Een nieuwe “process”oplossing voor MEMS ... - Mikrocentrum

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Een nieuwe “process”oplossing voor MEMS ... - Mikrocentrum

Een nieuwe “process”oplossing voor MEMS applications

Mikrocentrum June 2010

Dr. ir. Joska Broekmaat

SolMateS bv

joska.broekmaat@solmates.nl


SolMateS introduces new Piezo on Silicon process solution

Introduction

SolMateS since 2007 active in large scale Pulsed Laser Deposition

Prototype system

Affirmative results from the market with PZT on 4” and 6” Si wafers

Production system

8” Alpha system is in development, operational 2011

Partnerships

Partnerships are required to decrease the time to the market for several

MEMS applications in which PZT is the core building block

MEMS: Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems

MST: Mikro Systeem Technology

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SolMateS is since 2007 active in large scale Pulsed Laser Deposition

Arjen Janssens

MSc. MBA

Matthijn Dekkers

PhD.

Joska Broekmaat

PhD.

• Based in Enschede Netherlands

• Total of 11 Employees (+2 vacancies)

• Own demo lab and access to MESA+ lab

• Strong academic and professional network

Inorganic Material Science

(Prof Dr. Dave Blank, Guus Rijnders)

Transducers Science and

Technology Group

(Prof. Dr. Miko Elwenspoek)

Semiconductor Components

(Prof. dr. Jurriaan Schmitz)

8” on-site fully automated

PZT on Si solution

4-6” demo processing

& MEMS prototyping

Development of 6” PLD

system PZT on Si

Inhouse processing

Optical coatings

8” PLD system

AR coatings on Polymers

Spin-Off MESA+

2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011

There is currently no production PZT solution on the market

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Introduction

Pulsed Laser Deposition is a Physical Vapor Deposition technique

comparable to thermal evaporation and sputtering

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Pulsed Laser Deposition is a Physical Vapor Deposition technique

comparable to thermal evaporation and Sputtering

• Thermal evaporation is useful to process metals

• Sputtering is useful to deposit metals and simple compounds

Introduction

• Laser Deposition enables to process also multicomponent materials such as

PbZrTiO x (PZT) which is the building block for MEMS

• SolMateS is currently focussing on the PZT-MEMS niche, a segment strong in

development phase and has a large potential

For advanced electronics such as MEMS new advanced materials are required

Metals Simple Oxides Adanced Materials

Evaporation Sn, Ti, Au X X

Sputtering Au, Pt, Ag,…. Al2O3, SiO2,…. X

Pulsed Laser Deposition Au, Pt, Ag,…. Al2O3, SiO2,…. PbZrTiOx, YBaCuOx,….

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Laser Deposition enables to process also multicomponent materials such

as PbZrTiOx (PZT) which is the building block for MEMS

Micro fuel pumps Optical switches

PZT expands when

electric field is applied

Piezo material gives

voltage when

deformed

Inkthead printheads Energy harvesting

Standard processing

PZT layer

Silicon wafer

Silicon wafer

Introduction

RF MEMS

• PZT difficult to apply as

thin film

• No standard equipment

is available

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Laser Deposition enables to process also multicomponent materials such

as PbZrTiOx (PZT) which is the building block for MEMS

Moving Cantilever Moving Membrane

Real measurement-data

Introduction

1


Affirmative results from the market with PZT on 4” and 6” Si wafers

• SolMateS is currently focussing on the PZT-MEMS niche because this is market

is still in the R&D phase and has a large potential

•The market is expected to grow by 25%/y and currently focused in Europe

• SolMateS aims for the development and medium production market

Customers who have shown interest

Research

Development

Pre-production

Production

Prototype system

1

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Revenue (Million US Dollar)

The market is expected to grow by 25%/y and currently focused in Europe

30000

25000

20000

15000

10000

5000

0

MEMS Market growth rate of 25%

2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015

Forecast values

Asia-Pacific

North America

Prototype system

Europe leading in MEMS

Rest of the

world

There is currently no production solution to deposit PZT on wafers

26 %

35 %

38 %

2

Europe

8


Affirmative results from the market with PZT on 4” and 6” Si wafers on

prototype equipment

• One step process, with high deposition rates, multiple compounds

• Uniformity of thickness guarantee < 2.5% (half range), typical < 1.5%

• Orientation predominantly (001) textured, on platinum or oxide electrode

• PZT on platinum or only oxide electrode, with matching wet etch recipes

• High d 33 values up to 180 pm/v on 1µm PZT

• Low leakage, high breakdown

• Limitations of prototype equipment will be solved

Prototype system

SolMateS delivers a production solution to deposit PZT on wafers

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One step process, with high deposition rates, easy switchable to multiple

compounds

Si wafer

Pt- covered Silicon wafer

High deposition rates

Currently

• Test system > 100 nm /min for 4”

• Potential of ~ 60 nm /min for 8”

With upgrades

• Potential to > 200 nm/min for 8”

MEMS Fabrication process

Active Piezo layer Standard processes

1 2 3 4 … n

PZT layer

Silicon wafer

in Heat-up Deposit Cooldown out

Prototype system

Multiple PZT compounds

• Process is 1:1 target to substrate

transfer

• Currently working on PZT

compounds with enhanced

functionality (further increase

d33)

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Uniformity of thickness guarantee < 2.5% (half range), typical < 1.5%

Measured points on wafer

7

6

8

15

16

14

9

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1

Thickness & Uniformity

Average Thickness 1011.88 Max Thick 1025.00

Center Thickness 1009.00 Min Thick 1005.00

1s 5.23 Full Range (%) 1.98%

1s (%)

0.52% Half Range (%) 0.99%

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2

4

3

Thickness (nm)

1200

1000

800

600

400

200

0

Thickness Measurement

Run 293

Prototype system

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

Points on wafer

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Orientation predominantly (001) textured, on platinum or oxide electrode

Intensity (counts)

4000

3000

2000

1000

0

PZT

(001)

PZT

(110)

25 30 35 40 45 50

2Theta (°)

Some orientation texture control by recipe possible; (110) or (111) preference

Pt

(111)

PZT

(002)

Prototype system

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PZT on platinum or only oxide electrode, with matching wet etch recipes

1µm PZT (10nm)LNO/Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si

200 �m

PZT

Pt BE

Pt BE

PZT

PZT

LNO BE

Cantilever

LNO BE

PZT

Prototype system

1µm PZT on LNO/SiO2/Si

200 �m

200 �m 200 �m

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High d 33 values up to 180 pm/v on 1 µm PZT

Wafer mapping by Aixacct DBLI

(1)

(3)

(2)

(4) (5)

(8)

(7)

(6)

(9) (10)

(12)

(11)

(13) (14) (15)

(17) (16)

(18)

(19)

(20)

(24)

(23) (22)

(21)

(25) (26) (27)

(29)

(28)

(30)

(31)

(33)

(32)

(34) (35)

(38)

(37) (36)

(39)

(40) (41)

Prototype system

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High d 33 values up to 180 pm/v on 1 µm PZT

-10%

>-5%


High d 33 values up to 180 pm/v on 1µm PZT

d33 upon cycling 5% decrease after 10E6 cycles

Prototype system

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Low leakage, high breakdown field

Electrical characterization (450 nm PZT on platinized Si):

• low leakage < 10 nA/mm2 (5 V, 5 sec.)

• breakdown field > 500 kV/cm (1 V/s incr, Iim100 uA)

• low, flat loss-tangent.

influence R electr

I (A)

1.E-03

8.E-04

6.E-04

4.E-04

2.E-04

0.E+00

I leak (nA/mm2)

10000.0

1000.0

100.0

10.0

1.0

0.1

E (kV/cm)

Prototype system

e r>2500 has been

reached

0 50 100 150 200 250

0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700

E (kV/cm)

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SolMateS delivers a production solution to deposit PZT on wafers and will

solve the limitations of current system in our Alpha system

Current limitations of the prototype:

Non-uniformity functionality on wafer

Causes are mapped, solved by process optimization

Manual load 4” & 6”

Full automation design in progress for 4”, 6” and 8”

Particulates, droplets, particles

A known intrinsic drawback of Pulsed Laser Deposition,

We understand cause,

Solution is successfully implemented on small scale

Solution will be implemented in Alpha system

Production system

With the prototype system we have the highest throughput

and performance (d33, breakdownfield,etc…)

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Particles: we understand cause, solution is successfully tested on small

scale

Particles Particle free

100 μm 100 μm

50 μm 50 μm

Production system

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8” Alpha system is currently in development and will be the first step to

realize high volume production equipment

Deposition tool consists of multiple clustered components...

Reactor chamber

Laser

Beam delivery

Wafer handling

Production system

Beam delivery = guidance of UV light from laser into reactor chamber. Important

component of the set-up. This part is developed in a joint IPC project

3


An important component of the set-up is the beam delivery. This part is

developed in a joint IPC project

The “Innovatieve Prestatie Contract”, Technologiemix II (nr IPCMCM8126)

project has been an enabler for the deposition tool development

To deposit a wafer of 100, 150 and 200mm homogenously we have put a lot of

effort in the beamdelivery

We carried out modeling, have build a test-setup and did several tests which has

resulted in 4” homogenous wafers

The IPC beam delivery resulted in several important patents on the deposition

tool.

Hoogte (nm)

R niet = -5mm

Asferische

lens

UV window

Spiegel

Production system

3


8” Alpha system is in development, operational 2011

Build with professional partners

SolMateS is cooperating with professional

design and construction partners in the

SEMICON Field for:

• Critical simulations & design

• Construction and assembly

• Wafer transfer systems

• Maintenance and servicing

• One step process

PZT on silicon solution

• Good and Stable run-to-run repeatability

• Multiple PZT compound targets

• Fully automated, standardized, easy to use

• Scalable and transferable to high volume

Competitive pricing

Production system

• Alpha system is designed for 1 wafer per hour

• But can be scaled with multiple reactors to

production volumes

• Competitive total cost per wafer production

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8” Alpha system is in development, operational 2011

Deposition method

E31f

[C/m2]

Relative

permittivity

e r

Tan (δ) Dep.

speed

Nm/min

Production system

We outperform the current competition on quality and throughput

3

Main Bottle neck in the

industry

Large Area Laser Deposition 10-20 1100-3300 ~0.02 50-200 Availability

Sol-gel 12-18 1100-1800 ~0.03 X Throughput

Sputtering ~4-8 900 X 10-20 Quality

High deposition rates

Currently

• Test system > 100 nm /min for 4”

• Potential of ~ 60 nm /min for 8”

With upgrades

• Potential to > 200 nm/min for 8”

*Data about sputtering and sol-gel came from Piezo-Volume project in which they investigate Solgel

and Sputtering as a PZT production solution. Data is presented 19th of May 2010 by Frode

Thyhold. The PZT sputter rate came from Balzers Oerlikon Aixact workshop in Aachen May 2010.

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8” Alpha system is currently in development and will be the first step to

realize high volume production equipment

Test reactor

(In operation)

• 4-6” Wafers

• 3 wafers/day

• Requirements

learning

• Demo processing

• Paid wafer service

Product roadmap

2010 2011 2012 2013

Prototype system

Alpha system

Alpha system

• 4-8” Wafers

• 1 wafer/hr

• Inhouse demo

processing

• Paid wafer service

Beta System

Beta system for

resale

• 4-8” Wafers

• 1 wafer/hr

• For R&D market &

LV production

Phase 4 : HV System

Production system

HV system

• 8” Wafers

• > 4 wafers/hr.

• High volume market

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Partnerships are required to decrease the time to the market for several

MEMS applications in which PZT is the core building block

Engineering

To design, model and build our system we will need the engineering

supply chain in the Netherlands

Si-processing

We need partners for demo processing and development

Low-volume production and development

We need partners for low and high-volume MEMS processing to

decrease the time to market of several MEMS applications

It would be great if one of our first systems can be placed somewhere in

the Netherlands to demonstrate its capabilities

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Remember: SolMateS offers in-line equipment for the chip industry to

realize movement on a chip

Si wafer

Silicon wafer

MEMS Fabrication process

Active Piezo layer Standard processes

1 2 3 4 … n

PZT layer

Silicon wafer

• Piezo = engine :A piezo layer can induce movement on a chip

• Pulsed laser deposition is a lab technology that can deposit high quality

advanced materials on Si such as PbZrTiOx

• But this technology only allowed 10 x10 mm size surfaces

• SolMateS scaled up this lab-method to 4 and 6” and currently offers wafers

with PZT as a service

• We offer a solution to process PZT on Si which

outperforms the current competition on quality and

throughput

Applications

Ultrasound

Optical switches

II

Inkthead printheads

Energy harvesting

26


SolMateS the production process solution for materials such as PbZrTiOx

More than Moore

Materials to innovate

Material specialists

The next generation of materials

Enabling new MEMS applications

Oxide electrodes

Highest d33 values

PZT process technology

Antireflective process

for polymer optics

Production solution

PbZrTiOx

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