Tavi 10. naxmari wylebis CaSveba wylis ... - momxmarebeli.ge

momxmarebeli.ge

Tavi 10. naxmari wylebis CaSveba wylis ... - momxmarebeli.ge

Tavi 10. naxmari wylebis CaSveba wylis obieqtebSi

reziume

saqarTvelos zedapiruli wylis obieqtebis dabinZurebis ZiriTad mizezs maTSi

municipaluri sakanalizacio wylebis CaSveba warmoadgens. es wylebi didi

odenobiT biogenur nivTierebebs Seicavs. maTi moxvedra wylis obieqtebSi

wyalmcenareebis intensiur zrdas iwvevs, ramac SeiZleba Tevzebis daRupva da

wylis garemos sxva mniSvnelovani cvlilebebi gamoiwvios.

saqarTveloSi arsebuli 45 municipaluri sakanalizacio sistemebidan

dResdReobiT mxolod oris (saCxeris da Tbilisi-rusTavis) gamwmendi nageboba

funcionirebs. amJamad mTel qveyanaSi mimdinareobs municipaluri sakanalizacio

sistemebis da maTi gamwmendi nagebobebis reabilitacia, rac zedapiruli wylis

obieqtebis dabinZurebas mniSvnelovnad Seamcirebs.

1. Sesavali

saqarTveloSi wylis obieqtebi binZurdeba sameurneo-sayofacxovrebo,

sawarmoo, sadrenaJo, saniaRvre wylebis CaSvebiT, agreTve _ sasoflo-sameurneo

savargulebidan an sxva teritoriebidan araorganizebuli (difuziuri)

CamonadeniT. magram dResdReobiT wylis obieqtebis dabinZurebis ZiriTad mizezs

maTSi naxmari an dabinZurebuli wylebis organizebuli (wertilovani) CaSveba

warmoadgens. amrigad, wylis resursebis dabinZurebisgan dacvis ZiriTad gzas

amJamad maTSi naxmari wylebis wertilovani CaSvebis saxelmwifo regulireba

warmoadgens. am regulirebis mizania ar dauSvas wylis obieqtebSi

damabinZurebel nivTierebaTa iseTi raodenobis moxvedra, romelic

mniSvnelovnad gaauaresebs wylis xarisxs.

saqarTveloSi wylis obieqtebSi CaSveba ori sxvadasxva meqanizmiT

regulirdeba: erTi _ msxvil samrewvelo an infrastruqturul saqmianobas,

romelsac garemosTvis seriozuli zianis motana SeuZlia (am tipis

saqmianobaTa amomwuravi CamonaTvali dadgenilia `garemoze zemoqmedebis

nebarTvis Sesaxeb~ kanoniT), ganxorcielebiTvis esaWiroeba garemoze

zemoqmedebis Sefasebis momzadeba da mis safuZvelze garemoze zemoqmedebis

nebarTvis aReba. nebarTvis misaRebad aseTi obieqtebi valdebuli arian

SeimuSaon e.w. `damabinZurebul nivTierebaTa zRvrulad dasaSvebi CaSvebis

normebis proeqti~. proeqti SemuSavdeba specialuri instruqciis safuZvelze,

imgvarad, rom sawarmos mier wylis obieqtSi CaSvebulma damabinZurebelma

nivTierebebma ar gamoiwvion wylis obieqtis xarisxisa da ekologiuri

mdgomareobis mniSvnelovani cvlileba. am proeqtebs amowmebs da iTanxmebs

saqarTvelos garemos dacvisa da bunebrivi resursebis saministro da mxolod

maT safuZvelze gaicema garemoze zemoqmedebis nebarTva.

wylis obieqtebis dabinZurebisgan dacvis meore meqanizmia_ wyalmosargeble

obieqtebisTvis Camdinare wylebis CaSvebis pirobebis dadgena garemosdacviTi

teqnikuri reglamentiT, romelic awesebs obieqtis Camdinare wyalSi

damabinZurebeli nivTierebis zRvrulad dasaSveb koncentracias. am SemTxvevaSi

regulirdeba damabinZurebelTa raodenoba, romelsac TiToeuli

wyalmosargeble uSvebs wylis obieqtSi. wylis erTsa da imave obieqtze

damabinZurebel obieqtebis didi raodenobis ganTavsebis SemTxvevaSi es midgoma

wylis sisufTavis garantias ar iZleva.

2. arsebuli mdgomareoba

seqtorebi, saidanac dabinZurebuli wylebi wylis obieqtebSi Caedineba:


• municipaluri sakanalizacio sistemebi;

• mrewveloba da energetika;

• sasoflo-sameurneo savargulebi;

• nagavsayrelebi.

bolo ori seqtori dabinZurebis e.w. difuziur wyaroebs warmoadgens.

rogorc 10.1 diagramidan Cans, bolo wlebSi sakanalizacio da sawarmoo

Camdinare wylebis raodenoba daaxloebiT erT doneze rCeba. rac Seexeba

Tboenergetikis seqtors, Camdinare wylebis raodenobis zrda da Semcireba

wlebis mixedviT dakavSirebulia ss “Tbilsresis” arastabilur muSaobasTan.

aRsaniSnavia, rom samrewvelo seqtoris Camdinare wylebTan erTad

CaSvebuli Sewonili nawilakebis raodenoba 2007-2008 wlebSi gaizarda. es

gamowveulia imiT, rom eqspluataciaSi Sevida mTeli rigi mcire simZlavRis

inertuli masalebis (qviSa, xreSi) gadamuSavebis sawarmoebi. am sawarmoebis

Camdinare wylebis raodenoba ar aris didi, magram teqnologiuri specifikidan

gamomdinare Sewonili nawilkakebis koncentracia wylebSi sakmaod maRalia.

700

600

500

400

/?

?

3

?

300

?

200

100

0

2004 2005 2006 2007 2008

weli

mrewvelobis seqtoridan

Tboenergetikis seqtoridan

sakanalizacio qselebidan

diagrama 10.1. wylis obieqtebSi wertilovani wyaroebidan CaSvebuli

Camdinare wylebis moculobebi.


a

n

o

t

i

a

s

a

T

18

16

14

12

10

8

6

4

2

0

2006 2007

weli

2008

mrewvelobis seqtoridan

Tboenergetikis seqtoridan

sakanalizacio qselebidan

diagrama 10.2. Jangbadis bioqimiuri moxmareba (jamuri) wertilovani

wyaroebidan zedapiruli wylis obieqtebSi wliurad CaSvebuli Camdinare wylebSi.

Tboenergetikis

seqtoridan

3.12%

mrewvelobis

seqtoridan

0.05%

sakanalizacio

qselebidan

96.83%

diagrama 10.2a: sxvadasxva seqtoris wertilovani wyaroebidan zedapiruli

wylis obieqtebSi 2008 wlis ganmavlobaSi CaSveburi wylebis Jangbadis bioqimiuri

moxmareba (jamuri)


a

n

o

t

i

a

s

a

T

90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

2006 2007 2008

weli

mrewvelobis seqtoridan

Tboenergetikis seqtoridan

sakanalizacio qselebidan

diagrama 10.3. wertilovani wyaroebidan zedapiruli wylis obieqtebSi

CaSvebul Camdinare wylebTan erTad CaSvebuli Sewonili nawilakebi.

600

500

400

a

n

o 300

t

,

i

t

o

a

z 200

s

m

i

u

i

n 100

a

m

o

0

2006 2007

weli

2008

mrewvelobis seqtoridan

Tboenergetikis seqtoridan

sakanalizacio qselebidan

diargama 10.4. wertilovani wyaroebidan wylis obieqtebSi CaSvebul

Camdinare wylebTan erTad CaSvebuli amoniumis ionebi.

municipaluri sakanalizacio sistemebi

sameurneo-sayofacxovrebo Camdinare wylebi saqarTveloSi zedapiruli

wylebis dabinZurebis ZiriTadi wyaroa. wylebis dabinZureba xdeba rogorc

municipaluri koleqtorebidan, aseve sayofacxovrebo naxmari wylebis

individualuri CaSveba/CaRvris gziT.gauwmendavi sayofacxovrebo Camdinare wylebiT


wylis obiqtebSi xvdeba didi odenobiT organuli nivTierebebi, Sewonili nawilakebi,

azotis naerTebi,

municipaluri sakanalizacio koleqtorebis sistemiT saqarTvelos 40-ze

meti dasaxlebaa aRWurvili. Tumca am sistemaSi CarTuli saojaxo meurneobaTa

wili saSualod 70%-s Seadgens (qalaqebSi ufro maRalia, soflis dasaxlebebSi _

ufro dabali). sakanalizacio sistemebi moZvelebulia, xSiria maTi dazianeba da

dabinZurebuli wylis gaJonva niadagSi.

arsebuli sakanalizacio sistemebidan mxolod oris _ Tbilisi-rusTavis da

saCxeris _ sakanalizacio sistemis gamwmendi nageboba muSaobs. yvela sxva

sistemidan dabinZurebuli wyali yovelgvari gawmendis gareSe xvdeba wylis

obieqtebSi. Tbilisi-rusTavis sakanalizacio sistemis gamwmendi nageboba wylis

srulfasovan gawmendas mainc ar uzrunvelyofs _ aq xorcieldeba Camdinare

wylis mxolod pirveladi meqanikuri gawmenda.

wyalCaSvebebi samrewvelo da energetikis seqtoridan

samrewvelo seqtoris obieqtebidan CaSvebuli Camdinare wylebis roli

wylis obieqtebis dabinZurebaSi SedarebiT naklebia. rogorc 10.1 diagramidan

Cans, Camdinare wylebis Ydidi raodenoba wylis obieqtebSi Caedineba

Tboeleqtrosadgurebidan, romlebic ganlagebulia gardabnis raionSi (Sps

`Tbilsresi~ da Sps `mtkvari-energetika~), Tumca es aris wyali, romelic

gamoiyeneba gacivebis procesebSi da am wylebSi damabinZurebel nivTierebaTa

koncentraciebi ar aris maRali (diagrama 10.2 da 10.3).

sxva sawarmoo obieqtebidan aRsaniSnavia ss `jorjian manganezis~ obieqtebi

(WiaTura), romelTa Camdinare wylebTan erTad md. yvirilaSi didi raodenobiT Caedineba

Sewonili nawilakebi da manganumis naerTebi, rac am mdinaris mniSvnelovan dabinZurebas

ganapirobebs. da saaqcio sazogadoeba “madneuli”, romelic ganlagebulia md.

maSaveras auzSi (ZiriTadi damabinZurebeli nivTierebebi – liTonebis ionebi,

romlebis moxvedra mdinareSi xdeba karieridan gamosuli wylebTan erTad da

sanayaroebidan CamonadeniT).

wylis dabinZureba aseve xdeba Zveli samTo-mopovebiTi sawarmoebis

dagrovili narCenebidan da nayarebidan. am mxriv gansakuTrebiT saSiSia

ambrolaurisa da lentexis raionebSi dariSxanis madnis gadamamuSavebeli

sawarmoebis narCenebi, romelic mitovebulia sabWoTa kavSiris daSlis Semdeg.

narCenebi Riaa naleqebisTvis, xdeba maTi gadarecxva da dariSxaniT binZurdeba

mdinareebi luxuniswyali da cxeniswyali.

wylis difuziuri dabinZureba sasoflo-sameurneo savargulebidan

mdinareebi umeteswilad gaedinebian sasoflo-sameurneo savargulebis

siaxloves. aqedan gamomdinare, bunebrivia, mdinareebis normalur ekologiur

mdgomareobaze zegavlenas axdens soflis meurneobaSi gamoyenebuli sasuqebi.

sabWoTa periodSi soflis meurneobaSi dasaqmebuli mosaxleobisaTvis

xelmisawvdomi iyo sxvadasxva saxis araorganuli sasuqi da pesticidebi.

Sesabamisad, fermerebic ufro intensiurad iyenebdnen maT da mdinareebis

dabinZurebac ufro didi iyo sxvdasxva saxis Sxam-qimikatebiT. bolo periodSi

araorganuli sasuqebisa da pesticidebis fasma sagrZnoblad moimata, ris

Sedegadac dReisaTvis soflis meurneobaSi intensiurad aRar gamoiyeneben

araorganul sasuqebsa da pesticidebs, ramac, Tavis mxriv, Searbila datvirTva

mdinareebze, Tumca amavdroulad ufro farTod gamoiyeneba organuli sasuqebi


da, savaraudod, amoniumis azotis maRali koncentraciebi mdinareebSi amiTac aris

gamowveuli.

organuli da araorganuli sasuqebis araswori gamoyenebis Sedegad

arsebobs wylis obieqtebis organuli nivTierebebiT, azotisa da fosforis

naerTebiT dabinZurebis riski. wyalSi moxvedrili es e.w. biogenuri nivTierebebi

iwvevs wylebis evtrofikacias, anu wyalmcenareebis intensiur zrdas, ris

Sedegadac mcirdeba wyalSi gaxsnili Jangbadis raodenoba. Tumca dReisaTvis

saqarTvelos mdinareebSi evtrofikaciis niSnebi jerjerobiT ar aRiniSneba da

gaxsnili Jangbadis koncentracia wyalSi sakmaod maRalia (7 – 11 mg/l).

rac Seexeba pesticidebs, saqarTveloSi arsebobs nebadarTuli pesticidebis

nusxa, romelsac amtkicebs soflis meurneobis saministro (pesticidebis

registraciis organo) garemos dacvisa da bunebrivi resursebis saministrosTan

SeTanxmebiT. nusxaSi ar Sedis roterdamis konvenciiT gansazRvruli pesticidebi,

romlebic aris saSiSi qimiuri nivTierebebi. miuxedavad zemoaRniSnulisa, zog

SemTxvevaSi xdeba pesticidebis gamoyenebis normebisa da vadebis darRveva, rac

mavne zemoqmedebas axdens garemos komponentebze (maT Soris _ wyalze).

wylis difuziuri dabinZureba nagavsayrelebidan

aRsaniSnavia wylis obieqtebis difuziuri dabinZureba arsebuli legaluri da

aralegaluri nagavsayrelebidan. atmosferuli naleqebis zemoqmedebis Sedegad

nagavsayrelebze warmoiqmneba dambinZurebeli (xSirad toqsikuri) nivTierebebiT

gajerebuli naJuri wylebi. narCenebis Tanamedrove poligonebze zdeba am wylebis

mogroveba da gawmenda, rac miwisqvesa da zedapiruli wylis obieqtebs

dabinZurebisgan icavs. saqarTveloSi naJuri wylebis mogrovebisa da gawmendis

sistema arc erT nagavsayrels ar gaaCnia. ufro metic, nagavsayrelTa umetesoba

wylis obieqtebis uSualo siaxlovesaa ganTavsebuli. Sesabamisad, wylis

obieqtebi mniSvnelovnad binZurdeba. isic aRsaniSnavia, rom saqarTveloSi ar

arsebobs narCenebis separaciis praqtika da xSir SemTxvevaSi sayofacxovrebo da

samrewvelo narCenebi erTad iyreba nagavsayrelebze. amrigad ar aris

gamoricxuli nagavsayrelebidan Camonaden wylebSi samrewvelo saxifaTo

nivTierebebis moxvedrac.

3. ZiriTadi gamowvevebi

rogorc zemoT aRiniSna, zedapiruli wylis obieqtebis ZiriTadi

DdamabinZurebelia qalaqebisa da dasaxlebuli punqtebis sakanalizacio wylebi,

anu gaumarTavi sakanalizacio qseli da wylis obieqtebSi Camdinare wylebis

sakanalizacio qselze mierTebis gareSe CaSveba, agreTve aRsaniSnavia zogierTi

msxvili samrewvelo obieqtebis mier wylis obieqtebis dabinZureba.

Tbilisi-rusTavis gamwmendi nagebobis mTliani reabilitacia da

modernizacia, Camdinare wylebis sruli biologiuri gawmendis uzrunvelyofa

gansazRvrulia 2018 wels1 .

ramdenime welia mimdinareobs q. baTumis wyalmomarageba-wyalarinebis

sistemebis etapobrivi reabilitacia. SemuSavebulia baTumis da Savi zRvis

sanapiro zolSi, TurqeTis sazRvridan baTumamde, ganlagebuli yvela

dasaxlebuli punqtis Camdinare wylebis biologiuri gamwmendi nagebobebis

mSeneblobis proeqti. mSenebloba gaTvaliswinebulia arsebuli gamwmendi

nagebobebis teritoriaze (sof. adlia).

1 saqarTvelos prezidentis 2008 wlis 10 aprilis #245 brZanebuleba `q. Tbilisis, rusTavisa da

mcxeTis sasmeli wyliT momaragebis gaumjobesebis RonisZiebaTa Sesaxeb~ mixedviT (punqti 2 ”l”)


amasTan, mimdinareobs q. foTis, q. quTaisis, q. borjomisa da daba bakurianis

wyalmomarageba-wyalarinebis sistemebis etapobrivi reabilitaciis samuSaoebi.

SemuSavebulia foTis Camdinare wylebis biologiuri gamwmendi nagebobebis

mSeneblobis proeqti. gadawyvetilia Camdinare wylebis biologiuri gamwmendi

nagebobebis mSeneblobis proeqtebis SemuSaveba foTis, quTaisis, borjomisa da

bakurianisaTvis. am obieqtebis mSeneblobis vadebi dadgindeba finansirebis

wyaros gamonaxvis Semdeg.

mTavrdeba ninowmindis Camdinare wylebis biologiuri gamwmendi nagebobebis

mSenebloba. .

miuxedavad aRwerilisa, saWiroa mniSvnelovani damatebiTi Tanxebis

gamoyofa sxva sakanalizacio sistemebis da CaSvebuli wylebis gamwmend

nagebobaTa aRdgena-reabilitaciisaTvis. qalaqebi da dasaxlebuli punqtebi, sadac

pirvel rigSi unda mowesrigdes wyalmomaragebisa da wyalarinebis sistemebi,

gayvanil iqnes Camdinare wylebis gamyvani koleqtorebi da aSendes gamwmendi

nagebobebi, aris cnobili kurortebi: abasTumani, wyaltubo, ureki, qobuleTi,

sairme, Sovi _ sadac wyali gamoiyeneba sarekreacio da samkurnalo miznebisaTvis.

nagavsayreli poligonebidan wylis obieqtebis dabinZurebis Tavidan

asacileblad aucilebelia wylis obieqtebis uSualo siaxloveSi ganTavsebuli

nagavsayrelebis daxurva, teritoriis aRdgena-gasufTaveba. wylis obieqtebis

piras axali ukontrolo nagavsayrelebis warmoqmnis Tavidan asacileblad ki

aucilebelia narCenebis mogrovebisa sistemis srulfasovnad amoqmedeba da

Tanamedrove, evrostandartebis damakmayofilebeli narCenebis poligonebis

daproeqteba-aSeneba.

mdinareebis luxuniswylisa da cxeniswylis dariSxaniT dabinZurebis

aRsakveTad saWiroa dagrovili dariSxanis narCenebis konservaciis RonisZiebebis

ganxorcieleba. detalebi ix. me-16 TavSi.

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