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Informe Técnico de Consultoría ASPECTOS CONCEPTUALES Y ...

Informe Técnico de Consultoría ASPECTOS CONCEPTUALES Y ...

AUTOR (ES): Trondsen,

AUTOR (ES): Trondsen, Torbjørn; Johnston, Richard S.TITULOMarket Orientation and Raw Material ControlAÑO 1998REFERENCIAJournal of Market Focused Management, 3, 193–210 (1998)BIBLIOGRAFICAIDIOMAInglésPALABRAS CLAVES Market orientation, marketing constraints, fisherymanagement, seafood, purchasing, institutions,renewable resources, NorwayRESUMENMuch of the existing literature on market orientationmphasizes the role played by the competencies of companiesin selling products. However, in industries that rely on anatural resource sector for its primary input, anotherconstraint may dominate: the limitations on supply of thatinput. We examine this issue in the context of a particularnatural resource sector, the fishery, as a case study of themore general phenomenon. Using the example of Norway’sapparent lack of market orientation as a supplier of freshfish, the paper demonstrates how the characteristics ofnatural resource sectors as well as how public policies areused to manage those sectors may place significantroadblocks in the way of developing a market orientation bythe industries that depend on those sectors for raw material.The paper notes that there has been an increased consumerdemand for fresh fish, away from the frozen product. This, inprinciple, should lead to an increased need for a marketorientation by sellers and closer relationships between theprimary processors and the distributors of fresh seafood.However, several barriers, ncluding those associated withfishery management, hinder this process. These include thepresence of a structure where earnings from fishing areindependent of quality, the seasonality of supplies in the rawfish markets, the way fish quotas are managed, the structureof first hand sales, and the underdeveloped relationshipsbetween supermarkets and the primary processors. In short,the analysis identifies critical linkages between fisherymanagement and the marketing of seafood. Its broadercontribution is to increased understanding of theinterdependencies between the marketing of naturalresource-based products and public management of thatresource.DIRECCIÓN DE ACCESOELECTRÓNICOA-67

AUTOR (ES): Yandle, Tracy: Dewees, Christopher M.TITULOConsolidation in an Individual Transferable Quota Regime:Lessons from New Zealand, 1986–1999AÑO 2008REFERENCIAEnvironmental Management (2008) 41:915–928BIBLIOGRAFICAIDIOMAInglésPALABRAS CLAVES Aggregation, Consolidation, Limited access privilege,Fisheries management, Individual transferable quota, ITQ,Market based regulation, New ZealandRESUMENMarket-based approaches to environmental regulation (suchas tradable permits or transferable quotas) are frequentlyoffered as innovative solutions to many environmentalproblems. Globally, one of the most wellestablished forms ofthis approach is individual transferable quotas (or ITQs) infisheries management. Within the natural resourcemanagement community, there is considerable debate overthe effects ITQs have on the fishing industry and fisherbehavior although this approach is not well-established in theUnited States. The previously imposed moratorium on ITQsin the United States has expired and the 2006 reauthorizationof the Magnuson- Stevens Act explicitly provides for limitedaccess privileges (LAPs). A variety of fishers, regulators,and conservation organizations are enthusiastically seekingto introduce ITQ management. With debate over whetherand how ITQs should be used in American fisheriesreinvigorated, it is timely to examine the evidence on thesocial and economic effects of ITQs in other nations’fisheries. After briefly summarizing the debate on ITQs, weexamine the case of New Zealand, one of the earliest andlongest-lived ITQ-based fisheries regimes. We use multipledata sources and methods to analyze the extent to whichindustry consolidation and aggregation has occurred,including surveys of industry participants, expert interviews,reviews of academic reports and analyses, analysis of tradepublications, and direct analysis of quota ownership patterns.This analysis shows a more complex outcome than recentdebates in the ITQ literature would predict. These findingssuggest that policy makers considering ITQs can learn fromthe experiences of other countries related to key issues suchas quota allocation, aggregation limits, transferability, costrecovery, and resource sustainability when designing ITQand other LAP systems. It is also important to explicitlyidentify economic and social objectives and then carefullydesign ITQ regimes to meet these objectives.DIRECCIÓN DE ACCESOELECTRÓNICOA-68

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