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qeTevan kakitelaSvili, giorgi niJaraZe, nino Ciqovani,

irakli CxaiZe, maia qvriviSvili, ivane wereTeli

msoflio kultura

Tbilisi

2012


saqarTvelos saxelmwifo

himni

`Tavisufleba~

leqsi daviT maRraZisa

Cemi xatia samSoblo,

saxate mTeli qveyana,

ganaTebuli mTa-bari,

wilnayaria RmerTTana.

Tavisufleba dRes Cveni

momavals umRers didebas,

ciskris varskvlavi amodis

da or zRvas Sua brwyindeba.

dideba Tavisuflebas,

Tavisuflebas dideba.


qeTevan kakitelaSvili, giorgi niJaraZe, nino Ciqovani,

irakli CxaiZe, maia qvriviSvili, ivane wereTeli

msoflio kultura

X/XI/XII

moswavlis wigni

grifi mieniWa 2012 wels, saqarTvelos ganaTlebisa da

mecnierebis saministros s. s. i. p. ganaTlebis xarisxis

ganviTarebis erovnuli centris mier.


sarCevi

Sesavali 6

1. mravalferovani msoflio 7

2. ra aris kultura? 10

3. arseboben metad an naklebad kulturuli adamianebi? arseboben adamianebi,

romelTac ar gaaCniaT kultura? 14

4. ratom arsebobs ara erTi, aramed mravali kultura? 17

5. Cveni uaxloesi biologiuri naTesavebi 19

6. ra ganasxvavebs adamians sxva cocxali arsebebisagan? 21

7. aqvT Tu ara cxovelebs istoria da kultura? 23

8. genetika da kultura 26

9. bunebrivi da kulturuli garemo: Cven rom sxvagan an sxva dros gvecxovra 29

10. sicocxlis uzrunvelyofis formebi 33

11. sazogadoeba 38

12. socializacia 41

13. identoba 44

14. civilizacia 47

15. marginaloba 50

16. kontrkultura 52

17. samosi, romelmac msoflio Secvala 58

18. subkultura 61

19. kulturis universaliebi 65

20. zRapari 68

21. magia 70

22. miTi 74

23. religia 77

24. mkurnaloba da medicina 79

25. simbolo 86

26. xelovneba 90

4 msoflio kultura


27. samarTali 94

28. Sroma, profesia da hobi 99

29. rekreacia 104

30. TamaSi 106

31. dro 109

32. cikluri da sworxazovani dro 114

33. ena. niSanTa sistemebi 118

34. enis „tyveobaSi“ 122

35. araverbaluri komunikacia 126

36. kulturaTa difuzia 130

37. asimilacia 132

38. masobrivi kultura 135

39. ratom aris maskultura masobrivi? 138

40. globalizacia 142

41. globalizacia _ safrTxe Tu SesaZlebloba? 147

42. masmedia 152

43. kulturaTaSorisi gansxvavebebi 156

44. kultura da genderi 162

45. kulturaTa tipologia 166

46. saqarTvelos eTnografiuli mravalferovneba 169

47. saqarTvelos kulturuli mravalferovneba 173

48. kulturuli Soki 176

49. stereotipi 179

50. kulturaTaSorisi urTierTobis barierebi: rasizmi da qsenofobia 182

51. istoriis gakveTilebi 184

52. eTnocentrizmi 189

53. eTnorelativizmi 192

54. interkulturuli komunikacia. interkulturuli dialogi 195

sarCevi

5


Sesavali

ra warmoidgine, roca am wignis saTauri waikiTxe? albaT, upirvelesad, msoflios

sxvadasxva regionSi, sxvadasxva dros Seqmnili arqiteqturuli Zeglebi, ferweris

nimuSebi, literaturuli da musikaluri qmnilebebi... magram mxolod es aris kultura?

ratom imosebian da ikvebebian adamianebi sxvadasxvagvarad? ratom aqvT gansxvavebuli

warmodgena silamazeze, sikeTesa da borotebaze, samarTalze, usamarTlobaze,

Tavisuflebaze? ratom xumroben, brazoben, zeimoben da glovoben sxvadasxvagvarad?

ratom anawileben gansxvavebulad dros, romelic, TiTqos, yvelgan erTnairad

gadis?... saxelmZRvanelos wakiTxvis Semdeg aRmoaCen, rom es gansxvavebebi kulturiT

aris ganpirobebuli _ Cven kulturulad mravalferovan msoflioSi vcxovrobT.

swored es mravalferovneba _ gansxvavebebi warmodgenebSi, Sexedulebebsa da,

zogadad, cxovrebis wesSi _ aRgviZravs interessa da cnobismoyvareobas. kulturuli

gansxvavebebis codna da gacnobiereba gvazRvevs qsenofobiuri da rasistuli

ganwyobebisagan, rac araerTxel gamxdara msoflios yvelaze sisxlismRvreli da

tragikuli movlenebis safuZveli. Tanamedrove globalizebul samyaroSi, rodesac

sxvadasxva kulturis warmomadgenlebi yoveldRiurad xvdebian erTmaneTs swavlis,

muSaobisa Tu dasvenebis dros, es codna warmatebuli TviTdamkvidrebis erT-erTi

umniSvnelovanesi winapirobaa. kulturuli mravalferovnebis, rogorc faseulobis,

aRqma uaRresad mniSvnelovania Cveni qveynis moqalaqeebisTvis, radgan saqarTvelo

yovelTvis iyo da dResac aris sxvadasxva religiisa da kulturis mqone adamianebis

samSoblo.

saxelmZRvanelo gankuTvnilia X/XI/XII klasis moswavleTaTvis.

6 msoflio kultura


mravalferovani msoflio 1

gifiqria imaze, ratom ocnebobs TiT qmis

yvela Cvengani mogzaurobaze? SeiZ leba imitom,

rom „sxva samyaroSi“ mox vedra yovelTvis

saintereso, mimzidveli da saxalisoa; es

amravalferovnebs yovel dRiur cxovrebas,

amdidrebs Cvens codnas da gamocdilebas.

mogzaurobis dros aucileblad geqneboda

fotokamera, Seecdebodi gadageRo lamazi

peizaJebi, xuroTmoZRvrebis Zeglebi,

saintereso momentebi. TvalSi gecemoda

adamianebis gansxvavebuli qceva _ misalmebis

wesi, madlobis gadaxdisa Tu bodiSis moxdis forma, Cacmuloba, samzareulo,

musika, sacxovrebeli da samuSao garemo... (motanili suraTebi swored kulturul

mravalferovnebas asaxavs). mogzaurobidan dabrunebis Semdeg megobrebs, pirvel

rigSi, albaT, imas mouyvebodi, ra iyo SenTvis uCveulo da gansakuTrebuli, ucnauri

_ mimzidveli Tu miuRebeli.

yofilxar saqarTvelos sxvadasxva kuTxeSi? sul ramdenime saaTi dagWirdeba

imisaTvis, rom aRmoaCino bunebisa da adamianTa cxovrebis wesis saocari

mravalferovneba. saqarTveloSi erTmaneTs enacvleba sxvadasxva kuTxisa da

eTnikuri jgufis warmomadgenlebisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli metyvelebis manera, kilo,

tradiciebi da wes-Cveulebebi, kerZebi, sacxovrebeli da sameurneo nagebobebi...

samwuxarod, SeuZlebelia imogzauro yvelgan da naxo yvelaferi, rac sainteresoa,

Tumca dRes, Tanamedrove teqnologiebis saSualebiT, dedamiwis nebismier kuTxeSi

moaxerxeb virtualur mogzaurobas da informaciis miRebas sxvadasxva qveynisa da

sazogadoebis Taviseburebebze.

davaleba

l gaixsene, sad gimogzauria da gamoyavi

mogzaurobis STabeWdilebebidan

SenTvis yvelaze sagulisxmo epizodi.

warmoidgine, ra uintereso iqneboda

cxovreba, adamianebi erTnairebi rom

iyvnen. Cven yovelTvis gvizidavs da

cnobismoyvareobas aRgviZravs is, rac

ucxo da, erTi SexedviT, Znelad gasagebia. adamianebi dedamiwis yvela kuTxeSi Sromoben

da isveneben, uxariaT da glovoben, avadmyofoben da mkurnaloben, zrdian bavSvebs da

iTviseben TaobaTa gamocdilebas, gmoben borotmoqmedebas da ganadideben saTnoebas,

1. mravalferovani msoflio

7


iaponeli qali suSiT

xinkali

l erT-erTi yvelaze farTod gavrcelebuli mosazrebiT,

imas, rac adamianebs aerTianebs da, amave dros, sxvebisagan

ganasxvavebs, kultura ewodeba.

sxvadasxva kulturis adamianebs, romlebic, rogorc ukve

vTqviT, sxvadasxvagvarad azrovneben, grZnoben da iqcevian,

xSirad uWirT erTmaneTis gageba. magram, amave dros, isini

mravali saerTo problemis winaSe dganan _ globaluri daTbobis,

garemos dabinZurebis, ekonomikuri krizisis, terorizmis,

Sidsis, siRaribis... am problemaTa daZleva mxolod saerTo

ZalisxmeviT Tu moxerxdeba, erToblivi gadawyvetilebebi ki

warmatebiT marto maSin xorcieldeba, Tu gaTvaliswinebulia

kulturaTaSorisi gansxvavebebi.

davaleba

l imsjele, globaluri problemebis erToblivi gadaWrisas

ratom unda gaiTvaliswinon kulturaTaSorisi gansxvavebebi?

Tanamedrove globaluri samyaro swavlis, muSaobis Tu dasvenebis dros erTmaneTs

axvedrebs sxvadasxva kulturis warmomadgenlebs. gansxvavebebis gacnobiereba Cvens

cxovrebas ufro sainteresos, mimzidvels, naklebad konfliqturs xdis. adamians,

romelic flobs mravalferovan kulturul garemoSi orientaciisa da komunikaciis

unar-Cvevebs, warmatebis mopovebis meti SesaZlebloba aqvs rogorc sakuTar

samSobloSi, aseve mis sazRvrebs gareT. sxva kulturis adamianebTan urTierToba da

TanamSromloba imas ki ar niSnavs, rom Cven erTmaneTis msgavsad an erTnairad unda

moviqceT an vifiqroT, aramed imas, rom kargad vicnobdeT sakuTar kulturas, mis

faseulobebs da, amis safuZvelze, vecnobodeT da pativs vcemdeT sxvebs, aRviqvamdeT

maT, rogorc Tanasworebs.

kiTxva

swamT, qmnian xelovnebis nimuSebs, magram yvelafer amas

sxvadasxvagvarad akeTeben. sazogadoebebi gansxvavdebian eniT,

religiiT, zne-CveulebebiT, msoflmxedvelobiT, warmodgeniT

silamazeze, dasaSvebsa da akrZalulze, samarTlianobasa da

usamarTlobaze, Tavazianobasa da uzrdelobaze...

l eTanxmebi Tu ara mosazrebas: „adamians, romelic flobs mravalferovan kulturul

garemoSi orientaciisa da komunikaciis unar-Cvevebs, warmatebis mopovebis meti

SesaZlebloba aqvs rogorc sakuTar samSobloSi, aseve mis sazRvrebs gareT“? pasuxi

daasabuTe.

8 msoflio kultura


mecniereba kulturis Sesaxeb

yvela sxva cocxali arsebisagan adamiani swored

kulturiT gansxvavdeba. ra aris kultura, rogor warmoiSva

da ganviTarda cxovrebis gansxvavebuli wesi sxvadasxva

dros da adgilas, arseboben Tu ara adamianebi, romlebsac

ar gaaCniaT kultura; ra aris kulturuli Soki, ras

niSnavs stereotipi da ra problemebi SeiZleba Seqmnas man

kulturaTaSoris urTierTobaSi; ras mivirTmevT, rogor

vimosebiT da vsaubrobT; rogoria Cveni warmodgena sakuTar

Tavsa da sxvebze; ra aris globalizacia da emuqreba Tu

ara msoflios gaerTgvarovnebis safrTxe - am da sxva bevr

saintereso sakiTxs, romelsac saxelmZRvaneloSi gaecnobiT,

swavlobs kulturis kvlevebi. mecnierebis es sfero gasuli

saukunis Sua xanebSi Camoyalibda, dRes ki msoflioSi

mimdinare procesebis asaxsnelad mis monacemebs sul ufro

farTod iyeneben. sxvadasxva qveyanaSi igi sxvadasxva saxeliT

damkvidrda: kulturis kvlevebis garda, mas kulturologias

da kulturis mecnierebebsac uwodeben.

saSinao davaleba

l dawere ese: „Cven mravalferovan msoflioSi vcxovrobT“.

1. mravalferovani msoflio

9


2

ra aris kultura?

kultura erT-erTi yvelaze farTod

gavrcelebuli sityvaa rogorc samecniero

literaturaSi, ise yofiT metyvelebaSi.

mas mravali mniSvneloba aqvs. zogi

kulturas xelovnebasTan da, zogadad,

adamianis SemoqmedebiT moRvaweobasTan

aigivebs, zogi _ zrdilobasa da qcevis

wesebTan. magram kultura gacilebiT

rTuli da mravalmxrivi fenomenia,

romelic samyaroSi adamianis moRvaweobis

yvela sferos moicavs: yofas, cxovrebis

stils, msoflmxedvelobas, normebs,

faseulobebs, tradiciebs, xelovnebas,

literaturas... swored amitom, am fenomens araerTi mecniereba swavlobs: arqeologia,

istoria, eTnologia, sociologia, filosofia, anTropologia, fsiqologia; gasuli

saukunis Sua xanebSi ki kulturis kvlevebi mecnierebis calke mimarTulebad

Camoyalibda.

sociologia (berZn. moZRvreba sazogadoebis Sesaxeb) _ mecniereba adamianebis,

adamianTa jgufebisa da sazogadoebebis socialuri cxovrebis, socialur

urTierTobaTa Sesaxeb.

fsiqologia (berZn. fsiqe _ suli, logos _ moZRvreba) _ mecniereba adamianis

fsiqikisa da misi funqciobis kanonzomierebaTa Sesaxeb.

filosofia (berZn. sibrZnis siyvaruli) _ mecniereba samyarosa da masSi adamianis

adgilis Sesaxeb.

anTropologia (berZn. anTropos _ adamiani, logos _ moZRvreba) _ mecniereba,

romelic miznad isaxavs adamianis yovelmxriv Seswavlas. igi ikvlevs adamianis

fizikuri tipis ganviTarebas, kulturul da enobriv msgavsebebsa da

gansxvavebebs drosa da sivrceSi

kultura (cultura) laTinuri sityvaa da niadagis damuSavebas niSnavs. garda amisa,

laTinur enaSi sityva kultura aRniSnavda dasaxlebas, mfarvelobas, Tayvaniscemas

da, rac mTavaria, aRzrdas, gonebis varjiSsa da, saerTod, gonebriv Sromas. Zveli

romaelebi Tvlidnen, rom gonebis varjiSi da „damuSaveba“ Tavisufali adamianis

xvedria.

10 msoflio kultura


davaleba

l daakvirdi zemoT motanil fotoebs: romeli gamosaxuleba ganekuTvneba bunebas da

romeli _ kulturas? ra niSniT ganasxvave isini?

2. ra aris kultura?

11


antikur epoqaSi gavrcelebuli warmodgeniT, adamianis garemomcveli samyaro or

nawilad iyofoda: bunebad _ naturad, anu imad, rac adamianisagan damoukideblad

Seiqmna da kulturad _ „meore bunebad“, romelic Seqmnili an gardaqmnilia adamianis

mier. SeiZleba iTqvas, rom kulturis meSveobiT adamiani qmnis „axal samyaros” da

sakuTar Tavs. TiToeuli kultura unikaluri da ganumeorebeli mTlianobaa, romlis

farglebSi adamiani swored ase, da ara sxvagvarad, aRiqvams garemomcvel sinamdviles,

Tavis Tavsa da sxvebs.

mecnierebi amboben, rom dReisaTvis kulturis 500-mde gansazRvreba arsebobs.

erT-erTi yvelaze adreuli da cnobili ganmartebiT, romelic britanel mecnier

eduard bernet tailors ekuTvnis, „kultura... aris mTlianoba, romelic moicavs

codnas, rwmenas, xelovnebas, morals, wes-Cveulebebs da nebismier sxva unarsa da

Cvevas, romelsac adamiani iTvisebs rogorc sazogadoebis wevri”.

saqarTveloSi sityva „kultura“ me-19 saukunidan gavrcelda, Tumca kulturis,

rogorc bunebisagan gansxvavebuli sinam dvilis gageba ufro adrec arsebobda.

magaliTad, vaxuSti bagrationi (1696-1757) saqarTvelos Sesaxeb werda: „garna ars

queyana Suenieri da nayofieri yovliTa RvTisa mier da ara xelovnebiTa kacTa“.

swored „xelovnebiTa kacTa“ Seqmnili sinamdvile gaxlavT kultura.

kulturis zogierTi gansazRvreba mokle da sxartia, Sesa bamisad, advilad

gvamaxsovrdeba, sxvebi _ ufro vrceli da rTuli. ai, zogierTi saintereso ganmarteba:

kultura _ es aris

l xalxis cxovrebis zogadi wesi;

l qceva, romelsac vswavlobT;

l koleqtiuri codnis saganZuri;

l garemosa da sxva adamianebTan Seguebis xerxebis erToblioba;

l naleqi, romelsac tovebs istoria;

l cxovrebis gzamkvlevi, ruka.

kulturis meSveobiT vecnobiT Cveni qveynisa da msoflios awmyosa da warsuls.

adamianTa sazogadoebas, kulturis garda, sxva meqanizmi ar gaaCnia, rom kacobriobis

mier dagrovil codnasa da gamocdilebas eziaros, amitom kulturas kacob riobis

mexsierebasac uwodeben.

da bolos, ramdenime gansazRvreba, romlebic cnobil mwer lebsa da mecnierebs

ekuTvnis:

12 msoflio kultura


l kultura niSnavs - icode yovelive saukeTeso, rac Tqmula da rac gafiqrebula

qveyanaze (meTiu arnoldi, ingliseli poeti da kritikosi);

l kultura yvelaferia. igi ar aris mxolod wignebis wera da saxlebis Seneba.

kulturaa is, Tu rogor vicvamT, rogor gviWiravs Tavi, rogor davdivarT,

rogor vikeTebT halstuxs... (eme sezeri, martinikeli mwerali, poeti,

dramaturgi);

l kultura gansakuTrebuli codnis erTobliobaa, romelic Tavs iyris erT

saerTo ojaxSi da misi TiToeuli wevris sakuTrebas warmoadgens (oldos

haqsli, ingliseli mwerali, eseisti da kritikosi);

l uxeSad rom vTqvaT, kulturaa yvelaferi is, rasac Cven vakeTebT, da rasac

maimunebi ar akeTeben (lord raglani, britaneli samxedro moRvawe);

l Tevzi mxolod wylis gareSe grZnobs, rom igi misTvis aucilebelia. Cveni

kulturac wyaliviTaa. Cven misiT vsazrdoobT, vcxovrobT da vsunTqavT misi

meSveobiT (fons trompenaarsi, Tanamedrove holandieli mecnieri, kulturis

fsiqologiis mkvlevari);

l sazogadoebis kultura Sedgeba imisagan, rac saWiroa vicodeT da saWiroa

gvwamdes, raTa Cveni qceva misaRebi iyos sazogadoebis sxva wevrebisaTvis

(uord gudinafi, amerikeli anTropologi);

l termini “kultura” aRniSnavs specifikur adamianur Taviseburebebs, romlebic

ganasxvavebs homo sapiensis modgmas yvela sxva cocxali arsebisagan (vilhelm

ostvaldi, germaneli qimikosi, nobelis premiis laureati).

kiTxva

1. Seni azriT, romeli gansazRvreba gamoxatavs yvelaze srulad kulturis arss?

2. rogor gesmis mosazreba, rom kulturis meSveobiT adamiani qmnis „axal samyaros” da

sakuTar Tavs?

saSinao davaleba

l Seni azriT, rogor SeiZleba daxasiaTdes „kulturuli adamiani“.

2. ra aris kultura?

13


3

arseboben metad an naklebad kulturuli adamianebi?

arseboben adamianebi, romelTac ar gaaCniaT kultura?

xSirad amboben, rom adamianebi metad an naklebad kulturulni arian. miiCneven,

rom adamiani, romelic operaSi dadis, Sampa nurs wrupavs da mxatvruli literaturiT

tkbeba, ufro kulturulia, vidre is, vinc fexburTis matCs ar acdens, luds eZaleba

da, Tu kiTxulobs, mxolod sportul gazeTs. adamianis „metad kulturulad“ aRqmas

safuZvlad udevs warmodgena, rom igi miekuTvneba maRal socialur fenas, Sesabamisad,

ufro ganaTlebulia, aqvs daxvewili gemovneba da manerebi.

kulturis aseTi gageba SeiZleba gavrcelebuli iyos yovel dRiur cxovrebaSi.

mecnierebi ki Tvlian, rom „kulturuloba“ ar ganisazRvreba socialuri mdgomareobiT,

ganaTlebis doniT an gemovnebiT. modi, vnaxoT, ramdenad marTebulia saubari „maRal“

da „dabal“, „ganviTarebul“ da „CamorCenil“, „karg“ da „cud“ kulturebze.

amerikeli anTropologi jon monegeni Semdeg istorias gviambobs:

“Cemma mistekma 1 megobrebma sanadirod dampatiJes. iRbliani nadiroba ar gamovida,

sul oriode patara ciyvis mokvla movaxerxeT. dRis bolos Cems megobrebs mTisken

mivyvebodi. isini Cemze bevrad win midiodnen. rodesac mTis mwvervals mivaRwie, davinaxe,

rom isini xis Ziras raRacas Semoxveodnen da gacxovelebiT laparakobdnen. mivuaxlovdi,

aRmoCnda, rom erT-erT maTgans xidan futkris ska Camoegdo. gapobili skidan fiWa, Tafli

da futkris Wuprebi moCanda. Cemi megobrebi skis SigTavss, Wuprebis CaTvliT, pirisken

miaqanebdnen. erT-erTi maTgani adga da Tqva: „mismineT, Cven Tavazianad ar viqceviT.” is

daixara, aiRo fiWis, Taflis da Wuprebis mozrdili ulufa da me momibrunda: „miirTvi,

jon.” mivxvdi, rom uaris Tqma arafriT SeiZleboda. Rrmad CavisunTqe, Cemi ulufa pirSi

Cavide da gadavylape.

erTi wlis Semdeg erTgvari revanSi aviRe, rodesac ramdenime maTgani, visTan

erTadac sanadirod viyavi, CemTan saxlSi sadilad davpatiJe. siurprizis saxiT xaxvis

wvniani movamzade, rac vihakaSi arasodes Semxvedria. rodesac kerZi sufraze mivitane,

SevamCnie, rom stumrebi ar Cqarobdnen Wamis dawyebas. Semdeg SevniSne, rom erT-erTma

maTganma wvniani magidis ukan gadaRvara. rodesac vkiTxe, yvelaferi rigze iyo Tu ara,

jer gaCumdnen, bolos ki erTma zizRiT Tqva, rom xaxvs saSineli suni aqvs da didi

raodenobiT misi Wama adamians asulelebso.”

ra kavSiri aqvs am istorias kulturasTan? pirvel rigSi, is aCvenebs, rom amerikelebs

da mistekebs gansxvavebuli Sexeduleba aqvT imis Sesaxeb, ra aris sakvebad vargisi

da ra _ ara. es kulturis nawilia, ase vaxarisxebT ara mxolod sakvebs, aramed yvela

sxva sferosac. jonis zizRi gamoiwvia iman, rom misi kulturisaTvis mweri paraziti

da mavnebelia da igi, erTmniSvnelovnad, ar miiCneva sakvebad. mis mistek megobrebSi

ki zizRi xaxvis wvnianma gamoiwvia, radgan, maTi azriT, xaxvi mxolod sanelebelia da

1 mistekebi _ meqsikis erT-erT StatSi, vihakaSi mcxovrebi xalxi.

14 msoflio kultura


iseve Seuferebelia kerZis mosamzadeblad, rogorc CvenTvis _

mdogvi an pirSuSxa.

cnobili amerikeli anTropologi franc boasi (1858-

1942) ambobda, rom TiToeuli Cvengani „kulturis saTvales”

atarebs, romlis meSveobiT aRviqvamT garemomcvel samyaros

da vsazRvravT Cvens moqmedebebs. am `saTvaliT~ vxedavT

sxva kulturebs, gaucnobiereblad, vadarebT maT Cvensas da

vsazRvravT, ra aris „kargi“ da „cudi“. sxvagvarad rom vTqvaT,

sxva kulturas Cveni kulturis meSveobiT aRviqvamT. Cveni

kulturis Taviseburebebi gavlenas axdens imaze, Tu rogorc

vxedavT mas. kultura, rogorc saTvale, ganapirobebs Cvens franc boasi

mier samyaros xedvas. es magaliTi gvaCvenebs, rom kultura

gansazRvravs, erTi SexedviT, „bunebriv“ reaqciebsac ki. kveba kulturis rTuli

sistemis nawilia, is ar aris mxolod SimSilis dakmayofilebisaken mimarTuli qmedeba,

aramed aseve gamoxatavs Cvens mier SeTvisebul codnas samyaros Sesaxeb.

yvela kultura unikaluri da Taviseburia. ena da Jestebi, religia da socialuri

urTierTobebi, saqorwino da ojaxuri tradiciebi, sakvebi da dasveneba-garTobis

formebi, samuSao, ganaTleba, sakomunikacio, ekonomiuri da politikuri sistemebi,

janmrTelobaze zrunva, teqnikuri saSualebebi da teqnologiebi garemo pirobebisa

da sxva kulturebTan urTierTobis gavleniT yalibdeba. ar arsebobs universaluri

sazomi, romliTac Sefasdeboda kulturis ganviTarebis done da misi mniSvneloba.

roca sxva kulturis xalxs akvirdebi,

zogi ram _ magaliTad, Cacmuloba,

misalmebis wesi da sxva _ aSkarad

gxvdeba TvalSi, zogi _ naklebad, zogi

ki saerTod SeumCneveli grCeba. modi,

kultura aisbergis saxiT warmovidginoT.

aisbergis modeli naTlad gamoxatavs

kulturis rTul da mravalferovan

xasiaTs. aisbergis mxolod mcire nawili

(1/8) Cans wylis zemoT, wylis qveS ki

ufro didi, uxilavi nawilia dafaruli.

kulturis is elementebi, romelic erTi

SexedviTac TvalSisacemia (magaliTad,

ena, arqiteqtu ra,

ritualebi, anbani, xelovneba, sakvebi, samzareulo, samosi,

musika, aveji, samkauli da a.S.), SeiZleba SevadaroT aisbergis

zeda nawils. kulturis fundamenturi elementebi (normebi,

faseulobebi, msoflmxedveloba...), romlebic warmoadgens

safuZvels kulturis „xiluli“ nawilisaTvis, SeiZleba

SevadaroT aisbergis uxilav nawils. ama Tu im kulturasTan

Sexvedris sawyis etapze, ver Se vicnobT fundamentur elementebs,

romlebidanac xiluli nawili momdinareobs.

3. arseboben metad an naklebad kulturuli adamianebi? arseboben adamianebi,

romelTac ar gaaCniaT kultura?

15


davaleba

l Seecade, pasuxi gasce gakveTilis saTaurSi dasmul kiTxvebs. pasuxi daasabuTe.

jgufuri samuSao

l daiyaviT ramdenime jgufad da cxrilSi mowodebuli maxasiaTeblebi moaTavseT

romelime nawilSi: A-Si isini, romlebic advilad gxvdeba TvalSi, B-Si - SedarebiT

Znelad SesamCnevi, C-Si - romelTa danaxva mxolod maSin SegiZlia, Tu kargad icnob

kulturas. SegiZliaT daamatoT maxasiaTeblebi, romlebic ar aris dasaxelebuli

CamonaTvalSi.

ganixileT romelime kultura, romelsac jgufis wevrebi ase Tu ise icnobT.

daasaxeleT da CawereT TiTo nawilSi, sul mcire, or-ori maxasiaTebeli, romlebic,

Tqveni azriT, gansakuTrebiT arsebiTia am kulturisaTvis.

Tavazianoba, zrdiloba ❑ stumarTmoyvareoba ❑

saubris manera ❑ moZraobis wesebisadmi damokidebuleba ❑

sajarod gamoxatuli emocia ❑ ojaxi ❑

genderuli rolebi (socialuri

rolebis ganawileba qalsa da

mamakacs Soris) ❑ misalmeba ❑

iumori ❑ piradi urTierTobebi ❑

megobroba ❑ Jestebi ❑

presa da sxva media ❑ punqtualurobis xarisxi ❑

mniSvneloba, romelic eniWeba sazogadoebriv

da pirad cxovrebas ❑ sxvis, ucxosadmi damokidebuleba ❑

Sromis iaraRi ❑ folklori ❑

arqiteqtura ❑ religia ❑

sufra ❑ dakrZalvis wesi ❑

qcevis wesebi ❑ TaobaTa Soris damokidebuleba ❑

materialuri keTildReoba ❑ kariera ❑

ganaTleba ❑ demokratia ❑

mediis Tavisufleba ❑ xelovnebis nimuSebi ❑

16 msoflio kultura


atom arsebobs ara erTi, aramed mravali kultura? 4

kiTxva

l Seni azriT, rogor warmoiSva sxvadasxva kultura da ratom

aris isini esoden mravalferovani?

msoflios sxvadasxva nawilidan aRebuli adamianis genetikuri

masalis Seswavlis safuZvelze, biologebma daaskvnes, rom

dRes dedamiwaze mcxovrebi yvela adamiani odesRac afrikis

kontinentze, saharis samxreT regionSi mcxovrebi adamianis

genetikuri memkvidrea. zogi lingvisti iziarebs biologebis

hipoTezas da miiCnevs, rom yvela arsebuli ena afrikidan iRebs

saTaves. biologiuri da lingvisturi monacemebi cxadyofs,

rom Cven yvelas saerTo winapari gvyavs.

grafiul, klimatur, socialur da politikur

garemoSi cxovrobdnen. Sesabamisad,

isini gansxvavebulad aRiqvam dnen

samyaros, erT maneTs. zogi xalxi saTvis

ucxo adamianTa gamoCena Cveuleb rivi

ambavi iyo - maT miwa-wyalze vaWarTa

qaravnebi moZraobda, xan erTi dampyrobeli

gamoCndeboda, xan meore. sxvebi

ufro gancalkevebulad cxov robdnen,

maRal mTebs, gauval junglebs an

udabnoebs Soris moqceul teritoriaze.

es ganapirobebda samyaros gansxvavebul

aRqmas, sxvadasxvagvar damokidebulebas

erTmaneTisa da sxva xalxebisadmi.

4. ratom arsebobs ara erTi, aramed mravali kultura?

ram ganapiroba erTmaneTisagan gansxvavebuli

mravali kulturis warmoSoba?

klimatur, demografiul da sxva

cvlilebebs mohyva adamianis gansaxleba

afrikis mTel konti nentze da

danarCen msoflioSi. saukuneebisa da

aTaswleulebis manZilze adamianebi

sxvada sxva, Zalian mravalferovan geo-

17


erT-erTi ganmartebis Tanaxmad, kul tura _ es

aris garemosa da sxva adamianebTan Seguebis xerxebis

erToblioba. Tu fotoebs davakvir debiT, davinaxavT,

rom es xerxebi erTnairi ver iqneboda sazogadoebebisaTvis,

romlebsac esoden gan sxva vebul garemoSi

(tundra, stepi, tropikebi, mTa, udabno...) cxovrob dnen.

dRes dedamiwaze 7 miliardamde adamiani cxovrobs

da maT Soris ar moiZebneba ori erTnairi. Cven sxvadasxva

feris kani da aRnagoba gvaqvs, gvacvia gansxvavebuli samosi

da sxvadasxvagvarad aRviqvamT silamazes. zogs erTi

RmerTi swams, zogs _ mravali, zogs ki saerTod ar swams;

zogierTi warmoudgenlad mdidaria, zogi ki ukiduresad

Rataki. erTi sityviT, Tanamedrove msoflio uaRresad

mravalferovania, magram, amave dros, Zalian „mWidro“. mis

calkeul nawilebs erTmaneTTan akavSirebs ekonomikuri

interesebi, vaWroba, migracia, turizmi... dRes msoflios winaSe mdgari mTavari

gamowveva globaluri _ mTeli kacobriobisaTvis saWirboroto _ gadawyvetilebebis

miRebaa. mravalkulturul samyaroSi

gadarCenis mTavari gza, pirvel rigSi,

sakuTari kulturuli faseulobebis

gaazrebaa, Semdeg ki _ maTi kulturuli

faseulobebis gacnoba, visTanac gvaqvs

urTierToba. globalur gamowvevebze

pasuxis gacema moiTxovs imas, rom

viswavloT urTierToba erTmaneTTan,

miuxedavad imisa, Tu sad vcxovrobT,

romeli kulturis warmomadgeneli varT,

rogoria Cveni ekonomikuri mdgomareoba.

davaleba

1. mas Semdeg, rac kacobrioba mTel dedamiwaze gansaxlda, gadarCenis saWiroebam

kulturulad gansxvavebuli gzebis Ziebas misca biZgi. magaliTad, civi klimatis

qveynebSi adamianebi ufro Tanasworuflebiani arian, vidre tropikuli klimatis

qveynebSi. rogor fiqrobT, ratom?

2. qveynebs Soris kulturuli gansxvavebebi mravali omis erT-erTi safuZveli

gamxdara. rogor fiqrob, xalxTa Soris kulturuli gansxvavebebis gaqrobis

SemTxvevaSi, konfliqtebi aRar iqneba?

3. warmogidgenia msoflio kulturuli mravalferovnebis gareSe? miuxedavad imisa,

rom kulturuli sxvadasxvaoba garkveul barierebs qmnis qveynebs Soris, isurvebdi

erTgvarovan samyaroSi cxovrebas? ra dadebiTi da uaryofiTi mxare eqneboda mas?

gadmoeci am sakiTxebisadmi Seni damokidebuleba.

18 msoflio kultura


Cveni uaxloesi biologiuri naTesavebi 5

ici, rom Cven dnm-is daaxloebiT 40% saerTo gvaqvs

matlTan, 60% _ qaTamTan, 80% _ TagvTan da 95%-ze meti _

adamianis msgavs maimunebTan?

adamianis msgavs maimunebs Soris adamianTan genetikurad

yvelaze axlos dgas Simpanze, masTan dnm-s daaxloebiT 98%

gvaqvs saerTo; Semdeg modis gorila, romelTanac dnm-s 97%

viziarebT; orangutangTan ki es maCvenebeli daaxloebiT 96%

aRwevs.

Cven, adamianebi, sakuTar Tavs homo

sapienss (homo sapiens), anu gonier

adamians vuwodebT da vTvliT, rom Cveni

biologiuri saxeoba gansakuTrebulia

mTel planetaze. yvela saxeobas

aqvs garkveuli Tviseba, rac mas

danarCenebisagan gamoarCevs: zogi ufro

swrafia, zogi _ ufro Zlieri, zogi _

ukeT Seguebuli sacxovrebel garemosTan.

dedamiwaze arsebuli 10 milionze meti

biologiuri saxeobidan zogierTi ufro

axlos dgas adamianTan, vidre sxva. ra

aris is, rac ganasxvavebs adamians yvela

danarCeni cocxali arsebisagan?

amrigad, biologiurad Cveni uaxloesi naTesavebi adamianis msgavsi maimunebi arian.

manamdec, sanam mecnierebisaTvis dnm-is Sesaxeb gaxdeboda cnobili, cxadi iyo, rom

adamianis msgavsi maimunebi Zalian gvgavdnen, maT bevri ram SeeZloT gaekeTebinaT

ise, rogorc Cven vakeTebT, xandaxan ki _ ukeTac. eqsperimentebma cxadyo, rom maTi

myisieri (xanmokle) mexsiereba gacilebiT ukeTesia, vidre adamianisa, sagangebo wvrTnis

SemTxvevaSi, maT SeuZliaT gaigon asobiT

sityvis mniSvneloba, axerxeben ufro

rTuli iaraRebis gamoyenebas, vidre Cven

warmogvidgenia.

5. Cveni uaxloesi biologiuri naTesavebi

erTi SexedviT, maimunebisagan yvelaze

metad garegnobiT ganvsxvavdebiT,

Tumca, aRmoCnda, rom adamianisa da

Simpanzes 5 Tvis embrionis garCeva Zalian

rTulia, maTi ConCxi da guliscemac ki

sruliad erTnairia. dabadebis Semdegac

axalSobilebi erTmaneTis msgavsi arian.

19


patara Simpanzes sxeuli daaxloebiT 5 milioni Reri TmiT aris dafaruli. Tu

axalSobil bavSvs davakvirdebiT, mis sxeulzec SevamCnevT Tmas da, ra gasakviric ar

unda iyos, maTi raodenobac iseTivea, rac Simpanzis, ubralod, adamianis Tma ufro

Txeli da moklea.

msgavsebebi amiT ar amoiwureba. aRmoCnda, rom adamianis msgavs maimunebs

SeuZliaT gamoamJRavnon „sikeTe“ an erTmaneTze zrunva. magaliTad, jgufis wevrebi

TanagrZnobas iCenen brZolaSi daSavebuli Simpanzes mimarT, isini zrunaven masze,

aCveneben, rom esmiT misi tkivili.

Cikagos zooparkSi sami wlis biWi gorilebis volierSi Cavarda da goneba dakarga.

igi askilogramiani gorilebis garemocvaSi aRmoCnda. moulodnelad, erTma mdedrma

gorilam biWi aiyvana da nazad daarwia, TiTqos misiani yofiliyos. es Zalian „adamianuri”

qceva iyo, Tumca, cxadia, Cven ar viciT, ra motivebi amoZravebda am dros gorilas.

cdebis Sedegad mecnierebma aRmoaCines, rom sivrciTi orientaciis unari adamianebs

da adamianis msgavs maimunebs Tanabrad aqvT ganviTarebuli, Tumca am ukanasknelT

igi ufro adre uviTardebaT. amis axsna imiT SeiZleba, rom bavSvebi ufro metad da

didxans arian ufrosebze damokidebuli da ar saWiroeben sivrceSi damoukidebel

orientacias mtrisgan Tavdasacavad an sakvebis mopovebis mizniT.

davaleba

1. gaixsene magaliTebi cxovrebidan, filmebidan an literaturuli nawarmoebebidan,

romlebic cxovelebis „adamianur“ qcevas asaxavs.

2. klasSi moawyveT diskusia: miuxedavad msgavsebisa, Simpanze isev xidan xeze xtis,

adamiani ki kosmosSi mogzaurobs. ra aris amis mizezi? ra gvaqvs Cven iseTi, rac maT

ar aqvT? ra aris dnm-s is 1,6%, rac Cven adamianad gvqmnis?

20 msoflio kultura


a ganasxvavebs adamians sxva cocxali arsebebisagan? 6

adamianebisaTvis samyaro simboloebiT

aris datvirTuli. ras niSnavs es?

vefxvTan Sexvedrisas Svelica da

uiaraRo adamianic erTnairad moiqcevian

_ gaqceviT uSvelian Tavs (Tu moaxerxes,

ra Tqma unda), radgan vefxvi orivesaTvis

mtacebelia, romelic maT sicocxles

emuqreba. magram SvlisaTvis vefxvis

„mniSvneloba“ amiT da mxolod amiT amoiwureba, adamianisaTvis ki vefxvi, garda amisa,

Zlierebis, simamacis, silamazis gansaxierebacaa _ sxvagvarad rom vTqvaT, yovelive

amis simboloa. amitom vefxvis saxels arqmeven bavSvebs: gavixsenoT qarTuli saxeli

vefxia, golfis Cempioni Taiger (inglisurad vefxvs niSnavs) vudsi, vefxvs gamosaxaven

droSebze, eTayvanebian da wminda cxovelad aRiareben, iyeneben safirmo niSnad da a.S.

erTi sityviT, adamianisTvis vefxvi gacilebiT metia, vidre mxolod didi, zolebiani,

saxifaTo cxoveli.

Taiger vudsi

Cven, adamianebi, garkveul mniSvnelobas vaniWebT

garemomcveli samyaros yvela Semadgenel nawils _ mcenareebs

(tirifi sevdiani xea, muxa _ Zlieri), mTebs („wminda mTa“, „amayi

mTa“), mdinareebs (wminda mdinare _ gangi, nilosi), ferebs

(CvenSi Savi glovis feria, TeTri _ siwmindis...), aseve ricxvebs

(yvelam viciT, rom 13 Tars ricxvad iTvleba), sxeulis nawilebs

(marcxena xeli uwminduria, marjvena _ dalocvili), moZraobebs

(Tavis daxra mowiwebis niSania)... swored amiT gamoixateba

mxolod adamianisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli simbolizaciis, anu

mniSvnelobis miniWebis unari, rac ganasxvavebs mas yvela sxva

biologiuri saxeobisagan.

6. Cveni uaxloesi biologiuri naTesavebi

simbolo _ niSani, romelic SeiZleba

aRniSnavdes sagans, movlenas,

bgeras da sxva.

simbolizacia _ adamianis unikaluri

unari, mniSvneloba mianiWos

sagnebsa da movlenebs.

cxadia, rom vefxvTan dakavSirebuli

mdidari simbolika, ZiriTadad, im

qveynebSi arsebobs, sadac es cxoveli

binadrobs. afrikaSi, sadac vefxvi ar

cxovrobs, mis „rols“ lomi TamaSobs,

samxreT amerikaSi _ iaguari da a.S.

maSasadame, erTi da igive ram sxvadasxva

qveyanaSi, sxvadasxva kulturaSi SeiZleba

sxvadasxva simboloTi gamoixatos.

magaliTad, CvenSi eSmakobis gansaxiereba

melaa, Crdiloamerikel indielebSi _

yorani, xolo samxreT-aRmosavleT aziaSi

_ kurdReli.

iaguaris qandakeba

_ actekebis kultura

21


vefxvis gamosaxuleba Tamilebis droSaze

kiTxvebi

1. romeli safirmo niSnebi ici da ras aRniSnavs isini?

jgufuri samuSao

simboloebs konkretuli, SeTanxmebuli

mniSvneloba aqvT konkretuli kulturis

matarebeli xalxisaTvis. simboloa asobgera,

sityva, sanoto da sagzao niSani,

cifri. simboloebi erTgvari orientirebia,

romlebic adamianebs erTmaneTTan

urTierTobas uadvilebs da SesaZlebels

xdis sazogadoebriv cxovrebas.

swored amitom, kulturologiis erTerTma

fuZemdebelma, amerikelma mecnierma

lesli uaitma kulturis Semdegi ganmarteba

SemogvTavaza: kultura _ es aris sagnebisa

da movlenebis erToblioba, romelic

dakavSirebulia mxolod adamianisTvis

damaxasiaTebel simbolizaciis unarTan.

2. Tu ukavSirdeba es niSnebi konkretul qveynebsa da kulturebs?

l daiyaviT jgufebad da 5 wuTis ganmavlobaSi furcelze CamowereT an daxateT rac

SeiZleba meti simbolo.

22 msoflio kultura


aqvT Tu ara cxovelebs istoria da kultura? 7

yvelaze mniSvnelovani niSani, romelic adamians ganasxvavebs adamianis msgavsi

maimunisagan, aris metyvelebis unari, romelic Cvenma Soreulma winaprebma daaxloebiT

200 000 wlis win SeiZines. swored am periodidan iRebs saTaves Tanamedrove adamianis

saxeoba _ homo sapiensi. ena aris is iaraRi, romelic SesaZlebels xdis komunikacias,

swavlasa da swavlebas, gamocdilebis gaziarebas, TanamSromlobas.

mecnierTa erTi nawilis azriT,

adamianebis kultura, Tu ar CavTvliT

enas, romelic marTlac unikaluria,

mxolod xarisxiT gansxvavdeba zogierTi

cxovelis cxovrebis wesisagan. kulturis

mkvlevrebi am azrs ar iziareben da Tvlian,

rom adamiani ar SeiZleba warmovidginoT

ase martivad: Simpanze + ena.

adamianebi vamayobT Cveni istoriiT

da kulturiT, modi vnaxoT, aqvT Tu ara

sxva saxeobis warmomadgenlebs, Tundac

Cvens uaxloes biologiur naTesavebs,

Tavisi istoria da kultura?

istoria aris Tanmimdevruli faqtebi da movlenebi, romelTa mimdinareobis

manZilze Tavad saxeobebi biologiurad ucvleli rCebian. istoriis qona niSnavs imas,

rom jgufi/erToba gardaqmnis garemos da, masTan erTad, sakuTar Tavsac. kacobriobis

istoriis manZilze teqnikur da teqnologiur miRwevebs Tan axlda socialuri,

ekonomikuri, politikuri cvlilebebi adamianTa sazogadoebis cxovrebaSi. magaliTad,

adamianis mier mudmivi sacxovreblis agebam mniSvnelovani gavlena iqonia ojaxsa

da socialuri urTierTobebis sxva sferoebze. rac Seexeba Simpanzeebs, marTalia,

sul asiode welia, rac maT sagangebod swavloben, magram mecnierebi askvnian, rom

maT cxovrebaSi istoriuli mniSvnelobis raime cvlileba ar momxdara da isini iseve

cxovroben, rogorc aseul aTasobiT wlis win: iseTive sacxovrebelSi, iseTive,

ZiriTadad genetikurad ganpirobebuli wesebiT.

yvela cocxali arsebisaTvis mniSvnelovania momavali TaobisaTvis informaciisa

da gadacema, anu axalgazrdebis aRzrda. informacia gadaecema mSoblidan Svils,

gamocdilidan _ gamoucdels, ufrosidan _ umcross. gamoyofen informaciis

gadacemis sam safexurs. pirvel, yvelaze martiv safexurze informaciis gadacema

mxolod instinqtis doneze xdeba: magaliTad, virTagva sakvebad irCevs imas, rasac

suniT dedis rZes amsgavsebs. meore safexurze informaciis mimRebi „dainteresebulia“

7. aqvT Tu ara cxovelebs istoria da kultura?

23


misi miRebiT, informaciis gadamcemi ki „gulgrilia“ Sedegisadmi. amas imitacias an

dakvirvebiT swavlas uwodeben: magaliTad, maimuni an bavSvi akvirdeba ufross da

am gziT „swavlobs“. mesame, yvelaze maRal safexurze ki informaciis mimRebica da

gamcemic mizanmimarTulad moqmedeben: rogorc imitaciis SemTxvevaSi, informaciis

mimRebi akvirdeba ufross/gamocdils, magram es ukanasknelic akvirdeba mimRebis

qcevas da usworebs, Tu is ver axerxebs Sesabamisad moqmedebas. es aris pedagogika

da igi mxolod adamianebSi gvxvdeba. pedagogika moicavs dakvirvebas, Sefasebas da

Carevas.

katas mihyavs Tagvi knutebTan,

romlebmac Semdeg sul ufro da ufro

meti warmatebiT unda SeZlon Tagvze

nadiroba. aris Tu ara es pedagogika? _ ara,

radgan kata ar amJRavnebs dainteresebas

SedegiT. Tu knuti ver axerxebs Tagvze

nadirobas, xom ar miscems mas mSobeli

“damatebiT” Tagvs, raTa igi Tavis da-Zmebs

daewios? mecnierebs ar aqvT monacemebi

imis Sesaxeb, rom cxovelebi afaseben

Svilebis qcevas da cdiloben “wvrTnis”

mowesrigebas.

aRwerilia SemTxveva, roca Sinaurma katam daiWira knutis mier gaSvebuli Tagvi da

daubruna mas, magram es iyo reaqcia Tagvze da ara knutis „warumatebel“ mcdelobaze.

SimpanzeebTan, TiTqos, SeiniSneba pedagogikis msgavsi movlena, magram ara velur

bunebaSi, aramed mxolod adamianebTan kontaqtis pirobebSi. kidev erTi gansxvaveba:

sxva saxeobebSi wvrTna Semofarglulia, ZiriTadad, sakvebis mopovebiT, adamianuri

pedagogika ki mraval sferos moicavs. igi miznad isaxavs ara mxolod arsebuli Cvevebisa

da gamocdilebis gadacemas, aramed gansakuTrebuli niWiT dajildoebuli individebis

miRwevaTa SenarCuneba-gadacemasac.

Tumca, isic unda aRiniSnos, rom bolo aTwleulebSi mecnierebma cxovelTa Soris

qcevis iseTi formebi aRmoaCines, romlebic Zalian waagavs kulturuls. magaliTad,

Simpanzeebis erTma jgufma daiwyo ori qvis gamoyeneba kerketi kaklebis gasatexad. es

jer erTma, „geniosma“, Simpanzem moaxerxa, Semdeg ki mas sxvebmac mibaZes. sxva sityvebiT,

Simpanzeebis konkretul jgufSi gaCnda codna, romelic aragenetikuri gziT gadaecema

Taobidan Taobas. kultura ki swored esaa. magram mecnierebi varaudoben, rom

metyvelebis da sxva informaciuli saSualebebis gareSe amgvari codna aramdgradia

da ramdenime Taobis Semdeg gaqreba, ase rom SimpanzeebSi srulyofili kulturis

arsebobaze saubari jerjerobiT naadrevia...

24 msoflio kultura


ogorc vnaxeT, gansxvaveba adamiansa da sxva saxeobebs Soris, biologiuri

TvalsazrisiT, arcTu didia. Tumca swored am umniSvnelo sxvaobam gaxada SesaZlebeli

adamianis mier kulturis Seqmna. mxolod adamianisaTvis damaxasiaTebelma simboluri

azrovnebis unarma ganapiroba enis, istoriis, religiis, mecnierebis da, rac mTavaria,

axali Taobis aRzrdis, misTvis informaciisa da gamocdilebis gadacemis mTeli rigi

meqanizmebis Camoyalibeba. es ukanaskneli ki kulturis SenarCunebis aucilebeli

pirobaa.

davaleba

1. Seni azriT, Cans Tu ara adamianTa realobaSi TaobaTa Soris informaciis gadacemis

(aRzrdis) samive safexuri? moiyvane magaliTebi.

2. Seadare erTmaneTs adamianTa da cxovelTa „pedagogika”.

3. daasabuTe, ratom aris SeuZlebeli, rom cxovelebs hqondeT istoria da kultura?

4. rogor gesmis, rom axali Taobis aRzrda kulturis SenarCunebis aucilebeli pirobaa?

5. adamians, yvela sxva cocxali arsebisagan gansxvavebiT, axasiaTebs eWvi, rwmena, iumori...

Seni azriT, kidev ra Tvisebebi SeiZleba daematos am CamonaTvals? imsjele, ramdenad

aris isini mxolod adamianisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli?

7. aqvT Tu ara cxovelebs istoria da kultura?

25


8

genetika da kultura

adamianebma Seqmnes kultura da aman gansazRvra maTi unikaluroba Cveni planetis

binadarTa Soris. magram adamiani, kulturulTan erTad, biologiuri arsebacaa,

sxvagvarad rom vTqvaT _ biologiuri saxeoba. am TvalsazrisiT, igi cocxali bunebis

erT-erTi „rigiTi“ wevria. yovel saxeobas axasiaTebs specifikuri agebuleba,

garegnoba, fiziologiuri procesebi, kvebis racioni, qcevis Taviseburebebi da

a.S. yvela maTgans aqvs raRac gansakuTrebuli: kus _ javSani, spilos _ xorTumi,

Jirafs _ grZeli kiseri... adamians, rogorc biologiur arsebas, ar gaaCnia arc

basri kbilebi da klanWebi, arc maxvili mgrZnobeloba, arc gansakuTrebuli Zala,

arc fexmardoba. samagierod, bunebam mas uboZa unikaluri organo, romelmac homo

sapienss gabatonebuli mdgomareoba moutana mTel planetaze.

albaT mixvdi _ saubaria adamianis Tavis tvinze, romlis meSveobiTac Cven

vazrovnebT, uzarmazari moculobis informacias vimaxsovrebT, vwerT leqsebs,

vityuebiT, vqmniT manqanebs, vloculobT, erTi sityviT, kulturas viTvisebT,

vaviTarebT mas da Tavad vcxovrobT kulturaSi. naTqvami rom ufro naTeli gaxdes,

warmovidginoT, rom adamianma memkvidreobiT miiRo saxli, zogi ram Semata, rom

sacxovreblad ufro moxerxebuli gamxdariyo da masSi cxovreba ganagrZo. asevea

kulturis SemTxvevaSi.

adamiani orbunebovani arsebaa _ mis raobas, adamianad yofnas gansazRvravs ori

sawyisi _ biologiuri da kulturuli.

adamianis biologiur sawyiss ganapirobebs misi genotipi _ memkvidreobiTi

informaciis matarebeli bioqimiuri warmonaqmnebis, genebis urTulesi kombinacia. igi

gansazRvravs yoveli konkretuli adamianis (iseve rogorc cxovelisa Tu mcenaris)

unikalur garegnobas, agebulebas, mokled, anatomiisa da fiziologiis Taviseburebebs

(gamonakliss Seadgenen e.w. erTkvercxovani tyupebi, romelTac erTnairi genotipi

aqvT da swored amitom hgvanan ase erTmaneTs).

yoveli konkretuli adamiani ibadeba unikaluri genetikuri programiT, sadac

„Cawerilia“ misi biologiuri maxasiaTeblebis „gegma“: garegnoba (magaliTad, Tvalebis

Tu Tmis feri, cxviris forma Tu zoma da a.S.), aRnagoba (simaRle, kidurebis sigrZe,

Zvlebis sisqe da a.S.), fiziologiuri Taviseburebebi (sisxlis jgufi, sasicocxlo

procesebis tempi da intensivoba da a.S.). garda amisa, tvinisa da zogierTi sxva

organos agebulebis Taviseburebebi, agreTve biologiurad aqtiuri nivTierebebis

(e.w. hormonebis) gamomuSavebis intensivoba, romelic isev da isev genetikuradaa

gansazRvruli, ganapirobebs inteleqtualur SesaZleblobebs, mexsierebis moculobas,

musikalur, sportul Tu maTematikur niWs, xasiaTis Taviseburebebs _ guneba-ganwyobis

swraf an nel cvlas, midrekilebas ufro dadebiTi an uaryofiTi grZnobebisadmi.

fsiqologebi xasiaTis amgvar gansxvavebebs e.w. temperamentis tipebs ukavSireben.

26 msoflio kultura


qvemoT motanil saxumaro naxatze, romelic cnobil daniel karikaturist herluf

bidstrups ekuTvnis, naCvenebia, Tu rogor iqceva sxvadasxva temperamentis adamiani -

erTi da igive kulturis warmomadgenelic ki, erTsa da igive situaciaSi: erTi brazobs,

meore sruliad gulgrili rCeba, mesame tirils iwyebs, meoTxe ki xarxars.

magram genetikuri programis

arseboba sruliadac ar niSnavs

mis ganxorcielebas. esa Tu is

genetikuri niSani rom gamovlindes,

aucilebelia Sesabamisi

garemo pirobebi.

ai, arnold

Svarcenegeri. rasakvirvelia,

mas hqonda

Seudarebel aTletad

qcevis genetikuri

monacemebi. magram cudi

kvebis, infeqciebis,

mavne nivTierebebis,

momqancveli

fizikuri Sromis da

sxva araxelsayreli

garemoebebis gav leniT,

SeiZleba, igi susti da

sneuli gazrdiliyo da

kaliforniis Statsac

sxva gubernatori

hyoloda.

8. genetika da kultura

cnobilia, rom me-19 saukunis meore naxevridan

moyolebuli, adamianis saSualo simaRle mniSvnelovnad

gaizarda da zrdas ganagrZobs. mecnierebi amis

ramdenime mizezs asaxeleben, maT Soris umTavresia

kvebis xarisxis, sanitariul-higienuri da sacxovrebeli

pirobebis gaumjobeseba. es kargad aCvenebs garemo

pirobebis mniSvnelobas genetikuri SesaZleblobebis

gamovlinebisaTvis.

garemom, SeiZleba, didi roli iTamaSos ama Tu

im genetikuri niSnis gavrcelebaSi. magaliTad,

saqarTveloSi pirveli jgufis sisxli yvelaze xSirad

samegrelos mcxovreblebSi gvxvdeba. axsna Zalian

sainteresoa.

27


warsulSi samegrelos teritoriis didi nawili daWaobebuli iyo da aq malaria

mZvinvarebda. malariis gamomwvevi mikrobi, romelic koRo anofelesis kbeniT

vrceldeba, sisxlis wiTel burTulakebs azianebs, ris Sedegadac avadmyofs aqvs

perioduli cieb-cxeleba, Zlier sustdeba da SeiZleba daiRupos kidec. rogorc

gamoirkva, pirveli jgufis sisxlis burTulakebi malariis mikrobis mimarT SedarebiT

mdgradia. Sesabamisad, sisxlis pirveli jgufis mqone adamianebi ufro janmrTelebi

iyvnen, ufro didxans cocxlobdnen da, rac mTavaria, met da jansaR STamomavlobas

tovebdnen, romelsac sisxlis pirveli jgufis genebs gadascemdnen. ase TandaTan,

saukuneebis ganmavlobaSi, samegreloSi (iseve rogorc yvelgan, sadac malariaa

gavrcelebuli) matulobda sisxlis pirveli jgufis mqone adamianTa xvedriTi wili.

Jasmini

mZinare mzeTunaxavi

davaleba

rogorc ukve ici, sazogadoebebs silamazeze

gansxvavebuli warmodgena aqvT. rogor fiqrob,

ra kavSiria am warmodgenebsa da genetikurad

gansazRvrul garegnul maxasiaTeblebs Soris?

gaxsovs msoflios xalxTa zRaprebis

mzeTunaxavebi da ufliswulebi? ratom aris zogi

maTgani oqrosferTmiani da cisferTvaleba, zogi ki

giSrisTvala, Ramis wyvdiadiviT Savi TmiT?

...misi mSvenierebis aRwera eniT SeuZlebelia:

maRalia, SavTvalwarba, tuCebi iamanis elvare

sardions miugavs da tani _ Jasminis konas, _

es mzeTunaxavi Jasminia („aladinis jadosnuri

lampari“).

...mefisa da dedoflis nanatr qaliSvils feriebma

mSvenieri garegnoba daanaTles. erTma Tqva: „dae,

Seni Tma oqrosfer abreSums hgavdes“, meorem _ „dae,

Seni Tvalebi iyos cisferi, rogorc mowmendili ca...“

(Sarl pero, „mZinare mzeTunaxavi“).

Seni azriT, SeiZleba, rom mZinare mzeTunaxavisTvis

feriebs „aladinis jadosnuri lamparis“ personaJis,

mefis mSvenieri asulis, Jasminis garegnoba

daenaTlaT? ratom?

1. gaixsene magaliTebi, romlebic aCvenebs, Tu ra gavlenas axdens bunebrivi garemo

adamianis genetikur memkvidreobaze.

2. Seqmeni T sqema, romelic asaxavs Sens genetikur da kulturul maxasiaTeblebs.

28 msoflio kultura


unebrivi da kulturuli garemo: Cven rom sxvagan an

sxva dros gvecxovra

Cven vnaxeT, rom erTi da igive genetikurad

ganpirobebuli niSani, garemo pirobebis

gavleniT, sxvadasxvagvarad vlindeba. es

faqti Tanabrad exeba yvela cocxal arsebas,

adamianis CaTvliT. Tumca aq erTi „mcire“

gansxvavebaa. Tu mcenaresa da cxovelze

mxolod bunebrivi garemo moqmedebs, adamiani,

umTavresad, kulturuli garemos gavlenas

ganicdis. magaliTi uamravia: adamiani ibadeba

genetikurad ganpirobebuli metyvelebis

momTabareebma, romlebic mudmivad gada adgildebodnen, Cvili bavSvebis usafrTxod

da mSralad mgzavrobisaTvis Seqmnes sagangebo sawoli, romelic Semdeg sxva

xalxebis nawilSic gavrcelda da sxvadasxva saxe miiRo. es patara sawoli _ akvani

_ didi xnis ganmavlobaSi gamo iyeneboda CvenTanac. bolo dros, roca medikosebma

upiratesoba Cvilis Tavis uflad gazrdas mianiWes da gaCnda sagangebo safeni, akvani

sul ufro naklebad gamoiyeneba.

unariT, magram ra enaze alaparakdeba igi, damokidebulia im enobriv garemoze,

romelSic adamiani izrdeba. kultura gvaCvevs Wama-smis, Zilis da sxva biologiuri

moTxovnilebebis dakmayofilebis wesebs.

Tqven ikiTxavT, maS ratom gansxvavdebian adamianebi ase Zalian TviT erTi

kulturis farglebSic? imitom, rom, jer erTi, adamianebs sxvadasxvagvari genetikuri

memkvidreoba aqvT _ Tu bunebam ar giboZaT smena da xma, momRerali ver gaxdebiT; Tuki

sxeulis kargi koordinacia „dagebedaT“, SesaZlebloba gaqvT, sportSi gamoiCinoT

Tavi da a.S. meore da ufro mniSvnelovania is, rom TiToeuli kultura Zalze

mravalferovania. saerTo kulturuli garemos yovel calkeul Semadgenel nawils

Tavisi „mikrokultura“ aqvs: am ojaxSi adre adgomaa miRebuli da bavSvebsac amas

aCveven; am skolaSi qimiis kargi laboratoriaa da moswavleebs eRviZebaT interesi

am sagnisadmi; am sofelSi odiTganve Tixis nakeTobebs amzadeben da a.S. yovelive es

met-naklebad moqmedebs adamianze da mas unikalur pirovnebad ayalibebs.

da mainc, daakvirdiT, ramdeni saerTo gvaqvs Cven, qarTuli kulturis pirobebSi

aRzrdil adamianebs (yovel SemTxvevaSi,

did umravlesobas) _ ena, tradiciebi,

qcevis wesebi, warmodgenebi istoriasa Tu

xelovnebaze da bevri, bevri sxva...

SeiZleba iTqvas, rom adamiani

pirovnebad yalibdeba im SesaZleblobebis

farglebSi, rasac misi kulturuli

9

mikrokultura _ adamianTa mcire

jgufis (ojaxi, skola...) kultura,

romelic ramdenadme gansxvavdeba

sxva aseTive jgufebis

kulturebisagan.

9. bunebrivi da kulturuli garemo. Cven rom sxvagan da sxva dros gvecxovra

29


garemo sTavazobs. Svarcenegeris fizikuri monacemebis mqone adamiani sadRac me-

15 saukuneSi rom dabadebuliyo, SesaZloa, is didi meomari gamosuliyo, magram

verafriT gaxdeboda didi meomrebis rolebis Semsrulebeli, im martivi mizezis gamo,

rom kinematografi mxolod me-19-20 saukuneebis mijnaze gamoigones.

maS ase, adamiani genetikuri da kulturuli faqtorebis gavleniT yalibdeba. axla

ki vnaxoT, rogor „asworebs“ kultura bunebis „Secdomebs“.

kultura, ZiriTadad, Seesabameba adamianis biologiur Taviseburebebs. erTi

wuTiT warmovidginoT, rom adamians aqvs ara xuTi TiTi, aramed eqvsi an sami.

ramdeni rame Seicvleboda _ musikaluri instrumentebi da TviT musika, kompiuteris

klaviatura, Jestebi _ mokled, yvelaferi, rac xuTTiTian xelebzea morgebuli.

grZeli yurebi _ silamazisa

da socialuri statusis niSani

malaiziaSi

CineTSi qalis silamazis aucilebeli

elementi iyo patara zomis fexi. amitom gogonebs

adreuli bavSvobidan mWidrod uxvevdnen fexebs

da uviwroes fexsacmels acmevdnen. Sedegad,

terfebi zomiT patara rCeboda, magram warmoudgenlad

icvlida formas. asi welic ar aris

gasuli, rac CineTSi es tradicia akrZales.

Tumca xSiria SemTxvevebi, roca kulturis moTxovnebi

ar Seesabameba, an, sulac, ewinaaRmdegeba adamianis

biologias. martivi magaliTi: kulturaTa umravlesobaSi

miRebulia frCxilebisa da Tmis SeWra _ kultura ereva

bunebriv procesSi da cvlis mas. zogjer kulturisa

da biologiis dapirispireba usastikes formebs iRebs:

magaliTad, rogorc cnobilia, Zvel spartaSi fizikurad

sust axalSobilebs xramSi agdebdnen, radgan spartelebi

Tvlidnen, rom maT mxolod meomrebi WirdebodaT.

gacilebiT ufro xSirad, adamianis anatomiasa da

fiziologiaSi Careva misive keTildReobisaTvisaa

gamiznuli _ medicina, romelic ama Tu im saxiT yvela

kulturaSi arsebobs, sul ufro meti warmatebiT

cdilobs Tandayolili Tu SeZenili daavadebebis da

anomaliebis damarcxebas.

adamianis garegnobis xelovnuri Secvla xSirad

modiT da silamazis adgilobrivi standartebiT aris

nakarnaxevi: plastikuri operaciebi bevrgan ukve

Cveulebriv movlenad iqca. zog kulturaSi grZeli

yurebia modaSi da maT xelovnurad igrZeleben mZime

sagnebiT.

30 msoflio kultura


da bolos, zogjer bunebiT boZebuli garegnobis Secvla religiuri rwmenawarmodgenebis

gavleniTac xdeba. zogi religia Tavisi mimdevrebisagan moiTxovs tanze

da saxeze ritualuri sviringebis an iarebis gakeTebas, gavixsenoT agreTve winadacveTa

_ operacia, romelic aucileblad iTvleba iudaizmisa da islamis mimdevrebSi.

kiTxva

l mocemuli suraTebis mixedviT,

ra gansxvavebebs xedavT adamianis

biologiuri moTxovnilebis

dakmayofilebis wessa da formaSi?

Tqveni azriT, riT aixsneba es?

afrikuli sadili

evropuli sadili

Cais sma evropulad

Cais sma iaponurad

qarTuli nadimi. niko firosmanaSvili (1862-1918)

9. bunebrivi da kulturuli garemo. Cven rom sxvagan da sxva dros gvecxovra

31


davaleba

1. gadaxaze rveulSi cxrili da SeavseT adamianis Sesabamisi niSan-TvisebebiT.

genetikuri faqtorebiT gapirobebuli

niSan-Tvisebebi

socialur-kulturuli faqtorebiT

gapirobebuli niSan-Tvisebebi

2. gaixsene saqarTvelos calkeuli kuTxeebi da soflebi, romelTa mcxovrebni

tradiciulad misdeven xalxuri rewvis romelime dargs an xelobas.

3. moiZie magaliTebi, roca:

a) medicina „asworebs“ bunebis „Secdomebs“,

b) adamianis garegnobaSi Careva ganpirobebulia religiiT, cxovrebis wesiT, esTetikuri

SexedulebebiT an komerciuli mizniT.

saSinao davaleba

l dawere Txzuleba adamianis anatomiaze zemoqmedebis Tanamedrove saxeebis Sesaxeb,

imsjele mis mizezebsa da Sedegebze.

32 msoflio kultura


sicocxlis uzrunvelyofis formebi 10

warmoidgine, rom Tqven, ramdenime

megobarTan erTad, ukacriel kunZulze

aRmoCndiT, ai, aseTze.

raze izrunebT pirvel rigSi? cxadia,

sasmel wyalze. gagvimarTla! wyaro

aRmovaCineT, wyurvili aRar Segvawuxebs.

Semdegi problema _ gvSia! ai, palmebze

qoqosebia, ramdenime miwazec agdia,

`Cveni~ ukacrieli kunZuli

gavtexoT... sul arafers sjobs, magram

ufro gemrieli ram ar gvawyenda; iqneb vcadoT, Tevzi daviWiroT? gamogvivida _

napirTan ramdenime zanti Tevzi movixelTeT. magram ra, umad vWamoT? isev gagvimarTla

_ erT-erT Cvengans sanTebela aRmoaCnda _ nafotebi movagroveT, Tevzi SevwviT,

mivirTviT _ kargia!.. kidev ra? horizontze muqi Rrubeli gamoCnda, Tavsxmas

gvpirdeba. modi, qoxi avagoT _ CavarWeT paloebi, gadavxureT totebiT, sakmaod

myudro gamovida... uh! axla SeiZleba suli moviTqvaT da, maSvelebis molodinSi,

cota davisvenoT _ Cven droebiT davikmayofileT ZiriTadi, sabaziso moTxovnilebebi,

anu movipoveT is, rac aucilebelia sicocxlis SenarCunebisaTvis _ wyali, sakvebi,

TavSesafari.

cecxlis mopoveba xaxuniT

10. sicocxlis uzrunvelyofis formebi

rasakvirvelia, Cvens SemTxvevaSi

yvelaferi kargad damTavrda _ meore

dResve kunZuls qaTqaTa xomaldi moadga

da rbili loginebis, cxeli yavisa da

internetis samyaroSi dagvabruna...

Cvenma Tavgadasavalma dagvafiqra,

ram xela gza gaiara kacobriobam nayofis

Segrovebidan internetamde da ra

siZneleebis gadalaxva uwevdaT adamianebs

mTel msoflioSi, rom, ubralod, Sim-

SiliT ar daxociliyvnen. modi, Tvali

gadavavloT im revoluciur aRmo Cenebs,

romelTac mkveTrad Secvales kacob -

riobis arseboba da romelTac uSualo

kavSiri aqvT adamianis sabaziso moTxovnilebebTan

_ kvebasa da sacxovrisTan.

cecxlis mopoveba kaJiT

33


uZvelesi adamianebi Tavs daaxloebiT ise irCendnen, rogorc Cven ukacriel

kunZulze: SemgroveblobiT, anu daxetialobdnen tye-velad da moixmardnen

yvelafers, razec xeli miuwvdebodaT _ kenkras, bolqvebs, mwerebs, patara cxovelebs,

risTvisac uxeSad damuSavebuli qvis, xis an Zvlis iaraRebs xmarobdnen; avdrisagan

dasacavad agebdnen saxeldaxelo qoxebs an iyenebdnen bunebriv TavSesafrebs _

mRvimeebs. daaxloebiT 1,5-2 milioni wlis win udidesi movlena moxda _ adamianma

iswavla cecxlis gamoyeneba: jer bunebrivad, mexis dacemis Sedegad gaCenili

cecxlis Senaxva, mogvianebiT ki misi mopoveba xaxuniT an kaJis meSveobiT. Sedegebi

uaRresad mniSvnelovani iyo: sakvebis xarisxis mkveTri gaumjobeseba, saimedo dacva

nadirisagan, axali, ufro grilhaviani teritoriebis aTviseba.

amis Semdeg, milion welze meti xnis ganmavlobaSi, RirsSesaniSnavi TiTqmis

araferi momxdara, magram mere saqme sul ufro swrafad wavida win.

Subi

mSvild-isari

sameTuneo rgoli Tixis WurWeli

400-500 aTasi wlis win gaCnda Subi, ramac ufro

efeqturi gaxada nadiroba _ sakvebis mopovebis erTerTi

umTavresi saSualeba. mSvild-isris gamogonebis

Sedegad nadiroba ufro usafrTxo gaxda: cxovelis

monadireba SesaZlebeli iyo Sori manZilidanac. isriT

daWrili, magram cocxlad gadarCenili cxoveli sakvebis

erTgvar „marags“ qmnida, meore mxriv ki xels uwyobda

cxovelTa moSinaurebas. magram yovelive amas kidev 350-

400 aTasi weli daWirda.

25-30 aTasi wlis win daiwyo Tixis damuSaveba: gaCnda

mravalgvari WurWeli, SesaZlebeli gaxda produqtebis

xangrZlivi Senaxva da Sor manZilze gadatana. mogvianebiT

Tixisagan damzadda axali saimedo saSeni masala _ aguri

da kramiti.

34 msoflio kultura


Zv. w. me-10 aTaswleulidan safuZveli Caeyara miwaTmoqmedebas, rasac mohyva mudmivi

dasaxlebebis warmoSoba da gavrceleba. amave periodSi adamianma ZaRli moiSinaura da

erTguli megobari, monadire da daraji SeiZina.

Zv. w. me-9 aTaswleuliT TariRdeba dedamiwaze napovni liTonis uZvelesi nivTi

_ spilenZis samkauli, romelsac arqeologebma Tanamedrove erayis teritoriaze

miakvlies. qvis xana dasasruls miuaxlovda. adamianma pirvelad SeZlo iseTi

nivTierebis miReba, romelic bunebaSi sufTa saxiT praqtikulad ar moipoveba _

es iyo jer brinjao, mogvianebiT ki rkina.

Zv. w. me-8 aTaswleuli: mecxoveleobis

dasawyisi _ adamianma moiSinaura

wvrilfexa saqoneli _ cxvari

da Txa, rZis produqtebis, xorcisa da

matylis saimedo wyaro.

Zv. w. me-6-7 aTaswleuli _ adamianma

gamoigona guTani, mosavlianoba mkveTrad

gaizarda. gaCnda pirveli sarwyavi

arxebi.

Zv. w. me-5 aTaswleuli _ SuamdinareTSi

gamoigones borbali da

uremi. gamocxva pirveli puri. daiwyo

cxenisa da Roris moSinaureba.

Zv. w. me-4 aTaswleuli _ daiwyo

msxvilfexa rqosani saqonlisa da

qaTmis moSinaureba. indoCineTSi

mohyavdaT brinji da Saqris lerwami.

ukve Zv. w.-mde me-4 aTaswleulis miwurulisTvis, anu 5000 wlis win, gakeTda TiTqmis

yvela is ZiriTadi aRmoCena (sakvebi produqtebi, saSeni masalebi, teqnologiebi),

romelTa meSveobiT kacobriobam me-15 saukunemde moaxerxa sicocxlis uzrunvelyofa

da planetaze gabatonebuli mdgomareobis mopoveba. rasakvirvelia, siaxleebis farTod

gavrcelebas (vaWrobis, migraciebis, omebis procesSi) an damoukideblad aRmoCenas

(magaliTad, mSvild-isari an borbali msoflios mraval regionSi damoukideblad

gamoigones) saukuneebi da aTas wleulebi daWirda. gavrcelebisas siaxleebi, havisa

da adgilobrivi kulturuli tradiciebis Sesabamisad, saxes icvlida: zogan,

ZiriTadad, mecxoveleobas misdevdnen, zogan _ miwaTmoqmedebas, zogan saxlebs xisgan

10. sicocxlis uzrunvelyofis formebi

borblis gamosaxuleba mzis taZarze indoeTSi

qarTuli uremi

35


agebdnen, zogan _ qvisa Tu Tixisagan.

axal-axali aRmoCenebi Tu gamogonebebi

(magaliTad, wylis an qaris wisqvili)

xvewda teqnologiebs, umjobesdeboda

kulturuli mcenareebisa da Sinauri

cxovelebis jiSebi.

me-15 saukunis meore naxevridan iwyeba

e.w. didi geografiuli aRmoCenebis epoqa,

romelmac, SeiZleba iTqvas, „gaamTliana“

da erT sivrced aqcia Cveni planeta.

CvenTvis saintereso TvalsazrisiT, am

orTqlmavali

xanaSi amerikis kontinentidan farTod

gavrcelda simindi, lobio, kartofili, kakao da sxva mcenareuli kulturebi.

me-18 saukunis meore naxevarSi ki samrewvelo revolucia moxda. gaCnda energiis

axali umZlavresi wyaroebi _ jer orTqli, Semdeg navTobproduqtebi, mogvianebiT _

eleqtroba. TandaTan soflis meurneoba samrewvelo safuZvelze gadavida _ aSenda

uzarmazari fermebi da plantaciebi, romlebsac manqanebi emsaxureboda, ganviTarda

axali teqnologiebi _ produqtebis dakonserveba, gayinva; qimiuri mrewveloba axalaxal

sinTezur produqcias qmnida. ai, ase movediT Tanamedrove supermarketamde,

sadac, praqtikulad, nebismieri sakvebis, sasmelis Tu sicocxlis uzrunvelyofisaTvis

saWiro nivTebis SeZena SegviZlia.

kiTxva

l ukacriel kunZulze xomaldi erTi Tvis an erTi wlis manZilze rom ar gamoCeniliyo,

rogor warimarTeboda Seni cxovreba? kidev ra saWiroebebis winaSe dadgebodi?

davaleba

l eqstremalur pirobebSi aRmoCenis SemTxvevaSi, arCevanis saSualeba rom gqondes, Seni

moTxovnilebebidan da saWiroebebidan romlebs ver daTmobdi? romel moTxovnilebebze

ityodi uars? moaxdine Sens mier SerCeuli mTavari moTxovnilebebis ranJireba.

saSinao davaleba

1. moiZie informacia ZiriTadi moTxovnilebebis dakmayofilebis formaTa Sesaxeb

sxvadasxva kulturaSi.

2. moiZie informacia me-19 da me-20 saukunis im aRmoCenebis Sesaxeb, romlebic

dakavSirebulia adamianis sabaziso moTxovnilebebis dakmayofilebasTan.

3. Caatare kvleva: Seadgine (an moipove) supermarketSi arsebuli produqciis sia da

36 msoflio kultura


daaxarisxe Semdegi cxrilis mixedviT:

produqcia, romelsac

adamiani qvis xanaSic

daamzadebda (Zv. w. V-IV

aTaswleulamde)

10. sicocxlis uzrunvelyofis formebi

produqcia, romelic XV

saukunis Semdeg iqneboda

xelmisawvdomi

produqcia, romlis

damzadebasac adamiani XVIII

saukunis Semdeg moaxerxebda

37


11

sazogadoebad ganixileba adamianTa is erToba, romlis wevrebsac yoveldRiuri

urTierToba aqvT da erTmaneTis cxovrebaze mniSvnelovan gavlenas axdenen. yoveli

adamiani sazogadoebis nawilia. imisaTvis, rom icxovro srulfasovnad, gyavdes ojaxi,

megobrebi, miaRwio warmatebas, igrZno Tavi daculad, aucilebelia iyo sazogadoebis

wevri. sazogadoebis wevroba niSnavs _ gqondes am erTobis sxva wevrebTan saziaro

interesebi, faseulobebi, warmodgenebi. erTi da igive sazogadoebaSi mcxovrebi

adamianebi ayalibeben cxovrebisa da urTierTobis saerTo, yvelasaTvis misaReb wess,

romelsac kultura gansazRvravs.

sazogadoeba Sedgeba sxvadasxva asakis, profesiis, interesebis, socialuri rolisa

da statusis mqone individebisagan. yoveli maTgani mniSvnelovania sazogadoebisTvis,

radgan yvelas Seaqvs sakuTari wvlili mis arsebobasa da ganviTarebaSi. yovel

diliT, rodesac viRviZebT, viwyebT urTierTobas ojaxis wevrebTan, Semdeg _

TanaklaselebTan, TanamSromlebTan, sruliad ucnob adamianebTan, romlebic

mniSvnelovanwilad gansazRvraven Cvens yofas, imas, Tu ramdenad SevZlebT miznebis

miRwevas. magaliTad, bevr Cvengans gadaadgilebisa da yoveldRiuri saqmianobisaTvis

esaWiroeba transporti. Tu avtobusiT vmgzavrobT, mas aucileblad eyoleba mZRoli,

romelic Tavisi yoveldRiuri saqmianobiT gviadvilebs cxovrebas. Tavis mxriv,

SesaZloa, Cven gvqondes msgavsi gavlena sxva, CvenTvis sruliad ucnobi (an Tundac

nacnobi) adamianebis cxovrebaze. warmoidgineT, es yvelaferi rom ar arsebobdes,

rogori umweo da daucveli iqneboda TiToeuli Cvengani, albaT, Tavis gadarCenac

gagviWirdeboda. gavixsenoT robinzon kruzo, daniel defos amave saxelwodebis

cnobili romanis gmiri. man sakuTari miznis ganxorcieleba, anu ukacrieli kunZulidan

Tavis daRweva mxolod sxvaTa xelSewyobiT SeZlo.

robinzon kruzo da paraskeva

sazogadoeba

pirovneba, romlis usafrTxo da

stabi luri cxovrebis erT-erTi Ziri-

Tadi garantia sazogadoebis wevrobaa,

Tavis mxriv, amave sazogadoebis mimarT

garkveul valdebulebebs atarebs. Tu

individi, rogorc sazogadoebis wevri,

mova leobebs warmatebiT asrulebs,

izrdeba misi piradi warmatebis perspeq

tivac. igi, savaraudod, moipovebs

maRal socialur statuss, eqneba

kargi samsaxuri da a.S. meore mxriv,

gaziarebuli wesebis uxeS darRvevas,

SesaZ lebelia, sazogadoebis mxridan

mkacri reaqcia da sanqciebi moyves.

individs, SesaZloa, daekisros rogorc

38 msoflio kultura


moraluri, aseve samarTlebrivi pasuxismgebloba. pirveli, garkveul SemTxvevebSi,

samarTleb riv pasuxismgeblobaze aranakleb mZimea.

warsulSi sazogadoeba mkacrad gansazRvravda individis cxovrebis wess da

socialur mdgomareobas. xSirad adamiani dabadebidanve garkveuli statusis

matarebeli iyo da ar SeeZlo misi Secvla. magaliTad, batonymobis periodSi glexi

mTeli cxovrebis manZilze batons emsaxureboda da am mxriv arafris Secvla SeeZlo.

indoeTSi dRemde arsebobs kastebi, adamianebi ama Tu im kastis wevrad ibadebian da,

iSviaTi gamonaklisis garda, sicocxlis bolomde inarCuneben am statuss.

adamianisa da sazogadoebis urTierTdamokidebulebasTan dakavSirebiT, saintereso

magaliTebi moipoveba qarTul literaturasa da folklorSi. saqarTvelos mTianeTSi

sazogadoebaSi miRebuli normebis darRveva, barTan SedarebiT, ufro mkacrad isjeboda.

amis dasturia e.w. „mokveTis“ wesis arseboba. vinc ar iziarebda sazogadoebaSi dadgenil

wesebs da upirispirdeboda maT, sazogadoebisgan moikveTeboda da iZulebiT tovebda

sacxovrebel adgils. gaixseneT vaJa-fSavelas cnobili poema „aluda qeTelauri“.

aluda, romelic sazogadoebis (Temis) erT-erTi lideria, uZveles xevsurul tradicias

arRvevs da mosisxles marjvenas ar aWris. aseTi darRveva TviT aludasTvisac

upatiebelia, igi iZulebuli xdeba, Temi datovos da masTan yovelgvari kavSiri

gawyvitos. vaJas kidev erTi nawarmoebis, „mokveTilis“ erT-erTi mTavari personaJi

baxa, romelic, aluda qeTelauris msgavsad, sazogadoebis pativiscemiT sargeblobs,

kavSirs amyarebs xevsurebisadmi mtrulad ganwyobil qistebTan. am saqcielis gamo, igi

iZulebuli xdeba xevsureTidan gadaixvewos

cnobil inglisel filosofos Tomas hobss (1588-1679)

Tu davesesxebiT, adamianis cxovreba sazogadoebis gareSe

xanmokle, usargeblo da, SesaZloa, saSiSic iyos. im faqts, rom

Cven socialuri arsebebi varT, sxva adamianebTan urTierToba,

anu sazogadoebaSi cxovreba ganapirobebs. sazogadoeba, erTi

mxriv, gansazRvruli wesebis mixedviT cxovrebas „gvaiZulebs“,

xolo meore mxriv, warmatebebis miRwevisa da sakuTari Tavis

realizaciis SesaZleblobebs gvTavazobs.

kiTxva

l Tu gagCenia odesme azri, rom sazogadoebisgan gancalkevebulad gecxovra?

warmoidgine, rom marto cxovreba gadawyvite. aseT SemTxvevaSi, rogor moawyobdi

Sens yofas?

11. sazogadoeba

Tomas hobsi

39


jgufuri muSaoba

1. ra dadebiTi da uaryofiTi niSnebi aqvs cxovrebas sazogadoebasTan erTad da mis

gareSe? imsjele da Seavse T-sqema.

cxovreba sazogadoebaSi cxovreba sazogadoebis gareSe

2. imsjele andazis Sesaxeb: `Tavisufali rom iyo, kanonebs unda daemorCilo~.

40 msoflio kultura


socializacia 12

dabadebisas axalSobili ar gane kuTvneba

romelime kulturas. rogorc ici, kultura

genetikurad ar gadaecema. mxolod mSoblebis,

maswavleblebis da sxvaTa xelSewyobiT yalibdeba

bavSvi kulturisa da sazogadoebis wevrad,

kulturul da socialur arsebad. am process

socializacias vuwodebT. socializaciis

procesSi Cven vswavlobT im kulturis enas,

romelSic davibadeT, viTvisebT im sazogadoebriv

rolebs, romelic cxovrebaSi unda „viTamaSoT.“

magaliTad, gogona swavlobs, Tu rogori

diasaxlisi, da, megobari an, momavalSi, deda

unda iyos. garda amisa, socializaciis procesSi

axalgazrdebi swavla-ganaTlebis meSveobiT

euflebian sakuTar profesiul rolebsac.

ise, rogorc ufrosebi

12. socializacia

socializacia _ individis

mier kulturuli

normebis da faseulobebis

SeTvisebis procesi.

arc erTi biolo giuri saxe obis naSieri

aris ufrosze ise xangrZlivad damoki debuli,

rogorc adamianis. bavSvobisa da axalgazrdobis

periodi SesaZleblobas iZleva, momaval

Taobas gadaeces is codna da gamocdileba,

romelic dagrovilia TaobaTa mier, unikaluria

yvela sazogadoebisaTvis da maT erTmaneTi sagan

ganasxvavebs.

socializaciis procesSi yalibdeba pirovnebis

Sexedulebebi, msofl mxedveloba, gemovneba,

garemoebisa da mdgomareobis cvlilebasTan

erTad, adamiani iTvisebs axal-axal socialur

rolebs.

41


socializaciis procesi dabadebidan

iwyeba. adreuli bavSvobis wlebi yvelaze

intensiuri socializaciis periodia,

rodesac veuflebiT enas da vswavlobT

Cvens kulturaSi arsebul ZiriTad

warmodgenebsa da Sexedulebebs.

sxvadasxva kulturaSi bavSvTa

socializaciis gansxvavebuli meTodebi

da saSualebebi gamoiyeneba. gamoyofen

socializaciis or zogad tips _ formalur

formaluri socializaciis procesi

da araformalur socializacias.

formaluri socializacia, ZiriTadad,

saaRmzrdelo da saswavlo dawesebulebebSi

- saklaso oTaxebSi, maswavleblebis da aRmzrdelebis garemocvaSi mimdinareobs, mas

warmarTaven da akontroleben ufrosebi. araformaluri socializaciis dros bavSvi,

umTavresad, mibaZviT, ufrosebis qcevis imitaciiT iTvisebs kulturis normebs da

qcevis wesebs. unda aRiniSnos, rom msgavsi dayofa pirobiTia da socializaciis es

ori zogadi tipi sxvadasxva kulturaSi gansxvavebuli saxiT gvxvdeba.

yovel sazogadoebaSi arsebobs

e.w. socialuri institutebi.

esaa organizebuli jgufebi,

romlebic garkveul funqcias

asruleben. socialur institutebs

ganekuTvneba, magaliTad, uxucesTa

sabWo, policia, an, sulac, Tamadis

instituti saqarTveloSi.

institutebs, romlebic uzrunvelyofen

adamianis sociali zaciis,

sazogadoebaSi misi integraciis

process, socializaciis agentebs

uwodeben. esenia ojaxi, sabavSvo

baRi, skola, sxva saganmanaTleblo

dawesebulebebi, sanaTesao wre, araformaluri socializaciis procesi

megobrebi, samezoblo/ezo, quCa,

masobrivi informaciis saSualebebi da sxva.

42 msoflio kultura


davaleba

1. daxate wre da dayavi nawilebad. TiToeuli nawili gamoxatavs im jgufs, romelsac

Tavs miakuTvneb da Sens rols am jgufSi. romeli jgufic ufro mniSvnelovania

SenTvis, mas wris ufro didi nawili dauTme:

megobrebi

skola

ojaxi

sanaTesao wre

samezoblo

sabavSvo baRi

ezo, quCa, ubani

televizia

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Tu saWirod CaTvli, Seavse CamonaTvali.

arCevani daasabuTe.

Seadare Sen mier Sesrulebuli davaleba Tanaklaselebis mier Sesrulebul

davalebebs; imsjele msgavsebebisa da gansxvavebebis Sesaxeb.

2. dawere ese: „ojaxi _ umniSvnelovanesi socialuri agenti?“

12. socializacia

43


13

identoba

identoba (laT. idem _ igive, msgavsi,

identitas _ igiveoba) _ ama Tu

im socialuri jgufisadmi

mikuTvnebulobis gancda.

Cven aTasobiT patara istoriisagan

SevdgebiT

moswavle.

socialuri statusi _ pirovnebis

mdgomareoba sazogadoebaSi.

identoba dakavSirebulia adamianis

cxovrebaSi arsebul mTavar kiTxvebTan -

„vin var me?” da „vin varT Cven?”

adamiani sakuTar identobas

ama Tu im socialuri jgufisadmi

mikuTvnebulobiT sazRvravs. cxovrebis

manZilze am jgufebis raodenoba izrdeba.

adamians erTdroulad ramdenime identoba

aqvs, magaliTad, igi dakavSirebulia ojaxTan,

rogorc Svili, meuRle, Zma an da, mama an deda;

amave dros is, Tavis ojaxTan erTad, romelime

socialur, eTnikur da religiur jgufTan

aigivebs Tavs, romelime qveynisa da regionis

mcxovrebia, romelime profesiul sazogadoebas

da asakobriv jgufs miekuTvneba. es CamonaTvali

kidev SeiZleba gagrZeldes, an misi Semadgeneli

elementebi Seicvalos. magaliTad, qalaq romis

mcxovrebi sakuTar identobas gansazRvravs

rogorc romaeli, italieli, kaTolike,

qristiani, evropeli, dasavleli.

identoba gansazRvravs adamianis qcevas.

ramdenadac erTi da igive pirovneba erTdroulad

ramdenime identobis matarebelia, misi qceva

gansxvavebulia sxvadasxva viTarebaSi. magaliTad,

igi sxvadasxvagvarad iqceva rogorc deda da

rogorc TanamSromeli, rogorc Zma da rogorc

rogorc ici, socializacia mTeli

cxovrebis manZilze grZeldeba.

Sesabamisad, adamianis identoba mudmivad

ivseba axali „patara istoriebiT“.

kulturuli identoba individis

cxovrebis erT-erTi umniSvnelovanesi

ganmsazRvrelia. adamianebi Tavs miakuTvneben ama Tu im jgufs, romlis wevrebTan

erTad cxovroben konkretul teritoriaze, metyveleben ama Tu im enaze, aqvT saerTo

religia, saerTo warsuli. kulturuli identoba adamianebs saSualebas aZlevs

gansazRvron, vin varT Cven da vin arian sxvebi.

44 msoflio kultura


adamiani SeiZleba

ganisazRvros rogorc

arseba, romelsac SeuZlia

Tqvas „me“, SeuZlia

gansazRvros sakuTari Tavi

rogorc damoukidebeli

subieqti.

13. identoba

erix fromi, amerikeli

fsiqologi

identoba aris adamianTa

warmodgena imis Sesaxeb,

Tu vin arian isini, ras

warmoadgenen da ra

damokidebuleba aqvT

sxvebTan.

maikl hogi da dominik

abramsi,

amerikeli fsiqologebi

identoba gvaZlevs

adgils samyaroSi da

warmoadgens kavSirs Cvensa

da im sazogadoebas Soris,

romelSic vcxovrobT.

qeTrin vudvordi,

amerikeli mecnieri da

mwerali

kulturuli identoba, konkretuli faseulobebisa da normebis gaziareba

gansazRvravs imas, Tu rogor Seasrulebs individi sxvadasxva cxovrebiseul „rols“.

magaliTad, kulturebSi gansxvavebuli Sexeduleba arsebobs qalisa da mamakacis,

axalgazrdisa da zrdasrulis, qvrivisa da dauqorwineblis qcevis, Cacmis, metyvelebis,

interesebisa da saqmianobis Sesaxeb.

adamianis mier sakuTari Tavis identificirebas misi sqesisaTvis kulturiT

gansazRvrul socialur rolTan genderuli identoba ewodeba.

stili _ Cacmuloba, varcxniloba, makiaJi, samkaulebi da aqsesuarebi, romelTa

meSveobiT Cven SegviZlia mivxvdeT, rogoria adamianis identoba _ misi socialuri

statusi, religiuri Sexedulebebi, eTnikuri kuTvnileba da sxva.

45


saxaliso istoria: vin var me?!

mark tveni

tragikuli naTesaoba

erTma filadelfielma moqalaqem Tavi moikla da Semdegi Sinaarsis werili

datova:

me SevirTe qvrivi qali, romelsac mozrdili qaliSvili hyavda. mamaCemma

Seiyvara igi da colad SeirTo. ase rom, mamaCemi Cemi siZe gaxda, xolo geri _

dedaCemi, radgan is mamaCemis meuRle iyo.

Cems cols SeeZina vaJi, romelic mamaCems colisZmad ekuTvnoda, me ki biZad,

rogorc Cemi dedis Zma.

mamaCemis colsac SeeZina vaJi. igi, ra Tqma unda, Cemi Zmac iyo da SviliSvilic,

rogorc Cemi qaliSvilis vaJi.

maSasadame, Cemi coli gaxda Cemi bebia, rogorc dedaCemis, anu Cemi geris deda,

me ki, erTsa da imave dros, Cemi colisaTvis qmaric var da SviliSvilic. da

radgan romelime adamianis bebiis qmari, amave dros, am adamianis babuac aris,

gamodis, rom me sakuTari Tavis babuac vyofilvar.

davaleba

davaleba

1. moZebne 5 axalgazrduli jgufis suraTi, magaliTad, pankebis, reperebis, hipebis,

sqinhedebis da a.S. TiToeuli suraTi aRwere da axseni, rogor aRiqvamen isini

sakuTar Tavs da rogor gamoxataven sakuTar mikuTvnebulobas konkretuli

jgufisadmi.

2. mocemul sqemis mixedviT aRwere, vin xar Sen?

3. rogor auxsnidi ucxoels, vin aris qarTveli? pasuxi gamosaxe sqemiT, logikuri

jaWvis saxiT:

? Æ ? Æ ? Æ ? Æ ? Æ ? Æ ? Æ ?

46 msoflio kultura

me


civilizacia 14

gaixsene identobasTan dakavSirebuli

gakveTilis bolos mocemuli davaleba,

sadac logikuri jaWvis saxiT unda

warmogedgina qarTvelTa identoba.

identobis romeli done iyo yvelaze

farTo, romeli maTgani gaerTianebda

yvelaze met adamianTan, vis msgavsadac Tavs miiCnev? Tu imave gakveTilSi motanil

romis moqalaqis magaliTze Seecdebi am davalebis Sesrulebas da identobis doneebs

wreebis saxiT warmoidgen, aseT sqemas miiReb:

am SemTxvevaSi, yvelaze farTo done dasavluri identobaa. mecnierTa nawili

kulturuli identobis yvelaze farTo da mravali msgavsi niSnis momcvel dones

civilizacias uwodebs. am Tvalsazrisis mixedviT, civilizacia aris saerTo

14. civilizacia

civilizacia (laT. civis, civilitas, civitas) _

moqalaqe, samoqalaqo, samoqalaqo

sazogadoeba.

47


niSnebis mqone kulturaTa pirobiTi erToba. kacobrioba aseTi erTobebisagan

_ civilizaciebisagan _ Sedgeba, romelTagan TiToeuls sakuTari, sxvebisgan

gansxvavebuli niSnebi aqvs, magaliTad, droisa da sivrcis aRqma, bunebisa Tu

Sromisadmi damokidebuleba, amqveyniurisa da imqveyniuri samyaros Sesaxeb arsebuli

warmodgena, religia, warsulisadmi damokidebuleba da sxva maxasiaTeblebi.

erT mSvenier dRes rom kacobriobam gonier ucxoplanetelebTan kontaqti

daamyaros, Zalze savaraudoa, rom gaCndes identobis kidev ufro farTo done _

„dedamiwelebi“.

samuel hanTingtoni

luis henri morgani

civilizacia yvelaze vrceli erTobaa, romelsac

adamiani Tavs miakuTvnebs an, sxvagvarad rom

vTqvaT, romelTanac igi TviTidentifikacias axdens.

civilizacia _ es aris yvelaze didi „Cven“, romlis

farglebSi adamiani Tavs „Sin“ grZnobs. amave dros,

igi gvyofs Cven maTgan, vinc am civilizaciis miRmaa.

samuel hanTingtoni, amerikeli politologi

me-20 saukunis bolos, sabWoTa kavSiris

daSlisa da civi omis damTavrebis Semdeg,

s. hanTingtonma gamoTqva mosazreba, rom

dRes msoflioSi arsebobs 8 civilizacia:

dasavluri, marTlmadideblur-slavuri,

muslimuri, konfuciuri, iaponuri, induisturi,

laTinuri amerikisa da afrikuli,

romlebic erTmaneTis msgavsi niSnebis

mqone kulturebs moicaven 1 . uaxloes

momavalSi msoflios saxes am civilizaciaTa urTierToba

gansazRvravs. Tanamedrove samyaros konfliqtebi

civilizaciaTa gansxvavebulobis da dapirispirebis

Sedegia, ris gamoc maTma urTierTobam, SesaZloa,

„civilizaciaTa Sejaxebis“ saxe miiRos. s. hanTingtonis

versias didi gamoxmaureba da mwvave kamaTi mohyva.

albaT, ufro xSirad civilizaciis sxvagvari gageba

Segxvedria, romlis Tanaxmad, civilizacia ama Tu im

sazogadoebis an, mTlianad, kacobriobis ganviTarebis

safexuria. cnobili amerikeli anTropologi luis

henri morgani (1818-1881) erTmaneTisagan ganasxvavebda

civilizebul da primitiul sazogadoebebs, romelTac

1 hanTingtonis mier SemoTavazebuli am saxelwodebiT, marTlmadidebluri

civilizaciis farglebs miRma rCebian, magaliTad, berZnebi, qarTvelebi, ruminelebi

da zogi sxva marTlmadideblebi

48 msoflio kultura


civilizaciis safexurisaTvis jer

ar mieRwiaT. civilizaciis niSnebad

miCneuli iyo miwaTmoqmedebis

ganviTareba, simdidris dagroveba, miwis

kerZo sakuTrebis gaCena, qalaqebis zrda,

saxelmwifosa da damwerlobis warmoSoba,

vaWrobis ganviTareba, mecnieruli codnis

(ariT metika, geometria, astronomia)

Casaxva, xelovnebis Seqmna da a.S. dRes,

xSirad, civilizacia teqnikur da

teqnologiur progresTan igivdeba.

kiTxvebi

1. CamoTvale civilizaciebi (istoriuli da Tanamedrove).

davaleba

buSmenebi

2. romelia is niSnebi, romlebiTac kulturebi ama Tu im civilizacias miekuTvnebian?

3. gaixsene civi omis Semdgom periodSi momxdari an mimdinare konfliqtebi da imsjele

maT kulturul-civilizaciur safuZvlebze. moifiqre am konfliqtebis mogvarebis

gzebi.

4. civilizaciis romel gagebas asaxavs yoveldRiur metyvelebaSi gavrcelebuli

gamoTqmebi: „civilizebuli samyaro“, „civilizebuli adamiani“, „civilizebuli

qceva“ da sxva.

l gakveTilSi mocemulia suraTi, romelic asaxavs „primitiuli“ sazogadoebebis

cxovrebas. warmoidgine, rom xar me-19 saukunis evropeli politikosi, misioneri

an mkvlevari. ris Secvlas ganizraxavdi am sazogadoebebis cxovrebaSi, ratom da

rogor?

14. civilizacia

49


15

marginaloba

marginali (laT. margo _are, kide,

zRvari) _ Tavdapirvelad

aRniSnavda wignis gverdis kides

(arSias), Tavisufal adgils

ZiriTadi teqstis gverdiT,

romelic gamoiyeneboda minawerebis

gasakeTeblad. dRes am sityviT

aRiniSneba individebi da jgufebi,

romlebic sazogadoebis `miRma~

aRmoCndnen.

im adamianebs, romlebic sazogadoebisagan

gariyulebi aRmoCndnen, akaki

wereTeli Ramuras adarebs.

dRes aseT adamianebs marginalebs

uwodeben. es termini im individebs

aRniSnavs, romlebic, ama Tu im mizezis

gamo, ver an ar arian srulfasovnad

CarTuli sazogadoebis cxovrebaSi;

magaliTad, migrantebi _ erTi qveynidan

meoreSi gadasuli pirebi, romlebic

TavianT Cveul garemos mowydnen da

axali garemo ver gaiTavises, agreTve

usaxlkaroebi da a.S.

usaxlkaro

gaxsovs akaki wereTlis cnobili leqsi

„Ramura“? Tagvs Tagvad yofna mobezrda

da Citad qceva inatra. Tagunas survili

Seusrulda da frTebi gamoesxa, magram,

uCveulo garegnobis gamo, sxva Citebma

aiTvalwunes da iZulebuli gaxda, isev

TagvebTan dabrunebuliyo. frinvelad

qceuli Tagvi aRarc Zvelma TanamoZmeebma

miiRes. sabralo Tagunas sxva gza aRar

hqonda, yvelas gaerida da bnel nangrevebSi

daido bina. mas Semdeg igi samalavidan

mxolod Ram-RamobiT gamodis.

Sua saukuneebis xelnaweri wigni minawerebiT

marginalobisadmi interesi ganapiroba dasavleTSi,

gansakuTrebiT, amerikis Seer Tebul StatebSi migraciis

aqtiurma procesma. sxvadasxva eTnikuri warmo mavlobis

jgufebi, materialuri keTil dReobis Tu uzrunveli

cxovrebis ZiebaSi, masobrivad tovebdnen sakuTar

sacxovrebel adgils da ucxo qveyanaSi saxldebodnen.

axal garemoSi damkvidrebis procesi yovelTvis rTulia,

miT ufro maSin, roca mas Tan axlavs socialuri

problemebi: umuSevroba, socialuri statusis da

garantiebis arqona. viTarebas arTulebs isic, rom

axal adgilas migrantebs aravin elis da maTi gamoCena

damatebiT problemad aRiqmeba. swored aseTi viTareba

iwvevs jgufis marginalizacias. es jgufebi marginalur

mdgomareobaSi arian rogorc „maspinZel“, ise maTTvis

mSobliur kulturasTan mimarTebaSi.

50 msoflio kultura


individebisa da jgufebis

marginalizacia SeiZleba gamoiwvios

ekonomikuri, socialuri da politikuri

sistemis mkveTrma cvlilebam. magaliTad,

batonymobis gauqmebis Semdeg marginalur

mdgomareobaSi aRmoCndnen soflis

mcxovrebni, romlebmac ver SeZles

axal realobasTan Segueba, dakarges

Zveli statusi da, garkveuli drois

ganmavlobaSi, ver SeiZines axali.

davaleba

15. marginaloba

emigrantebi

1. gaixsene ilia WavWavaZis, daviT kldiaSvilisa da sxva qarTveli mwerlebis

personaJebi. imsjele, romeli maTgani SeiZleba CaiTvalos marginalad?

2. imsjele, SeiZleba Tu ara CaiTvalon marginalebad borotmoqmedebi da kriminaluri

jgufebi?

51


16

kontrkultura

kontrkultura upirispirdeba gabato

nebul kulturas da ayalibebs

umravlesobis kulturis sawinaaRmdego

faseulobebsa da normebs.

bevri Tqvengani atarebs jinsebs,

aqsesuarebs mSvidobis simbolos

gamosaxulebiT, biWebi _ grZel Tmas...

gifiqriaT imaze, es, ubralod, modaa Tu

raime ideis gamoxatuleba?

biTlzi jenis joplini

pink floidi jimi hendriqsi

Tqven, albaT, usmenT biTlzs, jenis joplins, jimi hendrikss, pink floids, an

1960-iani wlebis sxva momRerlebsa da jgufebs. mogwonT maTi musika? iciT raime im

ideebis da msoflmxedvelobis Sesaxeb, ramac aseTi musikis Seqmna ganapiroba?

1960-ian wlebSi dasavleT evropis qveynebi da amerikis SeerTebuli Statebi

manamde arnaxulma axalgazrdulma protestma moicva, romlis mizani kulturaSi

revoluciuri cvlilebebis ganxorcileba iyo. amerikelma sociologma Teodor

rozakma am moZraobas kontrkultura ewoda.

52 msoflio kultura


kontrkultura upirispirdeboda imdroindeli dasavluri

sazogadoebisaTvis Cveul, momxmareblur cxovrebis wessa da

msoflmxedvelobas. kontrkultura moicavda studentebisa da

hipebis moZraobas.

kontrkulturuli ideebis mqone axalgazrdebis

umravlesoba „nebiera bavSvebi“ iyvnen. kargma ekonomikurma

da socialurma pirobebma SesaZlebloba misca maT, naklebad

Sexebodnen cxovrebiseul realobas. yoveldRiuri

problemebisagan Tavisufalni, did dros uTmobdnen swavlas,

maTi uzrunvelyofili momavali winaswar gansazRvruli iyo.

SeiZleba, swored amitom, isini idealistebad Camoyalibdnen.

axalgazrdebs ar surdaT, gamoTxovebodnen bavSvobis idealebsa

da uzrunvel cxovrebas, mieRoT realuri samyaro, sadac maT

realuri valdebulebebi da pasuxismgeblobebi daekisrebodaT,

amitom maT gadawyvites, arsebuli sinamdvile TavianTi

idealuri samyaroTi CaenacvlebinaT.

16. kontrkultura

1958 wels jerld

holtomis mier

Seqmnili mSvidobis

simbolo, romelic

pirvelad britaneTSi

birTvuli ganiaraRebis

kampaniisas gamoiyenes,

kontrkulturis

mTavar simbolod iqca

1960-iani wlebis dasawyisSi amerikuli da, mTlianad, dasavluri sazogadoebis

ZiriTadi faseulobebi iyo piradi warmateba, Seupovari Sroma, drois racionaluri

gamoyeneba, efeqtianoba da sargeblianoba, progresi, materialuri keTildReoba. am

pragmatul faseulobebs da konkurenciaze damyarebul sazogadoebas studentebma

daupirispires antimomxmarebloba, altruizmi, rogorc adamianTa urTierTobis

safuZveli, socialuri da moraluri Tanasworoba, orientacia inteleqtualur da

sulier faseulobebze. maga liTad, Tu umaRlesi ganaTleba warmatebuli kari erisa

da keTildReobis winapirobad miiCneoda, meamboxe studentebis umrav lesoba swavlis

60-iani wlebis

meamboxe

axalgazrdoba

53


`mSvidoba, siyvaruli, musika, Tavisufleba, zeimi~

„Cven ... gvzaravs samyaro,

romelic memkvidreobiT miviReT,

bavSvobaSi Cven dadebiTad

miviCnevdiT amerikis faseulobebs:

Tavisufleba da Tanasworoba

yvelasaTvis.“

port-huronis deklaracia

”axalgazrdebi demokratiuli

sazogadoebisaTvis”, 1962 weli.

miznad samyarosa da sakuTari Tavis Secnobas Tvlida. es axalgazrdebi daupirispir

dnen ara socialur an raime sxva konkretul problemas, ara med mTlianad dasavlur

civilizacias. kontr kulturis warmomad genel TaTvis damaxasi aTebeli iyo

Cacmis, qcevisa da, zogadad, garegnobis gans xva vebuli stili, rac sazogadoebisadmi

protests gamoxatavda. im periodis musika da poeziac gamsWvaluli iyo kontrkulturuli

ideebiT.

„me ukve aRar SemiZlia gaviziaro amerikis _ yovel SemTxvevaSi, dRevandeli

amerikis _ morali. xval, SeiZleba, daibados axali amerika da me movindomo mis

nawilad gaxdoma, magram dRes me Cemi sakuTari morali maqvs da amerika mas ar

iRebs”, - ase gamoxatavda Tavis pozicias erT-erTi studenti.

„Cveni moRvaweoba nakarnaxevia

grZnobiT, rom, SeiZleba, Cven varT

ukanaskneli Taoba eqsperimentisa,

romelsac sicocxle ewodeba“ (porthuronis

deklaracia, 1962). „me

rogorRac vgrZnob, rom Cven arc

ise bevri dro dagvrCa Cveni ideebis

dasaxvewad“ (erT-erTi hipis sityvebi).

hipebi

54 msoflio kultura


axalgazrdebi eWvqveS ayenebdnen dasavluri

sazogadoebis unars, ecxovra mis mierve deklarirebuli

Tavisuflebis, samarTlianobisa da mSvidobis idealebis

Sesabamisad. amitom maT imedgacruebisa da gaucxoebis

gancda daeuflaT.

protestis erT-erTi mTavari mizezi iyo vietnamis

omi, romelsac studentebis didi nawili, iseve rogorc

hipebi da sxva msgavsi moZraobebis warmomadgenlebi,

danaSaulad miiCnevda.

vietnamis omi _ 1955-1975 wlebis SeiaraRebuli

konfliqti vietnamSi, laossa da kambojaSi. 1960iani

wlebidan masSi aqtiurad iyo Cabmuli amerikis

SeerTebuli Statebis SeiaraRebuli Zalebi. daiRupa

aTasobiT amerikeli jariskaci.

1945 wels, meore msoflio omis damamTavrebel

etapze, amerikis SeerTebulma Statebma iaponiis ori

qalaqis _ hirosimasa da nagasakis atomuri dabombva

ganaxorcila. es birTvuli iaraRis politikuri

zewolis mizniT gamoyenebis erTaderTi SemTxvevaa

msoflio istoriaSi. pirveli bombi hirosimaSi

6 agvistos Camoagdes, xolo meore _ nagasakiSi

9 agvistos. dabombvis dResa da Semdegi Tveebis

ganmavlobaSi damwvrobis, radiaciisa da sxva saxis

dazianebisagan hirosimaSi 90 000-dan 166 000-mde,

xolo nagasakiSi _ 60 000-dan 80 000-mde adamiani

daiRupa, isini, umTavresad, samoqalaqo pirebi iyvnen.

16. kontrkultura

alen ginzbergi

jek keruaki

poetebi alen ginzbergi da

jek keruaki, iseve rogorc

„daRlili/dacemuli Taobis“

(„beat generation“) sxva poetebi,

kontrkulturis sulier da

ideur mamebad miiCneodnen.

karibis krizisi _ civi omis periodis yvelaze mwvave dapirispireba sabWoTa

kavSirsa da amerikis SeerTebul Statebs Soris, romelmac birTvuli konfliqtis

saSiSroebis winaSe daayena mTeli kacobrioba. es dapirispireba SeerTebul StatebSi

cnobilia rogorc „kubis saraketo krizisi”, sabWoTa kavSirSi mas ”karibis kriziss”

uwodebdnen, xolo kubaSi _ „oqtombris kriziss”. 1962 wlis oqtomberSi sabWoTa

kaSirma kubaSi birTvuli raketebis ganlageba daiwyo. es iyo pasuxi 1961 wels

aSS-s mier TurqeTSi birTvuli raketebis ganlagebaze, romelic sabWoTa kavSirs

emuqreboda. krizisi 13 dRe gagrZelda. dapirispirebulma mxareebma SeTanxmebas

miaRwies. sabWoTa kavSirma gaitana raketebi kubis teritoriidan, aSS moxsna kubis

blokada, ramdenime Tvis Semdeg ki TurqeTidan gaitana birTvuli raketebi.

55


aseTi apokalifsuri gancda ganpiro bebuli iyo SiSiTa da sasowarkveTilebiT,

romelsac atomuri iaraRis gamoyenebis faqti (hirosima da nagasaki), karibis krizisi

da vietnamis omi badebda. Tumca, es Taoba atomur saSiSroebas ufro farTod

gaiazrebda. igi atomur iaraRs ganixilavda ara rogorc ubralod iaraRs, aramed

rogorc amerikuli kulturis da, zogadad, dasavluri civilizaciis simbolos. amis

gaTvaliswinebiT, gasagebi xdeba devizi _ „kultura borotebaa, sicocxle - sikeTe“,

„ukan, bunebisaken!“ bunebriobisaken swrafva gamoixateboda hipebis garegnobaSic,

protestis erT-erTi niSani iyo grZeli Tma da xazgasmiT daudevari damokidebuleba

Cacmulobisa da higienis mimarT; narkotikebiTa da aRmosavluri religiebiT gataceba

swored am „borotebiT“ aRsavse samyarodan Tavis daRwevis saSualebad miiCneoda.

1970-ian wlebSi kontrkulturuli moZraoba minelda. amboxebul axalgazrdaTa

didi nawili daubrunda cxovrebis miRebul wess da Tavad gaxda amerikuli kulturuli

tradiciis gamgrZelebeli. Tavis mxriv, Seicvala amerikuli sazogadoebac _ gadaixeda

is, Tu ra SeiZleba yofiliyo „dasaSvebi“ an „misaRebi“ da ra _ ara. magaliTad, aRaravis

ukvirda grZelTmiani da dauvarcxneli biWebi, daglejili jinsebi; hipebi amerikuli

sazogadoebis Cveulebrivi nawili gaxda. rac adre bevrisTvis Sokismomgvreli iyo,

axla kulturis Cveul nawilad iqca, metic _ moduradac ki miiCneoda. magaliTad,

musikaluri industria uzarmazari raodenobiT awarmoebda popularuli rokjgufebis

Canawerebs, imarTeboda grandiozuli rok-koncertebi, rac zogisTvis ukve

ara protesti, aramed samuSao iyo, zogisTvis _ moxmarebis sagani, sxvebisTvis ki _

mogebis wyaro.

vudstoki marto rok-festivali ar iyo, is male 1960-iani wlebis simbolod iqca

56 msoflio kultura


davaleba

1. gaixsene magaliTebi, rodesac erT dros sazogadoebisaTvis miuRebeli qceva,

Cacmuloba da Sexedulebebi SemdgomSi misi kulturis nawili gaxda.

2. Seni azriT, SeiZleba, rom radikaluri cvlileba kulturaSi kontrkulturuli

amboxebis gareSe moxdes?

16. kontrkultura

57


17

jeikob devisi

livais strausi

samosi, romelmac msoflio Secvala

jinss, romelic Taobebis manZilze ar gadadis modidan,

saintereso „biografia“ aqvs. misi „winaprebi“ warmoSobiT

italiis qalaq genuasa da safrangeTis qalaq nimidan arian. isini

„gadabargdnen“ amerikaSi da saTave daudes sruliad uCveulo

movlenas samosis istoriaSi _ jinsis Sarvals, romelmac,

rogorc amboben, „msoflio Secvala“.

sityva jinsi (jeans) italiis qalaq genuis (Genova)

saxelwodebidan momdinareobs. es qalaqi ganTqmuli iyo sazRvao

vaWrobiT. mezRvaurebs, romlebic drois did nawils zRvaSi

atarebdnen, gamZle samosi WirdebodaT. amitom mis Sesakerad

gamoiyeneboda masala, romelic Tavdapirvelad safrangeTis

qalaq nimSi, ialqnebisaTvis gamoiyeneboda. am masalas nimuri

sarJa (Serge de Nîmes) ewodeboda.

amgvarad, qsovils, romlisganac SemdgomSi jinsis Sarvlebs

keravdnen, „denimi“ (qalaq nimis saxelwodebis mixedviT) ewoda,

Tavad samoss ki _ jinsi _ rogorc ukve vTqviT, qalaq genuas

saxelwodebidan (blue de Gene _ „lurji genuidan“).

1848 wels kaliforniaSi oqro aRmoaCines, rasac cnobili

oqros cieb-cxeleba mohyva: kalifornias oqros maZiebelTa

uzarmazari talRa miawyda. san-francisko _ oqros ciebcxelebis

komerciuli centri _ xelsayreli adgili gaxda

savaWro biznesisaTvis. swored amitom, 1853 wels niuiorkidan

san-franciskoSi, sabiTumo vaWrobis dawyebis

mizniT, germaniidan emigrirebuli liob Strausi Cavida,

Tumca mas am droisaTvis saxeli ukve Secvlili hqonda da

dRes yvelasaTvis kargad cnobili livais strausi iyo. man

aRmoaCina, rom oqros maZieblebs, pirvel rigSi, gamZle

da magari masalisagan damzadebuli samosi WirdebodaT.

Tavdapirvelad strausi maT brezentisgan keravda, Semdeg

ki nimuri sarJis, anu denimis gamoyeneba daiwyo.

mkeravma jeikob devisma (warmoSobiT rigeli iakob iofisi)

denimis Sarvlebs erTi mniSvnelovani detali daumata: man

gamZleobisaTvis Sarvlebze spilenZis samagrebis gamoyeneba

daiwyo; radgan am siaxlis patentis asaRebad sakmarisi fuli

ar hqonda, livais strauss mimarTa. 1873 wels maT patenti

aiRes da aqedan daiwyo denimis Sarvlis, Tanamedrove lurji

jinsis istoria.

58 msoflio kultura


1930-ian wlebSi holivudis vesternis

Janris kovboebi swored denimis

SarvlebSi iyvnen gamowyobili. am droidan

moyolebuli, jinsis Sarvali popularuli

gaxda. 1940-ian wlebSi, meore msoflio

omis periodSi, jinsis Sarvlebi naklebad

ikereboda, Tumca danarCenma msofliom

is zustad am periodSi, amerikeli

jariskacebis meSveobiT gaicno.

1950-iani wlebidan denimi popularuli

gaxda axalgazrdebs Soris. satelevizio

programebsa da filmebSi is „meamboxe“

mozardebis simbolod iqca. swored maT

SemoiRes saxelwodeba „jinsis Sarvali“

(jean pants). Tavdapirvelad, amerikis

SeerTebul StatebSi zogierTi skolis

moswavleebs jinsis Sarvlis tareba ekrZalebodaT, magram

1960-ian wlebSi mas ukve mravali universitetisa da kolejis

studentebi icvamdnen. misi stili da forma mravalferovani

gaxda _ ikereboda moqarguli, naxatebiani da sxva saxis jinsebi.

mraval qveyanaSi, maT Soris, sabWoTa kavSirSi jinsis

Sarvali amerikis simbolod iqca, Sesabamisad, igi uaryofiTad

aRiqmeboda da misi Sovna arcTu advili iyo. rogorc amerikuli

kompaniebi acxadebdnen, isini xSirad iRebdnen werilebs mTeli

msofliodan TxovniT, gaegzavnaT maTTvis jinsis Sarvlebi.

1980-ian wlebSi jinsi ukve maRali modis nawili gaxda;

cnobili dizainerebi sakuTari markiT uSvebdnen axali stilis

jinsebs. 1990-ian wlebSi jinsebis gayidvis zrda SeCerda, Tumca,

Tu erTmaneTs davakvirdebiT, mivxvdebiT, rom amas jinsis

popularobisaTvis didi ziani ar miuyenebia.

1886 wlidan livais strausis

kompaniam Tavis Sarvlebze tyavis

patara iarliyis mikereba daiwyo.

naxatze gamosaxuli iyo Sarvali,

romelsac ori cxeni erTmaneTis

sapirispiro mxares qaCavs. es reklama

aCvenebda, ramdenad gamZle iyo

livaisis Sarvali: or cxensac ki ar

SeeZlo misi gaxeva.

17. samosi, romelmac msoflio Secvala

maRali modis jinsi

59


guruli mxedrebi

amerikaSi

kiTxva

“cota xani vimuSave livais maRaziaSi.

nametari mdidaria. imsimagre Sarvals

keravs, rum meindomo ver daxev, Tanac

Casacmavia kai.”

ucnobi guruli mxedris Canawerebi

irakli maxaraZis wignidan “guruli

mxedrebi amerikaSi”

l farTo moxmarebis nawarmidan (ar igulisxmeba mxolod

tansacmeli) Tu SeiZleba kidev romelimeze iTqvas, rom man

msoflio Secvala“?

saSinao davaleba

l Caatare kvleva (ojaxSi, skolaSi, samezobloSi, sofelSi...)

da daadgine, mosaxleobis ra nawils acvia jinsi. gansazRvre

jinsis momxmarebelTa asakobrivi Semadgenloba.

60 msoflio kultura


subkultura 18

albaT, xSirad SegimCneviaT, rom Cvens irgvliv

erTsa da imave enaze mosaubre adamianebi gansxvavebuli

formiT da sityvebiT gamoxataven TavianT azrebs,

gansxvavebulad iqcevian erTsa da imave situaciaSi.

sxvagvarad rom vTqvaT, erTi kulturis farglebSi

arsebobs gansxvavebuli jgufebi, romlebic

gamoirCevian CacmulobiT, varcxnilobiT, gemovnebiT,

interesebiT, leqsikiTa da metyvelebis maneriT,

iumoriT, urTierTobis formebiT, faseulobebiT _

mokled, yvelaferi imiT, rasac, zogadad, cxovrebis

wess vuwodebT. kulturaSi arsebul aseT gansxvavebul

jgufebs aRniSnaven terminiT subkultura.

kontrkulturisagan gansxvavebiT, subkulturis

wevrebi ar cdiloben daupirispirdnen gabatonebul

kulturas, im SemTxvevaSic ki, Tu maTi Sexedulebebi ar

Tanxvdeba erTmaneTs. subkultura cdilobs SeinarCunos

sakuTari gansxvavebuloba.

arsebobs eTnikuri, religiuri, asakobrivi,

profesiuli da sxva subkulturebi.

saqarTveloSi arsebul eTnikur subkulturebad

SeiZleba miviCnioT is jgufebi, romlebic TavianT

tradiciul cxovrebis wess inarCuneben da metnaklebad

gansxvavdebian sazogadoebis danarCeni

nawilisagan (azerbaijanelebi, somxebi, berZnebi,

qurTebi, asirielebi, udebi, osebi, rusebi,

ukrainelebi, Cexebi, polonelebi, germanelebi da

sxvebi). religiuri subkulturis magaliTia muslimi

da kaTolike qarTvelebi. es jgufebi swored imitom

miiCnevian subkulturebad, rom warmoadgenen erTiani

sazogadoebis nawils da, amave dros, gamoirCevian

garkveuli TaviseburebebiT. kaTolike da muslimi

qarTvelebis cnobili warmomadgenlebi, romlebmac

mniSvnelovani kvali datoves qarTuli sazogadoebisa

da kulturis istoriaSi, arian mixeil TamaraSvili,

mixeil TarxniSvili, zaqaria faliaSvili, memed

abaSiZe da sxvebi.

18. subkultura

zaqaria faliaSvili

memed abaSiZe

mixeil TarxniSvili

61


subkultura (laT. sub - qve, cultura -

kultura) _ sazogadoebis ama Tu

im jgufisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli

faseulobebis, qcevisa da normebis

sistema, romelic ganasxvavebs mas

gabatonebuli kulturisagan.

goTebis subkultura 1980-ian wlebSi warmoiSva

inglisSi. maTi stilis damaxasiaTebeli niSnebia

Savi samosi, Savi Tma, muqi makiaJi.

goTebis

Ceqma

ani _ maradiuli sicocxlis aRmniSvneli

Zvelegvipturi ieroglifi, romelic goTebis

kulturis simbolod iqca.

zogierTi _ pirvel rigSi, axalgazrduli

_ subkulturis warmomadgenelTaTvis

gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba

eniWeba stils, riTac isini gamoxataven

romelime subkulturisadmi kuTvnilebas.

stili gamoixateba rogorc simboloebiT,

romelsac subkulturis wevrebi atareben,

aseve CacmulobiT, varcxnilobiTa da

JargoniT, musikaluri stiliT, romlis

msmenelebic isini arian.

sqinhedebis subkultura 1960-ian wlebSi Seiqmna

britaneTSi. es saxeli jgufma misi wevrebis

mokled SeWrili an gadaparsuli Tmebis gamo

miiRo (ingl. skin _ kani , head _ Tavi). skinhedebis

stilis ganuyofeli elementi iyo fexsacmeli

`doqtor martines~, livaisis gadakecili jinsi,

kubokruli perangi da Sarvlis samagrebi .

rokerebis subkulturis

aucilebeli

atributia motocikli,

maTi stilisTvis

damaxasiaTebelia tyavis

samosi, grZeli Tma da

tatuirebuli sxeuli.

62 msoflio kultura


arsebobs kriminaluri, e.w. `qurduli~ samyaros subkulturac. misi warmomadgenlebis

ena/Jargoni, msoflmxedveloba da qcevis modelebi sagrZnoblad

gansxvavebulia gabatonebuli kulturisagan.

kiTxva

1. daasaxele jgufebi, romlebic, Seni azriT, subkulturad CaiTvleba da daasabuTe

Seni pasuxi.

2. gamokveTe subkulturisa da kontrkulturis msgavsi da ganmasxvavebeli niSnebi.

davaleba

l moiZie informacia qarTveli kaTolikeebisa da muslimebis Sesaxeb da imsjele

maTi subkulturebis Taviseburebebze. Sesrulebul davalebas daurTe Sesabamisi

vizualuri masala.

damatebiTi informacia

ukanasknel wlebSi saqarTveloSi

axal gazrduli subkultura - parkuri

Camoyalibda. is Tavdapirvelad safrangeTSi

Seiqmna. parkuri - es aris gadaadgilebis

xelovneba, misi mizania sakuTari

sxeulis SesaZleblobebis gamoyenebiT

erTi wertilidan meoremde manZilis maqsimalurad

swrafad da efeqturad dafarva.

treiseri (adamiani, romelic parkuriT aris

gatacebuli) Tvlis, rom parkuri sportis,

sabrZolo xelovnebisa da bilderingis

(kedlebze cocva) garda, gansa kuTrebul

msoflmxedvelobasac gulisxmobs.

GT Crew-s (Georgian Traceur’s Crew _

qarTveli treiserebis jgufi) veb-gverdze

treiserebi

vkiTxulobT: „parkuri arc sportia, arc

eqstremi da arc politika, es arsebobis xerxia. es aris sakuTari mTlianobis aRqma,

gageba da TanamSromloba sakuTar sxeulTan, amavdroulad, Tanaarseboba qalaqTanac.

es romantikaa, emociebis afeTqeba, vneba, moZraobebis Tavisufleba. parkuri _

es cxovrebaa. is cvlis cnobierebas da aiZulebs adamians yvelaferi sxvanairad

aRiqvas. mxolod sakuTari SesaZleblobebis SegrZneba, warmateba SiSisa da tkivilis

daZlevaSi afarToebs samyaros gagebis sazRvrebs. realobis aRqmis Secvlis gareSe

parkuri SeuZlebelia. cxovreba parkuris wesebis mixedviT aris mudmivi moZraoba da

yovelTvis mxolod swori bilikiT~.

18. subkultura

63


saxaliso istoriebi

Cven ukve vaxseneT, rom sxva subkulturebTan erTad, arsebobs profesiuli

subkulturebic _ iuristebis, maswavleblebis, maRaroelebis, Jurnalistebis da

sxva. Tu davakvirdebiT, aRmovaCenT, rom Cven garkveuli warmodgena gvaqvs imaze, Tu

rogorebi arian ama Tu im profesiis adamianebi. magaliTad, miCneulia, rom eqimebs

gaurkveveli xelwera da ucnauri iumoris grZnoba aqvT, iuristebi ki bevrs da

Tavbrudamxvevad laparakoben. cxadia, erTi profesiis yvela adamiani erTnairi ver

iqneba, magram mainc gamoiyofa Tvisebebis, gemovnebis, interesebis, qcevisa da leqsikis

Taviseburebebi, romelic ganapirobebs gansxvavebebs profesiul subkulturebs

Soris. ai, ramdenime saxaliso istoria:

J J J

eqimma pacienti kabinetSi Seiyvana da eubneba: erTi kargi ambavi maqvs da erTic _

cudi.

kargi, miTxariT.

Tqveni gardacvalebis Semdeg am daavadebas Tqvens saxels daarqmeven.

J J J

saavadmyofos eqimebi gaificnen. xelmZRvanelobam ganacxada, rom eqimebis

moTxovnebze imsjelebdnen maSinve, rogorc ki moiyvandnen farmacevts maTi

transparantebis amosakiTxad.

64 msoflio kultura


kulturis universaliebi 19

albaT, bevri Tqven -

ga nisaTvis nacnobia

„stra tegiis“ tipis kompiute

ruli TamaSebi.

isini sxvada sxva asakisa

da interesebis mqone

adamianebisa Tvis aris

gamiznuli, magram yvela

maTgans saerTo principi aerTianebs: xdeba vir -

tualur adamianTa (an adamianis magvar arsebaTa)

jgufis cxovrebis modelireba. TamaSis Semqmnelebi

iTvalis wineben (cxadia, gamar tivebuli saxiT) nebismieri

sazogadoebis arse bobisaTvis aucilebel elementebs

_ sakvebs, sacxovriss, fuls, sabrZolo Tu

samuSao iaraRebs, satransporto saSualebebs da

a.S., anu garkveul resur sebs, romelTac gankargavs

moTa maSe (da rac ukeTesad akeTebs amas, miT maRalia

TamaSSi miRweuli Sedegi).

adamianebi moipoveben da gankargaven resursebs,

qmnian wesebsa da kanonebs, swavloben da aswavlian,

Sromoben da isveneben, ikvleven samyaros, qorwindebian

da bavSvebs zrdian, yiduloben da yidian, ibrZvian da

Tavs icaven, loculoben da msxverpls wiraven, Txzaven

ambebs da xataven... yovelive CamoTvlils, ama Tu im

formiT, uklebliv yvela kulturaSi vxvdebiT, Tumca,

rasakvirvelia, Zalian gansxa vebuli saxiT.

amrigad, sxvadasxva kulturebs Soris garkveuli saerTo elementebi ikveTeba,

rom lebic yvela an TiTqmis yvela sazogado ebisaTvis aris damaxasiaTebeli. maT kulturis

universaliebs (laTinuri sityvidan „universalis“ _ saerTo, sayovelTao)

uwo deben. ar arsebobs kultura, romelsac ar aqvs ena gramatikuli struqturiT,

ojaxis esa Tu is forma, bavSvebze zrunvis sistema. yvela kulturaSi arsebobs

socialuri institutebi _ adamianis cxovrebis raime sferos mosawes rigeblad

gamomuSavebuli kanonebisa Tu tradiciebis erToblioba. institutebia, magaliTad,

qorwineba (ra asakidanaa daSvebuli, visTan SeiZleba daojaxeba da a.S.), religia

(misi adgili sazogadoebaSi, ritualebi da a.S.), sakuTrebis formebi (kerZo, saTemo,

saxelmwifo da a.S.), marTvis da Zalauflebis sistema (beladi, mefe, uxucesTa sabWo,

arCeviTi parlamenti da a.S.). xsenebuli institutebi yvela kulturaSia da, amgvarad,

universaliebis ricxvs miekuTvneba (Tumca arsebobs institutebi, romlebic

universaluri ar aris, magaliTad, Tamadis instituti qarTul kulturaSi). garda

19. kulturis universaliebi

qarTuli qorwili

induri qorwili

65


qarTuli taZari

meCeTi

sinagoga

amisa, universaliebia xelovneba, TamaSi, samkauli,

higienis wesebi da sxva, romelTa umravlesobasac sxva

gakveTilebSi mokled gavecnobiT.

TamaSi

ojaxi

66 msoflio kultura


kiTxva

l rogor fiqrob, aris Tu ara „iavnana“ kulturis universalia? moiZie sxvadasxva

xalxis „iavnana“ da imsjele, erTi da igive funqciis garda, aqvT Tu ara maT raime

saerTo?

davaleba

l Seadgine socialuri institutebis CamonaTvali or svetad: erT svetSi daajgufe

universaluri institutebi, meoreSi ki - erTi an ramdenime kulturisaTvis

damaxasiaTebeli niSnebi.

19. kulturis universaliebi

67


20

zRapari

iyo da ara iyo ra...

sadRac iyo da Tan ar iyo...

iyo da aris zRapris samyaro, sadac yovelTvis

yvelaferi kargad mTavrdeba.

Tumca Cven Tavidan daviwyoT:

iyo da ara iyo ra... iyo dedamiwaze xalxi, romelsac

ar Seuqmnia saxelmwifo, ar hqonia damwerloba, borbali,

rogorc gadaadgilebisa da gadazidvis saSualeba...

magram zRapari TiTqmis yvela xalxs aqvs.

zRapari _ erTi SexedviT, bavSvebisaTvis gankuTvnili,

saxaliso da Wkvianuri ararealuri ambavi - adamianis

fantaziis nayofia, romelic erT-erT umniSvnelovanes

nacarqeqia

sakacobrio universaliad miiCneva. sulxan-saba

orbelianis ganmartebiT, zRapari “ars mogonebul

tyuili ambavad SemWevrebuli da ara qmnili myofobiT“.

zRapari Zalze Zvelia, zRaprebs yvebodnen

manam, sanam adamiani weras iswavlida. is xalxuri

mfrinavi xaliCa

zepirsityvierebis umniSvnelovanesi nawilia. mravali aseuli wlis ganmavlobaSi es

fantastikuri moTxrobebi, romelTa idea, Tematika, siuJeti, Txrobis stili, enobrivi

Taviseburebebi kargad asaxavs misi Semqmneli xalxis yofasa da istorias, zepirad

gadaecemoda Taobidan Taobas, gadadioda xalxidan xalxSi, kulturidan kulturaSi.

qarTulma xalxurma zepirsityvierebam uamravi zRapari Semoinaxa. ra Tqma

unda, pirvandeli saxiT maT Cvenamde ar mouRweviaT; Tormeti qarTuli zRapari

pirvelad me-17 saukuneSi Cauweria italiel misioner bernarde neapolels,

romelic orjer iyo saqarTveloSi.

amirani, kopala, pirquSi, samzevari, nacarqeqia, komble, wiqara Tu xuTkunWula

_ ai, qarTuli xalxuri zRapris gmirebi, romelTa istoriebi uxsovari droidan

Taobidan Taobas gadaeca, uamravjer gadakeTda da dRemde moaRwia. nacarqeqia

zRapris erT-erTi yvelaze popularuli gmiria saqarTveloSi _ zarmaci da uqnara,

magram, amave dros, moxerxebuli da gonieri adamiani, romelic gamWriaxobiT aRwevs

sawadels. gagaxsendaT CvenSi farTod gavrcelebuli gamoTqma _ „niWieria, magram

zarmaci“? iqneb, amitom mogvwons ase nacarqeqia? meore mxriv, aseve popularuli

gmiria komble _ Sromismoyvare, patiosani, amasTan erTad, uSiSari da samarTliani.

zRapars, ambis zepir gadacemas, rogorc tradicias, zogierTi sazogadoebisaTvis

gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba aqvs. zog afrikul tomSi ojaxis ufrosi mamakaci

yovel saRamos cecxlis garSemo krebda mTel ojaxs da zepiri Txrobis saSualebiT

gadascemda informacias maTi tomis Sesaxeb: uambobda tradiciebze, Cvevebze,

ojaxze... es iyo bavSvebis socializaciis, sazogadoebis srulfasovan wevrad

Camoyalibebis saSualeba. zRapris moyolis tradicia iTavsebda skolis, ganaTlebis

gadacema-miRebis funqcias.

68 msoflio kultura


zRapris meSveobiT socializaciis tradicia

mxolod udamwerlobo xalxebSi ar arsebula. zRaparma

damwerlobis arsebobis pirobebSic SeinarCuna

Tavisi funqcia da tradicia. magaliTad, msoflio

literaturis erT-erTi Sedevri _ „aTas erTi Rame“

_ xatovnad da sainteresod gviambobs aRmosavluri

muslimuri samyaros msoflmxedvelobaze, zne-

Cveulebebze, adamianTa urTierTobaze, cxovrebis

wesze. es aris aRmosavluri kulturis jadosnuri

sarke da visac es kultura ainteresebs, masSi

aucileblad unda Caixedos.

20. zRapari

aTas erTi Rame

zRapari sazogadoebis mudmivi Tanamgzavri iyo,

droTa ganmavlobaSi icvleboda zRapris motivebi,

siuJetebi, forma. igi gadadioda xalxidan xalxSi,

qveynidan qveyanaSi. mogzaurebi, vaWrebi, elCebi sakuTar

qveyanaSi dabrunebis Semdeg ucxo qveynis zRaprebs saxuravis binadari karlsoni

yvebodnen. arsebobs e.w. moaruli siuJetebic, romlebic

sxvadasxva xalxis zRaprebSi gvxvdeba da, rogorc fiqroben, erTmaneTisagan

damoukideblad gaCnda. aseTia, magaliTad, ukvdavebis maZiebelTa ambebi, boroti

dedinacvlebis, keTili jadoqrebis da sxva istoriebi.

bevri ram, rac zRaparSi ocnebisa da fantaziis saxiT aisaxeboda, droTa

ganmavlobaSi realobad iqca: mfrinavi xaliCa, wyliT savse Tasi, romlis saSualebiTac

nebismieri adgilis danaxva SeiZleboda, jadosnuri sarke _ isini TviTmfrinavad,

televizorad Tu kompiuterad mogvevlina.

ganurCevlad misi warmoSobis adgilisa, zRapari erTnairad sayvarelia yvelasaTvis.

aRmosavluri zRapris zogi personaJi _ aladini, jini da sxva _ uolt disneis

multiplikaciuri filmebis erT-erTi yvelaze popularuli gmirebi gaxdnen. zRaprebi

dResac iqmneba. albaT, ar gagiWirdeba Tanamedrove qarTveli da ucxoeli mwerlebis

zRaprebis gaxseneba, romelTac siamovnebiT kiTxuloben bavSvebica da ufrosebic.

yvelaze mTavari ki is aris, rom zRapris bolo keTilia _ sikeTe yovelTvis

amarcxebs borotebas.

Wiri iqa, lxini aqa,

qato iqa, fqvili aqa...

davaleba

1. daasaxele msoflioSi cnobili mezRapreebi da maTi nawarmoebebi.

2. gaixsene qarTuli da sxva xalxTa zRaprebi. imsjele maTi msgavsebisa da gansxvavebis

Sesaxeb.

saSinao davaleba

l moiZie qarTuli xalxuri da Tanamedrove zRaprebis TiTo nimuSi. warudgine klass

da imsjele, rogor asaxavs isini sazogadoebisaTvis mniSvnelovan sakiTxebs.

69


21

magia

magia (berZ. magia, laT. magic, magia)

_ codna da praqtika, romelic

emyareba zebunebrivi Zalebis Tu

garkveuli qmedebebis meSveobiT

sasurveli Sedegis miRwevis

rwmenas.

CvenSi, roca nacnobs vxvdebiT da

vekiTxebiT _ „rogor xar?“, Zalian

iSviaTad gvpasuxoben „kargad“, an

„mSvenivrad“; gacilebiT xSirad

gaigebT: „ise, ra...“, „vcocxlob

jerjerobiT...“, ukeTes SemTxvevaSi ki

_ „ara miSavs“, „normalurad...“ ratom?

nuTu saqarTveloSi ase cotaa is, vinc

„kargadaa“? Turme, saqme sul sxva ramaa. es uZvelesi rwmenis gadmonaSTia: Tu ityvi,

rom kargad xar, SeniT boroti sulebi „dainteresdebian“, „daiTarsebi“, „Tvali

gecema“, mokled, kargad iyavi da cudad gaxdebi... gamodis, rom Cveni pasuxiT Tavs

vicavT avi Zalebisagan, „vatyuebT“ maT _ xom xedavT, isedac ar var kargad, Tqveni

Careva aRar aris saWiro...

ra Tqma unda, dRes ase cota Tu fiqrobs, magram am Cveulebis warmoSoba

swored aseTia _ igi dacviT magias ukavSirdeba. magias miakuTvneben mravalferovan

simbolur qmedebebs (Selocvebs, mkiTxaobas, zurgsukan gadafurTxebas, TiTebis

gadajvaredinebas da a.S.), romlebsac adamianebi mimarTaven zebunebrivi Zalebis

meSveobiT raRac miznis misaRwevad, magaliTad, axal mTvares fuli unda „daanaxo“,

baraqa mogiva. magias miekuTvneba agreTve garkveuli qmedebisagan Tavis Sekaveba _

magaliTad, saxlSi ar daustvino, fuli aRar geqneba.

magiis Cvens droSic bevrs sjera, magram mainc gacilebiT naklebs, vidre es warsulSi

iyo. aravin icis, sad da rodis mimarTes pirvelad Cvenma winaprebma magiur qmedebebs.

SeiZleba vivaraudoT, rom es moxda maSin, roca adamianma iaraRebis damzadeba daiwyo

da, Sesabamisad, gaiazra, ra aris keTeba. kaJis natexisagan SeiZleba dana daamzado,

magram TavisTavad es ar xdeba, aucilebelia adamiani, gamkeTebeli. aqedan Sors aRaraa

daskvnamde _ rac garSemo arsebobs da xdeba _ xe, wvima, avadmyofoba _ yvelaferi

viRacis mieraa gakeTebuli an keTdeba. vin akeTebs? _ uxilavi Zalebi, keTili an

boroti sulebi...

warmovidginoT: tomis saukeTeso monadire dasneulda, masSi borotma sulma

daisadgura... mTeli tomi Sekrebilia da sinanuliT uyurebs, rogor sustdeba da

uZlurdeba maTi TanamoZme; erTi CurCuls iwyebs: „gamokeTdi!“, „adeqi!“, mas meore

ayveba, mesame, meoTxe; CurCuls SeZaxilebi cvlis, isini riTmuli xdeba, amas taSi

emateba... ase grZeldeba didxans, da hoi, saocrebav! _ sneulma Tvali gaaxila,

Semdeg wamodga kidec, ganikurna! Cvenma qmedebam gankurna! momavalSic ase unda

moviqceT! magram... Semdeg sneuls ver vuSveleT... ratom? Zalian mZlavri avi suli

aRmoCnda, anda araswor sityvebs vambobdiT, unda SevcvaloT... albaT, daaxloebiT

amgvarad iSva samkurnalo magia.

70 msoflio kultura


Zveli samyaroSi arsebuli warmodgeniT, magi

_ jadoqari, saswaulmoqmedi _ sulebis idumal

samyarosTan kavSiris xelovnebas flobda. igi, amave

dros, mkurnalic iyo. Sua saukuneebis evropaSi magia

alqimiasa da astrologiasTan iyo dakavSirebuli

da idevneboda eklesiis mier. jadoqrebs sastikad

uswordebodnen, koconze wvavdnen. magias ar aRiarebs

arc erTi didi religia.

mecnierebi magias uZveles rwmena-warmodgenaTa

sistemad miiCneven. isini ganasxvaveben magiis or

ZiriTad tips. erTi dafuZnebulia msgavs sagnebs

Soris idumali kavSiris arsebobis rwmenaze. „tom

soieris TavgadasavalSi“ aris aseTi epizodi: toms

aqvs minis ori burTula, erTi uvardeba da ver

poulobs; maSin meore burTulas ramdenjerme agdebs

Zirs _ Tavis „megobarTan“ migordebao; meoTxe Tu

mexuTe jerze SemTxveviT marTlac ase xdeba, rac

toms arwmunebs arCeuli xerxis sisworeSi. an aviRoT

e.w. mtruli magiis gavrcelebuli rituali: unda

gaakeTo Tojina, mas mtris saxeli „daarqva“, Semdeg

ki nemsiT „gangmiro“ _ mters igive daemarTeba.

magiis meore tipi uSvebs kavSirs mTelsa da mis

nawils Soris. bayayi Tu mokali, wvima wamova, radgan

bayayi wyalSi cxovrobs, misi „nawilia“, nawilze

zemoqmedeba ki mTelzec aisaxeba. sasiyvarulo magiur

ritualebSi Seyvarebulis „mosazidad“ Zalian xSirad

gamoiyeneba misi kuTvnili raime nivTi, Tundac

Rili. Zveli romaelebi saidumlo adgilas saTuTad

inaxavdnen moWril frCxilebsa da Tmebs, raTa xelSi

ar CavardnodaT mtrebs, romlebsac SeeZloT magiis

meSveobiT patronisaTvis zianis miyeneba.

21. magia

hekate _ magiis qalRmerTi

berZnul mTologiaSi

magiuri rituali

saukuneebisa da aTaswleulebis manZilze magia viTardeboda da rTuldeboda,

Cndebodnen magiis „specialistebi“ _ mkiTxavebi, naTelmxilvelebi, grZneulebi,

Samanebi... magia yvela kulturaSi gvxvdeba, Tumca Zalze gansxvavebuli formebiT.

SeiZleba iTqvas, rom kacobriobis ganviTarebis xangrZlivi periodis manZilze swored

magia warmoadgenda samyaros axsnis ZiriTad princips; yvelaferi arsebuli, adamianis

CaTvliT, gagebuli iyo rogorc uxilavi, keTili da boroti Zalebis moqmedebis

asparezi. magiis wiaRSi TandaTan warmoiSva kulturis umniSvnelovanesi elementebi

_ religia da xelovneba.

71


cimbireli Samani

damatebiTi informacia

sityva „Samani“ tungusuri enidan 1 modis, rac

qarTulad saswaulmoqmeds niSnavs. Samani magic iyo da

eqimbaSic. igi mkurnalobda, amave dros, zebunebriv

ZalebTan urTierTobis meSveobiT, aTvinierebda

stiqiebs, micvalebulTa sulebi gadahyavda sxva

samyaroSi da a.S.

kiTxva

l ras efuZneba magiaSi samyaros axsna?

davaleba

l gaixsene SenTvis cnobili sxvadasxva crurwmena

(gagonili, nanaxi an wignSi wakiTxuli), ucnauri

Cveulebebi da qmedebebi. scade daakavSiro isini

magiasTan da axsna maTi Tavdapirveli arsi.

qarTuli xalxuri Selocvebi magiuri Zalis rwmenis erT-erTi gamoxatulebaa.

maTi meSveobiT cdilobdnen xifaTis Tavidan acilebas, avadmyofis gankurnebas,

bunebis Zalebze zemoqmedebas. ai, ramdenime nimuSi:

surdos anu, rogorc mas uwodebdnen, „crintas“ dros avadmyofs gamdinare wyalSi

daabaninebdnen pirs da ulocavdnen:

crinta Savkar, SavpaWiWe,

Savsa ZaRlsa gadavkide.

ZaRli gaRma gamivarda,

surdo wyalSi Camivarda.

SeSinebulis locva aseTi iyo:

alisasa, malisasa,

Sagilocav gulisasa.

gulo, dadeg alagasa,

gulo, gulis alagasa.

gulo, ram SagaSinao? _

elvam SagaSinao,

Weqam SagaSinao,

1 tungusuri ena alTaur enaTa jgufs miekuTvneba. aerTianebs aRmosavleT cimbirSi da manjuriaSi

mcxovreb sxvadasxva xalxebs.

72 msoflio kultura


nadirma SagaSinao,

kacma SagaSinao,

Tu ramac SagaSinao.

wyali midgeba-modgeba,

Tavis nadgomze dadgeba.

gulo, dadeg alagasa,

gulo, gulis alagasa.

nadirisagan dasacavad ase Seulocavdnen:

qriste RmerTo,

Camoyare klikiteni rkinisani,

gzani Sakren savalada

tyisani da mindvrisani.

nadirs misceno

muxlni nabdisani,

Tvalni miscen bambisani,

kbilni miscen sanTlisani,

miadgas kbili _ SeeJRaloso,

gaxedos _ vera naxoso.

esremc Saikvris nadiris pirio.

sxva bevri saintereso Selocva SeiZleba amoikiTxoT wignSi „gvel movkal

uflisaTvis. qarTuli Selocvebi“. Tbilisi, gamomcemloba „ilia“, 1993.

21. magia

73


22

miTi

termini miTi, ufro zustad ki _

miTosi, berZnuli warmoSobisaa da

aRniSnavs sityvas, naTqvams, ambavs.

zevsi

poseidoni

anubisi _ sikvdilis RmerTi

Zv. egvipteSi. xSirad

gamoisaxeboda ZaRlis an turis

TaviT.

adamiani yovelTvis cdilobda da

cdilobs axsnas samyaro, bunebrivi

movlenebi Tu socialuri realoba,

romelSic mas uxdeba cxovreba.

ratom gaCnda samyaro? vin, ram da rogor Seqmna

igi? ratom Tovs? ratom wvims? sad Cadis mze?

ratom Ramdeba? ratom cimcimebs varskvlavi? es im

kiTxvebis mcire CamonaTvalia, romelzec adamianma,

uZvelesi droidan dRemde, mravali gansxvavebuli

pasuxi moZebna _ zebunebriv ZalebTan dakavSirebuli

Tu mecnieruli. swored interesi, cnobismoyvareoba

gaxda miTis Seqmnis safuZveli. TiTqmis yvela

kulturaSi arsebobs miTi, rogorc samyaros axsnis

erT-erTi forma.

miTosi aris ambavi RmerTebis saqmianobis Sesaxeb.

masSi moTxrobilia, rogor Seiqmna samyaro, rogor gaCnda

esa Tu is sagani da movlena, ratom, risTvis da vin Seqmna

adamiani. igi aseve gadmogvcems gmirebis ambebs. miTSi

moqmedi pirebi, RmerTebTan erTad, adamianebic arian.

Tavis mxriv, RmerTebs adamianuri Tvisebebi axasiaTebT,

arian borotebi da keTilebi, zogjer Surianebi da

xarbebic. isini arseboben rogorc adamianebi da maTgan

mxolod ori TvisebiT gansxvavdebian _ ukvdavebiTa da

zebunebrivi ZaliT.

Zveli samyaros xalxebis istoriis gacnobisas iseTi

STabeWdileba rCeba, TiTqos adamianebi da RmerTebi

erTad cxovrobdnen da eWvic ar gvepareba, rom, Tuki

„drois manqaniT“ Zvel saberZneTSi movxvdebiT, iseve

SesaZlebelia sadme zevss an poseidons gadaveyaroT,

rogorc aTenis romelime moqalaqes.

egviptis Zveli istoria erT mTlian miTs gavs,

romelSic realoba da fantazia erTmaneTTanaa

Serwymuli. rom ara piramidebi, samarxebi, taZris

nangrevebi da, rac mTavaria, warwerebi, Zveli

egviptis istoria miTadve darCeboda, iseve rogorc

troa hainrix Slimanis aRmoCenebamde.

74 msoflio kultura


asteti _ siyvarulisa da

mxiarulebis qalRmerTi

Zv. agvipteSi. gamosaxaven

katis an katisTaviani

qalis saxiT.

miTebze saubrisas, pirvel rigSi, Zveli berZnuli

miTebi gvaxsendeba da arcTu usafuZvlod _ maT klasikur

miTebs uwodeben. Tumca miTi iseTive universaliaa,

rogorc zRapari. erTi SexedviT, miTi da zRapari erTsa

da igives _ ararealur ambavs _ gulisxmobs, Tumca maT

Soris didi sxvaobaa. adamianebs imTaviTve swamdaT, rom

zRaparSi moTxrobili ambavi arasdros momxdara, xolo

miTSi gadmocemuli istoriisa ki sjerodaT. SeiZleba,

Cven dRes zRaprad CavTvaloT aqilevsis, herakles,

aTenas, gilgameSis, enqidus, dalis, oCopintres, amiranis

da sxvaTa miTebi, magram im dros, rodesac es miTebi

iqmneboda, isini mWidrod iyo dakavSirebuli rwmenasTan

da religiur warmodgenebTan, asaxavda samyaros Sesaxeb

arsebul codnas. miTosuri samyaros realurobaSi

eWvi aravis Sehqonda. dResac arsebobs sazogadoebebi,

romelTa cxovrebis wess miTosuri warmodgenebi

gansazRvravs. xalxur zRaparSi ar aris dakonkretebuli

dro da adgili, sadac moqmedeba xdeba, miTSi ki

piriqiT: berZnuli panTeonis RmerTebi olimpos mTaze

cxovroben, promeTe/amirani kavkasionzea mijaWvuli da

a.S. Tu miTi qarTulia, moqmedebac saqarTveloSi xdeba,

Tu Suamdinaruli _ SuamdinareTSi da a.S.

22. miTi

hadesi da persefone

sizife

amoni _ mzis RmerTi Zv.

egvipteSi

75


odini da misi coli friga

odini _ skandinaviuri miTologiis

uzenaesi RvTaeba, sibrZnis,

poeziis, magiis, omisa da sikvdilis

RmerTi _ vazgardSi, valaskalfis

sasaxleSi cxovrobda. aqedan igi

Tvals adevnebda, Tu ra xdeboda

skandinaviis cxra qveyanaSi. drodadro

saxecvlili odini dedamiwas

stumrobda, raTa enaxa, Tu rogor

iqceoda xalxi da ras ambobdnen

adamianebi mis Sesaxeb.

qarTul zRaprebsa da miTebSi asaxulia, Tu rogor aRiqvamdnen qarTvelebi

samyaros: qarTuli warmodgeniT, samyaro vertikalur sivrces warmoadgens da

dayofialia sam nawilad: skneli, romelic dasaxlebulia adamianebiT, zeskneli

_ RmerTebisa da fantastikuri arsebebis samflobelo _ da qveskneli, romlis

binadarnic boroti arsebebi arian. samyaros am sam nawils Soris moZraoba mxolod

da mxolod RvTaebebs, RmerTkacebs da gmirebs SeuZliaT.

amgvarad, miTi mxolod fantastikuri ambavi ar aris. es gaxlavT adamianTa warmodgena

warsulisa da momavlis, samyaros warmoSobisa da cxovrebis kanonzomierebaTa

Sesaxeb. es kiTxvebi, romlebze pasuxic miTis meSveobiT gaicemoda, universaluria

yvela kulturisaTvis, swored amitom miiCneva miTi kulturul universaliad.

miTologiam didi gavlena moaxdina xelovnebis TiTqmis yvela dargze. sxvadasxva

miTosuri siuJeti xSiradaa gamoyenebuli saxviT xelovnebaSi, musikaSi, TeatrSi,

kinoxelovnebasa Tu literaturaSi.

davaleba

1. gaixsene naxatebze gamosaxul personaJebTan dakavSirebuli miTebi.

2. venis diagramis gamoyenebiT, erTmaneTs Seadare miTi da zRapari.

saSinao davaleba

1. moiZie sxvadasxva xalxTa miTebi samyaros Seqmnis Sesaxeb da Seadare isini erTmaneTs.

2. Seasrule naxati, aplikacia, posteri an mxatvruli Canaxati miTosur Tematikaze

(miTiuri gmiri, saintereso epizodi da sxva).

76 msoflio kultura


eligia 23

yvela kulturaSi arsebobs rwmena-

warmodgenebi zebunebrivi Zalebis Sesaxeb,

romlebic SegviZlia gavaerTianoT

terminiT religia.

23. religia

religia _ warmodgenaTa da qmedebaTa

sistema, romelic emyareba

zebunebrivi Zalebis rwmenas.

sxvadasxva kulturaSi bunebrivad da zebunebrivad sxvadasxva ram iTvleba.

magaliTad, esa Tu is daavadeba zogan raime baqteriis an virusis gavrcelebis

Sedegad miiCneva, sxvagan ki _ zebunebrivi ZalebiT gamowveul movlenad. warmodgena

imis Sesaxeb, Tu ra aris da ra ar aris zebunebrivi, erTi sazogadoebis SigniTac

icvleba. epidemiebi, wyaldidobebi, miwisZvrebi, vulkanis amofrqvevebi da kometebi

erT dros zebunebriv Zalebs miewereboda. droTa ganmavlobaSi cxadi gaxda, rom

isini bunebrivi movlenebia, Tumca bevrs dResac sjera, rom amaSi zebunebrivi

Zalebis xeli urevia.

religia dakavSirebulia adamianis moTxovnilebasTan, axsna mouZebnos mis irgvliv

arsebul sagnebsa da movlenebs. igi ganuyofelia rwmenisagan, romelic mxolod

adamianisTvis aris damaxasiaTebeli. religia gulisxmobs morwmuneTa jgufis

arsebobas, Tumca, amave dros, religiuri gancda Rrmad individualuria. religia

zRvars avlebs yoveldRiurobasa da zebunebriv, uCveulo movlenebs Soris, romlebic

ar aris SezRuduli bunebis kanonebiT. igi moicavs ritualebs, morwmuneebisaTvis

adgens qcevis maregulirebel mcnebaTa Tu normaTa sistemas, romelic gansazRvravs,

Tu rogor unda moiqces morwmune am Tu im garemoSi.

religia aRiarebs kavSiris SesaZleblobas adamianur da RvTaebriv samyaroebs,

miwasa da cas Soris. sainteresoa, rom Zvel romaelTa qurumis saxelwodeba pontifex

niSnavs „xidis gamdebs“ rac gamoxatavda mis funqcias, erTmaneTTan daekavSirebina

amqveyniuri realoba da RvTiuri samyaro.

RmerTebi da sulebi SeiZleba iyvnen idumalebiT moculni an advilad misawvdomni,

adamianuri saqmeebiT dainteresebulni an gulgrilni maT mimarT. zog sazogadoebaSi

RmerTebis ierarqia ar arsebobs, zogSi ki RmerTebsa da sulebs Soris Zalaufleba

isevea gadanawilebuli, rogorc es adamianebSi xdeba.

uZvelesi arqeologiuri monacemebi mowmobs, rom religia arsebobda

kacobriobis ganviTarebis yvela etapze. istoria mraval religiur sistemas

icnobs; zogi maTgani aRar arsebobs, zogs ki dResac bevri mimdevari yavs.

77


eligiis Camoyalibebas win uZRoda rwmenisa da ritualebis ganviTarebis

grZeli gza. rwmena-warmodgenaTa erT-erTi yvelaze adreuli formaa totemizmi

_ tomsa da romelime cxovels, mcenares an bunebriv movlenas Soris arsebuli

sulieri kavSiris rwmena. magaliTad, cxovelis, kerZod, daTvis kultis arseboba

dadasturebulia saqarTvelos teritoriaze, tyibulis raionis sof. cucxvaTis

mRvimis arqeologiuri monacemebiT. uZveles sazogadoebebSi gavrcelebuli iyo

fetiSizmi _ sagnebis Tayvaniscema, romelTac, TiTqos, zebunebrivi Tvisebebi

qondaT. arsebobda winaprebis kulti, agreTve sulebis rwmena da bunebis

gasuliereba, rasac animizmi ewodeba. aseve gavrcelebuli iyo magia. mags garkveuli

qmedebebisa da Selocvebis meSveobiT gavlena unda moexdina adamiansa da bunebriv

movlenebze (ix. gakveTili „magia“).

mogvianebiT gaCnda ufro rTuli warmodgenebi

Teos _ berZn. RmerTi. sulze, mis arsebobaze adamianis gardacvalebis Semdeg,

imqveyniur samyaroze, RmerTebsa da gmirebze. Zvel

saberZneTSi RmerTebis mkacri, mowesrigebuli sistema arsebobda, magram religiuri

da miTologiuri personaJebi jer kidev ar imijneboda erTmaneTisagan, radgan berZnebi

RvTiur da miwier samyaros erT mTlianobad aRiqvamdnen (gaixsene berZnuli miTebi).

TandaTan Camoyalibda Teisturi religiebi, isini aRiareben RmerTs, romelsac SeuZlia

Tavis mierve Seqmnili wesrigis Secvla, romelsac araferi daemaleba, romelsac

SegiZlia mimarTo gasaWiris dros. Teisturma religiebma mkafiod ganasxvaves miwieri

da zeciuri samyaro, sxeuli da suli. aseTi religiebia: iudaizmi, qristianoba, islami.

aRmsarebloba adamianTa jgufis, eTnosis, eris, saxelmwifos identobis erT-erTi

mTavari niSania. zogierTi xalxis an saxelmwifos identobas mxolod religia (da

ara, magaliTad, ena, teritoria Tu eTnikuri kuTvnileba) gansazRvravda, magaliTad,

ebraelebisas _ iudaizmi, bizantiisas _ marTlmadidebloba, arabTa saxalifos _ islami.

dRes msoflioSi daaxloebiT 5 aTasamde aRmsarebloba arsebobs, maT

Soris, poliTeisturi (mravalRmerTiani), monoTeisturi (erTRmerTiani),

gvar-tomobrivi (gavrcelebulia xalxebSi, romelTac SenarCunebuli aqvT

gvarovnuli urTierTobebi, magaliTad, avstraliis aborigenebi), nacionaluri

(konkretul eTnikur an politikur sazRvrebSi moqceuli _ magaliTad, induizmi,

konfucianeloba, Sintoizmi, sikhizmi) da msoflio (zenacionaluri) religiebi,

romlebic scildeba konkretuli eTnikuri jgufisa Tu saxelmwifos farglebs da

aerTianebs yvela adamians, dabadebis adgilis, enisa da eTnikuri warmomavlobis

miuxedavad (qristianoba, budizmi, islami).

davaleba

1. imsjele religiis, magiisa da miTosis urTierTmimarTebis Sesaxeb.

2. gaixsene samuel hanTingtonis mosazreba „civilizaciaTa Sejaxebis“ Sesaxeb; ratom

CaTvala s. hanTingtonma religia civilizaciis ZiriTad maxasiaTeblad.

78 msoflio kultura


mkurnaloba da medicina 24

ra aris janmrTeloba da avadmyofoba? am kiTxvaze sxvadasxva kulturas

gansxvavebuli pasuxi aqvs. mecnierebi Tvlian, rom daavadebis srulyofili mkurnaloba

SeuZlebelia im bunebrivi, socialuri da kulturuli garemos codnis gareSe, sadac

adamianebi cxovroben. erTi kulturis warmomadgenlebi ama Tu im avadmyofobiT

ufro xSirad avaddebian, meoreni ki _ ara, mkurnaloba erT jgufSi ufro efeqturia,

vidre meoreSi. Cveni Sexedulebebi janmrTelobis, avadmyofobisa da mkurnalobis

Sesaxeb Cvenive kulturis gamoxatulebaa.

Tanamedrove medicina mravali sxvadasxva kulturisa da tradiciis

urTierTSexvedris Sedegad Seiqmna. es iyo erTgvari „kulturuli mogzauroba“

antikuri berZnuli da romauli samyarodan axloaRmosavlur arabul kulturaSi,

Soreul aRmosavleTSi, CineTsa da indoeTSi, da, Semdeg, kvlav evropaSi, sadac

medicina sabolood Camoyalibda rogorc samecniero codnis sfero.

ukanasknel aTwleulebSi medicina ukiduresad swrafi tempiT viTardeba, amave

dros, sul ufro meti yuradReba eTmoba daavadebis diagnostikisa da mkurnalobis

sxvadasxva kulturebSi arsebul gamocdilebas, xalxur medicinas.

uZveles droSi avadmyofobas xsnidnen jadoqrobiT, demonuri Zalebis zemoqmedebiT

an RvTis nebiT. daavadebulis gankurnebisaTvis zogjer dResac mimarTaven Selocvas,

Tilismas Tu sxvadasxva siwmindes.

erT-erTi Zvelegvipturi papirusi, romelic Zv. w. daaxloebiT

1550 wliT TariRdeba, 900-mde wamlis aRwerilobas moicavs.

egvipteSi samedicino codnis ganviTarebas xeli Seuwyo

mumificirebis tradiciam: Zvel egviptelebs Rrmad swamdaT

imqveyniuri cxovrebis, cdilobdnen daecvaT micvalebulis

sxeuli gaxrwnisagan da mumificirebasac am mizniT misdevdnen.

samkurnalo saqmis mfarvel RvTaebebad isida da lomisTaviani

soxmeti miiCneodnen.

24. mkurnaloba da medicina

mxedvelobis

mkurnaloba Zvel

egvipteSi

Zvelegvipturi

qirurgiuli

iaraRis reliefuri

gamosaxuleba. qom

ombos taZari

Sumerebis samedicino codnis amsaxveli uZvelesi werilobiTi Zegli Zv. w. me-3

aTaswleuls ganekuTvneba. masSi mocemulia sami saxis (cxeli safenebis, Sinagani

da garegani samkurnalo saSualebebis) 15 recepti.

79


Tanamedrove samedicino simboloebis da terminebis Seqmna Zvel berZnebs

ukavSirdeba. isini kargad icnobdnen Zveli egviptis, babilonis, indoeTis samkurnalo

tradiciebs. berZnuli miTologiis Tanaxmad, medicinis RvTaebad asklepiosi

iTvleboda, igi RmerTi-mkurnalisa da RmerTi-winaswarmetyvelis, apolonis Svili

iyo. asklepiosis samlocveloebi samkurnalo adgilebad iTvleboda. gadmocemis

mixedviT, asklepiosi daqorwinda kunZul kosis mmarTvelis qaliSvilze. SemdgomSi

es kunZuli gadaiqca Zveli saberZneTis samedicino ganaTlebis erT-erT centrad.

asklepiosis Svilebidan cnobili

arian higia _ janmrTelobis qalRmerTi,

romlis saxelidan modis sityva „higiena“

da panacea _ wamliT mkurnalobis

mfarveli, romelic yvela daavadebas

kurnavda. antikuri xelovnebis nimuSebSi

asklepiosi warmodgenilia kombliT,

romelzec gvelia Semoxveuli, xolo misi

qaliSvili higia ki tunikaSi gamowyobili

axalgazrda, lamazi qaliSvilis saxiT,

romelsac xelSi gveli uWiravs da Tasidan

aWmevs. SemdgomSi gvelSemoxveuli

kombali da Tasi bevr qveyanaSi medicinis

q. pompeis gaTxrebisas aRmoCenili romauli

samedicino instrumentebi. italia Cv. w. 79 w.

gardis xidi, safrangeTi. Zv.w. Is. romauli akveduki.

Jozef piton de turneforis naxati Tbilisis

akvedukis gamosaxulebiT. XVIII s. dasawyisi.

ZiriTadi simbolo gaxda.

medicinis mamad wodebulma hipokratem,

romelic Tavs asklepiosis STamomavlad

Tvlida, safuZveli Cauyara klinikur

medi cinas _ eqimis regularul dakvirvebas

avad myofze, misi mdgomareobisa da

mkurna lobis mimdinareobis aRweras.

dResac bevr qveyanaSi eqimebi samedicino

saqmi anobis dawyebis win „hipokrates

fics“ deben.

asklepiosi Zvel romSi eskulapes

saxeliT iyo cnobili. romaelebma Zveli

berZnebis codna medicinis da higienis

sferoSi kidev ufro ganaviTares. omis

dros eqimebi da maTi vaJebi samxedro

samsaxurisagan Tavisufldebodnen.

romauli kanonebis zogierTi paragrafi

sisufTavesa da moqalaqeTa

janmrTelobis dacvas exeboda. romSi

arsebobda akvedukebi (wyalsatari,

romliTac wyali TviTdinebiT

miemarTeba dasaxlebuli punqtebisaken),

kerZo da sazogadoebrivi abanoebi da

tualetebi (forikebi). qalaq pompeis

gaTxrebis dros aRmoCnda arqeologiis

istoriaSi pirveli samedicino instrumentebis

sruli nakrebi.

80 msoflio kultura


omis imperiis dacemis Semdeg berZnul-laTinuri

samedicino kultura arabebis wyalobiT Semoinaxa. me-9-10

saukuneebSi berZnulidan arabul enaze iTargmna hipokratesa

da sxva moazrovneebis TiTqmis yvela samedicino Txzuleba.

amasTan, arabebma medicina gaamdidres mniSvnelovani

naSromebiT ofTalmologiaSi, infeqciur sneulebebSi,

Seqmnes uzarmazari samedicino enciklopedia „yovlismomcveli

wigni medicinaze“. samedicino traqtatebSi

aRwerilia samkurnalo saSualebebi, sxvadasxva daavadebaTa

simptomebi da mkurnaloba.

abu al-kasimi (laT. albukasisi) (936-1013)

udidesi andalusieli arabi qirurgi iyo. mis

mier Seqmnilma samedicino traqtatma, romelic

axlo aRmosavlur da berZnul-romaul klasikur

swavlebas aerTianebs, gansazRvra evropuli

qirurgiuli procedurebis saxe renesansamde.

kiTxva

24. mkurnaloba da medicina

asklepiosi

galeni, avicena da hipokrate, ilustracia avicenas

`medicinis kanonis~ evropuli gamocemidan.

avicenam, galenisa da hipokrates principebze

dayrdnobiT, SeimuSava medicinis sruli

sistema. amitom, sxvadasxva drosa da adgilas

mcxovrebi am sami moazrovnis erTad gamosaxva

maT swavlebas Soris arsebulikavSiris erTgvari

aRniSvnaa.

l ra arsebiTi gansxvavebaa Tanamedrove dasavlur da Cinur medicinas Soris?

davaleba

1. ratom aerTianebs mumificirebis tradicia Zveli egviptelebis religiur

warmodgenebsa da samedicino codnas?

2. gaarkvie, romel balaxeul an sxva saSualebebs iyeneben dRemde adamianebi

samkurnalod?

3. gaixsene istoriidan, ra viTarebaSi iTargmna qarTul enaze „wigni saaqimoi“?

81


enesansis periodSi evropam kvlav „aRmoaCina“

antikuri kulturuli memkvidreoba, maT Soris,

samedicino sferoSic. es, upirveles yovlisa, swored

arabi moazrovneebis meSveobiT gaxda SesaZlebeli.

antikuri filosofosebis zogi naSromi originalis

saxiT aRar arsebobda da mxolod arabuli Targmanis

saxiT iyo xelmisawvdomi.

oqros kveTis principis kvlevisa da idealuri

proporciebis ZiebaSi, adamianis anatomiis Seswavla

gansakuTrebiT aqtualuri gaxda, rasac udidesi

mniSvneloba hqonda medicinis ganviTarebisaTvis.

tradiciuli Cinuri medicina msoflmxedvelobis

ganuyofeli nawilia da gansazRvravs Cinelebis

cxovrebis wess. amdenad, is Tavisi roliT da

mniSvnelobiT, arsebiTad gansxvavdeba medicinisagan

dasavlur sazogadoebebSi. dRes CineTis jandacvis

sistemaSi Tanabrad gamoiyeneba dasavluri da

tradiciuli mkurnalobis meTodebi. mkurnalobis

xerxebidan gansakuTrebiT cnobilia mcenareuli da

cxoveluri saSualebebi da akupunqtura _ nemsebiT

mkurnaloba, rac xels uwyobs organizmis Sinagani

wonasworobis aRdgenas da SenarCunebas.

leonardo da vinCis anatomiuri eskizebi.

leonardo da vinCim, renesansis epoqis udidesma

mxatvarma da swavlulma, gvamebis gakveTis

Sedegad gamoikvlia adamianis sxeulis agebuleba.

renesansis mxatvrebis anatomiurma kvlevebma

srulyves Sua saukuneebis evropul kulturaSi

arsebuli warmodgena adamianis sxeulis Sesaxeb.

abu ali ibn-sina, laT. avicena

(980-1037).

abu ali ibn-sina iraneli eqimi

da swavluli iyo. man Seajera

misi droisTvis arsebuli

aRmosavluri (arabuli)

da evropuli samedicino

tradicia da xalxuri

medicina. misi memkvidreoba

Tanabrad gaiTavisa rogorc

arabulenovanma, ise

evropulma kulturebma, aqedan

gamomdinare, gasagebi xdeba, Tu

ratom SemogvrCa misi saxelis

ori _ arabuli da laTinuri

forma.

wiTeli ebrauli qudi:

1360 wlis dadgenilebis Tanaxmad, qalaq

romis yvela ebrael mamakacs wiTeli

qudi unda etarebina, raTa SesaZlebeli

yofiliyo maTi qristianTagan gamorCeva. es

damamcirebeli kanoni, gamonaklisis saxiT,

mxolod eqimebs ar exeboda.

82 msoflio kultura


medea.

evelin de morgani (1855-1919).

legendis Tanaxmad, medicina

kolxeTis mefis, aietis

qaliSvilis saxelwodebidan

momdinareobs, romelic

mkurnalobis xelovnebas

flobda.

24. mkurnaloba da medicina

Zveli qarTuli literaturuli Zeglebidan irkveva,

rom Sua saukuneebis saqarTveloSi arsebobdnen

„mecnierni kurnebisa“, „xelovani mkurnalni“,

rom lebic avadmyofs yovelmxriv swavlobdnen,

arCev dnen samkurnalo saSualebebs, yuradRebas

aqcevdnen daavadebaTa gamomwvev geografiul da

klimatur faqtorebs. arsebobda saavadmyofoebi da

iTargmneboda samedicino Txzulebebi.

werilobiT wyaroebSi ixsenieba jara _ qirurgi, aqimi

_ Terapevti. aTonis iverTa monasterTan ramdenime

saavadmyofo arsebobda, maT Soris specializebuli

saavadmyofo keTrovanTaTvis _ leprozoriumi.

daviT aRmaSenebelma gelaTis monasterTan daaarsa

qsenoni _ saavadmyofo. miCneulia, rom me-13 saukunis

dasawyisSi Targmnili „wigni saaqimoi“ medicinis

saxelmZRvanelod gamoiyeneboda.

sulxan saba orbelianis cnobili leqsikoni

moicavs 50-mde anatomiur-fiziologiur termins,

daavadebaTa 160-mde saxelwodebas, daavadebis

simptomTa aRmniSvnel 40-mde sityvas, 140-mde

samkurnalo mcenaris dasaxelebas.

zaza fanaskertel-ciciSvilis karabadini,

me-15 saukune. masSi saocari sizustiTaa

ganxiluli medicinis rogorc Teoriuli, ise

praqtikuli sakiTxebi. varZiis afTiaqi

83


saSinao davaleba

1. moiZie informacia berZnuli miTologiidan: ratom

iyo kombalze Semoxveuli gveli asklepiosis da

medicinis simbolo?

2. gamoikvlie daviT batoniSvilis pirovneba da moiZie

informacia mis wignze „iadigar daudi”.

damatebiTi informacia

hipokrates fici

`vficav apolon mkurnalsa, asklepiossa, higiasa da

panaceas, da yvela RmerTsa da qalRmerTsa, mowmeebad

vracx ra maT, rom keTilsindisierad, Cemis Zal-Ronisa

da Cemis mixvedrilobis Sesabamisad aRvasrulo qvemore

aRTqma da werilobiTi valdebuleba:

l vinc Semaswavla mkurnalobis xelovneba, Cemi mSoblebis Tanasworad miviCnio igi,

gavunawilo mas Cemi monagari da saWiroebisas Sevewio gasaWirSi;

l misi STamomavalni Cems Zmebad miviRo da es xelovneba, Tuki isini mis dauflebas

moisurveben, Sevaswavlo usasyidlod da yovelgvari pirobis gareSe;

l rCeva-darigebani, zepiri gakveTilebi da yovelive danarCeni moZRvrebisa vamcno

Cems ZeT, ZeT Cemi maswavleblisa da mowafeebsac, romelnic Sekrulni arian

valdebulebiTa da ficiTa saeqimo kanonis kvalobaze da aravis vamcno sxvas.

l Cemi Zal-Ronis Sesabamisad mxolod da mxolod sasargeblo ganweseba davudgino

avadmyofs da averido yovelgvar vnebis miyenebas da usamarTlobas.

l ar mivce arcerT mTxovnels momakvdinebeli saSualeba da arca gza vaswavlo

aseTi zraxvis Sesrulebisa;

l aseve ar mivce arc erT qals muclis mosaSleli pesariumi.

daviT batoniSvilis (me-16-17ss.)

enciklopediuri xasiaTis

naSromi `iadigar daudi~

maSindeli medicinis TiTqmis

yvela ZiriTad sakiTxsexeba.

l spetakad da umwikvlod movixmaro Cemi cxovreba da Cemi xelovneba. romel

saxlSic Sevide, mxolod avadmyofis sasikeTod SevaRo am saxlis kari da ar iyos

gulsa Cemsa winaganzraxva, umarTebuloba da avi survili, miTumetes zraxvani

samijnuroni qalTa mimarT da mruSobis ndoma kacTa mimarT, arca azatTa da arca

monaTa mimarT.

l odes mkurnalobis Jams _ an Tu sxva dros _ yuri movkra anda vixilo raime kacTa

cxovrebidan, raica ar unda iqnes gamJRavnebuli, saidumlod miviCnio da aravis

gavumxilo igi.

l da me, ganuxrelad Semsrulebelsa ficisa, bedniereba mxvdes cxovrebaSi da Cemsa

xelovnebaSic, da madidon kacTa ukuniTi ukunisamde, xolo ukeTu davarRvio

fici anda cru aRTqma davdo, piruku momegos me”.

84 msoflio kultura


Tanamedrove eqimis fici 1

l vxdebi ra samedicino profesiis warmomadgeneli, sazeimod vficav:

l Cemi cxovreba mivuZRvna adamianis samsaxurs;

l Rirseuli pativi da madliereba mivago Cems maswavleblebs;

l keTilsindisierad da Rirseulad Sevasrulo Cemi profesiuli movaleoba;

l pacientis janmrTeloba gavixado Cems umTavres sazrunavad;

l Sevinaxo CemTvis mindobili saidumlo pacientis sikvdilis Semdegac ki;

l SeZlebisdagvarad davamkvidro saeqimo profesiis keTilSobiluri tradiciebi;

l kolegebi miviCnio Zmebad da debad;

l ar davuSva pacientis asakis, janmrTelobis mdgomareobis, aRmsareblobis,

rasis, sqesis, erovnebis, politikuri Sexedulebebis, seqsualuri orientaciis,

socialuri mdgomareobis zegavlena Cemi profesiuli movaleobis aRsrulebaze;

l kvlavac usazRvro pativi vce adamianis sicocxles misi CasaxvisTanave,

veraviTarma Zalam ver maiZulos gamoviyeno samedicino codna kacTmoyvareobis

kanonebis winaaRmdeg;

l am aRTqmas vdeb sazeimod, nebayoflobiT da uangarod.

1 miRebulia:

- msoflio samedicino asociaciis generaluri asambleis mier, Jeneva, Sveicaria, 1948 wlis

seqtemberi.

ganaxlebulia:

- 22-e msoflio samedicino asambleis mier, sidnei, avstralia, 1968 wlis agvisto;

- 35-e msoflio samedicino asambleis mier, venecia, italia, 1983 wlis oqtomberi;

- msoflio samedicino asociaciis 46-e generaluri asambleis mier, stokholmi, SvedeTi, 1994 wlis

seqtemberi.

24. mkurnaloba da medicina

85


25

simbolo

simbolo (berZn. simbolon) _ niSani,

romelic SeiZleba aRniSnavdes

sagans, movlenas, bgeras da sxva.

msoflios emblemebi da simboloebi

marTaven, da ara sityva da kanoni“, ambobda

Cineli filosofosi konfuci. simbolo

lakonurad asaxavs sagans, movlenas an

cnebas, romlis gamoxatvasac mravali

sityva daWirdeboda.

simboloebs didi Zala da zemoqmedebis unari aqvT. isini, erTi mxriv, Seicaven

informacias, codnas ama Tu im pirovnebis, jgufis, sagnis an institutis Sesaxeb,

meore mxriv ki iwveven emociur gancdas.

brZolis dros aRmarTuli droSa armiis suliskveTebas gansazRvravda: sanam

droSa frialebda, gamarjvebisaTvis brZola grZeldeboda. daxrili droSa

kapitulacias (agreTve glovas) niSnavda, warmatebis aRsaniSnavad ki gamarjvebuli

mxare qalaqis an cixis Tavze sakuTar droSas aRmarTavda. rogorc wesi,

damarcxebuli mxare gamarjvebuls qalaqis gasaRebs da sakuTari Zalauflebis

niSnebs _ kverTxs, gvirgvins da, pirvel rigSi, droSas gadascemda. TeTri droSa

dResac brZolis Sewyvetas da molaparakebis SeTavazebas aRniSnavs.

religiuri simbolika

adamianis nebismieri saqmianoba, Sexeduleba, idea Tu

rwmena simboloTi gamoixateba. magaliTad, Sua saukuneebis

evropaSi xelosanTa da vaWarTa gildiebs, aseve me-

19 saukunis saqarTveloSi amqrebs sakuTari, saqmianobis

Sesaba misi simboloebi hqondaT; dRes Tavisi simboloebi

aqvT, magaliTad, univer si tetebs, wiTeli jvrisa da

wiTeli naxevarmTvaris organizacias, pacifis tebs, mwva -

neebs, sxvadasxva saerTa Soriso organizacias _ gaeros,

iuneskos, natos; aseve simboloTa saSualebiT ganvasxvavebT

erTmaneTisagan ama Tu im religiis aRmsareblebs;

simboloebiT aris datvirTuli olimpiuri TamaSebic,

sadac gamarjvebuli sportsmenis dajildoebis

ceremoniali saxelmwifo droSis aRmarTvis da himnis

Sesrulebis fonze mimdinareobs.

olimpiuri Cempioni laSa

SavdaTuaSvili saqarTvelos

saxelmwifo droSiT.

86 msoflio kultura


simboloebi kulturidan kulturaSi „mogzauroben“

da mniSvnelobas icvlian. magaliTad,

varskvlavis gamosaxulebas sxvadasxva kulturaSi

gansxvavebuli mniSvneloba aqvs. xuTqimiani

var skvlavi Sumerul miTologiaSi qalRmerT

iSTaris simbolo iyo, antikur epoqaSi is samyaros

mSvenierebis simbolod iTvleboda, radgan

bunebis harmoniasa da proporcias gana saxierebda,

qristianobaSi xuTqimiani varskvlavi

beT lemis varskvlavsa da qristes xuT Wrilobas

aRniS navs, wiTeli xuTqimiani varskvlavi, romelic

sabWoTa kavSirisa da socialisturi banakis

qveynebis saxelmwifo atributikis aucilebeli

simbolo iyo, dRes totalitarizmis simbolod

aRiqmeba. ori erTmaneTze dadebuli varskvlavi

uZvelesi droidan ciuri da miwieri sawyisebis

kavSirs gamoxatavda. dRes eqvsqimiani daviTis

varskvlavi („magen davidi“ _ daviTis fari)

israelis saxelmwifos simboloa.

25.simbolo

samxedro

piris samxre

sabWoTa kavSiris

gerbi

israelis droSa

arsebobs „samecniero simboloebi“, romelTac, ZiriTadad, zust da sabunebismetyvelo

mecnierebebSi iyeneben. magaliTad: F _ Zala, W _ vati, T _ dro, A _ amperi da a.S.

erTi da igive sagani erT SemTxvevaSi SeiZleba

iyos niSani, meoreSi _ emblema, mesameSi ki _ simbolo.

magaliTad varskvlavi samxreebze niSania, gerbze

_ emblema, xolo beTlemis Tavze gamosaxuli ki _

simbolo. emblema _ esaa simbolos grafikul-vizualuri

gamosaxuleba. jvari _ qristianuli samyaros simbolo

_ saqarTvelos droSaze gamosaxulia, rogorc emblema.

TeTr fonze gamosaxuli xuTi wiTeli jvari TavisTavad

warmoadgens saqarTvelos erovnul simbolos _ droSas.

ivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis

saxelmwifo universitetis gerbze gamosaxulia

iremi, romelic ZuZus awovebs nukrs. es, zogadad,

universitetis ideis _ TaobaTa erTobis, ufrosis mier

umcrosisaTvis codnis, sibrZnis gadacemis simboloa.

irems sxvadasxva xalxSi gansxvavebuli simboluri

datvirTva aqvs, magaliTad, CineTSi iremi simdidrisa

da warmatebis simboloa, keltebs ki swamdaT, rom

RmerTebis kuTvnili jogebi swored irmebisagan

Sedgeboda. saqarTveloSi gamorCeuli miTologiuri

da istoriuli gmirebi iremTan arian wilnayarni:

amirani irmis faSvSi gaizarda, laSa-giorgi da erekle

mefe irmis ZuZunawovad iTvlebodnen. rogorc Cans,

iremi keTili sawyisis, siuxvis simboloa.

saqarTvelos saxelmwifo

droSa

Tbilisis saxelmwifo

universitetis gerbi

87


wminda nino vazis jvriT

vazis CuqurTma, sveticxoveli

Tbilisis gerbi stilizebuli

vazis gamosaxulebiT

garda oficialuri/saxelmwifo atributikisa,

romelic saxelmwifos simbolikas warmoadgens,

arsebobs kidev sxva, am Tu im xalxisaTvis

damaxasiaTebeli simboloebi. ra SeiZleba CaiTvalos

yvelaze ufro „qarTul“ simbolod? savaraudod,

es gaxlavT vazi. iSviaTad Tu naxavT saqarTveloSi

eklesias vazis CuqurTmis gareSe. vazi imTaviTve iyo

bunebis siuxvis simbolo. ioanes saxarebis mixedviT,

qriste sakuTar Tavs vazs uwodebs: „me var vazi

WeSmariti, da mama Cemi mevenaxea“. vazis simbolika

Seerwya qarTvelTa gansakuTrebul damokidebulebas

venaxisadmi. wminda ninom swored vazisgan Sekra

jvari, romlis saSualebiTac moaqcia qarTvelebi.

simboloebi ara mxolod xatovan gamosaxulebebSi,

aramed werilobiT teqstebSic aisaxeba. albaT

gaxsovT cnobili sagalobeli, romelic mefe demetre

pirvels ekuTvnis:

davaleba

Sen xar venaxi, axlad aRyvavebuli,

morCi keTili, edemSi danerguli,

alva sulneli, samoTxiT gamosruli,

RmerTman Segamko, veravin gjobs qebuli,

da TaviT TvisiT mze xar gabrwyinvebuli.

l wina gakveTilebSi moiZie simboloebi da imsjele maTi

mniSvnelobebis Sesaxeb.

saSinao davaleba

1. moiZie sxvadasxva qveynis saxelmwifo simbolika

da imsjele maTze mocemuli gamosaxulebebis

mniSvnelobis Sesaxeb.

2. moiZie informacia me-20 saukuneSi saqarTvelos

saxelmwifo simbolikis istoriis Sesaxeb.

3. moiZie informacia imis Sesaxeb, Tu ras niSnavs `alma

mater~ da daukavSire igi Tbilisis saxelmwifo

universitetis gerbze gamosaxul simbolos.

88 msoflio kultura


damatebiTi informacia

Sveicariis saxelmwifo droSa, TeTri jvari wiTel

kvadratSi, tradiciulad gamoxatavda Tavisuflebas,

Rirsebas, erTgulebas. igi kvadratuli formisaa, msgavsi

formis droSa, Sveicariis garda, mxolod vatikans aqvs.

1648 wlis vestfalis zavis mixedviT, evropis

saxelmwifoebma aRiares Svei cariis damoukidebloba

da neitra liteti. fiqroben, rom qveynis dRevan deli

saxelmwifo droSis Seqmna am periods ukavSirdeba. Sveiicariis saxelmwifo droSaa

mas safuZvlad daedo Sveicarieli jariskacis samosi,

romelzec gamosaxuli iyo TeTri jvari wiTel fonze,

rac qristianul rwmenas gamoxatavda. 1848-1889 wlebSi droSas qonda Sveicariis

samxedro droSis statusi, 1889 wlidan ki igi arsebobs rogorc saxelmwifo droSa da

erT-erTi uZvelesia msoflioSi. dRes Sveicariis droSa saxelmwifos neitralitetis,

demokratiis da mSvidobis simbolod miiCneva.

1906 wels, Sveicariis droSis safuZvelze, Seiqmna saerTaSoriso humanitaruli

organizaciis „wiTeli jvris“ droSa, am organizaciis damaarseblis anri dunanis

(Henri Dunant) sapativcemulod, romelic Sveicariis moqalaqe iyo.

nepalis saxelmwifo droSa erTaderTi araoTxkuTxedi

formis droSaa. igi am saxiT 1962 wlidan arsebobs. misi

mkveTri wiTeli feri omSi gamarjvebis da nepaleli

xalxis simamacis simboloa, lurji daboloeba ki

mSvidobas da harmonias aRniSnavs. ori samkuTxedi

simbolurad gamoxatavs himalais mTebs da qveyanaSi

gavrcelebul or ZiriTad religias _ induizms da

budizms, ciuri sxeulebi _ nepaleli xalxis ukvdavebas

da imeds, rom nepali iarsebebs iseve didxans, rogorc

mze da mTvare. mTvare aris nepalelTa simSvidis, xolo

mze maTi mrisxanebis simbolo.

albaT, yvelas ecnoba sasurveli kompiuteris Tu

mobiluri telefonis simbolo _ mokbeCili vaSli,

nepalis saxelmwifo droSaa romelic msoflioSi erT-erTi yvelze saxelganTqmuli

brendis Apple-is niSania. miiCneven, rom stiv jobsis

mier daarsebuli korporaciis warmatebas swored

am vaSlma Seuwyo xeli. vaSli aris srulyofilebis,

silamazis simbolo da maradiul axalgazrdobasa da

silamazes ganasaxierebs, mokbeCili vaSli ki im xilis

gamoxatulebaa, romelic adamma da evam igemes, swored

is miiCneva Semecnebis simbolod.

25.simbolo

89


26

artemida SvliT (diana

versaleli).

ZvelberZnuli qandakebis

romauli asli. luvri, parizi.

xelovneba

dedamiwis zurgze ar moiZebneba xalxi, romelsac

ar aqvs xelovnebis sxvadasxva forma _ cekva, musika,

mxatvroba... swored amitom ganekuTvneba xelovneba

kulturis universaliebs.

bevr enaSi ar moipoveba xelovnebis aRmniSvneli

sagangebo sityva, SeiZleba imitom, rom xelovneba xSirad

religiuri, socialuri da politikuri cxovrebis

ganuyofel nawilad gvevlineba.

ra aris xelovneba? Sen warmoidgine, am kiTxvaze pasuxi

arcTu advili gasacemia da xelovnebis sayovelTaod

gaziarebuli ganmarteba arc arsebobs. modi, ase

SevTanxmdeT: xelovnebas ganekuTvneba nawarmoebi

(magaliTad, qandakeba), qmedeba (magaliTad, cekva),

teqsti (magaliTad, leqsi), romelic adamianebSi (ar aris

aucilebeli _ yvelaSi) aRZravs esTetur grZnobas („ra

mSvenieria!“, „ra lamazia!“, „ra kargadaa gakeTebuli!“,

an sulac, „au, ra magaria!“; esTeturi grZnoba SeiZleba

uaryofiTic iyos _ „ra uSnoa!“, „ras gavs!“). aq ori

sayuradRebo momentia: erTi, rom xelovnebis nimuSi

adamianis mier unda iyos Seqmnili, Torem esTeturi grZnoba bunebis qmnilebebmac

SeiZleba aRZras _ lamazma xem an mSvenieri garegnobis adamianma; da meore, xelovnebis

nimuSs aucileblad Wirdeba sxva adamiani _ mayurebeli Tu msmeneli, erTi sityviT,

Semfasebeli. xelovnebis zogi gansazRvreba xazs usvams mis emociur maxasiaTeblebs.

xelovnebis nimuSi gadmoscems avtoris emociebsa da mis ideebs, xolo mnaxvelSi ki is

iwvevs grZnobebs. emociebi da ideebi sxvadasxva formiT gamoixateba: xatviT, qsoviT,

sxeulis dekoraciiT, musikiT, cekviT, mwerlobiT.

xelovnebis is sferoebi, romlebic dRes damoukideblad arsebobs, Soreul

warsulSi adamianis yoveldRiuri yofis nawili iyo. alJirSi, israelSi, marokoSi

aRmoCenilia niJarebis mZivebi, romlebic 82-100 aTasi wlisaa. isini samkaulis

Soreul winamorbedad SeiZleba miviCnioT.

savaraudod, xelovnebis sxva formebic arsebobda, magaliTad, cekva. gaxsovT,

rogor warmovidgineT samkurnalo magiis Casaxva? TiTqmis darwmunebiT SeiZleba

iTqvas, rom pirvelyofili magiuri ritualebi mTeli jgufis riTmuli moZraobisa

da SeZaxilebis TanxlebiT mimdinareobda. riTmi kravs jgufs, TiTqos Zalas matebs

da aZlierebs mas _ gavixsenoT skandireba mitingebsa Tu stadionebze, an aRlumze

samwyobro nabijiT mimavali samxedro nawili.

90 msoflio kultura


xelovnebis formebi TandaTan viTardeboda,

ixveweboda, rTuldeboda;

gansxvavebuli ritualebi sxvadasxva

riTmSi sruldeboda; gaCnda pirveli

musikaluri instrumentebi _ qvis dafdafi,

lerwmis Tu Zvlis salamuri; nel-nela

cekva gamoeyo magias da TavisTavadi

Rirebuleba SeiZina _ garTobisa da

gantvirTvis.

magiidanve amoizarda saxviTi

xelovneba. gamoqvabulebSi napovn qvis

xanis naxatebze xSiradaa gamosaxuli

isriT Tu SubiT gangmiruli cxovelebi.

gaxsovT „msgavsebis magia“? _ daxatul

isars namdvili isari pirdapir nadiris

gulisken unda miemarTa... sanadiro

magiasTan dakavSirebuli mxatvroba

ise ganviTarda, rom, rodesac me-19-20

saukuneebis mijnaze evropis ramdenime

gamoqvabulSi cxovelebis uzarmazari,

gasaocari ostatobiT Sesrulebuli

ferweruli gamosaxulebebi aRmoaCines,

bevrma mecnierma arc ki daijera, rom es

yvelaferi qvis xanaSi SeiZleba yofiliyo

Seqmnili. dRes es mxatvroba msoflio

xelovnebis saganZurSia Sesuli. geniosebi

qvis xanaSic ibadebodnen.

genialuri mxatvris pablo pikasos

sityviT, ”altamirasTan SedarebiT,

sxva yvelaferi dabali donisaa.” altamiras

gamoqvabulebi espaneTis samxreTiT

mdebareobs. 1868 wels adgilobrivi

monadire SemTxveviT waawyda

maT. kedlis mxatvrobis nimuSebis

Seswavla mogvianebiT daiwyo. gamoqvabulis

kedlebze naxatebi imdenad

kargad iyo Semonaxuli, rom didi xnis

ganmavlobaSi specialistebs eeWvebodaT

maTi siZvele. me-20 saukunis dasawyisSi

sabolood dadasturda, rom es

naxatebi 16 000 wlis winandelia. dRes

altamiras mRvime iuneskos kultu ruli

memkvidreobis Zeglebis siaSia Setanili.

26.xelovneba

qarTuli erovnuli cekva

Zveli egvipte. kedlis mxatvrobis nimuSi

altamiras gamoqvabulis kedlis mxatvroba.

91


sami lamazmani. iaponeli mxatvari

kitagava utamoro (me-18 saukune)

aq ver ganvixilavT xelovnebis yvela formisa

Tu mimarTulebis warmoSoba-ganviTarebas,

vityviT mxolod, rom uZveles did civilizaciebSi

_ egvipteSi, SuamdinareTSi, CineTSi, indoeTSi,

saber ZneTsa Tu romSi _ xelovnebis TiTqmis yvela

ZiriTad formas vxvdebiT: musikas, mxatvrobas,

qandakebas, arqiteqturas, poezias, Teatrs. aq

ukve arian profe sionalebi _ karis mxatvrebi

Tu moxe tiale musikosebi. da veravin ityvis, rom

mogvianebiT Seqmnili Sedevrebi „ukeTesia“, vidre

maSindeli _ namdvili xelovneba ar Zveldeba.

xelovnebaze saubrisas ar SeiZleba gverdi

avuaroT mis kavSirs religiasTan. religiuri

wesebi da dogmebi xelovnebaze uzarmazar gavlenas

axdenda; xelovnebis zogi forma ikrZaleboda da

idevneboda, zogic yvelanairad waxalisdeboda.

magaliTad, iudaizmi da islami krZalaven cocxali

arsebebis gamosaxvas, amitom am religiis mimdevar

xalxebSi monumenturi mxatvroba, portreti

da qandakeba ar ganviTarebula, samagierod,

muslimur kulturaSi umaRles dones miaRwia

ornamentisa da kaligrafiis xelovnebam.

qristianobaSi amgvari akrZalva ar iyo, ris

gamoc qristianul samyaroSi saxviT xelovnebas ganviTarebis SesaZlebloba mieca; Tumca

didi xnis ganmavlobaSi igi eqvemdebareboda

eklesiis mkacr zedamxedvelobas (es exeba

xelovnebis sxva formebsac _ musikas, Teatrs da

a.S.). mxolod aRorZinebis xanidan moyolebuli,

xelovneba aRar ifargleba religiuri TemebiT

da uzarmazari nabijebiT midis win.

arabuli kaligrafiis nimuSi

samTavisis taZari. XI s.

92 msoflio kultura


xelovnebaze udidesi gavlena aqvs teqnikur progress.

me-19 saukunis meore naxevarSi xelovnebis tradiciul

formebs Seemata axlebi _ fotografia da kino, xolo

gasuli saukunis miwuruls _ kompiuteruli xelovnebis

mravalgvari forma. xelovneba masobrivi gaxda.

liTxva

l gaixsene istoriidan Tu saxviTi da gamoyenebiTi

xelovnebidan antikuri xanis Sedevrebi da maTi

avtorebi.

davaleba

l imuSaveT jgufebad. yovelma jgufma Camoweros

wilisyriT Sexvedrili regionis, epoqisa Tu stilis

(egvipte, SuamdinareTi, antikuri xana, Sua saukuneebi,

aRorZinebis xana, baroko, klasicizmi, romantizmi...

axali dro, uaxlesi dro) xelovnebis sxvadasxva

dargis qmnilebebi.

26.xelovneba

baleti

93


27

samarTali

samarTali kulturis erT-erTi universaliaa. yvelaze zogadi ganmartebiT,

samarTali aris wesebis erToblioba, romelic sxvadasxva gziT aregulirebs

adamianebis qcevas da warmoadgens upirveles mediators, momrigebels adamianebis

urTierTobaSi. ramdenad gansxvavebulia igi sxvadasxva xalxebSi? cnobili frangi

fizikosi da moazrovne blez paskali ambobda: „is, rac alpebs iqiT WeSmaritebaa,

alpebs aqeT sicruea“.

xamurabis stelis fragmenti

stela xamurabis kanonebiT

jer kidev Zvel babilonSi, Zv. w. me-18 saukuneSi,

mefe xamurabim Seqmna kanonTa krebuli _ yvelaze

srulyofili samarTlis Zegli Zvel mesopotamiaSi.

Tumca kanonTa krebulebi iq manamdec arsebobda.

Zv. w. me-7 saukuneSi saberZneTSi aTenis mmarTvelma

drakonma qalaqs Zalze mZime kanonebi dauwesa. dResac,

mkacri, mZime kanonebis aRsaniSnavad, viyenebT termins

„drakonuli kanonebi“. drakonis kanonebi solonma

_ berZenma sazogado moRvawem _ Secvala, romelic

demokratiis, rogorc mmarTvelobis formis erT-erT

sulisCamdgmelad iTvleba.

muslimur samyaroSi moqmedebs SariaTi _muslimuri

kanonTa kodeqsi, romelic yurans emyareba.

SariaTis kanonebs xSirad warmoadgenen, rogorc

raRac gaqvavebul, saSinel wesebs, romlebic gulgrilia

adamianis mimarT, Tumca mas Zalian didi

inteleqtualuri safuZveli aqvs. xSirad SariaTi

ar eTanxmeba imas, rac Cven migvaCnia sworad, magram

es aris saukuneebis manZilze gamovlili, droSi

gamocdili da, rac mTavaria, konkretuli kulturis

Sesabamisi sistema. demokratiuli Rirebulebebi ar

aris universaluri da is, rac demokratiulad miiCneva

dasavleTSi, SeiZleba sruliad sawinaaRmdegod aRiqmebodes

aRmosavleTSi, sadac urTierTobis, saxelmwifos

mowyobis, genderuli rolebis gadanawilebis

da a.S. absoluturad gansxvavebuli tradiciaa.

giorgi lobJaniZe, aRmosavleTmcodne

94 msoflio kultura


saqarTveloSi kanonSemoqmedebiTi tradicia

uZvelesi droidan arsebobs. kanonTa krebulebidan

gansakuT rebiT cnobilia giorgi brwyinvalis samar-

Tlis wigni „Zeglis dadeba“, beqasa da aRbuRas „wigni

samarTlisa kacisa Secodebisa yovelive“. iTarg mneboda

ucxouri samarTlis Zeglebic, magaliTad, e.w.

„moses samarTali“, berZnuli, romauli, siriuli

kodeqsebi. sxvadasxva samarTlis Zeglis ganaxleba,

erTian krebulSi moqceva da xelaxali damkvidreba me-

18 saukunis dasawyisSi vaxtang VI moRvaweobas ukav-

Sirdeba. amis gamo vaxtang VI sjulmdeblad iwodeba.

vaxtang VI

kanoni samarTlis aRsrulebis saSualebaa. Tumca arsebobs magaliTebi, rodesac

igi usamarTlobas emsaxureba: magaliTad, sabWoTa periodSi, 30-ian wlebSi arsebuli

kanonebis safuZvelze, fizikurad ganadgurda mravali aTasi adamiani. Tengiz

abulaZis filmi „monanieba“ kargad aRwers totalitaruli reJimis pirobebSi arsebul

usamarTlobas.

samarTali da kanonebi manamdec arsebobda da moqmedebda, sanam adamiani maT

werilobiT formas miscemda. amis naTeli dadasturebaa adaTebze damyarebuli da

zepirsityvieri saxiT Taobidan TaobisaTvis gadacemuli CveulebiTi samarTali.

Tavad sityva adaTi arabulad Cveulebas niSnavs. swored adaTebs emyareba,

magaliTad, svaneTSi, xevsa da fSav-xevsureTSi arsebuli samarTalwarmoebis wesi,

romelmac uxsovari droidan moaRwia. sasamarTlos funqcias Temis sabWo asrulebda.

bralmdeblad maxvSi (svaneTSi) an xevisberi (fSav-xevsureTSi) gamodioda. xevisberi

da maxvSi Temis saxeliT laparakobdnen da Tavadve axorcielebdnen kanonis

zedamxedvelobas (gavixsenoT „aluda qeTelauri“). kavkasiis mTianeTSi farTod iyo

gavrcelebuli sisxlis aRebis, Zmadnaficobis, qalis motacebis adaTebi. zogierTi

maTgani dResac SemorCenilia.

sisxlis aRebis adaTi gavrcelebuli iyo axlo aRmosavleTisa da skandinaviis

qveynebSi, aseve albaneTsa da kavkasiaSi, italiaSi igi vendetas saxeliTaa cnobili.

es aris samarTalwarmoebis, sazogadoebrivi wesrigis regulirebis erTgvari wesi,

romelic misaRebi da marTebuli gaxldaT garkveul drosa da sivrceSi manam, sanam

igi warmoadgenda danaSaulis Tavidan acilebis formas da ara SurisZiebas. sisxlis

aRebis adaTi dafuZnebuli iyo principze „kbili kbilis wil“, rac gulisxmobs

Semdegs: mkvlelobis Cadenis SemTxvevaSi, damnaSave an misi ojaxis romelime wevri

sikvdiliT isjeboda, amasTan erTad, mkvlelis ojaxi did materialur zaralsac

ganicdida. dRes sisxlis aRebis wess socialuri sargeblis motana ar SeuZlia,

metic _ is sisxlis samarTlis danaSaulad iTvleba da kanoniT isjeba (gavixsenoT

Temur da gela babluanebis filmi „memkvidreoba“).

27.samarTali

95


kacobriobis istoriis manZilze, kanonebTan erTad, icvleboda maTi sisruleSi

moyvanis formebic. Tanamedrove etapze damnaSavis wameba kanoniT isjeba, odesRac

ki mTavar mtkicebulebas swored wamebis dros miRebuli aRiarebiTi Cveneba

warmoadgenda. sabWoTa kavSiris generaluri prokurori andrei viSinski ambobda,

aRiareba marTlmsajulebis dedofaliao. istoriidan yvelasaTvis kargad aris

cnobili sxvadasxva saxis sajaro sasjelebi: Zelze gasma, koconze dawva, CamoxrCoba,

daxvreta, giliotinisa da eleqtroskamis meSveobiT dasja. zogi maTgani dResac

moqmedebs ama Tu im qveyanaSi. bevrgan, saqarTvelos msgavsad, sikvdiliT dasja

gauqmda da igi samudamo patimrobiT Seicvala.

davaleba

1. ra faqtorebi ganapirobebs samarTlis sistemebis gansxvavebulobas sxvadasxva

xalxebSi? istoriidan gaixsene da Seadare erTmaneTs sxvadasxva dros sxvadasxva

qveyanaSi arsebuli kanonebi.

2. rogor fiqrob, samarTlianoba da samarTali, kanoniereba da samarTlianoba erTsa

da igives niSnavs?

3. rogor gesmis debuleba, rom sisxlis aReba warmoadgenda danaSaulis Tavidan

acilebis formas?

4. sazogadoebis winaSe pirovnebis pasuxismgeblobasTan dakavSirebiT, gaavle

paralelebi gakveTilTan „sazogadoeba“, imsjele am sakiTxze.

Semajamebeli davaleba

l SesaZleblad migaCnia sazogadoebis normaluri funqcionireba samarTlis gareSe?

ra moxdeba, dawerili samarTali rom ar arsebobdes?

96 msoflio kultura


damatebiTi informacia

giliotina

1789 wels, safrangeTis revoluciis dros, sikvdiliT

dasjis sakiTxis ganxilvisas, safrangeTis nacionaluri

asambleis wevrma, eqimma Jozef-ignas giliotenma Semdegi

winadadeba wamoayena: sikvdilmisjili Tavis mokveTiT

unda daisajos; es unda gakeTdes umtkivneulod, martivi

meqanizmis gamoyenebiT.

revoluciamde safrangeTSi Tavis mokveTiT mxolod

eqimi Jozef-ignas gilioteni

didebulebs sjidnen da es najaxis an sxva iaraRis

gamoyenebiT xdeboda. sikvdilmisjilTa ojaxis wevrebi

xSirad fulsac ki uxdidnen jalaTs, raTa mas sasjeli swrafad da, SeZlebisdagvarad,

umtkivneulod aResrulebina. rigiTi moqalaqeebis sikvdiliT dasja CamoxrCobiT an

sxva, kidev ufro saSineli formiT (Zelze gasma, borbliT dasja, koconze dawva...)

xdeboda.

1791 wels nacionalurma asambleam gadawyvetileba miiRo, rom Tavis mokveTiT

dasja yvela sisxlis samarTlis damnaSaveze gavrcelebuliyo, ganurCevlad maTi

wodebrivi kuTvnilebisa. amiT xazi esmeboda yvela adamianis Tanasworobas. Seiqmna

specialuri komiteti, romelSic samedicino fakultetis anatomiis profesori J.i.

giliotenic Sedioda. Tavis mokveTis „martivi meqanizmis“ eskizis Semqmnelebad

ki frangi antuan luisi da germaneli inJineri da klavesinis ostati tobias Smidti

iTvlebian. meqanizmma saxeli eqim giliotenis gvaridan gamomdinare miiRo.

am droidan moyolebuli, giliotina safrangeTSi sikvdiliT dasjis erTaderT

kanonier formad iqca. mas sxva qveynebSic iyenebdnen.

marTalia, Jozef-ignas giliotenis saxeli istoriaSi sikvdilis am meqanizmis

wyalobiT Sevida, magram unda iTqvas, rom Tavad igi, zogadad, sikvdiliT dasjis

mowinaaRmdege iyo da fiqrobda, rom mis mier SeTavazebuli umtkivneulo da, aqedan

gamomdinare, ufro humanuri sasjeli pirveli nabiji iqneboda sikvdiliT dasjis

gauqmebis gzaze. Jozef-ignas gilioteni aRiarebuli

eqimi iyo. eduard jeneris mier vaqcinaciis (acra)

gamogonebis Semdeg, igi gaxldaT parizis vaqcinaciis

komitetis prezidenti, parizis medicinis akademiis

erT-erTi damfuZnebeli.

„sikvdilis manqanis“ ideis avtorobis „pativi“ mZime

tvirTi aRmoCnda J.-i. giliotenis STamomavalTaTvis.

maT TxovniT mimarTes safrangeTis mTavrobas,

giliotinasTvis saxeli SeecvalaT, magram uari miRes da

SemdgomSi Tavad Seicvales gvari.

27.samarTali

giliotina

97


saxaliso kanonebi

l texasis StatSi yofnisas, Tu darwmunebuli ar xarT Tqvens siyvarulSi, nu

warudgenT megobrebs samjer erTsa da igive qals, radgan amis Semdeg is Tqvens

oficialur colad CaiTvleba.

l floridaSi gauTxovar qalebs paraSutiT xtoma ekrZalebaT. aseve ar SeiZleba

sacurao kostumiT simRera da dReSi samze meti TefSis gatexva.

l indianas StatSi oqtombridan martamde abazanis miReba akrZalulia. aseve ar

SeiZleba manqanebis gayidva kvira dRes.

l q. denverSi (kolorados Stati) akrZalulia mtversasrutis Txoveba.

l alabamaSi ikrZaleba saabazanoSi viris, arkanzasSi ki niangis Seyvana. luizianaSi

isjeba adamianis kbena.

l alabamaSi ar unda marTo manqana Tvalebaxveulma, niu-iorkSi saxuravidan

gadmoxtomis gamo dagsjian (Tu ukve dasjili ar daxvdi).

l aidahoSi akrZalulia aqlemze Semjdari Tevzaoba.

l dakotaSi danaSaulia CeqmebiT Zili, merilendSi - TeatrSi lomTan erTad misvla,

q. atlantaSi ki - telefonis boZze Jirafis mibma.

l niu jersiSi patronma katebs eJvani unda Camokidos, raTa Citebma maTi miaxloeba

gaigonon.

l safrangeTSi akrZalulia rkinigzis liandagze xvevna-kocna, aseve, dapatimreba

ar agcdeba, Tu Rors napoleons daarqmev.

98 msoflio kultura


Sroma, profesia da hobi 28

Sroma adamianis Tandayolili unaria.

cxovelebi da frinvelebic „Sromoben“:

ageben budeebs, Txrian soroebs, futkrebi

akeTeben fiWas da amzadeben Tafls...

magram, adamianisagan gansxvavebiT, es

yvelaferi instinqtis, genetikuri programebis safuZvelze xdeba, adamiani ki Sromis

process gaazrebulad, gonebis meSveobiT warmarTavs. swored adamianis Sromis

Sedegia kultura, radgan, rogorc ukve viciT, kultura aris adamianis mier Seqmnili

an gardaqmnili „meore buneba“.

adamianis Tavdapirveli saqmianoba Semgrovebloba da nadiroba iyo; Semdeg gaCnda

miwaTmoqmedeba da mesaqonleoba. kacobriobis ganviTarebasTan erTad, adamianTa

saqmianoba ufro mravalferovani gaxda. daiwyo Sromis diferenciacia: adamianebi

iwafebodnen garkveul saqmeSi - meTuneobaSi, metalurgiaSi; gaCndnen oqromWedlebi,

qvismTlelebi; Camoyalibda profesiebi, romelTa daufleba sagangebo codnis miRebas

moiTxovs: eqimi, zeinkali, mkeravi, agronomi, maswavlebeli, mZRoli da sxva.

saqmianobis mixedviT, adamianebi socialur jgufebad iyofodnen; am dayofas

sxvadasxva epoqaSi gansxvavebuli forma hqonda. upirvelesad, ganasxvavebdnen

gonebrivi da fizikuri SromiT dakavebul adamianebs; pirveli Tavisufal moqalaqeTa

xvedri iyo, fizikurad ki monebi, Sua saukuneebSi _ glexebi, Semdeg _ daqiravebuli

muSebi Sromobdnen. Zveli moazrovneebi Tvlidnen, rom Tavisufali adamiani amuSavebs

gonebas, iseve rogor mona _ miwas.

`adamianis uflebaTa sayovelTao deklaraciis~ 23-e muxlis Tanaxmad, dRes yovel

adamians aqvs Sromis, samuSaos Tavisufali arCevis, Sromis samarTliani da xelsayreli

pirobebisa da umuSevrobisagan dacvis ufleba.

Sroma kacobriobis universaluri

Tvisebaa: adamianebi dedamiwis nebismier

kuTxeSi Sromoben. magram ama Tu im

qveynis geografiuli, klimaturi da sxva

garemoebebi ganapirobebs saqmianobis

Taviseburebebs. magaliTad, zRvis

piras mcxovreb xalxebSi, rogorc wesi,

viTardeba naosnoba da masTan dakav-

Sirebuli dargebi.

28.Sroma profesi da hobi

hobi (ingl. hobby) _ rameTi gataceba,

saqmianoba, romelsac samuSaodan

Tavisufal dros misdeven

garTobisa da dasvenebis mizniT.

uZvelesi adamianis iaraRebi

99


umerangi

egvipteSi nilosis delta rTuli „mosaTvinierebeli“

iyo, misma mowesrigebam da sairigacio

sistemis Seqmnam ganapiroba sainJinro saqmis

ganviTareba. sainJinro da samSeneblo xelovnebis

mwvervalia piramidebi, romlebic msoflios erTerT

saocrebad iTvleba.

samuSao, sanadiro da sabrZolo iaraRs uZvelesi

adamianic amzadebda. msoflios sxvadasxva kuTxeSi

aRmoCenili es martivi iaraRi Zalian gavs erTmaneTs.

magram arsebobs konkretuli xalxebisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli

iaraRebic, magaliTad, bumerangi, romelic

avstraliis aborigenebma Seqmnes.

miwaTmoqmedebas dedamiwaze mcxov reb xalxTa umravlesoba misdevs, Tumca miwas

sxvadasxva wesiTa da saxiT amuSaveben. magaliTad, mTagoriani landSaftis gamo,

samxreT saqarTveloSi, mesxeTSi naklebad iyo samiwaTmoqmedo savar gulebi. am

problemis gadaWris mizniT, mosaxleobam mTebi terasebad, miwaTmoqmedebisaTvis

gamosadeg sivrced aqcia.

terasebi, rogorc sasoflo-sameurneo daniSnulebis savargulebi, sxva

kulturebSic gvxvdeba. magaliTad filipinebSi, provincia ifugaoSi aris adgili,

romelsac msoflios merve saocrebasac uwodeben. igi zRvis donidan 1 500 metrze

mdebareobs da daaxloebiT 10 360 kvadratul kilometrs moicavs. fiqroben, rom

iq terasebi xelsawyoebis minimaluri gamoyenebiT, metwilad xeliT aSenda 2000

wlis win. terasebs wyliT amaragebda uZvelesi sarwyavi sistema. adgilobrivebs aq

brinji da bostneuli dResac mohyavT.

arsebobs mosazreba, rom maias tomebi savargulebs xelovnurad qmnidnen.

Waobebidan ezidebodnen niadags, romelsac aTavsebdnen winaswar mow yobil

terasebze da iyenebdnen sasoflo-sameurneo daniSnu lebisaTvis.

terasebi samcxe-javaxeTSi terasebi filipinebSi

100 msoflio kultura


dedamiwaze uamravi, erTi SexedviT ucnauri saqmianoba

arsebobs. ici, rom Zvel romSi „dasaflavebis jambazis“

profesia arsebobda? es adamiani dasaflavebis procesiis

dros gardacvlilis msgavsad imoseboda, ikeTebda misi saxis

mixedviT damzadebul niRabs da sxva jambazebTan erTad

cekvavda gardacvlilis garSemo. romaelebi miiCnevdnen,

rom es amSvidebda gardacvlilis suls da amxiarulebda

mosaxleobas. am adamianebs aqtiorebi erqvaT.

minebis wmenda, TiTqos, Cveulebrivi saqmianobaa, magram

warmoidgineT, ra saSiSi da riskiani xelobaa caTambjenis

minebis wmenda. fotoze gamosaxuli mamakaci dubais erTerTi

caTambjenis 50-e sarTulis minebs wmends.

droTa ganmavlobaSi icvleba warmodgena imis Sesaxeb, Tu

ra aris garToba, rasac Tavisufal dros vuTmobT, da ra _

samuSao. nadiroba, romelic odesRac adamianis ZiriTadi

saqmianoba, SeiZleba iTqvas, erT-erTi pirveli profesia

iyo, SemdgomSi gatacebad da garTobad iqca. Tumca nadiroba

dResac arsebobs, rogorc profesia: egerebi - profesionali

monadireebi - dahyvebian moyvarul monadireebs da Tvalyurs

adevneben nadirobis wesebis dacvas.

profesiulis garda, adamianebs aqvT sxva interesebic.

magaliTad: eqimi, SeiZleba, amave dros iyos filatelisti;

inJineri _ kulinariiT gatacebuli da a.S. es aris hobi.

operaciidan gamosuli, daRlili eqimi, SeiZleba, roials

miujdes da gantvirTvisaTvis daukras beThovenis sonata, an

universitetis profesorma momqancveli dRis bolos biliardi

iTamaSos. rogorc xedavT, erTi da igive saqmianoba erTi

adamianisaTvis specialobaa, meorisaTvis ki hobi da garTobis

saSualeba. arseboben, magaliTad, profesionali fexburTelebi

da fexburTis TamaSis moyvaruli sxvadasxva profesiis

adamianebi.

xSirad piriqiTac xdeba _ hobi iqceva ZiriTad saqmianobad.

magaliTad, iaponelebs aqvT juja xeebis gamoyvanis Zalze

saintereso tradicia, romelsac bonsai ewodeba (iaponurad

bon _ qoTani, sai _ Cargva). es aris sxvadasxva jiSis xeebis

zusti juja aslebis gamoyvana. am tradicias didi xnis

istoria aqvs, rogorc Cans, igi iaponelebma Tavdapirvelad

hobis saxiT, saxlis galamazebis mizniT moigones. dRes ki es

Cveulebrivi profesiaa: bonsais xelovnebas sagangebo codna

esaWiroeba. bonsai

28.Sroma profesi da hobi

dasaflavebis jambazi

Zvel romSi

101


inebsa Tu dawesebulebebSi xSirad

gvinaxavs sxvadasxva formisa da

zomis akvariumebi. akvariumistikiT

(ekosistemis Seqmna daxurul xelovnur

wyalsatevSi), rogorc Cans, adamianebi

ZvelTaganve iyvnen dainteresebuli,

radgan akvariumis winamorbedi

xelovnuri wyalsatevebi jer kidev

Zvel egviptesa da SuamdinareTSi

gvxvdeba. Tanamedrove msoflioSi ki es hobi imdenad popularulia, rom sxvadasxva

saxis Tevzebi, reptiliebi, amfibiebi bavSvebisa Tu ufrosebis sayvarel „Sinaur“

arsebebad iqcnen. garda amisa, sazRvao-sakurorto qalaqebisaTvis erT-erT yvelaze

mimzidvel RirSesaniSnaobad swored okeanariumi iTvleba. garda dasvenebisa da

garTobisa, akvariumebi profesiuli interesis sagania iqtiologebisaTvis, raTa

maT ukeT moaxerxon sxvadasxva saxis Tevzebze dakvirveba da maTi Seswavla.

saqarTveloSi arsebobs

kompania “Eastern

Promotion”, romlis

saqmianoba ucxoel

SemsrulebelTa

koncertebis organizebaa.

sainteresoa, rom

kompaniis damfuZneblebi

yofili wyalburTelebi

arian, romelTac

hqondaT hobi _ musika.

Zvelma wyalburTelebma

hobi ZiriTad

saqmianobad aqcies da

daiwyes festivalebis

organizeba. es saqme

warmatebuli aRmoCnda,

“Eastern Promotion” -is

organizebul

koncertebSi monawileoba

miiRes musikaluri

samyaros msoflio

varskvlavebma _ rei

Carlzma, jeims braunma,

maseo parkerma, jo

kokerma, quliom, Sakiram

da bevrma sxvam.

qulios koncerti saqarTveloSi

rei Carlzi da Eastern Promotion-is damfuZneblebi

102 msoflio kultura


SeuZlebelia profesiisa da hobis Sesaxeb

visaubroT da ar gavixsenoT germaneli

mrewveli hainrix Slimani (1822-1890). misi

gvari, miuxedavad biznesSi didi warmatebisa,

SesaZloa, saqveynod cnobili ar gamxdariyo,

rom ara hobi _ arqeologia. biznesmenma

Seiswavla berZnuli da arabuli, waikiTxa

homerosis nawarmoebebi da miznad daisaxa

troas aRmoCena. mTeli Tavisi qoneba swored

am saqmes Sealia da mizansac miRwia, miakvlia

manamde zRaprad miCneul troas da unikaluri

masala Semata sakacobrio kulturas.

28.Sroma profesi da hobi

hainrix Slimani

adamians Seswevs unari, drois swori ganawilebisa da gonierebis xarjze, Sroma da

dasveneba, profesia da hobi ise SeuTanxmos erTmaneTs, rom warmatebiT moaxerxos

rogorc profesiuli winsvla, aseve sxva interesebis dakmayofilebac.

davaleba

1. moiZie informacia saintereso, ucnauri da saSiSi profesiebis Sesaxeb.

2. CamoTvale profesiebi, romlebic Tavdapirvelad mxolod garToba iyo.

3. moiZie informacia gamoCenili adamianebis hobis Sesaxeb.

103


29

qarTuli ezo

rekreacia (laT.

recreatio) _ aRdgena;

sarekreacio sivrce

_ dasvenebisa

da Zalebis

aRdgenisaTvis

gankuTvnili adgili.

rekreacia

rekreacia dasvenebas, daxarjuli

energiisa da Zalebis aRdgenas niSnavs. igi

universaliaa da adamianis yofis iseTive

Semadgeneli nawilia, rogorc Sroma.

rogorc Cans, adamianisaTvis dasveneba

imdenad mniSvnelovani ram aris, rom igi

sagangebod zrunavs sarekreacio zonebis,

dasasvenebeli adgilebis mosawyobad.

inglisuri parki

raWis Rvinoebidan saukeTeso TeTr Rvinod

„wulukiZis TeTra“ iTvleba (igi amave saxelwodebis

yurZnis jiSisagan mzaddeba). Rvinis sayidlad erTerTi

glexis ojaxi migvaswavles. ezoSi SevediT, Cvens

win ulamazesi baRnari gadaiSala: mwvaned mobibine

mindorSi sxvadasxva feris yvavilebi moCanda, xviara

vardi samzareulos erT-erT kedels Semoxveoda,

mis win glexkacs akaciis boZebiT talaveri moewyo,

CrdilSi mdgari kaklis kunZebisgan damzadebuli

magida da skamebi bunebrivi gegonebodaT. ezom

udidesi STabeWdileba moaxdina, naTeli iyo, rom mis

patrons Rvinoc saukeTeso eqneboda.

aRfrTovaneba ver davmaleT da glexs naSromi

movuwoneT. „es ezo, Svilebo, samuSaodan, venaxidan

dabrunebuls „garTobaSi“ maqvs gakeTebuli, am

saqmiT visveneb da siamovnebas viReb, aq vgrZnob

Tavs yvelaze kargado“, gvipasuxa glexma. es ezo

sarekreacio sivrcis qarTuli formaa.

franguli parki

Zalebis aRdgenis bunebrivi saSualebaa

Zili, romlis drosac adamianis yvela

organo da kunTi modunebulia da isvenebs.

garda am bunebrivi saSualebisa, Tavad

adamianma moigona rekreaciis uamravi

forma: ezoebi, baRebi, parkebi... gavix se noT

Tundac is, rom msoflios Svidi saoc rebidan

erT-erTi swored semiramidas daki duli

baRebia. arqiteqturasTan erTad, swo red

sarekreacio zonebi gviqmnis pirvel STabeWdilebas

ucxo qveynaSi mogzaurobisas.

104 msoflio kultura


sarekreacio sivrceebi gansxvavebulia

sxvadasxva xalxsa da kulturaSi, es ki mxolod

klimatis, landSaftis, florisa da faunis

sxvadasxvaobiT ar aris gamowveuli. magaliTad,

franguli parkebi gansxvavdeba inglisuri

parkebisagan: franguliSi, geometriuli

figurebi da formebi Warbobs, inglisuri ki

bunebvri formebs inarCunebs; ulamazesi baRebi

aqvT iaponelebs, es aris bunebisa da adamianis

usazRvro fantaziis Serwyma.

baR-parkebis garda, arsebobs sxva uamravi

sarekreacio adgili da saSualeba: biliardisa

Tu boulingis saTamaSo klubebi, zoologiuri

parkebi, akvaparkebi...

29.rekreacia

iaponuri parki

zogierT zoologiur parkSi cxovelebs galiaSi ar aTavseben, isini Tavisuflad

daseirnoben, adamianebi ki specialuri manqanebiT aTvaliereben zooparksa da mis

binadrebs. samxreT afrikis respublikaSi arsebobs sastumro-zooparki, sadac,

SeiZleba iTqvas, rolebia Secvlili _ „galiaSi“ adamianebi sxedan, anu sastumros

nomrebi specialurad aris izolirebuli cxovelebisagan, romlebic Tavisuflad

daseirnoben sastumros teritoriaze.

albaT ici, rom mTel msoflioSi didi popularobiT

sargeblobs ioga, rogorc energiis aRdgenis, janmrTelobis

ganmtkicebisa da gantvirTvis saSualeba. igi saTaves indoeTSi

iRebs. induri religiur-filosofiuri warmodgeniT,

adamians sulieri da fizikuri varjiSiT SeuZlia miaRwios

srulyofilebas, risTvisac yvelaze ukeTesi gza iogaa. igi

dasavleTis qveynebSic gavrcelda, rogorc rekreaciis,

dasvenebis, energiis aRdgenis, janmrTelobis SenarCunebis

saSualeba. indoeTSi arsebobs iogas ramdenime mimarTuleba,

romlebic religiur-filosofiur warmodgenebs efuZneba,

xolo dasavleTSi Camoyalibda fitnes-iogas mimarTuleba,

romelsac mxolod varjiSis, Zalebis aRdgenis, gamajansa-

Rebeli datvirTva aqvs da ara religiur-filosofiuri.

liTxva

l Seni azriT, riT aris ganpirobebuli

gansxvaveba sxvadasxva qveynis sarekreacio

zonebs Soris?

davaleba

l isaubre rekreaciis formebsa da saSualebebze,

romlebic Sen yvelaze metad mogwons.

sportuli ioga

religiur-filosofiuri ioga

105


30

bavSvebis TamaSi

TamaSi

albaT, ginaxavs saqsovi Zafis gorgaliT moburTave

katis knuti, moTamaSe ZaRlis lekvebi an sxva cxovelebi.

TamaSi mxolod adamianisTvis damaxasiaTebeli unari

ar aris, cxovelebic TamaSoben. Tumca adamianma,

cxovelebisgan gansxvavebiT, Seqmna uamravi TamaSi:

sabavSvoTi dawyebuli _ klasobana, Svidqvaobana,

damalobana, koWobana, Cikori da sxva, sportis nairgvari

saxeobebiT damTavrebuli _ fexburTi, Wadraki, kriketi...

TamaSi kulturis erT-erTi universaliaa. msoflios sxvadasxva xalxis mier

Seqmnili araerTi TamaSi gascda warmoSobis adgils; magaliTad, Wadraki saTaves

indoeTSi iRebs, olimpiuri TamaSebi _ saberZneTSi, fexburTi ki _ britaneTSi, dRes

ki maT mTel msoflioSi TamaSoben. yvela TamaSs aqvs saerTo mizani _ gamarjveba,

wesebi, saTamaSo adgili da dro. TamaSi ar aris „Cveulebrivi“, „namdvili“ cxovreba,

patara bavSvmac ki icis, rom TamaSis dros yvelafers akeTebs „viTom“.

erTi mxriv, TamaSi aRiqmeba, rogorc araseriozuli, Sromis sapirispiro qceva

(gaixsene ufrosebis SeniSvna _ „nu TamaSob, seriozulad dajeqi“, „saqmes akeTeb Tu

TamaSob?“). TamaSis dros adamiani erToba, isevenebs da siamovnebas iRebs. swored

amitom TamaSoben aramarto bavSvebi, aramed zrdasruli adamianebic. TamaSi maTTvis

gantvirTvis saSulebaa.

meore mxriv, arsebobs sportuli TamaSis profesiuli

saxeobebi, magaliTad, fexburTi. fexburTelebi didi

energiisa da Sromis fasad cdiloben gaxdnen Cempionebi.

es maTTvis ara garToba, aramed seriozuli saqmea,

profesiaa (gaixsene gakveTili „Sroma, profesia da hobi“).

rogorc ukve aRvniSneT, zogierTi TamaSi msoflio

masStabis gaxda, zogi ki mxolod adgilobriv

tradiciebSi SemorCa. sainteresoa, rom saqarTveloSi

arsebuli bevri uZvelesi TamaSi dRemde Semoinaxa.

ZaRlebis TamaSi

„qarTvelebis odeni sxvadasxvagvari saTamaSo TiTqmis arc erTs xalxs ar aqvs da

yovelgvari saTamaSoc uTuod iseTia, romelic Wkua-gonebasa da sxeuls swvrTnis,

avarjiSebs. yvelas ar CamogiTvliT aq, ... davasaxeleb mxolod „burTaobas”...

burTaobis dros Tvali, fexi, xeli, Tavi, tani da yoliferi Tanasworad eCveva

simardes. qarTul saTamaSoebs bavSvebi Tavis xeliT akeTeben, magaliTad, tafa-riks

TviTon gamosWrian xolme, Svildkodals ikeTeben, burTs Tavis xeliT amzadeben, da

es Sroma kidev ufro ayvarebs patara patrons Tavis sakuTrebas“, _ ase ixsenebs akaki

wereTeli Tavisi bavSvobis sayvarel TamaSebs TxzulebaSi „Cemi Tavgadasavali“.

akaki wereTlis mier CamoTvlili TamaSebidan bevri aRar arsebobs, Tumca erT-erTi

maTgani _ „burTaoba“, romelsac meorenairad „lelos“ uwodeben, dRemde SemorCa.

106 msoflio kultura


lelo dasavleT saqarTveloSi gavrcelebuli

sportis uZvelesi erovnuli saxeobaa. es aris

gunduri TamaSi burTiT. moTamaSeTa mizania burTis

mitana mowinaaRmdege gundis piriT xazTan da lelos

gatana. TamaSobda ubani ubanTan, sofeli sofelTan,

Temi TemTan. lelo sabrZolo momzadebis erT-erT

ZiriTad saSualebad iTvleboda. guria-samegreloSi

lelos dResac TamaSoben.

laxti saqarTvelos sxvadasxva kuTxeSi

gavrcelebuli xalxuri TamaSia. moTamaSeebi iyofian

or gundad. Semoxazaven 6-8 nabijis siganis wres,

TamaSisaTvis saWiroa imdeni qamari, ramdeni wyvilic

TamaSobs. maT qamarze fexis dadgmis ufleba ar aqvT.

Tavdamsxmelebi garSemo uvlian da wridan laxtis

gamotacebas cdiloben. Tu erTi qamris xelSi Cagdeba

mainc moaxerxes, danarCenebs advilad gaitaceben,

radgan SeuZliaT gatacebuli qamriT damcvelebs

wvivebSi scemon da wridan sxva qamrebic gamoitanon.

aseve daSvebulia wridan damcvelis gamoTreva da

amiT misi TamaSidan gamoTiSva. roca yvela qamars

moitaceben, Tavdamsxmelebi iwyeben mowinaaRmdegeTa

„axurebas“ _ qamrebiT muxls qvemoT cemas. damcvels

SeuZlia metoqisaTvis qamris warTmeva (ukan

dabrunebul qamars daagorgoleben da wris SuagulSi

dadeben), moieriSis wreSi SeTreva da TamaSidan

gamoTiSva, mowinaaRmdegis „CaWra“ _ muxlqveviT

terfis mortyma, rac mogebis tolfasia. amis Semdeg

rolebi icvleba da TamaSi Tavidan iwyeba.

30.TamaSi

lelo

laxti

sajildao qva

sajildao qvis aweva _ Sejibri qvis awevaSi _ saqarTvelos sxvadasxva kuTxeSi

gavrcelebuli sportis xalxuri saxeobaa. arsebobda sajildao qvis awevis

ramdenime safexuri: qaris gatareba, anu qvis miwidan aReba, muxlamde aweva, aweva da

nabijis gadadgma, mkerdamde aweva, Tavs zemoT aweva, Sekazmul cxenze gadagdeba.

dawesebuli iyo sxvadasxva jildo: vinc lods odnav mainc aacilebda miwas, xuTi

vercxliT unda dajildoebuliyo; „vinc muxlamde awevda, erT muWa vercxls

uboZebdnen, xolo vinc mkerdamde aitanda, vercxliT qudis avsebas pirdebodnen“

(giorgi SatberaSvili). svaneTSi, sofel kalis saTemoSi, me-11 saukunis kvirikes

salocavis ezoSi, kvirikoba dRes (28 ivlisi) imarTeboda Sejibreba sajildao qvis

awevaSi, romelsac „baCa-liked“ erqva. zogierTi lodi daaxloebiT 140 kilorgams

iwonida, sajildao qvis awevaSi zogjer qalebic monawileobdnen, romlebic

SedarebiT mcire zomis lodebs eWidebodnen.

107


qarTuli kompiuteruli TamaSi `didi

qarTvelebi~ _ vaJa-fSavela

davaleba

droTa ganmavlobaSi esa Tu is TamaSi formas

da, zogjer, Sinaarssac icvlis. magaliTad, dRes

gogonebi saxlobanas sxvanairad TamaSoben da

ara ise, rogorc maTi dedebi an bebiebi. Cndeba

axali TamaSebi. bevri maTgani kompiuteruli

teqnologiebis ganviTarebas ukavSirdeba

(gaixsene „strategia“ gakveTilidan „kulturis

universaliebi“). sxvadasxva qveyanaSi iqmneba

cnobili kompiuteruli TamaSebis „adgilobrivi“

versiebi, magaliTad, saqarTveloSi arsebobs

seria „didi qarTvelebi“, romelTa naxva SegiZlia

misamarTze http://gm.ambebi.ge/

1. gaixsene gakveTili „socializacia“ da imsjele, ramdenad SeiZleba TamaSi

socializaciis agentad CaiTvalos?

2. moiZie informacia Sens kuTxeSi gavrcelebuli romelime Zveli TamaSis Sesaxeb.

TamaSoben Tu ara mas dRes?

108 msoflio kultura


dro 31

dro, TiTqos, adamianisgan damoukideblad

arsebobs, ar eqvemdebareba

mis zemoqmedebas. warsuls, awmyosa da

momavals drois bunebriv monakveTebad

miviCnevT. magram, kargad Tu davakvirdebiT,

dro iseTive kulturuli

artefaqtia, rogoric, magaliTad,

magida an saxli. yvela kultura droSi

arsebobs, magram TiToeuli kultura

gansxvavebulad aRiqvams, anawilebs

da gamoxatavs dros, gansxvavebul

mniSvnelobas aniWebs an, zog SemTxvevaSi,

sruliadac uyuradRebod tovebs mas.

klefsidra

droisadmi gansakuTrebuli yurad-

RebiT dasavluri kulturebi gamoirCeva,

Tumca, ra Tqma unda, yvela erTnairad

ara. magaliTad, amerikis SeerTebul

StatebSi cxovrebis wess „dro karnaxobs“,

cxovrebis tempi Zalian swrafia, xolo

safrangeTSi, italiaSi an, Tundac,

saqarTveloSi, SeiZleba, cxovreba droze

naklebad „damokidebulad“ miviCnioT.

31.dro

artefaqti (laT. arte _ xelovnuri,

factum - gakeTebuli) _ adamianis

naxelavi, mis mier Seqmnili an

gardaqmnili.

mzis saaTi

drois gazomva, misi msvlelobis Seswavla uZvelesi

droidan adamianis erT-erT mizans warmoadgenda.

amisaTvis mravali sxvadasxva xelsawyo Seiqmna _ mzis

saaTi, wylis saaTi (klefsidra), qviSis saaTi, meqanikuri

saaTi, eleqtronuli saaTi. istoriis manZilze saaTma

mniSvnelovani adgili daikava adamianis cxovrebaSi. dRes

Cven warmoudgenlad migvaCnia zedmiwevniT zusti drois

codnis gareSe arseboba, Tumca es yvela kulturaze

erTnairad ar iTqmis. zogi kultura met mniSvnelobas

aniWebs sizustes, punqtualurobas, saqmianobis droSi

ganawilebas da droulad Sesrulebas, zogi _ naklebs.

droisadmi damokidebulebaze miuTiTebs cxovrebis

tempic: dro, TiTqos, erTgan ufro swrafad midis,

vidre sxvagan. is kulturebi, romlebic gansakuTrebiT

afaseben drois efeqtur gamoyenebas, cxovrebis maRali

tempiT xasiaTdeba; saaTi sacxovrebeli da samuSao

garemos aucilebeli atributia.

mzis saaTi, gelaTi

109


wminda ieronime

mxatvari ios van kleve. me-16 saukune.

kaTolikuri eklesiis erT-erT

mamad miCneuli. wm. ieronime xSirad

gamoisaxeboda Tavis qalasTan

erTad. am naxatze Tavis qala, saaTi

(zeda marjvena kuTxeSi) da TiTqmis

Camwvari sanTeli amqveyniuri

cxovrebis swrafmavlobas gamoxatavs.

msoflio saaTi berlinSi

me-15 saukunis astronomiuli

saaTi praRaSi, CexeTi

sizustes iaponiaSi kidev ufro didi yuradReba

eqceva, vidre evropasa da amerikaSi. es cxadad Cans

iaponiis rkinigzis sistemis magaliTze: Tu evropaSi

„dagvianeba” niSnavs ganrigidan 15 wuTze met gadacdenas,

anu, Tu matarebeli 14 wuTs daagvianebs, es mainc

droulad iTvleba, iaponiaSi dasaSvebad miiCneva

ganrigSi miTiTebuli droidan mxolod erTi wuTis

farglebSi gadacdena.

citgloge, me-13 saukunis saaTi

bernSi, Sveicaria.

saaTis koSki sigiSoaraSi,

rumineTi

daaxloebiT 1000 wels abatma

herbertma (946-1003), romelic

Semdgom romis papi silvestr

II gaxda, gamoigona pirveli

meqanikuri saaTi. manve xeli

Seuwyo arabuli mecnierebis

miRwevebis, ariTmetikisa da

maTematikis gavrcelebas evropaSi,

xelaxla gaacno Tanamed

ro veebs saangariSo da

astrono miuli xelsawyoebi,

romlebic antikuri peri odis Semdgom daviwyebas

mieca. daaxloebiT me-12 saukunidan germaniaSi gaCnda

pirveli koSkis saaTebi, romlebiTac male mTeli

evropa daifara. qalaqis moednebze ganTavsebuli

saaTebi drois garkveul monakveTSi rekviT mTel

qalaqs auwyebdnen ara mxolod zust dros, aramed

axsenebdnen drois warmavlobasac.

xSirad saaTebi eklesiebzec keTdeboda da es

SemTxveviTi ar iyo: qristianuli moZRvrebis Tanaxmad,

drois svlasTan erTad, ukanaskneli samsjavroc

axlovdeboda. es yvela qristians unda xsomeboda

yoveldRiur cxovrebasa da saqmianobaSi. ase rom,

saaTis rekva eklesiebis samrekloebidan ukanasknel

samsjavrosa da, masTan erTad, drois dasasrulsac

axsenebda Tavis mrevls.

110 msoflio kultura


samreklodan da minareTidan qristian da muslim morwmuneebs

locvis drois dadgomas auwyeben

kiTxva

saaTis koSki miunhenSi,

germania

l erTi amerikeli mecnieris TqmiT, amerikuli xuTi wuTi meqsikur erT saaTs udris _

es is droa, romelic, daTqmul Sexvedraze dagvianebis SemTxvevaSi, bodiSis moxdas

gavaldebulebs. ra SemTxvevaSi vixdiT dagvianebisaTvis bodiSs saqarTveloSi?

davaleba

1. gaixsene drosTan dakavSirebuli sxvadasxva gamoTqma da axseni, droisadmi rogor

damokidebulebas asaxavs isini.

2. gamoikvlie, drois ra monakveTs gulisxmobs sityvebi „axlave“, „male“, „xuT wuTSi“,

„axlaxan“.

3. warmoidgine da imsjele adamianTa cxovrebaze meqanikuri da eleqtronuli saaTebis

ararsebobis SemTxvevaSi.

4. daakvirdi transportis moZraobis grafiks, miuTiTebs Tu ara droisadmi garkveul

damokidebulebaze sazogadoebaSi _ magaliTad, punqtualurobasa an drois

yairaTian moxmarebaze?

31.dro

111


damatebiTi informacia

cxovreba drois gareSe

braziliaSi, tropikul junglebSi mcxovrebi pirahas tomi daaxloebiT 350-400

adamians iTvlis. am tomis xalxi monadireobiTa da SemgroveblobiT aris dakavebuli.

isini sakuTar Tavs uwodeben hiaitihi, rac niSnavs „marTalni, Seumcdarni“.

pirahas kultura da ena unikaluria yvela arsebul kulturasa da yvela cocxal

enaTa Soris. es Taviseburebebi mecnierTa Soris azrTa sxvadasxvaobisa da kamaTis

safuZveli gaxda.

amerikeli lingvisti daniel evereti, romelic 1970-ian wlebSi 7 wlis manZilze

cxovrobda pirahas xalxTan da aTeulobiT wlis manZilze ikvlevda maT enasa da

kulturas, miiCnevs, rom pirahas enis Seswavla ukiduresad rTulia. es Sefaseba

ucnaurad SeiZleba mogveCvenos, radgan pirahas ena mxolod 3 xmovansa da 8 Tanxmovans

Seicavs da leqsikuri TvalsazrisiTac erTob mwiria. Tumca, am enas axasiaTebs

tonalobebis, maxvilebis da marcvalTa sigrZis/xangrZlivobis uaRresad rTuli

mravalferovneba. amitom pirahas enaze molaparake adamians ise SeuZlia gamoTqvas

xmovnebi da Tanxmovnebi, rom saubari ufro metad stvenas, simReras an zuzuns

emsgavseba. garda amisa, pirahas enaSi zmnis struqturac uCveulod rTulia. am enis

unikaluroba, rogorc lingvistebi miiCneven, isaa, rom pirahas ena erTaderTia,

romelsac ar gaaCnia qvewyobili winadadeba. magram yvelaze uCveulo mainc is aris,

rom am enaSi saerTod ar arsebobs feris, ricxvebis, raodenobis (mxolod „ramdenime“

da „meti“), aseve droisa da warsulis aRmniSvneli sityvebi. zmnas ar aqvs warsuli dro.

ar arsebobs aranairi codna tomis warsulis Sesaxeb, pirahas xalxs ar hyavs gmirebi, ar

gaaCnia zepiri istoriebi winaprebis Sesaxeb, romlebsac uyvebian axalgazrda Taobas.

ar aqvT miTebi da samyaros SeqmnasTan dakavSirebuli warmodgenebi, arc xatvis

tradicia, romelic sxva kulturebSi damaxsovrebis

erT-erTi saSualebad miiCneva.

daniel evereti

amerikeli lingvisti

daniel evereti miiCnevs, rom ena kulturis mier

iqmneba, pirahas kulturas ki ar ainteresebs warsuli da

momavali, Sesabamisad, isini arc mis enaSi aisaxa. pirahas

kulturis arsi aris „cxovreba aq da axla“. erTaderTi,

rasac pirahasTvis mniSvneloba SeiZleba hqondes, aris

is, rac xdeba awmyoSi. awmyoSi cxovreba xsnis imasac,

rom maT ar aqvT miTebi samyaros Seqmnis Sesaxeb. maTi

azriT, yvelaferi, rac aris, yovelTvis iyo. ramdenadac

mniSvnelovani ar unda iyos awmyoSi momxdari movlena

Tu adamiani, is maleve miecema daviwyebas. pirahas

tomSi sul ramdenimes SeiZleba axsovdes, magaliTad,

Tavisi bebiebisa da babuebis saxeli. pirahas xalxi ar

interesdeba imiT, rasac uSualod ar xedavs an ganicdis,

maTTvis abstraqtuli ideebi ar aris mimzidveli _

yvelafers sagnobrivi Sesatyvisi unda moeZebnebodes.

112 msoflio kultura


magaliTad, maT maSinve dakarges interesi ieso qristes mimarT, rogorc ki gaiges,

rom is aravis unaxavs.

aseve gulgrilia piraha momavlis mimarTac. maTi saqmianoba tovebs STabeWdilebas,

rom isini ar zrunaven momavalze ise, rogorc amas vakeTebT Cven. Cveni TiToeuli

„dRevandeli dRis“ mniSvnelovan nawils ikavebs fiqri da zrunva „xvalindel dReze“.

magram pirahas xalxi ase ar iqceva: magaliTad, isini arasodes imarageben sakvebs,

rasac moipoveben, maSinve iTviseben. isini ar iyeneben xorcis Sebolvis xerxs misi

Senaxvis mizniT, miuxedavad imisa, rom ician am xerxis Sesaxeb; fqvilsac mxolod

ramdenime dRis samyofs fqvaven.

cxadia, rodesac ar aris codna zusti ricxvebis, raodenobis, gamoTvlis Sesaxeb,

iq ver ganviTardeba codna drois Sesaxebac. Tu enaSi ar aris sityvebi ama Tu im ideis

gasaviTareblad, es ideebi ver Camoyalibdeba. Tumca, aris iseTi magaliTi, rodesac

varlpiris xalxma (avstralieli aborigenebi), romelTa raodenobis aRmniSvneli

sityvebi Semoifargleboda „erTi, ori, bevri“, iswavla Tvla inglisurad. magram

pirahas tomi aqac unikaluri aRmoCnda _ daniel evereti rva Tvis manZilze aswavlida

maT Tvlas portugaliurad, magram verc erTma maTganma ver iswavla Tvla aTamde.

d. evereti darwmunebulia, rom es ar miuTiTebs pirahas xalxis inteleqtualur

SesaZleblobebze, aramed imaze, rom isini, ubralod, ar miiCneven Tvlas da ricxvebs

saWirod Tavisi cxovrebisaTvis.

pirahas tomi ar cxovrobs garesamyarosgan izolirebulad, magram es maT cxovrebis

wesze gavlenas ar axdens. pirahas xalxi gamorCeviT konservatiulia. magaliTad

SeiZleba erTi istoria moviyvanoT. pirahas xalxi yoveldRiurad iyenebs kanoes (navs)

TevzaobisaTvis. rodesac kanoeebi Zveldeba da xmarebisaTvis uvargisi xdeba, mis

nacvlad isini, droebiT, xis qerqs iyeneben. amitom d. everetma moiyvana xelosani,

romelmac maT kanoes damzadeba aswavla. garkveuli drois Semdeg, rodesac maT kidev

dasWirdaT kanoe, pirahas xalxma ganacxada: „piraha ar amzadebs kanoes!“

diskusia

l pirahas xalxis magaliTze, imsjeleT kulturisa da enis mimarTebis Sesaxeb drois

konteqstSi.

31.dro

113


32

cikluri da sworxazovani dro

albaT, TiToeul Tqvengans, weliwadSi erTxel mainc, uxdeba qalaqidan sofelSi

an soflidan qalaqSi wasvla. SeamCnevdiT, rom drois mniSvneloba sxvadasxvagvaria

urbanul da agrarul sivrceSi. qalaqSi drois yovel monakveTs garkveuli mniSvneloba

aqvs, magaliTad, swavla da samsaxuri yovelTvis konkretul dros iwyeba, Sesvenebac

saaTis mixedviT aris gawerili, imis miuxedavad, weliwadis ra droa da rogori amindia

ama Tu im dRes. sofelSi droisadmi damokidebuleba

gansxvavebulia: aq ufro meti mniSvneloba drois did

monakveTebs eniWeba, vidre wuTsa da wams. sofelSi,

sameurneo saqmianobis specifikidan gamomdinare,

yuradReba eqceva weliwadis dros, ganTiads, naSuadRevs

an mwuxrs, cota vinme Tu akvirdeba saaTebsa da wuTebs

imis gasarkvevad, rodis garekos saqoneli saZovarze,

rodis mowvelos Zroxa, an rodis gavides mindorSi

samuSaod. samagierod, yuradReba eqceva aminds, imas,

romelime konkretul dRes wvims Tu Takara mzea.

davaleba

l imsjele, sofelSi maRviZaras ise aqtiurad iyeneben, rogorc qalaqSi?

actekebis wriuli formis

kalendari

mecnierebi ganasxvaveben

drois orgvar aRqmas

_ ciklurs/wriuls da

swor xazovans. pirveli

gagebis mixedviT, dro

ganme orebadi ciklebis

monac vleobaa. drois

aseTi gageba dama xasiaTebeli

iyo mravali Zveli

kulturisaTvis, maga liTad

egvipturi, Suamdi na ruli,

induri da sxva. aseTi aRqma

drois buneb rivi ciklebis (magaliTad, weliwadis droebi,

okeanis miqceva da moq ceva, mdinarebSi wylis donis

cvalebadoba, mTvaris ciklebi da a.S.) monacvleobas da

mudmiv ganmeorebadobas eyrdnoboda. sazogadoebebi,

kalaCakra _ `drois borbali~

induisturi da budisturi

religiisa da filosofiisaTvis

damaxasiaTebeli koncefciaa,

romlis mixedviT dro

cikluria da ganmeorebadi

periodebisagan Sedgeba

romle bic drois cikluri aRqmiT xasiaTdeba, naklebad zrunavs warsulis Senaxvasa

da damaxsovrebaze, radgan, maTi azriT, amqveynad yvelaferi meordeba. Sesabamisad,

moma valic ar aris zrunvis sagani, radgan iqac yvelaferi winaswar gansazRvrulia.

cikluri drois kulturebi, umTav resad, awmyoze arian orientirebuli.

114 msoflio kultura


droisadmi damokidebuleba, iseve rogorc kulturis sxva maxasiaTeblebi, enaSi

vlindeba. qarTulSi sityva „win” asocirdeba momavalTan, xolo „ukan” _ warsulTan.

rodesac adamianis gamxneveba gvinda, mas veubnebiT _ ukan nu moixedav, yovelTvis

win iyureo. amiT vgulisxmobT, rom igi warsulisgan unda gaTavisufldes da

momavalze izrunos. magram, amasTanave, qarTul enaSi gvaqvs sityvebi _ „guSinwin“,

„winaT“, „ramdenime wlis win“ _ romlebic warsul dros ukavSirdeba. Sesabamisad, aq

SeiZleba davinaxoT dros cikluri aRqmis magaliTi, rodesac warsuli da momavali

erTi mTlianobaa da rac „winaT“ _ warsulSi iyo, is dagvxvdeba „win“ _ momavalSic.

drois cikluri aRqma gansakuTrebiT

damaxasiaTebelia im sazogadoebebisaTvis,

romelTa cxovreba da saqmianoba mWidrod aris

dakavSirebuli drois bunebriv ciklebTan.

urbanul sivrceSi ki, sadac saqmianobis sxva

sferoebi ganviTarda (magaliTad, vaWroba,

xelosnoba, warmoeba), droisadmi gansxvavebuli

damokidebuleba Camoyalibda. aseTi gageba

gulisxmobs dros, rogorc sworxazovans,

wrfivs, romelsac aqvs dasabami da dasasruli

an, sulac, usasruloa. aseTi dro Seuqcevadia,

misi dabruneba SeuZlebelia, Sesabamisad,

warsulSi Cadenili qmedebebic ar eqvemdebareba

cvlilebebs.

davaleba

32. cikluri da sworxazovani dro

qarTuli borjRali mzis simboloa,

romelic, amasTanave, drois wrebrunvas

gamoxatavs. es simbolo gamosaxulia

uZvelesi periodis ritualur da

sayofacxovrebo nivTebze, Sua

saukuneebis arqiteqturul Zeglebze

da Tanamerove saxelmwifo da sxva

simbolikaSi

l Zveli berZeni tragikosis agaTonis (Zv.w. 448-400) sityviT, erTaderTi ram aris

miuwvdomeli RmerTisTvis: Secvalos warsuli.

Seni azriT, drois aRqmis romel koncefcias gamoxatavs agaTonis sityvebi?

amgvarad, sworxazovani

drois koncefciis farglebSi,

drois swrafi svla

Zalian mZafrad ganicdeba.

warsuli mkafiod aris

gamijnuli momavlisagan.

iwyeba zrunva imisaTvis,

rom samudamod gasuli

warsuli daviwyebas ar

mieces _ iqmneba istoria.

amasTanave, drois sworxazovani

gageba gulisxmobs,

istoriuli drois xazi, romelic xazovani drois koncefcias

gamoxatavs

115


om momavali adamianebze, maT saqmianobazea damokidebuli, rac naklebad SeiniSneba

cikluri drois koncefciaSi.

droisadmi damokidebulebis mixedviT ganasxvaveben, erTi mxriv, sazogadoebebs,

romelic tradiciebis SenarCunebisaken arian midrekili da, meore mxriv, sazogadoebebs,

romlebic siaxleebis damkvidrebas aniWeben upiratesobas.

davaleba

1. imsjele, Cveni sazogadoebisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli drois aRqma cikluria Tu

sworxazovani.

2. moiZie informacia qarTuli xalxuri dResaswaulebis Sesaxeb, romlebic

dakavSirebulia sezonuri ciklebis monacvleobasTan.

3. sworxazovani drois idea bibliidan iRebs saTaves. Tumca bibliis teqstebis

sxvadasxva monakveTSi drois rogorc cikluri, ise sworxazovani koncefcia

vlindeba. waikiTxe fragmentebi eklesiastes wignidan da imsjele masSi asaxul

drois aRqmaze.

4. daakvirdi mocemul koordinatTa sistemas da imsjele, rogor aris asaxuli enaSi

drosTan damokidebuleba.

სკნელი

116 msoflio kultura


damatebiTi informacia

aRmoxdeba mze da Cadis igi, ubrundeba Tavis adgils da kvlav iqidan amobrwyindeba.

samxreTisaken mihqris qari, gabrundeba CrdiloeTisken; brunavs, brunavs, mihqris

qari da ubrundeba isev Tavis wres.

yvela mdinare zRvebisaken miedineba, zRva ki mainc ar aRivseba; mdinareni saiTkenac

miedinebodnen, kvlavac iqiTken miedinebian.

rac yofila, igive iqneba da rac momxdara, igive moxdeba; araferia mzis qveS axali.

naxaven rasme da ityvian: aha, axali. [magram] esec yofila Cvens winare saukuneSi.

yovelives Tavis dro aqvs da yvelafers Tavisi Jami am cisqveSeTSi.

Jami Sobisa da Jami sikvdilisa; Jami danergvisa da Jami dangreulis aRmofxvrisa.

Jami mokvdinebisa da Jami gankurnebisa; Jami ngrevisa da Jami Senebisa.

Jami tirilisa da Jami sicilisa; Jami glovisa da Jami lxinisa.

Jami qvaTa mimofantvisa da Jami maTi Segrovebisa; Jami mijnurTa paemanisa da Jami

maTi gayrisa.

Jami povnisa da Jami dakargvisa; Jami Senaxvisa da Jami gaflangvisa.

Jami darRvevisa da Jami Sekervisa; Jami dumilisa da Jami ubnobisa.

Jami siyvarulisa da Jami siZulvilisa; Jami omisa da Jami mSvidobisa.

yovelive erT adgils miva; yvelaferi miwisganaa da yvelaferi miwad iqceva.

32. cikluri da sworxazovani dro

eklesiaste

117


33

ena, niSanTa sistemebi

komunikacia (laT. communicare _

sayovelTaod gaxdoma) _ aris

kavSiris damyarebis, codnis an

informaciis gadacemis procesi

or an mraval individs, jgufs Tu

kulturas Soris.

Sen ukve ici, ra aris simbolo, sagnebisa da movlenebis

simbolizaciis unari, rasac adamianis unikalur

Tvisebad miiCneven. cnobili germaneli filosofosis

ernst kasireris azriT, adamiani „simboloTa badiT“ aris

SemosazRvruli da am badeSi, miTosTan, xelovnebasTan,

religiasTan erTad, enas wamyvani adgili uWiravs. ena

simboloTa sistemaa. am simboloebis _ sityvebis _

mniSvneloba gaziarebulia konkretuli sazogadoebis

wevrTa mier, sxvagvarad rom vTqvaT, gasagebia am

sazogadoebis wevrebisaTvis. rogorc enaTmecnierebi

varaudoben, dRes msoflioSi daaxloebiT 5-6 aTas

sxvadasxva enaze laparakoben. metyvelebis unari,

romelic enis meSveobiT xorcieldeba, adamianis

damaxasiaTebeli erT-erTi umTavresi niSania, romlis

saSualebiT gamovTqvamT azrebs, sityvieri formiT

gamovxatavT grZnobebs.

sxva biologiuri saxeobebisagan

adamians, upirvelesad, ena da metyvelebis

unari gamoarCevs. misi meSveobiT adamianebi

erTmaneTTan urTierTobas amyareben. ena

informaciis dagrovebis, swavlebisa da

swavlis, TanamSromlobis, gamocdilebis

gadacemis yvelaze efeqturi saSualebaa.

cxovelTa sakomunikacio sistemebisagan

ena, pirvel rigSi, imiT gansxvavdeba, rom

adamiani mas biologiuri memkvidreobis

saxiT ki ar iRebs, aramed swavlobs.

Sesabamisad, enobrivi komunikacia, TiTqmis

srulad, swavlebazea dafuZnebuli.

ena, rogorc komunikaciis ZiriTadi

saSualeba, kacobriobis evoluciis

Sedegad Camoyalibda. igi ar gaCenila uceb,

istoriis erT konkretul etapze, aramed

aTaswleulebis manZilze viTardeboda.

ganviTarebis romeliRac safexurze Cvenma

winaprebma daiwyes bgerebis kombinireba.

gaCnda danawevrebuli metyveleba. bgeriTi

sistemebi, romlebsac Cveni winaprebi

iyenebdnen, TandaTanobiT Camoyalibda

enebad.

ernst kasireri

118 msoflio kultura


istoriul da socialur cvlilebebTan erTad, ena

mudmivad viTardeba. Cndeba axali sityvebi, icvleba

maTi mniSvneloba. magaliTad, regveni Zvel qarTulSi

axalgazrdasa da gamoucdels niSnavda, dRes ki sulelis,

briyvis mniSvnelobiT gamoiyeneba. icvleba ara marto

literaturuli ena, aramed yofiTi metyvelebac:

Jargoni, romelsac Tqveni mSoblebi iyenebdnen, SesaZloa,

TqvenTvis sruliad gaugebari iyos da piriqiT.

SeiZleba iTqvas, rom ena kulturis „saxlia“: igi

asaxavs kulturaSi arsebul yvela warmodgenas,

Sexedulebas, damokidebulebas, tradicias. TiToeuli

Cvengani samyaros aRiqvams mSobliuri enis meSveobiT,

romelSic Tavmoyrilia TaobaTa codna da gamocdileba.

me-20 saukunis dasawyisSi, roca ivane javaxiSvili, TanamoazreebTan

erTad, qarTuli universitetis daarsebisaTvis iRvwoda, qarTuli samecniero

terminologia, faqtobrivad, ar arsebobda. misi Seqmna universitetis mecnierTa

pirveli Taobebis damsaxurebaa. „Cven unda CamovayaliboT mecnieruli

WeSmaritebani im enaze, romelzec gavigoneT dedis alersi da warmovTqviT

pirveli sityva. es iqneba im didi kulturis aRorZineba, romelic winaprebma

dagvitoves“, aRniSnavda universitetis pirveli reqtori petre meliqiSvili.

swored am droidan damkvidrda mecnierebasa da yoveldRiur metyvelebaSi dRes

farTod gavrcelebuli terminebi _ Jangbadi, wyalbadi, mJava, tute, naerTi,

zeJangi, rkinigza, uReltexili, gantoleba, asanTi da sxva.

axal terminebs, qarTuli enis bunebis gaTvaliswinebiT, qmnidnen ilia WavWavaZe

da me-19 saukunis sxva qarTveli moRvaweebi. magaliTad, iliam daamkvidra sityvebi:

Sinaarsi, TvalTaxedva, uaryofa, ufleba, mmarTveloba, rwmuneba, kacobrioba,

erovneba, mTavroba da zogi sxva, akakis ekuTvnis Sexmatkbileba, gaiZvera, bobola,

niko nikolaZes _ liandagi, orTqlmavali. am sityvebis nawili Zveli qarTulidan

iyo aRebuli, nawili iqmneboda arsebuli Zirebis gamoyenebiT.

adamianebi aseve xSirad iyeneben niSanTa

enas. maT ricxvs ganekuTvneba is sistemebic,

romlebiTac smenadaqveiTebuli da

metyvelebis unars moklebuli adamianebi

sargebloben komunikaciis procesSi. es

sistemebi moicavs sabaziso Jestebis

SezRudul raodenobas, romelic salaparako enaSi gamoyenebul bgerebs Seesabameba.

maTi kombinirebis Sedegad yalibdeba sityvebi da mniSvnelobebi.

arsebobs saerTaSorisod aRiarebuli niSanTa sistemebi, romelTa gareSe

Tanamedrove msoflioSi adamianTa urTierToba Zalian Zneli iqneboda. isini

Tanabrad gasagebia qarTvelisa da frangisTvis, Cinelisa da brazilielisTvis _

33.ena, niSanTa sistemebi

piqtograma (laT. pictos _ daxatuli,

berZn. grama _ Canaweri) _ pirobiTi

niSani, naxati;

piqtografia _ xatovani damwerloba.

119


sanoto niSnebi

saerTaSorisod aRiarebuli

niSnebi _ piktogramebi

yvelasTvis, visac saqmiani an diplomatiuri

misiiT, saswavleblad, samuSaod Tu turistad

mogzauroba uwevs. am niSnebs piqtogramebs

uwodeben.

da bolos, niSanTa sistemebs ganekuTvneba

sxvadasxva mecnierebaSi gamoyenebuli

simboloebi, sanoto sistema, morzes anbani da

sxva, romelTac aseve sayovelTaod aRiarebuli

mniSvneloba aqvs.

sagzao niSnebi maTematikuri simboloebi

120 msoflio kultura


kiTxva

l niSanTa kidev romel sistemebs icnob?

davaleba

davaleba

1. moifiqre da moiZie qarTuli sityvebi, romelTa mniSvneloba droTa ganmavlobaSi

Seicvala.

2. CamoTvale dRes gamoyenebuli sityvebi, romlebic ucvlelad gadmovida sxva

enebidan.

33.ena, niSanTa sistemebi

121


34

enis `tyveobaSi~

kodireba _ procesi, romlis

Sedegad informacia gardaiqmneba

simboloebad da konkretuli

mniSvnelobis matarebeli xdeba.

ena nebismieri kulturis aucilebeli

komponentia. adamiani samyaros swored

enis meSveobiT aRiqvams da enisave

meSveobiT qmnis mis suraTs; rogorc

mecnierebi amboben, enaSi kodirebulia

arsebuli sinamdvile. ras niSnavs es?

mivmarToT magaliTs.

Cven ferad samyaroSi vcxovrobT _ xiluli sinamdvile uamravi feris sagnebisa Tu

sivrceebis saxiT gvexateba. magram fizikosisaTvis feri _ es aris sxvadasxva sixSiris

eleqtromagnituri gamosxiveba, e.w. speqtri, romelsac aRiqvams adamianis Tvali da

Sesabamis signalebs gadascems tvins. tvini ki miRebul informacias ferebad „alagebs“

_ garkveuli sixSiris talRebs erT ferad aRiqvams, sxvas _ sxva ferad. magram ra

fers ra saxeli daerqvas, amas tvins ena karnaxobs. qarTul da bevr sxva enaSi Svidi

ZiriTadi feris aRmniSvneli sityva arsebobs: wiTeli, narinjisferi, yviTeli, mwvane,

cisferi, lurji, iisferi. magram zog enebSi ZiriTad ferTa ricxvi sxvaa. arsebobs

enebi, romlebSic mTeli speqtri sul or feradaa dayofili. es ar niSnavs, rom amgvar

enebze molaparake adamianebi Cvenze uaresad arCeven ferebs; ubralod, maTi enebi

sxvanairad axdenen samyaros erT-erTi umniSvnelovanesi maxasiaTeblis _ feris _

kodirebas.

adamianisTvis imdeni feri arsebobs, ramdenis aRmniSvneli sityvac aris mis

mSobliur enaSi. cnobilia, rom inglisurSi ferebis aRmniSvneli naklebi sityvaa,

vidre zogierT sxva enaSi, Tundac qarTulSi. Tu qarTulSi cisfer da lurj ferebs

vasxvavebT, inglisurSi es ori feri erTi sityviT (blue) aRiniSneba.

gadavinacvloT Tvalidan yurze. mTel msoflioSi mamlebi daaxloebiT erTnairad

yivian, magram qarTulad molaparakeebs es yivili gvesmis rogorc „yiy-li-yo“,

ingliselebs „qoq-e-dudl-du“, rusebs _ „ku-ka-re-ku“, Cinelebs _ „go-ge-go-go“,

sparselebs _ „qu-qu-li-qu“, somxebs _ „wu-Rru-Ru“, filipinelebs _ „tik-ti-la-ok“

da a.S. rogorc xedav, yvela am mibaZviT sityvaSi raRac saerToa, magram gansxvavebac

bevria; es imis maCvenebelia, rom sxvadasxva enaSi erTi da igive mocemulobis (Cvens

SemTxvevaSi _ mamlis yivilis) kodireba SeiZleba gansxvavebulad moxdes.

rasakvirvelia, zemoTqmuli exeba ara marto ferebsa da bgerebs, aramed ufro

rTul cnebebsa da faseulobebs; sabolood ki gamodis, rom ena Tavisebur „tyveobaSi“

aqcevs adamians _ igi „iZulebulia“, ise aRiqvas sinamdvile, rogorc amas ena karnaxobs,

rogorc es sinamdvile kodirebulia enaSi.

122 msoflio kultura


sainteresoa evropuli klasikuri nawarmoebebis _ msoflio literaturis

Sedevrebis _ Targmanebi sxvadasxva (ZiriTadad aRmosavlur) enaze. mTargmnelebi

iZulebuli iyvnen, gaeTvaliswinebinaT ama Tu im enis da, Sesabamisad, kulturis

Taviseburebebi Targmanis Sesrulebis dros, sxvagvarad mkiTxvels misi aRqma

gauWirdeboda. amgvarad Seiqmna originaluri saxelwodebebis nawarmoebebi,

romelTa dedanTan dakavSireba, erTi SexedviT, Zalian rTulia. ai, ramdenime

maTgani: hariet biCer sTous „biZia Tomas qoxi“ Cinurad ase iTargmna _ „Savi mona

cas SehRaRadebs“; servantesis „don kixoti“ _ „raindi satanis cxovrebis aRwerad“

iqca; iaponiaSi gamocemul puSkinis „kapitnis qaliSvils“ grZeli da poeturi

saxeli daerqva _ „yvavilis guli da peplis suli. saocari ambebi ruseTidan“; lev

tolstois „omi da mSvidobis“ saTauris Targmani ki Semdegnairia: „yvavilTa glova

da mwuxare tirifebi, anu saSineli brZolebis sisxliani nakvalevi CrdiloeT

evropaSi“.

rogorc ukve ici, ena komunikaciis ZiriTadi saSualebaa. im SemTxvevaSi, Tu igi

am funqcias ar asrulebs, an nawilobriv asrulebs, rTulia sazogadoebaze, rogorc

mTlian da unikalur organizmze saubari. amis naTeli magaliTi Cveni qveynis istoriaSic

gvxvdeba: swored qarTuli enis funqciis problema afiqrebdaT „Tergdaleulebs“ me-

19 saukunis 60-iani wlebSi. ilia da misi Tanamoazreebi miiCnevdnen, rom am periodamde

arsebuli saliteraturo qarTuli ena sazogadoebis mxolod mcire nawilisTvis _

aristokratiisTvis iyo xelmisawvdomi. es, Tavis mxriv, arTulebda socialur fenebs

Soris komunikacias, rac sazogadoebis erTianobis safuZvelia. „TergdaleulTa“

iniciativiT gatarda enis reforma, xmarebidan amoiRes ramdenime aso-niSani, riTac

igi gacilebiT moqnili da yvelasTvis misawvdomi gaxda. qarTuli enis is forma,

romelzec dRes Cven vsaubrobT da vwerT, am epoqidan iRebs saTaves. Tu Seadareb enis

reformamde da reformis Semdeg daweril poetur da prozaul nimuSebs, gansxvavebas

TvalnaTliv dainaxav.

piter breigeli (1525-1569). babilonis

godoli.

bibliuri Tqmuleba babilonis godolis

Sesaxeb gadmogvcems, Tu rogor alaparakdnen

adamianebi sxvadasxva enaze. mecnierebma

ar ician enis warmoSobis zusti dro. ar

viciT, hqonda Tu ara rodesme kacobriobas

saerTo ena. miuxedavad imisa, rom arseboben

monaTesave enebi, TiToeuli maTgani

unikaluri da TviTmyofadia. lingvistebi

miuTiTeben, rom erTi enis sxvadasxva

variantis Camoyalibebaze did gavlenas

axdens konkretuli kultura. magaliTad,

inglisuri mSobliuri enaa ingliselebisa

da amerikelebisaTvis, avstralielebisa da

samxreT afrikelebisaTvis, magram isini am enis sagrZnoblad gansxvavebul versiebs

iyeneben.

34.enis `tyveobaSi~

123


eduard sepiri

b. uorfi ikvlevda

CrdiloeT

amerikis adgilobriv

mosaxleobas,

kerZod, amerikeli

indielebis toms

_ hopis. man aRmo-

benjamen li uorfi

aCina, rom am tomis

enaSi ar moiZebneba

sxvadasxva droiTi kategoriis aRmniSvneli

gramatikuli formebi. sxvagvarad rom vTqvaT,

maT ar aqvT sityvebi, romlebic aRniSnaven

warsuls, awmyos da momavals. es faqti gviCvenebs,

rom hopis tomis warmomadgenlebs droisadmi

friad Taviseburi damokidebuleba aqvT.

mSobliuri enis kategoriebi, gramatikuli formebi

da leqsikuri maragi gansazRvravs adamianis azrovnebas,

mis qcevas da garesamyarosadmi damokidebulebas.

es mosazreba cnobil amerikel mecnierebs eduard

sepirsa (1884-1939) da benjamen li uorfs (1897-1941)

ekuTvnis. ena gansazRvravs imas, Tu rogor yalibdeba

da gamoixateba azri. Cven ar SegviZlia viazrovnoT

sakuTari enis „miRma“, CvenTvis samyaro iseTia,

rogoradac misi aRqmis SesaZleblobas ena gvaZlevs.

magaliTad, im xalxis enaSi, sadac Zlieri naTesauri

kavSirebi arsebobs, naTesavis aRmniSvneli bevri

sxvadasxva sityvaa. Tu qarTulSi ganvasxvavebT deidas,

mamidas, bicolas, inglisurSi maT mxolod erTi sityviT

moixsenieben _ aunt. igive SeiZleba iTqvas mazlTan

da qvislTan, an rZalTan da mulTan dakavSirebiT,

inglisur enaSi msgavsi dayofa ar gvxvdeba, yvela

maTgans aRniSnaven sityvebiT „brother-in-law“ da „sisterin-law“.

hopis tomi

amgvarad, Cven sakuTari enis erTgvar „tyveobaSi“ vimyofebiT. SeiZleba Tu ara

am „tyveobisagan“ Tavis daRweva? ra Tqma unda, SeiZleba. yoveli axali enis Seswavla

axali samyaros Secnobaa, rac avsebs da afarToebs adamianis msoflmxedvelobas.

erTi sityviT, rogorc didma germanelma poetma goeTem Tqva, „ramdeni enac ici,

imdeni kaci xar“.

124 msoflio kultura


enis codna ar niSnavs mxolod sityvebis mniSvnelobisa da gramatikis wesebis

daswavlas. magaliTad, iranSi dRemde arsebobs “zrdilmetyvelebis” metad

Taviseburi instituti, e. w. “Taarofi”, romelic gulisxmobs da gvaswavlis imas,

Tu ra pasuxi unda miagebo SenTvis naTqvam komplimentsa Tu keTil sityvas. Tu es

ar ici, sparsuli rac ar unda kargad icode, iraneli, rogorc uzrdels, laparaks

didxans mainc ar gagibams. magaliTad: roca geubnebian, rom sparsulad kargad

laparakob an lamazad gamoiyurebi, Sen ueWvelad unda uTxra: „Tqveni Tvalebi

lamazad xedaveno“. an kidev: roca romelime qalbatoni SemTxveviT zurgiT

aRmoCndeba da amis gamo sazogadoebas bodiSs mouxdis, rogorc wesi, zrdilobiani

kaci miugebs: „ras brZanebT, qalbatono, vards zurgi da piri ara aqvso!“

kiTxva

giorgi lobJaniZe, aRmosavleTmcodne

l ramdeni sxvadasxva sityviT aRiniSneba qarTulsa da SenTvis cnobil romelime sxva

enaSi wvima? ganTiadi? Seni azriT, raze miuTiTebs es gansxvaveba?

davaleba

1. saskolo programidan gaixsene me-19 saukunis pirvel naxevarSi qarTveli

mwerlebisa da poetebis mier Seqmnili nawarmoebebi (magaliTad, qarTvel

romantikosTa leqsebi) da Seadare isini „Tergdaleulebis“ (i. WavWavaZe, a.

wereTeli da sxva) nawarmoebebs. imsjele maT Soris arsebul enobriv msgavsebebsa da

gansxvavebebze.

2. waikiTxe sareklamo sloganebi da ecade axsna, ram gamoiwvia aseTi paradoqsuli

Targmanebi? romeli faqtorebis gaTvaliswineba gamorCaT sareklamo kampaniis

dros?

kentukis Semwvari qaTmebi CineTSi. slogani _”TiTebs Caikvnet, iseTi gemrielia” _

iTargmna ase : ”moiWame Seni TiTebi”.

pepsi taivanSi. slogani: „gamococxldi pepsis TaobasTan erTad“ gardaiqmna frazad:

”pepsi gaacocxlebs Sens winaprebs”.

sigareti salemi iaponiaSi. slogani: ”salemi _ SeigrZeni Tavisufleba”. Targmani:

”salemis mowevisas ise gamococxlebulad grZnob Tavs, TiTqos Seni goneba

Tavisufali da carielia”.

fordis avtomobili ”kaliente” meqsikaSi. rodesac aRmoCnda, rom manqanebi ar

iyideboda, kompaniam gaarkvia, rom “caliente” Jargoni iyo da ”meZavs” aRniSnavda.

jeneral motorsis avtomobilma ”nova” seriozuli fiasko ganicada centralur da

samxreT amerikaSi. espanurad “no va” niSnavs ”is ar dadis”.

amerikis aviaxazebma gadawyvita pirveli klasis salonis tyavis savarZlebis reklamireba

meqsikur bazarze. slogani ”ifrine tyavSi” (“Fly in leather”) sityvasityviT gadaTargmnes,

es ki espanurad niSnavs ”ifrine SiSvelma” (“vuela en cuero”).

34.enis `tyveobaSi~

125


35

araverbaluri komunikacia

adamianisTvis ena ar aris komunikaciis erTaderTi saSualeba. urTierTobis

procesSi mosaubris ganwyoba, garda sityvebisa, mimikiT, JestebiT da sxva niSnebiT

gamoixateba. mniSvnelovania ara marto is, Tu ra aris naTqvami, aramed isic, Tu rogor

aris naTqvami. Cven viyenebT komunikaciis verbalur (sityvier) da araverbalur gzebs,

raTa gamovxatoT enTuziazmi, mowyeniloba, mwuxareba, mxiaruleba da a.S. kultura

gvaswavlis garkveul manerebs da stils, romelic Tan unda axldes ama Tu im saxisa

da Sinaarsis saubars.

zogierTi emocia, magaliTad _

sixaruli, mwuxareba, gaoceba, SiSi,

gabrazeba, sevda _ yvela kulturaSi

met-naklebad erTnairad gamoixateba

da aRiqmeba. magram sxvadasxva kultura

gansxvavebulad gansazRvravs imas,

Tu ramdenad TavSekavebiT an Riad

unda gamoixatos emociebi. magaliTad,

zogierTi sazogadoebis warmomadgenlebi

mxiarulebas, sxvebTan SedarebiT, ufro

TavSekavebulad gamoxataven; zogierT

kulturaSi kacebi naklebad icinian,

vidre qalebi. Rimilis da moRuSvis

xangrZlivoba gavlenas axdens adamianebis

garegnobasa da ierze (magaliTad, saxeze

naoWebis sixSireze da a.S.). erTTaTvis

ufro mravlismetyvelia mosaubris

Tvalebi, meoreni met yuradRebas aqceven

warbebis an piris moZraobas.

SenTan sasaubro maqvs, _ mimarTavs aRmosavleli mamakaci amerikel meuRles.

_ SeiZleba raRac gkiTxo?

_ ra Tqma unda.

_ xandaxan, roca me da Sen vsaubrobT, Sen laparaks wyvet, kbilebs maCveneb,

Tvalebs Wutav da mere isev agrZeleb laparaks. ai, ase _ da igi cdilobs mimikis

gameorebas.

_ mere ra? ase Cems bednier da xalisian ganwyobas gamovxatav, mixaria, rom

erTad varT da sasiamovno Temebze vsaubrobT.

_ uh! _ SvebiT amoisunTqa kacma. _ me ki megona, es tiki 1 iyo da SeiZleboda Cvens

Svilebze gadasuliyo. TqvenSi es normalurad iTvleba? es iseTi arabunebrivia!

1 tiki _ gaukontrolebeli, uneblie moZraoba an qmedeba

126 msoflio kultura


macxovreblebi ki tuCebis moZraobiT uTiTeben.

rogor amyareben erTmaneTTan urTierTobas

cxovelebi? rogor gadascemen isini informacias?

bevr kulturaSi Tavis vertikaluri moZraoba

ar niSnavs raimeze Tanxmobas, iseve rogorc

horizontaluri moZraoba yovelTvis ar aRniSnavs

raimes uaryofas (magaliTad, bulgarelebTan da

sxva xalxebTan Tavis aseTi moZraoba, Cvengan

gansxvavebiT, Tanxmobas gamoxatavs). brazilielebi

sakuTar uaryofiT damokidebulebas TiTis

daqneviT gamoxataven. amerikelebi da bevri

sxva kulturis warmomadgenlebi raimeze

misaTiTeblad TiTebs iyeneben, madagaskaris

Jesti, mimika da sxeulis moZraoba,

rac adamianisaTvis komunikaciis damxmare

saSualebaa, cxovelebisaTvis urTierTobis erTerTi

mTavari formaa. magaliTad, ZaRlebi kudis

qiciniT keTilganwyobas gamoxataven, kbilebis

dakreWiT _ muqaras, mamali farSevangi kudis

gaSliT mdedris moxiblvas cdilobs, mdedri

cicinaTelebi mamrebis mosaxiblad ganaTebis

sxvadasxva xerxs mimarTaven. futkrebi

gzavnian mzveravebs, romlebic eZeben

neqtriT mdidar adgilebs; skaSi dabrunebis

Semdeg isini asruleben moZraobebs,

romelsac Cven futkrebis cekvas vuwodebT.

mzveravebi saocari sizustiT gadascemen

muSa-futkrebs sakvebis adgilmdebareobas,

agreTve imas, Tu ramdeni „sawvavi“

daexarjebaT maT iq misaRwevad: skidan

gamofrenamde muSa-futkrebi aucileblad

iReben sazrdod garkveuli raodenobis

Tafls, raTa Zalebi moikribon.

garda amisa, cxovelebi komunikaciisaTvis

bgeriT sistemebsac iyeneben, isini moicaven

bgeraTa garkveul raodenobas. adamianis

msgavsi maimunebis bgeriTi sistemebi SedarebiT

srulyofilia, Tumca maT SeZaxilebs sityvebad

ver miviCnevT.

35.araverbaluri komunikacia

127


maimunebisTvis salaparako enis

swavlebis mcdelobebma aCvena, rom

maTi enobrivi SesaZleblobebi mwiria.

1950-ian wlebSi amerikelTa ojaxma

gazarda Simpanze, saxelad viki,

rogorc sakuTari ojaxis wevri, magram,

miuxedavad amisa, man mxolod oTxi

sityvis daswavla SeZlo (“mama”, “papa”,

“up” da “cup”).

Simpanzeebs da gorilebs aqvT elementaruli enobrivi SesaZleblobebi.

mecnierTa mier Catarebuli cdebi aCvenebs, rom maT SeuZliaT Jestebis enis

safuZvlebis Seswavla da gamoyeneba, Tumca es adamianebis Carevis Sedegad xdeba

da ara bunebrivad. magaliTad, gasuli saukunis 60-ian wlebSi Simpanzes Seaswavles

amerikuli niSnebis ena, pirvel etapze Simpanzem TandaTanobiT Seiswavla 100-ze

meti niSani, romlebic inglisuri sityvebis analogebs warmoadgendnen, Semdeg ki,

maTi kombinirebis Sedegad, SeZlo elementaruli winadadebebis awyoba. gabrazebisas

igi iyenebda SeZenil codnas da sxva maimunebs Seuracxmyofeli „gamoTqmebiT“

mimarTavda, magaliTad - „binZuri maimunebi“ da a.S. Tanamedrove eqsperimentebma

cxadyo, rom maimunebs SeuZliaT iswavlon enis calkeuli elementebi, magram ara

saubari.

kiTxva

1. ra emocias gamoxatavs

TiToeul suraTze

gamosaxuli mimika?

2. zoologiis kursidan

da mxatvruli

literaturidan

gaixsene, ra saSualebebs

iyeneben cxovelebi

komunikaciisaTvis.

3. SeuZlia Tu ara cxovels

adamianTan komunikacia?

moiyvane amis magaliTebi.

128 msoflio kultura


davaleba

1. moswavleebi iyofian jgufebad. TiToeuli jgufi warmoadgens patara siuJets

Jestebis gamoyenebiT, danarCenma jgufebma unda amoicnon Sinaarsi.

2. moZebne mxatvrul literaturaSi araverbaluri komunikaciis gamoyenebis

epizodebi da amowere isini rveulSi.

damatebiTi informacia

ram SeiZleba gamoiwvios gaugebroba sxva kulturis

warmomadgenelTan urTierTobaSi

l zemoT aweuli cera TiTi msoflios zogierT nawilSi niSnavs _ yvelaferi kargadaa,

maSin rodesac zogierT muslimur qveyanaSi (aseve sardiniaSi) is aRiqmeba, rogorc

Seuracxymyofeli niSani. safrangeTSi da zogierT evropul qveyanaSi zemoT

mimarTuli cera TiTi aRniSnavs erTs, maSin rodesac sxva qveynebSi „erTis“

gamosaxatad saCvenebeli TiTi gamoiyeneba. indoeTsa da indoneziaSi ki is niSnavs

_ gisurveb yovelive saukeTesos.

l yvelaferi kargadaa dasavleT evropis qveynebSi xSirad gamoixateba SeerTebuli

cera da saCvenebeli TiTiT, romlebic kravs aso O-s. koreaSi da iaponiaSi ki es

niSnavs axla droa fulze vilaparakoT, samxreT safrangeTSi aRniSnavs arafers,

raRacas, rasac ar aqvs Rirebuleba. saberZneTsa, TurqeTsa da braziliaSi es

Jesti vulgarulad miiCneva.

l amerikaSi da arabul qveynebSi pauzebi sityvebs Soris ar aris xangrZlivi,

indoeTSi, indoneziasa da iaponiaSi ki gaxangrZlivebuli siCume savsebiT misaRebia.

iq fuWad molaparake cudad aRzrdil adamianad miiCneva, romelsac uWirs Tavis

gakontroleba.

l sicili TiTqmis yvela qveyanaSi dakavSirebulia bednierebasa da mxiarulebasTan,

xolo iaponiaSi is xSirad dabneulobisa da daucvelobis gancdas gamoxatavs.

l bevr kulturaSi, ufrosebTan an ufro maRali socialuri statusis mqone

adamianTan saubrisas maTTvis Tvalis arideba pativiscemis niSania, xolo,

magaliTad, evropaSi TvaliT kontaqti yuradRebis gamoCenad aRiqmeba.

35.araverbaluri komunikacia

129


36

difuzia _ gavrceleba,

gavrcoba, SeRweva

kulturis difuzia

yovel diliT viRviZebT sawolSi, romlis

winamorbedi odesRac axlo aRmosavleTSi Seiqmna,

Semdeg ki Tanamedrove saxe evropaSi miiRo;

gvaxuravs sabani, romlis damzadebis teqnologia

aseve axlo aRmosavleTidan modis. sauzmis dros

viyenebT Cinuri faifurisagan damzadebul TefSs, rkinis danas, romelic pirvelad

indoeTSi gaakeTes, Cangals da kovzs, romlebic Sua saukuneebis evropaSi Seiqmna.

egvipturi „warmomavlobis“ minis fanjridan gavxedavT aminds da, Tu wvims, saxlidan

gasvlisas Tan centralur aziaSi gamogonil qolgas waviRebT.

rogorc vxedavT, Cven yoveldRiurad viyenebT uamrav nivTs, romlebic sxvadasxva

kulturaSi Seiqmna, Tumca dRes Cveni cxovrebis ganuyofel nawils warmoadgens.

uZvelesi periodidan moyolebuli, kul-

uZvelesi metalurgebi

turis elementebi _ wes-Cveulebebi, rwmenawarmodgenebi,

teqnologiebi, religia, ena da

a.S. _ mudmivad vrceldeboda erTi kulturidan

meoreSi. am process kulturis difuzia ewodeba.

kulturis zogierTi elementi universaluri

swored difuziis procesis Sedegad gaxda.

magaliTad, miCneulia, rom daaxloebiT 10 aTasi

wlis win miwaTmoqmedeba axlo aRmosavleTidan

mTel evraziis kontinentze gavrcelda. aseve

cnobili magaliTia liTonis dnobis teqnologiis

sayovelTao gavrceleba. kulturis difuzias

xels uwyobda migracia, savaWro-ekonomikuri

urTierTobebi, omebi.

cai luni

qaRaldi Cinelma cai lunma gamoigona ax. w. 105 wels, daaxloebiT

ormocdaaTi wlis Semdeg, igi ukve bevr adgilas gamoiyeneboda

centralur CineTSi. me-8 saukunis bolodan qaRaldis warmoeba

farTod gavrcelda arabul samyaroSi. evropelebs qaRaldi arabebma

gaacnes, 1150 wels qaRaldis pirveli sawarmo aages espaneTSi da

amis Semdeg misma warmoebam evropaSic moikida fexi.

ganasxvaveben kulturaTa pirdapir da arapirdapir difuzias. pirdapiri difuziis

dros sxvadasxva kulturis matarebeli sazogadoebebi xangrZlivi drois manZilze

Tanacxovroben da kulturaTa difuzia uSualo kontaqtis Sedegia. magaliTad,

qristefore kolumbis mier amerikis kontinentis aRmoCenamde evropelebisaTvis

ucnobi iyo kartofili, pomidori, gogra, simindi, lobio, Tambaqo, aseve indauri.

amerikis adgilobrivi mosaxleoba ki evropelTa wyalobiT gaecno cxens, Zroxas,

cxvars, futkars, stafilos, yavas... pirdapiri kontaqtis dros ama Tu im kulturis

elementebs pirvelad uSualo mezoblebi iTviseben, Semdeg isini TandaTanobiT ufro

Sors vrceldeba.

130 msoflio kultura


ukanasknel periodSi kulturaTa arapirdapiri difuzia globalizaciis erT-erT

ZiriTad maxasiaTeblad iqca. sakomunikacio teqnologiebis ganviTarebam, radiom,

televiziam da internetma sxvadasxva kulturis matarebel adamianebs arapirdapiri

kontaqtis saSualeba misca. amis Sedegia dasavluri kulturis mzardi gavrceleba

mTel msoflioSi, miuxedavad imisa, vcxovrobT Tu ara dasavleTSi da gvaqvs Tu ara

masTan uSualo kontaqti.

zogjer kulturis esa Tu is elementi, warmoSobis adgilze metad, mimReb

kulturasTan asocirdeba.

rogorc cnobilia, dRes msoflioSi

sportis yvelaze popularuli saxeoba

_ fexburTi _ britaneTSi warmoiSva.

miuxedavad amisa, bevrma fexburTis

samSoblod, SeiZleba, brazilia daasaxelos.

es imitom, rom fexburTi brazilieli

xalxis kulturisa da yofis

ganuyofel nawilad iqca da es qveyana,

garda ulamazesi sanapiroebisa, swored

fexburTiT aris cnobili msoflioSi.

msoflios mravali qveynis restornebSi gagimaspinZldebian „befstroganoviT“

(beef - Zroxis xorci), Tumca cota vinmem Tu icis, rom am gemrieli kerZis saxeli

rus graf aleqsandre grigoris Ze stroganovs ukavSirdeba. me-19 saukuneSi

mas odesaSi hqonia kvebis obieqti _ „Ria sufra“, sadac Sesvla Tavisufali iyo

nebismieri ganaTlebuli da wesierad Cacmuli adamianisaTvis. maT iq swored am

kerZiT umaspinZldebodnen: es iyo swrafad da iolad mosamzadebeli, amave dros,

noyieri da gemrieli sadili. Semdeg igi mTel msoflioSi gavrcelda da, ama Tu im

qveynis kulinariuli tradiciebis Sesabamisad, sxvadasxva saxe miiRo.

36.kulturis difuzia

quCis fexburTi braziliaSi

difuziis procesis Sedegad kulturis yvela elementi erTnairad ar vrceldeba.

zogi maTgani SedarebiT umtkivneulod mkvidrdeba, radgan ar ewinaaRmdegeba

adgilobriv tradiciebs, faseulobebs, normebs, socialur garemos, zogi ki seriozul

winaaRmdegobas awydeba, cxovrebis damkvidrebul wesTan SeuTavseblobis gamo da misi

damkvidreba met dros moiTxovs. magaliTad, moduri mokle varcxniloba, romelic

Zalian popularuli iyo amerikel qalbatonebSi 1920-ian wlebSi, adgilobriv indiel

qalebs Soris ar gavrcelda. mizezi martivi iyo: indielebi, tradiciulad, Tmas

glovis dros iWridnen da amgvari varcxniloba maTTvis sikvdilTan asocirdeboda.

davaleba

1. moiZie kulturis pirdapiri da arapirdapiri difuziis magaliTebi.

2. gaixsene „aisbergis modeli“ da imsjele, kulturis romeli elementebis difuzia

xdeba ufro swrafad?

131


37

asimilacia

asimilacia (laT. assimilatio) _

damsgavseba, STanTqma.

amerikanizacia _ termini, romelic

1907 wlidan gamoiyeneba da

aRniSnavs aSS kulturisa da

politikis gavlenas sxva qveynebze.

xSirad miiCneva, rom es gavlena

safrTxes uqmnis adgilobriv

kulturul tradiciebs.

asimilacia niSnavs ori sxvadasxva

kulturis urTierTqmedebas, romlis

Sedegadac erT-erTi maTgani kargavs

sakuTar saxes da STainTqmeba meoris mier.

me-19 saukunis bolosa da me-20 saukunis

dasawyisSi es termini amerikis SeerTebul

StatebSi gaCnda da „amerikanizaciis“

sinonimuri mniSvnelobiT gamoiyeneboda;

igi adgilobrivi amerikelebis (indielTa)

kulturisa da cxovrebis wesis

Secvlisaken mimarTul politikas aRniS-

navda. SemdgomSi terminis mniSvneloba gafarTovda, dRes igi, zogadad, kulturuli

TviTmyofadobis dakargvasa da sxvasTan Serwymas gulisxmobs.

asimilacia xangrZlivi procesia da zogjer ramdenime Taobas moicavs. rogorc

wesi, asimilacias ganicdian umciresobaTa jgufebi, agreTve migrantebi, romlebic

TandaTan iTviseben umravlesobis faseulobebsa da zne-Cveulebebs. miCneulia, rom

sruli asimilacia iSviaTi movlenaa. ufro xSirad xdeba kulturaTa calkeuli

elementebis gaqroba an Sereva.

modi, asimilaciis procesi amerikis SeerTebuli Statebis magaliTze ganvixiloT.

imigraciam amerikis SeerTebuli Statebi mravali eTnikuri jgufis saerTo sam-

Soblod aqcia. oskar hendlini _ Tanamedrove amerikeli istorikosi _ werda: „erTxel

me gadavwyvite, damewera imigraciis istoria amerikaSi, magram Semdeg aRmovaCine, rom

imigracia Tavad aris amerikis istoria“.

aSS saxelmwifo beWedi

aSS saxelmwifo beWedze laTinuri warweraa:

E Pluribus Unum _ erTi mravlisagan. es fraza,

faqtobrivad, aSS devizad iTvleboda 1956 wlamde,

roca kongresma oficialur devizad aRiara In God We

Trust _ Cven gvwams RmerTis. E Pluribus Unum amerikul

monetebzecaa warwerili. es fraza 13 asos Seicavs,

rac simbolurad gamoxatavda 13 kolonias, romlebic

amerikis SeerTebul Statebad Camoyalibda. „rkinis

ledis“ saxeliT cnobilma britaneTis yofilma

premier ministrma margaret tetCerma SeerTebul

StatebTan dakavSirebiT erTxel aRniSna, rom „arc

erT sxva erSi ar gvxvdeba sxvadasxva rasisa da naciis

esoden warmatebuli gaerTianeba saerTo kulturiT“.

132 msoflio kultura


amerikaSi, evropel imigrantebTan da

sxvadasxva dros afrikis kontinentidan

Seyvanil SavkanianebTan erTad, adgilobriv

amerikelTa mravali sxvadasxva tomi

cxovrobda. es ukanasknelni iZulebuli

iyvnen, TandaTan daetovebinaT TavianTi

sacxovrebeli adgilebi, bevri maTgani

epidemiebis Sedegad, Setakebebisa

Tu ajanyebebis dros daiRupa, zogi

tomi mTlianad gawyda, nawili ki

asimilirda. me-18 saukunis bolodan aSS

xelisufleba cdilobda adgilobrivi

amerikelebis ganaTlebis xelSewyobas,

maT „civilizebas“ da sazogadoebriv

cxovrebaSi CarTvas. es politika xels

uwyobda bunebriv asimilacias.

me-20 saukunis 70-iani wlebSi aSS

xelisuflebam miiRo „aqti indielTa

TviTgamorkvevisa da ganaTlebis xel-

Sewyobis Sesaxeb“. dRes SeerTebul

StatebSi federaluri mTavrobis mier

aRiarebuli 562 satomo TviTmmarTveloba

amerikelebis, rogorc mravali sxvadasxva war -

momavlobis xalxisagan Semdgari eris idea gamoixateboda

farTod gavrcelebuli metaforiT _

„sadnobi Rumeli“ (melting pot), romelic me-20 saukunis

dasawyisSi gaCnda da kulturuli gaerTgvarovnebis

TiTqosda umtkivneulo process asaxavda. amerikis

sazogadoeba ganixileboda uzarmazar „SemoqmedebiT

laboratoriad“, sadac sxvadasxva kulturuli

tradicia erTmaneTs ereoda da „gadaidnoboda“ axal

kulturad, am „RumelSi“ moxvedrili ingliselebi,

frangebi, germanelebi, irlandielebi Tu italielebi

TandaTan kargavdnen sakuTar kulturul identobas

da erTian sazogadoebad yalibdebodnen.

37.asimilacia

adgilobrivi amerikelebis fotoebi 1868-1924

wlebSi

arsebobs. aRiarebis mosapoveblad saWiroa warmomavlobis dasabuTeba, rac arcTu

iolia.

adgilobrivi amerikelebi Tanamedrove aSS mosaxleobis daaxloebiT 0.8% Seadgenen

da TiTqmis SeumCnevelni arian mosaxleobis umravlesobisaTvis. isini cdiloben

sakuTari kulturis gadarCenili elementebis SenarCunebas, dakargulis aRdgenas da

axalgazrda TaobisaTvis gadacemas.

amerikuli sadnobi Rumeli

133


kiTxvebi

1. msoflio istoriidan gaixsene asimilaciis magaliTebi da daasabuTe Seni arCevani.

2. SegiZlia moiyvano magaliTebi saqarTvelos istoriidan, roca ucxo kulturuli

jgufi asimilirdeboda qarTul garemoSi?

3. gaixsene periodebi saqarTvelos istoriidan, roca qarTul kulturas asimilaciis

safrTxe emuqreboda.

diskusia

l dRes imigrantebi, rogorc wesi, ufro myarad inarCuneben sakuTar kulturul

normebsa da faseulobebs. imsjele, ra ganapirobebs amas?

davaleba

l moiZie saTanado masala da dawere mcire Txzuleba „Caina Taunisa“ (Chinatown)

da „liTl italis“ (Little Italy) Sesaxeb. sad da rogor Camoyalibda isini, ras

warmoadgenen dRes?

damatebiTi informacia

gsmenia jorj balanCinis Sesaxeb?

misi namdvili saxeli giorgi balanCivaZe gaxldaT.

igi cnobili qarTveli kompozitorisa da sazogado

moRvawis meliton balanCivaZis Svili da aseve cnobili

kompozitoris andria balanCivaZis Zma iyo. meliton

balanCivaZe wyaltubosTan axlos, sofel banojaSi

daibada, dakrZalulia quTaisSi, bagratis taZris ezoSi.

igi qarTuli saopero musikis erT-erTi fuZemdebelia.

andria balanCivaZe ki sankt-peterburgSi daibada da

TbilisSi gardaicvala, dakrZalulia didubis sazogado

moRvaweTa panTeonSi.

giorgi balanCivaZe, SemdgomSi jorj balanCini,

1904 wels daibada sankt-peterburgSi da 1983 wels

niu-iorkSi gardaicvala. daamTavra petrogradis

konservatoria, iyo petrogradis1 jorj balanCini

operisa da baletis akademiuri Teatris msaxiobi.

1924 wels sazRvargareT gaemgzavra. jer safrangeTis sabaleto dasebSi moRvaweobda,

1933 wels miiwvies SeerTebul StatebSi, sadac Seqmna amerikuli sabaleto skola

da dasi `niu iork siTi balei~. dadgmuli aqvs 160-ze meti sabaleto speqtakli

buenos-airesis, kopenhagenis, londonis, milanis da sxva qalaqebis TeatrebSi. jorj

balanCini Tanamedroveobis udides qoreografad da amerikis klasikuri baletis

fuZemdebladaa aRiarebuli.

1 pirveli msoflio omis dawyebis Semdeg sankt-peterburgis saxelis germanuli forma rusuliT

Seicvala da petrogradi ewoda.

134 msoflio kultura


masobrivi kultura 38

38.masobrivi kultura

brendi _ saxelwodebis, simbolos da dizainis

erToblioba, rac konkretul produqts

sxvebisgan gamoarCevs.

„Tanamedrove epoqa brendebs Soris gamarTuli

samkvdro-sasicocxlo brZo lis velia“, werda

erT-erTi internet-Jurnali. „mersedes benci“,

„koka-kola“, „borjomi“ „naiki“, „roleqsi“,

„bibisi“, „soni“, „nokia“, „makdonaldsi“, „boingi“,

„Saneli“, „hugo bosi“, „ulqeri“, „universal

fiqCersi“, „redisoni“ (zogierTi maTgani ix.

suraTebze) _ SeiZleba CamovTvaloT kidev bevri samarko niSani, romelTa daniSnuleba

rac SeiZleba meti momxmareblis mizidvaa. brendi ar aris mxolod logo, sareklamo

gancxadeba an Tavad produqti, igi momxmareblis STabeWdilebebis krebulia.

adamians cxovrebisaTvis uamravi ram esaWiroeba. yvelas unaxavs arqeologebis

mier aRmoCenili nivTebi, romelsac adamiani moixmarda: WurWeli, samkauli, sabrZolo

Tu sameurneo iaraRi... kacobriobam drois,

energiisa da SesaZleblobebis didi nawili swored

samomxmareblo nivTebis gamogonebas, Seqmnasa

da ganviTarebas moaxmara. didi xnis manZilze

adamiani, upirveles yov lisa, mwarmoebeli iyo;

igi awarmoebda imas, rac Wirdeboda da swored

imdens, ramdenic aucilebeli

iyo moxmarebisa da

vaWrobisaTvis. magram,

evropaSi samrewvelo revoluciisa

da qalaqebis

zrdis kvaldakval, sul

ufro meti adamianisaTvis

gaxda xelmisawvdomi

is, rac adre mxolod

„maRali sazogadoebis“

viwro wrisaTvis iyo

gankuTvnili. warmoebis

zrdam, wignierebisa

da ganaTlebis miRebis gasayovelTaoebam

sazogadoeba ufro metad „momxmarebeli“ gaxada,

vidre uwin. garda pirveladi moxmarebis sagnebisa

(tansacmeli, WurWeli, aveji da sxva), adamianTa

farTo masebi iqcnen musikis, literaturis,

135


xose ortega i gaseti

mxatvrobis, Teatris, kinos „momxmarebelebadac“.

amave dros, warmoebuli produqciis raodenoba da

asortimenti gacilebiT Warbobs adamianis mier maTi

moxmarebis SesaZleblobas. magaliTad, verasdros

SevZlebT, Tundac erTxel gavsinjoT tkbileulis

yvela is saxeoba, romelsac mwarmoeblebi gvTavazoben.

xandaxan axal tansacmels vyidulobT ara imitom, rom

Zveli gacvda, aramed modis axali moTxovnebidan

gamomdinare.

cnobili espaneli moazrovne xose ortega i gaseti me_20

saukunis 30_iani wlebis dasawyisSi werda: „qalaqebi savsea

xalxiT, saxlebi _ binadrebiT, sastumroebi _ mdgmurebiT,

matareblebi _ mgzavrebiT, kafeebi _ stumrebiT, bulvarebi

_ moseirneebiT, saxelganTqmul eqimTa misaRebi oTaxebi

_ avadmyofebiT, Teatrebi, Tu iq Tanamedrove Temebze

dadgmul speqtaklebs uCveneben _ mayureblebiT, plaJebi

_ mzis gulze gasarujad gaSxlarTuli damsveneblebiT.

rac guSin araviTar problemas ar warmoadgenda, dRes

TiTqmis mudmivi problemaa: Tavisufali adgilebi ar aris“.

yovelive aman ganapiroba masobrivi kulturis Camoyalibeba

da ganviTareba.

maskulturas vuwodebT popularul kulturas,

romelic dRes adamianTa umravlesobisTvis

yoveldRiuri cxovrebis nawilia.

terminebi maskultura da popkultura

sinonimuri mniSvnelobiT gamoiyeneba. rodesac

vicvamT jinsebs, Tvals vadevnebT popularul

telegadacemebs, vuyurebT holivudis filmebs,

laTinur-amerikul „sapnis operebs“, davdivarT

makdonaldsSi, vsvamT koka kolas, vusmenT popmusikas,

Cven „movixmarT“ maskulturas, romelic

ZiriTadad, dasavlur samyaroSi iqmneba da

udidesi adgili uWiravs Tanamedrove msoflioSi.

sxvadasxva qveyanaSi vrceldeba ara mxolod

maskulturis ucxouri nawarmi, aramed iqmneba

adgilobrivi nimuSebic, romlebic sazogadoebaSi

didi popularobiT sargeblobs.

136 msoflio kultura


saqarTveloSi yvelaze reitinguli gasarTobi

teleseriali „Sua qalaqSi“ amerikuli „megobrebis“

(„Friends“) analogia, Tumca masSi gaTvaliswinebulia

Cveni kulturisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli mTeli rigi

Taviseburebebi: adgilobrivi iumori, megobrebisadmi

da mezoblebisadmi damokidebuleba, samsaxurebrivi,

ojaxuri da naTesauri urTierTobebi, gvar-saxelebi

da a.S., ris gareSec serialis reitingi eWvqveS

dadgeboda da igi, SesaZloa, naklebad misaRebi

yofiliyo saqarTvelos sazogadoebisTvis.

aseve SegviZlia gavixsenoT britanuli „eqs

faqtori“ („X Factor”) da qarTuli „niWieri“. bevrgan,

maT Soris saqarTveloSi, arsebobs amerikuli „Ramis

Sous“ formatis iumoristuli gadacemebi.

es magaliTebi gvaCvenebs, erTi mxriv, maskulturis udides popularobas

Tanamedrove msoflioSi da, meore mxriv, mis araerTgvarovnebas. miuxedavad

dasavleTis ganmsazRvreli gavlenisa, maskulturis adgilobrivi produqcia avtorTa

mier, umTavresad, sakuTari kulturis Taviseburebebis gaTvaliswinebiT iqmneba.

makdonaldsis restornebis qseli - aTasobiT restorani mTel msoflioSi originaluri

da erTmaneTisagan gansxvavebuli saxiT aris warmodgenili msoflios bevr qveyanaSi.

kiTxvebi

maskulturis erT-erTi mniSvnelovani Semadgeneli

nawilia kinoindustria, Tanamedrove masobrivi kino,

romlis centrad amerikis SeerTebuli Statebi,

kerZod, holivudi miiCneva. holivuduri melodramebi

Tu mZafrsiuJetiani filmebi mniSvnelovan gavlenas

axdens sxvadasxva qveynis kinoindustriaze. amerikuli

holivudis yvelaze cnobili gamoZaxili induri

bolivudia 1 , romelic Tanamedrove kinoindustriis

udidesi centria da sul ufro met popularobas

ixveWs. metic, iTvleba, rom bevri cnobili holivuduri

miuzikli (magaliTad, „mulen ruJi“) induri kinos

gavleniT aris gadaRebuli.

1. Seni azriT, ra ganapirobebs maskulturis ase farTod gavrcelebas da popularobas

mTel msoflioSi?

2. maskulturis romel produqcias xvdebi da iyeneb yoveldRiur cxovrebaSi? ratom?

1 sityva bolivudi Seqmnilia amerikuli holivudis pirveli asos CanacvlebiT indoeTis qalaq

bombeis (dRevandeli saxeli _ mumbai) saxelis sawyisi asoTi. holivudisagan gansxvavebiT, bolivudi

ar aris realurad arsebuli adgilis saxeli.

38.masobrivi kultura

137


39

yeenoba. lado gudiaSvilis naxati

unda iTqvas, rom elituri kulturis

warmomadgenlebi siamovnebiT monawileobdnen

masobriv dResaswaulebSi, Rvinisa

da ludis festivalebSi.

dRes TiTqmis SeuZlebelia imis

gansazRvra, Tu ra aris kulturaSi

masobrivi da ra _ ara. beWdviTi

mediis (gazeTebi, Jurnalebi), radios,

televiziis da, Semdeg, eleqtronuli

mediis gaCenam popularuli, masobrivi

saopero speqtakli

ratom aris maskultura masobrivi?

maskulturaze saubris dros,

albaT, gagiCndaT kiTxva: Tu arsebobs

maskultura, maSin xom unda arsebobdes

aramasobrivi, „elituri“ kulturac?

zogierTi mecnieri miiCnevs, rom me-19-

20 saukuneebamde „elitur“ da „saxalxo“

kulturebs Soris gansxvaveba metnaklebad

mkafio iyo. elituri anu

„maRali kultura“ moicavda xelovnebas,

literaturas, klasikur musikas da a.S.,

saxalxo kultura ki _ quCis karnavalebs,

dResaswaulebs, festivalebs da sxva.

gavixsenoT, magaliTad, berikaoba da

yeenoba saqarTveloSi. Tumca isic

berikaoba. skulpturuli kompozicia TbilisSi,

baraTaSvilis quCaze. moqandake avTandil

monaseliZe.

kulturis Camoyalibeba ganapiroba. dRes

maskulturis produqciiT sargeblobs

TiTqmis yvela, ganurCevlad asakisa,

socialuri warmomavlobisa, saqmianobisa,

miuxedavad imisa, dadis Tu ara operaSi,

usmens Tu ara klasikur musikas da

kiTxulobs Tu ara Seqspirs. maskultura

sayovelTaoa da sazogadoebis TiToeul

wevri mas farTod moixmars.

138 msoflio kultura


masobrivi komunikaciis,

anu informaciis

Sor manZilze swrafad

gadacemis da farTo

auditoriasTan urTier-

Tobis umTavresi saSualeba

radio, televizia

da beWdviTi mediaa. me-

20 saukunis bolos maT

internetic daemata,

Tumca, televiziasTan

SedarebiT, mosaxleobis umravlesobisTvis igi

jerjerobiT nakleb xel misawvdomia. Cven yoveldRiurad

viRebT sxvadasxvagvar informacias,

vuyurebT filmebs, gasarTob telegadacemebs. Cven

mier masobrivi komunikaciis saSualebebiT miRebuli

informaciis didi nawili maskulturis produqtia,

romelic did gavlenas axdens Cvens yofaze, qcevaze

da urTierTobebze.

maskulturis gavrcelebaSi did rols asrulebs reklama. sityva reklama (frang.

réclame) niSnavs sxvadasxva saSualebiT gavrcelebul informacias, potenciuri

myidvelisa Tu momxmareblis yuradRebis mipyrobisa da interesis gaRvivebis

mizniT. janmrTelobisa da socialuri sakiTxebisadmi miZRvnil an saqvelmoqmedo

miznisaken mimarTul reklamas, romelic ar aris komerciuli an winasaarCevno,

socialur reklamas uwodeben. igi miznad isaxavs narkomaniis, alkoholizmis, Sidsis,

SezRuduli SesaZleblobebis mqone pirebisadmi da sxva socialuri problemebisadmi

sazogadoebis damokidebulebis Secvlas.

39.ratom aris maskultura masobrivi?

mowevis sawinaaRmdego reklama avtobusze quCis reklamis saxeoba

139


msoflioSi pirveli sareklamo biuro 1611 wels londonSi Seiqmna. dRes

reklamirebisaTvis gamoiyeneba televizia, radio, filmebi, Jurnalebi, gazeTebi,

interneti, sareklamo dafebi _ e.w. bilbordebi.

koka-kolas reklama tramvaize britanuli enciklopediis nabeWdi reklama

kiTxvebi

1. masobrivi komunikaciis romel saSualebebs iyeneb? risTvis?

2. axdens Tu ara reklama gavlenas Sens gadawyvetilebebze? gaixsene aseTi SemTxvevebi.

3. ra gavlena aqvs masobrivi komunikaciis saSualebebiT gavrcelebul maskulturas

Cvens sazogadoebaze? pasuxi daasabuTe.

davaleba

l waikiTxe alberto moravias moTxroba „rogorc reklamaSi“ da imsjele reklamis

rolze da Zalaze Tanamedrove samyaroSi

140 msoflio kultura


damatebiTi informacia

berikaoba _ qarTuli xalxuri sanaxaoba, niRbebis Teatri, romelic nayofierebisa

da Svilierebis kults ukavSirdeboda da yvelieris dasasruls imarTeboda. droTa

ganmavlobaSi berikaobam dakarga sakulto-religiuri daniSnuleba, berikuli

warmodgenebis Sinaarsi saukuneTa manZilze icvleboda, mdidrdeboda da Taobidan

Taobas gadaecemoda. maTi Sinaarsi da moqmedebis xasiaTi berikebis niWsa da unarze iyo

damokidebuli. Cvenamde moRweulia berikaobis 100-mde siuJeti. maTi nawili asaxavs

ucxoel dampyrobTa winaaRmdeg qarTveli xalxis brZolas, sazogadoebis sxvadasxva

fenas Soris urTerTobas. siuJetebis umetesoba komikuria da sayofacxovrebo

Temazea Seqmnilia. berikaoba sxvadasxva saxisa iyo: berikebi xan kardakar dadiodnen,

xan warmodgena sagangebod SerCeul moedanze imarTeboda, mas sazogadoebis yvela

fenis warmomadgeneli eswreboda. berikaobis tradiciuli niRbebi iyvnen taxi, daTvi,

Txa da sxva cxovelebi.

berikebi mefis (sasiZo), kekelas (sarZlo), maWanklis, glexis, Tavadis, mosamarTlis,

eqimis, xucesis, taxis, daTvis, Txis, xaris niRbebiTa da cxovelTa tyaviT imosebodnen.

warmodgenas Tan axlda simRera da sakravieri musika. SemorCenilia ramdenime cnobili

berikas saxeli: me-18 saukuneSi aseTebi yofilan oTar norioeli da oiana-buiana _

erekle meoris sasaxlis karis berika, romelic, gadmocemis mixedviT, gmirulad

ibrZoda sparselebTan omSi; me-19 saukunis pirvel naxevarSi cnobili berika yofila

abel revaziSvili. berikaobis warmodgena kaxeTSi SesaniSnavad aris aRwerili levan

goTuas romanSi „gmirTa varami“.

bolo ramdenime welia, berikaobis tradicia TbilisSic aRdga. Tavis wignSi “Zveli

tfilisis literaturuli bohema” cnobili poeti ioseb griSaSvili agviwers yeenobis

dResaswauls TbilisSi:

yvelieris orSabaTs mTeli tfilisi yeenobis saTamaSod emzadeboda. qalaqi or

ubnad iyo gayofili: isani da nariyala, baraTaSvili da erisTavi; isnis mxareze kaxeTis

mebatoneebi: WavWavaZe, jorjaZe, ColoyaSvili, vaxvaxiSvili, jandieri. “yeenis” taxti

seidabadis (botanikur baRTan) maRlobze idga. yeenad irCevdnen gonebamaxvil, oxunj

da moxerxebul kacs. wowola qudiT Tavze da tanT gadmobrunebuli tyapuWiT,

gamuruli saxiT virze ukuRma iyo amxedrebuli. aseve sasacilod iyo gamowyobili

misi “amala”, romelic xalxs Seseoda da fuls sZalavda “yeenis xarkisTvis”. amasobaSi

xalxi ajanyebisTvis xis xmlebs, xanjlebsa da Surdulebs amzadebda. ajanyebuli

xalxi yeens tyved Caigdebda xelSi da mtkvarSi gadauZaxebda. gamxiarulebuli xalxi

Segrovebuli fuliT nadimobda orTaWalis, veris Tu didubis baRebSi.

yeenobis mTavar personaJebad zogjer sazogadoebis TvalsaCino adamianebi

gamodiodnen. erT-erTi ukanaskneli “yeenoba” me-20 saukuneSi poet grigol abaSiZis

monawileobiT gamarTula.

39.ratom aris maskultura masobrivi?

141


40

globalizacia

„asociaciobanas“ TamaSis dros, gadamwyveti qulis gaTamaSebisas, mowinaaRmdegem

gamosacnob sityvad „hamburgeri“ miTxra. im imediT, rom Cems mewyviles saqmes

gavuadvilebdi, asaxsnel sityvad „makdonaldsi“ vukarnaxe, Tumca man, warmatebaSi

darwmunebulma, amis nacvlad „globalizacia“ wamoiZaxa. qulis dakargvis gamo

gavbrazdi, magram, rodesac davfiqrdi, davrwmundi Cemi megobris simarTleSi: ra

Tqma unda, „makdonaldsis“ xseneba, pirvel rigSi, „globalizaciis“ asociacias

gamoiwvevda, radgan igi Tanamedrove globaluri samyaros erT-erTi mTavari

simboloa.

ras niSnavs globalizacia?

daakvirdi mimdinare procesebs: mTeli rigi movlenebis gavlena erTi saxelmwifos

sazRvrebs scildeba. magaliTad, iaponiaSi 2011 wels momxdari miwisZvra da cunami

ara marto iaponiis tragedia iyo: fukuSimas atomuri eleqtrosadguris afeTqebas,

SesaZloa, msoflio masStabis ekologiuri katastrofa gamoewvia. aseTive globaluri

movlenaa terorizmi, romelsac ar gaaCnia sazRvrebi. navTobis fasis momateba

londonis birJaze gavlenas axdens purisa Tu sxva produqtebis fasze TbilisSi.

milanis modis kvireuli aisaxeba Cacmis stilze mTel msoflioSi, holivudSi

gadaRebuli filmis premiera saerTaSoriso masStabis movlenaa, fexburTis msoflio

Cempionati, olimpiuri TamaSebi Tu didi saerTaSoriso saCogburTo turnirebi

erTnairad sainteresoa dedamiwis sxvadasxva kuTxeSi.

sityva globalizaciis xsenebam, albaT, Senc makdonaldsi, koka-kola, holivudi,

madona, inglisuri ena da sxva bevri iseTi ram gagaxsena, rac dasavlur, ufro

zustad ki amerikul kulturas ukavSirdeba. es arc aris gasakviri, radgan

mTavar „globalizatorad“, rogorc wesi, swored dasavleTi ganixileba. Tumca

globalizaciaSi sxva kulturebsac SeaqvT wvlili: gavixsenoT iaponuri anime da

suSi, induri ioga, afrikuli vuvuzela; CineTSi mobinadre panda (bambukis daTvi)

cxovelTa dacvis msoflio organizaciis emblemad iqca.

dapataravebuli msoflio

termini globalizacia modis

sityvidan global (global),

rac frangulad sayovelTaos,

mTlians, saerTos niSnavs.

advili misaxvedria, rom cnebac,

„gasayovelTaoebas“ aRniSnavs.

ras niSnavs „gasayovelTaoeba“?

ra, rogor an ratom unda gaxdes

sayovelTao - samyaros xibli xom

mis mravalferovnebaSia?

142 msoflio kultura


masobrivi sakomunikacio teqnologiebis ganviTarebam, TviTmfrinavis, sakabelo

televiziis, internetis, mobiluri telefonisa Tu sabanko gadaricxvebis gaCenam

ganapiroba saxelmwifoebs Soris mWidro da intensiuri ekonomikuri, politikuri da

kulturuli urTierTobebi, migraciuli procesebi _ adamianTa jgufebis masobrivi

gadaadgileba erTi qveynidan meoreSi. mokled rom vTqvaT, msoflio, TiTqos,

„dapataravda“ da, gavrcelebuli gamoTqmiT, „erT did soflad“ an, rogorc xSirad

uwodeben, „globalur soflad“ iqca. ratom soflad? warmoidgine, rom soflis erTerTma

mkvidrma raime saqme wamoiwyo, magaliTad, miwis nakveTis SemoRobva an saxlis

SekeTeba. amis Sesaxeb mTeli sofeli maSinve igebs. mezoblebi, albaT, TviTonac

Caebmebian am saqmianobaSi. muSaobis dros isini saubroben, xumroben, kamaToben,

yvebian sxvadasxva ambavs, erTmaneTs uziareben Sexedulebebs, gamocdilebas.

daaxloebiT aseTive urTierToba myardeba sxvadasxva kulturis warmomadgenlebs

Soris globalizaciis procesSi, adamianebi ecnobian erTmaneTis kulturul normebsa

da faseulobebs.

globalizaciis process siaxleebi Seaqvs kulturaSi. ra Tqma unda, mWidro

politikuri da ekonomikuri urTierTobebi gavlenas axdens kulturaze. Tumca ucxo

kulturis zogierTi maxasiaTebeli gansxvavebul garemoSi Taviseburad aisaxeba. modi,

kidev erTxel gavixsenoT makdonaldsi, romelic amerikuli kulturis msoflioSi

gavrcelebis erT-erT ZiriTad simbolod miiCneva. bevr qveyanaSi makdonaldsis

meniuSi adgilobrivi kvebis racionisa da samzareulos gavlena aisaxa.

indoeTSi makdonaldsis meniuSi ar aris Zroxis xorci, radgan indusebi mas ar

miirTmeven; muslimebi da iudevelebi ar miirTmeven Roris xorcs da, Sesabamisad,

arc momxmarebels sTavazoben mas; germaniaSi menius damatebuli aqvs ludi; Tevzis

moyvarul norvegielebs saSualeba aqvT, makdonaldsSi Tevzisgan momzadebuli

kerZi miirTvan; saqarTveloSi makdonaldsSi gaCnda samarxvo meniu, mak-lavaSi,

rac kidev ufro sainteresoa, Tbilisobis dResaswaulze momxmareblebs qarTul

nacionalur tansacmelSi gamowyobili restornis TanamSromlebi emsaxurebodnen.

ai, ratom gaaxsenda Cems megobars „globalizacia“ makdonaldsis xsenebisas.

makdonaldsis mravalferovani meniu

germania

(ludi)

40.globalizacia

norvegia (Tevzi) kanada (kiborCxala)

143


saberZneTi

(berZnuli sawebeli)

kiTxva

kosta-rika (brinji) hong kongi (brinji)

Tbilisi (mak-lavaSi)

l rogor fiqrob, aqvs Tu ara globalizaciis process gavlena Sens yoveldRiur

cxovrebaze?

davaleba

1. daakavSire erTmaneTTan maskultura da globalizacia. Seni azriT, aris Tu ara

maskultura globalizaciis procesis Semadgeneli nawili? pasuxi daasabuTe.

2. gaixsene movlena, romelic SeiZleba CaiTvalos „globalurad“, anu movlenad,

romelic erTnairad saintereso, sasikeTo, an saSiSia mTeli msofliosaTvis.

saSinao davaleba

l dawere ese „globalizacia da saqarTvelo”.

144 msoflio kultura


damatebiTi informacia

swrafi kvebis istoria saqarTveloSi

albaT, ici gemrieli da surnelovani laRiZis wylebis Sesaxeb. maTi Semqmneli

iyo mitrofane laRiZe (1869-1960) _ qarTveli mewarme da

qvelmoqmedi. igi quTaisSi, kokoCaSvilisa da ivanovskis

afTiaqsa da ivanovskis limonaTis sawarmoSi muSaobda,

sadac xileulis wvenebis momzadebis wesebi iswavla da,

ivanovskis gardacvalebis Semdeg, TviTon Caudga saTaveSi

sawarmos. 1902 wels igi sazRvargareT gaemgzavra da

germaniasa da safrangeTSi gaecno xileulis wylebis

damzadebis teqnologias.

mitrofane laRiZis wylebma didi saxeli moixveWa.

saerTaSoriso gamofenebze maT mravalgzis mieniWa

pirveli xarisxis premiebi, oqrosa da vercxlis medlebi.

laRiZis wylebi ise moswondaT, rom sazRvargareTac

gahqondaT. TbilisSi myofi iraneli vaWrebi maT,

rogorc gansakuTrebul saCuqars, iranis didebulebsa

da warCinebul pirebs „feSqaSad“ ugzavnidnen.

40.globalizacia

Tbilisi (mak-lavaSi)

mitrofane laRiZe, rogorc Tavad aRniSnavda,

xilis wvenebis damzadebisas ar iyenebda araviTar

sinTezur esenciasa da qimikats. igi axali

xileulis wvenebiT amzadebda sasmelebs, SerCeuli

hqonda esa Tu is raioni, sofelic ki, radgan,

gansxvavebuli niadagisa da havis gamo, xilsac

sxvadasxva gemo da surneli aqvs. magaliTad,

Jolos tkbili wveni mxolod borjomis xeobaSi,

umTavresad, bakurianSi gavrcelebuli xilkenkriT

mzaddeboda.

akaki wereTelma 1900 wels mitrofane laRiZis ualkoholo sasmelebs eqspromtad

aseTi leqsi uZRvna:

sasmelebis metoqe var,

Rvinis, ludis, wylis da rZisa,

xileulTa esencia _

mitrofane laRiZisa.

gemoca maqvs, sunica maqvs

gTxovT orive gamisinjoT,

Torem ise rad mindixarT,

moxvideT da gadibrinjoT.

145


laRiZis wylebis jixuri.

Tbilisi. aleqsandres baRi.

1914w.

Senoba TbilisSi, rusTavelis gamzirze, sadac ganTavsebuli

iyo `laRiZis wylebi~.

1906 wels m. laRiZem ukve TbilisSi gaxsna Tavisi limonaTis qarxana da maRazia.

gadmocemis Tanaxmad, pirveli fenovani xaWapuri da TbilisSi pirveli aWaruli

xaWapuric swored rusTavelze mdebare „laRiZis wylebSi“ gamoucxviaT. SeiZleba

iTqvas, rom es iyo swrafi kvebis erT-erTi pirveli obieqti TbilisSi. igi male iqca

Tbilisis savizito baraTad. aTwleulebis manZilze „laRiZis wylebi“ yvela Taobis

Tbiliselebis usayvarlesi adgili iyo.

146 msoflio kultura


globalizacia - safrTxe Tu SesaZlebloba? 41

Cemi megobari saerTaSoriso organizaciaSi

muSaobs. samsaxuris gamo, xSirad uwevs

sxvadasxva qveyanaSi mogzauroba da cxovreba.

erTi sityviT, igi Tanamedrove „globaluri

soflis“ moqalaqed SeiZleba CaiTvalos. uamravi

foto aqvs gadaRebuli. misi feisbuqis gverdis

daTvalierebisas saintereso faqti SevniSne da

minda, mas Senc miaqcio yuradReba. daakvirdi

suraTebs, SegiZlia daasaxelo qveynebi, romlebSic

es qalaqebi mdebareobs?

amis gakeTeba, albaT, rTulia, radgan maT

Soris sxvaoba TiTqmis ar aris, Tumca pirveli

niu-iorkia, meore _ Sanxai, mesame ki tokio. wina

gakveTilebSi ki vnaxeT, rom Cinuri, iaponuri,

induri, evropuli, qarTuli Tu sxva qveynis

sacxovrisebi sruliad sxvadasxvagvari iyo.

iqneb swored es aris kulturis „gasayovel-

Taoeba“, „gaerTgvarovneba“?

globalizaciis procesi, romelic kulturaTa daaxloebas da maT Soris

faseulobebis urTierTgaziarebas uwyobs xels, sazogadoebis mxridan araerTgvarovnad

aRiqmeba. adamianTa arcTu ise mcire nawili globalizacias safrTxed miiCnevs.

negatiuri damokidebulebis safuZveli, ZiriTadad, orgvaria _ ekonomikuri da

kulturuli. globalizaciis kritikosTa erTi nawili miuTiTebs saSiSroebaze,

romelic ucxo qveyanaSi damzadebuli produqciis Semotanas axlavs Tan da xels

uSlis adgilobrivi nawarmis gavrcelebas. magaliTad, am Sexedulebis mixedviT,

saqarTveloSi koka kolas damkvidrebas, SesaZloa, laRiZis wylis an romelime sxva

qarTuli gamagrilebeli sasmelis warmoebis SeCereba mohyves.

sxvaTa azriT, dasavluri faseulobebis gavrceleba safrTxes uqmnis sxva

kulturebs da, SesaZlebelia, maTi TviTmyofadobis dakargva gamoiwvios. gaCnda

samyaros amerikuli kulturis yaidaze mowyobis, misi meSveobiT tradiciuli

Rirebulebebis Canacvlebis, gaqrobis SiSi. „globalizacia“ „amerikanizaciasTan“

gaigivda. ratom? imitom, rom ekonomikuri da politikuri Zliereba zurgs umagrebs

dasavluri, gansakuTrebiT ki amerikuli kulturis gavrcelebas. koka kola, imisaTvis

rom yovelTvis lideri iyos, Semosavlebis did nawils reklamas axmars; TiToeuli

41.globalizacia - safrTxe Tu SesaZlebloba?

147


warmatebuli filmis gadaRebisaTvis holivudSi aTobiT da asobiT milioni dolari

ixarjeba; fexburTSi warmatebas is gundi aRwevs, romelsac didi Tanxebi aqvs kargi

sportsmenebis SesaZenad.

miuxedavad imisa, rom orive mosazrebis avtorebs seriozuli argumentebi aqvT,

globalizacia calmxrivad, mxolod safrTxis Semcvelad ar unda gavigoT. marTalia,

globalizaciis process seriozuli da yovlismomcveli cvlilebebi mohyva, magram

mecnierebi aRniSnaven, rom es cvlilebebi, umTavresad, kulturis zedapirul, xilul

nawils (simboloebs, gmirebs, moxmarebas, modas) Seexo da naklebad _ fundamentur

warmodgenebs samyaros, sakuTari Tavisa Tu sxvaTa Sesaxeb. magaliTad, Tu romelime

aziur qveyanaSi siamovnebiT miirTmeven koka-kolas, es ar niSnavs, rom Seicvala

maTi damokidebuleba ufrosebis an avtoritetebisadmi; Turqi axalgazrdebi iseve

gansxvavdebian amerikeli axalgazrdebisagan, rogorc moxuci Turqebi _ moxuci

amerikelebisagan. rogorc aRmoCnda, sazogadoebebs sakuTari identobis SenarCunebis

saocari unari aqvs. sakomunikacio teqnologiebis ganviTarebam, erTi mxriv, mWidrod

daakavSira erTmaneTTan sazogadoebebi, meore mxriv ki gazarda kulturuli

gansxvavebebis gacnobiereba.

kvlevebma daadastura, rom kulturebi iSviaTad emsgavsebian erTmaneTs

xangrZlivi Tanaarsebobis pirobebSic ki. sxvadasxva xalxebs Soris saukuneebis

win gamovlenili gansxvavebebi dResac arsebobs, miuxedavad mudmivi mWidro

urTierTobisa.

erTi sityviT, medals yovelTvis ori mxare aqvs. kulturaTa mWidro

urTierTkavSiri, ideebis, faseulobebisa da Sexedulebebis urTierTgacvla, Ria

sazRvrebi, masobrivi komunikaciis saSualebaTa mravalferovneba adamians sruliad

warmoudgenel SesaZleblobebs aZlevs. Cven SegviZlia warmatebulebi viyoT ara

mxolod sakuTar qveyanaSi, aramed mis farglebs gareTac da, amave dros, ar movwydeT

mSobliur kulturas.

ivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetSi swavla niSnavs

msoflio masStabiT umaRlesi ganaTlebis sivrceSi moxvedras: sauniversiteto

sivrces ar aqvs sazRvrebi, es gaxlavT erT-erTi yvelaze ufro gaxsnili, anu

globaluri sivrce „patara did sofelSi“, sadac bejiTi swavlis, sakuTar

Tavze muSaobis, mondomebisa da, SesaZloa, cota gamarTlebis Sedegad SeiZleba

oqsfordisa Tu kembrijis, haidelbergisa Tu sorbonas universitetebis damTavreba.

SenTvis kargad aris cnobili, rom profesionali, gamocdili adamianebis simravle

saxelmwifos, sazogadoebis, kulturis ganviTarebis winapirobaa.

148 msoflio kultura


gia dvali

zaza faCulia

araerTma qarTvelma miRwia msoflio masStabis

aRiarebas da warmatebas: gavixsenoT kompozitori

gia yanCeli, kinoreJisorebi oTar ioseliani da gela

babluani, saopero momRerlebi paata burWulaZe

da nino surgulaZe, baletis mocekvaveebi nino

ananiaSvili da irma nioraZe, msaxiobebi merab niniZe

da levan uCaneiSvili, fexburTeli kaxi kalaZe,

kalaTburTeli zaza faCulia, fizikosi gia dvali da

sxvebi.

paata burWulaZis mier daarsebulma fondma

„iavnanam“ uamravi sasikeTo saqme gaakeTa

saqarTveloSi. mis mier organizebuli saqvelmoqmedo

koncertebi gascda saqarTvelos sazRvrebs,

masSi monawileoben saopero samyaros msoflioSi

aRiarebuli warmomadgenlebi. erTi mxriv,

koncertebi konkretuli adamianebis problemebis

mogvarebas emsaxureba, meores mxriv, misi meSveobiT

saqarTvelos Sesaxeb informacias igebs saopero

xelovnebis moyvaruli msoflio sazogadoeba.

gia yanCeli

rac Seexeba ucxoelebs, magaliTad, cnobili

kinovarskvlavi, oskaris mflobeli msaxiobi nikol

kidmani daibada da aRizarda avstraliaSi, warmatebas

ki amerikis SeerTebul StatebSi, holivudSi miaRwia.

igive SeiZleba iTqvas Sarliz teronze, romelic

samxreT afrikaSi, xelmokle ojaxSi aRizarda, dRes ki

msoflio kinos erT-erTi yvelaze kaSkaSa varskvlavia.

rogorc nikol kidmani, aseve Sarliz teroni mWidro

kavSirs inarCuneben samSoblosTan. Sarliz teroni

41.globalizacia - safrTxe Tu SesaZlebloba?

149


warmoidgine, rom swavla damTavrda,

dadga zafxuli, daiwyo ardadegebi.

albaT, zRva da baTumi gagaxsenda.

Tanamedrove baTumi globalizaciis

mier SemoTavazebul SesaZleblobaTa

gamoyenebis kargi magaliTia. msoflios

wamyvani biznesmenebi dainteresdnen

misi turistuli potencialiT, ganxorcielda

da daigegma uamravi axali

proeqti, romelmac baTumi Tanamedrove

turistul qalaqad aqcia. iq uamravi

maRali donis koncerti tardeba. amave

dros, baTumi gansakuTrebulia sakuTari,

TviTmyofadi „suliT“ da „xasiaTiT“.

globalizaciis procesi saSualebas gaZlevs, Seni kultura qveynis farglebs

gareT gaitano da msoflio sazogadoebis winaSe TviTmyofadi saxiT wardge.

erisionis koncertis afiSa suxiSvilebi. assa farTi

„erisionma“ tradiciul qarTul cekvas Sous elementebi da Tanamedrove

musikaluri instrumentebi Semata. Sedegi marTlac STambeWdavi iyo da msoflios

sxvadasxva adgilas gamarTulma koncertebma didi rezonansi gamoiwvia. igive

SeiZleba vTqvaT suxiSvilebis ansamblze, romelic cdilobs, axali elementebis

SetaniT gaamravalferovnos da ufro mimzidveli gaxados mdidari SemoqmedebiTi

tradicia. eTnojazis msoflioSi warmatebuli jgufia ansambli „Sini“.

150 msoflio kultura


globalizacia, romelmac samyaro „erT did soflad“ aqcia, ar gaxlavT calsaxad

dadebiTi an uaryofiTi procesi. mas ori mxare aqvs. yvelaferi damokidebulia imaze,

Tu rogor gamoiyenebs adamiani, sazogadoeba Tu saxelmwifo Seqmnil realobas.

davaleba

1. gaixsene „aisbergis modeli“, daakavSire igi globalizaciis procesTan.

2. daiyaviT globalizaciis damcvelebad da mowinaaRmdegeebad. TiToeulma

jgufma daasabuTos, ratom aris an ar aris globalizacia safrTxe kulturis

TviTmyofadobisaTvis?

3. moiZie informacia dRes ucxoeTSi moRvawe cnobili qarTvelebis Sesaxeb.

41.globalizacia - safrTxe Tu SesaZlebloba?

151


42

media _ Sualeduri,

Suamavali

masmedia

Tanamedrove msoflios saxis gansazRvraSi erTerT

mniSvnelovan rols asrulebs masmedia. televizia,

radio, gazeTi, cifruli da eleqtronuli saSualebebi,

romelTa meSveobiT informacia miewodeba farTo,

geografiulad, socialurad da kulturulad mravalferovan sazogadoebas, adamianis

umniSvnelovanes qmnilebaTa ricxvs ganekuTvneba. termini masmedia me-20 saukunis 20ian

wlebSi gaCnda, roca radiomauwyeblobam, gazeTebisa da Jurnalebis gavrcelebam

masobrivi xasiaTi miiRo. dRes internetmediam warmoudgenlad gaafarTova

komunikaciis saSualebebi.

pirveli germanuli gazeTis

“Relation” satitulo gverdi

Tanamedrove eleqtronuli da beWdviTi media moicavs radio da

telemauwyeblobas, sxvadasxva saxis audio da videosaSualebebs (xmis Tu

gamosaxulebis Canawerebi, diskebi, videoproduqcia da sxva), filmebs, internets,

mobilur telefons (telefonis uSualo funqciis garda, misi meSveobiT gadaicema

uaxlesi ambebi, gafrTxilebani, horoskopi, musika, TamaSebi da a.S.), beWdviT da

eleqtronuli gamocemebs (wignebi, Jurnalebi).

adamiani odiTgan ocnebobda komunikaciis iseT saSualebebze, romlebic maT

manZilis swrafad dafarvisa da Soreuli mxareebis ambebisaTvis Tvalis devnebis

SesaZleblobas miscemda. gavixsenoT zRaprebi mfrinavi xaliCisa Tu jadosnuri

sarkis Sesaxeb. informaciis Sor manZilze gadacemisaTvis sxvadasxva saSualebas

iyenebdnen, magaliTad, sasimagro nagebobaTa koSkebze avardnili kvamli mosaxleobas

mtris Semosevas auwyebda.

152 msoflio kultura


legendis mixedviT, Zveli

welTaRricxvis 490 wels, maraTonis

brZolaSi berZenTa mier sparselTa

damarcxebis Semdeg, berZenma macnem

ramdenime aTeuli kilometri irbina,

raTa aTenelebisaTvis gamarjvebis

ambavi ecnobebina. man mTeli manZili

Seusveneblad dafara, Tumca es

sicocxlis fasad daujda da ambis

Setyobinebidan ramdenime wuTSi suli

ganuteva.

Tanamedrove media saSualebebidan yvelaze xangrZlivi istoria aqvs gazeTs,

romelmac dRevandeli saxe me-16 saukuneSi miiRo. erT-erTi cnobili moazrovnis

sityviT, beWdurma produqciam samyaros forma da struqtura Secvala. 2007 wlis

monacemebiT, yoveldRiurad msoflioSi

gazeTebis 395 milioni egzemplari iyideba.

me-19 saukuneSi gaCnda radio, romlis

dasaxelebac laTinuri sityvidan modis da

niSnavs _ vasxiveb. igi iqca informaciisa

da garTobis mTavar saSualebad,

radiomimRebi _ erT-erT mniSvnelovan

nivTad ojaxisaTvis. Semdgom mas mocile

gamouCnda televizoris saxiT.

42.masmedia

radiomimRebi

antikuri periodis

berZnuli qalaqebis

centrSi arsebuli

agora, vaWrobisa da

politikuri diskusiebis

garda, informaciis

gadacemis adgilic iyo.

aseTive funqcia hqonda

romaul forums da

`salaybod~ wodebul

adgils Zvel TbilisSi.

153


masmediis meSveobiT msoflios sxvadasxva nawilSi mcxovrebi adamianebi erTmaneTs

mWidrod daukavSirdnen, erTmaneTze damokidebuli gaxdnen. yvelaze Soreul

kuTxeSi momxdari faqti maSinve xdeba cnobili mTeli danarCeni kacobriobisaTvis.

media saSualebebiT vmogzaurobT iq, sadac, albaT, realurad arasdros movxvdebiT,

vecnobiT adamianebs, romlebTanac arasdros mogviwevs pirispir Sexvedra, viRebT

informacias CvenTvis saintereso nebismier sakiTxze, viZenT da vyidiT, vuwevT

reklamas, gamovxatavT sixaruls Tu mwuxarebas.

masmediis mniSvnelobaze metyvelebs is faqti, rom xSirad mas meoTxe xelisuflebas

uwodeben - sakanonmdeblo, aRmasrulebel da sasamarTlo xelisuflebaTa Semdeg. igi

xalxze zemoqmedebis mZlavri iaraRia. vinc flobs informaciis saSualebebs, flobs

Zalauflebasac.

U

18

kompiuteruli teqnologiebis

ganvi Tarebam mkveTrad Secvala

samyaros saxe. interneti Tanamedrove

msoflios simbolod iqca. misi

meSveobiT praqtikulad nebismieri

informaciis moZiebaa SesaZlebeli.

amave dros, igi komunikaciis yvelaze

mosaxerxebeli saSualebaa. saZiebo

sistemebis, amouwuravi informaciis

gverdiT arsebobs e.w. socialuri

qselebi (Facebook, Twitter, Skype da sxva),

romlebiTac adamianebi mudmivad

ukavSirdebian erTmaneTs, iZenen

nacnobebs, megobrebs, saaTobiT

saubroben. virtualurma samyarom,

TiTqos, realuris adgili daikava.

me-20 saukunis 90-ian wlebSi amerikis SeerTebul StatebSi

gansakuTrebiT gaxSirda Zaladobis faqtebi. amerikis kongresis

warmomadgenlebma amis ZiriTad mizezad teleeTerSi Zaladobis

gaxSirebuli Cveneba miiCnies da mouwodes telekompaniebis

mflobelebs, SeemcirebinaT Zaladobis Semcveli telegadacemebi

da filmebi. senatorma ilinoisis Statidan pol saimonma Semdegi

sityvebiT mimarTa telekompaniaTa mesveurebs: „Tqven flobT

iaraRs, romelic Tavisi siZlieriT uprecedentoa kacobriobis

istoriaSi“. swored am periodSi miRweuli SeTanxmebis Semdeg

SemoiRes asakobrivi zRvaris aRmniSvneli niSani filmebsa da

telegadacemebze.

154 msoflio kultura


Tanamedrove epoqaSi „namdvil“ omebs _ sabrZolo moqmedebebs _ rogorc wesi,

Tan axlavs sainformacio omi: foto da telekamerebis, mobiluri telefonebis,

internetis meSveobiT, monawile mxareebi cdiloben, msoflios maTTvis xelsayreli

informacia miawodon. xSirad amas Tan sdevs kiber-omic _ Seteva veb-gverdebze, raTa

mowinaaRmdeges ar hqondes am mniSvnelovani sainformacio saSualebis gamoyenebis

SesaZlebloba.

kiTxva

l Seni azriT, ramdenad SesaZlebelia, rom adamianTa urTierTobaSi virtualurma

samyarom Caanacvlos realuri urTierTobebi? ra safrTxis Semcvelia virtualuri

urTierTobebi?

davaleba

1. imsjele, ra rols asrulebs masmedia globalizaciis procesSi.

2. masmediis saSualebebiT moiZie kviris yvelaze mniSvnelovani movlena da daasaxele

informaciis mopovebis wyaro.

3. moiZie informacia gakveTilSi naxsenebi da naCvenebi media saSualebebisa da

teqnologiebis gamomgonebelTa Sesaxeb.

42.masmedia

155


43

kulturaTaSorisi gansxvavebebi

xSirad amboben: ramdeni adamianicaa, imdeni azri arsebobs. aranaklebi darwmunebiT

SeiZleba iTqvas, rom ramdeni kulturacaa, imdeni gansxvavebuli axsna da Sefaseba

SeiZleba hqondes erTsa da imave faqts, movlenas, situacias, Jests Tu saxis

gamometyvelebas. yvela sazogadoebas aqvs ena, samzareulo, xelovneba, miTebi, religia,

ojaxi, ekonomikuri sistema, naTesauri kavSirebi, xelisufleba, sacxovrebeli,

higiena, qcevis wesebi, akrZalvebi da a.S. rogorc ukve ici, es universaliebi sxvadasxva

sazogadoebaSi mravalferovani formiT gvxvdeba. magaliTad, adamianebi ikvebebian,

magram is, Tu ras, rodis, sad, visTan erTad da rogor miirTmeven, sxvadasxva kulturaSi

Zalian gansxvavebulia. aseve sxvadasxvagvaria misalmebis wesi, keTilganwyobis Tu

undoblobis gamoxatvis formebi da sxva. erTi sityviT, kulturuli msgavsebebi da

gansxvavebani erTi medlis ori mxarea.

afrikuli qoxi

iurta

sad vcxovrobT?

xata _ slavuri saxli

indoneziuri saxli

156 msoflio kultura


sari - indoeTi

meqsikuri samosi

43.kulturaTaSorisi gansxvavebebi

rogor vimosebiT?

Sotlandiuri kilti qarTuli Coxa indoneziuri

saqorwino samosi

evropuli samosi

qarTuli samosi. me-19 saukune niqabi

perueli mamakacis samosi

slovakuri samosi

157


Cinelebis ojaxi sadilobisas

ras da rogor mivirTmevT?

Cinuri sufra

frangebis ojaxi sadilobisas iranuli sufra

kulturul msgavsebebsa da gansxvavebebs mxolod maSin „aRmovaCenT“, roca

sakuTar kulturas sxvas vadarebT. gansxvavebebs vxedavT ara mxolod Cvensa da

sxva kulturebs Soris, aramed Cveni kulturis dRevandel da adreul safexurebs

Sorisac.

rodesac evropelebma, msoflioSi mogzaurobis Sedegad, manamde sruliad

ucnobi mxareebi aRmoaCines, isini gaocebuli iyvnen adgilobrivTa cxovrebis wesiT,

romelic maTi cxovrebis wesisagan Zalian gansxvavdeboda; amis gamo, xSirad, maT

„CamorCenilebad“ an, sulac, „velurebad“ Tvlidnen. Tumca evropeli mogzaurebi ar

iTvaliswinebdnen, rom am xalxebsac, SeiZleba, ucnaurad da gaugebrad moCvenebodaT

evropelebisaTvis sruliad Cveulebrivi qcevebi.

sazogadoebebisaTvis, sadac bavSvebi mudam ufrosebTan erTad arian, dedis zurgze

mokalaTebuli gadaadgildebian, maTTan erTad sZinavT, bavSvis marto datoveba

maneJSi an calke sawolSi, SeiZleba, barbarosul da sastik mopyrobad Candes.

158 msoflio kultura


sxvadasxva kulturis warmomadgenlebi gansxvavebulad aRiqvamen adamianis

fizikur silamazesac. magaliTad, zog kulturaSi msuqani adamiani miiCneva lamazad,

zogan ki simsuqnes problemad Tvlian da didi mondomebiT cdiloben mis daZlevas.

erTi Tanamedrove anTropologis sityviT, simsuqne lamazia iq, sadac mxolod

msuqnebi arian kargad. ras niSnavs es? sazogadoebebSi, sadac sakvebis naklebobaa,

simsuqne kargi cxovrebis niSnad iTvleba. iq ki, sadac adamianebs naklebad aSinebT

SimSilis safrTxe, sigamxdre ufro fasobs. Tu afrikaSi didi xnis megobar qals

eubnebian, rom man wonaSi moimata, es niSnavs, rom is fizikurad ufro jansaRia,

vidre adre, an kargad daisvena. xolo igive SeniSvna sxvagan Seuracxyofad miiCneva.

ra aris silamaze?

SeiZleba ferebs kulturuli mniSvneloba hqondeT? Turme, SeiZleba. zogierTi

feri ama Tu im kulturaSi arsebul warmodgenebsa da grZnobebTanaa dakavSirebuli.

magaliTad, wiTlis, TeTrisa da lurjis kombinacia amerikul kulturaSi pozitiur

da patriotul grZnobasTan asocirdeba. CineTSi ki lurji/cisferi sikvdils

ukavSirdeba. sportuli gundebi irCeven ferebs Tavis simbolod, romelic Semdeg

siamayisa da miRwevebisagan ganuyofeli xdeba (narinjisferi - holandia, wiTeli da

TeTri vardebi inglisSi da a.S.). ramdenadac ferebis mniSvneloba gansxvavebulia

sxvadasxva kulturaSi, grafikuli dizainerebi amis gaTvaliswinebiT qmnian

produqts sxvadasxva qveynisa da kulturis warmomadgenlebisaTvis.

43.kulturaTaSorisi gansxvavebebi

159


kiTxvebi

l erT-erT arabul qveyanaSi Setanili medikamentis kolofze mocemuli iyo

samnawiliani sareklamo gamosaxuleba: 1. avadmyofi adamiani, 2. igi iRebs wamals, 3.

gamojanmrTelebuli da bednieri adamiani. wamali ar gaiyida. ratom?

diskusia

l ufrosebis gamokiTxvis, Zveli fotosuraTebis, kinofilmebis safuZvelze,

gamoikvlie, rogor Seicvala warmodgena silamazeze saqarTveloSi me-20 saukunis

dasawyisidan dRemde.

davaleba

l daakvirdi gakveTilSi mocemul suraTebze asaxul samoss, sacxovriss, sufras,

samkauls da imsjele, ramdenad SesaZlebelia moiZebnos universaluri kriteriumi

maT Soris saukeTesos gamosavlenad.

damatebiTi informacia

es magaliTebi aCvenebs, Tu ramdenad gansxvavebul mniSvnelobas aniWeben sxvadasxva

kulturis warmomadgenlebi, erTi SexedviT, sruliad umniSvnelo niuansebs:

l amerikaSi da arabul qveynebSi pauzebi sityvebs Soris, Cveulebriv, ar

aris xangrZlivi, indoeTsa da iaponiaSi ki pauza gansxvavebulad aRiqmeba.

gaxangrZlivebuli siCume savsebiT misaRebi da komfortulia indoeTSi,

indoneziasa da iaponiaSi. iq fuWad molaparake cudad aRzrdil adamianad

miiCneva, romelsac uWirs Tavis gakontroleba. evropaSi, CrdiloeT amerikasa

da avstraliaSi ki dumili uxerxulobas iwvevs. skandinavielebi ufro mSvidad

xvdebian dumilis pauzebs saubris dros.

l evropis xmelTaSuazRvispira qveynebSi, laTinur amerikasa da afrikaSi, saharis

samxreTiT, savsebiT misaRebia vaxSamze naxevari saaTiT dagvianeba, maSin rodesac

germaniasa da SveicariaSi es uzrdelobad aRiqmeba.

l aziis bevr qveyanaSi da centralur amerikaSi misaRebia vaxSmobis Semdeg wasvla,

Tu adamiani ase ar moiqca, es niSnavs, rom is sakmarisad ar danayrda. indoeTSi,

evropasa da CrdiloeT amerikaSi ki vaxSmis Semdeg maspinZlis datoveba

uzrdelobaa da mianiSnebs, rom stumars mxolod Wama undoda da ara maspinZlebis

sazogadoebaSi drois gatareba.

160 msoflio kultura


l iranul kulturaSi, rodesac vinmes sTavazoben, magaliTad, sasmels,

Tavazianobad iTvleba daTanxmebamde ramdenjerme uaris Tqma. etiketis aseTi

forma gavrcelebulia sxva qveynebSic, magaliTad, indoeTsa da indoneziaSi. sxva

kulturebSi miRebulia mxolod erTxel SeTavazeba.

l qristianul da muslimur kulturebSi patarZals TeTri samosi acvia, rac

ubiwoebis simboloa, induistur kulturaSi ki TeTri samosi mwuxarebis niSania

da mas qvrivebi icvamen.

43.kulturaTaSorisi gansxvavebebi

161


44

kultura da genderi

genderi (ingl. gender) _

enaTmecnierebaSi gramatikul gvars

aRniSnavs.

yvelam kargad viciT, rom adamianebi

iyofian gogonebad da biWebad, qalebad

da kacebad. sxvagvarad rom vTqvaT,

gansxvavdebian sqesobrivi niSniT. asevea

cxovelebSic; sqesobrivi niSnebi _

magaliTad, xvadi lomis fafari, mamali farSevangis kudi biologiurad, genetikuradaa

ganpirobebuli. biologiis kursidan, albaT, gaxsovs, rom sqesobrivi gamravleba

genetikurad mravalferovani STamomavlobis gaCenas uzrunvelyofs, rac sasargebloa

biologiuri saxeobis gadarCenisaTvis.

qalis saaTi

rogorc ukve mravaljer aRvniSneT, adamianis

unikaluroba imaSi mdgomareobs, rom igi ara mxolod

biologiuri, aramed kulturuli arsebacaa. kultura

msWvalavs adamianis cxovrebis yvela sferos, maT Soris

sqesebs Soris urTierTobebs. yovel kulturaSi arsebobs

uamravi wesi da norma, Tu rogor unda gamoiyurebodes

an iqceodes gogona da biWi, kaci da qali. am

kulturuli wesebisa da normebis nawili uSualod aris

dakavSirebuli biologiur gansxvavebebTan. magaliTad,

zogierT kulturaSi miRebulia wveris yoveldRiuri

gaparsva, sxvagan piriqiT _ moSveba. cxadia, rom amgvari

norma mxolod mamakacebze vrceldeba, radgan wveri

mamakacisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli biologiuri niSania.

magram arsebobs gacilebiT meti tradicia da norma, romlebic qalebs da kacebs,

erTnair situaciaSi, qcevis gansxvavebul normebs karnaxobs. ai, majis ori saaTi.

yoveli Tqvengani uSecdomod amoicnobs: es kacisaa, es ki qalis. ki, magram, ratomaa

kacis saaTi ufro didi? iqneb kacebs uaresi mxedveloba aqvT? ara, aseTi ram ar

dasturdeba. iqneb imitom, rom saSualod kacebi zomiT aRematebian qalebs? es ufro

saintereso varaudia, magram Tu asea, maSin ratom

xmaroben qalebi da kacebi erTnairi zomis wignebs,

mobilur telefonebs, dana-Cangals, skamebs?

iSviaTad, magram zogjer zoma Sebrunebuladaa

„ganawilebuli“: magaliTad, im kulturebSi,

sadac sayures orive sqesi atarebs (magaliTad,

Tanamedrove dasavleTis bevr qveyanaSi), mamakacis

sayure, umetesad, sagrZnoblad mcirea qalisaze.

maS, raRaSia aq saqme? modi, am SekiTxvas odnav

mogvianebiT gavceT pasuxi, aq ki yuradReba

mivaqcioT erT Zalian mniSvnelovan garemoebas:

yvela kulturaSi qalebs da mamakacebs

erTmaneTisagan ganasxvavebs ara mxolod (da ara

mamakacis saaTi

162 msoflio kultura


imdenad) biologiuri niSnebi, aramed kulturuli wesebi da normebi: Zlieri gancdisas

qalisaTvis dasaSvebia tirili, kacma ki Tavi unda Seikavos; mRvdelTmsaxuri mxolod

kaci SeiZleba iyos; qalisaTvis SeiZleba maRal quslebze siaruli, kacisaTvis _ ara

da a.S. amgvar gansxvavebebs genderuls uwodeben.

bevr enaSi (romelTa ricxvSi qarTuli ar Sedis) yvela sagans _ suliers da

usulos, saxels da cnebas garkveuli „sqesi“ anu gvari miewereba. magaliTad,

germanulSi „magida“ _ mamrobiTi gvarisaa, „ojaxi“ _ mdedrobiTis, xolo „puri“

_ saSualosi. rogorc vxedavT, gramatikuli „sqesi“ sruliad sxva ramaa, vidre

biologiuri. sazogadoebriv mecnierebebSi sityviT „genderi“ aRiniSneba yovelive is,

rac qalebsa da kacebs arabiologiurad ganasxvavebs erTmaneTisagan. sqesi, rogorc

viciT, cxovelebsac aqvT, genderi ki _ mxolod adamianebs. genderi socialuri

sqesia, rac gulisxmobs gansxvavebebs saxelebSi, CacmulobaSi, qcevis da metyvelebis

wesebsa da maneraSi, saqmianobaSi da a.S. zog SemTxvevaSi sqesi da genderi SeiZleba

arc emTxveodes erTmaneTs _ biologiurad qali iqceodes ise, rogorc mamakaci da

piriqiT. gakveTilis bolos moyvanilia amis ori magaliTi sxvadasxva kulturidan.

genderul gansxvavebebs bavSvis dabadebidanve eyreba safuZveli. magaliTad,

bevr qveyanaSi axalSobil gogonas, tradiciulad, vardisfer sabanSi axveven, biWs

ki cisferSi. ramdenime TveSi dgeba saTamaSoebis dro: biWisaTvis _ burTi, manqana,

xmali, gogonasTvis _ Tojina, WurWeli... mSoblebi da aRmzrdelebi, zogjer

gaucnobiereblad, sxvadasxva Tvisebebs waaqezeben da waaxaliseben, biWebSi _

aqtiurobas, siTamames, Sejibrisaken miswrafebas („gogo xom ar xar!“), gogonebSi _

morcxvobas, Tavmdablobas, emociurobas („biWi xom ar xar!’). mimdinareobs genderuli

socializacia, romlis Sedegadac bavSvi yalibdeba konkretul kulturaSi arsebuli

genderuli normebisa da wesebis Sesabamisad.

mecnierebma aCvenes, rom bevri Tviseba, romelic „bunebrivad“ iTvleboda qalisa Tu

kacisaTvis, sinamdvileSi gansxvavebuli aRzrdis Sedegia. magaliTad, gavrcelebuli

azris mixedviT, romelic mecnieruladac dasturdeba, qalebi ufro damyolni,

damjerni arian, ufro advilad da xSirad icvlian Sexedulebebs, eTanxmebian sxvebs,

vidre kacebi. magram 6-7 wlis bavSvebSi amgvari gansxvaveba ar aRiniSneba, ase rom igi

Tandayolili ar aris. rogorc irkveva, es gansxvaveba aRzrdis Sedegia _ kulturaTa

umravlesobaSi gogonas aCveven morCilebas, unergaven azrs, rom gadawyvetilebebi

kacebma unda miiRon.

aq Cven mivadeqiT umniSvnelovanes

problemas _ genderul uTanasworobas.

warsulSic da awmyoSic,

kulturaTa did umravlesobaSi

mamakacebs gabatonebuli mdgomareoba

uWiravT, swored isini

floben politikur, ekonomikur,

religiur da ojaxur Zalauflebas,

qalebis roli ki metwilad bavSvebis

aRzrdiTa da ojaxuri saqmianobiT

Semoifargleba. iTvleboda da

44.kultura da genderi

163


iTvleba kidec, rom mamakaci, silamazis garda, yvela sxva dadebiTi TvisebiT (Wkua,

zneoba, sxvadasxva niWi da a.S.) bevrad sjobnis qals. sinamdvileSi, rogorc irkveva,

mamakacebis gabatonebuli mdgomareoba mxolod imiTaa ganpirobebuli, rom mamakaci

qalze fizikurad Zlieria, xolo mTeli es „ideologia“ mamakacis viTom „bunebrivi“

upiratesobis Sesaxeb arsebuli mdgomareobis gamarTlebisTvis aris Seqmnili.

Tanamedrove mecnieruli gamokvlevebi adasturebs, rom, fizikuri siZlieris

garda, qalebi arc erTi sxva maxasiaTebliT ar Camouvardebian mamakacebs. sakmarisia

iTqvas, rom inteleqtis donis dReisaTvis dafiqsirebuli ori umaRlesi maCvenebeli

qalebs ekuTvnis.

maRal, gabatonebul socialur mdgomareobas sxvadasxva simbolika usvams

xazs; rac ufro maRalia statusi, rogorc wesi, miT ufro didi zomisaa Sesabamisi

simboloebi: mefes yvelaze didi etli emsaxureba, generals didroni varskvlavebi

umSvenebs samxreebs, miliarderi ugrZesi limuziniT mgzavrobs... gaxsovs qalisa da

kacis saaTebi? diax, mamakacis saaTis sidide misi ufro maRali socialuri statusis

gamoZaxilia...

mecnierebma ramdenime Tvis bavSvi ise gamoawyves, rom misi biologiuri sqesis

amocnoba SeuZlebeli iyo. Semdeg, maT axalgazrda qalebis or jgufs sTxoves,

bavSvTan naxevar-naxevari saaTi gaetarebinaT. pirvel jgufs uTxres, rom bavSvs

hqvia „zuriko“, meores ki _ „ninuca“. bolos orive jgufis wevrebs SesTavazes,

gaeziarebinaT TavianTi STabeWdilebebi bavSvis Sesaxeb. aRmoCnda, rom pirveli

jgufi bavSvs aRwerda ZiriTadad rogorc aqtiurs, „biWurs“, meore ki rogorc

nazs, „pranWias“, „tipur gogos“. bavSvi, rogorc gvaxsovs, erTi da igive iyo.

albaneli `nafici

qalwuli~

albaneTi: „nafici qalwulebi“

albaneTSi mravali saukunis manZilze moqmedebda kanoni,

romelic qalebs kerZo sakuTrebis uflebas arTmevda. roca

ojaxSi mamakaci aRar rCeboda, mTel qonebas epatroneboda

Soreuli, xSirad ara sisxliT naTesavi mamakaci. am usamarTlo

kanonis sawinaaRmdegod albanelma qalebma aseTi xriki

gamoigones. rodesac gvarSi ukanaskneli mamakaci kvdeboda,

erT-erTi qali debda gauTxovrobis fics da xdeboda e.w.

„nafici qalwuli“, anu... kaci! imoseboda rogorc kaci, svamda

da eweoda, mamakacur samuSaos asrulebda, monawileobda

kacebis TavyrilobebSi, maTTan erT oTaxSi eZina kidec. rac

mTavaria, mamakacebi mas rogorc Tanaswors epyrobodnen

da erTi wuTiTac ar axsendebodaT misi „qaluri“ warsuli.

xdeboda biologiuri sqesis da genderis sruli dacileba.

dRes, rasakvirvelia, Zveli kanoni gauqmebulia da es

gasaocari tradicia warsuls Cabarda, Tumca jer kidev

cocxalia ramdenime aTeuli „nafici qalwuli“.

164 msoflio kultura


samoa: „qalisnairni“

samoas kunZulebze (okeania) gogonebi aqtiurad exmarebian dedas saxlis

meurneobis gaZRolaSi. magram ra vuyoT, Tu ojaxSi mxolod biWebi ibadebian? ai,

aseT SemTxvevaSi umcros biWs aRzrdian rogorc gogonas _ Sesabamisad acmeven,

aswavlian saxlis saqmes da a.S. Cndeba axali, rogorc maT uwodeben, Fa’afafine,

anu „qalisnairi, qalisebri“, romelic, adgilobrivTa rwmeniT, „mesame sqess“

ganekuTvneba (Cven ki viciT, rom es mesame sqesi ki ara, mesame genderia, anu socialuri

sqesi). sagulisxmoa, rom „qalisnairni“ araviTar diskriminacias ar ganicdian da,

Sesabamisad, arc fsiqologiuri travmebi awuxebT. maT sasiyvarulo urTierTobac

ki SeuZliaT gaaban qalTan, Tumca mTeli cxovreba TavianTi genderuli rolis

Sesruleba uwevT.

kiTxva

1. Seni azriT, arsebobs „qaluri“ da „mamakacuri“ profesiebi? pasuxi daasabuTe.

2. gavlili masalidan romel sakiTxebs daukavSireb am gakveTilSi ganxilul Temas?

davaleba

l gaixsene magaliTebi istoriidan, literaturidan da Tanamedrove realobidan,

romlebSic asaxulia genderuli rolebis ganawileba sxvadasxva epoqasa da

kulturaSi. Camoayalibe Seni damokidebuleba eses saxiT.

44.kultura da genderi

165


45

kulturaTa tipologia

tipologia (laT. typus _ saxeoba) _

obieqtebis (sagnebis, movle nebis)

dajgufeba garkveuli niSan-Tvisebebis,

maxasiaTeblebis mixedviT.

modi, gakveTili aseTi davalebiT

daviw yoT. gaecani qvemoT mocemul

CamonaT vals da daajgufe raime niSnis

mixedviT:

„vefxistyaosani“ , novruz bairami, nariyala, versali, „abesalom da eTeri“, „SuSanikis

wameba“, awyuris cixe, „mravalJamieri“, „aida“, „Cakrulo“, aRdgoma, sveti cxoveli,

paseqi, „grigol xanZTelis cxovreba“, gelaTi, „sibrZne sicruisa“, koloseumi.

SesaZloa, Seni da Seni megobrebis mier dajgufebisaTvis SerCeuli kriteriumebi

erTmaneTisagan gansxvavdeba, magram, nebismier SemTxvevaSi, Tqven yvelam airCieT

erTi principi _ gamokveTeT saerTo niSnebi.

swored aseve, ama Tu im niSnis mixedviT, kulturebic SeiZleba sxvadasxvagvarad

dajgufdes, rasac kulturaTa tipologias uwodeben. dedamiwis sxvadasxva regionis

kulturaTa Seswavlis Sedegad, mecnierebma gamokveTes garkveuli niSnebi, romlebsac

tipologia emyareba.

kulturaTa tipologia mWidrod aris dakavSirebuli faseulobebTan,

msoflmxedvelobasTan, cxovrebis wesTan. kulturebi gansxvavdebian an erTmaneTs

gvanan pirovnebaTaSorisi urTierTobis xasiaTiT, damokidebulebiT droisa da

sivrcisadmi, individisa da jgufisadmi, tradiciisa da siaxlisadmi.

me-20 saukunis 70-iani wlebis dasawyisSi

saerTaSoriso korporacia IBM-ma (International Business

Machines Corporation) aRmoaCina, rom misi filialebi

msoflios sxvadasxva qveyanaSi sxvadasxvagvari

warmatebiT muSaobdnen. marTvisa da teqnikuri

uzrunvelyofis TvalsazrisiT, korporaciaSi,

TiTqos, yvelaferi rigze iyo. arsebuli problemis

mizezebis asaxsnelad, korporaciis mesveurebma

heert hopstede

miiwvies holandieli fsiqologi heert hofstede.

sagangebod SemuSavebuli kiTxvaris safuZvelze, man

Seiswavla kompaniis 100 aTasze meti TanamSromeli msoflios masStabiT. aRmoCnda,

rom problemebs muSaobis procesSi kulturul gansxvavebaTa gauTvaliswinebloba

qmnida. IBM korporaciis TanamSromlebi nebismier qveyanaSi muSaobdnen erTnair

ofisebSi, erTnairi grafikiT, erTnair samuSao pirobebSi, mzaddebodnen erTi

da igive programebiT. am dros ki isini sxvadasxva kulturis warmomadgenlebi

iyvnen da gansxvavebuli damokidebuleba hqondaT droisadmi, piradi da jgufuri

pasuxismgeblobisadmi, samuSao sivrcisadmi, Zalauflebisadmi, qalisa da mamakacis

rolisadmi da a.S.

166 msoflio kultura


zogierT kulturaSi individis, calkeuli

adamianis interesebs upiratesoba eniWeba jgufis

interesebTan SedarebiT; mizani adamianis piradi

interesidan gamomdinare isazRvreba; gacnobisas

yuradReba eqceva imas, Tu ras warmoadgens

Tavad es pirovneba da ara is jgufi (ojaxi,

sanaTesao, samegobro), romelsac igi ekuTvnis.

sazogadoebebi

aseT kulturebs individualistur kulturebs

uwodeben. maT ricxvs miekuTvneba SeerTebuli Statebis, avstraliis, didi britaneTis,

kanadis, holandiis da zogi sxva qveynis kultura.

amisagan gansxvavebiT, arsebobs kulturebi, sadac jgufis interesebi ufro

mniSvnelovnad miiCneva. adamianebi mTeli cxovrebis manZilze inarCuneben kavSirs

ojaxTan, naTesavebTan, mezoblebTan da, xSirad, organizaciebTan, romelSic muSaoben;

pirovnebis mizans jgufuri interesi gansazRvravs; adamiani fasdeba imis mixedviT,

Tu romel jgufs miekuTvneba igi. aseT kulturebs koleqtivisturs uwodeben.

aseTebad iTvleba saberZneTis, CineTis, indoeTis, meqsikis, taivanis, venesuelas da

sxva kulturebi.

kulturaTa dajgufebis kidev erTi modeli

emyareba droisadmi damokidebu lebas. zogierTi

kulturis warmomadgenlebi TavianT saqmianobas

drois xangrZlivi mona kveTisaTvis gegmaven da

mzad arian, Sedegsa da gaweuli Sromis sazRaurs

didxans daelodon. maTTvis mniSnelovania ara

samuSaos dasrulebis dro, aramed saboloo

Sedegis maRali xarisxi. aseT kulturebSi

(CineTi, iaponia, samxreT korea da sxva)

fasobs momWirneoba, Seupovroba, socialuri

valdebulebebis pativiscema. amis sapirispirod, zogi sxva kulturis warmomadgenlebi

orientirebuli arian swraf konkretul Sedegze, zustad gaweril samuSao grafikze,

droSi konkretulad gansazRvrul anazRaurebaze (didi britaneTi, SeerTebuli

Statebi, axali zelandia, avstralia da sxva).

zogi kulturis warmomadgenlebisaTvis ufro komfortulia Ria, gaxsnili sivrce.

magaliTad, ezoebi dabali RobeebiT, xolo samuSao kabinetebi gamWvirvale tixrebiT

aris gamijnuli, kari mudmivad Riaa. magram aseT garemos Znelad Tu Seegueba adamiani,

romlis samuSao oTaxis kari mxolod gansazRvrul dros iReba; igi ar aris miCveuli

mudmivad sxvisi Tvalsawieris areSi yofnas.

kulturebi gansxvavdeba imiTac, Tu ra mniSvneloba eniWeba warsuls, awmyosa

da momavals. warsulze orientirebuli sazogadoebebi gansakuTrebiT afaseben

tradiciebs, winaprebs da mWidro ojaxur kavSirebs. awmyoze orientirebuli

sazogadoebebisaTvis aqtualuria „aq da axla“, warsuli naklebad mniSnelovania,

momavali ki _ bundovani da arawinaswarmetyvelebadi. momavalze orientirebuli

sazogadoebebi aqcents akeTeben cvlilebebsa da progresze.

45.kulturaTa tipologia

rigi individualistur da

koleqtivistur sazogadoebebSi

167


piradi sivrce

kulturaTa tipologiis nebismieri modeli

pirobiTia: ar arsebobs kultura, romelic zustad

da mkafiod Seesabameba zemoT dasaxelebul

maxasiaTeblebs. miuxedavad amisa, kulturaTa

tipologiis sferoSi dagrovili codna Zalian

mniSnelovania, magaliTad, diplomatebisaTvis,

romelTac, sagangebod aswavlian kulturaTa

Taviseburebebs. am faqtors aseve gansakuTrebul

yuradRebas uTmoben saerTaSoriso biznes kompaniebi,

TavianTi saqmianobisa da produqciis reklamirebis

warmatebis uzrunvelsayofad.

davaleba

zog kulturaSi adamianebi uSualo

kontaqtis dros erTmaneTTan axlos midian,

sxvagan ki aseTi miaxloeba gaugebaria da

piradi sivrcis darRvevad miiCneva. magaliTad,

xmelTaSuazRvispirul da samxreTamerikul

kulturebSi Cveulebrivad iTvleba saubris

dros mxarze xelis dakvra, xelis gadaxveva,

CrdiloeT evropis warmomadgenelTaTvis ki es

damabneveli Jestia, romelic, SeiZleba, safrTxis

momaswaveblad aRiqmebodes.

1. gakveTilSi mocemuli tipologiis modelebis mixedviT, imsjele qarTuli

kulturis maxasiaTeblebis Sesaxeb.

2. gaixsene kulturis universaliebi da imsjele, ramdenad SeiZleba iyos romelime

maTgani kulturaTa tipologiis safuZveli.

168 msoflio kultura


saqarTvelos eTnografiuli mravalferovneba 46

„Cven kargad viciT, erTsa da imave mSoblebis Svilebs gvari erTi aqvT,

magram saxelebi ki sxvadasxva. msgavsad amisa, Cveni qveynis sxvadasxva kuTxes,

anu nawils, gvartomobis saxeli erTi da igive hqvia _ saqarTvelo, magram amave

dros, TiToeul nawils Tavis sakuTari saxelic hqvia, swored ise, rogorc

RviZl Zmebsa da debs sxvadasxva saxels uwodeben xolme. ai, is saxelebi: kaxeTi,

qarTli, imereTi, samegrelo, guria, raWa, svaneTi...“, _ werda iakob gogebaSvili.

saqarTvelos sxvadasxva kuTxis mcxovrebni erTmaneTisagan gansxvav debian

metyvelebiT, yoveldRiuri yofis elementebiT, sadResaswaulo da glovis

ritualebiT. amave dros, yvela maTgani erTiani qarTuli kulturis nawilia,

erTi saxelmwifo da saliteraturo eniT 1 . gansxvavebulma landSaftma, klimaturma

pirobebma da istoriulma realobam gansazRvra cxovrebis wesis mravalferovneba

saqarTvelos sxvadasxva kuTxeSi.

saqarTvelos eTnografiuli mravalferovneba qarTuli enis dialeqtebSic

vlindeba. isini gavlenas axdenen qarTuli saliteraturo enis Camoyalibebaze.

qarTuli klasikuri nawarmoebebi gajerebulia ama Tu im kuTxisTvis damaxasiaTebeli

dialeqtebiT, rac gansakuTrebul xibls sZens maT.

46. saqarTvelos eTnografiuli mravalferovneba

dialeqti _ ama Tu im enaze

metyvelebis regionulkuTxuri

nairsaxeoba.

1 saqarTvelos konstituciiT, afxazeTis teritoriaze saxelmwifo enad aRiarebulia agreTve afxazuri ena.

169


moxeveebis metyvelebis Taviseburebebi ilia WavWavaZis „mgzavris werilebidan“:

_ ra gqvian, Zmobilo? _ vkiTxe me.

_ ...lelT Runias mixmoben, _ momigo man.

_ sadauri xar?

_ sadavel? gaibotnidam, aqaiv mTaCia, Terg_kidurzed...

_ kai adgilia es Tqveni adgili.

_ araa gonjai: Cvens beCaobas Sehferobs.

_ amisTana wyali, amisTana haeri swored bednierebaa.

_ hm! _ Caicina moxevem.

_ ras icini?

_ sacinals vicini. carial stvamaqi magniT ver gaZRebis.

_ aq Zalian mosavali unda icodes?!

_ raid ar ecodinebis? adgil araa gonjai, patar gvaqvn: TviTvauls kacs or_

or Sabadis yana ar eqmnebis. viwrod varn.

_ es didi gza did xels mogcemT.

_ rai bedanaa gzai? ig misTvis vargobs, visec Tvis naSvrel_namuSever gasatan_

gasasyid aqvn.

guruli dialeqtis magaliTi egnate ninoSvilis moTxrobidan:

„paliastomis tba“

_ neta, ra qnes, beJukai da daTikelai rom mogvyoboden ukan tiviT? _ ikiTxa

nikom.

_ sicive SeaSinebda da zeiT karavSi meicTiden. sxvebic iyven, arc igini Cans.

sibriyve maTi! am qariza geeswren, Tvara axla rom qari ameiWreba, TuTxmet dRes

ar Cavardeba. mere ufro ar deixocebian am boRazSi yuryutiT! _ Tqva ivanem,

romelic mZlavrad miaqanebda tivs da xandaxans umzerda cas.

TuSuri dialeqti eTer TaTaraiZis leqsis mixedviT:

yvela dilizd vemzadeb,

avfrindebid, frii,

muxlT mZime kupr Canasxam,

Ten-binds far-xmals vxyrii.

xvalizd garev vemzadeb

cisk wavaliv, frii,

fexT dolabeb Senabam,

naocnebars vSlii.

arav, arav Tavs veZalv,

avfrindebiv, frii,

myarad miwas minajaWv,

TvaliTa cremls vscrii.

170 msoflio kultura


facxa imeruli oda

saqarTvelos eTnografiuli mravalferovneba sainteresod aisaxeba sacxovrisis

tipebSi. tradiciulad, aRmosavleT saqarTvelos barSi sacxovrebeli saxli qviTkirisa

iyo, umetesad kramitiT gadaxuruli, win Ria aivani hqonda. dasavleT saqarTvelos

barSi gavrcelebuli iyo oda saxlebi, romlebsac gars didi ezo ekra. ezoSi idga

damxmare nagebobebi _ samzadi (samzareulo), nalia, saqonlis sadgomi da sxva. gurul

da megrul oda saxls, nestiani havis gamo, xis an qvis boZebze dgamdnen. samegreloSi,

oda saxlTan erTad, gavrcelebuli iyo jargvalic _ xis gauTleli morebisgan

ulursmnod nagebi Senoba. afxazeTSi, iseve rogorc dasavleT saqarTvelos zogierT

sxva regionSi, agebdnen facxas; es iyo wnulkedliani, TixiT Selesili, miwis iatakiani,

wriuli an oTxkuTxa moyvanilobis sacxovrisi, romelsac isliT an CaliT xuravdnen.

svaneTSi yovel gvars sakuTari koSki hqonda, romelsac TavdacviTi funqcia

ekisreboda. aRmosavleT saqarTvelos mTielebi sipi qvebiT agebul saxlebSi

cxovrobdnen. aseTi sacxovreblebi SemorCenilia, magaliTad, SatilSi, mucoSi,

omaloSi. mTis bevri sofeli mtrisgan kargad daculi erTgvari cixesimagre iyo.

samcxe-javaxeTSi, ZiriTadad, erdoian-gvirgvinian darbazul saxlebs agebdnen.

misi mTavari Tavisebureba safexurebiani gumbaTia, romelic sakvamuriT _ erdoTi

mTavrdeba. centrSi cecxlis dasanTebi adgili, kera iyo. garda amisa, hqondaT

miwisqveSa samalavebi _ daranebi.

svanuri koSkebi Satili

46. saqarTvelos eTnografiuli mravalferovneba

171


jargvali

saqarTvelos kuTxeebi meurneobis tradiciuli dargebiTac gansxvavdeba.

magaliTad, Cveni samSoblo mevenaxeoba-meRvineobis qveynad iTvleba, maRal mTiani

regionebis garda, mas yvelgan misdeven, Tumca sxvadasxva kuTxeSi yurZnis moyvanisa

da Rvinis dayenebis gansxvavebuli wesi arsebobs, rac ganpirobebulia yurZnis jiSebis

mraval ferovnebiT. kaxeTi am mxriv gamorCeuli kuTxea. guriaSi gavrcelebulia

„maRlari“ venaxi, sadac vazi xeebs auyveba; mis dasakrefad sagangebo kalaTs - gidels

iyeneben. raWa-leCxumi cnobilia unikaluri RvinoebiT, romelTagan gansakuTrebiT

aRsaniSnavia „xvanWkara“ (raWaSi) da „usaxelauri“ (leCxumSi).

saqarTvelos sxvadasxva kuTxis warmomadgenlebi

erTmaneTisagan gansxvavdebian ara mxolod yofiT, aramed

qceviT, metyvelebis maneriT, Tavazianobisa da maspinZlobis

formiT da sxva maxasiaTeblebiT. es gansxvavebebi TvalSisacemi

xdeba, rodesac erTi romelime kuTxis warmomadgeneli meoreSi

aRmoCndeba da misTvis uCveulo garemoSi amoyofs Tavs. eTnogra

fiuli Taviseburebebi araerTi stereotipuli Sexedu lebis

safuZveli gaxda, magaliTad, miCneulia, rom raWveli nelia,

guruli _ ficxi, megreli _ moxerxebuli, imereli _ mkvircxli,

kaxeli _ dinji da a. S. stereotipebi yvelaze cxadad saxaliso

istoriebsa da anegdotebSi gamovlinda.

davaleba

mesxuri darbazuli saxlis gvirgvini

gideli

1. yurZnis ra jiSebia gavrcelebuli Sens regionSi? gamoikvlie, gvxvdeba Tu ara isini

saqarTvelos sxva regionebSi.

2. qarTul literaturaSi moiZie saqarTvelos eTnografiuli mravalferovnebis

amsaxveli magaliTebi _ ama Tu im kuTxis warmomadgenelTaTvis damaxasiaTebeli

metyveleba, Cacmuloba, kerZebi, yoveldRiuri yofis Taviseburebebi da a.S. imsjele

maT Soris msgavsebebsa da gansxvavebebze.

3. naxe qarTuli mxatvruli filmebi _ „imeruli eskizebi“ (reJisori nana mWedliZe),

„siyvaruli yvelas unda“ (reJisori giorgi Sengelaia) da `memkvidreoba~ (reJisori

gela babluani). imsjele filmebSi asaxul kuTxur Taviseburebebze.

saxaliso TamaSi socialur qselze: http://apps.facebook.com/chemi_sakhli/

172 msoflio kultura


saqarTvelos kulturuli mravalferovneba 47

qalaquri ezo

47. saqarTvelos kulturuli mravalferovneba

„saRamos mTeli soxumi portSi iyo gamosuli.

iyo bevri yvavilebi, orkestric, taS-fanduric,

cxvirsaxocebis frialic, madloba, naxvamdis,

mSvidobiT, magram yvelaferze meti mainc

cremli iyo. soxumis moqalaqeni Tavisi sxeulis

nawils, Tavis sisxls da xorcs _ berZnebs

acilebdnen. berZnebi ukve asuliyvnen gemze,

RrubeliviT TeTr da qaTqaTa „poseidonze“ da

iqidan gviyvirodnen xelebis qneviT raRacas,

zogs berZnulad, zogs rusulad, zogs

afxazurad, zogs somxurad, zogs qarTulad...“

nodar dumbaZe, “Hellados”

es citata nodar dumbaZis cnobili

moTxrobidan kargad asaxavs saqarTvelos

qalaqebis mravalkulturul garemos,

romelic saukuneebis manZilze yalibdeboda.

albaT, gsmenia qalaquri ezos

Sesaxeb. qalaqis centrSi, quCidan

alayafiT gamoyofil ezoSi, or an

samsarTulian saxlSi erTad cxovrobdnen

qarTvelebi, azerbaijanelebi,

somexi memusikeni tfilisSi. d. ermakovis foto

somxebi, ebraelebi, qurTebi, rusebi,

ukrainelebi... maTi binis kari arasdros

iketeboda; mezoblebs yoveldRiuri yofa aerTianebda: ezos centrSi, onkanTan,

dRisiT diasaxlisebi saqmianobdnen - recxavdnen sarecxs, xarSavdnen murabebs,

saRamos mamakacebi ikribebodnen, TamaSobdnen nards da dominos, arCevdnen politikis

ambebs, iSleboda saxeldaxelo sufra. bavSvebi erTad izrdebodnen da ramdenime

enaze saubrobdnen, erTi sityviT, erT did ojaxad cxovrobdnen, kargad icodnen

erTmaneTis wes-Cveulebebi da tradiciebi, icnobdnen mezoblebis naTesavebsa da

megobrebs.

„Svili mezrdeba pirdapir sagareo saqmeTa ministri. somxuri icis? _ icis,

qarTulad laparakobs? _ TavisTavad, inglisurze dadis? _ dadis, Cveni meezovis,

fizulis gogo cota qurTuls aswavlis? _ aswavlis...“

nodar dumbaZe, „maradisobis kanoni“

173


ebraeli qalebi.

a. roiniSvilis foto

qalaqis calkeuli ubnebi gansakuTrebuli

siWreliT gamoirCeoda, magaliTad, TbilisSi

_ avlabari, orTaWala, sololaki, quTaisSi _

yofili Saumianis quCa. swored amitom Sendeboda

aseT ubnebSi, erTmaneTis siaxloves, sxvadasxva

sarwmunoebis aRmsarebelTa salocavebi.

mravalkulturuloba, rogorc wesi,

qalaqebisTvis aris damaxasiaTebeli, Tumca

saqarTveloSi bevria iseTi daba Tu sofelic,

sadac gansxvavebuli erovnebisa da religiis

adamianebi cxovroben.

xangrZlivma Tanacxovrebam gavlena iqonia

sxvadasxva eTnikuri jgufis cxovrebis wesze,

sameurneo yofaze. maT gaiTavises qarTuli

kulturis rigi elementebi da, Tavis mxriv, gavlena

moaxdines masze. es naTlad Cans sacxovrebeli

Tu sameurneo nagebobebis, qorwinebis, glovis,

dakrZalvis ritualebis magaliTze. eTnikuri jgufebis warmomadgenlebi monawileoben

erTmaneTis tradiciul dResaswaulebSi. urTierTgavlenis miuxedavad, saqarTveloSi

macxovrebelma TiToeulma eTnikurma jgufma SeinarCuna TviTmyofadoba.

mravalkulturul sazogadoebaSi cxovreba ar aris dazRveuli sirTuleebisa

da problemebisagan, rac SeiZleba gamoiwvios ara imdenad kulturaTaSorisma

gansxvavebebma, ramdenadac maTma arasworma aRqmam da gagebam. qveynis mSvidobiani

arseboba mniSvnelovanwilad aris damokidebuli sxvadasxva eTnikuri, religiuri da

kulturuli jgufebis harmoniul urTierTobaze.

azerbaijaneli moswavleebi qarTul da azerbaijanul samosSi

174 msoflio kultura


kiTxva

l Seni azriT, ratom aris damaxasiaTebeli mravalkulturuloba ufro metad

qalaqebisaTvis, vidre soflebisTvis?

davaleba

1. airCie saqarTveloSi mcxovrebi romelime eTnikuri umciresoba (somxebi,

azerbaijanelebi, rusebi, ebraelebi, berZnebi, osebi, qurTebi, asirielebi...) da

CamoTvale misTvis damaxasiaTebeli tradiciebi, dResaswaulebi, saWmeli, samosi

da sxva niSnebi. Seni azriT, ra elementebi aerTianebs dRes saqarTveloSi mcxovreb

sxvadasxva eTnikur jgufebs?

2. imsjele, ra sirTuleebi SeiZleba gamoiwvios kulturuli gansxvavebebis arasworma

aRqmam da gagebam?

47. saqarTvelos kulturuli mravalferovneba

175


48

kulturuli Soki

termini kulturuli Soki me-20

saukunis 60-iani wlebidan

damkvidrda. ase uwodeben

Zlier, ZiriTadad, damTrgunvel

grZnobebs, romelsac aRZravs sxva

kulturis uCveulo Semadgenel

nawilebTan Sexeba. es SeiZleba

iyos gaoceba, gaRizianeba, Suri da

agresiac ki.

gasuli saukunis 50-ian wlebSi

saharis udabnoSi dakargul patara

oazisSi kinodanadgari Caitanes da

adgilobriv mcxovreblebs filmi

aCvenes. „moZravma suraTebma“, cxadia,

gakvirveba da aRfrTovaneba gamoiwvia,

magram kidev ufro didi STabeWdileba

udabnos binadrebze filmis Sinaarsma

moaxdina _ moqmedeba didi mdinaris

maxloblad mimdinareobda. mayureblebma

ver daijeres, rom am raodenobiT wyali sadme SeiZleba arsebobdes. jer gaocdnen,

Semdeg ki RimiliT gadaxedes erTmaneTs _ ver mogvatyuebT, raRac fandia, amdeni

wyali mTels dedamiwaze ar ariso... oazisis mkvidrebma kulturuli Soki ganicades.

SeiZleba vinmes kiTxva gauCndes: mdinare xom bunebis nawilia da ara kulturis?

marTalia, magram mxolod nawilobriv: udabnos mcxovrebTa mier gancdili Soki

mainc kulturuli xasiaTisaa, vinaidan maTi cxovrebis wesis Taviseburebebs,

mniSvnelovanwilad, wylis nakleboba gansazRvravs; mdinare ki ara marto bunebis,

aramed kulturis nawilicaa _ igi aTvisebulia, masze gemebi moZraoben, mdinareze

Txzaven leqsebs da iReben filmebs.

kulturul Soks, rogorc wesi,

ganicdis emigranti, saswavleblad wasuli

axalgazrda, ucxo qveyanaSi samuSaos

maZiebeli, mogzauri; zogi iTrguneba

da didi xniT kargavs sicocxlis xaliss

(rogorc mecnierebi amboben, depresia

eufleba); zogi qedmaRlobiT „iaraRdeba“

_ „es raa, samagierod Cven iseTi mTebi

gvaqvs, amaT rom arc daesizmrebaT“;

kulturuli Soki

zogsac uCndeba survili gaigos, Seimecnos,

Seisisxlxorcos sxva kulturis miRwevebi.

erTi sityviT, kulturuli Soki adamianze

sxvadasxvagvar gavlenas axdens.

176 msoflio kultura


gamoyofen kulturuli Sokis 5 safexurs:

1. „Taflobis Tve“ _ garSemo yvelaferi axali, gansxvavebuli da dadebiTia.

xalxi sasiamovno STabeWdilebas tovebs, adamiani enTuziazmiTaa ganwyobili

siaxleebisadmi.

2. dezorientacia/dabneuloba _ nacnobi da Cveuli araferia, axal kulturasTan

Segueba metismetad did Zalisxmevas moiTxovs. siaxlis SegrZneba TandaTan

qreba da yoveldRiuri cxovrebis siZneleebi iCens Tavs. adamiani dabneulia,

mas nostalgia eufleba; SesaZlebelia, janmrTelobis problemebic Seeqmnas

_ uZiloba, ucxo sakvebTan dakavSirebuli sirTuleebi. es reaqciebi droTa

ganmavlobaSi qreba.

3. imedgacrueba da mtruli ganwyoba _ adamiani Tavs jer kidev daucvelad

da daTrgunulad grZnobs, raSic sxvebs adanaSaulebs; uaryofs axal

kulturas. SesaZloa, imaze fiqric daiwyos, rom samSobloSi yvelaferi

bevrad ukeTesad iyo, vidre iq, sadac axla imyofeba.

4. avtonomiis done/Seguebis dasawyisi _ adamiani ufro imedianadaa ganwyobili,

rwmundeba, rom SeuZlia axal situaciasTan Segueba.

5. damoukideblobis done _ axal kulturasTan adaptaciis safexuri

gadalaxulia. adamiani Tavs komfortulad grZnobs.

kulturuli Sokis es safexurebi pirobiTia da yvela konkretul SemTxvevaSi

zustad aseTi saxiT ar gvxvdeba.

SeiZleba Tu ara gavumklavdeT kulturuli Soks?

diax, SeiZleba, da ai, ramdenime rCeva:

ucxo qveyanaSi gamgzavrebis win gaecani mis tradiciebs, normebs, naxe fotoebi,

filmebi, daiswavle ramdenime sityva da winadadeba;

Tu Soki mainc ganicade, icode _ es kulturuli Sokia, romelic droTa

ganmavlobaSi gaivlis;

Seecade moToko SiSi da „CarTo“ cnobismoyvareoba;

daamyare kontaqti adgilobriv mcxovreblebTan.

kulturuli Soki sakuTar kulturul garemocvaSic SeiZleba ganicado, magaliTad,

sxva skolaSi, qalaqSi, soflidan qalaqSi, ojaxSi, organizaciaSi moxvedris

dros, aseve maSin, rodesac sazogadoebaSi xdeba swrafi cvlilebebi _ Semodis axali

teqnologiebi (magaliTad, kompiuteri), icvleba politikuri reJimi (magaliTad,

sabWoTa kavSiris dangrevis Semdeg), an, sulac, Cndeba axali moda. zogierT adamianSi

es iwvevs dabneulobas, miuReblobas, gaRizianebas, undoblobas... ras izam, bevr

adamians uWirs ZvelTan, CveulTan ganSoreba da axal garemosTan Segueba. swored

isini ganicdian kulturul Soks, Sin Tu ucxoeTSi.

48. kulturuli Soki

177


qarTveli studentis monaTxrobi

maxsovs Cemi aRfrTovaneba, roca TviTmfrinavSi Cavjeqi axal universitetSi

gasamgzavreblad. CrdiloeT evropis erT-erT qveyanaSi mivdiodi, swavla im

universitetSi unda gamegrZelebina, romelzec vocnebobdi. axali nacnoboba,

axali megobrebis SeZena meloda.

pirveli kvira praqtikuli problemebiT iyo aRsavse: unda momeZebna bina,

amerCia sagnebi, SemeZina wignebi. met daxmarebas velodi, magram Cemi xelmZRvaneli

sul dakavebuli iyo: xan sadme miemgzavreboda, xan Sexvedraze eCqareboda, xan

_ leqciaze. momdevno ramdenime kviris manZilze vfiqrobdi, rom aq Zalian civi

xalxi cxovrobda. dRis ganmavlobaSi maT arafrisTvis ecalaT, samuSaos garda.

mezoblebTan oficialuri da zedapiruli urTierToba mqonda. sul vfiqrobdi,

rogorc SeiZleboda yovelive amis Secvla. kviris saukeTeso dRe SabaTi iyo, roca

saRamoobiT saxlSi vrekavdi da Cemianebs vesaubrebodi.

Semdeg erT-erTi studenti daqorwinda da wveulebaze dampatiJa. es

araCveulebrivi iyo! gavicani axali adamianebi, bevri vimxiaruleT, isini TavianT

cekvebs maswavlidnen, me _ Cemsas. Sinisken mimavali, vfiqrobdi: „axla ukve vici,

rogor SeviZino megobrebi am qveyanaSi“.

magram orSabaTs yvelaferi ise gagrZelda, TiTqos araferi momxdariyos. isini,

visTanac ase kargad vgrZnobdi Tavs wina saRamos, derefanSi mokle gamarjobiT

an xelis aweviT ifarglebodnen da TavianT saqmeebze miiCqarodnen. isev marto

davrCi. ra ar gavakeTe sworad? rogorc Cans, es yvelaferi mxolod imas niSnavs,

rom me ucxoeli da, maSasadame, gareSe piri var?

Cemi gancdebi, albaT, saxeze mewera, imitom rom ramdenime dRis Semdeg erTerTi

studenti, romelTan erTad im saRamos vcekvavdi, CemTan movida da mkiTxa,

ra xdeboda. Cven visaubreT; man amixsna, rom yvelaferi Cveulebrivad iyo, da

rom adamianebi aq mkafiod ganasxvavebdnen erTmaneTisagan samuSao da Tavisufal

dros. Tavi ukeT vigrZeni. amis Semdeg Cven vsaubrobdiT xolme, es gogona da kidev

ramdenime adamiani Cemi megobrebi gaxdnen. axla kargad var. muSaobis organizacia

aq araCveulebrivia, amitom me aSkarad vgrZnob winsvlas Cem saqmeSi. adamianebi

pouloben dros Cemi samuSaos Sesaxeb sasaubrod, Tu maT amas vTxov. miuxedavad

amisa, Zalian maklia Cemi qveynis Cveuli siTbo.

davaleba

1. studentis monaTxrobSi gamoyavi kulturuli Sokis safexurebi (1-4), romelic

axalgazrdam gaiara.

2. rogor fiqrob, SeiZleba kulturuli Soki iqces marginalobis (ix. gakveTili 15)

safuZvlad?

3. moiZie informacia `stendalis sindromis~, `parizis sindromis~ da `ierusalimis

sindromis~ Sesaxeb. imsjele, ramdenad SesaZlebelia maTi dakavSireba kulturul

SokTan.

178 msoflio kultura


stereotipi 49

kulturaTa Soris urTierTobis

damabrkolebel faqtorTagan erTerTi

yvelaze mTavari stereotipebia.

xSirad Cveni warmodgena adamianebze

ganpirobebulia zogadi codniTa da

49. stereotipi

stereotipi (berZn. stereos _ myari,

tipos _ anabeWdi) _ iTargmneba

rogorc „myari anabeWdi“.

damkvidrebuli SexedulebebiT im jgufebis Sesaxeb, romelsac isini miekuTvnebian.

magaliTad, vTvliT, rom yvela germaneli punqtualuria, warmatebuli mZleosnebi

Savkanianebi arian, iseve rogorc jazis Semsruleblebi. am winaswari warmodgenebidan

gamomdinare, xSirad vxedavT imas, rac gvinda rom davinaxoT, an ris danaxvis molodinic

gvaqvs da uarvyofT yvela sxva SesaZlo informacias, romelic ewinaaRmdegeba am

molodins. Cven gvjera ara imis, rasac vxedavT, aramed vxedavT imas, risac gvjera.

Tu veliT, rom romelime qveynis warmomadgeneli arakeTilganwyobilia ucxoelebis

mimarT, maTi moqmedebac, savaraudod, winaswari molodinis Sesabamisad iqneba

aRqmuli.

stereotipi aris farTod gaziarebuli, standartizebuli, gamartivebuli da

winaswar arsebuli warmodgena ama Tu im jgufis Tvisebebisa da maxasiaTeblebis

Sesaxeb.

stereotipuli damokidebuleba gulisxmobs individis Sefasebas eTnikuri,

rasobrivi, socialuri, asakobrivi, religiuri, genderuli da sxva nebismieri jgufisadmi

kuTvnilebis niSniT. ama Tu im jgufisaTvis miwerili myari maxasiaTeblebi jgufis

yvela wevrze vrceldeba. es niSnebi moicavs rogorc fizikur, ise inteleqtualur

da zneobriv mxares. stereotipi SeiZleba iyos rogorc pozitiuri, aseve negatiuri

(„yvela amerikeli mdidaria“, „yvela frangi Zunwia“).

stereotipebs or jgufad yofen: avtostereotipebad da heterostereotipebad.

avtostereotipi gulisxmobs adamianTa jgufis warmodgenas sakuTar Tavze, xolo

heterostereotipi aRniSnavs erTi jgufis warmomadgelebis Sexedulebas sxva

jgufebze.

179


irlandielebi xSirad miiCneodnen ficx CxubisTavebad da loTebad. me-19

saukunis erT-erT britanul karikaturaze irlandieli imigranti gamosaxulia

rogorc maimunis msgavsi arseba, rasobrivad gansxvavebuli anglosaqsuri tipisagan.

amerikul JurnalSi Harper’s Weekly dabeWdil ilustraciaze irlandieli

negroiduli rasis warmomadgenlis msgavsad aris gamosaxuli da orive maTgani

maimuns aris mimsgavsebuli.

meore ilustracia aseve upirispirebs erTmaneTs anglosaqsuri warmoSobis

qals da irlandieli qalis stereotipul saxes (New Physiognomy, New York, 1866).

nacisturi

propaganda miznad

isaxavda ebraeli xalxis

negatiuri stereotipis

gamyarebas. suraTze

dapirispirebulia

mdidrulad Cacmuli

ebraelebis wyvili

(marjvniv) da Raribi

ojaxi (marcxniv).

xazgasmulia

ebraelTa garegnobis

stereotipuli niSnebi.

ebraeli warmodgenili iyo rogorc mdidari,

xarbi, Zunwi adamiani. is xSirad gamoisaxeboda

rogorc vaWari, romelic fuls iTvlis da Zvirfas

qvebs agrovebs. karikaturebze stereotipizebuli iyo

maTi garegnobac: muqi kanis feri, xveuli Tma, grZeli

kexiani cxviri, Txeli tuCebi da didi muqi Tvalebi.

ebraelebis stereotipizacia evropaSi saukuneebis

manZilze mimdinareobda. socialuri problemebis

wamoWris SemTxvevaSi isini xSirad „gantevebis vacis“

rols TamaSobdnen. nacistur germaniaSi (me-20 saukunis

30-40-ian wlebi) periodSi antisemitizmma yvelaze mZafri

forma miiRo.

180 msoflio kultura


ogor gadavlaxoT stereotipebi

l gavacnobieroT Cveni sakuTari winaswari warmodgenebi da stereotipebi sxva

kulturasTan mimarTebaSi;

l meti viswavloT da gavigoT sxva kulturis Sesaxeb.

davaleba

1. moiyvane fizikuri, inteleqtualuri da zneobrivi stereotipebis magaliTebi.

2. romeli avtostereotipebis dasaxeleba SegiZlia? daajgufe isini pozitiur da

negatiur stereotipebad.

3. daakvirdi karikaturaze warmodgenil saxeebs da imsjele, ra ganwyoba SeiZleba

Seiqmnas maT safuZvelze?

4. gaixsene SenTvis cnobili literaturuli nawarmoebebi (Tomas main ridis,

mark tvenis, jeims fenimor kuperis, hariet biCer stous da sxva) da moiyvane

stereotipebis magaliTebi.

diskusia

l imsjele Cvens sazogadoebaSi arsebul stereotipebze. daasaxele magaliTebi,

isaubre, ra safrTxeebs Seicavs stereotipebi da ra SeiZleba gakeTdes maTi Tavidan

asacileblad.

49. stereotipi

181


50

rasa _ biologiuri/genetikuri

maxasiaTeblebiT gansazRvruli

adamianTa didi jgufi.

kulturaTSorisi urTierTobis barierebi:

rasizmi da qsenofobia

mravali saukunis manZilze sxvadasxva

kulturis warmomadgenlebi qedmaRlurad

uyurebdnen da arasrulfasovnad

miiCnevdnen erTmaneTs gansxvavebuli enis,

religiis, tradiciebis, Cacmulobis, kanis

feris da sxva maxasiaTebelTa gamo. bevr enaSi ucxos, gansxvavebulis aRmniSvneli

sityvebi, xSirad, damakninebel, uaryofiT ganwyobas gamoxatavs, xazs usvams sakuTar

upiratesobas sxvasTan SedarebiT. amis yvelaze cnobili magaliTia „barbarosi“,

romelsac Zveli berZnebi sxva, maTTvis gaugebar enaze metyvel xalxs uwodebdnen,

amave dros, aRniSnavdnen maT ”arakulturulobas”, ”aracivilizebulobas” da

”CamorCenilobas”.

segregacia _ gamoyofa, izolacia,

gancalkeveba.

gansxvavebuli kulturis, eTnosis

an rasisadmi mtruli damokidebuleba

rasizmisa da qsenofobiis safuZvelia,

rac, Tavis mxriv, sxvadasxva saxis

diskriminaciisa da konfliqtis mizezs warmoadgens. gansxvavebulis mimarT

Seuwynarebloba umTavresi dabrkolebaa sxvadasxva kulturis adamianTa mSvidobiani

TanaarsebobisaTvis.

rasizmi emyareba Sexedulebas, romlis Tanaxmad, genetikuri faqtorebi adamianis

gonebrivi da fizikuri SesaZleblobebis mTavari ganmsazRvrelia. warmodgena rasebis

uTanasworobis Sesaxeb, Ziri Tadad, uflebriv gansxvave bebSi vlindeba. rasobrivi

kuTvnileba xSirad kultu rasTan, eTnikurobasa da socialur-ekonomikur status

Tan kavSirSi ganixileba.

rasobriv da eTnikur safuZ velze

adamianis uflebebis SezRudvas

rasobrivi diskri minacia ewodeba.

mis sxvada sxva formas Soris

erT-erTi rasobrivi segregaciaa,

rac yoveldRiur cxovrebaSi

sxva dasxva rasobrivi jgufebis

erTmaneTisagan gamijvniT gamoixateba.

sxvadasxva rasis adamianTa

erTmaneTisagan gamoyofa zogierT

qveyanaSi saxelmwifos mier iyo

dakanonebuli da gulisxmobda

erTi rasis uflebriv upiratesobas

meoresTan SedarebiT.

moswavleebi plakatebiT: `Cven ar gvinda zangebi Cvens

skolaSi~, `Cven ar vivliT skolaSi zangebTan erTad~,

`gaficva integraciis winaaRmdeg~.

182 msoflio kultura


termini „rasobrivi diskriminacia“ niSnavs gansxvavebas, gandevnas, SezRudvas

an upiratesobis miniWebas rasis, feris, warmomavlobis, nacionaluri Tu eTnikuri

kuTvnilebis safuZvelze, romlis mizani an Sedegia ... adamianis uflebebisa da

fundamenturi Tavisuflebebis SezRudva politikur, ekonomikur, socialur,

kulturul da sazogadoebrivi cxovrebis sxva nebismier sferoSi.

qsenofobia ucxoelebisa da maTi

kulturis usafuZvlo da gauazrebeli

SiSi, undobloba da siZulvilia.

qsenofobiis SemTxvevebi dResac bevria.

Tanamedrove konfliqtebSi CarTuli mxareebi xSirad ganicdian dapirispirebuli

eTnikuri Tu religiuri jgufis mimarT siZulvils.

kiTxva

gaeros saerTaSoriso konvencia yvela saxis rasobrivi diskriminaciis

aRmofxvris Sesaxeb. niu iorki, 7 marti, 1966

50. kulturaTSorisi urTierTobis barierebi: rasizmi da qsenofobia

qsenofobia _ berZn. qsenos _ ucxo,

ucxoeli, fobos _ SiSi

umetesad, negatiuri damokidebuleba

ar aris ganpirobebuli konkretuli

mizeziT, sxva eTnikur Tu religiur

jgufTan urTierTobis gamocdilebiT,

aramed gauazrebel, stereotipul

winaswar ganwyobas warmoadgens.

niSanze aRniSnulia, rom sacurao adgili

gankuTvnilia mxolod TeTri rasis

warmomadgenlebisTvis

l ra sityvebiT aRiniSneb(od)a sxva, ucxo qarTul da sxva enebSi? ra saxis gansxvavebebs

usvams xazs es sityvebi? gamoxatavs Tu ara isini sakuTar upiratesobas sxvebTan

SedarebiT?

183


51

istoriis gakveTilebi

warwera abraze: `vemsaxurebiT mxolod TeTrebs,

espanelebi da meqsikelebi ar daiSvebian~.

1876-1965 wlebSi amerikis SeerTebul

StatebSi moqmedebda e. w. jim qrous 1

kanonebi, romlebic rasobrivi segregaciis

iuriduli safuZveli iyo. es

kanonebi Savkanian amerikelebs statusiT

TeTrkanianebis Tanaswor, magram gancalkevebul

jgufad aRiarebda. miuxedavad

amisa, maTi socialuri da ekonomikuri

uflebebi mniSvnelovnad izRudeboda.

kanonis Tanaxmad, rasobrivi niSniT

gamijnuli iyo sazogadoebrivi cxovrebis

yvela sfero _ skolebi, transporti,

sapirfareSoebi, restornebi, sasmeli

Sadrevnebi da sazogadoebrivi TavSeyris

yvela sxva adgili.

Teatris abra warweriT: `feradkanianTa Teatri~. aSS. 1950 weli. gancalkevebuli onkanebi TeTr- da

feradkanianTaTvis (eliot urvitis foto).

alabamas Statis qalaq montgomeriSi moqmedi kanonis Tanaxmad, avtobusSi

gamoyofili iyo TeTrkanianTa da SavkanianTa seqciebi, romlebic moZravi niSniT

imijneboda. mZRols SeeZlo gadaeadgilebina ”feradkanianTa seqciis” aRmniSvneli

niSani, an saerTod aeRo is. TeTkanianebi avtobusis wina rigebSi sxdebodnen da

TandaTan avsebdnen mas ukana rigebisaken, Savkanianebi piriqiT, ukana adgilebs

ikavebdnen da TandaTan avsebdnen wina rigebs. Savkanianebs SeeZloT msxdariyvnen

Sua rigebSi, sanam TeTrkanianTa seqcia gaivseboda. Tu orive seqcia Sevsebuli

iyo da avtobusSi Savkaniani mgzavri amovidoda, is fexze unda mdgariyo, xolo

Tu TeTrkaniani amovidoda, maSin TeTrkanianTa seqciasTan mdebare uaxloes

rigSi msxdomi yvela Savkaniani mgzavri valdebuli iyo, gaeTavisuflebina adgili

1 „jim qrou“ - afro-amerikelebis damamcirebeli saxeli, aSS-Si damkvidrda 1830-iani wlebidan.

184 msoflio kultura


avtobusi TeTrkaniani da Savkaniani

mgzavrebisTvis gamijnuli seqciebiT

holokosti. nacisturi ideologiis

Tanaxmad, erTmaneTisagan uflebrivad

imijnebodnen germanelebi, rogorc

umaRlesi, „ariuli rasis“ warmomadgenlebi

da ebraelebi, romlebic arasrulfasovan

rasad miiCneodnen.

51. istoriis gakveTilebi

TeTrkanianTa axali rigis Sesaqmnelad.

Tu adgili aRar rCeboda, maT unda

daetovebinaT avtobusi.

Tu wina rigebi ukve dakavebuli

iyo TeTrkanianTa mier, Savkanianebi

jer wina karidan adiodnen avtobusSi

mgzavrobis safasuris gadasaxdelad,

Semdeg isev Cadiodnen da ukana karidan

xelaxla adiodnen avtobusSi. xSirad

xdeboda ise, rom avtobusi iZvreboda

da safasuris gadaxdis Semdeg

Savkaniani mgzavri veRar aswrebda

SavkanianTaTvis gankuTvnili karidan

asvlas.

holokosti (berZn. holos _ mTeli,

kostos _ damwvari) _ ebraelTa

genocidi meore msoflio omis dros

germaniasa da mis mier okupirebul

qveynebSi.

es fotoebi 1940 wels aris gadaRebuli. pirvel maTganze miTiTebulia, rom bavSvTa saTamaSo

moedanze ebraelebi ar daiSvebian, xolo meoreze igive akrZalvaa kinoTeatrSi SesvlasTan

dakavSirebiT. suraTebi daculia praRis ebraul muzeumSi.

185


1935 wels nacistur germaniaSi SemoiRes antisemituri (ebraelTa winaaRmdeg

mimarTuli) kanonebi, romlebic niurnbergis kanonebis saxeliTaa cnobili. am

kanonebiT dadginda sqema, romlis safuZvelze unda garkveuliyo rasobrivi

kuTvnileba, uaxloesi winaprebis eTnikuri warmomavlobis mixedviT. „wminda“

ebraelad iTvleboda adamiani, romelsac ori Taobis winaprebidan sami an oTxi

ebraeli hyavda. naxevrad ebraelad miiCneoda is, vinc iudaizmis mimdevari iyo da

Sereul qorwinebaSi imyofeboda. maT mimarT kanoni gansakuTrebiT mkacri iyo.

germanuli sisxlis siwmindisa da pativis dacvisaTvis, kanoni krZalavda Sereul

qorwinebas germanelebsa da ebraelebs Soris da ebraelebs germaniis moqalaqeobas

arTmevda.

ebraelTa uflebebis SezRudva gavrcelda nacisturi germaniis mier okupirebul

yvela qveyanaSi. Seiqmna sakoncentracio banakebi („sikvdilis banakebi”), sadac „dabali

rasis” warmomadgenlebs _ ebraelebsa da boSebs _ fizikurad anadgurebdnen. garda

amisa, maTze sxvadasxva samedicino eqsperiments atarebdnen, iyenebdnen iZulebiTi

samuSaoebisaTvis. istoriaSi arnaxuli gegmazomieri masobrivi ganadgurebis Sedegad,

daaxloebiT 6 milioni ebraeli daiRupa.

aparteidi (holand.

apartheid) _ gamoyofa,

gancalkeveba.

niSanze aRniSnulia, rom

sacurao adgili gankuTvnilia

mxolod TeTri rasis

warmomadgenlebisTvis

1948-1993 wlebSi samxreT afrikis respublikaSi

gabatonebuli iyo rasobrivi segregaciis samarTlebrivi

sistema _ aparteidi. aparteidis periodSi samxreT

afrikis mosaxleobis umravlesobis _ feradkanianebis

_ uflebebi SezRuduli iyo mmarTveli TeTrkanianebis

mier, romlebic Tavad umciresobas warmoadgendnen.

rasobrivi segregacia samxreT afrikaSi koloniuri

periodidan arsebobda, magram nacionaluri partiis

mier misi dakanoneba 1948 wels moxda.

niSanze aRniSnulia, rom sapirfareSo gankuTvnilia mxolod

SavkanianebisaTvis, feradkanianTa da azielebisTvis

186 msoflio kultura


samxreT afrikis respublikis kanonmdebloba mosaxleobas oTx rasobriv

jgufad yofda: Savkanianebi, TeTrkanianebi, feradkanianebi da azielebi. 1950

wels SemoiRes piradobis mowmobebi, sadac miTiTebuli iyo rasa. Seiqmna sagangebo

komisiebi im adamianTa mikuTvnebulobis gansasazRvrad, romelTa rasa mkafio

ar gaxldaT. gancalkevebuli iyo sxvadasxva rasis sacxovrebeli adgilebi, rac

xSirad Zaladobrivi gziT xdeboda. es gansakuTrebiT mtkivneuli iyo maTTvis, visi

ojaxis wevrebi, SesaZloa, sxvadasxva rasisaTvis miekuTvnebinaT da erTmaneTisagan

daeSorebinaT. kanoniT ikrZaleboda rasebs Soris Sereuli qorwinebebi. mTavrobam

ganacalkeva saganmanaTleblo, samedicino da samoqalaqo momsaxurebis sferoebi.

SavkanianTaTvis gankuTvnili momsaxureba xarisxiT gacilebiT CamorCeboda

TeTrkanianebisas. gancalkevda plaJebi, avtobusebi, TavSeyris nebismieri sxva

adgili. niSnebi warweriT „mxolod TeTrebisaTvis“ parkebSi skamebTanac ki

iyo dadgmuli. segregacia ganaTlebis sferoSi gamoixateboda ara mxolod

gancalkevebuli skolebis arsebobiT, aramed SavkanianTaTvis calke saganmanaTleblo

sistemis SeqmniT. gansazRvruli iyo, rom Savkanian moswavleebs muSaTa rigebi

unda SeevsoT. rac Seexeba universitetebs, ukve arsebul umaRles saswavleblebSi

feradkanianebi ar daiSvebodnen, maTTvis Seiqmna axali universitetebi.

kiTxva

l Cven miCveulebi varT qarTul tolerantobaze saubars, axla „axali“ ucxoelebi

gvyavs (Savkanianebi, samxreT-aRmosavleT azielebi, Cinelebi, Turqebi...), rogoria

sazogadoebis damokidebuleba maT mimarT?

davaleba

l rasizmi da qsenofobia _ ara mxolod istoriuli fenomenebi, aramed

yoveldRiurobis nawilia. klasSi moawyeT situaciuri TamaSi: „me ar var rasisti,

magram...“ (transportiT mgzavrobisas Sens gverdiT dajda Savkaniani, sxva eTnikuri

an religiuri jgufis warmomadgeneli damaxasiaTebeli CacmulobiT da a.S.).

51. istoriis gakveTilebi

187


damatebiTi informacia

ana franki

ana franki ebraeli gogona iyo. igi 1929 wels daibada

germaniaSi, mainis frankfurtSi. 1933 wels, xelisuflebaSi

nacional-socialistebi movidnen. maTi antisemituri

politikis gamo, frankebis ojaxi holandiaSi,

emigraciaSi wavida. 1940 wels, germaniis mier holandiis

okupirebis Semdeg, ebraelebis devna holandiaSic

daiwyo, amitom 1942 wels frankebi iZulebuli gaxdnen,

saidumlo TavSesafarSi gadasuliyvnen sacxovreblad

da ase aecilebinaT Tavidan mosalodneli saSiSroeba.

magram 1944 wels nacistebma TavSesafari aRmoaCines

da misi mcxovrebni sxvadasxva sakoncentracio banakSi

gadaiyvanes. 1945 wels ana franki bergen-belsenis

banakSi tifiT gardaicvala.

dRiuri, romelSic gogona TavSesafarSi cxovrebas aRwerda, meore msoflio omis

Semdeg maleve gamoica. mas Semdeg ana frankis dRiuri yvela Taobis sakiTxavi wigni

gaxda.

fragmenti ana frankis dRiuridan

„Cven ebraelebi varT da amitom 1933 wels, rogorc emigrantebi, holandiaSi

wamovediT... sxvebiviT Cvenc ar gamogvelia sadardebeli cxovrebaSi. 1940 wlidan

... jer omi dagvatyda Tavs, mere kapitulacia, ... axla ki daiwyo Cveni sacodaoba.

diqtatoris 2 brZanebas brZaneba mosdevda. gansakuTrebiT ebraelTa mdgomareoba

gauaresda. ebraelebs unda etarebinaT yviTeli varskvlavi, CaebarebinaT velosipedebi,

ekrZalebodaT tramvaiT mgzavroba, avtomobilze xom laparakic zedmetia. raimes

yidva mxolod samidan xuTamde SeeZloT _ isic mxolod ebraelTa savaWroebSi.

saRamos rva saaTis Semdeg ara marto quCaSi gamosvlis, aramed baRSi da aivanze

gaCerebis uflebac aRar hqondaT. ebraelebs aukrZales Teatrsa da kinoSi siaruli,

verc sxva gasarTob adgilebSi Sedgamdnen fexs. maT ekrZalebodaT curva, CogburTisa

da hokeis TamaSi, saerTod sportis yvela saxeoba. ebraelebs aRar hqondaT ufleba

qristianebs swveodnen... amieridan mTeli Cveni cxovreba amgvari Zaldatanebis qveS

moeqca.“

2 igulisxmeba adolf hitleri, germaniis kancleri 1933-45 wlebSi

188 msoflio kultura


eTnocentrizmi 52

arsebobs aseTi Zveli xumroba: erTi samxedro piri filosofosTa wreSi

moxvda. usmina maT kamaTs uzogades sakiTxebze da Tqva: „Tu aseTi Wkvianebi xarT,

mwyobriT ratom ar dadixarT?...“

Cvenma gmirma, romelic, cxadia, WkuiT

ar gamoirCeoda, egocentrizmi gamoavlina.

es sityva laTinuridan warmodgeba:

„ego“ niSnavs „me“, xolo centri yvelam

iciT, ra aris. egocentruls uwodeben

adamians, romelic sakuTar faseulobebs,

midrekilebebs, warmodgenebs Tu rwmenas

52. eTnocentrizmi

eTnocentrizmi niSnavs sakuTari

kulturis miCnevas sxvebze

aRmatebulad, sxva kulturebis da

xalxebis qcevis Tu warmodgenebis

Sefasebas sakuTari kulturis

poziciidan.

miiCnevs erTaderT sworad da yvelasaTvis aucileblad. Cveni anekdotis personaJi

darwmunebuli iyo, rom is, rasac TviTon Tvlida saSur da, albaT, Znel saqmed,

sxvebisTvisac aseTi unda yofiliyo. anekdoti anekdotad, magram egocentrul

gamonaTqvamebs xSirad gaigonebT yoveldRiur cxovrebaSi: „ver gavige, rogor

SeiZleba iyo vegetarianeli...“; „eg mTlad kargad ver aris, markebs agrovebs da sxva

araferi ainteresebs...“; „amxela wigns ra gakiTxebs!“ da a.S.

egocentrizmis saxesxvaobas warmoadgens eTnocentrizmi (berZ. „eTnos“ _ tomi,

xalxi) _ roca sakuTari kulturis wesebi da normebi sworad da „WeSmaritad“ miiCneva,

yvelaferi gansxvavebuli ki _ arasworad.

gaxsovs franc boasis „kulturis saTvale“? sxva kulturas adamianebi afaseben

sakuTari kulturis gadasaxedidan, romelsac nimuSad, sazomad miiCneven. sxva

kulturis adamianebs ki „sakuTari saTvale“, sakuTari faseulobebi, Sexedulebebi

da normebi aqvT.

adamianebs sjeraT, rom swored maT kulturaSi arsebuli rwmena-warmodgenebi,

Sexedulebebi, zne-Cveulebebi aris marTebuli da zneobrivi. amitom gansxvavebuli

faseulobani aRiqmeba rogorc ucnauri, naklebzneobrivi, CamorCenili da veluric

ki.

eTnocentrizmis magaliTebi mravlad SeiZleba aRmovaCinoT msoflio istoriaSi.

Zveli berZnebis mier kacobriobis dayofa elinebad da barbarosebad swored

eTnocentrizmis gamoxatuleba iyo. berZnebi gamarTlebulad da sworad mxolod

sakuTari cxovrebis wess miiCnevdnen, danarCeni samyaro ki maTTvis barbarosul,

aracivilizebul, erTgvarovan sivrces warmoadgenda. eTnocentrizmis

gamoxatuleba iyo aseve evropeli misionerebis damokidebuleba amerikis

adgilobrivi mosaxleobisadmi. misionerebis mizani iyo „swori“ rwmenis, zneobis,

codnis, gemovnebis gavrceleba axladaRmoCenil kontinentze, romelic miiCneoda

„primitiulad“ da „CamorCenilad“.

189


eTnocentrizmis magaliTebi Tanamedrove samyaroSic bevria. erTi kulturis

warmomadgenels SeiZleba uCveulod da miuReblad moeCvenos sxva kulturaSi

arsebuli dakrZalvis wesi: zogierT sazogadoebaSi micvalebuls gardacvalebis

dResve krZalaven, sxvagan ki datirebis mravaldRiani rituali aqvT. SefasebiTi

damokidebuleba mJRavndeba samosisadmic. mraval adamianSi Rimils iwvevs Sotlandiur

kiltSi gamowyobili mamakaci.

ormagi eTnocentrizmis magaliTi

iaponuri kulturisadmi miZRvnil mecadineobaze leqtorma studentebs uambo,

rom iaponiaSi Zalze mkacri wesebi arsebobs saCuqrebTan dakavSirebiT. Tu erTma

iaponelma meores raime aCuqa, aucilebelia sapasuxo saCuqari, magram zustad

igive safasuris! ufro Zvirfasi sapasuxo saCuqari Zalian damamcirebeli da

Seuracxmyofelia _ iTvleba, rom am gziT Sen ambob: „me Senze magari da mdidari

var! Sen mxolod iaffasiani nivTebis yidvis Sno gaqvs!“

moulodnelad erTma studentma, zazam, Sublze ikra xeli da wamoiZaxa: „axla

mivxvdi, rac moxda!“ gamoirkva, rom saerTaSoriso sazafxulo banakSi yofnisas

zaza daumegobrda iaponel gogonas, romelmac wamosvlis wina dRes mas iaponuri

suveniri aCuqa. zazam „qarTuli raindoba“ gamoiCina, fuli isesxa da ganSorebis

dRes gogonas Zvirfasi saCuqari miarTva. amis mere ki moxda is, rasac leqtori

yveboda _ gogonam zazasTan yovelgvari urTierToba gawyvita, dabloka misi

telefoni da el-fosta, anu CaTvala, rom zazam mas ganzrax miayena Seuracxyofa.

araferia gasakviri imaSi, rom ar mogvwons da miuReblad vTvliT imas, rac

gansxvavebulia da ucxoa CvenTvis. ubralod, unda gvaxsovdes rom, rac normaluria

CvenTvis, swored is SeiZleba gaugebari iyos sxvisTvis. amitom, azrsmoklebulia

mcdeloba, Cveni Sexeduleba „sworisa“ da „arasworis“, „kargisa“ da „cudis“, „lamazisa“

da „uSnos“ Sesaxeb gadavitanoT sxva kulturaze da es gansxvavebebi sakuTari

upiratesobis dasasabuTeblad gamoviyenoT.

barnard Sou

mweralma bernard Soum (1856-1950) ki eTnocentrizmi ase

Seafasa: „barbarosi isaa, visac sakuTari tomis wesebi bunebis

kanonebi hgonia“.

190 msoflio kultura


damatebiTi informacia

akiremas tomSi gavrcelebuli rituali

akiremas tomis yvela wevri yoveldRiurad asrulebs piris rituals. igi Sedgeba

pirSi Roris jagris konis swrafi da daJinebuli moZraobebisagan. am ritualis

garda, es adamianebi weliwadSi orjer midian wminda piris kacTan. es ukanaskneli

flobs STambeWdavi raodenobis gansakuTrebul mowyobilobebs _ burRebs, qlibebs,

marwuxebs da saxvretebs. am sagnebis gamoyeneba piridan boroti Zalebis gamodevnis

dros adamianis warmoudgenel tanjvas iwvevs. wminda piris kaci muStrebis kbilebSi

avadmyofobisagan warmoqmnil naxvretebs am mowyobilobaTa saSualebiT kidev

ufro afarToebs, Semdeg ki am xvrelebSi jadosnur masalebs debs. Tuki kbilebze

bunebrivad gaCenili xvrelebi ar arsebobs, maSin wminda piris kaci erTi an ramdenime

kbilis mozrdil nawilis amtvrevs zebunebrivi nivTierebebis Casadebad. muStrebis

azriT, mkurnalobis mizani avadmyofobis SeCerebaa. am ritualis Zalze wminda da

tradiciuli xasiaTi naTelia iqidanac, rom adgilobrivi mcxovreblebi kvlav da

kvlav, wlidan wlamde dadian wminda piris kacTan, miuxedavad imisa, rom maTi kbilebi

xrwnas ganagrZobs.

nawyveti horas m. maineris statiidan „sxeulis rituali akiremas tomSi“

kiTxva

l arsebobs Tu ara „piris rituali“ da „wminda piris kaci“ Sens kulturaSi? Tu

arsebobs, aRwere msgavsebebi da gansxvavebebi. axla waikiTxe akirema marjvnidan

marcxniv. imsjele, ris Cveneba scada amerikelma mecnierma horas m. mainerma?

diskusia

l imsjele zazasa da iaponeli gogonas qcevaze. romeli maTgani moiqca arasworad? ram

gamoiwvia gaugebroba? rogor SeiZleboda misi Tavidan acileba?

52. eTnocentrizmi

191


53

ing. relative _

SedarebiTi,

SefardebiTi

margaret midi

melvil herskovici

eTnorelativizmi

eTnorelativizmi _ Sexeduleba,

romelic emyareba yvela kulturis

Tanabari mniSvnelobis aRiarebas.

amboben, rom gemovnebaze ar daoben. SeiZleba, raRac

mogvwondes an ar mogvwondes _ rogorc sakuTar, aseve sxva

kulturaSi. Tumca es ar niSnavs, rom rac Cven gvxiblavs,

aucileblad unda moswondes sxvasac da, miT umetes, rac

CvenTvis gaugebari an miuRebelia, is calsaxad cudi, uvargisi,

ugemovnebo an „CamorCenilia“. magaliTad, sufris etiketi

gansxvavebulia sxvadasxva kulturaSi. zogan miRebulia saerTo

TefSidan xeliT Wama da gansakuTrebul pativad iTvleba,

Tu maspinZeli stumars sakuTari xeliT miarTmevs pirvel

lukmas. zogan sufris yvela wevrs sakuTari TefSi da dana-

Cangali aqvs da, yuradRebis niSnad, maspinZeli araerTxel

da daJinebiT sTavazobs stumars TiToeul kerZs. sxvagan

sufris wevrebi ramdenime kovziT, CangliT, daniTa da WiqiT

arian „aRWurvili“, kerZebis Tanmimdevroba da TiToeuli

stumrisaTvis gankuTvnili ulufa ki imTaviTve gansazRvrulia.

romeli wesi SeiZleba CaiTvalos ukeTesad da, Sesabamisad,

yvelasaTvis savaldebulod?

me-20 saukunis 20-iani wlebisaTvis mecnierebs daugrovdaT

monacemebi, romlebic cxadyofda, rom dedamiwis sxvadasxva

kuTxeSi adamianTa jgufebi sruliad gansxvavebuli wesiT

cxovrobdnen, gansxvavebulad aRiqvamdnen samyaros, sxvadasxva

warmodgena hqondaT sikeTesa da borotebaze, dasaSvebsa da

akrZalulze, silamazesa da simaxinjeze. TandaTan Camoyalibda

Sexeduleba, romlis Tanaxmad, kulturebi arian gansxvavebuli,

da ara ukeTesi an uaresi, ganviTarebuli an CamorCenili.

Taviseburebebis ganmapirobebel faqtorebs. SeiZleba iTqvas,

rom isini „kulturis aisbergis“ mxolod xiluli nawilis kvleviT

kmayofildebodnen, romelsac sakuTari kulturis „saTvaliT“

SeiaraRebulni akvirdebodnen. maTi eTnocentristuli xedva

gulisxmobda dasavluri kulturis aRiarebas etalonad,

romelic yvela danarCenisaTvis misabaZi unda yofiliyo.

eTnocentrizmis sapirispirod, Camoyalibda axali Tvalsazrisi

_ eTnorelativizmi. romlis Tanaxmad, Tu vTvliT, rom

Cveni rwmena-warmodgenebi, qceva, normebi, samyaros aRqma Cveni

kulturiT aris gansazRvruli, maSin vaRiarebT imasac, rom

sxvaTa Sexedulebebi, warmodgenebi da msoflmxedveloba maTi

kulturiT aris ganpirobebuli. eTnorelativizmis sinonimuri

me-20 saukunis Sua xanebSi franc

boasi da misi mowafeebi ruT benediqti,

melvil herskovici da margaret midi

aRniSnavdnen, rom adre mkvlevrebi

yuradRebas ar aqcevdnen kulturuli

ruT benediqti

192 msoflio kultura


mniSvnelobiT gamoiyeneba termini

kulturuli relativizmi.

modi, davfiqrdeT, arsebobs universaluri

sazomi, romlis mixedviT

SevafasebdiT, romeli kultura SeiZleba

CaiTvalos etalonad da sxva kulturaTa

Sefasebis safuZvlad?

eTnorelativizmi gulisxmobs sami mTavari principis gacnobierebas:

l erTi kulturis aR qma da gageba SeuZlebelia meore kulturasTan Sedarebis

gareSe;

l erTi kulturis farglebSi arsebuli wesebi, zne-Cveulebani Tu Sexedulebebi

ar SeiZleba Sefasdes sxva kulturis wesebis, zne-Cveulebebis Tu

warmodgenebis gadasaxedidan;

l konkretuli qceva, norma da Sexeduleba SeiZleba gavigoT da avxsnaT

mxolod im kulturis farglebSi, romelSic is arsebobs. yoveli kultura

rTuli sistemaa, romlis yvela detali erTmaneTTanaa dakavSirebuli.

CvenTvis „ucnauri“, „araswori“ wesi Tu tradicia savsebiT bunebrivia sxva

kulturisaTvis.

amgvari midgoma aadvilebs urTierTgagebas kulturebs Soris.

diskusia

kiTxva

53. eTnorelativizmi

kulturuli relativizmi _

Tvalsazrisi, romlis Tanaxmad,

kulturis Taviseburebebis

gaazreba da gageba SesaZlebelia

mxolod missave farglebSi.

l rogorc fiqrob, gulisxmobs Tu ara kulturuli relativizmi, rom sxva an Cveni

sazogadoebis qcevebi (magaliTad, monoba, wameba savaraudo damnaSavisagan Cvenebis

misaRebad da sxva) ar unda ganvsajoT moraluri TvalsazrisiT?

l veliT, rom Cveni kultura _ xuroTmoZRvreba, mravalxmiani simRera,

mravalferovani samzareulo, stumarTmoyvareoba da sxva _ ucxoelTa interessa

da aRfrTovanebas gamoiwvevs. warmoidgine, rom es ase ar moxda: stumari gulgrili

darCa yovelive imis mimarT, riTac Cven ase viwonebT Tavs, xolo sufraze Tavazianad

aRniSna, rom sacivi _ qarTuli samzareulos mSveneba _ gemrielia, Tumca mavnea

janmrTelobisaTvis, radgan Termulad damuSavebul nigozs Seicavs. ras ifiqreb?

rogor moiqcevi?

warmoidgine: centraluri aziis erT-erT qveyanaSi maspinZelma siamayiT gagacno

sakuTari qveynis kulturuli RirsSesaniSnaobebi, Semdeg iurtaSi migipatiJa, sadac

kumisiTa 1 da cxenis xorciT damzadebuli gemrieli kerZiT gagimaspinZlda. ras

ifiqreb? rogor moiqcevi?

imsjele am ori SemTxvevis Sesaxeb. Seni azriT, sad gadis zRvari eTnocentrizmsa da

eTnorelativizms Soris?

1 kumisi - cxenis rZiT damzadebuli Txieri produqti.

193


damatebiTi informacia

adamianis uflebebi da kulturuli relativizmi

axal ambebSi sul ufro xSirad gvesmis imis Sesaxeb, rom mTel msoflioSi

irRveva adamianTa uflebebi. SemTxvevebi uamravia, politikuri Sexedulebebis gamo

dapatimrebiT dawyebuli da eTnikuri wmendiT damTavrebuli. Tumca, dasavleTis

kritikul damokidebulebas am sakiTxisadmi msoflios sxva qveynebi uaryofiTad

xvdebian da acxadeben, rom dasavleTma unda Sewyvitos adamianis uflebebze Tavisi

subieqturi mosazrebebis sxvaTaTvis Tavs moxveva. iqneb marTebulia kulturuli

relativizmis mkacri midgoma, romelic yvela kulturas TanabarmniSvnelovnad

ganixilavs? aseT SemTxvevaSi, SeuZlebeli gaxdeba adamianis uflebebis universaluri

standartebis SemuSaveba.

adamianis uflebaTa sayovelTao deklaraciis miRebas (1948 wels) erTi saintereso

istoria ukavSirdeba: deklaraciis ganxilvis dros mecnierTa erTma jgufma,

kerZod, amerikis anTropologTa asociaciam melvil herskovicis xelmZRvanelobiT,

warmoadgina sakuTari varianti, romlis mixedviTac, saWiro iyo im faqtisaTvis

yuradRebis miqceva, rom yovel sazogadoebaSi Tavisufleba Taviseburad esmiT:

„adamiani Tavisufalia im SemTxvevaSi, Tuki mas SeuZlia icxovros Tavisuflebis

im gagebiT, romelic mis sazogadoebaSia miRebuli“. maTi azriT, yvela kulturas

sakuTari faseulobebi, Tavisuflebis Tu samarTlis „sakuTari“ gageba aqvs, amitom,

Tu deklaracia daemyareboda Tavisuflebis dasavlur princips, igi ver iqneboda

sayovelTaod aRiarebuli.

viciT, rom yvela kulturas Tavisi eTikuri normebi aqvs, magram es normebi

erTnair Rirebulebebs ar eyrdnoba. magaliTad, kulturebi SesamCnevad gansxvavdeba

umciresobaTa da qalTa uflebebis mixedviT. zogierT sazogadoebaSi colebs klaven,

rodesac qmari gardaicvleba; sikvdiliT sjian, Tuki maT mamisadmi an Zmisadmi

daumorCilebloba gamoavlines. rogori iqneba kulturuli relativizmis momxreTa

midgoma amgvari faqtebis mimarT?

am kiTxvaze pasuxis araerTmniSvnelovnebis gamo, kulturul relativizms

bevri kritikosi gamouCnda. maTi azriT, Tuki ar arsebobs moralis universaluri

principebi, maSin arc tolerantobis principi SeiZleba iyos universaluri. da Tu

tolerantoba aris universaluri principi, ratom ar SeiZleba arsebobdes sxva msgavsi

universaluri principebic?

194 msoflio kultura


interkulturuli komunikacia.

interkulturuli dialogi

54.interkulturuli komunikacia. interkulturuli dialogi

54

interkulturuli komunikacia sxvada

sxva kulturis warmomadge nelTa

uSu alo urTierTobas gulisxmobs. Sen

ukve ici, ramdenad mravalferovania

kul turebi, ramdenad gansxvavdebian

adamianebi CacmulobiT, qceviT, kvebis

racioniT, sacxovrebeli garemoTi, SexedulebebiT,

erTisa da imave sagnis Tu

movlenis aRqmiT. rogorc naxe, ar aris

ioli sakuTarisagan radikalurad, an

Tundac umniSvnelod gansxvavebuli

warmod genebis da Sexedulebebis mqone

adamianis gageba da miReba, miT ufro,

rodesac cota, an sulac araferi viciT

misi kulturis Sesaxeb.

modi, mokled SevajamoT, ra barierebis winaSe SeiZleba aRmovCndeT

interkulturuli komunikaciis procesSi:

1. enobrivi gansxvaveba. enis Seswavla gacilebiT mets niSnavs, vidre, ubralod,

leqsikisa da gramatikis dauflebas, unda viswavloT _ ra, rogor, rodis, sad

da ratom vTqvaT. erTsa da imave sityvas, SeiZleba, sxvadasxva mniSvneloba

hqondes sxvadasxva situaciaSi.

2. araverbaluri komunikaciis sfero, romelic moicavs Jestebs, pozas, mimikas

da sxva saSualebebs, romelTa meSveobiTac laparakis gareSe gamovxatavT,

Tu ras vgrZnobT da ras vfiqrobT. Cveni kultura „gvaswavlis“ araverbalur

komunikacias, romelic imdenad avtomaturia, rom masze iSviaTad vfiqrobT.

magram „sxva“adamianma Seni Jestebi, mimika, Cacmuloba, fizikuri siaxlove

an siSore, pirispir kontaqti (TvalebSi yureba), SeiZleba, sakuTari

kulturidan gamomdinare axsnas da es sruliad gansxvavebuli aRmoCndes

imisagan, ris Tqmac Sen gsurda.

3. stereotipebi _ ganzogadebuli, gamartivebuli da winaswar arsebuli

warmodgena ama Tu im jgufis Tvisebebisa da maxasiaTeblebis Sesaxeb.

4. eTnocentrizmi _ miswrafeba, SevafasoT sxva kultura rogorc kargi an

cudi, Cveni sakuTari kulturidan gamomdinare.

195


Sen aseve ici, ra Sedegi SeiZleba

gamoiRos kulturuli Tu rasobrivi

gansxvavebebis safuZvelze erTi jgufis

mier meoris uflebebis ugulebelyofam,

erTis mier meoris arasrulfasovnad

miCnevam. modi, vifiqroT imaze,

ra alternativa SeiZleba hqondes

Seuwynareblobis am ukidures

gamoxatulebebs, ra mniSvneloba aqvs

stereotipebis, rasizmis, qsenofobiis

gadalaxvas imisaTvis, rom kulturulma

mravalferovnebam Cveni cxovreba ufro

saitereso gaxados da ar daamZimos is

konfliqtebiTa da dapirispirebiT.

kulturulad mravalferovan msoflioSi sasicocxlo mniSvneloba aqvs sxvadasxva

xalxebsa da jgufebs Soris harmoniuli Tanacxovrebis uzrunvelyofas. amis miRwevis

saSualebaa interkulturuli dialogi.

evropis sabWos gansazRvrebiT, interkulturuli dialogi aris procesi,

romelic gulisxmobs sxvadasxva kulturis warmomadgenel individebsa da jgufebs

Soris SexedulebaTa Ria, urTierTpativiscemaze dafuZnebul gaziarebas, rasac

gansxvavebuli msoflmxedvelobisa da cxovrebis wesis gagebasa da gaazrebamde

mivyavarT.

interkulturuli dialogis problema gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania

mravalkulturuli da mravaleTnikuri qveynebisa da regionebisaTvis, sadac

„sxvasTan“ kontaqti da masTan dialogi saukuneebis manZilze mimdinareobda da

mTeli istoriis ganmsazRvrel faqtorad iqca. aseT regionTa ricxvs miekuTvneba,

magaliTad, kavkasia, samxreT-aRmosavleT evropa, baltiis qveynebi, centraluri

azia da sxva.

Tanamedrove msoflios calkeuli nawilebi sul ufro mWidrod ukavSirdeba

erTmaneTs. Tu adre garkveuli manZilis dafarvas Tveebs da wlebs andomebdnen, dRes

amis gakeTeba saaTebSia SesaZlebeli. sainformacio teqnologiebi, migracia, turizmi,

romelic individualuridan masobriv movlenad iqca, pirispir gvaxvedreben “sxvas”,

romelic yvelganaa da masTan Sexvedris Tavidan acileba SeuZlebelia. globalizacia,

erTi mxriv, ganapirobebs sxvadasxva kulturis matarebelTa mWidro kontaqts, meore

mxriv, mkafiod avlens gansxvavebebs. aseT viTarebaSi, interkulturul dialogs

gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba eniWeba.

196 msoflio kultura


interkulturuli dialogis principebis daufleba saSualebas mogcems,

gaiazro kulturaTaSorisi urTierTobis sirTuleebi da Seecado maT gadalaxvas;

gaacnobiero, rom qcevis wesebi, urTierTobani, warmodgenebi sxvadasxva kulturaSi

sxvadasxvagvaria; daayeno sakuTari Tavi „ucxo“ kulturis warmomadgenlis adgilze.

Cven yvelas SegviZlia urTierToba sxva adamianebTan, rogorc ar unda

gansxvavdebodnen isini Cvengan, SegviZlia viswavloT maTi gageba.

davaleba

1. dawere Tema: ”interkulturuli komunikaciisa da dialogis mniSvneloba

saqarTvelosaTvis”.

2. waikiTxe Sens mier pirvel gakveTilze Sesrulebuli ese. Secvlidi rames?

197

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