18.04.2018 Views

Hidden Strengths (Burmese)

Create successful ePaper yourself

Turn your PDF publications into a flip-book with our unique Google optimized e-Paper software.

KHRG #2016-01, <br />

Front cover photo:<br />

KHRG …. <br />

<br />

( KHRG)<br />

Back cover photo:<br />

<br />

.... KHRG ( KHRG)<br />

(KHRG) <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

www.khrg.org


() ............................................................................................................... <br />

.......................................................................................<br />

<br />

.............................................................................................................. <br />

.........................................................................................................................<br />

<br />

............................................................................................................. <br />

..............................................................................................................................................<br />

<br />

.......................................................................................................... <br />

............................................................... <br />

................................................................................................................... <br />

() ................................................................................................. <br />

: <br />

........................................................... <br />

: <br />

..............................................................................................................<br />

<br />

: ................................................................<br />

<br />

: .......................................................... <br />

: .......................................................... <br />

: ................................................... <br />

() .................................... <br />

: ........................................................................................................ <br />

: ................................................................................................. <br />

: .................................................................................................. <br />

: .......................................................................................... <br />

1


: ............................................................................................ <br />

: .................................................................................... <br />

: ...................................................................................................<br />

<br />

: ............................................................................................ <br />

: ............................................................................................................. <br />

: ...................................................................................................... <br />

: ................................................................... <br />

: ............................ <br />

: ........................ <br />

2


() <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

KHRG <br />

<br />

Dignity in the Shadow of Oppression <br />

Dignity in the Shadow<br />

of Oppression <br />

KHRG <br />

<br />

<br />

KHRG <br />

<br />

KHRG <br />

<br />

<br />

KHRG <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

KHRG <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

KHRG <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

KHRG <br />

3


KHRG <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

4


KHRG <br />

KHRG <br />

<br />

( ) <br />

<br />

(CEDAW) <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

(CEDAW) <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

(CEDAW) -<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

(CEDAW) <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

(CEDAW) <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

(CEDAW) <br />

(OP-CEDAW) <br />

(CEDAW) <br />

5


(CEDAW) ()-()<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

(CEDAW) <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

(CEDAW) ()-()<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

(CEDAW) <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

(CEDAW) <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

() () ()<br />

() () <br />

(CEDAW) <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

6


7


KHRG <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

8


KHRG <br />

9


KHRG <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

KHRG <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

KHRG <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

10


“ <br />

<br />

”<br />

----() --- /<br />

( ) 1<br />

<br />

KHRG <br />

<br />

<br />

(NCA) <br />

(NLD) <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

KHRG <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

KHRG Dignity in the Shadow of Oppression 2 <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

KHRG <br />

<br />

<br />

1<br />

Source #21 <br />

2<br />

Dignity in the Shadow of Oppression: The abuse and agency of Karen women under militarisation KHRG, November 2006<br />

11


KHRG <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

( ) <br />

<br />

(CEDAW)<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

12


CEDAW <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

CEDAW () <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

CEDAW <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

CEDAW “<br />

” <br />

() <br />

<br />

<br />

Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action <br />

3 <br />

<br />

4<br />

- <br />

<br />

• / ( )<br />

• ( )<br />

• ( )<br />

• ( )<br />

• ( )<br />

• ( )<br />

• ()<br />

• ()<br />

• ( )<br />

• ( )<br />

• ()<br />

• ( )<br />

3<br />

Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action. Fourth World Conference on Women, September 1995 <br />

4<br />

Proportion of seats held by women in national parliaments (%), World Bank, 2011-2015, accessed on June 15th 2016 <br />

13


CEDAW <br />

CEDAW<br />

<br />

CEDAW <br />

<br />

CEDAW CEDAW <br />

CEDAW <br />

CEDAW<br />

<br />

KHRG <br />

5<br />

<br />

() KHRG <br />

<br />

<br />

() () <br />

<br />

() () <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

() () <br />

<br />

() () () <br />

() () <br />

() () <br />

<br />

<br />

KHRG <br />

<br />

KHRG <br />

KHRG <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

5<br />

Submission for the 64th session (4 – 22 July 2016) of the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW), KHRG,<br />

June 10th 2016 <br />

14


KHRG <br />

KHRG <br />

<br />

<br />

15


16


AHN<br />

<br />

BMA <br />

BPHWT <br />

BGF <br />

CBO<br />

<br />

CEDAW <br />

DKBA <br />

EAG <br />

GBV<br />

<br />

IB<br />

<br />

ICESCR <br />

IDP <br />

ILO <br />

KDHW <br />

KED <br />

KHRG <br />

KNDO<br />

<br />

KNLA<br />

<br />

KNU <br />

KPF<br />

<br />

KTWG<br />

<br />

KWO <br />

LIB<br />

<br />

LID<br />

<br />

MDA <br />

MNHRC <br />

MSG <br />

MTC<br />

<br />

NCA <br />

NGO <br />

NLD <br />

OHCHR <br />

SAW <br />

SPDC <br />

UDHR <br />

UN<br />

<br />

UNICEF <br />

UNFPA <br />

USDP <br />

UXO<br />

<br />

WHO<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

17


(EAG)<br />

<br />

DKBA KNU/KNLA <br />

(BGFs)<br />

() () DKBA KPF <br />

BGF <br />

<br />

(EAG) () <br />

() <br />

<br />

<br />

( ) <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

( ) <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

. / . <br />

/ . <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

KNLA <br />

<br />

<br />

/ / <br />

<br />

<br />

18


KHRG <br />

<br />

KHRG <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

KHRG <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

KHRG <br />

<br />

KHRG KHRG <br />

<br />

KHRG <br />

<br />

KHRG <br />

<br />

KHRG<br />

<br />

KHRG <br />

<br />

KHRG <br />

<br />

KHRG <br />

<br />

<br />

KHRG KHRG <br />

<br />

KHRG <br />

<br />

<br />

KHRG <br />

<br />

<br />

19


KHRG <br />

<br />

<br />

KHRG <br />

<br />

KHRG <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

KHRG <br />

<br />

<br />

KHRG <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

KHRG <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

KHRG <br />

(KWO) (KTWG) <br />

20


(KED) (SAW) (MTC) <br />

(BPHWT) <br />

<br />

<br />

KHRG<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

KHRG <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

KHRG <br />

KHRG <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

KHRG <br />

<br />

<br />

KHRG KHRG <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

KHRG <br />

-<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

KHRG <br />

KHRG KHRG <br />

KHRG <br />

KHRG <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

21


- <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

6 KHRG <br />

<br />

<br />

KHRG <br />

<br />

<br />

KHRG <br />

<br />

<br />

…. …… <br />

<br />

…… ……<br />

<br />

<br />

KHRG <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

KHRG <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

KNLA <br />

KHRG <br />

DKBA <br />

<br />

<br />

6<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

22


KHRG <br />

<br />

<br />

KHRG <br />

<br />

<br />

KHRG <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

KHRG <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

KHRG <br />

( ) <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

KHRG <br />

<br />

<br />

23


() <br />

: <br />

<br />

“ <br />

<br />

<br />

( ) ”<br />

…. ( ) …<br />

/<br />

( <br />

) 7<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

KHRG <br />

() <br />

? ‘<br />

<br />

?’ <br />

<br />

<br />

8<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

KHRG <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

7<br />

Source #82: “Hpapun Interview: Naw S---, September 2013,” KHRG, August 2014. <br />

8<br />

“Truce or Transition? Trends in human rights abuse and local response in Southeast Myanmar since the 2012 ceasere,” KHRG, May 2014;<br />

“‘With only our voices, what can we do?’: Land conscation and local response in southeast Myanmar,” KHRG, June 2015. <br />

24


KHRG <br />

<br />

9 10 <br />

11 <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

‘militarisation’ KHRG <br />

<br />

() <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

KHRG <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

(KNU)<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

KHRG <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

KNU <br />

12<br />

9<br />

Sources #8; #159 #12 <br />

10<br />

Source #4 <br />

11<br />

Source #4 <br />

12<br />

“Myanmar signs ceasefire with eight armed groups,” Reuters, October 15th 2015. <br />

“Myanmar: UN Chief<br />

welcomes ‘milestone’ signing of ceasere agreement,” UN News Centre, October 15th 2015 KNU <br />

KNU <br />

25


“ <br />

”<br />

… ( ) … / <br />

( ) 13<br />

KHRG <br />

KHRG <br />

KNU <br />

14 <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

15 <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

16 <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

17<br />

KHRG <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

18<br />

“Without Real Political Roadmap, Nationwide Ceasere Agreement Leads Nowhere...,” Karen News,<br />

September 1st 2015. <br />

KNU <br />

KHRG Truce or<br />

Transition? Trends in human rights abuse and local response since the 2012 ceasere, KHRG, May 2014. <br />

13<br />

Source #26 <br />

14<br />

<br />

15<br />

Source # 120: “The Tatmadaw never come to our village after 2012 ceasere.” Source #154; #153;<br />

#110; #79; #120 <br />

16<br />

Source #153 <br />

17<br />

…. KHRG <br />

18<br />

…. KHRG <br />

26


19<br />

<br />

<br />

“ <br />

…. <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

”<br />

…. ( ) … / <br />

( ) 20<br />

KHRG <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

“ … <br />

<br />

<br />

”<br />

… ( ) -/<br />

( ) 21<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

KHRG Dignity in the Shadow of<br />

Oppression 22 <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

KHRG <br />

<br />

19<br />

Sources #7; #26 #38 <br />

20<br />

Source #26 <br />

21<br />

Source #155 <br />

22<br />

Dignity in the Shadow of Oppression: The abuse and agency of Karen women under militarisation, KHRG, November 2006. <br />

27


KHRG <br />

<br />

<br />

…. <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

“ … <br />

<br />

”<br />

….. ( ) …. / <br />

( ) 23<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

24<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

“ ... ... <br />

... ... <br />

( ‘ ?’<br />

) ”<br />

…. ( ) -/<br />

( ) 25<br />

<br />

<br />

26 () <br />

<br />

<br />

23<br />

Source #8 <br />

24<br />

Source #155 <br />

25<br />

Source #155 <br />

26<br />

Source #159: “We want them [the Tatmadaw soldiers] to relocate and stay away from us, and stay in the place that they were based in before.<br />

… [W]e want them to withdraw from the army camps located<br />

28


“ <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

”<br />

…. ( ) … / <br />

( ) 27<br />

<br />

<br />

“ ... KNU <br />

<br />

<br />

... <br />

<br />

<br />

()…. <br />

<br />

”<br />

…. ( ) .. /<br />

( ) 28<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

KHRG <br />

Dignity in the Shadow of Oppression <br />

<br />

<br />

() <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

29<br />

KHRG <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

27<br />

Source #34 <br />

28<br />

Source #21 <br />

29<br />

Dignity in the Shadow of Oppression: The abuse and agency of Karen women under militarisation, KHRG, November 2006. <br />

<br />

29


30 <br />

<br />

“ <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

……<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

“ <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

KNU <br />

”<br />

…. ( ) / ( ) 31<br />

…. <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

32 <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

“ () <br />

<br />

<br />

33 <br />

30<br />

Sources #149; #151. <br />

31<br />

Source #149 <br />

32<br />

Source #150 <br />

33<br />

… <br />

<br />

30


... <br />

<br />

<br />

”<br />

…. ( ) /<br />

( ) 34<br />

<br />

35 <br />

<br />

<br />

“ <br />

…. .... <br />

<br />

<br />

”<br />

….. ( ) …. …. / <br />

( ) 36<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

KHRG <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

KHRG <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

37<br />

<br />

38 <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

34<br />

Source #150 <br />

35<br />

Source #34 <br />

36<br />

Source #34 <br />

37<br />

“Theft and looting” KHRG website. <br />

38<br />

Source #137 <br />

31


“ () <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

…. <br />

<br />

<br />

”<br />

…. ( ) … /<br />

( ) 39<br />

40 <br />

<br />

<br />

41<br />

“ <br />

<br />

<br />

”<br />

…. ( ) … /<br />

( ) 42<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

43<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

39<br />

Source #23 <br />

40<br />

Source #82: “Hpapun Interview: Naw S---, September 2013,” KHRG, August 2014 <br />

41<br />

Sources #141; #28: “ KNU …..<br />

…. …. KNU <br />

<br />

… <br />

<br />

KNLA<br />

<br />

”<br />

42<br />

Source #82: “Hpapun Interview: Naw S---, September 2013,” KHRG, August 2014. <br />

43<br />

Sources #155; #8. <br />

32


“ <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

”<br />

…… ( ) … /<br />

( ) 44<br />

<br />

KHRG <br />

<br />

/ <br />

<br />

% <br />

% 45<br />

46 <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

KHRG % <br />

% % % NLD 47<br />

<br />

KHRG <br />

<br />

KHRG <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

48<br />

KHRG <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

44<br />

Source #26 <br />

45<br />

“The Myanmar Elections: Results and Implications,” Asia Brieng No 147, International Crisis Group, December 2015. <br />

% <br />

% <br />

46<br />

<br />

<br />

47<br />

“The Myanmar Elections: Results and Implications,” Asia Brieng N°147, International Crisis Group, December 2015.<br />

48<br />

The 2015 Elections and Beyond: Perspectives from villagers in rural southeast Burma/Myanmar,” KHRG, February 2016. <br />

33


49 <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

“ <br />

... <br />

<br />

... <br />

<br />

”<br />

….. () /<br />

( ) 50<br />

… <br />

<br />

<br />

“ KNU <br />

... <br />

<br />

<br />

”<br />

… ( ) -/<br />

( ) 51<br />

<br />

<br />

“ <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

”<br />

….. () / ( ) 52<br />

49<br />

Source #150 <br />

50<br />

Source #153 <br />

51<br />

Source #152 <br />

52<br />

The 2015 Elections and Beyond: Perspectives from villagers in rural southeast Burma/Myanmar, KHRG, February 2016.<br />

34


: <br />

<br />

KHRG <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

( KHRG)<br />

KHRG <br />

<br />

() <br />

( KHRG)<br />

35


KHRG <br />

<br />

<br />

(NCA) <br />

<br />

<br />

( KHRG)<br />

KHRG <br />

<br />

<br />

( KHRG)<br />

36


: <br />

“ <br />

<br />

<br />

”<br />

…..( ) …….<br />

/<br />

( <br />

) 53<br />

(KHRG) <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

(CEDAW) <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

“ <br />

” 54<br />

CEDAW . <br />

<br />

“ <br />

<br />

”<br />

. <br />

“ <br />

<br />

” 55<br />

53<br />

Source #150: “Nyaunglebin Interview: Daw U---, December 2012,” KHRG <br />

54<br />

, Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women, <br />

55<br />

.., Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women, <br />

<br />

37


(CEDAW)<br />

KHRG <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

“ <br />

”<br />

……..( ) …… /<br />

( ) 56<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

() <br />

<br />

<br />

57 <br />

58 <br />

59 <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

60<br />

<br />

61 <br />

<br />

<br />

56<br />

Source #24. <br />

57<br />

Source #81; #130; #137 <br />

58<br />

Source #130 <br />

59<br />

Source #3 <br />

60<br />

Source #118 KNU <br />

KHRG (KED) ……<br />

<br />

61<br />

Source #8 <br />

38


“ <br />

<br />

<br />

”<br />

……… ( ) ….. / <br />

( ) 62<br />

……. <br />

<br />

<br />

“ <br />

<br />

<br />

”<br />

….. ( ) ……… /<br />

( ) 63<br />

….. <br />

<br />

“<br />

” 64 ……. <br />

<br />

( ) () <br />

65<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

66<br />

67 <br />

<br />

<br />

“ <br />

<br />

”<br />

….. () ….. / <br />

( ) 68<br />

62<br />

Source #81 <br />

63<br />

Source #21 <br />

64<br />

Source #4 <br />

65<br />

Source #45 “Nyaunglebin Interview: Daw U---, December 2012,” KHRG, <br />

66<br />

Ethnic Conict and Social Services in Myanmar’s Contested Regions, The Asia Foundation, June 2014 <br />

67<br />

() <br />

68<br />

Source #143 <br />

39


.%<br />

.% 69 <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

70 <br />

<br />

<br />

KHRG <br />

( ) <br />

71<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

72<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

“ ……. <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

”<br />

……. ( ) ….. / <br />

( ) 73<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

69<br />

Primary education - teachers (% female) in Myanmar, Trading Economics, accessed April 2016. <br />

70<br />

World Data on Education: Myanmar, <br />

<br />

<br />

71<br />

Source #141 <br />

<br />

72<br />

Source #126 : “Toungoo Interview: Naw A---, January 2015,” KHRG, <br />

73<br />

Source #127 : “Toungoo Interview: Naw A---, January 2015,” KHRG, 2015<br />

40


“ <br />

”<br />

……….. () / <br />

( ) 74<br />

<br />

<br />

“ ()<br />

…… <br />

… <br />

… … <br />

<br />

<br />

….. <br />

… <br />

… <br />

”<br />

… () …. / <br />

( ) 75<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

“ <br />

<br />

<br />

”<br />

…. () … /<br />

( ) 76<br />

<br />

<br />

77<br />

“ <br />

”<br />

… () … /<br />

( ) 78<br />

74<br />

Source #147 <br />

75<br />

Source #126 : “Toungoo Interview: Naw A---, January 2015,” KHRG, <br />

76<br />

Source #21 <br />

77<br />

Source #34 <br />

78<br />

Source #8 <br />

41


….. <br />

“ <br />

<br />

”<br />

… () … / <br />

( ) 79<br />

<br />

KHRG 80 81<br />

82 <br />

<br />

83 <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

(SCRUTINY) <br />

<br />

<br />

(OHCHR) 84<br />

<br />

<br />

85 <br />

86 <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

79<br />

Source #81 <br />

80<br />

Source #34 <br />

81<br />

Source #143 <br />

82<br />

Source #34 <br />

83<br />

Source #143 42 <br />

84<br />

Human rights and anti-corruption, OHCHR, accessed May 2016. <br />

85<br />

Source #34 <br />

86<br />

<br />

42


“ <br />

”<br />

…. () …. /<br />

( ) 87<br />

<br />

88 <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

89<br />

<br />

<br />

“ <br />

<br />

”<br />

…. () … /<br />

( ) 90<br />

() ( ) <br />

( ) <br />

<br />

91 <br />

<br />

92<br />

<br />

<br />

…. <br />

<br />

87<br />

<br />

88<br />

Source #79 <br />

89<br />

Source #79 <br />

90<br />

Source #42 <br />

91<br />

Declaration on the Rights of Persons Belonging to National or Ethnic, Religious and Linguistic Minorities, <br />

, ; Languages and the Realization of the Right to Education, Kishore Singh; 2012 <br />

92<br />

International Convention on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, OHCHR, December 1966.<br />

43


“ <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

”<br />

…. () … /<br />

( ) 93<br />

<br />

<br />

“ <br />

”<br />

…. () … /<br />

( ) 94<br />

…. <br />

<br />

“ <br />

<br />

<br />

”<br />

… ( ) ….. /<br />

( ) 95<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

(KED) <br />

<br />

<br />

96 <br />

KED <br />

97<br />

<br />

<br />

93<br />

Source #143 <br />

94<br />

Source #126 “Toungoo Interview: Naw A---, January 2015,” KHRG, October 2015<br />

95<br />

Source #81 <br />

96<br />

Source #74 <br />

97<br />

Source #126 “Toungoo Interview: Naw A---, January 2015,” KHRG, October 2015<br />

44


“ <br />

”<br />

…. () …. /<br />

( ) 98<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

“ <br />

”<br />

….. () / <br />

( ) 99<br />

<br />

<br />

…. <br />

<br />

<br />

100<br />

…. <br />

<br />

“ <br />

”<br />

…. ( ) … /<br />

( ) 101<br />

…. <br />

<br />

“ <br />

<br />

”<br />

…. () … / <br />

( ) 102<br />

<br />

…<br />

<br />

<br />

98<br />

Source #143 <br />

99<br />

Source #63 <br />

100<br />

Source #34 <br />

101<br />

Source #74 <br />

102<br />

Source #81 <br />

45


“ <br />

‘ <br />

<br />

”<br />

….. () … /<br />

( ) 103<br />

<br />

<br />

… <br />

<br />

() <br />

“ <br />

<br />

() <br />

”<br />

… () … / <br />

( ) 104<br />

<br />

<br />

“ <br />

”<br />

…. ( ) … / <br />

( ) 105<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

“ <br />

<br />

”<br />

…. ( ) …. /<br />

( ) 106<br />

“ <br />

<br />

<br />

103<br />

<br />

104<br />

Source #82 : “Hpapun Interview: Naw S---, September 2013,” KHRG, August 2014.<br />

105<br />

Source #130 <br />

106<br />

Source #143 <br />

46


”<br />

…. ( ) …. /<br />

( ) 107<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

(KDHW) (BPHWT) (BMA) <br />

108 <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

“ ”<br />

….. ( ) … /<br />

( ) 109<br />

“ ”<br />

… ( ) … / <br />

( ) 110<br />

107<br />

Source #143 <br />

<br />

108<br />

Ethnic Conict and Social Services in Myanmar’s Contested Regions, Kim Joliffe, the Asia Foundation, June 2014, and The Long Road to Recovery:<br />

Ethnic and Community-Based Health Organizations Leading the Way to Better Health in Eastern Burma, HISWG, February 2015. <br />

109<br />

Source #107 <br />

110<br />

Source #126 <br />

47


111<br />

“ <br />

<br />

”<br />

… ( ) / <br />

( ) 112<br />

<br />

KHRG <br />

113<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

114 <br />

115 <br />

<br />

<br />

“() 116 <br />

<br />

<br />

”<br />

…. ( ) …. /<br />

( ) 117<br />

<br />

118 <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

111<br />

3MDG Fund <br />

<br />

About<br />

3MDG: Working together to save lives and improve health for all in Myanmar,accessed April 2016. <br />

112<br />

Source #79 <br />

113<br />

Truce or Transition? Trends in human rights abuse and local response in Southeast Myanmar since the 2012 ceasere, KHRG, May 2014.<br />

<br />

114<br />

Source #70 <br />

115<br />

Source #40 107 <br />

116<br />

<br />

<br />

117<br />

Source #7 <br />

118<br />

Source #105 <br />

48


“ <br />

<br />

<br />

” … ”<br />

“ <br />

<br />

<br />

”<br />

…. ( ) … /<br />

( ) 119<br />

… <br />

<br />

…. <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

“ () <br />

() …. <br />

<br />

<br />

”<br />

KHRG <br />

/ ( ) 120<br />

: <br />

<br />

… <br />

<br />

121<br />

“ <br />

<br />

<br />

”<br />

119<br />

Source #71 <br />

120<br />

Source #27: “Dooplaya Situation Update: Kya In Seik Kyi Township, September 2012,” KHRG, June 2013. <br />

121<br />

Source #70 <br />

49


“ <br />

<br />

”<br />

… <br />

<br />

“ <br />

”<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

122 <br />

<br />

<br />

“ <br />

<br />

‘ <br />

’ <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

”<br />

…. <br />

<br />

<br />

“ <br />

<br />

”<br />

“[ ] <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

122<br />

<br />

50


”<br />

…. <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

: <br />

KHRG <br />

…. <br />

<br />

( KHRG)<br />

KHRG <br />

…. <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

( KHRG)<br />

51


KHRG …. <br />

<br />

<br />

( KHRG)<br />

KHRG <br />

….<br />

KNU <br />

<br />

KNU <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

KNU <br />

<br />

( KHRG)<br />

KHRG <br />

<br />

BGFs DKBA <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

( KHRG)<br />

52


: <br />

“ <br />

”<br />

… ( ) … /<br />

( <br />

) 123<br />

• <br />

KHRG <br />

<br />

<br />

• <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

• <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

• <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

• <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

CEDAW <br />

<br />

124<br />

KHRG <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

123<br />

Source #65: “Toungoo Interview: A---, August 2013” KHRG, July 2014. <br />

124<br />

UN General Assembly, Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women, 18 December 1979<br />

53


125<br />

<br />

<br />

126 <br />

127 ( )<br />

128 <br />

<br />

129 <br />

<br />

<br />

… <br />

<br />

…. <br />

<br />

<br />

“ <br />

”<br />

…. ( ) / <br />

( ) 130<br />

KHRG <br />

131 <br />

132<br />

<br />

<br />

125<br />

KNU <br />

<br />

Truce or<br />

Transition? Trends in human rights abuse and local response since the 2012 ceasefire, KHRG, May 2014. <br />

<br />

126<br />

Source #8; 79; #45: “Nyaunglebin Interview: Daw U---, December 2012” KHRG, July 2014. <br />

127<br />

Source #79 <br />

128<br />

Source #150 <br />

129<br />

Source #45: “Nyaunglebin Interview: Daw U---, December 2012” KHRG, July 2014 <br />

130<br />

Source #79 <br />

131<br />

Source #24 <br />

132<br />

Source #25 <br />

54


“ ”<br />

…. ( ) …. / <br />

( ) 133<br />

KHRG <br />

134 <br />

135 <br />

<br />

“ <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

”<br />

…. ( ) /<br />

( ) 136<br />

() 137<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

KHRG 138 <br />

139 <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

… …. KHRG <br />

DKBA 140 <br />

133<br />

Source #24 <br />

134<br />

Source #49 <br />

135<br />

Source #150 <br />

136<br />

Source #150 <br />

137<br />

<br />

( ) <br />

<br />

138<br />

Source #1 & 2 <br />

139<br />

Source #36 <br />

140<br />

DKBA (DKBA-5)<br />

DKBA(<br />

) (KNLA) <br />

“” <br />

( ) <br />

<br />

<br />

DKBA <br />

”Inside the DKBA,” KHRG, 1996. <br />

55


… <br />

<br />

“ <br />

”<br />

…. … / <br />

( ) 141<br />

<br />

KHRG 142<br />

143 <br />

<br />

144<br />

…. …. <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

“ <br />

”<br />

…. ( ) …. /<br />

( ) 145<br />

<br />

KHRG <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

146 <br />

147 148<br />

149 <br />

….. <br />

<br />

<br />

141<br />

Source #1 <br />

142<br />

Source #26 <br />

143<br />

Source #24 <br />

144<br />

Source #34 <br />

145<br />

Source #26 <br />

146<br />

Source #140, 35 <br />

147<br />

Source #140, 35 <br />

148<br />

Source #142 <br />

149<br />

Source #142 <br />

56


“ <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

”<br />

…. ( ) … / <br />

( ) 150<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

KHRG 151<br />

KHRG 152 153<br />

154 <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

155 156 <br />

<br />

… … <br />

<br />

<br />

“ <br />

”<br />

… ( ) … / <br />

( ) 157<br />

150<br />

Source #140 <br />

151<br />

Source #35 <br />

152<br />

Source #8 <br />

153<br />

Source #8 <br />

154<br />

Source #7 <br />

155<br />

Source #45: “Nyaunglebin Interview: Daw U---, December 2012” KHRG, July 2014; 130 <br />

156<br />

Source #39; 136 <br />

157<br />

Source #136 <br />

57


158 <br />

<br />

159<br />

<br />

KHRG<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

CEDAW .() <br />

<br />

“ <br />

<br />

<br />

() <br />

” 160<br />

<br />

KHRG <br />

<br />

161 <br />

162 <br />

<br />

<br />

“ ‘ <br />

’ <br />

”<br />

…. ( ) … /<br />

( ) 163<br />

… <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

158<br />

Source #45: “Nyaunglebin Interview: Daw U---, December 2012” KHRG, July 2014.; 143 <br />

159<br />

Source #45: “Nyaunglebin Interview: Daw U---, December 2012” KHRG, July 2014.; 143 <br />

160<br />

Article 14.2(a), Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women, UN General Assembly, December 1979.<br />

161<br />

Source #49 <br />

162<br />

Source #41 <br />

163<br />

Source #132 <br />

58


“ <br />

<br />

<br />

”<br />

…. ( ) .. /<br />

( ) 164<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

165 <br />

166<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

KHRG <br />

<br />

167 <br />

168 <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

169<br />

<br />

… <br />

<br />

“ <br />

…. <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

”<br />

…. ( ) … …. /<br />

( ) 170<br />

164<br />

Source #132 <br />

165<br />

Source #40 <br />

166<br />

Source #105 <br />

167<br />

Source #24 <br />

168<br />

Source #66 <br />

169<br />

Source #143 <br />

170<br />

<br />

59


( ) 171 <br />

(KWO) <br />

172 <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

171<br />

Source #79; #135 <br />

172<br />

Source #119 <br />

60


: <br />

KHRG <br />

…<br />

… <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

( KHRG)<br />

… <br />

<br />

( KHRG)<br />

… <br />

KHRG <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

( KHRG)<br />

…. <br />

…. <br />

…<br />

<br />

<br />

… <br />

<br />

( KHRG)<br />

61


… <br />

… … <br />

KHRG “ <br />

” 173 ( KHRG)<br />

<br />

<br />

( KHRG)<br />

KHRG <br />

<br />

…. <br />

…. <br />

KNU <br />

( KHRG)<br />

KHRG <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

( KHRG)<br />

173<br />

Source #160 <br />

62


() <br />

<br />

: <br />

“ <br />

<br />

<br />

”<br />

…( ) …<br />

/<br />

( <br />

) 174<br />

<br />

<br />

(UDHR) 175 <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

176 <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

(CEDAW) <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

177<br />

<br />

• <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

• <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

• <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

• <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

• <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

174<br />

Source #20 <br />

175<br />

Article 26, Universal Declaration of Human Rights, <br />

176<br />

Article 10, Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women, <br />

177<br />

<br />

Truce or Transition? Trends in human rights abuse and local response in Southeast<br />

63


KHRG <br />

<br />

KHRG <br />

178 <br />

179 <br />

180 <br />

<br />

181<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

182 <br />

<br />

<br />

183 <br />

<br />

<br />

184 <br />

<br />

<br />

(KED) 185<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

…. <br />

… <br />

<br />

… <br />

Myanmar since the 2012 ceasere, KHRG, May 2014. <br />

178<br />

Source #115 <br />

179<br />

Source #68, Source #121 Source# 18 <br />

180<br />

Source #121 <br />

181<br />

Source #91 <br />

182<br />

…. <br />

<br />

183<br />

Source #121 <br />

184<br />

KHRG …. <br />

<br />

185<br />

KHRG ….<br />

<br />

64


186<br />

187 <br />

<br />

<br />

188 <br />

189 <br />

<br />

<br />

“ <br />

<br />

”<br />

….( ) …. / <br />

( ) 190<br />

<br />

KHRG <br />

<br />

191<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

192<br />

<br />

KHRG <br />

<br />

193<br />

“ … <br />

<br />

”<br />

KHRG …. /<br />

( ) 194<br />

186<br />

Source #91 <br />

187<br />

<br />

<br />

188<br />

Source #8 <br />

189<br />

Source #117 <br />

190<br />

Source #8 <br />

191<br />

Source #67 <br />

192<br />

Source #68 <br />

193<br />

<br />

194<br />

<br />

65


KHRG …. <br />

<br />

<br />

195<br />

<br />

<br />

KHRG <br />

<br />

“ <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

”<br />

….( ) …. /<br />

( ) 196<br />

… <br />

<br />

<br />

“ ‘ <br />

’ <br />

<br />

”<br />

….( ) …. /<br />

( ) 197<br />

… <br />

198 <br />

<br />

199 <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

195<br />

<br />

-- <br />

<br />

196<br />

Source #49 <br />

197<br />

<br />

198<br />

KHRG …. <br />

<br />

199<br />

Source #49 <br />

66


“ <br />

<br />

”<br />

…..( ) … /<br />

( ) 200<br />

<br />

KHRG <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

201 <br />

202 <br />

<br />

<br />

CEDAW () <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

203<br />

<br />

204<br />

KHRG <br />

<br />

<br />

205 <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

, <br />

200<br />

Source #20 <br />

201<br />

World Health Organisation Factsheet No. 323, Health and Human Rights, <br />

202<br />

Article 12, International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Ofce for the High Commissioner of Human Rights, December 1966.<br />

Article 12(2), Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women, UN General Assembly, December 1979.<br />

203<br />

Article 12(2), Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women, UN General Assembly, December 1979.<br />

204<br />

Myanmar Health Care System, .<br />

205<br />

KHRG …. <br />

<br />

67


206 UNFPA <br />

% % <br />

207<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

“ <br />

<br />

( ) <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

”<br />

….( ) …<br />

/ ( ) 208<br />

<br />

KHRG <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

“ <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

”<br />

KHRG /<br />

( ) 209<br />

206<br />

Maternal Mortality in 1990-2015, Myanmar, WHO, UNICEF, UNFPA, World Bank Group, and United Nations Population Division Maternal Mortality<br />

Estimation Inter-Agency Group, accessed May 2016. <br />

207<br />

UNFPA Myanmar: Country Prole, United Nations Population Fund, accessed May 2016 <br />

208<br />

Source #118 “Hpa-an Interview: Saw A---, May 2014” KHRG, May 2015.<br />

209<br />

Source #102: “Toungoo Situation Update: Thandaunggyi Township, April to June 2014” KHRG, December 2016. <br />

68


210 <br />

211 <br />

212 <br />

213 214 <br />

<br />

<br />

“ <br />

<br />

() ”<br />

KHRG /<br />

( ) 215<br />

<br />

“ …. <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

”<br />

KHRG /<br />

( ) 216<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

“ <br />

”<br />

…( ) … /<br />

( ) 217<br />

210<br />

Source #20 102 “Toungoo Situation Update: Thandaunggyi Township, April to June 2014” KHRG, December 2016; and Source #88: “Dooplaya<br />

Situation Update: Kyonedoe Township, September to December 2013” KHRG, September 2014. <br />

211<br />

Source #104 <br />

212<br />

Source #20 <br />

213<br />

<br />

<br />

…. <br />

214<br />

Source #131 <br />

215<br />

Source #109 <br />

216<br />

Source #102: “Toungoo Situation Update: Thandaunggyi Township, April to June 2014” KHRG, December 2016. <br />

217<br />

Source #20 <br />

69


218<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

KHRG <br />

<br />

<br />

219 <br />

220 <br />

<br />

221 <br />

<br />

222 <br />

223 <br />

<br />

“ <br />

<br />

”<br />

….( ) …. / <br />

( ) 224<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

218<br />

Source #118: “Hpa-an Interview: Saw A---, May 2014” KHRG, May 2015. <br />

219<br />

diethylcarbamazide (DEC) albendazole DEC ivermectin. KHRG<br />

<br />

220<br />

diethylcarbamazide (DEC) citrate <br />

<br />

KHRG “ <br />

microlaraemia diethylcarbamazine citrate <br />

<br />

<br />

” , WHOPAR Part 4: Summary of Product Characteristics, WHOPAR, September 2013. <br />

221<br />

Source #88 “Dooplaya Situation Update: Kyonedoe Township, September to December 2013” KHRG, September 2014.;<br />

<br />

WHOPAR Part 4: Summary of Product Characteristics, WHOPAR, September<br />

2013. <br />

222<br />

Source #68 <br />

223<br />

Source #69 <br />

224<br />

<br />

70


225<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

226<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

227<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

…. ….<br />

<br />

…. ....<br />

<br />

“ <br />

<br />

<br />

”<br />

… () … /<br />

( ) 228<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

229 <br />

225<br />

Source #118: “Hpa-an Interview: Saw A---, May 2014” KHRG, May 2015. <br />

226<br />

Source #133 <br />

227<br />

Source #118: “Hpa-an Interview: Saw A---, May 2014” KHRG, May 2015. <br />

228<br />

Source #90 <br />

229<br />

Source #87 <br />

71


230<br />

<br />

<br />

…. 231 <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

“ <br />

232 <br />

233 <br />

<br />

”<br />

…. () …. /<br />

( ) 234<br />

<br />

<br />

235<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

… ….. <br />

<br />

… <br />

<br />

“ <br />

<br />

<br />

”<br />

….( ) … /<br />

( ) 236<br />

230<br />

Source #144 <br />

231<br />

… : <br />

232<br />

… <br />

<br />

233<br />

<br />

234<br />

Source #124: “Rape and violent threats in Kawkareik Township, Dooplaya District, April 2014 to May 2015” KHRG, July 2015. <br />

235<br />

(GBV) : <br />

<br />

236<br />

Source #105 <br />

72


237 ….<br />

238 <br />

<br />

“ <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

”<br />

KHRG /<br />

( ) 239<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

240 <br />

<br />

“ <br />

<br />

… <br />

”<br />

…..( ) /<br />

( ) 241<br />

237<br />

<br />

(WHO) Country Cooperation Strategy Myanmar, 2014-2018, World Health Organisation, 2014. <br />

<br />

238<br />

Source #106 107 <br />

239<br />

Source #109 <br />

240<br />

Source #107 <br />

241<br />

<br />

73


: <br />

…. () …. () <br />

…. …. <br />

<br />

…. ( KHRG)<br />

…. …. …. <br />

<br />

<br />

…. “ ….<br />

( ) () <br />

() ” <br />

( KHRG)<br />

…. <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

( KHRG)<br />

<br />

…. <br />

Free Burma Ranger <br />

…. <br />

( KHRG)<br />

74


….. <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

( KHRG)<br />

…. … <br />

… <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

.. <br />

<br />

( KHRG)<br />

<br />

….. …. <br />

…. <br />

…. ….. <br />

<br />

….<br />

<br />

<br />

…. <br />

… <br />

( KHRG)<br />

<br />

…. <br />

<br />

<br />

KHRG <br />

<br />

( KHRG)<br />

75


: <br />

“ <br />

”<br />

….( ) ….<br />

/ <br />

(<br />

) 242 • <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

• <br />

KHRG<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

KHRG <br />

<br />

() ? <br />

243 <br />

<br />

244 <br />

<br />

<br />

KHRG <br />

(ILO) () <br />

“ <br />

” 245 <br />

<br />

<br />

242<br />

Source #51: “Hpapun Interview: Naw A---, January 2013,” KHRG, December 2014. <br />

243<br />

“Truce or Transition? Trends in human rights abuse and local response in Southeast Myanmar since the 2012 ceasere,” KHRG, May 2014. <br />

<br />

244<br />

<br />

<br />

245<br />

Article 2.1, ILO C29 Forced Labour Convention, International Labour Organisation, June 1930. <br />

76


KHRG <br />

<br />

KHRG 246 247 <br />

248<br />

249 <br />

250 251 <br />

252 253 <br />

KHRG <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

254<br />

<br />

255 KHRG <br />

<br />

<br />

KHRG <br />

<br />

“ <br />

<br />

<br />

”<br />

….( ) … / <br />

( ) 256<br />

<br />

<br />

257 KHRG <br />

<br />

<br />

246<br />

Source #59: “Hpa-an Situation Update: T’Nay Hsah Township, March to May 2013,” KHRG, August 2013 <br />

247<br />

Source #28: “Papun Situation Update: Bu Tho Township, November 2011 to July 2012,“ KHRG, April 2013. <br />

248<br />

Source #4 <br />

249<br />

<br />

250<br />

Source #59 <br />

251<br />

Sources #19; and Source #6: “Toungoo Situation Update: Tantabin Township, January to March 2012,” KHRG, May 2012. <br />

252<br />

Sources #10: “Papun Situation Update: Bu Tho Township, received April 2012,” KHRG, June 2012; and Source #13: “Pa’an Situation Update:<br />

T’Nay Hsah Township, September 2011 to April 2012,” KHRG, July 2012. <br />

253<br />

Sources #28: “Papun Situation Update: Bu Tho Township, November 2011 to July 2012,“ KHRG, April 2013; and Source #52: “Papun Situation<br />

Update: Dwe Lo Township, March 2012 to March 2013,” KHRG, July 2013. <br />

254<br />

Source #5: “Pa’an Situation Update: Nabu Township, September 2011 to January 2012,” KHRG, May 2012. <br />

255<br />

Source #149 <br />

256<br />

<br />

257<br />

Source #52: “Papun Situation Update: Dwe Lo Township, March 2012 to March 2013,” KHRG, July 2013 <br />

77


“ <br />

... <br />

... <br />

<br />

”<br />

….( ) …. / <br />

( ) 258<br />

<br />

….. <br />

<br />

“ ...<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

”<br />

….( ) …. /<br />

( ) 259<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

…. KHRG <br />

<br />

“ <br />

<br />

”<br />

“ ( <br />

) ” <br />

……<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

“ ” <br />

<br />

<br />

”<br />

…..( ) … /<br />

( ) 260<br />

258<br />

Source #82: “Hpapun Interview: Naw S---, September 2013,” KHRG, August 2014. <br />

259<br />

Source #80 <br />

260<br />

Source #51: “Hpapun Interview: Naw A---, January 2013,” KHRG, December 2014. <br />

78


KHRG <br />

<br />

….. <br />

…. <br />

<br />

<br />

“ <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

261 <br />

<br />

”<br />

KHRG /<br />

( ) 262<br />

<br />

263 <br />

264 <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

“ <br />

<br />

….. <br />

… <br />

265 <br />

”<br />

KHRG /<br />

( ) 266<br />

<br />

<br />

KHRG 267 KHRG <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

261<br />

‘’ ‘’ <br />

Source #13: “Pa’an Situation Update: T’Nay Hsah Township, September 2011 to April 2012,” KHRG, July 2012. <br />

262<br />

Source #13: “Pa’an Situation Update: T’Nay Hsah Township, September 2011 to April 2012,” KHRG, July 2012. <br />

263<br />

Sources #19; and Source #6 <br />

264<br />

Source #10: “Papun Situation Update: Bu Tho Township, received April 2012,” KHRG, June 2012. <br />

265<br />

‘’ ‘’ <br />

266<br />

Source #28: “Papun Situation Update: Bu Tho Township, November 2011 to July 2012,” KHRG, April 2013. <br />

267<br />

Sources #47; and Source #145: “Dooplaya Interview: Naw A---, July 2015,” KHRG, February 2016. <br />

79


“ <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

268 <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

”<br />

….( ) … / <br />

( ) 269<br />

KHRG <br />

…. <br />

<br />

270<br />

“ <br />

()<br />

<br />

<br />

”<br />

….( ) …. /<br />

( ) 271<br />

<br />

<br />

KHRG <br />

272 <br />

268<br />

“Truce or Transition? Trends in human rights abuse and local response in Southeast Myanmar since the 2012 ceasere,”<br />

KHRG, May 2014 ‘’ ‘’ <br />

269<br />

Source #47 <br />

270<br />

Source #145: “Dooplaya Interview: Naw A---, July 2015,” KHRG, February 2016. <br />

271<br />

<br />

272<br />

Source #51: “Hpapun Interview: Naw A---, January 2013,” KHRG, December 2014. <br />

80


273 <br />

274 <br />

275 <br />

<br />

<br />

KHRG <br />

<br />

: <br />

… <br />

….. <br />

( KHRG)<br />

….<br />

KHRG <br />

…<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

( KHRG)<br />

273<br />

Sources #5: “Pa’an Situation Update: Nabu Township, September 2011 to January 2012,” KHRG, May 2012; and Source #28: “Papun Situation<br />

Update: Bu Tho Township, November 2011 to July 2012,“ KHRG, April 2013; and Source #51: “Hpapun Interview: Naw A---, January 2013,”<br />

KHRG, December 2014. <br />

274<br />

Source #5: “Pa’an Situation Update: Nabu Township, September 2011 to January 2012,” KHRG, May 2012. <br />

275<br />

Source #26 <br />

81


: <br />

“ <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

”<br />

…. <br />

(KWO) ( <br />

) 276<br />

<br />

<br />

(CEDAW) () <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

CEDAW <br />

277 <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

278<br />

<br />

• <br />

<br />

KHRG <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

• <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

• <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

276<br />

KWO … <br />

277<br />

Consideration of reports submitted by States parties under article 18 of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against<br />

Women: Myanmar, United Nations Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW), June 1999. <br />

278<br />

General recommendations No.19 made by the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women, United Nations Women, 1992.<br />

<br />

82


KHRG <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

279<br />

280 281<br />

(DKBA) 282 <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

KHRG <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

283 <br />

284 <br />

<br />

<br />

279<br />

Sources #32: “Papun Situation Update: Dwe Lo Township, July to October 2012,” KHRG, February 2013; Source #72: “Thaton Incident Report:<br />

Attempted rape in Thaton Township, September 2013,” KHRG, August 2014; #90; #92: “Toungoo Incident Report: Sexual assault in Thandaunggyi<br />

Township, December 2013,” KHRG, May 2014; #102: “Toungoo Situation Update: Thandaunggyi Township, April to June 2014,” KHRG, December<br />

2014; and #42. <br />

280<br />

Sources #48: “Rape and sexual harassment in Hpapun District, June and August 2013,” KHRG, November 2013; #77 #78: “Hpapun Situation<br />

Update: Bu Tho Township, August to October 2013,” KHRG, February 2014:Source#76; and #46: “Violent abuse and forced labour in Bu Tho<br />

Township, November and December 2012,” KHRG, July 2013. <br />

281<br />

Source #64 <br />

282<br />

Source #145: “Dooplaya Interview: Naw A---, July 2015,” KHRG, February 2016. <br />

283<br />

Source #122 <br />

284<br />

Source #145: “Dooplaya Interview: Naw A---, July 2015,” KHRG, February 2016 <br />

83


“ <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

”<br />

…. ( - ) / <br />

( ) 285<br />

<br />

286 <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

… ….<br />

… …. <br />

… <br />

…. 287<br />

… <br />

… .. <br />

288 <br />

<br />

“ <br />

<br />

<br />

…. <br />

… <br />

<br />

<br />

”<br />

KHRG /<br />

( ) 289<br />

285<br />

Source #123 <br />

286<br />

() <br />

<br />

Yaba, the ‘crazy medicine’ of East Asia, UNODC, May 2008; “Woman raped and killed in Pa’an District,<br />

October 2012,” KHRG, December 2012; and Chapter IV in Truce or Transition? Trends in human rights abuse and local response in Southeast<br />

Myanmar since the 2012 ceasere, KHRG, June 2014. <br />

287<br />

Source #72: “Thaton Incident Report: Attempted rape in Thaton Township, September 2013,” KHRG, August 2014. <br />

288<br />

Source #29: “Woman raped and killed in Pa’an District, October 2012,” KHRG, December 2012. <br />

289<br />

<br />

84


290 KHRG <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

KHRG <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

“ <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

”<br />

…. (KWO) ( ) 291<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

KHRG 292 <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

290<br />

Truce or Transition? Trends in human rights abuse and local response in Southeast Myanmar since the 2012 ceasere, KHRG, June 2014. <br />

<br />

291<br />

KWO … <br />

292<br />

Dignity in the Shadow of Oppression: The abuse and agency of Karen women under militarisation, KHRG, November 2006. <br />

85


293<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

(KWO) (SAW) <br />

294<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

“ <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

”<br />

…. ( ) …. / <br />

( ) 295<br />

<br />

KHRG <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

296 <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

… <br />

… <br />

… <br />

297<br />

293<br />

<br />

294<br />

KWO Source #124: “Rape and violent threats in Kawkareik Township, Dooplaya District, April 2014 to May<br />

2015,” KHRG, July 2015. <br />

295<br />

Source #150 <br />

296<br />

Source #76 <br />

297<br />

Source #124: “Rape and violent threats in Kawkareik Township, Dooplaya District, April 2014 to May 2015,” KHRG, July 2015. <br />

86


KHRG <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

“ <br />

”<br />

… ( ) … /<br />

( ) 298<br />

<br />

KHRG <br />

<br />

<br />

“ ‘ ’ <br />

<br />

”<br />

…..( ) … / <br />

( ) 299<br />

… <br />

() 300 301 <br />

…. <br />

… <br />

<br />

302<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

298<br />

Source #150 <br />

299<br />

Source #122 <br />

300<br />

() <br />

<br />

301<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

302<br />

Sources #102: “Toungoo Situation Update: Thandaunggyi Township, April to June 2014,” KHRG, December 2014; and Source #92 : “Toungoo<br />

Incident Report: Sexual assault in Thandaunggyi Township, December 2013,” KHRG, May 2014. <br />

87


303 304 <br />

<br />

305<br />

“ … ‘<br />

’ ‘ ’<br />

‘ ’ ”<br />

KHRG /<br />

( ) 306<br />

“ <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

”<br />

…. ( ) … / <br />

( ) 307<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

308 <br />

309 <br />

<br />

KHRG KNLA <br />

<br />

<br />

310<br />

… <br />

<br />

303<br />

Source #90 <br />

304<br />

Source #145: “Dooplaya Interview: Naw A---, July 2015,” KHRG, February 2016. <br />

305<br />

Source #72: “Thaton Incident Report: Attempted rape in Thaton Township, September 2013,” KHRG, August 2014 <br />

306<br />

Source #124: “Rape and violent threats in Kawkareik Township, Dooplaya District, April 2014 to May 2015,” KHRG, July 2015. <br />

307<br />

Source #145: “Dooplaya Interview: Naw A---, July 2015,” KHRG, February 2016. <br />

308<br />

Source #122 <br />

309<br />

Source #124: “Rape and violent threats in Kawkareik Township, Dooplaya District, April 2014 to May 2015,” KHRG, July 2015. <br />

310<br />

Source #64 <br />

88


“ <br />

”<br />

…( ) … /<br />

( ) 311<br />

<br />

<br />

312 <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

…. <br />

DKBA <br />

<br />

“ ‘ ’ <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

‘<br />

313 ’ <br />

‘ <br />

’ ‘’ <br />

”<br />

…..( ) …. / <br />

( ) 314<br />

<br />

KHRG <br />

<br />

KHRG <br />

<br />

315 <br />

316 317 318 <br />

311<br />

Source #122 <br />

312<br />

Gendered Aspects of Land Rights in Myanmar: Evidence from Paralegal Casework, Namati, April 2016. <br />

313<br />

Empowerment as constructive power for gender, CTC Bulletin, 2004. <br />

314<br />

Source #145: “Dooplaya Interview: Naw A---, July 2015,” KHRG, February 2016. <br />

315<br />

Source #90 <br />

316<br />

Sources #122; and Source #124: “Rape and violent threats in Kawkareik Township, Dooplaya District, April 2014 to May 2015,” KHRG, July<br />

2015. <br />

317<br />

Sources #72: “Thaton Incident Report: Attempted rape in Thaton Township, September 2013,” KHRG, August 2014; 146; and #90 <br />

318<br />

Source #71 <br />

89


319 <br />

<br />

<br />

320 <br />

<br />

… <br />

<br />

“ …. <br />

”<br />

KHRG /<br />

( ) 321<br />

.... … <br />

<br />

322 323 <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

…. <br />

… …. …. <br />

…. <br />

<br />

…. … <br />

<br />

…<br />

… <br />

<br />

319<br />

Source #145: “Dooplaya Interview: Naw A---, July 2015,” KHRG, February 2016 “<br />

” <br />

<br />

320<br />

Sources #72: “Thaton Incident Report: Attempted rape in Thaton Township, September 2013,” KHRG, August 2014; and #32: “Papun Situation<br />

Update: Dwe Lo Township, July to October 2012,” KHRG, February 2013 <br />

321<br />

Source #72: “Thaton Incident Report: Attempted rape in Thaton Township, September 2013,” KHRG, August 2014. <br />

322<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

323<br />

Source #72: “Thaton Incident Report: Attempted rape in Thaton Township, September 2013,” KHRG, August 2014. <br />

90


… <br />

“ ‘ ’ <br />

‘ <br />

’ <br />

<br />

”<br />

… () … / <br />

( ) 324<br />

… <br />

… <br />

<br />

…..<br />

<br />

“ <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

”<br />

… () … /<br />

( ) 325<br />

<br />

<br />

-- <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

326<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

324<br />

Source #90 <br />

325<br />

<br />

326<br />

Source #90 <br />

91


“ <br />

<br />

”<br />

…() <br />

( ) 327<br />

KHRG <br />

<br />

“ <br />

<br />

<br />

”<br />

… () … / <br />

( ) 328<br />

… <br />

<br />

… <br />

<br />

329 <br />

… KHRG … <br />

<br />

KHRG <br />

<br />

<br />

KHRG KWO <br />

<br />

330<br />

<br />

331 <br />

<br />

<br />

… .... <br />

… <br />

<br />

“ ‘ … ’ <br />

…. <br />

<br />

327<br />

… <br />

328<br />

Source #90 <br />

329<br />

Source #124 : “Rape and violent threats in Kawkareik Township, Dooplaya District, April 2014 to May 2015,” KHRG, July 2015.<br />

330<br />

<br />

331<br />

Source #145: “Dooplaya Interview: Naw A---, July 2015,” KHRG, February 2016; and Source #64. <br />

92


… <br />

”<br />

KHRG /<br />

( ) 332<br />

<br />

…. <br />

… …. <br />

<br />

…. <br />

KNLA …. … 333<br />

<br />

<br />

KHRG <br />

KWO <br />

<br />

KNU <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

334 <br />

335<br />

“ <br />

<br />

”<br />

…( ) … /<br />

( ) 336<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

332<br />

Source #124: “Rape and violent threats in Kawkareik Township, Dooplaya District, April 2014 to May 2015,” KHRG, July 2015. <br />

333<br />

Source #30 <br />

334<br />

Women and girls with disabilities face double discrimination in Myanmar, ActionAid International, January 2016; and Rape Exposes Plight of<br />

Disabled, Radio Free Asia, January 2013. <br />

335<br />

Sources #145: “Dooplaya Interview: Naw A---, July 2015,” KHRG, February 2016; and 124: “Rape and violent threats in Kawkareik Township,<br />

Dooplaya District, April 2014 to May 2015,” KHRG, July 2015.<br />

336<br />

Source #145 : “Dooplaya Interview: Naw A---, July 2015,” KHRG, February 2016. <br />

93


KHRG <br />

<br />

337 <br />

<br />

<br />

338<br />

<br />

KHRG <br />

“ ….. <br />

<br />

<br />

”<br />

KHRG <br />

/ ( ) 339<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

KHRG <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

340 <br />

341 <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

…. ….<br />

…. <br />

337<br />

Source #122 <br />

338<br />

Sources #32: “Papun Situation Update: Dwe Lo Township, July to October 2012,” KHRG, February 2013; and #48 “Rape and sexual harassment<br />

in Hpapun District, June and August 2013,” KHRG, November 2013. :<br />

339<br />

Source #3: “Papun Situation Update: Dwe Lo Township, July to October 2012,” KHRG, February 2013. <br />

340<br />

Source #145: “Dooplaya Interview: Naw A---, July 2015,” KHRG, February 2016. <br />

341<br />

Source #3: “Papun Situation Update: Dwe Lo Township, July to October 2012,” KHRG, February 2013. <br />

94


… <br />

342<br />

KHRG <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

KHRG <br />

343 KNLA 344 <br />

<br />

345<br />

<br />

….. …. <br />

<br />

DKBA <br />

…. … <br />

<br />

“ <br />

”<br />

<br />

… <br />

“ DKBA ( ) <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

”<br />

…. <br />

“ <br />

<br />

”<br />

342<br />

Source #7: “Thaton Incident Report: Attempted rape in Thaton Township, September 2013,” KHRG, August 2014. <br />

343<br />

Source #4: “Rape and sexual harassment in Hpapun District, June and August 2013,” KHRG, November 2013. <br />

344<br />

Source #30 <br />

345<br />

Source #14: “Dooplaya Interview: Naw A---, July 2015,” KHRG, February 2016 :<br />

95


“ “ ” <br />

<br />

“” “” <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

“ ” “<br />

” “ ” <br />

“ ” <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

…..<br />

“ <br />

… ‘ ’ <br />

”<br />

<br />

“ ‘ ’<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

‘<br />

’ <br />

‘ <br />

’ ‘’ ”<br />

<br />

“ ‘ ” <br />

‘ ’ …. <br />

….. <br />

……<br />

96


“ ….<br />

<br />

<br />

….. … <br />

<br />

<br />

“ <br />

(KHRG) KHRG <br />

<br />

”<br />

<br />

….. () <br />

“ <br />

”<br />

… <br />

“ ” <br />

…. <br />

“ ‘ <br />

<br />

<br />

”<br />

<br />

“ ” <br />

‘ ’<br />

<br />

<br />

“… <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

‘’ 346 <br />

”<br />

346<br />

<br />

97


: <br />

…. <br />

…. … <br />

<br />

<br />

KHRG <br />

<br />

( KHRG)<br />

<br />

…. … <br />

…… ….. <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

( KHRG)<br />

<br />

… … <br />

<br />

( KHRG)<br />

KHRG <br />

<br />

(DKBA) ….<br />

….<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

( KHRG)<br />

98


: <br />

“ <br />

<br />

<br />

”<br />

…( ) <br />

/<br />

( <br />

) 347<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

KHRG <br />

<br />

KHRG<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

• <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

• <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

• <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

• <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

348 <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

349<br />

347<br />

Source #55: “Dooplaya Interview: Naw A---, July 2013,” KHRG, October 2014. <br />

348<br />

Linking Women and Land in Myanmar: Recognising Gender<br />

in the National Land Use Policy, Transnational Institute (TNI), February 2016. <br />

349<br />

Social Action for Women (SAW) … KHRG <br />

<br />

99


KHRG <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

350<br />

KHRG <br />

<br />

<br />

351 352 <br />

353 <br />

354 <br />

<br />

355 <br />

KHRG <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

KHRG <br />

- <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

350<br />

KHRG website <br />

<br />

Yearning to be heard: Mon Farmers’ continued struggle for acknowledgement and protection for their rights, Human Rights<br />

Foundation of Monland (HURFOM), February 2015, p.32 Rampant Land Conscation Requires Further Attention and Action from Parliamentary<br />

Committee, Burma Partnership, March 2013. <br />

351<br />

Source #53: “Mergui-Tavoy Situation Update: Te Naw Th’Ri Township, August 2012 to March 2013” KHRG, August 2013. Source #45:<br />

“Nyaunglebin Interview: Daw U---, December 2012” KHRG, July 2014 <br />

352<br />

Source #17: “Incident Report: Land conscation and forced labour in Thaton District, April 2012” KHRG, May 2013 <br />

353<br />

Source #15: Source #16: “Complaint Letter to the Mergui-Tavoy District administrator concerning land damage from mining,” KHRG, June<br />

2014 <br />

354<br />

Sources #96: “Dooplaya Interview: Saw A---, April 2014” KHRG, August 2015; Source #97; Source #149 <br />

355<br />

Source #138: “Thaton Interview: Ma A---, July 2015,” KHRG, August 2015 <br />

100


356 357 <br />

<br />

358<br />

… … <br />

…. <br />

<br />

<br />

“ () <br />

<br />

‘ <br />

’ <br />

<br />

”<br />

….()… /<br />

( ) 359<br />

<br />

<br />

KHRG <br />

360 361 <br />

362 <br />

<br />

<br />

363 <br />

<br />

<br />

364 <br />

KHRG <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

....<br />

<br />

356<br />

Source #15 <br />

357<br />

Source #56: “Dooplaya Interview: Ma A---, May 2013,” KHRG, January 2015 <br />

358<br />

Sources #53: “Mergui-Tavoy Situation Update: Te Naw Th’Ri Township, August 2012 to March 2013,” KHRG, August 2013; Source #57; Source<br />

#86; Source #126: ”Toungoo Interview: Naw A---, January 2015,” KHRG, October 2015 <br />

359<br />

Source #85 <br />

360<br />

Sources #84 Source #103 <br />

361<br />

Source #101 <br />

362<br />

Source #31 <br />

363<br />

() <br />

364<br />

Source #43 Source# 44 <br />

101


“ <br />

”<br />

…..( ) /<br />

( ) 365<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

“ … 366 <br />

<br />

”<br />

KHRG /<br />

( ) 367<br />

KHRG <br />

368 <br />

369 <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

KHRG <br />

<br />

…. … <br />

. () 370 <br />

KHRG …. <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

365<br />

Source #148 <br />

366<br />

<br />

( ) <br />

<br />

367<br />

Source #95 <br />

368<br />

Sources #110 Source #147 <br />

369<br />

Source #110 <br />

370<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

102


“ <br />

<br />

”<br />

…..() …. /<br />

( ) 371<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

KHRG <br />

372<br />

<br />

<br />

“ <br />

<br />

… <br />

”<br />

….() /<br />

( ) 373<br />

<br />

KHRG<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

374 375 <br />

376 377 -378 <br />

<br />

<br />

KHRG <br />

<br />

379<br />

371<br />

Source #110 <br />

372<br />

‘With only our voices, what can<br />

we do?’: Land conscation and local response in southeast Myanmar, KHRG, June 2015 <br />

373<br />

Source #149 <br />

374<br />

Source #130 <br />

375<br />

Source #73 <br />

376<br />

<br />

377<br />

Source #37 <br />

378<br />

Sources #14: “Complaint letter to Burma government about value of agricultural landdestroyed by Tavoy highway” KHRG, July 2012;<br />

Source #15 <br />

379<br />

Source #32: “Papun Situation Update: Dwe Lo Township, July to October 2012” KHRG, February 2013 <br />

103


… <br />

….. <br />

380<br />

<br />

381 <br />

382<br />

(DKBA) (KNU) <br />

-- KHRG <br />

<br />

“ <br />

….<br />

…… <br />

<br />

<br />

”<br />

KHRG …<br />

/ ( ) 383<br />

<br />

<br />

384 385 <br />

<br />

KHRG <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

380<br />

Source #112 <br />

381<br />

Source #32: “Papun Situation Update: Dwe Lo Township, July to October 2012,” KHRG, February 2013; Source #94 <br />

382<br />

(DKBA) (KNU) <br />

<br />

DKBA <br />

DKBA “Inside the DKBA,” KHRG,<br />

March 1996; “Forced recruitment, forced labour: interviews with DKBA deserters and escaped porters,” KHRG,November 2009 <br />

383<br />

Source #32: “Papun Situation Update: Dwe Lo Township, July to October 2012” KHRG, February 2013 <br />

384<br />

Source #50 <br />

385<br />

Source #55: “Dooplaya Interview: Naw A---, July 2013,” KHRG, October 2014 <br />

104


“ <br />

<br />

”<br />

….( ) …. /<br />

( ) 386<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

KHRG <br />

<br />

<br />

387 <br />

388 <br />

389<br />

<br />

<br />

390 <br />

<br />

<br />

“ <br />

<br />

<br />

”<br />

….( ) …. /<br />

( ) 391<br />

<br />

…. …. <br />

<br />

“ <br />

”<br />

…() … /<br />

( ) 392<br />

386<br />

Source #55: “Dooplaya Interview: Naw A---, July 2013,” KHRG, October 2014 <br />

387<br />

Source #156 <br />

388<br />

<br />

389<br />

<br />

390<br />

Source #54 <br />

391<br />

Source #156 <br />

392<br />

Source #85 ….. …. … <br />

<br />

105


393 <br />

<br />

<br />

394 <br />

<br />

“ <br />

<br />

”<br />

…..( ) … /<br />

( ) 395<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

“ …. 396 <br />

() <br />

() <br />

. <br />

<br />

<br />

”<br />

….() /<br />

( ) 397<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

Appendix <br />

393<br />

Sources #97, Source #111, Source #113, Source #114 Source #86 <br />

394<br />

Source #128: “Forced relocation and destruction of villagers’ shelters by Burma/Myanmar government ofcials and police in Hpa-an Township,<br />

Thaton District, June 2015,” KHRG, August 2015 <br />

395<br />

Source #148 <br />

396<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

397<br />

Source #100 <br />

106


“ <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

”<br />

….( ) … /<br />

( ) 398<br />

…. <br />

<br />

<br />

“ <br />

”<br />

….( ) / <br />

( ) 399<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

“ <br />

”<br />

…() - /<br />

( ) 400<br />

<br />

<br />

401 KHRG <br />

402<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

“ ‘ <br />

’ ‘ ’ <br />

”<br />

398<br />

Source #156 <br />

….( ) .. /<br />

( ) 403<br />

399<br />

Source #127: “Toungoo Interview: Naw A---, January 2015” KHRG, August 2015 <br />

400<br />

Source #16: “Complaint Letter to the Mergui-Tavoy District administrator concerning land damage from mining,” KHRG, June 2014 <br />

401<br />

Source #56: “Dooplaya Interview: Ma A---, May 2013” KHRG, January 2015 <br />

402<br />

<br />

403<br />

<br />

107


…. <br />

<br />

<br />

“ <br />

<br />

‘’ <br />

”<br />

….( ) … /<br />

( ) 404<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

405<br />

<br />

<br />

KHRG <br />

<br />

<br />

406 <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

407<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

408 <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

409 <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

404<br />

Source #130 <br />

405<br />

Source #58 <br />

406<br />

Source #99 Source #98 Source <br />

<br />

407<br />

- <br />

408<br />

Source #126: “Toungoo Interview: Naw A---, January 2015,” KHRG, October 2015 <br />

409<br />

Source #43 <br />

108


“ () <br />

<br />

”<br />

…( ) … /<br />

( ) 410<br />

<br />

411 <br />

<br />

<br />

“ <br />

() <br />

”<br />

….( ) ... /<br />

( ) 412<br />

<br />

KHRG <br />

KHRG <br />

<br />

<br />

KHRG 413 <br />

<br />

… <br />

<br />

<br />

414 <br />

KHRG <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

“ ‘<br />

’ ”<br />

410<br />

Source #156 <br />

…() /<br />

( ) 415<br />

411<br />

Source #127: “Toungoo Interview: Naw A---, January 2015,” KHRG, August 2015 <br />

412<br />

Source #101 <br />

413<br />

Source #31 Source #84 <br />

414<br />

Source #32: “Papun Situation Update: Dwe Lo Township, July to October 2012,” KHRG, February 2013 <br />

415<br />

Source #111 <br />

109


KHRG <br />

<br />

416<br />

… <br />

<br />

417 <br />

<br />

… <br />

418<br />

<br />

.. <br />

<br />

<br />

“ ( ) <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

”<br />

….( ) … /<br />

( ) 419<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

416<br />

Source #147 <br />

417<br />

( ) <br />

<br />

. “Military Involved in Massive Land Grabs: Parliamentary Report,” The Irrawaddy, March<br />

2013 “Only Fraction of Land Seized by Military Will Be Returned: Minister,” The Irrawaddy, July 18th 2013. <br />

418<br />

Source #147 <br />

419<br />

Source #156 <br />

110


: <br />

… <br />

<br />

… <br />

… <br />

KHRG <br />

… <br />

…. <br />

…<br />

<br />

“ ‘ <br />

<br />

’ ‘ ’ ‘<br />

’ ”<br />

<br />

<br />

“ <br />

<br />

‘ …..’ ‘ ….<br />

’ ‘ ..’ <br />

‘ ’ ‘..<br />

’ ‘ ’<br />

‘… ’ <br />

”<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

“ ‘ <br />

’ <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

…. …. ”<br />

…. <br />

<br />

“ <br />

<br />

<br />

111


”<br />

… <br />

….. <br />

…. <br />

<br />

… <br />

<br />

“ <br />

<br />

”<br />

… <br />

<br />

“ <br />

<br />

<br />

… <br />

<br />

‘ ’<br />

<br />

<br />

”<br />

….( ) …. / <br />

( ) 420<br />

420<br />

Source #138: “Thaton Interview: Ma A---, July 2015” KHRG, August 2015 <br />

112


: <br />

<br />

… <br />

…. <br />

…. … <br />

( KHRG)<br />

<br />

…. <br />

….. …. <br />

<br />

<br />

( KHRG)<br />

KHRG --- ----<br />

---- <br />

--- <br />

- KHRG<br />

113


….<br />

…. …. <br />

( KHRG)<br />

114


: <br />

“ <br />

‘<br />

’ <br />

”<br />

….( ) ….<br />

/<br />

(<br />

<br />

) 421<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

• <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

• <br />

<br />

KHRG <br />

KHRG<br />

422<br />

<br />

<br />

423<br />

<br />

KHRG <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

421<br />

Source #62 <br />

422<br />

Truce or Transition: Trend in human rights abuse and response in Southeast Myanmar since the 2012 ceasere, KHRG, May 2014;<br />

and Uncertain Ground: Landmines in eastern Burma, KHRG, May 2012 <br />

423<br />

<br />

115


KHRG <br />

<br />

<br />

424 <br />

… 425 <br />

….. <br />

426<br />

“ <br />

”<br />

…..( ) …. / <br />

( ) 427<br />

<br />

<br />

() <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

“ <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

”<br />

KHRG /<br />

( ) 428<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

429 <br />

<br />

430<br />

424<br />

Source #5 <br />

425<br />

<br />

426<br />

Source #11 <br />

427<br />

<br />

428<br />

Source #83 “Hpapun Incident Report: Landmine Incident in Lu Thaw Township, May 2013,” KHRG, December 2014 <br />

429<br />

Source #62 <br />

430<br />

Source #12 <br />

116


“ <br />

‘ <br />

’ <br />

”<br />

….( ) …. /<br />

( ) 431<br />

<br />

<br />

KHRG <br />

<br />

432<br />

“ <br />

<br />

<br />

”<br />

KHRG <br />

/ ( ) 433<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

“() <br />

”<br />

…( ) … / <br />

( ) 434<br />

….. … <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

431<br />

Source #62 <br />

432<br />

Source #13 <br />

433<br />

<br />

434<br />

Source #62 <br />

117


“ <br />

<br />

”<br />

….. …. / <br />

( ) 435<br />

<br />

KHRG <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

….. KHRG<br />

<br />

“ …. …. <br />

…. <br />

<br />

<br />

… <br />

”<br />

KHRG /<br />

( ) 436<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

437 <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

“ <br />

<br />

”<br />

…..( ) … /<br />

( ) 438<br />

435<br />

Source #1 <br />

436<br />

Source #35 <br />

437<br />

<br />

438<br />

Source #11 <br />

118


: <br />

KHRG <br />

<br />

….. <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

( KHRG)<br />

KHRG <br />

<br />

“” <br />

(<br />

KHRG)<br />

KHRG <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

( KHRG)<br />

KHRG <br />

….<br />

<br />

<br />

…. <br />

‘…. <br />

’ …. <br />

KNLA <br />

( KHRG)<br />

119


: <br />

“ .... ”<br />

….( ) …<br />

/<br />

<br />

( <br />

) 439<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

• KHRG <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

• <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

• <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

440 441<br />

442 <br />

443 <br />

<br />

KHRG 444<br />

439<br />

Source #23 <br />

440<br />

Source #8 <br />

441<br />

Source #135 <br />

442<br />

<br />

443<br />

Source #115; Source #135 <br />

444<br />

Truce or Transition? Trends in human rights abuse and local response in Southeast Myanmar since the 2012<br />

ceasere, KHRG, May 2014. <br />

120


“ .... <br />

<br />

.... ”<br />

…..( ) … …. / <br />

( ) 445<br />

<br />

<br />

“ .... ....<br />

<br />

.... ”<br />

….( ) … /<br />

( ) 446<br />

<br />

<br />

447<br />

“ <br />

<br />

<br />

”<br />

…..( ) … …. / <br />

( ) 448<br />

<br />

<br />

449 KHRG <br />

450 451 <br />

<br />

<br />

445<br />

Source #135 <br />

446<br />

Source #23 <br />

447<br />

Source #135 <br />

448<br />

<br />

449<br />

KHRG <br />

<br />

450<br />

Source #93; Source #116 <br />

451<br />

Source #33 <br />

121


“ () <br />

<br />

… ”<br />

….( ) / <br />

( ) 452<br />

KHRG <br />

453 <br />

454 <br />

…. KHRG<br />

<br />

“ <br />

<br />

<br />

”<br />

….( ) / <br />

( ) 455<br />

452<br />

Source #116 <br />

453<br />

… <br />

<br />

454<br />

Source #33; <br />

455<br />

Source #93 <br />

122


: <br />

<br />

“ ‘ ’ ”<br />

…( ) …..<br />

/ <br />

( <br />

) 456 • <br />

<br />

KHRG KHRG <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

KHRG • <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

• <br />

<br />

KHRG <br />

<br />

• <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

457<br />

KHRG <br />

<br />

<br />

KHRG <br />

458 <br />

456<br />

Source #140 <br />

457<br />

Source #22: “Papun Interview: Saw E---, June 2012,” KHRG, September 2012. <br />

458<br />

VI: <br />

123


459 <br />

<br />

460 <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

461 <br />

KHRG <br />

<br />

<br />

462 KHRG ‘<br />

’ ‘ ’ <br />

<br />

‘’ <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

KHRG <br />

463 <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

KHRG <br />

<br />

464 <br />

459<br />

Source #108 <br />

460<br />

I: <br />

<br />

461<br />

Dignity in the Shadow of Oppression: The abuse and agency of Karen<br />

women under militarisation, KHRG, November 2006. <br />

462<br />

<br />

“ ()<br />

<br />

() <br />

() <br />

” <br />

: Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment, <br />

<br />

463<br />

“Mergui-Tavoy Short Update: Ler Muh Lah Township, 1998 to 2013,” KHRG, November 2015. <br />

Self-protection under strain: Targeting<br />

of civilians and local responses in northern Karen State, KHRG, August 2010. <br />

464<br />

Source #75: “Hpa-an Incident Report: Extrajudicial killing in Paingkyon Township, June 2013,” KHRG, May 2014. <br />

124


KHRG <br />

“ ‘ () 465<br />

’ <br />

… <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

”<br />

KHRG <br />

/ ( ) 466<br />

<br />

<br />

KHRG<br />

467<br />

… …. <br />

…. <br />

<br />

“ <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

”<br />

….( ) …. /<br />

( ) 468<br />

KHRG <br />

… … <br />

465<br />

() <br />

<br />

Yaba, the ‘crazy medicine’ of East Asia, UNODC, May 2008 <br />

466<br />

Source #59: “Hpa-an Situation Update: T’Nay Hsah Township, March to May 2013,” KHRG, August 2013. <br />

467<br />

Sources #131 Source #139: “Hpapun Incident Report: Villager killed by Border Guard Force (BGF) Battalion #1013 in Bu Tho Township,<br />

March 2015,” KHRG September 2015. <br />

468<br />

Source #131 <br />

125


…. <br />

<br />

KHRG <br />

469<br />

….. 470 <br />

… <br />

<br />

…. <br />

“ <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

”<br />

….( ) /<br />

( )<br />

… <br />

… <br />

-<br />

“ <br />

<br />

<br />

…. <br />

<br />

”<br />

….( ) /<br />

( ) 471<br />

…. <br />

KHRG <br />

() 472 <br />

469<br />

Source #139: “Hpapun Incident Report: Villager killed by Border Guard Force (BGF) Battalion #1013 in Bu Tho Township, March 2015,” KHRG<br />

September 2015. <br />

470<br />

Source #22: “Papun Interview: Saw E---, June 2012,” KHRG, September 2012. <br />

471<br />

<br />

472<br />

() <br />

<br />

() <br />

<br />

126


“ 473 <br />

<br />

<br />

‘ ’ <br />

<br />

<br />

”<br />

….( ) …. /<br />

( ) 474<br />

<br />

<br />

--- <br />

“ <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

‘ ’ ”<br />

….( ) …. /<br />

( ) 475<br />

<br />

<br />

KHRG <br />

476 <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

() 477 478 <br />

() <br />

479 <br />

<br />

473<br />

<br />

474<br />

Source #129 <br />

475<br />

<br />

476<br />

‘All the information I’ve given you. I faced it myself’: Rural testimony on abuse in eastern Burma since November 2010, KHRG,<br />

December 2011 KHRG <br />

<br />

477<br />

Sources #92: “Hpa-an Short Update: Don Yin Township, March 2014,” KHRG, July 2014; Source # 138: “Thaton Interview: Ma A---, July<br />

2015,” KHRG August 2015. <br />

478<br />

Source #60: “Hpapun Incident Report: Attack on villager in Bu Tho Township, January 2013,” KHRG, June 2014. <br />

479<br />

Source #134: “Hpa-an Incident Report: Explicit and violent threats in Myaing Gyi Ngu Town, Hlaingbwe Township, April 2015,” KHRG, August<br />

2015. <br />

127


…. <br />

<br />

…. …. <br />

<br />

…. <br />

“ …. <br />

…. <br />

<br />

…. <br />

<br />

”<br />

KHRG /<br />

( ) 480<br />

….<br />

….. …. …. <br />

… <br />

“ ‘ …. ’ ‘’ <br />

‘’ ‘ ’ <br />

<br />

<br />

”<br />

…..( ) …. /<br />

( ) 481<br />

<br />

… <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

KHRG 482 KHRG <br />

<br />

483 <br />

480<br />

Source #60: ”Hpapun Incident Report: Attack on villager in Bu Tho Township, January 2013,” KHRG, June 2014. <br />

481<br />

Source #140 <br />

482<br />

Source #89 <br />

483<br />

() <br />

<br />

<br />

“Self-protection under<br />

strain: Targeting of civilians and local responses in northern Karen State,” KHRG, August 2010. <br />

128


KHRG<br />

<br />

“ <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

”<br />

KHRG /<br />

( ) 484<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

KHRG <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

KHRG <br />

<br />

KHRG <br />

<br />

485 <br />

<br />

“ <br />

<br />

”<br />

….( ) … /<br />

( ) 486<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

487 ….. <br />

484<br />

Source #89 <br />

485<br />

Source #138: “Thaton Interview: Ma A---, July 2015,” KHRG, August 2015. <br />

486<br />

<br />

487<br />

Sources #140 Source #65: “Toungoo Interview: A---, August 2013,” KHRG, July 2014. <br />

129


“ ‘ ’ <br />

”<br />

…..( ) …. /<br />

( ) 488<br />

<br />

<br />

489<br />

<br />

…. <br />

<br />

<br />

“ ….<br />

…. ‘ <br />

’ <br />

<br />

<br />

‘ <br />

’ <br />

490 ‘ <br />

’ <br />

”<br />

…..( ) …. /<br />

( ) 491<br />

…. <br />

<br />

492 <br />

<br />

<br />

488<br />

Source #140 <br />

489<br />

<br />

490<br />

<br />

<br />

491<br />

Source #62: “Hpapun Interview: Daw A---, February 2013,” KHRG, May 2015. <br />

492<br />

<br />

Source #61 <br />

130


“ <br />

<br />

”<br />

….( ) …. /<br />

( ) 493<br />

<br />

KHRG <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

…… <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

… <br />

“ ‘ … <br />

’ <br />

‘ <br />

’ <br />

<br />

‘ 494 ’ … ”<br />

….( ) …. /<br />

( ) 495<br />

… 496 <br />

(UNICEF) <br />

(NGO) …<br />

497<br />

493<br />

Source #62: “Hpapun Interview: Daw A---, February 2013,” KHRG, May 2015 <br />

494<br />

KHRG <br />

Source #65: “Toungoo Interview: A---, August 2013,” KHRG, July 2014. <br />

495<br />

Source #65: “Toungoo Interview: A---, August 2013,” KHRG, July 2014. <br />

496<br />

<br />

497<br />

<br />

131


: <br />

<br />

… <br />

…. ….. …. <br />

… <br />

… <br />

<br />

<br />

( KHRG)<br />

KHRG <br />

<br />

…. ….. <br />

….. ( KHRG)<br />

132


KHRG <br />

…… <br />

… <br />

…… <br />

<br />

….. <br />

<br />

( KHRG)<br />

KHRG <br />

…… <br />

<br />

….<br />

<br />

KHRG <br />

( KHRG)<br />

KHRG <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

… … <br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

( KHRG)<br />

133


“ <br />

<br />

”<br />

---() --- /<br />

( )<br />

“ <br />

”<br />

… ( ) … / <br />

( )<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

www.khrg.org

Hooray! Your file is uploaded and ready to be published.

Saved successfully!

Ooh no, something went wrong!