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WATER JET CONFERENCE - Waterjet Technology

Proceedings of the Second U.S. WATER JET CONFERENCE May 24-26, 1983 Rolla, Missouri Edited by: David A. Summers and Frank F. Haston Sponsored by School of Mines & Metallurgy, University of Missouri-Rolla Published by: University of Missouri-Rolla, Rolla, Missouri 65401 The University of Missouri-Rolla has granted the WaterJet Technology Association the right to reprint, on the Association's web site, the Proceedings of the Second U.S. Water Jet Conference held in 1983 at the University of Missouri-Rolla. Please Note. This text is a scanned in version of the original. Because of some limitations in our programming the original pagination has been changed. Other than that we have tried to make the text a little more readable by increasing the spacing between paragraphs, but the text itself has been (subject to possible OCR misinterpretations) left as written.

  • Page 2: SESSION 1 - THEORETICAL
  • Page 4: Developments in Cleaning Coke Oven
  • Page 6: The New Technology of High Pressure
  • Page 8: Design and Operation of Two Large-S
  • Page 10: DIMENSIONLESS PIPE LENGTH ANALYSIS
  • Page 12: system. Examples of the component m
  • Page 14: To illustrate how this maximum area
  • Page 16: 6. Johnson, V. E., Conn, A. F., Lin
  • Page 18: Figure 3. Modulation Response for B
  • Page 20: Figure 7. Response spectrum of bran
  • Page 22: DISCUSSION
  • Page 24: AN ANALYSIS OF ONE POSSIBILITY FOR
  • Page 26: "water hammer" pressure level on th
  • Page 28: 6. Mazurkiewicz, M. Barker, C.R., a
  • Page 30: Figure 4. Frequency vs length of je
  • Page 32: Figure 8. Laser beam concentrated o
  • Page 35: STANDOFF DISTANCE IMPROVEMENT USING
  • Page 37: discharge modulation. Within each b
  • Page 39: or air in the vicinity of the disch
  • Page 41: psig. Figure 7 shows these units re
  • Page 43: Hence, this high-pressure testing g
  • Page 45: Figure 2. MECHANISM OF PERCUSSIVE J
  • Page 47: FIGURE 7. HALLIBURTON SERVICES HT-4
  • Page 49: NAME: David Eddingfield
  • Page 51: The various parameters in these equ
  • Page 53:

    hole together form an axisymmetric

  • Page 55:

    RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

  • Page 57:

    1. Bowden, F.F., and Brunton, J.H.,

  • Page 59:

    NOZZLE DESIGN FOR COHERENT WATER JE

  • Page 61:

    y distance normal to nozzle wall

  • Page 63:

    In this paper attention is not cent

  • Page 65:

    2 e ′

  • Page 67:

    In the limit as h and k tend to zer

  • Page 69:

    Relaminarization Phenomena

  • Page 71:

    Cf = 0.3exp( −1.33H)(lnRe ) ( −

  • Page 73:

    The majority of the uncertainty ass

  • Page 75:

    0.16 may be expected. Development o

  • Page 77:

    the local value of θ larger due to

  • Page 79:

    may cause flow downstream over hydr

  • Page 81:

    3. Birkhoff, G. and Zarantonello, E

  • Page 83:

    Figure 4. Potential Flow solution s

  • Page 85:

    Figure 7. Nozzle Designs

  • Page 87:

    Figure 11. Boundary layer Solution

  • Page 89:

    Figure 14. Nozzle exit momentum thi

  • Page 91:

    Figure 18. Examination of separatio

  • Page 93:

    Figure 22. Effect of inlet b 1 cond

  • Page 95:

    NAME: Mohamed Hashish

  • Page 97:

    APPROACH

  • Page 99:

    Processing

  • Page 101:

    Figure 3. Process schematic

  • Page 103:

    FIGURE 9. INNER CORE OF PERCUSSIVE

  • Page 105:

    AN EXTRUSION-TYPE PULSED JET DEVICE

  • Page 107:

    Both the piston and the fluid are i

  • Page 109:

    C 1 = M p

  • Page 111:

    or, in dimensionless form

  • Page 113:

    D p = 107

  • Page 115:

    loading in this instance was intern

  • Page 117:

    7. Voytsekhovskiy, B. V., Nikolayev

  • Page 119:

    Figure 5. Jet cummulative kinetic e

  • Page 121:

    Figure 9. Gas spring force.

  • Page 123:

    Figure 13. Extrusion Device Assembl

  • Page 125:

    Table 1. Craters in high-strength c

  • Page 127:

    LABORATORY INVESTIGATION OF

  • Page 129:

    Materials Tested

  • Page 131:

    When a continuous water jet impinge

  • Page 133:

    These observations indicate that, f

  • Page 135:

    The square of the void ratio was co

  • Page 137:

    1. Mellor, M.(1972), Some Generaliz

  • Page 139:

    Figure 4. Effect of Saturation on t

  • Page 141:

    Table 1. Predicted and Observed Dep

  • Page 143:

    from poisonous gas. On the other ha

  • Page 145:

    The injection volume from the nozzl

  • Page 147:

    volume. These results lead us to a

  • Page 149:

    Figure 1. Hydraulic and water circu

  • Page 151:

    Figure 7. Theoretical required powe

  • Page 153:

    NAME: Mohamed Hashish

  • Page 155:

    TRACTION FORCE IN LBS FOR "SKIPJACK

  • Page 157:

    If engine driven equipment is parke

  • Page 159:

    Repair all leaks that you find, but

  • Page 161:

    pressure. As the job progresses, th

  • Page 163:

    Figure 4. Line Moleing.

  • Page 165:

    the battery and placed onto the ope

  • Page 167:

    equired, and although it is conveni

  • Page 169:

    Throughout the development of the s

  • Page 171:

    Figure 3. Tracing motion lance carr

  • Page 173:

    NAME R. Pootmans

  • Page 175:

    cleaning ability. Therefore, in any

  • Page 177:

    Maximum Power Nozzle

  • Page 179:

    NOZZLE TYPE DIAM FLOW PRESS POWER

  • Page 181:

    and the pressure loss through the p

  • Page 183:

    DISCUSSION

  • Page 185:

    The water jet which issues from oth

  • Page 187:

    ather than those on the outer edges

  • Page 189:

    Figure 5: Path of a cavitating jet

  • Page 191:

    WATER JET CLEANING SPEEDS - THEORET

  • Page 193:

    Substituting field terms: (Zublin,

  • Page 195:

    "CE" Values

  • Page 197:

    Chart 1. Standoff vs Power Chart 2.

  • Page 199:

    DISCUSSION

  • Page 201:

    CLEANING AND CUTTING WITH SELF-RESO

  • Page 203:

    This trend of increased pulsed jet

  • Page 205:

    high velocity tests have been run r

  • Page 207:

    REFERENCES

  • Page 209:

    Figure 3. Pressure fluctuations in

  • Page 211:

    Figure 7. Pressure fluctuations in

  • Page 213:

    SERVOJET nozzles were seen to out p

  • Page 215:

    High pressure pump:

  • Page 217:

    program of the European Community f

  • Page 219:

    A STATUS REPORT ON THE CONCEPTUAL D

  • Page 221:

    Front-end loaders loaded the broken

  • Page 223:

    The next experiment involved cuttin

  • Page 225:

    showed that sand was mined at a top

  • Page 227:

    Figure 1. Schematic diagram showing

  • Page 229:

    Table 4. Summary of cutting tests u

  • Page 231:

    Table 5. Cutting tests using mobile

  • Page 233:

    NAME: Gerald Zink

  • Page 235:

    Disadvantages of the technique begi

  • Page 237:

    adequate straightness (Fig. 2). The

  • Page 239:

    Figure 1. Schematic of water jet qu

  • Page 241:

    NAME: Jerry Hagers

  • Page 243:

    Based on knowledge gained throughou

  • Page 245:

    Since the basic suitability of the

  • Page 247:

    ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

  • Page 249:

    Figure 5. Coarsely sized coal.

  • Page 251:

    Figure. 9 Test array at Bergbau-For

  • Page 253:

    Montana and Brazil during the gold

  • Page 255:

    coal-dependent Poland sought a high

  • Page 257:

    increase in haulage and energy requ

  • Page 259:

    Is water jet cutting the next major

  • Page 261:

    Figure 3. Emergence of high pressur

  • Page 263:

    figure 7. Technology evolution mode

  • Page 265:

    THE NEW TECHNOLOGY OF HIGH PRESSURE

  • Page 267:

    immediately mounted onto the contem

  • Page 269:

    probably in combination with mechan

  • Page 271:

    HYDRAULIC MINING STUDIES OF STORM K

  • Page 273:

    may have to creating free faces, th

  • Page 275:

    TABLE II. Quality and Reserves

  • Page 277:

    Figure 1. Location

  • Page 279:

    Figure 4. Pump Horsepower

  • Page 281:

    end of the cylinder (Fig. 2). The c

  • Page 283:

    Figure 2. Final test chamber design

  • Page 285:

    Figure 6. Non-dimensional plot for

  • Page 287:

    STATUS OF HYDRAULIC COAL MINING IN

  • Page 289:

    Figure 2. (from Ref. 1)

  • Page 291:

    PRELIMINARY PRACTICE IN THE USE OF

  • Page 293:

    Through analysis and comparative st

  • Page 295:

    W2 is the volume of coal broken out

  • Page 297:

    Figure 2. Correlation curves of the

  • Page 299:

    Figure 6. The photograph of a swing

  • Page 301:

    A PREVIEW OF METHODS FOR CUTTING CO

  • Page 303:

    shell is "shot," the energy is tran

  • Page 305:

    directed at this zone which removes

  • Page 307:

    Commercial equipment capable of cut

  • Page 309:

    Table 3. Combinations of concrete c

  • Page 311:

    ANSWER: Pulsed jets were not noted

  • Page 313:

    of the blades or the teeth of the s

  • Page 315:

    fish, frozen ocean perch (red fish)

  • Page 317:

    Report LTR GD-62, Division of Mecha

  • Page 319:

    2.4 Cutting frozen blocks of cod fi

  • Page 321:

    Figure 11. Fillet cuts of fresh cod

  • Page 323:

    Figure 23. Removing baked enamel fr

  • Page 325:

    arrier alone requires keying into a

  • Page 327:

    The % bentonite slurry in air notch

  • Page 329:

    Table 1. Life cycle cost comparison

  • Page 331:

    Figure 6. Slurry jet in air notchin

  • Page 333:

    DISCUSSION

  • Page 335:

    A brief description of the soil rem

  • Page 337:

    through a multi-passage swivel moun

  • Page 339:

    clay was above that normally measur

  • Page 341:

    ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

  • Page 343:

    Figure 7. Mud mixing and filtering

  • Page 345:

    WATER JET ASSISTED MINING TOOLS: WH

  • Page 347:

    where S =

  • Page 349:

    (which are highly desirable in most

  • Page 351:

    REFERENCES

  • Page 353:

    HIGH-PRESSURE WATER JET-ASSISTED TU

  • Page 355:

    CUTTING OF THE ROADWAY PROFILE

  • Page 357:

    level for open jets can largely be

  • Page 359:

    Figure 7 High-pressure jet assisted

  • Page 361:

    Figure 15. Rock destruction by puls

  • Page 363:

    NAME: R. Pootmans

  • Page 365:

    3-ft. and a 6-ft. diameter laborato

  • Page 367:

    The machine thrust load is measured

  • Page 369:

    The drilling fixture is designed to

  • Page 371:

    strictly controlled conditions and

  • Page 373:

    Figure 2., Rock face created by the

  • Page 375:

    HYBRID ROCK CUTTING : FUNDAMENTAL I

  • Page 377:

    The results indicate that the penet

  • Page 379:

    Cutting speed has different effects

  • Page 381:

    Rock Property Springwell Sandstone

  • Page 383:

    Figure 2. Hybrid cutting - before a

  • Page 385:

    Figure 11. Figure 12.

  • Page 387:

    NAME: John E. Wolgamott

  • Page 389:

    high-velocity water jet is based on

  • Page 391:

    After this research of the schemes

  • Page 393:

    combined breakage of coal massif in

  • Page 395:

    standard regime (Ref. 7). For that

  • Page 397:

    5. It is established that for the h

  • Page 399:

    392

  • Page 401:

    Figure 3. Dependence of specific en

  • Page 403:

    Figure 8 Forces Pz and Py and energ

  • Page 405:

    NAME: George Savanick

  • Page 407:

    Figure 2 (a)

  • Page 409:

    EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES OF CUTTING WIT

  • Page 411:

    On the other side of the curve (Fig

  • Page 413:

    Effect of Number of Passes

  • Page 415:

    A small traversal distance creates

  • Page 417:

    4. Crow, S. C., 1973, "A Theory of

  • Page 419:

    Figure 4. Effect of Traverse rate o

  • Page 421:

    Figure 11.Visualization of cutting

  • Page 423:

    Figure 15. Bottom surface penetrati

  • Page 425:

    2. PRINCIPLE OF ABRASIVE WATERJETS

  • Page 427:

    application with through cutting, a

  • Page 429:

    fraction of particle fragmentation,

  • Page 431:

    - High pressures

  • Page 433:

    However, the thermal devices may pr

  • Page 435:

    Table 2a. Abrasive jet advantages f

  • Page 437:

    Figure 3. High-speed waterjet. Figu

  • Page 439:

    a) shaped cutting b) top view of ke

  • Page 441:

    Figure 13 Estimated hourly costs of

  • Page 443:

    ANSWER: We do not have quantitative

  • Page 445:

    L ITERATURE REVIEW

  • Page 447:

    Because of the shielding provided b

  • Page 449:

    to their crystalline structure. The

  • Page 451:

    makes it impossible to space two cu

  • Page 453:

    SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

  • Page 455:

    Figure 3. Comparison of depth of cu

  • Page 457:

    Figure 7. Effect of multiple passes

  • Page 459:

    Figure 11. Granite specimen cut wit

  • Page 461:

    NAME: Fun-Den Wang

  • Page 463:

    SLURRY FEEDS.

  • Page 465:

    and radiused, Fig 10 shows a typica

  • Page 467:

    Quality of the Jet.

  • Page 469:

    minute, 8000 psi and 12 lbs copper

  • Page 471:

    Figure 1. General cleaning with Fig

  • Page 473:

    Figure 9. Relationship between part

  • Page 475:

    Figure 21. Reinforced concrete cut

  • Page 477:

    over its rivals in reliability, eas

  • Page 479:

    Operator B. who had approximately o

  • Page 481:

    TABLE V Casting cleaning impellors

  • Page 483:

    Having seen many blades of a simila

  • Page 485:

    Figure 5. Comparison of charges and

  • Page 487:

    POLYMERBLASTING - A CHEMIST'S POINT

  • Page 489:

    An additional application for polym

  • Page 491:

    water as being linearly aligned in

  • Page 493:

    of Missouri-Rolla), and Mr. Casper

  • Page 3: Visualization of the Central Core o
  • Page 5: A Status Report on the Conceptual D
  • Page 7: SESSION 7 - CIVIL & INDUSTRIAL
  • Page 9: Cutting Hard Rock With Abrasive-Ent
  • Page 11: frictional and piping component rel
  • Page 13: R = a1 ⋅
  • Page 15: attenuation of the output. The tran
  • Page 17: Figure 1. Branch System Modulator
  • Page 19: Figure 5. Modulation Response for B
  • Page 21: Figure 9. Modulation response for s
  • Page 23: can be used for any form of input.
  • Page 25: with a cylindrical shape to the jet
  • Page 27: m/s. The range of power found from
  • Page 29: Figure 3. Power vs nozzle diameter
  • Page 31: Figure 5. Frequency vs length of th
  • Page 34: NAME: Gerald Zink
  • Page 36: modulatornozzle assembly. The ordin
  • Page 38: DISCUSSION OF FLUID MECHANICS
  • Page 40: This process serves to protect the
  • Page 42: For test purposes, these concrete b
  • Page 44: REFERENCES CITED
  • Page 46: FIGURE 4. INNER CORE OF PERCUSSIVE
  • Page 48: FIGURE 9. EXAMPLE OF HIGH-PRESSURE
  • Page 50: NAME: John E. Wolgamott
  • Page 52:

    THE FOCUSED SHOCK TECHNlQUE FORPROD

  • Page 54:

    The reflected wave is thus also cyl

  • Page 56:

    neglected. The introduction of a co

  • Page 58:

    DISCUSSION

  • Page 60:

    H’ mean shape factor

  • Page 62:

    Required streamline curvature at th

  • Page 64:

    2 x 2 ≅ ( e − 2 p + w)/k2 (2-8)

  • Page 66:

    eliminating

  • Page 68:

    approximation to the actual flow si

  • Page 70:

    skin friction coefficient but are c

  • Page 72:

    where:

  • Page 74:

    effect (< 0.5%) on coefficients of

  • Page 76:

    TABLE 5

  • Page 78:

    TABLE 6

  • Page 80:

    expanding rather than contracting a

  • Page 82:

    25. Weber, H.E., 1978, Boundary lay

  • Page 84:

    Figure 5. Wall velocity distributio

  • Page 86:

    Figure 9. Effect of nozzle design o

  • Page 88:

    Figure 12. CA+T Design Philosophy.

  • Page 90:

    Figure 16. Effect of inlet b 1 cond

  • Page 92:

    Figure 20. Relaminarization at nozz

  • Page 94:

    Figure 24. Pressure decay data.

  • Page 96:

    VISUALIZATION OF THE CENTRAL CORE O

  • Page 98:

    DISCUSSION

  • Page 100:

    5. Lambert, J. H., 1760, Photometri

  • Page 102:

    Figure 6. Spectral sensitivity curv

  • Page 104:

    NAME: W.C. Cooley

  • Page 106:

    INTRODUCTION

  • Page 108:

    y=X ∨ P A dy

  • Page 110:

    Using equation (15), the value of X

  • Page 112:

    Thus about the first 10% of the dri

  • Page 114:

    Many design cases, including those

  • Page 116:

    surface spall occurred, resulting i

  • Page 118:

    Figure 3. Chamber pressure at pisto

  • Page 120:

    Figure 7. Effect of nozzle area rat

  • Page 122:

    Figure 11. Extrusion device schemat

  • Page 124:

    Figure 15. Typical chamber pressure

  • Page 126:

    DISCUSSION

  • Page 128:

    material which are, in turn, affect

  • Page 130:

    the water jet. This method was not

  • Page 132:

    where h is the depth of penetration

  • Page 134:

    obtained during this phase of the i

  • Page 136:

    observed that the smallest depth of

  • Page 138:

    Figure 2. Idealized Relationships b

  • Page 140:

    Figure 6. Penetration as a Function

  • Page 142:

    DEVELOPMENT OF VARIABLE DELIVERY TR

  • Page 144:

    THE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF THE P

  • Page 146:

    The injection pressure can be contr

  • Page 148:

    ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

  • Page 150:

    Figure 4. Theoretical required powe

  • Page 152:

    Figure 9. Variation of efficiency w

  • Page 154:

    THE "SKIPJACK" SEWER CLEANING NOZZL

  • Page 156:

    HYDRO-BLASTING SAFETY

  • Page 158:

    Remember, your Hydro-Blasting work

  • Page 160:

    horizontal, sometimes vertical, and

  • Page 162:

    Figure 2. Safety Gear

  • Page 164:

    DEVELOPMENTS IN CLEANING COKE OVEN

  • Page 166:

    causing chain breakages and the scr

  • Page 168:

    was encountered, then the rotation

  • Page 170:

    (C) Capital Expenditure:

  • Page 172:

    Figure 9. Swivel coupling Figure 10

  • Page 174:

    OPTIMIZING JET CUTTING POWER FOR TU

  • Page 176:

    PRESSURE DROP (psi)

  • Page 178:

    power output. Undersized nozzles re

  • Page 180:

    Subscripts

  • Page 182:

    Figure 1. Cutting effect as a funct

  • Page 184:

    CONSIDERATIONS IN THE COMPARISON OF

  • Page 186:

    pressure can be lowered to perhaps

  • Page 188:

    Figure 2: Fan jet issuing from a no

  • Page 190:

    DISCUSSION

  • Page 192:

    where Q = Flow rate - gpm

  • Page 194:

    Again, not limited to Newtonian flu

  • Page 196:

    REFERENCES

  • Page 198:

    Table 2. Jet Cleaning Speeds and ot

  • Page 200:

    ANSWER: The utilization of the stat

  • Page 202:

    complexity and short component life

  • Page 204:

    Figure 4, for ap values ranging fro

  • Page 206:

    Decontamination

  • Page 208:

    a. “PULSER” b.”ORGAN-PIPE”

  • Page 210:

    Figure 5 - Removal rate for various

  • Page 212:

    DISCUSSION

  • Page 214:

    DRILLING BORE HOLES IN COAL MINES U

  • Page 216:

    pile could not be judged as represe

  • Page 218:

    DISCUSSION

  • Page 220:

    HYDRAULIC MINING EXPERIMENTS IN AN

  • Page 222:

    The monitor was fed pressurized wat

  • Page 224:

    The IH rig was considered to be sup

  • Page 226:

    REFERENCES

  • Page 228:

    Figure 2. Jet cutting sandstone at

  • Page 230:

    Figure 5. Schematic plan view of In

  • Page 232:

    Figure 7. Suction Box.

  • Page 234:

    USE OF HIGH PRESSURE WATER JETS FOR

  • Page 236:

    flame torch to cut this block, redu

  • Page 238:

    the order of 360 rpm. Under these c

  • Page 240:

    Figure 3. Slot cut by jet at 11 o s

  • Page 242:

    JET-MINER SURFACE AND IN-SEAM TRIAL

  • Page 244:

    The hydraulic drive of the haulage

  • Page 246:

    The surface trials had have the obj

  • Page 248:

    Figure 2. Experimental version.

  • Page 250:

    Figure. 7 Jet-Miner prototype

  • Page 252:

    SOME PATTERNS OF TECHNOLOGY TRANSFE

  • Page 254:

    Development of High Pressure_Techno

  • Page 256:

    configurations, the design of an op

  • Page 258:

    and public sectors. After a haitus

  • Page 260:

    Souder, W.E. and Evans, R.J., "The

  • Page 262:

    Figure 5. Technological achievement

  • Page 264:

    Table 3. Perceived disadvantages of

  • Page 266:

    already been, or is being applied w

  • Page 268:

    Using the requirements profile and

  • Page 270:

    ant hose combination, a guiding sys

  • Page 272:

    HYDRAULIC MINING TESTS

  • Page 274:

    SAFETY

  • Page 276:

    TABLE V. Categories of Jet Mining

  • Page 278:

    Figure 2. Generalized geologic prof

  • Page 280:

    SECONDARY FRAGMENTATION WITH WATER

  • Page 282:

    do possess a maximum point (Fig. 8)

  • Page 284:

    Figure 4. Rossin-Rammler plot.

  • Page 286:

    Figure 8. Non-dimensional plot for

  • Page 288:

    HYDRAULIC COAL MINING SYSTEM

  • Page 290:

    Figure 4. (From ref. 1)

  • Page 292:

    INTRODUCTION

  • Page 294:

    The coefficients "b " in Eq. (1) ca

  • Page 296:

    By the end of 1982, a total of more

  • Page 298:

    Figure 4. Cutting ability of swing-

  • Page 300:

    Figure 10. An operating performance

  • Page 302:

    for an abrasive, the abrasive parti

  • Page 304:

    the particles, while at slower spee

  • Page 306:

    to break away the remaining segment

  • Page 308:

    Table 1. Concrete saw technology.

  • Page 310:

    NAME: Tom Brunsing

  • Page 312:

    FEASIBILITY STUDY OF CUTTING SOME M

  • Page 314:

    hydraulic power required to cut thr

  • Page 316:

    pressure was varied from 103 to 310

  • Page 318:

    2.1 Heading and gutting fresh cod f

  • Page 320:

    Figure 5. The cuts surface of a blo

  • Page 322:

    Figure 17. Cuts made across the cla

  • Page 324:

    JET NOTCHING USED IN THE CONSTRUCTI

  • Page 326:

    Bottom notch diameter was determine

  • Page 328:

    σ H = in-situ stress in the horizo

  • Page 330:

    Figure 3. Final block displacement.

  • Page 332:

    Figure 8. Comparison of Slurry Pump

  • Page 334:

    THE FURTHER DEVELOPMENT OF AN UNDER

  • Page 336:

    use taps or hydrants. To achieve th

  • Page 338:

    supply line. It was determined that

  • Page 340:

    The rotating head requires major mo

  • Page 342:

    Figure 4. System field test set-up

  • Page 344:

    Figure 10. Bentonite drilled clay s

  • Page 346:

    MECHANICAL TOOLS

  • Page 348:

    Ψ = cos −1

  • Page 350:

    mode also contributes to chip flush

  • Page 352:

    NAME: Simon Johnson

  • Page 354:

    ROLLER TOOLS COMBINED WITH HIGH-PRE

  • Page 356:

    Various designs and applications ar

  • Page 358:

    Figure 1. Full-face tunneling machi

  • Page 360:

    Figure 11. roadway profile cutting

  • Page 362:

    Figure 19. High-pressure water jet

  • Page 364:

    DESIGN AND OPERATION OF TWO LARGE-S

  • Page 366:

    The hydraulic system for the thrust

  • Page 368:

    Results of Trial Tests

  • Page 370:

    cutting rates, degree of bit wear,

  • Page 372:

    Overall approximate Weight:

  • Page 374:

    Figure 5. 3 ft. diameter laboratory

  • Page 376:

    nozzle diameter and cutting speed w

  • Page 378:

    2. Cutting Speed

  • Page 380:

    energy it effects an increase in me

  • Page 382:

    Tip angle (degrees) 87

  • Page 384:

    Figure 5. Figure 6.

  • Page 386:

    Figure 17. Figure 18.

  • Page 388:

    SCHEMES OF COAL MASSIF BREAKAGE BY

  • Page 390:

    out thoroughly an efficient scheme

  • Page 392:

    Research analysis has proved that t

  • Page 394:

    DEPENDENCE OF POWER INDICES OF COMB

  • Page 396:

    The experiments have shown how the

  • Page 398:

    K Ay = coefficient correcting for f

  • Page 400:

    Figure 1. Schemes of combined break

  • Page 402:

    Figure 5. Dependence of specific en

  • Page 404:

    Figure 12. Percentage of grade R -6

  • Page 406:

    Figure 1. Particle size analysis. T

  • Page 408:

    NAME: Dr. Henkel

  • Page 410:

    presented. This study, of course, i

  • Page 412:

    identifying a general trend for the

  • Page 414:

    Effect of Abrasive Hardness, Shape

  • Page 416:

    In some situations, especially in c

  • Page 418:

    Figure 1. Abrasive waterjet nozzles

  • Page 420:

    Figure 8. Effect of standoff distan

  • Page 422:

    Figure 13. Abrasive waterjet cuts i

  • Page 424:

    CUTTING WITH ABRASIVE WATERJETS

  • Page 426:

    3.3 Abrasive Feed Systems

  • Page 428:

    Because of the large number of infl

  • Page 430:

    due to wear. Although actual operat

  • Page 432:

    from this new technology. Table 2 l

  • Page 434:

    Table 1. materials cut by abrasive

  • Page 436:

    Figure 1. Abrasive waterjet nozzles

  • Page 438:

    a) kerfs in mild steel b) S.S. 15.5

  • Page 440:

    a) circle cutting in glass b) lamin

  • Page 442:

    DISCUSSION

  • Page 444:

    CUTTING HARD ROCK WITH ABRASIVE-ENT

  • Page 446:

    slurry nozzle. Testing at water pre

  • Page 448:

    DISCUSSION OF TEST RESULTS

  • Page 450:

    materials. The flexibility in nozzl

  • Page 452:

    pressure can be wiped out if diffic

  • Page 454:

    9. Maurer, W.C., and Heilheckler, J

  • Page 456:

    Figure 5. Effect of abrasive feed r

  • Page 458:

    Figure 9. Accumulated depth of mult

  • Page 460:

    Figure 13. Close-up view of quartzi

  • Page 462:

    ABRASIVE INJECTION USAGE IN THE UNI

  • Page 464:

    sudden changes in the feed rate eff

  • Page 466:

    or the abrasive must be manually to

  • Page 468:

    clog; there not being sufficient ar

  • Page 470:

    CODE OF PRACTICE FOR THE USE OF ABR

  • Page 472:

    Figure 5. Water abrasive cleaning h

  • Page 474:

    Figure 15. 360 0 abrasive pipe clea

  • Page 476:

    ECONOMIC CONSIDERATIONS IN WATER JE

  • Page 478:

    Other criteria to be considered in

  • Page 480:

    3 MANUAL METHODS OF JET CLEANING &

  • Page 482:

    contractor with old, unsafe, equipm

  • Page 484:

    Figure 1. Showing the increased cos

  • Page 486:

    Figure 8. Automatic tube bundle cle

  • Page 488:

    ackground to the subsequent coopera

  • Page 490:

    The molecules of SUPER-WATER posses

  • Page 492:

    shaken just before use. SUPERWATER

  • Page 494:

    26. Bednarz, L.P., "Effects of Poly

February - Waterjet Technology Association

February - Waterjet Technology Association

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Microsoft Word - Apr98.doc

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Jet News, December 1989 - Waterjet Technology Association

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A Better Way To Clean Heat Exchanger Tubes - Waterjet ...

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StoneAge, Inc. Demonstrates Balanced Waterjets At 2007 American ...

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