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CHAP. III.

Simple

periods.

Sections.

Phrases.

HISTORY OF PIANOFORTE MUSIC.

chief requirements of this plan, like those of any

work of art, are three, viz.: Unity, Variety and

Symmetry.

The simplest form of composition which can

give any satisfaction, regarded as a completed

whole, is a single Period, the nearest analogue

of which is a single couplet. A good example

of this is in the church tune, " Onward, Christian

Soldier," in " Hymns, Ancient and Modern." Here

the period is divided into two sections, to fit the two

lines of the couplet, and these two sections are balanced

against each other, symmetrically. More

commonly the two sections of a simple period are

each divided by a c&sura, or point of partial

repose. Indeed, such a division is plainly to be

seen in the tune above cited. Each of the two di-

visions of each section is then called a phrase.

More frequently than otherwise, the third phrase is

nearly or quite an exact repetition of the first, and

the fourth similarly reminds one of the second, that

is, they rhyme with each other, so that such a simple

period is closely analogous to the ballad stanza. It

is, in fact, the form commonly and necessarily used

in setting such stanzas to music. The point of re-

pose at the end of the first section (second phrase)

is more marked than those which finish the first and

third phrases, but is still only a half stop, or musical

semicolon. The last section of course closes the

period by a.full stop.

A good example of this form

is the first period of the theme in the A major son-

ata of Mozart (No. 12, Peters' edition).

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