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Premios de la UICN - IUCN Portals

Premios de la UICN - IUCN Portals

mango and guava

mango and guava seedlings), 3 wells and 19 water pumps to supplement agricultural and domesticwater supply, some of which are actions designed to also benefit women’s livelihoods.Resolving conflict, securing food in UgandaFor hundreds of years, the Benet people have been forest dwellers, deriving their livelihoods from theforested landscape of Mount Elgon but in 1983 the Ugandan Government declared Mount Elgon aNational Park, evicted the Benet communities and resettled them outside the forest. During the past30 years, the situation between the Benet communities and the Government has been tense. Eventhough an area of 6,000 hectares was degazetted to settle the Benet people, population increases inthe resettled areas has led to overuse of natural resources both inside and outside the National Park.This has led to land degradation, landslides, and a rise in poverty. Reduced livelihood options andbelief in their ancestral rights led the Benet communities to exploit the resources of the national parkitself for survival.IUCN took up the challenge to address this situation, and through its Livelihoods and LandscapesInitiative, has worked with partners and local communities to help redefine conservation and the futureof Mount Elgon in this area. A buffer zone has been established around the national park that helps toaddress problems such as boundary disputes, access to forest resources, illegal hunting and grazing.Livelihood improvements are also promoted within the buffer zone and the adjacent landscapes. Inaddition, the office worked with both the local authorities and local communities to develop simplebylaws regulating agriculture in farm areas close to the national park.The preliminary results demonstrate that local communities have increased their incomes by morethan 100% in honey production, and a two-fold increase in milk production and vegetable gardening.In 2010 it was estimated an average increase in income from $10 per month to $100 per month,resulting in 70% increase of children school enrolment in this group. Crop yields have increased withmany farmers now able to plant two cycles, while soil erosion has been reduced and water retentionincreased with many more trees being planted on farm. 705 households involved in constructingcontours to control soil erosion generated a two fold increase in crop yields as a re result of 2 cropsnow planted instead of 1 (7–10 bags per acre of maize to 16–20 bags and 30–50 bags of potatoes to80–100 bags).Case studies: Greening the World EconomyInvesting in Ecosystems as Water InfrastructureConventional water investments ignore the economic role of river basins themselves and ecosystemsas natural water infrastructure. They omit the natural ecosystems which safeguard and maintain waterquality and supplies, protect against water-related disasters and generate goods and services that arevital for human well-being and economic development.IUCN promotes the idea that economic planning for water resources development, at basin or nationalscales, needs to account for ecosystem services. With the costs and benefits of ecosystem servicesvalued, a business case can be made for investing in ecosystems and watersheds as naturalinfrastructure, as part of sustainable financing for river basin management.The key to investing in ecosystem services as natural water infrastructure is understanding their value.With ecosystem values in hand, decision makers can then weigh up the costs and benefits of alternatechoices for water infrastructure development and operation. Performing ecosystem valuations,particularly in ways that encourage whole communities to participate, can empower all stakeholders.With knowledge gained from ecosystem valuations, priority can be given to projects that combineinvestment in natural and built infrastructure.A relevant example of this initiative occurred in the Okavango Delta in Botswana where direct use ofvarious ecosystem benefits was found to generate an estimated US$ 136 million in terms of grossoutput, US$ 51 million in terms of direct value added to gross national product (GNP) and US$ 24million in resource rent. The value of ecosystem water services provided by Muthurajawela Marsh inSri Lanka is also significant, at more than US$ 2,500 per hectare of wetland. Undertaking engineeringworks to restore the flooding regime in Waza Logone floodplain, Cameroon would generatesubstantial net benefits of between $1.1 million and US $2.3 million a year over the 2003 situation.356

This information was used to prepare the Background Paper “Putting Nature in the Nexus: Investing inNatural Infrastructure to Advance Water-Energy-Food Security” for Bonn 2011 Conference on “TheWater, Energy and Food Security Nexus – Solutions for the Green Economy” held by the Governmentof Germany. Investment in natural water infrastructure was adopted at the conference as one of sixkey opportunities for building water, food and energy security, and included in recommendations forthe Rio+20 conference.Working with Holcim to improve biodiversity managementIUCN’s priority is to engage the business sectors in which change is most important and urgent, due tothe scale of their environmental and social impacts. Large footprint industries tend to have largeimpacts on biodiversity through their operations and processes. Therefore, these sectors represent themain target for IUCN to approach and to help transform their biodiversity risk into conservationopportunities.IUCN and Holcim have been working together since 2007 to strengthen biodiversity managementwithin Holcim’s operations and to contribute to sector-wide improvements in the cement and relatedsectors. The major outcome of the IUCN-Holcim Phase I agreement (2007–2010) was thedevelopment of a Biodiversity Management System to guide the systematic integration of biodiversityconsiderations into Holcim’s cement and aggregate quarrying operations worldwide as well as toinfluence the development of a corporate policy on biodiversity with a quantitative targets. Forinstance, in sites that have global or national biodiversity importance and impact is medium or greater,then a Biodiversity Action Plan (BAP) is required. Holcim has established a target of 80% of thesesensitive sites have BAP in place by 2013.In 2011, the two organizations renewed their collaboration for a further three years. Building on theachievements of the first agreement, the IUCN-Holcim Phase II agreement aims to: effectivelyimplement the Biodiversity Management System in Holcim operations; influence national policies andlegal instruments to enable the building material sector to deliver better biodiversity conservationoutcomes; influence the development of sector-wide standards for biodiversity conservation; andstrengthen Holcim’s approach to water management. During 2011, emphasis was placed on BMSimplementation through the development of a training pack to assist Holcim staff to understand theBMS and risk classification. The biodiversity advisory panel, formed by IUCN, has assisted inreviewing the site classifications, which is vital for determining the level of biodiversity managementrequired. To assist this review, IUCN conducted a desktop screening of the reported quarries usingIntegrated Biodiversity Assessment Tool. Working towards influencing the sector, IUCN participated inthe review and commenting of the Cement Sustainability Initiative (CSI) Quarry Rehab guidelines,which brings in the learning IUCN has gained from working with Holcim.FIGURE 10: THE BIODIVERSITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM RISK MATRIX357

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