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Preliminaries to a

Preliminaries to a history of Bucharest iconostases of 18 th -19 th centuries | 137 6 See for this: Kondakov 2009. 7 See http://www.varvar.ru/arhiv/gallery/ikona/tihon-filatyev/index.html (accessed in 19.10.2017). 8 In an icon of the Life-Giving Spring (beginning of 18 th century) attributed to Tihon Filatjev Ivanov one may find once again the same Neoclassical style décor, the same rigorously built architecture as in the scene with the Entrance of the Mother of God into the Temple. Icon at: http://iconaimmaginedio.blogspot.ro/2013/06/tichonivanov-filatjev-iconografo-russo.html (accessed on 19.10.2017). 9 An icon of The Three Holy Hierarchs (1687) has the same style and the same decorative language in treating faces and vestments, just as in the line of hierarchs from the lower register of the icon of the Entrance of the Mother of God into the Temple. See the icon at: http:// www.galerijamaticesrpske.rs/nasledje-postvizantijske-tra-dicije. html (accessed on 19.10.2017). 10 See Saint John the Baptist (1689), and a cartouche identical to the one in the chapel in The Appearance of the Virgin to the Apostle Andrew (1702) at: http://www.varvar.ru/arhiv/gallery/ikona/tihonfilatyev/index.html (accessed in 19.10.2017). 11 Iorga 1909, p. 354; Năsturel and Vătămanu 1968, p. 187. 12 Before arriving in Wallachia, Ioanichie took a detour via Peter the Great’s Russia, to collect the money necessary to establish the monastery in the Wallachian capital. We know this from an inscription on one icon, now lost, which he brought with him to Bucharest: “In the year 1718, month of March. This holy and venerated icon is mine, the small and humble servant of God, Ioanichie the hieromonk from Pogoniana, from the village of Ostanița, which I bought, being in the Seat of Moscow, with the mercifulness of good God and of His Holy Mother, for my piety and of all pious Christians; to intercede with her One true-born Son, for my sins, for which this was also written to be commemorated. Ioanichie hieromonk.” (Drăghiceanu 1913, p. 30, no. 228; Elian 1965, p. 413, no. 447). 13 Saint Charalambos was the patron of the chapel within the premises of Stavropoleos Monastery. See National Archives, Stavropoleos Monastery, xxvii/195 and xxvii/196. The chapel, built in a row with the abbot’s house, was demolished at the end of the 19 th century, and subsequently its patron saint was adopted by the large church of the monastery. 14 The church of the former Monastery St. Spyridon the Old was erected in 1747 by the Patriarch Silvestru of Antioch, with the support of the ruler Constantin Mavrocordat, as a place of worship for the Arabian hierarchs and monks. 15 Drakopoulou 2008, p. 32. 16 In the churches of Mount Athos, numerous such specimens from the era of modern Baroque sculpture are kept, such as the iconostases of the monastery churches of Vatopedi, Helandariou, Osiou Grigoriou, Docheiariou, and Dionysiou, but there are also churches from Aegean islands, Crete and Chios, which have these types of iconostasis. Nikonanos 1997, p. 291-294; and 1998, p. 536- 542; Goulaki-Voutyra and Karadedos 2011, passim. 16 In the churches of Mount Athos, numerous specimens from the time of modern Baroque sculpture are kept, such as the iconostases of the monastery churches of Vatopedi, Helandariou, Osiou Grigoriou, Docheiariou, and Dionysiou, but there are also churches from the Aegean islands, Crete and Chios, which have these types of iconostasis. Nikonanos 1997, p. 291-294; and 1998, p. 536-542; Goulaki-Voutyra and Karadedos 2011, passim. 17 Previous studies on this subject proposed that it would have been brought over from a neighbouring church, the priory of Râmnic Bishopric, demolished at approximately the same time that the White Church began restoration, in around the 1870s. (Vătămanu 1967, p. 526-531; Stoicescu 1971, p. 370-380). The archive documents, however, do not confirm the hypothesis. The correspondence between the Bishopric priory and the curators of the White Church are kept in two funds from the National Archives (Ministry for Agriculture and Regions Fund, File 100/1868, f. 64 and Ministry for Cults and Public Instructions, File 1082/1866, f.11), in which is mentioned the list of objects from the Bishopric Priory required for the White Church. The ‘temple with its icons’ also appears in this list. In fact this iconostasis is the second of Râmnic Bishopric priory, a Neo-gothic specimen that ended up, as the documents from the above-mentioned files show, in a church from the Buzău Bishopric. 18 According to the inscription: “In the days of Archimandrite Kalinic abbot. 1831, 10 th November. Nicolae Biv Polcovnic Painter”. 19 Velescu 1968, p. 89-96; Georgescu, Stanciu 1973, p. 1290-1294. 20 Velescu 1968, p. 91. 21 Contract with the painter Tattarescu for decorating the church, 14 th November 1873. National Archives, Fund Bucharest Municipality City Hall - Administrative, File 14/1831. 22 Restoration work took place between 2014-2016, being executed by S.C. iorux trade S.R.L, coordinator: restorer dr. Sultana-Ruxandra Polizu. 23 Costescu 1983, p. 15. 24 For the Buzău school, see Cocora 1964, pp. 336-371. For the Cernica and Căldărușani schools, see Ștefănescu 1969, p. 364-392, and Georgescu and Stanciu 1973, p. 1290-1294. 25 Metropolitan Archives, Metropolitan Repairs Fund, File 2652/1836. 26 For Gheorghe Tattarescu, see Popescu and Cristea 2008, and Voinescu 1940. 27 Șerbănescu 1958, Miclescu 1967, Vasilescu 2008. 28 According to the contract completed on 8 th October 1836. See Șerbănescu 1958, p. 834, and Nedelcu 1968, p. 224. Register for the expenses of the Metropolitan House for one year from 1 st January year 1836 until 1 st January 1837. Bucharest National Archives. Community Control Fund, File 5961/1836, p. 11, no. 6). 29 Dimitrie Belizarie’s four icons are mounted facing the altar, behind the existing icons. They were published in Vasilescu 2008, p. 168. 30 Otilia Oteteleșanu specialised in this technique during her years of study at the Berlin Academy of Decorative Arts. 31 See, in this respect, besides the enamel icons from the Cathedral, the mosaic icons for the iconostasis in Cașin (1952-1958) and Antim (1965), the marble and alabaster iconostasis from Cașin (1952- 1958) and the mural painting from the Synod Palace (1961). 32 In 1924, when Costin Petrescu was designated to evaluate the painting from the Cathedral to assess the possibility of recovering it, he mentioned in his report: “It doesn’t have the characteristic appearance of the Byzantine style. The Saints don’t have hieratic attitudes, nor that folding drapery depicted with rigid lines underneath which are traced the body shape and movement. The halos or the rays that fall from the sky are treated in a modern manner, in muted tones, not like the old ones that have the aspect of very clearly defined discs, or rays in the shape of long sharp strips. The drapery has a banal aspect, and a type of roses painted between circles of saints can be seen in the ornaments”. The National Heritage Institute Archive, Historic Monuments Commission Fund, Bucharest Metropolitan File, vol. I, f. 16. 33 Drakopoulou 2012, p. 141. 34 Uspenski 2005, p. 235.

138 | sister Atanasia Văetiși 35 Decisiunea 1890, p. i-iv. 36 They were all what we might call theoretician-artists; they published books in which they wrote the principles of composition and the technique of mural painting – a type of painting manual in the form of an ars poetica. Petrescu 1932, Greceanu 1935, Verona 1943. 37 Petrescu 1932, p. 38-41. Sources: Arhiva Institutului Național al Patrimoniului. Fond Comisia Monumentelor Istorice. Dosar Mitropolia București, vol. i. Arhiva Mitropoliei, fond Reparații la Mitropolie, Dosar 2652/1836. Arhivele Naționale, Fond Primăria Municipiului București-Administrativ, Dosar 14/1831. Arhivele Naționale, Fond Mănăstirea Stavropoleos, xxvii/195 and xxvii/196. Arhivele Naționale, Fond Ministerul Agriculturii și Domeniilor, Dosar 100/1868. Arhivele Naționale, Fond Ministerul Cultelor și Instrucțiunilor Publice, Dosar 1082/1866. Decisiunea 1890 – „Decisiunea Sfântului Sinod al Sfintei noastre Biserici autocefale dreptmăritoare de Răsărit privitoare la icoanele, arhitectura, pictura și ornamentațiunea bisericilor din toată țara, cum care să se urmeze pe viitor”, in Biserica Ortodoxă Română, 13, 12, 1890, p. i-iv. Elian et al. (eds.) 1965 – Alexandru Elian (ed.), Inscripţii medievale ale României. Oraşul Bucureşti, vol. i (1395–1800), Bucharest, Ed. Academiei, 1965. Other Titles: Abrudan 2015 – Ioan Ovidiu Abrudan, “Un model inedit de reprezentare a Sfintei Fecioare Maria cu Pruncul în iconografia românească a secolului al xix-lea”, Apulum. Series Historia & Patrimonium, 52, 2015, p. 105-155. Cocora 1964 – Gabriel Cocora, “Școala de zugravi de la Buzău”, Biserica Ortodoxă Română, 82, 3-4, 1964, p. 336-371. Costea 2002 – Constanța Costea, „Iconostasul”, in Iustin Marchiș, Protos (coord.), Stavropoleos. Ortodoxie, artă, comunitate, Bucharest, Fundația Stavropoleos/Ed. Meridiane, 2002. Costescu 1983 – Eleonora Costescu, Începuturile artei moderne în sud-estul european, Bucharest, Ed. Litera, 1983. Drakopoulou 2008 – Eugénie Drakopoulou, “The Itineraries of the Orthodox Painters in the Eighteenth Century: The Common Aesthetics in South-East Europe”, The Historical Review, 5, 2008, p. 21-40. Drakopoulou 2012 – Eugénie Drakopoulou, “L’art religieux orthodoxe du xvii e siècle et ses relations artistiques avec l’Orient et l’Occident”, The Historical Review, 9, 2012, p. 141-159. Drăghiceanu 1913 – Virgiliu N. Drăghiceanu, Catalogul Colecțiunilor Comisiunii Monumentelor Istorice, Bucharest, Socec, 1913. Dumitrescu 1972 – Florentina Dumitrescu, “Trăsături specifice ale sculpturii în lemn brâncoveneşti”, in Pagini de veche artă românească ii, Bucharest, 1972. Dumitrescu 1974 – Florentina Dumitrescu, “Sculptura în lemn brâncovenească”, in Pagini de veche artă românească iii, Bucharest, 1974. Georgescu and Stanciu 1973 – I. L. Georgescu; † Roman [Stanciu] Ialomiţeanul, episcop vicar al Arhiepiscopiei Bucureştilor, “Zugravul Nicolae Polcovnicul la Mănăstirile Cernica și Pasărea”, Biserica Ortodoxă Română, 91, 11-12, 1973, p. 1290-1294. Goulaki-Voutyra and Karadedos – Alexandra Goulaki-Voutyra, Bibliographic Abbreviations: Linguistic revision : Vladimir Agrigoroaei (Centre d’Études Supérieures de Civilisation Médiévale, Poitiers). Peer-reviewed by : Ioan Ovidiu Abrudan (Universitatea ‚Lucian Blaga’, Sibiu); Ana Dumitran (Muzeul Naţional al Unirii, Alba Iulia); Ana Dobjanschi (Muzeul Național de Artă al României; Bucharest). Giorgos Karadedos, Chios, Lesvos and Ecclesiastical Sculpture in the Aegean 16 th -20 th Century, Thessaloniki, 2011. Greceanu 1943 – Olga Greceanu, Compoziţia murală. Legile şi tehnica ei, Bucharest, 1935. Iorga 1909 – Nicolae Iorga, Studii și documente privitoare la istoria românilor, vol. xvi, Bucharest, 1909. Kondakov 2009 – Nikodim Kondakov, Icons, London, Sirocco, 2009. Miclescu 1967 – Paul Miclescu, Monumentele de pe Dealul Patriarhiei, Bucharest, Ed. Meridiane, 1967. Mitu 2006 – Melinda Mitu, Ebenistica Europei Centrale în Transilvania, Cluj-Napoca, Ed. Argonaut, 2006. Năsturel and Vătămanu 1968 – P. Ş. Năsturel, Nicolae Vătămanu, “Icoana de hram a paraclisului de la Spitalul Colţea, operă a lui Pârvu Mutu”, Biserica Ortodoxă Română, 86, 1-2, 1968, p. 183-188. Nikonanos 1997 – Nikolaos Nikonanos, “Wood-Carving on Mount Athos”, in Athanasios A. Karakatsanis (ed.), Treasures of Mount Athos, Thessaloniki, 1997, p. 291-307. Nikonanos 1998 – Nikolaos Nikonanos, “Woodcarving”, in The Holy and Great Monastery of Vatopaidi, vol. ii, Mount Athos, 1998, p. 536-547. Petrescu 1932 – Costin Petrescu, L’art de la fresque, Paris, Lefranc, 1932. Popescu and Cristea 2008 – Aura Popescu, Ioana Cristea, Tattarescu și contemporanii săi, Bucharest, Editura icr /Muzeul Municipiului București, 2008. Selezneva (ed.) 1997 – Ekaterina L. Selezneva (ed.), ‎Icônes russes. Galerie Tretiakov. Musée National d’art Russe, Moscou. [Catalogue de l’exposition à la Fondation Pierre Gianadda, Martigny, Suisse, du 18 novembre 1997 au 18 janvier 1998], Martigny, Fondation Pierre Gianadda, 1997. Stoicescu 1971 – Nicolae Stoicescu, “Un fost metoc al Episcopiei Râmnicului la Bucureşti: Biserica Sfinţii 40 de mucenici de pe podul Mogoşoaiei”, Mitropolia Olteniei, 23, 5-6, 1971, p. 370-380. Șerbănescu 1958 – Nicolae Șerbănescu, “Scurt istoric al Catedralei Patriarhiei Române”, Biserica Ortodoxă Română, 76, 9, 1958, p. 827-843. Ștefănescu 1969 – I. D. Ștefănescu, “Școala de pictură din mănăstirile Cernica și Căldărușani, Ucenicia lui N. Grigorescu”, Glasul Bisericii, 28, 3-4, 1969, p. 364-392. Uspensky and Lossky 1993 – Leonid Uspensky, Vladimir Lossky, Călăuziri în lumea icoanei, trad. rom. Anca Popescu, Bucharest, Editura Sofia, 2003. Vasilescu 2008 – Gheorghe Vasilescu, Colina Bucuriei. Catedrala patriarhală, Bucharest, Εd. Cuvântul Vieții, 2008. Vătămanu 1967 – Nicolae Vătămanu, “Date noi despre Biserica Albă și tâmpla ei”, Glasul Bisericii, 26, 5-6, 1967, p. 526-531. Velescu 1968 – Oliver Velescu, “Nicolae Polcovnicul Zugravul”, Studii și Cercetări de Istoria Artei, 15, 1968, p. 89-96. Verona 1943 – Arthur G. Verona, Pictura, Editura şi Tiparul Sf. Monastiri Neamţu, 1943. Voinescu 1940 – Teodora Voinescu, Gheorghe Tattarescu 1818-1894, Bucharest, Publicațiunile fondului Elena Simu/ Ed. Academiei Române, 1940.

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