ekonomika saxelmwifo

eqe.ge

ekonomika saxelmwifo

nino talaxaZe

ekonomika

da

saxelmwifo

XI/XII

klasi


saqarTvelos saxelmwifo himni

` Tavisufleba~

Cemi xatia samSoblo,

saxate mTeli qveyana,

ganaTebuli mTa-bari,

wilnayaria RmerTTana.

Tavisufleba dRes Cveni

momavals umRers didebas,

ciskris varskvlavi amodis

da or zRvas Sua brwyindeba,

dideba Tavisuflebas,

Tavisuflebas dideba.


nino talaxaZe

ekonomika

da

saxelmwifo

XI/XII

moswavlis wigni

grifi mieniWa 2012 wels saqarTvelos ganaTlebisa da mecnierebis saministros

s.s.i.p. ganaTlebis xarisxis ganviTarebis erovnuli centris mier


avtori: nino talaxaZe

Semdgenlebi: lia gigauri,

gulnaz erqomaiSvili,

marina nacvalaZe

winasityvaoba

gTavazobT saxelmZRvanelos, romlis saSualebiTac `... Sen miemgzavrebi ekonomikis saocari

samyaros Sesaswavlad. es aris amaRlebuli grZnoba,……

gisurveb bednier mgzavrobas!” /pol samuelsoni/.

garwmunebT, es mogzauroba saintereso iqneba. Tqven axal msoflmxedvelobas eziarebiT, romelic

nebismieri adamianisaTvis Zalian mniSvnelovani, amasTanave saocrad sainteresoa.

es saxelmZRvanelo gamiznulia yvelasTvis, visTvisac sxvadasxva arCevanis gakeTebisas

(saqonlisa da momsaxurebis SeZenis, samuSaos Zebnis, politikuri figurebis arCevis, finansebis

ganawilebis Tu saxelmwifos ekonomikuri politikis Sefasebisas) swori gadawyvetilebis miReba

mniSvnelovania, visac warmatebis miRweva da ukeT cxovreba ganuzraxavs.

swored axla, damoukidebeli cxovrebisaTvis mzadebis procesSi, ufrosklaselTaTvis ekonomikis

sakiTxebSi garkveva da Tanamedrove samyaroSi orientaciis unaris SeZena udides mniSvnelobas

iZens. dRes miRebuli gadawyvetilebebi xom Tqvens momavals gansazRvravs!

warmodgenili saxelmZRvanelo gaxlavT orientiri Tanamedrove, XXI saukunis samyaros realur

urTierTobebSi. avtorebma gaiTvaliswines, rom skolis damTavrebis Semdeg bevrs saku-

Tari biznesis wamowyebis survili gauCndeba, amitom sakmaod didi adgili davuTmeT biznesis

sawyisebs. Tavisuflad SegveZlo wignisTvis `praqtikuli ekonomikis gzamkvlevi~ gvewodebina.

yovel gakveTilSi ZiriTadi ekonomikuri koncefciebi da praqtikuli situaciebia ganxiluli.

saklaso modelireba, kvleviTi proeqtebi, monacemTa analizi da debatebi ekonomikur azrovnebas

SegaCvevT, romelic Semdgom realur problemebsa da cxovrebiseul situaciebSi gasarkvevad

gamogadgebaT. Tu TiToeuli Temis dasrulebis Semdgom sakuTar Tavs dausvamT kiTxvas: `raSi

gamomadgeba am paragrafSi miRebuli codna?~ – pasuxis Zebna didxans ar dagWirdebaT. aRmoaCenT,

rom, rogorc momxmarebelma, moqalaqem, mewarmem, partniorma, daqiravebulma Tu damqiravebelma,

ukve iciT, rogor moiqceT konkretul SemTxvevaSi.

TiToeuli gakveTili moicavs Semdeg rubrikebs:

davaleba

es sainteresoa

ganmarteba

redaqtori: gulnaz erqomaiSvili

damkabadonebeli: giorgi asaturovi

imsjeleT! savarjiSo

SekiTxva situacia

kvleva

gaixseneT

daskvna


sarCevi

I Tavi: ekonomikis arsi .....................................................5

1-2. ekonomikuri azrovneba dagexmarebaT ........................................................................... 5

3. ra? rogor? visTvis? ............................................................................................................ 11

4-5. vyidulobT rac gvsurs? .................................................................................................. 16

6. Txilis bazari ........................................................................................................................ 19

7. saqarTveloSi gavrcelebuli ekonomikuri saqmianobis

istoriuli formebi ............................................................................................................ 25

II Tavi: saxelmwifo da ekonomika .............................31

8. ra miznebi aqvs Cvens ekonomikur sistemas? .................................................................. 31

9-10. ra unda gaakeTos saxelmwifom? .................................................................................. 36

11. rogoria saxelmwifos ekonomikuri funqciebi? ....................................................... 40

12. saxelmwifo biujeti ........................................................................................................... 45

13-14. gadasaxadebis saxeebi saqarTveloSi ....................................................................... 49

15. vis ekisreba gadasaxadis tvirTi? .................................................................................. 57

16. aris ki raime ufaso? ........................................................................................................... 61

17. me ra SuaSi var? .................................................................................................................... 63

18. ekonomikuri aqtivobis wrebrunva ................................................................................. 66

Tavi III. mewarmeoba da biznesi ....................................71

19-20. yvelaferi biznesis Sesaxeb ........................................................................................ 71

21. konkurencia sxvadasxva bazarze ..................................................................................... 79

22. konkurencia da SeTanxmeba ............................................................................................... 82

Tavi IV mdgradoba bazarze bazarze ......................87

23. ra xdeba realur bazarze? ................................................................................................ 87

24-25. yofna-aryofna? .............................................................................................................. 91

26. vmarTavT kompania `aTinaTs~! ......................................................................................... 95

27. vin vis ajobebs? ................................................................................................................... 97

Tavi V: saxelmwifos roli bazris

regulirebaSi .....................................................................102

28-29. saxelmwifo yovelTvis fxizladaa ......................................................................... 102

30. SevamowmoT Cveni codna – viTamaSoT samaia ............................................................. 107

Tavi VI: biznesis dagegmva ...........................................109

31-32. minda fuli, minda manqana, mogzauroba, ...biznesi minda ................................. 109

33. SeviswavloT bazari ......................................................................................................... 117

34. biznesis dafinanseba ....................................................................................................... 123

3


Tavi VII: ojaxis ekonomika ..........................................126

35. ojaxidan bankisaken ......................................................................................................... 126

Tavi VIII: ekonomikuri politikis sakiTxebi ... 133

36. konstitucia ekonomikas icavs ..................................................................................... 133

4

37-38. mTliani Sida produqti da mTliani erovnuli produqti .............................. 136

39. ZiriTadi makroekonomikuri maCveneblebi ............................................................... 142

40. daveZeb da ver vpoulob .................................................................................................. 144

41. esec saxelmwifos problemaa? ....................................................................................... 148

42-43. erT problemas meore mosdevs ................................................................................ 152

44-45. inflacia ......................................................................................................................... 157

46. aravis unda iyos Raribi .................................................................................................. 161

47-48. ekonomikuri zrda Tu ekonomikuri ganviTareba? ............................................. 167

Tavi IX: fiskaluri da monetaruli

politikis roli ekonomikaSi ..................................174

49. fiskaluri politika ....................................................................................................... 174

50. monetaruli politika .................................................................................................... 180

Tavi X: saerTaSoriso urTierTobebi

da saqarTvelo ...................................................................185

51-52. es Cemi qveyanaa .............................................................................................................. 185

53. ekonomikuri da finansuri krizisebi .......................................................................... 196

54. saerTaSoriso urTierTobebis mniSvneloba qveynis

ekonomikis ganviTarebisTvis ......................................................................................... 201

proeqtebi .............................................................................................................................205

ekonomikuri terminebis leqsikoni .............................................................................. 206


I

ekonomikis

arsi

1-2

ekonomikuri azrovneba

dagexmarebaT

male skolas daamTavrebT da sruliad gansxvavebul cxovrebas daiwyebT. albaT, jer

ar iciT, rogor warmarToT igi. ukve arCevanis winaSec dgaxarT:

`ra saqmianobas

mivyo xeli?~

`Cavabaro Tu

ara umaRles

saswavlebelSi?~

`romeli biznesia

momgebiani?~

`axlave daviwyo

dazogva, Tu roca

meti fuli meqneba?~

TiToeuli Tqvengani am kiTxvebze pasuxis gasacemad jer mzad ar aris. axla mxolod

is SegiZliaT gansazRvroT, Tu rogor dagexmarebaT ekonomika am kiTxvebze pasuxis mo-

ZebnaSi.

ratom unda iswavloT ekonomika skolaSi? imitom, rom miuxedavad arCeuli profesiisa,

yvelani ekonomikuri saqmianobis monawileni varT. zogierTi mas profesiulad axorcielebs

da amisaTvis ekonomikur mecnierebas eufleba. magram is, visac arasodes uswavlia

ekonomika da arc ki fiqrobs, rom Tavadaa ekonomikuri agenti, mudmivad awydeba

Semdeg ekonomikur problemebs: imuSaos Tu iswavlos; daxarjos fuli Tu daagrovos;

sakuTari saqme wamoiwyos Tu Tavisi samuSao Zala gaaqiraos.

Cven SezRuduli resursebis samyaroSi vcxovrobT, anu Cveni moTxovnilebebi yovelTvis

metia, maT dasakmayofileblad saWiro resursebi ki naklebi. adamianTa moTxovnilebebi

usazRvroa, resursebi ki _ SezRuduli. mudam raime produqtis ukmarisobas ganvicdiT.

SezRuduloba warmoSobs arCevanis problemas. TiToeuli adamiani Tavisi

mrvalgvari moTxovnilebebis dakmayofilebisaken iswrafvis, magram dakmayofilebisTanave

axali moTxovnilebebi uCndeba. es procesi dausrulebelia.

resursebis da moTxovnilebebis urTierTqmedeba

moTxovnilebebis maxasiaTeblebi

ganusazRvreloba

daukmayofilebloba

zrdadoba

resursebis maxasiaTeblebi

SezRuduloba

amowurvadoba

iSviaToO

ba

5


? 1.

pirveladi anu biologiuri moTxovnilebebi

– moTxovnilebebi, romelic sasicocxlod

aucilebelia adamianis arsebobisaTvis. esenia:

sakvebi, haeri, wyali, siTbo, sinaTle, usafrTxoeba,

daculoba.

socialuri moTxovnilebebi – es aris sxva adamianebTan

urTierTobis, aRiarebis, TviTgamoxatvis,

siaxlis gagebis, codnis, garTobis, dasvenebis,

megobrobis, pativiscemis da a.S. moTxovnilebebi.

zemoT CamoTvlili moTxovnilebebidan, ekonomikis

Seswavlis sagani ekonomikuri moTxovnilebebis

dakmayofilebis gzebis Ziebaa.

ekonomikuri saqmianoba. SezRudulobis problemisgan Tavis daRwevis erTaderTi

gza – Sroma anu rogorc ekonomistebi uwodeben ekonomikuri saqmianobaa. adamianebi

mravalmxriv ekonomikur saqmianobas ewevian da SezRuduli resursebiT TavianTi usaz-

Rvro moTxovnilebebis dakmayofilebis gzebs eZeben.

6

daasaxeleT, romeli produqti (saqoneli da momsaxureba) aris SezRuduli

piradad TqvenTvis, Tqveni skolisTvis, Cveni qveynisaTvis?

2. CamowereT furcelze Tqveni ojaxis umTavresi moTxovnilebebi prioritetulobis

mixedviT. SeadareT es moTxovnilebebi erTmaneTs. daakvirdiT,

ra TanmimdevrobiT dalagda isini. moZebneT kanonzomiereba, romlis

mixedviTac adamianebi upiratesobas ama Tu im moTxovnilebas aniWeben.

sociolog abraam maslous adamianis moTxovnilebaTa piramida.

ekonomika aris adamianTa saqmianobis organizacia im dovlaTis

Sesaqmnelad, romelic saWiroa maTi moTxovnilebebis dasakmayofileblad.

ekonomika aris mecniereba, romelic Seiswavlis sameurneo saqmianobis

procesSi monawile subieqtebis qcevas.

ekonomika aris mecniereba arCevanis Sesaxeb.

termini „ekonomika“ berZnuli warmoSobisaa da saojaxo meurneobis gaZRolas niSnavs.

realurad saxelmwifos cxovreba waagavs ojaxis cxovrebas, amitom logikuria, rom ekonomikis

marTva „ojaxis gaZRolasTanaa“ gaigivebuli.

saukuneebis ganmavlobaSi ekonomikurma mecnierebam evolucia ganicada – ganviTarda.

igi daiyo mraval „qvemecnierebad“, romlebic sazogadoebis ekonomikuri ganviTarebis

sxvadasxva aspeqts swavloben, magram ekonomikis, rogorc mecnierebis sagani ucvlelia.


adamianebs uamravi materialuri Tu sulieri faqtorebis gareSe cxovreba ar SeuZliaT.

maT sWirdebaT sakvebi, tansacmeli, sacxovrebeli adgili, uamravi saxis saqoneli, romlebic

gansazRvraven cxovrebis dones. adamiani arasodes ar sjerdeba miRweuls da sul

ufro meti da meti unda. amasTan yvela am moTxovnilebis dasakmayofileblad saWiroa

resursebi, romlebic Cvens irgvlivaa. swored am resursebs, maT Soris adamianTa unars

gamoiyenos es resursebi, viyenebT, raTa SevZloT Tundac fizikuri arseboba. Tumca aris

erTi mniSvnelovani problema - SezRuduloba. resursebi ar aris gamouleveli. Tu erTi

saxis resursi SedarebiT ufro metia bunebaSi da misi maragebis amowurva jer ar aris mosalodneli,

meore saxis resursi ukve dReisaTvis amowurulia, an amowurvis pirasaa.

risTvis aris saWiro ekonomika?

saboloo

piradi sazogadoebrivi

saWiroebebi

sawarmoo

adamianTa swrafva - gaiumjobesos cxovrebis materialuri pirobebi, SezRuduli

resursuli uzrunvelyofis pirobebSi aris ekonomikis, rogorc mecnierebis sagani

da umTavresi amocana. ekonomika swavlobs adamianis SeuzRudavi moTxovnilebebis dakmayofilebis

mizniT SezRuduli resursebis efeqtianad gamoyeneba/ marTvis problemebs.

SezRuduloba usazRvro moTxovnilebebisa da SezRuduli resursebis dapirispirebas

ganapirobebs. SezRuduloba adamianebs arCevanis winaSe ayenebs. arCevanis gasakeTeblad

adamianebi alternativebs afaseben.

alternativa, romelzec uari vTqviT, Cveni arCevanis alternatiuli Rirebulebaa.

7


8

saqonlis mwarmoebeli

mesakuTre

arCevanis problema ekonomikaSi

Sroma fizikuri

miwa

kapitali

resursebi mmoTxovnilebebi

SezRuduli SeuzRudavi

arCevanis

problema

arCevanis mizani

alternativebi

kriteriumebi

arCevanis fasi

(alternatiuli Rirebuleba)

adamiani _

ekonomikuri

urTierTobebis

monawile

momxmarebeli

momsaxurebis

mwarmoebeli

gamyidveli

sulieri

socialuri


arCeuli profesiis miuxedavad, yoveli Cvengani qveynis ekonomikaSi sxvadasxva rols asrulebs:

1) gadawyvetilebis mimRebis roli _ roca sakuTar alternativebs gansazRvravs, maT

Seafasebs da arCevans akeTebs;

2) momxmareblebis roli _ roca yidulobs da moixmars saqonelsa da momsaxurebas;

3) moqalaqis roli _ roca arCevnebSi monawileobs, icavs kanonebs da ixdis gadasaxadebs;

4) dasaqmebulis roli _ roca saqonlisa da momsaxurebis warmoebaSi monawileobs, fizikurad

da/an gonebrivad muSaobs;

5) danazogis Semqmnelis roli _ roca saqonlisa da momsaxurebis yidvas samomavlod gadadebs,

Tavis Semosavlebs srulad ar xarjavs, fuls bankSi abandebs da sargebels iRebs.

Cven globaluri msoflio sistemis monawileni varT, roca vcdilobT saerTaSoriso

vaWro bis sakiTxebSi gaverkveT, SeviswavloT sxva kultura da civilizacia.

am rolebis nawils Tqven ukve asrulebT. asakis matebasTan erTad sul ufro metad dag-

WirdebaT erTdroulad ramdenime ekonomikuri rolis Sesruleba.

es rom ukeTesad moaxerxoT, iswavleT ekonomikis ana-bana, iazrovneT ekonomikurad gaecaniT

sakuTari qveynis kanonmdeblobas, Tqvens movaleobebs da uflebebs saxelmwifos winaSe

da warmatebasac iolad miaRwevT.

`ekonomika momxiblveli mecnierebaa. mas kidev ufro mimzidvels

xdis is, rom misi fuZemdebluri principebi imdenad ubraloa, erT

furcelzec ki daeteva da Tanac ise, rom yvela gaigebs. miuxedavad

amisa, ekonomika mainc cotas esmis”.

milton fridmani

`ekonomika ar iZleva mza daskvnebs, romelsac maSinve gamoiyeneb

praqtikaSi. is ufro meTodia, vidre moZRvreba, gonierebis sawyobi,

azrovnebis saSualeba, romelic swori daskvnebis gakeTebaSi dagexmareba.~

jon meinard keinsi

`xSirad gamigonia, rom qriste RmerTma Tavisi kalTa siuxvisa aq,

am Cvens patara qveyanaSi daibertyao, amas imitom amboben, rom Cveni

qveyana bevrs sxva qveyanaze ufro mdidaria, ufro savsea. arc Tvi-

Ton Cvena varT uxeironi, RmerTi-rjuli. mklav-ZarRvad kargebi

varT, janic da Zal-Ronec mogvdevs, arc xalisi gvaklia..… maS raRaTa

varT Raribnio? mkiTxavT Tqven.

imitom, rom ar viciT, sad ra simdidre Zevs, sad ra ganZia. ar viciT

saidam ra amoviRoT, ra xerxiTa da ostatobiT amoviRoT, rom jafac

advili iyos da najafic blomad.

codnis gareSe dedamiwa Tavis uxvsa da uxarbels guls ar gadagvixsnis,

ise uxvad ar mogvabarebs~.

ilia WavWavaZe

,,iseTi zusti disciplina, rogoric ekonomikaa ar unda iyos arc mosawyeni

da arc rTuli.”

p. samuelsoni

9


davaleba

kiTxvebi

da

davalebebi

10

moamzadeT jgufuri prezentacia sakuTari ekonomikuri rolis

(moswavlis rolis) Sesaxeb da CamoayalibeT masTan dakavSirebuli winadadebebi.

saqoneli – Sromis produqti, romelic adamianis garkveul moTxovnilebebs

akmayofilebs da damzadebulia gasayidad.

momsaxureba – saqmianobis saxeoba, romelsac adamianebis erTi nawili

anazRaurebis miRebis mizniT meoresTvis eweva. momsaxureba moqmedebaa.

mas ganekuTvneba: swavleba, mkurnaloba, Tmis SeWra, iuridiuli momsaxureba

da a. S.

ekonomikuri moTxovnileba – survili da saWiroeba, romelic Sei-

Zleba dakmayofildes saqonlisa da momsaxurebis moxmarebiT.

SezRuduloba – mdgomareoba, rodesac adamianis moTxovnileba

aWarbebs maT dasakmayofileblad arsebuli resursebis raodenobas.

SezRudulobis problemis winaSe dganan individebi da organizaciebi,

firmebisa da saxelmwifo uwyebebis CaTvliT.

sargeblianoba – saqonlis an momsaxurebis SesaZlebloba, daakmayofilos

momxmareblis moTxovnileba.

alternatiuli Rirebuleba – saukeTeso (Cvens mier SerCevis Semdeg)

alternativa, romelzec uari vTqviT sxva arCevanis sasargeblod.

Sroma – adamianis gonebrivi da fizikuri SesaZleblobebis, unarebis

gamoyeneba materialuri dovlaTis Sesaqmnelad.

warmoeba

organizaciis

formebi

ekonomikis struqtura

moxmareba

adamianebi,

organizaciebi

ekonomika

ganawileba

saxelmwifo

xelisuflebis

organoebi

gacvla

bazari

1. daasaxeleT is moTxovnilebebi, romlebic skolasTan dakavSirebiT

gagaCniaT. axseniT, ratom ar gaqvT yvelaferi, rac skolisaTvis

gsurT. scadeT daajgufoT isini moTxovnilebaTa naswavli kategoriebis

mixedviT.

2. gadawyvetilebis miRebis modelis gamoyenebiT warmoadgineT Tqveni

piradi an saojaxo problemis gadawyvetilebis sqema. raSi mdgomareobs

problema?


a? rogor?

visTvis?

SezRudulobis problemis gamo, sazogadoebam pasuxi unda gasces sam ZiriTad ekonomikur

kiTxvas:

ra saqoneli da momsaxureba unda vawarmooT da ra raodenobiT? skolebi ufro meti

unda avaSenoT Tu kinoTeatrebi? am kiTxvaze pasuxi qveynisTvis mniSvnelovan faseulobebzea

damokidebuli. samorine ufro faseulia Tu wignebis maRazia?

rogor unda vawarmooT sxvadasxva saqoneli da momsaxureba? rogor iqnes damzadebuli

urTulesi detalebi _ xeliT Tu teqnologiebis gamoyenebiT? am kiTxvaze pasuxi

qveynis ganviTarebis donezea damokidebuli. Tu qveyanas axali teqnologiebis, Zlieri

materialur-teqnikuri bazis saSualeba aqvs, is xeliT Sromas manqanurs amjobinebs.

visTvis unda vawarmooT sxvadasxva saqoneli da momsaxureba? qalisTvis Tu mamakacisTvis,

sportsmenisTvis Tu mecnierisTvis, namibielisTvis Tu qarTvelisTvis, bavSvisTvis

Tu moxucisTvis? ekonomikuri dovlaTis ganawileba Semosavlebzea damokidebuli.

maRali Semosavlebis mqone adamianebi ufro mets moixmaren, vidre dabali

Semosavlebis mqoneni.

bazari – sistema, romelic myidvelebs (momxmareblebi) da gamyidvelebs

(mwarmoeblebi) erTmaneTTan akavSirebs.

sabazro ekonomika aris ekonomikuri sistema, romelic bazarze

myidvelebisa da gamyidvelebis urTierTqmedebiT pasuxs gascems

kiTxvebs: ra? rogor? visTvis?

sabazro ekonomikis ZiriTadi maxasiaTebeli kerZo sakuTrebaa, mamoZravebeli Zala ki –

bazari. restorani, benzingasamarTi sadguri, Jurnal-gazeTebis jixuri, musikaluri maRazia,

fotosaloni _ es Cveulebrivi bazrebia. roca bankis xelmZRvaneloba maRali kvalifikaciis

mqone kursdmTavrebul studentTan kontraqts aformebs, esec bazaria. roca

qarTveli fexburTeli italiis safexburTo klubTan molaparakebas awarmoebs, es ukve

saerTaSoriso bazaria.

rogor pasuxobs bazari kiTxvas _ ra?

individualuri gadawyvetilebebis koordinirebas bazrebi fasebis saSualebiT axdenen.

vawarmoo da gavyido = SeviZino da movixmaro

Tu xaWapuris warmoebis magaliTs ganvixilavT, xaWapurs imitom acxoben da yidian, rom

mcxobelma icis, mas viRac aucileblad SeiZens da miirTmevs.

rogor pasuxobs bazari kiTxvas _ rogor?

magaliTad, xaWapurebis gamocxoba gazquraSi, eleqtroRumelSi da SeSis RumelSi Sei-

Zleba. is, Tu sawvavis romel saxeobas gamoiyenebs mwarmoebeli, damokidebulia sawvavis

fasze. Tu bunebrivi airis fasi moimatebs, mwarmoebeli mis nacvlad bunebrivi airis alternativas

– eleqtroenergias gamoiyenebs.

rogor pasuxobs bazari kiTxvas _ visTvis?

xaWapuris sacxobSi SesaniSnavad ician, romeli momxmareblisaTvisaa gankuTvnili es

produqti.

rogorc ukve aRvniSneT, bazari sxavadasxva saxisaa, magram isini or ZiriTad qvejgufs

qmnian: saqonlisa da momsaxurebis bazari da warmoebis faqtorTa bazari.

3

11


imsjeleT

12

warmoebis faqtorebi (sawarmoo resursebi) _ ZiriTadi saxis

resursebi, romlebic saqonlisa da momsaxurebis sawarmoeblad

gamoiyeneba. kerZod, bunebrivi resursebi, adamianuri anu SromiTi

resursebi, kapitaluri resursebi, samewarmeo unari.

saqonlisa da momsaxurebis bazari _ bazari, sadac saqonelsa

da momsaxurebas yiduloben da yidian.

faqtorTa bazari – bazari, sadac warmoebis faqtorebs yiduloben

da yidian.

bunebrivi resursebi – bunebis mier naboZebi nobaTi - miwa,

okeaneebi da mdinareebi, navTobi da mineraluri wylebi, klimaturi

pirobebi.

adamianuri anu SromiTi resursebi – adamianis Zalisxmeva,

romelic gamoiyeneba saqonlisa da momsaxurebis sawarmoeblad.

SromiTi resursebis gayidva Sromiss bazarze mimdinareobs;

kapitaluri resursebi (kapitali) _ Senoba-nagebobebi,

manqanadanadgarebi da iaraRebi, romlebic warmoebis procesSi

gamoiyeneba. (Cveulebriv, adamianebi kapitals fuls uwodeben,

magram ekonomikaSi termini kapitali niSnavs realur sawarmoo

resursebs, romlebic sxva saqonlisa da momsaxurebis sawarmoeblad

gamoiyeneba).

samewarmeo unari _ adamianis unari, mogebis misaRebad organizeba

gauwios sxvadasxva tipis resursebs.

firmebi _ awarmoeben saqonelsa da momsaxurebas da maT bazarze

gasayidad awvdian.

garda zemoT CamoTvlili resursebisa, arsebobs specifikuri

resursebic, es aris: dro da informacia. imsjeleT, XXI saukuneSi ramdenad

ZviradRirebuli da SezRudulia orive maTgani, sxva resursebTan

SedarebiT.


? 1.

bunebrivi

resursebi

savarjiSo

1

sawarmoo resursebis gamoyeneba saqonlisa

da momsaxurebis warmoebisTvis

warmoeba

adamianuri

resursebi

kapitaluri

resursebi

+

saqoneli da

momsaxureba

samewarmeo

unari

ras niSnavs warmoebis faqtorebi?

2. ra saxis warmoebis faqtorebi arsebobs?

3. warmoebis faqtorebis romel saxes SeiZleba mivakuTvnoT:

a) yavis safqvavi kafeSi;

b) manganumis sabado;

g) skolis maswavlebeli;

d) limonaTis saamqros menejeri;

e) avtomanqana, romliTac ojaxis ufross qalaqgareT miyavxarT;

v) avtomanqana, romliTac ojaxis ufross mgzavrebi gadahyavs;

z) fuli, romliTac maRaziaSi produqts yidulobT;

T) fuli, romliTac sawarmo dazgas yidulobs.

4. ra resursebi gamoiyeneba puris sawarmoeblad?

maTematikaSi saSinao davalebis Sesasruleblad?

axali skolis asaSeneblad?

Tanamedrove bazari

imuSaveT jgufebSi.

qveyanaSi firmebis didi raodenoba arsebobs.

swored isini qmnian saqonlisa da

momsaxurebis bazrebs. firmebi sxvadasxva

adgilebze arian ganTavsebulni.

SeavseT savarjiSoSi mocemuli cxrili

da imsjeleT ra gansxvaveba da msgavsebaa

am firmebs Soris. savarjiSo SeasruleT

jgufebSi.

regionaluri

savaWro centri

hipermarketi

biznes-centri

katalogi

avtosaloni

gancxadeba ,,viyidi”

internetmaRazia

13


imsjeleT

momxmareblebi sasurvel produqcias firmebisgan Semdegi mizezebis gamo yiduloben:

moxerxebuloba, adgilmdebareoba, ganlageba, fasebi, mflobelisadmi keTilganwyoba, myidvelebis

imiji, saqonlisa da momsaxurebis maRali xarisxi da sxva. es CamonaTvali warmoadgens

kriteriumebs, romliTac momxmareblebi saqonlisa da momsaxurebis SerCevisas

xelmZRvaneloben. adamianebi bazarze uamravi moTxovnilebebiT midian, magram adgilze misulebs

arCevanis gakeTeba uwevT, radgan yvelafrisTvis sakmarisi Tanxa ar gaaCniaT.

saqoneli xelSesaxebi sagania, momsaxureba ki _ moqmedeba.

kiTxvebi

da

davalebebi

• xels ar uwyobs araaRdgenadi

resursebis SenarCunebas;

ar aqvs garemos dacvis

ekonomikuri meqanizmi;

• ar iZleva stimuls msxvili

proeqtebisaTvis, romlebic

swraf mogebas ar elodebian;

• ar uzruvnelyofs fundamentalur

kvlevas mecnierebaSi;

• inflaciis dros eqvemdebareba

arastabilur ganvi-

Tarebas;

• aqvs umuSevrobis safrTxe;

• aZlierebs qonebriv diferenciacias.

14

1. ratom aniWebs saqonlis yidvisas adamiani upiratesobas erT firmas, meores-

Tan SedarebiT?

2. ra msgavseba da gansxvavebaa saqonlisa da momsaxurebis bazrebs Soris?

3. iciT Tu ara romelime firma Tqvens dasaxlebaSi, qalaqSi, raionSi an sofel-

Si, romelmac marcxi ganicada. ras daukavSirebdiT mis warumateblobas?

1. warmoidgineT, rom swavlis gagrZeleba sazRvargareT gadawyviteT. iq damoukideblad

unda icxovroT da saxli TviTon moawyoT. scadeT im saqonlisa

da momsaxurebis nusxis Camowera, romelic uaxloes 1 TveSi dagWirdebaT.

daalageT es saqoneli da momsaxureba moTxovnilebebis kategoriebis

mixedviT.

2. SearCieT da gaanalizeT adgilobriv gazeTebSi ganTavsebuli sareklamo

gancxadeba. ra sakiTxze akeTebs firma aqcents, roca momxmareblis yuradRebas

ipyrobs?

3. male skolas daamTavrebT. zogi Tqvengani umaRles saswavlebels, zogi profesiul

saswavlebels miaSurebs, zogic muSaobas daiwyebs. interesi niSnis

mixedviT gaerTiandiT jgufebad da maswavleblis daxmarebiT SeiswavleT

Sesabamisi bazrebi (ganaTlebis bazari, Sromis bazari).

sabazro ekonomikis uaryofiTi mxareebi

Tavisufali mewarmeoba

kerZo sakuTreba

sabazro

ekonomka

piradi motivacia

arCevanis Tavisufleba

konkurencia

momxmarebelze orientireba


? ra unda gakeTdes imisaTvis, rom Semsubuqdes bazris negatiuri Sedegebi?

am kiTxvaze pasuxis gasacemad ganvixiloT ra rols asrulebs saxelmwifo ekonomikur

cxovrebaSi. saxelmwifos ekonomikuri zermoqmedebis romeli ZiriTadi meTodebi arsebobs?

unda arsebobdes Tu ara saxelmwofos ekonomikaSi Carevis zRvari?

damatebiTi

sakiTxavi

diskusias saxlmwifos rolis Sesaxeb grZeli istoria aqvs.

Sua saukuneebSi gaixsna politikuri ekonomiis I skola – merkantilistebis (merkantilisti

italiuri mercante - vaWari) skola. merkantilitebi mxars uWerdnen saxelmwifos aqtiur Carevas

ekonomakSi. isini amtkicebdnen, rom qveynis simdidris mTavari maCveneblia oqros raodenoba, ris

gamoc mouwodebdnen gaefarToebinaT eqsporti da SeenarCunebinaT importi.

merkantilistebis winaaRmdeg gamodiodnen fiziokratebi (fiziokrati berZnuli – physisbuneba

da kratos – Zalaufleba). fiziokratebis azriT ekonomikur procesSi Careva zedmetia (procesebi

midis bunebrivad, rogorc bunebaSi). isini mxars uWerdnen Tavisufal vaWrobas. maT devizs

warmoadgenda: ,,rac naklebad ,,marTavs” saxelmwifo, miT ukeTesia misTvisac da ekonomikisTvisac.”

XIX-XX saukeneebis mijnaze Tavisufali konkurenciis pirobebSi gaCndnen monopoliebi, romlebmac

daipyres warmoeba da gasaRebis bazari. 1929-1933 wlebSi gaCaRda ekonomikuri krizisi. man

mTeli msoflio moicva. krizisis Sedegad umuSvari darCa dedamiwis mosaxleobis 30%. krizisis

wlebSi aSS-Si gaixsna socialuri sasadiloebi umuSevrebisaTvis. uamravi adamiani mxolod sxvadasxva

SemowirulobebiT arsebobda. krizisma aiZula mecnier-ekonomistebi gadaexedaT mravali

ekonomikuri TeoriisTvis.

cnobili ingliseli ekonomisti adam smiti emxroboda Tavisuflad ganviTarebad, konkurenciul

sawyisebze dafuZnebul ekonomikas. aRiarebda saxelmwifos maregulirebel rols: ,,saxelmwifo

unda icavdes sazogadoebas Zaladobisa da gare agresiisagan, icavdes moqalaqeebis sicocxles

da qonebas, inaxavdes jars, policias, samarTaldamcav organoebs.”

saxelmwifos rolis Sesaxeb klasikosebis Teoriis uarmyofeli gaxda Tanamedroveobis udidesi

mecnier-ekonomisti jon meinard keinsi. emxroboda saxelmwifos aqtiur finasnur Carevas

ekonomikaSi. ,,sabazro ekonomika ar aris srulyofili da TviTregulirebadi”.

II msoflio omis dros es mosazreba gavrcelda mTels msoflioSi da keinsis Sexedulebebma

didi gavlena iqonia sxvadasxva qveynis ekonomikur cxovrebaze.

dRes wamyvani saxelmwifoebi sabazro urTierTobebis sul ufro da ufro aqtiuri

monawileebi xdebian. isini iseTi amocanebis gadawyvetas axerxeben, romlis gadawyveta Tavisufal

bazars ar Seswevs. momdevno gakveTilebSi am sakiTxs ufro detalurad ganvixilavT.

es

sainteresoa

daexmareba Tu ara am saqmes saxelmwifos Careva? saxelmwifo xom didia, nuTu

SesaZlebelia, rom man gadaWras ekonomikuri problemebi ufro ukeT, vidre bazris

monawileebma?

• 1563 wels inglisis dedofal elisabed II-s surda mxari daeWira erovnuli

TevzWerisTvis da gamoewvia Tevzze moTxovnis gazrda. amitom man kviraSi 2

dRe xorcis gamoyeneba akrZala.

• es gamocdileba 400 wlis Semdeg gamoiyena sabWoTa kavSiris xelmZRvanelobam

da qveyanaSi xorcis ukmarisobis kompensireba yvela sasadiloSi ,,Tevzis

dRis” gamocxadebiT moaxdina. am dReebSi ubralod SeuZlebeli iyo xorciani

kerZis SekveTa.

• roca 1966 wels imave inglisSi wamoiWra adgilobrivi Salis produqciis

gasaRebis problema, saxelmwifom misi gadaWra ,,micvalebulebs aiZula”.

amisaTvis xelisuflebam gamoacxada, rom micvalebulebi mxolod Salis

tansacmelSi unda daemarxaT. brZanebis SeusruleblobisaTvis dawesda jarima

5 funti sterlingis odenobiT, rac im dros mcire Tanxa ar iyo.

15


16

1

4-5

vyidulobT

rac gvsurs?

`aswavleT TuTiyuSs moTxovna da miwodeba da Tqvens wina-

Sea ekonomisti.~ es xumrobanarevi fraza araerTxel gamouyenebiaT

ekonomikis sxvadasxva saxelmZRvaneloSi.

? 1.

aris Tu ara am gamonaTqvamSi simarTlis marcvali?

pasuxi daasabuTeT.

2. daasaxeleT Tqveni bolodroindeli moTxovnilebebi.

ganmarteT, romeli maTgani gadaiqca moTxovnad.

3. Tqveni azriT, moTxovnilebis Seswavla ufro mniSvnelovania

mwarmoeblebisaTvis Tu moTxovnis?

fasi – fulis raodenoba, romelsac adamianebi saqonlisa da momsaxurebis

yidvisas ixdian, an saqonlisa da momsaxurebis gayidvisas iReben.

moTxovna – adamianis survili da SesaZlebloba, SeiZinos saqoneli an

momsaxureba konkretul dros da gansazRvrul adgilas. radgan moTxovnis

arsebobas adamianis survili da finansuri SesaZlebloba erTdroulad

sWirdeba, ekonomistebi mas xSirad gadaxdisunarian moTxovnilebasac

uwodeben.

moTxovnili raodenoba – momxmareblis mier SeZenili saqonlis raodenoba

(sxvadasxva fasebis pirobebSi).

miwodeba – gamyidvelebis (mwarmoeblebis) mier bazarze sxvadasxva

fasad saqonlis gatana.

miwodebis raodenoba – bazarze konkretul fasad gatanili saqonlis

(momsaxurebis) raodenoba.

Tavisufal dros megobrebTan erTad xSirad kafeSi atarebT. aq fasebi

xelmisawvdomia da momsaxurebac kargi, Tanac mosaxerxebeli adgilmdebareoba

aqvs. bolo periodSi gazrdilma fasebma Tqven da Tqveni megobrebi

sagonebelSi CagagdoT. sam TveSi fasebi 4-jer gaizarda.

SeadgineT fasebis gazrdis mimarT Tqveni reagirebis cxrili. sTxoveT

kafes mesakuTres an menejers gaixsenos produqtze fasis bolodroindeli

cvlileba. aseve sTxoveT CamoTvalos moTxovnis cvlilebis rac

SeiZleba meti mizezi, romelic fasis cvlilebas ar ukavSirdeba.

eTanxmebiT Tu ara Semdeg mosazrebas:

momxmarebeli dabali fasis pirobebSi ufro met namcxvars yidulobs,

vidre maRali fasis pirobebSi.


moTxovnis mrudi fasisa da moTxovnis sididis ukukavSirze metyvelebs. am ukukav-

Sirs moTxovnis kanoni ewodeba. moTxovnis kanoni grafikulad gamoisaxeba, igi daRmavalia

da uaryofiTi daxriloba aqvs.

avtorebi am etapze Segnebulad ar aRrmaveben aRniSnul sakiTxs, Tumca bazris meqanizmis

muSaobis ukeT gasagebad, martivad ganvixilavT mas.

? •

savarjiSo

1

imsjeleT

moTxovnis kanoni – rac ufro izrdeba saqonlisa da momsaxurebis

fasi (sxva Tanabar pirobebSi), miT ufro mcirdeba moTxovnis

raodenoba.

Tqveni azriT, ratom aris mniSvnelovani moTxovnis kanonis Seswavla?

• ra informacias iZleva an ar iZleva igi?

• kafeSi namcxvris fasis ucvlelobis probebSi da misi xarisxis gauaresebis

gamo, Semcirdeba Tu ara Tqveni moTxovna?

moTxovnis cvlilebis mizezebi

I nawili:

waikiTxeT qvemoT mocemuli sagazeTo statiis saTaurebi. gansaz-

RvreT, TiToeuli maTganis gavleniT, Seicvleba Tu ara bazarze qa-

Tmis xorcze moTxovna.

a. qaTmis xorcze fasebi izrdeba;

b. Sobadobis matebis gamo saqarTvelos mosaxleobis raodenoba izrdeba;

g. Roris xorcze fasebi ecema;

d. saqarTvelos jandacvis saministro gafrTxilebT, rom Roris

xorcis miRebam SeiZleba ziani miayenos Tqvens janmrTelobas;

e. qveyanaSi xelfasebi mesame Tvea zedized izrdeba;

v. momdevno TveSi mosalodnelia Zroxis xorcis fasis gazrda.

II nawili:

I nawilSi mocemuli moTxovnis yvela cvlileba miakuTvneT qvemoT

mocemuli kategoriidan erT-erTs, gaiTvaliswineT moTxovnis cvlilebis

mizezebi. CawereT statiis saTaurebis nomrebi moTxovnis cvlilebis

Sesabamisi mizezis gaswvriv.

zogierT kategorias SeiZleba miekuTvnebodes 1-ze meti statiis

saTauri. xolo nebismieri movlena, romelic moTxovnis cvlilebas ar

iwvevs, ar SeitanoT arc erT kategoriaSi.

momxmareblis gemovnebis cvlileba;

momxmareblis Semosavlebis cvlileba;

bazarze momxmareblis raodenobis cvlileba;

urTierTSemcvleli saqonlis fasis cvli leba;

urTierTSemavsebeli saqonlis fasis cvli leba;

samomxmareblo fasebis cvlilebis molodini.

mxolod fasi da saqonlis raodenoba gansazRvravs moTxovnis sidides,

Tu aris kidev sxva faqtorebi, romlebic myidvelebisa da gamyidvelebis

qcevaze moqmedeben?

moTxovnis cvlilebis asaxsnelad moitaneT magaliTebi sakuTari

cxovrebidan, roca moTxovnis determinantebis zegavleniT SecvaleT

sakuTari moTxovnileba.

17


savarjiSo

2

18

2

davubrundeT situacias, sadac aSkarad gamoikveTa momxmareblis qceva

fasis cvlilebisa da moTxovnis raodenobis mimarT. da axla kafes mepatronis

qceva ganvixiloT.

fasis zrdasTan erTad mwarmoeblis mier miwodebis raodenoba izrdeba,

da piriqiT, fasis SemcirebasTan erTad miwodebis raodenoba

mcirdeba. – eTanxmebiT Tu ara am mosazrebas?

3

miwodebis kanoni – rac ufro maRalia saqonlisa da momsaxurebis

fasi, miT metia miwodebis raodenoba da piriqiT, rac naklebia

fasi, miT ufro nakleb saqonelsa da momsaxurebas miawodeben

gamyidvelebi.

gaaanalizeT Semdegi situacia:

1994-1996 wlebSi qveyanaSi erT sul mosaxleze moxmareba Semcirda

erTi gamonaklisis garda _ kartofilis moxmareba 16%-iT gaizarda. ra

garemoebiT axsniT am faqts?

miwodebis cvlilebis gamomwvevi mizezebi

I nawili:

waikiTxeT qvemoT mocemuli sagazeTo statiis saTaurebi. gansaz-

RvreT Seicvleba Tu ara Rvinis sabazro miwodeba, TiToeuli maTganis

gavleniT. anu miwodebis zrdas gamoiwvevs es Tu Semcirebas?

a. wels saqarTveloSi yurZnis didi mosavali movida;

b. Camosasxmeli danadgari saSualebas iZleva yoveldRiurad Rvinis

qarxanaSi meti Rvino damzaddes;

g. yurZnis fasi 10 %-iT gaizarda;

d. gadasaxadebis Semcirebis gamo saqarTveloSi Rvinis warmoeba gaizarda;

e. ludis udidesi mwarmoebeli gakotrda, qarxnebi daixura;

v. mezobeli saxelmwifos bazarze droebiT aikrZala qarTuli samarko

Rvinoebis gatana, gamyidvelebi fass amcireben;

z. sakurorto sezonis dadgomasTan dakavSirebiT sanapiroze bevri

restorani gaixsna.

II nawili:

I nawilSi mocemuli moTxovnis yvela cvlileba SeusabameT qvemoT

mocemuli kategoriidan erT-erTs, gaiTvaliswineT moTxovnis cvlilebis

mizezebi. zogierT kategorias SeiZleba miekuTvnebodes erTze

meti statiis saTauri. xolo nebismieri movlena, romelic moTxovnis

cvlilebas ar iwvevs, ar SeitanoT arc erTkategoriaSi.

cvlileba warmoebis faqtorTa RirebulebaSi;

teqnologiuri cvlileba;

bazarze gamyidvelTa raodenobis cvlileba;

sxva alternatiuli saqonlis warmoeba;

mogebis miRebis SesaZlebloba.


1

6

Txilis

bazari

bolo dros Txilis moyvana dasavleT saqarTvelo-

Si bevrma ojaxma daiwyo. mosavali TiTqmis yovel

wels kargia, sabazro fasic - misaRebi. Tanac glexebs

produqtis bazarze gatanac ar WirdebaT, radgan distributorebs

TviTon miaqvT igi. yovelive es glexebs

SesaniSnav stimuls aZlevs Txilis warmoeba gazardon.

oTari babuam am Semodgomazec kargi mosavali aiRo,

magram ki ar gayida _ saaxalwod Seinaxa. Tan imas fiqrobda: axla Txilis 4

larad gayidvas dekemberSi ufro Zvirad gayidva ajobebso.

qalaqSi mcxovrebi nunu deida ki fuls agrovebs, axali wlis sufraze stumrebs

mravali nugbariT rom gaumaspinZldes. wina gamocdilebidan gamomdinare,

igi varaudobs, rom saaxalwlod Txilis fasi 7 laramde aiwevs.

Tqveni azriT, ra fasad gaiyideba Txili saaxalwlod?

sanam TamaSs daviwyebdeT! ..

sabazro ekonomikis daxasiaTebisas ekonomistebi siamayiT aRniSnaven misi erT-erTi Taviseburebis

Sesaxeb, rac Tavisufali fasebis arsebobas gulisxmobs. Tqveni nacnobebis wridan

gaixseneT adamianebi, romlebic mewarmeebi arian. egeb isic gsmeniaT, rom maT mier warmoebuli

produqti zogjer sasurvel fasad ar iyideba. Tu ki es asea, ras gulisxmobs termini

,,Tavisufali fasi”?

sabazro ekonomikaSi saqonelsa da momsaxurebas fasebi imis Sesabamisad anawileben, ra

Tanxis gadaxda undaT da SeuZliaT gamyidvelebs da myidvelebs am saqonelsa da momsaxureba-

Si. bazarze fasebi myidvelebisa da gamyidvelebis urTierTqmedebis Sedegad dgindeba. sabazro

ekonomikaSi bazrebis mniSvnelobis miuxedavad, bevrma ar icis, rogor `muSaobs~ bazari.

modelirebuli TamaSiT `Txilis bazari~, ukeT gaigebT, rogor xdeba fasebis dadgena bazarze

da rogor ganisazRvreba fasi miwodebisa da moTxovnis meSveobiT. am gakveTilis daxmarebiT

darwmundebiT, iZleva Tu ara sabazro sistema Tavisufali fasebis garantias.

vidre saklaso oTaxSi modelirebul bazars movawyobdeT, sadac Tqveni monawileobiT namdvili

vaWroba gaCaRdeba, gavicnoT `Txilis bazari~.

viTamaSoT `Txilis bazari~ *

modelirebuli TamaSi ,,Txilis bazari” vaWrobis 3 raundis Catarebas gulisxmobs.

TiToeuli 5 wuTs gagrZeldeba. bazari myidvelsa da gamyidvels gamoavlens, romelsac

yvelaze meti mogeba eqneba.

guldasmiT waikiTxeT es instruqciebi. daimaxsovreT! mTeli TamaSis ganmavlobaSi myidvelebi

myidvelebad rCebian, gamyidvelebi ki _ gamyidvelebad.

instruqcia myidvelebisTvis:

myidvelebi TamaSs myidvelis erT baraTiT da qulebis erTi furcliT iwyeben. myidvelis

baraTze weria: `rac SeiZleba iafad unda iyidoT erTi kilogrami Txili. Tu __________ze

Zvirad iyidiT, izaralebT~. gadaiwereT baraTze aRniSnuli fasi Tqveni qulebis furcelze.

raundis msvlelobisas, ecadeT rac SeiZleba iafad iyidoT. Tu baraTze aRniSnul fasad

iyidiT, Tqveni garigeba uzaralo iqneba. Tu baraTze aRniSnul fasze iafad iyidiT, fasTa

Soris gansxvaveba Tqveni mogeba iqneba. Tu baraTze aRniSnul fasze Zvirad iyidiT – izaralebT.

* modelirebuli savarjiSo adaptirebulia aSS ekonomikuri ganaTlebis saerTaSoriso centris

(CEE) masalebis mixedviT. © saavtoro ufleba daculia

19


Txilis yidva bazarze nebismier fasad SegiZliaT. rogorc ki Txils iyidiT, garigeba

qulebis furcelze CawereT, romelsac maswavlebeli dagirigebT. Semdeg acnobeT garigebis

fasi mas, vinc klasis monacemTa furcelze Canawerebs awarmoebs. ukan daabruneT

myidvelis baraTi, aiReT axali da daiwyeT molaparakeba axal fasze. Tu raundis ganmavlobaSi

Txils ar iyidiT, baraTis dabruneba axali baraTis misaRebad mxolod raundis

dasrulebis Semdeg SegiZliaT.

instruqcia gamyidvelebisTvis:

gamyidvelebi TamaSs gamyidvelis erTi baraTiT da qulebis erTi furcliT iwyeben. gamyidvelis

baraTze weria: `rac SeiZleba Zvirad unda gayidoT erTi kilogrami Txili.

Tu _____ ze iafad gayidiT, izaralebT~. gadaiwereT baraTze aRniSnuli fasi Sefasebis

furcelze. raundis msvlelobisas, ecadeT rac SeiZleba Zvirad gayidoT. Tu bara-

Tze aRniSnul fasad gayidiT, Tqveni garigeba uzaralo iqneba.

Tu baraTze aRniSnul fasze Zvirad gayidiT, fasTa Soris sxvaoba Tqveni mogeba iqneba. Tu

baraTze aRniSnul fasze iafad gayidiT – izaralebT. Txilis gayidva bazarze nebismier fasad

SegiZliaT. rogorc ki Txils gayidiT, garigeba qulebis furcelze Cawe reT. Semdeg acnobeT

garigebis fasi mas, vinc klasis monacemTa furcelze Canawe rebs awarmoebs. ukan daabruneT

gamyidvelis baraTi, aiReT axali da daiwyeT molapa rakeba axal fasze. Tu raundis ganmavlobaSi

Txils ar gayidiT, baraTis dabru neba axali baraTis misaRebad mxolod raundis dasrulebis

Semdeg SegiZliaT.

roca maswavlebeli bazars gaxsnilad gamoacxadebs, SeecadeT 1 kg Txilis fasze SeTanxmdeT.

nebismier myidvels da gamyidvels SeuZlia erTmaneTs gaesaubros. yvela sabazro operacia

Tanabari raodenobis larebiT unda Catardes.

myidvelebisa da gamyidvelebis mizani rac SeiZleba meti fulis Sovnaa. amas myidvelebi

ufro dabal fasad yidvis meSveobiT aRweven, vidre es maT baraTebzea miTiTebuli. gamyidvelebs

ki _ fuli ufro Zvirad gayidvis Sedegad rCebaT, vidre maT baraTebzea miTiTebuli.

yovelTvis, roca gayidva Sedgeba, myidveli amis Sesaxeb specialurad gamoyofil pirs klasis

saaRricxvo furcelSi Caawerinebs.

garigebis Sedegebi TamaSis mimdinareobisas Sefasebis furcelSi TanmimdevrobiT

CawereT.

20


axla, roca modelirebuli TamaSis Sedegebi saxezea da ukve mogeba da/an zaralic

daiTvaleT, daskvnis gakeTebac SeiZleba. raSic Semdegi kiTxvebi dagexmarebaT.

kiTxvebi

da

davalebebi

1. yvelaze xSirad ra fasad gaiyida 1 kg Txili TiToeul raundSi?

2. es fasi cnobilia sabazro anu wonasworuli fasis saxeliT. ratom

uwodeben mas ekonomistebi sabazro fass?

3. romel raundSi iyo yvelaze didi gansxvaveba fasebSi? ratom?

4. vin gansazRvravs sabazro fass: myidveli Tu gamyidveli?

5. ra sasargeblo informaciis miReba SeiZleboda TamaSis msvlelobisas

garigebis cxrilis monacemebiT?

6. ratom dajgufda bolo raundebSi fasebi wonasworuli fasis siaxloves?

7. ra moxdeboda TamaSSi gamyidvelebze gacilebiT meti myidvelebi rom

yofiliyvnen?

maswavleblis daxmarebiT aageT grafiki

yidvisa da gayidvis baraTebis darigebis Semdeg Txilis bazarze miwodebisa da moTxovnis

cxrili formirdeba. maswavleblis daxmarebiT gamoiyeneT es informacia qvemoT naCveneb

grafikze moTxovnisa da miwodebis mrudis asagebad, xolo Semdeg upasuxeT kiTxvebs.

moTxovnis cxrili (yidva)

miwodebis cxrili (gayidva)

fasi

(lari)

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

moTxovnis

raodenoba (kg)

26

22

18

14

12

10

8

5

4

2

1. rogoria wonasworuli fasi?

2. rogori fasi iqneba siWarbis dros?

3. rogori fasi iqneba deficitis dros?

fasi

(lari)

1

2

3

5

6

7

8

9

10

moTxovnis

raodenoba (kg)

0

2

4

8

10

14

18

22

26

21


? 1.

!

22

fasi(lari)

11

10

9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

0

Txilis moTxovnisa da miwodebis grafiki.

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26

raodenoba

moTamaSeebidan myidvelebi ufro karg pirobebSi iyvnen Tu gamyidvelebi?

2. ra moxdeboda TamaSSi gamyidvelebze gacilebiT meti myidvelebi rom yofiliyvnen.

3. riT gansxvavdeba gakveTilis msvlelobisas modelirebuli sabazro situacia realurisgan?

4. ra moxdeboda TamaSSi myidvelebze gacilebiT meti gamyidvelebi rom yofiliyvnen?

5. gamoikvlieT, ramdenime magaliTi Cveni qveynis realobidan, rodesac adgili hqonda

deficits da siWarbes. gaaanalizeT, rogor moxerxda problemis mogvareba.

sabazro fasi anu wonasworuli fasi iseTi fasia, romlis drosac

gamyidvelebi mzad arian gayidon im raodenobis saqoneli, ra raodenobis

moTxovnac arsebobs.

bazarze deficits adgili aqvs, roca saqonelze moTxovna metia,

vidre miwodeba. deficitis dasaZlevad fasi izrdeba manam, sanam

moTxovnili raodenoba da miwodebuli raodenoba isev ar gaTanabrdeba

da axali wonasworuli fasi anu wonasworoba damyardeba.

arsebuli wonasworuli fasis pirobebSi siWarbes adgili aqvs maSin,

roca miwodebuli saqonlis raodenoba metia, vidre moTxovnili raodenoba.

rac gamoiwvevs wonasworuli fasis Semcirebas manam, sanam

axali wonasworuli fasi ar damyardeba.

bazari iq arsebobs, sadac myidvelebi da gamyidvelebi urTierTqmedeben.

es urTierTqmedeba sabazro fasebs gansazRvravs da Sedegad SezRuduli

saqonlisa da momsaxurebis ganawilebas axdens.

S

D


mas Semdeg, rac myidvelebi da gamyidvelebi moipoveben

informacias sxvadasxva fasad arsebuli produqtebis

raodenobis Sesaxeb, bazrebi wonasworuli fasisaken iswrafvian.

miwodeba

myidvelebsa da gamyidvelebs fasebi signalebs ugzavnian

da stimulebiT uzrunvelyofen. roca miwodeba an

moTxovna icvleba, sabazro fasic icvleba da stimulebze

axdens gavlenas.

jgufebs SigniT konkurenciis gamocalkeuli my- moTxovna

idvelebi da gamyidvelebi fasebs ver akontroleben.

swored amitom ver gansazRvres winaswar Txilis sabazro

fasi, verc Txilis gamyidvelebma da verc myidvelebma.

roca saqonlis an momsaxurebis fasi wonasworul fasze dabalia, warmoiSoba moTxovnis si-

Warbe. saqonlis raodenoba, romlis realizaciisTvisac mzad arian gamyidvelebi, im saqonlis

raodenobaze naklebia, romlis yidvisTvisac myidvelebi mzad arian. bazarze am dros deficiti

warmoiSoba (saqonlis ukmarisoba) da myidvelTa Soris konkurenciis Sedegad fasi wonasworul

fasamde izrdeba.

savarjiSo

1

imsjeleT

fasi da

raodneoba

bazrisa da movlenis

urTierTdakavSirebis

Semdeg moifiqreT, rogor

Seicvleba fasi da

saqonlis raodenoba.

fasis (P) da raodenobis

(Q) gazrdis Sem-

TxvevaSi miuTiTeT _

gaizarda (), xolo Semcirebisas

miuTiTeT _

Semcirda ( ).

bazari movlena

1. skolis merxebi xis masalis fasi gaizarda

2. sacurao

kostumebi

3. sastumroebi

4. Sokoladis

kanfetebi

5. nayini

6. avtomobilebi

zafxulis ardadegebi

daiwyo

bolo dros bevri saojaxo

sastumro gaixsna

mecnierebma aRmoaCines,

rom Sokoladi bavSvebs

Zalian aRagznebs

bavSvebis umravlesobas

mSoblebi ufro met

saxarjo fuls aZleven

firmebma

avtomobilebis warmoebis

axali teqnologia

danerges

rogor axdens moTxovnis an miwodebis cvlileba wonasworuli fasisa

da gasacvleli raodenobis cvlilebas. cvlileba erT bazarze iwvevs cvlilebebs

masTan dakavSirebul bazrebze. magaliTad, Tu saqonlis xorcis

warmoebis Rirebuleba gaizrdeba, misi miwodeba Semcirdeba, rac gazrdis

mis fass da Seamcirebs gasacvlel raodenobas. gaagrZeleT Txroba am bazris

cvlilebis sxva bazrebze gavlenis Sesaxeb.

23


imsjeleT

24

1

lurji jinsisa da `oqros cvenis~ istoria

100 wlis winaT, kaliforniaSi oqro aRmoaCines. Zvirfasi liTonis saZebnelad

adamianebi mTeli msofliodan miawydnen dasavleTs, ris gamoc am teritoriebze

bevri axali qalaqi aRmocenda.

oqros maZieblebi aq mcire saxsrebiT Camodiodnen.

maT weraqvisa da sxva xelsawyoebis, fexsacmelebis,

karvebis, WurWlis, sakvebisa da tansacmlis

yidva sWirdebodaT. zogierT maTgans bedma

gauRima, oqros sabados miagno da gamdidrda. visac

ar gaumarTla, rac gaaCnda, isic dakarga.

vinaidan axlad aRmocenebul qalaqebSi sxvadasxva

saqonelze moTxovna Zalian maRali iyo,

maRaziebi da miwodebis raodenoba ki _ mcire, gamyidvelebma fasebi gazardes.

kacma, saxelad levis Strausma oqros marags miagno, Semdeg mis mopovebas

Tavi mianeba da sanacvlod Seqmna is, rac yvela maRaroels Zalian sWirdeboda

_ lurji jinsi.

Strausma san franciskoSi karvebisa da vagonebis damzadeba daiwyo. radgan

naWeri magari da gamZle iyo, erTma maRaroelma mas imave tilosgan Sarvlebis

Sekervac urCia. meore maRaroelma ki, levis Strauss jibeebze moqlonis mikerebis

idea miawoda, rac jinsis Sarvlebs daxevisagan daicavda. gansakuTrebiT,

maSin roca maRaroelebi jibeebs oqroTi ivsebdnen.

denimsad wodebulma am Sarvlebma Strauss didi warmateba moutana da SemdgomSi

isini cnobili gaxdnen, rogorc levisi.

garda maRaroelebisa, igi mTel dasavleTSi ranCos mflobelebs, fermerebsa

da kovboebs ecvaT.

dRes levi Strausis kompania msoflios udidesi tansacmlis mwarmoebeli

kompaniaa. da es yvelaferi erTi lurji jinsiT daiwyo.

moTxovnisa da miwodebis koncefciebis gamoyenebiT gaaanalizeT es istoria

da igi bazrebis urTierTqmedebas daukavSireT.

moZebneT da ganixileT sagazeTo statia, romelSic naCvenebia, rogor

moqmedebs erT bazarze momxdari cvlileba sxva bazrebze.

1. ra SeiZleba mohyves konkretul bazarze miwodebis an moTxovnis cvlilebas?

2. ras gulisxmoben ekonomistebi, roca amboben, rom `bazrebi urTierTqmedeben”?

3. ra gavlenas moaxdens bunebrivi airis fasis gazrda eleqtroenergiis

miwodebaze da wonasworul fassa da gasacvlel raodenobaze?

4. ra gavlenas moaxdens bunebrivi airis fasis gazrda ojaxebisa da

sawarmoebis gaTbobis moTxovnaze?

4. romel bazrebze ar iwvevs cvlilebebs puris gaZvireba?


7

saqarTveloSi gavrcelebuli

ekonomikuri saqmianobis istoriuli da

Tanamedrove formebi

saqarTvelos teritoriaze adamianebi uZvelesi droidan cxovrobdnen. gvarovnuli

wyobilebis periodSi isini misdevdnen SegrovebiT meurneobas, nadirobas da TevzWeras.

aseve daiwyes sakvebi mcenareebis gaSeneba, cxovelTa moSinaureba, safuZveli

Caeyara martiv miwaTmoqmedebasa da mesaqonleobas. TandaTanobiT viTardeba meTuneoba,

gansakuTrebiT sabrZolo iaraRis warmoeba, aseve rTva da qsova. mogvianebiT daiwyo

Zvirfasi liTonebis damuSaveba, sxvadasxva saxis fufunebis sagnebis warmoeba.

feodalizmis xanaSi TandaTanobiT dawinaurda soflis

meurneoba, gansakuTrebiT mevenaxeoba-mebaReoba, aseve marcvleul

da teqnikur kulturaTa warmoeba. qveynis calkeuli

samTavro, Tavisi teritoriis farglebSi, qmnida met-naklebad

izolirebul, naturalur meurneobas. ar arsebobda erTiani

samoneto sistema. imdroindeli zogi politikuri erTeuli

_ Tbilisis saamiro, tao-klarjeTis samTavro Tavad axdenda

damoukideblad monetebis moWras. feodalur mamulebSi iqmneboda

miwaTmoqmedebis damatebiTi produqcia, rac vaWrobis

ganviTarebasTan erTad xels uwyobda xelosnobis ganviTarebas.

xelosnuri warmoebis pirveli da uZvelesi forma iyo

ojaxuri mrewveloba, kerZod qsovilebisa da tansacmlis warmoeba, romelTa nedleuls

_ matyls, bambas, sels, kanafs, abreSums awvdidnen

valdebuli glexebi. ganviTarebuli iyo rkinis,

vercxlis, oqros mWedloba. ojaxuri mrewveloba

didi xnis ganmavlobaSi ZiriTadad mTaSi arsebobda.

viTardeba xelosnobis calkeuli dargebi. xelosnoba

da vaWroba ufro farTod iyo ganviTarebuli

TbilisSi. gavrcelebuli iyo mevaxSeobac, romelsac

ZiriTadad ucxo tomis warmomadgenlebi eweodnen.

aRniSnul periodSi saqarTvelos savaWro urTierTobebi hqonda iranTan, erayTan, siriasTan.

XIX saukunis dasawyisisaTvis qveynis sameurneo cxovrebaSi jer kidev soflis

meurneoba da patriarqaluri saojaxo mrewveloba batonobda.

1870-iani wlebidan saqarTveloSi fexs ikidebs kapitalizmi. am periodSi saqarTvelo

ruseTis kolonia iyo da ekonomikis ganviTareba ucxoelTa kontrolqveS mimdinareobda.

aRniSnul periodSi viTardeba mrewvelobis sxvadasxva dargi. damkvidrda msxvili

manqanuri warmoeba, aSenda didi fabrika-qarxnebi. msxvili warmoeba viTardeboda um-

Tavresad mopovebiTi mrewvelobis dargebSi, rac adgilobrivi bunebrivi simdidriT

iyo ganpirobebuli, rogoricaa, magaliTad spilenZis, qvanaxSiris, marganecis da sxva

wiaRiseulis damuSavebis ganviTareba.

swrafi tempiT izrdeba tyibulisa da WiaTuris manganumis warmoeba, baTumSi gaixsna

msxvili navTobgadamamuSavebeli sawarmo. 1872 wels gaixsna pirveli rkinigza, ramac

erTmaneTs saqarTvelos mniSvnelovani savaWro centrebi daakavSira, xolo 1883 wlidan

Tbilisi daukavSirda azerbaijans da baTumidan Aazerbaijanis navTobis msoflio bazarze

eqsports Caeyara safuZveli.

25


es

sainteresoa

26

rkinigzis istoria

saqarTvelos rkinigza evraziis satransporto derefnis erT-erTi

umniSvnelovanesi nawilia, romelic umoklesi gziT evropas centralur

aziasTan akavSirebs. ori kontinentis erTmaneTTan dakavSirebis idea

jer kidev XIX saukunis 30-ian wlebSi gaCnda. amierkavkasiis sxva qveynebisagan

gansxvavebiT, saqarTvelo privilegirebul mdgomareobaSi

aRmoCnda. Savi da kaspiis zRvebis damakavSirebeli sarkinigzo magistralis

mSenebloba 1865 wels daiwyo. pirvelma matarebelma 1871 wels

gaiara rkinigzis monakveTi foTi-yvirila (amJamad zestafoni), xolo

1872 wlis 10 oqtombers Tbilisidan foTSi pirveli matarebeli Cavida.

swored es TariRi iTvleba saqarTvelos rkinigzis ,,dabadebis dRed”.

mas Semdeg saqarTvelos rkinigzis mSenebloba Cqari tempebiT xorcieldeboda.

saqarTvelos rkinigzis mSeneblobis

meore etaps ganekuTvneba sarkinigzo

xazi Tbilisi - baqo, romelic aseve evraziis

derefnis nawili iyo. rkinigzis xazi

Tbilisi - baqo eqspluataciaSi 1883 wels

Sevida. am faqtma safuZveli Cauyara ba-

Tumis portidan Savi zRvis gavliT, azerbaijanuli navTobis msoflio

bazarze gatanas. 1899 wels gaixsna rkinigzis xazi, romelic saqarTvelos

da somxeTTan akavSirebda.

borjomis xeoba, sakurorto pirobebiTa da mTel msoflioSi

ganTqmuli mineraluri wyliT ,,borjomi”, yovelTvis warmoadgenda

gansakuTrebul interess. borjomis bunebrivi simdidris komerciuli

sargeblis mizniT romanovebma xaSuri - borjomis rkinigzis monakveTis

mSenebloba daiwyes. axali xazi eqspluataciaSi 1894 wels Sevida.

viwroliandagiani sarkinigzo xazis mSenebloba 1897 wels daiwyo da

rTuli klimaturi pirobebis gamo, oTxi wlis ganmavlobaSi gagrZelda.

1902 wlis ianvridan viwroliandagiani rkinigzis xaziT borjomi - bakuriani,

pirvelma ,,kukuSka” matarebelma gaiara. `kukuSka~ dRemde emsaxureba

saTxilamuro sportis moyvarulebsa da turistebs. maRalmTian

raionebSi kursirebisaTvis spcialurad inglisidan iqna Camoyvanili

,,porteris” tipis orTqlmavali. matarebels ebmoda Ria tipis vagonebi,

romlebic mxolod moajirebiT iyo Semoraguli. 1967 wlidan patara

orTqlmavali eleqtromatarebelma Caanacvla. xidi, romelic waRvers

cemTan borjomi - bakurianis rkinigziT akavSirebs, romanovma specialurad

SeukveTa safrangeTSi.

kaxeTis rkinigzis xazis mSenebloba 1915 wels dasrulda. am monakveTis

aSenebam ganviTarebis saSualeba misca im raionebs, romlebic

msoflioSi cnobil Rvinoebs awarmoeben: ,,mukuzani”, ,,winandali”, ,,rqawiTeli”,

,,manavis mwvane” da sxv.

1932 wels xaSurSi pirveli eldepo aSenda. swored am depoSi gaiara

Semowmeba ,,ВЛ-19” seriis pirvelma sabWoTa eleqtromatarebelma. amJamad

pirveli eleqtromatarebeli xaSuris sadgurSi dgas kvarcxlbekze.

am momentidan rkinigza etapobrivad eleqtrifikaciaze gadadis. 1967 wlis

noemberSi saqarTvelos rkinigzis yvela monakveTze, maT Soris viwriliandagian

borjomi-bakurianis xazze, eleqtrifikaciis procesi dasrulda.

1974 wlidan rkinigzaze Cndeba axali, Tanamderove eleqtromatareblebi,

romlebic Tbilisis eleqtrovagonmSenebel qarxanaSi iyo damza


debuli.

qveynis mrewvelobis wamyvani dargebisa da soflis meurneobis iseTi

dargebis, rogoricaa mebaReoba, meRvineoba, citrusisa da Cais

kulturebis ganviTarebasTan erTad, daiwyo rkinigzis axali xazebis

mSenebloba: natanebi - ozurgeTi (1924 w.), broweula- wyaltubo (1935

w.), senaki - ingiri - gali (1930 w.), gali - oCamCire - soxumi (1938 w.), gori

- cxinvali (1940 w.).

rkinigzis xazis soxumi - adleris mSeneblobam, romelic meore

msoflio omis dros daiwyo, saqarTvelos rkinigza ruseTis sarkinigzo

qselTan daakavSira. aRniSnuli monakveTis mSenebloba 1949 wels

dasrulda. 1986 wlis 31 dekembers dasrulda marabda - axalqalaqis

rkinigzis xazis mSenebloba.

saqarTvelos rTulma geografiulma reliefma mravali xelovnuri

sainJinro nagebobis mSenebloba ganapiroba, romelTa ricxvi 3700 aRemateba.

saqarTvelos rkinigzis saerTo sigrZe 2344, 2 kilometria.

2012 wlis 12 aprils Sps `saqarTvelos rkinigza~ gardaiqmna saaqcio

sazogadoebad.

wyaro: saqarTvelos rkinigza. http://www.railway.ge

baqo-Tbilisi-yarsis proeqti

baqo-Tbilisi-yarsis proeqti aris axali satransporto derefani,

romelic gaaerTianebs azerbaijanis, saqarTvelosa da TurqeTis sarkinizo

xazebs. baqo-Tbilisi-yarsis sarkinigzo magistralis proeqtis

ganxorcieleba 2007 wels daiwyo da iTvaliswinebs saqarTvelos

teritoriaze marabda-axalqalaqis sarkinigzo xazis reabilitaciarekonstruqcias

da axali sarkinigzo xazis mSeneblobas axalqalaqidan

TurqeTis sazRvramde. yarssa da axalqalaqs Soris 98 km sigrZis

magistrali gaivlis, aqedan 30 km saqarTvelos teritoriaze.

rac Seexeba bosforis srutis qveS gvirabis gayvanas, proeqti 2013

wels dasruldeba, ris Semdegac baqo-Tbilisi-yarsis sarkinigzo magistrali

evropas daukavSirdeba. TurqeTis gavliT, gaixsneba sarkinigzo

derefani kaspiis zRvidan evropisken, romelic sabolood

gamoricxavs sazRvao gziT gadazidvis saWiroebas. am xaziT moxdeba

rogorc satvirTo, ise samgzavro gadayvanebi da is moiazreba rogorc

alternatiuli satvirTo transportirebis gza iranidan momavali arsebuli

satranzito gzebis nacvlad.

wyaro: saqarTvelos rkinigza. http://www.railway.ge

XIX s. 80-iani wlebidan saqarTveloSi mrewvelobis mravali dargi wvrili warmoebis

formebidan da manufaqturidan fabrikul formaSi gadadis. ase moxda abreSumis, bambis

mrewvelobis dargebSi, Tambaqos, tyavis, kasrebis,

aguris da kramitis warmoebaSi. aRniSnul periodSi

saqarTveloSi daiwyo aryis, koniakis, Rvinis, ludis

qarxnuli wesiT warmoeba. aseve xileuli wylebis warmoeba.

saqarTvelo warmoadgenda ekonomikurad CamorCenil

qveyanas, romelsac calmxrivad ganviTarebuli mrewveloba

da naklebproduqtiuli, upiratesad wvrilglex-

27


uri soflis meurneoba hqonda.

1920-30-ian wlebSi saqarTveloSi daiwyo socializmis mSenebloba, romelmac TiTqmis

70 weli gastana. aRniSnul periodSi ekonomikis safuZveli saxelmwifo da sakolmeurneo

sistema iyo. sabWoTa wyobilebis mier soflad gatarebuli reformebi cnobilia

`soflis koleqtivizaciis~ saxeliT. soflad Seiqmna koleqtiuri meurneobebi. miRebuli

mosavali koleqtivis wevrebze nawildeboda. kolmeurneobebi valdebulni iyvnen

saxelmwifos mier dawesebuli sasoflo-sameurneo produqciis warmoebis gegmebi SeesrulebinaT.

Raribi glexoba, romelsac dasakargi araferi hqonda, nebayoflobiT gaerTianda

kolmeurneobebSi. saSualo glexoba meryeobda, xolo mdidari glexoba (`kulakoba~)

misi sakuTrebis koleqtiurad gadaqcevis sastiki winaaRmdegi iyo, Tumca sabolood

mainc moxerxda maTi winaaRmdegobis daZleva da soflad kolmeurneobebi da sabWoTa

meurneobebi Camoyalibda.

amuSavda WiaTuris marganecis qarxana, tyvarCelis qvanaxSiris warmoeba, baTumis nav-

TobgadamamuSavebeli qarxana, zestafonis feroSenadnobis qarxana. pirveli warmatebebi

mopovebuli iqna qveynis eleqtrofikaciaSi.

XX saukkunis 50-60-ian wlebSi aSkarad gamovlinda sabWoTa sistemis krizisi. sul

ufro Canagdeboda qveynis ekonomika, ecemoda qveynis mosaxleobis socialuri done.

gansakuTrebiT didi xarjebi xmardeboda samxedro mSeneblobas.

daqveiTebas ganicdida qarTuli ekonomikac. daeca qarTuli samrewvelo produqciis

xarisxi, gansakuTrebiT dabali xarisxis iyo msubuqi mrewvelobis produqcia. kolmeurneobebsa

da sabWoTa meurneobebSi ganuxrelad ecemoda Sromis nayofiereba. ekonomikis

krizisma gamoiwvia fasebis zrda, ramac kidev ufro gaauaresa cxovrebis done.

XX saukunis 70-iani wlebis dasasrulisa da 80-iani damdegisaTvis sabWoTa sistemis

krizisma yovlismomcveli xasiaTi miiRo. daeca mrewvelobis done, savalalo mdgomareobaSi

aRmoCnda soflis meurneoba, moiSala transportis muSaoba, gaizarda fasebi

produqciaze, Seiqmna produqciis umwvavesi deficiti.

sabWoTa periodSi warmoebis saSualebebze arsebobda sazogadoebrivi sakuTreba.

saxelmwifo ukveTavda sawarmoebs produqciis warmoebas dadgenili gegmis mixedviT da

mis realizaciasac TviTon axdenda. kerZo sakuTreba da mewarmeoba danaSaulad iyo miCneuli.

`mewarmeoba~, `saqmosnoba~ da `komersantoba~ sazogadoebaSi negatiuri mniSvnelobiT

gamoiyeneboda.

XX s-is 90-iani wlebidan saqarTveloSi mewarmeTa fenis Camoyalibeba daiwyo. swrafi

tempiT ganviTarda kerZo seqtori, Tumca am periodSi Seqmnil kooperativTa umravlesoba

(75-80%) saxelmwifo sawarmoTa bazaze formirdeboda. kooperativebis mimarT

tardeboda SedarebiT liberaluri fasebis politika, xolo saxelmwifo sawarmoebis

mier warmoebul produqciaze (momsaxurebaze, samuSaos Sesrulebaze) dawesebuli iyo

fiqsirebuli fasi. xSirad SekveTebi sruldeboda kooperativis saxeliT da Sedegad

kooperativis fassa da saxelmwifo sawarmos fass Soris sxvaoba mniSvnelovani Semosavlebis

miRebis SesaZleblobas iZleoda. sabazro ekonomikaze gardamaval sawyis etapze

mewarmeoba da kerZo seqtori yalibdeboda rogorc saxelmwifo seqtoris danamati.

amave periodSi daiwyo saarendo urTierTobebis (gansakuTrebiT arenda gamosyidvis

uflebiT) damkvidreba, ramac xeli Seuwyo saxelmwifo seqtoridan kerZo seqtorSi

qonebis faqtiurad ukontrolo gadadinebis process. gaaqtiurda savaWro urTierTobebi

sazRvargareTis qveynebTan. Seiqmna mewarmeobis ZiriTadi rgoli firma.

28


„mewarmeTa Sesaxeb” saqarTvelos kanoniT gaTvaliswinebuli

nebismieri organizaciul-samarTlebrivi formis sawarmo, agreTve

arasamewarmeo (arakomerciuli) iuridiuli piri, romelic eweva samewarmeo

saqmianobas am saqmianobis nawilSi.

firma aris organizacia, romelic flobs erT an ramdenime sawarmos

da resursebs iyenebs produqciisa da momsaxurebis warmoebisaTvis

mogebis miRebis mizniT.

komerciuli organizaciis saqmianoba mimarTulia mogebis

miRebaze, es aris misi mTavari mizani. arakomerciuli organizaciis

mizani ar aris mogebis miReba da misi ganawileba. orive tipis

organizacia SeiZleba gaerTiandnen kavSirebsa da asociaciebSi.

saqmianobis mizanze damokidebulebiT nebismieri firma SeiZleba iyos:

komerciuli organizacia;

arakomerciuli organizacia.

saqmianobis saxeebisa da Sesrulebuli operaciebis xasiaTis mixedviT ganasxvaveben

Semdeg firmebs: industriuli, savaWro, satransporto, satransporto-saeqspeditoro,

sadazRvevo, inJiniringuli, turistuli, turoperatiuli, saarendo, sareklamo firmebi

da saagentoebi da sxva.

sakuTrebis

formis mixedviT

firma SeiZleba

ekuTvnodes


erT pirs _ individualuri sawarmo

or an met partniors _ partnioruli sawarmo

mraval partniors _ korporaciuli sawarmo

saxelmwifos – saxelmwifo sawarmo

saqarTveloSi sididis mixedviT ganasxvaveben:

mcire firmebs (dasaqmebulTa raodenoba ar unda aRematebodes 20 dasaqmebuls, xolo

wliuri brunva 0,5 mln lars);

saSualo firmebs (asamde dasaqmebuli da wliuri brunva 1,5 mln laramde);

msxvil firmebs.

ekonomikuri saqmianobis saxeebis klasifikaciaSi

ekonomikis dargebis mixedviT gamoiyofa Semdegi seqciebi

soflis meurneoba, nadiroba da satyeo meurneoba, TevzWera, meTevzeoba;

samTomopovebiTi mrewveloba;

damamuSavebeli mrewveloba;

eleqtroenergiis, airis, orTqlisa da cxeli wylis warmoeba da ganawileba;

mSenebloba;

vaWroba; avtomobilebis, sayofacxovrebo nawarmisa da piradi moxmarebis sagnebis

remonti;

sastumroebi da restornebi;

transporti da kavSirgabmuloba; safinanso saqmianoba;

operaciebi uZravi qonebiT, ijara da momxmareblisaTvis momsaxurebis gaweva;

29


saxelmwifo mmarTveloba;

ganaTleba;

janmrTelobis dacva da socialuri daxmareba;

komunaluri, socialuri da personaluri momsaxurebis gaweva;

Sinamosamsaxuris saqmianoba da Sinameurneobebis saqmianoba, dakavSirebuli saqonlisa

da momsaxurebis warmoebasTan sakuTari moxmarebisaTvis;

eqsteritoriebis organizaciebis saqmianoba.

30

!

sabazro ekonomikis mTavari mamoZravebeli Zala mewarmeTa fenaa,

romelic bazris karnaxiT moqmedebs da amiT uzrunvelyofs qveynis

ekonomikis srulyofas da ganviTarebas. rac ufro myarad Camoyalibdeba

mewarmeTa klasi, miT ufro male gamova qveyana ekonomikuri

krizisidan. saxelmwifom mewarmeebs unda Seuqmnas xelsayreli socialuri,

politikuri, samarTlebrivi da sabazro garemo. sabazro

ekonomikis pirobebSi mewarmes unda marTavdes mxolod bazari da saxelmwifoSi

moqmedi kanonmdebloba.


? 1.

II

saxelmwifo da

ekonomika

gaixseneT, romeli

ekonomikuri

problemebis gada

wyveta uxdebaT

qve y nebs?

8

ra miznebi aqvs Cvens

ekonomikur sistemas?

2. daasaxeleT qveyana,

ro melsac

re sur sebis Se z­

Rudulobisa da

moT x ovnilebebis ganusazRvrelobis problema ar awuxebs.

3. DTqveni azriT, romeli miznis miRwevaa qveynisTvis ufro faseuli da mniSvnelovani?

ekonomikuri

zrda

ekonomikuri

Tanasworoba

ekonomikuri

Tavisufleba

saxelmwifos

socialuri

miznebi

ekonomikuri

stabiluroba

ekonomikuri

efeqtianoba

31


savarjiSo

sabazro

ekonomikuri

sistema

32

jgufuri muSaoba axal terminebze

a) imuSaveT wyvilebSi.

• rogor gesmiT sqemaze gamosaxuli

TiToeuli terminis Sinaarsi?

• sad SegxvedriaT es terminebi?

• ra magaliTebi SegiZliaT moiyvanoT

am terminebTan mimarTebaSi?

b) moifiqreT TiToeuli terminis

gansazRvreba da furcelze

CamowereT.

miniSneba: yuradReba gaamaxvileT

sityvaze `ekonomikuri~.

g) gaecaniT erTmaneTis mosazrebebs.

ra gaigeT saxelmwifos socialuri

miznebis Sesaxeb?

miRebuli informacia warmoadgineT

cxrilis saxiT.

vici

(I)

ekonomikuri

Tavisufleba

niSnavs arCevanis

Tavisuflebas

ekonomikuri

stabiluroba

niSnavs ....

ekonomikuri

efeqtianoba

niSnavs ....

ekonomikuri

Tanasworoba

niSnavs ....

ekonomikuri

zrda

niSnavs ....

rig

SemTxvevaSi,

xom ar zRudavs

saxelmwifo ...

ekonomikur

Tavisuflebas?

ekonomikur

stabilurobas?

ekonomikur

efeqtianobas?

ekonomikur

Tanasworobas

ekonomikur

zrdas?

ekonomikuri sistema SeiZleba aRvweroT rogorc kanonebis,

adamianuri faseulobebis, interesebis, organizaciebis erToblioba,

sadac xdeba ekonomikuri gadawyvetilebebis miReba.

Sereuli

ekonomikuri

sistema

ekonomikuri

sistemis

saxeebi

tradiciuli

ekonomikuri

sistema

mbrZanebluri

ekonomikuri

sistema

arsebobs tradiciuli, mbrZanebluri, sabazro da

Sereuli ekonomikuri sistema. TiToeul sistemaSi

ZiriTadi ekonomikuri problemebi `ra vawarmooT~,

`rogor vawarmooT~ da `visTvis vawarmooT~ sxvadasxvanairad

wydeba.

`rogor

vawarmooT~

`visTvis

vawarmooT~

`ra

vawarmooT~


tradiciuli

tradiciul ekonomikur sistemaSi adamianebi Taobidan Taobamde

imeorebdnen warmoebisa da ganawilebisa meTodebs.

mbrZaneblur ekonomikaSi saxelmwifo mgegmavebi yvela ekonomikur

saqmianobas mimarTulebas aZleven _ saxelmwifo iRebs

gadawyvetilebebs imis Sesaxeb, Tu ra, rogor da visTvis iqnas warmoebuli.

mTeli qoneba saxelmwifos xelSia da ar arsebobs kerZo

sakuTreba.

sabazro ekonomikaSi ekonomikuri saqmianoba organizebulia

bazrebis meSveobiT. saxelmwifos roli SezRudulia.

ekonomikur sistemas, romelSic saxelmwifo kontrolis elementebi

Serwymulia kerZo mflobelobasTan Sereuli ekonomikuri

sistema ewodeba.

ekonomikuri sistemis tipebi

sakuTreba miwaze da kapitali

koleqtiuri kerZo saxelmwifo

arsebuli

tradiciebis

mixedviT

sabazro

(kapitalisturi)

SezRuduli resursebis ganawileba

bazris

meSevobiT

komanduri

(socialisturi)

centralizebulad

da Sesabamisadsaxelmwofo

gegmis

mixedviT

Sereuli

saxelmwifo

da kerZo

bazrebis

daxmarebiT da

saxelmwifos

monawileobiT

(sabazro da

komanduri

meqanizmebi)

davaleba waikiTxeT teqsti. daasaxeleT frazebi, romlebic Tqvens varauds

amtkicebs an uaryofs; daasaxeleT mniSvnelovani informacia, romlis

aRmoCenac moulodneli iyo an ris Sesaxebac metis gageba gsurT.

sabazro ekonomikaSi (anu Tavisufal ekonomikaSi) bazari TviTon

aregulirebs kerZo mewarmeTa da individualur momxmarebelTa urTierTobebs.

sabazro ekonomika Semdeg ZiriTad principebs emyareba:

Tavisufali mewarmeoba, sakuTrebis mravalferovneba da sabazro

faswarmoqmna.

sabazro ekonomikis dros adamianebi da firmebi bazarze sxvadasxva

formiT monawileoben _ rogorc momxmareblebi, mwarmoeblebi, muSebi,

danazogebis mflobelebi da investorebi. maTi gadawyvetilebebi sxva­

33


34

dasxva saqonlisa da momsaxurebis moTxovnasa da miwodebaze aisaxeba. sabazro

fasebi da maTi cvlileba signals aZlevs mwarmoeblebs (gamyidvelebs)

imis Sesaxeb, Tu ra undaT momxmareblebs (myidvelebs).

msoflioSi arcerTi ekonomikuri sistema ar aris warmodgenili

wminda tradiciuli, mbrZanebluri da sabazro ekonomikis saxiT. XX

saukunis bolo aTwleulidan msoflioSi bevrma ekonomikurma sistemam

cvlileba ganicada. magaliTad, tradiciis elementebi ufro

aSkarad igrZnoboda aziisa da afrikis ganviTarebadi qveynebis soflebSi.

Tumca, amJamad es raionebi sabazro an mbrZanebluri ekonomikis

gavlenasac ganicdian. mbrZanebluri meTodebi arsebobda yofil sab­

WoTa kavSirSi. CineTSi mbrZanebluri ekonomikis elementebi Serwymulia

tradiciul da sabazro ekonomikasTan.

ekonomikuri sistemis Sesabamisad, qveynis ekonomikaSi saxelmwifo

garkveul rols asrulebs. rodesac calkeuli individebi an jgufebi

Semosavlebis ganawilebiT ukmayofiloni arian, saxelmwifo xSirad xelaxla,

pirdapiri gziT axdens maT gadanawilebas.

mbrZanebluri da sabazro ekonomikebis Sedareba

mbrZanebluri ekonomikaSi sabazro ekonomikaSi

• yvela saxis resursze saxelmwifo

sakuTrebaa (garda adamianuri resursebisa).

• resursebis pirvelad ganawilebas

saxelmwifo mgegmavebi gansazRvraven.

• mgegmavebis mier dawesebuli xelfasebi

Semosavlebis Tanasworobis

safuZvelia.

• ar arsebobs umuSevroba.

saxelmwifo sawarmos safrTxe ar

emuqreba, saxelmwifo subsidiebis,

fasebis gazrdis nebarTvis an sagadasaxado

valdebulebebisagan ganTavisuflebis

gamo.

• socialuri miznebis Sesabamisad da

momxmareblis azris TiTqmis gauTvaliswineblad,

mgegmavebi warmoebis

Sesaxeb gadawyvetilebebs iReben.

• momxmareblebs araviTari gavlena ara

aqvT warmoebuli produqtis fasze,

raodenobaze an xarisxze.

• ekonomikuri damoukideblobis mizniT

sagareo vaWroba SezRudulia.

• Cveulebriv, sabazro wonasworobis

fasze dabla dawesebuli fasebi

saqonlis gayidvasa da fasebis kontrols

uzrunvelyofen.

• yvela saxis resursze kerZo sakuTrebaa.

• produqtebsa da resursebs sabazro

fasebi gansazRvravn.

• Semosavali damokidebulia individebis

kuTvnil gasayid resursebze.

• umuSevrobis zogierTi forma misaRebia,

radgan adamianebi samuSaos

icvlian, mewarmeebi sxvadasxva unarebs

iTxoven, arsebobs cikluri

ryevebi da moTxovnis sezonuri cvlilebebi.

• warmoebis Sesaxeb firmebis gadawyvetilebaSi

ZiriTad rols momxmareblis

moTxovna asrulebs.

• saerTaSoriso specializacia xels

uwyobs konkurencias da warmoebis

danaxarjebsa da fasebs dabal doneze

inarCunebs.

• fasebi moxmarebasa da warmoebas sabazro

wonasworul doneze aregulirebs.


?

eTanxmebiT Tu ara debulebebs?

1. mbrZaneblur ekonomikur sistemaSi mgegmavebi aweseben fasebs, gamoSvebis

moculobas, kapitalisa da investiciebis ganawilebas da zogjer TviT

xelfasebsac ki imisaTvis, rom yvelas dasaqmebaSi darwmunebulni iyvnen;

imsjeleT

2. mbrZanebluri ekonomikisaTvis gamoSvebis (Sedegis) stabiluroba da

Tanasworoba metad mniSvnelovania, vidre sabazro ekonomikisaTvis;

3. sabazro ekonomikis pirobebSi ekonomikuri zrda centraluri mgegmavebis

mier ganisazRvreba;

4. mbrZaneblur ekonomikaSi ekonomikuri Tavisufleba SezRudulia da msxverplad

iseTi miznebis miRwevas ewireba, romelsac mgegmavebi sazogadoebis

saerTo keTildReobisaTvis saukeTesod Tvlian.

1. rogor fiqrobT, sabazro ekonomikis qveynebi ufro ukeT viTardebian

Tu mbrZanebluri ekonomikuri sistemis mqone qveynebi? pasuxi daasabuTeT;

2. romel ekonomikur sistemaSi SeiZleba iyos ekonomikuri Tavisufleba

da kerZo sakuTeba?

3. Tu icnobT adamianebs, romlebic sxvadasxva saqonelsa da momsaxurebas

ufasod iReben? Tu icnobT adamianebs, romlebic umuSevrobis

Semweobebs, socialuri dacvis sapensio daxmarebebs iReben?

4. CamowereT erTi dRis ganmavlobaSi momxdari movlenebi. yuradReba

gaamaxvileT, rogor gavlenas axdens saxelmwifo programebi

Tqveni ojaxis cxovrebaze (magaliTad, Semweobebi, komunaluri gadasaxadebis

SeRavaTebi, janmrTelobis dazRveva da sxv).

35


saSinao davalebis prezentacia

saxelmwifos SeuZlia garkveul sazRvrebSi

daexmaros ekonomikas, magram misi SesaZleblobebi

– ziani miayenos mas, ganusazRvrelia~.

jon meinard keinsi

xanmoklea im xelisuflebis Zalaufleba, romelic

xalxis sazianod marTavs.

seneka

36

9-10

ra unda gaakeTos

saxelmwifom?

saxelmwifo akontrolebs ekonomikas?

sazogadoebis ganviTarebis mTeli istoriis manZilze saxelmwifo ekonomikis

ganuyofel nawilad ganixileboda da ganixileba. miuxedavad saxelmwifos ekonomikuri

funqciebis Sesaxeb ekonomikur TeoriaSi arsebul azrTa radikaluri sxvadasxvaobisa,

Tanamedrove saxelmwifo ekonomikis regulirebaSi aqtiurad monawileobs, rac

Tavis mxriv uciloblad ganapirobebs ekonomikuri politikis formirebas.

saxelmwifos mxridan ekonomikis regulirebaSi monawileobis xarisxi gansxvavebulia,

magram unda aRiniSnos, rom miuxedavad amisa, saxelmwifo ekonomikaSi yvelgan gamodis

rogorc regulatori anu ekonomikuri politikis SemmuSavebeli da ganmaxorcielebeli,

aseve rogorc uSualod ekonomikuri subieqti.

miuxedavad imisa, rom sabazro ekonomikis pirobebSi, ekonomikaze zemoqmedebis berketebis

TvalsazrisiT saxelmwifo sakmaod SezRudulia, ekonomikuri miznebis sworad

SerCevas, maTi miRwevis SesaZlo variantebis gaTvlasa da Sedegebis winaswar ganWvretas

gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba eniWeba.

saxelmwifos roli ekonomikaSi TandaTanobiT, magram ganuxrelad izrdeba, gansakuTrebiT

socialuri uzrunvelyofis regulirebis sferoSi. sferoSi. amas Tundac is

faqtic adasturebs, rom yvelaze ganviTarebul kapitalistur qveynebSi saxelmwifos

mier gaweulma xarjebma Tu 1913 wels saSualod mTliani Sida produqtis (ganmarteba

ixileT momdevno gverdze) 13% Seadgines, gasuli saukunis bolosaTvis igive maCvenebeli

ukve 45% iyo.

mxolod saxelmwifos gaaCnia is umniSvnelovanesi instrumentebi, romliTac

ekonomikis regulireba SesaZlebelia. mag. fulis gamoSveba, denacionalizacia da

sxva. ekonomikuri urTierTobebis sxva subieqtebs ar gaaCniaT msgavsi Zlieri berketebi.

kidev didi xnis ganmavlobaSi isini isev saxelmwifos eqskluziur mflobelobaSi

darCebian.

saxelmwifos ekonomikuri politika aris xelisuflebis mier

saxelmwifos miznebidan, amocanebidan da interesebidan gamomdinare

ekonomikis sferoSi gatarebul RonisZiebaTa, qmedebaTa sistema

da ekonomikuri procesebisaTvis gansazRvruli mimarTulebebis

micema, ekonomikuri qcevebis an maTi Sedegebis gakontroleba da ma­

Tze zemoqmedeba.


ekonomikuri

politika

moicavs

• struqturul politikas;

• sainvesticio politikas;

• fulad­sakredito politikas;

• socialur politikas;

• sagareo­ekonomikur politikas;

• samecniero­teqnikur politikas;

• sagadasaxado­sabiujeto politikas;

• samrewvelo, agrarul da a.S. ekonomikur

politikas.

ekonomikuri Tavisufleba gulisxmobs arCevanis Tavisuflebas:

momxmareblebisaTvis – Tu rogor daxarjon an dazogon Semosavali,

muSakebisaTvis – sad daiwyon an Seicvalon samuSao, mewarmeebisaTvis

– daiwyon axali biznesi an daxuron Zveli firma.

mTliani Sida produqti (mSp) aris erTi wlis manZilze qveyanaSi

Seqmnili saboloo moxmarebis saqoneli da momsaxureba.

ekonomikuri zrda xdeba maSin, rodesac izrdeba qveyanaSi Seqmnili

realuri mTliani Sida produqti (mSp).

erT sul mosaxleze mSp _ qveynis cxovrebis donis ZiriTadi

maCvenebelia. igi izomeba realuri mSp gayofili qveynis mosaxleobis

ricxovnobaze. imisaTvis, rom erT sul mosaxleze mSp gaizardos,

qveyanam yovelwliurad warmoebuli saqonlisa da momsaxurebis

raodenoba unda gazardos. mSp–s wliuri zrda 3­dan 4%­mde damakmayofilebel

miznad ganixileba.

ekonomikur stabilurobas arRvevs ekonomikaSi warmoebuli

saqonlisa da momsaxurebis fasebis saSualo donis cvlileba (zrda

an Semcireba).

ekonomikuri Tanasworoba aris ekonomikuri saqmianobis samar­

Tlianoba. samarTlianobis sakiTxi wamoiWreba gacvlisas an Semosavlebis

ganawilebisas: sxvadasxva Semosavlis mqone adamianebis

dabegvrisas, dabalSemosavliani ojaxebisaTvis daxmarebis programebis

ganxorcielebisas da sxv.

ekonomikuri efeqtianoba niSnavs SezRuduli resursebis yairaTian

gamoyenebas. qveynis ekonomikisaTvis amas orgvari Sedegi

moaqvs: 1) iwarmoeba is saqonli da momsaxureba, rac adamianebs

yvelaze metad surT; 2) saqonlisa da momsaxurebis warmoebaSi xdeba

resursebis ekonomia, dazogva da naklebi danaxarjebiT meti Sedegis

miReba.

37


imsjeleT

38

waikiTxeT teqsti. daasaxeleT adgili, romelic Tqvens varauds amtkicebs

an uaryofs; daasaxeleT mocemulia mniSvnelovani informacia,

romlis aRmoCenac moulodneli iyo an ris Sesaxebac metis gageba gsurT.

yvela ekonomikuri sistema farTo socialuri miznebis miRwevas cdlobs,

es miznebi ekonomikur Tavisuflebas, ekonomikur zrdas, ekonomikur

stabilurobas, ekonomikur Tanasworobas da ekonomikur

efeqtianobas moicavs.

sxvadasxva qveynis ekonomikuri sistemisaTvis erTi mizani ufro mniSvnelovania,

vidre meore. XXI saukunis dasawyisSi sul ufro bevri qveyana

cdilobs mbrZanebluri ekonomikidan sabazro ekonomikaze gadasvlas,

raTa Tavisi SezRuduli resursebi ukeT gaanawilos.

es miznebi ekonomikuri sistemis Sefasebis kriteriumad gamoiyeneba; Tumca

xSirad sxvadasxva qveynisa da sxvadasxva ekonomikur sistemaSi mcxovrebi

adamianebi ver Tanxmdebian imis Sesaxeb, Tu romeli mizania umniSvnelovanesi.

SesaZlebelia Tu ara sruli ekonomikuri Tavisuflebis miRweva? zogjer

adamianis Tavisufleba sazogadoebis zogadi keTildReobisaTvis unda

SeizRudos. magaliTad, ukanonoa zogierTi saxis saqonlisa da momsaxurebis

(mag., heroinis, saarCevno xmebis) yidva­gayidva. arsebobs produqtebi

(mag. alkoholi da Tambaqos nawarmi) romelTa yidva­gayidva xSirad nawilobriv

SezRudulia (magaliTad asakobrivi SezRudva). sazogadoeba iRebs

kanonebs, romlebic zogjer afarToebs, zogjer ki zRudavs ekonomikur

Tavisuflebas.

fasebis donis moulodneli cvlileba sazianoa adamianTa erTi jgufisaTvis,

magram SesaZloa xelsayreli iyos meore jgufisaTvis. magali­

Tad, produqtebis fasebis zrda azaralebs gansazRvruli Semosavlebis

mqone adamianebs, xolo mogebas moutans maT, vinc gayidvidan sargebels

iRebs. fasebis stabiluroba xelsayrelia ekonomikuri usafrTxoebisaTvis

da investirebisaTvis.

savarjiSo 1

saxelmwifos farTo socialuri miznebi

Tqven sakuTari, ararealuri qveynis (sazogadoebis) Seqmnis SesaZlebloba

gaqvT. TiToeul TqvenTagans sxvadasxva socialuri miznebis

Sesafaseblad 100 qula aqvs. gaanawileT igi socialuri miznebis

mixedviT. magaliTad, Tu ekonomikuri Tavisufleba sxva miznebze metad

mniSvnelovnad migaCniaT, SeafaseT maRali quliT, Tu naklebmniSvnelovania

_ dabali quliT. qulaTa saerTo jami 100 unda iyos.

• ekonomikuri Tavisufleba

• ekonomikuri zrda

• ekonomikuri stabiluroba

?

• ekonomikuri Tanasworoba

• ekonomikuri efeqtianoba

a) rogor gaanawileT qulebi? ganmrteT Tqveni gadawyvetileba.

b) aris Tu ara klasSi qulaTa ganawilebis sxvadasxvagvri variantebi?

ra aris am mravalferovnebis mizezi?

sxvadasxva ekonomikuri sistemis mxardamWerebic iseve sxvadasxvagvarad afaseben

farTo socialur miznebs, rogorc TiToeuli TqvenTagani.


savarjiSo 2

vqmniT sazogadoebriv politikas – kanonebs,

debulebebs, saxelmwifo programebs

sazogadoebrivi politikis sakiTxebidan airCieT erT-erTi, Tqven-

Tvis yvelaze saintereso sakiTxi.

kiTxvebi

da

davalebebi

sazogadoebrivi politikis sakiTxebi:

1. yvela moqalaqe ufaso saswrafo samedicino momsaxurebiT unda iqnas

uzrunvelyofili;

2. moweva akrZaluli unda iyos sazogadoebrivi TavSeyris adgilebSi;

3. qarTuli ludis mwarmoeblebis dacvis mizniT importul ludze

tarifi unda gadiddes.

mcire jgufebSi SeasruleT davaleba:

• Tqvens mier arCeuli sakiTxis irgvliv SeimuSaveT iseTi sazogadoebrivi

politika (kanoni, debuleba an saxelmwifo programa), romelic

exmaureba problemas;

• gansazRvreT, romeli miznis (miznebis) mxardaWeras cdilobs Tqvens

mier SemuSavebuli sazogadoebrivi politika da axseniT, ra gavlenas

moaxdens igi sxva miznis (miznebis) miRwevaze;

• gansazRvreT, rogor ekonomikur sistemaSi SeiZleba es politika

ganxorcieldes da ratom? ekonomikuri sistemis romeli tipi (mbr­

Zanebluri an sabazro) ufro miesadageba am politikis cxovrebaSi

gatarebas?

jgufebi akeTeben prezentacias da erTmaneTs uziareben mosazrebebs

sazogadoebrivi politikis Sesaxeb.

1. romeli farTo socialuri mizani migaCniT yvelaze arsebiTad?

2. socialuri miznebis sakuTari an klasis Sefasebebis mixedviT (savarjiSo

1) gansazRvreT bazarze ufro orientirebulia utopiuri

sazogadoeba, Tu mbrZaneblur ekonomikaze? daasabuTeT Tqveni mosazreba.

3. daubrundiT savarjiSo 1­s, romlis Sesrulebac wina gakveTilze daviwyeT.

gadaikiTxeT da SeasworeT Tqveni azrebi.

aRwereT, ramdenad mniSvnelovania farTo socialuri miznebi

mbrZaneblur da sabazro ekonomikaSi?

1. ratom gadadis msoflios bevri qveyana sabazro ekonomikaze?

2. ramdenad warmatebuli SeiZleba iyos TqvenTvis sasurveli qveynis

ekonomika TiToeuli socialuri miznis miRwevaSi da ra gavlena eqneba

amas qveynis moqalaqeebze?

39


imsjeleT

? vin

savarjiSo

40

11

• ramdenad didi unda iyos saxelmwifos

roli Cvens ekonomikaSi? SeuzRudavi Tu

SezRuduli?

• aageT saxelmwifos rolis mniSvnelobis

Sefasebis wrfe.

rogoria saxelmwifos

ekonomikuri funqciebi?

unda ganaxorcielos qvemoTCamoTvlili saqmianoba qveyanaSi?

a) erovnuli Tavdacvisunarianobis ganmtkiceba;

b) avtomagistralebis mSenebloba da SekeTeba;

g) sakuTrebis uflebis miniWeba;

d) vaqcinacia;

e) pensionerTa samedicino daxmareba;

v) kvebis produqtebis xarisxis Semowmeba;

z) RaribebisaTvis Semweobebis gacema;

T) dabinZurebuli mdinaris gawmenda;

i) erovnuli nakrZalebisa da tye­parkebis dacva.

ramdeni unda gaakeTos saxelmwifom?

waikiTxeT baraTebze aRwerili sxvadasxva piradi da sociluri

miznebi.

saxelmwifos romel qmedebebs eTanxmebiT da romels ara?

• ramdenad exmareba an ramdenad azaralebs saxelmwifo programebi

adamianebs da mTel qveyanas im miznis SesrulebiT, rac Tqvens

baraTzea aRwerili?

• daasaxeleT Tqvens baraTze aRwerili programebis dadebiTi da

uaryofiTi mxareebi.

mizani: jinsis yidva.

SesaZlebelia uamravi stilis, markis, fasisa

da xarisxis jinsis yidva, romlebsac sxvadasxva

konkurentuli maRaziebi yidian.

savaWro baraTebi

1 2

mizani: jinsis yidva.

SesaZlebelia mxolod erTi stilis jinsis

yidva, romelic saxelmwifo sawarmos mier

aris warmoebuli. warmoebis kvotebi saxelmwifo

mgegmavebma daaweses. xSirad jinsi

maRaziebSi ar iSoveba. mxolod Sav bazarzea

maRal fasebad.


mizani: sufTa haeri

sawarmoo kompaniebma dabinZureba unda Seamciron

an gadaixadon jarimebi.

mizani: sufTa wyali.

saxelmwifo yidis dabinZurebis uflebas da

gascems licenziebs. firmebi licenziebs im

SemTxvevaSi yiduloben, Tu licenziis SeZena

ufro iafi ujdebaT, vidre daubinZureblobis

danaxarjebi.

mizani: inflaciis moTokva.

centraluri banki zrdis saprocento ganakveTs,

roca inflaciis Semcireba unda.

mizani: kompaniis konkurentunarianobis

SenarCuneba.

zogierTi kompania aTavisuflebs muSaxels

imisaTvis, rom Seamciros produqciis fasi da

aamaRlos mwarmoebloba, raTa konkurencia

gauwios Sida da ucxour firmebs.

mizani: karg magistralebze siaruli.

axali gzebi agebulia da gadasaxadebiT xerxdeba

maTi karg mdgomareobaSi SenarCuneba.

mizani: ufro did saxlSi gadasvla.

individebs SeuZliaT Seisyidon, gayidon, an iqiraon

saxli, miwis nakveTi an bina.

3

5

7

9

11

13

mizani: sufTa haeri.

saxelmwifo moxeleebi sawarmos produqciis

gamoSvebis did moculobas avaleben, rac dabinZurebas

iwvevs, magram Semdeg, haeris xarisxis

gasaumjobeseblad, warmoebis Semcirebaze

msjeloben.

mizani: sufTa wyali.

dabinZurebis kontrolis RonisZiebebi tardeba

mxolod maSin, Tu dabinZurebis Semcireba

saxelmwifo moxeleTa da mgegmavebisaTvis

imaze mniSvnelovani mizania, vidre saxelmwifo

sawarmoebis mier meti saqonlisa da momsaxurebis

warmoeba.

mizani: inflaciis moTokva.

saqonelsa da momsaxurebaze oficialur

fasebs aweseben saxelmwifo mgegmavebi da

Cveulebriv, oficialuri fasebis doneze inflacia

ar arsebobs.

mizani: kompaniis konkurentunarianobis

SenarCuneba.

Semcireba (muSaxelis gaTavisufleba) xels uSlis

saxelmwifo mgegmavebis mizans (umuSevrobis aRmofxvra).

saerTaSoriso vaWrobas zRudaven, raTa xeli

Seuwyon erovnul TviTuzrunvelyofas da gamoricxon

konkurencia ucxouri firmebis mxridan.

mizani: karg magistralebze siaruli.

saxelmwifo mgegmavebi gamoyofen garkveul

resursebs gzebis agebisa da SekeTebisaTvis,

sxva resursebs ki _ saxelmwifo firmebSi

saqonlisa da momsaxurebis warmoebisaTvis.

mizani: ufro did saxlSi gadasvla.

mTavroba aSenebs binebs da sTavazobs maT

ojaxebs iseT kriteriumebze dayrdnobiT,

rogoricaa ojaxis suladoba da binis rigSi

yofnis xanrgrZlivoba. individebs ar aqvT

ufleba iyidon an gayidon saxlebi, binebi, an

miwis nakveTebi.

41

4

6

8

10

12

14


15

mizani: kolejSi Caricxva da geologiis

swavla.

individebs SeuZliaT nebismier kolejSi an

universitetSi Caricxva da sagnebis arCeva.

studentebma unda gadaixadon swavlis safasuri.

mizani: axali biznesis dawyeba.

mewarmeebs SeuZliaT Seisyidon, iqiraon da organizeba

gaukeTon resursebs axali biznesis

dasawyebad.

mizani: Raribebsa da moxucebze zrunva.

sagadasaxado Semosavlebi gamoiyeneba sxvadasxva

daxmarebebis, samedicino da socialuri

dazRvevis uzrunvelsayofad. bevr momuSaves

aqvs kerZo pensia an/da danazogi.

mizani: kargi samuSao.

survilis SemTxvevaSi samsaxuris arCevis da

Secvlis Tavisufleba. kargad muSaoba fasdeba

maRali xelfasiT da sxva sargebeliT. zogier­

Ti adamiani sxvebze mets gamoimuSavebs.

mizani: umuSevrobis Tavidan acileba.

4­5%­iani umuSevroba iTvleba srul dasaqmebad,

radgan momuSaveebi icvlian samuSaos.

saxelmwifos ekonomikuri politika

mimarTulia umuSevrobis aRmosafxvrelad.

mizani: ekonomikuri zrdis stimulireba.

saxelmwifos ekonomikuri politika gamoiyeneba

wlidan wlamde mdgradi ekonomikuri

zrdis SesanarCuneblad. investiciebis umetesoba

axal qarxnebSi, manqana­danadgarebSi da

teqnoligiebSi ideba da damyarebulia pirad

danazogebze dafuZnebul kerZo firmebze.

42

17

19

21

23

25

mizani: kolejSi Caricxva da geologiis

swavla.

saxelmwifo mgegmavebi gansazRvraven, vin romeli

sagani unda iswavlos. mTavroba ixdis saswavleblebSi

Caricxuli studentebis swavlis

safasurs.

mizani: axali biznesis dawyeba.

saxelmwifo sakuTrebaSi arsebuli didi qarxnebi

awarmoeben produqciis umravlesobas.

saxelmwifo mgegmavebi wyveten, aaSenon Tu ara

axali qarxnebi da Seqmnan axali firmebi.

mizani: Raribebsa da moxucebze zrunva.

saxelmwifos mier garantirebulia yvela

moqalaqis samedicino daxmareba, pensia da

sacxovrebeli farTi.

mizani: kargi samuSao.

adamianebs sxvadasxva samuSaoebSi erTnair,

saxelmwifo mgegmavebis mier dadgenil xelfass

uxdian. saxelmwifos nebarTvis gareSe

axal samuSaoze, sacxovrebel farTze da a.S.

gadasvlis SezRuduli Tavisufleba.

mizani: umuSevrobis Tavidan acileba.

yvela dasaqmebulia, amitom oficialuri umu­

Sevroba ar arsebobs. zogierTi samuSao Senar­

Cunebulia maSinac ki, roca is TiTqmis arafris

momtania, oRond yvela dasaqmebuli iyos.

mizani: ekonomikuri zrdis stimulireba.

saxelmwifo mgegmavebi sazRvraven investiciebis

dones da saxelmwifo organizaciebma am miznebs

unda miaRwion. investiciebi finansdeba mgegmavebis

mier warmoebis saSualebebSi meti resursebis dabandebiT

da samomxmareblo saqonlis sawarmoeblad

naklebi resursebis gamoyenebiT.

16

18

20

22

24

26


mizani: moqalaqeebis Sesabamisi

samedicino momsaxureba.

sabazro fasiT jandacva da mkurnaloba maT­

Tvisaa xelmisawvdomi, visac gadaxda SeuZlia.

yvela individi ver Rebulobs samedicino daxmarebas

kerZo firmebisagan.

? gaixseneT,

sazogadoebrivi saqonlisa da momsaxurebis warmoeba.

sazogadoebrivia saqoneli da momsaxureba xasiaTdeba saziaro

moxmarebiT. saziaro moxmareba niSnavs, rom saqoneli da momsaxureba

SeiZleba moixmaros erTze metma pirma da amave dros

ar Semcirdes sxvebis mier moxmarebuli produqtis raodenoba.

mas ,,ver waarTmev” maT, vinc ar ixdis, radganac am saqonelsa

da momsaxurebas mainc miiRebs. kerZo seqtori ar awarmoebs am

saqonelsa da momsaxurebas, radgan mwarmoeblebma ician, rom

maTTvis SeuZlebeli iqneba misi gayidva. sazogadoebrivi saqoneli da momsaxureba xasiaTdeba

saziaro moxmarebiT. sazogadoebrivi saqonlis magaliTia erovnuli Tavdacva,

gzebi, magistralebi, skverebi da a.S.

Tanmdevi (gare) efeqtebis koreqtireba – saxelmwifos SeuZlia

gamoiyenos sagadasaxado politika, imisTvis, rom moaxdinos saqonlisa

da momsaxurebis Warbwarmoebis an arasakmarisi warmoebis

mowesrigeba. magaliTad, saxelmwifo gadasaxads uwesebs sawarmos,

romelic haers abinZurebs da amiT zRudavs mis saqmianobas.

konkurenciis SenarCuneba – sabazro

ekonomikis qveynebi uzrunvelyofen konkurencias sxvadasxva bazarze.

konkurencias gamyidvelebs Soris Sedegad dabali fasebi,

produqciis maRali xarisxi da momxmarebelTa ukeTesi momsaxureba

mohyveba.

27

ra aris sazogadoebrivi saqoneli?

saxelmwifos

ekonomikuri funqciebi

mizani: moqalaqeebis Sesabamisi

samedicino momsaxureba.

uzrunvelyofilia samedicino daxmareba, magram

didi rigebia zogierTi saxis mkurnalobasa

da momsaxurebaze.

sazogadoebrivi saqonlisa da momsaxurebis warmoeba

Tanmdevi (gare) efeqtebis koreqtireba

konkurenciis uzrunvelyofa

kanonebis Sesrulebis uzrunvelyofa

Semosavlebis gadanawileba

umuSevrobisa da inflaciis regulireba

43

28


kanonebis Sesrulebis uzrunvelyofa – saxelmwifo qmnis

kanonebs, romlebic moqalaqeTa sxvadasxva uflebebs gansaz­

Rvraven. magaliTad, kanoni mewarmeTa Sesaxeb, kanoni sakuTrebis

Sesaxeb da sxv. sakuTrebis uflebebi moicavs kerZo sakuTrebis

gamoyenebis, ganviTarebisa da gadacemis uflebas; Semosavlebis

gamomuSavebis, dazogvis da zrdis uflebebs, samuSaos Secvlis

uflebas.

44

Semosavlis gadanawileba – saxelmwifo gadaanawilebs Semosavlebs

gadasaxadebis dawesebis gziT da daxmarebebis gacemis programebiT. magaliTad,

saxelmwifo gascems socialuri dacvis Semweobebs da umuSevrobis

kompensacias.

inflaciisa da umuSevrobis Semcireba – fasebis saerTo donis,

anu inflaciisa da umuSevrobis zrdis SesaCereblad saxelmwifo

axorcielebs sagadasaxado da xarjviTi politikas, romelic gavlenas

axdens umuSevrobis, warmoebis da fasebis saerTo doneebze.

kiTxvebi

da

davalebebi

ese

1. daubrundiT saxelmwifos rolis mniSvnelobis Sefasebas, romelic am

gakveTilis dasawyisSi ganvixileT. imsjeleT saxelmwifos ekonomikuri

rolis Sesaxeb.

2. `xelisuflebis kompetenciaa daxmareba gauwios Tbilisis mTavrobas

aeroportebisa da sxva msgavsi satransporto obieqtebis mSeneblobaSi”.

eTanxmebiT Tu ara am winadadebas? axseniT Tqveni pasuxi.

3. `kerZo sakuTrebis, konkurenciisa da mogebis miRebis motivis dacva

saxelmwifos mxridan Tanasworobis, efeqtianobisa da fasebis stabilurobis

SenarCunebis saukeTeso gzaa“. eTanxmebiT Tu ara am winadadebas?

daasabuTeT Tqveni mosazreba.

4. `qalaqis meria ar unda xarjavdes fuls parkebisa da skverebis mSeneblobasa

da eqspluataciaze. es kerZo biznesis saqmea”. eTanxmebiT Tu

ara am winadadebas? ganmarteT Tqveni pasuxi.

survilisamebr SeasruleT erT-erTi davaleba:

1. airCieT saxelmwifos romelime funqcia. aRwereT, rogor sruldeba

igi mbrZaneblur, sabazro, Sereul an tradiciul ekonomikaSi. axseniT,

ra gavlenas moaxdenda am Tu im saxelmwifo programis Sesruleba

Tqvenze?

2. airCieT saxelmwifos erT­erTi funqcia. aRwereT, rogor sruldeba

igi sabazro ekonomikaSi. SeajameT saxelmwifo programebis dadebi­

Ti da uaryofiTi mxareebi ekonomikis calkeuli tipisaTvis.


imsjeleT

12

saxelmwifo

biujeti

1. daasaxeleT saxelmwifos ekonomikuri saqmianobis magaliTebi saqarTveloSi

(regionSi, qalaqSi, sofelSi).

2. raSi xarjavs saxelmwifo fuls? saidan aqvs saxelmwifos fuli?

saidan iRebs da raSi xarjavs saxelmwifo fuls?

gadasaxadebi

pensiebi

socialuri

uzrunvelyofa

ufaso

ganaTleba

mosakrebeli

jandacva

grantebi

erovnuli

Tavdacva,

policia

saxelmwifo

programebi

Semosavlebi

privatizaciebidan

saxelmwifo

vali

mTavrobis

xarjebi

ekologia

gadasaxadebis gareSe saxelmwifos sakuTari Tavis Senaxva ar SeuZlia, amitom saxelmwifo

kerZo pirebs da firmebs gadasaxadebiT begravs.

sagadasaxado urTierTobebSi saxelmwifo warmoadgens mTavar pirs, xolo gadasaxadis

gadamxdeli kerZo pirebi da firmebi saxelmwifos mier kanoniT dadgenili gadasaxadebis

gadamxdelebi arian.

gadasaxadi – biujetSi aucilebeli gadaricxvebi, romelsac ixdian

rogorc kerZo pirebi, aseve firmebi imisaTvis, rom saxelmwifom

SeZlos Tavisi ekonomikuri funqciebis Sesruleba.

mosakrebeli – aucilebeli gadasaxdeli biujetSi, romelsac ixdian

fizikuri da iuridiuli pirebi saxelmwifos mier maTTvis kanoniT

gansazRvruli saqmianobis ganxorcielebisa Tu sargeblobis

uflebis miniWebisaTvis, agreTve, saxelmwifo organoebis mier

gaweuli garkveuli momsaxurebisaTvis.

45


? •

46

rogor unda gaanawilos saxelmwifom Semosavlebis gziT miRebuli Tanxa?

• arsebobs am kiTxvaze zusti pasuxi? daasabuTeT Tqveni mosazreba.

saxelmwifo gadasaxadebis gziT miRebul fuls biujetSi sagadasaxado Semosavlebis

saxiT agrovebs, Semdeg ki am Semosavlis garkveul nawils xarjavs socialuri, kulturuli

da sxva saxelmwifo RonisZiebebisaTvis, qveynis ekonomikuri ganviTarebisaTvis,

politikuri mowyobisaTvis, erovnuli TavdacvisaTvis, wesrigis damyarebisaTvis.

biujeti dabalansebuli unda iyos, rac imas niSnavs, rom misi ori mxare – Semosavali

da gasavali (xarjebi) gawonasworebul mdgomareobaSi unda imyofebodes.

biujeti ­ (Zveli normandiulidan budget ­ safule) ­ gansazRvruli

piris (ojaxis, biznesis, organizaciis, saxelmwifos da a.S.) Semosavlebisa

da gasavlebis CamonaTvali, romelic ganisazRvreba konkretuli

drois periodiT, Cveulebriv erTi wliT.

saxelmwifo biujeti ­ saxelmwifos umniSvnelovanesi finansuri

dokumenti. igi warmoadgens yvela uwyebis, saxelmwifo samsaxurebis,

samTavrobo programebis, yvela finansuri informaciis

CamonaTvlis erTobliobas. saxelmwifo xelisuflebis organoebis

funqcionirebis ganxorcielebisaTvis saWiro fuladi saxsrebis

mobilizaciisa da gamoyenebis ZiriTadi gegma.

biujetis SeswavliT dakavebulia vrceli ekonomikuri mecniereba, saxelwodebiT –

finansebi.

saxelmwifo qmedebas biujetis formirebis, ganxilvis, damtkicebis da Sesrulebis Sesaxeb

angariSis Sedgenisa da damtkicebis saqmeSi ewodeba sabiujeto procesi.

avtonomiuri

respublikebis

biujeti

saxelmwifo

biujeti

saqarTvelos

sabiujeto

sistema

municipa luri

(adgi lobrivi)

biujeti

saqarTvelos saxelmwifo biujetis yvela Semosuloba da gadasaxdeli sruldeba saxelmwifo

xazinis sistemis meSveobiT.

Tu biujetis dagegmili Semosavali aWarbebs gasaval nawils, maSin saubroben sabiujeto

proficitze. Tu biujetis dagegmili gasavali aWarbebs Semosaval nawils, maSin

saubroben sabiujeto deficitze. rodesac biujetis Sesrulebisas, deficitis done


aWarbebs biujetis damtkicebisas dadgenil zRvars, anu vakvirdebiT mosalodneli Semosavlebis

mniSvnelovan Semcirebas, maSin warmomadgenlobiTi saxelisuflebo organo

(aRmasrulebeli xelisuflebis organos winadadebis safuZvelze) iRebs gadawyvetilebas

­ aamoqmedos kanoniT gaTvaliswinebuli meqanizmi, romelic Seamcirebs gasavlis

(xarjviTi nawilis) moculobas. xarjviTi nawilis aseT moWras eZaxian sekvestrs.

Semosavlebi

gadasaxadebi –

savaldebulo

yvela moqalaqis

da sawarmos

gadasaxdelebi

saxelmwifo vali

biujeti

xarjebi

qveynis Tavdacva,

saxelmwifo valis

dafarva, saxelmwifo

marTvis organoebis

Senaxva, sasamarTlo

procesebi da sxva

ra unda moimoqmedos saxelmwifom im SemTxvevaSi, roca ar aris sakmarisi saxsrebi?

sagadamxdelo

balansis

dafarvisTvis

(saxelmwifo +

kerZo danazogebi)

sagareo vali

saxelmwifo vali

ucxouri vali

biujetis

deficitis

dasafarad

saxelmwifo vali

sabiujeto deficitis

dasafarad

Sida vali

saxelmwifo vali ­ saqarTvelos saxeliT saqarTvelos finansTa

saministrosa da misi garantiiT saqarTvelos erovnuli bankis mier

dadebuli xelSekrulebiT aRebuli, erovnuli valutiT gamosaxuli,

saxelmwifo saSinao da sagareo valis jamuri Tanxa (saqarTvelos

saxelmwifo vali sxva konvertirebadi valutidan erovnul

valutaze gadaiangariSeba saqarTvelos erovnuli bankis mier valis

aRebis TariRisaTvis dadgenili gacvlis oficialuri kursiT,

Tu xelSekrulebiT sxva ram ar aris gaTvaliswinebuli).

wyaro: saqarTvelos kanoni „saxelmwifo valis Sesaxeb“ muxli1.

47


48

saxelmwifo biujets amtkicebs saqarTvelos parlamenti. 2012 wlis

mTavari safinanso gegmis saerTo moculoba 7 miliard 940,4 milioni

lariT ganisazRvra, rac wina wlis maCvenebelTan SedarebiT, 370 milioniT

metia.

ucxouri investiciebis mozidvis garda, 2012 wlis biujeti orientirebulia

pensiebis, saxelmwifo sadazRvevo paketisa da maswavleblebis

xelfasebis zrdaze, aseve soflis meurneobis proeqtebis ganvi­

Tarebaze, infrastruqturul proeqtebsa da ganaTlebis sistemaze. am

sferoebis dafinansebis gazrdis saSualebas ekonomikuri zrdis tempi

iZleva. navaraudevia, rom 2012 wels ekonomika 5 %­iT gaizrdeba.

2011 wlis gegmiT, saqarTvelos biujeti deficituria. 2011 wlis biujeti

7 miliard 100 milioni lariT ganisazRvra, rac 2010 wlis maCveneblTan

SedarebiT 30 milioniT aris gazrdili. deficiti ki, romelic

2010 wels 6,3%­s Seadgenda, 2011 wels 4,3%­mde Semcirda. mTavrobis

ganmartebiT, es administraciuli xarjebis Semcirebis fonze moxerxda,

davaleba

finansTa saministros monacemebiT 2008 wels

qveynis sagareo vali 3 543 582 aTas lars Seadgenda.

2009 wels es maCvenebeli 5 586 756 aTas laramde

gaizarda. 2010 wels ki 6 819 762 aTasi lari Seadgina.

2011 wlis saxelmwifo biujetis Tanaxmad,

saqarTvelos saxelmwifo sagareo vali mimdinare

wels 8 miliard 758 milion laramde gaizrdeba. am

droisTvis saqarTvelos umsxvilesi kreditoria

msoflio banki. meore adgili uWiravs evroobligaciebs,

mesame umsxvilesi kreditoria saerTaSoriso

savaluto fondi, meoTxe adgilzea germania da

mexuTeze – evrokavSiri.

1. statistikis erovnuli samsaxuris (www.geostat.ge) masalebis gamoyenebiT

wlebis mixedviT SeadareT mTliani sagadasaxado Semosavlebi

da mTliani xarjebi. ra daskvnebis gamotana SegiZliaT?

2. romel wels fiqsirdeba yvelaze didi deficiti?

3. ra unda moimoqmedos saxelmwifom sabiujeto deficitis aRmosafxvrelad?


13-14

gadasaxadebis

saxeebi saqarTveloSi

Tanamedrove qveynebis sagadasaxado sistema Camoyalibda am

qveynebis ekonomikuri, politikuri da socialuri ganviTarebis

TaviseburebaTa gaTvaliswinebiT. Aamitom sagadasaxado sistemebi

erTmaneTisagan gansxvavdebian gadasaxadebis struqturiT, ganakveTebiT,

amoRebis wesiT.

sagadasaxado sistemis umniSvnelovanesi elementia gadasaxadi.

sagadasaxado sistemaSi erT­erTi centraluri adgili uWiravT

gadasaxadis gadamxdelebs da sagadasaxado agentebs.

es

sainteresoa

Sesabamisad, gadasaxadi aris savaldebulo, upirobo fuladi Senatani,

romelsac ixdis gadasaxadis gadamxdeli, gadaxdis aucilebeli,

araeqvivalenturi da usasyidlo xasiaTidan gamomdinare.

gadasaxadis gadamxdeli aris piri, romelsac gaaCnia dadgenili

gadasaxadis gadaxdis valdebuleba.

gadasaxadis gadamxdelTa sagadasaxado registracias axorcieleben

sagadasaxado organoebi.

sagadasaxado deklaracia aris angariSgeba kodeqsiT dadgenili

gadasaxadis gamoangariSebis Sesaxeb.

sagadasaxado agenti aris piri, romelmac sagadasaxado kodeqsiT

dadgenil SemTxvevaSi da dadgenili wesiT unda Seasrulos

gadasaxadis gadamxdelis sagadasaxado valdebuleba.

saqarTvelos sagadasaxado sistema

saqarTvelos sagadasaxado sistemis Camoyalibebas safuZveli 1991­

1992 wlebSi Caeyara. aRniSnuli periodis Semdeg, saqarTvelos sagadasaxado

kanonmdeblobam da sistemam arsebiTi cvlileba ramdenjerme

ganicada.

1998­2004 wlebi aris saqarTvelos pirveli sagadasaxado kodeqsis

moqmedebis periodi. kodeqsiT ganisazRvra sagadasaxado sistemis

struqtura da funqcionirebis zogadi meqanizmi, gadasaxadis saxeebi,

maTi gamoangariSebisa da gadaxdis wesi, sagadasaxado organoebisa da

gadasaxadis gadamxdelebis valdebulebebi da pasuxismgebloba, sagadasaxado­samarTlebrivi

urTierToba da sxva. aRniSnuli periodis dasawyisSi

arsebobda 18 gadasaxadi, xolo mogvianebiT maT ricxvs kidev 3

gadasaxadi daemata.

2005 wlis 1 ianvridan moqmedi sagadasaxado kodeqsi axalma sagadasaxado

kodeqsma Secvala. adre arsebuli 21 gadasaxadidan darCa mxolod

Svidi; 2007­2008 wlebSi cvlilebebisa da damatebebis Semdeg ki

_ eqvsi gadasaxadi. Semcirda zogierTi gadasaxadis ganakveTebi da dabegvris

obieqtebi, aseve sxvadasxva donis biujetebs Soris Tanxebis ganawilebis

meqanizmebi da odenobebi.

2010 wlis 17 seqtembers sagadasaxado kodeqsSi axali cvlilebebi Sevida.

es kodeqsi amoqmedda 2011 wlis 1 ianvridan.

49


sagadasaxado valdebulebis Tanxis gaangariSeba xorcieldeba srul larebSi. am

mizniT 1 laramde sagadasaxado valdebuleba nuldeba.

sagadasaxado organosTan urTierTobis xelSewyobis mizniT gadasaxadis gadamxdeli

uflebamosilia isargeblos piradi sagadasaxado agentis momsaxurebiT. igi aris sagadasaxado

organos TanamSromeli, romelic gadasaxadis gadamxdels uwevs xelSekrulebiT

gaTvaliswinebul momsaxurebas.

2011 wlidan saqarTveloSi Semodis sagadasaxado ombudsmenis instituti. sagadasaxado

ombudsmens biznesombudsmensac uwodeben. misi meSveobiT xorcieldeba

urTierToba mewarmeebsa da saxelmwifos Soris. sagadasaxado ombudsmeni zedamxedvelobas

uwevs saqarTvelos teritoriaze gadasaxadis gadamxdelTa uflebebisa da

kanonieri interesebis dacvas, avlens maTi darRvevis faqtebs, xels uwyobs darRveuli

uflebebis aRdgenas. gadasaxadis gadamxdelis uflebebis darRvevis faqtis gamovlenis

SemTxvevaSi sagadasaxado ombudsmeni mimarTavs Sesabamis organos da aZlevs rekomendacias

am uflebebis aRdgenis RonisZiebaTa ganxorcielebis Sesaxeb.

saqarTveloSi moqmedebs saerTo­saxelmwifoebrivi da adgilobrivi gadasaxadebi.

50

saSemosavlo

gadasaxadi

mogebis

gadasaxadi

damatebuli

Rirebulebis

gadasaxadi (dRg)

aqcizi

importis

gadasaxadi

gadasaxadebis saxeebi

adgilobrivi

gadasaxadebi

saerTo-

saxelmwifoebrivi

gadasaxadebi

savaldebuloa

Sesabamisi adgilobrivi

TviTmmarTveli

erTeulis

teritoriaze

qonebis

gadasaxadi

savaldebuloa

saqarTvelos

mTels

teritoriaze


saSemosavlo gadasaxads is adamianebi ixdian, romlebic saqarTveloSi iReben Semosavals

(miuxedavad imisa, saqarTvelos moqalaqea Tu ara. misi ganakveTi 20%­ia). saSemosavlo

gadasaxads biujetSi Caricxul Tanxebs Soris erT­erTi mniSvnelovani adgili

ukavia da igi warmoadgens mosaxleobis ZiriTad gadasaxads daqiravebiT muSaobidan.

saSemosavlo gadasaxadi 2013 wlis 1 ianvridan 2014 wlis 1 ianvramde _ 18% iqneba.

mogebis gadasaxadis gadamxdelia saqarTvelos sawarmo (firma) an ucxouri sawarmo

(firma), romelic saqmianobs da Semosavals iRebs saqarTveloSi. (misi ganakveTi 15%­ia).

garda navTobisa da gazis operaciebiT miRebuli mogebis, romelic ibegreba 10%­iani

ganakveTiT (`navTobisa da gazis Sesaxeb~ saqarTvelos kanoniT gansazRvruli xelSekrulebebis

ganxorcielebiT miRebuli mogeba, Tu es xelSekrulebebi dadebulia 1998

wlis 1 ianvramde).

mogebis gadasaxadiT dabegvris obieqtia dasabegri mogeba. igi ganisazRvreba, rogorc

sxvaoba gadasaxadis gadamxdelis erTobliv Semosavalsa da sagadasaxado kodeqsiT

gaTvaliswinebul gamoqviTvebis Tanxebs Soris.

damatebuli Rirebulebis gadasaxadis gadamxdelia piri, romelic eweva ekonomikur

saqmianobas da romlis mier nebismieri uwyveti 12 kalendaruli Tvis ganmavlobaSi

ganxorcielebuli, dRg_Ti dasabegri operaciebis saerTo Tanxa aRemateba 100

000 lars. aRniSnuli Tanxis gadaWarbebis SemTxvevaSi dRg­s gadasaxdelad firma unda

daregistrirdes ara ugvianes 2 samuSao dRisa.

damatebuli Rirebuleba warmoadgens saqonlis (samuSaoebisa da momsaxurebis)

Rirebulebis im nawils, romelsac mwarmoebeli amatebs mesame pirisgan SeZenili im

nedleulis, masalebis, samuSaosa da momsaxurebis Rirebulebas, romlebic gamoiyeneba

warmoebis procesSi. dRg­is gadaxdis tvirTi sabolood momxmarebels awveba da amitom

mas arapirdapir gadasaxadebs miakuTvneben.

es

sainteresoa

damatebuli Rirebulebis gadasaxadi (dRg) erT­erT yvelaze mniSvnelovan

gadasaxads warmoadgens. misi akrefis sqema SemuSavebul iqna

frangi ekonomisti m. lores mier 1954 wels. miuxedavad imisa, rom 1958

wlamde damatebuli Rirebulebis maCveneblebi gadasaxadiT dabegvris

sistemaSi ar gamoiyeneboda, mas farTod iyenebdnen statistikuri

miznebisaTvis. magaliTad, aSS­Si aRniSnuli maCvenebeli 1870 wlidan

gamoiyeneboda samrewvelo produqciis moculobis dasaxasiaTeblad,

evropis qveynebSi ki man farTo gavrceleba me­20 saukunis ocdaaTianormocdaaTian

wlebSi hpova.

sagadasaxado kodeqsiT aqcizis gadamxdelia piri, romelic

a) awarmoebs aqcizur saqonels saqarTveloSi;

b) axorcielebs aqcizuri saqonlis imports saqarTveloSi;

g) axorcielebs aqcizuri saqonlis eqsports;

d) axorcielebs bunebrivi airovani kondensantis an/da bunebrivi airis avtosatransporto

saSualebebisaTvis miwodebas;

e) axorcielebs mobiluri sakomunikacio momsaxurebis gawevas.

damkveTis nedleuliT saqarTveloSi warmoebulGsaqonelze aqcizis gadamxdelad iTvleba

saqonlis mwarmoebeli.

aqcizi warmoadgens arapirdapir gadasaxads, romelic Sedis aqcizuri saqonlis sarealizacio

fasSi. aqcizi wesdeba masobrivi moxmarebis saqonelze da igi Sedis gansazRvruli

saqonlis fasSi. mravalsafexuriani dRg­isagan gansxvavebiT, aqcizis gadaxda warmoebs

biujetSi erTxel, aqcizuri saqonlis mwarmoeblis an importioris mier da faqtobrivad

misi tvirTi saqonlis momxmarebelze gadadis. aqcizi erT SemTxvevaSi warmoadgens biujetis

Sevsebis erT­erT mniSvnelovan wyaros, xolo meore SemTxvevaSi moTxovnilebisa da

51


miwodebis regulirebis saSualebas. aqcizi zRudavs zemogebis miRebas. swored am mizniT

mTel rig qveynebSi aqciziT ibegreba mineraluri nedleulis mompovebeli kompaniebi. imisaTvis,

rom Semsubuqdes aqcizis negatiuri zemoqmedeba mosaxleobis naklebad uzrunvelyofili

fenebisaTvis, aqcizuri saqonlis ricxvSi tradiciulad Sedis fufunebis sagnebi

(saiuveliro nawarmi, bewveuli, msubuqi avtomanqanebi da a.S.).

aqcizi wesdeba Sav da feradi liTonebis jarTze, alkoholur sasmelebze, Tambaqos

nawarmze, navTobproduqtebze, msubuq avtomobilebze, bunebriv airze, mobiluri sakomunikacio

momsaxurebis gawevaze.

es

sainteresoa

52

aqcizis ganakveTebi sxvadasxva saqonelze sxvadasxvagvaria. magali­

Tad, spirtian sasmelebze, romelic miRebulia yurZnis Rvinis an WaWis

gamoxdiT litrze Seadgens 4,6 lars, viskize _ 5 lars, arayze _3 lars,

liqiorsa da tkbil nayenze _ 4,6lars, ludze _ 0,4 lars da sxva. Tambaqos

nawarmze, kerZod, filtrian sigaretze 20 Reri _ 0,6 lari, sigarebi

1 Reri _0,9 lari da sxv.ADSavi

da feradi liTonebis jarTis eqsporti

ibegreba 120 lariT 1 tonaze. mobiluri sakomunikacio momsaxurebis

ganakveTi Seadgens dasabegri operaciis Tanxis 10%­s.

dawvrilebiTi monacemebi ixileT saqarTvelos sagadasaxado kodeqsSi

importis gadasaxadis gadamxdeli aris piri, romelic saqarTvelos ekonomikur

sazRvarze gadaaadgilebs saqonels, garda eqsportisa.

sxvadasxva saqoneli ibegreba sxvadasxva procentiT:

a) 12%­iani ganakveTiT ibegreba: Sinauri frinveli, msxvilfexa rqosani pirutyvi,

bostneuli, xili, xorceuli, Tevzeuli yovelgvar mdgomareobaSi, Tambaqo, Cai, tansacmeli,

fexsacmeli da sxva (ix. saqarTvelos sagadasaxado kodeqsi. gv.249­263);

b) 5%­iani ganakveTiT ibegreba Roris xorci gayinuli an damarilebuli, yveli, xaWo,

Tmis saSualebebi, saponi, fexsacmlis sacxebi, plastmasis filebi, karebi, fanjrebi da

sxva (ix. saqarTvelos sagadasaxado kodeqsi. gv. 263­266);

g) saqoneli ibegreba aseve importis gadasaxadis Semdegi ganakveTebiT (euro/% vol/

HL

niSnavs, rom erT heqtolitrze (100 litrze) gadasaxdeli importis gadaxdis Tanxa

Seadgens importis gadasaxadis ganakveTis namravls mocemul saqonelSi alkoholis

procentuli Semcvelobis maCvenebelze). magaliTad, Rvinoebi cqriala _ 1,5 evro/lit,

yurZnis tkbili _ 0,2 evro/lit, spirits nayenebi, miRebuli yurZnis Rvinis an WaWis

gamoxdis Sedegad, viski, arayi, liqiorebi _ 1,5 evro/% vol/HL,

Zmari da misi Semcvlelebi

– 0,4 evro/lit (ix saqarTvelos sagadasaxado kodeqsi. gv. 267­268).

importis gadasaxadis daricxva xorcieldeba saqonls satarifo Rirebulebis mixedviT.

gadaxda xorcieldeba sagadasaxado organos mier registrirebuli sagadasaxado

deklaraciis safuZvelze.

qonebis gadasaxadSi Sedis:

uZravi qonebis gadasaxadi;

msubuqi avtomobilebis flobis gadasaxadi;

TviTmfrinavebis, iaxtebisa da Sveulmfrenebis flobis gadasaxadi;

saqarTvelos sawarmoebis qonebis flobis gadasaxadi (garda miwisa), romelsac

ekonomikuri saqmianobisaTvis iyeneben. am gadasaxads aseve ixdian ucxouri sawarmoebi,

romlebic saqarTvelos teritoriaze floben qonebas (garda miwisa), da is

pirebi, romlebic qonebas ekonomikuri saqmianobisaTvis iyeneben.

miwis gadasaxadi, romelic Tavis mxriv sasoflo­sameurneo daniSnulebis miwisa da

arasasoflo­sameurneo daniSnulebis miwis gadasaxadad iyofa.


sawarmos/organizaciis qonebis gadasaxadis wliuri ganakveTi

ganisazRvreba dasabegri qonebis Rirebulebis araumetes

1 procentis odenobiT. dasabegri qonebis Rirebuleba

aris saSualo wliuri sabalanso narCeni Rirebuleba

qveyanaSi sabazro ekonomikis mSeneblobis procesSi sagadasaxado

sistemisadmi ukmayofileba da misi mZlavri kritika

upiratesad gamowveulia gadasaxadebis samarTlianobis

deficitiT, rom isini xSirad arasamarTlianad aris

miCneuli. optimaluri sagadasaxado sistema gulisxmobs

gadasaxadiT dabegvris sayovelTaobas da moqalaqeTa Soris

gadasaxadis ganawilebis Tanabrobas maTi Semosavlebis

mixedviT.

savarjiSo 1

romel gadasaxads Seicavs?

rZis fasi wignis fasi Rvinis fasi

a) am saqonlis fasebidan romeli moicavs gadasaxads?

b) ra faqtorebi gansazRvraven rZis fass?

g) mudmivi danaxarjebis ra elementebi

SeiZleba hqondes rZis warmoebis yovel

monawiles?

d) saidan iReben fuls sawarmos mflobelebi

gadasaxadebis dasafarad?

e) daasaxeleT is firmebi, romelTa gadasaxadebic

CarTulia wignis fasSi.

gadasaxadebis klasifikacia

proporciuli gadasaxadis dawesebis dros yvela gadasaxadis gadamxdeli erTnairi

saprocento ganakveTiT ibegreba. magaliTad, 200 laris Semosavlis mqone piri da

2000 laris Semosavlis mqone piri ibegreba saSemosavlo gadasaxadiT, romelic 12%­s

udris.

progresuli gadasaxadis dawesebis dros maRali Semosavlis mqone maRali saprocento

ganakveTiT ibegreba, xolo dabali Semosavlis mqone _ dabali saprocento

ganakveTiT. magaliTad, 200 laris Semosavlis mqone piri SeiZleba daibegros 6%­iani

ganakveTiT, xolo 2000 laris Semosavlis mqone piri _ 12%­iani ganakveTiT.

arsebobs fiqsirebuli gadasaxadi, romelic gansazRvruli, myari sagadasaxado

ganakveTis dawesebas gulisxmobs. metwilad praqtikaSi igi gamoiyeneba raodenobrivi

(naturaluri) sididis mimarT. magaliTad, avtomanqanebis importze dawesebuli fiqsirebuli

gadasaxadi ganisazRvreba avtomobilebis Zravis moculobisa da wlovanebis

mixedviT.

Semosavlebis dabegvris politika mTels msoflioSi im azrs efuZneba, rom progresuli

dabegvra yvelaze samarTliania. Tumca, sul ufro xSiria azri imis Sesaxeb, rom proporciuli

dabegvra misaRebia garkveul SemTxvevebSi.

53


samarTliani gadasaxadis kriteriumebi

sagadasaxado sistemis optimizaciis Sefasebas sakuTari kriteriumebi

gaaCnia, romelic naTlad warmoaCenen zomieri sagadasaxado

dabegvris aucileblobas. ganviTarebuli qveynebisaTvis

cnobilia sagadasaxado sistemis ZiriTadi kriteriumi.

1

2

3

4

54

ekonomikuri efeqtianoba: sagadasaxado sistema winaaRmdegobaSi ar unda

iyos resursebis efeqtian ganawilebasTan.

administraciuli ubraloeba: administraciuli sistema martivi unda iyos

da gamosayeneblad SedarebiT iafi.

politikuri pasuxismgebloba: sagadasaxado sistema ise unda iyos agebuli,

rom adamianebi daarwmunos imaSi, rom isini ixdian imitom, rom politikur sistemas

SeeZlos zustad gamoxatos maTi upiratesoba.

samarTlianoba: sagadasaxado sistema unda iyos samarTliani sazogadoebis sxvadasxva

wevrebTan urTierTobaSi.

savarjiSo 2

SevafasoT gadasaxadebis samarTlianoba

Tqveni azriT, akmayofilebs Tu ara mocemuli gadasaxadi kriteriumebs?

gadasaxadi

1. msubuqi avtomobilis flobis gadasaxadi, romelic qonebis gadasaxadSi Sedis

(yoveli avtomobilis mflobelisagan gadaxdili fiqsirebuli Tanxa)

2. saSemosavlo gadasaxadi

(yoveli adamianis Semosavlidan amoRebuli garkveuli procenti)

3. aqcizi (produqciis erTeulze dawesebuli garkveuli gadasaxadi)

4. qonebis gadasaxadi

(qonebis Rirebulebis mixedviT dawesebuli garkveuli procenti)

gadasaxadebis samarTlianobis Sefasebis

dros (savarjiSo 2) uTuod wamoiWreba iseTi

sakiTxebi, romelic cxare kamaTs gamoiwvevs.

ecadeT daiTanxmoT oponenti da dausabuToT

Tqveni Sexeduleba jvaredini diskusiis saSualebiT.

diskusiis Catarebis Sesaxeb damatebiT

ganmartebas maswavleblisagan miiRebT.

debatebi sakiTxze:

veTanxmebi azrs da vasabuTeb...

ar veTanxmebi azrs da vasabuTeb...

jvaredini

diskusia


es

sainteresoa

davaleba

ukrainam msoflioSi I adgili daikava gadasaxadebis raodenobis

mxriv. mewarmeebi xazinaSi Tavis Semosavlebis 55,5%­s ixdian.

135 gadasaxadidan (oriode wlis win 147 iyo) lomis wili modis Sromis

gadasaxadze ­ maTi raodenoba aris 108. kidev 5 gadasaxadi aris mogebaze.

ukrainas ukavia 181­e adgili im 183 saxelmwifos Soris, romlebSic

iolia gadasaxadebis gadaxda.

wyaro: http://buhgalter911.com/ShowArticle.aspx?a=19551&year=-1

moiZieT sagazeTo statia an cnobili mewarmeebis

interviu, sadac saubari iqneba calkeuli

gadasaxadis saxeebze, mis samarTlianobaze,

sagadasaxado sistemis problemebze an am sferoSi

saxelmwifo politikaze.

saqarTvelos istoria _ rodidan ixdidnen gadasaxadebs?

damatebiTi

sakiTxavi

iseve rogorc msoflios mraval qveyanaSi, saqarTveloSic dabegvras safuZveli

saxelmwifos warmoSobisTanave Caeyara. istorias cota ram SemorCa uZveles saqarTveloSi

arsebuli gadasaxadebisa da dabegvris sistemis Sesaxeb. gadasaxadebis Sesaxeb

mwir informacias Sua saukuneebis feodaluri da Semdgomi periodis saqarTvelos istoria

gvaZlevs.

Sua saukuneebis saqarTveloSi gadasaxadis gadamxdelebi glexebi iyvnen, romlebic

valdebulni iyvnen gadaexadaT savaldebulo begara _ amuSavebdnen patronis

miwas, moyvanili mosavlis nawils ki mas aZlevdnen. XI saukunis saqarTveloSi metad

gavrcelebuli iyo patronis xleba da laSqrobiT samsaxuri.

dapyrobili qveynebis mosaxleoba ixdida gadasaxads _ xarks, romelsac naalafevi

erqva. gadasaxadis amkrebni mimagrebulni iyvnen soflebze, sacixisTavoebze da saerisTavoebze,

raTa mosaxleobisagan xarki agrovebinaT.

gviandel feodalur saqarTveloSi gavrcelebuli iyo gadasaxadis iseTi saxe, rogoricaa

SromamigebiTi renta (`miwis”, rogorc warmoebis faqtoris sargeblobisaTvis

dawesebuli sazRauri), romelic mebatonis sasargeblod glexis Sromas gulisxmobda

im odenobiT, rasac mebatone moiTxovda. masSi Sedioda mcenareTa daTesva,

damuSaveba, morwyva, mosavlis aReba, samSeneblo saqmianoba, SeSis damzadeba, da a.S.

aseve gavrcelebuli iyo gadasaxadis gadaxda renta-produqtebiT. igi gulisxmobda

mebatonisaTvis gasamrjelos pirutyviT, nivTiT gadasaxads. saaRdgomod glexi

valdebuli iyo mebatonisaTvis sasmel­saWmeli mierTmia, xolo qeifis an qorwilis

dros _ Zroxa.

glexi fulad gadasaxadsac ixdida. mas mebatonisaTvis fuli unda gadaexada qorwilis

SemTxvevaSi, qvrivTan daqorwinebis SemTxvevaSi ki _ saqvrivo. glexs qaliSvilis

gaTxovebisas saCeqme gadasaxadi unda gadaexada, xolo mebatonis sikvdilis Sem­

TxvevaSi Sesawiravi gaeRo.

me­18 saukunis dasasrulisaTvis gavrcelda iseTi gadasaxadebi, rogoricaa:

sursaTis gadasaxadi _ ikribeboda omebis dros jaris gamosakvebad. gadasaxads

ixdidnen rogorc saxelmwifo, ise sabatono da saeklesio glexebi. sursaTis gadasaxa­

55


didan ZiriTadi iyo xorbali da qeri. gadasaxadis akreba weliwadSi erTxel evalebodaT

meliqeebs. saqarTvelos mTiani mosaxleoba am gadasaxadisagan gaTavisuflebuli

iyo.

kodis puri _ feodaluri saqarTvelos erT­erTi cnobili gadasaxadi iyo. weliwadSi

komlze dadgenili iyo 4 kodi (10 l. moculobis) puris gadaxda. aRniSnul gadasaxadze

dawesebuli iyo SeRavaTebi im teritoriis mosaxleobisaTvis, sadac xorblis

moyvana SeuZlebeli iyo (magaliTad TuSeTSi, fSav­xevsureTSi da sxv.)

maxta _ naturaluri da fuladi gadasaxadi iyo, romelsac soflad ixdidnen

ojaxebi naturiT, 2 kodi xorbalis, 1 kodi qeris saxiT, xolo qalaqad vaWrebi da xelosnebi

_ fuladi saxiT.

sakomlo gadasaxadi dRevandel miwis gadasaxads waagavda. komli, romelsac miwis

garkveuli farTobi ekava, valdebuli iyo miwis mepatronisaTvis gadasaxadi fuladi

an naturaluri formiT gadaexada. sagadasaxado ganakveTi wlis ganmavlobaSi komlze

2 abazs Seadgenda.

kuluxi _ mas Rvinis saxiT ixdidnen im miwis sargeblobisaTvis, sadac venaxi iyo

gaSenebuli. gadasaxadis sidide damokidebuli iyo mosavlianobaze.

sabalaxe gadasaxadi _ ikribeboda agreTve xazinis Sesavsebad. misi gadamxdeli

iyo is, vinc saZovars iyenebda. ibegreboda saqonlis mepatrone. saqonlis raodenoba

aRiricxeboda specialur davTarSi da gadasaxadis gadamxdeli valdebuli iyo yovel

100 cxvarze gadaexada 2 cxvari da erTi batkani.

mali SemoRebuli iqna saqarTveloSi monRolTa batonobis periodidan da am gadasaxadiT

ibegreboda Tbilisisa da goris bazris mamrobiTi sqesis mosaxleoba 15

wlis asakis zemoT.

Sevardeni _ Zalze originaluri gadasaxadi iyo da igi ufro momsaxurebiTi formis

gadasaxads warmoadgenda. kerZod, sofels mibarebuli hqonda mefis Sevardenebis

budeebi da glexs maTi movla, xolo zogierT sofels _ mefisaTvis Sevardnebis mirTmeva

evaleboda.

saqarTvelos ruseTTan SeerTebis Semdeg sagadasaxado sistema Seicvala, naturaluri

gadasaxadebi fuladma gadasaxadebma Secvala. Zvel gadasaxadebidan zogi darCa,

zogic Seicvala da daemata, kerZod SenarCunebuli iqna kodis puris gadasaxadi, maxta,

mali. SemoRebuli iqna samxedro sasursaTo begara.

me­19 saukunis Sua periodisaTvis SemoRebul iqna axali saxis gadasaxadebi, kerZod

e.w. sapolicio gadasaxadi, romelic dRevandeli qonebis gadasaxads ufro hgavda. am

gadasaxadiT ibegreboda q. TbilisSi arsebuli Senobebi, savaWro da saxelosno far­

Tobi. amave periodSi dawesda uZravi qonebis gadasaxadi, romliTac ibegreboda uZravi

qoneba, maT Soris Senoba. gadasaxadis sidide damokidebuli iyo uZravi qonebis

gamoyenebiT miRebul Semosavalze.

am periodSi aseve arsebobda vaWrobis gadasaxadi, gadasaxadi daqiravebulebisaTvis,

romelsac axdevinebdnen daqiravebul Sinamosamsaxureebs da muSebs fuladi formiT.

aseve arsebobda mosakrebeli mesaklaveobaze anu gadasaxadi pirutyvze, rac qalaqSi

dasaklavad Camorekil TiToeul sul pirutyvze fuladi gadasaxadis gadaxdas

gulisxmobda.

1917 wlis oqtombris gadatrialebis Semdgom periodSi (saqarTvelos damoukideblobis

mokle periodSi), saxelmwifom sakuTari sagadasaxado sistemis Camoyalibeba

ver moaswro da gadasaxadebis akreba ukve damkvidrebuli sagadasaxado sistemisa da

wesebis mixedviT xdeboda.

56


imsjeleT

15

vis ekisreba

gadasaxadis tvirTi?

ra saqoneli SeiZineT bolo dReebis ganmavlobaSi?

romelime saqonlis SeZenisas gadasaxadi gadaixadeT?

rogor fiqrobT, vin ixdis gadasaxads _ myidveli Tu gamyidveli?

SesaZlebelia vinmem sxvisi sagadasaxadi tvirTi Tqven dagakisroT?

ganmarteT mosazreba: `am samyaroSi araferi ar aris mudmivi sikvdilisa

da gadasaxadebis garda”.

mZimea sagadasaxado

tvirTi?!

vinc gadasaxadebs ewinaaRmdegeba, albaT,

ar icis, rom biujetSi Setanil TiToeul

lars uamravi adamiani elodeba.

pirdapiri

gadasaxadi,

romelsac fizikuri

da iuridiuli

pirebi ixdian Semosavlebidan

pirdapiri

gadasaxadi

gadasaxadebis saxeobebi

gadasaxadebi

arapirdapiri

gadasaxadi

arapirdapiri

gadasaxadi, romelic

ekisreba

saqonels da saqmianobis

saxeobebs

pirdapir gadasaxadebs sxvas ver gadavaxdevinebT.

arapirdapiri gadasaxadebi SeiZleba sxvas gadavaxdevinoT. mewarme, romelic gadasaxads

ixdis, saSualeba aqvs daibrunos gadaxdili Tanxa saqonelze fasis momatebis

saSualebiT.

sagadasaxado tvirTis sxvaze dakisreba SesaZlebelia. es aris iseTi procesi,

rodesac gadasaxadebi, romlebic kanoniT adamianTa erTma jgufma an erTma adamianma

unda gadaixados, sinamdvileSi gadaixdeba sxva adamianis an adamianTa sxva jgufis mier.

saboloo jamSi yvela gadasaxads kerZo pirebi ixdian, ramdenadac sagadasaxado

tvirTs mewarmeebi da kompaniebi momxmareblebs, klientebs, pacientebs, daqiravebul

muSakebs da aqcionerebs akisreben.

57


savarjiSo

58

1

vis ekisreba sagadasaxado tvirTi?

moaxdineT qvemoTCamoTvlili gadasaxadebis klasifikacia imis

mixedviT, aris Tu ara is pirdapiri an arapirdapiri. Semdeg CamoTvaleT

is pirebi an adamianTa jgufebi, romlebic sinamdvileSi ixdian

am gadasaxads _ eseni SeiZleba iyvnen: individualuri gadamxdelebi,

momxmareblebi, daqiravebuli muSakebi, firmis mesakuTreebi

(aqcionerebi). garkveul SemTxvevebSi mocemul gadasaxads SeiZleba

ramodenime jgufi ixdides.

gadasaxadis tipi

msubuqi avtomobilebis flobis gadasaxadi

sabaJo gadasaxadi

individualuri saSemosavlo gadasaxadi

aqcizi

qonebis gadasaxadi

`gadasaxadebi: SeiZleba Tu ara misi

sxvisTvis dakisreba?”

laSa universitetis III kursis studentia. igi finansur menejments swavlobs.

laSa Tvlis, rom sakmaod didia da SeuZlia damoukideblad cxovreba.

erTi kviris win mas 20 weli Seusrulda.

erT dRes, universitetSi wasvlis win man mSoblebs amayad gamoucxada:

_ `ukve didi var da minda calke, damoukideblad vicxovro. amaze didi

xania vfiqrob da guSin binac ki SevarCie. dResve gadavdivar”.

_ `kargia, rom damoukidebloba ginda, _ uTxra mamam. _ `mgoni swori

arCevania... ar gagiWirdeba imis gaTvla, Tu ramdenad gaizrdeba Seni xarjebi

marto cxovrebis SemTxvevaSi. Sen xom finansur menejments swavlob.

amrigad, winaswar mofiqrebuli da gaangariSebuli geqneba yvelaferi”, _

Tqva mamam da dedas gadaxeda. laSas moeCvena, rom am gamoxedvaSi ironia

imaleboda.

... rodesac yvela saWiro nivTi amoalaga da is iyo, dasvenebas apirebda,

telefonze zaris xma gaisma. laSam yurmili aiRo. xazze binis mepatrone,

qalbatoni nino iyo.

_ `laSa, mTeli dilaa girekav, mindoda es ambavi Sens binaSi gadmosvlamde

meTqva, magram ver dagikavSirdi.”… qalbatoni nino aRelvebuli

Canda. _ `saqme imaSia, rom iZulebuli var binis qira 50 lariT gavzardo,

radgan axali kanonis Tanaxmad, qonebaze gadasaxadi gaizarda, iseve rogorc

bevri sxva xarjebi. merwmune, amas Zalian ganvicdi, magram sxva gza

ar maqvs. yvelam gazarda qiris Rirebuleba, ase rom me nu damemdurebi,

mec cud dReSi var. am TveSi binis Seketebisa da SeRebvis dawyebas vapirebdi,

rasac veRar SevZleb, mebaRec unda gavuSva, misi xarjebis dasafarad

fuli aRar meyofa. ra eSveleba Cems yvavilebs, ezos, mindors, aRar vici


a vqna....”

laSa sawolze Camojda... qalbatoni ninos saubari aRar esmoda. is sakuTar

Tavze fiqrobda. am fasad qiris safasuris gadaxda misTvis SeuZlebeli

iyo.

_ `ra movaxerxo? _ fiqrobda laSa. _ saxlSi xom ar mivbrundebi, Tan

dResve... rao, rao, ra gadasaxadi gaizarda? ho, qonebis gadasaxadi. universitetSi

xom viswavle gadasaxadebi da misi saxeebi. Tumca ver vxvdebi, Tu

gadasaxadi qonebis mesakuTres dauweses, me ra SuaSi var? dae, qalbatonma

ninom TviTon gadaixados es sazizRari gadasaxadebi. hm, maxsendeba benjamin

franklinis sityvebi: `araferia cxovrebaSi mudmivi sikvdilisa da gadasaxadebis

garda”. ras niSnavda es sityvebi, maSin arc ki davfiqrebulvar.

sxvaTa Soris, axla maxsendeba, rom leqcias, romlis drosac gadasaxadebi

agvixsnes, arc davswrebivar. netav ar gamecdina, imas mainc mivxvdebodi,

rogor moviqce.”

meore dRes daRonebuli laSa leqciebis Semdeg samuSaoze wavida. igi

arasruli samuSao dRiT megobris mamis, batoni giorgis maRaziaSi muSaobda

konsultantad. laSam gadawyvita baton giorgis samuSao drois gazrda

da, Sesabamisad, xelfasis momateba sTxovos.

_ `o, laSa, xom ici, qonebis gadasaxadi gaizarda, ramac Cemi xarjebi

gaadida. calke saxli, calke maRazia... dRes mTeli dRe vangariSob, rogor

movaxerxo am xarjebis dafarva ise, rom momuSaveebi ar gavanTavisuflo

da fasebi ar gavzardo. xom ici, am pirobebSi

Cemi mogebac Semcirdeba.” _

SesCivla batonma giorgim laSas.

laSa Cafiqrda. igi mixvda, rom momxmareblebi

da gamyidvelebi gadasaxads

arapirdapir ixdian, e.i. aseTi gadasaxadi,

romliTac firma an qonebis

mesakuTre ibegreba, arapirdapiri

gadasaxadia. ra xdeba? firmisaTvis

dakisrebuli sagadasaxado tvirTi

momxmareblebma an momuSaveebma unda

zidon. laSas gaaxsenda, rom iseTi

gadasaxadebis, rogorebicaa saSemosavlo

gadasaxadisa da sadac TviTon cxovrobda, im qonebis gadasaxadis

sxvaze gadakisreba ar SeiZleba.

meore dRes, laSam leqtors swored am sakiTxebis kidev erTxel gaSuqeba

sTxova. saRamos man saxlSi misvla da mamisTvis daxmarebis Txovna

gadawyvita. es misTvis sakmaod mZime dRe iyo.

1. riTi amarTlebs qalbatoni nino qiris gadidebis gadawyvetilebas?

2. ra gavlena moaxdina gadasaxadis gadidebam batoni giorgis keTildReobaze?

3. ra daskvna gaakeTa laSam imasTan dakavSirebiT, Tu vis uwevs gadasaxadis

gadaxda?

4. miuxedavad imisa, rom laSas ar hqonda qoneba da Sesabamisad masze gadasaxadic

ar unda gadaexada, ra gavlena moaxdina am gadasaxadis dawesebam

mis keTildReobaze?

5. ra moxdeba Tu qonebaze gadasaxadi gauqmdeba?

59


imsjeleT

60

gadasaxadebi – nebayoflobiTi sazRauri

`gadasaxadi adamianze da mis sakuTrebaze `Tavdasxmis” formaa. imis

miuxedavad, rom am azrs msoflioSi praqtikulad yvela eTanxmeba, gadasaxadebis

gadaxdis mTavar mizezad politikuri miznebisaTvis fulis

mogrovebis aucilebloba saxeldeba. am `aucileblobis” ukan saxelmwifos

arsebobis idea dgas. sinamdvileSi, saxelmwifo imaT sWirdebaT, vinc

sxvis xarjze apirebs cxovrebas. aseTi adamianebi yovelTvis Tanaxmani

arian arsebobdes gadasaxadebi, romlebsac sxvebi gadaixdian, TviTon ki

misi sikeTeebiT isargebleben.

gadasaxadebis gadaxda nebayoflobiTi unda iyos. aseTia Cveni lozungi!”

dawereT Tqeni mosazreba gamoTqmul Sexedulebis Sesaxeb.

Tanaklaselebis jgufTan erTad, sakuTar dasaxlebaSi CaatareT mcire

gamokiTxva gadasaxadebis mimarT mosaxleobis damokidebulebis

gamosavlenad (mag: ramdenad aucilebelia, realuria, miznobrivad

da efeqturad gamoiyeneba da a.S.); miRebuli Sedegebisa da skolaSi

miRebuli informaciis analizis safuZvelze dawereT Txzuleba – gadasaxadebis

roli qveynis ganviTarebaSi.


? ras niSnavs barton kreinis gamoTqma – `ufaso sadili

16

ar arsebobs”?

aris ki raime

ufaso?

mxolod saxelmwifos SeuZlia moamaragos qveyana sazogadoebrivi

saqonliTa da momsaxurebiT. maTTvis damaxasiaTebelia saziaro

moxmareba da moxmarebisagan ganuyofeloba.

saziaro moxmarebis produqtebi iseTi produqtebia, romlebic

SeiZleba gamoyenebul iqnas erTdroulad ramdenime piris mier da

amiT, sxva momxmareblebisaTvis misi xelmisawvdomoba ar Semcirdes.

moxmarebisagan ganuyofeli produqti iseTi produqtia, romelic

ar SeiZleba amoRebul iqnas im pirebis moxmarebidan, romlebsac

misi gamoyenebisaTvis fuli ar gadauxdiaT.

sazogadoebrivia saqoneli, romliTac SeiZleba erTdroulad

bevrma adamianma isargeblos, radganac misi miReba advilia. amave

dros misi raodenoba ar mcirdeba. sazogadoebrivi saqoneli ar

SeiZleba amoRebuli iqnas im pirebis moxmarebidan, romlebic masSi

fuls ar ixdian. am problemas ekonomikaSi `ubileTo mgzavris”

(`Free Rider”) problema ewodeba.

sazogadoebrivi saqonlis magaliTebia:

gzebi, erovnuli Tavdacva, sazogadoebrivi

ganaTleba, Suqurebi, amindis prognozi,

skverebi, SuqniSnebi, quCebis ganaTeba,

policia, samaSvelo samsaxuri, erovnuli

tyeebi, nakrZalebi da sxv.

saxelmwifos mier warmoebuli yvela

saqoneli da momsaxureba ar aris wminda

sazogadoebrivi saqoneli da momsaxureba.

mxolod ori Tvisebis mqone produqtebi

_ saziaro moxmarebisa da ganuyofeli

moxmarebis produqtebi iTvleba wminda

sazogadoebriv saqonlad da momsaxurebad.

rodesac adgili aqvs saqonlis an

momsaxurebis saziaro, erTobliv moxmarebas,

anda roca Znelia aiZulo momxmareblebeli

masSi fuli gadaixados, aseT Sem­

TxvevaSi, saxelmwifo uzrunvelyofs am

saqonlisa da momsaxurebis warmoebas.

saxelmwifos SeuZlia zogierT moqalaqes

Tavisi wili gadaaxdevinos dabegvris saSualebiT.

am xerxiT SesaZlebelia `ubileTo

mgzavris” problema gadaiWras, an, ukidures

SemTxvevaSi, Serbilebuli iqnas.

61


imsjeleT

erovnuli

Tavdacva

?

ese

62

imuSaveT jgufurad da SeajereT Sedegebi qvemoT mocemuli

TiToeuli saqonlisa da momsaxurebis Sesaxeb.

a) TvliT, rom mocemuli saqoneli an momsaxureba ar unda anazRaurdes

gadasaxadebis saSualebiT. adamianebma am saqonlisa da momsaxurebis

gamoyenebisaTvis individualurad unda gadaixadon. is vinc

fuls ar ixdis, am saqonlisa da momsaxurebis gareSe unda darCes?

b) Tu TvliT, rom mocemuli saqoneli an momsaxureba saxelmwifo biujetidan

(sagadasaxado Semosavlebis xarjze) unda dafinansdes?

sazogadoebrivi saqoneli da momsaxureba

sajaro

skolebi

gzebi

wyaldidobissawinaaRmdego

jebirebi

policia

universiteti

erovnuli

parkebi

amindis

prognozi

1. ra damokidebuleba aqvT adamianebs sazogadoebrivi saqonlisa da momsaxurebisaTvis

fulis gadaxdasTan mimarTebaSi? aqvT Tu ara maT fulis gadaxdis

survili?

2. ra moxdeba maSin, Tu dasaxelebuli sazogadoebrivi saqoneli da momsaxureba

Tqvens mier miRebuli Sedegebis mixedviT ganawildeba? ra sirTuleebi Sei­

Zleba warmoiqmnas am SemTxvevaSi?

sazogadoebrivi saqoneli

mwarmoeblebi

wvlili sargebeli

mwarmoeblebi

sazogadoebrivi saqoneli

moiZieT sami sagazeTo statia sazogadoebrivi saqonlisa da momsaxurebis

Sesaxeb. TiToeuli statiis mixedviT CamoayalibeT sakuTari

azri orgverdian TxzulebaSi.


1

werili lukas!

17

me ra SuaSi var?

gamarjoba!

rogor xar? rogor cxovrob? SeeCvie amerikuli cxovrebis wess? axali

megobrebi SeiZine? swavla advilia Tu rTuli?

ramdeni kiTxvebi dagayare... imedia, pasuxs momwer. xom ici, Sens Sesaxeb

yvelaferi mainteresebs.

axla mec mogiyvebi aqaur ambebs. ici Tbilisi rogor Seicvala? axali

saxlebi aSenda, skverebi SadrevnebiT galamazda, sportuli moednebi,

Tanamedrove maRaziebi da savaWro centrebi gaixsna. marTalia am maRaziebSi

fasebi maRalia, magram quCaSi rom midixar da mis win Caivli, gesiamovneba:

mopirkeTebuli Sesasvleli trotuars faravs, lamazi mcenareebiTaa

galamazebuli, avtosadgomiTa da Tanamedrove fasadiT. Tanac

yvelgan iseTi sisufTavea...

ai Cvens quCaze ki saSineli sibinZurea. axal saxlebs aSeneben, aris

gauTavebeli xmauri, mtveri, talaxi, asfalti sul ayrilia... iseTi lamazi

saxlebi Sendeba, magram Cven ra? ori welia am dangreul da dabinZurebul

quCaze davdivarT.

ori dRis win cudad gavxdi, maxvelebda da megona vixrCobodi. eqim­

Tan wamiyvanes da gairkva, rom mtverze alergia mqonia. uamravi ZviradRirebuli

wamlebi daminiSnes, magram rad ginda? mtvers Cvens ubanSi

ra gamolevs? ase xom ar SeiZleba? sxvebi sargebloben, Cven ki vzaraldebiT

rogorc janmrTelobis mxriv, aseve materialurad. marto fexsacmelebis

SekeTebis xarjebi rad Rirs? amas emateba wamlebis fuli da kidev

amerikelebisTvis (albaT ukve SenTvisac) kargad cnobili moraluri

ziani... mokled cud dReSi varT.

qalaqis meriam samSeneblo kompaniebisaTvis specialuri brZaneba

gamosca, romelic maT avalebT daasufTaon da SeakeTon maT mier gafuWebuli

quCebi, winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi, sakmaod soliduri TanxiT dajarimdebian.

Tu amas yurad ar iReben, SesaZloa saerTod aukrZalon saqmianoba.

axla imedi gagviCnda, iqneb rame gveSvelos?!

momwere ra, amerikaSi rogor xdeba amgvari problemebis gadaWra?

momikiTxe ojaxis wevrebi da male dabrundi saqarTveloSi. xom ici, aq

sul sxvaa, aq yvelaze kargia. mogikiTxes biWebmac. yvelas gvenatrebi da

geliT.

daCi

werilSi moZebneT is adgilebi, sadac saubaria erTi piris saqmianobis

gavlenaze sxva, meore pirze;

moZebneT is adgilebi, sadac erTi piris saqmianoba dadebiT gavlenas

axdens sxva, meore pirze;

moZebneT is adgilebi, sadac erTi piris saqmianoba uaryofiT gavlenas

axdens sxva, meore pirze;

moZebneT is adgilebi, sadac saubaria saxelmwifo politikaze aRniSnul

movlenebTan dakavSirebiT.

63


imsjeleT

64

Tanmdevi (gare) efeqtebi maSin Cndeba, rodesac erTi piris

mier warmoebasTan an moxmarebasTan dakavSirebuli danaxarjebi

an sargebeli gadadis, `vrceldeba~ sxva pirze, anu iseT gareSe mxareze,

romelic arc mwarmoebelia da arc momxmarebeli.

Tu erTi piri raimes awarmoebs an moixmars da es dadebiT gavlenas

axdens sxva, gareSe pirze, maSin dadebiTi Tanamdevi (gare)

efeqti warmoiqmneba.

Tu erTi piri raimes awarmoebs an moixmars da es uaryofiT gavlenas

axdens sxva, gareSe pirze, maSin uaryofiTi Tanamdevi (gare)

efeqti warmoiqmneba.

sabazro fasebi, Cveulebriv, gacvlaSi monawile mwarmoeblebisa da

momxmareblebis sargebelsa da danaxarjs asaxavs. roca sabazro fasi

ver asaxavs yvela danaxarjsa da sargebels amboben, rom adgili aqvs

`bazris Cavardnas~. mas Tanmdevi efeqtis problemas uwodeben.

romeli saxis (dadebiTi Tu uaryofiTi) Tanmdevi efeqtebis magaliTebs

warmoadgens Semdegi faqtebi:

sazogadoebrivi radios an televiziis mxardasaWerad gaRebuli

wvlili;

manqanebis gamonabolqvi;

ZaRlis yefa qalaqis ubanSi;

binis mcxovrebi, romelic cecxlmaqrs yidulobs;

mtirala bavSvebi TviTmfrinavis xalxmraval salonSi.

2

dabinZurebuli tba da uRimRamo cxovreba

nawili I

lomiZeebis ojaxs tbasTan 1 heqtari miwa hqonda. maT tbis aRmosavleT

napirTan saxli aaSenes. pirvelad aq cxovreba metad sasiamovno iyo,

Semdeg ki Svilebma mSoblebisagan farulad, tbaSi nagvis Cayra daiwyes,

radgan nagvis fuTebis gzaze gatana ezarebodaT, saidanac Semdgom nagavi

manqanebs gaaqvT. ramdenime Tvis Semdeg tba saSinlad dabinZurda da aSkara

gaxda, sad iyreboda nagavi. axla lomiZeebis bavSvebi dadardianebulni

arian, radgan uaxloesi SabaT­kviris ganmavlobaSi, megobrebTan garTobis

nacvlad, tbis gawmenda mouwevT.

nawili II

roca bavSvebi studentebi gaxdnen, saswavleblad sxva qalaqSi

gadawyvites wasvla. lomiZeebma dabinZurebul tbasTan maTi kuTvnili

miwa, samosaxlo adgilis garda, miwis biznesiT dakavebul gaiZvera kacs

_ mito gaiZveraZes mihyides. gaiZveraZem saxli tbis dasavleT napirTan

aaSena da manac tba nagvis Casayrelad gamoiyena.

nawili III

erTi wlis Semdeg gaiZveraZem miwis nakveTebis gayidva ganizraxa, tbis

dabinZureba Sewyvita da teritoria 15 ojaxs samosaxlod (TiTos 50 000

larad) mihyida, Tavad ki sxvagan gadasaxlda. axalma mesakuTreebma didi

saxlebi aiSenes.


amdenime Tvis Semdeg nagavi wylis zedapirze amotivtivda. lomiZeebma

problemis gadasaWrelad mezoblebi saTaTbirod moiwvies. ojaxebma tbis

dabinZurebaSi erTmaneTi daadanaSaules da dasufTavebis xarjebis gaReba

moiTxoves. dadanaSaulebulni gadasaxadis gadaxdas uarobdnen da sxva

ojaxebs adanaSaulebdnen. sabolood yvela erTmaneTs waeCxuba. problema

ver mogvarda. tba dabinZurebul da uRimRamo adgilad iqca.

a) arsebobda Tu ara gareSe efeqtebis raime problema, sanam tbasTan

mxolod lomiZeebis ojaxi cxovrobda? Tu arsebobda, rogor Sei-

Zleboda misi gadaWra?

b) arsebobda Tu ara gareSe efeqtebis raime problema, sanam tbasTan

mxolod mito gaiZveraZe da lomiZeebis ojaxi cxovrobda? Tu arsebobda,

rogor SeiZleboda misi gadaWra?

g) davuSvaT, rom gaiZveraZes, rogorc mesakuTres, tbaSi nagvis Cayris

kanonieri ufleba aqvs, an tba Zalian Sorsaa nebismieri kanonaRmsrulebeli

organosagan, romelsac dabinZurebis SeCereba SeuZlia.

ra SeiZleba moimoqmedos lomiZeebis ojaxma am SemTxvevaSi?

d) ra stimulebi hqonda gaiZveraZes dabinZurebis SesaCereblad miwis

gayidvamde?

davaleba SeafaseT situacia, miiReT gadawyvetileba da daasabuTeT.

qarxnis narCenebi mdinareSi Caedineba, ris Sedegadac Tevzi gawyda,

wyali banaobisTavis da baRebis mosarwyavad gamousadegari gaxda. es

gansakuTrebiT qvemo dinebasTan mcxovreblebs awuxebT. mdinaris napiras

macxovreblebi ekologiuri problemis gadaWris sam variantze

msjeloben. airCieT is varianti, romelic Tqveni azriT saukeTesoa.

pasuxi daasabuTeT.

varianti 1 _ radgan dabinZurebis kontroli da ekologiuri problemis

gadaWra pirvel rigSi, qvemo dinebis mcxovreblebisTvis sargeblis

momtania, amisaTvis maT qarxnisTvis gadaxda mouwevT, raTa nar­

Cenebi sxva gziT iqnas gatanili.

varianti @2 _ saxelmwifom qarxana unda daxuros. es erTaderTi

gzaa dabinZurebis SesaCereblad. mosaxleoba ar unda dazaraldes. am

problemis nebismieri sxvagvari gadawyveta wyals mainc daabinZurebs.

varianti 3 _ kompania warmoebis yvela danaxarjs ar iTvaliswinebs.

mdinaris wylis dacva erT­erTi aseTi danaxarjia. unda dawesdes

ekologiuri gadasaxadi da igi kompanias yoveli kuburi litri wylis

dabinZurebisTvis unda daekisros. es kompaniis danaxarjebis zrdas da

Sesabamisad, warmoebis Semcirebas gamoiwvevs. Sedegad, mdinaris wyali

naklebad dabinZurdeba.

65


66

18

ekonomikuri aqtivobis

wrebrunva

cnobilia, rom ekonomikuri sistema urTierTobis wesebs qmnis, romlis Sesabamisadac

adamianebi sxvadasxva funqcias asruleben. miuxedavad imisa, rom yovelgvari dayofa pirobiTia,

igi mainc dagvexmareba ekonomikuri sistemis funqcionirebis ukeT gagebaSi.

ekonomikis mTavar komponentebsa da maTi urTierTqmedebis meqanizms naTlad

aCvenebs ekonomikuri wrebrunvis modeli, romelic ori saxis komponentisagan Sedgeba:

gadawyvetilebis mimRebi jgufebi da bazrebi.

saojaxo

meurneobebi

gadawyvetilebis mimRebni

firmebi saxelmwifo

saojaxo meurneobebi, firmebi da saxelmwifo ekonomikur gadawyvetilebebs iReben.

maT Soris urTierTobebi urTierTdamokidebul ekonomikur sistemas qmnis. am sistemis

ilustracias resursebis, saqonlis, momsaxurebisa da fulis wrebrunvis modeli warmoadgens.

saxelmwifo _ awarmoebs saqonelsa da momsaxurebas. igi anawilebs

Semosavlebsa da dovlaTs. mTavrobis mier warmoebuli yvelaze

mniSvnelovani momsaxurebaa kanonebi da maTi aRmasrulebeli meqanizmi

(sasamarTloebi da policia), Tavdacva, jandacva, transporti

da ganaTleba.

saojaxo meurneobebi _ ojaxebi an calkeuli adamianebi (magaliTad,

ojaxi an sami studenti, romelic erTad cxovrobs da moqmedebs

rogorc erTi erTeuli), romlebic saqonelsa da momsaxurebas

moixmaren. maT gaaCniaT resursebi, romlebsac firmebs

anazRaurebis sanacvlod mihyidian.

xelfasi _ Sromis safasuri, gamoxatuli fuladi formiT.

renta _ gadasaxadi miwis gamoyenebisaTvis.

sargebeli (zogjer moixsenieben rogorc procenti) _ gadasaxadi

fuladi sesxisaTvis.

gadasaxadebi _ savaldebulo fuladi gadasaxdelebi, romlebsac

saojaxo meurneobebi da firmebi saxelmwifos sasargeblod ixdian.

nebismieri individi romelime saojaxo meurneobis wevria. individebi moqmedeben

rogorc momxmareblebi da rogorc mwarmoeblebi.

saojaxo meurneobebi ekonomikaSi moqmedeben rogorc momxmareblebi, rodesac isini

firmebis mier warmoebul saqonelsa da momsaxurebas iZenen. aseTi gacvla produqtis

bazarze xdeba. adgilobriv sasursaTo maRaziaSi sakvebis SeZena aseTi gacvlis magali­

Tia. saojaxo meurneobebi mudmivad iReben gadawyvetilebebs, Tu ra raodenobis Sroma,

miwa da kapitali gayidon xelfasis, rentisa da mogebis sanacvlod. aseve, Semosavlis ra

nawili daxarjon arsebuli saqonlisa da momsaxurebis SesaZenad.


esursebis mflobelebi firmebs sawarmoo resursebiT amarageben. es ukanasknelni

ki maT saqonlisa da momsaxurebis sawarmoeblad iyeneben. aseT gacvlas adgili aqvs

faqtorTa bazarze (anu sawarmoo resursebis bazarze). aRniSnul bazarze garigebis

magaliTia, firmis mier muSisaTvis xelfasis gadaxda, miwis mesakuTrisaTvis sesxis procentis

(sargeblis) gadaxda (rentis, sawarmosa da mowyobilobebisaTvis aRebuli sesxebisaTvis).

firmebi saojaxo meurneobebis msgavsad funqcionireben, rogorc momxmareblebi da

rogorc mwarmoeblebi. firmebi saqonelsa da momsaxurebas saqonlis bazars awvdian.

yvela vinc awarmoebs _ firmas warmoadgens, miuxedavad imisa ra sididisa aris da ras

awarmoebs misi sawarmo. manqanaTmSeneblebi, fermerebi, bankebi, sadazRvevo kompaniebi

– firmebia. firmebi iReben gadawyvetilebas, ra raodenobis SromiTi resursebi, miwa da

kapitali iqiraon an SeiZinon da ra raodenobis saqoneli da momsaxureba awarmoon.

mogebis miRebas, firmebi TavianTi produqciis TviTRirebulebaze maRal fasSi cdiloben.

Tu maTi saqmianoba warumatebelia, igi zarals gamoiwvevs. firmebma mogebis misaRebad

is produqcia unda miawodon, romlis yidvac saojaxo meurneobebs surT, Tanac

_ konkurentul fasad. Tu sawarmo iseT saqonels (momsaxurebas) ar awarmoebs, romlis

SeZenac saojaxo meurneobebs surT da ar Seamcirebs fasebs ise, rom konkurencia

gauwios sxva mewarmeebis mier gamoSvebul saqonels (momsaxurebas), maSin igi ganwiruli

iqneba warumateblobisaTvis. Tu firma kvlav zaraliT imuSavebs, maSin man biznesi unda

datovos.

saxelmwifo wyvets, romeli saqoneli da momsaxureba unda uzrunvelyos da ra raodenobis

gadasaxadebi gadaaxdevinos saojaxo meurneobebsa da firmebs.

? 1.

rogor xdeba mwarmoeblebisa da momxmareblebis interesebis damTxveva?

2. ra aris is Zala, romelic yvela sasurvel saqonelsa da momsaxurebas bazarze

uyris Tavs?

3. SeadareT Tqveni azri saxelmZRvaneloSi mocemuls.

erTi SexedviT saojaxo meurneobebis, firmebisa da mTavrobis arCevani da

gadawyvetilebebi TiTqos erTmaneTs unda ewinaaRmdegebodes, magram sinamdvileSi isini

Zalze SeTanxmebulad moqmedeben.

faqtorTa bazarze

saojaxo meurneobebi gasayidi

Sromis saxeebsa da raodenobas irCeven,

xolo firmebi SesaZeni Sromis saxeebsa

da raodenobas.

saqonlisa da momsaxurebis bazarze

saojaxo meurneobebi SesaZeni saqonlisa

da momsaxurebis saxeebsa da raodenobas

irCeven, xolo firmebi gasayidi

saqonlisa da momsaxurebis

saxeebsa da raodenobas.

saxelmwifos mier dawesebuli gadasaxadebi gavlenas axdens Semosavlis im nawilze,

romelic saojaxo meurneobebsa da firmebs dasaxarjad aqvT gankuTvnili. saojaxo

meurneobebisa da firmebis gadawyvetilebebi, SesaZeni saqonlisa da momsaxurebis Sesaxeb

damokidebulia imaze, Tu ra saqonelsa da momsaxurebas uzrunvelyofs mTavroba.

mag., Tu mTavroba uzrunvelyofs saukeTeso gzatkecilebs, magram gaumarTav sarkinigzo

sistemas, maSin saojaxo meurneobebi TavianTi Semosavlis did nawils avtomanqanebis

SeZenas moaxmaren.

67


? sanam

68

!

ekonomikur models warmogidgenT, SeecadeT upasuxoT Semdeg

kiTxvebs. pasuxebi daasabuTeT.

1. rogor xdeba, rom milionobiT individualuri gadawyvetileba, romelsac saojaxo

meurneobebi, firmebi da mTavroba iRebs SesabamisobaSia erTmaneTTan?

2. ra aiZulebs saojaxo meurneobebs awarmoon saqonlisa damomsaxurebis

zustad is saxeobebi da raodenoba, romlis yidvac firmebs surT?

3. ra moxdeba Tu ekonomikis profesorebis raodenoba im universitetebis raodenobas

gadaaWarbebs, romelTac maTi samuSaoze miReba surT?

4. saidan ician firmebma ra saqoneli da momsaxureba unda awarmoon?

5. ra moxdeba Tu firmebi ufro met saqonels awarmoeben, vidre

saojaxo meurneobebi moisurveben yidvas?

1

ekonomikuri aqtivobis wrebrunvis diagramis analizisTvis mniSvnelovania

imis gageba, rom erTi da igive adamiani resursebis mesakuTrec

SeiZleba iyos da _ saojaxo meurneobis wevric. amavdroulad iyos firmis

muSaki da saqonlisa da momsaxurebis mwarmoebeli.

yvelam icis, rom soflad mcxovreb ojaxebs miwis nakveTebi aqvT, saidanac

miRebuli Semosavali maTi mTeli wlis sarCoa. ganvixiloT glexis ojaxis

(saojaxo meurneoba) saqmianoba, romelsac sakuTari miwis nakveTi aqvs. yvela

saWiro produqts ojaxi am nakveTze ver moiyvans. sxva produqtebis SesaZenad

saWiro TanxebisaTvis glexi da misi ojaxis wevrebi firmaSi xorblis moyvaniT

arian dakavebulni. maT TavianTi samuSao Zala (SromiTi resursi) firmas mihyides.

firma maT Sromas puris sawarmoeblad iyenebs. xolo mza produqts _

purs, produqtebis bazarze yidis.

glexi Tavisi xelfasidan (fuladi Semosavali) firmas puris safasurs uxdis

produqtis bazarze. am bazarze miRebuli SemosavlebiT firma faravs warmoebisTvis

gaweul xarjebs (xelfasebi, masalebi da sxva) da mogebas iRebs. amgvarad

ikvreba ekonomikuri saqmianobis wre, romelic saqonlisa da Sromis moZraobas

gamoxatavs.

2

rogorc aRvniSneT, saojaxo meurneobebi purs firmebisgan yiduloben. firma

am fuliT TanamSromlebs xelfass uxdis, yidulobs fqvils da sxva. darCenili

Tanxa ki firmis (mepatronis) mogebaa. mepatroneebic xom romeliRac saojaxo

meurneobis wevrebi arian _ es maTi Semosavalia.

amrigad, puris safasurs saojaxo meurneobebi firmebs uxdian. puris danaxarjebi

saojaxo meurneobebidan firmaSi gadadis, Semosavlebi ki xelfasisa da

mogebis saxiT firmebidan saojaxo meurneobebSi brundeba. amgvarad ikvreba ekonomikuri

saqmianobis meore (gare) wre, romelic fulis moZraobas gamoxatavs.

es sabazro meurneobis Zalian martivi modelia. SeecadeT orive situacia ekonomikuri

saqmianobis wrebrunvis diagramaze gadaitanoT.

qvemoT mocemuli wrebrunvis sqemaze, isriT gamosaxulia gadasaxadebis da

produqtebis gadaadgilebis mimarTuleba, saojaxo meurneobebsa da firmebs Soris.

xazebis gareTa qseli aCvenebs Semosavlebis nakads (fuladi gadasaxdelebi). xazebis

SigniTa qseli aCvenebs mza produqciisa da sawarmoo resursebis nakads.


? 1.

!

saojaxo

meurneobebi

ekonomikuri aqtivobis wrebrunva

saqonlisa da

momsaxurebis

bazari

faqtorTa

bazari

firmebi

ra rols asruleben firmebi ekonomikuri aqtivobis wrebrunvaSi?

2. ra rols asruleben saojaxo meurneobebi ekonomikuri aqtivobis wrebrunvaSi?

3. rogor arian urTierTdamokidebuli firmebi da saojaxo meurneobebi?

realur cxovrebaSi mewarmeebi da saojaxo meurneobebi, mkacrad gamijnulni

ar arian;

resursebis mesakuTreebi SeiZleba ara mxolod momxmareblebi iyvnen,

aramed firmebic. garda amisa, firmebs resursebiT erTmaneTs Soris vaWroba

SeuZliaT;

saxelmwifo gansakuTrebul ekonomikur agents warmoadgens da arc

firmebs da arc saojaxo meurneobebs ar waagavs;

resursebi SeiZleba urTierTSemcvleli aRmoCndes: saqonlis erTi da

igive raodenoba SeiZleba warmoebuli iqnes resursebis sxvadasxva kombinaciis

gamoyenebiT.

ekonomikur sistemaSi mwarmoeblebi warmoebis faqtorebze moTxovnas

uzrunvelyofen da saqonelsa da momsaxurebas awvdian. amavdroulad

saojaxo meurneobebi warmoebis faqtorebis miwodebas uzrunvelyofen

da qmnian moTxovnas saqonelsa da momsaxurebaze. amgvarad, arsebobs ori

ZiriTadi bazari:

1) saqonlisa da momsaxurebis,

2) warmoebis faqtorTa bazari.

amave dros, ekonomikaSi ori sawinaaRmdego mimarTulebis wrebrunva

arsebobs: fulis nakadi da saqonlisa da momsaxurebis nakadi.

69


savarjiSo

kiTxvebi

da

davalebebi

70

ekonomikuri aqtivobis wrebrunva

saojaxo meurneobebi Tavis gankargulebaSi arsebul bunebriv

resursebs, SromiT resursebs da kapitals fuladi Semosavlebis (xelfasi,

renta, procenti da mogeba) sanacvlod awvdian. amgvarad miRebuli

SemosavlebiT, firmebi saojaxo meurneobebisagan yiduloben

resursebs axali saqonlis da momsaxurebis sawarmoeblad da Semdgom­

Si gasayidad. amrigad, iqmneba sawarmoo resursebis, saqonlisa da momsaxurebis,

agreTve, Semosavlebis wrebrunva.

danaxarjebi Semosavlebi

saojaxo

meurneobebi

saqonlisa da

momsaxurebis

bazari

saqoneli, momsaxureba

sawarmoo resursebi

faqtorTa

bazari

firmebi

Semosavlebi gadasaxdelebi

1. diagramis mixedviT gansazRvreT, romel bazarze awvdian

firmebi fulad gadasaxadebs saojaxo murneobebs, sawarmoo faqtorebis

sanacvlod?

2. romel bazarze awvdian saojaxo meurneobebi fulad gadasaxdelebs

firmebs, saqonlisa da momsaxurebis sanacvlod?

3. daasaxeleT sawarmoo resursebi, romelsac saxelmwifo saojaxo

meurneobebisgan Seisyidis.

4. daasaxeleT saqoneli da momsaxureba, romelsac saxelmwifo

firmebisgan Seisyidis.

1. rogor arian damokidebuli saojaxo meurneobebis wevrebi firmebze?

2. rogor arian damokidebuli firmebi saojaxo meurneobebis wevrebze?

3. rogoria saxelmwifos roli ekonomikuri aqtivobis wrebrunvaSi? am

rolis gaTvaliswinebiT modelSi CarTeT da CaxazeT saxelmwifo.

4. moiyvaneT magaliTebi Tqveni qalaqis, raionis, dasaxlebis realuri

cxovrebidan, romelic sqemaze mocemul TiToeul nakads Seesabameba.


III

imsjeleT

mewarmeoba

da biznesi

19-20

yvelaferi

biznesis Sesaxeb

1. CamoTvaleT cnobili biznesmenebis saxelebi, saqmianobis sfero da is

produqti, romelsac maTi firmebi awarmoeben.

2. rogori firma gindaT gqondeT? romeli produqtis warmoebas isurvebdiT?

firmis damoukideblad marTva girCevniaT Tu gundTan erTad?

firmebi erTmaneTisagan gansxvavdebian. isini sxvadasxva saqonelsa da momsaxurebas

awarmoeben da arCeuli aqvT saqmianobis organizebis sxvadasxva formebi: individualuri

sawarmo, partnioroba da korporacia (saaqcio sazogadoeba).

1

individualuri sawarmo (erTpirovnuli mflobeloba)

aris biznesis iseTi forma, romelsac erTi adamiani an ojaxi flobs

da romelsac firmis valdebulebebze piradi qonebrivi pasuxismgebloba

akisria.

partnioroba (amxanagoba) aris biznesis iseTi forma, romelsac ramdenime

adamiani flobs. isini TanamesakuTreni arian. valdebulebebis

Seusruleblobis SemTxvevaSi amxanagobac piradi qonebiT agebs pasuxs.

korporacia (saaqcio sazogadoeba) aris biznesis iseTi forma,

romlis sakuTreba dayofilia aqciebad, xolo aqciis mflobelebs

aqcionerebs uwodeben. korporacia (saaqcio sazogadoeba)

kanonis mixedviT aris iuridiuli piri. man Seqmnis dros registracia

unda gaiaros da SeiZleba ganusazRvreli vadiT imoqmedos. korporacias

SeuZlia Tavisi saxeliT sasamarTlos mimarTos da Sesa­

Zloa, TviTonac iqnas samarTalSi micemuli.

aqcia _ fasiani qaRaldi, romlis mixedviTac misi mflobeli korporaciis

mewile xdeba.

dividendi aris aqcioneris Semosavali, romelsac is korporaciis

mogebidan iRebs.

mogebis miReba _ is mizania, risTvisac adamianebi ama Tu im saqmianobas

iwyeben. miuxedavad misi organizaciuli formisa, yoveli

firma mogebis gazrdas (maqsimizacias) da danaxarjebis Semcirebas

(minimizacias) cdilobs.

Tamari patara sasursaTo maRaziis mflobelia. igi yidulobs produqtebs,

saWiro aRWurvilobas, transportirebisaTvis sabargo manqanas qiraobs. mis maRaziaSi

1 muSa da 2 gamyidvelia dasaqmebuli. Tamari maRazias damoukideblad mar­

Tavs, yvela xarjs TviTon eweva da mogebasac TviTon iRebs.

Tamarma sasursaTo maRazia bankidan aRebuli sesxis daxmarebiT gaxsna. igi imedovnebs,

rom Tu yvelaferi kargad aewyoba, vals sam welSi dafaravs. winaaRmdeg

SemTxvevaSi, iZulebuli iqneba valis dabrunebisaTvis pasuxi piradi qonebiT agos.

71


? biznesis

es

sainteresoa

72

2

samma megobarma _ giorgim, ninom da Teonam internet­kafes gaxsna

gadawyvites. firmis dafuZnebisaTvis samivem garkveuli Tanxa Seitana.

yvelaze meti fuli giorgim gaiRo, yvelaze naklebi ki _ ninom.

xelSekrulebis safuZvelze gadawyda, rom damfuZneblebi mogebidan wils

Setanili Tanxis mixedviT miiReben. Teonas meTvalyureoba da momxmareblebTan

urTierToba daevala, ninos _ Semosuli Tanxis miReba da dRis bolosaTvis

sabuRaltro dakumentaciis mowesrigeba, giorgis _ qselis administrireba

(marTva).

jer­jerobiT megobrebi Sexmatkbilebulad muSaoben, Tumca xSirad ama Tu

im sakiTxebze kamaTi uwevT. es ZiriTadad giorgis exeba. guSin man ganacxada,

rom metad seriozul da sapasuxismgeblo samuSaos asrulebs, risTvisac sxvagan

ukeTes anazRaurebas miiRebda. aq ki, faqtiurad, ufasod muSaobs da maRali

Semosavlis miRebis SesaZleblobas kargavs. man megobrebs axali TanamSromlis

daqiraveba SesTvaza.

3

kompania `ekoproduqti” axal SesaZleblobebs avlens. misi produqti bazarze

ufro da ufro popularuli xdeba. kompaniis aqciebis SeZenis survili

bolo periodSi bevrs gauCnda, radganac mogeba sul ufro da ufro izrdeba.

organizaciis romeli formebia ganxiluli situaciebSi?

• ganviTarebul qveynebSi individualuri da saojaxo firmebi mTliani

sawarmoebis raodenobaSi daaxloebiT 80%­s Seadgenen.

• aSS-Si daaxloebiT 15 mln. individualuri mewarmea, romelTa xelSic

Tavmoyrilia biznesSi dakavebuli saxsrebis daaxloebiT 14 %.

• inglisSi firmebis 96% aris mcire. masSi dasaqmebulia kerZo seqtoris

mSromelTa mesamedze meti. aq mcire sawarmoebis ricxvi yovelwliurad

izrdeba daaxloebiT 10%­iT. maT umravlesobaSi dasaqmebulTa

ricxvi 20 adamians Seadgens. am jgufis Semosavlebi ki yovelwliurad

izrdeba.

• ,,silikonis veli” mTels msoflioSi cnobilia. igi aSS-Si, kaliforniis

StatSi mdebareobs. masSi gaerTianebulia daaxloebiT 3 aTasi firmis

Zalisxmeva. isini yvelaze ufro Tanamedrove eleqtronul mowyobilobebs

awarmoeben. aq dasaqmebulia 6 aTasze meti mecnierebaTa doqtori.

dasaqmebulTa Soris 15 aTasamde adamiani milioneria.

• saqarTvelos moqalaqeebs, ZiriTadad, Semosavlis miRebis Semdegi

wyaroebi aqvT: Semosavlebi daqiravebuli Sromidan, TviTdasaqmebidan,

soflis meurneobis produqciis gayidvidan, memkvidreobiT

miRebuli qonebidan, ucxoeTidan miRebuli gzavnilebidan, qonebis

gayidvidan, axloblebisagan miRebuli fulidan, fulis sesxebidan an

danazogis gamoyenebidan.


farTo gagebiT mewarmeoba ukavSirdeba pirovnebis gamorCeul Tvisebebs: pirovneba,

romelic fizikuri da materialuri SesaZleblobebiT sxvvbze maRla dgas, gambedavia,

swyuria Zalaufleba da cdilobs daagrovos simdidre, nebismier samuSaos warmatebiT

ganaxorcielebs da sxvebsac gaiyolebs. Tumca, aseTi adamianebi gamonakliss warmoadgenen.

viwro gagebiT mewarmeoba ganixileba, rogorc mogebis mizniT muSaoba.

sabazro ekonomikis pirobebSi mewarmeoba gulisxmobs iniciativas da damoukideblobas.

mewarmeobis gareSe SeuZlebelia ekonomikis ganviTareba da amitom yvela darg­

Si gaTvaliswinebuli unda iyos mewarmeobis elementebi.

magaliTad, fermerisTvis ZiriTadi sawarmoo saSualeba aris miwa. amitom fermerma

kargad unda icodes miwis

Taviseburebebi. igi sistematurad

unda zrunavdes

miwis nayofierebis amaRlebasa

da SenarCunebaze.

vinaidan, soflis meurneobaSi

mewarmeoba dakavSirebulia

klimatur

pirobebTan: naleqebis raodenobasTan,

vegetaciis

vadebTan, mzis radiaciasa

da saSualo wliur temperaturasTan,

bunebrivi

faqtorebis Seswavla da

ekonomikuri codnis gamoyeneba

soflis meurneobaSi

mewarmeobis sworad organizebisa da Semosavlis miRebis SesaZleblobas iZleva.

mewarmeobaSi erT­erTi ZiriTadi piroba TviT mewarmis pirovnebaa. amosavali wertili,

romlisganac iwyeba TiToeuli axali sawarmo, aris idea.

idea SeiZleba iyos rogorc originaluri (sakuTari), aseve nasesxebi (sxvisi saqmis

gagrZeleba).

!

ra aris saWiro, rom fermeri mewarme gaxdes?

Tandayolili Tvisebebi

interesi soflis meurneobisadmi;

praqtikuli azrovneba;

riskis unari;

ZiriTadi sasoflo­sameurneo saqmianobis

warmarTvis unari;

gambedaoba;

mizanmimarTuloba;

damoukidebloba, rTuli amo canebis

gadawyvetis SesaZleblobis

rwmena;

soflis da miwis siyvaruli, ar

SeuSindes e.w. `talaxian saqmes~.

swavliT da praqtikiT

SeZenili codna da unarebi

ekonomikis safuZvlebis floba;

buRaltruli aRricxva, finan su ri

saqmianobis analizi, menej men tisa

da marketingis anbani;

klientebis, konkurentebis, sa qon ­

lis momwodeblebis Sesaxeb informaciis

moZiebis unari;

bazarze arsebuli mdgomareobis

codna;

teqnikisa da warmoebis teqnologiebis

codna;

saqmianobis moklevadiani da grZelvadiani

dagegmvis unari;

siaxleebis miRebis unari.

73


iznesis samarTlebrivi garemo

biznesis garemos kerZo, saxelmwifo da sazogadoebrivi organizaciebi qmnian. nebismieri

biznesis formis wamowyeba saxelwifo kanonmdeblobiTaa gansazRvruli.

saqarTveloSi biznesis mowyobis samarTlebriv­organizaciul formebs (anu maTi Seqmnis,

gaZRolis, likvidaciis, Serwyma­danawevrebis sakiTxebs) aregulirebs kanoni ,,mewarmeTa

Sesaxeb”. am kanonis Tanaxmad, samewarmeo saqmianobad ganixileba araerTjeradi

saqmianoba, romelic ganxorcielebulia mogebis miRebis mizniT. samewarmeo

saqmianobis ganxorcielebis ufleba aqvs rogorc fizikur, ise iuridiul pirs.

individualuri sawarmo aris fizikuri piri, yvela sxva danarCeni samarTlebrivorganizaciuli

formebi _ iuridiuli piri. ,,mewarmeTa Sesaxeb” kanonis Sesabamisad

saqarTveloSi mewarmes Semdegi samarTlebriv­organizaciuli formebidan SeuZlia

erT­erTi statusi miiRos.

iuridiuli piris registraciisTvis savaldebuloa partniorTa raodenoba ganisaz­

Rvros 50-mde, Tu fuZndeba sps, ks, an Sps.

Tu partniorTa ricxvi aWarbebs 50-s _ aseTi sawarmo saaqcio sazogadoebad yalibdeba.

partniorTa ricxvi SeuzRudavia kooperativisaTvis.

sawarmo kanoniT gansazRvrul ufleba ­movaleobebs mxolod mas Semdeg iTavsebs, rac

Setanili iqneba samewarmeo reestrSi.

74

!

ram SeiZleba moaxdinos axali ideebis gaCena Tu axali saqmis

inicireba?

ideis wyaro SeiZleba iyos momxmarebelTa gamoxmaureba, cvlilebebi

saxelmwifo prioritetebSi (mag., saxelmwifom ekologiuri produqcia

prioritetad aRiara, Seamcira romelime gadasaxadi, daawesa barieri

importze), aseve nacnobebis gamokiTxva, konkurentebis produqciis

Sefaseba, samecniero kvlevis Sedegebi, sxva qveynebis progresuli gamocdileba

da sxva.

samewarmeo reestri aris nusxa, romelTac ekonomikur urTier­

TobebSi samarTlebrivi mniSvneloba aqvT.

SeuzRudavi pasuxismgebloba gulisxmobs mTlianad, mTeli

Tavisi qonebiT pirdapir pasuxismgeblobas kreditorebis (mevaleebis)

winaSe warmoqmnili valebulebebis (valis) dasafaravad.

• individualuri sawarmo (is)

• solidaruli pasuxismgeblobis sazogadoeba (sps)

• komandituri sazogadoeba (ks)

• SezRuduli pasuxismgeblobis sazogadoeba (Sps)

• saaqcio sazogadoeba (ss)

• kooperativi

fizikuri piri

iuridiuli piri


!

sawarmos registraciisTvis saWiroa Seiqmnas wesdeba, romelSic

Setanili iqneba kanoniT moTxovnili yvela parametri, urTierTobebis

regulirebisaTvis aucilebeli yvela detali. sazogadoebis

wesdebas xels aweren damfuZnebeli partniorebi.

individualuri mewarme

individualur mewarmes SeuzRudavi pasuxismgebloba ekisreba.

komanditebi, Sps­s, ss­s da kooperativebis damfuZneblebi pasuxs ageben Tavisi

iuridiuli (anu wesdebiT) gansazRvruli qonebiT.

nebismieri tipis sazogadoebaSi gadawyvetilebis miRebis uflebis mqonea:

saerTo kreba (korporaciaSi; kooperativSi);

sameTvalyureo sabWo (saaqcio sazogadoebaSi);

sakonsultacio sabWo (SezRuduli pasuxismgeblobis sazogadoebaSi, saaqcio sazogadoebaSi,

komanditur sazogadoebaSi);

direqtorati.

direqtors

(ss, Sps, kooperativi)

xelmZRvanelobis uflebamosileba eniWeba

yvela partniors

(sps)

personalurad

pasuxismgebel pirs

(is, Sps, sps, koop.)

sazogadoebam SesaZlebelia Seqmnas masze daqvemdebarebuli erTeuli _

filiali, romelic ar warmoadgens iuridiul pirs.

saaqcio sazogadoeba

saaqcio sazogadoeba sawarmos iseTi formaa, romelic fizikur da iuridiul pirebs

Soris urTierTSeTanxmebis safuZvelze, maTi materialuri saSualebebisa da fuladi

saxsrebis gaerTianebis gziT iqmneba. saaqcio sazogadoebis sawesdebo kapitali aqciebad

aris dayofili. minimaluri sawesdebo kapitali 15 000 laria. igi SeiZleba gaizardos

axali aqciebis gamoSvebiT. aqcioners aqvs sazogadoebis saqmianobis Sesaxeb informaciis

miRebis da Tavisi moTxovnebis wamoyenebis ufleba. sazogadoebis umaRlesi mmar­

Teli organoa aqconerTa saerTo kreba. is niSnavs sameTvalyureo sabWos, romelic Tavis

mxriv, direqtorats niSnavs.

solidaruli pasuxismgeblobis sazogadoeba

fizikuri pirebi, romlebic erToblivad, erTi safirmo saxelwodebiT ewevian mewarmeobas,

qmnian iuridiul pirs _ solidaruli pasuxismgeblobis sazogadoebas.

solidaruli pasuxismgeblobis sazogadoebis damfuZneblebi kreditorebis winaSe

warmoqnili valdebulebebisaTvis pasuxs ageben SeuzRudavad _ mTeli Tavisi qonebiT.

sazogadoebis xelmZRvanelobis uflebamosileba yvela partniors eniWeba, Tumca

wesdebiT sxva pirobebis gaTvaliswinebacaa SesaZlebeli. yvela sakiTxi, garda Cveulebrivi

samewarmeo saqmianobisa, saerTo krebaze ganixileba.

75


Tu wesdeba erT partniors xelmZRanel pirad ganixilavs, maSin danarCen partniorebs

sazogadoebis finansuri saqmianobis gakontrolebis ufleba aqvT.

sazogadoebis mogeba­zarali wlis bolos iangariSeba da masSi TiToeuli partnioris

wili ganisazRvreba.

komandituri sazogadoeba

sazogadoeba, romelSic ramdenime piri erToblivad, erTiani safirmo saxelwodebiT

eweva saqmianobas, aris komandituri sazogadoeba. sazogadoebaSi iuridiuli pasuxismgblobiT

(mxolod sagarantio Tanxis gadaxdiT) Sesuli pirebi ganixilebian komanditebad,

personaluri pasuxismgeblobiT Sesuli pirebi _ komplementarad.

komandituri sazogadoebis marTvisTvis gamoiyeneba solidaruli pasuxismgeblobis

marTvis zogado wesebi, aseve analogiuri principiT xdeba mogeba­zaralis ganwilebac.

SezRuduli pasuxismgeblobis sazogadoba

sazogadoebas, romlis pasuxismgebloba kreditorTa winaSe mTeli Tavisi qonebiT

xdeba, xolo partnioris pasuxismgebloba ki sawesdebo kapitalSi misi wilis Sesabamisad

Semoifargleba _ SezRuduli pasuxismgeblobis sazogadoba (Sps) ewodeba. Sps SeiZleba

erTma an ramodenime fizikurma an iuridiulma pirma daafuZnos. SezRuduli pasuxismgeblobis

sazogadobis sawesdebo kapitali sul mcire, 200 lars unda Seadgendes.

sazogadoebis umaRlesi organoa partniorTa kreba, romelsac sameTvalyureo sabWos

Seqmna SeuZlia. sazogadobas uSualod xelmZRvanelobs xmebis umravlesobiT arCeuli

direqtori an direqtorebi. direqtori SeiZleba iyos erTi piri, ramdenime partniori

an SromiTi xelSekrulebiT daqiravebuli piri.

kooperativi

kooperativi iuridiuli piria, romelic wevrTa SromiT saqmianobazea dafuZvnebuli

an wevrTa meurneobis ganviTarebisa da Semosavlis gadidebis mizniT Seqmnili sazogadoebaa.

biznesis organizaciis

formebi

76

!

individualuri

sawarmo


mewareTa mTavari amocana _ warmoebis awyoba da srulyofa, momxmarebelTa

ndobis mopoveba, ZiriTadad axali samrewvelo teqnologiebisa

da meTodebis danergviT xorcieldeba. es, Tavis mxriv, danaxarjebis

Semcirebas iwvevs, rac metad mniSvenlovania bazris wilis

mopovebisa da mogebis maqsimizaciisaTvis.

biznesis organizaciuli formebi _ upiratesoba da naklovaneba

upiratesobebi naklovanebebi

• organizaciis simartive;

• kontrolis simartive;

• Tavisufali moqmedebis

saSualeba. naklbad stabiluria;

saxelmwifos mxridan ar

ganicdis mniSvnelovan

regulirebas;

• naklebad stabiluroba

• Znelia fuladi saxsrebis

(kapitalis) mopovebagafarTovebisaTvis;

• arasakmarisad stabiluria;

• SeuzRudavi pasuxismgeblobis

mqone sawarmoa;

• mesakuTre iZulebulia

dakavebuli iyos marTvis

yvela funqciiT.


partnioroba

(amxanagoba)


korporacia

(saaqcio sazogadoeba)




savarjiSo

• organizaciis simartive;

• marTvis specializaciis

SesaZlebloba;

• meti finansuri resursebis

miRebis SesaZlebloba,

vidre indivi

dua luri sawarmos

SemTxvevaSi (fuladi

saxsrebis gaerTianeba);

• SezRuduli regulirebis

subieqti.

• aqciebisa da obligaciebis

gayidvis gziT

kapitalis didi raodenobiT

mozidvis SesaZlebloba;

• aqcionerebis SezRuduli

pasuxismgebloba;

• stabiluroba da mudmivoba.

iuridiuli piri;

• specializebuli xelmZRvaneli,

personalis daqiravebis

SesaZlebloba.

• sakuTrebis dayofis

dros uTanxmoebisaken

midrekileba;

• erT­erTi partnioris

saqmidan gasvlis an gardacvalebis

SemTxvevaSi

avtomaturad wyvets

arsebobas;

• SeuzRudavi pasuxismgeblobis

subieqti;

• SezRuduli finansuri

resursebi.

saxelmwifos mxridan

mniSvnelovani regulireba;

• mZime sagadasaxado

tvirTi da saorganizacio

xarjebi

• ormagi dabegvra: korporaciul

Semosavlebze da

dividendebze;

• dayofili sakuTreba da

kontroli ( problema _

`xelmZRvaneli _ Semsrulebeli“).

vfiqrobT, vazrovnebT, vimedovnebT…. . .

1. CamoTvaleT xuTi korporacia, romelTa produqciiTac Tqveni

ojaxi sargeblobs.

2. SesaZlebloba rom gqondeT, biznesis organizaciis romel formas

mianiWebdiT upiratesobas da ratom?

3. ra mniSvnelovani gansxvaveba SegiZliaT ipovoT im firmebs Soris,

romlebic momsaxurebis sferoSi moqmedeben (mag: saparikmaxero)

da im firmebs Soris romlebic warmoebis sferoSi moqmedeben (mag:

farmacevtuli qarxana)?

4. SeiZleba Tu ara saaqcio sazogadoeba ganvixiloT, rogorc kerZo

sakuTrebaSi myofi firma?

5. gansazRvreT, romeli tipis firmisaTvis aris damaxasiaTebeli

Semdegi Taviseburebebi?

a) Tavisufali moqmedebis unari;

b) mravali adamianis mozidvis unari;

g) Zlieri ekonomikuri stimuli;

d) didi kapitaluri danaxarjebi;

e) riski konkurentebTan brZolis dros.

77


kiTxvebi

da

davalebebi

78

1. CamoTvaleT saqarTveloSi cnobili savaWro niSnebi (specialuri

gamosaxuleba an simbolo, romelTa saSualebiTac xdeba misi mwarmoebeli

firmis amocnoba).

2. gaixseneT msoflioSi cnobili biznesmenebi. ram ganapiroba maTi

popularoba?

gamoikvlieT Tqvens skolasTan (saxlTan, sofelSi, qalaqSi, raionSi)

arsebuli firmebi organizaciul-samarTlebrivi formis mixedviT.

SeavseT cxrili da upasuxeT, romelia ufro metad gavrcelebuli

forma?

Ffirmebis

dasaxeleba

individ.

sawarmo

(is)

solidar.

pasuxismgeb.

saz­ba

(sps)

komandit.sazba

(ks)

SezRudu

li pasuxismg.

saz­a (Sps)

saaqcio

sazogadoeba

(ss)

kooperativi


!

srulyofili

konkurencia

Zalian

m artivia

mcire

bevri

ar

arsebobs

21

1. ras gulisxmobs konkurencia da rogor

aisaxeba igi adamianis yoveldRiur cxovrebaze?

2. ras gulisxmobs konkurencia ekonomikaSi?

konkurencia

sxvadasxva bazarze

konkurencia – aris ori an meti adamianis (firmis) miswrafeba miiRon

erTi da igive saqoneli, momsaxureba an sawarmoo da finansuri

resursebi. xSirad mwarmoeblebi metoqeobas uweven sxva mwarmoeblebs,

momxmareblebi ki _ sxva momxmareblebs.

srulyofili konkurenciis bazari _ iseTi bazaria, sadac

bevri gamyidveli erTgvarovan, identur (msgavs, aradiferencirebul)

produqts yidis, aseT bazarze Sesvla da gamosvla SedarebiT

advilia. gamyidvelebi sabazro fass TviTon adgenen.

arasrulyofili konkurenciis bazari _ iseTi bazaria, sadac

gamyidvelTa raodenoba mcirea da isini araerTgvarovan, gansxvavebul

produqts yidian. aseT bazarze Sesvla da gamosvla SedarebiT

rTulia. gamyidvelebi sabazro fass TviTon adgenen.

bazris struqtura ZiriTadi niSnebis mixedviT

monopolisturi

konkurencia

dargSi Sesvlis SesaZlebloba

firmis zoma

firmaTa ricxvi

fasebze kontroli

oligopolia monopolia

blokirebulia

msxvili

erTi

sruli

79


monopolisturi konkurencia

bazrebis umravlesoba Tavisufali konkurenciis pirobas ar

Seesabameba. arasrulyofili konkurenciis bazrebi, srulyofili

konkurenciisgan ramdenime niSniT gansxvavdebian. bazarTa umravlesobaSi

produqti araidenturia, gansxvavebulia, magram arsebobs

ramdenime axlo Semcvleli. aseT bazars monopolisturi

konkurenciis bazari ewodeba.

oligopolia

bevr bazarze Sesvla ar aris advili maRali kapitaluri danaxarjebisa

da im mwarmoeblebTan konkurenciis gamo, romlebic

cnobil, kargad reklamirebul samarko

produqts yidian. aseTi bazari xasiaTdeba msxvili gamyidvelebis

mcire raodenobiT da ara mravali wvrilmovaWriT.

magaliTad, saqarTveloSi iseTi produqtebisa da momsaxurebis

mwarmoebelTa Soris, rogoricaa ludi, Rvino, fiWuri

kavSirgabmulobis satelefono momsaxureba, telekompaniebi

_ mxolod ramdenime konkurentuli firmaa. aseT bazars oligopoliuri bazari ewodeba.

bazarze ramdenime (5-dan 10-mde) mwarmoebelia, romlebic erTgvarovan (msgavs)

an gansxvavebul (diferencirebul) saqonels awarmoeben, oligopolia warmoiqmneba.

rodesac bazarze ramdenime msxvili firma dominirebs, SesaZloa fasebis Sesaxeb faruli

SeTanxmebac moxdes.

monopolia

rodesac bazarze mxolod erTi gamyidvelia (mwarmoebelia),

romelic gansakuTrebul, unikalur saqonels yidis,

bazarze monopolia warmoiqmneba. arsebobs ekonomikis

iseTi seqtorebi, sadac monopoliis arseboba bazris ganviTarebis

aucilebel pirobebs uzrunvelyofs, sadac

konkurencia SesaZlebelia araefeqtianic ki iyos, an saer­

Tod SeuZlebelia. aseT pirobebSi bunebrivi (legaluri)

monopolia warmoiqmneba.

monopoliis pirobebSi, rodesac bazarze erTi gamyidvelia,

igi maRal fasebs awesebs, ugulebelyofs momxmareblis

interesebs, qmnis arakeTilsindisier konkurentul

garemos. am dros ar xdeba xarisxis mudmivi gaumjobeseba da Sesabamisad monopoliuri

dargi naklebad viTardeba. bazarze SesaZlebelia iseTi situaciac Seiqmnas, rodesac mxolod

erTi myidveli arsebobs. am dros arasrulyofili konkurenciis bazarze firmebi

xSirad, urTierTdamokidebulebi arian – erTi firmis qmedeba did gavlenas axdens

konkurentebze. arasrulyofili konkurenciis bazarze, msxvili da wvrili firmebi

did mniSvnelobas aniWeben arasafaso konkurencias da reklamas.

oligopolistebi xSirad mogebulni rCebian, Tu konkurentebs gaurigdebian da maT­

Tan TanamSromlobas daTanxmdebian. garigebaSi myofi firmebi erTdroulad irCeven da

bazars karnaxoben maRal fass, romelic maTi damatebiTi mogebis garantiaa. oligopoliis

dros, xSirad adgili aqvs farul SeTanxmebas saqonlisa da momsaxurebis sabazro

fasis, momxmareblis kategoriis, saqmianobis sferos, bazris wilis, resursebis wyaros

Sesaxeb.

garigebaSi myofi oligopolistebis gaerTianebas kartels uwodeben. oligopoliur

SeTanxmebas, arakanonieri xasiaTi aqvs, rac saxelmwifos mxridan gamovlenasa da mowesrigebas

moiTxovs.

arasrulyofili konkurenciis bazarze firmebi xSirad, urTierTdamokidebulebi

arian – erTi firmis qmedeba did gavlenas axdens konkurentebze.

arasrulyofili konkurenciis bazarze, msxvili da wvrili firmebi did mniSvnelobas

aniWeben arasafaso konkurencias da reklamas.

80


oligopolistebi xSirad mogebulni rCebian, Tu konkurentebs gaurigdebian da maT­

Tan TanamSromlobas daTanxmdebian. garigebaSi myofi firmebi erTdroulad irCeven da

bazars karnaxoben maRal fass, romelic maTi damatebiTi mogebis garantiaa. oligopoliis

dros, xSirad adgili aqvs farul SeTanxmebas saqonlisa da momsaxurebis sabazro

fasis, momxmareblis kategoriis, saqmianobis sferos, bazris wilis, resursebis wyaros

Sesaxeb. garigebaSi myofi oligopolistebis gaerTianebas kartels uwodeben.

oligopoliur SeTanxmebas, arakanonieri xasiaTi aqvs, rac saxelmwifos mxridan

gamovlenasa da mowesrigebas moiTxovs.

savarjiSo

1

es

sainteresoa

savarjiSo

2

? 1. ratom ar aRiareben eWvmitanilebi, vin aris monopolisti?

srulyofili da arasrulyofili konkurenciis bazrebi

bazris Taviseburebis gaTvaliswinebiT axseniT, rogor Seicvleba

gayidvebis moculoba produqtze fasis gazrdis an Semcirebis pirobebSi?

Tu:

a. kaxeli mevenaxe yurZnis fass gazrdis/Seamcirebs;

b. adgilobrivi eleqtrokompania fass gazrdis/Seamcirebs;

g. erT-erTi fiWuri kavSirgabmulobis kompania saqarTveloSi fass

gazrdis/Seamcirebs;

d. yvavilebis maRazia TbilisSi fass gazrdis/Seamcirebs.

konkurenciaSi Rirseuli gamarjvebis mizniT, firmebi gansakuTrebul

mniSvnelobas eqsperimentebs aniWeben.

• firma `makdonaldsi” axali saxis kafe-restornebis, menius, kerZebis

da fasebis cvlilebis gziT mudmivad atarebs eqsperimentebs;

• kompania IBM-is

warmatebas garkveulwilad e.w. `Tavisuflad gasrolili

isari” ganapirobebs. kerZod is, rom kompania xSirad axal, TiTqosda

uazro da saocar ideebs axorcielebs, romelTac Semdgom udidesi

vin aris monopolisti?

agenti mevludi bazarze moqmed firmaTagan monopolistis gamovlenas

cdilobs. moismineT monopolistobaSi eWvmitanilTa argumentebi.

gamoricxvis meTodis saSualebiT, daexmareT agent mevluds

gansazRvros, romeli bazris struqturaze moqmedebs TiToeuli maTgani.

eWvmitanilTa Cvenebebs maswavlebeli gagacnobT.

eWvmitanilebi bazris struqtura

2. sasurvelia Tu ara monopoliis arseboba bazarze? daasabuTeT.

81


82

22

konkurencia da

SeTanxmeba

imsjeleT gaixseneT arasrulyofili konkurenciis saxeebi.

axseniT am sqemis Sinaarsi.

arasrulyofili konkurenciis bazarze firmebi xSirad, urTierTdamokidebulebi

arian – erTi firmis qmedeba did gavlenas axdens konkurentebze.

arasrulyofili konkurenciis bazarze, msxvili da wvrili firmebi did mniSvnelobas

aniWeben arasafaso konkurencias da reklamas.

oligopolistebi xSirad mogebulni rCebian, Tu konkurentebs gaurigdebian da maT­

Tan TanamSromlobas daTanxmdebian. garigebaSi myofi firmebi erTdroulad irCeven da

bazars karnaxoben maRal fass, romelic maTi damatebiTi mogebis garantiaa. oligolpoliis

dros, xSirad adgili aqvs farul SeTanxmebas saqonlisa da momsaxurebis sabazro

fasis, momxmareblis kategoriis, saqmianobis sferos, bazris wilis, resursebis wyaros

Sesaxeb. garigebaSi myofi oligopolistebis gaerTianebas kartels uwodeben.

oligopoliur SeTanxmebas, arakanonieri xasiaTi aqvs, rac saxelmwifos mxridan

gamovlenasa da mowesrigebas moiTxovs.

savarjiSo

urTierTda -

mo kidebuleba

saidumlo

SeTanxmeba

arasrulyofili

konkurenciis

firmebi

moqiSpe benzingasamarTi sadgurebi

kaxas da giorgis qalaqis gareubanSi, gzatkecilis sxvadasxva

mxares benzingasamarTi sadgurebi aqvT. maxloblad sxva sadguri ar

aris. orive sadgurze erTnairi fasebia. es maT firniSze kargad Cans.

a) kaxa fasis gazrdas apirebs, radgan Tvlis,

rom fasis umniSvnelod gazrdis SemTxvevaSi,

adamianebi daaxloebiT, igave raodenobis benzins

SeiZenen. is Tvlis, rom mcire danakargebs

maRali fasebiT aanazRaurebs.

b) giorgi fasis Semcirebas apirebs, radgan

hgonia, rom fasis umniSvnelod Semcirebis Sem­

TxvevaSi, kaxas momxmarebels daakargvinebs. igi

darwmunebulia, rom TiToeul litrze Semosavlebis

mcireoden klebas, gacilebiT meti raodenobis

benzinis gayidviT aanazRaurebs.

arasafaso

konkurencia


es

sainteresoa

ese

neqo _ navTobis eqsportiori qveynebis orgnizacia (OPEThe

Organization

of the Petroleum Exporting Countries) – aris gaerTianeba, romelic navTobgadamamuSavebeli

magnatebis gaerTianebis Sedegad, navTobze erTiani

fasebis dawesebis mizniT Seiqmna. am organizaciis wevrebi is qveynebi

arian, romelTa ekonomika mniSvnelovnadaa damokidebuli navTobis

eqsportidan miRebul Semosavalze. misi ZiriTadi mizani navTobis

msoflio fasebis kontrolia.

neqo, rogorc mudmivad moqmedi arasaxelmwifo organizacia, 1960

wlis 10­14 seqtembers belgradis konferenciaze Seiqmna. Tavdapirvelad

mis SemadgenlobaSi xuTi qveyana gaerTianda: irani, erayi, quveiTi,

saudis arabeTi da venesuela. maT mogvianebiT kidev rva qveyana SeuerTda:

katari (1961), indonezia (1962), libia (1962), gaerTianebuli arabTa

emiratebi (1967), alJiri (1969), nigeria (1971), ekvadori (1973-1992), gabani

(1975-1994).

neqos Stab-bina Tavdapirvelad JenevaSi (Sveicaria) mdebareobda.

1965 wlis 1 seqtembridan is venaSi (avstria) gadavida.

neqos mizania organizaciis wevr qveynebs Soris saqmianobis koordinacia

da saerTo politikis SemuSaveba navTobis mopovebis, fasebis

dawesebisa da stabilizaciis, navTobis momxmarebelTa stabiluri momaragebis

uzrunvelyofis, navTobis dargSi Cadebuli investiciebidan

ukugebis miRebis mizniT.

neqos wevri qveynebi msoflio navTobis maragebis 2/3­s akontroleben.

maT wilze msoflio navTobis mopovebis 40% da msoflio navTobis

eqsportis naxevari modis.

amonaweri sagazeTo statiidan:

`gasul saukuneSi, msoflioSi momxdar progress umeteswilad

safuZveli im qveynebis bazrebze Caeyara, sadac aris an iyo arasrulyofili

konkurencia. es progresi axali saqonlis Seqmnasa da arsebulze

fasis Semcirebas gulisxmobs. Cveni keTildReoba gaizrdeba, Tu

saxelmwifo Tavs daanebebs bazrebis konkurentulobis SenarCunebas

da maT oligopoliebad an monopoliebad gadaqcevas dauSvebs.~

dawereT Tqveni Sefaseba statiaSi gamoTqmuli mosazrebis Sesaxeb.

sabazro struqturis oTxi modeli (martivad)

1. srulyofili konkurencia, yurZeni, kitri, vaSli...

saqarTvelos soflis meurneoba ekonomistebis azriTY

wminda, anu srulyofili konkurenciis bazars uaxlovdeba.

saqarTveloSi uamravi fermeria, romlebsac sasoflosameurneo

produqtebi mohyavT. SemodgomiT, rTvelis

dros, mTeli saqarTvelo, gansakuTrebiT ki kaxeTis regioni

yurZnis bazrad iqceva, sadac uamravi glexi rqawiTelis da

saferavis jiSis yurZens yidis. am bazarze uamravi myidvelia,

rogorc kerZo pirebi, aseve Rvinis qarxnebi.

damatebiTi

sakiTxavi

83


adgan yurZnis gamyidvelebis ricxvi sakmaod didia,

saeWvoa, rom romelime fermerma fasis daweseba an masze

gavlenis moxdena SeZlos.

saqarTvelos TiTqmis yvela regionSi kitri erT­erTi

ZiriTadi sasoflo­sameurneo kulturaa. davuSvaT, kitris

bazarze Sesvla da adgilobrivi fermerebis bazar­

Si ezoSi moyvanili kitris gayidva moisurveT. bazarze

kitris mravalferovnebaa, Tqveni kitri raionSi moyvanilis

identuri Tu ara, msgavsi iqneba. Tu fermerebis bazarze 1 kg kitris fasi daaxloebiT

0.80 laria, Tqven ki ufro Zvirad gayidvas SeecdebiT, SeiZleba erTic ver gayidoT.

Tu gadawyvitavT, kitri bazarze aRar gaitanoT, mTliani miwodeba imdenad ar

Semcirdeba, rom fasis gazrda gamoiwvios. Tqven ar SegiZliaT fasebis gakontroleba,

radgan bazarze uamravi sxva gamyidvelia. albaT, TqvenTvis aramomgebiani iqneba

arasafaso konkurenciis (magaliTad, reklamis) gamoyeneba imisaTvis, rom momxmarebeli

kitrSi ufro maRali fasis gadaxdaze daiTanxmoT, radgan yvela kitri erTmaneTis

msgavsia.

qarTveli fermerebi saerTaSoriso bazarze arsebuli konkurenciis gamo seriozuli

sirTuleebis winaSe dganan. aviRoT Tundac qarTuli vaSli. imisaTvis, rom man

SeZlos jansaRi konkurencia gauwios iseT mimwodeblebs, rogoricaa moldova, poloneTi

da CineTi, qarTvelma mexileebma xilis moyvanis da xexilis baRebis movlapatronobis

Tanamedrove meTodebi unda aiTvison, raTa msxvili, xraSuna, aromatuli

da lamazi Seferilobis vaSli awarmoon. garda amisa, mosavlis aRebis Semdeg, maT

vaSli civ sacavebSi Tveebis manZilze unda Seinaxon, raTa weliwadis nebismier dros

bazris moTxovnebis dakmayofileba SeZlon. garda amisa, aucilebelia Tanamedrove

vaSlis jiSebis moyvana, rac saerTaSoriso bazarze konkurentunarianobis erT­erTi

sawindaria.

2. monopolisturi konkurencia da Tqveni varcxniloba

Tu qalaqSi an did dasaxlebaSi cxovrobT,

Tqvenc da Tqvens megobrebsac didi arCevani gaqvT,

sad gaikeToT axali varcxniloba. fasi, romelsac

Cveulebrivi

varcxnilobisaTvis ixdiT, albaT ramdenime

laridan (fasdaklebis periodSi) ramdenime aTeul

laramde (prestiJul salonSi) meryeobs. Tu

amdeni stilistia,

ratom ar amcirebs konkurencia fasebs ise, rom

nebismieri varcxnilobis gakeTeba erTidaimave

fasad iyos SesaZlebeli?

pasuxs bazris struqturis erT­erTi tipi _ monopolisturi konkurencia iZleva.

silamazis salonebi, benzingasamarTi sadgurebi, kafeebi, restornebi, qimwmenda,

bevri TvisebiT wminda konkurenciis bazrebs hgvanan. dargSi mravali konkurenti

gamyidveli an firmaa da SedarebiT advilia am saxis biznesis dawyeba. monopolisturi

konkurenciis dros, gamyidvelebi cdiloben momxmareblebi daarwmunon, rom

maTi produqcia sxva gamyidvelebis produqciisagan gansxvavebulia da erTmaneTs

konkurencias ara fasis SemcirebiT, aramed sxva saSualebebiT uweven.

zogs akvirvebs varcxnilobis fasebs Soris aseTi didi gansxvaveba. ZviradRirebulma

stilistma SeiZleba ganacxados, rom is ukeT akeTebs Tavis saqmes da uaxlesi

varcxnilobebi icis, ris gamoc misi momsaxureba ufro Zviria. mas momxmareblis

darwmuneba da fasebze gavlenac SeuZlia. saparikmaxeroebi, xSirad erTmaneTs metoqeobas

arasafaso konkurenciis gziT uweven. maT momxmareblis mizidva ukeTesi adg­

84


ilmdebareobiT, momxibvleli garemoTi, xelsayreli samuSao saaTebiT SeuZliaT.

arasafaso konkurencia farTod aris gavrcelebuli monopolisturi konkurenciis

pirobebSi.

3. oligopolia, burRuleulis sauzme da mobiluri telefoni

oligopolia, dargSi ramdenime firmis arsebobas niSnavs.

oligopoliur dargSi firma awarmoebs produqcias,

romelic gansxvavdeba am dargis sxva firmebis

produqciisagan (magaliTad, erTi firmis ludi an nayini

gansxvavdeba sxva firmis produqciisagan), an SeiZleba

garkveulwilad sxva produqtebis identuric ki iyos.

radgan dargSi ramdenime gamyidvelia, maT dawesebuli

fasis gakontroleba SeuZliaT. mcirericxovnobis gamo

oligopoliurma firmebma konkurentebis mier dawesebul

fasebs didi yuradReba unda miaqcion. magaliTad,

Tuki erTi aviakompania fasebs Seamcirebs, sxvebmac mxari

unda auban. oligopoliuri firmebis sididis gamo, xSirad axali firmisaTvis dargSi

Sesvla da arsebul firmebTan konkurencia Znelia.

ueWvelad SeniSnavdiT, rom saqarTveloSi arsebuli ludis

mwarmoebeli firmebi reklamaze uamrav fuls xarjaven

da mas konkurenciis saSualebad iyeneben. konkurenciis ase­

Ti ZviradRirebuli gza damaxasiaTebelia iseTi oligopoliuri

dargisaTvis, sadac diferencirebuli produqcia

iyideba. magaliTad, avtomanqanebi, aviakompaniebi. reklama

imdenad ZviradRirebulia, rom es faqtori dargidan konkurentebis

CamoSorebas emsaxureba.

saqarTveloSi amJamad arsebuli fiWuri kavSirgabmulobis

momsaxurebis kompaniebs `magTikomsa”

da `jeosels” Soris, konkurenciul brZolaSi

gamarjvebulis dasaxeleba Znelia, radgan isini

mudmivad ejibrebian erTmaneTs da cdiloben

axali sixSireebis, momsaxurebis saxeebisa da

produqtis danergvas. orive udides fuls xarjavs

axal teqnologiebze, reklamaze, saqvelmoqmedo

saqmianobaze. aRsaniSnavia, rom bolo

periodSi saqarTvelos bazarze Semovida axali

konkurenti _ `bilaini”, romelic ukve mZafrad

CaerTo konkurentul brZolaSi.

roca dargSi ramdenime msxvili mwarmoebelia, arsebobs faruli SeTanxmebis Sesa­

Zlebloba. es imas niSnavs, rom SesaZlebelia firmebma fasebis daweseba erToblivad,

aralegalurad scadon. amitom aris, rom oligopoliebis saqmianobas xSirad didi yuradRebiT

ekidebian saxelmwifo regulirebis organoebi.

4. monopolia da almasebi

monopoliis gansazRvreba Zalze martivia: monopolia maSin arsebobs, roca unikaluri

produqtis erTaderTi gamyidvelia. realuri cxovrebidan monopoliis magali­

Tis motana advili ar aris, radgan nebismier biznesSi garkveuli saxis konkurenciaa.

Tu patara qalaqSi saxaWapure mxolod Tqven gaqvT, ras niSnavs es, monopolia

gaqvT, Tu konkurenciaSi xarT Cabmuli sxva saxis restornebTan?

arian Tu ara sinamdvileSi profesionaluri sportuli gundebi geografiuli

monopoliebi?

85


almasis industria monopoliis nimuSia, romelic

konkurenciis kontrolis uunarobis gamo daiSala.

msoflioSi cnobilia kompania ,,de­birsi”, (De Beers)

1930-iani wlebidan dawyebuli mTeli XX saukunis man­

Zilze, ofisebiT Sveicariasa da samxreT afrikaSi, akontrolebda

msoflioSi miwodebuli almasis udides

nawils. ,,debirsi” monopoliis kargi magaliTia. almasis

miwodebis kontrolma, SeaZlebina mas gasayidad miwodebuli

almasis raodenoba SeezRuda da imaze met fasad

gaeyida, vidre es konkurenciis pirobebSi iqneboda SesaZlebeli. monopolisti rom

gaxdes, kompaniam Sesvlis mkacri barierebi unda daawesos – es konkurentebis Camo­

Sorebis gzaa. wlebis ganmavlobaSi, nedli almasis SesyidviT, ,,de­birsi” Tavidan

icilebda konkurencias. is dabal fasad almasis SesyidviT da maRal fasad gayidviT

bazars fasebs karnaxobda. amave dros, maRali moTxovnis SesanarCuneblad da savaWro

markis gasaZliereblad, arasafaso konkurenciis formas _ reklamas (`almasi mudmivia~)

iyenebda.

saukunis bolos, `de­birsma” monopoliuri kontroli TandaTan dakarga da monopoliidan

wasvla gadawyvita. ruseTma, miuxedavad imisa, rom oficialurad jer kidev

monopoliis nawili iyo, almasis miyidva uSualod sxva qveynebisaTvis `debirsis~

gverdis avliT daiwyo. kanadasa da afrikaSi almasis aRmoCenam, ,,de­birss” miwodebis

kontroli gaurTula. afrikis saomar mdgomareobaSi myofi qveynebidan, almasis Sesyidvis

eTikurma problemebma, ,,de­birsis” problemebi kidev ufro gaarTula. 2000

wlis ivlisSi, ,,de­birsma” gamoacxada, rom is aRar apirebs almasis msoflio miwodebis

kontrols da monopolia oficialurad daiSala.

miuxedavad imisa, rom wminda monopoliis SemTxvevebi iSviaTia, `TiTqmis monopoliebis~

arsebobam SeiZleba ekonomikas problemebi Seuqmnas. monopoliebs mkacri

kontroli aqvT, maTive dawesebul fasebze da mcire stimuli imisa, rom efeqtianebi

da inovaciurebi iyvnen.

SeerTebul StatebSi monopoliebi aralegaluria, magram firmebis mxridan saku­

Tari monopoliis dacvis mcdeloba arsebobs.

davaleba amonaweri sagazeTo statiidan:

`gasul saukuneSi, msoflioSi momxdar progress umeteswilad

safuZveli im qveynebis bazrebze Caeyara, sadac aris an iyo arasrulyofili

konkurencia. es progresi axali saqonlis Seqmnasa da arsebulze

fasis Semcirebas gulisxmobs. Cveni keTildReoba gaizrdeba,

Tu saxelmwifo Tavs daanebebs bazrebis konkurentulobis SenarCunebas

da maT oligopoliebad an monopoliebad gadaqcevas dauSvebs.~

86

aRwereT Tqveni Sefaseba statiaSi gamoTqmuli mosazrebis Sesaxeb.


IV

davaleba

? mewarmeebis nawils miaCnia, rom rac met saqonels gaitans bazarze, miT

mdgradoba

bazarze

23

ra xdeba

realur bazarze?

1. ra xdeba realur bazarze, rodesac ramdenime gamyidvelia gaba

tonebuli?

2. ra xdeba realur bazarze, rodesac uamravi gamyidveli erTgvarovan

saqonels yidis?

3. ra xdeba bazarze, rodesac myidvelebis raodenoba Zalian mcirea?

4. albaT gagigiaT gamoTqma `bazari datova”. xom ar iciT, ras gulisxmobs

es fraza?

5. Tqveni azriT, ra pirobebi aiZulebs mewarmes bazris datovebas?

meti mogebis miRebas SeZlebs. rogor fiqrobT, aseTi logikiT muSaoba uzrunvelyofs

maT gamdidrebas?

1

nikas skolaSi wasvlisas gzis gadakveTa miwisqveSa gadasasvleliT uwevs.

iq uamravi savaWro pavilionia, sadac saTamaSoebi, tansacmeli da fexsacmeli

iyideba. nikas ocnebaa skolis damTavrebisTanave musikaluri maRazia gaxsnas.

mas gansakuTrebiT kuTxis pavilioni moswons. momavali maRaziis gaxsnas

swored iq gegmavs. am pavilionSi Tavdapirvelad tansacmlis maRazia iyo,

Semdeg saTamaSoebi iyideboda, bolos kompiuteruli momsaxurebis centri

gaixsna, Tumca ori Tvec ar gasula, rac daixura. kvlav gamoCnda warwera ,,qiravdeba’’.

biWma yuri mohkra frazas ,,arc momsaxurebam gaamarTla”.

nikas ainteresebs, ratom ver moaxerxes mewarmeebma am pavilions momgebiani

biznesis awyoba maSin, roca mezobeli maRaziebi warmatebiT muSaoben?

1. daexmareT nikas biznesis warumateblobis yvela SesaZlo mizezi daafiqsiros:

• cudi adgilmdebareoba;

• araefeqturi momsaxureba;

• cudi samuSao pirobebi;

• dabali xarisxis saqoneli;

• Zalian maRali fasebi;

• konkurentTa simravle;

• reklamis ararseboba;

• arapopularuli, modas CamorCenili saqoneli;

• sxva? gaakeTeT komentari Tqvens Sefasebebze.

2. giocnebiaT biznesmenobaze? rogor warmogidgeniaT Tqveni

cxovreba ocnebis asrulebis SemTxvevaSi?

87


iznesis floba, an mis mmarTvelad yofna adamianebSi keTildReobis asociacias

iwvevs: bevri fuli, kargi manqana, feSenebeluri saxli, yvela ocnebis asruleba... Tumca,

vis ojaxsac biznesTan Sexeba Hhqonia, ecodineba, ra rTulia mogebis miReba. biznesis dawyebidan

saocnebo cxovrebamde rTuli gzaa gasavleli. miRweuli warmateba ki samudamo

ar aris. xSirad warmatebiT wamowyebul biznessac uWirs sasurveli mdgomareobis xangrZlivad

SenarCuneba da bazris datoveba uxdeba.

Tu momxmarebels saqoneli moswons, moTxovna izrdeba da gamyidveli mogebuli rCeba.

moTxovna mZlavri sabazro faqtoria. is mewarmes ufro meti da xarisxiani produqciis

warmoebis stimuls aZlevs. Tu droTa ganmavlobaSi saqonlis mimarT momxmareblis interesi

klebulobs – moTxovna mcirdeba. Tu mewarmem alternatiuli saqonlis warmoebaze

drulad ar ifiqra, gakotrebis safrTxis winaSe aRmoCndeba. bazris mkacri kanonebi

mewarmeebs mSvidad yofnis saSualebas ar aZlevs. bazarze warmateba bizness erTguli

klientebis SeZenis da mdgrad mdgomareobaSi yofnis SesaZleblobas aZlevs.

mewarmem momxmareblis survilebi, midrekilebebi, prioritetebi unda Seiswavlos

da maTi gaTvaliswinebiT imoqmedos.

nebismieri mewarmisaTvis bazarze sasurveli mdgomareoba, dargSi mniSvnelovani

sabazro wilis mopovebaa.

rogor SeiZleba bazris wilis gazrda? es firmebis sastarto (sawyis) pirobebsa da

finansur mdgomareobazea damokidebuli.

bazris wilis gasazrdelad firmebi erTdroulad ramdenime gegmis (strategiis)

mixedviT moqmedeben:

88

!

!

mdgradoba bazarze biznesis momgebian mdgomareobaSi

xangrZliv arsebobas niSnavs.

bazarze mdgradi mdgomareobis SesanarCuneblad sawarmo

iZulebulia potenciur myidvels Tavi moawonos

daainteresos

sakuTari

produqciiT

SesTavazos

maRali xarisxis

da/

an dabali fasis

mqone produqcia

SesTavazos

gansxvavebuli

momsaxureba

SesTavazos

novatoruli

saqoneli

bazris wili ganisazRvreba imiT, Tu ra nawili ukavia kompaniis mier

warmoebul produqcias, am dargSi mTlianad warmoebuli produqciis

raodenobidan. wils procentulad gansazRvraven. rac ufro metia mTlianad

warmoebuli produqciidan (100 %­dan), mocemuli kompaniis mier

warmoebuli produqcia, miT ukeTesi mdgomareoba aqvs kompanias bazarze.


firmis strategia ras niSnavs? magaliTi

moulodnelad

gaCen

i-

li

xelsayreli

SesaZ-

leblobebiT

lobasargeb-

momxmareblisaTvis alter

natiuli saqon lis an

momsaxurebis

miwod

eba

sabazro cvlilebebis

gaT valiswineba

produqciis

an

saw

arm

oo

procesis

gaumj

ob

eseba

sazogadoebrivi tenden

ciebis operatiuli

ga-mo ye neba.

iseTi SesaZleblobebis gamoyeneba,

rogoricaa

prod

u-

q tze moTxovnis zrda, iafi

re sursebis baz ris povna, momgebiani

idei

s aRmoCena,

kom-

pan

ia

Ta

Serwyma,

axali

teqn

o-

logiebis danergva da sxv.

firmebi produqtis an mom-

saxurebis

axal

varia

nt

ebs

SeimuSaveben.

damatebiTi momsaxurebis

SeTavazeba.

firmebi mier axali produqciis

Seqmna, an Zvelis

da xve wa da moxmarebis

gaadvileba.

sazogadoebrivi

cnob

ie-

reba da cxovrebis stili,

mosaxleobis

Semos

av-

lebis

zrdasT

an

da

sxva

qveynebTan integraciis

Se de gad icvleba, rac biz-

nesisaTvis

axal

xels

ayrel

SesaZleb lobebs qmnis.

kompaniebi yiduloben licenziebs,

patentebs, savaWro niSnebs. didi

xania

`koka-kolasa~

da

`makdon

ald-

sis~ produqcia mxolod aSS-Si aRar

iyideba.

swrafi safosto momsaxurebis

fir mebi `iu-pi-esi~ (UPS) da `dieiC-eli~

(DHL) popularuli gaxda

msofl

ios

nebismier

wertilSi,

ad-

re satebisaTvis gzavnilebis 2-3

dReSi mitaniT, es daexmara imaSi,

rom mraval qveyanaSi, maT Soris

saqarTveloSic, konkurentTa momsaxureba

daeCrdila da bazris lideri

gamxdariyo.

amerikulma kompaniam `SERVE~, ro-

melic

grandiozul

stacion

al

ur

avtosaremonto saxelosnoebs

flobs, avtomanqanis mflobelebs

dama tebiTi momsaxurebac SesTavaza.

man

saxelosnoebi

gamoZ

ax

ebiT

( mobiluri

saremonto

saxel

osnoebi)

gaxsna,

riTac

mniSvnelovan

warm

at

e-

bas miaRwia da bazris lideri gaxda.

saTvaleebis

Canacvleba

kont

aq-

turi

linzebiT,

rZisa

da

nat

u-

raluri wvenebisaTvis minis taris,

plastmasis, Tunuqis an qaRaldis

SefuTviT Secvla, cifruli

fotografiis bazarze gamoCena, amis

saukeTeso magaliTia.

Tu

mosaxleobis

did

nawils

xel

ov-

nuri tyavis qurTukebi ufro metad

izidavs,

vidre

bun

ebrivi,

mewarmem

es tendencia axali produqtebis

dagegmvisas unda gamoiyenos.

sam Seneblo bumi TbilisSi, sazogadoebrivi

tendenciebis biznesze

zegavlenis naTeli magaliTia.

naxazze naCvenebia erT bazarze moRvawe xuTi msxvili kompania. maTgan yvelaze

didi wili CC kompanias aqvs. is 40%­is tolia. CC kompania bazris lideria.

89


? • romel kompanias aqvs yvelaze mcire wili?

90

!

ese

kiTxvebi

da

davalebebi

• rogor unda imoqmedos am kompaniam, wilis gazrda rom SeZlos?

• rogor Seicvleba CC kompaniis mdgomareoba bazarze,

Tu kompania wilis 10%­iT gazrdas moaxerxebs?

• CamoTvaleT TqvenTvis cnobili lideri kompaniebi.

• rogor unda miaRwios kompaniam liderobas bazarze?

1. rogor unda daarwmunos kompaniam momxmarebeli, rom bazarze saukeTeso

saqonels swored is sTavazobs?

2. CamoTvaleT TqvenTvis cnobili kompaniebis aqciebi, romelic momxmareblis

yuradRebis misapyrobad Catarda.

• bazarze aravis aqvs mogebis garantia!

• produqtis gasaReba damokidebulia imaze, Tu rogor SeZlebs

firma momxmarebelis darwmunebas, rom swored mis mier warmodgenili

saqonelia saukeTeso. sworad SerCeuli sareklamo fraza, momxmarebels

am saqonlis SeZenis survils uCens.

me rom sakuTari biznesi mqondes...

waikiTxeT qvemoT moyvanili sagazeTo statiis fragmentebi da

TiToeul SemTxvevaSi gansazRvreT:

1. Seicvleba Tu ara biznesis mier bazarze dakavebuli pozicia?

2. Tu TvliT, rom Seicvleba, gansazRvreT cvlilebis mimarTuleba–

gamyardeba, Semcirdeba Tu kraxiT daasrulebs arsebobas?

3. Tu aRniSnuli movlena cvlilebas ar iwvevs, axseniT ratom?

a) kafe `iebSi”, saxelmwifo sanitaruli samsaxuris inspeqciam, sanitaruli

normebis darRveva daafiqsira;

b) qaTmis gripis epidemiis saSiSroebasTan dakavSirebiT, sasursaTo maRaziebis

qselidan amoRebuli unda iqnes qaTmis produqtebi;

g) specializirebul maRazias ,,frinvelis xorci” dezinfeqcia Cautardes da

orkviriani karantini dawesdes;

d) erTi wlis ganmavlobaSi, kompaniam Psareklamo kampaniaSi 1 milion laramde

daxarja;

e) maRaziis mflobelma gamyidvelebs xelfasi gauormaga.

v) msoflioSi cnobilma xorcis mwarmoebelma firmam ,,XYZ’’ ganacxada, rom saqarTvelos

bazarze misi Semosvlis mizani ar aris maqsimaluri mogebis miReba,

aramed sazogadoebis winaSe valis moxda;

z) rZis produqtebis mwarmoebelma kompania `lamam~ iafi da xarisxiani

resursebis wyaro gamonaxa;

T) ludis bazris ganviTarebis Seswavlis mizniT Catarebuli gamokvlevis SedegebiT,

mosaxleobaSi ludis moxmarebis zrda SeimCneva. mkvlevarebis prognoziT,

ludis yovelwliuri moxmareba 590 -600 mln. litrs miaRwevs. kvlevis

Sedegebis gacnobis Semdeg, ludis mwarmoebelma kompaniam ,,ludi XXI”,

bankidan kreditis aReba da sawarmos reorganizacia­gafarToeba ganizraxa.


imsjeleT

biznesis mdgradobaze moqmedi faqtorebi

24-25

bazarze biznesis yofna-aryofnis sakiTxi mxolod momxmareblis

moTxovnilebebze droul reagirebaze, Cadebul investiciebze,

mewarmis mondomebasa da unar­Cvevebze ar aris

damokidebuli. biznesis ,,sasicocxlo” pirobebs uamravi sxva

faqtoric qmnis. sawarmoebi izolirebulad ver iarsebeben.

maT funqcionireba uxdebaT garkveul garemoSi, romelic ma­

Tze zemoqmedebs da xSirad ,,sasikvdilo dartymebsac’’ ayenebs.

yofna?

aryofna?

bazarze xangrZlivad rCeba sawarmo, romelsac momxmareblis saWiroebebis

mimarT swrafi reagirebis unari aqvs.

rogor ggoniaT, biznesis warmatebisaTvis es piroba sakmarisia?

pasuxi daasabuTeT argumentebiT.

1

yofna

aryofna

qveyana samTavrobo cvlilebebis molodinSia. sainformacio saSualebebi

mTeli Tvea mniSvnelovan postebze savaraudo kandidaturebs asaxeleben.

Jurnalistebi acxadeben, rom biznesmenebi didi investiciebisagan

Tavs ikaveben.

Tqveni azriT, romeli motivebiT xelmZRvaneloben mewarmeebi am

gadawyvetilebis miRebis dros? sxva romeli mizezebi moqmedebs investirebis

doneze? pasuxebi SeadareT momdevno gverdze mocemul sqemas.

saxelmwifos saSinao mdgomareobis zegavlena

qveynis stabiluroba biznesis ganviTarebis aucilebeli pirobaa. 90-ian wlebSi

saqarTveloSi arsebulma politikurma qaosma da areulobam, samoqalaqo omma ekonomikis

ganviTareba mniSvnelovnadDSeaferxa. axali biznesis wamowyeba udides riskTan iyo

dakavSirebuli, arsebuli sawarmoebi ki erTmaneTis miyolebiT tovebdnen bazars. qveyana

siRatakis zRvarze aRmoCnda. rodesac qveynis ekonomikam welSi gamarTva daiwyo, 2008

wels ruseT­saqarTvelos omma isev daatyo daRi.

saxelmwifos zegavlena

saxelmwifo samewarmeo saqmianobis uflebas licenzirebis wesiT iZleva, biznesis

marTvas samarTlebrivi normebiT _ kanonebiT da dadgenilebebiT _ aregulirebs. saxelmwifom

SeiZleba, iseTi sakanonmdeblo baza da sagadasaxado foni Seqmnas, iseTi wesebi

SemoiRos, romelic biznesis ganviTarebas gaarTulebs. xSirad piriqiT xdeba: mTavroba

Tavisufali bazris da konkurenciis dacvas antimonopoliuri kanonebiT, ucxour

saqonelze SezRudvebis dawesebiT adgilobrivi warmoebis xelSewyobas da gaZlierebas

axdens. mkacri moTxovnebia sawarmoTa mxridan garemos dabinZurebasTan mimarTebaSi,

maRali jarimebi mkveTrad zrdis sawarmoo danaxarjebs.

axali mewarmeebi im sferoSi Cndebian, romelSic Semosavlebi da mogeba metia. nebismieri

materialuri resursi, romlic erTi firmisaTvis aris xelSesaxebi, droTa ganmavlobaSi,

metoqesaTvisac xelmisawvdomi xdeba. kompanias konkurentebis mxridan agresiis mogerieba

(fasebis Semcireba, gayidvebis waxaliseba, sareklamo saqmianobis gaSla da sxva) mudmivad

uxdeba. bazarze adgilis SenarCuneba TiToeuli sawarmosaTvis miT ufro Znelia, rac

91


meti da Zlieri konkurentebi hyavs, rac metad uZneleben funqcionirebas. konkurentul

brZolaSi damarcxebuli sawarmoebi bazars toveben. meore mxriv, igive konkurentebi biznesisaTvis

stimulis mimcemi xdebian. bazarze adgilis SesanarCuneblad sawarmo iZulebuli

xdeba bazris mkacri wesebi miiRos _ ramdenadac SesaZlebelia maRali xarisxis da

dabali fasis produqcia gamouSvas, rac momxmareblisaTvis momgebiania.

momxmareblis zegavlena

biznesis funqcionirebis ZiriTadi mizani mogebis miRebaa. mogebas firma momxmarebelis

saSualebiT Rebulobs. is Semosavali, romelic mewarmes axali nedleulis SeZenis da

saqmianobis gagrZelebis saSualebas aZlevs, mxolod realizebul (gayidul) produqcias

moaqvs. klientebis Semcirebis SemTxvevaSi, sawarmo funqcionirebas didxans ver SeZlebs.

swored momxmareblis kmayofileba gansazRvravs biznesis warmatebas, amitom momxmarebeli

biznesis garemos umniSvnelovanesi komponentia. misi gemovneba, ganaTlebis done da kultura,

religiuri kuTvnileba, socialuri mdgomareoba, asaki, Semosavlebi,

cxovrebiseuli faseulobebi gavlenas axdens warmoebaze:

produqcia swored maTi gaTvaliswinebiT iqmneba. momxmarebels miT

ufro meti Zalaufleba gaaCnia bazarze, miT ufro mniSvnelovani zemoqmedebis

unari aqvs produqciis xarisxze da fasebze, rac ufro

cota momxmarebeli hyavs konkretul bazars da produqts.

momwodebelTa zegavlena

nedleulis momwodeblebis mxridan Seferxebebi sawarmoebis

funqcionirebis paralizebas, zogjer ki Sewyvetasac iwvevs.

magaliTad, eleqtroenergiis an bankidan fulis nakadis Sewyvetas, xSirad warmoebis

gaCereba da mniSvnelovani zarali mohyveba.

geografiuli garemos zegavlena

biznesisTvis mniSvnelovania rogorc bunebrivi (geografiuli) garemo: miwa, wyali,

saTbob­energetikuli resursebi, klimati, bunebrivi nedleuli

da sxva, aseve ekologiuri garemoc. arc Tu iSviaTad, sawarmoebi

garemos abinZureben. toqsikuri narCenebi ekologiur cvlilebebs

da mosaxleobis janmrTelobis gauaresebas iwvevs. Tu aseTi dar­

Rvevebi masStaburia, xelisufleba iZulebulia sawarmo daxuros.

gansakuTrebiT saSiSi haeris, wylis da niadagis dabinZurebaa.

saerTaSoriso mdgomareobis zegavlena

cnobilia, rom sparseTis yureSi saomarma moqmedebebma

jaWvuri reaqcia gamoiwvia navTobis importior qveynebSi. ekonomikis aRmavloba Seferxda,

gaZvirda fasebi energomatareblebze (saqarTveloSi navTobze), ramac warmoebas

udidesi problemebi Seuqmna. msoflioma krizisma ki qveynebis umravlesobaSi ekonomikas

didi dartyma miayena.

92

saxelmwifo

organoebi,

kanonebi

saxelmwifos saSinao

mdgomareoba, politika

konkurentebi

biznesi

geografiuli

garemo, ekologia

momxmarebeli

mimwodebeli

saerTaSoriso

mdgomareoba


imsjeleT

kiTxvebi

da

davalebebi

2

ninom eleqtrosaqonlis damamzadebel kompaniaSi daiwyo muSaoba. mas

msxvil gadamyidvelebTan uxdeba urTierToba. gogonas Zalian unda samsaxurSi

warmatebas miaRwios, amitom klientebs saqonels mondomebiT

uqebs. informacia imdenad gaazviada, rom verc ki mixvda, simarTles rogor

daSorda. marTalia produqcia or dReSi gaiyida, magram menejers

arc kmayofileba Setyobia da arc ninos Seqeba ufiqria...

1) ra Sedegebs moitans ninos saqcieli kompaniisaTvis?

msxvili gadamyidvelebisaTvis? ratom?

2) samarTliani iqneba Tu ara firmis administracia,

Tu ninos dasjas gadawyvets?

3) SeafaseT menejeris saqcieli.

cnobilia, rom singapuri sisufTaviTa da wesrigiT gamorCeuli qalaqsaxelmwifoa.

Tumca, bevrma ar icis, rom iq avtomobilis floba wliurad

Rirebulebis 50%-dan 150%-mde ibegreba da gadasaxadi Tveebze nawildeba.

mTavrobam es RonisZieba ucileblad miiCnia avtomobilebis gayidvebis

Sesamcireblad, radgan winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi quCebi manqanebiT

gadaitvirTeboda da sacobebi Seiqmneboda, rac avtomobilis mflobelebs

qalaqSi gadaadgilebisas problemebs Seuqmnida.

a) rogor ggoniaT, saxelmwifos mier aseTi begaris SemoReba aris

Tu ara bazris regulireba?

b) avtomobilis mflobelebis mdgomareobas aseTi begara namdvilad

gaaumjobesebs?

g) rogori efeqti eqneba msgavsi begaris dawesebas saqarTveloSi?

ra kavSirSia biznesis garemo momxmarebelTan?

imuSaveT jgufebSi. gaanalizeT, rogor aisaxeba biznesze moqmedi

faqtorebi momxmareblebze. daxazeT sqema, moamzadeT prezentacia.

waikiTxeT bolo 3 dRis ganmavlobaSi saqarTveloSi biznesis ganviTarebasa

da problemebze presaSi gamoqveynebuli statiebi, upasuxeT

kiTxvebs:

1. romeli problemaa umwvavesi?

2. rogoria mTavrobis zegavlena biznesis ganviTarebaze, dadebiTi Tu

uaryofiTi? moiyvaneT magaliTebi.

3. ra gavlenas axdens saqarTveloSi biznesis ganviTarebaze:

a) saqarTvelos dRevandeli saSinao mdgomareoba?

b) saerTaSoriso mdgomareoba?

g) saxelmwifo gadawyvetilebebi?

d) urTierToba geografiul mezoblebTan?

e) momxmareblis prioritetebis cvlileba?

v) rogor `ebrZvian~ konkurenti sawarmoebi erTmaneTs saqarTveloSi?

moiyvaneT magaliTebi.

93


es

sainteresoa

94

momxmarebeli saqonlis SefuTvas iseTive yuradRebas

aqcevs, rogorc TviT saqonels. arasaimedod

SefuTuli produqcia ndobas ar imsaxurebs, amitom

saqonlis efeqtur SefuTvas mwarmoeblebi did

Tanxebs da dros uTmoben.

SesafuTi masalebis warmoeba msoflioSi gayidvebis

moculobiT erT­erTi mniSvnelovani dargia. yovelwliurad

sakonservo qilebidan dawyebuli hermetuli konteinerebiT dam­

Tavrebuli, miliardobiT dolaris SesafuTi masala mzaddeba da iyideba.

kargi SefuTva ara marto icavs produqts, aramed xazs usvams mis upiratesobas

Tavisi formiT, feriT, SemadgenilobiTa da dizainiT. SefuTva myidvelTa

yuradRebas iqcevs, aadvilebs saqonlis aRqmas da ganTavsebas. arsebobs

SefuTvis kodirebuli saxeobebic, isini damcav signals gamoscemen,

riTac amcireben moparvis safrTxes.

SefuTvis feri informaciis miwodebis saSualebasac

warmoadgens, myidvels SeuZlia mokle dro­

Si, etiketze arsebuli informaciis gacnobamde,

saqonlis Sesaxeb daskvna gaakeTos. magaliTad, sasmelis

qila, romelzec wiTeli feri dominirebs,

imaze miuTiTebs, rom masSi an koka­kolaa, an pomidvris

wveni; mwvane feri – limonis Semcvel sasmelze

miuTiTebs, narinjisferi – forToxalze. Tu WurWlis sarecxi siTxe yviTeli

SefuTviTaa, winaswar viciT, rom mas limonis suni eqneba, nivTebis Savi

SefuTva misi eleganturobis maCvenebelia.

SefuTvis Semadgeneli nawilia etiketi. is produqtis damaxasiaTebeli niSnebis

amocnobaSi gvexmareba. saqonlis xarisxis, Semadgenlobis, moxmarebis wesebis,

gamoyenebis xangrZlivobis da sxvaTa Sesaxeb informacias iZleva.

msoflios bevr qveyanaSi kanonebis meSveobiT, regulirdeba sakvebi

produqtebis, medikamentebis, kosmetikuri nawarmis da mravali qimiuri da sxva

preparatebis markireba. kanoni makontrolebel organoebs avaldebulebs etiketebze

CamoTvlili Semadgeneli nawilebis sizustes Tvalyuri adevnon.

etikets gamyidvelebi xSirad saqonlis popularobis xarisxis dasadgenad

iyeneben. momxmarebels maT Segrovebas sTxoven da garkveuli raodenobis

etiketisaTvis sxvadasxva prizebs sTavazoben, aTamaSeben latareas. saqonelze

ganTavsebuli eleqtronuli kodebi kompaniebs produqciis moZraobaze

dakvirvebis saSualebas aZlevs.

araekologiuri SefuTva saqonlis xarisxs, Sesabamisad

gasaRebas udides zians ayenebs, SesaZlebelia

sawarmos daxurvis mizezic gaxdes.

SefuTva momxmareblis damokidebulebasTan

pirdapiraa dakavSirebuli. momxmareblis pirveladi

reaqcia saqonelze, aRqma da damokidebulebis Camoyalibeba

(moswons Tu ara saqoneli) – mniSvnelovnad

gansazRvravs rogori iqneba SemdgomSi

gayidvebis moculoba;

produqtis da firmis imiji;

mdgomareoba bazarze;

saqonlis konkurentunarianoba.


26

vmarTavT kompania

`aTinaTs!~

kompania `aTinaTi” 3 biznes erTeulisagan Sedgeba. Tqveni amocanaa, gaecnoT maT

Sesaxeb monacemebs, moaxdinoT TiToeuli biznesis analizi da kompaniis momavali mdgomareobis

prognozireba. gadawyvitoT, SeZlebs kompania bazarze arseboba ganagrZos?

axseniT fiqrobT ase? Tu TvliT, rom biznesis mdgomareoba rTulia, dasaxeT mdgomareobis

gamosworebis gegma da moamzadeT gegmis prezentacia.

gaecaniT informacias warmosaxviTi kompania `aTinaTis” Sesaxeb:

SezRuduli pasuxismgeblobis sazogadoeba ,,aTinaTi” 3 biznes­erTeulisagan Sedgeba.

esenia:

1. gamagrilebeli ualkoholo sasmelebis kompania `sixaruli;”

2. yavis damamzadebeli sawarmo ,,geoarabika”;

3. swrafi kvebis restornebis qseli `princesa”

1. `sixaruli” axali sawarmoa, bazarze misi wili didi ar aris, magram

ori Tvis win Catarebuli sociologiuri gamokvlevis Sedegebis

mixedviT respodentTa 60%-ma maTTvis cnobili xarisxiani ualkoholo

sasmelebidan pirvel rigSi, swored `sixaruli” daasaxela. ,,sixaruli”

ukve 5 saxis ualkoholo sasmels uSvebs.

2. ,,geoarabika” yavis damafasoebeli saSualo zomis sawarmoa. misi

produqcia wlebis manZilze popularuli iyo saqarTvelos bazarze,

Tumca, ukanaskneli ori wlis ganmavlobaSi gaxSirda SemTxvevebi,

rodesac sawarmom xarisxi ver uzrunvelyo. erTi Tvis win sawarmom

savaWro qselidan didi raodenobiT wundebuli produqcia

ukan daibruna. xelmZRvanelobam produqciis meored gadamuSaveba

da mdgomareobis gamosworeba gadawyvita, magram sakmaod dabali

xarisxis yavis partiebi muSebis daudevrobis gamo, savaWro qselSi

meored moxvda, ramac myidvelTa da maRaziis mflobelTa ukmayofileba

gamoiwvia. saxelmwifo sanitaruli samsaxuri am faqtiT dainteresda da daiwyo

kvleva, Tu rogor moqmedebs wundebuli yava momxmareblis janmrTelobaze. kvlevis

Sedegebis gamoqveynebamde warmoeba SeaCera. menejerebi Tvlian, rom sagangaSo araferia

da produqciis xarisxis gaumjobeseba SesaZlebelia, ramdenadac rogorc danadgarebi,

ise resursebi sruliad axalia. amitom, ukeTesi specialistebis moyvaniT problema gadaiWreba.

3. ,,princesam” erTi restornidan daiwyo funqcionireba

ramdenime wlis win. maSin saqarTveloSi msgavsi momsaxurebis Se­

Tavazeba siaxle iyo. Tumca bevri mimdevrebi gamouCnda, bazarze

mas adgili damkvidrebuli aqvs, warmatebis mizezad menejers

mzareulTa saukeTeso gundi miaCnia. restorans nedleulis

xarisxTan, mowodebis drosa da transportirebasTan dakavSirebiT

problemebi arasodes hqonia. `princesa” qsels afarToebs

moTxovnis zrdis paralelurad: yovelwliurad, dedaqalaqSi an saqarTvelos romelime

regionul centrSi erTi axali obieqti ixsneba. analitikosebis prognoziT 3-5 wlis

Semdeg bazris zrdis tempi 4-6-jer Semcirdeba, konkurenciis intensiuroba ki Senar­

Cundeba an zrdas ganagrZobs.

95


savarjiSo

davaleba

96

imuSaveT jgufebSi.

SeadgineT biznesis amJamindel da momaval mdgomareobaze maqsimaluri

informaciis momcveli cxrili da yvela arsebuli monacemis

mixedviT SeavseT is. TiToeuli biznesisaTvis gansazRvreT:

• bazris tendenciebi;

• mdgradobis pirobebi;

• produqciis xarisxi;

• ganviTarebis perspeqtiva.

situaciis analizisas ar dagaviwydeT, rom Tqven kompania ,,aTinaTis’’

ganviTarebis prognozireba unda moaxdinoT (unda gansazRvroT kompaniis

momavali); amisaTvis kargad SeiswavleT mocemuli informacia.

samuSao dro jgufebSi 20 wT-ia, TiToeul jgufs prezentaciisaTvis 7

wuTi eTmoba.

saukeTeso Sedegis misaRebad ,,gonebrivi ieriSis’’ meTodiT imuSaveT:

jgufis TiToeulma wevrma gamoTqvas nebismieri mosazreba am sakiTxTan

dakavSirebiT. azrebi daafiqsireT qaRaldze, nu gaakritikebT nurcerT

ideas, bolos ideebi SeajereT da prezentacia moamzadeT. prezentaciis

dasrulebis Semdeg 3­4 wT oponentebis SekiTxvebze pasuxebs dauTmeT.

sqemis mixedviT gaiazreT da CawereT masSi romelime konkretuli

biznesis (an produqtis) ganviTarebis istoria da sazogadoebrivi

Sedegebi.

daiwyeT saWiro resursebis CamoTvliT, axseniT ras gulisxmobs

maTi efeqtianad gamoyeneba Tqvens konkretul biznesSi, moerideT

zogad frazebs!!!

danaxarjebi

resursebze

meti samuSao adgili

warmoebis

zrda

meti mogeba

bazris gazrdili wili

saukeTeso xarisxi

efeqtiani gamoyeneba

danaxarjebi

resursebze

danaxarjebi

resursebze

danaxarjebi

resursebze


imsjeleT

27

vin vis

ajobebs?

SeuZlia Tu ara mewarmes winaswar gansazRvros, ramdenad uzrunvelyofs

saqonlis an momsaxurebis mis mier SeTavazebuli xarisxi

produqtis konkurentunarianobas?

1

batoni giorgi Tvlis, rom bazari kakaos erTferovani produqtebiT

aris gajerebuli, amitom mas SeuZlia xelsayreli SemTxveviT isargeblobs

da sarisko wamowyeba dagegmos: bazars sxvadasxva mcenareebis Teslisagan

damzadebuli inovaciuri kakaos Semcvleli produqtebi SesTavazos.

maTi warmoeba giorgim erTi Tvis win daiwyo. sacdeli produqti bevrad

aromatuli da gemrieli gamovida, vidre naturaluri. damwyeb mewarmes

bazris dapyroba aqvs gadawyvetili.

realurad migaCniaT am miznis ganxorcieleba?

daexmareT b­n giorgis idea sisruleSi moiyvanos. amisaTvis jgufebSi

iseTi samoqmedo gegma moamzadeT, romlis etapobrivad ganxorcielebis

Semdeg b­n giorgi SeZlebs konkurentebis damarcxebas.

gegmis prezentaciis Semdeg SegiZliaT daaskvnaT, ra SemTxvevaSi gauadvildeba

b­n giorgis konkurentebis damarcxeba.

firmebi erTmaneTs konkurencias uweven bazarze damkvidrebisaTvis. naTqvamia,

mjobnze mjobni ar dailevao, amitom bazarze erTmaneTze ukeTesi saqoneli imdenad aqtiur

konkurenciaSia, rom momxmarebels arCevanis gakeTeba uWirs.

konkurentebTan brZolaSi imarjvebs is firma, romelsac aqvs

• dabali fasebi;

• maRali xarisxis produqcia;

• orientacia siaxleebis danergvaze;

• efeqtiani reklama.

mxolod im sawarmoebs aqvT dabali fasebis dawesebis

saSualeba, romelTac konkurentebTan SedarebiT

iafad moipoves resursebi da produqtis

warmoebac naklebi ujdebaT. amitom, sawarmoo

resursebi saTvisac (kvalificiuri muSaxeli,

nedleulis iafi sabadoebi da manqana­danadgarebi,

axali teqnologiebi) firmebs Soris konkurenciaa.

imis mixedviT, Tu romeli firma ufro adre aRmoaCens resursebis iaf wyaros, bazarze

gamotanili saqonlisa da momsaxurebis fasebi mudmivad icvleba.

warmatebisaken mimaval gzaze biznesmenebs uamravi winaaRmdegobis daZleva uxdebaT.

problemebis dasaZlevad eqspertebi maT aseT rCevas aZleven:

97


98

SeamcireT warmoebis

danaxarjebi

droulad upasuxeT

momxmareblis moTxovnas

!

2

sworad

SearCios

saqonlis an

momsaxurebis

saxe

garantirebuli

warmateba

izruneT efeqtur

reklamaze

gaaumjobeseT

produqciis xarisxi

damwyeb biznesmens yovelTvis unda axsovdes, rom simdidres uwyvet

nakadad iRebs is, vinc icis, rogor moipovos da Semdeg rogor Seinar­

Cunos momxmareblis ndoba. stabilur ekonomikur garemoSi, Tu firma

momxmareblis simpaTias inarCunebs, bazarze mis arsebobas saSiSroeba

ar emuqreba.

warmoidgineT, rom Tqveni kompania (SeurCieT saxeli) moswavlis Can­

Tebs yidis. ra Tqma unda, saswavlo wlis dasawyisSi CanTa yvela moswavlem

SeiZina. Tqven ki uamravi sarealizacio saqoneli dagrCaT. moifiqreT,

Tqvens raionSi CanTebis gayidvis mizniT ra xerxebs mimarTavdiT?

imuSaveT jgufebSi. SeadgineT kompaniis moqmedebis gegma da moamzadeT

prezentacia.

gaxsovdeT, rom prezentaciisaTvis TiToeul jgufs 5 wuTi aqvs.

fasebi

konkretuli

dros da

adgils

Seusabamos

bazarze damkvidrebisTvis

mewarmes sWirdeba

SeZlos

potenciuri

klientebis

waxaliseba

sworad SearCios

samoqmedo

adgilmdebareoba


momxmareblis saqonliTa da momsaxurebiT dainteresebis anu gayidvebis xelSewyobis

politikas mewarmeebi momxmareblis stimulirebis politikas uwodeben.

stimulireba aris im meTodebis erToblioba, romelsac kompaniebi miznobriv bazrebTan

da farTo sazogadoebasTan urTierTobisas mimarTaven, raTa maT mier warmoebuli

produqciis yidvis sargeblianobaSi daarwmunon.

realur bazarze arsebuli konkurenti firmebidan `vin vis ajobebs~ xSirad imiT ganisazRvreba,

Tu ramdenad efeqturad xdeba momxmareblis stimulireba. momxmareblis

SesanarCunebel RonisZiebebSi sawarmoTa umravlesoba did Tanxebs xarjavs. popularobis

misaRwevad isini awyoben saqvelmoqmedo aqciebs, sxvadasxva konkursebSi awesenen

prizebs, monawileoben satelevizio gadacemebSi, afinanseben festivalebs, mniSvnelovan

delegaciebs, filmebs, tele­radio gadacemebs.

!

gayidvebis stimulireba (xelSewyoba)

• momxmareblis informireba produqtis Sesaxeb;

• momxmareblis darwmuneba, rom es produqti maTTvis Seucvlelia;

• momxmareblisaTvis kompaniis da produqtis Sesaxeb Sexseneba

gayidvebis xelSewyobis Semadgeneli ZiriTadi komponentebi:

piradi gayidva;

reklama;

sazogadoebasTan urTierToba.

bazarze konkurencia xSirad iseTi mwvavea, rom firmebis urTierTSeteva namdvil br­

Zolas emsgavseba. gansxvaveba isaa, rom es urTierTdapirispireba farTo sazogadoebisaTvis

sasargebloa. is momxmareblisaTvis SeumCnevlad mimdinareobs. xSirad ,,Tavdasxmis

obieqti’’ firmac ki imdenad gvian igebs ra problemebi Seuqmnes konkurentebma, rom

rom saqmis gamosworeba SeuZlebeli xdeba. yvelaze xSirad axlad daarsebuli firmebi

ver uZleben konkurencias da bazars toveben.

im SemTxvevaSi, roca firmas

• bazarze uWirs SeRweva,

• konkurencias damoukideblad veRar umklavdeba,

• warmoebuli produqciis asortimentis gafarToeba surs,

• finansuri problemebis daZleva uZneldeba,

kompaniis mflobelebi iZulebuli xdebian sxva firmasTan SeerTebis gadawyvetileba miiRon.

xSir SemTxvevebi, erTi sawarmo meores biznesis gafarToebis mizniT yidulobs.

SeZenili firma an iSleba, an Semsyidveli firmis Semadgenel Lnawilad rCeba. aris iseTi

SemTxvevebic, rodesac konkurent firmebs maTi likvidaciis mizniT yiduloben. CamoTvlil

procesebs firmebis Serwymas uwodeben.

vertikaluri

Serwyma

Serwymis saxeebi

horizontaluri

Serwyma

konglomeraciuli

Serwyma

99


savarjiSo

? 1.

100

3

vertikaluria Serwyma, rodesac warmoebis sxvadasxva etapze

moRvawe firmebi erTiandebian.

magaliTad: `koka-kolas~ warmoebam 70-ian wlebSi misi produqciis

gamavrcelebeli firma `kepiTal siti~ SeiZina.

horizontaluria Serwyma, Tu erTi da imave saqmianobaSi Cabmuli

ori an meti kompania gaerTiandeba.

magaliTad: warmoebis gafarToebis mizniT Sokoladis mwarmoebeli

sxvadasxva firmis gaerTianeba moskovSi 2002 wels, internetprovaideri

kompaniebis `sanetis~ da `jorjia onlainis~ jer erTmaneTTan,

Semdeg ki `kavkasus neTvorqTan~ Serwyma.

konglomeraciulia Serwyma, rodesac gansxvavebuli saqmianobis

ori an meti sawarmo erT mmarTvelobaSi gaerTiandeba.

magaliTad: sigaretis mwarmoebelma kompaniam `kenti~ tkbileulis

warmoeba SeiZina, Seiqmna erT­erTi umsxvilesi konglomeranti da

axali bazris didi wili daipyro. `kenti~ ­ am dasaxelebis Kkanfets, Sokolads

da saReW rezins yvela TqvenTagani icnobs.

kompania `filip­morisi~ cnobilia, rogorc msoflioSi umsxvilesi Tambaqos

mwarmoebeli firma, romelic aTeuli wlebis ganmavlobaSi maRalxarisxian

filtrian Tambaqos awarmoebda. kompaniis wamyvanma menejerebma gaTvales,

rom uaxloesi 6-7 wlis ganmavlobaSi aSS-Si Tambaqoze moTxovna mkveTrad Semcirdeboda,

amitom kompaniam ori umsxvilesi korporacia: `jGene ral Foods”

da `Kraft~­i Seisyida da sakvebi produqciis erT­erT umsxviles mwarmoeblad

iqca.

Serwymis romeli saxea es da ra Sedegs moutans igi kompanias?

rogor SevaRwioT bazarze?

dajgufdiT xuTeulebad, airCieT TqvenTvis saintereso biznesi. gansaz­

RvreT samoqmedo bazari. Tqveni amocana am bazarze damkvidrebaa. amisaTvis

konkurentebis Sesaxeb informaciis mogroveba dagWirdebaT. gamoarkvieT

romeli firmebi lideroben am bazarze?

romeli Zlieri da susti mxareebi aqvT konkurentebis produqtebs

da momsaxurebas?

ramdenad efeqturia momxmareblisaTvis produqtis SeTavazebis formebi?

ra xarvezebi rCebaT maT?

moifiqreT, rogor SegiZliaT am xarvezebis Sevseba da moamzadeT

prezentacia. prezentaciisaTvis TiToeul jgufs 5 wuTi aqvs.

ra aris TiToeuli mewarmis warmatebis saidumlo?

2. ra aris bazarze produqtis xangrZlivi sicocxlis mizezi?

3. rogor unda imoqmedos biznesma bazarze yofnis gaxangrZlivebisaTvis?


imsjeleT

es

sainteresoa

moifiqreT ra gansxvavebaa klientebis mozidvis mizniT fasis dawevasa

da bazarze monopoliis damyarebis mizniT fasis dawevas Soris.

bazarze axlad Sesuli kompania `fuji~ mTavar konkurent kompania

`kodakze” SetevisaTvis fasdaTmobis strategias mimarTavda. TiTqmis

imave xarisxis fotoqaRalds 10% ­iT naklebad yidida. `kodakma~ uari

Tqva fasebis Semcirebaze, ramac mas bazris didi wili daakargvina.

`mersedesis~ firmam gadawyvita `ieriSi~ xarisxiani da ZviradRirebuli

manqana `kadilakis“ Zlier mxareze mietana. momxmarebels man

axali prestiJuli saqoneli _ ufro xarisxiani da ufro Zviri manqanebi

SesTavaza, riTac `kadilaks~ evropuli da amerikuli bazris mniSvnelovani

nawili `waarTva~.

kbilis pastebis mwarmoebelma firma `qolgeiTma~ mZafri konkurenciis

dasaZlevad saintereso strategia SeimuSava: intensiur reklamebSi

dargis liderze _ `krestze~ orjer meti daxarja da momxmarebels

SedarebiT dabali xarisxis saqoneli iafad SesTavaza. radgan momxmarebelTa

sakmaod didi raodenobisaTvis dabali fasi mniSvnelovani

iyo, `qolgeiTma~ bazarze swrafad daimkvidra adgili, Semdeg ki

xarisxis gaumjobeseba daiwyo, Tumca reklamebis intensivoba ar Seumcirebia.

sapasuxod `krestmac~ gazarda reklamisaTvis gamoyofili

Tanxebi, SeZlebisdagvarad Seamcira fasebi, magram verc konkurentis

sareklamo intensivobas gautolda da verc dakarguli momxmarebeli

daibruna, amitom Sewyvita reklamebSi didi Tanxebis xarjva da dRemde

mxolod erTgul, misi produqciis maRal xarisxSi darwmunebul momxmarebelze

muSaobs.

mogebaze orientirebuli biznesmenebi eTikis principebs ar iviwyeben.

magaliTad, 1982 wels SeerTebuli Statebis qalaq CikagoSi afTiaqeb­

Si SeZenili tkivilgamayuCebeli medikamentis – tailenolis miRebis

Sedegad ramdenime adamiani daiRupa. am preparats samedicino transnacionaluri

kompania `jonson­end­jonsoni~ awarmoebda. gamoZiebam

gamoavlina, rom medikamenti ganzrax iyo mowamluli da aCvena, rom

saqme damnaSavis mier produqtis gafuWebis izolirebul SemTxvevasTan

gvqonda da `jonson­end­jonsoni” araferSi ar iyo damnaSave,

arc SeiZleboda pasuxismgeblad CaTvliliyo. miuxedavad amisa, kompaniam

,,jonson­end­jonsoni” ganaxorciela gayidvis qselidan am

produqtis amoRebis aqcia, romelic 100 milioni aSS dolari dajda,

Tumca es samarTaldamcvel organoebs ar mouTxoviaT.

produqtis amoRebis Semdeg `jonson­end­jonsonis~ mogeba Semcirda,

misi didi nawili gayidvidan produqtis msxvilmaStabiani amoRebis da

ganadgurebis xarjebma STanTqa. masmedia yoveldRiurad avrcelebda informacias,

rom momxmarebeli aRarasodes SeiZenda am produqts da kompanias

daxurva emuqreboda. Tumca prognozi ar gamarTlda: mosaxleobam

kompaniis pasuxismgeblobis grZnobiT nakarnaxevi qceva moiwona. imis

gamo, rom kompaniam aSkarad klientebis interesebi sakuTar mogebaze

ufro maRla daayena, momxmareblebma kvlav daiwyes produqtis SeZena,

ramac tailenols mokle xanSi tkivilgamayuCebeli wamlebis uaRresad

konkurentul bazarze wamyvan poziciebze dabrunebis saSualeba misca.

101


V

? rogor

imsjeleT

102

28-29

saxelmwifo yovelTvis

fxizladaa!!!

fiqrobT, gaqreba konkurencia, Tu saxelmwifo bazars

TviTregulirebisaTvis gawiravs?

ramdenad konkurentulia saqarTvelos ekonomika mTlianobaSi an

Tqvens mier SerCeuli calkeuli seqtori?

1

saxelmwifos

roli bazris

regulirebaSi

Salis qsovilebis bazarze erTaderTi adgilobrivi mewarmea. is erovnuli

armiis Sesamosad saWiro qsovils amzadebs. qsovilebis bazarze moz­

Rvavebuli importirebuli saqonlis konkurenciisagan Tavis dasacavad

mewarme saxelmwifosgan importze gadasaxadis dawesebas moiTxovs. mas

miaCnia, radgan misi warmoeba erovnuli TavdacvisaTvis mniSvnelovania,

saxelmwifo valdebulia konkurentebTan brZolaSi daxmareba gauwios.

1. ramdenad gamarTlebulia mewarmis pretenzia?

2. ra Sedegebs moitans Salis importze SezRudvis daweseba mewarmisaTvis?

3. ra Sedegebs moitans SezRudvis daweseba saxelmwifosaTvis, romelic am

SemTxvevaSi momxmareblis rolSia?

4. rogori argumentacia iqneba gamarTlebuli saxelmwifos mxridan mewarmis

Txovnis uaryofis SemTxvevaSi?

Tqven ukve iciT, konkurentebi ramden problemebs uqmnian

mewarmes. Tu mewarme xarisxis SenarCunebaze, fasis daklebaze,

inovaciebze mudmivad ar ifiqrebs, konkurenti

firmebi momxmarebelTa nakads Tavis mxares mimarTaven da

mas bazris datoveba mouwevs. rodesac bazarze ramdenime

msxvili gamyidvelia, TiToeuli maTganis produqciaze

moTxova konkurentebis safaso politikazea damokidebuli.

ramden mewarmes ufiqria, ra advili iqneboda mogebis miRebakonkurentebi saerTod

rom ar hyoloda, TiToeuli sawarmo sakuTari interesebis sasargeblod daawesebda


maRal fasebs, bazarze deficits Seqmnida da momxmarebels iZulebuls gaxdida maRali

fasi gadaexada, ise rom aRar izrunebda xarisxze, reklamaze, inovaciebze, SefuTvaze...…

magram konkurencia gardauvalia. gamyidvelebi ara Tu bazarze gabatonobas, mis urTierTxelsayrelad

gasayofad SeTanxmebasac ver moaxerxeben, radgan Semosavlebis gazrdis

mizniT SeTanxmebis romelime monawile fass aucileblad Seamcirebs.

bazrebi konkurentuli ,,TamaSis’’ wesebs nebayoflobiT ar adgenen... konkurenciis wesebis

dasacavadac, rogorc nebismieri Sejibrisas, neitraluri mxaris Carevaa saWiro.

aseTi mxare saxelmwifoa, is ,, mudam fxizladaa’’, Soridan akvirdeba da icavs bazars,

raTa romelime sawarmom an sawarmoTa jfufma konkurencia ar SezRudos, bazris dapyroba

da resursebze kontroli ar moiwadinos. gamoricxuli ar aris e.w. ,,mtacebluri

fasebis” Camoyalibeba. ,,mtacebluri fasebi” danaxarjebze naklebi fasebis dawesebas

niSnavs. rodesac sawarmoebi erTmaneTTan SeTanxmebis safuZvelze erTdroulad Seamcireben

fasebs, raTa bazridan gandevnon is konkurentebi, romlisTvisac aseTi fasi

miuRebelia, anda dargSi ar dauSvan axali konkurentebis Semosvla. maTi bazridan gandevnis

Semdeg fasebs kvlav gazrdian da yvela danakargs ainazRaureben.

fasebis mtacebluri daweva didi firmebis taqtikaa, maT mniSvnelovani finansuri

resursebi gaaCniaT, amitom SeuZliaT mniSvnelovan danakargebs gauZlon. moklevadian

danakargebi firmam xangrZlivi mogebebiT unda daifaros, sxvanairad es politika ver

gaamarTlebs, amitom fasebis mtaceblur klebas yovelTvis fasebis mniSvnelovani

mateba axlavs Tan.

biznesis warmarTvas aregulirebs samarTlebrivi normebi: saxelmwifo kanonebi, dadgenilebebi,

wesebi da programebi, isini mxolod momxmareblis interesebis dasacavad ki

ar iqmneba, aranakleb mniSvnelovania mewarmeebisTvisac.

saxelmwifo regulirebis gareSe Tavisufali mewarmeoba konkurenciis arsebobas

yovelTvis ver uzrunvelyofs.

sabazro konkurenciis uzrunvelsayofad saxelmwifo antimonopoliur anu antitrestul

kanonebs iyenebs. es kanonebi icaven konkurencias, zRudaven monopolias,

aregulireben sareklamo saqmianobas. saxelmwifos mxridan konkurenciis dacva efeqtiania,

is zegavlenas axdens ekonomikuri gadawyvetilebebis miRebaze, xels uwyobs

qveyanaSi ekonomikis ganviTarebasa da stabilizacias.

? 1.

licenzia saxelmwifosagan konkurenciis gareSe muSaobisaTvis

gansakuTrebuli uflebis miniWebas niSnavs.

romeli monopolisturi kompaniebis Sesaxeb gsmeniaT?

2. ra iciT maT Sesaxeb?

3. ra gavlenas axdenen isini qveynis ekonomikaze?

kanoniT daSvebuli monopoliis erT­erT saxes saxelmwifo licenzia warmoadgens.

sazogadoebrivi komunikaciis farglebSi, licenzia saxelmwifosagan konkurenciis

gareSe muSaobisaTvis, gansakuTrebuli uflebis miniWebas niSnavs.

saxelmwifo momxmarebels sxva kanonebiT da debulebebiTac icavs. Znelad moiZebneba

saqoneli, romelic samTavrobo regulirebis raime niSans ar atarebs. magaliTad,

sakvebi produqtebis mwarmoeblebi valdebulni arian SefuTvaze waaweron, ra aris yuT­

103


Si an qilaSi, romel ingredientebs Seicavs. guldasmiT Catarebuli gamocdis gareSe

dauSvebelia wamlis gasayidad gatana.

vrcelia im saqonlis CamonaTvali, romlebmac saxelmwifos mxridan gadamowmeba unda

gaiaron janmrTelobis da usafrTxoebis wesebTan Sesabamisobis Taobaze. magaliTad,

avtomobilebis konstruqcia usafrTxoebis standartebs unda akmayofilebdes. amasTan

erTad, mavne gamonabolqvis sakontrolo xelsawyoebi da avariis SemTxvevaSi mZRolisa

da mgzavrebis damcavi baliSebic unda gaaCndes. konstruqciis usafrTxoeba moeTxoveba

mSeneblobebsac.

im moTxovnaTa Soris, romlebiTac mTavroba momxmareblebs icavs, mniSvnelovania

is, rom gamyidvels nebimier gasayid saqonelze fasis naTlad aRniSvna moeTxoveba.

maT Soris skolis saxelmZRvaneloebis gamomcemlobebsac. yuradReba eqceva imasac,

rom reklamam momxmarebeli SecdomaSi ar unda Seiyvanos. momxmareblis usafrTxoeba

saxelmwifos mxridan mosaxleobis dacvis erT­erTi mTavari sakiTxia. kompania pasuxs

agebs misi produqtis Senaxvisa da moxmarebis procesSi momxmareblis sicocxlisa da

sakuTrebis dacvaze (ar afeTqdeba, momwamvleli ar iqneba, meqanikur dazianebebs ar

gamoiwvevs da sxva). kompaniebi agreTve pasuxs ageben, rom produqtis warmoebis procesi

sanitaruli normebisa da qimiuri Semadgenlobis sruli dacviT midiodes.

qveynis savaWro palata uflebamosilia momxmarebelTa interesebis dacvis mizniT

sasaqonlo standartebi daadginos. saxelmwifom ara mxolod reklamis keTilsindisierebas

unda gauwios kontroli, aramed produqciis SefuTvas, etikets, Senaxvis pirobebis

dacvasac.

saxelmwifo momxmareblis informirebulobis uflebasac icavs.

? cnobilia, rom saxelmwifo kanonmdebloba xels uSlis erTi firmis mier

104

ras yidulobs

(Semadgenloba)

garantiebi

informirebulobis ufleba niSnavs, rom

saqonlisa da momsaxurebis SeZenisas

momxmarebelma icodes:

savaraudo riskebi (ra

uaryofiTi Sedegebi SeiZleba

gamoiwvios moxmarebam.

gaixseneT warwera sigaretze:

jandacvis saministro

gafrTxilebT, moweva sazianoa

janmrTelobisaTvis)

damzadebis

TariRi

Senaxvis

pirobebi

sxva firmis Seviwrovebas. rogor fiqrobT, konkurenciis aseT dacvas Tavisufali

konkurenciis SezRudvamde xom ar mivyavarT?


savarjiSo

1

savarjiSo

2

savarjiSo

3

davicvaT mewarmeebi da momxmareblebi.

daiyaviT 2 jgufad, erTma jgufma Seadginos mewarmeTa dacvis kodeqsi,

meorem _ momxmarebelTa dacvis kodeqsi. moamzadeT prezentacia.

samuSaod 15 wuTi gaqvT. saboloo versia dafaze erTmaneTis gverdiT

gaakariT. prezentaciis Semdeg moniSneT orive kodeqsis saerTo muxlebi,

imsjeleT ratom aRmoaCnda am kodeqsebs saerTo sakiTxebi?

konkurencia da mewarmeebi

firmebi xSirad konkurenciis sakanonmdeblo SezRudvas moiTxoven.

magaliTad, gasuli saukunis 90-ian wlebSi safrangeTSi

sxvadasxva segmentis gamyidvelebi media saSualebebiT saintereso

moTxovnebs axmovanebdnen da mTavrobisagan mxardaWeras

moiTxovdnen. gTavazobT zogierTi maTganis fragments.

ganixileT TiToeuli da imsjeleT, rogori Sedegebi mohyveboda

mTavrobisagan mxardaWeris SemTxvevaSi, mewarmeTa moTxovnebis dakmayofilebas

a) moklevadian periodSi? b) grZelvadian periodSi?

1. xuTi wlis ganmavlobaSi, yvela santeqnikosma, yovel saswavlo

semestrSi zogad fizikasa da hidravlikaSi gamocdebi unda Caabaros,

mxolod amis Semdeg mieces mas muSaobis licenzia.~

2. `... axladgaxsnili momsaxurebis centris mflobelma batonma daviTma

preskonferenciaze ganacxada, rom saxelmwifosagan dargis regulirebas

moiTxovs.~

_ `unda SeizRudos im diletantebis Tavisufleba, romlebic Tavs

meezoveebs da saxlis damlageblebs uwodeben da mosaxleobas dabal

fasebSi emsaxurebian~ – ganacxada man da yvela iseTi piris mimarT, vinc

msgavs saqmianobas eweva da momsaxurebis centrSi ar aris aRricxvaze,

mTavrobas gamoZiebis dawyeba da administraciuli sasjelis daweseba

mosTxova.

3. `ekonomistTa nawili amtkicebs, rom kanoni, romelic zRudavs

konkurents, zRudavs konkurenciasac~.

ra safuZveli aqvT maT aseTi gancxadebis gakeTebisaTvis?

warmatebuli biznesi

momxmareblis uflebebis dacva da ndobis damsaxureba TviT kompaniisaTvisac

sasargebloa, radgan momxmarebeli arCevans aseTi firmebis

sasargeblod akeTebs. CamoTvaleT is qarTuli kompaniebi da produqtebi,

romelTac momxmareblis gansakuTrebuli ndoba moipoves.

105


imsjeleT

ese

es

sainteresoa

106

eTanxmebiT Tu ara ekonomistebSi gavrcelebul Semdeg azrs?

imisTvis, rom SevinarCunoT konkurentunariani ekonomikuri sistema,

saWiroa iseTi kanonebi Zlieri firmebis moqmedebebis sawinaaRmdegod,

romlebic danaxarjebze ufro dabal fasSi gayidvebs krZalaven.

moamzadeT Txzuleba Temaze:

antimonopoliuri kanonebis uaryofiTi Sedegebi.

Sermanis kanoni

Sermanis kanoni aSS-s kongresis mier 1890 wels iqna miRebuli. kanoni

krZalavs nebismier kontraqtebs, gaerTianebebs da saidumlo garigebebs,

romlebic Statebs Soris vaWrobis SezRudvisaken an vaWrobis

romelime nawilis monopolizaciisaken aris mimarTuli. nebismieri ori

konkurenti, romelic gaerTianda da gaxda partniori, SeiZleba damna­

Saved CaiTvalos konkurentebisaTvis vaWrobis garTulebisa da bazris

didi nawilis Cagdebis mizniT gaerTianebisaTvis, amitom federaluri

sasamarTloebi maT winaaRmdeg gamodian da gamoaqvT daskvna, rom aseTi

gaerTianebebi Sermanis kanonis mixedviT unda aikrZalos (daiSalos).

mag., msoflioSi yvelaze didi da ayvavebuli telekomunikaciis qseli

`AT&T” 1974 wels satelefono industriis monopolizaciis mcdeloba­

Si iqna braldebuli da sasamarTlo gadawyvetilebiT 1982 wels 22 lokalurad

moqmed kompaniad daiSala.

2000 wels mTel msoflioSi gaxmaurebulma sasamarTlom kompania

`maikrosofti” monopoliad miiCnia da antimonopoliuri kanonmdeblobis

safuZvelze, misi biznesis danawevrebis ganaCeni gamoitana.


sabazro ekonomikis daxasiaTebisTvis ukve sakmarisi codna gagaCniaT _ mis Taviseburebebs,

yvelaze mniSvnelovan ekonomikur instituts _ bazars da bazarze fasebis

dadgenis principebs ukve gaecaniT. am TamaSis daxmarebiT Tqven sakuTari codnis TviT­

Sefasebas moaxdenT da daazustebT, marTlac gaiazreT Tu ara Seswavlili Temebi. amas­

Tan erTad, modelireba efeqtiani mosmenis da damaxsovrebis unaris ganviTarebaSi

dagexmarebaT.

savarjiSo

1

30

SevamowmoT Cveni codna –

viTamaSoT `samaia~

viTamaSoT `samaia~

mcire jgufebSi ­ `samaia~ (sameulebi) urTierTmosmenis 3 raundi

unda CaataroT. TiToeuli raundi 5 wuTs gagrZeldeba.

guldasmiT waikiTxeT es instruqciebi:

1. daiyaviT sameulebad. daimagreT samagrebi: A,B,C.

gainawileT rolebi: A – oratoria; B B– msmeneli; C ­ arbitria.

2. A Aoratori irCevs CamonaTvalidan erT romelime Temas da saubrobs

sakiTxis Sesaxeb, gamoTqvams Sexedulebebs, aqcentebs akeTebs mniSvnelovan

sakiTxebze.

B ­ msmeneli yuradRebiT usmens A­s da Semdeg triadaSi Tavisi sityvebiT

imeorebs mosmenils, ajamebs oratoris monaTxrobs da akeTebs

daskvnas. gaugebrobis SemTxvevaSi orators ufleba aqvs Seawyvetinos

mas Txroba da gausworos.

C ­ arbitri Tvalyurs adevnebs, raTa msmenelma oratoris naambobidan

raime ar gamotovos, an naTqvami ar daamaxinjos, araferi daumatos

an interpretacia ar gaukeTos. Semdeg msmenels aTbalian skalaze

gameorebaSi uwers qulas.

3. TamaSis ganmavlobaSi TiToeuli monawile 3-jer icvlis rols.

II raundSi B monawile oratori xdeba, irCevs Temas da msjelobs. C

monawile msmenelia,

A monawile ki _ arbitri.

4. momdevno raundSi rolebi kvlav icvleba da yvelaferi meordeba

raundi oratori msmeneli arbitri

• TiToeul raundSi mxolod oratori irCevs Temas;

• triadaSi erTxel arCeuli Temis gameoreba dauSvebelia;

• TiToeuli raundi xuTwuTiania;

• oratorma Tema farTod unda mimoixilos,

dauSvebelia mxolod ramdenime zogadi fraziT Semofargvla;

• maswavlebeli gagafrTxilebT raundis dawyebisa da damTavrebis Sesaxeb.

107


moemzadeT, jgufuri samuSaos dasrulebis da klasis Sedegebis ganxilvis Semdeg, msmenelebis

kategoriidan saukeTesoebs xanmokleD prezentaciaSi im Temis Sejameba mouwevT,

romelSic jgufSi maRali Sefaseba miiRes. amjerad qulas maswavlebeli wers.

Sefasebas iRebs rogorc msmeneli, ise misi raundis oratori da arbitri. daexmareT

erTmaneTs maRali Sefasebis miRebaSi!!!

instruqcia oratorebisaTvis:

waikiTxeT Temebis CamonaTvali;

SearCieT sasurveli Tema;

Txrobisas intonaciiT gamoyaviT ZiriTadi sakiTxebi;

naTqvami daasabuTeT magaliTebiT!

gansaxilveli Temebi:

• kanonis uzenaesoba qveynis ekonomikaSi;

• ekonomikuri reformebis mizani;

• garemos dacva – mTavrobis ekonomikuri funqcia;

• samarTlianoba, kanoniereba da angariSvaldebuleba ekonomikaSi;

• mogebis miRebis stimulebi;

• ratom icavs saxelmwifo konkurencias?

• ras niSnavs ekonomikuri samarTlianoba?

• efeqtiani iuridiul-samarTlebrivi formebi mcire biznesisaTvis;

• realuri mdgomareoba saqarTvelos bazarze;

• bazarze firmebis Tanaarsebobis pirobebi;

• konkurenciis mniSvneloba ekonomikis ganviTarebisaTvis;

• ramdenad daculia momxmarebeli saqarTveloSi?

imsjeleT

108

TamaSis dasrulebis Semdeg imsjeleT:

• ramdenad kargad ismendiT?

• TiToeulisaTvis ra iyo rTuli oratoris sityvebis perifrazirebisas?

• xom ar iyo SemTxveva, roca msmenels sakiTxis Sesaxeb oratorze meti

informacia hqonda? Zneli iyo aseT SemTxvevaSi TamaSis wesebis dacva,

ar CagerToT sakuTari azrebi?

• Tqveni romeli unarebi daganaxaT am TamaSma?

• ramdenad swori daskvnebi gaakeTa B monawilem Aoratoris naambobidan?

davaleba jgufurad moamzadeT kolaJi ,,mTavrobis roli saqarTvelos ekonomikaSi’’.

masalebi sainformacio saSualebebidan da presidan moagroveT.


VI

imsjeleT

biznesis

dagegmva

31-32

minda fuli, minda manqana,

mogzauroba, ...biznesi minda

1. rogor gesmiT biznesis ideis arsi?

2. moiyvaneT sxvadasxva tipis biznesis ideis ramdenime magaliTi.

3. Tqvens mier warmodgenili ideebidan romelia Yyvelaze momgebiani dRevandel

pirobebSi?

4. ra pirobebia saWiro imisaTvis, rom saintereso da mimzidveli idea

momgebian biznesad iqces?

nebismieri saqmianoba ideiT iwyeba. dRes warmatebuli

da momgebiani yvela biznesic ideidan daiwyo. biznesmenebi

amboben, rom ,,saWiro dros saWiro saqmianobis wamowyeba

biznesis warmatebis mniSvnelovani faqtoria’’. sir­

Tule mxolod ,,saWiro saqmianobis’’ droulad mofiqreba

anu momgebiani biznesis ideaa. idea SeiZleba iyos axali

(inovaciuri), an saidanme gadmoRebuli, magram drouli

aRmoCndes da warmateba (gamdidreba) moitanos.

1

ninos Zalian uyvars namcxvari ,,kalaTi”, magram dedas mis gamosacxobad

xSirad ar scalia. ninom TviTon iswavla am namcxvris gamocxoba da

pirvelive cdaze kargi Sedegi miiRo. naxelavi megobrebmac mouwones da

waiwuwunes, ra iqneba, skolis bufetSi aseTi namcxvari rom iyidebodeso.

swored maSin gauCnda ninos biznesis wamowyebis idea. aRtacebuls mTeli

Rame ar uZinia, warmoidgina rogor gamdidrdeba da zafxuls mogzaurobaSi

gaatarebs. Zalian lamazi, originaluri SefuTvac ki moifiqra da dilaadrian

megobars _ Teonas miakiTxa, romelic sul advilad daiTanxma

markis daxatvaze.

gogonebi saqmes Seudgnen: namcxvris receptis mixedviT saWiro masalebis

da SefuTva­gaformebisaTvis aucilebeli qaRaldisa da markerebis

SesaZenad Teonas mamidisagan fuli isesxes, romelic biznes­ideiT aRfr­

Tovanda da icoda ra gogonebis Sromismoyvareobis ambavi, maT warmateba

uwinaswarmetyvela. gogonebma meore dRe SromaSi gaatares: nino acxobda,

Teona fuTavda da Tavisive moxatul markebs awebebda. samuSaos dam­

TavrebisTanave mZime tvirTiT skolis bufets

miakiTxes.

_,,skolaSi kremiani namcxrebis gayidva

akrZalulia!”_ civad upasuxa gamyidvelma.

gogonebi gaogndnen. maTma xvewna­mudaram

Sedegi ver gamoiRo, amitom sursaTis maRaziisaken

gaeSurnen.

109


iznesis dawyebis msurvelebs xSirad didi ocnebebi aqvT: sakuTari

idea unikalurad eCvenebaT, erTbaSad bevris miRweva da

bevri fuli surT. yvelaferi ki imiT mTavrdeba, rom isini imgvar

miznebs isaxaven, romelTa miRwevac ar ZaluZT an saerTod Seu­

Zlebelia. erTi qila erbos istoria yvelam viciT, amitom ideebs

sifrTxiliT unda movekidoT.

mewarmeobis unari ara mxolod xelsayreli SesaZleblobis

droulad danaxva, aramed masze mizanmimarTuli reagirebacaa.

biznesis dasawyebad mxolod saintereso idea sakmarisi ar aris.

saqmianobis wamosawyebad firmis iuridiuli registracia an specialuri nebarTvis

garda, biznesis dawyeba uamrav informacias, nedleuls, kapitals, Sromas, dros

da mravali samuSaos Sesrulebas saWiroebs. saqmis dawyebamde mosagvarebeli saqmeebis

ganawileba, Tanmimdevrobis dadgena da Sesrulebis meTodebis SemuSavebaa saWiro.

swored es aris biznesis gegma _ ra aris gasakeTebeli, rogor unda gakeTdes da rodis,

romeli momxmareblisaTvis unda Seqmnas produqcia. Tu es yvelaferi winaswar

ar ganisazRvra, SeiZleba didi danaxarjebi iqnas gaweuli, magram

Sedegi savalalo iyos. mewarmes mxolod maSin SeuZlia biznesis

organizebaze ifiqros, Tu winaswar, gegmis mixedviT Sesrulebuli

finansuri gaTvlebi mogebis garantias iZleva. ideidan biznesis

organizebamde misasvleli gza biznes­gegmaze gadis. am gzis

warmatebiT gavlis SemTxvevaSi, idea saqmian winadadebad gadaiqceva,

winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi is ocnebad darCeba.

110

_,,licenzia gaqvT?”_ ikiTxa gamyidvelma da roca mixvda, rom gogonebma

SekiTxva ver gaiges, gaimeora: _,,namcxvris warmoebis nebarTva gaqvT?” radagan

nebarTva ar arsebobda, namcxvari arc am da arc sxva maRaziaSi Caibares.

magram ,, mewarmeebs” farxmali ar dauyriaT. iqve saxeldaxelo daxli

moawyves da namcxvris gayidva daiwyes.

,,Tavdadebuli’’ reklamis miuxedavad, myidveli ar Cndeboda. _,,nuTu Cvens

garda aravis uyvars es namcxvari?” _ kiTxulobdnen gaocebuli gogonebi.

_,,nawilobriv asea. Tanac bevrs ar izidavs quCaSi Ria daxlze namcxvris

yidva. amasTan, axla marxvaa da visac uyvars, isic ar yidulobs.” auxsna

maT gamvlelma.

radgan sxva gamosavali ar darCaT, gogonebma namcxvarze megobrebis

dapatiJeba ganizraxes. am namcxvris moyvaruli marTlac bevri ar aRmoCnda,

zogierTs maTi damzadebulis mimarT ndoba ar aRmoaCnda, magram

yvelaze didi dartyma win elodaT: siCqaris gamo cxeli namcxvari SefuTes

da yvela maTgani Cacomebuli aRmoCnda.

,,kidev kargi, rom aravin Caibara. seriozuli usiamovnebebi ar agvcdeboda’’.

_ fiqrobdnen gogonebi.

usiamovnebebi ki mainc SexvdaT. deda saocrad areulma samzareulom

gaabraza, mamidam valis dabruneba Seaxsena.

daRlili gogonebis gancdebi aravis esmoda, yvela daSvebul Secdomebze

miuTiTebda. mogzaurobaze ocneba ukve SeuZlebeli iyo…. . .

ra Secdomebi dauSves gogonebma? moifiqreT sqema, romlis mixedviT

moqmedebis SemTvevaSi isini warmatebas miaRwevdnen.


imsjeleT

112

!

savarjiSo

• aRwereT saqmiani ideis ganxorcielebis sqema.

• ra SesaZleblobebi aqvT samewarmeo saqmianobaSi CarTul adamianebs,

sakuTari warmoebis efeqtianobis gasazrdelad?

• rogor SeiZleba danakargebis Tavidan acileba?

biznesis gegmis dawera biznesis dawyebis pirveli da yvelaze mniSvnelovani

etapia. gegma sam ZiriTad funqcias asrulebs:

1. aris biznesis warmarTvis gzamkvlevi. gvexmareba saqmianobis Tanmimdevrulad

da efeqtianad warmarTvaSi;

2. aris Sefasebis saSualeba. mewarmes saSualebas aZlevs, garkveuli periodis

ganmavlobaSi, saqmianobisagan miRebuli faqtiuri Sedegebi Seafasos;

3. aris fuladi saxsrebis mozidvis saukeTeso saSualeba. investori an

banki kredits mxolod saintereso da dasabuTebuli biznes­gegmis

safuZvelze iZleva.

imuSaveT oTx-xuT kacian jgufebad.

TiToeul jgufs evaleba Seqmnas kompania: dairqvas saxeli,

moifiqros kompaniis saqmianobis sfero da ZiriTadi produqti. Tqven

axlad Seqmnili kompaniis direqtorTa sabWos warmoadgenT. pirveli

sxdomis mizani kompaniis momavali saqmianobis dagegmvaa. TiToeul

jgufs baraTebis TiTo kompleqti Sexvdeba. baraTebze is kiTxvebia

dawerili, romelze pasuxis gacemac biznesis wamowyebisaTvis aucilebelia.

davaleba: baraTebi garkveul kategoriebad daaxarisxeT, daajgufeT

da TiToeuli kategoria daasaTaureT. baraTebi im TanamimdevrobiT

gadanomreT, romlis mixedviTac es sakiTxebi Tqveni biznesideis

realizebisas unda gadawydes. baraTze is kiTxvebia mocemuli,

romelic nebismieri saqmianobis dagegmvisas da ganxorcielebisas

gaCndeba. gadanomrili baraTebi rigiTobis mixedviT gaakariT dafaze.

TiToeulma kompaniam mis mier arCeuli moqmedebaTa Tanamimdevrobis

logikuroba unda daasabuTos.

gafrTxileba: jgufi valdebulia yvela baraTi gamoiyenos.

direqtorTa sabWos samuSao dro 20 wuTia, prezentaciis _ 5 wuTi.

Semdeg airCieT eqspertTa sabWo, romelic obieqturad Seafasebs

warmodgenili biznes­gegmebis (baraTebis rigiTobis) siswores.

eqspertTa Sefasebis sisworis Semowmeba ki, qvemoT warmodgenili sqemis

mixedviT ukve ,,kompaniebs’’ SeuZliaT.


#

romeli

aucilebeli

samuSaoebia

Sesasrulebeli?

#

ras warmoadgens

Cveni produqti,

momsaxureba?

#

sad jobia

reklamis

ganTavseba?

#

sawarmos

organizebis ra

alternativebi

gvaqvs?

#

ramdeni muSaki

gvWirdeba?

#

ra finansuri

kapitali gvaqvs

amJamad?

#

ra gamocdileba

gagvaCnia?

#

rogoria

produqtis miRebis

teqnologia?

#

romel biznesSi

(dargSi)

vsaqmianobT?

#

romeli

danadgarebi

dagvWirdeba?

#

ras warmoadgens

Cveni bazari?

#

ra Zlieri da

susti mxareebi

aqvT Cvens

konkurentebs?

#

ra sididis farTi

gvWirdeba?

#

ra finansuri

resursebi

gveqneba momdevno

eqvsi Tvis

ganmavlobaSi?

#

rogor mivaRwioT

warmatebas?

#

marTvis rogori

sistema iqneba

efeqtiani?

#

SeviZinoT Tu ara

manqana?

# #

vin arian Cveni

klientebi?

#

romelia gasaRebis

mTavari raioni?

#

rogori fasebi

aqvT dawesebuli

konkurentebs?

#

ra da ramdeni

mowyobiloba

gvWirdeba?

#

rogori iqneba

kompaniis mogeba

erTi wlis Semdeg?

#

rogori iqneba

reklamis

intensivoba?

#

ra riskebTan

gveqneba saqme?

rogor davizRvevT

Tavs?

#

rogori imijis

Seqmna gvsurs?

ra Tanxa

dagvWirdeba?

#

romeli marketin

guli moTxovnilebebi

gvaqvs?

#

ra konkurentuli

upiratesoba gvaqvs

arCeul bazarze?

#

vin arian Cveni

konkurentebi?

#

romeli bankis

sasesxo pirobebia

ukeTesi?

#

gavarkvioT,

romeli

kanonebis

moqmede-

bis sivrceSi varT?

#

rogor movaxdenT

produqtis

gasaRebas?

113


iznesis gegma mniSvnelovani dokumentia, amitom is nabeWdi saxiT mzaddeba.

• biznesis gegmis Tavfurcels satitulo gverdi hqvia. masze kompaniis saxeli da misamarTi

iwereba. momdevno gverdze ganTavsdeba monacemebi kompaniis, mflobelebis

Sesaxeb, biznesis gegmis mTliani Rirebuleba, wilobrivi ganawileba.

• Semdegi gverdi biznes-gegmis Sinaarsi anu sarCevia, rasac TviTon gegma mohyveba.

• biznes-gegma aucileblad unda Seicavdes erTi wlis biujets _ savaraudo yovelTviuri

finansuri xarjebis da Semosavlebis gegmas, romelic pirveli Tormeti Tvis

mixedviT unda iyos gawerili.

• yovelTviuri biujetis xarjviTi nawili yvela savaraudo danaxarjs unda iTvaliswinebdes,

maT Sorisaa xarjebi.

• reklamis Rirebuleba

• SefuTva

• xelfasebi

• sxva xarjebi

• gauTvaliswinebeli xarjebi

sul xarjebi

114

1.

sawarmo

ideis arsi

• dargi

• kompania

• produqti

4. marketingi

3.

5.

martivi biznesis gegmis komponentebi

gasaRebis gegma

• fasebis dadgena

• gasaRebis strategia

• reklama

• gavrceleba

organizacia

marTvis gegma

• organizaciuli struqtura

• ZiriTadi funqciebi

• daqvemdebarebulebis

raodenoba

• marTvis principebi

bazris analizi

• potenciuri momxmarebeli

• bazris sidide

• asaTvisebeli segmenti

• konkurenciis analizi

• Cveni upiratesobani

daskvna

• riskis analizi

• sxva alternativebis Sefaseba

• proeqtis Sejameba / perspeqtiva

2.

produqciis warmoeba

• resursebi

• momwodeblebi

• sawarmoo procesebi

• mowyobilobebi

• saWiro farTi

• saWiro muSaxeli

6.

bazari

warmoeba

finansebi

finansebis dagegmva

• firmis daarsebis xarjebi

• amoqmedebisaTvis saWiro

xarjebi

• dafinansebis wyaroebi

• biujeti


!

es

sainteresoa

gaxsovdeT!

skolis damTavrebis Semdeg, rodesac realuri biznesis wamowyebis

gadawyvetilebas miiRebT, nu daiviwyebT, rom nebismieri ideis realizeba

did riskTan aris dakavSirebuli. gaixseneT am saxelmZRvaneloSi

mocemuli rCeva da kidev erTxel gadaikiTxeT.

sifrTxiliT moekideT biznesis miznebis SemuSavebas da gaiTvaliwineT:

• pirvel rigSi, bazarze sakuTari adgili gansazRvreT; yuradRebis koncentracia

im sferoze moaxdineT, sadac gansakuTrebiT Zlieri xarT da

sadac sxvebi, msxvili korporaciebic ki, konkurencias ver gagiweven;

• akeTeT mxolod is, rac yvelaze ukeT gexerxebaT: kargad dafiqrdiT,

sanam farTo asparezze gasvlas gadawyvetdeT. radgan erTbaSad

yvelafris gakeTebas mainc ver SeZlebT, orientacia imis

keTebaze aiReT, rac yvelaze ukeT gexerxebaT, biznesi im sferoSi

daiwyeT, romelsac ukeT icnobT;

• daakonkreteT sakuTari miznebi: masStaburi da ramodenime welze

gaTvlili gegmebi mxolod zogad mimarTulebas gansazRvras. umjobesia,

konkretuli, erTwliani miznebi daisaxoT, moqmedebebi

detalurad SeimuSavoT da yovelTviurad maTi Sesrulebis kontroli

awarmooT. ase mudmivad gecodineba ra mdgomareobaSia Tqveni

biznesi, rogor midis saqmeebi.

• kritikulad moekideT ideas: Tu biznesis dagegmvis procesSi bazris kvlevam

daganaxaT, rom idea ar varga, guli dagwydebaT, magram nu moeridebiT

mis Secvlas, amiT momavalSiU uamrav problemas aicilebT Tavidan.

• XX saukunis 80-ian wlebamde kompiuteri iseTi didi zomis iyo, rom mTel

oTaxs ikavebda da misi SeZena mxolod finansurad Zlier organizaciebs

SeeZloT. 1976 wels stiven jobss gabeduli biznes-idea gauCnda, gadawyvita

kompiuteri iolad mosaxmar, iaf da ojaxur pirobebSi gamosayenebel,

yvelasaTvis saWiro xelsawyod gadaeqcia. man eleqtrikos stiven vozniakTan

erTad kompania ,,epl kompiuteri’’ daarsa da iseTi ideis ganxorcieleba

daiwyo, romelic maSin saswaulis tolfasad iTvleboda. jobsi

Tavdauzogavi SromisaTvis mzad iyo da warmatebasac miaRwia.

• daviT sarajiSvili TbilisSi 1848 wels daibada. is jer ruseTsa da germaniaSi,

Semdeg safrangeTSi swavlobda. im periodSi franguli koniaki

mTel msoflioSi popularuli da Zalian Zviri iyo. sarajiSvili koniakis

warmoebiT dainteresda da saqarTveloSi samamulo nedleuliT misi

damzadeba gadawyvita. 1885 wels man TbilisSi sawyobi aaSena, sadac sakoniake

spirts muxis kasrebSi aZvelebda. am gabedul wamowyebas yvela

skeptikurad uyurebda. warmatebaSi darwmunebulma sarajiSvilma ki bazris

gafarToeba dagegma. misi firma 1889 wels alkoholiani sasmelebis

ukve ramodenime saxeobas amzadebda franguli teqnologiiT. is 1 aryis,

1 liqioris da 7 koniakis qarxanas aerTianebda da produqciiT ara mxolod

saqarTvelos bazars, aramed ruseTis imperiasac amaragebda. misi

produqciis fasi gacilebiT xelmisawvdomi iyo, xarisxi ki _ Zalian maRali,

amitom rusuli bazris TiTqmis 25% daipyro. es qarTuli produqtis

manamde arnaxuli warmateba iyo.

1913 wlisaTvis sarajiSvilis safirmo koniaks saerTaSoriso gamofenebsa

Tu degustaciebze 9 oqros da 5 vercxlis medali hqonda miRebuli.

115


kiTxvebi

da

davalebebi

ese

116

1. romeli ZiriTadi etapebi SeiZleba gamovyoT saqmiani organizaciis

formirebis procesSi?

2. ra aris biznes­gegma da ratom aris is aucilebeli axali biznesis

dasaarseblad?

3. vis da ra mizniT sWirdeba biznesis gegmaSi warmodgenili informacia?

4. moifiqreT oTxi kiTxva, romelic firmas sakuTari Tavis daxasiaTebaSi

daexmareba.

5. airCieT warmoebis romelime forma da zemoT SemoTavazebuli sqemis

mixedviT gansazRvreT erTi Tvis savaraudo xarjebi.

gaanalizeT:

• romeli kiTxvebis pasuxi unda icodeT, rom erTi Tvis biujeti zustad

gansazRvroT?

• SeiZleba Tu ara, movaxdinoT biznesis warmatebis prognozireba, Tu

ar gveqneba informacia savaraudo Semosavlebis Sesaxeb?

• konkretuli samewarmeo saqmianobis ganxilvis safuZvelze CamoTvaleT

mogebis gazrdisa da xarjebis Semcirebis faqtorebi.

6. aris Tu ara mewarme im adamianebis bedze pasuxismgebeli, romelsac

daasaqmebs? pasuxi daasabuTeT.

dawereT Txzuleba:

`mewarmis roli qveynis ekonomikis ganviTarebaSi~.


imsjeleT

33

SeviswavloT

bazari

1. rogor gesmiT bazris kvleva?

2. ra informacias unda flobdes mewarme, rom ufleba hqondes Tamamad

ganacxados: ,,me am bazars vicnob’’?

bazarze poziciebs is kompania imyarebs, romelic momxmareblis moTxovnebze swrafad

reagirebs, siaxleebs sTavazobs mas. amitom biznesis dagegmisa da ganviTarebisaTvis

udidesi mniSvneloba aqvs momxmareblis moTxovnis Seswavlas. biznesis gegmis SemuSavebamde

mizanSewonilia zogierTi sakiTxis winaswari gamokvleva.

savarjiSo

1

TbilisSi uamravi kafea, romlebsac msgavsi meniu da fasebi aqvT. isini erTmaneTs

konkurencias adgilmdebareobis, komfortis, momsaxurebisa da reklamebis

saSualebiT uweven. rac ufro met momxmarebels miizidaven, miT met

sabazro wils miisakuTreben. xSirad xdeba, rom erTi kafes mier Semotanili

siaxle (momsaxureba, produqti, interieris detalebi) Zalian swrafad vrceldeba

sxva kafeebSic. siaxleebis Semomtans/novators ki liderobis SesanarCuneblad

kvlav da kvlav saintereso SeTavazebebis mofiqreba uxdeba.

1) ratom ar wyvets novatori kafe sul axal-axali siaxleebis Se-

Tavazebas da damatebiTi xarjebis gawevas, Tu icis, rom am siaxles

konkurentebi Zalian swrafad gadaiReben?

2) rogor axerxeben novatori kompaniebi iseTi siaxleebis mofiqrebas

da SeTavazebas, romelic momxmarebels moswons?

3) ratom ar cdilobs yvela kompania TviTon iyos novatori?

daasaxeleT biznesis iseTi sfero, romelSic survili geqnebodaT

saqmianoba dagewyoT, rogorc individualur mewarmes da romelsac

didi dafinanseba ar sWirdeba. ideebidan amoarCieT sami sfero,

romelsac yvelaze kargad icnobT. daiyaviT 3 jgufad. TiToeulma

jgufma TiTo bazris kvleva unda moaxdinos.

gansazRvreT biznesisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli yvela niSnebi:

• dargSi arsebuli sawarmoebis raodenoba;

• saqonlis tipebi;

• dargSi Sesvlis simartive, konkurentebi;

• rogor garemoSi mogiwevT funqcionireba;

• danaxarjebis done;

• saqonlis (momsaxurebis) fasi;

• bazarze damkvidrebis strategia;

• daarsebidan ra droSi miaRwevT warmatebas?

• biznesis wamowyebis savaraudo biujeti.

117


118

moamzadeT argumentebis prezentacia,

a) ratom aris momgebiani am saqmianobis wamowyeba?

b) ratom ar Rirs am saqmianobis wamowyeba?

g) Ria kenWisyris saSualebiT gaakeTeT klasis arCevani, biznesis

warmodgenili saxeebidan, romlis wamowyeba ufro momgebiania?

albaT mixvdiT, rom am savarjiSoSi miRebuli daskvna zedapirulia, SesaZlebelia

is realobisagan Zalian Sors idges, radgan Tqven kvleva ar giwarmoebiaT, mxolod intuiciasa

da gamocdilebaze dayrdnobiT gaakeTeT daskvnebi.

biznesis dagegmisa da ganviTarebisaTvis mizanSewonilia zogierTi sakiTxebis winaswari

Seswavla an gamokvlevis Catareba.

konkretulad vin iqneba

momxmarebeli: asakobrivi

da sqesobrivi

Semadgenloba, profesia,

ganaTlebis done,

gemovneba, Semosavlebi,

surs Tu ara

momxmareels

SeTavazebuli

saqonlis an

momsaxurebis SeZena

rogori

fasebi aqvT

konkurentebs?

rogori

konkurentebi

gvyavs

bazris kvleva

sad SeiZleba iafad

iqnes SeZenili

mowyobilobebi Tu

resursebi? sad

yiduloben maT

konkurentebi?

rogori Senobebi

da danadgarebia

saWiroa

ratom moswons

momxmarebels

konkurentebis

produqcia?

ra riskebia

mosalodneli

ramdeni fulia

(kapitali) saWiro

Senobebis,

danadgarebis

SesaZenad

swored am da msgavs kiTxvebze pasuxis Zieba warmoadgens bazris kvlevas. ra Tqma unda

unda, pirdapir aseT kiTxvebze pasuxs TviT yvelaze ganaTlebuli adamianic ki ver gascems.

man jer informacia unda moagrovos.

bazris kvleva axali informaciis mopovebasa da analizs gulisxmobs. rogorc

iciT, firmebis stimuli, mogebis miRebaa, rac mxolod im saqonlisa da momsaxurebis

warmoebiT SeiZleba, romelzec moTxovna maRalia. imisaTvis, rom firmebma saqoneli da

momsaxureba awarmoon, resursebi unda Seisyidon. resursebi ki (rogorc adamianuri,

ise materialuri) Zalian Zviria, amitom sawarmoTa mflobelebi cdiloben maqsimalurad

Seamciron danakargebi, Seafason yvela alternativa da rac SeiZleba efeqtianad

gamoiyenon arsebuli resursebi. alternativebis Sefaseba kvlevis saSualebiT miRebuli

monacemebis safuZvelze xdeba.

dagegmili mogebis misaRebad kvlevis Catareba aucilebelia. mewarmem pirvel rigSi

bazari unda Seiswavlos, Semdeg moifiqros, rogor `waarTvas~ konkurentebs momxmarebeli.

kvlevis Sedegad bazris xedvis are farTovdeba: Rrmavdeba codna momxmareblis,

misi survilebis, Semosavlebis, gadaxdisunarianobis Sesaxeb.


kargad Catarebuli kvleva mewarmes saSualebas aZlevs Seiswavlos konkurentebi,

momxmareblis kmayofilebisa da ukmayofilebis mizezebi, winaswar gansazRvros riski,

airCios bazarze SeRwevis moqnili strategia.

kvlevis Catareba did dros moiTxovs. winaswar unda momzaddes kiTxvebi da anketebi,

daigegmos dakvirveba da saWiro dro. Semdeg sxvadasxva gziT miRebuli informacia

gaerTiandes da gaanalizdes. radgan momxmarebeli uamravia da yvela maTganis gamokiTxva

rTuli iqneba, kvlevis dros koncentrireba miznobriv bazarze xdeba.

pirdapiri

interviu

(gamokiTxva)

anketebi

( dabeWQ

dili

kiTxvarebi)

bazris segmenti SeiZleba SeirCes:

informaciis Segrovebis gzebi

dokumentebis

analizi

uSualo

dakvirveba

gamocdileba

da intuicia

• teritoriuli anu geografiuli niSniT _ potenciur myidvelebs sxvadasxva

adgilebSi (msoflios regionebSi, qveynebSi, qveynis regionebSi, qalaqebSi, kvartlebSi)

xSirad gansxvavebuli moTxovnilebebi da gemovneba aqvT. Tu yovelive es mniSvnelovan

rols TamaSobs produqciis gasaRebaSi, azri aqvs geografiul segmentacias.

• momxmarebelTa tipebis mixedviT _ momxmarebelTa kategoriebad dayofa xdeba

saqmianobis (biznesmenebi, turistebi, moswavleebi da a.S.) gaTvaliswinebiT.

• qcevis mixedviT _ xdeba moxmarebis moculobis (zogi bevr produqts iZens, zogi naklebs)

an sixSiris, fasebze orientaciis, specifikuri gemovnebis, produqtis maxasiaTeblebze

reaqciebis mixedviT momxmareblis dayofa.

• qceviT segmentaciasTan saqme gvaqvs maSin, rodesac ikvleven, romel savaWro markas

aniWebs momxmarebeli upiratesobas, romeli radio da telegadacemebi moswons, ufro

xSirad ras kiTxulobs (Jurnalebs, gazeTebs, mxatvrul Tu specialur literturas),

dReSi saSualod ramden saaTs uyurebs televizors an ra dros uTmobs wignis kiTxvas,

dRis romeli nawili aqvs kiTxvisaTvis gamoyofili da sxva.

• produqciis gamokvleva misi sacdeli partiis warmoebas gulisxmobs.

eqsperimenti,

testireba

miznobrivi bazari _ momxmareblis is konkretuli jgufi,

romelzec orientirebulia kompania Tavisi saqonlisa da momsaxurebis gayidvisas.

miznobrivi bazris formireba xdeba erTi an ramdenime sabazro

nawilis (segmentis) kvlevis, Sefasebisa da SerCevis gziT.

kvlevis aucilebloba gamowveulia imiTac, rom xSirad mewarmes momxmarebelTan uSualo

Sexeba ar aqvs. is saqoneli, romelic seriulad (didi raodenobiT) iwarmoeba, momxmarebelTan

moxvedramde grZel gzas gadis.

119


saqonlis moZraoba

120

mewarme

biTumad movaWre

sacalod movaWre

momxmarebeli

gansazRvreba

produqtis mwarmoebeli

movaWre, romelic mewarmisgan didi

raodenobiT produqts yidulobs

gayidvis mizniT

movaWre, romelic biTumad yidulobs

produqts calobiT gayidvis mizniT

adamiani, romelic yidulobs da

moixmars mza produqcias

magaliTi

qarxana

sawyobi

maRazia

Tqven

momxmarebelTa moTxovnilebebis dasakmayofileblad, marketingis menejerebi

marketingis struqturas anu kompleqss amuSaveben.

marketinguli kompleqsis elementebia:

• saqoneli, idea an momsaxureba (Product);

• fasi (Price);

• adgili (Place);

• stimulireba (Promotion).

marketingis menejerebi am komponentebisagan Tavisebur `narevs~ (Mix) qmnian, romelic

cnobilia marketingis `4 P~­s saxeliT, inglisuri dasaxelebebis sawyisi asoebis

gaerTianebidan gamomdinre.

biznesis dagegmva faqtiurad, marketinguli samuSaoebiT iwyeba.

miznobrivi bazris SerCeva da gamokvleva marketingis sferoa.

saqoneli

fasi

marketinguli

kompleqsi

miznobrivi

bazari

stimulireba

marketinguli kvleva uwyveti procesia. mewarme mudmivad saqmis kursSi unda iyos

imis Sesaxeb, ra surs momxmarebels (romeli saqoneli, romeli momsaxureba), rogori

fasia misTvis xelsayreli, rogor jobia gasaReba, gayidvis romeli forma an romeli

adgilia ufro efeqturi, stimulirebis (saqonliT dainteresebis) romel xerxebze reagirebs

myidveli, produqtis an SefuTvis vizualuri mimzidvelobis romeli maCvenebelia

efeqtiani.

momxmareblis qceva da marketinguli kompleqsi mWidro urTierTkavSirSia. pirveli

meores gansazRvravs, meore ki zemoqmedebas axdens pirvelze. orive maTganis formireba

garemo Zalebis _ qveynis an regionis socialuri, kulturuli, ekonomikuri, politikuri,

demografiuli da sxva faqtorebis zegavleniT xdeba.

adgili


momxmarebelTa moTxovnilebebis dasakmayofileblad, marketingis menejerebi

marketingis struqturas anu kompleqss amuSaveben.

es

sainteresoa

bunebrivi

resursebi

marketingis kompleqsi

ekonomikuri

konkurencia

socialur

kulturuli

garemo

produqti

fasi

momxmarebeli

adgili

stimulireba

mecnierebaTa

teqnologiebi

demografiuli

mdgomareoba

politikursakanonmdeblo

garemo

kompania FORD Motor Сompany ­ avtomobilebi da avtonawilebi iyo.

miuxedavad warmatebisa, kompanias bazris kvleva ar Seuwyvetia. uwyvetad

swavlobda axali manqanebis myidvelTa Cvevebs, maTi survilebis cvlilebebs,

ikvlevda momxmareblis SenaZeniT kmayofilebis dones. kvlevebi aseve

yidvis procesebis da potenciuri moxmarebis Sesaswavladac tardeboda.

1986 wels kompaniis wminda mogeba 2,5 miliardi amerikuli dolari iyo.

2006 wels, TiTqmis 2-jer meti. swored momxmareblis survilebis mudmivad

Seswavla da gaTvaliswineba ganapirobebs am kompaniis stabilur

warmatebebs.

saukuneze metia, rac 1903 wels daarsebuli kompania aproeqtebs, awarmoebs

da xuT kontinentze yidis rogorc msubuq, ise satvirTo avtomobilebs,

Zravebs, saTadarigo nawilebs.

swored kvlevebma daanaxa kompanias, Tu raoden mniSvnelovania Tanamedrove

avtomflobelisaTvis mcire litraJi, manqanis saimedooba da garantiis

xangrZlivoba. miuxedavad imisa, rom FORD Motor Company xarisxis

garantias yovelTvis iZleoda, kompaniam momxmareblis survilebis gaTvaliswinebiT

SeimuSava axali proeqtebi mikro da mcirelitraJiani avtomobilebisaTvis,

daixvewa rogorc garegani, ise Sinagani stili, saloni

iseTive myudro da komfortuli gaxda, rogorc luqsis tipis avtomobilebSi

iyo. garda amisa, momxmarebels avtomobilebis sxvadasxva variaciebi

da Zravis samudamo ufaso servisi SesTavaza. FORD­is avtomobilebze

moTxovna isev mzardia. kompaniis Semosavlebi matulobs. `Cveni xarisxi

momxmareblis survils emTxveva~ ­ acxadeben kompaniis mesveurebi. Sedegi

saxezea: 2005–2006 wels, kompania FORD Motor­i kvlav msoflios aTi

yvelaze warmatebuli kompaniis siaSia da me-9 adgils ikavebs.

wyaro: http://mony.cnn.com./magazines/fortune/

121


kiTxvebi

da

davalebebi

122

1. daaxasiaTeT Tqveni ojaxi, rogorc momxmarebeli.

2. daaxasiaTeT Tqveni klasi, rogorc momxmarebeli.

3. rogori momxmarebeli xarT TviTon? magaliTad,

TqvenTvis aucilebeli saqonlis SeZenis ramdeni wyaro arsebobs?

ra sixSiriT iZenT tansacmels?

tansacmlis SeZenisas, ra aris TqvenTvis mniSvnelovani? amoar­

CieT sami umTavresi: a) feri; b) komfortuloba; g) gamZleoba; d)

qsovili; e) fasi; v) unikaluroba; z) marka; T) firma; i) moduroba;

k) gamoyenebis xangrZlivoba; l) TanatolebSi gavrceleba/cnobadoba.

4. gaanalizeT, zemoT miRebuli monacemebi da daasaxeleT Tanaklaselebi,

romlebic Tqvens msgavs momxmareblad (analogiuri samomxmarebli

qcevis mqoned) migaCniaT?

5. ra unda iyos im saqonlis maxasiaTeblebebi, romelsac Tqvens Tanatolebs

sTavazoben mewarmeebi?


1

34

biznesis

dafinanseba

Tqveni megobari sakuTari sawamos gaxsnas apirebs. erT dRes movida,

giTxraT, rom saxsrebi ar yofnis danadgaris SesaZenad da sesxad dabadebis

dReze saCuqrad miRebuli 100 lari gTxovaT.

imuSaveT jgufebad da CamowereT did furcelze.

• ra SekiTxvebs dausvamdiT megobars, vidre sesxis micemaze daTanxmdebiT?

• ra SemTxvevaSi daTanxmdebiT fulis sesxad gacemas?

• ra pirobebs wauyenebT msesxebels?

• sesxis micemaze uaris Tqmis SemTxvevaSi, ras urCevdiT megobars, sad

eZebos damatebiTi dafinansebis wyaro?

• samuSaos damTavrebis Semdeg, gaacaniT Tanaklaselebs jgufis namuSevari

da sxvadasxva jgufis samuSaoSi msgavsi pasuxebi moniSneT.

• Tqveni azriT, ram ganapiroba pasuxebis msgavseba? xom ar niSnavs es sifrTxilis

gamoCenas sakuTari Tanxebis xarjvasa da sesxis dabrunebas­

Tan dakavSirebiT?

• eqnebaT Tu ara igive an msgavsi kiTxvebi bankis TanamSromlebs, Tu Tqveni

megobari kreditis aRebas bankidan moindomebs?

marTalia, adamianTa umravlesoba biznesis sferoSi moRvaweobas fulis saSovnelad iwyebs,

magram biznesis wamowyeba soliduri Tanxebis gareSe SeuZlebelia.

dasrulebuli da kargad gamarTuli biznes­gegma naTlad gviCvenebs sul ramdeni fulia

saWiro ideis realizebisaTvis, risTvis aris saWiro es Tanxebi, rodis da ra raodenobis fuladi

saxsrebi iqneba saWiro. Tu biznesi Tavisi miznebisaTvis saxsrebs produqciasa da momsaxurebis

realizaciis Sedegad miRebuli Tanxebidan Rebulobs, amboben, rom samewarmeo

saqmianoba Sida saxsrebiT finansdeba; magram es warmatebuli biznesis asawyobad sakmarisi

ar aris, gansakuTrebiT saqmianobis dasawyisSi, amitom saWiroa gare saxsrebis mozidva.

arsebuli Tu moziduli Tanxebis udidesi nawili sawarmos daarsebis an gafarToebisaTvis

saWiro kapitaluri resursebis SeZenas anu investirebas xmardeba. aranakleb mniSvnelovania

warmoebisaTvis saWiro resursebis SeZena da maragebis Seqmna.

investireba _ im kapitaluri resursebis SeZena, romlebic saWiroa

saqonlisa da momsaxurebis sawarmoeblad. igi SeiZleba gamoixatebodes

korporaciis aqciebis flobaSi, uZrav qonebaSi an nagebobebsa da mowyobilobaSi.

kapitaluri resursebis SeZenas da sawarmos saqmianobas fuladi an

sxva tipis saxsrebi anu finansebi sWirdeba.

biznesis wamowyebis msurveli uamravia, maT saintereso ideebi aqvT, magram saWiro

Tanxebis mopoveba uWirT. zogierTs ki riskis gawevis eSinia, amitom biznesis wamowyebamde

adamianebi yvelanair alternativebs afaseben. TiToeul ideasTan mimarTebaSi maT

sami ZiriTadi kiTxva awuxebT: ramdeni fuli dasWirdeba ideis ganxorcielebas, rogor

moaxdinon saWiro Tanxebis mobilizeba? (sad iSovon fuli?) eqnebaT Tu ara imdeni Semosavali,

rom valebi dafaron da mogeba darCeT?

123


sawarmoebi axal kapitalur

resursebSi investirebisaTvis banks

mimarTaven. grZelvadiani sesxis saxes

obligacia warmoadgens. sawarmoebi

obligaciebs investiciisaTvis saWiro

naRdi fulis miRebis mizniT yidian.

obligaciis Semsyidvelebi sawarmos

kreditorebi anu mevaleebi xdebian. isini

gadaxdili Tanxis mixedviT, yovelwliurad

fiqsirebul sargebels iReben.

vadis gasvlis Semdeg ki _ srul Tanxas.

korporaciebi obligaciebis gayidvas

maSin iwyeben, rodesac firmas axali teqnologiebis

SesaZenad, sawarmoo operaciebis

gafarToebis, sxva korporaciebis mierTebis an Serwymis dasafinanseblad kapitalis

mozidva sWirdeba.

124

gare saxsrebis mozidva

sesxebis aReba aqciebis gayidva axali mflobelis mozidva

mcire da saSualo biznesis dafinanseba ufro xSirad moklevadiani sesxebiT xdeba.

moklevadiani sesxebi sxvadasxva saxisaa:

komerciuli krediti _ resursebis an saqonelis SeZena kreditiT anu SemdgomSi

gadaxdis angariSiT.

safinanso dawesebulebidan aRebuli sesxebi _ sesxebi bankebidan, finansuri

kompaniebidan.

sxva kompaniebisagan an pirebisagan aRebuli sesxebi.

dafinansebis miReba axali mflobelebisgan _ sawarmos dafinanseba aqciebis gamoSvebis

gziT SeuZlia. aqcia, `mflobelobis~ sinonimia. aqciebis gayidva moklevadiani

kreditis kidev erTi wyaroa.

mcire sawarmos daarsebas an gafarToebas didi investiciebi ar sWirdeba. dafinansebis

wyaro SeiZleba iyos:

piradi danazogebi;

ojaxi da megobrebi;

amxanagobis daarseba;

aqciebis gayidva;

komerciuli bankidan aRebuli sesxi;

uZravi qonebis gayidviT an gaqiravebiT miRebuli Semosavali.

sawarmos finansuri mdgradoba niSnavs, rom produqciis realizaciis Sedegad

miRebuli Semosavlebidan sawarmos SeuZlia:

yvela mimdinare vali da gadasaxadi dafaros;

mosalodneli Semosavlebidan momavali valdebulebebi dafaros;

fuladi saxsrebi axal kapitalur resursebSi daabandos;

gauTvaliswinebeli xarjebi dafaros.


iznesis dasafinanseblad bankidan sesxis aReba martivi ar aris. mewarmem bankis ndoba unda

moipovos. banki momavali klientis kreditunarianobas swavlobs:

ikvlevs reputacias _ amowmeben dosies (monacemebs), yvela adrindeli angariSi da

vali droulad aris Tu ara dafaruli.

amowmebs gadaxdisunarianobas _ Semosavlis wyaros, amJamindel davalianebebs da nakisr

valdebulebebs.

axdenen qonebis Sefasebas _ iTvlis bankSi ganTavsebul fuls, uZrav da moZrav qonebas.

SesaZlebelia kreditorma kapitalis nawili giraos saxiT daitovos.

savarjiSo

daiyaviT jgufebad, CamowereT pirobebi, romlsac Tqveni azriT mewarme

unda akmayofilebdes, raTa banki darwmunebuli iyos, rom krediti

ar gaiflangeba da is sesxis patiosani gadamxdeli iqneba.

moamzadeT prezentacia. samuSao dro 10 wuTia.

damatebiTi

sakiTxavi

arsebobs aqciebis ori saxe: Cveulebrivi da privilegirebuli. orive korporaciis

mflobelobas niSnavs, magram Cveulebrivi aqciebis mflobelebs sawarmos aqcionerTa

saerTo krebaze kenWisyraSi monawileobis ufleba aqvT, privilegirebuli aqciebis

mflobelebi ki, korporaciis likvidaciis SemTxvevaSi dividendebs da qonebis wils

pirvel rigSi miiReben.

mcire sawarmoebi sasesxo programebis farglebSi yovedRiurad miliardobiT aqcias

yiduloben da yidian mTel msoflioSi. aqciebiT vaWrobisaTvis mravali safondo

birJa anu aqciaTa bazari arsebobs. rodesac korporacia pirvelad uSvebs aqciebs,

igi TanamSromlobs sainvesticio bankTan an firmasTan, romelic aqciebis gamoSvebas

garantirebuls xdis.

aqciebis sawyis gayidvas pirveladi bazari ewodeba. aqciebis Tavdapirveli gayidvis

Semdeg xalxi maT gamomSvebi kompaniisgan damoukideblad yidulobs da yidis.

swores am meorad bazars uwodeben safondo birJas anu aqciaTa bazars.

finansurad mdgradi didi korporaciebi zogjer e.w. venCuruli anu sarisko kapitaliT

afinanseben siaxleTa danergviT dakavebul patara firmebs. imis gamo, rom

principulad axali saqonlis danergva yovelTvis did riskTan aris dakavSirebuli,

axali produqtebisaTvis saWiro dafinanseba da kapitali sariskod iTvleba. cxadia,

warumateblobis SemTxvevaSi kapitali dakargulia, warmatebis SemTxvevaSi ki msxvili

korporacia TviTon iwyebs am produqtis masStabur warmoebas.

? Tqven

rom sakuTari sawarmos gaxsnis idea gqondeT, rogor moaxdendiT mis

dafinansebas? dafinansebis es forma airCieT imitom rom realuri Sansi gaga­

CniaT, Tu imitom, rom upiratesobas dafinansebis am wyaros aniWebT?

125


VII

? 1.

126

ojaxis

ekonomika

35

ojaxidan

bankisaken

ra saWiroebebi gaaCnia oTxwevrian (ded-mama, 12 da 16 wlis ori Svil i)

ojaxs 1 Tvis ganmavlobaSi?

2. ra maqsimaluri Semosavali SeiZleba qondes oTxsulian ojaxs saqar­

TveloSi, Tu orive mSobeli mcire biznesSia dasaqmebuli?

3. gawvdeba Tu ara es Semosavali ojaxis saWiroebebs?

ojaxis wevrebma winaswar unda gansazRvron moTxovnilebebis dakmayofilebis Tanmimdevroba

– ra, sad da rodis SeiZinon, raTa ojaxis gankargulebaSi arsebuli fuli gonivrulad

gamoiyenon: SeiZinon sakvebi, saTbobi masalebi, tansacmeli, gadaixadon gadasaxadebi. Znelia

samomavlo xarjebis dagegmva, Tu ar ici, rogor Semosavalze unda gaTvalo es xarjebi.

savarjiSo

1

ojaxis (gundis) biujeti

ojaxi (4 wevrisgan Semdgari gundi) damoukideblad cxovrobT da Tqveni

saerTo Semo savali 600 lars Seadgens. es Tanxa fiqsirebulia. fuli

gonivrulad daxarjeT. (am sakiTxis irgvliv konsultacia SegiZliaT

ufrosebisganac miiRoT). mocemuli monacemebis gamoyenebiT SeadgineT

biujeti. mniSvnelovani xarjebi biujetSi unda dafiqsirdes. es xarjebi

fiqsirebulia da misi Secvla mxolod maswavlebels SeuZlia.

xarjebis kategoria

bina (Senoba)

ZiriTadi sakvebi

msubuqi sauzme

tansacmeli

telefoni

bunebrivi airi/SeSa

eleqtroba

benzinis an avtobusis gadasaxadebi

cxovelebis sakvebi

kinos,

Teatris

da

sportul

i

RonisZiebebis bileTebi

dazogva

jami

1 Tve (lari)

600

me-2 Tve (lari)

600


1. geyofaT Tu ara es Tanxa damoukideblad sacxovreblad erTi Tvis ganmavlobaSi?

2. ram moaxdina gavlena Tqvens arCevanze biujetis muxlebidan?

3. SeadareT gundebis biujetebis msgavseba da gansxvaveba.

4. SeadgineT axali biujeti II TvisaTvis Semdegi axali pirobebis gaTvaliswinebiT:

a. eleqtroenergiis gadasaxadi 10 %­iT gaizarda.

b. sawvavis fasi 5%-iT Semcirda.

g. sadResaswaulo sauzmis fasi 50 %-iT Semcirda.

d. benzinis fasebi da avtobusis gadasaxadi 25 %-iT gaizarda.

e. ZiriTad sakveb produqtebze fasebi 15 %-iT gaizarda.

v. fasebi tansacmelze ucvleli darCa.

z. satelefono momsaxureba 3 procentiT Semcirda.

T. sabinao momsaxurebis fasi ucvlelia.

5. rogor reagirebda gundi fasebis cvlilebaze?

6. mogewonebodaT Tu ara damoukideblad cxovreba aseT pirobebSi?

7. vis mimarTavdiT dasaxmareblad sesxisaTvis ?

8. biujetis gazrdili deficitis SemTxvevaSi mimarTavdiT Tu ara banks?

yovelTvis arseboben adamianebi, romlebic fuls agroveben anu danazogs akeTeben da meore

mxriv _ adamianebi, romlebic fuls sesxuloben. danazogi maSin keTdeba, roca calkeuli

adamianebi, firmebi da qveynebi mTlianad ar iyeneben mimdinare Semosavlebs. ekonomistebis

TvalsazrisiT, danazogi aris Semosavali, romelic moxmarebisaTvis ar daxarjula.

albaT gagikeTebiaT danazogi imisaTvis, rom momavalSi raime geyidaT. Tqveni, rogorc

moswavlis danazogi, romelic mSoblebisa da naTesavebis mier naCuqari an yoveldRiuri saxarjo

fulisgan Sedgeba, saxlSic mSvenivrad Seinaxeba. ufrosebis mier dazogili Tanxa ki umjobesia

bankSi ganTavsdes, radgan saxlisagan gansxvavebiT, fulis bankSi SenaxviT adamianebi

sxva damatebiT fuls gamoimuSaveben sargeblis saxiT, rom aRaraferi vTqvaT, bankSi danazogis

daculobaze.

bankebi _ institutebi, sadac adamianTa erTi nawili fuls inaxavs da

sargebels gamoimuSavebs, xolo meore nawili _ fuls sesxulobs da

sanacvlod sargeblis ganakveTs ixdis.

danazogi _ Semosavlebis nawili, romelic ar iqna daxarjuli gadasaxadebisa

da sayidlebisaTvis.

meanabre _ adamiani, romelic bankSi danazogs inaxavs.

bankebi da sxva safinanso institutebi im arxis rols asruleben, rom

liTac SemnaxvelTa finansuri saSualebebi miemarTeba msesxeblebisa

da investorebisaken. bankebsa da sxva safinanso institutebs finansur

Suamavlebs uwodeben. isini iReben anabrebs da gascemen sesxebs.

sargebeli _ gadasaxadi sxvisi fuliT sargeblobisaTvis (xSirad mas

procents uwodeben).

investicia _ manqanebis, Senoba­nagebobebis, mowyobilobebis warmoeba

da yidva, romelic momavalSi ufro meti raodenobis saqonlisa da momsaxurebis

sawarmoeblad gamoiyeneba.

piradi investireba _ fasiani qaRaldebis (aqciebi, obligaciebi) yidva,

rac ufro sariskoa, vidre Semnaxvel angariSze fulis ganTavseba,

radganac fasiani qaRaldebis Rirebuleba SeiZleba Seicvalos. samagierod,

aseTma dabandebam SeiZleba bevrad meti mogeba moitanos, vidre

Semnaxvelma angariSebma.

127


saqonlisa da momsaxurebis sayidlad adamianebi mTel Semosavals ar xarjaven, fuls

zogaven. Semosavlis nawils produqtis samomavalod yidvis mizniT inaxaven. saqonlisa da

momsaxurebis mimdinare moxmareba dazogvis alternatiul Rirebulebas warmoadgens.

fulis sesxebisas, adamianebi sxvis fuls iyeneben. nasesxeb fuls momavalSi xarjaven.

amitom sayidlebisaTvis ufro cota fuli rCebaT, ris gamoc saqonelsa da momsaxurebaze,

romlis momavalSi unda SeeZinaT uars amboben. es saqoneli sesxis alternatiul Rirebulebas

warmoadgens.

dauxarjavi Semosavlis nawili SeiZleba safinanso institutebSi ganTavsdes. safinanso

institutebi kredits im adamianebze gascemen, romelTac kapitaluri an sxva resursis

yidva surT. bankebi msesxebelsa da gamsesxebels Soris Suamavlis rols asruleben, riTac

fulis mflobels saqmes uadvileben _ moZebnos is, visac fulis sesxeba surs. ra Tqma

unda, bankis SeTavazebuli pirobebi orive mxares unda akmayofilebdes. amasTanave, bankebi

yuradRebiT adevneben Tvals msesxeblebs, raTa darwmundnen imaSi, rom es ukanasknelni

sesxs daabruneben, Tanac droulad da sargeblis gadaxdis pirobiT. swored es gaxlavT

kreditis Tviseba: sargeblis gadaxda, vadianoba, dabruneba.

roca sakuTari fuli sakmarisi ar aris; roca adamianebs axali saqmianobis dawyeba

surT, esaWiroebaT fuli mSeneblobis dafinansebisaTvis, mowyobilobebis, saqonlisa da

momsaxurebis yidvisaTvis, isini sesxs iReben.

yovelive zemoTqmulis ukeT garkvevaSi saklaso oTaxSi `namdvili~ banki movawyoT.

kiTxvebi da

davalebebi

128

meanabreebi

fuls inaxaven

meanabreebi sargebels

iReben,

es

sainteresoa

komerciuli

banki

banki gascems

sesxebs

banki iRebs

sargebels

1. SeadgineT Taviseburebebis sia, romlebic Tqveni azriT, finansur

Suamavals unda gaaCndes. daasaxeleT mizezebi, romlis gamoc es Taviseburebebi

mniSvnelovania.

2. imsjeleT kreditis rolis Sesaxeb sakuTari ojaxis, raionis magaliTze.

cnobilia, rom bolo periodSi saqarTveloSi mkveTrad gaizarda kreditis

aRebis msurvelTa raodenoba. es pirvel rigSi imaze metyvelebs, rom

adamianebis umravlesobas xelfasi sabanko momsaxurebiT sargeblobis

saSualebas aZlevs. sabanko sesxebis yvelaze meti wili sayofacxovrebo

teqnikis, binebis mSeneblobis, avtomobilebis SeZenisa da studenturi

sesxebisaTvis ixarjeba.


savarjiSo

2

savarjiSo

3

qalbaton lilis savaWro centri

qalbatoni lili samSeneblo firma ,,lilis” mflobeli da mmarTvelia.

misi ori qaliSvili da vaJi kompaniis Tanamflobelebi arian. kompania

ukve 11 welia muSaobs. axlaxans qalbatonma lilim axlomdebare

10 heqtri miwa iyida da igi aq savaWro centris mSeneblobas gegmavs. am

centrSi erTi didi universami, TxuTmeti mcire maRazia, ori restorani

da avtosadgomi ganTavsdeba. ,,lilis” gaangariSebiT, roca centri

gaixsneba, iq 3000 adamiani imuSavebs: nawili sruli samuSo ganakveTiT,

nawilic arasruli samuSao ganakveTiT.

am proeqtis realizaciisaTvis qalbaton lilisaTvis aucilebelia

damatebiT 600 000 laris mozidva. igi erT-erTi bankis warmomadgenels

Sexvda da gancxadebac dawera sesxis miRebis Sesaxeb. kompaniis

gancxadebis detaluri Seswavlis Semdeg, banki daTanxmda sesxis gacemas.

sesxis sanacvlod banki yovelTviurad sesxad gacemuli Tanxis

16%-s miiRebs. savaWro centris mSenebloba erTi wlis Semdeg daiwyeba.

samuSao rom vadaSi Sesruldes ,,lili” apirebs muSaTa sami damatebiTi

brigadis daqiravebas.

1. raSi mdgomareobs qalbaton lilis problema?

2. rogor moiqca igi?

3. ratom sWirdeba banks gancxadeba sesxis miRebaze?

4. ratom aqvs banks SesaZlebloba fuli qalbaton lilis asesxos?

5. ra miiRes Semnaxvelebma sanacvlod?

6. ra aris SemnaxvelebisaTvis alternatiuli Rirebuleba?

7. ratom iRebs banki qalbatoni lilisagan sargebels?

8. ra aris qalbatoni lilisaTvis alternatiuli Rirebuleba?

9. ra gavlenas axdens adgilobriv bazarze axali savaWro centris gaxsna?

10. vin imuSavebs savaWro centrSi?

11. rogor gamoiyeneben muSakebi TavianT Semosavlebs?

qalbaton lilis savaWro centris ekonomikuri wrebrunvis diagrama.

imuSaveT wyvilebSi. aageT wrebrunvis diagrama savaWro centrisaTvis,

Semdegi situaciebis gamoyenebiT:

Semnaxvelebs dauxarjavi Semosavli aqvT;

bankebi da sxva finansuri Suamavlebi;

sesxebi firmebisaTvis (`lili~);

samuSao adgilebi mSeneblobaze;

momuSaveebi iReben sesxs;

dazogva _ samomavlod saqonlis da momsaxurebis yidva;

samuSao adgilebi savaWro centrSi;

momuSaveebi iReben Semosavals;

sesxebi firmebs (`lili~);

Semnaxvelebs aqvT aRuricxavi Semosavali;

bankebi da sxva safinanso Suamavlebi sesxebi firmebisaTvis

(`lili~).

129


130

!

kiTxvebi da

davalebebi

sabazro ekonomikis qveynebSi ZiriTad safinanso momsaxurebas bankebi

saojaxo meurneobebsa da firmebs uweven. amiT isini ekonomikur zrdas

uwyoben xels.

bankebi calkeul adamianebs sTavazoben Semnaxvel angariSze da CekebiT

fulis usafrTxo adgilas Senaxvas. anabrebis did nawils bankebi sesxad

gascemen, rac zogierT adamians exmareba daiwyos an gaafarTovos saku­

Tari biznesi, xolo zogs _ iyidos saxli da ZviradRirebuli saqoneli,

magaliTad, macivari da avtomobili. zogi adamiani ki fuls ZviradRirebuli

momsaxurebisaTvis sesxulobs, magaliTad Svilebis ganaTleba, samedicino

momsaxureba an sazRvargareT dasveneba.

ganviTarebuli sabazro ekonomikis qveynebSi investiciebisa da biznesis

ganviTarebis stimulirebaze sakvanZo rols finansuri bazari (aqciebisa

da obligaciebis bazari) asrulebs. milionobiT investori aTasobiT

didi kompaniis saqmianobas da maT investiciebTan dakavSirebul gegemebs

aanalizeben, konkurencias uweven erTmaneTs, cdiloben gonivruli riskis

fasad TavianTi fuli iseT firmebSi daabandon, romlebsac SedarebiT

meti mogeba eqnebaT.

1. aris Tu ara damzogvelis roli moqalaqis umTavresi roli? pasuxi daasabuTeT.

2. ra mogeba moaqvs TqvenTvis im adamianis rolis Sesrulebas, romelic

danazogs akeTebs?

3. rogor ukavSirdeba Tqveni, rogorc gadawyvetilebis mimRebis roli im adamianis

rols, romelic danazogs akeTebs?

4. gamokiTxeT sami ufrosi asakis adamiani da gaarkvieT, romeli nivTebis sayidlad

sesxuloben isini fuls. daiyaviT jgufebad. gaaerTianeT mTeli klasis

mier miRebuli monacemebi da TiToeul jgufs daaveleT aagos sqema,

5. imuSaveT mcire jgufebad. amoWeriT bankebis da Semnaxveli da sakredito

da safinanso institutebis sakredito gancxadebebi da/an darekeT bankebSi,

sakredito organizaciebSi, raTa daadginoT sasesxo sargeblis sidide da gacemis

procedura, romelic saWiroa avtomobilis sayidlad. pirveladi 5000

laris SenataniT da pirveladi Senatanis gareSe. mieciT jgufebs aagon diagrama,

sqema an grafiki miRebuli informaciis Sesadareblad.

6. eTanxmebiT Tu ara i. WavWavaZis mosazrebas: `Cveni ubedureba is aris, rom

sesxiT sargebloba ar viciT. bankma yvela CvenTagani unda SeaCvios valis

pirnaTlad gadaxdas.~ /gaz. `iveria~, 1891 w.#124/.

sabanko sesxebi saqarTvelos studentebisaTvis

2006-2007 saswavlo wlidan saqrTvelos ganaTlebis saministrom studentebisTvis

ganaTlebis xelSewyobis programa daiwyo. igi finansur mxardaWeras gulisxmobs maTTvis,

vinc saxelmwifo granti ver miiRo (an nawilobriv miiRo). nebismier students Sesa­

Zlebloba eZleva, swavlis safasuris dasafarad SeRavaTiani krediti aiRos. am axali sabanko

produqtis SeqmniT sruliad Seicvala studentebis damokidebuleba swavlisadmi

_ studenti, romelmac swavlisaTvis nasesxebi fuli gadaixada, ufro momTxovni gaxda

rogorc sakuTari Tavis, ise saswavleblis mimarT. es ki ganaTlebis xarisxis amaRlebis

winapirobaa.


es

sainteresoa

tfilisis qarTuli saadgilmamulo banki

saqarTveloSi batonymobis gadavardnis dawyebisTanave, gamoCenilma

qarTvelma sazogado moRvawem dimitri yifianma, romelic im dros aRmosavleT

saqarTvelos Tavad­aznaurobis winamZRoli iyo, wamoayena

bankis daarsebis idea.

ilia WavWavaZe aqtiur monawileobas iRebda bankis wesdebis SemmuSavebel

sxdomebSi. 1873 wlis maisSi igi bankis wesdebis damtkicebis

dasaCqareblad da sabanko saqmeebis Sesaswavlad, daviT yifianTan da

dimitri yazbegTan erTad ruseTs gaemgzavra. 1874 wlis 28 maiss finansTa

ministrma reiternma bolos da bolos daamtkica Tbilisis saTavadaznauro

saadgilmamulo bankis wesdeba.

1875 wlis Tebervlidan amoqmedda Tbilisis saTavadaznauro saadgilmamulo

banki, romelsac mTeli 30 wlis manZilze 1905 wlis 23

ivnisamde saTaveSi edga ilia WavWavaZe.

banki iyo pirveli erovnuli organizacia, romelic qarTvelTa aqtiurobiT

da mondomebiT Seiqmna. iliam ganmarta saadgilmamulo

kreditis mniSvneloba `miwis da miwaTmoqmedebis gankargebisa da ga­

ZlierebisaTvis~. `daniSnuleba saadgilmamulo kreditisa gankargebaa

mamul­dedulisa, gaZliereba miwaTmoqmedTa Ronisa da momcemlobisa~.

`Cveni qveyana miwaTmoqmedi qveyanaa da erTaderTi warmoeba, romelsac

igi amoqmedebs, sasoflo meurneobaa. amitom saadgilmamulo kredits,

rogorc kredits, sagnad marto is unda hqondes, rom gaaZlieros soflis

meurneobis warmoeba da radgan es warmoeba ganuyoflad SeerTebulia

miwasTan da miwaT­moqmedebasTan, amitomac saadgilmamulo krediti

irCeva yovel sxva kreditisagan im gansakuTrebuli TvisebebiT, romlebic

warmosdgebian TiTon miwaTmoqmedebis da miwis ekonomiuri bunebisagan~.

`saadgilmamulo bankis arsis gamosaxatavad n. nikolaZe metad tevad

cnebas xmarobs – ganaxlebis banki. Tu adre igi Tavadaznaurobis keTildReobis

SesanarCuneblad iyo Cafiqrebuli, TergdaleulTa xelSi

erovnuli cxovrebis ganaxlebis iaraRad gadaiqca~ (ak. baqraZe).

SenobaSi, romelSic banki mdebareobda amJamad saqarTvelos parlamentis

erovnuli biblioTekis I korpusia ganTavsebuli (l. gudiaSvilis N3).

ilia WavWavaZis warmoTqmuli sityva, 3 Tebervals

Tfilisis Tavadaznaurobis krebaSi

`es wuTis sofeli iseTia, rom vinc TviTon ar mxneobs, vinc TviTon ar

ibrZvis dRiuris lukmisaTvis, imisi bedi gadawyvetilia. imas SeiZleba

erTs dRes, an ramodenime xans kacma kacTmoyvarebiT uSvelos, magram mas

mermed isev mSieria, isev gasaZRomia – da erTi gkiTxavT: rodemdis unda

vaZRoT Cven?

me darwmunebuli var, rom rac dRes bankSi fulia, sul rom dResve davurigoT

mconare mSivrebs, xval ufro bevri mSieri mogvadgeba, – xval

riTRa gavce pasuxi? rac dRes banks fuli aqvs, aTjer imazed meti fuli

SegvZina Cven ymebis ganTavisuflebam, – gana magan mohspo ivanes da petres

SimSili?

vinc TviTon ar Wirnaxulobs, vinc TviTon Tavis marjveniT ar cdilobs

Tavis stomaqis avsebas, is, batonebo, cxrilia, romelic mainc ar aivseba,

Tunda mTeli mtkvari gauwyvetliv zed miuSvaT. ra Tanxa gauZlebs mSiers

mconareobas? marto imisTana Tanxa, romelmac imodeni unda imatos,

131


132

ramodensac daaklebT. Tu Cvengani vinme amisTana grZneuls Tanxas Seadgens,

Cven imisaTvis didis sixaruliT gza dagviclia.

vimeoreb: erTxel da orjel rom gaaZRoT mconare mSieri, eg kacmoyvareobaa,

magram maincadamainc amiT samudamod wyluls ver gavimTelebT,

imitom rom Tavis Tavis wyluli TviTon mconare mSieri aris. an rad gvinda,

rom amgvar kacTaTvis egre vwuxvarT da Cveni mwuxareba iqamdin migvyavs,

rom gvinda banki mag mwuxarebas vanacvaloT. mconareobas rom sazrdo mivsceT,

eg mconareobis waqezebasa da gamravlebas moaswavebs. waqezeba, xelis

gamarTva gaWirvebuls bejiTobas unda, imitom rom marto bejiTobaa Cveni

mxsneli da qveynisaTvis nayofieri, – da ara mSiers mconareobas, romelic

imodenad dids pirs aRebs, ramodenadac dids lukmas awvdiT da romelic

ramodenad Zlieria, imodenad aRaribebs qveyanasa. Cvenis qveynis iara mconareobaa.

rac adre moviSorebT mag iaras, miT ufro male movipovebT janmr­

Telobas, dRegrZelobas da keTildReobasa.

uwinac miTqvams da exlac mogaxsenebT, rom banki am mxriT, ese igi, imiT,

rom fuls asesxebs, kacis amSenebelic aris da damRupavica. vinc bejiTia da

mxne, visac goneba aqvs, gulmodgine Sromis survili da mxolod fuli aklia,

rom Tavisi saqme warimarTos, RvTis wyaloba Tqvena gaqvT, rom imisaTvis

banki yovlad mxsneli saxsari iyos. magisTana kacs ara sastiki kanoni, bankis

simkvidris qvakuTxedad dadebuli, ver daabrkolebs, ver daafTxobs, guls

winadve ver gauxeTqs, imitom, rom mxne da bejiTia. bejiToba kidev TiTqmis

yovlad SemZlebelia, angariSiania, icis, rom fuls windauxedavaT aravin

ar gaasesxebs, Tu fulis daRupva ar unda. amisTana kacs im bejiTobasTan, im

mxneobasTan, im Seuwyvetel Sromis survilTan oRond fulis Sovnis gzac

mieciT da rac unda Zneli gza iyos, igi im gzas usaTuod gadalaxavs. marto

amisTana kaci unda Sehxarodes Cvens banksa da Cvenc, mowyaleno xelmwifeno,

marto magisTana kacs unda wavxarodeT. kaci bejiTi, mxne, Sromis moyvare

ramodensac Tavis Tavs Sehmatebs Cvenis bankis SemweobiT, imodenas Sehmatebs

Cvens qveyanasaca: Tavis Semosavals oci kodic rom moumatos, Cveni

qveyana uwindelzed ocis kodiT ufro mdidari Seiqmneba imis meoxrebiT da

Cvenis bankis SemweobiT.

Tu SevswuxdebiT visTvisme, swored amisTana kacisaTvis unda viwuxoT.

Tu es asea, maS Cvengan ramdenjerme warmoTqmuli mwuxareba maszed, rom

bankis kanonebi sastikiao, notariusTan mezareba misvlao da sxva amgvari,

– metia da saTakilo amisTana kacisaTvisa. metyvian, rom Tu marTla marto

magisTana kacebs unda uxarodesT banki, magisTana kacebi CvenSi cotani

ariano, maS banki raRad gvindodao? mec srulis Cemis gulistkiviliT dageTanxmebiT,

rom magisTana kacebi CvenSi bevrni ar arian, magram Cveni uguliTadesi

survilia, rom marto magisTanani gamravldnen. sxvani ki, ese igi,

isini visac banki uxarian marto imisTvis, rom fulebs male visesxebo da im

fulebiT qeifs gavswevo, imaTTvis aramc Tu Cveni banki, yovelgvari banki

winadve gaTxrili samarea.

Cveni banki, marTalia, amisTana kacsac fuls asesxebs, radganac Cveni

banki kacs ki ar andobs fuls, aramed mis uZravs qonebas, magram es sesxi

mouRebs kidec bolos amgvars kacsa.

sesxs moSoreba unda da eg moSoreba mxolod maSin SeiZleba, roca kaci nasesxs

fuls xeirianad moixmarebs. Tu ara da gaeyideba mamuli da amiT ukanaskneli

lukma gamoecleba piridama. amgvars kacs ara eSveleba ra. nuravis nu gvaqvs

imedi, rom amgvars kacs bankma uSvelos rame. vinc Tvisis xeliT wyluls xelaxlad

iwylulebs, imas vera moarCens ra sikvdilis meti.~


VIII ekonomikuri

politikis sakiTxebi

savarjiSo 1

36

konstitucia

ekonomikas icavs

qvemoT mocemulia sabazro ekonomikis Taviseburebebi. daasaxeleT

TiToeuli Taviseburebis Sesabamisi magaliTebi Tanamedrove

saqarTvelos realobidan.

sabazro ekonomikis eqvsi ZiriTadi principi

1. kerZo sakuTreba

SromiTi resursebi, bunebrivi resursebi, kapitaluri resursebi,

agreTve, ekonomikaSi warmoebuli saqoneli da momsaxureba, metwilad

kerZo pirebisa da kerZo institutebis sakuTrebaa, vidre saxelmwifo

sakuTreba. amgvari kerZo sakuTreba da kanoniT uzrunvelyofili garigebebis

Tavisufleba adamianebs resursebis yidvisa da gamoyenebis

farTo areals sTavazobs.

2. mewarmeobisa da arCevanis Tavisufleba

saqonlisa da momsaxurebis sawarmoeblad kerZo mewarmeebs aqvT

resursebis yidvisa da gamoyenebis Tavisufleba, agreTve sakuTari

Sexedulebisamebr maTi bazarze gayidvis Tavisufleba. momxmareblebs

im saqonlisa da momsaxurebis nakrebis yidvis Tavisufleba gaaCniaT,

romlebic yvelaze metad akmayofilebs maT ekonomikur moTxovnilebebs.

muSakebi ki Tavisufalni arian im samuSaos moZebnaSi, romlis Sesabamisi

kvalifikaciac gaaCniaT.

3. piradi interesis motivi

`uxilavi xeli~, romelic sabazro ekonomikis mamoZravebel Zalas

warmoadgens, TiToeuli adamianis mier pirad interesebze agebul motivacias

emyareba. momxmareblebis mizania sakuTari biujetidan maqsimaluri

kmayofilebis miReba; mewarmeebi TavianTi firmebisaTvis rac

SeiZleba meti mogebis miRwevas cdiloben; muSakebs maRali xelfasebi

surT; resursebis mflobelebi ki _ yvelaze maRal fasad sakuTari

qonebis ijariT gacemas an gayidvas cdiloben.

4. ekonomikuri metoqeoba

ekonomikuri metoqeoba niSnavs, rom myidvelebsa da gamyidvelebs

nebismier bazarze Tavisuflad Sesvla da gamosvla SeuZliaT, da bazarze

damoukideblad moqmedi myidvelebi da gamyidvelebi arian. swored

konkurencia zRudavs erTi ekonomikuri erTeulis mier meoris mimarT

ekonomikuri Zalauflebis borotad gamoyenebas, im pirobebSi, roca

TiToeuli maTgani piradi interesebis mixedviT moqmedebas cdilobs.

133


134

5. bazrebisa da fasebis sistema

sabazro ekonomikaSi ZiriTad makoordinirebel meqanizms bazari

warmoadgens da ara saxelmwifos mier centralizebuli dagegmva. bazari

konkretuli saqonlis myidvelebsa da gamyidvelebs akavSirebs.

gamyidvelebisa da myidvelebis upiratesobebi, Sesabamisad, sxvadasxva

bazarze arsebul miwodebasa da moTxovnaze aisaxeba; produqtebsa da

resursebze arsebuli fasebis sistema maTi arCevanis Sedegia. swored

es fasebia maCvenebeli, romlis mixedviTac bazris monawileebi piradi

interesebidan gamomdinare, TavianTi arCevanis Tavisuflebas zomaven.

6. saxelmwifos SezRuduli roli

konkurentuli sabazro ekonomika xels uwyobs resursebis efeqtianad

gamoyenebas. raki ekonomika TviTregulirebadia _ igi saxelmwifos

arsebiT ekonomikur Carevas ar saWiroebs. Tumca sabazro sistemasTan

dakavSirebuli mTeli rigi `warumateblobebi~ da arasasurveli

Sedegebi saxelmwifos aqtiur, magram SezRuduli ekonomikuri rolis

aucileblobas ganapirobebs.

axla, roca sabazro ekonomikis Taviseburebebi gavixseneT, sainteresoa, rogor

uwyobs xels qveynis konstitucia ekonomikuri sistemis ganviTarebas saqarTveloSi?

konstitucia rogorc ekonomikur, aseve politikur dokuments warmoadgens. es mtkicebuleba

WeSmaritia yvela qveynis konstituciis mimarT. ekonomikuri da politikuri

Tavisufleba arsebiTia qveynis keTildReobisa da zrdisaTvis. swored amitom sxvadasxva

qveynis konstituciaSi Setanilia sabazro ekonomikis funqcionirebis mxardamWeri da mastimulirebeli

bevri piroba. amrigad, qveynis ekonomikis arsebiT Strixebs konstitucia

gansazRvravs.

gadavxedoT konsituciis preambulas: `saqarTvelos moqalaqeni, romelTa uryevi

nebaa daamkvidron demokratiuli sazogadoebrivi weswyobileba, ekonomikuri Tavisufleba,

socialuri da samarTlebrivi saxelmwifo, uzrunvelyon adamianis sayovelTaod

aRiarebuli uflebani da Tavisuflebani, ganamtkicon saxelmwifoebrivi damoukidebloba

da sxva xalxebTan mSvidobiani urTierToba, eyrdnobian ra qarTveli

eris mravalsaukunovani saxelmwifoebriobis tradiciebs da saqarTvelos 1921 wlis

konstituciis ZiriTad principebs, saqveynod acxadeben am konstitucias.~

? axseniT,

savarjiSo 2

rogor SeiZleba gamoyenebul iqnas es fraza sabazro ekonomikaSi saxelmwifos

Carevis dasabuTebisaTvis, magaliTad, kanoni minimaluri xelfasis Sesaxeb,

socialuri dacva, umuSevrobis kompensacia, usafrTxoebis wesebis dacva.

waikiTxeT Sesatyvisi nawyvetebi saqarTvelos konstituciidan

da ganixileT, rogor uWers mxars konstitucia am principebs.

muxli 30-e, punqti I _ Sroma Tavisufalia. punqti II _ `saxelmwifo

valdebulia xeli Seuwyos Tavisufali mewarmeobisa da konkurenciis

ganviTarebas... garda kanoniT daSvebuli SemTxvevebisa. momxmarebel-

Ta uflebebi daculia kanoniT~.


ese

fulis mimoqcevaSi gaSvebis Sesaxeb

95-e muxlis Sesabamisi punqtebis mixedviT: 1. saqarTvelos fuladsakredito

sistemis funqcionirebas uzrunvelyofs saqarTvelos erovnuli

banki. 2. saqarTvelos erovnuli banki SeimuSavebs da axorcielebs fulad-sakredito

da savaluto politikas parlamentis mier gansazRvruli

ZiriTadi mimarTulebebis Sesabamisad. erovnuli banki aris bankTa baki,

saqarTvelos mTavrobis bankiri da fiskaluri agenti. 4. erovnuli banki

damoukidebelia Tavis saqmianobaSi. erovnuli bankis ufleba-movaleoba,

saqmianobis wesi da damoukideblobis garantia ganisazRvreba organuli

kanoniT. 5. fulis saxelwodeba da erTeuli ganisazRvreba kanoniT.

saavtoro uflebebis Sesaxeb

23-e muxlis II ganyofilebaSi naTqvamia, `inteleqtualuri Semoqmedebis

Tavisufleba uzrunvelyofilia. inteleqtualuri sakuTrebis

ufleba xelSeuvalia.~

eqsportis Sesaxeb

94-e muxlis I punqtSi naTqvamia, rom. ,,savaldebuloa gadasaxadebis

da mosakreblebis gadaxda kanoniT dadgenili odenobiTa da wesiT”.

94-e muxlis II punqti: ,,gadasaxadebisa da mosakreblebis struqturas,

SemoRebis wess adgens mxolod kanoni.” III muxlis me-2 punqtis mixedviT

,,mxolod saqarTvelos umaRles saxelmwifo organoTa gansakuTrebul

gamgeblobas miekuTvneba:... a) sagareo politika da saerTaSoriso urTierTobani;

v) sagareo vaWroba, sabaJo da satarifo reJimebi; z) saxelmwifo

finansebi da saxelmwifo sesxi; fulis moWra; sabanko, sakredito da

sadazRvevo kanonmdebloba.~

Cxrekvebi da dakavebebi

me-20 muxlis II punqti amtkicebs, rom `aravis ar aqvs ufleba Sevides

sacxovrebel binaSi da sxva mflobelobaSi, maT mflobel pirTa nebis sawinaaRmdegod,

agreTve Caataros Cxreka, Tu ar aris sasamarTlos gadawyvetileba

an kanoniT gaTvaliswinebuli gadaudebeli aucilebloba~

procedura

me-15 muxlis I punqtis mixedviT: `sicocxle adamianis xelSeuvali

uflebaa da mas icavs kanoni. 17 muxlis I punqtis mixedviT ,,adamianis

pativi da Rirseba xelSeuvalia. dauSvebelia adamianis wameba, mis

mimarT arahumanuri, sastiki an pativisa da Rirsebis Semlaxavi mopyrobisa

Tu dasjis meTodebis gamoyeneba.

uflebamosilebis SenarCuneba

me-18 muxlis I punqti amtkicebs, rom adamianis Tavisufleba xel-

Seuvalia. Tavisuflebis aRkveTa an piradi Tavisuflebis sxvagvari

SezRudva dauSvebelia sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebebis gareSe.

erTad imsjeleT SerCeuli citatebis Sesaxeb.

moamzadeT Txzuleba, romelSic unda axsnaT, rogor uwyobs xels

konstituciis debulebebi ekonomikuri Tavisuflebisa da ekonomikuri

sistemis gansxvavebul tips

135


?

136

37-38

mTliani Sida produqti da

mTliani erovnuli produqti

gadmoscems Tu ara monacemebs ekonomikuri zrdis, inflaciisa da umuSevrobis

Sesaxeb axali ambebis sainformacio samsaxuri?

ra saxis informacia moismineT ukanasknel xans?

ekonomistebs xSirad uwevT ekonomikaSi saqonlisa da momsaxurebis, dasaqmebis, Semosavlebisa

da fasebis realuri donis gazomva.

ekonomikuri zrdis ZiriTadi sazomia mTliani Sida produqti.

saqarTvelos mTliani Sida produqti (mSp) aris erTi wlis

ganmavlobaSi saqarTvelos farglebSi, qarTuli da ucxouri

firmebis mier warmoebuli yvela saboloo moxmarebis saqonlisa da

momsaxurebis (produqtis) sabazro RirebulebaTa jami.

saqarTvelos mTliani Sida produqti (mSp)

saqarTvelo

saqarTvelos

mSp

qarTuli firmebi

ucxouri firmebi

Semosavlebi, mogeba

ra aris saboloo produqti?

saboloo produqti, magaliTad, puri, Seicavs iseT Sualedur produqtebs, rogoricaa

fqvili, safuari da marili. am resursebis Rirebuleba ukve CarTulia saboloo

produqtis – puris RirebulebaSi da amrigad, mSp-Si mxolod puris fasi Sedis da ara

puris fass damatebuli mis dasamzadeblad gamoyenebuli resursebis fasebi.

im Saqris Rirebuleba, romelsac sakonditro firma tkbileulis dasamzadeblad yidulobs,

ar Sedis mSp-Si. Saqari, am SemTxvevaSi, Sualeduri produqtia. mSp-Si Sedis im

tkbileulis Rirebuleba, romelic am Saqrisgan aris warmoebuli da romelsac Cven sabolood

vyidulobT.

ra Sedis mSp-Si?

mSp-Si Sedis mxolod saboloo moxmarebis produqti

(saqoneli da momsaxureba);

mSp-Si Sedis ucxouri biznes-firmebis mier miRebuli mogeba

da is Semosavlebi, romlebsac ucxoeli moqalaqeebi

saqarTveloSi iReben.

mSp


savarjiSo 1

gaiTvaliswineba Tu ara es, rogorc mSp-is nawili?

qvemoTCamoTvlilTagan, romeli gaiTvaliswineba, da romeli

ar gaiTvaliswineba am wlis mSp-is gaangariSebisas? axseniT Tqveni

gadawyvetileba.

138

1. ekonomikis fakultetis studentisaTvis gamoyofili saxelmwifo

granti;

2. fermeris mier axali traqtoris yidva;

3. wyalsadenis muSis mier meoradi satvirTo manqanis yidva;

4. meqanikosis momsaxureba, romelic aremontebs sakuTari

avtomobilis radiators;

5. pensia, romelsac saxelmwifo uxdis moxucebuls;

6. biznes-firmebis maragebis gadideba;

7. saxelmwifos mier axali tankebis SeZena erovnuli gvardiisaTvis;

8. Semosavali, romelic miiRo stilistma Tmis SeWrisaTvis;

9. Semosavali, romelic aqciebis gayidvis gziT miiRo

kompania `koka-kolam~.

ra Sedis mep-Si?

mep-i moicavs im mogebas, romelsac iReben saqarTvelos moqalaqeebis sakuTrebaSi

myofi ucxouri kompaniebi, da im Semosavlebs, romlebsac iReben sazRvargareT momuSave

saqarTvelos moqalaqeebi (ucxouri faqtorebi).

ra ar Sedis mep-Si?

mep-Si ar Sedis is mogeba, romelsac iReben saqarTvelos teritoriaze arsebuli

ucxoeli moqalaqeebis sakuTrebaSi myofi kompaniebi, da is Semosavlebi, romlebsac

iReben saqarTveloSi momuSave ucxoeli moqalaqeebi (ucxouri faqtorebi).

saqarTvelos mTliani erovnuli produqti (mep)

saqarTvelo

qarTuli firmebi

Semosavlebi, mogeba

saqarTvelos

mep

msoflio qveynebi


davaleba

es

sainteresoa

140

1. mSp-Si Cven viTvaliswinebT axali saqonlis an momsaxurebis mxolod

saboloo sacalo fass. ratom?

2. rodesac saxlis mflobeli muSaobs saxlis dalagebaze an remontze,

am Sromis fasi ar gaiTvaliswineba mSp-Si. ratom?

3. arsebobs ki raime saqoneli an momsaxureba, romelic ar Sedis mSp-Si,

magram mniSvnelovan gavlenas axdens Cvens keTildReobaze?

4. SeiZleba Tu ara, CaiTvalos, rom mSp zustad asaxavs keTildReobas,

Tu es maCvenebeli Seicavs im saqonlisa da momsaxurebis Rirebulebas,

romlebic amcireben zogierTi adamianis keTildReobas?

bednierebis indeqsma yvelaze

bednieri qveyana gamoavlina

bednierebis msoflio barometris bolo

gamoSvebis monacemebiT dRes dedamiwis

mosaxleobis 53%-s SeuZlia sakuTar Tavs

bednieri uwodos. es monacemebi 2012 wlis

9 ianvars gamoaqveyna organizaciam `WIN-

Gallup International~ 58 qveynis 52913 aTasi

adamianis gamokiTxvis Semdeg.

sruliad ubedurad miaCnia Tavi respodentebis 13%-s, xolo maTma

31%-ma ver SeZlo Tavis mikuTvneba verc erTi kategoriisTvis, 35%-ma

ki ver gasca zusti pasuxi. gamokiTxvam aCvena, rom cxovrebiT yvelaze

ukmayofilo aRmoCndnen saSualo asakis adamianebi (33%), im dros roca

pensionerebsa da axalgazrdebs Soris es maCvenebeli Sesabamisaad 43%

da 44%-s Seadgenda.

sainteresoa, rom bednierebis maCvenebeli mniSvnelovnad dabalia

aTeistebs Soris, vidre morwmuneebs Soris.

planetaze yvelaze optimisturebi aRmoCndnen fijis mcxovreblebi.

maTi mosaxleobis 89% kmayofilia sakuTari TaviTac da garemoTic.

garda amisa, yvelaze bednieri qveynebis siaSi moxvdnen: Nnigeria, gana, niderlandebi

da Sveicaria. naTelia, rom qveynis socialur-ekonomikuri

maCveneblebi yovelTvis arsebiT gavlenas ar axdens misi moqalaqeebis

msoflmxedvelobaze.

rac Seexeba yvelaze arabednierebs, isini cxovreben rumineTSi, egvipteSi,

litvaSi, eraySi, aSS-Si, libansa da pakistanSi. magram pesimiszis

rekordsmenebi gaxdnen irlandielebi, romlebic saSualo evropul

maCvenebels 20%-iT CamorCebian.

am monacemebis gamoqveynebam didi sazogadoebrivi rezonansi da kamaTi

gamoiwvia.

progresis reitingi

`progresis reitingSi~ ruseTma 97-e

adgili daikava 101-dan. siis I adgilze

saqarTvelo aRmoCnda.

angariSi avtorebma qveynebi daal


ages msoflio bankis monacemebis, gaerTianebuli erebis organizaciis da sxva saerTa-

Soriso analitikuri centrebis monacemebis (konkurentunarianobis indeqsis, biznesis

keTebis pirobebi, adamianis potencialis ganviTareba, ekonomikuri Tavisufleba da korufciis

done) safuZvelze.

aRmoCnda, rom saqarTvelos maCveneblebi 2006 wlidan yvela sakvanZo indeqsiT gaizarda

da aiwia 207 poziciiT. am gadaadgilebaSi mniSvnelovani roli Seasrula biznesis

keTebis pirobebis indeqsma, romlis mixedviTac Tbilisi bolo 5 weliwadSi 112-dan 12-e

adgilze gadavida.

reitingis Semqmnelebi cdilobdnen ar CaerToT SedegebSi politikuri elementebi.

rogorc analitikosebi Tvlian, saqarTvelos warmatebis saidumlo imaleba im reformebis

miRma (aTze meti reforma), romelic saqarTveloSi saqmiani klimatis gasaumjobeseblad

gatarda.

magaliTad, bolo wlebSi saqarTveloSi Seiqmna aRmosavleT evropaSi da centralur

aziaSi SedarebiT efeqturi sistema mSeneblobebis nebarTvisa.

reitingis II adgili makedoniam daikava. Mmisi saerTo zrda reitingebis mixedviT 160

pozicias Seadgens.

III adgilze dominikis respublika aRmoCnda 114 punqtiani zrdiT.

IV adgili egviptem daikava 94 poziciiis gazrdiT.

V adgili ki – xorvatiam (94 poziciis zrda).

siis dasawyisSi figurirebs gvatemala da albaneTi.

ruseTma bolodan V adgili daikava.

masze cudi mdgomareoba aqvs venesuelas, nikaraguas, ukrainas da bolivias.

wyaro: http://beway.ru/n/indeks-schastya-vyyavil-samuyu-schastlivuyu-stranu-104

141


? rogor arkveven eqimebi pacientebis janmrTelobis mdgomareobas?

142

39

ZiriTadi makroekonomikuri

maCveneblebi

ZiriTadi makroekonomikuri maCveneblebia: ekonomikuri zrda, umuSevrobis done,

samomxmareblo fasebis indeqsi (sfi), inflacia, deflacia.

ekonomikuri zrda _ sazogadoebis mier saqonlisa da momsaxurebis

warmoebis zrda anu realur mSp-s mdgradi mateba.

umuSevrobis done _ samuSaos aqtiur maZiebelTa wili (%)

dasaqmebulebisa da umuSevrebis, anu samuSao Zalis mTlian raodenobaSi.

samomxmareblo fasebis indeqsi (sfi) _ fasebis donis cvlilebebis

yvelaze xSirad gamoyenebuli sazomia. mas iyeneben erTi

wlis fasebis donis Sesadareblad wina an momdevno periodebis

fasebis donesTan.

savarjiSo 1

gaiTvaliswineba Tu ara es, rogorc mSp-is nawili?

gaecaniT cxrilSi mocemul informacias. daiyaviT jgufebad,

airCieT maCveneblebi da SeadareT monacemebi. Sedegebi warmoadgineT

werilobiT. rodesac yvela jgufi mzad iqneba, CaatareT erToblivi

prezentacia.

saqarTvelos ZiriTadi makroekonomikuri maCveneblebi – 2004-2011 ww.

realuri mSp

(zrdis tempi)

nominaluri mSp

(mln lari)

mSp erT sul

mosaxleze (lari)

mSp erT sul mosaxleze

(aSS dolari)

samomxmareblo

fasebis indeqsi

(saSualo periodis

ganmavlobaSi)

mimdinare angari-

Si (procentulad

mSp- Tan)

2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011

faqt. faqt. faqt. prog. prog. prog. prog. prog.

5.9 9.6 9.4 10.0 7.5 7.0 7.0 7.0

9824.3 11621.0 13783.9 16527.2 18878.0 21218.9 23851.7 26813.8

2275.5 2679.8 3124.5 3746.3 4279.2 4809.8 5406.6 6078.0

1187.2 1478.4 1758.7 2243.3 2593.4 2915.0 3276.7 3683.6

5.7 8.3 9.2 8.5 5 - 7 5.0 5.0 5.0

-6.6 -10.8 -15.2 -23.1 -20.7 -20.4 -19.8 -19.1

wyaro:

saqarTvelos mTavroba, ZiriTadi monacemebi da mimarTulebebi 2008-2011 wlebisaTvis


savarjiSo 1

ZiriTadi makroekonomikuri maCveneblebis analizi _

saqarTvelos msgavsi qveynebi da ekonomikuri

keTildReoba

cxrilSi mocemulia saqarTvelos, xorvatiisa da slovakiis ZiriTadi

makroekonomikuri maCveneblebi. 1998 weli gardamavali periodi iyo samive

qveynis ekonomikisaTvis. wina savarjiSos msgavsad, aqac mogeTxovebaT

statistikuri monacemebze dakvirveba da daskvnebis gakeTeba.

ZiriTadi makroekonomikuri maCveneblebi –

saqarTvelo, xorvatia, slovakia – 1998 weli

(monacemebi gamosaxulia erovnul valutaSi)

maCveneblebi qveynebi

saqarTvelo* xorvatia** slovakia***

mSp sabazro fasebiT

(mimdinare fasebiT) 7231 138391 717399

mSp sabazro fasebiT

(mudmivi fasebiT)

1775 126929 490529

mSp-is zrda (% weliwadSi) 2.90 2.52 4.40

kerZo moxmareba

(mudmiv fasebSi)

mTliani Sida investiciebi

(mudmiv fasebSi)

saerTo saxelmwifoebrivi

moxmareba (mudmiv fasebSi)

saqonlisa da momsaxurebis

eqsporti (mudmiv fasebSi)

saqonlisa da momsaxurebis

importi (mudmiv fasebSi)

2103 77957 241448

291 30041 187885

198 32252 111672

743 53768 338246

1620 67093 388723

inflacia, samomxmareblo

fasebi (% weliwadSi) 3.57 6.43 6.70

mosaxleobis ricxovnoba, sul 5445000 4501000 5391000

Sromisunariani mosaxleobis

ricxovnoba, sul

2666580 2115470 2911140

umuSevroba, sul (% Sromisunariani

mosaxleobis ricxvidan) . . . . . . 11.60

* monacemebi gamosaxulia mln. qarTul larebSi;

** monacemebi gamosaxulia mln. xorvatul kunaSi;

*** monacemebi gamosaxulia mln. slovakur kronebSi;

wyaro: World Development Indicators CD-ROM, World Bank, 2000

cxrilis monacemebis gaanalizebis Semdeg upasuxeT Semdeg kiTxvebs:

a) Tqveni azriT, am sami qveynidan, romeli qveyana iyo ekonomikurad

ufro ganviTarebuli 1998 wels?

b) ra maCveneblebiT ganisazRvreba qveynis ekonomikuri siZliere?

g) SesaZlebelia Tu ara samive qveynis RirebulebiTi maCveneblebis

Sedareba? Tu SesaZlebelia, rogor unda moxdes es Sedareba?

143


imsjeleT

144

40

daveZeb da ver

vpoulob...

ra asociaciebs iwvevs TqvenSi sityva „umuSevroba“?

ra SeiZleba iyos adamianis umuSevrobis mizezi?

ra migaCniaT qveyanaSi masobrivi umuSevrobis mizezebad?

1

ani mezoblebis saqmianobiT dainteresda da aRmoaCina, rom biZia giorgi

me_2 welia uSedegod eZebs samuSaos, misi meuRle, qalbatoni eTeri

diasaxlisia, arasodes umuSavia da arc apirebs. maTi vaJi laSa profesiiT

eqimia, staJirebas prestiJul saavadmyofoSi gadis, marTalia xelfass

ar iRebs, magram icis rom or TveSi erT-erTi TanamSromli pensiaze gava

da mis adgils daikavebs. laSas umcrosi da nino ojaxi rom arCinos maRaziaSi

yoveldRiurad 10 saaTi muSaobs. ninos samuSaos dakargvis Zalian

eSinia. icis rom samuSaos povna sakmaod rTulia: misi megobari qeTi samuSaos

ukve aRar eZebs, radgan ori wlis ganmavlobaSi dasaqmeba verafriT

moaxerxa. ninos meore megobari, Tamuna, ki dReSi 2sT-iT mezoblis bavSvs

itovebs, minimalur anazRaurebas iRebs da normalur samuSaoze ocnebobs,

raTa mZimed avadmyof dedas aucilebeli wamlebi uyidos. marTalia,

Tavisufali samuSao adgili jer ar Cans, magram is imeds ar kargavs, kvlav

moTminebiT eZebs Sesaferis samsaxurs. rac Seexeba qalbaton nanas, is sakuTari

surviliT wamovida samsaxuridan, ori Tvis Semdeg axal xangrZliv

eqspediciaSi apirebs wasvlas.

Tqveni azriT, zemoCamoTvlili individebidan, vis SeiZleba anim uwodos

1. dasaqmebuli;

2. umuSevari;

3. samuSao Zalis gareT darCenili;

4. arasrulad dasaqmebuli;

5. imeddakarguli muSaxeli;

6. nebayoflobiT umuSevari.

axseniT

ratom moaxdineT aseTi ganawileba?

Tqveni sityvebiT rogor ganmartavT zemoT CamoTvlil TiToeul

ekonomikur termins?

momavlis imedebs adamianebis umravlesoba sakuTar an ojaxis wevrebis SromiT SemosavalTan

akavSirebs. samuSaos dakargva cxovrebis donis SemcirebasTan asocirdeba,

rasac xSirad gaWirveba, SimSili, nerviuloba, ojaxuri konfliqtebi da uimedoba mosdevs.

samuSaos Sovna advili ar aris, aravin icis umuSevrad yofna ramdeni wlis manZilze

gagrZeldeba.


z

r

d

a

s

r

u

l

i

m

o

s

a

x

l

e

o

b

a

dasaqmebulni

umuSevrebi

samuSaos Zalis

gareAT myofni

saavadmyofos eqimi, samSeneblo

kompaniis inJineri

yvela, visac samsaxuri da sxva

SromiTi Semosavali ar aqvs

studenti, diasaxlisi,

pensioneri, avadmyofi

}

samuSao

Zala

dasaqmebulebi da umuSevrebi erTad samuSao Zalas qmnian. qveyanaSi rac ufro meti

adamiania SromiT dakavebuli, ufro metia am qveynis mSp. samuSao Zala Sromisunariani

mosaxleobis saerTo raodenobaa. umuSevroba makroekonomikuri problemaa.

dasaqmeba – anazRaurebis miRebis mizniT gaweuli saqmianoba.

umuSevrad iTvleba Sromis asakis (16 wlidan zeviT) mqone piri,

romelsac surs, SeuZlia muSaoba da aqtiurad eZebs Sesaferis samuSaos.

qveyanaSi umuSevrobis mdgomareobas ekonomistebi umuSevrobis

doniT gansazRvraven.

umuSevrobis done – samuSao ZalaSi samuSaos aqtiur maZiebelTa

wili. mis gamosaTvlelad oficialurad registrirebul umuSevar-

Ta mTliani raodenoba unda gaiyos samuSao Zalaze.

umuSevarTa mTliani raodenoba

umuSevrobis done = __________________ X100%

samuSao Zala

umuSevari adamianebis garkveuli nawili samuSaos aqtiurad eZebs, zogierTi maTgani

nebayoflobiT umuSevaria _ ar moswons SeTavazebuli samuSao da ukeTesis molodinSi

Zebnas ganagrZobs, nawili iZulebiT umuSevaria _ yvelanair samuSaoze Tanaxmaa, magram

dabali (Seusabamo) kvalifikaciis, samuSao adgilebis ar arsebobis an asakis gamo, ver

axerxebs dasaqmebas. samuSao adgilis xangrZlivi da warumatebeli Ziebis gamo gulgatexili

moqalaqeebi xSirad uars amboben dasaqmebis mcdelobaze. maT imeddakarguli

muSaxeli ewodebaT.

sxvadasxva qveyanas umuSevarTa registraciis Tavisi wesi gaaCnia. mag. aSS-Si umu-

Sevrad iTvleba adamiani, romelsac samsaxuri ar gaaCnia, SeuZlia da mzadaa imuSaos da

bolo eqvsi kviris manZilze aqtiurad eZebs samuSaos. Sromis saerTaSoriso organizaciis

meTodologiis mixedviT, umuSevrad iTvleba piri, visac mocemul momentSi samuSao

da Sesabamisad misgan miRebuli Semosavali ara aqvs, aqtiurad eZebs mas da mzad aris

Seudges muSaobas.

? vin iTvleba umuSevrad saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobiT?

145


dasaqmebis Sesaxeb saqarTvelos kanonis Tanaxmad, umuSevaria saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobiT

gansazRvruli samuSao asakis Sromisunariani piri, romelsac ara aqvs samuSao,

eZebs mas da mzad aris samuSaos Sesasruleblad. samuSaos maZiebelia samuSao asakis

Sromisunariani piri (umuSevari an dasaqmebuli), romelic registrirebulia dasaqmebis

samsaxurSi da misi meSveobiT eZebs samuSaos.

146

umuSevrobis saxeebi

friqciuli struqturuli cikluri sezonuri

friqciuli umuSevroba mimdinare, gardauvali umu-

Sevrobaa. is samuSaos ZebnasTan an molodinTan, saswavleblis

damTavrebasTan, sacxovrebeli adgilis SecvlasTan,

samuSao pirobebis gaumjobesebasTan aris dakavSirebuli.

aseTi umuSevrobis gamomwvev mizezad erTis mxriv damqiraveblisaTvis

samuSao Zalis Sesaxeb informaciis arqonaa

miCneuli, meore mxriv, muSaxelisaTvis sasurveli vakansiebis

Sesaxeb informaciis nakleboba. aseT umuSevrobas

xSirad nebayoflobiTad miiCneven. magaliTad universitetis kursdamTavrebuli, romelic

maRalanazRaurebad samuSaos eZebs, droebiT umuSevrad rCeba, radgan SemoTavazebul

samsaxurebSi xelfasi ar akmayofilebs.

struqturuli umuSevroba teqnologiur ZvrebTan aris dakavSirebuli,

ris Sedegadac zogierT profesiaze moTxovna izrdeba,

zogierTze klebulobs. Tu samuSao Zala Tavisi kvalifikaciiT

ekonomikis axal moTxovnebs ar Seefereba, samuSao adgils ver miiRebs.

amis gamo zogierT sferoSi dasaqmeba mcirdeba. realurad,

ekonomikaSi samuSao adgilebi aris, magram swrafi mecnierul-teqnologiuri

progresis gamo adamianebs samuSaos Sesasruleblad

kvalifikacia ar yofniT. magaliTad, rogorc ki ofisi kompiuterebs

SeiZens ofisis yvela menejers, romelic kompiuterul

programebs ar flobs samuSaodan gaanTavisufleben.

cikluri umuSevroba ekonomikuri ciklis daqveiTebis

fazasTan aris dakavSirebuli. am dros sawarmoTa garkveuli

nawili ixureba. arsebuli samuSao adgilebi yvela dargSi

arasakmarisia. Sromis miwodebis msurveli bevria, dasaqmebas

ki mxolod nawili axerxebs, amitom danarCenebi umuSevrad

rCebian.

sezonuri umuSevroba bunebriv sezonebTan aris dakav-

Sirebuli, roca am samuSaoze erT sezonSi gazrdili moTxovnaa,

meoreSi ki – Semcirebuli an saerTod ar arsebobs. aseT

sferoSi dasaqmebul adamianTa kategoria weliwadis nawils

nebayoflobiT umuSevrobaSi atarebs. magaliTad, zamTris

kurortze Txilamurebis gamqiravebeli zafxulSi umuSevrad

rCeba.

Tu qveyanaSi umuSevrobis done ar icvleba, im adamianTa

saerTo raodenoba, vinc samuSao dakarga, im adamianTa raodenobas

utoldeba, vinc muSaoba daiwyo.


imsjeleT

davaleba

mxars dauWerT Tu ara sistemas, romelSic sruli Tanasworobis miRwevis

mizniT Semosavlebi Tanabrad ganawildeba anu nebismier samuSaoze

dasaqmebuli adamianebi erTnair xelfass miiReben?

gaCndeba Tu ara aseT sistemaSi problemebi?

iqneba Tu ara aseT sistemaSi umuSevroba?

romeli samuSao adgilebi darCeba Seuvsebeli?

1. gamoTvaleT ekolendis umuSevrobis done, Tu umuSevarTa mTliani

raodenoba aris 120 000, xolo samuSao Zala qveyanaSi _ 4 800 000-ia?

2. CaatareT saojaxo gamokiTxva da moipoveT informacia imis Sesaxeb,

romeli organizaciebi exmarebian moqalaqeebs dasaqmebaSi.

3. umuSevrobis romel tips miekuTvnebian Semdegi pirovnebebi?

a) maRalkvalificiuri buRalteri, direqtorTan uTanxmoebis gamo

samuSaos tovebs da sxva adgils eZebs;

b) soflidan qalaqSi Camosuli gogona restoranSi damlageblis

adgils eZebs;

g) mbeWdav-memanqaneTa ganyofilebidan yvela, vinc kompiuterul

programebs ar flobda gaanTavisufles;

d) ekonomikuri krizisis gamo bevri sawarmo daixura da specialistebi

umuSevrad darCnen;

4. ras akeTebT an gaakeTebT imisaTvis, rom skolis damTavrebis Semdeg

umuSevarTa rigebSi ar moxvdeT?

5. CamowereT umuSevrobis saxeebi, maTi gamowvevi mizezebi da umuSevrobis

konkretul saxesTan brZolis xerxebi.

147


148

1

41

esec saxelmwifos

problemaa?

mTavrobisa da parlamentis Senobebis win xalxis masa saprotesto mitings

awyobs. tele da radio Jurnalistebi sainformacio gamoSvebebisaTvis

reportaJebs amzadeben. operatori cdilobs lozungebis teqsti

kadrSi moaxvedros. maTi Sinaarsi ZiriTadad aseTia:

`mogveciT samuSao!~

`sad aris dapirebuli milioni samuSao adgili?~

`muSaoba gvinda, samuSao ar aris!~

`mTavroba valdebulia damasaqmos!~

msgavs suraTs msoflios mraval qveyanaSi SexvdebiT.

umuSevrebi warmatebuli ekonimikis mqone

qveynebSic arian. umuSevrobis done nuls arasodes

utoldeba. dasaqmebasTan dakavSirebuli problemebis

gamo umuSevrebi protests gamoTqvamen da

pasuxs mTavrobisagan iTxoven.

?

ramdenad samarTlianad migaCniaT umuSevarTa pretenziebi mTavrobis

mimarT?

rogor ggoniaT, umuSevroba saxelmwifo problemaa?

rogor unda gadaWras mTavrobam saxelmwifoSi umuSevrobis problema?

eTanxmebiT Tu ara m. veleris gamonaTqvams – `visac muSaoba unda, SesaZleblobebs

poulobs, visac saqmis keTeba ar unda – mizezebs eZebs.~

ratom? pasuxi daasabuTeT.

ekonomikis stabilizacia mTavrobis umniSvnelovanesi funqciaa. am funqciis Sesrulebisas

is sxvadasxva programebisa da politikis gatarebiT umuSevrobis Semcirebas

cdilobs.

cikluri umuSevrobis

dasaZlevad xSir

SemTxvevaSi fiskaluri

da monetaruli

politika gamoiyeneba.

gadawyvetilebebi

ekonomikuri

daqveiTebis SeCerebis

da samuSao adgilebis

gazrdis xelSesawyobad

aris mimarTuli.

mTavrobis mier

gatarebuli

RonisZiebebi

struqturuli

umuSevrobis

Sesamcireblad

mTavrobis politika

samuSaodan

daTxovnili

muSakebis

gadamzadebaze da

dasaqmebis axali

SesaZleblobebis

Seqmnazea

mimarTuli.

umuSevrobis done Qqveynis ekonomikuri sijansaRis erT-erTi mTavari sazomia.

qveyanaSi umuSevrobis maRali done SromiTi resursebis nawilobriv (arasrul) gamoyenebas

da mosaxleobis dabal Semosavlebs gulisxmobs.


Sromis bazarsac, iseve rogorc ekonomikaSi arsebul sxva bazrebs, moTxovnisa da miwodebis

Zalebi marTaven. rodesac ekonomika didi raodenobiT produqcias awarmoebs,

izrdeba moTxovna Sromaze, Sesabamisad Sromis anazRaurebac izrdeba.

imsjeleT

davaleba umuSevrobis tipebs SeusabameT konkretuli RonisZi ebe bi, romelTa

gatarebac SeuZlia mTavrobas umuSevrobis dasaZlevad. imuSaveT jgufebSi

150

ra Sedegebi SeiZleba moitanos umuSevrobam ekonomikuri kuTxiT?

araekonomikuri kuTxiT?

ori axalgazrdidan, romelic samuSaos eZebs, erTi _ Tornike mSoblebTan

cxovrobs, Weri da sakvebi garantirebuli aqvs, swavlas ganagrZobs

universitetSi, Tan aqtiurad eZebs iseT samuSaos, romelic

swavlaSi xels ar SeuSlis. meore, laSa ki binas TviTon qiraobs, Tavs

sakuTari SemosavliT irCens da swavlis saSualeba ara aqvs. isic mudmiv

samsaxurs eZebs.

romeli maTgani ufro xangrZlivad darCeba umuSevarTa rigebSi?

samuSaoze mowyobasTan, aseve masze uaris TqmasTan dakavSirebuli danaxarjebi sxvadasxva

adamianisTvis sxvadasxvaa. am gansxvavebebs maTi kvalifikacia, muSaobis staJi, asaki, Semosavlebis

sxva wyaroebis arseboba an molodinebi gansazRvravs. zemoT mocemuli situaciis

gaanalizebiT, ra Tqma unda, Tornike xangrZlivad darCeba umuSevarTa rigSi, radgan

sasurveli samuSaos povnamde muSaobas ar daiwyebs. laSas lodinis saSualeba ar aqvs, is

yvelanair samuSaos daTanxmdeba, Tumca ukeTesi samuSaos Zebnas gaagrZelebs.

1. SeecadeT presaSi Sesabamisi monacemebi moiZioT da kiTxvebs

upa suxoT:

a) oficialuri monacemebiT ras udris umuSevrobis done saqar

TveloSi?

b) ramdenad realurad asaxavs es monacemi situacias?

g) Tqveni azriT, ra SeiZleba iyos umuSevrobis oficialuri statistikis

uzustobis mizezi?

d) ratom ar registrirdeba Sesabamis samsaxurebSi yvela dausaqmebe

li umuSevrad?

umuSevrobis tipi RonisZiebebi

friqciuli umuSevroba

struqturuli

umuSevroba

cikluri

umuSevroba

informaciis gavrceleba vakansiebis Sesaxeb;

dasaqmebis samsaxuris gaaqtiureba;

subsidiebi saqmianobis wamosawyebad;

subsidiebi xelfasebis gasacemad;

kanoni dasaqmebis SesaZleblobebis

gamartivebis Sesaxeb;

dasaqmebis sazogadoebrivi samsaxuris Seqmna.

moifiqreT, rogor SeuZlia mTavrobas umuSevrobis xangrZlivobis

Semcireba?


damatebiTi

sakiTxavi

dasaqmeba aris anazRaurebis miRebis mizniT, individualuri an sazogadoebrivi

moTxovnilebebis dasakmayofileblad gaweuli saqmianoba.

dasaqmebis donis gamosaTvlelad saWiroa, 1 6 welze meti asakis dasaqmebuli

adamianebis saerTo raodenoba ( maT Soris pensioneri dasaqmebulebic),

gavyoT potenciur samuSao Zalaze da Sedegi procentebSi

gamovsaxoT.

dasaqmebulebi

16

wlis

zeviT

dasaqmebis done = *100%

potenciuri

samuSao

Zala

Sromis

fasi

(Sromis miwodeba)

moTxovna Sromaze II wels

dasaqmebulTa

raodenoba

moTxovna Sromaze I wels

naxazidan Cans, rom Tu ekonomikuri krizisis gamo Sromaze moTxovna er-

Ti

wlis

ganmavlobaSi

ecema,

mcirdeba

dasaqmebulTa

raodenobac

da

Srom

is

fasic.

moifiqreT: ras gviCvenebs Q Q da W W monakveTebi.

2 1 2 1

dasaqmeba saqarTveloSi ekonomikuri saqmianobebis mixedviT 2006 w.

soflis

meurneoba

mrewveloba mSeneblobaj andacva vaWroba restorani,

sastumro

151


?

152

42-43

erT problemas

meore mosdevs...

aleqsandre makedoneli ambobda: `Sromaze mefuri da fufunebaze monuri,

araferiao ”. ras niSnavs es gamonaTqvami?

1

patara sasauzmis mTeli personali samuSaodan imis gamo daiTxoves,

rom sasauzmem quCis meore mxares axlad gaxsnil restoranTan konkurencias

ver gauZlo.

sasauzmis asakovan mzareulebs gigas da nodars restoranSi muSaobis

dasawyebad kvalifikacia ar hyofniT; arada, Tavisi xelfasiT orive sakmaod

did ojaxebs arCenda. gigas invalidi Svili, moxucebuli mSoblebi

da diasaxlisi meuRle hyavs, nodars _ studenti Svilebi.

umuSevrad darCenilebma daxmarebisaTvis dasaqmebis saagentoebs miakiTxes,

Tan isic ganacxades, rom nebismieri sirTulis samuSao pirobebi

maTTvis misaRebia da dabal xelfaszec daTanxmdebodnen. amasTan erTad,

mokle droSi kvalifikaciis amaRlebasac dapirdnen. saagentoSi maTi sakontaqto

monacemebi ki datoves, magram darwmunebuli arc erTi ar aris,

rom xelaxali dasaqmeba droulad moxdeba. aRmoCnda, rom Tavisufali

samuSao adgilebi jer-jerobiT ar aris. amitom gadawyvites xvalidan sasauzmeebis,

patara restornebis da kafeebis Semovla daiwyon da maT saku-

Tari Sroma SesTavazon.

? ra

SeiZleba vuwodoT process, romelic samuSaodan daTxovnis

Semdeg daiwyes gigam da nodarma?

grZelvadiani iqneba Tu moklevadiani CamoTvlili

pirebis umuSevroba? romel argumentebs eyrdnoba

Tqveni mosazreba?

Tqveni dakvirvebiT, rogoria dasaqmebulTa Soris

asakiani da axalgazrda specialistebis Tanafardoba?

romel profesiazea meti moTxovna?

process, romlis meSveobiTac mSromelebi maTi gemovnebis da unaris Sesabamis samuSaos

pouloben samuSaos Zieba ewodeba.

radgan adamianebi erTmaneTisagan moTxovnebiT da kvalifikaciiT gansxvavdebian,

isini samuSaos survilisa da unaris mixedviT eZeben, yvela samuSao adgili YmaTTvis erTnairad

gamosadegi ar aris.

miuxedavad imisa, rom damsaqmeblebsac da samuSaos maZieblebsac gancxadebebis gan-

Tavseba gazeTebsa, internetSi, radiosa Tu satelevizio morbenal striqonze SeuZliaT,

ganTavsebisaTvis saWiro xarjebis gaReba yvelasaTvis xelmisawvdomi ar aris, amitom

informacia samuSaos maZieblisa da samuSaos Sesaxeb nela vrceldeba.

sabazro ekonomikis pirobebSi samuSao adgilebze mwvave konkurenciaa, samuSaos is

miiRebs, visac im konkretul sferoSi yvelaze maRali kvalifikacia aqvs. maRali profe-


siuli unaris mqone muSakebze moTxovna yovelTvis arsebobs, Sesabamisad maTi anazRaurebac

maRalia. mewarmeebma ician, rom aseTi muSakebis Sromis nayofiereba maRalia (sxvebze

met da xarisxian produqcias qmnian), amitom maT ukeTes samuSao pirobebs uqmnian.

daCqarebuli teqnologiuri progresis gamo, sawarmoebi axleburi da mravalgvari unar-Cvevebis

mqone muSakebs moiTxoven. xSirad samuSao arsebobs, ufrosi asakis adamianebs

ki damqiravebelTa Tanamedrove moTxovnebis Sesabamisi codna ar gaaCniaT: uWirT an

saerTod ver saubroben ucxo enaze, ar floben kompiuterul programebs, Tanamedrove

teqnologiebs. radgan cxovrebis winsvlam aseTi saWiroebebi moitana, bevr qveyanaSi e.w.

,,zrdasrulTa ganaTlebis programebiT’’ ufrosi asakis adamianebs gadamzadebaSi, profesiis

SecvlaSi, axali unarebis ganviTarebaSi exmarebian. Tu adamians muSaobis dawyeba

surs, man sicocxlis bolomde siaxleebis Seswavlis da profesiuli srulyofis mzadyofna

unda gamoTqvas.

samuSaos ZiebiT gamowveuli umuSevroba gardauvalia. rac meti samuSao adgilia

qveyanaSi, miT naklebia samuSaos Ziebis dro.

umuSevrobas seriozuli uaryofiTi Sedegebi moaqvs rogorc ekonomikuri, ise

socialuri kuTxiT umuSevrebisa da maTi ojaxis wevrebisaTvis, mTeli sazogadoebisaTvis.

ekonomikuri danakargebi socialuri problemebi

warmoebuli da bazarze

gatanili produqciis

raodenobis Semcireba;

sawarmoebis mier

biujetSi sagadasaxado

Senatanebis Semcireba;

saxelmwifo xarjebis

zrda umuSevarTa

Semweobebis gasacemad;

qveynidan samuSao Zalis

migracia.

cxovrebis donis gauareseba;

Sromis bazarze konkurenciis zrda;

Sromis anazRaurebis Semcireba;

socialuri uTanasworobis

gaZliereba;

umuSevarTa Soris stresebis,

avadmyofobebis, narkomaniis,

alkoholizmis, danaSaulebis zrda;

ojaxuri da sazogadoebrivi

konfliqtebi;

kadrebis diskvalifikacia;

ojaxebis ngreva;

saerTo socialuri daZabuloba,

romelic SeiZleba socialur

afeTqebamdec mivides.

socialur problemebs ekonomistebma umuSevrobis araekonomikuri Sedegebi

uwodes. xangrZlivi umuSevroba adamianebSi stresebs iwvevs. maTi nawili samuSaos Sovnis

imeds kargavs da wyvets samuSao adgilis Zebnas. isini samuSao Zalidan gamoTiSulad

iTvlebian, Tumca realurad muSaoba surT. roca adamiani sakuTar qveyanaSi dasaqmebis

imeds kargavs, legalurad an aralegalurad cdilobs iseT qveyanaSi moxvdes, sadac

dasaqmeba ar gauWirdeba. dabali ekonomikuri ganviTarebis qveynebis samuSao Zalis

didi nawili qveyanas tovebs da samuSaos sxvadasxva qveynebSi eZebs. iwyeba masobrivi

SromiTi migracia. swored amitom saxelmwifoebis umetesoba mosaxleobis ekonomikur

gaaqtiurebaze da umuSevrobis donis Semcirebaze zrunavs, rac Tavis mxriv

ekonomikuri progresis saSualebas iZleva. sxvadasxva samTavrobo programebi yovelTviuri

Semweobis saxiT finansur daxmarebas uweven umuSevrebs, maT dasaqmebis

specialuri saagentoebi droebiT dasaqmebaSi exmarebian. problemis simwvavis gamo,

2012 wlis ivlisSi saqarTveloSi dasaqmebis saministro Seiqmna.

153


savarjiSo

1

154

viTamaSoT arCevnebi

jgufuri muSaoba

umuSevroba sazogadoebis mtkivneuli problemaa. mosaxleobis gulis

mosagebad saarCevno programebSi politikosebi yovelTvis umuSevrobis

Semcirebis da axali samuSao adgilebis garantias iZlevian. arCevnebSi

gamarjvebis Semdeg ki danapirebis Sesruleba uWirT.

imisaTvis rom kargad gaiazroT Tu romeli sakiTxebis gadaWrasTan da

romel sirTuleebTan aris dakavSirebuli umuSevrobis problemis daZleva,

viTamaSoT `arCevnebi.~

daiyaviT aranakleb oTx jgufad. TiToeul jgufs mianiWeT nomeri da Fair-

CieT lideri, romelic `saqarTvelos mTavrobaSi~ mosaxvedrad ibrZolebs.

jgufis danarCeni wevrebi mas daexmarebian moamzados `saqarTveloSi

umuSevrobis daZlevis programa”, romelsac klasis winaSe waradgens.

gamarjvebuli kandidati modelirebul ,,mTavrobaSi” moxvdeba.

umuSevrobis daZlevis programa /aranakleb Svidpunqtiani/, im Tanmimdevruli

RonisZiebebis CamonaTvali unda iyos, romelTa ganxorcielebac

Tqveni azriT xels Seuwyobs adamianebis dasaqmebis mniSvnelovan zrdas.

gafrTxileba!

Tqvens programaSi ar unda moxvdes winadadeba `samuSao adgilebis Sesaqmnelad

gavxsni bevr axal sawarmos.~ `mTavrobis wevrebi~ sawarmoebs

TviTon ver gaxsnian.

prezentaciebs yuradRebiT mousmineT, dasrulebis Semdeg yvela Tqvengani

amomrCeveli xdeba. maswavleblis mier darigebul misawebebel furclebze

daawereT Tqveni jgufis nomeri. es furceli Tqvens xmas gamoxatavs. is

dafaze im jgufis grafaSi miakariT, romlis programac yvelaze metad mogewonaT.

ufleba ar gaqvT sakuTar jgufs misceT xma!

Sefaseba!!!

gamarjvebuli iqneba is jgufi, romlis programac met xmas miiRebs, Sesabamisad

jgufis TiToeuli wevri maswavleblisagan umaRles Sefasebas

daimsaxurebs. umaRles Sefasebas miiRebs is monawilec, romelic argumentirebulad

axsnis sakuTar arCevans.

rCeva!!!

gaixseneT dasaqmebis ra realuri perspeqtiva arsebobs Tqvens regionSi,

romeli dargis aRorZinebaa SesaZlebeli da moamzadeT saintereso saarCevno

programebi. moifiqreT efeqturi saarCevno lozungi.

gisurvebT warmatebas!

#

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

kandidati

#1

kandidati

#2

kandidati

#3

kandidati

#4


iznes seqtori monacemebi monacemebi monacemebi monacemebi monacemebi

drois periodi 2010 w I kvart.. II kvart. 2011 IIIkvart. IV kvart.

2011w

w

2011 w 2011w

brunva mln.lari 24400.7 5719.1 6124.3 6879.8 7627.7

gamoSvebuli 13303. 7 2962.1 3341.2 3767.4 4166.2

produqcia, mln.lari 13303. 7 2962.1 3341.2 3767.4 4166.2

dasaqmebulTa 592.7 643.0 683.9 717.7 806.9

raodenoba, kaci 397 806 350 258 352 100 360 064 379 172

dasaqmebulTa saSualo

Tviuri Sromis

anazRaureba, lari

592.7 643.0 683.9 717.7 806.9

wyaro:

saqarTvelos statistikis erovnuli samsaxuri. 2012w. sawarmoTa deklarirebuli monacemebi. www.geostat.ge.

? 1.

rogor icvleba 2011 wlis TviToeul kvartalSi biznes seqtorSi

a) gamoSvebuli produqciis raodenoba?

b)dasaqmebulTa raodenoba?

g)dasaqmebulTa saSualo Tviuri Sromis anazRaureba?

2. rogor axsniT 2011 wlis pirvel kvartalSi dasaqmebulTa saSualo Tviuri

anazRraurebis zrdas dasaqmebulTa Sesabamisi raodenobis zrdis fonze?

wyaro:

saqarTvelos statistikis erovnuli samsaxuri. 2012w. sawarmoTa deklarirebuli monacemebi. www.geostat.ge.

2

dasaqmeba biznes seqtorSi

daiyaviT sam jgufad. davuSvaT, TiToeuli jgufi aris mTavrobis mrCeveli

da dagevalaT saintereso ekonomikuri proeqtebis wamowyeba

I jgufi. adamianebis dasaqmebis, materialuri resursebis warmoebis

mizniT;

II jgufi. gacvlis da moxmarebis gazrdis mizniT;

III jgufi. ganawilebis procesebis srulyofis mizniT.

moifiqreT TiTo realisturi, ganxorcielebadi da Sedegze orientirebuli

programa da warmoadgineT klasis winaSe.

155


es

sainteresoa

savarjiSo

2

156

zogierTi sociologis azriT, samuSaos dakargviT gancdil stress mxolod

meuRlis an uaxloesi megobris gardacvaleba an dapatimreba Tu aRemateba.

msoflio bankis mier saqarTveloSi umuSevrobis maqsimaluri maCvenebeli

1992 wels aris dafiqsirebuli.

saqarTvelos regionebis mixedviT gansxvavebulia ekonomikurad aqtiuri

mosaxleobis raodenoba da dasaqmebis maCveneblebi. statistikuri monacemebis

mixedviT dasaqmebulTa umetesobas TviTdasaqmebulebi Seadgenen.

qveyanaSi saSualod dasaqmebulTa 57.3% TviTdasaqmebulia.

samuSaos maZieblebTagan mxolod mcire nawils eniWeba umuSevris statusi

da eniSneba Semweoba. magaliTad, bolo wlebSi TbilisSi umuSevris statusi

mieniWeba da Sesabamisad Semweobas iRebs umuSevarTa mxolod 6,3-7%.

15 wlis da ufrosi asakis mosaxleobis ganawileba

ekonomikuri aqtivobis mixedviT regionalur WrilSi, 2011

kaxeTi Tbilisi

Sida

qarTli

qvemo

qarTli

aWaris

a.r

samegre

lo-zemo

svaneTi

imereTi

*

danarCeni

regionebi

**

*raWa-leCxumisa da qvemo svaneTis CaTvliT; ** samcxe-javaxeTi, guria, mcxeTa-mTianeTi;

cxrilebSi mocemuli maCveneblebi miRebulia Sinameurneobebis integrirebuli gamokvlevidan.

aTasi

kaci

saqarTve

lo

sul aqtiuri

mosaxleoba 195.0 437.4 144.1 195.5 189.3 211.0 370.4 216.6 1959.3

dasaqmebuli 177.6 309.4 131.2 177.2 155.3 176.2 336.1 201.2 1664.2

daqiravebuli 41.8 251.2 35.0 54.4 56.8 44.5 101.8 46.4 632.0

TviTdasaqmebuli 135.8 57.3 96.2 122.5 98.1 127.7 233.6 154.1 1025.4

gaurkveveli 0.0 0.9 0.0 0.2 0.4 4.0 0.7 0.7 6.8

umuSevari

mosaxleoba samu-

17.4 128.0 12.8 18.3 34.0 34.8 34.3 15.4 295.1

Sao Zalis gareT

umuSevrobis

82.7 361.6 59.6 108.8 94.1 87.6 161.4 90.0 1045.9

done %

aqtiurobis done

8.9 29.3 8.9 9.4 18.0 16.5 9.3 7.1 15.1

%

dasaqmebis done

70.2 54.7 70.7 64.2 66.8 70.7 69.6 70.6 65.2

% 64.0 38.7 64.4 58.2 54.8 59.0 63.2 65.6 55.4

imuSaveT jgufebSi

qvemoT mocemulia umuSevrebis sia. miuTiTeT, umuSevrobis romel

saxeobas warmoadgens TiToeuli _ friqciulis, struqturulis Tu

cikluris. gansazRvreT romeli saxelmwifo politika an programa iqneba

efeqturi, TiToeuli umuSevaris dasaxmareblad.

1. universitetis kursdamTavrebuli, romelic pirvelad eZebs samuSaos;

2. rusTavis metalurgiuli qarxnis mefolade, romelic qarxanis daxurvis

Sedegad umuSevrad darCa;

3. buRalteri, romelmac samsaxuri datova ojaxTan erTad sacxovreblad

sxva qalaqSi gadasvlis gamo;

4. durgali, romelic umuSevari darCa saamSeneblo masalebis gaZvirebisa da

gadasaxadebis gazrdis gamo binaTmSeneblobis Semcirebis Sedegad;

5. xorcis produqtebis gadamamuSavebeli qarxnis muSaki, romelic samsaxuridan

produqciis realizaciis Semcirebis gamo warmoebis SezRudvis

Sedegad daiTxoves;

6. diasaxlisi, romelmac muSaobis dawyeba gadawyvita;

7. Zveli qselebis satelefono sadguris operatori, romlis samuSao adgili

gauqmda satelefono kompaniis mier axali kompiuterizebuli mowyobilobebis

damontaJebis gamo;

8. sapensio asakis gamo ganTavisuflebuli profesori.

ra ganzogadebas gaakeTebdiT umuSevrobis sami saxis Sesamcireblad

mimarTuli saxelmwifo politikis/programebis Sesaxeb?


imsjeleT

savarjiSo

1

44-45

inflacia

CamoTvaleT, romeli saqoneli da momsaxureba gaZvirda bolo erTi wlis

ganmavlobaSi?

ramdeni procentiT gaZvirda Saqris fxvnili erTi wlis ganmavlobaSi, Tu

1kg am produqtis fasi erTi wlis ganmavlobaSi 1,5 laridan 2.3 laramde

Seicvala?

vin darCa Saqris gaZvirebiT mogebuli? vin dazaralda?

ratom izrdeba fasebi saqonelsa da momsaxurebaze yovelwliurad?

ratom aris, rom zogierT qveyanaSi fasebi Zalian xSirad matulobs, ma-

Sin, roca sxva qveynebSi stabiluria?

1

zogjer mTavrobis wevrebi da politikosebi acxadeben, rom SeuZliaT

„socialuri daavadebebi“ – siRaribe, usaxlkaroba da SimSili aRmofxvran,

Tu biujetSi sakmarisi fuli iqneba.

davuSvaT, aRmoCnda milioneri, romelsac gadawyvetili aqvs saxelmwifo biujetSi

asi milioni dolaris Setana, Tu misi piroba Sesruldeba: momavali Tvidan

TiToeul adamians pensia, xelfasi, stipendia da daxmareba 10 – jer gaezrdeba.

gansazRvreT, rogor Seicvleba qveyanaSi situacia momavali Tvidan, Tu

mTavroba milioneris winadadebas miiRebs? daasabuTeT Tqveni prognozi.

? 1.

SesaZlebelia Tu ara msgavsi socialuri siduxWiris „gankurneba“

mosaxleobisaTvis fulis darigebiT?

2. SesaZleblad migaCniaT, rom saxelmwifos mier meti fulis dabeWdva

da brunvaSi gaSveba, moxmarebis gazrdisa da qveynis

keTildReobis sawindari gaxdes?

maswavlebeli auqcionze gasayidad unikaluri tkbileulis

Sekvras gamoitans. auqcionisTvis erTaderTi misaRebi ,,kupiura”

maswavleblis mier darigebuli ekonolarebi iqneba.

1. unikaluri tkbileulis sawyisi fasi 2 ekonolaria. gamarjvebuli

fasi dawereT dafaze.

2. maswavlebeli erTxel kidev dagirigebT „fulian“ konvertebs,

romelSic 3-jer meti fulia da auqcionze gasayidad tkbileulobis

meore Sekvras gamoitans. am SekvraSic imave raodenobis da saxis

tkbileulia, ramdenic pirvel SekvraSi iyo. sawyisi fasic igivea.

auqcioni grZeldeba. dawereT gamarjvebuli fasi.

3. SeadareT auqcionis orive raundis Sedegebi.

?

1. ratom aiwia fasma meore auqcionze, roca kanfetebis raodenoba

igive iyo?

2. rogor imoqmeda moswavleebisTvis meti fulis micemam meore

raundSi kanfetebis raodenobaze ?

3. ra Sedegi moitana saqonlisa da momsaxurebis raodenobis

ucvlelobis SemTxvevaSi fulis raodenobis gazrdam?

157


158

inflacia _ (laTinurad `inflation”~ gaberva) xangrZlivi drois ganmavlobaSi

fasebis saerTo donis zrdis procesi. fasebis mniSvnelovnad

gazrda fulis gaufasurebas iwvevs. inflacia fulis gaufasurebis,

misi msyidvelobiTi unaris mniSvnelovnad Semcirebis procesia.

cxovrebis fasi _ Tanxa, romelic adamianis arsebobisaTvis aucilebel

saqonelSi (sakvebi, tansacmeli, bina da sxva) unda gadavixadoT.

Tu qveynis ekonomikaSi saqonlisa da momsaxurebis warmoeba bevrad

ufro Dswrafad izrdeba, vidre fulis raodenoba, saqonelsa da momsaxurebaze

fasebis dacema iwyeba. am process deflacia ewodeba.

fulis msyidvelobiTi unari aris fulis Rirebuleba. fulis Rirebuleba

inflaciis periodSi mcirdeba da deflaciis dros izrdeba.

mcocavi

roca fasebis

matebis

wliuri tempi

ar aRemateba

5-10% -s

fasebis zrdis sididis mixedviT arCeven

inflaciis sam saxes

Wenebadi

saSualo

wliuri tempi

icvleba

10-50% -is

farglebSi da

metad

hiperinflacia

saSualo

wliuri

zrdis tempi

aRemateba

100%-s

ekonomikaSi fulis raodenobis gacilebiT swrafi zrda, vidre qveyanaSi warmoebuli

produqciis raodenobis zrdaa, inflacias iwvevs. inflaciis gamomwvevi

ZiriTadi mizezebia:

moTxovnis zrda sxvadasxva mizezebis gamo saqonelze moTxovna gazrdilia, iqmneba

deficiti da fasebi matulobs.

danaxarjebis zrda warmoebis danaxarjebze (resursebi, nedleuli) fasebis zrdas

Tan sdevs saqonelsa da momsaxurebaze fasebis zrda;

miwodebis Soki warmoebis moculobasTan SedarebiT fulis miwodebis metismetad

swrafi zrda fasebis matebas iwvevs;

xelfasisa da fasis spirali: xelfasebis zrdis tempi xSirad warmoebis zrdis temps

win uswrebs, mewarmeebi mogebis SesanarCuneblad fasebs xelovnurad zrdian.

inflacia ar niSnavs absoluturad yvela saqonelsa da momsaxurebaze fasis zrdas.

klebadi moTxovnis mqone produqtebze, rogoricaa moZvelebuli, arasezonuri, meoradi

an modidan gasuli saqoneli, fasebi SeiZleba Semcirdes. Tumca, bazarze arsebuli

yvela saqonlisa da momsaxurebis fasebis saSualo done matulobdes.

inflacia zogadad qveynisaTvis sazianodaa miCneuli. Tumca, fasebis moulodneli zrda

mosaxleobis erTi nawilisaTvis Tu wamgebiania, meore nawilisaTvis mogebis momtani xdeba.


? ra

pirobebSi gamoiwvevs damatebiTi Semosavlebi an danaxarjebi inflacias?

ra pirobebia saWiro imisaTvis, rom fulis miwodebis gazrdam inflacia ar

gamoiwvios?

vin SeiZleba darCes mogebuli inflaciis Sedegad?

vin SeiZleba darCes mogebuli deflaciis* Sedegad?

moulodneli inflacia azaralebs fiqsirebuli Semosavlebis

mqone adamianebs da maT, vinc fuli gaasesxa fiqsirebuli sargeblis

ganakveTiT. mogebuli rCeba is, vinc fuli isesxa fiqsirebuli sargeblis

ganakveTiT. amdenad, inflacia ufro Semosavalebis gadanawilebas

axdens, da ara mTliani realuri Semosavlebis Semcirebas.

inflaciis msgavsad, deflaciac adamianebis garkveuli jgufisaTvis

momgebiania, sxva jgufebs ki azaralebs. anu fasebis sayovelTao Semcirebas

(arasasurvel deflacias) Sedegad resursebis gaflangva moaqvs.

imsjeleT

raSi xarjavs saqarTvelos mosaxleoba damatebiT (aradagegmil) Semosavlebs?

ra moxdeba, Tu erT dRes, yvela meanabre sabanko angariSebidan fuls

moxsnis da xarjvas daiwyebs?

wyaro:

saqarTvelos statistikis erovnuli samsaxuri. 2012w. www.geostat.ge.

davaleba

2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2012

8.8 11.0 5.5 3.0 11.2 2.0

1. rogor prognozs gaakeTebdiT fasebis saerTo donis Sesaxeb, Tu

warmoebis moculoba izrdeba 2%-iT weliwadSi, fulis miwodeba

ki – 12%-T?

2. rogori socialuri Sedegebi SeiZleba mohyves inflacias, Tu

qveyanaSi 25%-iani inflaciaa?

biznesmeni,

romelmac bankidan

krediti aiRo

binis mflobeli,

romelmac mdgmurTan

erTwliani xelSekruleba

gaaforma

pensionerebi

vin

moigebs

da vin waagebs

qvemoT CamoTvlilTagan?

kreditorebi

sajaro skolis

pedagogebi

* deflacia – produqtebisa da momsaxurebis fasebis Semcirebis grZelvadiani procesi.

advokatebi

Semnaxvel

bankSi anabris

mflobelebi

159


es

sainteresoa

ese

160

inflacia istoriis sxvadasxva etapze uamravi qveynisaTvis seriozuli

problema iyo. man moicva romis imperia, espaneTi da inglisi me-

Teqvsmete saukuneSi,. SeerTebuli Statebi _ samoqalaqo omis periodSi,

germania _ me-20 saukunis 20-ian wlebSi, SeerTebuli Statebi da

samxreT amerikis mravali qveyana _ gasuli saukunis 70-ian wlebSi, sab-

WoTa ruseTis gardamavali ekonomika. 90-ian wlebSi am problemam kvlav

iCina Tavi: centraluri da aRmosavleT evropa, baltiispireTi, agreTve

postsabWouri qveynebis umravlesoba inflaciam moicva.

`bednieri Zveli dro~

CaatareT bebia-babuebis da asakovani mezoblebis gamokiTxva, Tu romeli

saqoneli iyo maT axalgazrdobaSi Zalian iafi. CamowereT 10 mniSvnelovani

produqti. gaarkvieT maTi Zveli fasebi da SeadareT amave

saqonlis an momsaxurebis dRevandel fass. gansazRvreT inflaciis

maCvenebeli (ramdeni %-iT gaizarda am produqtebis fasebi sawyis fasTan

SedarebiT?).

qarTuli inflaciis istoria

CaatareT saojaxo gamokiTxva: ojaxis wevrebis gamokiTxvis saSualebiT

saqarTveloSi XX saukunis 90-iani wlebis Hhiperinflaciis da

misi Sedegebis Sesaxeb moipoveT informacia. gaarkvieT, rogor moxda

inflaciis procesis SeCereba? mopovebuli informacia TxzulebaSi

ganazogadeT.


imsjeleT

46

aravis unda

iyos Raribi

1. icnobT Rarib adamianebs? mdidrebs?

2. ra niSnebis mixedviT moaxvedreT es adamianebi

erT an meore kategoriaSi?

3. aRwereT Raribi adamianis portreti, ara mxolod

sazogadoebaSi damkvidrebuli garegnuli

stereotipis mixedviT.

4. CamowereT maCveneblebi, romeliTac Tqveni

azriT SeiZleba siRaribis Sefaseba.

5. ufro xSirad ra asakis adamianebi gvxvdebian Raribebis kategoriaSi?

6. rogor SeiZleba siRaribis zRvaris Semcireba?

1

dResdReobiT msoflioSi 2 miliardze meti adamiani zRvars miRma

cxovrobs. miuxedavad ekonomikuri aRmavlobisa, mTel rig ganviTarebad

qveynebSi dRiTidRe matulobs Raribebis ricxvi, amavdroulad izrdeba

disproporcia mdidrebsa da Raribebs Soris.

? Tqveni

azriT, ra aris amis mizezi?

msoflioSi

yovel 3,6 wamSi erTi adamiani

SimSiliT iRupeba

maT Soris arian

bavSvebic

wyaro:

saqarTvelos statistikis erovnuli samsaxuri. 2012w. www.geostat.ge.

2007 2008 2009 2010 2011

279,474 368,431 436,309 430,603 411,091

(%) 6.4 8.4 9.9 9.7 9.2

161


ukanaskneli oci wlis ganmavlobaSi siRaribe saqarTvelosTvisac

mwvave problemad iqca, rac dakavSirebuli iyo, erTis mxriv, saqarTveloSi

arsebul rTul politikur situaciasTan, xolo meores

mxriv, arasworad gatarebul ekonomiur-socialur politikasTan.

cneba siRaribis Sinaarsi yvelasaTvis naTelia, magram siRaribis

oficialuri gansazRvreba SemoTavzebuli iqna 60-ian wlebSi aSS-Si,

romlis mixedviTac ojaxi Raribad iTvleba, Tu misi Semosavali naklebia

soflis meurneobis saministros mier dadgenili ojaxis normaluri

uzrunvelyofisaTvis gasawevi xarjebis gasammagebul raodenobaze.

soflis meurneobis saministro yovelwliurad awarmoebs sursaTis moxmarebis normaluri

donis aucilebeli danaxarjebis Sefasebas, romelic sakmarisia kvebis racionis uzrunvelsayofad.

Semdeg am sididis samze gamravlebiT miiReba siRaribis oficialuri zRvari. es gansazRvreba

martivad SeiZleba ase warmovadginoT: dabalSemosavliania ojaxi, romelic kvebaze, saSualod,

sakuTari Semosavlis 1/3-s xarjavs.

saqarTveloSi Raribi ojaxi sakuTari Semosavlis 80%-ze mets kvebaze xarjavs, rac Cvens qveyanaSi

ojaxebis Semosavlebis Zalze dabal doneze miuTiTebs.

2008 wels gaerom gansazRvra saerTaSoriso absoluturi siRaribis (siRatakis) zRvari, romelic

Seadgens $ 1,25 (2005 wlis msyidvelobiTi unarianobis paritetis mixedviT).am kriteriumiT

siRatakis zRvars qvemoT saqarTveloSi cxovrobda mosaxleobis 13,4 % (2009 wlis adamianuri

ganviTarebis moxseneba HD Report). imave kriteriumiT, azerbaijansa da ukrainaSi Rataki iyo mosaxleobis

2 %, xolo somxeTSi- 3,7,%.

2011 wlis TebervalSi saqarTveloSi oTxsuliani ojaxis saarsebo

minimumad iTvleboda 281,2lari ( anu TveSi $165. weliwadze gadaangariSebiT

es Tanxa daaxloebiT 2000 aSS dolars Seadgens). es ricxvi

SegviZlia, SevadaroT aSS-isoficialur statistikur monacemebs.

aSS-Si oTxsuliani ojaxisTvis siRaribis zRvrad 2009 wels gansaz-

Rvruli iyo 21 756 dolari; e.i. aSS-Si saqarTveloze 10-jer da metad

ufro ,,mdidari” Raribebi cxovroben.

162

jami = 925 milioni

mSieri adamianebi

ganviTarebadi qveynebi 19

axlo aRmosavleTi da samxreT afrika 37

laTin. amerika da karibis zRvis qveynebi 53

saharis afrika 239

azia da wynari okeanis auzi 578


siRaribis zRvari - Semosavlis is donea, romlis qvemoTac SeuZ

lebelia adamianis kvebis minimaluri donis da misi sxva (arakvebiTi)

ZiriTad moTxovnilebaTa erToblivi dakmayofileba. es damaxasiaTebelia

calkeuli qveynisaTvis da ar eqvemdebareba sxva qveynebis

analogiur maCveneblebTan Sedarebas.

qveyanaSi, sadac cxovrebis ufro maRali donea sazogadoebas siRaribis ufro maRali

zRvari aqvs. albaT, gainteresebT, risTvisaa saWiro siRaribis zRvaris dadgena? es gvesaWiroeba

imisaTvis, rom gamovavlinoT mosaxleobis yvela jgufi, visi Semosavlebic

dadgenili donis qvemoTaa da maT daxmareba an garkveuli momsaxureba gaewioT, raTa

maTi Semosavali dadgenil donemde amaRldes.

siRaribis donis gansazRvra garkveulwilad Seicavs subieqturobis elements. amis

gamo, sxvadasxva meTodebis gamoyenebis Sedegad siRaribis sxvadasxva zRvars viRebT.

saqarTveloSic, gaangariSebis gansxvavebuli midgomis safuZvelze, siRaribis 4 sxvadasxva

zRvari Camoyalibda: `oficialuri siRaribis zRvari” eyrdnoba oficialur

minimalur kvebis kalaTas da gansazRvravs samuSao asakis mqone mamakacebis saarsebo

dones. kvebis kalaTis Rirebuleba, romlis Semadgenloba

tolia 2500k/kal/dReSi, siRaribis zRvris 70%-s Seadgens,

xolo danarCeni arakvebiT komponentebze modis. es aris

fuladi Tanxa, romelic moicavs jandacvis, ganaTlebis,

yvela saxis gadasaxadebis gadaxdis odenobas.

`gadasinjuli siRaribis zRvari~ iyenebs kvebis kala-

Tis nakleb kaloriulobas (2200k/kal/dReSi) da mcireoden

gansxvavebas uCvenebs sakvebi da arasakvebi produqtebis

proporciebSi (65:35). `rekomendirebuli siRaribis zRvari~,

romelic Camoyalibda msoflio bankis mier, statistikis

saxelmwifo departamentTan da Sesabamis saministroebTan TanamSromlobis Sedegad,

iyenebs ufro iafi kvebis kalaTas.

arsebobs sxvadasxva mosazrebebi, rom siRaribes saqarTveloSi ufro gansxvavebuli

xasiaTi aqvs, vidre sxva dabal Semosavlian qveynebSi.

dRes siRaribis daZleva gaerosa da mTeli rigi saerTaSoriso organizaciebis mier

dasaxelebulia rogorc yvelaze mniSvnelovani globaluri problema.

?

Tqveni azriT, ramdenad SeiZleba siRaribis mixedviT ganisazRvros adamianis

ufleba da Tavisufleba?

siRaribe aris adamianis uflebebis da Tavisuflebis erT-erTi yvelaze ganmsazRvreli

faqtori, vinaidan Raribebi moklebulni arian arCevanis Tavisuflebas, maT xSirad

ara aqvT sacxovrebeli adgili da normaluri kveba, ver iReben ganaTlebasa da janmrTelobis

dacvis momsaxurebas, yovelive imas, rasac SeZlebuli adamiani aRiqvams rogorc

bunebriv movlenas.

siRaribe SeiZleba gagebul iqnas ori mimarTulebiT _ absoluturi da SedarebiTi

mniSvnelobiT.

warmoidgineT, rom SegiZliaT iyidoT aucilebeli sakvebi, bina da saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi

eqimTan vizitic moaxerxoT anu ar iyoT Raribi da SegeZloT fizikuri arseboba.

ekonomistebi am mdgomareobis amsaxvel maCvenebels siRaribis absolutur maCvenebels

uwodeben. magram dameTanxmebiT, rom adamianis xarisxiani cxovrebis done sxva

moTxovnilebebis dakmayofilebis SesaZleblobebsac gulisxmobs. aucilebelia, rom

dabali Semosavlis gamo adamianma Tavi moralurad daCagrulad da sazogadoebisagan

gariyulad ar igrZnos. SegviZlia warmovadginoT Zalze mdidari sazogadoeba (magali-

163


Tad aSS), sadac mosaxleobis naklebad uzrunvelyofil jgufebs SeuZliaT Tavs ufleba

miscen iqonion yvelaferi, rac saWiroa cxovrebisaTvis, magram mainc Raribebi iyvnen,

radgan maT ar SeuZliaT daikmayofilon mTeli rigi moTxovnilebebi: garTobis, mogzaurobis,

fulis Tavisuflad xarjvis da rasakvirvelia, araferi im fufunebidan, romelic

adamianisaTvis Zalze mimzidvelia da gamosulia

fiziologiuri moTxovnilebis farglebidan. aseT

analizs SefardebiTi siRaribis cnebasTan mivyavarT.

aseTi midgomiT Raribebad SeiZleba CaiTvalon isini,

visi Semosavlebic ar aRemateba qveyanaSi saSualo Semosavlebis

50%-s (SeiZleba 40%- an - 60%-s).

saqarTvelos statistikis erovnuli samsaxuris

monacemebiT siRaribis absoluturi da fardobiTi

zRvrebi (larebSi) asea warmodgenili:

60

40

164

23.03225945

8.893543562

2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011

26.17274118

12.80776797

24.63656985

10.89311925

22.0612544

8.79859738

26.03701056

11.26434581

24.09636289

10.06076371

22.8

8.1

23.7

10.7

23.28229867

9.440541942

17.87797559

6.519400496

24.93511049

12.05245605

21.33942073

9.233301895

18.03031899

6.955041119

siRaribis done an sxvagvarad, Raribebis raodenobis indeqsi,

Raribi mosaxleobis wilia mTel mosaxleobaSi.

26.18065312

11.92359438

22.13932694

9.459947611

17.62200374

7.332259395

24.31871771

10.20171784

21.01497659

8.786105963

18.63603719

7.996658986

26.74561012

11.94124632

22.74535193

9.995475815

18.84027551

7.798309849

26.86258259

12.94008204

22.97229376

10.44666229


siRaribe da saqarTvelo

damatebiTi

sakiTxavi

saqarTvelos yvela regionSi siRaribis done sakmaod maRalia, Tumca bolo wlebSi

SeiniSneba mdgomareobis gaumjobesebis tendencia, rogorc monacemebi gviCveneben, gansakuTrebiT

maRalia siRaribis done guriaSi, raWa-leCxumSi, zemo da qvemo svaneTsa da

samegreloSi.

arsebobs sxvadasxva mosazrebebi, rom siRaribes saqarTveloSi ufro gansxvavebuli

xasiaTi aqvs, vidre sxva dabalSemosavlian qveynebSi. zogierTi mkvlevari amtkicebs, rom

saqarTveloSi arc erTi msoflio praqtikaSi miRebuli siRaribis maCvenebeli ar gamoiyeneba.

da amas ase asabuTebs:

janmrTelobis mdgomareobisa da siRaribis donis urTierTdamokidebulebis tipiuri

universaluri tendencia saqarTveloSi ar muSaobs.

saqarTveloSi gamoxatuli ar aris cnobili urTierTdamokidebuleba ganaTlebis

niSniT mosaxleobis aRwerasa da siRaribis dones Soris. siRaribis dones, gansxvavebiT,

tradiciulad Raribi qveynebisgan, araviTari gavlena ar aqvs kvebaze. aRsaniSnavia, rom

Raribi qarTuli ojaxis tipiuri kvebis racioni ganisazRvreba istoriuli tradiciebiT

da ara siRaribis doniT.

erTaderTi moculobiTi maCvenebeli, romelic mkafiod yofs mosaxleobas Raribebad

da araRaribebad da asaxavs maT cxovrebis wess, aris ojaxisa da pirovnebis danaxarjebi

(TiTqmis igive iTqmis sakvebze gaweul danaxarjebze).

araviTari mniSvnelovani gansxvaveba ar SeiniSneba soflis da qalaqis mosaxleobis mier

moxmarebas Soris. am TvalsazrisiT saqarTvelo gansxvavdeba msoflios Raribi qveynebis

umravlesobisgan da aqvs moxmarebis igive struqtura, rogorc ekonomikurad ganviTarebul

qveynebs. amave dros, soflis mosaxleoba naturiT sakveb produqtebs gacilebiT

ufro metad moixmars, vidre qalaqis mosaxleoba. metic, soflebSi naturiT sakvebis moxmareba

izrdeba ekonomikuri keTildReobis SemcirebasTan erTad.

xelfasis, rogorc Semosavlis ZiriTadi wyaros roli, bevrad maRalia qalaqad. soflad

ki xelfasi mxolod Semosavlebis 10-12%-s Seadgens. soflad maRalia Semosavlebi

soflis meurneobis produqtebis gayidvidan, igi 80-85%-s udris, miwa Sinameurneobebis

didi nawilis Semosavlebis ZiriTad wyaros warmoadgens. rac Seexeba arasasoflo TviTdasaqmebidan

miRebul Semosavlebs, misi roli ufro mcirea, SeiZleba gaizardos samewarmeo

klimatis gaumjobesebis SemTxvevebi.

Raribi mosaxleobis saarsebo wyaros mniSvnelovanwilad ganapirobebs axloblebis

Tanadgoma, adre dagrovebuli qonebis gayidva da nasesxebi fuli. amgvari Semosavlebis

daaxloebiT mesamedi modis.

siRaribe qalaqad da soflad mniSvnelovnad gansxvavebul movlenas warmoadgens. siRaribe

qalaqad ZiriTadad dakavSirebulia arasakmaris kvebasTan, rac saerTo jamSi ufro

mwvave da Rrma siRaribis maCvenebelia.

soflad ki siRaribe arasakmaris kvebasTan iSviaT SemTxvevaSia dakavSirebuli, Tumca

es mxolod im faqtiTaa ganpirobebuli, rom soflad kvebis produqtebis moxmarebas

ZiriTadad sakuTari warmoebis sursaTi gansazRvravs.

soflad mosaxleobis umTavres problemas fuladi resursebis deficiti da infrastruqturis

arasakmarisi ganviTareba ganapirobebs, rac Sesabamisad amcirebs xelmisawvdomobas

momsaxurebis ZiriTad saxeebze.

miuxedavad siRaribis SedarebiT ufro mwvave da Rrma xasiaTisa, qalaqad SedarebiT

ukeTesi mdgomareobaa ganaTlebisa da janmrTelobis dacvis momsaxurebaze misawvdomobis

mxriv. qalaqad mdgomareobis gaumjobesebis perspeqtiva ufro metia. qalaqis mosaxleobas

SedarebiT ufro miuwvdeba xeli ganaTlebis miRebaze, rac maTi dasaqmebis da

165


Sesabamisad ekonomikuri mdgomareobis gaumjobesebis perspeqtivas qmnis.

is faqti, rom qalaqTan SedarebiT siRaribis done soflad TiTqmis yovelTvis dabalia,

sulac ar niSnavs, rom soflad siRaribis problema naklebad mwvave xasiaTisaa. soflad

siRaribis zRvars zemoT yofnas gansazRvravs sakuTari mosavali an sakuTari warmoebis

mecxoveleobis da mefrinveleobis produqtebi. es ki mniSvnelovnad damokidebulia klimatur

pirobebze. siRaribis zrda SeiZleba agrarul regionebSi gaxSirebulma gvalvebmac

gamoiwvios. amdenad soflad siRaribis zRvars zemoT yofnis mTavar ganmsazRvrel

resurss miwa warmoadgens.

saojaxo meurneobebis gamokvlevis arsebuli monacemebiT, saqarTveloSi

Sromisunariani mosaxleobis naxevarze meti soflis meurneobaSia dasaqmebuli, xolo

mTliani mosaxleobis naxevarze cota naklebi cxovrobs soflad (amasve mowmobs 2002

wlis mosaxleobis sayovelTao aRwerisdaaRwia daaxloebiT ormocma milionma adamianma.

angariSSi aseve naTqvamia, rom swrafi ganviTarebis mqone ramodenime qveyanaSi – mag.:

ruseTSi da yazaxeTSi –Semosavlebi Raribi mosaxleobis sasargeblod gadanawilda, ris

gamoc siRaribis done mosalodnelze ufro swrafi tempiT Semcirda. amis sapirispirod,

saqarTvelosa da poloneTSi Semosavlebis gadanawileba Raribi mosaxleobis sasargeblod

ar moxda da siRaribis done gaizarda. yvelaze mkveTrad siRaribe dedaqalaqebSi

Semcirda.

aqedan gamomdinare, rekomendirebulia gagrZeldes samewarmeo reforma, soflis

swrafi ganviTareba da CamorCenil regionebSi arsebuli SesaZleblobebis ganviTarebis

xelSewyoba. reformis sxva prioritetebs Soris saxeldeba ZiriTadi momsaxurebis

xarisxis gaumjobeseba, ukeTesi da ufro mizanmimarTuli socialuri dacvis uzrunvelyofa,

gansakuTrebiT Raribi momsaxure pirebisaTvis da bavSvebisaTvis.

angariSis avtorTa azriT, ekonomikuri zrdis dasaCqareblad da Raribi mosaxleobisaTvis

misi sargeblianobis uzrunvelsayofad saWiroa: saxelmwifos mier socialuri

dacvis minimaluri garantiebis Seqmna upirveles yovlisa unda ganxorcieldes mosaxleobis

uRaribesi, siRatakis zRvars miRma darCenili fenebisaTvis, minimaluri xelfasisa

da minimaluri pensiis e.w saarsebo minimumis safuZvelze dawesebis meSveobiT.

rogor davZlioT siRaribe?

msoflios ganviTarebis 2000/2001 wlis angariSis mixedviT, qveynebma unda ganaxorcielon

Semdegi qmedebebi raTa daZlion siRaribe:

daaCqaron ekonomikuri zrda;

daaCqaron swori ekonomikuri ganviTareba rac xels uwyobs SesaZleblobebis zrdas

RaribebisaTvis;

unda daafinanson bavSvebis janmrTeloba, kveba da ganaTleba;

Seamciron Semosavlebis uTansworoba;

Seamciron Raribebis mowyvladoba ekonomikuri kataklizmebis, maT Soris vaWrobis

Sokebis CaTvliT;

unda uzrunvelyon mTavrobebis pasuxismgebloba da transparantoba;

aicilon Tavidan samoqalaqo omis saSiSroeba.

siRaribesTan brZolis politika gansxvavebuli unda iyos moxucebisa da studentebisaTvis,

umuSevrebisa da invalidebisaTvis, martoxela dedebisaTvis da a.S. vinaidan yvela

maTganisaTvis siRaribis zRvris zeviT asvlis albaTobebi gansxvavebulia. Sesabamisad

unda tardebodes maTTvis saxelmwifos xelSemwyobi politikac.

ese

166

rogor daZlios saqarTveloSi mcxovrebma Raribma siRaribe?


47-48

ekonomikuri zrda Tu

ekonomikuri ganviTareba?

? daasaxele

maRali ekonomikuri ganviTarebis mqone romel qveynebs icnobT?

ratom iTvleba es qveynebi ekonomikurad Zlierad?

1

teleekranze araerTxel ginaxavT msoflios uRaribesi qveynebi: adamianebi,

romlebic xangrZlivi SimSilis gamo ise dasustebulan, rom moZraoba

uWirT, usaxlkaroebi, mTel cxovrebas sibinZuresa da autanel

sicxeSi Tu yinvaSi Cabnelebul maTxovrebiT savse quCebSi rom atareben,

masobrivi epidemiis safrTxis qveS.

? 1.

CamoTvaleT ukiduresad gaWirvebuli aseTi qveynebi.

2. ras uwodeben gansakuTrebiT dabali cxovrebis donis mqone qveynebs?

ras urCevdiT aseTi qveynis mTavrobas, riT unda daiwyos qveynis

ekonomikur-socialuri mdgomareobis gaumjobesebisaTvis

aqtiuri moqmedebebi?

Tqveni azriT, gansxvavdeba Tu ara ganviTarebadi qveynebis am-

Jamindeli ekonomikuri mdgomareoba msoflios uZlieresi saxelmwifoebis

im mdgomareobisagan, roca isini ekonomikuri ganviTarebis

stadiaSi Sediodnen?

ra gaZlevT aseTi daskvnis gakeTebis safuZvels?

sxvadasxva qveyanaSi ekonomikuri keTildReoba, gamoxatuli erT sul mosaxleze mSps

raodenobiT, gansxvavebulia. msoflios umdidres qveynebSi adamianebis saSualo Semosavali,

uRaribes qveynebTan SedarebiT, ramodenime aTeuljer metia.

167


168

SezRuduli da

klebadi resursi

miwa,

Sroma,

kapitali

saqonlisa da momsaxurebis

warmoebis zrdis faqtorebi

adamianebis mzardi

moTxovnilebebi

axali

teqnologiebi,

telefonebi,

dasvenebis

formebi da sxv.

mosaxleobis

raodenobis

swrafi zrda

XXI saukunes,

kacobriobis 6

mlrd. Sexvda

qveyanaSi cxovrebis done saqonlisa da momsaxurebis warmoebis unarze

– mwarmoeblobazea damokidebuli. wlidan wlamde, Taobidan Taobamde,

xangrZlivi drois ganmavlobaSi qveynaSi warmoebis SesaZleblobis

mudmiv zrdas ekonomistebi ekonomikur zrdas uwodeben.

ekonomikur zrdas ganapirobebs ekonomikuri efeqtianoba da

sruli dasaqmeba.

„ekonomikuri zrdis„ cneba ganviTarebuli ekonomikis mdgomareobis asaRwerad gamoiyeneba.

aseT qveynebSi erT sul mosaxleze gaangariSebuli mTliani Sida produqtis sidide

maRalia. Sesabamisad, maRalia cxovrebis donec. warmoebaSi axali teqnologiebis

danergva kidev ufro aumjobesebs saqonlisa da momsaxurebis warmoebis SesaZleblobebs

da inovaciuri produqtebis (axali Taobis kompiuterebi, avtomobilebi, TviTmfrinavebi

da sxva) Seqmnas, rac Tavis mxriv cxovrebis donis Semdgom amaRlebas uwyobs

xels. Tavis mxriv, ekonomikuri zrda fasebis stabilur dones ganapirobebs.

zogierT qveynebSi warmoebis zrdis tempi mosaxleobis zrdis temps CamorCeba. ase-

Tia afrikis, aziis, samxreT amerikis bevri qveyana. aseT qveynebSi ekonomikuri zrda

ar SeimCneva. isini isev cudi socialur-ekonomikuri pirobebiT, umuSevrobis maRali

doniT, siRatakiT, gaunaTleblobiT, sikvdilianobis maRali maCveneblebiT gamoirCevian.

sicocxlis xangrZlivoba saSualod 46,5 welia.

ganuviTarebeli qveynebis ekonomikuri mdgomareobis asaRwerad ufro „ekonomikuri

ganviTarebis“ cneba gamoiyeneba, vidre ekonomikuri zrdis. am qveynebSi ganviTareba

gaigivebulia masobrivi siRatakis, SimSilis, avadmyofobis, uwignurobis, ubinaobis da

umuSevrobis, uTanasworobis daZlevasTan.

qveynis ekonomikuri ganviTarebis procesi mosaxleobis cxovrebis

donis amaRlebas gulisxmobs.


ganviTarebad qveynebSi, maT Soris saqarTveloSic, ekonomikuri ganviTarebis miRweva

mxolod xangrZlivi periodis ekonomikuri zrdis safuZvelzea SesaZlebeli. prioriteti

mdgradi ganviTarebis koncefcias* eniWeba, amitom es procesi rogorc qveynis

mTavrobis, ise mosaxleobis mxridan sakmao drosa da Zalisxmevas, moTminebasa da Tanamimdevrul

gadawyvetilebebs moiTxovs. ekonomikuri zrda fasebis stabilur donesa da

ekonomikur uzrunvelyofas ganapirobebs.

? daakvirdiT

msoflio

cxrili 1. warmoebis wliuri zrdis tempi, %-Si

qveynebis jgufebis mixedviT 1970-2004 wlebSi

wlebi 1970-80 1990-2000 2000 2004

4.

3

ganviTarebuli qveyneb i

3.6

2.73 .8 2.8

ganuviTarebeli qveyneb i

5.5

5.65 .7 4.6

afrika

3.

6

2.

3

2.

8

3.

4

azia

5.

1

7.

6

6.

8

6.

5

axlo

aRmosavleTi

6.

4

4.

0

5.

8

4.

5

laTinuri

amerika

6.

1

3.

4

4.

0

-0.

1

gardamavali qveynebi

maT Soris saqarTvelo

wyaro: FMI; L’Etat du monde. P.: 2006

monacemebs da axseniT

ratom ar Seicvala mniSvnelovnad warmoebis zrdis tempi ganviTarebul

qveynebSi mocemul periodSi?

rogor xdeboda warmoebis zrda saqarTveloSi mocemul periodSi ?

ram ganapiroba ekonomikuri zrdis aseTi tempi ?

ganviTareba SeiZleba ganvixiloT rogorc mravalmxrivi procesi, romelic iwvevs mniSvnelovan

cvlilebebs socialur struqturaSi, adamianTa qcevebSi, sazogadoebriv urTierTobebSi,

ekonomikaSi da dasaqmebaSi. sxva sityvebiT rom vTqvaT, ekonomikuri ganviTarebis

arsi qveynis ekonomikuri cxovrebis yvela sferos gardaqmnaa, rac gulisxmobs:

1. ekonomikuri Tavisuflebis maRal xarisxs;

2. mrewvelobis ganviTarebas;

3. qalaqebis urbanizacias (zrda-ganviTarebas);

4. mosaxleobis kulturuli da saganmanaTleblo donis amaRlebas;

5. ekonomikuri da socialuri problemebis, siRaribis daZlevas;

6. qveynis ekonomikuri meqanizmis srulyofas;

7. infrastruqturis ganviTarebas.

infrastruqturis ganviTareba im dargebis da sawarmoebis ganviTarebas gulisxmobs,

romelTa saqmianobac ekonomikis funqcionirebisaTvis xelsayrel pirobebs qmnis:

gzebis, xidebis, rkinigzis, arxebis, aerodromebis mSenebloba, eleqtro da wyalmoma-

3.

3

5.0- 3.0

-6.6

* mdgradi ganviTarebis koncefcia gulisxmobs ekonomikuri zrdis iseT formas, romelic uzrunvelyofs

sazogadoebis keTildReobas mokle, saSualo da xangrZlivi vadiT. igi efuZneba princips, romlis

Tanaxmad, dRevandelobis moTxovnilebebi unda dakmayofildes ise, rom safrTxe ar Seeqmnas momaval

Taobebs. mdgradi ganviTareba gulisxmobs pirobebis Seqmnas grZelvadiani ekonomikuri ganviTarebisaTvis

garemos dacvis sakiTxebis maqsimaluri gaTvaliswinebiT.

4.

7

6.6

2.0

3.

0

4.1

5.4

169


agebis uzrunvelyofa, jandacvaze, momsaxurebaze, ganaTlebaze…

da a.S.

ra Tqma unda, dasaxelebuli amocanebis warmatebiT

gadaWra drois mcire monakveTSi SeuZlebelia, miT

ufro, mxolod sakuTari resursebis xarjze. amitom,

metad mniSvnelovania saerTaSoriso mxardaWera, magram

am mxardaWeras maSin SeuZlia sargeblis motana,

Tu mocemuli qveyana aqtiurad qmnis Tavisi ganviTarebis

pirobebs, warmoebis met SesaZleblobebs, zrunavs

cxovrebis zogadi donis amaRlebaze.

saerTaSoriso organizaciebi da ekonomikurad Zlieri qveynebi ganviTarebad qveynebs

finansur daxmarebas uweven. sxva saxelmwifoebis xalxTan da sawarmoebTan urTierToba

ganviTarebad qveynebs demokratiuli da ekonomikuri cvlilebebis stimuls aZlevs da

problemebis daZlevaSi exmareba.

Tu saqarTvelo SeZlebs ekonomikuri ganviTarebis iseTi tempis miRwevas, rom momavalma

Taobebma icxovron ukeT, vidre wina Taobebi cxovrobdnen. momaval Taobebs

ufro meti saqonlisa da momsaxurebis moxmareba unda SeeZloT, vidre wina Taobebs, ma-

Sin realuri ekonomikuri zrda miRweuli iqneba.

imsjeleT

es

sainteresoa

170

imuSaveT jgufebSi da moifiqreT argumentebi

romeli gancxadeba SegviZlia gavakeToT?

saqarTvelo ekonomikuri ganviTarebis gzas adgas!

saqarTvelo aqtiuri ekonomikuri zrdis procesSia!

bolo wlebSi saqarTvelom metnaklebad

gadaWra ekonomikuri ganviTarebis uzrunvelyofis

ramdenime problema. daiwyo kvebis

mrewvelobis ganviTareba, ganaTlebis reforma,

infrastruqturis ganviTareba, Tumca,

mTeli rigi dargebi faqtobrivad kvlav

ar funqcionirebs, amave dros saqarTveloSi

arsebuli sawarmoebi nedleulisa da masalebis

moTxovnis did nawils importiT ikmayofileben. mcirea im sawarmoTa

wili (13%), visi produqciac, nawilobriv an mTlianad saeqsportoa.

mTliani Sida produqtis SeqmnaSi mcirea mZime mrewvelobis wili (17.6%).

urbanizaciis koeficienti saqarTveloSi Seadgens 55.7%-s. am maCvenebliT

igi CamorCeba ekonomikurad ganviTarebul qveynebs, magram aRemateba

ganuviTarebeli qveynebis analogiur maCvenebels. igive SeiZleba

iTqvas kulturul-saganmanaTleblo donezec.

ekonomikuri zrdis stimulirebas xelisufleba sxvadasxva gziT cdilobs:

ucxouri investirebis xelSewyobiT;

biujetis saxsrebis dazogviTa da investirebiT;

ganaTlebis sistemis gaZlierebiT;

adamianTa da sakuTrebis uflebebis dacviT;

politikuri stabilurobis SenarCunebiT;

mezobel qveynebTan aqtiuri savaWro urTierTobebis damyarebiT;

axali teqnologiebis danergvisa da mecnieruli kvlevebis

xelSewyobiT.


damatebiTi

sakiTxavi

ekonomikuri reformebi

bolo wlebis ganmavlobaSi saqarTveloSi mniSvnelovani ekonomikuri reformebi ganxorcielda.

aRniSnuli reformebi mimarTuli iyo mimzidveli samewarmeo garemos Camoyalibebisken,

rac ucxouri investiciebis Semodinebis, axali samuSao adgilebis Seqmnis,

ekonomikis yvela dargSi samewarmeo aqtivobis zrdisa da qveynis mosaxleobis keTildReobis

amaRlebis safuZvels warmoadgens.

qveyanaSi ganxorcielebuli reformebis Sedegad Camoyalibda efeqtiani, profesionaluri

da gamWvirvale sajaro samsaxuri.

ekonomikis deregulirebisaken mimarTuli politikis Sedegad, mniSvnelovnad Semcirda

saxelmwifos mier regulirebadi sferoebis raodenoba da gamartivda regulirebis

procedurebi.

aRsaniSnavia qveyanaSi ganxorcielebuli privatizaciis politika, ramac xeli Seuwyo, rogorc

pirdapiri ucxouri da adgilobrivi investiciebis, aseve kerZo seqtoris rolis zrdas

qveynis ekonomikaSi.

qveynis ekonomikuri politikis erT-erTi umTavresi mizania qveyanaSi kerZo mewarmeobis

ganviTareba, misTvis xelsayreli garemos Seqmnis gziT. ekonomikuri reformebi mimarTulia

liberalizaciasa da kerZo seqtoris ganviTarebaze dafuZnebul ekonomikuri zrdis uzrunvelyofisken.

am mimarTulebiT saqarTvelos xelisuflebam gadadga mniSvnelovani nabijebi:

liberaluri sagadasaxado politika - sagadasaxado sistemaSi ganxorcielebuli reformebis

Sedegad, saqarTvelos sagadasaxado kanonmdebloba erT-erTi yvelaze liberaluria

evropaSi. mniSvnelovnad aris Semcirebuli gadasaxadebis rogorc raodenoba 21-dan

6-mde (2004-2008), aseve, sagadasaxado ganakveTebi. saqarTveloSi moqmedi sagadasaxado kodeqsis

mixedviT dReisaTvis moqmedebs eqvsi gadasaxadi, maT Soris 5 saerTo saxelmwifo da 1

adgilobrivi.

aRsaniSnavia, rom 2007 wels sagadasaxado kodeqsSi Setanili cvlilebebis Sedegad, mniSvnelovani

cvlilebebi ganxorcielda sagadasaxado sistemaSi. kerZod, 2008 wlis 1 ianvridan

gauqmda socialuri gadasaxadi da Seiqmna erTiani saSemosavlo gadasaxadi (2008w.

- 25%; 2009 wlidan - 20%), xolo mogebis gadasaxadis ganakveTi Semcirda 20%-dan 15%-mde. gadasaxadis

gadakveTi dividendebsa da procentebze dReisaTvis Seadgens 5%-s nacvlad 2005

wels arsebuli10%-sa. garda amisa, saqarTveloSi dainerga mniSvnelovani proceduruli da

instituciuri siaxleni, sagadasaxado davebis ganxilvis gamartivebuli sistema, rac kidev

ufro mimzidvels gaxdis qveyanas mewarmeebisa da ucxoeli investorebisaTvis. dagegmilia

sagadasaxado sistemis Semdgomi liberalizacia.

sabaJo reforma – saqarTvelos sabaJo kodeqsis mixedviT mniSvnelovnad gamartivda sabaJo

procedurebi. sabaJo tarifebis reformis Sedegad, gaamartivda da Semcirda sagareo

vaWrobasaTan dakavSirebuli xarjebi.

saimporto tarifebis raodenoba gauqmda produqciis daaxloebiT 90 procentze da amas-

Tan, amJamad moqmedebes mxolod sami saxis tarifi (0%, 5%, 12%), adre arsebuli 16-is nacvlad.

sabaJo gadasaxadebi dawesebulia mxolod zogierTi saxis sasoflo-sameurneo produqciaze

da samSeneblo masalebze. garda amisa, qveyanaSi ar moqmedebs raodenobrivi SezRudvebi

(qvotebi) importsa da eqsportze.

biznesis licenzirebis/nebarTvebis modernizebuli sistema – licenziebisa da nebarTvebis

sistemis reformirebis Sedegad, licenziebisa da nebarTvebis raodenoba 84 procentiTaa

Semcirebuli. dReisaTvis, licenziebi da nebarTvebi saWiroa mxolod maRali riskis

Semcveli produqciisa da momsaxurebis, bunebrivi resursebis gamoyenebisa da specifikuri

saqmianobis warmoebisaTvis.

mniSvnelovnad gamartivda licenziebisa da nebarTvebis gacemis procedurebi, damkvidrda

,,erTi sarkmlis” da ,,dumili Tanxmobis niSania” principi.

Tavisufali industriuli zona - qveyanaSi sainvesticio garemos kidev ufro liberal-

171


izaciisa da Sesabamisad, pirdapiri ucxouri investiciebis mozidvis mizniT, miRebul iqna

kanoni “Tavisufali industriuli zonebis Sesaxeb”, romlis Tanaxmad, aseTi zona SesaZloa

Seiqmnas 10 heqtarze met teritoriaze, saqarTvelos mTavrobis gadawyvetilebiT, misive, an

investoris iniciativis safuZvelze. zonaSi moqmedebs gansxvavebuli sagadasaxado reJimi,

gamartivebulia registraciisa da sxva procedurebi.

Tavisufali zonebis daarseba da funqcionireba xels Seuwyobs Tanamedrove teqnologiebis

Semodinebas, gaaCens moTxovnas kvalificiur SromiT Zalaze da dadebiTad aisaxeba

rogorc regionis, aseve qveynis ekonomikuri ganviTarebaze.

teqnikuri regulirebis sistemis reforma – saerTaSoriso bazarze qarTuli produqciisa

da momsaxurebisaTvis teqnikuri barierebis moxsna saqarTvelos ekonomikis Semdgomi

ganviTarebis erT-erT aucilebel winapirobas warmoadgens.

am miznis realizebisaTvis, saqarTveloSi ganxorcielda teqnikuri regulirebis sferos

reforma, romelic xels Seuwyobs:

• saerTaSoriso vaWrobaSi teqnikuri barierebis aRmofxvras;

• sainvesticio garemos gajansaRebas;

• qarTuli produqciis ucxour bazrebze SeRwevadobis SesaZleblobis gazrdas;

• saerTaSoriso da evrokavSiris moTxovnebTan daaxloebas;

• vaWrobis msoflio organizaciis winaSe aRebuli valdebulebebis Sesrulebas, rac

ZiriTadad gamoixateba savaldebulo standartebidan nebayoflobiT standartebze gadasvlaSi;

• teqnikuri regulirebis sferoSi momsaxurebis gamWvirvalobas.

aRniSnuli reformis Sedegad moxda nebayoflobiTi standartebis sistemaze gadasvla

da sistemaSi saxelmwifos maregulirebeli rolis Semcireba, rac mniSvnelovnia samewarmeo

saqmianobis gafarToebisaTvis.

saqarTveloSi nebayoflobiTi standartizaciis danergva mewarmes saSualebas

aZlevs:

• SearCios qveyanaSi registrirebuli standarti Tavisi saqmianobisaTvis;

• aiRos nebismieri qveynis an nebismieri saerTaSoriso an regionuli standarti da gamoiyenos

saqmianobisaTvis;

• SeimuSaos sakuTari standarti axali produqciisaTvis, daaregistriros standartebis,

teqnikuri reglamentebis da metrologiis erovnul saagentoSi da gamoiyenos Tavisi saqmianobisaTvis;

• miiRos konsultaciebi standartebis SerCevisa da SemuSavebisaTvis.

saxelmwifo qonebis privatizacia - saqarTvelos mTavrobis mier sainvesticio garemos

gaumjobesebisa da kerZo investiciebis mozidvisaTvis mimdinare reformaTagan mniSvnelovania

2004 wels dawyebuli privatizebis procesi, romlis umTavresi mizania saxelmwifo

sakuTrebaSi darCenili obieqtebis gansaxelmwifoebrioba qveynis ekonomikuri

ganviTarebis stimulirebisaTvis, kerZo seqtoris zrdisa da ganviTarebisaTvis, adgilobrivi

da ucxouri investiciebis mozidvisaTvis, qveyanaSi arsebuli resursebis efeqtiani

gamoyenebisTvis da a.S.

liberaluri Sromis kodeqsi – saqarTvelos axalma Sromis kodeqsma SromiTi urTier-

Tobebis sferoSi mniSvnelovani siaxleebi Seitana, gaamartiva ra urTierTobebi damsaqmeblebsa

da dasaqmebulebs Soris.

reformis Sedegad, Heritage Foundation-is da sxva analitikuri centrebis mier saqarTvelos

Sromis kodeqsi aRiarebulia, rogorc msoflios erT-erTi yvelaze liberaluri,

radgan man mniSvnelovnad Seamcira daqiravebis da samuSaodan gaTavisuflebis xarjebi.

SeRavaTiani sagareo-savaWro reJimebi - saqarTvelos sagareo-savaWro brunva 2003 wlidan

zrdis tendenciiT xasiaTdeba, rasac qveynis liberaluri savaWro politikac uwyobs

xels.

172

wyaro: saqarTvelos ekonomikis da mdgradi ganviTarebis saministros masalebi.

http://www.economy.ge


Tanamimdevrulma RonisZiebebma mkveTri ekonomikuri zrdis efeqti 3_4 weliwadSi

unda moitanos. TiToeuli adamiani qveynis ekonomikis nawilia, amitom ekonomikuri zrdis

xelSewyoba TiToeuli maTganis mier miRebuli gadawyvetilebebiT xdeba, ekomomikuri

zrdis Sedegi TiToeul maTganTan midis.

qveyanaSi ekonomikuri zrda TvalsaCino maSin iqneba, Tu saqonlisa da momsaxurebis

warmoebis moculobis zrdasTan erTad, mniSvnelovnad amaRldeba cxovrebis

saSualo done, roca amas mosaxleobis udidesi nawili sakuTar Tavze igrZnobs.

savarjiSo

kiTxvebi

da

davalebebi

ese

davexmaroT mTavrobas!

warmoidgineT, rom saqarTvelos mTavrobis ekonomikuri mrCevlebi

xarT da miiReT davaleba, moamzadoT tipiuri ekonomikuri

problemebis sruli CamonaTvali.

romel problemebs SeitandiT Tqvens siaSi?

ras urCevdiT mTavrobas, ra RonisZiebebi unda gaataros am problemebTan

gamklavebis mizniT?

RonisZiebebis programis Sesadgenad SegiZliaT imuSaoT jgufebSi.

1. ra igulisxmeba qveynis ekonomikur ganviTarebaSi?

2. ekonomikis romel sferoebs moicavs saqarTvelos ganviTarebis

ZiriTadi mimarTulebebi? romeli mimarTuleba migaCniaT prioritetulad?

pasuxi daasabuTeT.

3. msoflios zogierTi uRaribesi qveyana ekonomikuri zrdis daCqarebas

Sida bazarze orientirebuli politikiT cdilobs. es

danarCen samyarosTan urTierTobis SezRudvas niSnavs. ase-

Ti gadawyvetilebis argumentad samamulo bazris ucxouri

saqonlis konkurenciisagan dacva da adgilobrivi warmoebis

ganviTareba ganixileba. marTebulad migaCniaT Tu ara aseTi

gadawyvetilebebi? pasuxi daasabuTeT.

4. eTanxmebiT Tu ara, rom ganviTarebuli qveynebis interesebSi Sedis

ganviTarebadi qveynebisaTvis finansuri da Hhumanitaruli

daxmarebis gaweva, radgan es qveynebi SemdgomSi ekonomikurad

Zlieri qveynis produqciis momxmareblebi gaxdebian.

5. gamoiwvevs Tu ara saerTaSoriso vaWrobis SezRudvis, magaliTad

tarifebis mniSvnelovnad Semcireba an gauqmeba, swraf ekonomikur

zrdas?

6. Tqveni azriT, ra aucilebeli RonisZiebebi unda gatardes qveyanaSi

imisaTvis, rom TiToeulma ojaxma igrZnos ekonomikuri

zrda?

7. romel socialur jgufs sWirdeba saqarTveloSi yvelaze metad

sazogadoebis Tanadgoma?

dawereT Txzuleba saqarTvelos momavalze. aRwereT, rogor warmogidgeniaT

is mas Semdeg, rac zemoT CamoTvlili reformebi ganxorcieldeba.

173


IX

174

ფისკალური და

მონეტარული

პოლიტიკის როლი

ეკონომიკაში

49

ფისკალური პოლიტიკა

imsjeleT gaixseneT, ra informacias gvaZlevs ekonomikis Sesaxeb mTliani Sida

1

produqti (GDP)?

albaT, teleekranebidan ara erTxel mogismeniaT pensiebis da socialuri

daxmarebebis, saxelmwifo dazRvevis gazrdis moTxovna. pretenziebi

gansakuTrebiT arCevnebis win matulobs. politikosebi ki, gabedulad

iZlevian dapirebebs gadasaxadebis Semcirebasa da socialuri daxmarebebis

gazrdis, ufaso saavadmyofoebis gaxsnis, saxelmwifo valis gastumrebis

Sesaxeb.

davuSvaT, rom xarT ekonomikis eqsperti da satelevizio gadacemaSi

migiwvies. Tqvengan moiTxoven SeafasoT gadasaxadebis da saxelmwifo

biujetis xarjebis erTdroulad Semcirebis dapirebebis Sesrulebis

sakiTxi.

1) rogor komentars gaakeTebdiT? romel argumentebs moiyvandiT?

2) ra rCevas miscemT qveynis mTavrobas, rogor moaxdinos qveyanaSi ekonomikuri

ryevebis regulireba?

3) rogor iqmneba saxelmwifo biujeti?

4) romeli ZiriTadi muxlebia gaTvaliswinebuli qveynis biujetSi?

5) flobT Tu ara informacias saqarTvelos saxelmwifo sabiujeto prioritetebis

gansazRvris procesTan dakavSirebiT?

6) Tqveni azriT, Tu qveyana ekonomikuri krizisis pirobebSia, mTavroba

unda Caerios ekonomikaSi? ratom? ra formiT unda moxdes es Careva?

xelisuflebis ori ZiriTadi instrumenti, romelic saxelmwifos

ekonomikuri miznebis misaRwevad sWirdeba (`saxelmwifos ori xeli“)

aris: fiskaluri politika, romlis saSualebiTac mTavroba gansaz-

Rvravs gadasaxadebsa da xarjebs da monetaruli politika, romlis

saSualebiTac igi marTavs fulis mimoqcevas.


fiskaluri (sabiujeto-sagadasaxado) politika (ing. Fiscal

policy) aris samTavrobo politika, romlis mizania saxelmwifoSi

stabiluri ekonomikuri sistemis biznes-ciklis uzrunvelyofa,

moklevadiani ekonomikuri ryevebis Semcireba da stabiluri ekonomikuri

sistemis SenarCuneba, anu fiskaluri (sabiujeto-sagadasaxado)

politika aris mTavrobis politika danaxarjebis, gadasaxadebis

da sesxebis Sesaxeb.

saxelmwifom rom SeZlos makroekonomikuri balansis SenarCuneba, unda gamoiyenos

moklevadiani fiskaluri politikis ZiriTadi instrumentebi - saxelmwifo biujetis

Semosavlebi da xarjebi - gadasaxadebi da saerTaSoriso safinanso valdebulebebi,

transferebi, da saxelmwifos mier saqonlisa da momsaxurebis Sesyidvebi da maTi saSualebiT

moaxdinos mTliani Sida produqtis da saerTo moTxovnis stabilizacia.

efeqtiani sagadasaxado politikis gatarebas SeuZlia mniSvnelovnad Seuwyos xeli

saxelmwifos ZiriTadi ekonomikuri amocanebis gadaWras.

sagadasaxado politika moqmedebs sakanonmdeblo da sxva normatiuli aqtebis miRebis

safuZvelze, romlebic adgens qveyanaSi:

gadasaxadebis saxeebs;

gadamxdelTa wres;

sagadasaxado ganakveTebs;

sagadasaxado SeRavaTebs;

gadamxdelTa pasuxismgeblobas;

gadasaxadebis ganawilebas biujetis doneebs Soris.

175


efeqturi

sagadasaxado

datvirTva

vin atarebs

realurad ama Tu

im gadasaxadis

tvirTs ? vin

sargeblobs

am gadasaxadis

gauqmebiT an

SemcirebiT?

Tu qveyanaSi xarjebis Semosavalze gadameteba qmnis biujetis

deficits, maSin mTavroba pirvel rigSi afinansebs biujetis mimdinare

xarjebs. Tu deficitis aRmofxvra mainc ar moxerxda, maSin

gamoiyeneba biujetis xarjebis sekvestris meqanizmi.

ra SeiZleba gaxdes araefeqturi sabiujeto politikis mizezi?

biujetis deficiti;

maRali sagareo vali;

qveyanaSi arsebuli dabali sainvesticio aqtioba;

mouwesrigebeli biznes-garemo;

sawarmoo seqtoris dabali aqtivoba;

eqsportis dabali maCveneblebi.

176

gadasaxadebis

dagegmva

saxelmwifos

uzrunvelyofa

finansuri

resursebiT

sagadasaxado

politikis ZiriTadi

maCveneblebi

optimaluri sagadasaxdo dabegvra

sagadasaxado SeRavaTebis SemoRebis

Semdeg bazris romeli segmenti xdeba

mimzidveli investorisaTvis da iwyeba

kapitalis modineba?

sagadasaxado politika

gadasaxadebis

regulireba

saxelmwifos

sagadasaxado

politikis

amocanebi

sameurneo

saqmianobis

regulirebis

pirobebis Seqmna

sagadasaxdo

kapitalizacia

rogoria

gadasaxadebis

SemcirebiT

gamowveuli

gverdiTi

efeqti? ramdenad

gamoixateba

konkretuli

saqonlis bazris

monawileTa

kapitalis zrdaSi?

gadasaxadebis

kontroli

mosaxleobis SemosavlebSi

uTanabrobis

aRmofxvris mizniT

socialuri daxmarebebis

uzrunvelyofa


ekonomikuri krizisis an aRmavlobis pirobebSi, mTavrobas

SeuZlia Secvlos gadasaxadebis saxe da masStabi,

xarjebis struqtura, iseve rogorc sesxebis moculoba da

formebi, rom amiT xeli Seuwyos finansuri sistemis funqcionirebas,

stimuli misces ekonomikuri zrdas da Seamciros

krizisis efeqti daucveli jgufebis mimarT. amiT

mTavroba pirdapir an arapirdapir gavlenas axdens ekonomikuri

resursebis gamoyenebaze.

sabiujeto sistema - qveynis yvela saxelmwifo struqturebis

biujetebis (fondis) erTianoba, romelic dafuZnebulia administraciul-teritoriul

mowyobaze, ekonomikur urTierTobebsa da

iuridiul normebze.

sabiujeto procesi - saxelmwifo xelisuflebis organoebis

kanoniT gansazRvruli saqmianoba, romelic moicavs biujetebis

Sedgenas, ganxilvas, miRebasa da SesrulebisaTvis. sabiujeto procesis

Semadgeneli nawilia sabiujeto regulireba. is warmoadgens

sxvadasxva donis biujetebs Soris Semosavlis wyaroebis kanoniT

gansazRvrul gadanawilebas.

sekvestri - darCenili finansuri wlis manZilze sabiujeto xarjebis

yovelTviuri proporciuli Semcireba biujetis xarjviTi

nawilis yvela muxlis mixedviT.

gaixseneT, rom GDP = C + I + G+NX. formulis marcxena mxares warmoadgenda mTliani

Sida produqti (mSp), anu im yvela saboloo saqonlisa da momsaxurebis Rirebuleba, rasac

awarmoebs warmoebis ekonomika. marjvena mxares: kerZo moxmareba (C), kerZo investireba (I),

saxelmwifos mier saqonlisa da momsaxurebis SeZena (G) da eqsportis minus importi (wminda

eqsportis NX). am gantolebas naTelia, rom xelisuflebas gavlenebi ekonomikur saqmianobas

(mSp) pirdapir an arapirdapir akontroleben G moqmedi (C), investiciebis da eqsport-imports

Soris Tanafardobis SecvliT ( NX SecvliT) icvleba gadasaxadebi, transferebi da xarjebi.

fiskaluri politika, pirdapir zrdis an amcirebs saerTo moTxovnas, saxelmwifo xarjebis.

cxrili 1. saqarTvelos saxelmwifo biujetis ZiriTadi maCveneblebis dasaxeleba (mln. lari)

d a s a x e l e b a 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011

Semosavlebi 802.7 933.3 1,732.9 2,213.0 3,293.3 4,293.6 5,517.7 4,917.0 5,421.5 6,388.8

gadasaxadebi 567.9 602.3 975.3 1,407.3 2,130.3 3,010.5 4,541.6 4,161.7 4,592.4 5,802.0

saSemosavlo gadasaxadi 18.5 20.0 16.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 1,218.3 1,053.2 1,119.0 1,439.5

mogebis gadasaxadi 9.3 11.8 11.3 0.0 324.9 533.1 592.1 517.7 576.0 832.2

dRg 370.9 368.5 598.7 987.4 1,332.7 1,973.7 2,069.0 2,051.8 2,203.1 2,784.3

aqcizi 118.3 135.7 213.1 295.1 338.6 428.6 518.4 443.2 560.8 615.2

sabaJo gadasaxadi 50.9 66.3 131.8 124.2 132.4 52.0 51.9 35.9 70.4 93.2

importis gadasaxadi 0.0 0.0 2.1 0.0 - - - - - -

sxva araklasificirebuli gadasaxadebi 0.0 0.0 1.9 0.6 1.7 23.1 91.8 60.0 63.1 37.6

socialuri Senatanebi 154.8 222.7 402.2 428.8 502.8 722.1 - - - -

grantebi 22.6 48.4 160.1 104.5 194.0 208.6 617.2 387.7 471.4 263.1

sxva Semosavlebi 57.4 59.9 195.3 272.4 466.2 352.4 359.0 367.5 357.7 323.7

xarjebi 839.7 915.6 1,432.2 2,012.7 2,669.4 3,890.0 5,554.7 5,367.2 5,466.5 5,926.8

Sromis anazRaureba 93.9 131.5 233.0 336.7 451.5 603.5 913.1 941.6 993.5 1,012.5

saqoneli da momsaxureba 183.1 169.3 319.2 420.2 678.5 1,483.8 1,508.8 879.9 881.6 989.0

procenti 146.7 168.5 142.4 120.1 100.5 97.4 119.3 167.2 200.7 282.7

subsidiebi 92.0 57.0 112.7 421.5 419.0 267.3 362.5 447.3 196.3 196.7

grantebi 65.1 69.8 128.2 181.4 222.7 197.3 858.9 861.2 1,099.6 1,220.0

socialuri uzrunvelyofa 258.9 319.5 480.5 466.0 597.2 892.5 1,286.1 1,419.9 1,481.1 1,540.9

sxva xarjebi 0.0 0.0 16.2 66.8 200.0 348.2 506.1 650.1 613.7 685.0

177


iujetis saoperacio saldo -37.0 17.7 300.7 200.3 623.9 403.6 -37.0 -450.3 -45.0 462.0

arafinansuri aqtivebis cvlileba 100.0 94.2 248.1 23.1 278.7 274.0 324.6 746.7 873.5 755.8

biujetis mTliani saldo -137.0 -76.5 52.6 177.2 345.2 129.6 -361.6 -1,197.0 -918.5 -293.8

finansuri aqtivebis cvlileba -4.5 64.2 93.6 110.7 264.4 144.1 600.5 -499.5 357.4 289.3

saSinao -4.5 64.2 93.6 110.7 264.4 144.1 600.5 -499.5 357.4 289.3

sagareo 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

monetaruli oqro da nasesxobis

specialuri ufleba

178

wyaro: saqarTvelos parlamentis 2010 wlis 17 dekembris ¹4107–rs kanoni „saqarTvelos 2011 wlis

saxelmwifo biujetis Sesaxeb“.

davaleba

imsjeleT

es

sainteresoa

0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

valdebulebebis cvlileba 132.5 140.7 41.0 -66.5 -80.8 14.5 962.2 697.5 1,276.0 583.2

saSinao 47.6 50.0 12.5 -32.0 -25.9 -20.0 -52.4 26.4 123.5 35.2

sagareo 84.9 90.7 28.5 -34.5 -54.9 34.5 1,014.6 671.1 1,152.5 548.0

daakvirdiT monacemebs da axseniT

romeli muxlebSia gamoxatuli zrdis dinamika? romel muxlebSia

gamoxatuli klebis dinamika ?

Tqveni azriT ra SeiZleba iyos amis mizezi?

rogor efeqts moitanda aseTi cvlilebebi socialurad daucveli

mosaxleobisTvis?

imuSaveT jgufebSi da moifiqreT argumentebi saqarTvelos

fiskaluri politikis sasargeblod da sawinaaRmdegod.

saqarTvelom metnaklebad gadaWra ekonomikuri ganviTarebis uzrunvelyofa

efeqturi sagadasaxado _ sabiujeto politikis gatarebiT.

qveynis ekonomikuri politikis Semadgeneli nawili safinansosabiujeto

politika, moicavs saxelmwifoSi finansebis organizaciisa

da gamoyenebis RonisZiebaTa erTobliobas saxelmwifo funqciebisa da

amocanebis gansaxorcieleblad. safinanso-sabiujeto politika erTiania

saqarTvelos mTel teritoriaze da tardeba sagadasaxado, fuladsakredito,

fasebis da savaluto politikasTan SeTanxmebiT. fiskalur

politikas qveyanaSi atarebs mTavroba, saxelmwifo. saqarTvelos saxelmwifo

biujetis proeqts SeimuSavebs saqarTvelos finansTa saministro.

saqarTvelos sabiujeto politikis samarTlebriv baziss warmoadgens

saqarTvelos sabiujeto kodeqsi, romelic saqarTvelos parlamentis

mier 2009 wlis 18 dekembers iqna miRebuli da 2010 wlis 1 ianvridan

Sevida ZalaSi.saqarTvelos parlamenti iRebs kanons `saqarTvelos saxelmwifo

biujetis Sesaxeb~, romlis farglebSi mtkicdeba saqarTvelos

centraluri biujeti, cal-calke ganisazRvreba afxazeTisa da aWaris

erTeulebis biujetebisaTvis gadasacemi miznobrivi transfertebi.

aseve parlamentis mier mtkicdeba specialuri saxelmwifo fondebis

Semosavlisa da gasavlis ZiriTadi maCveneblebi.

wyaro. www.parlament.ge. saqarTvelos mTavrobis ZiriTadi

monacemebi da mimarTulebebi/ 2007-2010 )


? Tqveni azriT, ras gulisxmobs e.w. `qamrebis SemoWeris politika~?

savarjiSo

kiTxvebi

da

davalebebi

ese

kidev erTxel davexmaroT mTavrobas!

warmoidgineT, rom saqarTvelos mTavrobis ekonomikuri mrCevlebi

xarT da miiReT davaleba, moamzadoT momavali wlis fiskaluri politikis

prioritetebis gegma. RonisZiebebis programis Sesadgenad Segi-

ZliaT jgufebSi imuSaoT.

ekonomistebis ramdenime jgufi msjelobs, Tu rogor unda

moiqces mTavroba ekonomikuri krizisis pirobebSi ekonomikuri

ciklebis samarTavad da procesis gasaadvileblad. maTi azrebi gaiyo:

ekonomistebis I jgufi moiTxovs: SevamciroT gadasaxadebi, magram

samTavrobo xarjebi igive davtovoT. is pirovnebebi, romlebsac

gadasaxadebis Semcirebis Sedegad gauCndaT zedmeti Semosavali,

am fuls isev ekonomikaSi daabandeben.

ekonomistebis II jgufi moiTxovs: mTavrobam gazardos xarjebi

ufro metad, vidre mas Semosavali aqvs gadasaxadebis saxiT. amiT

mTavroba fuls Cadebs isev ekonomikaSi da amiT daaCqarebs ekonomikuri

aqtivobis tempebs.

ekonomistebis III jgufi amtkicebs, rom orive midgoma mxolod

moklevadian efeqts moitans. amasTan arsebobs safrTxe, rom gadasaxadebis

Semcirebas mivyavarT ekonomikis zedmetad stimulaciisaken,

rasac Sedegad inflacia moyveba da saxelmwifos ekonomika

ufro rTul situaciaSi aRmoCndeba. inflaciis ZiriTadi

mizezi mTavrobis araswori fiskaluri da erovnuli bankis araswori

monetaruli politikaa. saWiroa kombinirebuli gegma situaciis

regulirebisaTvis.

ekonomistebis IV jgufi amtkicebs, rom qveyanaSi inflaciis

90% gamowveulia gare faqtorebiT. msoflio bazarze midis Zalian

rTuli procesebi: navTobi, iseve rogorc sabaziso kvebis

produqtebi (wiwibura, Saqari, xorbali) Zvirdebada momavali

wlis mosavlis bedi arasaxarbieloa. inflaciuri procesebi ga-

Zlierdeba gardauvalia.

imsjeleT, ra safuZveli aqvs ekonomikis eqspertTa am prognozs?

gaiyaviT jgufebad da moifiqreT TiToeuli jgufis mxardam-

Weri argumentebi

saxelmwifos fiskaluri politika da Cemi ojaxi.

179


imsjeleT

180

50

monetaruli

politika

1. raSi xarjavs saqarTvelos mosaxleoba damatebiT (aradagegmil) Semosavlebs?

2. ra moxdeba, Tu erT dRes, yvela meanabre sabanko angariSebidan fuls

moxsnis da xarjvas daiwyebs?

3. ra pirobebSi gamoiwvevs damatebiTi Semosavlebi an danaxarjebi inflacias?

4. ra pirobebia saWiro imisaTvis, rom fulis miwodebis gazrdam inflacia

ar gamoiwvios?

5. SegaSfoTebT Tu ara informacia imis Sesaxeb, rom qveyanaSi inflaciam

20 %-s gadaaWarba? ratom?

1

warmoidgineT, rom qveyanaSi fulma gaufasureba daiwyo. SeSfoTebulma

mosaxleobam uZravi qonebis SeZena daiwyo, magram fasebis yoveldRiuri

matebis gamo, saxlebis, binebis, miwis nakveTebis Tu manqanebis mepatroneebi

gayidvisagan Tavs ikaveben. ician, rom aRebuli fulic gaufasurdeba, amitom

simdidris Senaxva qonebis saxiT urCeviaT.

miwis nakveTebiT da saxlebiT vaWrobis Semcirebam binaTmSeneblobis Semcireba

gamoiwvia. Sesabamisad mSeneblebi, durglebi da avtoxelosnebi samuSaos

gareSe darCnen. xe-tyis da liTonis masalebiT vaWrobamac sagrZnoblad

iklo. manqanebiT vaWrobis Semcirebam zogierTi avtosaremonto saxelosnoebis

daxurva xelosnebis umuSevrad darCena gamoiwvia.

ekonomikis ministrma satelevizio interviuSi ganacxada, rom radgan inflacia

sabazro ekonomikis `mudmivi senia~, aqtiuri RonisZiebebis gatareba

saWiro ar aris, bazari TviTon daaregulirebs mas yovelgvari damatebiTi

Carevis gareSe.

? rogor

fiqrobT, qveynis prezidentsa da mis gunds moewonebaT ase-

Ti politika? ratom?

rogor Seafaseben mTavrobis aseT pozicias opoziciuri Zalebi?

Tqven rogor SeafasebT ekonomikis ministris pozicias?

ra rCevas miscemT mTavrobas, rogor daareguliros qveyanaSi

ekonomikuri situacia?

inflaciis regulirebisaTvis mTavroba monetarul

politikas atarebs.

monetaruli politika qveyanaSi fulis

fasis, kreditebis raodenobis, sargeblis

ganakveTis, bankebis rezervebis normis

dadgenas niSnavs.


monetarul politikas qveynis mTavari banki atarebs. saqarTveloSi aseTi banki saqarTvelos

erovnuli bankia. qveynis mTavari bankebi xelisuflebis mier aris daarsebuli

sabanko sistemisa da qveyanaSi fulis raodenobis kontrolis mizniT.

qveynis ekonomikis interesebidan gamomdinare, centraluri banki amcirebs an zrdis

qveyanaSi fulis miwodebas da kreditis xelmisawvdomobas. centraluri bankebis

ZiriTadi roli inflaciis da/an deflaciis Tavidan acileba, fulis miwodebis

gansazRvraa.

monetaruli

politikis

gatareba

erovnuli bankis funqciebi

bankebis

bankiris

funqcia

sabanko

sistemis

regulureba

operaciebi Ria

bazrebze –

obligaciebis

yidva-gayidva

monetaruli politikis gatareba. centraluri banki

mniSvnelovan kontrols axorcielebs saxelmwifoSi fulis

miwodebaze, sargeblis ganakveTsa da kreditis xelmisawvdomobaze

(sargeblis ganakveTze). rodesac fulis

miwodebis saSualo done matulobs, izrdeba inflaciis

donec. fulis miwodebis ise daregulireba, rom mkveTri

inflacia an deflacia ar gamoiwvios, centraluri bankis

seriozuli problemaa. centraluri banki uSvebs

erovnul valutas – banknotebsa da monetebs.

operaciebi Ria bazarze. msoflios bevri qveyana Tavisi centraluri bankis saSualebiT

yidulobs da yidis saxelmwifo fasian qaRaldebs. radgan fasiani qaRaldebis SeZena

fuliT xdeba, Sesabamisad ekonomikaSi fulis masa izrdeba an klebulobs. saxelmwifos

mier fasiani qaRaldebis SeZena zrdis fulis masas, gayidva – amcirebs fulis masas ekonomikaSi.

centraluri bankebisaTvis saxelmwifo fasiani qaRaldebiT vaWroba monetaruli

politikis ZiriTi iaraRia.

rogorc bankebis banki. sabanko sistema or safexuriania: centraluri bankebi da

komerciuli bankebi. centraluri bankebi komerciul bankebs sxvadasxva momsaxurebas

sTavazoben. magaliTad, centraluri banki im milionobiT Ceks amuSavebs, romlebic

mTeli qveynis komerciuli bankebis angariSebze aisaxeba. Tanamedrove eleqtronuli

sagadasaxado sistemis saSualebiT im bankebidan, sadac calkeuli pirebis an firmebis

mier Ceki gamoiwera, im bankebSi xdeba gadaricxva, sadac fuli angariSze aisaxa. msgavsi

operaciebis ganxorcieleba maSinac ki SesaZlebelia, roca es bankebi milionobiT kilometriT

aris erTmaneTisagan daSorebuli. centraluri banki komerciul bankebze

gascems kreditebs – asrulebs „bankebis bankis“ funqcias. saprocento ganakveTs,

romelsac centraluri banki aseT kreditebze awesebs, diskonturi norma ewodeba.

diskontis Semcireba zrdis fulis miwodebas.

sabanko sistemis regulireba. centraluri banki aregulirebs qveyanaSi bankebis

saqmianobas da usafrTxo saqmianobis uzrunvelsayofad zedamxedvelobas uwevs maT.

centraluri banki komerciuli bankebisagan fulis garkveuli rezervis Seqmnas

iTxovs. rezervi sabanko anabrebis is nawilia, romlis gasesxebac ar SeiZleba.

rezervebis zrda fulis miwodebas amcirebs, zrdis moTxovnas. xSir SemTxvevaSi

centraluri bankebi damoukidebelia saxelmwifos aRmasrulebeli da sakanonmdeblo

Stoebisagan. qveynis mTavar banks iseTi monetaruli politikis gatarebis ufleba aqvs.

romelic ekonomikas Tavidan aacilebs an Seamcirebs inflacias. msgavs politikas centraluri

banki maSinac atarebs, roca misi gadawyvetilebebi politikosebSi an sazogadoebaSi

arapopularulia.

181


182

!

fasebis saerTo done fulze moTxovna–miwodebis kanoniT regulirdeba.

fulis Warbi miwodeba inflaciis erT-erT gamomwvev mizezad ganixileba.

centraluri banki uSvebs erovnul valutas – banknotebsa da monetebs.

fulis bazris regulirebisaTvis Eerovnuli bankis

mier gatarebuli RonisZiebebi

fulis masis

gazrdisaTvis

!

imsjeleT

es

sainteresoa

fulis masis

SemcirebisaTvis

amcirebs sarezervo moTxovnebs

zrdis

yidulobs

obligaciebs

/operaciebi Ria bazarze/

yidis

diskontur ganakveTs

amcirebs zrdis

gaixseneT!

TamaSSi `auqcioni~ maswavlebeli `centraluri bankis~ funqcias

asrulebda. is iRebda gadawyvetilebebs fulis miwodebis Secvlaze.

Tqven mowmeni iyaviT, Tu rogor gaizarda fasebi brunvaSi didi raodenobiT

fulis gaSvebis Semdeg.

ratom aris qveynisaTvis centraluri bankis damoukidebloba ukeTesi?

ra mizezebi SeiZleba hqondeT oficialur pirebs, roca isini mkacr

monetarul politikas uWeren mxars?

Tqveni azriT ras gulisxmobda uil rojersi gamonaTqvamSi `dedamiwis

arsebobis dasawyisidan moyolebuli sami udidesi gamogoneba

Seiqmna: cecxlis Senaxva, borbali da centraluri banki~.

sabanko sistema

me-20 saukunis dasawyisSi msoflios sxvadasxva qveyanaSi mxolod 18

centraluri banki iyo, 1999 wlisaTvis ki TiTqmis yvela qveyanas hqonda

centraluri banki. maT Soris:

saqarTveloSi – erovnuli banki;

aSS-Si – federaluri sarezervo sistema (Federal Reserve (Fed));

ruseTSi – centro banki (Центро Банк);

germaniaSi – bundes banki (Bundes Bank);

inglisSi – inglisis banki (Bank of England).

sabanko sistemis ganviTarebis mxriv gansakuTrebuli miRwevebiT

gamoirCeva qveynebi: iaponia, aSS, avstralia, honk-kongi, Sveicaria,


luqsemburgi, germania, avstria, safrangeTi, didi britaneTi. amave

qveynebSi bankebisadmi mosaxleobis ndobis xarisxi yvelaze maRalia.

Tanamedrove sabanko sistema xangrZlivi drois ganmavlobaSi yalibdeboda.

cnobilia, rom Cvens welTaRricxvamde 2700 wlis win babilonsa

da asureTSi fuladi saxsrebis Senaxva da sasesxo operaciebi kanonebiT

regulirdeboda. sesxebi gaicemoda ara marto fuladi formiT, aramed

calkeuli saqonlis saxiTac: finikiT, SaliT, zeTiT.

monaTmflobelur saberZneTSi monastrebi fulis da Zvirfaseulobis

sacavadac gamoiyeneboda. zogierTi RvTismsaxuri bankiris funqciasac

asrulebda. maT ebaraT sacavebis gasaRebebi, sistematurad aRricxavdnen

arsebul simdidres, Semosavlebs da gasavlebs. SemdgomSi es

tradicia mTel evropaSi gavrcelda.

qarTuli fulis istoria

mravalsaukunovani arsebobis ganmavlobaSi saqarTvelo

yovelTvis iyo msoflios mniSvnelovani movlenebis

aqtiuri monawile. amdenad, gasakviri ar aris, rom pirveli

monetebis SemoRebidan arc ise didi xnis Semdeg, Zv.w.

VI saukuneSi Zvel kolxeTSi, ukve mimoqcevaSi iyo vercxlis

moneta „kolxuri TeTri“, romelic msoflios erTerT

uZveles monetad miiCneva.

kolxuri stateri,

Zv. w. III s.

saqarTveloSi ar aris kuTxe, sadac Semonaxuli ar iyos sxvadasxva liTonisagan

damzadebuli monetebi Soreuli warsulidan. aq aRmoCenili qarTuli

da ucxouri monetebis Tanmimdevruli cvalebadoba zustad asaxavs Cveni qveynis

warsuls da qveyanaSi momxdar istoriul movlenebs. qarTuli monetebis mimoqcevis

26 saukunovan periodSi droisa da pirobebis Sesabamisad icvleboda

monetis garegnuli mxarezed aRbeWdili mefeebis saxelebi, warweraTa Sinaarsi,

monetebis formebi. zogjer moWril fulze ucxo siuJetebi da ucxouri

warwerebi Cndeboda, rac politikur-ekonomikuri mizezebiT iyo nakarnaxevi.

miuxedavad amisa, saqarTvelo TiTqmis uwyvetad

inarCunebda saxelmwifoebriobis erT-erT um-

Tavres regalias - sakuTar fuls. maSin, roca VI saukunis

80-ian wlebSi qarTlSi arabebi batonobdnen

qarTlis erismTavrebi gurgeni da stefanozi

farnavaz I -s moneta

axerxebdnen moeWraT moneta, romelsac asomTavruli

warwerebi da qristianuli religiis simbolo - jvari amSvenebda.

mogvianebiT, daviT III kurapalatma moWra vercxlis moneta, romelzec

gamosaxuli iyo jvari da ewera: „qriste Seiwyale daviT kurapalati“. gaer-

Tianebuli saqarTvelos pirveli mefe bagrat III ki arabuli tipis monetebs

Wrida, rac ekonomikuri mosazrebiT iyo ganpirobebuli. qarTveli mefeni

xSirad uSvebdnen orenovan monetebs, ZiriTadad

gavrcelebuli iyo qarTul-berZnuli,

qarTul-arabuli, qarTul-sparsuli monetebi.

qarTulwarweriani monetebidan aRsaniSnavia

moneta, romelzec moxseniebulni arian

„mefeT-mefe giorgi“ da „mefe da dedofali

Tamari“. igi giorgi III-m maSin gamouSva, roca

Tavisi asuli Tanamosaydred gamoacxada. aseve

aRmoCenilia daviT aRmaSeneblis unikaluri

moneta, romelic britaneTis muzeumSia dac-

kolxuri TeTri

183


184

uli. masze ikiTxeba teqsti: „qriste, adide daviT,

mefe afxazTa, qarTvelTa, ranTa, kaxTa da somexTa“.

abazi fulis erTeuli, vercxlis moneta. SemoiRo

iranSi abas I-ma (aqedan saxelwodeba). abazi

swrafad gavrcelda mezobel qveynebSi kerZod,

saqarTveloSi.

daviT aRmaSeneblis

unikaluri moneta

1804 wlidan TbilisSi daiwyo axali tipis, e.w.

rusul-qarTuli vercxlisa da spilenZis monetebis

moWra, romelTa Sublze qarTuli asoebiT

amotvifruli iyo „Tbilisi“, zurgze - nominali,

TariRi da monetis momWrelis rusuli inicialebi.

1918 wels damoukidebeli saqarTvelos demokratiuli

respublikis droebiTma mTavrobam

sakuTari fulis niSnebis SemoReba gadawyvita. 1919 wlidan brunvaSi iyo

saqarTvelos demokratiuli respublikis fulis bonebi, romelTa warwerebic

qarTuli iyo, Tumca ukana mxares rusul-franguli warwerebic hqonda.

bonebs axlda mTavrobis Tavmjdomarisa da finansTa ministris xelmowerebi.

saqarTvelos demokratiuli respublikis xelisufleba myari valutis Seqmnasac

apirebda, risTvisac eskizic ki Seiqmna,

magram 1921 wels sabWoTa ruseTis mier saqarTvelos

aneqsiam proeqtis ganxorcielebas xeli

SeuSala.

erovnuli valutis SemoReba mxolod 1995

wels moxerxda, roca 2 oqtombridan brunva daiwyo

larma. qarTuli laris qveyanaSi damkvidre-

biT gagrZelda qarTuli fulis moWris mravalsaukunovani tradicia.

sityva ,,lari", romelic SeirCa qarTuli erovnuli valutis ZiriTadi er-

Teulis saxelwodebad, Zveli qarTuli sityvaa da niSnavs zogadad ganZs, qonebas.

saxelwodeba „lari“ qarTuli fulis erTeulis dasaxelebad 1991 wels wamoayena

akademikosma v. CantlaZem ministrTa kabinetisaTvis Sedgenil proeqtSi.

erovnul banks gaaCnia ufleba, ganaxorcielos saqarTvelos teritoriaze

fulis niSnebis gamoSveba. aseve, erovnul banks aqvs eqskluziuri ufleba,

daamzados mimoqcevis an sxva mizniT, samaxsovro fulis

niSnebi. erovnuli bankis sabWo gansazRvravs da

amtkicebs laris banknotebisa da monetebis dizains,

Semadgenlobas da sxva maxasiaTeblebs, ris Semdegac

nikoloz I-is dros

moWrili abazi

iwyeba fulis niSnebis beWdvisa da moWris procesSi

CaSveba. qarTuli fulis niSnebi wamyvan evropul organizaciebSi

mzaddeba.

saqarTvelos teritoriaze mza fulis niSnebis transportirebas da Semdgom

erovnuli bankis sacavebSi maT Senaxvas erovnuli banki uzrunvelyofs.

mosaxleobas fulis niSnebi komerciuli bankebis meSveobiT miewodeba.

saqarTvelos erovnuli banki sistematurad axorcielebs xmarebisaTvis

gamousadegari fulis niSnebis mimoqcevidan

amoRebas da maT Canacvlebas Sesabamisi

odenobis axali monetebiTa da banknotebiT.

gamousadegari fulis niSnebis ganadgureba

erovnuli bankis sabWos mier

dadgenili wesis Sesabamisad xdeba.

wyaro: saqarTvelos erovnuli banki;

http://www.nbg.gov.ge; icode.ge

daviT VI dirhemia

giorgi XII-s dros

moWrili abazi


X saerTaSoriso

urTierTobebi

da ekonomikuri

ganviTareba

51-52

es Cemi

qveyanaa

teritoria: qveynis farTobi Seadgens 69.700 kv. km-s.

sazRvrebis sigrZe — 1771 km-s, maT Soris saxmeleTo — 1.461 km (somxeTi, azerbaijani

322km, ruseTi 723km, TurqeTi 25km2) da sazRvao — 310km.

buneba: qveynis teritoria ZiriTadad mTebs ukavia, buneba mravalferovania _ subtropikebidan

kavkasionis myinvarebamde; umaRlesi mwvervalia mTa Sxara 5.068m, udablesi

wertili _ Savi zRva (0m); saxnav-saTesi miwa _ 16%, saZovrebi _ 25%, tyeebi _

34%. mTavari mdinareebi mtkvari da rioni.

bunebrivi resursebi: tyeebi, hidroenergia, manganumi, rkinis madani, spilenZi, qvanaxSiris

da navTobis mcire maragi; mTisa da zRvis klimaturi kurortebi.

dRevandeli administraciul-teritoriuli dayofiT saqarTveloSi 2 avtonomiuri

respublika, 64 municipaliteti da 5 TviTmmarTveli qalaqi, maT Soris, dedaqalaqi

Tbilisia. konstituciis Tanaxmad qveynis saxelmwifo-teritoriuli mowyoba unda ganisazRvros

saqarTvelos mTel teritoriaze centraluri xelisuflebis iurisdiqciis

aRdgenis Semdeg.

mosaxleobis raodenobis dadgena mosaxleobis sayovelTao aRweris saSualebiT xdeba.

1989 wlis aRweriT saqarTvelos mosaxleoba 5,443,000 kaci iyo. 2012 wlis oficialuri

monacemebis mixedviT, saqarTvelos centraluri xelisuflebis mier kontrolirebad

teritoriaze mosaxleoba daaxloebiT 4.497 mln-s Seadgens.

eTnikuri Semadgenloba (saqarTvelos 2002 wlis aRweris Sedegebis mixedviT): qarTvelebi

_ 83,8%, azerbaijanelebi _ 6,5%, somxebi _ 5,7%, rusebi _ 1,5%, osebi _

0.9 %, iezidebi _ 0.4%, berZnebi _ 0.3%, qistebi _ 0.2%, ukrainelebi _ 0.2%, afxazebi

_ 0,1%;

religiuri Semadgenloba (ZiriTadad saqarTvelos 2002 wlis aRweris Sedegebis

mixedviT): marTlmadidebeli qristianebi _ 84.00%, muslimanebi — 9.9%, somexi grigorianelebi

_ 3.9%, kaTolikeebi _ 0.8%, iezidebi – 0.4%, iudevelebi — 0,1%, nesterianelebi

– 0.1% da sxvebi.

didi qalaqebi: Tbilisi _ 1.162.400, quTaisi _ 194.700, rusTavi _ 120.800, baTumi _

124.300, soxumi _ 43.000, gori _ 49.500, zugdidi _ 84,000, foTi _ 47,800, cxinvali _

7,000.

saqarTvelos ekonomika tradiciulad Semoifargleba Savi zRvis turizmiT; citrusis,

xilisa da vazis kulturiT; manganumisa da spilenZis mopovebiT; Semdegi samrewvelo

produqciis warmoebiT: Rvino, liToni, manqanameqanizmebi, qimikatebi da safeiqro

nawarmi.

185


qveyana energoresursebis, bunebrivi airisa da navTobis produqtebis didi raodenobiT

importioria. Sida energoresurss hidroenergia warmoadgens, romelic sakmarisi

araa. saqarTvelos ekonomika did sabiujeto kriziss ganicdida. swori sagadasaxado

politikis gatarebisa da korufciasTan aqtiuri brZolis Sedegad, 2005 wlidan saqarTvelos

biujeti aRar aris deficituri, piriqiT _ biujeti preficituria.

saqarTvelo energo-resursebis simcires ganicdis, magram bolo wlebSi energiis miwodeba

TandaTanobiT umjobesdeba, ise rom Tbilisi sinaTlis qalaqadac ki gamocxadda.

qveyana did imedebs amyarebs saerTaSoriso satransporto derefanze: navTobsadenze

da gazsadenze.

es

sainteresoa

186

baqo-Tbilisi-jeihanis navTobsadeni (ing.: Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan pipeline

- BTC) - 1.760 km sigrZis sadenia, romlis daniSnulebaa gadaumuSavebel

navTobis transportireba kaspiis zRvaSi azerbaijanis Siraq-guneSlis

navTobis sabadodan xmelTaSuazRvis sanapiromde. is gadis baqoze,

Tbilissa da mTavrdeba jeihanSi, TurqeTis xmelTaSuazRvispira port-

Si. es aris msoflioSi sigrZiT meore navTobsadeni (pirvelia druJbas

navTobsadeni, romelsac navTobi ruseTidan centralur evropaSi

gadaaqvs). misi mSenebloba saqarTveloSi 2005 wels dasrulda.

milsadeni mTel sigrZeze miwaSia Camarxuli. umaRles wertilSi, sadac

igi kavkasiis mTebs kveTs milsadeni zRvis donidan 2800 metris

simaRles aRwevs. mas dReSi erTi milioni bareli navTobis gatareba

SeuZlia da azeri-Siragi-gunaSlis sabados sruli ganviTarebis saeqsporto

moTxovnebs pasuxobs.

BTC milsadeni srul eqspluataciaSi 2006 wels iqna gaSvebuli. milsadenSi

gatarebuli navTobis nakadi stabilurad izrdeboda da gasul

wels igi dReSi daaxloebiT 800 000 barel navTobs awvdida msoflio bazrebs.

am navTobsadenis operirebis Sedegad, proeqtis funqcionirebis

periodSi, pirdapiri satranzito Semosavlebis saxiT, saqarTvelos

biujeti daaxloebiT 50 milion aSS. dolars miiRebs.

dasavleT marSrutis saeqsporto milsadeni

dasavleT marSrutis saeqsporto milsadeni (WREP)

baqo-sufsis milsadenis

saxeliTaa cnobili. dasavleT marSrutis saeqsporto milsadeni

BP-is

mier ganxorcielebuli pirveli investiciaa saqarTveloSi da

1999 wlidan funqcionirebs.

baqo-sufsis adreuli navTobis milsadenis mSenebloba azerbaijanis

saerTaSoriso saoperacio kompaniam daafinansa. milsadenis

mSeneblobis farglebSi aseve moxda sufsis terminalis mSeneblobac.

baqo-sufsis adreuli navTobsadenis sigrZe 830km-ia (saqarTvelos monakveTi

375km), sufsis terminalis tevadoba - erTi milioni bareli.

dasavleTis marSrutis saeqsporto milsadeniT xorcieldeba kaspiis

zRvis teritoriaze mdebare Ciragis sabadodan, sangaCalis terminalis

gavliT navTobis CatvirTva sufsis terminalSi. WREP-is

gavliT sangaCalidan

navTobi 1998 wlis dekemberSi gamouSves, 1999 wlis ianvrSi ki saqarTveloSi

Semovida.

saeqsporto saqonelia: citrusi, Cai, Rvino, mineraluri wylebi, soflis meurneobis

sxva produqtebi; sxvadasxva saxis manqana-meqanizmebi da liTonebi; qimikatebi; safeiqro

nawarmi.

importirebuli saqonelia: navTobi, marcvleuli (xorbali) da sxva sakvebi produqtebi,

manqana-meqanizmebi, satransporto aRWurviloba.


damatebiTi

sakiTxavi

turizmis ganviTarebis istoria

saqarTveloSi turizmis ganviTareba 19-20 saukuneebis

mijnaze iwyeba. faqtiurad igi masStabur xasiaTs

XX saukunis meore naxevridan, gansakuTrebiT

ki meore msoflio omis Semdgomi wlebidan iRebs. am

periodSi eqspluataciaSi Sevida keTilmowyobili

turistuli bazebi da sastumroebi TbilisSi, soxumSi,

baTumSi, quTaisSi, varZiaSi da sxva. daiwyo

turizmis aRmSeneblobis procesi gagraSi, qobuleTSi,

abasTumanSi, wyaltuboSi da sxva.

gasuli saukunis 80-ian wlebSi saqarTelos aRericxeboda

624 sastumro, turistuli baza, moteli, kempingi da sxva msgavsi dawesbuleba,

rac jamSi 1522 aTass adgils Seadgenda. SedarebiT susti iyo samoqalaqo sastumroebis

qselis ganviTareba. es monacemebi TavisTavad metyvelebdnen saqarTvelos

did turistul potencialze, magram maT miRma unda davinaxoT is, rom turizmi, romelic

arsebobda gasuli saukunis 80 wlebSi, Tavisi formiT da SinaarsiT warsuls

Cabarda. masTanave dagvitova bevri araswori Sexeduleba da stereotipi.

msoflio statistikis mixedviT, qveynis Semosavlebis 2/3-ze meti Sida turizmze

modis da mxolod 1/3-ia saerTaSoriso turizmidan.

saqarTvelos Sesabamisi infrastruqturisa

da saTanado menejmentis pirobebSi ramdenime

mln turistis miReba SeuZlia. turizmi kompleqsuri

dargia. es ar aris saqmianobis mxolod erTi

sfero. masTan dakavSirebulia transporti, sastumro,

kveba, gasarTobi, samedicino da sainformacio

momsaxureba. am dargebis erToblivi funqcionireba

ekonomikis gaZlierebis sawindaria.

saqarTvelos gaaCnia udidesi turistuli da

sakurorto potenciali. saqarTvelo amJamad

aRiqmeba rogorc axali, jer kidev ucnobi qveyana

da amdenad sainteresoa misi aRmoCena yoveli mogzaurisTvis Tu turistisTvis. qveynis

monaxulebis survils kidev ufro aZlierebs 1999 wels Catarebuli arqeologiuri

aRmoCena, rodesac Tbilisis maxloblad, dmanisSi aRmoaCines paleoliTuri xanis

uZvelesi adamianis ConCxis fragmenti, romelic TariRdeba 1 milion 700 aTasi wliT.

am aRmoCeniT saqarTvelo gaxda pirveli evropelis

samSoblo.

qveyanaSi 12 000 istoriuli Zegli, 150

muzeumi da mravali saganZuria, romelic

dRiTidRe, TandaTanobiT izrdeba. wyaro:

saqarTvelos turizmis departamenti.

turizmi dRes

turizmis seqtori aris erT-erTi yvelaze

swrafad mzardi seqtori saqarTveloSi. arsebobs

mravali SesaZlebloba turizmis

sferoSi investiciebis gansaxorcieleblad,

dawyebuli sazRvao kurortebiT gagrZlebu-

187


li mTis kurortebiT, saTxilamuro

sportiT, mineraluri wylebiT, gamajansaRebeli,

kulturuli da sxva

saxis turizmiT. saqarTvelos TiTqmis

yvela regioni mdidaria turistuli

RirSesaniSnaobebiT.

saqarTveloSi turizmis ganviTarebis

naTeli magaliTia aWaris regionis

Savi zRvis sanapiro. regionSi

moqmedebs an gaxsnis procesSia praqtikulad

yvela msoflio brendis

sastumro.

viTardeba da aqatualuri xdeba

Rvinis turizmi. ucxoelebis daintereseba qarTuli mevenaxeobiTa da Rvinis warmoebiT

sul ufro izrdeba. soflis meurneobis saministro da turizmis departamenti am

faqts Rvinis turizmis ganviTarebiT da msoflio bazarze qarTuli Rvinis popularizaciiT

xsnian.

„turizmis msoflio organizaciis“ angariSis Tanaxmad, turizmi mTel msoflioSi

TiTqmis 5%-iT gaizarda da 2011 wels turistebis ricxvma 983 milions miaRwia.

zrdis dinamikiT gansakuTrebiT gamoirCeva centraluri da aRmosavleT evropis

zogierTi qveyana. am regionSia gaerTianebuli saqarTveloc, romlis turistuli nakadis

zrdis maCvenebeli 39 %-ia. es maCvenebeli mezobel azerbaijanSi 22%-s Seadgens,

somxeTSi - 11%-s, xolo ruseTSi ki - 12%-s.

wyaro: saqarTvelos sagareo saqmeT saministro; http://www.mfa.gov.ge

qarTuli naosnoba

baTumis sazRvao navsadguri istoriulad iTvleboda kavkasiis regionis logistikur

centrad. kerZod, is aris saqarTvelos erT-erTi navsadguri, romlis saSualebiT

saqarTvelo gaxda tranzituli qveyana. dRes baTumis navsadguri TamaSobs did rols

regionis cxovrebaSi da ganviTarebaSi.

baTumis da foTis Savi zRvis portebi rkinigziT uerTdeba kavkasiis da centraluri

aziis qveynebs da Savi zRvis regions akavSirebs. foTis ports pirdapiri saborne mimosvla

aqvs iliCevskis (ukraina), varnis (bulgareTi) portebTan. kidev erTma sarkinigzo

boranma daiwyo mimosvlebi foTis port da port kavkasias (ruseTi) Soris.

baTumi aris saqarTvelos udidesi saporto qalaqi da warmoadgens navTobis mniSvnelovan

saeqsporto wertils. 1878 wels dafuZnebuli, baTumis bunebriv yureSi mdebare

navsadguri, qalaqis Crdilo-aRmosavleT nawilSia. saqarTvelos azerbaijanuli

da yazaxuri navTobis gadazidvebma baTumis porti evropa-aziis satransporto derefnis

makavSirebel xidad aqcia. baTumis portSi itvirTeba navTobi da navTobproduqtebi

8 heqtaris farTobis da 755 metri sigrZis 4 navmisadgomze. mSrali tvirTi itvirTeba

17.5 heqtaris farTobze gaSlil 1590 metri sigrZis or navmisadgomze.

ports aqvs SesaZlebloba gadazidos 15-18

mln. tona navTobproduqtebi wliurad. mSrali

tvirTebisTvis es maCvenebeli 2.3-2.5 milion tonas

Seadgens wlis ganmavlobaSi. sakonteinero

gadazidvebis terminalis gansazRvruli tvirTbrunva

47-50 aTas konteiners Seadgens weliwadSi.

qalaqi foTi saqarTvelos erT-erTi uZvelesi

saporto qalaqia, romelic Cven welT aRricxvamde

VII saukuniT TariRdeba. Tanamedrove

porti aSenebuli iqna 1907 wels. foTis porti

188


49 heqtarzea ganlagebuli da mTeli wlis ganmavlobaSi

muSaobs. amJamad portis mflobelobaSi

aris tvirTis transportirebis kompleqsi

romelic 14 navmisadgomisgan Sedgeba da 2650 metri

sigrZisaa. 11 navmisadgomi aRWurvilia 6-40

tonaze gaTvlili portatuli amweebiT. tvirTis

transportirebisaTvis saWiro pirobebi morgebulia

yvelanairi tvirTis da Txevadi produqtis

gadasazidad. tvirTbrunva foTis portSi mudmivad

izrdeba.

yulevis porti mdinare xobisxevis SenakadTanaa.

ports 100,000 da 65,000 toniani gemebis sam misadgomze miRebis saSualeba eqneba. yulevis

porti erTerTi yvelaze Rrma portia Sav zRvaze.

es

sainteresoa

`risxviT aenTo mefe aiet, SurisZieba ubrZana kolxebs,

da Seacures kolxebma zRvaSi auracxeli sabrZolo gemi.~

apolonios rodoseli

Zv. w. V saukunis erTi ucxouri wyaros Tanaxmad fazisSi Tavs iyrida

samoc sxvadasxva enaze molaparake xalxi. aq gadioda msoflio mniSvnelobis

didi savaWro-satranzito magistrali, romelic Soreuli indoeTidan

moemarTeboda kaspiis zRvamde, xolo Semdgom, amierkavkasiis

qveynebze gavliT (md. mtkvari – suramis uReltexili – md. yvirila – md.

rioni) aRwevda Sav zRvamde dRevandel foTTan (Zveli fasisi). am gzis

calkeuli monakveTebi, romelTac Tavdapirvelad lokaluri mniSvneloba

hqondaT, isaxeboda jer kidev winare elinistur periodSi. elinisturi

xanidan ki, rodesac vaWrobam `msoflio~ xasiaTi miiRo, gaimarTa

erTiani gza fasisidan indoeTamde.

strabonis cnobiT fasisSi didi moculobiT iwarmoeboda gemTsaSeni

masala: xe-tye, selis tilo, qereli, fisi da cvili.

qsenofonte mosinikTa Sesaxeb: `miiRes ra erTgulebis sawindari

elinTagan, mosinikebi wavidnen da meore dRes gamocxadnen 300 naviT,

romlebSiac sam-sami kaci ijda. TiToeuli navidan or-ori napirze amovida

da mwyobrSi Cadga, TiTo ki navSi darCa. navSi darCenilni gabrundnen,

amosulebi ki sabrZolo wesiT moewynen Semdegnairad: dalagdnen

aseulebad gundis msgavsad – erTmaneTis pirdapir. yvela maTgans epyra

suros foTlis moyvanilobis, xaris TeTri tyaviT SemoWimuli dawnuli

fari. marjvena xelSi eWiraT eqvsi arSinis sigrZis xelSubebi, romelTac

win maxvilebi hqondaT, xolo ukan – momrgvalebuli bolo. meomrebs

tilos tomris msgavsi qsovilis muxlamde perangi emosaT, Tavze ki

paflagonielTa msgavsi tyavis muzaradi exuraT; garda amisa, maT hqondaT

rkinis Subnajaxi. maSin erTma maTganma daiwyo simRera da danarCenebic

simReriT daiZrnen, gaiares elinTa hoplitebis win da erTbaSad

ekveTnen mters~.

apolonios rodoselis (Zv. w. III saukune) cnobiT `kolxebs Senaxuli

aqvT mamapapuri Zveli kirbebi, werilsvetebi, da im kirbebze naCvenebia

gzebi yovelTa zRvaTa da xmelTa~.

germaneli mkvlevaris karl riteris azriT `es firfitebi iyo

pirveldawyebiTi rukebi da SesaZloa isini hqonda herodotes, roca man

CamoTvala CrdiloeTis xalxebis, bosforisa da pontos savaWro gzebi~.

189


190

misive azriT – `kartografiuli xelovnebis pativ–dideba sruliadac ar

ekuTvnis mcire aziis berZnebs. es firfitebi bevrad ufro adre gamoiyeneboda

kolx mogzaur–vaWarTa mier~.

zemoTTqmuli imaze metyvelebs, rom Cveni winaprebi ara marto Tavisi

drois mowinave sazRvaosno codnas flobdnen, aramed ganviTarebul

damwerlobasac.

saxelganTqmuli mkvlevari tur heierdali Tvlis, rom xis gemebis

ageba finikielebze uadres unda daewyoT xeTebsa da xmelTaSua zRvis

mcire aziis sanapiroze mcxovreb xalxebs, romelTac kedris xis masala

uxvad moepovebodaT.

aqve gavixsenoT rusTvelis mier

aRwerili mekobreTa navi: `gamoCnda

navi mekobre droSiTa metad grZeli-

Ta, mas navsa, navT salewelad, saxnisi

hgia ZeliTa~.

kolxTa maRali sanaosno kultura

naTlad Cans argonavtebis miTSic.

Tavad berZenTa aRiarebiT, rom ara

jadoqroba, argonavtebi aietis mier

dadevnebuli flotisgan Tavs ver daixsnidnen.

aseve mravlismetyvelia dRemde Semonaxuli gamoTqma – `lazis baRi

zRvaao~.

XIX saukunemde modis kvali mdinaris swrafi gadalaxvis mizniT sagangebo

samarjvebis gamoyenebisa. rogorc Cans, es iyo saxeldaxelo boranis

msgavsi ram, rumbebisa Tu tikebisagan Sekruli.

Tu ratom dakarga winaparma es upiratesoba, amisi gaCxreka Sors wagviyvans.

erTi mizezi ioane-zosimeseuli lazares (anu Cveni enis, anu Cveni

eris) gadaRla da xangrZlivi miZineba unda iyos.

xumroba saqme xom ar aris ramdenime aTaswleulis ganmavlobaSi mowinave

civilizaciis tvirTis tareba.

wyaro: zneni samamaconi, naosnoba/k. WumburiZe/ http://alternativa.ge/2009/04/29

saqarTvelos teritoriul-administraciuli erTeulebi


saqarTvelos adgili msoflio TanamegobrobaSi

saqarTvelo aris:

1. gaerTianebuli erebis organizaciis (gaero – UNO,United Nations Organization, SemoklebiT

UN, United Nations) wevri;

2. evrosabWos (EU, European Union) wevri;

3. evropaSi usafrTxoebisa da TanamSromlobis organizaciis (euTo – OSCE, Organization

for Security and Co-operation in Europe) wevri;

4. Savi zRvis ekonomikuri TanamSromlobis organizaciis (BSEC – Organization Of The

BLACK SEA ECONOMIC COOPERATION) wevri;

5. `guamis~ (GUUAM – saqarTvelo, ukraina, uzbekeTi, azerbaijani da moldova) gaer-

Tianebis wevri;

6. saerTaSoriso savaluto fondis (IMF, International Monetary Fund) wevri;

7. msoflio bankis (WB, World Bank) wevri;

8. msoflio savaWro organizaciis (WTO, World Trade Organization) wevri;

9. evropis ganviTarebisa da rekonstruqciis bankis (EBRD, European Bank for Reconstruction

and Development) wevri.

savarjiSo

ra viciT Cveni qveynis Sesaxeb?

mocemuli masalidan airCieT TqvenTvis saintereso sakiTxi (sakiTxebi),

gaerTiandiT mcire jgufebad da 10 wuTis manZilze SeecadeT daamuSaoT

arCeuli sakiTxebi. daaxasiaTeT Tqvens mier arCeuli saqarTvelos

bunebrivi resursebi, moiSvelieT saqarTvelos geografiidan da istoriidan

codna da gaakeTeT patara Canaxati.

saqarTvelos bunebrivi resursebi

miwis resursebi

damatebiTi

sakiTxavi

miwa erT erTi mTavari erovnuli simdidrea, romelsac

gansakuTrebuli

gafrTxileba da dacva esaWiroeba. niadagis wilad saqarTvelos

bunebrivi simdidris TiTqmis naxevari modis.

saqarTvelo mTiani qveyanaa. baris zona qveynis teritoriis mxolod 40% moicavs.

aq miwis resursebi xasiaTdeba sasoflosameurneo aTvisebis maRali doniT, savargulebis

maRali bunebrivi nayofierebiT.

miwis resursebis teritoriuli ganawileba vertikaluri zonalobis princips

emyareba:

I zona (zRvis donidan 250 metramde) _ upiratesad gavrcelebulia

dasavleT saqarTvelos subtropikuli kulturebi.

II zona (250-500m) _ mebaReoba-mebostneobis, mevenaxeobis, memindvreobis (ZiriTadad

simindi) gavrcelebis areali.

III zona (500-1000m) _ Warbobs TavTaviani kulturebi, bunebrivi sakvebi savargulebi,

mecxoveleoba.

191


IV zona (1000-1500m) _ saTib-saZovrebi: memindvreoba sustadaa ganvi Tarebuli.

V zona (1500-2000m) _ ZiriTadad saTib-saZovrebi.

VI zona (2000 metris zemoT) _ miwaTmoqmedeba ar arsebobs.

gamoyenebis TvalsazrisiT, saqarTvelos teritoria SeiZleba daiyos sam nawilad:

1. samiwaTmoqmedo teritoria _ 15.8%;

2. bunebriv-sameurneo farTobi (tye, buCqnari, saTib-saZovrebi) _ 70.6%;

3. soflis meuneobaSi gamouyenebeli miwa _ 13.6%.

miwis resursebis ekologiuri problemebidan aRsaniSnavia savargulebis mniSvnelovani

sawilis (33%) erozia. yovelwliurad aRmosavleT saqarTveloSi savargulebis

erTi heqtaridan irecxeba 100-300 tona niadagi, dasavleT saqarTveloSi

_ 150-200 tona, ris gamoc dabalintensiur savargulebad iqca 25 aTasi heqtari, 20

aTasi ki mTlianad gamovida

mwyobridan. energokrizisis da

ukontrolobis gamo gaCexilma

tyeebma ufro metad gaaZliera

qarismieri erozia. niadagi dabinZurebulia

mZime toqsikuri

liTonebiT. gansakuTrebiT maRalia

toqsikuri elementebis Semcveloba

saavtomobilo gzebis

gaswvriv 10-kilometrian zolSi,

dabali xarisxis sawvavis gamoyenebis

gamo. saqarTveloSi 218

aTasi heqtari miwa damlaSebuli

da bicobiania.

gasakviri ar aris, rom uZvelesi civilizaciis qveyana marcvleuli kulturebis

erT-erT samSoblosac warmoadgenda. msoflioSi cnobili xorblis 19 saxeobidan

saqarTveloSi dRemdea SemorCenili 14 saxeoba. saqarTvelo, aseve, adreuli mevenaxeobisa

da meRvineobis erT-erT mniSvnelovan kerad iTvleba. msoflioSi cnobili vazis

4 aTasi saxeobidan saqarTveloSi SemorCenilia 500 maTgani.

saqarTvelos mevenaxeoba-meRvineoba moqceulia didi kavkasionis qedis Sua da

dasavleT nawilSi, Savi zRvisa da kaspiis zRvis auzTa Soris, romelTa zemoqmedeba

gansazRvravs aqauri bunebrivi pirobebis mravalferovnebas da saukeTeso garemos

qmnis originaluri da maRalxarisxovani mevenaxeoba-meRvineobis ganviTarebisaTvis.

mevenaxeoba-meRvineobis mkveT rad gansxvavebul TaviseburebaTa safuZvelze qveynis

teritoria dayofilia orad, aRmosavleT da dasavleT saqarTvelod, romelzedac

gamoyofilia xuTi mevenaxeoba-meRvineobis zona. (ixile sqema).

wylis resursebi

qveyana mdidaria miwisqveSa da miwiszedawylebiT. saqarTveloSi 25 aTasze meti

didi da mcire mdinarea 61.5 kuburi km wylis CamonadeniT da 850 tba 0.7 kuburi km

wylis maragiT. qveynis hidroenergetikuli resursebis potenciali 60 miliardi kvt

saaTs aRwevs, rac dReisTvis 11 procentiTaa gamo yenebuli.

saqarTvelo mdidaria mineraluri wylebiTac. dReisaTvis

aRricxulia 2300-mde mineraluri wyaro, romelTa

saerTo debetic 130 milioni litri weliwadSi. gamoyenebis

maCvenebeli aqac Zalian dabalia.

192

tyis resurebi da maTi dacva

saqarTvelo mTagoriani qveyanaa. amitom aq tyeebi


TiTqmis mTlianad mTis ferdobebzea (97,7%).

dasavleT saqarTvelos tyeebi iwyeba zRvis donidan

da faravs dablobebsa da mTiswina kalTebs, zRvis donidan

5000m simaRleze.

aRmosavleT saqarTveloSi, mSrali raionebis dablobebsa

da mTiswina kalTebze (Siraqi, eldari, mcxeTis modamoebi

da sxva), zRvis donidan 400-dan 600 m-mde gavrcelebulia

ariduli anu naTeli tyeebi.

tye dedamiwis ekologiur sistemaTa mTliani kompleqsisaTvis globaluri da sasicocxlo

faqtoria. biosfroSi Jangbadis 60%-ze mets gamoyofs xmeleTis mcenareuloba

da misi mTavari komponenti _ tye.

tyes mravalmxrivi funqciebi aqvs: pirvel rigSi igi mzis energiis mZlavri akumulatoria.

is arsebiTad gavlenas axdens klimatis formirebaze, bunebaSi wylis wrebrunvaze,

atmosferoSi airgacvlaze da amgvarad, es qmnis adamianisaTvis saWiro pirobebs.

tye asufTavebs haers mtvrisagan. erTi heqtari tye wlis ganmavlobaSi, 50-70 tona

mtvers filtravs, xolo amis Sesabamisad, saqarTvelos tyeebi mTlianad _ 135-190

mln. tonamde.

tye aregulirebs Tovldnobis intensivobas, mniSvnelovnad amcirebs haeris siswrafes,

icavs sasargeblo faunas da mikroorganizmebs. tyis mravali mcenare gamoyofs

fotoncitebs, romlebic Trgunaven damaavadebel organizmebs da amiT ajansaReben

garemos. tye _ mZlavri sanitarulhigienuri faqtoria, romelic uzrunvelyofs

adamianis sicocxles da janmrTelobas.

tyes gaaCnia udidesi sanitarul-higienuri da samkurnalo Tviseba. Seufasebelia

misi esTetikuri mniSvnelobac. tye aris atmosferos qimiuri Semadgenlobis SenarCunebis

erT-erTi faqtori, gansakuTrebiT sami nivTierebis _ Jangbadis, naxSirbadis

da azotis balansSi. gaTvlilia, rom 1 ha tyes SeuZlia, weliwadSi STanTqas 5-10 tona

naxSirmJava airi da gamoyos 10-20 tona Jangbadi. tyeebs xatovnad planetis `mwvane

filtvebs” uwodeben.

aseve udidesia tyeebis wvlili azotis bunebriv balansSi. rogorc cnobilia fo-

Tlebi, wiwvebi, totebi da fesvebis nawilebi, xvdebian ra niadagSi, baqteriebis daxmarebiT

TandaTanobiT sasuqad gardaiqmnebian. tyeebs SeuZliaT aqtiurad gaauvnebelyon

qimiuri da atmosferuli dabinZureba, gansakuTrebiT am TvisebiT gamoirCevian

wiwvovani mcenareebi, romlebic gamoyofen fitoncidebs, romlebic klaven mravali

daavadebis gamomwvev mikrobebs, ajansaReben haers.

tyes eniWeba gansakuTrebuli roli mdinareebis hidrologiuri uzrunvelyofis

saqmeSi, niadagis eroziis, gaudabnoebis aRmofxvraSi udidesi mniSvneloba eniWeba

mdinareebis, wyalsacavebis, arxebis napirebze tyis SenarCunebas, radganac isini bunebrivi

filrtis rols asruleben da wyals icaven dabinZurebisagan.

qveynis ekonomikis ganviTarebasa da mosaxleobis cxovrebaSi, tyis gansakuTrebuli

mniSvneloba misi dacvis aucileblobas ganapirobebs. tyis dacva saxelmwifoebrivi

amocanaa. saxelmwifo tyis fondi 3006,4 aTasi heqtaria, xolo tyiT dafaruli

farTobi _ 2773,4 aTasi heqtari anu qveynis teritoriis 39,9 procenti.

saxelmwifo nakrZalebi da erovnuli parkebi

`nakrZali miwis iseTi nakveTia, romelic gamoyofilia saerTo saxmari farTobidan

da gamocxadebulia xelSeuxebel teritoriad. nakrZalSi dasacavia yoveli cocxali

(mcenare, mdelo, cxoveli) da RirsSesaniSnavi mkvdari buneba (gamoqvabuli, karstuli

mRvime, stalaqtitebi, wyaro, klde da sxva). nakrZalSi akrZalulia xis moWra, balaxis

Tibva, saqonlis Zoveba, nayofis Segroveba da krefa, sokos Segroveba, nadiroba“ _

ase ganmartavda niko kecxoveli nakrZalis raobas da aqve dasZenda `. . . magram es ar

niSnavs, rom adamiani nakrZalis cxovrebaSi ar Caereva _ adamiani valdebulia Tvaly-

193


uri adevnos nakrZals da saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi Caerios kidec mis cxovrebaSi (mavnebelTa

Seseva, mtacebeli cxovelebis metismeti gamravleba an metismeti Semcireba.

cnobilia, rom msoflios zogierT nakrZalSi mglis amowyvetis Sedegad iremTa arve

daCiavda. saWiro gaxda mglis ukan dabruneba”

`nakrZalSi ar unda irgvebodes egzotikuri mcenareni. aRdgena unda xdebodes adgilobrivi

saxeobebiT. araviTar SemTxvevaSi nakrZalSi ar unda SeviyvanoT sxva mxaris

cxoveli, radgan igi arRvevs arsebul myar wonasworobas. ueWvelad didi Secdoma

iyo, rodesac borjomis xeobaSi alutis ciyvi Seiyvanes, romelic ise momravlda, rom

adgilobrivi ciyvi gandevna” _ ganagrZobda igi.

saqarTveloSi nakrZalebsa da erovnul parkebs 239 aTasi heqtari ukavia, rac qveynis

teritoriis 3,4 da tyiT dafaruli farTobis 8,6 %-s Seadgens. saqarTvelos nakrZalebSi

aRricxulia aseulobiT saxeobis yvavilovani mcenare, aTeulobiT saxeobis

cxoveli.saqarTvelos saxelmwifo nakrZalebi da erovnuli parkebia: algeTis

(TeTriwyaro, manglisi), axmetis (axmeta), ajameTis (baRdaTi, varcixe), biWvinTa-miuseris

(gagra), vaSlovanis (dedofliswyaro), kintriSis (qobuleTi), kolxeTis (wyaltubo),

lagodexis (lagodexi), liaxvis (gori), mariamjvaris (sagarejo, ninowminda), riwis

(gudauTa), saguramos (mcxeTa, saguramo), saTaflias (wualtubo), fsou-gumisTis

(soxumi), yazbegis (yazbegi) saxelmwifo nakrZalebi, borjom-xaragaulis (borjomi),

kolxeTisa da Tbilisis erovnuli parkebi (Tbilisi).

wiaRiseuli resursebi da mopovebiTi mrewveloba

saqarTvelo erT-erTi mdidari qveyanaa bunebrivi resursebiT. amJamad cnobilia

300-mde mineralur-sanedleulo sabado, romelTagan naxevarze meti saeqs ploatacioa.

Seswav lilia 11 nav Tobis sabado, 28 milioni tona maragiT. amasTan, varaudoben

navTobis moZiebulia 400 milioni tona qvanaxSiris sabadoebi. aWaraSi, Savi zRvis sanapiroze

varaudoben didi raodenobis bunebrivi airis arsebobas.

qveynisaTvis did simdidres warmoadgens WiaTuris manganumi, romlis maragi dReisaTvis

215 milioni toniT ganisazRvreba. varaudoben spilenZisa da tyvia-TuTiis,

baritis, diatonitis samrewvelo maragebs. didi raodenobiTaa cementis warmoebisaTvis

saWiro nedleuli, mosapirkeTebeli masalebi, marmarilo, liTonuri dariSxani da

sxv.

mniSvnelovani resursuli potencialis rangSi unda iqnas ganxiluli qveynis geopolitikuri

mdebareobac, rac evropis da aziis qveynebs Soris damakavSirebel derefnis

rolSi gamoixateba.

sakurorto potenciali

Tvalwarmtaci buneba, mravalferovni landSafti, Savi zRvis sub-tropikuli zona,

mdinareebi da CanCqerebi, kldeSi nakveTi qalaqebi, kurortebi da mineraluri wylebi,

istoriuli Zeglebi, tradiciuli qarTuli stumarTmoyvareoba da ganTqmuli qarTuli

samzareulo _ saqarTvelos turizmis qveynad qmnis.

saqarTveloSi aris 102 kurorti da 182 sakurorto adgili, romlebic unikalur

simdidres warmoadgens. aq 100-mde karstuli mRvimea, romelTa gamoyenebac sxvadasxva

daavadebaTa samkurnalodaa SesaZlebeli. mniSvnelovania kulturul ZeglTa simravle

da eTnografiuli Taviseburebebi.

saqarTvelos bunebriv-resursuli potenciali saqarTvelos bunebriv-resursuli

potenciali moicavs bunebis, havis, reliefis, niadagebis, wylis safaris, mcenareuli

geologiuri agebulebis, sasargeblo wiaRiseulis, maTi maragebis da a.S. daxasiaTebasa

da Sefasebas.

sqemaSi mocemulia saqarTvelos bunebriv-resursuli potenciali mrewvelobis

ganviTarebisaTvis.

194


wyaro:

kiTxvebi

da

davalebebi

ese

feradi metlurgiisa

da oqros mompovebeli

mrewvelobisTvis:

spilenZi, tyvia–

TuTia, oqro,

vercxli, dariSxani

samTo–qimiuri

mrewvelobisTvis:

bariti, andeziti,

bentonituri Tixebi,

diatomiti, kalciti,

mineraluri saRebavebi,

talki

metalurgiuli

mrewvelobisTvis:

manganumi, spilenZi,

cecxlgamZle Tixa,

dolomiti, safluse

kirqvebi, qviSebi

saqarTvelos

bunebriv-resursuli

potenciali

mrewvelobis

ganviTarebisTvis

(Rirebuleba 55 mlrd

aSS dilari)

saSen masalaTa

mrewvelobisTvis:

kirqva, Tixebi,

saagure Tixa,

perlitebi,

marmarilo, teSeniti,

tufi, TabaSiri

saTbob–

energetikuli mrewvelobisTvis:

navTobi, qvanaxSiri,

bunebrivi airi

saqarTvelos

ekonomikuri

ganviTarebis

saministro,

statistikis

departam

enti,

2005 weli

1. CamoTvaleT saqarTvelos teritoriul-administraciuli erTeulebi;

2. daaxasiaTeT saqarTvelos adgili msoflio TanamegobrobaSi;

3. daaxasiaTeT saqarTvelos bunebrivi resursebi;

4. rukaze daitaneT saqarTvelos bunebrivi resursebi;

5. SeadgineT cxrili, sadac CawerT saqarTvelos administraciulteritoriul

erTeulebs da im bunebriv resursebs, romlebic am regionebSi

arsebobs;

6. moZebneT saqarTvelos regionebi, sadac msgavsi bunebrivi resursebi

arsebobs;

7. ra damokidebulebaa bunebriv-resursul potencialsa da mrewvelobis

ganviTarebas Soris?

saqarTvelos ekonomikis perspeqtivebi.

195


msoflio ekonomikisaTvis mniSvnelovania moxdes

krizisebis swori da drouli prognozireba, raTa

winaswar SemuSavdes is RonisZiebebi, romlebic xels

Seuwyobs aRniSnuli krizisebis sinqronulad, rbilad

gadatanas.

ekonomikuri krizisi sabazro ekonomikis damaxasiaTebeli

Tvisebaa da SeiZleba iTqvas, rom - aucilebeli

atributic. vinaidan mas zogjer pozitiuri

efeqtebic aqvs.

msoflio ekonomikuri krizisis gavlena sxvadasxva

qveynis mimarT gansxvavebulia, es damokidebulia imaze, Tu TiToeuli qveyana ramdenadaa

integrirebuli msoflio ekonomikur procesebSi, romelic moicavs qveynis ekonomikis

damokidebulebas eqsport-importze, transacionaluri kompaniebis arsebobas, mezobel

qveynebSi arsebul ekonomikur mdgomareobas. aseve mniSvnelovania misi geopolitikuri

mdebareoba, aqvs Tu ara xelisuflebas SemuSavebuli ekonomikuri safrTxis damcavi meqanizmebi

da RonisZiebebi.

196

53

ekonomikuri da

finansuri krizisebi

ekonomikuri krizisi aris ekonomikuri ciklis Semadgeneli

faza iseve, rogorc piki, fskeri da aRmavloba.ekonomikuri

krizisebis warmoSoba obieqturi kanonzomierebaa da misi gverdis

avla TiTqmis SeuZlebelia.

qveyanaSi ekonomikuri krizisis

arsebuli donis da stadiis

ganmsazRvreli ZiriTadi maCveneblebi

mTliani Sida produqtis realuri zrdis tempi

inflaciisa da umuSevrobis done

safinanso-sabanko sistemis ndoba

qveyanaSi investiciebis moculoba da misgan

miRebuli mogebis procenti

mosaxleobis socialuri daculoba

ganaTlebis done

saxelmwifo valdebulebebis

Sesrulebis xarisxi

da sxva

im SemTxvevaSi Tu am maCveneblebis

dacemas aqvs xangrZlivi xasiaTi (zedized

2 kvartali) maSin ekonomikis

aseT mdgomareobas ewodeba recesia,

xolo Tu es procesi ufro xangrZlivia

Semdeg yalibdeba depresia.

ekonomikuri krizisebi XIX saukunis

pirveli naxevridan iRebs saTaves

da is pirvel etapze meordeboda

8-10 weliwadSi erTxel. xolo XX

saukuneSi misi gamovlinebis periodebi

SedarebiT xangrZlivia.

ekonomikuri krizisis ZiriTadi mizezebi:

• mogebis normis Semcireba;

• gaurkveveli situacia fasiani qaRaldebis bazarze;

• momavlisadmi rwmenis dakargvis sxvadasxva subieqturi da obieqturi faqtorebi da

sxva.


es

sainteresoa

XX saukunis 30-ani wlebis ekonomikuri krizisi

msoflio ekonomikisaTvis pirveli mniSvnelovani gakveTili iyo XX saukunis

30-ani wlebis ekonomikuri krizisi. es iyo periodi, rodesac msoflio

ekonomikuri ganviTarebis centrma evropidan gadainacvla amerikis SeerTebul

StatebSi. Tumca, am krizisis gamomwvevi mizezebi dRevandeli msoflio

ekonomikuri krizisis gamomwvevi faqtorebisagan gansxvavebuli iyo da Sedegebic

ufro mZime. kerZod mosaxleobis dabali msyidvelobiTunarianobis

gamo warmoebul produqciaze mniSvnelovnad daeca moTxovna, ramac gamoiwvia

didi raodenobiT saqonlis gausaRebloba, `Cawola~. amas Sedegad mohyva

savaWro, samrewvelo, satransporto kompaniebis da aseve msxvili sabanko

struqturebis masobrivi gakotreba, fasiani qaRaldebis katastrofuli gaufasureba.

1932 wels aSS-s samrewvelo produqciis moculoba TiTqmis 50%iT

Semcirda, 80%-iT Semcirda avtomobilebis warmoeba. gakotrda aTasobiT

banki, sagareo vaWroba Semcirda 3-jer da qveynis ekonomika daeca 1911 wlis

doneze. umuSevrobam moicva mosaxleobis naxevari.

imdroindeli mmarTvelebi iZulebuli iyvnen gamoeyenebinaT saxelmwifo

stimulirebis, regulirebis da ekonomikis dagegmvis ufro aqtiuri meqanizmebi.

mis mier SemuSavebuli iqna ekonomikuri krizisidan gamosvlis e.w

`axali kursi~. es iyo ekonomikaSi saxelmwifo regulirebis cnobili keinsianizmis

Teoriebis realizacia.

j.m keinsi, romlis zogadi Teoriis arsi mdgomareobda imaSi, rom sabazro

meqanizmi veRar moqmedebs avtomaturad. bunebaSi ar arsebobs srulyofili

konkurencia, rom sabazro ekonomikis gamarTuli, mdgradi funqcionireba

SeuZlebelia Tu ar moxda saxelmwifos Careva ekonomikaSi. keinsma faqtiurad

daasabuTa, rom saxelmwifos Careva ekonomikaSi, mTavrobis funqciebis

gafarToeba erTaderTi saSualebaa ekonomikuri krizisebis, depresiis, umu-

Sevrobis Tavidan asacileblad, rom ganviTarebuli kapitalizmis pirobebSi

yvela mniSvnelovani problemis gadawyveta unda veZeboT ara resursebis miwodebis

sferoSi, aramed moTxovnis sferoSi. swored efeqtiani moTxovna,

misi komponentebi, moxmareba da dagroveba aris ekonomikuri zrdisa da wonasworobis

mTavari wyaro.

swored aRniSnuli Teoria gaxda safuZveli imisa, rom amerikis SeerTebulma

Statebma moaxdina aqtiuri Careva qveynis ekonomikaSi da ganaxorciela

radikaluri maregulirebeli da iZulebiTi RonisZiebebi.

aseTma kompleqsurma RonisZiebebma qveyana katastrofuli mdgomareobidan

gamoiyvana.

Tanamedrove ekonomikuri krizisi da krizisidan gamosavlis Zieba

Tanamedrove msoflio ekonomikuri krizisis ZiriTad mizezad miCneulia

amerikis umsxvilesi ipoTekuri kompaniebis gauzrebeli, xSir SemTxvevaSi

araprognozirebadi moqmedeba; kerZod, obligaciebis didi raodenobiT gayidva,

misi gaumWirvaloba, sakredito da sainvesticio funqciebis Serwymaareva.

ramac momxmareblisTvis ipoTekuri kreditebis aReba gaamartiva da

mimoqcevaSi dolaris moculobis mkveTri zrda

gamoiwvia. amas mohyva sabanko seqtoris sruli

kraxi. am process Tan sdevda safondo birJis

krizisi; finansuri instrumentebis arasworad

gamoyeneba; navTobis fasebis SesamCnevi gaZvireba;

saerTaSoriso sareitingo saagentoebis xSirad

araswori Sefasebebi da rac yvelaze mTavaria aSSs

maregulirebeli samsaxurebis (`federaluri

197


198

rezervebis samsaxuri~) mier procesebis ignorireba, umoqmedeba, maTi gaumar-

Tavi da upasuxismgeblo saqmianoba.

krizisamde aSS-Si ipoTekuri kreditebi Zalian iafi iyo - wliuri 5%, Tanac

adgilobrivi kanonmdeblobiT, ipoTekiT datvirTuli qonebis gayidvis

SesaZlebloba arsebobs. ipoTekuri programebi sxva mxrivac Zalian moqnili

iyo. magaliTad, momxmarebeli pirvel wlebSi Zalian mcire Tanxas ixdida. es

yvelaferi macdurad gamoiyureboda mosaxleobisaTvis da rom ara aSS-is ipo-

Tekuri obligaciebi, romelic qveynis mTavari safondo da saimedo instrumentia,

es krizisi SeiZleba, aseTi katastrofuli ar yofiliyo. swored es

obligaciebi iyides umxvilesma finansurma institutebma da gavrcelda ara

marto amerikis kontigentze, aramed evropaSic, `dominos~ principiT.

am krizisSi mTeli msoflios sabanko sistema aRmoCnda CaTreuli, ramac mosaxleobaSi

panika gamoiwvia da xalxma Tavisi anabrebis dabruneba masobrivad

moiTxova, ramac situacia kidev ufro daamZima.

amerikeli mecnieris, nobelis premiis lauriatis jozef stiglicis azriT

(amJamad xelmZRvanelobs gaerTianebuli erebis organizaciis antikrizisul

biuros) swored globalizacia da erovnuli ekonomikebis urTierTgam-

Woloba gaxda damatebiTi faqtori krizisis gaRrmavebisa. mis rekomendaciebs

Soris, mniSvnelovania rom msoflio, erovnuli da kerZo finansuri

institutebi gaxdes maqsimalurad gamWirvale, daculi iqnes erTiani standartebi

finansur seqtorSi, Seiqmnas valutis erTiani, msoflio rezervebi.

ekonomikis kargaxsnilobas urTierTsapirispiro movlenebi mosdevs: erT

mxriv mimdinareobs sxvadasxva qveynebis meurneobaTa integracia, iqneba TavisufalivaWrobis

zonebi, xolo meore mxriv calkeuli qveynebi amJRavneben

msoflio batonobis survils.

msoflio ekonomikis globalizaciis gaRrmavebam Tavisi negatiuri mxareebi

mkafiod gamoavlina. krizisma gadainacvla TiTqmis yvela kontinentze,

Seirya sabanko seqtorebi aziis udides qveynebSi - CineTSi, indoeTSi, iaponia-

Si, agreTve msxvil qveynebSi braziliaSi, ruseTSi, kanadaSi.

krizisis masStaburobam da gavrcelebis siswrafem mTavrobis dabneuloba

gamoiwvia. Tavidan TiToeuli saxlemwifo cdilobda damoukideblad Sebr-

Zoleboda krizisul procesebs, magram Semdgom yvelasTvis naTeli gaxda,

rom avtonomiur reJimSi krizisis daZleva SeuZlebeli iyo. swored amitom

aucilebeli gaxda msoflios did saxelmwifoebs SeTanxmebulad da sinqronulad

emoqmedaT, didi oceulis saxiT.

2009-2010 wlebi iyo mcdeloba, msoflios ekonomikuri krizisisTvis Tavi

daeRwiaT, Tumca es mcdeloba arcTu advili gamodga. aRsaniSnavia, rom

msoflio globaluri finansur-ekonomikuri krizisis dros `didma oceulma~

(`did oceulze~ modis mTeli msoflios mosaxleobis 70%-mde, mTliani Sida

produqtis 90% da msoflio vaWrobis 80%) krizisis mZime Sedegebis maqsimalurad

Sesarbileblad gadamwyveti roli Seasrula.

miuxedavad imisa, rom TiToeul qveyanas sakuTari miznebi da amocanebi

hqonda, saboloo gadawyvetilebis miReba mainc erTiani konsensusiT

xdeboda, rac ZiriTadad Semdeg mimarTulebebs moicavda:

ekonomikis saxelmwifo stimulireba;

saerTaSoriso finansuri institutebis regulirebis gamkacreba

da maTi saqmianobis gamWvirvaleobis gazrda;

proteqcionizmis minimizacia vaWrobisa da ekonomikis sxva

seqtorebSi.


msoflio ekonomikuri krizisi da saqarTvelo

saqarTveloSi msoflio ekonomikuri krizisis gavlena SedarebiT naklebad igrZnoba,

rac ZiriTadad gamowveulia qveynis ekonomikis SedarebiT dabali integrirulobiT

msoflio ekonomikaSi. msoflio bazarze saqarTvelo, warmodgenilia rogorc importiori

qveyana, vinaidan importi TiTqmis 5-jer aWarbebs eqsports.

Cven miviReT daxmareba 4,5 miliardi dolaris odenobiT, saerTaSoriso Tanamegobrobidan

da safinanso institutebidan, ramac saSualeba mogvca SegvenarCunebina laris

kursi da garkveulad ekonomikuri stabiluroba.

ZiriTadi ekonomikuri problemebi qveyanas ufro agvistos saomari moqmedebebisgan

Seeqmna, vidre msoflio ekonomikuri krizisisgan. 2009 da 2010 wlebs Semosuli investiciebis

odenobam sagrZnoblad moiklo. es gamomdinare iyo msoflio ekonomikuri

krizisidan, vinaidan ucxouri investiciebi mTels msoflioSi 30%-mde Semcirda.

aRsaniSnavia is faqti, rom 2010 wels saqarTveloSi ekonomikis stimulirebisaTvis

ganxorcielda TiTqmis 1,5 mlrd laris stimulireba saxelmwifo biujetidan. xolo 2011

wels gansazRvruli iyo TiTqmis amdenive. aseve Zalze mniSvnelovania dedaqalaqis programa,

romelic iTvaliswinebs Zveli Tbilisis reabilitacias, samSeneblo kompaniebis

stimulirebas, samuSao adgilebis SenarCunebas, sabanko seqtoris CarTvas am saqmeSi da

a.S. instituciurad biujetidan aRniSnuli stimulirebis ganxorcieleba, ar aris klasikuri

forma da SesaZlebelia sakamaTo iyos, magram ar unda dagvaviwydes, rom dRes

qveyana imyofeba rTuli ekonomikuri gamowvevebis winaSe da yvelaferi unda gakeTdes,

raTa droulad daZleuli iqnas krizisis Sedegebi da daiwyos ekonomikuri zrda.

dResdReobiT qveyana TiTqmis mTlianad damokidebulia importze saubaria sasursaTo

produqciaze. mdgomareobis gaumjobeseba damokidebulia mTel rig struqturul

reformebze: kreditebis gacema, Teslis da warmoebis saSualebebis SesaZenad, warmoebis,

miwodebisa da gasaRebis organizaciebis Seqmna, produqciis realizaciisaTvis

Senaxvis pirobebis gaumjobeseba. amitom yvelaze mniSvnelovania saxelmwifo biujetidan

mxardaWera, soflis meurneobis ganviTarebaze.

? rogor fiqrobT, SeiZleba iseT qveyanas, ro-

goric saqarTveloa importis saxiT Semohqondes

xaxvi, pomidori, badrijani, kartofili?

soflis meurneoba aris materialuri warmoebis erT-erTi ZiriTadi dargi, sasoflo-sameurneo

kulturebis moyvana da Sinauri cxovelebis moSeneba memcenareobisa da

mecxoveleobis produqciis miRebis mizniT. soflis meurneobis mTavari dargebia: meabreSumeoba,

mebostneoba, mebocvreoba, mevenaxeoba,meTevzeoba meTesleoba, memcenareoba,

menadireoba, metyeveoba, mefrinveleoba, mefutkreoba meRoreoba, mecxeneoba,

mecxvareoba, mecxoveleoba, meCaieoba, mexileoba. 2012 wlidan soflis meurneobis dafinanseba

150 milioni lariT izrdeba da inflaciis prevenciis mimarTulebiT soflis

meurneobis xelSewyoba gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania.

? ra

gavlenas axdens msoflio safinanso krizisi saqarTvelos ekonomikaze?

finansuri resursebi ufro Zviri gaxda da da xelmisawvdomoba Semcirda. aqedan

gamomdinare, saqarTvelos ekonomikaSi TavisTavad fuladi nakadebis Semcireba da

investiciebis Semcirebac moxda. aman ubralo momxmareblis donezec ki gamoiwvia

kreditebis gaZvireba. cnobilia, rac ufro Zviria fuli, ufro naklebi fulia ekonomi-

199


kaSi. ufro naklebi fuli niSnavs ekonomikis Senelebas an dacemas.

msoflio finansuri krizisis saqarTveloze gavlenis Taobaze gansxvavebul azri arsebobs:

ruseTis safinanso da safondo bazarze ganviTarebuli krizisi saqarTveloze

gavlenas ver moaxdens, radgan am or bazars Soris Zalian susti kavSiri arsebobs. gacilebiT

seriozulia msoflio birJebze warmoqmnili krizisi.

rac Seexeba saqarTvelos sabanko seqtors, is pirdapiri ucxouri investiciebis klebas

da, Sesabamisad, sakredito resursebis simwires jer kidev agvistos movlenebamde

ganicdida. samxedro krizisma ki saqarTvelos sabanko seqtoridan kapitalis 12%-is gadineba

gamoiwvia. bolo dros bankebSi gadinebuli kapitalis dabruneba daiwyo.

msoflios safondo birJebze aqciaTa kursis vardnas - kriziss - win uswrebda

gadawyvetileba saqarTvelosTvis saerTaSoriso finansuri daxmarebis Sesaxeb. ruse-

Tis samxedro agresiis Sedegad dazaralebuli saqarTvelos ekonomikis reabilitaciisTvis

aSS-ma erTi miliardi dolari, evrokavSirma 500 milioni evro, xolo saerTaSoriso

savaluto fondma 750 milioni aSS dolari gamoyo. maTi didi nawili saqarTvelos

infrastruqturisa da sainvesticio mimzidvelobis aRdgenas moxmardeba. kerZod ki,

saerTaSoriso savaluto fondis kreditiT saqarTvelos erovnuli bankis savaluto

rezervebi Seivso, rac saqarTveloSi finansuri stabilurobis ZiriTad faqtors warmoadgens.

msoflio ekonomikuri krizisis gavlena

qarTul sabanko seqtorze

saqarTveloSi bolo wlebia sabanko sfero mniSvnelovnad ganviTarda da saqarTvelos

ekonomikis xerxemladac Camoyalibda, 2008 wlis dasawyisisTvis sabanko sistemis

aqtivebma 8 miliards gadaaWarba, rac qveynis mTliani Sida produqtis 40%–ze metia.

swored aman gamoiwvia is aJiotaJi, rac sabanko seqtorSi Seqmnil mdgomareobas

mohyva,radgan sabanko sferoSi arsebul mdgomareobaze mniSvnelovnadaa damokidebuli

qveynis mdgomareoba.

sabanko seqtori krizisis dros yvelaze metad mgrZnobiarea da am mxriv arc qarTuli

SemTxveva yofila gamonaklisi. ivnisSi Cvens qveyanaSi moqmedma TiTqmis yvela bankma

gazarda saprocento ganakveTebi kreditebze,bankebidan masiurad xdeboda TanamSromlebis

daTxovna, gaZvirda ipoTekuri da samomxmareblo kreditebi,ramac problemebi

Seuqmna rogorc samSeneblo kompaniebs, ise adgilobriv warmoebasac.

es movlena bankebma msoflio finansur krizissa da inflacias miaweres.amas isic

daemata rom agvistos xuTdRiani omis Semdeg mosaxleobam masiurad daiwyo bankebidan

anabrebis gatana,saqarTvelos erovnuli bankis informaciiT,agvisto–seqtemberSi

bankebidan 300 milion larze meti iqna gatanili,saqarTvelosi arsebuli bankebis aqtivebi

ki 700 milioni lariT Semcirda,am yvelaferma komerciul bankebs ufro gaumZafra

problemebi da zogierTi maTgani kraxis winaSec ki aRmoCnda.

saqarTvelom finansuri resursebi tranSebis saxiT miiRo saerTaSoriso savaluto

fondis krediti saqarTvelos erovnuli bankis rezervebis Sesavsebad iqna gamoyenebuli,

rac saqarTvelosi finansuri stabilurobis ZiriTad faqtors warmoadgens.savaluto

fondis daxmrebam laris kurss gaamyara.

Tu gsurT CauRrmavdeT ekonomikis klasikosebis mosazrebebs, flobT inglisurs

da musikac giyvarT, Semdegi internetresursi namdvilad dagainteresebT:

200

"Fear the Boom and Bust" a Hayek vs. Keynes Rap Anthem

In Da Fed [With Lyrics] - An EPIC Economics Rap

Fight of the Century: Keynes vs. Hayek Round Two

Dorian Electra - Roll With The Flow


?

Tqveni azriT, ra adgili ukavia saqarTvelos Tanamedrove msoflioSi?

rogor fiqrobT, qveyanaSi ekonomikuri saqmianoba ramdenad emsaxureba

Zlieri saxelmwifos aRmSeneblobas?

saqarTvelos ekonomikuri saqmianobis romeli sfero migaCniaT mniSvnelovnad

misi saerTaSoriso ekonomikuri urTierTobebis ganviTarebisaTvis?

1

umsxvilesma evropulma farmacevtulma kompaniam amierkavkasiaSi

gran diozuli saqmis wamowyeba gadawyvita da proeqtis ganxorcielebis

mizniT saxelmwifos SerCeva daiwyo. man eqspertebs sTxova SeefasebinaT

saqarTvelos, azerbaijanis da somxeTis ekonomikuri ganviTarebis Ziri-

Tad maCveneblebi da warmoedginaT daskvna saukeTeso sainvesticio garemos

Sesaxeb.

? 1.

საერთაშორისო ურთიერთობების

54

მნიშვნელობა ქვეყნის ეკონომიკის

განვითარებისთვის

davuSvaT, Tqven xarT am jgufis eqsperti, ra daskvnas warudgendiT

potenciur investors?

2. romel faqtorebs daeyrdnobiT daskvnis gakeTebisas?

3. daixmareT internetresursebi da SeavseT qvemoTmocemuli

cxrili, Semdeg ki gadaamowmeT Tqveni pirveladi daskvna:

# indikatori saqarTvelo azerbaijani sasomxeTi

1 mTliani erovnuli

produqti

2 mTliani Sida

produqti

3 ekonomikis zrdis

tempi

4 samomxmareblo

kalaTis odenoba

5 siRaribis done

6 umuSevrobis done

7 humanuri

ganviTarebis indeqsi

globalizaciis pirobebSi Tanamedrove urTierTdamokidebul samyaroSi saerTaSoriso

TanamSromloba umniSvnelovanes rols TamaSobs qveynis ekonomikur ganviTarebaSi.

globalizaciis pirobebSi saerTaSoriso urTierTobebis warmarTvisas, „ekonomikuri

ganzomileba" udides mniSvnelobas iZens. qveynebi cdiloben iseTi saerTaSoriso urT-

201


ierTobebi daamyaron, rom ukeT daicvan msoflio bazarze ekonomikuri da politikuri

interesebi, romelis ekonomkur interesebs emsaxureba.

msoflio meurneobis sistema rTuli meqanizmia, romlis SemadgenlobaSic arian

erovnuli ekonomikebi, transerovnuli korporaciebi da qveynebis gaerTianebebi.

msoflio bazarze erovnuli ekonomikebis TanamSromloba ganmtkicebulia saqonlis,

momsaxurebisa da ekonomikuri resursebis moZraobiT.

saerTaSoriso ekonomikuri urTierTobebi sxvadasxva qveynis individebs, jgufebs,

mewarmeebsa Tu kompaniebs Soris myardeba. maTi klasifikacia SesaZlebelia Semdegi

formebis mixedviT:

1. saerTaSoriso vaWroba saqonliTa da momsaxurebiT;

2. samuSao Zalis saerTaSoriso migracia;

3. kapitalis saerTaSoriso migracia;

4. teqnologiebis (codnis) saerTaSoriso gadacema;

5. qveynebs Soris sawarmoo specializacia;

6. saerTaSoriso savaluto urTierTobebi;

7. saerTaSoriso ekonomikuri organizaciebis saqmianoba.

202

`mTel msoflioSi mTavrobebi agrZeleben fulis Cadebas ekonomikaSi da

saprocento fsonebi maRali ar gaxlavT~, - ambobs ganviTarebadi bazrebis

jgufis Franklin Templeton Investments-is mmarTveli direqtori mark mobiusi.

misi prognoziT, msoflio ekonomika zrdas gaagrZelebs - Tumca arcTu

ise swrafi tempiT. mobiusi gansakuTrebiT perspeqtiuls uwodebs braziliis,

ruseTisa da TurqeTis bazrebs - kerZod, im bankebis aqciebs, romlebic ar

arian datvirTuli evropuli valebiT.

wyaro. www.forbesgeorgia.ge

qveynis savaluto Semosavlebi miT metia, rac ufro warmatebiT eweva qveyana eqsportul

saqmianobas. Tu qveyanaSi importi ufro warmatebulad xorcieldeba, vidre

eqsporti, maSin sWarbobs savaluto resursebis gadineba. Sesabamisad, saxelmwifos

savaWro balansis dadebiTi saldos Camoyalibebas, anu saeqsporto produqciis si-

Warbes didi mniSvneloba eniWeba.

qveynebs Soris saukuneebis manZilze Camoyalibebuli urTierTobebi Tanamedrove

`sainformacio eraSi“ Seicvala da saerTaSoriso vaWrobis ganmsazRvreli vaWrobis

liberalizacia, qveynebis produqciis erTmaneTis bazrebze Tavisufali daSveba da vaWrobis

Semaferxebeli barierebis Semcireba gaxda.

stabiluri ekonomikuri zrda saxelmwifos Zlierebis safuZvelia. sagareo politikis

erT-erTi mTavari mimarTulebaa qveynebTan urTierTmomgebiani ekonomikuri

TanamSromlobis ganviTareba, romelic xels Seuwyobs qveyanaSi investiciebis mozidvas

da saeqsporto bazris diversificirebas.

mravalmxrivi ekonomikuri TanamSromlobis formatebi vaWrobis da ekonomikuri kavSirebis

ganmtkicebis, ekonomikuri usafrTxoebis da ganviTarebis xelSewyobis mizniT

gamoyenebulia mravalmxrivi formatebi, rogoricaa gaeros qvedanayofebi, ganyofilebebi

da specializebuli saagentoebi (maT Soris WB, IMF, UNECE, WFP, ECOSOC), vaWrobis

msoflio organizacia (WTO), evropis sainvesticio banki (EIB), aziis ganviTarebis

banki (ADB), Savi zRvis ekonomikuri TanamSromlobis organizacia (BSEC), demokratiisa

da ekonomikuri ganviTarebis organizacia – suami. ekonomikuri TanamSomlobisa da

ganviTarebis organizacia (OECD) da sxva, romlebic miznad isaxavs wevr-qveynebs Soris

ekonomikuri urTierTobebis ganviTarebas, regionis warmatebuli ganviTarebis

xelSewyobas da saerTaSoriso da evropul struqturebTan urTierTobaTa daaxloebas.

muSavdeba mravalmxrivi ekonomikuri proeqtebi.


imsjeleT

zbignev kazimeJ bJezinski,

polonel-amerikeli politologi,

sociologi da saxelmwifo moRvawe

cnobilia zbignev bJeJinskis mosazreba imis Sesaxeb, Tu ras efuZneba

Tanamedroveobis erT-erTi zesaxelmwifos amerikis SeerTebuli

Statebis Zliereba. mas miaCnia, rom: „vercerTi saxelmwifo ver Seedreba

amerikas saxelmwifos Zlierebis oTx mTavar komponentSi, esenia -

samxedro, ekonomikuri, teqnologiuri da kulturuli komponentebi.“

Tqven ras daasaxelebdiT saqarTvelos Zlierebis komponentebad?

masStaburi regionuli proeqtebi, romlebSic saqarTvelo monawileobs, samuSao

adgilebis Seqmnis, qveynis ekonomikuri zrdisa da konkurentunarianobis ga-

Zlierebis mniSvnelovani faqtoria.

saqarTvelos gaaCnia transnacionaluri proeqtebis ganxorcielebis kargi gamocdileba,

gansakuTrebiT energetikisa da trasnportis sferoSi. am tipis urTierTobebis

Semdgomi gaRrmaveba, erToblivi regionuli ekonomikuri proeqtebis dagegmvisa da

realizaciis saqmeSi monawileoba saqarTvelos ekonomikuri ganviTarebisaTvis mniSvnelovani

faqtoria.

XXI saukuneSi energetikuli usafrTxoebis politika saxelmwifo politikis ganuyofeli

nawili gaxda. am TvalsazrisiT, saerTaSoriso arenaze mimdinare procesebSi

saqarTvelos Tavisi gamokveTili roli gaaCnia - mniSvnelovania qveynis teritoriaze

energetikuli, satransporto da satranzito mniSvnelovani magistralebis arseboba.

saqarTvelos energetikuli usafrTxoebis politikis prioritetia energoresursebis

satranzito qveynis statusis ganmtkiceba. Tavisi geografiuli mdebareobidan gamomdinare,

saqarTvelos SeuZlia mniSvnelovani rolis Sesruleba evropis energetikul

usafrTxoebis uzrunvelyosayofad. saqarTveloze gadis centraluri aziisa da kaspiis

zRvis energoresursebis iseTi satranzito magistralebi, rogoricaa “baqo-Tbilisijeihanis”

da “baqo Tbilisi-sufsis” navTobsadenebi da “baqo-Tbilisi-erzerumis”

gazsadeni. arsebobs didi potenciali aRniSnuli regionebidan energoresursebis

saqarTvelos gavliT evropis bazrebze transportirebis, raTa moxdes transkaspiuri

gazsadenis, da sxva perspeqtiuli proeqtebis realizacia.

SeerTebuli Statebis mTavroba yovelTvis gamoxatavda inovaciebisa da teqnologiuri

miRwevebis mxardaWeras da evraziaSi energetikuli usafrTxoebis gaZlierebis survils.

„amerikis SeerTebul Statebsa da saqarTvelos ganzraxuli gvaqvs uzrunvelvyoT

gaZlierebuli TanamSromloba umaRlesi ganaTlebis, biznesisa da samecniero kvlevis

sferoSi../wyaro. aSS-saqarTvelos qartia strategiuli partniorobis Sesaxeb/

saqarTvelos ekonomikis mdgradi ganviTarebisaTvis gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania

ekonomikuri urTierTobis gaRrmaveba sxvadasxva ganviTarebul qveynebTan da

saerTaSoriso struqturebTan. mag., sagulisxmoa israelTan ekonomikis, turizmisa

da kulturis sferoebSi TanamSromloba, ukrainasTan, germaniasTan, CineTTan savaWro

urTierTobebis ganviTareba.

2012 wlis ianvar-ivnisSi saqarTveloSi saqonliT sagareo savaWro brunvam 4866

mln. aSS dolari Seadgina, rac wina wlis maCvenebelze 17 procentiT metia. aqedan,

eqsporti 140 mln. aSS dolari iyo (10 procentiT meti), xolo importi – 3725

mln. aSS dolari (19 procentiT meti). saqarTvelos uaryofiTma savaWro balansma

2012 wlis ianvar-ivnisSi 2585 mln. aSS dolari da sagareo savaWro brunvis 53 procenti

Seadgina.

203


saqarTvelos sagareo vaWrobaSi Camoyalibebul zogad tendenciebs asaxavs grafikuli

gamosaxuleba 2007-2012 wlebis ianvar-ivnisis dinamikuri mwkrivis mixedviT.

sagareo vaWrobis zogadi maCveneblebi 2007-2012 ww. ianvar-ivnisSi (mln. aSS dolari)

4000

3000

2000

1000

0

-1000

-2000

-3000

204

544

es

sainteresoa

ese

2223

-1679

796

3195

-2400

513

2062

2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012

735

2315

-1548 -1580

ექსპორტი იმპორტი სალდო

1037

3119

-2082

saqarTvelosa da garesamyaros urTierTdamokidebuleba.

1140

3725

-2585

SeRavaTiani sagareo-savaWro reJimebi.

saqarTvelos sagareo-savaWro brunva 2003 wlidan zrdis tendenciiT

xasiaTdeba, rasac qveynis liberaluri savaWro politikac uwyobs xels.

saqarTveloSi moqmedebs SeRavaTiani savaWro reJimebi:

• Tavisufali vaWrobis reJimi – dsT-s qveynebTan da TurqeTTan (2008

wlis 1 noembridan);

• ,,upiratesi xelSewyobis reJimi” (MFN) – msoflio savaWro organizaciis

wevr qveynebTan;

• preferenciebis ganzogadebuli sistema (GSP) – aSS-sTan, kanadas-

Tan, iaponiasTan, Sveicariasa da norvegiasTan;

• GSP+ – evrokavSirTan (7200 saxeobis produqciaze) 2005 wlidan.

saqarTvelos 33 qveyanasTan aqvs gaformebuli xelSekruleba ormagi

dabegvris Tavidan acilebis Sesaxeb, xolo 32 qveyanasTan - investiciebis

urTierTdacvisa da waxalisebis Taobaze.

mimdinareobs mosamzadebeli samuSaoebi evrokavSirTan Tavisufali

vaWrobis SeTanxmebis (FTA) molaparakebebis dawyebis Tobaze.

wyaro: saqarTvelos ekonomikis da mdgradi ganviTarebis saministros masalebi.

http://www.economy.ge


proeqtebi

proeqti ¹1 `axali ambebis reportaJebi saqarTvelos regionebidan

proeqti ¹2 ekonomikur maCveneblebze nadiroba

proeqti ¹3 fasebi da dro – rogor gaZvirda cxovreba

proeqti ¹4 cxovrebis done

proeqti ¹5 socialuri mdgomareobis analizi

proeqti ¹6 bazris analizi

proeqtebze muSaobisas saintereso masalaebis mopovebaSi

dagexmarebaT Semdegi internet-resursebi:

1. www.geostat.ge – saqarTvelos statistikis erovnuli samsaxuri;

2. www.newsgeorgia.ge _axali ambebi. sainformacio saagento, saqarTvelo;

3. http://moe.caucasus.net _ garemos dacvisa da bunebrivi resursebis saministro;

4. www.ncsa.ge - globaluri garemos dacvis mizniT qveynis SesaZleblobaTa gaZlierebis

saWiroebis TviTSefaseba

5. www.climatechange.telenet.ge – garemos dacvisa da bunebrivi resursebis saministro;

klimatis cvlilebis departamenti

6. www.parliament.ge _ saqarTvelos parlamenti;

7. www.civil.ge/geo _saqarTvelos gaeros asociacia _ internet-Jurnali;

8. www.president.gov.ge _ saqarTvelos prezidenti;

9. http://www.mfa.gov.ge _ saqarTvelos sagareo saqmeTa saministro;

10. http://www.geocities.com/kanonebi _ saqarTvelos kanonTa krebuli;

11. http://www.geplac.org - ekonomikuri politikisa da samarTlebrivi sakiTxebis qarTulevropuli

sakonsultacio centri;

12. www.president.gov.ge _ saqarTvelos prezidenti;

13. http://www.geocities.com/kanonebi _ saqarTvelos kanonTa krebuli;

14. http://www.geplac.org _ ekonomikuri politikisa da samarTlebrivi sakiTxebis qar-

Tul-evropuli sakonsultacio centri;

15. http://www.delgeo.cec.eu.int/ge/eu_global_player/index1.html _ evrokomisiis warmomadgenloba

saqarTveloSi;

16. http://www.eu-integration.gov.ge/geo/georgiaandeugallery.php - saqarTvelos evrokavSirSi

integraciis samTavrobo komisia.

17. http://www.economy.gov.ge - ekonomikuri ganviTarebis saministro;

12. http://www.economy.ge/geo/departments.php?key=5 _ ekonomikuri ganviTarebis saministro,

transportis departamenti;

13. http://www.statistics.ge/Main/Ge/Agriculture/index.html - saqarTvelos pirveli erovnuli

sasoflo-sameurneo aRwera.

205


absoluturi upiratesoba _ Tanabari raodenobis

resursebis pirobebSi sxva mwarmoebelTan

SedarebiT saqonlis an momsaxurebis

meti erTeulis warmoebis SesaZlebloba. ix.,

aseve, SedarebiTi upiratesoba.

adamianuri kapitali _ adamianTa jamrTeloba,

ganaTleba, kvalifikacia da unarebi.

adamianuri resursebi _ saqonlisa da momsaxurebis

warmoebisTvis saWiro adamianuri

Zalisxmevis raodenoba da xarisxi.

alternatiuli Rirebuleba – momdevno uke-

Tesi alternativis Rirebuleba, romelzec

uari unda vTqvaT, radgan SezRuduli resursebi

gamoyenebulia sxva miznisaTvis.

arasrulyofili konkurencia _ sabazro

struqtura, romelSic firmebi ar arian fasis

mimRebebi, magram samagierod unda ipovon

fasisa da gamoSvebis iseTi done, romlis

drosac SesaZlebeli iqneba mogebis maqsimizacia.

ix., aseve, srulyofili konkurencia.