maswavleblis wigni

eqe.ge

maswavleblis wigni

malxaz mayaSvili � revaz quTelia � ia gigiberia � manana boWoriSvili

maswavleblis wigni

malxaz mayaSvili � revaz quTelia � ia gigiberia � manana boWoriSvili

7

sabunebismetyvelo

mecnierebebis

safuZvlebi

7


sarCevi

1. Sesavali ....................................................................................................................................5

2. sabunebismetyvelo mecnierebebis swavlebis mizani da amocanebi .........................7

3. sabunebismetyvelo mecnierebebis safuZvlebi standarti VII klasi ....................8

4. saaTebis ganawilebis savaraudo sqema ..........................................................................13

5. miznebis ruka – gakveTilebis saswavlo miznebis

6. rekomendaciebi ...................................................................................................................21

• rekomendaciebi Temaze – Sefaseba ........................................................................21

• Sefasebis tipebi ........................................................................................................22

• kognituri sqemebis gamoyeneba saswavlo procesSi .........................................27

• rekomendaciebi - rogor movamzadoT proeqti .................................................30

• proeqtis Sefaseba ......................................................................................................31

• informaciuli teqnologiebis gamoyeneba swavlebaSi da misi

saswavlo- meToduri uzrunvelyofa ...................................................................32

• blogis gamoyeneba swavlaSi ....................................................................................33

• blogis gamoyeneba ......................................................................................................33

• ra aris blogi? ............................................................................................................33

7. gakveTilis scenarebi .........................................................................................................34

• Sesavali .........................................................................................................................34

• scenarebi fizikaSi.....................................................................................................44

• scenarebi qimiaSi ........................................................................................................50

• scenarebi biologiaSi ...............................................................................................54

8. Semajamebeli testebi ........................................................................................................60

• fizika ............................................................................................................................60

• qimia ................................................................................................................................62

• biologia .......................................................................................................................64

• testis pasuxebi ...........................................................................................................66

9. moswavlis wignSi mocemuli savarjiSoebis pasuxebi ................................................67

• Sesavali .........................................................................................................................67

• fizika ............................................................................................................................69

• qimia ................................................................................................................................71

• biologia .......................................................................................................................74

gamoyenebuli literatura ..................................................................................................82


1. Sesavali

sabunebismetyvelo sagnebis swavlebisas, erovnuli saswavlo gegmis Tanaxmad, arsebiTi mniSvneloba

eniWeba Semecnebis procesSi moswavlis aqtiurad CarTvas. Ees moswavles saSualebas miscems, miRebuli

codna da SeZenili unar-Cvevebi konkretul situacias miusadagos, praqtikulad gamoiyenos da gadaWras

mis winaSe mdgomi problema. am miznis misaRwevad saWiro codnis miReba da unar-Cvevebis ganviTareba swavlebis

procesis gardaqmnas moiTxovs.

siaxle, sxva mraval aspeqtTa Soris, gulisxmobs yuradRebis gamaxvilebas kvleviTi unar-Cvevebis ganviTarebaze.

Tu aqamde praqtikuli muSaobis dros moswavle, ZiriTadad, damkvirveblis rolSi gamodioda,

xolo Semsrulebeli maswavlebeli iyo, axla TiToeulma moswavlem unda SeZlos praqtikulad muSaoba,

kvlevis Catareba, misi Sedegis aRricxva da gaanalizeba, saTanado daskvnis gamotana.

praqtikuli samuSaoebis Catareba, keTebiT swavleba saTanado materialuri baza skolebis umravlesobas

aqvs rac skolebSi sabunebismetyvelo sagnebis swavlebis donis amaRlebis da am sagnebiT moswavleTa

dainteresebis garantiaa.

VII klasis moswavlis saxelmZRvanelo Sedgenilia axali erovnuli saswavlo gegmis sagnobrivi programis

mixedviT da misi struqtura aseTia:

moswavlis saxelmZRvanelos struqtura

I nawili

Sesavali

II nawili

fizika

III nawili

qimia

gakveTili struqturulad Semdegi nawilebisagan Sedgeba:

ZiriTadi

teqsti

ilustraciebi

teqstis ukeT

aRsaqmelad

sur. 2. magniums xSirad iyeneben

sasignalo maSxalebis

dasamzadeblad, radgan misi

wvis dros warmoqmnili naTeba

Soridanve Cans.

sur. 3. puris cxobisas haer-

RumelSi cecxli rom Caqres,

qimiuri reaqcia Sewydeba.

70

Q23. qimiuri reaqciis

niSnebi da pirobebi

moaxerxebdi Tu vera Saqris naxSirad gardaqmnas

misi daqucmacebis gareSe? gaxurebis gareSe?

daakvirdi suraTs (sur. 1) da gaixsene pirvel

gakveTilSi Catarebuli cda.

sur. 1.

natriumi – movercxlisfro

TeTri liToni, advilad

iWreba daniT

natriumis hidroqsidi –

TeTri feris, sapnisebri

da metad mwvave*

marcxena mxares rbili liToni – natriumia,

marjvniv ki natriumis wyalTan urTierTqmedebis

Sedegad warmoqmnili nivTiereba – natriumis

hidroqsidi. am qimiur reaqcias airisa da siTbos

gamoyofa axlda Tan.

nivTierebebi, arc garegnulad hgvanan erTmaneTs

da, arc TvisebebiT.

qimiuri reaqciebis mimdinareobas davakvirdeT

sxva magaliTebiTac.

Tu sinjaraSi, Caasxam kirian wyals, CauSveb minis

mils da Caberav amonasunTq haers (naxSirorJangs),

xsnari aimRvreva. warmoiqmneba naleqi.

magniumis lenti TvalismomWreli naTebiT iwvis

(sur. 2). gogirdis wvis Sedegad ki mZafri sunis airi

gamoiyofa.

nivTierebis feris da sunis cvlileba, naleqis an

airis warmoqmna, siTbos an sinaTlis gamoyofa,

qimiuri reaqciis garegnuli niSnebia.

Tu movlenas es niSnebi Tan axlavs, masSasadame,

qimiuri gardaqmna – qimiuri reaqcia mimdinareobs.

qimiuri reaqciis dasawyebad, saWiroa garkveuli

pirobebis Seqmna: nivTierebebis erTmaneTTan

Sereva, gaxureba da sxva. magaliTad, zogierTi

reaqciisaTvis saWiroa uwyveti gaxureba.

gaxurebis SewyvetisTanave, qimiuri reaqcia

Sewydeba (sur. 3).

* moqmedebs kanze (awylulebs), qsovilebze, qaRaldsa da

sxva masalebze.

5

IV nawili

biologia

gakveTilis saTauri Temis saTauri

qimiuri reaqcia

zogierT SemTxvevaSi ki qimiur reaqcias aRZravs

naperwkali. is TiTqos biZgs aZlevs reaqcias,

romelic Semdeg TavisTavad mimdinareobs.

magaliTad, bunebrivi airi ar iwvis, vidre masTan

anTebul asanTs ar mivitanT. cecxlis miwodeba am

reaqciis dawyebis aucilebeli pirobaa.

saukuneTa manZilze, adamianebma iswavles qimiuri

reaqciebis marTva, reaqciis mimdinareobis

pirobebis SecvliT, sasurveli procesebis

daCqareba an Seneleba. magaliTad, wvis procesis

dasaCqareblad SeSas nafotebad aqucmaceben,

Jangvis procesis Sesaneleblad ki liTonis

nakeTobebs damcavi safariT – laqiT, saRebaviT

Rebaven.

u amgvarad:

qimiuri reaqciis garegnuli niSnebia

feris, sunis cvlileba naleqis, airis warmoqmna siTbos, sinaTlis gamoyofa

qimiuri reaqciis mimdinareobis pirobebia:

nivTierebebis Sereva; gaxureba da sxva.

u savarjiSo

1. amoarCie swori pasuxi. qimiuri movlenis niSnebia:

a) formis Secvla;

b) siTbos gamoyofa;

g) agregatuli mdgomareobis Secvla;

d) naleqis warmoqmna.

2. romeli gamonaTqvami migvaniSnebs qimiur reaqciebze:

a) sarecxi gaSra;

b) foToli Camovarda;

g) rZisgan mawoni Sededda.

3. daasabuTe, rom namcxvris gamocxobis procesi

fizikuri da qimiuri procesis erTobliobaa.

4. Camowere, romeli fizikuri da qimiuri movlena

ginaxavs cxovrebaSi. aRniSne, ra pirobebSi

mimdinareobs movlena da romeli garegnuli niSniT

asabuTeb, rom is fizikuria an qimiuri. dakvirvebis

monacemebi warmoadgine cxrilis saxiT.

movlena mimdinareobis

piroba

Ggaregnuli

niSani

... ... ... ...

savarjiSoebi (ilustraciebiT,

cxrilebiT, diagramebiT da a. S.)

samizne unar-Cvevebis ganviTarebaze

orientirebuli

daasabuTe, rom movlena

fizikuria an qimiuri

2

teqstis

Semajamebeli

konceptualuri

ruka an daskvna

71


ac Seexeba savarjiSoebs is ori saxisaa:

pirveli meore

savarjiSoebi, romlebic im codnis ganmtkicebas da gaaqtiurebas

emsaxureba rac moswavlis wignSi iswavla moswavlem. Ees

savarjiSoebi maswavlebels saWiroebisamebr SeuZlia gamoiyenos

saklaso da/an saSinao davalebebad.

6

mocemuli laboratoriuli samuSaoebi Tematurad

Seesabameba fizikas, qimias, biologias. isini

kvleviTi unarebis ganviTarebazea orientirebuli.

SeniSvna – biologiis nawilSi savarjiSoebis mravalferovneba imiTaa ganpirobebuli, rom fizikis da

qimiis nawilSi SeZenili codnis da unarebis transferi intensiurad xdeba.

moswavlis wigns Tan axlavs rveuli, romelSi mocemuli mravalferovani laboratoriuli samuSaoebi

daexmareba moswavles Caataros kvleviTi aqtivobebi da gaaanalizos kvlevis Sedegi. rveulSi mocemuli

mravalferovani ilustraciebi, detalurad aRwerili cdebi, diagramebi, cxrilebi da a. S. fizikis, qimiisa

da biologiis swavlebis process ufro sainteresos da saxalisos gaxdis.

moswavlis rveuli struqturulad Semdegi nawilebisagan Sedgeba:

ilustraciebi samuSaos

ukeT aRsaqmelad

cdis mimdinareobis

detaluri axsna

samizne unar-Cvevebis

ganviTarebaze

orientirebuli

savarjiSoebi

moswavlis

CanawerebisTvis

gamoyofili adgili

22

1

Temis saTauri

fizikuri da qimiuri movlenebi

12. nivTierebis

Tvisebebis cvlileba

Saqris kristalebi

kvlevam pasuxi unda gasces kiTxvas:

icvleba Tu ara nivTiereba – Saqari (Saqris

Tvisebebi), Tu mas gavaxurebT.

kvlevis masala da xelsawyoebi:

Saqris kristalebi, spirtqura, Stativi,

sinjara,kovzi, asanTi.

procedura:

1. daakvirdi Saqris kristalebs da monacemebi

Seitane cxrilSi;

2. Saqris danarCeni kristalebi moaTavse sinjaraSi.

sinjara daamagre Stativze da spirtquris

gamoyenebiT gaaxure, vidre ar gadneba da fers ar

Seicvlis. miRebul masas daakvirdi da dakvirvebis

Sedegebi Seitane cxrilSi.

N Ddakvirvebis obieqti feri suni gemo wyalSi xsnadoba

1 Saqris kristalebi

2 Saqris Ddawvis Sedegad miRebuli masa

gaanalize cxrilis mixedviT cdis monacemebi da

upasuxe:

• Seicvleba nivTiereba Saqari gaxurebis Semdeg?

• SegiZlia Tu ara cxrilSi mocemuli monacemebi

Seni pasuxis argumentebad gamoiyeno?

• Saqris gaxureba fizikuri movlenaa Tu

qimiuri?

gaaanalize orive (wina da mimdinare) kvlevis

Sedegi da gaakeTe daskvna: ra SemTxvevaSi gqonda

saqme fizikur movlenasTan, da ra SemTxvevaSi -

qimiur movlenasTan.

saTauri saWiro masalis CamonaTvali

13. qimiuri reaqciis

niSnebi

kvlevam pasuxi unda gasces kiTxvas:

ra niSnebi SesaZlebelia axldes qimiur reaqcias.

kvlevis masala da xelsawyoebi:

Wiqebi, wyali, rZe, limoni, soda, Zmari, asanTi,

kartofilis fqvili, iodi, minis wkiri, kovzi.

procedura:

1. erTi kovzi kartofilis fqvili gaxseni erT Wiqa

wyalSi. Ddaamate ramdenime wveTi iodi. daakvirdi ra

cvlilebiT mimdinareobs reaqcia da dakvirvebis

Sedegebi Seitane cxrilSi;

2. dawvi asanTis Reri. daakvirdi ra cvlilebiT

mimdinareobs reaqcia da dakvirvebis Sedegebi

Seitane cxrilSi;

3. wylian WiqaSi cotaodeni saWmeli soda Cayare

da ramdenime wveTi Zmari daamate; daakvirdi ra

cvlilebiT mimdinareobs reaqcia da dakvirvebis

Sedegebi Seitane cxrilSi;

4. erT Wiqa rZeSi Caasxi cotaodeni limonis wveni.

daakvirdi ra cvlilebiT mimdinareobs reaqcia da

dakvirvebis Sedegebi Seitane cxrilSi.

N procesi feris

cvlileba

1 kartofilis

fqvilis

wyalxsnarze

iodis

moqmedeba

2 asanTis

Reris dawva

3 sodiani

wylis

ZmarTan

Sereva

4 rZis Sereva

limonis

wvenTan

qimiuri reaqcia 2

sinaTlis

cvlileba

sunis

gamoyofa

naleqis

warmoqmna

cxrili cdis Sedegebis

aRricxvisTvis

maswavleblis wigni – erTgvari gzamkvlevia, romelic Semdegi struqturuli nawilebisagan Sedgeba:

1. Sesavali

2. swavlebis miznebi da amocanebi

3. VII klasi sabunebismetyvelo mecnierebebis safuZvlebi standarti

4. saaTobrivi ganawileba

5. miznebis ruka- gakveTilebis saswavlo miznebis Sesabamisoba standartTan

6. zogadi rekomendacia –rogor vawarmooT Sefaseba

7. zogadi rekomendacia- ra mniSvneloba aqvs kognituri sqemebis gamoyenebas saswavlo procesSi

8. gakveTilis scenarebi: Sesavali, Ffizika, qimia, biologia

9. Semajamebeli testebi pasuxebiT

10. savarjiSoebis pasuxebi

11. Ggamoyenebuli literatura

wyali

Aairis

gamoyofa

iodi

Zmari

Aar

axlavs

niSani

23


2. sabunebismetyvelo mecnierebebis swavlebis mizani da amocanebi

mizani:

sabunebismetyvelo disciplinebis swavlebis mizania aziaros moswavle sabunebismetyvelo mecnierebis

safuZvlebs da ganuviTaros kvlevis unar-Cvevebi, rac mas saSualebas miscems Seicnos da gaiTavisos

samyaro, CaerTos sazogadoebrivi saqmianobis sxvadasxva sferoSi, igrZnos pasuxismgebloba sakuTari

Tavis, sazogadoebisa da garemos mimarT.

amocanebi:

codna:

• cocxali samyaro da sasicocxlo procesebi;

• samyaroSi mimdinare fizikuri da qimiuri movlenebi;

• dedamiwa da garesamyaro;

• garemos mdgradi ganviTarebis principebi.

mecnieruli kvlevis unar-Cvevebi:

• dakvirveba, aRwera;

• kvlevis sagnis gansazRvra;

• kvlevis etapebis gansazRvra;

• aRricxva;

• klasifikacia;

• gazomva;

• komunikacia;

• monacemebis interpretacia;

• ganWvreta/hipoTezis gamoTqma;

• cdis dagegmva;

• cdis Catareba;

• monacemTa analizi da Sefaseba;

• modelis Seqmna da gamoyeneba.

damokidebuleba:

• interesi sabunebismetyvelo disciplinebis mimarT;

• sabunebismetyvelo mecnierebebis mniSvnelobis gaazreba;

• interesi mecnieruli kvlevisa da siaxleebis mimarT;

• TanamSromlobis survili;

• garemoze zrunva da pasuxismgebloba;

• usafrTxo cxovrebis wesis dacvis mniSvnelobis gaazreba.

sabunebismetyvelo sagnebis swavleba sxvadasxva safexurze

sabazo safexuri (VII- IXklasebi)

swavlebis am safexurze moswavles kidev ufro metad uviTardeba SemecnebisaTvis saWiro unar-Cvevebi. is

movlenebis garegnuli aRweridan gadadis movlenaTa arsis wvdomaze, Seimecnebs ZiriTad fizikur, qimiur

kanonebs da biologiur kanon-zomierebebs. moswavle iwyebs empiriuli gziT samyaros aRqmas, Semoqmedebi-

Tad azrovnebas, cdilobs samyaroSi adamianis adgilisa da mniSvnelobis gansazRvras.

sabazo safexurze moswavle iviTarebs specifikur unar-Cvevebs, romelTagan prioritetulia:

• kvlevis zogierTi Tanamedrove meTodis gamoyeneba;

• samecniero literaturis moZieba da gamoyeneba;

• eqsperimentis dagegmva da warmarTva, monacemTa Segroveba-damuSaveba;

• kritikuli analizi, daskvnebis gamotana;

• prezentacia (grafikebis, diagramebis, modelis Seqmna).

7


3. sabunebismetyvelo mecnierebebis safuZvlebi

standarti

VII klasi

wlis bolos misaRwevi Sedegebi mimarTulebebis mixedviT:

mecnieruli

kvleva - Zieba

bun.VII.1. moswavles SeuZlia

gansazRvros kvlevis sagani

da kvlevis etapebi.

bun.VII.2. moswavles SeuZlia

kvleviTi proceduris ganxorcieleba/

monacemebis

aRricxva.

bun.VII.3. moswavles Seu-

Zlia monacemTa warmodgena

sxvadasxva sakomunikacio

saSualebis gamoyenebiT.

bun.VII.4. moswavles Seu-

Zlia monacemTa analizi da

Sefaseba.

cocxali samyaro fizikuri

movlenebi

bun.VII.5.moswavles SeuZlia

imsjelos ujredze, rogorc organizmis

agebulebisa da ganviTarebis

erTeulze.

bun.VII.6. moswavles SeuZlia daaxasiaTos

cxovelTa da mcenareTa

sasicocxlo cikli da daasabuTos

gamravlebis biologiuri mniSvneloba.

bun.VII.7. moswavles SeuZlia

daaxasiaTos cocxali samyaros

mravalferovneba, gamoiyenos klasifikaciis.

principi da imsjelos

sxvadasxva jgufebs Soris msgavseba

gansxvavebaze.

wlis bolos misaRwevi Sedegebi da maTi indikatorebi:

mimarTuleba: mecnieruli kvleva-Zieba

8

bun.VII.8.moswavles

SeuZlia nivTierebis

atomur-molekuluri

struqturis aRwera.

bun.VII.9. moswavles

SeuZlia advilad

dakvirvebadi Zalebis

da maTi moqmedebis

Sedegebis Sesaxeb

msjeloba.

bun.VII.10. moswavles

SeuZlia wnevis daxasiaTeba.

qimiuri movlenebi

bun.VII.11. moswavles

SeuZlia martivi

qimiuri reaqciebis

aRwera.

bun.VII.12. moswavles

SeuZlia fuZeebisa da

mJavebis gansxvaveba

maTi Tvisebebis mixedviT.

bun.VII.13. moswavles

SeuZlia xsnarebis

Taviseburebebis Sesaxeb

msjeloba.

bun.VII.1.moswavles SeuZlia gansazRvros kvlevis sagani da kvlevis etapebi.

Sedegi TvalsaCinoa, Tu moswavle:

• ayalibebs kvlevis mizans;

• gamoTqvams mosazrebas/varauds;

• arCevs monacemebis mopovebis gzebs (mag., cdiT, savele samuSaos CatarebiT, gamokiTxviT, sakiTxis

irgvliv literaturis moZiebiT);

• ganarCevs mudmiv da cvlad (damokidebul, damoukidebel) parametrebs;

• gansazRvravs kvleviTi aqtivobebis Tanmimdevrobas;

• arCevs saTanado xelsawyoebs/ aRWurvilobas/instrumentebs;

• arCevs monacemebis aRricxvis formebs (cxrilebi, grafikebi, siebi, fotoebi, Canawerebi).

bun.VII.2.moswavles SeuZlia kvleviTi proceduris ganxorcieleba/ monacemebis aRricxva.

Sedegi TvalsaCinoa, Tu moswavle:

• iyenebs Sesabamis masalas an/da aRWurvilobas da atarebs dagegmil cdas usafrTxoebis wesebis dacviT;

• awarmoebs dakvirvebas an /da gazomvebs, aRricxavs monacemebs;

• akvirdeba, zomavs, iyenebs informaciul-sakomunikacio saSualebebs monacemebis saTanado sizustiT

registrirebisTvis (mag., cvladebis mniSvnelobebis aRricxva qronologiurad);

• iyenebs saTanado wesebs sakuTari da sxvaTa usafrTxoebis uzrunvelsayofad.

bun.VII.3.moswavles SeuZlia monacemTa warmodgena sxvadasxva sakomunikacio saSualebis gamoyenebiT.

Sedegi TvalsaCinoa, Tu moswavle:

• iyenebs sxvadasxva xerxs (diagramebs, cxrilebs, grafikebs, siebs) monacemTa warmosadgenad;

• iyenebs sainformacio-sakomunikacio teqnologiebs Tvisebrivi da raodenobrivi monacemebis warmosadgenad.

bun.VII.4.moswavles SeuZlia monacemTa analizi da Sefaseba.

Sedegi TvalsaCinoa, Tu moswavle:

• iyenebs diagramebs, cxrilebs da grafikebs monacemebs an cvladebs Soris damokidebulebis aRsawerad;


• aanalizebs monacemebs da gamoitans daskvnebs;

• adarebs daskvnebs gamoTqmul varauds;

• ganixilavs dakvirvebisa da gazomvebis dros gamovlenil moulodnelobebs, cdilobs maT axsnas.

mimarTuleba: cocxali samyaro

bun.VII.5.moswavles SeuZlia imsjelos ujredze, rogorc organizmis agebulebisa da ganviTarebis

erTeulze.

Sedegi TvalsaCinoa, Tu moswavle:

• msjelobs ujredze, rogorc organizmis struqturul, funqciur da ganviTarebis elementarul

erTeulze;

• moipovebs informacias ilustraciebidan ujredis formis mravalferovnebis Sesaxeb (erT- da mravalujredian

organizmebSi) da akavSirebs ujredis formas mis funqciasTan;

• amzadebs droebiT preparats, iyenebs sinaTlis mikroskops sxvadasxva dakvirvebisaTvis, Sedegebs

warmoadgens naxatis da/an modelis saxiT, afasebs sakuTari namuSevris Zlier da sust mxareebs;

• mikroskopul preparatSi an mis eleqtronul formatze amoicnobs da iTvlis ujredis sxvadasxva

struqturas (mag., birTvebis, birTvakebis, qloroplastebis raodenobas), Sedegebs warmoadgens cxrilis

saxiT;

• ilustraciebze an eleqtronul formatze ganarCevs prokariotul da eukariotul (mcenareuli,

cxoveluri, sokos) ujredebs, asaxelebs maT msgavs da ganmasxvavebel struqturebs, Sedegebs gamosaxavs

venis diagramis saSualebiT;

• ilustraciaze amoicnobs ujredis ZiriTad struqturul komponentebs da asaxelebs maT funqcias;

• sxvadasxva saSualebiT (mag., sqema) gamosaxavs sicocxlis organizaciis doneebs (ujredi, qsovili,

organo, organizmi) da msjelobs maT Sesaxeb.

bun.VII.6.moswavles SeuZlia daaxasiaTos cxovelTa da mcenareTa sasicocxlo cikli da daasabuTos

gamravlebis biologiuri mniSvneloba.

Sedegi TvalsaCinoa, Tu moswavle:

• amoicnobs (mikroskopul preparatSi, posterze an eleqtronul formatze) da aRwers cxovelebisa da

mcenareebis sasqeso ujredebs;

• agrovebs informacias mcenaris, cxovelis usqeso da sqesobrivi gamravlebis mravalferovnebis

Sesaxeb; adarebs erTmaneTs gamravlebis formebs (mag., vegetatiuri, TesliT, dakvirtviT, zoosporebiT);

• adarebs erTmaneTs sqesobrivi gamravlebis formebs (mag., gamravleba kvercxiT - qvewarmavali, frinveli;

cocxalmSobiarobiT - ZuZumwovrebi), msjelobs maT Soris msgavseba - gansxvavebaze da mohyavs Sesabamisi

magaliTebi;

• msjelobs gamravlebis gziT organizmebis mier Tavisive msgavsis warmoqmnis biologiur mniSvnelobaze;

• moipovebs informacias da adarebs sxvadasxva organizmis sasicocxlo ciklis xangrZlivobas da etapebs

(mag., erTwlovani da mravalwlovani mcenareebi, mwerebi, amfibiebi);

• mohyavs zogierTi individis sasicocxlo ciklis garemosTan Seguebis magaliTebi (mag., kvercxismdebeli

da ”cocxalmSobiare” qvewarmavali).

bun.VII.7.moswavles SeuZlia daaxasiaTos cocxali samyaros mravalferovneba, gamoiyenos klasifikaciis

principi da imsjelos sxvadasxva jgufebs Soris msgavseba-gansxvavebaze.

Sedegi TvalsaCinoa, Tu moswavle:

• warmoadgens organizmTa erTi da imave simravlis dajgufebis ramdenime gzas, mis mier SerCeuli kriteriumebis

mixedviT. xsnis ama Tu im jgufis gamoyofis mizezs, akeTebs prezentacias;

• moipovebs informacias erTi da imave saxeobis individebSi ama Tu im organos variaciaze (mag., mcenaris

foTlis sigrZe an sigane, nayofis masa), adarebs maT erTmaneTs da msjelobs variaciebis mravalferovnebaze;

• asaxelebs organizmebis jgufebad (sokoebi, wyalmcenareebi, xavsebi, gvimrebi, yvavilovani mcenareebi)

dayofis mTavar kriteriumebs;

• moipovebs masalas adgilobriv garemoSi mcenareTa da cxovelTa mravalferovnebis Sesaxeb da anawilebs

Sesabamis taqsonomiur erTeulebSi damaxasiaTebeli niSnebis mixedviT (mag., naZvi, fiWvi, cacxvi -

mcenareTa samefo, Sesabamisad SiSvel an farulTeslovani);

• bunebaSi gasvlisas amoicnobs organizmebs savele sarkvevebis/saTanado literaturis daxmarebiT;

• moipovebs informacias da aRwers cocxali samyaros samefoebs, adgens martiv genealogiur xes da

9


warmoadgens sxvadasxva gamomsaxvelobiTi saSualebiT (mag., sqema, naxati);

• msjelobs adamianebisaTvis mikroorganizmebis dadebiT da uaryofiT mniSvnelobaze (mag., sakvebi

produqtebis warmoeba da maTi gafuWeba/lpoba, wylis dabinZureba da gasufTaveba, kompostis warmoqmna,

daavadebis gamowveva);

mimarTuleba: fizikuri movlenebi

bun.VII.8.moswavles SeuZlia nivTierebis atomur-molekuluri struqturis aRwera.

Sedegi TvalsaCinoa, Tu moswavle:

• aRwers movlenebs, romlebic mianiSnebs nivTierebis atomur-molekulur agebulebas;

• ganasxvavebs myar, Txevad da airad mdgomareobebs maTi Tvisebebisa (moculobisa da formis SenarCuneba)

da atomur-molekuluri struqturis mixedviT, warmoadgens modelis saxiT;

• akavSirebs nivTierebis simkvrives mis praqtikul gamoyenebasTan;

• atarebs cdebs da ikvlevs difuziis movlenas siTxeebSi, gamoitans Sesabamis daskvnebs;

• ikvlevs temperaturis gavlenas difuziis siCqareze, gamoitans Sesabamis daskvnebs;

• akvirdeba difuziis movlenas da msjelobs misi rolis Sesaxeb bunebaSi da yofa - cxovrebaSi, asaxelebs

magaliTebs;

• adekvaturad iyenebs Sesabamis cnebebs da formulebs amocanebis amosaxsnelad.

bun.VII.9. moswavles SeuZlia advilad dakvirvebadi Zalebis da maTi moqmedebis Sedegebis Sesaxeb msjeloba.

Sedegi TvalsaCinoa, Tu moswavle:

• CamoTvlis moZraobis magaliTebs, romlebic gamowveulia sxeulze uSualo (mag., moqaCva an biZgi) da

arauSualo (mag., dedamiwis miziduloba, magnitebis urTierTqmedeba) moqmedebiT;

• CamoTvlis sxeulebs Soris urTierTqmedebis damadasturebel magaliTebs;

• ganmartavs veqtors da veqtorul fizikur sidides. Zalebis magaliTze ganixilavs erTi wrfis gaswvriv

mimarTuli veqtorebis Sekrebas;

• CamoTvlis bunebaSi arsebuli Zalebis gamovlinebis magaliTebs yoveldRiuri cxovrebidan da saubrobs

maT mniSvnelobaze;

• atarebs cdebs sxvadasxva sxeulis moZraobaze dasakvirveblad, aRwers da sqematurad gamosaxavs masze

moqmed Zalebs (simZimis, xaxunis, drekadobis, amomgdebi Zalebi);

• atarebs cdebs, gamoaqvs Sesabamisi daskvnebi da raodenobrivad ayalibebs hukis kanons;

• cdebis saSualebiT akvirdeba sxeulTa tivtivs, curvas, CaZirvas. Sedegebs aanalizebs da raodenobrivad

ayalibebs arqimedes kanons;

• zomavs sxeulebis moculobasa da simkvrives arqimedes kanonis gamoyenebiT;

• akavSirebs amomgdebi da winaaRmdegobis Zalebis moqmedebas organizmebis curvasTan;

• konkretuli amocanis gadasawyvetad (mag., xaxunis Zalis gazrda an Semcireba, amomgdebi Zalis Secvla)

qmnis da warmoadgens SesaZlo sqemas an models;

• adekvaturad iyenebs Sesabamis cnebebs, kanonebs da formulebs amocanebis amosaxsnelad.

bun.VII.10. moswavles SeuZlia wnevis daxasiaTeba.

Sedegi TvalsaCinoa, Tu moswavle:

• atarebs cdebs sxeulTa mier warmoebul wnevaze dasakvirveblad, monacemebs aanalizebs da gamoitans

Sesabamis daskvnebs;

• qmnis models da praqtikuli amocanebis gadasaWrelad msjelobs sxeulis mier warmoebuli wnevis

Semcirebis an gazrdis aucileblobaze, CamoTvlis magaliTebs;

• atarebs cdebs (qmnis modelebs) da akvirdeba siTxeebsa da airebSi wnevis ganawilebas. dakvirvebis

Sedegebs aanalizebs da gamoitans Sesabamis daskvnebs;

• CamoTvlis paskalis kanonis gamoyenebis magaliTebs teqnikidan da yofa-cxovrebidan;

• amzadebs martiv models da xsnis ziarWurWlis moqmedebis princips;

• atarebs cdebs atmosferuli wnevis moqmedebis gamosavlenad, aanalizebs da gamoitans Sesabamis

daskvnebs;

• msjelobs wnevis mniSvnelobis Sesaxeb organizmis garemosTan SeguebulobaSi;

• adekvaturad iyenebs Sesabamis cnebebs, kanonebs da formulebs amocanebis amosaxsnelad.

10


mimarTuleba: qimiuri movlenebi

bun.VII.11. moswavles SeuZlia martivi qimiuri reaqciebis aRwera.

Sedegi TvalsaCinoa, Tu moswavle:

• cdis procesSi akvirdeba fizikuri da qimiuri movlenebis garegnul niSnebs, monacemebs warmoadgens

cxrilis saxiT da msjelobs maT (fizikur da qimiur movlenebs) Soris gansxvavebis Sesaxeb;

• cdebis safuZvelze msjelobs fizikuri movlenebis (mag., nivTierebaTa wyalSi gaxsna, formis Secvla,

agregatuli mdgomareobis Secvla) dros masis ucvlelobis Sesaxeb. gamoitans saTanado daskvnas;

• atarebs cdebs nivTierebebis fizikuri da qimiuri cvlilebebis (mag., agregatuli mdgomareobis

Secvla, formis Secvla, nivTierebis gaxsna, airis gamoyofa, feris Secvla) gamosakvlevad da msjelobs am

cvlilebebis gamomwvev mizezebze (mag., gacxeleba, Sereva, dawva, meqanikuri zemoqmedeba);

• atarebs cdebs da akvirdeba qimiuri reaqciebis Sedegad axali nivTierebebis warmoqmnas;

• ikvlevs mJavaTa monawileobiT mimdinare martiv reaqciebs, romelTa erT-erTi produqti gazia;

• CamoTvlis wvisa da Jangvis magaliTebs yoveldRiuri cxovrebidan da msjelobs maT xelSemwyob faqtorebze;

ikvlevs haeris rols sanTlis wvis procesSi;

• aRwers wvas, rogorc qimiur reaqcias, romelSic monawileobs gazi, haeri an Jangbadi da miiReba wyali

da naxSirorJangi;

• atarebs da aRwers “cisartyelas reaqcias” (sarecxi sodis, natriumis karbonatis xsnarze marilmJavasa

da universaluri indikatoris moqmedeba);

• iyenebs Sesabamis terminologias, CamoTvlis da aRwers fizikuri da qimiuri movlenebis magaliTebs,

qimiur movlenebs gamosaxavs sqematurad/sityvierad (mag., naxSirbadi + Jangbadi = naxSirorJangi);

• icavs qimiuri nivTierebebis ganTavsebis, maTTan muSaobis usafrTxoebis wesebs, amoicnobs gamafrTxilebel

niSnebs (mag., advilad aalebadi, feTqebadi, radioaqtiuri) qimiuri reaqtivis WurWlis etiketze.

bun.VII.12.moswavles SeuZlia fuZeebisa da mJavebis gansxvaveba maTi Tvisebebis mixedviT.

Sedegi TvalsaCinoa, Tu moswavle:

• asaxelebs laboratoriaSi arsebul mJavebsa da tuteebs (mag., marilmJava, natriumis tute);

• asaxelebs yofa-cxovrebaSi mJavebis gamoyenebis magaliTebs (mag., Zmari, limonmJava, xilis wveni,

wamlebi, sarecxi saSualebebi);

• atarebs martiv cdebs mJavebisa da fuZeebis gamoyenebiT, ganasxvavebs maT Tvisebebs;

• iyenebs indikatorebsa da pH-is skalas fuZe, mJava da neitraluri xsnarebis amosacnobad; aRwers

xsnaris pHH-is cvlilebas neitralizaciis procesSi.

bun.VII.13.moswavles SeuZlia xsnarebis Taviseburebebis Sesaxeb msjeloba.

Sedegi TvalsaCinoa, Tu moswavle:

• atarebs cdebs da ganasxvavebs nivTierebebs wyalSi xsnadobis mixedviT;

• gansazRvravs zogierTi narevis komponentebs, (mag., zRvis wyali Sedgeba wylisagan, romelSic gaxsnilia

marili da sxva myari nivTiereba);

• aRwers narevisgan komponentebis gamoyofis romelime xerxs (mag., distilireba, aorTqleba/kondensireba,

qromatografia). CamoTvlis wylis bunebrivi gafiltvris magaliTebs;

• agrovebs informacias bunebrivi wylis dabinZurebis Sedegebis Sesaxeb, gamoTqvams varauds wylis

dabinZurebis Tavidan acilebis gzebze;

• CamoTvlis xsnarebis magaliTebs da msjelobs maTi mniSvnelobis Sesaxeb bunebasa da adamianis cxovrebaSi;

• cdebis safuZvelze adgens, rom xsnaris masa gamxsnelisa da gasaxsneli nivTierebebis masebis jamis

tolia (mag., Tu 5 g marils gaxsnian 200g wyalSi, miRebuli xsnaris masa iqneba 205 g);

• ganasxvavebs da amzadebs ujer da najer xsnarebs;

• gegmavs, atarebs cdas da adgens nivTierebaTa gaxsnis procesze moqmed faqtorebs (mag., temperatura,

gamxsnelisa da gaxsnili nivTierebis raoba da masa, nawilakTa zoma, moreva). Sedegebs warmoadgens cxrilis

saxiT.

11


programis Sinaarsi

cocxali samyaro

ujredi

ujredi – elementaruli cocxali sistema. ujredis ZiriTadi komponentebi: citoplazma da birTvi.

organoidebi (mag., plastidebi, qloroplastebi). plazmuri membrana da ujredis kedeli. prokariotuli

da eukariotuli (mcenareuli, cxoveluri da sokos) ujredebi. mikroskopi – optikuri xelsawyo; mikroskopze

muSaobis principi. martivi mikroskopuli preparatebis (mag., mcenareuli masala, sisxli) damzadebis

xerxebi. ujredis gayofa.

organizmTa gamravleba

gamravleba – organizmTa ZiriTadi Tviseba, sicocxlis uwyvetobis uzrunvelyofis procesi. mcenarisa

da cxovelis gamravlebis formebi (usqeso da sqesobrivi) da sasicocxlo cikli (romelime konkretuli

individis magaliTze). ganayofiereba cxovelebSi (sasqeso ujredebis agebuleba).

ganayofiereba yvavilovan mcenareebSi (gamartivebuli sqemiT). cxovelTa ganviTareba (gamartivebuli

sqemiT ganviTarebis embrionuli da postembrionuli periodi).

klasifikacia

cocxal organizmTa dajgufeba (klasifikacia) da taqsonomiur erTeulebSi gaerTianebis safuZvlebi.

virusebi (araujreduli formebi).

monerebi (baqteriebi da cianobaqteriebi). protistebi (umartivesebi; erTujrediani da mravalujrediani

wyalmcenareebi). sokoebi. mcenareebi (xavsnairebi; gvimranairebi; SiSvelTeslovnebi; farulTeslovnebi).

cxovelebi (nawlavRruianebi; Wiebi; moluskebi; fexsaxsrianebi; Tevzebi; amfibiebi; qvewarmavlebi;

frinvelebi; ZuZumwovrebi). saqarTvelos wiTel nusxasa da wiTel wignSi Setanili zogierTi saxeobebi.

fizikuri movlenebi

nivTierebis atomur-molekuluri struqtura.

airebis, siTxeebisa da myari sxeulebis Tvisebebi da atomur-molekuluri struqtura.

difuzia. difuzia airebSi, siTxeebsa da myar sxeulebSi. temperaturis gavlena difuziaze.

brounis moZraoba.

masa, masis erTeuli.

nivTierebis simkvrive, simkvrivis erTeuli.

moculobis gazomva menzuris gamoyenebiT. masis gazomva sasworiT.

sxeulTa urTierTqmedeba: uSualo (moqaCva, biZgi) da manZilze urTierTqmedeba (magnituri da gravitaciuli).

Zala, rogorc veqtori. erTi wrfis gaswvriv moqmedi Zalebis Sekreba.

dinamometri, Zalis gazomva, Zalis erTeuli-niutoni

simZimis, xaxunis, drekadobis Zalebi, hukis kanoni. sixiste.

xaxunis koeficienti.

wneva. wnevis erTeuli. airis wneva. wneva siTxeebSi, paskalis kanoni. hidrostatikuri wneva. ziarWurWeli.

hidravlikuri manqana. atmosferuli wneva, toriCelis cda. barometri, manometri.

amomgdebi Zala, arqimedes kanoni. sxeulTa tivtivi, curva, CaZirva.

qimiuri movlenebi

fuZeebi, mJavebi da maTi gamoyeneba yofa-cxovrebaSi. mJavebisa da fuZeebis amocnoba da maTi Sedareba.

warmodgena neitralizaciis reaqciaze. neitralizaciis reaqciis mniSvneloba yofa-cxovrebaSi (saWmlis

monelebis moSlis mkurnaloba, mJava wvima, niadagis movla da sxv.).

warmodgena qimiur reaqciaze. reaqcia mJavebsa da metalebs Soris. reaqcia mJavebsa da karbonatebs

Soris. wva, haerze an JangbadSi nivTierebaTa wvis Sedegebi, nivTierebebis wvis pirobebi. wiaRiseuli sawvavis

wvis produqtebi. sanTlis wvis procesze dakvirveba.

myari nivTierebebis gaxsna siTxeSi. xsnaris komponentebi. bunebrivi narevebi. ujeri da najeri xsnarebi.

bunebaSi arsebuli marilebi. narevebis dayofa komponentebad: distilireba, aorTqleba/kondensireba,

gafiltvra, warmodgena qromatografiaze.

12


4. saaTebis ganawilebis savaraudo sqema

sabunebismetyvelo mecnierebebis safuZvlebi VII klasi 108 sT

fizika qimia Bbiologia

33+3 33+3 33+3

moswavlis wignSi da rveulSi mocemuli gakveTilebis

saaTobrivi ganawileba

moswavlis wignSi moswavlis rveulSi

fizika 14 gakveTils daeTmos 24sT 9sT

qimia 10 gakveTils daeTmos 20 sT 15sT

biologia 23 gakveTils daeTmos 27 sT 6sT

13


5. miznebis ruka – gakveTilebis saswavlo miznebis

Sesabamisoba standartTan

Sesavali

gakveTili gakveTilis saswavlo mizani standardTan

Sesabamisoba

bunebismetyvelebis

sagani, fizikuri

sidideebi

moswavlem SeZlos bunebaSi mimdinare movlenebze dakvirvebisaas

awarmoos sxvadasxva gazomviTi saqmianobebi,

aRricxos monacemebi da drois, sigrZis da masis

sazomi erTeulebi warmoadginos `SI~ sistemiT.

skalari da veqtori moswavlem SeZlos bunebaSi mimdinare movlenebze dakvirvebisaas

awarmoos sxvadasxva gazomviTi saqmianobebi,

aRricxos monacemebi da drois, sigrZis da masis

sazomi erTeulebi warmoadginos `SI~ sistemiT.

bunebismetyvelebis

laboratoriaSi arsebuli

zogierTi xelsawyo

da muSaobis wesi

moswavlem SeZlos imsjelos dakvirvebisaas rogor

awarmoos sxvadasxva gazomviTi saqmianobebi, aRricxos

monacemebi daicvas xlsawyoebis gamoyenebis da

usafrTxoebis wesebi.

usafrTxoebis dacva moswavlem SeZlos imsjelos Sesabamisi masalis, aRWurvilobis

da masalebis gamoyenebiT Caataros dagegmili

cdebi usafrTxoebis wesebis dacviT

rogor xdeba bunebrivi

movlenebis Seswavla

monacemebis gamosaxva

cxrilis da diagramebis

saxiT

.moswavlem SeZlos kvleviTi proceduris ganxorcieleba/

monacemebis aRricxva. daakvirdes, gazomos, gamoiyenos

informaciul-sakomunikacio saSualebebi monacemebis

saTanado sizustiT registrirebisTvis (mag.,

cvladebis mniSvnelobebis aRricxva qronologiurad);

moswavlem SeZlos kvlevis miznis Camoyalibeba da kvlevis

miznis Sesabamisad mosazrebebis gamoTqma, aqtivobis

dagegmva, saTanado xelsawyoebis SerCeva, monacemTa

Segrovebis gzis arCeva, mudmivi da cvladi parametrebis

garCeva, saTanado aRricxvis formebis SerCeva /

wakiTxva/analizi; SeZlos daskvnis gamotana

venis diagrama moswavlem SeZlos monacemTa analizi da Sefaseba.

gamoiyeneos diagramebi, cxrilebi da grafikebi monacemebs

an cvladebs Soris damokidebulebis aRsawerad

fizika

14

bun.VII.1

bun.VII.2

bun.VII.1

bun.VII.2

bun.VII.2

bun.VII.3

bun.VII.1

bun.VII.2

bun.VII.1

bun.VII.4

bun.VII.4

gakveTili gakveTilis saswavlo mizani erovnuli saswavlo gegmis

sagnobrivi programis mixedviT

nivTiereba Sedgeba

atomebis da

molekulebisagan

nivTierebis myari,

Txevadi da airadi

mdgomareobebi

modelireba.. proeqti

nivTierebis simkvrive;

simkvrivis

praqtikuli mniSvneloba

moswavlem SeZlos imsjelos nivTierebis atomur-molekulur agebulebaze;

ganixilos magaliTebi, romelic molekulebis da atomebis mcire

zomebze miuTiTebs, aRweros sxvadasxva nivTierebis modelebi.ganuvi-

Tardes saazrovno, komunikaciis unar-Cvevebi.

moswavlem SeZlos ganasxvavos myari, Txevadi da airadi mdgomareobebi

maTi Tvisebebisa (moculobisa da formis SenarCuneba) da atomurmolekuluri

struqturis mixedviT ganuviTardes saazrovno, komunikaciis

unar-Cvevebi.

moswavlem SeZlos Seqmnas da warmoadginos molekulis modelebi. ganuviTardes

saazrovno, komunikaciis unar-Cvevebi

moswavlem SeZlos daakavSiros nivTierebis simkvrive mis praqtikul

gamoyenebasTan; adekvaturad gamoiyenos Sesabamisi cnebebi da formulebi

amocanebis amosaxsnelad. ganuviTardes saazrovno, komunikaciis

unar-Cvevebi.

standartTTan

Sesabamisoba

bun.VII.8

bun.VII.8

bun.VII.8

bun.VII.8


difuzia moswavlem SeZlos praqtikul magaliTebze dayrdnobiT ganixilos

difuziis movlena siTxeebSi, gamoitanos Sesabamisi daskvnebi;

gaanalizos temperaturis gavlena difuziis siCqareze, gamoitanos Sesabamisi

daskvnebi;

daakvirdes difuziis movlenas da imsjelos misi rolis Sesaxeb bunebaSi

da yofa - cxovrebaSi, daasaxelos magaliTebi. ganuviTardes saazrovno,

komunikaciis unar-Cvevebi.

Zala da misi

gazomva

simZimis da xaxunis

Zala

drekadobis Zala;

hukis kanoni

wneva; wnevis

gadacema

moswavlem SeZlos CamoTvalos moZraobis magaliTebi, romlebic

gamowveulia sxeulze uSualo (mag., moqaCva an biZgi) da arauSualo

(mag., dedamiwis miziduloba, magnitebis urTierTqmedeba) moqmedebiT;

ganmartos veqtors da veqtorul fizikuri sidide. Zalebis magaliTze

ganixilos erTi wrfis gaswvriv mimarTuli veqtorebis Sekreba. ganuvi-

Tardes saazrovno, komunikaciis unar-Cvevebi.

moswavlem SeZlos CamoTvlis bunebaSi arsebuli Zalebis gamovlinebis

magaliTebi/ yoveldRiuri cxovrebidan/ da saubrobs maT mniSvnelobaze;

Caaataros cdebi sxvadasxva sxeulis moZraobaze dasakvirveblad, aRweros

da sqematurad gamosaxos masze moqmedi Zalebi (simZimis, xaxunis,

drekadobis, amomgdebi Zalebi); ganuviTardes saazrovno, komunikaciis

unar-Cvevebi.

moswavlem SeZlos Caataros cdebi, gamoitanos Sesabamisi daskvnebi da

raodenobrivad Camoayalibos hukis kanoni. ganuviTardes saazrovno,

komunikaciis unar-Cvevebi.

moswavlem SeZlos awarmoos sxeulTa mier warmoebul wnevaze dakvirveba,

monacemebi gaanalizos da gamoitanos Sesabamisi daskvna. adekvaturad

gamoiyenos Sesabamisi cnebebi kanonebi da formulebi amocanebis

amosaxsnelad. ganuviTardes saazrovno, komunikaciis unar-Cvevebi.

paskalis kanoni moswavlem SeZlos CamoTvlis paskalis kanonis gamoyenebis magaliTebi

teqnikidan da yofa-cxovrebidan; ganuviTardes saazrovno, komunikaciis

unar-Cvevebi.

wneva siTxeebSi.

ziarWurWeli

paskalis kanoni

praqtikaSi

siTxisa da airis

moqmedeba maTSi

CaZirul sxeulebze.

Atmosferuli

wneva

arqimedes kanoni.

sxeulebis curva

moswavlem SeZlos daamzados martivi modeli da axsnas ziarWurWlis

moqmedebis principi; adekvaturad gamoiyenos Sesabamisi cnebebi,

kanonebi da formulebi amocanebis amosaxsnelad. ganuviTardes saazrovno,

komunikaciis unar-Cvevebi.

moswavlem SeZlos CamoTvalos paskalis kanonis gamoyenebis magaliTebi

teqnikidan da yofa-cxovrebidan; adekvaturad gamoiyenos Sesabamisi

cnebebi, kanonebi da formulebi amocanebis amosaxsnelad. ganuvi-

Tardes saazrovno, komunikaciis unar-Cvevebi.

moswavlem SeZlos ganixilos atmosferuli wnevis moqmedebis magaliTebi;

gaanalizos da gamoitanos Sesabamisi daskvnebi; imsjelos wnevis

mniSvnelobis Sesaxeb organizmis garemosTan SeguebulobaSi; ganuvi-

Tardes saazrovno, komunikaciis unar-Cvevebi.

moswavlem SeZlos ganixilos magaliTebi: sxeulTa tivtivis, curvis,

CaZirvis da Sedegebi gaanalizos da raodenobrivad Camoayalibos arqimedes

kanoni gazomavs sxeulebis moculobasa da simkvrives arqimedes

kanonis gamoyenebiT; akavSirebs amomgdebi da winaaRmdegobis Zalebis

moqmedebas organizmebis curvasTan; ganuviTardes saazrovno, komunikaciis

unar-Cvevebi.

15

bun.VII.8

bun.VII.9

bun.VII.9

bun.VII.9

bun.VII.10

bun.VII.10

bun.VII.10

bun.VII.10

bun.VII.9

bun.VII.9


moswavlis rveuli (fizikis nawili)

gakveTili cdis saswavlo mizani erovnuli saswavlo gegmis

sagnobrivi programis mixedviT

dakvirveba molekulebs Soris

moqmed mizidvis da ganzidvis

Zalebze

dakvirveba airebSi difuziis

procesze

dakvirveba magnitur Zalaze

dakvirveba xaxunis Zalaze

dakvirveba drekadobis Zalaze

dakvirveba wnevaze

dakvirveba atmosferul wnevaze

`Zunwi boTli”

dakvirveba atmosferul wnevaze

`saSineli xeli~

dakvirveba siTxeSi CaZirul

sxeulze

kvlevam pasuxi unda gasces kiTxvas: ra bunebisaa

sxvadasxva nivTierebebis molekulebs Soris moqmedi

Zalebi

kvlevam pasuxi unda gasces kiTxvas – ra taviseburebebiT

xasiaTdeba difuzia airebSi da siTxeebSi?

kvlevam pasuxi unda gasces kiTxvas: rogor moqmedebs

magnituri Zala sxvadasxva sxeulebze?

kvlevam pasuxi unda gasces kiTxvas:

ra da ra faqtorebzea damokidebuli xaxunis Zala?

kvlevam pasuxi unda gasces kiTxvas:

rogoria gareSe Zalisa da deformaciis sididis

damokidebuleba.

kvlevam pasuxi unda gasces kiTxvas:

rogoraa damokidebuli wneva sayrden farTobze.

kvlevam pasuxi unda gasces kiTxvas:

rogor moqmedebs atmosferuli wneva siTxis zedapirze.

kvlevam pasuxi unda gasces kiTxvas:

rogor moqmedebs daxurul WurWelSi narCeni atmosferuli

wneva.

kvlevam pasuxi unda gasces kiTxvas:

ras udris siTxeSi CaZirul sxeulze moqmedi amomgdebi

Zala?

16

standartTTan

Sesabamisoba

bun.VII.8

bun.VII.8

bun.VII.9

bun.VII.9

bun.VII.9

bun.VII.9

bun.VII.9

bun.VII.9

bun.VII.9


qimia moswavlis wigni

gakveTili gakveTilis saswavlo mizani erovnuli saswavlo

gegmis sagnobrivi programis mixedviT

qimia – bunebismetyvelebis

nawili

movlenebi

qimiuri reaqciis niSnebi

da pirobebi

wva da Jangva

nivTierebis masis mudmivobis

kanoni

wylis mniSvneloba sicocxlisaTvis

xsnarebi

xsnadoba

mJava,fuZe da indikatori.

neitralizaciis reaqcia

moswavlem SeZlos isaubros ratom aris qimia sabunebismetyvelo

mecniereba; imsjelos nivTierebebze, maT gardaqmnebze da

am gardaqmnebis Tanmxleb movlenebze

moswavlem imsjelos fizikuri movlenebis (mag., nivTierebaTa

wyalSi gaxsna, formis Secvla, agregatuli mdgomareobis

Secvla) Sesaxeb. gamoitanos saTanado daskvna;

praqtikuli magaliTebis safuZvelze imsjelos nivTierebebis

fizikuri da qimiuri cvlilebebi (mag., agregatuli mdgomareobis

Secvla, formis Secvla, nivTierebis gaxsna, airis gamoyofa,

feris Secvla) msjelobs am cvlilebebis gamomwvev mizezebze

(mag., gacxeleba, Sereva, dawva, meqanikuri zemoqmedeba);

moswavlem SeZlos ganixilos fizikuri da qimiuri movlenebis

garegnuli niSnebi, (mag., agregatuli mdgomareobis Secvla,

formis Secvla, nivTierebis gaxsna, airis gamoyofa, feris

Secvla) gaanalizos am cvlilebebis gamomwvevi mizezebi (mag.,

gacxeleba, Sereva, dawva, meqanikuri zemoqmedeba);

moswavlem SeZlos CamoTvlos wvisa da Jangvis magaliTebi

yoveldRiuri cxovrebidan da imsjelos maT xelSemwyob faqtorebze;

gamoikvlios haeris roli sanTlis wvis procesSi;

aRweros wva, rogorc qimiur reaqcia, romelSic monawileobs

gazi, haeri an Jangbadi da miiReba wyali da naxSirorJangi;

moswavlem SeZlos gamoiyenos Sesabamisi terminologia,

CamoTvlios da aRweros fizikuri da qimiuri movlenebis magaliTebi,

qimiuri movlenebi gamosaxos sqematurad/sityvierad

(mag.,wyali �= Jangbadi + wyalbadi; naxSirbadi + Jangbadi

= naxSirorJangi); gaanalizos, rom masis mudmivobis kanoni

samarTliania nebismieri qimiuri reaqciisaTvis

moswavles SeuZlia aRweros narevisgan komponentebis gamoyofis

romelime xerxi (mag., distilireba, aorTqleba/kondensireba,

qromatografia). CamoTvlos wylis bunebrivi gafiltvris

magaliTebi;

moswavlem SeZlos imsjelos xsnarebze -ra aris xsnari, rogor

miiReba xsnari, rogori saxisaa xsnarebi; CamoTvlos xsnarebis

magaliTebi da imsjelos xsnarebis mniSvnelobis Sesaxeb bunebasa

da adamianis cxovrebaSi; aanalizebs, rom xsnaris masa

gamxsnelisa da gasaxsneli nivTierebebis masebis jamis tolia

(mag., Tu 5 g marils gaxsnian 200g wyalSi, miRebuli xsnaris masa

iqneba 205 g);

moswavlem SeZlos imsjelos xsnarebze; ganmartos ra aris

najeri da ujeri xsnarebi, axsnas aris xsnadoba da moiyvanos

magaliTebi xsnadobaze rogor moqmedebs wneva da temperatura

moswavles SeuZlia ganixilos yofa-cxovrebaSi mJavebis gamoyenebis

magaliTebi (mag., Zmari, limonmJava, xilis wveni, wamlebi,

sarecxi saSualebebi);

flobs infirmacias indikatorebisa da pH-is skalis Sesaxeb -

fuZe, mJava da neitraluri xsnarebis amosacnobad;

moswavles SeuZlia ganixilos mJavebsa da fuZeebs Soris mimdinare

neitralizaciis reaqcias. ganixilos sxvadasxva pirobebSi

pHHHH-is

cvlilebaze orientirebuli reaqciebi

17

standartTTan

Sesabamisoba

bun.VII.11.

bun.VII.11.

bun.VII.11.

bun.VII.11.

bun.VII.11.

bun.VII.13

bun.VII.13

bun.VII.13

bun.VII.12.

bun.VII.12


moswavlis rveuli (qimiis nawili)

gakveTili cdis saswavlo mizani erovnuli saswavlo gegmis

sagnobrivi programis mixedviT

nivTierebis cvlileba moswavlem cdisas awarmoos dakvirveba da dakvirvebis Sedegebze

dayrdnobiT gaakeTos daskvna rom nivTierebis Serevas xan

axlavs da xan ar axlavs xiluli niSnebi. iyenebs Sesabamis masalas

an/da aRWurvilobas da atarebs dagegmil cdas usafrTxoebis

wesebis dacviT;

nivTierebis Tvisebebi moswavlem cdisas awarmoos dakvirveba da dakvirvebis Sedegebze

dayrdnobiT gaakeTos daskvna, rom nivTiereba Saqarma

Tvisebebi SeinarCuna. iyenebs Sesabamis masalas an/da aRWurvilobas

da atarebs dagegmil cdas usafrTxoebis wesebis dacviT;

nivTierebis Tvisebebis

cvlileba

moswavlem cdisas awarmoos dakvirveba da dakvirvebis Sedegebze

dayrdnobiT gaakeTos daskvna, rom Saqris dawva aris qimiuri

movlena. iyenebs Sesabamis masalas an/da aRWurvilobas da

atarebs dagegmil cdas usafrTxoebis wesebis dacviT;

Qqimiuri reaqciis niSnebi moswavlem cdisas awarmoos dakvirveba da dakvirvebis Sedegebze

dayrdnobiT gaakeTos daskvna, rom naTeba, feris cvlileba,

sunis gamoyofa, airis gamoyofa, naleqis warmoqmna aris qimiuri

movlenis Tanmxlebi xiluli niSnebi da SeuZlia imsjelos

am cvlilebebis gamomwvev mizezebze (mag., gacxeleba, Sereva,

dawva, meqanikuri zemoqmedeba);

Jangbadi moswavlem cdisas awarmoos dakvirveba da dakvirvebis Sedegebze

dayrdnobiT gaakeTos daskvna, haerSi aris Jangbadi,

romelic xels uwyobs wvasa da Jangvas http://www.youtube.com/

watch?v=WuG5WTId-IY

naxSirorJangi moswavlem cdisas awarmoos dakvirveba da dakvirvebis Sedegebze

dayrdnobiT gaakeTos daskvna, rom naxSirorJangi xels

uSlis wvasiyenebs Sesabamis masalas an/da aRWurvilobas da

atarebs dagegmil cdas usafrTxoebis wesebis dacviT;

sanTlis wva moswavlem cdisas awarmoos dakvirveba da dakvirvebis Sedegebze

dayrdnobiT aRweros wva, rogorc qimiuri reaqcia,

romelSic monawileobs gazi, haeri an Jangbadi da miiReba wyali

da naxSirorJangi

axali nivTierebis miReba moswavlem Caataros cda da daakvirdes qimiuri reaqciebis

Sedegad axali nivTierebebis warmoqmnas;

masis mudmivobis kanoni iyenebs Sesabamis masalas an/da aRWurvilobas da atarebs

dagegmil cdas usafrTxoebis wesebis dacviT;

xsnari moswavlem Catarebuli cdis safuZvelze daaskvnas ra gziT

SeiZleba marilis wyalxsnaridad gamoyos marili da cdis monacemebze

dayrdnobiT daasabuTos xsn masebiiii

gaxsnis procesze moqmedi

faqtorebis gamokvleva

bunebrivi nayenis indikatoruli

Tvisebebis

gamokvleva

moswavlem Catarebuli cdebis da sakuTari gamocdilebis Sedegebze

dayrdnobiT aRweros nivTierebaTa gaxsnis procesze

moqmedi faqtorebi (mag., temperatura, gamxsnelisa da gaxsnili

nivTierebis raoba da masa, nawilakTa zoma, moreva). Sedegebi

warmoadgenos cxrilis saxiT.

moswavlem cdisas awarmoos dakvirveba da dakvirvebis Sedegebze

dayrdnobiT aRweros indikatorebi da pH-is skala fuZe,

mJava da neitraluri xsnarebis amosacnobad; aRweros xsnaris

pH-is cvlileba neitralizaciis procesSi.

PH skalis moswavlem SeZlos indikatorebisa da pH-is skalis fuZe, mJava

da neitraluri xsnarebis amosacnobad; aRwers xsnaris pHH-is

cvlilebas neitralizaciis procesSi.

mJava wvimebi atarebs martiv cdebs mJavebisa da fuZeebis gamoyenebiT,

ganasxvavebs maT Tvisebebs;

mJavis urTierTqmedeba

kalciumis karbonatze

atarebs martiv cdebs mJavebisa da marilebis gamoyenebiT,

ganasxvavebs maT Tvisebebs;

18

standartTTan

Sesabamisoba

bun.VII.11.

bun.VII.11.

bun.VII.11.

bun.VII.11.

bun.VII.11.

bun.VII.11.

bun.VII.11.

bun.VII.11.

bun.VII.11.

bun.VII.11.

bun.VII.11.

bun.VII.11.

bun.VII.11.

bun.VII.11.

bun.VII.11.


iologia B

gakveTili gakveTilis saswavlo mizani erovnuli saswavlo

gegmis sagnobrivi programis mixedviT

erT da mravalujrediani

organizmebi

ujredi – qsovili – organo

– organizmi

ujredi ganapirobebs organizmis

funqcias da ganviTarebas.

moswavlem SeZlos imsjelos ujredze, rogorc organizmis

erTeulze; moipovos informacias ilustraciebidan ujredis

formis mravalferovnebis Sesaxeb (erT- da mravalujredian

organizmebSi)

moswavles SeuZlia imsjelos da sxvadasxva saSualebebiT

gamosaxos sicocxlis organizaciis doneebi: ujredi, qsovili,

organo, organizmi

moswavles SeuZlia imsjelos ujredze, rogorc organizmis

struqturul, funqciur da ganviTarebis elementarul

erTeulze

mcenareuli ujredi mowavlem SeZlos mikrofotografiaze amoicnos da daTvalos

ujredis struqturuli komponentebi; imsjelos ujredis

struqturuli komponentebis funqciebze

sokos da cxoveluri

ujredi

umartivesebi da sxva

protistebi

baqteriebi, arqebaqteriebi,

cianobaqteriebi

samefoebi. araujreduli

agebulebis organizmebi

mowavlem SeZlos ilustraciebze an eleqtronul formatze

ganarCios prokariotul da eukariotul (mcenareuli, cxoveluri,

sokos) ujredebi, daasaxelos maT msgavs da ganmasxvavebeli

struqturebi, Sedegebi gamosaxos venis diagramis saSualebiT;

mowavlem SeZlos ilustraciebze an eleqtronul formatze

ganarCios protistebi asaxelebs maT msgavs da ganmasxvavebel

struqturebs, Sedegebs gamosaxavs sqemis diagramis saSualebiT;

mowavlem SeZlos ilustraciebze an eleqtronul formatze

ganarCios prokariotebi baqteriebi, arqebaqteriebi, cianobaqteriebi

aRweros da imsjelos maTze

mowavlem SeZlos aRweros cocxali samyaros samefoebi; Seadginos

martivi klasifikaciis sqema da es sqema gamoiyenos, rogorc

sarkvevi.

ZuZumwovrebis klasi mowavlem SeZlos aRweros cocxali samyaros samefoebi; cxovelTa

samefo, ZuZumwovrebis klasi .. imsjelos maTze damaxasiaTebeli

niSnebis mixedviT

qvewarmavlebis klasi mowavlem SeZlos aRweros cocxali samyaros samefoebi; cxovelTa

samefo, qvewarmavlebis klasi.. imsjelos maTze damaxasiaTebeli

niSnebis mixedviT

frinvelebis klasi mowavlem SeZlos aRweros cocxali samyaros samefoebi; cxovelTa

samefo, frinvelebis klasi.. imsjelos maTze damaxasiaTebeli

niSnebis mixedviT

amfibiebis da Tevzebis

klasi

uxerxemlo cxovelebi.

fexsaxsrianebi

mowavlem SeZlos aRweros cocxali samyaros samefoebi; cxovelTa

samefo, amfibiebis da Tevzebis klasi.. imsjelos maTze

damaxasiaTebeli niSnebis mixedviT

mowavlem SeZlos aRweros cocxali samyaros samefoebi;

imsjelos fexsaxsrianebze /obobasnairebi, mwerebi, kibosnairebi,

sxva fexsaxsrianebi/ maTTvis damaxasiaTebeli niSnebis

mixedviT

sxva uxerxemlo cxovelebi mowavlem SeZlos aRweros cocxali samyaros samefoebi;

imsjelos rbiltanianebze maTTvis damaxasiaTebeli niSnebis

mixedviT

saxeoba moswavlem SeZlos daaxasiaTos cocxali samyaros mravalferovneba,

gamoiyenos klasifikaciis principi da imsjelos

sxvadasxva jgufebs Soris msgavseba-gansxvavebaze.

19

standartTTan

Sesabamisoba

bun.VII.5

bun.VII.5

bun.VII.5

bun.VII.5

bun.VII.5

bun.VII.5

bun.VII.5

bun.VII.7

bun.VII.6

bun.VII.7

bun.VII.6

bun.VII.7

bun.VII.6

bun.VII.7

bun.VII.6

bun.VII.7

bun.VII.7

bun.VII.7

bun.VII.7


sqesobrivi da usqeso gamravleba

sruli da arasruli

metamorfozi

protistebis, monerebis

gamravleba. ujredis

gayofa

moswavlem SeZlos Seagrovos informacia mcenaris, cxovelis

usqeso da sqesobrivi gamravlebis mravalferovnebis Sesaxeb;

Seadaros erTmaneTs gamravlebis formebi (mag., vegetatiuri,

TesliT, dakvirtviT, zoosporebiT); adarebs erTmaneTs sqesobrivi

gamravlebis formebs (mag., gamravleba kvercxiT - qvewarmavali,

frinveli; cocxalmSobiarobiT - ZuZumwovrebi), msjelobs

maT Soris msgavseba - gansxvavebaze da mohyavs Sesabamisi

magaliTebi;

moswavlem SeZlos moipovebs informacias da adarebs sxvadasxva

organizmis sasicocxlo cikli mohyavs zogierTi individis

sasicocxlo ciklis garemosTan Seguebis magaliTebi

moswavlem SeZlos imsjelos gamravlebis gziT organizmebis

mier Tavisive msgavsis warmoqmnis biologiur mniSvnelobaze

mcenareTa klasifikacia moswavlem SeZlos imsjelos mcenareTa mravalferovnebis Sesaxeb

da anawilebs maT Sesabamis taqsonomiur erTeulebSi damaxasiaTebeli

niSnebis mixedviT (mag., naZvi, fiWvi, cacxvi - mcenareTa

samefo, Sesabamisad SiSvel an farulTeslovani)

mcenareebis gamravleba moswavlem SeZlos imsjelos mcenaris sqesobrivi gamravlebis

mravalferovnebis Sesaxeb; adarebs erTmaneTs sqesobrivi gamravlebis

formebs; msjelobs gamravlebis gziT organizmebis

mier Tavisive msgavsis warmoqmnis biologiur mniSvnelobaze

vegetaturi gamravleba moswavlem SeZlos imsjelos mcenaris vegetatiuri gamravlebis

Sesaxeb; adarebs erTmaneTs vegetatiuri gamravlebis formebs;

msjelobs gamravlebis gziT organizmebis mier Tavisive msgavsis

warmoqmnis biologiur mniSvnelobaze

wiTel wignSi Setanili

cocxali organizmebi

erT da mravalujrediani

organizmebi

moswavlem SeZlos daaxasiaTos cocxali samyaros mravalferovneba

da imsjelos maTi dacvis aucileblobaze

moipovebs informacias ilustraciebidan ujredis formis mravalferovnebis

Sesaxeb (erT- da mravalujredian organizmebSi)

da akavSirebs ujredis formas mis funqciasTan;

moswavlis rveuli (biologiis nawili)

gakveTili gakveTilis saswavlo mizani erovnuli saswavlo

gegmis sagnobrivi programis mixedviT

dakvirveba mcenaris foTlis

agebulebaze.

dakvirveba mcenaris sxvadasxva

organos agebulebaze

pigmentebis aRmoCena mcenaris

foTolSi

dakvirveba baqteriebis

cxovelqmedebis pirobebze

dakvirveba ZuZumwovrebis

kbilebze kvleva 1.

aqlemis Segueba saarsebo

garemosTan

Tevzis Seguebuloba wyalSi

gadaadgilebasTan

dakvirveba mcenareTa Teslis

da foTlis mravalferovnebaze

kvlevam pasuxi unda gasces kiTxvas: ras niSnavs ujreduli

agebuleba?

kvlevam pasuxi unda gasces kiTxvas: foTlis garda mcenaris

sxva organoebsac aqvT ujreduli agebuleba?

kvlevam pasuxi unda gasces SekiTxvas: aris Tu ara mwvane

feris foTolSi mwvanes garda sxva feris pigmentebic?

kvlevam pasuxi unda gasces kiTxvas: aqvs Tu ara mniSvneloba

garemos temperaturas baqteriebis aqtivobisaTvis?

kvlevam pasuxi unda gasces kiTxvas: rogori formis kbilebi

aqvT ZuZumwovrebs ra mniSvneloba aqvs kbilebis gansxvavebul

formas?

kvlevam pasuxi unda gasces SekiTxvas: raSi gamoixateba aqlemis

Seguebuloba qviSnarSi gadaadgilebasTan?

kvlevam pasuxi unda gasces kiTxvas: ratom icvleba wyalSi

Tevzis sxeulis mdebareoba sacurao buStis airiT gavsebis

da airisgan daclis SemTxvevaSi.

kvlevam pasuxi unda gasces kiTxvas: gansxvavdeba Tu ara

mcenareebi Teslis da foTlis garegnuli maxasiaTeblebiT

20

bun.VII.7

bun.VII.6

bun.VII.6

bun.VII.6

bun.VII.6

bun.VII.6

bun.VII.7.

bun.VII.5

standartTTan

Sesabamisoba

bun.VII.5

bun.VII.5

bun.VII.7

bun.VII.5

bun.VII.13

bun.VII.5

bun.VII.5

bun.VII.6

bun.VII.5

bun.VII.7

bun.VII.6

bun.VII.5

bun.VII.7


6. rekomendaciebi

rekomendaciebi Temaze – Sefaseba

1. ra aris Sefasebis mizani?

axali erovnuli saswavlo gegmis Seqmnam miSvnelovani cvlilebebi gamoiwvia. maT Soris upirvelesi

aris is, rom `saganmanaTleblo procesis centrSi dgas moswavle, misi ganviTarebis procesi da mis mier

miRweuli Sedegi. Sedegze orientireba gulisxmobs moswavlisaTvis miwodebuli informaciis ara mxolod

damaxsovrebas, aramed am informaciis myar, dinamiur da funqciur codnad gardaqmnas~.

orientacia TiToeul moswavlesa da Sedegze Tvisobrivad cvlis Sefasebis sistemasac. Sefasebis saSualebiT

ganisazRvreba im saswavlo Sedegebis miRwevis xarisxi, romlebic sagnobrivi programis standartiT

aris gaTvaliswinebuli.

Sefaseba aris raime sagnis, movlenis, procesis an vinmes Sesabamisobis / mimarTebis dadgena winaswar

gansazRvrul niSan-TvisebebTan (kriteriumebTan). Sefasebis mizania imis garkveva, Tu ramdenad kargad

aswavlis maswavlebeli da ramdenad kargad swavloben moswavleebi. kerZod, Sefasebas aqvs Semdegi ZiriTadi

miznebi:

(1) moswavlis swavlis xelSewyoba;

(2) moswavlis Zlieri da susti mxareebis gamovlena;

(3) swavlebis konkretuli meTodikis efeqtianobis Semowmeba;

(4) saswavlo programebis efeqtianobis gansazRvra da srulyofa;

(5) saswavlo procesSi swavlebis efeqtianobis Sefaseba da srulyofa;

(6) mSoblebis CarTva moswavlis swavlebis procesSi da maTTan komunikaciis gamyareba.

Sefasebas aqvs ori gansxvavebuli funqcia:

• swavlis procesis Sefaseba (mimdinare Sefaseba);

• produqtis / Sedegebis / miRwevebis Sefaseba (Semajamebeli Sefaseba);

pirveli gulisxmobs informaciis dagrovebas saswavlo procesis mimdinareobis Sesaxeb, xolo meore

- Sedegebis aRnusxvas.

moswavleTa Sefaseba xdeba komponentebSi. komponentebSi miRebuli Sefasebebi gansazRvravs moswavlis

semestrul Sefasebas.

amonaridi axali erovnuli saswavlo gegmidan 2011-2016 ww.

sagnis semestruli qulis Semadgeneli komponentebi

1. semestris manZilze moswavleebi fasdebian Semdegi sami komponentis mixedviT:

a) saSinao davaleba;

b) saklaso davaleba;

g) Semajamebeli davaleba.

2. Sefasebis samive komponents erTnairi wona aqvs.

3. saSinao da saklaso davalebaTa komponentebSi gamoiyeneba rogorc ganmsazRvreli, aseve ganmavi-

Tarebeli Sefaseba.

4. Semajamebeli davalebis komponentSi aucilebelia ganmsazRvreli Sefasebis gamoyeneba.

5. erovnuli saswavlo gegma TiToeuli sagnisaTvis gansazRvravs semestris ganmavlobaSi Casatarebeli

Semajamebeli davalebebis savaldebulo minimalur raodenobas. am komponentiT Sefasebisas:

a) standartis moTxovnaTa dasakmayofileblad, aucilebelia Semajamebeli davalebis mravalgvari

formis gamoyeneba (Txzuleba, moxseneba, referati, proeqti, savele-gasvliTi samuSao, laboratoriuli

kvleva, saxviTi da gamoyenebiTi xelovnebis nimuSi da sxv.);

b) moswavle valdebulia Seasrulos klasSi Catarebuli yvela Semajamebeli davaleba (erovnuli saswavlo

gegmiT dadgenili savaldebulo minimumi da skolis mier damatebiT dadgenili, am ukanasknelis

arsebobis SemTxvevaSi);

g) Tu moswavle ar Seasrulebs romelime Semajamebel samuSaos gacdenis gamo, skola valdebulia,

misces mas gacdenili Semajamebeli davalebebis aRdgenis saSualeba. Semajamebeli aRdgeniTi samuSaos

vadebi da misi Catarebis forma ganisazRvreba saskolo saswavlo gegmiT.

21


Sefasebis tipebi

skolaSi, moswavleTa Sefasebisas gamoiyeneba ori tipis Sefaseba: ganmsazRvreli da ganmaviTarebeli.

ganmsazRvreli Sefaseba akontrolebs swavlis xarisxs, adgens moswavlis miRwevis dones erovnuli

saswavlo gegmiT gansazRvrul miznebTan mimarTebaSi. ganmsazRvrel SefasebaSi iwereba qula.

ganmaviTarebeli Sefaseba akontrolebs TiToeuli moswavlis ganviTarebis dinamikas da xels uwyobs

swavlis xarisxis gaumjobesebas. ganmaviTarebeli Sefasebisas gamoiyeneba iseTi saSualebebi, rogoricaa:

• sityvieri komentari,

• rCeva-darigeba,

• dakvirvebis furceli,

• TviTSefasebisa da urTierTSefasebis sqema da sxv.

axal erovnul saswavlo gegmaSi ganmaviTarebeli da ganmsazRvreli Sefasebebis aRweriloba aseTia:

mizani swavlis xarisxis gaumjobeseba;

moswavlis ganviTarebis xelSewyoba

ganmaviTarebeli ganmsazRvreli

Sefasebis sagani swavlis procesi swavlis Sedegi

Sefasebis Sedegad miRebuli

gadawyvetileba

warmatebis kriteriumebis

gansazRvra

winsvlis xelSesawyobad gansxvavebuli aqtivobis

SerCeva, swavlebis strategiis Secvla,

rCeva-darigebis micema da sxv.

konkretuli moswavlis winsvlis safuZvelze

(sakuTar miRwevebTan mimarTebiT - ra dones

flobda, ra dones flobs)

Sefasebis saSualebebi TviT/urTierTSefasebis rubrika;

kiTxvari;

sityvieri (zepiri/werilobiTi) komentari;

unaris ganviTarebis donis aRwera.

22

swavlis xarisxis gakontroleba;

moswavlis miRwevis donis dadgena

erovnuli saswavlo gegmiT gansaz-

Rvrul miznebTan mimarTebaSi;

akademiuri moswrebis donis gansaz-

Rvra

momdevno etapze (klasSi/safexurze)

daSveba/ardaSveba

imis safuZvelze, Tu ramdenad miaRwia

standartiT gansazRvrul Sedegebs

(yvelasaTvis saerTo, standartiT dadgenil

normasTan mimarTebaSi)

qula

mimdinare Sefaseba xdeba: yovel gakveTilze, yoveldRe, yoveli aqtivobis dros. ar aris savaldebulo

yovelTvis qulebiT Sefaseba.

ra aris mniSvnelovani?

mniSvnelovania is, rom aseTi Sefaseba gvaZlevs moswavlis mravalmxrivi Seswavlis saSualebas. kerZod,

ra saxis saqmianoba izidavs da ra ara, rogoria misi swavlis stili (swavlobs mosmeniT, kiTxviT, weriT,

keTebiT; aqvs mTlianobiTi aRqma Tu sagnebsa da movlenebs danawevrebulad aRiqvams, Teoretikosia Tu

pragmatistia da a.S.), ra uZneldeba, ra uadvildeba, SeuZlia Tu ara koncentracia, aqvs Tu ara winsvla, Tu

ara, ra aris warumateblobis mizezi an ra ganapirobebs mis warmatebas, aqvs Tu ara ganviTarebuli SemoqmedebiTi,

saazrovno da socialuri unarebi, rogoria misi interesebis sfero, individualuri Taviseburebebi,

ra Zlieri da susti mxareebi aqvs. mimdinare Sefasebis procesSi mniSvnelovania ara imdenad qulebis

dawera (niSniT Sefaseba), ramdenadac rCevebi, ra da rogor gaaumjobesos. formatuli Sefaseba moswavlis

Sesaxeb amomwurav, mravalmxriv informacias iZleva da obieqturobis garantia.

amasTan, mimdinare Sefaseba maswavlebels aZlevs sakuTari yoveldRiuri saqmianobis refleqsiis

SesaZleblobas. imaze dayrdnobiT, ramdenad miaRwia maswavlebelma sagakveTilo mizans, ra codna da unar-

Cvevebi gamoavlines moswavleebma, ra daZlies da ra vera, mas SeuZlia Seafasos dagegmili aqtivobebis

efeqtianoba, SerCeuli masalis sirTule, klasis marTvis, organizebis unari da sxv.

Semajamebeli Sefaseba

adgens moswavlis warmatebas swavlebisa da swavlis konkretul etapze: Temis dasrulebisas, semestris

bolos, saswavlo wlis bolos. aseTi Sefasebisas mowmdeba is, Tu ramdenad miaRwia moswavlem standartiT

gaTvaliswinebul Sedegs / Sedegebs.

swored Semajamebeli Sefasebis Sedegebis analizze dayrdnobiT vakeTebT daskvnas, ramdenad Sesrulda

erovnuli saswavlo gegmiT gaTvaliswinebuli moTxovnebi.

3. Sefasebis sqemebis Seqmna da gamoyeneba


a aris gakveTilis saswavlo mizni?

radgan axali erovnuli saswavlo gegmis sagnobrivi programis misaRwevi Sedegebi moicavs: codnas,

unar-Cvevebs, damokidebulebas. bunebrivia gakveTilebis saswavli mizani, romelic standartis enaze unda

Camoyalibdes unda moicavdes maT.

magaliTad:

sagani Tema saswavlo mizani standartis mixedviT

sabunebismetyvelo mecnierebebis

safuZvlebi

nivTierebis simkvrive moswavlem SeZlos daakavSiros nivTierebis simkvrive

mis praqtikul gamoyenebasTan; adekvaturad gamoiyenos

Sesabamisi cnebebi da formulebi amocanebis

amosaxsnelad. ganuviTardes saazrovno, komunikaciis

unar-Cvevebi.

sainteresoa SevexoT, ra kavSiri arsebobs saswavlo mizansa da Sefasebis kriteriumebs Soris?

gakveTilis saswavlo mizani gakveTilis bolos Sedegad gadaiqceva.

-rogor gaizomos Sedegi?

-swored amisaTvis aris saWiro kriteriumi.

-ris mixedviT yalibdeba kriteriumebi?

-gakveTilis saswavlo miznis Sesabamisad!

- rogor?

gTavazobT konkretul magaliTs:

gakveTilis saswavlo mizani Sefasebis kriteriumebi

moswavlem SeZlos daakavSiros nivTierebis simkvrive mis

praqtikul gamoyenebasTan; adekvaturad gamoiyenos Sesabamisi

cnebebi da formulebi amocanebis amosaxsnelad.

ganuviTardes saazrovno, komunikaciis unar-Cvevebi.

23

1. ganmartavs nivTierebis simkvrives

2. msjelobs nivTierebis simkvrivis praqtikul gamoyenebaze

3. Sesabamisi cnebebs da formulebs adekvaturad

iyenebs amocanebis amosaxsnisas

rogorc, xedavT saswavlo mizanSi ramdeni zmna anu operaciac aris mocemuli imdeni Sefasebis kriteriumia

saWiro Sedegebis gasazomad. es saSualebas aZlevs pedagogs (Semfasebels) TiToeuli operacia

Seufasos moswavles; anu daukonkretos ra gaakeTa kargad da ra ver gaakeTa. Sefasebis kriteriumebis

gamoyenebiT maswavlebeli adgens Sefasebis rubrikas da TiToeul kriteriums Slis doneebis mixedviT.

gTavazobT konkretul magaliTs.

kriteriumebi 1-3 4-5 6-7 8-10

ganmartavs niv-

Tierebis simkvrives

msjelobs niv-

Tierebis simkvrivis

praqtikul

gamoyenebaze

amocanebis amoxsnisas

iyenebs Sesabamis

cnebebs da

formulebs

arasworad

ganmartavs niv-

Tierebis simkvrives

arasworad

msjelobs niv-

Tierebis simkvrivis

praqtikul

gamoyenebaze

amocanebis amoxsnisas

ver iyenebs

Sesabamis cnebebs

da formulebs

arasrulad ganmartavs

nivTierebis simkvrives

zogadad da xarvezebiT

msjelobs niv-

Tierebis simkvrivis

praqtikul gamoyenebaze

amocanebis amoxsnisas

xarvezebiT

iyenebs Sesabamis cnebebs

da formulebs

saubrobs ra

ganapirobebs

simkvrives da

ganmartavs

msjelobs niv-

Tierebis simkvrivis

praqtikul

gamoyenebaze

amocanebis amoxsnisas

iyenebs

Sesabamis cnebebs

da formulebs

ganixilebs ra kavSiria masas

moculobasa da simkvrives

Soris da ganmartavs niv-

Tierebis simkvrives;

msjelobs nivTierebis simkvrivis

praqtikul gamoyenebaze

- mag. aanalizebs kvadrociklis

sxvadasxva nawilebi sxvadasxva

simkvrivis nivTiere bisgan

damzadebis mizanSewonilobas

amocanebis amoxsnisas warmatebiT

iyenebs Sesabamis cnebebs

da formulebs

arsebobs gansxvavebuli tipis da daniSnulebis Sefasebis sqemebi. imisda mixedviT Tu ra mizans isaxavs

konkretuli Sefaseba da rogor miiRweva es mizani. ganasxvaveben:

• analitikur

• holistur


• zogad

• konkretul Sefasebis sqemebs.

ganvixiloT isini cal-calke.

iseT SemTxvevebSi, rodesac maswavlebels surs, rom moswavlis codna Seafasos ori an meti kriteriumis

mixedviT igi iyenebs an qmnis analitikuri Sefasebis sqemas. zemoT mocemuli Sefasebis sqema analitikuria.

radganac is 3 kriteriums Seicavs.

aris SemTxvevebi, rodesac Sefasebis sqemis dayofa or an met damoukidebel maxasiaTeblad aucilebeli

ar aris an ubralod ver xerxdeba. aseT SemTxvevaSi maswavlebeli qmnis an iyenebs holistur Sefasebis sqemas.

holisturi Sefasebis sqemis grafebSi gaerTianebulia yvela kriteriumi da yvela maxasiaTebeli. ris

mixedviTac maswavlebels surs rom magaliTad naweri Seafasos. moswavlis pasuxis xarisxi fasdeba zogadad

da ara konkretuli maxasiaTeblebis mimarT. gTavazobT Txzulebis holisturi Sefasebis sqemis nimuSss:

holisturi Sefasebis sqema

davalebis moTxovnas pasuxobs srulad. azri mkafiod da Tanmimdevrulad aris gadmocemuli. grama- 3

tika da leqsika moTxovnis Sesabamisia. Secdomebis raodenoba umniSvneloa.

davalebis moTxovnas pasuxobs nawilobriv. azri Tanamimdevrulad mxolod zog SemTxvevaSia gadmoce- 2

muli. gramatika da leqsika moTxovnaze martivia. Secdomebis raodenoba zog SemTxvevaSi xels uSlis

azris gagebas.

davalebis moTxovnas pasuxobs mcired. azris gageba Wirs. gramatikuli da leqsikuri Secdomerbi aris 1

winadadebebis umetesobaSi.

naweri davalebas ar pasuxobs, an azris gageba SeuZlebelia, an furceli carielia. 0

Sefaseba sabunebismetyvelo sagnebSi

ras iTvaliswinebs Sefasebis TiToeuli komponenti sabunebismetyvelo sagnebSi:

1) saSinao davaleba

davalebis tipebi: saSinao eqsperimenti, dakvirveba obieqtebsa da procesebze, informaciis moZieba,

konceptualuri rukis Sedgena, modelireba, referatis momzadeba da sxva.

fasdeba Semdegi unarebi:

1. saazrovno unar-Cvevebi;

2. kvlevis unar-Cvevebi;

3. problemis gadaWris unar-Cvevebi;

4. TviTmarTvis unar-Cvevebi.

rubrikis nimuSi:

informaciis moZiebis Sefaseba

TariRi:

moswavle Sefasebis kriteriumebi

1.

2.

3.

4.

5

6.

7.

informaciis

wyaroebis arCeva

0-3

moZiebuli informaciis kvlevis

mizanTan Sesabamisoba

0-4

24

moZiebuli informaciis

organizeba

0-3

qulaTa maqsimaluri

raodenoba

10


2) saklaso davaleba

davalebis tipebi: sakiTxis ganxilva/diskusia, eqsperimenti, monacemebis aRricxva/damuSaveba, modelireba,

savele/gasvliTi samuSaoebi da sxva.

1.

2.

3.

4.

5

6.

7.

fasdeba Semdegi unarebi:

1. saazrovno unar-Cvevebi;

2. kvlevis unar-Cvevebi;

3. problemis gadaWris unar-Cvevebi;

4. socialuri unar-Cvevebi;

5. komunikaciis unar-Cvevebi;

6. TviTmarTvis unar-Cvevebi.

rubrikis nimuSi:

TariRi: eqsperimentis Sefaseba

moswavle Sefasebis kriteriumebi

kvlevis

miznis

gansazRvra

0-2

saWiro

inventaris

gansazRvra

0-1

kvlevis

Sedegis

varaudi

0-1

kvlevis

mimdinareobis

aRwera

0-2

25

monacemebis

aRricxva

0-1

monacem-

Ta analizi

0-2

daskvnis

gamotana

0-1

qulaTa

maqsimaluri

raodenoba

10

3) Semajamebeli davaleba

Semajamebeli davalebis komponenti ukavSirdeba swavla-swavlebis Sedegs. am komponentSi unda Sefasdes

erTi saswavlo monakveTis (Tema, Tavi, paragrafi, sakiTxi) Seswavla-damuSavebis Sedegad miRweuli Sedegebi.

konkretuli saswavlo erTeulis dasrulebisas moswavlem unda SeZlos sabunebismetyvelo sagnebis

standartiT gansazRvruli codnisa da unarebis warmoCena. Sesabamisad, Semajamebeli davalebebi unda

afasebdes sabunebismetyvelo sagnebis standartiT gansazRvruli Sedegebis miRwevis dones.

standartis moTxovnaTa Sesafaseblad rekomendebulia Semajamebel davalebaTa mravalferovani

formebis gamoyeneba. sabunebismetyvelo sagnebis Semajamebel davalebaTa tipebi SeiZleba iyos: testi,

sxvadasxva tipis savarjiSo, savele/gasvliTi samuSao, modelireba, proeqti, prezentacia da sxva.

fasdeba Semdegi unarebi:

1. saazrovno unar-Cvevebi;

2. kvlevis unar-Cvevebi;

3. problemis gadaWris unar-Cvevebi;

4. komunikaciis unar-Cvevebi;

5. socialuri unar-Cvevebi;

6. TviTmarTvis unar-Cvevebi.

moTxovnebi, romlebsac unda akmayofilebdes Semajamebeli davalebebi

• davalebis TiToeul tips unda axldes Sefasebis zogadi rubrika;

• zogadi rubrika unda dazustdes konkretuli davalebis pirobisa da gavlili masalis gaTvaliswinebiT;

• 10 qula unda ganawildes rubrikaSi Semaval kriteriumebze;

• miTiTebuli unda iyos standartis is Sedegebi, romelTa Sefasebasac emsaxureba Semajamebeli davaleba.


ubrikis nimuSi:

TariRi: kvleviTi proeqti

1.

2.

3.

4.

5

6.

7.

moswavle Sefasebis kriteriumebi

proeqtis

mizani

0-1

kvlevis

gegmis

SemuSaveba

0-1

sakiTxTan

dakav-

Sirebuli

informaciis

moZieba

0-1

kvlevis

Catareba

0-2

26

monacemebis

aRricxva

0-1

analizi da

daskvnis

gakeTeba

0-2

prezentacia

0-2

qulaTa

maqsimaluri

raodenoba

10

Sefasebis sqemebis mravalferovnebis miuxedavad moTxovnebi maT mimarT erTnairia:

• rubrikebi/kriteriumebi erTmniSvnelovnad da mkafiod unda iyos Camoyalibebuli/sando/;

• Sefasebis sqema unda amowmebdes mxolod imas ris Semowmebasac isaxavs miznad da sxvas arafers /validuri/;

• moswavleebi winaswar unda icnobdnen (da/an monawileobdnen sqemis SeqmnaSi) im Sefasebis sqemas, romliTac

maTi codna fasdeba /gamWirvale/;

yovelive zemoTaRniSnulidan gamomdinare SegviZlia SevajamoT:

• Sefasebis sqemebi, aris mkacrad gansazRvruli kriteriumebisa da maTi gamoyenebis wesebis erToblioba,

romlis mixedviTac fasdeba moswavlis moswreba ama Tu im aqtivobaSi an saganSi;

• arsebobs gansxvavebuli tipis da daniSnulebis Sefasebis sqemebi. imisda mixedviT Tu ra mizans isaxavs

konkretuli Sefaseba da rogor miiRweva es mizani, gaasxvaveben analitikur da holistur zogad da

konkretul Sefasebis sqemebs;

• drois garkveuli monakveTis ganmavlobaSi erTi da imave Sefasebis sqemis sistematurad gamoyeneba

da Sedegebis Sedareba moswavlis ganviTarebis efeqturi saSualebaa;

• sasurvelia, rom maswavlebelma Sefasebis sqemis Seqmnis procesSi CarTos moswavleebi. es moswavleebs

sasualebas miscems ufro kargad gerkven imasi Tu ras iTxoven maTgan.


kognituri sqemebis gamoyeneba saswavlo procesSi

sqemebiT saswavlo procesis datvirTva exmareba moswavleebs dasamuSavebeli masalaSi mowodebuli

mniSvnelovani informaciis aRqmaSi. sqemebiT muSaobisas moswavleebs xelT eZlevaT teqstis kontrolis

meqanizmi, romelic nawilisa da mTelis, konceptisa da detalebis urTierTmimarTebebis dadgenasa da

vizualurad danaxvaSi uwyobs maT xels. amitomac xSirad am sqemebs kognitur diagramebs uwodeben.

Semajamebeli

samuSaoebis

Catarebisas

saSinao da

saklaso

samuSaoebisas

raSi exmareba kognituri sqemebi moswavleebs?

• informaciis mwyobrad organizebaSi

• informaciis gaanalizebaSi

• uviTarebs vizualur aRqmas

• uviTarebs kritikul azrovnebas

kognituri sqemebis gamoyenebis areali:

gamoiyeneba

axali masalis

gacnobis dros

kognituri

sqemebis

gamoyenebis

areali

27

teqstis

kiTxvisas

teqstis

damuSavebisas

raSi exmareba kognituri sqemebi maswavleblebs?

• kognituri sqemebis gamoyenebisas maswavlebeli moswavleebs saSualebas aZlevs gaaaqtiuros winare

codna

• kognituri sqemebis gamoyenebiT xsnis axal masalas

• zedmiwevniTi konkretulobiT ajamebinebs moswavleebs aTvisebul masalas

• exmareba pedagogs moswavles Seuqmnas iseTi saswavlo garemo, rodesac is aanalizebs movlenas

• exmareba pedagogs moswavlis progresis, misi akademiuri moswrebis aRnusxvaSi da SefasebaSi.

gTavazobT, informacias ramdenime kognituri sqemaze; ra mizniT SeiZleba gamoiyenos maswavlebelma

da es konkretuli sqema, raSi exmareba moswavles?

kognituri sqemis dasaxeleba ra mizniT iyenebs maswavlebeli? raSi exmareba moswavles?

Aambis/Sinaarsis organizebis sqema. zedmiwevniTi konkretulobiT ajamebinebs

moswavleebs aTvisebul masalas

movlena da Sedegebi kognituri sqemebis gamoyenebiT xsnis

axal masalas

mizez-Sedegobriobis ruka exmareba pedagogs moswavles Seuqmnas

iseTi saswavlo garemo, rodesac is

aanalizebs ama Tu im movlenas

Ggaixsenos: ist pirovnebebi, moqmedebis

adgili. dainaxos problemis

dinamika da Sedegi.

informaciis gaanalizebaSi

movlenis/problemis

gaanalizebaSi(gaanalizon ama-Tu

im movlenis gamomwvevi mizezebi

da movlenis Sedegebi).


vici, minda vicode, viswavle

vici, minda vicode, viswavle gamoiyeneba sagakveTilo procesSi teqstze muSaobisas, rac

• amzadebs moswavles masalis mTlianobaSi gaazrebisaTvis;

• gviCvenebs, ra aris mocemul teqstSi moswavlisaTvis mniSvnelovani;

• gviCvenebs, ra iswavla man am teqstiT;

• aviTarebs informaciis daxarisxebis unar-Cvevebs;

• aZlierebs teqstis kiTxvisa da masze muSaobis motivacias;

• aviTarebs kiTxvis dasmis unar-Cvevebs;

• aviTarebs weriTi metyvelebis unar-Cvevebs.

es strategia gamoiyeneba individualuri, wyvilebsa da jgufebSi muSaobisas.

gamoyenebis wesi:

I etapi: maswavlebeli saswavli miznidan gamomdinare acnobs moswavleebs, ra sakiTxs exeba wasakiTxi

teqsti da sTxovs Seavson sqema, risTvisac maT unda gaixsenon da pirvel grafaSi Caweron yvelaferi, rac

ician, an hgoniaT, rom ician mocemuli sakiTxis Sesaxeb;

meore grafaSi SekiTxvebis saxiT Camoayalibon, risi gagebac

ainteresebT am sakiTxis Sesaxeb.

II etapi: es etapi kiTxvis dasrulebis Semdeg iwyeba da mdgomareobs imaSi, rom sqemis mesame grafaSi

moswavleebi weren imas, rac iswavles.

sqemis nimuSi aseTia:

vici minda vicode viswavle

es aris meTodi, romelic kargia wina klasSi ganvlili masalis gasaxseneblad, axal masalasTan dasakavSireblad

da konkretuli Temis Sesajameblad.

venis diagrama

saswavlo miznidan gamomdinare xSirad efeqturia informaciis organizeba diagramebiT. maTi daxmarebiT

informacia xdeba TvalsaCino. ama Tu im formis diagramis Seqmnis procesSi moswavleebs uviTardebaT:

• informaciis Sekrebisa da daxarisxebis unar-Cveva;

• raodenobrivi da Tvisobrivi monacemebis organizaciis da warmodgenis unar-Cveva;

• raodenobrivi monacemebis dalagebis unar-Cveva;

• Tvisobrivi monacemebis Sedarebis unar-Cveva;

• monacemebis analizis safuZvelze daskvnis gamotanis unar-Cveva.

am diagramis damkvidreba cnobili ingliseli maTematikosis jon venis (1834-1923) saxels ukavSirdeba.

venis diagrama Sedgeba ori an meti rgolisagan. diagrama SedarebiTi analizis saSualebas iZleva da efeqturia

sxvadasxva saswavlo disciplinebis swavlebisas.

Sevsebis wesi

a-varianti: I da II nawilSi faqtis, an movlenis, an personaJis gansxvavebuli niSnebi iwereba, xolo III

nawilSi - msgavsi.

b-varianti: cal-calke ivseba I da II nawili, xolo is, rac oriveSi aRmoCndeba erTnairi gadadis III-Si.

gansxvaveba msgavseba Gansxvaveba

28


drois diagrama

es sqema maswavlebelma SesaZlebelia warmatebulad gamoiyenos faqtebis da movlenebis drosTan dasakavSireblad.

diagrama saSualebas aZlevs moswavleebs daamuSaon istoriuli faqtebis, movlenebis Semcveli

didi teqstebi da sakiTxebi wyvilebSi, jgufebSi, individualerad da maTze dayrdnobiT Seadginon drois

diagrama.

Sevsebis wesi

a-varianti: jer ivsebi diagramis I nawili, romelSic aRiniSneba dro (welTaRricxva, saukune, weli, Tve,

ricxvi, dRe). Semdeg II nawilSi TiToeuli droiTi aRniSvnis gverdiT Sesabamisi movlena, faqti.

kartografiis ganviTareba

wlebi Seqmnili rukebis tipebi

b-varianti: erTdroulad da TanamimdevrobiT ivseba diagramis orive nawili

kartografiis ganviTareba

wlebi Seqmnili rukebis tipebi

Cvens welTaRricxvamde Qqvaze Seqmnili

29

portulano

T diagrama

es sqema maswavlebelma SeiZleba mravalmxriv gamoiyenos. igi Zalze mosaxerxebelia sapirispiro mosazrebaTa

gamosaTqmelad, movlenebisa Tu faqtebis Sesapirispireblad da Sesadareblad, moqmed gmirTa

dasaxasiaTeblad.

T sqema saSualebas gvaZlevs warmovaCinoT dapirispireba gansaxilvel sakiTxebs /faqtebs, movlenebs,

adamianebs, sagnebs da a.S./ Soris.

savarjiSo kargia informaciis dasaxarisxeblad (vTqvaT, dadebiTad da uaryofiTad) da dasajgufeblad.

Sevsebis wesi

dafaze, rveulSi an Tabaxis furcelze ixazeba T diagrama. saswavlo miznidan gamomdinare SeiZleba

Seivsos jer sqemis marcxena mxare, Semdeg _ marjvena. marcxena mxaris Sevsebis Semdeg, marjvena mxareSi

iwereba misi sapirispiro mosazrebebi.

samuSao sruldeba individualurad, wyvilebSi an jgufurad, maswavleblis Sexedulebisamebr:

daS


ekomendaciebi - rogor movamzadoT proeqti

qimiis erT-erT gakveTilze moswavleebs eZlevaT davaleba moamzadon proeqti `wyali – sicocxlea~. anu

ra RonisZiebebis ganxorcieleba aris SesaZlebeli mdinaris dabinZurebis Tavidan asacileblad.

TqvenTvis cnobilia, rom proeqti interaqtiuri swavlebis erT-erTi kolaboraciuli meTodia.

gTavazobT ramdenime konkretul rCevas romelic exeba proeqtis saswavlo procesSi gamoyenebis meTodikas:

rCeva 1 proeqtis Seqmna saWiroa maSin roca problema arsebobs. proeqtis mTavari mizani am problemis

mogvarebaa!

/mag., problemaa dabinZurebuli mdinare; proeqtis mTavari mizani mdinaris dabinZurebis Tavidan

acilebaa/

rCeva 2 problemis Tvisobrivi da raodenobrivi SeswavlisaTvis kvlevaa saWiro, amitom kvlevis gegmis

SemuSaveba mniSvnelovania;

mag. kvlevis gegmis nimuSi

ras vikvlev? ra meTodiT vikvlev? ra vadaSi vikvlev? SeniSvna

mdinare X -s romeli mdinareebi

uerTdeba da ramdenad

dabinZurebulia isini?

mdinaris dabinZurebis xarisxis

dadgena

rukis kvleva, mdinaris Senakadebis

mimdebared mcxovrebTa

gamokiTxva

mdinaris wylis laboratoriuli

kvleva

30

10 dReSi

10 dRe

rCeva 3 informaciis floba yvela moqmedebis warmatebis safuZvelia!

SesTavazeT moswavleebs informaciis mopovebis wyaroebi:

wignebi internet resursebi, gazeTebi,

Jurnalebi, fotoebi

samTavrobo, arasamTavrobo,kvleviTi,

saganmanaTleblo uwyebebi, adamianebi

uSualo

kontaqti

rCeva 4 kvlevis Catareba moswavleebma unda awarmoon dagegmilis Sesabamisad.

kvlevis Tematika:

• arsebobs Tu ara Tqvens sazogadoebaSi sufTa wylis problema;

• gaarkvieT, vin aris pasuxismgebeli wylis sisufTaveze;

• iyeneben Tu ara sawarmoebi Tqvens sacxovrebelTan axlos mdebare mdinares;

• rukis saSualebiT gaarkvieT, sad Caedineba es mdinare, romeli qveynidan an raioidan moedineba da aris

Tu ara im regionSi dabinZurebis kerebi;

• ra saxis narCenebi Caedineba masSi. ra Sedegebi moyolia an SeiZleba mohyves mdinaris dabinZurebas;

• ra RonisZiebebis ganxorcieleba aris SesaZlebeli mdinaris dabinZurebis Tavidan asacileblad.

rCeva 5 kvlevis Sedegebis CaniSvna unda moxdes romelime grafikul Tu vizualur formatSi/cxrili,

sqema, diagrama, foto da videomasala .../

rCeva 6 Zalian mniSvnelovania moswavleebs vaswavloT rogor gaakeTon monacemTa analizi am analizze

dayrdnobiT gaakeTon Sefaseba da amaze dayrdnobiT moZebnon problemis gadaWris gza.


magaliTad

Ykvlevis Sedegebis

analizze

dayrdnobiT

yvelaze seriozuli

problema ra aris?

mag. Ykvlevis Sedegebis

analizze dayrdnobiT

yvelaze seriozuli

problema is rom mdinaris

sanapiroebi nagaviTaa

saves da masSi 2

welia aRaravin banaobs

kvlevis

Sedegebis

analizze

dayrdnobiT

ra iwvevs am

problemas?

mag. kvlevis Sedegebis

analizze

dayrdnobiT ikveTeba,

rom 2 welia

soflis mcxovrebni

nagavs pirdapir mdinareSi

yrian

moifiqreT problemis

mogvarebis Tanmimdevruli

nabijebi

1. Cveni kvlevis Sedegebi gavugzavnoT

raionis adgilobriv

TviTmarTvelobas da vTxovoT

mdinarispira soflebSi gamoyos

nagavsayrelebi

2. davgegmoT d aim soflebSi

arsebul skolis mosw erTad

movawyoT mdinaris sanapiroebis

dasufTavebis aqciebi.. da nagavi

iqedan simbolurad “gadavitanoT”

sofelSi gamoyofil nagavsayrelze

rCeva 7 vaswavloT da movTxovoT moswavleebs efeqturi prezentacia

• eleqtronuli prezentacia

• posterebis damzadeba

• verbaluri prezentacia

• blogebis, feisbuqis da a.S. gamoyenebiT prezentacia

• gamofena

• aqcia

31

daasabuTeT Tqvens

mier mofiqrebuli

nabijebis efeqturoba

1. yvela dasaxlebas unda

hqondes nagavsayreli

2. TanamonawileobiTi

aqciebi zrdis TanamonawileTapasuxismgeblobas..

aqcia ki sasurveli

qcevis demonstrirebaa

proeqtis Sefaseba

2011-2016 w. erovnul saswavlo gegmis bunebismetyvelebis standartSi mocemulia kvleviTi proeqtis

Sefasebis sqema. sasurvelia moswavleebma winaswar icodnen Sefasebis kriteriumebi da Sefasebis sqema.

Sefasebis sqema

TariRi: kvleviTi proeqti

moswavle Sefasebis kriteriumebi

proeqtis kvlevis sakiTxTan kvlevis monaanal- mizani gegmis dakavSirebuli Catareba cemebisizi da

0-1 SemuSaveba informaciis 0-2 aRricxva daskvnis

0-1

moZieba

0-1 gakeTeba

0-1

0-2

1.

2.

3.

4

5

6

7

prezentacia

0-2

SeniSvna am proeqtis momzadebaSi moswavleebs daexmarebaT Semdegi internet-resursebi:

1. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WuG5WTId-IY

2. http://imeretnature.blogspot.com/

qulaTa

maqsimaluriraodenoba

10


informaciuli teqnologiebis gamoyeneba swavlebaSi da misi

saswavlo- meToduri uzrunvelyofa

informaciuli teqnologiebis gamoyeneba xels uwyobs moswavleTa motivaciis gazrdas, moswavleTa

CarTvas swavla-swavlebis procesSi da erovnuli saswavlo gegmiT gaTvaliswinebuli sakiTxebis ukeT

gagebas. rodesac sabunebismetyvelo sagnebis warmatebulad swavlebaze vsaubrobT, unda gaviTvaliswinoT

is garemo, romelic saWiroa am saswavlo disciplinis efeqtianad warmarTvisaTvis.

gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania informaciul-sakomunikacio teqnologiebis (ist-is) gamoyeneba qimiis

gakveTilebze, sadac sagnis 1/3 nawili eTmoba eqsperimentebs. teqnologiebis multimediuri xasiaTi iZleva

saSualebas moswavleebisaTvis TvalsaCino gavxadoT esa Tu is qimiuri movlena (garkveulwilad movaxdinoT

laboratoriebis ar arsebobis konpensireba). agreTve fizikurad SeuZlebelia iseTi laboratoriuli

samuSaoebis Catareba Tu gaviTvaliswinebT im faqtorebs, rogoricaa qimiuri reaqciebis xangrZlivoba,

reaqtivebis ar qona, nivTierebebis momwamlavi buneba, ekologiuri problemebi, bavSvis usafrTxoeba.

garda amisa, teqnologiebis gamoyenebiT SesaZlebelia, magaliTad: eqsperimentis Sewyveta, SeCereba, an

im nawilis ganmeoreba, romelic cudad iqna aTvisebuli. aseTi midgoma xels uwyobs sagnis Seswavlisadmi

interesis amaRlebas.

informaciuli teqnologiebis integracia swavlaSi aris inovaciuri saqmianoba, romelic naklebad

ergeba skolis Zvel tradiciul models.

ist-is gamoyenebiT icvleba saswavlo garemos xedva. swavlis garemo aRar aris SezRuduli fizikuri

sivrciT. misi Semadgeneli nawilia virtualuri sivrce, romelic saSualebas aZlevs moswavleebs da maswavleblebs

`gavidnen~ saklaso oTaxis kedlebs gareT da daukavSirdnen mTel msoflios.

ratom unda gamoviyenoT Web 2.0 teqnologiebi swavla/swavlebaSi?

ra sargebeli moaqvT am teqnologiebs moswavleebisaTvis da maswavleblebisaTvis?

Web 2.0 teqnologiebi

CarTuloba monawileoba TanamSromloba

kreatuloba komunikacia

Web 2.0 teqnologiebi zrdian moswavleTa CarTulobis xarisxs. swavla am teqnologiebis gamoyenebiT

ufro mimzidvelia, vinaidan ufro axlosaa realur saqmianobasTan.

Web 2.0 teqnologiebis gamoyenebiT moswavle ara mxolod swavlobs, aramed monawileobs codnis SeqmnaSi.

aseTi SesaZlebloba moswavleebs adre iSviaTad Tu eZleodaT. magaliTad, moswavlis mier Seqmnili

blogi da iq gamoqveynebuli informacia aris misi wvlili (da SeiZleba, Zalian mniSvnelovanic) internetis

kontentis SeqmnaSi. es mniSvnelovani socialuri aqtivobaa, romelic zrdis moswavleebis motivacias.

Web 2.0 teqnologiebi gvaZleven TanamSromlobis realur SesaZleblobebs. bolo wlebSi ganaTlebaSi

TanamSromlobas moswavleebs Soris, moswavleebsa da maswavleblebs Soris mniSvnelovani roli eniWeba.

magram mxolod axla xdeba SesaZlebeli realuri TanamSromlobis pirobebis Seqmna axali teqnologiebis

gamoyenebiT.

Web 2.0 teqnologiebi xels uwyoben kreatulobis zrdas. rigiT moswavles aqvs SesaZlebloba Seqmnas

multimediuri produqtebi, gamoaqveynos internetSi da miiRos Sefaseba sxvadasxva adamianebisagan.

Web 2.0 teqnologiebi xels uwyoben diskusiis da kritikuli azrovnebis unaris ganviTarebas. urTier-

Toba realur auditoriasTan moiTxovs maTgan gacilebiT met pasuxismgeblobas.

32


logis gamoyeneba swavlaSi

saWiroeba

ratom unda vawarmooT blogi?

1. imitom rom es saintereso da mimzidvelia. imdenad mimzidveli, rom moswavleebs aviwydebaT, rom

isini sinamdvileSi swavloben.

2. imitom rom momavalSi ase mogviwevs swavla. swavla xorcieldeba maSin, roca moswavle CarTulia

praqtikosTa TemSi, swavlis autenturi amocanebis gadaWris procesSi, swavlobs maSin, roca axdens interaqcias

Temis wevrebTan.

3. imitom rom es Secvlis Tqvens cxovrebas.

4. imitom rom blogis saSualebiT daukavSirdebiT gare samyaros.

blogi saSualebas aZlevs moswavles gaxdes `maswavlebeli~ – anu warudginos sakuTari masalebi auditorias.

blogis gamoyeneba

blogi aris sivrce, sadac moswavleebs da maswavleblebs aqvT SesaZlebloba iswavlon erTmaneTisagan.

ra aris blogi?

ratom aris blogi aseTi mniSvnelovani swavla/swavlebaSi?

• blogebis saSualebiT SesaZlebelia virtualuri Temebis Seqmna, sadac Temis wevrebi erToblivad

msjeloben, uziareben erTmaneTs codnas, marTaven diskusiebs maTTvis saintereso sakiTxebis irgvliv,

• blogi exmareba moswavles codna aRiqvas mTlianobaSi, rogorc urTierTdakavSirebuli da ara izolirebuli

faqtebi.

• blogi aZlierebs sakuTrebis grZnobas da zrdis arCevans.

• blogi aZlevs moswavles saSualebas miawvdinos sakuTari xma sakmaod did auditorias. es zrdis pasuxismgeblobas

da aviTarebs sakuTar swavlaze dakvirvebis unars.

• blogi zrdis moswavlis motivacias da pasuxismgeblobas. roca moswavlem icis, rom mis namuSevars

ecnoba farTo auditoria is meti pasuxismgeblobiT ekideba swavlas.

proeqti

Gearn-onlain proeqti “wyali sicocxlea”

http://gearn.blogspot.com/2008/09/gearn.html

am proeqtSi

http://ekologiaia.blogspot.com/

CarTulia saqarTvelos sxvadasxva kuTxis skolebi, maswavleblebi, moswavleebi.

http://imeretnature.blogspot.com/

http://lazuriti.wordpress.com/

http://yvirila.blogspot.com/

http://mtkvrisproblema.blogspot.com/

http://www.shavizgva-nini-nino.blogspot.com/

http://madneuli.blogspot.com/

33


7. gakveTilis scenarebi

Sesavali

1. bunebismetyvelebis sagani, fizikuri sidideebi

gakveTilis saswavlo mizani: moswavlem SeZlos bunebaSi mimdinare movlenebze dakvirvebisas awarmoos

sxvadasxva gazomviTi saqmianobebi, aRricxos monacemebi da drois, sigrZis da masis sazomi erTeulebi

warmoadginos `SI~ sistemiT.

standartTan Sesabamisoba: bun.VII.2

aqtivoba1 – `buneba da bunebismetyveleba~ /5 wT/

maswavlebeli interaqtiuri leqciisas TanmimdevrobiT ganixilavs ra aris:

• buneba;

• Bbunebismetyveleba;

• sabunebismetyvelo mecnierebebi: Ffizika, qimia, biologia;

• Ffizikuri sxeuli;

• nivTiereba;

• cocxali organizmi

Aaqtivoba 2 – `bunebismetyvelebi ikvleven~ /10 wT/

maswavlebeli moswavleTa cnobismoyvareobis gazrdis mizniT SekiTxvebiT mimarTavs moswavleebs:

• ratom orTqldeba an iyineba wyali?

• TxilamuriT ratom mivsrialebT Tovlze da ver vsrialebT mSral miwaze?

• ra iciT nivTierebebis agebulebaze, maT urTierTqmedebebze, gardaqmnebze?

• sad qreba wyalSi Cayrili Saqari?

• ratom iwvis sanTeli?

• bolos da bolos, ra kavSiri aqvs yvelafer amasTan sicocxles, riTia is unikaluri, rogor warmoiSva

da viTardeba?

moswavleTa SesaZlo pasuxebis Semdeg maswavlebeli azustebs sakiTxebs da akeTebs mimarTebebs am kiTxvebsa

da wina aqtivobisas ganxilul sakiTxebs Soris da akeTebs daskvnas.

Sejameba – 1. imisaTvis, rom am da mraval sxva kiTxvas upasuxos, adamiani akvirdeba bunebas; 2. amisaTvis

gvaqvs SegrZnebis organoebi, romelTa saSualebiT SegviZlia davinaxoT da a. S., magram saWiroa sizuste;

3. amitom bunebismetyvels sWirdeba sazomi xelsawyoebi da sidideebi.

Aaqtivoba 3 – situaciuri amocana `sWirdeba Tu ara mkvlevars zusti monacemebi?~ /15 wT/

maswavlebeli moswavleebs acnobs situacias:

`warmoidgine, rom gazome fanjris CarCos simaRle Seni xelis mtkaveliT da naxe rom mtkaveli CarCos

simaRleSi oTxjer Caetia. Semdeg dareke saxelosnoSi da sTxove, rom dagimzadon aseTi sigrZis magida.

xelosanma sigrZe Tavisi mtkaveliT gadazoma~.

Dmaswavlebeli SekiTxvebiT mimarTavs moswavleebs:

– rogor fiqrob, misi damzadebuli magida iseTi iqneba, rogoric SeukveTe?

– xom ar jobda xelosnisTvis geTqva, rom magidis sigrZe unda iyos 100 santimetri?

moswavleebi pasuxoben argumentirebulad.

Aaqtivoba 4 – `SI sistema yvela enaze laparakobs”

maswavlebeli moswavleebs: – rogorc xedavT gazomvis sizuste damokidebulia imaze, rom sazom erTeulebSi

gamovsaxoT monacemebi. amitom acnobs:

– ra aris egreTwodebul `SI sistema~.

fizikur sidideTa da erTeulTa saerTaSoriso sistema (egreTwodebuli `SI sistema~). mis mixedviT

ganisazRvreba ZiriTadi fizikuri sidideebi: dro, sigrZe da masa.

– ratom aris saerTaSoriso ?

sistema saerTaSorisoa – adamianebi SeTanxmdnen rom yvelgan erTnairi, yvelasaTvis saerTo sazomi

erTeulebi da maTi Sesabamisi sazomi xelsawyoebi gamoiyenon. xelsawyoebiT sididis gasazomad Seiqmna

`etalonebi~. magaliTad, sigrZis etalonia gansakuTrebuli liTonebis – platinis da iridiumisgan damza-

34


debul Zelze moniSnuli 1 metri sigrZis manZili, es Zeli inaxeba safrangeTSi, qalaq sevrSi, zomis da wonis

saerTaSoriso palataSi. am etalonis mixedviT mzaddeba saxazavebi. aqedan gamomdinare, raimes sigrZis

gazomva niSnavs etalonTan Sedarebas. igive iTqmis sxva fizikuri sidideebis Sesaxebac.

maswavlebeli moswavleTa codnis gaTvaliswinebiT /moswavleebs mieces codnis gamomJRavnebis saSualeba/akeTebs

drois, sigrZis da masis sazomi erTeulebis cxrils mswavleTa daxmarebiT aanalizebs:

dro sigrZe masa

1 wuTi (wT) 60 wami (wm) 100 kilometri 1000 metri 1 tona (t) 1000 kg.

(km)

(m)

1 saaTi (sT) 60 wT, 3600 wm. 1 decimetri (dm) 0.1 m 1 centneri (c) 100 kg.

1 dRe-Rame 24 sT 1 santimetri (sm) 0.01 m 1 grami 0.001 kg.

1 weliwadi 365 dRe-Rame (nakian

weliwadSi 366 dRe-Ramea)

1 milimetri (mm) 0.001 m 1 miligrami (mg) 0.0001 kg.

1 saukune 100 weliwadi

akeTebs prezentacias

aqtivoba5 – moswavleTa Sefaseba /5 wT/

gakveTilis saswavlo miznidan da aqtivobebidan gamomdinare maswavlebels SeuZlia Seafasos moswavle

Semdegi kriteriumebiT:

Sefasebis kriteriumebi:

1. moswavle ganmartavs sabunebismetyvelo sagnebs.

2. moswavle fizikur sidideebs – dro, masa, sigrZe. erTeulebs warmoadgens erTeulTa saerTaSoriso

sistemis Sesabamisad.

3. moswavle konkretuli magaliTebis ganxilvisas axerxebs gakeTvilze naswavli cnebebis da sakiTxebis

transfers. A

Sefasebis rubrika

kriteriumebi 1-3 4-5 6-7 8-10

moswavle ganmartavs moswavle arasworad moswavle arasrulad / moswavle ZiriTadad srulyofilad

sabunebismetyvelo ganmartavs sabunebi- mag. asaxelebs mxolod ganmartavs sabunebi-

sagnebs

smetyvelomecniere- kvlevis sagans/ ganmartavs smetyvelo sagnebs

bebs

sabunebismetyvelo sagnebs

moswavle fizikur moswavle fizi- moswavle fizikur

moswavle fizikur srulyofilad

sidideebs - dro, kuri sidideebis sidideebis warmoadgenas sidideebis ZiriTa-

masa, sigrZe.. erTeu- - dro, masa, sigrZe.. erTeulTa saerTaSordad warmoadgens

lebs warmoadgens erTeulebis wariso sistemis Sesabamisad erTeulTa saerTaerTeulTa

saerTa- moadgenas erTeulTa axerxebs xarvezebiT Soriso sistemis Ses-

Soriso sistemis Ses- saerTaSoriso sisteabamisadabamisadmis

Sesabamisad ver

axerxebs

moswavles ganmar- moswavle ver ganmar- moswavle xarvezebiT moswavle ZiriTadad srulyofilad

tavs da moyavs skalatavs da ver moyavs ganmartavs da cdilobs ganmartavs da moyavs

rebis da veqtorebis skalarebis da veq- moiyvanos skalarebis da skalarebis da veq-

magaliTebi

torebis magaliTebi veqtorebis magaliTebi torebis magaliTebi

moswavle konkre- moswavle konkre- moswavle konkretuli moswavle konkretu- srulyofilad

tuli magaliTebis tuli magaliTebis magaliTebis ganxilvisas li magaliTebis ganx-

ganxilvisas axerxebs ganxilvisas ver xarvezebiT axerxebs gakeTilvisas ZiriTadad

gakeTvilze nas- axerxebs gakeTvilze vilze naswavli cnebebis axerxebs gakeTvilze

wavli cnebebis da naswavli cnebebis da da sakiTxebis transfers naswavli cnebebis da

sakiTxebis trans- sakiTxebis trans-

sakiTxebis transfersfersfers

35


2. skalarebi da veqtorebi

gakveTilis saswavlo mizani: moswavlem SeZlos awarmoos sxvadasxva gazomviTi saqmianobebi, aRricxos

monacemebi erTeulebi warmoadginos `SI~ sistemiT. Gganmartos skalarebi veqtorebi da moiyvanos magaliTebi.

standartTan Sesabamisoba: bun.VII.2

aqtivoba1 – saSinao davalebis prezentacia /10 wT/

maswavlebeli moswavleebs sTxovs gaakeTon saSinao davalebis prezentacia.

prezentatori moswavle akeTebs davalebis prezentacias kerZod:

1. warmoadgens saxelmZRvaneloSi mocemul teqsts argumentirebuli TxrobiT.

2. akeTebs teqstSi mocemuli sakiTxebis gasaazreblad gakveTilis bolos mocemuli savarjiSoebis1,

2, 3 prezentacias.

Aaqtivoba 2 – skalarebi da veqtorebi /10 wT/

maswavlebeli: bunebis Seswavlis dros gamoyenebuli fizikuri sidideebi iyofa or jgufad:

1. veqtori

2. skalari

Zalas aqvs mimarTuleba da sidide, amitom is veqtoruli sididea.

dros, masas, sigrZes ara aqvs mimarTuleba is skalaruli sididea.

maswavlebeli – moswavleebs konkretuli magaliTebis saxiT acnobs skalarebs da veqtorebs

– magaliTad, Tu gadawyvet wignis gadaadgilebas, mogiwevs Zalis gamoyeneba. amitom mxedvelobaSi unda

miiRo gamoyenebuli Zalis sidide da mimarTuleba.

– Zalis mimarTulebis aRsaniSnavad viyenebT isars. magaliTad, Tu wigns gadaaadgileb marcxnidan

majvniv, isari Tavisi wveriT miuTiTebs am mimarTulebas.

– Zalis sidides gamovsaxavT isris sigrZiT. am dros saWiroa maStabis dacva. magaliTad, Tu 1 sm. sigrZis

isari Seesabameba Zalis 1 erTeuls, maSin 3 erTeulis sididis Zala gamoisaxeba 3 sm. sigrZis isriT.

– dros, masas da sigrZes aqvs sidide, magram ar aqvs mimarTuleba – es skalaruli sidideebi, an ubralod

skalarebia.

– isrebis gamoyeneba SesaZlebelia sxva mizniTac. magaliTad, rodesac gsurs uCveno erTmaneTTan dakavSirebuli

movlenebis Tanmimdevroba:

zRvis wylis

aorTqleba

Rrublis

uu warmoqmna uu

– isari gamoiyeneba agreTve, rodesac gamosaxaven raRac nivTierebebisagan axali nivTierebis warmoqmnas.

magaliTad nivTierebebi wyalbadi da Jangbadi SeerTebisas warmoqmnis nivTiereba wyals. es ase

gamoisaxeba:

Jangbadi + wyalbadi � wyali

aqtivoba 3 – moswavleTa Sefaseba /5wT/

gakveTilis saswavlo miznidan da aqtivobebidan gamomdinare maswavlebels SeuZlia Seafasos moswavle

Semdegi kriteriumebiT:

Sefasebis kriteriumi:

1. moswavles ganmartavs da moyavs skalarebis da veqtorebis magaliTebi.

Aaqtivoba 4 – saSinao davaleba – gakveTilze miRebuli codnis da unar-Cvevis transferi – 5 wT

maswavlebeli moswavleebs avalebs TanmimdevrobT ganixilon gakveTilis bolos mocemuli 6 savarjiSo,

raTa SeZlon gakveTilze miRebuli codnis transferi.

36

wvima


3. bunebismetyvelebis laboratoriaSi arsebuli zogierTi xelsawyo da

muSaobis wesi

gakveTilis saswavlo mizani: moswavlem SeZlos dakvirvebisaas awarmoos sxvadasxva gazomviTi saqmianobebi,

aRricxos monacemebi daicvas xlsawyoebis gamoyenebis da usafrTxoebis wesebi.

standartTan Sesabamisoba: bun.VII.2

aqtivoba1– saSinao davalebis prezentacia /10 wT/

maswavlebeli moswavleebs sTxovs gaakeTon saSinao davalebis prezentacia

prezentatori moswavle akeTebs davalebis prezentacias kerZod:

1. warmoadgens saxelmZRvaneloSi mocemul teqsts argumentirebuli TxrobiT.

2. akeTebs teqstSi mocemuli sakiTxebis gasaazreblad gakveTilis bolos mocemuli savarjiSoebis1,

2, 3... prezentacias.

aqtivoba 2 – `xelsawyoebi sxvadasxva sidideebis gasazomad~ /5 wT/

maswavlebeli svams maprovocirebel kiTxvebs:

– romeli xelsawyo gamoiyeneba sigrZis gasazomad?

– romeli xelsawyo gamoiyeneba masis gasazomad?

– romeli xelsawyo gamoiyeneba temperaturis gasazomad?

maswavlebeli moswavleTa pasuxebis dasafiqsireblad dafaze adgens kognitur sqemas:

saxazavi

saaTi

saswori

Termometri

menzura

Ddinamometri

...

xelsawyoebi sidideebi

37

sigrZe

dro

masa

temperatura

moculoba

Zala

...

Aaqtivoba A3 – mikroskopis aRwera /10 wT/

maswavlebeli akeTebs mikroskopis prezentacias - mikroskopis obieqtivSi Camagrebulia sxvadasxva

gadidebis unaris mqone linzebi. linzis gadidebis unari obieqtivzea aRniSnuli. mag., x 250 niSnavs, rom

linza 250-jer adidebs gamosaxulebas. sakvlev nimuSs gaanaTeben naTuriT an mzis sxiviT, romelsac sarke

aireklavs da aTvaliereben okularis saSualebiT. okulars obieqtivTan aerTebs tubusi. tubusi da sasagne

dafa SeiZleba amoZravon xraxnebiT saukeTeso gamosaxulebis misaRebad. dakvirvebisaTvis SesaZlebelia

sxvadasxva masalis gamoyeneba (sur. 2), magaliTad, guburidan aRebul wylis wveTs, wyalmcenares an foTlis

anaTals (1) moaTavseben sasagne minis centrSi (2), zemodan daadeben safar minas (3). momzadebul nimuSs

dadeben sasagne dafaze da aTvaliereben mikroskopiT.

aqtivoba 4 – `gazomva da wesebi~ /15 wT/

rCeva-1 rodesac raimes zomav, monacemi aucileblad unda Caiwero - damaxsovrebuli dagaviwydeba.

rCevis Sesabamisi qmedebis simulacia - vipovoT wignis moculoba. amisaTvis gazome wignis sigrZe,

simaRle da sigane, TiToeuli gazmomvis monacemi Caiwere. V= abc… moculoba izomeba sm3, m3 da a.S.

rCeva-2 anaTvalis aRebis dros sazom xelsawyos unda Sexedo pirdapir (ara iribad).

rCevis Sesabamisi qmedebis simulacia -gazome burTulas (kenWis) moculoba menzuris saSualebiT. Caasxi

menzuraSi sanaxevrod wyali. menzuris danayofi giCvenebs wylis moculobas. danayofs Sexede pirdapir da

monacemi Caiwere. Caagde burTula menzuraSi. wylis done aiwevs. kvlav gazome wylis moculoba. danayofs

Sexede pirdapir da monacemi Caiwere. am or monacems Soris sxvaoba giCvenebs burTulas moculobas. es

monacemic Caiwere. cda Caatare kidev 2-jer. yvelaferi ise gaimeore, rogorc pirvel jerze. gansxvaveba

mxolod is iqneba, rom meore da mesame jerze menzuris danayofs Sexedav ara pirdapir, aramed iribad: me-2

jerze qvevidan zeviT (menzura xeliT aswie ise, rom danayofs qvemodan Sexedo), me-3 jerze ki zevidan qveviT

(menzura xeliT daswie ise, rom danayofs zemodan Sexedo). rodesac iangariSeb burTulis moculobas

me-2 da me-3 cdaSi.


maswavlebeli rCeva-2 refleqsiis mizniT 3 kiTxviT mimarTavs moswavleebs:

1. ra SemTxvevaSi iyo burTulis moculobis maCvenebeli yvelaze dabali, yvelaze maRali?

2. sinamdvileSi burTulis moculoba cdebSi ar icvleboda ratom miiRe gansxvavebuli Sedegi?

3. Seni azriT, romeli cdis Sedegia sando? pasuxi ganmarte.

aqtivoba 5 – moswavleTa Sefaseba /5wT/

gakveTilis saswavlo miznidan da aqtivobebidan gamomdinare maswavlebels SeuZlia Seafasos moswavle

Semdegi kriteriumebiT:

Sefasebis kriteriumebi:

1. moswavle ganmartavs romeli sididis gasazomad romeli xelsawyo gamoiyeneba

2. moswavle msjelobs sxvadasxva sidideebis gazomvisas ra wesebis dacvaa saWiro

3. moswavle konkretuli magaliTebis ganxilvisas axerxebs gakeTvilze naswavli cnebebis da sakiTxebis

transfers.

Sefasebis sqema

kriteriumebi 1-3 4-5 6-7 8-10

moswavle ganmartavs

romeli sididis gasazomad

romeli xelsawyo

gamoiyeneba

moswavle msjelobs

sxvadasxva sidideebis

gazomvisas ra wesebis

dacvaa saWiro

moswavle konkretuli

magaliTebis ganxilvisas

axerxebs gakeTvilze

naswavli cnebebis da

sakiTxebis transfers

moswavle arasworad

ganmartavs romeli

sididis gasazomad

romeli xelsawyo

gamoiyeneba

moswavle arasworad

msjelobs gazomvisas

ra wesebis dacvaa

saWiro

moswavle konkretuli

magaliTebis ganxilvisas

ver axerxebs

gakeTvilze naswavli

cnebebis da sakiTxebis

transfers

moswavle arasrulad

ganmartavs romeli

sididis gasazomad

romeli xelsawyo

gamoiyeneba

moswavle arasrulyofilad

saubrobs

gazomvis wesebze

moswavle konkretuli

magaliTebis ganxilvisas

xarvezebiT

axerxebs gakeTvilze

naswavli cnebebis da

sakiTxebis transfers

4.usafrTxoebis dacva

38

moswavle ZiriTadad

ganmartavs romeli

sididis gasazomad

romeli xelsawyo

gamoiyeneba

moswavle ZiriTadad

msjelobs gazomvis

wesebze

moswavle konkretuli

magaliTebis ganxilvisas

ZiriTadad

axerxebs gakeTvilze

naswavli cnebebis da

sakiTxebis transfers

srulyofilad

srulyofilad

srulyofilad

gakveTilis saswavlo mizani: moswavlem SeZlos Sesabamisi masalis, aRWurvilobis da masalebis gamoyenebiT

Caataros dagegmili cdebis usafrTxoebis wesebze imsjelos

standartTan Sesabamisoba: bun.VII.1

aqtivoba1 – saSinao davalebis prezentacia /10 wT/

maswavlebeli moswavleebs sTxovs gaakeTon saSinao davalebis prezentacia.

prezentatori moswavle akeTebs davalebis prezentacias kerZod:

1. warmoadgens saxelmZRvaneloSi mocemuli teqstis argumentirebuli TxrobiT.

2. akeTebs teqstSi mocemuli sakiTxebis gasaazreblad gakveTilis bolos mocemuli savarjiSoebis1,

2, 3... prezentacias


aqtivoba 2 – `usafrTxoebis dacva“ /30 wT/

maswavlebeli usafrTxoebis sakiTxs ganixilavs 4 mimarTulebiT; klass yofs 4 jgufad, TiToeul jg

ufs aZlevs erT sakiTxs da saxelmZRvaneloSi mocemul masalaze da maT pirad gamocdilebaze dayrdnobiT

amzadeben saprezentacio plakatebs da akeTeben prezentacias:

1 2 3 4

Cacmuloba da aqsesuarebi gamafrTxilebeli niSnebi qimiuri nivTierebebis gan-

Tavsebis wesebi

2. gamafrTxilebeli niSnebi

mJangavi

advilad

aalebadi

xels uwyobs

wvasa da Jangvas

advilad

ekideba cecxli

advilad

feTqdeba

feTqebadsaSiSi

toqsikuri

iwvevs

mowamvlas

39

radiaqtiuri

mJava, tute

iwvevs

daavadebebs

iwvevs

damwvrobas

laboratoriaSi muSaobis

usafrTxoebis wesebi

3. qimiuri nivTierebebis ganTavsebis wesebi

nu Seinaxav nivTierebebs anbanuri TanmimdevrobiT:

– msgavsi Tvisebebis mqone nivTierebebi erTad unda ganTavsdes;

– aalebadi nivTierebebi specialur saTavsoSi unda inaxebodes;

– siTxeebi specialur, aramsxvrevad konteinerebSi unda inaxebodes;

– TiToeul nivTierebas unda hqondes etiketi dasaxelebisa da Senaxvis vadis miTiTebiT;

– advilad aalebadi da feTqebadi nivTierebebi siTbos wyarodan moSorebiT unda moTavsdes;

– momwamvleli nivTierebebi calke, specialur seifSi unda inaxebodes.

4. laboratoriaSi muSaobis usafrTxoebis wesebi

1) ar SeiZleba nivTierebis xeliT aReba da gemos gasinjva; Tu es aucilebelia, saxelmZRvanelos Sesabamis

instruqciaSi miTiTebulia iqneba da maswavlebelic dagrTavs nebas. spirtqura, mWreli sagnebi (mag.

lancetTan) gamoiyene maswavleblis daxmarebiT. laboratoriaSi muSaoba da cdebis Catareba

2) nivTiereba ar unda daynoso, radgan SeiZleba sasunTqi organoebi dagiziandes. nivTierebis sunis

gasagebad, sakmarisia WurWlis zedapiridan haeris nakadi xelis moZraobiT cxvirisken mimarTo

3) Tu nivTiereba SemTxveviT xelze an tansacmelze mogxvda, Camoibane dauyovnebliv didi raodenobis

wyliT;

4) qimiuri reaqcia sufTa WurWelSi unda Caataro da nivTierebebi im raodneobiT unda aiRo, rogorc

es samuSaos aRweraSi iqneba miTiTebuli;

5) cdis damTavrebis Semdeg darCenili nivTiereba WurWelSi ar Caabruno da sakanalizacio niJaraSi ar

Caasxa (moagrove specialur WurWelSi);

6) cdebi, romelTa dros mavne airebi an mZafrsuniani nivTierebebi gamoiyofa, acileblad amwov karadaSi

unda Catardes;

7) dauSvebelia spirtquris anTeba meore spirtquris alze. spirtquris ali mxolod spirtquris saxuravis

– Talfaqis saSualebiT unda Caaqro;

8) samuSaos dasrulebis Semdeg gamoyenebuli WurWeli garecxe da samuSao adgili moawesrige.

aqtivoba 4 – moswavleTa Sefaseba /5wT/

gakveTilis saswavlo miznidan da aqtivobebidan gamomdinare maswavlebels SeuZlia Seafasos moswavle

Semdegi kriteriumebiT:

Sefasebis kriteriumebi:

1. moswavlem SeZlo dagegmili cdebis Sesabamisi masalis, aRWurvilobis SerCeva.

2. moswavlem SeZlo cdis usafrTxod Catarebaze msjeloba.

Aaqtivoba 5 – saSinao davaleba – gakveTilze miRebuli codnis da unar-Cvevis transferi -5wT

maswavlebeli moswavleebs avalebs TanmimdevrobT ganixilon gakveTilis bolos mocemuli savarjiSo

ebi raTa SeZlon gakveTilze miRebuli codnis transferi.


5. rogor xdeba bunebrivi movlenebis Seswavla

gakveTilis saswavlo mizani: moswavlem SeZlos kvlevis miznis Camoyalibeba da kvlevis miznis sesabamisad

mosazrebebis gamoTqma, aqtivobis dagegmva, saTanado xelsawyoebis SerCeva, monacemTa Segrovebis

gzis arCeva, mudmivi da cvladi parametrebis garCeva, saTanado aRricxvis formebis SerCeva /wakiTxva/

analizi; SeZlos daskvnis gamotana

standartTan Sesabamisoba: bun.VII.1bun.VII.4.

G

aqtivoba 1 – saSinao davalebis prezentacia /5 wT/

maswavlebeli moswavleebs sTxovs gaakeTon saSinao davalebis prezentacia

prezentatori moswavle akeTebs davalebis prezentacias kerZod:

1. warmoadgens saxelmZRvaneloSi mocemuli teqstis argumentirebuli TxrobiT.

2. akeTebs teqstSi mocemuli sakiTxebis gasaazreblad gakveTilis bolos mocemuli savarjiSoebis1,

2, 3. .. prezentacias

Aaqtivoba 2 – kvlevis etapebis siuJeturi gacnoba /10 wT/

maswavlebeli moswavleebs mimarTavs :

– gaixseneT da CamoTvaleT me-6 klasSi Tqven mier Catarebuli kvlevebi. moswavleebi ixseneben.. maswavlebeli

moswavleebs uambobs maTi Tanatolis mier Catarebul kvlevaze mag;

me-7 kl. moswavle akvirdeba romelime qoTnis mcenares da uCndeba kiTxva: aqvs Tu ara mniSvneloba wyals

mcenaris foTlebis ganviTarebisaTvis? moswavle moifiqrebs rogor gaarkvios sakiTxi. is Camoayalibebs

kvlevis mizans (ra unda ikvlios, ra kiTxvas gasces pasuxi), SeimuSavebs kvlevis meTods: vTqvaT daakvirdeba

ramden foTols ganiviTarebs erTi da igive qoTnis mcenare, rodesac erT qoTanSi mzard mcenares yovel

dRe dausxams 50 g. wyals, da meores 100 g. wyals; gadawyvets ra mcenares daakvirdeba, rogor da ra drois

ganmavlobaSi daTvlis foTlebis raodenoba. amis Semdeg moswavle Caatarebs cdas da aiRebs monacemebs:

daTvlis erT da meore qoTanSi mzardi mcenaris foTlebis raodenobas. Semdeg aanalizebs monacemebs da

gamoaqvs dakvna.

maswavlebeli gamoyofs kvlevis etapebs

kvlevis etapebia:

• miznis gansazRvra

• kvlevis meTodis SemuSaveba

• cdis Catareba, monacemebis aReba

• monacemebis analizi

• daskvna

A

zemoT moyvanili siuJetis gamoyenebiT moswavleebi anxorcieleben kvlevis etapebis siuJetis monakveTebTan

dakavSirebas

Aaqtivoba 3 – damokidebuli da damoukidebeli cvladebi /10 wT/

maswavlebeli moswavleebs isev siuJets axsenebs da aanalizebs _ am SemTxvevaSi saqme gaqvs damoukidebel

da damokidebul cvladebTan. damoukidebeli cvladia mcenarisaTvis miwodebuli wylis raodenoba.

is icleba, erT SemTxvevaSi 50 g-ia, meoreSi – 100 g. magram es cvlileba ar aris damokidebuli mcenaris

foTlebis raodenobaze. damokidebuli cvladia foTlebis raodenoba, is icvleba da Tanac damokidebulia

mcenarisaTvis miwodebuli wylis raodenobaze.

maswavlebeli ajamebs masalas:

D

Ddamoukidebeli cvladi damokidebuli cvladi

mcenarisaTvis miwodebuli wylis raodenoba foTlebis raodenoba

Aaqtivoba 4 – modelis Seqmna /10 wT/

maswavlebeli: – gaixseneT da CamoTvaleT TqvenTvis nacnobi modelebi. moswavleebi ixseneben.

40


maswavlebeli modelirebis aqtivobebs ajgufebs cxrilSi:

tyis modeli

sokos modeli

saaTis modeli

da a. S.

struqturis modelireba procesis modelireba

41

wvimis procesis modelireba;

niadagis gamoSrobis modelireba;

da a. S.

D

da aRniSnavs:

bunebrivi movlenis modlis Seqmna (modelireba) saWiroa movlenis TvalsaCinod warmodgenisaTvis.

magaliTad, fizikosebi qmnian frinvelis frTis models, raTa warmoidginon rogor exmareba frTa frinvels

frenaSi.

biologebi qmnian adamianis sxeulis modelebs, raTa naTlad dainaxon rogor arian isini ganlagebuli

da erTmaneTTan dakavSirebuli sxeulSi. mecnierTa codna da warmodgena bunebrivi movlenebis Sesaxeb

viTardeba da Sesabamisad icvleba maT mier Seqmnili modelebic

aqtivoba 5 – moswavleTa Sefaseba /5wT/

gakveTilis saswavlo miznidan da aqtivobebidan gamomdinare maswavlebels SeuZlia Seafasos moswavle

Semdegi kriteriumebiT:

Sefasebis kriteriumebi:

1. moswavlem kvlevis mizani Camoyaliba.

2. kvlevis miznis Sesabamisad mosazrebebi gamoTqva, aqtivobi dagegma, saTanado xelsawyoebi SearCia.

3. monacemTa Segrovebis gza airCia, mudmivi da cvladi parametrebis gaarCia, saTanado aRricxvis

formebi SearCia.

4. gaakeTa analizi SeZlo daskvnis gamotana.

kriteriumebi 1-3 4-5 6-7 8-10

moswavlem Camoay- moswavlem xarvezebiT moswavlem arasrulad moswavlem Camoay- srulyofilad

aliba kvlevis mizani; Camoayaliba kvlevis Camoayaliba kvlevis aliba kvlevis mizani;

gamoTqva mosazre- mizani; arasworad mizani; xarvezebiT gamoTqva mosazrebebi,

dagegma aqtivo- gamoTqva mosazrebebi, gamoTqva mosazrebebi, bebi, xarvezebiT

bebi, SearCia xelsawy- ver dagegma aqtivobebi, xarvezebiT dagegma dagegma aqtivobebi,

oebi

ver SearCia xelsawyoebi aqtivobebi,arasrulad

SearCia xelsawyoebi

SearCia xelsawyoebi

monacemTa Seg- monacemTa Segrovebis monacemTa Segrovebis monacemTa Seg- srulyofilad

rovebis swori gza gza SecdomiT airCia, gza airCia, mudmivi da rovebis gza sworad

airCia, mudmivi da mudmivi da cvladi cvladi parametrebi airCia, mudmivi da

cvladi parametrebi parametrebi ver gaar- naTlad ver gaarCia, cvladi parametrebi

gaarCia, saTanado Cia, saTanado aRricxvis saTanado aRricx- gaarCia, saTanado

aRricxvis formebi formebi ver SearCia vis formebi SearCia aRricxvis formebi

SearCia /waikiTxa/ magram waikiTxa sxvisi waikiTxa sxvisi Sevse- SearCia

Sevsebuli formebi buli formebi

gaakeTa

gaakeTa analizi;SeZlo gaakeTa analizi;SeZlo gaakeTa

srulyofilad

analizi;SeZlo daskv- daskvnis gamotana daskvnis gamotana analizi;SeZlo

nis gamotana

daskvnis gamotana

moswavle konkre- moswavle konkretuli moswavle konkretuli moswavle konkretu- srulyofilad

tuli magaliTebis magaliTebis ganxil- magaliTebis ganxilvili magaliTebis ganx-

ganxilvisas axerxebs visas ver axerxebs sas xarvezebiT axerxebs ilvisas ZiriTadad

gakeTvilze nas- gakeTvilze naswavli gakeTvilze naswavli axerxebs gakeTvilze

wavli cnebebis da cnebebis da sakiTxebis cnebebis da sakiTxebis naswavli cnebebis da

sakiTxebis trans- transfers

transfers

sakiTxebis transfersfers

Aaqtivoba 5 – saSinao davaleba – gakveTilze miRebuli codnis da unar-Cvevis transferi /5wT/

maswavlebeli moswavleebs avalebs TanmimdevrobT ganixilon gakveTilis bolos mocemuli savarjiSo

ebi raTa SeZlon gakveTilze miRebuli codnis transferi.


6. monacemebis gamosaxva cxrilis da diagramis saxiT

gakveTilis saswavlo mizani: moswavlem SeZlos kvlevis miznis Camoyalibeba da kvlevis miznis sesabamisad

mosazrebebis gamoTqma, aqtivobis dagegmva, saTanado xelsawyoebis SerCeva, monacemTa Segrovebis

gzis arCeva, mudmivi da cvladi parametrebis garCeva, saTanado aRricxvis formebis SerCeva /wakiTxva/

analizi; SeZlos daskvnis gamotana

standartTan Sesabamisoba: bun.VII.1bun.VII.4.

aqtivoba1 – saSinao davalebis prezentacia /10 wT/

maswavlebeli moswavleebs sTxovs gaakeTon saSinao davalebis prezentacia.

prezentatori moswavle akeTebs davalebis prezentacias kerZod:

1. warmoadgens saxelmZRvaneloSi mocemuli teqstis argumentirebuli TxrobiT.

2. akeTebs teqstSi mocemuli sakiTxebis gasaazreblad gakveTilis bolos mocemuli savarjiSoebis1,

2, 3... prezentacias

Aaqtivoba 2 – situaciuri amocana /30 wT/

maswavlebeli ramdenime situaciur amocanas ganixilavs:

situaciuri amocana-1

rodesac kvlevas Caatareb da monacemebs miiReb, isini SesaZlebelia gamosaxo diagramis an cxrilis

saxiT. cxrili martivia Tu mxolod erT cvladTan gaqvs saqme. magaliTad ikvlev zRvis wylis Sedgenilobas

da gsurs monacemi warmoadgino cxrilis saxiT. am SemTxvevaSi cxrili aseTi saxis iqneba:

zRvis wylis Sedgeniloba

wyali marili sxva myari nivTierebebi

situaciuri amocana-2

rodesac saqme damokidebul da damoukidebel cvladTan gaqvs, magaliTad, ukve aRweril, mcenareze

dakvirvebis SemTxvevaSi cxrili SesaZlebelia aseTi iyos:

mcenarisaTvis miwodebuli wylis raodenoba foTlebis raodenoba yvavilobis dawyebisaTvis

100 grami 10

50 grami 4

situaciuri amocana-3

monacemebi SegiZlia gamosaxo diagramis saxiT. magaliTad, Cayare 1 l wyalSi 1 g marili da aRricxav

wyalSi marilis gaxsnis dros. cdas akeTeb 2 variantSi: rodesac wyals kovziT mourev da 2. rodesac ar

mourev. vertikalur RerZze daitan damokidebul cvlads – marilis wyalSi gaxsnis dros (mag. wm-Si), xolo

horizontalur RerZze aRniSnav damoukidebel cvladebs: 1. wylis moreva 2. morevis gareSe

14

12

10

8

6

4

2

0

1

2

42


situaciuri amocana-4

diagrama metad moxerxebulia rodesac akvirdebi movlenebs raRac periodis ganmavlobaSi. magaliTad

akvirdebi rogor izrdeba lobios aRmonaceni garkveul periodSi, magaliTad pirveli foTlis gaSlidan

3 dRis ganmavlobaSi. pirveli foTlis gaSlis dRidan yoveldRiurad zomav aRmonacenis sigrZes niadagis

zedapiridan aRmonacenis kenweromde 3 dRis ganmavlobaSi. vertikalur RerZze daitan aRmonacenis sigrZis

maCveneblebs (mm.-Si) yoveli gazomvis dros, xolo horizontalur RerZze – dakvirvebis dReebs. moZebni

vertikalur da horizontalur RerZebze aRebuli monacemebis gadakveTis wertilebs da SeaerTeb maT

xaziT. miiReb mruds:

25

20

15

10

5

0

1 2 3

mrudi giCvenebs rom: pirvel dRes aRmonacenis sigrZe iyo 22 mm., meore dRes 25 mm., mesame dRes 28 mm.

aqtivoba 3 – moswavleTa Sefaseba /5wT/

gakveTilis saswavlo miznidan da aqtivobebidan gamomdinare maswavlebels SeuZlia Seafasos moswavle

Semdegi kriteriumebiT:

Sefasebis kriteriumebi:

1. monacemTa Segrovebis gza airCia, mudmivi da cvladi parametrebi gaarCia, saTanado aRricxvis

formebis SearCia.

2. moswavlem konkretuli magaliTebis ganxilvisas moaxerxa gakeTvilze naswavli cnebebis da sakiTxebis

transferi.

3. gaakeTa analizi SeZlo daskvnis gamotana.

kriteriumebi 1-3 4-5 6-7 8-10

monacemTa

monacemTa Segrovebis monacemTa Segrovebis monacemTa

srulyofilad

Segrovebis swori gza gza SecdomiT airCia, gza airCia, mudmivi da Segrovebis gza

airCia, mudmivi da mudmivi da cvladi cvladi parametrebi sworad airCia,

cvladi parametrebi parametrebi ver gaarCia, naTlad ver gaarCia, mudmivi da cvladi

gaarCia, saTanado saTanado aRricxvis saTanado aRricxvis parametrebi gaarCia,

aRricxvis formebi formebi ver SearCia formebi SearCia saTanado aRricxvis

SearCia /waikiTxa/ magram waikiTxa sxvisi waikiTxa sxvisi formebi SearCia

Sevsebuli formebi Sevsebuli formebi

moswavle

moswavle konkretuli moswavle konkretuli moswavle

srulyofilad

konkretuli

magaliTebis ganxilvisas magaliTebis

konkretuli

magaliTebis

ver axerxebs gakeTvilze ganxilvisas

magaliTebis

ganxilvisas

naswavli cnebebis da xarvezebiT axerxebs ganxilvisas

axerxebs gakeTvilze sakiTxebis transfers gakeTvilze

ZiriTadad axerxebs

naswavli cnebebis

naswavli cnebebis da gakeTvilze

da sakiTxebis

sakiTxebis transfers naswavli cnebebis

transfers

da sakiTxebis

transfers

gaakeTa

ver gaakeTa analizi; xarvezebiT gaakeTa gaakeTa analizi; srulyofilad

analizi;SeZlo SeZlo daskvnis gamotana analizi; SeZlo SeZlo daskvnis

daskvnis gamotana

daskvnis gamotana gamotana

43


scenarebi fizikaSi

8. nivTiereba Sedgeba atomebisa da molekulebisagan

1. gakveTilis saswavlo mizani: moswavles SeuZlia imsjelos nivTierebis atomur-molekulur agebulebaze;

ganixilos magaliTebi, romelic molekulebis da atomebis mcire zomebze miuTiTebs, aRweros

sxvadasxva nivTierebis modelebi; ganuviTardes saazrovno, komunikaciis unar-Cvevebi.

standartTan Sesabamisoba: bun.VII.8

aqtivoba1– nivTierebis atomur-molekulur agebuleba /10 wT/

maswavlebeli moswavleebs sTxovs CamoTvalon Tvisebebi, romelic maT garSemo arsebul sxeulebs

axasiaTebT.

moswavleebi iwyeben CamoTvlas: rbili, tkbili, magari, uformo, gamWirvale, mJave ... da a.S.

maswavlebeli svams damazustebel kiTxvas – riT aris es gansxvavebebi gamowveuli? ratomaa Saqari

tkbili… marili mlaSe?

maswavlebeli iwyebs kognituri sqemis Sesabamis msjelobas:

– risgan Sedgeba sxeuli?

moswavleebs axsenebs, rom yvela sxeuli nivTierebisgan aris Seqmnili.

mini leqcia – nebismieri, cocxali Tu aracocxali sxeuli Sedgeba erTi an ramdenime nivTierebisagan.

magaliTad, kovzi, SeiZleba damzadebuli iyos mxolod erTi nivTierebisgan (vercxlisgan, oqrosgan da

a.S.), xolo naTuris dasamzadeblad gamoyenebulia ramdenime nivTiereba (mag., mina da rkina). Seni sxeulis

Semadgeneli nivTierebebia magaliTad, wyali, marili, cilebi da sxva. yvela nivTierebas aqvs mkacrad

gansazRvruli, mxolod misTvis damaxasiaTebeli Tvisebebi, magaliTad feri, suni, gemo da a.S.

risgan Sedgeba TviTon nivTiereba?

mini leqcia – mecnierebma Unawilakebs, romlebisaganac nivTiereba aris agebuli, molekula uwodes.

`molekula~ laTinurad niSnavs `mcire masas~. magaliTad, Saqari Sedgeba Saqris molekulebisagan, wyali

– wylis molekulebisagan. molekulis zoma Zalian mcirea. Seecade warmoidgino molekulis zoma.

aqtivoba 2 – Sedarebebi/10 wT/

maswavlebeli ganixilavs magaliTebs, romelic molekulebis da atomebis mcire zomebze miuTiTebs

mag. 1sm 3 moculobis myari nivTierebis yvela molekula rom gavamwkrivoT erT xazze, am monakveTis

sigrZe iqneba daaxloebiT dedamiwidan mzemde manZilis toli.

da ukukavSiris mizniT kiTxviT mimarTavs moswavleebs:

– ratom ver vxedavT molekulebs SeuiaraRebeli TvaliT?

– ra mniSvneloba aqvs mikroskopis gamadideblobas molekulebis SeswavlisTvis?

– ra mniSvneloba aqvs eleqtronuli mikroskopiT gadaRebuli fotoebis mixedviT mecnierebi , rom

amzadebem molekulis modelebs?

aqtivoba 3 – savarjiSo vizualur masalaze /10 wT/

maswavlebeli- nivTierebis molekulur agebulebas SeiZleba modelis saSualebiTac gavecnoT. suraTebze

Cans, rom nivTiereba wyali Sedgeba sami atomisagan, xolo SaqarSi atomebis raodenoba gacilebiT metia.

yvela nivTierebas aqvs misTvis damaxasiaTebeli atomebis raodenoba. modelidan Cans, rom atomebi erTmaneTTan

dakavSirebulia. amitom atomebi garkveul manZilzea erTmaneTisgan ganlagebuli. nivTierebis

Tvisebebi imazea damokidebuli Tu ra atomebisagan Sedgeba is da agreTve rogoria maTi raodenoba, maT

Soris kavSiri da manZili.

aqtivoba 4 – Sejameba /5 wT/

maswavlebeli ajamebs gakveTils.

1. nivTiereba Sedgeba molekulebisagan.

2. molekula ar aris nivTierebis yvelaze mcire nawilaki.

3. molekulebi Tavis mxriv Sedgebian ufro mcire zomis nawilakebisagan. maT atomebs uwodeben da axdens

moswavleTa provocirebas ... kerZod sTxovs moswavleebs interpretacia gaukeTon TiToeul debulebas.

44


aqtivoba 5 – moswavleTa Sefaseba /5 wT/

gakveTilis saswavlo miznidan da aqtivobebidan gamomdinare maswavlebels SeuZlia Seafasos moswavle

Semdegi kriteriumebiT:

Sefasebis kriteriumebi:

1. moswavle msjelobs nivTierebis atomur-molekulur agebulebaze;

2. ganixilavs magaliTebs, romelic molekulebis da atomebis mcire zomebze miuTiTebs,

3. aRwers sxvadasxva nivTierebis modelebs.

Sefasebis rubrika

kriteriumebi 1-3 4-5 6-7 8-10

moswavle msjelobs

nivTierebis atomurmolekuluragebulebaze;

ganixilavs magaliTebs,

romelic

molekulebis da

atomebis mcire zomebze

miuTiTebs

aRwers sxvadasxva

nivTierebis modelebs

moswavle arasworad

msjelobs niv-

Tierebis atomurmolekuluragebulebaze

ver moyavs magaliTebi,

romelic

molekulebis da

atomebis mcire

zomebze miuTiTebs,

ver axerxebs

sxvadasxva niv-

Tierebis modelebis

aRweras

moswavle zogadad

da xarvezebiT msjelobs

nivTierebis

atomur-molekulur

agebulebaze

xarvezebiT

ganixilavs magaliTebs,

romelic

molekulebis da

atomebis mcire zomebze

miuTiTebs,

xarvezebiT aRwers

sxvadasxva niv-

Tierebis modelebs

45

moswavle msjelobs

nivTierebis

atomur-molekulur

agebulebaze

ganixilavs magaliTebs,

romelic

molekulebis

da atomebis

mcire zomebze

miuTiTebs,

aRwers sxvadasxva

nivTierebis modelebs

moswavle warmatebulad

msjelobs nivTierebis

atomur-molekulur

agebulebaze; moyavs

adekvaturi magaliTebi

warmatebiT ganixilavs

mravalferovan

magaliTebs, romelic

molekulebis da atomebis

mcire zomebze

miuTiTebs,

warmatebiT aRwers

sxvadasxva nivTierebis

modelebs

aqtivoba 6 – saSinao davaleba /5 wT/

maswavlebeli moswavleebs aZlevs saSinao davalebas

1. waikiTxon saxelmZRvaneloSi mocemuli teqsti da gaiazron Sinaarsi.

2. teqstSi mocemuli sakiTxebis gasaazreblad Seasrulon gakveTilis bolos mocemuli savarjiSoebi1,

2, 3.

9. nivTierebis myari, Txevadi da airadi mdgomareoba

gakveTilis saswavlo mizani: moswavlem SeZlos ganasxvavos myari, Txevadi da airadi mdgomareobebi

maTi Tvisebebisa (moculobisa da formis SenarCuneba) da atomur-molekuluri struqturis mixedviT,

standartTTan Sesabamisoba: bun.VII.8

aqtivoba 1 – saSinao davalebis prezentacia /10 wT/

maswavlebeli moswavleebs sTxovs gaakeTon saSinao davalebis prezentacia.

prezentatori moswavle akeTebs davalebis prezentacias kerZod:

1. warmoadgens saxelmZRvaneloSi mocemuli teqstis argumentirebuli TxrobiT.

2. akeTebs teqstSi mocemuli sakiTxebis gasaazreblad gakveTilis bolos mocemuli savarjiSoebis1,

2, 3 prezentacias.

aqtivoba 2 – kognituri savarjiSo /15 wT/

maswavlebeli moswavleebs axsenebs erTmaneTisgan gansxvavebul, nivTierebis agrebatul mdgomareobas

/myari, Txevadi, airadi/ moyavs wylis magaliTi da sakiTxs kognituri sqemiT warmoadgens:

faqti ra unda iyos amis mizezi?

sxvadasxva agregatul mdgomareobaSi nivTierebas

sxvadasxva fizikuri Tvisebebi aqvs

maswavlebeli sakiTxis gasaazreblad iseTi fizikuri Tvisebebs ixilavs rogoricaa forma da moculoba

da moswavleebis daxmarebiT interaqtiurad avsebs sqemas:


Txevadi myari airadi

forma icvleba inarCunebs icvleba

moculoba inarCunebs inarCunebs icvleba

sxvadasxva fizikuri Tvisebebis mizezebis asaxsnelad maswavlebeli akeTebs sakiTxebis prezentacias:

myari nivTiereba

myari sxeulis Tvisebaa formisa da moculobis SenarCuneba.

Znelia misi gaWimva-SekumSva, moRunva, gawyveta da a.S. myari sxeulis Semadgeneli molekulebi ise

axlos imyofebian erTmaneTTan, rom maT Soris manZilebi daaxloebiT TviT molekulis zomis tolia. isini

mkacrad gansazRvruli wesiT arian ganlagebulni da erTmaneTis mimarT garkveuli, Znelad Sesacvleli

mdebareoba aqvT (sur.2.3.3).

myar sxeulSi molekulebi miizidaven da amavdroulad ganizidaven erTmaneTs. Mizidvaganzidvis Zalebi

Zalian Zlieria. Amitom molekulebi TiTqmis ar gadaadgildebian, mxolod irxevian. (sur.2.3.2.a). swored

amitom inarCunebs nivTiereba myar agregatul mdgomareobaSi formas da moculobas.

Txevadi nivTiereba

siTxis Tvisebaa SeinarCunos moculoba, magram advilia misi formis Secvla:

siTxe miiRebs im WurWlis formas, romelSic mas CavasxamT. magram, amave dros, siTxes moculobas ver

SevucvliT. suraT 2.3.4 –ze naCvenebia Wiqa, romelSic wyali asxia. wyali aris bunebrivi warmoSobis Txevadi

nivTiereba (siTxe)

siTxis mTavari Tvisebaa is, rom is denadia. ra aris amis mizezi? siTxeSi, myar agregatul mdgomareobasTan

SedarebiT, molekulebs Soris mizidva odnav

mcirea. amitom molekulebi ufro swrafad irxevian da erTmaneTis mimarT ufro Tavisuflad gadaadgildebian,

TiTqos erTmaneTze srialeben (sur.2.3.5). amitomaa siTxe denadi da is formas ver inarCunebs.

siTxe ar ikumSeba da arc iWimeba.

airadi nivTiereba

airi ver inarCunebs verc formas, verc moculobas.

is advilad farTovdeba da mTlianad ikavebs misTvis daTmobil adgils. amis mizezi aris is, rom airis

molekulebs Soris didi Sualedebia da isini Zalian didi siCqariT moZraoben. maT Soris ar moqmedebs urTierT

mizidvis Zala, amitom Sejaxebis Semdeg isini yvela mimarTulebiT uwesrigod ifantebian da avseben

WurWels, romelSic airia moTavsebuli. amitom ar aqvs airs arc forma da arc moculoba. molekulebs

Soris didi Sualedis gamo airis SekumSva Tavidan SedarebiT advilia, magram aqvs zRvari. molekulebis

erTmaneTTan daaxloebis gamo gaZlierdeba ganzidvis Zala, romelic aRar mogvcems airis Semdgomi

SekumSvis saSualebas. erTi nivTierebis sxvadasxva agregatul mdgomareobaSi Tvisebebis gansxvavebuloba

molekulebis moZraobis, maT Soris manZilebis da urTierTqmedebis gansxvavebulobiT aixsneba. sur.2.3.6

amis Semdeg maswavlebeli isev ubrundeba kognituri sqemis meore svets da sTxovs moswavleTa wyvilebs

gauziaron erTmaneTs azrebi da daasrulon sqema

moswavleTa wyvilebi akeTeben Sevsebuli sqemis prezentacias

faqti ra unda iyos amis mizezi?

sxvadasxva agregatul mdgomareobaSi niv-

Tierebas sxvadasxva fizikuri Tvisebebi

aqvs

nivTierebis molekulebs Soris manZili, molekulebis moZraoba,

molekulebs Soris mizidvis da ganzidvis Zalebi gansazRvravs niv-

Tierebis agregatul mdgomareobas da nivTierebis fizikur Tvisebebs/forma,

moculoba/

aqtivoba 3 – ra xdeba nivTierebis erTi agregatuli mdgomareobidan meoreSi gadasvlisas? /5wT/

maswavlebeli mimarTavs mTel klass:

– gTxovT, daasruloT Cem mier dawyebuli msjeloba:

erTi agregatuli mdgomareobidan meoreSi gadasvlisas icvleba nivTierebis Ffizikuri Tvisebebi imitom

rom icvleba ...

moswavleebi asruleben maswavleblis mier dawyebul frazas..

46


sasurveli pasuxi:

erTi agregatuli mdgomareobidan meoreSi gadasvlisas icvleba nivTierebis Ffizikuri Tvisebebi imitom

rom icvleba:

1. nivTierebis Semadgenel molekulebs Soris manZilebi,

2. molekulebis urTierT ganlageba.

3. molekulebis moZraobis siCqare.

aqtivoba 4 – Sejameba /5 wT/

maswavlebeli moswavleebTan erTad ajamebs gakveTils moswavlis saxelmZRvaneloSi mocemuli 5 postulatis

mixedviT.

aqtivoba 5 – moswavleTa Sefaseba /5wT/

gakveTilis saswavlo miznidan da aqtivobebidan gamomdinare maswavlebels SeuZlia Seafasos moswavle

Semdegi kriteriumebiT:

Sefasebis kriteriumebi:

1. moswavle CamoTvlis da aRwers nivTierebis agregatul mdgomareobas.

2. mowavles SeuZlia myari Txevadi da airadi mdgomareobebi ganasxvaos maTi Tvisebebis (moculobisa

da formis SenarCuneba) mixedviT.

3. mowavles SeuZlia myari Txevadi da airadi mdgomareobebi ganasxvaos atomur-molekuluri struqturis

mixedviT.

Sefasebis rubrika

kriteriumebi 1-3 4-5 6-7 8-10

moswavle aRwers

nivTierebis sam agregatul

mdgomareobas

mowavles SeuZlia

myari Txevadi da

airadi mdgomareobebi

ganasxvaos maTi

Tvisebebis (moculobisa

da formis Senar-

Cuneba) mixedviT

mowavles SeuZlia

myari Txevadi da

airadi mdgomareobebi

ganasxvaos

atomur-molekuluri

struqturis

mixedviT

moswavle arasworad

aRwers nivTierebis

sam agregatul mdgomareobas

mowavles ar SeuZlia

myari Txevadi da

airadi mdgomareobebi

ganasxvaos maTi

Tvisebebis (moculobisa

da formis Senar-

Cuneba) mixedviT

mowavles ar SeuZlia

myari Txevadi da

airadi mdgomareobebi

ganasxvaos

atomur-molekuluri

struqturis

mixedviT

moswavle arasrulyofilad

aRwers

nivTierebis sam agregatul

mdgomareobas

mowavles xarvezebiT

SeuZlia myari Txevadi

da airadi mdgomareobebi

ganasxvaos

maTi Tvisebebis

(moculobisa da

formis SenarCuneba)

mixedviT

mowavles xarvezebiT

SeuZlia myari

Txevadi da airadi

mdgomareobebi

ganasxvaos atomurmolekuluristruqturis

mixedviT

47

moswavle aRwers niv-

Tierebis agregatul

sam mdgomareobas

mowavles ZiriTadad

SeuZlia myari Txevadi

da airadi mdgomareobebi

ganasxvaos

maTi Tvisebebis

(moculobisa da

formis SenarCuneba)

mixedviT

mowavles ZiriTadad

SeuZlia myari Txevadi

da airadi mdgomareobebi

ganasxvaos

atomur-molekuluri

struqturis

mixedviT

moswavle warmatebiT

aRwers nivTierebis

sam agregatul mdgomareobas

mowavles warmatebiT

SeuZlia myari Txevadi

da airadi mdgomareobebi

ganasxvaos

maTi Tvisebebis

(moculobisa da

formis SenarCuneba)

mixedviT

mowavles warmatebiT

SeuZlia myari

Txevadi da airadi

mdgomareobebi

ganasxvaos atomurmolekuluristruqturis

mixedviT

aqtivoba 6 – saSinao davaleba /5wT/

maswavlebeli moswavleebs sTxovs gaakeTon saSinao davalebis prezentacia.

prezentatori moswavle akeTebs davalebis prezentacias kerZod:

1. warmoadgens saxelmZRvaneloSi mocemuli teqstis argumentirebuli TxrobiT.

2. akeTebs teqstSi mocemuli sakiTxebis gasaazreblad gakveTilis bolos mocemuli savarjiSoebis1,

2, 3 prezentacias.


10. nivTierebis simkvrive simkvrivis praqtikuli mniSvneloba

gakveTilis saswavlo mizani: moswavlem SeZlos daakavSiros nivTierebis simkvrive mis praqtikul

gamoyenebasTan; adekvaturad gamoiyenos Sesabamisi cnebebi da formulebi amocanebis amosaxsnelad. ganuviTardes

saazrovno, komunikaciis unar-Cvevebi.

standartTan Sesabamisoba: bun.VII.8

aqtivoba 1 – saSinao davalebis prezentacia /10 wT/

maswavlebeli moswavleebs sTxovs gaakeTon saSinao davalebis prezentacia.

prezentatori moswavle akeTebs davalebis prezentacias kerZod:

1. warmoadgens saxelmZRvaneloSi mocemuli teqstis argumentirebuli TxrobiT.

2. akeTebs teqstSi mocemuli sakiTxebis gasaazreblad gakveTilis bolos mocemuli savarjiSoebis1,

2, 3 prezentacias.

aqtivoba 2 – ra aris simkvrive? /15wT/

maswavlebeli sTxovs moswavleebs CamoTvalon maTTvis cnobili fizikuri sidideebi

moswavleebi iwyeben dasaxelebas.

maswavlebeli am CamonaTvals amatebs „simkvrive“-s da aRniSnavs:

nivTierebis simkvrives ganapirobebs nivTierebis molekulebs Soris manZili. nivTiereba miT ufro

mkvrivia, rac ufro axlos arian ganlagebuli erTmaneTTan misi molekulebi.

maswavlebeli isev kiTxviT mimarTavs moswavleebs:

– ratom iZireba wyalSi spilenZis patara moneta, xolo muxis xis uzarmazari mori ar iZireba?

sTxovs wyvilebSi ganixilon sakiTxi da ise upasuxon. moswavleTa pasuxebis Semdeg maswavlebeli ganmartavs:

– mizezi is aris, rom: spilenZi wyalze ufro mkvrivia, xolo muxas wyalze naklebi simkvrive aqvs. zustad

imave mizeziT ar iZireba wyalSi yinulis uzarmazari aisbergic.

maswavlebeli isev kiTxviT mimarTavs moswavleebs:

– SeiZleba Tu ara simkvrivis Secvla?

da moswavleTa gamocdilebis gamoyenebaze dayrdnobiT ganmartavs:

simkvrivis Secvla SesaZlebelia sxeulis molekulebs Soris Sualedebis SecvliT.

magaliTad, Tu fumfula bambas rodinSi danayav is daitkepneba. am dros Semcirdeba bambis molekulebs

Soris manZili da bamba ufro mkvrivi gaxdeba.

simkvrivis Secvla SesaZlebelia sxeulebis gaTbobiT an gacivebiT. am drosac icvleba sxeulis molekulebs

Soris manZilebi da Sesabamisad moculobac, amitom simkvrivec icvleba.

nivTierebisG simkvrive aseve SeiZleba Seicvalos sxeulSi molekulebis raodenobis SecvliT – am dros

Seicvleba nivTierebis raodenoba, anu masa.

sabolood SegviZlia gavakeToT daskvna: simkvrive miT metia, rac metia sxeulis masa da miT naklebia,

rac naklebia sxeulis moculoba.

aqtivoba 3 – simkvrivis ganmarteba gamovsaxoT formuliT /10 wT/

simkvrive = masa / moculoba

somboloebis gamoyenebiT simkvrivis ganmarteba

ase Caiwereba:

ρ=m/V (ρ=simkvrive, m=masa, V=moculoba)

aqtivoba 4 – moswavleTa Sefaseba /5 wT/

gakveTilis saswavlo miznidan da aqtivobebidan gamomdinare maswavlebels SeuZlia Seafasos moswavle

Semdegi kriteriumebiT.

48


Sefasebis kriteriumebi:

1. ganmartavs nivTierebis simkvrives.

2. msjelobs nivTierebis simkvrivis praqtikul gamoyenebaze.

3. Sesabamisi cnebebis da formulebis adekvaturad gamoiyeneba amocanebis amosaxsnisas.

Sefasebis rubrika

kriteriumebi 1-3 4-5 6-7 8-10

ganmartavs niv-

Tierebis simkvrives

msjelobs niv-

Tierebis simkvrivis

praqtikul

gamoyenebaze

amocanebis amoxsnisas

iyenebs Sesabamis

cnebebs da

formulebs

arasworad

ganmartavs

nivTierebis

simkvrives

arasworad

msjelobs

nivTierebis

simkvrivis

praqtikul

gamoyenebaze

amocanebis

amoxsnisas ver

iyenebs Sesabamis

cnebebs

da formulebs

arasrulad

ganmartavs niv-

Tierebis simkvrives

zogadad da xarvezebiT

msjelobs

nivTierebis simkvrivis

praqtikul

gamoyenebaze

amocanebis amoxsnisas

arasworad

iyenebs Sesabamis

cnebebs da formulebs

49

saubrobs ra

ganapirobebs

simkvrives da

ganmartavs

msjelobs niv-

Tierebis simkvrivispraqtikulgamoyenebaze

amocanebis

amoxsnisas

iyenebs Sesabamis

cnebebs da

formulebs

ganixilebs ra kavSiria masas moculobasa

da simkvrives Soris da ganmartavs

nivTierebis simkvrives;

msjelobs nivTierebis simkvrivis

praqtikul gamoyenebaze - mag. aanalizebs

kvadrociklis sxvadasxva

nawilebi sxvadasxva simkvrivis niv-

Tiere bisgan damzadebis mizanSewonilobas

amocanebis amoxsnisas warmatebiT

iyenebs Sesabamis cnebebs da formulebs

aqtivoba 4 –saSinao davaleba /5wT/

maswavlebeli moswavleebs sTxovs gaakeTon saSinao davalebis prezentacia.

prezentatori moswavle akeTebs davalebis prezentacias kerZod:

1. warmoadgens saxelmZRvaneloSi mocemuli teqstis argumentirebuli TxrobiT.

2. akeTebs teqstSi mocemuli sakiTxebis gasaazreblad gakveTilis bolos mocemuli savarjiSoebis1,

2, 3 prezentacias.


scenarebi qimiaSi

21. qimia – bunebismetyvelebis nawili (2 saaTi)

I saaTi

gakveTilis saswavlo mizani: moswavlem SeZlos isaubros ratom aris qimia sabunebismetyvelo mecniereba;

imsjelos nivTierebebze, maT gardaqmnebze da am gardaqmnebis Tanmxleb movlenebze, ganuviTardes

komunikaciis da azrovnebis unarebi.

standardtan Sesabamisoba: bun.VII.11.

aqtivoba1 – ras niSnavs bunebismetyveleba da ras Seiswavlis igi? /10 wT/

maswavlebeli moswavleebs sTxovs gaixsenon, ras swavlobs bunebismetyveleba:

moswavleebi ixseneben da CamoTvlian ...

ras swavlobs

bunebismetyveleba

maswavlebeli sqemaze afiqsirebs moswavleTa pasuxebs da versiebis amowurvis Semdeg moswavleTa

CamonaTvals ajgufebs:

magaliTad:

qimia fizika biologia

nivTierebebs... sxeulebs... cocxal organizmebs...

Sejemeba – buneba swored am sam enaze „metyvelebs“ anu yovelgvari cvlileba, rac Cven garSemo xdeba an

nivTierebas exeba an sxeuls an cocxal orbanizms, an samives, an or romelimes, an erT-erTs.

aqtivoba 2 – ratom iTvleba qimia uZveles mecnierebad... „istoriebi da faqti“ /10 wT/

maswavlebeli fokusirebas akeTebs terminze „qimia“ moswavleebs acnobs terminis warmomavlobis da

istoriis Sesaxeb sxvadasxva istoriul versiebs;

versia 1 - is SeiZleba momdinareobdes egviptis Zveli saxelwodeba „qemi“ dan rac Savs niSnavs da SesaZlebelia

mdinare nilosis dablobze niadagis ferTan iyos dakavSirebuli

versia 2 - sityva ZvelberZnulad Serevas niSnavs;

versia 3 - sityva Cinuad oqros niSnavs;

versia 4 - saxelwodeba „qimia“-s vxvdebiT meCvidmete saukuneSi mefe vaxtang VI-is xelnawer naSromSi

wigni zeTebis Sezavebisa da qimiis qmnisa“ rogorc istoria iuwyeba

mefes sasaxleSi qimiuri laboratoria hqonia mowyobili, sadac igi cdebs atarebda versia 5 - Zvel droSi

cdebze mo muSave adamianebs „alqimikosebs“ uwodebdnen.

faqti, romelic Zalian mniSvnelovania

saukuneebis ganmavlobaSi adamiani ocnebobda oqros xelovnurad miRebaze. eZebda iseT nivTierebas,

romelic daexmareboda mas Cveulebrivi metali, magaliTad rkina, oqrod eqcia. am cdebze momuSave adamianebs

`alqimikosebs~ uwodebdnen. marTalia maTi mcdeloba fuWi iyo, magram samagierod, Seiqmna saWiro

xelsawyoebi, aRmoaCines bevri sasargeblo nivTiereba, ramac biZgi misca qimiis, rogorc mecnierebis

Camoyalibebas.

maswavlebeli ajamebs:

saukuneebis ganmavlobaSi

tardeboda cdebi.

Seiqmna saWiro xelsawyoebi, aRmoaCines

bevri sasargeblo nivTiereba.

50

es iyo biZgi qimiis rogorc mecnierebis

CamoyalibebisaTvis.


aqtivoba 3 – ratom lpeba xili. ratom mJavdeba rZe?.. /10 wT/

maswavlebeli kognitur savarjiSos sTavazobs moswavleebs.. dafaze xazavs kognitur sqemas „movlenamizezi-Sedegi“

da moswavleebTan interaqtiuri kiTxva-pasuxis Sedegad avsebs sqemis I da III svets. kerZod

maswavlebeli avsebs I xolo moswavleebi amis Sesabamisad III svets

movlena mizezi Sedegi

rZe amJavda ra aris amis mizezi? miviReT... mawoni

Rvino daZmarda ra aris amis mizezi? miviReT.. Zmari

mwvane foToli gayviTlda ra aris amis mizezi? miviReT yviTeli foToli

... ... ...

maswavlebeli – cnobismoyvare adamiani nel-nela codnismoyvare gaxda da qimikosebma daiwyes kvlevebi

raTa pasuxi gaecaT:

– ratom yviTldeba foTlebi?

– ratom mwifdeba da lpeba xili?

– ratom mJavdeba rZe?

– ratom Zmardeba Rvino?

– ratom iJangeba rkina an sad `qreba~ wyalSi Cayrili marili Tu Saqari?

A

maswavlebeli agrZelebs axsnas da saubrobs dakvirvebaze, romelic kvlevis warmatebis erT-erTi

pirobaa.

adamiani yovelTvis akvirdeboda mis Tvalwin momxdar cvlilebebsa da maT Sedegebs, da cdilobda yovelive

Tavis sasargeblod gamoeyenebina. magaliTad, iyo dro, roca Weqa-quxilis Sedegad gaCenili cecxli,

Tavzars scemda pirvelyofil adamianebs. Semdeg ki maT iswavles cecxlis daxmarebiT saWmlis momzadeba.

aqtivoba 4 – ra daemarTa natriums? /10 wT/

maswavlebeli moswavleebs sTxovs daakvirdnen saskolo saxemZRvaneloSi mocemul vizualur masalas,

romelic Tanmimdevrulad gamoxatavs nivTiereba natriumis „cvlilebas“ misi wyalSi Cadebidan mis gaqrobamde..

maswavlebeli moswavleTa wyvilebs mimarTavs kiTxvebiT da exmareba maT gaiazron vizualuri masala

(suraTi 3) da misi Sesabamisi warwera:

natriumi rbili movercxlisfero

liTonia.

kiTxva: ra Tvisebebi aqvs niv-

Tiereba natriums?

pasuxi: rbilia, movercxlisfroa

wyalSi natriumis CaSvebisas is

amotivtivdeba, wylis zedapirze

iwyebs moZraobas, TandaTan zomaSi

iklebs da warmoiqmneba airi

kiTxva: wyalTan Sexebisas ra

cvlilebas ganicdis nivTiereba

natriumi?

pasuxi: amotivtivda, amoZravda,

dapataravda, airi warmoqmna

51

natriumis wyalTan urTierTqmedebis procesi

dasrulda

kiTxva: aq ra xdeba?

pasuxi: araferi natriumi gaqra?..

maswavlebeli jer sityvierad ajamebs Semdeg ki sqematyrad gamoxatavs masalas:

1. sityvieri Sejameba

nivTiereba natriumi ki ar „gaqra“, aramed wyalSi gaixsna da sxva nivTierebad gardaiqmna. Aam gardaqmnas

Tanmxlebi movlenebi axlavs: airis da siTbos gamoyofa. airi kargad Cans, gamoyofili siTbo ki WurWels

aTbobs. es WurWelze xelis dadebiTac SeigrZnoba.

2. mokle sityvieri Canaweri da misive sqematuri Canaweri

natriums damatebuli wyali gardaiqmneba axal nivTierebad da gamoiyofa siTbo.

natriumi + wyali = axali nivTiereba + siTbo


natriums damatebuli wyali gardaiqmneba axal niv-

Tierebad

natrium + wyali = axali niv-

Tiereba

52

da gamoiyofa siTbo

+ siTbo

maswavlebeli ajamebs – am yvelafers swavlobs qimia anu qimia aris sabunebismetyvelo mecniereba

romelic swavlobs:

1. nivTierebebis Tvisebebs;

2. maT gardaqmnebs;

3. am gardaqmnebis Tanmxleb movlenebs.

niTierebebis Tvisebebs

qimia Seiswavlis

nivTierebis gardaqmnebs am gardaqmnebis Tanmxleb movlenebs

aqtivoba 5 – saSinao davaleba /5 wT/

maswavlebeli moswavleebs avalebs moamzadon gakveTili argumentirebuli TxrobiT da Seasrulon

savarjiSoebi.

aqtivoba 6 – moswavleTa Sefaseba /5 wT/

maswavlebels SeuZlia moswavle seafasos Semdegi kriteriumebiT

Sefasebis kriteriumebi:

1. moswavle ganmartavs ratom aris qimia sabunebismetyvelo mecniereba

2. msjelobs nivTierebebze, maT gardaqmnebze da am gardaqmnebis Tanmxleb movlenebze

Sefasebis rubrika:

moswavle ganmartavs

ratom aris qimia

sabunebismetyvelo

mecniereba da rogoria

misi ganviTarebis

istoria

moswavle msjelobs

nivTierebebze, maT

gardaqmnebze da am

gardaqmnebis Tanmxleb

movlenebze

1-3 4-5 6-7 8-10

moswavle ver ganmartavs

ratom aris

qimia sabunebismetyvelo

mecniereba

da rogoria misi ganviTarebis

istoria

moswavle ver

axerxebs imsjelos

nivTierebebze, maT

gardaqmnebze da am

gardaqmnebis Tanmxleb

movlenebze

moswavle xarvezebiT

ganmartavs

ratom aris qimia

sabunebismetyvelo

mecniereba da rogoria

misi ganviTarebis

istoria

moswavle xarvezebiT

msjelobs

nivTierebebze, maT

gardaqmnebze da am

gardaqmnebis Tanmxleb

movlenebze

moswavle ganmartavs

ratom aris qimia

sabunebismetyvelo

mecniereba da rogoria

misi ganviTarebis

istoria

moswavle msjelobs

nivTierebebze, maT

gardaqmnebze da am

gardaqmnebis Tanmxleb

movlenebze

qimia – bunebismetyvelebis nawili

II saaTi

moswavle ganmartavs

ratom aris qimia

sabunebismetyvelo

mecnierebada moyavs

argumentirebuli

magaliTebi da rogoria

misi ganviTarebis

istoria

moswavle argumentirebulad

msjelobs nivTierebebze,

maT gardaqmnebze

da am gardaqmnebis

Tanmxleb movlenebze

gakveTilis saswavlo mizani: moswavlem SeZlos isaubros ratom aris qimia sabunebismetyvelo mecniereba;

imsjelos nivTierebebze, maT gardaqmnebze da am gardaqmnebis Tanmxleb movlenebze, ganuviTardes

komunikaciis da azrovnebis unarebi.

standardtan Sesabamisoba: bun.VII.11.

aqtivoba 1 – saSinao davalebis prezentacia /15 wT/

maswavlebeli moswavleebs sTxovs gaakeTon saSinao davalebis prezentacia.


prezentatori moswavle akeTebs davalebis prezentacias kerZod:

1. akeTebs TxrobiT momzadebuli gakeTilis prezentacias, aqcents akeTebs faqtebze da ama Tu im mosazrebis

dasamtkiceblad moyavs argumentebi.

2. warmoadgens momzadebul savarjiSos.

aqtivoba 2 – muSaoba jgufebSi, wyvilebSi /25 wT/

maswavlebeli moswavleebs yofs jgufebad an akompleqtebs wyvilebs da Tanmimdevrulad aZlevs gakveTilis

bolos mocemul 2, 3 4, 5 savarjiSoebs.

savarjiSo „Seavse krosvordi“

I etapi savarjiSos micema;

II etapi jgufuri muSaoba;

III etapi prezentacia.

krosvordis kiTxvebi:

1. romeli nivTierebiT atkbob Cais?

2. romeli nivTiereba amlaSebs sakvebs?

3. romeli nivTierebisgan amzadeben qvabebsa da tafebs?

4. romel nivTierebas izidavs magniti?

5. romeli Txevadi nivTierebis gareSea sicocxle

warmoudgeneli?

savarjiSo „xis merqnis wva“

I etapi savarjiSos micema;

II etapi jgufuri muSaoba;

III etapi prezentacia.

gaanalizeT da warmoadgineT sqematurad:

rodesac xe iwvis, miiReba naxSiri da siTbo gamoiyofa?

upasuxe: romelia nivTierebis, gardaqmna da romeli _ Tanmxlebi movlena?

savarjiSo – gardaqmna Tu misi Tanmxlebi movlena

I etapi savarjiSos micema;

II etapi jg muSaoba;

III etapi prezentacia.

gaanalizeT da warmoadgineT pasuxi:

– Seni azriT, romeli ufro mniSvnelovania, gardaqmnis saboloo produqti Tu misi Tanmxlebi movlena,

rodesac:

a) bunebrivi airi iwvis;

b) rZisgan xaWo mzaddeba.

savarjiSo – gaanalizeT

I etapi savarjiSos micema;

II etapi jgufuri muSaoba;

III etapi prezentacia.

gaanalizeT da warmoadgineT argumentirebuli pasuxi:

– alqimikosebs rkina rom oqrod gadaeqciaT, es gardaqmna iqneboda Tu misi Tanmxlebi movlena?

aqtivoba 3 – moswavleTa jgufebis urT-erTi Sefaseba /5wT/

jgufs SeuZlia sxva jgufuri Seafasos Semdegi kriteriumiT:

jgufi msjelobs nivTierebebze, maT gardaqmnebze da am gardaqmnebis Tanmxleb movlenebze.

53


scenarebi biologiaSi

31. erT da mravalujrediani organizmebi

gakveTilis mizani – moswavlem SeZlos imsjelos ujredze, rogorc organizmis struqturul erTeulze;

sxvadasxva saSualebiT gamosaxos sicocxlis organizaciis doneebi da imsjelos maT Sesaxeb. moxdes Aazrovnebis

da komunikaciis unarebis ganviTareba.

standartTan Sesabamisoba: bun.VII.5

AI etapi – moswavleTa winare codnis safuZvelze axali masalis axsna

aqtivoba1 – davfiqrdeT-vupasuxoT-vivaraudoT /10wT/

maswavlebeli moswavleTa winare codnis aqtivaciisaTvis moswavleebs mimarTavs:

– gamoiyeneT Tqveni codna da CamoTvaleT adamianis, organizmis organoebi.

moswavleTa savaraudo pasuxebi: Tavi, xeli, Tvali, guli da a.S.

– gamoiyeneT Tqveni codna da CamoTvaleT vaSlis xis organoebi.

moswavleTa savaraudo pasuxebi: fesvi, Rero, foToli, nayofi, yvavili, Tesli.

– magaliTad, ganvixiloT fiToli, rogorc vaSlis xis Semadgeneli erT-erTi organo ra nawilebisagan

Sedgeba?

moswavleTa savaraudo pasuxebi: yunwisa da firfitisagan.

– Tqveni azriT/varaudiT foTlis firfita struqturulad risganaa agebuli? is kidev risgan Sedgeba?

moswavleebi gamoTqvamen TavianT mosazrebebs/varaudebs...

aqtivoba 2 – jaWvuri Txroba /10 wT/

maswavlebeli aRniSnavs – es kiTxva biologiis, rogorc mecnierebis ganviTarebis yvela etapze ainteresebdaT

mkvlevarebs da gamadidebeli xelsawyoebis Seqmnam uamravi aRmoCenebis saSualeba misca

biologebs, manmade ki isini gamoTqvamdnen varaudebs, gamadidebeli xelsawyoebis gamoyenebiT mravali

mecnieris varaudi dadasturda.

Dmaswavlebeli iwyebs jaWvur Txrobas:

1. mcenaris foTols mikroskopiT Tu daaTvaliereb, dainaxav, rom foToli patar-patara ganyofilebebisagan

Sedgeba. TiToeul aseT ganyofilebas ujredi ewodeba.

2. mravalujredian organizmebSi, kerZod sokoebSi, mcenareebsa da cxovelebSi, ujredebis erToblioba

qmnis qsovilebs.

3. qsovilisgan ki iqmneba organizmis organoebi.

Sejameba anu rgolebiT jaWvis Sekvra – `ujredi-qsovili-organo-organizmi~.

Aaqtivoba-3 ujredebis raodenoba da cocxali organizmebi /10wT/

maswavlebeli agrZelebs jaWvur Txrobas da bolos aqtivobas asrulebs kognituri sqemiT:

• mikroskopi daexmara mecnierebs cocxali organizmebi daeyo erTujredian da mravalujredian organizmebad;

radgan aRmoaCines, rom arseboben organizmebi, romelTa mTeli sxeuli mxolod erTi ujredia.

cxadia, rom es organizmebi Zlier mcire zomis arian. maT erTujrediani organizmebi ewodeba. erTujrediani

organizmebia ameba, qalamana, baqteriebi da sxv.

mecnierebi yovelTvis TanamSromloben: acnobeben xolme erTmaneTs sakuTari dakvirvebis Sesaxeb,

cvlian mosazrebebs da erToblivad midian daskvnebamde. sqemaze naCvenebia, rogor mividnen mecnierebi

am daskvnamde.

mcenareebi

ujredebisgan

Sedgeba

(maTias

Sleideni)

yvela cocxali

organizmis sxeuli

ujredebisganaa

agebuli

(Teodor Svani)

uuuu

54

cxovelebi

ujredebisagan

Sedgeba

(Teodor Svani)


sqemis mimoxilva:

• germaneli mecnieri maTias Sleideni mikroskopiT daakvirda sxvadasxva saxis mcenares da yvela maTganSi

aRmoaCina ujredebi. aman Sleidens SesaZlebloba misca daeskvna, rom mcenareebi ujredebisagan

Sedgeba.

• amave periodSi germanelma Teodor Svanma mikroskopiT dainaxa ujredebi cxovelebis organizmSi.

amgvarad Svanma daaskvna, rom cxovelebi ujredebisgan Sedgeba.

Aaqtivoba 4 – gakveTilis Sejameba /5wT/

1. cocxali organizmebis sxeuli ujredebisganaa agebuli. amitom amboben, rom ujredi yvela cocxali

organizmis agebulebis erTeulia.

2. organizmis SedgenilobaSi arsebuli ujredebis raodenobis mixedviT, cocxali arsebebi iyofa erTujredianebad

da mravalujredianebad.

cocxali organizmebi

erTujredianebi mravalujredianebi

3. mravalujredian organizmebSi (sokoebSi, mcenareebSi da cxovelebSi) ujredebis erToblioba qmnis

qsovils. qsovilisgan iqmneba organoebi.

Aaqtivoba 5 – Sefaseba / 5 wT/

maswavlebelma SeiZleba awarmoos ganmsazRvreli da ganmaviTarebeli Sefaseba. gTavazobT Sefasebis

kriteriumebs, romliTac SeiZleba ganxorcieldes Sefaseba.

Sefasebis kriteriumebi:

1 moswavles SeuZlia ujredze, rogorc organizmis struqturul erTeulze msjeloba

2. moswavles SeuZlia sicocxlis organizaciis doneebze msjeloba

3. moswavles SeuZlia terminebis – ujredi,qsovili,organo,organo, erTujrediani, mravalujrediani

- ganmarteba

Aaqtivoba 6 – saSinao davaleba /5 wT/

maswavlebeli moswavleebs davalebad aZlevs Seiswavlon saxelmZRvaneloSi mocemuli paragrafi`

ujredi yvela cocxali organizmis agebulebis erTeulia~ da moamzadon TxrobiT. yuradReba gaamaxvilon

terminebze:

• ujredi,

• qsovili,

• organo,

• erTujrediani,

• mravalujrediani

gakveTilze miRebuli codnis ganmtkicebis mizniT moswavleebs avalebs gaakeTon gakveTilis bolos

mocemuli savarjiSoebi.

32. ujredi – qsovili – organo - organizmi

gakveTilis saswavlo mizani: moswavlem SeZlos imsjelos da sxvadasxva saSualebebiT gamosaxos sicocxlis

organizaciis doneebi: ujredi, qsovili, organo, organizmi Mmoxdes Aazrovnebis da komunikaciis

unarebis ganviTareba.

standartTan Sesabamisoba- bun.VII.5

aqtivoba1 – davfiqrdeT-vupasuxoT-vivaraudoT /10wT/

maswavlebeli moswavleTa winare codnis aqtivaciisaTvis moswavleebs mimarTavs:

– gamoiyeneT Tqveni codna da CamoTvaleT adamianis, organizmis organoebi.

55


moswavleTa savaraudo pasuxebi: Tavi, xeli, Tvali, guli.. daS

– gamoiyeneT Tqveni codna da CamoTvaleT vaSlis xis organoebi.

moswavleTa savaraudo pasuxebi: fesvi, Rero, foToli, nayofi, yvavili, Tesli

– magaliTad ganvixiloT fiToli, rogorc vaSlis xis Semadgeneli erT-erTi organo ra nawilebisagan

Sedgeba?

moswavleTa savaraudo pasuxebi: yunwisa da firfitisagan

– Tqveni azriT/varaudiT foTlis firfita struqturulad risganaa agebuli? is kidev risgan Sedgeba?

moswavleebi gamoTqvamen TavianT mosazrebebs/varaudebs...

aqtivoba 2 – jaWvuri Txroba /10 wT/

maswavlebeli aRniSnavs – es kiTxva biologiis, rogorc mecnierebis ganviTarebis yvela etapze ainteresebdaT

mkvlevarebs da gamadidebeli xelsawyoebis Seqmnam uamravi aRmoCenebis saSualeba misca

biologebs... manmade ki isini gamoTqvamdnen varaudebs. gamadidebeli xelsawyoebis gamoyenebiT mravali

mecnieris varaudi dadasturda.

Dmaswavlebeli iwyebs jaWvur Txrobas:

1. mcenaris foTols mikroskopiT Tu daaTvaliereb, dainaxav, rom foToli patar-patara ganyofilebebisagan

Sedgeba. TiToeul aseT ganyofilebas ujredi ewodeba.

2. mravalujredian organizmebSi, kerZod sokoebSi, mcenareebsa da cxovelebSi, ujredebis erToblioba

qmnis qsovilebs.

3. qsovilisgan ki iqmneba organizmis organoebi.

Sejameba anu rgolebiT jaWvis Sekvra Sejameba – `ujredi-qsovili-organo-organizmi~

naTqvami SeiZleba sqemis saxiTac gamovsaxoT. magaliTad:

gulis kunTis

ujredebi

uu uu

qsovili guli

mcenaris foTlis ujredebi qmnian qsovils, romlisaganac iqmneba foToli. igive iTqmis mcenareebis

sxva organoebis – Reros, fesvis Tu yvavilis Sesaxeb.

aqtivoba 3 – /10 wT/

maswavlebeli akeTebs kognituri/azrobrivi sqemis prezentacias:

1. verbalurad organoebis erToblioba qmnis sxeuls - organizms.

2. vizualurad magaliTad, adamianis, ZaRlis, cxenis SemTxvevaSi sqematurad es ase gamoisaxeba:

Zvlebi

kunTebi

kani

uu

uu

uu

organizmi

(sxeuli)

uuuu

uu

guli

tvini

aqtivoba 4 – ujredebis raodenoba da cocxali organizmebi /5wT/

maswavlebeli – mikroskopi daexmara mecnierebs cocxali organizmebi daeyo erTujredian da mravalujredian

organizmebad; radgan aRmoaCines rom arseboben organizmebi, romelTa mTeli sxeuli mxolod erTi

ujredia. cxadia, rom es organizmebi Zlier mcire zomis arian. maT erTujrediani organizmebi ewodeba.

erTujrediani organizmebia ameba, qalamana, baqteriebi da sxv.

ameba, qalamana, evglena, baqteriebi erTujredianebi arian. amitom maT ar aqvT qsovilebi da organoebi,

maTi ujredi Tavad warmoadgens organizms.

moswavleebi – saxelmZRvaneloSi aTvaliereben erTujrediani organizmebis fotoebs da iazreben rom

56

uu

Tirkmeli

uu

uu

kuWi

filtvi

sakvercxe

saTesle


amebas ujredi amavdroulad misi organizmia.

aqtivoba 5 – moswavleTa Sefaseba /5 wT/

gakveTilis saswavlo miznidan da aqtivobebidan gamomdinare maswavlebels SeuZlia Seafasos moswavle

Semdegi kriteriumebiT:

Sefasebis kriteriumebi:

1. moswavle ganmartavs sabunebismetyvelo sagnebs.

2. moswavle fizikur sidideebs – dro, masa, sigrZe. erTeulebs warmoadgens erTeulTa saerTaSoriso

sistemis Sesabamisad.

3. moswavle konkretuli magaliTebis ganxilvisas axerxebs gakeTvilze naswavli cnebebis da sakiTxebis

transfers. A

Sefasebis kriteriumebi:

1. moswavle msjelobs sicocxlis organizaciis doneebze;

2. moswavle sxvadasxva saSualebebiT gamosaxavs sicocxlis organizaciis doneebs / ujredi, qsovili,

organo, organizmi/

Sefasebis sqema

kriteriumebi 1-3 4-5 6-7 8-10

moswavle msjelobs

sicocxlis organizaciis

doneebze

Mmoswavle sxvadasxva

saSualebebiT gamosaxavs

sicocxlis

organizaciis doneebs/

ujredi, qsovili,

organo, organizmi/

moswavle arasworad

msjelobs sicocxlis

organizaciis doneebze

Mmoswavle ver axerxebs

sxvadasxva saSualebebiT

gamosaxos sicocxlis

organizaciis

doneebi

moswavle xarvezebiT

msjelobs sicocxlis

organizaciis

doneebze

Mmoswavle xarvezebiT

axerxebs

sxvadasxva saSualebebiT

gamosaxos

sicocxlis organizaciis

doneebi

57

moswavle ZiriTadad

sworad msjelobs

sicocxlis organizaciis

doneebze

Mmoswavle ZiriTadad

axerxebs sxvadasxva

saSualebebiT gamosaxos

sicocxlis organizaciis

doneebi

srulyofilad

srulyofilad

aqtivoba 6 – saSinao davaleba /5wT/

maswavlebeli moswavleebs davalebad aZlevs Seiswavlon saxelmZRvaneloSi mocemuli paragrafi moamzadon

TxrobiT. yuradReba gaamaxvilon terminebze:

• ujredi

• qsovili

• organo

• erTujrediani

• mravalujrediani

da Seasrulon gakveTilis bolos mocemuli savarjiSoebi.


33. ujredi yvela cocxali organizmis funqciuri da ganviTarebis

erTeulia

gakveTilis saswavlo mizani: moswavlem SeZlos imsjelos ujredze, rogorc organizmis struqturul,

funqciur da ganviTarebis elementarul erTeulze moxdes Aazrovnebis da komunikaciis unarebis ganvi-

Tareba.

standartTan Sesabamisoba: bun.VII.5

A

aqtivoba 1 – ujredi, rogorc organizmis struqturuli erTeuli /5wT/

maswavlebeli iwyebs interaqtiur leqcias da kognituri sqemis Sevsebas;

Tavdapirvelad avsebs sqemis pirvel svets:

ujredi, rogorc organizmis

struqturuli erTeuli

kunTis ujredebi qmnian kunTs

neironebi qmnian tvins da a.S.

ujredi, rogorc organizmis

funqciuri erTeuli

58

ujredi, rogorc organizmis

ganviTarebis erTeuli

Aaqtivoba 2 – ujredi, rogorc organizmis funqciuri erTeuli /15wT/

maswavlebeli agrZelebs interaqtiur leqcias da kognituri sqemis meore svetis Sevsebas:

ujredi, rogorc

organizmis

struqturuli

erTeuli

kunTis ujredebi qmnian

kunTs

neironebi qmnian tvins da

a.S.

ujredi, rogorc organizmis funqciuri erTeuli ujredi, rogorc

organizmis

ganviTarebis

erTeuli

kunTis ujredebs aqvT SekumSvis unari. maTi erToblivi

SekumSva iwvevs organos – kunTis SekumSvas. amgvarad kunTis

ujredebi ara marto qmnian kunTs, aramed ganapirobeben mis

funqcias.

neironebis cxovelqmedeba ganapirobebs tvinis funqcias.

amgvarad neironebi ara marto qmnian tvinis qsovils da Sesabamisad

tvins, aramed uzrunvelyofen mis funqcias.

Aaqtivoba 3 – ujredi, rogorc organizmis ganviTarebis erTeuli /10wT/

maswavlebeli agrZelebs interaqtiur leqcias da kognituri sqemis mesame svetis Sevsebas:

ujredi, rogorc

organizmis

struqturuli erTeuli

� kunTis ujredebi qmnian

kunTs

� neironebi qmnian tvins

daS

ujredi, rogorc organizmis

funqciuri erTeuli

� kunTis ujredebs aqvT SekumSvis

unari. maTi erToblivi SekumSva

iwvevs organos – kunTis SekumSvas.

amgvarad kunTis ujredebi ara marto

qmnian kunTs, aramed ganapirobeben

mis funqcias.

� neironebis cxovelqmedeba ganapirobebs

tvinis funqcias. amgvarad

neironebi ara marto qmnian tvinis

qsovils da Sesabamisad tvins, aramed

uzrunvelyofen mis funqcias.

ujredi, rogorc organizmis

ganviTarebis erTeuli

� erTujredianebis, magaliTad amebas

ujredi iyofa da warmoqmnis or axal –

Svileul ujreds. amgvarad ujredis gayofa

uzrunvelyofs amebas gamravlebis funqcias.

� cxovelebs da mcenareebs, aqvT gansakuTrebuli

ujredebi – sasqeso ujredebi,

romlebisganac axali organizmi warmoiqmneba.

amgvarad sasqeso ujredebi uzrunvelyofen

cocxali organizmebis gamravlebis

funqcias.


Aaqtivoba 4 – refleqsia /5wT/

maswavlebeli ajamebs gakveTils:

cocxali organizmis

agebulebis erTeuli

ujredi

cocxali organizmis

funqciuri erTeuli

59

cocxali organizmis

ganviTarebis erTeuli

aqtivoba 5 – moswavleTa Sefaseba /5wT/

1. moswavle ganmartavs sabunebismetyvelo sagnebs.

2. moswavle fizikur sidideebs – dro, masa, sigrZe. erTeulebs warmoadgens erTeulTa saerTaSoriso

sistemis Sesabamisad.

3. moswavle konkretuli magaliTebis ganxilvisas axerxebs gakeTvilze naswavli cnebebis da sakiTxebis

transfers. A

Sefasebis kriteriumi: moswavles SeuZlia imsjelos ujredze, rogorc organizmis struqturul, funqciur

da ganviTarebis elementarul erTeulze.

kriteriumebi 1-3 4-5 6-7 8-10

moswavles SeuZlia

imsjelos ujredze,

rogorc organizmis

struqturul,

erTeulze

moswavles SeuZlia

imsjelos ujredze,

rogorc organizmis

funqciur erTeulze

moswavles ar Seu-

Zlia imsjelos

ujredze, rogorc

organizmis struqturul,

erTeulze

moswavles ar Seu-

Zlia imsjelos

ujredze, rogorc

organizmis funqciur

erTeulze

moswavles Seu-

Zlia xarvezebiT

imsjelos ujredze,

rogorc organizmis

struqturul,

erTeulze

moswavles SeuZlia

zogadad imsjelos

ujredze, rogorc

organizmis funqciur

erTeulze

moswavles SeuZlia

imsjelos ujredze,

rogorc organizmis

struqturul,

erTeulze; moiyvanos

magaliTebi

moswavles SeuZlia

imsjelos ujredze,

rogorc organizmis

funqciur erTeulze

da moiyvanos magaliTebi

moswavles SeuZlia

imsjelos ujredze,

rogorc organizmis

struqturul,

erTeulze; moiyvanos

magaliTebi

moswavles SeuZlia

imsjelos ujredze,

rogorc organizmis

funqciur erTeulze

da moiyvanos magaliTebi

aqtivoba 6 – saSinao davaleba /5wT/

maswavlebeli moswavleebs davalebad aZlevs Seiswavlon saxelmZRvaneloSi mocemuli paragrafi moamzadon

TxrobiT da Seasrulon gakveTilis bolos mocemuli savarjiSoebi.


8. Semajamebeli testebi

fizika

1. SI sistemaSi sigrZis ZiriTadi sazomi erTeulia:

a) erTi metri; b) erTi kilometri;

g) erTi milimetri; d) erTi santimetri.

2. SI sistemaSi drois sazomi ZiriTadi erTeulia:

a) wami ; b) wuTi; g) saaTi; d) weli.

3. SI sistemaSi masis ZiriTadi sazomi erTeulia:

a) grami; b) kilogrami; g) tona; d) miligrami .

4. romeli gamafrTxilebeli niSani miuTiTebs radiaciul safrTxes?

a) b) g)

d) e) v)

5. romeli gamafrTxilebeli niSani miuTiTebs toqsikur safrTxes?

a) b) g)

d) e) v)

6. romelia nivTierebis umciresi nawilaki:

a) atomi; b) molekula; g) namceci.

7. ramdeni agregatuli mdgomareoba arsebobs :

a) 1 b) 2 g) 3 d) 5

8. romeli formula gamosaxavs simkvrives:

a) F=mg b) ρ=m/V g) X=L-L0 d) Fdr= -kX

9. ra aris difuzia:

a) qvemodan zeviT mimarTuli Zala;

b) erTi nivTierebis meoreSi Sereva;

g) erTi nivTierebis meorisagan gancalkeveba;

d) horizontalurad mimarTuli Zala.

10. romel agregatul mdgomareobaSi mimdinareobs difuzia yvelaze swrafad:

a) myarSi; b) TxevadSi; g) airadSi; d) yvelaSi erTnairad.

11. ra saxis Zalebi ici:

a) vertikaluri da horizontaluri;

b) distanciuri da kontaqturi;

g) marjvena da marcxena;

d) magari da rbili;

e) skalaruli da veqtoruli.

60


12. rogori sididea Zala:

a) vertikaluri ;

g) marjvena;

d) magari da rbili ;

e) veqtoruli.

13. romeli Zala iwvevs nayofis vardnas miwaze:

a) xaxunis; b) drekadobis; g) simZimis; d) dartymis.

14. romeli Zalaa meti:

a) uZraobis xaxunis;

b) srialis xaxunis;

g) drekadi xaxunis;

d) plastikuri xaxunis.

15. CamoTvlilTagan romelia kontaqturi Zala:

a) gravitaciuli; b) xaxunis; g) simZimis; d) magnituri.

16. rogor SevamciroT xaxuni:

a) wonis gazrdiT;

b) wonis SemcirebiT;

g) urTierT Sexebis farTobis gazrdiT;

d) urTierT Sexebis farTobis SemcirebiT.

17. CamoTvlilTagan romeli Zala aRudgens drekad sxeuls formas:

a) xaxunis; b) drekadobis; g) simZimis ; d) dartymis.

18. romeli formula gamosaxavs hukis kanons:

a) p=F/S; b) ρ=m/V g) X=L-L 0 d) Fdr= -kX

19. romeli formula gamosaxavs wnevas:

a) p=F/S b) ρ=m/V g) X=L-L0 d) Fdr=-kX

20. romeli ganmarteba asaxavs paskalis kanons:

a) rac metia deformaciis Zala, miT metia drekad sxeulSi aRZruli drekadobis Zala;

b) airSi da siTxeSi CaZirul sxeulze moqmedebs amomgdebi Zala;

g) siTxeSi da airSi wneva yvela mimarTulebiT erTnairad gadaecema;

d) xaxunis Zala ar aris damokidebuli urTierT Sexebis farTobze.

21. romelia ziarWurWeli:

a) boTli; b) Wiqa; g) Caidani; d) TefSi.

22. ra ganapirobebs amomgdebi Zalis arsebobas:

a) xaxuni; b) gravitacia; g) maRali wneva; d) temperatura.

61


1. mocemuli niSani gafrTxilebs, rom:

a) xels uwyobs wvasa da Jangvas;

b) azianebs kansa da Tvalebs;

g) toqsikuria.

qimia

2. qalaqSi eleqtroenergias sami eleqtrosadguri gamoimuSavebs. romel eleqtrosadgurSi gamomuSavdeba

eleqtroenergia qimiuri gardaqmnis Sedegad:

a) qvanaxSirze momuSave eleqtrosadgurSi;

b) qaris eleqtrosadgurSi;

g) hidroeleqtrosadgurSi.

3. gafiltvriT SeiZleba ganvacalkevoT im xsnaris Semadgeneli komponentebi, romelic Sedgeba:

a) walSi xsnadi myari nivTierebebisagan;

b) erTmaneTSi uxsnadi siTxeebisgan;

g) wyalSi uxsnadi myari nivTierebisagan.

4. zRvis wylidan sufris marilis miReba SeiZleba:

a) amoSrobiT;

b) gafiltvriT;

g) dawdomiT.

5. romeli movlenaa qimiuri:

a) Saqris gafxviereba;

b) Caidnis Tavsaxurze wylis wveTebis warmoqmna;

g) sanTlis wva.

6. fizikuri movlenis dros ar icvleba nivTierebis:

a) molekulebs Soris manZili;

b) molekula;

g) forma da zoma.

7. kiriani wylis amRvreva imis maCvenebelia, rom qimiuri reaqciis Sedegad:

a) gamoiyo airi;

b) warmoiqmna naleqi;

g) gamoiyo sinaTle.

8. arasworia msjeloba, rom foTlis wvis dros:

a) foTlis masa mcirdeba;

b) airadi produqtebi gamoiyofa;

g) irRveva masis mudmivobis kanoni.

9. wvis aucilebeli pirobaa, nivTierebis:

a) aalebis temperaturamde gaxureba;

b) galRoba;

g) daqucmaceba.

10. ra ganapirobebs daxarjuli Jangbadis aRdgenas haerSi:

a) wva;

b) difuzia;

g) fotosinTezi.

11. limonaTis boTlis gaxsnisas airi gamoiyofa, radgan:

a) airis xsnadoba izrdeba wnevis SemcirebiT;

b) airis xsnadoba izrdeba wnevis gazrdiT;

g) airis xsnadoba mcirdeba wnevis SemcirebiT.

62


12. sanTlis wvis dros gamoiyofa:

a) wyali;

b) wyali da naxSirorJangi;

g) naxSirorJangi.

13. natriumis wyalTan urTierTqmedebis reaqcias axlavs:

a) siTbos STanTqma;

b) feris da sunis Secvla;

g) siTbos da airis gamoyofa.

14. molekulis modelebidan romeli Seesabameba wylis molekulas:

a) b) g)

15. marmarilos ZiriTadi Semadgeneli nawilia nivTiereba:

a) marilmJava;

b) natriumis hidroqsidi;

g) kalciumis karbonati,

16. kirian wyals amRvrevs nivTiereba:

a) naxSirorJangi;

b) Jangbadi;

g) wyali.

17. Jangbadis areSi mbJutavi kvari:

a) abrialdeba;

b) Caqvreba;

g) araferi mouva.

18. mJavis Sesaxeb romeli mtkicebulebaa mcdari:

a) mJava neitraldeba fuZiT;

b) mJava fuZesTan urTierTqmedebs marilisa da wylis warmoqmniT;

g) mJava fuZesTan urTierTqmedebs naxSirorJangisa da wylis warmoqmniT.

19. ra ferisaa iisferi lakmusis qaRaldi neitralur xsnarSi:

a) wiTeli;

b) lurji;

g) iisferi.

20. ras udris fuZis xsnaris pH:

a) pH 7

b) pH 14

g) pH 1

63


iologia

1. ujreduli Teoriis Tanaxmad ujredi aris:

a) cocxali organizmebis agebulebis erTeuli;

b) cocxali da aracocxali sxeulebis agebulebis erTeuli;

g) qimiuri nivTierebebis agebulebis erTeuli.

2. birTvi moTavsebulia:

a) mcenareuli ujredis vakuolSi;

b) ujredis citoplazmaSi;

g) ujredis garsSi.

3. cxoveluri da mcenareuli ujredi gansxvavdeba imiT rom:

a) cxovelur ujreds ar aqvs qloroplastebi;

b) mcenareul ujreds ar aqvs ujredis kedeli;

g) cxovelur ujreds ar aqvs vakuoli.

4. mitoqondriebis funqcia aris:

a) sakvebisagan energiis miReba;

b) mzis energiis gamoyeneba;

g) sakvebi nivTierebebis warmoqmna.

5. qloroplastebis funqcia aris:

a) sakvebisagan energiis miReba;

b) mzis energiis gamoyeneba;

g) sakvebi nivTierebebis warmoqmna.

6. organos agebuleba swori TanmimdevrobiT SesaZlebelia ase warmovadginoT:

a) organo-ujredi-qsovili;

b) qsovili-ujredi-organo;

g) ujredi-qsovili-organo.

7. ubirTvo organizmebia:

a) protistebi;

b) eukariotebi;

g) prokariotebi.

8. baqteriebi miekuTvneba:

a) monerebis samefos;

b) protistebis samefos;

g) arqebaqteriebis samefos.

9. ameba miekuTvneba:

a) protistebis samefos;

b) umartivesebis samefos;

g) cxovelebis samefos.

10. umartivesebs miekuTvneba:

a) evglena;

b) qalamana;

g) cianobaqteriebi.

11. ZaRli miekuTvneba:

a) ZuZumwovrebis samefos;

b) cxovelebis klass;

g) ZuZumwovrebis klass.

64


12. vardi miekuTvneba:

a) yvavilovan mcenareebs;

b) gvimrebs;

g) xavsebs.

13. sruli metamorfozis SemTxvevaSi, axalSobili organizmi:

a) gavs mSobels;

b) ar gavs mSobels;

g) rCeba ganuviTarebeli.

14. amfibiebis klass miekuTvneba:

a) Cxriala gveli;

b) kobri;

g) salamandra.

15. amnioni axasiaTebs:

a) ZuZumwovrebs;

b) Tevzebs;

g) mwerebs.

16. lokokina ekuTvnis:

a) mwerebs;

b) moluskebs;

g) obobisnairebs.

17. butko da mtvriana aris mcenaris:

a) vegetaturi gamravlebis organo;

b) sqesobrivi gamravlebis organo;

g) sakvebidan energiis misaRebi organo.

18. fesviT gamravleba aris:

a) sqesobrivi gamravlebis nairsaxeoba;

b) niadagidan wylis Sewovis saSualeba;

g) usqeso gamravlebis nairsaxeoba.

19. cocxal ujredze dakvirvebisTvis iyeneben:

a) mikroskops;

b) dinamometrs;

g) saxazavs.

20. cocxali organizmebis jgufebad gaerTianeba xdeba:

a) maT mier dakavebuli sacxovrebeli teritoriis farTobis mixedviT;

b) maT Soris agebulebaSi msgavsebis mixedviT;

g) maT Soris fizikur sidideebSi – Zalasa da wonaSi msgavsebis mixedviT.

65


testis pasuxebi

fizika qimia Bbiologia

1. a 1. g 1. a

2 .a 2. a 2. b

3. b 3. g 3. a

4. g 4. a 4. a

5. e 5. g 5. b

6. b 6. b 6. g

7. g 7. b 7. g

8. b 8. a 8. a

9. b 9. a 9. a

10. g 10. g 10. b

11. b 11. g 11. b

12.e 12. b 12. a

13 g 13. g 13. b

14. a 14. g 14. g

15. b 15. g 15. b

16. b 16. a 16. b

17 b 17. a 17. b

18. d 18. g 18. g

19. a 19. b 19. a

20. g 20. 14 20. b

21. g

22. b

66


9. moswavlis wignSi mocemuli savarjiSoebis pasuxebi

Sesavali

2. skalari da veqtori (gv. 9)

pasuxebi:

1. savaraudod CamoTvlian: saxazavi – sigrZis sazomi, saswori-masis sazomi, saaTi (wammzomi) – drois

sazomi.

2. monacemebi ar iqneba erTnairi, radgan moswavleebis fanqrebi ar iqneba erTi zomis. es uCvenebs, rom

sazomi erTeuli da sazomi xelsawyo unda iyos yvelasTvis erTnairi. am SemTxvevaSi jobda saxazavis

gamoyeneba.

3. fuli skalaria, mimarTuleba ar aqvs, aqvs mxolod sidide

4. �

5. orive SemTxvevaSi isari mimarTuli iqneba adamianisagan karisaken. mesis SDemTxvevaSi isari ufri grZeli

iqneba, radgan mesi ufro Zlier daartyams burTs, vidre meSvideklaseli.

SeniSvna: naxatis xarisxs yuradRebas nu miaqcevT, mTavaria veqtoris sworad gamosaxva.

4. usafrTxoebis dacva (gv. 14)

pasuxebi:

1. niSnebis ganxilvis dros unda daasaxelon, Tu ras aRniSnavs TiToeuli maTgani (rogorc teqstSia) da

daadasturon am niSnebis codnis aucilebloba. niSnebis gaazrebaSi daexmarebaT maswavleblebi, radgan

moswavleebma jer maT Sesaxeb TiTqmis araferi ician. am etapze (SesavalSi) Jangva sakmarisia uTxraT,

rom mJangavi nivTierebebi iwveven sagnebis daJangvas, magaliTad rkinisgan damzadebuli sagnebi kargavs

bzinvarebas da fuWdeba. wvis xelSemwyobi nivTierebebi ki iwveven xanZris warmoqmnas da gavcelebas.

afeTqebas moyveba ngreva, adamianebis da sxva cocxali arsebebis sxeulis dazianeba an sikvdili. radiaqtiuri

da momwamvleli nivTierebic iwveven mZime daavadebas an sikvdils, advilad aalebad nivTierebebs

cecxli advilad ekideba (magaliTad, spirti) saSiSia xanZris gaCenis TvalsazrisiT, mJavas an tutes

SeuZlia daazianos kani an Sinagani organoebi (Tu sxeulSi SigniT moxvda). kidev erTxel vimeorebT, rom

am etapze es informacia sakmarisia.

2. savaraudod naxavs im xelsawyoebs rac saxelmZRvaneloSia naCvenebi. fizikis xelsawyoebidan Segi-

ZliaT aCvenoT dinamometri, romelic sasworad gamoiyeneba. sxva, ufro rTuli xelsawyoebi am etapze

saWiro ar aris.

3. sworia I da II.

5. rogor xdeba bunebrivi movlenebis Seswavla (gv. 15)

pasuxebi:

1. awonis Rers dawvamde da dawvis Semdeg da Seadarebs monacemebs. Tu aris monacemebs Soris sxvaoba,

maSasadame masa Secvlila, Tu ar aris sxvaoba – masa ar Secvlila.

2. moswavleebi advilad xvdebian, rom qveda suraTze naCveneb modelSi burTulebi ufro axlosaa erTmaneTTan

ganlagebuli.

6. monacemebis gamosaxva cxrilisa da diagramebis saxiT (gv. 17)

pasuxebi:

1. pasuxi winaswar SeuZlebelia. principi mdgomareobs

sasworis monacemis aRebasa da cxrilSi

SetanaSi.

2. haeris temperaturas martSi, aprilSi, maisSi

martSi 10 0 C, aprilSi 15 0 C da maisSi 20 0 C.

3. vertikalur RerZze-haeris temperatura ( 0 C),

horizontalurze Tveebi: 1– agvisto, 2 – seqtemberi,

3-oqtomberi

67

35

30

25

20

15

10

5

0

1 2 3


7. venis diagrama (gv. 19)

pasuxebi:

1. jon venis sapativcemulod.

2. msgavsebaSi Caiwereba 5 sarTuli, 300 fanjara, 70 kari, gansxvavebebSi stumrebis raodenoba (erTSi

200, meoreSi 150).

3. pasuxi winaswar ver moxerxdeba. principi mdgomareobs WurWlis cal-calke awonvasa da monacemebis

martiv SedarebaSi. aq yuradReba eqceva, rom moswavle mieCvios monacemebis Caweras.

4. sagnis moculobis gamosaTvlelad, sanam sagans (survilisamebr- saSleli, fanqari, sxv.) wyalSi

Caagdebs, menzuris danayofis mixedviT afiqsirebs wylis dones, sagnis Cagdebis Semdeg kvlav afiqsirebs

wylis dones. doneTa Soris sxvaoba uCvenebs sagnis moculobas. danayofebs unda Sexedos pirdapir da

ara iribad.

5. kibeze asvlisTvis patara isari 8-is maCvenebel danayofze qvemoT miuTiTebda, iatakze mjomisTvis

– 8-is maCvenebel danayofze zemoT. arasworad iRebdnen monacems: unda SeexedaT saaTis isrisTvis

pirdapir, ara iribad

6. ar unda gaesinjaT gemo maswavleblis nebarTvis gareSe.

7. aorTqleba-Rrublis warmoqmna-wvima.

68


fizika

8. nivTiereba Sedgeba atomebisa da molekulebisgan (gv. 22)

pasuxebi:

1. rkina da wyali.

2. burTulebi.

3. atomebi � molekulebi � nivTiereba � sxeulebi.

9. nivTierebis myari, Txevadi da airadi mdgomareobebi (gv. 25)

pasuxebi:

2. a)

3. saerToa moculoba, gansxvavebaa: myars – mudmivi forma, Txevads – ara.

4. radgan molekulebsa da atomebs Soris aris Sualedebi, amis mtkiceba swori ar iqneba.

10. nivTierebis simkvrive. simkvrivis praqtikuli mniSvneloba (gv. 29)

pasuxebi:

1. winaswar ver vupasuxebT.

2. gamiznulad. saburavi unda iyos elastiuri, korpusi – mtkice, sawvavi – denadi.

11. difuzia (gv. 31)

pasuxebi:

1. a)

2. haerSi, radgan is airia.

3. myar sxeulebSi difuzia Zalian nela mimdinareobs.

12. Zala da misi gazomva (gv. 34)

pasuxebi:

1. rkina, nikeli, kobalti.

2. saerToa orive Zalaa, gansxvaveba: erTs SexebiT, meores – Sexebis gareSe.

3. b)

13. simZimis da xaxunis Zala (gv. 38)

pasuxebi:

1. sferos (burTis) formis.

2. amuSavebs hidroeleqtro sadgurebs.

3. moxaxune zedapirebs Soris Seyvanili sapoxi amcirebs xaxuns.

4. uZraobis xaxunis gareSe manqanis borbali isrialebs da manqana ver amoZravdeba;

uZraobis xaxunis gamo manqanis borblebi cvdeba;

5. ver vivliT, xelSi verafers daviWerT, qsovils ver movqsovT,

6. TviTmfrinavsa da haers Soris; frinvelsa da haers Soris.

7. tani unda daxaros win, fexiT unda miawves gzas, xaxunis Zala mimarTuli unda iyos fexis miwolis

sapirispirod.

8. samive Zala unda iyos momarTuli naCvenebi mimarTulebebis sapirispirod.

14. drekadobis Zala. hukis kanoni (gv. 42)

pasuxebi:

1. ara, imitom, rom gareSe Zalis moqmedebis Sewyvetis Semdeg is formas ver aRidgens.

2. 1n.

3. 5sm.

4. 5000n/m.

69


15. wneva. wnevis gadacema myar sxeulebSi (gv. 45)

pasuxebi:

1. zemodan tvirTis damatebiT.

2. dawolis SemcirebiT, an farTobis gazrdiT. mag., manqanis saburavebis odnavi daSvebiT wneva gzaze

Semcirdeba.

3. raTa is ficriT daawves yinuls da amiT Seamciros wneva yinulze.

4. blagvi dana purze imoqmedebs naklebi wneviT.

5. saTiTe amcirebs wnevas TiTze.

6. 5*10-4n.

7. 1.33*104pa.

8. gaivlis.

pasuxebi:

1. gacxelebiT.

2. paskalis kanonis Tanaxmad.

16. paskalis kanoni (gv. 50)

17. wneva siTxeebSi. ziarWurWeli (gv. 52)

pasuxebi:

1. ara. simkvriveTa sxvaobis gamo.

3. 1.03*107 pa.

4. wneva wyalSi = 10000pa; wneva navTSi = 8000pa; wneva vercxliswyalSi =136000pa.

5. dedamiwis mizidulobis Zala.

6. pirvel sarTulze wneva 27-jer metia.

18. paskalis kanoni praqtikaSi (gv. 56)

pasuxebi:

1. 4-jer

2. 20000n. asjer.

3. wneva milis SigniT da gareT gaTanabrdeba.

19. siTxisa da airis moqmedeba maTSi CaZirul sxeulebze. atmosferuli wneva (gv. 58)

pasuxebi:

1. zeviT afrenisas atmosferuli wneva ecema. arahermetuli safreni aparatidan moxdeba haeris gaJonva.

2. atmosferul wnevas qmnis dedamiwis mizidulobis Zala.

20. arqimedes kanoni. sxeulebis curva (gv. 60)

pasuxebi:

1. amomgdeb Zalas ganapirobebs dedamiwis mier wylisa da haeris mizidvaA.

2. dairRveva, radgan maT aqvT sxvadasxva simkvrive da Sesabamisad sxvadasxva iqneba maTze momqmedi

amomgdebi Zalebi.

3. 20n.

4. 2n.

5. 8-jer.

7. mariliani wyali ufro mkvrivia.

8. Tu maTi moculobebi tolia maTze imoqmedebs 13.6-jer meti amomgdebi Zala.

9. amomgdebi Zala gaizrdeba.

10. arc erTi ar Seicvleba.

70


qimia

21. qimia – bunebismetyvelebis nawili (gv. 64)

pasuxebi

1. am savarjiSosaTvis damatebiTi informacia:Tanamedrove adamiani winaprisgan gansxvavebiT, tansacmelis

dasamzadeblad axal teqnologiebsa da masalas iyenebs.

2. krosvordis pasuxebi:

1. Saqari; 2. marili; 3. alumini; 4. rkina; 5. wyali

3. nivTierebis gardaqmna: xis dawviT naxSiri miiReba Tanmxlebi movlena:siTbo da sinaTle

4. a)Tanmxlebi movlena:siTbo da sinaTle

b)gardaqmna:xaWos miReba

5. gardaqmna

damatebiTi informacia: 676 wels Zvelma berZnebma arabi dampyroblebis gemebi „qimiuri cecxliT“

gadawves.„qimiuri cecxli“ Txevadia da wyalSi ar qreba. am faqtiT gaocebulma arabebma qimiis Seswavla

daiwyes da mas „alqimia“ uwodes.

22. movlenebi (gv. 67)

pasuxebi

1. a) forma,zoma, nivTiereba

b) forma, agregatuli mdgomareoba, nivTiereba (2 xazi gausvaT)

- Seicvala forma,zoma, agregatuli mdgomareoba.

ar Seicvala nivTiereba .

- saqme gvaqvs fizikur movlenasTan.

2. g)

3.

fizikuri movlena qimiuri movlena

puris daWra

totebis daqucmaceba

xorcis Sewva

rkinis daJangva

xis dawva

SuSxunis wva

Q

23. qimiuri reaqciis niSnebi da pirobebi (gv. 70)

pasuxebi

1. b); d)

2. g)

3. namcxvris an nebismieri kerZis dasamzadeblad viyenebT ramdenime nivTierebas, romlis erTmaneT-

Tan Serevis Sedegad viRebT erTgvarovan an araerTgvarovan narevs (fizikuri procesia), magram Tu am

Serevas axlavs qimiuri reaqciis niSnebi, magaliTad airis gamoyofa , naleqis warmoqmna am SemTxvevaSi

saqme gvaqvs qimiur reaqciasTan, ris Sedegadac miiReba axali nivTiereba. diasaxlisebi namcxvris momzadebisas

coms mawvnisa da saWmeli sodis narevs amateben. ris Sedegadac airis buStulebi gamoiyofa da

mawoni fuvdeba. miRebuli masis airRumelSi moTavsebis Semdeg, mimdinareobs qimiuri reaqciebi da

warmoiqmneba axali nivTierebebi, gansxvavebuli TvisebebiT.

4.

daasabuTe, rom

mimdinareobis

movlena

garegnuli niSani

movlena fizikuria

piroba

an qimiuri

SeSis nafotebad daqucmaceba meqanikuri zemoqmedeba forma,zoma,

nivTiereba ar icvleba

SeSis wva

gaxureba

feri, siTbo, sinaTle

miiReba axali nivTiereba

wylis duRili

gaxureba

agragatuli mdgomareobis Secvla nivTiereba ar icvleba

rkinis daJangva

nivTierebebis Sereva forma, zomis, feris Secvla miiReba axali nivTiereba

SesTavazeT, Seadaron erTmaneTs rkinisa da Jangis Tvisebebi. Caataron martivi eqsperimenti – Seamowmon

magnitis moqmedeba orive nivTierebaze.

71


24. wva da Jangva (gv. 72)

pasuxebi

1. bunebrivi procesebis Sedegad atmosferoSi Jangbadis Sevseba rom ar xdebodes, haerSi Jangbadi didi

xnis winaT gamoileoda da dedamiwaze sicocxlec Sewydeboda. sunTqvisaTvis erTi adamiani weliwadSi

xarjavs 263m 3 Jangbads. Jangbadis aseTi didi raodenobiT xarjvis miuxedavad, misi wili haerSi ar icvleba.

es aris mwvane mcenareSi mimdinare fotosinTezis Sedegi, romlis drosac gamoiyofa Jangbadi.

didi raodenobiT Jangbads iZleva zRvebisa da okeaneebis flora. gaufrTxildiT mwvane nargavebs-igi

janmrTelobis garantia!

2. damcavi safariT-laqiT an saRebaviT unda davfaroT.

3. gaTlili kartofili fers icvlis, rac qimiuri reaqciis niSania. qimiuri reaqcia mimdinareobs haerSi

arsebul Jangbadsa da gaTlili kartofilis SedgenilobaSi Semaval nivTierebas Soris. am cvlilebis

Tavidan asacileblad gaWrili kartofilis haerTan Sexeba unda SevzRudoT. magaliTad, mWidrod

SemovaxvioT polieTilenis parki, movaTavsoT wylian jamSi.

4. xanZars uyuradRebod datovebuli cecxlis kera (koconi, asanTi) iwvevs. haeris maRali temperaturis

gamo cecxli ekideba torfian Waobebs, radgan iq wvadi airi-meTani gamoiyofa. xanZarTan axlos

tyeebis, balaxovani safaris, advilad wvadi obieqtebis arseboba xels uwyobs cecxlis gavrcelebas.

cecxlis gadatanas xels uwyobs aseve qari, haeris Zalian dabali tenianoba, sicxe. uyuradRebod ar

unda davtovoT cecxlis kera, davicvaT usafrTxoebis wesebi,droulad movimaragoT cecxlsaqrobi

saSualebebi, gamoviZaxoT saxanZro samsaxuris muSaoba. xanZars siTbos, sinaTlis, kvamlis gamoyofa

axlavs. xanZris Sedegad nadgurdeba tyeebi da balaxovani safari,Sesabamisad, cxovelebsa da frinvelebs

safrTxe emuqrebaT. xanZris Casaqrobad iyeneben wyals, qviSas, saqrob qafebs. zogjer xanZris maxloblad

xelovnurad gamowveuli afeTqeba xels uwyobs xanZris Caqrobas – Jangbadis raodenoba haerSi swrafad

mcirdeba, rac wvis process anelebs.

5 . sanTlis wva da sunTqva Jangvis reaqciebs miekuTvneba. orive reaqciis produqts wyali da naxSiror-

Jangi warmoadgens. sanTlis wvas Tan axlavs siTbos da sinaTlis gamoyofa. sunTqvis dros organizmSi

mimdinareobs neli Jangvis procesi, rac organizmis sicocxlisunarianobas uzrunvelyofs.

25. nivTierebis masis mudmivobis kanoni (gv. 75)

pasuxebi

1. qimiuri reaqciis dros molekula icvleba – atomebad iSleba, xolo atomi ar icvleba. amrigad, atomi

nivTierebis qimiurad ganuyofeli nawilakia. aqedan warmodgeba sityva „atomi“, rac ZvelberZnulad

„ganuyofels“niSnavs.

2. wylis molekula sam atomiania, Jangbadis-ori. wylis molekula Seicavs ori sxvadasxva saxis sam atoms,

Jangbadis molekulaSi ki erTi saxis atomebia.

3 . naxSirbadi+Jangbadi naxSirorJangi

4. meTani+Jangbadi naxSirorJangi+wyali

5. masis mudmivobis kanonidan gamomdinare, wyalbadis masa iqneba: 36g-32g=4g

6. sawonis masaa:232g-168g= 64g. sawonis masa gviCvenebs, ra masis Jangbadi SeuerTda rkinas daJangvisas.

rkina+ Jangbadi rkinis Jangi

7. boili cdas TavRia WurWelSi atarebda, ris gamoc WurWlis masas daemata garedan SeRweuli haerSi

arsebuli Jangbadis masa. WurWlis masa gaizarda imdeniT, ramdeni Jangbadic SeuerTda vercxliswyals.

pasuxebi

1. a) – dawdomas, gafiltvras

b) – gafiltvras

g) – gamoxdas

d) – aorTqlebas

26. wyali (gv. 79)

72


27. xsnarebi (gv. 82)

pasuxebi

1.

gaxsnili nivTierebis masa gamxsnelis masa xsnaris masa

2g 50g 52g

20g 90g 110g

45g 55g 100g

2. xsnari iwonis 300g-s. imave raodenobis, radgan bunebaSi araferi ikargeba da arc emateba.

3. nivTierebis gasufTaveba: narevidan sufTa nivTierebis miReba;

xsnaridan sufTa nivTierebis miReba: xsnarSi Semavali erT-erTi nivTierebis gamoyofa;

xsnaris komponentebad dayofa: xsnaris Semadgeneli komponentebis erTmaneTisgan gacalkeveba.

28. xsnadoba (gv. 85)

pasuxebi

1. xsnaris gaxurebiT (wylis aorTqlebiT) an wylis damatebiT.

2. rac ufro dabalia temperatura, miT ufro metad aris gaxsnili Jangbadi wyalSi da ganapirobebs

Tevzebis gamravlebas.

3.

wyalSi xsnadoba

360

330

300

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

pasuxebi

1. b)

2. a)

3. a)

4. g)

10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 oC

29. mJava, fuZe da indikatori (gv. 87)

30. neitralizaciis reaqcia (gv. 90)

pasuxebi

1. a)futkris nakbeni Seicavs mJavas Semcvel xsnars, amitom misi ganeitraleba SeiZleba fuZis xsnariT.

gamoviyeneb sodis wyalxsnars nakbenis dasamuSaveblad.

b)krazanas nakbeni Seicavs fuZis Semcvel xsnars, amitom misi ganeitraleba SeiZleba mJavis xsnariT.

gamoviyeneb Zmris wyalxsnars nakbenis dasamuSaveblad.

2. g)

73


iologia

31. erT da mravalujrediani organizmebi (gv. 94)

pasuxebi

1. ujredi aris yvela cocxali organizmis agebulebis erTeuli.

2. ujredi yvela cocxali arsebis agebulebis erTeulia.

3. mcenaris ujredebi – mravalujrediani organizmia, ameba – erTujrediani.

4. daixazeba oTxi ujra (wre). aqedan sami isrebiT uerTdeba meoTxes. sam ujraSi iwereba cal-calke

moswavleTa TiToeuli jgufis mier miRebuli Sedegi, xolo meoTxe ujraSi saerTo daskvna.

5. TiToeuli jgufi muSaobda cocxali arsebebis erT konkretul jgufze. amitom, erTmaneTTan rom ar

qonodaT kontaqti ver mividodnen daskvnamde, rom yvela cocxali organizmi ujreduli agebulebisaa.

6. gamodgeba, radgan qalamanac da amebac ujreduli agebulebisaa.

proeqti - moswavlem unda asaxos Svanis da Sleidenis werilebSi maTi dakvirvebis Sedegi daaxloebiT am

stilSi: Zvirfaso kolega, me mikroskopiT davakvirdi mcenareebs (cxovelebs) da davinaxe, rom . . . . mikroskopis

mniSvnelobis Sesaxeb ityodnen, rom is aZlevs mecniers saSualebas dainaxos TvaliT uxilavi

sxeulebi da misi wyalobiT moxda ujredis danaxva da ujreduli agebulebis aRmoCena.

32. ujredi – qsovili – organo – organizmi (gv. 98)

pasuxebi

1. ujredi-qsovili-organo.

2. fesvis ujredi-fesvis qsovili-fesvi.

3. ujredi-qsovili-organo.

4. calke ujrebSi (wreebSi) Caiwereba organoebis saxelebi da yvela ujra erTiandeba isriT erT ujraSi,

sadac iwereba `mcenaris organizmi~.

5. ameba

6. qvevidan zeviT: ujredi-qsovili-organo-organizmi.

33. ujredi ganapirobebs organizmis funqcias da ganviTarebas (gv. 100)

pasuxebi

1. funqciurad msgavsi ujredebisagan.

2.

• ameba, ZaRli, askili Sedgebian ujredebisgan, maSasadame ujredi yvela cocxali organizmis agebulebis

erTeulia.

• qalamana, baqteria, verxvi, adamiani sedgebian ujredebisgan, maSasadame ujredi yvela cocxali organizmis

agebulebis erTeulia.

• baqteriebi, cxovelebi, mcenareebi vitardebian sawyisi ujredisagan, maSasadame ujredi yvela cocxali

organizmis ganviTarebis erTeulia.

3. isini monawileoben cocxali organizmis gamravlebaSi.

4.

ujredi yvela cocxali

organizmis agebulebis

erTeulia

mcenareebi, cxovelebi, ameba,

baqteriebi, qalamana agebulia ujredebisagan.

ujredi yvela cocxali

organizmis funqciuri

erTeulia

ujredi asrulebs funqciebs, magaliTad

kunTis ujredi ikumSeba, tvinis

ujredi imaxsovrebs. ujredebis

funqcia ganapirobebs organoebis da

Sesabamisad organizmis funqcias.

74

ujredi yvela cocxali

organizmis ganviTarebis

erTeulia

ujredebi sawyiss aZleven axal Taobas,

mag. sasqeso ujredebisgan warmoiqmneba

axali Taoba, erTujredianebi

mravldebian ujredis gayofiT.

5.

1. kunTs da kans.

2. kunTis ujredebi TiTistaris formisaa, kanis momrgvalo, erTmaneTTan axlos mijrilia.

3. kunTi ikumSeba, kani icavs sxeuls.

4. TiTistarisebri ujredi advilad damokldeba, kanis ujredebi erTmaneTTan axlos mijrilia, rom

araferi gaataros kanSi da kargad daicvas kanis qveS mdebare organoebi.


34. mcenareuli ujredi (gv. 103)

pasuxebi

1. mcenaris ujredis organelebia qloroplastebi, birTvi, vakuoli.

2. mcenaris organoebs Seferilobas aZlevs vakuolSi da qloroplastebSi moTavsebuli pigmentebi.

3. mcenare energias moipovebs qloroplastebis da mitoqondriebis saSualebiT.

4.

ujredis kedeli

mitoqondria

plazmuri

membrana

vakuoli

birTvi

5. SeuZlia, radgan aqvs mitoqondriebi.

6. mcenaris mier mzis energiis mopoveba.

citoplazma

qromosomebi

35. sokos da cxoveluri ujredi (gv. 106)

pasuxebi

1. ujredis kedeli, romelic icavs ujreds.

2. sworia I, III, IV debuleba.

3. atarebs sakveb nivTierebebs garemodan ujredSi.

4. msgavsebaSi Caiwereba plazmuri membrana, birTvi, mitoqondriebi, vakuoli, pigmentebi, gansvaveba:

mcenareul ujreds aqvs ujredis kedeli, qloroplastebi, vakuoli ufro didi zomisaa, aqvs fotosin-

Tezis unari, cxovelis vakuoli ufro mcire zomisaa, ar aqvs qloroplastebi, ar aqvs ujredis kedeli

5. qloroplastis arsebobas.

6. marcxena suraTia mcenaris ujredi radgan aqvs ujredis kedeli, qloroplastebi da didi zomis

vakuoli.

7. • 3500, 250, 2500

• kunTis, radgan yvelaze meti mitoqondria aqvs, mitoqondria ki gamoimuSavebs energias

• kunTi, radgan yvelaze met energias gamoimuSavebs

8. • kunTSi 10, mcenareSi 1, erTujredian organizmSic 1.

• ar aris swori, SeiZleba iyos mravalbirTvianic.

36. umartivesebi da sxva protistebi (gv. 110)

pasuxebi

1. mikroskopiT wylis wveTis daTvaliereba Sig amebebis aRmoCenis mizniT.

2. mravaujredian wyalmcenares ar aqvs qsovilebi.

3. evglenas eqneba qloroplastebi (qlorofili).

4. ar aris swori, radgan Solti aqvT umartivesebsac.

5. • 20000, 50000, 70000, 150000

• icvleboda, mrudi gviCvenebs.

• matulobda, mrudi zrdadia (gviCvenebs zrdas).

• ar icvleboda erTnairad, Tavidan moimata 30000-iT, Semdeg 20000, bolos 80000-iT.

75


37. baqteriebi, arqebaqteriebi, cianobaqteriebi (gv. 113)

pasuxebi

1. eukariotia, birTvi aqvs.

2. arasworia, pro-da eukariotebi aris zogadad cocxali organizmebis dajgufeba, baqteriebi Sedis

prokariotebSi.

3. birTvi eqneba cxovelur ujreds.

4. cianobaqteriebi da arqeebi ar aris baqteriebis ganStoeba, baqteriebTan erTad isini qmnian erT

dajgufebas.

5. Sevadarebdi ujreds kedlis qimiuri agebulebis mixedviT (saubaria qimiur agebulebaze).

6. wamwamebis saSualebiT baqteriebi emagrebian sxvadasxva sxeuls.

7. • savarudod baqteriebma.

• iq ar iyo lpobis baqteriebi.

• romelic ar dalpa.

• soko gamoyofs baqteriebis sawinaaRmdego antibiotikur nivTierebebs.

38. samefoebi. Araujreduli agebulebis organizmebi (gv. 117)

pasuxebi

1. aqvs Tu ara qsovilebi.

2. protistebs.

3. rogoria ujredis kedlis qimiuri Sedgeniloba.

4. aqvs Tu ara qloroplastebi (amiT gamoirCeva cxovelebisgan, umartivesebisgan da sokoebisgan), aqvs

Tu ara qsovilebi (amiT gamoirCeva wyalmcenareebisagan) aqvs Tu ara Solti (amiT gamoirCeva evglenasgan).

5. Solti evglenasac aqvs da qlamidomonadasac, amitom daisvas kiTxva: aqvs Tu ara qloroplasti

6. aqvs Tu ara ujredis kedeli

7. viruss ar aqvs ujreduli agebuleba, yvela sxva cocxali organizmi ki ujredebisgan Sedgeba

8. viruss aqvs cocxali organizmisTvis damaxasiaTebeli nukleinis mJavebi

proeqti- savaraudod es iqneba iseTi organizmebi, romlebic advili SesamCnevia: cxovelebi, mcenareebi,

sokoebi. am asakSi moswavleebma ician maTi amocnoba da dajgufebac ar gauWirdebaT.

39. ZuZumwovrebis klasi (gv. 121)

pasuxebi

1. aqvs balani.

2. is ZuZuTi kvebavs naSiers.

3. kani da balani icavs ZuZumwovrebs gamoSrobisgan.

4. mindvris Tagvis raodenobas 12000-2003 wlebSi.

5. klebaa 2001 da 2002-Si, ar icvleba 2000-dan 2003 –Si sworad asaxavs.

6. Zroxisgan mowvelili rZis raodenoba:

10.08.2010 11.08.2010 12.08.2010 13.08.2010

14 l. 11 17 17

diagramis svetis forma (oTxkuTxedi, piramida)

moswavlis arCevanzea damokidebuli. vertikalur

RerZze- rZis raodenoba (l), horizontalurze- dakvirvebis

TariRi.

76

18

16

14

12

10

8

6

4

2

0

1 2 3 4


pasuxebi

1.

samefo cxovelebi

ZuZumwovrebis klasi qvewarmavlebis klasi

40. qvewarmavlebis klasi (gv. 125)

2. aris Tu ara mTeli sxeuli qercliT dafaruli.

3. msgavsebaSi Caiwereba: orive cxovelia, xmeleTze gamravleba, kbilebi, filtvebi, gansxvavebaSi iwereba:

ZuZumwovrebSi naSieris ZuZuTi kveba, sxeuli amarTulia, kbilebi 3-nairi formis, qvewarmavlebSi – sxeuli

dafarulia qercliT, axlos aris miwasTan, aqvT erTnairi formis kbilebi

4. savaraudod ZuZumwovrebi iqneba Sinauri cxovelebi da kidev mgeli, ciyvi, Txunela da sxv. qvewarmavlebi:

ankara, xvliki.

5. • zambezis da nilosis napirze TiTo ninagis mier monadiebuli antilopebis raodenobas 2008-2010

wlebSi

• zambezi: 32, nilosi: 20

• zambezis napirze

6. • kaliebis da mwvane xvlikis raodenobas 2000-2003 wlebSi sof. dolianSi

• klebulobda

• klebulobda

• Sxamiani nivTiereba klavda kaliebs

• xvliki ikvebeba kaliebiT da savaraudod, sakvebis SemcirebasTan erTad xvlikis raodenobam iklo

• kaliebis raodenobis klebis paralelurad xvlikis raodenobis kleba

vertikalur Rerze cxovelebis raodenoba, horizontalur RerZze – dakvirvebis wlebi:

2500

2000

1500

1000

500

0

2000 2001 2002 2003

7. qvewarmavlebs, aqvs qvewarmavlisTvis damaxasiaTebeli kbilebi – yvela erTi formis.

41. frinvelebis klasi (gv. 129)

pasuxebi

1. savaraudod iqneba qaTami, indauri, mtredi, yvavi, beRura, mercxali, SaSvi, kaWkaWi, ofofi.

2. bumbuli.

3. aqvs Tu ara kbilebi.

4. Cans bumbulis formis naWdevi.

5. damoukidebeli: kruxis misma.

damokidebuli: – imprintingi.

6. erT jgufs mivusvaT kruxi gamoCekisTanave, meores gamoCekidan 3 dRis Semdeg da vnaxoT, romels

eqneba imprintingi. Tu pirvel jgufs eqna da meores ara (an piriqiT) e.i. dros mniSvneloba aqvs. sinamdvileSi

aucilebelia dainaxos gamoCekidan saSualod 12 saaTis ganmavlobaSi, mogvianebiT imprintingi

aRar viTardeba.

7. TanmimdevrobiT zevidan qveviT: 2, 4, 1, 3

77


42. amfibiebis da Tevzebis klasi (gv. 133)

pasuxebi

1. kiduris nacvlad aqvs farfli, qercliTaa dafaruli.

2. zevidan qveviT: qvewarmavali, Tevzi, ZuZumwovari, amfibia.

3. pirveli 3 debuleba sworia.

4. maTi kani ver icavs sxeuls gamoSrobisgan.

5. tiranozavri xmeleTze cxovrobda Tu wyalSi

layuebiT sunTqavda Tu filtvebiT.

6. lorwo amcirebs xaxuns sxeulsa da wyals Soris.

pirvel proeqtSi moswavles SeuZlia daajgufos erTad mag. lomebi, an maimunebi, zvigenebi, oqros

Tevzebi, arwivebi, kolibrebi da sxv. aq maT eZlevaT Tavisufleba Tavad SearCion dajgufebis kriteriumebi

da imsjelon amis Sesaxeb klasSi

meore proeqtSi: vefxvis TaTi didi zomisaa, SeiaraRebulia klanWebiT, rac nadirobasTanaa dakav-

Sirebuli, Txunelas TaTebi miwis saTxreladaa momarjvebuli, maimunis TaTi ki xeebze cocvasTan,

(totze CaWidebasTan) sagnebis kiduriT aRebasTan da gamoyenebasTan (srola, dartyma) aris adaptirebuli.

43. uxerxemlo cxovelebi fexsaxsrianebi (gv. 137)

pasuxebi

1. aqvT frTebi da SeuZliaT frena.

2. moskiti, tkipi.

3. frTebi, 3 nawilad danawevrebuli sxeuli.

4. am monacemebiT cxrili:

afrikaSi malariiT daavadebulebis raodenoba sxvadasxva sezonze

gazafxuli zafxuli zamTari

70 000 65 000 2000

80000

70000

60000

50000

40000

30000

20000

10000

0

1 2 3

vertikalur RerZze – malariiT daavadebulebis raodenoba, horizontalur RerZze: 1-gazafxuli,

2-zafxuli, 3-zamTari.

5. SesaZlebelia, radgan diagramis mixedviT yvelaze xSiria daavadeba Tbil periodSi – gazafxulze da

zafxulSi , vidre civ periodSi – zamTarSi.

6. araqne qsovda da obobac qsovs qsels. leqsikonSi naxaven, rom es sityva aRniSnavs obobas.

78


pasuxebi

1. arcerTi pasuxi ar aris swori

2. mcdaria I da II debuleba

3.

uxerxemlo cxovelebi

obobasnairebis klasi

jvriani oboba

44. sxva uxerxemlo cxovelebi (gv. 141)

mwerebis klasi

drozofila

4. Sinaarsi ar Seesabameba realobas: rvafexa ar aRwevs aseT zomebs, ar angrevs kedlebs rogorc naxatzea,

ar binadrobs adamianebze, miTumetes xmeleTze, ar cxovrobs tyeSi, arc tbaSi.

45. saxeoba (gv. 144)

pasuxebi

1. cxovelebi-frinvelebi-mexeuri mercxali.

2. afrikuli spilosgan gansxvavebiT, aziuris sxeuli gacilebiT mcire zomisaa, yurebic gacilebiT

patara aqvs, Tavze SeimCneva ori borcvi. (sasurvelia moswavles mosTxovoT amoicnos rac SeiZleba

meti gansxvaveba. eSvis sigrZeSi sxvaoba metad umniSvneloa).

4. macxniv kidiani, majvniv-ruxi (feris da kudis formis muclis gamo).

5. ar aris swori, radgan yvela obobas sazogadod 8 fexi aqvT.

6. moswavleebi Canaxats gaakeTeben rogorc Zleben, magram sasurvelia aisaxos teqstSi miTiTebuli

niSnebi. mniSvnelovnad gansxvavdebian sxeulis masiT, simaRliT, eSvis formiT.

46. sqesobrivi da usqeso gamravleba (gv. 148)

pasuxebi

1. qveda suraTze, aqvs Solti. spermatozoidis garda arc erT cxovelur ujreds Solti ar aqvs.

2. aqvs Tu ara amnion.

3. sworia III debuleba.

4. sworia II debuleba.

5. SesaZlebelia xmeleTze cxovrebas daukavSirdes naWuWiT dafaruli kvercxiT an cocxalmSobiarobiT

gamravleba. orive SemTxvevaSi Canasaxi daculia gamoSrobisgan.

6. • orive maCvenebeli gaizarda 2002 wels da Semcirda 2003 wels.

• savaraudod ukeT kveba zrdis dadebuli kvercxis raodenobas, radgan kvercxis raodenoba da

monadirebuli antilopebis raodenoba icvleba zustad erTmaneTis pirdapir proporciulad.

47. sruli da arasruli metamorfozi (gv. 152)

pasuxebi

1. arasruli.

2. marcxniv – arasruli, marjvniv – sruli.

3. muxluxo aris sruli metamorfozis procesSi myofi larva, romelic daWuprdeba da TandaTan gardaiqmneba

mwerad.

4. damokidebulia Tavkombalas zrdasrul bayayad gadaqceva

damoukidebelia – wyalsatevis wylis temperatura.

5. Sua zolSi, sadac haeris temperatura savaraudod ufro marali iqneba (moswavleebma ician wina klasebidan)

6. Canasaxi ukeT aris daculi dazianebisagan.

79


48. protistebis, monerebis gamravleba. ujredis gayofa (gv. 155)

pasuxebi

1. sworia I debuleba.

2. sworia II debuleba.

3. sworia II debuleba.

4. sworia III debuleba.

5. icvleba, matulobs

larvis mwerad Camoyalibebas.

6. sworia I debuleba.

7. damokidebuli cvladia baqteriis gamravlebis intensioba, damoukidebeli – temperatura. vertikalur

RerZze: ujredis gayofis raodenoba wuTSi, horizontalurze – temperatura 0 C.

25

20

15

10

5

0

10 o C 20 o C 35 o C

49. mcenareTa klasifikacia (gv. 158)

pasuxebi

1. nayofis ar arseboba.

2. ginkgos Tesli.

3. nayofis arseboba.

4. savaraudod daarqmeven qarTul an imerul (imereTis) muxas. moswavlis pasuxi yvela am variantSi

mi saRebia, Tumca namdvili saxelia imeruli muxa.

5. sxvadasxva feris da formis nayofi aqvs.

6. dasajgufeblad SeiZleba gamoiyenos niSnebi: yvavilis arseboba, girCis arseboba, foToli (farTo an

wiwvi, ginkgo savaraudod ar SexvdebaT arsad).

50. mcenareebis gamravleba (gv. 162)

pasuxebi

1. fesvis Reros foTlis arseboba, Teslis warmoqmnis unari (Tumca es ukanaskneli ar aris absoluturi,

radgan aris iseTi mcenareebi, romlebic Tesls ar warmoqmnian)

2. I da III mcdaria

3. mcenarisaa, cxovelisas (spermatozoids Solti aqvs da suraTidanac ician, rogor gamoiyureba).

4. zeda – jvaredini damtverviT – butko mtvrianaze maRalia da amitom sakuTari mtveri Znelad Tu

daeyreba, qveda – TviTmtveriaa, butko mtvrianaze dabalia da mtveri advilad daeyreba.

5. damokidebuli cvladia – aRmonacenis simaRle, damoukidebelia – morwyva, wyali xels uwyobs zrdas.

51. vegetaturi gamravleba (gv. 165)

pasuxebi

1. saerTo nawilSi (msgavseba): orive xorcieldeba ujredebis monawileobiT da warmoqmnis axal Taobas.

gansxvavebebSi: sqesobrivi xorcieldeba sasqeso ujredebis SerwmiT, vegetaturi – ara sasqeso ujredebis

gamravlebiT.

2. namyeni iviTarebs orive mcenaris niSnebs.

3. usqesoa, radgan kultura vitardeba ara sasqeso ujredebidan (fesvis, Reros, foTlis).

80


4. miesadageba, radgan es cxovelebi adamianis gamoyvanilia veluri saxeobebidan.

proeqti – evropelebma evropuli vazi daamynes amerikulis Zirze. amitom vazi gaxda gamZle filoqseras

mimarT da amavdroulad, nayofma SeinarCuna evropuli vazis Tvisebebi.

52. wiTel wignSi Setanili cocxali organizmebi (gv. 168)

pasuxebi

1. lomis raodenoba klebulobs, amgvarad is wiTel wignSia Sesatani (Setanilia kidec).

2. SeumcirdebaT sacxovrebeli teritoria da es cudad imoqmedebs maTze, daakldebaT sakvebi, adgili

gamravlebisaTvis da sxv.

3. mdinareebSi iyreba sakvebis narCeni, qarxnebis narCeni, mas Wams Tevzi da Tevzis organizmSi grovdeba

momwamvleli nivTierebi.

4. TevzSi dagrovili momwamvleli nivTierebebi wamlavs adamians.

5. anakonda arasodes ar izrdeba 30 m-mde, ar erCis adamians, ar gamoyofs Sxams da ar miekuTvneba Sxamian

gvelebs.

81


gamoyenebuli literatura

1. 2011-2016 wlebis erovnuli saswavlo gegma da sagnobrivi standarti. ganaTlebisa da mecnierebis

saministro.

2. sawavlo da profesiuli garemo, masw. prof. ganviTarebis centri. Tbilisi 2008 w.

3. «Вопросы психологии». Москва 2000 г.

4. «Педагогика» Учебник нового века. Москва. 2000 г.

5. http://gearn.blogspot.com/2008/09/gearn.html

6. loom, B., Englehart, M. Furst, E., Hill, W., & Krathwohl, D. (1956). Taxonomy of educational objectives: The classification

of educational goals. Handbook I: Cogni¬tive domain. New York, Toronto: Longmans, Green.

7. uznaZe, d. bavSvis fsiqologia (1967 w), saskolo asakis fsiqologia, uznaZis Sromebi, tomi xuTi,

Tbilisi, mecniereba.

82

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