t»® «*»it«fe{£jtai«otitamm^tiittlf «it


t»® «*»it«fe{£jtai«otitamm^tiittlf «it



j» y.me AIT c&t&ttu- i OHR* J*AL

Birlt^ (tommy, July £3, l»3t.

#P^ •*©?#*T **«. r* #*• #*!*«**• §.ptt® ft *• c«sM,vr;&

• w w » tlre w fr*wt*af«fw«f *|0nrtfqp^e»e«*^R^:Rwt»w*t4mm

fittest C ft t© it© officer® proceed!;« to tfee fie Ileitis

t»® «*»it«fe{£jtai«otitamm^tiittlf «it&*€

'OUR& reporting for it® use.


fHE SCtttfiAtU


I is®?** tit® feasor to bring to tfce ®tt®ntloR of tfee

&tpPd?tlS®fit e«rt®itt ©Onai l®r® tiOR® b®&rl®g mpSB tB«

Ae?sire&iIIty' ef gleing to A&fesaaaaare, &Lrtist®r®, &&i

to eerta!® Aiplorsfttl* officer© wfeo ® J • likely to e®

In charge of our foreign &i>*®iOfiBf e® well a® to

principal officer® IR charge- of oiw cerseular •stabllaftft

seat® IR eapitt*!®* fc&ctruotioR® on the iwport«RC« of

tfe® itep&Ttwmt feeing inforaca regularly ant «ortlRUoa»*

ly ami «ltfe sufficient clarity, eoneia«>no®s and

ooftprehesaiYegeeftf of tlse ts&jor aspect® of tbe financial^

eeoeoaic aud social back^rou®®: la the eouRtry to «Meb

tfe©3-§ officer® ssay b# ®®ore41tedt »itb pertleular

refer®®*®) to the ii*port«*ii®® of having ttei® feee^prougS

acrfe 4®**® »jf orrieer® gpf t&® ***f®rii»®»t if ©¥«^s i®

tbe ©k$»it«'*i #R3 In vhc aotiKtry* iall« St is g^rjMralij



ra«ojpl£ad tb&t tfta politics 1 relations bataaafs

state©, with atolcfe tba diploisati© ssission of oar

0©*feFi®sttt ttag to concern itaalf, lu&Ve »isaost

c»tiraly an aaonQm;c# financial or #o©iai ba9J(gr *md,

and tWX purely political relations ir. tba old a©s ®a

of the word »o longer exiat, «xp«?rifcnoa baa s!»wis

that tba afficor© of tba ^apartment In tfaa field

do not ©li understand tba ncaaa®ity of tbair in­

forming tba Dapartaant ragalarif and aitb sufficlact

clarity and eo»-irabensii?«n«ss of tbo«a fa© tor a ©on-

©arcing wbieb it smat fe«- fullj inftsnatd lit ©rdar to

ba*a tba naeacsary background t© understand tfee

political raeotiom® in m carta in ©otuitry or to

datormina our omx policy.

IMXt tte mrmmr officer© of tha foreign Sorri©©

of tha Qapart&aiity atlacfead to mission©, wmf fee ex­

pected to b« »ora fully aware of tba neea&aity tfa&t

tbis flow of baojcground Information ba aaintsined

and that.it ba collaetad and praparad b| or fieara

of tba Bepart^amt of State, it ia natural tteat

par » on© ©©stlag into our foreign rapia aantatlon frm

private lif©# in ©ainactive of their merit# interest,

capacity &vA ?#al fitness f©# their work, arc not

familiar with department©.! proeedure *s»d. »ay not

real!** tfca •*©«salty tbat the economic background

of the- Peptrtsa&nt b© ©applied by officara of it©

mm foreign service.

f&sr© bafe grown mp at various a* lesions tmin»

talnad by ©nr Govern snae, mm a taaolt of v«rious


$irsamstaBOss, a prctetloe of losklsg to the £na«*

autre 1*1 attsehe'e and to ft lesser extent to officers

of other *>ep»rt&esta for tills eeonoiaiG heskgrownd

mv&* In aoae iReleases has this preetlee fe#ooBiii eo

pronouaoed th&t off leers of the imparts* at of state

attaches to the miniion ear to ttee oorsuler eatehli«h»

sent in the capital or ©osi.tri^ haft pst # little

attastists «ma In mm& ©aaes preetieell;? neglected

the eecmo-mte «s»d financial heCHgroond atudlee so

neceasar* cot only for the sa^ert«ent and the session,

hat to their mn understanding of their dutleat and

haf* depended t*po# the Coarsralal Attaehss for ©uah

stools* and inform lion. It is »o&s*het difficult to

eoneelirg' how oft leer a of the ispertfsant of State should

bete fallen into this pr&ctieet hat Uhs t It exists at

&. son* Id or ah he nisaher of potts Is last a scatter of

doubt •

there hea h*i» a farther distinct teadensy cm

the pert of certain chiefs of Klasiona and certain

Foreign Service affieera to eor;aldex- that the

Consteox-sial Attach # is the proper pare as to do

this work for our (kwrero&ent end -far o»r liepert-

»ent# This tendency la prone hi y the re cult of the

CssBssrclal attach! helr^ attached to the aissloa,

altfe diploma tie status. fh» consular tf fleers af our

Oovem^ent in sertels sapltaie, ©as of whose prii&ary

duties under the las «nd the regulations la to

proper* ouch eeonaiftic reports for the liepart&emt

and for iateveata at hosse§ fc**YO in isany iaatar. sea



been practical ly ignored toy tbe si as ion end their

advice and ifilet-oration in ©eonoigie background

work kg mot osly mot heas repeated, bat is aoae

instances h»a bc^n eeneldered unealeon* when •ffered.

This Attitude fortunately is not general, tut &©e®

exist aad is b*ec&i8£ ®s general ss to present

features wsieb i-sstae it necessary for the Jjepsrtssmt

to issue clarifylag irtetruetlonc* fhe attitude

probably baa its basis lu the still existing feeling

atson#t cert®in foreign Sorties® officers that the

Coenseroiei Attache*, although he is not & rsenbt* of

the Foreign Service, tea a particular and ffnvored

aietus not enjoyed, by eoreular officers stationed

In the #©u«try, although they are members of the

Foreign cs©rvi©# of the State Jiepertment*

It ie not nee«s»«ry in this deep etch to give

any reeeor=e efcy the eeorosie, financial sM social

background inf onset lor, .frets ebroed for it e Department

•hoaid be? furnished \}^ its ••mm officers* The fiepert*

asent of Stete &i the only end responsible organ of

our Oovears stent, feoth under the Constitution arm. under

the lm, SfM the eon duct of our foreign relations,

ssttst have certain background lnfortsetioe ir. order

to eerr> j out its* responsibilities* Hie information

een be "test furnished by it« officers as they are

stationed not only in eapitela but in all the

strategic centers in the reassetlve countries out*

aide of the capital. They er# in the Portion Service


«f tfc® L*psrtrs«»i &«••»»« til®y be?® femi apoeial

preparation a»ft training for this work ant fc a*e

haen ®®X®st«4 ®#««u»® tfa*y have a sp«el®l ®ptituds

for it. By the **ry nature of thair position and

fttnetion® tfc®y fe*v% reXntionatup8 woiefc profile tfa«©

*i%h hattar opportuniti®® for sMwn*rbm ®ueb toourat.®

©selsRrow4 inform? ti on then any otbe* ©ffi«*r» of

any ottiar D«partsumt of ouy Gowmsiant who oay

function abroad. In the perforates®* of their i*&tXy

duties, th® .Forai^n &er?ie® officers of th® Depart-

mmt of Stat®, *ho are ©ad mast he i»r® steely


®®«tt«re® through/the war id than th* representetiv®*

®f any setter impartsaiBBt of our Oovarrasnt «M «sa

properXy eou!4 b*t gather suefc feaels^roanA information

and It wou'e ifee ob»lo s duplie&tior therefor® to hat®

asyose ®isi® do this aork for th® ^epar t?*«&t» Then

there 1® the twjor eon0Iteration thfrt if th® Impart*

rmm% is responeifeie for our foreign rale*Ion® it- ®am

©r.ly eerry out this function ilth reaaon«bl® esenurlty

if it secure® it® hac^grottR»r-«rt-

aants of our Goiraresaent who u&y It stationed in fe®

eoontrjj for feaefegroun® information for the »l«4 on

and tb® ^epertswaxt, tut *lil ee- that this i® auppii®®.

by i$m foreign larris® offiaer® of tb* Btete l' : «part-

saeat in Hi® amission or in tb* eoneuiar oataaXishJaent®


in tba eepital enfi in tba ®&tmtrf* Tb« »i»»ior. will

eonaiiier it a loajor *eap naifcility to aee the* tba

eeoneasic, financial and social background reporting

eb;@& is #n antirely aaparftte sfio different asset tar

frots trade promotion work, is irtf orgfet&aed and i-

effectivo^ end tfa#t it be 4os@ || tba foreign liarvioe

offteei-a of the Benertreent of Stat© in tba ale si on

or is ttse ftoraulsr eatafexiah&«it in fee capital,

with the eol l« bora t ion of tba other consular officers

in the «@-iBtrf» In tbia *»ay not only will tba jj«p art»

rsant gat ita beekgground Information* frcm its own

officers on whose loyalty and tborougfaneee it caa

derm-nd, but &t will ba aafturad that tteae officers

tbenaclv^a will hafa tim firat band beaker «*nd in­

formation secretary for %Um to properly perform their

daily tiutiee, end it sill be providing them with

training in tfei® t.,pa of work ate; eh ia ao Important

to all I%'ti|i Service officers of lb* Departeami*

In aosae eaae& tba abl^fa of stla^lone hate leaned

upon the Cowseroial Attach! fa* this eeaaoaie baftte*

0tmm& reporting *ltfa the b%«t intentions and is tba

belief that tba Coaeaaraial Attach! was apeaifie^L ly

aealgaed to the aapitai for tHia ?**rpoee» It i»

natural that ifei Cesaaareiel ittaobi ahowld take no

atcpa to flour, tereet tbia iiapresai on. Thea« chiefs of

sal as i©» hate overlooked tba f^at tbat the Coissercial

Attache 1 ia.oot em officer of the Dap art&arit of Sttta,

but b«a sserely bean given diplomat la at&tua at tba

raqiaat of bia Dap artjaaat as a scatter of convenient*



ir» carrying out Bfeos* flotations whisk »r» assigned

to Mm fey is*, They fea^e overlooked tb* feet that

the G$&&ereial Mtaehe 1 is toy ia* »sf?l£«©d osl| trie

funetloRs of « trade ?rc itlee officer* ?sr#ifp

fcervie* officers of f&e Depart--seal of :-.tate in

capital a have in aoiae i&ataneee failed to not* that

Is leasing upon tfe* CoE&aereiaX Attacks* for, or is

allowing his to assise the fttnetioa of providing,,

eeenoialc bakkgrotiiut in I or -&% ton for tfe* sisAoa, t tossy

teste deprlvedi thesssslve* of their sxerefee of one of

tbeir Ksajor functions &a officer* of the fcsoirtnaat*

Tkere ©at. BO longer fee any aepsr etirg of the duties

of i Foreign Servie* officer fros* major eeenossle

reporting. aetivltiae*

In eiraular i &s true t ions is»tt«d efter csKuiylta*

tion and agree&ast witb. tfea .Burlaw of Foreign, snd-

Donatio Cemvsrce of the Department of Corner ce eons

month* a&o, ii «sa tsade a leaf fey fcotfe iepartaents

tbal Sfti eork of the officers of the Depsrt&sajl sf

Cojaesree abroad it? of a trad© pronotternary char aster

as this is the statue ari charester of the work

assigned to fchemunSsr %bs law which treated the

Foreign. £«rvia« NP COBStree* Th« circulars sjade

slser that the pro toot ion of the interests of our

trade and eois&eroe end of A&ariean in tercets frer^ral­

ly abroad, -as SB integral asd i&**psrslit F«rt of tine

conduct of our foreign relatione, . is. -solely a func­

tion of the Dspert&ent of 8ta*e and its officers.

Certain off less* of the Sep-artse©* of -Stats assigned



in S sonsuler capacity are sift* charged by statute

with the. perform ns# of certain trade «roia©tioii

activities, tut- lr order that these activities &ay

o-.'t overlap or duplicate, but rather e©»splfc.e»efjt tb-t>e«

of the Foreign Service mt the uenarttiant of COMPasrss,

& eoor&ifiaiior; -a&ree&esv has been arrived at l«tween

the tso kepartasnts to prevent aueb duplicative in

trad# promotion activities between the officers of

the two Departments* The question ©f duplication in

major eeono&ie, financial and social beefcgrouse

reporting hy Foreicn Serried officers of the stele

i,ep»rts*e»t e -not trie* ss this is a statutory

function es well as inherent in their capacity a©

offieera of the JDepet tfluent of state end therefore a

titration which the,.: em not 4el*g.ete» the circulars

aboes referred to haw*- don® a gre^t 6mmX to clarify

thie situation because it Is new eieerly understood

that the protection of our trade and dOK«roe and of

rt»erlcaR inter sta abroad km-, purely ©sad solely i

function of the Department of state, ana that in

carrying out t ssa protection functions the & lesion

suet swell itself of the foreign oereiee officers of

the Departeant of Stats s&d not those of other ©sp art­

isan ts« A» there had beer, s steadily growing pendancy

or? the pert of sffleers of oth«r Iftpart&ettte, notably

those of the Pep&rtiae&t ©I' Coauseree, to c oncers tbets»

selves with protection matters abroad and to unds/:take

function® abroad which sert equivalent to the conduct



of esrtsir* espeets of our fort lips relative there

arose ©it equivocal situation both with respect t© our

OWR people si hoss end With respect to for*;ifpi SOUD tries*



st the guise tin* gradually eliiainete an unusual asfi

undesirable situation *bi«h exists la certain «-$plt%l*.

The Uepartiaent ha a tsaa> claar ORC sspeet or thia

•Ituatlon la its c&reuler with regard to trade and

eo'tsnaree protect lor* -eork aa4 the eonduet of our

foralis ralationa beiisg a fuoetion of tha Stat® !-e-

partaent end Ita offleers. It la now believed to fee

desirable that this other* ae.ua 11 y Important eapeat

Of aaon^mlc background a©ifc being dona by officers

of the £»te;e iapartaeet be alsrif i4» To this end

It la not believed that a written is struct! om to

the Servtea at this %t?n# is necessary. Asbeaf-sdora

end Utr.i shears- proceeding to a poet saay appropriately

fee tr.fofiseti by tha £epert»ent la Washington of the

l&portenee of this eeonoftlc feefe ground a ark be lag

done bj tha foreign &«r


of our Government *bc mmf fee ©i lashed to tee utiles

or stationed 1R tb« eountry. Tfe»t f&e gsiviot, lit for suc­

tion ar^ eounael af tbese Attsebe's end officer* of

other Departments sfe&uid %>$ freely offered to tfe«

mission an J tfcat it- is • mittm af &»ty of these

Attsene* toa»spqB4 to tfee desires of tfe© amission sjsd

give if their loyal e© operation, 1© mot ©sly desirable

but essential. Bat it fifceald ©e elesriy understood

by off iseras of tbe Bepartssent of state tb&t nmh co­

operation does not replsee the eeanogUUI beefcgrouod

eortt t&leh ssaat be do&© by tee •ffioers of the Depart-

AS efeiefs of missions and Foreign Service of-

fleers of th® Department proceeding to a aetr post,

If in »esb ngton| invariably esll ae fbe personnel

Of flee before proceeding on tselr r»« asslgnsaent, end

*:3 tnl© setter is to s considerable extent ore of

per@ormei# it taey be desirable to neve tbis information

transmitted to officer* verbally by the ebi ef of tfee

Pereoxtsel Office oC tb» departswt of State, &rlng

•uah interview* It is b#ll«ved tfeet tfc* principles

outlined in tbis «teap«*tefe sbould also fee brought to

tbe attention of all Foreign Berviee officers,

particularly In capitals, by tbe Fersflc-r.el off lee of

tbe £*p


to In** at least soaa aspeots of Urn Matter also

brought to tfcs tttenUoB of Aabosssdors eivil Ministers

•n4 of thsso off iter® ate UIEOI? will be is ehorge

of diploiastle establishments, by the Uh&er«&eeretsrjr

ttt the Assistant aeeretsry, oh© aasj be. eon versing

sith suefe officers prior to their desertuos for i •


In presenting tale setter to the Bepertswa&t, only

pooltigs aspects of the situation and the reasons

for action have beeng0*eiu those tto hat* experience

in the field over • considerable ;>eri©d, realissc

with tbe I^psrtfaefit how tmsefo It would be for the

Ijopsar t%ont of Stele to pleoo ite dependence ffcr

©cartas!* background »©*fc In tba of fleers of other

Deportment e. Theo# othar of floor* alaa.pt fail their

fir at ellegiemee to tbolr oer- Deportment, ana it is

not an unco ."ior? esperlenoe in tba field to have tho&

transmit to their xmr, Dep&rtHtent iiror&etion ahiob

tboy say gat of interest i connection a 1th our foreign

relations* fcefor* furbishing it to the obief of tba

diplotaeti* sis a ion under *lose coper and protection

tfetf perform their eutleo* It is i husssn prdtaesi which

soot bo Soalt with oo euOfc* sM ehlle it may not bo

d*slr&fcle at tfels %im to SOE& out say writ tan lestrue*

tlons it in highly deslrsblo ttoet tbo expropriate

verbal is struct ions should bo given to dipi^-astis

officers w*.;en tbe opportunity offers mm &Xm to these

officers going to capitals 1B a consular ©opacity o$g

llfcely to be in ©berg© of tfe« consular •*tablleh®eji*#



ft© th®*# latter afcouit te«t fully i&f@n»«a «s to

tftetr iiaport&Mt ©Migatietj ie edcpar&tlisg »i*k

tfc* miaaioa is protridin^ m&mmia tmokgrsu.ii&


11 /ISO



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