Art, Mr. Charles Ricketts o

that the Ukiyoe school, in taking their mattei from

tin- ordinary lil , by


means brought a novelty into Japanese pictorial art.

as many writers have contended. Rather did the)

and his sound cri


i an old movement," he says ;

; " mind al the Imperial

11 on seeing its humorous genre sketches by

the twelfth-century artist. Kakuyu, generally known

as Toba Sojo, since he belonged to the class of


Buddhistic dignitaries i

il the monas-

I oba, Like most

things b o tins

master— for informat i cm

about him is sadly indefinite

— these sketches are done

with ink and brush on long

ri 'IN i it paper : and whi I

with the hulk of drawings

which men an re] mted to

have >'> i laughei I ei li mg

the wit itself appears somew

hat savourless to-da y,

Kakuyu's fun makes a demand

nearly as keen as

manship, tin pi

i readily

' -ami's.



d to have delighted


to him. Nor is it really SO

Toba Sojos to the old h


tic kakemono, inasmuch as

I i iving

their formula from India.

. religious

ool ol painters


picl iirrs with thi

sentimeni Kano motonobou

ehar.H terising Indian art ; but the) brought quickly

to the handling of the 1

i In is. i flowers

i daii

\ ,

ounders. Hen

Pantaaha Mahakaasa, a seated Buddha,


by tour othi i di ities and who,


Or, agaii I

ild have painted

which d

tin) %enn si i ties round the bordi r bavi

iness bi yond tl ay ol the Hindus,

\l i, too, i




of a

ol the dawn i i of tinting in Japan

are all anonymous, bul I


is accounted

authoi ol .i sequence, The Life oj a Zen Priest, a

part which is purel) a landscape much trai

the rest.

hew trii i

an as proud ol their past a

There, as in Serbia, the humblest people are versed

in the di eds nt their earliest national hi roes, and one


such who is the objl CI ol


Prince Sbotoku, scholar,

writer, and si ulptor. I m thi

coming ol Buddhism he

proved himself the most

active di vi itee in Ins land ol

the new creed, and i


m Ins life are the I hi

the oldest of the museum's

kakemono,\s\ivh were painted

lor domestic decoration, this

picture being thi iught to be

h v the i

1 e\ cut h -century

artist, ll.ii" No Munezane.

Whoevei painted it was a

master, as w as the painti r

. whii h,

ring a battle between the

Japani se and a ( !hin

venturer in the fourteenth

picting im ii

i n.

A screen de-



to him. although the style

ably anterior to his ;

him is a portrait

now obso

and b)

in attending daily

Mikado. There is also an exquisitely gentle Land-

scape by Mitsunobou's pupil, Koi Kano (1566-1636).

wherein the mystery of nature is perpetuated in a way

few Japanese have ever achieved, regret being felt

accordingly that little should be known about Koi.

And in addition to a typical Moronobou, Boats on the

Sumida, there is an illustration by Mitsouki (d. 1691)

to the romance of Genzimonogatari, written in the nine-

hundreds by a court lady, Murasaki Sikibu, and still

widely read by the masses in Japan ; for, in conson-

ance with their historical knowledge, they show to-

wards their ancient literature a fondness such as the

English populace does not offer to The Canterbury

Tales, the Scottish to The Bruce and T/ic Kingis

Quhair. This illustration is an emblem of the move-

ment made by a group of Kyoto artists in the

seventeenth century to revive the manner and atti-

tude of the old Tosa school, Mitsouki's devotion to

which led him to claim lineal descent from the family

who founded it. And being a sculptor besides a

painter, he is reputed in Japan to have originated the

netsuke, those rare little carvings used for attaching a

pipe and tobacco-pouch to the belt.

It is tu lie hoped that soon the Tokio Gallery will be

enabled to augment these old kakemono and screens,

so memorable, yet quite inadequate as a symbol of

lapanese painting in its heyday : while the collection

embodies merely a single truly fine work of the eigh-

teenth century, -/ Heron, by Tam-an. But, like the

sculpture, the pictures are supplemented by a host ol

beautiful copies, which give a welcome opportunity of

studying much famous ecclesiastical decoration—for

instance, the frescoes at Horiuji, Nara, executed in the

eighth century, and rei koned the sole productions ol

The C 'onnoisseur

their kind in Japan. There is. moreover, a large dis-

play of kakemono of the nineteenth century, and if it

must lie owned that they reflect little individuality,

the artists showing themselves content to trade in a

well-worn tradition, it must no less surely be contended

that a gift of infallible taste is expressed in these works.

Three which notably command that tribute are the

Peonies and Fowls of Kaburagai Untan, and a pair

oiMountain Scenes by Buncho; while this same faculty

of taste is markedly uttered furthermore in those yet

latei things, the oil-paintings of Japanese of yesterday,

and to-day emulating the French impressionists. Of

course, connoisseurship alone will never make a great

work of art ; but without it a great work of art will

never be made. And is there not a richer potentiality

in the men who paint with taste, though not with

originality, than in those who are equipped vice versa?

So, walking once more by the lotos lake— its redol-

ence of the Far East deepened now, in the evening,

by the occasional faint boom of gongs from the tem-

ple on the islet—there is experienced the feeling that,

possibly at no very distant date, Japan will bring forth

a fresh school of great artists, thus giving a new justice

and significance to the most poetic of her many names

—the Empire of the Rising Sun.

[N.B.—I must not fail to acknowledge my debt to

Mr. Shinvama, of the Japanese Foreign Office, and

Mr. Shinkai, Librarian of the Hibiva Library. Tokio.

Without the help of these friends I should have been

quite unable to give this account of the Imperial

Museum, and should have been wrestling still with

my transcripts of titles in Japanese. Chinese, and

Sanskrit.—W. G. B. M.l



i .


allace < ollcction

A BooK of by James Pollard

ire found more frequently on

prints of the last quarter oi the eighteenth century

.mil the first

half oi the -

ninete e nth

Pollard. It

two of whom



t0 a • ' /

I! lists. /

I long

life and wor-

ked with unre- ~.

mittingi i

I hesi * -

Robert Pol-

lard and his

son James.

The third was

i son

Rob< rt, less

well known

than eith

his n a in e -

sakes. His

name in lull

appears only

on a

Hi bi

i ame a junior

partner to his


By Cecil Boyce

father, and was the " Son ol the " Robert Pollard &

Son" who published such a large numbei


£yt-c+z**-J*— 7 //^^L«.


old sporting


The elder


::. 1755.

According to

the late Sii


lie miniated to

London in

1782; but the

actual date

was probablj

two or three

for lie appears

to have pub-

lished his

prints The Re-

turn from ,1

The Re I urn

fn < ,

in 1 7.So.andh(

plate of Tlh

Action between

in 'Ni \sTER RACE

Surveillante, after R. Dodd, published in London in

1 781. In 1783 he was represented by a couple of

landscapes (Nos. 34(1 and 347) at the Society ol

Artists, but these appear to have been his only

exhibits in publii galleries. He was probably too

busily and too lucratively employed to waste his time

in producing speculative pictures, for about this time

In- graver and pencil were in constant demand. He

designed and engraved bunk illustrations, furnished

or topical prints, and engraved a number of

ol portraits and naval, military, and fancy sub-

llis sporting works— for which, perhaps, he

" bered em rally belong to a lab 1

period. His ilium- appears in few biograph

tionaries, though both the quantity and qualitj ol Ins

work make him well worthj ol exti ndi 'I mention.

lie appear- to have been a genial, kind-hearti 'I man,

1 1

for Ins one 01 two ai tion th il havi been plai ed on

how him m .1 highl) benevolenl

I l"lm Si mi. his fellow-townsman, when hi

London, giving thi 1

on he mo em

ic-tallow-chandlei lessons

tig, and so putting him on the

The ( 'onnoisseur

of his day. It was Robert Pollard, too, who in 178s

was largely instrumental in founding the first Benefit

Society for "Infirm, Sick, and Disabled Engravers"

a short-lived effort, which expired a few years later

without achieving anything. In 1809 Pollard, visiting

a paralysed engraver named Tagg, found his landlord

seizing the bed on which the unfortunate man was lying.

He and Scriven (the engraver) stopped the distraint,

and raised a fund for Tagg's benefit. They used this

incident for again starting an Artists' Benevolent Fund,

and this time Pollard's efforts were crowned with

ilmie to the memoi

pavu.L lb lib ,

Pollard, one has forgotten that this


directly concerned with him, but his son Janns. The

lattei was born in 1

7 • •

> 7 . ' 1 Robert Pollard's combined

residence, studio and publishing house. 15, Braynes

Row, Spa fields, a short thoroughfan

..mouth Street in [818

tory .11 Algiers. It wi was then on the verge ol the

country, within a

although fallen fi

rival i'i Tunbrid

1 II, lined

morale the naval

,v yards ..I Islington Spa, whii h.

its high estate as a fashionable

Wells, was still used as., pleasure

~%SjzJL - '?.?Z~is?Lui'c O i ** ^t^yxf^. ,




n "ii. the gardens about the spa being popular with

Londoners as an afternoon-tea place. Young Pollard

was thus located in a neighbourhood that, from its

closi i


onnection with town and country and its posi-

tion as a centre of outdoor amusement, must have

mi ted the future use of his artistic talents.

Sir Walter Gilbey, his most lengthy biographer.

gives no hint as to how and where James acquired

i hi ti hnical knowledge, but one may readily surmise

thai lie was pupil of his father, for lie followed line' K

,,n Ins lines. I

Ii-- fathi r, however, was more of an

rravei than a painter, while James revei led the

ei ;raving only a lew plates, generally ol

drawn by himself, while he produi ed

I by

other men. Sir \\ alter

gives the two scenes ol' ihe Royal Hunt in Windsor

Park, showing King George 1 1 1, following the hounds,

, earll


These « igraved b) W I


plati 3 engraved aft i

The Connoisseur


'ubourg, and published

mi in [82 1. Earlier than these, howi vei

a seane set of lour of A Celebrated Fox Hunt, repro-

duced by Havell & Son in 1817, and a Poriraitoj tin

Racehorse Tiresis, engraved by Pollard himself in

1819. In 1 82 1 he exhibited at the Royal Academy

a picture of the North Country Mails at Islington,

which mayor may not be the original of the engraving

1 iv T. Sutherland seventeen years later. In 1824 he

showed a couple of Incidents in MaiH 'oach Travelling,

and then came a break until 1839, when a pair.

Motherly Protection and Maternal Anxiety, formed

his last contributions to the Academy. All these

exhibits, together with a large picture. Coursers taking

tin- Field 0/ Hatfield /'oil; Hits (5 Ii. 2 in. by 6 ft.

6 in.), contributed to the British Institution in 1824,

wi o si nt 1

1 cm the same address, 1 1. I followa) I 'lac.

Holloway or Islington: but in 1 S.14, when he contri-

buted two small works, Fox Hunting and The Funeral

0/ Pom Woody, to the last-named exhibition, his address

was altered to 2, Milton Place, Islington Creen. This

continuous residence in the same loi alit) is significant


I'll l.i. \l K

|i iKIA A I


s=§fe* --*^ A

2l*w y - /i- r


"I a placid existence with no great change of fortum ,

and would also seem to show that Pollard was, despite

his love of .sport and ln^ occasional visits to places far

afield for his tin mes, a townsman at heart. This idea

irmed by a -lam e through tin- large folio ol his

and designs formerly in Sir Walter ('.ilbrv's

i tail .1 a an epiti irw i >l

Ins life's work. It contains some hundreds oi Pollard's

pern M drawings perhaps his mosl valuable i

tion to an. foi he was a fluent and sentient dri

m in, and his ketchi are set down « ith an i

The C onnoisst ///

^j^M^^M^-^^ jl


thai is rarely apparent in his more studied

and highly finished work. One would judgi from

i detail

lat Pollard was i hii H\ inti n sti '1 in humanity,

i ion ni Ii.ii.i.

i down

with a nice

tei and an enjoyment ol charac-

that is not so apparent eithi r in his

studies ol n net l"he clever littl

of a trio ni men shooting is a case in point. Hen

the figures could hardly be bettered. Slight as they

are. they tell one as much about sportsmen as i


be conveyed in an elaborate drawing by Leei h or a

li ngth) description by Surtees but the dugs an not


nearly SO good, though the artist obviously t00l< more

trouble with them, for the dug on the left has been

M drawn several times, and its position in the o >m

position changed, w hili the landsi ape ha bei n

d m r\ slightly. So, too, with the other shout-

ing design and that ni the two men fishing. In the

formei the artist has devoted close stud) to tin n eds

and the pollarded willow :

but one feels that he was

mure interested in the sportsmen, and that ever)

button and crease in their coats has been set down

with immaculate exactitude. The same feeling is

shown in his drawings of building: and vi hr les The

i itud) il an omnibus one of the earliest of its kind





vj*. ^y


is an historical document from which it would be

possible to construct a vehicle in exact duplication of

the original. The Old White Linn, Edgware Road,

the Wood Green Farm, and the finely drawn Ken-

nington Gate, then one of the main arteries of South-

country traffic, are all set down with appreciative < are

and •

sactitude; whereas one has to confess thai the

li'ii,, -, shown in the equestrian sketch of Oueen

Victoria, the royal procession ol the Queen to Ascot,

and the sporting scenes, arc somewhat convention-

alised. The sketi hes reproduced have been selected

almost at random from the large collection contained

in the folio, roan) ol which arc too large and full of

detail to bear reproductioi a smaller scale. I

i e

The Connoisseur


to give an idi a ol a phase of 1'ollard's art




not generally known, for the public are best acquainted

with his works through the medium of the engravings

and lithographs reproduced from them. Among the

most attractive of these are the crowded scenes repre-

senting mail coaches starting from town, or race-

courses thronged with spectators, for Pollard was

at his best when dealing with humanity, either

singly or in mass, and it is by virtue of these scenes

that he tills a unique position in English sport-

ing art. His contemporary vogue appears to have

collapsed shortly after the introduction of railways,

for though Sir Walter Gilbey tells us that he was

still enabled to enjoy a day with his rod in 1859,

few engravings appear to have been published after

him later than 1840.










The China Factory at Wirhsworth, in Derbyshire

By Thomas L. Tudor

Tin early history of English china is still lull of

problems, in spite of long-continued research. While it

is now hardly probable that entirely new factories will

ever be brought to light, there is still a fair margin for

discovery as to the output of the lesser works, and, for

the matter of that, of the more important ones also,

especially as regards their earlier years. Among the

former we may place the factory at Wirksworth, in

Derbyshire, which, although noticed by certain past

writers, has, nevertheless, not yet been fully and critically


The present article does not pro

exhaustive, but the facts here presented to the readers

nt I'm Connoissei i; will probably be sufficiently new

to constitute what is practically a redisco\ cry of tl

subject. The writer feels justified in making thi

for the simple reason that modern works on china al-

' rely ignore the subject, notwithstanding the earlier

references quoted below. And even if Wirksworth

china docs not stand in the front rank among collectors'

treasures, an enquiry into the subject may, nevertheless,

clear up certain matters that have hitherto lain about the

borderland of knowledge. At all events, it is obvious

that the question presents a problem which should be

faced in the interest of the whole subject of old china.

A first statement of this new approach to the subject

was made by the present writer in the Journal of the

Derbyshire Archaeological Society for thi

! some general attention. Since then m


light has been gathered, and further specimen-, have

become accessible for purposes of illustration. This

article is therefore entirely rewritten. But it is highly

probable that the question will continue to expand, and

that certain matters, still obscure, will eventually be

cleared up.

Mr. Llewellynn Jewitt, writing about the year 1877

(Ceramic Art in Great Britain)^ m stated

to be from Dugdale, which seems to indicate that china

was made at Wirksworth, in the Holland Vlanoi House,

about tli' He sa the attempt was unsuc-

cessful, but as the factory went ars, this

remark would appear to refer to the financial side \

the undertaking. The same author quoti

dated 1777 concerning the property, in the fo

terms: "All those several messuages, etc., heretofore

used for tin- nuking of (lima ware," and comments thus:

" So that at that time the/irst china works hail probably

1 eased to be in operation. 7

' The

italics are mine. What

does Jewitt mean by " first china works "? We naturally

suppose that there was .1 later period of china making

here, and that the year-, before 1777 were not the limit

of the period of output. The indications are that there

was a second and later period.

Jew itt, indeed, gives indii ation ol this 1 1'

the Sketch of the Life of William Billingsley, the famous

craftsman in china: "In 1804 hi stated to have commenced,

or joined, some small china works at Torksey,

in Lincolnshire, and a few years later he appears to have


a china manufactory at Wirksworth, in Derbyshire."

The context explains that lie Billingslev n,n

attracted there by the existence of a beautiful white clay

found in connection with the lead-mines of the neighbour-

hood. The same author states elsewhere that Billingsley

attempted to establish china works here, probably owing

tn felspar being found in the locality. This time, how-

ays "there is no proof." fewitt is rather loose

The next author to refer to the subject is William

. who, in 1863, published his Marks and Monograms

on Pottery and Porcelain : "About the year 1770

.1 manufactory of china here (Wirksworth ,

said to have been established by a person of the name

nf Gill. Pottery was first made, and a punch-bowl of

cop] loured lustre, in the possession of Mr. Lucas,

Ashbourne, is believed to lie a specimen

oi iIh- manufacture. They afterwards made porce-

paste), the usual decorations being flowers

roughly painted, ami shells; tea services (with white

and gold borders. No mark is known." Chaffers

[872, in ,1 noble wink entitled Keramic («//-

lety, makes a slight but similar notice ol thi factory,

/'//c Connoisseur

and gives what is practically the only illustration that

has ever appeared among these older writers. But it is

insignificam and of little use.

We now come to a much fuller reference to the sub-

ject, from the joint pens of William Bemrose and Alfred

Wallis, published in 1870. In that year a Fine Art and

Industrial Exhibition was held in Derby, and the authors

above named wrote, for the guidance of visitors, a sketch

of the history of fictile art in the county, under the title

of The Pottery and Porcelain of Derbyshire. The pass-

age dealing with Wirksworth is interesting in the extreme,

though it seems a little high - flown in its statements :

"This factory must have been upon a very large scale,

anil probably was even more extensive than the Derby

works, which it preceded as a china factory,* but to

whose rising power it was obliged to succumb in 1777,

when it was finally broken up. The goods made here

were of the very finest description, and specimens may

in 1 asionally lie met with, both of china and earthenware,

the decorations of which are very similar to those of


* This seems incorrect.

The China Factory at IVirksworth, in Derbyshire

We have not space to give the whole quotation. The

«) the green colour is bright and peculiar, the

irhite and very translucent, the pottery soft and

It might seem that there were important

mens in I havi ce been lost, but

on turning to thi i

onlj three small exhibits, viz., "cup and

e are surpi ised

i I he follow

ige also seems to lack critical quality, but we

shall have something more to add on this side ol the

subject later on: "We are in a position to state that


fijjures of 11 autifully mouldi


the notice that wi able to

: presented by the illustrations to this arti< le "Tea ware

of a tine and translucent paste was manufactured."

In Jewitt's tim< -

re made on the site of

the Wirksworth factory, when, to use his own words,

" port ion > (it ,.1.^.11 -. and ot < hina were found. Some 'it

I these are in m) 1OSS1 nli.rtimately, there is

now no trace of these finds, but in 1914, when a dram

was being laid at the Holland Manor House, similar

- igain

made. Also a portion of the old

flue was exposed. At this time saggars, lumps of china

clay kneaded into balls, -tilt- for packing the ware in the

ovens, and numerous ti



The latti ithout dou

dence as to thi Wirks



est is fine and tolerably translucent; smooth, fragile, and

slightly warm - grey in colour. Many thin pieces are

evidently parts of tea services, and others, thicker and

finely moulded, seem to bear out in some degree the

eulog) in the exhibition catalogue as to beautifully

moulded objects see No. x. . Jewitt's

finds seem to have

been lost long since, but if he turned up more than were

found in 1914— and he may well have done so, being first

on the scene-there is some justification for the Bemrose

assertions. But at present these seem overdrawn. Nothing

er is known of any figure work.

The Wirksworth paste is not the softest variety. It is

cut by the file only with considerable pressure. But the

magnifying glass shows a dull, flour-like powder, and not

particles. Here and there along the fracture

liiim particles, perhaps of unreduced felspai

But the general appearance is that of dull lump-sugar.


leing awaited. 1 *

The writer is of opinion that the finds indicate two

the period to 1777 and a period after 1804. The

- Sec note at the end of this artii le.

Y~//c C onnoisseur

photograph 1


No. x. ) shows what are evidently fragments

of the earlier products, but, unfortunately, there are not

many complete specimens extant. The cup and cover

No. viii. , belonging to Mrs. Meade Waldo, seem of this

period. They are well potted, though the glaze is somewhat

heavy in hue and slightly peppered in places. The

ornament is bold and striking, and consists of strong but

not crude colouring. Roses, honeysuckle, and foliage are

the motive, and the handles are ribbed and twisted. At

the points of attachment of the latter there are small,

raised, delicately moulded daisies left in the white. This

specimen is authentic beyond question, as Mrs. Meade

Waldo has an interesting little document, which is both

ancient and conclusive, stating that it was made at the

china works, Wirksworth.

Mr. Thomas Atkinson, the owner of the Holland Manor

House, has a tea service which seems to possess a well-

authenticated history. Before coming into his possession

it belonged to a family at Middleton-by-Wirksworth for

man; years- apparently ever since it was made. It was

originally a wedding gift. This was over a century ago,

and it has been treasured ever since in this out-of-the-way

The China Factory /// fVirksworth, in Derbyshire

among the bills as a product ol the old Wirks spi

worth I No. v. in a

but there is something to be said for these and other thi

ison of the permanence

families in this quiet corner of Derbyshire.

No. i. shows the teapot with stand and cream jug ;

No. ii. a i up and saucer. There are six of these latter,

the cups, like all others of thi without


: will be noticed

that the teapot and cream

lightly in the han-

dles. But in every other reand

the t upsand

saucers are strictly uniform

m style, body, and glaze.

The jug and teapot stand

may have been added dur-

ing the \ ii

tury or more. I he basin

No. ii. does not belong to

the set. but it is evidently

n. The

colours are crimson, red-

iw, w ith swags of

dotsinpuceand little scrolls

at intervals. All I

and use.

red byage

In the early part of this

article a remark by Mr. W.

Bemrose was quo

the decora

toft china and thai

Wirksworth. We presume

this writer was thinking of

the pink panels i

tilled with cris

waved lines, and

along the bor-


No. IX.


This vet

The more ornate teapot in No. \ i. shows

'- '

iscuit surface or in the fracture. In it, unglazed con-

dition it has, when at its best, a beautiful eggshell

. and the more delicate fragments vary from a

sixteenth to a twentieth of an inch in thickness. They

often show traces of underglaze blue decoration.

No. iii. shows a tea service belonging to Mr. William

Fox, "t Wirksworth, who has by far the most considei

able collection of reputed Wirksworth china known to

the writer. The nucleus of this tea service was certain

from the collection. At a later date,

other exactly similar pieces were purchased at an im-

portant sale m Wirksworth. They had long been in the

possession of a local family,

and were always considered to

be of local make. The colours

arc green, pink, blue, lilac, and

The execution is free

and somewhat loose, especially

in the wavy red lines, which

run round in the form of swags


The set shown in No. iv. has

a still more curious history. A

teapot, stated by W. Bemrose

10 be of Wirksworth make, had

in the po i

ssion ot

Mr. Fox, when similar pieces of

ime to light, belonging

to Mr,. Hamilton ( iell,

now ol Devonshire. TheGells

ol Hopton and Wirksworth were among the partners of

the original undertaking. ( >ther partners named by Jewitt

were the Hurtsoi AM. rwaslej and the Burdetts of Fore-

mark, both I" ii

i f

long-established stand

ing. There is other evidence in the Hurt famil)

i ertain old china, long treasured foi its familj assoi iation i

n iembles the specimens here illustrated.

two cup .!:'. i'.' -'i belonging to a el

ai "He nine, almosl famous in Wirksworth,

irded •


relii of the old fa<

tory. It belonged to a Mr. Richard Wall. But most

of the pieces have long ii I

and i


The Connoisseur

["his was

h.o ming -ri vice. It is

with roses, bluebells, pinks, scattered

iws of ribbon, and the pink cartouches along

ed tO I

hen- i

tnd -





tiled Lowestofl b dealers i >thers

• vs/rire

01 tell you they do not know.

i he illu [ration ol the i up

Journal, sent the writer a


hi pasi ui h whiter and the ihape



... vi., the two tea

the ]

of Ml in itle uneven,

bbed i

I . he olouring shows

if on ,

ally and with

scalloped edges, are decorated in gold and without colour.

They are charming specimens, and the only examples

yet .lis. overed bearing gold enrichment. The authority

for their attribution is again Bemrose, and, according to

the exhibition catalogue, there should be other golddecorated

specimens about. See also the quotation from

Chaffers, page 26.

Other objects belonging to the same owner are the

basin and jug in No. vii. Here, again, is the characteristic

pink ornament. The jug is spirally fluted. The basin

shows a shell in heavy brownish colour (see again quota-

tion from Chaffers), and roughly painted. The Oriental

dish is painted in an underglaze

blue pattern, which resembles

precisely certain fragments from

the wasters. The mug is clear

white, with cornflower decora-

tions and lines. This and the

gold-and-white cup and saucer

seem of a superior quality.

The cup and saucer ( No. ix. .

preserved in the Derby Art ( ial-

lcry, are the only examples ot

Wirksworth china which the

museum contains. These ob-

jects are quaint and charming.

The wing-like flowers are car-

ried out in blue. But the tone

of the glaze is somewhat heavy,

perhaps owing to age and use.

The photograph for this illustration was taken by special

permission of the committee.

With reference to the statements of various authors that

earthenware and lustreware were also made at Wirksworth,

we may add that the " finds" at the Manor House

tend to confirm these assertions. But, at present, the evi-

dence is incomplete. An interesting teapot, with a raised

an aded pattern around it and scalloped edge, was shown

in the previous notice of this subject, but it appears to be

old salt-glaze, and has no clear evidence as to origin.

Should any readers of THE CONNOISSEUR be further

interested in this question, the writer will be glad to

receive communications on the subject. The writer

already owe, thank, to numerous correspondents, and

also to the frii ml : and 1 ollectors who have allowed theii

. luna to be photographed.

\11.l ].ei haps a word or two.. I personal explanation ina\

be allowed. The .11 11 1 1..1 holds no brief for the case, and

is not out to maintain any pet theory. The sole aim and

objeel is to 111 the facts I

ha been .tated .1 - iinp.n n.ilK as possible.


fiction, and the question

al thanks are due to the editor of this magazine

lot the invitation to ventilate the subject in the interests

of what is not only a delightful pursuit, but a most

tas. inating study.

[Noi 1 .. Since waiting the above, the author is indebted to a

distinguished authority for the information that a preliminary

indicates that they belong to llie soft paste

variety, viz., a bone-ash porcelain. As stated, however, in the

text, they have, practically, a considerable degree ol hardness.

Apparently they are related to the earlier period mentioned

above. See page 2$.}

Old English Pistols By Hugh Pollard

In a period when there are colli <

everything coll© table, and when prices show no signs

of depreciating to meet the deplenished private purse,

n is rather pleasant to have a specific branch of i ol-

lecting that is no iv« and nol subject to

dangi i.

Old English pistols afford a very wide field, and

though theii nu eadily diminishing, it is


yet possible ti eery representative little

m of reallj lit pie il prices easier

quoted in shillings than in pounds.

. I'h. English pistols an be classified b) theii loi k

01 ks (of which no known examples other than


i .

\ 111. shield pistols in thi ..'.v. I are known

naphaum Bint locks, and

percussion-loi ks. Taking these in the ordei ol th< ii


il a [ui pi. . mati b -locks w rtainly the

original arms, and consisted of pi plain b;irrel and

touch-pan, Bred by means of a burning match held in

.1 ierpentin. This principle was unsuited to an arm

of the nature of the pistol, for it involved thi con

tinuous presence ol a lighted match or fuse. The

pistol i-> essentially a surprise arm for attack or sudden

self-defence, and match-lock pistols wen- probably

nevi i very popular. European i


s i

scarce, but a large number oi Japanese match-lock

pistols are in existence, which are probably very true

i to the i\| arlj match-lock pistol introduced into

Japan by the early Portuguese traders. The < >ri< ntal

p.. ai U all Ea p


im the European typi

• ai no i ha\ e


i .1

a to .1. -'

< nd nto iii. pan '< m the butt toward the

muzzle. In the European match-lock the serpentin

descended toward the firer of the piece.

The wheel-lock was the first self-contained means

of ignition applied to fire-arms, and its invention

made the pistol a successful and popular arm. The

principle of the lock is the generation of a stream of

sparks in the powder-pan by the rotation of a serrated

steel disc or wheel against a fragment of iron pyrites

held in the jaws of the cock or serpentin. The same

device is used in the little wheel and tinder cigai

igniters of to-day, hut the "stone" of the latter is a

different compound.

Highly decorated Continental wheel-lock pistols,

inlaid with ivory and all manner of rich work, are

familiar exhibits in many museums and private collec

lions ; hut the English wheel-loi I. ari extremi lyrare,

; tin pieci of crude workmanship,

and have not Keen saved lor their art value. The

I 1 gun-ti

idi had been fo iten .1 In Elizabeth,

hut fell into a di < line undei James I., both arms and

gunpowder being imported from thi Continent. I ndei

' .inn

i. i ived again, and

in 1632 includi

wheel-locks and the latei snaphaunce :

" I "i .1 pair ol fire-lock pistols, furnished with .1

hi l-lock 1. mould, powder-fla I

ol I' ather, .mil ol I' ngth and bore aci ording


Ml O O."

The Connoisseur

" For a pair of horseman's pistols furnished with

aphaunces and similar equipment to the above,

ii o o."

These wheel - lock pistols were made at a cheap


price, were mounted in plain iron, and had stocks of

light wood, as, had they been stocked in walnut or

any heavy wood, the weight would have made them

unwieldy when held at arm's-length. The typical

Civil War piece of English manufacture has a rough

octagonal or round barrel about 1 7 inches long, the

total overall length is some 2 feet, and the weight about

i\ pounds. In many pieces the stock has been inten-

tionally steamed or warped out to bring the butt cap

1 all id nut 11I" centre toward the right, so that the barrel

is in comfortable alignment with the hand—an effeel

thai cannot be achieved with a true or straight stuck.

The snaphaunce is ,1 type ol Hint-lock antecedent

to the common or true flint-lock, ami retains the

sliding cover to the pan which is characteristic of the

aIi- el I"' k. The anvil, frizzen, 01 steel against which

the Hint held in the cock strikes is not combined with

this pan-cover as it is in the Hint-luck, hut the fall ol

the hammer works the sliding cover of the pan by

means of internal lock mechanism. A comparison


i\ \ r


lor a limited period, is now much rarer than the whi i l-

lock. Fine Italian examples, by Comminazo, are in

the Wallace colli

By the Restoration, wheel -lock had

d by the true flint-lock, with whit h all


ell-mouthed) barrel of the period. The lock is of

later type, as it has a little wheel under the frizzen on

the feather spring and the flat sectioned cock. This

custom of bringing good favourite arms up to date is

No. IV.

(2) vie\

responsible for many curious pieces, and conversions

of good flint-locks to percussions are, unfortunately,


The duelling pistol proper is an arm apart. It did


charge in a cavity. These arms were in great demand

at the time of their invention, and .1 pail ol

barrelled tap-action pock< t pistols bi

Old English Pistols

on pistols, unless ol exceptional workman-

ship r hi curious mechanism, are for th

pari of I



(c) officer's lar

The Connoisseur


The Editor invites the assistance of readers of THE CONNOISSEUR who may be able to impart the i

information required by Correspondents.

Unidentified Portrait (No. 273).

Dear Sir,—The enclosed photo is of an old pic-

ture I have just purchased in one of the antique stores

in Florence, and I think it very good work, and some-

thing better than a mere school picture. I think it is

of Siena, and after the manner of Pacchiarotti, but it

is only a guess.

Yours truly, J. Lucas (Florence).

Pictures by H. Savrv.

Dear Sir.—With reference to your enquiry about

pictures by Mr. H. Savry, I thought at once that your

information was altogether wrong, and I therefore

place the following particulars before you from Mr.

H. M. Savry, a picture painter as well, living at

Haarlem, who

writes to me as

follows :

"The Mr. H.

Savry enquired

about was my

lather, born 111

1823, at Haarlem,

and who

died there in

March, 1907.

In Ins timi h(

n a-, a wellknownland-

scape and cat-

tle pictU re

painter, whose

work was much

sought after in

Engl a nil and

U.S.A. Ms fa-

ther never lived

in I .ondon, but

1 6, Charlotte

Street, will, no

doubt . Iia \ e

he acl-

dress ol one of

the picture-

dealt rs 1

whosi ]"'


,ion ili'' pii ture

must have been when it was exhibited at the Academy.

As far as my memory goes, my father had a contract

with a 1 >utch picture-dealer, H. Koekoek, at London,

and he received from him ior a picture of the size you

mention about fl.250 (,£21), whereas most likely it

was again sold at about fl.400 (,£33), although I know

nothing about this for certain. H. Savry was not a

Frenchman by birth, but of French descendancy, which

the name also indicates."

This, I hope, will meet your purpose. Mr. Savry,

the son, is also well known in Holland. He paints

cattle and meadow pictures, as his father did, but I

do not think that he is much sold now in the United

Kingdom. I hope these particulars may be of some

service to you, and in the meantime I beg to remain,

dear Sir, yours


A. Merens


Portrait of


Montagu in

\ Turkish

Dress, by



you or any of

your readers

kindly enlighten

me .is to

where the por-

trait of Wortlev

Mont agu

in a Turkish

dress, painted

in .775, at

V en ice, by

Romney, is at

there a sketch

•nce,and where

If nut of great value as a musical relic, the small

quarto manuscript, Music Book of the Princess Char-

lotte, in the collection oi the Rev.

••Music Book w G Beardmore, is a highly inof

the Princess

. £, mementoof a personage

who appeared at i me

time destined

in make a great figure in English history. The book

bears the autograph of the Princess, with the date i8ii,

when she \\a^ heir apparent to tin English throne, and

had every prospect of enjoying a long life. One ma)

surmise, however.that her constitution was undermined

by the arduous studies

which her prec e ptors

[In i lughl it in essary she

should undergo for her

future exalted position,

[i is said thai hi

work generally beg

>i\ in tin- morning, .mil

< ontinued, with slight

intermission, unl il tin

• vening. Had she not

possessi d a musical ear,

thi timi -In devoted to

a i


i liar]),

piano, and guitar might

have In in ilt \ oted to

health-giving rei n

and she would probabl)

have lived to bei omi

Queen, wil

quern i that


of events in England and

Europe might have been

hook, then fore,

said ti ' havi

I'h is little

had a share

in making history. It is

a Milium I., in i bj 7,' m. PRIMCBSS


nearly twice as broad as it is high, plainly hound in

leather, and containing 366 pag< s. The fly-leaf bears

testimony to the proficiency of the Princess in another

art, for it is decorated with an original pen-and-ink

drawing by her— a work which, though it maynot reach

the technical standard of a modern art student, is never-

theless phasing, and shows nice feeling of a conven-

tional anil rather artificial ordi 1. I In book is closely

Idled with pieces of music— general!) short— neatly

transi ribed, probably in most instances by Mime profes-

sional amanuensis, for the hulk of the work is ti

tu havi been d

11. At least, one

of the pi. . es,

a waltz, from "Countess

I ,ieven,"has been copied

by her Royal Highness

herself, the title In ing in

her handwriting, and tin

music showing one or two

mistakes rather clumsily

altered. This was proii-

ably tin Pi

second attempt at the

task, ti 11 ili- leat preced-

ing tin- transi ription had

been rut out as though

In 1 1 iriginal effort wasti n 1

im "mi tlydone to be al-

ii iwed to remain. There

are the


pieces ci >m]

Pi im ss me of them

called "Lord Welling-

" Played by the Band ol

the iotli Light Dra-


is." bears the inscrip-

'1 b) the

Prince Regent." In

Huish's Memoirs of Princess Charlotte it is stated that

after her marriagewith Prince Leopoldof Saxe-Coburg,

it was suggested to her that she could compose, and


I I'm 1 C.II \|. " I

! : | Ii'.NAIUKK

The Connoisseur

original pieces for several years before her marriage,

and il speaks well for her modesty that this fact does

not appear to have become known. The Princess had

99 %

X> -~ JMm^

IN- Mil

'fited by the hint thus givi n. Mr. Bi ardmon 's a g


I ai

Musi Book, however, shows thai hi had composed diffident r<

us i" have been very

bilities, and to have

esented unmerited praise. It is said, indeed, thai she

once had her foreign music-master dismissed b

hetold heron om occasion that she had sung delight-

fully and played charmingly, when she was con

she had done neither.

An interesting picture, attributed to the brush of

aul Rubens, is now being shown at the galleries

of Mr. C. Brunner, 1 1. Rue Royal,

••Judith with the p aris ,, represents Judith putting

., , , ,, the hem! of Holofernes into n sack


held by a/i attendant, a theme

painted more than onc< b) thi i

set down to about tin- year 16 to, .1

when Rubens, having lately returned from Italy, was

producing a number of works distinguished by their

1 uro, largely drawing h

Its technique shows close affinity to the

artist's work of the time, the strong lighl

shadow 1

. .





.. u In im

pictures he had closel) studied during his stay in Italy.

The skilful grouping of the figures, by which the wrin-

kled visage oi the aged attendant 1- direi tl) 1


with thi ance ol Judith,

while the gruesome head of Holofernes

1- almosl losl

in the obscurity oi a dark shadow, is an arrangement

hly characteristic ol Rub tinctive

for In amy enabled him to depict painful sub-

jects without arousing any feeling of horror or repulsion

in the mind of the spectator. The brushwork also

exemplifies the painter's manner at the period, being

I r


Rubi ns was ai customi d to pn pare his pictures on

a tempera ground, drawing his subjects in disl

and varnishing them before finally painting th-

in oil-colours. This process, though giving rise to a

numbei - in the pigments, enabli d th<

artist to obtain a brilliancy and transparency of colour

hardly to be realised b ["he Judith

shows all the characti 1 painted


this manner, the tone ol thi original attaining a rich-

ness and luminosity to which it has been impossible

to do adequate justice in the reproduction. It shows

Judith asa beautiful young woman sumptuously attired.

Her whit.- cloak 1- embroidered with

dress bi

tones providing an admirable foil to the warm glow oi

the candle, while the strong almost white reflections

illuminating the upper portion of the sleevi 1 aeon-

link between the whites oi the cloak and those

of the atti ndant's head-gear and si arf, bringing them

The sash is fil

Ailh fringes, its gold and yellow tones

finding a modified echo in the light di 1

old woman. All these coloui d in the

flame of the candle, which in the original glows with a

rainbow-like iridescence— blue, I

I white.

imparatively few candle-light

his works in this metier

ill to adduce examples by th

with which it may be compared. Highly corroborative

fact that in asim

ns's authorship of the picture, howevi

1 iresden. the head "i thi woman app

n painted from the sa iv >di I a-


attendant in thi pn ent picture. Even mon significant

is tin- likeness oi Judith to the artist's first wile, Isabella

Brandt. II ei fai i


and thinner than in any

of the known portraits of her : but this was only to be

. m

a work which, from its style and technique,

must be the earliest picture by Rub- ns foi which sin-

sat. Clo ed to him by marriage, being the


1 Ins

brother's H if ibli thai she

served as in iage in

1610. The high forehead, rathi 1

long nose, prominent

eyes,and pointed 1 hinoi thejewishhi roineare identical

witb the mini featun S in the acknowledged portraits

ni Isabella Brandt. The sternness oi her expression

ertain unfamiliarily to her aspect, but the like-

cognisable as in 1 In 1

-lip t biblical

i] whii li shi ai tl d a- Ruin ns's model.

The picture diJudith is hardly satisfying as a repre-

and intrepid Jewish h

who was read) to sai rifice life and honour lor the g 1

1 1 of In 1 ountl ) : but, as an an n.


arranged, trong and resonant in tone, and lull of

beautiful ami dul 1

1 olour, it offers

adverse criticism. There are few ol Rubens's early

contemporaries with whom the picture can b

ciated, technique, feeling, and colour, as well as the

identity of th. pointing to it being tin-

work of tin- master himself. Should further investi-

tablish this contention, it will

add a line example, in a metier in which the artist

seldi mi prai tisi d, to thi

An interesting specimen ol old English glass, be-

lieved to In- unique of its kind, is the goblet winch

An Old English

Glass Goblet

in Engla 1


forms the subject of a colour-plate

in the present number. I

ii turned

ai to be

OUtside museums. The goblet illustrated is

. w

lii iwl being finely enami lied in

ith a landscape bordered with s, roll

in 1, with butterfly .me

spray on th Its stem is air spiral. I i

is now bi

galleries, 7, South Moll- 11. \V.

' ilsham

>v ( iole's

HK two most noteworthy sales occurring during Mao h

e those of the John Linnell collection of works by

William Blake, and

the fine assemblage of

ea r I y British pictures

the property of the late

Mr. Colin J. Mac-

kenzie and others, dispersed

on the 1 5th and

22nd respectively. The

Linnell sale was, per-

haps, the more important,

for it comprised

a unique collection of the works of William Blake, most

of which had passed direct from the artist to Mr. Lin-

nell. It is probable that the latter, when he originally

purchased the works, did so with the idea of befriending

Blake, whose productions were little sought after in his

own lifetime. If so, his beneficence met with an un-

expected reward, for the examples generally must have

brought nearly one hundred times their original prices.

The first lot consisted of a series of ninety-eight original

designs made by Blake to illustrate Dante's Divina

Commedia, sixty-eight being concerned with The Hell,

twenty with The Purgatory, and ten with The Paradise.

The works were all executed on a white paper measuring

4 V in., all were drawn in pencil, and some

20$ in. by 1

finished and others partly coloured in water-colour.


After a spirited competition, this lot fell to a bid of

made on behalf of a syndicate which included

the National Gallery, the British Museum, the Melbourne

An Gallery, and various provincial art galleries. Mr.

Robert Ross, the European representative of the Mel

bourne authorities, who was successful in forming the

' also , secured for the Australian Art Gallerj the

two water-colours, The Creation of Eve, 20 in. by 1 1

> in.,

and Satan watching the ,mlearmenls Oj A, I, an a)

20 in. b\ 1-,' in . foi 1 i|i and £346 10s. respei

the Bo< 1

nd highe ;l pi ii e in the sale £3,990 was

ir a 'i ie ol I

went 1

| drawings illu itrating

lour on white papei

een 12 in. bj 9 in. and to in. 1>\ b\ in.,

while twent) two reduced facsimiles o) thi 11 ries,

Blake in peni il foi [ohn Linnell, mai

- 1 ui

ol twel vi jimilai drawii foi "

.1 ed IV.


it £2, 205 Ol hi 1 watei 1

oloui drawings

included the following:-.!//;-//





the Sale Ri

aware that the spirit of his brother was in the room, and

elestial visitor applied for counsel. Thi

advised him at once. "Write,' he said, "the poetry,

and draw the designs upon the copper with a certain liquid

[which he named, and which Bla

then cut the plai

and this will give the wholi and figures, in

the manm po." Blake adopted the sug-

and his wife went out with half a i

rown .ill

the money they had in the world—and of that laid out

is. rod. on the simple materials i

the new revelation, i

he started what was to p

irt through his future life. . . . Thi

and his wife did everything in making the hook





designing, printing, engraving, everything except manu-

facturing the paper : the very ink, or colour, rather, they

did make. The present volume, which comprised both

w i irk^. t 21110 form on 4to paper, is probably the most

elaborately finished copy in existence, ha

ally prepared by the artist for his friend Thomas Griffith

Wainewright.' The book is among thi

which the colour is heightened with touches of dull gold,

and the price it bi

tant. The same sum was realised for a second copy executed

in the same style for John Linnell, senior, am

by him to John Linnell, junior, by the order of whose

executors it was sold. An even higher sum—/ ,


in 1790. Othei inten sting iti m

en and Hell, published


Revolution, book the first, the only copy known, [791,

£ 1 3 ;s. 1 ; Six < Original Sketches tor an important unpublished

illustrated edition of the first part of the I

an unpul

. 1 1 pp., royal 4to. 1827, £157 1

coloured by Blal

ed and coloured by Blaki


i n

of the Daug

pin tic Book, with twelve lines of text at top, engraved and

coloured, ,£94 10s. Jerusalem, ;

the emanation of the Giant

[804, too plates printed in black on vellum, ato.

,£89 3s.; There is no Natural Religion,

small plates, 2\ in. by ij in., in black, ato. paper, AS4 ;

twenty original drawings to illustrate a poem by Phillips,

in ink, J in. 1

1 1)


Vala: or The Death andJudgment of the Ancient Man:

Waincwright, known to Charles Lamb and his circle as a

capable amateur artist and an original critic, and desi 1

the famous essayist as " the genial Wainewri

for collecting objects of art threw him into monetary di

and during the time he was an intimate with some of the

greatest literary characters of his age, he was engaged in raising

v insuring the lives of relations and friends and poison-

ing them with strychnine. How many of them died in this

way is not known, tor by an irony of fate Wainewright was

never brought to trial for his nun.-

transportation for life for a com: .... rime—

forgery to secure the principal of s..!, h he was


inly to draw the it I

.-/ Drea

MS. and (lesions for an important unpublished prophetic

and the rest in pe

i ghtly coloured


letters was an inl to Mr.

John Linnell, 1 A pp.

he writes :— " I

[826, in which

titution to be a

one. but it has ma that no one bul

can know. When I was young, Hampstead, 11 [

Ho ey, and Muswell Hili, and even Islington and all

and somi 1


preciselj thi

complaint and thi tomache, easily

removed but excruciating while it lasts, and enfeebling

for some time after." This letter realised ,£31 10s.

Others from the artist to the same recipient made

£ 2 S 4s., £3° 9 s -! £i' |

of the Signet, and friend of Sir Walter Scott, 49 in. by

3 s ' n -, £3,99° ; Portrait of Sir William Forbes, 6th

Bart., wearing a Riband and Order, 28 in. by 23 in.,

£1,312 10s.; Portrait of Alexander Mackenzie, 34 in. by

26 in., £630; and a Portrait oj Sir fames Hay, 29 in.

by 24 in., ,£147. Another example by Raeburn, be-

longing to an anonymous owner, was the Portrait of

Miss Annie Moir, in light-brown dress, with black lace

cloak, 34 in. by 26 in., which realised .£"1,570. Other

high-priced works of the English school comprised three

portraits by Romney — a Portrait oj Mrs. Montague

Burgoyne, in white muslin dress with two blue sashes

round the waist, 29; in. by 24! in., which made ,£4,620 ;

Portrait of Montague Burgoyne, z\ in. by 24} in.,

and Portrait of i'luiyeiidanegea, the celebrated

Sachem of the Mohawks, in pink blouse with vari-coloured

•-ash, head-dress of red feathers, holding a tomahawk,

50 in. by 39 in. This picture, which hung for many

years at Warwick Castle, was purchased for ,£5,250 by

a private buyer for presentation to a Canadian publi<

gallery. The Portrait of Mrs. Davenport, by Thomas

Gainsborough, 211! in. by 243 in., brought ,£997 10s.

Portrait of Lieut. -Gen. Hon. Sir Charles Stuart, in

scarlet military coat, holding his sword in his right hand,

by Romney, 50 in. by 4oin., .£2,350 ; Portrait ofArabella

IVilmot when a child, by Hoppner, 29J in. by 244 in.,

and Portrait of Colonel Braddyll, by Romney,

,£4,095 ;

94 111. by 57-i 111., ,£945. Among the works of foreign

masters were the following examples — : A Portrait of

Henry 171/., by Hornebolt, circular. 1 3 J in. diam., ,£525 :

Portrait of Ann Stuart, Countess de Beaumont le Roger,

by Corneille de Lyon, on panel, 7 in. by 5*111. , £420 ; and

Portrait of Madame Marie /.ephxrine de Prance, :ohen ./

child, by J. M. Nattier, 1751, 284 in. by 352 in., £1,470;

while Lady Falle's collection, removed from 95, Picca-

dilly, and sold on the same day, included Muleteers

Arriving, by X. Berchem, 41A in. by 754 in., .£304 10s.

A Quiet Pipe, by C. Lciler, on panel, 12 in. by io< in.,

,£107 2s. ; and The 1 iolin Player, by A. de Yois, on panel,

10 in. by 81 in., ,£110 5s.

The dispersal of the art objects gathered together by

that well-known collector, Mr. Kennedy, occurred at

Pottery, Porccla

Furniture, and

I On

Messrs. Christie's rooms lor l,\e

lays in the middle of March, high

prices being consistent through,,!,

the sale, the 71 3 items produ, ing

the opening day the lots were almost

entirely confined to arms and armour, though there were

» fi objects 1 'i ., diffi rem 1

F lemish, 1

harai te: . notably a dooi

5th century, 20 in. high, 7] in. wide,

which made £32? 10s., and "The Star Chamber lock

ol I. ing 1 li.n le II, 1

the Duke of 1 Irmond, whi< h n ali ;ed ' $

Freni I gin,

another piei 1 from

1 ly the property ol


day was ,1 suit oi tilting .,1 ,, |

aboul 1

/Vic Connoisseur

I he clou of

570-90, whi, I, was originall) in the

on, and which brought £4,305; while

the 11 : 1 ollei tion, ., late 1 ,1

"tuck," ,11 foining iword, Italian, 10th century, made


High prices were so numerous on

day that it is only possible for us to enumerate the most

important of the items. A "town" sword, or rapier,

probably Italian, about 1590, went for £378 ; a "town"

sword, or rapier, Italian, I 580-1600, £304 10s. ; a pair of

figured gauntlets of small size, Milanese, about 15S0,

£441; a sword, Italian, dated 1560, £315; a closed

helmet, Pisan, circa 1590, £283 10s.; an open casque or

burgonet, probably Roman, 1580, £304 10s. ; a cabinet

of wood, with linings of damascened iron, probably

Venetian, circa 1580, 15 in. high, 19 in. wide, \\\ in.

deep. £252 ; a rapier, or "town" sword, [6th century,

£262 los.; a pair of pistols. North Italian, about 1690,

£262 10s. ; a rapier, or " town " sword, probably French,

[6th century, £357 tos. ; another, about 1570, £546;

another, probably of French origin, about 15S0, £420;

the back and breast of a complete gorget, of the

Louvres school, 1580, £567; a pair of spurs, probably

French, circa 1600, £231 ; a suit of armour, about 1530,

probably German, £1,365 ; a pair of pistols, Italian,

1690, £210; a chaufron, German, late 16th century, in

emulation of North Italian work, £514 10s.; the cantle

plates oi a saddle, of similar workmanship, latter part of

[6th century, £199 10s. ; the double burr plates of a

saddle, not belonging to the above, but somewhat similar

m design, £346 10s. ; a breech-loading sporting arquebus,

probably German, about 1590, £367 10s. ; a "town"

sword, or rapier, probably produced at Tours aboul

1580-90, £861; and a small sword of the pillow type,

probably made in Vienna about 1640, £315. On the

second day the items offered, on the whole, were not of

much importance. They consisted mainly of Greek ami

Roman antiquities and gold-work and jewellery. An in-

teresting lot was a bronze votive statue of ? Dionysius,

Roman, circa A.D. 100, k> in. high, which went for

£325 tos.; while an antique solid gold vase, 11 in. high,

Greek, about the 1st century A.D., weight 55 oz. 10 dwt.,

realised £724 10s. Other notable pieces in this varied

collection were a Siegburg canette, with Elizabethan sil-

ver-gilt mounts, 1573,

1 2* in. high, which made £388 10s.

a rosary bead, Flemish or German, early 1 6th century, of

boxwood, hinged in the centre, and each half containing

a carved picture depicting scenes from the life of Christ,

£199 15s.: another, apparently by the same hand, also

containing carved scenes. £104 5s.; a tazza, or cup and

cover, oi Limoges grisaille enamel, height "] in.,

,"i fos.; a rock-crystal biberon, 7| in. high, n| in.

long, German, 1 6th century, carved in the form of a fish,

£483; and a pair of bellows, 34 1 in. high. French, 16th


century, .£325 los. hems worthy of record on the third

da) iii' luded a F rem I, .ouis XVI. aunt box oi gold and

enamel, £283 10s. ; a tablet case, French, Louis XVI.,

of gold inlaid with miniatures deputing battle .

painted in gouache, signed Van Blarenberghe, {315 ; a

paii oi caskets, early 18th century, of gold, with covei

1 omposed oi plaque ; ol Dre iden 1 nan" 1, £21 14 15s.; a

Louis XVI. snuff-box, oval in form, inset in the lid a

miniature painted with profile portraits oi Louis XVI.

and Marie Antoinette, bordered with diamonds, £399;

a Louis XV. snuff-box, with a miniature portrait in

gouache of the in, I hessc d'Aquillon inset in the cover,

£273; a goblet, 3J in. high, French, 17th centui

structed entirely of agate and mounted with gold bands,

1 miniature

portrait of Eli

\o\ in. high, oj in. wide, French,

the life of Christ, ,£1,312 ios. ; a statuette, 9 in. high,

Italian, attributed to Andrea Briosco, of Padua, .£441 ;

and a pa

ibably intended

candelabra, 16 in. high, Italian, late 16th o

art appe; 1

th day, as well

inline. Amongst the formei the 1

/// the Sale Room



piece was a figure of Kien-Lung, (2j in.

ng, which fetched £651 ;

while of the furniture

1 hairs,

English or Dutch, late 1 7th century, the legs and stretchers

with ornaments in the William 111. taste, £525 ;

hairs, 17th century, the <

erei >idery, and the arms, legs, and

di ' carved with fluting,

walnut-wood cabinet, 7 ft. high, 4 ft. wide, French. 16th

century. £777; a walnut-wood armoire, 7 ft. 3 in. high,

4 ft. 3 in. wide. French, 16th century, £467 10s.; a buffet

nee of walnut-wood. 5 ft. 4 in. high by 4 ft. > 5 n -

omprehensively French. [ 6th century, the

tion showing the influence of the Henrj 1 [. style, . I

Lble, h, 4 ft.

wide, Italian, n the Renaissance style, £735. I"wo fini

day's dispersal to a close, one realising

- was

aroused on

the concluding day by two panelsofpetit-point embroidery,

each 19 in. high, 6 ft. 2 in. wide. English, foi which no

less than ,£1,123 was given; whilsl among the

16th century, attained £441.

varied collection of French furniture,

fi it med by Lady Falle, ap-

peared March 26th, main high prices

shaped panels of scroll-work, 175! .


Early 111 the sale a cabaret, painti


7J in. by 1 : in .

lied with


of ">, it. .1 in shapi

lovers in a landscape, 11, in. high, n

£24 1 10s. respectively; while a I. ; vases

and co\ 1


01 1 £157 OS. It

was among the furniture, however, that most of the high

in the centre, small cupboard-, at the

a the frieze, inlaid in various «


surmounted by a slab 1


and white metal

I, ;

tvith four

clock, the movement In I

I harlesX.,;£i,239;aLouisXYI.

: a

n. high.

Louis XVI.

marqueti nth three drawers, inlaid with a

flowers in various

4 ft. 8 in. wide, £325 10s.; and a Louis XVI. settei

gilt frame-work, ed with Gobelin

tapestry. 5 ft. 3 in. wide, .£504.

\i Messrs. Puttick & Simpson - ;, on April 12th.

our April

number in colour, and h hich >r a chari-

table purpose, reali ed sum of 2,000

guinea-. Ann.; I


which have ap-

peared at these in. mis during March and the early part ol

April were a Hepplewhite mahoganj winged I

£147: a set ol foui ..Id I:

a pair of George III. ts, dated

set o( Hepple-

;s. ; and a Chipp

white mahogany chairs, 1 £162

mahogan « ingi d booki ase, £141 1 5s.

.Messrs. Sotheby, Wilkinson & Hodge held a sale by

auction oi .lima, pottery, silver, glass, carpets, furniture,

and othei works ..t arl at theii e« Bond

Street on March 19th and two following

notable [.I I



/04 ; a silver tureen and cover, 1824, 503 oz.,

£} 13 ;,s. 6d.; an Eastern carpet, 17 ft. '1 in. by 9 ft. 8 in..

£257 5s.; and a grandfathei 1." k, with Whittington and

Westminster chimes, £51.

A large collection of autograph letters and historical

MSS. b) .'i relating to the Duke of Wellington and the


.. ie up for sale at Christie's on the

1 . binary, but, mainly owing to their quantity,

hi mo -1 I'll' '.".1. in my of the items

inllmgs. The highest price attained was

£15 for a holograph despati h from the Iron Duke.

1 1 ted plan foi

ausing an insur-

rection in Spain and in Spanish America with a view of

n Spain and frustral

I upon Turkey. hree

this despati h In ed to the 1 ommand in

Spain. ( ither items worthy oi rei ord wen- a letti

1 Oct. ith. 1700, to his brother the Karl of M01

afterwat ds Marqui Wi Hi ley, then G

of Indi .. writti 1

1 an. ither to thi

and i pi er

Nov. 41

which h lv, I

to the M

iiient of the 1 'nited States, with 1

il ol Tippoo Sahib. £$ :


Indian affairs

to the same, written

pt. 27th.

£jo : another

letter written in


nvoy in America and the




I hi

" Colonies'' referred to in Mr. Bigelow's title are

not the present components of the British Empire, but

" Historic Silver

of the Colonies

and its Makers,'

by Francis Hill

Bigelow. (The

Macmillan Co.

the original American States before

they parted company with the

mother-country. Moreover, the

author has wisely not kept within

the strict bounds of his title, but included

descriptions of pieces made

after the stars and stripes had superseded

the British flag over more

than half of England's original American empire. In

brief, Mr. Bigelow's valuable work gives an account of

the silver plate in the United States, whether home-made

or imported, which survives from the pieces remaining

there towards the close of the eighteenth century. What

a large quantity answers to these conditions may be

gauged from the fact that after Mr. Bigelow had held

an important exhibition of American silver at the Boston

Museum in 1906, it was found possible to supplement

hi with a second exhibition in 1911, at which over eleven

hundred pieces of church plate were shown. Home-made

American silver dates from the first half of the eighteenth

century. The earliest workers of whom there is record

were John Mansfield (1601-741, who arrived at Boston

from London in 1634; and Robert Sanderson (1608-93),

who came to Hampton four years later. The latter set-

tled .11 Boston in 1652, and became partner of John Hull

1''-' I -i , who

had come to that city in 1635, but only

learni his trade aftei reaching America. Hull's father

- ai ksmith, and he probably learnt the rudiments

ol 01 nami ntal woi k ai the lattei ; t< irge. Mr, B

has discover! -1 iome piei es made by him before Sandei

el partner, and he was obviously tin I'

mi mbei "I the firm, and took ,1 prominenl pan in local

affairs. The fii ined the pim trei shilling's issued by

the < ( lovernment in defiam e "I instrui tio

ei from ] ngland, and produi ed man) ol thi

er, a is now 1 ommc mlj

te >l hi \111c 1 ii a, ici the word " plate " 1 > now usually

confined 1

I here to plated ai h

an 1

In \nn rica

n. 1 ii m, and many of the mosl ii

ice Id- found in the huri lies. A number of

them are of English origin, and were not designed for

religious use. Mr. Bigelow suggests that owners of

silver cups "were in the habit of taking them to church

for use in the communion service, and that gradually

they came to be looked upon as something sacred,'' with

the result that they were frequently given or bequeathed

to the churches in which they had been used. One of

the most interesting of these vessels is the Governor

Winthrop Cup, given by him to the First Church—the

mother-church of Boston. It is of English make, bear-

ing the London date-mark of 1610-11. Its height is

1 l| in., and doubtlessly it originally possessed a steeple

cover. This is unfortunately missing, but the cup, though

a little damaged, is an ornate and beautiful example of

a rare period and type. An earlier English example is

a silver-gilt standing cup 1 1607-81 belonging to the Old

South Church, Boston. Other specimens are to be found

in various churches, and these and other examples in use

served as models to the local silversmiths. Thus a plain

silver standing cup, made by Sanderson and Hull, of

Boston, and purchased for the Newman Congregational

Church in 1674, was undoubtedly copied from an English

decorated cup of 1639-40. which had been given them

some years earlier. Unfortunately, the custom enfon ed

in England of stamping pieces with a date-letter was

not adopted in America, so that it is extremely difficult

to establish their dates. The inscriptions almost in-

variably found on church plate arc most useful in this

respect, ami, with the help afforded b) makers

serve as valuable

1 lues to the periods of different styles

ei silver. These by no means all follow contemporary

English usage, for early Amerii an silversmiths often drew

their inspiration from continental sources. One foi 1

this inspiration is ihown in the employment of beakers

for communion cups, a custom introduced into Holland

,11 the nine "I the Reformation, and appears to have been

introduced into America early in tin eventeentli century.

Thus a Dutch beaker, bearing the Amsterdam dati lettei

for 1637, was lefi bj the Re\ [ohn ( otton to the Lust

ol Bo ;ton in 1652, and \ .n mum i ontinental

ieakei .


a G ilogne 1

11 "I c iihei ii venteenth 1



1 ame

into the

The Connoisseur Bookshelf

were for the purpose, while

Lmerican makers manufactured quite a number,

ieing close reproductions of European models,

tiers showed originality of design. Other silver

vessels used in m iuded

tumblers, caudle cups -most of these were employed l>\

there are more than one hundred and thirty that have

been used in New England churches for sacramental

cups. But the description of chun h silvei onl) occupies

with rel I


\ol nine, though it in-

H one would not usual!) a

the custom in vogue in

England, flagons were given 01 b churches

to hold the ale or hot spiced win. als. Nor

must it be thought that American churches uric destitute

thodox forms of church silver such as

patens, and baptismal basins. The old orthodox church

plate of America is neither so nun lOrtant as

the more domestic pieces, whether appl I

secular uses. Mr. Bigelow in his work describes and

illustrates practically all the finer of the earlier examples

to be found in the country, and gives much int<

information concerning the early American makers, a

larger and more artistic community than is generally

realised on this side of the Atlantic. Some oi thi

oric interest; as, for example, the plain

punch-bowl made by Paul Riviere—himself one oi hi

famous characters in the Revolution—for fifteen

Liberty, whose names are inscribed round the

rim. The volume gives the most interesting general

account of early American silver yet written : it is pro-

fusely illustrated, well indexed, and alto-ether is a highly

valuable and instructive work.

Thi compact and handily-arranged little volume on

" Coins and their

Values, 1917,"

edited by

E. H. Courville

(E. H. Courville,

" Lyncombe,"

Friern Park,

Finchley, N.I2

I5s. net)

. edited by Mr. E. 11. Courville,

will prove a boon to nun

collectors. It provides a reliable

guide totl I

during th< .

! thus

by < oins,

b) auction


a gap in the series of works dealing

with auction records, which, it ap

not been

( loins, however,

have scare the attention

erve from amateurs. Where one person collects

them, probably a hundred col'

m the duration of their historic leauty of

the little labels we Stick on our letters.

In all probability an exaggerated idea of nun

quently realise large sinus, tho

collector, learning that a

i of


-.mall nominal v

id the would-be

ps to the

mount, silver and gold coins will

the metals ot ,•.

.in error ; the intrinsic .

the auction prices of rare coins, while there are plenty of

1 interest ht at little above

1 e rare.

on of pennies

represent n in English history since the

Commonwealth could be brouj a few

1 amples,

. while

numerous beautil old coins

tor worn .

oins, miles, ol

i-ed for two or

r, these will be

1 are pas ilise little more

than their worth as old metal. A glance through Mr.

CourvilIe :

s record furnishes main strikii

what appear to be strikingly lo« ll of the

issues of five-guinea issued during the n


1 1

\\ illiam and Marj', and the succeeding

reigns, showed m of only about

50 per cent, on the face value, and gu

of smaller price that lianlK real. ...

of course, belong to large issues, "I which numerous

specimens exist. At the other end of the scale an

coins and trial piei es, 5Ui h a- the Petition Crown of

Thomas Simon, struck by him in [663, a fine impression

of which made Sotheby's; while an

Oxford Crown, made by Rawlins in 1644, brought ^210

.it the- same sale n 10ms A glam e through \l

ville's work will furnish many other instances of similar

apparent vagaries in prices, justified in the collector's eyes

by the relative scarcities of the issues. Though only a

so systi

ii the aui Hon prii es for a single year, the book is

according to thi and theii de 1

set down fully, that it constituti juide to

the British coinage, including the- issues of Scotland,

Ireland, and the Isle of Man. as well as to the current

prices of individual specimens. Foreign coins are natu-

rally not so well represented, but some hundri


included, arranged under their respective countries, while

sections are devoted to and Greek and

Roman coin-. Every item can be instantl) refi

and a number ot the ran llustrated. The

publication should certainly prove a permanent one. .intl

\i r. Co 1



lectors for the admirable way in which he has edited the

initial volume.

d clea

" The Memories of

Childhood." by

John Freeman

the attractions of the booklet con

taining Mr. John Freeman's poems,

entitled / '•'

No. I. of the

" Green Pastures " Pastures series, and does much

Series. (Morland lames


Guthrie; but il is rathe

sight on the pai t

to him n 1


the brochun

ton, is responsible for a frontispiece, conceived in full

sympathy with the poems it illustrates, and distinguished

by its original composition and effective massing of light

and shade. It has, however, been executed in line-work

much too fine and close, with the result that much of its

attraction is lost in the printing. Mr. Freeman's verses

the memories of a little boy brought up in an

industrial city, and recall in then simplicity, directness,

and truth to child-life some of the poems of Blake con-

cerned with the same theme. His metre is generally

irregular, often rhyming sparsely and at irregular intervals,

a method which perhaps enables the childish mono-

logues to be uttered more naturally and with greater

spontaneity than if given in a more set and artificial form.

A stanza or two, taken almost at random from a poem

called "The Streets," will afford a sample of the author's

forceful and unsophisticated verse :

" Far down their streets I went, early and late

(Is there a street where I have never been

Ol all those hundreds, narrow, skyless, straight)—

Early and late, they were my woods and meadows ;

The rain upon their dust my summer smell,

Their scant herb and brown sparrows and harsh shadows

Were all my spring."

Part 11. of Generals of theBritish. Xrmy, by Mr.Fr.nn is

Dodd, contains portraits in colour of Viscount French,

Sir William Pulteney, Sir R. C. I;.

" Generals of the

Haking, Sir Charles Fergusson, Sir

British Army,"

(',. H. Fowke, Sir Aylmer Hunterby

Francis Dodd

Weston, SirC. W. Jacob, Sir A. E.

Part II.

A. Holland, Sir Ivor Maxse, Sir

(Country Life Ltd

r. I.. N. Morland, Sir H. M.

5s. net)

Trenchard, and Sir E. A. Fanshawe.

The number fully maintains the level of its predecessor,

the portraits being all careful and well-studied likenesses,

thai ni I

in i

ord Freni lion horseback—an appropriate po-,ui.,n

former ca\alr\ officer— being especially atti ai

olden days the young and beautiful had to be

- n rifii d mi the altar-, of gods, too discriminatingly c ruel

to accept any meaner often ir

Letters and

Drawings of Enzo

at tne t presen it is our best and

b ,„ v ,. st who are being dev0ured bj

Valentini, Conti

di Laviano, ,

translated by



(Constable & Co

Ltd. 5s. net)

a ho ha\ e received :


i he letti themseh

ean I


th( sanguinary war Moloch, exalted

, , ,


on high l>\ the over weening ambi-

tion nl a -.ingle man. The

that England has endured in the

cause oi freed mable : bei to

i regard with w a m

The Connoisseur

sympathy the


suffering s oi hei allie i, and 1 the

In n l',r/,/i/i/ii,('i>n/i di I.,i .:,nn<

i pal H i.m « ho fell on tin battle field

i i li ol hundreds ol fathi and


letti i from

> ,vere

the i

tl i



I he

i w itten lo \ alentini

it thodox expi i i ol


: he fighting line foi the in ;t timi flic;

i and

intimate, howi ei

io ed of a poetii al tern] n


1 to pul h hal hi

broadly and roughly done, but suggestive of great talent

and decorative feeling. Yet the letters are the more

interesting: they tell of not only what he did, but of

what he saw and thought, and the descriptions of the

beautiful scenery among which he was placed, and the

aspirations by which he was inspired—aspirations often

unvoiced, but felt more or less by all the ardent young

souls caught up in this terrible conflict bring home its

tragedy and awful waste of priceless humanity with a

poignancy realised in few books of the same character.

An excellent translation of the book has been made by

Mr. Fernanda Bellachioma, which reads with the freedom

and simplicity of an original work.

As the tine collection of miniatures and portrait-, be-

longing to Mr. and Mrs. F'rancis Wellesley will sliortK

form the subject of a series of articles

^'Catalogue of the

, j„ Tm ; CoNM USSEUR from the pen

Miniatures and

Portraits in

Plumbago or

Pencil belonging

_ .

to Francis and

Minnie Wellesley

(Privately issued)

of Dr. Williamson, it will be well

not to attempt to anticipate the remarks

of that well-informed writer

. by anything like an exhau

eview of the catalogue of the col-

ection. It is a substantial quarto

olume, containing the description

of between seven and eight hundred items, representing

the work of nearly half as many artists. The English

school is most strongly represented, but there are also

numerous French examples and specimens of nearly all

the other European schools. One of the most important

features of the collection, so far as the English school is

i oncerned, is its completeness. The greater men are the

more strongly represented; but Mr. Wellesley has also

been zealous in securing examples by less fa us ai tisl -.

with the result that his collection includes specimens

many of them of surprisingly high quality—by miniaturists

and painters whose powers are practically unknown

to the general public. Collections of this kind are of

exceptional educational value, and the substantial, wellmounted

and well -edited catalogue will be of great

interest to collectors in the same metier as throwing a

light on many miniaturists of ability whose names are

unrecorded in most of the orthodox works ofreferem i

'I'm- translation of Le Sage's classic, The Idventures

Bias, forms the latest issue oi the I




and, like the other volumes in this

"The Adventures

usefu ,


l]U , wel i. edited series, gives

of Gil Bias," by

.in adequate and well wi tti

A. R. Le Sage

of the original. Despite the length

The Lotus Library

• ol Le Sagi famou i woi I. a feature

(Greenine& & Co.

, win. li has gcneralh |>n wiilc!

„, ,

Cloth, 2S. net ;

Leather, 3s. net)

uualilni \ iated English ciln

11, ,1 in less than two 01 more 1 ol


. tin 11 e ol I nili.i papei the whole ol the woi l< ha

been set up in clear, readable type in a single small volume,

- tastefullj bound and is ued ai an a eptionall) moderate

pi ii e. In iliu .1 1 h ho wanl t< enjoj tran stations ol the 1"' ;i

I 1 ontinental authoi ;, the Lotu

h. 1


ibrarj affori

1 idi .11 : In .111, ill .11111 , .Inn. 1,.

.in'. 'i 1

I pa

ed in tyle and qualil j

Pi m idity was the predominant characteristic of the

> ith exhibition of the Royal Institute ol

The Royal Institute

of Painters

in Water-Colours

Water-Colours. Members generally

, i

venturing upon novel solutioi

old. This absence of enterprise made the display ;h

a whole appear monotonous. Visitors went thro

with the same feelings as a pedestrian taking

a constitutional along a road of which every stock and

familiar. However technically

only aroused the

repetiti m of aesthetic hness of

id long since worn away. Even the war. repre

rray of drawings, brought forth

in outlook from what the eries oi pi tt)

anterior to 1914 had provoked. Mr. W. I..

Wyllie, almost the only a tctual fighting,


showed the same met irrectness of detail, the

lacid colour and handling, entations

dney and Emden off North Keeling Island and

the Carminia •

• as

in his ante

bellum draw 111. lent. The scenes

may have been delineated with complete topographical

. but they failed to quicken the |

Better in this respect were Mr.

drawings ol war work. His Iron, a crowded river scene.

with its murky atmosphere and feeling of bustling activity,

suggested the war spii it of industrj as did also his Skips,


Ships and /in",' Ships, a representation of a shipyard

crowded with leviathan vessels in the ma

in colour and vigorous in handling. In The Best of News

Mr. Fred Roe gave a version of the old theme of a

soldier at the front waiting a letter home. It was a piece

of topical story— telling of the kind that could easily

I degi ni ati tlto ra •:.' - n Mr. Roe saved

it from this by the sincerity and directness of his tech-

nique. He tells the story simply and effectively, using

the warm yellows of the light from a stable lantern and

the deep blue of the night sky to harmonise the khaki of

the soldier's uniform in a pleasing colour-scheme. The

depth of Mr. Roe's coloration and his skill in serving up

familiar ingredients in a novel and attractive form im-

parted a romantic feeling to his work, and the same feeling

also characterised Miss D. W. Hawkesley's Mary. In

this the mother with her child was standing against a

dark tree-trunk, its form darkly silhouetted against the

evening sky, the foliage from its wide-spreading branches

forming a canopy overhead, and its gnarled roots stretch-

ing all athwart the foreground. The dark greens of the

vegetation and the deep brown of the tree-trunk formed

an admirable setting to the draperies of the figure of Mary

—a dark blue robe and yellow olive dress with trimmings

and borderings of red, green, white, and yellow, the

whole focussed by a touch of brilliant gold afforded by

a daffodil blossom held in the infant's hand. The draw-

ing, mediaeval in sentiment and Japanese in treatment,

formed a richly coloured and harmonious decoration.

Even more purely decorative was The Rose, by Mr.

Wynne Apperley—the undraped figure of a young girl

holding a rose in her hand, while a series of white and

pink roses grouped around her person gave relief to the

otherwise dead-black background. The inspiration of

the work was derived from Botticelli ; but Mr. Apperley

had departed from the conventions of his prototype by

treating his theme with greater realism and using bolder

and less subtle colour. This treatment was not wholly

successful, for, despite good colour and tine draughtsman-

ship, the artist had not altogether reconciled his realistic

treatment of the work with the decorative convention in

which it was conceived. Mr. C. S. Swan's representation

of An Indian Leopard gave a line suggestion of the

strength and cunning of the animal when set in its own

natural environment. Mr. W. Egginton, in his Moorland

Scene, near Princetown ; Mr. C. A. Hunt, in his Cornish

I 'plandsj and Mr. Hubert Coutts, in his Cumbrian Sheep

/'arm, each gave faithful transcripts of nature, seen in

their own individual manners, the last-named work espe-

cially being noteworthy for close observation and sincerity

of feeling. Mr. Arthur Hacker's Westminster was a

poetical interpretation of a London evening scene when

ill" light of ilif street lamps imparts a blue torn- to the

grey atmosphere. Mr. W, B. E. Rankin was repre

scnted w iih ieveralinterioi s and still-life pieces, all marked

by a distinction originating in thru direct yet finished

execution and well sustained tone, combined with a care-

fully calculated reticence oi colour. Such a union of

: hrestraint

produces that intangible quality called

. di

tingui :hes Mr. Rankin's work to a mat ked

I'll.! ugge i. howe\ er, tha tie <

the side .,i reti i e, ind that hi work would gain in

b* Matthi i

im ity without losing il e ;pi cial i

The Connoisseur

harm if the artist

• II gi i a litl le I lir ' .i) men oi Miss Julia


lil In .I pro-

duction, in whi. I, 1 te> inn-, were n

- ictitudi

A 'M i. hi J i .i

./ Yorkshire Moorland, by Mr. James T. Watts, showed

close stud\- of nature. Mr. Graham Petrie's view of The

Granta, Cambridge, was marked by more conscious

selection, the deep greens of the foliage being put into

place by strong notes of blue in the foreground. Mr. K.

Talbot Kelly's Ramparts of the Nile was characterised

by refined tone and atmospheric feeling, and Mr. ( Iswald

Garside's Tlic River Earn, Perthshire, by its broken

opalescent colour, which was highly effective. Mr. George

C. Haite showed his usual sunny warmth of tone and

feeling for pleasantly bright tints in A Surrey Cottage

Garden, and Mr. Terrick Williams, by the help of

evening sunlight and shadow, gave an added interest

to a picturesque


Venetian scene entitled Tlic Market

The position of honour in the Large Gallery was

awarded to the Luge picture of Patterdale, by the Pre-

sident, Sir David Murray. Apart from the objection

that there was nothing in the work that could not have

been equally well expressed in oils, and that then- was

therefore no special reason for the theme being executed

in the slighter medium, it was highly successful. The

bird's-eye view of Ullswater Lake, set off by bosky foliage

in the foreground and backed by high mountains, was a

faithful realisation of the picturesque elements of a beau-

tiful scene deftly composed and set down in refined colour.

Mr. Fred Taylor's Water Gate was a second work which,

on account of its si/e and sustained strength of tone,

challenged comparison with an oil painting. It repre-

sented the river-side of some old French gardens, their

size and magnificence being discerned through a vast

column-supported arch on the left, while their immediate

front was masked by great trees in full leaf. It was a

striking work, painted with fine power and imagination,

and fault)- only in composition, two trees with different

( oloured foliage and the tall gateway cutting up the work

into three almost equal portions. Another important

drawing was Mr. G. llillyard Swinstead's Seven Sisters,

Sea ford, noteworthy for its fine sky and effective rendering

of the long, white-cliffed headland. The foreground was

somewhat overpowered by the strength of the remainder

of the work, 'but the painting, nevertheless, was one "I

the truest and strongest in the exhibition. Mr. Dudliv

Hard) contributed Tears and Toils, a harbour on

a wet day, characterised by the quality of its greys and its

fine atmospheric feeling. Mr. Terrick Williams also gave

a harbour scene in his Cloudland St. Ives, a late after

noon effect full of tender and subtle colour. Mr. John

Reid's Rural Pasture was powerful, but a little black

and monotonous in tone, looking as though it wanted

a touch or two of brighter colour to enliven it. foil-

stable, when painting similar scenes, almost invariably

inserted a noti ol red, excuse being found for its in-

• in

a in. in il oi an old woman's shawl.

i I

Manv of the older landscape painters adopted

lar practice. Thi ;i old ruli of-thumb methods, though

as ovei mei ha il,

were generally effectual for the purpose required, and

. iiv ; present daj paintei i

a number of them might be studied and revived with


The howl finely cnamt 11,

oliage in opaque

reverse side with butterfly and

Height 6} inches. Believed to bi

uamel, the Kpyg.









I in

one hundred and forty-ninth exhibition of the

Royal Society of British Artists was interesting largely

_, _ , _ because of its variety. Most of the

The Royal Society . ,'. , ...

of British Artists PainterS ^presented had something

to express, and tried to express it in

an individual manner. Though their ambitions frequently

outran accomplishment, their efforts at least gave evidence

of vitality and original thought, t In the whole the

watei colours formed the most attractive section of the

exhibition. Though hung among the oils, the sole con-

tribution of the President, Mr. Frank Brangwyn, was in

this medium. It was a broadly painted study of four

Platelayers. Reticent in colour, set down swiftly and

apparently with careless ease, it yet omitted nothing that

was essential, and was equally impressive as one of

Millet's pictures of peasant life, and perhaps more true

to nature; for Mr. Brangwyn, in his pictures of toiling

humanity, discards idealism, investing his work with

dignity through purely artistic means— breadth of feeling,

powerful chiaroscuro, and finely massed composition.

Mr. H. Walker struck a brilliant colour-note in his

drawing of the Pennines, different tones of blue arranged

with fine feeling for chromatic harmony predominating

throughout. Good colour, too, was shown in Mr. C. A.

Hunt's St. Colu?nb, Cornwall, a little landscape suffused

with golden light; and in Miss Madeline Wells's Four

Winds, a vivid sketch of a clump of wind-swept trees,

their dark greens and the bright blue of the sky being

effei tively set off by some touches of orange. A couple

of night scenes, Here are the Ladies and The Discovet v.

by Mr. J. Littlejohns, were also distinguished by their

resonant and well-harmonised colour, as well as being

imbued with the glamour of romance ; while Mr. Percy

Lancaster's Old Barn Door and Leaving the Church were

pieces of sterling work marked by sincerity and refine-

ment. Something of the late Sir Alfred East's poetii

feeling and skill in landscape composition was shown in

Mr. W. J. Franks's East Barnet Valley, which, however,

was b) no means an imitative work, but revealed an

mind working on similar lines to those adopted

'' tin i. ii in,., president of the British Artists. The s; :

remarks would apply to Mr. A. Carruthers Gould, who

"< further back for his exemplars, painting in sympathy

not with Sir Alfred Easl, but with earlier masters of the

English water-colour school. His Ferry, a. bird's-eye

idew oi a tranquil river permeated with evening glow,

eresqui whili hi I ale oj Porlock and Pack-

Bridge, Brendon, rei alii d the mannei oi i

"| < i" .

The Connoisseur


rawing li ,tinguished by broad, sentient

mg, low toned i olour, and well balam ed

ment. They might be regarded as ful

experiments on thi i pi tin arti I in adaptii g hi

own manner i,, different itylisti con entions. Mr. B. [.

: Simon Fell attaint d largi n< i :i

its simplir .i L. Hogartl i Golc

e in b h iperii lumii

f bi id. ,1,' -

ling h

hi . and Mr, I atton

— worthy


of wetness that he had imparted to both clouds and


Turning to the oil paintings, Miss Marcella Smith's In

the Harbour, St. Ives, was a good piece of composition,

set down in strong and well-sustained colour. The only

failing that marred the work was a tendency to paintiness

in the representation of the stonework in the foreground,

little or no attempt having been made to realise its

texture. Mr. J. W. Schofield's Maud,- (a Portrait) was

a highly meritorious attempt to combine pictorial interest

and beaut)- with careful character delineation. The sitter,

an attractive-looking -ill, was dressed in white, colour

contrast being provided by her blue sash and ribbons

and a red scarf that had slipped down from her shouldei s.

The artist had produced a pleasing work, which would

have been even better could he have repeated the tones

of red and blue in the upper part of the canvas. The old

English portrait painters invariably re-echoed the brighter

colours of their draperies in the backgrounds of their

pii tures, and in this way obtained a unity of effect often

wanting in modern portraiture. Mr. Leonard Richmond's

pictures were, as usual, distinguished by the bravura and

freedom of their brushwork and a grandiose dignitj oi

composition ; but his methods are too rough and unfinished

to be wholly satisfying. They are rather bold impres-

sions from which fine pictures might be evolved than

completed works of art. Miss Dorothea Sharp repeated

Inn previous successes in painting children in sunlight

with her Company and The Wind on the Hill. The

torrid, shimmering noonday heat of a bright summer's

day was admirably suggested in the former, but she

should beware of limiting herself too much to one phase

of nature. Her figures appear hardly quite so interesting

as formerly, and though to counterbalance this there is

greater power in her expression of sunlight, she is re-

maining stationary rather than progressing. A picture

bearing evidence of direct and careful study of nature

was Mr. W. 1. ulcer's Harvesting, and Mr. John Muirhead's

September Sunset and Crossing the Ford were

distinguished by the same trait. The latter artist, though

he may be said to copy nature, does so through the

medium of a poetical and sympathetic imagination whii h

leaves its mark on his work. To Mr. Fred F. Foottet

nature onl\ offers the bare suggestion of a theme to be

set down according to a preconceived convention. In

his mono, Inoiii.ii u coloui schemes oi Evening, London,

and Morning, London, he attained tone and atmospheri

but u was at the cost of almosi every other attractive

quality. Picture \ ol thi s ii :e require at least a su

oi local colour, otherwise thc> fail i in

in, ,, and are

uninteresting, as the continuous repetition of a fivi

i ercisi

in music. Brilliani colour was shown bj Mr.

George ,

( larline in A Si I/. . tin ntgh the

i loud . i would ha atei ;ubtlel j oi cpn

sion. Mr. ( harli i



Ft king Boats, Coticarneau,

Finisterrc, was tranquil and luminous in lone, and full

,.1 J, iii i ate, ihimmi i ing olour. A striking poi

I to., somewhat

in the expre i live and ientii m t> le oi ( harles Fm e,

w.i, ,

( out 1 1 In il i ,! In Mi. I i '.In n I, W

luting ; while other

ind Mr. Ken Kei

( Hrrent . hi Notes

in include M r. I. W. Si hofield's bulk

»Ir. i

"Au Moins Soyei Discrct" and " Compter sur mes

Serments," engraved by F. Petitjean, after Augustin

de St. Aubin. Issue limited to 300 Artist's Proofs in

Colour at £4 4s. each, and 150 Proofs in Monochrome

at £1 is. (Henry Graves & Co., Ltd.)

I \ 1 iki plates in mezzotint oi itipple, line en|

This limitation has caused the large ma

1 nting

in colour.

wh te, for though a certain number of the subji

n aquatint were printed in colour, and an

ersin the

the finest technical productions of their kind, the great

l , l . i I l : i EA!

vnrks bj I


\ ibin, and the othi

is the nunc to b pictun

and richly decorated inti

only in line. This

oi thi on to their colour, and the elimination of

this element leaves a certain void for which the superb

quality of the finer lim it wholly atone.

. attempting


ites in which the

from \n de St. Aubin's well-known pair Au moins

tur mes serment

his own designs, and representing himself and

M. Petitjean has produced a sympathetic interpn

of these charming and vivacious line

plates in mixed mezzotint, a medium

specially lending itself to colour-

printing, and which allows the engra-

ver to execute his work without enter-

ing into direct competition with the

originals. This is an important point,

for a copy, however well made, must

show some lack of spontaneity when

compared with its exemplar, whereas

.1 translation allows almost as much

freedom of expression as an original

work. M. Petitjean has availed

himself of this privilege, and has produced

an attractive pair of plates,

possessing the daintiness and charm

of the originals, but in which the

sentient crispness of St. Aubin's work

is replaced by the softer graces of

mezzotint. The coloration, while

bright, has not been over -accentuated,

but is refined and transparent,

and the effect of the whole

is highly decorative.

In former days,

Commons looked

The Speaker's


hen the House of

ith a tolerant eye


ached to the

more important

offices held by politicians, it was

' l! -i n > to provide every Speaker

with an ample service of plate on his

entrance into power. Hume, the

great economist, enforced the abandonment

of this custom in 1 839,

since when the plate provided for

the Speaker no longer becomes his

persona] property, but is attai lied

1 to offii e to be used in perpetuity

by his successors. The ancient custom, though liar. Il\

to be defended upon economical grounds, resulted in

the production of many exceptionally tine pieces of



1 1


1 1


silver. ( Ine of these is to be sold at auction very shortly

by Me-. Sotheby, Wilkinson and Hodge. It is a

'arge on,, win ler, from the state ol the late ord

Northwick, of which Captain Spencer Churchill is now

lii' tenant.


Ii wa originally presented to Sir Spem

irds Earl ol U ih gton , Sp< a

the Hon,, ol Commons, 1715 [727. The wine-cooler

589 /. 19 dwts., and is an exceptionall) intei

PC imen ol a fine period ol the goldsmith's art.





I 1

i»' date Ii tti rs ol 724, it appt u

ible thai the gifi wa madi to the Speak thi

on ol leorge 1 1, in [um

mpton r< n d 1, e. Ii is the handiwork

The Connoisseur

owi 1! ei ol his

•ides. Such a

he royal arms,



1883. It is i

The Trophies Committee of the

War Office have kindly lent to the

. . D , „„.,. Local War Mu-

British Military „

War Medals

t e e a complete

set of the military medals so far

issued by the British Government in

connection with the present war.

The majority of these are already

familiar to the public, having been

instituted during previous campaigns

; but as few laymen have com-

pletely mastered the signification of

the different-coloured ribbons

attached to them, narrow bands of

which, worn on a soldier's uniform,

afford the only clue to the military

decorations he has won, by kind per-

mission of the War Office we repro-

duce an illustration of the series.

The decoration conferring on its

wearer the greatest distinction is, of

course, the Victoria Cross, which is

executed in plain bronze and worn

with a ribbon, plain red for the Army

and blue for the Navy. The Distinguished

Service Order, in gold and

white enamel, is far more ornate ; its

ribbon has a broad red band in the

centre, with a narrow stripe of blue

on either side. The Military Cross

silvet was instituted during the

present war. It is limited to the

Army, and only captains, commis-

sioned officers of a lower grade, or

warrant officers, are eligible to re-

ceive it. The ribbon is divided into

three equal stripes, blue in the centre

and white on either side. The Royal

Red Cross, 1st class, was instituted

ed enamel, with gold edgings, and is

'arded to ladi

mil nursing sisters who maybe recommended

for special exertions in attending to the sick or

wounded. The ribbon consists of a broad band of blue,

with a narrower band of red on either side. The second

class of this decoration has only been recently instituted.

The decoration is executed in similar colours, and it is

worn with the same ribbon. The foul medals are all in

silver, and all bear the effigy of King George V. in


naval uniform on the obverse Lees one ol which is

illustrated The most important of the series is the

Distinguished Conducl Medal, intended only for noncommissioned

officers and null ot the Army. The ribbon

is divided into three stripes, dark blue in the centre and

crimson on either side. The silver rose shown on the

1 ; ebon is I equivalent to a bar, and is worn on the

ribbon when in undress uniform. The Meritorious Ser

ici Medal ha a crimson ribbon with white edging, and

the Good Conduct Medal a verj similar one. Latest ol

all the decorations is the "Mons Star," which has onh


been issued within the last few day-. Thi

and the ribbon red, while, and blue.

nteresting little collection will be available for

i provincial war exhibition-. Application for it

should be made to the Hon. Secretary, Local War

Museun Duke Street, St. James's, S.W.i.

An important addition to the work- of art in the

Norwii hi has been made bj thi ai quisition

of the well-known picture of Jent-

«," A „P posite , salem from Mount Olivet, by David

War Memorial _ . .

_, ,


Robert-, R.A. 1 he work has been

purchased by private subscription and presented to the

.'. f Noi 'lit mmemorate the ai tive pan

taken b oi the Norfolk Regiment in the

capture of Jerusalem under General Allenby. Il is an

important example of the artist, and its presentation forms

a pei uliarly ape

event. The example set by Norwich might be followed

with advantage in other town-, i

of art set Hi' in a place where it can alw



iblished than a fim

Current Art Notes


innual general meeting ol the I

An- League wi i- held at Leighton House on March 13th,

The Imperial

Arts League


the proceedings being t unusual interesl

I he chairman, S r Frank

\\ ai ner, K B 1

he country. Ami

he especially emphasised were I

art to British industry and commerce. J The need foi


art education to have a fai

amon young

wider field >! app

people engaged in the industrial and

1 01 ni ue m ial world than in the mere training of di

3 The raising oi si hools in important industrial

to collegiate rank, so that they may be able to provide


advanced training for the particular industries of the

locality. 4 The setting up of closi cal work

ing relations between the schools and the industries.

5 The establishment of a new department or ministry

to control and direct the suggested alteration. 6 I 1



of industry and commerce, art and technical education

ihould hold an important plai e. 1 hai ••

done should be done now, and not left until al


The membei thorough sympathy with

Sir Frank Warner'- views, which be said


many difl in be put

to practic 1


thi greati t of all lein pul ilii inertia

.1 lai 1. '>i apprei iation of art

and a ts appli< ation to

industry, rooi me this it will be ni

national movement in whi< h all the g n

be a vital tie Mi m the futun

ol industry, as well as London, must play


: ank Warner pi

11 to this

" "I art with commerce and industry will

Enquiries should be made on the Enquiry Coupon.

See Advertising Pages.

Marble Bust of Alexander Pope. — Bi, 540 (South

Kensington). —We arc unable to say where the original is, but

in any case, yours, being a copy, would not be of any great

interest or value to a collector.

Sundial, by W. & S. Jones. — Bi, 541 (Shrewsbury).—

We think your only course would be logo to the British Museum

and look up the London Directories for the last fifty years,

going backwards, until you find the name and address you


Photographs of Furniture. — Bi, 546 (Manchester).—

No. I.—The oak cupboard is rptite possibly a genuine specimen

dating from the late seventeenth century, and is worth, perhaps,

^15. No. 2.—This appears to be a very uncommon specimen,

and, if genuine, which we think doubtful, should be a valuable

I Here ; t is a made-up piece, its value is only a feu-

pounds. No. 3.—This chair is in the seventeenth-century

style, but the carving does not appear to be of the right peri... I.

\ modern examples, your set might be worth about £30.

No. 4.—This is undoubtedly a genuine old piece of the Queen

Anne period, but very likely of Dutch origin. If of English

manufacture, its value would be considerable, but if Dutch, we

timate its worth at about ,£20. No. 5.—The form oi

your bookshelf is so simple that it is impossible to assign it to

any particular period, but from the photograph we judge it to

be ol iome considerable age. It is worth about 30s. No. 6

This is an interesting piece of early eighteenth-century worl .

and we should place its value at about £8 or £g.

China Mark.- Bl,S47 (East Dulwich).—The mark on

in our opinion, a Japanese mark of

about the nineteenth century. We arc not able to decipher

the whole of it, but it appear, to he the name of the maker.

Steel Engravings.— Bi, 582 (Belfast).—Your engraving

entitled Venn . il in good condition, hould be worth about

30-. A. regards the Vanity Fair cartoons, in the ordii

their valui I

. eai h, and we doubl wh<

th in j£j at the outside for the 160. The hook

of cartoons we are unable li inion on, owing to

the fact that it is insufficiently described, but if you

us a full co|

to Canada a

I Derby, -...o published i.y the Propne

Subscriptions Inland 28 -, Foreign 29 -, t

a ..nd New Zealand

The Connoisseur

Readers of The Connoisseur who desire to take

advantage of the opportunities offered herein should

address all letters on the subject to the Manager of

the Heraldic Department, 1, Duke Street, St. James's,

London, S.W.i.

Only replies that may be considered to be of general

interest will be published in these columns. Those

of a directly personal character, or in cases where the

applicant may prefer a private answer, will be dealt

with by post.

Readers who desire to have pedigrees traced, the

accuracy of armorial bearings enquired into, or other-

wise to make use of the department, will be charged

fees according to the amount of work involved.

Particulars will be supplied on application.

When asking information respecting genealogy or

heraldry, it is desirable that the fullest details, so

far as they may be already known to the applicant,

should be set forth.

Hatch.— Thomas, son of John Hatch, of Norfolk,

clerk. Magdalen Hall, matriculated 16 July, 1762. aged 17,

B.A. 1766, M.A. 1769, B.I). 17S3, Fellow 1778-86, Dean of

Aits 1780 2, Bursar 17S2, Vicar of Washington and Old Si -

ham in Sussex [784, until his death 10 April, 1S2S: formerl)

Lieutenant 4th Batt. Sepoys, E.I.C.S.

Shaw.—Robert Shaw, of EastArdsley.West Riding ofYork-

shire, eldest son of Robert Shaw of the same place, deceased,

and to his two brothers—Henry and Thomas, belonging to the

Duke of Northumberland's Royal Regiment of Horse. Grant

of arms by Sir II. St. t ieorge, Gaiter, and Peter le Neve, Nonoy,

4 Dec, 1707. Argent a chevron ermines, on a canton gules a

talbot's erased or. Crest—A talbot passant ermines, ear argent.

Humphrey Wall, of Leominster, in Herefordshire, son

Wali — .

ol John Wall, who served King Henry VIII., King Edward \ I.,

Queen Mary and Queen Elizabeth as an officer in the Buttery,

and died II Feb., 1564, anil was buried in S. Mary's, Weslmin-

ifirmation ..farms ami giant ol crest by R. Lee, clar.,

8 July, 1594. Per fess or and azure a fess counter-embattled

between three fleurs-de-lis, all counlerchange.l. ( test—From

a mural coronet or, a demi - wolf argent gorged with a bar


IIammi.i 1. Any information as to the whereabouts ot por-

traits of any members of this family h ill be gratefullj 1

Any genealogical or biographical information al out the family

also wanted.

Magazine Post Rates. Printed by Bemrose & Sons Ltd., 4 Snow Hill, L

or, W. Claude Johnson, at I, DUKE STREET, ST. JAMES'S, LONDON. S.V\

Canada 26 -, per annum. Published the 1st of each month. Published by Gor

Mr. Francis Wellesley's Collect ion of Miniatures and Drawings


Part I. By Dr. G. C.

frequently an hereditary

\irtue. This is certainly the case with regard to the

collector whose varied treasures are to be the

o) thi following article. Then iefon what is

called "The Catalogue of the Memora

Drawings, b) the Old Masters, formed with profound

:.l judgement by the late Rev. Dr. Wellesley,

Principal of New Inn Hall, Oxford.'' This volume,

ctends to 161 pages, was prepared bj

i, and the sale took place in Jam- oi th r

and lasted for

fourteen days. Seldom

had there come

nket such

nary col-

lection o f drawings,

of all the

notable ma

in Italian,


Dutch, Flemish, and

English school-, and

including an unrival-

by Claude.

il draw ings

11 number.

highest in .

and whe never one

examines a mode rn



prints, oti'

variably no

some of thi

items in it

from tin


ible collec-

tor, whose treasures


Vol. LI. N


examining, has not pretended to compete with the col-

lection formed by hi- " 1ms he had the

opportunity of acquirin such inestimable

importance, as it was possible to obtain, in

when Dr. Wellesley was first collecting : but, fol-

lowing the example of his great-uncle, he has brought

together, with extraordinary industry and succes

interest i

id has been fortunate enough to

include in it ma om the famous collection

to which we have ]ii-.t alluded. he bulk of the original

Wi lesley treasun -

of any collector, most

of them being safely

rA in national

museums, while

others—those, for ex-

ample, in •

collection—are never

likely to come into the

market. Mr. 1 i

Wellesley has,

ever, launched out in

otherdin i

quite unk:

g reat kinsman, and

i n a d d :

nary inter-

est, he has gathered

up a large number of

miniatures, has made

stud y Of

now n a-*

i drawings,

and has g i ven par-

ticular at tent ion to

- t

k n o w n

Dutch and Flemish

i extreme

come into the market, and are little known to collectors

on this side of the Channel. It would be quite impossi-

ble, in the space placed at our disposal, to mention even

a tithe of the drawings and miniatures in the Wellesley

collection. The new catalogue of it extends to over two

hundred pages, and includes, we may take it, more than

eight hundred items. The method of its grouping is

somewhat arbitrary. It is divided into two main groups,

The Connoisseur



one of miniatures and one of portraits in plumbago or

pencil; but, as a matter of fact, many of the portraits are

mil ill, and would more naturally be termed miniatures,

while some of the miniatures are as large as miniatures

ever were. Again, some of the miniatures are in pencil

or plumbago, and some of the drawings are in colour, or

at least touched with colour, and therefore, although the

arrangement suggested by Mr. Wellesley is in agreement

- «


with his ideas, it cannot

lered a scienti-

fic scheme, a nd " e

ourselves should

have inclined to sub-

divide t he collection,

putting miniatu

colour into one sub-

section, and those with-

out colour into another,

or else of grouping up

.ill the pencil and plumbago

drawings, « hich

constitute t he bulk of

Mr. Wellesley'

tion, into one

whether they are ex-

, eedingly tiny in size

or unite large. Even

this scheme would not

be wholly satisfactory,

because, undoubtedly,

some of his very finest

plumbag o d rawi n g s

were intended a-- minia

aires, and were not, as

have often been supdrawings


n g -. whereas

other of the plumbago

drawings most certainly

were sketches for portraits

or studies for engravings.

lie these ar ran

what they may, we have

before u

collection of h igh merit

and embracing many works

U !

11 kable value.

i Ice fo r our first

article what are

known as miniatures, that

. small


be held in tin- hand, on

.'Hum, or ivory,

such as the ordinary col-

lector terms a miniature.

In the examples represent-

not so i

Mi Wellesley is

. but it is

rig that in the few

ii has had at his

' n

obtain so many

really chi

bein is genera 1 1 \ i on-

Collection of Miniatures and Drawing


the Ion

ual painters in minia-

ind when we regard

Mr. Wi

work of

the famous Swabian,

we a t once meet with

the difficulty to which

we have already al-

luded. The drawing of

V. of Scotland,

in whu h he is represen-

ted wea


rred upon him

in 1535 by Charles Y.,

might certainly by

many collectors be re-


inasmuch as il

as a miniature,

cular, and of a dia-

of three inches.

On the other hand, it

i- drawn on a rectangu-

lar piece of paper, in

hull. in ink. and may

e drawing

1,,, t he upper part of

some important docu-

ment, or the study for

an oil pain ling, and is

ne one of those

drawings which 1 1 is not

place under any

The inthe


: on

which appear- to be nearly

contemporary, not only

mentions whoitis, but gives

us the further information

that the drawin

of the Karl oi

1 in

the collection


1 :i 1,1 mi ot it- attribution

to Holbein, for it is doubt

lul whether there was

anyone else of that period

a h-. 1 mild havi


try 1

striking. In saying this

1 ruite aware of the

lame- Y. is never

known to have come fur-

h than Newcastle,

ami also that Holbein is

not known to ha

been in Scotland

emember the painting at Xiu

battle Abbey that bears Holbein's

name, and which, if it is his work,

could not, it is said, have been

painted in Scotland ; but it is not

to be forgotten that both the artist

and the King were often in Paris,

both of James's wives having come

from France.

Precisely the same difficulty as

regards arrangement occurs with

reference to Mr. Wellesley's example

of the work of Nicholas

Hilliard. His drawing is in silver

point and wash on paper. It re-

presents Queen Elizabeth, viewed

from the front and full length,

wearing a gorgeous costume, and

holding a fan in her hand. The

drawing closely resembles a design

for the Great Seal, which is given

to Hilliard, and was engraved in

1586. Some collectors would call

it a miniature; others, perhaps

more accurately, would simply

term it a drawing. There is good

reason to believe that

it is the work of Hilliard

; it has many

.I In-, most notice-

able characteristics,

is exceedingly minute

in its treatment, and

delineated with remarkable

skill. If

I lilliard did not do

it, we arc quite 1111who


1. sponsible for it.

When wi comi to

1 Mine

; iers, putting


portrait of

1 ili I ei romwell, a

drawing in plumbago

on vellum, a version

oi 1

In poi trait in the


tion, although differ

in main

seven sin

. . tiavi

his draw-

ing j m Iim h h a \ e

been attri buted to

' Alexander oopei

Certainly, in ea r 1


days, wh( n

at Kensinj to Pal

ai e, .mil hung in the

The ( 'onnoissetir


closet next to the State bedroom

belonging to Queen Caroline, and

were recorded in Vertue's catalogue

of the Queen's pictures in 1743,

and noted by Horace Walpole,

from whom they passed to his

friend, Richard Bull ; they were

attributed to Samuel Cooper's

younger brother. On the other

hand, Pinkerton, in his Scottish

Gallery, published in 1799, illus-

trated two of them, and said that

they were the work of Oliver; and

a later writer, who also illustrated

one of them, took the side of

Pinkerton, and did not adopt the

view that Walpole, Bull, and

Vertue had held. For our part, we

have little doubt that the original

attribution is the correct one. The

tradition is not one to be lightly

cast aside. It has come down in

direct succession, and papers that

used to be with these drawings,

when they belonged to the Swinburne

family, most definitely stated

that they were the

work of Samuel

Cooper's brother,

that they were drawn

away from England,

and that' they, were

regardedias of'great

importance. They

are on cards aboul

the size of playing-

« anls, m some cases

two on a card, back

to back, \\hc 1 cms in

other instances there

is but one drawn on

the card, and they

represent Henry

Prince of Wales ;

I 1 ,1 in e 5 Howard,

who was the widow

of Lord Hertford,

and a ft er wards

I in. lies, ..I Lennox ;

the Countess of

P. uchan ; Elizabeth

..I Bohe in 1.1 ; the

" Queen ..1 I learts";

the M a rq uess of

Cordon, theiwifegof

Sir I lenry Killigrew,

» in 1 was \mi]'.iv adoi

from Elizabeth to

Mar) Queen ol Si ots;

.iim I ,1 person who is


BV R. O '-WAV, K. \.


\Y, K. A.


01 A MAN





called the Duchesse de Croy. They are undoubtedly of

considerable beauty, and of historic importance, and,

whether drawn and painted by Cooper or by Oliver, do

full justice to the work of any great artist of the time.

Mr. Wellesley is lucky enough to possess one of the

miniatures by Edmund Ashfield, whose work, as a rule,

i-, only to be found in pastel, Lord Dysart probably-

possessing the finest example known. This miniature of

the Duchesse de Mazarin offers, however, such a striking

resemblance to Ashfield's work in pastel that we

help feeling that the attribution can be sustained.

'1". ''-.I' BY ANUKl.U PI [MI

The ( *onnoissenr

By Charles II. 's limner, Nicholas Dixon, Mr. Wellesley

possesses a portrait said to represent Nell Gwynn,

which is signed, and is therefore a miniature of extraordinary

importance, because works signed by Dixon

are almost to be counted on the fingers of one hand.

He has also another portrait by the same painter repre-

senting Louise, Duchess of Portsmouth, almost exactly

resembling Lely's portrait of this celebrated lady. Its

provenance is a good one, and its resemblance to the

work of Dixon is sufficiently near, for us to feel, that the

attribution is probably correct.

Mary Bea le is repre i

Collection of Miniatures and Drawings



her somewhat ( oarse portrait of

Catherine Sedley, Countess of Dor-

chester, a miniature whirl), as it

. is recorded in Charles

Beale's diary as having been

painted in 1077. and which, until

quite recently, was in the possession

oftheColyearancl Hawkins families,

who were the descendants of the

Earl of Portmore, who married

Lady Dorchester in 1696. The

autograph lettei from Lord Portpun

hased at the same

time as the miniature. The minia

^ued, and Mary Beale's

portraits are of such rarity that Mr.

is to in- congratulated on

ii ,uch importance.


1:',' IAMI

JOHN 111 ' I


Another of his special rarities is

iIh' w< n k 1 ii Sii Ball haza 1

The portrait was painted in 1616,

as Gerbier has himself

upon it, in the very year in which

he came over to England, and in

which he painted the miniature of

Charles I., which is now in the

lei tion at South Kensing-

ton. It is of a man, \s In 1

is unknown, but whosi

twenty -two, according to the in-

and « how, 1, 1 probabl) me

of tin- young nobles of the Court

oi James 1.. ami who may perhaps

in later days he identified, more

on the po ei with an

interesting legend in old

By the Lens family, Mr. Wellesley

has many portraits, and

perhaps the most notable is one

which is supposed to represent

Marj Queen of Scots, and which

also belonged to Catherine Sedley.

Lady Dorchester, to whom

allusion has just been made.

From her it passed to the Colyear-

Dawkins collection, and

thence to its present owner, with

the tradition that it was origin-

ally in the possession of James

II., which is very likely to have

been the case. It is in a frame

of the period, and on the reverse

isa representation ofthe Blessed

Virgin. It is not a portrait that

enters into the controversy as to

the personal appearance of Mary

Stuart, because it represents her

in the manner in which Lens

usually painted hei . and « huh is un-

doubtedly more hi dea o

: i

kcd like, than an

1 notable


hi i'orl ol Bernard Li n i,

lial VI i \\ ellesli |

i [andel, h hi< h i


which the composer is n

almost full length, and holding a haut-

• boy. He ha other i cample i ol thi

work of the same family, a miniature

Bernard Lens, and an

The Connoisseur

important one by Peter Paul

Lens, representing his mother.

We must not forget to allude

to two miniatures which may be

attributed to Hoskins, one repre-

sent ing Thomas, Lord Fairfax,

which is enclosed in a remark-

ably beautiful enamelled frame of

contemporarydate, and the other,

a portrait of Queen Henrietta

Maria, a splendid example of

the work of Hoskins, which un-

doubtedly recalls his fine portrait

of Lady Dysart, preserved in the

miniature room at Ham. This,

which is in plumbago and cray-

on, and drawn on paper, is also,

fortunately, in its original frame.

We are expressly excluding, in

this rapid survey, the drawings

by the artists who worked in

plumbago, and who belonged to

> this period, such as Faber, ;an


,md others, in order to give spei ial

i reference to them later m.

When we come to the English

school of the eighteenth i

\\ elli >le) 5 collection i

entury, Mr.

i one ol great

interest. It is impossible to desire

anything more ( harai tei istii . or, in its

way, more beautiful, than the little

pori rail bj I

osway, repre .enting the


two son, ,,i Mi. |. ii. Church, the

member for Wendover, which the

owner obi. mud duo from a member

of the family. It I

and the

i ding that

painted the por-

trait in ir>M is upon its

fold mount. The

i c ne p hews to

Alexander Hamilton, one

ol Washington's aides-de-

I heir mother was

the daughter ol I

S ihuyler, and thi

ed his mother's re

a, which he named

. and became

the pi tei ol the

and the New York an


painted John Barker

Church himself, and ap-

o have produced,

[uestofthe family.

a duplicate ol this parti

cular miniature, almost

but differ

This duplicate

Collection of Miniatures and Drawing

i • i ;ainsborough' petti

perhaps was the property

der boy. It is

now in the Dri


ed almost full. an

it would

, es


ili ..I the very

h arming


only work

that Mr. VVellesley has

'. ay : the portrait

,,f the Right Hon

..ued and dated

hi extraordinary

and powerful one. It was

when 1 wrote my book

on Co, way, 1 was unable

to find the original minia-

iii which the en-

was taken. It

to the in ar ke t

much later on. Then he

has also a beautiful por-

Indian n



portrait of Captain Lee, perhaps

one of the finest men's portraits

Engleheart ever produced, and

also two other exceedingly good

examples of the same artist's work,

the portraits of Miss Seaton and of

Mrs. Law, both worthy of careful


By l'limer he has quite a long

series, including, perhaps, one of

the best works that Nathaniel, the

younger brother, ever executed

the portrait of a man whose name

is unknown, a miniature signed

and dated 1787. By the 'better

known brother, Andrew, he has

a portrait of Thomas Ireland,

bea: rig the same date, and two

portraits both representing the

Jerninghams of Costessey, which

General Hall ; and a

portrait of an unknown

nobleman, the frame

of which is surmounted

by a marquis's coronet,

and others.

By Engleheart, that

prolific painter, Mr.

The C 'onnoisseur

Wellesley has several

examples, and we

tice espei- v hi

came direct from

the family to their

present owner. ( Ine

of the men is repre-

sented in Austrian

uniform, and it

should be remembered

that at the

time P 1 i m e r was

painting, British

and Irish Catholics,

being denied admission into the

British Army and Navy, frequently

entered the Austrian service. The

other is a miniature in pencil, the

only genuine one by Plimer I have

ever seen. Other miniatures by this

same artist represent two members

of Mr. Wellesley's own family— Lord

Maryborough (afterwards Earl of

Morningtoni and the Countess of

Mornington, who was mother of the

Duke of Wellington, the Marquess

Wellesley, Lord Maryborough, and

Lord Cowley. This last-named por-

trait was a commission from the

Prince Regent to Andrew l'limer,

and was presented to the Marquess

Wellesley in 181 I, and has come


It is well known that, in early

: Henry Raeburn pro

dm ed miniatures, and that he

Collection of Miniatures and Drawings

o or three

members ol the ( lerk family.

these portraits is in Mr.

fs collection, reprewho


a Miss Clerk, and it is

the verj few of Raeburn's minia

turcs to which he has put his

It is not, however, the

i which

adorns this collection.

By the painter who by many


, .,1 .i- being the

greatest of all the eighteenthcentury

miniature painters, John

Smart, Mr. \\ ellesle) has at

n e supei b examples, the

tun' porl ra >g a young

gentleman, whose name is unknown,

being one of the most beautiful things

I, the boy

for he is little more than that -de-

picted in a pink satin coat with a

wide lace collar and with short brown

hair. Nothing could possibly be more

- i in


this miniature is produced; but it is

rivalled !>; Miss Harriet

ton, which is signed and

. in certain

m mature by

Smart which it has ever been our good

in addition

he has a pon

Colonel Watson, whowa

ample ol

Smart painted il

d whose

''!" choice ex-

erj while

a pi iwing of another

i of the same family,

which he has just now lent to

\lbert Museum,

iui .ul in i rat ton for the


i the man whom

did, whal |

had in the work of thi


realising, as he

• titor he

little, tive artist.

Smaii. OW n, had

an almost equally cli -

whom he thought was liki

lej ha threi i

him in skill.

samples of the younger


dated 1801, representing

Admiral Robert Williams ; .1 smaller

on paper, dated only two

in Smart's death, and repre-

Boyd, who. with Sii Philip Francis,

the Junius letter-. Hi


painters wl '

: idras,"


mature is

of extraordinary rarity is Gilbert Stuart. It has been

said that there are only two miniatures by this painter

in existence. Mr. Wellesley's example is a portrait ot

John Henderson, who was Garrick's successor on the

English stage. The miniature is painted on a small piece

illy prepared canvas, was engraved by Coyt in

i-;-:-, is described in the Proceedings of the Massa-

chusetts Historical Society for 1915, and is signed on the

reverse with a note respecting it in Stuart's handwriting.

We must not, however, omit to allude to two little

miniatures by James Scouler, the first of the miniature

painters to exhibit at the newly founded Royal Academy.

These formed the clasps of a pearl necklace, and represent

a lady and gentleman whose names are unknown.

They are signed and dated 1776, and are the finest

miniatures by Scouler that have ever come under our

Bogle was another painter whose work was of the

same exquisite quality, and Mr. Wellesley's examples,

representing Colonel and Mrs. Graham, are by the little

lame painter, about whose family pedigree new informa-

tion has quite recently been obtained.

We must not refer, except in the briefest possible

way, to many of the other eighteenth-century painters.

Suffice it to refer to the important portrait of Benjamin

Franklin, painted by Chamberlin, who exhibited at the

Academy between 171.0 and 1786; to the miniature of

Lady Dysart, by George Chinnery, painted in 1793 for

1, the Duchess of Gloucester ; to two examples

of the work of Samuel Collins: and to the important

portrait of Gainsborough by Samuel Cotes, which is

signed and dated [782. There must, however, be a

special reference to what is certainly the most beautiful

example of the work of Daniel C.ardner, whose miniatures

not to exceed a do/en in number. Gardner's

work, in gouache, is well known. He began, however,

in his early days painting miniatures, and occasionally

ed to this earl) love, but only two, so far as we

know, of his miniatures have come into the market,

I'hc Connoisseur



retained m the possession of his de

The example, however, that Mr. Wellesley

.mil which represents that fascinating pers.m

n. Goldsmith's "Jessamy Bride," is believed

in i.e. e he- i) painted bj < lardnei « liili he was working

in Sir Joshua Reynolds's studio, and is altogether dif-

technique from the work ol an ordinary miniature

It already shows the sign of that bold, splash-

1 n

iiineijt. and is so startling in its

virility and dignity that one wishes that Gardner had

: in.

brush on a pie e of ivory.

..1! I 1 lone, 1 lorai e I lone,

Mi are .ill well repre tented in the Wellesley

< 1. lie, tion, the la si named b; in 1 pi ill . 1

jroup "i Harrington and her sons. l>\ Ozias

. 1

1 lumphry there is a notable portr; f his friend, Gi n

and a delightful miniature repn ten! ing I.

lean, the

I dated

I Mrs.


t luernsey painti ed b) hi portrait

i| Wales, , in whli 1). .1 : nit. 11 ih.

.! 1 ;

iture ol


By Peal then 1-, a fine portrail

om in



there are half a dozen portraits. By Lover, .1 charming

portrait of himself, which has been engraved ; and here

it maybe casually mentioned that Mr. Wellesley's collec-

tion is particularly rich in self-portraits. They have

attracted him, and he has many examples by important

painters who have represented themselves. By Meyer

there are two good portraits ; but by John Miers, a man

whose work is hardly known at all, there is the only-

existing portrait of John Smart, so far as we are aware.

It was painted in 1700, and was presented by Smart to

his wife, ;is the inscription on its reverse still tells us.

Andrew Robertson is well represented by two portraits

of the Marquis Wellesley, one of the Duke of Wellington,

one of Lord Charles Wellesley. another of Sir Waltei

Scott, and the original study for the engraved portrait of

Benjamin West ; while the Irish Robertson, Walter by

name, the man who went to America with Gilbert Stuart,

is well represented by a portrait of Mrs. Abbott. By Shelley

there are several portraits, one of himself and another

of his daughter. By Simpson is the portrail of the niece

Lady Diana Spencer, that of John

of David Hume ; by

( lay, the poet ; by Zincke, an interesting portrait of the

fourth Lord Byron, which belonged to the poet, and his

original study for the enamel of Mrs. Morgan; by John

Russell, one of his rare portraits representing a boy of

the Pears family; by Slater, a miniature of Mrs. Phipps,

dated 181 1

; and by Spicer, the enameller, Humphry's

great friend, a charming enamel of Henry Roope. An-

other good enamel is the work of Queen Anne's painter

Boit, and depicts the Duke of Monmouth's son, James

Crofts. Mr. Wellesley's portrait of Byron is by Harlow,

and is still in its original frame of Newstead oak.

We have left, however, the finest and the rarest example

in Mr. Wellesley's collection by an eighteenth-century

painter. A few years ago we should certainly ha

that there was no miniature in existence by George

Romney. We might even have made that statement

had we given evidence at the Romney sale; but we

should have been wrong, for there exists, enclosed in

an ivorj locket, a miniature of Lady Emily MacLeod,

about which we have no doubt in our own mind concerning

its attribution. If ever Romney painted a

miniature, he certainly painted this one. It has the

most precise resemblance to his technique, is a work of

exquisite quality, practically a life-size Romne) portrail

Walpole would say, through the small end ol a

telesi ope. It belonged to Lady Louisa Stuart, who was

the youngest daughter of John, third Earl of Bute, and

who died in 1854. at the age of ninety-four. In the

, ,e ei ..I 1I1. ivorj bo> are her w litten ins tion - to a •

that at her death this portrait ol h.i earliesl friend wa

either to be given or sent to her youngest son, Lieut.

Colonel ll.iit\ MacLeod, and to that fortunate posse ot

1 , .one, and from hi - desi endants to « here il 1- now.

The lady is wearing a pink dei ollete" bodii e 1 dged with

white ; her brown hair is dressed en Pompadour, .and,

bound with a gold fillet, tails in curls to her shoulders.

The miniature is ..I exi eptional and extraordinarj quality,

I to

give the greati p

1 ollei tion whii h profe 1

the artists of the eighteenth century. No photograph.

howevi 1. .

- 1

an do 1 een ordinarj ju ttio to 1

. imsite qualitv.


Old .


Some Curious Antique Coffers

'I'll i stud)

of ci iffei s and i he ts v

or associations is one of the most fascinating p

for the collector of such objects. Had the cult become

popularised in earlier days, supervision might have been

stimulated and many precious and interesting piei

have been saved from destruction, whose loss antiquari

ans now lament. It is really distressing to note what

numbers of these old relics disappeared during Vii ti >] ian

I the

county histories embellished with


before a high-pn

squaring-up revivals and abominably hurried half-tone

blocks descended upon us, and mark how main gaps

there are now. The Wittersham coffer, with its finely

proportioned Decorated arcade—noted among Kentish



examples disappi >K enough, over forty

It is still being sought for The Sedlescombe

Idilap depicted

by the Rev. E. Goddard in 1835 : the " Flanders " chest,

at Guestling; the beautiful thirteenth-century pin-hinged

C itfer at Rustington, improved out of sight, and perhaps

out of existence, in 1S57 : thi 1 an onl) a few from the

long list which might be enumerated, and fo

nance clerical negligence has, al

I remembi as a savinj clause, that mon

may yet be found in places of worship tli in in mu

.•. he r e

the time honour

ed recept

the lumbi

and fri 1

manic in-

e, inostK

to the flames.

with undoubted


unscathed to the

present time, but

in a great many


owe tli

on to the

By Fred Roe, R.I.

strong-boxes of the so called " Armada "type, and. being

ted "i iron oi >teel, are nol so easj to destroj

Many have also been removed from their original habi-

tations. The famous "Chatham" chest, dating from

the days of Drake and Hawkins, in which sail

posited certain sums oi ne) eai h week to form a relief

fund, hi 1

Ireenwich, and the fine

it wen aforel thi

impanies now exist in the Guildhall

Museum. All have outlived their primary applii

and, in a practii al -. rise, are no longei required.

1 the

most uncommon and grotesque Corporation

coffers of wood remaining in the country may be seen at

Ipswich. It formerly did duty in the old Tudor Moot

Hall, on the Cornhill, w] hed about the

middle of the nineteenth century, but, freed fro


Man -inn. till hi in! years the residence of the Fonncreau

family. In this coffer wi

the Corporation, the keys being kept in custody of four

1 an untouched

state, the framing having been renewed during the last

century in a particulai I

are remarkable, that in 1:1


of the sixteenth

century. The of the




&VJ. I

SSfgBi ft Kfta

1 .



forth .1:

1 a 11 te r n . T

c r a ft s m

taken SOn

the centi

h c

raj char

The short


g a bow,

and the equi p

t h e as si

i nclude

interesting i t e ms

as a " ',.


halter" sword.

The C onnoisseur

if %


IN THE ancient corporation coffer, forme


Laminated pauldrons also appear on the arms of the man

i who holds a dead bird apparently a goose in one of his

hands, while with the other he shoulders a spear from

which a lantern depends. The carving throughout was

certainly not executed by an English hand, but probably

by a native of North Italy. The costume is strongly

indicative in this respect, certain details being reminis-

cent of Monstrelet, who in his chronicles describes

accurately the fashions of his time. There is a remote

possibility that the Ipswich Corporation coffer may have

been carved in this country by an Italian, but in all

probability it was imported with other articles during

the earl>- d;iys of the


Some curious details ma\

be observed in the carvings

on the front panel. Behind

i the figures ii the wati h-

men a stretch of arras defrom

rings is


In ivi :i. while the artist, who

does not seem to ha' n

: ri-1

> divest him-

ell it 1 mediaeval traditions,

has twisted conventional

si roll workorribbonsround

i omi

hi the men.

I In ii 1 rolls were presum-

ited with an inscrip-

tion, which has now dis-


I In cud panels

1 1 ..Li


n w reathed

foi the) are pun lj

In time.

X. . Ill


Clarke's History of Ipswich, 1825, when the coffer with

its framing was intact. The illustration, however, is so

carelessly executed as to be of hardly any value, details

being false and badly drawn.

Municipalities may have discarded their old muniment

coffers, but numbers of these relics are preserved in alms-

houses and hospitals of ancient foundation. Some of the

earliest, and certainly one of the most sumptuous and

beautiful in the kingdom, may be seen in St. John's Hos-

pital at Canterbury. In the old dining-hall of that insti-

tution are three carved coffers— two of thirteenth-century

origin and one, a remarkable piece, dating from the four-

teenth century— all in a fair

state of preservation. < Ine

of the earliest specimens,

which has remained in ritu

for generations, exhibits an

arcade of six bays on its

front, being further decora-

tod with a series of small

rosettes. The original pinhinged

lid is retained,

though one of its flanges is

iim asing. The contempo-

rary, which resembles it

somewhat, is carved with

five arches, the supporting

pilasters being applied

piei es of wood. The pin-

liinge and flanges arc in

pei fei 1 . ondition. Thelast-

mentioned i

offer was dis-

covered in a damp tool-shed

adjoining the ruined N01

man chapel in the hospital

grounds, and, being thought

worth) "I some attention,

several u nsu ccessfu 1 at-

tempts were made to lug it

up the narrow winding stair-

case into the dining-hall

-I the establishment. An

astonishing piece of vandalism was eventually

trated. The basi

NO. IV. -lillEv

Some ( iirions Antique ( Offer.

th ol the

stairway, and tin- necessary haulage was then accom-

plished, ["he sub-warden begged that the mutilated

portions might be retained and fitted on again, but

without success. This ignorant and senseless barbarity

occurred less than two years ago, and resulted in com-

pletely spoiling the proportions of a singular]

i of thirteenth-century woodwork. It ma\ In-

noticed that the mutilate. tructed of thinner

material ofitstype. In both examples

immodated by the " bat''

of tin- side walls.

The coffer dating from the fourteenth century in the

same apartment plendid affair than either

,,t tin- preceding piea \. I have elsewhere mentioned the

extraordinary likeness of this coffer to its brethren at

Faversham and Rainham, in the same county, and the

probability of all three examples being the work of an

identical Kentish (raftsman. The lid of the fourteenth-

century coffer at Canterbury is ornamented with two ba) 5

composed of se nnilar to

example. I remember to have

: in


lid of which was decorated in the same way, and whi< h

was probably of English workmanship. This interesting

and beautiful piece has most likely shared the common

sessed. It should not pass unnoticed that I In

had but "lie lo n ng only

clouts of later date, which were not provided for in the

sculptured design, and are stuck on quite casually over

the carving. It is a curious fan that the dining-hall

must have been built around this and one of the earlier


thi . are too larg<

In St. Nicholas's Hospital at Harbledown, at the

termination of the Pilgi im's Way, is a barrel-liddi

which possesses more than usual interest, flu- ho pici

at Harbledown has for centuries been the home of timehonoured

treasures, including a superb collection ol

maple bowls, and, until fairly recent time-, a genuine

It. I hi .111.1 i .1 Becket, in the shape of one of the

saint 3 shoes. Two of the bowls arc of unrivalled im-

portance. ( Ineol them is set with a brilliant roi k-crystal,

whii h i- believed to have formed part of the dei ora

the aforesaid shoe. Erasmus, in his Peregrinatio Reli-

Ergo, mentions this shoe as being " bound with

I ;et with ,i piece oi glass like a gem." The

bottom of the other bowl i- inlaid with a medallion of

i mounted knight armed m tin-

fashion of the early fourteenth i entui y, and displ

his heater-shaped shield the Beauchamp ai ms. I


I beneath his horsi

tnd encircling the

picture is the inscription

If so, the old Normans must have been content to use

white wood at a time when oak abounded.

The discovery of an antique barrel-lidded coffer oc-

curred in Essex in 1855 under extraordinary and romantic


Ingatestone Hall, the ancient seat of the

Petre family, became famous in mid-Victorian days

owing to its being the exemplar of Audley Court in

Miss Braddon's popular novel, Lady Amtley'i S,\/r/.

In.. in stone was originally a summer residence of the

Abbots of Barking, being subsequently granted by King

Henry VIII. to William I

It has remained in the

1 po ;ion of the Petres

till the present

1 1n in- h the

family ceased residing

hen- wh en t hey migrated

to West Thorndon

betwi i



i lank

lei book on I

churches, which was

published the j eat im

mediate! .

the " find,

' give


fi i illowing ai ount of

the mattei

" It was alsi

Pi jections on

hal tPrii I

Plao cidi

LI. in the ye


No. \ I.

1 1 hambe


The C oi/i/otssc/ir

i . from

he ho


bedroom, on the middle floor. In the south-east corner

the floor-boards were found to be decayed ; upon their

removal, another layer of loose boards was observed to

a hole or trap about two feet square. A ladder,

perhaps two centuries old, remained beneath. The exist-

ence of this sacred asylum must have been familiar to

the heads of the family for several generations ; indeed,

evidence of this is afforded by a packing-case directed,

' For the Right Honble. the Lady Petre, at Ingatestone

Hall, in Essex.' The wood is much decayed and the

style of the writing firm and antiquated. . . .

"The 'hiding plai i




measures fourteen feet

in length, two feet one

inch in width, and ten

feet in height. Its

floor level is the natur-

al ground line; the

floor is sp read with

nine inches of remark

ablj di j sand, so as to

exclude damp or mois-

ture. A

fainted iy F muMUyS-A.

'/!/v mfemiw a/u



forbidden. It was illegal to use the Chapels; the Priest

therefore celebrated Mass secretly "in a chamber' open-

Some Curious Antique Coffe,

whii h was a hiding plai e to which he could

retreat in time of danger; and where also the Vestments,

Altar-furniture, Missal, Crucifix, and Sai red \ essels were

kept in a trunk.

"The Trunk or Chest here alluded to remained in this

. and was an interesting relic to discover. It

measures four feet two and a half inches in length, one

foot seven inches in width, and one fool ten and a halt

inches in height to the top of the arched lid. The wood

appears to be yew, only three quarters of an inch in

thickness, very carefully put together, lined with strong

lmca securely nailed, and entirely covered with leather-

turned over the edges inside, and glued down. The out-

Iges are iron bound: tivc iron bands pas

the short way, two others lengthways, and two girt in

horizontally. The metal is thin, hard hammered, one

ghth, and one and a quarter inches in breadth ;

woven alternately under and over, and thick!

The nails are clenched at the back each of thi



I here are two hasped locks, each rivelted

on by three long staph-, made ornamental by • h

on the face; a projecting rib formed like the letter S

encircles the keyholes, and there is a third means ol

i{ in the centre, adapted for a padlock. At the

n long thin handles in quaint character like the

rest. Co intiquityand the origina

ike, theCh fpresi

lining is nearly gone ; the wood, iron, and leathi

, and the metal at the top, arc all mu( hd(

It is worth while mentioning that when this -

«.h made the old vestment cotter was elevated frOm the

floor by two oak blocks. From certain peculiarities in

it, in,,;.. ,

the end ol the i

Italian. I

i cteenth

he brii kwork partition w 1 i


prior to

hole is later than the shell ol the building, and is


estimated to havi been added during the reign of James I.,

about which time the coffer was in all likelihood deposited

there. It would be interesting to ascertain the present

locality of the Ingatestone coffer, which has now dis-

appeared from the hall. A coffer of very similar

an. e, though perhaps of slightly earlier date, remains in

the parish church of Attleborough, Norfolk.

The allusion to the discovery ol the secret chamber

and the coffer within being accidentall) made by a child

in the first chapter ol Lady Audley's Seer, /. is said to be

substantially correct, being confirmed b

to the event. The novel, first published in (862, must

havi been written when details of the actual

wen fresh within recollection.

Ingatestone Hall was up " FOR SALE " in the autumn

115, when the hiding-place in which the cotter was

found formed one ol the special features among tinman)-

attractions of the mansion.

Casual protraction of Pointed methods during the

intiquarians, ami

aboutthi 1st deal has been written. In some

localities the old style died particular^ hard, showing no

tssimilation with the newei development. An


ty a, reg. nds furniture

ma> l»- seen in the old parish church of Thaxted, in

Essex. Hen is an arcaded coffer superficial!)

in appearance that at first sight main- would be d

1] inalion times,

scrutiny will modify this estimate. Tie

m, the slenderness ol the material employed, ami

the little knees kicking out so characteristically from its

Lth the front panel, all tend to prove that

this coffer cannot have originated at any earlier period

than the central part of the sixteenth century. It is, in

central 1


the lo< k

The string mouldings 1:

through without stop or return, in the fashion whii

in with the decline of the Gothic, and the structure is

joined together with iron nails, contrary to the custom

which was almost exclusively carried out in earlier times.

In the same church is one of the most magnificent linen-

panelled credences in the kingdom, a beautifully pro-

portioned piece of great size, which we hope to illustrate

in a later number.

At Prittlewell, in the same county of Essex, are the

fragments of a coffer dating from the end of the fourteenth

century, which must once have been of great beauty.

The obverse panel is carved with a traceried arcade, and

the reverse with the representation of two gryphons, their

necks intertwined. Local tradition has it that these

somewhat neglected relics once formed portions of the

now demolished rood-screen in the parish church, but it

is on record that an ancient muniment coffer was formerly

kept there, and the panels in all probability once formed

part of it. Documental pedigrees of parish chests, or

detailed reference by which they can be identified, are

both scarce and difficult of access, but in some cases

they can be traced with accuracy from their very outset.

A fifteenth-century oak coffer bound with foliated iron

bands, which exists at Ashbourne, on the confines of

Derbyshire, can, for instance, be traced by document-,

and invoices from the year 1498, when it was presented

to the church.

It is always risky to accept too readily crude and

hastily formed theories with regard to ancient coffers, for

more often than not circumstantial tales about them will

nut bear sifting. An apposite illustration of this occurs

at Chichester. Standing on the flagged floor in the

dimly lighted west end of the cathedral is a coffer of

truly gigantic proportions. A reference to the local guidebooks

will elicit the information that this relic probably

dates from Saxon times, and is said to have been removed

from Selsey on transference of the see in 1075. On its

1 e

lid is inscribed in Arabic figures the date 800,

while some lunatic has also scratched the figures 1000 in

similar characters on the front. Now as to the facts.

It is fairly established that Arabic numerals were not

Ins country before the junction of the thirteenth

: teenth centuries, except in rare instances by a few

. hile 1 In . fiarai tei of the flanged

lockplates on the coffer -all certainly original—hardly

the mi. I. iL oi the fourteenth century. All this

tend ; to discount the Saxon theory, leaving one to con-

idded in fairly rei 1 til

I dates on the 1

j eat i

The Connoisseur

offer and its lid

bj ;ome ignorant

enthusiasts to support the wild and unsubstantial legend

as to it, origin. The unusual shape oi the Chichi tei

Lrabic which the write] knows of on a

timber house is 1366. The notorious forgeries cist in pewter,

which pui pilgi ived during the exca-

vation of a London dock some forty years ago, .... ii, ti

• oh dates in Ai


in of these

: I 1 onque 1

mil leral I have 1 actually seen one— a gri

rid, "B.C. 630,

coffer suggests that it was primarily intended for the

bishop's pastoral staff. The dimensions are as follows :

length, 8 ft. 8 in. ; width, 16 in. ; depth, 16 in. Local

histories and guide-books state that this relic possesses

five ancient locks. As a matter of fact, it only possesses

three, the two diamond-shaped scutcheons on the front

being false keyholes, which have nothing whatever to do

with fastening the coffer. The "stop handles " on the

ends are of a date subsequent to the coffer itself.

Inscribed coffers and chests are invariably eagerly

sought after for obvious reasons, and a spice of romance

generally attaches to any little legend carved or inlaid

upon them, especially if accompanied by a date. Hence

the faker's propensity for illicit embellishment and the

spoiling of much good stuff. Coffers and cupboards have

been offered to museums which are perfect marvels of

sculptured lies. A good many receptacles bearing

authentic inscriptions still remain in this country, but it is

rare for them to find their way into collectors' hands.

An instance of a very late plain coffer occurs at Thaxted

Church. This example is inscribed in painted letters on

its lid :—


and on its front :—

1489 1789

— the latter date being probably 1 when the existing offer

was made to supersede some older and better box which

had gone to decay after 300 years of wear. Georgian

taste would have done better to leave us at least the


Another curious and interesting item dating from the

first half of the seventeenth century is the chest existing in

the parish church of Norton St. Philip, Somerset. This

bears on its front the somewhat involved inscription :

Local taste !



Hi l'i I

has of recent years mounted this chest

upon legs, by which its appearance is by no means


Probably one of the quaintest inscriptions attached to

a muniment receptacle is that carved on the lid of an oak

coffer formerly used for holding the documents relating

to Pocock's Grammar School, at Rye, Sussex, and now

deposited in the Court I louse. The lettering is in relief

on a sunk band, and is .is follows :

r v E



The reminder is scarcely needed that this school is

immortalised in Thackeray's un pleted novel Denis

Duval. Modern advances in education bavi necessitated

drastic changes, and the coffer, which was once capacious

enough for the Free School documents, now remains

.1 mere curiositj in the little Courl House Museum of

the ancienl gra grown town. Rye and its neighbour-

hood, like Burford, Oxon, abounds in curious inscribed

memorials oi the past, s 1


being specialty cryptii and

disputable-, both .1- regards then dates and attributions.

e hard to beat.

. out,

Some ( urious Antique ( offer.

however, the above would

iak whose acquisitive instincts run

in the direction of "dug-outs plentiful.

They are. however, objects of great interest and

li antiquarians, and may be freely studied, for

numbers of these curiosities still remain in ancient build-

ings, many of them having some circumstantial legend

attached, as in the case ol the Minster example already

mentioned. Some of these relics arc of remote antiquity,

but the greater part do not appear to be older than the

sixteenth century, when a tendency to revert to primi

tive methods was not uncommon in remote d

One of the very few true histories attaching to a "dugmes

from Little Maplestead, in Hss,a. the records

of which are worth noting. At the time of the D

of the Monasteries a certain John Wiseman, an auditor

ofthe K . became possessed of certain land

in the parish which had once belonged to the Knights-

1 lers. His grandson Edward, or Edmund, Wise

man, in Elizabeth's reign was a follower in the train of

the Karl of Essex, and was o tru ti d by this nobleman

as to be selected bv him, when under arrest, to di


petition of supplication to h o •" >, who, there

l to believe, had been expectii

1 disgraced favourite. Hostile intrigue

carried the day. Edward Wiseman became immeshed

m the 1


and the pi

d, with the result that Essex suffered the extreme

penalty in 1601. \\ ema

at this d hat 1 is a penance for

his failure, he would never again rest upon a bed.

pursuance of this extraordinary resolution he procured

the trunk of a large tree, which with consummate labour

he excavated or hollowed out, sleeping in this uncomfortable

receptacle until death overtook him in 1646. Speed

and Morant both mention the circumstance. The fact

man's endurance of this horrible couch extended

to some five and fortyyears speaks impressively in favour

oi the ftrmni is ol a n sting-place which few of us would

be hardy enough to brave.

An illustration of a very interesting "dug-out" coffer

;j .if I'm Con-

at Rayleigh, in Essi eared in No. i

noisseur. In singularity it is exceeded by another

specimen at Langham. in the same count). This latter,

while totalling an outei measurement of 4 ft. 8 in. by

1 ft. 6 in. by 1 ft. 6 in., is only excavated to the measure-

1 ft. by 9 in., one of the smallest scoops known.

The types which have been noticed in this article are

.ml'.. .1 tew selected from the vast number ol ancient rarities

7/t '--"


1 1 :

1 -


NOW C0U1 ll v., RYE

a hi. li tiiin ha


vandalism "i apathi

[With tin- exception of No. Hi., all ///

Engravings in the Collection of Mrs. John Mango

Part I. Mezzotints By the Editor


< A

catholic taste and a keen appreciation

of the beautiful are the guiding principles animating

Mis. John Mango in her accumulation of pictures,

prints, furniture, silver, and objects of art at 27, Palace

Gardens. The collection is not confined to any

particular countries or periods, though examples of

primitive art are wholly unrepresented, and English

work largely predominates. More especially is this

the case in those departments of art in which Englishmen

have displayed unequivocal mastery. One of

these is mezzo-

tint engraving.

Since the days of

Prince Rupert

few fine plates

have been

scraped outside

the limits of the

United Kingdom.


Van Siegen, who

invented the art,

and Prince Ru-

pert, who popu-

larised it in this


country, no

gni would

need to be exem

pli hod in a

re- presentative

1 ollei 1

1 o 11 ol

mezzotint ade-

quately illustrat-

an and I

1 ,







ipm< in .

Mi. M a ngo's

m makes


attaining kss of sli

representative character. It is comparatively small,

consisting of, perhaps, fifty or sixty plates in mono-

chrome and colours ; but what is wanting in number is

atoned for in quality, the collection consisting wholly

of early impressions of choice plates, uniting attrac-

tiveness of subject with beauty of design and a lofty

standard of technical accomplishment.

In the present article only works in monochrome

will be considered. With regard to these, one must

sound a note of regret ; for, as many of the finer

plates have al-

ready been des-

cribed and illustrated

in The


from proofs be-

longing to other

collectors, to

avoid repetition

it will be neces-

sary to give these

only brief men-

tion, and unfortunately


include a num-

ber of the rarer

and choicer ex-

amples. T h u s

there is a proof of

\V. Dickinson's

Mrs. Pelkam,

aider Reynolds,

before the in-

SC ri [it ion— a n

earliei state than

is catalogued

by Chaloner

Smith ;


of his Lady Taj

inr ; first states

o I \

:i 1 entitle

( > re en's superb

Engravim ///c Collection of Mrs. John Mango

Full-lengths of the Countess of Salisbury and Lady

Louisa Manners, after the same artist, and of the

self-portrait ol Maria Cosway ; J. R. Smith

th Compton, after Peters, and Lady Gertrude

Fiizpatrick, after Reynolds ; J. Jones's translation of

Romne) ori Haward's Master Bun-

bury, and a number of others, all in th<

I hi recent picture case affords adi

i g over a print of what is, perhaps, the mo I

beautiful of all Valentine Green's works- the plate ol

The Ladies IVa/degrave, mezzotinted after Sir Joshua

Reynolds's picture of Horace Walpole's thri e beautiful

grand-nieces, the Ladies Elizabeth Laura, Charlotte

Loratio Waldi gravi . Mrs. Mai

Maria, and Anne I

proof, a supi ill impression in the fii :l tati p i

a uniqui much as it was Horace VVal-

pole's own copy, and the names of tl

are written in his nea h under-

neath thi worl Foi thus honoured

bears testimony to the quality of the proof, for the

3ti i

i n rj Hill was a fastidious ritic, and

plumed himself on hi : a

he was inordinatel) proud of the beauty ol hi

tation of

them doing less than justice tO their charms. It was

on the latti i

a in thai hei ondi mm dthi pii

the two younger girls by Ozias Humphry thi



, 1

exhibited al the Ai ademj ol 1780, rep

whii h, ifti m uij \ issitudes,

was sold in all good faith a -. iack as a

portrait of Mrs.

Siddons and her

sister, by Romney,

a n attribution

which, as regards

both subject and

artist, was to be

presently refuted

at the law -courts.

Humphry painted

the work without

first securing a

firm commission,

and Wal pole's

criticisms on it

were, doubtless,

one of the chief

causes for the pic-

ture being left on

the unfortunate

artist's hands.

"Both too old,

and Lady Horatio

not near so handsome

as she is,"

were the comments

Wal pole

wrote in his cata-

logue of the 1780

Academy, and

straight away commissionedRey-

nolds to paint the

three sisters in one

picture. He sug-

ge ted a classical

composition, with

1 as


Graces adorning a BY charles turner, after j.

bust of their mother as the Magna Mater; but the

artist, perhaps warned by the ill-success of Humphry,

would have none of it, and painted the three ladies

in contemporary dress. Walpole is said to havi

grumbled at having to pay 800 guineas for the pic-

fa Li Turn Tayloi brings forward fairly com lusive

nci i" show that the price was only ^315—less

than a third of what a good impression of Green's

nl might n alise nowadaj s.

Another mezzotint n pri •

nting a triad of English

1 rainsborough 1 >upont's

ol Th Eldest Princesst s

— Charlotte Augusta Manilla, Augusta Sophia, and

ilished anengravi 1 Gn


li orgi 11 1. Dupont is notso

n, his style is harder

The Connoisseur

and less finished,


has ever equalled

his translations of


works in suggest-

ing the feeling and

touch of the ori-

ginals. His ten or

twelve plates are

all after the one

artist, and though

several of them


until after the lat-

ter's death, so

closely is his ex-

quisite and deli-

cate brush - work

followed that it is

difficult to resist

the conviction that

he took part in

their production.

The plate of the

Three Princessei

is especially inter-

esting as being the

only record we

possess of the full

composition of the

original picture.

It was an unfortun-

ate work. Gains-

borough painted it

in 1784, and sent

it to the Academy

KD son wi th the request

tner that, as it was

delicately painted with a view to being hung low, the

Hanging Committee would abrogate their rule direct-

ing that full-length portraits should be hung on a line

eight or nine feet above the floor, and give it a less

elevated position. The ( 'cmimilti , < d( lined, SO ( iains-

borough withdrew his pictures and never exhibited at

the Academy again. The work was afterwards hungal

Windsor, where it suffered greater indignity than at the

A' ademy. ' hit ol the 11 oli'n ials, being short ol a

picture to hang OVeradOOr, had the Cainslioiough cut

down to a short half-length to fill the vacant place. The

beauty of Gainsborough's design can now be tar better

appreciated in Dupont's line translation than in what

n mains ol the ait 1st 'sown work, an illustration ol whi< b

appeared in Tin. Connoisseur, vol. xxxviii., page 2.


Engravings in the Collection of Mrs. /olni Mango

I hi plati ol / / Pi was tl


i ipont's mezzotints to I"- publishi '1. being issued

from his own n q Grafton street in 1793.

This was four yi I

demand for his pi< tun

id been announced in

1 a I lupont, ow ing to thi

linquish mezzotinting. Nothing apparentl) occurred

aftei tint date ti 1 induce him t< 1 alter his >•

for, until his death in 17117. Dupont received a- many

© immissions i' u possibly fulfil.


at all e\ 1

anterioi to 1

79 during Gainsb »

lifetime, before the original picture »

Windsor. If so, it would have the advantage of that

.11 1 ist's supervision and correction, which would account

for the exquisite manner in which the feeling and

brush-work of the original is suggested in the transla-

tion. The published price of the engraving is not

recorded, bul as Dupont, in 1790, published the

mezzotints of the King and Queen, which were nearly

the same size as The Eldest Princesses, at the rate of

.11 proofs and _/,'i is. for prints, it is probable

thai iIm copies of the last-named plate were sold at

- 1

i" practi >


ntemporary oi Dupont, who engraved about

a number of plates, and then, like him,

mezzotint, was Henry Hudson. He makes

ippearano with a dozen line plate-,, pro

n 1

782 and 170 ;, and thru disappears

The Connoisseur

altogether. His small output, and the comparatively

lengthy intervals between the issue of his plates,

suggest that he did not depend upon engraving for his

livelihood. Probably the war with fiance in 1793,

which exercised such a disastrous effect on mezzotint,

induced him to finally relinquish his art. Undoubtedly

bis finest plate is the portrait of Mrs. Curtis, after

Henry Walton, a theme treated so daintily and with

such lightness of touch as to convej a more Battering

idea of Walton's art than is conveyed by the majority

oi Iiin pictures.

Alter the death of Reynolds, lloppner may lie

said to have nearly monopolised the services of the

best contemporary mezzotinters, and his works fur-

nished most of the finer themes for the scrapers ol

Janus and William Ward, J. Young, William Say,

nil, 1,1 DEST PRINi i

Engravings in*>the Collection of Mrs. John Mango



Charles Turner, and S. W. Reynolds during the time time. Mi Mai examples

mtemporary plates

he shared with Lawrence the distinction of being om of a i

of the two most fashionable portrait painters of his executed after him >

most brilliant examples of John Young, an engraver

who learnt his art in J. R. Smith's studio, where most

of the last generation of great mezzotinters were

trained. Young, perhaps, does not quite attain the

finished execution of his master, as exemplified in the

latter's best work, but he is excelled by no one in

the brilliancy and strength of his chiaroscuro. The

earliest of the three works in Mrs. Mango's collection

is the Godsal Children, issued in 1790, and perhaps

better known by the title of The Setting Sun, which

appears on both of the two published states of the

plate. It is one of the most natural and happily

arranged of Hoppner's family groups, and the engraver

in his translation has done full justice to the charm of

the original. Lady Charlotte Greville was published

six years later, and shows even firmer and more robust

handling. It is worthy to rank with that superb

mezzotint of young womanhood the Frankland Sisters,

by William Ward, which is also represented in the

collection. The third plate of the Lambton Family is

both the most elaborate and highly finished of the

three, the engraver showing wonderful skill and

refinement in his realisation of flesh-tones and tex-

tures. This work, which may be said to represent

The C 'onnoisseur

the high-water mark of Young's achievement, was

published in 1799. It represents Lady Anne Lambton

John George, William [enry,

and her four children— 1

Frances Susan, and Henry William, the last-named

being the little boy in the foreground contemplating

his shoe, while John is the bold-looking youngster

unsheathing his sword.

Young may be said to have been the last of the

old school of mezzotinters, the men who either

engraved in pure mezzotint, or, it they introduced

etching in their plates, made it so entirely subordinate

that it remains practically invisible until the copper

becomes worn through excessive printing, when the

1 tied

lines, inserted to add to the strength of

the dark shadows, occasionally become painfully

obtrusive. Towards the close of the French War the

economical situation of the country helped to bring

about a change for the worse. The cost of nearly all

imodities was greatly increased, but buyers ol

mezzotints were not prepared to pay a correspond-

ingly highei price lor their prints. This brought

about a condition ol affairs threatening this method

1 h extinction. It was impossible to

strike a large number ol impressions from a copper

.I . d in ]

' itint, and though the out-

d lie largely increased by the introduction ol

etching in the work, no copper plate under any circumstances

would stand anything like the same amount

of printing as a steel plate. Among the engravers

who had to face this altered condition of affairs were

Samuel William Reynolds and Charles Turner. The

former had been a pupil of C. H. Hodges, and Mr.

Whitman surmises that he subsequently went under

the tutelage of J. R. Smith. There are letters from

James Ward in existence tending to confirm this idea,

and also suggesting that at one time he worked with

William Ward either as pupil or assistant. At any

rate, he had made himself a thorough master of the

old method, and was not long launched on his profes-

sional career when the increasing competition of line

plates engraved on steel threatened to render his work

valueless. Reynolds met the competition by first

largely increasing the proportion of etching in his

plates, and later on he used a combination of mezzo-

tint, etching, and stipple which could be engraved on

steel. It is the earlier plates of Reynolds that now

command most public favour, and of these it is neces-

sary to secure impressions struck off before the under-

ground of etching begins to show too palpably through

the mezzotint. The choice proofs of Louisa Mar-

chioness of Sligo, after Opie, and Mrs. Arbuthnot, after

Hoppner, representing the engraver in Mrs. Mango's

collection, both command these qualifications. They

are brilliant, full-toned impressions, doing full justice

to the engraver's art, and exemplifying that etching

can be judiciously combined with mezzotint without

seriously modifying the essential characteristics of

the latter.

Charles Turner is well represented in Mrs. Mango's

collection by his Le Baiser Envoye, after Greuze, and

Lady Louisa Manners and Charlotte Countess Chol-

mondley, after Hoppner. Both of the former have

he, 11 already illustrated in The Connoisseur, so one

must confine oneself to the last-named, a fine example

of the engraver's strong and finished style. It was

published in 1805, when Turner was most prolific in

his output, having works after a dozen artists in hand

about this time ; but the work betrays no signs of haste,

and is finely and delicately scraped, the whites being

carefully modulated to give full value to the sparkle

of thi' high lights on the drapery and elsewhere.

Turner may be described as the last of the great

engravers of pure mezzotint, until its revival in our

own days. Though a younger man than Reynolds,

in his translations of portraits he toll.. wed old traditions

far more closely and Used etching very sparingly.





{The Editor invites the assistance of readers of The Connoisseur who may be able to impart

Deai - i



the information required by Correspondents.]

li hunting the shops and studios

in Florence, I recently found an old painting ol th<

Madii/tmi and Child, of which the enclosed isaphoto.

('an any of your readers kindly tell me who painti d

it? and oblige, yours truly, J. Lucas (Florence).


i i Pain ing v.\ A. Kyzomi r.

Dear Sir, [am very anxious to get some particulars

about a certain picture, and wondered if you would bi

good enough to


in your Not]

v N d Qi


Some few

weeks ago a fine

picture i


thrnu g h m y

hands of The


in her

Flooded Cell in

the Forti

SS. /'< ter and

Paul. Itwaswi 11

p a in t e d, and

al painting, being

signed on i




turi . pa

\ K y / u -

1 1 ntly I

ml that

nal pic-

Flavitsky, is in a


t i o n s 1

1 i 1

.it the

WE •

Petrograd Academy, and also as having painti

.1I1. .', e 11.1111. .I picture.

[s the copyist 1 have mentioned above known to

any students ol Russian art, or was he just a pupil at

tin- Academy ?—Yours faithfully, W.m. S. Harris.


Thomas Mai, k in.

Deak Sir,—Your correspondent Mr. Lawreno l

Tanner, who is in search of biographical i

the Maltons, other than those given in the

Dictionary oj


d Bryan,

will find some in-

terestinginformationconcer- ning them m the

first \'u hi me of

ih. )/, moirs oj


edited by Mr.

Alfred -

and published a


Messrs. Hurst &

Blackett. Hickey

was for a time a

boarder in the


: the elder


William T.

\\ in 1 1 i \.



(N0S.275& 276).


should be glad if

.1 .




\ rr the

identit y ol the



painti rs of the two pictures of which I send you a


1 should also be glad to learn, il poss

No '7".

Notes a//(/ Queries

faithfully, J. C. W.

I NIDI Mil II I' POB II' \1 I (NO. 277 '-

Dear Sir,—Going through your last number, just

. ill.- idea struck me that I might use thi

medium of your publication to obtain identification

ol a picture in my possession, tin- author of which 1

never could find out. I forward you a photo

same. I




Regent, but the artist who painted it I could never

even think of, il I admit that il is b) I


[| you think it worth the while, plea

m unidentified p

8, portrait ol Mr. Sherwood,

it looks very much like a portrait by Sir Win. I

duction.— I bug to remain. d( a " truly.

1 once bad, as fai as one can judge from the repro-


( BRUNNER (Paris).

Red Cross


The Connoisseur


THE Red Cross sale this year easily surpassed all pre-

vious records, the grand total realised being ,£151,000,

as against £7 1,404 last year, close on

£50,000 in 1916, and £37,3 8 3 in IQI 5-

Readers, however, must not run away

with the idea of a phenomenal appreciation of art values

to account for the progressive increase. Both donors

and bidders have been more generous with each successive

year, and in many instances the prices paid had

little or no relation to the intrinsic value of the article

purchased. The pictures, drawings, and engravings fur-

nished the most substantial quota to the total, realising

£41,324, as against £38,470 for jewellery. The most

expensive items among the latter comprised the magnificent

yellow diamond weighing 205 carats, presented by

the Diamond Syndicate, which sold for £10,000 ; a bril-

liant collet necklace, composed of twenty-three stones,

presented by Mrs. Graham, made .£5,600; a brilliant

chain of 127 stones, given by Viscount and Viscountess

Hambledon. ,£2,700; a cat's-eye and brilliant pendant,

the gift of Lady Byron, £1,500 ; a second brilliant collet

necklace, presented by Mrs. A. J. Bartlett, ,£1,420; and

a necklace of 8 1 graduated pearls presented by 45 donors,

£1,500. The most profitable item among the picture

sales was not announced until the last day, when it was

stated that Mr. Percival Duxbury, of Bury, had offered

,£10,000 to the Red Cross if Mr. J. S. Sargent would

paint a portrait of Mrs. Duxbury, and that Mr. Sargent

had cabled from America his consent. At the same time

a cabled donation of £10,000 from Mr. Henry Duveen,

of the well-known firm of picture dealers, was announced.

The first drawings were sold on April 13th, when two

presented by Hit Majesty the Queen were included

among the sales. Of these, an illustration to Sindbad

the Sailor, \z\ in. by 10 in., by Edmund Dulac, made

[OS.; and a drawing of The Golden Plum Tree,

20 in. by i')\ in., by Miss Anna Airy, was sold twice.

bringing £27 the first time and £21 the second. Several

small Birket Fosters realised high prices— three vignettes,

/ Geo) ;..' and La Salute,

id Near Dordrecht, presented by Mr. Arthur

Spurrier, made £315, .£294, and £147 respectively ; and

another example, Richmond, Yorkshire, 4 in. by 55 in..

Hi 1 olman, £126. 1 )ther draw

ings witli their donors' names included the following :

./ Heath Scene, 134 in. by 21 in., by T. Collie Mi

mi- ' Street Preacher, Seville,



1 hi

larqui i of I.ans-

- 1 10 5s.; Port) t ty the King, in

1. dk, 23 in. by 1 7 J in., by Sir Luke Fildi

Inverness, 1 1 .1 in. by

by R. Thorne v. r Geo \\ \.gne« ,


thi .1 1 - b)


168. The last item wa i boughl by Lady

1. ,

a memento of the sale. The pictures disposed of on

the same day included Ariadne in Naxos, 29 in. by

37 in., by G. F. Watts (Mr. and Mrs. Norland Agnew),

,£1,102 10s.; The Bath of Venus, 57^ in. by 38 in., by

Charles Shannon (Viscount and Viscountess Northcliffe ,

£682 10s. : Stirling Castle, i6f in. by 27J in., by 1). Y.

Cameron (the artist), £525 ; The Painter, 35^ in. by

27! in., by William Orpen (Miss Reckitt), £189; Passing

Days, 37* in. by 108 in., by J. M. Strudwick (Sir

Jeremiah Colman), £178 10s.; Phe Wounded Adonis,

21 in. by 35s in., by Briton Riviere I.Mr. F. Carbutt ,

£147 ; On the River Llugioy, near Bettws-y-Coed, \2\ in.

by l6| in., by B. W. Leader (the artist), £147; The

Shepherd's Sabbath, 58 in. by 94 in., by T. S. Cooper

(Mr. Charles Hardy), £168 ; The Staircase, on panel,

16J in. by 3] in., by Sir L. Alma-Tadema (Mr. Malcolm

R. Aird), £210 ; A Gipsy Encampment, 27$ in. by 36 in.,

by W. Shayer, sen. (Captain and Mrs. Eric Kingzett),

£183 15s.; Morning in the Meadows, i6i in. by 21 in.,

by T. S. Cooper (Mrs. (

',. C. Croft), £168 ; Battersea

Reach, 2~\ in. by 355 in., by David Muirhead (the artist),

,£315; The Depositionfrom the Cross, 27} in. by 2 1 h in. , by

Charles Ricketts (the artist i, £231 ; The Merry-go-round,

z\\ in. by 29J in., by W. Dacres Adams (Mr. Edmund

Davis), £147 ; Cambria's Coast, 43 in. by 72 in., by li. W.

Leaden Mr. W. A. Briscoe), £399; and Z. 'Abreuvoir, 26in.

by 38 in., by Ch. Jacque (Mr. W. M. N. Reid), £315.

The feature of the day was the sale of a number of blank

canvases given by well-known artists, on which they had

promised to paint portraits or other subjects. Among

these were the following ;— Sir John Lavery, 49 in. by

34 in., ,£1,050 ; W. Orpen, 30 in. by 25 in., £787 ; Glyn

Philpot, 3 in. by 28 in., £735; Ambrose McEvoy,

50 in. by 40 in., £672; G. Fiddes Watt, 34 in. by

2 il m -> ,£577 IC, s.; F. Cadogan Cowper, 50 in. by 30 in.,

£504 ; Hon. John Collier, 23^ in. by in., 19J £367 ios.;

Frank Dicksee, 24 in. by 20 in., £362 10s.;

J. J. Shan-

non, 24 in. by 20 in., .£231 ; Charles Sims, 24 in. by 20 in.,

£189; and R. (',. Eves, 20 in. by i6in.,£i77 10s. Satur-

day, the 20th, the twelfth day of the sale, was devoted

to modern and other drawings and old pictures. Among

the drawings was a charming pastel of A Young Child,

by J. Russell (Mr. Joseph Wilkinson), 23! in. b\ lj\ in.,

together with a print of the same 1>\ W. Nutter, which

made £288 15s.; a Watteau Head of a Man. in. by

-J in., a study in red chalk for the picture Inspiration

1 Divine Mr.

Colin Agnew), ,,(,'231 ; while amongst the old

pictures sold on the same da) were a Portrait of Captain

Thomas Corneiuall, P..\ . l>\ Gainsborough, 49J in. by

39} in. (the late Mr. W. L01 ketl Agnew . £030; Portrait

OJ the Hon. Thomas Windsor, by X. Hone, 2cj in. by

24^ in. .Mr. R. Leicestei Harmsworth), £030; George

On, b) SI11. ut, 95 in. by 60 in. 1 Colonel Sir

Alexander Hargreavi ; Brown, Ban , £$79105.; A View

in a Park and A Landscape, bj Breughel, a pan, on

panel, 6 in. by8A in. Mr. Frederick R, Lee . £504 and .1


Portrait of Captain Read, by Angelica Kauffman, 30 in.

by 24$ in., together with an autograph letter from thi

relating to the picture Sir Carl Meyer, Bart .

On the tenth day, the most important item t

nished by the series oi twenty-tour old mezzotint

Reynolds and other eighteenth-century artists, p

by His Majesty the Kins;. This furnished the

price for the day, falling to .1 bid of ,£420. Other

ng items included Souvenir d'Amsterdam, an

original etching by 1>. Y. Cameron Mr. and Mrs. Frank

Kinder, £35 14s. ; Burgos, an etching by Andrew F.

Messrs. fames Connell St Sons), ^"42 ; while

among the prints in colours mention must be made of

employed in burning weeds, after G. Morland, by

J. Ward Mr. ('. Bower Ismay , £231 : Crossing the

Brook, alter H. Thomson, by W, Say Hon. Lady

Herbert , £210; and Cottager, by P. W. Tomkins Mr.

E. A. VVigan , /126. The autograph section included, in

addition to numerous letters, a large numbei ol

manuscripts. The original holograph MS. of Burns'

M , lie on her Benefit

Night Mrs. Alfred Morrison , made £,

the author and Mrs. Reginald J. Smith, £230; the

original MS. of Kipling's The Ballad of the

signed Jan. 28th, 1S92 Sir Sidney Lou. £jt; and tin-

original holograph notes of Mr. Lloyd George's famous

speech to the Labour Representatives, known as the (lo

on or go under speech the Prime Minister , £25 4s.

I I Among the letters were one from Shellej to d ewi

"Monk' , 1816, sent with Keats's poems, mentioning

Mab a.,d Lord Byron Mrs. Hepburn . £81 ; a

letter from Thackeray to "My dear old Forster," New

York, Oct. .V^t, 1855, describing his welcome by the

I . people,


and his appreciation of their 1 h

59; another from the Duke of

Wellington to Field Marshal Lord Beresford, July 2nd,

1815, written a fortnight after, and givir)



the bati the l.ady 1 1. en shan

and a letter from ( ieorge Meredith to th<

Times, April 14th, 1909, being his eulogy on Swinburne

Mr. liruce L. Richmond), /31 10s.

Nearl lied with the dispersal of

the varied and interesting collection of books. Many of

the prices were, of com e, of the auction

value of the works offered, a notable instance being the

Complete work of Rembrandt, S vols., I

Edward Hulton , whii h ban £380.

An interesting lot was a tj Street, by Sir

1 M

Bai 1 ie, 1901, with a hoi"

1 iture by the authoi

while anothei .• as Chat ,

whii h made /40. Two copies of the Kelmscott <

[896 ->ir Frederick Macmillan and Mai

Lovi lai e . made £&$ and £82 respectivi

by John

::it Northclilfe ,

pagi ofthi catalogue were devoted to early edil

I lickens's works, among the more important being Sketches


by Bo:, 1st 8vo ed., presentation copy with inscription,

1:. C. E. Stewart, £52; Oliver Twist, 1st 8vo

, 1841 Ml. Wo, ..I . £58; and American \

ed., 2 vols., presentation copy with autograph, 1842 Mr.

< harles I'. John Ie as mm b as £30 was

given for a first edition of Trilby, by Du Maurier, pre-

sentation copy with inscription, 1 894 Mrs.T. R. I

• li George Weston contributed a first edition of Cold-

smith's Vicar of Wakefield, 2 vols., ir'">. which was

rapidly bid up to £125, while a first edition of She Stoops

to Conquer, by the same author, 1773 Mr. Gerald du

Maurier , made ^'25. A few books of hours were in-

cluded, the chiei B.M. V., manuscript on

vellum, Gothic letter, 16th century Major-General T.

Lowndes, /2(iu ; and Hon, B.M.V., vellum,

letter, 161I1 century Mr. T. Norton Longman , £189.

\ in.: edition ol Echoes, by Rudyard Kipling, a presen-

tation copy with three original verses, 1884, Mr. Frank

Gielgud , consisted of one of the scarcest of Kipling's

writings, and though this realised .£94, an even higher

price was anticipated. Two other works by this distin

guished writer, Schoolboy Lyrics, 1881, printed for private

mental J 'lilies, 1

1,1 onl) an anonymous donoi .



John Gordon .

£72 and £2,2 respectively. There was keen com]

lor a firsl edition ol (ilamille'^ llartholomeus de Pro-

prietatibus Rerum translated into English by John de

Trevisa), black letter, Wynkyn de Wo

Baskerville Mynors), which made £110; while other

items on the same da) deserving oi record were three

1 immander John

(',. Millais, R.N.V.R., Natural Hi lory of British Game

Birds, author's proof copy coloured plates . with auto-

graph, 1892, which realised /50 ; The Natural History

of British Surface-feeding Duck d British

vols., 1913. I.S2. Subscribers to Tin.

.•.;ll doubtless lie interested to learn of

the sum obtained for the first 21 vols., 1

parts published from the o 1111901101908,

ed inbound tonnat 7s. 6d. per vol. These

21 vols, attained the sal facto oi £J7- On the

sixteenth and concludinj

oused by the cop) of Modern Spanish Painting,

. :; I ler Majesty Queen

,,1 a ription by Her

on the fly leaf, w hi< h n

being put up a second time realised £103. There must

rded a copy of Stevenson's The Soul

privately printed in [890 Sir Graham Balfour), which

(105: rem;; Whistles, by th(

1883. only one other copy being known (Mrs. W. E.

Henley, ,£300 ; a first edition of Thackeray's Vanity

Fair, 1848, with presentation inscription to Charlotte

Sir William Robertson Nicoll), £325 ; Spenser's

Faerie Queene, pictured and decorated by L. Fairfax

Muckley, 3 vols., 1898 the Viscount Harcourt), .£60;

The Hanging Judge, by R. L. and Mrs. Stevenson,

printed for private circulation in 1877, with autograph of

William Archer I Mr. W. Archer), ,£90 ; and a third folio

of Shakespeare's Comedies, Histories, and Tragedies,

1664 .Major W. P. Standish), £235.

The penultimate item of the sale, though really the

last lot in the catalogue, was the York Journal : or the

Protestant Courant, No. 25, May 13th, 1746, containing

the Order of Battle, fought on Straghallen Moor, near

Culloden House, April 16th, 1746, which consisted of a

single printed sheet framed between glass. When first

put up this realised the remarkable sum of £21, but

when put up again realised no less than .£105. The last

lot of the sale consisted of an interleaved copy of the

catalogue containing the autographs of many of the

donors, visitors, and others interested in this remarkable

sale. It was bid up to ,£630, the final bid coming from

Mr. Gordon Campbell, the energetic chairman of the

( ieneral Committee, who followed the purchase by pre-

senting the catalogue to Mr. Lance Hannen, the auc-

tioneer in the rostrum. Space prevents us from giving

more than a mere mention of the many rare and valuable

pieces of porcelain and pottery offered throughout the

*ale. A Chelsea vase and cover, 12 in. high Miss Beare .

was sold for .£189; a Chelsea scent-bottle, modelled as

a group of hen and chickens (Mr. Adolf Weil;, ,£210;

a pair of Chelsea candelabra, with figures of a girl and

youth, etc., 12 in. high (Mrs. Salting!, £189; a pair of

Chinese figures of Ho- Ho birds, 20 in. high, Kien-Lung

Messrs. Duveen), £1,680 ; a Dresden centrepiece, with

figures of children in high relief, on scroll stand, fitted

with chocolate-pots, milk-jug, sugar-sifter, and four flowershaped

cups (Mrs. Leopold de Rothschild), £420; and .1

Chinese pale-green jade group of a sage and boy, etc.,

6 in. high Mr. Irwin L.uighlin , £220 [OS.

Among the decorative objects and furniture were

a Boulle bracket clock, with chased ormolu dial and

numerals, and surmounted by .1 figure of Time,

43'"- high, presented by Her Royal Highness Princess

lorn ,-. the Duchess of Argyll, which realised £86 2s. ;

Lture of Lady Charlotte Campbell, by Engleheart,



in gold locket with pearl bordei Mr. Adolf Weil), [I

XVI. oval gold snufl box the Lad) Roth :< hild ,

£173 5 1 carved orj group ol an angel and child,

6J in. high, presented bj Her Majestj the Queen, which

th produced \

The Connoisseur

193 15s. ; two swords of

dmiral Lord 1 iollingwood, one in

oi ' the it) ni 1 iH.ilnii a

in 1807 b a fund 1 foi re< ting a monument

, .


to Lord Nelson in Liverpool Vdmiral tin- Hon. Sir

Hedworth Meux madi , j and ( "m re pei tivel) an

heLo I

8 11 high In 5 ft. wide,


ers, eti ., 18th

ii ei 1,417 10 andan

oblong panel of Brussels tapestry, 12 ft. 4 in. high by

15 ft. wide, 1 6th century (the Countess of Portsmouth),

£1,210. A section of the sale was devoted to coins and

medals, the principal donors being Miss Parsons and

Mr. A. C. Norman, who together contributed over one

hundred items. The chief prices were :—a Charles I.

1 Ixford three-pound piece, 1643 (Miss Parsons), £92; a

George III. pattern five-guinea piece, by Tanner, 1773

(Mr. A. C. Norman), £76; and a gold George Lewis

Duke of Brunswick and Luneburg (afterwards George I.)

medal by Hannibal, on his admission into the Electoral

College in 1708 (Mr. W. E. Riddell), £32. Finally,

mention must be made of a few of the most important

pieces of English and other silver. Four candelabra,

with fluted stems, supporting branches for three lights

each, 22 in. high, 1 785-1 786 (Colonel J. S. Ruston),

£400 ; a pair of George II. plain double sauce-boats, by

Edward Vincent, 1733 (Mr. John Noble), £340 ; a Queen

Anne toilet mirror, by Richard Syngin, 171 1, 324 in.

high, 36 in. wide (Sir Charles G. E. Welby, Bart.),

£310; a Charles II. plain tankard and cover, 26 02.

10 dwt., by Thomas Mangy, York, 1672 (Mr. Edward

C. Huntington), £205 ; a Charles II. large plain tankard,

35 oz. iS dwt., 7* in. high, 1684 (the Earl of Plymouth!,

£245 ; an Elizabethan silver-gilt chalice and paten, 1 571,

190Z. 12 dwt., iojin. high (Mr. Henry Tremorne Brice),

£270; and a Charles II. silver-gilt porringer and cover,

10 in. high, 9 in. diam. of lip, 1675, maker's mark T.M.

monogram, 104 oz. 9 dwt. (the Rt. Hon. Sir Ernest

Cassel), made £2,600, the highest price in this section.

The most important sale of books held by Messrs.

Sotheby, Wilkinson and Hodge during April was the


dispersal of the library formed by the

late Mr. H. B. Wheatley, which com-

prised no fewer than 1,535 lots, many of the lots contain-

ing from 1 5 to 20 items. The catalogue was divided into

ten parts, by far the most important being that devoted

to bookbindings, the examples sold including English,

French, Italian, Spanish, German, etc. In this section

the first item which attained an important price was .1

copy of Sextus Decretalium Liber, Bonifacius VIII.,

1555, bearing the device of Madame Marguerite de

Valois Saint Remy, which realised £59, this being fol-

lowed by La Colivatione al Chrislianissimo Re Fram esco

I'riino, by Luigi Alamanni, 1549, probably bound by

Thos. Berthelet, in similar style to those he bound for

Queen Mary I., which made £54. An interesting item

was .1 Bible, /'raver, and Metrical Psalms, 1629, in a

Little Gidding Ferrars binding, which made £24 ; while

the 1677 edition of The Art of Contentment, b) the

author of The Whole Duty of Man, English mosaii

binding, probably bound by S. Mearne for the Duke of

( Irmond, whose ex-libris is on the cover, fetched £53. A

11 .ample of Mcarne's binding was The Gentleman'


'ailing, 1677, by the sameauthoras the previous book mentioned,

which made £28 ; while £38 was given for Poetat

Craeci, 1566, bound by Roger Payne, a fine example,

exhibited at the Burlington Fine Arts Club in 1891, and

a cop) oi Musicus Apparatus Academicus, 1713, in the


style of Mearne, sold for £53. The second, third and

fourth p.ut-, which occupied the whole of the third day,


to the drama and the stage. The

follow n 1

Lachryma Musarum, by R. Broi ide £73 ;

The Indian Emperor, by Dryden, i-t ed., 161

Mat Fleeknoe, 82, 1st ed., £7 !

edition ol an adaptation of Shakespeare's /

titled The Tempest, or the Enchanted Island, by Dryden

ami Su \\ illiai >, £21 : The RivalLadies,

Dryden, 1664, 1st ed., £26; Alexander's I 1

den, 1st ed., 1


/// the Sale Room

The Tragedy of Hamlet,

Shakespeare, 8th ed., 1683, £20 ios. The fifth 1

of the sale con relating to London and

the neighbourhood, the chief item being London, by

1). Hughson, 1 j vols., 1805-11, which realise

Among the early English books which occupied the

eighthd nould be recorded a first edition of

Saint Peter's Complaint, with other Poems, by R. Southwell,

1595, which made ; £50 andacopyoi The Workes

of Geoffrey Chaucer, [602, which sold for £12. The sale

was brought to a conclusion with .1 collection of miscel

lanea, the chief lots being a first edition of Lyrical Bal

i\ Wordsworth and Coleridge, 1798,^1055.; Early

English Text Society Publications, 1864- 191 4. ;£°6 ; and

a first edition of Thomas Cray's Odes, the first book

printed by the Strawberry Hill Press, 1737. £'- The

total amount realised by the sale was £5, 137 I is.

The same rooms on April 15th and four following

days saw the dispersal of a further portion of the collei



pi rt) oi Mi .


tion of autograph letters and historical

manus< ripts formed l>> the late Mr.Alfred

Morrison, ofFonthill, and now the pro

d Morri on. II" 990 lots p 1

no less than £15,009 14s. In the limited space at our

disposal it is quite impo ibli I


even a tithe oi

ms whii h came up for sale. We therefore

enumerate only the most important from the

view of price. Three letters from Mary Stuart, one to

the Dm he— of Guise, 1557. one to the Abbot de la

d one to Henry I II. ol

[581, made £345, £115, and ,


from the ame lad} 1 b Philip [I. oi Spain, dati d 1 68,

{"340. A letter from tli' posei Mozarl from

e, Jan. 15th, 1787, to Herr von facquin, in which

to the popularity in that city of hi- opera Figone

fn im Napoleon I. to Louis XVI 1 1.,

•11, 1800, in whii

sacrifice himself to the well bein 135 ; and

to Josephine, Aug., [803, £150.

Two lettei from Rabelais, the first undated, to Bud£,

and the second, Jan. 28th, 1537. to thi Bi hop

lezais, made £no and £270 respectively. Tw

from Rembrandt, both to Constantini

Jan. ;•: the other undated, made £180

each \ lettei from Robespierre to Danton, datei

1 ',. th, 79 '-..pi.

old for £64, and

b} the same, apparently the draft of his accu-

tinst 1 i.mton in 1

elli, better known as Titian, to the

8th, 1545, and referring

ess, whi< li he had p

after the one given as .1 model, and asking it tl

was sal me from the Flon

pii' . i, « ho gave his name to

Vmerica, dated Oct. 18th, 1470. on vellum, ad

to In- fathi Washington,

th, [758, to Miss Fairfax, in which he speaks

of his love for Mrs. Cusl entually married,

£ 32 1 ; a letter from General Wolfe to his urn li

Wolfe, dated Louisburg, May 19th, 1759, in which he

II particulars ol thi ore the attack on

Quebi 1 pi el l")ok containing memora

Johnson's Life, in which Boswell had jotted down his

recollection oi conversations with the learned doctor,

£220 ; .1 lettei from Burns, signed "Sylvandi

Clarinda, Jan. 20th, 1788, £120; and two others, from

the same, to Mrs. Dunlop, 1788, and Dr. John \1

enclosing a ballad oi 22 lines on Queen Mary, Feb. 28th,

1791, £145 and £200 respectively. Some autograph

verses bj Lord Byron, comprising ij stanzas of the

famous lines commencing " Fan- thee well ! and, if for

ever, still, for ever, fare thee well," dated March 18th,

[816, realised £320; a letter from Catherine de Medicis

i" Mary Queen "I Scots, Dec. 20th, 1583, £300; and a

series of tight letters from Cromwell realised a total of

£374. A letter from Daniel Defoe, May 9th, 171 1, made

£195; another from Queen Elizabeth to Henry IV. oi

I ranee, Sept., 1602, £90; a series of seven lettei- from

David Garrick made collectively £174 js.; a letterfrom

Oliver Goldsmith to David Garrick, 1773 ?), asking the

filter to let him have his play back, ,£265 ; one from

Dr. Johnson to Dr. Goldsmith, April 23rd, 177',. pi"

posing that Boswell should be elected a member of their

Society, £37: four letters from John Keats to Fannj

fatal . made

h hich eventuall

collectively : £205 a letter from La Fontaine

1. 1 the I >n. he-, e de Bouillon, 1683, £60; a 1

1 letters

from Charles Lamb, all addressed to his friend

his private life,

and "I tl ister's recurring fits of insanity,

li 1 urn

1 Voltaire,

than £484 ios. ; and a collection of

mosi ol them to Frederick the

1727 and 1773. realised £200.

\i Messrs. Puttick and Simpson's rooms during April,

the following items are worth} oi record. On the 19th


a n In el pattei 01 e, b} Flight, of

made £36 15s. On the 26th, a Charles I. silk needlework

picture in cai ed i tme, \\ in. by i6.| in., /4S : a

Charli 11 mp needleworl p ture, uj in. by 15 in.,

£44 2S. .


hippendale mahogan} bookcase,


S8 in. wide. £52 ios.; a set ol four old French gilt

fauteuils, the -eats and backs covered with Aubusson

tapestry. £88 "t with flowers

in shaped panel-, on dai 22 It. 2 in. by

SINCE Ozias Humphry's picture of the Ladies Maria

id Horatio Waldegrave, which had been masquerading

as a portrait of Mrs. Siddons and her

"Life and Works

of Ozias Humphry,

R.A.," by-

George C.


Litt.D. (John

Lane. £3 3s. net)

sister, by Romney, was stripped of

its borrowed plumes in the Law

Courts, there has been a general

desire to learn something more of

the career of this distinguished minia-

ture, pastel, and portrait painter.

During the hearing of the case, it

transpired that Dr Williamson, who shared with Mr.

Algernon Graves the honours of establishing the identity

of the disputed picture, had been collecting materials

for a life of Humphry since 1904, and now, through the

enterprise of Mr. John Lane, we have the pleasure of

enjoying the fruits of these exhaustive labours in the form

of a handsome, well-mounted, and superbly illustrated

volume. Even before Dr. Williamson's investigations,

the main incidents of Humphry's career were public

posses ed oi great artistic reputation

during his lifetime, and enjoyed considerable personal

popularity. Mentions of him are frequent in published

letters and reminiscences of his period. The recorded

exhibits at the Society of Artists and the Royal

- fairl)

lengthy, and there are brief notices of

lulu in \, 11. on. liio

:.;raphii al dictionaries and elsewhere;

uch material were collated, it would suffice to

only a skeleton story of the artist's life. Dr.

1 :i li filled .11 the details from other sources of

information, fortunately unu ually numerous and more

1 1 1 1 nan often thi 1

I .1 e William Ipi ott,

natural on, pre lei ved not only Humph] j

own letters, bul also much oi the correspondence from

the distil whom he painted. Though this

. d 1 >r. Williamson has been both

and successful in tracking its various fragments ;

it In . di iposal letters in other

tnd the rough draft of Humphrj i autobiography

that he prepared but nevi t pei fi 1 ti d. With such a mass

al, Dr. Willi. mi, 1 >n's difficulty ha been nol what

1 but

what to leave out, and the very super-

ed to the produc-

balam ed, and dull book. Dr.

Williamson has, however, shown the discrimination one

would expect from a writer of his knowledge and judg-

ment, and has written a full and interesting biography,

throwing fresh light not only on Humphry, but on many

of his more famous associates and clients— a book, in-

deed, to be read by every serious student of eighteenth-

century art.

Humphry— like several other famous English painters

of his day, a native of Devonshire— was born at Honiton

in 1742. He came of a family distinguished by its long

descent and former prosperity, but only moderately well-

to-do. The father of Ozias was a lace manufacturer, but

the boy's mother appeared to have been the business

head of the family. Against her own desires, she arranged

for him, when fifteen, to go to London to study art.

From her letters and those of Ozias, she appears to have

desired that he would not make it his vocation, but only

learn sufficient to design lace patterns, after which he

might return home and help her with the business. The

boy studied first at the school of William Shipley, a littleknown

artist, and, it may be suspected, an indifferent

teacher. Later on he wanted to be apprenticed to

Sir Joshua Reynolds. Probably Mrs. Humphry, who

had just lost her husband, wished Ozias to live nearer

to his home than London, for instead of being placed

under Sir Joshua, he was bound to Samuel Collin-, .1

miniature painter of Hath, a hundred guineas being paid,

or partly paid, to the artist for three years' tuition.

Collins, though Dr. Williamson does not mention it,

wasan intimate friend of Gainsborough, so that Humphry

must have been brought into frequent contact with the

latter painter, an association that can hardly have failed

to influence his art, and may partly account for the pro-

ficiency he so speedily attained. Collins seems to have

been an odd and unreliable person, always getting into

debt, and having to flee from plao to place to avoid his

creditors. One of these compulsory migrations occurred

when Humphry had been with him about two years; he

absconded to Dublin, taking the boy with him, but in a

week or two he was compelled to disappear altogethei

for the time being, and Humphry returned home. Mrs.

Humphry wanted her son to abandon his art career and

take to lace making ; but Ozias obtained a guinea from




her, and with this meagre capital sel up

paintei i

two month- time he « i

I sing

six guineas in his pocki From th I


The Connoisseur Bookshelf

with such success that in

with thirty-

mi o iw ard there


talk of his giving up art. He painted some time

at Bath, lodging with the Linleys and profiting b; the

advice o ii On the latter's recomn

id, being kindly

l Reyno

manently in August of the following year. Humphry

income and man iged to savi

of ,£200. An ui ' affair

beginning ; he n

with Mis 3 I'aine—

Paini ai msed him to

give up this establishment. The lady was will

the father insisted upon largei ettlements bein

mi her than Humphry could afford. The lattei

relief from his disappointment in a continental

tour, and set off to Italy with Romney. Dr. Williamson

mentions that "Humphry says that they



King Stic. .

1 Gardi

to under-

that Romney lod

it, anil on

the itinerary of Italy, I >> Williamson

done «ell to ha\ 1

ierla orge Romney, «

Mi. Chambi

He. ul. win '

ol Humphry, already mentioned, was painted;

and it was through the intimacy that thus sprang up

between them that they resolved to go to Italy together.''

The same writer records that the two friends set oft" for

hah- on March 20th, 1773, spent the following day at

Knole— Dr. Williamson suggests a much longer visit

travelled via Dover and Calais to Paris, where they

stayed two or three weeks at the Hotel de York ; left

Paris "ii April 9th, Lyons— where Romney delayed them

a week by falling ill— on April 22nd. arrived at Nice on

May 2nd, and reached Genoa at midnight on May 27th.

Dr. Williamson gives a long and interesting account of

Humphry's stay in Italy, mainly compiled from unpub-

lished letters, which throw much interesting light on the

doings of other contemporary artists. It is a little difficult

to follow the author's chronology, but Humphry,

after passing through Florence, arrived at Rome with

Romney in the summer of 1773. He made this city his

headquarters during the better part of the next four

years. He visited Naples, made a stay at Florence in

the summer of 1775- the date " 1776" given on a letter

from Humphry to Sir Harry Featherstone is obviously a

misprint—and also went to Venice, Parma, Milan, and

other Italian cities.

The beginning of 177S found Humphry back again in

England. An interesting episode on his return was his

acquaintance with Dr. Johnson, of whom he made a

striking portrait, the original of which is now lost, though

its semblance is preserved in a spirited etching by Mrs.

Turner. Before his Italian journey Humphry had not

exhibited at the Academy, probably deferring doing so

until he was certain of obtaining recognition as an oil

painter, instead of merely a miniature artist. That he

was so recognised by public opinion is shown in Richard

Cumberland's poem celebrating Romney's departure for

Italy, where the artist is bracketed with Gainsborough

and other famous artists of the time, Cumberland be-

on him the following eulogy:

" Crown'd with fresh roses, grateful Humphry stands,

While beauty grows immortal from his hands."

This was in 1773. He did not venture to appear at the

n) until [779, when he sent five portraits, and was

\ . K.A. The next year he was represented by

three picl n oni ol which was his now famous portrait

of the Ladii Vlaria and Horatio Waldegrave. It was

ii'.i .1 fixed 1 nission,

in ' 1 pin

thi artist having incautiously

1 h, 1 .ed unless it was

on probably lowered his ].i

and may haw prevented his attaining full academii

Ai any rate, Humphry was not elected an

1 ceasi

d to contribute to the

'.I 1


The Connoisseur

this period



family, a

"i the Berkeley

unpo mun < nut, lining ten figures,

and in m espi tanl woi I. '1 Wil

eresl note by 1 lumphry i om rnin

the picture, from which it appears that his price for it was

thi rati of twenty-fivi

1 a

• nted and

mall price

for such a work compared with what contemporary artists

like Reynolds and Romney were receiving, and it shows

that Humphry was not making headway. The price he

stated that he asked for the two Ladies Waldegrave was

1 20 guineas. Dr. Williamson devotes a chapter to the

history of this work, from which it appears that the family

gave as their reasons for objecting to it, that the figures

were too slightly draped, and that the bare foot of one of

them was visible. One may surmise that these were

only polite excuses to get out of the purchase, and that

their real opinion followed Horace Walpole's curt criticism

noted in his Academy catalogue " : Both too old, and

Lady Horatio not near so handsome as she is." The

author does not give this.

In 17S5 Humphry, dissatisfied with his prospects at

home, set out for India. Extracts from his letters give

a full account of his experiences during his voyage and

visit. The latter was not so successful as he had antici-

pated. He executed a number of commissions for the

Nabob \ 'izier of Oude, for which he was to be paid

50,000 rupees. He only received 5,000, and his own

obstinacy in declining to take the balance of the debt

without interest, when offered him by the British Govern-

ment, prevented him from securing the remainder. In

1788 Humphry returned to England a disappointed man.

His health had suffered during his visit to the East, and

his eyesight was beginning to fail. On this account he

began to drop miniature painting for crayons, and, with

the assistance of the Duke of Dorset, was in 1792

appointed portrait painter in crayons to the king, while

in the previous year he had attained full academic rank.

He continued to exhibit until 1797, when his eyesight

appears to have failed him. During the remaining

years of his life he lived largely on his savings and by the

sale of pictures executed in his younger days. Though

a comparatively poor man, he appears to have moved in

the best society, his powers as a conversationalist and his

reputation as a judge of art making him a welcome guest

at the houses of many of the nobility. He died on

March 9th, 1810, in his sixty-eighth year.

Humphry's reputation rests on his miniatures and

crayons rather than on his oil painting. Yet he produced

sufficiently good work in this medium to place him well

up in the ranks of English secondary artists. He had a

keen eye for beauty, a good sense of colour, and a dex-

terous and flattering brush. His paintings are strongly

influenced by Romney, but in his miniatures and crayons

— more especially in the former he attains greater

individuality and more complete mastery of his medium.

Though not so brilliant as Cosway a) his best, his work

is more uniform in quality, and in its refinement, ease,

good Colour, careful drawing, and finished execution, is

sec on, I to none ol the productions ol othei eighteenth-

century miniature artists. Dr. Williamson di ;erves thi

gratitude of art lovers foi writing such an exhaustive and

authoritative life of this distinguished painter. He has





supplemented it with lists of all his known works, the

madi Fi tl and .1 opj ol the artist's

aCCOUnl ks unfortunately kept onl\ .1 few years—

giving the nanus of his sitters and the prices Ol tl" il

portraits. Various other interesting items culli

the artist's paper? and elsewhere go to swell the ..

to the volume, among them .1 list of thi

of Humphry, from which it appi

made oi him by Romney,

Fall onet, Dam e, Stuart,

and Edridge. To the forei

would have

ble to have added

Zoffany, for Humphry

appears in his well-known

picture of Colon-! Mordau

nt's Cock Fig/it, en- »

graved by Earlom, where

he is represented standing

immediately behind the

painter, with his hand rest-

ing on the latter's shoulder,

i »ne has already mentioned

the copious

the I

; they comprise


some hundreds of repro-

du< tions in half tone, colour

and photogravure, all of

them of high quality, and

form a veritable portrait

gallery of the intellect and

society of the late eighteenth

century. Few art books

have been better illustrated,

even in peace times, and the


produi tion ot such a volume,

in spite of the severe handicap-, caused by the war, must


irded as a veritable triumph on the part of the

Chard as an old town, situated on the great wi

a few miles from the eastern border of Devonshire, is a

place of some historic note. It was

"A Guide to the

Arthur Hull Collection,

Chard "

(exhibited at

Taunton Castle),

by H. St. Georg*

Gray. (Barnicott

and Pearce,

Taunton. 8d.)

The Connoisseur Bookshelf

situated near the fluctuating border-

line of the last independent Celtic

kingdom in England, and in more

modern times has been the scene of

at least one battle. Thi

around abounds i

n re lii - oi pn

ci ilisations, and later ages

have all left their tra< es inthi

Sui h a place inevitably will be rich

in interesting relics of the past, though whether they will

be gathered up in the town itself or allowed to

persed broadcast, depends wholly upon the enterpi ise and

• hard, it was fortunate that Mr. Arthur Hull,

in the casi oi

i li rist and loi al n towards

the middle part of the nineteenth centun to form a col

lection of local antiquities, which came into the po

of the town after Mr. Hull's death. The authoi

the town, not having a local museum, have adopted the

• I u seum at Taunton, h h

away, and where the collection will be permanentl

the public. Mr. II. St. (.eorge Gray, curator of

the museum, has just fin

tion, gi ii I


it compi

not very extensive,

• that


sections, l'erhaps the most

interesting of the individual

fine virginal

Charles Rewallin,


. i i

again resounding with the struggles of armed hosts. The

present number contains an impressive monochrome

drawing entitled "The Untitled Fields "—atypical stretch

of war-swept country, with shattered trees and desolated

land giving evidence of strenuous fighting. Another

drawing shows the "Great Crater, Athies," and a third

the ruins of " The Chateau, Foucaucort." Less tenebrous

in feeling is the representation of "A Hospital Ship on

the Seine," an effective sketch in colour, slight but at-

ii . u. ,1 full of quality. Drawings of " Rouen,"

a .hipbuilding yard, the gun turret of a battle-

1, p, ,i dri ;ing station at the front, and a highly finished

• ,

,i Highland Officer," aid to make up a number

well diversified in interest and the components of which

all show Mr. Mm ii ent and graphic pencil


"The Oracle of Colour," by William Kiddier

(A. C. Fifield.

The i

' '

"'" ! a panion volume to

//, Profanity oj Paint, written by Mr. Kiddiei ome

h is b\ no means a plagiaris n the

author's earlier work, for though the form is the ame,

the thought and langua ;i an l< quaint .md more

The Connoisseur


, i

serious in intention. One could b< describe it as a

„. h vated in sentiment and dii tion, but still

onnei I with

. . i lii.

mother earth b) norm

wd ad\ ii e. Sin h is his

lould nevei retoui h their early

I. ii.i i mai red man} a gl i

outh, tor, as Mr. Kiddier lays it down, "the

-li'iuM ml. ill', 1


changing vision, or remain not at all— verily it is better

that he should destroy it." Thoroughly good, too, is

the short chapter on " Genius," in which the distinction

is drawn between it and cleverness. "Clever people

may do good work always, but the genius does the unexpected

in both good and bad. My last word made a

paradox : the bare truth is that the work of the genius is


not good or bad but original." Mr. Kiddier insists on

the supremacy of colour in painting, and of the child-like

nature of the true artist. Not all his ideas may be

ai ceptable to the reader, but their sincerity is manifest,

and the well-chosen and poetical language in which they

are conveyed will ensure the work a careful and appre-

ciative perusal.

mm hundred and twenty-eight octavo pages oi well

executed reproductions from the most attractive ivorl

" The Royal

Academy Illustrated,


(Walter Judd., Ltd

2s. 6d. net)

it the Academy is the bill of fare

>r0vided by this excellent annual.

Few striking pictures are omitted,

ind though the colour of the originals

s absent in the translations, it is

surprising how nun h "I it is SUg-



ested in them, i, and how well the tune values of the

painting endered. Visitors to Burlington House

would be wi 11 ad; :ed ire a cop) before making

their pilgrimage round the galleries, foi a preliminarj

stud) ol the illustrations in the work will prevent them

from overlooking many interesting pictures that would

otherwise escape theii notice, while ii provides an in-

teresting and attrai tive rei ord ol the prim ipal contents


I in smallest exhibition since the premier English an

moved to Burlington House, containing fewer important

works than usual, and

A . A ^ ya


lsed by originality in theme or treatment

-such may be given as the summary of th

sight tin ittractive than il

i it

in -i

predecc laratively small number of exhibits

enable > i d splayed to advantage, a

toi from liability to the Academj hea

the detail in pictures hun

War p

mount oi

. d their general low quality tends to make this

a subject for congratulation rat i


the largest is Mr. Frank O. Salisb

.1 for

huge canva

panel the Excha


By far

Their Majesties King George I '. andQueen Maty visiting

the Battle Dish Experience has taught

thetic gratification from

Van I )yck, who were eminentlj »uci essful in this

Velazquez, and

both in

of con-

temporary costume and their greater familiarity with the

depicted. Theypainted I

frequently that they understood them as Constable under-

stood English landscape or Meryon the old buiL

of Reynolds an I

there was less familiarity and less success. In

masterp i

and ( *1mi les 1. ; but

ez or Van Dyck it won],:


mention of several portraits of Philip IV.

the omission oi all

iltj would not detract one whit fi

i reputation ] With

later well known portrait painters su( h an omission would

in most

m'iiki i


of modern life permits few great personages to give

adequate sittings, and the artist has perforce to compile

his picture from photographs supplemented by one or

two brief sittings. Such compilations do not tend to

result in great art, and the best we can hope for is a

succes d'estime, anything that is not absolutely unsightly

or offends against the elementary canons of art coming

within this category. Mr. Salisbury has attained this

limited triumph. The group of the King, the Prince

of Wales, and Sir Douglas Haig, standing in front of

,1 short, square tower on a hill-top overlooking the battle

area, is well composed. The figures are easy and natural

and do not lack vitality, while the group of officers

attendant—an inevitable component in such a scene— is

not thrust into too obtrusive prominence. What colour

there is, if not distinguished, is at least not unpleasing.

The addition of a predella under the main subject, re-

presenting the Queen visiting a hospital in France, is,

however, an artistic blunder. The painter had obviously

to subordinate its interest to that of the larger theme,

and he has done this by depriving it of any interest at

all. On either- side of the Exchange panel hang Mr.

Salisbury's portraits of the King and Queen. The former

is decidedly better than the latter. The artist has seized

His Majesty at a happy moment and produced a pleasing

and vivacious likeness. That of the Queen wants anima-

tion, and fails to do Her Majesty justice.

Turning to other topical pictures, one must confess to

a sensation of disappointment at M iss Lucy Kemp- Welch's

large canvas of Big Guns going up to the Front. It is

a similar theme composed on similar lines to a dozen or

more earlier works by the same artist. A dozen roan

horses, assisted by a like number of straining men, are

pulling a large field-gun up a little snow-covered hillock.

A certain colour attraction is obtained by the contrast of

the warm tones of the khaki uniforms and ruddy coats of

the horses against the snow, but the work is pretty rather

than forceful. The foremost horses, though their traces

are strained tight, hardly seem pulling, and there is a

want of conviction in both the conception and realisation

"i the scene. Mr. R. Caton Woodville puts plenty of

energy into his picture of The 2nd Battalion Manchester

Regiment taking six German field-guns near St. Quentin,

but his combatants are rather of the stage than the

battlefield, each strenuously exerting himself with voice

and weapon at the same moment in order to make as

much tumuli as possible. More realistic in this respect

is Mr. F. Matania's Neuve Chapelle. Here the artist has

distinguishi d between the idiosym rasies of tin- individual

i i ed Hi' death as well a- the

exultation oi combat, and hinted at what ghastly wounds

inflicted ami what slaughter must ensue befon

d. It is ugly and horrible, even when, as

in this casi told .Mill artistic skill and tact,

hut it does seem like the real thin-. Mr. 1'.

J. Beadle

the lattei also, though in a far less grue ome

')aion: Waiting to (,'o Over. The scene

nin., group oi waiting

" Tommies and a subaltern, then faces more strongly

illuminated by the light "I bui iting shells than by the

The Connoisseur

glimmer of the coming day. The men are serious and

subdued in anticipation of the grim work to be done,

while the officer, his eyes fixed on his watch, waits for the

moment he has to give the word to start. Mr. Beadle has

realised the feeling of the scene, and the quiet twilight

colouring of the picture helps its solemn effect. The

general breaking out of English people into khaki during

the war is illustrated in Mr. Fred Roe's Afternoon Prayers

at Westminster School, in which the former civilian costume

of the boys assembled has for the most part been

replaced by the martial garb of the officer's cadet corps.

Probably no living artist would have been able to paint

the details of the old Gothic school hall and its fine

timber hammer-beam roof with greater archaeological

appreciation ; and Mr. Roe has utilised this dignified

background with artistic judgment and restraint, neither

over-elaborating it nor allowing its historical significance

to escape by setting it down with careless generalisa-

tion. The time-worn timbers of the roof carry the

mind to the many generations of scholars who have

passed through the school, and the numerous memorial

tablets on the wall — to individual boys dying in the

present war and wars of the past—serve as a connect-

ing link between students of to-day and those of former

ages. It is not a theme that lends itself much to

colour, and in unskilful hands might easily become set

and formal. Mr. Roe has avoided this last pitfall by his

clever arrangement of the figures. They are easily and

naturally grouped, the awkward parallelism of the horizontal

rows of seats being disguised by the artist making

the chief lines of the composition ascend in a vertical

direction. The introduction of several figures in black

assists in keeping the mass of khaki in tone, and the

gleaming wall brasses and browns of the roof timbers

help by introducing modifications of the same tints in the

other parts of the canvas. A glimpse of past naval his-

tory is afforded by Mr. A. D. McCormick's Nelson at

t//e Council of War before Copenhagen, 1801, in which

the Admiral is shown impatiently pacing up and down

the cabin of his flagship in front of the fleet captains

seated at a council of war. The picture tells its story

well ; the grouping of the figures is effective, and the

warm-toned lamplight permeating the cabin gives a

telling setting for the blue and white uniforms of the

naval officers. Two large historical pictures, both con-

cerned with the annals of Bristol, are the work respec-

tivel) of Mr. Ernest Board and Mr. T. C. Gotch. Both

works suffer from o\ er-exuberance of colour. The

former represents Edward //'. being enter!, lined by

Willi, mi Canynge, Mayor of Bristol, //"/. It contains

many carefully drawn figures and much elal.101.1le .111.

highly finished painting, but the interest is insufficiently

concentrated. Much the same < tit 1. ism applies to what

maybe termed the companion work, /'//, First Printing

press set up in Bristol, whii h, though not quite so strong

in colour, is equally diffused in interest. A contrast to

these two pictures is afforded in I'/ie /inter World, bj

Mi. Waliei Bayes, which, though merely an artistic joke

dealing with a contemporar) theme- -\n underground

railway station during an air-raid yet shows a full


mastery of the


sition on

scale. Thesomewhat


the therm

ternly women

.iml children in

of deshabille,

and loutishlooking


backed by pos

ter ad \ ertisements

and rail-

ns — are

arranged with

greatskill, while,

wherever Mr.

has for-

gotten that he is

not making a

picture, but a

caricature, t h e

individual fig-

ures are truthful

and interesting.

The artist might

well essay the

theme with more

serious intention.


work marked by

mastery in deco-

rativecomposi- tion i- Mr. Stephen

I :


scene vaMacbeth

—not scene 3 of

logued, but

scene 4. T li e

work m arks .1

distinct advance

on the part ol

the artist, and is

quite one of the

best pn I

it-, kin

duced sin

death of I. A.

It is

sufficiently dra


empty cha

. 1 1 h o 11


Curreut Art Note.

into the vacancy above his b) Messrs. R.

hich, to his vision alone, appears the Hacker, who approach their tin

Ban qui

1 nd al-

t e 11 tl ants look

Id as-

tonish m e n t.

w h i 1 e La d

Macbeth stands

behind her

!. about

to utter her

nat i




res are

w e 1 1 arranged,

showing plenty


.mil vai

attitude, yet tel

ling out 111 the

p i c t uri

'i groups

ibly b a 1 -

.1 n . e il a n d


while the colour

is i m pi 1

and well sustained.


not possessing

any historical or

topical connection,

one may

as well mention

here the same

artist's Pot-

pourri, an attractive



in eigh-

teenth century

1 ostume, pleas-

ing in

tin 11 ami execu-


ye a r- n

1 ing recent

art ha

ipe ared

from tli'

ind in the

present exhibition

1 :


most notewor

tnd Arthur

view-points. Mr. Hacker's recent essays in this metier

are always frankly sensational. He has no ambition to

illustrate scriptural history, reconstruct archaeological

truths, or convey mystic consolation to the devout.

His appeal is directed to the man in the street, and

to reach him he puts obvious truths into as pleasing

a form and with as much dramatic power as possible.

His Watchers shows a group of women mourning at

the foot of a cross ; they may be the Virgin Mary and

her companions, but are more probably intended as

types of suffering humanity appealing for help from on

high to support their sorrows. They are endowed with

all the superficial attributes of grief; but their sorrow has

not marred the beauty of their countenances, or the

abandonment of their attitudes disarranged the graceful

folds of their draperies. The feeling of the picture is

sentimental rather than tragic : it may make an appeal

to the emotions without affecting the deeper chords of

feeling. Mr. Philpot altogether neglects emotional ap-

peal, approaching religious art purely from the painter's

standpoint. ( Ibviously he selected The Ador.ition of the


' Kings

as .1 subject because it allowed scope for

bringing into juxtaposition three highly contrasting types

of humanity, clad in garments affording opportunity

for rich and varied colour. The three kings, presumably

entering the stable, are facing the spectator.

The foremost figure, a stalwart, red-haired barbarian,

bearing a costly vase, is flanked on the one side by

a negro and on the other by a dark-haired Asiatic, their

rich gar nts being sel background of

cool, grey sky. The picture is a strong, vital, and

accomplished piece of painting, glowing with colour, but

is destitute of religious significance. Mr. R. Aiming

Bell, .hi the other hand, is generally successful in impregnating

his work with devotional sentiment. Something

..i tin- is derived from a certain dignified austerity in

form and colour generally distinguishing his pictures,

.m.l something from theii mediaeval ...I.. Of the

trio of examples by which he is represented, 7V/, Rose

i harden of Dawn has no ol.\ ious . onnection with biblical

i : its seriousness of feeling appears to invest it

with in ondite signifii ance. Though not so firmly handled

as either of the other two works, it is marked by beautiful

-: -lions, ["he Repose on /he Flight into Egypt

mon perfei tly realised. Tin- scene is laid in a ruined

classical temple, with the earl) morning sky as back-

ground. Si |.. eph, his head bowed forward with sleep,

ea i


thi fori ground, while almost immediately

n '

i ouple of angels float motionless in the air

in iilenl adoration of the sleeping mother and child.

sympathi i

i "i


the \ irgin is reverent and

Mothei oi the Son ol I

The Connoisseur


he paint , ilun a young girl nol thoroughly rei on. iled to

I t'"' my ti I, wistful an. apprehi n e ol

Hi" future, and conscious that life holds in store lor her

. sllr I"..! d

ai hi a tin i

1 "


fori i. II nor comprehend.

pathetii rathei than a saintly

>lui ol he: dre i

' ' in Hi. pii mi.', win. i . h iingularlj


e thi I



pure and

In Mary in tin ffous, oj Elizabeth -a

work deservedly bought on behalf of the Chantrey bequest—Mr.

Bell attains a higher standard of success. Its

arrangement is more simple and impressive, its coloration

stronger and better sustained. The Virgin is again

attired in blue— her traditional colour—and Elizabeth,

in green, is seated on a high-backed settle immediately

beside her. The dark wood of the settle forms an effec-

tive contrast to the gleaming marble of the room beyond,

while the bright red footstool at the Virgin's feet furnishes

the touch of warm colour necessary to keep the cool blues

and whites in tone. The work furnishes an example-

rare in this metier— of a noble conception embodied with

adequate technical skill.

Passing from religious art to figure subjects, one fails

to discover many embodying fresh ideas or new artistic

conventions. Mr. Charles Situs's Piping Boy is a return

to his earlier manner, and affects one with an irritating

senseof fineachievement not perfectly consummated. The

artist appears to have halted between realism and decorative

effect, the lower part of the figure being endowed

with more vitality and less statuesque feeling than the

upper. Nevertheless, the picture attains distinction

through its fine sense of form and its powerful but

somewhat cold colour. The late Mr. Edward Stott's

unfinished picture of Orpheus is highly interesting as

exemplifying his technical methods. His pictures were

not painted in separate portions, but appeared to grow

stroke by stroke equally all over the canvas. The present

work seems like a delicate colour vision coming

gradually into being before the eyes of the spectator,

and indefinite and nebulous though it is, it furnishes

some of the most tender and exquisite passages of colour

to be found in the exhibition. Delicate colour, too, is

a characteristic of Mr. Henry Woods's pleasing and

highly finished picture entitled Destiny, representing

a pretty Italian girl puzzling out her own fortune with

a pack of cards. The interest of two of Mr. Harry Wat

son's works is pretty equally divided between the figures

and the landscapes environing them. A Morning of

Pleasure shows a party of girls scrambling along the

course of a shady rock-strewn brook, the sunlight pene-

trating through the translucent greener) above with

chastened splendour, except here and there win i. i


anion- the bran, lies permits the spangling of figures,

stones, and water with undenied brilliance. The artist

had obtained a delightfully cool and well-balancei

.. ii colour and feeling. A second picture, /

in the Woods, was carried out on somewhat similar lines

with nearly equal success; a third work, /'//



l-i the l



a telling background to the figures ol the two .

stepping into a shallow river in which hi

a) read) seated. The full-length figure, gracefull

other \

ly modelled, and set down «



In the 51

( urn-ut Art Notes

with the

ng the

int touch to .ui otherwise idyllii scene. Mr.

undraped figure in the open air

and another essay in the nude, Mr. Hi


i contemporary life not directly connected

nth the wai Mr. C. W. Simp

on's Tent, >1

m the sand . ted


Spenlove Spenlove's Green Shutters Viaticum, b

; Mr. !".

. : ick \V.

Ewell p i « ith verisimi-

litude, ai

in Pay. Mr. I-'.

.' ening, though showing

the intei nursery, is marked by an



of this is caused by hi

which m fi m

and placidity, and something by the austere purity of his

outlook. The world he sees is without pride, passion, or

desire. Though the people moving in it have the same

forms, the same garments, and the same surroundings as

our own, it is yet a far-away country, untroubled by war

or tumult, unvisited by sin or sorrow.

The landscape painters show to less advantage than

usual. The older school, content to copy nature as they

see it, have been reinforced by few noteworthy recruits,

and the moderns, who subordinate nature to design, are

apt to unduly neglect the former. Mr. Leader is represented

by several pleasing transcripts of woodland and

meadow, which, if they show no advance on former effort,

at least fully maintain it. Mr. Joseph Farquharson remains

faithful to his snow-clad pastures, and Mr. Peter

Graham to his Highland scenes and cattle. Mr. Alfred

Parsons deserts sunny English gardens for the greenholms

of Yarrow, looking bare and bleak under a canopy

of grey cloud and clinging mists. It is not the romantic

Yarrow of legend, but an unidealised and closely observed

view of an actual scene, tranquil and not unduly gloomy

in tone, despite the absence of sunshine. Sir David Mur-

ray is more discriminating in his view-point, selecting

romantic aspects of nature, and heightening their effect

with bright colours and the accentuation of picturesque

features. His Autumn's Surrender, a view of Scotch

hills covered with an early fall of snow, while the trees

on their lower slopes are still decked with red and russet

pomp, is perhaps the best of his examples, as being most

simple in composition and least inclined to be scenic in

its effect. Mr. H. Hughes-Stanton attains an impressive

design in his Cader Idris, a powerfully painted transcript

of the long-ridged mountain, surmounted by banks of

threatening cloud, with a rugged stretch of valley threaded

by a boisterous river in the immediate foreground. In

this instance, however, the strength of the artist's tech-

nique is too untempered. Massive as is the form of the

mountain, it appears overpowered by the weight of the

sky, while the handling of the foreground is clumsy and

heavy. A little more lightness and delicacy in portions

of the picture, to give adequate value to the strength of

the remainder, would have greatly improved it ; yet, even

as it is, it remains one of the most striking landscapes in

the exhibition, exceeded by none in sustained interest or

-ust. lined dignity of design. The Walls ofLangstrothdale,

near, In Mr. Bernard Priestman, furnishes

almost a complete contrast in both conception and

handling. In this ruggedness is replaced by suavity,

n.,1 lowering clouds by summer skies and bright sun-

light. Despite the dulcet tone of the work, it is not

wanting either in atmospheric truth or largeness of feeling.

Another fine lands, ape is Mr. Sydnej I. it's Limestone

, mi, in, hi ,•! a towei ing « hite pre, ipi, e

with a couple of minute bulls lighting below a device

i l>y

The ( 'onnoisseur

which tu gauge the

I t Of tl Id, ,ii,s i, imposing, but this is

.^ing to the huge si/.e of the canvas, which is

hardlj ju tl i, re ,4'

I the subject or

n ,


linitn m it. The tone "' Hi,

in ii bright* ;l whites, appeal -


with a faint tinge of green. This combines the predominant

greens and whites in more perfect unison, but

gives an aspect of unreality to the work.

Mr. S. J. Lamorna Birch's Cam Lanken is so good

that it is a disappointment it is not better. The scene

impresses one as the setting of a romance of which the

story is untold. The foreground is occupied by a

deserted quarry with sides of gleaming pink and white

stone and its bottom filled with a great sheet of water,

deep blue from the reflections of the sky. Beyond it

a stretch of white road, bordered on either side by

bright green fields, with here and there an isolated

homestead nestling by its side, stretches forward like

a pointed finger to the distant moors. All this is finely

set down in rich and sentient colour, glowing with

romantic feeling ; but the placid, unbroken stretch of

water, usurping such a large portion of the canvas, is

monotonous, despite its beautiful colour, and fails to be

sufficiently interesting to justify the position it occu-

pies. The colour and feeling of the picture all suggest

vitality, and the stillness and lifelessness of the deserted

quarry introduces a discordant note. All Mr. Sims's

three landscapes are good, his Sussex Landscape being

especially noteworthy as a vivid presentation of natural

truth. It requires to be looked at some little distance

away, otherwise the foreground, purposely left unfinished,

obtrudes itself unpleasantly on the eye. The real picture

is formed by the more distant landscape beyond, and

if the eye is focussed on this, a vivid sense of illusion

is attained, the nearer landscape resolving itself into

a vague suggestion of form and colour as it would do

in nature. A second Landscape—a forest glade, from

near the centre of which emerges a tall antlered deer

is a fine piece of colour and design, though the abrupt

termination of the foliage at the left of the work gives

it a scenic appearance. Most complete of the trio is

the April Snow, a delicate rendering of a snowstorm

passing over an early spring landscape, set down in

beautiful and unforced colour. Mr. Amesby Brown is

represented by a series of comparatively small works,

all alike simple in design and big in feeling. Perhaps

the Little Village may be taken as at once the most

typical and successful. The sky occupies two-thirds of

the canvas. It is a sheet of neutral blue, broken halfway

up by some isolated fragments of cloud separated

from larger masses, arranged in rough parallel lines

across the upper part of the picture. These parallels

an- more or less repeated in the lines of the horizon

and the hedgerows in the tlat landscape below, wink-

the jagged contours of a clump of woodland and the

i ,,t

the village furnish reliei and contrast. It is a

theme so devoid ol scenic interest that only the dexterou i

arrangement of its,' s it an artistii iucci

Mr. Adrian Stoles shows well-harmonised and effective

coloui in lus Sunset over I at Leman, while Sir E. A.

Waterlow's January Snow is a delightfull) unaffected

and truthful transcript ol nature. Mr. Mark Fisher

shows in half a dozen landscapes—of which Th Va I

Holiday is the most attractive that his eye has not lost

ils ills, eminent tor broken and gem-like colour. Though

his work does not vary in outlook, thai o

tirely his own, and he fully maintains hi

ol the most original and individual "t English landscape

artists. prim

and indeterminate landsca to that

ol the sky. The latter i I

the heat y opaqui i

Current Art Notes


pigment ene of much of its atmospheric


quality. The Waters of Lome shows Mr. I

ful in colour as in black-and-white. His

experience as an etcher has given him thi i

and empli.i--i-.inj.: the salient lini tion and

trusting t>'i his effect to i



rather than

i l colour. In the present work his palette is almost

to blue and dull yellow, ami wiili ill

range he ha-- produced a striking effect of blue land-locked

waters surrounded by sand and dark gaunt rod

mounted by a bright summer sky. Mr. I

also gains from its strength of toni

of colour. The dignity and simplicil ol composition

tall narrow-fronted cafe and the adjoining

p] I isive

appearance, such .1 1 harai 1


iw 11 in Meryon's etchings.

As R. L. Stevenson said, "certain old houses demand to

ted. Mi- Cameron make- us feel the truth of

ag. 01 the remaining landscapes one may men-

tion the Woodbury Hill of Mr. H. \V. Adams, a cheerful

wintei scene, with warm-toned woodlands, and gleams



of evening sunshine lighting up freshly fallen snow; Mr.

F. Spenlove-Spi mtly coloured Autumns


ompton's Turneresque Chepstow

.1 and Mi. James S. Hill's quiet-toned and well-

1 d Suspension Bridge, Clifton.


The paucity of good marine pictures shows h<

a Ins- the Academj has sustained in the death of Mr.

1 i' in I 1m deceased artist is represented by

irks— TkeLighthou Mnhcrel,

The Barge, Limt 1




In .'

The last, though the smallest, is in some re-

spects the most attractive, being painted with tie

freedom and lightness; but all the works an

typical examples of the painter. Mr. Julius Ollson

I to

his penchant of pail

waves ui anything,

greater refinement and dexterity in his handlin

Terrick Williams shows an effective ever

light before Sunset, in a Cornish harbour, pleasant and

well harmonised in colour; and Mr. Robert W. Allen, in

still sunnier tones, depicts another fishing village

its brightness.

11 1 upj an inordinate amount of

and absorb to i

the more to be regretted, as an ordinary Briti

lether civil or mil

llus is

treatment than almost any other subject.

mders what will be the ultimate fate of thi

"i the portraits that the present >

forth) 1

edby the National I



art museums ofprovincial cities. Bui one cannot imagine

1 1 tor of the future accumulating round his walls

in funereal black 01

of beauty ;

of middle aged business men, all clothed

rig affability and dignified

Such ingredients will nevei CO

and even on the Academy walls then

attractive enough in) besides their

1 id frii nd ol the sitters. Mr. William S

Spanish Lady perhaps h.udK comes within the 1

rait, yet hardly possesses suffii ient attraction for

.1 fancj picture. It is well painted, adequati in colour

and drawing, and not deficient in tone, but, Ul

thi re does not appear adequate rea

painting it. Mr. Maurice Greiffenhagen is more interest

ing. The carnations in his trio of ladie, portrail



Hugh Hopkins, Mrs. f. Hislop Pettigi and .1/

George Wilson are all over-emphasised, and the brushwork

is heavy ; but at any rate there is a definite

design about all three pictures, and a strong and attr.u

live personality is given to each sitter. Mr. Solomon J.

Solomon has over-elaborated the surroundings "I Mrs

Bed lifft Salaman. The picture has the appearance of a

. opy from nature made without conscious selection, and

its various subordinate elements tell out as prominently

.1- the head of the sitter. 'The best portrait by Sir Luke

1- ;Mes is the half-length oi Lady Fergusson of Spring

Kelt, a pleasant likeness of an elderly lady. Sir E. J.

Poynter's Mrs. Temple Godrnan is one of the most suc-

cessful examples by the President produced in thi

mitier during recent years ; the head is firmly drawn and

well posed, and the colour, though bright, is well harmonised.

Sir Arthur S. Cope gives a refined yet manly

head of Lord Claud f. Hamilton, and Mr. Seymour

I 11. .1 , a well-characterised portrait oi Majoi . I. /.. Humphreys

Owen. Mr. Charles Shannon's portrait oi M

1 illah Mi Carthy in the character of" The Dum

mffers from thi elaborateness of the sitter's attire. It is

well painted, but lacks something of the poetical

with which the artist generally endow 5 his work. Such cos-

tume pictures are adapted to the brush of Mi I

who m TheBlu h

1 rendering oi feminine umptuou ne F01

richness of colour this picture has probabl) no


the exhibition. It is gorgeous with crimson and bli

1 ,.it

id, kept in tone by deep lustrous bla'

the mi 1 li.inu al ordi g tour de

ofcrafi manship, it is characterised by litl

ment or emotion. Mr. Arthur Hacker's Sir Fran

is also a tour de force in its way, the painter having

rendered thi sittei gai b .\\\A surround

strength and realism as his physiognomy, with. mi .1.



and throwing the head oi the sittei in reliel against the

1 • darks

of the picture. A powerful .c.

modelled portrait, fine! has the value

r Fra but showing him

urrounded bj the implements ol his art. The


Fisher, if not examples of deep psychological analysis, are

imbued with feminine charm and set down in tender and

attractive colour; while his portrait of The Lite J. Arthur

Humphrey, Em/., is an excellent piece of characterisation,

the modelling of the face and the flesh - tones being

i ipeciallj

well caught. Mr. W. W. Ouless recalls the

tin l.i .! ;.;i in], ui I

Herbert 1 Manisty, Esq., A (

|>ui li .tit i —. i -, iii hi-, picture 111

Austere in colour and

tighl in handling, it yel attain ; a cri ;pne :s of touch,

i - of

mi idi lling, and depth of i hiarosi uro rarely

ied n In i

l e

>i i Charles

uave and atmo iphei ii paintings

Sims 1ms produi ed one of his

i be pii tun rait of Miss H. F. Hepburn. It

is fluent] i

d, bul ihow closi observation.

e deta uch as the reflei ted lights on a

klai e, the arti it has differentiated betwei n I

1 1 i


i i limilar

fron thi i'.i pe 1. tin. .! from the

in m aring, and there

The Connoisseur



discrimination shown in the rendering of different fabrics.

The work is a piece of good and sentient painting,

handled deftly and with knowledge. Sir John Lavery's

portrait of Mr. Asquith is disappointing. The painter

litis given a dignified presentment of tin- ex-Premier,

but tin- modelling oi the face is slight, and the absence

of strong tone and colour throughout the work dues not

give promise of it showing to advantage mi the walls of

the National Liberal Club its ultimate resting-place.

Much more effective ".is the same painter's Eileen and

Diana, though in this good colour and design was marred

in places—more especially in the rendering of tin

of the younger sitter by hasty and superficial work.

i hi Mi. I . |. Si i.i 1 1 in hi mi ne than ,m\ mini i

ui: i i fallen

i niieiii|imai \

the mantle "1 the English eighteenth-


century portraitists, for he sees Ins subjects with the

mi. mi apprei iation oi personal beauty ami the same

ii.ini tin style. Hi- Lady Broughton is reminiscent

of a fine Lawrence, set down with more certain draughtsp

and with a mo

It is .1 dignified and

destitute of fascination; and the latter qualitj pri

i -

i .

; .

even greater degree in his Miss Bruce Ward.

portraits deserving mention include The Lord

M The Lord F

Nairn, by Mr. Fiddes Watt ; Captain Adrian Jones, by

Mr. (1.

J. Coates j and Mr. Richard Jack's Iris. Mr.

William Llewellyn showed several works in his usual

polished and highly finished style, of which pert

most successful was the portrait of Mrs. Thurburn,

painted with strength and perception as well

i ment.

rhe water-colours do not call for extended comment.


Mr. [ohn McDougal's A Summer Sunlit Bay happily

exemplifii and white cliff

crested with green sward and yellow gorse, all bright

ous sunlight. Mr. W. Russell Flint was in

Sands was grej and impres

sombre n i d

g .1 lonel) i

Current ,-lrt Notes

lassii al shore, tenanted by

a single figure, who might well have stood foi

mourning the absence of Theseus. Mr. I

i! and poetii al feeling ;

I Pierce lvi some \ igorous and well-

harmonised still-life painting in her drawing of An /,/

Cellar; Mr. Geo Holborn,

and Mr. William Walcott in Trinity Coll

both invested themes with artistii

tion ; and Mr. Albert E. Brockbank's Picardy Landscape

was marked by good tonal quality and atmosphere. Mr.

John K. Wilmei ///.- Magi furnished a

• contrast to Mr. Philpot's treatment of the same

theme, and, if not displaying the same strong technique,

at any rate gave a more explicit rendering of the incident


colour. A small drawing ol ./ Welsh Glen, by Mr.

I Watts,

hung low down on thi

delicate and lo\ .•/ 1'ield

oj Pink Campion. Tyrol, by Mis> Rosa Wallis, hung

some little waj abovi lvi er and refined note

of coloui but true to natun

with feminine fei


pture has suffered more from the war tha

mnected with mu

vented ai for the dei ora

w publicedifii es, while transport

hi of marble. What

\ trgi •

11 k put in

he usual

on ol portrait busts, a phase of work offering less


i mi.

i inative powei than tin

other. Among the war memorials, Sir W. Go

John's figures of Air am: Water,'


tl, l.i\ ei | I, 01 1 upj a pri

pli i It is difficult to judge of their suitability f

ultimate purpose until the} are actually set in position,

but the; ed by a largene

handling that follows the highest traditions of architec-

ilpture. In the nobility of theii

recall tin

Wellington monument at St. Paul's Cathedral, I

may hope-, though not H tho

combe John may achieve a similar triumph. Other

i The

Hi'ii. John Mann,), a


dignified and

impress Heichen's

similar memorial in bronze-gilt of The Viscount Ingestre,

which i] '"irate and ornate; and a well-

La!. uu ed II ar Memorial Reredos oj the Entombment, by

Mr. W. Reynolds Stephens. In this the design is marred

by the conception oi the fi un ol the two kneeling

wings, are obviously >

ted by two women, who, despite their

in era, the platting of their hair, and even the



foi mi ol tin u gai ments, all helping the illusion. Sii

Frampton is repn i single imple, a

itatuette of Tin- Knight of the Ounce, inti

i if the material in which

it is cast. Too main sculptors hardly vary their treat-

ment of bronze from marble, hardly realising that the

ductile metal affords scope for bolder and mon

handling than stone can carry. The fi|

mon i- :• attitude and rendered with fuller detail

and mon ilised than marble would permit,

and affords a good example of vigoui ol conception ( om-

bined with delicacy of handling. It is inti

pare this work with Mr. Stanley Thonmghg i

trian potti mhoe. In the latter the material

used furnishes a complete antithesis to bronze. 1

less rigid, cannot be moulded into I

hape, and depend - fi u its beaul j n< it • m


il boli


outline, but tin- grace ol symmetryol its general form.

Mr. Thoroughgood has appreciati


has produced a group in whil h the hard, crisp modelling

ol bronze is n plai ed bj ofti and more yielding lines.

Colour legitimately assists in pro ect which

in bronze must be done by light and shadow alone. The

work is well i


i< 'I. and its colo

Mum: t can produce little that is wholly

original, has at lea hi age oi being tin- heir oi

Design for

all the ages that have gone before.


go ^ ^ ^ ^ h

an Interior , ,

past are available tor adaptation to

: requirements.

An example ol

i essful modern interior inspired largely by the art of the

past is Mi. Jo ihu esign foi an enti

i il the Louis X 1 \

While not slavishly imitative of any actual crea


od, tin- whole n ork

richness and dignity. The ornamental

Garside's sidered,

The specially designed

painted ceiling, give a valuabli


The furniture in the hall is of walnut I



gilt, the upholstery rub\ -coloured velvet with gilt braid

Enquiries should be made on the Enquiry Coupo

See Advertising Pages.

Copper Tea Urn.— 61,572 (Leominster).—Judging from

the photograph submitted, your copper tea urn is of English

make, about one hundred years old, and is apparently a fine

specimen. Being oval in shape, it is more uncommon than the

round urns so often seen. If in good condition, we should

value at about ^8 or £9.

China Mark. — 61,567 (Nippon). — In all probability the

china bearing the mark you describe is English or quite modern

Japanese, and the word Nippon, which means "Japan," is

obviously only a pattern name. It is quite impossible to place

a value on your specimens without seeing them.

Count Bruhl's Sailor. Bi.sSi (Dresden).— The whole

question as to its value depends on the age of your group. If it

is one of the earlier specimens— 1731-1756—it would be very

valuable, but this point can only be definitely ascertained by

seeing it. As the Duke of Wellington, who was Warden of

Dover Castle, died in 1852, the sale referred to was possibly a

dispersal of his effects, and we think the only way to elicit the

desired information would be to enquire locally. Your other

questions will be answered in another issue.

Artists' Names.— 81,590 (Southsea). - Burdon — The

only artist of this name, as far as we are able to make out, was

a Miss Burdon, who afterwards became Madame de Schobinger.

She was a painter of domestic subjects, and in 1S59 exhibited

four pictures at various galleries in London. We are unable to

supply any further details concerning this lady. John Hughes

was a landscape painter in London, and between the years

1819-1S38 exhibited nineteen pictures at the Royal Academy,

British Institute, and Suffolk Street Galleries. The dates of his

birth and death are not recorded. H. de Covt or Coot—

We are unable to trace this name in any of the orthodox books

of reference. Robert Bremmel Schnebbelie was the son

of the artist Jacob C. Schnebbelie. The date of his birth is not

recorded, but he died, apparently from want, in 1849. Nine

of his works appeared on the walls at Burlington House bet ween

the years 1S03 and 1S21. None of these artists were uf any

particular note in their profession.

Antique Silver.— B 1,600 (King's Norton).— From your

description we are inclined to think that your silver is modern,

and not of any particular interest to a collector. The snuff-box

might be worth a couple of guineas, but we should have to see

it and the spoons before placing a definite value on them.

Old Nankin. — Bi,6o'3 (Bristol). —The answer to your

query will be found in Mr. Litchfield's book Poilery and Porcelain,

page 141, where the following occurs: "Until quite recently

LCCUStomed to see blue and white Chinese porcelain

' desci ibed a, < Hd Nankin,' and this description one still finds

in the catalogues of some auctioneers and collectors. So far as

the author's information goes, there never was any porcelain

li while china made at King-te-Chin,

Fo-Kien, and other Chinese factories is said to have been sent

to Nankin to be decorated. The probable origin of the name

' ' Nankin being given to thU kind of china is that this was the

.".' b which it was formerly shipped to Europe ; and, just

tal china was called ' ' Indian sixty or seventy years

1 1 brought

over by the East India Company's

ships, so 'Nankin,' as the known source, became the generally

acknowledged title of the porcelain."


The Connoisseur

Readers of The Connoisseur who' desire to take

advantage of the opportunities offered herein should

address all letters on the subject to the Manager of

the Heraldic Department, 1, Duke Street, St. James's,

London, S.W.i.

Only replies that may be considered to be of general

interest will be published in these columns. Those

of a directly personal character, or in cases where the

applicant may prefer a private answer, will be dealt

with by post.

Readers who desire to have pedigrees traced, the

accuracy of armorial bearings enquired into, or other-

wise to make use of the department, will be charged

fees according to the amount of work involved.

Particulars will be supplied on application.

When asking information respecting genealogy or

heraldry, it is desirable that the fullest details, so

far as they may be already known to the applicant,

should be set forth.

Arms of West and Aston.—The statement that there was

a quartered coat of arms granted to William West is incorrect.

He appears to have had a grant of a single coat, which

is a variation of the old coat of West, and was authorised

to impale, during his lifetime, for his wife, the quartered coat

of Ashton as entered in the Visitation of Lancashire, but this

could not be borne by his children or descendants. The arms

are— West— Ermine a fess dancettce sable. Impaling Ashton

1, Argent a mullet sable, thereon an annulet for difference;

2, Ermine on a fess gules, three annulets, or ; 3, Argent three

pallets vert ; 4, Argent two bendlets sable, the upper one

engrailed, over all a crescent for difference. Crests — For

West, a griffin's head erased per levs ermine and gules and

gorged with a collar dancettce sable. For Ashton, a boar's

head couped argent, charged with a crescent for difference.

We hope the above supplies the particulars required,

B] EWETT.— There is a memorial in Colan Church, in Cornwall,

to Frauncys Bluet, Esq., who married Elizabeth Colan,

by whom he had thirteen sons and nine daughters. He died

20th May, 1572. On the brass is a shield chaiged with the arms

of Bluett of Holcombe, viz.— Or, a chevron between three

eagles displayed vert, on the chevron a crescent for difference

of a second son; impaling — two lions rampant combatant

supporting between them a sword erect, in base a cushion

charged with a human skull. These aim, were originally

enamelled in their proper colours, but there is little trace of

them now. The impalement is intended for Colan ol Colan,

though this coat does not appear to have ever been recorded for

them, and has the appearance of a fancy device rather than a

regular coat of arms. Colan ol Helland bore — Argent,

chevron between three choughs sable. Francis bluett wa the

second son of Richard bluett ol Holcombe Regis, co. Devon,

by his wife Mary, daughtei .it Sii Thomas Grenville, km.,

hence the ere cenl on the chevron in the arms.

< \\ have

furthei information on this family.



A Group of English Factories Bow, Chelsea, Derby, and

Longton Hall and their Imitators By Frederick Litchfield

The four English china factories which were

carried on at How, Chelsea, Derby, ami Longton Hall

forma kindred group, and their characteristics, peculi

and also the various imitations of their production-,


may with advantage lie discussed in a single article.

Ln priority of date of establishment, the Bow

had a slight advantage, being started by Thomas Frye

in 1744. It also discontinued operations earlier than the

0th< rs, being closed in 1775, when the plant and models

were transferred to Derby.

The earliest efforts of porcelain-making at Chi

involved in some obscurity, but the first mark'

men known to us, bears the date 1745, accompanied by

an impri md the word "Chelsea." The

factory was carried on until 1769, when Mr. Duesbury

purchased the business, and carried it on in conjunction

i tOl vat 1 )crl>\, the pro

:10m this date until 17S4

being know na-> "< 'helsea- Derby,"

and bore a numbei oi di tini live

marks, which are given at the end

of this article. In 1780 the firm

bury and Kcan, and the

was adop-

ted, the monogram, a 1 ombination

of D and K, being used in con-

junction with a "crown." This

Crown Derby period Listed until

181 5, when a Mr. BL

the business, and his control

until 1839. The mark of" Locker

was used in [849, and

followed by the proprie-

torship of Stevenson and Co. , then

ini 01 k, and later


til ivay. The plant.

have within the last few years been

d by a practical potter

named Lari ombe and Lieut. F.

'. a ceramic enthusiast,

and they are endeavouring, with

Vol. I.I. N

considerable success, to revive the traditions of the old

Crown Derby factory. Then was an exhibition in the

autumn of 1917 of some 11 ii work at the

Leicester Galleries, a notii e ol whii h appeared in The


A limited company, entitled the Crown Deri'

lain Company, was established in 1875, and carry on a

very considerable business, reprodui ing some of the old

designs of the original (row n Derby factory. This company

1- not the lineal descendant "I the I )uesbury factory,

but a separate enterprise. Their scheme of colouring

favours the red, blue, and which one gener-



01 iates with Crow they have only a

namental items or useful

Some ol iL'' "1,1 1 rown Derbi produced by the fir-t

Duesbury is very beautiful. The pi




it has a line glaze, the decoration

i.d, and the models are

ful. The rich dark blue, ap-

plegrei n, mauve, and particularly

tai y yellow groum

: .. attractive

10 collector-,

and the medall ons of I

jects and f landscapes, w hich


and Wall-, an- carefully and meri-


rally described on the

back of the plate or saucer, such as

"A View t Penrith" or "A View

near the Leak. 1 >ei byshire."

Another very charming me-

- that

know ni in which

the white groum

an eighth

. and the

irated by

having an oval medallion with

re found

in different colours— mauve, red, and blue, and occasionally

in gold. It is generally considered that the mauve

mark is a sign of the highest quality. I do not think

that there is any special warrant for this view, but I am



also bound to admit that one never finds the mauve mark

upon any but specimens of high quality.

A great many of the figures and groups made at the

Derby factory have incised numbers cut into the paste ;

others will be found with "ist size," "2nd size," or

" 3rd size " incised on their bases, and sometimes in the

absence of any fabrique mark these incised numbers help

to a correct attribution. A book by John Haslem, who

worked at the Derby factory, published many years ago,

but whi( h has long been out of print, gave the original

prices at which the different pans and sets of figures were

sold direc t from the factory, and it strikes one as curious

that in these original prices the cost of the plain white

biscuit was higher than that of the coloured varieties of

the samr models. The explanation is that whereas slight

hii h '! reloped in the baking could be covered

up and clUgui >.-il by .In oration, a biscuit specimen must

be in a perfect condition to be saleable.

1 may take opportunity here to remai k uponthi beaut)

and purity of this old Derby biscuit. The groups and

mi! 1.1 1 .1 , 1. malls .».], m 1,1.1s decorated with

in ed flowers, havi great charm. They are unglazed,

pure chalk-white, and .ire generally \ ery . arefullj finished

as to detail.

The Connoisseur

The reference to William Duesbury has led me to write

the above notes about old Crown Derby somewhat out of

its chronological order, which should have been preceded,

instead of followed, by Bow, Chelsea, and Longton Hall.


I am only giving brief outline sketches, and must refer

the reader to my Pottery and Porcelain for more details

and particulars of the history, progress, and development

of these factories.


The first attempts at porcelain manufacture at Bow

were of hard paste, the composition being coarser and

more vitreous than that of Chelsea. Soft paste was also

made at Bow, and the figures composed of this material

have a close affinity to Chelsea. Many of the figures are

mounted on bases with scroll feet, and these scrolls are

generally decorated with thin blue and red lines. The

colouring of the costumes is perhaps more crude than

that of Chelsea, the faces being less carefully finished

than those of its sister factory ; but nevertheless a good

How figure is full of character, and the favourite colours

employed— a kind of powder-blue and a good rose-pink

—are very effective. The uncoloured specimens have

great merit in collectors' eyes, and, compared with the

white porcelain of ordinary modern factories, show to

nun h advantage.

A peculiarity familiar t.. collectors is that at the back

of many of tin- groups and figures one finds a square or

triangular hole. The purpose of this was the insertion

of the end of a metal stem, used to mount the piece either

as a candelabrum or other ornament, this metal branch

being generally mounted with metal foliage and porcelain

dowers. Apparently this intention was only carried out

in a few instances, because for one specimen thus com-

pletely mounted, one may count at least a score without

the addition.

A kw figures especially good .is to modelling are attributed

to John Bacon, a Royal Academician, who worked

at Bow for a short time, and some of his productions

bear the letter li impressed in the base.

Sets of figures representing the Elements, the Seasons,

portraits of celebrities and actors in costume, also some

quaint harlequins, are among the figure subjects which

one finds in How porcelain.

Imitations of How, especially of the more important

groups, and sets of figures such as the Seasons and the

Elements, have been produced by Samson of Paris and

also by some German makers, but to anyone who has

carefully studied the peculiarities oi Bow paste, these

should not be successful in deceiving an amateur of

discernment. Let the young collector obtain from a

good dealer one or two undoubted specimens oi

How, and compare them with any acquisitions which he

to make, and he should be fair]) secure from

deception and disappointment.

Chelsi \.

In common with the majority of European porcelain

i, the earlier productions had an Oriental <

of decoration known as " Kakiyemon " is found

on the teapots, cups and saucers, and dishes

of this nist period has some resemblance

to white semi-opaque glass with a thick lead

inch gives it a soft appearance. Quaint drawings

ot animals, representations of fri

A Group of English Factorie.


insects, will be found showing a good deal of white

ground ; and some of this early Chelsea was marked with

an anchor in slight relief upon a raised oval medallion.

Specimens oi th hor" period are much

in. lit after by collectors. Upon examination of some

of these specimens of early Chelsea before a strung light,

there will be observed some discs or "half-moons" in

the paste. This effect is caused by an irregular mix-

ture of the ingredients of which the paste or body is

posed. The "frit." that is, the felspar or flinty parti-

cles, instead of being pulverised before mixing with the

"kaolin," or china clay, were allowed to be mixed in

unground particles; thus an irregular transparency is

caused, which can be detected by the means oi a strong

light. The object of this "lumpy'' mixture on the part

of the first Chelsea potters is said to have been to give

strength anil rigidity to the plate, saucer, or dish ; but as

processes improved, and bone-ash came into use, these

irregularities disappeared.

There is no gilding on this early Chelsea, but one finds

on some of the o .

and dishes an

edge of brown colour, which was later replaced by gilding.

The famous "Bee" milk-jug of which there is .in

illustration , both in the white and also coloured, belongs

to the very earliest period of the factory, the specimen in

the British Museum being marked in the manner already

noted in the first part oi this artii le, with a triangle

Collectors must be careful to avoid bi


.nil .late 1745.

this model, which was made at

Coalport some si>

The next period of Chelsea is that which, for want of

a better term, I call the "old Dresden " period. The

figures are dainty, well modelled, and si

with those of the subsequent time ; in fact, they very much

enerally marked with a minute

ed anchor. Tea and coffee

services, dinner and des-

sert sets, are also more in

the Old Dresden or Meissen

style, no doubt the re-

sult of the desire to copy

a kind of porcelain which

about this time (1750 was


The more richly deco-

rated Chelsea was produced

a few years before

the close of the factory in

1769-70, when the proprietor,

Nicholas Sprimont,

sold the whole

concern to William


Some of the most beau-

tiful productions of the

Chelsea factory are the

vases and services with

rich ground colours o{gros

bleu or mazarine blue,

apple-green, ruby, or crim-

son lake, enriched by gilding

and decorated with

paintings after Watteau,

Boucher, Lancret, or

Teniers. The charming

groups and figures, of

much richer decoration

than had previously been

produced, are attributed

to the influence and work

of Francois Roubillac, a

French sculptor who is be-

lieved to have modelled at

up to the time of

his death, which occurred

in 1 702. Some of these

figun s bear tin- initial of

his name an " K " im-

pressed in the paste—and

theyare general! . mai ked

with the gold .i". In 11

I'.'. 1 In- way, .111 erroneous

impre isioni erypn

valent thai thi gold

that the piece \


The Connoisseur


the be 1 qualitj it really means


belongs to the period ol the

fai torj when gilding w, ou ;1) u >ed.

in be bettei than some ol the Old Dresden

type, whii h has the little red or brown anchor, but they

an le dei orative.

Chelsea china oi the more richly decorated kind jusi

n at demand by wealth)

and realises very high pria Vpairofvasi ofunusual

i nearly 20 inches high, with roll handle and

I 1 iftej .1 -in, mi, the " mnd 1





oloui being ,1 1 ii h



gros bleu, some years ago

were bought by Mr. John

Cockshutt for .£4.°°° ; a

very important group of

two figures, representing

the "Music Lesson" (illustrated),

was bought by

Mr. Amor, of St. James's

Street, in 1912, for £1, 837

ios., and after changing

hands some two or three

timeswithin a few months,

was ultimately purchased

by Mrs. William Salting,

and presented to the London

Museum at Stafford

House, where it may be

referred to as one of the

finest specimens ever pro-

duced by the Chelsea fac-

tory, when the authorities

are able to reopen the


Less important groups

and figures attributed to

Roubillac, such as the pair

of "Shepherd and Shep-

herdess," standing 12 or

13 inches high, were re-

cently sold for from 300 to

500 guineas, and single

figures will fetch from ^50

to j£ioo, according to size

and quality. Cups and

saucers, or small vases

with the ground colours I

have already remarked

upon, command high

prices, the crimson lake

ranking first, and the deep,

rich gros bleu and apple-

green coming next.

A remarkable tea ser-

vice of this crimson-lake

ground colour, andpainted

withChinesefigures, which

had been in the original

leather case in which it

was delivered from the

factory to its first purchaser, was recently sold for a little

over /2,00c It had remained in the possession of the

same family ever since it was made, and was sold in

consequence of the appeal made by our Chancellor ol

the Exchequer for funds to carry on the war. The owner

felt consi iem e-strickenat keeping sui ha valuable posses-

sion which could be converted into War Loan, and it was

valued and sold in accordance with this patriotii motive.

: li exce] m1 ii

I" es as :ome of the above are, oi

oui e, onlj obtainable for remarkable spe n 1

ordinary Chelsea Shepherd and Shepherdess ; the 1


of Mars, Minerva,


Diana, and

Europa ; of Fal-


let; ol

ut fruit .

inches for

. and so

on, which are in

demand by the

m Hie modest

such ;u

values 1

tor,i an be

1 '• £20,




a ml saui 11 >,

which, although

good in quality,

lack the special

merit of ha\ ing

1 nil ground colind


1 the first


The Chelsea

marks are added

for the reader's

reference, a n d

in addition to

::i ark-.

there will be

found on the m yi

A Group of English Factories



signs, which are those made by the tripod upon which

the object stood when it was being burnt in the

inside the kiln. On the unglazed bottoms of figures

these look like irregular circles of dirty thumb-marks;

iai ks of dishe ; 1 have

nice of raised blisters. A great main 1

and undoubted ire unmarked a^

mark, and these kiln-marks an


help the identin 1- The stands of Chelsea

i.- generally fla .

which one finds much more usual in th<


The period which i, covered by the term "Chelsea


removed the pla

in which

some very beautiful products were made. The

ips more " wax)

noticed is the introduction of a light blue-green

rock-like or scroll bases. But the services and -.

rity to be


i AT

q u al i t y, a n d

show careful

finish. Tine


me found

\rr\ rarelyinthe

was a favourite

both as

nid and

part ot

1 In- decoration


ii Mint a >urfai e.


in pink e ft f'maieu

in medal-

lions were introduced


m ing re suit- :

and a good specimen

of Chel-

the soft

lerby, by

ts pa

and re-


may be said to

11 t. ('run

son lake was also

used during this


' Iwing to the combined factories being under the pro-

prietorship ni William Duesbury, 01

that tin- modi Is ol Chelsea are mixed, or


which bore the mark of Crown Derby and Otl



Longton Hall.

I'hc Chma factory known I

aci ount ot the resemblan

1 with

an article dealing witl

ill may well

irlier work of that factory. Indi

many years before one knew ongton Hall.

newhat quaint vases with peculiar powder-blue

ground colour, and

arly How."

puzzled collector,, had bee:. '•

tied the mark of two badl\ 1

[ton Hall had n

red the information

onvinced Sir \\

en nt the British Museum,

fold. Subse-

quently, Mn v. - chiefly

about Longton Hall, and every specimen which could

possibly be so christened was ascribed by him to this

source. The factory was supposed to have been started

by a country gentleman named William Littler, with

the technical assistance of his brother-in-law, Aaron

Wedgwood, and to have been carried on for a few years

in his old-fashioned country home (Longton Hall) in

Staffordshire, the usual mark being his initial L reversed.

As will be gathered from what I have said, the general

i haracteristics are those of the earlier Bow, but there

are one or two peculiarities which will be noticed. One

of these is that when there are any encrusted flowers

used in ornamentation, they are somewhat larger than

one finds on other English porcelain ; and another is

that the scroll bases of the figures generally have some

red lines painted on them. With few exceptions, the

specimens are more crude and unfinished than good

Bow hi Chelsea, but the short life and very limited

outpul ol the factor) have caused the prices realised by

• " imens to be higher than their merit really justifies.


Imitations of Bow, Chelsea, \m> Derby.

rhen are imitations of various kinds and qualities,


good, bad, and indifferent. Some of the vases and

made by John Rose, of the Coalporl work an

Chi -

ha i


[lent quality. He reproduced chief!) the fine

a modi 1 i « nil the i oloured ground ;, to h hii h 1

alluded the crimson lake, deep mazarim

blue, and apple-green; the gilding is good, and the

]>, liming of figures, flowers, and landscapes carefull)

The Connoisseur

I'OklllAll MKHA1 I ION WIIH Tl'KoUOIsE \ '-

finished. On their merits, Coalport reproductions of

Chelsea are excellent, and when offered for sale, by

auction or otherwise, these specimens, identified as they

are by the cognoscenti, bring good prices. But they are

not old Chelsea, By way of comparison in value, we

may take as example a pair of genuine old Chelsea vase ,

about g or io inches in height, of good form, having the

ground colour of crimson lake, and painted with figure

subjects after Watteau or Fragonard, bearing the mark

of a gold anchor, which would be worth from .£150 to<

,£200 ; their counterpart of Coalport manufacture might

fetch £t\o or ,£50. The great distinction is in the paste

or composition of the vases. Coalport porcelain is white

and clean-looking, and as a decorative item leaves little

to be desired; but, just as I endeavoured to explain in

my first article of this series, when discussing the fine

Mintons' reproductions of old Sevres, they just miss /viii^

the rent thing. The collector of old English porcelain

demands Chelsea, and is willing to pay the market price,

• inil when the dealer who acts as his adviser pronounces

with a shiny, " Coalport "! he loses interest. The old

Chelsea paste has a soft appearance, ami a tine glaze, and

the ground colour, which for the moment we arc con-

,1 ii i in;;, has a in on In .11 mini effect when used to decorate

the Chelsea paste or body than it can be made' to produce

upon its Coalport imitation. 1 H nun ii •, the taste in old

china is to a great extent one which is acquired, and,

while the genuine article satisfies the collector, the other

fails to do so. The example of a pair of vases which 1

have selected as the most valuable and eagerly sought

after 1>\

tors of old Chei-

meaning ;

litisun- a n d


apply equally to

the less valuable



i i cording


com paratively

less in pi

( )ne 0( i

ally finds sen i-

i n ally

but which. ha\ -

i n g be

d i m i nished by

breakages, have

been reinforced

l>\ "matchings"

made at Coal-

port ;

\ases, the

' which

were missing,


completed with


Coalpon i

and the amateur

should be upon

the qui .

tli ese " make

up-. Ill-cause

they materially


In making

ations for probate

or insur

a n i e, I ha \ e


that a m o n g a

service i i

i n g of some

eighteen or

t w e n t y plates,

supposed to be

i. only

- hall hi number

1 1 that

origin, and the

remai nder, almost


to decoration.


.7 Croup of English Factories





•lire. This mixture of genuine and imitation

was in n

not intended to deceive, bul the

additions had been ordered at some time 01


of ni

the pui

making the ser-

vii ejmorejuseful

to it-, owner. -

" I he

Coalport are not

often seen, and

theyare h

cessful in their

h to the

original from

which they were

T he imitation

by Samson of

Paris are ofquite

another charac-

ter. Tli

i r e fu 1 1 y

modelled and

• . p o t t <

colours a

rude, the gilding

inferior, and

the del.

painting wanterit.




ii ch an

m of the

scribed at about

i me quarter that

of the Coalport


and groups by

Samson are also

ferioi M

< heist



and overglazed,

t h e c o I o a i s



bey are

s h odd

quite un

Now, with regard


there ai



iMOR worth making.

1 have aln Parl "' th ' s

mall red am hor is fa

ime mto


The Connoisseur

Jfa^aiS&Qw&ufa* ^Mea-S^.£)e^^^n^^£C




Ax * ht jo

=L ,




//*f f

^7 £ 4. 4. x .tv Jj-



nrrwd. 1769-1784' I







uurks, intended to represent a four-legged stool,

tly the copies of a Chinese mark which is given by

It occurs very rarely, and on specimens of early date


wdueSbury. ._

1803 gi?








The Glass Age Part II. By Pontil

Before leaving the glasses referred to in

Part I. as having been manufactured by most expert

craftsmen for the special use of special patrons, I am

taking the opportunity of reproducing seven examples

of the type referred to—Nos. 1, 2, 3—from which, I

hope, the reader will be able to see that, under the

conditions which existed, such glasses were within

reach of only the wealthy classes.

They were not manufactured in any great numbers,

though the variety introduced is apparently inex-

haustible, tending to show that the worker aimed at

originality of design and the avoidance of repetition.

The bowls of these glasses are generally of the types

known as " waisted " and " funnel-shaped." The latter

are the most common, and show more distinctly foreign

influence, but the former are, in my opinion, more

typically English.

N«i. 1A has a solid stem, a beautiful ''collar,' a

baluster, and a moulded


ing just over the plain

No. IB has a waisted bowl-collar, a tear-drop in the

stem, and a smaller moulded swelling over a folded


Nos. 1( ' and 1 1 ) are variants of the same type. The

"collars "are all beautifully defined, as if turned in

a lathe.

No. 2. This glass is quite an exceptional example

of what I term a " glass de luxe." The form of bowl

(cup-shaped) recalls at once the gold and silver cup

which served as its model. The trailed decoration at

the base of the bowl has its origin in the designs of

Roman manufacture shown in my first article. The

Flemish school attained great excellence in this form

of decoration, and were possibly responsible for its

introduction into England.

It was used in the glasses of Charles II. 's time;

.mil 1 have had through mj

hands a posset-( up with thi

initials C.R. on one side, and

on ih

I nglish

family, all work i d

in trailed glass. Thi

the glass I am illustrating is

moulded and blown, a

thedati being

introduced in the spar,- which,

in the earlier English <


r< suited in the " t< ar-drop."

No. 3A is a similar glass to

those mentioned in No. 1. but

di ib ati proportions.

3B is remarkabli fi n a "i

under the base and a gradually

swelling stem, terminating in

md collar on a domed

Ided foot. Thi


r, and will easilj

d as a form ol balust i

frequently used in staircases

andbalconies. :s< ' hasafunnel-

shaped how land adorned and

tive proportion.

mi i


There soon, however, an ise

a demand for glasses to beu ;i d

in every sphere of life particu-


larly did thi tavi rn, inn, and

all for drinking

glasses. The

our clubs of

to-day were

thi i


drink. This

rise to much

mityin model,

a really ser-


ol which type


The Glass Age

are all of the drawn typ

howls and stem

Gradually they make tor what

might betermedastand

glass (N illy de-

howl with draw n

Nos. 5A, 5B, 51 .

"funnel-shapi d

and 5D

show thi n of the

op— an early effort at den

-the utilisation and

development ol which li

much in the subsequent phases

ol manufacture when the

twisted stems were invented.

I i picture here (No 6)

of the only glass 1 have come

across where the " tear-drop"

is al its natural angle. In

every other case which has


is inverted. It is remarkable

that SO '


ently exist of the tear assum-

ing its natural position, as the

undoubtedly symme-

trical ; the inverted tear always

ti i me to dis.


An all

-.1 the

ol thi earlier glasses is the fold-

:. i.e., the double rim to

Foot of the

not only adds

finish to the

glass, but also

strength, [do


ever bavin-

seen a folded

It probabl)

also facili-

i tated the us

torn of bidd-

ing the glass

when drink-

Anyone who

full glass by


the foot will at once appreciate the security added by

the folded foot ; especially would this be so when

getting towards the end of a long list of toasts. The

folded foot is found in every type of glass, but it

occurs much less frequently as the manufacture pro-

gresses, and in the quite late types it is sufficiently

uncommon to make an example worth adding to any


No. 7 represents the types of so-called toast-

masters' glasses, which were often of considerable

size, as the measurements will show. These glasses

The Connoisseur

I3 6

cannot fail to conjure up memories of bygone cere-


The next step in the manufacture is the introduction

of the moulded or knopped stem in glasses for ordinary

use (Nos. 8 and 9). These glasses seem to me

to require a different classification to the baluster

stem glasses, as described at the commencement of

this article, which are obviously the work of skilled

and experienced hands. The glasses in Nos. 8 and 9

seem to me to be early efforts to improve the stand-

ard types, and the work must have been gradually

introduced by the ordinary hand

glass-houst's of the day. There

i lass

all glasses with

Other than plain

stems as balust er

stems. Ami the

ordinary sequence

is quoted as bal-

uster stem, plain

s te m, air t w i s t,

opaque twist, etc.

My opinion is that

the sequence of

English glass should

read straight stem,

knopped stem, rib-

bed twist, air twist,

ing the baluster


1 luxe as a

v itself, made

[i mslythrough

all the periods, I

much prefer the

term km

in for

iations shown

d 9 .

in the

ncy to

Surely a workman in hi lid find

km ips i ii

I he balusti i

to ma one with

5C 5D

to 3 are among the finest examples ol the art ol

glass-making that have come down to us. I think

deal in Part III.

\\ ll. I

by the specialists


of ordii

but for thi

of the I

urrently with

of daily

use. The knopped

stem must fall into

the place which I

have allotted to it in

the foregoing illus-

trations. And the

baluster sti

be allowed to reign



which refu

trammelled by fash-

ion or fancy.


ill see this

w hen we

- with which I hope to

tion oi Mi.

Ho. 7 7 ; . , should be really the size of No. 2 to give the idea of real proportion, but space does not pe


Thomas Beach, Portrait Painter


1 was James Northcoti

by Hazlitt in the Conversations, that Reynolds -

"id master. "I learnt nothing

from him while I was with him," he says, " and none of

his scholars if I may except myself) ever made any

figure at all. " With wider knowledge and more impartial

[I we

may 1"

to make another


11 r o f

I '.each.

Beai h was the

'i ol I


I r

s u 1 a

it e e


>:i i, not

known—died in