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IWM approach to problem weeds Cotton Pest Management

IWM approach to problem weeds Cotton Pest Management

IWM approach to problem weeds Cotton Pest

IWM Approach to problem weeds Duncan Weir, DEEDI Barnyard grass Barnyard Grass – Echinochloa crus-galli Awnless Barnyard Grass – Echinochloa colona Identification There are two species of this grass, barnyard grass (Echinochloa crus-galli) and awnless barnyard grass (Echinochloa colona). Barnyard grass has a purplish base, slender hairless stems, is tufted, and is usually erect growing to 0.9 m tall. Seeds have awns up to 50mm in length and are generally pale brown in colour. Awnless barnyard grass is semi-erect growing to 0.6 m tall, has a purplish base, is tufted and has slender hairless stems. The seed generally does not have awns, is white in colour and it can have purplish-red bands on its leaves. Both types do not have ligules. Weediness Barnyard grass germinates any time throughout spring and summer following heavy rain or flooding. They grow very rapidly following establishment, compete strongly with crops and seeding is prolific. They are spread by water through irrigation, flooding or the river. They will grow in a wide range of soil types particularly heavy soils which are periodically flooded. There is a high risk of barnyard grass developing glyphosate resistance particularly when growers are using minimum or zero till systems. In some areas it has developed resistance to group C herbicides. Control hints • Target small weeds 2-3 leaves; • Use a double knock technique especially for dense populations; • Include crop rotations and different herbicide groups in its control; and, • Include cultivation as a weed management tool. Liverseed grass Urochloa panicoide Other common names: Urochloa WEEDS Identification Liverseed grass has broad, pale yellow –green leaves with hairs on the leaf margins and sheath. Its stems tend to lie flat with the growing ends bending up into an erect position to a height of 80 cm. Can for tufts or dense leaf matt areas. It takes root where the stem nodes touch the ground. The seed head has two to seven spikes and is about 10 cm long. Weediness Liverseed grass generally emerges in one large flush in late spring following a good rainfall event. Once established it grows rapidly forming a dense mat competing strongly with crops. It readily sets seed in summer. Liverseed grass has developed resistance to the Group C herbicide atrazine in southern Queensland. Control hints • Target small weeds 2-3 leaves; • Use a double knock technique especially for dense populations; • Include crop rotations and different herbicide groups in its control; and, • Include cultivation as a weed management tool. Barnyard grass. (Michael Widderick, DEEDI) Liverseed grass. (Michael Widderick, DEEDI) Cotton PESt MAnAGEMEnt GUIDE 2010–11 89

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