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nino talaxaZe<br />

<strong>ekonomika</strong><br />

da<br />

<strong>saxelmwifo</strong><br />

XI/XII<br />

klasi


saqarTvelos <strong>saxelmwifo</strong> himni<br />

` Tavisufleba~<br />

Cemi xatia samSoblo,<br />

saxate mTeli qveyana,<br />

ganaTebuli mTa-bari,<br />

wilnayaria RmerTTana.<br />

Tavisufleba dRes Cveni<br />

momavals umRers didebas,<br />

ciskris varskvlavi amodis<br />

da or zRvas Sua brwyindeba,<br />

dideba Tavisuflebas,<br />

Tavisuflebas dideba.


nino talaxaZe<br />

<strong>ekonomika</strong><br />

da<br />

<strong>saxelmwifo</strong><br />

XI/XII<br />

moswavlis wigni<br />

grifi mieniWa 2012 wels saqarTvelos ganaTlebisa da mecnierebis saministros<br />

s.s.i.p. ganaTlebis xarisxis ganviTarebis erovnuli centris mier


avtori: nino talaxaZe<br />

Semdgenlebi: lia gigauri,<br />

gulnaz erqomaiSvili,<br />

marina nacvalaZe<br />

winasityvaoba<br />

gTavazobT saxelmZRvanelos, romlis saSualebiTac `... Sen miemgzavrebi ekonomikis saocari<br />

samyaros Sesaswavlad. es aris amaRlebuli grZnoba,……<br />

gisurveb bednier mgzavrobas!” /pol samuelsoni/.<br />

garwmunebT, es mogzauroba saintereso iqneba. Tqven axal msoflmxedvelobas eziarebiT, romelic<br />

nebismieri adamianisaTvis Zalian mniSvnelovani, amasTanave saocrad sainteresoa.<br />

es saxelmZRvanelo gamiznulia yvelasTvis, visTvisac sxvadasxva arCevanis gakeTebisas<br />

(saqonlisa da momsaxurebis SeZenis, samuSaos Zebnis, politikuri figurebis arCevis, finansebis<br />

ganawilebis Tu <strong>saxelmwifo</strong>s ekonomikuri politikis Sefasebisas) swori gadawyvetilebis miReba<br />

mniSvnelovania, visac warmatebis miRweva da ukeT cxovreba ganuzraxavs.<br />

swored axla, damoukidebeli cxovrebisaTvis mzadebis procesSi, ufrosklaselTaTvis ekonomikis<br />

sakiTxebSi garkveva da Tanamedrove samyaroSi orientaciis unaris SeZena udides mniSvnelobas<br />

iZens. dRes miRebuli gadawyvetilebebi xom Tqvens momavals gansazRvravs!<br />

warmodgenili saxelmZRvanelo gaxlavT orientiri Tanamedrove, XXI saukunis samyaros realur<br />

urTierTobebSi. avtorebma gaiTvaliswines, rom skolis damTavrebis Semdeg bevrs saku-<br />

Tari biznesis wamowyebis survili gauCndeba, amitom sakmaod didi adgili davuTmeT biznesis<br />

sawyisebs. Tavisuflad SegveZlo wignisTvis `praqtikuli ekonomikis gzamkvlevi~ gvewodebina.<br />

yovel gakveTilSi ZiriTadi ekonomikuri koncefciebi da praqtikuli situaciebia ganxiluli.<br />

saklaso modelireba, kvleviTi proeqtebi, monacemTa analizi da debatebi ekonomikur azrovnebas<br />

SegaCvevT, romelic Semdgom realur problemebsa da cxovrebiseul situaciebSi gasarkvevad<br />

gamogadgebaT. Tu TiToeuli Temis dasrulebis Semdgom sakuTar Tavs dausvamT kiTxvas: `raSi<br />

gamomadgeba am paragrafSi miRebuli codna?~ – pasuxis Zebna didxans ar dagWirdebaT. aRmoaCenT,<br />

rom, rogorc momxmarebelma, moqalaqem, mewarmem, partniorma, daqiravebulma Tu damqiravebelma,<br />

ukve iciT, rogor moiqceT konkretul SemTxvevaSi.<br />

TiToeuli gakveTili moicavs Semdeg rubrikebs:<br />

davaleba<br />

es sainteresoa<br />

ganmarteba<br />

redaqtori: gulnaz erqomaiSvili<br />

damkabadonebeli: giorgi asaturovi<br />

imsjeleT! savarjiSo<br />

SekiTxva situacia<br />

kvleva<br />

gaixseneT<br />

daskvna


sarCevi<br />

I Tavi: ekonomikis arsi .....................................................5<br />

1-2. ekonomikuri azrovneba dagexmarebaT ........................................................................... 5<br />

3. ra? rogor? visTvis? ............................................................................................................ 11<br />

4-5. vyidulobT rac gvsurs? .................................................................................................. 16<br />

6. Txilis bazari ........................................................................................................................ 19<br />

7. saqarTveloSi gavrcelebuli ekonomikuri saqmianobis<br />

istoriuli formebi ............................................................................................................ 25<br />

II Tavi: <strong>saxelmwifo</strong> da <strong>ekonomika</strong> .............................31<br />

8. ra miznebi aqvs Cvens ekonomikur sistemas? .................................................................. 31<br />

9-10. ra unda gaakeTos <strong>saxelmwifo</strong>m? .................................................................................. 36<br />

11. rogoria <strong>saxelmwifo</strong>s ekonomikuri funqciebi? ....................................................... 40<br />

12. <strong>saxelmwifo</strong> biujeti ........................................................................................................... 45<br />

13-14. gadasaxadebis saxeebi saqarTveloSi ....................................................................... 49<br />

15. vis ekisreba gadasaxadis tvirTi? .................................................................................. 57<br />

16. aris ki raime ufaso? ........................................................................................................... 61<br />

17. me ra SuaSi var? .................................................................................................................... 63<br />

18. ekonomikuri aqtivobis wrebrunva ................................................................................. 66<br />

Tavi III. mewarmeoba da biznesi ....................................71<br />

19-20. yvelaferi biznesis Sesaxeb ........................................................................................ 71<br />

21. konkurencia sxvadasxva bazarze ..................................................................................... 79<br />

22. konkurencia da SeTanxmeba ............................................................................................... 82<br />

Tavi IV mdgradoba bazarze bazarze ......................87<br />

23. ra xdeba realur bazarze? ................................................................................................ 87<br />

24-25. yofna-aryofna? .............................................................................................................. 91<br />

26. vmarTavT kompania `aTinaTs~! ......................................................................................... 95<br />

27. vin vis ajobebs? ................................................................................................................... 97<br />

Tavi V: <strong>saxelmwifo</strong>s roli bazris<br />

regulirebaSi .....................................................................102<br />

28-29. <strong>saxelmwifo</strong> yovelTvis fxizladaa ......................................................................... 102<br />

30. SevamowmoT Cveni codna – viTamaSoT samaia ............................................................. 107<br />

Tavi VI: biznesis dagegmva ...........................................109<br />

31-32. minda fuli, minda manqana, mogzauroba, ...biznesi minda ................................. 109<br />

33. SeviswavloT bazari ......................................................................................................... 117<br />

34. biznesis dafinanseba ....................................................................................................... 123<br />

3


Tavi VII: ojaxis <strong>ekonomika</strong> ..........................................126<br />

35. ojaxidan bankisaken ......................................................................................................... 126<br />

Tavi VIII: ekonomikuri politikis sakiTxebi ... 133<br />

36. konstitucia <strong>ekonomika</strong>s icavs ..................................................................................... 133<br />

4<br />

37-38. mTliani Sida produqti da mTliani erovnuli produqti .............................. 136<br />

39. ZiriTadi makroekonomikuri maCveneblebi ............................................................... 142<br />

40. daveZeb da ver vpoulob .................................................................................................. 144<br />

41. esec <strong>saxelmwifo</strong>s problemaa? ....................................................................................... 148<br />

42-43. erT problemas meore mosdevs ................................................................................ 152<br />

44-45. inflacia ......................................................................................................................... 157<br />

46. aravis unda iyos Raribi .................................................................................................. 161<br />

47-48. ekonomikuri zrda Tu ekonomikuri ganviTareba? ............................................. 167<br />

Tavi IX: fiskaluri da monetaruli<br />

politikis roli <strong>ekonomika</strong>Si ..................................174<br />

49. fiskaluri politika ....................................................................................................... 174<br />

50. monetaruli politika .................................................................................................... 180<br />

Tavi X: saerTaSoriso urTierTobebi<br />

da saqarTvelo ...................................................................185<br />

51-52. es Cemi qveyanaa .............................................................................................................. 185<br />

53. ekonomikuri da finansuri krizisebi .......................................................................... 196<br />

54. saerTaSoriso urTierTobebis mniSvneloba qveynis<br />

ekonomikis ganviTarebisTvis ......................................................................................... 201<br />

proeqtebi .............................................................................................................................205<br />

ekonomikuri terminebis leqsikoni .............................................................................. 206


I<br />

ekonomikis<br />

arsi<br />

1-2<br />

ekonomikuri azrovneba<br />

dagexmarebaT<br />

male skolas daamTavrebT da sruliad gansxvavebul cxovrebas daiwyebT. albaT, jer<br />

ar iciT, rogor warmarToT igi. ukve arCevanis winaSec dgaxarT:<br />

`ra saqmianobas<br />

mivyo xeli?~<br />

`Cavabaro Tu<br />

ara umaRles<br />

saswavlebelSi?~<br />

`romeli biznesia<br />

momgebiani?~<br />

`axlave daviwyo<br />

dazogva, Tu roca<br />

meti fuli meqneba?~<br />

TiToeuli Tqvengani am kiTxvebze pasuxis gasacemad jer mzad ar aris. axla mxolod<br />

is SegiZliaT gansazRvroT, Tu rogor dagexmarebaT <strong>ekonomika</strong> am kiTxvebze pasuxis mo-<br />

ZebnaSi.<br />

ratom unda iswavloT <strong>ekonomika</strong> skolaSi? imitom, rom miuxedavad arCeuli profesiisa,<br />

yvelani ekonomikuri saqmianobis monawileni varT. zogierTi mas profesiulad axorcielebs<br />

da amisaTvis ekonomikur mecnierebas eufleba. magram is, visac arasodes uswavlia<br />

<strong>ekonomika</strong> da arc ki fiqrobs, rom Tavadaa ekonomikuri agenti, mudmivad awydeba<br />

Semdeg ekonomikur problemebs: imuSaos Tu iswavlos; daxarjos fuli Tu daagrovos;<br />

sakuTari saqme wamoiwyos Tu Tavisi samuSao Zala gaaqiraos.<br />

Cven SezRuduli resursebis samyaroSi vcxovrobT, anu Cveni moTxovnilebebi yovelTvis<br />

metia, maT dasakmayofileblad saWiro resursebi ki naklebi. adamianTa moTxovnilebebi<br />

usazRvroa, resursebi ki _ SezRuduli. mudam raime produqtis ukmarisobas ganvicdiT.<br />

SezRuduloba warmoSobs arCevanis problemas. TiToeuli adamiani Tavisi<br />

mrvalgvari moTxovnilebebis dakmayofilebisaken iswrafvis, magram dakmayofilebisTanave<br />

axali moTxovnilebebi uCndeba. es procesi dausrulebelia.<br />

resursebis da moTxovnilebebis urTierTqmedeba<br />

moTxovnilebebis maxasiaTeblebi<br />

ganusazRvreloba<br />

daukmayofilebloba<br />

zrdadoba<br />

resursebis maxasiaTeblebi<br />

SezRuduloba<br />

amowurvadoba<br />

iSviaToO<br />

ba<br />

5


? 1.<br />

pirveladi anu biologiuri moTxovnilebebi<br />

– moTxovnilebebi, romelic sasicocxlod<br />

aucilebelia adamianis arsebobisaTvis. esenia:<br />

sakvebi, haeri, wyali, siTbo, sinaTle, usafrTxoeba,<br />

daculoba.<br />

socialuri moTxovnilebebi – es aris sxva adamianebTan<br />

urTierTobis, aRiarebis, TviTgamoxatvis,<br />

siaxlis gagebis, codnis, garTobis, dasvenebis,<br />

megobrobis, pativiscemis da a.S. moTxovnilebebi.<br />

zemoT CamoTvlili moTxovnilebebidan, ekonomikis<br />

Seswavlis sagani ekonomikuri moTxovnilebebis<br />

dakmayofilebis gzebis Ziebaa.<br />

ekonomikuri saqmianoba. SezRudulobis problemisgan Tavis daRwevis erTaderTi<br />

gza – Sroma anu rogorc ekonomistebi uwodeben ekonomikuri saqmianobaa. adamianebi<br />

mravalmxriv ekonomikur saqmianobas ewevian da SezRuduli resursebiT TavianTi usaz-<br />

Rvro moTxovnilebebis dakmayofilebis gzebs eZeben.<br />

6<br />

daasaxeleT, romeli produqti (saqoneli da momsaxureba) aris SezRuduli<br />

piradad TqvenTvis, Tqveni skolisTvis, Cveni qveynisaTvis?<br />

2. CamowereT furcelze Tqveni ojaxis umTavresi moTxovnilebebi prioritetulobis<br />

mixedviT. SeadareT es moTxovnilebebi erTmaneTs. daakvirdiT,<br />

ra TanmimdevrobiT dalagda isini. moZebneT kanonzomiereba, romlis<br />

mixedviTac adamianebi upiratesobas ama Tu im moTxovnilebas aniWeben.<br />

sociolog abraam maslous adamianis moTxovnilebaTa piramida.<br />

<strong>ekonomika</strong> aris adamianTa saqmianobis organizacia im dovlaTis<br />

Sesaqmnelad, romelic saWiroa maTi moTxovnilebebis dasakmayofileblad.<br />

<strong>ekonomika</strong> aris mecniereba, romelic Seiswavlis sameurneo saqmianobis<br />

procesSi monawile subieqtebis qcevas.<br />

<strong>ekonomika</strong> aris mecniereba arCevanis Sesaxeb.<br />

termini „<strong>ekonomika</strong>“ berZnuli warmoSobisaa da saojaxo meurneobis gaZRolas niSnavs.<br />

realurad <strong>saxelmwifo</strong>s cxovreba waagavs ojaxis cxovrebas, amitom logikuria, rom ekonomikis<br />

marTva „ojaxis gaZRolasTanaa“ gaigivebuli.<br />

saukuneebis ganmavlobaSi ekonomikurma mecnierebam evolucia ganicada – ganviTarda.<br />

igi daiyo mraval „qvemecnierebad“, romlebic sazogadoebis ekonomikuri ganviTarebis<br />

sxvadasxva aspeqts swavloben, magram ekonomikis, rogorc mecnierebis sagani ucvlelia.


adamianebs uamravi materialuri Tu sulieri faqtorebis gareSe cxovreba ar SeuZliaT.<br />

maT sWirdebaT sakvebi, tansacmeli, sacxovrebeli adgili, uamravi saxis saqoneli, romlebic<br />

gansazRvraven cxovrebis dones. adamiani arasodes ar sjerdeba miRweuls da sul<br />

ufro meti da meti unda. amasTan yvela am moTxovnilebis dasakmayofileblad saWiroa<br />

resursebi, romlebic Cvens irgvlivaa. swored am resursebs, maT Soris adamianTa unars<br />

gamoiyenos es resursebi, viyenebT, raTa SevZloT Tundac fizikuri arseboba. Tumca aris<br />

erTi mniSvnelovani problema - SezRuduloba. resursebi ar aris gamouleveli. Tu erTi<br />

saxis resursi SedarebiT ufro metia bunebaSi da misi maragebis amowurva jer ar aris mosalodneli,<br />

meore saxis resursi ukve dReisaTvis amowurulia, an amowurvis pirasaa.<br />

risTvis aris saWiro <strong>ekonomika</strong>?<br />

saboloo<br />

piradi sazogadoebrivi<br />

saWiroebebi<br />

sawarmoo<br />

adamianTa swrafva - gaiumjobesos cxovrebis materialuri pirobebi, SezRuduli<br />

resursuli uzrunvelyofis pirobebSi aris ekonomikis, rogorc mecnierebis sagani<br />

da umTavresi amocana. <strong>ekonomika</strong> swavlobs adamianis SeuzRudavi moTxovnilebebis dakmayofilebis<br />

mizniT SezRuduli resursebis efeqtianad gamoyeneba/ marTvis problemebs.<br />

SezRuduloba usazRvro moTxovnilebebisa da SezRuduli resursebis dapirispirebas<br />

ganapirobebs. SezRuduloba adamianebs arCevanis winaSe ayenebs. arCevanis gasakeTeblad<br />

adamianebi alternativebs afaseben.<br />

alternativa, romelzec uari vTqviT, Cveni arCevanis alternatiuli Rirebulebaa.<br />

7


8<br />

saqonlis mwarmoebeli<br />

mesakuTre<br />

arCevanis problema <strong>ekonomika</strong>Si<br />

Sroma fizikuri<br />

miwa<br />

kapitali<br />

resursebi mmoTxovnilebebi<br />

SezRuduli SeuzRudavi<br />

arCevanis<br />

problema<br />

arCevanis mizani<br />

alternativebi<br />

kriteriumebi<br />

arCevanis fasi<br />

(alternatiuli Rirebuleba)<br />

adamiani _<br />

ekonomikuri<br />

urTierTobebis<br />

monawile<br />

momxmarebeli<br />

momsaxurebis<br />

mwarmoebeli<br />

gamyidveli<br />

sulieri<br />

socialuri


arCeuli profesiis miuxedavad, yoveli Cvengani qveynis <strong>ekonomika</strong>Si sxvadasxva rols asrulebs:<br />

1) gadawyvetilebis mimRebis roli _ roca sakuTar alternativebs gansazRvravs, maT<br />

Seafasebs da arCevans akeTebs;<br />

2) momxmareblebis roli _ roca yidulobs da moixmars saqonelsa da momsaxurebas;<br />

3) moqalaqis roli _ roca arCevnebSi monawileobs, icavs kanonebs da ixdis gadasaxadebs;<br />

4) dasaqmebulis roli _ roca saqonlisa da momsaxurebis warmoebaSi monawileobs, fizikurad<br />

da/an gonebrivad muSaobs;<br />

5) danazogis Semqmnelis roli _ roca saqonlisa da momsaxurebis yidvas samomavlod gadadebs,<br />

Tavis Semosavlebs srulad ar xarjavs, fuls bankSi abandebs da sargebels iRebs.<br />

Cven globaluri msoflio sistemis monawileni varT, roca vcdilobT saerTaSoriso<br />

vaWro bis sakiTxebSi gaverkveT, SeviswavloT sxva kultura da civilizacia.<br />

am rolebis nawils Tqven ukve asrulebT. asakis matebasTan erTad sul ufro metad dag-<br />

WirdebaT erTdroulad ramdenime ekonomikuri rolis Sesruleba.<br />

es rom ukeTesad moaxerxoT, iswavleT ekonomikis ana-bana, iazrovneT ekonomikurad gaecaniT<br />

sakuTari qveynis kanonmdeblobas, Tqvens movaleobebs da uflebebs <strong>saxelmwifo</strong>s winaSe<br />

da warmatebasac iolad miaRwevT.<br />

`<strong>ekonomika</strong> momxiblveli mecnierebaa. mas kidev ufro mimzidvels<br />

xdis is, rom misi fuZemdebluri principebi imdenad ubraloa, erT<br />

furcelzec ki daeteva da Tanac ise, rom yvela gaigebs. miuxedavad<br />

amisa, <strong>ekonomika</strong> mainc cotas esmis”.<br />

milton fridmani<br />

`<strong>ekonomika</strong> ar iZleva mza daskvnebs, romelsac maSinve gamoiyeneb<br />

praqtikaSi. is ufro meTodia, vidre moZRvreba, gonierebis sawyobi,<br />

azrovnebis saSualeba, romelic swori daskvnebis gakeTebaSi dagexmareba.~<br />

jon meinard keinsi<br />

`xSirad gamigonia, rom qriste RmerTma Tavisi kalTa siuxvisa aq,<br />

am Cvens patara qveyanaSi daibertyao, amas imitom amboben, rom Cveni<br />

qveyana bevrs sxva qveyanaze ufro mdidaria, ufro savsea. arc Tvi-<br />

Ton Cvena varT uxeironi, RmerTi-rjuli. mklav-ZarRvad kargebi<br />

varT, janic da Zal-Ronec mogvdevs, arc xalisi gvaklia..… maS raRaTa<br />

varT Raribnio? mkiTxavT Tqven.<br />

imitom, rom ar viciT, sad ra simdidre Zevs, sad ra ganZia. ar viciT<br />

saidam ra amoviRoT, ra xerxiTa da ostatobiT amoviRoT, rom jafac<br />

advili iyos da najafic blomad.<br />

codnis gareSe dedamiwa Tavis uxvsa da uxarbels guls ar gadagvixsnis,<br />

ise uxvad ar mogvabarebs~.<br />

ilia WavWavaZe<br />

,,iseTi zusti disciplina, rogoric <strong>ekonomika</strong>a ar unda iyos arc mosawyeni<br />

da arc rTuli.”<br />

p. samuelsoni<br />

9


davaleba<br />

kiTxvebi<br />

da<br />

davalebebi<br />

10<br />

moamzadeT jgufuri prezentacia sakuTari ekonomikuri rolis<br />

(moswavlis rolis) Sesaxeb da CamoayalibeT masTan dakavSirebuli winadadebebi.<br />

saqoneli – Sromis produqti, romelic adamianis garkveul moTxovnilebebs<br />

akmayofilebs da damzadebulia gasayidad.<br />

momsaxureba – saqmianobis saxeoba, romelsac adamianebis erTi nawili<br />

anazRaurebis miRebis mizniT meoresTvis eweva. momsaxureba moqmedebaa.<br />

mas ganekuTvneba: swavleba, mkurnaloba, Tmis SeWra, iuridiuli momsaxureba<br />

da a. S.<br />

ekonomikuri moTxovnileba – survili da saWiroeba, romelic Sei-<br />

Zleba dakmayofildes saqonlisa da momsaxurebis moxmarebiT.<br />

SezRuduloba – mdgomareoba, rodesac adamianis moTxovnileba<br />

aWarbebs maT dasakmayofileblad arsebuli resursebis raodenobas.<br />

SezRudulobis problemis winaSe dganan individebi da organizaciebi,<br />

firmebisa da <strong>saxelmwifo</strong> uwyebebis CaTvliT.<br />

sargeblianoba – saqonlis an momsaxurebis SesaZlebloba, daakmayofilos<br />

momxmareblis moTxovnileba.<br />

alternatiuli Rirebuleba – saukeTeso (Cvens mier SerCevis Semdeg)<br />

alternativa, romelzec uari vTqviT sxva arCevanis sasargeblod.<br />

Sroma – adamianis gonebrivi da fizikuri SesaZleblobebis, unarebis<br />

gamoyeneba materialuri dovlaTis Sesaqmnelad.<br />

warmoeba<br />

organizaciis<br />

formebi<br />

ekonomikis struqtura<br />

moxmareba<br />

adamianebi,<br />

organizaciebi<br />

<strong>ekonomika</strong><br />

ganawileba<br />

<strong>saxelmwifo</strong><br />

xelisuflebis<br />

organoebi<br />

gacvla<br />

bazari<br />

1. daasaxeleT is moTxovnilebebi, romlebic skolasTan dakavSirebiT<br />

gagaCniaT. axseniT, ratom ar gaqvT yvelaferi, rac skolisaTvis<br />

gsurT. scadeT daajgufoT isini moTxovnilebaTa naswavli kategoriebis<br />

mixedviT.<br />

2. gadawyvetilebis miRebis modelis gamoyenebiT warmoadgineT Tqveni<br />

piradi an saojaxo problemis gadawyvetilebis sqema. raSi mdgomareobs<br />

problema?


a? rogor?<br />

visTvis?<br />

SezRudulobis problemis gamo, sazogadoebam pasuxi unda gasces sam ZiriTad ekonomikur<br />

kiTxvas:<br />

ra saqoneli da momsaxureba unda vawarmooT da ra raodenobiT? skolebi ufro meti<br />

unda avaSenoT Tu kinoTeatrebi? am kiTxvaze pasuxi qveynisTvis mniSvnelovan faseulobebzea<br />

damokidebuli. samorine ufro faseulia Tu wignebis maRazia?<br />

rogor unda vawarmooT sxvadasxva saqoneli da momsaxureba? rogor iqnes damzadebuli<br />

urTulesi detalebi _ xeliT Tu teqnologiebis gamoyenebiT? am kiTxvaze pasuxi<br />

qveynis ganviTarebis donezea damokidebuli. Tu qveyanas axali teqnologiebis, Zlieri<br />

materialur-teqnikuri bazis saSualeba aqvs, is xeliT Sromas manqanurs amjobinebs.<br />

visTvis unda vawarmooT sxvadasxva saqoneli da momsaxureba? qalisTvis Tu mamakacisTvis,<br />

sportsmenisTvis Tu mecnierisTvis, namibielisTvis Tu qarTvelisTvis, bavSvisTvis<br />

Tu moxucisTvis? ekonomikuri dovlaTis ganawileba Semosavlebzea damokidebuli.<br />

maRali Semosavlebis mqone adamianebi ufro mets moixmaren, vidre dabali<br />

Semosavlebis mqoneni.<br />

bazari – sistema, romelic myidvelebs (momxmareblebi) da gamyidvelebs<br />

(mwarmoeblebi) erTmaneTTan akavSirebs.<br />

sabazro <strong>ekonomika</strong> aris ekonomikuri sistema, romelic bazarze<br />

myidvelebisa da gamyidvelebis urTierTqmedebiT pasuxs gascems<br />

kiTxvebs: ra? rogor? visTvis?<br />

sabazro ekonomikis ZiriTadi maxasiaTebeli kerZo sakuTrebaa, mamoZravebeli Zala ki –<br />

bazari. restorani, benzingasamarTi sadguri, Jurnal-gazeTebis jixuri, musikaluri maRazia,<br />

fotosaloni _ es Cveulebrivi bazrebia. roca bankis xelmZRvaneloba maRali kvalifikaciis<br />

mqone kursdmTavrebul studentTan kontraqts aformebs, esec bazaria. roca<br />

qarTveli fexburTeli italiis safexburTo klubTan molaparakebas awarmoebs, es ukve<br />

saerTaSoriso bazaria.<br />

rogor pasuxobs bazari kiTxvas _ ra?<br />

individualuri gadawyvetilebebis koordinirebas bazrebi fasebis saSualebiT axdenen.<br />

vawarmoo da gavyido = SeviZino da movixmaro<br />

Tu xaWapuris warmoebis magaliTs ganvixilavT, xaWapurs imitom acxoben da yidian, rom<br />

mcxobelma icis, mas viRac aucileblad SeiZens da miirTmevs.<br />

rogor pasuxobs bazari kiTxvas _ rogor?<br />

magaliTad, xaWapurebis gamocxoba gazquraSi, eleqtroRumelSi da SeSis RumelSi Sei-<br />

Zleba. is, Tu sawvavis romel saxeobas gamoiyenebs mwarmoebeli, damokidebulia sawvavis<br />

fasze. Tu bunebrivi airis fasi moimatebs, mwarmoebeli mis nacvlad bunebrivi airis alternativas<br />

– eleqtroenergias gamoiyenebs.<br />

rogor pasuxobs bazari kiTxvas _ visTvis?<br />

xaWapuris sacxobSi SesaniSnavad ician, romeli momxmareblisaTvisaa gankuTvnili es<br />

produqti.<br />

rogorc ukve aRvniSneT, bazari sxavadasxva saxisaa, magram isini or ZiriTad qvejgufs<br />

qmnian: saqonlisa da momsaxurebis bazari da warmoebis faqtorTa bazari.<br />

3<br />

11


imsjeleT<br />

12<br />

warmoebis faqtorebi (sawarmoo resursebi) _ ZiriTadi saxis<br />

resursebi, romlebic saqonlisa da momsaxurebis sawarmoeblad<br />

gamoiyeneba. kerZod, bunebrivi resursebi, adamianuri anu SromiTi<br />

resursebi, kapitaluri resursebi, samewarmeo unari.<br />

saqonlisa da momsaxurebis bazari _ bazari, sadac saqonelsa<br />

da momsaxurebas yiduloben da yidian.<br />

faqtorTa bazari – bazari, sadac warmoebis faqtorebs yiduloben<br />

da yidian.<br />

bunebrivi resursebi – bunebis mier naboZebi nobaTi - miwa,<br />

okeaneebi da mdinareebi, navTobi da mineraluri wylebi, klimaturi<br />

pirobebi.<br />

adamianuri anu SromiTi resursebi – adamianis Zalisxmeva,<br />

romelic gamoiyeneba saqonlisa da momsaxurebis sawarmoeblad.<br />

SromiTi resursebis gayidva Sromiss bazarze mimdinareobs;<br />

kapitaluri resursebi (kapitali) _ Senoba-nagebobebi,<br />

manqanadanadgarebi da iaraRebi, romlebic warmoebis procesSi<br />

gamoiyeneba. (Cveulebriv, adamianebi kapitals fuls uwodeben,<br />

magram <strong>ekonomika</strong>Si termini kapitali niSnavs realur sawarmoo<br />

resursebs, romlebic sxva saqonlisa da momsaxurebis sawarmoeblad<br />

gamoiyeneba).<br />

samewarmeo unari _ adamianis unari, mogebis misaRebad organizeba<br />

gauwios sxvadasxva tipis resursebs.<br />

firmebi _ awarmoeben saqonelsa da momsaxurebas da maT bazarze<br />

gasayidad awvdian.<br />

garda zemoT CamoTvlili resursebisa, arsebobs specifikuri<br />

resursebic, es aris: dro da informacia. imsjeleT, XXI saukuneSi ramdenad<br />

ZviradRirebuli da SezRudulia orive maTgani, sxva resursebTan<br />

SedarebiT.


? 1.<br />

bunebrivi<br />

resursebi<br />

savarjiSo<br />

1<br />

sawarmoo resursebis gamoyeneba saqonlisa<br />

da momsaxurebis warmoebisTvis<br />

warmoeba<br />

adamianuri<br />

resursebi<br />

kapitaluri<br />

resursebi<br />

+<br />

saqoneli da<br />

momsaxureba<br />

samewarmeo<br />

unari<br />

ras niSnavs warmoebis faqtorebi?<br />

2. ra saxis warmoebis faqtorebi arsebobs?<br />

3. warmoebis faqtorebis romel saxes SeiZleba mivakuTvnoT:<br />

a) yavis safqvavi kafeSi;<br />

b) manganumis sabado;<br />

g) skolis maswavlebeli;<br />

d) limonaTis saamqros menejeri;<br />

e) avtomanqana, romliTac ojaxis ufross qalaqgareT miyavxarT;<br />

v) avtomanqana, romliTac ojaxis ufross mgzavrebi gadahyavs;<br />

z) fuli, romliTac maRaziaSi produqts yidulobT;<br />

T) fuli, romliTac sawarmo dazgas yidulobs.<br />

4. ra resursebi gamoiyeneba puris sawarmoeblad?<br />

maTematikaSi saSinao davalebis Sesasruleblad?<br />

axali skolis asaSeneblad?<br />

Tanamedrove bazari<br />

imuSaveT jgufebSi.<br />

qveyanaSi firmebis didi raodenoba arsebobs.<br />

swored isini qmnian saqonlisa da<br />

momsaxurebis bazrebs. firmebi sxvadasxva<br />

adgilebze arian ganTavsebulni.<br />

SeavseT savarjiSoSi mocemuli cxrili<br />

da imsjeleT ra gansxvaveba da msgavsebaa<br />

am firmebs Soris. savarjiSo SeasruleT<br />

jgufebSi.<br />

regionaluri<br />

savaWro centri<br />

hipermarketi<br />

biznes-centri<br />

katalogi<br />

avtosaloni<br />

gancxadeba ,,viyidi”<br />

internetmaRazia<br />

13


imsjeleT<br />

momxmareblebi sasurvel produqcias firmebisgan Semdegi mizezebis gamo yiduloben:<br />

moxerxebuloba, adgilmdebareoba, ganlageba, fasebi, mflobelisadmi keTilganwyoba, myidvelebis<br />

imiji, saqonlisa da momsaxurebis maRali xarisxi da sxva. es CamonaTvali warmoadgens<br />

kriteriumebs, romliTac momxmareblebi saqonlisa da momsaxurebis SerCevisas<br />

xelmZRvaneloben. adamianebi bazarze uamravi moTxovnilebebiT midian, magram adgilze misulebs<br />

arCevanis gakeTeba uwevT, radgan yvelafrisTvis sakmarisi Tanxa ar gaaCniaT.<br />

saqoneli xelSesaxebi sagania, momsaxureba ki _ moqmedeba.<br />

kiTxvebi<br />

da<br />

davalebebi<br />

• xels ar uwyobs araaRdgenadi<br />

resursebis SenarCunebas;<br />

ar aqvs garemos dacvis<br />

ekonomikuri meqanizmi;<br />

• ar iZleva stimuls msxvili<br />

proeqtebisaTvis, romlebic<br />

swraf mogebas ar elodebian;<br />

• ar uzruvnelyofs fundamentalur<br />

kvlevas mecnierebaSi;<br />

• inflaciis dros eqvemdebareba<br />

arastabilur ganvi-<br />

Tarebas;<br />

• aqvs umuSevrobis safrTxe;<br />

• aZlierebs qonebriv diferenciacias.<br />

14<br />

1. ratom aniWebs saqonlis yidvisas adamiani upiratesobas erT firmas, meores-<br />

Tan SedarebiT?<br />

2. ra msgavseba da gansxvavebaa saqonlisa da momsaxurebis bazrebs Soris?<br />

3. iciT Tu ara romelime firma Tqvens dasaxlebaSi, qalaqSi, raionSi an sofel-<br />

Si, romelmac marcxi ganicada. ras daukavSirebdiT mis warumateblobas?<br />

1. warmoidgineT, rom swavlis gagrZeleba sazRvargareT gadawyviteT. iq damoukideblad<br />

unda icxovroT da saxli TviTon moawyoT. scadeT im saqonlisa<br />

da momsaxurebis nusxis Camowera, romelic uaxloes 1 TveSi dagWirdebaT.<br />

daalageT es saqoneli da momsaxureba moTxovnilebebis kategoriebis<br />

mixedviT.<br />

2. SearCieT da gaanalizeT adgilobriv gazeTebSi ganTavsebuli sareklamo<br />

gancxadeba. ra sakiTxze akeTebs firma aqcents, roca momxmareblis yuradRebas<br />

ipyrobs?<br />

3. male skolas daamTavrebT. zogi Tqvengani umaRles saswavlebels, zogi profesiul<br />

saswavlebels miaSurebs, zogic muSaobas daiwyebs. interesi niSnis<br />

mixedviT gaerTiandiT jgufebad da maswavleblis daxmarebiT SeiswavleT<br />

Sesabamisi bazrebi (ganaTlebis bazari, Sromis bazari).<br />

sabazro ekonomikis uaryofiTi mxareebi<br />

Tavisufali mewarmeoba<br />

kerZo sakuTreba<br />

sabazro<br />

ekonomka<br />

piradi motivacia<br />

arCevanis Tavisufleba<br />

konkurencia<br />

momxmarebelze orientireba


? ra unda gakeTdes imisaTvis, rom Semsubuqdes bazris negatiuri Sedegebi?<br />

am kiTxvaze pasuxis gasacemad ganvixiloT ra rols asrulebs <strong>saxelmwifo</strong> ekonomikur<br />

cxovrebaSi. <strong>saxelmwifo</strong>s ekonomikuri zermoqmedebis romeli ZiriTadi meTodebi arsebobs?<br />

unda arsebobdes Tu ara saxelmwofos <strong>ekonomika</strong>Si Carevis zRvari?<br />

damatebiTi<br />

sakiTxavi<br />

diskusias saxlmwifos rolis Sesaxeb grZeli istoria aqvs.<br />

Sua saukuneebSi gaixsna politikuri ekonomiis I skola – merkantilistebis (merkantilisti<br />

italiuri mercante - vaWari) skola. merkantilitebi mxars uWerdnen <strong>saxelmwifo</strong>s aqtiur Carevas<br />

ekonomakSi. isini amtkicebdnen, rom qveynis simdidris mTavari maCveneblia oqros raodenoba, ris<br />

gamoc mouwodebdnen gaefarToebinaT eqsporti da SeenarCunebinaT importi.<br />

merkantilistebis winaaRmdeg gamodiodnen fiziokratebi (fiziokrati berZnuli – physisbuneba<br />

da kratos – Zalaufleba). fiziokratebis azriT ekonomikur procesSi Careva zedmetia (procesebi<br />

midis bunebrivad, rogorc bunebaSi). isini mxars uWerdnen Tavisufal vaWrobas. maT devizs<br />

warmoadgenda: ,,rac naklebad ,,marTavs” <strong>saxelmwifo</strong>, miT ukeTesia misTvisac da ekonomikisTvisac.”<br />

XIX-XX saukeneebis mijnaze Tavisufali konkurenciis pirobebSi gaCndnen monopoliebi, romlebmac<br />

daipyres warmoeba da gasaRebis bazari. 1929-1933 wlebSi gaCaRda ekonomikuri krizisi. man<br />

mTeli msoflio moicva. krizisis Sedegad umuSvari darCa dedamiwis mosaxleobis 30%. krizisis<br />

wlebSi aSS-Si gaixsna socialuri sasadiloebi umuSevrebisaTvis. uamravi adamiani mxolod sxvadasxva<br />

SemowirulobebiT arsebobda. krizisma aiZula mecnier-ekonomistebi gadaexedaT mravali<br />

ekonomikuri TeoriisTvis.<br />

cnobili ingliseli ekonomisti adam smiti emxroboda Tavisuflad ganviTarebad, konkurenciul<br />

sawyisebze dafuZnebul <strong>ekonomika</strong>s. aRiarebda <strong>saxelmwifo</strong>s maregulirebel rols: ,,<strong>saxelmwifo</strong><br />

unda icavdes sazogadoebas Zaladobisa da gare agresiisagan, icavdes moqalaqeebis sicocxles<br />

da qonebas, inaxavdes jars, policias, samarTaldamcav organoebs.”<br />

<strong>saxelmwifo</strong>s rolis Sesaxeb klasikosebis Teoriis uarmyofeli gaxda Tanamedroveobis udidesi<br />

mecnier-ekonomisti jon meinard keinsi. emxroboda <strong>saxelmwifo</strong>s aqtiur finasnur Carevas<br />

<strong>ekonomika</strong>Si. ,,sabazro <strong>ekonomika</strong> ar aris srulyofili da TviTregulirebadi”.<br />

II msoflio omis dros es mosazreba gavrcelda mTels msoflioSi da keinsis Sexedulebebma<br />

didi gavlena iqonia sxvadasxva qveynis ekonomikur cxovrebaze.<br />

dRes wamyvani <strong>saxelmwifo</strong>ebi sabazro urTierTobebis sul ufro da ufro aqtiuri<br />

monawileebi xdebian. isini iseTi amocanebis gadawyvetas axerxeben, romlis gadawyveta Tavisufal<br />

bazars ar Seswevs. momdevno gakveTilebSi am sakiTxs ufro detalurad ganvixilavT.<br />

es<br />

sainteresoa<br />

daexmareba Tu ara am saqmes <strong>saxelmwifo</strong>s Careva? <strong>saxelmwifo</strong> xom didia, nuTu<br />

SesaZlebelia, rom man gadaWras ekonomikuri problemebi ufro ukeT, vidre bazris<br />

monawileebma?<br />

• 1563 wels inglisis dedofal elisabed II-s surda mxari daeWira erovnuli<br />

TevzWerisTvis da gamoewvia Tevzze moTxovnis gazrda. amitom man kviraSi 2<br />

dRe xorcis gamoyeneba akrZala.<br />

• es gamocdileba 400 wlis Semdeg gamoiyena sabWoTa kavSiris xelmZRvanelobam<br />

da qveyanaSi xorcis ukmarisobis kompensireba yvela sasadiloSi ,,Tevzis<br />

dRis” gamocxadebiT moaxdina. am dReebSi ubralod SeuZlebeli iyo xorciani<br />

kerZis SekveTa.<br />

• roca 1966 wels imave inglisSi wamoiWra adgilobrivi Salis produqciis<br />

gasaRebis problema, <strong>saxelmwifo</strong>m misi gadaWra ,,micvalebulebs aiZula”.<br />

amisaTvis xelisuflebam gamoacxada, rom micvalebulebi mxolod Salis<br />

tansacmelSi unda daemarxaT. brZanebis SeusruleblobisaTvis dawesda jarima<br />

5 funti sterlingis odenobiT, rac im dros mcire Tanxa ar iyo.<br />

15


16<br />

1<br />

4-5<br />

vyidulobT<br />

rac gvsurs?<br />

`aswavleT TuTiyuSs moTxovna da miwodeba da Tqvens wina-<br />

Sea ekonomisti.~ es xumrobanarevi fraza araerTxel gamouyenebiaT<br />

ekonomikis sxvadasxva saxelmZRvaneloSi.<br />

? 1.<br />

aris Tu ara am gamonaTqvamSi simarTlis marcvali?<br />

pasuxi daasabuTeT.<br />

2. daasaxeleT Tqveni bolodroindeli moTxovnilebebi.<br />

ganmarteT, romeli maTgani gadaiqca moTxovnad.<br />

3. Tqveni azriT, moTxovnilebis Seswavla ufro mniSvnelovania<br />

mwarmoeblebisaTvis Tu moTxovnis?<br />

fasi – fulis raodenoba, romelsac adamianebi saqonlisa da momsaxurebis<br />

yidvisas ixdian, an saqonlisa da momsaxurebis gayidvisas iReben.<br />

moTxovna – adamianis survili da SesaZlebloba, SeiZinos saqoneli an<br />

momsaxureba konkretul dros da gansazRvrul adgilas. radgan moTxovnis<br />

arsebobas adamianis survili da finansuri SesaZlebloba erTdroulad<br />

sWirdeba, ekonomistebi mas xSirad gadaxdisunarian moTxovnilebasac<br />

uwodeben.<br />

moTxovnili raodenoba – momxmareblis mier SeZenili saqonlis raodenoba<br />

(sxvadasxva fasebis pirobebSi).<br />

miwodeba – gamyidvelebis (mwarmoeblebis) mier bazarze sxvadasxva<br />

fasad saqonlis gatana.<br />

miwodebis raodenoba – bazarze konkretul fasad gatanili saqonlis<br />

(momsaxurebis) raodenoba.<br />

Tavisufal dros megobrebTan erTad xSirad kafeSi atarebT. aq fasebi<br />

xelmisawvdomia da momsaxurebac kargi, Tanac mosaxerxebeli adgilmdebareoba<br />

aqvs. bolo periodSi gazrdilma fasebma Tqven da Tqveni megobrebi<br />

sagonebelSi CagagdoT. sam TveSi fasebi 4-jer gaizarda.<br />

SeadgineT fasebis gazrdis mimarT Tqveni reagirebis cxrili. sTxoveT<br />

kafes mesakuTres an menejers gaixsenos produqtze fasis bolodroindeli<br />

cvlileba. aseve sTxoveT CamoTvalos moTxovnis cvlilebis rac<br />

SeiZleba meti mizezi, romelic fasis cvlilebas ar ukavSirdeba.<br />

eTanxmebiT Tu ara Semdeg mosazrebas:<br />

momxmarebeli dabali fasis pirobebSi ufro met namcxvars yidulobs,<br />

vidre maRali fasis pirobebSi.


moTxovnis mrudi fasisa da moTxovnis sididis ukukavSirze metyvelebs. am ukukav-<br />

Sirs moTxovnis kanoni ewodeba. moTxovnis kanoni grafikulad gamoisaxeba, igi daRmavalia<br />

da uaryofiTi daxriloba aqvs.<br />

avtorebi am etapze Segnebulad ar aRrmaveben aRniSnul sakiTxs, Tumca bazris meqanizmis<br />

muSaobis ukeT gasagebad, martivad ganvixilavT mas.<br />

? •<br />

savarjiSo<br />

1<br />

imsjeleT<br />

moTxovnis kanoni – rac ufro izrdeba saqonlisa da momsaxurebis<br />

fasi (sxva Tanabar pirobebSi), miT ufro mcirdeba moTxovnis<br />

raodenoba.<br />

Tqveni azriT, ratom aris mniSvnelovani moTxovnis kanonis Seswavla?<br />

• ra informacias iZleva an ar iZleva igi?<br />

• kafeSi namcxvris fasis ucvlelobis probebSi da misi xarisxis gauaresebis<br />

gamo, Semcirdeba Tu ara Tqveni moTxovna?<br />

moTxovnis cvlilebis mizezebi<br />

I nawili:<br />

waikiTxeT qvemoT mocemuli sagazeTo statiis saTaurebi. gansaz-<br />

RvreT, TiToeuli maTganis gavleniT, Seicvleba Tu ara bazarze qa-<br />

Tmis xorcze moTxovna.<br />

a. qaTmis xorcze fasebi izrdeba;<br />

b. Sobadobis matebis gamo saqarTvelos mosaxleobis raodenoba izrdeba;<br />

g. Roris xorcze fasebi ecema;<br />

d. saqarTvelos jandacvis saministro gafrTxilebT, rom Roris<br />

xorcis miRebam SeiZleba ziani miayenos Tqvens janmrTelobas;<br />

e. qveyanaSi xelfasebi mesame Tvea zedized izrdeba;<br />

v. momdevno TveSi mosalodnelia Zroxis xorcis fasis gazrda.<br />

II nawili:<br />

I nawilSi mocemuli moTxovnis yvela cvlileba miakuTvneT qvemoT<br />

mocemuli kategoriidan erT-erTs, gaiTvaliswineT moTxovnis cvlilebis<br />

mizezebi. CawereT statiis saTaurebis nomrebi moTxovnis cvlilebis<br />

Sesabamisi mizezis gaswvriv.<br />

zogierT kategorias SeiZleba miekuTvnebodes 1-ze meti statiis<br />

saTauri. xolo nebismieri movlena, romelic moTxovnis cvlilebas ar<br />

iwvevs, ar SeitanoT arc erT kategoriaSi.<br />

momxmareblis gemovnebis cvlileba;<br />

momxmareblis Semosavlebis cvlileba;<br />

bazarze momxmareblis raodenobis cvlileba;<br />

urTierTSemcvleli saqonlis fasis cvli leba;<br />

urTierTSemavsebeli saqonlis fasis cvli leba;<br />

samomxmareblo fasebis cvlilebis molodini.<br />

mxolod fasi da saqonlis raodenoba gansazRvravs moTxovnis sidides,<br />

Tu aris kidev sxva faqtorebi, romlebic myidvelebisa da gamyidvelebis<br />

qcevaze moqmedeben?<br />

moTxovnis cvlilebis asaxsnelad moitaneT magaliTebi sakuTari<br />

cxovrebidan, roca moTxovnis determinantebis zegavleniT SecvaleT<br />

sakuTari moTxovnileba.<br />

17


savarjiSo<br />

2<br />

18<br />

2<br />

davubrundeT situacias, sadac aSkarad gamoikveTa momxmareblis qceva<br />

fasis cvlilebisa da moTxovnis raodenobis mimarT. da axla kafes mepatronis<br />

qceva ganvixiloT.<br />

fasis zrdasTan erTad mwarmoeblis mier miwodebis raodenoba izrdeba,<br />

da piriqiT, fasis SemcirebasTan erTad miwodebis raodenoba<br />

mcirdeba. – eTanxmebiT Tu ara am mosazrebas?<br />

3<br />

miwodebis kanoni – rac ufro maRalia saqonlisa da momsaxurebis<br />

fasi, miT metia miwodebis raodenoba da piriqiT, rac naklebia<br />

fasi, miT ufro nakleb saqonelsa da momsaxurebas miawodeben<br />

gamyidvelebi.<br />

gaaanalizeT Semdegi situacia:<br />

1994-1996 wlebSi qveyanaSi erT sul mosaxleze moxmareba Semcirda<br />

erTi gamonaklisis garda _ kartofilis moxmareba 16%-iT gaizarda. ra<br />

garemoebiT axsniT am faqts?<br />

miwodebis cvlilebis gamomwvevi mizezebi<br />

I nawili:<br />

waikiTxeT qvemoT mocemuli sagazeTo statiis saTaurebi. gansaz-<br />

RvreT Seicvleba Tu ara Rvinis sabazro miwodeba, TiToeuli maTganis<br />

gavleniT. anu miwodebis zrdas gamoiwvevs es Tu Semcirebas?<br />

a. wels saqarTveloSi yurZnis didi mosavali movida;<br />

b. Camosasxmeli danadgari saSualebas iZleva yoveldRiurad Rvinis<br />

qarxanaSi meti Rvino damzaddes;<br />

g. yurZnis fasi 10 %-iT gaizarda;<br />

d. gadasaxadebis Semcirebis gamo saqarTveloSi Rvinis warmoeba gaizarda;<br />

e. ludis udidesi mwarmoebeli gakotrda, qarxnebi daixura;<br />

v. mezobeli <strong>saxelmwifo</strong>s bazarze droebiT aikrZala qarTuli samarko<br />

Rvinoebis gatana, gamyidvelebi fass amcireben;<br />

z. sakurorto sezonis dadgomasTan dakavSirebiT sanapiroze bevri<br />

restorani gaixsna.<br />

II nawili:<br />

I nawilSi mocemuli moTxovnis yvela cvlileba SeusabameT qvemoT<br />

mocemuli kategoriidan erT-erTs, gaiTvaliswineT moTxovnis cvlilebis<br />

mizezebi. zogierT kategorias SeiZleba miekuTvnebodes erTze<br />

meti statiis saTauri. xolo nebismieri movlena, romelic moTxovnis<br />

cvlilebas ar iwvevs, ar SeitanoT arc erTkategoriaSi.<br />

cvlileba warmoebis faqtorTa RirebulebaSi;<br />

teqnologiuri cvlileba;<br />

bazarze gamyidvelTa raodenobis cvlileba;<br />

sxva alternatiuli saqonlis warmoeba;<br />

mogebis miRebis SesaZlebloba.


1<br />

6<br />

Txilis<br />

bazari<br />

bolo dros Txilis moyvana dasavleT saqarTvelo-<br />

Si bevrma ojaxma daiwyo. mosavali TiTqmis yovel<br />

wels kargia, sabazro fasic - misaRebi. Tanac glexebs<br />

produqtis bazarze gatanac ar WirdebaT, radgan distributorebs<br />

TviTon miaqvT igi. yovelive es glexebs<br />

SesaniSnav stimuls aZlevs Txilis warmoeba gazardon.<br />

oTari babuam am Semodgomazec kargi mosavali aiRo,<br />

magram ki ar gayida _ saaxalwod Seinaxa. Tan imas fiqrobda: axla Txilis 4<br />

larad gayidvas dekemberSi ufro Zvirad gayidva ajobebso.<br />

qalaqSi mcxovrebi nunu deida ki fuls agrovebs, axali wlis sufraze stumrebs<br />

mravali nugbariT rom gaumaspinZldes. wina gamocdilebidan gamomdinare,<br />

igi varaudobs, rom saaxalwlod Txilis fasi 7 laramde aiwevs.<br />

Tqveni azriT, ra fasad gaiyideba Txili saaxalwlod?<br />

sanam TamaSs daviwyebdeT! ..<br />

sabazro ekonomikis daxasiaTebisas ekonomistebi siamayiT aRniSnaven misi erT-erTi Taviseburebis<br />

Sesaxeb, rac Tavisufali fasebis arsebobas gulisxmobs. Tqveni nacnobebis wridan<br />

gaixseneT adamianebi, romlebic mewarmeebi arian. egeb isic gsmeniaT, rom maT mier warmoebuli<br />

produqti zogjer sasurvel fasad ar iyideba. Tu ki es asea, ras gulisxmobs termini<br />

,,Tavisufali fasi”?<br />

sabazro <strong>ekonomika</strong>Si saqonelsa da momsaxurebas fasebi imis Sesabamisad anawileben, ra<br />

Tanxis gadaxda undaT da SeuZliaT gamyidvelebs da myidvelebs am saqonelsa da momsaxureba-<br />

Si. bazarze fasebi myidvelebisa da gamyidvelebis urTierTqmedebis Sedegad dgindeba. sabazro<br />

<strong>ekonomika</strong>Si bazrebis mniSvnelobis miuxedavad, bevrma ar icis, rogor `muSaobs~ bazari.<br />

modelirebuli TamaSiT `Txilis bazari~, ukeT gaigebT, rogor xdeba fasebis dadgena bazarze<br />

da rogor ganisazRvreba fasi miwodebisa da moTxovnis meSveobiT. am gakveTilis daxmarebiT<br />

darwmundebiT, iZleva Tu ara sabazro sistema Tavisufali fasebis garantias.<br />

vidre saklaso oTaxSi modelirebul bazars movawyobdeT, sadac Tqveni monawileobiT namdvili<br />

vaWroba gaCaRdeba, gavicnoT `Txilis bazari~.<br />

viTamaSoT `Txilis bazari~ *<br />

modelirebuli TamaSi ,,Txilis bazari” vaWrobis 3 raundis Catarebas gulisxmobs.<br />

TiToeuli 5 wuTs gagrZeldeba. bazari myidvelsa da gamyidvels gamoavlens, romelsac<br />

yvelaze meti mogeba eqneba.<br />

guldasmiT waikiTxeT es instruqciebi. daimaxsovreT! mTeli TamaSis ganmavlobaSi myidvelebi<br />

myidvelebad rCebian, gamyidvelebi ki _ gamyidvelebad.<br />

instruqcia myidvelebisTvis:<br />

myidvelebi TamaSs myidvelis erT baraTiT da qulebis erTi furcliT iwyeben. myidvelis<br />

baraTze weria: `rac SeiZleba iafad unda iyidoT erTi kilogrami Txili. Tu __________ze<br />

Zvirad iyidiT, izaralebT~. gadaiwereT baraTze aRniSnuli fasi Tqveni qulebis furcelze.<br />

raundis msvlelobisas, ecadeT rac SeiZleba iafad iyidoT. Tu baraTze aRniSnul fasad<br />

iyidiT, Tqveni garigeba uzaralo iqneba. Tu baraTze aRniSnul fasze iafad iyidiT, fasTa<br />

Soris gansxvaveba Tqveni mogeba iqneba. Tu baraTze aRniSnul fasze Zvirad iyidiT – izaralebT.<br />

* modelirebuli savarjiSo adaptirebulia aSS ekonomikuri ganaTlebis saerTaSoriso centris<br />

(CEE) masalebis mixedviT. © saavtoro ufleba daculia<br />

19


Txilis yidva bazarze nebismier fasad SegiZliaT. rogorc ki Txils iyidiT, garigeba<br />

qulebis furcelze CawereT, romelsac maswavlebeli dagirigebT. Semdeg acnobeT garigebis<br />

fasi mas, vinc klasis monacemTa furcelze Canawerebs awarmoebs. ukan daabruneT<br />

myidvelis baraTi, aiReT axali da daiwyeT molaparakeba axal fasze. Tu raundis ganmavlobaSi<br />

Txils ar iyidiT, baraTis dabruneba axali baraTis misaRebad mxolod raundis<br />

dasrulebis Semdeg SegiZliaT.<br />

instruqcia gamyidvelebisTvis:<br />

gamyidvelebi TamaSs gamyidvelis erTi baraTiT da qulebis erTi furcliT iwyeben. gamyidvelis<br />

baraTze weria: `rac SeiZleba Zvirad unda gayidoT erTi kilogrami Txili.<br />

Tu _____ ze iafad gayidiT, izaralebT~. gadaiwereT baraTze aRniSnuli fasi Sefasebis<br />

furcelze. raundis msvlelobisas, ecadeT rac SeiZleba Zvirad gayidoT. Tu bara-<br />

Tze aRniSnul fasad gayidiT, Tqveni garigeba uzaralo iqneba.<br />

Tu baraTze aRniSnul fasze Zvirad gayidiT, fasTa Soris sxvaoba Tqveni mogeba iqneba. Tu<br />

baraTze aRniSnul fasze iafad gayidiT – izaralebT. Txilis gayidva bazarze nebismier fasad<br />

SegiZliaT. rogorc ki Txils gayidiT, garigeba qulebis furcelze Cawe reT. Semdeg acnobeT<br />

garigebis fasi mas, vinc klasis monacemTa furcelze Canawe rebs awarmoebs. ukan daabruneT<br />

gamyidvelis baraTi, aiReT axali da daiwyeT molapa rakeba axal fasze. Tu raundis ganmavlobaSi<br />

Txils ar gayidiT, baraTis dabru neba axali baraTis misaRebad mxolod raundis dasrulebis<br />

Semdeg SegiZliaT.<br />

roca maswavlebeli bazars gaxsnilad gamoacxadebs, SeecadeT 1 kg Txilis fasze SeTanxmdeT.<br />

nebismier myidvels da gamyidvels SeuZlia erTmaneTs gaesaubros. yvela sabazro operacia<br />

Tanabari raodenobis larebiT unda Catardes.<br />

myidvelebisa da gamyidvelebis mizani rac SeiZleba meti fulis Sovnaa. amas myidvelebi<br />

ufro dabal fasad yidvis meSveobiT aRweven, vidre es maT baraTebzea miTiTebuli. gamyidvelebs<br />

ki _ fuli ufro Zvirad gayidvis Sedegad rCebaT, vidre maT baraTebzea miTiTebuli.<br />

yovelTvis, roca gayidva Sedgeba, myidveli amis Sesaxeb specialurad gamoyofil pirs klasis<br />

saaRricxvo furcelSi Caawerinebs.<br />

garigebis Sedegebi TamaSis mimdinareobisas Sefasebis furcelSi TanmimdevrobiT<br />

CawereT.<br />

20


axla, roca modelirebuli TamaSis Sedegebi saxezea da ukve mogeba da/an zaralic<br />

daiTvaleT, daskvnis gakeTebac SeiZleba. raSic Semdegi kiTxvebi dagexmarebaT.<br />

kiTxvebi<br />

da<br />

davalebebi<br />

1. yvelaze xSirad ra fasad gaiyida 1 kg Txili TiToeul raundSi?<br />

2. es fasi cnobilia sabazro anu wonasworuli fasis saxeliT. ratom<br />

uwodeben mas ekonomistebi sabazro fass?<br />

3. romel raundSi iyo yvelaze didi gansxvaveba fasebSi? ratom?<br />

4. vin gansazRvravs sabazro fass: myidveli Tu gamyidveli?<br />

5. ra sasargeblo informaciis miReba SeiZleboda TamaSis msvlelobisas<br />

garigebis cxrilis monacemebiT?<br />

6. ratom dajgufda bolo raundebSi fasebi wonasworuli fasis siaxloves?<br />

7. ra moxdeboda TamaSSi gamyidvelebze gacilebiT meti myidvelebi rom<br />

yofiliyvnen?<br />

maswavleblis daxmarebiT aageT grafiki<br />

yidvisa da gayidvis baraTebis darigebis Semdeg Txilis bazarze miwodebisa da moTxovnis<br />

cxrili formirdeba. maswavleblis daxmarebiT gamoiyeneT es informacia qvemoT naCveneb<br />

grafikze moTxovnisa da miwodebis mrudis asagebad, xolo Semdeg upasuxeT kiTxvebs.<br />

moTxovnis cxrili (yidva)<br />

miwodebis cxrili (gayidva)<br />

fasi<br />

(lari)<br />

1<br />

2<br />

3<br />

4<br />

5<br />

6<br />

7<br />

8<br />

9<br />

10<br />

moTxovnis<br />

raodenoba (kg)<br />

26<br />

22<br />

18<br />

14<br />

12<br />

10<br />

8<br />

5<br />

4<br />

2<br />

1. rogoria wonasworuli fasi?<br />

2. rogori fasi iqneba siWarbis dros?<br />

3. rogori fasi iqneba deficitis dros?<br />

fasi<br />

(lari)<br />

1<br />

2<br />

3<br />

5<br />

6<br />

7<br />

8<br />

9<br />

10<br />

moTxovnis<br />

raodenoba (kg)<br />

0<br />

2<br />

4<br />

8<br />

10<br />

14<br />

18<br />

22<br />

26<br />

21


? 1.<br />

!<br />

22<br />

fasi(lari)<br />

11<br />

10<br />

9<br />

8<br />

7<br />

6<br />

5<br />

4<br />

3<br />

2<br />

1<br />

0<br />

Txilis moTxovnisa da miwodebis grafiki.<br />

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26<br />

raodenoba<br />

moTamaSeebidan myidvelebi ufro karg pirobebSi iyvnen Tu gamyidvelebi?<br />

2. ra moxdeboda TamaSSi gamyidvelebze gacilebiT meti myidvelebi rom yofiliyvnen.<br />

3. riT gansxvavdeba gakveTilis msvlelobisas modelirebuli sabazro situacia realurisgan?<br />

4. ra moxdeboda TamaSSi myidvelebze gacilebiT meti gamyidvelebi rom yofiliyvnen?<br />

5. gamoikvlieT, ramdenime magaliTi Cveni qveynis realobidan, rodesac adgili hqonda<br />

deficits da siWarbes. gaaanalizeT, rogor moxerxda problemis mogvareba.<br />

sabazro fasi anu wonasworuli fasi iseTi fasia, romlis drosac<br />

gamyidvelebi mzad arian gayidon im raodenobis saqoneli, ra raodenobis<br />

moTxovnac arsebobs.<br />

bazarze deficits adgili aqvs, roca saqonelze moTxovna metia,<br />

vidre miwodeba. deficitis dasaZlevad fasi izrdeba manam, sanam<br />

moTxovnili raodenoba da miwodebuli raodenoba isev ar gaTanabrdeba<br />

da axali wonasworuli fasi anu wonasworoba damyardeba.<br />

arsebuli wonasworuli fasis pirobebSi siWarbes adgili aqvs maSin,<br />

roca miwodebuli saqonlis raodenoba metia, vidre moTxovnili raodenoba.<br />

rac gamoiwvevs wonasworuli fasis Semcirebas manam, sanam<br />

axali wonasworuli fasi ar damyardeba.<br />

bazari iq arsebobs, sadac myidvelebi da gamyidvelebi urTierTqmedeben.<br />

es urTierTqmedeba sabazro fasebs gansazRvravs da Sedegad SezRuduli<br />

saqonlisa da momsaxurebis ganawilebas axdens.<br />

S<br />

D


mas Semdeg, rac myidvelebi da gamyidvelebi moipoveben<br />

informacias sxvadasxva fasad arsebuli produqtebis<br />

raodenobis Sesaxeb, bazrebi wonasworuli fasisaken iswrafvian.<br />

miwodeba<br />

myidvelebsa da gamyidvelebs fasebi signalebs ugzavnian<br />

da stimulebiT uzrunvelyofen. roca miwodeba an<br />

moTxovna icvleba, sabazro fasic icvleba da stimulebze<br />

axdens gavlenas.<br />

jgufebs SigniT konkurenciis gamocalkeuli my- moTxovna<br />

idvelebi da gamyidvelebi fasebs ver akontroleben.<br />

swored amitom ver gansazRvres winaswar Txilis sabazro<br />

fasi, verc Txilis gamyidvelebma da verc myidvelebma.<br />

roca saqonlis an momsaxurebis fasi wonasworul fasze dabalia, warmoiSoba moTxovnis si-<br />

Warbe. saqonlis raodenoba, romlis realizaciisTvisac mzad arian gamyidvelebi, im saqonlis<br />

raodenobaze naklebia, romlis yidvisTvisac myidvelebi mzad arian. bazarze am dros deficiti<br />

warmoiSoba (saqonlis ukmarisoba) da myidvelTa Soris konkurenciis Sedegad fasi wonasworul<br />

fasamde izrdeba.<br />

savarjiSo<br />

1<br />

imsjeleT<br />

fasi da<br />

raodneoba<br />

bazrisa da movlenis<br />

urTierTdakavSirebis<br />

Semdeg moifiqreT, rogor<br />

Seicvleba fasi da<br />

saqonlis raodenoba.<br />

fasis (P) da raodenobis<br />

(Q) gazrdis Sem-<br />

TxvevaSi miuTiTeT _<br />

gaizarda (), xolo Semcirebisas<br />

miuTiTeT _<br />

Semcirda ( ).<br />

bazari movlena<br />

1. skolis merxebi xis masalis fasi gaizarda<br />

2. sacurao<br />

kostumebi<br />

3. sastumroebi<br />

4. Sokoladis<br />

kanfetebi<br />

5. nayini<br />

6. avtomobilebi<br />

zafxulis ardadegebi<br />

daiwyo<br />

bolo dros bevri saojaxo<br />

sastumro gaixsna<br />

mecnierebma aRmoaCines,<br />

rom Sokoladi bavSvebs<br />

Zalian aRagznebs<br />

bavSvebis umravlesobas<br />

mSoblebi ufro met<br />

saxarjo fuls aZleven<br />

firmebma<br />

avtomobilebis warmoebis<br />

axali teqnologia<br />

danerges<br />

rogor axdens moTxovnis an miwodebis cvlileba wonasworuli fasisa<br />

da gasacvleli raodenobis cvlilebas. cvlileba erT bazarze iwvevs cvlilebebs<br />

masTan dakavSirebul bazrebze. magaliTad, Tu saqonlis xorcis<br />

warmoebis Rirebuleba gaizrdeba, misi miwodeba Semcirdeba, rac gazrdis<br />

mis fass da Seamcirebs gasacvlel raodenobas. gaagrZeleT Txroba am bazris<br />

cvlilebis sxva bazrebze gavlenis Sesaxeb.<br />

23


imsjeleT<br />

24<br />

1<br />

lurji jinsisa da `oqros cvenis~ istoria<br />

100 wlis winaT, kaliforniaSi oqro aRmoaCines. Zvirfasi liTonis saZebnelad<br />

adamianebi mTeli msofliodan miawydnen dasavleTs, ris gamoc am teritoriebze<br />

bevri axali qalaqi aRmocenda.<br />

oqros maZieblebi aq mcire saxsrebiT Camodiodnen.<br />

maT weraqvisa da sxva xelsawyoebis, fexsacmelebis,<br />

karvebis, WurWlis, sakvebisa da tansacmlis<br />

yidva sWirdebodaT. zogierT maTgans bedma<br />

gauRima, oqros sabados miagno da gamdidrda. visac<br />

ar gaumarTla, rac gaaCnda, isic dakarga.<br />

vinaidan axlad aRmocenebul qalaqebSi sxvadasxva<br />

saqonelze moTxovna Zalian maRali iyo,<br />

maRaziebi da miwodebis raodenoba ki _ mcire, gamyidvelebma fasebi gazardes.<br />

kacma, saxelad levis Strausma oqros marags miagno, Semdeg mis mopovebas<br />

Tavi mianeba da sanacvlod Seqmna is, rac yvela maRaroels Zalian sWirdeboda<br />

_ lurji jinsi.<br />

Strausma san franciskoSi karvebisa da vagonebis damzadeba daiwyo. radgan<br />

naWeri magari da gamZle iyo, erTma maRaroelma mas imave tilosgan Sarvlebis<br />

Sekervac urCia. meore maRaroelma ki, levis Strauss jibeebze moqlonis mikerebis<br />

idea miawoda, rac jinsis Sarvlebs daxevisagan daicavda. gansakuTrebiT,<br />

maSin roca maRaroelebi jibeebs oqroTi ivsebdnen.<br />

denimsad wodebulma am Sarvlebma Strauss didi warmateba moutana da SemdgomSi<br />

isini cnobili gaxdnen, rogorc levisi.<br />

garda maRaroelebisa, igi mTel dasavleTSi ranCos mflobelebs, fermerebsa<br />

da kovboebs ecvaT.<br />

dRes levi Strausis kompania msoflios udidesi tansacmlis mwarmoebeli<br />

kompaniaa. da es yvelaferi erTi lurji jinsiT daiwyo.<br />

moTxovnisa da miwodebis koncefciebis gamoyenebiT gaaanalizeT es istoria<br />

da igi bazrebis urTierTqmedebas daukavSireT.<br />

moZebneT da ganixileT sagazeTo statia, romelSic naCvenebia, rogor<br />

moqmedebs erT bazarze momxdari cvlileba sxva bazrebze.<br />

1. ra SeiZleba mohyves konkretul bazarze miwodebis an moTxovnis cvlilebas?<br />

2. ras gulisxmoben ekonomistebi, roca amboben, rom `bazrebi urTierTqmedeben”?<br />

3. ra gavlenas moaxdens bunebrivi airis fasis gazrda eleqtroenergiis<br />

miwodebaze da wonasworul fassa da gasacvlel raodenobaze?<br />

4. ra gavlenas moaxdens bunebrivi airis fasis gazrda ojaxebisa da<br />

sawarmoebis gaTbobis moTxovnaze?<br />

4. romel bazrebze ar iwvevs cvlilebebs puris gaZvireba?


7<br />

saqarTveloSi gavrcelebuli<br />

ekonomikuri saqmianobis istoriuli da<br />

Tanamedrove formebi<br />

saqarTvelos teritoriaze adamianebi uZvelesi droidan cxovrobdnen. gvarovnuli<br />

wyobilebis periodSi isini misdevdnen SegrovebiT meurneobas, nadirobas da TevzWeras.<br />

aseve daiwyes sakvebi mcenareebis gaSeneba, cxovelTa moSinaureba, safuZveli<br />

Caeyara martiv miwaTmoqmedebasa da mesaqonleobas. TandaTanobiT viTardeba meTuneoba,<br />

gansakuTrebiT sabrZolo iaraRis warmoeba, aseve rTva da qsova. mogvianebiT daiwyo<br />

Zvirfasi liTonebis damuSaveba, sxvadasxva saxis fufunebis sagnebis warmoeba.<br />

feodalizmis xanaSi TandaTanobiT dawinaurda soflis<br />

meurneoba, gansakuTrebiT mevenaxeoba-mebaReoba, aseve marcvleul<br />

da teqnikur kulturaTa warmoeba. qveynis calkeuli<br />

samTavro, Tavisi teritoriis farglebSi, qmnida met-naklebad<br />

izolirebul, naturalur meurneobas. ar arsebobda erTiani<br />

samoneto sistema. imdroindeli zogi politikuri erTeuli<br />

_ Tbilisis saamiro, tao-klarjeTis samTavro Tavad axdenda<br />

damoukideblad monetebis moWras. feodalur mamulebSi iqmneboda<br />

miwaTmoqmedebis damatebiTi produqcia, rac vaWrobis<br />

ganviTarebasTan erTad xels uwyobda xelosnobis ganviTarebas.<br />

xelosnuri warmoebis pirveli da uZvelesi forma iyo<br />

ojaxuri mrewveloba, kerZod qsovilebisa da tansacmlis warmoeba, romelTa nedleuls<br />

_ matyls, bambas, sels, kanafs, abreSums awvdidnen<br />

valdebuli glexebi. ganviTarebuli iyo rkinis,<br />

vercxlis, oqros mWedloba. ojaxuri mrewveloba<br />

didi xnis ganmavlobaSi ZiriTadad mTaSi arsebobda.<br />

viTardeba xelosnobis calkeuli dargebi. xelosnoba<br />

da vaWroba ufro farTod iyo ganviTarebuli<br />

TbilisSi. gavrcelebuli iyo mevaxSeobac, romelsac<br />

ZiriTadad ucxo tomis warmomadgenlebi eweodnen.<br />

aRniSnul periodSi saqarTvelos savaWro urTierTobebi hqonda iranTan, erayTan, siriasTan.<br />

XIX saukunis dasawyisisaTvis qveynis sameurneo cxovrebaSi jer kidev soflis<br />

meurneoba da patriarqaluri saojaxo mrewveloba batonobda.<br />

1870-iani wlebidan saqarTveloSi fexs ikidebs kapitalizmi. am periodSi saqarTvelo<br />

ruseTis kolonia iyo da ekonomikis ganviTareba ucxoelTa kontrolqveS mimdinareobda.<br />

aRniSnul periodSi viTardeba mrewvelobis sxvadasxva dargi. damkvidrda msxvili<br />

manqanuri warmoeba, aSenda didi fabrika-qarxnebi. msxvili warmoeba viTardeboda um-<br />

Tavresad mopovebiTi mrewvelobis dargebSi, rac adgilobrivi bunebrivi simdidriT<br />

iyo ganpirobebuli, rogoricaa, magaliTad spilenZis, qvanaxSiris, marganecis da sxva<br />

wiaRiseulis damuSavebis ganviTareba.<br />

swrafi tempiT izrdeba tyibulisa da WiaTuris manganumis warmoeba, baTumSi gaixsna<br />

msxvili navTobgadamamuSavebeli sawarmo. 1872 wels gaixsna pirveli rkinigza, ramac<br />

erTmaneTs saqarTvelos mniSvnelovani savaWro centrebi daakavSira, xolo 1883 wlidan<br />

Tbilisi daukavSirda azerbaijans da baTumidan Aazerbaijanis navTobis msoflio bazarze<br />

eqsports Caeyara safuZveli.<br />

25


es<br />

sainteresoa<br />

26<br />

rkinigzis istoria<br />

saqarTvelos rkinigza evraziis satransporto derefnis erT-erTi<br />

umniSvnelovanesi nawilia, romelic umoklesi gziT evropas centralur<br />

aziasTan akavSirebs. ori kontinentis erTmaneTTan dakavSirebis idea<br />

jer kidev XIX saukunis 30-ian wlebSi gaCnda. amierkavkasiis sxva qveynebisagan<br />

gansxvavebiT, saqarTvelo privilegirebul mdgomareobaSi<br />

aRmoCnda. Savi da kaspiis zRvebis damakavSirebeli sarkinigzo magistralis<br />

mSenebloba 1865 wels daiwyo. pirvelma matarebelma 1871 wels<br />

gaiara rkinigzis monakveTi foTi-yvirila (amJamad zestafoni), xolo<br />

1872 wlis 10 oqtombers Tbilisidan foTSi pirveli matarebeli Cavida.<br />

swored es TariRi iTvleba saqarTvelos rkinigzis ,,dabadebis dRed”.<br />

mas Semdeg saqarTvelos rkinigzis mSenebloba Cqari tempebiT xorcieldeboda.<br />

saqarTvelos rkinigzis mSeneblobis<br />

meore etaps ganekuTvneba sarkinigzo<br />

xazi Tbilisi - baqo, romelic aseve evraziis<br />

derefnis nawili iyo. rkinigzis xazi<br />

Tbilisi - baqo eqspluataciaSi 1883 wels<br />

Sevida. am faqtma safuZveli Cauyara ba-<br />

Tumis portidan Savi zRvis gavliT, azerbaijanuli navTobis msoflio<br />

bazarze gatanas. 1899 wels gaixsna rkinigzis xazi, romelic saqarTvelos<br />

da somxeTTan akavSirebda.<br />

borjomis xeoba, sakurorto pirobebiTa da mTel msoflioSi<br />

ganTqmuli mineraluri wyliT ,,borjomi”, yovelTvis warmoadgenda<br />

gansakuTrebul interess. borjomis bunebrivi simdidris komerciuli<br />

sargeblis mizniT romanovebma xaSuri - borjomis rkinigzis monakveTis<br />

mSenebloba daiwyes. axali xazi eqspluataciaSi 1894 wels Sevida.<br />

viwroliandagiani sarkinigzo xazis mSenebloba 1897 wels daiwyo da<br />

rTuli klimaturi pirobebis gamo, oTxi wlis ganmavlobaSi gagrZelda.<br />

1902 wlis ianvridan viwroliandagiani rkinigzis xaziT borjomi - bakuriani,<br />

pirvelma ,,kukuSka” matarebelma gaiara. `kukuSka~ dRemde emsaxureba<br />

saTxilamuro sportis moyvarulebsa da turistebs. maRalmTian<br />

raionebSi kursirebisaTvis spcialurad inglisidan iqna Camoyvanili<br />

,,porteris” tipis orTqlmavali. matarebels ebmoda Ria tipis vagonebi,<br />

romlebic mxolod moajirebiT iyo Semoraguli. 1967 wlidan patara<br />

orTqlmavali eleqtromatarebelma Caanacvla. xidi, romelic waRvers<br />

cemTan borjomi - bakurianis rkinigziT akavSirebs, romanovma specialurad<br />

SeukveTa safrangeTSi.<br />

kaxeTis rkinigzis xazis mSenebloba 1915 wels dasrulda. am monakveTis<br />

aSenebam ganviTarebis saSualeba misca im raionebs, romlebic<br />

msoflioSi cnobil Rvinoebs awarmoeben: ,,mukuzani”, ,,winandali”, ,,rqawiTeli”,<br />

,,manavis mwvane” da sxv.<br />

1932 wels xaSurSi pirveli eldepo aSenda. swored am depoSi gaiara<br />

Semowmeba ,,ВЛ-19” seriis pirvelma sabWoTa eleqtromatarebelma. amJamad<br />

pirveli eleqtromatarebeli xaSuris sadgurSi dgas kvarcxlbekze.<br />

am momentidan rkinigza etapobrivad eleqtrifikaciaze gadadis. 1967 wlis<br />

noemberSi saqarTvelos rkinigzis yvela monakveTze, maT Soris viwriliandagian<br />

borjomi-bakurianis xazze, eleqtrifikaciis procesi dasrulda.<br />

1974 wlidan rkinigzaze Cndeba axali, Tanamderove eleqtromatareblebi,<br />

romlebic Tbilisis eleqtrovagonmSenebel qarxanaSi iyo damza


debuli.<br />

qveynis mrewvelobis wamyvani dargebisa da soflis meurneobis iseTi<br />

dargebis, rogoricaa mebaReoba, meRvineoba, citrusisa da Cais<br />

kulturebis ganviTarebasTan erTad, daiwyo rkinigzis axali xazebis<br />

mSenebloba: natanebi - ozurgeTi (1924 w.), broweula- wyaltubo (1935<br />

w.), senaki - ingiri - gali (1930 w.), gali - oCamCire - soxumi (1938 w.), gori<br />

- cxinvali (1940 w.).<br />

rkinigzis xazis soxumi - adleris mSeneblobam, romelic meore<br />

msoflio omis dros daiwyo, saqarTvelos rkinigza ruseTis sarkinigzo<br />

qselTan daakavSira. aRniSnuli monakveTis mSenebloba 1949 wels<br />

dasrulda. 1986 wlis 31 dekembers dasrulda marabda - axalqalaqis<br />

rkinigzis xazis mSenebloba.<br />

saqarTvelos rTulma geografiulma reliefma mravali xelovnuri<br />

sainJinro nagebobis mSenebloba ganapiroba, romelTa ricxvi 3700 aRemateba.<br />

saqarTvelos rkinigzis saerTo sigrZe 2344, 2 kilometria.<br />

2012 wlis 12 aprils Sps `saqarTvelos rkinigza~ gardaiqmna saaqcio<br />

sazogadoebad.<br />

wyaro: saqarTvelos rkinigza. http://www.railway.ge<br />

baqo-Tbilisi-yarsis proeqti<br />

baqo-Tbilisi-yarsis proeqti aris axali satransporto derefani,<br />

romelic gaaerTianebs azerbaijanis, saqarTvelosa da TurqeTis sarkinizo<br />

xazebs. baqo-Tbilisi-yarsis sarkinigzo magistralis proeqtis<br />

ganxorcieleba 2007 wels daiwyo da iTvaliswinebs saqarTvelos<br />

teritoriaze marabda-axalqalaqis sarkinigzo xazis reabilitaciarekonstruqcias<br />

da axali sarkinigzo xazis mSeneblobas axalqalaqidan<br />

TurqeTis sazRvramde. yarssa da axalqalaqs Soris 98 km sigrZis<br />

magistrali gaivlis, aqedan 30 km saqarTvelos teritoriaze.<br />

rac Seexeba bosforis srutis qveS gvirabis gayvanas, proeqti 2013<br />

wels dasruldeba, ris Semdegac baqo-Tbilisi-yarsis sarkinigzo magistrali<br />

evropas daukavSirdeba. TurqeTis gavliT, gaixsneba sarkinigzo<br />

derefani kaspiis zRvidan evropisken, romelic sabolood<br />

gamoricxavs sazRvao gziT gadazidvis saWiroebas. am xaziT moxdeba<br />

rogorc satvirTo, ise samgzavro gadayvanebi da is moiazreba rogorc<br />

alternatiuli satvirTo transportirebis gza iranidan momavali arsebuli<br />

satranzito gzebis nacvlad.<br />

wyaro: saqarTvelos rkinigza. http://www.railway.ge<br />

XIX s. 80-iani wlebidan saqarTveloSi mrewvelobis mravali dargi wvrili warmoebis<br />

formebidan da manufaqturidan fabrikul formaSi gadadis. ase moxda abreSumis, bambis<br />

mrewvelobis dargebSi, Tambaqos, tyavis, kasrebis,<br />

aguris da kramitis warmoebaSi. aRniSnul periodSi<br />

saqarTveloSi daiwyo aryis, koniakis, Rvinis, ludis<br />

qarxnuli wesiT warmoeba. aseve xileuli wylebis warmoeba.<br />

saqarTvelo warmoadgenda ekonomikurad CamorCenil<br />

qveyanas, romelsac calmxrivad ganviTarebuli mrewveloba<br />

da naklebproduqtiuli, upiratesad wvrilglex-<br />

27


uri soflis meurneoba hqonda.<br />

1920-30-ian wlebSi saqarTveloSi daiwyo socializmis mSenebloba, romelmac TiTqmis<br />

70 weli gastana. aRniSnul periodSi ekonomikis safuZveli <strong>saxelmwifo</strong> da sakolmeurneo<br />

sistema iyo. sabWoTa wyobilebis mier soflad gatarebuli reformebi cnobilia<br />

`soflis koleqtivizaciis~ saxeliT. soflad Seiqmna koleqtiuri meurneobebi. miRebuli<br />

mosavali koleqtivis wevrebze nawildeboda. kolmeurneobebi valdebulni iyvnen<br />

<strong>saxelmwifo</strong>s mier dawesebuli sasoflo-sameurneo produqciis warmoebis gegmebi SeesrulebinaT.<br />

Raribi glexoba, romelsac dasakargi araferi hqonda, nebayoflobiT gaerTianda<br />

kolmeurneobebSi. saSualo glexoba meryeobda, xolo mdidari glexoba (`kulakoba~)<br />

misi sakuTrebis koleqtiurad gadaqcevis sastiki winaaRmdegi iyo, Tumca sabolood<br />

mainc moxerxda maTi winaaRmdegobis daZleva da soflad kolmeurneobebi da sabWoTa<br />

meurneobebi Camoyalibda.<br />

amuSavda WiaTuris marganecis qarxana, tyvarCelis qvanaxSiris warmoeba, baTumis nav-<br />

TobgadamamuSavebeli qarxana, zestafonis feroSenadnobis qarxana. pirveli warmatebebi<br />

mopovebuli iqna qveynis eleqtrofikaciaSi.<br />

XX saukkunis 50-60-ian wlebSi aSkarad gamovlinda sabWoTa sistemis krizisi. sul<br />

ufro Canagdeboda qveynis <strong>ekonomika</strong>, ecemoda qveynis mosaxleobis socialuri done.<br />

gansakuTrebiT didi xarjebi xmardeboda samxedro mSeneblobas.<br />

daqveiTebas ganicdida qarTuli <strong>ekonomika</strong>c. daeca qarTuli samrewvelo produqciis<br />

xarisxi, gansakuTrebiT dabali xarisxis iyo msubuqi mrewvelobis produqcia. kolmeurneobebsa<br />

da sabWoTa meurneobebSi ganuxrelad ecemoda Sromis nayofiereba. ekonomikis<br />

krizisma gamoiwvia fasebis zrda, ramac kidev ufro gaauaresa cxovrebis done.<br />

XX saukunis 70-iani wlebis dasasrulisa da 80-iani damdegisaTvis sabWoTa sistemis<br />

krizisma yovlismomcveli xasiaTi miiRo. daeca mrewvelobis done, savalalo mdgomareobaSi<br />

aRmoCnda soflis meurneoba, moiSala transportis muSaoba, gaizarda fasebi<br />

produqciaze, Seiqmna produqciis umwvavesi deficiti.<br />

sabWoTa periodSi warmoebis saSualebebze arsebobda sazogadoebrivi sakuTreba.<br />

<strong>saxelmwifo</strong> ukveTavda sawarmoebs produqciis warmoebas dadgenili gegmis mixedviT da<br />

mis realizaciasac TviTon axdenda. kerZo sakuTreba da mewarmeoba danaSaulad iyo miCneuli.<br />

`mewarmeoba~, `saqmosnoba~ da `komersantoba~ sazogadoebaSi negatiuri mniSvnelobiT<br />

gamoiyeneboda.<br />

XX s-is 90-iani wlebidan saqarTveloSi mewarmeTa fenis Camoyalibeba daiwyo. swrafi<br />

tempiT ganviTarda kerZo seqtori, Tumca am periodSi Seqmnil kooperativTa umravlesoba<br />

(75-80%) <strong>saxelmwifo</strong> sawarmoTa bazaze formirdeboda. kooperativebis mimarT<br />

tardeboda SedarebiT liberaluri fasebis politika, xolo <strong>saxelmwifo</strong> sawarmoebis<br />

mier warmoebul produqciaze (momsaxurebaze, samuSaos Sesrulebaze) dawesebuli iyo<br />

fiqsirebuli fasi. xSirad SekveTebi sruldeboda kooperativis saxeliT da Sedegad<br />

kooperativis fassa da <strong>saxelmwifo</strong> sawarmos fass Soris sxvaoba mniSvnelovani Semosavlebis<br />

miRebis SesaZleblobas iZleoda. sabazro <strong>ekonomika</strong>ze gardamaval sawyis etapze<br />

mewarmeoba da kerZo seqtori yalibdeboda rogorc <strong>saxelmwifo</strong> seqtoris danamati.<br />

amave periodSi daiwyo saarendo urTierTobebis (gansakuTrebiT arenda gamosyidvis<br />

uflebiT) damkvidreba, ramac xeli Seuwyo <strong>saxelmwifo</strong> seqtoridan kerZo seqtorSi<br />

qonebis faqtiurad ukontrolo gadadinebis process. gaaqtiurda savaWro urTierTobebi<br />

sazRvargareTis qveynebTan. Seiqmna mewarmeobis ZiriTadi rgoli firma.<br />

28


„mewarmeTa Sesaxeb” saqarTvelos kanoniT gaTvaliswinebuli<br />

nebismieri organizaciul-samarTlebrivi formis sawarmo, agreTve<br />

arasamewarmeo (arakomerciuli) iuridiuli piri, romelic eweva samewarmeo<br />

saqmianobas am saqmianobis nawilSi.<br />

firma aris organizacia, romelic flobs erT an ramdenime sawarmos<br />

da resursebs iyenebs produqciisa da momsaxurebis warmoebisaTvis<br />

mogebis miRebis mizniT.<br />

komerciuli organizaciis saqmianoba mimarTulia mogebis<br />

miRebaze, es aris misi mTavari mizani. arakomerciuli organizaciis<br />

mizani ar aris mogebis miReba da misi ganawileba. orive tipis<br />

organizacia SeiZleba gaerTiandnen kavSirebsa da asociaciebSi.<br />

saqmianobis mizanze damokidebulebiT nebismieri firma SeiZleba iyos:<br />

komerciuli organizacia;<br />

arakomerciuli organizacia.<br />

saqmianobis saxeebisa da Sesrulebuli operaciebis xasiaTis mixedviT ganasxvaveben<br />

Semdeg firmebs: industriuli, savaWro, satransporto, satransporto-saeqspeditoro,<br />

sadazRvevo, inJiniringuli, turistuli, turoperatiuli, saarendo, sareklamo firmebi<br />

da saagentoebi da sxva.<br />

sakuTrebis<br />

formis mixedviT<br />

firma SeiZleba<br />

ekuTvnodes<br />

<br />

erT pirs _ individualuri sawarmo<br />

or an met partniors _ partnioruli sawarmo<br />

mraval partniors _ korporaciuli sawarmo<br />

<strong>saxelmwifo</strong>s – <strong>saxelmwifo</strong> sawarmo<br />

saqarTveloSi sididis mixedviT ganasxvaveben:<br />

mcire firmebs (dasaqmebulTa raodenoba ar unda aRematebodes 20 dasaqmebuls, xolo<br />

wliuri brunva 0,5 mln lars);<br />

saSualo firmebs (asamde dasaqmebuli da wliuri brunva 1,5 mln laramde);<br />

msxvil firmebs.<br />

ekonomikuri saqmianobis saxeebis klasifikaciaSi<br />

ekonomikis dargebis mixedviT gamoiyofa Semdegi seqciebi<br />

soflis meurneoba, nadiroba da satyeo meurneoba, TevzWera, meTevzeoba;<br />

samTomopovebiTi mrewveloba;<br />

damamuSavebeli mrewveloba;<br />

eleqtroenergiis, airis, orTqlisa da cxeli wylis warmoeba da ganawileba;<br />

mSenebloba;<br />

vaWroba; avtomobilebis, sayofacxovrebo nawarmisa da piradi moxmarebis sagnebis<br />

remonti;<br />

sastumroebi da restornebi;<br />

transporti da kavSirgabmuloba; safinanso saqmianoba;<br />

operaciebi uZravi qonebiT, ijara da momxmareblisaTvis momsaxurebis gaweva;<br />

29


<strong>saxelmwifo</strong> mmarTveloba;<br />

ganaTleba;<br />

janmrTelobis dacva da socialuri daxmareba;<br />

komunaluri, socialuri da personaluri momsaxurebis gaweva;<br />

Sinamosamsaxuris saqmianoba da Sinameurneobebis saqmianoba, dakavSirebuli saqonlisa<br />

da momsaxurebis warmoebasTan sakuTari moxmarebisaTvis;<br />

eqsteritoriebis organizaciebis saqmianoba.<br />

30<br />

!<br />

sabazro ekonomikis mTavari mamoZravebeli Zala mewarmeTa fenaa,<br />

romelic bazris karnaxiT moqmedebs da amiT uzrunvelyofs qveynis<br />

ekonomikis srulyofas da ganviTarebas. rac ufro myarad Camoyalibdeba<br />

mewarmeTa klasi, miT ufro male gamova qveyana ekonomikuri<br />

krizisidan. <strong>saxelmwifo</strong>m mewarmeebs unda Seuqmnas xelsayreli socialuri,<br />

politikuri, samarTlebrivi da sabazro garemo. sabazro<br />

ekonomikis pirobebSi mewarmes unda marTavdes mxolod bazari da <strong>saxelmwifo</strong>Si<br />

moqmedi kanonmdebloba.


? 1.<br />

II<br />

<strong>saxelmwifo</strong> da<br />

<strong>ekonomika</strong><br />

gaixseneT, romeli<br />

ekonomikuri<br />

problemebis gada<br />

wyveta uxdebaT<br />

qve y nebs?<br />

8<br />

ra miznebi aqvs Cvens<br />

ekonomikur sistemas?<br />

2. daasaxeleT qveyana,<br />

ro melsac<br />

re sur sebis Se z­<br />

Rudulobisa da<br />

moT x ovnilebebis ganusazRvrelobis problema ar awuxebs.<br />

3. DTqveni azriT, romeli miznis miRwevaa qveynisTvis ufro faseuli da mniSvnelovani?<br />

ekonomikuri<br />

zrda<br />

ekonomikuri<br />

Tanasworoba<br />

ekonomikuri<br />

Tavisufleba<br />

<strong>saxelmwifo</strong>s<br />

socialuri<br />

miznebi<br />

ekonomikuri<br />

stabiluroba<br />

ekonomikuri<br />

efeqtianoba<br />

31


savarjiSo<br />

sabazro<br />

ekonomikuri<br />

sistema<br />

32<br />

jgufuri muSaoba axal terminebze<br />

a) imuSaveT wyvilebSi.<br />

• rogor gesmiT sqemaze gamosaxuli<br />

TiToeuli terminis Sinaarsi?<br />

• sad SegxvedriaT es terminebi?<br />

• ra magaliTebi SegiZliaT moiyvanoT<br />

am terminebTan mimarTebaSi?<br />

b) moifiqreT TiToeuli terminis<br />

gansazRvreba da furcelze<br />

CamowereT.<br />

miniSneba: yuradReba gaamaxvileT<br />

sityvaze `ekonomikuri~.<br />

g) gaecaniT erTmaneTis mosazrebebs.<br />

ra gaigeT <strong>saxelmwifo</strong>s socialuri<br />

miznebis Sesaxeb?<br />

miRebuli informacia warmoadgineT<br />

cxrilis saxiT.<br />

vici<br />

(I)<br />

ekonomikuri<br />

Tavisufleba<br />

niSnavs arCevanis<br />

Tavisuflebas<br />

ekonomikuri<br />

stabiluroba<br />

niSnavs ....<br />

ekonomikuri<br />

efeqtianoba<br />

niSnavs ....<br />

ekonomikuri<br />

Tanasworoba<br />

niSnavs ....<br />

ekonomikuri<br />

zrda<br />

niSnavs ....<br />

rig<br />

SemTxvevaSi,<br />

xom ar zRudavs<br />

<strong>saxelmwifo</strong> ...<br />

ekonomikur<br />

Tavisuflebas?<br />

ekonomikur<br />

stabilurobas?<br />

ekonomikur<br />

efeqtianobas?<br />

ekonomikur<br />

Tanasworobas<br />

ekonomikur<br />

zrdas?<br />

ekonomikuri sistema SeiZleba aRvweroT rogorc kanonebis,<br />

adamianuri faseulobebis, interesebis, organizaciebis erToblioba,<br />

sadac xdeba ekonomikuri gadawyvetilebebis miReba.<br />

Sereuli<br />

ekonomikuri<br />

sistema<br />

ekonomikuri<br />

sistemis<br />

saxeebi<br />

tradiciuli<br />

ekonomikuri<br />

sistema<br />

mbrZanebluri<br />

ekonomikuri<br />

sistema<br />

arsebobs tradiciuli, mbrZanebluri, sabazro da<br />

Sereuli ekonomikuri sistema. TiToeul sistemaSi<br />

ZiriTadi ekonomikuri problemebi `ra vawarmooT~,<br />

`rogor vawarmooT~ da `visTvis vawarmooT~ sxvadasxvanairad<br />

wydeba.<br />

`rogor<br />

vawarmooT~<br />

`visTvis<br />

vawarmooT~<br />

`ra<br />

vawarmooT~


tradiciuli<br />

tradiciul ekonomikur sistemaSi adamianebi Taobidan Taobamde<br />

imeorebdnen warmoebisa da ganawilebisa meTodebs.<br />

mbrZaneblur <strong>ekonomika</strong>Si <strong>saxelmwifo</strong> mgegmavebi yvela ekonomikur<br />

saqmianobas mimarTulebas aZleven _ <strong>saxelmwifo</strong> iRebs<br />

gadawyvetilebebs imis Sesaxeb, Tu ra, rogor da visTvis iqnas warmoebuli.<br />

mTeli qoneba <strong>saxelmwifo</strong>s xelSia da ar arsebobs kerZo<br />

sakuTreba.<br />

sabazro <strong>ekonomika</strong>Si ekonomikuri saqmianoba organizebulia<br />

bazrebis meSveobiT. <strong>saxelmwifo</strong>s roli SezRudulia.<br />

ekonomikur sistemas, romelSic <strong>saxelmwifo</strong> kontrolis elementebi<br />

Serwymulia kerZo mflobelobasTan Sereuli ekonomikuri<br />

sistema ewodeba.<br />

ekonomikuri sistemis tipebi<br />

sakuTreba miwaze da kapitali<br />

koleqtiuri kerZo <strong>saxelmwifo</strong><br />

arsebuli<br />

tradiciebis<br />

mixedviT<br />

sabazro<br />

(kapitalisturi)<br />

SezRuduli resursebis ganawileba<br />

bazris<br />

meSevobiT<br />

komanduri<br />

(socialisturi)<br />

centralizebulad<br />

da Sesabamisadsaxelmwofo<br />

gegmis<br />

mixedviT<br />

Sereuli<br />

<strong>saxelmwifo</strong><br />

da kerZo<br />

bazrebis<br />

daxmarebiT da<br />

<strong>saxelmwifo</strong>s<br />

monawileobiT<br />

(sabazro da<br />

komanduri<br />

meqanizmebi)<br />

davaleba waikiTxeT teqsti. daasaxeleT frazebi, romlebic Tqvens varauds<br />

amtkicebs an uaryofs; daasaxeleT mniSvnelovani informacia, romlis<br />

aRmoCenac moulodneli iyo an ris Sesaxebac metis gageba gsurT.<br />

sabazro <strong>ekonomika</strong>Si (anu Tavisufal <strong>ekonomika</strong>Si) bazari TviTon<br />

aregulirebs kerZo mewarmeTa da individualur momxmarebelTa urTierTobebs.<br />

sabazro <strong>ekonomika</strong> Semdeg ZiriTad principebs emyareba:<br />

Tavisufali mewarmeoba, sakuTrebis mravalferovneba da sabazro<br />

faswarmoqmna.<br />

sabazro ekonomikis dros adamianebi da firmebi bazarze sxvadasxva<br />

formiT monawileoben _ rogorc momxmareblebi, mwarmoeblebi, muSebi,<br />

danazogebis mflobelebi da investorebi. maTi gadawyvetilebebi sxva­<br />

33


34<br />

dasxva saqonlisa da momsaxurebis moTxovnasa da miwodebaze aisaxeba. sabazro<br />

fasebi da maTi cvlileba signals aZlevs mwarmoeblebs (gamyidvelebs)<br />

imis Sesaxeb, Tu ra undaT momxmareblebs (myidvelebs).<br />

msoflioSi arcerTi ekonomikuri sistema ar aris warmodgenili<br />

wminda tradiciuli, mbrZanebluri da sabazro ekonomikis saxiT. XX<br />

saukunis bolo aTwleulidan msoflioSi bevrma ekonomikurma sistemam<br />

cvlileba ganicada. magaliTad, tradiciis elementebi ufro<br />

aSkarad igrZnoboda aziisa da afrikis ganviTarebadi qveynebis soflebSi.<br />

Tumca, amJamad es raionebi sabazro an mbrZanebluri ekonomikis<br />

gavlenasac ganicdian. mbrZanebluri meTodebi arsebobda yofil sab­<br />

WoTa kavSirSi. CineTSi mbrZanebluri ekonomikis elementebi Serwymulia<br />

tradiciul da sabazro <strong>ekonomika</strong>sTan.<br />

ekonomikuri sistemis Sesabamisad, qveynis <strong>ekonomika</strong>Si <strong>saxelmwifo</strong><br />

garkveul rols asrulebs. rodesac calkeuli individebi an jgufebi<br />

Semosavlebis ganawilebiT ukmayofiloni arian, <strong>saxelmwifo</strong> xSirad xelaxla,<br />

pirdapiri gziT axdens maT gadanawilebas.<br />

mbrZanebluri da sabazro ekonomikebis Sedareba<br />

mbrZanebluri <strong>ekonomika</strong>Si sabazro <strong>ekonomika</strong>Si<br />

• yvela saxis resursze <strong>saxelmwifo</strong><br />

sakuTrebaa (garda adamianuri resursebisa).<br />

• resursebis pirvelad ganawilebas<br />

<strong>saxelmwifo</strong> mgegmavebi gansazRvraven.<br />

• mgegmavebis mier dawesebuli xelfasebi<br />

Semosavlebis Tanasworobis<br />

safuZvelia.<br />

• ar arsebobs umuSevroba.<br />

• <strong>saxelmwifo</strong> sawarmos safrTxe ar<br />

emuqreba, <strong>saxelmwifo</strong> subsidiebis,<br />

fasebis gazrdis nebarTvis an sagadasaxado<br />

valdebulebebisagan ganTavisuflebis<br />

gamo.<br />

• socialuri miznebis Sesabamisad da<br />

momxmareblis azris TiTqmis gauTvaliswineblad,<br />

mgegmavebi warmoebis<br />

Sesaxeb gadawyvetilebebs iReben.<br />

• momxmareblebs araviTari gavlena ara<br />

aqvT warmoebuli produqtis fasze,<br />

raodenobaze an xarisxze.<br />

• ekonomikuri damoukideblobis mizniT<br />

sagareo vaWroba SezRudulia.<br />

• Cveulebriv, sabazro wonasworobis<br />

fasze dabla dawesebuli fasebi<br />

saqonlis gayidvasa da fasebis kontrols<br />

uzrunvelyofen.<br />

• yvela saxis resursze kerZo sakuTrebaa.<br />

• produqtebsa da resursebs sabazro<br />

fasebi gansazRvravn.<br />

• Semosavali damokidebulia individebis<br />

kuTvnil gasayid resursebze.<br />

• umuSevrobis zogierTi forma misaRebia,<br />

radgan adamianebi samuSaos<br />

icvlian, mewarmeebi sxvadasxva unarebs<br />

iTxoven, arsebobs cikluri<br />

ryevebi da moTxovnis sezonuri cvlilebebi.<br />

• warmoebis Sesaxeb firmebis gadawyvetilebaSi<br />

ZiriTad rols momxmareblis<br />

moTxovna asrulebs.<br />

• saerTaSoriso specializacia xels<br />

uwyobs konkurencias da warmoebis<br />

danaxarjebsa da fasebs dabal doneze<br />

inarCunebs.<br />

• fasebi moxmarebasa da warmoebas sabazro<br />

wonasworul doneze aregulirebs.


?<br />

eTanxmebiT Tu ara debulebebs?<br />

1. mbrZaneblur ekonomikur sistemaSi mgegmavebi aweseben fasebs, gamoSvebis<br />

moculobas, kapitalisa da investiciebis ganawilebas da zogjer TviT<br />

xelfasebsac ki imisaTvis, rom yvelas dasaqmebaSi darwmunebulni iyvnen;<br />

imsjeleT<br />

2. mbrZanebluri ekonomikisaTvis gamoSvebis (Sedegis) stabiluroba da<br />

Tanasworoba metad mniSvnelovania, vidre sabazro ekonomikisaTvis;<br />

3. sabazro ekonomikis pirobebSi ekonomikuri zrda centraluri mgegmavebis<br />

mier ganisazRvreba;<br />

4. mbrZaneblur <strong>ekonomika</strong>Si ekonomikuri Tavisufleba SezRudulia da msxverplad<br />

iseTi miznebis miRwevas ewireba, romelsac mgegmavebi sazogadoebis<br />

saerTo keTildReobisaTvis saukeTesod Tvlian.<br />

1. rogor fiqrobT, sabazro ekonomikis qveynebi ufro ukeT viTardebian<br />

Tu mbrZanebluri ekonomikuri sistemis mqone qveynebi? pasuxi daasabuTeT;<br />

2. romel ekonomikur sistemaSi SeiZleba iyos ekonomikuri Tavisufleba<br />

da kerZo sakuTeba?<br />

3. Tu icnobT adamianebs, romlebic sxvadasxva saqonelsa da momsaxurebas<br />

ufasod iReben? Tu icnobT adamianebs, romlebic umuSevrobis<br />

Semweobebs, socialuri dacvis sapensio daxmarebebs iReben?<br />

4. CamowereT erTi dRis ganmavlobaSi momxdari movlenebi. yuradReba<br />

gaamaxvileT, rogor gavlenas axdens <strong>saxelmwifo</strong> programebi<br />

Tqveni ojaxis cxovrebaze (magaliTad, Semweobebi, komunaluri gadasaxadebis<br />

SeRavaTebi, janmrTelobis dazRveva da sxv).<br />

35


saSinao davalebis prezentacia<br />

<strong>saxelmwifo</strong>s SeuZlia garkveul sazRvrebSi<br />

daexmaros <strong>ekonomika</strong>s, magram misi SesaZleblobebi<br />

– ziani miayenos mas, ganusazRvrelia~.<br />

jon meinard keinsi<br />

xanmoklea im xelisuflebis Zalaufleba, romelic<br />

xalxis sazianod marTavs.<br />

seneka<br />

36<br />

9-10<br />

ra unda gaakeTos<br />

<strong>saxelmwifo</strong>m?<br />

<strong>saxelmwifo</strong> akontrolebs <strong>ekonomika</strong>s?<br />

sazogadoebis ganviTarebis mTeli istoriis manZilze <strong>saxelmwifo</strong> ekonomikis<br />

ganuyofel nawilad ganixileboda da ganixileba. miuxedavad <strong>saxelmwifo</strong>s ekonomikuri<br />

funqciebis Sesaxeb ekonomikur TeoriaSi arsebul azrTa radikaluri sxvadasxvaobisa,<br />

Tanamedrove <strong>saxelmwifo</strong> ekonomikis regulirebaSi aqtiurad monawileobs, rac<br />

Tavis mxriv uciloblad ganapirobebs ekonomikuri politikis formirebas.<br />

<strong>saxelmwifo</strong>s mxridan ekonomikis regulirebaSi monawileobis xarisxi gansxvavebulia,<br />

magram unda aRiniSnos, rom miuxedavad amisa, <strong>saxelmwifo</strong> <strong>ekonomika</strong>Si yvelgan gamodis<br />

rogorc regulatori anu ekonomikuri politikis SemmuSavebeli da ganmaxorcielebeli,<br />

aseve rogorc uSualod ekonomikuri subieqti.<br />

miuxedavad imisa, rom sabazro ekonomikis pirobebSi, <strong>ekonomika</strong>ze zemoqmedebis berketebis<br />

TvalsazrisiT <strong>saxelmwifo</strong> sakmaod SezRudulia, ekonomikuri miznebis sworad<br />

SerCevas, maTi miRwevis SesaZlo variantebis gaTvlasa da Sedegebis winaswar ganWvretas<br />

gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba eniWeba.<br />

<strong>saxelmwifo</strong>s roli <strong>ekonomika</strong>Si TandaTanobiT, magram ganuxrelad izrdeba, gansakuTrebiT<br />

socialuri uzrunvelyofis regulirebis sferoSi. sferoSi. amas Tundac is<br />

faqtic adasturebs, rom yvelaze ganviTarebul kapitalistur qveynebSi <strong>saxelmwifo</strong>s<br />

mier gaweulma xarjebma Tu 1913 wels saSualod mTliani Sida produqtis (ganmarteba<br />

ixileT momdevno gverdze) 13% Seadgines, gasuli saukunis bolosaTvis igive maCvenebeli<br />

ukve 45% iyo.<br />

mxolod <strong>saxelmwifo</strong>s gaaCnia is umniSvnelovanesi instrumentebi, romliTac<br />

ekonomikis regulireba SesaZlebelia. mag. fulis gamoSveba, denacionalizacia da<br />

sxva. ekonomikuri urTierTobebis sxva subieqtebs ar gaaCniaT msgavsi Zlieri berketebi.<br />

kidev didi xnis ganmavlobaSi isini isev <strong>saxelmwifo</strong>s eqskluziur mflobelobaSi<br />

darCebian.<br />

<strong>saxelmwifo</strong>s ekonomikuri politika aris xelisuflebis mier<br />

<strong>saxelmwifo</strong>s miznebidan, amocanebidan da interesebidan gamomdinare<br />

ekonomikis sferoSi gatarebul RonisZiebaTa, qmedebaTa sistema<br />

da ekonomikuri procesebisaTvis gansazRvruli mimarTulebebis<br />

micema, ekonomikuri qcevebis an maTi Sedegebis gakontroleba da ma­<br />

Tze zemoqmedeba.


ekonomikuri<br />

politika<br />

moicavs<br />

• struqturul politikas;<br />

• sainvesticio politikas;<br />

• fulad­sakredito politikas;<br />

• socialur politikas;<br />

• sagareo­ekonomikur politikas;<br />

• samecniero­teqnikur politikas;<br />

• sagadasaxado­sabiujeto politikas;<br />

• samrewvelo, agrarul da a.S. ekonomikur<br />

politikas.<br />

ekonomikuri Tavisufleba gulisxmobs arCevanis Tavisuflebas:<br />

momxmareblebisaTvis – Tu rogor daxarjon an dazogon Semosavali,<br />

muSakebisaTvis – sad daiwyon an Seicvalon samuSao, mewarmeebisaTvis<br />

– daiwyon axali biznesi an daxuron Zveli firma.<br />

mTliani Sida produqti (mSp) aris erTi wlis manZilze qveyanaSi<br />

Seqmnili saboloo moxmarebis saqoneli da momsaxureba.<br />

ekonomikuri zrda xdeba maSin, rodesac izrdeba qveyanaSi Seqmnili<br />

realuri mTliani Sida produqti (mSp).<br />

erT sul mosaxleze mSp _ qveynis cxovrebis donis ZiriTadi<br />

maCvenebelia. igi izomeba realuri mSp gayofili qveynis mosaxleobis<br />

ricxovnobaze. imisaTvis, rom erT sul mosaxleze mSp gaizardos,<br />

qveyanam yovelwliurad warmoebuli saqonlisa da momsaxurebis<br />

raodenoba unda gazardos. mSp–s wliuri zrda 3­dan 4%­mde damakmayofilebel<br />

miznad ganixileba.<br />

ekonomikur stabilurobas arRvevs <strong>ekonomika</strong>Si warmoebuli<br />

saqonlisa da momsaxurebis fasebis saSualo donis cvlileba (zrda<br />

an Semcireba).<br />

ekonomikuri Tanasworoba aris ekonomikuri saqmianobis samar­<br />

Tlianoba. samarTlianobis sakiTxi wamoiWreba gacvlisas an Semosavlebis<br />

ganawilebisas: sxvadasxva Semosavlis mqone adamianebis<br />

dabegvrisas, dabalSemosavliani ojaxebisaTvis daxmarebis programebis<br />

ganxorcielebisas da sxv.<br />

ekonomikuri efeqtianoba niSnavs SezRuduli resursebis yairaTian<br />

gamoyenebas. qveynis ekonomikisaTvis amas orgvari Sedegi<br />

moaqvs: 1) iwarmoeba is saqonli da momsaxureba, rac adamianebs<br />

yvelaze metad surT; 2) saqonlisa da momsaxurebis warmoebaSi xdeba<br />

resursebis ekonomia, dazogva da naklebi danaxarjebiT meti Sedegis<br />

miReba.<br />

37


imsjeleT<br />

38<br />

waikiTxeT teqsti. daasaxeleT adgili, romelic Tqvens varauds amtkicebs<br />

an uaryofs; daasaxeleT mocemulia mniSvnelovani informacia,<br />

romlis aRmoCenac moulodneli iyo an ris Sesaxebac metis gageba gsurT.<br />

yvela ekonomikuri sistema farTo socialuri miznebis miRwevas cdlobs,<br />

es miznebi ekonomikur Tavisuflebas, ekonomikur zrdas, ekonomikur<br />

stabilurobas, ekonomikur Tanasworobas da ekonomikur<br />

efeqtianobas moicavs.<br />

sxvadasxva qveynis ekonomikuri sistemisaTvis erTi mizani ufro mniSvnelovania,<br />

vidre meore. XXI saukunis dasawyisSi sul ufro bevri qveyana<br />

cdilobs mbrZanebluri ekonomikidan sabazro <strong>ekonomika</strong>ze gadasvlas,<br />

raTa Tavisi SezRuduli resursebi ukeT gaanawilos.<br />

es miznebi ekonomikuri sistemis Sefasebis kriteriumad gamoiyeneba; Tumca<br />

xSirad sxvadasxva qveynisa da sxvadasxva ekonomikur sistemaSi mcxovrebi<br />

adamianebi ver Tanxmdebian imis Sesaxeb, Tu romeli mizania umniSvnelovanesi.<br />

SesaZlebelia Tu ara sruli ekonomikuri Tavisuflebis miRweva? zogjer<br />

adamianis Tavisufleba sazogadoebis zogadi keTildReobisaTvis unda<br />

SeizRudos. magaliTad, ukanonoa zogierTi saxis saqonlisa da momsaxurebis<br />

(mag., heroinis, saarCevno xmebis) yidva­gayidva. arsebobs produqtebi<br />

(mag. alkoholi da Tambaqos nawarmi) romelTa yidva­gayidva xSirad nawilobriv<br />

SezRudulia (magaliTad asakobrivi SezRudva). sazogadoeba iRebs<br />

kanonebs, romlebic zogjer afarToebs, zogjer ki zRudavs ekonomikur<br />

Tavisuflebas.<br />

fasebis donis moulodneli cvlileba sazianoa adamianTa erTi jgufisaTvis,<br />

magram SesaZloa xelsayreli iyos meore jgufisaTvis. magali­<br />

Tad, produqtebis fasebis zrda azaralebs gansazRvruli Semosavlebis<br />

mqone adamianebs, xolo mogebas moutans maT, vinc gayidvidan sargebels<br />

iRebs. fasebis stabiluroba xelsayrelia ekonomikuri usafrTxoebisaTvis<br />

da investirebisaTvis.<br />

savarjiSo 1<br />

<strong>saxelmwifo</strong>s farTo socialuri miznebi<br />

Tqven sakuTari, ararealuri qveynis (sazogadoebis) Seqmnis SesaZlebloba<br />

gaqvT. TiToeul TqvenTagans sxvadasxva socialuri miznebis<br />

Sesafaseblad 100 qula aqvs. gaanawileT igi socialuri miznebis<br />

mixedviT. magaliTad, Tu ekonomikuri Tavisufleba sxva miznebze metad<br />

mniSvnelovnad migaCniaT, SeafaseT maRali quliT, Tu naklebmniSvnelovania<br />

_ dabali quliT. qulaTa saerTo jami 100 unda iyos.<br />

• ekonomikuri Tavisufleba<br />

• ekonomikuri zrda<br />

• ekonomikuri stabiluroba<br />

?<br />

• ekonomikuri Tanasworoba<br />

• ekonomikuri efeqtianoba<br />

a) rogor gaanawileT qulebi? ganmrteT Tqveni gadawyvetileba.<br />

b) aris Tu ara klasSi qulaTa ganawilebis sxvadasxvagvri variantebi?<br />

ra aris am mravalferovnebis mizezi?<br />

sxvadasxva ekonomikuri sistemis mxardamWerebic iseve sxvadasxvagvarad afaseben<br />

farTo socialur miznebs, rogorc TiToeuli TqvenTagani.


savarjiSo 2<br />

vqmniT sazogadoebriv politikas – kanonebs,<br />

debulebebs, <strong>saxelmwifo</strong> programebs<br />

sazogadoebrivi politikis sakiTxebidan airCieT erT-erTi, Tqven-<br />

Tvis yvelaze saintereso sakiTxi.<br />

kiTxvebi<br />

da<br />

davalebebi<br />

sazogadoebrivi politikis sakiTxebi:<br />

1. yvela moqalaqe ufaso saswrafo samedicino momsaxurebiT unda iqnas<br />

uzrunvelyofili;<br />

2. moweva akrZaluli unda iyos sazogadoebrivi TavSeyris adgilebSi;<br />

3. qarTuli ludis mwarmoeblebis dacvis mizniT importul ludze<br />

tarifi unda gadiddes.<br />

mcire jgufebSi SeasruleT davaleba:<br />

• Tqvens mier arCeuli sakiTxis irgvliv SeimuSaveT iseTi sazogadoebrivi<br />

politika (kanoni, debuleba an <strong>saxelmwifo</strong> programa), romelic<br />

exmaureba problemas;<br />

• gansazRvreT, romeli miznis (miznebis) mxardaWeras cdilobs Tqvens<br />

mier SemuSavebuli sazogadoebrivi politika da axseniT, ra gavlenas<br />

moaxdens igi sxva miznis (miznebis) miRwevaze;<br />

• gansazRvreT, rogor ekonomikur sistemaSi SeiZleba es politika<br />

ganxorcieldes da ratom? ekonomikuri sistemis romeli tipi (mbr­<br />

Zanebluri an sabazro) ufro miesadageba am politikis cxovrebaSi<br />

gatarebas?<br />

jgufebi akeTeben prezentacias da erTmaneTs uziareben mosazrebebs<br />

sazogadoebrivi politikis Sesaxeb.<br />

1. romeli farTo socialuri mizani migaCniT yvelaze arsebiTad?<br />

2. socialuri miznebis sakuTari an klasis Sefasebebis mixedviT (savarjiSo<br />

1) gansazRvreT bazarze ufro orientirebulia utopiuri<br />

sazogadoeba, Tu mbrZaneblur <strong>ekonomika</strong>ze? daasabuTeT Tqveni mosazreba.<br />

3. daubrundiT savarjiSo 1­s, romlis Sesrulebac wina gakveTilze daviwyeT.<br />

gadaikiTxeT da SeasworeT Tqveni azrebi.<br />

aRwereT, ramdenad mniSvnelovania farTo socialuri miznebi<br />

mbrZaneblur da sabazro <strong>ekonomika</strong>Si?<br />

1. ratom gadadis msoflios bevri qveyana sabazro <strong>ekonomika</strong>ze?<br />

2. ramdenad warmatebuli SeiZleba iyos TqvenTvis sasurveli qveynis<br />

<strong>ekonomika</strong> TiToeuli socialuri miznis miRwevaSi da ra gavlena eqneba<br />

amas qveynis moqalaqeebze?<br />

39


imsjeleT<br />

? vin<br />

savarjiSo<br />

40<br />

11<br />

• ramdenad didi unda iyos <strong>saxelmwifo</strong>s<br />

roli Cvens <strong>ekonomika</strong>Si? SeuzRudavi Tu<br />

SezRuduli?<br />

• aageT <strong>saxelmwifo</strong>s rolis mniSvnelobis<br />

Sefasebis wrfe.<br />

rogoria <strong>saxelmwifo</strong>s<br />

ekonomikuri funqciebi?<br />

unda ganaxorcielos qvemoTCamoTvlili saqmianoba qveyanaSi?<br />

a) erovnuli Tavdacvisunarianobis ganmtkiceba;<br />

b) avtomagistralebis mSenebloba da SekeTeba;<br />

g) sakuTrebis uflebis miniWeba;<br />

d) vaqcinacia;<br />

e) pensionerTa samedicino daxmareba;<br />

v) kvebis produqtebis xarisxis Semowmeba;<br />

z) RaribebisaTvis Semweobebis gacema;<br />

T) dabinZurebuli mdinaris gawmenda;<br />

i) erovnuli nakrZalebisa da tye­parkebis dacva.<br />

ramdeni unda gaakeTos <strong>saxelmwifo</strong>m?<br />

waikiTxeT baraTebze aRwerili sxvadasxva piradi da sociluri<br />

miznebi.<br />

• <strong>saxelmwifo</strong>s romel qmedebebs eTanxmebiT da romels ara?<br />

• ramdenad exmareba an ramdenad azaralebs <strong>saxelmwifo</strong> programebi<br />

adamianebs da mTel qveyanas im miznis SesrulebiT, rac Tqvens<br />

baraTzea aRwerili?<br />

• daasaxeleT Tqvens baraTze aRwerili programebis dadebiTi da<br />

uaryofiTi mxareebi.<br />

mizani: jinsis yidva.<br />

SesaZlebelia uamravi stilis, markis, fasisa<br />

da xarisxis jinsis yidva, romlebsac sxvadasxva<br />

konkurentuli maRaziebi yidian.<br />

savaWro baraTebi<br />

1 2<br />

mizani: jinsis yidva.<br />

SesaZlebelia mxolod erTi stilis jinsis<br />

yidva, romelic <strong>saxelmwifo</strong> sawarmos mier<br />

aris warmoebuli. warmoebis kvotebi <strong>saxelmwifo</strong><br />

mgegmavebma daaweses. xSirad jinsi<br />

maRaziebSi ar iSoveba. mxolod Sav bazarzea<br />

maRal fasebad.


mizani: sufTa haeri<br />

sawarmoo kompaniebma dabinZureba unda Seamciron<br />

an gadaixadon jarimebi.<br />

mizani: sufTa wyali.<br />

<strong>saxelmwifo</strong> yidis dabinZurebis uflebas da<br />

gascems licenziebs. firmebi licenziebs im<br />

SemTxvevaSi yiduloben, Tu licenziis SeZena<br />

ufro iafi ujdebaT, vidre daubinZureblobis<br />

danaxarjebi.<br />

mizani: inflaciis moTokva.<br />

centraluri banki zrdis saprocento ganakveTs,<br />

roca inflaciis Semcireba unda.<br />

mizani: kompaniis konkurentunarianobis<br />

SenarCuneba.<br />

zogierTi kompania aTavisuflebs muSaxels<br />

imisaTvis, rom Seamciros produqciis fasi da<br />

aamaRlos mwarmoebloba, raTa konkurencia<br />

gauwios Sida da ucxour firmebs.<br />

mizani: karg magistralebze siaruli.<br />

axali gzebi agebulia da gadasaxadebiT xerxdeba<br />

maTi karg mdgomareobaSi SenarCuneba.<br />

mizani: ufro did saxlSi gadasvla.<br />

individebs SeuZliaT Seisyidon, gayidon, an iqiraon<br />

saxli, miwis nakveTi an bina.<br />

3<br />

5<br />

7<br />

9<br />

11<br />

13<br />

mizani: sufTa haeri.<br />

<strong>saxelmwifo</strong> moxeleebi sawarmos produqciis<br />

gamoSvebis did moculobas avaleben, rac dabinZurebas<br />

iwvevs, magram Semdeg, haeris xarisxis<br />

gasaumjobeseblad, warmoebis Semcirebaze<br />

msjeloben.<br />

mizani: sufTa wyali.<br />

dabinZurebis kontrolis RonisZiebebi tardeba<br />

mxolod maSin, Tu dabinZurebis Semcireba<br />

<strong>saxelmwifo</strong> moxeleTa da mgegmavebisaTvis<br />

imaze mniSvnelovani mizania, vidre <strong>saxelmwifo</strong><br />

sawarmoebis mier meti saqonlisa da momsaxurebis<br />

warmoeba.<br />

mizani: inflaciis moTokva.<br />

saqonelsa da momsaxurebaze oficialur<br />

fasebs aweseben <strong>saxelmwifo</strong> mgegmavebi da<br />

Cveulebriv, oficialuri fasebis doneze inflacia<br />

ar arsebobs.<br />

mizani: kompaniis konkurentunarianobis<br />

SenarCuneba.<br />

Semcireba (muSaxelis gaTavisufleba) xels uSlis<br />

<strong>saxelmwifo</strong> mgegmavebis mizans (umuSevrobis aRmofxvra).<br />

saerTaSoriso vaWrobas zRudaven, raTa xeli<br />

Seuwyon erovnul TviTuzrunvelyofas da gamoricxon<br />

konkurencia ucxouri firmebis mxridan.<br />

mizani: karg magistralebze siaruli.<br />

<strong>saxelmwifo</strong> mgegmavebi gamoyofen garkveul<br />

resursebs gzebis agebisa da SekeTebisaTvis,<br />

sxva resursebs ki _ <strong>saxelmwifo</strong> firmebSi<br />

saqonlisa da momsaxurebis warmoebisaTvis.<br />

mizani: ufro did saxlSi gadasvla.<br />

mTavroba aSenebs binebs da sTavazobs maT<br />

ojaxebs iseT kriteriumebze dayrdnobiT,<br />

rogoricaa ojaxis suladoba da binis rigSi<br />

yofnis xanrgrZlivoba. individebs ar aqvT<br />

ufleba iyidon an gayidon saxlebi, binebi, an<br />

miwis nakveTebi.<br />

41<br />

4<br />

6<br />

8<br />

10<br />

12<br />

14


15<br />

mizani: kolejSi Caricxva da geologiis<br />

swavla.<br />

individebs SeuZliaT nebismier kolejSi an<br />

universitetSi Caricxva da sagnebis arCeva.<br />

studentebma unda gadaixadon swavlis safasuri.<br />

mizani: axali biznesis dawyeba.<br />

mewarmeebs SeuZliaT Seisyidon, iqiraon da organizeba<br />

gaukeTon resursebs axali biznesis<br />

dasawyebad.<br />

mizani: Raribebsa da moxucebze zrunva.<br />

sagadasaxado Semosavlebi gamoiyeneba sxvadasxva<br />

daxmarebebis, samedicino da socialuri<br />

dazRvevis uzrunvelsayofad. bevr momuSaves<br />

aqvs kerZo pensia an/da danazogi.<br />

mizani: kargi samuSao.<br />

survilis SemTxvevaSi samsaxuris arCevis da<br />

Secvlis Tavisufleba. kargad muSaoba fasdeba<br />

maRali xelfasiT da sxva sargebeliT. zogier­<br />

Ti adamiani sxvebze mets gamoimuSavebs.<br />

mizani: umuSevrobis Tavidan acileba.<br />

4­5%­iani umuSevroba iTvleba srul dasaqmebad,<br />

radgan momuSaveebi icvlian samuSaos.<br />

<strong>saxelmwifo</strong>s ekonomikuri politika<br />

mimarTulia umuSevrobis aRmosafxvrelad.<br />

mizani: ekonomikuri zrdis stimulireba.<br />

<strong>saxelmwifo</strong>s ekonomikuri politika gamoiyeneba<br />

wlidan wlamde mdgradi ekonomikuri<br />

zrdis SesanarCuneblad. investiciebis umetesoba<br />

axal qarxnebSi, manqana­danadgarebSi da<br />

teqnoligiebSi ideba da damyarebulia pirad<br />

danazogebze dafuZnebul kerZo firmebze.<br />

42<br />

17<br />

19<br />

21<br />

23<br />

25<br />

mizani: kolejSi Caricxva da geologiis<br />

swavla.<br />

<strong>saxelmwifo</strong> mgegmavebi gansazRvraven, vin romeli<br />

sagani unda iswavlos. mTavroba ixdis saswavleblebSi<br />

Caricxuli studentebis swavlis<br />

safasurs.<br />

mizani: axali biznesis dawyeba.<br />

<strong>saxelmwifo</strong> sakuTrebaSi arsebuli didi qarxnebi<br />

awarmoeben produqciis umravlesobas.<br />

<strong>saxelmwifo</strong> mgegmavebi wyveten, aaSenon Tu ara<br />

axali qarxnebi da Seqmnan axali firmebi.<br />

mizani: Raribebsa da moxucebze zrunva.<br />

<strong>saxelmwifo</strong>s mier garantirebulia yvela<br />

moqalaqis samedicino daxmareba, pensia da<br />

sacxovrebeli farTi.<br />

mizani: kargi samuSao.<br />

adamianebs sxvadasxva samuSaoebSi erTnair,<br />

<strong>saxelmwifo</strong> mgegmavebis mier dadgenil xelfass<br />

uxdian. <strong>saxelmwifo</strong>s nebarTvis gareSe<br />

axal samuSaoze, sacxovrebel farTze da a.S.<br />

gadasvlis SezRuduli Tavisufleba.<br />

mizani: umuSevrobis Tavidan acileba.<br />

yvela dasaqmebulia, amitom oficialuri umu­<br />

Sevroba ar arsebobs. zogierTi samuSao Senar­<br />

Cunebulia maSinac ki, roca is TiTqmis arafris<br />

momtania, oRond yvela dasaqmebuli iyos.<br />

mizani: ekonomikuri zrdis stimulireba.<br />

<strong>saxelmwifo</strong> mgegmavebi sazRvraven investiciebis<br />

dones da <strong>saxelmwifo</strong> organizaciebma am miznebs<br />

unda miaRwion. investiciebi finansdeba mgegmavebis<br />

mier warmoebis saSualebebSi meti resursebis dabandebiT<br />

da samomxmareblo saqonlis sawarmoeblad<br />

naklebi resursebis gamoyenebiT.<br />

16<br />

18<br />

20<br />

22<br />

24<br />

26


mizani: moqalaqeebis Sesabamisi<br />

samedicino momsaxureba.<br />

sabazro fasiT jandacva da mkurnaloba maT­<br />

Tvisaa xelmisawvdomi, visac gadaxda SeuZlia.<br />

yvela individi ver Rebulobs samedicino daxmarebas<br />

kerZo firmebisagan.<br />

? gaixseneT,<br />

sazogadoebrivi saqonlisa da momsaxurebis warmoeba.<br />

sazogadoebrivia saqoneli da momsaxureba xasiaTdeba saziaro<br />

moxmarebiT. saziaro moxmareba niSnavs, rom saqoneli da momsaxureba<br />

SeiZleba moixmaros erTze metma pirma da amave dros<br />

ar Semcirdes sxvebis mier moxmarebuli produqtis raodenoba.<br />

mas ,,ver waarTmev” maT, vinc ar ixdis, radganac am saqonelsa<br />

da momsaxurebas mainc miiRebs. kerZo seqtori ar awarmoebs am<br />

saqonelsa da momsaxurebas, radgan mwarmoeblebma ician, rom<br />

maTTvis SeuZlebeli iqneba misi gayidva. sazogadoebrivi saqoneli da momsaxureba xasiaTdeba<br />

saziaro moxmarebiT. sazogadoebrivi saqonlis magaliTia erovnuli Tavdacva,<br />

gzebi, magistralebi, skverebi da a.S.<br />

Tanmdevi (gare) efeqtebis koreqtireba – <strong>saxelmwifo</strong>s SeuZlia<br />

gamoiyenos sagadasaxado politika, imisTvis, rom moaxdinos saqonlisa<br />

da momsaxurebis Warbwarmoebis an arasakmarisi warmoebis<br />

mowesrigeba. magaliTad, <strong>saxelmwifo</strong> gadasaxads uwesebs sawarmos,<br />

romelic haers abinZurebs da amiT zRudavs mis saqmianobas.<br />

konkurenciis SenarCuneba – sabazro<br />

ekonomikis qveynebi uzrunvelyofen konkurencias sxvadasxva bazarze.<br />

konkurencias gamyidvelebs Soris Sedegad dabali fasebi,<br />

produqciis maRali xarisxi da momxmarebelTa ukeTesi momsaxureba<br />

mohyveba.<br />

27<br />

ra aris sazogadoebrivi saqoneli?<br />

<strong>saxelmwifo</strong>s<br />

ekonomikuri funqciebi<br />

mizani: moqalaqeebis Sesabamisi<br />

samedicino momsaxureba.<br />

uzrunvelyofilia samedicino daxmareba, magram<br />

didi rigebia zogierTi saxis mkurnalobasa<br />

da momsaxurebaze.<br />

sazogadoebrivi saqonlisa da momsaxurebis warmoeba<br />

Tanmdevi (gare) efeqtebis koreqtireba<br />

konkurenciis uzrunvelyofa<br />

kanonebis Sesrulebis uzrunvelyofa<br />

Semosavlebis gadanawileba<br />

umuSevrobisa da inflaciis regulireba<br />

43<br />

28


kanonebis Sesrulebis uzrunvelyofa – <strong>saxelmwifo</strong> qmnis<br />

kanonebs, romlebic moqalaqeTa sxvadasxva uflebebs gansaz­<br />

Rvraven. magaliTad, kanoni mewarmeTa Sesaxeb, kanoni sakuTrebis<br />

Sesaxeb da sxv. sakuTrebis uflebebi moicavs kerZo sakuTrebis<br />

gamoyenebis, ganviTarebisa da gadacemis uflebas; Semosavlebis<br />

gamomuSavebis, dazogvis da zrdis uflebebs, samuSaos Secvlis<br />

uflebas.<br />

44<br />

Semosavlis gadanawileba – <strong>saxelmwifo</strong> gadaanawilebs Semosavlebs<br />

gadasaxadebis dawesebis gziT da daxmarebebis gacemis programebiT. magaliTad,<br />

<strong>saxelmwifo</strong> gascems socialuri dacvis Semweobebs da umuSevrobis<br />

kompensacias.<br />

inflaciisa da umuSevrobis Semcireba – fasebis saerTo donis,<br />

anu inflaciisa da umuSevrobis zrdis SesaCereblad <strong>saxelmwifo</strong><br />

axorcielebs sagadasaxado da xarjviTi politikas, romelic gavlenas<br />

axdens umuSevrobis, warmoebis da fasebis saerTo doneebze.<br />

kiTxvebi<br />

da<br />

davalebebi<br />

ese<br />

1. daubrundiT <strong>saxelmwifo</strong>s rolis mniSvnelobis Sefasebas, romelic am<br />

gakveTilis dasawyisSi ganvixileT. imsjeleT <strong>saxelmwifo</strong>s ekonomikuri<br />

rolis Sesaxeb.<br />

2. `xelisuflebis kompetenciaa daxmareba gauwios Tbilisis mTavrobas<br />

aeroportebisa da sxva msgavsi satransporto obieqtebis mSeneblobaSi”.<br />

eTanxmebiT Tu ara am winadadebas? axseniT Tqveni pasuxi.<br />

3. `kerZo sakuTrebis, konkurenciisa da mogebis miRebis motivis dacva<br />

<strong>saxelmwifo</strong>s mxridan Tanasworobis, efeqtianobisa da fasebis stabilurobis<br />

SenarCunebis saukeTeso gzaa“. eTanxmebiT Tu ara am winadadebas?<br />

daasabuTeT Tqveni mosazreba.<br />

4. `qalaqis meria ar unda xarjavdes fuls parkebisa da skverebis mSeneblobasa<br />

da eqspluataciaze. es kerZo biznesis saqmea”. eTanxmebiT Tu<br />

ara am winadadebas? ganmarteT Tqveni pasuxi.<br />

survilisamebr SeasruleT erT-erTi davaleba:<br />

1. airCieT <strong>saxelmwifo</strong>s romelime funqcia. aRwereT, rogor sruldeba<br />

igi mbrZaneblur, sabazro, Sereul an tradiciul <strong>ekonomika</strong>Si. axseniT,<br />

ra gavlenas moaxdenda am Tu im <strong>saxelmwifo</strong> programis Sesruleba<br />

Tqvenze?<br />

2. airCieT <strong>saxelmwifo</strong>s erT­erTi funqcia. aRwereT, rogor sruldeba<br />

igi sabazro <strong>ekonomika</strong>Si. SeajameT <strong>saxelmwifo</strong> programebis dadebi­<br />

Ti da uaryofiTi mxareebi ekonomikis calkeuli tipisaTvis.


imsjeleT<br />

12<br />

<strong>saxelmwifo</strong><br />

biujeti<br />

1. daasaxeleT <strong>saxelmwifo</strong>s ekonomikuri saqmianobis magaliTebi saqarTveloSi<br />

(regionSi, qalaqSi, sofelSi).<br />

2. raSi xarjavs <strong>saxelmwifo</strong> fuls? saidan aqvs <strong>saxelmwifo</strong>s fuli?<br />

saidan iRebs da raSi xarjavs <strong>saxelmwifo</strong> fuls?<br />

gadasaxadebi<br />

pensiebi<br />

socialuri<br />

uzrunvelyofa<br />

ufaso<br />

ganaTleba<br />

mosakrebeli<br />

jandacva<br />

grantebi<br />

erovnuli<br />

Tavdacva,<br />

policia<br />

<strong>saxelmwifo</strong><br />

programebi<br />

Semosavlebi<br />

privatizaciebidan<br />

<strong>saxelmwifo</strong><br />

vali<br />

mTavrobis<br />

xarjebi<br />

ekologia<br />

gadasaxadebis gareSe <strong>saxelmwifo</strong>s sakuTari Tavis Senaxva ar SeuZlia, amitom <strong>saxelmwifo</strong><br />

kerZo pirebs da firmebs gadasaxadebiT begravs.<br />

sagadasaxado urTierTobebSi <strong>saxelmwifo</strong> warmoadgens mTavar pirs, xolo gadasaxadis<br />

gadamxdeli kerZo pirebi da firmebi <strong>saxelmwifo</strong>s mier kanoniT dadgenili gadasaxadebis<br />

gadamxdelebi arian.<br />

gadasaxadi – biujetSi aucilebeli gadaricxvebi, romelsac ixdian<br />

rogorc kerZo pirebi, aseve firmebi imisaTvis, rom <strong>saxelmwifo</strong>m<br />

SeZlos Tavisi ekonomikuri funqciebis Sesruleba.<br />

mosakrebeli – aucilebeli gadasaxdeli biujetSi, romelsac ixdian<br />

fizikuri da iuridiuli pirebi <strong>saxelmwifo</strong>s mier maTTvis kanoniT<br />

gansazRvruli saqmianobis ganxorcielebisa Tu sargeblobis<br />

uflebis miniWebisaTvis, agreTve, <strong>saxelmwifo</strong> organoebis mier<br />

gaweuli garkveuli momsaxurebisaTvis.<br />

45


? •<br />

46<br />

rogor unda gaanawilos <strong>saxelmwifo</strong>m Semosavlebis gziT miRebuli Tanxa?<br />

• arsebobs am kiTxvaze zusti pasuxi? daasabuTeT Tqveni mosazreba.<br />

<strong>saxelmwifo</strong> gadasaxadebis gziT miRebul fuls biujetSi sagadasaxado Semosavlebis<br />

saxiT agrovebs, Semdeg ki am Semosavlis garkveul nawils xarjavs socialuri, kulturuli<br />

da sxva <strong>saxelmwifo</strong> RonisZiebebisaTvis, qveynis ekonomikuri ganviTarebisaTvis,<br />

politikuri mowyobisaTvis, erovnuli TavdacvisaTvis, wesrigis damyarebisaTvis.<br />

biujeti dabalansebuli unda iyos, rac imas niSnavs, rom misi ori mxare – Semosavali<br />

da gasavali (xarjebi) gawonasworebul mdgomareobaSi unda imyofebodes.<br />

biujeti ­ (Zveli normandiulidan budget ­ safule) ­ gansazRvruli<br />

piris (ojaxis, biznesis, organizaciis, <strong>saxelmwifo</strong>s da a.S.) Semosavlebisa<br />

da gasavlebis CamonaTvali, romelic ganisazRvreba konkretuli<br />

drois periodiT, Cveulebriv erTi wliT.<br />

<strong>saxelmwifo</strong> biujeti ­ <strong>saxelmwifo</strong>s umniSvnelovanesi finansuri<br />

dokumenti. igi warmoadgens yvela uwyebis, <strong>saxelmwifo</strong> samsaxurebis,<br />

samTavrobo programebis, yvela finansuri informaciis<br />

CamonaTvlis erTobliobas. <strong>saxelmwifo</strong> xelisuflebis organoebis<br />

funqcionirebis ganxorcielebisaTvis saWiro fuladi saxsrebis<br />

mobilizaciisa da gamoyenebis ZiriTadi gegma.<br />

biujetis SeswavliT dakavebulia vrceli ekonomikuri mecniereba, saxelwodebiT –<br />

finansebi.<br />

<strong>saxelmwifo</strong> qmedebas biujetis formirebis, ganxilvis, damtkicebis da Sesrulebis Sesaxeb<br />

angariSis Sedgenisa da damtkicebis saqmeSi ewodeba sabiujeto procesi.<br />

avtonomiuri<br />

respublikebis<br />

biujeti<br />

<strong>saxelmwifo</strong><br />

biujeti<br />

saqarTvelos<br />

sabiujeto<br />

sistema<br />

municipa luri<br />

(adgi lobrivi)<br />

biujeti<br />

saqarTvelos <strong>saxelmwifo</strong> biujetis yvela Semosuloba da gadasaxdeli sruldeba <strong>saxelmwifo</strong><br />

xazinis sistemis meSveobiT.<br />

Tu biujetis dagegmili Semosavali aWarbebs gasaval nawils, maSin saubroben sabiujeto<br />

proficitze. Tu biujetis dagegmili gasavali aWarbebs Semosaval nawils, maSin<br />

saubroben sabiujeto deficitze. rodesac biujetis Sesrulebisas, deficitis done


aWarbebs biujetis damtkicebisas dadgenil zRvars, anu vakvirdebiT mosalodneli Semosavlebis<br />

mniSvnelovan Semcirebas, maSin warmomadgenlobiTi saxelisuflebo organo<br />

(aRmasrulebeli xelisuflebis organos winadadebis safuZvelze) iRebs gadawyvetilebas<br />

­ aamoqmedos kanoniT gaTvaliswinebuli meqanizmi, romelic Seamcirebs gasavlis<br />

(xarjviTi nawilis) moculobas. xarjviTi nawilis aseT moWras eZaxian sekvestrs.<br />

Semosavlebi<br />

gadasaxadebi –<br />

savaldebulo<br />

yvela moqalaqis<br />

da sawarmos<br />

gadasaxdelebi<br />

<strong>saxelmwifo</strong> vali<br />

biujeti<br />

xarjebi<br />

qveynis Tavdacva,<br />

<strong>saxelmwifo</strong> valis<br />

dafarva, <strong>saxelmwifo</strong><br />

marTvis organoebis<br />

Senaxva, sasamarTlo<br />

procesebi da sxva<br />

ra unda moimoqmedos <strong>saxelmwifo</strong>m im SemTxvevaSi, roca ar aris sakmarisi saxsrebi?<br />

sagadamxdelo<br />

balansis<br />

dafarvisTvis<br />

(<strong>saxelmwifo</strong> +<br />

kerZo danazogebi)<br />

sagareo vali<br />

<strong>saxelmwifo</strong> vali<br />

ucxouri vali<br />

biujetis<br />

deficitis<br />

dasafarad<br />

<strong>saxelmwifo</strong> vali<br />

sabiujeto deficitis<br />

dasafarad<br />

Sida vali<br />

<strong>saxelmwifo</strong> vali ­ saqarTvelos saxeliT saqarTvelos finansTa<br />

saministrosa da misi garantiiT saqarTvelos erovnuli bankis mier<br />

dadebuli xelSekrulebiT aRebuli, erovnuli valutiT gamosaxuli,<br />

<strong>saxelmwifo</strong> saSinao da sagareo valis jamuri Tanxa (saqarTvelos<br />

<strong>saxelmwifo</strong> vali sxva konvertirebadi valutidan erovnul<br />

valutaze gadaiangariSeba saqarTvelos erovnuli bankis mier valis<br />

aRebis TariRisaTvis dadgenili gacvlis oficialuri kursiT,<br />

Tu xelSekrulebiT sxva ram ar aris gaTvaliswinebuli).<br />

wyaro: saqarTvelos kanoni „<strong>saxelmwifo</strong> valis Sesaxeb“ muxli1.<br />

47


48<br />

<strong>saxelmwifo</strong> biujets amtkicebs saqarTvelos parlamenti. 2012 wlis<br />

mTavari safinanso gegmis saerTo moculoba 7 miliard 940,4 milioni<br />

lariT ganisazRvra, rac wina wlis maCvenebelTan SedarebiT, 370 milioniT<br />

metia.<br />

ucxouri investiciebis mozidvis garda, 2012 wlis biujeti orientirebulia<br />

pensiebis, <strong>saxelmwifo</strong> sadazRvevo paketisa da maswavleblebis<br />

xelfasebis zrdaze, aseve soflis meurneobis proeqtebis ganvi­<br />

Tarebaze, infrastruqturul proeqtebsa da ganaTlebis sistemaze. am<br />

sferoebis dafinansebis gazrdis saSualebas ekonomikuri zrdis tempi<br />

iZleva. navaraudevia, rom 2012 wels <strong>ekonomika</strong> 5 %­iT gaizrdeba.<br />

2011 wlis gegmiT, saqarTvelos biujeti deficituria. 2011 wlis biujeti<br />

7 miliard 100 milioni lariT ganisazRvra, rac 2010 wlis maCveneblTan<br />

SedarebiT 30 milioniT aris gazrdili. deficiti ki, romelic<br />

2010 wels 6,3%­s Seadgenda, 2011 wels 4,3%­mde Semcirda. mTavrobis<br />

ganmartebiT, es administraciuli xarjebis Semcirebis fonze moxerxda,<br />

davaleba<br />

finansTa saministros monacemebiT 2008 wels<br />

qveynis sagareo vali 3 543 582 aTas lars Seadgenda.<br />

2009 wels es maCvenebeli 5 586 756 aTas laramde<br />

gaizarda. 2010 wels ki 6 819 762 aTasi lari Seadgina.<br />

2011 wlis <strong>saxelmwifo</strong> biujetis Tanaxmad,<br />

saqarTvelos <strong>saxelmwifo</strong> sagareo vali mimdinare<br />

wels 8 miliard 758 milion laramde gaizrdeba. am<br />

droisTvis saqarTvelos umsxvilesi kreditoria<br />

msoflio banki. meore adgili uWiravs evroobligaciebs,<br />

mesame umsxvilesi kreditoria saerTaSoriso<br />

savaluto fondi, meoTxe adgilzea germania da<br />

mexuTeze – evrokavSiri.<br />

1. statistikis erovnuli samsaxuris (www.geostat.ge) masalebis gamoyenebiT<br />

wlebis mixedviT SeadareT mTliani sagadasaxado Semosavlebi<br />

da mTliani xarjebi. ra daskvnebis gamotana SegiZliaT?<br />

2. romel wels fiqsirdeba yvelaze didi deficiti?<br />

3. ra unda moimoqmedos <strong>saxelmwifo</strong>m sabiujeto deficitis aRmosafxvrelad?


13-14<br />

gadasaxadebis<br />

saxeebi saqarTveloSi<br />

Tanamedrove qveynebis sagadasaxado sistema Camoyalibda am<br />

qveynebis ekonomikuri, politikuri da socialuri ganviTarebis<br />

TaviseburebaTa gaTvaliswinebiT. Aamitom sagadasaxado sistemebi<br />

erTmaneTisagan gansxvavdebian gadasaxadebis struqturiT, ganakveTebiT,<br />

amoRebis wesiT.<br />

sagadasaxado sistemis umniSvnelovanesi elementia gadasaxadi.<br />

sagadasaxado sistemaSi erT­erTi centraluri adgili uWiravT<br />

gadasaxadis gadamxdelebs da sagadasaxado agentebs.<br />

es<br />

sainteresoa<br />

Sesabamisad, gadasaxadi aris savaldebulo, upirobo fuladi Senatani,<br />

romelsac ixdis gadasaxadis gadamxdeli, gadaxdis aucilebeli,<br />

araeqvivalenturi da usasyidlo xasiaTidan gamomdinare.<br />

gadasaxadis gadamxdeli aris piri, romelsac gaaCnia dadgenili<br />

gadasaxadis gadaxdis valdebuleba.<br />

gadasaxadis gadamxdelTa sagadasaxado registracias axorcieleben<br />

sagadasaxado organoebi.<br />

sagadasaxado deklaracia aris angariSgeba kodeqsiT dadgenili<br />

gadasaxadis gamoangariSebis Sesaxeb.<br />

sagadasaxado agenti aris piri, romelmac sagadasaxado kodeqsiT<br />

dadgenil SemTxvevaSi da dadgenili wesiT unda Seasrulos<br />

gadasaxadis gadamxdelis sagadasaxado valdebuleba.<br />

saqarTvelos sagadasaxado sistema<br />

saqarTvelos sagadasaxado sistemis Camoyalibebas safuZveli 1991­<br />

1992 wlebSi Caeyara. aRniSnuli periodis Semdeg, saqarTvelos sagadasaxado<br />

kanonmdeblobam da sistemam arsebiTi cvlileba ramdenjerme<br />

ganicada.<br />

1998­2004 wlebi aris saqarTvelos pirveli sagadasaxado kodeqsis<br />

moqmedebis periodi. kodeqsiT ganisazRvra sagadasaxado sistemis<br />

struqtura da funqcionirebis zogadi meqanizmi, gadasaxadis saxeebi,<br />

maTi gamoangariSebisa da gadaxdis wesi, sagadasaxado organoebisa da<br />

gadasaxadis gadamxdelebis valdebulebebi da pasuxismgebloba, sagadasaxado­samarTlebrivi<br />

urTierToba da sxva. aRniSnuli periodis dasawyisSi<br />

arsebobda 18 gadasaxadi, xolo mogvianebiT maT ricxvs kidev 3<br />

gadasaxadi daemata.<br />

2005 wlis 1 ianvridan moqmedi sagadasaxado kodeqsi axalma sagadasaxado<br />

kodeqsma Secvala. adre arsebuli 21 gadasaxadidan darCa mxolod<br />

Svidi; 2007­2008 wlebSi cvlilebebisa da damatebebis Semdeg ki<br />

_ eqvsi gadasaxadi. Semcirda zogierTi gadasaxadis ganakveTebi da dabegvris<br />

obieqtebi, aseve sxvadasxva donis biujetebs Soris Tanxebis ganawilebis<br />

meqanizmebi da odenobebi.<br />

2010 wlis 17 seqtembers sagadasaxado kodeqsSi axali cvlilebebi Sevida.<br />

es kodeqsi amoqmedda 2011 wlis 1 ianvridan.<br />

49


sagadasaxado valdebulebis Tanxis gaangariSeba xorcieldeba srul larebSi. am<br />

mizniT 1 laramde sagadasaxado valdebuleba nuldeba.<br />

sagadasaxado organosTan urTierTobis xelSewyobis mizniT gadasaxadis gadamxdeli<br />

uflebamosilia isargeblos piradi sagadasaxado agentis momsaxurebiT. igi aris sagadasaxado<br />

organos TanamSromeli, romelic gadasaxadis gadamxdels uwevs xelSekrulebiT<br />

gaTvaliswinebul momsaxurebas.<br />

2011 wlidan saqarTveloSi Semodis sagadasaxado ombudsmenis instituti. sagadasaxado<br />

ombudsmens biznesombudsmensac uwodeben. misi meSveobiT xorcieldeba<br />

urTierToba mewarmeebsa da <strong>saxelmwifo</strong>s Soris. sagadasaxado ombudsmeni zedamxedvelobas<br />

uwevs saqarTvelos teritoriaze gadasaxadis gadamxdelTa uflebebisa da<br />

kanonieri interesebis dacvas, avlens maTi darRvevis faqtebs, xels uwyobs darRveuli<br />

uflebebis aRdgenas. gadasaxadis gadamxdelis uflebebis darRvevis faqtis gamovlenis<br />

SemTxvevaSi sagadasaxado ombudsmeni mimarTavs Sesabamis organos da aZlevs rekomendacias<br />

am uflebebis aRdgenis RonisZiebaTa ganxorcielebis Sesaxeb.<br />

saqarTveloSi moqmedebs saerTo­<strong>saxelmwifo</strong>ebrivi da adgilobrivi gadasaxadebi.<br />

50<br />

saSemosavlo<br />

gadasaxadi<br />

mogebis<br />

gadasaxadi<br />

damatebuli<br />

Rirebulebis<br />

gadasaxadi (dRg)<br />

aqcizi<br />

importis<br />

gadasaxadi<br />

gadasaxadebis saxeebi<br />

adgilobrivi<br />

gadasaxadebi<br />

saerTo-<br />

<strong>saxelmwifo</strong>ebrivi<br />

gadasaxadebi<br />

savaldebuloa<br />

Sesabamisi adgilobrivi<br />

TviTmmarTveli<br />

erTeulis<br />

teritoriaze<br />

qonebis<br />

gadasaxadi<br />

savaldebuloa<br />

saqarTvelos<br />

mTels<br />

teritoriaze


saSemosavlo gadasaxads is adamianebi ixdian, romlebic saqarTveloSi iReben Semosavals<br />

(miuxedavad imisa, saqarTvelos moqalaqea Tu ara. misi ganakveTi 20%­ia). saSemosavlo<br />

gadasaxads biujetSi Caricxul Tanxebs Soris erT­erTi mniSvnelovani adgili<br />

ukavia da igi warmoadgens mosaxleobis ZiriTad gadasaxads daqiravebiT muSaobidan.<br />

saSemosavlo gadasaxadi 2013 wlis 1 ianvridan 2014 wlis 1 ianvramde _ 18% iqneba.<br />

mogebis gadasaxadis gadamxdelia saqarTvelos sawarmo (firma) an ucxouri sawarmo<br />

(firma), romelic saqmianobs da Semosavals iRebs saqarTveloSi. (misi ganakveTi 15%­ia).<br />

garda navTobisa da gazis operaciebiT miRebuli mogebis, romelic ibegreba 10%­iani<br />

ganakveTiT (`navTobisa da gazis Sesaxeb~ saqarTvelos kanoniT gansazRvruli xelSekrulebebis<br />

ganxorcielebiT miRebuli mogeba, Tu es xelSekrulebebi dadebulia 1998<br />

wlis 1 ianvramde).<br />

mogebis gadasaxadiT dabegvris obieqtia dasabegri mogeba. igi ganisazRvreba, rogorc<br />

sxvaoba gadasaxadis gadamxdelis erTobliv Semosavalsa da sagadasaxado kodeqsiT<br />

gaTvaliswinebul gamoqviTvebis Tanxebs Soris.<br />

damatebuli Rirebulebis gadasaxadis gadamxdelia piri, romelic eweva ekonomikur<br />

saqmianobas da romlis mier nebismieri uwyveti 12 kalendaruli Tvis ganmavlobaSi<br />

ganxorcielebuli, dRg_Ti dasabegri operaciebis saerTo Tanxa aRemateba 100<br />

000 lars. aRniSnuli Tanxis gadaWarbebis SemTxvevaSi dRg­s gadasaxdelad firma unda<br />

daregistrirdes ara ugvianes 2 samuSao dRisa.<br />

damatebuli Rirebuleba warmoadgens saqonlis (samuSaoebisa da momsaxurebis)<br />

Rirebulebis im nawils, romelsac mwarmoebeli amatebs mesame pirisgan SeZenili im<br />

nedleulis, masalebis, samuSaosa da momsaxurebis Rirebulebas, romlebic gamoiyeneba<br />

warmoebis procesSi. dRg­is gadaxdis tvirTi sabolood momxmarebels awveba da amitom<br />

mas arapirdapir gadasaxadebs miakuTvneben.<br />

es<br />

sainteresoa<br />

damatebuli Rirebulebis gadasaxadi (dRg) erT­erT yvelaze mniSvnelovan<br />

gadasaxads warmoadgens. misi akrefis sqema SemuSavebul iqna<br />

frangi ekonomisti m. lores mier 1954 wels. miuxedavad imisa, rom 1958<br />

wlamde damatebuli Rirebulebis maCveneblebi gadasaxadiT dabegvris<br />

sistemaSi ar gamoiyeneboda, mas farTod iyenebdnen statistikuri<br />

miznebisaTvis. magaliTad, aSS­Si aRniSnuli maCvenebeli 1870 wlidan<br />

gamoiyeneboda samrewvelo produqciis moculobis dasaxasiaTeblad,<br />

evropis qveynebSi ki man farTo gavrceleba me­20 saukunis ocdaaTianormocdaaTian<br />

wlebSi hpova.<br />

sagadasaxado kodeqsiT aqcizis gadamxdelia piri, romelic<br />

a) awarmoebs aqcizur saqonels saqarTveloSi;<br />

b) axorcielebs aqcizuri saqonlis imports saqarTveloSi;<br />

g) axorcielebs aqcizuri saqonlis eqsports;<br />

d) axorcielebs bunebrivi airovani kondensantis an/da bunebrivi airis avtosatransporto<br />

saSualebebisaTvis miwodebas;<br />

e) axorcielebs mobiluri sakomunikacio momsaxurebis gawevas.<br />

damkveTis nedleuliT saqarTveloSi warmoebulGsaqonelze aqcizis gadamxdelad iTvleba<br />

saqonlis mwarmoebeli.<br />

aqcizi warmoadgens arapirdapir gadasaxads, romelic Sedis aqcizuri saqonlis sarealizacio<br />

fasSi. aqcizi wesdeba masobrivi moxmarebis saqonelze da igi Sedis gansazRvruli<br />

saqonlis fasSi. mravalsafexuriani dRg­isagan gansxvavebiT, aqcizis gadaxda warmoebs<br />

biujetSi erTxel, aqcizuri saqonlis mwarmoeblis an importioris mier da faqtobrivad<br />

misi tvirTi saqonlis momxmarebelze gadadis. aqcizi erT SemTxvevaSi warmoadgens biujetis<br />

Sevsebis erT­erT mniSvnelovan wyaros, xolo meore SemTxvevaSi moTxovnilebisa da<br />

51


miwodebis regulirebis saSualebas. aqcizi zRudavs zemogebis miRebas. swored am mizniT<br />

mTel rig qveynebSi aqciziT ibegreba mineraluri nedleulis mompovebeli kompaniebi. imisaTvis,<br />

rom Semsubuqdes aqcizis negatiuri zemoqmedeba mosaxleobis naklebad uzrunvelyofili<br />

fenebisaTvis, aqcizuri saqonlis ricxvSi tradiciulad Sedis fufunebis sagnebi<br />

(saiuveliro nawarmi, bewveuli, msubuqi avtomanqanebi da a.S.).<br />

aqcizi wesdeba Sav da feradi liTonebis jarTze, alkoholur sasmelebze, Tambaqos<br />

nawarmze, navTobproduqtebze, msubuq avtomobilebze, bunebriv airze, mobiluri sakomunikacio<br />

momsaxurebis gawevaze.<br />

es<br />

sainteresoa<br />

52<br />

aqcizis ganakveTebi sxvadasxva saqonelze sxvadasxvagvaria. magali­<br />

Tad, spirtian sasmelebze, romelic miRebulia yurZnis Rvinis an WaWis<br />

gamoxdiT litrze Seadgens 4,6 lars, viskize _ 5 lars, arayze _3 lars,<br />

liqiorsa da tkbil nayenze _ 4,6lars, ludze _ 0,4 lars da sxva. Tambaqos<br />

nawarmze, kerZod, filtrian sigaretze 20 Reri _ 0,6 lari, sigarebi<br />

1 Reri _0,9 lari da sxv.ADSavi<br />

da feradi liTonebis jarTis eqsporti<br />

ibegreba 120 lariT 1 tonaze. mobiluri sakomunikacio momsaxurebis<br />

ganakveTi Seadgens dasabegri operaciis Tanxis 10%­s.<br />

dawvrilebiTi monacemebi ixileT saqarTvelos sagadasaxado kodeqsSi<br />

importis gadasaxadis gadamxdeli aris piri, romelic saqarTvelos ekonomikur<br />

sazRvarze gadaaadgilebs saqonels, garda eqsportisa.<br />

sxvadasxva saqoneli ibegreba sxvadasxva procentiT:<br />

a) 12%­iani ganakveTiT ibegreba: Sinauri frinveli, msxvilfexa rqosani pirutyvi,<br />

bostneuli, xili, xorceuli, Tevzeuli yovelgvar mdgomareobaSi, Tambaqo, Cai, tansacmeli,<br />

fexsacmeli da sxva (ix. saqarTvelos sagadasaxado kodeqsi. gv.249­263);<br />

b) 5%­iani ganakveTiT ibegreba Roris xorci gayinuli an damarilebuli, yveli, xaWo,<br />

Tmis saSualebebi, saponi, fexsacmlis sacxebi, plastmasis filebi, karebi, fanjrebi da<br />

sxva (ix. saqarTvelos sagadasaxado kodeqsi. gv. 263­266);<br />

g) saqoneli ibegreba aseve importis gadasaxadis Semdegi ganakveTebiT (euro/% vol/<br />

HL<br />

niSnavs, rom erT heqtolitrze (100 litrze) gadasaxdeli importis gadaxdis Tanxa<br />

Seadgens importis gadasaxadis ganakveTis namravls mocemul saqonelSi alkoholis<br />

procentuli Semcvelobis maCvenebelze). magaliTad, Rvinoebi cqriala _ 1,5 evro/lit,<br />

yurZnis tkbili _ 0,2 evro/lit, spirits nayenebi, miRebuli yurZnis Rvinis an WaWis<br />

gamoxdis Sedegad, viski, arayi, liqiorebi _ 1,5 evro/% vol/HL,<br />

Zmari da misi Semcvlelebi<br />

– 0,4 evro/lit (ix saqarTvelos sagadasaxado kodeqsi. gv. 267­268).<br />

importis gadasaxadis daricxva xorcieldeba saqonls satarifo Rirebulebis mixedviT.<br />

gadaxda xorcieldeba sagadasaxado organos mier registrirebuli sagadasaxado<br />

deklaraciis safuZvelze.<br />

qonebis gadasaxadSi Sedis:<br />

uZravi qonebis gadasaxadi;<br />

msubuqi avtomobilebis flobis gadasaxadi;<br />

TviTmfrinavebis, iaxtebisa da Sveulmfrenebis flobis gadasaxadi;<br />

saqarTvelos sawarmoebis qonebis flobis gadasaxadi (garda miwisa), romelsac<br />

ekonomikuri saqmianobisaTvis iyeneben. am gadasaxads aseve ixdian ucxouri sawarmoebi,<br />

romlebic saqarTvelos teritoriaze floben qonebas (garda miwisa), da is<br />

pirebi, romlebic qonebas ekonomikuri saqmianobisaTvis iyeneben.<br />

miwis gadasaxadi, romelic Tavis mxriv sasoflo­sameurneo daniSnulebis miwisa da<br />

arasasoflo­sameurneo daniSnulebis miwis gadasaxadad iyofa.


sawarmos/organizaciis qonebis gadasaxadis wliuri ganakveTi<br />

ganisazRvreba dasabegri qonebis Rirebulebis araumetes<br />

1 procentis odenobiT. dasabegri qonebis Rirebuleba<br />

aris saSualo wliuri sabalanso narCeni Rirebuleba<br />

qveyanaSi sabazro ekonomikis mSeneblobis procesSi sagadasaxado<br />

sistemisadmi ukmayofileba da misi mZlavri kritika<br />

upiratesad gamowveulia gadasaxadebis samarTlianobis<br />

deficitiT, rom isini xSirad arasamarTlianad aris<br />

miCneuli. optimaluri sagadasaxado sistema gulisxmobs<br />

gadasaxadiT dabegvris sayovelTaobas da moqalaqeTa Soris<br />

gadasaxadis ganawilebis Tanabrobas maTi Semosavlebis<br />

mixedviT.<br />

savarjiSo 1<br />

romel gadasaxads Seicavs?<br />

rZis fasi wignis fasi Rvinis fasi<br />

a) am saqonlis fasebidan romeli moicavs gadasaxads?<br />

b) ra faqtorebi gansazRvraven rZis fass?<br />

g) mudmivi danaxarjebis ra elementebi<br />

SeiZleba hqondes rZis warmoebis yovel<br />

monawiles?<br />

d) saidan iReben fuls sawarmos mflobelebi<br />

gadasaxadebis dasafarad?<br />

e) daasaxeleT is firmebi, romelTa gadasaxadebic<br />

CarTulia wignis fasSi.<br />

gadasaxadebis klasifikacia<br />

proporciuli gadasaxadis dawesebis dros yvela gadasaxadis gadamxdeli erTnairi<br />

saprocento ganakveTiT ibegreba. magaliTad, 200 laris Semosavlis mqone piri da<br />

2000 laris Semosavlis mqone piri ibegreba saSemosavlo gadasaxadiT, romelic 12%­s<br />

udris.<br />

progresuli gadasaxadis dawesebis dros maRali Semosavlis mqone maRali saprocento<br />

ganakveTiT ibegreba, xolo dabali Semosavlis mqone _ dabali saprocento<br />

ganakveTiT. magaliTad, 200 laris Semosavlis mqone piri SeiZleba daibegros 6%­iani<br />

ganakveTiT, xolo 2000 laris Semosavlis mqone piri _ 12%­iani ganakveTiT.<br />

arsebobs fiqsirebuli gadasaxadi, romelic gansazRvruli, myari sagadasaxado<br />

ganakveTis dawesebas gulisxmobs. metwilad praqtikaSi igi gamoiyeneba raodenobrivi<br />

(naturaluri) sididis mimarT. magaliTad, avtomanqanebis importze dawesebuli fiqsirebuli<br />

gadasaxadi ganisazRvreba avtomobilebis Zravis moculobisa da wlovanebis<br />

mixedviT.<br />

Semosavlebis dabegvris politika mTels msoflioSi im azrs efuZneba, rom progresuli<br />

dabegvra yvelaze samarTliania. Tumca, sul ufro xSiria azri imis Sesaxeb, rom proporciuli<br />

dabegvra misaRebia garkveul SemTxvevebSi.<br />

53


samarTliani gadasaxadis kriteriumebi<br />

sagadasaxado sistemis optimizaciis Sefasebas sakuTari kriteriumebi<br />

gaaCnia, romelic naTlad warmoaCenen zomieri sagadasaxado<br />

dabegvris aucileblobas. ganviTarebuli qveynebisaTvis<br />

cnobilia sagadasaxado sistemis ZiriTadi kriteriumi.<br />

1<br />

2<br />

3<br />

4<br />

54<br />

ekonomikuri efeqtianoba: sagadasaxado sistema winaaRmdegobaSi ar unda<br />

iyos resursebis efeqtian ganawilebasTan.<br />

administraciuli ubraloeba: administraciuli sistema martivi unda iyos<br />

da gamosayeneblad SedarebiT iafi.<br />

politikuri pasuxismgebloba: sagadasaxado sistema ise unda iyos agebuli,<br />

rom adamianebi daarwmunos imaSi, rom isini ixdian imitom, rom politikur sistemas<br />

SeeZlos zustad gamoxatos maTi upiratesoba.<br />

samarTlianoba: sagadasaxado sistema unda iyos samarTliani sazogadoebis sxvadasxva<br />

wevrebTan urTierTobaSi.<br />

savarjiSo 2<br />

SevafasoT gadasaxadebis samarTlianoba<br />

Tqveni azriT, akmayofilebs Tu ara mocemuli gadasaxadi kriteriumebs?<br />

gadasaxadi<br />

1. msubuqi avtomobilis flobis gadasaxadi, romelic qonebis gadasaxadSi Sedis<br />

(yoveli avtomobilis mflobelisagan gadaxdili fiqsirebuli Tanxa)<br />

2. saSemosavlo gadasaxadi<br />

(yoveli adamianis Semosavlidan amoRebuli garkveuli procenti)<br />

3. aqcizi (produqciis erTeulze dawesebuli garkveuli gadasaxadi)<br />

4. qonebis gadasaxadi<br />

(qonebis Rirebulebis mixedviT dawesebuli garkveuli procenti)<br />

gadasaxadebis samarTlianobis Sefasebis<br />

dros (savarjiSo 2) uTuod wamoiWreba iseTi<br />

sakiTxebi, romelic cxare kamaTs gamoiwvevs.<br />

ecadeT daiTanxmoT oponenti da dausabuToT<br />

Tqveni Sexeduleba jvaredini diskusiis saSualebiT.<br />

diskusiis Catarebis Sesaxeb damatebiT<br />

ganmartebas maswavleblisagan miiRebT.<br />

debatebi sakiTxze:<br />

veTanxmebi azrs da vasabuTeb...<br />

ar veTanxmebi azrs da vasabuTeb...<br />

jvaredini<br />

diskusia


es<br />

sainteresoa<br />

davaleba<br />

ukrainam msoflioSi I adgili daikava gadasaxadebis raodenobis<br />

mxriv. mewarmeebi xazinaSi Tavis Semosavlebis 55,5%­s ixdian.<br />

135 gadasaxadidan (oriode wlis win 147 iyo) lomis wili modis Sromis<br />

gadasaxadze ­ maTi raodenoba aris 108. kidev 5 gadasaxadi aris mogebaze.<br />

ukrainas ukavia 181­e adgili im 183 <strong>saxelmwifo</strong>s Soris, romlebSic<br />

iolia gadasaxadebis gadaxda.<br />

wyaro: http://buhgalter911.com/ShowArticle.aspx?a=19551&year=-1<br />

moiZieT sagazeTo statia an cnobili mewarmeebis<br />

interviu, sadac saubari iqneba calkeuli<br />

gadasaxadis saxeebze, mis samarTlianobaze,<br />

sagadasaxado sistemis problemebze an am sferoSi<br />

<strong>saxelmwifo</strong> politikaze.<br />

saqarTvelos istoria _ rodidan ixdidnen gadasaxadebs?<br />

damatebiTi<br />

sakiTxavi<br />

iseve rogorc msoflios mraval qveyanaSi, saqarTveloSic dabegvras safuZveli<br />

<strong>saxelmwifo</strong>s warmoSobisTanave Caeyara. istorias cota ram SemorCa uZveles saqarTveloSi<br />

arsebuli gadasaxadebisa da dabegvris sistemis Sesaxeb. gadasaxadebis Sesaxeb<br />

mwir informacias Sua saukuneebis feodaluri da Semdgomi periodis saqarTvelos istoria<br />

gvaZlevs.<br />

Sua saukuneebis saqarTveloSi gadasaxadis gadamxdelebi glexebi iyvnen, romlebic<br />

valdebulni iyvnen gadaexadaT savaldebulo begara _ amuSavebdnen patronis<br />

miwas, moyvanili mosavlis nawils ki mas aZlevdnen. XI saukunis saqarTveloSi metad<br />

gavrcelebuli iyo patronis xleba da laSqrobiT samsaxuri.<br />

dapyrobili qveynebis mosaxleoba ixdida gadasaxads _ xarks, romelsac naalafevi<br />

erqva. gadasaxadis amkrebni mimagrebulni iyvnen soflebze, sacixisTavoebze da saerisTavoebze,<br />

raTa mosaxleobisagan xarki agrovebinaT.<br />

gviandel feodalur saqarTveloSi gavrcelebuli iyo gadasaxadis iseTi saxe, rogoricaa<br />

SromamigebiTi renta (`miwis”, rogorc warmoebis faqtoris sargeblobisaTvis<br />

dawesebuli sazRauri), romelic mebatonis sasargeblod glexis Sromas gulisxmobda<br />

im odenobiT, rasac mebatone moiTxovda. masSi Sedioda mcenareTa daTesva,<br />

damuSaveba, morwyva, mosavlis aReba, samSeneblo saqmianoba, SeSis damzadeba, da a.S.<br />

aseve gavrcelebuli iyo gadasaxadis gadaxda renta-produqtebiT. igi gulisxmobda<br />

mebatonisaTvis gasamrjelos pirutyviT, nivTiT gadasaxads. saaRdgomod glexi<br />

valdebuli iyo mebatonisaTvis sasmel­saWmeli mierTmia, xolo qeifis an qorwilis<br />

dros _ Zroxa.<br />

glexi fulad gadasaxadsac ixdida. mas mebatonisaTvis fuli unda gadaexada qorwilis<br />

SemTxvevaSi, qvrivTan daqorwinebis SemTxvevaSi ki _ saqvrivo. glexs qaliSvilis<br />

gaTxovebisas saCeqme gadasaxadi unda gadaexada, xolo mebatonis sikvdilis Sem­<br />

TxvevaSi Sesawiravi gaeRo.<br />

me­18 saukunis dasasrulisaTvis gavrcelda iseTi gadasaxadebi, rogoricaa:<br />

sursaTis gadasaxadi _ ikribeboda omebis dros jaris gamosakvebad. gadasaxads<br />

ixdidnen rogorc <strong>saxelmwifo</strong>, ise sabatono da saeklesio glexebi. sursaTis gadasaxa­<br />

55


didan ZiriTadi iyo xorbali da qeri. gadasaxadis akreba weliwadSi erTxel evalebodaT<br />

meliqeebs. saqarTvelos mTiani mosaxleoba am gadasaxadisagan gaTavisuflebuli<br />

iyo.<br />

kodis puri _ feodaluri saqarTvelos erT­erTi cnobili gadasaxadi iyo. weliwadSi<br />

komlze dadgenili iyo 4 kodi (10 l. moculobis) puris gadaxda. aRniSnul gadasaxadze<br />

dawesebuli iyo SeRavaTebi im teritoriis mosaxleobisaTvis, sadac xorblis<br />

moyvana SeuZlebeli iyo (magaliTad TuSeTSi, fSav­xevsureTSi da sxv.)<br />

maxta _ naturaluri da fuladi gadasaxadi iyo, romelsac soflad ixdidnen<br />

ojaxebi naturiT, 2 kodi xorbalis, 1 kodi qeris saxiT, xolo qalaqad vaWrebi da xelosnebi<br />

_ fuladi saxiT.<br />

sakomlo gadasaxadi dRevandel miwis gadasaxads waagavda. komli, romelsac miwis<br />

garkveuli farTobi ekava, valdebuli iyo miwis mepatronisaTvis gadasaxadi fuladi<br />

an naturaluri formiT gadaexada. sagadasaxado ganakveTi wlis ganmavlobaSi komlze<br />

2 abazs Seadgenda.<br />

kuluxi _ mas Rvinis saxiT ixdidnen im miwis sargeblobisaTvis, sadac venaxi iyo<br />

gaSenebuli. gadasaxadis sidide damokidebuli iyo mosavlianobaze.<br />

sabalaxe gadasaxadi _ ikribeboda agreTve xazinis Sesavsebad. misi gadamxdeli<br />

iyo is, vinc saZovars iyenebda. ibegreboda saqonlis mepatrone. saqonlis raodenoba<br />

aRiricxeboda specialur davTarSi da gadasaxadis gadamxdeli valdebuli iyo yovel<br />

100 cxvarze gadaexada 2 cxvari da erTi batkani.<br />

mali SemoRebuli iqna saqarTveloSi monRolTa batonobis periodidan da am gadasaxadiT<br />

ibegreboda Tbilisisa da goris bazris mamrobiTi sqesis mosaxleoba 15<br />

wlis asakis zemoT.<br />

Sevardeni _ Zalze originaluri gadasaxadi iyo da igi ufro momsaxurebiTi formis<br />

gadasaxads warmoadgenda. kerZod, sofels mibarebuli hqonda mefis Sevardenebis<br />

budeebi da glexs maTi movla, xolo zogierT sofels _ mefisaTvis Sevardnebis mirTmeva<br />

evaleboda.<br />

saqarTvelos ruseTTan SeerTebis Semdeg sagadasaxado sistema Seicvala, naturaluri<br />

gadasaxadebi fuladma gadasaxadebma Secvala. Zvel gadasaxadebidan zogi darCa,<br />

zogic Seicvala da daemata, kerZod SenarCunebuli iqna kodis puris gadasaxadi, maxta,<br />

mali. SemoRebuli iqna samxedro sasursaTo begara.<br />

me­19 saukunis Sua periodisaTvis SemoRebul iqna axali saxis gadasaxadebi, kerZod<br />

e.w. sapolicio gadasaxadi, romelic dRevandeli qonebis gadasaxads ufro hgavda. am<br />

gadasaxadiT ibegreboda q. TbilisSi arsebuli Senobebi, savaWro da saxelosno far­<br />

Tobi. amave periodSi dawesda uZravi qonebis gadasaxadi, romliTac ibegreboda uZravi<br />

qoneba, maT Soris Senoba. gadasaxadis sidide damokidebuli iyo uZravi qonebis<br />

gamoyenebiT miRebul Semosavalze.<br />

am periodSi aseve arsebobda vaWrobis gadasaxadi, gadasaxadi daqiravebulebisaTvis,<br />

romelsac axdevinebdnen daqiravebul Sinamosamsaxureebs da muSebs fuladi formiT.<br />

aseve arsebobda mosakrebeli mesaklaveobaze anu gadasaxadi pirutyvze, rac qalaqSi<br />

dasaklavad Camorekil TiToeul sul pirutyvze fuladi gadasaxadis gadaxdas<br />

gulisxmobda.<br />

1917 wlis oqtombris gadatrialebis Semdgom periodSi (saqarTvelos damoukideblobis<br />

mokle periodSi), <strong>saxelmwifo</strong>m sakuTari sagadasaxado sistemis Camoyalibeba<br />

ver moaswro da gadasaxadebis akreba ukve damkvidrebuli sagadasaxado sistemisa da<br />

wesebis mixedviT xdeboda.<br />

56


imsjeleT<br />

15<br />

vis ekisreba<br />

gadasaxadis tvirTi?<br />

ra saqoneli SeiZineT bolo dReebis ganmavlobaSi?<br />

romelime saqonlis SeZenisas gadasaxadi gadaixadeT?<br />

rogor fiqrobT, vin ixdis gadasaxads _ myidveli Tu gamyidveli?<br />

SesaZlebelia vinmem sxvisi sagadasaxadi tvirTi Tqven dagakisroT?<br />

ganmarteT mosazreba: `am samyaroSi araferi ar aris mudmivi sikvdilisa<br />

da gadasaxadebis garda”.<br />

mZimea sagadasaxado<br />

tvirTi?!<br />

vinc gadasaxadebs ewinaaRmdegeba, albaT,<br />

ar icis, rom biujetSi Setanil TiToeul<br />

lars uamravi adamiani elodeba.<br />

pirdapiri<br />

gadasaxadi,<br />

romelsac fizikuri<br />

da iuridiuli<br />

pirebi ixdian Semosavlebidan<br />

pirdapiri<br />

gadasaxadi<br />

gadasaxadebis saxeobebi<br />

gadasaxadebi<br />

arapirdapiri<br />

gadasaxadi<br />

arapirdapiri<br />

gadasaxadi, romelic<br />

ekisreba<br />

saqonels da saqmianobis<br />

saxeobebs<br />

pirdapir gadasaxadebs sxvas ver gadavaxdevinebT.<br />

arapirdapiri gadasaxadebi SeiZleba sxvas gadavaxdevinoT. mewarme, romelic gadasaxads<br />

ixdis, saSualeba aqvs daibrunos gadaxdili Tanxa saqonelze fasis momatebis<br />

saSualebiT.<br />

sagadasaxado tvirTis sxvaze dakisreba SesaZlebelia. es aris iseTi procesi,<br />

rodesac gadasaxadebi, romlebic kanoniT adamianTa erTma jgufma an erTma adamianma<br />

unda gadaixados, sinamdvileSi gadaixdeba sxva adamianis an adamianTa sxva jgufis mier.<br />

saboloo jamSi yvela gadasaxads kerZo pirebi ixdian, ramdenadac sagadasaxado<br />

tvirTs mewarmeebi da kompaniebi momxmareblebs, klientebs, pacientebs, daqiravebul<br />

muSakebs da aqcionerebs akisreben.<br />

57


savarjiSo<br />

58<br />

1<br />

vis ekisreba sagadasaxado tvirTi?<br />

moaxdineT qvemoTCamoTvlili gadasaxadebis klasifikacia imis<br />

mixedviT, aris Tu ara is pirdapiri an arapirdapiri. Semdeg CamoTvaleT<br />

is pirebi an adamianTa jgufebi, romlebic sinamdvileSi ixdian<br />

am gadasaxads _ eseni SeiZleba iyvnen: individualuri gadamxdelebi,<br />

momxmareblebi, daqiravebuli muSakebi, firmis mesakuTreebi<br />

(aqcionerebi). garkveul SemTxvevebSi mocemul gadasaxads SeiZleba<br />

ramodenime jgufi ixdides.<br />

gadasaxadis tipi<br />

msubuqi avtomobilebis flobis gadasaxadi<br />

sabaJo gadasaxadi<br />

individualuri saSemosavlo gadasaxadi<br />

aqcizi<br />

qonebis gadasaxadi<br />

`gadasaxadebi: SeiZleba Tu ara misi<br />

sxvisTvis dakisreba?”<br />

laSa universitetis III kursis studentia. igi finansur menejments swavlobs.<br />

laSa Tvlis, rom sakmaod didia da SeuZlia damoukideblad cxovreba.<br />

erTi kviris win mas 20 weli Seusrulda.<br />

erT dRes, universitetSi wasvlis win man mSoblebs amayad gamoucxada:<br />

_ `ukve didi var da minda calke, damoukideblad vicxovro. amaze didi<br />

xania vfiqrob da guSin binac ki SevarCie. dResve gadavdivar”.<br />

_ `kargia, rom damoukidebloba ginda, _ uTxra mamam. _ `mgoni swori<br />

arCevania... ar gagiWirdeba imis gaTvla, Tu ramdenad gaizrdeba Seni xarjebi<br />

marto cxovrebis SemTxvevaSi. Sen xom finansur menejments swavlob.<br />

amrigad, winaswar mofiqrebuli da gaangariSebuli geqneba yvelaferi”, _<br />

Tqva mamam da dedas gadaxeda. laSas moeCvena, rom am gamoxedvaSi ironia<br />

imaleboda.<br />

... rodesac yvela saWiro nivTi amoalaga da is iyo, dasvenebas apirebda,<br />

telefonze zaris xma gaisma. laSam yurmili aiRo. xazze binis mepatrone,<br />

qalbatoni nino iyo.<br />

_ `laSa, mTeli dilaa girekav, mindoda es ambavi Sens binaSi gadmosvlamde<br />

meTqva, magram ver dagikavSirdi.”… qalbatoni nino aRelvebuli<br />

Canda. _ `saqme imaSia, rom iZulebuli var binis qira 50 lariT gavzardo,<br />

radgan axali kanonis Tanaxmad, qonebaze gadasaxadi gaizarda, iseve rogorc<br />

bevri sxva xarjebi. merwmune, amas Zalian ganvicdi, magram sxva gza<br />

ar maqvs. yvelam gazarda qiris Rirebuleba, ase rom me nu damemdurebi,<br />

mec cud dReSi var. am TveSi binis Seketebisa da SeRebvis dawyebas vapirebdi,<br />

rasac veRar SevZleb, mebaRec unda gavuSva, misi xarjebis dasafarad<br />

fuli aRar meyofa. ra eSveleba Cems yvavilebs, ezos, mindors, aRar vici


a vqna....”<br />

laSa sawolze Camojda... qalbatoni ninos saubari aRar esmoda. is sakuTar<br />

Tavze fiqrobda. am fasad qiris safasuris gadaxda misTvis SeuZlebeli<br />

iyo.<br />

_ `ra movaxerxo? _ fiqrobda laSa. _ saxlSi xom ar mivbrundebi, Tan<br />

dResve... rao, rao, ra gadasaxadi gaizarda? ho, qonebis gadasaxadi. universitetSi<br />

xom viswavle gadasaxadebi da misi saxeebi. Tumca ver vxvdebi, Tu<br />

gadasaxadi qonebis mesakuTres dauweses, me ra SuaSi var? dae, qalbatonma<br />

ninom TviTon gadaixados es sazizRari gadasaxadebi. hm, maxsendeba benjamin<br />

franklinis sityvebi: `araferia cxovrebaSi mudmivi sikvdilisa da gadasaxadebis<br />

garda”. ras niSnavda es sityvebi, maSin arc ki davfiqrebulvar.<br />

sxvaTa Soris, axla maxsendeba, rom leqcias, romlis drosac gadasaxadebi<br />

agvixsnes, arc davswrebivar. netav ar gamecdina, imas mainc mivxvdebodi,<br />

rogor moviqce.”<br />

meore dRes daRonebuli laSa leqciebis Semdeg samuSaoze wavida. igi<br />

arasruli samuSao dRiT megobris mamis, batoni giorgis maRaziaSi muSaobda<br />

konsultantad. laSam gadawyvita baton giorgis samuSao drois gazrda<br />

da, Sesabamisad, xelfasis momateba sTxovos.<br />

_ `o, laSa, xom ici, qonebis gadasaxadi gaizarda, ramac Cemi xarjebi<br />

gaadida. calke saxli, calke maRazia... dRes mTeli dRe vangariSob, rogor<br />

movaxerxo am xarjebis dafarva ise, rom momuSaveebi ar gavanTavisuflo<br />

da fasebi ar gavzardo. xom ici, am pirobebSi<br />

Cemi mogebac Semcirdeba.” _<br />

SesCivla batonma giorgim laSas.<br />

laSa Cafiqrda. igi mixvda, rom momxmareblebi<br />

da gamyidvelebi gadasaxads<br />

arapirdapir ixdian, e.i. aseTi gadasaxadi,<br />

romliTac firma an qonebis<br />

mesakuTre ibegreba, arapirdapiri<br />

gadasaxadia. ra xdeba? firmisaTvis<br />

dakisrebuli sagadasaxado tvirTi<br />

momxmareblebma an momuSaveebma unda<br />

zidon. laSas gaaxsenda, rom iseTi<br />

gadasaxadebis, rogorebicaa saSemosavlo<br />

gadasaxadisa da sadac TviTon cxovrobda, im qonebis gadasaxadis<br />

sxvaze gadakisreba ar SeiZleba.<br />

meore dRes, laSam leqtors swored am sakiTxebis kidev erTxel gaSuqeba<br />

sTxova. saRamos man saxlSi misvla da mamisTvis daxmarebis Txovna<br />

gadawyvita. es misTvis sakmaod mZime dRe iyo.<br />

1. riTi amarTlebs qalbatoni nino qiris gadidebis gadawyvetilebas?<br />

2. ra gavlena moaxdina gadasaxadis gadidebam batoni giorgis keTildReobaze?<br />

3. ra daskvna gaakeTa laSam imasTan dakavSirebiT, Tu vis uwevs gadasaxadis<br />

gadaxda?<br />

4. miuxedavad imisa, rom laSas ar hqonda qoneba da Sesabamisad masze gadasaxadic<br />

ar unda gadaexada, ra gavlena moaxdina am gadasaxadis dawesebam<br />

mis keTildReobaze?<br />

5. ra moxdeba Tu qonebaze gadasaxadi gauqmdeba?<br />

59


imsjeleT<br />

60<br />

gadasaxadebi – nebayoflobiTi sazRauri<br />

`gadasaxadi adamianze da mis sakuTrebaze `Tavdasxmis” formaa. imis<br />

miuxedavad, rom am azrs msoflioSi praqtikulad yvela eTanxmeba, gadasaxadebis<br />

gadaxdis mTavar mizezad politikuri miznebisaTvis fulis<br />

mogrovebis aucilebloba saxeldeba. am `aucileblobis” ukan <strong>saxelmwifo</strong>s<br />

arsebobis idea dgas. sinamdvileSi, <strong>saxelmwifo</strong> imaT sWirdebaT, vinc<br />

sxvis xarjze apirebs cxovrebas. aseTi adamianebi yovelTvis Tanaxmani<br />

arian arsebobdes gadasaxadebi, romlebsac sxvebi gadaixdian, TviTon ki<br />

misi sikeTeebiT isargebleben.<br />

gadasaxadebis gadaxda nebayoflobiTi unda iyos. aseTia Cveni lozungi!”<br />

dawereT Tqeni mosazreba gamoTqmul Sexedulebis Sesaxeb.<br />

Tanaklaselebis jgufTan erTad, sakuTar dasaxlebaSi CaatareT mcire<br />

gamokiTxva gadasaxadebis mimarT mosaxleobis damokidebulebis<br />

gamosavlenad (mag: ramdenad aucilebelia, realuria, miznobrivad<br />

da efeqturad gamoiyeneba da a.S.); miRebuli Sedegebisa da skolaSi<br />

miRebuli informaciis analizis safuZvelze dawereT Txzuleba – gadasaxadebis<br />

roli qveynis ganviTarebaSi.


? ras niSnavs barton kreinis gamoTqma – `ufaso sadili<br />

16<br />

ar arsebobs”?<br />

aris ki raime<br />

ufaso?<br />

mxolod <strong>saxelmwifo</strong>s SeuZlia moamaragos qveyana sazogadoebrivi<br />

saqonliTa da momsaxurebiT. maTTvis damaxasiaTebelia saziaro<br />

moxmareba da moxmarebisagan ganuyofeloba.<br />

saziaro moxmarebis produqtebi iseTi produqtebia, romlebic<br />

SeiZleba gamoyenebul iqnas erTdroulad ramdenime piris mier da<br />

amiT, sxva momxmareblebisaTvis misi xelmisawvdomoba ar Semcirdes.<br />

moxmarebisagan ganuyofeli produqti iseTi produqtia, romelic<br />

ar SeiZleba amoRebul iqnas im pirebis moxmarebidan, romlebsac<br />

misi gamoyenebisaTvis fuli ar gadauxdiaT.<br />

sazogadoebrivia saqoneli, romliTac SeiZleba erTdroulad<br />

bevrma adamianma isargeblos, radganac misi miReba advilia. amave<br />

dros misi raodenoba ar mcirdeba. sazogadoebrivi saqoneli ar<br />

SeiZleba amoRebuli iqnas im pirebis moxmarebidan, romlebic masSi<br />

fuls ar ixdian. am problemas <strong>ekonomika</strong>Si `ubileTo mgzavris”<br />

(`Free Rider”) problema ewodeba.<br />

sazogadoebrivi saqonlis magaliTebia:<br />

gzebi, erovnuli Tavdacva, sazogadoebrivi<br />

ganaTleba, Suqurebi, amindis prognozi,<br />

skverebi, SuqniSnebi, quCebis ganaTeba,<br />

policia, samaSvelo samsaxuri, erovnuli<br />

tyeebi, nakrZalebi da sxv.<br />

<strong>saxelmwifo</strong>s mier warmoebuli yvela<br />

saqoneli da momsaxureba ar aris wminda<br />

sazogadoebrivi saqoneli da momsaxureba.<br />

mxolod ori Tvisebis mqone produqtebi<br />

_ saziaro moxmarebisa da ganuyofeli<br />

moxmarebis produqtebi iTvleba wminda<br />

sazogadoebriv saqonlad da momsaxurebad.<br />

rodesac adgili aqvs saqonlis an<br />

momsaxurebis saziaro, erTobliv moxmarebas,<br />

anda roca Znelia aiZulo momxmareblebeli<br />

masSi fuli gadaixados, aseT Sem­<br />

TxvevaSi, <strong>saxelmwifo</strong> uzrunvelyofs am<br />

saqonlisa da momsaxurebis warmoebas.<br />

<strong>saxelmwifo</strong>s SeuZlia zogierT moqalaqes<br />

Tavisi wili gadaaxdevinos dabegvris saSualebiT.<br />

am xerxiT SesaZlebelia `ubileTo<br />

mgzavris” problema gadaiWras, an, ukidures<br />

SemTxvevaSi, Serbilebuli iqnas.<br />

61


imsjeleT<br />

erovnuli<br />

Tavdacva<br />

?<br />

ese<br />

62<br />

imuSaveT jgufurad da SeajereT Sedegebi qvemoT mocemuli<br />

TiToeuli saqonlisa da momsaxurebis Sesaxeb.<br />

a) TvliT, rom mocemuli saqoneli an momsaxureba ar unda anazRaurdes<br />

gadasaxadebis saSualebiT. adamianebma am saqonlisa da momsaxurebis<br />

gamoyenebisaTvis individualurad unda gadaixadon. is vinc<br />

fuls ar ixdis, am saqonlisa da momsaxurebis gareSe unda darCes?<br />

b) Tu TvliT, rom mocemuli saqoneli an momsaxureba <strong>saxelmwifo</strong> biujetidan<br />

(sagadasaxado Semosavlebis xarjze) unda dafinansdes?<br />

sazogadoebrivi saqoneli da momsaxureba<br />

sajaro<br />

skolebi<br />

gzebi<br />

wyaldidobissawinaaRmdego<br />

jebirebi<br />

policia<br />

universiteti<br />

erovnuli<br />

parkebi<br />

amindis<br />

prognozi<br />

1. ra damokidebuleba aqvT adamianebs sazogadoebrivi saqonlisa da momsaxurebisaTvis<br />

fulis gadaxdasTan mimarTebaSi? aqvT Tu ara maT fulis gadaxdis<br />

survili?<br />

2. ra moxdeba maSin, Tu dasaxelebuli sazogadoebrivi saqoneli da momsaxureba<br />

Tqvens mier miRebuli Sedegebis mixedviT ganawildeba? ra sirTuleebi Sei­<br />

Zleba warmoiqmnas am SemTxvevaSi?<br />

sazogadoebrivi saqoneli<br />

mwarmoeblebi<br />

wvlili sargebeli<br />

mwarmoeblebi<br />

sazogadoebrivi saqoneli<br />

moiZieT sami sagazeTo statia sazogadoebrivi saqonlisa da momsaxurebis<br />

Sesaxeb. TiToeuli statiis mixedviT CamoayalibeT sakuTari<br />

azri orgverdian TxzulebaSi.


1<br />

werili lukas!<br />

17<br />

me ra SuaSi var?<br />

gamarjoba!<br />

rogor xar? rogor cxovrob? SeeCvie amerikuli cxovrebis wess? axali<br />

megobrebi SeiZine? swavla advilia Tu rTuli?<br />

ramdeni kiTxvebi dagayare... imedia, pasuxs momwer. xom ici, Sens Sesaxeb<br />

yvelaferi mainteresebs.<br />

axla mec mogiyvebi aqaur ambebs. ici Tbilisi rogor Seicvala? axali<br />

saxlebi aSenda, skverebi SadrevnebiT galamazda, sportuli moednebi,<br />

Tanamedrove maRaziebi da savaWro centrebi gaixsna. marTalia am maRaziebSi<br />

fasebi maRalia, magram quCaSi rom midixar da mis win Caivli, gesiamovneba:<br />

mopirkeTebuli Sesasvleli trotuars faravs, lamazi mcenareebiTaa<br />

galamazebuli, avtosadgomiTa da Tanamedrove fasadiT. Tanac<br />

yvelgan iseTi sisufTavea...<br />

ai Cvens quCaze ki saSineli sibinZurea. axal saxlebs aSeneben, aris<br />

gauTavebeli xmauri, mtveri, talaxi, asfalti sul ayrilia... iseTi lamazi<br />

saxlebi Sendeba, magram Cven ra? ori welia am dangreul da dabinZurebul<br />

quCaze davdivarT.<br />

ori dRis win cudad gavxdi, maxvelebda da megona vixrCobodi. eqim­<br />

Tan wamiyvanes da gairkva, rom mtverze alergia mqonia. uamravi ZviradRirebuli<br />

wamlebi daminiSnes, magram rad ginda? mtvers Cvens ubanSi<br />

ra gamolevs? ase xom ar SeiZleba? sxvebi sargebloben, Cven ki vzaraldebiT<br />

rogorc janmrTelobis mxriv, aseve materialurad. marto fexsacmelebis<br />

SekeTebis xarjebi rad Rirs? amas emateba wamlebis fuli da kidev<br />

amerikelebisTvis (albaT ukve SenTvisac) kargad cnobili moraluri<br />

ziani... mokled cud dReSi varT.<br />

qalaqis meriam samSeneblo kompaniebisaTvis specialuri brZaneba<br />

gamosca, romelic maT avalebT daasufTaon da SeakeTon maT mier gafuWebuli<br />

quCebi, winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi, sakmaod soliduri TanxiT dajarimdebian.<br />

Tu amas yurad ar iReben, SesaZloa saerTod aukrZalon saqmianoba.<br />

axla imedi gagviCnda, iqneb rame gveSvelos?!<br />

momwere ra, amerikaSi rogor xdeba amgvari problemebis gadaWra?<br />

momikiTxe ojaxis wevrebi da male dabrundi saqarTveloSi. xom ici, aq<br />

sul sxvaa, aq yvelaze kargia. mogikiTxes biWebmac. yvelas gvenatrebi da<br />

geliT.<br />

daCi<br />

werilSi moZebneT is adgilebi, sadac saubaria erTi piris saqmianobis<br />

gavlenaze sxva, meore pirze;<br />

moZebneT is adgilebi, sadac erTi piris saqmianoba dadebiT gavlenas<br />

axdens sxva, meore pirze;<br />

moZebneT is adgilebi, sadac erTi piris saqmianoba uaryofiT gavlenas<br />

axdens sxva, meore pirze;<br />

moZebneT is adgilebi, sadac saubaria <strong>saxelmwifo</strong> politikaze aRniSnul<br />

movlenebTan dakavSirebiT.<br />

63


imsjeleT<br />

64<br />

Tanmdevi (gare) efeqtebi maSin Cndeba, rodesac erTi piris<br />

mier warmoebasTan an moxmarebasTan dakavSirebuli danaxarjebi<br />

an sargebeli gadadis, `vrceldeba~ sxva pirze, anu iseT gareSe mxareze,<br />

romelic arc mwarmoebelia da arc momxmarebeli.<br />

Tu erTi piri raimes awarmoebs an moixmars da es dadebiT gavlenas<br />

axdens sxva, gareSe pirze, maSin dadebiTi Tanamdevi (gare)<br />

efeqti warmoiqmneba.<br />

Tu erTi piri raimes awarmoebs an moixmars da es uaryofiT gavlenas<br />

axdens sxva, gareSe pirze, maSin uaryofiTi Tanamdevi (gare)<br />

efeqti warmoiqmneba.<br />

sabazro fasebi, Cveulebriv, gacvlaSi monawile mwarmoeblebisa da<br />

momxmareblebis sargebelsa da danaxarjs asaxavs. roca sabazro fasi<br />

ver asaxavs yvela danaxarjsa da sargebels amboben, rom adgili aqvs<br />

`bazris Cavardnas~. mas Tanmdevi efeqtis problemas uwodeben.<br />

romeli saxis (dadebiTi Tu uaryofiTi) Tanmdevi efeqtebis magaliTebs<br />

warmoadgens Semdegi faqtebi:<br />

sazogadoebrivi radios an televiziis mxardasaWerad gaRebuli<br />

wvlili;<br />

manqanebis gamonabolqvi;<br />

ZaRlis yefa qalaqis ubanSi;<br />

binis mcxovrebi, romelic cecxlmaqrs yidulobs;<br />

mtirala bavSvebi TviTmfrinavis xalxmraval salonSi.<br />

2<br />

dabinZurebuli tba da uRimRamo cxovreba<br />

nawili I<br />

lomiZeebis ojaxs tbasTan 1 heqtari miwa hqonda. maT tbis aRmosavleT<br />

napirTan saxli aaSenes. pirvelad aq cxovreba metad sasiamovno iyo,<br />

Semdeg ki Svilebma mSoblebisagan farulad, tbaSi nagvis Cayra daiwyes,<br />

radgan nagvis fuTebis gzaze gatana ezarebodaT, saidanac Semdgom nagavi<br />

manqanebs gaaqvT. ramdenime Tvis Semdeg tba saSinlad dabinZurda da aSkara<br />

gaxda, sad iyreboda nagavi. axla lomiZeebis bavSvebi dadardianebulni<br />

arian, radgan uaxloesi SabaT­kviris ganmavlobaSi, megobrebTan garTobis<br />

nacvlad, tbis gawmenda mouwevT.<br />

nawili II<br />

roca bavSvebi studentebi gaxdnen, saswavleblad sxva qalaqSi<br />

gadawyvites wasvla. lomiZeebma dabinZurebul tbasTan maTi kuTvnili<br />

miwa, samosaxlo adgilis garda, miwis biznesiT dakavebul gaiZvera kacs<br />

_ mito gaiZveraZes mihyides. gaiZveraZem saxli tbis dasavleT napirTan<br />

aaSena da manac tba nagvis Casayrelad gamoiyena.<br />

nawili III<br />

erTi wlis Semdeg gaiZveraZem miwis nakveTebis gayidva ganizraxa, tbis<br />

dabinZureba Sewyvita da teritoria 15 ojaxs samosaxlod (TiTos 50 000<br />

larad) mihyida, Tavad ki sxvagan gadasaxlda. axalma mesakuTreebma didi<br />

saxlebi aiSenes.


amdenime Tvis Semdeg nagavi wylis zedapirze amotivtivda. lomiZeebma<br />

problemis gadasaWrelad mezoblebi saTaTbirod moiwvies. ojaxebma tbis<br />

dabinZurebaSi erTmaneTi daadanaSaules da dasufTavebis xarjebis gaReba<br />

moiTxoves. dadanaSaulebulni gadasaxadis gadaxdas uarobdnen da sxva<br />

ojaxebs adanaSaulebdnen. sabolood yvela erTmaneTs waeCxuba. problema<br />

ver mogvarda. tba dabinZurebul da uRimRamo adgilad iqca.<br />

a) arsebobda Tu ara gareSe efeqtebis raime problema, sanam tbasTan<br />

mxolod lomiZeebis ojaxi cxovrobda? Tu arsebobda, rogor Sei-<br />

Zleboda misi gadaWra?<br />

b) arsebobda Tu ara gareSe efeqtebis raime problema, sanam tbasTan<br />

mxolod mito gaiZveraZe da lomiZeebis ojaxi cxovrobda? Tu arsebobda,<br />

rogor SeiZleboda misi gadaWra?<br />

g) davuSvaT, rom gaiZveraZes, rogorc mesakuTres, tbaSi nagvis Cayris<br />

kanonieri ufleba aqvs, an tba Zalian Sorsaa nebismieri kanonaRmsrulebeli<br />

organosagan, romelsac dabinZurebis SeCereba SeuZlia.<br />

ra SeiZleba moimoqmedos lomiZeebis ojaxma am SemTxvevaSi?<br />

d) ra stimulebi hqonda gaiZveraZes dabinZurebis SesaCereblad miwis<br />

gayidvamde?<br />

davaleba SeafaseT situacia, miiReT gadawyvetileba da daasabuTeT.<br />

qarxnis narCenebi mdinareSi Caedineba, ris Sedegadac Tevzi gawyda,<br />

wyali banaobisTavis da baRebis mosarwyavad gamousadegari gaxda. es<br />

gansakuTrebiT qvemo dinebasTan mcxovreblebs awuxebT. mdinaris napiras<br />

macxovreblebi ekologiuri problemis gadaWris sam variantze<br />

msjeloben. airCieT is varianti, romelic Tqveni azriT saukeTesoa.<br />

pasuxi daasabuTeT.<br />

varianti 1 _ radgan dabinZurebis kontroli da ekologiuri problemis<br />

gadaWra pirvel rigSi, qvemo dinebis mcxovreblebisTvis sargeblis<br />

momtania, amisaTvis maT qarxnisTvis gadaxda mouwevT, raTa nar­<br />

Cenebi sxva gziT iqnas gatanili.<br />

varianti @2 _ <strong>saxelmwifo</strong>m qarxana unda daxuros. es erTaderTi<br />

gzaa dabinZurebis SesaCereblad. mosaxleoba ar unda dazaraldes. am<br />

problemis nebismieri sxvagvari gadawyveta wyals mainc daabinZurebs.<br />

varianti 3 _ kompania warmoebis yvela danaxarjs ar iTvaliswinebs.<br />

mdinaris wylis dacva erT­erTi aseTi danaxarjia. unda dawesdes<br />

ekologiuri gadasaxadi da igi kompanias yoveli kuburi litri wylis<br />

dabinZurebisTvis unda daekisros. es kompaniis danaxarjebis zrdas da<br />

Sesabamisad, warmoebis Semcirebas gamoiwvevs. Sedegad, mdinaris wyali<br />

naklebad dabinZurdeba.<br />

65


66<br />

18<br />

ekonomikuri aqtivobis<br />

wrebrunva<br />

cnobilia, rom ekonomikuri sistema urTierTobis wesebs qmnis, romlis Sesabamisadac<br />

adamianebi sxvadasxva funqcias asruleben. miuxedavad imisa, rom yovelgvari dayofa pirobiTia,<br />

igi mainc dagvexmareba ekonomikuri sistemis funqcionirebis ukeT gagebaSi.<br />

ekonomikis mTavar komponentebsa da maTi urTierTqmedebis meqanizms naTlad<br />

aCvenebs ekonomikuri wrebrunvis modeli, romelic ori saxis komponentisagan Sedgeba:<br />

gadawyvetilebis mimRebi jgufebi da bazrebi.<br />

saojaxo<br />

meurneobebi<br />

gadawyvetilebis mimRebni<br />

firmebi <strong>saxelmwifo</strong><br />

saojaxo meurneobebi, firmebi da <strong>saxelmwifo</strong> ekonomikur gadawyvetilebebs iReben.<br />

maT Soris urTierTobebi urTierTdamokidebul ekonomikur sistemas qmnis. am sistemis<br />

ilustracias resursebis, saqonlis, momsaxurebisa da fulis wrebrunvis modeli warmoadgens.<br />

<strong>saxelmwifo</strong> _ awarmoebs saqonelsa da momsaxurebas. igi anawilebs<br />

Semosavlebsa da dovlaTs. mTavrobis mier warmoebuli yvelaze<br />

mniSvnelovani momsaxurebaa kanonebi da maTi aRmasrulebeli meqanizmi<br />

(sasamarTloebi da policia), Tavdacva, jandacva, transporti<br />

da ganaTleba.<br />

saojaxo meurneobebi _ ojaxebi an calkeuli adamianebi (magaliTad,<br />

ojaxi an sami studenti, romelic erTad cxovrobs da moqmedebs<br />

rogorc erTi erTeuli), romlebic saqonelsa da momsaxurebas<br />

moixmaren. maT gaaCniaT resursebi, romlebsac firmebs<br />

anazRaurebis sanacvlod mihyidian.<br />

xelfasi _ Sromis safasuri, gamoxatuli fuladi formiT.<br />

renta _ gadasaxadi miwis gamoyenebisaTvis.<br />

sargebeli (zogjer moixsenieben rogorc procenti) _ gadasaxadi<br />

fuladi sesxisaTvis.<br />

gadasaxadebi _ savaldebulo fuladi gadasaxdelebi, romlebsac<br />

saojaxo meurneobebi da firmebi <strong>saxelmwifo</strong>s sasargeblod ixdian.<br />

nebismieri individi romelime saojaxo meurneobis wevria. individebi moqmedeben<br />

rogorc momxmareblebi da rogorc mwarmoeblebi.<br />

saojaxo meurneobebi <strong>ekonomika</strong>Si moqmedeben rogorc momxmareblebi, rodesac isini<br />

firmebis mier warmoebul saqonelsa da momsaxurebas iZenen. aseTi gacvla produqtis<br />

bazarze xdeba. adgilobriv sasursaTo maRaziaSi sakvebis SeZena aseTi gacvlis magali­<br />

Tia. saojaxo meurneobebi mudmivad iReben gadawyvetilebebs, Tu ra raodenobis Sroma,<br />

miwa da kapitali gayidon xelfasis, rentisa da mogebis sanacvlod. aseve, Semosavlis ra<br />

nawili daxarjon arsebuli saqonlisa da momsaxurebis SesaZenad.


esursebis mflobelebi firmebs sawarmoo resursebiT amarageben. es ukanasknelni<br />

ki maT saqonlisa da momsaxurebis sawarmoeblad iyeneben. aseT gacvlas adgili aqvs<br />

faqtorTa bazarze (anu sawarmoo resursebis bazarze). aRniSnul bazarze garigebis<br />

magaliTia, firmis mier muSisaTvis xelfasis gadaxda, miwis mesakuTrisaTvis sesxis procentis<br />

(sargeblis) gadaxda (rentis, sawarmosa da mowyobilobebisaTvis aRebuli sesxebisaTvis).<br />

firmebi saojaxo meurneobebis msgavsad funqcionireben, rogorc momxmareblebi da<br />

rogorc mwarmoeblebi. firmebi saqonelsa da momsaxurebas saqonlis bazars awvdian.<br />

yvela vinc awarmoebs _ firmas warmoadgens, miuxedavad imisa ra sididisa aris da ras<br />

awarmoebs misi sawarmo. manqanaTmSeneblebi, fermerebi, bankebi, sadazRvevo kompaniebi<br />

– firmebia. firmebi iReben gadawyvetilebas, ra raodenobis SromiTi resursebi, miwa da<br />

kapitali iqiraon an SeiZinon da ra raodenobis saqoneli da momsaxureba awarmoon.<br />

mogebis miRebas, firmebi TavianTi produqciis TviTRirebulebaze maRal fasSi cdiloben.<br />

Tu maTi saqmianoba warumatebelia, igi zarals gamoiwvevs. firmebma mogebis misaRebad<br />

is produqcia unda miawodon, romlis yidvac saojaxo meurneobebs surT, Tanac<br />

_ konkurentul fasad. Tu sawarmo iseT saqonels (momsaxurebas) ar awarmoebs, romlis<br />

SeZenac saojaxo meurneobebs surT da ar Seamcirebs fasebs ise, rom konkurencia<br />

gauwios sxva mewarmeebis mier gamoSvebul saqonels (momsaxurebas), maSin igi ganwiruli<br />

iqneba warumateblobisaTvis. Tu firma kvlav zaraliT imuSavebs, maSin man biznesi unda<br />

datovos.<br />

<strong>saxelmwifo</strong> wyvets, romeli saqoneli da momsaxureba unda uzrunvelyos da ra raodenobis<br />

gadasaxadebi gadaaxdevinos saojaxo meurneobebsa da firmebs.<br />

? 1.<br />

rogor xdeba mwarmoeblebisa da momxmareblebis interesebis damTxveva?<br />

2. ra aris is Zala, romelic yvela sasurvel saqonelsa da momsaxurebas bazarze<br />

uyris Tavs?<br />

3. SeadareT Tqveni azri saxelmZRvaneloSi mocemuls.<br />

erTi SexedviT saojaxo meurneobebis, firmebisa da mTavrobis arCevani da<br />

gadawyvetilebebi TiTqos erTmaneTs unda ewinaaRmdegebodes, magram sinamdvileSi isini<br />

Zalze SeTanxmebulad moqmedeben.<br />

faqtorTa bazarze<br />

saojaxo meurneobebi gasayidi<br />

Sromis saxeebsa da raodenobas irCeven,<br />

xolo firmebi SesaZeni Sromis saxeebsa<br />

da raodenobas.<br />

saqonlisa da momsaxurebis bazarze<br />

saojaxo meurneobebi SesaZeni saqonlisa<br />

da momsaxurebis saxeebsa da raodenobas<br />

irCeven, xolo firmebi gasayidi<br />

saqonlisa da momsaxurebis<br />

saxeebsa da raodenobas.<br />

<strong>saxelmwifo</strong>s mier dawesebuli gadasaxadebi gavlenas axdens Semosavlis im nawilze,<br />

romelic saojaxo meurneobebsa da firmebs dasaxarjad aqvT gankuTvnili. saojaxo<br />

meurneobebisa da firmebis gadawyvetilebebi, SesaZeni saqonlisa da momsaxurebis Sesaxeb<br />

damokidebulia imaze, Tu ra saqonelsa da momsaxurebas uzrunvelyofs mTavroba.<br />

mag., Tu mTavroba uzrunvelyofs saukeTeso gzatkecilebs, magram gaumarTav sarkinigzo<br />

sistemas, maSin saojaxo meurneobebi TavianTi Semosavlis did nawils avtomanqanebis<br />

SeZenas moaxmaren.<br />

67


? sanam<br />

68<br />

!<br />

ekonomikur models warmogidgenT, SeecadeT upasuxoT Semdeg<br />

kiTxvebs. pasuxebi daasabuTeT.<br />

1. rogor xdeba, rom milionobiT individualuri gadawyvetileba, romelsac saojaxo<br />

meurneobebi, firmebi da mTavroba iRebs SesabamisobaSia erTmaneTTan?<br />

2. ra aiZulebs saojaxo meurneobebs awarmoon saqonlisa damomsaxurebis<br />

zustad is saxeobebi da raodenoba, romlis yidvac firmebs surT?<br />

3. ra moxdeba Tu ekonomikis profesorebis raodenoba im universitetebis raodenobas<br />

gadaaWarbebs, romelTac maTi samuSaoze miReba surT?<br />

4. saidan ician firmebma ra saqoneli da momsaxureba unda awarmoon?<br />

5. ra moxdeba Tu firmebi ufro met saqonels awarmoeben, vidre<br />

saojaxo meurneobebi moisurveben yidvas?<br />

1<br />

ekonomikuri aqtivobis wrebrunvis diagramis analizisTvis mniSvnelovania<br />

imis gageba, rom erTi da igive adamiani resursebis mesakuTrec<br />

SeiZleba iyos da _ saojaxo meurneobis wevric. amavdroulad iyos firmis<br />

muSaki da saqonlisa da momsaxurebis mwarmoebeli.<br />

yvelam icis, rom soflad mcxovreb ojaxebs miwis nakveTebi aqvT, saidanac<br />

miRebuli Semosavali maTi mTeli wlis sarCoa. ganvixiloT glexis ojaxis<br />

(saojaxo meurneoba) saqmianoba, romelsac sakuTari miwis nakveTi aqvs. yvela<br />

saWiro produqts ojaxi am nakveTze ver moiyvans. sxva produqtebis SesaZenad<br />

saWiro TanxebisaTvis glexi da misi ojaxis wevrebi firmaSi xorblis moyvaniT<br />

arian dakavebulni. maT TavianTi samuSao Zala (SromiTi resursi) firmas mihyides.<br />

firma maT Sromas puris sawarmoeblad iyenebs. xolo mza produqts _<br />

purs, produqtebis bazarze yidis.<br />

glexi Tavisi xelfasidan (fuladi Semosavali) firmas puris safasurs uxdis<br />

produqtis bazarze. am bazarze miRebuli SemosavlebiT firma faravs warmoebisTvis<br />

gaweul xarjebs (xelfasebi, masalebi da sxva) da mogebas iRebs. amgvarad<br />

ikvreba ekonomikuri saqmianobis wre, romelic saqonlisa da Sromis moZraobas<br />

gamoxatavs.<br />

2<br />

rogorc aRvniSneT, saojaxo meurneobebi purs firmebisgan yiduloben. firma<br />

am fuliT TanamSromlebs xelfass uxdis, yidulobs fqvils da sxva. darCenili<br />

Tanxa ki firmis (mepatronis) mogebaa. mepatroneebic xom romeliRac saojaxo<br />

meurneobis wevrebi arian _ es maTi Semosavalia.<br />

amrigad, puris safasurs saojaxo meurneobebi firmebs uxdian. puris danaxarjebi<br />

saojaxo meurneobebidan firmaSi gadadis, Semosavlebi ki xelfasisa da<br />

mogebis saxiT firmebidan saojaxo meurneobebSi brundeba. amgvarad ikvreba ekonomikuri<br />

saqmianobis meore (gare) wre, romelic fulis moZraobas gamoxatavs.<br />

es sabazro meurneobis Zalian martivi modelia. SeecadeT orive situacia ekonomikuri<br />

saqmianobis wrebrunvis diagramaze gadaitanoT.<br />

qvemoT mocemuli wrebrunvis sqemaze, isriT gamosaxulia gadasaxadebis da<br />

produqtebis gadaadgilebis mimarTuleba, saojaxo meurneobebsa da firmebs Soris.<br />

xazebis gareTa qseli aCvenebs Semosavlebis nakads (fuladi gadasaxdelebi). xazebis<br />

SigniTa qseli aCvenebs mza produqciisa da sawarmoo resursebis nakads.


? 1.<br />

!<br />

saojaxo<br />

meurneobebi<br />

ekonomikuri aqtivobis wrebrunva<br />

saqonlisa da<br />

momsaxurebis<br />

bazari<br />

faqtorTa<br />

bazari<br />

firmebi<br />

ra rols asruleben firmebi ekonomikuri aqtivobis wrebrunvaSi?<br />

2. ra rols asruleben saojaxo meurneobebi ekonomikuri aqtivobis wrebrunvaSi?<br />

3. rogor arian urTierTdamokidebuli firmebi da saojaxo meurneobebi?<br />

realur cxovrebaSi mewarmeebi da saojaxo meurneobebi, mkacrad gamijnulni<br />

ar arian;<br />

resursebis mesakuTreebi SeiZleba ara mxolod momxmareblebi iyvnen,<br />

aramed firmebic. garda amisa, firmebs resursebiT erTmaneTs Soris vaWroba<br />

SeuZliaT;<br />

<strong>saxelmwifo</strong> gansakuTrebul ekonomikur agents warmoadgens da arc<br />

firmebs da arc saojaxo meurneobebs ar waagavs;<br />

resursebi SeiZleba urTierTSemcvleli aRmoCndes: saqonlis erTi da<br />

igive raodenoba SeiZleba warmoebuli iqnes resursebis sxvadasxva kombinaciis<br />

gamoyenebiT.<br />

ekonomikur sistemaSi mwarmoeblebi warmoebis faqtorebze moTxovnas<br />

uzrunvelyofen da saqonelsa da momsaxurebas awvdian. amavdroulad<br />

saojaxo meurneobebi warmoebis faqtorebis miwodebas uzrunvelyofen<br />

da qmnian moTxovnas saqonelsa da momsaxurebaze. amgvarad, arsebobs ori<br />

ZiriTadi bazari:<br />

1) saqonlisa da momsaxurebis,<br />

2) warmoebis faqtorTa bazari.<br />

amave dros, <strong>ekonomika</strong>Si ori sawinaaRmdego mimarTulebis wrebrunva<br />

arsebobs: fulis nakadi da saqonlisa da momsaxurebis nakadi.<br />

69


savarjiSo<br />

kiTxvebi<br />

da<br />

davalebebi<br />

70<br />

ekonomikuri aqtivobis wrebrunva<br />

saojaxo meurneobebi Tavis gankargulebaSi arsebul bunebriv<br />

resursebs, SromiT resursebs da kapitals fuladi Semosavlebis (xelfasi,<br />

renta, procenti da mogeba) sanacvlod awvdian. amgvarad miRebuli<br />

SemosavlebiT, firmebi saojaxo meurneobebisagan yiduloben<br />

resursebs axali saqonlis da momsaxurebis sawarmoeblad da Semdgom­<br />

Si gasayidad. amrigad, iqmneba sawarmoo resursebis, saqonlisa da momsaxurebis,<br />

agreTve, Semosavlebis wrebrunva.<br />

danaxarjebi Semosavlebi<br />

saojaxo<br />

meurneobebi<br />

saqonlisa da<br />

momsaxurebis<br />

bazari<br />

saqoneli, momsaxureba<br />

sawarmoo resursebi<br />

faqtorTa<br />

bazari<br />

firmebi<br />

Semosavlebi gadasaxdelebi<br />

1. diagramis mixedviT gansazRvreT, romel bazarze awvdian<br />

firmebi fulad gadasaxadebs saojaxo murneobebs, sawarmoo faqtorebis<br />

sanacvlod?<br />

2. romel bazarze awvdian saojaxo meurneobebi fulad gadasaxdelebs<br />

firmebs, saqonlisa da momsaxurebis sanacvlod?<br />

3. daasaxeleT sawarmoo resursebi, romelsac <strong>saxelmwifo</strong> saojaxo<br />

meurneobebisgan Seisyidis.<br />

4. daasaxeleT saqoneli da momsaxureba, romelsac <strong>saxelmwifo</strong><br />

firmebisgan Seisyidis.<br />

1. rogor arian damokidebuli saojaxo meurneobebis wevrebi firmebze?<br />

2. rogor arian damokidebuli firmebi saojaxo meurneobebis wevrebze?<br />

3. rogoria <strong>saxelmwifo</strong>s roli ekonomikuri aqtivobis wrebrunvaSi? am<br />

rolis gaTvaliswinebiT modelSi CarTeT da CaxazeT <strong>saxelmwifo</strong>.<br />

4. moiyvaneT magaliTebi Tqveni qalaqis, raionis, dasaxlebis realuri<br />

cxovrebidan, romelic sqemaze mocemul TiToeul nakads Seesabameba.


III<br />

imsjeleT<br />

mewarmeoba<br />

da biznesi<br />

19-20<br />

yvelaferi<br />

biznesis Sesaxeb<br />

1. CamoTvaleT cnobili biznesmenebis saxelebi, saqmianobis sfero da is<br />

produqti, romelsac maTi firmebi awarmoeben.<br />

2. rogori firma gindaT gqondeT? romeli produqtis warmoebas isurvebdiT?<br />

firmis damoukideblad marTva girCevniaT Tu gundTan erTad?<br />

firmebi erTmaneTisagan gansxvavdebian. isini sxvadasxva saqonelsa da momsaxurebas<br />

awarmoeben da arCeuli aqvT saqmianobis organizebis sxvadasxva formebi: individualuri<br />

sawarmo, partnioroba da korporacia (saaqcio sazogadoeba).<br />

1<br />

individualuri sawarmo (erTpirovnuli mflobeloba)<br />

aris biznesis iseTi forma, romelsac erTi adamiani an ojaxi flobs<br />

da romelsac firmis valdebulebebze piradi qonebrivi pasuxismgebloba<br />

akisria.<br />

partnioroba (amxanagoba) aris biznesis iseTi forma, romelsac ramdenime<br />

adamiani flobs. isini TanamesakuTreni arian. valdebulebebis<br />

Seusruleblobis SemTxvevaSi amxanagobac piradi qonebiT agebs pasuxs.<br />

korporacia (saaqcio sazogadoeba) aris biznesis iseTi forma,<br />

romlis sakuTreba dayofilia aqciebad, xolo aqciis mflobelebs<br />

aqcionerebs uwodeben. korporacia (saaqcio sazogadoeba)<br />

kanonis mixedviT aris iuridiuli piri. man Seqmnis dros registracia<br />

unda gaiaros da SeiZleba ganusazRvreli vadiT imoqmedos. korporacias<br />

SeuZlia Tavisi saxeliT sasamarTlos mimarTos da Sesa­<br />

Zloa, TviTonac iqnas samarTalSi micemuli.<br />

aqcia _ fasiani qaRaldi, romlis mixedviTac misi mflobeli korporaciis<br />

mewile xdeba.<br />

dividendi aris aqcioneris Semosavali, romelsac is korporaciis<br />

mogebidan iRebs.<br />

mogebis miReba _ is mizania, risTvisac adamianebi ama Tu im saqmianobas<br />

iwyeben. miuxedavad misi organizaciuli formisa, yoveli<br />

firma mogebis gazrdas (maqsimizacias) da danaxarjebis Semcirebas<br />

(minimizacias) cdilobs.<br />

Tamari patara sasursaTo maRaziis mflobelia. igi yidulobs produqtebs,<br />

saWiro aRWurvilobas, transportirebisaTvis sabargo manqanas qiraobs. mis maRaziaSi<br />

1 muSa da 2 gamyidvelia dasaqmebuli. Tamari maRazias damoukideblad mar­<br />

Tavs, yvela xarjs TviTon eweva da mogebasac TviTon iRebs.<br />

Tamarma sasursaTo maRazia bankidan aRebuli sesxis daxmarebiT gaxsna. igi imedovnebs,<br />

rom Tu yvelaferi kargad aewyoba, vals sam welSi dafaravs. winaaRmdeg<br />

SemTxvevaSi, iZulebuli iqneba valis dabrunebisaTvis pasuxi piradi qonebiT agos.<br />

71


? biznesis<br />

es<br />

sainteresoa<br />

72<br />

2<br />

samma megobarma _ giorgim, ninom da Teonam internet­kafes gaxsna<br />

gadawyvites. firmis dafuZnebisaTvis samivem garkveuli Tanxa Seitana.<br />

yvelaze meti fuli giorgim gaiRo, yvelaze naklebi ki _ ninom.<br />

xelSekrulebis safuZvelze gadawyda, rom damfuZneblebi mogebidan wils<br />

Setanili Tanxis mixedviT miiReben. Teonas meTvalyureoba da momxmareblebTan<br />

urTierToba daevala, ninos _ Semosuli Tanxis miReba da dRis bolosaTvis<br />

sabuRaltro dakumentaciis mowesrigeba, giorgis _ qselis administrireba<br />

(marTva).<br />

jer­jerobiT megobrebi Sexmatkbilebulad muSaoben, Tumca xSirad ama Tu<br />

im sakiTxebze kamaTi uwevT. es ZiriTadad giorgis exeba. guSin man ganacxada,<br />

rom metad seriozul da sapasuxismgeblo samuSaos asrulebs, risTvisac sxvagan<br />

ukeTes anazRaurebas miiRebda. aq ki, faqtiurad, ufasod muSaobs da maRali<br />

Semosavlis miRebis SesaZleblobas kargavs. man megobrebs axali TanamSromlis<br />

daqiraveba SesTvaza.<br />

3<br />

kompania `ekoproduqti” axal SesaZleblobebs avlens. misi produqti bazarze<br />

ufro da ufro popularuli xdeba. kompaniis aqciebis SeZenis survili<br />

bolo periodSi bevrs gauCnda, radganac mogeba sul ufro da ufro izrdeba.<br />

organizaciis romeli formebia ganxiluli situaciebSi?<br />

• ganviTarebul qveynebSi individualuri da saojaxo firmebi mTliani<br />

sawarmoebis raodenobaSi daaxloebiT 80%­s Seadgenen.<br />

• aSS-Si daaxloebiT 15 mln. individualuri mewarmea, romelTa xelSic<br />

Tavmoyrilia biznesSi dakavebuli saxsrebis daaxloebiT 14 %.<br />

• inglisSi firmebis 96% aris mcire. masSi dasaqmebulia kerZo seqtoris<br />

mSromelTa mesamedze meti. aq mcire sawarmoebis ricxvi yovelwliurad<br />

izrdeba daaxloebiT 10%­iT. maT umravlesobaSi dasaqmebulTa<br />

ricxvi 20 adamians Seadgens. am jgufis Semosavlebi ki yovelwliurad<br />

izrdeba.<br />

• ,,silikonis veli” mTels msoflioSi cnobilia. igi aSS-Si, kaliforniis<br />

StatSi mdebareobs. masSi gaerTianebulia daaxloebiT 3 aTasi firmis<br />

Zalisxmeva. isini yvelaze ufro Tanamedrove eleqtronul mowyobilobebs<br />

awarmoeben. aq dasaqmebulia 6 aTasze meti mecnierebaTa doqtori.<br />

dasaqmebulTa Soris 15 aTasamde adamiani milioneria.<br />

• saqarTvelos moqalaqeebs, ZiriTadad, Semosavlis miRebis Semdegi<br />

wyaroebi aqvT: Semosavlebi daqiravebuli Sromidan, TviTdasaqmebidan,<br />

soflis meurneobis produqciis gayidvidan, memkvidreobiT<br />

miRebuli qonebidan, ucxoeTidan miRebuli gzavnilebidan, qonebis<br />

gayidvidan, axloblebisagan miRebuli fulidan, fulis sesxebidan an<br />

danazogis gamoyenebidan.


farTo gagebiT mewarmeoba ukavSirdeba pirovnebis gamorCeul Tvisebebs: pirovneba,<br />

romelic fizikuri da materialuri SesaZleblobebiT sxvvbze maRla dgas, gambedavia,<br />

swyuria Zalaufleba da cdilobs daagrovos simdidre, nebismier samuSaos warmatebiT<br />

ganaxorcielebs da sxvebsac gaiyolebs. Tumca, aseTi adamianebi gamonakliss warmoadgenen.<br />

viwro gagebiT mewarmeoba ganixileba, rogorc mogebis mizniT muSaoba.<br />

sabazro ekonomikis pirobebSi mewarmeoba gulisxmobs iniciativas da damoukideblobas.<br />

mewarmeobis gareSe SeuZlebelia ekonomikis ganviTareba da amitom yvela darg­<br />

Si gaTvaliswinebuli unda iyos mewarmeobis elementebi.<br />

magaliTad, fermerisTvis ZiriTadi sawarmoo saSualeba aris miwa. amitom fermerma<br />

kargad unda icodes miwis<br />

Taviseburebebi. igi sistematurad<br />

unda zrunavdes<br />

miwis nayofierebis amaRlebasa<br />

da SenarCunebaze.<br />

vinaidan, soflis meurneobaSi<br />

mewarmeoba dakavSirebulia<br />

klimatur<br />

pirobebTan: naleqebis raodenobasTan,<br />

vegetaciis<br />

vadebTan, mzis radiaciasa<br />

da saSualo wliur temperaturasTan,<br />

bunebrivi<br />

faqtorebis Seswavla da<br />

ekonomikuri codnis gamoyeneba<br />

soflis meurneobaSi<br />

mewarmeobis sworad organizebisa da Semosavlis miRebis SesaZleblobas iZleva.<br />

mewarmeobaSi erT­erTi ZiriTadi piroba TviT mewarmis pirovnebaa. amosavali wertili,<br />

romlisganac iwyeba TiToeuli axali sawarmo, aris idea.<br />

idea SeiZleba iyos rogorc originaluri (sakuTari), aseve nasesxebi (sxvisi saqmis<br />

gagrZeleba).<br />

!<br />

ra aris saWiro, rom fermeri mewarme gaxdes?<br />

Tandayolili Tvisebebi<br />

interesi soflis meurneobisadmi;<br />

praqtikuli azrovneba;<br />

riskis unari;<br />

ZiriTadi sasoflo­sameurneo saqmianobis<br />

warmarTvis unari;<br />

gambedaoba;<br />

mizanmimarTuloba;<br />

damoukidebloba, rTuli amo canebis<br />

gadawyvetis SesaZleblobis<br />

rwmena;<br />

soflis da miwis siyvaruli, ar<br />

SeuSindes e.w. `talaxian saqmes~.<br />

swavliT da praqtikiT<br />

SeZenili codna da unarebi<br />

ekonomikis safuZvlebis floba;<br />

buRaltruli aRricxva, finan su ri<br />

saqmianobis analizi, menej men tisa<br />

da marketingis anbani;<br />

klientebis, konkurentebis, sa qon ­<br />

lis momwodeblebis Sesaxeb informaciis<br />

moZiebis unari;<br />

bazarze arsebuli mdgomareobis<br />

codna;<br />

teqnikisa da warmoebis teqnologiebis<br />

codna;<br />

saqmianobis moklevadiani da grZelvadiani<br />

dagegmvis unari;<br />

siaxleebis miRebis unari.<br />

73


iznesis samarTlebrivi garemo<br />

biznesis garemos kerZo, <strong>saxelmwifo</strong> da sazogadoebrivi organizaciebi qmnian. nebismieri<br />

biznesis formis wamowyeba saxelwifo kanonmdeblobiTaa gansazRvruli.<br />

saqarTveloSi biznesis mowyobis samarTlebriv­organizaciul formebs (anu maTi Seqmnis,<br />

gaZRolis, likvidaciis, Serwyma­danawevrebis sakiTxebs) aregulirebs kanoni ,,mewarmeTa<br />

Sesaxeb”. am kanonis Tanaxmad, samewarmeo saqmianobad ganixileba araerTjeradi<br />

saqmianoba, romelic ganxorcielebulia mogebis miRebis mizniT. samewarmeo<br />

saqmianobis ganxorcielebis ufleba aqvs rogorc fizikur, ise iuridiul pirs.<br />

individualuri sawarmo aris fizikuri piri, yvela sxva danarCeni samarTlebrivorganizaciuli<br />

formebi _ iuridiuli piri. ,,mewarmeTa Sesaxeb” kanonis Sesabamisad<br />

saqarTveloSi mewarmes Semdegi samarTlebriv­organizaciuli formebidan SeuZlia<br />

erT­erTi statusi miiRos.<br />

iuridiuli piris registraciisTvis savaldebuloa partniorTa raodenoba ganisaz­<br />

Rvros 50-mde, Tu fuZndeba sps, ks, an Sps.<br />

Tu partniorTa ricxvi aWarbebs 50-s _ aseTi sawarmo saaqcio sazogadoebad yalibdeba.<br />

partniorTa ricxvi SeuzRudavia kooperativisaTvis.<br />

sawarmo kanoniT gansazRvrul ufleba ­movaleobebs mxolod mas Semdeg iTavsebs, rac<br />

Setanili iqneba samewarmeo reestrSi.<br />

74<br />

!<br />

ram SeiZleba moaxdinos axali ideebis gaCena Tu axali saqmis<br />

inicireba?<br />

ideis wyaro SeiZleba iyos momxmarebelTa gamoxmaureba, cvlilebebi<br />

<strong>saxelmwifo</strong> prioritetebSi (mag., <strong>saxelmwifo</strong>m ekologiuri produqcia<br />

prioritetad aRiara, Seamcira romelime gadasaxadi, daawesa barieri<br />

importze), aseve nacnobebis gamokiTxva, konkurentebis produqciis<br />

Sefaseba, samecniero kvlevis Sedegebi, sxva qveynebis progresuli gamocdileba<br />

da sxva.<br />

samewarmeo reestri aris nusxa, romelTac ekonomikur urTier­<br />

TobebSi samarTlebrivi mniSvneloba aqvT.<br />

SeuzRudavi pasuxismgebloba gulisxmobs mTlianad, mTeli<br />

Tavisi qonebiT pirdapir pasuxismgeblobas kreditorebis (mevaleebis)<br />

winaSe warmoqmnili valebulebebis (valis) dasafaravad.<br />

• individualuri sawarmo (is)<br />

• solidaruli pasuxismgeblobis sazogadoeba (sps)<br />

• komandituri sazogadoeba (ks)<br />

• SezRuduli pasuxismgeblobis sazogadoeba (Sps)<br />

• saaqcio sazogadoeba (ss)<br />

• kooperativi<br />

fizikuri piri<br />

iuridiuli piri


!<br />

sawarmos registraciisTvis saWiroa Seiqmnas wesdeba, romelSic<br />

Setanili iqneba kanoniT moTxovnili yvela parametri, urTierTobebis<br />

regulirebisaTvis aucilebeli yvela detali. sazogadoebis<br />

wesdebas xels aweren damfuZnebeli partniorebi.<br />

individualuri mewarme<br />

individualur mewarmes SeuzRudavi pasuxismgebloba ekisreba.<br />

komanditebi, Sps­s, ss­s da kooperativebis damfuZneblebi pasuxs ageben Tavisi<br />

iuridiuli (anu wesdebiT) gansazRvruli qonebiT.<br />

nebismieri tipis sazogadoebaSi gadawyvetilebis miRebis uflebis mqonea:<br />

saerTo kreba (korporaciaSi; kooperativSi);<br />

sameTvalyureo sabWo (saaqcio sazogadoebaSi);<br />

sakonsultacio sabWo (SezRuduli pasuxismgeblobis sazogadoebaSi, saaqcio sazogadoebaSi,<br />

komanditur sazogadoebaSi);<br />

direqtorati.<br />

direqtors<br />

(ss, Sps, kooperativi)<br />

xelmZRvanelobis uflebamosileba eniWeba<br />

yvela partniors<br />

(sps)<br />

personalurad<br />

pasuxismgebel pirs<br />

(is, Sps, sps, koop.)<br />

sazogadoebam SesaZlebelia Seqmnas masze daqvemdebarebuli erTeuli _<br />

filiali, romelic ar warmoadgens iuridiul pirs.<br />

saaqcio sazogadoeba<br />

saaqcio sazogadoeba sawarmos iseTi formaa, romelic fizikur da iuridiul pirebs<br />

Soris urTierTSeTanxmebis safuZvelze, maTi materialuri saSualebebisa da fuladi<br />

saxsrebis gaerTianebis gziT iqmneba. saaqcio sazogadoebis sawesdebo kapitali aqciebad<br />

aris dayofili. minimaluri sawesdebo kapitali 15 000 laria. igi SeiZleba gaizardos<br />

axali aqciebis gamoSvebiT. aqcioners aqvs sazogadoebis saqmianobis Sesaxeb informaciis<br />

miRebis da Tavisi moTxovnebis wamoyenebis ufleba. sazogadoebis umaRlesi mmar­<br />

Teli organoa aqconerTa saerTo kreba. is niSnavs sameTvalyureo sabWos, romelic Tavis<br />

mxriv, direqtorats niSnavs.<br />

solidaruli pasuxismgeblobis sazogadoeba<br />

fizikuri pirebi, romlebic erToblivad, erTi safirmo saxelwodebiT ewevian mewarmeobas,<br />

qmnian iuridiul pirs _ solidaruli pasuxismgeblobis sazogadoebas.<br />

solidaruli pasuxismgeblobis sazogadoebis damfuZneblebi kreditorebis winaSe<br />

warmoqnili valdebulebebisaTvis pasuxs ageben SeuzRudavad _ mTeli Tavisi qonebiT.<br />

sazogadoebis xelmZRvanelobis uflebamosileba yvela partniors eniWeba, Tumca<br />

wesdebiT sxva pirobebis gaTvaliswinebacaa SesaZlebeli. yvela sakiTxi, garda Cveulebrivi<br />

samewarmeo saqmianobisa, saerTo krebaze ganixileba.<br />

75


Tu wesdeba erT partniors xelmZRanel pirad ganixilavs, maSin danarCen partniorebs<br />

sazogadoebis finansuri saqmianobis gakontrolebis ufleba aqvT.<br />

sazogadoebis mogeba­zarali wlis bolos iangariSeba da masSi TiToeuli partnioris<br />

wili ganisazRvreba.<br />

komandituri sazogadoeba<br />

sazogadoeba, romelSic ramdenime piri erToblivad, erTiani safirmo saxelwodebiT<br />

eweva saqmianobas, aris komandituri sazogadoeba. sazogadoebaSi iuridiuli pasuxismgblobiT<br />

(mxolod sagarantio Tanxis gadaxdiT) Sesuli pirebi ganixilebian komanditebad,<br />

personaluri pasuxismgeblobiT Sesuli pirebi _ komplementarad.<br />

komandituri sazogadoebis marTvisTvis gamoiyeneba solidaruli pasuxismgeblobis<br />

marTvis zogado wesebi, aseve analogiuri principiT xdeba mogeba­zaralis ganwilebac.<br />

SezRuduli pasuxismgeblobis sazogadoba<br />

sazogadoebas, romlis pasuxismgebloba kreditorTa winaSe mTeli Tavisi qonebiT<br />

xdeba, xolo partnioris pasuxismgebloba ki sawesdebo kapitalSi misi wilis Sesabamisad<br />

Semoifargleba _ SezRuduli pasuxismgeblobis sazogadoba (Sps) ewodeba. Sps SeiZleba<br />

erTma an ramodenime fizikurma an iuridiulma pirma daafuZnos. SezRuduli pasuxismgeblobis<br />

sazogadobis sawesdebo kapitali sul mcire, 200 lars unda Seadgendes.<br />

sazogadoebis umaRlesi organoa partniorTa kreba, romelsac sameTvalyureo sabWos<br />

Seqmna SeuZlia. sazogadobas uSualod xelmZRvanelobs xmebis umravlesobiT arCeuli<br />

direqtori an direqtorebi. direqtori SeiZleba iyos erTi piri, ramdenime partniori<br />

an SromiTi xelSekrulebiT daqiravebuli piri.<br />

kooperativi<br />

kooperativi iuridiuli piria, romelic wevrTa SromiT saqmianobazea dafuZvnebuli<br />

an wevrTa meurneobis ganviTarebisa da Semosavlis gadidebis mizniT Seqmnili sazogadoebaa.<br />

biznesis organizaciis<br />

formebi<br />

76<br />

!<br />

individualuri<br />

sawarmo<br />

<br />

mewareTa mTavari amocana _ warmoebis awyoba da srulyofa, momxmarebelTa<br />

ndobis mopoveba, ZiriTadad axali samrewvelo teqnologiebisa<br />

da meTodebis danergviT xorcieldeba. es, Tavis mxriv, danaxarjebis<br />

Semcirebas iwvevs, rac metad mniSvenlovania bazris wilis<br />

mopovebisa da mogebis maqsimizaciisaTvis.<br />

biznesis organizaciuli formebi _ upiratesoba da naklovaneba<br />

upiratesobebi naklovanebebi<br />

• organizaciis simartive;<br />

• kontrolis simartive;<br />

• Tavisufali moqmedebis<br />

saSualeba. naklbad stabiluria;<br />

• <strong>saxelmwifo</strong>s mxridan ar<br />

ganicdis mniSvnelovan<br />

regulirebas;<br />

• naklebad stabiluroba<br />

• Znelia fuladi saxsrebis<br />

(kapitalis) mopovebagafarTovebisaTvis;<br />

• arasakmarisad stabiluria;<br />

• SeuzRudavi pasuxismgeblobis<br />

mqone sawarmoa;<br />

• mesakuTre iZulebulia<br />

dakavebuli iyos marTvis<br />

yvela funqciiT.


partnioroba<br />

(amxanagoba)<br />

<br />

korporacia<br />

(saaqcio sazogadoeba)<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

savarjiSo<br />

• organizaciis simartive;<br />

• marTvis specializaciis<br />

SesaZlebloba;<br />

• meti finansuri resursebis<br />

miRebis SesaZlebloba,<br />

vidre indivi<br />

dua luri sawarmos<br />

SemTxvevaSi (fuladi<br />

saxsrebis gaerTianeba);<br />

• SezRuduli regulirebis<br />

subieqti.<br />

• aqciebisa da obligaciebis<br />

gayidvis gziT<br />

kapitalis didi raodenobiT<br />

mozidvis SesaZlebloba;<br />

• aqcionerebis SezRuduli<br />

pasuxismgebloba;<br />

• stabiluroba da mudmivoba.<br />

iuridiuli piri;<br />

• specializebuli xelmZRvaneli,<br />

personalis daqiravebis<br />

SesaZlebloba.<br />

• sakuTrebis dayofis<br />

dros uTanxmoebisaken<br />

midrekileba;<br />

• erT­erTi partnioris<br />

saqmidan gasvlis an gardacvalebis<br />

SemTxvevaSi<br />

avtomaturad wyvets<br />

arsebobas;<br />

• SeuzRudavi pasuxismgeblobis<br />

subieqti;<br />

• SezRuduli finansuri<br />

resursebi.<br />

• <strong>saxelmwifo</strong>s mxridan<br />

mniSvnelovani regulireba;<br />

• mZime sagadasaxado<br />

tvirTi da saorganizacio<br />

xarjebi<br />

• ormagi dabegvra: korporaciul<br />

Semosavlebze da<br />

dividendebze;<br />

• dayofili sakuTreba da<br />

kontroli ( problema _<br />

`xelmZRvaneli _ Semsrulebeli“).<br />

vfiqrobT, vazrovnebT, vimedovnebT…. . .<br />

1. CamoTvaleT xuTi korporacia, romelTa produqciiTac Tqveni<br />

ojaxi sargeblobs.<br />

2. SesaZlebloba rom gqondeT, biznesis organizaciis romel formas<br />

mianiWebdiT upiratesobas da ratom?<br />

3. ra mniSvnelovani gansxvaveba SegiZliaT ipovoT im firmebs Soris,<br />

romlebic momsaxurebis sferoSi moqmedeben (mag: saparikmaxero)<br />

da im firmebs Soris romlebic warmoebis sferoSi moqmedeben (mag:<br />

farmacevtuli qarxana)?<br />

4. SeiZleba Tu ara saaqcio sazogadoeba ganvixiloT, rogorc kerZo<br />

sakuTrebaSi myofi firma?<br />

5. gansazRvreT, romeli tipis firmisaTvis aris damaxasiaTebeli<br />

Semdegi Taviseburebebi?<br />

a) Tavisufali moqmedebis unari;<br />

b) mravali adamianis mozidvis unari;<br />

g) Zlieri ekonomikuri stimuli;<br />

d) didi kapitaluri danaxarjebi;<br />

e) riski konkurentebTan brZolis dros.<br />

77


kiTxvebi<br />

da<br />

davalebebi<br />

78<br />

1. CamoTvaleT saqarTveloSi cnobili savaWro niSnebi (specialuri<br />

gamosaxuleba an simbolo, romelTa saSualebiTac xdeba misi mwarmoebeli<br />

firmis amocnoba).<br />

2. gaixseneT msoflioSi cnobili biznesmenebi. ram ganapiroba maTi<br />

popularoba?<br />

gamoikvlieT Tqvens skolasTan (saxlTan, sofelSi, qalaqSi, raionSi)<br />

arsebuli firmebi organizaciul-samarTlebrivi formis mixedviT.<br />

SeavseT cxrili da upasuxeT, romelia ufro metad gavrcelebuli<br />

forma?<br />

Ffirmebis<br />

dasaxeleba<br />

individ.<br />

sawarmo<br />

(is)<br />

solidar.<br />

pasuxismgeb.<br />

saz­ba<br />

(sps)<br />

komandit.sazba<br />

(ks)<br />

SezRudu<br />

li pasuxismg.<br />

saz­a (Sps)<br />

saaqcio<br />

sazogadoeba<br />

(ss)<br />

kooperativi


!<br />

srulyofili<br />

konkurencia<br />

Zalian<br />

m artivia<br />

mcire<br />

bevri<br />

ar<br />

arsebobs<br />

21<br />

1. ras gulisxmobs konkurencia da rogor<br />

aisaxeba igi adamianis yoveldRiur cxovrebaze?<br />

2. ras gulisxmobs konkurencia <strong>ekonomika</strong>Si?<br />

konkurencia<br />

sxvadasxva bazarze<br />

konkurencia – aris ori an meti adamianis (firmis) miswrafeba miiRon<br />

erTi da igive saqoneli, momsaxureba an sawarmoo da finansuri<br />

resursebi. xSirad mwarmoeblebi metoqeobas uweven sxva mwarmoeblebs,<br />

momxmareblebi ki _ sxva momxmareblebs.<br />

srulyofili konkurenciis bazari _ iseTi bazaria, sadac<br />

bevri gamyidveli erTgvarovan, identur (msgavs, aradiferencirebul)<br />

produqts yidis, aseT bazarze Sesvla da gamosvla SedarebiT<br />

advilia. gamyidvelebi sabazro fass TviTon adgenen.<br />

arasrulyofili konkurenciis bazari _ iseTi bazaria, sadac<br />

gamyidvelTa raodenoba mcirea da isini araerTgvarovan, gansxvavebul<br />

produqts yidian. aseT bazarze Sesvla da gamosvla SedarebiT<br />

rTulia. gamyidvelebi sabazro fass TviTon adgenen.<br />

bazris struqtura ZiriTadi niSnebis mixedviT<br />

monopolisturi<br />

konkurencia<br />

dargSi Sesvlis SesaZlebloba<br />

firmis zoma<br />

firmaTa ricxvi<br />

fasebze kontroli<br />

oligopolia monopolia<br />

blokirebulia<br />

msxvili<br />

erTi<br />

sruli<br />

79


monopolisturi konkurencia<br />

bazrebis umravlesoba Tavisufali konkurenciis pirobas ar<br />

Seesabameba. arasrulyofili konkurenciis bazrebi, srulyofili<br />

konkurenciisgan ramdenime niSniT gansxvavdebian. bazarTa umravlesobaSi<br />

produqti araidenturia, gansxvavebulia, magram arsebobs<br />

ramdenime axlo Semcvleli. aseT bazars monopolisturi<br />

konkurenciis bazari ewodeba.<br />

oligopolia<br />

bevr bazarze Sesvla ar aris advili maRali kapitaluri danaxarjebisa<br />

da im mwarmoeblebTan konkurenciis gamo, romlebic<br />

cnobil, kargad reklamirebul samarko<br />

produqts yidian. aseTi bazari xasiaTdeba msxvili gamyidvelebis<br />

mcire raodenobiT da ara mravali wvrilmovaWriT.<br />

magaliTad, saqarTveloSi iseTi produqtebisa da momsaxurebis<br />

mwarmoebelTa Soris, rogoricaa ludi, Rvino, fiWuri<br />

kavSirgabmulobis satelefono momsaxureba, telekompaniebi<br />

_ mxolod ramdenime konkurentuli firmaa. aseT bazars oligopoliuri bazari ewodeba.<br />

bazarze ramdenime (5-dan 10-mde) mwarmoebelia, romlebic erTgvarovan (msgavs)<br />

an gansxvavebul (diferencirebul) saqonels awarmoeben, oligopolia warmoiqmneba.<br />

rodesac bazarze ramdenime msxvili firma dominirebs, SesaZloa fasebis Sesaxeb faruli<br />

SeTanxmebac moxdes.<br />

monopolia<br />

rodesac bazarze mxolod erTi gamyidvelia (mwarmoebelia),<br />

romelic gansakuTrebul, unikalur saqonels yidis,<br />

bazarze monopolia warmoiqmneba. arsebobs ekonomikis<br />

iseTi seqtorebi, sadac monopoliis arseboba bazris ganviTarebis<br />

aucilebel pirobebs uzrunvelyofs, sadac<br />

konkurencia SesaZlebelia araefeqtianic ki iyos, an saer­<br />

Tod SeuZlebelia. aseT pirobebSi bunebrivi (legaluri)<br />

monopolia warmoiqmneba.<br />

monopoliis pirobebSi, rodesac bazarze erTi gamyidvelia,<br />

igi maRal fasebs awesebs, ugulebelyofs momxmareblis<br />

interesebs, qmnis arakeTilsindisier konkurentul<br />

garemos. am dros ar xdeba xarisxis mudmivi gaumjobeseba da Sesabamisad monopoliuri<br />

dargi naklebad viTardeba. bazarze SesaZlebelia iseTi situaciac Seiqmnas, rodesac mxolod<br />

erTi myidveli arsebobs. am dros arasrulyofili konkurenciis bazarze firmebi<br />

xSirad, urTierTdamokidebulebi arian – erTi firmis qmedeba did gavlenas axdens<br />

konkurentebze. arasrulyofili konkurenciis bazarze, msxvili da wvrili firmebi<br />

did mniSvnelobas aniWeben arasafaso konkurencias da reklamas.<br />

oligopolistebi xSirad mogebulni rCebian, Tu konkurentebs gaurigdebian da maT­<br />

Tan TanamSromlobas daTanxmdebian. garigebaSi myofi firmebi erTdroulad irCeven da<br />

bazars karnaxoben maRal fass, romelic maTi damatebiTi mogebis garantiaa. oligopoliis<br />

dros, xSirad adgili aqvs farul SeTanxmebas saqonlisa da momsaxurebis sabazro<br />

fasis, momxmareblis kategoriis, saqmianobis sferos, bazris wilis, resursebis wyaros<br />

Sesaxeb.<br />

garigebaSi myofi oligopolistebis gaerTianebas kartels uwodeben. oligopoliur<br />

SeTanxmebas, arakanonieri xasiaTi aqvs, rac <strong>saxelmwifo</strong>s mxridan gamovlenasa da mowesrigebas<br />

moiTxovs.<br />

arasrulyofili konkurenciis bazarze firmebi xSirad, urTierTdamokidebulebi<br />

arian – erTi firmis qmedeba did gavlenas axdens konkurentebze.<br />

arasrulyofili konkurenciis bazarze, msxvili da wvrili firmebi did mniSvnelobas<br />

aniWeben arasafaso konkurencias da reklamas.<br />

80


oligopolistebi xSirad mogebulni rCebian, Tu konkurentebs gaurigdebian da maT­<br />

Tan TanamSromlobas daTanxmdebian. garigebaSi myofi firmebi erTdroulad irCeven da<br />

bazars karnaxoben maRal fass, romelic maTi damatebiTi mogebis garantiaa. oligopoliis<br />

dros, xSirad adgili aqvs farul SeTanxmebas saqonlisa da momsaxurebis sabazro<br />

fasis, momxmareblis kategoriis, saqmianobis sferos, bazris wilis, resursebis wyaros<br />

Sesaxeb. garigebaSi myofi oligopolistebis gaerTianebas kartels uwodeben.<br />

oligopoliur SeTanxmebas, arakanonieri xasiaTi aqvs, rac <strong>saxelmwifo</strong>s mxridan<br />

gamovlenasa da mowesrigebas moiTxovs.<br />

savarjiSo<br />

1<br />

es<br />

sainteresoa<br />

savarjiSo<br />

2<br />

? 1. ratom ar aRiareben eWvmitanilebi, vin aris monopolisti?<br />

srulyofili da arasrulyofili konkurenciis bazrebi<br />

bazris Taviseburebis gaTvaliswinebiT axseniT, rogor Seicvleba<br />

gayidvebis moculoba produqtze fasis gazrdis an Semcirebis pirobebSi?<br />

Tu:<br />

a. kaxeli mevenaxe yurZnis fass gazrdis/Seamcirebs;<br />

b. adgilobrivi eleqtrokompania fass gazrdis/Seamcirebs;<br />

g. erT-erTi fiWuri kavSirgabmulobis kompania saqarTveloSi fass<br />

gazrdis/Seamcirebs;<br />

d. yvavilebis maRazia TbilisSi fass gazrdis/Seamcirebs.<br />

konkurenciaSi Rirseuli gamarjvebis mizniT, firmebi gansakuTrebul<br />

mniSvnelobas eqsperimentebs aniWeben.<br />

• firma `makdonaldsi” axali saxis kafe-restornebis, menius, kerZebis<br />

da fasebis cvlilebis gziT mudmivad atarebs eqsperimentebs;<br />

• kompania IBM-is<br />

warmatebas garkveulwilad e.w. `Tavisuflad gasrolili<br />

isari” ganapirobebs. kerZod is, rom kompania xSirad axal, TiTqosda<br />

uazro da saocar ideebs axorcielebs, romelTac Semdgom udidesi<br />

vin aris monopolisti?<br />

agenti mevludi bazarze moqmed firmaTagan monopolistis gamovlenas<br />

cdilobs. moismineT monopolistobaSi eWvmitanilTa argumentebi.<br />

gamoricxvis meTodis saSualebiT, daexmareT agent mevluds<br />

gansazRvros, romeli bazris struqturaze moqmedebs TiToeuli maTgani.<br />

eWvmitanilTa Cvenebebs maswavlebeli gagacnobT.<br />

eWvmitanilebi bazris struqtura<br />

2. sasurvelia Tu ara monopoliis arseboba bazarze? daasabuTeT.<br />

81


82<br />

22<br />

konkurencia da<br />

SeTanxmeba<br />

imsjeleT gaixseneT arasrulyofili konkurenciis saxeebi.<br />

axseniT am sqemis Sinaarsi.<br />

arasrulyofili konkurenciis bazarze firmebi xSirad, urTierTdamokidebulebi<br />

arian – erTi firmis qmedeba did gavlenas axdens konkurentebze.<br />

arasrulyofili konkurenciis bazarze, msxvili da wvrili firmebi did mniSvnelobas<br />

aniWeben arasafaso konkurencias da reklamas.<br />

oligopolistebi xSirad mogebulni rCebian, Tu konkurentebs gaurigdebian da maT­<br />

Tan TanamSromlobas daTanxmdebian. garigebaSi myofi firmebi erTdroulad irCeven da<br />

bazars karnaxoben maRal fass, romelic maTi damatebiTi mogebis garantiaa. oligolpoliis<br />

dros, xSirad adgili aqvs farul SeTanxmebas saqonlisa da momsaxurebis sabazro<br />

fasis, momxmareblis kategoriis, saqmianobis sferos, bazris wilis, resursebis wyaros<br />

Sesaxeb. garigebaSi myofi oligopolistebis gaerTianebas kartels uwodeben.<br />

oligopoliur SeTanxmebas, arakanonieri xasiaTi aqvs, rac <strong>saxelmwifo</strong>s mxridan<br />

gamovlenasa da mowesrigebas moiTxovs.<br />

savarjiSo<br />

urTierTda -<br />

mo kidebuleba<br />

saidumlo<br />

SeTanxmeba<br />

arasrulyofili<br />

konkurenciis<br />

firmebi<br />

moqiSpe benzingasamarTi sadgurebi<br />

kaxas da giorgis qalaqis gareubanSi, gzatkecilis sxvadasxva<br />

mxares benzingasamarTi sadgurebi aqvT. maxloblad sxva sadguri ar<br />

aris. orive sadgurze erTnairi fasebia. es maT firniSze kargad Cans.<br />

a) kaxa fasis gazrdas apirebs, radgan Tvlis,<br />

rom fasis umniSvnelod gazrdis SemTxvevaSi,<br />

adamianebi daaxloebiT, igave raodenobis benzins<br />

SeiZenen. is Tvlis, rom mcire danakargebs<br />

maRali fasebiT aanazRaurebs.<br />

b) giorgi fasis Semcirebas apirebs, radgan<br />

hgonia, rom fasis umniSvnelod Semcirebis Sem­<br />

TxvevaSi, kaxas momxmarebels daakargvinebs. igi<br />

darwmunebulia, rom TiToeul litrze Semosavlebis<br />

mcireoden klebas, gacilebiT meti raodenobis<br />

benzinis gayidviT aanazRaurebs.<br />

arasafaso<br />

konkurencia


es<br />

sainteresoa<br />

ese<br />

neqo _ navTobis eqsportiori qveynebis orgnizacia (OPEThe<br />

Organization<br />

of the Petroleum Exporting Countries) – aris gaerTianeba, romelic navTobgadamamuSavebeli<br />

magnatebis gaerTianebis Sedegad, navTobze erTiani<br />

fasebis dawesebis mizniT Seiqmna. am organizaciis wevrebi is qveynebi<br />

arian, romelTa <strong>ekonomika</strong> mniSvnelovnadaa damokidebuli navTobis<br />

eqsportidan miRebul Semosavalze. misi ZiriTadi mizani navTobis<br />

msoflio fasebis kontrolia.<br />

neqo, rogorc mudmivad moqmedi ara<strong>saxelmwifo</strong> organizacia, 1960<br />

wlis 10­14 seqtembers belgradis konferenciaze Seiqmna. Tavdapirvelad<br />

mis SemadgenlobaSi xuTi qveyana gaerTianda: irani, erayi, quveiTi,<br />

saudis arabeTi da venesuela. maT mogvianebiT kidev rva qveyana SeuerTda:<br />

katari (1961), indonezia (1962), libia (1962), gaerTianebuli arabTa<br />

emiratebi (1967), alJiri (1969), nigeria (1971), ekvadori (1973-1992), gabani<br />

(1975-1994).<br />

neqos Stab-bina Tavdapirvelad JenevaSi (Sveicaria) mdebareobda.<br />

1965 wlis 1 seqtembridan is venaSi (avstria) gadavida.<br />

neqos mizania organizaciis wevr qveynebs Soris saqmianobis koordinacia<br />

da saerTo politikis SemuSaveba navTobis mopovebis, fasebis<br />

dawesebisa da stabilizaciis, navTobis momxmarebelTa stabiluri momaragebis<br />

uzrunvelyofis, navTobis dargSi Cadebuli investiciebidan<br />

ukugebis miRebis mizniT.<br />

neqos wevri qveynebi msoflio navTobis maragebis 2/3­s akontroleben.<br />

maT wilze msoflio navTobis mopovebis 40% da msoflio navTobis<br />

eqsportis naxevari modis.<br />

amonaweri sagazeTo statiidan:<br />

`gasul saukuneSi, msoflioSi momxdar progress umeteswilad<br />

safuZveli im qveynebis bazrebze Caeyara, sadac aris an iyo arasrulyofili<br />

konkurencia. es progresi axali saqonlis Seqmnasa da arsebulze<br />

fasis Semcirebas gulisxmobs. Cveni keTildReoba gaizrdeba, Tu<br />

<strong>saxelmwifo</strong> Tavs daanebebs bazrebis konkurentulobis SenarCunebas<br />

da maT oligopoliebad an monopoliebad gadaqcevas dauSvebs.~<br />

dawereT Tqveni Sefaseba statiaSi gamoTqmuli mosazrebis Sesaxeb.<br />

sabazro struqturis oTxi modeli (martivad)<br />

1. srulyofili konkurencia, yurZeni, kitri, vaSli...<br />

saqarTvelos soflis meurneoba ekonomistebis azriTY<br />

wminda, anu srulyofili konkurenciis bazars uaxlovdeba.<br />

saqarTveloSi uamravi fermeria, romlebsac sasoflosameurneo<br />

produqtebi mohyavT. SemodgomiT, rTvelis<br />

dros, mTeli saqarTvelo, gansakuTrebiT ki kaxeTis regioni<br />

yurZnis bazrad iqceva, sadac uamravi glexi rqawiTelis da<br />

saferavis jiSis yurZens yidis. am bazarze uamravi myidvelia,<br />

rogorc kerZo pirebi, aseve Rvinis qarxnebi.<br />

damatebiTi<br />

sakiTxavi<br />

83


adgan yurZnis gamyidvelebis ricxvi sakmaod didia,<br />

saeWvoa, rom romelime fermerma fasis daweseba an masze<br />

gavlenis moxdena SeZlos.<br />

saqarTvelos TiTqmis yvela regionSi kitri erT­erTi<br />

ZiriTadi sasoflo­sameurneo kulturaa. davuSvaT, kitris<br />

bazarze Sesvla da adgilobrivi fermerebis bazar­<br />

Si ezoSi moyvanili kitris gayidva moisurveT. bazarze<br />

kitris mravalferovnebaa, Tqveni kitri raionSi moyvanilis<br />

identuri Tu ara, msgavsi iqneba. Tu fermerebis bazarze 1 kg kitris fasi daaxloebiT<br />

0.80 laria, Tqven ki ufro Zvirad gayidvas SeecdebiT, SeiZleba erTic ver gayidoT.<br />

Tu gadawyvitavT, kitri bazarze aRar gaitanoT, mTliani miwodeba imdenad ar<br />

Semcirdeba, rom fasis gazrda gamoiwvios. Tqven ar SegiZliaT fasebis gakontroleba,<br />

radgan bazarze uamravi sxva gamyidvelia. albaT, TqvenTvis aramomgebiani iqneba<br />

arasafaso konkurenciis (magaliTad, reklamis) gamoyeneba imisaTvis, rom momxmarebeli<br />

kitrSi ufro maRali fasis gadaxdaze daiTanxmoT, radgan yvela kitri erTmaneTis<br />

msgavsia.<br />

qarTveli fermerebi saerTaSoriso bazarze arsebuli konkurenciis gamo seriozuli<br />

sirTuleebis winaSe dganan. aviRoT Tundac qarTuli vaSli. imisaTvis, rom man<br />

SeZlos jansaRi konkurencia gauwios iseT mimwodeblebs, rogoricaa moldova, poloneTi<br />

da CineTi, qarTvelma mexileebma xilis moyvanis da xexilis baRebis movlapatronobis<br />

Tanamedrove meTodebi unda aiTvison, raTa msxvili, xraSuna, aromatuli<br />

da lamazi Seferilobis vaSli awarmoon. garda amisa, mosavlis aRebis Semdeg, maT<br />

vaSli civ sacavebSi Tveebis manZilze unda Seinaxon, raTa weliwadis nebismier dros<br />

bazris moTxovnebis dakmayofileba SeZlon. garda amisa, aucilebelia Tanamedrove<br />

vaSlis jiSebis moyvana, rac saerTaSoriso bazarze konkurentunarianobis erT­erTi<br />

sawindaria.<br />

2. monopolisturi konkurencia da Tqveni varcxniloba<br />

Tu qalaqSi an did dasaxlebaSi cxovrobT,<br />

Tqvenc da Tqvens megobrebsac didi arCevani gaqvT,<br />

sad gaikeToT axali varcxniloba. fasi, romelsac<br />

Cveulebrivi<br />

varcxnilobisaTvis ixdiT, albaT ramdenime<br />

laridan (fasdaklebis periodSi) ramdenime aTeul<br />

laramde (prestiJul salonSi) meryeobs. Tu<br />

amdeni stilistia,<br />

ratom ar amcirebs konkurencia fasebs ise, rom<br />

nebismieri varcxnilobis gakeTeba erTidaimave<br />

fasad iyos SesaZlebeli?<br />

pasuxs bazris struqturis erT­erTi tipi _ monopolisturi konkurencia iZleva.<br />

silamazis salonebi, benzingasamarTi sadgurebi, kafeebi, restornebi, qimwmenda,<br />

bevri TvisebiT wminda konkurenciis bazrebs hgvanan. dargSi mravali konkurenti<br />

gamyidveli an firmaa da SedarebiT advilia am saxis biznesis dawyeba. monopolisturi<br />

konkurenciis dros, gamyidvelebi cdiloben momxmareblebi daarwmunon, rom<br />

maTi produqcia sxva gamyidvelebis produqciisagan gansxvavebulia da erTmaneTs<br />

konkurencias ara fasis SemcirebiT, aramed sxva saSualebebiT uweven.<br />

zogs akvirvebs varcxnilobis fasebs Soris aseTi didi gansxvaveba. ZviradRirebulma<br />

stilistma SeiZleba ganacxados, rom is ukeT akeTebs Tavis saqmes da uaxlesi<br />

varcxnilobebi icis, ris gamoc misi momsaxureba ufro Zviria. mas momxmareblis<br />

darwmuneba da fasebze gavlenac SeuZlia. saparikmaxeroebi, xSirad erTmaneTs metoqeobas<br />

arasafaso konkurenciis gziT uweven. maT momxmareblis mizidva ukeTesi adg­<br />

84


ilmdebareobiT, momxibvleli garemoTi, xelsayreli samuSao saaTebiT SeuZliaT.<br />

arasafaso konkurencia farTod aris gavrcelebuli monopolisturi konkurenciis<br />

pirobebSi.<br />

3. oligopolia, burRuleulis sauzme da mobiluri telefoni<br />

oligopolia, dargSi ramdenime firmis arsebobas niSnavs.<br />

oligopoliur dargSi firma awarmoebs produqcias,<br />

romelic gansxvavdeba am dargis sxva firmebis<br />

produqciisagan (magaliTad, erTi firmis ludi an nayini<br />

gansxvavdeba sxva firmis produqciisagan), an SeiZleba<br />

garkveulwilad sxva produqtebis identuric ki iyos.<br />

radgan dargSi ramdenime gamyidvelia, maT dawesebuli<br />

fasis gakontroleba SeuZliaT. mcirericxovnobis gamo<br />

oligopoliurma firmebma konkurentebis mier dawesebul<br />

fasebs didi yuradReba unda miaqcion. magaliTad,<br />

Tuki erTi aviakompania fasebs Seamcirebs, sxvebmac mxari<br />

unda auban. oligopoliuri firmebis sididis gamo, xSirad axali firmisaTvis dargSi<br />

Sesvla da arsebul firmebTan konkurencia Znelia.<br />

ueWvelad SeniSnavdiT, rom saqarTveloSi arsebuli ludis<br />

mwarmoebeli firmebi reklamaze uamrav fuls xarjaven<br />

da mas konkurenciis saSualebad iyeneben. konkurenciis ase­<br />

Ti ZviradRirebuli gza damaxasiaTebelia iseTi oligopoliuri<br />

dargisaTvis, sadac diferencirebuli produqcia<br />

iyideba. magaliTad, avtomanqanebi, aviakompaniebi. reklama<br />

imdenad ZviradRirebulia, rom es faqtori dargidan konkurentebis<br />

CamoSorebas emsaxureba.<br />

saqarTveloSi amJamad arsebuli fiWuri kavSirgabmulobis<br />

momsaxurebis kompaniebs `magTikomsa”<br />

da `jeosels” Soris, konkurenciul brZolaSi<br />

gamarjvebulis dasaxeleba Znelia, radgan isini<br />

mudmivad ejibrebian erTmaneTs da cdiloben<br />

axali sixSireebis, momsaxurebis saxeebisa da<br />

produqtis danergvas. orive udides fuls xarjavs<br />

axal teqnologiebze, reklamaze, saqvelmoqmedo<br />

saqmianobaze. aRsaniSnavia, rom bolo<br />

periodSi saqarTvelos bazarze Semovida axali<br />

konkurenti _ `bilaini”, romelic ukve mZafrad<br />

CaerTo konkurentul brZolaSi.<br />

roca dargSi ramdenime msxvili mwarmoebelia, arsebobs faruli SeTanxmebis Sesa­<br />

Zlebloba. es imas niSnavs, rom SesaZlebelia firmebma fasebis daweseba erToblivad,<br />

aralegalurad scadon. amitom aris, rom oligopoliebis saqmianobas xSirad didi yuradRebiT<br />

ekidebian <strong>saxelmwifo</strong> regulirebis organoebi.<br />

4. monopolia da almasebi<br />

monopoliis gansazRvreba Zalze martivia: monopolia maSin arsebobs, roca unikaluri<br />

produqtis erTaderTi gamyidvelia. realuri cxovrebidan monopoliis magali­<br />

Tis motana advili ar aris, radgan nebismier biznesSi garkveuli saxis konkurenciaa.<br />

Tu patara qalaqSi saxaWapure mxolod Tqven gaqvT, ras niSnavs es, monopolia<br />

gaqvT, Tu konkurenciaSi xarT Cabmuli sxva saxis restornebTan?<br />

arian Tu ara sinamdvileSi profesionaluri sportuli gundebi geografiuli<br />

monopoliebi?<br />

85


almasis industria monopoliis nimuSia, romelic<br />

konkurenciis kontrolis uunarobis gamo daiSala.<br />

msoflioSi cnobilia kompania ,,de­birsi”, (De Beers)<br />

1930-iani wlebidan dawyebuli mTeli XX saukunis man­<br />

Zilze, ofisebiT Sveicariasa da samxreT afrikaSi, akontrolebda<br />

msoflioSi miwodebuli almasis udides<br />

nawils. ,,debirsi” monopoliis kargi magaliTia. almasis<br />

miwodebis kontrolma, SeaZlebina mas gasayidad miwodebuli<br />

almasis raodenoba SeezRuda da imaze met fasad<br />

gaeyida, vidre es konkurenciis pirobebSi iqneboda SesaZlebeli. monopolisti rom<br />

gaxdes, kompaniam Sesvlis mkacri barierebi unda daawesos – es konkurentebis Camo­<br />

Sorebis gzaa. wlebis ganmavlobaSi, nedli almasis SesyidviT, ,,de­birsi” Tavidan<br />

icilebda konkurencias. is dabal fasad almasis SesyidviT da maRal fasad gayidviT<br />

bazars fasebs karnaxobda. amave dros, maRali moTxovnis SesanarCuneblad da savaWro<br />

markis gasaZliereblad, arasafaso konkurenciis formas _ reklamas (`almasi mudmivia~)<br />

iyenebda.<br />

saukunis bolos, `de­birsma” monopoliuri kontroli TandaTan dakarga da monopoliidan<br />

wasvla gadawyvita. ruseTma, miuxedavad imisa, rom oficialurad jer kidev<br />

monopoliis nawili iyo, almasis miyidva uSualod sxva qveynebisaTvis `debirsis~<br />

gverdis avliT daiwyo. kanadasa da afrikaSi almasis aRmoCenam, ,,de­birss” miwodebis<br />

kontroli gaurTula. afrikis saomar mdgomareobaSi myofi qveynebidan, almasis Sesyidvis<br />

eTikurma problemebma, ,,de­birsis” problemebi kidev ufro gaarTula. 2000<br />

wlis ivlisSi, ,,de­birsma” gamoacxada, rom is aRar apirebs almasis msoflio miwodebis<br />

kontrols da monopolia oficialurad daiSala.<br />

miuxedavad imisa, rom wminda monopoliis SemTxvevebi iSviaTia, `TiTqmis monopoliebis~<br />

arsebobam SeiZleba <strong>ekonomika</strong>s problemebi Seuqmnas. monopoliebs mkacri<br />

kontroli aqvT, maTive dawesebul fasebze da mcire stimuli imisa, rom efeqtianebi<br />

da inovaciurebi iyvnen.<br />

SeerTebul StatebSi monopoliebi aralegaluria, magram firmebis mxridan saku­<br />

Tari monopoliis dacvis mcdeloba arsebobs.<br />

davaleba amonaweri sagazeTo statiidan:<br />

`gasul saukuneSi, msoflioSi momxdar progress umeteswilad<br />

safuZveli im qveynebis bazrebze Caeyara, sadac aris an iyo arasrulyofili<br />

konkurencia. es progresi axali saqonlis Seqmnasa da arsebulze<br />

fasis Semcirebas gulisxmobs. Cveni keTildReoba gaizrdeba,<br />

Tu <strong>saxelmwifo</strong> Tavs daanebebs bazrebis konkurentulobis SenarCunebas<br />

da maT oligopoliebad an monopoliebad gadaqcevas dauSvebs.~<br />

86<br />

aRwereT Tqveni Sefaseba statiaSi gamoTqmuli mosazrebis Sesaxeb.


IV<br />

davaleba<br />

? mewarmeebis nawils miaCnia, rom rac met saqonels gaitans bazarze, miT<br />

mdgradoba<br />

bazarze<br />

23<br />

ra xdeba<br />

realur bazarze?<br />

1. ra xdeba realur bazarze, rodesac ramdenime gamyidvelia gaba<br />

tonebuli?<br />

2. ra xdeba realur bazarze, rodesac uamravi gamyidveli erTgvarovan<br />

saqonels yidis?<br />

3. ra xdeba bazarze, rodesac myidvelebis raodenoba Zalian mcirea?<br />

4. albaT gagigiaT gamoTqma `bazari datova”. xom ar iciT, ras gulisxmobs<br />

es fraza?<br />

5. Tqveni azriT, ra pirobebi aiZulebs mewarmes bazris datovebas?<br />

meti mogebis miRebas SeZlebs. rogor fiqrobT, aseTi logikiT muSaoba uzrunvelyofs<br />

maT gamdidrebas?<br />

1<br />

nikas skolaSi wasvlisas gzis gadakveTa miwisqveSa gadasasvleliT uwevs.<br />

iq uamravi savaWro pavilionia, sadac saTamaSoebi, tansacmeli da fexsacmeli<br />

iyideba. nikas ocnebaa skolis damTavrebisTanave musikaluri maRazia gaxsnas.<br />

mas gansakuTrebiT kuTxis pavilioni moswons. momavali maRaziis gaxsnas<br />

swored iq gegmavs. am pavilionSi Tavdapirvelad tansacmlis maRazia iyo,<br />

Semdeg saTamaSoebi iyideboda, bolos kompiuteruli momsaxurebis centri<br />

gaixsna, Tumca ori Tvec ar gasula, rac daixura. kvlav gamoCnda warwera ,,qiravdeba’’.<br />

biWma yuri mohkra frazas ,,arc momsaxurebam gaamarTla”.<br />

nikas ainteresebs, ratom ver moaxerxes mewarmeebma am pavilions momgebiani<br />

biznesis awyoba maSin, roca mezobeli maRaziebi warmatebiT muSaoben?<br />

1. daexmareT nikas biznesis warumateblobis yvela SesaZlo mizezi daafiqsiros:<br />

• cudi adgilmdebareoba;<br />

• araefeqturi momsaxureba;<br />

• cudi samuSao pirobebi;<br />

• dabali xarisxis saqoneli;<br />

• Zalian maRali fasebi;<br />

• konkurentTa simravle;<br />

• reklamis ararseboba;<br />

• arapopularuli, modas CamorCenili saqoneli;<br />

• sxva? gaakeTeT komentari Tqvens Sefasebebze.<br />

2. giocnebiaT biznesmenobaze? rogor warmogidgeniaT Tqveni<br />

cxovreba ocnebis asrulebis SemTxvevaSi?<br />

87


iznesis floba, an mis mmarTvelad yofna adamianebSi keTildReobis asociacias<br />

iwvevs: bevri fuli, kargi manqana, feSenebeluri saxli, yvela ocnebis asruleba... Tumca,<br />

vis ojaxsac biznesTan Sexeba Hhqonia, ecodineba, ra rTulia mogebis miReba. biznesis dawyebidan<br />

saocnebo cxovrebamde rTuli gzaa gasavleli. miRweuli warmateba ki samudamo<br />

ar aris. xSirad warmatebiT wamowyebul biznessac uWirs sasurveli mdgomareobis xangrZlivad<br />

SenarCuneba da bazris datoveba uxdeba.<br />

Tu momxmarebels saqoneli moswons, moTxovna izrdeba da gamyidveli mogebuli rCeba.<br />

moTxovna mZlavri sabazro faqtoria. is mewarmes ufro meti da xarisxiani produqciis<br />

warmoebis stimuls aZlevs. Tu droTa ganmavlobaSi saqonlis mimarT momxmareblis interesi<br />

klebulobs – moTxovna mcirdeba. Tu mewarmem alternatiuli saqonlis warmoebaze<br />

drulad ar ifiqra, gakotrebis safrTxis winaSe aRmoCndeba. bazris mkacri kanonebi<br />

mewarmeebs mSvidad yofnis saSualebas ar aZlevs. bazarze warmateba bizness erTguli<br />

klientebis SeZenis da mdgrad mdgomareobaSi yofnis SesaZleblobas aZlevs.<br />

mewarmem momxmareblis survilebi, midrekilebebi, prioritetebi unda Seiswavlos<br />

da maTi gaTvaliswinebiT imoqmedos.<br />

nebismieri mewarmisaTvis bazarze sasurveli mdgomareoba, dargSi mniSvnelovani<br />

sabazro wilis mopovebaa.<br />

rogor SeiZleba bazris wilis gazrda? es firmebis sastarto (sawyis) pirobebsa da<br />

finansur mdgomareobazea damokidebuli.<br />

bazris wilis gasazrdelad firmebi erTdroulad ramdenime gegmis (strategiis)<br />

mixedviT moqmedeben:<br />

88<br />

!<br />

!<br />

mdgradoba bazarze biznesis momgebian mdgomareobaSi<br />

xangrZliv arsebobas niSnavs.<br />

bazarze mdgradi mdgomareobis SesanarCuneblad sawarmo<br />

iZulebulia potenciur myidvels Tavi moawonos<br />

daainteresos<br />

sakuTari<br />

produqciiT<br />

SesTavazos<br />

maRali xarisxis<br />

da/<br />

an dabali fasis<br />

mqone produqcia<br />

SesTavazos<br />

gansxvavebuli<br />

momsaxureba<br />

SesTavazos<br />

novatoruli<br />

saqoneli<br />

bazris wili ganisazRvreba imiT, Tu ra nawili ukavia kompaniis mier<br />

warmoebul produqcias, am dargSi mTlianad warmoebuli produqciis<br />

raodenobidan. wils procentulad gansazRvraven. rac ufro metia mTlianad<br />

warmoebuli produqciidan (100 %­dan), mocemuli kompaniis mier<br />

warmoebuli produqcia, miT ukeTesi mdgomareoba aqvs kompanias bazarze.


firmis strategia ras niSnavs? magaliTi<br />

moulodnelad<br />

gaCen<br />

i-<br />

li<br />

xelsayreli<br />

SesaZ-<br />

leblobebiT<br />

lobasargeb-<br />

momxmareblisaTvis alter<br />

natiuli saqon lis an<br />

momsaxurebis<br />

miwod<br />

eba<br />

sabazro cvlilebebis<br />

gaT valiswineba<br />

produqciis<br />

an<br />

saw<br />

arm<br />

oo<br />

procesis<br />

gaumj<br />

ob<br />

eseba<br />

sazogadoebrivi tenden<br />

ciebis operatiuli<br />

ga-mo ye neba.<br />

iseTi SesaZleblobebis gamoyeneba,<br />

rogoricaa<br />

prod<br />

u-<br />

q tze moTxovnis zrda, iafi<br />

re sursebis baz ris povna, momgebiani<br />

idei<br />

s aRmoCena,<br />

kom-<br />

pan<br />

ia<br />

Ta<br />

Serwyma,<br />

axali<br />

teqn<br />

o-<br />

logiebis danergva da sxv.<br />

firmebi produqtis an mom-<br />

saxurebis<br />

axal<br />

varia<br />

nt<br />

ebs<br />

SeimuSaveben.<br />

damatebiTi momsaxurebis<br />

SeTavazeba.<br />

firmebi mier axali produqciis<br />

Seqmna, an Zvelis<br />

da xve wa da moxmarebis<br />

gaadvileba.<br />

sazogadoebrivi<br />

cnob<br />

ie-<br />

reba da cxovrebis stili,<br />

mosaxleobis<br />

Semos<br />

av-<br />

lebis<br />

zrdasT<br />

an<br />

da<br />

sxva<br />

qveynebTan integraciis<br />

Se de gad icvleba, rac biz-<br />

nesisaTvis<br />

axal<br />

xels<br />

ayrel<br />

SesaZleb lobebs qmnis.<br />

kompaniebi yiduloben licenziebs,<br />

patentebs, savaWro niSnebs. didi<br />

xania<br />

`koka-kolasa~<br />

da<br />

`makdon<br />

ald-<br />

sis~ produqcia mxolod aSS-Si aRar<br />

iyideba.<br />

swrafi safosto momsaxurebis<br />

fir mebi `iu-pi-esi~ (UPS) da `dieiC-eli~<br />

(DHL) popularuli gaxda<br />

msofl<br />

ios<br />

nebismier<br />

wertilSi,<br />

ad-<br />

re satebisaTvis gzavnilebis 2-3<br />

dReSi mitaniT, es daexmara imaSi,<br />

rom mraval qveyanaSi, maT Soris<br />

saqarTveloSic, konkurentTa momsaxureba<br />

daeCrdila da bazris lideri<br />

gamxdariyo.<br />

amerikulma kompaniam `SERVE~, ro-<br />

melic<br />

grandiozul<br />

stacion<br />

al<br />

ur<br />

avtosaremonto saxelosnoebs<br />

flobs, avtomanqanis mflobelebs<br />

dama tebiTi momsaxurebac SesTavaza.<br />

man<br />

saxelosnoebi<br />

gamoZ<br />

ax<br />

ebiT<br />

( mobiluri<br />

saremonto<br />

saxel<br />

osnoebi)<br />

gaxsna,<br />

riTac<br />

mniSvnelovan<br />

warm<br />

at<br />

e-<br />

bas miaRwia da bazris lideri gaxda.<br />

saTvaleebis<br />

Canacvleba<br />

kont<br />

aq-<br />

turi<br />

linzebiT,<br />

rZisa<br />

da<br />

nat<br />

u-<br />

raluri wvenebisaTvis minis taris,<br />

plastmasis, Tunuqis an qaRaldis<br />

SefuTviT Secvla, cifruli<br />

fotografiis bazarze gamoCena, amis<br />

saukeTeso magaliTia.<br />

Tu<br />

mosaxleobis<br />

did<br />

nawils<br />

xel<br />

ov-<br />

nuri tyavis qurTukebi ufro metad<br />

izidavs,<br />

vidre<br />

bun<br />

ebrivi,<br />

mewarmem<br />

es tendencia axali produqtebis<br />

dagegmvisas unda gamoiyenos.<br />

sam Seneblo bumi TbilisSi, sazogadoebrivi<br />

tendenciebis biznesze<br />

zegavlenis naTeli magaliTia.<br />

naxazze naCvenebia erT bazarze moRvawe xuTi msxvili kompania. maTgan yvelaze<br />

didi wili CC kompanias aqvs. is 40%­is tolia. CC kompania bazris lideria.<br />

89


? • romel kompanias aqvs yvelaze mcire wili?<br />

90<br />

!<br />

ese<br />

kiTxvebi<br />

da<br />

davalebebi<br />

• rogor unda imoqmedos am kompaniam, wilis gazrda rom SeZlos?<br />

• rogor Seicvleba CC kompaniis mdgomareoba bazarze,<br />

Tu kompania wilis 10%­iT gazrdas moaxerxebs?<br />

• CamoTvaleT TqvenTvis cnobili lideri kompaniebi.<br />

• rogor unda miaRwios kompaniam liderobas bazarze?<br />

1. rogor unda daarwmunos kompaniam momxmarebeli, rom bazarze saukeTeso<br />

saqonels swored is sTavazobs?<br />

2. CamoTvaleT TqvenTvis cnobili kompaniebis aqciebi, romelic momxmareblis<br />

yuradRebis misapyrobad Catarda.<br />

• bazarze aravis aqvs mogebis garantia!<br />

• produqtis gasaReba damokidebulia imaze, Tu rogor SeZlebs<br />

firma momxmarebelis darwmunebas, rom swored mis mier warmodgenili<br />

saqonelia saukeTeso. sworad SerCeuli sareklamo fraza, momxmarebels<br />

am saqonlis SeZenis survils uCens.<br />

me rom sakuTari biznesi mqondes...<br />

waikiTxeT qvemoT moyvanili sagazeTo statiis fragmentebi da<br />

TiToeul SemTxvevaSi gansazRvreT:<br />

1. Seicvleba Tu ara biznesis mier bazarze dakavebuli pozicia?<br />

2. Tu TvliT, rom Seicvleba, gansazRvreT cvlilebis mimarTuleba–<br />

gamyardeba, Semcirdeba Tu kraxiT daasrulebs arsebobas?<br />

3. Tu aRniSnuli movlena cvlilebas ar iwvevs, axseniT ratom?<br />

a) kafe `iebSi”, <strong>saxelmwifo</strong> sanitaruli samsaxuris inspeqciam, sanitaruli<br />

normebis darRveva daafiqsira;<br />

b) qaTmis gripis epidemiis saSiSroebasTan dakavSirebiT, sasursaTo maRaziebis<br />

qselidan amoRebuli unda iqnes qaTmis produqtebi;<br />

g) specializirebul maRazias ,,frinvelis xorci” dezinfeqcia Cautardes da<br />

orkviriani karantini dawesdes;<br />

d) erTi wlis ganmavlobaSi, kompaniam Psareklamo kampaniaSi 1 milion laramde<br />

daxarja;<br />

e) maRaziis mflobelma gamyidvelebs xelfasi gauormaga.<br />

v) msoflioSi cnobilma xorcis mwarmoebelma firmam ,,XYZ’’ ganacxada, rom saqarTvelos<br />

bazarze misi Semosvlis mizani ar aris maqsimaluri mogebis miReba,<br />

aramed sazogadoebis winaSe valis moxda;<br />

z) rZis produqtebis mwarmoebelma kompania `lamam~ iafi da xarisxiani<br />

resursebis wyaro gamonaxa;<br />

T) ludis bazris ganviTarebis Seswavlis mizniT Catarebuli gamokvlevis SedegebiT,<br />

mosaxleobaSi ludis moxmarebis zrda SeimCneva. mkvlevarebis prognoziT,<br />

ludis yovelwliuri moxmareba 590 -600 mln. litrs miaRwevs. kvlevis<br />

Sedegebis gacnobis Semdeg, ludis mwarmoebelma kompaniam ,,ludi XXI”,<br />

bankidan kreditis aReba da sawarmos reorganizacia­gafarToeba ganizraxa.


imsjeleT<br />

biznesis mdgradobaze moqmedi faqtorebi<br />

24-25<br />

bazarze biznesis yofna-aryofnis sakiTxi mxolod momxmareblis<br />

moTxovnilebebze droul reagirebaze, Cadebul investiciebze,<br />

mewarmis mondomebasa da unar­Cvevebze ar aris<br />

damokidebuli. biznesis ,,sasicocxlo” pirobebs uamravi sxva<br />

faqtoric qmnis. sawarmoebi izolirebulad ver iarsebeben.<br />

maT funqcionireba uxdebaT garkveul garemoSi, romelic ma­<br />

Tze zemoqmedebs da xSirad ,,sasikvdilo dartymebsac’’ ayenebs.<br />

yofna?<br />

aryofna?<br />

bazarze xangrZlivad rCeba sawarmo, romelsac momxmareblis saWiroebebis<br />

mimarT swrafi reagirebis unari aqvs.<br />

rogor ggoniaT, biznesis warmatebisaTvis es piroba sakmarisia?<br />

pasuxi daasabuTeT argumentebiT.<br />

1<br />

yofna<br />

aryofna<br />

qveyana samTavrobo cvlilebebis molodinSia. sainformacio saSualebebi<br />

mTeli Tvea mniSvnelovan postebze savaraudo kandidaturebs asaxeleben.<br />

Jurnalistebi acxadeben, rom biznesmenebi didi investiciebisagan<br />

Tavs ikaveben.<br />

Tqveni azriT, romeli motivebiT xelmZRvaneloben mewarmeebi am<br />

gadawyvetilebis miRebis dros? sxva romeli mizezebi moqmedebs investirebis<br />

doneze? pasuxebi SeadareT momdevno gverdze mocemul sqemas.<br />

<strong>saxelmwifo</strong>s saSinao mdgomareobis zegavlena<br />

qveynis stabiluroba biznesis ganviTarebis aucilebeli pirobaa. 90-ian wlebSi<br />

saqarTveloSi arsebulma politikurma qaosma da areulobam, samoqalaqo omma ekonomikis<br />

ganviTareba mniSvnelovnadDSeaferxa. axali biznesis wamowyeba udides riskTan iyo<br />

dakavSirebuli, arsebuli sawarmoebi ki erTmaneTis miyolebiT tovebdnen bazars. qveyana<br />

siRatakis zRvarze aRmoCnda. rodesac qveynis <strong>ekonomika</strong>m welSi gamarTva daiwyo, 2008<br />

wels ruseT­saqarTvelos omma isev daatyo daRi.<br />

<strong>saxelmwifo</strong>s zegavlena<br />

<strong>saxelmwifo</strong> samewarmeo saqmianobis uflebas licenzirebis wesiT iZleva, biznesis<br />

marTvas samarTlebrivi normebiT _ kanonebiT da dadgenilebebiT _ aregulirebs. <strong>saxelmwifo</strong>m<br />

SeiZleba, iseTi sakanonmdeblo baza da sagadasaxado foni Seqmnas, iseTi wesebi<br />

SemoiRos, romelic biznesis ganviTarebas gaarTulebs. xSirad piriqiT xdeba: mTavroba<br />

Tavisufali bazris da konkurenciis dacvas antimonopoliuri kanonebiT, ucxour<br />

saqonelze SezRudvebis dawesebiT adgilobrivi warmoebis xelSewyobas da gaZlierebas<br />

axdens. mkacri moTxovnebia sawarmoTa mxridan garemos dabinZurebasTan mimarTebaSi,<br />

maRali jarimebi mkveTrad zrdis sawarmoo danaxarjebs.<br />

axali mewarmeebi im sferoSi Cndebian, romelSic Semosavlebi da mogeba metia. nebismieri<br />

materialuri resursi, romlic erTi firmisaTvis aris xelSesaxebi, droTa ganmavlobaSi,<br />

metoqesaTvisac xelmisawvdomi xdeba. kompanias konkurentebis mxridan agresiis mogerieba<br />

(fasebis Semcireba, gayidvebis waxaliseba, sareklamo saqmianobis gaSla da sxva) mudmivad<br />

uxdeba. bazarze adgilis SenarCuneba TiToeuli sawarmosaTvis miT ufro Znelia, rac<br />

91


meti da Zlieri konkurentebi hyavs, rac metad uZneleben funqcionirebas. konkurentul<br />

brZolaSi damarcxebuli sawarmoebi bazars toveben. meore mxriv, igive konkurentebi biznesisaTvis<br />

stimulis mimcemi xdebian. bazarze adgilis SesanarCuneblad sawarmo iZulebuli<br />

xdeba bazris mkacri wesebi miiRos _ ramdenadac SesaZlebelia maRali xarisxis da<br />

dabali fasis produqcia gamouSvas, rac momxmareblisaTvis momgebiania.<br />

momxmareblis zegavlena<br />

biznesis funqcionirebis ZiriTadi mizani mogebis miRebaa. mogebas firma momxmarebelis<br />

saSualebiT Rebulobs. is Semosavali, romelic mewarmes axali nedleulis SeZenis da<br />

saqmianobis gagrZelebis saSualebas aZlevs, mxolod realizebul (gayidul) produqcias<br />

moaqvs. klientebis Semcirebis SemTxvevaSi, sawarmo funqcionirebas didxans ver SeZlebs.<br />

swored momxmareblis kmayofileba gansazRvravs biznesis warmatebas, amitom momxmarebeli<br />

biznesis garemos umniSvnelovanesi komponentia. misi gemovneba, ganaTlebis done da kultura,<br />

religiuri kuTvnileba, socialuri mdgomareoba, asaki, Semosavlebi,<br />

cxovrebiseuli faseulobebi gavlenas axdens warmoebaze:<br />

produqcia swored maTi gaTvaliswinebiT iqmneba. momxmarebels miT<br />

ufro meti Zalaufleba gaaCnia bazarze, miT ufro mniSvnelovani zemoqmedebis<br />

unari aqvs produqciis xarisxze da fasebze, rac ufro<br />

cota momxmarebeli hyavs konkretul bazars da produqts.<br />

momwodebelTa zegavlena<br />

nedleulis momwodeblebis mxridan Seferxebebi sawarmoebis<br />

funqcionirebis paralizebas, zogjer ki Sewyvetasac iwvevs.<br />

magaliTad, eleqtroenergiis an bankidan fulis nakadis Sewyvetas, xSirad warmoebis<br />

gaCereba da mniSvnelovani zarali mohyveba.<br />

geografiuli garemos zegavlena<br />

biznesisTvis mniSvnelovania rogorc bunebrivi (geografiuli) garemo: miwa, wyali,<br />

saTbob­energetikuli resursebi, klimati, bunebrivi nedleuli<br />

da sxva, aseve ekologiuri garemoc. arc Tu iSviaTad, sawarmoebi<br />

garemos abinZureben. toqsikuri narCenebi ekologiur cvlilebebs<br />

da mosaxleobis janmrTelobis gauaresebas iwvevs. Tu aseTi dar­<br />

Rvevebi masStaburia, xelisufleba iZulebulia sawarmo daxuros.<br />

gansakuTrebiT saSiSi haeris, wylis da niadagis dabinZurebaa.<br />

saerTaSoriso mdgomareobis zegavlena<br />

cnobilia, rom sparseTis yureSi saomarma moqmedebebma<br />

jaWvuri reaqcia gamoiwvia navTobis importior qveynebSi. ekonomikis aRmavloba Seferxda,<br />

gaZvirda fasebi energomatareblebze (saqarTveloSi navTobze), ramac warmoebas<br />

udidesi problemebi Seuqmna. msoflioma krizisma ki qveynebis umravlesobaSi <strong>ekonomika</strong>s<br />

didi dartyma miayena.<br />

92<br />

<strong>saxelmwifo</strong><br />

organoebi,<br />

kanonebi<br />

<strong>saxelmwifo</strong>s saSinao<br />

mdgomareoba, politika<br />

konkurentebi<br />

biznesi<br />

geografiuli<br />

garemo, ekologia<br />

momxmarebeli<br />

mimwodebeli<br />

saerTaSoriso<br />

mdgomareoba


imsjeleT<br />

kiTxvebi<br />

da<br />

davalebebi<br />

2<br />

ninom eleqtrosaqonlis damamzadebel kompaniaSi daiwyo muSaoba. mas<br />

msxvil gadamyidvelebTan uxdeba urTierToba. gogonas Zalian unda samsaxurSi<br />

warmatebas miaRwios, amitom klientebs saqonels mondomebiT<br />

uqebs. informacia imdenad gaazviada, rom verc ki mixvda, simarTles rogor<br />

daSorda. marTalia produqcia or dReSi gaiyida, magram menejers<br />

arc kmayofileba Setyobia da arc ninos Seqeba ufiqria...<br />

1) ra Sedegebs moitans ninos saqcieli kompaniisaTvis?<br />

msxvili gadamyidvelebisaTvis? ratom?<br />

2) samarTliani iqneba Tu ara firmis administracia,<br />

Tu ninos dasjas gadawyvets?<br />

3) SeafaseT menejeris saqcieli.<br />

cnobilia, rom singapuri sisufTaviTa da wesrigiT gamorCeuli qalaq<strong>saxelmwifo</strong>a.<br />

Tumca, bevrma ar icis, rom iq avtomobilis floba wliurad<br />

Rirebulebis 50%-dan 150%-mde ibegreba da gadasaxadi Tveebze nawildeba.<br />

mTavrobam es RonisZieba ucileblad miiCnia avtomobilebis gayidvebis<br />

Sesamcireblad, radgan winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi quCebi manqanebiT<br />

gadaitvirTeboda da sacobebi Seiqmneboda, rac avtomobilis mflobelebs<br />

qalaqSi gadaadgilebisas problemebs Seuqmnida.<br />

a) rogor ggoniaT, <strong>saxelmwifo</strong>s mier aseTi begaris SemoReba aris<br />

Tu ara bazris regulireba?<br />

b) avtomobilis mflobelebis mdgomareobas aseTi begara namdvilad<br />

gaaumjobesebs?<br />

g) rogori efeqti eqneba msgavsi begaris dawesebas saqarTveloSi?<br />

ra kavSirSia biznesis garemo momxmarebelTan?<br />

imuSaveT jgufebSi. gaanalizeT, rogor aisaxeba biznesze moqmedi<br />

faqtorebi momxmareblebze. daxazeT sqema, moamzadeT prezentacia.<br />

waikiTxeT bolo 3 dRis ganmavlobaSi saqarTveloSi biznesis ganviTarebasa<br />

da problemebze presaSi gamoqveynebuli statiebi, upasuxeT<br />

kiTxvebs:<br />

1. romeli problemaa umwvavesi?<br />

2. rogoria mTavrobis zegavlena biznesis ganviTarebaze, dadebiTi Tu<br />

uaryofiTi? moiyvaneT magaliTebi.<br />

3. ra gavlenas axdens saqarTveloSi biznesis ganviTarebaze:<br />

a) saqarTvelos dRevandeli saSinao mdgomareoba?<br />

b) saerTaSoriso mdgomareoba?<br />

g) <strong>saxelmwifo</strong> gadawyvetilebebi?<br />

d) urTierToba geografiul mezoblebTan?<br />

e) momxmareblis prioritetebis cvlileba?<br />

v) rogor `ebrZvian~ konkurenti sawarmoebi erTmaneTs saqarTveloSi?<br />

moiyvaneT magaliTebi.<br />

93


es<br />

sainteresoa<br />

94<br />

momxmarebeli saqonlis SefuTvas iseTive yuradRebas<br />

aqcevs, rogorc TviT saqonels. arasaimedod<br />

SefuTuli produqcia ndobas ar imsaxurebs, amitom<br />

saqonlis efeqtur SefuTvas mwarmoeblebi did<br />

Tanxebs da dros uTmoben.<br />

SesafuTi masalebis warmoeba msoflioSi gayidvebis<br />

moculobiT erT­erTi mniSvnelovani dargia. yovelwliurad<br />

sakonservo qilebidan dawyebuli hermetuli konteinerebiT dam­<br />

Tavrebuli, miliardobiT dolaris SesafuTi masala mzaddeba da iyideba.<br />

kargi SefuTva ara marto icavs produqts, aramed xazs usvams mis upiratesobas<br />

Tavisi formiT, feriT, SemadgenilobiTa da dizainiT. SefuTva myidvelTa<br />

yuradRebas iqcevs, aadvilebs saqonlis aRqmas da ganTavsebas. arsebobs<br />

SefuTvis kodirebuli saxeobebic, isini damcav signals gamoscemen,<br />

riTac amcireben moparvis safrTxes.<br />

SefuTvis feri informaciis miwodebis saSualebasac<br />

warmoadgens, myidvels SeuZlia mokle dro­<br />

Si, etiketze arsebuli informaciis gacnobamde,<br />

saqonlis Sesaxeb daskvna gaakeTos. magaliTad, sasmelis<br />

qila, romelzec wiTeli feri dominirebs,<br />

imaze miuTiTebs, rom masSi an koka­kolaa, an pomidvris<br />

wveni; mwvane feri – limonis Semcvel sasmelze<br />

miuTiTebs, narinjisferi – forToxalze. Tu WurWlis sarecxi siTxe yviTeli<br />

SefuTviTaa, winaswar viciT, rom mas limonis suni eqneba, nivTebis Savi<br />

SefuTva misi eleganturobis maCvenebelia.<br />

SefuTvis Semadgeneli nawilia etiketi. is produqtis damaxasiaTebeli niSnebis<br />

amocnobaSi gvexmareba. saqonlis xarisxis, Semadgenlobis, moxmarebis wesebis,<br />

gamoyenebis xangrZlivobis da sxvaTa Sesaxeb informacias iZleva.<br />

msoflios bevr qveyanaSi kanonebis meSveobiT, regulirdeba sakvebi<br />

produqtebis, medikamentebis, kosmetikuri nawarmis da mravali qimiuri da sxva<br />

preparatebis markireba. kanoni makontrolebel organoebs avaldebulebs etiketebze<br />

CamoTvlili Semadgeneli nawilebis sizustes Tvalyuri adevnon.<br />

etikets gamyidvelebi xSirad saqonlis popularobis xarisxis dasadgenad<br />

iyeneben. momxmarebels maT Segrovebas sTxoven da garkveuli raodenobis<br />

etiketisaTvis sxvadasxva prizebs sTavazoben, aTamaSeben latareas. saqonelze<br />

ganTavsebuli eleqtronuli kodebi kompaniebs produqciis moZraobaze<br />

dakvirvebis saSualebas aZlevs.<br />

araekologiuri SefuTva saqonlis xarisxs, Sesabamisad<br />

gasaRebas udides zians ayenebs, SesaZlebelia<br />

sawarmos daxurvis mizezic gaxdes.<br />

SefuTva momxmareblis damokidebulebasTan<br />

pirdapiraa dakavSirebuli. momxmareblis pirveladi<br />

reaqcia saqonelze, aRqma da damokidebulebis Camoyalibeba<br />

(moswons Tu ara saqoneli) – mniSvnelovnad<br />

gansazRvravs rogori iqneba SemdgomSi<br />

gayidvebis moculoba;<br />

produqtis da firmis imiji;<br />

mdgomareoba bazarze;<br />

saqonlis konkurentunarianoba.


26<br />

vmarTavT kompania<br />

`aTinaTs!~<br />

kompania `aTinaTi” 3 biznes erTeulisagan Sedgeba. Tqveni amocanaa, gaecnoT maT<br />

Sesaxeb monacemebs, moaxdinoT TiToeuli biznesis analizi da kompaniis momavali mdgomareobis<br />

prognozireba. gadawyvitoT, SeZlebs kompania bazarze arseboba ganagrZos?<br />

axseniT fiqrobT ase? Tu TvliT, rom biznesis mdgomareoba rTulia, dasaxeT mdgomareobis<br />

gamosworebis gegma da moamzadeT gegmis prezentacia.<br />

gaecaniT informacias warmosaxviTi kompania `aTinaTis” Sesaxeb:<br />

SezRuduli pasuxismgeblobis sazogadoeba ,,aTinaTi” 3 biznes­erTeulisagan Sedgeba.<br />

esenia:<br />

1. gamagrilebeli ualkoholo sasmelebis kompania `sixaruli;”<br />

2. yavis damamzadebeli sawarmo ,,geoarabika”;<br />

3. swrafi kvebis restornebis qseli `princesa”<br />

1. `sixaruli” axali sawarmoa, bazarze misi wili didi ar aris, magram<br />

ori Tvis win Catarebuli sociologiuri gamokvlevis Sedegebis<br />

mixedviT respodentTa 60%-ma maTTvis cnobili xarisxiani ualkoholo<br />

sasmelebidan pirvel rigSi, swored `sixaruli” daasaxela. ,,sixaruli”<br />

ukve 5 saxis ualkoholo sasmels uSvebs.<br />

2. ,,geoarabika” yavis damafasoebeli saSualo zomis sawarmoa. misi<br />

produqcia wlebis manZilze popularuli iyo saqarTvelos bazarze,<br />

Tumca, ukanaskneli ori wlis ganmavlobaSi gaxSirda SemTxvevebi,<br />

rodesac sawarmom xarisxi ver uzrunvelyo. erTi Tvis win sawarmom<br />

savaWro qselidan didi raodenobiT wundebuli produqcia<br />

ukan daibruna. xelmZRvanelobam produqciis meored gadamuSaveba<br />

da mdgomareobis gamosworeba gadawyvita, magram sakmaod dabali<br />

xarisxis yavis partiebi muSebis daudevrobis gamo, savaWro qselSi<br />

meored moxvda, ramac myidvelTa da maRaziis mflobelTa ukmayofileba<br />

gamoiwvia. <strong>saxelmwifo</strong> sanitaruli samsaxuri am faqtiT dainteresda da daiwyo<br />

kvleva, Tu rogor moqmedebs wundebuli yava momxmareblis janmrTelobaze. kvlevis<br />

Sedegebis gamoqveynebamde warmoeba SeaCera. menejerebi Tvlian, rom sagangaSo araferia<br />

da produqciis xarisxis gaumjobeseba SesaZlebelia, ramdenadac rogorc danadgarebi,<br />

ise resursebi sruliad axalia. amitom, ukeTesi specialistebis moyvaniT problema gadaiWreba.<br />

3. ,,princesam” erTi restornidan daiwyo funqcionireba<br />

ramdenime wlis win. maSin saqarTveloSi msgavsi momsaxurebis Se­<br />

Tavazeba siaxle iyo. Tumca bevri mimdevrebi gamouCnda, bazarze<br />

mas adgili damkvidrebuli aqvs, warmatebis mizezad menejers<br />

mzareulTa saukeTeso gundi miaCnia. restorans nedleulis<br />

xarisxTan, mowodebis drosa da transportirebasTan dakavSirebiT<br />

problemebi arasodes hqonia. `princesa” qsels afarToebs<br />

moTxovnis zrdis paralelurad: yovelwliurad, dedaqalaqSi an saqarTvelos romelime<br />

regionul centrSi erTi axali obieqti ixsneba. analitikosebis prognoziT 3-5 wlis<br />

Semdeg bazris zrdis tempi 4-6-jer Semcirdeba, konkurenciis intensiuroba ki Senar­<br />

Cundeba an zrdas ganagrZobs.<br />

95


savarjiSo<br />

davaleba<br />

96<br />

imuSaveT jgufebSi.<br />

SeadgineT biznesis amJamindel da momaval mdgomareobaze maqsimaluri<br />

informaciis momcveli cxrili da yvela arsebuli monacemis<br />

mixedviT SeavseT is. TiToeuli biznesisaTvis gansazRvreT:<br />

• bazris tendenciebi;<br />

• mdgradobis pirobebi;<br />

• produqciis xarisxi;<br />

• ganviTarebis perspeqtiva.<br />

situaciis analizisas ar dagaviwydeT, rom Tqven kompania ,,aTinaTis’’<br />

ganviTarebis prognozireba unda moaxdinoT (unda gansazRvroT kompaniis<br />

momavali); amisaTvis kargad SeiswavleT mocemuli informacia.<br />

samuSao dro jgufebSi 20 wT-ia, TiToeul jgufs prezentaciisaTvis 7<br />

wuTi eTmoba.<br />

saukeTeso Sedegis misaRebad ,,gonebrivi ieriSis’’ meTodiT imuSaveT:<br />

jgufis TiToeulma wevrma gamoTqvas nebismieri mosazreba am sakiTxTan<br />

dakavSirebiT. azrebi daafiqsireT qaRaldze, nu gaakritikebT nurcerT<br />

ideas, bolos ideebi SeajereT da prezentacia moamzadeT. prezentaciis<br />

dasrulebis Semdeg 3­4 wT oponentebis SekiTxvebze pasuxebs dauTmeT.<br />

sqemis mixedviT gaiazreT da CawereT masSi romelime konkretuli<br />

biznesis (an produqtis) ganviTarebis istoria da sazogadoebrivi<br />

Sedegebi.<br />

daiwyeT saWiro resursebis CamoTvliT, axseniT ras gulisxmobs<br />

maTi efeqtianad gamoyeneba Tqvens konkretul biznesSi, moerideT<br />

zogad frazebs!!!<br />

danaxarjebi<br />

resursebze<br />

meti samuSao adgili<br />

warmoebis<br />

zrda<br />

meti mogeba<br />

bazris gazrdili wili<br />

saukeTeso xarisxi<br />

efeqtiani gamoyeneba<br />

danaxarjebi<br />

resursebze<br />

danaxarjebi<br />

resursebze<br />

danaxarjebi<br />

resursebze


imsjeleT<br />

27<br />

vin vis<br />

ajobebs?<br />

SeuZlia Tu ara mewarmes winaswar gansazRvros, ramdenad uzrunvelyofs<br />

saqonlis an momsaxurebis mis mier SeTavazebuli xarisxi<br />

produqtis konkurentunarianobas?<br />

1<br />

batoni giorgi Tvlis, rom bazari kakaos erTferovani produqtebiT<br />

aris gajerebuli, amitom mas SeuZlia xelsayreli SemTxveviT isargeblobs<br />

da sarisko wamowyeba dagegmos: bazars sxvadasxva mcenareebis Teslisagan<br />

damzadebuli inovaciuri kakaos Semcvleli produqtebi SesTavazos.<br />

maTi warmoeba giorgim erTi Tvis win daiwyo. sacdeli produqti bevrad<br />

aromatuli da gemrieli gamovida, vidre naturaluri. damwyeb mewarmes<br />

bazris dapyroba aqvs gadawyvetili.<br />

realurad migaCniaT am miznis ganxorcieleba?<br />

daexmareT b­n giorgis idea sisruleSi moiyvanos. amisaTvis jgufebSi<br />

iseTi samoqmedo gegma moamzadeT, romlis etapobrivad ganxorcielebis<br />

Semdeg b­n giorgi SeZlebs konkurentebis damarcxebas.<br />

gegmis prezentaciis Semdeg SegiZliaT daaskvnaT, ra SemTxvevaSi gauadvildeba<br />

b­n giorgis konkurentebis damarcxeba.<br />

firmebi erTmaneTs konkurencias uweven bazarze damkvidrebisaTvis. naTqvamia,<br />

mjobnze mjobni ar dailevao, amitom bazarze erTmaneTze ukeTesi saqoneli imdenad aqtiur<br />

konkurenciaSia, rom momxmarebels arCevanis gakeTeba uWirs.<br />

konkurentebTan brZolaSi imarjvebs is firma, romelsac aqvs<br />

• dabali fasebi;<br />

• maRali xarisxis produqcia;<br />

• orientacia siaxleebis danergvaze;<br />

• efeqtiani reklama.<br />

mxolod im sawarmoebs aqvT dabali fasebis dawesebis<br />

saSualeba, romelTac konkurentebTan SedarebiT<br />

iafad moipoves resursebi da produqtis<br />

warmoebac naklebi ujdebaT. amitom, sawarmoo<br />

resursebi saTvisac (kvalificiuri muSaxeli,<br />

nedleulis iafi sabadoebi da manqana­danadgarebi,<br />

axali teqnologiebi) firmebs Soris konkurenciaa.<br />

imis mixedviT, Tu romeli firma ufro adre aRmoaCens resursebis iaf wyaros, bazarze<br />

gamotanili saqonlisa da momsaxurebis fasebi mudmivad icvleba.<br />

warmatebisaken mimaval gzaze biznesmenebs uamravi winaaRmdegobis daZleva uxdebaT.<br />

problemebis dasaZlevad eqspertebi maT aseT rCevas aZleven:<br />

97


98<br />

SeamcireT warmoebis<br />

danaxarjebi<br />

droulad upasuxeT<br />

momxmareblis moTxovnas<br />

!<br />

2<br />

sworad<br />

SearCios<br />

saqonlis an<br />

momsaxurebis<br />

saxe<br />

garantirebuli<br />

warmateba<br />

izruneT efeqtur<br />

reklamaze<br />

gaaumjobeseT<br />

produqciis xarisxi<br />

damwyeb biznesmens yovelTvis unda axsovdes, rom simdidres uwyvet<br />

nakadad iRebs is, vinc icis, rogor moipovos da Semdeg rogor Seinar­<br />

Cunos momxmareblis ndoba. stabilur ekonomikur garemoSi, Tu firma<br />

momxmareblis simpaTias inarCunebs, bazarze mis arsebobas saSiSroeba<br />

ar emuqreba.<br />

warmoidgineT, rom Tqveni kompania (SeurCieT saxeli) moswavlis Can­<br />

Tebs yidis. ra Tqma unda, saswavlo wlis dasawyisSi CanTa yvela moswavlem<br />

SeiZina. Tqven ki uamravi sarealizacio saqoneli dagrCaT. moifiqreT,<br />

Tqvens raionSi CanTebis gayidvis mizniT ra xerxebs mimarTavdiT?<br />

imuSaveT jgufebSi. SeadgineT kompaniis moqmedebis gegma da moamzadeT<br />

prezentacia.<br />

gaxsovdeT, rom prezentaciisaTvis TiToeul jgufs 5 wuTi aqvs.<br />

fasebi<br />

konkretuli<br />

dros da<br />

adgils<br />

Seusabamos<br />

bazarze damkvidrebisTvis<br />

mewarmes sWirdeba<br />

SeZlos<br />

potenciuri<br />

klientebis<br />

waxaliseba<br />

sworad SearCios<br />

samoqmedo<br />

adgilmdebareoba


momxmareblis saqonliTa da momsaxurebiT dainteresebis anu gayidvebis xelSewyobis<br />

politikas mewarmeebi momxmareblis stimulirebis politikas uwodeben.<br />

stimulireba aris im meTodebis erToblioba, romelsac kompaniebi miznobriv bazrebTan<br />

da farTo sazogadoebasTan urTierTobisas mimarTaven, raTa maT mier warmoebuli<br />

produqciis yidvis sargeblianobaSi daarwmunon.<br />

realur bazarze arsebuli konkurenti firmebidan `vin vis ajobebs~ xSirad imiT ganisazRvreba,<br />

Tu ramdenad efeqturad xdeba momxmareblis stimulireba. momxmareblis<br />

SesanarCunebel RonisZiebebSi sawarmoTa umravlesoba did Tanxebs xarjavs. popularobis<br />

misaRwevad isini awyoben saqvelmoqmedo aqciebs, sxvadasxva konkursebSi awesenen<br />

prizebs, monawileoben satelevizio gadacemebSi, afinanseben festivalebs, mniSvnelovan<br />

delegaciebs, filmebs, tele­radio gadacemebs.<br />

!<br />

gayidvebis stimulireba (xelSewyoba)<br />

• momxmareblis informireba produqtis Sesaxeb;<br />

• momxmareblis darwmuneba, rom es produqti maTTvis Seucvlelia;<br />

• momxmareblisaTvis kompaniis da produqtis Sesaxeb Sexseneba<br />

gayidvebis xelSewyobis Semadgeneli ZiriTadi komponentebi:<br />

piradi gayidva;<br />

reklama;<br />

sazogadoebasTan urTierToba.<br />

bazarze konkurencia xSirad iseTi mwvavea, rom firmebis urTierTSeteva namdvil br­<br />

Zolas emsgavseba. gansxvaveba isaa, rom es urTierTdapirispireba farTo sazogadoebisaTvis<br />

sasargebloa. is momxmareblisaTvis SeumCnevlad mimdinareobs. xSirad ,,Tavdasxmis<br />

obieqti’’ firmac ki imdenad gvian igebs ra problemebi Seuqmnes konkurentebma, rom<br />

rom saqmis gamosworeba SeuZlebeli xdeba. yvelaze xSirad axlad daarsebuli firmebi<br />

ver uZleben konkurencias da bazars toveben.<br />

im SemTxvevaSi, roca firmas<br />

• bazarze uWirs SeRweva,<br />

• konkurencias damoukideblad veRar umklavdeba,<br />

• warmoebuli produqciis asortimentis gafarToeba surs,<br />

• finansuri problemebis daZleva uZneldeba,<br />

kompaniis mflobelebi iZulebuli xdebian sxva firmasTan SeerTebis gadawyvetileba miiRon.<br />

xSir SemTxvevebi, erTi sawarmo meores biznesis gafarToebis mizniT yidulobs.<br />

SeZenili firma an iSleba, an Semsyidveli firmis Semadgenel Lnawilad rCeba. aris iseTi<br />

SemTxvevebic, rodesac konkurent firmebs maTi likvidaciis mizniT yiduloben. CamoTvlil<br />

procesebs firmebis Serwymas uwodeben.<br />

vertikaluri<br />

Serwyma<br />

Serwymis saxeebi<br />

horizontaluri<br />

Serwyma<br />

konglomeraciuli<br />

Serwyma<br />

99


savarjiSo<br />

? 1.<br />

100<br />

3<br />

vertikaluria Serwyma, rodesac warmoebis sxvadasxva etapze<br />

moRvawe firmebi erTiandebian.<br />

magaliTad: `koka-kolas~ warmoebam 70-ian wlebSi misi produqciis<br />

gamavrcelebeli firma `kepiTal siti~ SeiZina.<br />

horizontaluria Serwyma, Tu erTi da imave saqmianobaSi Cabmuli<br />

ori an meti kompania gaerTiandeba.<br />

magaliTad: warmoebis gafarToebis mizniT Sokoladis mwarmoebeli<br />

sxvadasxva firmis gaerTianeba moskovSi 2002 wels, internetprovaideri<br />

kompaniebis `sanetis~ da `jorjia onlainis~ jer erTmaneTTan,<br />

Semdeg ki `kavkasus neTvorqTan~ Serwyma.<br />

konglomeraciulia Serwyma, rodesac gansxvavebuli saqmianobis<br />

ori an meti sawarmo erT mmarTvelobaSi gaerTiandeba.<br />

magaliTad: sigaretis mwarmoebelma kompaniam `kenti~ tkbileulis<br />

warmoeba SeiZina, Seiqmna erT­erTi umsxvilesi konglomeranti da<br />

axali bazris didi wili daipyro. `kenti~ ­ am dasaxelebis Kkanfets, Sokolads<br />

da saReW rezins yvela TqvenTagani icnobs.<br />

kompania `filip­morisi~ cnobilia, rogorc msoflioSi umsxvilesi Tambaqos<br />

mwarmoebeli firma, romelic aTeuli wlebis ganmavlobaSi maRalxarisxian<br />

filtrian Tambaqos awarmoebda. kompaniis wamyvanma menejerebma gaTvales,<br />

rom uaxloesi 6-7 wlis ganmavlobaSi aSS-Si Tambaqoze moTxovna mkveTrad Semcirdeboda,<br />

amitom kompaniam ori umsxvilesi korporacia: `jGene ral Foods”<br />

da `Kraft~­i Seisyida da sakvebi produqciis erT­erT umsxviles mwarmoeblad<br />

iqca.<br />

Serwymis romeli saxea es da ra Sedegs moutans igi kompanias?<br />

rogor SevaRwioT bazarze?<br />

dajgufdiT xuTeulebad, airCieT TqvenTvis saintereso biznesi. gansaz­<br />

RvreT samoqmedo bazari. Tqveni amocana am bazarze damkvidrebaa. amisaTvis<br />

konkurentebis Sesaxeb informaciis mogroveba dagWirdebaT. gamoarkvieT<br />

romeli firmebi lideroben am bazarze?<br />

romeli Zlieri da susti mxareebi aqvT konkurentebis produqtebs<br />

da momsaxurebas?<br />

ramdenad efeqturia momxmareblisaTvis produqtis SeTavazebis formebi?<br />

ra xarvezebi rCebaT maT?<br />

moifiqreT, rogor SegiZliaT am xarvezebis Sevseba da moamzadeT<br />

prezentacia. prezentaciisaTvis TiToeul jgufs 5 wuTi aqvs.<br />

ra aris TiToeuli mewarmis warmatebis saidumlo?<br />

2. ra aris bazarze produqtis xangrZlivi sicocxlis mizezi?<br />

3. rogor unda imoqmedos biznesma bazarze yofnis gaxangrZlivebisaTvis?


imsjeleT<br />

es<br />

sainteresoa<br />

moifiqreT ra gansxvavebaa klientebis mozidvis mizniT fasis dawevasa<br />

da bazarze monopoliis damyarebis mizniT fasis dawevas Soris.<br />

bazarze axlad Sesuli kompania `fuji~ mTavar konkurent kompania<br />

`kodakze” SetevisaTvis fasdaTmobis strategias mimarTavda. TiTqmis<br />

imave xarisxis fotoqaRalds 10% ­iT naklebad yidida. `kodakma~ uari<br />

Tqva fasebis Semcirebaze, ramac mas bazris didi wili daakargvina.<br />

`mersedesis~ firmam gadawyvita `ieriSi~ xarisxiani da ZviradRirebuli<br />

manqana `kadilakis“ Zlier mxareze mietana. momxmarebels man<br />

axali prestiJuli saqoneli _ ufro xarisxiani da ufro Zviri manqanebi<br />

SesTavaza, riTac `kadilaks~ evropuli da amerikuli bazris mniSvnelovani<br />

nawili `waarTva~.<br />

kbilis pastebis mwarmoebelma firma `qolgeiTma~ mZafri konkurenciis<br />

dasaZlevad saintereso strategia SeimuSava: intensiur reklamebSi<br />

dargis liderze _ `krestze~ orjer meti daxarja da momxmarebels<br />

SedarebiT dabali xarisxis saqoneli iafad SesTavaza. radgan momxmarebelTa<br />

sakmaod didi raodenobisaTvis dabali fasi mniSvnelovani<br />

iyo, `qolgeiTma~ bazarze swrafad daimkvidra adgili, Semdeg ki<br />

xarisxis gaumjobeseba daiwyo, Tumca reklamebis intensivoba ar Seumcirebia.<br />

sapasuxod `krestmac~ gazarda reklamisaTvis gamoyofili<br />

Tanxebi, SeZlebisdagvarad Seamcira fasebi, magram verc konkurentis<br />

sareklamo intensivobas gautolda da verc dakarguli momxmarebeli<br />

daibruna, amitom Sewyvita reklamebSi didi Tanxebis xarjva da dRemde<br />

mxolod erTgul, misi produqciis maRal xarisxSi darwmunebul momxmarebelze<br />

muSaobs.<br />

mogebaze orientirebuli biznesmenebi eTikis principebs ar iviwyeben.<br />

magaliTad, 1982 wels SeerTebuli Statebis qalaq CikagoSi afTiaqeb­<br />

Si SeZenili tkivilgamayuCebeli medikamentis – tailenolis miRebis<br />

Sedegad ramdenime adamiani daiRupa. am preparats samedicino transnacionaluri<br />

kompania `jonson­end­jonsoni~ awarmoebda. gamoZiebam<br />

gamoavlina, rom medikamenti ganzrax iyo mowamluli da aCvena, rom<br />

saqme damnaSavis mier produqtis gafuWebis izolirebul SemTxvevasTan<br />

gvqonda da `jonson­end­jonsoni” araferSi ar iyo damnaSave,<br />

arc SeiZleboda pasuxismgeblad CaTvliliyo. miuxedavad amisa, kompaniam<br />

,,jonson­end­jonsoni” ganaxorciela gayidvis qselidan am<br />

produqtis amoRebis aqcia, romelic 100 milioni aSS dolari dajda,<br />

Tumca es samarTaldamcvel organoebs ar mouTxoviaT.<br />

produqtis amoRebis Semdeg `jonson­end­jonsonis~ mogeba Semcirda,<br />

misi didi nawili gayidvidan produqtis msxvilmaStabiani amoRebis da<br />

ganadgurebis xarjebma STanTqa. masmedia yoveldRiurad avrcelebda informacias,<br />

rom momxmarebeli aRarasodes SeiZenda am produqts da kompanias<br />

daxurva emuqreboda. Tumca prognozi ar gamarTlda: mosaxleobam<br />

kompaniis pasuxismgeblobis grZnobiT nakarnaxevi qceva moiwona. imis<br />

gamo, rom kompaniam aSkarad klientebis interesebi sakuTar mogebaze<br />

ufro maRla daayena, momxmareblebma kvlav daiwyes produqtis SeZena,<br />

ramac tailenols mokle xanSi tkivilgamayuCebeli wamlebis uaRresad<br />

konkurentul bazarze wamyvan poziciebze dabrunebis saSualeba misca.<br />

101


V<br />

? rogor<br />

imsjeleT<br />

102<br />

28-29<br />

<strong>saxelmwifo</strong> yovelTvis<br />

fxizladaa!!!<br />

fiqrobT, gaqreba konkurencia, Tu <strong>saxelmwifo</strong> bazars<br />

TviTregulirebisaTvis gawiravs?<br />

ramdenad konkurentulia saqarTvelos <strong>ekonomika</strong> mTlianobaSi an<br />

Tqvens mier SerCeuli calkeuli seqtori?<br />

1<br />

<strong>saxelmwifo</strong>s<br />

roli bazris<br />

regulirebaSi<br />

Salis qsovilebis bazarze erTaderTi adgilobrivi mewarmea. is erovnuli<br />

armiis Sesamosad saWiro qsovils amzadebs. qsovilebis bazarze moz­<br />

Rvavebuli importirebuli saqonlis konkurenciisagan Tavis dasacavad<br />

mewarme <strong>saxelmwifo</strong>sgan importze gadasaxadis dawesebas moiTxovs. mas<br />

miaCnia, radgan misi warmoeba erovnuli TavdacvisaTvis mniSvnelovania,<br />

<strong>saxelmwifo</strong> valdebulia konkurentebTan brZolaSi daxmareba gauwios.<br />

1. ramdenad gamarTlebulia mewarmis pretenzia?<br />

2. ra Sedegebs moitans Salis importze SezRudvis daweseba mewarmisaTvis?<br />

3. ra Sedegebs moitans SezRudvis daweseba <strong>saxelmwifo</strong>saTvis, romelic am<br />

SemTxvevaSi momxmareblis rolSia?<br />

4. rogori argumentacia iqneba gamarTlebuli <strong>saxelmwifo</strong>s mxridan mewarmis<br />

Txovnis uaryofis SemTxvevaSi?<br />

Tqven ukve iciT, konkurentebi ramden problemebs uqmnian<br />

mewarmes. Tu mewarme xarisxis SenarCunebaze, fasis daklebaze,<br />

inovaciebze mudmivad ar ifiqrebs, konkurenti<br />

firmebi momxmarebelTa nakads Tavis mxares mimarTaven da<br />

mas bazris datoveba mouwevs. rodesac bazarze ramdenime<br />

msxvili gamyidvelia, TiToeuli maTganis produqciaze<br />

moTxova konkurentebis safaso politikazea damokidebuli.<br />

ramden mewarmes ufiqria, ra advili iqneboda mogebis miRebakonkurentebi saerTod<br />

rom ar hyoloda, TiToeuli sawarmo sakuTari interesebis sasargeblod daawesebda


maRal fasebs, bazarze deficits Seqmnida da momxmarebels iZulebuls gaxdida maRali<br />

fasi gadaexada, ise rom aRar izrunebda xarisxze, reklamaze, inovaciebze, SefuTvaze...…<br />

magram konkurencia gardauvalia. gamyidvelebi ara Tu bazarze gabatonobas, mis urTierTxelsayrelad<br />

gasayofad SeTanxmebasac ver moaxerxeben, radgan Semosavlebis gazrdis<br />

mizniT SeTanxmebis romelime monawile fass aucileblad Seamcirebs.<br />

bazrebi konkurentuli ,,TamaSis’’ wesebs nebayoflobiT ar adgenen... konkurenciis wesebis<br />

dasacavadac, rogorc nebismieri Sejibrisas, neitraluri mxaris Carevaa saWiro.<br />

aseTi mxare <strong>saxelmwifo</strong>a, is ,, mudam fxizladaa’’, Soridan akvirdeba da icavs bazars,<br />

raTa romelime sawarmom an sawarmoTa jfufma konkurencia ar SezRudos, bazris dapyroba<br />

da resursebze kontroli ar moiwadinos. gamoricxuli ar aris e.w. ,,mtacebluri<br />

fasebis” Camoyalibeba. ,,mtacebluri fasebi” danaxarjebze naklebi fasebis dawesebas<br />

niSnavs. rodesac sawarmoebi erTmaneTTan SeTanxmebis safuZvelze erTdroulad Seamcireben<br />

fasebs, raTa bazridan gandevnon is konkurentebi, romlisTvisac aseTi fasi<br />

miuRebelia, anda dargSi ar dauSvan axali konkurentebis Semosvla. maTi bazridan gandevnis<br />

Semdeg fasebs kvlav gazrdian da yvela danakargs ainazRaureben.<br />

fasebis mtacebluri daweva didi firmebis taqtikaa, maT mniSvnelovani finansuri<br />

resursebi gaaCniaT, amitom SeuZliaT mniSvnelovan danakargebs gauZlon. moklevadian<br />

danakargebi firmam xangrZlivi mogebebiT unda daifaros, sxvanairad es politika ver<br />

gaamarTlebs, amitom fasebis mtaceblur klebas yovelTvis fasebis mniSvnelovani<br />

mateba axlavs Tan.<br />

biznesis warmarTvas aregulirebs samarTlebrivi normebi: <strong>saxelmwifo</strong> kanonebi, dadgenilebebi,<br />

wesebi da programebi, isini mxolod momxmareblis interesebis dasacavad ki<br />

ar iqmneba, aranakleb mniSvnelovania mewarmeebisTvisac.<br />

<strong>saxelmwifo</strong> regulirebis gareSe Tavisufali mewarmeoba konkurenciis arsebobas<br />

yovelTvis ver uzrunvelyofs.<br />

sabazro konkurenciis uzrunvelsayofad <strong>saxelmwifo</strong> antimonopoliur anu antitrestul<br />

kanonebs iyenebs. es kanonebi icaven konkurencias, zRudaven monopolias,<br />

aregulireben sareklamo saqmianobas. <strong>saxelmwifo</strong>s mxridan konkurenciis dacva efeqtiania,<br />

is zegavlenas axdens ekonomikuri gadawyvetilebebis miRebaze, xels uwyobs<br />

qveyanaSi ekonomikis ganviTarebasa da stabilizacias.<br />

? 1.<br />

licenzia <strong>saxelmwifo</strong>sagan konkurenciis gareSe muSaobisaTvis<br />

gansakuTrebuli uflebis miniWebas niSnavs.<br />

romeli monopolisturi kompaniebis Sesaxeb gsmeniaT?<br />

2. ra iciT maT Sesaxeb?<br />

3. ra gavlenas axdenen isini qveynis <strong>ekonomika</strong>ze?<br />

kanoniT daSvebuli monopoliis erT­erT saxes <strong>saxelmwifo</strong> licenzia warmoadgens.<br />

sazogadoebrivi komunikaciis farglebSi, licenzia <strong>saxelmwifo</strong>sagan konkurenciis<br />

gareSe muSaobisaTvis, gansakuTrebuli uflebis miniWebas niSnavs.<br />

<strong>saxelmwifo</strong> momxmarebels sxva kanonebiT da debulebebiTac icavs. Znelad moiZebneba<br />

saqoneli, romelic samTavrobo regulirebis raime niSans ar atarebs. magaliTad,<br />

sakvebi produqtebis mwarmoeblebi valdebulni arian SefuTvaze waaweron, ra aris yuT­<br />

103


Si an qilaSi, romel ingredientebs Seicavs. guldasmiT Catarebuli gamocdis gareSe<br />

dauSvebelia wamlis gasayidad gatana.<br />

vrcelia im saqonlis CamonaTvali, romlebmac <strong>saxelmwifo</strong>s mxridan gadamowmeba unda<br />

gaiaron janmrTelobis da usafrTxoebis wesebTan Sesabamisobis Taobaze. magaliTad,<br />

avtomobilebis konstruqcia usafrTxoebis standartebs unda akmayofilebdes. amasTan<br />

erTad, mavne gamonabolqvis sakontrolo xelsawyoebi da avariis SemTxvevaSi mZRolisa<br />

da mgzavrebis damcavi baliSebic unda gaaCndes. konstruqciis usafrTxoeba moeTxoveba<br />

mSeneblobebsac.<br />

im moTxovnaTa Soris, romlebiTac mTavroba momxmareblebs icavs, mniSvnelovania<br />

is, rom gamyidvels nebimier gasayid saqonelze fasis naTlad aRniSvna moeTxoveba.<br />

maT Soris skolis saxelmZRvaneloebis gamomcemlobebsac. yuradReba eqceva imasac,<br />

rom reklamam momxmarebeli SecdomaSi ar unda Seiyvanos. momxmareblis usafrTxoeba<br />

<strong>saxelmwifo</strong>s mxridan mosaxleobis dacvis erT­erTi mTavari sakiTxia. kompania pasuxs<br />

agebs misi produqtis Senaxvisa da moxmarebis procesSi momxmareblis sicocxlisa da<br />

sakuTrebis dacvaze (ar afeTqdeba, momwamvleli ar iqneba, meqanikur dazianebebs ar<br />

gamoiwvevs da sxva). kompaniebi agreTve pasuxs ageben, rom produqtis warmoebis procesi<br />

sanitaruli normebisa da qimiuri Semadgenlobis sruli dacviT midiodes.<br />

qveynis savaWro palata uflebamosilia momxmarebelTa interesebis dacvis mizniT<br />

sasaqonlo standartebi daadginos. <strong>saxelmwifo</strong>m ara mxolod reklamis keTilsindisierebas<br />

unda gauwios kontroli, aramed produqciis SefuTvas, etikets, Senaxvis pirobebis<br />

dacvasac.<br />

<strong>saxelmwifo</strong> momxmareblis informirebulobis uflebasac icavs.<br />

? cnobilia, rom <strong>saxelmwifo</strong> kanonmdebloba xels uSlis erTi firmis mier<br />

104<br />

ras yidulobs<br />

(Semadgenloba)<br />

garantiebi<br />

informirebulobis ufleba niSnavs, rom<br />

saqonlisa da momsaxurebis SeZenisas<br />

momxmarebelma icodes:<br />

savaraudo riskebi (ra<br />

uaryofiTi Sedegebi SeiZleba<br />

gamoiwvios moxmarebam.<br />

gaixseneT warwera sigaretze:<br />

jandacvis saministro<br />

gafrTxilebT, moweva sazianoa<br />

janmrTelobisaTvis)<br />

damzadebis<br />

TariRi<br />

Senaxvis<br />

pirobebi<br />

sxva firmis Seviwrovebas. rogor fiqrobT, konkurenciis aseT dacvas Tavisufali<br />

konkurenciis SezRudvamde xom ar mivyavarT?


savarjiSo<br />

1<br />

savarjiSo<br />

2<br />

savarjiSo<br />

3<br />

davicvaT mewarmeebi da momxmareblebi.<br />

daiyaviT 2 jgufad, erTma jgufma Seadginos mewarmeTa dacvis kodeqsi,<br />

meorem _ momxmarebelTa dacvis kodeqsi. moamzadeT prezentacia.<br />

samuSaod 15 wuTi gaqvT. saboloo versia dafaze erTmaneTis gverdiT<br />

gaakariT. prezentaciis Semdeg moniSneT orive kodeqsis saerTo muxlebi,<br />

imsjeleT ratom aRmoaCnda am kodeqsebs saerTo sakiTxebi?<br />

konkurencia da mewarmeebi<br />

firmebi xSirad konkurenciis sakanonmdeblo SezRudvas moiTxoven.<br />

magaliTad, gasuli saukunis 90-ian wlebSi safrangeTSi<br />

sxvadasxva segmentis gamyidvelebi media saSualebebiT saintereso<br />

moTxovnebs axmovanebdnen da mTavrobisagan mxardaWeras<br />

moiTxovdnen. gTavazobT zogierTi maTganis fragments.<br />

ganixileT TiToeuli da imsjeleT, rogori Sedegebi mohyveboda<br />

mTavrobisagan mxardaWeris SemTxvevaSi, mewarmeTa moTxovnebis dakmayofilebas<br />

a) moklevadian periodSi? b) grZelvadian periodSi?<br />

1. xuTi wlis ganmavlobaSi, yvela santeqnikosma, yovel saswavlo<br />

semestrSi zogad fizikasa da hidravlikaSi gamocdebi unda Caabaros,<br />

mxolod amis Semdeg mieces mas muSaobis licenzia.~<br />

2. `... axladgaxsnili momsaxurebis centris mflobelma batonma daviTma<br />

preskonferenciaze ganacxada, rom <strong>saxelmwifo</strong>sagan dargis regulirebas<br />

moiTxovs.~<br />

_ `unda SeizRudos im diletantebis Tavisufleba, romlebic Tavs<br />

meezoveebs da saxlis damlageblebs uwodeben da mosaxleobas dabal<br />

fasebSi emsaxurebian~ – ganacxada man da yvela iseTi piris mimarT, vinc<br />

msgavs saqmianobas eweva da momsaxurebis centrSi ar aris aRricxvaze,<br />

mTavrobas gamoZiebis dawyeba da administraciuli sasjelis daweseba<br />

mosTxova.<br />

3. `ekonomistTa nawili amtkicebs, rom kanoni, romelic zRudavs<br />

konkurents, zRudavs konkurenciasac~.<br />

ra safuZveli aqvT maT aseTi gancxadebis gakeTebisaTvis?<br />

warmatebuli biznesi<br />

momxmareblis uflebebis dacva da ndobis damsaxureba TviT kompaniisaTvisac<br />

sasargebloa, radgan momxmarebeli arCevans aseTi firmebis<br />

sasargeblod akeTebs. CamoTvaleT is qarTuli kompaniebi da produqtebi,<br />

romelTac momxmareblis gansakuTrebuli ndoba moipoves.<br />

105


imsjeleT<br />

ese<br />

es<br />

sainteresoa<br />

106<br />

eTanxmebiT Tu ara ekonomistebSi gavrcelebul Semdeg azrs?<br />

imisTvis, rom SevinarCunoT konkurentunariani ekonomikuri sistema,<br />

saWiroa iseTi kanonebi Zlieri firmebis moqmedebebis sawinaaRmdegod,<br />

romlebic danaxarjebze ufro dabal fasSi gayidvebs krZalaven.<br />

moamzadeT Txzuleba Temaze:<br />

antimonopoliuri kanonebis uaryofiTi Sedegebi.<br />

Sermanis kanoni<br />

Sermanis kanoni aSS-s kongresis mier 1890 wels iqna miRebuli. kanoni<br />

krZalavs nebismier kontraqtebs, gaerTianebebs da saidumlo garigebebs,<br />

romlebic Statebs Soris vaWrobis SezRudvisaken an vaWrobis<br />

romelime nawilis monopolizaciisaken aris mimarTuli. nebismieri ori<br />

konkurenti, romelic gaerTianda da gaxda partniori, SeiZleba damna­<br />

Saved CaiTvalos konkurentebisaTvis vaWrobis garTulebisa da bazris<br />

didi nawilis Cagdebis mizniT gaerTianebisaTvis, amitom federaluri<br />

sasamarTloebi maT winaaRmdeg gamodian da gamoaqvT daskvna, rom aseTi<br />

gaerTianebebi Sermanis kanonis mixedviT unda aikrZalos (daiSalos).<br />

mag., msoflioSi yvelaze didi da ayvavebuli telekomunikaciis qseli<br />

`AT&T” 1974 wels satelefono industriis monopolizaciis mcdeloba­<br />

Si iqna braldebuli da sasamarTlo gadawyvetilebiT 1982 wels 22 lokalurad<br />

moqmed kompaniad daiSala.<br />

2000 wels mTel msoflioSi gaxmaurebulma sasamarTlom kompania<br />

`maikrosofti” monopoliad miiCnia da antimonopoliuri kanonmdeblobis<br />

safuZvelze, misi biznesis danawevrebis ganaCeni gamoitana.


sabazro ekonomikis daxasiaTebisTvis ukve sakmarisi codna gagaCniaT _ mis Taviseburebebs,<br />

yvelaze mniSvnelovan ekonomikur instituts _ bazars da bazarze fasebis<br />

dadgenis principebs ukve gaecaniT. am TamaSis daxmarebiT Tqven sakuTari codnis TviT­<br />

Sefasebas moaxdenT da daazustebT, marTlac gaiazreT Tu ara Seswavlili Temebi. amas­<br />

Tan erTad, modelireba efeqtiani mosmenis da damaxsovrebis unaris ganviTarebaSi<br />

dagexmarebaT.<br />

savarjiSo<br />

1<br />

30<br />

SevamowmoT Cveni codna –<br />

viTamaSoT `samaia~<br />

viTamaSoT `samaia~<br />

mcire jgufebSi ­ `samaia~ (sameulebi) urTierTmosmenis 3 raundi<br />

unda CaataroT. TiToeuli raundi 5 wuTs gagrZeldeba.<br />

guldasmiT waikiTxeT es instruqciebi:<br />

1. daiyaviT sameulebad. daimagreT samagrebi: A,B,C.<br />

gainawileT rolebi: A – oratoria; B B– msmeneli; C ­ arbitria.<br />

2. A Aoratori irCevs CamonaTvalidan erT romelime Temas da saubrobs<br />

sakiTxis Sesaxeb, gamoTqvams Sexedulebebs, aqcentebs akeTebs mniSvnelovan<br />

sakiTxebze.<br />

B ­ msmeneli yuradRebiT usmens A­s da Semdeg triadaSi Tavisi sityvebiT<br />

imeorebs mosmenils, ajamebs oratoris monaTxrobs da akeTebs<br />

daskvnas. gaugebrobis SemTxvevaSi orators ufleba aqvs Seawyvetinos<br />

mas Txroba da gausworos.<br />

C ­ arbitri Tvalyurs adevnebs, raTa msmenelma oratoris naambobidan<br />

raime ar gamotovos, an naTqvami ar daamaxinjos, araferi daumatos<br />

an interpretacia ar gaukeTos. Semdeg msmenels aTbalian skalaze<br />

gameorebaSi uwers qulas.<br />

3. TamaSis ganmavlobaSi TiToeuli monawile 3-jer icvlis rols.<br />

II raundSi B monawile oratori xdeba, irCevs Temas da msjelobs. C<br />

monawile msmenelia,<br />

A monawile ki _ arbitri.<br />

4. momdevno raundSi rolebi kvlav icvleba da yvelaferi meordeba<br />

raundi oratori msmeneli arbitri<br />

• TiToeul raundSi mxolod oratori irCevs Temas;<br />

• triadaSi erTxel arCeuli Temis gameoreba dauSvebelia;<br />

• TiToeuli raundi xuTwuTiania;<br />

• oratorma Tema farTod unda mimoixilos,<br />

dauSvebelia mxolod ramdenime zogadi fraziT Semofargvla;<br />

• maswavlebeli gagafrTxilebT raundis dawyebisa da damTavrebis Sesaxeb.<br />

107


moemzadeT, jgufuri samuSaos dasrulebis da klasis Sedegebis ganxilvis Semdeg, msmenelebis<br />

kategoriidan saukeTesoebs xanmokleD prezentaciaSi im Temis Sejameba mouwevT,<br />

romelSic jgufSi maRali Sefaseba miiRes. amjerad qulas maswavlebeli wers.<br />

Sefasebas iRebs rogorc msmeneli, ise misi raundis oratori da arbitri. daexmareT<br />

erTmaneTs maRali Sefasebis miRebaSi!!!<br />

instruqcia oratorebisaTvis:<br />

waikiTxeT Temebis CamonaTvali;<br />

SearCieT sasurveli Tema;<br />

Txrobisas intonaciiT gamoyaviT ZiriTadi sakiTxebi;<br />

naTqvami daasabuTeT magaliTebiT!<br />

gansaxilveli Temebi:<br />

• kanonis uzenaesoba qveynis <strong>ekonomika</strong>Si;<br />

• ekonomikuri reformebis mizani;<br />

• garemos dacva – mTavrobis ekonomikuri funqcia;<br />

• samarTlianoba, kanoniereba da angariSvaldebuleba <strong>ekonomika</strong>Si;<br />

• mogebis miRebis stimulebi;<br />

• ratom icavs <strong>saxelmwifo</strong> konkurencias?<br />

• ras niSnavs ekonomikuri samarTlianoba?<br />

• efeqtiani iuridiul-samarTlebrivi formebi mcire biznesisaTvis;<br />

• realuri mdgomareoba saqarTvelos bazarze;<br />

• bazarze firmebis Tanaarsebobis pirobebi;<br />

• konkurenciis mniSvneloba ekonomikis ganviTarebisaTvis;<br />

• ramdenad daculia momxmarebeli saqarTveloSi?<br />

imsjeleT<br />

108<br />

TamaSis dasrulebis Semdeg imsjeleT:<br />

• ramdenad kargad ismendiT?<br />

• TiToeulisaTvis ra iyo rTuli oratoris sityvebis perifrazirebisas?<br />

• xom ar iyo SemTxveva, roca msmenels sakiTxis Sesaxeb oratorze meti<br />

informacia hqonda? Zneli iyo aseT SemTxvevaSi TamaSis wesebis dacva,<br />

ar CagerToT sakuTari azrebi?<br />

• Tqveni romeli unarebi daganaxaT am TamaSma?<br />

• ramdenad swori daskvnebi gaakeTa B monawilem Aoratoris naambobidan?<br />

davaleba jgufurad moamzadeT kolaJi ,,mTavrobis roli saqarTvelos <strong>ekonomika</strong>Si’’.<br />

masalebi sainformacio saSualebebidan da presidan moagroveT.


VI<br />

imsjeleT<br />

biznesis<br />

dagegmva<br />

31-32<br />

minda fuli, minda manqana,<br />

mogzauroba, ...biznesi minda<br />

1. rogor gesmiT biznesis ideis arsi?<br />

2. moiyvaneT sxvadasxva tipis biznesis ideis ramdenime magaliTi.<br />

3. Tqvens mier warmodgenili ideebidan romelia Yyvelaze momgebiani dRevandel<br />

pirobebSi?<br />

4. ra pirobebia saWiro imisaTvis, rom saintereso da mimzidveli idea<br />

momgebian biznesad iqces?<br />

nebismieri saqmianoba ideiT iwyeba. dRes warmatebuli<br />

da momgebiani yvela biznesic ideidan daiwyo. biznesmenebi<br />

amboben, rom ,,saWiro dros saWiro saqmianobis wamowyeba<br />

biznesis warmatebis mniSvnelovani faqtoria’’. sir­<br />

Tule mxolod ,,saWiro saqmianobis’’ droulad mofiqreba<br />

anu momgebiani biznesis ideaa. idea SeiZleba iyos axali<br />

(inovaciuri), an saidanme gadmoRebuli, magram drouli<br />

aRmoCndes da warmateba (gamdidreba) moitanos.<br />

1<br />

ninos Zalian uyvars namcxvari ,,kalaTi”, magram dedas mis gamosacxobad<br />

xSirad ar scalia. ninom TviTon iswavla am namcxvris gamocxoba da<br />

pirvelive cdaze kargi Sedegi miiRo. naxelavi megobrebmac mouwones da<br />

waiwuwunes, ra iqneba, skolis bufetSi aseTi namcxvari rom iyidebodeso.<br />

swored maSin gauCnda ninos biznesis wamowyebis idea. aRtacebuls mTeli<br />

Rame ar uZinia, warmoidgina rogor gamdidrdeba da zafxuls mogzaurobaSi<br />

gaatarebs. Zalian lamazi, originaluri SefuTvac ki moifiqra da dilaadrian<br />

megobars _ Teonas miakiTxa, romelic sul advilad daiTanxma<br />

markis daxatvaze.<br />

gogonebi saqmes Seudgnen: namcxvris receptis mixedviT saWiro masalebis<br />

da SefuTva­gaformebisaTvis aucilebeli qaRaldisa da markerebis<br />

SesaZenad Teonas mamidisagan fuli isesxes, romelic biznes­ideiT aRfr­<br />

Tovanda da icoda ra gogonebis Sromismoyvareobis ambavi, maT warmateba<br />

uwinaswarmetyvela. gogonebma meore dRe SromaSi gaatares: nino acxobda,<br />

Teona fuTavda da Tavisive moxatul markebs awebebda. samuSaos dam­<br />

TavrebisTanave mZime tvirTiT skolis bufets<br />

miakiTxes.<br />

_,,skolaSi kremiani namcxrebis gayidva<br />

akrZalulia!”_ civad upasuxa gamyidvelma.<br />

gogonebi gaogndnen. maTma xvewna­mudaram<br />

Sedegi ver gamoiRo, amitom sursaTis maRaziisaken<br />

gaeSurnen.<br />

109


iznesis dawyebis msurvelebs xSirad didi ocnebebi aqvT: sakuTari<br />

idea unikalurad eCvenebaT, erTbaSad bevris miRweva da<br />

bevri fuli surT. yvelaferi ki imiT mTavrdeba, rom isini imgvar<br />

miznebs isaxaven, romelTa miRwevac ar ZaluZT an saerTod Seu­<br />

Zlebelia. erTi qila erbos istoria yvelam viciT, amitom ideebs<br />

sifrTxiliT unda movekidoT.<br />

mewarmeobis unari ara mxolod xelsayreli SesaZleblobis<br />

droulad danaxva, aramed masze mizanmimarTuli reagirebacaa.<br />

biznesis dasawyebad mxolod saintereso idea sakmarisi ar aris.<br />

saqmianobis wamosawyebad firmis iuridiuli registracia an specialuri nebarTvis<br />

garda, biznesis dawyeba uamrav informacias, nedleuls, kapitals, Sromas, dros<br />

da mravali samuSaos Sesrulebas saWiroebs. saqmis dawyebamde mosagvarebeli saqmeebis<br />

ganawileba, Tanmimdevrobis dadgena da Sesrulebis meTodebis SemuSavebaa saWiro.<br />

swored es aris biznesis gegma _ ra aris gasakeTebeli, rogor unda gakeTdes da rodis,<br />

romeli momxmareblisaTvis unda Seqmnas produqcia. Tu es yvelaferi winaswar<br />

ar ganisazRvra, SeiZleba didi danaxarjebi iqnas gaweuli, magram<br />

Sedegi savalalo iyos. mewarmes mxolod maSin SeuZlia biznesis<br />

organizebaze ifiqros, Tu winaswar, gegmis mixedviT Sesrulebuli<br />

finansuri gaTvlebi mogebis garantias iZleva. ideidan biznesis<br />

organizebamde misasvleli gza biznes­gegmaze gadis. am gzis<br />

warmatebiT gavlis SemTxvevaSi, idea saqmian winadadebad gadaiqceva,<br />

winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi is ocnebad darCeba.<br />

110<br />

_,,licenzia gaqvT?”_ ikiTxa gamyidvelma da roca mixvda, rom gogonebma<br />

SekiTxva ver gaiges, gaimeora: _,,namcxvris warmoebis nebarTva gaqvT?” radagan<br />

nebarTva ar arsebobda, namcxvari arc am da arc sxva maRaziaSi Caibares.<br />

magram ,, mewarmeebs” farxmali ar dauyriaT. iqve saxeldaxelo daxli<br />

moawyves da namcxvris gayidva daiwyes.<br />

,,Tavdadebuli’’ reklamis miuxedavad, myidveli ar Cndeboda. _,,nuTu Cvens<br />

garda aravis uyvars es namcxvari?” _ kiTxulobdnen gaocebuli gogonebi.<br />

_,,nawilobriv asea. Tanac bevrs ar izidavs quCaSi Ria daxlze namcxvris<br />

yidva. amasTan, axla marxvaa da visac uyvars, isic ar yidulobs.” auxsna<br />

maT gamvlelma.<br />

radgan sxva gamosavali ar darCaT, gogonebma namcxvarze megobrebis<br />

dapatiJeba ganizraxes. am namcxvris moyvaruli marTlac bevri ar aRmoCnda,<br />

zogierTs maTi damzadebulis mimarT ndoba ar aRmoaCnda, magram<br />

yvelaze didi dartyma win elodaT: siCqaris gamo cxeli namcxvari SefuTes<br />

da yvela maTgani Cacomebuli aRmoCnda.<br />

,,kidev kargi, rom aravin Caibara. seriozuli usiamovnebebi ar agvcdeboda’’.<br />

_ fiqrobdnen gogonebi.<br />

usiamovnebebi ki mainc SexvdaT. deda saocrad areulma samzareulom<br />

gaabraza, mamidam valis dabruneba Seaxsena.<br />

daRlili gogonebis gancdebi aravis esmoda, yvela daSvebul Secdomebze<br />

miuTiTebda. mogzaurobaze ocneba ukve SeuZlebeli iyo…. . .<br />

ra Secdomebi dauSves gogonebma? moifiqreT sqema, romlis mixedviT<br />

moqmedebis SemTvevaSi isini warmatebas miaRwevdnen.


imsjeleT<br />

112<br />

!<br />

savarjiSo<br />

• aRwereT saqmiani ideis ganxorcielebis sqema.<br />

• ra SesaZleblobebi aqvT samewarmeo saqmianobaSi CarTul adamianebs,<br />

sakuTari warmoebis efeqtianobis gasazrdelad?<br />

• rogor SeiZleba danakargebis Tavidan acileba?<br />

biznesis gegmis dawera biznesis dawyebis pirveli da yvelaze mniSvnelovani<br />

etapia. gegma sam ZiriTad funqcias asrulebs:<br />

1. aris biznesis warmarTvis gzamkvlevi. gvexmareba saqmianobis Tanmimdevrulad<br />

da efeqtianad warmarTvaSi;<br />

2. aris Sefasebis saSualeba. mewarmes saSualebas aZlevs, garkveuli periodis<br />

ganmavlobaSi, saqmianobisagan miRebuli faqtiuri Sedegebi Seafasos;<br />

3. aris fuladi saxsrebis mozidvis saukeTeso saSualeba. investori an<br />

banki kredits mxolod saintereso da dasabuTebuli biznes­gegmis<br />

safuZvelze iZleva.<br />

imuSaveT oTx-xuT kacian jgufebad.<br />

TiToeul jgufs evaleba Seqmnas kompania: dairqvas saxeli,<br />

moifiqros kompaniis saqmianobis sfero da ZiriTadi produqti. Tqven<br />

axlad Seqmnili kompaniis direqtorTa sabWos warmoadgenT. pirveli<br />

sxdomis mizani kompaniis momavali saqmianobis dagegmvaa. TiToeul<br />

jgufs baraTebis TiTo kompleqti Sexvdeba. baraTebze is kiTxvebia<br />

dawerili, romelze pasuxis gacemac biznesis wamowyebisaTvis aucilebelia.<br />

davaleba: baraTebi garkveul kategoriebad daaxarisxeT, daajgufeT<br />

da TiToeuli kategoria daasaTaureT. baraTebi im TanamimdevrobiT<br />

gadanomreT, romlis mixedviTac es sakiTxebi Tqveni biznesideis<br />

realizebisas unda gadawydes. baraTze is kiTxvebia mocemuli,<br />

romelic nebismieri saqmianobis dagegmvisas da ganxorcielebisas<br />

gaCndeba. gadanomrili baraTebi rigiTobis mixedviT gaakariT dafaze.<br />

TiToeulma kompaniam mis mier arCeuli moqmedebaTa Tanamimdevrobis<br />

logikuroba unda daasabuTos.<br />

gafrTxileba: jgufi valdebulia yvela baraTi gamoiyenos.<br />

direqtorTa sabWos samuSao dro 20 wuTia, prezentaciis _ 5 wuTi.<br />

Semdeg airCieT eqspertTa sabWo, romelic obieqturad Seafasebs<br />

warmodgenili biznes­gegmebis (baraTebis rigiTobis) siswores.<br />

eqspertTa Sefasebis sisworis Semowmeba ki, qvemoT warmodgenili sqemis<br />

mixedviT ukve ,,kompaniebs’’ SeuZliaT.


#<br />

romeli<br />

aucilebeli<br />

samuSaoebia<br />

Sesasrulebeli?<br />

#<br />

ras warmoadgens<br />

Cveni produqti,<br />

momsaxureba?<br />

#<br />

sad jobia<br />

reklamis<br />

ganTavseba?<br />

#<br />

sawarmos<br />

organizebis ra<br />

alternativebi<br />

gvaqvs?<br />

#<br />

ramdeni muSaki<br />

gvWirdeba?<br />

#<br />

ra finansuri<br />

kapitali gvaqvs<br />

amJamad?<br />

#<br />

ra gamocdileba<br />

gagvaCnia?<br />

#<br />

rogoria<br />

produqtis miRebis<br />

teqnologia?<br />

#<br />

romel biznesSi<br />

(dargSi)<br />

vsaqmianobT?<br />

#<br />

romeli<br />

danadgarebi<br />

dagvWirdeba?<br />

#<br />

ras warmoadgens<br />

Cveni bazari?<br />

#<br />

ra Zlieri da<br />

susti mxareebi<br />

aqvT Cvens<br />

konkurentebs?<br />

#<br />

ra sididis farTi<br />

gvWirdeba?<br />

#<br />

ra finansuri<br />

resursebi<br />

gveqneba momdevno<br />

eqvsi Tvis<br />

ganmavlobaSi?<br />

#<br />

rogor mivaRwioT<br />

warmatebas?<br />

#<br />

marTvis rogori<br />

sistema iqneba<br />

efeqtiani?<br />

#<br />

SeviZinoT Tu ara<br />

manqana?<br />

# #<br />

vin arian Cveni<br />

klientebi?<br />

#<br />

romelia gasaRebis<br />

mTavari raioni?<br />

#<br />

rogori fasebi<br />

aqvT dawesebuli<br />

konkurentebs?<br />

#<br />

ra da ramdeni<br />

mowyobiloba<br />

gvWirdeba?<br />

#<br />

rogori iqneba<br />

kompaniis mogeba<br />

erTi wlis Semdeg?<br />

#<br />

rogori iqneba<br />

reklamis<br />

intensivoba?<br />

#<br />

ra riskebTan<br />

gveqneba saqme?<br />

rogor davizRvevT<br />

Tavs?<br />

#<br />

rogori imijis<br />

Seqmna gvsurs?<br />

ra Tanxa<br />

dagvWirdeba?<br />

#<br />

romeli marketin<br />

guli moTxovnilebebi<br />

gvaqvs?<br />

#<br />

ra konkurentuli<br />

upiratesoba gvaqvs<br />

arCeul bazarze?<br />

#<br />

vin arian Cveni<br />

konkurentebi?<br />

#<br />

romeli bankis<br />

sasesxo pirobebia<br />

ukeTesi?<br />

#<br />

gavarkvioT,<br />

romeli<br />

kanonebis<br />

moqmede-<br />

bis sivrceSi varT?<br />

#<br />

rogor movaxdenT<br />

produqtis<br />

gasaRebas?<br />

113


iznesis gegma mniSvnelovani dokumentia, amitom is nabeWdi saxiT mzaddeba.<br />

• biznesis gegmis Tavfurcels satitulo gverdi hqvia. masze kompaniis saxeli da misamarTi<br />

iwereba. momdevno gverdze ganTavsdeba monacemebi kompaniis, mflobelebis<br />

Sesaxeb, biznesis gegmis mTliani Rirebuleba, wilobrivi ganawileba.<br />

• Semdegi gverdi biznes-gegmis Sinaarsi anu sarCevia, rasac TviTon gegma mohyveba.<br />

• biznes-gegma aucileblad unda Seicavdes erTi wlis biujets _ savaraudo yovelTviuri<br />

finansuri xarjebis da Semosavlebis gegmas, romelic pirveli Tormeti Tvis<br />

mixedviT unda iyos gawerili.<br />

• yovelTviuri biujetis xarjviTi nawili yvela savaraudo danaxarjs unda iTvaliswinebdes,<br />

maT Sorisaa xarjebi.<br />

• reklamis Rirebuleba<br />

• SefuTva<br />

• xelfasebi<br />

• sxva xarjebi<br />

• gauTvaliswinebeli xarjebi<br />

sul xarjebi<br />

114<br />

1.<br />

sawarmo<br />

ideis arsi<br />

• dargi<br />

• kompania<br />

• produqti<br />

4. marketingi<br />

3.<br />

5.<br />

martivi biznesis gegmis komponentebi<br />

gasaRebis gegma<br />

• fasebis dadgena<br />

• gasaRebis strategia<br />

• reklama<br />

• gavrceleba<br />

organizacia<br />

marTvis gegma<br />

• organizaciuli struqtura<br />

• ZiriTadi funqciebi<br />

• daqvemdebarebulebis<br />

raodenoba<br />

• marTvis principebi<br />

bazris analizi<br />

• potenciuri momxmarebeli<br />

• bazris sidide<br />

• asaTvisebeli segmenti<br />

• konkurenciis analizi<br />

• Cveni upiratesobani<br />

daskvna<br />

• riskis analizi<br />

• sxva alternativebis Sefaseba<br />

• proeqtis Sejameba / perspeqtiva<br />

2.<br />

produqciis warmoeba<br />

• resursebi<br />

• momwodeblebi<br />

• sawarmoo procesebi<br />

• mowyobilobebi<br />

• saWiro farTi<br />

• saWiro muSaxeli<br />

6.<br />

bazari<br />

warmoeba<br />

finansebi<br />

finansebis dagegmva<br />

• firmis daarsebis xarjebi<br />

• amoqmedebisaTvis saWiro<br />

xarjebi<br />

• dafinansebis wyaroebi<br />

• biujeti


!<br />

es<br />

sainteresoa<br />

gaxsovdeT!<br />

skolis damTavrebis Semdeg, rodesac realuri biznesis wamowyebis<br />

gadawyvetilebas miiRebT, nu daiviwyebT, rom nebismieri ideis realizeba<br />

did riskTan aris dakavSirebuli. gaixseneT am saxelmZRvaneloSi<br />

mocemuli rCeva da kidev erTxel gadaikiTxeT.<br />

sifrTxiliT moekideT biznesis miznebis SemuSavebas da gaiTvaliwineT:<br />

• pirvel rigSi, bazarze sakuTari adgili gansazRvreT; yuradRebis koncentracia<br />

im sferoze moaxdineT, sadac gansakuTrebiT Zlieri xarT da<br />

sadac sxvebi, msxvili korporaciebic ki, konkurencias ver gagiweven;<br />

• akeTeT mxolod is, rac yvelaze ukeT gexerxebaT: kargad dafiqrdiT,<br />

sanam farTo asparezze gasvlas gadawyvetdeT. radgan erTbaSad<br />

yvelafris gakeTebas mainc ver SeZlebT, orientacia imis<br />

keTebaze aiReT, rac yvelaze ukeT gexerxebaT, biznesi im sferoSi<br />

daiwyeT, romelsac ukeT icnobT;<br />

• daakonkreteT sakuTari miznebi: masStaburi da ramodenime welze<br />

gaTvlili gegmebi mxolod zogad mimarTulebas gansazRvras. umjobesia,<br />

konkretuli, erTwliani miznebi daisaxoT, moqmedebebi<br />

detalurad SeimuSavoT da yovelTviurad maTi Sesrulebis kontroli<br />

awarmooT. ase mudmivad gecodineba ra mdgomareobaSia Tqveni<br />

biznesi, rogor midis saqmeebi.<br />

• kritikulad moekideT ideas: Tu biznesis dagegmvis procesSi bazris kvlevam<br />

daganaxaT, rom idea ar varga, guli dagwydebaT, magram nu moeridebiT<br />

mis Secvlas, amiT momavalSiU uamrav problemas aicilebT Tavidan.<br />

• XX saukunis 80-ian wlebamde kompiuteri iseTi didi zomis iyo, rom mTel<br />

oTaxs ikavebda da misi SeZena mxolod finansurad Zlier organizaciebs<br />

SeeZloT. 1976 wels stiven jobss gabeduli biznes-idea gauCnda, gadawyvita<br />

kompiuteri iolad mosaxmar, iaf da ojaxur pirobebSi gamosayenebel,<br />

yvelasaTvis saWiro xelsawyod gadaeqcia. man eleqtrikos stiven vozniakTan<br />

erTad kompania ,,epl kompiuteri’’ daarsa da iseTi ideis ganxorcieleba<br />

daiwyo, romelic maSin saswaulis tolfasad iTvleboda. jobsi<br />

Tavdauzogavi SromisaTvis mzad iyo da warmatebasac miaRwia.<br />

• daviT sarajiSvili TbilisSi 1848 wels daibada. is jer ruseTsa da germaniaSi,<br />

Semdeg safrangeTSi swavlobda. im periodSi franguli koniaki<br />

mTel msoflioSi popularuli da Zalian Zviri iyo. sarajiSvili koniakis<br />

warmoebiT dainteresda da saqarTveloSi samamulo nedleuliT misi<br />

damzadeba gadawyvita. 1885 wels man TbilisSi sawyobi aaSena, sadac sakoniake<br />

spirts muxis kasrebSi aZvelebda. am gabedul wamowyebas yvela<br />

skeptikurad uyurebda. warmatebaSi darwmunebulma sarajiSvilma ki bazris<br />

gafarToeba dagegma. misi firma 1889 wels alkoholiani sasmelebis<br />

ukve ramodenime saxeobas amzadebda franguli teqnologiiT. is 1 aryis,<br />

1 liqioris da 7 koniakis qarxanas aerTianebda da produqciiT ara mxolod<br />

saqarTvelos bazars, aramed ruseTis imperiasac amaragebda. misi<br />

produqciis fasi gacilebiT xelmisawvdomi iyo, xarisxi ki _ Zalian maRali,<br />

amitom rusuli bazris TiTqmis 25% daipyro. es qarTuli produqtis<br />

manamde arnaxuli warmateba iyo.<br />

1913 wlisaTvis sarajiSvilis safirmo koniaks saerTaSoriso gamofenebsa<br />

Tu degustaciebze 9 oqros da 5 vercxlis medali hqonda miRebuli.<br />

115


kiTxvebi<br />

da<br />

davalebebi<br />

ese<br />

116<br />

1. romeli ZiriTadi etapebi SeiZleba gamovyoT saqmiani organizaciis<br />

formirebis procesSi?<br />

2. ra aris biznes­gegma da ratom aris is aucilebeli axali biznesis<br />

dasaarseblad?<br />

3. vis da ra mizniT sWirdeba biznesis gegmaSi warmodgenili informacia?<br />

4. moifiqreT oTxi kiTxva, romelic firmas sakuTari Tavis daxasiaTebaSi<br />

daexmareba.<br />

5. airCieT warmoebis romelime forma da zemoT SemoTavazebuli sqemis<br />

mixedviT gansazRvreT erTi Tvis savaraudo xarjebi.<br />

gaanalizeT:<br />

• romeli kiTxvebis pasuxi unda icodeT, rom erTi Tvis biujeti zustad<br />

gansazRvroT?<br />

• SeiZleba Tu ara, movaxdinoT biznesis warmatebis prognozireba, Tu<br />

ar gveqneba informacia savaraudo Semosavlebis Sesaxeb?<br />

• konkretuli samewarmeo saqmianobis ganxilvis safuZvelze CamoTvaleT<br />

mogebis gazrdisa da xarjebis Semcirebis faqtorebi.<br />

6. aris Tu ara mewarme im adamianebis bedze pasuxismgebeli, romelsac<br />

daasaqmebs? pasuxi daasabuTeT.<br />

dawereT Txzuleba:<br />

`mewarmis roli qveynis ekonomikis ganviTarebaSi~.


imsjeleT<br />

33<br />

SeviswavloT<br />

bazari<br />

1. rogor gesmiT bazris kvleva?<br />

2. ra informacias unda flobdes mewarme, rom ufleba hqondes Tamamad<br />

ganacxados: ,,me am bazars vicnob’’?<br />

bazarze poziciebs is kompania imyarebs, romelic momxmareblis moTxovnebze swrafad<br />

reagirebs, siaxleebs sTavazobs mas. amitom biznesis dagegmisa da ganviTarebisaTvis<br />

udidesi mniSvneloba aqvs momxmareblis moTxovnis Seswavlas. biznesis gegmis SemuSavebamde<br />

mizanSewonilia zogierTi sakiTxis winaswari gamokvleva.<br />

savarjiSo<br />

1<br />

TbilisSi uamravi kafea, romlebsac msgavsi meniu da fasebi aqvT. isini erTmaneTs<br />

konkurencias adgilmdebareobis, komfortis, momsaxurebisa da reklamebis<br />

saSualebiT uweven. rac ufro met momxmarebels miizidaven, miT met<br />

sabazro wils miisakuTreben. xSirad xdeba, rom erTi kafes mier Semotanili<br />

siaxle (momsaxureba, produqti, interieris detalebi) Zalian swrafad vrceldeba<br />

sxva kafeebSic. siaxleebis Semomtans/novators ki liderobis SesanarCuneblad<br />

kvlav da kvlav saintereso SeTavazebebis mofiqreba uxdeba.<br />

1) ratom ar wyvets novatori kafe sul axal-axali siaxleebis Se-<br />

Tavazebas da damatebiTi xarjebis gawevas, Tu icis, rom am siaxles<br />

konkurentebi Zalian swrafad gadaiReben?<br />

2) rogor axerxeben novatori kompaniebi iseTi siaxleebis mofiqrebas<br />

da SeTavazebas, romelic momxmarebels moswons?<br />

3) ratom ar cdilobs yvela kompania TviTon iyos novatori?<br />

daasaxeleT biznesis iseTi sfero, romelSic survili geqnebodaT<br />

saqmianoba dagewyoT, rogorc individualur mewarmes da romelsac<br />

didi dafinanseba ar sWirdeba. ideebidan amoarCieT sami sfero,<br />

romelsac yvelaze kargad icnobT. daiyaviT 3 jgufad. TiToeulma<br />

jgufma TiTo bazris kvleva unda moaxdinos.<br />

gansazRvreT biznesisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli yvela niSnebi:<br />

• dargSi arsebuli sawarmoebis raodenoba;<br />

• saqonlis tipebi;<br />

• dargSi Sesvlis simartive, konkurentebi;<br />

• rogor garemoSi mogiwevT funqcionireba;<br />

• danaxarjebis done;<br />

• saqonlis (momsaxurebis) fasi;<br />

• bazarze damkvidrebis strategia;<br />

• daarsebidan ra droSi miaRwevT warmatebas?<br />

• biznesis wamowyebis savaraudo biujeti.<br />

117


118<br />

moamzadeT argumentebis prezentacia,<br />

a) ratom aris momgebiani am saqmianobis wamowyeba?<br />

b) ratom ar Rirs am saqmianobis wamowyeba?<br />

g) Ria kenWisyris saSualebiT gaakeTeT klasis arCevani, biznesis<br />

warmodgenili saxeebidan, romlis wamowyeba ufro momgebiania?<br />

albaT mixvdiT, rom am savarjiSoSi miRebuli daskvna zedapirulia, SesaZlebelia<br />

is realobisagan Zalian Sors idges, radgan Tqven kvleva ar giwarmoebiaT, mxolod intuiciasa<br />

da gamocdilebaze dayrdnobiT gaakeTeT daskvnebi.<br />

biznesis dagegmisa da ganviTarebisaTvis mizanSewonilia zogierTi sakiTxebis winaswari<br />

Seswavla an gamokvlevis Catareba.<br />

konkretulad vin iqneba<br />

momxmarebeli: asakobrivi<br />

da sqesobrivi<br />

Semadgenloba, profesia,<br />

ganaTlebis done,<br />

gemovneba, Semosavlebi,<br />

surs Tu ara<br />

momxmareels<br />

SeTavazebuli<br />

saqonlis an<br />

momsaxurebis SeZena<br />

rogori<br />

fasebi aqvT<br />

konkurentebs?<br />

rogori<br />

konkurentebi<br />

gvyavs<br />

bazris kvleva<br />

sad SeiZleba iafad<br />

iqnes SeZenili<br />

mowyobilobebi Tu<br />

resursebi? sad<br />

yiduloben maT<br />

konkurentebi?<br />

rogori Senobebi<br />

da danadgarebia<br />

saWiroa<br />

ratom moswons<br />

momxmarebels<br />

konkurentebis<br />

produqcia?<br />

ra riskebia<br />

mosalodneli<br />

ramdeni fulia<br />

(kapitali) saWiro<br />

Senobebis,<br />

danadgarebis<br />

SesaZenad<br />

swored am da msgavs kiTxvebze pasuxis Zieba warmoadgens bazris kvlevas. ra Tqma unda<br />

unda, pirdapir aseT kiTxvebze pasuxs TviT yvelaze ganaTlebuli adamianic ki ver gascems.<br />

man jer informacia unda moagrovos.<br />

bazris kvleva axali informaciis mopovebasa da analizs gulisxmobs. rogorc<br />

iciT, firmebis stimuli, mogebis miRebaa, rac mxolod im saqonlisa da momsaxurebis<br />

warmoebiT SeiZleba, romelzec moTxovna maRalia. imisaTvis, rom firmebma saqoneli da<br />

momsaxureba awarmoon, resursebi unda Seisyidon. resursebi ki (rogorc adamianuri,<br />

ise materialuri) Zalian Zviria, amitom sawarmoTa mflobelebi cdiloben maqsimalurad<br />

Seamciron danakargebi, Seafason yvela alternativa da rac SeiZleba efeqtianad<br />

gamoiyenon arsebuli resursebi. alternativebis Sefaseba kvlevis saSualebiT miRebuli<br />

monacemebis safuZvelze xdeba.<br />

dagegmili mogebis misaRebad kvlevis Catareba aucilebelia. mewarmem pirvel rigSi<br />

bazari unda Seiswavlos, Semdeg moifiqros, rogor `waarTvas~ konkurentebs momxmarebeli.<br />

kvlevis Sedegad bazris xedvis are farTovdeba: Rrmavdeba codna momxmareblis,<br />

misi survilebis, Semosavlebis, gadaxdisunarianobis Sesaxeb.


kargad Catarebuli kvleva mewarmes saSualebas aZlevs Seiswavlos konkurentebi,<br />

momxmareblis kmayofilebisa da ukmayofilebis mizezebi, winaswar gansazRvros riski,<br />

airCios bazarze SeRwevis moqnili strategia.<br />

kvlevis Catareba did dros moiTxovs. winaswar unda momzaddes kiTxvebi da anketebi,<br />

daigegmos dakvirveba da saWiro dro. Semdeg sxvadasxva gziT miRebuli informacia<br />

gaerTiandes da gaanalizdes. radgan momxmarebeli uamravia da yvela maTganis gamokiTxva<br />

rTuli iqneba, kvlevis dros koncentrireba miznobriv bazarze xdeba.<br />

pirdapiri<br />

interviu<br />

(gamokiTxva)<br />

anketebi<br />

( dabeWQ<br />

dili<br />

kiTxvarebi)<br />

bazris segmenti SeiZleba SeirCes:<br />

informaciis Segrovebis gzebi<br />

dokumentebis<br />

analizi<br />

uSualo<br />

dakvirveba<br />

gamocdileba<br />

da intuicia<br />

• teritoriuli anu geografiuli niSniT _ potenciur myidvelebs sxvadasxva<br />

adgilebSi (msoflios regionebSi, qveynebSi, qveynis regionebSi, qalaqebSi, kvartlebSi)<br />

xSirad gansxvavebuli moTxovnilebebi da gemovneba aqvT. Tu yovelive es mniSvnelovan<br />

rols TamaSobs produqciis gasaRebaSi, azri aqvs geografiul segmentacias.<br />

• momxmarebelTa tipebis mixedviT _ momxmarebelTa kategoriebad dayofa xdeba<br />

saqmianobis (biznesmenebi, turistebi, moswavleebi da a.S.) gaTvaliswinebiT.<br />

• qcevis mixedviT _ xdeba moxmarebis moculobis (zogi bevr produqts iZens, zogi naklebs)<br />

an sixSiris, fasebze orientaciis, specifikuri gemovnebis, produqtis maxasiaTeblebze<br />

reaqciebis mixedviT momxmareblis dayofa.<br />

• qceviT segmentaciasTan saqme gvaqvs maSin, rodesac ikvleven, romel savaWro markas<br />

aniWebs momxmarebeli upiratesobas, romeli radio da telegadacemebi moswons, ufro<br />

xSirad ras kiTxulobs (Jurnalebs, gazeTebs, mxatvrul Tu specialur literturas),<br />

dReSi saSualod ramden saaTs uyurebs televizors an ra dros uTmobs wignis kiTxvas,<br />

dRis romeli nawili aqvs kiTxvisaTvis gamoyofili da sxva.<br />

• produqciis gamokvleva misi sacdeli partiis warmoebas gulisxmobs.<br />

eqsperimenti,<br />

testireba<br />

miznobrivi bazari _ momxmareblis is konkretuli jgufi,<br />

romelzec orientirebulia kompania Tavisi saqonlisa da momsaxurebis gayidvisas.<br />

miznobrivi bazris formireba xdeba erTi an ramdenime sabazro<br />

nawilis (segmentis) kvlevis, Sefasebisa da SerCevis gziT.<br />

kvlevis aucilebloba gamowveulia imiTac, rom xSirad mewarmes momxmarebelTan uSualo<br />

Sexeba ar aqvs. is saqoneli, romelic seriulad (didi raodenobiT) iwarmoeba, momxmarebelTan<br />

moxvedramde grZel gzas gadis.<br />

119


saqonlis moZraoba<br />

120<br />

mewarme<br />

biTumad movaWre<br />

sacalod movaWre<br />

momxmarebeli<br />

gansazRvreba<br />

produqtis mwarmoebeli<br />

movaWre, romelic mewarmisgan didi<br />

raodenobiT produqts yidulobs<br />

gayidvis mizniT<br />

movaWre, romelic biTumad yidulobs<br />

produqts calobiT gayidvis mizniT<br />

adamiani, romelic yidulobs da<br />

moixmars mza produqcias<br />

magaliTi<br />

qarxana<br />

sawyobi<br />

maRazia<br />

Tqven<br />

momxmarebelTa moTxovnilebebis dasakmayofileblad, marketingis menejerebi<br />

marketingis struqturas anu kompleqss amuSaveben.<br />

marketinguli kompleqsis elementebia:<br />

• saqoneli, idea an momsaxureba (Product);<br />

• fasi (Price);<br />

• adgili (Place);<br />

• stimulireba (Promotion).<br />

marketingis menejerebi am komponentebisagan Tavisebur `narevs~ (Mix) qmnian, romelic<br />

cnobilia marketingis `4 P~­s saxeliT, inglisuri dasaxelebebis sawyisi asoebis<br />

gaerTianebidan gamomdinre.<br />

biznesis dagegmva faqtiurad, marketinguli samuSaoebiT iwyeba.<br />

miznobrivi bazris SerCeva da gamokvleva marketingis sferoa.<br />

saqoneli<br />

fasi<br />

marketinguli<br />

kompleqsi<br />

miznobrivi<br />

bazari<br />

stimulireba<br />

marketinguli kvleva uwyveti procesia. mewarme mudmivad saqmis kursSi unda iyos<br />

imis Sesaxeb, ra surs momxmarebels (romeli saqoneli, romeli momsaxureba), rogori<br />

fasia misTvis xelsayreli, rogor jobia gasaReba, gayidvis romeli forma an romeli<br />

adgilia ufro efeqturi, stimulirebis (saqonliT dainteresebis) romel xerxebze reagirebs<br />

myidveli, produqtis an SefuTvis vizualuri mimzidvelobis romeli maCvenebelia<br />

efeqtiani.<br />

momxmareblis qceva da marketinguli kompleqsi mWidro urTierTkavSirSia. pirveli<br />

meores gansazRvravs, meore ki zemoqmedebas axdens pirvelze. orive maTganis formireba<br />

garemo Zalebis _ qveynis an regionis socialuri, kulturuli, ekonomikuri, politikuri,<br />

demografiuli da sxva faqtorebis zegavleniT xdeba.<br />

adgili


momxmarebelTa moTxovnilebebis dasakmayofileblad, marketingis menejerebi<br />

marketingis struqturas anu kompleqss amuSaveben.<br />

es<br />

sainteresoa<br />

bunebrivi<br />

resursebi<br />

marketingis kompleqsi<br />

ekonomikuri<br />

konkurencia<br />

socialur<br />

kulturuli<br />

garemo<br />

produqti<br />

fasi<br />

momxmarebeli<br />

adgili<br />

stimulireba<br />

mecnierebaTa<br />

teqnologiebi<br />

demografiuli<br />

mdgomareoba<br />

politikursakanonmdeblo<br />

garemo<br />

kompania FORD Motor Сompany ­ avtomobilebi da avtonawilebi iyo.<br />

miuxedavad warmatebisa, kompanias bazris kvleva ar Seuwyvetia. uwyvetad<br />

swavlobda axali manqanebis myidvelTa Cvevebs, maTi survilebis cvlilebebs,<br />

ikvlevda momxmareblis SenaZeniT kmayofilebis dones. kvlevebi aseve<br />

yidvis procesebis da potenciuri moxmarebis Sesaswavladac tardeboda.<br />

1986 wels kompaniis wminda mogeba 2,5 miliardi amerikuli dolari iyo.<br />

2006 wels, TiTqmis 2-jer meti. swored momxmareblis survilebis mudmivad<br />

Seswavla da gaTvaliswineba ganapirobebs am kompaniis stabilur<br />

warmatebebs.<br />

saukuneze metia, rac 1903 wels daarsebuli kompania aproeqtebs, awarmoebs<br />

da xuT kontinentze yidis rogorc msubuq, ise satvirTo avtomobilebs,<br />

Zravebs, saTadarigo nawilebs.<br />

swored kvlevebma daanaxa kompanias, Tu raoden mniSvnelovania Tanamedrove<br />

avtomflobelisaTvis mcire litraJi, manqanis saimedooba da garantiis<br />

xangrZlivoba. miuxedavad imisa, rom FORD Motor Company xarisxis<br />

garantias yovelTvis iZleoda, kompaniam momxmareblis survilebis gaTvaliswinebiT<br />

SeimuSava axali proeqtebi mikro da mcirelitraJiani avtomobilebisaTvis,<br />

daixvewa rogorc garegani, ise Sinagani stili, saloni<br />

iseTive myudro da komfortuli gaxda, rogorc luqsis tipis avtomobilebSi<br />

iyo. garda amisa, momxmarebels avtomobilebis sxvadasxva variaciebi<br />

da Zravis samudamo ufaso servisi SesTavaza. FORD­is avtomobilebze<br />

moTxovna isev mzardia. kompaniis Semosavlebi matulobs. `Cveni xarisxi<br />

momxmareblis survils emTxveva~ ­ acxadeben kompaniis mesveurebi. Sedegi<br />

saxezea: 2005–2006 wels, kompania FORD Motor­i kvlav msoflios aTi<br />

yvelaze warmatebuli kompaniis siaSia da me-9 adgils ikavebs.<br />

wyaro: http://mony.cnn.com./magazines/fortune/<br />

121


kiTxvebi<br />

da<br />

davalebebi<br />

122<br />

1. daaxasiaTeT Tqveni ojaxi, rogorc momxmarebeli.<br />

2. daaxasiaTeT Tqveni klasi, rogorc momxmarebeli.<br />

3. rogori momxmarebeli xarT TviTon? magaliTad,<br />

TqvenTvis aucilebeli saqonlis SeZenis ramdeni wyaro arsebobs?<br />

ra sixSiriT iZenT tansacmels?<br />

tansacmlis SeZenisas, ra aris TqvenTvis mniSvnelovani? amoar­<br />

CieT sami umTavresi: a) feri; b) komfortuloba; g) gamZleoba; d)<br />

qsovili; e) fasi; v) unikaluroba; z) marka; T) firma; i) moduroba;<br />

k) gamoyenebis xangrZlivoba; l) TanatolebSi gavrceleba/cnobadoba.<br />

4. gaanalizeT, zemoT miRebuli monacemebi da daasaxeleT Tanaklaselebi,<br />

romlebic Tqvens msgavs momxmareblad (analogiuri samomxmarebli<br />

qcevis mqoned) migaCniaT?<br />

5. ra unda iyos im saqonlis maxasiaTeblebebi, romelsac Tqvens Tanatolebs<br />

sTavazoben mewarmeebi?


1<br />

34<br />

biznesis<br />

dafinanseba<br />

Tqveni megobari sakuTari sawamos gaxsnas apirebs. erT dRes movida,<br />

giTxraT, rom saxsrebi ar yofnis danadgaris SesaZenad da sesxad dabadebis<br />

dReze saCuqrad miRebuli 100 lari gTxovaT.<br />

imuSaveT jgufebad da CamowereT did furcelze.<br />

• ra SekiTxvebs dausvamdiT megobars, vidre sesxis micemaze daTanxmdebiT?<br />

• ra SemTxvevaSi daTanxmdebiT fulis sesxad gacemas?<br />

• ra pirobebs wauyenebT msesxebels?<br />

• sesxis micemaze uaris Tqmis SemTxvevaSi, ras urCevdiT megobars, sad<br />

eZebos damatebiTi dafinansebis wyaro?<br />

• samuSaos damTavrebis Semdeg, gaacaniT Tanaklaselebs jgufis namuSevari<br />

da sxvadasxva jgufis samuSaoSi msgavsi pasuxebi moniSneT.<br />

• Tqveni azriT, ram ganapiroba pasuxebis msgavseba? xom ar niSnavs es sifrTxilis<br />

gamoCenas sakuTari Tanxebis xarjvasa da sesxis dabrunebas­<br />

Tan dakavSirebiT?<br />

• eqnebaT Tu ara igive an msgavsi kiTxvebi bankis TanamSromlebs, Tu Tqveni<br />

megobari kreditis aRebas bankidan moindomebs?<br />

marTalia, adamianTa umravlesoba biznesis sferoSi moRvaweobas fulis saSovnelad iwyebs,<br />

magram biznesis wamowyeba soliduri Tanxebis gareSe SeuZlebelia.<br />

dasrulebuli da kargad gamarTuli biznes­gegma naTlad gviCvenebs sul ramdeni fulia<br />

saWiro ideis realizebisaTvis, risTvis aris saWiro es Tanxebi, rodis da ra raodenobis fuladi<br />

saxsrebi iqneba saWiro. Tu biznesi Tavisi miznebisaTvis saxsrebs produqciasa da momsaxurebis<br />

realizaciis Sedegad miRebuli Tanxebidan Rebulobs, amboben, rom samewarmeo<br />

saqmianoba Sida saxsrebiT finansdeba; magram es warmatebuli biznesis asawyobad sakmarisi<br />

ar aris, gansakuTrebiT saqmianobis dasawyisSi, amitom saWiroa gare saxsrebis mozidva.<br />

arsebuli Tu moziduli Tanxebis udidesi nawili sawarmos daarsebis an gafarToebisaTvis<br />

saWiro kapitaluri resursebis SeZenas anu investirebas xmardeba. aranakleb mniSvnelovania<br />

warmoebisaTvis saWiro resursebis SeZena da maragebis Seqmna.<br />

investireba _ im kapitaluri resursebis SeZena, romlebic saWiroa<br />

saqonlisa da momsaxurebis sawarmoeblad. igi SeiZleba gamoixatebodes<br />

korporaciis aqciebis flobaSi, uZrav qonebaSi an nagebobebsa da mowyobilobaSi.<br />

kapitaluri resursebis SeZenas da sawarmos saqmianobas fuladi an<br />

sxva tipis saxsrebi anu finansebi sWirdeba.<br />

biznesis wamowyebis msurveli uamravia, maT saintereso ideebi aqvT, magram saWiro<br />

Tanxebis mopoveba uWirT. zogierTs ki riskis gawevis eSinia, amitom biznesis wamowyebamde<br />

adamianebi yvelanair alternativebs afaseben. TiToeul ideasTan mimarTebaSi maT<br />

sami ZiriTadi kiTxva awuxebT: ramdeni fuli dasWirdeba ideis ganxorcielebas, rogor<br />

moaxdinon saWiro Tanxebis mobilizeba? (sad iSovon fuli?) eqnebaT Tu ara imdeni Semosavali,<br />

rom valebi dafaron da mogeba darCeT?<br />

123


sawarmoebi axal kapitalur<br />

resursebSi investirebisaTvis banks<br />

mimarTaven. grZelvadiani sesxis saxes<br />

obligacia warmoadgens. sawarmoebi<br />

obligaciebs investiciisaTvis saWiro<br />

naRdi fulis miRebis mizniT yidian.<br />

obligaciis Semsyidvelebi sawarmos<br />

kreditorebi anu mevaleebi xdebian. isini<br />

gadaxdili Tanxis mixedviT, yovelwliurad<br />

fiqsirebul sargebels iReben.<br />

vadis gasvlis Semdeg ki _ srul Tanxas.<br />

korporaciebi obligaciebis gayidvas<br />

maSin iwyeben, rodesac firmas axali teqnologiebis<br />

SesaZenad, sawarmoo operaciebis<br />

gafarToebis, sxva korporaciebis mierTebis an Serwymis dasafinanseblad kapitalis<br />

mozidva sWirdeba.<br />

124<br />

gare saxsrebis mozidva<br />

sesxebis aReba aqciebis gayidva axali mflobelis mozidva<br />

mcire da saSualo biznesis dafinanseba ufro xSirad moklevadiani sesxebiT xdeba.<br />

moklevadiani sesxebi sxvadasxva saxisaa:<br />

komerciuli krediti _ resursebis an saqonelis SeZena kreditiT anu SemdgomSi<br />

gadaxdis angariSiT.<br />

safinanso dawesebulebidan aRebuli sesxebi _ sesxebi bankebidan, finansuri<br />

kompaniebidan.<br />

sxva kompaniebisagan an pirebisagan aRebuli sesxebi.<br />

dafinansebis miReba axali mflobelebisgan _ sawarmos dafinanseba aqciebis gamoSvebis<br />

gziT SeuZlia. aqcia, `mflobelobis~ sinonimia. aqciebis gayidva moklevadiani<br />

kreditis kidev erTi wyaroa.<br />

mcire sawarmos daarsebas an gafarToebas didi investiciebi ar sWirdeba. dafinansebis<br />

wyaro SeiZleba iyos:<br />

piradi danazogebi;<br />

ojaxi da megobrebi;<br />

amxanagobis daarseba;<br />

aqciebis gayidva;<br />

komerciuli bankidan aRebuli sesxi;<br />

uZravi qonebis gayidviT an gaqiravebiT miRebuli Semosavali.<br />

sawarmos finansuri mdgradoba niSnavs, rom produqciis realizaciis Sedegad<br />

miRebuli Semosavlebidan sawarmos SeuZlia:<br />

yvela mimdinare vali da gadasaxadi dafaros;<br />

mosalodneli Semosavlebidan momavali valdebulebebi dafaros;<br />

fuladi saxsrebi axal kapitalur resursebSi daabandos;<br />

gauTvaliswinebeli xarjebi dafaros.


iznesis dasafinanseblad bankidan sesxis aReba martivi ar aris. mewarmem bankis ndoba unda<br />

moipovos. banki momavali klientis kreditunarianobas swavlobs:<br />

ikvlevs reputacias _ amowmeben dosies (monacemebs), yvela adrindeli angariSi da<br />

vali droulad aris Tu ara dafaruli.<br />

amowmebs gadaxdisunarianobas _ Semosavlis wyaros, amJamindel davalianebebs da nakisr<br />

valdebulebebs.<br />

axdenen qonebis Sefasebas _ iTvlis bankSi ganTavsebul fuls, uZrav da moZrav qonebas.<br />

SesaZlebelia kreditorma kapitalis nawili giraos saxiT daitovos.<br />

savarjiSo<br />

daiyaviT jgufebad, CamowereT pirobebi, romlsac Tqveni azriT mewarme<br />

unda akmayofilebdes, raTa banki darwmunebuli iyos, rom krediti<br />

ar gaiflangeba da is sesxis patiosani gadamxdeli iqneba.<br />

moamzadeT prezentacia. samuSao dro 10 wuTia.<br />

damatebiTi<br />

sakiTxavi<br />

arsebobs aqciebis ori saxe: Cveulebrivi da privilegirebuli. orive korporaciis<br />

mflobelobas niSnavs, magram Cveulebrivi aqciebis mflobelebs sawarmos aqcionerTa<br />

saerTo krebaze kenWisyraSi monawileobis ufleba aqvT, privilegirebuli aqciebis<br />

mflobelebi ki, korporaciis likvidaciis SemTxvevaSi dividendebs da qonebis wils<br />

pirvel rigSi miiReben.<br />

mcire sawarmoebi sasesxo programebis farglebSi yovedRiurad miliardobiT aqcias<br />

yiduloben da yidian mTel msoflioSi. aqciebiT vaWrobisaTvis mravali safondo<br />

birJa anu aqciaTa bazari arsebobs. rodesac korporacia pirvelad uSvebs aqciebs,<br />

igi TanamSromlobs sainvesticio bankTan an firmasTan, romelic aqciebis gamoSvebas<br />

garantirebuls xdis.<br />

aqciebis sawyis gayidvas pirveladi bazari ewodeba. aqciebis Tavdapirveli gayidvis<br />

Semdeg xalxi maT gamomSvebi kompaniisgan damoukideblad yidulobs da yidis.<br />

swores am meorad bazars uwodeben safondo birJas anu aqciaTa bazars.<br />

finansurad mdgradi didi korporaciebi zogjer e.w. venCuruli anu sarisko kapitaliT<br />

afinanseben siaxleTa danergviT dakavebul patara firmebs. imis gamo, rom<br />

principulad axali saqonlis danergva yovelTvis did riskTan aris dakavSirebuli,<br />

axali produqtebisaTvis saWiro dafinanseba da kapitali sariskod iTvleba. cxadia,<br />

warumateblobis SemTxvevaSi kapitali dakargulia, warmatebis SemTxvevaSi ki msxvili<br />

korporacia TviTon iwyebs am produqtis masStabur warmoebas.<br />

? Tqven<br />

rom sakuTari sawarmos gaxsnis idea gqondeT, rogor moaxdendiT mis<br />

dafinansebas? dafinansebis es forma airCieT imitom rom realuri Sansi gaga­<br />

CniaT, Tu imitom, rom upiratesobas dafinansebis am wyaros aniWebT?<br />

125


VII<br />

? 1.<br />

126<br />

ojaxis<br />

<strong>ekonomika</strong><br />

35<br />

ojaxidan<br />

bankisaken<br />

ra saWiroebebi gaaCnia oTxwevrian (ded-mama, 12 da 16 wlis ori Svil i)<br />

ojaxs 1 Tvis ganmavlobaSi?<br />

2. ra maqsimaluri Semosavali SeiZleba qondes oTxsulian ojaxs saqar­<br />

TveloSi, Tu orive mSobeli mcire biznesSia dasaqmebuli?<br />

3. gawvdeba Tu ara es Semosavali ojaxis saWiroebebs?<br />

ojaxis wevrebma winaswar unda gansazRvron moTxovnilebebis dakmayofilebis Tanmimdevroba<br />

– ra, sad da rodis SeiZinon, raTa ojaxis gankargulebaSi arsebuli fuli gonivrulad<br />

gamoiyenon: SeiZinon sakvebi, saTbobi masalebi, tansacmeli, gadaixadon gadasaxadebi. Znelia<br />

samomavlo xarjebis dagegmva, Tu ar ici, rogor Semosavalze unda gaTvalo es xarjebi.<br />

savarjiSo<br />

1<br />

ojaxis (gundis) biujeti<br />

ojaxi (4 wevrisgan Semdgari gundi) damoukideblad cxovrobT da Tqveni<br />

saerTo Semo savali 600 lars Seadgens. es Tanxa fiqsirebulia. fuli<br />

gonivrulad daxarjeT. (am sakiTxis irgvliv konsultacia SegiZliaT<br />

ufrosebisganac miiRoT). mocemuli monacemebis gamoyenebiT SeadgineT<br />

biujeti. mniSvnelovani xarjebi biujetSi unda dafiqsirdes. es xarjebi<br />

fiqsirebulia da misi Secvla mxolod maswavlebels SeuZlia.<br />

xarjebis kategoria<br />

bina (Senoba)<br />

ZiriTadi sakvebi<br />

msubuqi sauzme<br />

tansacmeli<br />

telefoni<br />

bunebrivi airi/SeSa<br />

eleqtroba<br />

benzinis an avtobusis gadasaxadebi<br />

cxovelebis sakvebi<br />

kinos,<br />

Teatris<br />

da<br />

sportul<br />

i<br />

RonisZiebebis bileTebi<br />

dazogva<br />

jami<br />

1 Tve (lari)<br />

600<br />

me-2 Tve (lari)<br />

600


1. geyofaT Tu ara es Tanxa damoukideblad sacxovreblad erTi Tvis ganmavlobaSi?<br />

2. ram moaxdina gavlena Tqvens arCevanze biujetis muxlebidan?<br />

3. SeadareT gundebis biujetebis msgavseba da gansxvaveba.<br />

4. SeadgineT axali biujeti II TvisaTvis Semdegi axali pirobebis gaTvaliswinebiT:<br />

a. eleqtroenergiis gadasaxadi 10 %­iT gaizarda.<br />

b. sawvavis fasi 5%-iT Semcirda.<br />

g. sadResaswaulo sauzmis fasi 50 %-iT Semcirda.<br />

d. benzinis fasebi da avtobusis gadasaxadi 25 %-iT gaizarda.<br />

e. ZiriTad sakveb produqtebze fasebi 15 %-iT gaizarda.<br />

v. fasebi tansacmelze ucvleli darCa.<br />

z. satelefono momsaxureba 3 procentiT Semcirda.<br />

T. sabinao momsaxurebis fasi ucvlelia.<br />

5. rogor reagirebda gundi fasebis cvlilebaze?<br />

6. mogewonebodaT Tu ara damoukideblad cxovreba aseT pirobebSi?<br />

7. vis mimarTavdiT dasaxmareblad sesxisaTvis ?<br />

8. biujetis gazrdili deficitis SemTxvevaSi mimarTavdiT Tu ara banks?<br />

yovelTvis arseboben adamianebi, romlebic fuls agroveben anu danazogs akeTeben da meore<br />

mxriv _ adamianebi, romlebic fuls sesxuloben. danazogi maSin keTdeba, roca calkeuli<br />

adamianebi, firmebi da qveynebi mTlianad ar iyeneben mimdinare Semosavlebs. ekonomistebis<br />

TvalsazrisiT, danazogi aris Semosavali, romelic moxmarebisaTvis ar daxarjula.<br />

albaT gagikeTebiaT danazogi imisaTvis, rom momavalSi raime geyidaT. Tqveni, rogorc<br />

moswavlis danazogi, romelic mSoblebisa da naTesavebis mier naCuqari an yoveldRiuri saxarjo<br />

fulisgan Sedgeba, saxlSic mSvenivrad Seinaxeba. ufrosebis mier dazogili Tanxa ki umjobesia<br />

bankSi ganTavsdes, radgan saxlisagan gansxvavebiT, fulis bankSi SenaxviT adamianebi<br />

sxva damatebiT fuls gamoimuSaveben sargeblis saxiT, rom aRaraferi vTqvaT, bankSi danazogis<br />

daculobaze.<br />

bankebi _ institutebi, sadac adamianTa erTi nawili fuls inaxavs da<br />

sargebels gamoimuSavebs, xolo meore nawili _ fuls sesxulobs da<br />

sanacvlod sargeblis ganakveTs ixdis.<br />

danazogi _ Semosavlebis nawili, romelic ar iqna daxarjuli gadasaxadebisa<br />

da sayidlebisaTvis.<br />

meanabre _ adamiani, romelic bankSi danazogs inaxavs.<br />

bankebi da sxva safinanso institutebi im arxis rols asruleben, rom<br />

liTac SemnaxvelTa finansuri saSualebebi miemarTeba msesxeblebisa<br />

da investorebisaken. bankebsa da sxva safinanso institutebs finansur<br />

Suamavlebs uwodeben. isini iReben anabrebs da gascemen sesxebs.<br />

sargebeli _ gadasaxadi sxvisi fuliT sargeblobisaTvis (xSirad mas<br />

procents uwodeben).<br />

investicia _ manqanebis, Senoba­nagebobebis, mowyobilobebis warmoeba<br />

da yidva, romelic momavalSi ufro meti raodenobis saqonlisa da momsaxurebis<br />

sawarmoeblad gamoiyeneba.<br />

piradi investireba _ fasiani qaRaldebis (aqciebi, obligaciebi) yidva,<br />

rac ufro sariskoa, vidre Semnaxvel angariSze fulis ganTavseba,<br />

radganac fasiani qaRaldebis Rirebuleba SeiZleba Seicvalos. samagierod,<br />

aseTma dabandebam SeiZleba bevrad meti mogeba moitanos, vidre<br />

Semnaxvelma angariSebma.<br />

127


saqonlisa da momsaxurebis sayidlad adamianebi mTel Semosavals ar xarjaven, fuls<br />

zogaven. Semosavlis nawils produqtis samomavalod yidvis mizniT inaxaven. saqonlisa da<br />

momsaxurebis mimdinare moxmareba dazogvis alternatiul Rirebulebas warmoadgens.<br />

fulis sesxebisas, adamianebi sxvis fuls iyeneben. nasesxeb fuls momavalSi xarjaven.<br />

amitom sayidlebisaTvis ufro cota fuli rCebaT, ris gamoc saqonelsa da momsaxurebaze,<br />

romlis momavalSi unda SeeZinaT uars amboben. es saqoneli sesxis alternatiul Rirebulebas<br />

warmoadgens.<br />

dauxarjavi Semosavlis nawili SeiZleba safinanso institutebSi ganTavsdes. safinanso<br />

institutebi kredits im adamianebze gascemen, romelTac kapitaluri an sxva resursis<br />

yidva surT. bankebi msesxebelsa da gamsesxebels Soris Suamavlis rols asruleben, riTac<br />

fulis mflobels saqmes uadvileben _ moZebnos is, visac fulis sesxeba surs. ra Tqma<br />

unda, bankis SeTavazebuli pirobebi orive mxares unda akmayofilebdes. amasTanave, bankebi<br />

yuradRebiT adevneben Tvals msesxeblebs, raTa darwmundnen imaSi, rom es ukanasknelni<br />

sesxs daabruneben, Tanac droulad da sargeblis gadaxdis pirobiT. swored es gaxlavT<br />

kreditis Tviseba: sargeblis gadaxda, vadianoba, dabruneba.<br />

roca sakuTari fuli sakmarisi ar aris; roca adamianebs axali saqmianobis dawyeba<br />

surT, esaWiroebaT fuli mSeneblobis dafinansebisaTvis, mowyobilobebis, saqonlisa da<br />

momsaxurebis yidvisaTvis, isini sesxs iReben.<br />

yovelive zemoTqmulis ukeT garkvevaSi saklaso oTaxSi `namdvili~ banki movawyoT.<br />

kiTxvebi da<br />

davalebebi<br />

128<br />

meanabreebi<br />

fuls inaxaven<br />

meanabreebi sargebels<br />

iReben,<br />

es<br />

sainteresoa<br />

komerciuli<br />

banki<br />

banki gascems<br />

sesxebs<br />

banki iRebs<br />

sargebels<br />

1. SeadgineT Taviseburebebis sia, romlebic Tqveni azriT, finansur<br />

Suamavals unda gaaCndes. daasaxeleT mizezebi, romlis gamoc es Taviseburebebi<br />

mniSvnelovania.<br />

2. imsjeleT kreditis rolis Sesaxeb sakuTari ojaxis, raionis magaliTze.<br />

cnobilia, rom bolo periodSi saqarTveloSi mkveTrad gaizarda kreditis<br />

aRebis msurvelTa raodenoba. es pirvel rigSi imaze metyvelebs, rom<br />

adamianebis umravlesobas xelfasi sabanko momsaxurebiT sargeblobis<br />

saSualebas aZlevs. sabanko sesxebis yvelaze meti wili sayofacxovrebo<br />

teqnikis, binebis mSeneblobis, avtomobilebis SeZenisa da studenturi<br />

sesxebisaTvis ixarjeba.


savarjiSo<br />

2<br />

savarjiSo<br />

3<br />

qalbaton lilis savaWro centri<br />

qalbatoni lili samSeneblo firma ,,lilis” mflobeli da mmarTvelia.<br />

misi ori qaliSvili da vaJi kompaniis Tanamflobelebi arian. kompania<br />

ukve 11 welia muSaobs. axlaxans qalbatonma lilim axlomdebare<br />

10 heqtri miwa iyida da igi aq savaWro centris mSeneblobas gegmavs. am<br />

centrSi erTi didi universami, TxuTmeti mcire maRazia, ori restorani<br />

da avtosadgomi ganTavsdeba. ,,lilis” gaangariSebiT, roca centri<br />

gaixsneba, iq 3000 adamiani imuSavebs: nawili sruli samuSo ganakveTiT,<br />

nawilic arasruli samuSao ganakveTiT.<br />

am proeqtis realizaciisaTvis qalbaton lilisaTvis aucilebelia<br />

damatebiT 600 000 laris mozidva. igi erT-erTi bankis warmomadgenels<br />

Sexvda da gancxadebac dawera sesxis miRebis Sesaxeb. kompaniis<br />

gancxadebis detaluri Seswavlis Semdeg, banki daTanxmda sesxis gacemas.<br />

sesxis sanacvlod banki yovelTviurad sesxad gacemuli Tanxis<br />

16%-s miiRebs. savaWro centris mSenebloba erTi wlis Semdeg daiwyeba.<br />

samuSao rom vadaSi Sesruldes ,,lili” apirebs muSaTa sami damatebiTi<br />

brigadis daqiravebas.<br />

1. raSi mdgomareobs qalbaton lilis problema?<br />

2. rogor moiqca igi?<br />

3. ratom sWirdeba banks gancxadeba sesxis miRebaze?<br />

4. ratom aqvs banks SesaZlebloba fuli qalbaton lilis asesxos?<br />

5. ra miiRes Semnaxvelebma sanacvlod?<br />

6. ra aris SemnaxvelebisaTvis alternatiuli Rirebuleba?<br />

7. ratom iRebs banki qalbatoni lilisagan sargebels?<br />

8. ra aris qalbatoni lilisaTvis alternatiuli Rirebuleba?<br />

9. ra gavlenas axdens adgilobriv bazarze axali savaWro centris gaxsna?<br />

10. vin imuSavebs savaWro centrSi?<br />

11. rogor gamoiyeneben muSakebi TavianT Semosavlebs?<br />

qalbaton lilis savaWro centris ekonomikuri wrebrunvis diagrama.<br />

imuSaveT wyvilebSi. aageT wrebrunvis diagrama savaWro centrisaTvis,<br />

Semdegi situaciebis gamoyenebiT:<br />

Semnaxvelebs dauxarjavi Semosavli aqvT;<br />

bankebi da sxva finansuri Suamavlebi;<br />

sesxebi firmebisaTvis (`lili~);<br />

samuSao adgilebi mSeneblobaze;<br />

momuSaveebi iReben sesxs;<br />

dazogva _ samomavlod saqonlis da momsaxurebis yidva;<br />

samuSao adgilebi savaWro centrSi;<br />

momuSaveebi iReben Semosavals;<br />

sesxebi firmebs (`lili~);<br />

Semnaxvelebs aqvT aRuricxavi Semosavali;<br />

bankebi da sxva safinanso Suamavlebi sesxebi firmebisaTvis<br />

(`lili~).<br />

129


130<br />

!<br />

kiTxvebi da<br />

davalebebi<br />

sabazro ekonomikis qveynebSi ZiriTad safinanso momsaxurebas bankebi<br />

saojaxo meurneobebsa da firmebs uweven. amiT isini ekonomikur zrdas<br />

uwyoben xels.<br />

bankebi calkeul adamianebs sTavazoben Semnaxvel angariSze da CekebiT<br />

fulis usafrTxo adgilas Senaxvas. anabrebis did nawils bankebi sesxad<br />

gascemen, rac zogierT adamians exmareba daiwyos an gaafarTovos saku­<br />

Tari biznesi, xolo zogs _ iyidos saxli da ZviradRirebuli saqoneli,<br />

magaliTad, macivari da avtomobili. zogi adamiani ki fuls ZviradRirebuli<br />

momsaxurebisaTvis sesxulobs, magaliTad Svilebis ganaTleba, samedicino<br />

momsaxureba an sazRvargareT dasveneba.<br />

ganviTarebuli sabazro ekonomikis qveynebSi investiciebisa da biznesis<br />

ganviTarebis stimulirebaze sakvanZo rols finansuri bazari (aqciebisa<br />

da obligaciebis bazari) asrulebs. milionobiT investori aTasobiT<br />

didi kompaniis saqmianobas da maT investiciebTan dakavSirebul gegemebs<br />

aanalizeben, konkurencias uweven erTmaneTs, cdiloben gonivruli riskis<br />

fasad TavianTi fuli iseT firmebSi daabandon, romlebsac SedarebiT<br />

meti mogeba eqnebaT.<br />

1. aris Tu ara damzogvelis roli moqalaqis umTavresi roli? pasuxi daasabuTeT.<br />

2. ra mogeba moaqvs TqvenTvis im adamianis rolis Sesrulebas, romelic<br />

danazogs akeTebs?<br />

3. rogor ukavSirdeba Tqveni, rogorc gadawyvetilebis mimRebis roli im adamianis<br />

rols, romelic danazogs akeTebs?<br />

4. gamokiTxeT sami ufrosi asakis adamiani da gaarkvieT, romeli nivTebis sayidlad<br />

sesxuloben isini fuls. daiyaviT jgufebad. gaaerTianeT mTeli klasis<br />

mier miRebuli monacemebi da TiToeul jgufs daaveleT aagos sqema,<br />

5. imuSaveT mcire jgufebad. amoWeriT bankebis da Semnaxveli da sakredito<br />

da safinanso institutebis sakredito gancxadebebi da/an darekeT bankebSi,<br />

sakredito organizaciebSi, raTa daadginoT sasesxo sargeblis sidide da gacemis<br />

procedura, romelic saWiroa avtomobilis sayidlad. pirveladi 5000<br />

laris SenataniT da pirveladi Senatanis gareSe. mieciT jgufebs aagon diagrama,<br />

sqema an grafiki miRebuli informaciis Sesadareblad.<br />

6. eTanxmebiT Tu ara i. WavWavaZis mosazrebas: `Cveni ubedureba is aris, rom<br />

sesxiT sargebloba ar viciT. bankma yvela CvenTagani unda SeaCvios valis<br />

pirnaTlad gadaxdas.~ /gaz. `iveria~, 1891 w.#124/.<br />

sabanko sesxebi saqarTvelos studentebisaTvis<br />

2006-2007 saswavlo wlidan saqrTvelos ganaTlebis saministrom studentebisTvis<br />

ganaTlebis xelSewyobis programa daiwyo. igi finansur mxardaWeras gulisxmobs maTTvis,<br />

vinc <strong>saxelmwifo</strong> granti ver miiRo (an nawilobriv miiRo). nebismier students Sesa­<br />

Zlebloba eZleva, swavlis safasuris dasafarad SeRavaTiani krediti aiRos. am axali sabanko<br />

produqtis SeqmniT sruliad Seicvala studentebis damokidebuleba swavlisadmi<br />

_ studenti, romelmac swavlisaTvis nasesxebi fuli gadaixada, ufro momTxovni gaxda<br />

rogorc sakuTari Tavis, ise saswavleblis mimarT. es ki ganaTlebis xarisxis amaRlebis<br />

winapirobaa.


es<br />

sainteresoa<br />

tfilisis qarTuli saadgilmamulo banki<br />

saqarTveloSi batonymobis gadavardnis dawyebisTanave, gamoCenilma<br />

qarTvelma sazogado moRvawem dimitri yifianma, romelic im dros aRmosavleT<br />

saqarTvelos Tavad­aznaurobis winamZRoli iyo, wamoayena<br />

bankis daarsebis idea.<br />

ilia WavWavaZe aqtiur monawileobas iRebda bankis wesdebis SemmuSavebel<br />

sxdomebSi. 1873 wlis maisSi igi bankis wesdebis damtkicebis<br />

dasaCqareblad da sabanko saqmeebis Sesaswavlad, daviT yifianTan da<br />

dimitri yazbegTan erTad ruseTs gaemgzavra. 1874 wlis 28 maiss finansTa<br />

ministrma reiternma bolos da bolos daamtkica Tbilisis saTavadaznauro<br />

saadgilmamulo bankis wesdeba.<br />

1875 wlis Tebervlidan amoqmedda Tbilisis saTavadaznauro saadgilmamulo<br />

banki, romelsac mTeli 30 wlis manZilze 1905 wlis 23<br />

ivnisamde saTaveSi edga ilia WavWavaZe.<br />

banki iyo pirveli erovnuli organizacia, romelic qarTvelTa aqtiurobiT<br />

da mondomebiT Seiqmna. iliam ganmarta saadgilmamulo<br />

kreditis mniSvneloba `miwis da miwaTmoqmedebis gankargebisa da ga­<br />

ZlierebisaTvis~. `daniSnuleba saadgilmamulo kreditisa gankargebaa<br />

mamul­dedulisa, gaZliereba miwaTmoqmedTa Ronisa da momcemlobisa~.<br />

`Cveni qveyana miwaTmoqmedi qveyanaa da erTaderTi warmoeba, romelsac<br />

igi amoqmedebs, sasoflo meurneobaa. amitom saadgilmamulo kredits,<br />

rogorc kredits, sagnad marto is unda hqondes, rom gaaZlieros soflis<br />

meurneobis warmoeba da radgan es warmoeba ganuyoflad SeerTebulia<br />

miwasTan da miwaT­moqmedebasTan, amitomac saadgilmamulo krediti<br />

irCeva yovel sxva kreditisagan im gansakuTrebuli TvisebebiT, romlebic<br />

warmosdgebian TiTon miwaTmoqmedebis da miwis ekonomiuri bunebisagan~.<br />

`saadgilmamulo bankis arsis gamosaxatavad n. nikolaZe metad tevad<br />

cnebas xmarobs – ganaxlebis banki. Tu adre igi Tavadaznaurobis keTildReobis<br />

SesanarCuneblad iyo Cafiqrebuli, TergdaleulTa xelSi<br />

erovnuli cxovrebis ganaxlebis iaraRad gadaiqca~ (ak. baqraZe).<br />

SenobaSi, romelSic banki mdebareobda amJamad saqarTvelos parlamentis<br />

erovnuli biblioTekis I korpusia ganTavsebuli (l. gudiaSvilis N3).<br />

ilia WavWavaZis warmoTqmuli sityva, 3 Tebervals<br />

Tfilisis Tavadaznaurobis krebaSi<br />

`es wuTis sofeli iseTia, rom vinc TviTon ar mxneobs, vinc TviTon ar<br />

ibrZvis dRiuris lukmisaTvis, imisi bedi gadawyvetilia. imas SeiZleba<br />

erTs dRes, an ramodenime xans kacma kacTmoyvarebiT uSvelos, magram mas<br />

mermed isev mSieria, isev gasaZRomia – da erTi gkiTxavT: rodemdis unda<br />

vaZRoT Cven?<br />

me darwmunebuli var, rom rac dRes bankSi fulia, sul rom dResve davurigoT<br />

mconare mSivrebs, xval ufro bevri mSieri mogvadgeba, – xval<br />

riTRa gavce pasuxi? rac dRes banks fuli aqvs, aTjer imazed meti fuli<br />

SegvZina Cven ymebis ganTavisuflebam, – gana magan mohspo ivanes da petres<br />

SimSili?<br />

vinc TviTon ar Wirnaxulobs, vinc TviTon Tavis marjveniT ar cdilobs<br />

Tavis stomaqis avsebas, is, batonebo, cxrilia, romelic mainc ar aivseba,<br />

Tunda mTeli mtkvari gauwyvetliv zed miuSvaT. ra Tanxa gauZlebs mSiers<br />

mconareobas? marto imisTana Tanxa, romelmac imodeni unda imatos,<br />

131


132<br />

ramodensac daaklebT. Tu Cvengani vinme amisTana grZneuls Tanxas Seadgens,<br />

Cven imisaTvis didis sixaruliT gza dagviclia.<br />

vimeoreb: erTxel da orjel rom gaaZRoT mconare mSieri, eg kacmoyvareobaa,<br />

magram maincadamainc amiT samudamod wyluls ver gavimTelebT,<br />

imitom rom Tavis Tavis wyluli TviTon mconare mSieri aris. an rad gvinda,<br />

rom amgvar kacTaTvis egre vwuxvarT da Cveni mwuxareba iqamdin migvyavs,<br />

rom gvinda banki mag mwuxarebas vanacvaloT. mconareobas rom sazrdo mivsceT,<br />

eg mconareobis waqezebasa da gamravlebas moaswavebs. waqezeba, xelis<br />

gamarTva gaWirvebuls bejiTobas unda, imitom rom marto bejiTobaa Cveni<br />

mxsneli da qveynisaTvis nayofieri, – da ara mSiers mconareobas, romelic<br />

imodenad dids pirs aRebs, ramodenadac dids lukmas awvdiT da romelic<br />

ramodenad Zlieria, imodenad aRaribebs qveyanasa. Cvenis qveynis iara mconareobaa.<br />

rac adre moviSorebT mag iaras, miT ufro male movipovebT janmr­<br />

Telobas, dRegrZelobas da keTildReobasa.<br />

uwinac miTqvams da exlac mogaxsenebT, rom banki am mxriT, ese igi, imiT,<br />

rom fuls asesxebs, kacis amSenebelic aris da damRupavica. vinc bejiTia da<br />

mxne, visac goneba aqvs, gulmodgine Sromis survili da mxolod fuli aklia,<br />

rom Tavisi saqme warimarTos, RvTis wyaloba Tqvena gaqvT, rom imisaTvis<br />

banki yovlad mxsneli saxsari iyos. magisTana kacs ara sastiki kanoni, bankis<br />

simkvidris qvakuTxedad dadebuli, ver daabrkolebs, ver daafTxobs, guls<br />

winadve ver gauxeTqs, imitom, rom mxne da bejiTia. bejiToba kidev TiTqmis<br />

yovlad SemZlebelia, angariSiania, icis, rom fuls windauxedavaT aravin<br />

ar gaasesxebs, Tu fulis daRupva ar unda. amisTana kacs im bejiTobasTan, im<br />

mxneobasTan, im Seuwyvetel Sromis survilTan oRond fulis Sovnis gzac<br />

mieciT da rac unda Zneli gza iyos, igi im gzas usaTuod gadalaxavs. marto<br />

amisTana kaci unda Sehxarodes Cvens banksa da Cvenc, mowyaleno xelmwifeno,<br />

marto magisTana kacs unda wavxarodeT. kaci bejiTi, mxne, Sromis moyvare<br />

ramodensac Tavis Tavs Sehmatebs Cvenis bankis SemweobiT, imodenas Sehmatebs<br />

Cvens qveyanasaca: Tavis Semosavals oci kodic rom moumatos, Cveni<br />

qveyana uwindelzed ocis kodiT ufro mdidari Seiqmneba imis meoxrebiT da<br />

Cvenis bankis SemweobiT.<br />

Tu SevswuxdebiT visTvisme, swored amisTana kacisaTvis unda viwuxoT.<br />

Tu es asea, maS Cvengan ramdenjerme warmoTqmuli mwuxareba maszed, rom<br />

bankis kanonebi sastikiao, notariusTan mezareba misvlao da sxva amgvari,<br />

– metia da saTakilo amisTana kacisaTvisa. metyvian, rom Tu marTla marto<br />

magisTana kacebs unda uxarodesT banki, magisTana kacebi CvenSi cotani<br />

ariano, maS banki raRad gvindodao? mec srulis Cemis gulistkiviliT dageTanxmebiT,<br />

rom magisTana kacebi CvenSi bevrni ar arian, magram Cveni uguliTadesi<br />

survilia, rom marto magisTanani gamravldnen. sxvani ki, ese igi,<br />

isini visac banki uxarian marto imisTvis, rom fulebs male visesxebo da im<br />

fulebiT qeifs gavswevo, imaTTvis aramc Tu Cveni banki, yovelgvari banki<br />

winadve gaTxrili samarea.<br />

Cveni banki, marTalia, amisTana kacsac fuls asesxebs, radganac Cveni<br />

banki kacs ki ar andobs fuls, aramed mis uZravs qonebas, magram es sesxi<br />

mouRebs kidec bolos amgvars kacsa.<br />

sesxs moSoreba unda da eg moSoreba mxolod maSin SeiZleba, roca kaci nasesxs<br />

fuls xeirianad moixmarebs. Tu ara da gaeyideba mamuli da amiT ukanaskneli<br />

lukma gamoecleba piridama. amgvars kacs ara eSveleba ra. nuravis nu gvaqvs<br />

imedi, rom amgvars kacs bankma uSvelos rame. vinc Tvisis xeliT wyluls xelaxlad<br />

iwylulebs, imas vera moarCens ra sikvdilis meti.~


VIII ekonomikuri<br />

politikis sakiTxebi<br />

savarjiSo 1<br />

36<br />

konstitucia<br />

<strong>ekonomika</strong>s icavs<br />

qvemoT mocemulia sabazro ekonomikis Taviseburebebi. daasaxeleT<br />

TiToeuli Taviseburebis Sesabamisi magaliTebi Tanamedrove<br />

saqarTvelos realobidan.<br />

sabazro ekonomikis eqvsi ZiriTadi principi<br />

1. kerZo sakuTreba<br />

SromiTi resursebi, bunebrivi resursebi, kapitaluri resursebi,<br />

agreTve, <strong>ekonomika</strong>Si warmoebuli saqoneli da momsaxureba, metwilad<br />

kerZo pirebisa da kerZo institutebis sakuTrebaa, vidre <strong>saxelmwifo</strong><br />

sakuTreba. amgvari kerZo sakuTreba da kanoniT uzrunvelyofili garigebebis<br />

Tavisufleba adamianebs resursebis yidvisa da gamoyenebis<br />

farTo areals sTavazobs.<br />

2. mewarmeobisa da arCevanis Tavisufleba<br />

saqonlisa da momsaxurebis sawarmoeblad kerZo mewarmeebs aqvT<br />

resursebis yidvisa da gamoyenebis Tavisufleba, agreTve sakuTari<br />

Sexedulebisamebr maTi bazarze gayidvis Tavisufleba. momxmareblebs<br />

im saqonlisa da momsaxurebis nakrebis yidvis Tavisufleba gaaCniaT,<br />

romlebic yvelaze metad akmayofilebs maT ekonomikur moTxovnilebebs.<br />

muSakebi ki Tavisufalni arian im samuSaos moZebnaSi, romlis Sesabamisi<br />

kvalifikaciac gaaCniaT.<br />

3. piradi interesis motivi<br />

`uxilavi xeli~, romelic sabazro ekonomikis mamoZravebel Zalas<br />

warmoadgens, TiToeuli adamianis mier pirad interesebze agebul motivacias<br />

emyareba. momxmareblebis mizania sakuTari biujetidan maqsimaluri<br />

kmayofilebis miReba; mewarmeebi TavianTi firmebisaTvis rac<br />

SeiZleba meti mogebis miRwevas cdiloben; muSakebs maRali xelfasebi<br />

surT; resursebis mflobelebi ki _ yvelaze maRal fasad sakuTari<br />

qonebis ijariT gacemas an gayidvas cdiloben.<br />

4. ekonomikuri metoqeoba<br />

ekonomikuri metoqeoba niSnavs, rom myidvelebsa da gamyidvelebs<br />

nebismier bazarze Tavisuflad Sesvla da gamosvla SeuZliaT, da bazarze<br />

damoukideblad moqmedi myidvelebi da gamyidvelebi arian. swored<br />

konkurencia zRudavs erTi ekonomikuri erTeulis mier meoris mimarT<br />

ekonomikuri Zalauflebis borotad gamoyenebas, im pirobebSi, roca<br />

TiToeuli maTgani piradi interesebis mixedviT moqmedebas cdilobs.<br />

133


134<br />

5. bazrebisa da fasebis sistema<br />

sabazro <strong>ekonomika</strong>Si ZiriTad makoordinirebel meqanizms bazari<br />

warmoadgens da ara <strong>saxelmwifo</strong>s mier centralizebuli dagegmva. bazari<br />

konkretuli saqonlis myidvelebsa da gamyidvelebs akavSirebs.<br />

gamyidvelebisa da myidvelebis upiratesobebi, Sesabamisad, sxvadasxva<br />

bazarze arsebul miwodebasa da moTxovnaze aisaxeba; produqtebsa da<br />

resursebze arsebuli fasebis sistema maTi arCevanis Sedegia. swored<br />

es fasebia maCvenebeli, romlis mixedviTac bazris monawileebi piradi<br />

interesebidan gamomdinare, TavianTi arCevanis Tavisuflebas zomaven.<br />

6. <strong>saxelmwifo</strong>s SezRuduli roli<br />

konkurentuli sabazro <strong>ekonomika</strong> xels uwyobs resursebis efeqtianad<br />

gamoyenebas. raki <strong>ekonomika</strong> TviTregulirebadia _ igi <strong>saxelmwifo</strong>s<br />

arsebiT ekonomikur Carevas ar saWiroebs. Tumca sabazro sistemasTan<br />

dakavSirebuli mTeli rigi `warumateblobebi~ da arasasurveli<br />

Sedegebi <strong>saxelmwifo</strong>s aqtiur, magram SezRuduli ekonomikuri rolis<br />

aucileblobas ganapirobebs.<br />

axla, roca sabazro ekonomikis Taviseburebebi gavixseneT, sainteresoa, rogor<br />

uwyobs xels qveynis konstitucia ekonomikuri sistemis ganviTarebas saqarTveloSi?<br />

konstitucia rogorc ekonomikur, aseve politikur dokuments warmoadgens. es mtkicebuleba<br />

WeSmaritia yvela qveynis konstituciis mimarT. ekonomikuri da politikuri<br />

Tavisufleba arsebiTia qveynis keTildReobisa da zrdisaTvis. swored amitom sxvadasxva<br />

qveynis konstituciaSi Setanilia sabazro ekonomikis funqcionirebis mxardamWeri da mastimulirebeli<br />

bevri piroba. amrigad, qveynis ekonomikis arsebiT Strixebs konstitucia<br />

gansazRvravs.<br />

gadavxedoT konsituciis preambulas: `saqarTvelos moqalaqeni, romelTa uryevi<br />

nebaa daamkvidron demokratiuli sazogadoebrivi weswyobileba, ekonomikuri Tavisufleba,<br />

socialuri da samarTlebrivi <strong>saxelmwifo</strong>, uzrunvelyon adamianis sayovelTaod<br />

aRiarebuli uflebani da Tavisuflebani, ganamtkicon <strong>saxelmwifo</strong>ebrivi damoukidebloba<br />

da sxva xalxebTan mSvidobiani urTierToba, eyrdnobian ra qarTveli<br />

eris mravalsaukunovani <strong>saxelmwifo</strong>ebriobis tradiciebs da saqarTvelos 1921 wlis<br />

konstituciis ZiriTad principebs, saqveynod acxadeben am konstitucias.~<br />

? axseniT,<br />

savarjiSo 2<br />

rogor SeiZleba gamoyenebul iqnas es fraza sabazro <strong>ekonomika</strong>Si <strong>saxelmwifo</strong>s<br />

Carevis dasabuTebisaTvis, magaliTad, kanoni minimaluri xelfasis Sesaxeb,<br />

socialuri dacva, umuSevrobis kompensacia, usafrTxoebis wesebis dacva.<br />

waikiTxeT Sesatyvisi nawyvetebi saqarTvelos konstituciidan<br />

da ganixileT, rogor uWers mxars konstitucia am principebs.<br />

muxli 30-e, punqti I _ Sroma Tavisufalia. punqti II _ `<strong>saxelmwifo</strong><br />

valdebulia xeli Seuwyos Tavisufali mewarmeobisa da konkurenciis<br />

ganviTarebas... garda kanoniT daSvebuli SemTxvevebisa. momxmarebel-<br />

Ta uflebebi daculia kanoniT~.


ese<br />

fulis mimoqcevaSi gaSvebis Sesaxeb<br />

95-e muxlis Sesabamisi punqtebis mixedviT: 1. saqarTvelos fuladsakredito<br />

sistemis funqcionirebas uzrunvelyofs saqarTvelos erovnuli<br />

banki. 2. saqarTvelos erovnuli banki SeimuSavebs da axorcielebs fulad-sakredito<br />

da savaluto politikas parlamentis mier gansazRvruli<br />

ZiriTadi mimarTulebebis Sesabamisad. erovnuli banki aris bankTa baki,<br />

saqarTvelos mTavrobis bankiri da fiskaluri agenti. 4. erovnuli banki<br />

damoukidebelia Tavis saqmianobaSi. erovnuli bankis ufleba-movaleoba,<br />

saqmianobis wesi da damoukideblobis garantia ganisazRvreba organuli<br />

kanoniT. 5. fulis saxelwodeba da erTeuli ganisazRvreba kanoniT.<br />

saavtoro uflebebis Sesaxeb<br />

23-e muxlis II ganyofilebaSi naTqvamia, `inteleqtualuri Semoqmedebis<br />

Tavisufleba uzrunvelyofilia. inteleqtualuri sakuTrebis<br />

ufleba xelSeuvalia.~<br />

eqsportis Sesaxeb<br />

94-e muxlis I punqtSi naTqvamia, rom. ,,savaldebuloa gadasaxadebis<br />

da mosakreblebis gadaxda kanoniT dadgenili odenobiTa da wesiT”.<br />

94-e muxlis II punqti: ,,gadasaxadebisa da mosakreblebis struqturas,<br />

SemoRebis wess adgens mxolod kanoni.” III muxlis me-2 punqtis mixedviT<br />

,,mxolod saqarTvelos umaRles <strong>saxelmwifo</strong> organoTa gansakuTrebul<br />

gamgeblobas miekuTvneba:... a) sagareo politika da saerTaSoriso urTierTobani;<br />

v) sagareo vaWroba, sabaJo da satarifo reJimebi; z) <strong>saxelmwifo</strong><br />

finansebi da <strong>saxelmwifo</strong> sesxi; fulis moWra; sabanko, sakredito da<br />

sadazRvevo kanonmdebloba.~<br />

Cxrekvebi da dakavebebi<br />

me-20 muxlis II punqti amtkicebs, rom `aravis ar aqvs ufleba Sevides<br />

sacxovrebel binaSi da sxva mflobelobaSi, maT mflobel pirTa nebis sawinaaRmdegod,<br />

agreTve Caataros Cxreka, Tu ar aris sasamarTlos gadawyvetileba<br />

an kanoniT gaTvaliswinebuli gadaudebeli aucilebloba~<br />

procedura<br />

me-15 muxlis I punqtis mixedviT: `sicocxle adamianis xelSeuvali<br />

uflebaa da mas icavs kanoni. 17 muxlis I punqtis mixedviT ,,adamianis<br />

pativi da Rirseba xelSeuvalia. dauSvebelia adamianis wameba, mis<br />

mimarT arahumanuri, sastiki an pativisa da Rirsebis Semlaxavi mopyrobisa<br />

Tu dasjis meTodebis gamoyeneba.<br />

uflebamosilebis SenarCuneba<br />

me-18 muxlis I punqti amtkicebs, rom adamianis Tavisufleba xel-<br />

Seuvalia. Tavisuflebis aRkveTa an piradi Tavisuflebis sxvagvari<br />

SezRudva dauSvebelia sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebebis gareSe.<br />

erTad imsjeleT SerCeuli citatebis Sesaxeb.<br />

moamzadeT Txzuleba, romelSic unda axsnaT, rogor uwyobs xels<br />

konstituciis debulebebi ekonomikuri Tavisuflebisa da ekonomikuri<br />

sistemis gansxvavebul tips<br />

135


? <br />

136<br />

37-38<br />

mTliani Sida produqti da<br />

mTliani erovnuli produqti<br />

gadmoscems Tu ara monacemebs ekonomikuri zrdis, inflaciisa da umuSevrobis<br />

Sesaxeb axali ambebis sainformacio samsaxuri?<br />

ra saxis informacia moismineT ukanasknel xans?<br />

ekonomistebs xSirad uwevT <strong>ekonomika</strong>Si saqonlisa da momsaxurebis, dasaqmebis, Semosavlebisa<br />

da fasebis realuri donis gazomva.<br />

ekonomikuri zrdis ZiriTadi sazomia mTliani Sida produqti.<br />

saqarTvelos mTliani Sida produqti (mSp) aris erTi wlis<br />

ganmavlobaSi saqarTvelos farglebSi, qarTuli da ucxouri<br />

firmebis mier warmoebuli yvela saboloo moxmarebis saqonlisa da<br />

momsaxurebis (produqtis) sabazro RirebulebaTa jami.<br />

saqarTvelos mTliani Sida produqti (mSp)<br />

saqarTvelo<br />

saqarTvelos<br />

mSp<br />

qarTuli firmebi<br />

ucxouri firmebi<br />

Semosavlebi, mogeba<br />

ra aris saboloo produqti?<br />

saboloo produqti, magaliTad, puri, Seicavs iseT Sualedur produqtebs, rogoricaa<br />

fqvili, safuari da marili. am resursebis Rirebuleba ukve CarTulia saboloo<br />

produqtis – puris RirebulebaSi da amrigad, mSp-Si mxolod puris fasi Sedis da ara<br />

puris fass damatebuli mis dasamzadeblad gamoyenebuli resursebis fasebi.<br />

im Saqris Rirebuleba, romelsac sakonditro firma tkbileulis dasamzadeblad yidulobs,<br />

ar Sedis mSp-Si. Saqari, am SemTxvevaSi, Sualeduri produqtia. mSp-Si Sedis im<br />

tkbileulis Rirebuleba, romelic am Saqrisgan aris warmoebuli da romelsac Cven sabolood<br />

vyidulobT.<br />

ra Sedis mSp-Si?<br />

mSp-Si Sedis mxolod saboloo moxmarebis produqti<br />

(saqoneli da momsaxureba);<br />

mSp-Si Sedis ucxouri biznes-firmebis mier miRebuli mogeba<br />

da is Semosavlebi, romlebsac ucxoeli moqalaqeebi<br />

saqarTveloSi iReben.<br />

mSp


savarjiSo 1<br />

gaiTvaliswineba Tu ara es, rogorc mSp-is nawili?<br />

qvemoTCamoTvlilTagan, romeli gaiTvaliswineba, da romeli<br />

ar gaiTvaliswineba am wlis mSp-is gaangariSebisas? axseniT Tqveni<br />

gadawyvetileba.<br />

138<br />

1. ekonomikis fakultetis studentisaTvis gamoyofili <strong>saxelmwifo</strong><br />

granti;<br />

2. fermeris mier axali traqtoris yidva;<br />

3. wyalsadenis muSis mier meoradi satvirTo manqanis yidva;<br />

4. meqanikosis momsaxureba, romelic aremontebs sakuTari<br />

avtomobilis radiators;<br />

5. pensia, romelsac <strong>saxelmwifo</strong> uxdis moxucebuls;<br />

6. biznes-firmebis maragebis gadideba;<br />

7. <strong>saxelmwifo</strong>s mier axali tankebis SeZena erovnuli gvardiisaTvis;<br />

8. Semosavali, romelic miiRo stilistma Tmis SeWrisaTvis;<br />

9. Semosavali, romelic aqciebis gayidvis gziT miiRo<br />

kompania `koka-kolam~.<br />

ra Sedis mep-Si?<br />

mep-i moicavs im mogebas, romelsac iReben saqarTvelos moqalaqeebis sakuTrebaSi<br />

myofi ucxouri kompaniebi, da im Semosavlebs, romlebsac iReben sazRvargareT momuSave<br />

saqarTvelos moqalaqeebi (ucxouri faqtorebi).<br />

ra ar Sedis mep-Si?<br />

mep-Si ar Sedis is mogeba, romelsac iReben saqarTvelos teritoriaze arsebuli<br />

ucxoeli moqalaqeebis sakuTrebaSi myofi kompaniebi, da is Semosavlebi, romlebsac<br />

iReben saqarTveloSi momuSave ucxoeli moqalaqeebi (ucxouri faqtorebi).<br />

saqarTvelos mTliani erovnuli produqti (mep)<br />

saqarTvelo<br />

qarTuli firmebi<br />

Semosavlebi, mogeba<br />

saqarTvelos<br />

mep<br />

msoflio qveynebi


davaleba<br />

es<br />

sainteresoa<br />

140<br />

1. mSp-Si Cven viTvaliswinebT axali saqonlis an momsaxurebis mxolod<br />

saboloo sacalo fass. ratom?<br />

2. rodesac saxlis mflobeli muSaobs saxlis dalagebaze an remontze,<br />

am Sromis fasi ar gaiTvaliswineba mSp-Si. ratom?<br />

3. arsebobs ki raime saqoneli an momsaxureba, romelic ar Sedis mSp-Si,<br />

magram mniSvnelovan gavlenas axdens Cvens keTildReobaze?<br />

4. SeiZleba Tu ara, CaiTvalos, rom mSp zustad asaxavs keTildReobas,<br />

Tu es maCvenebeli Seicavs im saqonlisa da momsaxurebis Rirebulebas,<br />

romlebic amcireben zogierTi adamianis keTildReobas?<br />

bednierebis indeqsma yvelaze<br />

bednieri qveyana gamoavlina<br />

bednierebis msoflio barometris bolo<br />

gamoSvebis monacemebiT dRes dedamiwis<br />

mosaxleobis 53%-s SeuZlia sakuTar Tavs<br />

bednieri uwodos. es monacemebi 2012 wlis<br />

9 ianvars gamoaqveyna organizaciam `WIN-<br />

Gallup International~ 58 qveynis 52913 aTasi<br />

adamianis gamokiTxvis Semdeg.<br />

sruliad ubedurad miaCnia Tavi respodentebis 13%-s, xolo maTma<br />

31%-ma ver SeZlo Tavis mikuTvneba verc erTi kategoriisTvis, 35%-ma<br />

ki ver gasca zusti pasuxi. gamokiTxvam aCvena, rom cxovrebiT yvelaze<br />

ukmayofilo aRmoCndnen saSualo asakis adamianebi (33%), im dros roca<br />

pensionerebsa da axalgazrdebs Soris es maCvenebeli Sesabamisaad 43%<br />

da 44%-s Seadgenda.<br />

sainteresoa, rom bednierebis maCvenebeli mniSvnelovnad dabalia<br />

aTeistebs Soris, vidre morwmuneebs Soris.<br />

planetaze yvelaze optimisturebi aRmoCndnen fijis mcxovreblebi.<br />

maTi mosaxleobis 89% kmayofilia sakuTari TaviTac da garemoTic.<br />

garda amisa, yvelaze bednieri qveynebis siaSi moxvdnen: Nnigeria, gana, niderlandebi<br />

da Sveicaria. naTelia, rom qveynis socialur-ekonomikuri<br />

maCveneblebi yovelTvis arsebiT gavlenas ar axdens misi moqalaqeebis<br />

msoflmxedvelobaze.<br />

rac Seexeba yvelaze arabednierebs, isini cxovreben rumineTSi, egvipteSi,<br />

litvaSi, eraySi, aSS-Si, libansa da pakistanSi. magram pesimiszis<br />

rekordsmenebi gaxdnen irlandielebi, romlebic saSualo evropul<br />

maCvenebels 20%-iT CamorCebian.<br />

am monacemebis gamoqveynebam didi sazogadoebrivi rezonansi da kamaTi<br />

gamoiwvia.<br />

progresis reitingi<br />

`progresis reitingSi~ ruseTma 97-e<br />

adgili daikava 101-dan. siis I adgilze<br />

saqarTvelo aRmoCnda.<br />

angariSi avtorebma qveynebi daal


ages msoflio bankis monacemebis, gaerTianebuli erebis organizaciis da sxva saerTa-<br />

Soriso analitikuri centrebis monacemebis (konkurentunarianobis indeqsis, biznesis<br />

keTebis pirobebi, adamianis potencialis ganviTareba, ekonomikuri Tavisufleba da korufciis<br />

done) safuZvelze.<br />

aRmoCnda, rom saqarTvelos maCveneblebi 2006 wlidan yvela sakvanZo indeqsiT gaizarda<br />

da aiwia 207 poziciiT. am gadaadgilebaSi mniSvnelovani roli Seasrula biznesis<br />

keTebis pirobebis indeqsma, romlis mixedviTac Tbilisi bolo 5 weliwadSi 112-dan 12-e<br />

adgilze gadavida.<br />

reitingis Semqmnelebi cdilobdnen ar CaerToT SedegebSi politikuri elementebi.<br />

rogorc analitikosebi Tvlian, saqarTvelos warmatebis saidumlo imaleba im reformebis<br />

miRma (aTze meti reforma), romelic saqarTveloSi saqmiani klimatis gasaumjobeseblad<br />

gatarda.<br />

magaliTad, bolo wlebSi saqarTveloSi Seiqmna aRmosavleT evropaSi da centralur<br />

aziaSi SedarebiT efeqturi sistema mSeneblobebis nebarTvisa.<br />

reitingis II adgili makedoniam daikava. Mmisi saerTo zrda reitingebis mixedviT 160<br />

pozicias Seadgens.<br />

III adgilze dominikis respublika aRmoCnda 114 punqtiani zrdiT.<br />

IV adgili egviptem daikava 94 poziciiis gazrdiT.<br />

V adgili ki – xorvatiam (94 poziciis zrda).<br />

siis dasawyisSi figurirebs gvatemala da albaneTi.<br />

ruseTma bolodan V adgili daikava.<br />

masze cudi mdgomareoba aqvs venesuelas, nikaraguas, ukrainas da bolivias.<br />

wyaro: http://beway.ru/n/indeks-schastya-vyyavil-samuyu-schastlivuyu-stranu-104<br />

141


? rogor arkveven eqimebi pacientebis janmrTelobis mdgomareobas?<br />

142<br />

39<br />

ZiriTadi makroekonomikuri<br />

maCveneblebi<br />

ZiriTadi makroekonomikuri maCveneblebia: ekonomikuri zrda, umuSevrobis done,<br />

samomxmareblo fasebis indeqsi (sfi), inflacia, deflacia.<br />

ekonomikuri zrda _ sazogadoebis mier saqonlisa da momsaxurebis<br />

warmoebis zrda anu realur mSp-s mdgradi mateba.<br />

umuSevrobis done _ samuSaos aqtiur maZiebelTa wili (%)<br />

dasaqmebulebisa da umuSevrebis, anu samuSao Zalis mTlian raodenobaSi.<br />

samomxmareblo fasebis indeqsi (sfi) _ fasebis donis cvlilebebis<br />

yvelaze xSirad gamoyenebuli sazomia. mas iyeneben erTi<br />

wlis fasebis donis Sesadareblad wina an momdevno periodebis<br />

fasebis donesTan.<br />

savarjiSo 1<br />

gaiTvaliswineba Tu ara es, rogorc mSp-is nawili?<br />

gaecaniT cxrilSi mocemul informacias. daiyaviT jgufebad,<br />

airCieT maCveneblebi da SeadareT monacemebi. Sedegebi warmoadgineT<br />

werilobiT. rodesac yvela jgufi mzad iqneba, CaatareT erToblivi<br />

prezentacia.<br />

saqarTvelos ZiriTadi makroekonomikuri maCveneblebi – 2004-2011 ww.<br />

realuri mSp<br />

(zrdis tempi)<br />

nominaluri mSp<br />

(mln lari)<br />

mSp erT sul<br />

mosaxleze (lari)<br />

mSp erT sul mosaxleze<br />

(aSS dolari)<br />

samomxmareblo<br />

fasebis indeqsi<br />

(saSualo periodis<br />

ganmavlobaSi)<br />

mimdinare angari-<br />

Si (procentulad<br />

mSp- Tan)<br />

2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011<br />

faqt. faqt. faqt. prog. prog. prog. prog. prog.<br />

5.9 9.6 9.4 10.0 7.5 7.0 7.0 7.0<br />

9824.3 11621.0 13783.9 16527.2 18878.0 21218.9 23851.7 26813.8<br />

2275.5 2679.8 3124.5 3746.3 4279.2 4809.8 5406.6 6078.0<br />

1187.2 1478.4 1758.7 2243.3 2593.4 2915.0 3276.7 3683.6<br />

5.7 8.3 9.2 8.5 5 - 7 5.0 5.0 5.0<br />

-6.6 -10.8 -15.2 -23.1 -20.7 -20.4 -19.8 -19.1<br />

wyaro:<br />

saqarTvelos mTavroba, ZiriTadi monacemebi da mimarTulebebi 2008-2011 wlebisaTvis


savarjiSo 1<br />

ZiriTadi makroekonomikuri maCveneblebis analizi _<br />

saqarTvelos msgavsi qveynebi da ekonomikuri<br />

keTildReoba<br />

cxrilSi mocemulia saqarTvelos, xorvatiisa da slovakiis ZiriTadi<br />

makroekonomikuri maCveneblebi. 1998 weli gardamavali periodi iyo samive<br />

qveynis ekonomikisaTvis. wina savarjiSos msgavsad, aqac mogeTxovebaT<br />

statistikuri monacemebze dakvirveba da daskvnebis gakeTeba.<br />

ZiriTadi makroekonomikuri maCveneblebi –<br />

saqarTvelo, xorvatia, slovakia – 1998 weli<br />

(monacemebi gamosaxulia erovnul valutaSi)<br />

maCveneblebi qveynebi<br />

saqarTvelo* xorvatia** slovakia***<br />

mSp sabazro fasebiT<br />

(mimdinare fasebiT) 7231 138391 717399<br />

mSp sabazro fasebiT<br />

(mudmivi fasebiT)<br />

1775 126929 490529<br />

mSp-is zrda (% weliwadSi) 2.90 2.52 4.40<br />

kerZo moxmareba<br />

(mudmiv fasebSi)<br />

mTliani Sida investiciebi<br />

(mudmiv fasebSi)<br />

saerTo <strong>saxelmwifo</strong>ebrivi<br />

moxmareba (mudmiv fasebSi)<br />

saqonlisa da momsaxurebis<br />

eqsporti (mudmiv fasebSi)<br />

saqonlisa da momsaxurebis<br />

importi (mudmiv fasebSi)<br />

2103 77957 241448<br />

291 30041 187885<br />

198 32252 111672<br />

743 53768 338246<br />

1620 67093 388723<br />

inflacia, samomxmareblo<br />

fasebi (% weliwadSi) 3.57 6.43 6.70<br />

mosaxleobis ricxovnoba, sul 5445000 4501000 5391000<br />

Sromisunariani mosaxleobis<br />

ricxovnoba, sul<br />

2666580 2115470 2911140<br />

umuSevroba, sul (% Sromisunariani<br />

mosaxleobis ricxvidan) . . . . . . 11.60<br />

* monacemebi gamosaxulia mln. qarTul larebSi;<br />

** monacemebi gamosaxulia mln. xorvatul kunaSi;<br />

*** monacemebi gamosaxulia mln. slovakur kronebSi;<br />

wyaro: World Development Indicators CD-ROM, World Bank, 2000<br />

cxrilis monacemebis gaanalizebis Semdeg upasuxeT Semdeg kiTxvebs:<br />

a) Tqveni azriT, am sami qveynidan, romeli qveyana iyo ekonomikurad<br />

ufro ganviTarebuli 1998 wels?<br />

b) ra maCveneblebiT ganisazRvreba qveynis ekonomikuri siZliere?<br />

g) SesaZlebelia Tu ara samive qveynis RirebulebiTi maCveneblebis<br />

Sedareba? Tu SesaZlebelia, rogor unda moxdes es Sedareba?<br />

143


imsjeleT<br />

144<br />

40<br />

daveZeb da ver<br />

vpoulob...<br />

ra asociaciebs iwvevs TqvenSi sityva „umuSevroba“?<br />

ra SeiZleba iyos adamianis umuSevrobis mizezi?<br />

ra migaCniaT qveyanaSi masobrivi umuSevrobis mizezebad?<br />

1<br />

ani mezoblebis saqmianobiT dainteresda da aRmoaCina, rom biZia giorgi<br />

me_2 welia uSedegod eZebs samuSaos, misi meuRle, qalbatoni eTeri<br />

diasaxlisia, arasodes umuSavia da arc apirebs. maTi vaJi laSa profesiiT<br />

eqimia, staJirebas prestiJul saavadmyofoSi gadis, marTalia xelfass<br />

ar iRebs, magram icis rom or TveSi erT-erTi TanamSromli pensiaze gava<br />

da mis adgils daikavebs. laSas umcrosi da nino ojaxi rom arCinos maRaziaSi<br />

yoveldRiurad 10 saaTi muSaobs. ninos samuSaos dakargvis Zalian<br />

eSinia. icis rom samuSaos povna sakmaod rTulia: misi megobari qeTi samuSaos<br />

ukve aRar eZebs, radgan ori wlis ganmavlobaSi dasaqmeba verafriT<br />

moaxerxa. ninos meore megobari, Tamuna, ki dReSi 2sT-iT mezoblis bavSvs<br />

itovebs, minimalur anazRaurebas iRebs da normalur samuSaoze ocnebobs,<br />

raTa mZimed avadmyof dedas aucilebeli wamlebi uyidos. marTalia,<br />

Tavisufali samuSao adgili jer ar Cans, magram is imeds ar kargavs, kvlav<br />

moTminebiT eZebs Sesaferis samsaxurs. rac Seexeba qalbaton nanas, is sakuTari<br />

surviliT wamovida samsaxuridan, ori Tvis Semdeg axal xangrZliv<br />

eqspediciaSi apirebs wasvlas.<br />

Tqveni azriT, zemoCamoTvlili individebidan, vis SeiZleba anim uwodos<br />

1. dasaqmebuli;<br />

2. umuSevari;<br />

3. samuSao Zalis gareT darCenili;<br />

4. arasrulad dasaqmebuli;<br />

5. imeddakarguli muSaxeli;<br />

6. nebayoflobiT umuSevari.<br />

axseniT<br />

ratom moaxdineT aseTi ganawileba?<br />

Tqveni sityvebiT rogor ganmartavT zemoT CamoTvlil TiToeul<br />

ekonomikur termins?<br />

momavlis imedebs adamianebis umravlesoba sakuTar an ojaxis wevrebis SromiT SemosavalTan<br />

akavSirebs. samuSaos dakargva cxovrebis donis SemcirebasTan asocirdeba,<br />

rasac xSirad gaWirveba, SimSili, nerviuloba, ojaxuri konfliqtebi da uimedoba mosdevs.<br />

samuSaos Sovna advili ar aris, aravin icis umuSevrad yofna ramdeni wlis manZilze<br />

gagrZeldeba.


z<br />

r<br />

d<br />

a<br />

s<br />

r<br />

u<br />

l<br />

i<br />

m<br />

o<br />

s<br />

a<br />

x<br />

l<br />

e<br />

o<br />

b<br />

a<br />

dasaqmebulni<br />

umuSevrebi<br />

samuSaos Zalis<br />

gareAT myofni<br />

saavadmyofos eqimi, samSeneblo<br />

kompaniis inJineri<br />

yvela, visac samsaxuri da sxva<br />

SromiTi Semosavali ar aqvs<br />

studenti, diasaxlisi,<br />

pensioneri, avadmyofi<br />

}<br />

samuSao<br />

Zala<br />

dasaqmebulebi da umuSevrebi erTad samuSao Zalas qmnian. qveyanaSi rac ufro meti<br />

adamiania SromiT dakavebuli, ufro metia am qveynis mSp. samuSao Zala Sromisunariani<br />

mosaxleobis saerTo raodenobaa. umuSevroba makroekonomikuri problemaa.<br />

dasaqmeba – anazRaurebis miRebis mizniT gaweuli saqmianoba.<br />

umuSevrad iTvleba Sromis asakis (16 wlidan zeviT) mqone piri,<br />

romelsac surs, SeuZlia muSaoba da aqtiurad eZebs Sesaferis samuSaos.<br />

qveyanaSi umuSevrobis mdgomareobas ekonomistebi umuSevrobis<br />

doniT gansazRvraven.<br />

umuSevrobis done – samuSao ZalaSi samuSaos aqtiur maZiebelTa<br />

wili. mis gamosaTvlelad oficialurad registrirebul umuSevar-<br />

Ta mTliani raodenoba unda gaiyos samuSao Zalaze.<br />

umuSevarTa mTliani raodenoba<br />

umuSevrobis done = __________________ X100%<br />

samuSao Zala<br />

umuSevari adamianebis garkveuli nawili samuSaos aqtiurad eZebs, zogierTi maTgani<br />

nebayoflobiT umuSevaria _ ar moswons SeTavazebuli samuSao da ukeTesis molodinSi<br />

Zebnas ganagrZobs, nawili iZulebiT umuSevaria _ yvelanair samuSaoze Tanaxmaa, magram<br />

dabali (Seusabamo) kvalifikaciis, samuSao adgilebis ar arsebobis an asakis gamo, ver<br />

axerxebs dasaqmebas. samuSao adgilis xangrZlivi da warumatebeli Ziebis gamo gulgatexili<br />

moqalaqeebi xSirad uars amboben dasaqmebis mcdelobaze. maT imeddakarguli<br />

muSaxeli ewodebaT.<br />

sxvadasxva qveyanas umuSevarTa registraciis Tavisi wesi gaaCnia. mag. aSS-Si umu-<br />

Sevrad iTvleba adamiani, romelsac samsaxuri ar gaaCnia, SeuZlia da mzadaa imuSaos da<br />

bolo eqvsi kviris manZilze aqtiurad eZebs samuSaos. Sromis saerTaSoriso organizaciis<br />

meTodologiis mixedviT, umuSevrad iTvleba piri, visac mocemul momentSi samuSao<br />

da Sesabamisad misgan miRebuli Semosavali ara aqvs, aqtiurad eZebs mas da mzad aris<br />

Seudges muSaobas.<br />

? vin iTvleba umuSevrad saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobiT?<br />

145


dasaqmebis Sesaxeb saqarTvelos kanonis Tanaxmad, umuSevaria saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobiT<br />

gansazRvruli samuSao asakis Sromisunariani piri, romelsac ara aqvs samuSao,<br />

eZebs mas da mzad aris samuSaos Sesasruleblad. samuSaos maZiebelia samuSao asakis<br />

Sromisunariani piri (umuSevari an dasaqmebuli), romelic registrirebulia dasaqmebis<br />

samsaxurSi da misi meSveobiT eZebs samuSaos.<br />

146<br />

umuSevrobis saxeebi<br />

friqciuli struqturuli cikluri sezonuri<br />

friqciuli umuSevroba mimdinare, gardauvali umu-<br />

Sevrobaa. is samuSaos ZebnasTan an molodinTan, saswavleblis<br />

damTavrebasTan, sacxovrebeli adgilis SecvlasTan,<br />

samuSao pirobebis gaumjobesebasTan aris dakavSirebuli.<br />

aseTi umuSevrobis gamomwvev mizezad erTis mxriv damqiraveblisaTvis<br />

samuSao Zalis Sesaxeb informaciis arqonaa<br />

miCneuli, meore mxriv, muSaxelisaTvis sasurveli vakansiebis<br />

Sesaxeb informaciis nakleboba. aseT umuSevrobas<br />

xSirad nebayoflobiTad miiCneven. magaliTad universitetis kursdamTavrebuli, romelic<br />

maRalanazRaurebad samuSaos eZebs, droebiT umuSevrad rCeba, radgan SemoTavazebul<br />

samsaxurebSi xelfasi ar akmayofilebs.<br />

struqturuli umuSevroba teqnologiur ZvrebTan aris dakavSirebuli,<br />

ris Sedegadac zogierT profesiaze moTxovna izrdeba,<br />

zogierTze klebulobs. Tu samuSao Zala Tavisi kvalifikaciiT<br />

ekonomikis axal moTxovnebs ar Seefereba, samuSao adgils ver miiRebs.<br />

amis gamo zogierT sferoSi dasaqmeba mcirdeba. realurad,<br />

<strong>ekonomika</strong>Si samuSao adgilebi aris, magram swrafi mecnierul-teqnologiuri<br />

progresis gamo adamianebs samuSaos Sesasruleblad<br />

kvalifikacia ar yofniT. magaliTad, rogorc ki ofisi kompiuterebs<br />

SeiZens ofisis yvela menejers, romelic kompiuterul<br />

programebs ar flobs samuSaodan gaanTavisufleben.<br />

cikluri umuSevroba ekonomikuri ciklis daqveiTebis<br />

fazasTan aris dakavSirebuli. am dros sawarmoTa garkveuli<br />

nawili ixureba. arsebuli samuSao adgilebi yvela dargSi<br />

arasakmarisia. Sromis miwodebis msurveli bevria, dasaqmebas<br />

ki mxolod nawili axerxebs, amitom danarCenebi umuSevrad<br />

rCebian.<br />

sezonuri umuSevroba bunebriv sezonebTan aris dakav-<br />

Sirebuli, roca am samuSaoze erT sezonSi gazrdili moTxovnaa,<br />

meoreSi ki – Semcirebuli an saerTod ar arsebobs. aseT<br />

sferoSi dasaqmebul adamianTa kategoria weliwadis nawils<br />

nebayoflobiT umuSevrobaSi atarebs. magaliTad, zamTris<br />

kurortze Txilamurebis gamqiravebeli zafxulSi umuSevrad<br />

rCeba.<br />

Tu qveyanaSi umuSevrobis done ar icvleba, im adamianTa<br />

saerTo raodenoba, vinc samuSao dakarga, im adamianTa raodenobas<br />

utoldeba, vinc muSaoba daiwyo.


imsjeleT<br />

davaleba<br />

mxars dauWerT Tu ara sistemas, romelSic sruli Tanasworobis miRwevis<br />

mizniT Semosavlebi Tanabrad ganawildeba anu nebismier samuSaoze<br />

dasaqmebuli adamianebi erTnair xelfass miiReben?<br />

gaCndeba Tu ara aseT sistemaSi problemebi?<br />

iqneba Tu ara aseT sistemaSi umuSevroba?<br />

romeli samuSao adgilebi darCeba Seuvsebeli?<br />

1. gamoTvaleT ekolendis umuSevrobis done, Tu umuSevarTa mTliani<br />

raodenoba aris 120 000, xolo samuSao Zala qveyanaSi _ 4 800 000-ia?<br />

2. CaatareT saojaxo gamokiTxva da moipoveT informacia imis Sesaxeb,<br />

romeli organizaciebi exmarebian moqalaqeebs dasaqmebaSi.<br />

3. umuSevrobis romel tips miekuTvnebian Semdegi pirovnebebi?<br />

a) maRalkvalificiuri buRalteri, direqtorTan uTanxmoebis gamo<br />

samuSaos tovebs da sxva adgils eZebs;<br />

b) soflidan qalaqSi Camosuli gogona restoranSi damlageblis<br />

adgils eZebs;<br />

g) mbeWdav-memanqaneTa ganyofilebidan yvela, vinc kompiuterul<br />

programebs ar flobda gaanTavisufles;<br />

d) ekonomikuri krizisis gamo bevri sawarmo daixura da specialistebi<br />

umuSevrad darCnen;<br />

4. ras akeTebT an gaakeTebT imisaTvis, rom skolis damTavrebis Semdeg<br />

umuSevarTa rigebSi ar moxvdeT?<br />

5. CamowereT umuSevrobis saxeebi, maTi gamowvevi mizezebi da umuSevrobis<br />

konkretul saxesTan brZolis xerxebi.<br />

147


148<br />

1<br />

41<br />

esec <strong>saxelmwifo</strong>s<br />

problemaa?<br />

mTavrobisa da parlamentis Senobebis win xalxis masa saprotesto mitings<br />

awyobs. tele da radio Jurnalistebi sainformacio gamoSvebebisaTvis<br />

reportaJebs amzadeben. operatori cdilobs lozungebis teqsti<br />

kadrSi moaxvedros. maTi Sinaarsi ZiriTadad aseTia:<br />

`mogveciT samuSao!~<br />

`sad aris dapirebuli milioni samuSao adgili?~<br />

`muSaoba gvinda, samuSao ar aris!~<br />

`mTavroba valdebulia damasaqmos!~<br />

msgavs suraTs msoflios mraval qveyanaSi SexvdebiT.<br />

umuSevrebi warmatebuli ekonimikis mqone<br />

qveynebSic arian. umuSevrobis done nuls arasodes<br />

utoldeba. dasaqmebasTan dakavSirebuli problemebis<br />

gamo umuSevrebi protests gamoTqvamen da<br />

pasuxs mTavrobisagan iTxoven.<br />

?<br />

ramdenad samarTlianad migaCniaT umuSevarTa pretenziebi mTavrobis<br />

mimarT?<br />

rogor ggoniaT, umuSevroba <strong>saxelmwifo</strong> problemaa?<br />

rogor unda gadaWras mTavrobam <strong>saxelmwifo</strong>Si umuSevrobis problema?<br />

eTanxmebiT Tu ara m. veleris gamonaTqvams – `visac muSaoba unda, SesaZleblobebs<br />

poulobs, visac saqmis keTeba ar unda – mizezebs eZebs.~<br />

ratom? pasuxi daasabuTeT.<br />

ekonomikis stabilizacia mTavrobis umniSvnelovanesi funqciaa. am funqciis Sesrulebisas<br />

is sxvadasxva programebisa da politikis gatarebiT umuSevrobis Semcirebas<br />

cdilobs.<br />

cikluri umuSevrobis<br />

dasaZlevad xSir<br />

SemTxvevaSi fiskaluri<br />

da monetaruli<br />

politika gamoiyeneba.<br />

gadawyvetilebebi<br />

ekonomikuri<br />

daqveiTebis SeCerebis<br />

da samuSao adgilebis<br />

gazrdis xelSesawyobad<br />

aris mimarTuli.<br />

mTavrobis mier<br />

gatarebuli<br />

RonisZiebebi<br />

struqturuli<br />

umuSevrobis<br />

Sesamcireblad<br />

mTavrobis politika<br />

samuSaodan<br />

daTxovnili<br />

muSakebis<br />

gadamzadebaze da<br />

dasaqmebis axali<br />

SesaZleblobebis<br />

Seqmnazea<br />

mimarTuli.<br />

umuSevrobis done Qqveynis ekonomikuri sijansaRis erT-erTi mTavari sazomia.<br />

qveyanaSi umuSevrobis maRali done SromiTi resursebis nawilobriv (arasrul) gamoyenebas<br />

da mosaxleobis dabal Semosavlebs gulisxmobs.


Sromis bazarsac, iseve rogorc <strong>ekonomika</strong>Si arsebul sxva bazrebs, moTxovnisa da miwodebis<br />

Zalebi marTaven. rodesac <strong>ekonomika</strong> didi raodenobiT produqcias awarmoebs,<br />

izrdeba moTxovna Sromaze, Sesabamisad Sromis anazRaurebac izrdeba.<br />

imsjeleT<br />

davaleba umuSevrobis tipebs SeusabameT konkretuli RonisZi ebe bi, romelTa<br />

gatarebac SeuZlia mTavrobas umuSevrobis dasaZlevad. imuSaveT jgufebSi<br />

150<br />

ra Sedegebi SeiZleba moitanos umuSevrobam ekonomikuri kuTxiT?<br />

araekonomikuri kuTxiT?<br />

ori axalgazrdidan, romelic samuSaos eZebs, erTi _ Tornike mSoblebTan<br />

cxovrobs, Weri da sakvebi garantirebuli aqvs, swavlas ganagrZobs<br />

universitetSi, Tan aqtiurad eZebs iseT samuSaos, romelic<br />

swavlaSi xels ar SeuSlis. meore, laSa ki binas TviTon qiraobs, Tavs<br />

sakuTari SemosavliT irCens da swavlis saSualeba ara aqvs. isic mudmiv<br />

samsaxurs eZebs.<br />

romeli maTgani ufro xangrZlivad darCeba umuSevarTa rigebSi?<br />

samuSaoze mowyobasTan, aseve masze uaris TqmasTan dakavSirebuli danaxarjebi sxvadasxva<br />

adamianisTvis sxvadasxvaa. am gansxvavebebs maTi kvalifikacia, muSaobis staJi, asaki, Semosavlebis<br />

sxva wyaroebis arseboba an molodinebi gansazRvravs. zemoT mocemuli situaciis<br />

gaanalizebiT, ra Tqma unda, Tornike xangrZlivad darCeba umuSevarTa rigSi, radgan<br />

sasurveli samuSaos povnamde muSaobas ar daiwyebs. laSas lodinis saSualeba ar aqvs, is<br />

yvelanair samuSaos daTanxmdeba, Tumca ukeTesi samuSaos Zebnas gaagrZelebs.<br />

1. SeecadeT presaSi Sesabamisi monacemebi moiZioT da kiTxvebs<br />

upa suxoT:<br />

a) oficialuri monacemebiT ras udris umuSevrobis done saqar<br />

TveloSi?<br />

b) ramdenad realurad asaxavs es monacemi situacias?<br />

g) Tqveni azriT, ra SeiZleba iyos umuSevrobis oficialuri statistikis<br />

uzustobis mizezi?<br />

d) ratom ar registrirdeba Sesabamis samsaxurebSi yvela dausaqmebe<br />

li umuSevrad?<br />

umuSevrobis tipi RonisZiebebi<br />

friqciuli umuSevroba<br />

struqturuli<br />

umuSevroba<br />

cikluri<br />

umuSevroba<br />

informaciis gavrceleba vakansiebis Sesaxeb;<br />

dasaqmebis samsaxuris gaaqtiureba;<br />

subsidiebi saqmianobis wamosawyebad;<br />

subsidiebi xelfasebis gasacemad;<br />

kanoni dasaqmebis SesaZleblobebis<br />

gamartivebis Sesaxeb;<br />

dasaqmebis sazogadoebrivi samsaxuris Seqmna.<br />

moifiqreT, rogor SeuZlia mTavrobas umuSevrobis xangrZlivobis<br />

Semcireba?


damatebiTi<br />

sakiTxavi<br />

dasaqmeba aris anazRaurebis miRebis mizniT, individualuri an sazogadoebrivi<br />

moTxovnilebebis dasakmayofileblad gaweuli saqmianoba.<br />

dasaqmebis donis gamosaTvlelad saWiroa, 1 6 welze meti asakis dasaqmebuli<br />

adamianebis saerTo raodenoba ( maT Soris pensioneri dasaqmebulebic),<br />

gavyoT potenciur samuSao Zalaze da Sedegi procentebSi<br />

gamovsaxoT.<br />

dasaqmebulebi<br />

16<br />

wlis<br />

zeviT<br />

dasaqmebis done = *100%<br />

potenciuri<br />

samuSao<br />

Zala<br />

Sromis<br />

fasi<br />

(Sromis miwodeba)<br />

moTxovna Sromaze II wels<br />

dasaqmebulTa<br />

raodenoba<br />

moTxovna Sromaze I wels<br />

naxazidan Cans, rom Tu ekonomikuri krizisis gamo Sromaze moTxovna er-<br />

Ti<br />

wlis<br />

ganmavlobaSi<br />

ecema,<br />

mcirdeba<br />

dasaqmebulTa<br />

raodenobac<br />

da<br />

Srom<br />

is<br />

fasic.<br />

moifiqreT: ras gviCvenebs Q Q da W W monakveTebi.<br />

2 1 2 1<br />

dasaqmeba saqarTveloSi ekonomikuri saqmianobebis mixedviT 2006 w.<br />

soflis<br />

meurneoba<br />

mrewveloba mSeneblobaj andacva vaWroba restorani,<br />

sastumro<br />

151


? <br />

152<br />

42-43<br />

erT problemas<br />

meore mosdevs...<br />

aleqsandre makedoneli ambobda: `Sromaze mefuri da fufunebaze monuri,<br />

araferiao ”. ras niSnavs es gamonaTqvami?<br />

1<br />

patara sasauzmis mTeli personali samuSaodan imis gamo daiTxoves,<br />

rom sasauzmem quCis meore mxares axlad gaxsnil restoranTan konkurencias<br />

ver gauZlo.<br />

sasauzmis asakovan mzareulebs gigas da nodars restoranSi muSaobis<br />

dasawyebad kvalifikacia ar hyofniT; arada, Tavisi xelfasiT orive sakmaod<br />

did ojaxebs arCenda. gigas invalidi Svili, moxucebuli mSoblebi<br />

da diasaxlisi meuRle hyavs, nodars _ studenti Svilebi.<br />

umuSevrad darCenilebma daxmarebisaTvis dasaqmebis saagentoebs miakiTxes,<br />

Tan isic ganacxades, rom nebismieri sirTulis samuSao pirobebi<br />

maTTvis misaRebia da dabal xelfaszec daTanxmdebodnen. amasTan erTad,<br />

mokle droSi kvalifikaciis amaRlebasac dapirdnen. saagentoSi maTi sakontaqto<br />

monacemebi ki datoves, magram darwmunebuli arc erTi ar aris,<br />

rom xelaxali dasaqmeba droulad moxdeba. aRmoCnda, rom Tavisufali<br />

samuSao adgilebi jer-jerobiT ar aris. amitom gadawyvites xvalidan sasauzmeebis,<br />

patara restornebis da kafeebis Semovla daiwyon da maT saku-<br />

Tari Sroma SesTavazon.<br />

? ra<br />

SeiZleba vuwodoT process, romelic samuSaodan daTxovnis<br />

Semdeg daiwyes gigam da nodarma?<br />

grZelvadiani iqneba Tu moklevadiani CamoTvlili<br />

pirebis umuSevroba? romel argumentebs eyrdnoba<br />

Tqveni mosazreba?<br />

Tqveni dakvirvebiT, rogoria dasaqmebulTa Soris<br />

asakiani da axalgazrda specialistebis Tanafardoba?<br />

romel profesiazea meti moTxovna?<br />

process, romlis meSveobiTac mSromelebi maTi gemovnebis da unaris Sesabamis samuSaos<br />

pouloben samuSaos Zieba ewodeba.<br />

radgan adamianebi erTmaneTisagan moTxovnebiT da kvalifikaciiT gansxvavdebian,<br />

isini samuSaos survilisa da unaris mixedviT eZeben, yvela samuSao adgili YmaTTvis erTnairad<br />

gamosadegi ar aris.<br />

miuxedavad imisa, rom damsaqmeblebsac da samuSaos maZieblebsac gancxadebebis gan-<br />

Tavseba gazeTebsa, internetSi, radiosa Tu satelevizio morbenal striqonze SeuZliaT,<br />

ganTavsebisaTvis saWiro xarjebis gaReba yvelasaTvis xelmisawvdomi ar aris, amitom<br />

informacia samuSaos maZieblisa da samuSaos Sesaxeb nela vrceldeba.<br />

sabazro ekonomikis pirobebSi samuSao adgilebze mwvave konkurenciaa, samuSaos is<br />

miiRebs, visac im konkretul sferoSi yvelaze maRali kvalifikacia aqvs. maRali profe-


siuli unaris mqone muSakebze moTxovna yovelTvis arsebobs, Sesabamisad maTi anazRaurebac<br />

maRalia. mewarmeebma ician, rom aseTi muSakebis Sromis nayofiereba maRalia (sxvebze<br />

met da xarisxian produqcias qmnian), amitom maT ukeTes samuSao pirobebs uqmnian.<br />

daCqarebuli teqnologiuri progresis gamo, sawarmoebi axleburi da mravalgvari unar-Cvevebis<br />

mqone muSakebs moiTxoven. xSirad samuSao arsebobs, ufrosi asakis adamianebs<br />

ki damqiravebelTa Tanamedrove moTxovnebis Sesabamisi codna ar gaaCniaT: uWirT an<br />

saerTod ver saubroben ucxo enaze, ar floben kompiuterul programebs, Tanamedrove<br />

teqnologiebs. radgan cxovrebis winsvlam aseTi saWiroebebi moitana, bevr qveyanaSi e.w.<br />

,,zrdasrulTa ganaTlebis programebiT’’ ufrosi asakis adamianebs gadamzadebaSi, profesiis<br />

SecvlaSi, axali unarebis ganviTarebaSi exmarebian. Tu adamians muSaobis dawyeba<br />

surs, man sicocxlis bolomde siaxleebis Seswavlis da profesiuli srulyofis mzadyofna<br />

unda gamoTqvas.<br />

samuSaos ZiebiT gamowveuli umuSevroba gardauvalia. rac meti samuSao adgilia<br />

qveyanaSi, miT naklebia samuSaos Ziebis dro.<br />

umuSevrobas seriozuli uaryofiTi Sedegebi moaqvs rogorc ekonomikuri, ise<br />

socialuri kuTxiT umuSevrebisa da maTi ojaxis wevrebisaTvis, mTeli sazogadoebisaTvis.<br />

ekonomikuri danakargebi socialuri problemebi<br />

warmoebuli da bazarze<br />

gatanili produqciis<br />

raodenobis Semcireba;<br />

sawarmoebis mier<br />

biujetSi sagadasaxado<br />

Senatanebis Semcireba;<br />

<strong>saxelmwifo</strong> xarjebis<br />

zrda umuSevarTa<br />

Semweobebis gasacemad;<br />

qveynidan samuSao Zalis<br />

migracia.<br />

cxovrebis donis gauareseba;<br />

Sromis bazarze konkurenciis zrda;<br />

Sromis anazRaurebis Semcireba;<br />

socialuri uTanasworobis<br />

gaZliereba;<br />

umuSevarTa Soris stresebis,<br />

avadmyofobebis, narkomaniis,<br />

alkoholizmis, danaSaulebis zrda;<br />

ojaxuri da sazogadoebrivi<br />

konfliqtebi;<br />

kadrebis diskvalifikacia;<br />

ojaxebis ngreva;<br />

saerTo socialuri daZabuloba,<br />

romelic SeiZleba socialur<br />

afeTqebamdec mivides.<br />

socialur problemebs ekonomistebma umuSevrobis araekonomikuri Sedegebi<br />

uwodes. xangrZlivi umuSevroba adamianebSi stresebs iwvevs. maTi nawili samuSaos Sovnis<br />

imeds kargavs da wyvets samuSao adgilis Zebnas. isini samuSao Zalidan gamoTiSulad<br />

iTvlebian, Tumca realurad muSaoba surT. roca adamiani sakuTar qveyanaSi dasaqmebis<br />

imeds kargavs, legalurad an aralegalurad cdilobs iseT qveyanaSi moxvdes, sadac<br />

dasaqmeba ar gauWirdeba. dabali ekonomikuri ganviTarebis qveynebis samuSao Zalis<br />

didi nawili qveyanas tovebs da samuSaos sxvadasxva qveynebSi eZebs. iwyeba masobrivi<br />

SromiTi migracia. swored amitom <strong>saxelmwifo</strong>ebis umetesoba mosaxleobis ekonomikur<br />

gaaqtiurebaze da umuSevrobis donis Semcirebaze zrunavs, rac Tavis mxriv<br />

ekonomikuri progresis saSualebas iZleva. sxvadasxva samTavrobo programebi yovelTviuri<br />

Semweobis saxiT finansur daxmarebas uweven umuSevrebs, maT dasaqmebis<br />

specialuri saagentoebi droebiT dasaqmebaSi exmarebian. problemis simwvavis gamo,<br />

2012 wlis ivlisSi saqarTveloSi dasaqmebis saministro Seiqmna.<br />

153


savarjiSo<br />

1<br />

154<br />

viTamaSoT arCevnebi<br />

jgufuri muSaoba<br />

umuSevroba sazogadoebis mtkivneuli problemaa. mosaxleobis gulis<br />

mosagebad saarCevno programebSi politikosebi yovelTvis umuSevrobis<br />

Semcirebis da axali samuSao adgilebis garantias iZlevian. arCevnebSi<br />

gamarjvebis Semdeg ki danapirebis Sesruleba uWirT.<br />

imisaTvis rom kargad gaiazroT Tu romeli sakiTxebis gadaWrasTan da<br />

romel sirTuleebTan aris dakavSirebuli umuSevrobis problemis daZleva,<br />

viTamaSoT `arCevnebi.~<br />

daiyaviT aranakleb oTx jgufad. TiToeul jgufs mianiWeT nomeri da Fair-<br />

CieT lideri, romelic `saqarTvelos mTavrobaSi~ mosaxvedrad ibrZolebs.<br />

jgufis danarCeni wevrebi mas daexmarebian moamzados `saqarTveloSi<br />

umuSevrobis daZlevis programa”, romelsac klasis winaSe waradgens.<br />

gamarjvebuli kandidati modelirebul ,,mTavrobaSi” moxvdeba.<br />

umuSevrobis daZlevis programa /aranakleb Svidpunqtiani/, im Tanmimdevruli<br />

RonisZiebebis CamonaTvali unda iyos, romelTa ganxorcielebac<br />

Tqveni azriT xels Seuwyobs adamianebis dasaqmebis mniSvnelovan zrdas.<br />

gafrTxileba!<br />

Tqvens programaSi ar unda moxvdes winadadeba `samuSao adgilebis Sesaqmnelad<br />

gavxsni bevr axal sawarmos.~ `mTavrobis wevrebi~ sawarmoebs<br />

TviTon ver gaxsnian.<br />

prezentaciebs yuradRebiT mousmineT, dasrulebis Semdeg yvela Tqvengani<br />

amomrCeveli xdeba. maswavleblis mier darigebul misawebebel furclebze<br />

daawereT Tqveni jgufis nomeri. es furceli Tqvens xmas gamoxatavs. is<br />

dafaze im jgufis grafaSi miakariT, romlis programac yvelaze metad mogewonaT.<br />

ufleba ar gaqvT sakuTar jgufs misceT xma!<br />

Sefaseba!!!<br />

gamarjvebuli iqneba is jgufi, romlis programac met xmas miiRebs, Sesabamisad<br />

jgufis TiToeuli wevri maswavleblisagan umaRles Sefasebas<br />

daimsaxurebs. umaRles Sefasebas miiRebs is monawilec, romelic argumentirebulad<br />

axsnis sakuTar arCevans.<br />

rCeva!!!<br />

gaixseneT dasaqmebis ra realuri perspeqtiva arsebobs Tqvens regionSi,<br />

romeli dargis aRorZinebaa SesaZlebeli da moamzadeT saintereso saarCevno<br />

programebi. moifiqreT efeqturi saarCevno lozungi.<br />

gisurvebT warmatebas!<br />

#<br />

1<br />

2<br />

3<br />

4<br />

5<br />

6<br />

7<br />

kandidati<br />

#1<br />

kandidati<br />

#2<br />

kandidati<br />

#3<br />

kandidati<br />

#4


iznes seqtori monacemebi monacemebi monacemebi monacemebi monacemebi<br />

drois periodi 2010 w I kvart.. II kvart. 2011 IIIkvart. IV kvart.<br />

2011w<br />

w<br />

2011 w 2011w<br />

brunva mln.lari 24400.7 5719.1 6124.3 6879.8 7627.7<br />

gamoSvebuli 13303. 7 2962.1 3341.2 3767.4 4166.2<br />

produqcia, mln.lari 13303. 7 2962.1 3341.2 3767.4 4166.2<br />

dasaqmebulTa 592.7 643.0 683.9 717.7 806.9<br />

raodenoba, kaci 397 806 350 258 352 100 360 064 379 172<br />

dasaqmebulTa saSualo<br />

Tviuri Sromis<br />

anazRaureba, lari<br />

592.7 643.0 683.9 717.7 806.9<br />

wyaro:<br />

saqarTvelos statistikis erovnuli samsaxuri. 2012w. sawarmoTa deklarirebuli monacemebi. www.geostat.ge.<br />

? 1.<br />

rogor icvleba 2011 wlis TviToeul kvartalSi biznes seqtorSi<br />

a) gamoSvebuli produqciis raodenoba?<br />

b)dasaqmebulTa raodenoba?<br />

g)dasaqmebulTa saSualo Tviuri Sromis anazRaureba?<br />

2. rogor axsniT 2011 wlis pirvel kvartalSi dasaqmebulTa saSualo Tviuri<br />

anazRraurebis zrdas dasaqmebulTa Sesabamisi raodenobis zrdis fonze?<br />

wyaro:<br />

saqarTvelos statistikis erovnuli samsaxuri. 2012w. sawarmoTa deklarirebuli monacemebi. www.geostat.ge.<br />

2<br />

dasaqmeba biznes seqtorSi<br />

daiyaviT sam jgufad. davuSvaT, TiToeuli jgufi aris mTavrobis mrCeveli<br />

da dagevalaT saintereso ekonomikuri proeqtebis wamowyeba<br />

I jgufi. adamianebis dasaqmebis, materialuri resursebis warmoebis<br />

mizniT;<br />

II jgufi. gacvlis da moxmarebis gazrdis mizniT;<br />

III jgufi. ganawilebis procesebis srulyofis mizniT.<br />

moifiqreT TiTo realisturi, ganxorcielebadi da Sedegze orientirebuli<br />

programa da warmoadgineT klasis winaSe.<br />

155


es<br />

sainteresoa<br />

savarjiSo<br />

2<br />

156<br />

zogierTi sociologis azriT, samuSaos dakargviT gancdil stress mxolod<br />

meuRlis an uaxloesi megobris gardacvaleba an dapatimreba Tu aRemateba.<br />

msoflio bankis mier saqarTveloSi umuSevrobis maqsimaluri maCvenebeli<br />

1992 wels aris dafiqsirebuli.<br />

saqarTvelos regionebis mixedviT gansxvavebulia ekonomikurad aqtiuri<br />

mosaxleobis raodenoba da dasaqmebis maCveneblebi. statistikuri monacemebis<br />

mixedviT dasaqmebulTa umetesobas TviTdasaqmebulebi Seadgenen.<br />

qveyanaSi saSualod dasaqmebulTa 57.3% TviTdasaqmebulia.<br />

samuSaos maZieblebTagan mxolod mcire nawils eniWeba umuSevris statusi<br />

da eniSneba Semweoba. magaliTad, bolo wlebSi TbilisSi umuSevris statusi<br />

mieniWeba da Sesabamisad Semweobas iRebs umuSevarTa mxolod 6,3-7%.<br />

15 wlis da ufrosi asakis mosaxleobis ganawileba<br />

ekonomikuri aqtivobis mixedviT regionalur WrilSi, 2011<br />

kaxeTi Tbilisi<br />

Sida<br />

qarTli<br />

qvemo<br />

qarTli<br />

aWaris<br />

a.r<br />

samegre<br />

lo-zemo<br />

svaneTi<br />

imereTi<br />

*<br />

danarCeni<br />

regionebi<br />

**<br />

*raWa-leCxumisa da qvemo svaneTis CaTvliT; ** samcxe-javaxeTi, guria, mcxeTa-mTianeTi;<br />

cxrilebSi mocemuli maCveneblebi miRebulia Sinameurneobebis integrirebuli gamokvlevidan.<br />

aTasi<br />

kaci<br />

saqarTve<br />

lo<br />

sul aqtiuri<br />

mosaxleoba 195.0 437.4 144.1 195.5 189.3 211.0 370.4 216.6 1959.3<br />

dasaqmebuli 177.6 309.4 131.2 177.2 155.3 176.2 336.1 201.2 1664.2<br />

daqiravebuli 41.8 251.2 35.0 54.4 56.8 44.5 101.8 46.4 632.0<br />

TviTdasaqmebuli 135.8 57.3 96.2 122.5 98.1 127.7 233.6 154.1 1025.4<br />

gaurkveveli 0.0 0.9 0.0 0.2 0.4 4.0 0.7 0.7 6.8<br />

umuSevari<br />

mosaxleoba samu-<br />

17.4 128.0 12.8 18.3 34.0 34.8 34.3 15.4 295.1<br />

Sao Zalis gareT<br />

umuSevrobis<br />

82.7 361.6 59.6 108.8 94.1 87.6 161.4 90.0 1045.9<br />

done %<br />

aqtiurobis done<br />

8.9 29.3 8.9 9.4 18.0 16.5 9.3 7.1 15.1<br />

%<br />

dasaqmebis done<br />

70.2 54.7 70.7 64.2 66.8 70.7 69.6 70.6 65.2<br />

% 64.0 38.7 64.4 58.2 54.8 59.0 63.2 65.6 55.4<br />

imuSaveT jgufebSi<br />

qvemoT mocemulia umuSevrebis sia. miuTiTeT, umuSevrobis romel<br />

saxeobas warmoadgens TiToeuli _ friqciulis, struqturulis Tu<br />

cikluris. gansazRvreT romeli <strong>saxelmwifo</strong> politika an programa iqneba<br />

efeqturi, TiToeuli umuSevaris dasaxmareblad.<br />

1. universitetis kursdamTavrebuli, romelic pirvelad eZebs samuSaos;<br />

2. rusTavis metalurgiuli qarxnis mefolade, romelic qarxanis daxurvis<br />

Sedegad umuSevrad darCa;<br />

3. buRalteri, romelmac samsaxuri datova ojaxTan erTad sacxovreblad<br />

sxva qalaqSi gadasvlis gamo;<br />

4. durgali, romelic umuSevari darCa saamSeneblo masalebis gaZvirebisa da<br />

gadasaxadebis gazrdis gamo binaTmSeneblobis Semcirebis Sedegad;<br />

5. xorcis produqtebis gadamamuSavebeli qarxnis muSaki, romelic samsaxuridan<br />

produqciis realizaciis Semcirebis gamo warmoebis SezRudvis<br />

Sedegad daiTxoves;<br />

6. diasaxlisi, romelmac muSaobis dawyeba gadawyvita;<br />

7. Zveli qselebis satelefono sadguris operatori, romlis samuSao adgili<br />

gauqmda satelefono kompaniis mier axali kompiuterizebuli mowyobilobebis<br />

damontaJebis gamo;<br />

8. sapensio asakis gamo ganTavisuflebuli profesori.<br />

ra ganzogadebas gaakeTebdiT umuSevrobis sami saxis Sesamcireblad<br />

mimarTuli <strong>saxelmwifo</strong> politikis/programebis Sesaxeb?


imsjeleT<br />

savarjiSo<br />

1<br />

44-45<br />

inflacia<br />

CamoTvaleT, romeli saqoneli da momsaxureba gaZvirda bolo erTi wlis<br />

ganmavlobaSi?<br />

ramdeni procentiT gaZvirda Saqris fxvnili erTi wlis ganmavlobaSi, Tu<br />

1kg am produqtis fasi erTi wlis ganmavlobaSi 1,5 laridan 2.3 laramde<br />

Seicvala?<br />

vin darCa Saqris gaZvirebiT mogebuli? vin dazaralda?<br />

ratom izrdeba fasebi saqonelsa da momsaxurebaze yovelwliurad?<br />

ratom aris, rom zogierT qveyanaSi fasebi Zalian xSirad matulobs, ma-<br />

Sin, roca sxva qveynebSi stabiluria?<br />

1<br />

zogjer mTavrobis wevrebi da politikosebi acxadeben, rom SeuZliaT<br />

„socialuri daavadebebi“ – siRaribe, usaxlkaroba da SimSili aRmofxvran,<br />

Tu biujetSi sakmarisi fuli iqneba.<br />

davuSvaT, aRmoCnda milioneri, romelsac gadawyvetili aqvs <strong>saxelmwifo</strong> biujetSi<br />

asi milioni dolaris Setana, Tu misi piroba Sesruldeba: momavali Tvidan<br />

TiToeul adamians pensia, xelfasi, stipendia da daxmareba 10 – jer gaezrdeba.<br />

gansazRvreT, rogor Seicvleba qveyanaSi situacia momavali Tvidan, Tu<br />

mTavroba milioneris winadadebas miiRebs? daasabuTeT Tqveni prognozi.<br />

? 1.<br />

SesaZlebelia Tu ara msgavsi socialuri siduxWiris „gankurneba“<br />

mosaxleobisaTvis fulis darigebiT?<br />

2. SesaZleblad migaCniaT, rom <strong>saxelmwifo</strong>s mier meti fulis dabeWdva<br />

da brunvaSi gaSveba, moxmarebis gazrdisa da qveynis<br />

keTildReobis sawindari gaxdes?<br />

maswavlebeli auqcionze gasayidad unikaluri tkbileulis<br />

Sekvras gamoitans. auqcionisTvis erTaderTi misaRebi ,,kupiura”<br />

maswavleblis mier darigebuli ekonolarebi iqneba.<br />

1. unikaluri tkbileulis sawyisi fasi 2 ekonolaria. gamarjvebuli<br />

fasi dawereT dafaze.<br />

2. maswavlebeli erTxel kidev dagirigebT „fulian“ konvertebs,<br />

romelSic 3-jer meti fulia da auqcionze gasayidad tkbileulobis<br />

meore Sekvras gamoitans. am SekvraSic imave raodenobis da saxis<br />

tkbileulia, ramdenic pirvel SekvraSi iyo. sawyisi fasic igivea.<br />

auqcioni grZeldeba. dawereT gamarjvebuli fasi.<br />

3. SeadareT auqcionis orive raundis Sedegebi.<br />

?<br />

1. ratom aiwia fasma meore auqcionze, roca kanfetebis raodenoba<br />

igive iyo?<br />

2. rogor imoqmeda moswavleebisTvis meti fulis micemam meore<br />

raundSi kanfetebis raodenobaze ?<br />

3. ra Sedegi moitana saqonlisa da momsaxurebis raodenobis<br />

ucvlelobis SemTxvevaSi fulis raodenobis gazrdam?<br />

157


158<br />

inflacia _ (laTinurad `inflation”~ gaberva) xangrZlivi drois ganmavlobaSi<br />

fasebis saerTo donis zrdis procesi. fasebis mniSvnelovnad<br />

gazrda fulis gaufasurebas iwvevs. inflacia fulis gaufasurebis,<br />

misi msyidvelobiTi unaris mniSvnelovnad Semcirebis procesia.<br />

cxovrebis fasi _ Tanxa, romelic adamianis arsebobisaTvis aucilebel<br />

saqonelSi (sakvebi, tansacmeli, bina da sxva) unda gadavixadoT.<br />

Tu qveynis <strong>ekonomika</strong>Si saqonlisa da momsaxurebis warmoeba bevrad<br />

ufro Dswrafad izrdeba, vidre fulis raodenoba, saqonelsa da momsaxurebaze<br />

fasebis dacema iwyeba. am process deflacia ewodeba.<br />

fulis msyidvelobiTi unari aris fulis Rirebuleba. fulis Rirebuleba<br />

inflaciis periodSi mcirdeba da deflaciis dros izrdeba.<br />

mcocavi<br />

roca fasebis<br />

matebis<br />

wliuri tempi<br />

ar aRemateba<br />

5-10% -s<br />

fasebis zrdis sididis mixedviT arCeven<br />

inflaciis sam saxes<br />

Wenebadi<br />

saSualo<br />

wliuri tempi<br />

icvleba<br />

10-50% -is<br />

farglebSi da<br />

metad<br />

hiperinflacia<br />

saSualo<br />

wliuri<br />

zrdis tempi<br />

aRemateba<br />

100%-s<br />

<strong>ekonomika</strong>Si fulis raodenobis gacilebiT swrafi zrda, vidre qveyanaSi warmoebuli<br />

produqciis raodenobis zrdaa, inflacias iwvevs. inflaciis gamomwvevi<br />

ZiriTadi mizezebia:<br />

moTxovnis zrda sxvadasxva mizezebis gamo saqonelze moTxovna gazrdilia, iqmneba<br />

deficiti da fasebi matulobs.<br />

danaxarjebis zrda warmoebis danaxarjebze (resursebi, nedleuli) fasebis zrdas<br />

Tan sdevs saqonelsa da momsaxurebaze fasebis zrda;<br />

miwodebis Soki warmoebis moculobasTan SedarebiT fulis miwodebis metismetad<br />

swrafi zrda fasebis matebas iwvevs;<br />

xelfasisa da fasis spirali: xelfasebis zrdis tempi xSirad warmoebis zrdis temps<br />

win uswrebs, mewarmeebi mogebis SesanarCuneblad fasebs xelovnurad zrdian.<br />

inflacia ar niSnavs absoluturad yvela saqonelsa da momsaxurebaze fasis zrdas.<br />

klebadi moTxovnis mqone produqtebze, rogoricaa moZvelebuli, arasezonuri, meoradi<br />

an modidan gasuli saqoneli, fasebi SeiZleba Semcirdes. Tumca, bazarze arsebuli<br />

yvela saqonlisa da momsaxurebis fasebis saSualo done matulobdes.<br />

inflacia zogadad qveynisaTvis sazianodaa miCneuli. Tumca, fasebis moulodneli zrda<br />

mosaxleobis erTi nawilisaTvis Tu wamgebiania, meore nawilisaTvis mogebis momtani xdeba.


? ra<br />

pirobebSi gamoiwvevs damatebiTi Semosavlebi an danaxarjebi inflacias?<br />

ra pirobebia saWiro imisaTvis, rom fulis miwodebis gazrdam inflacia ar<br />

gamoiwvios?<br />

vin SeiZleba darCes mogebuli inflaciis Sedegad?<br />

vin SeiZleba darCes mogebuli deflaciis* Sedegad?<br />

moulodneli inflacia azaralebs fiqsirebuli Semosavlebis<br />

mqone adamianebs da maT, vinc fuli gaasesxa fiqsirebuli sargeblis<br />

ganakveTiT. mogebuli rCeba is, vinc fuli isesxa fiqsirebuli sargeblis<br />

ganakveTiT. amdenad, inflacia ufro Semosavalebis gadanawilebas<br />

axdens, da ara mTliani realuri Semosavlebis Semcirebas.<br />

inflaciis msgavsad, deflaciac adamianebis garkveuli jgufisaTvis<br />

momgebiania, sxva jgufebs ki azaralebs. anu fasebis sayovelTao Semcirebas<br />

(arasasurvel deflacias) Sedegad resursebis gaflangva moaqvs.<br />

imsjeleT<br />

raSi xarjavs saqarTvelos mosaxleoba damatebiT (aradagegmil) Semosavlebs?<br />

ra moxdeba, Tu erT dRes, yvela meanabre sabanko angariSebidan fuls<br />

moxsnis da xarjvas daiwyebs?<br />

wyaro:<br />

saqarTvelos statistikis erovnuli samsaxuri. 2012w. www.geostat.ge.<br />

davaleba<br />

2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2012<br />

8.8 11.0 5.5 3.0 11.2 2.0<br />

1. rogor prognozs gaakeTebdiT fasebis saerTo donis Sesaxeb, Tu<br />

warmoebis moculoba izrdeba 2%-iT weliwadSi, fulis miwodeba<br />

ki – 12%-T?<br />

2. rogori socialuri Sedegebi SeiZleba mohyves inflacias, Tu<br />

qveyanaSi 25%-iani inflaciaa?<br />

biznesmeni,<br />

romelmac bankidan<br />

krediti aiRo<br />

binis mflobeli,<br />

romelmac mdgmurTan<br />

erTwliani xelSekruleba<br />

gaaforma<br />

pensionerebi<br />

vin<br />

moigebs<br />

da vin waagebs<br />

qvemoT CamoTvlilTagan?<br />

kreditorebi<br />

sajaro skolis<br />

pedagogebi<br />

* deflacia – produqtebisa da momsaxurebis fasebis Semcirebis grZelvadiani procesi.<br />

advokatebi<br />

Semnaxvel<br />

bankSi anabris<br />

mflobelebi<br />

159


es<br />

sainteresoa<br />

ese<br />

160<br />

inflacia istoriis sxvadasxva etapze uamravi qveynisaTvis seriozuli<br />

problema iyo. man moicva romis imperia, espaneTi da inglisi me-<br />

Teqvsmete saukuneSi,. SeerTebuli Statebi _ samoqalaqo omis periodSi,<br />

germania _ me-20 saukunis 20-ian wlebSi, SeerTebuli Statebi da<br />

samxreT amerikis mravali qveyana _ gasuli saukunis 70-ian wlebSi, sab-<br />

WoTa ruseTis gardamavali <strong>ekonomika</strong>. 90-ian wlebSi am problemam kvlav<br />

iCina Tavi: centraluri da aRmosavleT evropa, baltiispireTi, agreTve<br />

postsabWouri qveynebis umravlesoba inflaciam moicva.<br />

`bednieri Zveli dro~<br />

CaatareT bebia-babuebis da asakovani mezoblebis gamokiTxva, Tu romeli<br />

saqoneli iyo maT axalgazrdobaSi Zalian iafi. CamowereT 10 mniSvnelovani<br />

produqti. gaarkvieT maTi Zveli fasebi da SeadareT amave<br />

saqonlis an momsaxurebis dRevandel fass. gansazRvreT inflaciis<br />

maCvenebeli (ramdeni %-iT gaizarda am produqtebis fasebi sawyis fasTan<br />

SedarebiT?).<br />

qarTuli inflaciis istoria<br />

CaatareT saojaxo gamokiTxva: ojaxis wevrebis gamokiTxvis saSualebiT<br />

saqarTveloSi XX saukunis 90-iani wlebis Hhiperinflaciis da<br />

misi Sedegebis Sesaxeb moipoveT informacia. gaarkvieT, rogor moxda<br />

inflaciis procesis SeCereba? mopovebuli informacia TxzulebaSi<br />

ganazogadeT.


imsjeleT<br />

46<br />

aravis unda<br />

iyos Raribi<br />

1. icnobT Rarib adamianebs? mdidrebs?<br />

2. ra niSnebis mixedviT moaxvedreT es adamianebi<br />

erT an meore kategoriaSi?<br />

3. aRwereT Raribi adamianis portreti, ara mxolod<br />

sazogadoebaSi damkvidrebuli garegnuli<br />

stereotipis mixedviT.<br />

4. CamowereT maCveneblebi, romeliTac Tqveni<br />

azriT SeiZleba siRaribis Sefaseba.<br />

5. ufro xSirad ra asakis adamianebi gvxvdebian Raribebis kategoriaSi?<br />

6. rogor SeiZleba siRaribis zRvaris Semcireba?<br />

1<br />

dResdReobiT msoflioSi 2 miliardze meti adamiani zRvars miRma<br />

cxovrobs. miuxedavad ekonomikuri aRmavlobisa, mTel rig ganviTarebad<br />

qveynebSi dRiTidRe matulobs Raribebis ricxvi, amavdroulad izrdeba<br />

disproporcia mdidrebsa da Raribebs Soris.<br />

? Tqveni<br />

azriT, ra aris amis mizezi?<br />

msoflioSi<br />

yovel 3,6 wamSi erTi adamiani<br />

SimSiliT iRupeba<br />

maT Soris arian<br />

bavSvebic<br />

wyaro:<br />

saqarTvelos statistikis erovnuli samsaxuri. 2012w. www.geostat.ge.<br />

2007 2008 2009 2010 2011<br />

279,474 368,431 436,309 430,603 411,091<br />

(%) 6.4 8.4 9.9 9.7 9.2<br />

161


ukanaskneli oci wlis ganmavlobaSi siRaribe saqarTvelosTvisac<br />

mwvave problemad iqca, rac dakavSirebuli iyo, erTis mxriv, saqarTveloSi<br />

arsebul rTul politikur situaciasTan, xolo meores<br />

mxriv, arasworad gatarebul ekonomiur-socialur politikasTan.<br />

cneba siRaribis Sinaarsi yvelasaTvis naTelia, magram siRaribis<br />

oficialuri gansazRvreba SemoTavzebuli iqna 60-ian wlebSi aSS-Si,<br />

romlis mixedviTac ojaxi Raribad iTvleba, Tu misi Semosavali naklebia<br />

soflis meurneobis saministros mier dadgenili ojaxis normaluri<br />

uzrunvelyofisaTvis gasawevi xarjebis gasammagebul raodenobaze.<br />

soflis meurneobis saministro yovelwliurad awarmoebs sursaTis moxmarebis normaluri<br />

donis aucilebeli danaxarjebis Sefasebas, romelic sakmarisia kvebis racionis uzrunvelsayofad.<br />

Semdeg am sididis samze gamravlebiT miiReba siRaribis oficialuri zRvari. es gansazRvreba<br />

martivad SeiZleba ase warmovadginoT: dabalSemosavliania ojaxi, romelic kvebaze, saSualod,<br />

sakuTari Semosavlis 1/3-s xarjavs.<br />

saqarTveloSi Raribi ojaxi sakuTari Semosavlis 80%-ze mets kvebaze xarjavs, rac Cvens qveyanaSi<br />

ojaxebis Semosavlebis Zalze dabal doneze miuTiTebs.<br />

2008 wels gaerom gansazRvra saerTaSoriso absoluturi siRaribis (siRatakis) zRvari, romelic<br />

Seadgens $ 1,25 (2005 wlis msyidvelobiTi unarianobis paritetis mixedviT).am kriteriumiT<br />

siRatakis zRvars qvemoT saqarTveloSi cxovrobda mosaxleobis 13,4 % (2009 wlis adamianuri<br />

ganviTarebis moxseneba HD Report). imave kriteriumiT, azerbaijansa da ukrainaSi Rataki iyo mosaxleobis<br />

2 %, xolo somxeTSi- 3,7,%.<br />

2011 wlis TebervalSi saqarTveloSi oTxsuliani ojaxis saarsebo<br />

minimumad iTvleboda 281,2lari ( anu TveSi $165. weliwadze gadaangariSebiT<br />

es Tanxa daaxloebiT 2000 aSS dolars Seadgens). es ricxvi<br />

SegviZlia, SevadaroT aSS-isoficialur statistikur monacemebs.<br />

aSS-Si oTxsuliani ojaxisTvis siRaribis zRvrad 2009 wels gansaz-<br />

Rvruli iyo 21 756 dolari; e.i. aSS-Si saqarTveloze 10-jer da metad<br />

ufro ,,mdidari” Raribebi cxovroben.<br />

162<br />

jami = 925 milioni<br />

mSieri adamianebi<br />

ganviTarebadi qveynebi 19<br />

axlo aRmosavleTi da samxreT afrika 37<br />

laTin. amerika da karibis zRvis qveynebi 53<br />

saharis afrika 239<br />

azia da wynari okeanis auzi 578


siRaribis zRvari - Semosavlis is donea, romlis qvemoTac SeuZ<br />

lebelia adamianis kvebis minimaluri donis da misi sxva (arakvebiTi)<br />

ZiriTad moTxovnilebaTa erToblivi dakmayofileba. es damaxasiaTebelia<br />

calkeuli qveynisaTvis da ar eqvemdebareba sxva qveynebis<br />

analogiur maCveneblebTan Sedarebas.<br />

qveyanaSi, sadac cxovrebis ufro maRali donea sazogadoebas siRaribis ufro maRali<br />

zRvari aqvs. albaT, gainteresebT, risTvisaa saWiro siRaribis zRvaris dadgena? es gvesaWiroeba<br />

imisaTvis, rom gamovavlinoT mosaxleobis yvela jgufi, visi Semosavlebic<br />

dadgenili donis qvemoTaa da maT daxmareba an garkveuli momsaxureba gaewioT, raTa<br />

maTi Semosavali dadgenil donemde amaRldes.<br />

siRaribis donis gansazRvra garkveulwilad Seicavs subieqturobis elements. amis<br />

gamo, sxvadasxva meTodebis gamoyenebis Sedegad siRaribis sxvadasxva zRvars viRebT.<br />

saqarTveloSic, gaangariSebis gansxvavebuli midgomis safuZvelze, siRaribis 4 sxvadasxva<br />

zRvari Camoyalibda: `oficialuri siRaribis zRvari” eyrdnoba oficialur<br />

minimalur kvebis kalaTas da gansazRvravs samuSao asakis mqone mamakacebis saarsebo<br />

dones. kvebis kalaTis Rirebuleba, romlis Semadgenloba<br />

tolia 2500k/kal/dReSi, siRaribis zRvris 70%-s Seadgens,<br />

xolo danarCeni arakvebiT komponentebze modis. es aris<br />

fuladi Tanxa, romelic moicavs jandacvis, ganaTlebis,<br />

yvela saxis gadasaxadebis gadaxdis odenobas.<br />

`gadasinjuli siRaribis zRvari~ iyenebs kvebis kala-<br />

Tis nakleb kaloriulobas (2200k/kal/dReSi) da mcireoden<br />

gansxvavebas uCvenebs sakvebi da arasakvebi produqtebis<br />

proporciebSi (65:35). `rekomendirebuli siRaribis zRvari~,<br />

romelic Camoyalibda msoflio bankis mier, statistikis<br />

<strong>saxelmwifo</strong> departamentTan da Sesabamis saministroebTan TanamSromlobis Sedegad,<br />

iyenebs ufro iafi kvebis kalaTas.<br />

arsebobs sxvadasxva mosazrebebi, rom siRaribes saqarTveloSi ufro gansxvavebuli<br />

xasiaTi aqvs, vidre sxva dabal Semosavlian qveynebSi.<br />

dRes siRaribis daZleva gaerosa da mTeli rigi saerTaSoriso organizaciebis mier<br />

dasaxelebulia rogorc yvelaze mniSvnelovani globaluri problema.<br />

?<br />

Tqveni azriT, ramdenad SeiZleba siRaribis mixedviT ganisazRvros adamianis<br />

ufleba da Tavisufleba?<br />

siRaribe aris adamianis uflebebis da Tavisuflebis erT-erTi yvelaze ganmsazRvreli<br />

faqtori, vinaidan Raribebi moklebulni arian arCevanis Tavisuflebas, maT xSirad<br />

ara aqvT sacxovrebeli adgili da normaluri kveba, ver iReben ganaTlebasa da janmrTelobis<br />

dacvis momsaxurebas, yovelive imas, rasac SeZlebuli adamiani aRiqvams rogorc<br />

bunebriv movlenas.<br />

siRaribe SeiZleba gagebul iqnas ori mimarTulebiT _ absoluturi da SedarebiTi<br />

mniSvnelobiT.<br />

warmoidgineT, rom SegiZliaT iyidoT aucilebeli sakvebi, bina da saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi<br />

eqimTan vizitic moaxerxoT anu ar iyoT Raribi da SegeZloT fizikuri arseboba.<br />

ekonomistebi am mdgomareobis amsaxvel maCvenebels siRaribis absolutur maCvenebels<br />

uwodeben. magram dameTanxmebiT, rom adamianis xarisxiani cxovrebis done sxva<br />

moTxovnilebebis dakmayofilebis SesaZleblobebsac gulisxmobs. aucilebelia, rom<br />

dabali Semosavlis gamo adamianma Tavi moralurad daCagrulad da sazogadoebisagan<br />

gariyulad ar igrZnos. SegviZlia warmovadginoT Zalze mdidari sazogadoeba (magali-<br />

163


Tad aSS), sadac mosaxleobis naklebad uzrunvelyofil jgufebs SeuZliaT Tavs ufleba<br />

miscen iqonion yvelaferi, rac saWiroa cxovrebisaTvis, magram mainc Raribebi iyvnen,<br />

radgan maT ar SeuZliaT daikmayofilon mTeli rigi moTxovnilebebi: garTobis, mogzaurobis,<br />

fulis Tavisuflad xarjvis da rasakvirvelia, araferi im fufunebidan, romelic<br />

adamianisaTvis Zalze mimzidvelia da gamosulia<br />

fiziologiuri moTxovnilebis farglebidan. aseT<br />

analizs SefardebiTi siRaribis cnebasTan mivyavarT.<br />

aseTi midgomiT Raribebad SeiZleba CaiTvalon isini,<br />

visi Semosavlebic ar aRemateba qveyanaSi saSualo Semosavlebis<br />

50%-s (SeiZleba 40%- an - 60%-s).<br />

saqarTvelos statistikis erovnuli samsaxuris<br />

monacemebiT siRaribis absoluturi da fardobiTi<br />

zRvrebi (larebSi) asea warmodgenili:<br />

60<br />

40<br />

164<br />

23.03225945<br />

8.893543562<br />

2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011<br />

26.17274118<br />

12.80776797<br />

24.63656985<br />

10.89311925<br />

22.0612544<br />

8.79859738<br />

26.03701056<br />

11.26434581<br />

24.09636289<br />

10.06076371<br />

22.8<br />

8.1<br />

23.7<br />

10.7<br />

23.28229867<br />

9.440541942<br />

17.87797559<br />

6.519400496<br />

24.93511049<br />

12.05245605<br />

21.33942073<br />

9.233301895<br />

18.03031899<br />

6.955041119<br />

siRaribis done an sxvagvarad, Raribebis raodenobis indeqsi,<br />

Raribi mosaxleobis wilia mTel mosaxleobaSi.<br />

26.18065312<br />

11.92359438<br />

22.13932694<br />

9.459947611<br />

17.62200374<br />

7.332259395<br />

24.31871771<br />

10.20171784<br />

21.01497659<br />

8.786105963<br />

18.63603719<br />

7.996658986<br />

26.74561012<br />

11.94124632<br />

22.74535193<br />

9.995475815<br />

18.84027551<br />

7.798309849<br />

26.86258259<br />

12.94008204<br />

22.97229376<br />

10.44666229


siRaribe da saqarTvelo<br />

damatebiTi<br />

sakiTxavi<br />

saqarTvelos yvela regionSi siRaribis done sakmaod maRalia, Tumca bolo wlebSi<br />

SeiniSneba mdgomareobis gaumjobesebis tendencia, rogorc monacemebi gviCveneben, gansakuTrebiT<br />

maRalia siRaribis done guriaSi, raWa-leCxumSi, zemo da qvemo svaneTsa da<br />

samegreloSi.<br />

arsebobs sxvadasxva mosazrebebi, rom siRaribes saqarTveloSi ufro gansxvavebuli<br />

xasiaTi aqvs, vidre sxva dabalSemosavlian qveynebSi. zogierTi mkvlevari amtkicebs, rom<br />

saqarTveloSi arc erTi msoflio praqtikaSi miRebuli siRaribis maCvenebeli ar gamoiyeneba.<br />

da amas ase asabuTebs:<br />

janmrTelobis mdgomareobisa da siRaribis donis urTierTdamokidebulebis tipiuri<br />

universaluri tendencia saqarTveloSi ar muSaobs.<br />

saqarTveloSi gamoxatuli ar aris cnobili urTierTdamokidebuleba ganaTlebis<br />

niSniT mosaxleobis aRwerasa da siRaribis dones Soris. siRaribis dones, gansxvavebiT,<br />

tradiciulad Raribi qveynebisgan, araviTari gavlena ar aqvs kvebaze. aRsaniSnavia, rom<br />

Raribi qarTuli ojaxis tipiuri kvebis racioni ganisazRvreba istoriuli tradiciebiT<br />

da ara siRaribis doniT.<br />

erTaderTi moculobiTi maCvenebeli, romelic mkafiod yofs mosaxleobas Raribebad<br />

da araRaribebad da asaxavs maT cxovrebis wess, aris ojaxisa da pirovnebis danaxarjebi<br />

(TiTqmis igive iTqmis sakvebze gaweul danaxarjebze).<br />

araviTari mniSvnelovani gansxvaveba ar SeiniSneba soflis da qalaqis mosaxleobis mier<br />

moxmarebas Soris. am TvalsazrisiT saqarTvelo gansxvavdeba msoflios Raribi qveynebis<br />

umravlesobisgan da aqvs moxmarebis igive struqtura, rogorc ekonomikurad ganviTarebul<br />

qveynebs. amave dros, soflis mosaxleoba naturiT sakveb produqtebs gacilebiT<br />

ufro metad moixmars, vidre qalaqis mosaxleoba. metic, soflebSi naturiT sakvebis moxmareba<br />

izrdeba ekonomikuri keTildReobis SemcirebasTan erTad.<br />

xelfasis, rogorc Semosavlis ZiriTadi wyaros roli, bevrad maRalia qalaqad. soflad<br />

ki xelfasi mxolod Semosavlebis 10-12%-s Seadgens. soflad maRalia Semosavlebi<br />

soflis meurneobis produqtebis gayidvidan, igi 80-85%-s udris, miwa Sinameurneobebis<br />

didi nawilis Semosavlebis ZiriTad wyaros warmoadgens. rac Seexeba arasasoflo TviTdasaqmebidan<br />

miRebul Semosavlebs, misi roli ufro mcirea, SeiZleba gaizardos samewarmeo<br />

klimatis gaumjobesebis SemTxvevebi.<br />

Raribi mosaxleobis saarsebo wyaros mniSvnelovanwilad ganapirobebs axloblebis<br />

Tanadgoma, adre dagrovebuli qonebis gayidva da nasesxebi fuli. amgvari Semosavlebis<br />

daaxloebiT mesamedi modis.<br />

siRaribe qalaqad da soflad mniSvnelovnad gansxvavebul movlenas warmoadgens. siRaribe<br />

qalaqad ZiriTadad dakavSirebulia arasakmaris kvebasTan, rac saerTo jamSi ufro<br />

mwvave da Rrma siRaribis maCvenebelia.<br />

soflad ki siRaribe arasakmaris kvebasTan iSviaT SemTxvevaSia dakavSirebuli, Tumca<br />

es mxolod im faqtiTaa ganpirobebuli, rom soflad kvebis produqtebis moxmarebas<br />

ZiriTadad sakuTari warmoebis sursaTi gansazRvravs.<br />

soflad mosaxleobis umTavres problemas fuladi resursebis deficiti da infrastruqturis<br />

arasakmarisi ganviTareba ganapirobebs, rac Sesabamisad amcirebs xelmisawvdomobas<br />

momsaxurebis ZiriTad saxeebze.<br />

miuxedavad siRaribis SedarebiT ufro mwvave da Rrma xasiaTisa, qalaqad SedarebiT<br />

ukeTesi mdgomareobaa ganaTlebisa da janmrTelobis dacvis momsaxurebaze misawvdomobis<br />

mxriv. qalaqad mdgomareobis gaumjobesebis perspeqtiva ufro metia. qalaqis mosaxleobas<br />

SedarebiT ufro miuwvdeba xeli ganaTlebis miRebaze, rac maTi dasaqmebis da<br />

165


Sesabamisad ekonomikuri mdgomareobis gaumjobesebis perspeqtivas qmnis.<br />

is faqti, rom qalaqTan SedarebiT siRaribis done soflad TiTqmis yovelTvis dabalia,<br />

sulac ar niSnavs, rom soflad siRaribis problema naklebad mwvave xasiaTisaa. soflad<br />

siRaribis zRvars zemoT yofnas gansazRvravs sakuTari mosavali an sakuTari warmoebis<br />

mecxoveleobis da mefrinveleobis produqtebi. es ki mniSvnelovnad damokidebulia klimatur<br />

pirobebze. siRaribis zrda SeiZleba agrarul regionebSi gaxSirebulma gvalvebmac<br />

gamoiwvios. amdenad soflad siRaribis zRvars zemoT yofnis mTavar ganmsazRvrel<br />

resurss miwa warmoadgens.<br />

saojaxo meurneobebis gamokvlevis arsebuli monacemebiT, saqarTveloSi<br />

Sromisunariani mosaxleobis naxevarze meti soflis meurneobaSia dasaqmebuli, xolo<br />

mTliani mosaxleobis naxevarze cota naklebi cxovrobs soflad (amasve mowmobs 2002<br />

wlis mosaxleobis sayovelTao aRwerisdaaRwia daaxloebiT ormocma milionma adamianma.<br />

angariSSi aseve naTqvamia, rom swrafi ganviTarebis mqone ramodenime qveyanaSi – mag.:<br />

ruseTSi da yazaxeTSi –Semosavlebi Raribi mosaxleobis sasargeblod gadanawilda, ris<br />

gamoc siRaribis done mosalodnelze ufro swrafi tempiT Semcirda. amis sapirispirod,<br />

saqarTvelosa da poloneTSi Semosavlebis gadanawileba Raribi mosaxleobis sasargeblod<br />

ar moxda da siRaribis done gaizarda. yvelaze mkveTrad siRaribe dedaqalaqebSi<br />

Semcirda.<br />

aqedan gamomdinare, rekomendirebulia gagrZeldes samewarmeo reforma, soflis<br />

swrafi ganviTareba da CamorCenil regionebSi arsebuli SesaZleblobebis ganviTarebis<br />

xelSewyoba. reformis sxva prioritetebs Soris saxeldeba ZiriTadi momsaxurebis<br />

xarisxis gaumjobeseba, ukeTesi da ufro mizanmimarTuli socialuri dacvis uzrunvelyofa,<br />

gansakuTrebiT Raribi momsaxure pirebisaTvis da bavSvebisaTvis.<br />

angariSis avtorTa azriT, ekonomikuri zrdis dasaCqareblad da Raribi mosaxleobisaTvis<br />

misi sargeblianobis uzrunvelsayofad saWiroa: <strong>saxelmwifo</strong>s mier socialuri<br />

dacvis minimaluri garantiebis Seqmna upirveles yovlisa unda ganxorcieldes mosaxleobis<br />

uRaribesi, siRatakis zRvars miRma darCenili fenebisaTvis, minimaluri xelfasisa<br />

da minimaluri pensiis e.w saarsebo minimumis safuZvelze dawesebis meSveobiT.<br />

rogor davZlioT siRaribe?<br />

msoflios ganviTarebis 2000/2001 wlis angariSis mixedviT, qveynebma unda ganaxorcielon<br />

Semdegi qmedebebi raTa daZlion siRaribe:<br />

daaCqaron ekonomikuri zrda;<br />

daaCqaron swori ekonomikuri ganviTareba rac xels uwyobs SesaZleblobebis zrdas<br />

RaribebisaTvis;<br />

unda daafinanson bavSvebis janmrTeloba, kveba da ganaTleba;<br />

Seamciron Semosavlebis uTansworoba;<br />

Seamciron Raribebis mowyvladoba ekonomikuri kataklizmebis, maT Soris vaWrobis<br />

Sokebis CaTvliT;<br />

unda uzrunvelyon mTavrobebis pasuxismgebloba da transparantoba;<br />

aicilon Tavidan samoqalaqo omis saSiSroeba.<br />

siRaribesTan brZolis politika gansxvavebuli unda iyos moxucebisa da studentebisaTvis,<br />

umuSevrebisa da invalidebisaTvis, martoxela dedebisaTvis da a.S. vinaidan yvela<br />

maTganisaTvis siRaribis zRvris zeviT asvlis albaTobebi gansxvavebulia. Sesabamisad<br />

unda tardebodes maTTvis <strong>saxelmwifo</strong>s xelSemwyobi politikac.<br />

ese<br />

166<br />

rogor daZlios saqarTveloSi mcxovrebma Raribma siRaribe?


47-48<br />

ekonomikuri zrda Tu<br />

ekonomikuri ganviTareba?<br />

? daasaxele<br />

maRali ekonomikuri ganviTarebis mqone romel qveynebs icnobT?<br />

ratom iTvleba es qveynebi ekonomikurad Zlierad?<br />

1<br />

teleekranze araerTxel ginaxavT msoflios uRaribesi qveynebi: adamianebi,<br />

romlebic xangrZlivi SimSilis gamo ise dasustebulan, rom moZraoba<br />

uWirT, usaxlkaroebi, mTel cxovrebas sibinZuresa da autanel<br />

sicxeSi Tu yinvaSi Cabnelebul maTxovrebiT savse quCebSi rom atareben,<br />

masobrivi epidemiis safrTxis qveS.<br />

? 1.<br />

CamoTvaleT ukiduresad gaWirvebuli aseTi qveynebi.<br />

2. ras uwodeben gansakuTrebiT dabali cxovrebis donis mqone qveynebs?<br />

ras urCevdiT aseTi qveynis mTavrobas, riT unda daiwyos qveynis<br />

ekonomikur-socialuri mdgomareobis gaumjobesebisaTvis<br />

aqtiuri moqmedebebi?<br />

Tqveni azriT, gansxvavdeba Tu ara ganviTarebadi qveynebis am-<br />

Jamindeli ekonomikuri mdgomareoba msoflios uZlieresi <strong>saxelmwifo</strong>ebis<br />

im mdgomareobisagan, roca isini ekonomikuri ganviTarebis<br />

stadiaSi Sediodnen?<br />

ra gaZlevT aseTi daskvnis gakeTebis safuZvels?<br />

sxvadasxva qveyanaSi ekonomikuri keTildReoba, gamoxatuli erT sul mosaxleze mSps<br />

raodenobiT, gansxvavebulia. msoflios umdidres qveynebSi adamianebis saSualo Semosavali,<br />

uRaribes qveynebTan SedarebiT, ramodenime aTeuljer metia.<br />

167


168<br />

SezRuduli da<br />

klebadi resursi<br />

miwa,<br />

Sroma,<br />

kapitali<br />

saqonlisa da momsaxurebis<br />

warmoebis zrdis faqtorebi<br />

adamianebis mzardi<br />

moTxovnilebebi<br />

axali<br />

teqnologiebi,<br />

telefonebi,<br />

dasvenebis<br />

formebi da sxv.<br />

mosaxleobis<br />

raodenobis<br />

swrafi zrda<br />

XXI saukunes,<br />

kacobriobis 6<br />

mlrd. Sexvda<br />

qveyanaSi cxovrebis done saqonlisa da momsaxurebis warmoebis unarze<br />

– mwarmoeblobazea damokidebuli. wlidan wlamde, Taobidan Taobamde,<br />

xangrZlivi drois ganmavlobaSi qveynaSi warmoebis SesaZleblobis<br />

mudmiv zrdas ekonomistebi ekonomikur zrdas uwodeben.<br />

ekonomikur zrdas ganapirobebs ekonomikuri efeqtianoba da<br />

sruli dasaqmeba.<br />

„ekonomikuri zrdis„ cneba ganviTarebuli ekonomikis mdgomareobis asaRwerad gamoiyeneba.<br />

aseT qveynebSi erT sul mosaxleze gaangariSebuli mTliani Sida produqtis sidide<br />

maRalia. Sesabamisad, maRalia cxovrebis donec. warmoebaSi axali teqnologiebis<br />

danergva kidev ufro aumjobesebs saqonlisa da momsaxurebis warmoebis SesaZleblobebs<br />

da inovaciuri produqtebis (axali Taobis kompiuterebi, avtomobilebi, TviTmfrinavebi<br />

da sxva) Seqmnas, rac Tavis mxriv cxovrebis donis Semdgom amaRlebas uwyobs<br />

xels. Tavis mxriv, ekonomikuri zrda fasebis stabilur dones ganapirobebs.<br />

zogierT qveynebSi warmoebis zrdis tempi mosaxleobis zrdis temps CamorCeba. ase-<br />

Tia afrikis, aziis, samxreT amerikis bevri qveyana. aseT qveynebSi ekonomikuri zrda<br />

ar SeimCneva. isini isev cudi socialur-ekonomikuri pirobebiT, umuSevrobis maRali<br />

doniT, siRatakiT, gaunaTleblobiT, sikvdilianobis maRali maCveneblebiT gamoirCevian.<br />

sicocxlis xangrZlivoba saSualod 46,5 welia.<br />

ganuviTarebeli qveynebis ekonomikuri mdgomareobis asaRwerad ufro „ekonomikuri<br />

ganviTarebis“ cneba gamoiyeneba, vidre ekonomikuri zrdis. am qveynebSi ganviTareba<br />

gaigivebulia masobrivi siRatakis, SimSilis, avadmyofobis, uwignurobis, ubinaobis da<br />

umuSevrobis, uTanasworobis daZlevasTan.<br />

qveynis ekonomikuri ganviTarebis procesi mosaxleobis cxovrebis<br />

donis amaRlebas gulisxmobs.


ganviTarebad qveynebSi, maT Soris saqarTveloSic, ekonomikuri ganviTarebis miRweva<br />

mxolod xangrZlivi periodis ekonomikuri zrdis safuZvelzea SesaZlebeli. prioriteti<br />

mdgradi ganviTarebis koncefcias* eniWeba, amitom es procesi rogorc qveynis<br />

mTavrobis, ise mosaxleobis mxridan sakmao drosa da Zalisxmevas, moTminebasa da Tanamimdevrul<br />

gadawyvetilebebs moiTxovs. ekonomikuri zrda fasebis stabilur donesa da<br />

ekonomikur uzrunvelyofas ganapirobebs.<br />

? daakvirdiT<br />

msoflio<br />

cxrili 1. warmoebis wliuri zrdis tempi, %-Si<br />

qveynebis jgufebis mixedviT 1970-2004 wlebSi<br />

wlebi 1970-80 1990-2000 2000 2004<br />

4.<br />

3<br />

ganviTarebuli qveyneb i<br />

3.6<br />

2.73 .8 2.8<br />

ganuviTarebeli qveyneb i<br />

5.5<br />

5.65 .7 4.6<br />

afrika<br />

3.<br />

6<br />

2.<br />

3<br />

2.<br />

8<br />

3.<br />

4<br />

azia<br />

5.<br />

1<br />

7.<br />

6<br />

6.<br />

8<br />

6.<br />

5<br />

axlo<br />

aRmosavleTi<br />

6.<br />

4<br />

4.<br />

0<br />

5.<br />

8<br />

4.<br />

5<br />

laTinuri<br />

amerika<br />

6.<br />

1<br />

3.<br />

4<br />

4.<br />

0<br />

-0.<br />

1<br />

gardamavali qveynebi<br />

maT Soris saqarTvelo<br />

wyaro: FMI; L’Etat du monde. P.: 2006<br />

monacemebs da axseniT<br />

ratom ar Seicvala mniSvnelovnad warmoebis zrdis tempi ganviTarebul<br />

qveynebSi mocemul periodSi?<br />

rogor xdeboda warmoebis zrda saqarTveloSi mocemul periodSi ?<br />

ram ganapiroba ekonomikuri zrdis aseTi tempi ?<br />

ganviTareba SeiZleba ganvixiloT rogorc mravalmxrivi procesi, romelic iwvevs mniSvnelovan<br />

cvlilebebs socialur struqturaSi, adamianTa qcevebSi, sazogadoebriv urTierTobebSi,<br />

<strong>ekonomika</strong>Si da dasaqmebaSi. sxva sityvebiT rom vTqvaT, ekonomikuri ganviTarebis<br />

arsi qveynis ekonomikuri cxovrebis yvela sferos gardaqmnaa, rac gulisxmobs:<br />

1. ekonomikuri Tavisuflebis maRal xarisxs;<br />

2. mrewvelobis ganviTarebas;<br />

3. qalaqebis urbanizacias (zrda-ganviTarebas);<br />

4. mosaxleobis kulturuli da saganmanaTleblo donis amaRlebas;<br />

5. ekonomikuri da socialuri problemebis, siRaribis daZlevas;<br />

6. qveynis ekonomikuri meqanizmis srulyofas;<br />

7. infrastruqturis ganviTarebas.<br />

infrastruqturis ganviTareba im dargebis da sawarmoebis ganviTarebas gulisxmobs,<br />

romelTa saqmianobac ekonomikis funqcionirebisaTvis xelsayrel pirobebs qmnis:<br />

gzebis, xidebis, rkinigzis, arxebis, aerodromebis mSenebloba, eleqtro da wyalmoma-<br />

3.<br />

3<br />

5.0- 3.0<br />

-6.6<br />

* mdgradi ganviTarebis koncefcia gulisxmobs ekonomikuri zrdis iseT formas, romelic uzrunvelyofs<br />

sazogadoebis keTildReobas mokle, saSualo da xangrZlivi vadiT. igi efuZneba princips, romlis<br />

Tanaxmad, dRevandelobis moTxovnilebebi unda dakmayofildes ise, rom safrTxe ar Seeqmnas momaval<br />

Taobebs. mdgradi ganviTareba gulisxmobs pirobebis Seqmnas grZelvadiani ekonomikuri ganviTarebisaTvis<br />

garemos dacvis sakiTxebis maqsimaluri gaTvaliswinebiT.<br />

4.<br />

7<br />

6.6<br />

2.0<br />

3.<br />

0<br />

4.1<br />

5.4<br />

169


agebis uzrunvelyofa, jandacvaze, momsaxurebaze, ganaTlebaze…<br />

da a.S.<br />

ra Tqma unda, dasaxelebuli amocanebis warmatebiT<br />

gadaWra drois mcire monakveTSi SeuZlebelia, miT<br />

ufro, mxolod sakuTari resursebis xarjze. amitom,<br />

metad mniSvnelovania saerTaSoriso mxardaWera, magram<br />

am mxardaWeras maSin SeuZlia sargeblis motana,<br />

Tu mocemuli qveyana aqtiurad qmnis Tavisi ganviTarebis<br />

pirobebs, warmoebis met SesaZleblobebs, zrunavs<br />

cxovrebis zogadi donis amaRlebaze.<br />

saerTaSoriso organizaciebi da ekonomikurad Zlieri qveynebi ganviTarebad qveynebs<br />

finansur daxmarebas uweven. sxva <strong>saxelmwifo</strong>ebis xalxTan da sawarmoebTan urTierToba<br />

ganviTarebad qveynebs demokratiuli da ekonomikuri cvlilebebis stimuls aZlevs da<br />

problemebis daZlevaSi exmareba.<br />

Tu saqarTvelo SeZlebs ekonomikuri ganviTarebis iseTi tempis miRwevas, rom momavalma<br />

Taobebma icxovron ukeT, vidre wina Taobebi cxovrobdnen. momaval Taobebs<br />

ufro meti saqonlisa da momsaxurebis moxmareba unda SeeZloT, vidre wina Taobebs, ma-<br />

Sin realuri ekonomikuri zrda miRweuli iqneba.<br />

imsjeleT<br />

es<br />

sainteresoa<br />

170<br />

imuSaveT jgufebSi da moifiqreT argumentebi<br />

romeli gancxadeba SegviZlia gavakeToT?<br />

saqarTvelo ekonomikuri ganviTarebis gzas adgas!<br />

saqarTvelo aqtiuri ekonomikuri zrdis procesSia!<br />

bolo wlebSi saqarTvelom metnaklebad<br />

gadaWra ekonomikuri ganviTarebis uzrunvelyofis<br />

ramdenime problema. daiwyo kvebis<br />

mrewvelobis ganviTareba, ganaTlebis reforma,<br />

infrastruqturis ganviTareba, Tumca,<br />

mTeli rigi dargebi faqtobrivad kvlav<br />

ar funqcionirebs, amave dros saqarTveloSi<br />

arsebuli sawarmoebi nedleulisa da masalebis<br />

moTxovnis did nawils importiT ikmayofileben. mcirea im sawarmoTa<br />

wili (13%), visi produqciac, nawilobriv an mTlianad saeqsportoa.<br />

mTliani Sida produqtis SeqmnaSi mcirea mZime mrewvelobis wili (17.6%).<br />

urbanizaciis koeficienti saqarTveloSi Seadgens 55.7%-s. am maCvenebliT<br />

igi CamorCeba ekonomikurad ganviTarebul qveynebs, magram aRemateba<br />

ganuviTarebeli qveynebis analogiur maCvenebels. igive SeiZleba<br />

iTqvas kulturul-saganmanaTleblo donezec.<br />

ekonomikuri zrdis stimulirebas xelisufleba sxvadasxva gziT cdilobs:<br />

ucxouri investirebis xelSewyobiT;<br />

biujetis saxsrebis dazogviTa da investirebiT;<br />

ganaTlebis sistemis gaZlierebiT;<br />

adamianTa da sakuTrebis uflebebis dacviT;<br />

politikuri stabilurobis SenarCunebiT;<br />

mezobel qveynebTan aqtiuri savaWro urTierTobebis damyarebiT;<br />

axali teqnologiebis danergvisa da mecnieruli kvlevebis<br />

xelSewyobiT.


damatebiTi<br />

sakiTxavi<br />

ekonomikuri reformebi<br />

bolo wlebis ganmavlobaSi saqarTveloSi mniSvnelovani ekonomikuri reformebi ganxorcielda.<br />

aRniSnuli reformebi mimarTuli iyo mimzidveli samewarmeo garemos Camoyalibebisken,<br />

rac ucxouri investiciebis Semodinebis, axali samuSao adgilebis Seqmnis,<br />

ekonomikis yvela dargSi samewarmeo aqtivobis zrdisa da qveynis mosaxleobis keTildReobis<br />

amaRlebis safuZvels warmoadgens.<br />

qveyanaSi ganxorcielebuli reformebis Sedegad Camoyalibda efeqtiani, profesionaluri<br />

da gamWvirvale sajaro samsaxuri.<br />

ekonomikis deregulirebisaken mimarTuli politikis Sedegad, mniSvnelovnad Semcirda<br />

<strong>saxelmwifo</strong>s mier regulirebadi sferoebis raodenoba da gamartivda regulirebis<br />

procedurebi.<br />

aRsaniSnavia qveyanaSi ganxorcielebuli privatizaciis politika, ramac xeli Seuwyo, rogorc<br />

pirdapiri ucxouri da adgilobrivi investiciebis, aseve kerZo seqtoris rolis zrdas<br />

qveynis <strong>ekonomika</strong>Si.<br />

qveynis ekonomikuri politikis erT-erTi umTavresi mizania qveyanaSi kerZo mewarmeobis<br />

ganviTareba, misTvis xelsayreli garemos Seqmnis gziT. ekonomikuri reformebi mimarTulia<br />

liberalizaciasa da kerZo seqtoris ganviTarebaze dafuZnebul ekonomikuri zrdis uzrunvelyofisken.<br />

am mimarTulebiT saqarTvelos xelisuflebam gadadga mniSvnelovani nabijebi:<br />

liberaluri sagadasaxado politika - sagadasaxado sistemaSi ganxorcielebuli reformebis<br />

Sedegad, saqarTvelos sagadasaxado kanonmdebloba erT-erTi yvelaze liberaluria<br />

evropaSi. mniSvnelovnad aris Semcirebuli gadasaxadebis rogorc raodenoba 21-dan<br />

6-mde (2004-2008), aseve, sagadasaxado ganakveTebi. saqarTveloSi moqmedi sagadasaxado kodeqsis<br />

mixedviT dReisaTvis moqmedebs eqvsi gadasaxadi, maT Soris 5 saerTo <strong>saxelmwifo</strong> da 1<br />

adgilobrivi.<br />

aRsaniSnavia, rom 2007 wels sagadasaxado kodeqsSi Setanili cvlilebebis Sedegad, mniSvnelovani<br />

cvlilebebi ganxorcielda sagadasaxado sistemaSi. kerZod, 2008 wlis 1 ianvridan<br />

gauqmda socialuri gadasaxadi da Seiqmna erTiani saSemosavlo gadasaxadi (2008w.<br />

- 25%; 2009 wlidan - 20%), xolo mogebis gadasaxadis ganakveTi Semcirda 20%-dan 15%-mde. gadasaxadis<br />

gadakveTi dividendebsa da procentebze dReisaTvis Seadgens 5%-s nacvlad 2005<br />

wels arsebuli10%-sa. garda amisa, saqarTveloSi dainerga mniSvnelovani proceduruli da<br />

instituciuri siaxleni, sagadasaxado davebis ganxilvis gamartivebuli sistema, rac kidev<br />

ufro mimzidvels gaxdis qveyanas mewarmeebisa da ucxoeli investorebisaTvis. dagegmilia<br />

sagadasaxado sistemis Semdgomi liberalizacia.<br />

sabaJo reforma – saqarTvelos sabaJo kodeqsis mixedviT mniSvnelovnad gamartivda sabaJo<br />

procedurebi. sabaJo tarifebis reformis Sedegad, gaamartivda da Semcirda sagareo<br />

vaWrobasaTan dakavSirebuli xarjebi.<br />

saimporto tarifebis raodenoba gauqmda produqciis daaxloebiT 90 procentze da amas-<br />

Tan, amJamad moqmedebes mxolod sami saxis tarifi (0%, 5%, 12%), adre arsebuli 16-is nacvlad.<br />

sabaJo gadasaxadebi dawesebulia mxolod zogierTi saxis sasoflo-sameurneo produqciaze<br />

da samSeneblo masalebze. garda amisa, qveyanaSi ar moqmedebs raodenobrivi SezRudvebi<br />

(qvotebi) importsa da eqsportze.<br />

biznesis licenzirebis/nebarTvebis modernizebuli sistema – licenziebisa da nebarTvebis<br />

sistemis reformirebis Sedegad, licenziebisa da nebarTvebis raodenoba 84 procentiTaa<br />

Semcirebuli. dReisaTvis, licenziebi da nebarTvebi saWiroa mxolod maRali riskis<br />

Semcveli produqciisa da momsaxurebis, bunebrivi resursebis gamoyenebisa da specifikuri<br />

saqmianobis warmoebisaTvis.<br />

mniSvnelovnad gamartivda licenziebisa da nebarTvebis gacemis procedurebi, damkvidrda<br />

,,erTi sarkmlis” da ,,dumili Tanxmobis niSania” principi.<br />

Tavisufali industriuli zona - qveyanaSi sainvesticio garemos kidev ufro liberal-<br />

171


izaciisa da Sesabamisad, pirdapiri ucxouri investiciebis mozidvis mizniT, miRebul iqna<br />

kanoni “Tavisufali industriuli zonebis Sesaxeb”, romlis Tanaxmad, aseTi zona SesaZloa<br />

Seiqmnas 10 heqtarze met teritoriaze, saqarTvelos mTavrobis gadawyvetilebiT, misive, an<br />

investoris iniciativis safuZvelze. zonaSi moqmedebs gansxvavebuli sagadasaxado reJimi,<br />

gamartivebulia registraciisa da sxva procedurebi.<br />

Tavisufali zonebis daarseba da funqcionireba xels Seuwyobs Tanamedrove teqnologiebis<br />

Semodinebas, gaaCens moTxovnas kvalificiur SromiT Zalaze da dadebiTad aisaxeba<br />

rogorc regionis, aseve qveynis ekonomikuri ganviTarebaze.<br />

teqnikuri regulirebis sistemis reforma – saerTaSoriso bazarze qarTuli produqciisa<br />

da momsaxurebisaTvis teqnikuri barierebis moxsna saqarTvelos ekonomikis Semdgomi<br />

ganviTarebis erT-erT aucilebel winapirobas warmoadgens.<br />

am miznis realizebisaTvis, saqarTveloSi ganxorcielda teqnikuri regulirebis sferos<br />

reforma, romelic xels Seuwyobs:<br />

• saerTaSoriso vaWrobaSi teqnikuri barierebis aRmofxvras;<br />

• sainvesticio garemos gajansaRebas;<br />

• qarTuli produqciis ucxour bazrebze SeRwevadobis SesaZleblobis gazrdas;<br />

• saerTaSoriso da evrokavSiris moTxovnebTan daaxloebas;<br />

• vaWrobis msoflio organizaciis winaSe aRebuli valdebulebebis Sesrulebas, rac<br />

ZiriTadad gamoixateba savaldebulo standartebidan nebayoflobiT standartebze gadasvlaSi;<br />

• teqnikuri regulirebis sferoSi momsaxurebis gamWvirvalobas.<br />

aRniSnuli reformis Sedegad moxda nebayoflobiTi standartebis sistemaze gadasvla<br />

da sistemaSi <strong>saxelmwifo</strong>s maregulirebeli rolis Semcireba, rac mniSvnelovnia samewarmeo<br />

saqmianobis gafarToebisaTvis.<br />

saqarTveloSi nebayoflobiTi standartizaciis danergva mewarmes saSualebas<br />

aZlevs:<br />

• SearCios qveyanaSi registrirebuli standarti Tavisi saqmianobisaTvis;<br />

• aiRos nebismieri qveynis an nebismieri saerTaSoriso an regionuli standarti da gamoiyenos<br />

saqmianobisaTvis;<br />

• SeimuSaos sakuTari standarti axali produqciisaTvis, daaregistriros standartebis,<br />

teqnikuri reglamentebis da metrologiis erovnul saagentoSi da gamoiyenos Tavisi saqmianobisaTvis;<br />

• miiRos konsultaciebi standartebis SerCevisa da SemuSavebisaTvis.<br />

<strong>saxelmwifo</strong> qonebis privatizacia - saqarTvelos mTavrobis mier sainvesticio garemos<br />

gaumjobesebisa da kerZo investiciebis mozidvisaTvis mimdinare reformaTagan mniSvnelovania<br />

2004 wels dawyebuli privatizebis procesi, romlis umTavresi mizania <strong>saxelmwifo</strong><br />

sakuTrebaSi darCenili obieqtebis gan<strong>saxelmwifo</strong>ebrioba qveynis ekonomikuri<br />

ganviTarebis stimulirebisaTvis, kerZo seqtoris zrdisa da ganviTarebisaTvis, adgilobrivi<br />

da ucxouri investiciebis mozidvisaTvis, qveyanaSi arsebuli resursebis efeqtiani<br />

gamoyenebisTvis da a.S.<br />

liberaluri Sromis kodeqsi – saqarTvelos axalma Sromis kodeqsma SromiTi urTier-<br />

Tobebis sferoSi mniSvnelovani siaxleebi Seitana, gaamartiva ra urTierTobebi damsaqmeblebsa<br />

da dasaqmebulebs Soris.<br />

reformis Sedegad, Heritage Foundation-is da sxva analitikuri centrebis mier saqarTvelos<br />

Sromis kodeqsi aRiarebulia, rogorc msoflios erT-erTi yvelaze liberaluri,<br />

radgan man mniSvnelovnad Seamcira daqiravebis da samuSaodan gaTavisuflebis xarjebi.<br />

SeRavaTiani sagareo-savaWro reJimebi - saqarTvelos sagareo-savaWro brunva 2003 wlidan<br />

zrdis tendenciiT xasiaTdeba, rasac qveynis liberaluri savaWro politikac uwyobs<br />

xels.<br />

172<br />

wyaro: saqarTvelos ekonomikis da mdgradi ganviTarebis saministros masalebi.<br />

http://www.economy.ge


Tanamimdevrulma RonisZiebebma mkveTri ekonomikuri zrdis efeqti 3_4 weliwadSi<br />

unda moitanos. TiToeuli adamiani qveynis ekonomikis nawilia, amitom ekonomikuri zrdis<br />

xelSewyoba TiToeuli maTganis mier miRebuli gadawyvetilebebiT xdeba, ekomomikuri<br />

zrdis Sedegi TiToeul maTganTan midis.<br />

qveyanaSi ekonomikuri zrda TvalsaCino maSin iqneba, Tu saqonlisa da momsaxurebis<br />

warmoebis moculobis zrdasTan erTad, mniSvnelovnad amaRldeba cxovrebis<br />

saSualo done, roca amas mosaxleobis udidesi nawili sakuTar Tavze igrZnobs.<br />

savarjiSo<br />

kiTxvebi<br />

da<br />

davalebebi<br />

ese<br />

davexmaroT mTavrobas!<br />

warmoidgineT, rom saqarTvelos mTavrobis ekonomikuri mrCevlebi<br />

xarT da miiReT davaleba, moamzadoT tipiuri ekonomikuri<br />

problemebis sruli CamonaTvali.<br />

romel problemebs SeitandiT Tqvens siaSi?<br />

ras urCevdiT mTavrobas, ra RonisZiebebi unda gaataros am problemebTan<br />

gamklavebis mizniT?<br />

RonisZiebebis programis Sesadgenad SegiZliaT imuSaoT jgufebSi.<br />

1. ra igulisxmeba qveynis ekonomikur ganviTarebaSi?<br />

2. ekonomikis romel sferoebs moicavs saqarTvelos ganviTarebis<br />

ZiriTadi mimarTulebebi? romeli mimarTuleba migaCniaT prioritetulad?<br />

pasuxi daasabuTeT.<br />

3. msoflios zogierTi uRaribesi qveyana ekonomikuri zrdis daCqarebas<br />

Sida bazarze orientirebuli politikiT cdilobs. es<br />

danarCen samyarosTan urTierTobis SezRudvas niSnavs. ase-<br />

Ti gadawyvetilebis argumentad samamulo bazris ucxouri<br />

saqonlis konkurenciisagan dacva da adgilobrivi warmoebis<br />

ganviTareba ganixileba. marTebulad migaCniaT Tu ara aseTi<br />

gadawyvetilebebi? pasuxi daasabuTeT.<br />

4. eTanxmebiT Tu ara, rom ganviTarebuli qveynebis interesebSi Sedis<br />

ganviTarebadi qveynebisaTvis finansuri da Hhumanitaruli<br />

daxmarebis gaweva, radgan es qveynebi SemdgomSi ekonomikurad<br />

Zlieri qveynis produqciis momxmareblebi gaxdebian.<br />

5. gamoiwvevs Tu ara saerTaSoriso vaWrobis SezRudvis, magaliTad<br />

tarifebis mniSvnelovnad Semcireba an gauqmeba, swraf ekonomikur<br />

zrdas?<br />

6. Tqveni azriT, ra aucilebeli RonisZiebebi unda gatardes qveyanaSi<br />

imisaTvis, rom TiToeulma ojaxma igrZnos ekonomikuri<br />

zrda?<br />

7. romel socialur jgufs sWirdeba saqarTveloSi yvelaze metad<br />

sazogadoebis Tanadgoma?<br />

dawereT Txzuleba saqarTvelos momavalze. aRwereT, rogor warmogidgeniaT<br />

is mas Semdeg, rac zemoT CamoTvlili reformebi ganxorcieldeba.<br />

173


IX<br />

174<br />

ფისკალური და<br />

მონეტარული<br />

პოლიტიკის როლი<br />

ეკონომიკაში<br />

49<br />

ფისკალური პოლიტიკა<br />

imsjeleT gaixseneT, ra informacias gvaZlevs ekonomikis Sesaxeb mTliani Sida<br />

1<br />

produqti (GDP)?<br />

albaT, teleekranebidan ara erTxel mogismeniaT pensiebis da socialuri<br />

daxmarebebis, <strong>saxelmwifo</strong> dazRvevis gazrdis moTxovna. pretenziebi<br />

gansakuTrebiT arCevnebis win matulobs. politikosebi ki, gabedulad<br />

iZlevian dapirebebs gadasaxadebis Semcirebasa da socialuri daxmarebebis<br />

gazrdis, ufaso saavadmyofoebis gaxsnis, <strong>saxelmwifo</strong> valis gastumrebis<br />

Sesaxeb.<br />

davuSvaT, rom xarT ekonomikis eqsperti da satelevizio gadacemaSi<br />

migiwvies. Tqvengan moiTxoven SeafasoT gadasaxadebis da <strong>saxelmwifo</strong><br />

biujetis xarjebis erTdroulad Semcirebis dapirebebis Sesrulebis<br />

sakiTxi.<br />

1) rogor komentars gaakeTebdiT? romel argumentebs moiyvandiT?<br />

2) ra rCevas miscemT qveynis mTavrobas, rogor moaxdinos qveyanaSi ekonomikuri<br />

ryevebis regulireba?<br />

3) rogor iqmneba <strong>saxelmwifo</strong> biujeti?<br />

4) romeli ZiriTadi muxlebia gaTvaliswinebuli qveynis biujetSi?<br />

5) flobT Tu ara informacias saqarTvelos <strong>saxelmwifo</strong> sabiujeto prioritetebis<br />

gansazRvris procesTan dakavSirebiT?<br />

6) Tqveni azriT, Tu qveyana ekonomikuri krizisis pirobebSia, mTavroba<br />

unda Caerios <strong>ekonomika</strong>Si? ratom? ra formiT unda moxdes es Careva?<br />

xelisuflebis ori ZiriTadi instrumenti, romelic <strong>saxelmwifo</strong>s<br />

ekonomikuri miznebis misaRwevad sWirdeba (`<strong>saxelmwifo</strong>s ori xeli“)<br />

aris: fiskaluri politika, romlis saSualebiTac mTavroba gansaz-<br />

Rvravs gadasaxadebsa da xarjebs da monetaruli politika, romlis<br />

saSualebiTac igi marTavs fulis mimoqcevas.


fiskaluri (sabiujeto-sagadasaxado) politika (ing. Fiscal<br />

policy) aris samTavrobo politika, romlis mizania <strong>saxelmwifo</strong>Si<br />

stabiluri ekonomikuri sistemis biznes-ciklis uzrunvelyofa,<br />

moklevadiani ekonomikuri ryevebis Semcireba da stabiluri ekonomikuri<br />

sistemis SenarCuneba, anu fiskaluri (sabiujeto-sagadasaxado)<br />

politika aris mTavrobis politika danaxarjebis, gadasaxadebis<br />

da sesxebis Sesaxeb.<br />

<strong>saxelmwifo</strong>m rom SeZlos makroekonomikuri balansis SenarCuneba, unda gamoiyenos<br />

moklevadiani fiskaluri politikis ZiriTadi instrumentebi - <strong>saxelmwifo</strong> biujetis<br />

Semosavlebi da xarjebi - gadasaxadebi da saerTaSoriso safinanso valdebulebebi,<br />

transferebi, da <strong>saxelmwifo</strong>s mier saqonlisa da momsaxurebis Sesyidvebi da maTi saSualebiT<br />

moaxdinos mTliani Sida produqtis da saerTo moTxovnis stabilizacia.<br />

efeqtiani sagadasaxado politikis gatarebas SeuZlia mniSvnelovnad Seuwyos xeli<br />

<strong>saxelmwifo</strong>s ZiriTadi ekonomikuri amocanebis gadaWras.<br />

sagadasaxado politika moqmedebs sakanonmdeblo da sxva normatiuli aqtebis miRebis<br />

safuZvelze, romlebic adgens qveyanaSi:<br />

gadasaxadebis saxeebs;<br />

gadamxdelTa wres;<br />

sagadasaxado ganakveTebs;<br />

sagadasaxado SeRavaTebs;<br />

gadamxdelTa pasuxismgeblobas;<br />

gadasaxadebis ganawilebas biujetis doneebs Soris.<br />

175


efeqturi<br />

sagadasaxado<br />

datvirTva<br />

vin atarebs<br />

realurad ama Tu<br />

im gadasaxadis<br />

tvirTs ? vin<br />

sargeblobs<br />

am gadasaxadis<br />

gauqmebiT an<br />

SemcirebiT?<br />

Tu qveyanaSi xarjebis Semosavalze gadameteba qmnis biujetis<br />

deficits, maSin mTavroba pirvel rigSi afinansebs biujetis mimdinare<br />

xarjebs. Tu deficitis aRmofxvra mainc ar moxerxda, maSin<br />

gamoiyeneba biujetis xarjebis sekvestris meqanizmi.<br />

ra SeiZleba gaxdes araefeqturi sabiujeto politikis mizezi?<br />

biujetis deficiti;<br />

maRali sagareo vali;<br />

qveyanaSi arsebuli dabali sainvesticio aqtioba;<br />

mouwesrigebeli biznes-garemo;<br />

sawarmoo seqtoris dabali aqtivoba;<br />

eqsportis dabali maCveneblebi.<br />

176<br />

gadasaxadebis<br />

dagegmva<br />

<strong>saxelmwifo</strong>s<br />

uzrunvelyofa<br />

finansuri<br />

resursebiT<br />

sagadasaxado<br />

politikis ZiriTadi<br />

maCveneblebi<br />

optimaluri sagadasaxdo dabegvra<br />

sagadasaxado SeRavaTebis SemoRebis<br />

Semdeg bazris romeli segmenti xdeba<br />

mimzidveli investorisaTvis da iwyeba<br />

kapitalis modineba?<br />

sagadasaxado politika<br />

gadasaxadebis<br />

regulireba<br />

<strong>saxelmwifo</strong>s<br />

sagadasaxado<br />

politikis<br />

amocanebi<br />

sameurneo<br />

saqmianobis<br />

regulirebis<br />

pirobebis Seqmna<br />

sagadasaxdo<br />

kapitalizacia<br />

rogoria<br />

gadasaxadebis<br />

SemcirebiT<br />

gamowveuli<br />

gverdiTi<br />

efeqti? ramdenad<br />

gamoixateba<br />

konkretuli<br />

saqonlis bazris<br />

monawileTa<br />

kapitalis zrdaSi?<br />

gadasaxadebis<br />

kontroli<br />

mosaxleobis SemosavlebSi<br />

uTanabrobis<br />

aRmofxvris mizniT<br />

socialuri daxmarebebis<br />

uzrunvelyofa


ekonomikuri krizisis an aRmavlobis pirobebSi, mTavrobas<br />

SeuZlia Secvlos gadasaxadebis saxe da masStabi,<br />

xarjebis struqtura, iseve rogorc sesxebis moculoba da<br />

formebi, rom amiT xeli Seuwyos finansuri sistemis funqcionirebas,<br />

stimuli misces ekonomikuri zrdas da Seamciros<br />

krizisis efeqti daucveli jgufebis mimarT. amiT<br />

mTavroba pirdapir an arapirdapir gavlenas axdens ekonomikuri<br />

resursebis gamoyenebaze.<br />

sabiujeto sistema - qveynis yvela <strong>saxelmwifo</strong> struqturebis<br />

biujetebis (fondis) erTianoba, romelic dafuZnebulia administraciul-teritoriul<br />

mowyobaze, ekonomikur urTierTobebsa da<br />

iuridiul normebze.<br />

sabiujeto procesi - <strong>saxelmwifo</strong> xelisuflebis organoebis<br />

kanoniT gansazRvruli saqmianoba, romelic moicavs biujetebis<br />

Sedgenas, ganxilvas, miRebasa da SesrulebisaTvis. sabiujeto procesis<br />

Semadgeneli nawilia sabiujeto regulireba. is warmoadgens<br />

sxvadasxva donis biujetebs Soris Semosavlis wyaroebis kanoniT<br />

gansazRvrul gadanawilebas.<br />

sekvestri - darCenili finansuri wlis manZilze sabiujeto xarjebis<br />

yovelTviuri proporciuli Semcireba biujetis xarjviTi<br />

nawilis yvela muxlis mixedviT.<br />

gaixseneT, rom GDP = C + I + G+NX. formulis marcxena mxares warmoadgenda mTliani<br />

Sida produqti (mSp), anu im yvela saboloo saqonlisa da momsaxurebis Rirebuleba, rasac<br />

awarmoebs warmoebis <strong>ekonomika</strong>. marjvena mxares: kerZo moxmareba (C), kerZo investireba (I),<br />

<strong>saxelmwifo</strong>s mier saqonlisa da momsaxurebis SeZena (G) da eqsportis minus importi (wminda<br />

eqsportis NX). am gantolebas naTelia, rom xelisuflebas gavlenebi ekonomikur saqmianobas<br />

(mSp) pirdapir an arapirdapir akontroleben G moqmedi (C), investiciebis da eqsport-imports<br />

Soris Tanafardobis SecvliT ( NX SecvliT) icvleba gadasaxadebi, transferebi da xarjebi.<br />

fiskaluri politika, pirdapir zrdis an amcirebs saerTo moTxovnas, <strong>saxelmwifo</strong> xarjebis.<br />

cxrili 1. saqarTvelos <strong>saxelmwifo</strong> biujetis ZiriTadi maCveneblebis dasaxeleba (mln. lari)<br />

d a s a x e l e b a 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011<br />

Semosavlebi 802.7 933.3 1,732.9 2,213.0 3,293.3 4,293.6 5,517.7 4,917.0 5,421.5 6,388.8<br />

gadasaxadebi 567.9 602.3 975.3 1,407.3 2,130.3 3,010.5 4,541.6 4,161.7 4,592.4 5,802.0<br />

saSemosavlo gadasaxadi 18.5 20.0 16.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 1,218.3 1,053.2 1,119.0 1,439.5<br />

mogebis gadasaxadi 9.3 11.8 11.3 0.0 324.9 533.1 592.1 517.7 576.0 832.2<br />

dRg 370.9 368.5 598.7 987.4 1,332.7 1,973.7 2,069.0 2,051.8 2,203.1 2,784.3<br />

aqcizi 118.3 135.7 213.1 295.1 338.6 428.6 518.4 443.2 560.8 615.2<br />

sabaJo gadasaxadi 50.9 66.3 131.8 124.2 132.4 52.0 51.9 35.9 70.4 93.2<br />

importis gadasaxadi 0.0 0.0 2.1 0.0 - - - - - -<br />

sxva araklasificirebuli gadasaxadebi 0.0 0.0 1.9 0.6 1.7 23.1 91.8 60.0 63.1 37.6<br />

socialuri Senatanebi 154.8 222.7 402.2 428.8 502.8 722.1 - - - -<br />

grantebi 22.6 48.4 160.1 104.5 194.0 208.6 617.2 387.7 471.4 263.1<br />

sxva Semosavlebi 57.4 59.9 195.3 272.4 466.2 352.4 359.0 367.5 357.7 323.7<br />

xarjebi 839.7 915.6 1,432.2 2,012.7 2,669.4 3,890.0 5,554.7 5,367.2 5,466.5 5,926.8<br />

Sromis anazRaureba 93.9 131.5 233.0 336.7 451.5 603.5 913.1 941.6 993.5 1,012.5<br />

saqoneli da momsaxureba 183.1 169.3 319.2 420.2 678.5 1,483.8 1,508.8 879.9 881.6 989.0<br />

procenti 146.7 168.5 142.4 120.1 100.5 97.4 119.3 167.2 200.7 282.7<br />

subsidiebi 92.0 57.0 112.7 421.5 419.0 267.3 362.5 447.3 196.3 196.7<br />

grantebi 65.1 69.8 128.2 181.4 222.7 197.3 858.9 861.2 1,099.6 1,220.0<br />

socialuri uzrunvelyofa 258.9 319.5 480.5 466.0 597.2 892.5 1,286.1 1,419.9 1,481.1 1,540.9<br />

sxva xarjebi 0.0 0.0 16.2 66.8 200.0 348.2 506.1 650.1 613.7 685.0<br />

177


iujetis saoperacio saldo -37.0 17.7 300.7 200.3 623.9 403.6 -37.0 -450.3 -45.0 462.0<br />

arafinansuri aqtivebis cvlileba 100.0 94.2 248.1 23.1 278.7 274.0 324.6 746.7 873.5 755.8<br />

biujetis mTliani saldo -137.0 -76.5 52.6 177.2 345.2 129.6 -361.6 -1,197.0 -918.5 -293.8<br />

finansuri aqtivebis cvlileba -4.5 64.2 93.6 110.7 264.4 144.1 600.5 -499.5 357.4 289.3<br />

saSinao -4.5 64.2 93.6 110.7 264.4 144.1 600.5 -499.5 357.4 289.3<br />

sagareo 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0<br />

monetaruli oqro da nasesxobis<br />

specialuri ufleba<br />

178<br />

wyaro: saqarTvelos parlamentis 2010 wlis 17 dekembris ¹4107–rs kanoni „saqarTvelos 2011 wlis<br />

<strong>saxelmwifo</strong> biujetis Sesaxeb“.<br />

davaleba<br />

imsjeleT<br />

es<br />

sainteresoa<br />

0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0<br />

valdebulebebis cvlileba 132.5 140.7 41.0 -66.5 -80.8 14.5 962.2 697.5 1,276.0 583.2<br />

saSinao 47.6 50.0 12.5 -32.0 -25.9 -20.0 -52.4 26.4 123.5 35.2<br />

sagareo 84.9 90.7 28.5 -34.5 -54.9 34.5 1,014.6 671.1 1,152.5 548.0<br />

daakvirdiT monacemebs da axseniT<br />

romeli muxlebSia gamoxatuli zrdis dinamika? romel muxlebSia<br />

gamoxatuli klebis dinamika ?<br />

Tqveni azriT ra SeiZleba iyos amis mizezi?<br />

rogor efeqts moitanda aseTi cvlilebebi socialurad daucveli<br />

mosaxleobisTvis?<br />

imuSaveT jgufebSi da moifiqreT argumentebi saqarTvelos<br />

fiskaluri politikis sasargeblod da sawinaaRmdegod.<br />

saqarTvelom metnaklebad gadaWra ekonomikuri ganviTarebis uzrunvelyofa<br />

efeqturi sagadasaxado _ sabiujeto politikis gatarebiT.<br />

qveynis ekonomikuri politikis Semadgeneli nawili safinansosabiujeto<br />

politika, moicavs <strong>saxelmwifo</strong>Si finansebis organizaciisa<br />

da gamoyenebis RonisZiebaTa erTobliobas <strong>saxelmwifo</strong> funqciebisa da<br />

amocanebis gansaxorcieleblad. safinanso-sabiujeto politika erTiania<br />

saqarTvelos mTel teritoriaze da tardeba sagadasaxado, fuladsakredito,<br />

fasebis da savaluto politikasTan SeTanxmebiT. fiskalur<br />

politikas qveyanaSi atarebs mTavroba, <strong>saxelmwifo</strong>. saqarTvelos <strong>saxelmwifo</strong><br />

biujetis proeqts SeimuSavebs saqarTvelos finansTa saministro.<br />

saqarTvelos sabiujeto politikis samarTlebriv baziss warmoadgens<br />

saqarTvelos sabiujeto kodeqsi, romelic saqarTvelos parlamentis<br />

mier 2009 wlis 18 dekembers iqna miRebuli da 2010 wlis 1 ianvridan<br />

Sevida ZalaSi.saqarTvelos parlamenti iRebs kanons `saqarTvelos <strong>saxelmwifo</strong><br />

biujetis Sesaxeb~, romlis farglebSi mtkicdeba saqarTvelos<br />

centraluri biujeti, cal-calke ganisazRvreba afxazeTisa da aWaris<br />

erTeulebis biujetebisaTvis gadasacemi miznobrivi transfertebi.<br />

aseve parlamentis mier mtkicdeba specialuri <strong>saxelmwifo</strong> fondebis<br />

Semosavlisa da gasavlis ZiriTadi maCveneblebi.<br />

wyaro. www.parlament.ge. saqarTvelos mTavrobis ZiriTadi<br />

monacemebi da mimarTulebebi/ 2007-2010 )


? Tqveni azriT, ras gulisxmobs e.w. `qamrebis SemoWeris politika~?<br />

savarjiSo<br />

kiTxvebi<br />

da<br />

davalebebi<br />

ese<br />

kidev erTxel davexmaroT mTavrobas!<br />

warmoidgineT, rom saqarTvelos mTavrobis ekonomikuri mrCevlebi<br />

xarT da miiReT davaleba, moamzadoT momavali wlis fiskaluri politikis<br />

prioritetebis gegma. RonisZiebebis programis Sesadgenad Segi-<br />

ZliaT jgufebSi imuSaoT.<br />

ekonomistebis ramdenime jgufi msjelobs, Tu rogor unda<br />

moiqces mTavroba ekonomikuri krizisis pirobebSi ekonomikuri<br />

ciklebis samarTavad da procesis gasaadvileblad. maTi azrebi gaiyo:<br />

ekonomistebis I jgufi moiTxovs: SevamciroT gadasaxadebi, magram<br />

samTavrobo xarjebi igive davtovoT. is pirovnebebi, romlebsac<br />

gadasaxadebis Semcirebis Sedegad gauCndaT zedmeti Semosavali,<br />

am fuls isev <strong>ekonomika</strong>Si daabandeben.<br />

ekonomistebis II jgufi moiTxovs: mTavrobam gazardos xarjebi<br />

ufro metad, vidre mas Semosavali aqvs gadasaxadebis saxiT. amiT<br />

mTavroba fuls Cadebs isev <strong>ekonomika</strong>Si da amiT daaCqarebs ekonomikuri<br />

aqtivobis tempebs.<br />

ekonomistebis III jgufi amtkicebs, rom orive midgoma mxolod<br />

moklevadian efeqts moitans. amasTan arsebobs safrTxe, rom gadasaxadebis<br />

Semcirebas mivyavarT ekonomikis zedmetad stimulaciisaken,<br />

rasac Sedegad inflacia moyveba da <strong>saxelmwifo</strong>s <strong>ekonomika</strong><br />

ufro rTul situaciaSi aRmoCndeba. inflaciis ZiriTadi<br />

mizezi mTavrobis araswori fiskaluri da erovnuli bankis araswori<br />

monetaruli politikaa. saWiroa kombinirebuli gegma situaciis<br />

regulirebisaTvis.<br />

ekonomistebis IV jgufi amtkicebs, rom qveyanaSi inflaciis<br />

90% gamowveulia gare faqtorebiT. msoflio bazarze midis Zalian<br />

rTuli procesebi: navTobi, iseve rogorc sabaziso kvebis<br />

produqtebi (wiwibura, Saqari, xorbali) Zvirdebada momavali<br />

wlis mosavlis bedi arasaxarbieloa. inflaciuri procesebi ga-<br />

Zlierdeba gardauvalia.<br />

imsjeleT, ra safuZveli aqvs ekonomikis eqspertTa am prognozs?<br />

gaiyaviT jgufebad da moifiqreT TiToeuli jgufis mxardam-<br />

Weri argumentebi<br />

<strong>saxelmwifo</strong>s fiskaluri politika da Cemi ojaxi.<br />

179


imsjeleT<br />

180<br />

50<br />

monetaruli<br />

politika<br />

1. raSi xarjavs saqarTvelos mosaxleoba damatebiT (aradagegmil) Semosavlebs?<br />

2. ra moxdeba, Tu erT dRes, yvela meanabre sabanko angariSebidan fuls<br />

moxsnis da xarjvas daiwyebs?<br />

3. ra pirobebSi gamoiwvevs damatebiTi Semosavlebi an danaxarjebi inflacias?<br />

4. ra pirobebia saWiro imisaTvis, rom fulis miwodebis gazrdam inflacia<br />

ar gamoiwvios?<br />

5. SegaSfoTebT Tu ara informacia imis Sesaxeb, rom qveyanaSi inflaciam<br />

20 %-s gadaaWarba? ratom?<br />

1<br />

warmoidgineT, rom qveyanaSi fulma gaufasureba daiwyo. SeSfoTebulma<br />

mosaxleobam uZravi qonebis SeZena daiwyo, magram fasebis yoveldRiuri<br />

matebis gamo, saxlebis, binebis, miwis nakveTebis Tu manqanebis mepatroneebi<br />

gayidvisagan Tavs ikaveben. ician, rom aRebuli fulic gaufasurdeba, amitom<br />

simdidris Senaxva qonebis saxiT urCeviaT.<br />

miwis nakveTebiT da saxlebiT vaWrobis Semcirebam binaTmSeneblobis Semcireba<br />

gamoiwvia. Sesabamisad mSeneblebi, durglebi da avtoxelosnebi samuSaos<br />

gareSe darCnen. xe-tyis da liTonis masalebiT vaWrobamac sagrZnoblad<br />

iklo. manqanebiT vaWrobis Semcirebam zogierTi avtosaremonto saxelosnoebis<br />

daxurva xelosnebis umuSevrad darCena gamoiwvia.<br />

ekonomikis ministrma satelevizio interviuSi ganacxada, rom radgan inflacia<br />

sabazro ekonomikis `mudmivi senia~, aqtiuri RonisZiebebis gatareba<br />

saWiro ar aris, bazari TviTon daaregulirebs mas yovelgvari damatebiTi<br />

Carevis gareSe.<br />

? rogor<br />

fiqrobT, qveynis prezidentsa da mis gunds moewonebaT ase-<br />

Ti politika? ratom?<br />

rogor Seafaseben mTavrobis aseT pozicias opoziciuri Zalebi?<br />

Tqven rogor SeafasebT ekonomikis ministris pozicias?<b