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INDICE INDICE ........................................................................................................................................................................... 2 1. INTRODUCCIÓN ....................................................................................................................................................... 4 2. TECNOLOGÍA ANTIGUA .......................................................................................................................................... 5 2.1 Los Precursores .............................................................................................................................................. 6 2.2 El concepto espacial ...................................................................................................................................... 13 3. INSTRUMENTOS .................................................................................................................................................... 17 3.1 La Cuerda ...................................................................................................................................................... 18 3.2 La Cadena ..................................................................................................................................................... 19 3.3 Decempeda o Pertica .................................................................................................................................... 20 3.4 El Odómetro .................................................................................................................................................. 20 3.5 Los Jalones o banderolas .............................................................................................................................. 20 3.6 La Groma ....................................................................................................................................................... 22 3.7 La Escuadra de Agrimensor .......................................................................................................................... 26 3.8 El Gnomon ..................................................................................................................................................... 30 3.9 La Libra Aquaria ............................................................................................................................................ 33 3.10 El Corobate .................................................................................................................................................. 34 3.11 La Dioptra .................................................................................................................................................... 43 3.12 La Lámpara ................................................................................................................................................. 57 4. TÉCNICAS ............................................................................................................................................................... 58 4.1 Medición del terreno, geodesia y triangulación.............................................................................................. 60 4.2 Agrimensura .................................................................................................................................................. 65 4.3 Trazado de carreteras ................................................................................................................................... 67 4.4 Canalización de las aguas y técnicas de nivelación ...................................................................................... 69 4.5 Perforación de galerías.................................................................................................................................. 75 5. CONCLUSIÓN ........................................................................................................................................................ 81 3