genderi da sazogadoeba - UNDP Georgia

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genderi da sazogadoeba - UNDP Georgia

genderi da sazogadoeba:

saqarTvelo

Tbilisi 2008


angariSi momzadda da gamoicema gaeros ganviTarebis programis proeqtis -

genderi da politika” - farglebSi.

angariSi Sesrulebulia sazogadoebrivi politikis

institutis mier (IPS).

avtori: nana sumbaZe

damatebiTi informaciisaTvis SegiZliaT mimarToT gaeros ganviTarebis programis

proeqtis - ”genderi da politika”- ofiss Semdeg misamarTze:Tbilisi

saqarTvelos parlamentis administraciuli Senoba. rusTavelis gamz. 8, oTaxi

034; tel/faqsi:923662.

www.genderandpolitics.ge an sazogadoebrivi politikis instituts misamar-

Tze: Tbilisi, WavWavaZis gamz. 10.tel/faqsi: 220060

www.ips.ge

wignis dizaini:gio sumbaZe

angariSSi warmodgenili Sedegebi da rekomendaciebi avtors ekuTvnis da

SesaZlebelia ar emTxvevodes gaeros ganviTarebis proeqtis - ”genderi da

politika” - Sexedulebebs

Copyright UNDP 2008

saavtoro uflebebi daculia


Sinaarsi:

Sesavali...............................................................................................................................5

Tavi 1: kvlevis mizani .......................................................................................... 9

Tavi 2: Tanasworoba ............................................................................................. 15

genderi sazogadoebriv sarbielze ................................................................ 34

Tavi 3: sazogadoebriv cxovrebaSi monawileoba ........................... 34

Tavi 4: dasaqmeba ...................................................................................................... 73

genderi pirad cxovrebaSi .................................................................................... 94

Tavi 5: genderi ojaxur cxovrebaSi ........................................................ 94

Tavi 6: adamianuri da sociluri kapitali ....................................... 116

Tavi 7: win gadasadgmeli nabijebi ........................................................... 145

bibliografia .................................................................................................................. 154

danarTi I. eTnikur umciresobaTa damokidebuleba

Tanasworobis mimarT ................................................................................................. 160

danarTi II. qarTveli qalebi qarTul sabWoTa

enciklopediaSi .............................................................................................................. 162

danarTi III.genderul sakiTxebze momuSave organizaciebi ........ 168

danarTi IV.respondentTa nusxa ....................................................................... 175

danarTi V. fokus-jgufebis nusxa ................................................................. 178

Gender and Society: Georgia .......................................................................... 179

danarTi VI. fotoxma ............................................................................................... 333

3


kvleva ganxorcielda gaeros ganviTarebis programis mxardaWeriT. avtors surs Tavisi

gulwrfeli madliereba gamoxatos gaeros ganviTarebis programis proeqtis ”genderi

da politika” TanamSromlebis da saqarTvelos parlamentis TavjdomaresTan arsebuli

genderuli Tanasworobis sakiTxebis sakonsultacio sabWos mimarT Rirebuli rCevebisaTvis.

gansakuTrebul madlobas vuxdiT baia romelaSvils da Carita jaSs, am xelnaweris

ganxilvisas gaweuli daxmarebisaTvis.

es naSromi mravali adamianis erToblivi TanamSromlobis Sedegia. avtori gansakuTrebul

madlobas uxdis Semdeg pirovnebebs:

maia maisuraZes, ekaterine fircxalavas da anastasia qitiaSvils, aseve sazogadoebrivi

politis kvlevis institutis mkvlevarTa jgufs informaciis Segrovebis, savele samuSaoebis

Catarebis da gamokiTxvis monacemTa analizisaTvis; TinaTin erisTavs da sofio

qitiaSvils monacemTa kompiuterSi SeyvanisaTvis; interviuerebs; siRrmiseuli interviuebis

respondentebs, fokus-jgufis ganxilvis monawileebs da gamokiTxvis respondentebs

im interesis, droisa da ZalisxmevisaTvis, rac maT am proeqts moaxmares.

4


Sesavali

genderi sayovelTaod aRiarebuli terminia, romelsac mamakacisa da qalis

cnebis klasifikaciisaTvis iyeneben. rogorc universaluri kategoria,

praqtikulad yvela kulturaSi genderi socialuri cxovrebis erTgvar

centralur maorganizebel principad gvevlineba (Wharton, 2004). genderi,

rogorc kategoria, socialurad konstruirebulia, anu es kategoriaa,

romelsac kultura qmnis. kulturiT aris aseve gansazRvruli masTan dakav-

Sirebuli molodinebi. genderi efuZneba sqesis biologiurad gansazRvrul

kategorias. rogorc xiluli kategoria, sqesi aadvilebs kategorizaciis da

stereotipizaciis process. adamianebis jgufebad kategorizacia amcirebs

jgufis SigniT mravalferovnebas da zrdis jgufebs Soris gansxvavebebs

(Fiske & Taylor, 1991). genderi moqmedebs mraval sferoSi - kulturaSi arsebul

simboloebSi, normatul cnebebSi, socialur institutebsa da organizaciebSi,

subieqtur identobaSi (Scott, 1986).

genderuli diferenciacia, iseve, rogorc genderuli uTanasworoba universaluria

da yvela sazogadoebisTvis aris damaxasiaTebeli (Kimmel, 2000). is

biologias eyrdnoba da misi gansazRvreba cvalebadobs:

• erTi sazogadoebidan meoreSi;

• erT kulturaSi garkveuli drois ganmavlobaSi;

• pirovnuli mowifulobis mixedviT;

• sxvadasxva jgufebs Soris erT kulturaSi;

• individebs Soris.

genderis diferenciaciis arseboba udaoa, magram sadaoa genderze dafuZnebul

Zalauflebisa da resursebis ganawilebis Sefasebis da kriteriumebis

samarTlianoba. qalis uflebebis gaZlierebis momxreTa kritikosebi

xSirad amboben, rom qalebi kmayofilebi arian sakuTari TaviT da maT ar

surT cvlilebebi. marTalia, bevri qali sulac ar iRwvis sazogadoebriv

cxovrebaSi Casabmelad, an saimisod, rom meti Zalaufleba moipovos ojaxSi,

an sazogadoebaSi zogadad, magram kritikosebi uyuradRebod toveben im

faqts, rom bevr SemTxvevaSi es imitom xdeba, rom qalebi ver acnobiereben

arsebul SesaZleblobebs tradiciul da patriarqalur ojaxSi aRzrdis

gamo, an imis gamo, rom ar floben realur informacias arsebul SesaZleblobebze.

sinamdvileSi qalebs xSirad ar eZlevaT saSualeba gaakeTon realuri

da informirebuli arCevani da amgvarad Tavi daaRwion uuflebo

mdgomareobas. rogorc amarita seni aRniSnavs, SesaZloa qalebi Tavadac

5


ar iyvnen dazRveulni tradiciuli ”mamakacuri” faseulobebisagan, da ”rom

mxolod moqmedebis Tavisufleba ar aris sakmarisi, saWiroa aseve azrovnebis

Tavisuflebac” (Sen, 2001. gv. 15).

qalebi Seadgenen msoflio mosaxleobis naxevarze mets da miuxedavad amisa,

ukiduresad mwirad arian warmodgenilni arCeviT organoebSi, saxelmwifo

organoebSi gadawyvetilebis mimRebT Soris da kerZo biznesSi. qalebi Raribi

mosaxleobis umravlesobas Seadgenen da samyaroSi sadac mamakacebi dominireben

naTlad aris gamokveTili sazogadoebis maskulinuri xasiaTi.

meoce saukunis meore naxevridan genderuli Tanasworoba ganviTarebasTan

asocirdeba. nebismieri sazogadoebis keTildReoba warmoudgenelia, Tu misi

mosaxleobis naxevari ubeduria. msoflios bevr qveyanaSi qalis Sroma ganmsazRvrelia

sursaTis, wylis da energiis wyaros mopovebis saqmeSi, ase rom,

ganviTarebis dagegmva Raribi qalebis Tvalsazrisis gaTvaliswinebiT unda

daiwyos (Sen & Grown, 1987). mamakacebi ufro momgebian pirobebSi arian

qalebTan SedarebiT cxovrebis yvela aspeqtSi. amitomac, ganviTarebis Zalisxmeva

pirvel rigSi qalebis gaZlierebaze iyo mimarTuli im programebSi,

romelic gaerTianebuli erebis organizaciis ganviTarebis programiT iyo

wamowyebuli samocdaaTian wlebSi da mas aerTianebda konceqcia ”qalebi

ganviTarebaSi”. amgvari midgomis mizani iyo praqtikuli meqanizmebis SemuSaveba

qalebis gasaZliereblad da maTi ekonomikuri da socialuri statusis

gasaumjobeseblad (Barker, 2000).

genderuli Tanasworoba adamianis ZiriTadi uflebaa, igi qalisa da mamakacis

ganviTarebisa da keTidReobis ZiriTadi maxasiaTebelia. rogorc 1994 wels

Catarebuli gaeros saerTaSoriso mosaxleobisa da ganviTarebis konferenciis

samoqmedo gegmis reziumeSia aRniSnuli, ”qalis gaZliereba da misi statusis

gaumjobeseba TavisTavad mniSvnelovani mizania da ZiriTadi faqtoria

mdgradi ganviTarebis misaRwevad.”

6


qalis winaaRmdeg diskriminaciis aRmosafxvrelad gadamWreli nabijebi gadaidga

1979 wels, rodesac miRebul iqna ”konvencia qalis winaaRmdeg yvela

saxis diskriminaciis aRmofxvris Taobaze”(CEDAW). 2004 wlisaTvis am dokumentze

179 qveyanas qonda xeli mowerili.

gasuli saukunis oTxmocdaaTiani wlebSi aRiniSna saerTaSoriso organizaciebis,

maT Soris gaeros ganviTarebis programis politikis im

strategiebis, romlebic metwilad qalis mimarT diskriminaciis aRmofxvraze

iyo orientirebuli, iseTi strategiebis SecvliT, rolebic ufro

met yuradRebas qalisa da mamakacis gansxvavebul moTxovnebze amaxvilebdnen;

es strategiebi gaerTianda ”genderuli sakiTxebis gaTvaliswinebis, e.w.

genderuli meinstrimingis” saxeliT. mamakacisa da qalis moTxovnebis dakmayofileba

mxolod samarTlianobis sakiTxi ar aris, mravalricxovani

da rTuli kavSirebis gamo SeuZlebelia mxolod erTi sqesis problemebis

izolorebulad mogvareba. kavSiris erT magaliTs gvTavazobs amarita seni,

rodesac igi samxreT afrikaSi aRricxuli gulsisxlZarRvTa daavadebebis

maRali sixSiris monacemebs ganixilavs. es daavadebani upiratesad mamakacebs

aReniSnebaT da ufro xSirad gamowveulia dedis mier orsulobis periodSi

sakvebis arasakmarisi odenobiT miRebiT. sakvebis simcire aferxebs embrionis

zrdas da ganapirobebs mcire wonas axalSobilebSi, rac zrdasrul asakSi

gulsisxlZarRvTa daavadebis saxiT vlindeba (Senn, 2001).

”genderuli perspeqtivis gaTvaliswineba (meinstrimingi) warmoadgens imis

Sefasebis process, Tu ra Sedegi moaqvs qalisa da mamakacis cxovrebaSi

nebismieri saxis dagegmil qmedebas, - sakanonmdeblos, politikur Tu programuls,

nebismier sferoSi da yvela doneze. es strategia miznad isaxavs

qalis, da aseve, mamakacis sazrunavi da gamocdileba gaxdes yvela saxis

politikis da programis dagegmvis, ganxorcielebis, monitoringisa da Sefasebis

ganuyofeli nawili yvela sferoSi _ politikurSi, ekonomikursa

Tu sazogadoebrivSi ise, rom qalma da mamakacma Tanabari mogeba naxon da

uTanasworoba ar damkvidrdes. Tanasworobis miRweva genderuli meinstrimingis

saboloo mizans warmoadgens”. ”gaerTianebuli erebis ekonomikuri da

socialuri sabWo, 1997”.

aqedan gamomdinare, msgavsad midgomisa ”qalebi ganviTarebaSi” genderuli

meinstrimingi miznad isaxavs genderuli Tanasworobis miRwevas, magram amas

axorcielebs masStabis gafarToebis, mamakacebis CarTvis xarjze da agreTve

imiT, rom ”genderul perspeqtivas yvela kanons da socialur standarts,

nebismieri politikis Camoyalibebas, kvlevas, dagegmvas, propagandirebas, ganviTarebasa

da monitorings miusadagebs” (Gender Gap, 2005). garda imisa, rom

7


es midgoma ufro samarTliania, mas SeuZlia meti damcveli moizidos da

ufro qmediTi gaxdes msoflios mosaxleobis umravlesobisaTvis keTildReobis

mopovebis TvalsazrisiT. vinaidan qalebs dabrkoleba xvdebaT cxovrebis

bevr sferoSi, genderul meinstrimings Seemata qalisTvis uflebamosilebis

gamaZlierebeli strategia.

genderuli Tanasworoba, romelic warmodgenil naSromis sagans warmoadgens,

SefasebiTi koncefciaa da amdenad misi Sinaarsi davis sagani SeiZleba iyos.

SefasebasTan da kritikasTan dakavSirebuli sakiTxebis obieqturoba Ria

da SeuzRudav kritikas, sajaro msjelobasa da ganxilvas moiTxovs (Sen,

2004). angariSis avtors ara aqvs ambicia WeSmariteba warmogidginoT, igi

imedovnebs, rom es naSromi wvlils Seitans genderuli sakiTxebis sajaro

msjelobis sagnad gadaqcevis saqmeSi da mkiTxvels genderTan dakavSirebuli

problematikis mimarT ufro mgrZnobiares gaxdis.

8


Tavi 1

kvlevis mizani

tradiciul sazogadoebebSi, romelTac mniSvnelovanwilad saqarTveloc

miekuTvneba, sazogadoebrivi cxovreba mamakacis kuTvnil samoqmedo asparezad

aRiqmeba, kerZo ki - qalis sferod. Tanasworobis sakiTxebi, genderuli movaleobebi

da uflebebi gansxvavebulia am or sferoSi. es angariSi genderul

problemebs sajaro da kerZo sferoSi cal-calke ganixilavs, aseve exeba

genderul gansxvavebebs adamianur da socialur kapitalSi. raki iTvleba,

rom genderi kulturuli warmonaqmnia, ganixileba genderuli problemebi

eTnikur umciresobebSic, somxur da azerbaijanul TemebSic. agreTve ganxilulia

afxazeTis konfliqtiT gamowveuli zemoqmedeba iZulebiT gadaadgilebul

qalebisa da mamakacebis cxovrebaze.

savele samuSaobi Catarda 2007 wlis seqtember-noemberSi.

winamdebare kvleva miznad isaxavda saqarTveloSi genderuli perspeqtiviT

danaxuli zogadi mdgomareobiT warmodgenas. am miznis misaRwevad gamoyenebuli

iqna sxvadasxva meTodologia.

1. literaturis mimoxilva.

analizi gaukeTda sxvadasxva saxis moxsenebsa da analitikur publikaciebs

genderis zogad sakiTxebsa da genderTan dakavSirebul mdgomareobaze saqarTveloSi.

arsebuli SesaZleblobebis farglebSi moxda statistikuri monacemebis

Segroveba. yvelaze met dabrkolebas mkvlevarebi swored statistikuri

monacemebis Sekrebisas waawydnen. garda gaeros ganviTarebis programis

xelSewyobiT gamoqveynebuli bukletisa (qalebi da mamakacebi saqarTveloSi,

2006 da 2007), qalebze da mamakacebze gancalkevebuli monacemebi an ar moipoveba,

an arazustia.

2. siRrmiseuli interviuebi.

interviuebi aRebul iqna eqspertebisgan genderis sferoSi, xelisuflebis

warmomadgenlebisa da sxvadasxva profesiis warmomadgenlebisgan: saerTo

jamSi, ormocdaSvidi siRrmiseuli interviu iqna Catarebuli, ZiriTadad

TbilisSi (ixileT monawileTa sia danarTi IV).

9


tabula 1. gamokiTxuli pirebi saqmianobis mixedviT

N 0 sfero mamakaci qali sul

1 genderis eqspertebi - 12 12

2 parlamentis wevrebi* 3 4 7

3

sxva profesiis

warmomadgenlebi

1 5 6

4

mTavrobis

pasuxismgebeli pirebi

2 3 5

5

ganaTlebis sferos

muSakebi

3 2 5

6

politikuri partiebis

warmomadgenlebi

1 3 4

7

profesiuli kavSirebis

xelmZRvanelebi

1 1 2

8

iZulebiT

gadaadgilebuli pirebi

1 1 2

9

biznesiT dakavebuli

pirebi/mewarmeebi

- 2 2

10 Jurnalisti 1 - 1

11

samRvdeloebis

warmomadgeneli

1 1

sul 14 33 47

* ramdenime prlamentis wevri, romelTaganac iqna interviu aRebuli, aseve

politikuri partiis lideri iyo.

eqvsi gansxvavebuli tipis intervius gzamkvlevi iqna Sedgenili, romlebic

Seicavda kiTxvebs iseT sakiTxebze, rogoricaa: monawileoba, genderuli

Tanasworoba, ekonomikuri aqtioba, janmrTeloba, ganaTleba da kriminaluri

mdgomareoba.

10


3. ganxilvebi fokus-jgufTan (fj)

cxra fokus-jgufis Sekrebas mTlianobaSi daeswro 100 adamiani. es Sekrebebi

Catarda:

TviTdasaqmebul qalebTan sofel TanianT karSi (fj1);

adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis qalTa forumis wevrebTan (fj2);

iZulebiT gadaadgilebul pirebTan zugdidSi, orjer (fj3 da 9).

marneulel axalgazrdebTan (fj4);

axalcixis universitetis studentebTan (fj5);

axalqalaqel axalgazrdebTan (fj6);

Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis studentebis or jgufTan (fj7 da 8);

diskusiebis dros gamoyenebuli iyo oTxi tipis gzamkvlevi, pirveli - qali

politikosebisTvis, meore axalgazrdebisa da studentTa jgufebisaTvis, mesame

- TviTdasaqmebuli qalebisaTvis da meoTxe - iZulebiT gadaadgilebul

pirTaTvis.

ganxilvebis umTavresi Tema iyo genderuli Tanasworoba, qalis roli sazogadoebriv

da kerZo sferoebSi, samsaxureobrivi winsvlis gzaze arsebuli

SesaZleblobebi da dabrkolebebi, TviTdasaqmeba, da yoveldRiuri cxovrebis

sirTuleebi.

4. mosaxleobis gamokiTxva genderul sakiTxebze (gamokiTxva)

saqarTvelos mosaxleobis gamokiTxva genderul sakiTxebze ganxorcielda

saqarTvelos yvela 9 regionSi, aWaris avtonomiuri respublikasa da TbilisSi.

respondentTa SesarCevad gamoyenebuli iyo ierarqiuli albaTuri

SerCevis meTodi. misi meSveobiT gapirobebul iqna respondentTa Sesabamisoba

saqarTvelos mosaxleobaSi arsebul ganawilebasTan demografiuli

maCveneblebis (qali/kaci; soflis/qalaqis macxovrebeli; asakobrivi jgufi)

mixedviT.

warmomadgenlobiTi SerCeva Sedgeboda 1087 adamianisgan (44.1 % qali da

55. 9 % mamakaci). imisaTvis, rom calke Catarebuliyo analizi eTnikuri

umciresobiT dasaxlebul raionebSi, damatebiT 52 adamiani gamoikiTxa axalqalaqsa

da ninowmindas raionebSi. amgvarad sul gamokiTxul iqna 1139

respondenti.

11


tabula 2

respondentebis regionebis mixedviT danawileba

17-

24

25-

49

mamakacebi qalebi

50-

65

nax.1

respondentTa ganawileba sqesisa da asakobrivi jgufebis mixedviT

66>

12

sul

17-

24

25-

49

50-

65

66>

jami

saerTo

jami

1 Tbilisi 23 49 22 16 110 30 64 30 32 156 266

2 aWara 9 16 11 6 42 10 20 14 11 55 97

3 guria 4 9 3 3 19 4 9 4 4 21 40

4 imereTi 18 36 16 9 79 18 41 18 20 97 176

5 kaxeTi 10 19 11 7 47 10 22 10 11 53 100

6 mcxeTa-mTieneTi 3 6 3 2 14 3 8 4 3 18 32

7 raWa-leCxumi 1 4 1 1 7 1 4 1 6 13

8 samegrelo 10 23 9 8 50 7 23 15 12 57 107

9 qvemo qarTli 10 24 10 10 54 13 28 15 15 71 125

10 Sida qarTli 7 16 7 6 36 7 18 9 9 43 79

11 samcxe-javaxeTi 6 11 5 3 25 6 11 6 4 27 52

jami

damatebiTi

101 213 98 71 483 109 248 125 122 604 1087

axalqalaqisa

da

ninowmindisTvis

6 11 5 3 25 6 11 6 4 27 52

saerTo jami 107 224 103 74 508 115 259 131 126 631 1139

kacebi

qalebi


gamokiTxulTa Soris umravlesobas (55.7%) daqorwinebulebi warmoadgenen,

3.2 procenti erTad cxovrobs xelmoweris gareSe, 25.0 procenti ar aris

qorwinebaSi, 4.0 procenti ganqorwinebulia.

qarTvelebi warmoadgenen gamokiTxulTa umravlesobas (90.3%), somxebi

Seadgendnen 4.0 procents, azerbaijanelebi 2.0 procents, sxva erovnebis

warmomadgenlebi 3.7 procents. gamokiTxulTa 91.1 procenti saqarTvelos

marTlmadidebeli eklesiis mrevli, 3.9 procenti mahmadiania, 2.9 procenti

gregorianeli da 2.2 procenti sxva konfesias miekuTvneba.

qalebi da kacebi erTmaneTisagan ar gansxvavdebian ganaTlebis mixedviT.

gamokiTxul mamakacTa 46.7 procenti da qalebis 47.5 procents aqvs miRebuli

umaRlesi ganaTleba.

umravlesoba (94.8%) flobs qarTuls da qalebi da kacebi am mxriv erTmaneTisagan

ar gansxvavdebian magram kacebis ufro did nawils (72.0%)

qalebTan SedarebiT (66.9%) SeuZlia rusulad metyveleba.

kiTxvari, romelic am gamokiTxvisTvis iyo Sedgenili Sedgeboda 151 kiTxvisagan.

kiTxvebi Semdeg sakiTxebs Seexeboda:

• genderul TanasworobasTan mimarTebaSi arsebul damokidebule

bebs da Rirebulebebs;

• saojaxo rolebsa da ojaxSi arsebul Zalauflebis struqturas;

damokidebulebas biWebisa da gogonebis ganaTlebis mimarT, qalebi sa

da kacebis SesaZlo samsaxureobriv warmatebebs da unarebs;

• mamakacebisa da qalebisaTvis misaReb qcevebs, maT valdebulebebs,

qalis da mamakacis momxiblav Tvisebebs;

damokidebulebas qali politikosebisa da xelmZRvaneli qalebis

mimarT.

gamokiTxva tardeboda respondentis saxlSi, piris-pir intervius meSveobiT.

gamokiTxvas atarebdnen gamocdili interviuerebi. gamokiTxva 20-dan 40 wu-

Tamde grZeldeboda.

13


5. foto xma.

foto xma warmoadgens inovaciur, monawileobaze damyarebul sakvlev

meqanizms, romelic SeimuSava uangma da barisma (Wang, Burris & Ping, 1996).

is efuZneba Tvalsazriss, rom adamianebi sakuTari cxovrebis eqspertebs

warmoadgenen. fotosuraTebis gadaRebis, da maT mixedviT ambis Txrobis sa-

SualebiT xdeba dainteresebul mxareTa informireba (Wang, Cash & Powers,

2000). TxuTmet iZulebiT gadaadgilebul pirs (igp) zugdidSi, romelTagan

6 mamakaci da 9 qali iyo, gadaecaT fotoaparati, raTa maT dRis ganmavlobaSi

aesaxaT TavianTi yoveldRiuri cxovreba. jgufi orjer Seikriba,

pirvel jerze maT ganumartes davaleba da misces miTiTebebi, Tu rogor

unda gamoeyenebinaT aparati, xolo meore Sekrebisas sTxoves gadaRebuli

suraTebis kvaldakval moeTxroT ambebi. am meTodis upiratesobas warmoadgens

SesaZlebloba movlenebi danaxul iqnen uSualo monawilis TvaliT,

an rogorc mas uwodeben, ”emikuri” (emic) perspeqtiviT (Strack, Magill &

McDonough, 2004).

gadaRebul iqna 300-ze meti suraTi. TiToeul respondetze saSualod,

10 fotosuraTi SeirCa ambis mosayolad. jgufur garemoSi, moderatoris

daxmarebiT, igp-ebi yvebodnen TavianT istorias da suraTebis daxmarebiT

ganixilavdnen im sirTuleebs, rac Tan sdevda maT yoveldRiur yofas.

14


Tavi 2

Tanasworoba

Tanasworoba, es Temaa romelsac Zalze xSirad axseneben genderze saubrisas.

mas ganmartaven, rogorc ”adamianis ganviTarebis im safexurs, romelzec

adamianis uflebebi, valdebubulebebi da saSualebebi ar ganisazRvreba imiT,

is mamakacia, Tu qali” (Lopez-Claros & Zahidi, 2005. gv. 1). Tanasworoba gadawyvetilebis

miRebisa da resursebis marTvis ZalauflebasTan aris gadajaWvuli;

is cxovrebis yvela sferoSi iCens Tavs, iqneba es sajaro, Tu kerZo

da adamianur da socialur kapitalSi aisaxeba.

cvlilebebis miuxedavad, genderi dResac statusis maCvenebelia da mamakacad

yofna bevrad ufro fasobs, vidre qalad (Wharton, 2004).

genderuli Tanasworoba da qalebis gaZliereba gancxadebulia aTaswleulis

deklaraciaSi, rogorc ”qmediTi gza siRatakesTan, SimSilTan da avadmyofobasTan

sabrZolvelad da aseve, rogorc WeSmaritad mdgradi ganviTarebis

stimuli”.

saqarTveloSi genderTan dakavSirebuli problemebis mogvarebis aucilebloba

aSkarad gamokveTilia. bolo ori aTwleulis ganmavlobaSi mosaxleobis

matebam swrafad iklo mTeli rigi mizezebis erTobliobis gamo, iseTebis

rogoricaa migracia, ekonomikuri pirobebiT gapirobebuli Sobadobis Semcireba,

da unayofo ojaxebis raodenobis zrda (reproduqciuli jandacvis

kanonmdeblobisa da politikis mimoxilva da analizi, 2005). saqarTvelos

winaSe arsebuli demografiuli problemebi gadaudebel da radikalur

gadawyvetilebebis miRebas moiTxoven, rac SeuZlebelia genderTan dakav-

Sirebuli problemebis mogvarebis gareSe. araTanasworuflebianoba Tavs

iCens saarCevno da aRmasrulebel organoebSi qalebis dabal warmomadgenlobaSi,

araformalur da dabalanazRaurebadi dasaqmebis seqtorSi qalebis

siWarbeSi, mamakacebSi ki narkotikebze damokidebulebis, aseve danaSaulsa

da satransporto SemTxvevebSi daSavebulTa odenobis zrdaSi.

15


politikur sistemis avtoritarulidan demokratiulze gadasvla TavisTavad

ver uzrunvelyofs genderul Tanasworobas. xSir SemTxvevaSi gardamaval

periods gacilebiT meti uTanasworobis motana da rogorc mamakacebis, aseve

qalebis mdgomareobis gauareseba SeuZlia (Hawkesworth, 2002). 1991 wels

damoukideblobis gamocxadebis dRidan saqarTvelom Zalian mSfoTvare xana

gamoiara eTnikuri omebiT oseTsa da afxazeTSi, Zalauflebis Zalismieri

SecvliT, samoqalaqo omisa da revoluciis saxiT, rac Zalze uaryofiTad

aisaxa mosaxleobis mdgomareobaze. struqturul cvlilebebTan dakavSirebulma

politikam uaryofiTi Sedegebi moitana da kidev ufro gaaRataka

mosaxleoba. ekonomikuri siduxWiris fonze 250 000 iZulebiT gadaadgilebuli

piri darCa usaxlkarod da ukve aTwleulze met xans savalalo pirobebSi

cxovrobs. am fonze genderuli uTanasworoba rogorc mosaxleobis,

ise xelisuflebis mier aRiqmeba, rogorc saerTaSoriso saagentoebis mier

Tavsmoxveuli, saukeTeso SemTxvevaSi, rogorc raRac ucxo, saqarTvelosTvis

arasaWiro ram, xolo uares SemTxvevaSi ki rogorc instrumenti, romlis

meSveobiTac xdeba cxovrebis tradiciuli wesis moSla.

saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobiT uzrunvelyofilia genderuli Tanasworoba.

mamakacebi da qalebi saqarTveloSi Tanaswori uflebebiT sargebloben, rac

areklilia konstituciaSi da kanonebSi.

qveynis evropasTan integraciisa da universaluri Rirebulebebis gaziarebisaken

miiswrafis gamoxatvis Sesabamisad, saqarTvelom 1994 wlidan moyolebuli

xeli moawera umTavres saerTaSoriso konvenciebisa da xelSekrulebebs,

romlebic eyrdnoba adamianis uflebebis midgomas genderuli Tanasworobis

sakiTxebSi. saxelmwifo icavs am dokumetebSi Camoyalibebul mTel rig

moTxovnebs, magram is, Tu ra saxiT xdeba am moTxovnebis Sesruleba, is agdebuli

damokidebuleba, cinizmi da dapirispireba, rac Tan axlda ojaxuri

Zaladobis kanonis miRebas, rom araferi vTqvaT genderul problematikasTan

dakavSirebuli kanonebis sxvadasxva muxlebis asamoqmedeblad saWiro fondebis

gamoyofis Seferxebaze, aseve qalebis dabal warmomadgenlobaze

arCeviT da aRmasrulebel marTvis organoebSi, gvafiqrebinebs, rom saerTa-

Soriso dokumentebisadmi daqvemdebareba formaluri xasiaTisaa da igi gamoiyeneba

mxolod saCveneblad, da ara realuri warmatebis miRwevisTvis.

16


saxelmwifos mier gatarebuli RonisZiebebis kalendari

saxelwifos qmedebebi genderis problemebTan mimarTebaSi saqarTveloSi 1994

wels daiwyo, roca qveyana SeuerTda ”konvencias qalTa winaaRmdeg diskriminaciis

yvela saxis aRmofxvris Sesaxeb”.

1994

22 seqtemberi. saqarTvelom xeli moawera ”konvencias qalTa winaaRmdeg

diskriminaciis yvela saxis aRmofxvris Sesaxeb”.

1995

15 seqtemberi. saqarTvelom monawileoba miiRo qalTa sakiTxebze gaeros

meoTxe msoflio konferenciaSi ”Tanasworobis, ganviTarebisa da mSvidobisaTvis”,

romelzec saqarTvelos arasamTavrobo organizaciebma waradgines

qveynis angariSi. am konferenciis Sedegad 189 saxelmwifos mTavrobebi,

maT Soris saqarTvelosic, SeTanxmdnen da daamtkices qalebis ganviTarebisa

da gaZlierebisaken mimarTuli xuTwliani samoqmedo gegma, romelic aseve

”pekinis samoqmedo platformis” saxeliT aris cnobili. igi miznad isaxevs

qalebisaTvis meti SesaZleblobebis micemas da pirobebis Seqmnas maT gansaxorcieleblad.

1997

daiwyo gaeros da saqarTvelos erToblivi proeqti ”qalebi da ganviTareba”

(1997-2000). proeqti miznad isaxavda genderuli Tanasworobis sakiTxebze

codnis gaRrmavebasa da TamanSromlobas mTavrobasTan genderuli Tanasworobis

politikis ZiriTadi prinicipebis gansasazRvrad.

27 noemberi. prezidentis brZanebuleba N 0 593, ”pekinis samoqmedo platforma

2000 wels”

momzadda erovnuli samoqmedo gegma pekinis samoqmedo platformis ganxorcielebis

mizniT.

17


1998

20 Tebervali. prezidentis N 0 48 brZanebulebis Sesabamisad dafuZnda ”saxelmwifo

komisia saxelmwifo politikis srulyofisaTvis qalebis xelSewyobis

mizniT”. komisia Cafiqrebuli iyo, rogorc mTavari sameTvalyureo organo

saxelmwifo genderuli politikis gansaxorcieleblad. komisias xelmZRvanelobda

rusudan beriZe, im dros adamianis uflebaTa sakiTxebze saqarTvelos

erovnuli uSiSroebis sabWos mdivnis moadgile. komisia Sedgeboda 24

wevrisagan (Tvrameti qali da eqvsi mamakaci), parlamentis, samTavrobo da

arasamTavrobo organizaciebis warmomadgenlebisagan.

24 aprili. konferenciam ”qalebi da sazogadoeba” miiRo da daamtkica

”erovnuli samoqmedo gegma qalTa pirobebis gasaumjobeseblad saqarTvelo-

Si 1998-2000 wlebSi”, romelic SeimuSava saxelmwifo komisiam. gegmaSi Semdegi

prioritetebi iyo gamoyofili:

• instituciuri meqanizmebis SemuSaveba;

• qalis rolisa da monawileobis gaZliereba gadawyvetilebis

miRebis procesSi;

• ekonomikuri politika;

• qalebi da siRaribe;

• qalebi da SeiaraRebuli konfliqtebi;

• qalebi da janmrTelobis gaumjobeseba;

• qalTa uflebebi.

18 ivnisi. samoqmedo gegma damtkicda prezidentis N 0 308 brZanebulebiT.

masSi aisaxa pekinis samoqmedo platformis 12 sakiTxidan Svidi. erovnul

gegmaSi Semdegi sakiTxebi Sedioda:

• instituciuri meqamizmebis Camoyalibeba;

• qalebis monawileobis gazrda gadawyvetilebis miRebaSi;

• ekonomikuri politika;

• qalebi da siRaribe;

• qalebi da SeiaraRebuli konfliqtebi;

• qalebi da janmrTeloba;

• qalTa uflebebi.

18


1999

28 agvisto. prezidentis brZanebuleba N 0 511-iT ”qalTa adamianis uflebebis

dacvis gaZlierebis RonisZiebebis Taobaze” saxelmwifo komisiam SeimuSava da

amocanebi dausaxa 13 samTavrobo uwyebas. es amocanebi miznad isaxavda qalis

uflebebis xelSewyobasa da qveyanaSi qalebisTvis pirobebis gaumjobesebas.

moismines pirveli moxseneba ”konvencia qalTa diskriminaciis yvela formis

likvidaciis Sesaxeb” (CEDAW).

moxseneba moamzada eqspertTa jgufma, saqarTvelos uSiSroebis erovnuli

sabWos adamianis uflebaTa dacvis mdivnis moadgilis miTiTebebis safuZvelze,

prezidentis 1997 wlis 27 noembris N 0 598 brZanebulebis Sesabamisad.

gansaxilvelad iqna gadacemuli arasamTavrobo organizaciebis mier momzadebuli

”Crdilovani moxseneba” CEDAW-is ganxorcielebis Sesaxeb.

28 agvisto. prezidentis dadgenileba N 0 64-is Tanaxmad damtkicda 2000-2002

wlebis samoqmedo gegma qalebis mimarT Zaladobis winaaRmdeg brZolis

Sesaxeb. saxelmwifo komisiam, CEDAW-is komitetis wevrebis SeniSvnebis

safuZvelze moamzada ”samoqmedo gegma”.

2000

25 Tebervali. prezidentis N 0 64 brZanebulebis Tanaxmad damtkicda qalebis

mimarT Zaladobis winaaRmdeg brZolis samwliani gegma (2000-2002).

28 agvisto. damtkicda prezidentis brZanebuleba, romelic iTvaliswinebda

qalebis mdgomareobis gaumjobesebis mizniT samoqmedo gegmis ganxorcielebis

vadis 2004 wlamde gagrZelebas.

8 seqtemberi. niu iorkSi Catarebul aTaswleulis samitze msoflios 189

qveyanam da maT Soris saqarTvelom, ikisra valdebuleba, rom 2015 wlisaTvis

saqarTvelo miaRwevda ”aTaswleulis ganviTarebis miznebs”. genderis

Tema Tansdevs da aisaxeba aTaswleulis ganviTarebis yvela miznebSi. specifiurad

genderis sakiTxebs pirdapir ori mizani - N 0 3 da N 0 5 .

19


aTaswleulis ganviTarebis rvave mizani morgebul iqna saqarTveloSi arsebul

viTarebasTan. yoveli miznisTvis SemuSavda Sesabamisi amocanebi da

ganisazRvra indikatorebi.

saqarTvelosTvis morgebuli aTaswleulis ganviTarebis mizani 3-isTvis:

”genderuli Tanasworobis ganviTareba da qalTa gaZliereba”, ganisazRvra

ori amocana:

amocana 8: genderuli Tanasworobis uzrunvelyofa dasaqmebis sferoSi

amocana 9: Tanaswori xelmisawvdomoba politikis sferoSi da menejmentis

yvela doneze

aTaswleulis ganviTarebis mizani 5: dedis janmrTelobis gaumjobeseba

amocana 11: 2000-2015 wlebSi dedaTa sikvdilianobis maCveneblis sami

meoTxediT Semcireba

2003

saqarTvelos ekonomikuri ganviTarebisa da siRaribis aRmofxvris strategiis

dokumenti miRebul iqna martSi. miuxedavad imisa, rom dokumenti Seicavs

genderTan dakavSirebul sakiTxebs, masSi isini ar aris detalurad ganxiluli.

agvistoSi, genderis problemebze momuSave arasamTavrobo organizaciebma

parlamentSi wamoayenes iniciativa politikur partiebSi qvotebis SemoRebis

Sesaxeb. es winadadeba deputatebis mier ugulvelyofili iqna, kenWisyris

proceduraSi 235-dan mxolod 67 - ma deputatma miiRo monawileoba.

2004

gaeros ganviTarebis programis mxardaWeriT gamoqveynda pirveli erovnuli

moxseneba ”aTaswleulis ganviTarebis miznebi saqarTveloSi”, romelSic moxseniebulia

genderuli sakiTxebi.

15 agvisto. daiwyo gaeros ganviTarebis programis da saqarTvelos parlamentis

erToblivi proeqti ”genderi da politika samxreT kavkasiaSi”.

20


30 agvisto. evropisa da evro-atlantikuri integraciis saqarTvelos saxelmwifo

ministris N 0 109 brZanebulebiT Seiqmna sagangebo jgufi, romelsac

unda SeemuSavebina rekomendaciebi genderuli Tanasworobis qmediTi instituciuri

meqanizmis Sesaqmnelad.

27 oqtomberi. parlamentis spikeris 105/3 brZanebulebiT da gaeros ganvi-

Tarebis programis proeqtis ”genderi da politika samxreT kavkasiaSi” mxardaWeriT,

Camoyalibda saqarTvelos parlamentis TavjdomaresTan genderuli

arsebuli genderuli Tanasworobis sakiTxebis sabWo. sabWos uZRveboda

spikeri da igi Cvidmeti wevrisagan Sedgeboda, aqedan Svidi parlamentis

wevri iyo (parlamentis Tavmjdomare, parlamentis wevrebi nacionaluri

moZraobidan da axali memerjveneebi), sami warmomadgeneli iyo samTavrobo

struqturidan (Sromis, janmrTelobisa da socialur saqmeTa saministro,

saqarTvelos evropuli integraciis saxelmwifo ministris kabineti,

erovnuli uSiSroebis sabWosa da saqarTvelos saxalxo damcvelis kabineti),

xolo eqvsi adamiani warmoadgenda arasamTavrobo seqtors. sabWos mandati

ganisazRvreba saxelmwifo genderul politikis formulirebiT da masze

meTvalyureobis gaweviT, kanonmdeblobis genderis TvalTaxedvidan ganxilviT

da kanonebis saerTaSoriso normebTan da standartebTan Sesabamisobis

uzrunvelyofiT.

2005

28 ivnisi. saqarTvelos mTavrobis N 0 109 dadgenilebis safuZvelze da arasamTavrobo

organizaciebis iniciativiT daarsda ”droebiTi samTavrobo komisia

genderuli Tanasworobis sakiTxebze”. sakonsultacio sabWos msgavsad

isic Sedgeboda parlamentis wevrebisagan, samTavrobo struqurebisa da

arasaxelmwifo seqtoris warmomadgenlebisagan, sul 15 warmomadgenlisagan,

saidanac 4 arasamTavrobo seqtors warmoadgenda. komisias daevala,

SeemuSavebina erovnuli koncefcia da erTi wlis ganmavlobaSi genderuli

Tanasworobis miRwevis gegma.

2006

TebervalSi, gaeros sxvadasxva saagentoebis mxardaWeriT (gaeros ganviTarebis

programa, gaeros ganviTarebis fondi qalebisaTvis, gaeros mosaxleobis

fondi), komisiam da sakonsultacio sabWom Seqmnes samuSao jgufi, romelic

am komisiisa da mrCevelTa sabWos ramdenime wevrisagan da agreTve, mTavrobis

wevrebisagan, arasamTavrobo qalTa organizaciis wevrebisa da adamianis

uflebaTa ombudsmenis kabinetis wevrisagan Sedgeboda. samuSao jgufma

moamzada saqarTvelos genderuli Tanasworobis strategiis gegma. gegma

21


Seicavs saxelmwifos koncefcias genderuli Tanasworobis Taobaze; samwlian

samoqmedo gegmas; da rekomendaciebs monitoringisa da koordinaciis ganxorcielebis

mizniT mudmivi genderuli Tanasworobis meqanizmis Sesaqmnelad.

24 ivlisi. parlamentma miiRo genderuli Tanasworobis saxelmwifo koncepcia.

28 aprili. parlamentma miiRo kanoni adamianebiT vaWrobasTan brZolis Taobaze

(trefikingi).

25 maisi. parlamentma miiRo kanoni ojaxuri Zaladobis aRmofxvris, mis msxverplTa

dacvisa da mxardaWeris Sesaxeb.

maisSi miRebuli iqna Sromis kodeqsi. unda aqve aRiniSnos rom kodeqsis

mTeli rigi muxlebi, iseTebi rogoricaa, dasaqmebulTa uflebebis SezRudva

da dekretuli Svebulebis vadis Semcireba, ewinaaRmdegeba saerTaSoriso

standartebs da wina kodeqsTan SedarebiT ukan gadadgmul nabijs warmoadgens.

imave periodSi mTavrobam daamtkica adamianTa trefikingTan brZolis samoqmedo

gegma.

seqtemberSi ministrTa kabinets waredgina genderuli Tanasworobis ganxorcielebis

samwliani erovnuli samoqmedo gegmis proeqti.

14 noemberi. ZalaSi Sevida evropasTan samezoblo politikis samoqmedo

gegma. masSi ar aris yuradReba gamaxvilebuli uSualod genderuli Tanasworobis

sakiTxebze.

gauqmda droebiTi samTavrobo komisia.

2007

maisSi genderuli Tanasworobis koordinaciis sakiTxebze pasuxismgebloba

mTavrobis aRmasrulebeli Stodan gadaeca saxelmwifo ministrs reformebis

koordinaciis sakiTxebSi.

22


30 ivlisi. damtkicda ojaxur ZaladobasTan brZolisa da misi prevenciis

2007-2008 wlebis samoqmedo gegma.

20 ivlisi. N 0 97/3 brZanebulebiT ganaxlda saqarTvelos parlamentis TajdomareTa

arsebuli genderuli Tanasworobis sakitxebis sakonsultacio

sabWos Semadgenloba.masSi Sevida eqvsi parlamentis wevri.

26 seqtemberi. momzadda da N 0 539 samTavrobo brZanbulebiT damtkicda

erovnuli samoqmedo gegmis (2007-2009) saboloo proeqti, romelic Semdeg

sakiTxebs moicavs:

• genderul Tanasworobis disciplinaTSorisi komisiis Seqmna;

• genderul Tanasworobis samarTlebrivi safuZvlis SemuSaveba;

• genderul sakiTxebze mosaxleobis cnobierebis amaRleba gen

deruli sakiTxebis popularizaciis da maTze informaciis

gavrcelebis meSveobiT;

• genderul sakiTxebTan dakavSirebuli stereotipebis genderul

Tanasworobze orientirebuli axali xedviT Secvla ganaTleb

is sistemis yvela doneze.

26 seqtemberi. N 0 211 brZanebulebis safuZvelze Camoyalibda genderuli

Tanasworobis politikis SemmuSavebeli uZyebaT Sorisi komisia. komisiis aT

wevrs, romlebic samTavrobo uwyebebidan iyvnen warmodgenilni xelmZRvanelobda

kaxa benduqiZe, im dros saxelmwifo ministri reformebis koordinaciis

sferoSi. komisiis miznebi Semdegnairad ganisazRvra:

• saxelmwifo genderuli politikis SemuSaveba;

• saxelmwifo genderuli Tanasworobis politikis monitoringi;

• saxelmwifo genderuli Tanasworobis samoqmedo gegmis

ganxorcielebis monitoringi;

• genderuli Tanasworobis sakiTxebis ganxilva;

• saministroebSi genderul sakiTxebze pasuxismgebeli pirebis

daniSvna;

komisia Seiqmna, magram misi Sekreba ar momxdara.

23


genderuli uTanasworoba

genderuli araTanasworuflebianoba vlindeba im damokidebulebaSi, romlebic

arsebobs zogadad Tanasworobis mimarT, mamakacebisa da qalebis mimarT,

qalebisa da mamakacebis sajaro saqmianobaSi monawileobaSi, im ZalauflebaSi,

romelsac isini floben, im resursebSi, romlebsac isini ganageben,

im TavisuflebaSi, romliTac sargebloben, iseve, rogorc adamianur kapitalSi

- janmrTelobasa da ganaTlebaSi.

qveyanaSi arsebuli genderuli Tanaswrobis mdgomareobis amaswinandeli Sefaseba,

”realoba - qalebis Tanaswori uflebebi da Tanabari SesaZleblobebi

saqarTveloSi” (sanikiZe da sxv., 2006), miuTiTebs, rom samarTlebriv

doneze arsebuli Tanasworobis miuxedavad, genderuli Tanasworobis misaRwevad

qveyanaSi kidev Zalian bevria gasakeTebeli.

miuxedavad amisa, saqarTeloSi genderuli uTanasworoba ar aris miCneuli

seriozul problemad. kacebTan erTad bevri warmatebuli qali miiCnevs,

rom qveyanaSi ar dgas Tanasworuflebianobis problema.

gamokiTxulTa umravlesoba (45.4%) miiCnevs, rom (gamokiTxva) saqarTveloSi

mamakacebi da qalebi Tanasworuflebianebi arian maSin, rodesac 42.1 %

fiqrobs, rom qalebi, xolo 5.5 % rom mamakacebi arian daCagruli, 6.9%-s

ki pasuxis gacema uWirs. arsebobs mniSvnelovani genderuli sxvaoba Tanasworobis

SefasebaSi. ufro met mamakacs (50.9 %) qalebTan SedarebiT (41.1 %)

swams, rom arsebobs Tanasworoba (Chi square 27.6; df 3, p


genderuli Tanasworobis mniSvneloba, profesiuli saswavleblis direqtorma,

irakli faCuliam gaaanaliza:

”imas, rasac Cven Tanasworobas vuwodebT, sxvadasxva mniSvneloba aqvs: Tu

imas vigulisxmebT, rom mamakacma da qalma erTnairi fizikuri datvirTviT

unda imuSaon, maSin es arasworia. Tavad ojaxis konteqstSi mamakaci da qali

erTmaneTs avsebs da Tanasworobis sakiTxi Zalian bundovani xdeba. mamakacsa

da qals TavTavianTi movaleobebi akisriaT, romelic TiToeulma unda

Searulos. Tu uTanasworobaSi imas vigulisxmebT, rom qalebi daCagrulebi

arian, Cemi azriT, es ase araa.”

Tamar abramiSvili, eqsperti genderul sakiTxebSi ase afasebs genderuli

Tanasworobis mdgomareobas:

”genderuli Tanasworoba demokratiis mTavari maxasiaTebelia, magram Cven

Zalian nela mivdivarT misken. uTanasworoba sazogadoebis yvela sferoSi

igrZnoba.”

qvemo qarTlSi mcxovreb azerbaijanul umciresobaSi (fj4) genderul TanasworobasTan

dakavSirebiT gansxvavebuli TvalTa xedva TvalsaCino gaxda

fokus jgufebSi gamarTuli diskusiebisas, sadac yvela monawile aRiarebda

genderuli Tanasworobis ar arsebobas, magram mas gansxvavebul Sefasebebas

aZlevda. axalgazrda mamakacebis umetesoba amas normalurad miiCnevda. es

Sexeduleba ase gamoxata erTma axalgazrda mamakacma:

”kavkasiuri mentalitetidan gamomdinare qali mudam ukana planzea. es

mosazreba Rrmadaa ojaxSi fesvgamdgari.”

Tumca, imave jgufSi zogierTma qalma es mosazreba gaaprotesa da gamoTqva

survili qonoda meti damoukidebloba, qonoda samsaxuri, rom SesZleboda

sakuTari uflebebis dacva. erTma monawile axalgazrda qalma isic

Tqva, rom mzad iyo sakuTar ojaxze uari eTqva samsaxureobrivi karieris

sanacvlod:

”me minda Tanasworoba ojaxSi da vTvli, rom marto kaci ar unda sargeblobdes

yvela uflebiT. me bednieri verasodes viqnebi amgvar pirobebSi.

mirCevnia, arCevani TviTon gavakeTo da sakuTari uflebebi davicva.”

25


axalcixis universitetis studentebi (fj5) aseve ar iyvnen erTsulovani

genderuli Tanasworobis mdgomareobis SefasebaSi. zogi miuTiTebda Tanasworobis

arsebobaze, bevri ki aRniSnavda, rom Tanasworoba iyo kanoniT

garantirebuli, magram ar iyo realizirebuli. Tumca, yvela erTsulovani

iyo imis SefasebaSi, rom uTanasworoba qalaqTan SedarebiT soflad ufro

metad iyo gavrcelebuli. qalebis mimarT mikerZoebuli damokidebuleba

cxadad gamoCnda erTi axalgazrda kacis SeniSvnaSi:

”mamakaci qalTan SedarebiT yvela sferoSi erTi TaviT win dgas.”

qal studentebma xazi gausves genderuli gansxvavebis mniSvnelobas:

”qalebi mamakacebis Tanabrad unda iyvnen Cabmulni sazogadoebriv cxovrebaSi,

radgan kacebi da qalebi gansxvavebulad azrovneben.”

Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis studentebi (fj7) maTi axalcixeli

Tanatolebis msgavsad, darwmunebulni iyvnen, rom saqarTveloSi ar arsebobs

Tanasworoba da rom qalebTan SedarebiT mamakacebi gacilebiT meti TavisuflebiTa

da uflebebiT sargebloben. isini aseve xazgasmiT aRniSnavdnen, rom

mamakacebi, maTi liderobisken miswrafebis gamo mudam cdiloben qalebze

upiratesobis mopovebas. rogorc erTma mamakacma monawilem aRniSna:

”saqarTveloSi mamakacebi yovelTvis dominireben, maT mudam qalebze ufro

maRali Tanamdebobebi ukaviaT.”

”uZvelesi droidan moyolebuli mamakaci iyo ufrosi. saomrad mamakaci midioda

da ara qali, miwas mamakaci xnavda da amuSavebda, im dros, roca qali

Sin rCeboda da bavSvebs uvlida.”

”qalebi da mamakacebi ar sargebloben erTnairi SesaZleblobebiT, samsaxureobriv

Tu sxva romelime sferoSi. Tanasworoba iluziaa da Sors aris realobisgan.

Cven zustad unda ganvsazRvroT ras niSnavs Tanasworoba, radgan

arsebobs SesaZlebloba orive sqesi Tanaswori iyos, magram saamiso samoqmedo

asparezi da pirobebi ar arsebobs.” parlamentis wevri, nika rurua.

qalebi da mamakacebi kanonis mixedviT Tanaswori arian, magram bevrma imaTgan

vinc Cven gamovkiTxeT aRniSna gansxvaveba kanoniT gansazRvrul da faqtobriv

Tanasworobas Soris.

26


”kanoniT mamakaci da qali Tanaswori uflebebiT sargebloben, da kanonebi

icaven qals diskriminaciisagan. metic, tradiciulad qals mudam pativiscemiT

epyrobodnen, magram realurad, iseve rogorc yvelgan msoflioSi,

cxovreba mamrobiTi sqesisaa da mamakaczea orientirebuli, ase rom qali

aranairad ar aris mamakacis Tanaswori.” - sakonsultacio sabWos wevri, baia

romelaSvili.

da mainc, gamokiTxulTagan (interviu) xuTma gamoTqva rwmena, rom Tanasworoba

realurad arsebobs:

”roca me Cems pirad cxovrebas da Cems irgvliv adamianebs vakvirdebi, Tanasworobas

vxedav yvela sferoSi. Cemi azriT, saqarTveloSi ar arsebobs

genderis problema da mamakacebi da qalebi Tanasworni arian” - sajaro

moxele eka zRulaZe.

genderuli stereotipebi

genderuli identuroba qalisTvis ufro mniSvnelovania, vidre kacisTvis.

fiqroben, rom qalebs meti siTbo, eqspresiuloba da sxvebze zrunva axasiaTebT,

maSin, roca mamakacebi ufro meti SemoqmedebiTobiT, ZalauflebiTa

da TavdajerebulobiT (Deaux & Major, 2000) gamoirCevian. qalebs zogadad

miiCneven rogorc ufro sxvebze damokidebulebs, mamakacebs ki ufro

damoukideblebs. amgvari damokidebuleba respondentebma (gamokiTxva) samsaxureobriv

winsvlaSi warumateblobis mizezebis Sefasebisas gamoamJRavnes.

maSin, roca gamokiTxulTa umetesoba mamakacebis warumateblobis mizezs

Zalisxmevis ukmarisobas miawerda (34.9% SedarebiT 27%-Tan qalebis SemTxvevaSi),

qalebis warumateblobis mizezs ki respondentebi ufrosebis maTdami

damokidebulebiT xsnidnen da metic, isini varaudobdnen, rom xelmZRvaneli

pirebi maT saTanadod ar afasebdnen (warumateblobis mizezad amas qalebis

SemTxvevaSi 31.3 % da kacebis SemTxvevaSi 17 % miiCnevda). am Sexedulebas

Tanabrad iziareben mamakacebi da qalebi. kidev erT stereotips - mamakacebis

siZlierisa da qalebis sisustis Taobaze xazi gausva axalgazrda qalma

axalcixis fokus jgufSi:

”arsebobs stereotipi, rom mamakaci Zlieria da qali - susti da emociuri.

rac sulac ar niSnavs imas, rom es marTlac asea.”

27


genderuli upiratesobebi

mamakacis qalze upiratesobis cneba sazogadod Warbobs mamakacebSi

(gamokiTxva). mtkicebulebas, rom mamakaci, rogorc wesi, yvelafers qalze

ukeT akeTebs ar eTanxmeba qalebis 69 procenti da mamakacTa mxolod

44.7 procenti (genderuli gansxvavebebi mniSvnelovania, Chi square 65.4; df 2,

p


genderuli uTanasworoba mJRavnedeba im normebSi, romlebic aregulireben

gadawyvetilebis miRebisa da resursebis ganawilebis Zalauflebas.

pasuxi kiTxvaze - vin wyvets Tu ramdeni Svili unda iyolios ojaxma

(gamokiTxva), Tanasworobazea orientirebuli, da umravlesoba (88.5 %), miiCnevs,

rom es gadawyvetileba meuRleebma erToblivad unda miiRon.

ojaxSi mamis Zalauflebis zegavlenis mimarT damokidebuleba garkveulwilad

iyofa. respondentTa did nawils (48. 2 %) miaCnia, rom mamebs ar

unda qondeT dedebze meti Zalaufleba Svilebze, da imisda miuxedavad,

rom mamakacebic da qalebic, iziareben am Tvalsazriss, mainc, gamokiTxulTa

mniSvnelovani nawili (46.4%) met Zalauflebas mamakacs aniWebs.

Zalafleba resursebis marTvaze, rogorc sajaro, ise pirad cxovrebaSi,

metwilad kacis upiratesobad aris miCneuli (interviu).

”uTanasworoba, pirvelyovlisa, sakuTrebaze uflebasa da resursebis kontrolSi

aisaxeba, resursebs ki umTavresad mamakacebi akontroleben” - interviu

eqspertTan, Carita jaSTan.

”uTanasworoba ZalzeT gavrcelebulia sazogadoebaSi. qalebis didi raodenoba

Sromobs iseT sferoebSi, sadac ar aris bevri fuli” - interviu

eqspertTan, Tamar abramiSvilTan.

qalebi da mamakacebi ar arian erTsulovanni, im sakiTxSi unda SeeZlos Tu

ara qals ojaxTan SeTanxmebis gareSe xarjos sakuTari Semosavali (gamokiTxva).

gacilebiT meti qali (70.6 %) mamakacTan SedarebiT (52.2 %) miiCnevs,

rom qali unda sargeblobdes am SesaZleblobiT (Chi square 37.6; df23,

p


kidev erTma monawile qalma Tavisufleba TviTSefasebas daukavSira:

”qalebi sakuTar TavSi ar arian darwmunebulni da amitom uWirT gadawyvetilebebis

miReba da swored es aris imis mizezi, rom mamakacebs meti

Tavisufleba aqvT.”

ramdenime monawilem, umetesad gogonebma, aRniSnes, rom tradiciebi zRudaven

qalis Tavisuflebas da mxolod Sesabamis aRzrdas SeuZlia Secvalos

viTareba da mentaliteti.

uTanasworoba gansakuTrebiT TvalSisacemia ojaxSi. fokus-jgufis qali

monawileebi axalcixeSi (fj5) Ciodnen, rom gogonebs saRamos gareT gasvla

ekrZalebaT, rom ganaTlebis miRebis SesaZlebloba ufro metad biWebs

eZlevaT da rom ojaxSi yvelaferi biWebs ekuTvniT, radgan miiCneven, rom

gogonebi gaTxovdebian da maT amitom araferi WirdebaT.

uTanasworobis fesvebi da misi mizezebi

genderuli uTanasworobis gamarTleba aris msoflio religiaTa swavlebebisa

da maTi praqtikis nawili (Deckard, 1975). TiTqmis yvela wamyvan religiaSi,

qorwilis dros qali sityvierad, an simbolurad gamoxatavs qmrisadmi

morCilebis mzaobas.

samRvdeloebas ZiriTadad mamakacebi Seadgenen, imisda miuxedavad, rom qalebi

mudmivad arian CarTulni religiur aqtivobebSi.

mamakacurobis mniSvneloba yoveldRiur cxovrebaSic mJRavndeba, sadac

gamoCenil qalebs mamakacis Tvisebebs miaweren sajarod daxasiaTebisas, anda

Seqebisas amboben, mamakaciviT irjebao.

”Tavad Tamar mefis SemTxvevaSic, misi saxelis patriarqaluroba TvalSisacemia.

es dResac asea da Taobebi dasWirdeba am Sexedulebis Secvlas.” -

interviu arasamTavrobo organizaciis xelmZRvanelTan, Tamar JvaniasTan.

stereotipebad kristalizebuli tradiciebi didad ganapirobebs qalis

daqvemdebarebul mdgomareobas.

”stereotipis Sesabamisad, qali pasiuria, dausaqmebelia da misi upiratesi

samflobelo ojaxia, maSin, rodesac mamakaci profesiuli saqmianobiTaa

dakavabuli.” - interviu parlamentis wevrTan, nika ruruasTan.

qalis daqvemdebarebuli mdgomareobis gamyareba gamudmebiT xdeba kulturisa

da aRzrdis meSveobiT.

30


”Cven patara biWsac ki veubnebiT, ar itiro, biWs tirili ar SeSvenis, Sen

Zlieri unda iyo, da ase Semdeg...” _ interviu parlamentis wevrTan, guguli

maRraZesTan.

”ganviTarebis zogadi done da ekonomikuri SeWirveba qveyanaSi aRiqmeba,

rogorc uTanasworobis gamamarTlebeli mizezi. qalebs ara aqvT pirobebi,

rom TavianTi SesaZleblobebi srulad ganaxorcielon” - interviu eqspert-

Tan, Carita jaSTan.

”adamianebi dRes genderul uTanasworobaze ar fiqroben, radgan maT amis

dro ara aqvT, isini xvalindeli sarCos SovniT arian dakavebulni” - interviu

eqspertTan, marina TabukaSvilTan.

mamakacTan SedarebiT garemo qals gacilebiT naklebad uwyobs xels SesaZleblobebis

ganviTarebaSi. Sesabamisad, qals gacilebiT meti Zalisxmeva

Wirdeba warmetebis miRwevisaTvis.

”sazogadod qalebs gacilebiT meti Zalisxmevis gaReba uwevT sakuTari uflebebis

realizebisaTvis ” - interviu parlamentis wevrTan, guguli maRraZesTan.

uTanasworobis mizezebs ufro xSirad qalebs ukavSireben da ara sazogadeobas.

bevri qalebs pasiurobas miawers da swored amas miiCnevs uTanasworobis mizezad.

amavdroulad aqtiur qalebs sakmaod uaryofiTad afaseben.

”saqarTveloSi mamakacisa da qalis samuSao dayofilia sqesis mixedviT. aqtiuri

qalebis mimarT arsebobs skeptikuri damokidebuleba”. - interviu

eqspertTan, xaTuna sanikiZesTan.

qalebs xSirad abraleben, rom isini ufrTxian damoukideblobas:

”qals ar miaCnia marTebulad qmars gverdi auaros, an Tundac, Zmas Seepasuxos,

radgan is ufrTxis damoukideblobas.” - interviu arasamTavrobo

organizaciis xelmZRvanelTan, Tamar JvaniasTan.

uTanasworobis mimarT damokidebuleba da uTanasworobis xarisxi asakTan

erTad icvleba. rogorc wesi, axalgazrdebi ufro egalitarul, Tanasworbis

momxre midgomas amJRavneben.

31


”axalgazrda Taobas Tanasworobis misaRwevad meti saSualebebi aqvs. axalgazrda

qalebi dRes ufro aqtiurebi arian, vidre maT asakSi iyvnen Cveni

dedebi”. - intervou parlamentis wevrTan, nika ruruasTan.

”uTanasworobis xarisxi gansxvavebulia regionebis mixedviT, iseve, rogorc

soflisa da qalaqis mosaxleobaSi. uTanasworoba bevrad ufro metad igrZnoba

soflebSi, sadac eTnikuri umciresobebi cxovroben.” - interviu arasamTavrobo

organizaciis xelmZRvanelTan, Tamar JvaniasTan.

ganaTlebis statusi da religia xSirad gansazRvravs Tanasworobis mimarT

damokidebulebas. mTavar faqtorad aqac sqesi gvevlineba, radgan qalebi

uTanasworobas mamkacebze ufro metad aRiqvamen.

”qalebi xedaven uTanasworobas, mamakacebi ki vera”. - interviu sajaro moxelesTan,

dalila xoravasTan.

cvlilebebi TanasworobaSi da maTi mizezebi

siRrmiseuli intervius respondetebi aRniSnaven dadebiT cvlilebebs genderul

TanasworobasTan mimarTebaSi:

”qalebis mosazrebebs sul ufro metad iReben mxedvelobaSi. es xdeba upiratesad

im faqtis gamo, rom ekonomikuri krizisis ganmavlobaSi qalebma

SeZles ojaxebis gadarCena, mamakacebi am dros verafers gaxdnen. dResac ki,

bevr ojaxSi qalebi muSaoben da ara mamakacebi”. - interviu mcire biznesis

mflobelTan, marina aRuSaSvilTan.

”Tanasworobis mimarT damokidebulebis cvlileba SeiniSneba mxolod bolo

xanebSi, mas Semdeg roca cota ar iyos samarcxvino gaxda stereotipuli

azrovnebis gamomJRavneba. amas garda, meti qali gamoCnda sazogadoebriv asparezze.

Tumca, kvlav problemad rCeba is, rom qali amasobaSi bevr tradiciulad

mamakacur rols kisrulobs, rogoricaa, ojaxis rCena, karieraze

zrunva, magram tradiciulad qalis rolebi, rogoricaa ojaxze da avadmyofebze

da agreTve xandazmulebze zrunva mamakacisaTvis araa sakmarisad

prestiJuli da isev qalebs uwevT maTi Sesruleba”. - interviu eqspertTan,

lela xomerikTan.

”qalebis brZola ufro aqtiuri cxovrebisaTvis, sazogadoebriv cxovrebaSi

CarTvisa da liderobisaken qveynis evropuli Rirebulebebisaken swrafviTaa

ganpirobebuli”. - interviu sajaro moxelesTan, mamuka axvledianTan.

32


ZiriTadi sakiTxebi

genderuli uTanasworoba, gansakuTrebiT sazogadoebrivi da ojaxuri cxovrebis

sferoSi, aRiarebulia, rogorc arsebuli realoba, magram ara

rogorc problema. uTanasworoba aRqmulia ufro rogorc kulturuli

memkvidreobis nawili. am mosazrebas iziarebs, rogorc mosaxleoba, aseve xelisufleba.

imis dasturad, rom qveyana universaluri faseulobebisaken da evropaSi

integraciisaken iswrafvis, saqarTvelos xeli aqvs mowerili im yvela mniSvnelovan

saerTaSoriso dokumentze, romelic miznad isaxavs genderuli

Tanaworobis miRwevas. samarTlebrivi CarCoebi genderulad neitraluria,

isini ar uSveben genderis safuZvelze raime saxis diskriminacias, magram

saerTaSoriso dokumentebisa Tu qveynis kanonebisadmi daqvemdebareba

formaluri xasiaTisaa, radgan diskriminaciasTan brZolis ZiriTadi saqmianobebi

sabiujeto xarjebiT araa gamyarebuli. miuxedavad imisa, rom saer-

TaSoriso organizaciebis (SvedeTis saerTaSoriso ganviTarebis saagento

da gaeros ganviTarebis programa) daxmarebiT parlamentis sakonsultacio

sabWo moqmedebs Tavis mandatis farglebSi, erovnuli samoqmedo gegmis ganxorcieleba

ar dawyebula. Camoyalibebulia, magram moqmedeba ar dauwyia

aRmasrulebel organos. politikis ganmsazRvreli ZiriTadi dokumentebi,

rogoricaa (siRaribis daZlevis startegiuli moxseneba da evropis samezoblo

politika) genderul problematikaze ar arian fokusirebuli.

ar arsebobs mudmivmoqmedi saxelmwifo uwyeba, romelsac eqneboda genderuli

Tanaswrobis mxardaWerisa da masze meTvalyureobis gawevis mandati.

winsvla TanasworobasTan damokidebulebis mimarT aRniSna mravalma, konsultaciaSi

monawile pirma. igi cxadad aris gamokveTili axalgazrdebsa

da qalaqis mosaxleobaSi.

genderTan dakavSirebuli viTareba calke sakiTxad ar unda iqnes ganxiluli,

radgan igi ufro farTo problemis, RirebulebaTa sakiTxis nawilia.

arsebuli mdgomareobis saTave unda veZioT qveyanaSi adamianis uflebaTa

ugulvebelyofaSi, rac gansxvavebul sferoebSi vlindeba da asaxulia saer-

TaSoriso da adgilobriv orgranizaciaTa mTel rig moxsenebebSi (mag. saxalxo

damcveli moxseneba 2007). manam, sanam ara ekonomikuri efeqtianoba,

aramed adamianis uflebebi da misi keTildReoba ar iqceva arc qveynis ganviTerbis

politikis umTavres principad, ar unda velodeT mkveTr cvlilebebs

genderuli Tanasworobis sakiTxSi da arc aTaswleulis ganviTarebis

miznebis miRwevas.

33


genderi sazogadoebriv sarbielze

Tavi 3

sazogadoebriv cxovrebaSi monawileoba

niu-iorkSi 2000 wlis 8 seqtembers gancxadebuli aTaswleulis ganviTarebis

rva miznidan erT-erTi, romelic 2015 wlisTvis unda iqnas ganxorcielebuli

da romelsac saqarTvelom xeli moawera, pirdapir genderul Tanasworobas

exeba. miznis amocana 9 moiTxovs qalebisa da mamakacebisTvis Tanabari xelmisawvdomobis

gapirobebas politikis sakiTxebTan dakavSirebul da marTvis

yvela doneze ganxorcielebul aqtiobebSi.

monawileoba sajaro cxovrebaSi da gansakuTrebiT, politikaSi qveyanaSi Tanasoworobisa

da demokratiis erT-erTi indikatoria.

saqarTvelos mosaxleoba Zlier dainteresebulia politikiT da zogadad,

sazogadoebrivi cxovrebiT. Tumca problema, romelsac mosaxleobis didi

nawili xSirad quCis saprotesto aqciebSi gamoyavs, sakuTari uZlurebis

grZnobiT aris gapirobebuli, imasTan dakavSirebiT, rom ar aqvs SesaZlebloba

zegavlena moaxdinos qveynisaTvis mniSvenlovani gadawyvetilebebis

miRebaze.

gamokiTxvis Sedegebis mixedviT mamakacebisa da qalebis umravlesoba (82.4%)

dainteresebulia politikiT da 95.3 procenti regularulad uyurebs axal

ambebs televiziiT. yvelaze popularuli arxi iyo ”imedi”, mas mosdevda

arxi ”rusTavi 2”.

34


cxrili 3

satelevizio axali ambebis ranJireba popularobis mixedviT

NNo satelevizio axali ambebi

procenti

No 1034

1 qronika (imedi) 89.1

2 kurieri (rusTavi 2) 66.2

3

moambe (sazogadoebrivi

televizia)

axali ambebis garda, telearxi ”imedis” politikuri gadacemebic aseve yvelaze

didi popularobiT sargeblobdnen.

cxrili 4

teleprogramebis ranJireba popularobis mixedviT

35

24.5

4 rusuli tele arxebi 19.4

5 mzera (mze) 18.9

6 adgilobrivi telearxebi 12.7

7 axali ambebi (aWaris televizia) 10.7

8 azerbaijanis tele arxebi 2.4

9 somxuri telearxebi 2.2

10 Turquli telearxebi 0.2

No satelevizio programa

procenti

NNo 1087

1 droeba (imedi) 84.4

2 reaqcia (imedi) 72.1

3 Ria eTeri (imedi) 65.5

4 post skriptumi (rusTavi 2) 51.1

5 Toq-Sou (rusTavi 2) 25.4

6 tabu (mze) 15.4

7

dRis komentari (sazogadoebrivi

televizia)

8.2

8 Ramis saubrebi (sazogadoebrivi televizia) 6.4


gazeTebis mkiTxvelTa raodenoba gacilebiT mcire iyo maTTan SedarebiT,

vinc axal ambebs televiziiT adevnebda Tvals; gazeTs qalebTan SedarebiT

odnav meti mamakaci kiTxulobda, mamakacebi upiratesobas aniWebdnen

gazeTebs rezonansi, 24 saaTi, da sxva adgilobriv gazeTebs, qalebi ki ufro

alias da kviris palitras kiTxulobdnen.

cxrili 5

gazeTebis popularoba

No gazeTi

procenti

No1087

sazogadoebrivi interesis Semdeg qveynis mosaxleobis yvelaze didi survili

monawileobasTan aris dakavSirebuli, magram rogorc adrec aRvniSneT,

es moTxovnileba ver kmayofildeba, moqalaqeebi Tavs uZlurad grZnoben

zegavlena moaxdinon mniSvnelovan gadawyvetilebebze, rac ganapirobebs

mosaxleobis monawileobas quCis aqciebSi. gamokiTxvisas gacemuli pasuxebis

mixedviT mosaxleobis 57. 8 procenti, rogorc mamakacebi, ise qalebi, iziareben

mosazrebas, rom saqarTvelos winaSe mdgari sakiTxebis mogvareba

36

mamakacebis

procentuli

maCvenebeli

No479

qalebis

procentuli

maCvenebeli

No608

1

kviris

palitra

22.1 21.0 23.0

2

asavaldasavali

8.6 8.8 8.4

3

adgilobrivi

gazeTi

6.9 7.5 6.5

4 alia 6.5 5.4 7.3

5 rezonansi 6.2 8.2 4.6

6 24 saaTi 5.5 6.1 5.1

7 qronika 4.2 4.4 4.1

8 sityva da saqme 2.3 2.3 2.3

9 axali Taoba 1.7 1.7 1.6

10 axali versia 1.7 1.7 1.8

11 jorjian Taimsi 1.1 0.8 1.3


mxolod xalxis monawileobiT aris SesaZlebeli, Tumca maTgan mxolod mesameds

(29.2%) jera, rom rigiT moqalaqes SeuZlia zegavlena iqonios mTavrobis

mier miRebul gadawyvetilebebze.

miuxedavad imisa, rom qalebs da kacebs monawileobis erTnairi moTxovnileba

gaaCniaT, maT gansxvavebuli xedva aqvT mis ganxorcielebaze. im aqtivobebis

SerCevisas, romelTa ganxorcielebac SesaZleblad miaCniaT sakuTari

uflebebis darRvevis SemTxvevaSi, qalebi naklebad aqtiur gzebs arCeven,

iseTebs rogoricaa mitingebze daswreba (qalebis 20.6% da kacebis 17.7%),

peticiaze xelis mowera (qalebis 36.3% da kacebis 32.8%), maSin rodesac

mamakacebi upiratesobas quCis aqciebSi (kacebis 18.2 % da qalebis 14.8 %)

da mitingebSi (kacebis 21.5% da qalebis 19.9%) monawileobas aniWeben.

peticiaze xelmowera

Sexedulebebis gamoTqma

mitingebze daswreba

Sexvedrebze daswreba

monawileoba quCis aqciebSi

media saSualebebSi gamoCena

monawileoba sajaro diskusiaSi

monawileoba arasamTavroba org.

resursebis gacema

monawileoba profkavSiris

saqmianobaSi

nax. 2

uflebaTa darRvevis SemTxvevaSi ganxorcielebuli aqtiobebi

mosaxleobis realuri monawileoba gacilebiT ufro dabalia, vidre moqmedebis

mzadyofna. rogorc gamoirkva, 2007 wlis ianvridan oqtombramde

gamokiTxulTagan mxolod 7.8 procenti iRebda monawileobas koleqtiur

aqciebSi. mamakacebis monawileoba aRemateboda qalebisas. aRniSnul periodSi

erTxel mainc mamakacebis 10.7-ma da qalebis 5.5 procentma miiRo monawileoba

koleqtiur aqciaSi. (Chi square 9.5;df 2; p


qalebi politikaSi

msoflios masStabiT qalebi aqtiurad iyvnen CarTulni demokratiis dasamyareblad,

avtoritaruli reJimebis winaaRmdeg gamarTul yvelaze saxifaTo

aqciebSi. (Jaquette & Wolchik, 1998). didi iyo qalebis monawileoba sabWoTa

kavSirisagan saqarTvelos damoukideblobis moTxovniT organizebuli quCis

aqciebis drosac (sabedaSvili, 2007), ”vardebis revoluciis” wina periodis

quCis aqciebSi da 2007 wlis oqtomber-noembris aqciebSi.

saqarTveloSi qalebis aqtivoba sazogadoebriv cxovrebaSi istoriuli realobaa.

amasTan mimarTebaSi yvelaze xSirad axseneben Tamar mefes, qal

monarqs, romlis saxelTanacaa dakavSirebuli qveynis dideba. qalebi iyvnen

TurqeTis winaaRmdeg ajanyebis moTaveni samxreT saqarTveloSi. muslimani

qalebi icavdnen qalaq axalcixes ruseTis imperiis da saqarTvelos gaer-

Tianebul jarisgan.

dRes mraval qals naxavT manifestaciaSi monawileTa Soris, an winasaar-

Cevno saqmianobiT dakavebuls. problema qalebis mcire monawileobaSi ki

araa, aramed igi qalebis interesebsa da saqmianobas maT xelT arsebuli

Zalauflebis SeusabamobaSi, gadawyvetilebis mimReb organoSi, maT dabal

warmomadgenlobaSia.

saqarTvelos kanonmdebloba qal da mamakac amomrCevels Tanabar uflebebs

aniWebs. xmis micemisas isini Tanabrad aqtiurni arian, rogorc soflad, ise

qalaqSi (aTaswleulis ganviTarebis miznebi saqarTveloSi, 2004), Tumca, Tanasworoba

Zalze Sorsaa sasurvelisgan maSin, rodesac saqme exeba imas, Tu

vin aris arCeuli mmarTvelobis nebismier doneze. gadaWriT SeiZleba iTqvas,

rom qalebis monawileoba politikaSi da gadawyvetilebis miRebis procesSi

Zalze SezRudulia da Zlier CamorCeba gaeros mier dasaxul mizans, gansaz-

Rvruls 30 procentiT.

genders politikaSi ori erTmaneTTan dakavSirebuli mxare aqvs. erTi - qalis

warmomadgenlobas Seexeba, xolo meore - qalTa problemebze zrunvas.

warmomadgenloba zrdis qalis problemebis ganxilvis da aseve genderuli

perspeqtivis gaTvaliswinebis albaTobas, Tumca, warmomadgenloba TavisTavad

ver uzrunvelyofs sasurvel Sedegs.

38


”qalTa ubralod saTanado raodenobiT warmomadgenloba politikasa Tu

parlamentSi sakmarisi araa, maSinac ki rodesac es warmomadgenlebi qalTa

moZraobis wevrebi arian. moZraobas unda yavdes liderebi, romlebic mondomebulni

iqnebian qalis xma miawvdinon sazogadoebas. maT ar unda miaCndeT

sircxvilad sazogadoebaSi, an parlamentSi qalebis saWiroebebze Riad

saubari. dRes es sakiTxebi marginalizirebulia da samarcxvinod iTvleba.” _

interviu eqspertTan, marina TabukaSvilTan.

qalebis monawileobis mniSvneloba da misi dadebiTi zegavlena erTxmad

iqna aRiarebuli yvela eqspertisa da politikuri lideris interviuSi da

im jgufur ganxilvebSi, romelic proeqtis farglebSi ganxorcielda. intervius

respondentebma da ganxilvebis monawileebma gamoyves ramodenime mizezi,

romelic ganapirobebs politikaSi qalTa monawileobis mniSvnelobas:

demokratiis winapirobebi:

Tanasworoba demokratiis safuZvelia.

sazogadoeba Sedgeba mamakacebisa da qalebisagan, ase rom oriveni unda

iyvnen warmodgenilni gadawyvetilebis miRebis procesSi”. interviu parlamentis

wevrTan, manana naWyebiasTan; nacionaluri moZraobis wevrTan, irakli

qavTaraZesTan.

”yvelfers ori sawyisi aqvs - mamakacuri da qaluri, yvela problema orive

sqess exeba, amitom orives mosazreba unda iqnes gaTvaliswinebuli.” fj2-is

monawile.

nacionaluri moZraobis wevris, irakli qavTaraZis azriT:

”srulyofili demokratia SesaZleblobas aZlevs sazogadoebis yvela wevrs

gamoxatos Tavisi azri da monawileoba miiRos gadawyvetilebis miRebaSi. es

niSnavs, rom Tu sazogadoebis naxevari qalebisgan Sedgeba da parlamentSi ki

mxolod maTi aTi procentia warmodgenili, SeiZleba davaskvnaT, rom swor

gzas ar vadgavarT”.

39


qalebis gadawyvetilebis miRebis stili

”bevrs miaCnia, rom qalebi ufro pragmatuli, konstruqtiuli da naklebad

araprognozirebadebi arian”. interviu parlamentis wevrebTan, kaxa kukavas-

Tan; qeTi maxaraSvilTan. eqspertTan, marina musxeliSvilTan.

Tumca, zogs emociuroba upiratesobad miaCnia, rac qalis gadawyvetilebis

miRebaSi ufro did rols TamaSobs.” interviu sajaro moxelesTan, dalila

xoravasTan.

sakiTxebi, romelsac qalebi yuradRebas aqceven

yuradRebis gamaxvileba im sakiTxebze, romlebic tradiciulad qalis problemadaa

aRqmuli.

”qalebis monawileoba garantia iqneba imisa, rom qalisaTvis mniSvnelovan

sakiTxebs, rogoricaa skolamdeli da saskolo ganaTleba, yuradReba mieqceva”.

interviu eqspertTan Carita jaSTan.

TanamSromlobiTi damokidebuleba

qalebSi ufro maRalia TanamSromlobiTi urTierTobis xarisxi.

”qalebi qmnian ufro TanamSromlobiT atmosferos, rasac Sedegad ufro

gawonasworebuli da mSvidobiani gadawyvetilebebi moaqvs”. mamakaci fj.7-is

monawile.

”qalebi erTmaneTs usmenen da es maT ubiZgebs erTad ifiqron problemebze”.

qali fj 4 -is monawile.

aseve gaisma Tumca ki SefarviT sapirispiro, uaryofiTi damokidebuleba

qalebis aqtiuri monawileobis mimarT, rogorc erTma axlagazrda kacma

aRniSna jgufuri ganxilvisas axalqalaqSi:

”qals SeuZlia miiRos monawileoba politikaSi, Tu mas ambiciebi ara aqvs”.

(fj 6).

rac Seexeba sazogadoebriv azrs, gamokiTxvis Sedegebi miuTiTeben, rom saxezea

genderuli gansxvaveba qalis politikaSi CarTulobis Taobaze (Chi Square

25.7; df 2; p


Webs mamakacs, Tumca amas mamakacebis ufro didi nawili akeTebs (Chi Square

25.7; df 2; p


saqarTvelos parlamentis arCevnebi kombinirebuli, proporciuli da ma-

Joritaruli sistemiT tardeba. qali politikosebisTvis maJoritar deputatad

gasvla ukiduresad rTulia. 2004 wels maJoritaruli wesiT ar-

Ceuli 71 parlamtentis wevridan mxolod sami, anu 4.2 procenti (nino

burjanaZe, sofio larculiani da nana patarkaciSvili), xolo 2008 wels

erTi (rusudan kervaliSvili) iyo qali. proporciuli sistemiT qalebis

arCevis Sansebi odnav ukeTesia, Tumca, partiuli siebi qal kandidatebs,

rogorc wesi siis bolo poziciebs uTmoben, ase rom, parlamentSi adgilis

albaToba ufro maRalia, mcire partiuli danawevrebis pirobebSi, rodesac

erT partias aqvs bevri adgili mopovebuli. miuxedavad imisa, rom swored

ase moxda 2004 wlisa da 2008 wlis parlamentSi, proporciuli sistemiT

arCeuli qali deputatebi mxolod 13.3 procents Seadgendnen 2004 da 5.3

procents 2008 wels.

dabali warmomadgenlobis fonze, is Tanamdebobebi, rac qalebs ekavaT, mar-

Tlac STambeWdavia. 2001 wlidan nino burjanaZe parlamentis Tavmjdomare

iyo. 13-dan 3 komitets qalebi Tavmjdomareobden; elene TevdoraZe adamianis

uflebebisa da samoqalaqo integraciis, xaTuna gogoriSvili saproceduro

sakiTxTa da wesebis, xolo nino nakaSiZe evropasTan integraciis komitets

xelmZRvanelobda. 25 Tavmjdomaris moadgiledan 4 qali iyo (adamianis

uflebaTa da samoqalaqo integraciis, evropasTan integraciisa, iuridiul

sakiTxTa da sagareo urTierTobaTa komitetebi). nacionaluri moZraobademokratebis

saparlamento umravlesobis fraqcias maia nadiraZe, xolo

danarCen Svid fraqcias mamakacebi xelmZRvanelobdnen. tradicia gagrZelda

2008 wlis parlamentSi. rusudan kervaliSvili aris parlamentis Tavmjdomaris

moadgile, xaTuna gogoriSvili saproceduro sakiTxTa da wesebis

komitetis Tavmjdomarea, sami deputati - magda anikaSvili, eka xerxeuliZe

da xaTuna oCiauri komitetebis (janmrTelobis dacvisa da socialur

sakiTxTa, adamianis uflebaTa da samoqalaqo integraciis da ganaTlebis,

mecnierebis da kulturis) Tavmjdomaris moadgileebi arian.

uaxloes wlebSi dadebiTi cvlilebebi genderuli Tanasworobis sferoSi

mosalodneli araa, radgan sxvaoba udablessa da umaRles warmomadgeloba-

Si bolo Txutmeti wlis ganmavlobaSi mxolod 2.2 procents Seadgens,

amdenad, gaeros mier dasaxuli mizani 30 procenti sagangebo Zalisxmevis

gareSe, miuRweveli Cans.

42


qalTa sakiTxebis warmoCena politikaSi kidev ufro uaresadaa dayenebuli,

vidre qalebis warmomadgenloba parlamentSi, da is Zalian iSviaTad xdeba

parlamentarTa yuradRebis sagani. rogorc sworad SeniSna erT-erTma

gamokiTxulma eqspertma, am sferoSi qali deputatebis aqtioba didad ar

gansxvavdeba maTi mamakaci kolegebisagan.

qalebi adgilobriv TviTmmarTvelobaSi

parlamentTan SedarebiT viTareba qalTa warmomadgenlobis mxriv adgilobriv

TviTmmarTvelobaSi ukeTesia. 2006 wlis adgilobriv arCevnebSi

arCeulTagan 11.5 (prpocenti) qali iyo. 1998 wlidan arCeuli qalebis raodenobam

iklo, rac saarCevno kanonis cvlilebasTan unda iyos dakavSirebuli.

nax. 4

qalebi adgilobriv TviT-mmarTvelobaSi

soflis sakrebuloebis ricxvi, romelic TviT-mmarTvelobis yvelaze dabal

safexurs warmoadgens da sadac qalebis didi raodenobaa warmodgenili,

2002 wlisaTvis Semcirda. imave kanonis Tanaxmad, sakrebuloebi regionebSi

yalibdeba ara pirdapiri xmis micemis wesiT, aramed rogorc asocirebuli

organo, romelic Sedgeba ufro dabali donis, soflis, Temis, dabisa, Tu

qalaqis TviT-mmarTvelobis organoebis erTeulebis xelmZRvanelebisagan.

2006 wels adgilobrivi mmarTvelobebis organoebis ricxvi Semcirda 998-dan

75-mde, arCevnebi Catarda Sereuli sistemiT - proporciuli da maJoritaruliT,

rac imas niSnavda, rom gamarjvebisTvis kandidats xmebis umravlesoba

unda mieRo. es ki Zalze rTulad misaRwevi amocanaa qalebisaTvis

43


(bagratia, 2006). 2006 wels proporciuli sitemiT arCeuli deputatebidan

qalebi 16.3 procents Seadgendnen, maJoritarebidan amis naxevars - 8.3 procents.

damoukideblobis gamocxadebis Semdeg qveyanaSi samjer Catarda adgilobrivi

TviTmmarTvelobis arCevnebi. maTSi msgavsi tendencia gamoikveTa:

rac ufro didi da mniSvnelovania administraciuli erTeuli, miT naklebia

qalebis warmomadgenloba (mag. 1998 wels qalebis warmomadgenloba iyo 15

procenti soflis sakrebuloSi, 13 procenti dabaTa sakrebuloebSi, 9 procenti

regionul sakrebuloSi da 7.4 procenti qalaqis sakrebuloSi).

2006 wlis arCevnebSi arc erTi qali merad ar aurCeviaT. Tbilisis sakrebulos

37 wevrTagan 25 arCeul iqna proporciuli da 12 maJoritaruli

sistemiT, maTgan mxolod xuTi iyo qali. metic, 66 gamgebels Soris qalebi

5.5 procents Seadgenen.

2006 wels qalebis yvelaze maRali procentuli maCvenebeli iyo konfliqtur

regionebSi (64.3 procenti zemo afxazeTSi da 21.4 procenti liaxvis

xeobis saarCevno ubnebSi); amis sapirispirod, qalebis procentuli maCvenebeli

yvelaze dabali iyo eTnikuri umciresobebiT dasaxlebul regionebSi:

marneulSi qalebi mxolod 1.9 procents, xolo bolnisSi - 4.7 procents

Seadgendnen.

mravali gamokiTxuli eqspertisa da politikosis azriT qalebis warmomadgenloba

TviT-mmarTvelobaSi bevrad ufro mniSvnelovania, vidre qalebis

monawileoba parlamentSi.

”Zalian mniSvnelovania, rom qalebi adgilobriv TviTmmarTvelobSi Caeban,

radgan mosaxleoba ufro dakavSirebulia sakrebulos wevrebTan”. - interviu

sakonsultacio sabWos wevrTan, baia romelaSvilTan.

2006 wlis 5 oqtombris arCevnebamde, arCevnebis mimarT sazogadoebis

cnobierebis donisa da TviT-mmarTvelobaSi qalebis rolis damokidebulebis

dadgenis mizniT saqarTvelos ramodenime regionSi Caterebul

iqna gamokiTxva. sul gamokiTxul iqna 603 adamiani. Sedegebma erTmniSvnelovnad

gamoavlina mosaxleobis dabali monawileoba adgilobrivi

problemebis gadaWraSi. mosaxleobis mxolod 13.9 procentma (8.9 %

mamakaci da 5.0 % qali) aRniSna sakuTari CarTuloba. kTxvebze, romlebic

qalebis aRmasrulebel organoebSi monawileobas Seexeboda,

respondentTa naxevrze metma (58.7-ma % - 50.6 % mamakacma da 67.4

% qalma) aucileblad, an sasurvelad miiCnia, qalebis warmomad-

44


genlobis gazrda. ojaxur valdebulebebi, tradiciebi, survilisa

da gamocdilebis nakleboba yvelaze xSirad iyo dasaxelebuli qalis

politikaSi monawileobis damabrkolebel mizezad. aRsaniSnavia,

rom ufro meti qali (38.4 %), kacebTan SedarebiT (33. 5 %) aRniSnavda

valdebulebebs ojaxis winaSe, rogorc qalTa monawileobis

xelSemSlel pirobas. amasTan gamokiTxulTa 53.7 procenti miuTiTebda

politikos qalebisa da kacebis gansxvavebul muSaobis stilze. gansxvavebas

kacebze (51.5 %) metad qalebi (60.3 %) aRniSnavdnen.

qalebi (39.7 %) saparlamento, saprezidento Tu adgilobrivi ar-

CevnebSi upiratesobas qal kandidatebs, xolo kacebi _kac (43.9 %)

kandidatebs aniWebdnen. qalebisa da kacebis TiTqmis Tanabari raodenoba

(qalebis 29.1% da kacebis 28.4%) miuTiTebda, rom kandidatis

sqess ar qonda raime zegavlena maT arCevanze xmis micemisas.

nax. 5

arCevnebSi kandidatebisadmi upirtaesobis miniWeba maTi sqesis mixedviT

wyaro: adgilobriv TviTmmarTvelobaSi adgilobriv qalTa monawileobis

Taobaze mosaxleobis gamokiTxvis Sedegebi (2006).

45

qali respondentebi

kaci respondentebi


qalebi aRmasrulebel organoebSi

2004 wlamde mTavrobaSi orad-ori qali ministri iyo (garemos dacvis da

kulturis). axalma xelisuflebam, romelic 2004 wels movida saTaveSi, xazi

gausva qalis ufro farTo warmomadgenlobis aucileblobas politikur

cxovrebaSi. am gancxadebis kvaldakval 2004 wlis ministrTa kabinetSi, oTxi

ministri qali Sevida (Tamar lebaniZe, _ garemos dacvis ministri, Tamar

suluxia, infrastruqturs ministri, eTer astemirova, _ iZulebiT gadaadgilebul

pirTa da gansaxlebis ministri, Tamar beruCaSvili - saxelmwifo

ministri evropasTan inegraciis sakiTxebSi). Semdgom kidev erTi qali -

salome zurabiSvili dainiSna sagareo saqmeTa ministrad. amdenad, im dros

ministrTa kabinetis SemadgenlobaSi qalebi 20 procents Seadgendnen. magram,

2007 wlis dekembrisaTvis mxolod ori ministri qali SemorCa mTavrobas

- zinaida bestaeva, saxelmwifo ministri samoqalaqo integraciis

sakiTxebSi da eka tyeSelaSvili, iusticiis ministri. ukeTesi mdgomareoba

iyo ministris moadgileebTan mimarTebaSi. 46 moadgilidan 9 an 19.6 procenti

qali iyo. 2008 wlis noemberSi damtkicebul ministrTa kabinetSi

isev 2 qali ministri iyo, sagareo saqmeTa ministri eka tyeSelaSvili da

ekonomikis ministri ekaterine SaraSiZe. 10 saministros TanamSromlebsa da

sazRvargareT saqarTvelos diplomatiur warmomadgenelTa Soris qalebi

Seadgendnen 51.8 procents, rac mTliani raodenobis naxevarze metia, magram

am saministroTa gadawyvetilebis mimReb organoebSi qalebis wils mxolod

27. 8 procenti Seadgenda (sociologiuri gamokvlevis angariSi, 2007).

sazogadoebis damokidebuleba ministrTa kabinetSi qalebis ufro farTo

warmomadgenlobis mimarT SedarebiT nakleb dadebiTia, vidre maTi arCeviT

organoebSi warmomadgenlobis mimarT. gamokiTxul eqspertTa da politikostTa

umetesobas urCevnia qali ministris moadgiled ixilos da ara ministrad

(mag. interviu arasamTavrobo organizaciis xelmZRvanelTan, Tamar

JvaniasTan), vinaidan maTi azriT, qalebs SeuZliaT yoveldRiuri samuSaos

ukeT warmarTva, maSin rodesac mamakacebs ukeTesi xedva aqvT. sxvebi miiCneven,

rom qalebi ar arian sakmarisad aqtiuri (interviu parlamentis

wevrTan zurab tyemalaZesTan). bevrs miaCnia, rom ministris sqess ara aqvs

mniSvneloba da rom mTavari profesionalizmia (interviu eqspertTan, marina

musxeliSvilTan). ministris sqesi ki ara, armed mis mier gadawyvetilebebis

miRebisas genderuli sakiTxebis gaTvaliswineba miaCnia bevrs mniSvnelovani:

46


”mTvaria gawonasworebuli politikis warmarTva, gansxvavebuli mosazrebebis

gaTvaliswineba, problemebis genderis TvalTaxedviT ganxilva. am

SemTxvevaSi sul erTia, mamakacia ministri, Tu qali. amdenad, mTavari amocanaa

strategia agebul iqnes Tanasworobis principze”. _ interviu eqsperTtan,

xaTuna sanikiZesTan.

gamokiTxvis monacemebi miuTiTeben, rom saxelmwifo dawesebulebebSi maRali

Tanamdebobebis dasakaveblad qalebisa da mamakacebisaTvis aucilebel maxasiaTeblebs

mosaxleoba erTnairad afasebs.

xuTidan oTxi Tviseba, romelsac umniSvnelovanesad miiCneven - profesionalizmi,

gamWriaxoba, moraluri sispetake da poziciis simtkice saerToa

qalebisa da kacebisaTvis. mexuTe mniSvnelovani Tviseba mamakacisaTvis aris

pirovnuli kavSirebi, qalisTvis ki moqniloba. Tumca im TvisebebSi, romlebic

naklen mniSvnelovnad aris Sefasebuli qalebsa da kacebs Soris gansxvaveba

ufro gamokveTilia. ase magaliTad, qalis SemTxvevaSi, kargi garegnoba, xolo

kacis SemTxvevaSi, ufrosis mimarT erTguleba da partiuli kuTvnilebaa

ufro mniSvnelovani.

profesionalizmi

gamWriaxoba

moraluri sispetake

poziciis simtkice

moqniloba

ganaTleba ucxoeTSi

piradi kavSirebi

axalgazrdoba

damsaxureba

ufrosis erguleba

partiis wevroba

nax. 6

saxelmwifo uwyebebSi maRali Tanamdebobis dasakaveblad sasurveli Tvisebebi

47

qalisTvis

kacisTvis


genderi politikur partiebSi

politikuri partiebis genderuli politika, iseve, rogorc sazogadoebaSi

arsebuli interesi da yuradReba genderTan dakavSirebuli sakiTxebis mimarT

garkveulwilad gansazRvravs qalis monawileobas politikur saqmianobaSi,

rogorc erovnul aseve adgilobriv doneebze. qveyanaSi 180 partiaa (saqarTvelos

politikuri landSafti, 2006). TvalsaCino partiaTagan sams qali

xelmZRvanelobs, kerZod, ”win, saqarTvelo”(salome zurabiSvili), ”imedi”

(irine sariSvili) da ”qalTa partia” (guguli maRraZe), romelic swored

2008 wlis saparlamento arCevnebis win iqna Camoayalibebuli. es erTaderTi

qalTa partia, romelmac arCevnebSi monawileoba blokSi, or partiasTan

erTad miiRo.

zusti informacia politikur partiebSi gaerTianebuli adamianebis saerTo

raodenobaze da gansakuTrebiT ki maTSi qalebis raodenobaze ar aris xelmisawvdomi.

gamokiTxul partiul liderTa umetesobam miuTiTa, rom

zustad ar icis partiaSi gaerTianebuli qalebis raodenoba (interviu konservatoruli

partiis liderTan, kaxa kukavasTan, respublikuri partiis

erT-erT liderTan, Tina xidaSelTan, mrewvelebis partiis liderTan,

zurab tyemalaZesTan). saqarTvelos mosaxleobis gamokiTxvis mixedviT (sumbaZe,

2007), mosaxleobis mxolod 4. 7 procenti (aqedan 5.2 % mamakacebi da

3.6 % qalebi) aris raime politikuri partiis wevri.

qalebi gaerTianebuli arian partiebSi, magram maT ZiriTadad vxvdebiT mmarTvelobis

dabal doneze da maTi warmomadgenloba partiis gadawyvetilebis

mimReb organoebSi saSualod 9 procentia (saqarTvelos politikuri land-

Safti, 2006).

”qalebi saerTod, iSviaTad iReben monawileobas koncefciis SemuSavebasa

da gadawyvetilebis miRebaSi. maTi mxolod mcire nawilia drodadro simbolurad

warmodgenilni partiebis maRal eSelonebSi. aseT qalebs mamakaci

kolegebi Cveulebriv axasiaTeben, rogorc mamakacuri TvisebebiT SemkulT da

maT mimarT aRtacebas gamoxataven amgvari sityvebiT ”mamakacuri”, an ”mamaci”.

- interviu eqspertTan, xaTuna sanikiZesTan.

arsebul viTarebaSic partiebi gansxvavdebian genderuli sakiTxebisadmi

interesisa da umaRles struqturebSi qalTa warmomadgenlobis mixedviT.

qalebi axal memarjveneTa partiis 4000 aqtiuri wevris naxevars Seadgenen.

isini aseve kargad arian warmodgenlni saparlamento fraqciaSic, sadac isini

fraqciis mesameds Seadgenen (interviu parlamentis wevrTan, manana naWyebi-

48


asTan). respublikur partias xelmZRvanel organoSi ori qali yavs (interviu

partiis erT-erT liderTan, TinaTin xidaSelTan). axlad Seqmnili partiis

”Tavisufali saqarTvelo” cxra damaarsebels Soris xuTi qalia (interviu

partiis erT-erT liderTan, qeTevan maxaraSvilTan). leiboristuli partiis

xelmZRvanelobaSi ori qalia (interviu partiis wevrTan, nana devaZesTan).

mewarmeTa partiis Tbilisis aT raionul organizaciis xelmZRvanelTa naxevars

qalebi Seadgenen (interviu partiis liderTan, zurab tyemalaZesTan).

sxva partiebTan SedarebiT ”win saqarTvelos” xelmZRvanel Tanamdebobebze

yvelaze meti qalia, rac albaT imiT aris gamowveuli, rom partiis lideri

qalia interviu partiis wevrTan, eqspertTan, marine musxeliSvilTan.

2008 wlis saparlamento arCevnebis politikuri partiebis sia aranairad ar

migvaniSnebs partiuli saqmianobis sadaveebSi qalebis monawileobis gazrdaze.

arCevnebSi daregistrirebuli 12 erTeuls Soris, (blokebi da damoukidebeli

partiebi), qalebis mxolod 9.2 procents ekava partiul siebSi adgilebi

1-dan 10-mde, 20.8 procents 11-dan 20-mde, xolo 15.0 procents 21-dan 30mde.

saerTo jamSi, qalebi partiuli siebis 25.5 procents Seadgendnen, magram

rogorc adrec avRniSneT, Zalze mcire raodenobas qonda Sansi yofiliyo

arCeuli. dasaxelebul maJoritarTa kandidatebidan, qalebi 10.1 procents

Seadgendnen. yvelaze didi raodenoba leiboristulma partiam (10 kandidati),

blokma, romelSic qalTa partia iyo gaerTianebuli (10 kandidati)

da respublikurma partiam (9 kandidati) daasaxela.

Cans qalebisTvis mxolod ramdenime specifikuri da meorexarisxovani samuSaoa

garantirebuli (interviu sakonsultacio sabWos wevrTan, baia romelaSvilTan).

qalebi Cveulebriv CarTulni arian saarCevno procesSi, amowmeben

ra eleqtoratis siebs, kardakar awarmoeben partiis kandidatebis

sareklamo kampaniebs, asruleben mdivnis movaleobas saarCevno komisiebSi

(interviu partiis liderebTan, kaxa kukavasTan da zurab tyemalaZesTan;

eqspertebTan, marine TabukaSvilTan da xaTuna sanikiZesTan).

amis sapirispirod, axali memerjveneebis partiis saarCevno administraciaSi

mravali qalia. isini administraciis 70 procents Seadgenen

(saqarTvelos politikuri landSafti, 2006).

monawileobis garda, partiebis interesi genderTan mimarTebaSi aisaxeba

partiaSi qalTa seqciis arsebobaze, romelic muSaobs qal-amomrCevlebze

da qalTa sakiTxebis lobirebaze.

49


amdenime partias - axal memarjveneebs, mewarmeebs, leiboristebs, konservatorebsa

da respublikelebs aqvT qalebis ganyofileba (saqarTvelos

politikuri landSafti, 2006), (interviu parlamentis wevrebTan, manana naWyebiasTan,

zurab tyemalaZesTan; respublikuri partiis erT-erT liderTan,

TinaTin xidaSelTan, leiboristuli partiis wevrTan, nana devaZesTan).

garda imisa, rom mewarmeTa partias 1993 wlidan aqvs qalTa seqcia, partiis

wevrebis colebma daarses qalTa klubi, romelic ZiriTadad humanitaruli

moRvaweobiTaa dakavebuli (interviu partiis liderTan, zurab tyemalaZesTan).

axal memarjveneebsac 2002 wels, daarsebis dRidan aqvT qalTa

klubi. misi mizania partiis eleqtoratis gazrda. klubi aseve intensiurad

muSaobs qali politikosebis momzadebaze, raTa isini aqtiurad CaerTon

adgilobriv da erovnul politikaSi (interviu partiis wevrTan, manana

naWyebiasTan). leiboristul partiasTan moqmedebs qalTa sabWo. (interviu

partiis wevrTan, nana devaZesTan).

respublikur partias aqvs ganyofileba, romelic qalTa politikuri saqmianobis

gaZlierebas da maTi interesebis dacvis strategias ayalibebs (http://

www.republicans.ge/). strategiis mixedviT qalTa mxardaWera unda ganxorcieldes

ganderul sakiTxebze mosaxleobis cnobierebis gazrdiT, partiis

gadawyvetilebis mimReb organoebSi qalTa monawileobis mxardaWeriT, qalTa

problemebis gadaWriT da politikaSi genderuli komponentis gaZlierebiT.

partiis verc erTma liderma ver migviTiTa maT manifestSi qalTa sakiTxebis

arsebobaze. metic, axali memarjveneebisa da leiboristuli partiis garda,

arc erTi partia ar amaxvilebs yuradRebas qalebze, rogorc eleqtoratze.

isini amis aucileblobas ver xedaven. rogorc erTma mamkacma parlamentis

wevrma aRniSna:

”saqarTveloSi xalxi xmas aZlevs ojaxuri solidarobis safuZvelze”

misi gancxadeba savaraudod efuZneba im mosazrebas, rom ojaxSi gadawyvetilebas

mamakaci iRebs.

saqarTvelos wamyvani politikuri partiebis saqmianobis Seswavlam gamoamJRavna,

rom partiis wevrebi ar arian sakmarisad gaTviTcnobierebuli

genderul sakiTxebSi. maT dRis wesrigSi ara aqvT gaTvaliswinebuli qalebis

politikaSi CarTvis aucilebloba (politikuri landSafti saqarTveloSi,

2006).

50


qali da mamakaci politikosebis mimarT arsebuli molodinebi

gamokiTxulma eqspertebma da politikosebma gamoxates sakuTari molodinebi

qali da mamakaci politikosebis mimarT (interviuebi). mravali maTgani

aRniSnavda, rom isini ar ganasxvavebdnen qal da mamakac liderebs sqesis

mixedviT da moelodnen, rom rogorc qal, ise mamakac liders eqneboda

iseTi Tvisebebi, rogoricaa patiosneba, pasuxismgeblobis grZnoba, goniereba,

adamianebTan urTierTobis unari, rom eqneboda kargi ganaTleba da analitikuri

azrovnebis unari, iqneboda patrioti, gulTan axlos miitanda adamianebis

sazrunavs, eqneboda imis swori xedva, Tu ra aris gasakeTebeli da

eqneboda amisTvis saWiro resursebi (interviu parlamentis wevrTan, qeTevan

maxaraSvilTan; eqspertebTan, lela xomerikTan da Carita jaSTan; saxelmwifo

moxelesTan, dalila xoravasTan). magram am saerTo molodinebis garda,

aseve dasaxelebuli iqna calkeuli Tvisebebi, romlebsac respopndentebi

ufro metad qal an mamakac politikosebSi xedavdnen.

qali politikosebisgan gansakuTrebiT moelodnen principulobas, xalxis

interesebis msaxurebas, miukerZoeblobas da sandoobas, diplomatiurobasa

da araagresiulobas, simSvides, imas, rom igi iqneboda Tbili da mzrunveli,

moqnili da kompromisebze wamsvleli, rom mas eqneboda mosmenis unari

da sakuTari xedva (interviu sajaro moxelesTan, uruzmak karkusovTan;

mosamarTlesTan, rusudan WanturiZesTan; nacionaluri moZraobis wevrTan,

irakli qavTaraZesTan; parlamentis wevrTan, qeTevan maxaraSvilTan; leiboristuli

partiis wevrTan, nana devaZesTan, arasamTavrobo organizaciis

xelmZRvanelTan, Tamar JvaniasTan, profesiuli saswavleblis direqtorTan,

irakli faCuliasTan, sakonsultacio sabWos wevrTan, baia romelaSvilTan;

mcire mewarmesTan, marina aRuSaSvilTan). eqspertebi darwmunebulni arian,

rom imisTvis, rom qali warmatebuli iyos, man ar unda miiCnios sakuTari

sqesi Semaferxebel faqtorad da ar unda qondes amis gamo arasrulfasovnebis

kompleqsi (interviu sajaro moxelesTan, eka zRulaZesTan). qalSi

Serwymuli unda iyos kargi politikosisa da kargi diasaxlisis Tvisebebi

(profesiuli saswavleblis mamakaci maswavlebeli). qali qaluri TvisebebiT

unda iyos Semkuli da arasodes ar unda daaviwydes, rom qalia, (interviu

sajaro moxelesTan, dalila xoravasTan; parlamentis wevrTan, zurab tyemalaZesTan).

politikosi qali unda iyos Tavdajerebuli, igi darwmunebuli

unda iyos, rom kargi politikosia (interviu arasamTavrobo organizaciis

xelmZRvanelTan, Tamar JvaniasTan). mamakaci politikosisagan gansxvavebiT

politikosi qalisgan eqspertebi moelian socaluri sakiTxebis wina planze

wamowevas da iseTi politikis mxardaWeras, romelic gazrdis socialur

usafrTxoebas (interviu qalTa sabWos mamakac wevrTan). qalebisagan

51


aseve moelian qalTa uflebebis dacvas, mravalSviliani dedebis mimarT

met yuradRebas, qalebis xelSewyobas samsaxureobriv winsvlaSi (interviu

patrulTan, lia barkaulTan).

meores mxriv, mamakaci politikosebisagan moelian rom isini iyvnen qarizmatulni,

principuli, gabeduli, naklebad damokidebuli socialur garemocvaze,

mkacrebi da swrafi gadawyvetilebis miRebis unariT Semkulni,

SeeZloT radikaluri reformebis gatareba da iyvnen SorsmWvretelni (interviu

nacionaluri moZraobis wevrTan, irakli qavTaraZesTan; maswavlebelTan,

nana kemulariasTan; sajaro moxelesTan, maka mdivanTan, profesiuli

saswavleblis direqtorTan, zaza ciramuasTan).

adarebs ra, mamakac da qal politikosebs, eqsperti Semdeg mosazrebas

gamoTqvams:

”mamakacebs viwro fokusi aqvT, isini ideebs arCeven imis gauTvaliswineblad,

Tu ramdenad aris maTi ganxorcielebis SesaZlebloba, yuradRebas ar aqceven

garemos, maSin, rodesac qalebi ukeT acnobiereben viTarebas, isini realisturad

azrovneben da politikaSi ufro pragmatulni arian”. - interviu

eqspertTan, marine musxeliSvilTan.

52


politikosisaTvis aucilebeli Tvisebebi

gamokiTxvis pasuxebi miuTiTeben, rom respondentebs igive, zemoT dasaxelebuli

Tvisebebi mniSvnelovnad miaCniaT rogorc qali, ise mamakaci politikosebisaTvis,

Tumca odnav gansxvavebuli TanmimdevrobiT. yvelaze mniSvnelovnad

miCneulia, rom mamakaci politikosi iyos Zlieri, damoukidebeli,

gabeduli, gamgebi da SeeZlos sakuTari azris gatana. qali politikosi ki,

iyos Zlieri, damoukidebeli, gamgebi, SeeZlos sakuTari azris gatana da

iyos gabeduli. amave dros arsebobs molodini, rom qali politikosi iyos

ufro TanamgrZnobi, Tbili da gamgebi.

Zlieri

damoukidebeli

gamgebi

riskiani

TanamgrZnobi

mzrunveli

Zalauflebis mqone

mosiyvarule

Tbili

agresiuli

rbili

nax. 7

mamakaci da qali politikosis sasurveli Tvisebebi

53

qali

kaci


politikosebis mimarT ndoba

respondentebs (gamokiTxva) moeTxovebodaT daesaxelebinaT xuTamde politikosi

kaci da qali, romlebic maTi ndobiT sargeblobdnen. dasaxelebulTa

Soris qalebze meti (20) mamakaci (23) aRmoCnda. yvelaze meti ndobiT mamakaci

politikosebidan sargebloben levan berZeniSvili, mixeil saakaSvili,

zviad ZiZiguri, koba daviTaSvili da Salva naTelaSvili.

qali da kaci respondentebis Sefasebani gansxvavebulia, mamakacebSi yvelaze

meti ndobiT mixeil saakaSvili, xolo qalebSi levan berZeniSvili sargeblobs.

l.berZeniSvili

m.saakaSvili

z.ZiZiguri

k.daviTaSvili

S.naTelaSvili

l.gaCeCilaZe

nax. 8

ndobiT aRWurvili mamakaci politikosebi

54

qalebi

kacebi


tabula 6

mamakaci politikosebis ranJireba maTdami gamoxatuli ndobis mixedviT

rangi politikosi

1

berZeniSvili,

levani

dasaxelebuli

mamakacebis mier

%

N 0 479

55

dasaxelebuli

qalebis

mier

%

N 0 608

sul

%

N 0 1087

10.2 15.5 12.9

2 saakaSvili, mixeili 11.1 9.4 10.1

3 ZiZiguri, zviadi 6.9 11.3 9.4

4 daviTaSvili, koba 6.3 8.1 7.3

5

naTelaSvili,

Salva

7.5 5.4 6.3

6.5 gaCeCilaZe, levani 5.0 5.6 5.3

6.5 xainrava, goga 6.1 4.8 5.3

8 oqruaSvili, irakli 4.0 5.3 4.7

9

berZeniSvili,

daviTi

3.7 4.8 4.3

10

patarkaciSvili,

badri

2.7 2.0 2.3

11 kukava, kaxa 2.3 3.3 2.8

12 usufaSvili, daviTi 1.9 3.1 2.6

13

gamsaxurdia,

konstantine

1.2 2.1 1.7

14 ugulava, gigi 0.8 1.6 1.3

15 subari, sozari 1.2 0.8 1.0

16 maisaSvili, gia 1.0 0.6 0.8

17 gurgeniZe, lado 0.6 1.0 0.8

18 zurabiSvili, daviTi 0.2 1.1 0.7

19 subeliani, koba 0.6 0.8 0.7

20 baRaTuria, jondi 0.6 0.8 0.7

21

patiaSvili,

jumberi

0.4 0.6 0.5

22 xaindrava, ivliane 0.6 0.8 0.5

23 wereTeli, gigi 0.4 0.6 0.5


politikos qalTa Soris yvelaze xSirad asaxeleben da maRali ndobiT

sargebloben: Tina xidaSeli, nino burjanaZe, salome zurabiSvili, elene

TevdoraZe, eka beselia, maia nadiraZe, manana naWyebia, nestan kirTaZe da

ana doliZe. qalebma da mamakacebma erTnairad didi ndoba gamoxates xuTi

qali politikosis mimarT.

T.xidaSeli

n.burjanaZe

s.zurabiSvili

f.CixraZe

e.TevdoraZe

nax. 9

ndobiT aRWurvili qali politikosebi

qalebi

kacebi

tabula 7

qali politikosebi, ranJireba maTdami gamoxatuli ndobis mixedviT

rangi politikosi

dasaxelebli

mamakacebis

mier %

N

56

0 479

Ndasaxelebuli

qalbis mier

N0 608

sul

%

N0 1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

14

14

14

18

18

18

18

18

xidaSeli, Tina

burjanaZe, nino

zurabiSvili, salome

CixraZe, fiqria

TevdoraZe, elene

beselia, eka

nadiraZe, maia

naWyepia, manana

kirTaZe, nestan

doliZe, ana

maRraZe, guguli

kalandaZe, nino

aronia, nazi

verulaSvili, eka

samadaSvili, salome

gogoriSvili, xaTuna

sariSvili, irina

tlaSaZe, Teo

lazaSvili, naTia

arCvaZe, manana

24.4

20.9

15.4

8.1

3.1

3.1

2.3

1.2

1.2

1.0

0.2

0.2

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.2

35.2

30.6

19.7

9.0

5.4

3.9

2.6

1.5

1.3

0.6

1.0

0.8

0.3

0.3

0.3

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.2

1087

30.4

26.3

17.8

8.6

4.4

3.6

2.5

1.4

1.3

0.8

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.4

0.3

0.09

0.09

0.09

0.09

0.09


gadawyvetilebis miRebis procesSi qalebis dabali CarTulobis mizezebi

qalebis dabali warmomadgenloba gadawyvetilebis miRebis procesSi SeiZleba

sxvadasxva mizezebs mivaweroT. es mizezebi SesaZloa iyos Tavad qalebSi,

anu maT unarebsa da survilSi misdion politikur karieras, maT saojaxo

movaleobebSi, SezRudul finansur da droiT resursebSi, anda ufro far-

Ted, zogadad garemoSi, iseTSi, rogoricaa qveynis ekonomikuri mdgomareoba,

saxelmwifo politika da kulturuli tradiciebi.

mizezebi, romlebic qalebs miewerebaT

ramodenime respondentma politikur cxvrebaSi CarTvis survilis ar qona da

dabali TviT-Sefaseba, daasaxela qalebis mwiri warmomadgenlobis ZiriTad

mizezad (interviu parlamentis wevrTan, elene TevdoraZesTan; respublikuri

partiis erT-erT liderTan, TinaTin xidaSelTan; eqspertTan, lika nadaraiasTan).

”mTavari faqtoria qalSi survilis ar qona gaxdes politikosi” –- SeniSna

fokus-jgufis mamakacma monawilem (fj 7).

Tumca es mosazreba uaryo axalqalaqis fokus-jgufis monawile axalgazrda

qalma, romelmac aRniSna, rom es qalis brali araa:

”qals ise zrdian, rom mas ar uCndeba politikaSi CarTvis survili. mas uyalibeben

warmodgenas imis Taobaze, rom qalis adgili saxlSia” – (fj6).

fokus-jgufSi msjelobisas qalTa mcire CarTulobis mizezad zogma adamianuri

resursebis nakleboba da qalebis mcire SesaZleblobebi daasaxela,

sxvebma ki aRniSnes qalis Tvisebebi - sxvebze damokidebuleba, sifrTxile,

riskis gawevis naklebi survili, romlebic qals xels uSlis CaerTos politikaSi,

an warmarTos damoukidebeli politika.

”politikaSi qalebi moyavT, isini TviTon ar modian. qarTul politikaSi

ver naxavT qals, romelic politikaSi sakuTari miswrafebis gansaxorcieleblad,

an Tavisi saTqmelis gasaJRereblad movida. amitom isini imeoreben

imaT gzavnilebs, vinc isini politikaSi moiyvana”. - interviu eqspertTan,

lela gafrindaSvilTan.

57


amdenime eqspertma da politikosma, aseve fokus-jgufis monawileebma miu-

TiTes kidev erT, maTi azriT, Zalze mniSvnelovan resursis simcireze

qalebis SemTxvevaSi, kerZod finansebis ukmarisobaze, rac SeiZleba qalis

politikaSi CarTvis erT-erT mTavari damabrkolebel mizezad iqnes miCneuli

(interviu parlamentis wevrebTan, qeTevan maxaraSvilTan, kaxa kukavasTan;

eqspertTan, lika nadaraiasTan; arasamTavrobo organizaciis xelmZRvanelTan,

Tamar JvaniasTan).

mizezebi, romlebic ojaxur cxovrebas miewereba

gamokiTxulTa umravlesoba, aseve fokus-jgufis monawileebi gamoyofdnen

drois naklebobas, dakavSirebuls saojaxo pasuxismgeblobebTan, rogorc

qalTa dabali monawileobis ganmsazRvrel faqtors (interviu parlamenrtis

wevrTan, qeTevan maxaraSvilTan, eqspertTan, lika nadaraiasTan; arasamTavrobo

organizaciis xelmZRvanelTan, Tamar JvaniasTan; eqspertTan, Carita

jaSTan) (aseve: saqarTvelos politikuri landSafti, 2006).

rogorc axalgazrda qalma aRniSna axalqalaqSi:

”mamakacebs meti dro aqvT, ase, rom maT SeuZliaT qondeT sxvebTan urTier-

Toba da iyvnen sazogadoebis nawili. qalebi sazogadoebaSi nakleb aqtiuri

arian” - (fj 6).

xazi gaesva imasac, rom mamakacebisagan gansxvavebiT, qalebs ara aqvT SesaZlebloba

mTeli TavianTi dro da energia politikur moRvaweobas dauTmon da

bevri imogzauron (interviu parlamentis wevrTan, zurab tyemalaZesTan).

mizezebi, romlebic garemos miewereba

dasaxelebul iqna mizezebis mTeli rigi, romlebic qalTa kontrols ar

eqvemdebareba:

pirvel yovlisa, bevrma qveyanaSi arsebuli ekonomikuri mdgomareoba daasaxela,

rac saxlSi damxmaris daqiravebis saSualebas ar iZleva.

amasTanave, kulturuli tradiciebi da stereotipebi, romlebic zRudavs

qalis sazogadoebriv sfroSi moRvaweobas iqna dasaxelebuli erT-erT mTavar

mizezad (interviuebi parlamentis wevrebTan, qeTevan maxaraSvilTan, nika

ruruasTan; eqspertebTan, lika nadaraiasTan, marine musxeliSvilTan).

aseve, qalTa CarTulobis simciris mizezad dasaxelda qalTa moZraobis da

aseTi moZraobis gamokveTili lideris ar arseboba. _ interviu eqsperTtan,

Tamar abramiSvilTan.

58


monawileobis gazrdis gzebi

qalTa sazogadoebriv cxovrebaSi CarTvis gazrdis mTeli rigi saSualebebi

iqna dasaxelebuli. iseve, rogorc es iyo nakleb CarTulobis mizezebis

Ziebisas, gamosavali SeiZleba napovni iqnes Tavad qalebSi, maT ojaxur Tu

ufro farTed aRebul garemoSi.

qalebi

eqspertebi da fokus-jgufis monawileebi pirvel rigSi xazs usvamdnen qalTa

gaaqtiurebis mizniT zomebis miRebis aucileblobas. (interviu nacionaluri

moZraobis wevrTan, irakli qarvTaraZesTan; parlamentis wevrTan,

qeTevan maxaraSvilTan; eqspertTan, nato SavlayaZesTan).

isini agreTve saubrobdnen imazec, rom aucilebelia Tavad qalebma gamoiCinon

iniciativa:

”qalebi ufro aqtiurebi unda gaxdnen, isini unda SeebrZolon stereotipebs,

warmoaCinon is problemebi, romelTac awydebian, gamoaSkaraon sazogadoebaSi

arsebuli usamarTloba da uTanasworoba”. - interviu parlamentis wevrTan,

nika ruruasTan.

kvlevisas aSkara gaxda, rom mis monawileebs qalis SesaZleblobebis ga-

Zlierebis aucilebloba miaCniaT principul sakiTxad.

”muSaoba mosaxleobis donidan unda daviwyoT, gansakuTrebuli zomebi unda

iqnes miRebuli qalis SesaZleblobebis gasaZliereblad. es ki aucileblad

ganapirobebs qalebis gamoCenas ufro maRal doneze”. - fokus jgufis qali

monawile. (fj 2).

ganaTleba da Treningi miCneulia SesaZleblobebis zrdis ZiriTad meqanizmad

_ (interviu eqspertebTan, nato SavlayaZesTan, Tamar abramiSvilTan da

xaTuna sanikiZesTan).

”ganaTleba aris qalTa gaaqtiurebis saSualeba, rac Sedegad mogvcems maT

ufro aqtiur Cabmas politikur cxovrebaSi”. _ interviu eqspertTan, Tamar

abramiSvilTan.

59


ganaTlebis miRebasTan erTad xazgasmuli iyo qalTa kompetenciis gazrdis

pirobebis Seqmnis aucilebloba:

”qalebs ar akliaT aqtiuroba, magram ra Tqma unda, isini ufro kompetenturi

unda gaxdnen, rac gansakuTrebul Zalisxmevas saWiroebs. unda imarTebodes

Sekrebebi da msjelobebi, qalebs aseve unda mieceT saSualeba isaubron

farTo auditoriis winaSe”. - interviu eqspertTan, Carita jaSTan.

ojaxi

rogorc zemoT aRvniSneT, bevrma respondentma qalis sazogadoebriv cxovrebaSi

CarTvis damabrkolebel erT-erT ZiriTad faqtorad qalis saojaxo

saqmeebiT datvirTva daasaxela. amdenad, saxelmwifo politikis daxmarebiT

am tvirTis Semsubuqeba, iseve, rogorc arsebuli stereotipebis Secvla da

ojaxuri movaleobebis meuRleebs Soris ganawileba miCneul iqna qalTa

monwileobis gazrdis efeqtur saSualebad.

”gamosavali aris qalis saojaxo saqmeebis tvirTis Semcireba, es ki SesaZlebelia

imiT, rom saojaxo saqmeebi qalTan erTad mamakacmac itvirTos da

aseve SesaZlebelia socialuri pirobebis gaumjobesebiT. ar arsebobs imis

gamarTleba, rom qali yvelaze nayofier asakSi Sin zis. magram mas ubralod

uwevs amis gakeTeba, radgan sxva gza ara aqvs. roca pirobebi gaumjobesdeba,

qalebis monawileobac gaizrdeba. aseTi cvlilebis magaliTia arasaxelmwifoebrivi

da media seqtorebi, sadac qals Semosavlis miRebis SesaZleblobebi

eZleva, ris xarjzec mas SeuZlia bavSvs momvleli auyvanos”. - interviu

respublikuri partiis erT-erT liderTan, TinaTin xidaSelTan.

”40 wlis asakSi, roca qals reproduqciuli miznebi ukve miRweuli aqvs, is

aqtiurad gamodis sazogadoebriv asparezze. saxelmwifom xelsayreli pirobebi

unda Seuqmnas qalebs maTi moRvaweobis gasafarToeblad imiT, rom

uzrunvelyos bavSvis movla. anda kacebi unda Seexidon qals bavSvis aRzrdaSi”.

- interviu eqspertTan, baia romelaSvilTan.

Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis studentebma xazi gausves finansebisa da

mamakacis daxmarebis aucileblobas:

”imisaTvis, rom politikosi gaxdes, qals misi qmris an mamis finansuri mxardaWera

esaWiroeba”. (fj 7)

60


garemo

saxelmwifo politika

diskusiebis monawileebma da eqpertebma aRniSnes, rom qalTa monawileobis

gazrdis aucilebel pirobas qalis gaaqtiurebis mimarT saxelmwifos mier

Tanmimdevruli politikis gatareba warmoadgens.

”parlamentSi mxolod da mxolod qalebis raodenobis zrda ver moitans sasurvel

Sedegebs. genderuli politika yvela doneze unda xorcieldebodes.

genderuli Tanaswrobis miRweva Cven unda daviwyoT sabaziso ganaTlebis

sistemaSi mamakaci maswavleblebis raodenobis gazrdiT”. - interviu eqsperTtan,

marine TabukaSvilTan.

stereotopebis Secvla genderuli sakiTxebze TviT-cnobierebis gazrdis

meSveobiT

eqspertebis azriT, qalis monawileobis gazrda mxolod maSin gaxdeba SesaZlebeli,

rodesac gaizrdeba genderuli sakiTxebis mimarT sazogadoebis

mgrZnobiaroba da Seicvleba is stereotipi, romelic qals warmogvidgens,

rogorc aqtiurs mxolod da mxolod kerZo, arasajaro sferoSi:

”stereotpebi skolaSi unda Seicvalos, qalis, rogorc lideris rolis

warmoCeniT”. - interviu eqspertTan, marine musxeliSvilTan.

qveyanaSi arsebuli mdgomareobis Secvla samarTlianobis, Tavisuflebisa

da liberalizmis xarisxis gazrdiT.

cvlilebebs sazogadoebaSi monawileobis gazrdis umniSvnelovanes sakiTxad

miiCneven kvlevis monawileebi, rogorc qalebi, aseve kacebi. qveyanaSi vi-

Tarebis Secvla, gansakuTrebiT ki mosaxleobis ekonomikuri mdgomareobis

gaumjobeseba sabolood xels Seuwyobs qalis ufro aqtiur CarTvas sazogadoebriv

cxovrebaSi. aseve aucilebelia sazogadoeba gaxdes ufro tolerantuli

amgvari cvlilebebis mimarT.

”qalebs Tavisuflebisa da damoukideblobis meti SesaZleblobebi unda

mieceT imisaTvis, rom gamoxaton sakuTari azrebi da gadadgan Sesabamisi nabijebi.

Tumca, amis misaRwevad maT stimulireba esaWiroebaT, sazogadoebrivi

azris Camoyalibebis da piar-kampaniebis gziT. rac ufro metad CaerTveba

qali politikaSi, miT ukeTesia”. - interviu eqspertTan, Carita jaSTan.

61


”qali misi naRvawiT unda Sefasdes, rac misi politikuri karieris ganmsazRvreli

gaxdeba, da ara fuliT, an piradi kontaqtebiT”. - interviu

eqsperTtan, lika nadaraiasTan.

asociaciebis da moZraobebis Seqmna, partiebSi demokratiis donis amaRleba

eqspertebisa da diskusiebis monawileTa TvalsazrisiT, sxvadasxva saxis

qalTa asociaciebis, moZraobebisa da klubebis Camoyalibeba xels Seuwyobs

qalebis Cabmas sazogadoebriv moRvaweobaSi. amdenad es warmoadgens qalTa

monawileobis gaZlierebisaken mimarTul aucilebel nabijs.

”qalTa organizaciebis gaZlierebis da fondebis mozidvis Sedegad gamoCndebian

liderebi imaT Soris, vinc warmatebiT moaxerxebs qalTa organizaciebis

saerTo platformis bazaze gaerTianebas, qalTa moZraobis Camoyalibebas,

xels mokidebs qalTa ganaTlebas da wamoiwyebs sajaro debatebs genderis

Temaze”. - interviu eqsperTtan, lika nadaraiasTan.

profesiuli gaerTianebebis gaZliereba erT-erT gzad aris danaxuli.

”profesiuli kavSirebis gaZliereba droTa ganmavlobaSi win wamowevs qalliderebs,

Tumca amas Wirdeba dro da fuli” (fj 2-is monawile).

aseve xazgasmuli iyo politikuri partiebis demokratizaciis da maTSi genderuli

Tanasworobis politikis realizaciis aucilebloba:

”aucilebeblia cvlilebebi moxdes politikur partiebSi. Tu maTi mmarTveloba

ar aris demokratiuli, Tu isini ar aZleven qalebs monawileobis

SesaZleblobas, ar unda velodoT, rom isini demokratiulad moiqcevian,

maSin rodesac xelSi aiReben Zalauflebas”. - interviu eqspertTan, Tamar

abramiSvilTan.

”politikuri partiebi sazogadoebis, da ara romelime kerZo jgufis politikuri

interesebis instrumentebad unda iqcnen. amgvari cvlileba kars

gauRebs rogorc mamakacebs, ise qalebs.” - interviu eqspertTan, lela

xomerikTan.

62


qvotirebis SemoReba

qvotebis SemoReba saerTaSoriso masStabiT monawileobis gazrdis yvelaze

gavrcelebul xerxs warmoadgens. igi iTvleba saukeTeso droebiT RonisZiebad

iseTi qveynebisaTvis, sadac demokratia jer srulyofilad araa ganvi-

Tarebuli.

saqarTveloSi damokidebuleba aseTi RonisZiebis gatarebis mimarT TiTqmis

erTsulovnad uaryofiTia, mas ewinaaRmdegebian qali da mamakaci politikosebi,

da eqsperti (interviu parlamentis wevrTan, elene TevdoraZesTan, nika

ruruasTan; respublikuri partiis erT-erT liderTan, TinaTin xidaSelTan;

nacionaluri moZraobis wevrTan, irakli qavTaraZesTan). (aseve, saqarTvelos

politikuri lanSafti, 2006).

mravali mosazreba iqna gamoTqmuli qvotirebis winaaRmdeg. Tumca mZafri

winaaRmdegoba, rogorc sakiTxSi garkveul, ise masSi Cauxedav pirebTan,

vfiqrobT ZiriTadad sabWouri memkvidreobiT unda iyos gapirobebuli. sab-

WoTa kavSiris uzenaesi sabWo qvoturi sistemis safuZvelze iyo formirebuli,

rac uzrunvelyofda qalebis da aseve sxvadasxva profesiisa, Tu asakis

adamianebis monawileobas.

winaaRmdegobis erT mizezad uTanasworoba iqna dasaxelebuli:

”yvelaferi politikur aqtiobazea damokidebuli, ase, rom monawileobis

gasazrdelad xelovnuri wesebis SemoReba ar aris gamarTlebuli, radgan

SesaZleblobebi Tanabaria orive sqesisTvis da yvelaferi pirovnebis unarzea

damokidebuli” - interviu nacionaluri moZraobis wevrTan, irakli

qavTaraZesTan.

magram zogi, Tumca qvoturi sistemis SemoRebis winaaRmdegia, magram mainc

xedavs misi mxardaWeris aucileblobas:

”me qvoturis winaaRmdegi var, magram vaRiareb, rom ganviTarebad qveynebSi

es SesaZloa aucilebeli da droeibiTi RonisZieba iyos” - interviu arasamTavrobo

organizaciis xelmZRvanelTan, Tamar JvaniasTan.

63


isinic ki, vinc parlametSi qvotirebis SemoRebis momxreni arian (palamentis

wevri, kaxa kukava, guguli maRraZe; eqsperti nato SavlayaZe; leiboristuli

partiis wevri, nana devaZe) sakiTxs sifrTxiliT ekidebian da

miuTiTeben qalTa diskreditaciis safrTxeze, im SemTxvevaSi, Tu ver moxerxdeba

Sesabamisi qal kandidatebis moZieba (interviu eqspertTan, nato

SavlayaZesTan; parlamentis wevrTan, guguli maRraZesTan).

sistemis momxreni ganixilaven sxvadasxva modelebs, romelTagan SeiZleba

SeirCes yvelaze misaRebi. aseve aucilebelia Ria diskusiis warmarTva mocemul

sakiTxze (interviu eqspertebTan, lika nadaraiasTan da Tamar abramiSvilTan;

parlamentis wevrTan, kaxa kukavasTan).

”qvoutris SemoReba nayofier Sedegs moitans sanam warmomadgenloba gzas

gaikvalavs. arsebobs mravali modeli, romelTaganac SeiZleba arCevanis gakeTeba,

magaliTad, sistemis danergva saarCevno kanonmdeblobis doneze, anda

partiebis motivireba im partiebis finansuri mxardaWeris gazrdiT, visac

eqneba genderis TvalsazrisiT dabalansebuli saarCevno sia” - interviu

eqspertTan, Tamar abramiSvilTan.

qalebi samoqalaqo sazogadoebis organizaciebSi

samoqlaqo sazogadoebas ganmartaven rogorc nebayoflobiTi organizaciebisa

da dainteresebuli jgufebis seqtori, romelic ganapirobebs sajaro aqciebis

organizebis mxardaWeras (Hawkesworth, 2002).

profesiuli kavSirebi, interesTa jgufebi, arasamTavrobo organizaciebi, sa-

Temo organizaciebi da eklesia, politikasTan erTad ganixileba samoqalaqo

seqtoris nawilad da moqalaqeTa monawileobis sarbielad.

profesiuli kavSirebi

profesiuli kavSirebis Seqmnisa da maTSi gaerTianebis ufleba aRiarebulia

1997 wels miRebuli saqarTvelos kanoniT profesiul kavSirebis Sesaxeb.

kanoni aRiarebs koleqtiuri molaparakebebis warmoebis da gaficvis

mowyobis uflebas. saqarTveloSi ZiriTad profesiul kavSirs warmoadgens

saqarTvelos profesiuli kavSirebis gaerTianeba (spkg), romelic Sedgeba 26

seqtoris mixedviT dakompleqtebuli kavSirebisagan, sadac sul 261,500 adamiania

gaerTianebuli, rac mTeli daqiravebuli TanamSromlebis 45 procents

Seadgens. qalebi profkavSiris wevrebis 54 procents Seadgenen. profkavSiris

sawevro ganisazRvreba xelfasis mixedviT da is Seadgens mis 1 procents (www.

Gtuc.ge) (interviu profkavSirebis prezidenTTan, irakli petriaSvilTan). es

kavSiri sabWoTa epoqis memkvidre organizaciaa. profkavSirebis realuri

64


zemoqmedeba sazogadoebriv cxovrebaze sakmaod SezRudulia, Tumca xelmZ-

Rvaneloba, romelic 2006 wels iqna arCeuli winandelze ufro aqtiurad

aris CarTuli mSromelTa uflebebis dacvis saqmeSi. spkg-s xelmZRvanelobs

mamakaci da mis oTx TanaSemweTagan mxolod erTi, aWaris profesiuli kav-

Siris xelmZRvaneli aris qali. kavSiris komiteti 26 wevrisgan Sedgeba.

isini spkg-s seqtoruli da regonuluri organizaciebis xelmZRvanelebi

arian. maT Soris mxolod samia qali. qalebi ukeT arian warmodgenilni

kavSirebis moadgileebis doneze, sadac Seadgenen 65 procents. amasTanave,

profkavSirSi moqmedebs qalTa organizacia _ ”qomagi”.

profkavSiri aris saerTaSoriso Tavisufali profesiuli kavSirebis konfederaciis

wevri, romlis xuT prioritets Soris aris Tanasworoba da genderi

(www.icftu.org). Sromis saerTaSoriso organizacia, gaeros saagento, romlis

wevric saqarTvelo 1993 wlidan aris, akritikebs saqarTvelos Sromis kodeqsSi

arsebul ramdenime muxls da xazs usvams imas, rom kodeqsi zedmet

Tavisuflebas aniWebs damqiravebels da zRudavs daqiravebulis uflebebs,

rac ar aZlevs mSromelebs sakuTari uflebebis dacvis SesaZleblobas (rezonansi,

1 aprili, 2008). kodeqsi gansakuTrebiT agresiulia qalebis mimarT,

radgan sadekreto Svebulebis vada Zalze moklea da samuSaos usafrTxoeba,

rac samuSaos dakargvis risks gulisxmobs, Zalze dabalia.

meore gavleniani gaerTianeba aris saqarTvelos maswavlebelTa da mecnierTa

Tavisufali profesiuli kavSiri, romelic 10700 wevrs aerTianebs

da sadac did umravlesobas, 95 procents, qalebi warmoadgenen. kavSiris

gadawyvetilebis mimReb da aRmasrulebel organoebSi saxezea genderuli

uTanasworoba. kavSiris xelmZRvaneli qalia, misi gadawyvetilebis mimReb

organoSic qalebi umravlesobas (70%-s) Seadgenen, 27 daqiravebuli muSakidan

mxolod oTxia kaci.

arasamTavrobo organizaciebi

saqarTveloSi sakmaod ganviTarebulia arasamTavrobo seqtori. misi ganvi-

Tareba ucxoeli donorebis Zlieri xelSewyobis safuZvelze oTxmocdaaTiani

wlebidan daiwyo. amJamad qveyanaSi registrirebulia 40, 000 arasamTavrobo

organizacia, Tumca eqspertebis SefasebiT maTgan mxolod 10 procentia moqmedi.

seqtori araTanabradaa gavrcelebuli geografiuli TvalsazrisiT,

organizaciaTa umravlesoba dedaqalaqSia koncentrirebuli. aqvea instituciurad

yvelaze metad ganviTarebuli da warmatebuli arasamTavrobo

organizaciebi. arasamTavrobo organizaciaTa udidesi nawili mravalfunqciuria,

iTavsebs ra mTel rig gansxvavebul saqmianobebs - mag.momsaxurebiT

uzrunvelyofas, garkveuli intersebis lobirebas, politikaSi kvlevebis

warmoeba, monitorings.

65


qalebis sajaro saqmianobaSi Cabma saqarTveloSi saTaves mecxramete saukunidan

iRebs, roca ramdenime uwyeba dafuZnda, romelTa mizani qalebisTvis

ganaTlebis micema iyo da romlebsac ZiriTadad gamoCenili sazogado moRvaweebis

debi an meuRleebi uZRvebodnen.

aseTi pirveli sazogadoeba ”wminda ninos saqvelmoqmedo sazogadoeba” 1846

wels Camoyalibda. mas bevri mimdedvari gauCnda da qalebis ganaTleba,

qalebisaTvis profesiuli da ekonomikuri SesaZleblobebis gaZliereba, skolebSi

qarTuli enis swavleba, aseve qarTuli sabavSvo literaturis Seqmna

da bavSvTa aRzrdaSi axali meTodebis Semotana maT ZiriTad saqmianobad

iqca (xomeriki da javaxiSvili, 2005). mravali axlad Seqmnili organizacia

muSaobda maswavleblebisa da moswavleebis socilur problemebze. amas-

Tan erTad Camoyalibda sazogadoebebi, romlebmac tradiciul saqmianobas

politikuri mandati daumates. aseTi iyo ”qalTa wre xonSi”. igi 1903 wels

Camoyalibda da qalebis sazogadoebriv cxovrebaSi Cabmas isaxavda miznad.

amave dros, Camoyalibda ramdenime sazogadoeba qalebis dasaqmebis mxardasaWerad.

1889 wels notio loluas profesiuli saswavlebeli dafuZnda

foTSi. imave periodSi, qalebis saganmanaTleblo saswavleblebSi maswavleblebis,

mdivnebisa da sxvaTa profesiuli momzadeba xorcieldeboda. seqs

muSakebis warmoebaSi dasaqmebis mxardasaWerad 1903 wels Seiqmna wminda

maria magdalenas saqvelmoqmedo sazogadoeba, romelmac gaxsna TavSesafari.

sazogadoeba TavSesafars da profesiul momzadebas sTavazobda 25 wlamde

asakis qalebs, maT vinc acxadebda survils uari eTqva sxeuliT vaWrobaze.

qalebi aqtiurad arian Cabmulni arasamTavrobo seqtoris moRvaweobaSi da

saxelmwifo seqtorisgan gansxvavebiT, xelmZRvaneloben organizaciebs, sadac

maT ufro xSirad ukaviaT xelmZRvaneli Tanamdebobebi. 2008 wlis TebervalSi

Catarebulma kvlevam (Mincheva, 2008) gamoavlina, rom qalebi Warbobdnen

mamakacebs rogorc dedaqalaqSi, ase regionebSi arsebul organizaciebSi.

qalebi arasamTavrobo seqtorSi dasaqmebulTa 58 procents Seadgenen

TbilisSi da 63.8 procents regionebSi. metic, samecniero xarisxis mqone

TanamSromelTa Soris 65.8 procenti qalia, arasamTavrobo organizaciebis

umravlesobas (59.2%) aseve qalebi xelmZRvaneloben.

genderul Tanasworobas mxardasaWerad saerTaSoriso organizaciebisa da

donorebis mier ganxorcielebulma politikam xeli Seuwyo qalTa organizaciebis

Camoyalibebas. dResdReobiT qalTa, an qalTa sakiTxebze momuSave

samocdaaTamde arasamTavrbo ogranizacia funqcionirebs, magram ar arsebobs

mamakacis problemebze fokusirebuli organizacia.

66


ogorc es samoqalaqo seqtorisTvis Cveuli praqtikaa, qalTa sakiTxebze

momuSave arasamTavrobo organizaciebi erTdroulad ramdenime sferoSi

muSaoben da sxvadasxva saqmianobiT arian dakavebuli, iseTiT, rogoricaa

momsaxureoba, konsultireba, Treiningi, kvleva da a.S. maTi umravlesoba

muSaobs socialur problemebze, ganaTlebaze da gendrze.

socialuri

problemebi

ganaTleba

genderi

janmrTeloba

gansakuTrebuli

jgufebi

nax. 10

qalTa arasamTavrobo organizaciebis moRvaweobis sferoebi

67


qalTa arasamTavrobo organizaciebis moRvaweoba maincdamainc ar Cans.

rogorc erT-erTma respondentma aRniSna, didia imis saWiroeba, rom resursebi

ufro efeqturad iqnes gamoyenebuli:

”SeiniSneba pasiuroba, Cven xSirad vsaubrobT warumateblobebze, rac garkvveuli

saxiT damokidebulebaze miuTiTebs. me moviTxov, rom gansakuTrebuli

sifxizle da kritikuloba gamoviCinoT da saerTaSoriso da adgilobrivi

organizaciebis resursbi maqsimaluri efeqturobiT movixmaroT.” -interviu

eqspertTan, nino cixisTavTan.

2004 wels, UNIFEM-is mxardaWeriT, qalebma Seqmnes samSvidobo qseli,

saxelwodebiT qalTa erToba mSvidobisaTvis, romelmac asze meti monawile,

organizacia, Tu calkeuli adamiani gaaerTiana. misi mizani Semdegnairad

ganisazRvra:”pozitiuri da mdgradi mSvidobis miRweva qalebis monawileobisa

da genderuli Tanasworobis saSualebiT”. Zaladobisagan dacvis erovnuli

qseli ukve wlebis ganmavlobaSi funqcionirebs qveyanaSi. magram miuxedavad

mravalgzisi mcdelobisa, qalTa organizaciebma ver moaxerxes Zalisxmevis

gaerTianeba da erTiani, mZlavri, sicocxlisunariani moZraobis Camoyalibeba.

Tumca 2000 wels euTo _ demokratiuli institutebisa da adamianTa uflebebis

ofisis mxardaWeriT Camoyalibda qalTa arasamTavrobo organizaciebis

koalicia. amJamad masSi 80 organizaciaa gaerTianebuli.

gaeros ganviTarebis programa gansakuTrebul interess iCens qalebis sazogadoebriv

cxovrebaSi CarTvis mimarT. am sferoSi mraval saqmianobas warmarTavs

proeqti ”genderi da politika samxreT kavkasiaSi”. proeqtis Tanadamfinanseblebi

arian SvedeTis saerTaSoriso ganviTarebis saagento (SIDA)

da saqarTvelos mTavaroba. igi xorciledeba erToblivad, gaeros ganviTarebis

fondisa da saqarTvelos parlamentis mier. proeqtis mizania wvlili

Seitanos genderuli politikis gansazRvraSi, mxari dauWiros qalTa politikaSi

monawileobas, ufro zustad ki, gazardos qalTa SesaZleblobebi da

monawileoba gadawyvetilebebis miRebaSi.

samoqalaqo sazogadoebis sxva tipis organizaciebi

saTemo organizaciebis ricxvi mniSvnelovnad Camouvardeba arasamTavrobo

organizaciebis raodenobas. isini ZiriTadad soflad funqcionireben. saTemo

organizaciebis ganviTareba baqo-Tbilisi-jeihanisa da samxreT saqarTvelos

milsadenis mSeneblobebTan aris dakavSirebuli. bolo xanebSi, saTemo organizaciebi

CarTuli arian adgilobrivi ganviTarebis gegmebis SemuSavebaSi da

amdenad gadawyvetilebis miRebaSi monawileobis karg magaliTs iZlevian.

68


qalebi aqtiurad arian CarTuli saTemo organizaciebis muSaobaSi da xSirad

uZRvebian kidec maT. qalTa iniciativis TvalsaCino nimuSia Telavis raionis

sofel vardisubnis saTemo organizacia. am soflis qalebi matylis sabnebs

keraven. samwliani gamocdilebis safuZvelze maT SeZles kerZo seqtorisagan

kontraqtebis uzrunvelyofa.

interesTa jgufebi da momxmarebelTa kavSirebi jer kidev iSviaTobas warmoadgenen,

Tanac arsebuli organizaciebi ar gamoirCevian aqtiurobiT. qalebs

iSviaTad irCeven maRal Tanamdebobebze am seqtorSi. profesiuli asociaciebi

samoqalaqo sazogadoebis organizaciis kidev erTi formaa. profkavSiris

msagavsad, am organizaciebs xangrZlivi tradicia aqvT. sabWoTa epoqaSi maT

sakmao gavlenac qondaT, isini gankargavdnen did qonebas da maRali presti-

JiT sargeblobdnen. am kavSirebis umetesobas mamakacebi Tavmjdomareoben,

erTis gamoklebiT, esaa mweralTa kavSiri, romelis Tavmjdomarec qalia.

eTnikur safuZvelze Seqmnili organizaciebi aseve saTemo organizaciebis

nawils warmoadgenen. maTi, rogorc eTnikur warmomavlobaze dafuZnebuli

ogranizaciebis mTavari mizania TviTmyofadobis SenarCuneba da eTnikur sam-

SoblosTan kavSirebis gamyareba, iseve, rogorc integracia saqarTveloSi.

amasTanave, arsebobs ramdenime sportze an hobize dafuZnebuli organizacia.

maTi umravlesoba, safexburTo federaciis msgavsad, mxolod mamakacebs aer-

Tianebs.

religiuri institutebi

sazogadod, miCneulia rom qalebi mamakacebze ufro religiurebi arian.

qalebi qarTuli marTlmadidebluri eklesiis mrevlis ufro did nawils

Seadgenen. Cveni gamokiTxvis respondentTa umravlesoba (91.1%) qarTuli

marTlmadidebeli eklesiis mrevlia. marTlmadideblebis garda respondentTa

Soris sxva aRmsareblobis adamianebi iyvnen 3.9 procenti muslimebi,

2.9 procenti gregorianelebi, 0.8 procenti kaTolikebi. gamokiTxulTa 1.4

procenti sxva aRmsareblobas ganekuTvenboda. mamakacebze (8.7%) sagrZnoblad

metma qalma (22.1%) miuTiTa, rom icavda mniSvnelovan religiur

ritualebs.

qveyanaSi arsebobs mTeli rigi monastrebisa, sadac berebi da monazvnebi moRvaweoben.

magaliTisTvis, mcxeTa-Tbilisis eparqiaSi 11 monasteria mamakacebisaTvis

da 8 qalebisTvis. qveyanaSi aseve moqmedebs sasuliero akademia da

seminaria. am saganmanaTleblo dawesebulebebSi ganaTlebis miReba mxolod

mamakacebs SeuZliaT. qalebs ganaTlebis miReba SeuZliaT 1988 wels daarsebul

saRvTismetyvelo institutSi, sadac sami kaTedraa: fsiqologiis

69


da religiis, xelovnebisa da religis istoriis, xatebis restavraciisa da

gamoyenebiTi xelovnebis. aq studentTa 80.0 procents qalebi Sedgenen.

registraciis wesebis Tanaxmad (ZalaSi Sevida 2005 wels), religiuri sazogadoebebi

SeiZleba regisrtrirebul iqnen iusticiis saministroSi. am

xnisaTvis registrirebulia 14 aseTi sazogadoeba (magaliTad, meSvide dRis

adventistebi). maT wevrebs ZiriTadad qalebi Seadgenen, Tumca sazogadoebebs

mamakacebi xelmZRvaneloben.

ZiriTadi sakiTxebi

qalebis sazogadoebriv cxovrebaSi monawileobis mizans qveynisaTvis mniSvnelovani

gadawyvetilebebis miRebis procesSi genderuli Tvalsazrisis

gaTvaliswineba warmoadgens. amis miRweva SesaZlebelia cnobierebis amaRlebiT

genderis sakiTxebSi, rac Tavismxriv SeiZleba warmoadgendes sajaro

sferoSi qalebis ufro sruli warmomadgenlobis Sedegs. Tumca, am miznisagan

damoukideblad, qalis sazogadoebriv cxovrebaSi Cabma TavisTavad unda

ganixilebodes, rogorc mizani.

analizi cxadad miuTiTebs sazogadoebriv cxovrebaSi monawileobis TvalsazrisiT

saqarTveloSi arsebul genderul uTanasworobaze. im dros, roca

mamakacebisa da qalebis interesi sazogadoebrivi saqmianobisa da politikis

mimarT mniSvnelovnad ar gansxvavdeba erTmaneTisagan, is zegavlena, rac maT

gadawyvetilebis miRebisas gaaCniaT, Zlier gansxvavebulia, mamakacebi qalebze

Seudareblad met Zalauflebas floben.

arCeviT da mmarTvelobis struqturebSi qalebis ufro meti warmomadgenlobis

aucilebloba sayovelTaod aris aRiarebuli. magram aseve xSirad

vlindeba sazogadoebriv asparezze qalis aqtiuri CarTulobis mimarT Rrmad

fesvgadgmuli diskriminacia.

kulturuli stereotipebi, cnobierebisa da mgrZnobiarobis nakleboba,

genderuli Tanasworobis miRwevisTvis saWiro Tanmimdevruli saxelmwifo

politikis arqona, drois, aseve SesaZleblobebis da motivaciis ukmarisoba

qalebSi, maTi dabali CarTulobis mizezebad aris aRiarebuli.

situaciis mkveTrad gaumjobesebis mizniT saWiroa ganxorcielebul iqnes rigi

RonisZiebebi:

imis gamo, rom Tanabari monawileoba warmoadgens genderuli Tanasworobis

mxolod erT-erT fasads, qalTa CarTuloba ganxilul unda iqnes genderuli

Tanasworobis mTlian konteqstSi.

mTavar sakiTxs warmoadgens genderuli sakiTxebisadmi sazogadoebis mgrZno-

70


iarobis gazrda da sazogadoebaSi qalis adgilis Sesaxeb tradiciuli warmodgenis

Secvla. am miznis miRwevis saSualebebi Semdegia:media kampaniebi

da sajaro cxovrebis yvela doneze genderuli Tanasworobis propaganda,

formaluri ganaTleba sabavSvo baRidan umaRlesis CaTvliT. genderuli

perspeqtividan unda iqnes gadasinjuli saxelmZRvaneloebi, maswavleblebma

unda gaiaron specialuri Treningi, skolebSi da sabavSvo baRebSi unda iqnen

moziduli mamakaci maswavleblebi,

Camoyalibebul unda iqnes grZel-vadiani saxelmwifo politika. unda daiwyos

mTavrobis mier miRebuli genderuli Tanasworobis samoqmedo gegmis

ganxorcieleba.

gadasinjul unda iqnes da saerTaSoriso standartebTan SesatyvisobaSi unda

iqnes moyvanili Sromis kodeqsi, raTa qalebs mieceT SesaZlebloba ganaxorcielon

Tavis movaleobebi orive, kerZo da sajaro sferoebSi.

amJamad qalTa monawileobis Zlieri sakanonmdeblo da saxelmwifo mxardaWeris

gareSe SeuZlebelia sajaro sferoSi arsebuli genderuli uTanasworobis

Semcireba. qvotirebis sistemis Semotana warmoadgens monawileobis

gazrdis pirdapir da swraf saSualebas. ZiriTadad sabWouri warsuliT

gapirobebuli qvotirebis sistemisadmi arsebul Rrmad gamjdar uaryofiTi

damokidebulebis Sesacvlelad unda wamowyebul iqnes sajaro diskusiebi,

warmodgenili unda iqnes qvotirebis sxvadasxva modelebi da kritikulad

unda iqnes ganxiluli dagrovili saerTaSoriso gamocdileba.

qalTa monawileobis mxardasaWer erT SesaZlo gzas warmoadgens politikuri

partiebis stimulireba, raTa maT saarCevno siebis pirvel aTeulsa

da oceulSi Seiyvanon qalebi. stimulireba SeiZleba gamoixatos maTTvis

ufaso satelevizio drois gamoyofiT partiis saqmianobis propagandisaTvis,

partiis wevrebis, qalebisa da kacebis, ufaso TreningiT.

qalebis unarebisa da motivaciis gazrda unda moxdes qalebis metad CarTviT

formalur ganaTlebis sistemaSi da specialur Treningis programebSi. maT

unda mieceT sazogadoebaSi da mediaSi gamoCenis SesaZlebloba.

mniSvnelovania qals SevuqmnaT pirobebi, raTa mas gamounTavisufldes dro

sazogadoebrivi aqtivobisaTvis. amis miRweva SesaZlebelia qalis ekonomikuri

pirobebis gaumjobesebiT, imiT, rom qals mieces saSualeba iqiraos

damxmare, SeiZinos sxvadasxva saxis momsaxureba da agreTve, ojaxur cxovrebaSi

mamakacis ufro metad Cabmis meSveobiT.

qalebis klubebsa da sxva nebayoflobiT organizaciebSi gaerTianeba da

qalebis dawinaureba sabolood gazrdis qalTa monawileobas. momgebiani

iqneba qalTa organizaciebis Seqmna da mxardaWera, gansakuTrebiT soflad

da eTnikuri umciresobebiT dasaxlebul adgilebSi, sadac SesaZlebloba

71


imuSaon mamakacebis gverdigverd, sakmaod SezRudulia.

saerTaSoriso gamocdilebam daadastura, rom qalTa moZraobebi, romlebic

politikuri ZalauflebisaTvis ibrZvian, met warmatebas aRweven vidre arsebul

institutebSi integrirebuli qalTa jgufebi. es gapirobebuli unda

iyos moZraobebSi arsebuli didi kritikuli masiT da maT xelT arsebuli

SesaZleblobiT Camoayalibon damoukidebeli strategiebi da politikuri

miznebi (Gelb, 1989). ase, rom qalebis mZlavri moZraobis Camoyalibebam

SeiZleba radikaluri cvlileba moitanos, magram rogorc adrec SevniSneT,

dRemde es mcdelobebi saqarTveloSi warumatebeli rCeba. erTianoba Tavdapirvelad

SeiZleba daefuZnos erTi, an ori konkretuli miznis miRwevas.

72


Tavi 4

dasaqmeba

siRaribe aRiarebulia, rogorc qveynis erT-erTi mTavari problema. msoflio

sasursaTo programaSi (2008 wlis maisi) warmodgenili gaeros gaTvlebiT,

saqarTvelo win uswrebs mxolod socialurad Raribi qveynebis

umdables kategorias. gamoTvla efuZneba sursaTze daxarjuli Semosavlis

wilis gansazRvras (alia, maisi, 27-28 2008). 2005 wels qveynis mosaxleobis

39.4 procenti siRatakis zRvars miRma iyo. siRaribis done soflis mosaxleobaSi

ufro maRali iyo (41.7%) qalaqis (37.1 %) mosaxleobasTan SedarebiT

(saqarTvelo: siRaribis Semcirebis strategiis dokumenti. Sualeduri

angariSi, 2006).

demografia erT-erTi aspeqtia, romelic ekonomikaze axdens gavlenas. 13

wlis ganmavlobaSi, or aRweras Soris, saqarTvelos mosaxleoba Semcirda

1, 088.000-iT, 5,443.400-dan 1989 wels 4,355,400-mde 2002 wels.

msoflio bankis moxsenebis ”wiTlidan ruxisken (2007), mixedviT qveynis ekonomikuri

perspeqtiva damZimebulia saqarTvelos mosaxleobis mosalodneli

17 procentiani klebiT 2002-2025 wlebSi. 2025 wels 65 welze meti asakis

adamianebi mosaxleobis 18 procenti iqneba, maSin rodesac 2002 wels isini 13

procents Seadgendnen. mosaxleobis dabereba did zewolas moaxdens saxelmwifos

xarjebze, gansakuTrebiT sapensio da xandazmulebze xangrZlivi movlis

dasafaravi xarjebis gamo.

siRaribes saqarTveloSi ramdenime Tavisebureba gamoarCevs sxva, tradiciulad

Raribi qveynebisagan. 1990 wlis ekonomikuri krizisis win, iTvleboda,

rom sabWoTa respublikebs Soris saqarTveloSi iyo cxovrebis yvelaze

maRali done. es iyo qveyana, sadac Zalian maRali iyo umaRlesi ganaTlebis

mqone adamianTa wili. amdenad, mravali wlis ganmavlobaSi dabalma Semosavalma

ver Secvala adamianuri kapitali _ ganaTleba da janmrTeloba,

magram dabali Semosavalis zegavlena sul ufro TvalSisacemi xdeba. da

mainc, umaRlesi ganaTlebis mqone mSoblebi, ufro dabali ganaTlebis

mqone mSoblebisgan gansxvavebiT, kvlavindeburad faseulad miiCneven TavianTi

Svilebis unarebis ganviTarebas da am gziT cdiloben Searbilon

siRaribis Sedegebi.

mTavroba siRaribes ebrZvis programis: gaerTianebuli saqarTvelo siRaribis

gareSe 2008-2012, aseve qveynis ekonomikis zrdisa da siRaribis sawinaaRm-

73


dego socialuri programebis ganxorcielebis meSveobiT.

erT-erTi aseTi programaa saxelmwifo daxmareba siRaribis zRvars qvemoT

myof ojaxebisTvis. 2008 wlis aprilisaTvis, 467 749 ojaxma, romelTa wevrebis

saerTo raodenoba 1, 486 281-is tolia, mimarTa programas daxmarebis

moTxovniT. es niSnavs, rom saqarTveloSi mcxovrebi ojaxebis 39.8 procenti

Tavs Raribad miiCnevs da saxelmwifosagan daxmarebas iTxovs. am ojaxebis 28.8

procentma daxmareba miiRo. did ojaxebTan SedarebiT, mcire zomis ojaxebi

bevrad uares mdgomareobaSi arian. im ojaxebis 59.6 procenti, vinc miiRo

daxmareba, erTi an ori wevrisgan Sedgeba.

wveri; 8,30%

wveri;

wveri;

wveri;

an meti

wveri; 4,00%

nax. 11

saxelmwifo daxmareba Rarib ojaxebs

(2008 wlis aprilis monacemebi) wyaro www.ssa.gov.ge

genderuli uTanasworoba Tavs iCens ekonomikaSi. qalebis raodenoba Warbobs,

rogorc daxmarebis momTxovnTa Soris (55.3 % qali da 44.7 % mamakaci),

ise maT Soris, vinc saxelmwifo daxmareba miiRo (56.7 % qali da 43.3 %

mamakaci).

qveynis mdidar adamianTa Soris mxolod TiTo-orola qalma SeZlo simdidris

TviTon dagroveba. qalebis mamakacebze damokidebuleba mniSvnelovanwilad

ekonomikuri damokidebulebiTaa gapirobebuli. xelfasi zrdis qalis

damoukideblobas.

74

wveri;

wveri;


ogorc erTma Cvenma respondentma SeniSna:

”bolo wlebSi qalaqad mravali ojaxis Semosavali qalze damokidebuli

gaxda da es xels uwobs Tanasworobas; mamakacis Tanasworad fulis qona niSnavs

Tanaswori Tavisuflebis qonas” - interviu arasamTavrobo organizaciis

xelmZRvanelTan, Tamar JvaniasTan.

erTerTma studentma gogonam aseTi mosazreba gamoTqva jgufur ganxilvisas

(fj 7):

”rogorc ki qali ojaxSi Semomtanad iqceva, ojaxis Zalauflebis struqturas

is gansazRvravs, anu socialuri statusi qmnis gansxvavebas”.

siRaribis Sedegebi mravalmxrivia. siRaribe sul ufro metad aris gagebuli,

rogorc ZiriTadi SesaZleblobebis SezRudva da ara ubralod, rogorc

dabali Semosavlis qona. magram, siRaribis mravalganzomilebiani xasiaTis

miuxedavad, Semosavali mis umTavres komponentad rCeba. umetes SemTxvevaSi

ki Semosavali samuSaozea damokidebuli.

siRaribis msgavsad, umuSevrobac bevrad ufro metia, vidre ubralod Semosavalis

dakargva. dasaqmeba statusis maCvenebelia. samuSaos garda zrdasrul

adamians drois Rirseulad daxarjvis cota alternativa gaaCnia.

dasaqmeba zegavlenas axdens adamianis Tavmoyvareobaze, TviT-Sefasebaze, cxovrebiT

kmayofilebaze da TviTefeqturobaze, anu moqmedebis ganxorcielebis

unaris qonis aRqmaze, aseve socialur urTierTobebze, ojaxur cxovrebasa

da prestiJze (Sullivan, 2004; Lauer, 1998).

adamianebi CarTulni arian dasaqmebis, rogorc formalur, aseve araformalur

sferoSi. sqesis mixedviT diferenciacia exeba ara marto aqtiobis

sferos-sajaro mamakacebisaTvis da kerZo qalebisaTvis, aramed aseve segregacias

sferoebis SigniT. dasaqmebaSi aRiniSneba segregacia profesiebsa da

TanamdebobebSi, aseve dasaqmebis formalur, araformalur sferoebsa da

TviTdasaqmebaSi.

samsaxuris povna, an misi Seqmna TiTqmis yvelgan ufro Znelia qalisTvis,

vidre kacisTvis. imisaTvis, rom qalma Tavisi adgili daimkvidros, rogorc

muSa Zalam, mas kacTan SedarebiT ufro didi brZola da ufro meti

faruli, Tu xiluli dabrkolebebis gadalaxva uwevs. finansurma gaWirvebam

qalebs biZgi misca Cabmuliyvnen sxvadasxva ekonomikur saqmianobaSi. mZime

75


viTarebis gamo maT itvirTes pasuxismgebloba uzrunveleyoT TavianTi ojaxebi

saarsebo minimumiT. qalebma mamakacebze adre gaacnobieres, rom aRar

dabrundeboda saxelmwifos mier samsaxuriT uzrunvelyofis dro da rom

maT Tavad unda ezrunaT sakuTar momavalze. qalebi mamakacebze gacilebiT

moqnilebi aRmoCndnen profesiis Secvlis TvaslazrisiT, maT ar iTakiles

sakuTari kvalifikaciisaTvis Seuferebeli saqmis keTeba, umuSevrobas amjobines

arakvalificirebuli samuSaos Sesruleba _ quCaSi sigaretebisa da

yvavilebis gayidva, TurqeTidan saqonlis Camotana, mawvnis gakeTeba da misi

qalaqSi gayidva, bavSvebis momvlelebad da damlageblebad muSaoba, mcire

biznesis wamowyeba. ase gaikvlia bevrma qalma gza axal ekonomikur realobaSi,

xSirad profesiisa da sakuTari miswrafebebis daTmobis xarjze.

dasaqmebis arafomalur sferoSi qalebi raodenobrivad Warboben mamakacebs.

qveyanaSi arsebuli dabali samuSao usafrTxoebis fonzec ki, arafomraluri

struqturebSi dasaqmebuli adamianebi ukiduresad mZime mdgomareobaSi imyofebian.

es Seexeba samuSao Zalis sakmaod did nawils - wvril movaWreebs,

Sinamosamsaxureebsa da ZiZebs, romelTa umravlesoba qalebi arian.

”qalebis didi raodenoba muSaobs dasaqmebis araformalur seqtorSi,

romelic arc regulirdeba da arc kontrolirdeba. swored aq vawydebiT

diskriminaciis sastik formebs, seqsualur Zaladobasa da mtrul garemos” -

interviu eqspertTan, Tamar sabedaSvilan.

meores mxriv, mamakacebi metad arian warmodgenilni formalur seqtorSi.

formalur seqtorSi dasaqmebulTagan qalebi 47.5 procents, xolo mamakacebi

52.5 procents Seadgenen. meti adamiania dasaqmebuli kerZo seqtorSi (77.0%)

sazogadoebriv seqtorTan SedarebiT (23.0%). qalebi ukeT arian warmodgenilni

saxelmwifo seqtorSi (dasaqmebul qalTa 25.8 procenti), vidre mamakacebi

(dasaqmebul mamakacTa 20.5 procenti) (qalebi da mamakacebi, 2006).

saxelmwifo seqtorTan SedarebiT kerZo seqtori ufro maRali xelfasis

miRebis SesaZlebloba iZleva, magram qalebi orive seqtorSi mamakacebze

dabal xelfasis iReben. statistikis departamentis monacemebiT, 2005 wels

saxelmwifo seqtorSi momuSave qalebis xelfasi saSualod 89.3 lari iyo,

xolo mamakacebis 184.1 lari. qalebis saSualo Semosavali kerZo seqtorSi

Seadgneda 134.7 lars, xolo mamakacebisa - 210.6 lars. genderuli gansxvavebebi

ufro mkveTria saxelmwifo seqtorSi (94.8 lari), SedarebiT kerZo

seqtorTan (75.9 lari), rac albaT kerZo seqtorSi arsebuli samuSaos Sesrulebis

xarisxze orientirebuli midgomiT aixsneba.

Cveni gamokiTxvis dasaqmebuli respondentebis 58.3 procenti kerZo seqtorSi

muSaobs, 33.4 procenti TviT-dasaqmebulia, 12.5 procenti saxelmwifo samsax-

76


urSia da 8.3 procenti ki - arasamTavrobo organizaciebSia gaerTianebuli.

samuSaos usafrTxoeba qveyanaSi dabalia. saerTaSoriso Sromis organizaciam

(ITUC CSI IGB 2007 – profesiuli kavSirebis uflebebis darRvevebis wliuri

mimoxilva) sastikad gaakritika saqarTvelos Sromis kodeqsi, romelic

ZalaSi Sevida 2006 wels. organizacia mas saerTaSoriso standartebis dar-

Rvevad miiCnevs. mis mixedviT kodeqsi nergavs ”daiqirave-gaagde”-s politikas,

radgan dasaqmebuli SeiZleba samsaxuridan gaTavisuflebul iqnes yovelgvari

dasabuTebis gareSe.

miCneulia, rom axali Sromis kodeqsi ukan gadadgmuli nabijia wina kodeqsTan

SedarebiT qalebis uflebebis TvalsazrisiTac. winamorbedi kodeqsis

Tanaxmad, momuSave dedebs, romelTac yavdaT 3 wlamde asakis bavSvi, neba

eZleodaT samsaxurSi erTi saaTiT gvian misulyvnen da erTi saaTiT adre

daemTavrbinaT muSaoba. es muxli axal kodeqsSi aRar aris. moqmedi kodeqsis

Tanaxmad meZuZur dedas mxolod erTi damatebiTi saaTi eZleva SesvenebisTvis.

SezRudulia fuladi kompensacia sadekreto Svebulebisas. xelfasis

odenobisgan damoukideblad, qals ar SeuZlia miiRos 150 larze meti TveSi,

rac Seadgens 600 lars mTeli sadekreto SvebulebisTvis.

”es demografiuli problemisTvis didi dartymaa, qalebi, romlebsac didi

xelfasi aqvT da Svilis yolas ganizraxaven, aRar iReben sadekreto Svebulebas

da muSaoben bavSvis gaCenis dRemde. es ki ueWvelad aryevs rogorc

dedis, ise bavSvis janmrTelobas.”- interviu profesiuli kavSirebis TavmjdomaresTan,

irakli petriaSvilTan.

dasaqmeba statusis niSania, is aseve aZlevs adamians saSualebas gaeqces

yoveldRiur problemebs, Caebas sazogadoebriv cxovrebaSi, daamyaros socialuri

kavSirebi, moaxdinos TviTrealizacia da amdenad xels uwyobs

adamianuri da socialuri kapitalis ganviTarebas. samuSao, rogorc mamakacis,

ise qalis identurobis mniSvnelovan nawils warmoadgens. gamokiTxvis

Sedegebma uCvenes, rom pirdapiri kavSiri arsebobs dasaqmebasa da cxovrebiT

kmayofilebas, bedierebas, TviTSefasebasa da optimizms Soris rogorc mamakacebSi,

ise qalebSi. magram dasaqmeba maic ufro mniSvnelovania mamakacisaTvis.

amaze isic miuTiTebs, rom dasaqmeba kacebze ufro met zegavlenas

axdens, vidre qalebze, Tumca, tvirTis gaormagebis miuxedavad, dasaqmeba

qalebzec dadebiTad moqmedebs.

dasaqmeba cxovrebiT kmayofilebasTanaa dakavSirebuli: dasaqmebul mamakac-

Ta 34.0 procenti dausaqmebelTa 23.0 procentTan SedarebiT, da dasaqmebul

qalTa 24.3 procenti dausaqmebel qalTa 19.2 procentTan SedarebiT, cxovrebiT

kmayofilia.

77


dasaqmebuli mamakacebis 57.1 procenti dausaqmebelTa 47.3 procentTan SedarebiT

da dasaqmebuli qalebis 58.0 procenti dausaqmebel qalebis 50.0

procentTan SedarebiT Tavs ufro bednierad grZnobs.

dasaqmebuli mamakacebis 65. 2 procents dausaqmebel 58.9 procentTan SedarebiT

da dasaqmebuli qalebis 51.1 procents dausaqmeblebis 46.8 procent-

Tan SedarebiT, maRali TviT-Sefaseba aqvs.

dasaqmebuli mamakacebis 52.2 procenti da dausaqmebeli mamakacebis 48.9

procneti optimistia. dasaqmebli qalebis 54.9 procenti da dausaqmebeli

qalebis 50.4 procenti optimistur ganwyobas inarCunebs.

qalebis wilis zrda samuSao ZalaSi TvalSisacemia msoflios yvela regionSi

(Pollert & Fodor, 2005), da mainc, qalebisTvis samsaxuris Sovna ufro

Znelia. gaCnda iseTi koncefciebi, rogoricaa qorwinebis barieri da orsulobis

barieri, rac niSnavs, rom gaTxovil da orsul qalebs samsaxurSi

miRebaze uars eubnebian da gaTxovil qalebsa da dedebs samsaxuridan wasvlisken

ubiZgeben.

dasaqmebulma qalebi ki SeiZleba ori saxis, horizontaluri da vertikaluri

segregaciis msxverplni gaxdnen.

horizontaluri segregacia

arsebobs tradiciulad qalisa da tradiciulad mamakacis profesiebi. sqesis

mixedviT profesiuli segregacia gavrcelebulia mTel msoflioSi. ase

magaliTad, aSS-Si qalebi iseT profesiiT muSaoben, sadac qalebi 70 procents

Seadgenen, xolo mamakacebi ki iq, sadac 70 procents mamakacebi Seadgenen.

2002 wels, dasaqmebul qalTa mesamedze meti koncentrirebuli iyo

Semdeg profesiul kategoriebSi: maswavlebeli, mdivani, menejeri da administratori,

jandacvis sferos profesiebi, sacalo vaWroba, sabanko saqme

da dazRveva. (Convey, et al., 2005). viTareba metnaklebad msgavsia globalurad:

dasaqmebuli qalebis sami meoTxedi mTel msoflioSi 7 profesiaSi

moRvaweobs: meddebi, mdivnebi/mbeWdavebi, saxlebis momvlelebi, buRaltrebi

da molareebi, damlageblebi, momvlelebi, mkeravebi (Wharton, 2004).

sqesis mixedviT profesiuli segregacia mTel rig faqtorebze, maT Sorisa

ekonomika, socialur da kulturul maxasiaTeblebze aris damokidebuli.

qalebisTvis mamakacuri profesia ufro xelmisawvdomi xdeba, maSin, rodesac

mamakacebis naklebobaa. es gamovlinda yvela qveyanaSi omis periodSi da

axlac TvalSi sacemia qveynebSi, sadac dabalia Sobadoba. sazogadoebaSi

damkvidrebuli Tanasworuflebianoba aseve amcirebs segregacias.

78


saqarTveloSi monacemTa arseboba ar iZleva zusti daskvnebis gakeTebis

saSualebas profesiuli segregaciis Taobaze magram Cveni dakvirvebis safuZvelze

SeiZleba davaskvnaT, rom saqarTveloSic zemoT naxsenebi saqmianobebiT

umetesad qalebi arian dakavebulni.

qalebis samsaxureobrivi miRwevebi ufro metad xelovnebasTan da ganaTlebasTanaa

dakavSirebuli. amas nawilobriv adasturebs saqarTvelos sabWoTa

enciklopedia, romelic 1975-1987 wlebSia gamoqveynebuli da aseve, ”vin vin

aris”, romelic 2006 wels gamoqyveynda.

saqarTvelos sabWoTa enciklopediaSi 321 qarTveli qalia CamoTvlili. maT

Soris naxevarze meti (59.9%) xelovnebis warmomadgenelia, 14.6 procenti

mecnierebisa da ganaTlebis sferoSi, xolo qalebis 6.2 procents warmoebaSi

dakavebuli qalebi Seadgenen.

79


jandacva,

gmirebi,

warmoeba,

mecniereba da

ganaTleba,

politika,

sporti,

nax. 12

saqarTvelos sabWoTa enciloklopediaSi moRvaweobis sferos mixedviT

qalebze Sesuli statiebis ganawileba

wyaro: m. maisuraZe, gamouqveynebeli angariSi

”vin vin aris” Seicavs monacemebs 227 qalze. aqac, qalebis udides wils

(42.7%) xelovnebis da samecniero sferos (21.6%) warmomadgenlebi Seadgenen

80

sxva,

xelovneba,


sporti,

jandacva,

politika,

Jurnalisti,

mecniereba,

nax. 13

qalebi ”vin vin aris”- is mixedviT, 2006

sxva,

qalebis saSualo Semosavali mamakacebis Semosavalze mcirea. amis mizezi isaa,

rom is sferoebi, sadac qalebi muSaoben, nakleb anazRaurebadia. mamakacebi

ufro maRalanazRaurebad, ufro prestiJul profesiebs irCeven. magaliTad,

notariusebs Soris Zalze cotaa mamakacebi. rogorc erTma Cvenma respondentma

aRniSna amis mizezi is aris, rom:

”es ar iTvleboda maincadamainc prestiJul profesiad da arc maRal

kvalifikacias moiTxovda.”

”mamakaci mudam maRal anazRaurebad samuSaos eZebs, radgan ojaxi unda uzrunvelyos.

ekonomikuri SeWirvebis dros qalebma moaxerxes sakuTari adgilis

povna, daTanxmdnen dabal anazRaurebad samsaxurebs, xolo mamakacebis

didma nawilma amjobina Sin darCena da colis xarjze cxovreba. ”interviu

qalTa sabWos wevrTan, baia romelaSvilTan.

qalebis saqmianobis sferoebi, anu ganaTlebis, jandacvis, sastumroebisa da

restornebis, _ is sferoebia, sadac saSualo anazRaureba yvelaze dabalia.

ase magaliTad, saSualo yovelTviuri xelfasi ganaTlebis sferoSi 2007

wlis meore kvartalSi iyo 147.3 lari, jandacvaSi - 183.3 lari da sastumroebisa

da restornis momsaxurebaSi 344.4 lari. yvelaze maRali xelfasebi

finansur saqmianobas (943.8 lari) da wiaRiseulis mopovebas (644.8 lari)

ukavSirdeba. es tradiciulad mamakacis saqmianobebia. imave periodSi qalis

saSualo Semosavali iyo 211.2 lari, xolo mamakacisa - 320.9 lari (statis-

81

xelovneba,


tikis departamenti). Tumca, im saqmianobebSic ki, sadac mamakacebi arian

wamyvan poziciebze, qalebs mamakacebze naklebs uxdian. amis erT-erT mizezad

SeiZleba miviCnioT is faqti, rom qalebis, karieraSi saojaxo movaleobebis

gamo xSiria wyveta. Sromis bazarze dabrunebisas isini veRar aRweven iseT

winsvlas, rogorc mamakacebi. genderis sferos eqspertebi profesiebSi damkvidrebul

genderuli uTanasworobis uaryofiT Sedegebze saubroben:

”genderuli wonasworoba imas niSnavs, rom mamakaci da qali erTnairad arian

warmodgenilni. ganaTlebis sistemaSi kacebis didi naklebobaa, rac Zalian

cudia. saubari jansaR atmosferoze SeuZlebelia iq, sadac darRveulia

genderuli balansi. es imas niSnavs, rom ar arsebobs Tavisufleba da qalebs,

an mamakacebs SeuZliaT ama Tu im sferos monopolizireba, ris Sedegadac

arc mamakaci da arc qali ar aris Tanaswor mdgomareobaSi.” - interviu

eqspertTan, Carita jaSTan.

”Cven ukmayofilo varT Cveni mamakacebis CauxedavobiT genderis sakiTxebSi,

magram amasTanave, vaRiarebT, rom maT qalebi zrdian, radgan CvenSi bavSvebs

dedebi da bebiebi zrdian, sabavSvo baRebSic yvela maswavlebeli qalia,

igive viTarebaa dawyebiT skolebSi. aucilebelia mamakaci maswavleblebic

CaerTon saqmeSi, dawyebiTi klasebis doneze. es Zalian mniSvnelovania.” - interviu

eqspertTan, marina TabukaSvilTan.

aris SemTxvevebi, roca qali mamakacis profesiaSi axerxebs SeWras. rogorc

Cvenma respondentma taqsis mZRolma qalma gviTxra:

”taqsis mZRoli umuSevrobis gamo gavxdi. samuSao ver viSovne da Cemma mezobelma

taqsis mZRolebma mirCies muSaoba taqsis mZRolad damewyo, radgan

Zlieri qali var. ase rom, Cemi xasiaTis gamo gadavwyvite es saqmianoba

wamomewyo.”

iseT sferoebSi, sadac sertifikatis aReba da amisTvis gamocdebis Cabarebaa

savaldebuloa, aSkarad igrZnoba qali TanamSromlebis ricxvis mateba. 257

mosamarTlidan 126 qalia, Tumca sasamarTlos samive Tavmjdomare mamakacia.

genderuli balansi sasamarTlos TavmjdomareebSi ukeTesia saubno sasamarTloebis

doneze, sadac 56 Tavmjdomaridan 26 qalia. presasTan urTierToba

mTlianad qalebs eTmoba da yvela spikeri mosamarTle qalia.

82


vertikaluri segregacia

sayovelTaod aRiarebulia, rom qalebs da kacebs dawinaurebis gansxvavebuli

SesaZleblobebi gaaCniaT. msoflio masStabiT mcirea qalebis raodenoba

gadawyvetilebis mimRebTa Soris. am mxriv arc saqarTvelo warmoadgens

gamonakliss. gamokiTxvam (sociologiuri gamokiTvis angariSi, 2007), romelic

gaerom Caatara saukeTeso genderuli Tanasworobis mqone organizaciebis

gamosavlenad uCvena, rom didia sxvaoba dasaqmebul qalTa procentul

maCvenebelsa da gadawyvetilebis mimReb Tanamdebobebze arsebul qalTa

procentul maCvenebels Soris.

farmakologia

jandacva

dazRveva

sabanko sistema

vaWroba

komunikacia

kvebisa da sasmelebis

warmoeba

mZime mrewveloba

samSeneblo kompaniebi

gasamarTi sadgurebi

nax. 14

wyaro: saukeTeso genderuli maCvenebelis mqone organizaciis gamosavlenad

Catarebuli sociologiuri gamokiTxvis angariSi (2008)

83

gadawyvetilebis

mimRebebi

TanamSromlebi


dasaqmebis sferoSi mamakacuri kulturaa gamefebuli. amis erTi mizezi isaa,

rom mamakaci mamakacurad iqceva rogorc tradiciulad mamakacis, ise tradiciulad

qalis profesiaSi moRvaweobisas, maSin rodesac qali CveulebrivaT

mamkacurad iqceva mamakacur profesiebSi (Wharton, 2004).

samsaxurebrivi winsvla qalisTvis ufro rTulia, vidre mamakacisTvis. im

sirTules, romelsac saukeTeso monacemebis mqone qalebi awydebian maRalanazRaurebad

samuSaoze dasawinaureblad, didi xnis win ewoda ”minis Weri”-

uxilavi barieris arseboba, romelic winsvlis SesaZleblobas ar iZleva.

mamakacebis SemTxvevaSi piriqiT xdeba, rodesac isini tradiciulad qalebis

saqmianobas ewevian, egreT wodebul ”minis eskalators” isini zemoT ayavs.

mamakacma respondentma gagviziara qalur profesiaSi muSaobis gamocdileba:

”me ukve cameti welia Jurnalisti var. vmuSaobdi JurnalebSi, radioSi,

gazeTebSi da televiziaSi. iq yvelgan qalebi umravlesobas Seadgenen. maxsovs,

radioSi Cemi ufrosi qali iyo da roca iq daviwye muSaoba, Zalian

uxaroda, rom rogorc iqna mamakaci TanamSromeli gauCnda. TanamSromlebic

Zalian gaxarebulebi iyvnen rom iq mivedi, da me TviTonac bednieri viyavi.

mamakac Jurnalistebs qondaT privilegiebi mxolod imitom, rom mamakacebi

iyvnen.” - interviu Jurnalist aleko elisaSvilTan.

qalebis samsaxureobriv winsvlaze msjelobisas wamoiWra qalis mier samsaxureobrivi

winsvlis dagegmvis aucileblobis sakiTxi. gamokiTxulTagan zogi

miuTiTebda imas, rom aucilebelia qalebma sakuTar karieraze izrunon;

zogma amisaTvis aucilebeli pirobebic wamoayena:

”imisaTvis, rom swori gza daanaxo, didi samuSaoa gasawevi, radgan bevrs miaCnia,

rom qali Sin unda ijdes, bavSvebi gazardos da ojaxs da meuRles

mixedos. aseTi warmodgena unda mokvdes saqarTveloSi. qali unda muSaobdes,

damoukidebeli unda iyos da es Zalian sasargeblo iqneba qveynisTvisac,

ojaxisTvisac, bavSvebisTvisac da meuRleebisTvisac.” - interviu arasamTavrobo

organizaciis xelmZRvanelTan, Tamar JvaniasTan.

”qalebis kariera damokidebulia Tavad qalebze da maT meuRleebze. Tu qali

gaTxovilia da qmari araa winaaRmdegi, da Tu qalis saqmianoba ar SeuSlis

xels ojaxis keTildReobas, maSin ratomac ar unda imuSaos qalma?

meores mxriv, Tu es ojaxur problemebs warmoSobs, qali unda dafiqrdes

da gadawyvitos Rirs Tu ara karieris gagrZeleba”. - interviu profesiuli

84


saswavleblis direqtorTan, irakli faCuliasTan.

Cvenma gamokiTxvamac daadastura qalis muSaobis mimarT arsebuli gansxvavebuli

damokidebuleba. umravlesobas miaCnia, rom yvelasaTvis ukeTesia,

rodesac mamakaci muSaobs da qali ojaxs uvlis, magram aq saxezea genderuli

gansxvaveba, ufro meti mamakaci (79.8%) vidre qali (64.7%) fiqrobs ase (Chi

Square 39.9%; df 2; p


espondentebi gansxvavebul damokidebulebas gamoxatavdnen mamakaci ufrosis,

an qali ufrosis mimarT, magram saerTo jamSi upiratesobas mamakacebTan

muSaobas aniWebdnen.

qalis karieruli winsvlis ZiriTad dabrkolebad respondentebi (interviu)

ojaxuri movaleobebiT gamowveul drois ukmarisobas miiCneven.

umuSevroba

dasaqmebis SesaZleblobebis simwire qveynis siRaribis mTavar mizezs warmoadgens.

oficialuri statistika 2000 wlidan 2006 wlamde periodSi uCvenebs,

rom umuSevroba Sromis saerTaSoriso organizaciis mkacri kriteriumis

mixedviT saqarTvelos ekonomikurad aqtiur mosaxleobaSi (15 welze ufrosi

asakis adamianebi) meryeobs 10.3 procentidan 13.8 procentamde (saqarTvelo:

siRaribis aRmofxvris strategiuli dokumenti. Sualeduri angariSi). umu-

Sevrobis es 13.8 procentuli maCvenebeli zustad ar asaxavs dasaqmebasTan

dakavSirebul viTarebas qveyanaSi, radgan oficialuri kriteriumis mixedviT

TviT-dasaqmebulad iTvleba yvela, vinc miwis nakveTs flobs. eqspertebis

gamoTvelbiT umuSveroba 2007 wels 35-40 procents Seadgenda (migraciis

saerTaSoriso organizacia, 2007).

umuSevrobas qveyanaSi Taviseburi xasiaTi aqvs, is yvelaze maRalia umaRlesi

ganaTlebis mqone adamianebs Soris. 2005 wels umuSevari qalebis 39.6 procents

da umuSevari mamakacebis 38.4 procents umaRlesi ganaTleba qonda

(qalebi da mamakacebi, 2006).

qalebis wili muSa ZalaSi mamakacebisaze naklebs Seadgens (mag. 2001 samuSoa

Zalas Seadgenda 1.093.600 kaci da 1.019.700 qali, xolo 2006 wels 1.085.900 kaci

da 935.900 qali). 2007 welsac ufro meti mamakaci (63.0%) vidre qali (48.0%)

iyo dasaqmebuli.

86


nax.15

umuSevroba ekonomikurad aqtiur mamakacebsa da qalebSi

(wyaro: statistikis departamenti).

umuSevrobasTan erTad. qveyanaSi Zalze gavrcelebulia arasrulfasovani

dasaqmeba, rac gulisxmobs sruli datvirTviT muSaobas mwiri xelfasisaTvis,

naxevar Statze muSaobas, rodesac adamians sruli Statze muSaoba surs, an

iseT samuSaos Sesrulebas, romelic droebiTi xasiaTisaa, an ar Seesatyviseba

adamianis codnasa da unars.

umuSevrobis done Zalze maRali iyo Cveni gamokixvis respondentebs Sorisac.

gamokiTxulTa 61.6 procenti miuTiTebs, rom ar muSaobs. umuSevari qalebis

wili (68.1%) Warbobs umuSevari mamakacebis wils (53.1%). umuSevar respondentebs

Soris 38.1 procentma miuTiTa, rom eZebda, magram ver poulobda

samuSaos, 9.1 procenti ver poulobda samsaxurs, magram arc aqtiurad eZebda

mas, 8.3 procents muSaobis dro ar qonda, 23.6 procenti pensioneri iyo, 8.9

procenti studenti, 8.3 procenti ver muSaobda janmrTelobis da 3.7 procenti

sxva mizezebis gamo. mamakacebi ufro aqtiurebi aRmoCndnen qalebTan

SedarebiT: mamakacebi 45.7 procenti, qalebis 33.6 procentTan SedarebiT

aqtiurad eZebdnen samsaxurs. qalebi ufro metad uCiodnen drois naklebobas

- qalebis 11.4 procenti mamakacebis 3.0 procentTan SedarebiT acxadebda,

rom ar qonda dro, rom emuSava.

umuSevrobis uaryofiTi zegavlena izrdeba mis xangrZliobasTan erTad;

misi Sedegebi aseve ufro mZimea pirvelad samuSaos dawyebis dagvianebisas.

gamokiTxvaSi gamovlinda orive am faqtoris uaryofiTi zegavlena. umuSevarTa

mesamedze metma (37.5%) aRniSna, rom arasdros umuSavia. aseve didi

87

kaci

qali


iyo umuSevarTa Soris im adamianebis wili (30.4%) vinc 10 welze metia

umuSevari. qalebis adamianuri kapitali kacebisaze ufro Semcirebuli aRmoCnda,

radgan umuSevari qalebis 72.9 procentma aRniSna, rom saerTod,

an bolo 1 wlis manZilze ar umuSavia. msgavs mdgomareobaSi iyo umuSevar

kacebis 59.2 procenti.

mamakacebi da qalebi erTnairad uCiodnen umuSevrobas da fulis ukmarisobas.

44.5 procentma aRniSna sakuTari umuSevroba, 41.1 procentma ojaxis

wevrebis umuSevroba da 72.1 procentma fulis nakleboba, rogorc maT Ziri-

Tadi sazrunavi (respondentebs SeeZloT arCevani gaekeTebinaT 13 CamoTvlili

problemidan).

umuSevroba Semosavlis uqonlobaze gacilebiT metia; umuSveroba dakav-

Sirebulia gariyvasTan da izolaciasTan, rac zrdis arajansaRi da sarisko

qcevis albaTobas, iseve rogorc avadmyofobas. amitom is xSirad gansaz-

Rvravs ara marto fizikur, aramed emociur sijansaRes. depresia, daqveiTebuli

TviT-Sefaseba, sibraze da gaRizianeba, sircxvili, seriozuli fsiqikuri

daavadebebi, an TviTmkvlelobac ki, xSirad swored umuSevrobis Sedegia.

umuSveroba uaryofiTad moqmedebs pirovnebaTSoris urTierTobebzec. umuSverobas

moaqvs socialuri kontaqtebis gawyveta da ojaxis wevrebis mimarT

mtruli damokidebulebis Camoyalibeba.

mravali umuSevari da Raribi mamakaci umuSverobas pasuxobs alkoholis

Warbi moxmarebiT, mravali xdeba depresiis msxverpli. danaSauli SeiZleba

iqces alternativa. zogierTi qveynis monacemebidan Cans (mag. SvedeTi) kav-

Siri umuSevrobasa da axlagazrdebis mier Tambaqos da narkotikebis moxmarebasTan,

da aseve danaSaulis zrdasTan (Lauer, 1998).

umuSevrobis es uaryofiTi Sedegebi damatebiTi problemebis winaSe ayeneben

qalebsa da bavSvebs. avisonma Seiswavla umuSverobis fsiqikuri janmrTelobaze

zemoqmedeba mamakacebsa da qalebSi da saintereso gansxvaveba

aRmoaCina. umuSevari qalebi ufro metad dganan fsiqikuri darRvevebis

saSiSroebis, gansakuTrebiT SfoTvasTan dakavSirebuli darRvevebis winaSe,

maSin rodesac mamakacebi ufro metad aRmoCndnen midrekili aRmoCndnen alkoholisa

da narkotikebis moxmarebasa da depresiisadmi (Sullivan, 2004).

dasaqmeba SeiZleba emyarebodes adamianSi arsebul molodinTa Sesabamisi

qcevebis ganxorcielebas. Tu adamians swams, rom SeuZlebelia patiosani

SromiT normaluri cxovrebis donis miRweva, an rom misi samsaxureobrivi

warmateba ufro viTarebazea damokidebuli, vidre mis Zalisxmevaze, Sei-

Zleba davuSvaT, rom igi ar daiwyebs aqtiurad samuSaos Ziebas da Sedegad

umuSevari iqneba. magram Cveni respondentebis SemTxvevaSi imis rwmena, rom

88


patiosani SromiT SeiZleba normaluri cxovrebis donis miRweva ar aRmoCnda

dasaqmebasTan dakavSirebuli. rwmena imisa, rom patiosani Sroma nayofs

gamoiRebs, Tumc Zalian dabali aRmoCnda, is meryeobs 27.2 procentidan 29.8

procentamde respodentebSi, genderisa da dasaqmebis statusis mixedviT ar

gansxvavdeba. meores mxriv, sakuTar SesaZleblobebSi rwmena, gansxvavebulia

dasaqmebul da umuSevar mamakacebSi, magram ara qalebSi. meti dasaqmebuli

mamakaci, (53.8%) umuSevar mamakacebTan SedarebiT (48.3%) darwmunebulia,

rom warmateba ufro adamianis mcdelobazea damokidebuli, vidre viTarebasa

an sxvebze.

kompiuteruli unarebis floba SeiZleba dasaqmebisTvis kidev erT momgebian

faqtorad ganvixiloT. dasaqmebul mamakacTa 39.8 procents, umuSevari

mamakacebis 26.3 procentTan SedarebiT SeuZlia kompiuterTan muSaoba;

dasaqmebis mixedviT gansxvaveba kidev ufro gamokveTilia qalebis SemTxveva-

Si: dasaqmebulTa 45.0 procents, umuSevrebis 22.1 procentTan SedarebiT

SeuZlia kompiuterTan muSaoba.

umuSevrobis gadalaxvis gzebi

dasaqmebis mcire SesaZleblobebis pirobebSi, rac saqarTvelosTvis bolo

aTi wlis ganmavlobaSia damaxasiaTebeli, TviT-dasaqmeba an samuSaos sxva

qveynebSi Zieba aris is ZiriTadi ori arCevani, romelic Semosavlis povnis

maZiebels gaaCnia.

dasaqmebis Seqmna

gamokiTxam aCvena, rom dasaqmebulTagan yovel mesames (33.4 %) Tavisi biznesi

aqvs, 8.3 procenti muSaobs arasamTavrobo organizaciaSi, romelic

xSir SemTxvevaSi Tavad respondentma Camoayaliba.

TanianT karis qalebis ambavi, romlebmac sakuTari biznesi Seqmnes, iniciativis

mniSvnelobis karg magaliTs warmoadgens.

TanianT karis qalebis iniciativa

TanianT kari patara sofelia, sadac ormocdaaTamde ojaxi cxovrobs.

is Tbilisidan 45 kilometris manZilze, duSeTis Tavzea ganlagebuli.

maRali mdebareoba, sarwyavi wylis ar arseboba ar iZleva komerciuli

miznebiT mosavlis moyvanis saSualebas. aris wlebi, rodesac

ojaxebs Tavis samyofi lobio, kartofili an xorbilic ki ver moyavT.

sabWoTa xanaSi soflis mamakacebi mSeneblobebze muSaobdnen, qalebi ki

89


mezoblad mefrinveleobis fermaze iyvnen dasaqmebuli. qveyanaSi ganviTarebulma

socio-politikurma cvlilebebma soflis macxovreblebzec iqonia

zegavlena. xalxi darCa usamsaxurod, yovelgvari Semosavlis gareSe.

TanianT karis qalebma daiwyes ekonomikuri krizisidan gamosavali gzebis

Zieba. maT wamoiwyes rZiTa da mawvniT vaWroba TbilisSi. mZime CanTebiT

datvirTulebi isini fexiT 3 kilometrs gadiodnen qalaqSi mimaval avtobusze

dasajdomad. ase gavida 4 weli da Semdeg qalebma ganizraxes kooperireba

da avtobusis daqiraveba. mas mere avtobuss kviraSi orjer 17 qali

qalaqSi miyavs. qalebma TavianTi klientebis ricxvi gaafarToves da gasayidi

produqtic gaamravalferovnes; isini rZisa da mawvnis garda ukve yveliT,

kvercxiT da agreTve sezonurad xiliTac vaWroben. maT produqciaze moTxovnilebis

zrdasTan erTad, gaCnda rZis SeZenis aucilebloba. maT daiwyes

rZis Sesyidva sakuTari da mezobeli soflebis macxovreblebisgan. momxmareblis

dainteresebam soflelebs stimuli misca sxvadasxva saqmianobis wamosawyebad;

ori maTgani keravs zewrebs Tavisi klientebisTvis. sinamdvileSi

qalebis am patara jgufma moaxerxa mTeli soflis stimulireba, imiT, rom

sxvebisgan Sesyidul produqcias yidis. qalebi ojaxebs amarageben sursaTiT,

wamlebiT, sigaretiT da tansacmliT. dRes ojaxebs ZiriTadad qalebi inaxaven,

Tumca mamakacebi exmarebian maT, isini mwyemsaven Zroxebs da agroveben

Tivas. Tavidan mamakacebis reaqcia meuRleebis iniciativis mimarT gansxvavebuli

iyo. zogierTi nebas ar rTavda cols emuSava eWvianobis gamo, magram

fulis Sovnis aucileblobam Tavisi gaitana da qmrebma pozicia daTmes.

mamakacebi Seeguen colebis, rogorc ojaxSi mTavari Semomtanis axal rols

da TandaTan maTi damokidebuleba colebis mimarT Seicvala. imis gamo, rom

colze damokidebulebi gaxdnen, isini naklebad momTxovni arian, TandaTanobiT

Semcirda ojaxuri Zaladobac. aseTi masStabis biznesi ar aris sakmarisi

imisaTvis, rom ojaxma normalurad icxovros, magram sakmarisia ZiriTadi

moTxovnilebebis dasakmayofileblad. amasTan es Semosavali qalebs siamayis

grZnobiT avsebs, raki maT SeZles ekonomikuri krizisis gadalaxva sakuTari

iniciativis da mZime Sromis meoxebiT (fj.1)

90


migracia

migracia, TviT-dasaqmebis msgavsad warmoadgens umuSevrobisagan Tavis daRwevis

yvelaze xSirad arCeul saSualebas. SromiTi migracia mWidrodaa

dakavSirebuli globalizaciasTan da bevr qveyanaSi SeiniSneba. eqspertebis

gamoangariSebiT, bolo aTwleulis ganmavlobaSi milion adamianze metma

datova saqarTvelo (jaSi, 2005). SeuZlebelia im Tanxis gamoTvla, romelsac

saqarTvelo iRebs SromiTi migrantebisgan, radgan sabanko gadmoricxvebTan

erTad Tanxis nawili qveyanas araformaluri gzebiT aRwevs. calsaxaa, rom

mravali ojaxi Tavs mxolod gadmogzavnili fuliT irCens.

saqarTvelos moqalaqeebi muSaobis mizniT yvelaze xSirad miemgzavrebian

ruseTis federaciaSi (39.%), aSS-Si (14%), saberZneTSi (14%) da germaniaSi

(13%). kvlevam cxadyo, rom umravles SemTxvevaSi (66.0%) gamgzavreba xorcieldeba

naTesavebisa da megobrebis daxmarebiT (migraciis saerTaSoriso

organizacia, 2003).

gamokiTxulTa 17.2 procentma (gamokiTxva) ganaxcxada, rom maTi ojaxis wevri

emigraciaSi. ufro xSirad es ojaxis erTi wevria (89.9%), Tumca arian ojaxebi,

romelTa 4 wevri sazRvargareT cxovrobs. Cveni monacemebi im qveynebze,

sadac saqarTvelos moqalaqeebis yvelaze didi nawili muSaobs emTxveva migraciis

saerTaSorso organizaciis 2003 wlis monacemebs, romlis mixedviTac

migrantTa udidesi nawili ruseTSi cxovrobs (36.1%), Semdeg saberZneTSi

(17.85%) da mere aSS-Si (8.9%).

safrangeTi

TurkeTi

germania

ukraina

espaneTi sxva

aSS

nax. 16

qveynebi, sadac ojaxis wevrebi imyofebian emigraciaSi

91

saberZneTi

ruseTi


migraciis yvelaze xSirad (65.9%) dasaxelebul mizezs ojaxis wevris mier

samuSaos Zieba warmoadgens. 13.5 procentma qveyana datova maspinZeli qveynis

moqalaqeze daqorwinebis gamo, 9.8 procentma swavlis gasagrZeleblad, 5.6

procentma mkurnalobis mizniT, 5.2 procentma, rogorc ojaxis wevris Tanmxlebma

pirma.

dadebiT SedegebTan erTad, migracias uaryofiT Sedegebic aqvs, romlebic

aisaxeba migrantebze, maT ojaxebsa da samSobloze.

SromiTi migraciis ZiriTad upiratesobas is warmoadgens, rom migrants eZleva

sakuTari Tavis da ojaxis rCenis saSualeba. bevr SemTxvevaSi migracia

saSualebas aZlevs adamians ganaviTaros Tavisi unarebi, iswavlos axali ena,

axali cxovrebis wesebi da ufro moqnili gaxdes. amave dros, gadmogzavnili

fulis saxiT qveyanac naxulobs mogebas.

magram Znelia imis Tqma, es upiratesobebi gadaswonis Tu ara uaryofiT

Sedegebs, radgan saxezea ojaxTan daSoreba (2003 wlis migraciis saerTa-

Soriso organizaciis monacemebis mixedviT samuSaod wasuli qalebis 27 procentma

samSobloSi meuRle, xolo 37 procentma Svilebi datova), stresi,

mudmivi da droebiTi SromiTi migraciis uaryofiTi gavlena saqarTvelos

demografiul suraTze, rac pirdapir aisaxeba mosaxleobis klebasa da

saqarTvelos reproduqciuli resursebis potencialSi, droebiTi migraciis

mudmiv emigraciaSi gadazrdis didi albaToba (migraciis saerTaSoriso

organizacia, 2003).

adamianebis damokidebuleba potenciuri migrantebis mimarT gansxvavdeba

migrantebis sqesis mixedviT (gamokiTxva). qalebi da mamakacebi (65%) erTnairad

miiCneven, rom Sin samsaxuris ver Sovnis SemTxvevaSi, ojaxis wevri

mamakaci emigraciaSi unda wavides, magram mxolod 23.8 procenti fiqrobs,

rom igive unda gaakeTos qalma. qalebi da mamakacebi am sakiTxs sxvadasxvagvarad

uyureben (Chi Square 9.3; df 2; p


qalebis migracia mamakacebis migraciisagan ramdenime niSniT gansxvavdeba:

qali migrantebis fuladi gzavnilebi saSualod 40 aSS dolariT aRemateba

mamakacebis mier gamogzavnil Tanxas (migraciis saerTaSoriso organizacia,

2003).

daojaxebuli qalebis dabrunebis albaToba gacilebiT ufro maRalia, vidre

mamakacebis (migraciis saerTaSoriso organizacia, 2003). dasaqmebis sfero,

sadac qals SeuZlia muSaoba Zlier gansxvavdeba mamakacis dasaqmebis sferosgan

da qalebze moTxovna dRiTidRe izrdeba. migraciis saerTaSoriso

organizaciis (2003) gamokvlevis mixedviT, samuSaod sazRvargareT wasuli

qalebis 33.1 procenti meddad, 9.2 procenti ZiZad, , 9.2 procenti Sinamosamsaxured

da 5.5 procenti maRaziis gamyidvelad muSaobs 4.3 procenti

mimtanad (migraciis saerTaSoriso organizacia, 2003).

ZiriTadi sakiTxebi

siRaribe qveyanis ZiriTad problemas warmoadgens. misi mTavari mizezi

dasaqmebis SesaZleblobebis simcirea. mosaxleoba gamosavals TviTdasaqmebasa

da emigraciaSi eZebs. maRali migracia seriozul safrTxes uqmnis qveynis

demografiuli mdgomareobas, romelic isedac cudia da romlis gauaresebasac

eqspertebi varaudoben. mosaxleobis zrdis kleba da amis Sedegad

asakovani mosaxleobis mateba uaryofiTad zemoqmedebas moaxdens qveynis

ekonomikur mdgomareobaze.

dasaqmebulTa umravlesoba kerZo seqtorSi muSaobs da bevric araformalur

seqtorSia dasaqmebuli. samuSao adgilebis usafrTxoeba dabalia.

axali SromiTi kodeqsi ukan gadadgmuli nabijad aris miCneuli, radgan is

asustebs dasaqmebulTa uflebebs da reproduqciis motivacias qalebSi.

mosaxleoba mxars uWers mamakacisa da qalis sferoebis dayofas, sazogadoebrivis

ufro kacis sarbielad, xolo kerZosi ki ufro qalis sarbielad

miiCnevs.

dasaqmebis mniSvneloba gansxvavebulia qalebisa da kacebisaTvis. igi mamakacis

identurobisTvis ufro mniSvnelovania da Sesabamisad kacis reaqcia

umuSevrobaze ufro mwvavea. dasaqmebuli qalebi awydebian, rogorc horizontalur,

ise vertikalur segregacias. arsebobs qalisa da mamakacis profesiebi,

mamakacis profesiebi ufro maRali Semosavalis miRebis saSualebas

iZleva. samsaxureobrivi winsvlis miRweva qalisTvis ufro Znelia, vidre

mamakacisTvis. qalebi ufro Warbad arian warmodgenilni dasaqmebis araformalur

seqtorSi, xolo formalur seqtorSi isini ufro metad sajaro,

vidre kerZo seqtorSi arian warmodgenili.

migraciis zrda da misi feminizacia seriozul safrTxes uqmnis demografiul

mdgomareobas da Sesabamisad saqarTvelos momavals.

93


genderi kerZo sferoSi

Tavi 5

genderi ojaxur cxovrebaSi

kerZo sfero qalis samyarod aris miCneuli.

”unda arsebobdes biologiuri da fsiqologiuri maxasiaTeblebi, Cvens kulturaSi

mainc, romlebic ganapirobeben imas, rom qalebi ojaxs uvlian, kacebi

ki qveyanas. qalebs Cvens kulturaSi ar moeTxovebaT samSoblos dacva da

mtrebTan brZola” - interviu parlamentis wevr, kaxa kukavasTan.

”qali saxlis burjia, is ojaxis siwmindes unda icavdes, mamakacebs ar akisriaT

am TvalsazrisiT amxela pasuxismgebloba”. - fokus-jgufis ganxilvis

mamakaci monawile (fj.5).

ojaxi yvela sazogadoebaSi arsebuli universaluri institutia, is aucilebelia

gadarCenisTvis, radgan is seqsualur, ekonomikur, reproduqciul da

saganmanaTleblo funqciebs asrulebs.

kulturuli da istoriuli gansxvavebebis gamo Znelia, iseTi gansazRvrebis

moZebna, romelic ojaxis yvela nairsaxeobas moicavs. merdoki (Murdock,

1949. gv.2) ojaxs Semdegnairad gansazRvravs: ”ojaxi socialuri jgufia,

romelsac saerTo sacxovrebeli adgili, ekonomikuri TanamSromloba da

reproduqcia axasiaTebs. is moicavs orive sqesis mozrdilebs, romelTagan

ors mainc aqvs socialurad daSvebuli sqesobrivi urTierToba, erTi an meti

sakuTari, an ayvanili Svili”. msoflioSi ojaxebis sxvadasxva tipebia gavrcelebuli

da dRes ojaxis cneba aseve moicavs ojaxs, sadac erTi mSobelia,

an homoseqsualur ojaxs.

ojaxSi cvlilebebi xSirad socialur cvlilebebTanaa dakavSirebuli, radgan

ojaxi areklavs sazogadoebaSi mimdinare cvlilebebs, imisaTvis rom moergos

axal realobas (magaliTad, Le Play, 1855, Durkheim, 1892).

ufro xSirad ojaxebiss kategorizacia xdeba Taobebis mixedviT, erT, or,

sam an oTxTaobian ojaxebad. yvelaze gavrcelebulia orTaobiani ojaxi,

anu nuklearuli ojaxi, romelic mSoblebisa da erTi an meti Svilisgan

94


Sedgeba. nuklearuli ojaxi SedarebiT axal movlenas warmoadgens da is

industrializaciasTan da mosaxleobis soflidan qalaqSi gadasaxlebasTan

aris dakavSirebuli. is xazs usvams polarizebul genderul rolebs - mar-

Cenali mamis da diasaxlisi dedis. nuklearuli ojaxis gverdigverd arsebobs

ojaxis gacilebiT ufro Zveli forma, romelic Cveulebriv sami Taobisagan,

naTesaobiTi (sisxliT monaTesave) da damoyvrebuli (qorwinebiT danaTesavebuli),

wevrebisagan: bebia-babua, mSoblebi, debi da Zmebi, mZaxlebi,

deidebi, mamidebi, biZebi, biZaSvil-deidaSvil-mamidaSvilebi, Zmiswulebi da

sxva naTesavebisgan Sedgeba.

memkvidreobiTi wesebic gansxvavebulia sxvadasxva kulturaSi da isini mamis

an dedis naTesaobis mixedviT dgindeba. ufro xSiria mamis mxriv naTesaobiTi

memkvidreobiToba. gaTxovebis Semdeg qmris ojaxTan cxovreba msoflioSi

yvelaze metad gavrcelebuli formaa.

qarTuli ojaxi tradiciulad patriarqaluri iyo. iq sami, an oTxi Taobis

warmomadgenlebi erTad cxovrobdnen. qalebi gaTxovebis Semdeg sacxovreblad

qmris saxlSi gadadiodnen. uxucesi mamakaci ojaxis Tavad iTvleboda

da umaRles avtoritets warmoadgenda. mis cols Zalaufleba qonda

rZalze, romelsac unda ekeTebina dedamTilis mier gansazRvruli saojaxo

saqme. bavSvebs TiTqmis ar qondaT sityvis ufleba ojaxuri gadawyvetilebis

miRebisas da wesiT ufrosebis morCilni unda yofiliyvnen. saqarTvelos zog

kuTxeSi arsebobda ojaxis Tavi mamakacisa da qalis arCevis praqtika. ojaxis

Tavi qali pasuxs agebda yvela im movaleobis Sesrulebaze, rac tradiciulad

qalis saqmianobad iTvleboda. is ojaxis wevr qalebs avalebda

sxvadasxva saqmes, im dros, roca mamakaci kacebs Soris anawilebda saqmes da

iRebda ojaxisTvis mniSvnelovan gadawyvetilebebs (gogiCaiSvili, 1976).

qveyanaSi bolo TxuTmeti wlis ganmavlobaSi momxdari Zireuli socialuri,

politikuri da ekonomikuri cvlilebebi ojaxur cxovrebazec aisaxa.

sabWoTa kavSiris daSlam da socialisturi sistemis dasasrulma cxovrebis

TiTqmis yvela sferoze moaxdina gavlena da axal realobebTan morgebis

aucilebloba warmoSva. sistemis dasasruli aRiniSna organizaciebisa

da warmoebebis didi umravlesobis daxurviT, ramac masobrivi umuSevroba

gamoiwvia. umuSevroba TiTmis yvela ojaxs Seexo da warmoqmna gaRaribebulTa

didi armia. im cxovrebis Semdeg, romelsac SeZlebuls vera, magram

usafrTxos mainc uwodebdiT, axali realobebis pirispir mdgomma ojaxebma

daiwyes gadarCenis gzebis Zieba. qalebi ufro swrafad moergnen situacias.

95


viTarebis da mamakacebis pasiurobisgan gamomdinare, maT sakuTar Tavze aiRes

ojaxebis ZiriTadi saarsebo minimumiT uzrvunvelyofa.

”mravali welia ojaxebs qalebi arCenen. qalebma ojaxebi SimSils gadaarCines

mamakacebma veraferi gaawyves da qalebma itvirTes yvelaferi. axlac

ki, bevr ojaxSi qali muSaobs da ara kaci”. interviu mewarme marina

aRuSaSvilTan.

”Cven vxedavT, rom qalebs muSaoba ar SeuwyvetiaT, zogi vaWrobiT aris

dakavebuli, zogi ojaxebSi muSaobs. ganaTlebis da miuxedavad es qalebi

arasdros amboben uars samuSaoze, ar uCivian dabal anazRaurebas” - interviu

eqsperTTan, Tamar abramiSvilTan.

siRaribem aiZula mosaxleoba samuSaos ZiebaSi qveyana daetovebina. migraciis

uaryofiTi zegavlena ojaxze xangrZlivi xasiaTisaa. mamis Tu dedis ojaxidan

wasvla aiZulebs Sin darCenil mSobels aseve aiRos meore mSoblis roli.

gamokiTxuli ojaxebis ekonomikuri mdgomareoba

siRaribe qveynis umwvaves problemad rCeba, rasac Cveni gamokiTxvac adasturebs.

ufuloba (72.0%), sakuTari umuSevroba (44.5%) da

ojaxis wevris umuSevroba (40.5%) respondetebis umravlesobisTvis, kacebisa

da qalebisTvis erTnairad, ZiriTad problemas warmoadgens.

gamokiTxulTa ojaxebis Semosavali dabalia. ojaxebis umravlesobis yovelTviuri

Semosavali 51-dan 500 laramdea.

96


201-500 lari;

500 larze

meti;

nax. 17

ojaxebis yovelTviuri Semosavali

gasakviri araa, rom gamokiTxulTa mexuTedi (20.5%) acxadebs, rom maT uWirT

sursaTis SeZena, 31,1 procenti ambobs, rom fuli marto sakvebze yofnis, mesameds

(33.6%) fuli sakvebis da tansacmlis SesaZenad Zlivs yofnis, 13.8 procents

SeuZlia nivTebis SeZenac da dasasvenebladac wasvla, da mxolod 1.0

procenti miuTiTebs, rom SeuZlia sazRvargareT gamgzavreba da manqanisa Tu

saxlis SeZena. Cvens moTxovnaze SeefasebinaT TavianTi ojaxis keTildReoba,

mxolod respodentebis mier miTiTebuli ojaxis Semosavlis fonze, mxolod

Zalian mcire nawilma (23.9%) sakuTar ojaxs Raribi uwoda. amas SeiZleba

ori axsna moeZebnos: siRaribis SedarebiTi xasiaTi - masobrivi siRaribis

fonze adamianebi sakuTar mdgomareobas ver aRiqvamen, rogorc ”Zalian mZimes”

da meore is, rom maT ar surT aRiaron siRaribe masTan asocirebuli

sircxvilisa da damcirebis gamo.

umuSevrobis an arasrulfasovani dasaqmebis uaryofiTi Sedegebi ojaxebis

naxevars umsubuqdeba imis xarjze, rom Tavad awarmoebs sursaTs miwis nakveTze.

is faqti, rom mosaxleoba didwilad gaRatakda bolo xanebSi, ganapirobebs

siRaribis saerTo xasiaTs saqarTveloSi. es axlad gaRaribebuli

mosaxleoba ZiriTadad sazogadoebis yvelaze ganaTlebul nawils Seadgens,

vinc ganaTlebas da janmrTelobas did Rirebulebas aniWebs. amasTan,

miuxedavad imisa, rom maT qonebis didi nawilis gayidva mouxdaT, bevri kvalac

inarCunebs binas an saxls.

97

50 lari;

51-200 lari;


gamokiTxulTa didi umravlesoba (93.6%) flobs binas an saxls, sadac is mudmivad

cxovrobs. ojaxebis umravlesobas aqvs feradi televizori (81.9%) da

macivari (74.1%). gamokiTxulTa 15.5 procents biznesis saSualeba gaaCnia.

saxli an bina

feradi televizori

macivari

miwis nakveTi

gamaTbobeli

wylis gamacxelebeli

video

manqana

agaraki

kompiuteri

nax.18

sakuTreba

ojaxebis 74.7 procents aqvs raRac Semosavali samuSaodan, naxevarze meti

(51.6%) damokidebulia saxelmwifo daxmarebasa an pensiaze, ojaxebis 14.3 procents

naTesavebi exmarebian, 10.5 procents aqvs bankis an kerZo piris sesxi, 9.8

procents aqvs Semosavali sasoflo sameurneo produqciis gayidvidan.

ufulobis SemTxvevaSi ojaxebi upirveles yovlisa ekonomias akeTeben remontze

(67.1%), xangrZlivi moxmarebis nivTebze (mag. aveji 60.9%), da tansacmelze

(36.5%); ukanaskneli, razec ekonomia SeiZleba gaswion, aris sakvebi

(92.5%), jandacva (84.0%) da ganaTleba (36.5%).

socialurma cvlilebebma gavlena moaxdina ara marto ekonomikur mdgomareobaze,

aramed aseve ojaxebis Semadgenlobasa da mis Zalauflebis struqturaze.

98


ojaxis tipi da Semadgenloba

bolo wlebSi sagrZnoblad iklo ojaxSi bavSvebis raodenobam. ekonomikur

pirobebis zemoqmedeba mravalferovania da ZiriTadad swored isini SeiZleba

CavTvaloT klebis ZiriTad mizezad. klebas pirvelyovlisa ganapirobebs

bavSvis aRzrdisTvis aucilebeli resursebis uqonloba; is, rom migracias

ZiriTadad reproduqciul asakis mosaxleoba ganicdis; da aseve daqorwinebis

asakis gazrda. pirveli qorwinebis saSualo asaki 25.0-dan 2001 wels 25.6mde

gaizarda 2007 wels qalebSi da 28.8-dan 2001 wels 29.4-mde 2007 wels

mamakacebSi (statistikis departamentis mier mowodebuli monacemebi, 2007

wels). qalis asakis mateba daqorwinebisas uaryofiTad moqmedebs Sobadobaze,

radgan rogorc 2006 wlis statistikuri monacemebidan Cans, axalSobilTa

naxevari (51.3%) modis 25 wlamde asakis dedebze. 2001 wlidan moyolebuli

dabadebulTa ricxvi cvalebadobs, 2004 wels aRiniSneboda mateba, romelsac

kleba moyva.

nax. 19. cocxlad SobilTa raodenoba sqesis mixedviT

wyaro: statistikis departamenti (2007)

99

gogoebi

biWebi


cvlilebebis miuxedavad, qarTuli ojaxebi kvlavac inarCuneben tradiciul

niSnebsa da Tvisebebs.

Cveni gamokiTxvis Tanaxmad yvelaze farTod gavrcelebulia mravalTaobiani

ojaxi. respondentTa naxevari (51.7%) cxovrobs sam Taobian, xolo 1.5

procenti ki oTx Taobian ojaxad. es gacilebiT ufro maRali maCvenebelia

evrogaerTianebis qveynebis monacemebTan SedarebiT, sadac 1999 wels aseTi

ojaxebi 10.0 procents Seadgendnen (Eurostat, 2001). Cveni gamokiTxvis monacemebis

mixedviT nuklearuli ojaxebi 39.4 procents Seadgenen da maTi

matebis tendencia aSkaraa axalgazrda dasaqmebul qalaqelebs Soris. ZiZis

daqiravebisTvis saWiro Tanxis simcirisa da ipoTekuri sesxis aRebis Sesa-

Zleblobidan gamomdinare, axalgazrda wyvilebi saqarTveloSi sul ufro

xSirad irCeven calke, mSoblebisgan damoukideblad cxovrebas.

Taoba

marto

Taoba

nax. 20

ojaxis Semadgenloba Taobebis mixedviT

gamokiTxulebi asaxeleben 1-dan 10 ojaxis wevrs. ufro xSirad ojaxebi oTxi

wevrisgan Sedgeba (23.6%), maSin, roca respondentebis 1.5 procenti marto

cxovrobs, es ZiriTadad xandazmuli qalebi arian. orwevriani ojaxebi 18.1

procents Seadgens, samwevriani - 19.7 procents, xuTwevriani - 19.2 procents,

eqvswevriani - 10.8 procents, Svidi da meti wevriani ojaxi yavs 7.1 procents.

100

Taoba

Taoba


saerTo jamSi respondentebma daasaxeles 3,333 ojaxis wevri, maT Soris

qalebi (52.6%) Warboben mamakacebs (47.3%). rac Seexeba ojaxis wevrebis

urTierTobas respondentebTan, yvelaze xSirad dasaxelebul ojaxis wevrebs

Soris iyvnen Svilebi (33.3%) da mSoblebi/dedamTil-mamamTili (19.0%).

da/Zma;

bebia/babua;

SviliSvili;

mSobeli/meuRlis

mSobeli;

sxva;

nax. 21

ojaxis wevrebis damokidebuleba respondentTan

Svilebi ara marto yvelaze mravaricxovan kategorias Seadgendnen, aramed

gamokiTxul respondentTa umetesobam (58.4%) ganacxada, rom cxovrobs sul

mcire, erT SvilTan erTad

Svili

mSobeli/meuRlis mSobeli

rZali/siZe

SviliSvili

meuRle

da/Zma

babua/bebia

sxva naTesavi

sxva aranaTesavi

nax. 22

ojaxebis wili, romelTac yavT am nusxaSi Seyvanili kategoriidan erTi

wevri mainc

101

meuRle;

siZe/rZali;

Svili;


ojaxebis umravlesobis Tavs mamakacebi warmoadgenen, xolo is ojaxebi, sadac

ojaxis Tavi qalia gamokiTxulTa ojaxebis erT mexuTeds Seadgens (21.8%).

respondetTa 55.7 procenti daojaxebulia, 25.0 procenti arasodes yofila

daojaxebuli, 4.0 procenti gayrilia, 12.0 procenti qvrivia da 3.2 procenti

Tanacxovrobs. daojaxebulTagan daqorwinebis yvelaze gavrcelebuli asaki

23 welia (igi meryeobs 14-dan 56-mde). qalebi ufro adreul asakSi Txovdebian,

umetesad 22 wlisebi (asaki 14-dan 56 wlamde meryeobs), kacebi 25 wlis

asakSi ojaxdebian (asaki meryeobs 16-dan 50- wlamde). umravlesoba (67.9%)

ambobs, rom siyvaruliT daqorwinda, 26.5 procenti ki miuTiTebs, rom garigebiT

daojaxda, 5.6 procenti ar iZleva kiTxvaze pasuxs.

daojaxebulTa 5.0 procents ar yavs Svili, danarCenebi miuTiTeben, rom

yavT 1-dan 8 Svilamde, ufro xSirad ori Svili, amaTgan mSoblebis 23 procenti

miuTiTebs, rom yavs 6 welze naklebi asakis Svili. am asakis bavSvebis

mSoblebis naxevarze mets Svilebi saxelmwifo (75.5%) an kerZo baRSi dayavs.

16 procents surs bavSvis sabavSvo baRebSi miyvana, magran ver axerxebs, xolo

32.7 procents ar surs, rom misma Svilma sabavSvo baRSi iaros. survilis

ar qona SeiZleba mivaweroT imas, rom dedobriv zrunvas upiratesoba mieni-

Weba, Tumca ki ar arsebobs imis sabuTi, rom dedis mzrunveloba ukeTesia

profesionalur movlaze, an sxva saxis, ara ojaxis wevrebis mier gaweul

mzrunvelobaze (Convay,AAhern & Steuernagal, 2005).

bavSvis sabavSvo baRSi wayvanis SeuZlebloba dedas xels uSlis dasaqmdes

anazRaurebad samsaxurSi da aseve xSirad ubiZgebs axalgazrda wyvilebs

mSoblebTan da bebia-babuasTan erTad cxovrebisaken, raTa maT daxmareba

gauwion bavSvis movlaSi.

Zalauflebis struqtura.

mamakaci ojaxSi meti ZalauflebiT sargeblobs, vidre qali. mamakacis

Zalauflebas xSirad aRweren, rogorc qmrebis/mamebis ”kanonier Zalauflebas”

ganaxorcielon kontroli colebsa da Svilebze (Blood & Wolfe, 1960).

uTanasworoba xSirad ekonomikur damokidebulebas efuZneba da vlindeba

gadawyvetilebis miRebis uflebaSi, Tavisuflebis xarisxSi, memkvidreobis

gadacemis marTebulad miCneul qcevebsa da siwmindis normebSi.

102


qali da mamakaci xSirad Tanxmdebian, rom ojaxis Tavi mamakaci unda iyos da

rom mis Zalauflebas mTeli ojaxi pativs unda scemdes.

”qveynis msgavsad, ojaxsac unda yavdes lideri da is mamakaci unda iyos” –

SeniSna axalqalaqSi axalgazrda vaJma.

”me minaxavs qalebi, romlebic darwmunebulebi iyvnen, rom qali qmarze win

ar unda wasuliyo, ar unda SewinaaRmdegeboda Zmebs.” - interviu eqspert-

Tan, Tamar JvaniasTan.

Zalaufleba gadawyvetilebis miRebaSi vlindeba.

”ar arsebobs Tanasworoba saxlSi miRebul gadawyvetilebebSi. qals Seu-

Zlia gadawyvetileba miiRos iseT sakiTxebze, romlebic did dafinansebas

ar moiTxovs, magaliTad, tansacmlis SeZenaze, an SvilisTvis sabavSvo baRis

SerCevaze da sxva, magram im SemTxvevaSi, Tu manqanaa SesaZeni, an bina, bolo

sityva mamakacs ekuTvnis” - interviu eqsperTtan, Tamar sabedaSvilTan.

eqspertebis mier gamoTqmul azrs exmianeba Cveni gamokiTxvis monacemebi. respondentTa

azriT, qalebs meti eTqmiT imis Taobaze, Tu sad daxarjon fuli

yoveldRiuri saWiroebisaTvis da vize unda iqorwinon maTma Svilebma, maSin,

roca mamakacebi gadawyvetilebebs iReben imis Taobaze, Tu sad unda wavides

ojaxi an ra unda SeiZinos man.

ojaxSi qalebi, sul erTia, axalgazrdebi arian isini, Tu xanSi Sesulebi, bevrad

naklebi TavisuflebiT sargebloben, vidre Sesabamisi asakis mamakacebi.

rogorc ganacxada axalqalaqis fokus-jgufis monawile qalma:

”Txovdebi da Tavisuflebac mTavrdeba”.

gamokiTxulTa naxevarze metma (52.6%) qalma da 27.0 procentma mamakacma

respondentma gviTxra, rom maT ojaxis wevrebTan SeTanxmeba sWirdebaT dabnelebis

mere gareT gasvlisTvis. qalebi umetes SemTxvevaSi uTanxmdebodnen

meuRleebs (47.0%) mSoblebs 26.5%) an Svilebs (11.8). mamakacebi ki ZiriTadad

meuRleebs (53.1%) an mSoblebs (33.8%). komunikaciis SesaZleblobac TavisuflebasTanaa

dakavSirebuli. qalebze (50.2%) met mamakacs (59.1%) aRmoaCnda

mobiluri telefoni (gamokiTxva).

103


gansxvavebulia aseve umwikvloebis sakiTxic. qalebs mamakacebze gacilebiT

ufro metad akontroleben.

”gogonebi ikribebian, seirnoben da erTobian im quCaze, sadac cxovroben, magram

isini ar unda miefaron ojaxis Tvals.” - gviTxra axalqalaqSi fokusjgufis

monawile qalma.

mamakacebs meti seqsualuri Tavisufleba eZlevaT. gamokiTxvis monacemebma

gamoavlina, rom mamakacebic da qalebic (89.9%) miiCneven, rom gaTxovebamde

qalma Tavi unda Seikavos seqsualuri kavSirisgan. magram qalebisa

da kacebis pozicia gansxvavebulia motacebasTan mimarTebaSi. mamakacebTan

SedarebiT (66.7%) met qals (74.8%) miaCnia, rom qali ar unda gayves colad

gamtacebels, im SemTxvevaSic ki, Tu maT Soris damyarda seqsualuri

kavSiri (Chi-Square 8.4, df.2, p


gamokiTxvis mixedviT, qalebTan SedarebiT (44.2%) met mamakacs (64.7 %) aqvs

regularuli an araregularuli sakuTari Semosavali (Chi Square 36.6; df 2;

p


ojaxze msjelobisas me-20 saukunis dasawyisSi vaJa-fSavela werda: ”qali

ojaxis baton-patronia. mas didi gavlena aqvs axalgazrdebze da moxucebze.

bavSvis aRzrda, rac uaRresad mniSvnelovania, mis xelSia, is gansazRvravs

bavSvis beds. bavSvis momavalic imazea damokidebuli, rogor gamowrTvnis

is Tavisi Svilebis sulsa da gonebas. amitomaa aucilebeli, deda ganaTlebuli

iyos, sTesos sikeTe, icodes rogor aRzardos Svilebi, riT emsaxuros,

amrigad mas SeuZlia gaanadguros an aaRorZinos Tavisi eri”.

(obolaZe, 1990. gv.31-32,).

miuxedavad globaluri tendenciisa meti genderuli Tanasworobisaken ojaxebSi,

mamakacisa da qalis rolebi qarTul ojaxebSi Zalze diferencirebuli

rCeba. qalebi bevrad ufro arian dakavebulni yoveldRiuri saojaxo saqmiT,

vidre mamakacebi, maSinac ki, rodesac qalebs anazRaurebadi samuSao aqvT

da mamakacebs ki ara. qalis Sroma ojaxSi umetesad SeumCnevali rCeba da

is ar aris imdenad dafasebuli, ramdenadac mamakacis Sroma saxlis gareT.

metic, bevr qals ormagi tvirTi awevs saojaxo saqmis gaZRola da ojaxis

rCena maSin rodesac mamakacebi ar iReben tradiciulad qalis movaleobebad

miCneul pasuxismgeblobebs.

sazogadoebaSi damkvidrebulia Sexeduleba, rom qalis adgili Sinaa. miuxedavad

imisa, rom saojaxo saqme did dros moiTxovs, qalis Zalisxmeva araa

aRiarebuli” - aRniSna axalqalaqis fokus-jgufis Sexvedraze axalgazrda

qalma.

”qalebi mudam CrdilSi arian, mamakacebi ar afaseben qalis Sromas” - ganacxada

axalqalaqSi axalgazrda vaJma.

bevr sazogadoebaSi, metwilad soflad da eTnikuri umciresobiT dasaxlebul

raionebSi, kacisTvis sircxvilad iTvleba tradiciulad qalis saqmis

keTeba. miuxedavad imisa, rom kacebi am saqmes xSirad akeTeben kidec, isini

Cveulebriv eridebian amis gaxmaurebas.

saWmlis momzadeba, sayidlebze siaruli da janmrTelobaze zrunva is saqmianobebia,

romelsac ojaxis wevrebis umravlesoba eweva. gamokiTxvis Sedegebma

aCvena, rom qalebi yoveldRiur saojaxo saqmeSi metad arian Cabmulni, vidre

mamakacebi. mamakacTan SedarebiT gacilebiT meti qali amzadebs saWmels,

exmareba Svilebs saSinao davalebis momzadebaSi, zrunavs ojaxis wevrebis

janmrTelobaze, Svilebisa da xandazmulebis CaTvliT, wyals ezideba da

uvlis saqonels, maSin, roca mamakacebi zrunaven saxlis gasaTbobi sawvaviT

momaragebaze, saxlis SekeTebasa da miwis nakveTis damuSavebaze.

106


wylis motana

miwis damuSaveba

saqonlis movla

saxlis gaTboba

wylis mozidva

saxlis SekeTeba

sayidlebis gakeTeba

saWmlis momzadeba

moxucebze zrunva

janmrTvelobaze zrunva

bavSvebisTvis daxmareba saSinao

davalebaSi

bavSvebze zrunva

nax. 23

mamakacisa da qalis mier Sesrulebuli saSinao saqmeebi

socialuri aqtioba da emociuri mxardaWeris gamovlena qals mamakacze metad

axasiaTebs, maSin rodesac mamakacebi qalebze metad monawileoben jgufur aqtiobebSi

da ufro xSirad dadian wveulebebze.

emociuri mxardaWera

emociuri mxardaWeris micema

gaziareba

eklesiaSi siaruli

stumrad siaruli

wveulebebi

dasvenebis organizeba

monawileoba jgufur aqtiobebSi

saojaxo ritualebis mowyoba

nax. 24

mamakacebisa da qalebis socialuri aqtioba

107

qalebi

kacebi

qali

kaci


ojaxis kavSiri saxelmwifo dawesebulebebTan arcTu xSiria da metwilad

is skolebsa da sxva saganmanaTleblo dawesebulebebTan aris dakavSirebuli.

oficialur struqturebTan kavSiri mamakacis aqtivobebis sferoSi Sedis.

rogorc gamokiTxvis zemoTmoyvanili Sedegebidan Cans, mamebi ar arian maincdamainc

Cabmuli Svilebis aRzrdaSi, bevri maTgani arc maTi movliT aris

dakavebuli da arc saSinao davalebebis momzadebaSi exmareba maT. kulturaTaSorisma

gamokvlevam gamoavlina ojaxSi emociuri siaxlovis saerTo

da qarTvelebisaTvis specifiuri maxasiaTeblebi: axalgazrdebi emociur

siaxloves yvelaze metad dedasTan, Semdeg da-ZmasTan, da yvelaze naklebad

mamasTan grZnoben (Georgas, Berry & Kagitsibasi, 2006).

fokus-jgufis axalgazrda monawileebma Tbilissa da regionebSi xazi gausves

mamis mniSvnelobas aRzrdis procesSi da amave dros sinanuli gamoxates

mamebis mcire monawileobis gamo.

”mamis roli aRzrdaSi mniSvnelovania; deda ver SeZlebs Svilebis kargad

aRzrdas, Tu mama sustia da aRzrdaSi ar ereva” - axalcixis fokus-jgufis

monawile qali.

”mama bavSvis pirovnebas ayalibebs. mamebi qaliSvilis mimarT meti siyvaruliT

gamoirCevian, dedebi ki vaJis mimarT. aris sakiTxebi, romlebic dedas

ukavSirdeba da sakiTxebi, romlebic ufro mamasTanaa dakavSirebuli. mama

Svils aswavlis rogor moiqces, rogori pirovneba unda iyos, deda ki alerss,

siTbos da cxovrebas aswavlis.” - axalgazrda vaJi (f.j.7)

”mama sazogadoebasTan ufro axloa da is aswavlis bavSvs sazogadoebasTan

urTierTobas” - axalcixeSi fokus-jgufis monawile vaJi.

axalgazrdebi miuTiTebdnen, rom bavSvis aRzrdaSi mamis CarTva iwyeba bavSvis

momwifebisas, 15 wlis asakSi. mama exmareba bavSvs Rirebelebebis Camoyalibebasa

da sakuTar TavSi rwmenis gaRvivebaSi.

adamianisaTvis dro Zalze faseul resurss warmoadgens. SeuZlebelia drois

saerTo maragis gazrda, misi Seqmna (Jacobs & Garson, 2004). amdenad is, Tu

rogor anawilebs an xarjavs dros adamiani, bevrs mogviTxrobs imaze, Tu

rogor cxovrebas eweva is. Cveni gamokiTxvis im nawilSi, romelic drois

gamoyenebas exeboda, Cven vTxovdiT respondentebs aeRweraT Tu riT iyvnen

dakavebulni ukanaskneli 24 saaTis ganmavlobaSi, wina dRis dilis 6 saaTi-

108


dan intervius micemis dRis dilis 6 saaTamde. miRebuli pasuxebi Seesatyviseba

zemoTganxilul qalisa da mamakacis mier Sesrulebul saqmianobas.

qalebTan SedarebiT kacebi metxans iyvnen dakavebuli samsaxurSi da metad

iyvnen CarTuli Tavisufali drois aqtiobebSi, xolo qalebi saSinao saqmeebiT,

bavSvebze zrunviTa da religiuri ritualebis aRsrulebiT iyvnen ufro

metad dakavebuli.

sxva

bavSvebis movla

nakveTze muSaoba

cxovelebis movla

gadasaxadebis gadaxda

religiuri ritualebis

Sesruleba

produqtebis yidva

recxva

samzareulos dasufTaveba

Wama da sma

muSaoba damatebiT samuSaoze

muSaoba ZiriTad samuSaoze

televizoris yureba

tualeti

Zili

nax. 25

qalisa da mamakacis mier gaweul saqmianobebze daxarjuli dro

109

qali

kaci


drois gamoyenebis Seswavla yvela qveyanaSi sirTules awydeba. nebismieri

TviT-aRweraze dafuZnebuli instrumentis msgavsad isic garkveul miker-

Zoebas eqvemdebareba da amdenad ar warmoadgens daxarjuli droisa Tu

saqmianobis zust asaxvas. rogorc es naxaz 25-dan Cans, yvela respondenti

ar aRwerda imas, rasac unda vivaraudoT, rom akeTbda, magaliTad, eZina,

Wamda. respondentebisTvis siZneles warmoadgenda imis Tqma, Tu zustad ra

dros xarjavdnen yovel calkeul saqmianobaze. am SezRudvebis miuxedavad,

is dro, romelsac respondentebis TqmiT isini andomebdnen sxvadasxva

saqmianobis Sesrulebas mainc iZleva faseul informacias mamakacebisa da

qalebis yoveldRiur cxovrebaze. qalebsa da kacebs Soris statistikurad

mniSvnelovani gansxvaveba aRmoCnda im droSi, romelsac isini andomebdnen

sxvadasxva saqmianobas: mamakacebi ufro met dros uTmobdnen samsaxurs da

televizoris yurebas, xolo qalebi saWmlis momzadebas.

110


tabula 8

mamakacisa da qalis mier sxvadasxva saqmianobaze daxarjuli dro

Asaqmianoba

mamakacis

mier

daxarjuli

dro

wuTebSi

111

qalis mier

daxarjuli

dro

wuTebSi

gansxvavebis

statistikuri

mniSvneloba

p

df F

1

2

3

Zili

Tavis movla

356.0

32.8

362.4

ar aris

mniSvnelovani

ar aris

mniSvnelovani

televizoris

yureba

161.8 150.3


garda saSinao saqmisa, qals xSirad samsaxuric aqvs da amdenad ormagi tvir-

Ti awevs - rogorc ojaxis marCenalis, ise dedis da diasaxlisis, maSin, roca

mamakacs mxolod da mxolod erTi - marCenalis roli akisria.

”qalebi TavianT Semosavals mamakacebs uziareben, magram mamakacebi ar iziareben

qalis tvirTs” - SeniSna axalgazrda qalma (f.j.7).

saSinao saqme araprestiJulia, amdenad kacebs ar surT Tavis Tavze qalis

saqmeebis aReba.

”qali kisrulobs mamakacis saqmes, romelic fulTan da prestiJTanaa dakav-

Sirebuli, xolo mamakacebi uxalisod ekidebian saojaxo movalobebs, iseTs,

rogoricaa mag. bavSvebis aRzrda, rac prestiJulad ar iTvleba da am

TvalsazrisiT araferi icvleba” - interviu eqspertTan, lela xomerikTan.

is, rom mamakacs ar surs qalis roli ikisros, mxolod saqarTvelosTvis

araa damaxasiaTebeli. rogorc j. georgasi (Georgas, Berry & Kagitsibasi, 2006.

gv.49) aRniSnavs, ”dasavluri sazogadoebis modernizaciis miuxedavad, qmrebi

uars amboben miexmaron qals saojaxo saqmeebSi”.

27 qveyanaSi Catarebulma ojaxebis kulturaT-Soriso gamokvlevam cxadyo,

rom dedebi mamebze met saSinao samuaos asruleben. gamokvlevam isic uCvena,

rom tradiciuli ojaxuri faseulobebi - ufrosebis pativiscema, naTesauri

kavSirebis mniSvneloba da mamakacis Zalaufleba ojaxSi dakavSirebulia

imaze, Tu ramdenad SeZlebulia sazogadoeba. Rarib sazogadoebaSi metia

tradiciuli Rirebulebis pativiscema da mamakacebis Zalafuleba. amis garda,

genderuli Tanasworobis sakiTxebi mWidrodaa dakavSireuli religiasTan.

zogi religia meti Tanasworobas uSvebs, zogi ki naklebs. musulmanuri

religia didadaa dakavSirebuli patriarqalur damokidebulebebTan ojaxSi

(Georgas, Berry & Kagitsibasi, 2006).

saqorwilo ritualebi ojaxis stabilurobis, rZlis miRebis da misi mosalodneli

qcevis bevr simbolur gamoxatulebas areklaven. muslimani mesxebis

saqorwino rituali, im xalxis, romelic saqarTvelos samxreT nawilidan

iyo deportirebuli 1944 wels, da romelic dabrunda samSobloSi aTiode

wlis win, cxadad miuTiTebs im morCilebaze, romelsac rZlisgan moelian.

112


muslimani mesxebis saqorwino ceremonia saqarTveloSi

qorwineba Zalian mniSvnelovan ritualad iTvleba da mas yvela didi

yuradRebiT da sizustiT asrulebs.

qorwili tardeba rogorc sasiZos, ise patarZlis ojaxebSi, Tumca patarZals

SeuZlia mxolod mcire zomis wveuleba moawyos.

qorwili Semdegi ritualebisagan Sedgeba: sasiZos misvla patarZlis

saxlSi da misi miReba; dedamTilis misvla da misi miReba; saCuqrebis gadacema

patarZlisaTvis da maTi sajaro daTvaliereba; patarZlis wardgena

sasiZosTvis; patarZlisa da sasiZos gamosvla stumrebTan; gamaspinZleba da

cekva; patarZlis da sasiZos saxlSi Sesvla; saqorwilo tortis daWra

da beWdebis gacvla.

sufras sefaSi Slian - Ria cis qveS sagangebod gadaxurul adgilze,

Cveulebrivad ezoSi. sagangebo taxti axal daqrowilebulTaTvis sefis

boloSi idgmeva. sefa morTulia feradi buStebiT da xelovnuri

yvavilebiT. qalebs qorwilze feradi kabebi, umetesad wiTeli da Ria

feris windebi acviaT. qorwili cocxali musikis TanxlebiT mimdinareobs.

Tanamedrove simRerebisa garda, aseve sruldeba xalxuri musika zurnadudukis

TanxlebiT. musikosebs qiraoben, ufro xSirad azerbaijanSi.

qorwilze mesxur da qarTul saWmels amzadeben. patarZlis saxlSi misvlisas

siZe da misi mayari SeyavT oTaxSi, sadac tkbileuliT gawyobili

sufraa. dedamTili da misi Tanmxlebi pirebi ezoSi Sedian, awyoben tkbileuls

miwaze da mis garSemo cekvaven. maT xelSi xiliT da tkbileuliT

savse wiTeli bafTebiT gakruli patara CanTebi da fuTebi uWiravT,

xolo ufro mozrdil CanTebSi patarZlis saCuqrebi awyvia. mere qalebi

oTaxSi Sedian da iatakze jdebian. isini erTmaneTs idayvze xelis gulebs

adeben misalmebis niSnad. rodesac oTaxSi xandazmuli qali Semodis,

yvela qali fexze dgeba da mas egebeba. bolos oTaxSi saxedafaruli,

TeTrebSi gamowyobili patarZali Semodis gaTxovili naTesavis, ”ianga”-s

TanxlebiT, romelic mas exmareba ceremoniis ganxorcielebaSi. saCuqrebis

gaxsnisas patarZali saxes aCens, saCuqrebis daTvalierebis mere ki

isev malavs da gadis im oTaxSi, sadac mas sasiZo elodeba. mas oTaxidan

zurna-dudukis TanxlebiT acileben. amis mere nefe-patarZali gamodian

oTaxSi xelismomkideebTan da uaxloes naTesavebsa da megobrebTan erTad.

qalebidan erT-erTs moaqvs torti da yvela sefasken miemarTeba. adre

arsebobda axaldaqorwinebulebis dagrexili xis totebis (an xmlebis)

TaRqveS gatarebis wesi. mesxebs ara aqvT Tamadis daniSvnis tradicia, magram

axla, adgilobrivi mosaxleobis gavleniT, xandaxad sufras Tamada

xelmZRvanelobs. Wama-smas cekva mosdevs. saqorwilo sufras axalgazrda

113


mamakacebi emsaxurebian. qorwilze Cveulebriv orasamde adamiania miwveuli,

yvela asakis bavSvis CaTvliT.

amis mere axaldaqorwinebulebi, uaxloesi megobrebisa da naTesavebis TanxlebiT

gadian sefidan da saxlSi brundebian, sadac tkbileuliTa da

sasmelebiT sagangebod gawyobili sufra elodebaT. SemoaqvT saqorwilo

torti, romelic wiTeli bafTebiTaa galamazebuli. bafTebis boloebze

saqorwilo beWdebia mimagrebuli. patarZali bafTebs makratliT Wris da

amis mere nefe patarZali erTmaneTs TiTze beWeds Camoacmeven. Semdeg

oriveni erTad Wrian torts da erTmaneTs tortis patara naWers awodeben.

amas damswreni taSiTa da milocvebiT egebebian. daWril torts stumrebs

urigeben. amis Semdeg axladdaqorwinebulebi aRar gadian gareT. isini Sin

rCebian da isveneben.

axaldaqorwinebulebi patarZlis saxlSi ar aTeven Rames erTad, stumrebs

SeuZliaT dilamde darCena.

meore dRes siZe da misi mayari Sin brundeba da elodeba patarZals,

romelic Sin siZis mamam an misma romelime mamakacma naTesavma unda miiyvanos.

siZis qali naTesavebi, romlebmac Rame patarZlis saxlSi gaaTies, Tan

axlavan patarZals. patarZlis naTesavebs Tan miaqvT aseve saCuqrebi siZis

ojaxis wevrebisTvis. patarZlis saxlSi sagangebod mzaddeba oTaxi siZis

mamis misaRebad. swored aq xorcieldeba saCuqris gadacemis da sarZlos

SeZenis rituali. patarZali saxes ifaravs da kvlav 'ianga'-s TanxlebiT

Sedis oTaxSi. siZis naTesavebs ori xonCa uWiravT xaWapuriT, tkbileuliT,

xiliTa da TavsafrebiT savse. xonCis kideebSi sami sanTeli anTia. ori patara

gogona iRebs xonCebs da samjer TavszemoT atrialebs. amis Semdeg gogonebs

TavSalebs aZleven da xonCidan saWmels stumrebs sTavazoben. erT-erTi

gogona midis patarZalTan da Tmas varcxnis; amisTvis is saCuqars iRebs. meore

gogona patarZals marjvena xelze iniT wertils axatavs da isic iRebs

saCuqars. ianga, romelic mudam patarZlis gverdiTaa, am wertils mowmends

patarZals. amis mere is siZis ojaxis wevrebisgan iRebs saCuqrebs. Semdeg

iwyeba patarZlis yidvis rituali, romelic dolisa da zurnis TanxlebiT

mimdinareobs. patarZali kvlav ifaravs saxes. is misma Zmam an sxva naTesavma

vaJma unda gayidos. patarZali TavSals Zmas welze axvevs, romlis meSveobiTac

misi Zma asaxierebs qamris Sekvrasa da Sexsnas. am moZraobebs mosdevs

TavSalSi fulis Cadeba, romelic gadaecema patarZlis qal naTesavebs. amieridan

patarZali gayidulad iTvleba da mamamTils igi manqanisken miyavs.

mas ianga da siZis qali naTesavebi miyvebian. kvlav meordeba yidvis rituali.

mamakaci manqanis win dgeba da ar rTavs misi daZvris nebas. mas fuls aZleven

da is iqamde ar uSvebs manqanas daiZras, sanam ar dakmayofildeba micemuli

114


TanxiT. adre arsebobda Widaobis tradicia. dedas ara aqvs ufleba qaliSvls

daemSvidobos da mamasac ekrZaleba qaliSvilTan miaxloeba. marto

biZa emSvidobeba mas. Semdeg qalebi manqanaze ferad TavSlebs amagreben,

patarZali saxes aCens da manqana midis.

mogvianebiT tardeba religiuri rituali, romelsac patarZali mxolod

mcire xniT eswreba imis saTqmelad, rom Tanaxmaa gaTxovdes. aranairi werilobiTi

sabuTi ar formdeba.

patarZali Sedis qmris saxlSi. mas nefe egebeba da tkbileuls ayris. aqvea

dedamTilic. saxlSi Sesvlisas patarZali TavSalze dagebul TefSs fexiT

amtvrevs. dedamTili agrovebs natexebs, TavSalSi axvevs da Sin Seaqvs. mamamTils

patarZali saxlSi Seyavs. saxlis karTan patarZali, romelsac saxe

kvlav dafaruli aqvs da Tavi TeTri da wiTeli TavsafrebiT aqvs Semkuli,

iangas TanxlebiT xvdeba Tavis muls an qal xelismomkides. patarZals

Taflian Tass sTavazoben, romelSic is TiTs awobs da samjer usvams saxlis

kedels tkbili urTierTobis niSnad. saxlSi Sesvlisas mis Tavze danebs gadaaWdoben

da xmamaRla amboben, rom ena unda daimoklos, raTa dedamTils

ar Seepasuxos. amis mere puris naWrebs welze gamoabamen ojaxuri simtkicis

niSnad. mamamTili brinjs ayris mas keTildReobis niSnad da eubneba, rom

yvelaferi, rac mas ekuTvnis, amieridan misicaa. dedamTili dalocavs rZals.

mere is miyavT qmarTan da is saxes gamoaCens. qorwili iwyeba da mamakacebi da

qalebi cal-calke magidebze sxdebian. ianga patarZalTan sami dRe rCeba.

ZiriTadi sakiTxebi

socialur cvlilebebTan Sesagueblad ojaxi, rogorc instituti, cvlilebebs

ganicdis. sabWoTa kavSiris daSlas mravalmxrivi, xangrZlivi da mZime

Sedegbi moyva. cvlilebebTan morgebis aucileblobam gamoiwvia ojaxis Semadgenlobisa

da struqturis gardaqmna, genderuli urTierTobebis Secvla.

da mainc, miuxedvad imisa, rom qalma ojaxis materialurad uzrunvelyofis

funqciac ikisra, rolebis ZiriTadi ganawileba, kacis, rogorc marCenalis da

qalis, rogorc ojaxze mzrunvelis ucvleli darCa. problemas, genderuli

Tanasworobis TvalTaxedvidan rolebis ganawileba ki ar warmoadgens, aramed

is, rom qalis mier saxlSi Sesrulebuli samuSao ar aris dafasebuli.

115


Tavi 6

adamianuri da socialuri kapitali

adamianis keTildReoba didadaa damokidebuli imaze, Tu ra adamianur da

socialur kapitalis mflobelia is. am kapitalis done da Semadgenloba

gansxvavebulia mamakacisa da qalisaTvis.

adamianuri kapitali, romelic adamianis janmrTelobas da ganaTlebas gulisxmobs

gansazRvravs Sromis da sicocxliT tkbobis unars da amdenad

uaRresad mniSvnelovania gadarCenisTvis. karg ganaTlebas da janmrTelobas

SeuZlia ara mxolod pirdapiri gziT gauumjobesos adamians cxovrebis xarisxi,

aramed aseve gazardos mis mier fulis Sovnis SesaZlebloba. meore gadar-

CenisaTvis gadamwyvet faqtors socialuri kapitali warmoadgens, romelic

ganisazRvreba adamianis sxvebTan urTierTobis unariTa da maTTan kavSiriT,

da im mxardaWeriTa, romliTac is sargeblobs.

janmrTeloba

janmrTeloba albaT SeiZleba adamianis yvelaze did simdidred CaiTvalos.

respondetTa (gamokiTxva) udidesma umravlesobam (97.1%) is sakuTari

cxovrebis umniSvnelovanes aspeqtad aRiara. saSualod qalebs ukeTesi janmrTeloba

aqvT da mamakacebze metxans cxovroben.

saqarTveloSi 2001-2007 wlebSi sicocxlis mosalodnelma xangrZlivobam 4.4

wliT moimata. sicocxlis xangrZlivobis zrda aisaxa, rogorc qalebze aseve

kacebze, Tumca qalebis SemTxvevaSi is ufro mniSvnelovania. amiT aixsneba

gansxvaveba mamakacisa da qalis sicocxlis xangrZliobas Soris, romelic 6.6dan

8.9 wlamde meryeobs.

116


tabula 9

sicocxlis mosalodneli xangrZlivoba dabadebisas

wlebi jami mamakacebi qalebi gansxvaveba

2001 71.5 68.0 74.8 6.8

2002 71.5 67.9 74.8 6.8

2003 72.1 68.7 75.3 6.6

2004 71.6 67.9 75.1 7.2

2005 73.8 69.9 77.4 7.5

2006 74.3 69.8 78.5 8.7

2007 75.1 70.5 79.4 8.9

wyaro: statistikis departamenti

sikvdilianoba mamakacebSi ufro maRalia, vidre qalebSi.

tabula 10

sikvdilianobis sixSire

Ywlebi mamakacebi qalebi jami

2004 24,642 24,151 48,793

2005 21,091 19,630 40,721

2006 22,458 19,797 42,255

2007 22,091 19,797 42,255

wyaro: statistikis departamenti

sikvdilianoba orive sqesisTvis yvelaze maRalia 70-74 wlis asakSi. 2007

wels, sikvdilianobis SemTxvevaTa 18.5% am asakobriv jgufebSi dafiqsirda.

117


nax. 26

sikvdilianoba asakobrivi jgufebis mixedviT

mamakacebis da qalebis sikvdilis mizezi ZiriTadad erTnairia, magram gansxvavebulia

sxvadasxva daavadebebis wili qalebisa da kacebis sikvdilis

mizezebSi. gulisa da sisxlZarRvovani sistemis daavadebebi, kibosTan erTad

sikvdilis yvelaze xSir mizezs warmoadgenen. qalebSi ufro maRalia sisxlZarRvovani

sistemis daavadebebi. genderTan daakavSirebuli Tavisebureba

isaa, rom gul-sisxlZarRvTa davadebebi mamakacebTan SedarebiT, qalebTan

ufro xandazmul asakSi vlindeba (Convay, Ahern & Steuenagel, 2005).

kibo admianis erT-erTi ZiriTadi mkvlelia da igi garkveulwilad gender-

Tan aris dakavSirebuli. genderuli gansxvaveba SedarebiT mcirea, rodesac

kibos monacemebs erTianad ganvixilavT. gansxvaveba ikveTeba, rodesac kibos

misi gavrcelebis ares mixedviT ganvixilavT. qalebSi yvelaze gavrcelebulia

sasqeso organos daavadeba, mkerdisa da momnelebeli sistemis kibo,

xolo mamakacebSi - momnelebeli sistemis, sasunTqi gzebisa da saSarde

gzebis kiboa ufro gavcelebuli. meti mamakaci iRupeba tramvebis da sxva

garegani mizezebiT.

118

kacebi

qalebi


sisxlZarRovani

sistemis daavadeba

neoplazmi

daudgeneli

tramvebi

sasunTqi sistemis

daavadebaSi

momnelebeli

sistemis daavadeba

sxva mizezebi

nax. 27

gardacvalebis gamomwvevi sxvadasxva daavadebis wili mamakacebsa da qalebSi

2007 wels

wyaro: statistikis departamenti

mosaxleobis janmrTeloba Zlier gauaresda sabWoTa kavSris daSlis Semdgom.

jandacvis yvela obieqti gamovida saxelmwifos sakuTrebidan. jandacva,

romelic ufaso iyo sabWoTa periodSi, fasiani gaxda. janmrTelobisTvis

gamoyofili sabiujeto saxsrebi Semcirda da Seadgina 7.3 aSS dolari kacze

2001 wels, maSin, rodesac msoflio jandacvis organizaciis mier gansaz-

Rvruli minimaluri xarjebi 60 aSS dolars Seadgens. jandacvis saerTo

xarjebi TiTo kacze qveyanaSi aris 108 sd (saerTaSoriso dolari), aqedan

saxelmwifo faravs 38 procents, anu 41 sd-s. latviaSi amis Sesatyvisi ricxvebia

509sd da 52.0 procenti anu 267 sd; holandiaSi saerTo Tanxa Seadgens

2612 sd-s, saidanac saxelmwifo faravs 63 procents, anu 1654 sd-s. amgvarad,

jandacvaze gamoyofili biujeti Seadgens saerTo erovnuli produqtis

6.4 procents latviaSi, 8.9 procents holandiaSi da mxolod 3.6 procents

saqarTveloSi (globaluri iniciativa fsiqiatriisaTvis - Tbilisi, 2009).

gaRatakebul mosaxleobas ar qonda eqimebisTvis Tanxis gadaxdis saSualeba.

amis gamo xalxma mkurnalobis Taobaze rCevisTvis mimarTa da isev mimarTavs

megobrebs da afTiaqarebs. nebismieri wamlis SeZena, fsiqonevrologiuris

garda, receptis gareSe SeiZleba. amgvari mkurnaloba xSirad pacientis janmrTelobis

mdgomareobis gauaresebas iwvevs. bevri, gansakuTrebiT Raribi da

soflis macxovrebeli ar flobs informacias im saxelmwifo programebze,

romelic ufaso samedicino momsaxurebas ganapirobebs da amdenad, ekonomikuri

barierebi, informaciis simciresTan erTad, ganapirobebs imas, rom ada-

119

qalebi

kacebi


mianebi ar mimarTaven samedicino dawesebulebebs. isini iq Cveulebriv maSin

midian, roca daavadeba garTulebulia da xSir SemTxvevaSi aRar eqvemdebareba

mkurnalobas.

ojaxis erTi wevris avadmyofobam SeiZleba Zalian xangrZilivi zemoqmedeba

iqonios ojaxis ekonomikur mdgomareobaze, radgan ”usafrTxoebis bade”

Zalze ”Txelia”, igi mosaxleobis mxolod Zalze mcire nawilze da mxolod

momsaxurebis mcire raodenobazea gansazRvruli. saxelmwifo programebis

SezRuduli raodenoba, rogoricaa wlamde asakis bavSvis janmrTeloba,

imunizacia, antenataluri movla, garkveuli saxis invalidebi da zogierTi

daavadebis mkurnaloba, rogoricaa tuberkulozi, kibo, fsiqozi, malaria,

Sidsi da sxva, ufaso mkurnalobas ganapirobebs. magram am daavadebebis

SemTxvevaSic ki pacientebs xSirad uwevT damatebiT fulis gadaxda. saxelmwifos

mier dafinansebuli janmrTelobis dazRveva qveyanaSi mosaxleobis

mxolod mcire nawils faravs, magaliTad iZulebiT gadaadgilebul pirebs.

zogierTi damqiravebeli aseve faravs dazRvevas. Zalian cota adamians aqvs

kerZo dazRveva. gamokiTxulTa mxolod 5.3 procenti sargeblobs janmrTelobis

dazRveviT (gamokiTxva).

janmrTelobaze zrunva qalis sazrunav sferod aris miCneuli, raki Cveulebriv

qali zrunavs ojaxis wevrebis janmrTelobaze.

”roca kaci avad xdeba, Cveulebriv qali zrunvas mis janmrTelobaze. magram

rodesac qali xdeba avad, kacebi iSviaTad iReben pasuxismgeblobas mis janmrTelobaze”

- interiu eqspertTan, lela xomerikTan.

janmrTelobis mdgomareobis aRqma winaaRmdegobaSi modis qalis ukeTesi

janmrTelobis zogad tendenciasTan. gamokiTxul mamakacTa (gamokiTxva) ufro

didi nawili (45.9%), qalebTan SedarebiT (31.85%) (Chi-Square 23.7; df 2,

p


im 464 respondentidan, vinc iavadmyofa da ar mimarTa eqims, 71.6 procentma

miuTiTa, rom eqims ufulobis gamo ar mimarTa.

statisitkuri monacemebi miuTiTebs, rom yvelaze metad gavrcelebulia

sasunTqi gzebisa da momnelebeli sistemis daavadebebi.

sasunTqi gzebis sistema

monelebis sistema

sisxlZarRovani sistema

sxva

infeqcia

Sardis da sasqeso sistema

travma

kani

nerveuli sistema

Tvali

nax. 28

sxvadasxva daavadebis wili 2007

wyaro: Sromis, janmrTelobisa da socialuri usafrTxoebis saministro

121


janmrTelobasTan dakavSirebul saWiroebebs Soris genderuli gansxvaveba

ZiriTadad reproduqciasTanaa dakavSirebuli. qalebi reproduqciuli jandacvis

momsaxurebas 15 - dan 44 wlamde saWiroeben. antenataluri samedicino

momsaxureba albaT reproduqciuli janmrTelobis prevenciuli zomebis

yvelaze mniSvnelovani komponentia, radgan mas xangrZlivi Sedegebi aqvs

rogorc dedis, ise bavSvis janmrTelobaze. orsulobas da bavSvis dabadebis

xarjebs saxelmwifo programa faravs, Tumca antenataluri momsaxureba ar

gulisxmobs ganmeorebiT eqoskopia garTulebis SemTxvevaSi. amitom, yvelaze

meti riskis Semcveli SemTxvevebi uyuradRebod rCeba.

2007 wels 639 bavSvi gardaicvala prenataluri periodis garTulebebis da

Tandayolili anomaliebis gamo. viTareba sikvdilianobis TvalsazrisiT gamosworda

2005 welTan SedarebiT, rodesac 915 bavSvi gardaicvala.

winsvla ar SeiniSneba ojaxuri dagegmvis TvalsazrisiT. abortebis ricxvi

maRalia da zogadad matebis tendenciiT xasiaTdeba

nax. 29

abortebis raodenoba 2000-2007 wlebSi (aTasebSi)

wyaro: qali da kaci saqarTveloSi, 2008

abortebis (76.4%) umravlesoba 20-34 wlis asakis qalebze modis.

122


nax. 30

abortebis wili asakobrivi jgufebis mixedviT

bevri iZulebiT gadaadgilebuli qalis janmrTelobis problema uwinaresad

reproduqcias ukavSirdeba.

”iZulebiT gadaadgilebul qalebs bevri ginekologiuri problema SeeqmnaT

im abortebis gamo, romelTa gakeTeba xSir SemTxvevaSi arasamedicino

dawesebulebaSi mouxdaT. bavSvis aRzrdis saSulebis ar qonis gamo qalebs

eSinodaT bavSvis gaCena.” - interviu saxelmwifo moxelesTan, dalila xoravasTan.

sqesobrivi gziT gadamdebi daavadebebi, maT Soris, aiv/Sidsi, genderTanaa

dakavSirebuli. es daavadebebi ufro mamakacebTan aris gavrcelebuli. sifilisisa

da gonoreas axali SemTxvevebis sixSiris dinamikas wlebis mixedviT

araTanmimdevruli xasiaTi aqvs. yvelaze meti SemTxveva 2005 wels, xolo

yvelaze cota 2007 wels dafiqsirda.

123


nax. 31

sifilisisa da gonoreis axali SemTxvevebi

wyaro: Sromis, janmrTelobis da socialuri dacvis saministro

reproduqciuli janmrTelobis gamokiTxvis Sedegebis mixedviT, SidsiT inficirebulTa

ricxvi saqarTveloSi 2005 wels 50-s Seadgenda erT milion

mosaxleze, rac ufro maRali maCvenebelia regionis sxva qveynebTan SedarebiT.

is 20-is tolia azerbaijanSi, da odnav ufro maRali somxeTSi, sadac

30-is tolia.

Sidsis registrirebuli SemTxvevebis ricxvi swrafad izrdeba

nax.32

aiv-as da Sidsis axali SemTxvevebi

wyaro: qali da kaci saqarTveloSi, 2006 da 2008

124

kacebi

qalebi

aiv kacebSi

aiv qalebSi

Sidsi kacebSi

Sidsi qalebSi


2008 wlis agvistosaTvis, 1726 SemTxveva aRinusxa, aqedan inficirebulTa Soris

75.6 procenti kacia, maTi asaki 29-dan 40 wlamdea.

avadmyofobis gadamdebi mizezebi kacebSi ZiriTadad (50.8%) saziaro ineqcias

ukavSirdeba da is upiratesad narkomanebSia gavrcelebuli, xolo qalebTan

gavrcelebis upirates wyaros (31.6%) sqesobrivi urTierToba warmoadgens.

daavadebulTa sikvdilianoba 371-s utoldeba.

mamakacebi tuberkuloziT qalebze ufro metad avaddebian. aRiniSneba tuberkulozis

SemTxvevabis mateba. 2006 weli gamonaklisi iyo, roca SemTxvevaTa

ricxvma odnav iklo. 2007 wels, tuberkulozis 6,450 SemTxveva dafiqsirda.

mamakacebTan infeqciis farTod gavrcelebis erT-erTi mizezi SeiZleba iyos

is, rom cixis, sadac tuberkulozi Zalze gavrcelebulia, ZiriTad binadrebs

mamkacebi Seadgenen.

nax.33 tuberkulozis SemTxvevebi

wyaro: statistikis departamenti

125

kacebi

qalebi


fsiqikuri aSlilobebi msoflioSi avadmyofobis yvelaze gavrcelebul saxes

warmoadgens. maTi uaryofiTi zemoqmedebis siZliere ganisazRvreba ara mxolod

im tanjviT, romelsac daavadebuli adamiani ganicdis, aramed aseve

maTi zemoqmedebiT avadmyofis ojaxsa da mTlianad sazogadoebaze. stigmisa

da ekonomikuri sirTuleebis gamo fsiqikuri aSlilobebis registrirebul

SemTxvevaTa raodenoba bevrad Camouvardeba realurad arsebul SemTxevaTa

raodenobas. 2007 wels fsiqikuri aSlilobis mqone 106,921 adamiani iyo registrirebuli

saqarTveloSi (globaluri iniciativa fsiqiatriaSi - Tbilisi,

2008). saqarTveloSi fsiqiatriul saavadmyofoSi erT avadmyofze gamoyofili

Tanxis odenoba Zalze mcirea da is 0.9 saerTaSoriso dolars Seadgens.

SedarebisTvis, somxeTSi es cifri 5.5-ia, bulgareTSi 12, safrangeTSi

ki 90. fsiqikuri daavadebis registrirebuli SemTxvevebis ricxvi matulobs.

aRricxvaze ayvanilTa Soris Warboben mamakacebi. genderuli gansxvaveba

SeiZleba imiT aixsnas, rom Sizofreniis SemTxvevaSi ufro xSirad mimarTaven

samedicino dawesebulebas, vidre SedarebiT naklebad mZime aSlilobebis

dros, Sizofrenia ki mamakacebSi ufroa gavrcelebuli.

nax. 34

fsiqikuri aSlilobis axali SemTxvevebi

wyaro: qali da kaci saqarTveloSi, 2006 da 2008

126

kacebi

qalebi


fsiqiatriuli problemebis bunebac gansxvavebulia mamakacisa da qalis

SemTxvevaSi.

”maniakalur-depresiuli fsiqozebi, depresia da isteria ufro Warbobs qalebSi,

xolo mamakacebSi - Sizofrenia”. - interviu fsiqiatr maia xundaZesTan.

SezRuduli SesaZleblobebi seriozul dabrkolebas uqmnis adamians imuSaos

da datkbes cxovrebiT. is xSirad socialur izolacias da depresias iwvevs.

2004 wlis monacemebiT 213, 184 fizikuri, gonebrivi an qronikuli daavdebiT

gamowveuli SezRuduli SesaZleblobis mqone piria registrirebuli saqarTveloSi,

saidanac 13.9 procenti invalidobis pirvel kategorias ganekuTvneba

(”Zalian mZime”), 65.6 procenti meores (”mZime”) da 15.5 procenti ki mesames

(”saSualo”).

Tumca, SezRuduli SesaZleblobebis mqone adamianTa realuri raodenoba

bevrad aRemateba oficialur monacemebs da igi eqspertebis SefasebiT

400,000 unda iyos.

SezRudul SesaZleblobebis mqoned pirvelad cnobil pirTa Soris qalebi

mcire odenobiT (51.8% 2007 wels) Warboben kacebs.

SezRuduli

SesaZlebloba;

omis veterani;

dabadebidan invalidi;

nax. 35

invalidoba mizezebis mixedviT

samsaxureobri vi travma;

qronikuli daavadeba;

838,130 adamiani, anu qveynis mosaxlebis 19.2 procenti iRebs rva sxvadasxva saxis

pensias saxelmwifosgan. qali pensionerebis raodenoba TiTqmis orjer (64.6%)

aRemateba mamakac pensionerTa raodenobas (35.4%).

127


nax. 36

mamakaci da qali pensionerebis procentuli maCvenebeli

wyaro: statistikis departamenti

pensionerebis umravlesoba (70.3%) iRebs xadnazmulobis pensias.

bavSvobidan

invalidoba;

marCenaldakarguli; samxedro;

avadmyofoba;

sqema 37

pensiebis struqtura

sxva;

128

represirebuli;

kaci

qali

xandazmuloba;


mosaxleobis garkveul umweo nawils saxelmwifo aZlevs daxmarebas.

2007 wels 12,306,400 lari iqna gamoyofili da eqvs sxvadasxva tipis

daxmarebaze iqna daniSnuli. maTgan yvelaze didi wili (52.3%) martoxela

pansionerebze modis.

invalidebi;

ojaxebi ayvanili

SvilebiT;

invalidi

bavSvebi;

nax. 38

saxelmwifo daxmarebis struqtura 2007 wels

qveyanaSi sul oTxi moxucTa da SezSezRudulTa TavSesafaria. 2007 wels iq

637 adamiani iyo ganTavsebuli. sul 1,182,200 lari, anu 1855 lari (daaxloebiT

1,300 aSS dolari) sulze weliwadSi iyo maTze gamoyofili.

janmrTelobis politika araproporciuladaa fokusirebuli mkurnalobaze,

prevencia ki faqtiurad ugulvebelyofilia. Sedegad mosaxleobaSi ar

arsebobs saTanado codna janmrTelobis sakiTxebsa da cxovrebis jansaR

stilze.

mamakacebi qalebTan SedarebiT ufro arajansaR cxovrebas ewevian. mamakacebis

79.7 procenti da qalebis 19.4 procenti Rebulobs sam Wiqa alkoholur

sasmels regularulad (Chi-Square 2.8; ; df 3, p


qalis reproduqciul sistemaze da mas SeuZlia orsulobasTan dakavSirebuli

garTulebebis gamowveva, aseve nayofierebis Semcireba. (Convay, Ahern

& Steuernagel, 2005).

amave dros, varjiSis an zogadad fizikur datvirTvis Zalze dabal fonze

kacebi qalebTan SedarebiT mainc ufro metad varjiSoben (26.7% mamakacebi

da 12.3% qalebi) (Chi-Square 38.7; df 3, p


saqarTveloSi ojaxuri Zaladoba farTod araa gavrcelebuli da amdenad

ver xedavdnen kanonis SemoRebis aucileblobas, magram iyo ufro ukiduresi

mosazrebebic. rogorc erTma respondentma aRniSna:

”ar arsebobda ojaxur Zaladobaze kanonis miRebis saWiroeba. Tu mamakaci

aRiarebulia ojaxis Tavad, xolo qali mas emorCileba, aranairi problema

aRar warmoiSva. policieli ver uSvelis ojaxur Zaladobas” - interviu

mamakac notariusTan.

informacia ojaxuri Zaladobis SemTxvevebis zust raodenobaze ar arsebobs.

2007 wels, policiam aRnusxa ojaxuri Zaladobis 2388 SemTxveva, maTTan mimarTebaSi,

493 aRmkveTi brZanebuleba gamovida (subari, 2008).

1999 da 2005 wlebSi Catarebulma saqarTvelos reproduqciuli janmrTelobis

kvlevam gamoavlina, rom am saxis Zaladoba miCumaTebulia. aseve aRmoCnda,

rom aRnusxuli ojaxuri Zaladobis SemTxvevebis ricxvi bolo 12 Tvis

ganmavlobaSi (2.0%) da mTeli siscocxlis ganmavlobaSi (5%) gacilebiT

dabalia sxva qveynebTan SedarebiT. es dabali maCvenebeli nawilobriv Sei-

Zleba aixsnas saqarTveloSi arsebuli ufro mkacri kulturuli SezRudvebiT,

romlebic xels uSlian qals Tavi aRiaros Zaladobis msxverplad.

rac Seexeba Cveni gamokiTxvis respondentebs mamakacebze (24.4%) meti qali

(31.5%) aRiarebs, rom icnobs ojaxebs, sadac qmari fizikur Seuracxyofas

ayeneben cols (Chi-Square 6.9; df 2, p


kanoni ojaxuri Zaladobis aRmofxvris, mis msxverplTa dacvisa da mxardaWeris

Sesaxeb miRebul iqna 2006 wlis maisSi. am kanonis miReba win

gadadgmul nabijs warmoadgens ZaladobasTan brZolaSi, magram misi mxardamWeri

sistemis amoqmedebis gareSe misi qmedunarianoba eWvs iwvevs.

kanoni moiTxovs TavSesafrebisa da socialuri samsaxurebis Camoyalibebas.

saxelmwifos mier dafinansebuli TavSesafrebis gaxsna dagegmili iyo 2008

wlis ianvarSi, magram es ar ganxorcielda. dRemde orad-ori TavSesafari

funqcionirebs dedaqalaqSi, romelTac saerTaSoriso organizaciebis dafinansebiT

arasamTavrobo organizaciebi uZRvebian, am TavSesafrebis SesaZleblobebi

Zalze mwiria.

”am kanonis miRebis mere bevri sarCeli Sevida administraciul sasamarTloSi

damcveli da aRmkveTi RonisZiebebis moTxovniT. gacilebiT meti sarCelia

Sesuli Tbilisis sasamarTloebSi raionulebTan SedarebiT. miuxedavad

imisa, rom raionebSi meti Zaladobrivi danaSauli xdeba” - interviu mosamarTlesTan,

rusudan WanturiZesTan.

qalis mimarT ganxorcielebul sisxlis samarTlis sxva danaSaulebSi wamyvani

adgili gaupatiurebas da motacebas ukavia. 2007 wels 258 gaupatiurebis

SemTxveva an mcdeloba iyo registrirebuli. es monacemi orjer

aRemateba im 180 SemTxvevas, romelic wina wels dafiqsirda. 2006, 326, xolo

2007 wels 238 motacebis SemTxveva iqna aRnusxuli. zogadad SeiZleba iTqvas,

rom rogorc samarTaldamcavi sistema, aseve sazgadoeba SedarebiT Semwynareblur

damokidebulebas avlens am tipis danaSaulis mimarT. xSirad

mxareebi SeTanxmebas aRweven da Sedegad SemTxveva sasamarTlomde ar midis.

2007 wels 258 registrirebuli SemTxvevidan mxolod 89 iqna ganxiluli

sasamarTloSi da aqedan 35 SemTxvevaSi iqna kanondamrRvevi damnaSaved

cnobili.

kerZo sfero araa erTaderTi adgili, sadac aRiniSneba qalis winaaRmdeg

danaSauli. mas xSirad vawydebiT samuSao adgilebSi. dasaqmebis araformaluri

seqtori, sadac qalebi didi raodenobiT muSaoben, saxelmwifos

mier arc regulirdeba da arc kontrolirdeba.

”qalis diskriminacia aSkaraa ZiZebis, damlageblebis, quCis gamyidvelebis da

sezonuri muSakebis SemTxvevebSi. qalebs ara aqvT didi arCevani. isini iZulebulni

arian, imoqmedon viTarebis Sesatyvisad, romelime ”quCis avtoritetis”

an policielis CareviT; maT ician, rogor daicvan Tavi” - interviu

eqspertTan Tamar sabedaSvilTan.

132


trefikingi diskriminaciis kidev erT ukidures formas warmoadgens. ekonomikuri

mdgomareobis gauaresebasTan erTad gaizarda trefikingisa da prostituciis

SemTxvevebi. 2007 wels registrirebuli iyo 29 trefikingis SemTxveva,

aqedan 14 qalis winaaRmdeg iyo mimarTuli.

prostitucia kanoniT akrZaluli araa, mxolod saroskipos mowyoba da

bavSvTa prostituciaa dasjadi (sanikiZe, l. da sxvebi, 2006).

danaSauli iwvevs ara marto msxverplis, aramed aseve damnaSavis adamianuri

kapitalis Semcirebas. danaSauli gacilebiT maRalia mamakacebSi, qalebTan

SedarebiT da is dRiTidRe matulobs. 2006 wels dafiqsirda 228 qalis

mier Cadenli danaSauli da 17,575 mamakacis mier Cadenili danaSauli, maSin,

rodesac 2007 wlis pirveli rva Tvis ganmavlobaSi qalebis mier Cadenil

danaSaulTa raodenobam ukve 254-s miaRwia, mamakacebisam ki - 15,422 ( Sinagan

saqmeTa saministros mier 02.10. 2007 da iusticiis saministros mier 17.10 2007

mowodebuli informacia).

patimarta ricxvi saqarTveloSi Zalze didia. 2007 wlis ivlisisTvis maTi

raodenoba Seadgenda 401 adamians yovel 100,000 mosaxleze. sxva qveynebSi

Sesabamisi ricxvebi aseTia: 760 aSS-Si, 528 ruseTSi, 202 azerbaijanSi, 104

somxeTSi, 112 TurqeTSi, 163 bulgareTSi da 92 saberZneTSi. 2003-dan 2006

wlamde dapatimrebul adamianTa ricxvma imata rogorc mamakacebSi, ise

qalebSi, magram mateba ufro metad qalebSi moxda, ramac gazarda qalebis

wili cixeSi. 2003 wels, 147 qali patimrobaSi myofTa (6137) 2.4 procents,

xolo 2004 wels, 191 qali patimarTa (7750) 2,5 procents, 2006 wels ki, 323

qali patimarTa (9064) 3,6 procents Seadgenda. 2007 wlis oqtombrisaTvis

14,519 mamakaci da 577 qali iyo cixeSi; kidev 8562 mamakaci da 211 qali imyofeboda

winaswar patimrobaSi. amdenad, qalebi Seadgendnen msjavrdebulTa

3.8 procents, 2.5 procenti ki sasamarTlos ganCinebas eloda. SedarebisaTvis

qali patimrebis wili a.S.S.-Si 2002 wlis monacemebis mixedviT, 6.8 procents

Seadgenda.

578 patimar qze xelmisawvdomi informaciis safuZvelze, patimari qalebis

yvelaze maRali procentuli maCvenebeli, 42.6 procenti modis ekonomikur

danaSaulze, rogoricaa qurdoba, 41.0 procenti narkotikebTan dakavSirebul

danaSaulze da 7.4 procenti ZaladobasTan dakavSirebul danaSaulze.

133


sxva;

narkotikebTan

dakavSirebuli

danaSauli;

qrTami; 1,90%

dasaqmebis

uflebebis

darRveva;

nax. 39

qalebis mier Cadenil danaSaulis struqtura

ganaTleba

ganaTleba adamianis mniSvnelovan resurs warmoadgens. es upiratesoba,

romelic SeiZleba miewerebodes konkretul adamianebsa Tu adamianTa

jgufebs. ganaTleba sxvadasxva adamianma SeiZleba gansxvavebulad gamoiyenos,

gamomdinare misi socializaciisa da arsebuli mxardaWeridan airCios

garkveuli kariera (Convey, Ahern, Steuernagel, 2005). meritokratiul sazogadoebaSi,

anu, iseTSi, sadac adamiani misi codnis, unarebis, SesaZleblobebis

da ara eTnikuri warmomavlobis, gavleniani megobrebisa Tu sqesis mixedviT

fasobs, da rogoriskenac saqarTvelo, miiswrafis rom iyos ganaTleba did

Rirebulebas warmoadgens. ganaTlebis xelmisawvdomoba cxovrebis xarisxis

erTerTi Zireuli ganzomilebaa.

saqarTveloSi ganaTlebasTan dakavSirebuli viTareba tradiciulad kargi

iyo. is erT-erT ZiriTad Rirebulebad aris miCneuli. bavSvis janmrTeloba,

ganviTareba da kargi ganaTleba ojaxis umniSvnelovanes mizans warmoadgens,

romlis misaRwevadac ojaxi mzad aris bevr rameze uari Tqvas (Hentschel,U.,

Sumbadze, N. & Schoon, I. 2001).

134

Tavisuflebis

ukanono

SezRudva;

Zaladobrivi

danaSauli

ekonomikuri

danaSauli;


saerTaSoriso standartebis mixedviT saqarTvelos ganaTlebis maRali maCveneblebi

aqvs. am mxeriv kargi mdgomareobaa genderul TanasworobasTan

mimarTebaSic. ”aTaswleulis ganviTarebis mizani 2” dawyebiTi ganaTlebis

sayovelTao xelmisawvdomobas gulisxmobs, magram arsebuli viTarebidan

gamomdinare - 2003 wels dawyebiT klasebSi Caricxuli iyo Sesabamisi asakis

bavSvebis 97.3 procenti, mizani saqarTvelosTvis Secvlil iqna da aseTi

formulireba SeiZina: ”saqarTvelos saganmanaTleblo sistemebis ganvi-

Tarebuli qyeynebis sistemebTan daaxloeba xarisxis zrdisa da instituciuri

ganviTarebis meSveobiT” (”aTaswleulis ganviTarebis miznebi saqarTveloSi,

2004).

2007-2008 saswavlo wels saqarTveloSi funqcionirebda 1462 skola, sadac

614,666 moswavle swavlobda. kerZo skolebi 10.0 procents Seadgenda, da iq

moswavleTa 6.2 procenti swavlobda. qveyanaSi skolaTa 16.1 procents (396

skola) araqarTuli skolebi Seadgenen. iq qveynis moswavleTa 12.4 procenti

(76,295 moswavle) swavlobs. qarTuli saskolo sistema samdoniania:

dawyebiTi (pirveli-mexuTe klasi), sabazo (meeqvse-merve klasi) da saSualo

(mecxre-meTormete klasi). dawyebiT klasebSi aris moswavleTa 41.4 procenti,

sabazoSi 27.6 procenti, xolo saSualoSi 30.9 procenti. araqarTul

skolebSi Tanafardoba cota gansxvavebulia, iq moswavleTa wili dawyebiT

klasebSi ufro maRalia, xolo sabazo da saSualo klasebSi ki ufro

dabali vidre mTlianad qveynaSi.

nax. 40

moswavleTa raodenoba doneebis mixedviT

135

dawyebiTi

sabazo

saSualo


gamokiTxvis monacemebi asaxaven mosaxleobis ganaTlebis maRal dones. respondentebis

daaxloebiT naxevars (mamakacebis 46.7% da qalebis 46.5%)

umaRlesi ganaTleba aqvs miRebuli. gamokiTxulTa daaxloebiT mesamedi

(30.1%) miuTiTebs, rom SeuZlia kompiuterTan muSaoba, maTgan 55.0 procenti

internetis momxmarebelia.

respondentebi, qalebi da kacebi erTnairad (70.8%) ganaTlebis micemis upiratesobas

erTnairad niWieri qaliSvilisa da vaJiSvilis yolis SemTxvevaSi,

vaJiSvils aniWeben. genderuli gansxvaveba SeimCneva im SemTxvevebSi, roca

Svilebs gansxvavebuli monacemebi aqvT. mamakacebTan SedarebiT (73.7%) ufro

meti qalia (79.2%) imis momxre, rom qaliSvils misces ganaTleba, rodesac

gogona Zmaze ufro niWieria (Chi-Square 7.6; df 2, p


2007 wels universtitetebSi miRebuli studentebidan (37,455 adamiani gaer-

Tianda sabakalavro da samagistro programebSi) 64.6 procenti Cairicxa

saxelmwifo da 35.4 procenti ki kerZo universitetSi.

ganaTlebis reformis mizani, rogorc es aTaswleulis ganviTarebis miznebSia

asaxuli, aris evropul da amerikul saganmanaTleblo sistemebTan harminizacia.

saqarTvelo gaxda boloniis procesis monawile, rac iTvaliswinebs

arsebuli saganmanaTleblo sistemis Secvlas, ise rom miRweul iqnes xarisxebis

saerTaSoriso aRiareba, sabakalavro da samagistro kursebze dayrdnobiT

samecniero xarisxebis erTiani sistemis danergva.

studentebis raodenoba TiTqmis orjer metia saxelmwifo universitetebSi,

kerZo universitetebTan SedarebiT, rogorc bakalavriatis (63.9 % saxelmwifo

da 36.1% kerZo universitetebSi), aseve samagistro (64.4% saxelwifo

da 35.6% kerZo universitetebSi) programebSi. samagistro programaSi miRebuli

studentebis raodenoba Seadgenda mTlianad miRebuli studentebis

10.2 procents.

universitetis kurs damTavrebuli da studenti qalebis ricxvi odnav Warbobs

mamakacebisas. 2007-2008 akademiuri wlis ganmavlobaSi saxelmwifo da

kerZo universitetebSi CaricxulTagan qalebi Seadgenen 56.5 procents sabakalavro,

55. 3 procents samagistro, 42.2 procents profesiuli ganaTlebis

programebSi da 67.5 procents doqtoranturaSi.

genderi zegavlenas axdens profesiis SerCevaze. ufro meti qalia pedagogiur

profesiebSi, enaTmecnierebaSi da JurnalistikaSi, Tumca dRiTidRe

matulobs qalebis raodenoba iuridiul profesiaSi.

rogorc wesi, saxelmwifo universitetebSi bevrad ufro meti TanamSromelia

dasaqmebuli. pedagogiuri Statis umravlesoba (71.1%) saxelmwifo universitetebSi

muSaobs. qalebi (54.9%) Warboben mamakac profesorebs. es

Zalian maRali maCvenebelia aSS-s universitetebis profesorTa genderuli

ganawilebasTan SedarebiTac ki. magram amerikis msgavsad, qalebis ufro didi

nawilia koncentrirebulia SedarebiT dabal akademiur Tanamdebobebze.

saqarTvelos univesitetebSi qalebi asistent-profesorebis 66.7 procents

(45.0% aSS-Si), asocirebuli profesorebis 50.8 procents (35.3% aSS-Si) da

sruli profesorebis mxolod 30.2 procents (20.8% aSS-Si) Seadgenen.

qveyanaSi arsebuli ori samecniero xarisxi, mecnierebaTa kandidatis da

doqtoris Secvala erTma, doqtoris xarisxma. adre miniWebuli kandidatis

137


xarisxi doqtorisas gautolda. 2007 wels doqturanturis studentTa Soris

qalebi umravlesobas warmoadgendnen (59.9%). bevr disciplinaSi xarisxis

dacvis procedurebi jer kidev Camoyalibebis safexurzea. amas miewereba

2007 wels sadoqtoro naSromis dacvis dabali maCvenebeli - 44. doqtoris

xarisxis miniWebulTa Soris 59.1 procents qalebi Seadgenen.

saganmanaTleblo sistemis reformam mkvlevarTa ricxvis mkveTri Semcireba

gamoiwvia. mkvlevarTa Taobaze arsebuli uaxlesi monacemebi 2005 wels

miekuTvneba. amasTan, monacemebi, romelic ganaTlebisa da mecnierebis saministrom

da statistikis departamentma mogvawoda, yvela SemTxvevaSi ar

emTxveva erTmaneTs. arsebobs 66 mkleviTi instituti, romelTa samecniero

kvlviTi Stati 2005 wels TanamSromelTa 58.4 procents Seadgenda. bolo

aTwleulis ganmavlobaSi mecnier muSakebis ricxvi TiTqmis ganaxevrda, 6860

mecnier muSakidan 1994 wels, is davida 3976-mde 2005 wels (ganaTlebisa

da mecnierebis saministros monacemebi). mecnier muSaki qalebis ricxvma mamakacebis

ricxvze metad iklo. 2003 wels qalebi samecniero Statis 61.9

procents Seadgendnen, 2005 wels ki 50.5 procents (wyaro:qali da mamakaci,

2006).

garda imisa, rom nebismier samsaxureobriv garemoSi samsaxuridan daTxovna

qalebs ufro metad emuqrebaT, qalebis samsaxureobriv winsvlas damatebiT

dabrkolebas uqmnis ”minis Weri”. akademiur ierarqiaSi qalebs ufro dabali

safexuri ukaviaT. 2005 wels qalebi samecniero kvleviTi Statis mecnierebaTa

kandidatebis daaxloebiT naxevars, magram mecnierebaTa doqtorTa

mxolod meoTxeds Seadgendnen.

mecnierebaTa akademiis 135 wevridan mxolod cxra aris qali (n. javaxiSvili -

eqsperimentuli morfologia, a. kalandaZe - enaTmecniereba da literatura, q.

lomTaTiZe, enaTmecniereba da literatura, T. yauxCiSvili - filologia, e. qemerteliZe

- farmakologia, m. lorTqifaniZe - istoria, m. andronikaSvili - enaTmecniereba,

T. dekanosiZe - fiziologia da eqsperimentuli medicina, da m. SaniZe

- ena da literature. wyaro: www.acnet.ge.

138


nax. 42

mecnier-muSakebis raodenoba kvleviT institutebSi

mamakaci mkvlevarebi yvela qveyanaSi qal mkvlevarebze ufro produqtuli

arian. makobis mixedviT (Maccoby, 1963) amis mizezi SeiZleba iyos motivaciis

an drois nakleboba, an raime saxis SezRudva. Tumca monacemebi uCvenebs,

rom is qalebi, visac ojaxi ar yavs, ar gansxvavdebian maTgan, vinc daojaxebulia,

roca saqme produqtulobas exeba. amdenad, drois ukmarisoba

ar unda iyos amis mizezi. mecnieruli produqtuloba ufro mkvlevaris

analitikuri SesaZleblobebiT ganisazRvreba. mamakacisa da qalis inteleqt

Soris mTlianobaSi gansxvaveba ar aris, magram arsebobs mkveTri gansxvaveba

zogierTi funqciis TvalsazrisiT. mamakacebi qalebze ukeTesi analitikuri

unariT gamoirCevian, maT sivrculi azrovnebis ukeTesi unari aqvT, naklebad

arian velze damokidebuli da nakleb rigidulebi arian (Witkin, 1954).

mamakacebi bunebiT qalebze ufro agresiulebi arian, rac dominantobasa

da iniciativaSi vlindeba. qalebi informacias gansxvavbulad arTmeven Tavs;

maTi azrovneba naklebad analitikuria, is ufro globaluri da konser-

139

xarisxis gareSe

kandidati

doqtori


vatulia. qalebi aseve ufro metad inrteresdebian sxva adamianebis SexedulebebiT,

imiT, Tu ras fiqroben maTze sxvebi da metad eqcevian sxvaTa

azris gavlenis qveS, ufro metad eqvemdebarebian viTarebis moTxovnebs.

socialuri kapitali

socialuri kapitali socialur qselSi wevrobiT miRebul sikeTes gulisxmobs

(Narayan, 2000). es metad mniSvnelovani resursia, romelic adamians

dasaxuli miznis miRwevis SesaZleblobas aZlevs. adamianebi erTiandebian

socialur qselebSi raTa daikmayofilon Tavis moTxovnilebebi, aisrulon

survilebi da sxvebis daxmarebiT TavisTvis xelmisawvdomi gaxadon Sez-

Ruduli resursebi. socialuri qseli ganisazRvreba im adamianebiT, visTanac

pirovneba uSualod urTierTobs da am adamianebis urTierTkavSirebiT (Boissevain,

1974). qselis wesebi urTierTgacvlas gulisxmobs, ase rom, garda

imisa, rom qselis wevroba resursia, is mis wevrebisgan aseve moiTxovs maT

xelT arsebuli resursebis gaziarebas.

adamianebi moelian sakuTari garemocvisgan daxmarebas, rogorc mwvave krizisis

SemTxvevaSi, aseve yoveldRiuri problemebis gadaWraSi. imis aRqma,

rom mxardaWera ar arsebobs, an am mxardaWeris realurad ganuxorcieleba

uaryofiTad moqmedebs sicocxlis xangrZlivobaze, fsiqikur da fizikur

janmrTelobaze (Lynch, 1979; Uchino, Cacioppo & Kiecolt-Glazer, 1996). amgvarad

socialuri kapitali mWidrodaa dakavSirebuli meore resursTan -

adamianur kapitalTan.

socialuri qselis wevrebs ramdenime gziT SeuZliaT stresis uaryofiTi zegavlenis

Sesusteba: maT SeuZliaT uSualod imoqmedon stresorze an adamianze,

romelic stresul mdgomareobaSi imyofeba. maT SeuZliaT Secvalon

pirovnebis mier safrTxis aRqma, SeuZliaT gaaZlieron adamianis unari moerios

stress, SeuZliaT adamians yuradReba gadaataninon problemidan sxva

rameze (Wallston, Alagna, & De Vellis, 1983). zogadod, qselis wevrebs SeuZliaT

materialuri, sainformacio da emociuri daxmarebis gaweva (Walker, Wasserman

& Wellman, 1994).

qselebi SeiZleba iyos sxvadasxva saxis da gansxvavebuli Tvisebebis mqone.

ego-qselebi mxolod im adamianebs aerTianebs, romlebTanac adamians axlo,

emociurad datvirTuli urTierTobebi aqvs. ego-qseli gansxvavdeba sxva,

potenciurad ufro farTe qselebisgan urTierTobebis tipebis mixedviT, mag.

megobruli an profesiuli qselebi.

qseli SeiZleba ganvixiloT misi wevrebis raodenobis anu qselis zomis

140


mixedviT; urTierTobis tipis mixedviT-naTesauri/aranaTesauri, megobruli,

kolegialuri, da a.S.; emociuri siaxlovis mixedviT - emociuri manZili,

qselis wevris mimarT; qselis simWidrovis mixedviT - qselis wevrebis urTierkavSiris

xarisxi; kontaqtis sixSiris mixedviT - pirispir da arapirispir

kontaqtebis (telefoni, el.fosta da skaipi) raodenoba nebismier qveyanaSi,

drois nebismier istoriul monakveTSi da nebismieri adamianisTvis, socialuri

qseli Rirebul resurss warmoadgens, magram qselis Tvisebebi da

funqciebi mravali faqtoris zegavlenas ganicdian, iqneba es sazogadoebrivi,

rogoricaa kultura, socialuri samsaxurebi, socio-ekonomikuri, aseve demografiuli,

Tu pirovnuli maxasiaTelebi, rogoricaa sqesi, asaki, adamianuri

kapitali.

kulturebi SeiZleba daxasiaTebul iqnen, rogorc gansxvavebuli maTi wevrebis

urTierTkavSiris odenobiT da wevrebis mier sakuTari jgufis mniSvnelobis

Sefasebis mixedviT (Triandis, 1987). socialuri qselebi ufro mniSvnelovania

koleqtiuri kulturebisTvis, romlis wevrebi ufro zrunaven

urTierTobebze sxvadasxva jgufebs Soris da aseve jgufis SigniT arsebul

urTierTobebze, vidre individualur kulturebisaTvis, sadac Rirebulebebi

ufro metad piradi miznebis miRwevasTan aris dakavSirebuli. socialur

qselebs meti funqciebi aqvT da amave dros, ufro mniSvnelovania adamianis

gadarCenisaTvis iseT qveynebSi, sadac ar aris kargad ganviTarebuli

socialuri samsaxurebi, radgan iq qselis wevrebs uwevT mTeli rigi iseTi

funqciebis, rogoricaa patara bavSvebis, avadmyofebisa da xandazmulTa

movla sakuTar Tavze aReba socialurad ufro maRali usafrTxoebis mqone

saxelmwifoSi am funqciebs Tavis Tavze sxvadasxva samsaxurebi iReben. istoriuli

xana socialuri qselis formirebis kidev erTi faqtoria. socialuri

da ekonomikuri gardaqmnebis periodSi, romlis drosac izrdeba stresis

zewola adamianze, rodesac Cndeba cvlilebebisadmi morgebis saWiroeba,

izrdeba adamianis damokidebuleba socialur qselebze. demografiuli da

pirovnuli maxasiaTeblebi, rogoricaa, magaliTad, sqesi, asaki da ojaxuri

mdgomareoba Zlier zemoqmedebas axdenen socialur qselebze. adamianuri

kapitali aseve axdens gavlenas socialur kavSirebze, radgan janmrTeloba

da ganaTleba mniSvnelovanwilad ganapirobebs adamianis moTxovnilebebs da

mis SesaZleblobas wamoiwyos, an SeinarCunos urTierToba.

socialuri qseli adamianis sasicocxlo ciklTan erTad icvleba. asakTan

erTad garkveukl periodamde matulobs urTierTobaTa ricxvi, romelic piks

adreul mozrdilobaSi aRwevs. asakTan erTad aseve icvleba urTierTobebis

moTxovnileba, emociuri, fizikuri da xSirad ekonomikuri resursebis

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gamofitva, sicocxlis bolomde darCenili dro amcirebs ara Tu axali

urTierTobebis Camoyalibebis survils, aramed arsebuli urTierTobebis SenarCunebis

survilsac ki. qalebis qselebi, mamakacebis socialur qselebTan

SedarebiT ufro didi zomisaa, ufro Rrma da mravalferovania. amasTan

mamakacebi naklebad elian socialuri qselis wevrebisgan daxmarebas da

qalebze nakleb arian kmayofili megobrebisa da ojaxis mxardaWeriT (Shmitt

& Kurdek, 1985).

qarTli kultura im kulturaTa ricxvs ganekuTvneba, romelTa wevrebi

Zlier arian erTmaneTze damokidebuli (Georgas, Berry, & Kagitsibasi, 2006).

amdenad, socialuri qselebi Zalze mniSvnelovan rols TamaSoben admianebis

cxovrebaSi da garkveulwilad enacvlebian kidec qveyanaSi arsebul Zalze

sust ”sociluri usafrTxoebis” sistemas. socialur-ekonomikurma krizisma,

romelic qarTulma sazogadoebam bolo aTweliwadnaxevarSi gamocada, meti

moTxovnebi wauyena socialur garemos.

bevri ojaxis gadarCena moxerxda im mxardamWeri sistemis wyalobiT, romelic

qarTuli sazogadoebis istoriul tradiciebSi Rrmadaa gamjdari. sazogadoebaSi

arsebobs daxmarebis gawevis sayovelTaod aRiarebuli normebi,

yvelaze ukiduresi gaWirvebis Jamsac ki. rodesac gamokiTxulebs vTxovdiT

daesaxelebinaT yvelaze didi uxerxuloba, romelsac ganicdian ekonomikuri

gaWirvebis Jams, yvelaze xSiri pasuxi exeboda socialuri mxardaWeris

gawevis SeuZleblobas, Tavyrilobaze daswrebis SeuZleblobas transportirebisa

da finansuri daxmarebisaTvis saWiro Tanxebis ar qonis gamo.

ojaxebi Cveulebriv finansur daxmarebas uweven erTmaneTs ojaxis wevris

gardacvalebisas an qorwilSi. soflad erTmaneTs aseve xSirad uweven daxmarebas

saxlis aSenebaSi da saojaxo, Tu sasoflo-sameurneo saqmianobaSi,

rac ”nadis” saxeliT aris cnobili. sanaTesaos gazrda naTlobis meSveobiTac

xorcieldeba. naTlia bavSvisTvis mniSvnelovan adamianad iTvleba. is eswreba

bavSvis dabadebis dReebsa da mniSvnelovan ojaxur Sekrebebs. naTlia

valdebulia saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi bavSvs daxmareba gauwios da saCuqrebi

aCuqos (Sumbadze, 2006).

ojaxebis kulturaTSoriso gamokvleva cxadad adasturebs, Tu raoden

afasebs sazogadoeba saqarTveloSi ojaxur da megobrul urTierTobebs.

27 qveynis respondentTa Soris saqarTvelos respondentebi meore adgilze

aRmoCndnen axlo naTesavebTan urTierTobis sixSiris mixedviT da pirvelze

ojaxis wevrebTan emociuri siaxlovis mixedviT (Georgas, Berry, & Kagitsibasi,

2006).

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sqesi da asaki did zegavlenas axdens socialur qselebis Camoyalibebaze.

saqarTvelos zrdasruli mosaxleobis ego-qselebis kvlevisas (Sumbadze,

1999) gamovlinda sqesisa da asakis zegavlena qselis TiTqmis yvela maxasiaTebelze.

yvela asakSi qalTa qselebi zomiT bevrad aRemateba Sesabamisi asakis

mamakacebis socialur qselebs. naTesauri da aranaTesauri urTierTobebi

TiTqmis Tanabradaa warmodgenili ego-qselebSi. aranaTesauri urTierTobebi

klebulobs asakTan erTad, amasTan qalebi ufro meta naTesaur kavSirebs

asaxeleben, vidre mamakacebi. asakTan erTad qalebTan matulobs, xolo mamakacebTan

ki klebulobs naTesauri kavSirebis raodenoba. qalebi agreTve

met megobars asaxeleben, vidre mamakacebi, Tumca orives, mamakacisa da qalis

SemTxvevaSi, megobrebis raodenoba asakTan erTad klebulobs.

mamakacebisaTvis socialur qselTan dakavSirebiT saukeTeso periodi Cans

18-dan 25 wlis asakia. am dros maT yvelaze damakmayofilebeli da axlo

urTierTobebi aqvT. qalebisTvis ki es ufro rTuli xanaa, rodesac isini

naklebad arian kmayofili TavianTi urTierTobebiT da meti siRrmisaken

miiltvian urTierTobebSi. 26 - 45 wlebs Soris xdeba ufro xSirad ojaxis

Seqmna da profesiuli ganviTareba, swored am asakobrivi jgufis socialur

qselebSi aris warmodgenili yvelaze meti raodenobiT ojaxis wevrebi da

TanamSromlebi. adreul mozrdilobasTan SedarebiT, cxovrebis am periodSi

qalebi ufro kmayofilebi arian Tavisi Rrma urTierTobebiT. saSualo mozrdiloba

Cans, qalebisTvis yvelaze damakmayofilebel periods warmoadgens.

gviani mozrdiloba, 45-dan 65 wlis asaki, xasiaTdeba fizikuri resursebis

TandaTanobiTi SemcirebiT. gare samyarosgan gamocalkeveba, rac am asaks

axasiaTebs, Tavs iCens socialuri garemos Semcirebasa da ego-qselis wevrebisgan

distancirebaSi. qalebi ufro momaval Taobaze axdenen koncentrirebas,

met mzrunvelobas iCenen SviliSvilebis mimarT. isini ufro kmayofilebi

arian naTesauri kavSirebiT. igive periodi mamakacebisTvis gamoirCeva

uaryofiTi urTierTobebis simravliT da urTierTobebis zedapirulobiT.

dro qalisa da mamakacis resursebze gansxvavebul zemoqmedebas axdens.

kacebis tradiciuli resursebi, rogoricaa profesiuli ganviTareba

da finansuri mdgradoba izrdeba gviani mozrdilobis pirvel naxevramde

mainc, xolo qalebis resursebi, rogoricaa fizikuri momxiblveloba

da profesiuli ganviTareba asakTan erTad klebulobs, an

ufro neli tempiT viTardeba, imis gamo, rom isini met dros uTmobdnen

ojaxs cxovrebis ufro adreul periodSi. amiT aixsneba is, Tu ratomaa

Zneli qalisTvis maRali Tanmdebobis dakaveba an ganqorwinebis

SemTxvevaSi xelaxla gaTxoveba.

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ZiriTadi sakiTxebSi

adamianuri da socialuri kapitali didad gansazRvravs adamianis keTildReobas,

mis sesaZleblobas imuSaos da datkbes cxovrebiT. qalebi da mamakacebi

erTmaneTisgan gansxvavdebian im Tvisebebisa da saWiroebebis mixedviT,

rac adamianur da socialuri kapitalTan aris dakavSirebuli.

sabWoTa kavSiris daSlis Semdeg mosaxleobis janmrTeloba Zlier gauaresda.

saxelmwifo programebisa da janmrTlobis dazRvevis mcire moculobis

gamo adamianebi jandacvis dawesebulebebs xSirad mxolod maSin mimarTaven,

rodesac gankurneba ukve SeuZlebelia. janmrTelobis dacvaze biujetSi

Zalze mcire Tanxaa gamoyofili da isic TiTqmis mTlianad mkurnalobazea

mimarTuli, xolo prevenciuli medicina saxsrebis gareSea darCenili.

qalebis ganaTlebis done qveyanaSi aRemateba mamakacebisas. ganaTlebis nebismier

doneze qali studentebi raodenobrivad Warboben mamakac studentebs.

qalebis wili aseve metia umaRles saswavleblebis pedagogiur Stats Soris,

Tumca met mamakacs ukavia ufro maRali akademiuri Tanamdeboba.

mamakacisa da qalis socialuri kapitali gansxvavebulia mozrdilobis sxvadasxva

safexurze, urTierTobebiT mamakacebi yvelaze metad kmayofilni

arian adreuli, xolo qalebi ki saSualo mozrdilobis periodSi.

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Tavi 7

win gadasadgmeli nabijebi

genderuli uTanasworoba qveyanaSi aRiarebulia, rogorc arsebuli realoba,

magram ara rogorc problema. mas miiCneven ufro kulturuli memkvidreobis

nawilad da amdenad, misi Semcirebis nebismieri mcdeloba aRiqmeba,

rogorc tradiciuli RirebulebebisTvis safrTxis Semqmneli. genderuli

uTanasworoba Rrmadaa fesvgadgmuli, Tumca yovelTvis ar aris cxadia da

advilad amosacnobi.

qveynis adamianis sayovelTao uflebebis pativiscemisa da evropasTan integraciisken

miswrafebis demonstrirebas warmoadgens is, rom saqarTvelo aris

genderul Tanasworobaze mimarTuli TiTqmis yvela mniSvnelovani saerTa-

Soriso dokumentis xelmomwerTa Soris. qveynis kanonmdebloba genderis

TvalsazrisiT neitraluria da ar iZleva sqesis niadagze diskriminaciis

saSualebas, magram saerTaSoiso dokumentebis Tu kanonebis ganxorcieleba

umetesad formalur xasiaTis atarebs, xolo diskriminaciis winaaRmdeg mimarTuli

saqmianobebi ar aris gamagrebuli arc samoqmedo gegmebiT da arc

biujetiT. qveynis mTavari politikuri dokumentebi, rogoricaa ”saqarTvelo

siRaribis gareSe” da ”evropuli samezoblo politika” ar arian fokusirebuli

genderul sakiTxebze. aseve ar arsebobs mudmivmoqmedi saxelmwifo

uwyeba, romlis misiac genderuli Tanasworobis mxardaWeriTa da monitoringiT

ganisazRvreba. parlamentSi parlamentis Tavmjdomaris xelmZRvanelobis

qveS genderuli Tanasworobis sakonsultacio sabWos Camoyalibeba da

saqarTvelos parlamentis mier genderuli Tanasworobis koncefciis miReba

wingadadgmul nabijebad aris miRebuli, magram aRmasrulebel doneze, genderuli

sakiTxebis komisiis umoqmedebobis gamo genderuli Tanasworobis

koncefciis ganxorcieleba naklebadaa mosalodneli.

viTarebis gasaumjobeseblad uaRresad mniSvnelovania mosaxleobis cnobierebis

Secvla, qalis Tanaswori uflebebis, Tavisuflebisa da SesaZleblobebisTvis

saTanado mniSvnelobis miniWeba.

Camoyalibebul da ganxorcielebul unda iqnes ufro efeqturi saxelmwifo

politika, romelic gamiznuli iqneba genderuli Tanasworobis miRwevaze.

genderuli Tanasworoba ar unda iqnes ganxiluli izolirebulad, radgan is

faseulobebis ufro farTe speqtris nawilia. magram, sanam irRveva adamianis

uflebebi, sanam adamiani, misi keTildReoba da uflebebi ar gaxdeba qveynis

ganviTarebis politikis wamyvani principi, Cven ar unda velodeT radikalur

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cvlilebebs arc genderuli Tanasworobis miRwevis da arc aTaswleulis

ganviTarebis miznebis miRwevis gzaze.

genderuli uTanasworoba Tavs iCens rogorc sazogadoebriv, ise kerZo sarbielze.

es ori sfero ar aris erTmaneTisgan izolirebuli, da cvlileba

erTSi sabolo jamSi iwvevs clilebas meoreSi. sazogadoebrivi sarbieli

mamakacis prioritetadaa miCneuli, qalisad ki - kerZo. magram uTanasworoba

xSirad swored kerZo sferoSi ufro vlindeba. problemas Tavad

uTanasworobaze metad warmoadgens is Rirebuleba, romelic am or sferos

miewereba. samuSao saxlis gareT, romelsac tradiciulad mamakaci asrulebs,

ufro metadaa dafasebuli, vidre qalis saxlSi Sroma.

bolo TxuTmeti weli aRiniSna dadebiTi cvlilebebiT genderuli TanasworobasTan

mimarTebaSi. es cvlilebebi gapirobebul iyo ara saxelmwifo

politikiT, aramed socialuri cvlilebebiT da mZime ekonomikuri mdgomareobasTan

morgebis aucileblobiT. am mdgomareobam aiZula qalebi aqtiurad

Cabmuliyvnen Semosavlis momtan SromiT saqmianobaSi. ekonomikurma

damoukideblobam, rac Zalauflebis myar safuZvels warmoadgens, gazarda

qalis resursebi da is sazogadoebriv sferoSi ufro maRal safexurze

aiyvana. cvlilebis kidev erT Zlier faqtors modernizacia da informaciis

xelmisawvdomoba warmoadgens, rac televiziis, internetis da skaipis meSveobiT

xorcieldeba. maT mniSvnelonad Secvales Sexedulebebi, mraval

sakiTxTan, maT Soris genderTan mimarTebaSi.

jer kidev bevria gasakeTebeli gendruli samarTlianobis misaRwevad. qvemoT

CamoTvililia zogierTi is nabiji, romelic am mimarTulebiT unda

iqnes gadadgmuli. aq ar iqneba saubari iseT aSkara da farTo masStabis

RonisZiebebze, rogoricaa siRaribis daZleva an usafrTxoebis qselis Seqmna,

yuradRebas gavamaxvilebT ufro specifiur RonisZiebebze, romelTac

SeuZliaT wvlilis Setana genderuli Tanasworobis saqmeSi, Tanasworobis

mimarT damokidebulebis SecvlaSi, qalTa monawileobisa da adamianur kapitalis

gazrdaSi, sxvadasxva jgufebis saWiroebis dakmayofilebaSi.

qvemoT warmogidgenil mosazrebaTa nawili imeorebs rekomendaciebs warmodgenils

dokumentSi ”qalTa winaaRmdeg diskriminaciis aRmofxvris

komitetis daskvniTi SeniSvnebi: saqarTvelo (2006).” Cven gadavwyviteT aq

maTi moyvana, radgan isini mxolod nawilobriv aris gaTvaliswinebuli da

amdenad problemebi ar moxsnila.

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Tanasworobis miRwevaze gaTvlili RonisZiebebi mraval moqmed pirs gulisxmobs

- saxelmwifo da arasamTavrobo organizaciebs, eklesias, zogadad

mosaxleobas, donor organizaciebs. isini unda vrceldebodnen, rogorc

qalebze, aseve kacebze. maT gansaxorcieleblad gamoyenebuli unda iyos

sxvadasxva saSualeba, rogoricaa beWdvTi da eleqtronuli media, sazogadoebrivi

Sekrebebi, saganmanaTleblo masalebi, da sxva.

zogadi xasiaTis zomebi

• Seicvalos damokidebuleba Tanasworobis mimarT

albaT yvelaze fundamenturi cvlileba, rac unda moxdes, aris mosaxleobis

damokidebulebis Secvla Tanasworobis mimarT. damokidebulebis Secvla

rTuli da xangrZlivi procesia, romelic moiTxovs mravalmxriv da SeTanxmebul

RonisZiebebs, romlebSic Sedis saxelmwifo politika, kanonmdebloba,

sazogadoebrivi cnobierebis amaRleba da ganaTleba, saxelmwifo da arasaxelmwifo

institutebis mizandasaxuli qmedebebi.

• termini ”genderuli Tanasworoba” Seicvalos terminiT ”genderuli

samarTlianoba”

genderuli Tanasworobis cnebis mimarT arsebuli uaryofiTi damokidebulebis

gamo da Tanasworobis ideisadmi winaaRmdegobis Semcirebis mizniT,

SesaZloa ufro Sedegiani aRmoCndes terminis ”genderuli Tanasworoba”, rac

faqtiurad niSnavs genderul Tanasworobas socialuri samarTlianobisaTvis,

Secvla terminiT ”genderuli samarTlianoba”.

• Camoyalibebul iqnes saxelmwifo politika ufro meti genderuli

samarTlianobis misaRwevad, rogorc ojaxze mimarTul politikis nawili

arsebuli demografiuli problemis pirobebSi, romlebic safrTxes uqmnis

qveynis ganviTarebas, unda Camoyalibdes da prioritetulad gamocxaddes

ojaxebis mxardamWeri sagangebo politika. genderuli samarTlianoba ojaxis

funqcionirebis fundaments warmoadgens. politikam unda uzrunvelyos dedisa

da bavSvis janmrTeloba, ojaxisadmi ”megobruli” samuSao garemo, bavSvis

movlis SesaZleblobebi. xazi unda gaesvas mamis rolis mniSvnelobas da

unda moxdes misi popularizacia. eklesia da media unda CaerTon ojaxze

mimarTuli politikis ganxorcielebaSi. Secvlil unda iqnes Sromis kodeqsi

ise, rom man ki ar SezRudos, rogorc amas momqmedi kodeqsi akeTebs, aramed

stimuli misces mosamsaxure qalis reproduqciul aqtiobas.

147


• Seiqmnas instituciuuri meqanizmebi meti genderuli Tanasworobis

misaRwevad

genderTan dakavSirebuli saxelmwifo politikisa da programebis dagegmvisa

da ganxorcielebis mizniT mTavrobaSi Seqmnil iqnas mudmivmoqmedi organo.

aseve saxelmwifo politikisa da misi ganxorcielebis monitoringis mizniT

Camoyalibebul iqnes arCeviTi organo, romelSic sxvebTan erTad Sevlen

aRmasrulebebli xelisuflebis maRali Tanamdebobis pirebi, arasamTavrobo

seqtoris da eklesiis warmomadgenlebi.

• uzrunvelyofil iqnes gendruli samarTlianoba ganaTlebis

sistemaSi

imis gaTvaliswinebiT, rom genderuli Sexedulebebis Camoyalibeba adreul

asakSi xdeba ojaxsa da skolaSi, gansakuTrebuli yuradReba unda mieqces

genderuli samarTlanobis uzrunvelyofas skolaSi. amisaTvis skolis maswavlebleblebma

unda gaiaron momzadeba genderul mgrZnobiarobis gazrdisTvis,

saxelmZRvaneloebi unda iqnes gadasinjuli, raTa maTSi gaparuli

ar iyos genderul uTanasworobaze mimaniSnebeli masala. danergil unda

iqnes specialuri programebi, romlebic gamiznuli iqneba konfliqtebis, maT

Soris ojaxuris, araZaladobriv gadawyvetis swavlebaze, aseve ojaxur Rirebulebebsa

da aRzrdaze. swavlebisas xazi unda gaesvas mSoblis rolis

mniSvnelobas, gansxvavebuli azris Rirebulebas da mis pativiscemas, genderul

gansxvavebebs.

• uzrunvelyofil iqnes sqesis mixedviT gancalkevebuli informaciis

xelmisawvdomoba

regularulad unda Segrovdes, sqesis mixedviT unda iqnes warmodgenili da

sazogadoebisaTvis miwodebuli informacia qveynis mTavar indikatorebze,

maT Soris adamianis ganviTarebaze (ixile CEDAW, 2006. muxli.10). miRebul

unda iqnes kanoni statistikis Sesaxeb, romelSic xazgasmuli iqneba sqesis

mixedviT gancalkevebuli informaciis warmodgenis aucilebloba. yovelwliurad

unda iqnes gamoqveynebuli angariSi genderul sakiTxebze. mxardaWeril

unda iqnes kvlevebi genderul sakiTxebze, genderuli diskriminaciis

gamovlenaze, maskulinobasa da mamakacTa problemebze -sferoze, romlic

naklebad aris nakvlevi.

• xeli Seewyos genderuli sakiTxebis gaTvaliswinebas (meinstrimings)

genderuli sakiTxebis gaTvaliswineba miznad unda iqnes dasaxuli da ganxorcielebuli

yvela mniSvnelovan programebsa da did organizaciebSi (ixile

CEDAW, 2006. muxli 12). genderuli cnebebi unda iqnen Semotanili da

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gendruli cnobiereba unda gaZlierdes erTnairad, rogorc kacebSi, aseve

qalebSi.

qalebis monawileoba sazogadoebriv sarbielze

viTarebis analizi aSkarad miuTiTebs gendrul uTanasworobaze saqarTvelos

moqalaqeTa sazogadoebriv cxovrebaSi monawileobis TvalsazrisiT.

arCeviT da aRmasrulebel struqturebSi qalebis ufro didi warmomadgenlobis

saWiroeba sayovelTaod aris aRiarebuli. qalebis monawileoba

sazogadoebriv cxovrebaSi aucilebelia qveynisTvis mniSvnelovani gadawyvetilebebis

miRebisas genderuli perspeqtivis gaTvaliswinebisaTvis. maSin,

rodesac kacebi da qalebi Tanabar interess iCenen sazogadoebriv movlenebisa

da politikis mimarT, maTi gavlena gadawyvetilebis miRebaze Zlier

gansxvavebulia - mamakcebi qalebTan SedarebiT Seudareblad ufro didi

Zalauflebas floben.

kulturuli stereotipebi, arasaTanado genderuli ganaTleba da mcire

genderuli mgrZnobiaroba, saWiroebis arasaTanado aRqma da genderuli

Tanasworobis misaRwevi Tanmimdevruli saxelmwifo politikis ararseboba

erTis mxriv, da meores mxriv drois ukmarisoba, qalebis arasakmarisi motivacia

da SesaZleblobebi, qalTa sazogadoebriv cxovrebaSo monawileobis

dabali donis mizezebad aris aRiarebuli.

monawileobis kidev erTi mniSvnelovani faqtoria SesaZleblobebi. SesaZleblobebis

mniSvnelobaze calsaxa miniSnebas iZleva dakvirveba qalTa moRvaweobaze

post-sabWoTa periodSi. sistemis rRvevis Sedegad, rogorc ki

gaixsna ”SesaZleblobebis fanjara”, qalebi maSinve gamoCndnen sazogadoebriv

sarbielze. mas mere, qalebis aqtioba da miRwevebi gamoikveTa religiur

sferoSi, qveynis damoukideblobisaTvis brZolaSi, arasamTavrobo seqtorisa

da araformaluri ekonomikis funqcionirebaSi.

sazogadoebriv cxovrebaSi qalis monawileobis gasaZliereblad mTeli rigi

RonisZiebebis gatarebaa saWiro.

• Secvlil unda iqnes arsebuli Sexeduleba, romelic qalis adgils

xedavs kerZo, xolo kacis adgils sajaro sferoSi

cvlilebis mZlavr iaraRad unda iqces qalis maRal Tanamdebobebze daniSvna,

misi metad warmoCena sazogadoebriv sferoSi media kampaniebis meSveobiT,

gendruli Tanasworobis ideis propagandiT sazogadoebrivi cxovrebis yvela

doneze da formaluri ganaTlebis sruli ciklis ganmavlobaSi, dawyebuli

skolamdeli da damTavrebuli umaRlesi ganaTlebiT.

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• Seqmnil unda iqnes SesaZleblobebi sazogadoebriv cxovrebaSi

qalis monawileobisaTvis

unda Seiqmnas pirobebi, romlebic qals saSualebas miscems gamonaxos dro

sazogadoebrivi aqtiobebisaTvis. es unda moxdes ekonomikuri pirobebis gaumjobesebiT,

rac qals miscems damxmares daqiravebis an momsaxurebis SeZenis

saSualebas. Secvlili unda iqnes Sromis kodeqsi da igi SesabamisobaSi unda

movides saerTaSoriso standartebTan, raTa gaizrdos Sromis usafrTxoeba

da dasaqmebulTa uflebebi. Seqmnil unda iqnes ”ojaxisadmi megobruli”

samuSao garemo, rac gulisxmobs samuSao saaTebis SerCevis SesasZleblobas,

iseTis rogoricaa naxevar Statze muSaoba, mokle samuSao dRe, mSoblebis

Svebuleba da Sinidan muSaobis SesaZlebloba. gadadgmul unda iqnes nabijebi

dasaqmebis araformaluri seqtoris regulirebisaTvis da imis uzrunvelsayofad,

rom iq daculi iqnes adamianis uflebebi da Sromis usafrTxeba.

• xeli Seewyos qalTa SesaZleblobebis gazrdas, raTa uzrunvelyofil

iqnes maTi CarTva sajaro cxovrebaSi

qalTa SesaZleblobebis gaZliereba unda moxdes sxvadasxva tipis klubebisa

da sxva nebayoflobiTi organizaciebis Seqmnisa da maT saqmianobaSi qalTa

Cabmis meSveobiT. gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania xeli Seewyos qalTa organizaciebs

soflad da eTnikuri umciresobebiT dasaxlebul raionebSi, sadac

meti SezRudvebi arsebobs qalis mamakacis gverdigverd muSaobaze. uwyveti

ganaTlebis miRebis SesaZleblobebis gafarToeba da sxvadasxva unarebis SesaZenad

kursebis organizeba qalebs daexmarebaT upasuxon uaxles gamowvevebs.

qali unda iqnes mxardaWerili da man unda SeiZinos liderobis unarebi,

raTa uzrunvelyofil iqnes misi politikaSi monawileobis SesaZlebloba.

qalebs unda mieceT maRal profesiuli standartebis miRwevis SesaZlebloba,

risi gakeTebac maT ver moaxerxes ufro adre ojaxuri movaleobebis,

muSaobis wyvetisa, Tu ufros asakSi muSaobis dawyebis gamo.

• arCeviT da aRmasrulebel organoebSi qalTa monawileobis aqtiuri

mxardaWera

qalebis politikaSi CarTvis dinamika saswrafo sakanonmdeblo zomebis gatarebisaken

gvibiZgebs. unda daiwyos msjeloba qvotirebis sistemis SemoRebis

Taobaze. aucilebelia qvotebi,s rogorc droebiTi saSualebis SemoReba.

ganxorcielebul unda iqnes im partiebis mxardaWera, romlebic qalebs

saarCevno siis zeda nawilSi warmoadgenen.

• zewolis jgufebis Seqmna qalTa monawileobis gazrdis, genderuli

perspeqtivebis gaTvaliswinebis da Sromis usafrTxoebis miRwevis

mizniT.

arsebobs bevri qalTa arasamTavrobo organizacia, magram isini ufro qalebis

150


organizaciebs warmoadgenen da ara organizaciebs qalebisaTvis. maTi Zalisxmeva

da resursebi gafantulia. qalTa mZlavri moZraobis Camoyalibebam

SeiZleba sakmao zewola ganaxorcielos da radikalur cvlilebs miaRwios.

aseTi moZraobis Seqmna SeiZleba erTi, an ori konkretuli miznis miRwevas

emsaxurebodes. profesiuli kavSirebi ufro metad unda gaaqtiurdnen, raTa

koleqtiuri molaparakebebis gziT SeZlon Sromis usafrTxoebis arsebuli

donis amaRleba.

• gazrdil iqnes qalis ekonomikuri damoukidebloba da ojaxebs

mieceT TviTdasaqmebis SesaZlebloba

ekonomikuri damoukidebloba Zalauflebis mniSvnelovani faqtoria. sagangebo

Zalisxmevaa saWiro, raTa gaizardos qalis mier Semosavlis mopovebis

unari. qalebisaTvis ufro xelmisawvdomi unda gaxdes iafi kreditebi da

sabanko sesxebi (ixile CEDAW, 2006 muxli 28). aseve mxardaWeras saWiroebs

mcire da ojaxuri bizensi. gapirobebul unda iqnes sasoflo-sameurneo

produqciis gayidvis SesaZleblobebi.

• unda gakeTdes mcdeloba, raTa miRweul iqnes genderuli wonasworoba

im profesiebSi, romlebSic tradiciulad darRveulia balansi

ekonomikuri saSualebebiT da propagandis meSveobiT gamagrebulma saxelmwifo

politikam xeli unda Seuwyos mamakacebis Cabmas tradiciulad qalis

profesiebSi da qalebisa - mamakacis profesiebSi. (ixile CEDAW, 2006. muxli.18).

adamianuri kapitali

adamianuri kapitali mWidrodaa dakavSirebuli pirovnebis keTildReobasTan,

mamakacisa Tu qalis SesaZleblobasTan qondes normaluri cxovrebis pirobebi,

samuSao da kmayofilebis grZnoba. janmrTelobis sakiTxebi da sicocxlis

xangrZlivoba mamakacisa da qalis SemTxvevaSi gansxvavebulia: qali ukeTesi

janmrTelobiTa da meti sicocxlis xangrZlivobiT gamoirCeva. mamakacisa da

qalis janmrTelobasTan dakavSirebuli saWiroebebi mniSvnelovnad gansxvavebulia.

ganaTleba aris sfero, sadac genderuli Tanasworoba miRweulia.

viTarebis gasaumjobeleblad Semdegi nabijebi unda iqnes gadadgmuli.

151


• meti yuradReba mieqces janmrTelobis prevencias da moxdes cxovrebis

jansaRi wesis propaganda

janmrTelobaze mimarTuli biujetis simwiris pirobebSi prevencia gansakuTrebul

mniSvnelobas iZens. janmrTelobis politika metad unda iyos mimarTuli

prevenciaze. media kampaniebis meSveobiT mosaxleobas unda miewodos

informacia fizikur varjiSis sargebelze, janmrTeli cxovrebis wesze da

janmrTeli kvebis principebze. xeli unda Seewyos mosaxleobis sportSi Cabmas.

yvela donis saganmanaTleblo dawesebulebebs unda qondeT sportuli

darbazebi, yvela moswavle da studenti saswavlebelSi unda eswrebodes

sportis gakveTilebs. sportuli darbazebiT sargebloba mTeli ojaxis mier

ekonomikurad unda iyos waxalisebuli.

daxmareba gaewios kacebs umuSevrobasa da omTan dakavSirebuli

stresis zemoqmedebis daZlevaSi

mamakacebi qalebze ufro mgrZnobiareni arian ekonomikuri krizisis mimarT,

radgan maT fsiqologiurad ufro metad awevT ojaxis Senaxvis tvirTi. amas-

Tan samuSao mamakacis me-koncefciis ufro centralur nawils warmoadgens.

amdenad umuSevroba, an arasrulfasovani dasaqmeba Zalze uaryofiTad moqmedebs

mamakacis TviT-Sefasebaze, fsiqologiur keTildReobasa da janmrTelobaze,

xSirad xels uwyobs mis narkotikze damokidebulebas, alkoholizms,

Tambaqos didi raodenobiT moxmarebasa da sisxlis samarTlis danaSaulebebsac

ki. Sesaswavlia umuSevrobis zemoqmedeba mamakacze. programebi unda

iqnes ganxorcielebuli, raTa Semcirdes umuSverobis mavne zemoqmedeba. aseve

SesamuSavebelia politika, romelic xels Seuwyobs samewarmeo saqmianobis

ganviTarebas, sabanko kreditebis gacemas da profesiul gadamzadebas. 2008

wlis agvistoSi ruseTis samxedro Tavdasxmam mamakacebSi sircxvilis grZnoba

warmoSva, raki maT ver SeZles ojaxebisa da qveynis dacva. im mosaxleobisaTvis,

vinc samxedro moqmedebebis msxverpli gaxda, dauyovnelbliv unda

ganxorcieldes programebi SemuSavebuli calke mamakacisa da qalisaTvis.

• xeli Seewyos imis gacnobierebas, rom ojaxuri Zaladoba miekuTneba

ara kerZo, aramed sazogadoebriv sferos

ojaxuri Zaladobis mimarT mosaxleobis damokidebuleba, rogorc Sida

ojaxuri problemis, unda Seicvalos mis danaSaulad aRqmiT. unda ganxorcieldes

kanonis moTxovnebi da gaixsnas TavSesafarebi Zaladobis msxverplTa

da maTi SvilebisaTvis. mkurnaloba da fsiqologiuri konsultaciebi unda

CautardeT moZaladeebs Zaladobis msxverplT unda CaurtardeT Treiningi

mzadyofnaze da Zaladobis aridebis xerxebze.

152


• Seiqmnas pirobebi kanondamrRvevis qalebis maTi ojaxebisagan

izolaciis efeqtis Sesamcireblad.

gatardes sakanonmdeblo cvlilebebi romelic qal patimrebs ojaxis

wevrebTan meti kontaqtis saSualebas micems.

gansxvavebuli jgufebi

genderul TanasworobasTan dakavSirebuli viTareba gansxvavebulia kompaqturad

dasaxlebul eTnikur, javaxeTis somex da qvemo qarTlis azebaijanul

umciresobebTan. qarTuli enis arcodna, eTnikur qarTvelebTan yoveldRiuri

kontaqtis simciris fonze ganapirobebs informaciis xelmisawvdomobis simcires

da moiTxovs met Zalisxmevas genderuli Tanasworobis miRwevisaTvis.

genderTan dakavSirebiT specifiuri problemebis mqone kidev erT jgufs,

romelic gaizarda 2008 wlis ruseTis agresiis Sedegad, iZulebiT gadaadgilebuli

pirebi warmoadgenen.

xeli Seewyos qalebis genderul Tanasworobasa da integracias eTnikuri

umciresobebiT dasaxlebul regionebSi

sagangebo zomebi unda iqnes miRebuli genderuli Tanasworobis gasazrdelad

da eTnikuri umciresobebis integraciisaTvis. enis codna integraciis mniSvnelovan

faqtors warmoadgens. imis gaTvaliswinebiT, rom mamakacebTan

SedarebiT bevrad ufro naklebi qali flobs mSobliuris garda raime sxva

enas, gansakuTrebuli yuradReba unda mieqces qalebisTvis saxelmwifo enis

swavlebas. eTnikuri umciresobis warmomadgeneli qalebi metad unda iqnen

CarTuli qalTa organizaciebis mier ganxorcilebul swavlebaSi. xeli unda

Seewyos iseT sazogadoebrivi TavSeyris adgilebis organizacias, rogoricaa

qalTa klubebi, an kafeebi.

• genderuli sakiTxebi gaTvaliswinebul iqnes iZulebiT gadaadgilebuli

pirebis mimarT politikis gansazRvrisas

iZulebiT gadaadgilebuli qalebis Cabma iZulebiT gadaadgilebul pirTa

mimarT politikis Camoyalibebis procesSi da konfliqtis gadaWraSi xels

Seuwyobs genderuli perspeqtivis gaTvaliswinebas maT problemebis mogvarebis

strategiisa da taqtikis gansazRvrisa.

153


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danarTi I.

eTnikur umciresobaTa damokidebuleba Tanasworobis mimarT

qvemoT warmodgeenilia kompaqturad dasaxlebul erovnebiT azerbaijanel

da somex respondentTa damokidebulebebi im sakiTxebTan mimarTebaSi, sadac

aRmoCnda statistikurad mniSvnelovani gansxvaveba yvela sxva respondent-

Tan.

mtkiceba respondentebi

erovnuli

umciresobiT

dasaxlebul

regionebidan

saqarTveloSi qalebi da kacebi

Tanasworni arian

qalebis politikasa da sazogadoebriv

cxovrebaSi ufro matad

CarTviT qveyana mxolod moigebs

mamakacebs, rogorc wesi, yvelaferi

qalebze ukeTesad gamosdiT

Tu ojaxs erTi Svili unda

yavdes, jobia is kaci iyos

qmarma unda gadawyvitos is, Tu

ramdeni Svili unda yavdes ojaxs

qals ojaxTan SeTanxmebis gareSe

unda SeeZlos sakuTari Semosavlis

ZiriTadi nawili

Tu cols samsaxuri aqvs, qmars

ki ara, qmarma Tavis Tavze unda

aiRos saojaxo saqmeebis ZiriTadi

nawilis gakeTeba

Tu qmari msaxurobs da Zalian

dakavebulia, coli ki ara, colma

Tavis Tavze unda aiRos im saojaxo

saqmeebis keTeba, rolebsac

Cveulebriv kaci akeTebs

160

yvela

sxva

mniSnelobis

done, hikvaRrati

kvadrati, Tavisuflebios

xarisxi

% %

31.1 46.6*


qali ufro bavSvis gazrdisa

da saxlis movliT unda iyos

dakavebuli da ara profesiuli

winsvliT

areTanxmeba, rom kaci imiT

fasobs, Tu ra warmateba

aqvs samsaxurSi da ara imiT,

Tu rogori ojaxi aqvs

qali imiT fasobs, Tu rogori

ojaxi aqvs da ara imiT,

ra warmateba aqvs samsaxurSi

gaupatiurebis SemTxvevaSi,

xSirad qalic damnaSavea,

radgan Tavis saqcieliT

iwvevs mamakacs

gaupatiurebis SemTxvevaSi

qalma unda mimarTos policias

motacebis SemTxvevaSi qali

colad unda gayves momtacebels

Tu mamakacma ver iSovna samsaxuri

is 2-3 wliT samuSaod

unda wavides qveynidan

Tu qalma ver iSovna samsaxuri

is 2-3 wliT samuSaod

unda wavides qveynidan

colis Ralatis SemTxvevaSi

dasaSvebia qmris mier colis

fizikuri Seuracyofa

161

73.3 54.5*


danarTi II.

qarTuli sabWoTa enciklopedia 1975-1987 wlebis gamocema

saukune

N saxeli tomi gv. periodi

aqtivobis sfero

saukune

1 abakelia Tamar 1 12 1905-1953 20 saxviTi xelovneba

2 abaSiZe Tamar 1 20 1892-1960 20 Teatris moRvawe

3 abaSiZe leila 1 20 1929- 20 Teatris moRvawe

4 abaSiZe taso 1 21 1881-1958 20 Teatris moRvawe

abaSiZe wereTeli

5

1 21 1810- 19 revolucioneri

qeTevan

avaliSvili-

6

1 115 1851-1900 19 Teatris moRvawe

xerxeuliZe qeTevan

sportsmeni,

7 aleqsandria nana 1 296 1949- 20

moWadrake

aleqsi-mesxiSvili

8

1 302 1898- 20 Teatris moRvawe

barbare

aleqsi-mesxiSvili

9

1 302 1896-1956 20 Teatris moRvawe

nino

aleqsi-mesxiSvili

10

1 302 1900- 20 Teatris moRvawe

nino

11 aleqsiZe irine 1 303 1914- 20 Teatris moRvawe

12 aleqsiZe neli 1 303 1921- 20 saxviTi xelovneba

13 amiranaSvili medea 1 396 1930- 20 musikosi

14 amirajibi sofio 1 397 1847-1906 19 mTargmneli

andronikaSvili elo

15

1 450 1883-1956 20 Teatris moRvawe

(elene)

16 andronikaSvili ira 1 450 1908-1960 20 Teatris moRvawe

andronikaSvili

17

1 451 1862-1941 20 Teatris moRvawe

qeTevan

andronikaSvili

18

1 451 1754-1782 18 didgvarovani

qeTevan

19 anjafariZe veriko 1 504 1900- 20 Teatris moRvawe

20 arjevaniSvili mariam 1 619 1918-1958 20 musikosi

21 asaTiani TinaTin 1 621 1918- 20 mecnieri

22 axvlediani elene 2 102 1901-1975 20 saxviTi xelovneba

23 banovani despine 2 194 1880-1934 20 mwerali, poeti

24 baraTaSvili marika 2 199 1908- 20 mwerali, poeti

25 barbale 2 203 - - RvTaeba

26 bardaveliZe vera 2 206 1899-1970 20 mecnieri

27 baqraZe Tamar 2 241 1907- 20 Teatros moRvawe

baqraZe-dedabriSvili

28

2 241 1969-1942 20 eqimi

mariam

29 baRdavaZe ekaterine 2 247 1916-1975 20 saxviTi xelovneba

30 baxtaZe qsenia 2 256 1899- 20 agraruli muSaki

baxutaSvili-

31

2 256 1879-1950 20 musikosi

Sulgina olRa

32 bereJiani daria 2 317 1897- 20 eqimi

33 bokeria mariam 2 447 1900-1975 20 eqimi

34 bolqvaZe Tamar 2 457 1904-1972 20 Teatris moRvawe

35 bolqvaZe TinaTin 2 457 1918- 20 Teatris moRvawe

36 boWoriSvili luba 2 495 1914-1952 20 mecnieri

37 boWoriZe babe 2 495 1861-1946 20 revoliucioneri

38 boWoriZe mariam 2 195 1885-1930 20 revoliucioneri

39 bregvaZe nani 2 512 1936- 20 musikosi

40 buaCiZe sofio 2 547 1912- 20 eqimi

162


41 burbuTaSvili TinaTin 2 574 1921- 20 Teatris moRvawe

42 gabaraSvili Tamar 2 602 1937- 20 musikosi

43 gabaSvili ekaterine 2 603 1851-1938 20 mwerali, poeti

44 gabaSvili ciala 2 605 1908- 20 arqiteqtori

45 gabunia nato 2 609 1859-1910 19 Teatris moRvawe

46 gabunia olia 2 609 1885-1919 20 revolucioneri

47 gamrekel-Toreli nino 2 666 1882-1935 20 Teatris moRvawe

48 gamyreliZe aleqsandra 2 668 1940- 20 mrewvelobios muSaki

49

50

51

gandegili (domenika

erisTavi)

gariyuli (TaTeiSviliratianisa

mariami)

gafrindaSvili nona

2

3

3

677

6

20

1864-1929

1883-1960

1941-

20

20

20

mwerali, poeti

mwerali, poeti

sportsmeni, moWadrake

52 gelovani evgenia 3 39 1926- 20 Teatris moRvawe

53 gvaramaZe elene 3 132 1913- 20 Teatris moRvawe

54 gverwiTeli rusudan 3 141 1909- 20 saxviTi xelovneba

55 gogitiZe qeTevan 3 199 1946- 20 agraruli muSaki

56 gokieli elene 3 206 1918- 20 sportsmeni, moWadrake

57 gociriZe leila 3 239 1924- 20 musikosi

58 guguSvili eTer 3 289 1925- 20 mecnieri

59

60

gulbaTi-gruzinskaia

olRa

guramiSvili-WavWavaZe

olRa

3

3

298

311

1846-1913

1842-1927

19

20

sazogado moRvawe,

ganmanaTlebeli

sazogado moRvawe,

ganmanaTlebeli

61 guranduxti 3 311 922-957 10 politikosi

62 guranduxti 3 312 1014-1027 11 politikosi

63 guranduxti 3 312 11 12 politikosi

64 daviTaSvili mariam 3 337 1907-1975 20 Teatris moRvawe

65 daviTaSvili meri 3 337 1924- 20 musikosi

66

67

68

daviTaSvili nino

dali

dgebuaZe-fularia

mariam

3

3

3

338

350

416

1882-1958

-

1887-1969

20

-

20

Teatris moRvawe

RvTaeba

mwerali, poeti

69 dekanosiZe Tamar 3 444 1922- 20 mecnieri

70

71

demuria mariam

dolaberiZe iamze

3

3

468

607

1860-1910

1939-

19

20

sazogado moRvawe,

ganmanaTlebeli

Teatris moRvawe

72 doliZe olRa 3 610 1904- 20 Teatris moRvawe

73 donauri elene 3 618 1890-1955 20 Teatris moRvawe

74 donJaSvili Tina 3 623 1916- 20 mwerali, poeti

75

76

77

dumbaZe nino

ekaterine dadiani

eliava lia

3

4

4

651

62

125

1919-

1816-1882

1934-

20

19

20

sportsmeni, moWadrake

didgvarovani

Teatris moRvawe

78 erisTavi Tamar 4 194 1932- 20 werali, poeti

79

erisTavi-xoStaria

anastasia

4 195 1868-1951 20 mwerali, poeti

80 vaCnaZe natalia 4 332 1904-1953 20 Teatris moRvawe

163


81 vaxvaxiSvili Tamar 4 335 1893-1977 20 musikosi

82 virsalaZe anastasia 4 418 1883-1968 20 musikosi

83

84

virsalaZe elene

virsalaZe eliso

4

4

418

419

1911-1977

1942-

20

20

mecnieri

musikosi

85

86

virsalaZe TinaTin

vouba aleqsandra

4

4

419

459

1907-

1931-

20

20

mecnieri

agraruli muSaki

87

88

89

zaaliSvili irine

TavaZe iulia

TaTriSvili nino

4

4

4

468

562

574

1909-1976

1916-

1908-

20

20

20

mecnieri

agraruli muSaki

mecnieri

90

91

92

Tamar batoniSvili

Tamari

Tamar gurji-xaTuni

4

4

4

579

579

579

1791-1857

1160-1213

1236- 46

19

13

13

revolucioneri

didgvarovani

didgvarovani

93 Tamari 4 580 1746- 18 politikosi

94 TarxniSvili Tamar 4 590 1913- 20 Teatris moRvawe

95 TarxniSvili Tamar 4 590 1891-1969 20 musikosi

96 TaqTaqiSvili Tamar 4 591 1928- 20 musikosi

97 TayaiSvili sesilia 4 594 1906- 20 Teatris moRvawe

98 Tbileli marine 4 595 1920- 20 Teatris moRvawe

99 TeTraZe Tamar 4 638 1922- 20 Teatris moRvawe

100 TeTraZe nunu 4 638 1911- 20 Teatris moRvawe

101 Tekle batoniSvili 4 644 1776-1846 19 werali, poeti

102 TvaliaSvili ekaterine 4 672 1924- 20 mrewvelobis muSaki

103 TvaliaSvili Tamar 4 672 1905- 20 Teatris moRvawe

104

105

ToiZe aleqsandra

TulaSvili ana

4

5

690

8

1907-

1874-1956

20

20

Teatris moRvawe

musikosi

106 TumaniSvili TinaTin 5 9 1892-1967 20 pedagogi

107 TumaniSvil-wereTeli 5 10 1849-1932 19 mwerali, poeti

anastasia

108 TurmaniZe lamara 5 11 1921- 20 Teatris moRvawe

109 ianvaraSvili barbale 5 48 1908- 20 Teatris moRvawe

110 ianqoSvili naTela 5 50 1918- 20 saxviTi xelovneba

111 iaSvili lili 5 65 1920- 20 musikosi

112 iaSvili marine 5 65 1932- 20 musikosi

113

114

115

116

117

ioseliani elene

ioseliani nana

iremaZe qeTevan

isakaZe liana

iSxnelebi debi

5

5

204

204

218

227

288

1923-

1962-

1912-1945

1946-

1904-1973

20

20

20

20

20

Teatris moRvawe

sportsmeni, moWadrake

mwerali, poeti

musikosi

musikosi

118

119

kakabaZe alde

kakabaZe eTeri

5

322

322

1932-

1926-

20

20

saxviTi xelovneba

saxviTi xelovneba

120 kakabaZe-RuduSauri 5 323 1916- 20 eqimi

margalita

121 kalandaZe ana 5 327 1924- 20 mwerali, poeti

122 kandelaki qeTevan 5 365 1911- 20 eqimi

123 kaxiZe medea 5 452 1930- 20 mwerali, poeti

124 kezeli Tamar 5 458 1909- 20 mecnieri

125 kemularia-naTaZe luba 5 466 1891- 20 mecnieri

126 kverenCxilaZe zinaida 5 494 1932- 20 Teatris moRvawe

127 kiknaZe Tamar 5 513 1906- 20 Teatris moRvawe

164


178 nestan-darejani

dedofali

7 396 1554- 16 didgvarovani

179 nefariZe venera 7 397 1923- 20 Teatris moRvawe

180 nikolaZe rusudan 7 432 1884-1981 20 mecnieri

181 nino wm. 7 438 - 4 RvTaeba

182 ninoni (mataraZe nino) 7 439 1900- 20 Teatris moRvawe

183

184

niJaraZe luba

nodia dinara

7

442

457

1927-

1931-

20

20

eqimi

saxviTi xelovneba

185 oraxelaSvili mariam 7 553 1887-1937 20 revolucioneri

186

187

orbeliani elisabed

orbeliani manana

7

7

557

558

1871-1942

1808-1870

20

19

mwerali, poeti

didgverovani

188 orbeliani nino 7 558 1835-1919 19 mwerali, poeti

189

190

orjonikiZe iza

Jvania Tamar

7

8

590

249

1938-

1909-

20

20

mwerali, poeti

mecnieri

191

192

193

JRenti ana

ramiSvili nino

rusudani

8

8

8

263

299

515

1895-1976

1910-

1194-1245

20

20

13

eqimi

Teatris moRvawe

didgvarovani

194

195

rusudani

ruxaZe zoia

8

8

515

519

-

1923-1944

12

20

politikosi

revolucioneri

196

197

salia nino

samukaSvili nino

8

9

691

37

1898-

1914-

20

20

mecnieri

mTargmneli

198

199

200

sarsania qsenia

safarova-abaSiZe mako

svaneli valentine

9

9

9

109

150

311

1903-1971

1860-1940

1905-1971

20

20

20

agraruli muSaki

Teatris moRvawe

Teatris moRvawe

201

202

sixaruliZe mariam

sixaruliZe qsenia

9

414

414

1907-

1909-1976

20

20

agraruli muSaki

musikosi

203

204

205

206

solomonia eTer

soselia olRa

sofio

soxaZe ekaterine

9

9

9

457

476

478

501

1931-

1905-

(1826-28)

1907-1984

20

20

19

20

saxalxo gmiri

mecnieri

politikosi

musikosi

207

208

209

sturua lia

sxuluxia vinari

takiZe darejan

9

9

587

632

643

1939-

1942-

1920-

20

20

20

mwerali, poeti

agraruli muSaki

agraruli muSaki

210

211

212

213

214

tatiSvili cisana

tuRuSi naTele

ugreliZe mariam

uznaZe medea

uznaZe nino

9

10

10

10

10

664

81

100

115

115

1937-

1931-

1885-1960

1913-

1837-1878

20

20

20

20

19

musikosi

musikosi

eqimi

mecnieri

Teatris moRvawe

215 uruSaZe venera 10 182 1909- 20 mTargmneli

216

217

uruSaZe naTela

faCuaSvili nana

10

10

182

243

1923-

1943

20

20

mecnieri

Teatris moRvawe

218

219

220

foCiani latavra

foCxiZe JuJuna

focxveraSvili aleqsandra

10

10

10

386

386

387

1939-

1925-

1900-

20

20

20

Teatris moRvawe

saxviTi xelovneba

musikosi

221

222

223

focxveraSvili naTela

qadeiSvili guguli

qavTaraZe gulnara

10

10

10

387

441

442

1920-1963

1925-

1921-

20

20

20

musikosi

agraruli muSaki

musikosi

224 qaTamaZe nino 10 443 1956 20 musikosi

225 qasraSvili mayvala 10 492 1941- 20 musikosi

226 qeTevan batoniSvili 10 498 1764-1840 19 mwerali, poeti

227 qeTevan dedofali 10 498 -1624 17 sxva

165


228 qemaSvili vera 10 499 1929- 20 saxalxo gmiri

229 faCuaSvili nana 10 243 1943 20 Teatris moRvawe

230 foCiani latavra 10 386 1939- 20 Teatris moRvawe

231 qemerteliZe eTer 10 499 1926- 20 mecnieri

232 qveliZe lamara 10 512 1937- 20 saxviTi xelovneba

233 qiqoZe natalia 10 538 1869-1952 20 revolucioneri

234 qiqoZe-miqelaZe TinaTin 10 538 1916- 20 mTargmneli

235

236

quTaTelaZe TinaTin

quCukaSvili qeTevan

10

10

568

578

1910-

1915-

20

20

arqiteqtori

mwerali, poeti

237 RviniaSvili ana 10 588 1904-1981 20 mecnieri

238 Rlonti Tamar 10 595 1904-1985 20 eqimi

239

240

RoRoberiZe lana

RoRoberiZe-lundbergi

10

10

598

598

1928-

1897-1978

20

20

Teatris moRvawe

mTargmneli

elene

241 yanCeli salome 10 622 1921-1985 20 Teatris moRvawe

242 yauxCiSvili TinaTin 10 631 1919- 20 mecnieri

243 yifiani barbare 10 654 1879-1967 20 mecnieri

244 yifiani nino 10 655 1867-1937 20 mwerali, poeti

245 yifiani nora 10 655 1917- 20 Teatris moRvawe

246

247

yifSiZe elene

yufunia Tamar

10

10

656

665

1925-

1901-1985

20

20

Teatris moRvawe

agraruli muSaki

248 SeverzaSvili Tamar 10 670 1901-1955 20 musikisi

249 Sakirbaia ekaterine 10 677 1907-1979 20 Teatris moRvawe

250 SalikaSvili ana 10 678 1919- 20 saxviTi xelovneba

251

252

SalutaSvili nadeJda

SanSiaSvili cisia

10

10

679

684

1918-

1921-

20

20

mecnieri

saxviTi xelovneba

253 SaraSeniZe TinaTin 10 686 1919-1983 20 mecnieri

254 SaSikaSvili nevrestan 10 695 1901-1979 20 eqimi

255 Sac-mSveliZe mina 10 696 1897- 20 eqimi

256 Sengelaia ariadna 10 715 1937- 20 Teatris moRvawe

257 Sengelaia-abaSiZe 10 716 1942- 20 saxviTi xelovneba

loreta

258 Sewiruli luba 10 727 1917- 20 eqimi

259 Sildeli meri 10 745 1915-1982 20 musikosi

260 SiukaSvili vanda 11 9 1905- 20 musikosi

261 Smerlingi rene 11 14 1901-1967 20 mecnieri

262 SoTaZe leila 11 16 1930- 20 Teatris moRvawe

263 SuSaniki 11 60 - - RvTaeba

264 Caxava medea 11 91 1921- 20 Teatris moRvawe

265 CerqeziSvili elisabed 11 103 1940- 20 saxalxo gmiri

266 CerqeziSvili nanuli 11 103 1921- 20 mrewvelobis muSaki

267 CiburdaniZe maia 11 117 1961- 20 sportsmeni, moWadrake

268 CikvaiZe elene 11 118 1910- 20 Teatris moRvawe

269 CitiSvili manana 11 141 1954- 20 mwerali, poeti

270 CixlaZe mariam 11 144 1911- 20 mrewvelobis muSaki

271 CixlaZe medea 11 144 1928- 20 saxviTi xelovneba

272 CijavaZe elene 11 145 1883-1969 20 mecnieri

166


273 Coxeli elene 11 152 1914- 20 Teatris moRvawe

274 CxaiZe lamara 11 172 1941- 20 agraruli muSaki

275 CxaiZe tatiana 11 172 1920- 20 agraruli muSaki

276 CxaiZe Sura 11 172 1923-1978 20 agraruli muSaki

277 CxeiZe nino 11 174 1881-1963 20 Teatris moRvawe

278 cecxlaZe Tea 11 205 1919- 20 mecnieri

279 ciskariZe violeta 11 225 1921- 20 mecnieri

280 ciciSvili Tamar 11 236 1908- 20 Teatris moRvawe

281 ciciSvili nino 11 236 1888-1970 20 mecnieri

282 comaia nadeJda 11 241 1904-1973 20 musikosi

283 cqitiSvili eTer 11 246 1913- 20 Teatris moRvawe

284 cxakaia qsenia 11 247 1900-1982 20 mecnieri

285 ZigraSvili leila 11 273 1926- 20 Teatris moRvawe

286 waqaZe TinaTin 11 301 1912- 20 mecnieri

287 wereTeli Tamar 11 307 1900-1968 20 musikosi

288 wereTeli TinaTin 11 307 1933-1980 20 mecnieri

289 wereTeli nino 11 308 1902-1939 20 saxviTi xelovneba

290 weroZe duduxana 11 310 1918- 20 Teatris moRvawe

291 wverava elene 11 311 1909-1985 20 eqimi

292 wignaZe vera 11 314 1924- 20 Teatris moRvawe

293 wivwivaZe dali 11 316 1942 20 agraruli muSaki

294 wuwunava cecilia 11 352 1892-1956 20 Teatris moRvawe

295 Wabukiani Tamar 11 375 1907-1978 20 Teatris moRvawe

296 WavWavaZe Tamar 11 377 1896-1968 20 Teatris moRvawe

297 WeliZe meri 11 390 1923- 20 mecnieri

298 Wiaureli sofiko 11 397 1937- 20 Teatris moRvawe

299 WiraqaZe nino 11 401 1951- 20 musikosi

300 WiWinaZe dodo (Tamar) 11 403 1926- 20 Teatris moRvawe

301 Wyonia lamara 11 410 1930- 20 musikosi

302 xaraZe ana 11 435 1905-1977 20 mecnieri

303 xaraZe nadeJda 11 436 1913- 20 musikosi

304 xaraZe rusudan 11 436 1909-1965 20 mecnieri

205 xvitia marine 11 477 1947- 20 musikosi

306 xideSeli anastasia 11 479 1916- 20 mecnieri

307 xabulava nino 11 512 1917-1935 20 mfrinavi

308 xunwaria rusudan 11 517 1949- 20 musikosi

309 javaxiSvili natalia 11 528 1882-1950 20 Teatris moRvawe

310 javaxiSvili nino 11 528 1914- 20 mecnieri

311 javriSvili rususdan 11 530 1918- 20 saxviTi xelovneba

312 Jandieri irine 11 538 1940- 20 Teatris moRvawe

313 jafariZe aleqsandra 11 543 1895-1974 20 sportsmeni,

moWadrake

314 jafariZe barbare 11 543 1886-1959 20 revolucioneri

315 jafariZe medea 11 544 1923- 20 Teatris moRvawe

316 jafariZe qeTevan 11 546 1901-1968 20 musikosi

317 jiqiZe eTer 11 568 1926- 20 mecnieri

318 jorjaZe barbare 11 573 1811-1895 19 mwerali, poeti

319 joxaZe maka 11 577 1948- 20 mecnieri

320 juReli medea 11 580 1925- 20 sportsmeni

321 hajibeili (valeria) 11 610 1914- 20 arqiteqtori

167


danarTi III.

genderul sakiTxebze momuSave organizaciaTa nusxa:

organozaciis

dasaxeleba

daarsebis

TariRi

1 avangardi 2002

2

ak. werwTlis saxelobis

quTaisis saxelmwifo

geografiis institutTan

arsebuli kvleviTi

centri genderul

sakiTxebSi

3 amagdari 1996

direqtori sakontaqto informacia

anJele

torua

1999 ia iaSvili

nino

SioSvili

4 asociacia aTinTi 2005 maia julakiZe

5

asociacia genderi

socialur-ekonomikuri

ganviTarebisTvis

6 asociacia _ feniqsi 2000

7

8

9

asociacia

fiqris gora

asociacia

qarTuli

fundamenti

afxazeTis avtonomiuri

respublikis qalTa sabWo

2001 Carita jaSi

2002

1992

1994

iunona

margalitaZe

dali

korkomaSvili

neli

javaxiSvili

roza

kuxalaSvili

10 aWara 2005 zoia doliZe

168

saqarTvelo,gali,6800; janaSias q.2

mob.:(995 99) 322887,

(995 99) 556110

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madle-kv@yandex.ru; ktk2@nrc.ge

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saxelmwifo universiteti,

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Tamar mefis quCa #59

tel.:(995 231) 41629; 40280;

e-mail: ia.iashvili@hotmail.com

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saqarTvelo,Tbilisi0190

leoniZis q.2

tel.; (995 32) 921773

faqsi:(995 32) 921773

mob.: (995 99) 945498

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saqarTvelo, gori, 1400

WavWavaZis, 60/5

tel.; (995 270) 75735

mob.: (995 99) 732351

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saqarTvelo, Tbilisi, 0179

kekeliZis q. #19

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mob: (995 77) 419032

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bendelianis q.4 bina,4

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saqarTvelo, kaspi, 2600

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qavTaraZis q.16

tel:(995 32) 393967

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saqarTvelo, Tbilisi, 0179

pekinis q.4

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e-mail: zdolidze55@mail.ru


11

axalgazrda

dedaTa xel-

Sewyobis

asociacia

1994

169

maia

sarTania

12 banovani 2001 rusudan dvali

13 biliki 1997

14

galis raionis qalTa

sabWo

marika

mRebriSvili

1999 Tina qecbaia

15 ganaTleba mSvidobisaTvis 2003 eka fircxalava

16

genderuli ganviTarebis

asociacia 1997

nani

WaniSvili

17 dvrita_qalTa kavSiri 2004 nana CikvaiZe

18 domusi 1997-2007

19

ebrael qalTa

gaerTianeba lea

1998

20 vejini 1999-2000

qeTi

dadunaSvili

marina

solomoniSvili

laura

xaritonaSvili

saqarTvelo,Tbilisi 0162

wavwavaZis q.41

tel.: (995 32) 221020

mon.: (995 93) 397882

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saqarTvelo, Tbilisi, 0194

gamrekelis q.6

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faqsi:(995 32) 388507

mob.: (995 99) 653496

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e-mail: contact.biliki.ge

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saqarTvelo, gali, 6800

vaCaxias q.22

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(995 32) 594566 (Tbilisi)

faqsi: (995 215) 30118

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saqarTvelo, Tbilisi, 0105

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saqarTvelo,Tbilisi0179

atenis q.20

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e-mail: nani.chanishvili@access.sanet.ge

saqarTvelo, duSeTi, 1800,

26 maisis q.17

tel.:(995 246) 22579

mob.: (995 99) 260959

saqarTvelo, Tbilisi, 0160

gamsaxurdias q.37

tel.:(995 32) 372819

mob.: (995 99) 943070

e-mail: dadunashvili@yahoo.com

web-site: www.wocg.org.ge

saqarTvelo, Tbilisi, 0105

lermontovis q.12

tel.:(995 32) 990827

faqsi:(995 32) 990827; 720017

mob.: (995 93) 500775

e-mail: Leasol@hotmail.com

Leasol@usa.net;

msolomonishvili@yahoo.com

web-site: www.itic.org.ge/lea

saqarTvelo,gurjaani,1507

sofeli vejini

mob.:(995 99)157025

e-mail: vedjini2000@yahoo.com


21 Tanaziari 2000 xaTuna beWvaia

22

Tanamedrove qali da

ojaxi

23 iberiana 2003

24 imedi 1999

25

26

27

28

invalid meomarTa da

daRupul mebrZolTa

meuRleTa kavSiri

invalid qalTa

da invalid

bavSvTa mSobelTa

asociacia

iZulebiT gadaadgilebul

qalTa asociacia Tanxmoba

kavSiri

qalebis iniciativa

TanasworobisaTvis

1995 irma xabazi

darejan

bregvaZe

qristina

kilanova

1997 manana mebuke

1998 madona xarebava

1996

1997

iulia

xaraSvili

lela

gafrindaSvili

29 kavkasiis qalTa qseli 1997 nino cixisTavi

30

31

keTili nebis organizacia

xidi 21-e

2000

marina

axvlediani

mandilosani 1993 lia oqropiriZe

170

saqarTvelo, zugdidi, 2100

kostavas q.58

tel.:(995 815) 52365

e-mail: tanaziari@hotmail.com

web-site: www.tanaziari.ge

saqarTvelo, Tbilisi,

Ciqovanis q.29

tel.:(995 32) 530033

mob.: (995 99) 222400

e-mail: irmakhabazi@yahoo.com

saqarTvelo, Tbilisi

erisTavis Cixi,1

tel.:(995 32) 395770, 670556

e-mail:iberiana21@yahoo.com

iberiana@posta.ge

web-site: iberiana.itp.ge

saqarTvelo, zugdidi, 2100,

rusTavelis gamz. 89, sarT. 3,

mob.:(995 99) 919322

e-mail: q_kilanova@posta.ge

Kristina_kilanova@yandex.ru

saqarTvelo, Tbilisi, 0154

qedias q.7

tel.:(995 32) 356609; 340283

faqsi:(995 32) 340283

mob.: (995 77) 440022; 783840

e-mail: dt_wife@yahoo.com;

Manana@mail.ru

saqarTvelo zugdidi 2100

rusTavelis q.51

tel.: (995 215) 50139

faqsi: (995 215) 50139

mob.: (995 77) 454588

e-mail: madona_k@gol.ge

saqarTvelo,Tbilisi 0102

marjaniSvilis q.21

tel.:(995 32) 964458

faqsi:(995 32) 964458

mob.: (995 99) 900444; 570798

e-mail: idpwa@gol.ge

Julia.kharashvili@unv.org.ge

web-site: www.idpwa.org.ge

saqarTvelo, Tbilisi, 0193

merab aleqsiZis, #1

tel.:(995 32) 375238

faqsi:(995 32) 334163

mob.: (995 99) 243416

e-mail: lelag@@gol.ge

wie@ip.osgf.ge

web-site: www.osgf.ge/wie

saqarTvelo, Tbilisi, 0105,

maCablis q. #5

tel.:(995 32) 999987; 939178

faqsi:(995 32) 939178

mob.:(995 99) 202889

e-mail: CWN@access.sanet.ge

saqarTvelo, rusTavi, 3700

me-20 mikr.,korp. 1, bina 123

tel.:(995 24)177430

mob.:(995 93) 370445

e-mail: alex.barbara@mail.ru

saqarTvelo, gori, 1400

samefos q.42

tel.:(995 270) 72429


32

martoxela

mSobelTa

asociacia

1995

171

maia

kuprava-

SarvaSiZe

33 mTiani regionis qalebi 2000 rusudan nakani

34 miteveba 2000 leila Toria

35

36

momavlis

imediT

mravalerovani

saqarTvelos qalebi

2003 qeTi axobaZe

2002

ala beJenceva;

leila

suleimanova

37 peoni 1998 nato SavlayaZe

38 ruduneba 2001 sofio SarabiZe

39

40

41

42

samoqalaqo kulturis

saerTaSoriso centri _

qalTa jgufi

saqarTvelos

azerbaijanel qalTa

kavSiri

saqarTvelos eqim qalTa

asociacia

saqarTvelos qal

invalidTa asociacia

2002 lela xomeriki

2000

leila

suleimanova

1999 nino Jvania

1998

manana

galuaSvili

faqtiurad ar arseboben

saq. Tbilisi 0102

winamZRvriSvilis q.40

mob.: (995 99) 572507

e-mail: spage@gol.ge

saqarTvelo, zemosvaneTi, 3200,

mestia stalinis Cixi,1

mob.:(995 99) 549142

e-mail: ruso_nakani@ramble.ru

saqarTvelo, Tbilisi, 0154

wereTlis pros., korp.6, bina13

tel.:(995 32) 350216; 347427;

mob.: (995 99) 987077

e-mail: miteveba@hotmail.com

saqarTvelo, Tbilisi, 0179

WavWavaZe 27/29, bina 25

tel.:(995 32) 343393; 355781

mob.: (995 77) 741564

e-mail: ketevena2001@yahoo.com

ketevana@mail.ru

saqarTvelo, Tbilisi,

winamZRvriSvilis # 30

tel.:(995 32) 910760

faqsi:(995 32) 910760

mob.: (995 93) 205065; 304434

e-mail: iartbil@yandex.ru

lsuleimanova@yahoo.com

saqarTvelo, Tbilisi, 0177

antonovskaias q.#9

tel.:(995 32) 506064, 398934

faqsi:(995 32) 506064

saqarTvelo, ambrolauri, 0400

javaxiZis q.5 tel.:(995 239)21504

faqsi: (995 239) 01504

mob.: (995 99) 505560

saqarTvelo, Tbilisi, 0112

baqos q.20a

tel.:(995 32) 940296

faqsi:(995 32) 953873

e-mail: ikhomeriki@yahoo.com

saqarTvelo, marneuli, 3000

gorgaslis q.#3, b.3

tel.:(995 257) 24733; 24540

faqsi:(995 257) 24733

mob.: (995 93) 205065

e-mail: azeriwoman@yahoo.com

lsuleimanova@yahoo.com

saqarTvelo, Tbilisi, 0179

abaSiZis 14

tel.:(995 32) 252724

faqsi:(995 32) 227403

mob.: (995 99) 574968

e-mail: n_zhvania@yahoo.com

saqarTvelo, Tbilisi, 0108

Zmebi zubalaSvilebis q. 34

tel.:(995 32) 920911

faqsi:(995 32) 920911

mob.: (995 99) 973006

e-mail: gdwia@access.sanet.ge

gdwia@gol.ge

web-site: www.gdwia.gol.ge; www.itic.org.ge


43

saqarTvelos

qal-mecnierTa asociacia

2000

avelina

daviTuliani

44 saxli 2000 marti rusudan fxakaZe

45 siksa 2002 maka kobrava

46 sociumi 1999

47 fondi taso 2007

48 qali da axali saukune 2000

49

qalTa ganaTlebisa da

informaciis saerTaSoriso

centri

1993

maia gogolaZe

da manana

jinWaraZe

marina

TabukaSvili

izolda

baRaTuria

Tamar

abrmiSvili

50 qali _ demokratebi 2001 marina modebaZe

172

saqarTvelo,Tbilisi 0108

rusTavelis gamz.52

mecnierTa akademiis Senoba

tel.:(995 32) 234270, 982976

mob.: (995 77) 722744

e-mail: avelina@hepi.edu.ge;

gvalia@yahoo.com

saqarTvelo,Tbilisi, 0801

ingoroyvas q.26

tel.:(995 32) 989080

faqsi:(995 32) 932635

mob.; (995 99) 452554

e-mail: sakhli13@hotmail.com

saxli@gol.ge

web-site: www.saxli.gol.ge

saqarTvelo, rusTavi 3700

me-15 mikr., saxli 10

tel.:(995 24) 153500

mob.: (995 93) 281676

e-mail: makakobrava@yahoo.co.uk

saqarTvelo. Coxatauri,4800

bendelianis q.10

mob.:(995 99) 297461

(995 99) 262727

e-mail: maia_gogoladze@yahoo.com

tan_mem@yahoo.com

saqarTvelo, Tbilisi, 0108

r.TabukaSvilis q.15

tel.:(995 32) 920595

faqsi:(995 32) 920595

mob.: (995 95) 424279

e-mail: info@taso.org.ge

web-site: www.taso.org.ge

saqarTvelo,Tbilisi 0171

doliZis q,korp. 26,bina 20

tel.:(995 32) 364671; 333215

faqsi:(995 32) 333215

mob.: (995 99) 335040

e-mail : jishkarianiguranda@yahoo.com

saqarTvelo, Tbilisi, 0105

baraTaSvilis q.6/10

tel.: (995 32) 999253; 989217

faqsi: (995 32) 935902

mob.: (995 99) 337508

e-mail: tamar@caucasus.net

web-site: www.civil.ge

saqarTvelo,axalcixe,0800

Tbilisis q.9

mob.:(995 99) 548344

e-mail: marinamodebadze@ramble.ru


51

qalTa iniciativebis

mxardamWeri jgufi

2000

173

irma inariZe

eka

aRdgomelaSvili

52 qalebi momavlisTvis 1998 xaTuna sanikiZe

53

54

55

56

57

58

qalTa organizacia -

parozi

qalTa politikuri

resurs centri

qalTa sabWo_raionuli

organizacia kaspi

qalTa saerTaSoriso

resurs centri

qalTa sainformacio

centri

qalTa saqvelmoqmedo

fondi _ favoriti

2000 narine ginosiani

1998-2000 nana mJavanaZe

2002 dali korkomaSvili

1998 lika nadaraia

2000-2003 elene ruseckaia

2000 xaTuna qaTamaZe

59 qalTa centri 1996 ia verulaSvili

saqrTvelo,Tbilisi,0194

fanaskertelis q.19/98

tel.:(995 32) 361968

faqsi:(995 32) 331917

mob.: (995 99) 915000

e-mail:wisg@caucasus.net

web-site: www.women.ge

saqarTvelo, Tbilisi, 0179

barnovis q.#44

tel.:(995 32) 221752

faqsi:(995 32) 221750

mob.: (995 99) 561183

e-mail: Lsanikidze@hotmail.com

wfgeorgia@hotmail.com

saqarTvelo, q. nino wminda,

samcxe-javaxeTi

Tavisuflebis #37

tel.:(995 262) 22656;

faqsi:(995 262) 22656

mob.: (995 99) 54911

e-mail: nginosian@gmail.com

saqarTvelo, Tbilisi 0179

TayaiSvilis q.3

mob.:(995 99) 901240

e-mail: wprc@wprc.org.ge

web-site: www.wprc.org.ge

saqarTvelo, kaspi 2600

kostavas q.37

tel.:(995 271) 22448

faqsi:(995 271) 22435

mob.: (995 99) 221952

e-mail: fiqris_gora@mail.ru

saqarTvelo, Tbilisi, 0179

TayaiSvilis q.3

tel.:(995 32) 224018

faqsi:(995 32) 250836

mob.: (995 99) 512514

e-mail:wprc@wprc.org.ge

web-site: wprc.org.ge

saqarTvelo, Tbilisi, 0102

winamZRvriSvilis q.40

tel.:(995 32) 952934

faqsi:(995 32) 942699

mob.: (995 93) 724313

e-mail: wicmika@ginsc.net

wicmika@caucasus.net

web-site: www.wicge.org

www.nasilie.net, www.ginsc.net

www.youthkot.net, www.antitraf.net

saqarTvelo, baTumi,6000

ximSiaSvilis q.13

tel.:(995 222) 22603; 73142

faqsi:(995 222) 73142; 72217

mob.: (995 77) 440646

(995 99) 558852

e-mail:favorite@posta.ge

khatuna_k@hotmail.com

maikokatamadze@yahooo.com

saqarTvelo, Tbilisi, 0179

WavWavaZis 15

tel.:(995 32) 233299

faqsi:(995 32) 233299

mob.: (995 99) 565506

e-mail:grc@access.sanet.ge

web-site: www.womancenter.org.ge


60

61

qalTa xelovnebis

saerTaSoriso kavSiri

qalTa xma

1998 qeTevan mirianaSvili

2003

jilda niblaZexaritonaSvili

62 qali da janmrTeloba 2000 ZiZia RuduSauri

63

qarTvel qalTa

asociacia

2004

64 qarTlis deda 1997

eva

lomTaZe

prez: asmaT

beJaniSvili

65 SuSaniki 1996 susana xaCaturiani

66

67

68

centri_

qalebi da ganviTareba

Zaladobisagan dacvis

erovnuli qseli

Zaladobisagan dacvis

erovnuli qselis

kaxeTis regionaluri

komiteti

2002 Sorena doliZe

2003 nato SavlayaZe

2005

jilda niblaZexaritonaSvili

174

saqarTvelo, Tbilisi, 0105,

WavWavaZis q. 68,

sanapiros 2a

e-mail: wcnu@hotmail.com

wcnu1302@yahoo.com

web-site: -

saqarTvelo,gurjaani,1500

ninoSvilis q.13

tel.:(995 253) 22947

faqsi:(995 253) 22947

mob.: (995 99) 512025

e-mail:gildaavng@yahoo.com

gilda@ramble.ru

saqarTvelo, rusTavi, 3700

megobrobis 1, 47

tel.:(995 24) 175862; 574681

faqsi:(995 24) 175862

mob.: (995 99) 543238

e-mail:

w_and_h2000@yahoo.com

w_and_h2000@mail.ru

saqarTvelo,lagodexi 2700

26 maisis q.23

faqsi:(995 254) 50181

mob.: (995 93)952004

e-mail: lag.gal.organizacia@ramble.ru

saqarTvelo, gori, 1400

aRmaSeneblis, 127

tel.:(995 270) 75884

mob.: (995 93) 768902, 946281

e-mail: kartlisdeda@hotmail.com

saqarTvelo, Tbilisi, 0168

qeTevan wamebulis pr.8

tel.:(995 32) 968933

faqsi:(995 32) 331705

mob.: (995 93) 397170

e-mail:shishanik1996@mail.ru

shushanik1996@rambler.ru

saqarTvelo, Tbilisi, 0106

gamsaxurdias q, kvat.1

(iuridiuli misamarTia)

mob.:(995 99) 234348

e-mail: cwd.et.cavcasus.net

saqarTvelo, Tbilisi, 0177

antonovskaias q.#9

tel.:(995 32) 506064, 398934

faqsi:(995 32) 506064

e-mail: antiviolence@avng.ge

saqarTvelo,gurjaani,1500

ninoSvilis q.13

mob.:(995 99) 512025

e-mail: gildaavng@yahoo.com

gilda@rabmle.ru


danarTi IV.

respodentTa nusxa:

No saxeli da gvari organizacia da Tanamdeboba TariRi

1 abramiSvili Tamar

2 aRoSaSvili marine

eqsperti; qalTa ganaTlebisa

da informaciis saerTaSoriso

centri

axalcixis No1sajaro skolis

buRalteri, kerZo mesakuTre

175

12.10.07

30.11.07

3 axvlediani mamuka Tbilisis meria; vice meri 26.11.07

4 barkauli lia patruli 26.11.07

5 gafrindaSvili lela

eqsperti; kavSiri

qalebis iniciativa

TanasworobisaTvis

17.10.07

6 devaZe nana leiboristuli partia, wevri 5.11.07

7 elisaSvili aleko

radio Tavisufleba, Jurnalisti

23.04.08

8 notariusi 20.09.07

9 zRulaZe eka

Sinagan saqmeTa ministris

moadgile

30.11.07

10 TabukaSvili marine eqsperti; fondi taso 15.10.07

11 TevdoraZe elene

12 Turnava naTia

saqarTvelos parlamenti.

komitetis Tavmjdomare

kerZo ekonomikuri kompaniis

menejeri

13.10.07

27.11.07

13 kemularia nana 52-e sajaro skola, pedagogi 29.11.07

14 kikaCeiSvili lana mari broses sax. skola, pedagogi 29.11.07

15 kukava kaxa saqarTvelos parlamenti, wevri 9.10.07


16 mama adami

samebis sakaTedro taZari,

moZRvari

176

02.05.08

17 maRraZe guguli saqarTvelos parlamenti, wevri 13.10.07

18 maxaraSvili qeTevan saqarTvelos parlamenti, wevri 27.10.07

19 mdivani maka saxelmwifo ministris mrCeveli 5.11.07

20 menTeSaSvili eliko taqsis mZRoli 3.12.07

21 mesxi mari eqsperti trefikingis sferoSi 23.10.07

22 musxeliSvili marina partia win saqarTvelo, wevri 14.11.07

23 nadaraia lika

qalTa saerTaSoriso resurs

centri, eqsperti,

16.10.07

24 naWyebia manana saqarTvelos parlamenti, wevri 19.10.07

25 petriaSvili irakli

26 Jvania Tamar

saqarTvelos profkavSirebis

gaerTianeba, prezidenti

samarTliani arCevnebi.

direqtori

27.11.07

31.10.07

27 romelaSvili baia qalTa sabWo, wevri 30.10.07

28 rurua nika

saqarTvelos parlamenti,

Tavdacvisa da uSiSroebis

komitetis Tavmjdomaris

moadgile

12.11.07

29 sabedaSvili Tamar eqsperti 25.04.08

30 sanikiZe xaTuna qalebi momavlisTvis eqsperti; 23.10.07

31 sajaia ruslan iZulebiT gadaadgilebuli piri 28.01.08

32 tyemalaZe zurab saqarTvelos parlamenti, wevri 24.10.07

33 faCulia irakli

34 qavTaraZe irakli

profesiuli swavlebis

xelmZRvaneli

nacionaluri moZraoba,

saerTaSoriso mdivani

13.11.07

25.10.07


35 qaTamaZe Tamazi

36 qarqusovi uruzmaki

37 RurWumeliZe manana

38 SavlayaZe nato

39 ciramua zaza

turizmis prof. saswavleblis

centri ikarosi, pedagogi

ekonomikis saministro, ministries

moadgile regionaluri

ganviTarebis dargSi

saqarTvelos pedagogTa

da mecnierTa Tavisufali

profkavSiri, Tavmjdomare

Zaladobisagan dacvis erovnuli

qseli; qalTa klubi _ peoni,

eqsperti;

prof.swavlebis centri,

direqtori

177

20.11.07

28.11.07

1.03.08

17.10.07

13.11.07

40 cixisTavi nino kavkasiis qalTa qseli, eqsperti 18.10.07

41 WanturiZe rusudani

saapelacio sasamarTlo,

mosamarTle

25.10.07

42 xidaSeli Tina respublikuri partia, wevri 19.10.07

43 xelaia vardo iZulebiT gadaadgilebuli piri 28.01.08

44 xomeriki lela

45 xorava dalila

46 xundaZe maia

47 jaSi Carita

samoqalaqo kulturis

saerTaSoriso centri, eqsperti

janmrTelobis, socialuri da

Sromis saminitro, afxazeTis

ganyofilebis ufrosi

globaluri iniciativa

fsiqiatriaSi, fsiqiatri

asociacia genderi socialurekonomikuri

ganviTarebisTvis,

eqsperti

28.11.07

26.11.07

19.11.07

12.11.07


danarTi V.

fokus jgufebis nusxa:

No jgufebi Semokleba

1

2

3

TanianTkaris

TviTdasaqmebuli qalebis

jgufi

adgilobrivi

TviTmmarTvelobis qalTa

forumi

iZulebiT gadaadgilebul

pirTa jgufi. fotoxma.

fj1

fj2

178

Catarebis

adgili

sofeli

TanianTkari

qorTiard

merioti

TariRi

8.08.07

15.10.07

fj3 zugdidi 20.10.07

4 marneulis axalgazdoba fj4 marneuli 26.11.07

5

6

7

8

9

axalcixis saxelmwifo

universitetis studentebi

axalqalaqis

axalgazrdoba

Tbilisis iv. javaxiSvilis

sax. saxelmmwifo

universitetis studentebi

Tbilisis iv. javaxiSvilis

sax. saxelmmwifo

universitetis studentebi

iZulebiT gadaadgilebul

pirTa jgufi; fotoxma

fj5

axalcixis

saxelmwifo

universiteti

30.11.07

fj6 axalqalaqi 01.12.07

fj7

fj8

Tbilisis iv.

javaxiSvilis

sax. saxelmmwifo

universiteti

Tbilisis iv.

javaxiSvilis

sax. saxelmmwifo

universiteti

27.12.07

09.01.08

fj9 zugdidi 28.01.08

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