petliura da sxvebi

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petliura da sxvebi

istoriebi

petliura da sxvebi

daviT CixlaZe

poloneTi

qeTi qanTaria

TadeuS kantori

daviT buxrikiZe

ulrike mainhofi

ana korZaia-samadaSvili

interviuebi

erik trufazi

kaxa Tolordava

erik monio

qeTevan sadRobelaSvili

komentarebi

37

gigi guledani

tendenciuri gmirebis aRlumi

basa janikaSvili

lokaluris Zaladoba

paata Samugia

`niWieri~

sandro naveriani

ivnisi 2010 #61

fasi 5 lari

saavtoro

lismanisi

levan berZeniSvili

isev birsi gamaxsenda

aka morCilaZe

xelovneba da `perversiebi~

giorgi maisuraZe

literatura

mario vargas liosa

semuel beketi

maka miqelaZe

irakli kakabaZe


saswavlo centri

"British Connection"

gTavazobT mosamzadebel kursebs

sxvadasxva sasertifikato gamocdebisTvis:

FCE (B1-B2)

CAE

TOEFL

IELTS

magistraturis inglisuri enis gamocdisTvis

mosamzadebeli jgufebi

funqcionirebas iwyeben 1-7 ivnisidan

kursis xangrZlivoba - 12 kvira

☺ sasargeblo rCeva - ewvieT saits

www.britishconnection.ge

misamarTi: budapeStis q. 1

telefoni: 308 135 / 855 301 390


inglisurenovani banaki kvariaTSi

Camp etc.

inglisuri enis gakveTilebi / TamaSobebi / eqskursiebi / RonisZiebebi

ingliseli da amerikeli maswavleblebi da xelmZRvanelebi

maRali xarisxis sacxovrebeli pirobebi

samjeradi kveba

brwyinvale adgilmdebareoba

damatebiTi informaciisTvis dagvikavSirdiT:

telefoni: 8 907 907 07 / 8 908 908 08

www.etcetera.ge


garekanze: saSa lugini, katia riJikova

foto: guram wibaxaSvili

mTavari redaqtori:

nino lomaZe

art-redaqtori: giorgi nadiraZe

redaqtor-stilisti: nino svaniZe

koreqtori: nino saiTiZe

nomerze muSaobdnen: daviT

buxrikiZe, daviT CixlaZe, levan

berZeniSvili, gigi guledani,

qeTi qanTaria, giorgi maisuraZe,

kaxa Tolordava, nino beqiSvili,

ana korZaia-samadaSvili, qeTevan

sadRobelaSvili, basa janikaSvili,

paata Samugia, sandro naveriani,

giorgi svaniZe, naTia guliaSvili,

aka morCilaZe, irma taveliZe

foto: levan xerxeuliZe, marika

qoCiaSvili, guram wibaxaSvili

ilustracia: mariam zaldastaniSvili,

maia sumbaZe

dizaini: Tornike lorTqifaniZe

sazogadoebasTan urTierToba:

lela SubiTiZe

sareklamo gayidvebi: Salva CubiniZe

distribucia: zviad Sengelia

gamomcemeli: Sorena SaverdaSvili

gamomcemloba:

Sps `em fabliSingi~, Tbilisi 0105,

faliaSvilis q. 108, tel.: 912326

el-fosta: mpublishing@caucasus.net

sxva gamocemebi: liberali, biznesiadamianebi,

meTodebi, strategiebi,

dialogi, Tibisi da Tibiselebi.

stamba: `favoriti~, Tbilisi,

CubinaSvilis q. 50, tel.: 951952

Jurnali gamodis 2004 wlis 25

dekembridan

© “M Publishing” saavtoro uflebebi

daculia. JurnalSi gamoqveynebuli

masalebis nawilobrivi an mTliani

gamoyeneba gamomcemlobis nebarTvis

gareSe akrZalulia.

6 cxeli Sokoladi

8 redaqtoris werili

10 Cveni avtorebi

N61, ivnisi 2010

mimoxilvebi 12 `eqslibrisis~ mkiTxvelTa klubi daviT CixlaZe

13 `axali `galerea 9~ daviT CixlaZe

14 totalitaruli epoqis arqiteqtura konceptualur

fotografiaSi daviT CixlaZe

14 uxmo evolucia naTia guliaSvili

16 iuri meCiTovis Jurnalisturi retrospeqtiva

daviT CixlaZe

17 rok kafe droebiT daixura daviT CixlaZe

18 gaseirneba Zveli Tbilisis fotopeizaJSi

naTia guliaSvili

19 Rvinis festivali giorgi svaniZe

20 aris Tu ara oleg timCenkos sfinqsi samkauli

daviT CixlaZe

22 istoriuli reversi sapnis aromatiT

naTia guliaSvili

recenzia 24 mieciT qmari ninis... daviT buxrikiZe

komentarebi 25 37 gigi guledani

26 tendenciuri gmirebis aRlumi basa janikaSvili

27 lokaluris Zaladoba paata Samugia

29 finaluri mwuxri sandro naveriani

istoriebi 30 erTi saaTi TbilisisTvis daviT CixlaZe

38 diletantis mogzauroba poloneTSi qeTi qanTaria

44 TadeuS kantori

`mkvdari klasis~ Canawerebi daviT buxrikiZe

50 ulrike mainhofi

Zalian saxifaTo frau mainhofi

ana korZaia-samadaSvili

interviuebi 54 interviu erik trufazTan kaxa Tolordava

58 interviu erik moniosTan

`meore arxis~ pirveli partniori

qeTevan sadRobelaSvili

diskusia 62 radikalizmi dialogis magivrad nino beqiSvili

esei 68 isev birsi gamaxsenda aka morCilaZe

Targmani 72 ringze norman meileris werilebi

inglisuridan Targmna irma taveliZem

saavtoro 76 lismanisi levan berZeniSvili

82 xelovneba da `perversiebi~ giorgi maisuraZe


edaqtoris werili

8 cxeli Sokoladi

dResac zustad veravin ityvis vin aris ulrike mainhofi. elfride elineki

fiqrobs, rom ulrikes biografia istoriul saidumlod darCa, da awi am fenomenis

amoxsnas veravin SeZlebs. mainhofis mkvlevari, karin baueri mas tragikul

personas uwodebs, maRali idealebisTvis mebrZol qals, frustrirebuli

Taobis Svils. sxvebi fiqroben, rom is namdvili sisxliani monstria, da misi

nakvalevi gvamebiTaa aRniSnuli. hainrix bioli wiTeli armiis (RAF) eqvskacian

fraqciaze (maT Soris mainhofze) werda, rom es iyo eqvsis omi eqvsi milionis

(eqvs milionSi Zalovanebs gulisxmobda) winaaRmdeg.

1960-70-ian wlebSi, germanul Jurnal `konkritSi~ gamoqveynebuli ulrike mainhofis

publikaciebis mimarT, bevrs gaorebuli damokidebuleba hqonda, roca

ar ici, is giyvars Tu mTeli arsebiT gZuls. yvelaze neitraluri Sefaseba ki

aseTia _ mainhofi ubralod saintereso mweralia, vinc gadareuli drois qaosma

CaiTria da veRar ipova gza ukan. mokled, rTulia gaigo, vin aris mainhofi.

faqtia, ulrike teroristad rom ar qceuliyo misi nawerebi dRes aRaravis

emaxsovreboda. albaT, arc aravin Sekrebda `konkritis~ publikaciebs da verasdros

iqceoda es unikaluri werilebi wignad _ `yvela amindze laparakobs.

Cven _ ara~. mainhofis mkvlevari, wignis Sesaval sityvaSi wers, rom germanul

sazogadoebas ulrikes teroristul aqtebTan kavSirze metad is abrazebda, rom

man qalis tradiciuli rolis uaryofis magaliTi aCvena. RAF-Si gawevrianebis

Semdeg, mainhofma 8 wlis tyupi gogonebi miatova da imis gamo, rom ar surda,

mis bavSvebze saxelmwifos ezruna, isini RAF-is teroristul banakSi gagzavna.

tyupebi gzaSi policiam daakava da TavSesafarSi waiyvana.

albaT, mainc veravin mouZebna mainhofis istorias imaze zusti saxeli, rogorc

TviTon, sakuTar publikaciaSi, romelic misi cxovrebis mTel gzas aCvenebs

_ `protestidan winaaRmdegobamde~.

`protesti: vacxadeb, rom esa da es ar mawyobs.

winaaRmdegoba: viqcevi ise, rom rac ar mawyobs, arsebobas wyvets.

protesti: vacxadeb, rom morCa, me amaSi aRar vmonawileob.

winaaRmdegoba: me viqcevi ise, rom amaSi aRaravin miiRebs monawileobas. wels,

TebervalSi vietnamisadmi miZRvnil konferenciaze, berlinSi erTma Savkanianma

amerikelma, moZraoba Black Power-is warmomadgenelma daaxloebiT es Tqva _ sityvasityviT

ar maxsovs.

studentebi sulac ar `awyoben ajanyebas~, isini winaaRmdegobas swavloben.

diax, qvebs isrodnen, diax, berlinSi Springeris koncernis Senobis fanjrebi

daimsxvra. manqanebi aalda, `bild caitungis~ erT-erTi redaqcia dazaralda,

saburavebi daiglija, satransporto moZraoba paralizebuli iyo, satvirTo

manqanebi gadaayiraves, policielebis jaWvebi gaarRvies _ diax, Zalas mimarTes,

fizikur Zalmomreobas. miuxedavad amisa, Springeris presis gamosvlas xeli veraferma

SeuSala, quCis moZraoba ramdenime saaTSi ganaxlda. fanjrebis fuls

sadazRvevo kompaniebi gadaixdian. damwvari satvirTo manqanebis nacvlad, quCebSi

sxvebi gamovlen. policia wylis Wavls kvlav gamoiyenebs, iseve, rogorc

rezinis xeljoxebi ar mogvakldeba. maSasadame, is, rac moxda, SeiZleba kvlav

ganmeordes: Springeris presa kvlav gaafTrebul devnas ganagrZobs, klaus Sulci

kvlav mogviwodebs, rom `am subieqtebs TvalebSi CavxedoT~ da _ modiT,

viyoT Tanmimdevrulni _ vurtyaT (rac 21 Tebervals ukve moxda) da, sabolood,

vesroloT~.

vfiqrob, dRes mniSvnelovania fiqri imaze, Tu ra xdeba maSin, rodesac ar

arsebobs kiTxvebze pasuxi.

rodis iqceva kiTxvebi _ protestad da protesti _ winaaRmdegobad?

rodis ibadeba mainhofi?

nino lomaZe

mogvwereT, editor@shokoladi.ge


Cveni avtorebi

qeTi qanTaria

klaviaturaze drodadro kidev erTi wyvili xeli Cndeba da

miwers `ras Svebi axla qeTi~. wels axali SiSi aqvs, romelsac

veRar ereva, buzebi. mec wels erTi didi buzi gamiCnda, romelsac

fanjridan ver vagdeb. televizori. mowyenili bavSvebis

megobari. `axla me ra vqna~, mwers isev. `waikiTxe rame~, vuwer.

`me patara var~. `ar xar.~ `var~. hm. dialogis azrgamocliloba

Cemi bralia. bolo droebis Cemi sifuyis bralia. naxeT rogor

aris mowyobili cxovreba. gaCerebis da dafiqrebis fufuneba

masSi ar aris gaTvaliswinebuli, meore Tves gazs gamogirTaven.

`jetiksis~, MTV-is degeneratuli da vulgaruli laTinuri

amerikis xmaurSi (aba borxess didi xania biblioTekaSi sZinavs),

patara vardisferi putkuna karieristebis mquxare sityvebSi

deteqtivi, romelSic raRacas ixdian, mainc iTargmneba,

avtopilotiT. rac Tavi maxsovs, dRisiT Tbilisi sul aseTi

qancgamZvrali da Zalagamoclilia. albaT amitom vwvebi Zalian

gvian. RamiT, Tormetis mere, rac unda gamofituli viyo, TavSi

raRac naTurebi inTeba da dReis iqiTa cxovrebis dasajdomi

ganaTebebi moCans. dRes ukve zustad vici, aseT mdgomareobaSi

adamiani yvelaze kargad mosazeli plastelinia. me xom

ukve beberi mgeli var da Cemi gadazelva SeuZlebelia (Tumca,

amis Tqmaze raRac sasignalo Tu sifrTxilis naTurebi mainc

menTeba), magram vinc Zalian adre iZinebs? me Toro miyvars

yvelaze Zaan, gunebaSi masTan erTad tyeSi vcxovrob. marTalia,

mwerebis mec meSinia, magram am jiut kacTan erTad mainc

iqa var. oRond erTi patara bavSvi mabaria (Svili, araSvili

_ ar aqvs mniSvneloba, adamiani, romelic mabaria), romelic

sadRac or realobas Soris meWedeba, imitom rom kargad jer

ver vuxsni, vin arian yvelaze tvinisgamxvreti buzebi, visi unda

eSinodes. amitom mas uyvars yvelaferi vardisferi, saitebi,

romlebzec bevri vardisferi `produqti~ eguleba da naTurebi

maTi Tvalierebisas enTeba. ai, axali Jurnali, romel-

Sic patara adamians axaliseben: egre gaagrZele da CvensaviT

didi da msuqani (ukacravad, `skinny~ da lamazi) iqnebi, ijdebi

aramyudro, magram did saxlSi da gamoSterebul Jurnalists

Seni fexsacmlis oTxmocdaaT wyvils gadmouwyob. viRacas aq

Svela sWirdeba, xsna _ ara, xsna garantirebulia, indulgencia

met-naklebad yvela qarTvels ganaRdebuli aqvs. oTxmocdaaTi

wyvili SeiZleba sulier mamasac gadmouwyo, Tu patara plastelini

iqnebi. arada, a.d.v. Toro da mec qristianebi varT.

10 cxeli Sokoladi

nino beqiSvili

`yvela adamiani ibadeba Tavisufali da Tanaswori Tavisi

RirsebiTa da uflebebiT. maT miniWebuli aqvT goneba

da sindisi da erTmaneTis mimarT unda iqceodnen Zmuri

suliskveTebiT~

adamianis uflebaTa sayovelTao deklaracia

muxli 1

`cxeli Sokoladis~ redaqciaSi diskusiaze levan berZeniSvilma

`adamianis uflebaTa sayovelTao deklaraciis~

Sesaxeb, romelic gaerom meore msoflio omis Semdeg, 1948

wlis 10 dekembers miiRo, aseTi ram Tqva: `am deklaracias

dRes veravin ver dawers da ar arsebobs saxelmwifo,

romelic mas dRes miiRebda. yvela religiuri konfesia

ewinaaRmdegeba am dokuments, es normaluricaa, asec unda

iyos. es deklaracia yvelaferze maRla dadga swored

imitom, rom misma Semqmnelebma warmoudgeneli sisastike

naxes~.

im dRes, 2010 wlis 15 maiss pirvelad davfiqrdi imaze,

rom SeiZleba es dokumenti gasuli saukunis yvelaze

mniSvnelovani monapovari iyos. deklaraciis arsebobis

Sesaxeb, viTarca sabWoTa moqalaqem, gvian gavige. mere

uamravjer wamikiTxavs, punqtebis mixedviTac SemiZlia

CamovTvalo iq aRwerili uflebebi, magram Sin mosulma

kidev erTxel gadmoviRe da mivxvdi, rom batoni levani

ar cdeboda. Sors wasvla da msoflioSi mimdinare

procesebis gaxseneba sulac ar damWirda _ teqstis didi

nawili Tanamedrove, demokratiuli da ganviTarebis gzaze

damdgari saqarTvelos moqalaqeebis didi nawilisTvis

gaugebari da miuRebelia. cxadi da martivi WeSmaritebebis

aRiarebis nacvlad Cvens efemerul SiSebs isev verafers

vuxerxebT, da roca raRac problemis winaSe vdgebiT,

`Zmuri suliskveTeba~ sadRac qreba _ sul erTia vin varT,

mdidrebi Tu Raribebi, ganaTlebulebi Tu gaunaTleblebi,

liberalebi Tu marTlmorwmune qristianebi.

es, ra Tqma unda, samwuxaro ambavia. erTi nugeSi isaa, rom

marto ara varT _ adamianebi sxvaganac, sxva qveynebSic

met-naklebi simZafriT imave problemebis winaSe dganan.

mTavari albaT isaa, rom gvjerodes _ saubriT, erTmane-

Tis mosmeniT da kompromisis ZiebiT gamosavali yovel-

Tvis SeiZleba vipovoT...


gonieri kbilis pastebi

siamovnebis moyvarulTaTvis

R.O.C.S.-is kbilis pasta `yava

da Tambaqo~ specialurad

SemuSavebulia yavis, Cais,

wiTeli Rvinisa da Tambaqos

moyvarulTaTvis.

SeinarCuneT momxibvleli Rimili

da jansaRi sunTqva.


mimoxilva

12 cxeli Sokoladi

`eqslibrisis~ mkiTxvelTa klubi

yazbegis gamzirisa da TamaraSvilis quCis kuTxeSi mdebare maRazia `eqslibrisi~ cdilobs,

yovel xuTSabaTs avtorebTan Sexvedris tradicia daamkvidros. magram, sxva aseTive Sexvedrebisgan

gansxvavebiT, es ar aris paTetikuri SemoqmedebiTi saRamoebi, sadac mwerali saku-

Tari Tavis morigi gandidebisTvis mieSureba. aq yvelaferi piriqiTaa _ anu ise, rogorc unda

iyos, da Cvenc namdvili interesebi da xalisi dagvibrundes. mwerals elodeba mkiTxvelTa

viwro wre, romelsac gansaxilveli wigni wakiTxuli aqvs da konkretuli SekiTxvebis dasma

surs. pirveli ori Sexvedridan SegviZlia davaskvnaT, rom aq marTlac dasaSvebia iseT mkiTxvelTan

Sexvedris molodini, romelic gvegona, rom ukve aRar arsebobs. yuradRebis centrSi

swored beletristikaa, misi klasikuri gagebiT, yovelgvari poeturi da postmodernistuli

triukebis gareSe _ Tu rogor qmnis avtori siuJets, personaJTa xasiaTebs da mere ukve

istorias da dialogs. istoriis da dialogis daviwyeba vcadeT, Tumca mivxvdiT, rom es, ra-

Rac TvalsazrisiT, mkiTxvelisa da literaturis daviwyebas udris. albaT amitomac iridebs

`eqslibrisi~ poetebs _ isini arasodes misdevdnen Txrobas da ambavs. magram, Cveni paTetikuri

tendenciebidan gamomdinare, qarTuli proza, umeteswilad, swored maneruli saxelebis mqone

personaJebis, maTi aradamajerebeli dialogebis da angaJirebuli siuJetebis tyveobaSi aRmoCnda.

pirveli Sexvedra moewyo mweral zurab leJavasTan. ganxilvisTvis warmodgenili iyo

mwerlis pirveli krebuli `bavSvis nakbeni karaliokze oqtombris TveSi~, romelic 2010 wels

gamosca `bakur sulakauris gamomcemlobam~. wignSi mwerlis sxvadasxva periodis moTxrobebi

da erTi romania gaerTianebuli. rogorc maRaziisa da am programis erT-erTma warmomadgenelma,

mweralma zaza koSkaZem aRniSna, zurab leJavas msubuqi Savi iumoriTa da Zalze zomieri

siurrealisturi da fantasmagoriuli saxeebiT gamsWvaluli es wigni namdvili beletristikis,

lamis, erTaderTi nimuSia qarTuli literaturis bolodroindel sinamdvileSi.

anu aseTi Sefaseba etyoba miniSneba iyo, rom mwerali istoriiT da personaJebiT unda cxovrobdes,

is unda iyos sxvebis cxovrebis Semoqmedi da SeeZlos sakuTari cxovrebis gverdze

gaweva, daviwyeba, da Zalze cnobismoyvarec unda iyos. marTlac, SeiZleba iTqvas, rom namdvili

beletristika arc mkiTxvelisTvis iqmneba, arc fulisTvis da arc karierisTvis. is

ubralod istoriebis SesaZleblobaTa uzomo siyvarulis Sedegia. aseT SemTxvevaSi stilis

niuansebi TavisTavad Cndeba da mkiTxvelisken mimavali kulturuli veli swored ase iqmneba.

mwerals sabolood, marTlac mkiTxveli qmnis, Tuki mas miscemen amis saSualebas. aseTi fantasmagoriebisgan

iqmneba yvelaze realisturi mwerloba. xolo mwerlebis xelovnuri ganwyoba

CvenTvis kargad nacnob paTetikas da manerulobas warmoSobs. meore Sexvedra mweral laSa

buRaZesTan Sedga. ganixileboda misi axali wigni `literaturuli eqspresi~. laSa buRaZesTan

saubari swored imis aRniSvniT daiwyo, rom es mwerlis pirveli wignia, romelic arsebul socialur-politikur

mdgomareobas ar exmianeba da wminda beletristikis nimuSia. am saukeTeso

tradiciis aRdgena maRaziis xelmZRvanelebis _ Tedo mirijanaSvilisa da nata caavas damsaxurebaa.

marTlac, iqneb Seiqmnas mkiTxvelTa klubi da ara ubralod msmenelTa auditoria. da

es yvelaferi arafersac ar emsaxureba, mxolod _ literaturis siyvaruls.

avtori: daviT CixlaZe

foto: naTia xaCiraSvili


axali `galerea 9~

axlaxan gaxsnil `galerea 9~-Si, romelic gudiaSvilis 9 nomerSi mdebareobs da simpaTiur da

komfortabelur sivrces warmoadgens, unikaluri jgufuri gamofena Sedga _ saxelwodebiT

`art procesi~. aq gamofenili namuSevrebis avtorebi TbilisSi momuSave kuratorebi, galeristebi,

xelovnebaTmcodneebi an koleqcionerebi arian. cxadia, rom es mxatvar iuri beriSvilis

mier organizebuli raRac postmodernistuli eqspromti iyo, romliTac am axali galereis

biografia daiwyo.

gamofenaze naCvenebi iyo baia wiqoriZis, vanda mujiris, qeTi korZaxias, daviT andriaZis,

arCil darCias, zaira bereliZis, lika mamacaSvilis, ia dvalis, maia nozaZis, gia jamberiZis,

daviT muSkudianis, nino gujabiZis, nika maWavarianis, rusiko oatis da TviT `galerea

9~-s kuratoris, marina amzaSvilis namuSevrebi _ anu im profesionalebis, visi saqmianobac

aqamde mxatvrebis namuSevrebze iyo damokidebuli. axla ki, Tu galeristebi ase gadawyveten,

mxatvrebs namdvilad quCaSi mouwevT darCena. SeiZleba es raRac miniSnebaa _ `xelovneba

xelovnebisTvis~ Tezisis axali, sapirispiro Tezisi _ `galerea galeristebisTvis~. an Sei-

Zleba im mcdar Sexedulebas adasturebs, rom yoveli kritikosi verSemdgari mweralia, anda

galeristi _ verSemdgari mxatvari. ar mgonia, rom am gamofenas aseTi faruli survilebis

asrulebis motivacia hqonoda. es ufro erTi kargi da gamaxalisebeli TamaSi gamovida, romelic

marTlac sWirdeba Cvens samxatvro garemos. sasurvelia aseTi TamaSis ufleba galeristebma

mxatvrebsac miscen. es, SesaZloa, negatiuri da saSiSi sulac ar aRmoCndes. `galerea

9~-s namdvilad kargi monaxazi gamouvida da danarCens ki, rogorc ityvian, dro gviCvenebs.

swored droze, aqtualobasa da konteqstebzea saWiro dafiqreba, rogorc am axal galereaSi,

aseve sxvagan. mxolod fuli arafers cvlis. is ufro myari valutis _ cxovrebisa da misi

mSvenierebis axleburad wakiTxvis pirobaa. swored dro erT-erTi yvelaze mTavari faqtoria

galeristebisTvis da saintereso iqneboda, swored drosTan, aqtualobasTan da konteqstebTan

meti muSaoba, rogorc am axal galereaSi, aseve zogadad. radgan dro, ase pirdapir,

mxolodRa fuli ar aris, is ufro myari valutis _ cxovrebisa da misi mSvenierebis axali

wakiTxvebis pirobacaa.

mimoxilva

avtori: daviT CixlaZe

foto: ani gugutiSvili

cxeli Sokoladi 13


mimoxilva

avtori: daviT CixlaZe

foto: ani gugutiSvili

14 cxeli Sokoladi

uxmo evolucia

totalitaruli epoqis arqiteqtura konceptualur

fotografiaSi

fotografi irina abJandaZe axal interdisciplinur da interpersonalur

proeqts, da axal gamofenas gvTavazobs. 5 maiss saqarTvelos goeTes

institutSi man musikos gela megreliZesTan erTad warmoadgina fotogamofena

`tempelhofidan karl marqsis gamziramde~. berlini or nawilad

_ nacional-socialistur da stalinistur banakebad iyo gayofili da,

arqiteqturis mxriv, am ori diqtaturis dapirispirebac da Tanaarsebobac

aq dResac TvalnaTliv Cans. irina abJandaZem ZiriTadad fasadebi gadaiRo,

xolo gela megreliZem aRmosavleT berlinSi dasaxlebuli adamianebi da

maTi sacxovrebeli saxlebis myudro da moduri interierebi. am konstruqtivistuli

reminiscenciis gamofeniT mxatvrebi gvaCveneben, rom bnelma

istoriam Caiara da nagebobebi ubralod nagebobebad darCa, miuxedavad

maTi imdroindeli ideologiuri konteqstebisa. irina abJandaZe ar Ralatobs

wminda xelovnebis normebs da is dokumenturi da struqturalisturi

fotografiis mediums namdvili da mokrZalebuli Terapiis formad

iyenebs. mayurebeli ecnoba nacional-socialisturi germaniis gauqmebuli

aeroportis miwisqveSa saTavsoebs, romlebic faSisturi germaniis sadazvervo

samsaxuris dakiTxvis adgilebsac warmoadgenda da, gela megreliZis

programis perifrazi rom gavakeToT, marTlac gasaocaria am oTaxebSi

mxiaruli grafitebisa da naxatebis aRmoCena, kedlebs uwyinarad rom

amSvenebs. gamofenis gaxsnaze arqiteqtorma levan lominaSvilma waikiTxa

moxseneba nacional-socialisturi arqiteqturis mniSvnelobis Sesaxeb.

aseve uCvenes nawyveti filmidan `msoflio dedaqalaqi germania~.

26 aprils marjaniSvilis Teatris scena uCveulo speqtakls

daeTmo. quTaisis 45-e skolis moswavleebma, giga miqaZis re-

JisorobiT, mimodrama `evolucia~ warmoadgines. uCveulo ki

am, erTi SexedviT, dramaturgiiTa da inscenirebiT Cveulebriv

speqtaklSi is iyo, rom scenaze mdgom arc erT bavSvs ar

esmoda. quTaisis 45-e skola yru-munji bavSvebisTvisaa gankuTvnili.

`evoluciam~ yvelanairi winaswarganwyoba da stereotipi

gaaqro, rac mayurebels SeiZleba provinciuli Teatris mimarT

hqondes. dekoraciebis kitCuri nimuSebiT gaformebis nacvlad,

scena minimalisturia. aranairi kostiumi, arc erTi rekviziti. patara msaxiobebi ki dramaturgiul

ganviTarebas, moZraobis dinamikas da metic, musikasac ise mihyvebian, rTulia daijero, rom maT arc

sakuTari moZraobis xma esmiT, da speqtaklSi erTmaneTis funqcia da scenaris Sinaarsi reJisorisgan

Jestis pedagogis daxmarebiT gaiges. piter gebrielis meditaciuri musikis fonze, romelic

musikosma skorsezes `qristes ukanaskneli cdunebisTvis~ dawera, speqtaklSi samyaros dabadebis

pirveli scena viTardeba. TeTr tiloSi gaxveulebi scenaze wvanan. ramdenime wuTis Semdeg erTi

maTgani jer frTxilad, Semdeg daJinebiT, elastiuri moZraobiT cdilobs garsis SemorRvevas da

male naWris `kvercxidan~ jer kaci `ibadeba~, Semdeg _ qali. erTmaneTs ramdenime wuTis manZilze

Soridan akvirdebian, mere ki xelebiT erTmaneTis sxeulebis Seswavlas iwyeben; amCneven msgavsebas

da gansxvavebas. es samyaros Seqmnis da adamianis ganviTarebis ambavia. yvela Tvisebas da SegrZnebas

gzadagza iZenen; swavloben, rogor daZlion SimSili, wyurvili, sicive. mere sxva kvercxebidanac

iCekebian da Cndeba tomi. tomi iwyebs cxovrebas. tomSi Cndeba pirveli tyuili, pirveli danaSauli

_ codva da amiT gamowveuli mkvleloba; bolos ki _ rwmena da siyvaruli, rogorc kaTarzisi.

scenaze mdgomma 13-ma mozardma, romlebsac speqtaklis dasrulebisas maTken mimarTuli aplodismentebis

xmac ki ar esmodaT, mimodramis saSualebiT sazogadoebas aCvena da uambo im gzis Sesaxeb,

yvelani rom gavdivarT, ganurCevlad imisa, Cvens welTaRricxvamde davibadeT, Tu 21-e saukuneSi.

avtori: naTia guliaSvili


mimoxilva

16 cxeli Sokoladi

iuri meCiTovis Jurnalisturi retrospeqtiva

qarvaslaSi gaixsna cnobili qarTveli fotografis, iuri meCiTovis gamofena, romelic

detalebSi asaxavs saqarTvelos cxovrebas 1981 wlidan dRemde. es daxunZluli eqspozicia

matianes warmoadgens, magram mTavari aq mainc adamianTa bedia; adamianebis, romlebmac ukiduresad

rTuli da siZneleebiT aRsavse cxovreba ganvles da aseve Seegebnen 21-e saukunes.

Tu rogori ganadgurebulebi SevediT 21-e saukuneSi, amis saCveneblad iuri meCiTovma

iseTi fotoebi gamofina, romelic Cvens rux cxovrebas Segvaxsenebs, da rasac ukve veRarc

vamCnevT, radgan Tvali SeeCvia. am fotoebze alag-alag krTeba raRac Souebis, modelebis,

dResaswaulebis amsaxveli kadrebi, romlebic, Raribuli sabWoTa periodis raionuli

sasadiloebis an atalaxebul quCebSi umweod darCenili adamianebis fonze, sevdian

Sinaarss iZenen _ TiTqos es zeimebi soflis mitovebul klubSi imarTeba, Cven ki Cveni

cxovreba uaRresad feSenebeluri gvgonia. mitingebi, samgloviaro procesiebi, SimSili,

omebi, darbevebi, gulubryvilobamde misuli uimedoba _ iuri meCiTovi imas gviCvenebs, rac

mis garSemo yoveldRiurad iyo am 20 wlis manZilze. erT suraTSi is kontrasts asaxavs

_ cocxlad darCenili mebrZolebis win miwaze dasvenebuli, daxocili da nawamebi jariskacebis

sxeulebi. Cven ki kontrastis mxolod erT mxares vxedavT, daviRaleT da gamosavali,

principSi, mainc ar Cans.

miuxedavad fotosuraTebis simravlisa, fotografma eqspozicia ise aawyo, rom es masStaburi

gamofena damTvalierebels ar Rlis. da miuxedavad yvelafrisa, arc simZimis grZnoba

mogyveba darbazidan gamosuls. albaT imitom, rom es realobaa da aq aravin gatyuebs.

fotografi gvaCvenebs, rom simarTles, ra mZimec unda iyos is, ukeTesi momavlis realuri

safuZveli metad aqvs, vidre aqa-iq amokrefil mxiarul, sinamdvileSi ki, sevdian kadrebs.

mnaxvels iseTi ganwyoba eufleba, TiTqos am gamofenis mere raRac unda Seicvalos, TiTqos

es am ruxi periodis damTavrebis sindromia. ar vici, rogor moaxerxa fotografma aseTi

optimisturi gancdis Seqmna _ nuTu mxolod imiT, rom viciT, cuds kargi mosdevs, da

rom aq yvela foto Sav-TeTria, darbazis gareT ki mainc mravali feriT aRsavse cxovreba

gvelodeba.

avtori: daviT CixlaZe

foto: irina xuciSvili


ok kafe droebiT daixura

1 maiss rok kafe droebiT sazeimod daixura e.w. papsas ironiuli jem koncertiT. manamde

ki, ramdenime dRiT adre daxurvis realuri programa valeri xaCiZes da jguf `monoplans~

ekuTvnodaT. es jgufi, romelic TbilisSi avangardul alternatiul roks ukravs, marTlac

yvelaze metad enaTesaveba `autsaiders~ da mis mTavar figuras, robi kuxianiZes. swored es

ori musikosi iyo warmodgenili bolo koncertebze rok kafeSi, 28 da 29 aprils.

Tu `autsaiders~ rusuli pankis Slageri da qarTuli kitCuri baladis kargad gamogonili

melodiuri Samanizmi aerTianebs, `monoplani~ wminda anarqistuli pankia, harmoniis pirobiTi

monaxaziT, refrenis monotonurobiT, arcTu martivi melodiiT da yvirilSi gadasuli

vokaliT. SeiZleba iTqvas, rom orive am jgufs utopiuri anarqistuli idealebi asazrdoebs,

iseTi, ruseTSi, ukrainaSi an amerikaSi rom SeiZleba naxoT, magram ara _ saqarTveloSi. da

SeiZleba swored ocnebis es xarisxi hmatebs momxibvlelobas maT musikas.

daxurvis wina dReebSi rok kafeSi sxva raRacebic moxda _ mwerali Teona dolenjaSvili performansebis

keTebaze gadavida da erT saRamos beqa molaSvilTan erTad SesaniSnavi teqsturmusikaluri

performansi warmoadgina, saxelwodebiT `fidai~. es iyo istoria Saxid qalze,

romelic Tavs ifeTqebs. Cven, mayureblebi ki vxedavdiT am qals darbazSi da vicodiT, rom

mas Tavi unda aefeTqebina. amasobaSi Teona dolenjaSvilis prozauli reCitativi poeziad

gadaiqca da mTlianobaSi es gamosvla marTlac kargi performansi gamovida; gvesmoda teqsti

da am teqstis detalebi ufro gvxiblavda, vidre istoria.

mokled, raRac misteriuli dReebi idga _ valeri xaCiZem wiTeli qsoviliT Tvalaxveulma

imRera mTeli koncerti, romelic erT uwyvet mTlianobaSi mimdinareobda. mas SesaniSnavi

gitaristi, stas rogankovi da bendi hyavda da es marTlac erT-erTi saukeTeso koncerti iyo

bolo periodis TbilisSi. Teona dolenjaSvilma moulodnelad lamazi literatura da teqsti

Seqmna, ara mxolod imiT, rac ukve dawerili hqonda da xelSi eWira, aramed mTlad Cven

Tvalwin, iqve rac iqmneboda _ teqsts, musikasa da Saxid msaxiob qals Soris.

guldasawyvetia da albaT bevrs moenatreba es adgili rusTavelze. miT umetes, rogorc cnobilia,

aq xuTSabaTobiT `lib.ge~-sa da rok kafes erToblivi art-saRamoebis tradiciac damkvidrda.

Tumca, rok kafe male, sul ramdenime TveSi axal SenobaSi gaixsneba. manamde ki `lib.ge~

gaCerebas arc apirebs _ ukve gadawyda, literaturis muzeumTan iTanamSromlebs.

foto: irina xuciSvili

mimoxilva

avtori: daviT CixlaZe

foto: naTia xaCiraSvili

cxeli Sokoladi 17


mimoxilva

18 cxeli Sokoladi

gaseirneba Zveli Tbilisis fotopeizaJSi

evropis saxlma TbilisSi saqmianoba masStaburi kulturuli RonisZiebiT

_ fotogamofeniT daiwyo. Zveli Tbilisis ubnebi 3 dRiT Tbilisi Open Air

Photo Fest-is sagamofeno teritoriad iqca. 15 maisis Rames gudiaSvilis

baRidan abanoTubnamde damontaJebul aT ekranze asobiT foto cvlida

erTmaneTs. gamofena cnobili arlis fotofestivalis (Les Rencontres

d’Arles) programasac maspinZlobda. arlis „wlis Ramis“ farglebSi erTi

Ramis ganmavlobaSi ramdenime ekrani sinqronulad dilamde uCvenebda da

imeorebda msoflios wamyvani Jurnalebis, saagentoebis da damoukidebeli

fotoxelovanebis namuSevrebs da videoproeqciebs. maT Soris iyo: Le

Monde, Vogue, GQ, STILETTO, Reuters, World Press Photo, Magmun Photos, Corbis Outline.

paralelurad ki, im RamiT SegeZloT Tbilisis fotografiis saxlis

mier warmodgenili 12 qarTveli fotografis da 2 qarTuli Jurnalis _

`liberalis~ da `tabulas~ fotoreportiorebis namuSevrebic genaxaT;

aseve _ uiliam kleinis telearx ARTE-sTvis Seqmnili videoseria `kontaqtebi~,

nan goldinis Sesaxeb, sadac gamoyenebulia fotoebi goldinis

ciklidan `balada seqsualur damokidebulebaze~. Zveli Tbilisis arqiteqturuli

Taviseburebidan gamomdinare, gamofena Photo Fest TbilisSi sagamofeno

sivrcis gamoyenebis yvelaze saintereso SemTxveva iyo. mTlianobaSi,

mTeli es sivrce erTian kompozicias warmoadgenda: Zveli Tbilisis

sxeuli da 10 patara Tvali, sadac mudmivad cimcimebda sxvadasxva

gamosaxuleba. ekranebs Soris moseirne mayureblis moZraoba erTgvari

hefeningis ganwyobas qmnida, miuxedavad imisa, rom damTvalierebeli

fotoperformansSi uSualod ar monawileobda. arlis programis garda,

Tbilisis fotofestivalis farglebSi ramdenime personaluri gamofena,

fotografTa dajildoeba, diskusia da Alter Vision-is organizebuli koncertic

moewyo. 14 maiss, festivalis gaxsnis dRes evropis saxlSi saagento

magnumma konkursis _ `prizi axalgazrda fotografisTvis kavkasiis

regionidan“ _ monawileebi daajildova. daro sulakaurma saqarTvelodan

da karen mirzoianma somxeTidan sapatio diplomebi miiRes, gamarjvebuli

ki azerbaijaneli rena efendi gaxda, romlis proeqtis PIPE DREAMS gamofena

evropis saxlSi im dResve moewyo. fotoseria, romelic baqo-Tbilisijeihanis

navTobsadens exeboda, gviCvenebs, Tu rogor aisaxeba 1700 km-ze

gadaWimuli politikurad mniSvnelovani milsadeni regionis sami qveynis

socialur cxovrebaze. proeqtis Cveneba msoflios ramdenime qveyanaSi

ukve Sedga da wignadac gamoica, Tumca Tavad azerbaijanSi, politikuri

cenzuris gamo, damTvalierebels misi naxvis saSualeba dRemde

ar hqonia. meore personaluri gamofena festivalis daxurvis dRes, 16

maiss `purpurSi~ Sedga. maikl kenas fotoseria `saqarTvelo~ 2008 wlis

ganmavlobaSi iqmneboda da festivalis organizatoris, nestan niJara-

Zis TqmiT, gamofenaze warmodgenili 11 foto, romelic kenam Tbilisis

fotografiis saxls personalurad gamougzavna, seriis nawilia, romelic

aucileblad gagrZeldeba da wignadac gamoicema. qarTveli damTvalierebeli

ucxoeli fotografis TvaliT danaxul saqarTveloSi naklebad Tu

aRmoaCens raime siaxles. mTis peizaJebi da misi aucilebeli komponentebi

_ eklesia da maRlobze Semomdgari cxvari. meore mxriv ki, zRvis sanapiro

zolis palmebi albaT ufro maTTvis iqneba saintereso, visTvisac saqarTvelo

ucnobi egzotikuri qveyanaa. saboloo jamSi, Tbilisis fotofestivali

Tbiliseli fotomoyvarulebisTvis saukeTeso SesaZlebloba

iyo, lokalur sivrceSi enaxaT, Tu rogor gamoiyureba bolo dros mediis

grandebis fotoTvalebiT danaxuli beberi samyaro, Tavisi ukanaskneli

konfliqturi SeiaraRebiT, Raribi ubnebis getoebiTa da Ramis qalaqebis

glamuruli cxovrebiT.

avtori: naTia guliaSvili

foto: levan xerxeuliZe


Rvinis festivali

daaxloebiT ori kviris win eTnografiuli muzeumisTvis satelitidan foto ro gadageRo,

Sua saukuneebis banaki gegoneboda. SeiZleba kidev ufro Sors wasvla da romelime aRmosavleli

dampyroblis laSqrobis dros gaSlil banakze saubaric, magram iq, eTnografiulSi, arc

murvan yru iyo da verc grZelfexa edvards mohkravdiT Tvals. im karvebSi, romelic romeli-

Rac qveynis armiis banaks hgavda, qarTveli meRvineebi iyvnen dabinavebulni _ Tavisi naJuriT,

wiTliT da TeTriT, wulukiZis TeTraTi da usaxelauriT, qvevris da qarxnis RviniT...

eWvi mepareba, vinmem ar icodes, raze vlaparakob, magram ar iqneba urigo, Tu mainc gavixsenebT.

ese igi, Sen xar Cemi batoni, eTnografiul muzeumSi `axali Rvinis festivali~ Catarda.

eTnografiuls im dRes saqarTvelos yvela kuTxidan ewvivnen meRvineebi. iyvnen didi qarxnebis

warmomadgenlebi TavianTi auareba RviniT, aqauriT da iqauriT, mSraliT da naxevrad

mSraliT, tkbiliT da naxevrad tkbiliT... yvelaze gemrieli ki mainc meRvine ojaxebi iyvnen

TavianTi neqtariT, mama-papis datovebuli tradiciebiT da muRamiT, rasac ubralod, mxolod

Rvinis msmeli adamiani ver xvdeba. yvela Tavisi Rvinis istorias hyveboda. saubrobdnen teqnologiebze

da sxva aTas wvrilmanze, rasac mxolod Rvinis smiT ver gaigeb.

SeiZleba iTqvas, es iyo erTgvari seminari maTTvis, visac Rvino uyvars da erTxel mainc

ufiqria, Tavad moevlo venaxisTvis, rTvelSi garjiliyo, daewura da bolos daelia sakuTari

nawarmi. Tumca, es festivali mainc pirveli Rvinis zeimi iyo saqarTveloSi. Cven gvaxsovs sayovelTao

rTvelebi, ceka-s mdivniT dawyebuli dRevandeli prezidentiT damTavrebuli yvela

rom iRebs monawileobas. magram is sxva rame iyo da sxva miznebisTvis gaTvlili, romelsac

TavisTavad sxva Sedegi moaqvs. `axali Rvinis festivali~ ki ubralod klasgareSe sakiTxaviviT

iyo, zogadi ganaTlebis ambavSi, romelsac cota SeJuJunebuli Tav-guliT ufro gemrielad

SeigrZnobdi, daRvrili oflis sunsac igrZnobdi, dakoJril xelebsac daafasebdi da miwis

madlsac SeigrZnobdi. ar mindoda, nametani sadRegrZelosaviT gamomsvloda, magram `Rvinis

klubi~ da festivalis partniorebi imisTvis, rac me `eTnografiul muzeumSi~ vnaxe, marTla

erT karg da madlian sadRegrZelos imsaxureben.

mimoxilva

avtori: giorgi svaniZe

cxeli Sokoladi 19


mimoxilva

20 cxeli Sokoladi

aris Tu ara oleg timCenkos sfinqsi samkauli

oleg timCenkos, rogorc avtoritetis, es personaluri gamofena saxelwodebiT `sfinqsi _

saganZuris mcveli~ `gala galereaSi~ SeiZleba imTaviTve miviCnioT raRac iracionalur receptad,

socialuri kritikis indikatorad. avangardTan ase dakavSirebuli mxatvari SeuZlebelia

kritikisgan Sors idges. da Tu is sakuTar feriebs, sirenebs da axla ukve samkaulebs

aseTi xazgasmiT xatavs, es ar aris mxolod silamazis naivuri aRqmis ubraloeba, aramed

SeiZleba ormagi kritikac ki aRmoCndes _ ukve ara mxolod socialuri fonis, aramed TviT im

artistebisken mimarTuli, romlebic dausrulebeli konceptualuri gasaCivrebebiT, nihilisturi

reagirebebiT da marTlac wminda da usafuZvlo narcisistuli pozirebiT arian dakavebulebi.

oleg timCenkos personaluri gamofena warmatebuli iyo. ar maxsendeba bolo periodSi

gamofenis gaxsnaze mosuli amdeni damTvalierebeli. SeiZleba Tbilisi patara qalaqia, aq

mxolod qarTvelebi cxovroben da yvela yvelas icnobs, magram timCenkos gamofenis gaxsnaze

me namdvilad ar vicnobdi yvelas. esec triukia, akeTo iseTi xelovneba, romelic yvelas

moizidavs. aseTi triuki ki niWia _ akritikebde ara aqtivisturad, sworxazovnad, lozungiT

_ aramed ase ironiulad, Sefarulad, daxvewilad, impersonalurad. swored am unariT

gaxda endi uorholi yvelasgan gamorCeuli da albaT namdvili avangardis yvelaze utyuari

niSanic es aris. oleg timCenkos skivrebis, beWdebis, mZivebis, gnomebisa da sarfiani garigebebis

scenebis es gamofena, rogorc firosmans, Sav fonze aqvs daxatuli. da iseve, rogorc

niko firosmanTan, an endi uorholTan, aqac figurebi cariel sivrceSi gamokidebuli aplikaciebia

da amiT maTi solipsisturi gamovlineba dauviwyari da STambeWdavia. oleg timCenkos

es gamofena imiTac aris gamorCeuli, rom aq misi xatvis Zveli xelwera kvlav Zalze uSualod

Cans da ar aris datvirTuli raime siuJetze an koncefciaze miniSnebebiT. am suraTebSi

swored oleg timCenkos magiuri konturebis xazi da am xazebis palitraa erT-erTi mTavari

gzavnili.

diax, saqme swored piriqiTaa, avangardSi xelovneba samkauli ar aris, Tundac naxatSi samkauli

exatos _ da kargad rom daukvirde, mas verc gamoiyeneb. aseTi, TiTqmis SeumCneveli

ironiis mqone mxatvaria oleg timCenko. is mixvda, ras elodebian adamianebi mxatvrobisgan

da maT am daxatuli samkaulebiviT ZviradRirebul poezias sTavazobs.

`gala galerea~ sul axlaxan gaixsna da misma mflobelma da kuratorma dedika buliam ukve

daiwyo im niSis Seqmna, rac SeiZleba axal, ufro ukeTes da damsaxurebul epoqasac uqaddes

saqarTvelos samxatvro kulturas. es galerea xazgasmiT, ukompromisod da eleganturad warmoadgens

maRali gemovnebis Tanamedrove mxatvrobas da misi uaxlesi istoriis Seqmnas iwyebs.

avtori: daviT CixlaZe

foto: irina xuciSvili


mimoxilva

istoriuli reversi

sapnis aromatiT

avtori: naTia guliaSvili

foto: Tako robaqiZe

rusTavelis Teatris eqsperimentul scenaze ivnisamde

proeqt `axali talRis~ piesebi iqneba warmodgenili.

Teatris magistrant studentebs `Ria

sazogadoeba _ saqarTvelos~ konkursSi gasuli am

proeqtis farglebSi 10 axalgazrda qarTveli dramaturgis

piesa scenaze gadaaqvT.

`sapnis opusi~ 10 piesidan erT-erTia, romelic

dramaturg daTo gabunias ekuTvnis, reJisori ki maka

nacvliSvilia. dramaturgisTvis es rigiT mesame namuSevaria.

erTmoqmedebiani drama-komediis uvertiura Teatris

gverdiTa Sesasvlelidan iwyeba, sadac germaneli

oficris formaSi gamowyobili qali mkacrad

gafrTxilebT, rom telefonebi gamorToT da gaxsovdeT,

saaTisa da 10 wuTis ganmavlobaSi Senobas ver

datovebT. mere ki bneli gvirabis gavliT, romelic

TandaTan labirinTis saxes iRebs da sul ufro Rrmad,

sardafisken CahyavxarT, farniT xelSi migiZRvebaT.

lamis 5-wuTiani mogzaurobis Semdeg, sarepeticio

oTaxs miadgebiT, speqtaklis scenad rom

gardauqmniaT. oTaxis karTan ki kontroliori yvelas

saTiTaod gkiTxavT `qarTveli xar?~ da dadebiTi

pasuxis SemTxvevaSi wiTel beWeds gasvamT mtevanze.

22 cxeli Sokoladi

amgvarad, mayurebelic am jurRmulis erT-erTi tusaRi

xdeba, romelsac arc fanjara aqvs, arc gana-

Teba, mxolod scenis siRrmeSi, ukana kedels wiTeli

Suqi anaTebs da mis fonze TandaTan arCevT 3 sxeuls.

qalebi oTaxSi auCqareblad da umisamarToT daborialeben.

moqmedeba 1953 wels viTardeba, meore msoflio

omis Semdeg 7 welia gasuli, Tumca aq istoriuli

realoba Tavdayira dgas. 1945 wlis gamarjvebuli nacisturi

germaniaa, stalini tyveobaSi hyavT. cisfer-

Tvala, qeraTmiani germanelebi TavianTi janmrTeli,

ariuli rasis gasamravleblad abasTumnis sakoncentracio

banakad gadakeTebul observatoriaSi datusaRebul

qarTvel qalebs aupatiureben da eqsperimentebs

atareben.

am abzacis Semdeg uTuod gagaxsendebodaT kventin

tarantinos swored meore msoflio omis Temaze parodireba

filmSi `usaxelo nabiWvrebi~.

sakoncentracio banakis erT oTaxSi 4 mTavari gmiri

qali cxovrobs. nestani, medea, qeTevani da salome.

saxelebs literaturuli personaJebidan iReben,

albaT imitom, rom mayurebelma maTi saqarTvelos-

Tan identifikaciis SegrZneba ar dakargos. scenis


mTeli dekoracia 4 logini da maT Tavze dakidebuli

naTurebia. qalebs sakoncentracio banakis standartuli

forma _ moSxamuli iisferi da danomrili kabebi

acviaT. amgvari gaformeba gabunias speqtaklebisTvis

uCveulo araa da karnavalur kostiumebiT,

dekoraciebiT da paTetikuri yviril-SeZaxilebiT

gajerebul qarTul Teatralur sivrceSi, es namdvilad

minimalisturi arCevania. samagierod, aq mTeli

datvirTva teqstze modis, rac avtorisTvis mniSvnelovania,

dramaturgias dialogebiTa da monologebiT

aviTarebs da zogjer sxva literaturuli teqstebis

gadaTamaSebasac mimarTavs.

oTxive gmiri sakuTari `solo~ monologiT ixsenebs

arcTu Soreul warsuls, germaniasTan damarcxebamdel

saqarTvelos, mSoblebs, sayvarel adamians,

romelic germanelebma daxvrites, an romelmac im

mizeziT miatova, rom colad maSindeli kulturis

ministris grigol robaqiZis qaliSvili falestra SeerTo.

istoriul sinamdvileSi `falestras~ avtors

da faSizmiT gatacebul robaqiZes speqtaklSi germaniis

imperia am TanamdebobiT asaCuqrebs.

imperias arc im qarTveli dedebis gmirobis wodebiT

dajildoeba enaneba, romelTa saSoc erTgulad

emsaxureba arielebis gamravlebis saqmes. Tumca Cveni

oTxeulisTvis es gmiroba sasjeli da tanjvaa, radgan

amis gamo qarTvelebi maT moRalateebad Tvlian

da ician, mtris msaxurebas aRarasodes apatieben. qalebs

danaSaulis gamosyidva arc im protestis gamoxatviT

SeuZliaT, romelsac mTeli saqarTvelo

moucavs. saqme isaa, rom germanelebi sakoncentra-

cio banakebSi qarTvelebis muclis qonisgan sapons

amzadeben da xalxs urigeben. tyveebi ki ormag winaaRmdegobaSi

vardebian, erTi mxriv, maT mtris binZuri

Teslis CamoSoreba da amiT daorsulebis Tavidan

acileba surT, meore mxriv ki, kargad ician sapnis

Semadgeneli ingredientebi da dabanaze uaris TqmiT

cdiloben SeinarCunon qarTveloba. es pasaJi ramdenadac

dramatulia scenis realobaSi, imdenadve komikuria

qarTul kulturul da socialur konteqstSi

da `qarTuli Rirsebis SenarCunebis~ ritorikis parodias

warmoadgens.

qalebis mdgomareoba TandaTan gausaZlisi xdeba,

yvela maTgani fiqrobs TviTmkvlelobaze, magram banakSi

oTaxebs fanjrebi ar aqvs, Weri ki miuwvdomlad

maRalia da arc raime nivTi moepovebaT, rom sxeuli

daizianon. kulminaciur momentSi maTi mxsneli saponi

aRmoCndeba, roca afeqtSi myofi erT-erTi tusaRi

mamebis, Zmebis da qmrebis qonisgan damzadebul sapnis

did maragSi gaSmagebiT eZebs sakuTar gulisswors da

`poulobs~, mere wylis kasrSi dgeba da esiyvaruleba.

kvanZis gaxsna misi bolo moqmedebaa _ qali patara

WurWels nabani sapniani wyliT avsebs da sulmouTqmelad

gamoclis. sxvebic mas baZaven.

maSin, roca omis da qalis Temaze qarTuli xelovneba

qalis, rogorc gmiris da namdvili vaJkacebis

aRmzrdeli dedis saxis SeqmniT Semoifargleba, `sapnis

opusi~ istoriis erTi nawilis gayalbebiT, im gacilebiT

mtkivneul magram uxilav mxares eZebs da

gvaCvenebs, romelic SeiZleba sulac ar dgas realobisgan

Zalian Sors.

cxeli Sokoladi 23


ecenzia

mieciT qmari ninis...

da `vardisferi neorealizmi~ tanjul mayurebels

rogorc iqna!.. wvalebiT

gadaRebuli filmebi omze,

siduxWireze, narkomanebze,

qurdebze, umuSevrebsa

da sxva aTasi juris ubedurebaze

optimisturma

`ocnebis qalaqma~ erT kviraSi

gaabaTila. rogorc

amboben, filmma kinogaqiravebas

ukve rekorduli

Semosavali moutana. warmatebul

prodiusers (marto

rene harlinis `jorjia~

rad Rirs!), yoCaR klipmeikers

(fsous wyalic xom

gaxsovT?) da axla `ocnebis qalaqiT~ Tu vimsjelebT, komerciul

reJisors _ daviT imedaSvils didi Sansi aqvs,

qarTul depresiul `neorealizmze~ erTi mardi da msubuqi

xelis dakvriT amaRldes. aba, qalaqi tyuiladaa ase

ganaTebuli, xolo saaxalwlod rusTavelze iluminaciis

mauwyebeli WaRebi ubralod dakides? an `pe-es-pe~ marto

`Cveni ojaxis afTiaqi~ xom ar iqneba?.. aucilebelia,

cota ram saqmian burJuziasac darCes gasarTobad.

yvelaferi, rac imedaSvilis imediT, saaxalwlod Se-

Txzul `ocnebis qalaqSia~ _ saqmianad mibnedili Sorena

begaSvilis xarisxiani TeTreuliT (xanac `SaveuliT~) dawyebuli,

`naiT ofisSi~ momzadebuli alublis koqteilebiT,

Tu finalSi momlodined gaocebuli maia asaTianis

reaqciiT damTavrebuli _ `vardisferi cxovrebis~

mZafrad gamoxatul iluzias ukavSirdeba. rogorc Cans,

amaod verCodiT Tavis droze sazogadoebriv mauwyebels

`vardisferi gzis~ gamo. masze axla ukve nac-moZraobiT

waxalisebuli axalgazrda reJisori, daviT imedaSvili,

dramaturg beso solomonaSvilis TiTqmis zomieri iumoris

xarjze miabijebs. da jguf `mgzavrebis~ eniT Tu

melodiiT gvamcnobs: `Cven avaSenebT ocnebis qalaqs~.

sxvaTa Soris, bevrs sjera kidec am iluzoruli qalaqmSeneblobis,

Tumca spa-salonebSi `natanji~ gogonebiviT

damcinavad amboben, rom `oficiantic adamiania~.

rac Seexeba Tavad oficiant sandros (arCil soloRaSvili

filmSi yvelasTan SedarebiT namdvilad msaxiobia),

erTi morcxvi biWia, romelic prestiJul barSi muSaobs

da gamoucnobi niWis mqone milioneri Sefis (duta sxirtlaZe)

londonidan dabrunebuli qaliSvili nini (nanka

kalatoziSvili) Seuyvardeba. grZnobebSi vergarkveuli

ninis ki amasobaSi Soumeni da mamikos `oqros biWi~ (paata

papuaSvili) cudi zraxvebiT umiznebs...

`lirikuli komedia dramis elementebiT~ imdenad ba-

24 cxeli Sokoladi

avtori: daviT buxrikiZe

naluri da sworxazovania,

rom mas verc gamocdili

dramaturgis Selamazeba,

verc feradovnebaze gamecadinebuli

operatoris

optimizmi da verc jguf

`mgzavrebis” adamianureTnografiuli

lirizmi

Svelis. Tanac, `hepi endis~

logika da holivuduri

finali moiTxovs, rom

niWier, magram upatrono

musikosebs meriidan damxmare

gamouCndeT (bolos

da bolos, mudmivad bnel

da civ sadarbazoebSi, an saxuravze xom ar daukraven?),

xolo morcxvi da wesieri oficianti, romelic saWiro

SemTxvevaSi barmenis fantaziiTacaa dajildoebuli, milioneri

da lamis qarafSuta gogos siyvaruliT dajildovdes.

rasakvirvelia, ocnebis winaaRmdegi, ufro zustad,

rac ocneba-imedis kinematografiul xatebs ukavSirdeba,

aravinaa. ubralod, CvenTan SeTxzuli `vardisferi

neorealizmi~ (giga aglaZis TiTqmis xelovnuri `gogona

slaididan~, plus daviT imedaSvilis optimisturi `ocnebis

qalaqi~) gacilebiT energiulad aRorZinda, vidre

moklevadiani `neorealizmi~ gaixarebda da fesvebs gaidgamda

(levan TuTberiZis `mogzauroba yarabaRSi~, aleko

cabaZis `rusuli samkuTxedi~, levan koRuaSvilis `quCis

dReebi~). Tumca, italiurisagan gansxvavebiT, jer mokr-

Zalebuli Sedevrebi verc feradad vixileT da verc

aqromatul ganzomilebaSi. kino siyvaruliviTaa: `cota

xniT unda dakargo, rom mere mixvde, ra dakarge~...

sxvaTa Soris, am frazas filmSi swored Seyvarebuli

da imedgacruebuli oficianti ambobs, romlis lirikuli

melanqolia da mokrZalebuli socialuri statusi

(xelmocaruli msaxiobi mama, lamis dangreuli bina Zvel

TbilisSi da musikosi megobrebi) erTaderTi bunebrivi

gamonaTebaa. danarCeni sofitebis xelovnur Suqze, dizainerisa

da mxatvris mier arcTu koxtad gaformebul

Ramis barebsa da spa-salonebSi gaTamaSebul `modelirebul

dramas~ hgavs... lirikuli komediis elementebiT.

magram optimistur sasowarkveTaSi ar CavardeT. afi-

Sebi qarTuli kinos aRorZinebas isev gvamcnoben da mais-

Si ramaz CaCavas inglisuri saxelwodebis mqone filmze

_ Spam-ze gvepatiJebian. oRond iq auzebi, grZelfexeba

gogoebi da Sampanuri ar iqneba. mistikur trilerSi gardacvlilTa

sulebis `gamoZaxeba~ geliT.


37

avtori: gigi guledani

gamomdinare iqidan, rom gasuli Tve sayovelTao si-

Zulvilis Tved gamocxadda, saWirod CavTvale, gamomeqveynebina

angariSi, romelSic ruseTSi Cemi bolo vizitis

ramdenime garemoebas Sevexebodi.

moskovSi Cemi wasvla `bolo wams~ gadawyda da sul vfiqrobdi,

_ netavi Tu SeiZleba Cvens droSic (antiteroristul

procedurebs vgulisxmob) aeroportSi naxevari

saaTiT adre gamocxadeba-meTqi; miT umetes, kargad maxsovs,

sami Tvis win rogor gamWedes 8 saaTiT CikagoSi

aviaxazebis ugemovnod Cacmulma gogoebma, maiamis reisze

sul raRac ormocdaxuTi wuTiT adre misvlisTvis.

magram bolos mainc wavedi.

imis gamo, rom sabWoTa kavSirSi davibade da rusulic

kargad vici, moskovSi Tavi ucxoelad ar migrZvnia (me

mapatieT). rac ar unda igeslebodnen televiziebi leninis

mumiasa da moskovSi stalinis kultis reabilitaciaze,

quCaSi TxuTmetwuTiani gaseirnebac ki sakmarisia, rom

daaskvna _ sabWoTa moskovs dabruneba aRar uweria. es

Cveulebrivi msoflio megapolisia da erTaderTi Zafi,

romelic sabWoTa moqalaqeebis bolo Taobas masTan

gvakavSirebs, ukve gamqrali sabWoTa yofierebis gancda

da skolaSi naswavli rusuli enaa. am Zafis gawyvetac

drois ambavia, da vidre es moxdeba, SegiZliaT datkbeT

gamqral civilizaciasTan ziarebuli adamianis gancdiT.

jer kidev TviTmfrinavSi daviwye fantazioroba: ai,

moskovSi SeiZleboda-meTqi `mament~ gadmosvla sacxovreblad,

da warmovidgine, rogor veubnebi kioskis gamyidvels

iqaur gancxadebebis gazeTze: `Газету объявлении,

пожалуйста~, romelsac Semdeg metros eskalatorze wavikiTxavdi.

Cemi azriT, swored aseTi unda yofiliyo namdvili

moskovuri samuSao dRis dasasruli.

fiqrebidan eskalatorze CarTulma niusebma gamomarkvia:

`Сегодня на Киевском проспекте, в торговом центре

произошел несчастный случай, при котором пострадавший

потерял девять из десяти пальцев. Как ни странно, он не подал в

суд на администрацию~...

metrodan swrafadve amovedi imitom, rom erT `enjeoSnikur~

simpoziumze magviandeboda (risTvisac saerTod

wavedi kidec moskovSi, amjerad). `suxoi paioki~ da fuli

organizatorebma aeroportSi daxvedrisTanave davgi-

komentari

riges. `paioki~ iyo gemrieli da odnav depresiuli. iqve

CavkbiCe erTi cali burito (meqsikuri burito moskovSi

sul sxva bazaria), gverdiT mdgom ukrainel gogos gavu-

Rime da piramovsebulma odnav uxerxuli ClifiniT vu-

Txari: `Как говориться, _ marto kaci WamaSiac braliao~...

ase daiwyo Cemi moskovuri voiaJi.

sastumroSi, sanam abazana wyliT ivseboda, saabazano

oTaxis did fanjarasTan videqi da gareT viyurebodi.

fanjridan gadaSlili panorama TbilisSi, Cemi aivnidan

nucubiZis platos xeds magonebda, sadac uklebliv yvela

korpuss svamdnen mTlianad lurj SuSebSi, romlebzec mze

irekleboda da, ris gamoc, plato seulis centrs hgavda.

mere gamoverkvie da davakvirdi, rom abazanis fanjridan

aseve Canda badeebiT SemosazRvruli ezo stadioniT.

gamaxsenda, sastumros konsierJi meubneboda, _ es swored

is ezoa, sadac film `kurieris~ daskvniTi scenaa gada-

Rebulio. is gulisxmobda epizods, romelSic Sebindebisas

jaridan axlad dabrunebuli jariskaci ezoSi moyiale

Tineijerebs akvirdeba. `kurieri~ imdenad didi xnis

win mqonda nanaxi, rom verc es scena aRvidgine da verc

is gavixsene, ratom unda dasrulebuliyo Tavisi drois

erT-erTi sakulto rusuli filmi sasowarkveTili jariskacis

saxiT.

sanam fanjridan gadaSlil panoramas vakvirdebodi,

dabindda, saidanRac gaZlierda oTxmocianebis old school

musika da ezoSi gamosvla daiwyo axalgazrdebis Wrelma

`tusovkam~. maT Soris iyo sastumrodan gamosuli Cemi

simpoziumis `sastavic~. maT danaxvaze, abazanis onkani davkete

da mec gareT gavedi.

musika ukve Zalian xmamaRla ukravda. stadionis kideSi

Cadgmul ludis jixurTan idga Zveli sabWoTa macivari

`dnepri~, zustad iseTi, rogoric saxlSi maqvs. ise hgavda

nakawrebiTac, rom raRac momenti vifiqre, _ Cemi xom ar

aris-meTqi, _ mis gverdiT davdeqi da xalxs davakvirdi.

moskovis transformaciaSi darwmunebulma gaocebiT aRvniSne,

rom `kurieris~ ezos mixedviT Tu vimsjelebdiT,

80-ianebis Semdeg aq bevri arc araferi Secvlila. videqi

da Tineijerebs vuyurebdi, roca uceb viRacam gamwia, macivris

kari gamoaRo da civi ludi amoiRo. mere meore

mxridan sxvam gamwia uxeSad da imanac ludi aiRo. xalxi,

or-ori, sam-samkaciani jgufebiT elaparakeboda erTmaneTs.

idga saSineli aurzauri, ismoda magari breiq-dansis

musika, wkrialebda ludis boTlebi da ganuwyvetliv ajaxunebdnen

Zveli macivris kars.

gamaxsenda, rom simpoziumis Power Point-is prezentaciisTvis

unda gadamexeda da nomerSi avbrundi. abazanis

wyali idealur temperaturamde gagrilebuliyo da masSi

Cawolisas vfiqrobdi, rom rac im wuTas ezoSi vnaxe, albaT

ar iyo specialurad dadgmuli, magram erTi-erTze

hgavda `kurieris~ finalur scenas, mniSvnelovani detalis

garda _ ezoSi ar SemimCnevia demobilizebuli, sasowarkveTili

jariskaci, romlis saxec bolo ramaa, rasac

am filmSi titrebis wamosvlamde xedav.

cxeli Sokoladi 25


komentari

avtori: basa janikaSvili

tendenciuri gmirebis

aRlumi

avtori: basa janikaSvili

nuRar uyureb Wers,

Tu ar uSveli Tavs,

aravin gagiRebs kars.

irakli Carkviani

ra gansxvavebaa iranis islamur respublikasa da saqar-

Tvelos demokratiul respublikas Soris? iranSi akrZalulia

azartuli TamaSebi _ ubralo saTamaSo kartsac

ver iyidi. saqarTveloSi yovel fexis nabijze saTamaSo

avtomatebi da samorineebia. iranSi mandilosnebi xijabs,

anu Tavsafars atareben, saqarTveloSi qalbatonebs naxevrad

Cacmulebs SeuZliaT siaruli, Tu, ra Tqma unda,

figura amis saSualebas miscems. iranSi misalmebisas qals

xels ver CamoarTmev, akrZalulia. saqarTveloSi SegiZlia,

Sua rusTavelze welSi Seuvarde. TeiranSi, iranis amJamindel

dedaqalaqSi, SesamCnevad cota meCeTia. TbilisSi ki,

saqarTvelos dedaqalaqSi, sagrZnoblad bevri eklesiaa. es

CamonaTvali usasrulod SegviZlia gavweloT. gansxvaveba

marTlac bevria.

ukve meramdene arCevnebia, araerTi politikuri partiis

sareklamo klipSi patriarqis saxelis gamoyeneba midis. me

amas spekulacias davarqmevdi, ufro rbilad Tu vityviT _

manipulacias. ukanaskneli TxuTmeti wlis ganmavlobaSi Catarebuli

saarCevno kampaniebis analizma mafiqrebina, rom

es ukve Seuqcevadi procesia. es SemTxveviTi ar aris. politikosebi

Tvlian, radgan saqarTvelos patriarqi udidesi

avtoritetiT sargeblobs, uwmindesis reitingis ra-

Rac procentebis madli maTac SexvdebaT. es ase iqneboda,

rom ara _ erTi detali. rodesac patriarqis saxels bevri

politikuri subieqti erTdroulad iyenebs, xdeba Tavad

procesis devalvacia; ara patriarqis saxelisa da avtoritetis,

aramed procesis gaufasureba. Sedegad, patriarqis

saxelis gamoyenebiT verc erTi politikuri partia ver

aRwevs sasurvel Sedegs. politikuri warmatebisTvis es

aRar kmara.

Tu ase gagrZelda, ramdenime weliwadSi, SesaZloa, sa-

26 cxeli Sokoladi

foto: naTia guliaSvili

qarTvelos patriarqi romelime firmis abrazec vixiloT.

magaliTad: dalieT Tbilisis wyali, am wyals patriarqi

svams; an kidev: CaerTeT Cvens qselSi da daurekeT Tqvens

moZRvars yvelaze dabali tarifiT. SesaZloa patriarqis

da sapatriarqos arapirdapiri reklamac. magaliTad, ai,

ase: mobrZandiT kazino `bedisweraSi~, moigeT milioni da

mogebis aTi procenti sapatriarqoSi gadaricxeT. ra, Zalian

ararealurs vwer? sakmarisia romelime `morwmune~

biznesmenma gariskos, pirvelma gadadgas nabiji da Semdeg

aseTi saxis reklamebi walekavs televiziebsa da radios,

presasa da internets, quCasa da sadarbazoebs.

Sedegad ras miviRebT? farisevlobas da ara _ rwmenas,

siyalbes da ara _ simarTles.

da iciT ra? es rom mxolod araswori sareklamo strategiis

Tema iyos, yuradRebas saerTod ar gavamaxvilebdi.

me ufro saSiS tendencias vxedav. es aris qveynis `gamar-

Tlmadideblebis~ araswori forma.

wignis prezentaciis viTom CaSla, telekompania `kavkasiaSi~

momxdari Cxubi, arafrismTqmeli internet klubi `me

miyvars Cemi patriarqi~, da piriqiT _ fsevdoalternatiuli

klipi patriarqis `monawileobiT~. iseTi STabeWdileba

mrCeba, TiTqos media (yvela saxis) mxolod imitom arsebobs,

rom rac SeiZleba metad daamaxinjos isedac lamazi

sulebi. nuTu, iseTi ususuria sazogadoeba, rom sulier

SimSils am lukmiT ivsebs?

Cven realuri problemebi gvaqvs da amas Tvali unda

gavusworoT. unda vaRiaroT, rom qarTvelebi erTmaneTs

ver vitanT. Cven gviyvars mxolod simRera da galoba mravalxmiani.

erTmaneTi gvezizReba da erTi suli gvaqvs, rom

CavqoloT, Seuracxyofa mivayenoT, davCagroT. Cven guli

gvereva erTmaneTze kafeebsa da restornebSi, skolebsa da

baRebSi, institutebsa da kolejebSi, qorwilebsa da wveulebebSi,

samsaxurebsa da sazogadoebis TavSeyris adgilebSi,

quCasa da transportSi, teleSouebsa da presis furclebze.

Cvens saxeze mxolod zizRia. usuldgmulo zizRi.

magram, es naxevari `bednierebaa~. imitom, rom erTmaneTze

metad Cven gvezizReba afxazebi, osebi, somxebi, rusebi,

azerbaijanelebi da qurTebi. nu vmalavT, xmamaRla vTqvaT

es! guli gvereva cisferebze da vardisferebze, Savebze

da yviTlebze. Cven gvezizReba prezidenti da parlamenti,

opozicia da radikaluri opozicia, `rusTavi 2~ da `imedi~,

`maestro~ da `kavkasia~. Cveni neba rom iyos, mxolod

naTesavebis mcire jgufs da saZmakacos davtovebdiT cocxlad.

Cveni neba rom iyos, ramden rames davuSavebdiT

sakuTar Tavs... Cven viRviZebT gulis reviT da viZinebT

sakuTar narwyevSi. vaRiaroT es da gavTavisufldebiT.

Cven vnaxeT, rom axali reJimis mosvlis Semdeg demokratiis

xarisxma iklo. oriaTas samSi cota Tu ifiqrebda,

rom ase, erTi xelis mosmiT damTavrdeboda Tavisufali

telekompaniebis arseboba. rodesac dRes gvayvedrian, rom

ramdenime televizia, radio da uamravi damoukidebeli gazeTi

arsebobs, aviwydebaT, rom Cven es brZoliT movipoveT

da SevinarCuneT. rom ar gvebrZola, dRes arc erTi


ar gveqneboda. viqnebodiT Cveni bevri mezobeli qveynis

darad.

Tavisufali presa ase Tu ise davicaviT, magram axla Cveni

sulis dacvis droa.

amitom mogviwevs brZola TavisuflebisaTvis. Cvenda

uneburad, im mdinareSi SevdivarT, romelic gadalaxuli

gvegona. brZola ucodinarobis, agresiis, fsevdomarTlmadideblobis

koniunqturasTan, mogviwevs axali frontis

xazis gaxsna. im xazis, romelic gvegona, rom aRar arsebobs.

mogviwevs fsevdoliberalebTan brZola, Cumad rom

isxdnen, rodesac oriaTas cxra wlis aprilSi xelketebiT

dasdevdnen, scemdnen da erCodnen momitingeebs (aRarafers

vambob sxva TariRebze). mogviwevs fsevdomarTlmadideblebis

agresiis da ZaliT liberalebis pasiurobis

lokaluris Zaladoba

avtori: paata Samugia

bexuanosebi cxovels rom moklavdnen, mere bodiSs

uxdidnen. es mniSvnelovani rituali iyo, romelic ise-

Tive mondomebiT xorcieldeboda, rogorc Tavad nadiroba.

darwmunebuli var, cxovelisTvis veraferi Sveba

iqneboda, samagierod, bexuanosebisTvis es aqti erTgvari

kaTarzisi iyo, agresiis makompensirebeli, danaSaulis

gamosyidvis sakraluri momenti, romelic miTologiuri

akribiiT gaamagres.

aqvT Tu ara moralis agresiul guSagebs msgavsi rituali,

rodesac danaSaulis gacnobierebis momenti dgeba?

iqneb es momenti arc dgeba? vin arian isini? pasiuri mrevli,

romelic mxolod lideris TiTis daqnevaze aqtiurdeba

da xalxs fizikurad uswordeba? ritorikuli ki-

Txvebia. TiTqmis.

uxamsobaa, iyo pasiuri, pirovnuli identobis gaucnobiereblad

emsaxurebode kvlavwarmoebas, genofondis

Wirveul konstitucias, xedavde politkoreqtul

sizmrebs, aTvalierebde realobas specialurad SenTvis

gamoyofili WuWrutanidan, saidanac moCans morfologiuri

kentavri: media-mrevli. da iyo kmayofili.

ar vapireb kulturologiuri diskursebis gafiltvras

foto: nodar cxviraSvili

komentari

winaaRmdeg galaSqreba. rodesac pirvelni meorenis saqmiT

arian dakavebulni da meoreni _ pirvelnis. marTlac, Tavdayira

dgas saqarTveloSi yvelaferi. `marTlmadideblebi~

ibrZvian da `liberalebi~ loculoben.

Tu Tavisuflad azrovneba gvinda, Cveni Svilebis laRi

momavali, Tu gvinda gvqondes arCevanis ufleba _ icodeT,

rom es TavisiT ar modis. wels es dasacavia, momavalSi,

SesaZloa, Tavidan iyos mosapovebeli.

magram, riT hgavs irani da saqarTvelo erTmaneTs _ pirvel

rigSi, istoriis saTuTi da gadametebuli siyvaruliT,

erovnuli Rirsebis upiratesobiT, rasis prioritetulobis

gancdiT, saxelisuflo reJimiT, opoziciuri gamosvlebiT,

reformebis surviliT, da rac mTavaria _ iranelebic

da qarTvelebic cvlilebebis molodinSi arian.

da daskvnebis Camoyras, amisaTvis zedmetad Tavmdabali

var; imdenad Tavmdabali, rom ministris Svilic ki ar

var. Sesabamisad, Cemi yoveldRiuri transporti yviTeli,

karga xnis win Camosaweri avtobusia, saidanac ukeT mo-

Cans saqarTvelo, qarTveli sazogadoeba. mgzavruli Temebis

mravalferovan da faqtobrivad usasrulo cikls

am dReebSi ilias universitetis Tema Seemata. „saidumlo

sirobis“ gamoqveynebis Semdeg ilias universiteti ramdenimedRiani

aqciebis talRaSi mohyva. marTalia, aqciebi da

mitingebi saqarTveloSi vis ukvirs, magram iyo aq raRac

sxva, raRac Taviseburi da Zalian, Zalian niSandoblivi:

erT mxares idgnen anonimuri RmerTebis guSagebi, mointeligento

reliqtebi, sakuTar hormonebze amxedrebuli

graalis mcvelebi, romlebic muStiT avrcelebdnen

„rwmenas“, „zneobas“, da meore mxares _ cenzuris mowinaaRmdege,

daqsaqsuli liberalebi, romlebic es-esaa,

memarcxene da memarjvene diskursebze kamaTobdnen da

jer kargad verc gamoerkviaT, rogor unda daecvaT Tavi

„wminda wixlisgan“.

rom ara telekompania „kavkasiis“ eTerSi Sevardna da

Jurnalistebisa da stumrebis winaaRmdeg sastiki angariSsworeba,

albaT, es darbevac SerCeboda mmk-s, rogorc

`helouini~ SerCa, zautaSvilis gamofenis darbeva Ser-

Ca, „didi aTeulis“ daxurva SerCa da a.S. am droisTvis

dakavebulia „marTlmadidebel mSobelTa kavSiris“ da

„saxalxo marTlmadidebluri moZraobis“ ramdenime aqtivisti.

xelmZRvanelebi gareT arian.

Sua saukuneebis inglisSi samefo karze hyavdaT paJebi,

romlebic saerTod arafers akeTebdnen. Tumca, did

rols TamaSobdnen momavali monarqis aRzrdaSi. erTi

sityviT, eseni iyvnen patara biWebi, romelTac takunebs

wkepliT usisxlianebdnen, roca taxtis memkvidre cudad

iqceoda.

imis Tqma minda, rom Cven isev „paJebs“ xom ar vcemT,

„memkvidris“ nacvlad? cxadia, moZalade aqtivistebis

dakaveba samarTlebrivad adekvaturi iyo, magram maTi

wveruxvi Tu „jerT uwveruli“ bosebi (isakaZe-gulaSvi-

cxeli Sokoladi 27


komentari

li) pasuxisgebas Tu ara, dakiTxvaze gamoZaxebas mainc ar

„imsaxurebdnen“? es is kiTxvaa, romelic gaCnda sazogadoebis

mcire wreSi da ar gaCenila Cemi avtobuseli Tanamgzavrebis

tvinSi, romelTac SesaSuri gulmodginebiT

ganevrcoT „saidumlo sirobis“ Tema da axla ukve masonebze

gadasuliyvnen. es ki is Temaa, romliTac qarTuli

morali sakuTar monoliTurobas testavs, aq yvela er-

Tiania. marTalia, mTlad kargad araa cnobili, vin arian

masonebi, magram es, cxadia, umniSvneloa.

moralis qarxana gauCereblad muSaobs, permanentulad

gvawvdis ukanaskneli modelis tabuebs, sruliad axals,

sruliad eWvmiutanels da, Sesabamisad, sruliad gaugebars.

rac mTavaria, Tineijerebis (marTalia, mcire, magram

mainc) nawilic CaTreul iqna am absurdSi da mTeli

es „samomxmareblo pedofilia“ religiur swavlebad moi-

cnobili qarTuli tolerantobis Sesaxeb

CemSic jer kidev SemorCenili miTi

nel-nela orTqldeba. bolo drois

bataliebis samoyvarulo analizic

sakmarisia imis saTqmelad, rom CvenTvis

muStis ena socialuri interaqciis

yvelaze mSobliuri variantia. dialogi

ra, veluri dasavlelebi xom ar varT?

naTla. totaluri SiSis kultivirebiT Seiqmna morCili

da Tavisdamqnevi mrevlis saxe, romelsac ar uCndeba ki-

Txvebi... imitom, rom am kiTxvebze pasuxebi ukve ganusazRvres

„mamaoebma“.

me ar minda, visaubro religiaze, rogorc koleqtiur

nevrozze ara imitom, rom es ase araa, ubralod, aq religiis

saxiT mogvevlina sruliad sxva movlena. ai ise-

Ti, saxelis darqmevac rom Wirs da zogadi aRwerilobiT

cdilob, ZiriTadi arsi gamokveTo, rogorc gamocdaze

gasulma abiturientma. religia ki is ukanaskneli niRabi

aRmoCnda, romlis Camoxsnis mere SiSveli terorizmi davinaxeT

Tavisi specifikuri simbolikebiTa da damTrgunveli

paTetikiT. miuxedavad amisa, erTbaSad SeuZlebelic

kia, es eqstremistuli jgufebi rame konkretul subkulturas

miakuTvno.

cnobilia, rom TviT alkoholur halucinaciebSic

vlindeba socialur-kulturuli faqtori. mag: qristian

alkoholikebs eSmaki elandebaT, budistebs drakoni, muslimebs

jini da a.S.

ra elandebaT mmk-s da smm-s brigadebs, roca isini

religiuri egzaltaciis qveS myofni Tav-pirs alewaven

adamianebs? vin miuZRviT win fsevdo rwmeniTi Trobisas?

ratom hgoniaT, rom WeSmaritebis prioritetebi dasaku-

Trebuli aqvT da mxolod maTi gavliT xdeba saRi azris

28 cxeli Sokoladi

wvdoma? aRarafers vambob socialur qselebSi gulaSvilis

aqtivistebis mier gavrcelebul azrebze, sadac saubaria

„qarTvelebis mier sxva erebze hegemoniaze“, „maTi

Svilebis sxvis Svilebze batonobis“ ideasa da „marTlmadidebelTa

SeiaraRebuli armiis“ Seqmnaze.

rogorc Cans, es subkultura jer kidev SemoqmedebiTi

da meTodologiuri Ziebis procesSia da saboloo sulieri

misia SesaZloa, qarTuli Mein Kampf-is daweriT gamoxatos.

avtobusi gmirTa moedanze uxvevs. vcdilob, TvalSi ar

SeveCxiro mkacr moralistebs, romlebmac ukve verbaluri

jvarcma mouwyves deisaZes, gigi TevzaZes (es kaci ra

SuaSia, kacma ar icis), gadaswvdnen „pidarast“ burWula-

Zes. cota ar iyos, vSfoTav, emand Cemi ramdenime wlis win

„miqaruli“ rom gaaxsendes vinmes, rogor ginda, dauZvre

am WyletaSi?

cnobili qarTuli tolerantobis Sesaxeb CemSic jer

kidev SemorCenili miTi nel-nela orTqldeba. bolo

drois bataliebis samoyvarulo analizic sakmarisia imis

saTqmelad, rom CvenTvis muStis ena socialuri interaqciis

yvelaze mSobliuri variantia. dialogi ra, veluri

dasavlelebi xom ar varT?

aqve vityvi, rom nebismieri kulturuli aqtivoba Zaladobrivia

da amavdroulad uvnebeli, rogorc mkvdari

mowme, rogorc uSno Sedareba (Tundac, iseTive uSno, rogorc

es Sedareba).

deisaZis wigni (iseve, rogorc nebismieri (kontr)kulturuli

faqti, procesi, artefaqti) pozitiuri Zaladoba

iyo, magram is ascda (kontr)kulturis konteqsts

(SeiZleba, Tavidanve ase iyo Cafiqrebuli avtoris an gamomcemlis

mier) da socialur produqtad iqca, Sesabamisad,

deaeracia mZime formebSi ganviTarda da avtoris

savaraudo survili, literaturuli flangidan moexdina

konkretuli mdgomareobis darefreSeba, lamis samoqalaqo

dapirispirebaSi gadaizarda.

da mainc, meore mxaris ritorika uryevia: gvaqvs 365

wminda giorgis saxelobis eklesia, yvela ubanSi 90-iani

wlebis „butkebiviT“ gaxsnili taZrebi, mosaxvevebSi damontaJebuli

aTasobiT ganaTebuli jvari, erT moqalaqeze

saSualod sami mRvdeli da Svidi stiqarosani modis,

milionobiT mrevli...

mavani cimermani amaze ityoda, rom esaa „egos fxana cifrebiT“.

da patiosani kaci daeTanxmeboda cimermans.

P.S. avtobusi pekinze, restoran „nikalasTan“ sacobSi

iWedeba, mgzavrebi fuTfuTeben, Cem garSemo qalebi wyevlian

darsavaZes“ (sinamdvileSi _ deisaZes), kacebi imuqrebian

da evfemisturad citireben televizorSi yurmokrul

frazebs „saidumlo sirobidan“. Suaxnis mamri

Temas avrcobs da deisaZesTan erTad „wmindanebis maginebel“

buRaZesac gahkravs kbils.

me Tavs vxri da CanTaSi rac SeiZleba Rrmad vCurTav

`literaturul eqspress“.


finaluri mwuxri

avtori: sandro naveriani

kvantur fizikaSi universiadis finali ro iyos, dajdebi

da uyureb. ai egeTi intriga ramea finali. im

dRes `niWieris~ finali iyo. ukve kai xnis win. hoda

vuyure. erTi monawile gansakuTrebiT momewona _

iluzionisti iyo da naRdad sakaifo Sous akeTebda.

Cemze ro yofiliyo magas gadavcemdi Tass. magram sul

sxvam moigo imitom, rom Cemze ar iyo.

sul Tavidan, proeqti `niWieri~ ro daiwyo, pirveli

aRmoCena gulnaz goleTiani gaxda. youtube-ze misi

video egreve suzan boilis videosTan dailinka. kamerebis

win Jiuris wevrebic alaparakdnen talant qalbatonze.

simRera, romelic imRera da xma, romliTac

imRera, Zalian sevdiania da viRac-viRacebs albaT Sig

gulis gulSi moxvda. gulnaz goleTianis gamosvlamde

mayurebels gvaCvenes masze momzadebuli promo,

romlis saTauric, albaT, aseTi iqneboda: `Tu rogor

Seicvala gulnaz goleTianis cxovreba mas Semdeg,

rac `niWierSi~ imRera~. misi cxovreba ki cota xniT

marTla Seicvala, is miiwvies televiziebsa da radioebSi,

atrialebdnen mis namRers da Jurnal-gazeTebma

masze statiebi dabeWdes. mis Sesaxeb `niWieris~ yvelaze

zarmac mayurebelsac ki smenoda rame. promos

verbaluri mxare aSkarad dadebiTi iyo, magram promos

yurebisas me mainc TanavugrZnobdi am adamians da

roca davfiqrdi Tu ratom, sworad maSin mivaqcie yuradReba

brutalur kadrebs da musikas, romelic fonad

gasdevda gulnaz goleTianis sinqrons.

promo daiwyo kadriT Tu rogor amuSavebs gulnaz

goleTiani ToxiT miwas da rogor recxavs sarecxs

diasaxlisisTvis autanel pirobebSi _ gareT, yinvaSi

da civ wyalSi. amis Semdeg ki gvaCvenes is radios da

televiziis studiaSi, rampebi da CiraRdnebi, JurnalgazeTebis

ydebze, aq, iq, rame da rume. prodiuserebi/

reJisorebi meubnebodnen, naxe, ra vuqeniT, sad iyo da

axla sad aris?! ra iyo da axla ra aris?! gamoviyvaneT,

tusovka, aqeT, iqiT, gavastareT, cxovreba vanaxeT.

es iyo provincializmis erT-erTi yvelaze masStaburi

gamovlena, rac ki cxovrebaSi minaxavs.

komentari

sakmaod bevri vifiqre imaze, Tu riT jobia Jurnal

`gzis~ ydaze gamoWimva, vTqvaT, mecxvareobas? an romelime,

Tbilisur tusovkaSi erTi (Tundac asi) RamiT

gareva romelime soflis koloritobas? riT jobia

is cxovreba, riTic ramdenime dRe icxovra gulnaz

goleTianma im cxovrebas, romelSic mTeli warsuli

gaatara? romelmac misca mas Svilebi, ojaxi, sakuTari

saxli, miwa da akeTebs imas, rasac unda akeTebdes.

SeiZleba, gulnaz goleTians marTlac urCevnia ise

gaetarebina mTeli cxovreba rogorc bolo ramdenime

kvira cxovrobda, SeiZleba arc urCevnia, magram es man

unda Tqvas, man unda gadausvas xazi Tu gadasasmelia

da ara iman vinc mxolod Sous akeTebs, mis warmatebaze

fiqrobs da am fiqrSi sruliad ver amCnevs an amCnevs

da ar imCnevs, rom saSinel Seuracxyofas ayenebs

adamians da mTel mis cxovrebas.

ratom, saidan aqvT mentoruli toni, sad da rodis

gadawyda, rom Tbilisi da Tbilisuri Jurnalebi gansazRvravs

kai tipobas?

Tumca, rogor grZnobebsac ar unda iwvevdes CvenSi

msgavsi kadrebi, es Sous warmatebis erTaderTi Tu

ara, erT-erTi garantia.

Cven ar mogvwons is, vinc Cvenze ukeTesia da gvjobia.

ufro konkretulad ki, Cven ar davrekavT da xmas

ar mivcemT mas, vinc ar Segvecodeba. am SouSi promos

mizanic is iyo, rom maqsimalurad Segvcodeboda gmiri;

rom Cven mas TanavugrZnoT da xma mivceT, Sous ki _

reitingi da Semosavali. albaT, amas mec vgrZnob, sxva

SemTxvevaSi me amis Sesaxeb araferi mecodineboda _ ar

var is tipi, ro Cavujde da vifiqro ratom moxda ase.

`niWieris~ finali TiTqmis erTi Tvis win iyo da aba

gaixseneT, bolos rodis da sad naxeT gulnaz gole-

Tiani? adamiani, romelsac sul cota xnis win suzan

boils adarebdnen, Sotlandiel momRerals, romelic

msofliom swored msgavsi proeqtidan gaicno. adamiani,

romelmac aTiaTasobiT diski gayida da romlis

mimarT interesi dRemde ar gamqrala mediaSi. SeiZleba

is aRar aris popularobis zenitSi, magram misiT

dRemde interesdeba ama Tu im provinciis gazeTi an

sakabelo televizia. masTan urTierToba dRemde aqvT

xmis Camwer studiebs da aTasgvar proeqtSi monawileobas

sTavazoben. suzan boili, mas Semdeg, rac popularuli

gaxda, gadaiRes ramdenime sareklamo rgolSi,

moxvda ramdenime dokumenturi filmSi... da sad aris

gulnaz goleTiani? ra Tqma unda, cota gulubryvilo

Sedarebaa, radgan saqarTvelos gabaritebi ver Seedreba

britaneTisas, saidanac yvela saxis produqti

kidev ufro didi gabaritebis mqone amerikaSi xvdeba,

sworad masStabebze maqvs saubari _ qarTuli maStabebiTac

ki gulnaz goleTianis namdvili cxovreba dRes

aravis ar ainteresebs. yvelaze did ignorirebas ki is

televizia iCens, romelmac ase lamazad gagvacno es

adamiani.

cxeli Sokoladi 29


istoria

erTi saaTi TbilisisTvis

anu moskovuri xelovneba, romelic ar iyideba

avtori: daviT CixlaZe

foto: guram wibaxaSvili

30 cxeli Sokoladi


istoria

cxeli Sokoladi 31


istoria

_ ra Rirs es ZaRli?

_ erTi maneTi, magram ar iyideba.

moskovi-Tbilisis matareblis

derefani. 1990 wlis zafxuli.

es umniSvnelo dialogi uzustesi

gansazRvrebaa Cveni dRevandeli

istoriis erT-erTi gmiris, moskoveli

artistis, petliuras da misi

xelovnebis xasiaTis gasagebad. misi

xelovnebac 1 maneTi Rirs, magram

ver iyidi.

misi namdvili saxeli da gvari

aleqsandr liaSenkoa. 80-iani wlebis

bolos petliuram mitovebuli

samsarTuliani saxli ipova moskovis

centrSi, petrovski bulvarze.

iq erT-erTi pirveli da yvelaze

xmauriani art-komuna gaixsna. mxatvrebiT

dasaxlebul aseT Senobebs,

romlebic msoflios bevr did

qalaqSi SeiZleba Segvxvdes, skvots

eZaxian da is andergraundis artistebisa

Tu musikosebis myudro

32 cxeli Sokoladi

saxelosnoebia xolme. artistuli

TavSeyris msgavsi gaxmaurebuli

adgilebi arsebobda leningradsa

Tu berlinSi, anda uiliamsburgSi,

niu-iorkSi, magram petliuras SemTxvevaSi

es namdvili art-komuna

iyo, endi uorholis fabrikis msgavsi,

mudmivi performansis da

dResaswaulis adgili, sadac xelovneba,

dasveneba, koncerti, kino,

instalacia, poezia, guliTadi saubari,

modis Cveneba, iafi sadili

Tu baRSi gaseirneba erTi mTliani

procesis sxvadasxva fragmentad

Canda.

am uzarmazar saxlSi inaxavda

petliura Tavis koleqcias _ miviwyebul

sabWoTa sayofacxovrebo

atributikasa da artefaqtebs

_ 20-30-iani wlebis qalis garderobs,

qudebs da fexsacmels, sxva

epoqalur efemeras, rogoricaa

beladTa da kolmeurneTa kitCuri

biustebi, sigelebi, vimpelebi

da sxva socialisturi suvenirebi,

saavadmyofoebis gadayrili qirurgiuli

instrumentebi da sinjarebi,

romelTac ucnob adamianTa

tragikuli biografia damCneoda.

aq TiTqmis yoveldRe gadasaRebad

modiodnen ucxoeli Jurnalistebi

da fotografebi, saRamoobiT

Tavs iyridnen moskoveli artistebi,

poetebi, xelovnebaTmcodneebi,

modelebi da subkulturis

bevri inkognito warmomadgeneli,

visac es yvelaferi uyvarda, magram

avanscenaze gamosvlis ambicia ar

amoZravdebda. male petliuras saxlSi

Tavisufali akademia daarsda

_ ase daarqves ideebis warmoSobis

ukve saxelganTqmul keras moskovSi.

iq aCvenebdnen sakuTar kinonamuSevrebs,

awyobdnen poetur da

modis performansebs, dadiodnen

sagastrolod ruseTis sxvadasxva

qalaqSi, mihqondaT moskovis dinamikuri

energia, xolo iqidan axali


artefaqtebis koleqciiT brundebodnen.

1990 wlis zafxulSi petliuras-

Tan erTad moskovi-Tbilisis matarebliT

vimgzavre. mesame mgzavric

gvaxlda, saxelad petlika, germanuli

nagazis jer kidev axalgazrda

da xalisiani lekvi. CvenTan

erTad TbilisSi sagastrolod sxva

moskoveli araformali artistebic

gamoemgzavrnen _ saSa lugini,

katia riJikova, lena da maqsi, magram

am jgufma marSruti Secvala

da baqos gavliT wamovida. ar vici,

ratom gaviyaviT orad kurskis sadgurze,

moskovSi. mgoni, maT baqos

naxvac ainteresebdaT, xolo petliuras

dasveneba da sakuTari

artistuli ideaze safiqrelad er-

Civna ganmartoeba.

gamoviareT ruseTis gaSlili

dablobebi da rodesac mTebi gamoCnda

da matarebeli ukve saqar-

TveloSi Semovida, mivxvdiT, rom

ukve sxva sixSiris velSi vimyofebiT

_ ara mxolod muzeumiviT ganlagebul

istoriul Zeglebs Soris,

sadac tradiciebi lamis suraTebiviT

hkidia garSemo, aramed sadRac

sxvagan, sadac kultura jer kidev

ar gulisxmobs usasyidlo da uangaro

Tavisuflebas. albaT amitomac,

gorTan axlos viRac kaci uxe-

Sad SeekiTxa petliuras, _ ra Rirs

es ZaRlio, _ TiTqos es raRac sagani

yofiliyo, bazrobaze gasayidad

gamotanili. petliuramac mokled

da sruliad uceremoniod upasuxa,

_ erTi maneTi, magram ar iyideba.

me minda, rom qarTvel artist-

Tan erTad gavakeTo performansi

TbilisSi. magram ra gavakeToT? _

mekiTxeba matarebelSi petliura.

is ambobs, rom jaSuSebis Tema Sei-

Zleba airCion. niko cecxlaZesTan

fiqrobs performansis gakeTebas,

an mamuka jafariZesTan. bolos

isev niko cecxlaZeze Cerdeba. me

istoria

vTavazob Zexvis dasakuTrebisTvis

Cxubs _ martivia da pirdapiri.

vici, rom mxolod es sakmarisi ar

aris, magram ar mindoda amaze meti

meTqva _ aq isaa avtori, me ki, principSi,

misgan vswavlob. petliuras

Tavisufal akademiaSi marTlac

vswavlobdi. vswavlobdi am uzarmazar,

arcTu ioli energetikis

artefaqtebiT mofenil SenobaSi

Tundac marto darCenas, dReebis

ganmavlobaSi. rodesac mTeli jgufi

ruseTis romelime qalaqSi iyo

gastrolebze, me ki erT-erT oTaxSi

dasaxlebuli moskovuri yvavis

movla da misTvis sadilis mitana

mevaleboda.

daaxloebiT 1990 wlidan gaCnda

petliuras cxovrebaSi bronislava

anatolievna dubneri, mokled

ki pani bronia _ moxuci, umweo

moskoveli qalbatoni sakuTar

aseTive meuRlesTan erTad. isini

axal moskovSi ukve aRaravis sWir-

cxeli Sokoladi 33


istoria

deboda. petliuram ara mxolod

maTi meurveoba iTava, aramed pani

bronia Cvenebebsa da gadaRebebzec

Tavis mTavar modelad da aqtrisad

aqcia. gastrolebzec erTad

midiodnen evropis sxvadasxva qalaqSi.

pani broniam sruliad axali,

artistuli cxovreba daiwyo maSin,

rodesac amas ukve namdvilad aRar

elodeboda. dRes ki pani bronias

naxatebi msoflios sxvadasxva muzeumSi

inaxeba. eqstravaganturobiT

is, rogorc amboben, salvador

dalis, nina hagensa da boi jorjs

ar Camouvardeba. 1998 wels bronias

londonSi alternatiuli mis

msoflios tituli mianiWes.

TbilisSi pani bronia ar Camosula,

albaT TbilisisTvis es Zalian

adre iyo. 1990 wels, petliuras

pirveli qarTuli gastrolis dros,

rodesac yvelani nanatri kapitalizmis

Semosvlas velodebodiT,

TbilisisTvis jer adre iyo mosko-

34 cxeli Sokoladi

vuri araformaluri xelovnebis mi-

Reba, romelic, petliuras ZaRlis

msgavsad, sulac ar iyo gamiznuli

saswrafo gayidvisa da finansuri

prestiJisaTvis. petliuras tansacmlis

Teatri arasdros yofila

komerciaze gaTvlili. erTgan is

ambobs, _ CemTan iyo ramdenime adamiani,

isini albaT kargi artistebi

gaxdebodnen, magram samwuxarod,

mere modeliorebad gadaiqcnen da

rogorc artistebi damTavrdneno.

TbilisSi yofnis drosac petliuram

intervius dros upasuxa, _ me

viReb nagavs da misgan yvavilebs

vakeTeb. misi unikaluri koleqciis

didi nawili moskovis baraxlovkazea

nayidi, maT Soris im xanad

yvelaze cnobil tiSinski rinokze.

bevric albaT nagavSia napovni.

paradoqsia, magram swored es

arakomerciuli xelovneba gaxda

yvelaze konvertirebadi msoflio

bazarze. araformaluri xelovne-

ba _ am niSniT iyo da dResac aris

moskovSi gaazrebuli is xelovneba,

romelsac avangardis tradiciasTan

aigivebdnen da romelic Tavs uyrida

konceptualistur safuZvelze warmoqmnil

yvela im mimarTulebas, rac

moskovis xelovnebis savaWro niSans

qmnida, maT Soris: rusuli konceptualizmi,

soc-arti, koleqtivnie

deistvia, medgermenevtika da sxv.

araformaluri ki arakomerciulsac

gulisxmobs da amiT moskovis e.w. antisabWoTa

artistebi da dasavleTis

neomarqsistebi (partia ar egonos

mkiTxvels, Jan luk godars da sxva

Tanamedrove artistebs aerTianebs)

saerTo baziss poulobdnen.

vidre TbilisSi wamovidodiT,

moskovidan gia buRaZes davureke.

maSin mxatvarTa kavSiris erT-er-

Ti xelmZRvaneli iyo da vTxove,

nebarTva moepovebina qarvaslaSi

moskoveli mxatvrebis gamofenis-

Tvis. TbilisSi CamovediT Tu ara,


moskovelebs maSinve qalaqSi xetiali

moundaT _ yovelgvari Zilisa

da dasvenebis winaaRmdegni

iyvnen. maincdamainc arc qarTul

samzareuloze gaumaxvilebia vinmes

yuradReba, radgan es ar dammaxsovrebia.

maTTvis ufro axali

artefaqtebi iyo mimzidveli da

mniSvnelovani. ar vici, ramdenad

aRmoaCines aseTi ram, Tu ar CavTvliT

erT iseT banalur artefaqts,

rogoricaa WaWiT savse 3-litriani

boca, romelic petliuras

romeliRac aivanze daunaxavs,

amZvrala da pirdapir gamofenis

gaxsnis win moitana instalacia-

Si gamosayeneblad. meore albaT

is iyo, rom erTxel RamiT gmirTa

moedanze mogvixda manqaniT gavla.

ukve dacarielebul quCaSi marto

erTi wyvili Canda varazisxevis

kuTxeSi da vxedavT, rom Cxuboben

_ kaci qals muSts uRerebs

dasartymelad an emuqreba. etyoba,

CvenTvis aseTi scenebi an Zalian

banaluri da yoveldRiuri iyo, an,

tradiciuli qveynisTvis damaxasia-

Tebeli dauwereli kanonebis gamo,

wyvilis saqmeebSi Carevas imTavi-

Tve gamovricxavdiT. petliuras ki

swored es ar gamorCa, jer manqanis

gaCereba moiTxova da roca taqsis

mZRolma ar urCia da yuri arc ki

ugdo, maSin fanjara Camowia da

TbilisisTvis sruliad ucxo, rusuli

Tu ukrainuli, anarqistuli,

mTeli xmiT dauyvira, _ Sen, ei, ar

gabedo qalis Seuracxyofao. mesame

Tbilisuri artefaqtic, rasac petliurasTan

erTad wavawydiT, miuxedavad

misi arakanonierebisa da

araadamianurobisa, mainc aseve banaluri

iyo CvenTvis _ rusTavelis

prospeqtze troleibuss gavyeviT

da centraluri fostis Senobas

rom gavuswordiT, petliuram gineba

daiwyo da saxeze xeli aifara.

ver mivxvdi, ra ayvirebda, danaxva

istoria

ver movaswari. troleibusi swrafad

gascda im adgils, petliuram

miTxra, rom dainaxa, Tu rogor Caartya

viRacam meore adamians dana

pirdapir TavSi da gaiqca.

aseT dros Camoitanes moskovelebma

namdvili rusuli avangardi

TbilisSi, pirvelad, maiakovskisdroindeli

20-iani wlebis mere.

meore jgufi, romelic maSin

CvenTan erTad TbilisSi Camovida

da romelic aseve petliuras art_

komunis nawils Seadgenda, jgufi

`sever~ iyo (aleqsandr lugini da

katia riJikova). Tbilisur gastrolebze

komunidan ramdenime sxva artistic

wamovida. kidev ufro mets

undoda wamosvla, magram yvelafers

petliura wyvetda. man Tqva,

rom, viRacis dasvenebisa da mogzaurobis

xarjze, lekv petlikas

saWmels ver moaklebda.

gamofena qarvaslisTvis daigegma.

80-iani wlebis miwuruls swo-

cxeli Sokoladi 35


istoria

red qarvasla iyo is adgili, sadac

Tanamedrove mxatvarTa gamofenebi

imarTeboda. aq xSirad iyo Tbilisuri

jgufis `meaTe sarTulis~ sapaviliono

gamofenebi, romlebic

Tbiliss Tanamedrove xelovnebis

saerTaSoriso standartebis gamofenebTan

aaxloebda. qarvaslas im

drosac xelovnebaTmcodne lika

mamacaSvili kuratorobda da swored

mis sagalereo saqmianobasTan

aris mniSvnelovanwilad dakavSirebuli

Tbilisis Tanamedrove sagamofeno

kulturis Seqmnis istoria.

petliuras importis realuri mimRebi

TbilisSi swored `meaTe sar-

Tuli~ da misi garemocva iyo _ jgufi,

romelic 5 mxatvars aerTianebda:

mamuka cecxlaZes, niko cecxlaZes,

mamuka jafariZes, oleg timCenkos,

koka ramiSvils; da am jgufTan imxanad

dakavSirebuli iyvnen sxvadasxva

xelovanebi _ niko lomaSvili, guram

wibaxaSvili, karlo kaWarava, gia ri-

36 cxeli Sokoladi

gvava, lia SveliZe, maia cecxlaZe,

gia loria da sxvebi.

qalaqSi petliuras udardeli xetialisgan

gansxvavebiT, romelmac

performansisTvis mxolod muyaos

yuTebi moiTxova, raTa darbazSi

kedeli aeSenebina, rogorc sazRvari,

romelsac mere petliura da

niko cecxlaZe ZexvisaTvis Cxubis

dros daangrevdnen, jgufi `severi~

_ saSa lugini da katia riJikova

_ calke, ganmartoebiT amzadebda

sakuTar performanss, romlisTvisac

meti dekoracia sWirdebodaT.

rodesac moskovSi pirveli reiv

klubi `ptiuCi~ gaixsna, romelic

sakuTar gaxmaurebul priala Jurnalsac

gamoscemda, saxelwodebiT

`om~, da sadac dacvaSi mxolod

Savkanianebi hyavdaT, xolo mineraluri

wyali aucileblad `eviani~

unda yofiliyo, saSa lugini iq

wamyvani artisti da dizaineri iyo.

isini qmnian musikalur da aqcio-

nistur performanss, rac slavuri

arqetipebisa da Samanuri, magiuri

performansis paralelurad, Rrmad

daukavSirda transis, fsiqodeliisa

da saklubo subkulturas. es

Samanur qmedebasa da Tanamedrove

dizains Soris arsebuli xelovneba

iyo, romelsac, rogorc Tanda-

Tan gamoCnda, raRac komerciuli

potenciac hqonda. `severis~ performansebSi

is ritualuri sawyisi

ikiTxeboda, ramac bunebrivad Sei-

Zleba daainteresos Tanamedrove

rusi avangardisti, Tu is ar egueba

dRevandel sterilur, komfortabelur

da ambivalentur sistemas

da gamosavals isev wminda modernistul

formebSi da Tundac Soreuli

aRmosavleTis misterialur

arqetipebSi eZebs.

`severi~ qarvaslaSic aqcionistur

transs qmnida. saSa luginisa da katia

riJikovas performansis `Sinaarsidan~

gamomdinare, gadawyda, rom


kari unda Caketiliyo da mnaxveli

darbazSi ar SemoeSvaT. mayurebeli

moqmedebis msvlelobas Sesasvlel

karTan damontaJebuli ori televizoris

saSualebiT adevnebda Tvals.

SigniT ki, darbazis erT mxares, patara

scenaze dramze ukravdnen.

Tavidan `severis~ wevrebi specialurad

momzadebul, fantastikur kostiumebSi

gamowyobilebi gamovidnen,

kostiumebi simetriulad iyo moxatuli

arqauli da gamogonili rusuli

ornamentebiT. male gogonebma

tansacmeli gaixades. katias da lenas

saRebaviT savse konteineri edgaT

win da xan erTmaneTs xatavdnen,

xan ki sxeulebiT raRac Samanur ornamentebs

qmnidnen. moxatvis saSiSroeba

emuqreboda yvelas, vinc maT

miuaxlovdeboda.

kars miRma, darbazSi monawileebs

`meaTe sarTulis~ Tbiliseli mxatvrebic

SeuerTdnen, salamurebiTa

da sxva musikaluri instrumente-

biT `aRWurvilebi~. mxatvrebma aseve

eqspoziciac Seqmnes, sadac niko

lomaSvilis, mamuka jafariZis, Salva

xaxanaSvilis, poet badri guguSvilis

namuSevrebi da instalaciebi

iyo gamofenili. iqve iyo diqtoric,

romlis rolsac gela patiaSvili

asrulebda. diqtori gareT

performansis msvlelobis Sesaxeb

mayurebels informacias awvdida da

mcire komentarebsac akeTebda.

gamofenis gaxsnidan zustad erT

saaTSi centraluri komitetidan

miTiTeba movida _ saswrafod daexuraT

gamofena. male qarvaslas-

Tan manqanebic gaCerda. gamofenis

saswrafo daSla da performansis

SeCereba mogvTxoves. ase rom, Tbilisel

mayurebels sul raRac 1 saa-

TiT hqonda saSualeba, enaxa, Tu ras

akeTebs avangardistuli moskovi

perestroikis pikSi, rodesac gorbaCovi

imave platformebis dabrunebas

cdilobs, rogoric 20-iani

istoria

wlebis periodSi iyo _ im periodSi,

rodesac saerTod avangardistuli

xelovneba daibada. maSinac, ssrk-s

gariJraJze saqarTvelos futuristebi

da avangardisti poetebi stumrobdnen.

axlac, rodesac sabWoTa

kavSiris daisis Tu misi sawyisebisken

mibrunebis periodi dadga,

petliurac swored didi rusi avangardisti

poetis, velimir xlebnikovis

leqsiT damSvenebuli maisuriT

Camovida TbilisSi.

faqtobrivad, es iyo pirveli media

performansi TbilisSi, romlis

obieqtis translacia iqve xdeboda,

imave drosa da adgilas. es gadawyvetileba

marto konceptualuri

kaprizis Sedegi ar iyo, ubralod

maSindel TbilisSi _ tradiciuli

qveynis, ase Tu ise, progresulad

ganwyobil dedaqalaqSi amgvarad gadawyda

monawileebis usafrTxoeba.

>>> gagrZeleba gv. 88

cxeli Sokoladi 37


istoria

diletantis mogzauroba poloneTSi

avtori: qeTi qanTaria

poloneTTan dakavSirebuli Cemi

pirveli vizualuri STabeWdileba

kaTolicizms ukavSirdeba. Tormeti

wlis viyavi, mxatvar eJi duda

graCis gamofenaze rom movxvdi.

maxsovs Cemze maRali adamianebis

duduni Tavs zemoT. es ambavi

38 cxeli Sokoladi

poloneli reJisori anJei vaida

poloneli marSali jozef pilsudski

moskovSi xdeboda, da ZiriTadad

komentarebic im siamtkbilobis

kvalobaze keTdeboda, romelic

tradiciulad am or qveyanas akav-

Sirebs. maSin gavbrazdi, da poloneTTan

Cemi pirveli solidarobis

momentic es iyo. im asakSi, roca

lex kaCinski da nikola sarkozi, varSava, 2008

reJisori anJei Julavski

aviakatastrofaSi daRupulTa Camosveneba varSavaSi, 11 aprili 2010

bavSvebis umetesobam geografiac

ki ar icis wesierad, mec da zogierT

Cems amxanagsac poloneTisadmi

ukve Camoyalibebuli damokidebuleba

gvqonda. `solidarnosC~,

amerikis xma, Jurnali `amerika~

dastebad, romliTac rusuli wera


kiTxva viswavle. aRfrTovanebuli

`xedav, ras Svebian polonelebi?!~

_ erTi sityviT, aseTi iyo paketi,

romliTac Tavisufleba, ase-

Ti dauzustebeli definiciiT, SemoiWra

Cvens cxovrebaSi, romelic

CvenTvis Zalian mniSvnelovan rames

gveubneboda da gvaRelvebda.

eJi duda graCis namuSevrebi im

gamofenaze bolojer vnaxe. Cemi

azriT, gansakuTrebulad gamor-

Ceuli mxatvari ar iyo. is CenstoxovoSi,

kaTolikuri msvlelobebis,

wirvebis da galobis atmosferoSi

gaizarda. mis naxatebSi eklesiuri

gadareva, rogorc maxsovs, gaSar-

Jebuli iyo.

im dReebSi aRmovaCine, rom graCs

religiuri Sinaarsis namuSevrebic

hqonia da poloneTSi erT-erTi

eklesiac aqvs moxatuli. mxatvris

bavSvobis STabeWdilebebidan gamomdinare,

misi religiurobac

da satirac gasagebi momeCvena.

samocdaaTiani wlebis Semdeg ka-

Tolicizmisadmi polonelebs gansakuTrebiT

intimuri damokidebuleba

gauCndaT. amis mizezi, ra Tqma

unda, karol iuzef voitila gaxda,

papi ioane-pavle II, TiTqmis yoveli

polonelis siamaye, romlis avtoritetma,

`solidarnosCis~ legendasTan

erTad, poloneTi, garkveuli

azriT, unikalur qveynad aqcia.

pani erJbeta

da danarCeni adamianebi

1996 wels Cemi patara bina gavyide

da ase Tu ise simpaTiuri Tanxa

poloneTSi samogzaurod gadavinaxe.

mindoda, sakuTari TvaliT

menaxa da xeliT momesinja is, rac

10-11 wlis asakidan gulSi CamrCa.

ase davsaxldi varSavis erT orsar-

Tulian saxlSi, 82 wlis pani erJbetasTan,

moulodnel tipaJTan,

romelmac pirvelive dRes miambo,

rogor daikarga amas winaT disnei

lendSi. vifiqre, gagviWirdeboda

Cven-Cveni gansxvavebuli realobebidan

urTierToba, magram mas

sul ramdenime dRe dasWirda imis

dasamtkiceblad, rom Cven ors So-

ris realobis gancda dakarguli

me mqonda. pani erJbeta germanisti

iyo da omis dros okupantebis Tarjimnad

muSaobda. germanelebi namdvili

jentlmenebi iyvnen da omis

wlebSi Tavs SesaniSnavad vgrZnobdi,

Citis rZe ar makldao, _ ambobda.

kvaSnevskis mTavrobam, rogorc

am periodSi gansakuTrebiT saSiS

samuSaoze (okupantebTan!) momuSave

pirs, seriozuli pensia dauniSna.

`rogorc xedavT, _ miTxra isev eSmakurad,

_ yvela kargad gavacure~.

gamomicxada, _ imedi maqvs, saxlSi

rusebs ar SemoaparebTo. pani er-

Jbeta darwmunebuli iyo, rom yvela

qarTveli raRaciT mainc rusia,

yovel SemTxvevaSi, roca saqme misi

binis usafrTxoebas exeboda, maTi

rusobis bolomde gamoricxva (sifrTxilis

TvalsazrisiT) ar Sei-

Zleboda. rusebis Semoparebis varianti

advilad gamovricxe, ramac

pani erJbeta mTlianad gaabedniera

da im dRidan ise Semiyvara, rogorc

Sinauri cxoveli, romelsac

Sin quCaSi napovni WuWyiani moZmeebis

moyvana SeuZlia, magram amas

ucnaurad gamoCenili adamianuri

Segnebis gamo ar akeTebs. ras niSnavs

qarTveli, erJbetam pirvelad,

82 wlis asakSi gaigo. axalgacnobil

fenomens polonuri gamoTqma

moargo _ `Sarvals vyidi, fraks vitoveb~;

Zveli eWvebisTvisac ki, momibodiSa:

mkacri bavSvoba mqonda,

muSis ojaxSi gavizarde da realobisTvis

axalgazrdobidan Tvali

maqvs gasworebulio, `Tqven kidev

wignebma dagRupaT, wignebma!~ _ momaZaxa

iseve mkacrad, rogorc sCveoda.

mag codvas ver davibralebmeTqi,

_ gamovtydi. pani erJbetam

xelebi gaSala, _ `ki magram, aba am

poloneTSi ra dakargeT!~

me arc is ramdenimeTviani poloneTi

minania da arc pani erJbetas

mkacri realobis gacnoba, miuxedavad

imisa, rom is dRemde ver

SevuTavse im sinamdviles, romelic

misi saxlis gareT arsebobda:

adamianebs, romlebic stabiluri

da met-naklebad SeZlebuli cxo-

istoria

vrebis SesaZleblobas ijerebdnen,

ucxos mimarT yovel nabijze

cnobismoyvareobas da gulgaxsnilobas

amJRavnebdnen; taqsistebs,

romlebic fuls marto imitom

ar marTmevdnen, rom sayvelpuro

polonuri vicodi; gamyidvlebs,

romlebic mamSvidebdnen, rom poloneTSi

cimbiriviT ar acivdeba;

saSobao sixaruls; Zveli varSavis

yvelaze lamaz quCas, sadac quCis

kafeebSi msxdomi xalxi fexze wamomdgari

ukravda Cems qarTvel

nacnobs taSs, imis gamo, rom saku-

Tar jvrisweraze CoxaSi gamowyobili

midioda.

polonuri `promeTeizmi~

saqarTvelosadmi, saerTod kavkasiisadmi

unikaluri solidarobis

da gulwrfeli simpaTiis istoria

mecxramete saukunis ori didi _

1830-31 da 1863-64 wlebis _ ajanyebidan

iwyeba. ra Tqma unda, is, rac

xSirad paralelurad saqarTvelo-

Si xdeboda, polonuri meamboxeobis

mxolod susti anarekli iyo, iseve

rogorc Tan moyolili sasjeli da

sazRauri. ocian wlebamde saqar-

TveloSi polonuri armiis nawilebi

idga. maTi Sin gawvevis Semdeg

polonur mxares saqarTvelos didi

vali darCa, romelic damoukidebeli

saqarTvelos mxridan aseTive

didi xelgaSlilobiT epatia, sityvebiT

`qarTuli miwisTvis didi

pativi iyo iseTi brwyinvale eris

Svilebis maspinZloba, rogoric

polonelebi arian~. 1921 wlis Semdeg

poloneTi msoflios erTader-

Ti qveyana iyo, romelic qarTul

emigracias sakuTar miwaze ara mxolod

TavSesafars aZlevda, aramed

xelisSemwyob pirobebsac uqmnida.

polonurma armiam samxedro pirebs

araTu Cinebi SeunarCuna, aramed

xelsayreli kontraqtebic daudo.

qarTuli emigracia yvelaze Rirseulad

swored poloneTSi gamoiyureboda.

gamicvnia iseTi adamianebi,

visac es xalxi axsovda, vis

mSoblebTanac isini megobrobdnen

da ojaxebSi stumrobdnen. swored

cxeli Sokoladi 39


istoria

ukanasknel wlebSi qveyanaSi paradoqsuli situaciaa Seqmnili. poloneTi, slavuri qveynebidan

yvelaze evropuli, aRmosavleTis yofili blokidan yvelaze prodasavluri saxelmwifoa,

romelsac 2004 wels ocneba ausrulda da evropis sabWos wevri gaxda. Tumca, axla Tavad qmnis

dabrkolebebs evropis gzaze da Tavs TviTizolaciaSi iqcevs.

maTi gamorCeulobis gamo, aTwleulebis

ganmavlobaSi saqarTvelo

poloneTidan iseTi Canda, rogorebic

gvindoda vyofiliyaviT, magram

ar viyaviT. prezidenti lex

kaCinskic im polonelebis ricxvs

ekuTvnoda.

11 noembers, damoukideblobis

dRes pilsudskis moedanze gaviare.

mainteresebda, ra moxdeboda

am dRes. aRlumi da baTqa-buTqi ar

yofila, saRamosken ki cxovrebaSi

pirvelad da ukanasknelad vnaxe

brZolis veli: rogor uaxlovdebian

erTmaneTs mowinaaRmdegeebis

naxevarkilometriani mwkrivebi,

rogor Caxedaven erTmaneTs TvalebSi.

mere es ori zoli, erT-ormetriani

distanciis SenarCunebiT,

saaTis isariviT datrialda. Tumca,

maT Soris manZili ar Semcirebula.

pirvelebma raRac gaugebris

ZaxiliT _ `normalurebma~ _ `erTi

rasa, kacTa modgmas~ _ ase itriales

da male daiSalnen, ise, rom

erTmaneTs arc ki Sexebian. im dRes

verc erTma nacnobma ver amixsna,

ra vnaxe. magram erTi STabeWdileba

ki maxsovs: vfiqrobdi, rom rac

unda mavne da suleluri tendencia

iyos, am qveyanaSi, etyoba, pasuxis

gamcemi adekvaturi Zala yovel-

Tvis moinaxeba-meTqi. igives Tqma

maT aRmosavlel mezoblebze Zneli

iqneba, polonelebi ki sazogadoebrivad

mgrZnobiare xalxia. amas

albaT amboxebebisadmi tradiciuli

midrekileba da solidarobis

niWic ganapirobebs. imave wels,

poloneTSi yofnisas vnaxe, ra kargad

icodnen am qveyanaSi CeCneTis

movlenebi, rogori TavdadebiT

gulSematkivrobdnen da ainteresebdaT

yvelaferi, rac SeiZleboda

mcodnoda, magram me maSin araferi

vicodi da, garkveul mizezTa gamo,

40 cxeli Sokoladi

romlebic maSin aqtualuri gveCveneboda,

arc mainteresebda. amis-

Tvis bevr polonels araerTxel

Sevurcxvenivar. poloneTi iyo

qveyana, romelic sakmao enTuziazmiT

iRebda CeCen ltolvilebs da

TavSesafars aZlevda. lex kaCinskim

varSavis merobisas qalaqis erTerT

moedans joxar dudaevis saxeli

mianiWa. Znelia zustad Tqma,

rodis moxda gardatexa, magram

dRes am qveyanaSi, gansakuTrebiT

patara qalaqebSi, CeCen ltolvilebs

didi problemebi eqmnebaT.

ltolvilebi amas maTi kaTolicizmis

momZlavrebis fonze islamisadmi

agresiiT xsnian. samagierod,

saqarTvelos qristianuli istoria

aRfrTovanebas iwvevs. Cemi iq yofnis

dros ki CeCnebi bevri polonelisTvis

nomeri pirveli eri iyo.

ra Tqma unda, es antirusuli Jestic

iyo, magram ara mxolod es _

`daumorCilebelTa geneologiis~

mqone kidev erTma xalxma bunebrivad

daipyro polonelebis gulebi.

ise, im wlebSic ki, axalgazrda adamianebis

did nawils ruseTisadmi

sruliad neitraluri damokidebuleba

hqonda. ruseTi ubralod ar

ainteresebdaT. es gulgriloba,

araafeqturi damokidebuleba, rogorc

Cans, ukve poloneTis saboloo

gamarjvebis niSani iyo.

eklesia, `kanoni

da samarTlianoba~

2005 wels, poloneTis saparlamento

arCevnebamde erTi TviT

adre romis papma benediqte XVI-m

wminda petres moedanze tradiciuli

saerTo locvis dros Tqva, rom

am arCevnebis saTanadod dasrulebisTvis

loculobs. gancxadeba

sensaciurad, metic, did Secdomad

iqna miCneuli: romis paps arc

erTi qveynis politikiT metismeti

daintereseba ar Seefereba. yovel

SemTxvevaSi, rodesac germania prezidents

irCevda, warmoSobiT germanel

paps es movlena xsenebis Rirsad

ar CauTvlia.

poloneTSi kaTolikuri eklesia

istoriis yvela etapze umniSvnelovanes

rols asrulebda, dRes ki

poloneTi evropis yvelaze kaTolikuri

qveyanaa, romis papis mTavari

dasayrdeni dasavleTSi. ukve Tormeti

welia, poloneTma aRadgina

1925 wels vatikansa da poloneTis

meore respublikas Soris dadebuli

konkordati, romliTac eklesias

_ sazogadoebriv sferoSi Carevis

ufleba, Tavad ki praqtikulad SeuzRudavi

Zalaufleba mieca.

paps kaTolike episkoposebmac

mihbaZes da kaTolike amomrCevels

rCeviT mimarTes: sasurveli partia

Riad ar dausaxelebiaT, magram im

Zalis arCeva mouwodes, romelic

`ojaxis da qorwinebis siwmindes~

daicavs, evTanaziisa da abortis

winaaRmdeg gailaSqrebs. saarCevno

programaSi aseTi dapireba or partias

hqonda: nakleb perspeqtiul

`polonuri ojaxebis ligas~ da `kanons

da samarTlianobas~, lex da

iaroslav kaCinskebis partias.

ukanasknel wlebSi qveyanaSi paradoqsuli

situaciaa Seqmnili.

poloneTi, slavuri qveynebidan

yvelaze evropuli, aRmosavleTis

yofili blokidan yvelaze prodasavluri

saxelmwifoa, romelsac

2004 wels ocneba ausrulda da

evropis sabWos wevri gaxda. Tumca,

axla Tavad qmnis dabrkolebebs

evropis gzaze da Tavs TviTizolaciaSi

iqcevs.

2005 wels krakovis mTavar moedanze

Zalian saintereso mitingi

gaimarTa. ramdenime aseuli adamia


ni poloneTis mefed ieso qristes

aRiarebas moiTxovda. es albaT am

qveyanaSi religiuri rwmenis yvelaze

briyvuli gamovlineba iyo.

yovel SemTxvevaSi, aSkaraa, rom

poloneli amomrCevlis did nawils

sulac ar sWirdeba karnaxi, vis

misces xma arCevnebSi, rodesac arsebobs

partia, romelic mas kaTolikuri

Rirebulebebis saxelmwifo

doneze dacvas hpirdeba. 2005 wlis

dekemberSi kidev gasakviri iyo, rom

partiis `kanoni da samarTlianoba~

liders, dRes tragikulad daRu-

anJei vaida gadasaReb moedanze, poloneTi 1989

pul lex kaCinskis, xmaTa mxolod

54% daugrovda, mis mTavar konkurents,

liberal tusks ki _ 45%.

bolo Tvis ganmavlobaSi poloneTSi

gaCnda imis precedentebi, rom

erT-erT saprezidento kandidats,

tragikulad daRupuli prezidentis

Zmas, iaroslav kaCinskis kanidadaturis

warsadgenad saWiro xmebs eklesiebSi

ugroveben. `kanonma da samar-

Tlianobam~ kaTolike amomrCevels

ukve Seusrula is, rasac winasaar-

Cveno periodSi dahpirda. eklesiis

idea iyo umetesobisTvis sayvareli,

poloneTi, gdanski, 1981

istoria

sxvebisTvis ki retrogradi prezidentis,

lex kaCinskis eris `wmidaTawmida~

adgilas _ vavelSi dakrZalvac,

poloneTis mefeebis, Sopenis da

mickeviCis gverdiT.

poloneTis kaTolikurma eklesiam

Tavis droze STaagona da Sekra erovnul-ganmaTavisuflebelimoZraoba.

saqarTvelos msgavsad, eklesia da

sarwmunoeba swored am aspeqtma aqcia

nacionaluri eTikis safuZvlad.

Tumca, wignis `daumorCilebelTa

geneologiis~ avtori, bogdan civinski,

romelic ganmaTavisuflebel

poloneTi, gdanski, 1988

poloneli generali iaruzelski da

gdr-is prezidenti erix honekeri, berlini, 1982

cxeli Sokoladi 41

soni rolinzi, scenaze gasvlis win, niu-iorki, 1961 weli soni rolinzi, da atilio rota, milani, 1963 weli


istoria

`paradoqsuli ram moxda _ sovietizmis kraxis Semdeg poloneTs raRac sxva `sabWouroba~

daemarTa. glexuri sijiute. eklesiisadmi usazRvro ndoba, TiTqmis iseTi, rogorc sabWoeTSi

_ partiis mimarT, politikuri niSnuli gaxda. qveynis beds ironiulRimiliani kverTxisTavebi

wyveten, romlebsac nacionalizmis, antisemitizmis da provinciuli mesianobis wylulebi

awuxebT~.

brZolaSi polonuri inteligenciis

rolze wers, aRniSnavs, rom Tu polonel

inteligentsa da kaTolikur

eklesias Soris arsebul konfliqts

ar vaxsenebT, suraTi upatieblad

damaxinjdeba. avtori am konfliqtis

erT-erT aspeqtad sazogadoebrivi

moRvaweobis eTikur principebs asaxelebs,

winaaRmdegobis safuZvlad

ki _ socialur eTikas, romelsac

kaTolike poloneli da radikali

inteligenti gansxvavebulad aRiqvamdnen.

civinskis miaCnia, rom XX

saukunis polonurma kaTolikobam

mniSvnelovani ganaxleba ganicada,

ris wyalobiTac qveynis inteligenciis

daaxloeba moaxerxa.

inteligencia

da inteleqtualebi

terminebis _ `inteligencia~

da `inteleqtualebi~ _ Sejaxeba

poloneTSic moxda, Tumca pirvelTaTvis

iq es iseTi kraxiT ar

dasrulebula, rogorc CvenSi.

diskusiebSi xSirad axseneben xolme,

rom dasavluri tipis inteleqtualebi

polonur sazogadoebriv

cxovrebaSi XX saukunis 30-iani wlebidan

Semodian. imasac amboben, rom

inteligencia, polonur-rusuli

gagebiT, dasavleTSi ar arsebobs;

arsebobs saSualo klasi, romelic

male poloneTSic momZlavrdeba da

inteligencias wamyvan poziciebs

mTlianad CamoarTmevs.

mariuS cesliaki 2009 wlis seqtembris

`niusuiqSi~ uaryofs komunizmis

damxobaSi inteligenciis

rols, da `kanonis da samarTlianobis~

poziciebis Sesustebas. mas

axseneben, rom, magaliTad, italiaSi

sityva intellighenzia dRemde polonuri

(ruseTis pirvel inteligentebad

dekabristebi da maTi Tana-

42 cxeli Sokoladi

moazreebi iTvlebian. pirvelebi

Tavad-aznaurebidan, vinc, maTda

gasakvirad, 1812 wlis omSi aRmoa-

Cina, rom Turme glexic adamiania,

metic, patriotia. polonuri inteligencia

ki, rogorc Cans, me-18

saukunis bolos iSva, respublikur

da demokratiul principebTan er-

Tad) an rusuli transkrifciiT ixmareba.

asea Tu ise, Cvengan gansxvavebiT,

ramdenime aseuli, rogorc

axla amboben, `cnobadi~ konformistis

gamo, polonelebs umadurad ar

dauviwyniaT aTobiT aTasi adamiani,

romlebic ori saukunis ganmavloba-

Si im idealebs amkvidrebdnen, risac

Tavad swamdaT. poloneTSi marTlac

iyo da dRemde aris _ kaTolikuri

inteligencia, liberaluri inteligencia,

nacionalisturi da Sereuli

tipis kidev sxva (periodebis

mixedviT) inteligencia, da maTi

roli ama Tu im xanis movlenebis

warmarTvaSi Zalian mniSvnelovania.

poloneTSi, bevri sxva qveynisgan

gansxvavebiT, masonuri organizaciebic

ki erovnul elfers

atarebda da antirusul revoluciur

moZraobaSi saintereso rols

TamaSobdnen. mecxramete saukunis

dasawyisSi maiorma lukasianskim

`Tavisufali erovnuli masonobis~

sazogadoeba daaarsa. masonobis

simboluri niSnebic gaerovnulebuli

iyo: hirami _ daqucmacebuli

poloneTi iyo, misi sami mkvleli _

avstriis, prusiis da ruseTis monarqebi,

romlebmac is dainawiles,

Svilebi _ revolucioneri poloneli

masonebi. rusi dekabristebis

SeTqmuleba rom gamoaSkaravda, maT-

Tan urTierTobaSi myofi poloneli

masonebic daapatimres. Tumca, poloneTis

seimma isini samxedro damnaSaveebad

ki ar cno, konstituciis

Tanaxmad, saidumlo organizaciis

wevrobisTvis gaasamarTla da msubuqad

dasaja, ris gamoc, nikoloz

I-sgan Seirisxa. Tumca, es is konstitucia

ar iyo, romliTac polonelebi

ase amayoben.

pirveli polonuri konstitucia

1791 wlis 3 maiss miiRes, safrangeTze

naxevari wliT adre da, Sesabamisad,

is evropis yvelaze Zvel

konstituciad iTvleba, rac absoluturi

monarqiebiT garSemortymuli

qveynisTvis progresul momentad

miiCneva. magram ori wlis

Semdeg qveyanas amave monarqiebma

mouRes bolo _ samwuxarod, polonelive

magnatebis da umsxvilesi

miwaTmflobelebis xelSewyobiT.

nacionalisturi inteligenciis

bevri warmomadgeneli 40-iani wlebis

bolos memarjvene nacionaluklonizmSi

daadanaSaules da

daapatimres. 1956 wels poznanis mu-

SaTa ajanyebis CaxSobis Semdeg maTi

roli uaRresad Semcirda da win wamoiwia

kaTolikurma inteligenciam,

romlis gavlena mas Semdeg Zveleburad

Zlieria. da Tuki perioduli

ukan daxeva mainc arsebobda,

`solidarnosCis~ wlebSi, saidumlo

samsaxurebis mier gavleniani inteleqtualis,

qsenZ eJi pepeliuSkos

sadisturi mkvlelobis Semdeg moxda

is, rom polonuri kapitalizmis

ideebma socializmis ideebi mkve-

Trad Caanacvla da es suraTi mas

Semdeg didad aRarc Secvlila.

Tavisufali, stiqiuri

poloneTi

mudmivi oponirebis Tu Ria dapirispirebis

miuxedavad, polonuri

kultura yovelTvis, yvelaze

mZafri konfrontaciis periodeb-

Sic ki Ria iyo yovelive saukeTe-


sos mimarT, rac ruseTSi iqmneboda.

legendarul 80-ian wlebSic ki

poloneTi, rusuli dramaturgiis

inscenirebis mxriv, msoflioSi

pirvel adgilze idga. es im Tavisuflebis

erT-erTi gamovlineba iyo,

romelsac kaTolikuri, tradiciuli

poloneTi xorcs asxamda xelovnebaSi

_ tradiciuli meamboxeobis

meore saxe. isedac, eklesiuroba

da Tanamedrove polonuri xelovnebis

Tavawyvetili niWiereba (masSi

kaTolike qristianis gansjac bevria

da religiurobisgan daclili

`eresic~) am qveyanaSi erTmaneTis

gverdigverd uproblemod Tanaarsebobda.

es kargad Cans polonuri

warmoSobis erTi amerikeli kritikosis

werilSi, roca is wers eJi

grotovskize, rogorc polonuri

xasiaTis stiqiur, dionisur gamovlinebaze

_ rom arsebobs sxva

grotovskic, privatuli, formalurobis

niSnebCamocilebuli.

pirveli drodadro mickeviCis da

Sopenis maRal romantikul tradiciis

elementebs amJRavnebs; magram

arsebobs polonelis meore tipic,

romelsac grotovski sakuTar Tav-

Si atarebda da romelic aranakleb

istoria

stereotipulia _ bneli, saeWvo,

konspiratori, kontrabandisti da

maqinatori, iseTi, germaniis sarkinigzo

sadgurebis da mdidruli

sastumroebis midamoebSi rom

trialebdnen da gulSi Savbnel

zraxvebs atareben. personaJi, romelic

Seqspiris da Jan Jenes kalamTa

TanamSromlobiT SeiZleboda

Seqmniliyo; SesaZloa, dostoevskiseuli

personaJi. albaT amitom gamovida

vaidas `avsulebi~ rusulze

bevrad ufro rusuli filmi.

>>> gagrZeleba gv. 89

poloneTi, varSava, 1944 poloneli marSali jozef pilsudski, varSava 1926

axali arqiepiskoposi iozef kovalCiki samgloviaro ceremonialze, poloneTi, varSava, 17 aprili 2010

cxeli Sokoladi 43


istoria

avtori: daviT buxrikiZe

44 cxeli Sokoladi


`mkvdari klasis~ Canawerebi

TadeuS kantori _ reJisori, reformatori da winaswarmetyveli

avtori: daviT buxrikiZe

misi warmodgenebi cudad momarTuli

manekenebis, groteskulad metyveli

Tojinebisa da mkvdreTiT aRmdgari adamianebis

droebiT zeims waagavs. TiTqos

amqveyniuri vnebebisTvis adgili aRar

darCaT. odnav ganaTebuli adamianimanekenebi,

aqromatulad gadawyvetili

scenografia da sagangebod ariTmiuli,

texili reJisura damcinavi sikvdilis

mniSvnelobas gvamcnobs: minoruli valsis

TanxlebiT, magram maJoruli epitafiiT.

misi gamomwvevi, magram siaxlis Segr-

ZnebiT gamorCeuli sasceno esTetika

meoce saukunis xelovnebis istoriaSi

`sikvdilis Teatris~ saxelwodebiT Sevida.

Tumca mudmivi TviTganaxlebis surviliT

aRbeWdili eqsperimentebi xSirad

gamxdara mZafri kritikis sagani. vizualur

xelovnebasTan nazavi misi hefeningebi

jer kidev 40-50-ian wlebSi krakovSi,

aRmosavleT evropis `mcire Teatralur

renesanss~ moaswavebda; xolo 70-ian wlebSi

ganxorcielebuli speqtaklebi (msaxiobis

gancdisa da eqspresiis gareSe,

rasac xSirad `nulovan Teatrsac~ uwodeben),

tradiciul dramaturgiasa da

klasikur Teatrs SeCveuli publikisa-

Tvis marTlac Sokis momgvreli aRmoCnda.

gamomwvevad nonkonformistuli, vizualurad

uCveulo da ideologiisgan

Tavisufali warmodgenebi, krakovis Teatr

`kriko 2~-Si Seiqmna, romelTa avtoria

evropuli Teatris erT-erT udidesi

eqsperimentatori, aRiarebuli poloneli

reJisori, mxatvari da scenografi

TadeuS kantori. meore msoflio omis

Semdeg Tavisi mravalricxovani performansebiT

man erT-erTma pirvelma uaryo

klasikuri Teatris ena, amxila misi yalbi

pompezuroba da gamomsaxvelobiTi

siRaribe. Sesabamisad, Secvala Teatrisa-

istoria

dmi damokidebuleba, misi socialuri da

kulturuli mniSvneloba.

`mkvdari klasi~,

rogorc politikuri mexsiereba

ratom TadeuS kantori da ratom swored

dRes? iseTi didi Teatraluri tradiciebiT

mdidar qveyanaSi, rogoric poloneTia,

sxva saxelovani reJisorebic

mravlad iyvnen da arian: eJi grotovski,

anjei vaida, konrad Svinarski, iozef Saina,

kristian lupa... Tumca, Cemi azriT,

am kiTxvaze pasuxi sabediswero politikuri

SemTxveviTobisa da didi xelovnebis

idumal kavSirSi unda veZioT. ufro

konkretulad ki 1975 wels, kantoris

mier krakovSi dadgmuli `mkvdari klasisa~

da 2010 wlis 10 aprils, smolenskSi

Camovardnili TviTmfrinavis tragikul

da paradoqsul gadaZaxilSi. luis bunueli

xSirad ambobda, rom xelovneba

uswrebs cxovrebas...

1975 wels (daaxloebiT im dros, rodesac

robert sturuam `kavkasiuri carcis

wre~ dadga) TadeuS kantorma krakovSi,

mis mierve daarsebul TeatrSi, saxelwodebiT

`kriko 2~, pirvelad uCvena speqtakli

`mkvdari klasi~. maSin veravin ifiqrebda,

rom patara, nacrisfer saklaso

oTaxSi gamomwyvdeuli, meore msoflio

omis dros gardacvlili da reJisoris

fantaziiT gacocxlebuli es ucnauri

personaJebi _ bavSvebi, moxucebi, qvrivebi,

samxedroebi, ebraelebi, mlocvelebi,

pensionerebi, xelmocaruli axalgazrdebi

Tu araerotikulad momlodine qalebi

didi Teatraluri misteriis nawilad

iqceodnen. iseve, rogorc veravin warmoidgenda,

rom 2010 wels aviakatastrofaSi

daRupuli poloneTis politikuri

da samxedro elitis dakrZalvis ceremonia

lamis `mkvdari klasis~ Teatralur

metaforas daemsgavseboda.

cxeli Sokoladi 45


istoria

ase ucnaurad, sabediswerod da

moulodnelad gaeriTma erTmaneTs

didi reJisoris mxatvruli gamonagoni

da dRevandeli politikuri

realoba; meore msoflio omis STabeWdilebebiT

nakvebi Teatraluri

xilvebi da amave omSi, katinis

maxloblad daRupuli poloneli

oficrebis ZebnaSi daferflili

adamianebis sicocxle; gardasuli

Teatraluri sigiJe da dRevandeli

politikuri cinizmi. TadeuS kantorma

lamis winaswarmetyveliviT

daasabuTa, rom Teatris efemeruli,

warmavali da sizmariviT naqsovi samyaro

mudmivad waagavs sikvdilTan

da aCrdilebTan TamaSs; maSinac ki,

rodesac am TamaSSi yovlisSemZle

`kgb~ TiTqmis ar monawileobs.

`mkvdari klasi~ dRes ara mxolod

Teatris brwyinvale warsuls

asaxavs, aramed am warsulidan gadmoyolil

politikur mexsierebasac

ufrTxildeba. poloneTis

erovnul kompleqsebs, patriotul

siamayes Tu aracnobier SiSebs Ti-

46 cxeli Sokoladi

Tqmis yovelTvis gansazRvravda

or didi qveynis _ germaniisa da

ruseTis mezobloba. da ar aris

gasakviri, rom TadeuS kantoric

am socialur-politikuri velis

`kulturuli~ tyvea. miT umetes,

rom is galiciaSi, patara qalaq velopoleSi

daibada, romelic 1916

wels jer kidev ruseTis imperias

ekuTvnoda.

sagnebi da msaxiobebi

kantori krakovis samxatvro

akademiaSi, scenografiis fakultetze

swavlobda. jer kidev studentobisas

germanuli eqspresionizmisa

da arqiteqturis (kerZod,

`bauhauzis~) gavleniT, samxatvro

akademiis scenaze meterlinkis simbolisturi

piesebi dadga, sadac

personaJebi marionetul figurebad

aqcia. amdenad, maSinve gamoikveTa

misi interesebi TeatrSi _

mxatvrobis aqcentireba, scenografiis

gadamwyveti mniSvneloba da

performansi.

misi kritikuli damokidebuleba

tradiciuli Teatrisadmi meore

msoflio omma da totalurma ngrevam

kidev ufro gaamZafra. germanuli

okupaciis pirobebSi kantori

dgams slovackis `baladinas~ (1942)

da vispianskis `odisevsis dabrunebas~

(1943). am warmodgenebSi sagnebma

ukve gadamwyveti mxatvruli

mniSvneloba da didi masStabi Sei-

Zina. mis warmodgenebSi Cndeba bibliuri

da absurduli aluziebi,

omiT dasaxiCrebuli evropis metafizikuri

da pesimisturi teqstebi,

SeSlilTa leqsebi da gadacvlil-

Ta gamocxadebebi, da es yvelaferi

sagnebisa da dekoraciis mniSvnelobis

fonze; radgan, kantoris

azriT, `sagnebi msaxiobebTan erTad

Tanabrad inawileben da gansazRvraven

warmodgenis mniSvnelobas~.

eqsperimentuli xelovnebisa da

scenografiis siRrmiseulma Seswavlam

Tavisi kvali daaCnia krakovis

damoukidebel TeatrSi dadgmul

warmodgenebsac. kantoris idea


`sagani-msaxiobi~ sruladaa realizebuli

`odisevsis dabrunebaSi~,

romelic naxevrad dangreul SenobaSi

TamaSdeba. rekviziti mxolod

meore msoflio omis droindeli

realuri nivTebia, romelic TiTqmis

`erwymis~ msaxiobis TamaSsa da

mis saarsebo sivrces. SedarebiT mogvianebiT,

50-ian wlebSi gaCnda `simbiozis~

idea, rac, kantoris azriT,

adamianisa da sagnis urTierTobaSi

axal etaps moaswavebs. magaliTad

personaJi, romelic scenaze mudmivad

TojiniT Semodis, rac mis axalgazrdobas

aRniSnavs. an adamiani

karadiT, adamiani skamiT, adamiani

sabavSvo etliT da a.S.

Teatr `kriko 2~-is dabadeba TadeuS

kantoris mier 50-ian wlebSi

ganxorcielebuli mravalricxovani

eqsperimentebis logikuri

dasasruli iyo. performansi saxelwodebiT

`TamaSebi vitkeviCTan~

(1956) mweral stanislav vitkeviCis

scenuri xatebis Teatris simbolod

iqca, romelsac mogvianebiT

`mkvdari Teatri~ uwoda. es yvelaferi

stalinis sikvdilisa da

polonuri `ottepelis~ periodSi

xdeba, roca mas ukve legalurad

mieca saSualeba, damoukideblad

emuSava, Tanac _ yovelgvari cenzuris

gareSe.

ukve 60-iani wlebidan dasavleT

evropam misi obieqtebi, instalaciebi

Tu hefeningebi aRmoaCina:

`patara mamuli~ (1962), `SeSlili

da monazoni (1963), `wylis qaTami~

(1967), `lamazebi da maxinjebi~

(1970), rac informaciuli TvalsazrisiT

mniSvnelovani garRveva

aRmoCnda. Tumca, kulturul sabWoeTs

didi polonelis arc erTi

speqtakli ar unaxavs _ arc Zveli

da arc axali... mxolod erTxel,

didi xnis win `sabWoTa xelovneba-

Si~ wavikiTxe baton nodar gurabaniZis

vrceli werili kantorze,

romlis yvelaze didi speqtakli

_ `mkvdari klasi~ mas edinburgis

saerTaSoriso Teatralur festivalze

enaxa.

istoria

80-iani wlebis bolos ukve asakovani

TadeuS kantori xelmZRvanelobs

milanSi gamarTul dramatuli xelovnebis

seminars, romelSic misi Teatris

Tayvanismcemlebi, reJisorebi

da msaxiobebi monawileoben. daswreba

SezRudulia, radgan kantori sakmaod

Caketili da idumali pirovneba

iyo. albaT, amiTac unda aixsnas misi

iSviaTi gamoCena teleekranze, iseve _

rogorc sakmaod SezRuduli da limitirebuli

urTierToba presasTan.

seminaris dasrulebis Semdeg, gardacvalebamde

ramdenime TviT adre

(kantori 1990 wels gardaicvala)

aqveynebs wigns saxelwodebiT `milanis

seminari~, romelSic Tormeti

Cawerili leqciaa Tanamedrove Teatris

Sesaxeb. es, garkveuli TvalsazrisiT,

unikaluri wignia ara

marto sxarti da uSualo eniT, aramed

avtoris damokidebulebiT Teatrisadmi

da movlenebis gadmocemis

iSviaTi eqspresiiT. es faqtobrivad

erTaderTi wignia, sadac meoce

saukunis erT-erTi didi reJisori

`mkvdari klasi~

cxeli Sokoladi 47


istoria

qaosurad, magram SeZlebisdagvarad

zustad ayalibebs sakuTar Teorias

Tanamedrove Teatris Sesaxeb.

fragmentebi wignidan

`milanis seminari~

msurs magiuri sityviT _ `Seswavla~,

daviwyo. ar mrcxvenia am sityvis

warmoTqma 71 wlis asakSic,

radgan yovelTvis Tavidan viwyebdi

da es niSnavs, rom vswavlobdi.

ferwerac im droidan daviwye,

roca pirvelad aRmovaCine, rom

didi franguli mxatvroba arsebobs.

magram poloneTSi amis naxva

SeuZlebeli iyo, amitom klasikosebis

gacnobas wignebiT da reproduqciebiT

Sevudeqi.

es ar yofila arc saskolo davaleba,

arc iZulebiT momzadebuli

gakveTilebi, radgan yvelaze metad

warmosaxva mexmareboda. warmosaxva

ki yovelTvis Zalian mniSvnelovania.

maxsovs, pirveli realuri Sexvedra

frangul ferwerasTan 1947

48 cxeli Sokoladi

wels Sedga, magram es is ar iyo, rasac

velodi. ufro zustad, es materialuri

SegrZnebebis gamocdas

hgavda, romelsac araferi aqvs

saerTo warmosaxvasTan. da amis Semdeg

reJisuraSic da Semoqmedeba-

Sic yovelTvis warmosaxvas varCev.

Semoqmedeba pirvel rigSi saku-

Tari Tavis aRmoCenas hgavs. es

Taviseburi mogzaurobaa, Seswavla,

axali teritoriebis gacnoba.

rodesac ggonia, rom raRacas mia-

Rwie, mizans kidev ufro Sordebi

da sadRac, ukan auTvisebeli miwebi

rCeba... xelovneba swored ase warmomidgenia:

rac ufro uaxlovdebi,

miT ufro gSordeba.

arc vici, rogor aRvwero saku-

Tari SegrZnebebi ise, rom warsul-

Si ar davrCe da naambobi utopia ar

gamovides, magram Sevecdebi...

warsuli yovelTvis axali ku-

TxiT warmogvidgeba da mudmivad

pulsirebs awmyoSi. asea TeatrSic.

rom gaigo misi buneba, mTlianad

xelovneba unda moicva, radgan

Teatris arsi mravalferovnebasa

da drois ganfenilobaSia. gamocalkeveba

damarcxebas niSnavs,

ufro zustad es partikularizmia.

sinamdvileSi, Teatrs ar gaaCnia

sakuTari sayrdeni wertili, radgan

literaturas, dramas, arqiteqturas,

saxviT xelovnebas, cekvas,

plastikas, musikas efuZneba. es

yovelive Teatris pirveladi materiaa,

proto-materia, gansakuTrebuli

da mravalferovani.

amis gaazreba gagviadvilebs Tanamedrove

xelovnebis Seswavlas da

Teatris Tanamedrove mniSvnelobis

gagebas. Tumca sinamdvileSi yvelaze

didi problema swored amis

Semdeg dgeba _ rogor movaxdinoT

abstraqcia? es iSviaTi movlenaa

TeatrSi da pirvelad `bauhauzis~

abstraqtul stilSi, oskar Slemeris

TeatrSi moxerxda.

>>> gagrZeleba gv. 92


istoria

cxeli Sokoladi 49


istoria

Zalian saxifaTo frau mainhofi

RAF dich auf!

avtori: ana korZaia-samadaSvili

interviu Cawerilia 1970 wels.

ulrike mainhofi 36 wlisaa. mas ori

Svili hyavs, romlebsac marto zrdis.

gadaRlilia, wvalobs. intervius

dros xelebs ver aCerebs, papiross

atrialebs, nivTebs aadgilebs.

ulrike TavCaRunuli laparakobs,

xandaxan Tu amoxedavs xolme kameras.

garegnulad? ra vici. magram er-

Txel Tu naxeT, ar dagaviwydebaT.

Tema aris bavSvTa aRzrda, ojaxis

roli adamianis cxovrebaSi, rogoria,

roca politikuri moRvawe xar

da Tan Svilebs unda mixedo. ulrike

pasuxobs:

50 cxeli Sokoladi

`Znelia... Zalian Znelia... uaRresad

Znelia~...

ramdenime Tvis Semdeg ulrike mainhofma

Tavisi Svilebi miatova.

yvelaze kargad ulrike mainhofis

fenomeni laSa baqraZem amixsna. bolos

filmi vnaxe, `baader-mainhofis

kompleqsi~, da laSas SevCivle, rom

veRaraferi gamigia. ra grZnobebs

aRZravs CemSi es qali? _ siZulvils?

aRtacebas? ulrikes gardacvalebidan

mravali wlis Semdeg misi samSoblodan

Zalian Sors, sul sxva kulturis

Svili, sul sxva biografiis

mqone Zalian xSirad vfiqrob masze

_ qalze, romelze mniSvnelovani

Jurnalistic germanias meore msoflio

omis Semdeg albaT arc hyolia.

vgoneb, masze ukeT wera aravis

SeeZlo. misi narkvevebi da analitikuri

statiebi dResac saukeTeso

ramaa, rac im wlebis Sesaxeb wamikiTxavs.

misi teqstebi marwmunebs,

rom usamarTlobis winaaRmdeg br-

Zola aucilebelia _ da kidev er-

Txel maCvenebs, rom amis gambedaoba

da unari ar myofnis. amave dros is,

Cemi ulrike mainhofi, iyo teroristi.

mkvleli. me ki mainc Zalian min-


da, iseTi gavxde, rogoric ulrike

mainhofi iyo.

samarcxvino mdgomareobaa.

qalbatoni ulrike mainhofi

axlac Zalian saxifaTo qali gaxlavT.

da ai, laSa baqraZem amixsna, rom

es sworia. rom RAF-is da ulrikes

calsaxa Sefaseba SeuZlebelia. man

miTxra, rom ulrike mainhofi rom

ara, RAF ar iarsebebda, xolo RAF

rom ara, dRevandeli germania da,

garkveulwilad, dRevandeli evropa

aseTi ar iqneboda; rom mudam

unda arsebobdes Zala, romelsac,

protestTan erTad, winaaRmdegobis

unaric aqvs.

ulrike maria mainhofi

protestidan winaaRmdegobamde

`protesti: vacxadeb, rom esa da

es ar mawyobs. winaaRmdegoba: viqcevi

ise, rom rac ar mawyobs, arsebobas

wyvets. protesti: vacxadeb, rom

morCa, me amaSi aRar vmonawileob.

winaaRmdegoba: me viqcevi ise, rom

amaSi aRaravin miiRebs monawileobas~.

wels, TebervalSi vietnamisadmi

miZRvnil konferenciaze, berlinSi

erTma Savkanianma amerikelma,

moZraoba Black Power-is warmomadgenelma

daaxloebiT es Tqva _ sityvasityviT

ar maxsovs.

studentebi sulac ar `awyoben

ajanyebas~, isini winaaRmdegobas

swavloben. diax, qvebs isrodnen,

diax, berlinSi Springeris koncernis

Senobis fanjrebi daimsxvra.

manqanebi aalda, `bild caitungis~

erT-erTi redaqcia dazaralda,

saburavebi daiglija, satransporto

moZraoba paralizebuli iyo,

satvirTo manqanebi gadaayiraves,

policielebis jaWvebi gaarRvies

_ diax, Zalas mimarTes, fizikur

Zalmomreobas. miuxedavad amisa,

Springeris presis gamosvlas xeli

veraferma SeuSala, quCis moZraoba

ramdenime saaTSi ganaxlda. fanjrebis

fuls sadazRvevo kompaniebi

gadaixdian. damwvari satvirTo

manqanebis nacvlad, quCebSi sxvebi

gamovlen. policia wylis Wavls

kvlav gamoiyenebs, iseve, rogorc

rezinis xeljoxebi ar mogvakldeba.

maSasadame, is, rac moxda, SeiZleba

kvlav ganmeordes: Springeris presa

kvlav gaafTrebul devnas ganagr-

Zobs, klaus Sulci kvlav mogviwodebs,

rom `am subieqtebs TvalebSi

CavxedoT~ da _ modiT, viyoT Tanmimdevrulni

_ vurtyaT (rac 21 Tebervals

ukve moxda) da, sabolood,

vesroloT.

sityvier protestsa da fizikur

winaaRmdegobas Soris zRvari saaRdgomod

gadailaxa, rudi duCkeze

TavdasxmasTan dakavSirebuli demonstraciebis

dros. es pirvelad

moxda masobrivad da ara calkeuli

pirovnebebis mier, ramdenime dRis

ganmavlobaSi da sayovelTaod, da

aramarto berlinSi, praqtikulad

da ara simbolurad. Tu 2 ivnisis

mere Springeris gazeTebs wvavdnen,

axla cdiloben, maT gavrcelebas

xeli SeuSalon. 2 ivniss mxolod

pomidvrebs da laye kvercxebs isrodnen

_ axla qvebs isvrian. TebervalSi

mxiaruli da sasacilo filmi

aCvenes imis Sesaxeb, Tu rogor

keTdeba `molotovis koqteili~ _

axla ki koqteilis boTlebi marTla

abrialda. protestsa da winaaRmdegobas

Soris sazRvari gadailaxa,

`imisTvis, rom

TavianTi sayvareli

firma, `simSvide &

wesrigi~ SeinarCunon,

erTaderTi saSualeba

arsebobs: Springeris

eqspropriacia.

Cven aRar vxumrobT.

protesti: vacxadeb,

rom esa da es ar

mawyobs. winaaRmdegoba:

viqcevi ise, rom rac

ar mawyobs, arsebobas

wyvets~.

istoria

Tumca araefeqturad. da mainc, is,

rac moxda, SeiZleba kvlav ganmeordes,

ZalTa Tanafardoba ar Secvlila.

winaaRmdegoba viswavleT.

magram Zalauflebis poziciebi ver

davipyariT. maS, SeiZleba Tu ara

momxdars uazro, teroristuli,

apolitikuri, uZluri Zaladoba

vuwodoT?

modiT, yvelafers Tavisi saxeli

davarqvaT. ra surs politikur Zalauflebas?

Zalauflebas, romelic

gmobs qvebis msrolel demonstrantebs

da cecxlis gaCenas da ara

Springeris gaafTrebul propagandas,

vietnamis dabombvas, iranSi gamefebul

terors, samxreT afrikis

respublikaSi miRebul wamebas. Zalauflebas,

romelsac _ kanonis Tanaxmad

_ Springeris eqspropriacia

SeuZlia, magram amis nacvlad `koalicias~

qmnis. Zalauflebas, romelsac

masmediiT SeuZlia mohyves

simarTles `bildis~ da `berliner

caitungis~ Sesaxeb, magram amis nacvlad

studentebis Sesaxeb cru

ambebs avrcelebs. im Zalauflebas,

romelic TvalTmaqcurad gmobs

Zaladobas da `ormagi standartis~

momxrea, romelic swored imisken

miiswrafvis, rac Cven, am dReebSi

quCaSi qvebiT Tu uqvebod gasulebs,

sul ar gvinda: CvenTvis uZluri,

damoukideblobas moklebuli masebis

bedis Tavze moxveva, CvenTvis

aravisTvis saSiSi opoziciis rolis

Tavze moxveva, CvenTvis bavSvuri

demokratiuli TamaSebis Tavze moxveva

da imis damtkiceba, rom Cveni

bedi esaa. xolo Tu saqme seriozul

saxes miiRebs, es Zalaufleba sagangebo

mdgomareobasac mogvaxvevs

Tavze.

jonsoni, romelmac martin lu-

Ter kingi erovnul gmirad gamoacxada,

kisingeri, romelmac telefoniT

gamoxata TanagrZnoba

duCkeze Tavdasxmis gamo _ oriveni

Zaladobis sistemis wamomadgenlebi

arian, sistemisa, romlis winaaRmdegac

gamodiodnen kingic da

duCkec, Zaladobis sistemisa, romelmac

Sva Springeric da vietnamis

cxeli Sokoladi 51


istoria

omic. amitom arc jonsons da arc

kisingers ara aqvT arc moraluri

da arc politikuri ufleba, studentebis

winaaRmdegoba gakicxon.

kvlav: yvelafers Tavisi saxeli

davarqvaT. dokumenturadaa damtkicebuli,

rom CvenTan, dRisiTmzisiT,

ubralod viRacam viRac ki

ar daxvrita, aramed inteligenciis

protesti masebis gasulelebis winaaRmdeg

seriozulad iyo Seswavlili

da gaanalizebuli Springeris

koncernis mier _ da koncernma

zomebi miiRo, rom isini, vinc gasulelebis

kampaniis winaaRmdeg

gamodian, gamoacxados RvTis mowinaaRmdege

adamianebad, subieqtebad,

romlebic viTomda yovelTvis

yvelafris winaaRmdegni arian.

dokumenturadaa damtkicebuli,

rom biurgeruli firma `Cveulebebi

& kargi manerebi~ borkilebia

da es borkilebi SeiZleba da unda

daimsxvres, Tuki Seborkilebis

cema da daxvreta daiwyeba. dokumenturadaa

damtkicebuli, rom am

qveyanaSi kidev arseboben adamianebi,

romlebic ara marto gulis

siRrmeSi ar emxrobian da kicxaven

terors da Zaladobas, aramed

mzad arian, Tavze xeli aiRon da

es xmamaRla Tqvan, da maT veravin

SeaSinebs; anu, arseboben adamianebi,

romlebsac winaaRmdegobis

gawevis unari SeswevT da SeuZliaT

yvelas aCvenon, rom is, rac aqamde

xdeboda, ase veRar gagrZeldeba.

52 cxeli Sokoladi

dokumenturadaa damtkicebuli,

rom sikvdilis propaganda sazogadoebisTvis

saSiSia, da amitom

sazogadoebaSi aRmoCnda Zalebi,

romlebic mzad arian, sasaklaoze

uari Tqvan. dokumenturad damtkicebulia,

rom adamianis sicocxle

bevrad Zvirfasia, vidre fanjris

minebi da manqanebi, rogorc

Springeris koncernis satvirTo

manqanebi, aseve demonstrantebis

avtomobilebi, romlebic berlinSi

Springeris gamomcemlobis Senobis

blokadis moxsnis aqciis dros

policiam daamtvria da daaziana.

dokumenturad damtkicebulia,

rom sazogadoebaSi, rogorc iqna,

gamoCndnen Zalebi, romlebic mzad

arian ara marto autanels autaneli

uwodon, aramed Springeris da

misi msaxurebis ganiaraRebis procesis

organizebac SeZlon. maSasadame,

imis demonstrireba moxda,

rom Cvens gankargulebaSi arsebobs

sxva saSualebebic, ufro efeqturi,

vidre is, ramac Tavisi uZlureba

ukve daamtkica (vgulisxmob

demonstraciebs, protestebs,

Springeris saqmis mosmenebs da a.S.)

_ Tuki rudi duCkeze Tavdasxmis

Tavidan acileba ver SeZlo.

maSasadame, vinaidan borkilebi

firmisa `simSvide & wesrigi~ ukve

damsxvreulia (Tavad Zalauflebis

mier), Cven SegviZlia da unda

daviwyoT axali diskusia Zaladobis

da sapasuxo Zaladobis Sesa-

xeb. sapasuxo Zaladoba im formiT,

ra formiTac is saaRdgomod ganxorcielda,

ar aris gankuTvnili

imisTvis, rom (opoziciuri Zalebis)

simpaTia gamoiwvios, arasaparlamento

opoziciis mxareze gadaiyvanos

samTavrobo ZaladobiT

daSinebuli liberalebi. sapasuxo

Zaladoba unda gadaiqces iseT Zaladobad,

romelic policiuri Zaladobis

Sesatyvisia, Zaladobad,

romelSic gaTvla Secvlis uZlur

risxvas, Zaladobad, romelic policiis

SeiaraRebul, saomar Zalad

gamoyenebis SemTxvevaSi, aseve

SeiaraRebuli, saomari saSualebebiT

gascems pasuxs. istabliSmenti,

`mmarTveli wre~ unda vaiZuloT

rudisTan molaparakeba awarmoos

_ ise, rom mTavroba, saparlamento

partiebi da kavSirebi mixvdnen:

imisTvis, rom TavianTi sayvareli

firma, `simSvide & wesrigi~ Seinar-

Cunon, erTaderTi saSualeba arsebobs:

Springeris eqspropriacia.

Cven aRar vxumrobT.

`protesti: vacxadeb, rom esa da

es ar mawyobs. winaaRmdegoba: viqcevi

ise, rom rac ar mawyobs, arsebobas

wyvets~.

es ambavi daiwyo 1960-ian wlebSi.

ufro sworad, erTbaSad bevri ram

moxda, da ramdenime adamiani, romelic

manamde ubralod revoluciobanas

TamaSobda, Zalian mWidrod

daukavSirda erTmaneTs.


cacia baaderma marjvena xeliT sakuTar kefaSi isrola. gudrun enslinma Werze,

kauWze CamoixrCo Tavi, oRond iq rogor aZvra da eleqtrogayvanilobis mavTuli

saidan moitana _ gaugebaria. sruliad cariel sakanSi CamoixrCo Tavi ulrike

mainhofmac. ase amboben.

1967 wels germanias iranis Sahi

unda swveoda. memarcxene studentebi

am vizitis winaaRmdegi iyvnen,

radgan smenodaT, rogor awamebdnen

adamianebs iranis cixeebSi. erT

manifestaciaze maT studenti, beni

onezorgi SeuerTdaT, Cveulebrivi

studenti, memarcxenec ki ar eTqmoda.

is mokles. ubralod, wamebis

winaaRmdeg gamovida, da mokles.

erTi wlis mere rudi duCkes esroles.

rudi duCke, romelic germaniis

studentTa profkavSiris

lideri iyo, Springeris sagazeTo

koncerns hyavda aTvalwunebuli.

germanelebs mouwodebdnen: `Sea-

CereT duCke!~ duCke neonacistma

baxmanma SeaCera _ TavSi esrola.

duCke saswaulad gadarCa, magram

mTeli darCenili cxovreba Tavis

tkivili stanjavda da epilefsiis

Setevebi dasCemda. miuxedavad amisa,

Springeris koncerns misi devna

ar Seuwyvetia. duCke londonSi gadavida,

sadac martodmarto dasaxlda

da epilefsiis morigi Setevis

dros abazanaSi daixrCo.

`tyviebma, romlebic duCkes esroles,

bolo mouRo Cvens ocnebebs

mSvidobisa da araZalmomreobis

Sesaxeb~, _ werda ulrike mainhofi.

duCkes esroles _ da frankfurtis

savaWro saxlis Senobas cecxli

gauCnda. xanZari uceb Caaqres, damnaSaveebi

daakaves _ sayvarlebi

iyvnen, pacifistebi, andreas baaderi

da gudrun enslini. sasamarTlo

gaimarTa da advokatebma imdeni

qnes, rom msjavrdebulebi maleve

gamouSves cixidan. erT-erTi

advokati _ es mniSvnelovania! _

horst maleri iyo.

enslini da baaderi safrangeTSi

gaemgzavrnen da uceb, gaugebari

mizezebis gamo, isini interpolma

daakava da kvlav cixeSi ukres Tavi.

memarcxeneebi aRSfoTdnen, sasamarTlo

darbazSi ki erTmaneTs

Sexvdnen zemoT xsenebuli advokati

horst maleri da memarcxene

Jurnalisti gazeT `konkretidan~

_ ulrike mainhofi. swored ase

daiwyo `wiTeli armiis fraqciis~,

RAF-is istoria. am orma gaugonari

ram Caifiqra da ganaxorciela:

baaderi da enslini cixidan gaaqcies.

oTxeuli iordaniis saswavlo

banakebSi gaemgzavra, sadac maTgan

profesionali teroristebi Seqmnes.

1970 wels isini, gawvrTnilebi,

momzadebulebi da sabrZolod Se-

istoria

marTulebi germaniaSi dabrundnen.

`wiTel armias~ ukve 30 wevri hyavda

da asobiT adamiani TanaugrZnobda.

mraval sxva sakiTxTan erTad, maT

erTi ram ainteresebdaT, marTlac

saintereso ambavi: ratom moxda

ise, rom mravali nacisti omis Semdeg

ara marto sasjels gadaurCa,

aramed Zalauflebis SenarCunebac

SeZlo. RAF-elebi kvlevas Seudgnen

da gasaocari faqtebi aRmoaCines:

omis ukanaskneli Tveebis ganmavlobaSi

faSisturi sagangebo tribunalebis

mosamarTleebma `panikis

TesvisTvis~ aTasobiT adamiani CamoaxrCes.

arc erTi damnaSave ar

dausjiaT. `daniis jalaTi~, romelmac

piradad gaanadgura, sul

mcire, rva aTasi adamiani, saxelganTqmuli

iuristi gaxda da raRac

did koncernSi did fulsac iRebda.

eseseli maRalCinosani, safrangeTSi

faSisturi teroris organizatori,

romelsac safrangeTis

sasamarTlom sikvdili miusaja,

germaniis federaciuli respublikis

xelisuflebam gamoiTxova,

umalve Seiwyala da generlis sapatio

pensiac dauniSna.

>>> gagrZeleba gv. 94

cxeli Sokoladi 53


interviu

54 cxeli Sokoladi


interviu erik trufazTan

avtori: kaxa Tolordava

foto: marika qoCiaSvili

raze gindaT, rom visaubroT?

ZiriTadad musikaze.

es isaa, rac miWirs xolme, gansakuTrebiT

_ inglisurad. musikaze

mirCevnia vimRero, oRond

_ frangulad. axla nu momTxovT

amas, kargi? simReras vgulisxmob.

kargi, SevTanxmdiT. musikaze zogjer

marTla rTulia saubari. ramdenime

kviris win jon maqlaflinis

DVD-s vuyurebdi indoel musikosebTan

rom Cawera oriode wlis win;

filmi imazea, Tu rogor muSaobdnen

isini erTad maqlaflinis albomze

Floating Point. filmis bolos, muSaobas

rom asruleben, maqlaflini

haerovan kocnas ugzavnis Tavis musikosebs,

madlobis niSnad. es albaT

musikosebTan urTierTobis yvelaze

kargi saSualebaa.

es momwons. yoveli SemTxvevis-

Tvis, sityvebs sjobia.

arasdros giCndebaT musikaluri

impulsebis artikulirebis survili

an saWiroeba?

ra Tqma unda, magram rogorc

wesi, sityvebiT kargad ver vaxerxeb

xolme imis axsnas, rac am dros CemSi

xdeba. uamravi metaforis gamoyeneba

mixdeba. amitomac vTqvi,

rom musikaze leqsis Tqma an simRera

mirCevnia. me sayvirze vukrav,

sayviri ki amosunTqvaa. simRerac

amosunTqvaa. me momRerali var

sayviriT xelSi da momReraliviT

vudgebi musikalur masalas, ufro

_ momReraliviT, vidre virtuozi

instrumentalistiviT.

amitomac saubrobT xolme ase xSirad

Tqvensave musikaSi dramis prin-

interviu

cipebis da elementebis Semotanaze?

marTalia. dakvrisas idumali atmosferos

Seqmnas vcdilob xolme.

marto amas ver mivaRwev, amitomac

Cem gverdiT kargi musikosebi unda

idgnen. maT dakvrac unda icodnen

da sxvebis mosmenac, Torem scenaze

oTxi an xuTi kaci rom dgas da

yvela erTdroulad ukravs, qaosi

iqmneba. musikoss dramis SegrZneba

unda hqondes. maqlaflini radgan

vaxseneT, piradad me misi mailzis

droindeli periodi ufro

miyvars. mailzTan da Tavis pirvel

solo albomebSi maqlaflini

SedarebiT Zunwad avsebda sivrces

da me swored aseT musikas vaniWeb

upiratesobas. mailzTan yofnisas

maqlaflini gansxvavebulad ukravda,

gaxsovT?

ra Tqma unda. In a Silent Way, Bitches

Brew, Live Evil. mailzis imdroindel

musikaSic dramis Seqmnis mcdeloba

iyo.

Tan rogori daZabuli, saintereso

da savse dramis!

rogorc wesi, Tqven erTdroulad

Zalian bevr proeqtSi xarT xolme

`gaxveuli~, Tan erTmaneTisgan sruliad

gansxvavebul proeqtebSi _

xan hif-hoferebTan erTad werT alboms,

xan _ eleqtro-musikosebTan,

xan pier henrisTan an jon haselTan.

advilad axerxebT TqvenTvis ase

mniSvnelovani atmosferos Seqmnas

musikidan musikaSi gadanacvlebisas?

musika Cemi cxovrebaa, cxovreba

ki dRidan dRemde da wlidan wlamde

erTnairi araa. amitomac vicvli

xolme musikalur garemos, Cemive

aRmoCenebis gadasaxaliseblad.

cxeli Sokoladi 55


interviu

kargi musika drois miRma unda idges da wlebis

Semdegac Tanamedroved JRerdes. vis rad unda

iseTi musika, romelic cecxliviTaa _ erT wams

gizgizebs, mere ki qreba?

miyvars musikalurad sxvadasxva

geografiuli sivrceebis Semotana

Cems musikaSi. aseTi gadaadgilebebi

azrovnebis unars miumjobesebs.

Tanac, kompozitoric var da musikasTan

aseTi midgoma gansxvavebuli

formebis gamoyenebis saSualebas

maZlevs. SarSan magaliTad

mec indoel musikosebTan erTad

Cavwere albomi.

vici. isic vici, induri klasikuri

ragas Seswavla rom gindodaT.

sxvaTa Soris, sanam induri musikis

Seswavla ar gadavwyvite, arc ki vicodi,

rom klasikuri ragas didi

nawili improvizaciaa.

ho, magram amis gamo is advili

ar xdeba da misi Seswavlac Zalian,

Zalian Znelia. raga induri klasikuri

musikaa, da Tu ginda, rom

seriozulad daeuflo mas, minimum

20 weli mainc unda daaxarjo swavlis

process, raRacas mainc rom

miaRwio. ho, ragaSi mec improvizacia

mizidavs, magram, rogorc gi-

TxariT, am SemTxvevaSi ase advilad

araa saqme. me hariprasad Caurasias

(hariprasad Caurasia _ bansurize,

bambukis fleitaze, Semsrulebeli

56 cxeli Sokoladi

indoeli musikosi) didi fani var.

is Tavisi musikiT ramdenime wuTSi

axerxebs msmeneli amqveyniurobas

moswyvitos. hoda, sul megona, rom

mTeli misi musika improvizaciaa,

vidre mis koncertze ar movxvdi.

cocxlad Sesrulebisas misi musikis

garkveuli nawili improvizaciaa,

magram raRac momentSi am nakadSi

tabla (klasikuri induri dasartyami

instrumenti) rom Semodis,

mas sruliad gaTvlili da gansazRvruli

klasikuri struqturebi

Semoaqvs musikaSi. am dros indoeli

msmeneli taSs ukravs xolme, Cven ki

_ evropelebi ver vxvdebiT, Tu ram

gamoiwvia es taSi. saqme ki isaa, rom

isini cnoben im struqturebs da ni-

Sans aZleven musikoss, rom bolomde

mihyvebian mas. genialuria! ise ki

tablaze damkvrelebTanac miyvars

muSaoba. ramdenime wlis win talvin

singxTan erTadac Cavwere diski.

bolo albomze ki apurba muherjis-

Tan erTad vimuSave.

verasdros warmoidgen, rom Sesa-

Zlebelia dasartyam instrumentze

melodiis dakvra. zakir huseini pu-

Cinis cnobil Temas ukravs tablaze

Carlz loidis Sangam-ze, gaxsovT?

ah, zakir huseini! RvTaebrivi

musikosia! tabla ki erT-erTi yvelaze

daxvewili da rTuli instrumenti.

ai, aseTi rameebi iwvevs CemSi

musikis keTebis provocirebas.

aseT adamianebTan Sexvedra da maTi

musikis smena. me im kaciviT var,

sul raRacas rom eZebs da uecrad,

erT mSvenier dRes, moulodnelad

gadaawydeba raRac ideas an koncefcias.

aseT dros vxvdebi, rom

Cndeba Sansi, gamoxatvis Cemebur

saSualebas axali ferebi SevZino.

adamianebTan, sxva musikosebTan

Sexvedris drosac ase xdeba. ra-

Rac uxilavs iWer musikisadmi maT

midgomaSi da xvdebi, rom Tu erTad

muSaobis Sansi mogecemaT, marTlac

rom Rirebulis Seqmnas moaxerxebT.

aseTi Sexvedrebi azartuli TamaSiviTaa.

erTxel axseneT, rom spartanuli

garemo gizidavT _ mTebi, udabno, iaponuri

arqiteqtura. mere ki daamateT,

_ musika am yvelafris metaforaao.

ras gulisxmobdiT?

rogorc ukve vTqvi, saundis organizaciis

Cemeburi mcdelobaa mu


sikaSi gansakuTrebuli atmosferos

daZebna. me CaurasiasaviT ganwyobis

Semqmneli musikosi ufro var, vidre

ritmul struqturebze dayrdnobili

vinme kubeli virtuozi. Cemi

musika imis metaforaa, rac me mizidavs

_ gaSlili sivrceebis, udabnos,

da ase Semdeg. igive exeba e.w.

urbanul, industriul saundsac.

isic garkveul atmosferoze agebuli

musikaa. sxvaTa Soris, miuxedavad

Cemi mcdelobebisa, winaswar

gamovicno, Tu ramdenad Rirebuli

iqneba Sedegi, musikis keTebis procesSi

amas ver vaxerxeb. Cven xSirad

ar viciT, vin da ra varT, sanam Cvenive

Seqmnils gverdidan ar SevxedavT.

musikis keTebis procesSi,

ramdenad kargadac unda viyo mzad,

Sedegi, rogorc wesi, idumalebiTaa

moculi. es cxovrebasaviTaa. mTavari

am dros isaa, rom musikas SenSi

Semosvlis ufleba misce. zogjer

amas vaxerxeb, zogjer ki araferi

gamomdis.

qiT jareTi wamdauwum imeorebs,

rom musikosebis daniSnuleba araa

msmenelis garToba, Tqven ki, amas

winaT pier henrize, eleqtronuli

musikis erT-erT pionerze saubrisas

aRniSneT, rom is, musikosi ki ara,

maZiebeli ufroa. ra doziT xarT gamrTobi

da ra doziT _ maZiebeli?

henriviT mkvlevari namdvilad ar

var. vinaidan musikas msmenels vasmenineb,

garkveuli TvalsazrisiT,

gamrTobic var. zogjer formebs

Segnebulad vcvli xolme, msmenelisaTvis

ufro saintereso rom

gavxado. es CemTvis problema araa.

msoflios yvela kuTxeSi miwevs gamosvla

da minda, rom adamianebma

kargad igrZnon Tavi am musikis mosmenisas.

meore mxriv, ra Tqma unda,

mec minda, jareTiviT SemeZlos erTi

da igive musikis ise dakvra wlebis

ganmavlobaSi, rom musikam xibli ar

dakargos. jareTs SeuZlia amis gake-

Teba. trios formatSi, lamis ocdaaT

welze metia, jaz-standartebs

ukravs erTi da imave musikosebTan

erTad da yoveli misi axali albomi

movlenaa. magram, sworad gamigeT,

is qiT jareTia! is geniosia, me ki

ar var geniosi. saerTod, mniSvnelovania

imis gacnobiereba, Tu ra

potencialis musikosi xar. me vici,

rom geniosi ar var da amitomac

mesaWiroeba garkveuli scenarebis

interviu

Seqmna musikis keTebisas. zogs geniosad

miaCnia Tavi, sinamdvileSi ki

mosawyen musikas akeTebs. samyaroSi

asobiT qiT jareTi araa. garSemo bevri

kargi pianistia da isini xSirad

karg musikasac ukraven, magram mainc

usmen da grZnob, rom es is musikaa,

erTxel ukve mosmenili rom gaqvs.

amitomac, mimaCnia, rom Tu musikosi

xvdeba, rom dakruls imeorebs, aucileblad

unda Secvalos midgoma

da sxva musikaluri formiT scados

sakuTari Tavis gamoxatva. aseTia

Cemi filosofia. uein SorTers na-

Tqvami aqvs, _ imisTvis, rom sakuTari

Tavi ipovo, Senive Tavis erTguli

unda darCe. gimeorebT, jareTi geniosia,

me ki _ ara.

ramdenadac CemTvis cnobilia, jareTisnairi

musikosebic awydebian

problemebs, Tundac dakvrisas meqanikurobis

Tavidan asacileblad.

am bolo dros mas ara erTxel aRuniSnavs,

rom maSinve wyvets dakvras,

ra wamsac xvdeba, rom `komfortul~

zonaSi Seabija da xelebis meqanikuri

karnaxiT ukravs.

>>> gagrZeleba gv. 96

cxeli Sokoladi 57


interviu

`meore arxis~ pirveli partniori

interviu erik moniosTan

avtori: qeTevan sadRobelaSvili

foto: levan xerxeuliZe

es `meore arxia~, oRond ara is,

kargad nacnobi `meore arxi~. es

arxi ukve politikuria da, mravalferovani

gadacemebis nacvlad,

arxze ZiriTadad politikosebi da

`ufro ZiriTadad~ opozicioneri

politikosebi arian gamagrebulebi,

erTgvari politikuri serialebiT,

anu, dRisiT _ brifingebiT,

preskonferenciebiT, saarCevno

Sexvedra-dapirebebiT da myvirala

gamosvlebiT. RamiT _ 17 kvalificiuri

partiisaTvis gankuTvnili,

xSirad monologebs Sewiruli `Tavisufali

tribuniT~... da es yvelaferi,

montaJis gareSe. am `meore

arxs~ Zalze mwiri teqnikuri SesaZleblobebi,

gavrcelebis SezRuduli

areali, gasul saukuneSi garemontebuli

ori oTaxi, 34 adamianze

gaTvlili yovelTviuri 31 000-lariani

biujeti da optimisturi

gegmebi aqvs, qarTuli politikuri

speqtrisaTvis miuwvdomeli sloganiT

_ emociidan azrovnebisaken!

es erik monioa, safrangeTis erovnuli

asambleis saparlamento arxis

(LCP-AN) generaluri mdivani. is

erTi kvira TanamSromlobda `meore

arxTan~ da xelmZRvanelobas

strategiisa da programirebis

principebis, adamianuri da teqnikuri

resursebis gansazRvraSi

exmareboda, arxis siduxWires ki

evropelisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli

TavSekavebuli RimiliT uyurebda.

erik moniom safrangeTSi sakmaod

prestiJuli E.N.A-s administraciis

erovnuli saswavlebeli

da parizis politikur mecnierebaTa

instituti daamTavra. muSaobda

finansTa saministrosa da `re-

58 cxeli Sokoladi

nos~ saavtomobilo kompaniaSi. oci

wlis win gadawyvita, Tavi audiovizualur

sferoSi gamoecada, xelmZRvanelobda

solidur saprodiusero

jgufs, romelic mxatvrul

filmebs iRebda. monawileobda e.w

zRvis iqiTa mxaris qveynebis televiziebis

CamoyalibebaSi. polineziaSi

televiziis xelmZRvanelic

ki gaxldaT. mogvianebiT sakuTari

kompania Camoayaliba, romelic

dokumentur filmebs iRebda, amave

dros muSaobda ucxoeTSi franguli

produqciis eqsportsa da strategiis

SemuSavebaze. 2008 wlidan

safrangeTis erovnuli asambleis

saparlamento arxis erT-erTi

xelmZRvanelia. administrirebidan

audiovizualur sferoSi gadasvlis

interess erik monio imiT

xsnis, rom es aris sfero, sadac yvelaze

gaxsnili gonebaa saWiro.

zogadad, ramdenad efeqtiania sazogadoebrivi

televizia, rogoria

sazogadoebis ndobis xarisxi aseTi

arxebis mimarT, unda ifiqros Tu ara

sazogadoebrivma arxma konkurenciaze,

radgan komerciul arxebTan

konkurencia mainc pirobiTia. sazogadoebrivi

arxebi xom iseT produqciaze

muSaoben, romliTac kerZo

arxebi verc reitings moipoveben da

komerciisganac Sors iqnebian.

rogorc sazogadoebrivi televiziisTvis,

aseve saparlamento

arxisTvis mayureblis sakiTxi, ra

Tqma unda, specifikuria. ki vambobT,

rom mayurebelic da reitingic

Cveni mizania, magram arc mayureblis

raodenoba da arc reitingi

akviatebad ar unda gveqces.


interviu

cxeli Sokoladi 59


interviu

sazogadoebriv mauwyebels sami ZiriTadi funqcia aqvs. pirveli _ socialuri

kavSirebi daamyaros sazogadoebasTan, meore _ aamaRlos kulturis mniSvneloba da

moamzados gadacemebi kulturaze da mesame _ wavides riskze _ ecados, gaakeTos iseTi

gadacemebi, romlebis gakeTebac ar SeuZlia da arc unda kerZo arxs, radgan erideba

riskze wasvlas.

maSin, mizani ra aris? SesaZloa,

gkiTxon _ ra saWiroa iseTi gadacemebis

gakeTeba, romelsac aravin Sexedavs.

rasakvirvelia, sazogadoebrivi

arxic da Cveni tipis saparlamento

arxic, miuxedavad imisa, rom

specifikuria, yovelTvis fiqrobs

mayureblis mozidvaze da amis-

Tvis yvela saSualebas viyenebT _

igive komunikaciisa da presasTan

urTierTobis samsaxuri Cvens televiziaSi

Zalze mniSvnelovania.

Cveni saparlamento arxi gadascems

parlamentis sxdomebs, magram amave

dros yvelanairi tipis mayureblis

mosazidad vamzadebT sxvadasxva

Janris gadacemebs, dawyebuli Toq-

SouTi da SemecnebiTi gadacemebiT,

damTavrebuli dokumenturi filmebiT.

TamaSic ki gvaqvs, anu vcdilobT,

samizne jgufebi gvyavdes da

yovelmxriv davainteresoT mayurebeli.

Cemi azriT, sazogadoebriv

mauwyebels sami ZiriTadi funqcia

aqvs. pirveli _ socialuri kavSirebi

daamyaros sazogadoebasTan,

meore _ aamaRlos kulturis mniSvneloba

da moamzados gadacemebi

kulturaze da mesame _ wavides

riskze _ ecados, gaakeTos iseTi

gadacemebi, romlebis gakeTebac ar

SeuZlia da arc unda kerZo arxs,

radgan erideba riskze wasvlas da

iseTi `arapopularuli~ gadacemebis

gakeTebas, rogoricaa saganmanaTleblo,

SemecnebiTi da kulturuli.

marTalia, aseT gadacemebs

naklebi mayurebeli hyavs, magram

Sedegis TvalsazrisiT Zalze mniSvnelovania.

Tqven gainteresebdaT

sazogadoebis ndobis sakiTxi, safrangeTis

sazogadoebrivi televizia,

romelic ramdenime arxs

60 cxeli Sokoladi

aerTianebs, da Cveni saparlamento

arxic maRali xarisxis gadacemebs

amzadebs iseT Temebze, romliTac

yvela tipis mayurebeli interesdeba,

amitomac, mayureblis ndoba namdvilad

aris. CvenTan kerZo arxs TF

1-s yvelaze maRali reitingi aqvs,

TiTqmis 30 procentamde, magram safrangeTis

sazogadoebrivi mauwyebeli,

romelic ramdenime arxs aer-

Tianebs, saboloo jamSi ufro met

reitings agrovebs, vidre TF 1-is

reitingia. aqve vityvi, rom ndobis

ganmsazRvreli aucilebeli faqtoria

sainformacio gamoSvebebi

da, rac mTavaria, pluralizmi. im

televizias, romelic pluralizms

icavs, reitingic maRali aqvs da

mudmivi mayurebelic hyavs. CvenTan

sazogadoebrivi arxebi ufro damoukideblebi

arian, vidre kerZo

arxebi da ufro meti Tavisufleba

gvaqvs, vidre maT.

ramdenadac vici, franguli saparlamento

arxis reitingi 0,5 procentia.

namdvilad 0,5 procentia, rac

imas niSnavs, rom mudmivad 300 000

kaci uyurebs Cvens arxs, zogjer

SeiZleba 100 000 uyurebdes da zogjer

milionze meti, magram statistikurad

mudmivi mayurebeli

300 000-mdea. sxvaTa Soris, `artes~

reitingic amdenivea.

arxis gavrcelebis areali rogoria?

safrangeTSi 40 milion mayurebels

SeuZlia saparlamento arxis

miReba. saqarTveloSi, ise rogorc

safrangeTSi, mayurebels ZiriTadad

gasarTobi programebi ainteresebs,

magram is reitingi, rac

Cveni tipis politikur arxs aqvs,

romelic kulturul da saganmanaTleblo

gadacemebsac amzadebs,

Zalian kargi monacemia. Cven internet

vebgverdic gvaqvs da xSirad

internetSi ufro meti gviyurebs,

vidre ekranze. es imiTacaa kargi,

rom internetSi roca ginda, maSin

naxav sasurvel gadacemas.

saSualo frangi mayurebeli ramdenad

interesdeba politikiT; Cven-

Tan, miuxedavad imisa, rom yoveli

meore adamiani politikas mniSvnelovnad

Tvlis, politikur procesebSi

garkveva umravlesobas mainc

uWirs.

frangebs, tradiciulad, uyvarT

politika, iSviaTad, rom garkveul

momentSi politikaze ar daiwyon

laparaki, magram Cveni samizne jgufebi

ufro metad axalgazrdebi da

is adamianebi arian, romlebsac naklebi

ganaTleba aqvT an TavianTi

gaunaTleblobis gamo uWirT politikuri

procesebis gageba _ swored

maTTvis mzaddeba gadacemebi

politikaze. amave mizniT SevqmeniT

TamaSi, romelic saganmanaTleblo

xasiaTisaa, TamaSis formiT vcdilobT

mayureblamde kanonebis mitanas.

Tqven daeswariT `meore arxis~

gadacemis `Tavisufali tribunis~

mimdinareobas pirdapir eTerSi da

naxeT Cveni politikosebi. Sedarebis

saxiT, rogoria politikosebis

Sinagani kulturis done.

mxolod erTi gadacema vnaxe da

Tavs uflebas ver mivcem, qarTveli

politikosebis kulturis doneze

vilaparako. rac Seexeba Cvens politikosebs,

zogadad, maTi kulturis


done sakmaod maRalia, vgulisxmob

politikur kulturas, ganaTlebas

da teqnikur kulturas, rac imas

niSnavs, rom kargad erkvevian soflis

meurneobaSi, iurisprudenciaSi

da sxva disciplinebSi, rac

gasakviri ar aris. Tavmdablurad

ar gamomdis, magram bevr maTgans is

instituti aqvs damTavrebuli, rac

_ me. gagikvirdebaT, magram Cveni

sazogadoeba xSirad sayvedurobs

maT, rom zedmetad profesionalebi

arian, anu erTi da igive adamianebi

sakmaod didxans arian igive

erovnul asambleaSi, eseni arian

yofili funqcionerebi da Cinovnikebi,

igive, profesorebi da, roca

sazogadoebis yvela fena ar aris

warmodgenili parlamentSi, swored

amas sayvedurobs sazogadoeba.

ki, magram ZiriTadi amomrCeveli

sazogadoebaa da es interesi arCevnebis

dros gaiTvaliswinos.

amomrCeveli warmodgenili kandidaturebidan

irCevs. roca yofili

funqcioneri xar da kandidaturas

meored wamoayeneb, dasakargi araferi

gaqvs. roca advokati xar da amave

dros 5 weliwadi deputati, Seni

`kantora~ mainc muSaobs, magram patara

sawarmos xelmZRvaneli 5 wlis

vadiT rom movides parlamentSi, es

sawarmo uimisod daiSleba da, roca

deputati aRar iqneba, SeiZleba usamsaxurod

darCes. amitom urCevnia,

Tavis sawarmos mixedos da parlamentze

uari Tqvas. albaT esaa imis

mizezi, rom erTi da igive adamianebi

xdebian deputatebi.

politikosebisa da mediis ur-

TierTobaze visaubroT. medias sazogadoebis

cnobierebaze Zalze

didi gavlena rom aqvs, aravin davobs.

cdiloben Tu ara frangi politikosebi

es gavlena saTavisod

gamoiyenon. dasamali ar aris, rom

CvenTan sazogadoebis didi nawili

sazogadoebriv mauwyebels saxelisuflebo

arxad Tvlis da erT-erT

Zlier administraciul resursad

miiCnevs.

umravlesobis warmomadgenlebs

yovelTvis surT, rom gaakontrolon

media, kerZo arxi iqneba es

Tu sazogadoebrivi, magram sazogadoebriv

mauwyebelSi saredaqcio

jgufisa da Jurnalistebis mxridan

Zlier winaaRmdegobas awydebian.

sazogadoebrivi mauwyeblis generalur

direqtors araviTar SemTxvevaSi

ar SeuZlia Tavis TanamSromlebs

miTiTeba misces _ ra gaakeTon,

raze ilaparakon da raze ara. msgavsi

mdgomareobaa CvenTanac. iSviaTad

aris zarebis SemTxvevebi,

magram vinc rekavs, araferi gamosdis,

radgan Jurnalistebi ar Tanxmdebian

gaakeTon is, rac TviTon ar

surT, amis maCvenebelia sazogadoebrivi

arxisadmi ndoba. roca saparlamento

arxis gadacemebs uyureb,

romelic aTi welia arsebobs, verasdros

ityvi, rom arxi an erT partias

miemxro, an meores. imis miuxedavad,

rom erovnuli asamblea asi

procentiT gvafinansebs, ar yofila

arc erTi SemTxveva, xelisufleba

Careuliyo Cvens saqmianobaSi an

raime daevalebinaT. amis magaliTia

Tundac Cveni arxis xelmZRvaneli,

romelic memarcxenea, magram roca

gadacema mihyavs, misi memarcxene

pozicia araferSi ar igrZnoba. erovnul

asambleaSi umravlesoba aris

memarjvene, magram Cveni xelmZRvaneli

daniSnulia e.w opoziciuri banakidan.

esec imaze metyvelebs, rom

Cvenze aranairi zewola ar aris.

ra rekomendacia geqnebaT Cveni

tipis qveynisTvis, rogor unda daicvan

Tavi Jurnalistebma politikosebis

zewolisgan?

CemTvis Zalze rTulia am ki-

Txvaze pasuxis gacema. albaT politikosebi

da Jurnalistebi unda

SeTanxmdnen imaze, rom sasikeTod

ganviTardes is procesebi, romelic

axla mimdinareobs. politikosebma

unda daicvan da pativi scen

Jurnalistebis damoukideblobas

da pluralizms.

>>> gagrZeleba gv. 97

interviu

cxeli Sokoladi 61


diskusia

62 cxeli Sokoladi

diskusia

radikalizmi

dialogis magivrad

avtori: nino beqiSvili

monawileebi:

levan berZeniSvili

respublikuri partiis wevri

lela gafrindaSvili

filosofosi

nato zazaSvili

fsiqologi da wminda ninos saxelobis eklesiis mRvdelmsaxuri

vaxuSti menabde

iuristi

mama vladimer vaxtangaZe

konfliqti, romlis kulminaciac telekompania `kavkasiaSi~ momxdari Cxubi iyo, wlebis win daiwyo da perio-

dulobiT iCens xolme Tavs. miuxedavad imisa, rom moCxubrebi daapatimres, daZabuloba isev rCeba _ dapiris-

pirebul mxareTa Soris, romlTaganac erTni gamoxatvis Tavisuflebas da sxvadasxva umciresobebis uflebebs

icaven, xolo meoreni religiuri grZnobebis Seuracxyofaze saubroben da miznis misaRwevad Zaladobas ar

eridebian. dialogi ver Sedga.

dRes ukve iuristebi da politikosebi msjeloben, Seitanon Tu ara cvlilebebi kanonmdeblobaSi, romlebic

gamoxatvis Tavisuflebas religiuri grZobebis sasargeblod SezRudavs.

ram gamoiwvia es konfliqti, ratom mimarTaven adamianebi Zaladobas, ra pozicia aqvs eklesias _ am sakiTxebis

garkvevas diskusiaze SevecadeT.


nino beqiSvili: ra SeiZleba iyos religiuri eqstremizmis

mizezebi, rogor movediT aqamde?

levan berZeniSvili: es ar aris martivi ambavi.

aqamde mivediT imitom, rom kanonebi da deklarirebuli

Rirebulebebi erTi mimarTulebiT midis,

sazogadoebrivi cxovreba ki _ sxva mxares. sazogadoeba

xSirad sajarod acxadebda, rom kanoni ar

aris mniSvnelovani, rom arsebobs iseTi ram, rac

kanonze maRla dgas. magaliTad, Tuki samSoblos

interesebi moiTxovs, SeiZleba kanoni dairRves.

aseTi ram sxvadasxva konfesiis warmomadgenlTa an

konfesiaTa uarmyofelTa mxridan araerTxel Tqmula.

aqamde mivediT imitom, rom Cven varT principulad

CamorCenili da gaunaTlebeli sazogadoeba.

yvelam SesaniSnavad icis, rom teritoriuli mTlianobis

garda, arsebobs sxva Rirebulebebic, magram

roca saqarTvelos xeliusflebam wamoiwyo brZola

teritoriuli mTlianobis aRsadgenad, sazogadoebis

didma nawilma Tqva: mere ra, Tu irRveva kanoni,

mTavaria aRdges teritoriuli mTlianoba. Cemi

azriT, aq aris ZiriTadi problema. me am yvelafers

Zalian pirobiT da gacveTil saxels varqmev, rasac

aranairi kavSiri ar aqvs mis Tavdapirvel mniSvnelobasTan,

magram kargad gamoxatavs Cveni sazogadoebis

axlandel mdgomareobas _ es farisevlobaa.

sazogadoeba acxadebs erTs, akeTebs meores da fiqrobs

mesames. es ar aris martivi problema. magaliTad,

saqarTvelos prezidenti erT-erTi Zalian

aqtiuri moqalaqea eklesiaSi. mas SeuZlia ambionze

sityva warmoTqvas, patriarqi gverdze gawios. Cven

patriarqs amis bedi aqvs _ maxsovs irakli wereTelmac

gverdze gawia Tavis droze. yvelam icis, ranairi

aRmsarebeli da qristiania saakaSvili, magram

iTvleba, raxan prezidentia, amitom marTlmorwmune

qristiani unda iyos. farisevloba bevrgan Cans.

vambobT, rom codna CvenTvis Zalian Rirebulia da

am dros maswavleblis xelfasi, mebadurTa xelfas-

Tan erTad, yvelaze naklebanazRaurebadia mTel sabiujeto

sistemaSi. sazogadoebaSi ar aris gulwrfeloba

da xalxi ar akeTebs imas, rasac fiqrobs.

kanoni dasustda da yovelTvis, roca kanoni sustdeba,

pirvelyofili instinqtebi wamoyofen xolme

Tavs. instinqti martivia: me marTali var, Sen _

mtyuani, ucxo ar varga da a. S

nino beqiSvili: mama vladimer, Tqven ukve gamoxvediT

`kavkasiis~ eTerSi da erTxel ukve TqviT,

rom im Zaladobriv meTodebs, romelsac mimarTavda

`marTlmadidebel mSobelTa kavSiri~ da `saxalxo

marTlmadidebluri moZraoba~, qristianobasTan

diskusia

aranairi saerTo da kavSiri ar aqvs. miuxedavad

imisa, rom incidentis Semdeg amdeni dRe gavida,

oficialurad sapatriarqos gancxadeba ar gauke-

Tebia. patriarqis mier mama daviT isakaZis dajildoeba

sazogadoebis nawilma ise aRiqva, TiTqos

sapatriarqo miesalmeba brZolis aseT meTodebs.

ramdenad erTiania qarTuli samRvdeloeba? aris

Tu ara is mzad imisTvis, rom Zaladobrivi meTodebi

dagmos?

mama vladimeri: yvelanairi Zaladoba, visi mxridanac

unda modiodes, dasagmobia. ver getyviT,

incidentis provocireba vin moaxdina, `marTlmadidebel

mSobelTa kavSirma~, malxaz gulaSvilis

Tanamoazreebma, Tu e.w. liberalebma, romlebic iq

isxdnen. es ar vici, magram Zaladoba rom yovlad

miuRebelia, es calsaxad unda iTqvas. saqarTvelos

marTlmadidebeli eklesia yovelTvis iyo, dResac

aris da iqneba yvelanairi Zaladobis mowinaaRmdege.

rac Seexeba dekanoz daviT isakaZis dajildoebas,

mama daviTi araerTi welia, qarTuli eklesiis

msaxuria. calsaxad nu vityviT, rom is konfliqtebis

monawilea. me ar vici, TviTon ramdenad monawileobda

am incidentSi.

nino beqiSvili: arsebobs videomasala, sadac Cans,

rom swored mama daviTi aZlevda davalebebs `mar-

Tlmadidebel mSobelTa kavSiris~ wevrebs.

mama vladimeri: ara mgonia, mama daviTma vinmeze

miuTiTos, _ scemeTo. ara marto mama daviTma, aramed

_ nebismierma mRvdelma. es miuRebelia nebismieri

adamianisgan da miT umetes _ sasuliero pirisgan.

dekanozi daviT isakaZe, rogorc giTxariT,

ukve ramdenime welia, eklesiis samsaxurSia da mas

eklesiisTvis bevri sikeTe aqvs motanili. araer-

Ti eklesia aaSena Tu ganaaxla, mravali adamiani

moiyvana eklesiaSi da vfiqrob, is am damsaxurebis

gaTvaliswinebiT daajildoves.

nino beqiSvili: rodis xdeba Zaladoba SesaZlebeli?

ra kvebavs Zaladobas?

lela gafrindaSvili: Zaladoba SesaZlebelia

maSin, rodesac is ar ganiSifreba, anu ar aris

msjeloba am socialur movlenaze. eqstremizmi,

fundamentalizmi, Seuwynarebloba, qsenofobia SesaZlebelia

mxolod im sazogadoebaSi, sadac ar

aris SexedulebaTa pluralizmi da sadac radikalizacia

xdeba. erTi mxriv, arsebobs ukiduresad

liberaluri azri da meore mxriv _ ukiduresad fa-

cxeli Sokoladi 63


diskusia

natikuri Sexedulebebi. SuaSi ki araferia. magram

or radikalur azrs Sorisac ar moxdeboda Sejaxeba,

rom iyos am Sexedulebebze, mosazrebebze mudmivi

msjeloba da sazogadoebas hqondes saSualeba,

mousminos sxvadasxva Tvalsazriss, mousminos yvelas

da sakuTar Tavs daujeros. Tuki demokratiis,

liberalizmis evropul istorias gadavxedavT, vnaxavT,

rom iyo raRac warmodgenebi, Semdeg Cndeboda

maTi sapirispiro ideebi da swored sapirispiros

gaCenis Semdeg Cndeboda qveynebis da Sexedulebebis

ganviTarebas SesaZlebloba. stagnacias swored

alternatiuli azrebis ararseboba iwvevs. magram

Tu gadavxedavT Cveni sazogadoebis ganviTarebis

istorias, vTqvaT _ damoukideblobidan dRemde,

sul sxva suraTi dagvxvdeba _ aq TiTqmis yovel-

mama vladimer vaxtangaZe

aravin ambobs, rom quCaSi vinme unda

daviWiroT, an vinmes rame avukrZaloT.

am yvelafers sityviT da yvela im

berketiT unda davupirispirdeT, rac

eklesias aqvs xelT. eklesiis Zala

sityvaa. Cven, sasuliero pirebi da

yvela is adamiani, vinc Tavs eklesiis

wevrad Tvlis, maqsimalurad unda

SevecadoT, msgavs sibinZures win

aRvudgeT, oRond _ yovelnairi

Zaladobis gareSe.

Tvis batonobda erTi Sexeduleba, romelzec unda

yofiliyo sworeba. sxvadasxva institucia mudmivad

amisaken mogviwodebs: an mmarTveli partia, an

eklesia, an vinme inteleqtuali ambobda, rom misi

azri erTaderTi da xelTuqmnelia. ar vmsjelobdiT

da arc axla vmsjelobT. me ar maxsovs arc

erTi sajaro diskusia Temaze, aris Tu ara gamoxatvis

Tavisufleba konfliqtSi saxelmwifo samar-

Tlis raRac dokumentTan, an religiis kanonebTan.

diskusiis ararseboba mniSvnelovani xarvezia.

64 cxeli Sokoladi

nino beqiSvili: gavixsenoT is meTodebi, rasac

Cveni xelisufleba pirvel wlebSi iyenebda, roca

Cven yoveldRe teleeTeriT vuyurebdiT teleda-

Werebs _ roca adamianebs sakuTrebas arTmevdnen,

roca Zalis gadametebiT daiWires basil mkalaviSvili

da a. S. Cven SeveCvieT Zaladobis cqeras.

amgvari telemedia da amgvari ganwyobebi uxsnis Tu

ara gzas, zogadad, moZaladeebs?

nato zazaSvili: 9 apriliT rom daviwyoT da gamovyveT,

vnaxavT, ramdeni konfliqti moxda. Cven

samoqalaqo omi da araerTi eTnokonfliqti gadavitaneT

da iqidan moyolebuli Zaladoba yoveldRiuri

cxovrebis Semadgeneli nawili gaxda. bolo

wlebis movlenebs am procesis nawilad aRviqvam.

me, rogorc profesionals _ fsiqologs, mawuxebs

is, Tu rogori damokidebulebiT, intonaciiT

xdeba urTierTobis garkveva. makvirvebs sazogadoebis

mzadyofna, momentalurad Seqmnas mtris

xati. SeiZleba raRacas ar eTanxmebode, Sinaganad

agresiac gagiCndes, magram es ar niSnavs, rom xeli

unda vkraT adamians. rac unda xdebodes, yovel-

Tvis SeiZleba pirobiTad, Seni mowinaaRmdege mainc

Sen gverdiT datovo. amis magaliTia mSoblis da

Svilis urTierToba, rodesac maT Soris konfliqtia.

iSviaTad xdeba, rom dedam Svili napralis

iqiT gadatyorcnos. Tu amis gakeTeba sakuTar

SvilebTan SegviZlia, sxvis SvilebTanac unda SevZloT.

rodesac konfliqtur situaciaSi myof

col-qmarTan vmuSobT, pirveli win gadadgmuli

nabijia, rodesac urTierTdabralebis terminebidan

vaxerxebT da saubari mizezebis Ziebisken migvyavs.

es advili ar aris, gansakuTrebiT, roca

saqme bavSvebs exebaT. zogjer mSoblebi bavSvebs

iseT mZime pirobebSi amyofeben, rom SeiZleba Sinaganad

Zalian agresiuli damokidebuleba mqondes

mSoblis mimarT, magram amas arasdros gamovxatav.

roca adamiani mrisxanebaSia, xdeba cnobierebis

Seviwroeba, fokusi viwrovdeba, xedav marto erT

wertils da goneba blokirebulia, moqmedeb mxolod

impulsebiT da kontrols aRar eqvemdebarebi.

ojaxSi Zaladoba da saerTod Zaladoba erTmaneTs

hgavs. ojaxSi Sexla-Semoxla xdeba col-qmars Soris,

amas bavSvi xedavs. saRamos ki yvela televizorTan

jdeba da uyreben, magaliTad, 7 noembris

kadrebs. amiT isini dasturs iReben, rom maTi saqcieli

gamarTlebulia: saxelmwifo, romlis xelSicaa

Zalaufleba _ moZaladea. mozardi meore dRes

quCaSi gadis, Tan dana udevs jibeSi da aravin ar

aris mis gverdiT, vinc daelaparakeba. mgonia, amaze

unda vifiqroT _ ras fiqroben, ra stkivaT, ra

moswonT am bavSvebs. maT daxmareba sWirdebaT, rom

moZaladeebad ar iqcnen.


lela gafrindaSvili: Cven ramdenime tipis kanons

vemorCilebiT. erTi mxriv aris religiuri kanoni,

meore mxriv _ civilizebuli, anu samoqalaqo kanonebi,

romelsac unda davemorCiloT, rogorc am qveynis

moqalaqeebi. CvenSi isev Zlieria adaT-wesobrivi

samarTali. Cvens cxovrebaSi did rols asrulebs

e.w. tradiciuli normebi, romelsac maincdamainc

did winaRmdegobas ver vuwevT. amave dros 1994

wlidan saqarTvelo saerTaSoriso samarTlis subieqti

gaxda. Tu Cven varT sekularuli saxelmwifo

da gvinda civilizebuli samyaros nawilad viqceT,

maSin unda vaRiaroT, rom yvela sxva samarTalTan

mimarTebaSi, primati saerTaSoriso samarTals aqvs.

nino beqiSvili: qarTveli mosamarTleebi saqmeebis

ganxilvisas iSviTad mimarTaven saerTaSoriso

samarTals.

lela gafrindaSvili: xSirad maT isic ar ician,

rom saerTaSoriso samarTals primati aqvs. amis

garda, saerTaSoriso samarTliT garantirebuli

uflebebi bevr moqalaqes, saxelmwifo moxeles, politikoss

Tu sasuliero pirs gacnobierebuli ar

aqvs da ar esmis, rom amis gareSe qveyana, sadac

vcxovrobT, ver gaxdeba civilizebuli da ver ganvviTardebiT.

nino beqiSvili: erekle deisaZis wigni, savaraudod,

mxolod sababi iyo. konfliqti ar dawyebula

guSin. bolo wlebis manZilze garkveuli sixSiriT

amgvari SemTxvevebi xdeboda. Tuki vaRiarebT saqarTvelos

konstitucias da saerTaSoriso kanonmdeblobas,

romelic icavs Cveni gamoxatvis Tavisuflebas,

maSin ra unda vqnaT? arseboben adamianebi,

romlebic amboben, rom wignebi unda aikrZalos, kanonmdebloba

gadaixedos da a. S.

levan berZeniSvili: es martivi saqme ar aris. deisaZes

aqvs ufleba, weros, rac unda. rac Seexeba am

organizacias da mis Zaladobas _ qalbatonma natom

ojaxur Zaladobaze isaubra, magram organizebuli

Zaladoba gansxvavdeba erTi piris Zaladobisgan.

koleqtiur Zaladobas aqvs erTi Tavisebureba. am

Taviseburebas kacobrioba gaecno iseTi formiT,

rom mere Sercxva da warmoudgeneli dokumenti

dado 1948 wlis 10 dekembers. dRes `adamianis

uflebaTa sayovelTao deklaracias~ veravin ver

dawers da ar arsebobs saxelmwifo, romelic mas

dRes miiRebda. yvela religiuri konfesia ewinaaRmdegeba

am dokuments, es normaluricaa, asec unda

iyos. es deklaracia yvelaferze maRla dadga swored

imitom, rom misma Semqmnelebma warmoudgeneli

sisastike naxes.

lela gafrindaSvili

diskusia

erTi mxriv, arsebobs ukiduresad

liberaluri azri da meore

mxriv _ ukiduresad fanatikuri

Sexedulebebi. SuaSi ki araferia.

Tuki demokratiis, liberalizmis

evropul istorias gadavxedavT,

vnaxavT, rom iyo raRac warmodgenebi,

Semdeg Cndeboda maTi sapirispiro

ideebi da swored sapirispiros

gaCenis Semdeg Cndeboda qveynebis

da Sexedulebebis ganviTarebas

SesaZlebloba.

Zaladoba Zaladobas warmoSobs. Cven amdeni xania,

vuyurebT sxva qveynebSi amas. Tu israeli Zaladobs,

maSin arabebi afeTqeben da Tu arabebi afeTqeben,

maSin israeli Zaladobs. es ar damTavrdeba,

vidre ar moiZebneba raime formula. Cven sazogadoebas

komunisturi ideologia moaxvies Tavs. vinc

ar eTanxmeboda, imas mixedavdnen. naxevarma qveyanam

daxoca qveynis meore naxevari. komunistebis dros

Cven gamovtoveT ganviTarebis faza, CamovrCiT.

xolo Cven, qarTvelebi, vinaidan ar vflobdiT saerTo

saxelmwifos 800 wlis ganmavlobaSi, gansaku-

Trebulad CamovrCiT _ ufro metad, vidre baltiis

qveynebi.

saqarTveloSi gaCnda moTxovna `erTze~. magali-

Tad, moiTxoven, gaerTiandes mTeli opozicia.

naTelia, vinc amas iTxovs, is xval gcems, imitom,

rom is `erTs~ iTxovs. erTisadmi aseTi brma rwmenaa,

moiTxoven, rom mTeli nacia erTis garSemo Seikras,

yvelas unda hqondes erTi azri, yvelas unda

ecvas ase, yvela unda iyos aseTi. me gansakuTrebiT

momewona, roca axalgazrda axalgazrdas uxsnida,

ra unda Caicvas.

nino beqiSvili: saqarTvelo TandaTan xdeba Tanamedrove

msoflios nawili da am pirobebSi eklesia

ver iqneba erTaderTi azrTa mpyrobeli, rogorc

cxeli Sokoladi 65


diskusia

_ bevri saukunis manZilze. Tu aris eklesiaSi dialogi

imis Sesaxeb, ra gamowvevebis winaSe dgas dRes

eklesia Tanamedrove samyaroSi? es ar aris marto

qarTuli eklesiis problema. amave dilemis winaSe

albaT bevri sxva religiuri organizaciac dgas.

mama vladimeri: eklesia ar aris marto ierarqebi,

arc marto mrevli. es erTi mTlianobaa. ra Tqma

nato zazaSvili

me, rogorc profesionals _

fsiqologs, mawuxebs is, Tu rogori

damokidebulebiT, intonaciiT

xdeba urTierTobis garkveva.

makvirvebs sazogadoebis mzadyofna,

momentalurad Seqmnas mtris xati.

SeiZleba raRacas ar eTanxmebode,

Sinaganad agresiac gagiCndes,

magram es ar niSnavs, rom xeli unda

vkraT adamians. rac unda xdebodes,

yovelTvis SeiZleba pirobiTad, Seni

mowinaaRmdege mainc Sen gverdiT

datovo.

unda, saqarTvelos eklesia axali gamowvevebis winaSe

dgas, es bunebrivia. magram rac brZaneT, rom

istoriis manZilze eklesia iyo azrTa erTaderTi

mpyrobeli, mTlad ase ar yofila. eklesia yovel-

Tvis cdilobda da dResac cdilobs, rom sazogadoeba

iyos jansaRi. ar vici, Tu vinme fiqrobs, rom

homoseqsualebi da aseTi ukuRmarTobebi sijansa-

Ris maxasiaTebelia, amas marTlmadidebeli eklesia,

me marTlmadidebelTa saxeliT vsaubrob, ver

Seegueba. ar mgonia, rom muslimebi da iudevelebi

amas gagebiT Sexvdnen. es arabunebrivia da xSirad

es adamianebi, ufro metad moZaladeebi arian. deisaZes

da mis msgavsebs vgulisxmob. gvikiJineben, _

amis ufleba gvaqvso. ki batono, Cven aravis sawer

magidasTan ar vusxedvarT, da veravis vukrZala-

66 cxeli Sokoladi

vT da arc avukrZalavT, imitom rom yvelas Tavisi

azri aqvs; magram Semdeg am wignebs did propagandas

uweven da reklamas ukeTeben.

nino beqiSvili: erekle deisaZis wigns reklama

swored im kampaniam gauwia, rac mis sawinaaRmdegod

aagores.

mama vladimeri: SeiZleba gamoxatvis Tavisuflebis

niRbiT sxva adamianis, an adamianTa jgufis religiur

Tu moralur Rirebulebebs Seuracxyofa

mivayenoT? cema-tyepa calsaxad miuRebelia, amaze

ar aris saubari, magram aris institutebi, maT Soris

saqarTveloSic, romlebic mizanmimarTulad

uweven propagandas aRviraxsnilobas. ratom ar xdeboda

amgvari ram Svidi, rva, aTi wlis winaT? maSin

ar iyvnen saqarTveloSi homoseqsualebi? eklesia

da yvela moralurad mdgradi organizacia, iqneba

es religiuri Tu sxva, ver Seegueba, Tvisobrivad

ver miiRebs da ver waaxalisebs amoralurobas.

nino beqiSvili: internetis epoqaSi uxamsobisgan,

Zaladobisgan, pornografiisgan aravinaa daculi.

saqarTveloSi irans ver SevqmniT. iranSi msgavsi

araferi iwereba. vinc dawers, maSinve Tavs moWrian

an CamoaxrCoben.

mama vladimeri: aravin ambobs, rom quCaSi vinme

unda daviWiroT, an vinmes rame avukrZaloT. am

yvelafers sityviT da yvela im berketiT unda davupirispirdeT,

rac eklesias aqvs xelT. eklesiis

Zala sityvaa. Cven, sasuliero pirebi da yvela is

adamiani, vinc Tavs eklesiis wevrad Tvlis, maqsimalurad

unda SevecadoT, msgavs sibinZures win

aRvudgeT, oRond _ yovelnairi Zaladobis gareSe.

erovnuli Rirebulebebi unda davicvaT Tu ara?

unda davicvaT Tu ara zogadsakacobrio moraluri

Rirebulebebi? amazea saubari. gvikiJineben, _

Tqven ar unda daicvaT, da Cven es yvelaferi unda

vnergoTo. ase ar SeiZleba.

lela gafrindaSvili: unda SevTanxmdeT, ra meTodebiT

vicavT Rirebulebebs. cxadia, eklesias aqvs

ufleba, raRac ar moewonos da amaze isaubros.

mama vladimeri: eklesia adamianTa erTobaa, is

cocxali organizmia. roca misTvis wmidaTawmidas

Seuracxyofen, cota Znelia TavSekaveba. TavSekaveba

im gagebiT, rom mere sapasuxo agresia ar wamovides.

pirveli agresori Seuracxmyofelia, magali-

Tad _ deisaZe. viRacebi adamianis moralur mxareze

Zaladoben. eklesiis cneba, iciT, ra gaxlavT? erT

loyaSi rom gagartyamen, meore unda miuSviro.


srulyofis gzaze unda midiode. Tuki pirovnebebs

rame eSlebaT, amaSi eklesia damnaSave ar aris.

eklesia aris saxareba da wmida werili. eklesia ar

aris viRac cdomili pirovneba. ase iyo saukuneebis

ganmavlobaSi. qristianoba gvaswavlis, _ giyvardes

Seni mteri da ulocevdiT mawyevarTa TqvenTao.

levan berZeniSvili: raSi sWirdeba saqarTvelos,

Cvens qveyanas, mis sazogadoebas `marTlmadidebel

mSobelTa kavSiri~? seriozulad vkiTxulob.

gulaSvili rom ar gvWirdeba, es ukve `marTlmadidebel

mSobelTa kavSirmac~ icis. es kavSiri ras

akeTebs? eklesias rame funqcia aklia, da eseni avseben?

Tu es eklesiis komkavSiria? aseTi moZaladeebi

komkavSirlebi iyvnen. Cems axalgazrdobaSi

eklesiaSi Sesvlas komunisturi partiis wevrebi ki

ar gvikrZalavdnen, aramed _ komkavSirlebi. vTvli,

rom damnaSavea sazogadoeba, romelic ambobs, _

mere ra, iyos cota moeqstremisto organizaciebico.

me arasamTavrobo organizaciis xelmZRvaneli

viyavi wlebis ganmavlobaSi, vicnob am seqtors da

minda vikiTxo, _ riTi arsebobs `marTlmadidebel

mSobelTa kavSiri~?! am sferos kargad vicnob da

vici, SemosawiriT ver iarsebebs arc erTi organizacia,

e.i. sponsori hyavT, romelic dafarulia,

rac imas niSnavs, rom gamWvirvale ar aris. is finansebi,

romlebic gamWvirvale ar aris, ar miekuTvneba

samoqalaqo sazogadoebas. mafiac samoqalaqo

sazogadoebis wevri iqneboda, finansebis xarjva da

is brZanebebi, romlebic gaicema, gamWvirvale rom

iyos.

nato zazaSvili: erTia, roca viRac akontrolebs,

viRac afinansebs, magram es damfinanseblebi, rogorc

wesi, noyier niadags pouloben adamianebSi,

romlebic gulwrfelad ijereben, gulwrfelad

mihyvebian maT. vfiqrob, Cveni sazogadoeba mZime

krizisSia. ukanasknel ocwleulSi marto politikuri,

ekonomikuri, socialuri krizisi ki ar iyo,

aramed iyo kulturuli, moraluri, fsiqologiuri

_ yvelanairi krizisi. SeiZleba esec iyos imis mizezi,

rom viRac wers da mimarTavs TviTgamoxatvis

aseT mZafr formas. viRacas aseTi reaqcia aqvs da

Tvlis, rom es misaRebia, unda rom iyviros, xmamaRla

gamoxatos protesti. adamianis aseTi sulieri

mdgomareoba yuradRebamisaqcevia. es SemTxveviT

ar xdeba. ar vgulisxmob, rom CemTan movidnen da

me fsiqoTerapiis kurss Cavutareb. eklesias Zalian

didi resursi aqvs da mgoni, SeuZlia, gamoiyenos

sazogadoebis sasargeblod.

levan berZeniSvili: erTi ram unda vTqva deisa-

Zis dasacavad. deisaZe Semcdaria da, ramdenadac me

levan berZeniSvili

aqamde mivediT imitom, rom kanonebi

da deklarirebuli Rirebulebebi

erTi mimarTulebiT midis,

sazogadoebrivi cxovreba ki _

sxva mxares. sazogadoeba xSirad

sajarod acxadebda, rom kanoni ar

aris mniSvnelovani, rom arsebobs

iseTi ram, rac kanonze maRla

dgas. magaliTad, Tuki samSoblos

interesebi moiTxovs, SeiZleba kanoni

dairRves.

vici, eklesia unda loculobdes deisaZisTvis, rom

man swori gza ipovos. `marTlmadidebel mSobelTa

kavSiri~ ki ar loculobs, aramed scems deisaZes.

figuralurad vambob, piradad is ver moixelTes.

esaa gansxvaveba. arc imis mjera, rom eklesia viRacas

ubrZanebs, adamianebi scemon. `marTlmadidebel

mSobelTa kavSiris~ wevrebi darwmunebulebi arian,

rom locvas Zala ar aqvs da eklesiac uZluria,

amitomac scemen. rac Seexeba baton isakaZes, Cemi

azriT, is aSkarad xulignuri qvena grZnobiT karnaxobda

universitetTan, vin unda gaelaxaT da vin _

ara. aq eklesia arafer SuaSi ar aris. ubralod, im

monetSi mas anafora ar ecva, man qriste ar Seimosa.

mama vladimeri: me ar minaxavs es.

diskusia

levan berZeniSvili: rom vnaxe, imitom geubnebiT.

piradad iq ar vyofilvar, magram mere vuyure. mTel

msoflios aqvs saSualeba, `iuTubze~ es kadrebi naxos,

sadac Cans, rom isakaZe warmarTavda Zaladobas.

namdvilad konteqstidan amoglejili aRmoCnda

dajildoeba. is, marTalia, sxva ramis gamo moxda,

magram es ambebi unda gaeTvaliswinebinaT. sajarod

keTilad ar unda moexseniebinaT kaci, romelic,

yvelam vnaxeT, ra procesebsac warmarTavda.

cxeli Sokoladi 67


esei

isev birsi gamaxsenda

avtori: aka morCilaZe

axla gamaxsenda, swored rom samocdaaTian wlebSi iyo

wignebis aseTi seria, albaT erT-erTi yvelaze kargi da

moqnili seria im droSi da erqva `erTi moTxroba~.

SeiZleba iTqvas, rom wignebi arc iyo, aramed patara,

Txeli rveulebi, momcro zomisa. TiTo rveulSi, mwerlis

TiTo moTxroba iyo, isinic albaT sxvadasxva zomisa.

ydas feradi zoli gasdevda, romelzedac TeTrad

ewera saTauri. ydis marcxena kuTxeSi mwerlis foto

iyo, rogorc wesi, Zalian retuSirebuli da mixatulmoxatuli.

etyoba im droSi an Wirda an ra vici, xerxebi

ar iyo fotos sufTad dabeWdvisa.

fotos qveS ki mwerlis gvari da saxeli ewera. marjvena

zeda kuTxeSi ki seriis logo iyo, gaSlili gragnili

da zed kalami, iqave warwera, `erTi moTxroba~.

ar vici ra mizeziT da es wignakebi blomad gvqonda.

etyoba mamaCemi yidulobda xolme, xels gamoayolebda.

cxadia, Zalian iafi wignakebi iyo, Cemi varaudiT, ase

oci kapiki eRireboda. albaT arc iyo gaTvlili didx-

68 cxeli Sokoladi

amroz birsi

ans Sesanaxad da arc Semonaxula, razec gvarianad mwydeba

guli, bolomde mqonda erTi da mere aRar vici

sad wavida.

qarTveli mwerlebisa am seriaSi erTi moTxroba

maxsovs, guram gegeSiZisa. gvarianad SemaSina am

moTxrobam. albaT imitom rom patara viyavi, xom ici,

Tan rom mogewoneba da Tan rom SegeSindeba. marTla Zalian

patara viyavi imis sakiTxavad. ufro ki ucxoelebi

maxsovs.

iq iyo trumen kapotes `bavSvebi dabadebis dReze~,

simenonis `Ria fanjara~, Tu raRac aseTi, hemingueis

`kilimanjaros Tovliani mTa~ da ambroz birsis `SemTxveva

Wotiswylis xidze~.

simenoni im fotoze ratomRac fernandels hgavda,

heminguei zangiviT iyo da iRimoda rogorc arasdros

gauRimia da kapote iyureboda sadRac, SoreTSi.

saqme marTlac eg aris, rom CemTvis arasdros uTqvams

vinmes, es waikiTxe da es ar waikiTxoo, rogorRac

egre gamovida. raRacas ki mirCevdnen es waikiTxeo, ro


gorc bavSvebs urCeven xolme, magram amas jerjerobiT

nu miadgebio aravis uTqvams. hoda, egre gamovida, rom

`kilimanjaros Tovliani mTa~ dRemde ar wamikiTxavs.

ar wamikiTxavs rogor, maxsovs rom gadakeTebulSi gregori

peki TamaSobs da im films hefi endi aqvs, Torem

momkali da odesme wamakiTxe eg wigni. ise, vTvli, rom

wakiTxuli maqvs, imitom rom im seriaSi wavikiTxe. ra

Tqma unda, bevri veraferi gavige da dRemde darwmunebuli

var, rom saukeTeso am moTxrobaSi misi epigrafia.

anu Semdgomi ambavi saWiro aRar aris. im kai

kacs SeeZlo yinulebSi moxvedril leopardze daewera,

oRondac maSin ufro adamianebze wera iyo modaSi da

ara ambebze. ase iyo, Tu ise, im wignze ki guli aRar

mimivida.

simenonze mivxvdi, rom iyo iq raRac mouxelTebeli

da ostaturi. maSin eg sityva ar vicodi, rasakvirvelia.

oRond, ratomRac maxsovs is dRe, roca am moTxrobas

vkiTxulobdi da Tan samzareulos fanjridan viyurebodi.

kargi amindi iyo, SabaTi, da albaT ukve gviani

gazafxuli. mere raRac kargi moxda. kargi ra, sasiamovno.

nametania, Svidi wlis rom xar da am wignebs ar

gamogarTmeven xelidan. albaT imitom vkiTxulobdi,

rom saqme da gasarTobi araferi mqonda da ezoSic ar

gamiSves. ras gaugeb.

kapote Tavidanve uarvyavi, ar vici ratom, albaT

saTauri ar momewona. xoda, maxsovs, rogor wavikiTxe

birsi.

am wignakebidan, birsis wignaki erTaderTi iyo,

romelsac avtoris foto ar amSvenebda. etyoba ver

iSoves, arsad iyo sabWoTa sawigne SesanaxebSi da arc

is vici, birsis wignebi gamoicemoda Tu ara sabWoTa

kavSirSi xSirad.

birsis fotos nacvlad wigns amSvenebda sibneleSi,

Sav siluetebad mavali kaci da kaktusi.

moTxrobas ki, rogorc mogaxseneT, erqva `SemTxveva

Wotiswylis xidze~.

gavigJdi ra. eg ro wavikiTxe gavgiJdi. ise damwyda

guli da ise avReldi.

iq egeTi ambavia, rom kaci unda CamoaxrCon jariskacebma

da TiTqos es kaci gadarCeba, ReleSi gacuravs,

mere ki irkveva, rom es mxolod misi fiqrebi yofila

CamoxrCobis dros. aba, guli ar gagiskdeba?

CamoxrCobis ambisa maSin vicodi, rom ZiriTadad

udanaSauloebs CamoaxrCoben xolme. ratomRac kinoebSi

sakmaod xSirad Canda CamoxrCobebi da sikvdiliT

dasjebi. ZiriTadad revolucionerebs CamoaxrCobdnen

xolme da isinic gmirulad CamoexrCobodnen.

rogorc maxsovs, am CamoxrCobebis ambebi kinoebiT

didad ar moqmedebda, radgan iq didad ar Canda rom

vinme, Tundac CamosaxrCobi, didad winaaRmdegia am ambisa.

iq Canda, rom is imdenad mamacia, rom Tavis aRsasruls

rwmeniTa da RirsebiT xvdeba, Tumca icis rom es

didi usamarTlobaa.

esei

am moTxrobaSi ki kaci dasawyisidanve gadarCenis gegmas

awyobda.

Tumca, saqme egec ar iyo, rom aq Tavgadasavlis ambavi

iyo saintereso. saqme ferebi iyo, rogorc axla

vxvdebi. rogor iyo es yvelaferi aRwerili. vaaax…

aba ramdeni wlis mere Sevityve, rom birsi pure inglisuris

ostati iyo da Cans, es qarTul TargmanSic

gadmohyoloda.

Tan es yvelaferi, razec is mogiTxrobda, sruliad

ucxo da axali iyo, ubralod qalebis da kacebis ambavi

ki ar iyo, kidev raRac meti. kaci iyo samxreTeli

plantatori, jariskacebi _ Crdiloelebi da imitom

axrCobdnen, rom man swored am Wotiswylis xidis dangreva

gadawyvita erTi jaSuSis CagonebiT. anu, TviTon

ubiZges, raTa CamoxrCobis mizezi hqonodaT.

es plantatorobac vicodi mgoni. didi sazizRari

rame iyo, `biZia Tomas qoxidan~ gamomdinare, magram es

CamosaxrCobi kaci sazizRari ar Canda.

an ras omobdnen erTmaneTSi, xom saerTod…

birsis wignebi rusulad ar menaxa-meTqi da moTxrobebic

imdeni ar hqonda, rom uamravi wigni gamosuliyo.

birsi xom ufro Jurnalisti iyo, dRes rogorc ityvian,

cxeli wertilebisa, da manamde ki sabrZolo Wrilobebi

hqonda, raic mTeli cxovreba stanjavda. bolos,

ukve moxuci, samocdaaTi wlisa gaqanda meqsikaSi iqauri

samoqalaqo omis gemos asaRebad da iqav daikarga.

aravin icis misi saflavi.

axirebuli kaci iyo, Semtevi, mwarekalmiani Jurnalisti,

Tavisi Jurnalistika tomebad gamosca sanam

cocxali iyo.

komunistebis droSi egeTi gamomcemloba iyo, `progresi~,

romelic inglisurad uSvebda wignebs. hoda,

birsis erTi krebuli mqonda swored im gamomcemlobisa.

patara iyo, jibeSi eteoda da erT student gogos

miveci.

aRar maxsovs, ratom dainteresda birsiT, me ar

mixsenebia. mgoni imitom, rom raRac amis msgavsze

velaparakebodi, Zvel Jurnalistebze.

mgoni amaze sadRac davwere ukve, Tu raRac deJa-vius

ambavia, ar vici.

esec birsis pontia, uyvarda deJa-viuze da aseT rameebze

wera.

perestroikis dros misi wignebi daiyara, ufro sworad

erTi da igive krebuli sxvadasxva ydaSi. viyide,

gaqra, viyide, gaqra. Cinikosis leqsikoni da aseTebi.

qarTuladac gamoCnda is Zveli moTxroba, oRond

cota sxva saTauriT, `SemTxveva busnakadis xidze~. anu

Wotiswylis da busnakadis. oul qreeq.

axla imis moyola ar minda, ranairi mwerali iyo birsi,

risa sjeroda da ris ar sjeroda. cxadia, rom bevris

arafrisa sjeroda. ise ki, gvarianad Znelia im dros

wero, roca mark tveni, bret harti, stiven kreini, jek

cxeli Sokoladi 69


esei

londoni, o’henri da aseTebi weren da iseTi rameebi

datovo, rom ar gamorCeT da sul arsebobdes.

axla rom Sexedo, rac amerikelebs omze uweriaT.

igive heminguei, mTeli es dakarguli Taobis ambebi,

mTeli es vietnamis biWebi. ra vici, blomad uweriaT

da birsi ki amaT yvelas sjobs. birss bevris arafrisa

sjeroda-meTqi da mgoni imitomac, rom Zalian axlos

icoda omi. imgvarad axlos, rom mgoni arc erT mwerals

ar scodnia.

is, rom birsi mamaci da TavzexelaRebuli kaci iyo,

sulac ar niSnavs, rom raime imedi hqonda omebisa, anda

moswonda omi. omSi siaruli misTvis mxolod saqme

da honoraric ar iyo. es ubedureba iyo. raRacnairi,

didi imedgacrueba, romelSic yovel jerze midioda

da TiTqos icoda, iq ra daxvdeboda. magram mainc midioda,

rom kidev erTxel daenaxa da kidev erTxel ar

daejerebina sikeTisa da imedisaTvis.

me mgoni, ase iyo.

kidev erTxel ar erwmuna da kidev erTxel daewera.

egeTi moTxroba aqvs, `aWedili fanjara~. romeli

erTi.

isic aris, rom birsma moulodneli dabruneba icis.

ise uceb gagaxsendeba, mTlianad, rac wagikiTxavs

misi, rom gikvirs. is raRacnairadaa Cabmuli uamrav

Semdgomdroindel mweralTan da gansakuTrebiT ki

amerikelebTan.

amerikaSi xom birsisgan da aseTi kacebisgan ganviTarda

uamravi Janri da Janruli mwerloba xom saerTod.

dResac, ratom gamaxsenda birsi da Wotiswylis xidis

ambavi? imitom rom wuxel jeims kramlis romans

vkiTxulobdi.

kramli axlaxan gardaicvala, Zveli texaseli kaci iyo,

nafexburTelari, nasaldaTari, nacixari. damlevi, oTxcolganaSvebi,

weras aswavlida universitetSi, raoden

sakvirvelic unda iyos. Tumca, sakvirveli arc unda

iyos, aba vin unda aswavlos wera, Tu ara aseTma kacma?

kramli deteqtivebs werda. cota dawera deteqtivebis

avtoris pirobaze.

70 cxeli Sokoladi

trumen kapote

deteqtivebis mwerlebi xom bevrs weren, rac meti,

miT meti fuli da ase Semdeg. mTeli sistemaa ase. magram

kramlis bevri ar dauweria ormoc weliwadSi.

Tanac, arcerTi misi deteqtivi bestseleri ar Seiqna

da rogorc Cans TviTonac didad ar naRvlobda amaze.

ewereboda da ase moswonda rogorc ewereboda. hardboild

rom hqvia, im JanrSi muSaobda, sxvanairad rom

vTqvaT, ufro daundobel da sisxlian deteqtivSi,

oRondac deteqtivebad misi wignebi didi veraferiSvili

rameebi iyo. sxvanairad rom iTqvas, deteqtivobisTvis

mis romanebs aravin yidulobda da amitom deteqtivis

mkiTxvelebs ar uyvardaT. uyvardaT ubralod

mkiTxvelebs, imitom rom kramnis rom kiTxulob, erTi

rom is gaocebs, rogor ar sjera, birsisa ar iyos, da

meorec _ Tu rogor wers. orive SemTxvevaSi raimond

Cendlers amsgavseben, is iyo misi mamobilio, magram me

birsisac bevri mgonia.

mokled, me asec mgonia, rom hemingueis rom samocianebis

bolos daewyo wera, kramli iqneboda, Tavis

sasmels narkotikebsac daumatebda da mTlad SiSvela

vietnamis Semdgomi magari biWobis amara darCeboda,

sastikad damarcxebuli, magram mainc cocxali da mebrZoli,

raRacis matarebeli amoTxvrili landi.

xolo birss rom droSi emogzaura, kramli aucileblad

moiwonebda da etyoda, maladec Seno, modi TiTo

davlioTo.

kramli imgvari stilistia, rom rodesac mokvda, misi

romanebidan amokrefili winadadebebi misave nekrologebSi

moxvda. nekrologebi am citatebT iwyeboda da

mTavrdeboda. ai, amisTvis vkiTxulobT kramliso.

simarTle rom iTqvas, pirvelad mis nekrologi wavikiTxe

da amitomac daviwye misi wignebis Zebna. povna ar

gamWirvebia.

iq iyo erTi winadadeba, romliTac iwyeba misi romani,

romlis Sesaxebac kramlim Tqva, am winadadebas rva

weliwads vwerdio.

axla namdvilad ver gadmovTargmni im winadadebas,

dros marTla waiRebs da Tan misi es naTqvami pasux-

JorJ simenoni


vin icis, sruliad axalgazrda egeb Tavadac idga iseT xidze, Tavis moTxrobaSi

rom aRwera da Tokze Camokonwialebuli gvamebic mravlad enaxa da ifiqra

mravali wlis Semdeg imaze, SeuZlia Tu ara kacs, rom iocnebos CamoxrCobis win?

da ara maincdamainc imaze, rom CamoxrCoba saSinelebaa. aris, ra Tqma unda, magram

CamoxrCobas Jurnalisti aRwers. SeuZlia kacs ocneba CamoxrCobis win? ar vici.

ismgeblobasac gmatebs. ise magari kaia wignis dasawyisad.

hoda, birsic amitom gamaxsenda.

birss ara mxolod tragikuli ambis daundoblad

moyola SeeZlo, aramed winadadebebsac Zalian moxdenilad

awyobda.

saerTod kidev, mgonia, rom didi mniSvneloba ara

aqvs, rodis waikiTxav wigns. Tu sisqes erevi, sulac

patara rom iyo da iq iseTi ambebi eweros patara biWs

rom ar esmis, STabeWdileba mainc utyuaria. axla imas

ki ar vambob, maincdamainc markiz de sadis rameebs

unda etakos-meTqi. anda sad iyo Cvens bavSvobaSi de

sadis raRaceebi, anda romc yofiliyo, Taroebze vin

dailagebda. de sadi, me Tu mkiTxavT, weris gagebaSi ar

iyo. masSi mTavari misi pozicia da samyaros aRqma iyo,

Torem frangi iyo da egre werde, roca ukve arsebobs

figaro, cota uxerxulia.

raRac mgoni mived-movedebi. imas vambobdi, rom rac

bavSvobisas wakiTxulidan CagrCeba, Znelad rom tyuili

iyos. saerTod, eg magari ucnaurobaa, Cemi megobari

meubneboda, patara viyav, roca `don kixots~ vkiTxulobdi

da dialogebs vtovebdi, ambebi mainteresebdao.

mec egre viyavi.

ratomRac ase iTvleboda, rom es `don kixoti~

sabavSvoa, Tu ra iyo ar vici. raxan axirebul kacze iyo,

Tu.. mokled, egre iyo. mere egec ari, rom bavSvs ambavi

ainteresebs. gulubryvilobas ambavi ainteresebs. rac

ufro mwvelia igi, miT metad dagamaxsovrdeba. saer-

Tod ucnauri rameebi gamaxsovrdeba.

ai, kidev gamaxsenda, raxan birsze vlaparakobT. aris

egeTi amerikeli mwerali, hari qrusi. kramlis ar iyos,

samxreTeli da aseve naxiStar-nawvalebi, babuobaSi gadasuli

biZis ieris kaci, ro ara tydebian xolme. hoda,

imas aqvs Tavis wignSi, dedaCems davurekeo, Cems sawyal

dedaso, oblobaSi ro gagvzarda me da Cemi Zmao,

da veubnebi, _ dedi, romani gavyide, morCa, mwerali

varo. pirveli romani cxovrebaSio. gaexarda dedaCemso,

kiTxulobda Cems nawvalebs xandaxano da miTxra

eg romelio, Sen ro moigone, Tu Cveni cxovreba romaa

Sig aRwerilio da me vuTxari, me ro movigoneo da Ca-

Cumda dedaCemio, karga xniT CaCumdao. ra iyo, dedi,

rato CaCumdio. da vfiqrobo, albaT me cotaRa mesmis

samyarosi, mogonil ambavSi fuli rogor gadagixades,

eg xom tyuiliao.

esei

dedaCemisTviso, qrusi ambobs, Cemi xelnawerebi iyo

pirveli romanebi romlebic waikiTxao.

es gulubryviloba cxadia maSinac arsebobs, roca

bavSvi xar da multfilmebsa da urfin jusis maRla

mdgom rameebs miadgebi. oRondac maSin ver xvdebi, ra

aris mwerloba, mocemuloba gaqvs: wigni da Sig arc mTlad

gasagebi ambavi. igeb Tu vera, eg ambavi grZnobebs

aRZravs. hoda, swored es gamaxsovrdeba.

birss imdeni hqonda nanaxi da imdeni reportaJi daewera,

rom aseTebs, Cveulebriv, cota dro rCebaT gamonagonisTvis.

is, rac namdvilad ginaxavs da gangicdia,

gamonagonSi rom gadagaqvs, ise unda gadaitano, rom

TviTonac gainteresebdes. Tu sruliad gansakuTrebul

weris xerxebs ar flob, es ubralod ar ginda da morCa.

isic, an gamova, an _ ara. darCeba Jurnalistikad, rogorc

Salamovis gadasarevi moTxrobebi.

birss Tavad moxvedroda tyvia da roca kacs tyvia

moxvedria da tyviis moxvedraze wers, ise, rom iq Tavisas

arafers tovebs, weris ostatobis garda, es kargi

moTxrobaa. SeuZlia mTeli Tavisi pirdapirobiT, Jurnalisturad

daweros da misi naweri namdvilad kargi

iqneba, magram raxanRa icis, rom arsebobs raRac, Jurnalistobaze

Zlieri da maRali, rasac SeuZlia, rom es

tyvia mTels samyarod aqcios da ara ubralod sulis-

SemZvrel reportaJad, suli wasZlevs, rom mwerali

gaxdes.

birss es SeeZlo.

is igonebda Tavis moTxrobebs.

vin icis, sruliad axalgazrda egeb Tavadac idga

iseT xidze, Tavis moTxrobaSi rom aRwera da Tokze

Camokonwialebuli gvamebic mravlad enaxa da ifiqra

mravali wlis Semdeg imaze, SeuZlia Tu ara kacs, rom

iocnebos CamoxrCobis win? da ara maincdamainc imaze,

rom CamoxrCoba saSinelebaa. aris, ra Tqma unda, magram

CamoxrCobas Jurnalisti aRwers.

SeuZlia kacs ocneba CamoxrCobis win? ar vici.

man ukeT icoda.

hoda, mec bavSvobidan mjera misi gamonagonis. ramdeni

xania mjera da arasdros damviwynia birsi. mwerlobac

eg aris albaT, roca wamkiTxvels ar aviwydebi

da raRac ucnauri, Camouqneli, feradi sivrce

amoutivtivdeba xolme TavSi Seni saxelis gaxsenebaze.

ambroz birsi. kai magari iyo im Txel wignakSi.

cxeli Sokoladi 71


Targmani

ringze

meoce saukunis pirispir

norman meileris werilebi

inglisuridan Targmna irma taveliZem

meore msoflio omSi monawileobis periodidan dawyebuli,

norman meileri Tavis mimoweraSi mudmivad aqtualur

politikur Temebs exeboda _ gardacvalebamde

cota xniT adrec ki.

bietris meilers

8 agvisto, 1945

Cemo patarav,

atomuri bombis Seqmnas aq ufro didi gamoxmaureba

mohyva, vidre germaniis mxridan kapitulaciis gamocxadebas.

prezident ruzveltis sikvdilmac aseTive

miTqma-moTqma gamoiwvia. Zalian dabneuli var (amas rom

72 cxeli Sokoladi

vwer, mxolod oficialuri gancxadeba maqvs wakiTxuli.

ar vici, es rogor moxda). axla vxvdebi, ramxela zegavlenas

axdens adamianis azrovnebaze misive egoizmi. Cemi

keTili `me~ yvelafers miesalmeba, rac omis periods

Seamoklebs da Sin male damabrunebs. ai, es ki xSirad

upirispirdeba ufro Zvel, ufro mniSvnelovan principebs.

magaliTad, imedi maqvs, rom axalwveulebiT jaris

Sevseba ukve ganxorcielda, da Tu ase ar momxdara, ma-

Sin neli, mtanjveli demobilizaciis procesi gvelis.

swored am azriT vamarTleb im instruments, romelsac,

Sesabamis pirobebSi, wamierad SeuZlia uamravi adamianis

mospoba.


sinamdvileSi ki ra Semzaravi perspeqtivaa! sul imas

vambobdiT, rom kacobrioba TviTganadgurebis gzas adgas.

hoda, axla es yvelaferi ise axlos Cans, mxolod

aTwleulebisa da ramdenime bombis ambavia. atomuri

afeTqeba teqnikis saboloo gamarjvebas moaswavebs.

roca fizikas vswavlobdi, im dros mxolod uwyinari

gamoTvlebi tardeboda, es TiTqmis ganuxorcielebel

da mainc Tavzardamcem ideas warmoadgenda: muxudos

marcvlisodena masis atomuri energia xom savsebiT sakmarisia,

raTa lokomotivma zRaprulad bevrjer gadaseros

mTeli dedamiwa.

vfiqrob, Cveni epoqa samudamod daasamarebs iseT cnebebs,

rogoricaa adamianis neba da masebis Zalaufleba.

msoflio ramdenime politikosisa da meqanikosis xelSi

aRmoCndeba _ Spengleriseuli gviandeli dasavleTevropul-amerikuli

civilizaciis warmomadgenlebis

xelSi. me ki, miuxedavad imisa, rom mraval saazrovno

impulss maZlevs, Spenglerianeli mainc ara var. Tu ar-

Cevanis winaSe davdgebi: is gavakeTo, rac aucilebelia,

an TiTic ar gavanZrio, TiTsac ar gavanZrev, Tuki is,

rac aucilebelia, gulis amrevi aRmoCndeba.

marTlac saSineli perspeqtivaa, Zvirfaso. kidev

erTi omi gvelis oc weliwadSi Tu ara, ormocdaaT

weliwadSi mainc, da Tu naxevari msoflio gadarCeba,

darwmunebuli var, momdevno omis dros, usafrTxoebis

mizniT, momavlis didi qalaqebi miwisqveS iqneba

aSenebuli. adamiani cxoveliviT iq aRar icxovrebs, sadac

daibada _ mwerebi mas aRar Seawuxeben da is, vinc

samoTxes antarqtikis mkvlevariviT eZebda, jojoxeTs

aTasobiT futiT miuaxlovdeba...

aq siyvarulis adgili aRar aris, me ki axla iseTi

gulmokluli var. rac ufro mets vfiqrob am yvelaferze,

ufro Semzaravad meCveneba. aba, romeli Senadnobi

Seedreba meqanikisa da sentimentalurobis nazavs.

rogor minda, amaRam mklavebSi mogiqcio.

miyvarxar,

normani

feni da aizek meilerebs, en da deivid

keslerebs

4 seqtemberi, 1945

Zvirfaso deda da mama, deida nen da biZia deiv,

...rogorc radios diqtorma mauwya, istoriul movlenas

Sevswrebivar. daaxloebiT erTi mili gvaSorebda

xomald `misuris~, roca iq iaponiis kapitulaciis aqts

moaweres xeli. mesiamovna, radioSi es ambavi rom gadmosces,

me ki am xomalds iluminatoridan vxedavdi.

mimomxilvelma Tqva: „xatovnad Tu vityviT, tokios

yuris Tavze mze amobrwyinda da naTeli mohfina aremares:

kapitulaciis aqts xeli ukve moewera da mSvidobam

sabolood daisadgura~. SeiZleba Tvali ise kargad

ver miWris, rogorc am kacs, magram im dRes ca iseTive

Rrubliani Canda, rogorc yovelTvis...

Targmani

miyvarxarT, Zvirfasebo,

normani

P.S. axla 145 funts viwoni, rogorc adre. ase rom, ar

idardoT Cems janmrTelobaze.

bietris meilers

13 Tebervali, 1946

gamarjoba, Cemo Steruka,

amas winaT vcdilobdi, Cemi mrwamsis umTavres principebSi

gavrkveuliyavi _ politikur mrwamss vgulisxmob.

Tumca, sinamdvileSi, mxolod im politikur kredos

vTxzavdi, romelsac im SemTxvevaSi vuerTgulebdi,

adamianis progresulad ganviTarebis rom mjerodes.

pirvel rigSi, sruliad cxadi mgonia, rom marqsistuli

mTavroba erTaderTi Rirseuli mTavroba iqneboda,

magram _ marTlac Zneli warmosadgenia, es rogor unda

moxdes _ man adamiani ki ar unda marTos, aramed saxelmwifo.

politikosi rom viyo, erTaderT rames gavakeTebdi

_ axal komunistur partias Sevqmnidi, romelsac ruseTTan

saerTo araferi eqneboda. ruseTi mZuls (misi

mTavroba da ara xalxi). am qveyniT Sens aRfrTovanebas

ver gaviziareb. Tu davuSvebT, rom misi agresiuloba

da TviTorganizeba msoflio zewolam ganapiroba, im

faqts versad gaveqceviT, rom is axla pirovnebis Tavisuflebas

axSobs da totalitarizmis gzas adgas, saidanac

ukan veRar dabrundeba. Cemi axali komunisturi

partia nakleb mniSvnelobas mianiWebda ekonomikasa da

politikas, radgan adamianis sulis mxolod erT nawils

ver daeyrdnobi, roca cxovrebis sxvagvari wesis damkvidreba

gsurs. am partiis yuradRebis centrSi moeqceoda

swored adamianis pirovnuli zrda, rac yvelaze mTavaria.

gaixsene Cemi mebrZoli qristiani komunistebi _ esec

msgavsi ideaa. eTikas ekonomikaze ver daafuZneb, ufro

gonivruli iqneba, Tu mas, vTqvaT, seqsTan mimarTebaSi

ganaviTareb. amgvari komunisturi mTavroba mxolod

damxmare ram iqneba, im drois erTgvari bunebrivi warmonaqmni,

roca namdvilad daafaseben Tanasworobas, zomierebas,

Rirsebasa da SemoqmedebiT midgomas. Cemi azriT,

amis saukeTeso magaliTs kvakerebi warmoadgenen.

gasagebia, maT kargi xelmZRvanelebi hyavT, magram esec

xom maTi mrwamsis bunebrivi, samarTlianad moweuli

politikuri nayofia...

rac davwere, sruli absurdia, miamituri absurdi.

ar mjera amis, radgan saerTod arafris mjera. Tumca,

raimesi rom mjerodes, swored am principebs davicavdi.

aba, ras ityvi, patarav?...

Zalian miyvarxar, Steruka,

normani

Jan malakes

13 oqtomberi, 1956

Zvirfaso Jan,

...radikalad yofna ucnauri ram aris _ wlebi gadis

cxeli Sokoladi 73


Targmani

da ai, dgeba dro, roca dawinaurebuli Tanamoazreebi

aRar girekaven. vfiqrob, megobris yola didi fufunebaa

da Tu megobrebi Sen mimarT mometebul yuradRebas

ar iCenen _ ara, arc erTi Tanamoazre Cem mimarT mometebul

yuradRebas ar iCens _ maTi orbitidan TandaTan

gadixar. garda amisa, niu-iorkic yelSi amomivida, es

saSineli qalaqi, sadac gaafTrebuli konkurencia mZvinvarebs

da yvelgan sisastikes, sicives, nervebis

wyvetas awydebi. ho, albaT asakSi Sevdivar. amas winaT

koneqtikutis erT-erT sofelSi megobrebs vestumreT

da saxli vnaxeT, romelic Zalian mogvewona. axla

swored mas vyidulobT...

ori kviris win ki _ is dro iyo, saxlis yidva rom

gadavwyviteT da qalaqSi davbrundiT _ ZaRlebi gavaseirne

(ori didi franguli pudeli) gvian RamiT, SabaTs,

ara, ukve kviras _ saaTis isrebi 12-s gadascdenoda.

erT adgilas ZaRlebi gaCerdnen da raRacis qeqva

daiwyes. iqve, saxlTan sami moxuligno tipi daexeteboda.

erTma uxamsad gaixumra, meorem gaicina. mec ra-

Racam momiara da im moxuligno tips vkiTxe, _ ra TqvimeTqi?

Semagina, valSi arc me davrCi da atyda erTi

ambavi. miTxra, _ aba, daaxvieo. SemeSinda, magram fexi

74 cxeli Sokoladi

ar movicvale. yvelaferi xelCarTuli CxubiT damTavrda.

am CxubSi aucileblad gavimarjvebdi, radgan, damijere,

im tipze gacilebiT Zlieri viyavi. maRali iyo,

magram Cemze gamxdari. ase, 21 wlis iqneboda. rogorc

vTqvi, aucileblad gavimarjvebdi, miwaze goraobisas

CemTvis TvalebSi TiTebi rom ar etakebina, rac marTlac

profesionalurad gamouvida. xeli gavuSvi, mere

cota isev vibRlarZuneT, miwaze vigoraveT, bolos ki

isev TvalebSi mataka TiTebi. am dros saxlidan biWebis

jgufi gamovida _ mTeli banda (Cven trotuarze vCxubobdiT).

viRac aylayuda mxecma saxeSi mxia da mkiTxa:

`es gindoda, ara?~

ho, es mindoda. TiTqmis veRarafers vxedavdi, Tvalebidan

sisxli momdioda, Zval-rbili gaerTianebuli

mqonda. im biWs Tavi davuqnie da ramdenjerme Cavibutbute:

`ai, es mindoda, es mindoda, es mindoda~. mere

meores, romelsac mTeli Cxubis manZilze ZaRlebis

sayelurebi damcinavad eWira, isini gamovarTvi da Sinisken

wavbancaldi. araadamianuri sisastikis ambavi iqneboda,

rom ara imave bandis ori Savkaniani wevri, romelic

maSinve amedevna. quCis kuTxeSi isini damewivnen

kidec. im dros yvelaferi fexebze mekida da arafris

meSinoda. ubralod, vfiqrobdi, Tu fexqveS gamigdeben,

SeiZleba suli aRar SemrCes-meTqi. albaT asec

iqneboda, magram mTavari is iyo, rom erTma Savkanianma

miTxra: `usamarTlod mogdes, Zmao~. misi sityvebi

raRacnairad mamxnevebda, roca momdevno dReebSi am

yvelaferze vfiqrobdi.

es ambavi mZime SedegiT dasrulda. ramdenime dRis

manZilze marcxena Tvali mtkioda da mxedvelobis

aris SuagulSi laqas vxedavdi. TiTqmis mTeli kvira

bnel oTaxSi gavatare. Tvali axlac mawuxebs. mis mo-

SuSebas erTi Tve mainc dasWirdeba. ra bednieri var,

rom saxli manamde viyide, vidre es ambavi moxdeboda;

Torem, yovelTvis vifiqrebdi, rom niu-iorkidan panikaSi

myofi gaviqeci...

Zveli mebrZolisgan meore mebrZols siyvaruliT,

normani

Jan malakes

30 dekemberi, 1957

Zvirfaso Jan,

...axla parizi ise Sors meCveneba. erTxans sofelSi

vicxovreT, mere mogvbezrda, yelSi amogvivida mdidari

miwaTmflobelebis autaneli, winaaRmdegobebiT

savse cxovreba (sxvaTa Soris, iseTi mdidrebi aRar

varT _ `sputnikis~ kosmosSi gaSvebam Cems kapitaldabandebebs

deda utira). hoda, niu-iorkSi vbrundebiT.

bolo dros depresiaSi Cavvardi. wlebi gavida

mas Semdeg, roca nebismier wamowyebas warmatebiT

vasrulebdi (ramdenime gamonaklisis garda), axla ki

swored is damemarTa, rac Sen ori wlis win gadaitane

_ amas neba-survilis kraxs davarqmevdi. rogorc Cans,


niWze ufro didi ambicia maqvs, meryevi xasiaTis gamo

ki, cxovrebaSi naTel periodebs ar unda velode. im

uzarmazar romanze vfiqrob, romlis werac daviwye da

romlis dasrulebasac albaT aTi weli mainc dasWirdeba.

Tu Canafiqris ganxorcieleba SevZeli, misi gamocema

SeuZlebeli iqneba _ mxolod frangul uxarisxo,

mwvaneydian gamocemebs Soris Tu moxvdeba. me ki ukve

Suaxnis kaci viqnebi, roca am wigns davasruleb. ici,

ise aRar mjera sakuTari Tavis, rogorc _ adre da, rac

yvelaze uaresia, es yvelaferi sulac ar mgonia Zalian

mniSvnelovani. damarcxebulebis mimarTac gacilebiT

Semwynarebeli gavxdi. is xalxi, vinc ramdenime wlis

win mZulda, axla asatani meCveneba. vfiqrob, warsul-

Si araerTi iRbliani SemTxveva xelidan gavuSvi, hoda,

isinic ar unda ganvsajo. aseTi gancdebi bunebrivad

ereva mTel sulsa da guls. muSaobis survili miqreba

da mere depresiaSi vvardebi imis gamo, rom ar vmuSaob,

rac samuSaosTan mibrunebas kidev ufro mirTulebs,

sabolood ki es yvelaferi gulze mZime lodad mawveba.

xSirad maxsendeba omis Semdgomi ubadruki wlebi, romlebmac

bolo mouRo Cems yvela nacnobs: maTi amboxi

mianavla, maTi sifrTxile silaCred aqcia, xolo maTi

uwyinari mzakvroba _ did siZulvilad. yvelaze cudi

ki is aris, rom axla imasRa vfiqrob, albaT adamianis

SesaZleblobebis zedmetad gvjeroda-meTqi. rasakvirvelia,

aseTi fiqrebis fonze, cxovreba uferuli da

mosawyeni xdeba. mapatie amxela tirada. Sen Seni depresia

gaqvs, me _ Cemi (mec isev Zalian bevrs vewevi)...

ra Tqma unda, es nebismieri xelovanis tkivilia _

mravali Cvengani xom geniosi gaxdeboda, yvelaferi

rom sworad warmarTuliyo. sxvebze metad gamimarTla,

magram, Cemo kargo Jan, yvelaferi ise xeldaxel mivaniave,

imedgacruebac ki ar ganmicdia. ho, marTlac sabralo

rus emigrantebs vgavarT. mapatie, ase rom gewuwune,

magram Zvel, erTgul megobarTan wuwuni jobs,

romelime wveulebaze mTvrali ucnobis saeWvo gulmowyalebis

imedad yofnas.

(sxvaTa Soris, erTi Tvis win am egoistma geniosma

bodleris dRiurebi waikiTxa (inglisurad). vfiqrobdi,

ai, zustad Cemnairi kaci-meTqi)...

mokiTxva gelis,

normani

Jan malakes

29 aprili, 1960

Zvirfaso Jan,

...ici, ratom SevuerTdi kubis mxardamWer komitets

Zveli leninuri principiT? amisken Jurnalma `taimma~

mibiZga. vifiqre, Tu isini kastros upirispirdebian, me

mxars davuWer-meTqi. SesaZloa, antistalinizmi politikuri

pozicia ar iyos, magram antiliuisizmi (henri

liuisi (1898-1967) _ gavleniani amerikeli gamomcemeli)

namdvilad aris. adamiani Tavad faqtebis dadgenas ver

Targmani

axerxebs, Tumca imas ki xvdeba, romel Zalebs surT,

rom mas am faqtebis sjerodes. wesad SemoviRe, yoveldRiuri

politikuri oromtrialis wyaro swored Zvel,

sayvarel Jurnal `taimSi~ veZebo...

aq didi Teatraluri movlenaa Jan Jenes `aivanis~

dadgma, romelic brodveis gareT, Teatr `seql in zi

sqveaSi~ ganxorcielda. me ki speqtakli sulac ar momewona.

piesa sulelurad dauCexavT, atmosferoc mZime

da sulisSemxuTveli damxvda. Cemi azriT, es nawilobriv

Jenes bralicaa. guli mereva mTel mis brwyinvalebaze.

mokiTxva edelisgan,

normani

eiiti iamanisis

23 oqtomberi, 1961

Zvirfaso eiiti,

...trockisTan yovelTvis didi siaxlove makavSirebda

da is, rom sakuTar Tavs trockists veRar vuwodeb,

ar niSnavs, TiTqos misiT aRfrTovaneba gaminelda. aq,

amerikaSi sirTules is qmnis, rom revoluciuri marqsizmis

tradiciuli formebi ver ergeba amerikuli

sazogadoebis Tavisebur, mravalsaxovan struqturas.

ara, imas ar vgulisxmob, TiTqos marqsizmi gamosadegi

aRar iyos. Tumca, azrovnebis amgvarma wesma isev rom

aRafrTovanos axalgazrdebis saukeTeso nawili, is sxva

geniosma unda ganavrcos, romelic amerikuli fenomenis

sirTules Caswvdeba. vfiqrob, `TeTri zangis~ bolo

abzacSi swored erT-erT SesaZlo mimarTulebaze mivaniSne.

iciT, eiiti, problema is aris, rom amerikaSi mSromelTa

klass saerTod ar aqvs revoluciuri Segneba.

am qveyanaSi nebismier amboxs is xalxi ki ar awyobs, vis

mxrebzec ekonomika dgas, aramed im axalgazrdebis sul

ufro mzardi raodenoba, romlebic sruliad gaucxoebulebi

arian sakuTari qveynisgan da misi istoriisgan.

SesaZlebelia, momdevno aT welSi am yvelaferma raRac

nayofi gamoiRos _ meamboxeebis suliskveTeba xom namdvilia!

axla arc erTi Cvengani ar aris im inteleqtualur

simaRleze, rac problemis gadaWris axali,

radikalurad gansxvavebuli gzis moZebnas sWirdeba.

amerikaSi yvelaze cudi is ki araa, rom damatebiTi Rirebulebis

saxiT bevrs gvZalaven, aramed Cveni sulieri

gamofituloba da is, rom namdvili zrdis SesaZlebloba

ar gveZleva. ai, es udavod kapitalizmis umaRlesi stadiaa.

iciT, amgvar situaciaSi azrs kargavs sakuTari Tavis

trockistad moazreba. aseTive warmatebiT SeiZleba

Tavs burboni an batko maxnos mimdevari uwodoT. darwmunebuli

var, trocki rom cocxali yofiliyo da am

qveyanaSi ecxovra, trockistobas ar moindomebda...

gulTbili mokiTxviT,

normani

>>> gagrZeleba gv. 99

cxeli Sokoladi 75


saavtoro

lismanisi

avtori: levan berZeniSvili

ilustracia: mariam zaldastaniSvili

politikur zonas, iseve rogorc

nebismier sxva sabWoTa zonas, Tavisi

aristokratia hyavda: mzareuli,

mekuWnave, biblioTekari, cecxlfareSi,

meabanoe, parikmaxeri, barakis

morige, kinomeqanikosi, kurieri

da a.S. amaze werdnen solJenicini,

ginzburgi, Salamovi da sxva avto-

76 cxeli Sokoladi

rebi, romlebic saswaulebrivad gadaurCnen

gulags. Tuki Zvel droSi,

breJnevis epoqamde, rodesac gulagis

naxevarze met mosaxleobas 58-e

muxliT gasamarTlebulebi Seadgendnen,

am aristokratiul Tanamdebobaze

mxolod Cveulebrivi kriminalebi,

marqsistul-leninisturi

Teoriis sayovelTaod aRiarebuli

termini rom vixmaroT, e.w. „socialurad

axloblebi“ (социально

близкие _ mkvlelebi, qurdebi, mZarcvelebi

da a.S.) xvdebodnen, axal

droSi, rodesac msoflio zewoliT

politikuri patimrebi sanaxevrod

aRiares da maT calke banakebi gau-


xsnes (sul 4 mTel sabWoTa kavSirSi,

3 permSi da erTic mordoveTSi, saxelganTqmuli

„dubrovlagi“), axal

aristokratias jaSuSebi, samxedro

damnaSaveebi da samSoblos moRalateebi

Seadgendnen; sxva sityvebiT

rom vTqvaT, Tu sisxlis samarTlis

kodeqsis Zveli, 58-e muxlis memkvi-

dre axali 70-e (saqarTvelos ssr 71e)

muxliT iyavi gasamarTlebuli,

parikmaxeroba an biblioTekaroba

ar SegeZlo, Tundac manamde ssrk-s

saukeTeso parikmaxeri an didi biblioTekis

direqtori yofiliyavi.

bunebrivia, baraSevoSic gvyavdnen

„aristokratebi“ (Zvel droSi

maT upativcemulod, „pridurkebad“

moixseniebdnen da Jora xomizuri

axal droSic mxolod am terminiT

aRiarebda maT statuss): biblio-

Tekari andersoni, mzareulebi maqsimoviCi

da petrov ufrosi, parikmaxeri

kuxaruki, cecxlfareSebi

saari da muzikiaviCusi, meabanoe da

kinomeqanikosi (SeTavsebiT) lismanisi,

mekuWnave leikusi, barakis morige

krainiki da sxv.

latviel nacionalistsa da social-demokrats,

1980 wlis noemberSi

dapatimrebul dainis lismaniss

latviis uzenaesi sasamarTlos

daxurul sesiaze 12 weli hqonda

misjili „samSoblos“ (anu sabWoTa

kavSiris) RalatisTvis. im qveynis

RalatisTvis, romelSic igi ar dabadebula,

romelic okupantad da

moZaladed miaCnda da romlis winaaRmdegac

iaraRiT xelSi brZola

arc ufiqria, ubralod, latviis

okupaciis Semdeg iatakqveSeTSi gadasuli

im social-demokratiuli

partiis wevri iyo, romlis saTavo

ofisi germaniis federaciul respublikaSi

iyo ganTavsebuli.

dainis lismanisi sakmaod pikantur

garemoebebSi gavicani. zonaSi CasvlisTanave

me da daTos ori sasixarulo

ambavi dagvaxvedres, sadili

da abano. sadils pirveli movrCi da

abanoSi gamagzavnes. zonuri „abano“

saintereso dawesebuleba aRmoCnda:

xangrZlivi etapis Semdeg „Tavisufali“

saponi rom davinaxe da

gaxarebulma (higiena Tavisuflebis

ganuyofeli nawilia, abanoSi ar „zixar“

anu Tavs patimrad ar grZnob)

kargad gavisapne Tavi, aRmovaCine,

rom onkanSi wyali aRar modioda.

abanoSi aravin iyo, rom damxmareboda

Cveulebriv abano mxolod SabaTobiT

iyo, xolo Cven xuTSabaTs

saavtoro

CavediT, sicxe iyo da cxeli wyali

arc gvWirdeboda, magram wyali zogadad

gWirdeba, Tu abanoSi tanis

dabanas apireb. ra gza mqonda, ra-

Rac naWeri Semovixvie welze da gareT

gamovedi Svelis saTxovnelad.

pirvelive kaci gavaCere da daxmareba

vTxove. manac amixsna, rom onkan-

Si wyali ar unda iyos (diax!), rom

wyali aris wina oTaxSi, e.w. „predbannikSi“

did kasrSi dagrovili da

iqidan unda movimarago taStSi da

mere momcro vedrosxela xisgan damzadebuli

wylis saxapaviT, romelsac

hqvia „Saika“, erTi xeliT unda

visxa Tavze da meoreTi sxva operaciebi

ganvaxorcielo. maincadamainc

mosaxerxebeli ar iyo, magram

saocnebo sisufTavis SegrZneba yvelafers

aRemateboda. kaci, romelmac

daxmareba gamiwia da abanoze Zalian

sasacilo anekdotis moyolac

moaswro SesamCnevi latviuri aqcentiT,

xmovnebis dagrZelebiT da xan

pirvel da xan meore moraze (grZeli

marcvlis mokle nawilze) mkveTri

dinamikuri maxvilis dasmiT, sanam

me did kasrsa da wyals veZebdi, iyo

dainis lismanisi, samSoblos moRalate,

social-demokrati, meabanoe,

kinomeqanikosi, Crdilouri tipi,

WeSmariti arieli da SesaniSnavi

meojaxe _ тип нордический, истинный

ариец и отличный семянин, rogorc

TviTon amatebda xolme Tavis daxasiaTebas

saxelganTqmuli sabWo-

Ta Cekisti mwerlis, misive wignis

mixedviT reJisor lioznovas mier

gadaRebuli yvelaze popularuli

sabWoTa serialis, „gazafxulis 17

gaelvebis“ scenaris avtoris, iulian

semionovis mTxrobeliviT, rodesac

am ukanasknelis saxeliT gestapoeli

da abvereli personaJebis

portretiani formularis fonze

SesaniSnavi tembris mqone sabWoTa

msaxiobi efim kopeliani mokle anketas

kiTxulobda.

dainis lismanisi mudmivad karg

xasiaTze iyo. aravin icis, rogor

axerxebda amas politikur banakSi,

magram faqtia, rom axerxebda: mo-

RuSuli da uxasiaTo aravis unaxavs.

cxeli Sokoladi 77


saavtoro

garda imisa, rom TviTon iyo karg

guneba-ganwyobaze, Tavis irgvlivac

aseT msubuq da mxiarul garemos qmnida.

Joras miaCnda, rom es mxolod

dasavleli adamianis „sagareo ieri“

iyo, rafika Tvlida, rom zedapiruli

kaci iyo (xumrobiT meubneboda,

ase xazgasmiT evropuli garegnoba

rom ar hqondes, eWvi Semepareboda,

lismaniSvili, lismaniZe an lismanauri

xom ar ariso), jonis „Wkuamxiarulad“

miaCnda, genrixa „umisamarTod

bedniers“ uwodebda, boria

maniloviCi yvela baltieliviT „bunebriv“

da msubuq antisemitad saxavda,

xolo mis srul antipods, gaucinar

miSa poliakovs mravalgzis

uTqvams, dainisTan „bolomde“ daleva

saintereso iqnebodao, iankovi

rogorc demokratiisTvis saerTosakavSiro

brZolis uarmyofels

eWvis TvaliT uyurebda, Tumca

„faustze“ saubars masTan ar gaurboda

(goeTe lismanisis RmerTi iyo,

germanuli, ra Tqma unda, wyaliviT

icoda da karga mozrdil citatebs

„urtyamda“ „faustidan“; xumrobda,

_ goeTe mama-RmerTia, Sileri su-

liwminda da Tomas mani Zeo). ukrainelebi

gaurbodnen lismaniss, misi

mudmivi Rimili damcinavad eCvenebodaT

da rusebisadmi daufarav zizRSi

antislavur gamoxtomas xedavdnen

(maTi saerTo azriT, rusebis

anu „moskalebis“ zizRi marto kievis

ruseTis erTaderTi kanonieri

STamomavlebis, WeSmariti ukrainelebis

saqme iyo).

Cveni zonis ebraelebisgan

gansxvavebiT, romlebic SabaTobiT

yvela tipis saqmianobas gaurbodnen

_ griSa feldmani, magaliTad, pirSi

wekos TviTnakeTi sigaretiT (kviris

wina dReebSi SabaTis marags imzadebda)

da asanTiT xelSi wamogeweoda,

gTxov, momikideo _ dainisis zeobis

dRe swored SabaTs dgeboda. SabaTs

misi ormagi batonoba myardeboda,

Tavisuflebis or kunZulze _ abanosa

da klub-sasadiloSi, sadac

igi „axali“ filmis demonstrirebas

axdenda (zonaSi Semotanili filmi

sinamdvileSi TiTqmis arasodes

iyo axali, filmi Cvens politikur

gamosworebasa da aRzrdas emsaxureboda,

amitom ideurad iyo gamar-

ЖХ 385/3-5-is klub-sasadilos mravlismnaxvel ekranze

xididan Rrma xeobaSi xtebodnen sabWoTa tyveebi, maT

Soris qalebi da bavSvebic, oRond ki `Tavisianebis~

xelSi ar moxvedriliyvnen.

78 cxeli Sokoladi

Tuli da, rogorc wesi, exeboda an

amxanag lenins, an amxanag stalins,

an orive am amxanags an am amxanagebis

erTgul sxva amxanagebs, magaliTad

rkinis feliqss, ucxo enebis mcodne

frunzes an sulac sakavSiro „starosta“

kalinins).

ar vici _ ratom, magram kinos

xalxTan (xSir SemTxvevaSi, sruliad

SemTxveviTi) axlobloba bedma marguna,

Cemi erT-erTi yvelaze sayvareli

megobari kinomcodnea (ra Tqma

unda, ara SemTxveviT; sxvaTa Soris,

saqarTveloSi Zneli gamosacnobi ar

unda iyos, vin igulisxmeba); me moulodnelad

gadavyrivar TbilisSi

quTaisis quCaze robert redfords

(erTi gamagebina, iq ra undoda,

manqanis nawils xom ar eZebda?);

anJeSi biblioTekarTa wveulebaze,

rogorc Semdeg gairkva, Cemi

maspinZlis, safrangeTis erovnuli

biblioTekis maSindeli direqtoris

megobars, qarTuli kulturisa

da, gansakuTrebiT, kulinariis damfasebels

ani Jirardos, romelsac

xaWapurze mokle, magram yovlismomcveli

leqcia wavukiTxe (maxsovda,

rom manamde, eldar riazanovis

gadacemaSi legendarulma frangma

msaxiobma xaWapuri rom axsena, sabWoTa

reJisors ratomRac xasiaTi

wauxda); moskovSi, sastumro „rosias“

derefanSi kinofestivalze gamarjvebul

italiel reJisor etore

skolas da Jiuris wevr jina lolobrijidas,

romelic ukve asakSi iyo,

magram mnaxvelebs mainc adgilze yinavda

gorgona meduzasaviT; moskovi-Tbilisis

reisze davmgzavrebivar

da dasvenebis saSualeba ar

mimicia lidia fedoseeva-SuqSinas-

Tvis, romelsac Tavxedurad vuxsnidi

SukSinis prozauli Semoqmedebis

Taviseburebebs; taSkenti-moskovis

matareblis saerTaSoriso kupeSi

„duraka“ miTamaSia ukve „Stirlic“

viaCeslav tixonovTan; santa monikaSi

liftSi Sevjaxebivar „dauxatav“

da daRlil Seron stouns,

romelic „holandiisTvis sakmarisi

iyo“ (ase upasuxa ssrk-s pirvelma

da ukanasknelma prezidentma, mi


xail gorbaCovma holandieli Jurnalistis

SekiTxvas, _ ganiaraRebis

Semdeg ramdeni birTvuli qobini

dagrCaTo); sigareti momiwevia antonio

banderasTan erTad „uorner

brazerzis“ studiis SesasvlelSi

da iseTi qaTinauri miTqvams qe-

Trin zeta-jonsisTvis, romelmac

gadasaReb filmSi Tavis partniors

moakiTxa, rom kinaRam safrTxe iyo

an maikl duglass movekali an saxelganTqmuli

amerikuli „seqSual

harasmentis“ muxlisTvis gamomekra

xeli, banderass rom ar ganemarta,

kavkasieli kavkasielia (erTi „kavkasieli“

TeTri rasis warmomadgenels

niSnavs da banderasma amitom ixmara

ormagi kavkasielis termini) da lamazi

qalisTvis qaTinauri magisTvis

gamarjobis anu Tqveneburi „hais“

tolfasiao.

am satrabaxo ambebidan mxolod

jina lolobrijida da viaCeslav

tixonovi Seadgendnen Cems simdidres

politikur banakSi moxvedramde,

yvela sxva Sexvedra Semdgom-

Si moxda. lismaniss, ra Tqma unda,

ulamazes jinaze Camovugde sityva

(rusi mzveravis, isaevis, imave Stirlicis

rolis Semsrulebel tixonovTan

samgzavro-samatareblo

axloblobiT trabaxi ar iqneboda

swori toni patiosan latviel nacionalistTan

saubrisas). lismanisi

kinos namdvili partizani iyo, maSin

ar vicodiT sityva, romelic axla

iolad aRwers dainisis mdgomareobas,

latvieli social-demokrati

kinos da, gansakuTrebiT, italiuri

kinos namdvili fani iyo. rogorc ki

jina lolobrijida vuxsene, lismanisi

aRelda.

_ ici Tu ara, Cemo qarTvelo megobaro,

rom lolobrijida yvelaze

amerikuli italieli msaxiobia,

sofi lorenze metadac ki? lolobrijida

yvelaze didi saxeli iyo

ormocdaaTiani wlebisa da samocianis

dasawyisis italiur kinoSi, Tumca

ra italiur, msoflio kinoSi!

da ici, ra periodi iyo es italiuri

kinosTvis? ici, rom mas uTamaSia

iseTi gigantebis mxardamxar, rogo-

rebic iyvnen bert lankasteri, iul

brineri, frenk sinatra, ser alek

ginesi?

_ me mxolod is vici, rom msgavsi

silamazis qali piradad, ase

vTqvaT, „cxovrebaSi“ arasodes minaxavs,

_ ganvacxade me da meaTasejer

daviwye moyola, Tu rogor SeveCexe

italielebis mTel xmaurian delegacias

moskovis sastumro „rosiis“

derefanSi 1975 wels, rodesac jina

lolobrijida ukve 48 wlisa iyo.

_ ici Tu ara, Cemo leevan (Léevan,

maxviliT pirvel e-ze), rom 1947

wels jinam monawileoba miiRo „mis

italiis“ silamazis konkursSi?

_ ara, es ar vicodi, magram warmomidgenia,

ra triumfiT gaimarjvebda,

maSin xom 20 wlisa iqneboda?!

_ ver gaimarjva! diax, ver gaimarjva!

sxvam gaimarjva, luCia bozem

(juzepe de santisis „ar aris mSvidoba

zeTisxilis xeebis qveS“, xuan

antonio bardemis „velosipedistis

sikvdili“) da meoreze jana maria

kanale gavida (amas, sxvaTa Soris,

ava gardners adarebdnen), lolobrijida

mxolod mesame iyo! daujere

axla silamazis konkursebs! lu-

Cia boze Cemi da Seni dasawuni qali

ar iyo, magram jina?!

lismanisi kinos, bunebrivia, kinomeqanikosis

jixuridan uyurebda da

xandaxan moulodnel da xmamaRal

komentarebsac akeTebda, ris gamoc

patimar-mayurebelTa erTi nawili

aRSfoTdeboda xolme, xolo meore

nawili gvarianad xalisobda. magaliTad,

sabWoTa propagandistuli

Sedevris, „damelodes“, anu «Жди

меня»-s demonstrirebisas, romel-

Sic qalis mTavar rols konstantine

simonovis meuRle, valentina

serova asrulebda, msaxiobi qalis

pirveli gamoCenisTanave lismanisma

filmis demonstrireba SeaCera da

xmamaRali komentari gaakeTa:

_ Tqven winaSea sabWoTa kinos merlin

monrod wodebuli qeraTmiani

lamazmani valentina vasilis asuli

serova, ruseTis ekranis ocdaaTianormociani

wlebis seqs-simbolo,

stalinis usayvarlesi msaxiobi, ro-

saavtoro

melsac msoflios xalxTa beladi

da kinos didi megobari Ckalovis

meuRlesTan erTad gverdiT daisvamda

xolme wveulebebze, radgan

es qalbatoni sabWoTa kavSiris gmiris,

espaneTis omSi TavgamoCenili

pilotis, anatoli serovis qvrivi

iyo. SemdgomSi aramzada (papaiano,

ar gewyinos!) konstantin simonovis

coli iyo, rasac xeli ar Seu-

Slia qeraTmiani mzeTunaxavisTvis,

romani gaeba maSindel general da

momaval marSal konstantin konstantines

Ze rokosovskisTan, iseTi

romani, rom amxanag stalins erTerT

miRebaze ukiTxavs general k.

k. rokosovskisTvis, _ xom ar ici,

amxanago rokosovski, visi colia

msaxiobi valentina serovao; rokosovskis

amouRerRavs, _ poet simo-

cxeli Sokoladi 79


saavtoro

noviso, _ da amxanag belads uTqvams,

_ mec ase vicodio. amis Semdeg momavali

marSali Tavis gulis satrfos

aRar gahkarebia. msaxiobi qali galoTda

da gardaicvala martoobaSi

1975 wels, samxreTelma da „Tbilma“

simonovma kislovodskSi dasveneba

ar Sewyvita da mxolod vardebis

gamogzavniT dakmayofilda. sabWo-

Ta kinos legenda ukanasknel gzaze

samiode kacma gaacila, maT Soris

_ qaliSvilma, maria simonovam. ase

rom, amxanag stalins qeraTmiani

lamazmanebi itacebda, gansxvavebiT

misi Tanamemamule, amJamad klub

sasadilos darbazSi myofi levan

berZeniSvilisgan, romelsac gaugebari

pretenziebi aqvs qeraTmianebis

mimarT. ganvagrZoT filmis Cveneba,

gmadlobT yuradRebisTvis, megobrebo.

lismanisi, rogorc wesi, saSinel

komentarebs akeTebda iseTi ukvdavi

sabWoTa Sedevrebis, rogorebic

iyo „SeiaraRebuli kaci“ (Человек с

ружьем), „lenini oqtomberSi“, „le-

nini 1918 wels“ da leninianas sxva

sabWoTa klasikad qceuli filmebis

demonstrirebisas, magram es komentarebi

xazgasmiT latviur enaze

keTdeboda da lismaniss yovelTvis

SeeZlo eTqva leninis rolis Semsrulebeli

msaxiobebis ostatobaze

vakeTeb komentarebso. xandaxan lismaniss

qarTvelebic exmaurebodnen

80 cxeli Sokoladi

darbazidan qarTul enaze warmo-

Tqmuli komentarebiT, romelSic

figurirebda iseTi uwyinari Sefasebebi,

rogoric iyo „garewari“,

„aramzada“, „dampali“, „tvingayinuli“

da sxv. am mxriv arc somxebi

CamogvrCebodnen da erTi-or lamaz

Sefasebas isrodnen ukvdavi grigol

narekacis enaze. ase rom, lismanis-

Tan erTad sabWoTa propagandis

saamayo Sedevrebis, e.w. mxatvruli

filmebis demonstrireba xalisianad

mimdinareobda.

erTxel warmoudgeneli ram moxda:

SabaTs kinoCvenebaze namdvili

kino moitanes, ingmar bergmanis „Semodgomis

sonata“ ingrid bergmanisa

da liv ulmanis monawileobiT. Cemi

azriT, baraSevos arazonur kino-

TeatrSi aCvenes mayurebels, romelsac

igi aqtiurad ar moewona da

sasjelis saxiT Semogvigdes banakSi

_ esec Tqveni sayvareli dasavleTi

da misi gaugebari Sedevrio. deda-

Svilis dramatul urTierTobebze

gadaRebuli, sakmaod rTuli da si-

vrceSi Caketili filmi patimrebs

maincdamainc ar moewonaT, magram

lismanisi xSirad aCerebda Cvenebas

da ingmar bergmanis oci filmis

ucvleli operatoris, sven niukvistis

ostatobaze amaxvilebda Cvens

yuradRebas. lismanisi namdvili

mxatvari iyo, iseT detalebs xedavda,

rom saxelganTqmuli niukvisti

siamovnebiT aiyvanda Tanaoperatorad

Tu ara, mTavari operatoris

asistentad mainc. Tanac, darwmunebuli

var, sakmaod civi da mudmivad

melanqoliuri, tokioSi dabadebuli

da kanadaSi aRzrdili norvegieli

liv ulmanis gamxiarulebasac ki

SeZlebda Tavisi uTvalavi anekdotiTa

da xalisiani moTxrobiT.

erTxel iseTi pativi gvces, rom,

romeliRac mxatvruli filmis

garda, e.w. Jurnalic mogvawodes.

lismanisma winaswar gagvafrTxila,

_ es kino ar aris, Jurnalia, kino

kidev iqnebao. „Jurnalad“ dokumenturi

moklemetraJiani filmi

gadioda, romelSic (ar dagaviwydeT,

es yvelaferi perestroikisa

da gaqanebuli sajaroobis epoqa-

Si xdeba) naCvenebi iyo unikaluri

kadrebi, romelsac aTwleulobiT

umalavdnen mTel msoflios rogorc

sabWoTa komunistebi, ise

dasavleli demokratebi. mokled,

dokumentur filmSi naCvenebi iyo,

Tu rogor gadasces ingliselebma

meore msoflio omis damTavrebis-

Tanave sabWoTa kavSirs maT saokupacio

zonaSi moxvedrili tyveebi.

lismanisi swrafad gaerkva situaciaSi

da gamoacxada, _ visac susti

guli gaqvT, darbazidan gadiT, ise

vatyob, saSineli kadrebi gvelodebao.

am komentarma adgils miajaWva

isinic, vinc Jurnalis gamotovebas

da wekos mosawevad gareT gasvlas

apirebda (klub-sasadilo marTla

klubi ki ar iyo, rom iq mowevis nebarTva

miecaT vinmesTvis).

ekranze gamoCnda Zalian maRali

xidi, romlidanac mdinaris xeobamde,

sul cota, asi metri mainc

iqneboda. Zalian Soridan iyo gadaRebuli

da TiTqmis araferi ar

Canda, magram rogorc ki kadris

daaxloeba daiwyo, gamoCnda raRac

wertilebi, romlebic xididan qvemoT

mieqanebodnen. rodesac kadri

kidev ufro axlos movida, cxadi

gaxda, rom es wertilebi adamianebia,

adamianebi, romlebic saku-

Tari nebiT xtebian mdinareSi da

Tavs iklaven. ЖХ 385/3-5-is klub


sasadilos mravlismnaxvel ekranze

xididan Rrma xeobaSi xtebodnen sabWoTa

tyveebi, maT Soris qalebi da

bavSvebic, oRond ki „Tavisianebis“

xelSi ar moxvedriliyvnen; ZiriTadi

masa ukan dabrunebas cdilobda,

magram ukan mibrunebulebs ingliselebi

cecxls uxsnidnen da adgilze

xocavdnen: xidze saSineli tragedia

trialebda, kacobriobis istoriaSi

yvelaze sastiki omis damTavrebidan

ramdenime TveSi ukve sisxlmonatrebul

sikvdils namdvili kalo hqonda

gamarTuli _ britanelTa saokupacio

zonaSi moxvedril sabWoTa

tyveebs win gulagi da masSi sikvdili

elodebodaT, ukan _ mokavSireebis

tyviiT sikvdili da qvemoT,

Rrma xeobaSi _ miwaze daxeTqebamde

haerSi sikvdili. am fonze gamoCnda

erTi patara kaci, romelic xelebaweuli

garboda rusebisken. kameram

igi sagangebod msxvili planiT

aiRo: patara kaci gaxarebuli garbis

Tavisianebisken, xelebs ucnaurad

iqnevs da raRacas iZaxis.

uecrad klub-sasadilo araadamianurma

Rrialma SeZra:

_ aaraa! aaraa! lismanis, gaaCere

kino, lismanis, gaaCere!

dabneulma lismanisma marTla „gaaCera

kino“ da Cvenma Tanazonelma

timinma, patara kacma, romelsac

manamde arasodes araferze xma ar

amouRia, arada namdvili saopero

baritoni aRmoaCnda, ekranze gaCerebul

gamosaxulebas mimarTa:

_ Куда прёшь, дуралей?! saiT garbixar,

idioto! es xom me var, biWebo!

es xom me var, saxlSi movrbivar ormoci

weli gulagSi amosaxrCobad!

ekranidan mas da yvelas axalgazrda

timini gviyurebda, gaRimebuls

ar esmoda, ra erCoda mas ormoci

wlis Semdeg misi sakuTari, gulagSi

gatanjuli arseba. lismanisma proeqtori

gamorTo, amasobaSi xma gavarda,

timinia ekranzeo da mTeli zona

klub-sasadiloSi Semovarda, maT

Soris iyvnen _ zonis ufrosi maiori

Salini, depeenka suraikini, aRmzrdelobiTi

samuSaoebis xelmZRvaneli

leiteranti arapovi, zedamxedvele-

bi trifonovi, kiseliovi da trimazkini

da uklebliv yvela patimari,

arkadi dudkinic ki, romelic, Tu

berlinis aRebaze da raixstagze

droSis aRmarTvaze ar iyo kino, sxva

filmebs arasodes ar swyalobda.

_ lismanis, moita timini, _ br-

Zana Salinma da lismanisma Tavidan

gauSva filmi zustad im adgilidan,

rodesac xidze gaCerebul masas gamoeyo

patara wertili, mere es wertili

nel-nela gadidda da utyuar

timinad iqca. morboda da morboda

gaxarebuli timini, morboda Tavisi

monatrebuli samSoblosaken, ocdaxuTwliani

ganaCenisken, romelsac

kidev oci ukve gulagSi daemata,

morboda, radgan egona, rom bolos

da bolos general vlasovis

armiaSi samsaxurs apatiebdnen da

rusulad mainc daelaparakebodnen.

zonis xelmZRvanelobam timini

iolad amoicno da Salinidan dawyebuli

trifonoviT damTavrebuli,

yvelas homerosuli xarxari

autyda, maT zogierTi patimaric

saavtoro

КУДА ПРЁШЬ, ДУРАЛЕЙ?! saiT garbixar, idioto! es xom me

var, biWebo! es xom me var, saxlSi movrbivar ormoci

weli gulagSi amosaxrCobad!

ahyva. kargi sanaxavi iyo klub-sasadilo,

sadac mayurebelTa erTi

nawili gulze skdeboda da meore

nawili gulianad icinoda. sacodavma

timinma jer sxvebiviT gacineba

scada, ar gamouvida, mere uecrad

guli wauvida da samxreT kavkasiis

qristian xalxTa federaciis wevrebma,

qarTvelebma da somxebma gareT

gamoviyvaneT, sadac adgilobrivma

eskulapusma, arnold andersonma

saswrafod moiyvana gonze Tavisi

saxelganTqmuli nouhauTi, romel-

Sic arasaidumlo ingredientebidan

mravalZarRvasa da pitnis nayeni Sedioda,

xolo saidumlo ingredientebis

Semadgenlobas sabWoTa polivitaminebis

avtori saguldagulod

malavda.

_ esec Cveni sasiqadulo uinston

CerCili! _ wamoiZaxa Jora xomizurma,

_ ki werda amaze aleqsandr isaeviCi,

magram me mainc gadaWarbebuli

kritika megona.

>>> gagrZeleba gv. 102

cxeli Sokoladi 81


saavtoro

xelovneba da `perversiebi~

akrZaluli survilebi

avtori: giorgi maisuraZe

ilustracia: maia sumbaZe

„Cven visjebiT imitom, rom seqsi viRacam odesRac codvad gamoacxada“.

miSel fuko

Rrmadmorwmune rus filosofoss vasili rozanovs

aseTi azri ekuTvnis: Tuki seqsi siyvarulis umaRlesi

xorcieli gamoxatulebaa, maSin ratomRa unda gvikvirdes

incesti? _ is xom adamianis ukeTilSobiles

ltolvas ganasaxierebs...

82 cxeli Sokoladi

incesti, anu seqsualuri kavSiri sakuTari ojaxis

wevrebTan, kacobriobis istoriis albaT yvelaze

didi da uZvelesi tabua, romlis gaCenasac anTropologebi

kulturis warmoSobas, adamianTa jogis

_ sazogadoebad, civilizaciad qcevas ukavSireben.


„kultura“ da „civilizacia“ ki adamianis ara mxolod

ganviTarebulobis, aramed misi Tavisuflebis

CaxSobis simboloebicaa. filosofosi herbert markuze

werda, rom „Tuki Tavisuflebis arqetipi CaxSobis

ararsebobaa, civilizacia am Tavisuflebis

winaaRmdeg brZolad SegviZlia ganvixiloT“. Tumca,

Tavisuflebis aRmniSvneli uZvelesi sityva, romelic

Sumerul enaSia mocemuli, erTgvar „incestualur“

Sinaarss gadmogvcems, romelic sityva-sityviT „dedasTan

dabrunebas“ niSnavs da am metaforiT mzis

RmerTis RamRamobiT sakuTar dedis wiaRSi Sesvla da

diliT misi saSodan kvlavdabadeba igulisxmeba.

davubrundeT isev markuzes debulebas, romelic

civilizaciisa da CaxSobis, anu „represiis“ urTierTmimarTebis

fsiqoanalitikur suraTs gadmogvcems:

fsiqoanalizis fuZemdebelma zigmund froidma incestis

Tema gasaRebad gamoiyena adamianis aracnobieri

fsiqikis uxilav samyaroSi Sesasvlelad da berZnuli

miTologiis erT-erTi yvelaze tragikuli gmiris mefe

oidiposis figuriT fsiqoanalitikuri metafora „oidiposis

kompleqsi“ Seqmna, romelic patara bavSvis sasiyvarulo

ltolvas gansxvavebuli sqesis mSoblis mimarT

gamoxatavs. amasTanave, sakuTari sqesis mSobeli

bavSvisaTvis konkurentad aRiqmeba da aseTi gaorebuli

damokidebuleba siyvarulisa da siZulvilis pirveladi

obieqtebisadmi gansazRvravs adamianis fsiqoseqsualur

bunebas. froidis Tanaxmad, aracnobieri

fsiqika gandevnili da CaxSobili survilebisagan Sedgeba,

romlebic adamians nevrozebis, fsiqozebisa da

sxva fsiqikuri usiamovnebebis saxiT ubrundeba. warmoSobisTanave

CaxSobili survilebi ki aracnobier-

Sive „perversiebad“ gardaiqmneba, romlebsac froidi

fotografiul termin „negativs“ adarebs: perversiebi

nevrozebis negativebia. Tavad „perversia“ ki laTinuri

warmoSobis sityvaa da qarTulad „gaukuRmarTebad“

iTargmneba da masSi, upirveles yovlisa, sazogadoebrivad

miRebuli normebidan gadaxveva igulisxmeba.

seqsologiaSi ki es termini seqsualobis garkveul

marginalur formebs aRniSnavs, rogorebicaa, magali-

Tad, sodomia, anu seqsualuri ltolva cxovelebis

mimarT, an koprofilia _ seqsualuri aRgzneba ganavalze,

agreTve nekrofilia _ gvamebis siyvaruli da

a. S. perversiaTa yvelaze gavrcelebul formebad ki

sadizmi, anu partniorisaTvis seqsualuri aqtis dros

tkivilis miyeneba da misi sapirispiro forma _ mazoxizmi,

anu sasiyvarulo grZnobis tkivilTan da tanjvasTan

gaigiveba miiCneva. es ukanaskneli, romelic

samedicino terminad XIX saukuneSi gaCnda da romelic

avstrieli mwerlis leopold fon zaxer-mazoxis saxels

ukavSirdeba, ukve XX saukunis meore naxevarSi

araerTi Teoretikosis mier SemoqmedebiTi procesis

erT-erT mTavar mamoZravebel impulsad gamocxadda:

xelovani, romelic sakuTari survilebisa da ltol-

saavtoro

vebis ganxorcielebis SeuZleblobas acnobierebs, maT

realizebas mxatvruli fantaziebis meSveobiT cdilobs.

xelovnebis nawarmoebi ki avtoris mier gancdili

tkivilebis gamosaxva da warmosaxvis gziT maTi xelaxali

gancdaa. amdenad, xelovneba pirdapir kavSirSia

„perversiebTan“.

„perversia“ aris akrZalvis, normebis dawesebis Sedegi

da ara adamianis fsiqikis „pirvandeli“ mdgomareoba.

imisaTvis, rom akrZalvam „imuSaos“, arqaul

da tradiciul sazogadoebebSi mas religiuri Sinaarsi

aqvs da is RmerTis an RmerTebis nebad cxaddeba.

RmerTis saxeliT laparakis monopolia ki religiur

instituciebsa aqvT, romelTa sazogadoebrivi da

politikuri funqciac ara „WeSmaritebis“ samsaxuri,

aramed swored represiuli, CamxSobi da sadamsjelo

meqanizmebis legitimaciaa. winaremodernul sazogadoebebSi

kanonmdebloba, romelic sazogadoebriv

urTierTobaTa dasaregulireblad iqmneba, sakraluri,

religiuri Sinaarsisaa da misi mizani, upirveles

yovlisa, sazogadoebrivi ierarqiebisa da Zalauflebis

sistemebis ganmtkicebaa, romlebsac adamianTa

Tavisufleba ewireba msxverplad. amitomac sruliad

bunebrivia, rom yvela humanisturi Tu saganmanaTleblo

da ganmaTavisuflebeli moZraobis kritikis mTavari

samizne religiuri instituciebia, ramdenadac

religia, raoden amaRlebul da kacTmoyvare idealebidanac

unda iyos warmoSobili (amis TvalsaCino

magaliTia qristes moZRvreba), sazogadoebriv-politikur

instituciad qcevisTanave, sadamsjelo da

totalitaruli ideologiebis saTaved gvevlineba.

religiis siaxlove totalitarizmTan imdenad didia,

rom TviT yvelaze metad aTeisturi totalitarizmebic

ki sakuTar ideologiebs religiebis analogiiT

qmnian da maT msgavsad represiebiTa da SeCvenebiT

dganan „ubiwobisa“ da „moralis“ sadarajoze. Tumcaki

saxelisuflebo da religiur instituciaTa istoria

imasac gvaCvenebs, rom xSirad swored moralisa

da zneobis am darajebs xelT epyraT monopolia

imaze, rasac isini Tavad codvad da garyvnilebad

acxadebdnen. Zalaufleba, romelic mis armqoneTa

damorCilebiTa da daqvemdebarebiT xorcieldeba,

siamovnebaze uflebis garanticaa da, amdenad, marTebuli

mgonia is mosazreba, rom revoluciebi swored

am uflebis mosapoveblad xdeba.

Tumca arsebobs sfero, romelSic ufro didi revoluciuri

Zvrebia SesaZlebeli, vidre nebismier

SeiaraRebul ajanyebaSi, saxelmwifo gadatrialebasa

Tu „xaverdovan“ revoluciebSi. esaa Semoqmedeba,

romelSic da romlis meSveobiTac adamiani imis gancdas,

Tundac gamoxatuli warmosaxvis doneze mainc

axerxebs, risi realobaSi ganxorcielebis uflebac

mas zneobis anaforianma Tu sxva uniformianma damcvelebma

waarTves da saTavisod miisakuTres.

cxeli Sokoladi 83


saavtoro

yvela humanisturi Tu saganmanaTleblo da ganmaTavisuflebeli moZraobis kritikis mTavari

samizne religiuri instituciebia, ramdenadac religia, raoden amaRlebul da kacTmoyvare

idealebidanac unda iyos warmoSobili (amis TvalsaCino magaliTia qristes moZRvreba),

sazogadoebriv-politikur instituciad qcevisTanave, sadamsjelo da totalitaruli

ideologiebis saTaved gvevlineba.

xelovnebis dabadeba `codvis~ sulidan

Tavis pirvel wignSi _ „tragediis dabadeba musikis

sulidan“ nicSe mefe oidiposis danaSauls _ mamis

mkvlelobasa da dedaze qorwinebas bunebriobis sawinaaRmdegod

mimarTul imdenad did qmedebas uwodebs,

romelic Tavad bunebas aiZulebs, misi idumalebani

gasces. nicSesTvis oidiposi filosofosis prototipia,

romelic akrZalul sferoSi SesvliT samyaros

idumal kanonebs imecnebs. igi mis saqciels promeTes

gmirobas adarebs, romelmac RmerTebs cecxli mohpara

da, maTi nebis sawinaaRmdegod, adamianebs „RvTaebrivi

xelobebi“ aswavla. Zvel berZnul enaSi „xeloba“

da „xelovneba“ erTi da igive sityviT gadmoicema.

Semoqmedi adamianis pirvelxateba RmerTebis mier dawesebuli

kanonebis darRveva, am kanonebis winaaRmdeg

svlaa. „saidumloebebi“ ki, romlebic akrZalvebiTa

da xelSeuxeblobiTaa yadaRadasmuli, gandevnil da

Caklul survilTa is sferoa, romelSi cota xniT

mainc Caxedvis ufleba antikuri sazogadoebebis adamianebs

weliwadSi erTxel mainc misteriebis dros

eZleodaT. am religiuri dResaswaulebis zeniti iniciaciis

anu ziarebis ritualebi iyo. aseT ritualebs

ki xSirad sruliad Riad seqsualuri forma hqonda,

romelsac Tan axlda orgiebi da sqesobrivi rolebis

aRreva. maTi meSveobiT ki adamiani imas eziareboda,

risi uflebac mas yoveldRiur yofa-cxovrebaSi ar

eZleoda. magram antikuri xanis adamianma isic icoda,

rom siamovnebis am formebze monopolia mxolod

RmerTebisTvis iyo gankuTvnili. RmerTebi adamianebis

SeuzRudav uflebas siamovnebasa da gancxromaze

ganasaxierebdnen. es iyo maTi zeadamianuri Zalis,

RvTaebriobis gamoxatuleba. adamianebi ki, romlebic

sakuTari ZalauflebiT Tavs RmerTebs utolebdnen,

aseT Zalauflebas xSirad swored seqsualuri aRviraxsnilobiT

gamoxatavdnen.

misteriebis Tanmxlebi Zvel saberZneTsa da romSi

Teatraluri sanaxaobebic iyo, saidanac Tavisufali

xelovnebis pirveli formebi daibada. „Tavisufali

xelovneba“ am SemTxvevaSi swored religiuri normebisagan

Tavisuflebas niSnavs. magaliTad, rodesac

berZeni tragikosi poeti esqile Tavsi tragediaSi

„mijaWvuli promeTe“ meamboxe titans aTqmevinebs,

rom uzenaesi RvTaebis _ zevsis xelisufleba daemxoba,

yofiT situaciaSi aseTi gancxadeba RvTis gmoba

iqneboda, literaturul TxzulebaSi ki, romelic

84 cxeli Sokoladi

misteriebis dros TamaSdeboda, xelovans imis saSualeba

eZleoda, rom sakuTari „mkrexeluri“ mosazreba

sajarod gamoeTqva.

magram amgvari „SemoqmedebiTi Tavisufleba“ mono-

Teisturi religiebis gamarjvebisTanave moispo. saxelmwifo

religiis rangSi aRzevebulma qristianobam

erTmaneTze miyolebiT akrZala olimpiuri TamaSobebi,

antikuri Teatri, filosofosTa akademiebi, TviT

sajaro „biblioTekebic“ ki. miuxedavad amisa, TviT

am „bnel xanad“ wodebul Sua saukuneebSic ki arsebobda

sferoebi, romlebSic eklesiam da Zalauflebis

struqturebma Tavisi represiuli aparatis amuSaveba

bolomde ver SeZles. pirvel rigSi, es iyo qristianuli

mistika, romelic saeklesio dogmatikis CarCoebSi

ver jdeboda da mis akrZalul sazRvrebsac abijebda.

ramdenadac mistikosebis umravlesoba Tavad

sasuliero piri iyo, azrs moklebuli ar unda iyos

is mosazreba, rom maT sruliad Segnebulad Seqmnes

werisa da saubris „gaucnaurebuli“ stili, romelsac

isini eklesiisa da oficiozis sxva Cinovnikebisagan

unda daecva. miuxedavad amisa, araerTi Sua saukuneebis

mistikosi an maTi naweri mainc aRmoCnda eklesiisa

da RmrTis saxeliT danTebul koconze.

mistika RvTaebriv siyvaruls eqstatur formas aZlevs.

qristianuli mistikis erT-erTi pirveli warmomadgeneli

fsevdo-dionise areopageli (swored is pirovneba,

romelic saqarTveloSi qarTuli warmomavlobis

RvTismetyvel petre iberTanaa gaigivebuli), RvTaebriv

siyvarulze saubrisas xmarobs berZnul sityva

„eross“, romelic xorciel siyvaruls niSnavs da ara

qristesmieri siyvarulisa Tu saTnoebis aRmniSvnel

„agapes“. amasTanave, es mistikosi eross kidev erT winaqristianul

berZnul termin „eqstaziasTan“ akavSirebs,

romelic eqstazs, Tavdaviwyebas gamoxatavs. sasiyvarulo

Tavdaviwyeba RmerTs samyaros aqmnevinebs.

amis sawinaaRmdegod, „oficialur“ qristianobaSi

sxeulebriv siamovnebaTa uaryofam da gmobam imdenad

totaluri saxe miiRo, rom Zalauneburad misi Sedareba

erT nevrotul meqanizmTan SeiZleboda, romelsac

„uaryofa“ ewodeba: nevrozebi, romelTa negativebic

perversiebia, TavianT farul Sinaarss misi amoCemebuli

uaryofiT, negaciiT gamoxataven. Sinaarsi, romlis

gamomzeurebasac nevrotuli pirovneba mTeli Tavisi

ZalisxmeviT ewinaaRmdegeba, sakuTar Tavs hyidis

am Sinaarsis arcTu iSviaTad sruliad ukonteqsto


da agresiul uaryofaSi. aseTi „uaryofebis“ yvelaze

cnobili da banaluri magaliTia: „iciT, me ara var

homoseqsuali... me homoseqsuali ar gegonoT“... amaze

fsiqoanalitikosis pirvelive reaqcia iqneboda: „ma-

Sasadame es pirovneba homoseqsualia“. arsebobs „uaryofis“

ufro mZafri muxtis matarebeli, agresiuli

variantebic: „me mZuls homoseqsualebi... pidarastebis

deda“... _ amgvari formulebis analiziT miRebuli

yvelaze martivi diagnozi ase SeiZleba gamoiyurebodes:

nevrozis Sinaarsi CaxSobili da gandevnili homoseqsualuri

survilis sado-mazoxistur perversiad

gardaqmnaa. adamianis siZulvilis obieqti sakuTari

Tavia, romelic gandevnil survils gaukuRmarTebuli,

anu perversiuli formiT isrulebs, rodesac mas

sZuls is adamianebi, romlebsac am survilis asruleba

SeuZliaT. am SemTxvevaSi misi agresia erosis, siyvarulis

gaukuRmarTebuli, Sebrunebuli formaa da

igi am formiT amyarebs Tavisi grZnobebis obieqtTan

erotul kavSirs. amasTanave, igi ganicdis mazoxistur

siamovnebas sakuTari Tavis dasjiT, pirvandeli survilis

codvad da mankierebad SeracxviT.

merab mamardaSvils ekuTvnis jojoxeTis metafo-

ris aseTi xatovani ganmarteba: „jojoxeTia, rodesac

dabmuli xar da Sen Tvalwin aupatiureben Sens satrfos“.

jojoxeTis kuprSi wva mazoxisturi fantaziebis

triumfia, romelic nebadakarguli adamianis

maradiul tanjvas da sakuTari survilebis verasrulebas,

maT gamo dasjasa da gvemas ganasaxierebs.

qristianulma eklesiam ki mTeli kacobrioba gamoacxada

codvilad da amisaTvis mas survilebsa da

siamovnebaze uaris Tqma da codvebis gamosasyidad

mTeli sicocxlis manZilze TviTgvema miusaja. amiT

ki eklesia miwaze, saaqaoSi Seudga imis Seqmnasa da

ganxorcielebas, rasac igi saiqioSi arsebul jojoxeTad

warmosaxavda. filosofos miSel fukos TqmiT,

„arasdros hqonia seqsualobas esoden uSualo da bunebrivi

mniSvneloba, rogorc Sua saukuneebis dacemuli

sxeulebisa da codvebis samyaroSi“.

xorcieli eqstazi, orgaistika, dawesebuli da

wmindad Seracxuli normebis darRveva Semoinaxa Sua

saukuneebis „dabal fenebad“ wodebul uuflebo da

saavtoro

wera-kiTxvis ucodinari xalxis karnavalurma kulturam,

romelTa qarTuli nairsaxeoba berikaoba da

yeenobaa. am kulturis yvelaze cnobili mkvlevari

mixail baxtini karnavals „utopiuri Tavisuflebis“

gamoxatulebas uwodebs, romlis drosac adamianebs

ufleba eZleodaT ierarqiisa da mmarTveli klasebisaTvis,

TviT saeklesio avtoritetebisTvisac ki

daecinaT, masxrad aegdoT normatiuli wesrigi da

SeuzRudavi Tavisuflebis idealuri samyaro Teatraluri

da xSirad „uxamsi“ formebiTac gamoesaxaT.

ukve gvian Sua saukuneebSi eklesiam karnavaluri

kultura alqajTa Tavyrilobad Seracxa da mTeli

Tavisi sisastike swored am uswavlel xelovanTa da

Tavisufal moazrovneTa winaaRmdeg mimarTa, magram

misi aRmofxvra mainc ver SeZlo. Tanamedrove samyaroSi

ki igi masobriv kulturas Seerwya da Cveulebriv

komerciul dResaswaulad iqca, romlis erTerTi

yvelaze cnobili magaliTicaa „helouini“.

baxtinisa da ara mxolod misi azriT, swored am

„mdabioTa“ uxamsma kulturam udidesi sasicocxlo

impulsebi misca renesansis saxviT xelovnebasa da

literaturas. karnavaluri warmoSobisaa xelovnebis

iseTi formebi, rogorebicaa parodia da groteski,

romlebSic utrirebisa da gadametebis meSveobiT,

epataJiTa da ironiiT sakmaod radikaluri socialuri

da politikuri kritika Tu protesti gamoixateba.

Tavad karnavaluri Janri ki, romlisTvisac dawesebuli

normebisa da sazRvrebis gadabijeba da „akrZaluli“

da codvad Seracxuli Temebis kultivirebaa

damaxasiaTebeli, mTeli simZafriT Sua saukuneebis

religiuri wesrigisa da „Zveli reJimebis“ damxobis

Semdeg gamoCnda da TandaTanobiT klasikur Janrad

iqca, romlebsac ukve universitetebSi aswavlian.

xelovneba, rogorc `paTologia~ da

`boroteba~

„Я люблю смотреть как умирают дети“. _ vladimir

maiakovski

XVIII saukuneSi, safrangeTis revoluciamde ramdenime

wliT adre gaCnda literaturuli Janri,

cxeli Sokoladi 85


saavtoro

Tuki civilizaciis, wesrigiani samyaros arqetipi Tavisuflebis CaxSobaa, Semoqmedeba

am dakarguli Tavisuflebis ukan dabrunebisa da misi gancdis, sulieri travmebisa da

tkivilebisgan gankurnebis erTaderTi saSualebacaa.

romelsac „libertinuli“ ewoda da romelic, sayovelTaod

aRiarebuli moraluri da seqsualuri

normebis sawinaaRmdegod, srul aRviraxsnilobas

aRwerda da yovelgvar zneobriv tradicias abuCad

igdebda. am Janris erT-erTi pirveli da yvelaze

cnobili warmomadgeneli frangi markizi donasien

alfons fransua de sadi kacobriobis istoriaSi,

upirveles yovlisa, misi saxelidan warmoebuli fsiqopaTologiuri

terminis sadizmis saxeliT Sevida.

sadi, garda skandaluri romanebis avtorobisa, axali

epoqis pirveli udidesi disidentic iyo, romelic

Tanabari ukompromisobiTa da radikalurobiT

akritikebda jer monarqiasa da samRvdeloebas, Semdeg

iakobinelTa diqtaturasa da „direqtorias“,

bolos ki napoleonis imperias. XX saukunis germaneli

dramaturgis peter vaisis piesaSi „marat/sadi“

ukve fsiqiatriul klinikaSi iZulebiT moTavsebuli

sadi ixsenebs safrangeTis mefe lui XV-ze ganxorcielebul

warumatebel teraqtSi dadanaSaulebuli

pirovnebis _ damianes sikvdiliT dasjis ambavs.

parizis erT-erT centralur moedanze ramdenime

saaTs grZeldeboda sikvdiliT dasjis sanaxaoba.

braldebuli neli da xangrZlivi wamebiT mokles.

am istoriis gaxsenebisas ki sads yuradReba imaze

gadaaqvs, rom moedanze mdgari erTi saxlis fanjaraSi

jakomo kazanova Cans, romelsac erTdroulad

or qalTan seqsi aqvs. Cemi azriT, peter vaiss am

erT scenaSi naCvenebi aqvs sadis Semoqmedebis mTeli

arsi: im dros, rodesac safrangeTSi mravalwliani

politikuri terori, samoqalaqo Tu imperiuli omebi

mZvinvarebda, sadma Tavis romanebSi yovelgvar

zRudes moklebuli da „aRviraxsnili“ seqsualobis

detaluri aRweriT erTgvari hiperrealoba Seqmna,

romelmac yoveldRe giliotinaze mokveTili Tavebis

naxviT emociebdaClungebuli adamianebis Se-

Zrwuneba da maTTvis mgrZnobelobis unaris dabruneba

SeZlo.

sekularuli „modernis“ xanaSi religiuri akr-

Zalvebis adgili sazogadoebrivma moralizmma da

iurisprudenciam daikava, religiebs samecniero

diskursebi Caenacvla, „codvas“ _ „perversiebi“

da „paTologiebi“. XIX saukunis araerTi cnobili

mwerali da xelovani aRmoCnda axali zneobrivi

instanciebis Setevisa da Tavdasxmebis samizne.

samagaliTod gustav floberisa da oskar uaildis

winaaRmdeg mimarTuli sasamarTlo procesebis gax-

86 cxeli Sokoladi

senebac SeiZleba. araevropul qveynebSi ki, magali-

Tad ruseTis imperiaSi, sadac sazogadoebrivi ganviTarebis

done sagrZnoblad CamorCeboda evropul

standartebs, 1917 wlamde isev mZlavrobda saeklesio

cenzura, romelsac Zala Seswevda dostoevskis

romanidan „eSmakni“ mTeli erTi Tavi amoeRo, xolo

tolstoi anaTemisTvis gadaeca.

magram aseT konfliqtebze metad mniSvnelovani

is aris, rom „modernis“ xanaSi xelovanis, Semoqmedi

adamianis da Tavad Semoqmedebis paradigma icvleba

an, ufro swori iqneboda, xelovnebis dafaruli arsi

mJRavndeba: literatura da xelovneba (romlebic

am SemTxvevaSi erTi da igivea) gvevlineba rogorc

Semdgari, ganxorcielebuli subversia, mimarTuli

moraluri warmodgenebisa da politikuri wesrigis

winaaRmdeg. xelovnebis subversiuloba imiTac gamoixateba,

rom is adamianebis nervebze moqmedebs,

wesebs da konvenciebs arRvevs, mudmiv konfliqtSia

sazogadoebasTan da mis tradiciul faseulobeb-

Tan. esaa xelovnebis suverenulobis arsi, romelic

verc erTi normatiuli wesrigis farglebSi ver Tavsdeba

da, rogorc iuri lotmani ambobs, „ara mxolod

akrZaluls, aramed SeuZlebelsac SesaZlebels

xdis“. is, rac ver xerxdeba realobaSi, xorcs isxams

gamoTqmul da gamosaxul fantaziebSi. xelovneba

imdenadaa xelovneba, ramdenadac igi „akrZalul

Temebs“ ar cnobs, ramdenadac misTvis zRudeebi da

Tematuri ierarqiebi ar arsebobs da yvelaze Zlieri

ideologiuri wnexisa Tu zogjer niRbis qveSac

ki arsebuli realobis Semaryevel biZgebs warmoqmnis.

yvela sxva SemTxvevaSi, xelovneba ideologiuri

nagvis reproduqciis samsaxurSia. xelovnebaSi ara

mxolod cocxldeba, aramed legitimuri xdeba is,

rac akrZaluli da CaxSobili iyo _ adamianis survilebi,

romlebic represiis Sedegad „gaukuRmarTebuli“,

perversiuli saxiT amotivtivdeba Semoqmedi

adamianis imaginarul, anu warmosaxviT samyaroSi. es

faqtori ki ukve radikalurad cvlis xelovani adamianis,

rogorc xelovnebis subieqtis paradigmas: is

RvTisgan boZebuli zeadamianuri unarebiT dajildoebuli

RmerTkaci ki aRaraa, aramed sigiJis zRvarze

myofi, garyvnili da amoraluri fantaziebis

patroni, romelsac sircxvilis grZnoba aqvs dakarguli

da sakuTar uintimures detalebsac ki sajarod

yvelas acnobs. jer kidev XIX saukuneSi gavrcelda

azri, rom genialuroba fsiqopaTiis nairsaxeobaa.


poststruqturalizmis erT-erTi pirveli Teoretikosi

rolan bartis azriT ki, „yvela mwerals Seu-

Zlia Tqvas: sigiJemde ver vqaCav, janmrTelad yofnas

ver vkadrulob, maSasadame nevrotuli var“.

iseve rogorc nevrozebis, xelovnebis „negativebic“

perversiebia. XX saukunis erT-erTi yvelaze

skandaluri mwerali da Teoretikosi JorJ batai Tavis

Teoriul naSromSi, romelsac „literatura da

boroteba“ ewodeba, ase gansazRvravs literaturis

arss: „literatura... borotebis mwvaved gamoxatuli

formaa, Tavad borotebaa... es debuleba ara moralis

arqonas, aramed zemorals moiTxovs“. amgvari

„zemorali“ yofiTi samyaros zneobriv normativebze

gadabijebas niSnavs. aqve gasaxsenebelia lotmanis

azric, rom yoveli axali, novatoruli mxatvruli

forma, „tradiciuli azris matarebelTa mxridan

ukanonod da maTi grZnobebis Seuracxmyofladac ki

fasdeba; esaa Sokis momgvreli metafora, romelic

SemoqmedebiTi aqtis Sedegia“. anu Semdgari SemoqmedebiTi

aqti ukve Tavisdauneburad damkvidrebuli

formebisa da normebis ngrevas an maTgan gamijvnas,

maT uaryofasac iwvevs. amdenad, sruliad bunebri-

via isic, rom tradicionalistebi mas sakuTar Rirebulebebze

Tavdasxmad aRiqvamen. amis sapirispirod,

ideologiuri fsevdo-xelovneba sicocxlisgan daclili

da didi xnis gaxunebuli mkvdari formebis

kvlavwarmoebiTaa dakavebuli, romlebic wmindad

propagandistuli Sinaarsis garda, aranair emociur

muxts ar gadmoscemen. esaa frigiduli xelovneba an

xelovnebis surogati, romelic ara cocxali adamianebisaTvis,

aramed zombebisaTvisaa gankuTvnili,

maT kidev ufro metad dasakabaleblad da maTSi

sicocxlis impulsebis kidev ufro metad gasaneitraleblad.

xelovneba imdenadaa dinamikuri da cocxali,

ramdenadac mas axali formebis, metaforebis,

gamosaxvis saSualebebis warmoqmna SeuZlia,

romlebic Tavdapirvelad perversiad da uxamsobad

aRiqmeba da sazogadoebaSi daZabuloba Semoaqvs.

gansakuTrebiT aRSfoTebulia sazogadoebis is nawili,

romelic xelovnebis nawarmoebSi sakuTar Tavs,

sakuTar verrealizebul da CaxSobil grZnobebs

saavtoro

amoicnobs. aseTi adamianebi sakuTar farul vnebebs

gaSiSvlebulsa da mxilebuls xedaven, rogorc dostoevskis

romanis „danaSaulisa da sasjelis“ mTavar

protagonists, rodion raskolnikovs quCaSi yurmokruli

fraza „mkvlelo!“ mis pirovnul samxilad

eCveneba. aseve xelovnebis nawarmoebis SinaarsiTa

Tu formiT aRSfoTebuli adamianic mas Tavis pirovnul

„lustraciad“ da Seuracxyofad iRebs.

rodesac xelovneba Tavis perversiulobas kargavs

da sayovelTaod misaRebi da xelmisawvdomi

xdeba, banalur stereotipad gadaiqceva, romelic

pirvandel mniSvnelobas icvlis da TandaTanobiT

ideologiuri instrumentis funqciasac iZens. rolan

barti literaturul Txzulebas usaqcielo

pirovnebas adarebs, romelic „mama-politikas ukanals

aCvenebs“. „mama-politika“ aq konservatoruli

azrovnebis, ideologiuri kulturis statikurobis

simboloa, romelic „Svilebisgan“ morCilebasa

da qedmoxrilobas moiTxovs da nebismieri sasicocxlo

formis aqtiobis gamovlinebas SeCvenebiTa da

CaxSobiT emuqreba. mxatvruli nawarmoebiT amgvari

avtoritetebisa da cenzorebis mimarT is SiSi da

mowiweba gadailaxeba, romelic adamianis sasicocxlo

energiebis daTrgunviskenaa mimarTuli. Tuki

civilizaciis, wesrigiani samyaros arqetipi Tavisuflebis

CaxSobaa, Semoqmedeba am dakarguli Tavisuflebis

ukan dabrunebisa da misi gancdis, sulieri

travmebisa da tkivilebisgan gankurnebis erTader-

Ti saSualebacaa. amdenad Semoqmedebas, raoden cinikuri

da „borotic“, „garyvnilebisa“ da „perversiebis“

gamomsaxvelic unda iyos igi, Terapiuli

funqcia aqvs ara mxolod avtorisaTvis, aramed misi

mimRebi da gamgebi auditoriisTvisac. aqve gasagebia

avtoritaruli ideologiuri organizaciebis,

rogoricaa eklesia, xelovnebisadmi SiSi da zizRi,

ramdenadac xelovnebas, zogjer Sokuri, zogjer ki

ufro Sefaruli da SeniRbuli formiT adamianebSi

sicocxlisa da Tavisuflebisaken ltolvis impulsebis

gamZafreba SeuZlia. es ki adamianis nebisa da

survilebis damTrgunvel instituciebs dasayrdensa

da Zalauflebas aclis.

cxeli Sokoladi 87


gagrZeleba

erTi saaTi TbilisisTvis


obda, saqarTveloSi axali, Signidan

warmoqmnili barieri gaCnda

avangardisa da Tanamedrove xelovnebisTvis.

es iyo komerciulobis

da prestiJulobis gafetiSeba.

arakomerciuli aq warumatebel-

Tan da uiRblosTan gaigivda, ri-

Tac, TavisTavad win wamoiwia Tanamedrove

art konteqstebisTvis

miuRebelma salonurma Rirebulebebma.

saqarTveloSi burJuaziuli

kultura bolomde ver Semovida

da mdidruli, Tanamedrove galereebi

naklebad Seiqmna. moskovs,

rogorc megapoliss, aseTi pretenziis

meti Sansi hqonda da albaT

amitomac, Tavs iseTi fufunebis

uflebac misca, rom sakuTar

kulturaSi wamyvan generatorad

daetovebina araformaluri xelovneba.

marTlac, dRes kabakovi muzeu-

mebSia, bugaevs, igive afrikas, niu-

iorkSi xSirad naxavT da CelsiSic

gamoifineba, german vinogradovi

moskovSi, isev sakuTar samsarTulian

binaSi atarebs grandiozul

alqimiur-Samanur-musikalur performansebs

yovel kvira dRes, Tu

evropul turneebze ar aris wasuli.

bartenevi sabWoTa xelovnebis

magnatTan, zurab wereTelTan er-

Tad awyobs erTobliv samxatvro

seansebs. Jana aguzarova da sxva

rusi artistebi amerikidan isev

ruseTs daubrundnen. TbilisSic,

`meaTe sarTulTan~ dakavSirebuli

artistebi yovelwliurad axal

samuSaos gvTavazoben. awyoben gamofenebs

da isini dResac progresuli

inteleqtualuri dizainis

birTvs warmoadgenen. da mainc, am

yvelafris institucionalizacia

jer kidev ar momxdara, da is Cven-

diletantis mogzauroba poloneTSi


gagrZeleba

studenturi amboxeba mickeviCis

poema `papebis~ akrZalviT daiwyo,

magram xelisuflebis mier `Segdebuli~

xazis wyalobiT, male

antisemitizmis niSnebi SeiZina.

maSin am ambebma Seiwira mwerali

iasenica, romelic studentebis

Tavdapirvel moTxovnebs mxars

aqtiurad uWerda. iasenicas ciliswamebis

talRa daatyda da

gulma veRar gauZlo. es iyo `swori

polonelebis~ xelSi Cadebuli

samarTeblis namdvili msxverpli.

Julavskis, SeiZleba qvecnobieradac,

raRac metis Tqma undoda _

mowesrigebulobaSi, sworxazovnebasa

da meinstrimulSi damalul

safrTxeze miTiTeba.

ajanyebebi da qalebi

`ra aris poloneTi bolos da

bolos, _ uTqvams erT rus diplomats

varSavaSi, banketze, _ bevri

kartofili, vaSli da `straikebi,

straikebi~... diplomati mTvrali

iyo da mTavari daaviwyda _ poloneli

qalebi. Tanac bolo ori

elementi erTmaneTs mWidrod ukavSirdeba.

sadac ajanyebebi iyo,

iyvnen poloneli qalebic, rogorc

STagonebis, suliskveTebis

wyaro. nikoloz I-s uyvarda poloneli

qalebi, da Tan, mgoni, cota

eSinoda kidec maTi, imitom rom

poloneTSi momsaxure Svils, momaval

imperators werilSi afrTxilebda,

_ frTxilad iyavi magaT-

Tan, raRac magiuri momnusxveli

Zala aqvTo. vfiqrob, saqme ufro

martivad iyo _ am qveynis specifikurma

bedma Seqmna gansakuTrebuli

qali, eris inteleqtis, da

kidev ufro metad, suliskveTebis

matarebeli.

1864 wels, sisxlSi CaxSobili

ajanyebidan TiTqmis erTi wlis

Semdeg nikolozi varSavaSi Cavida.

iqaur elitas `Jesti~, Tu

raRac amis msgavsi gaukeTa, Tan

Tvalsac wyals daalevinebda. magram

imperatori swored maT dazafres,

visi wyalobis imedic

hqonda. poloneTis yvelaze war-

90 cxeli Sokoladi

Cinebuli, yvelaze lamazi qalebi

sazeimo mejlisze sruli samgloviaro

`amuniciiT~ daxvdnen, imdeni

TavSekavebiT, ris saSualebasac

etiketi (mainc maTi imperatori

iyo) iZleoda. erTaderTi samkauli,

rac im dRes darbazSi ekeTaT,

foladis iyo: sikvdiliT dasjili

poloneli oficrebis ojaxebma

maTi iaraRi gadaadnes da maTdami

pativis misagebad es mouxeSavi,

ubralo saprotesto samkauli daamzadebines.

varSavis saxelmwifo

muzeumSi erTi darbazia, sadac

mxolod am qalebis portretebia

gamofenili. am suraTebze isini

swored ise gamoiyurebian, rogorc

nikoloz I-s daxvdnen.

polonuri tradiciiT, qali pasiur,

simyudrovis Semqmnel arsebad

sulac ar ganixileboda; piriqiT,

is qmnida standarts, maRal

standarts, romelic mamakacs modunebis

saSualebas ar aZlevda,

myudro cxovrebas urRvevda, Seurigeblobisken

mouwodebda. es sadRac

oci wlis asakSi, bulat okujavas

`diletantebis mogzaurobis~

wakiTxvam Semaxsena. romanSi mTeli

poloneTi am or qalSi, araordinarul

deda-SvilSi iyris Tavs. cnobili

ambavia, colebi, marto rus

dekabristebs ki ara, me-19 saukunis

polonel meamboxeebsac mihyvebodnen

cimbirSi, magram, Tu Cemi STabeWdileba

sworia, es ambavi poloneTSi

iseTi miTologizebuli araa,

rogorc ruseTSi.

`retradicionalizacia~:

tradiciaze gadabijebiT

oTxmociani wlebi poloneTSic,

iseve rogorc sabWoTa kavSirSi,

saintereso da cocxali periodi

iyo, Tumca, iq _ amas Semawuxebeli

siRaribec axlda, radgan aRmosavleT

blokis krizisi pirvelad

am qveyanaSi gamomJRavnda. uRaribesi

Sliaxtis devizi _ `Sarvals

vyidi, fraks vitoveb~ _ cocxalia,

rogorc arasdros. magram ai,

bloki daSlilia da masSi Semaval

qveynebs Tavisufali ganviTare-

bis saSualeba eZlevaT. `postkomunistebTan~

(iaroslav kaCinskis

sayvareli terminia) brZolaSi,

maincdamainc maSin, roca Sarvlis

gayidvis aucilebloba aRar dgas

_ polonuri ekonomikuri reformis

mamis, balceroviCis TqmiT,

qveyanas aseTi xelsayreli periodi

300 welia, aRar hqonia _ ibadeba

axali filisteruli tendencia,

romlis gaCena TiTqos bunebrivia,

magram garkveul safrTxeebs Seicavs:

retradicionalizacia. poloneTSi

am mimarTulebas romis

papis polonelobam, misma ganuzomelma

avtoritetmac Seuwyo xeli.

polonelebis didi nawilisTvis

am periodSi yvelaferi gasagebia;

arsebobs ideali, romelic, Tu

memarcxenuli Zalebis kritikas

ar CavTvliT, unakloa, srulyofilebaa.

es tendencia dualurad

iyo dakavSirebuli Zvel, polonur

tradiciasTan: imeorebda, magram,

rac yvelaze mniSvnelovania,

Tanac uaryofda mxolod misTvis

damaxasiaTebel niSnebs, da, ra

Tqma unda, qalis mimarT damokidebulebazec

iqonia gavlena.

polonuri feminizmi saTaves mecxramete

saukunis pirvel wlebSi

iRebs, da dRevandlamde, ase iTvleba,

Svid talRad aRwevs. bunebrivia,

ori didi, 1831 da 1863-64

wlebis amboxeba qalebis rolis

gaaqtiurebas iwvevs. feminizmis

meore talRa swored am periodze

modis. ormocian wlebSi qveyanaSi

Zlieria JorJ sandis da `la gazet

de fam~-is gavlena; iqmneba qalebis

dajgufeba `enTuziastki~; pirveli

filosofosi qali eleonora zimiencka

wers `mosazrebebs qalTa

aRzrdis Sesaxeb~, romelic qalSi

jer adamianis, pirovnebis aRzrdis

aucileblobas adasturebs, Semdeg

ki _ qaluri sawyisis. magram mgoni,

arc erT talRas ar Sexvedria

iseTi winaaRmdegoba, rogorc ukanasknels,

romlis warmomadgenlebs

kaTolikuri eklesiis mzardi

gavlenis pirobebSi mouwiaT cxovreba.

1993 wels qveyanaSi oficia-


lurad aikrZala abortebi, ramdenime

wlis Semdeg ki _ sqesobrivi

aRzrdis gakveTilebi skolebSi.

SeCerda kontracefciasTan dakav-

Sirebuli saxelmwifo programebi.

Tu es xdeboda kvaSnevskis prezidentobis

periodSi, romelic ka-

Tolikuri platformiT ar mosula,

`kanonis da samarTlianobis~

xelisuflebaSi mosvlis Semdeg

tendencia mxolod gaZlierda.

morwmune polonuri ojaxebis didma

nawilma CaTvala, rom sami k-s

biurgeruli kombinacia qalisTvis

sruliad sakmarisia.

samociani-oTxmociani wlebis

poloneTi rus mwerals viqtor

erofeevs ase warmoedgina: `es iyo

axalgazrda, aRtyinebuli, gadareuli

da aRviraxsnili poloneTi,

romelsac mis dauZinebel mter-

Tan, sabWoTa kavSirTan yvelaferi

brwyinvaled gasdioda. mis fonze,

poloneTi TvalismomWrel, lamaz

qalad Canda, romelic mokle kabas

atarebda, rok-n-rols cekvavda,

uZilo Rameebis Semdeg kosCiolSi

loculobda... Cven yvelam gamoviareT

aseTi poloneTiT aRfrTovanebis

periodi~. magram is poloneTi

aRar aris. axla mas sakuTar

TavTan uwevs brZola. `paradoqsuli

ram moxda _ sovietizmis kraxis

Semdeg poloneTs raRac sxva

`sabWouroba~ daemarTa. glexuri

sijiute. eklesiisadmi usazRvro

ndoba, TiTqmis iseTi, rogorc

sabWoeTSi _ partiis mimarT, politikuri

niSnuli gaxda. qveynis

beds ironiulRimiliani kverTxisTavebi

wyveten, romlebsac nacionalizmis,

antisemitizmis da

provinciuli mesianobis wylulebi

awuxebT. poloneli inteligencia,

romelic am skandalur ambavs SeuiaraRebeli

TvaliT xedavs, daberebul,

ususur qals daemsgavsa,

radgan Tavisuflebis wlebSi misi

roli sabazro ekonomikis kanonebs

daumorCiles~.

lex kaCinski, poloneTis daRupuli

prezidenti, Zveli, ruseT-

Tan mZafrad dapirispirebuli, ka-

Tolikuri poloneTis Svili iyo,

faseulobebis Sesabamisi paketiT.

saerTod, aSkaraa, rom tradiciuli

qarTul-polonuri solidaroba

swored am pakets efuZneba.

axalgazrda, gansxvavebuli poloneTi

naklebadaa cnobili. masTan

urTierTobas safuZvlad isev Zveli

tradicia udevs, magram SeiZleba

male es sakmarisi aRar iyos.

poloneTi yvelasia

roca kaCinskis erT-erT interviuSi

hkiTxes, Tu ras fiqrobs

poloneTis kaTolicizirebaze

(ucnaurad dasmuli kiTxvaa, magram

azri, mgoni, gasagebia), man

upasuxa, _ `es qveynis deqristianizebas

gamoiwvevda, me ki es ar

minda, mxolod imitom ki ara, rom

morwmune var, aramed imis gamoc,

rom sxva, yvelasaTvis misaRebi

arCevani ar gvaqvs. xSirad mixdeba

erT magidasTan iseT adamianeb-

Tan jdoma, visi azrebic Cemsas ar

emTxveva, da maT mimarT simpaTii-

Tac ki var ganwyobili~. Tumca,

roca misi merobis periodSi gei

organizaciebma aRlumis Catarebis

moTxovniT mimarTes, kaCinskim

maT ganucxada, rom pativs scems

maT moqalaqeobriv uflebebs, magram

ara _ maTi, rogorc geebis,

uflebas.

poloneTs hqonda Sansi, gansxvavebulTa

Soris iseTi TanaarsebobisTvis

mieRwia, rogorzec wignis

`daumorCilebelTa geneologiis~

avtori werda: `iqneb am gansjam

imaT argos, vinc morwmuneebs da

urwmunoebs Soris arsebul zRvars

barikadebad aRiqvams... eklesiis

gare eTikuri tradiciebis

mimdevrebma ukuagdon miTi

antihumanisturi qristianobis

Sesaxeb da saxarebas mimarTon...

qristianma ki gaacnobieros, rom

eklesiis gareT myofi misi TanamoZme

eTikur vakuumSi ar cxovrobs,

aramed masaviT _ da masaviT

mouqnelad _ cdilobs sakuTari

zneobrivi kodeqsis xorcSesxmas.

am kodeqsSi asaxulia Tavdapirve-

gagrZeleba

li sikeTe da samaridiso WeSmariteba,

romelsac yvela Cvengani ase

eZiebs da ase xSirad Ralatobs~.

arsebobs kidev erTi polonuri

ideali, romelic iagelonuri

(didi, Wreli _ rac gnebavT, is

davarqvaT _ roca sityva polonelisaTvis

damaxasiaTebel Semwynareblobaze

Camovardeba, sabuTad

iagelonuri xana moaqvT xolme)

poloneTis safuZvelSi devs. roca

poloneTis da litvis samefoebi

dinastiuri qorwinebiT erTiandeboda,

1413 wels am movlenis damadasturebel

gorodlos uniaSi

Caiwera: `mxolod siyvaruli araa

amaoeba: siyvaruli sxivosania, wyenas

aSuSebs, mSvidobas amkvidrebs,

dayofilT aerTianebs, dacemulT

fexze wamoayenebs...siyvaruli qmnis

kanonebs, samefoebs marTavs, qalaqebs

safuZvels uyris... amis gamoa,

rom Cven, aq erTad Tavmoyrilebi,

siyvarulis farqveS Tavis modrekis

msurvelebi da misadmi wminda grZnobiT

aRvsilebi am qaRaldiT vadasturebT,

rom Cveni saxlebis da

ojaxebis SeerTeba da Sekvra gvsurs~.

erTianobaze saubari legendaruli

`solidarnosCis~ wlebTan

gvabrunebs, roca ideologiurad

dapirispirebuli adamianebi brZolis

strategias erTad irCevdnen,

ramac muSebis da inteligenciis

`gaugonari, SesaSuri fenomeni~

Seqmna. amis gamo, gdanskis gemTm-

Senebeli qarxnis muSebTan solidaruli

Zalebic erTiandebodnen:

norvegiaSi maoistebi konservatorebTan

erTad gamoxatavdnen protests

poloneTis movlenebis Taobaze,

safrangeTSi _ trockistebi

da qristianuli profkavSirebi, inglisSi

_ memarcxeneebi da konservatori

inteleqtualebi. indoeTSi

gdanskis ambebidan ori wlis Semdegac

ki saxlebis fasadebze didi

asoebiT ewera: `imperialisturo

sabWoeTo: xelebi Sors poloneTisagan!~

`rogorc wesi, mxardaWeras

erT romelime movlenas an memarjveneebi

ucxadeben, an memarcxeneebi,

magram `solidarnosCma~ amis

cxeli Sokoladi 91


gagrZeleba

gadalaxva moaxerxa. `ratom vuWerdi

mxars solidarobas? imitom rom

miyvars imis keTeba, rac sakuTar

Tavze maRla mayenebs~, _ werda

wlebis Semdeg erT-erTi norvegieli

aqtivisti.

...

am dReebSi rene harlinis filmis

nawyveti vnaxe _ kadrebi, roca

oTxi prezidenti parlamentis SenobasTan

Sekrebili mwared damarcxebuli

qarTveli xalxis winaSe

gamodis; xalxis, romelsac hgonia,

rom gaimarjva. mere prezidentebi

erTmaneTs xelebs sWideben da

maRla sweven. erT-erTi lex ka-

Cinskia, im dReebis solidarobis

gansaxiereba. ukanasknel wuTs yvelaferi

Tvalwin damidga. es scena;

polonelebis mier sul cota xnis

win gancdili elda da naRveli; ka-

Cinskis foto, romelic im dReebSi

nanax aTas sxva suraTs Soris

mexsierebaSi CamrCa, da romelzec

kaCinski polonuri droSis winaSe

muxlebze dgas. suraTi RamiTaa

gadaRebuli, rac atmosferos in-

`mkvdari klasis~ Canawerebi


mxolod am movlenidan didi xnis

Semdeg dabrunda abstraqcia TeatrSi.

1944 weli, krakovi. Teatri

nangrevebad iqca. abstraqtuli

xelovneba poloneTSi mxolod

omamde arsebobda. ebraelTa genocidis

Semdeg igi gaqra. gasagebia,

rom aseT viTarebaSi abstraqtuli

xelovnebis idea kvdeba,

radgan is sisastikis msxverplia.

omis Semdgomi realoba bevrad

ufro saSinelia, xolo xelovnebis

idealizaciis mcdeloba umweo

da ususuri.

adamianis simxecem gamoricxa

xelovneba da, rac pirvelad moxvda

xelSi, swored is aqcia xelovnebis

iaraRad. amitom codva,

SurisZieba Tu danaSauli moralis

kategoriidan xelovnebaSi gadavida

da Tavad Seqmna axali, socialuri

ena; miT umetes, agresiuli

saSualebebiT aRbeWdil droSi.

adamiani sinamdvileSi carieli da

ufunqcio gaxda, rogorc oTxTvalas

damatebuli mexuTe borbali.

an yovlad usargeblo, brWyviala

nivTi omis dros, roca yvelas

puri enatreba.

`odisevsis dabrunebaSi~ penelope

mudmivad samzareuloSia, skamze

zis. misTvis principulia swored

`adgilze jdoma~, anu es qmedeba

misi upirvelesi adamianuri movaleobaa.

amdenad penelopes skamma

scenuri dekoraciis mniSvneloba

dakarga da sxva datvirTva SeiZina.

igi msaxiobis metoqe gaxda. magram

ukve Teatrisa da reJisoris amocanaa,

rogor gadawyvitos adamianebisa

da sagnebis konfliqti.

ferfli da almasi

meoce saukunis polonuri Teatraluri

reJisura pirobiTad

or mimarTulebad iyofa. pirveli

_ reJisorebi, romelTa interesi

mimarTulia adamianis Sinagani samyarosken.

filosofiuri, fsiqologiuri

Tu religiuri problemebisadmi,

anu `introspeqtiuli

reJisura~ (anjei vaida, eJi groto-

vski, konrad Svinarski) da meore _

reJisorebi, romelTac ufro gare

samyaro da forma ainteresebT.

kritikosebi am ukanasknelT

`permanentul avangardistebs~

uwodeben (adam xanuSkeviCi, TadeuS

kantori, iozef Saina), romelTa

Semoqmedebam didi gavlena

moaxdina Tanamedrove mxatvrobasa

da performansis ganviTarebaze.

gasagebia, rom nebismieri

dayofa pirobiTia, magram `avangardistebSi”

kantoris rols da

mniSvnelobas misi yvelaze didi

kritikosebic ki ver uaryofen.

albaT imitom, rom mis SemoqmedebaSi

gamokveTilad igrZnoba

piesis teqstisa da scenuri moqmedebis

gancalkevebisa da sagnebis

qmedebad gardasaxvis gansacvifrebeli

unari da xarisxi.

kantorma SeZlo, rom msaxiobi

xan ilustratorad, xan sagnad

da xanac `moTamaSe~ manekenad

eqcia, magram ise, rom misTvis

profesionaluri Seuracxyofa

ar mieyenebina. misi Teatraluri

azrovneba da speqtaklis forma

uaryofs aqtioris gardasaxvas,

niWs. ase vTqvaT, `TamaSis xelovnebas~.

kantorma Teatrs sagangebod

gamoacala stanislavskisTvis

aucilebeli iaraRi _ gardasaxva.

msaxiobis pirovnulma neitralizaciam

ki poloneli reJisori

Teatraluri enis revoluciur

cvlilebamde miiyvana. swored

amitom uwodebda sxvadasxva etapze

sakuTar Teatrs xan `nulovan

Teatrs~, xan `sagnisa da adamianis~

Teatrs, vidre Semoqmedebis

bolos ar mivida `mkvdar Teatramde~.

xolo am rTul wertilamde

misaRwevad mas `mkvdari klasis~

gakveTili dasWirda.

Segnebulad movitoveT finalisTvis

kantoris yvelaze didi

speqtaklebi da misi Semoqmedebis

umniSvnelovani periodi, 70-80iani

wlebi. kantori Txzavs warmodgenebs

ucnaur personaJebze;

adamianebze, romlebic didi xnis

win gardaicvalnen, magram reJi-

gagrZeleba

soris fantaziam isini mkrTalad

ganaTebul scenaze cocxlad daabruna.

es cikli xuT speqtakls

moicavs: `mkvdari klasi~ (1975),

`velopole, velopole~ (1980),

`dae, gaiqcnen msaxiobebi~ (1985),

`me aq arasdros davbrundebi~

(1988), `dRes Cemi dabadebis dRea~

(1990). am ukanaskneli speqtaklis

dadgma reJisorma ver SeZlo. igi

avadmyofobda da repeticiebis

dros gardaicvala.

yvela am speqtakls erTi Tema

_ sikvdili aerTianebs da, Sesabamisad,

es cvlis damokidebulebas

mayureblis mxridan. Tumca reJisorisTvis

es `personaluri aRsarebaa~

(misi sityvebiT rom vTqvaT),

romelsac xSirad mis mimarT personaJebi

ver `imeteben~. isini ganuwyvetliv

sadRac garbian, sadRac

eCqarebaT... da sabolood erT mocucqnul

saklaso oTaxSi amoyofen

Tavs, sadac grZel, nacrisfer

merxebze Camwkrivdebian. sakuTar

manekenebTan erTad sikvdilis Sesagebeblad

Tu gasabrazeblad valsis

ritms daelodebian. swored es

aris `mkvdari klasis~ mTavari Tema

_ mosalodnel sikvdilTan Sexvedra.

oRond reJisori gvafrTxilebs,

rom personaJebma sakuTari

bediswera ukve ician... albaT, rogorc

10 aprils, 15 wuTiT adre,

`tu-135~-is Camovardnamde. da am

dros Zveli polonuri gamoTqmebi,

SemTxveviTi bibliuri frazebi,

usistemo laTinizmebi, tangos

fragmentebi, samxedro marSebi da

sasacilo sabavSvo leqsebi _ yvelaferi

is, rac JRers speqtaklSi,

gansacvifrebel da winaswarmetyvelur

datvirTvas iZens!

amitomac pan TadeuS kantors

dagvianebiT vuxdiT madlobas im

Semzaravi simarTlisaTvis, rasTanac

misi `sikvdilis Teatri~ gvaaxloebs.

xolo roca Teatrs aseTi

kultura aqvs, aseTi TviTrefleqsiis

da tragikuli ironiis unari,

es niSnavs, rom qveyana yvelafers

gauZlebs da icocxlebs.

es niSnavs Jeszcze Polska nie zginela!

cxeli Sokoladi 93


gagrZeleba

Zalian saxifaTo frau mainhofi


om faSisturi memkvidreoba uamrav

adamians amosvloda yelSi. amas werda

giunter valrafi. amas werda

hainrix bioli. 1978 wlis oqtomber-

Si bremenSi ufrosklaselTa 40-aTasiani

demonstracia skandirebda:

`RAF marTalia, Tqven faSistebi

xarT~.

da am dros gairkva, rom ganaCenis

molodinSi saknebSi msxdomma

wiTeli armiis fraqciis meTaurebma

Tavi moikles. sxvaTa Soris, Zalian

sainteresod:

Stamhaimis cixeSi patimrebi

`mkvdari derefnebis~ sistema-

Si isxdnen, anu TiTo derefanSi _

TiTo patimari TiTo sakanSi. yovel

or kviraSi erTxel saknebs cvlidnen.

es cixe betoniTaa nagebi, xazgasmiT

weren: `gansakuTrebiT mtkice

betoniT~. patimrebs ki, nu ityvi,

kedlebSi samalavebi gauTxriaT da

Sig saocari nivTebi daumalavT _

iaraRi, asafeTqebeli nivTierebebis

maragi, radiomimRebebi. es ise,

sxvaTa Soris iTqva. mTavaria, rom

cacia baaderma marjvena xeliT

sakuTar kefaSi isrola. gudrun

enslinma Werze, kauWze Camoixr-

Co Tavi, oRond iq rogor aZvra da

eleqtrogayvanilobis mavTuli saidan

moitana _ gaugebaria. sruliad

cariel sakanSi CamoixrCo Tavi ulrike

mainhofmac.

ase amboben.

ulrike mainhofis werili mkvdari

derefnidan,16.6.72-dan 9.2.73-mde:

SegrZneba, rom Tavi feTqdeba (SegrZneba,

rom Tavis qala unda gaskdes);

SegrZneba, rom zurgis tvins Tavis

tvinSi tenian;

SegrZneba, rom tvini TandaTan iWmuWneba,

Semwvari xiliviT;

SegrZneba, rom gamudmebiT da

SeumCnevlad Zabvis qveS xar, gairiye;

SegrZneba, rom asociaciebi CamogaCexes;

SegrZneba, rom suls gamoafsam,

wylebs Rvri;

SegrZneba, rom sakani midis. iRvi-

Zeb, Tvals axel: sakani midis, naSuadRevs,

roca mze adgeba, Cerdeba.

ver xvdebi, sicxisgan kankaleb Tu

sicivisgan,

ver xvdebi, ratom kankaleb,

iyinebi;

Cveulebriv xmaze salaparakod

ise iZabebi, rogorc xmamaRla TqmisTvis,

lamis RrialisTvis;

SegrZneba, rom munjdebi,

sityvebis mniSvnelobebs veRar

xvdebi, mxolod gumaniT grZnob,

SiSina bgerebis warmoTqma sruliad

autanelia,

yaraulebi, mnaxvelebi, ezo Ti-

Tqos celuloidisaa;

Tavis tkivili;

Gaelvebebi;

winadadebis wyoba, gramatika, sintaqsi

_ veRar akontroleb. weris

dros: ori xazi _ meore xazis bolos

pirvelis dasawyisi ar gaxsovs;

SegrZneba, rom Signidan gamoiwvi;

SegrZneba, rom Tu ityvi, ra xdeba,

Tu amas amouSveb, igivea, rac sxvas

saxeSi mduRare Seasxa, vTqvaT, manqanaSi

aduRebuli wyali, romelic

samudamod damduRravs, daasaxi-

Crebs;

TavaSvebuli agresia, romelsac

onkans ver mouWer. es yvelaze

cudia. naTlad gacnobiereba, rom

gadarCenis Sansi ara gaqvs; sruli

gaugebroba amis garkvevisas; mnaxvelebi

arafers toveben. naxevari

saaTis mere meqanikurad Tu aRidgen,

dRes ginaxules Tu gasul kviraSi;

samagierod, kviraSi erTxel banaoba

niSnavs wamiT amoyvinTvas, dasvenebas

_ erT-or saaTs gastans;

SegrZneba, rom dro da sivrce gadaixlarTa;

SegrZneba, rom mrude sarkeebis

oTaxSi xar;

barbaceb;

mere: saSineli eiforia, rom ra-

Rac gesmis, dRe-Rames smeniT ganasxvaveb;

SegrZneba, rom axla dro miedineba,

rom tvini kvlav Seivseba, zurgis

tvini Tavis adgils daubrundeba _

ramdenime kviriT;

SegrZneba, rom gatyaveben.

gagrZeleba

bneli ambavia.

RAF-is advokatma xelisufalni

mkvlelobaSi daadanaSaula _

da umalve terorizmis braldebiT

gaasamarTles. hainrix biolma moi-

Txova, rom es burusiT moculi

TviTmkvlelobebi safuZvlianad

gamoekvliaT _ misi Svili teroristebTan

TanamSromlobis braldebiT

gaCxrikes. magram es calke ambebia:

`germanuli Semodgoma~, RAF-is meore

da mesame Taobebi, mowinaaRmdegeebi

da mxardamWerebi. es sxva ambebia,

Tan sruliad gaugebari.

albaT mravali adamianisTvis isic

gaugebaria, Tu ratom miasvenebda

teroristi da mkvleli ulrike

mainhofis cxedars oTxi aTasi adamiani.

me mesmis, oRond ver vxsni.

CemTvis is ufro gaugebaria, rom

yovelTvis, roca rame cerad midis,

maincdamainc ulrike mainhofi maxsendeba.

sul ar mainteresebs xolme,

rogori kacebi imsaxurebdnen mis

keTilganwyobas an marTla xvretda

Tu ara vinmes _ mainc ver gavigeb.

ubralod, masze vfiqrob. albaT

cota mSurs.

albaT mSurs, rom me verasdros

davwere is da ise, rogorc man dawera.

giJuri teqstebi, romlebmac

qveyana SeZra da dResac aqtualurad

datova, vaglax, uTargmneli

SeZaxili: !

da bolos:

`aq iyaviT! mgoni, mTelma cixem

gaixara, yovel SemTxvevaSi, me ase

vfiqrob. axlaxan, oqtomberSi cixis

Tavze feradi drakonebi dafrinavdnen,

franebi. ese igi, sadRac bavSvebic

iyvnen, maTi amfrenebi. maRla,

maRla frendnen wiTlebi da mwvaneebi.

Zalian kargi iyo~...

es ulrikem Tavis tyup qaliSvilebs

miswera, roca cixeSi maTi

naxvis ufleba pirvelad darTes.

manamde es Svilebi teroristebis

banakSi hyavda gagzavnili, SemTxveviT

gaumarTlaT da gzaSi daakaves.

`Znelia... Zalian Znelia... uaRresad

Znelia~...

cxeli Sokoladi 95


gagrZeleba

interviu erik trufazTan


`meore arxis~ pirveli partniori


gagrZeleba

debul siuJets yovelTvis naxulobs

gamocdili mTavari redaqtori,

romelic adre `frans televiziaSi~

muSaobda. Tu Jurnalists raime

gaepara an Secdoma dauSva, gamoricxulia

mTavarma redaqtorma is

siuJeti Casworebis gareSe eTerSi

gauSvas. Tuki gansakuTrebulad mikerZoebuli

siuJeti gaakeTa Jurnalistma,

romelsac auxsni da mainc

ver gaigebs an uarzea, rame Secvalos,

erTaderTi `dasjis~ forma

is aris, rom siuJeti eTerSi ar

gava. CvenTan aseTi ram arasdros

momxdara. vTqvaT, romelime Jurnalistma

Tqva, rom sarkozi aris

pedofili an faSisti _ ra Tqma

unda, aseT siuJets eTerSi aravin

gauSvebs, mxolod imitom, rom es

simarTle ar aris.

Cveni mravalerovani qveynisTvis

eTnikuri umciresobebis, seqsualuri

Tu religiuri umciresobebis uflebebTan

dakavSirebuli problemebi

Zalze mniSvnelovani da mtkivneulia.

evropisTvis ramdenad mniSvnelovania

es problemebi da ra iTvleba

diskriminaciad safrangeTSi?

vidre kiTxvas vupasuxebde, getyviT,

rom safrangeTi aris respublika,

kanonis winaSe yvela Tanabaria

da gansxvavebebi ar arsebobs,

aseve ar arsebobs eTnikuri umciresoba

da, Sesabamisad, arc termini.

am mxriv Tqvengan gansxvavebulebi

varT, radgan Tqven gadacemebic ki

gaqvT eTnikuri umciresobebis enebze.

CvenTan, magaliTad, korsikaSi,

maT enaze gadis gadacemebi, magram

sazogadoebriv mauwyebelze msgavsi

ram ar xdeba. rac Seexeba diskriminacias,

is arsebobs mxolod gareubnebSi,

sadac ZiriTadad CrdiloeT

afrikidan Camosuli emigrantebi

cxovroben. isini amboben, rom ar

aqvT samsaxuri, arian umuSevrebi

da, sxvebTan SedarebiT, mZime pirobebSi

uwevT arseboba; marTlac,

maTi sacxovrebeli bevrad uaresad

gamoiyureba, vidre sxva adgilebi.

amboben, rom xeli ar miuwvdebaT

ganaTlebaze. safrangeTSi marTlac

98 cxeli Sokoladi

problemaa gareubnebidan gamosuli

axalgazrdebis sazogadoebaSi integrireba.

diskriminaciis sakiTxi

bevrad ufro rTulia da politikas

ganekuTvneba, magram televizias

rac Seexeba, Cven ramdenime

pirovneba TanamSromlad aviyvaneT

I, II, III Taobis emigraciidan da isini

dRemde CvenTan muSaoben. garda

amisa, vamzadebT gadacemebs gareubnebidan

gamosul axalgazrdebze,

maT problemebsa da warmatebebze

saubrebiT vaCvenebT sazogadoebas,

rogor SeuZliaT miaRwion imas,

rac surT, Tuki iswavlian da iSromeben.

safrangeTSi kanoni krZalavs

da mkacrad sjis yovelgvari tipis

diskriminacias, iqneba es rasobrivi,

religiuri Tu seqsualuri.

roca konkretuli faqtebi xdeba,

amaze sainformacio gamoSvebebSi

vsaubrobT. garda amisa, vTanamSromlobT

diskriminaciis winaaRmdeg

mebrZol organizaciasTan da

erTad vapirebT axali proeqtis

dawyebas, romlis saSualebiTac sazogadoebas

gavacnobT, rogor Seu-

Zlia Tavis dacva diskriminaciuli

qmedebebisagan. yvelaze xSiri mainc

rasobrivi diskriminaciis SemTxvevebia

_ zogi Civis, rom samsaxurSi

ar aiyvanes imis gamo, rom zangia

an afrikuli warmoSobis, sxvebs

diskoTekaze ar uSveben _ ufro

aseTi tipis diskriminaciis faqtebia.

am bolo dros Zalze Semcirda

seqsualuri umciresobebis diskriminaciis

SemTxvevebi. gareubnebis

garda, es TiTqmis aRarsad xdeba.

rogorc kvlevebi aCvenebs, frangi

sazogadoeba Zalze tolerantuli

gaxda seqsualuri umciresobebis

mimarT, sakmao tolerantobaa religiuri

umciresobebis mimarTac

_ 1905 wels miRebuli kanonis Tanaxmad,

yvela adamians aqvs sruli

ufleba, iyos an ar iyos morwmune;

rogorc yvelafers, am sakiTxsac

kanoni agvarebs. garkveuli problema

maSin warmoiSoba, roca religia

ereva saxelmwifo saqmeebSi.

vTqvaT, muslimebi TavianT gogonebs

ukrZalaven biWebTan erTad

auzze wasvlas, rac ukve kanonis

darRvevaa, imitom, rom skolaSi

aris erTi auzi da aseTi akrZalva

kanons arRvevs. asevea religiuri

ritualebis Catareba, romelic kanons

ar Seesabameba. sul muslimebze

saubari gamomdis, magram igive

kaTolikebi rom aviRoT, aseve kanonis

darRvevaa, roca maT sastiki

gamosvlebi aqvT abortis akrZalvasTan

dakavSirebiT. garkveuli

problemebia religiursa da saxelmwifo

kanonebs Soris _ am Temebze

televiziaSi xSirad vawyobT debatebs,

sadac politikosebs da ama

Tu im religiis warmomadgenlebs

viwvevT.

Jurnalists ramdenad SeuZlia gamoxatos

pozicia seqsualur da religiur

problematikasTan dakavSirebiT,

daeTanxmos romelime mxares

an uaryos maTi azri.

visac gadacemaSi viwvevT, maT

SeuZliaT sakuTari azris gamoxatva.

Cvenma Jurnalistebma ki orive

mxaris poziciebi unda warmoadginon

da Tu raime politikuri

konsensusi iqna miRweuli, esec

unda aCvenon. magaliTad, erovnul

asambleaSi miRweuli iyo erTgvari

konsensusi Tavsaburavis tarebas-

Tan dakavSirebiT _ saerTod ki ar

avkrZaloT, aramed vareguliroT

da, vTqvaT, sazogadoebrivi Tav-

Seyris adgilebSi aikrZalos. arsebobs

sxva Sexedulebac, romlis

mixedviTac, absoluturad yvelgan

unda aikrZalos, rac adamianis

uflebebs ewinaaRmdegeba.

ramdenad icnobT postsabWoTa medias

da hgavs Tu ara ganviTarebadi

qveynebi erTmaneTs Jurnalistikis

problematikis TvalsazrisiT.

ZiriTadad iseT qveynebSi vmuSaobdi,

romlebic teritoriulad

safrangeTs ganekuTvnebian. isini

damoukideblebi ar arian da ekonomikuri

TvalsazrisiT sakmaod

axlos arian safrangeTTan. polineziis

televiziis Seqmna rom daviwyeT,

maSinve ultraTanamedro-


ve, cifruli aparatura SeiZines.

Tqvengan gansxvavebiT, maTTvis es

problema ar yofila. `meore arxis~

teqnikurma direqtorma miTxra, rom

dResac 18 wlis kamerebiT muSaoben.

sabWoTa da postsabWoTa medias

kargad ar vicnob, magram rusul

mediaze maqvs warmodgena, romelic

Sors ar unda iyos sinamdvilidan

_ rusuli media xelisuflebisgan

kontroldeba.

saqarTvelos sazogadoebriv

mauwyebels vurCevdi, mayureblis

ndobis mopovebis mizniT, metad

warmoaCinos sakuTari damoukidebloba.

es kargi iqneba Tavad

politikosebisTvisac, romlebic

sazogadoebrivi arxisadmi Tavisuflebis

miniWebiT amave sazogadoebis

ndobas moipoveben. aseve

unda mixvdnen, rom `meore arxis~

srulyofili muSaobisaTvis aucilebelia

teqnikuri saSualebebis

SeZena. roca arxi srulfasovani

gaxdeba, mayureblis ndoba erTiorad

gaizrdeba.

brZaneT, rom 10 wlis win Tqvens

arxs garkveuli pedagogiuri muSaoba

mouxda politikosebTan da `me-

ore arxisTvisac~ es samuSao gegmis

nawili unda iyos. roca politikosebs

monopolizebuli aqvT eTeri,

SesaZloa Tu ara, saboloo jamSi Tavisken

gadaZalon televizia?

Cven pedagogiuri moRvaweoba

gavwieT ZiriTadad teqnikur saki-

TxebTan mimarTebaSi _ vTqvaT,

parlamentis sxdoma dawyebuliyo

da damTavrebuliyo SeTanxmebul

dros. roca moundebodaT, maSin ar

gamoecxadebinaT an gaewelaT Sesveneba,

radgan es angrevda programebis

bades. nel-nela SevamCnieT,

rom politikosebis qceva Seicvala,

isini cdilobdnen, ukeTesad

warmoCeniliyvnen erovnul asambleaSi,

radgan yvelaferi eTerSi

gadaicemoda. rac Seexeba Tqvens

politikosebs, pirvel rigSi unda

gaacnobieron, rom maTi mizanic

aris mayureblis mizidva, risTvisac

dausrulebeli monologebi

namdvilad ar gamoadgebaT. sauke-

Teso saSualebaa, Tu arxze iqneba

namdvili debatebi, sadac mowveuli

iqnebian umravlesobis da opoziciis

warmomadgenlebi da gaimarTeba

namdvili diskusia, xolo iseTi

dausrulebeli monologebi, rac

gagrZeleba

`Tavisufal tribunaSi~ vixile, namdvilad

ar uwyobs xels imas, rom

politikosebs hyavdeT mayurebeli

da gadacemebi, romelSic isini monawileoben,

saintereso gamovides.

ramdenad SesaZlebelia arsebul

politikur garemoSi `meore arxs~

hqondes ganviTarebis perspeqtiva?

darwmunebuli var, rom jgufs,

romelmac wamoiwyo `meore arxis~

Camoyalibebis procesi, yvelanairi

saSualeba da monacemi aqvs imisa-

Tvis, rom bolomde miiyvanos dawyebuli

gegma. maT kargad esmiT

miznebic da is winaaRmdegobebic,

rac SeiZleba SexvdeT. Cven erToblivad

vimuSaveT samauwyeblo badeze,

programirebasa da adamianur

resursTan dakavSirebul sakiTxebze.

sazogadoebrivi mauwyeblis

saSualebebiT Tu vimsjelebT, rogorc

teqnikuri, aseve adamianuri,

`meore arxis~ ganxorcieleba absoluturad

realuri da SesaZlebelia.

mjera am arxis momavlis da

imedi maqvs, rom amas arxis xelmZRvanelobac

da politikosebic mixvdebian

da erToblivad imuSaveben

am mimarTulebiT.

ringze


gagrZeleba

arnold kemps

18 dekemberi, 1964

Zvirfaso arnold,

...rogori ucnauric unda iyos,

roca sartrma nobelis premia miiRo,

am ambavs sxvadasxvanairad

SevxedeT. Cemi azriT, mas uari

ar unda eTqva, radgan burJuazias

is ufro metad amwarebs,

roca mis winaaRmdeg mebrZolebi

did premiebs iReben. magaliTad,

bolo wlebSi Jurnali `laifi~

Jan-pol sartrs erTTavad `usasoobis

mociqulad~ moixseniebda.

axla ki moulodnelad es usasoobis

mociquli nobelis premiis

laureati gaxda. ase maT bevrad

ufro gauZneldebaT xalxis gasuleleba.

mjera, rom jildoebze

uari ar unda Tqva, radgan Tu

sworad gamoiyeneb, isini bevr rameSi

dagexmareba. erT dRes marTlac

raRac Zalian mniSvnelovani

rom moxdes da amaze `niu-iork

taimsSi~ werilis gamoqveyneba

mogindes, ai, magari, mware werilis,

amisTvis ufro meti berketi

geqneba...

saukeTeso survilebiT,

normani

marvin gorsons

11 aprili, 1968

Zvirfaso marvin,

...ar mgonia, Tqvens Zvirfas mowvevas

davTanxmde da mSvidobisa da

Tavisuflebis partiis iniciativiT

mowveuli filosofosi gavxde. amisaTvis

ori mizezi maqvs. naTlad ver

vxedav, romel politikur poziciasTan

ufro axlos var. iqneb iciT,

an sulac ar iciT, rom memarcxene

konservatori var, rac Tavisebur

winaaRmdegobebs gulisxmobs: erTi

mxriv, urbanul rekonstruqcias-

Tan dapirispirebas, meore mxriv ki,

marixuanas legalizebis sakiTxSi

TavSekavebas. Tumca me SeiZleba mxari

davuWiro marixuanas legalizebas.

diax, SeiZleba asec moviqce,

Tu policia xalxis gawamebasa da

uazro dapatimrebebs ar Sewyvets.

am dros mirCevnia, rom misi mox-

100 cxeli Sokoladi

mareba kanoniT nebadarTuli ar

iyos, radgan ase sul sxva gemos

atan mowevas, Tan korporaciebic

ver axerxeben, rom hidrofonurad

gamoyvanili, sayovelTaod naqebi,

filtriani marixuana vitaminebiT

gaajeron; rom aRaraferi vTqvaT

im fsiqodeliur reklamebze, romlebsac

Tavidan avicilebT. garda

amisa, darwmunebuli ar var, rom

makkarti da kenedi arafriT gansxvavdebian

hamfrisgan, romelmac,

sxva Tu araferi, pasuxi unda agos

vietnamis omis gamo. ioli saTqmelia,

rom kenedisa da jonsons Soris

gansxvaveba ar aris _ am azrs

sulac ar viziareb. mniSvneloba

ara aqvs, kenedis TavSi ra utrialebs,

radgan mainc sruliad gansxvavebul

qveyanas miiReb, roca

prezidenti is kaci xdeba, visac

misnairi varcxniloba aqvs...

pativiscemiT,

normani

alen ginzbergs

9 dekemberi, 1969

Zvirfaso alen,

...minda, ubralod, Seni saxlis

binadrebi movikiTxo da warmateba

gisurvo ekologiurad sufTa

produqtis moyvanaSi.

gulwrfeli mokiTxviT,

normani

P.S. xSirad mTxoven xolme, imaze

davwero, Tu rogor warmomidgenia

70-iani wlebi. arada, umciresi

warmodgenac ki ar maqvs. Cven darwmunebulebi

viyaviT, rom vicodiT,

ra moxdeboda 60-ianebSi, da magradac

vcdebodiT. 70-ianebi Cems

TvalSi mxolod Tavzardamcemi

TeTri laqaa. imedi maqvs, es ufro

asakis bralia, vidre winaTgrZnobis.

Sobas gilocav, poeto.

riCard stretons

ianvris dasawyisi, 1987

Zvirfaso rik,

...me da norisi moskovSi migviwvies,

konferenciaze, romelic

gorbaCovma moawyo. rik, daujereb-

el rames getyvi: iq namdvilad

raRac xdeba. is qveyana daTvs magonebs

_ beber, sqel, ayrolebul,

mravalgan daWril, sakuTar qaqSi

amosvril cxovels, romlis TvalebSic

mxolod imas amoikiTxav,

rom isev cirkSi dabruneba unda.

mas surs, gawvrTnili daTvi iyos

da mayureblebis taSi daimsaxuros,

yvela sxva cxovelma ki pativi

sces. ucnaur rameebs vambob,

magram ruseTze fiqri im droidan

amekviata, rac `SiSvlebi da mkvdrebi~

davwere. Cems TaobaSi Zalian

bevri CemsaviT fiqrobda, rom

rusebma didebulad iomes meore

msoflio omSi. isini pativs scemdnen

maT jarsa da TiToeul jariskacs

imdenad, ramdenadac es

rigiT amerikel jariskacs SeeZlo,

afasebdnen omis dros rusebis mier

gaRebul msxverpls. mere ki civi

omi gaCaRda da yvelaferi Tavdayira

dadga. amis Semdeg aRaravis

vendobi, maT Soris _ arc rusebs,

radgan mivxvdi, rom leninma

moumzada safuZveli stalinizmsa

da im saSinelebebs, rac iq trialebs.

rusebsa da amerikelebs Soris

erTi umTavresi gansxvavebaa:

amerikaSi Cveni danaSauli cxvirwin

gvidevs, magram mas arafrad vagdebT.

amaSi teqnikis ganviTareba,

TiToeuli ultramoduri nabiji

gvexmareba. Cven fsiqoanalizi

Cagvitares, trankvilizatorebi

gvaylapes, robotebad gvaqcies,

`nuvel kuizinis~ saocrebebs gvaziares,

karieristebi gagvxades _

SiSic da udidesi danaSaulic aqve,

xelis gawvdenazea, magram maTgan

Tavis daRwevas vaxerxebT. ai, rusebi

ki ver axerxeben. maT sakuTari

danaSauli bolos uRebT. Zalian

cota rusi dadis sufTa sindisiT

_ es qveyana xom 30 wlis manZilze

aiZulebda TiToeul adamians, rom

megobrebisTvis zurgi eqcia (albaT

yvelasTvis mainc ara) da ar

daxmareboda im axloblebs, romlebic

mTavrobas TvalSi ar mosdioda.

TviTon mTavrobasac mZime

tvirTad awevs Tavisive usindiso-


a. Cemi azriT, rusebi gacilebiT

kargad icnoben sakuTar sulebs,

vidre Cven vicnobT Cvensas, radgan

isini marTlac damnaSaveebi arian.

ver getyvi, rogori sulisSemZvrelia,

roca Tavad umaRles eSelonebSi

aRiareben, rom cvlilebebi

aucilebelia da qveyanas ufro

humanuri mTavroba unda hyavdes.

ici ra, rik, locva rom SemeZlos,

zeciur Zalebs Semweobas vTxovdi

im daujerebeli saqmisTvis, rasac

gorbaCovi akeTebs ruseTSi. me mas

bolomde TanavugrZnob. SeiZleba

yvelaferi sul iolad Caiyaros

wyalSi, magram Tu ase ar moxda,

Cvens qveyanas, amerikas mouwevs,

xazi gadausvas uamrav absurdul

axirebas da Tvali gausworos axal

ideas. Tu komunisturi qveyana demokratiuli

gaxda, es niSnavs, rom

Cveni Tavlebic misaxedia: ra xania,

nexvis suni dgas. kargi, vnaxoT, ra

moxdeba.

megobruli mokiTxviT,

normani

sel Cetranos

28 marti, 1999

Zvirfaso sel,

...demokratebs, pirvel rigSi ki

klintons, ver vitan im politikis

gamo, romelsac „butikis politikas~

vuwodeb _ cota es, cota is

da mainc yelamde nagavSi yofna. am

dros respublikelebi fsiqozur

koSmarSi aRmoCndnen. erTi mxriv,

maT RmerTi, droSa da ojaxi akeriaT

pirze, xolo meore mxriv, Zalian

cota Tu icnobda ieso qristes

Tavis gverdiT, pisuarTan mdgari

rom daenaxa. warmoudgenlad bevrs

jarSi arasdros umsaxuria, arc

tyviis zuzuni gaugonia. garda

amisa, es politikosebi colebisa

da ojaxis RalatSi aTeneben da aRameben.

ho, aba, ra azri eqneboda

politikosobas, TvalTmaqcobiT

Tavis gatanis saSualebas rom ar

iZleodes? mTavari ki is aris, rom

respublikelebs Sizofrenia daemarTaT:

erTi mxriv, isini RmerTs,

droSas da ojaxs adideben, xolo

meore mxriv, kapitalizmis upirobod

gavrcelebas uWeren mxars. amdenad,

yuradRebis miRma rCebaT is,

rac SeiZleba axlac mniSvnelovani

iyos: ieso karl marqsiviT fiqrobda,

rom fuli yvela Rirsebas azrs

ukargavs. ra Tqma unda, asecaa. Tu

mTeli qveyana viRacebma unda miisakuTron

da es marTlac ase xdeba,

mxolod zneobrivi degradaciis

momswre ki ar gaxdebi, aramed socialuri

aqtivobisa da socialuri

normebis Semcirebisac _ vfiqrob,

am degradacias maSinve unda elodo,

rogorc ki dou jonsis indeqsi

aiwevs: rac ufro maRali iqneba es

indeqsi, miT ufro dabali iqneba

norma. fuli yvela Rirsebas

anadgurebs. respublikuri partiis

memarcxene frTas pativsac ki vcem

imis gamo, rom garkveul normebs

icavs, Tumca is kapitalizms ar

ebrZvis. umarTavi kapitalizmi ki

adamianis Tavs damtydari udidesi

ubedurebaa, romelic mis Rirebulebebs

acamtverebs. axla swored

es xdeba. albaT iyo dro, roca

komunizmi ufro did ubedurebas

warmoadgenda, magram dRes Cven

varT liderebi. vfiqrob, TviTonac

xvdebi, rom Seni arCeuli partia

moralTan mimarTebaSi paralizebulia...

aba, magrad, Zvelo,

normani

`boston gloubis~ redaqtors

13 marti, 2002

jorj uili wers (`boston gloubi~,

12 marti): `ernest hemingueis

ena rom jon ueslis enis sakazmiT

SevagemoT, buSis lakonur stils

miviRebT~.

gasagebia, Znelad Tu moiZebneba

vinme, vinc jon ueslis qadagebebs

icnobs, magram is ki vici, rom jorj

buSis nawerebis xseneba hemingueis

prozis gverdiT TiTqmis igivea,

rac jeki siuzenisa da jein ostinis

gaTanabreba. sircxvilis nasaxi

aRar SerCaT am respublikel qlesebs?

marTlac verafers gaxdebiT

im xalxTan, visac sakuTari saqcie-

gagrZeleba

lis arasdros rcxvenia. jorj

uilis survils, rom Roris yuri

abreSumis qisad gaasaRos, mxolod

msoflio donis laquci hqvia...

norman meileri

emerix kustrixs

26 ianvari, 2005

Zvirfaso imre,

didi yuradReba gamoiCine, roca

muxlebis arTritis Sesaxeb statia

gamomigzavne. rac dro gadis,

sul ufro iolad veguebi Cems

mdgomareobas. ori xeljoxi mSvenier

gasarTobad gadaiqceva, Tu

mixvdebi, ra TvaliT unda Sexedo

(me xom mexerxeba aseTebi). mTeli

siamovneba is aris, rom Segi-

Zlia warmoidgino, TiTqos mTebSi

TxilamurebiT srialeb, joxebs

aqeT-iqiT usvam _ magari garTobaa.

garda amisa, fexze didxans

dgomac ar giwevs: yovelTvis gamoCndeba

viRac, vinc Tavis skams

giTmobs.

„fainenSel taimsidan~ im amonaWers

vkiTxulob, Sen rom gamomigzavne.

mware statiaa. ar vici, saiT

miveqanebiT yvela. es saukune mZime

tvirTad dagvawva mxrebze. meoce

saukuneSi gveSinoda, rom atomuri

omi erTianad gagvacamtverebda,

rac axla siurrealisturad moCans.

ocdameerTe saukuneSi ki bneli azrebi

imdens utrialebs TavSi, rom

SeiZleba saukunis bolomdec ver

mivaRwioT Cveni dRevandeli mdgomareobiT.

Cems asakSi didi mniSvneloba

aRarafers aqvs, magram me

cxra Svili da bevri SviliSvili myavs,

romlebsac arcTu saxarbielo

perspeqtiva eliT.

mapatie, msoflios aRsasruli

rom dagixate. mgoni, Txrobam gamitaca.

Tumca imis gameorebac minda,

rac adre giTxari: erTmaneTs wesierad

arc vicnobT da mainc Zveli

megobrebiviT vsaubrobT. es iseTi

sasiamovno ram aris. megobrulad

mogikiTxavT Sen da gertruds _

gavbedav da vityvi: cota siyvaruliTac.

normani

cxeli Sokoladi 101


gagrZeleba

lismanisi


gagrZeleba

lubas pirveli gamoCenisTanave

lismanisma komentari gaakeTa, _ SexedeT,

ra talantia, natalia andrei-

Cenko am filmSi mxolod 27 wlisaa

da am kadrSi, sul cota, ormocdaaTi

wlis qals ar hgavs?

maniloviCi gagiJda. gagiJda andreiCenkoze.

ara, gulgrili arc

aravin darCenila, magram boria maniloviCi

aSkarad „gadairia“ (imave

wels, andreiCenko oskarosan msaxiob

da reJisor maqsimilian Sels

rom gahyva colad, boriam amoioxra,

_ Cems orive cols gavayolebdi maqsimilians,

oRond nataSa CemTvis

daeTmoo). vamSvidebdiT, _ rad ginda

andreiCenko, ager cenzor ganiCenkos

giTmobs jonio, _ magram ver wynardeboda.

lismanisi movida da miTxra:

_ simarTle aravis siamovnebs, simarTle

rom vTqva, maniloviCi isedac

antisemitad mTvlis da axla

pirdapir rozenbergad momnaTlavs.

simarTle ki isaa, rom mag qalbatonis

qmarma, maqsimilian Selma, avstrielma

Tu Sveicarielma, Tu orivem erTad,

1961 wels mamakacis rolis saukeTeso

104 cxeli Sokoladi

SesrulebisTvis oskari imitom daimsaxura,

rom stenli krameris film

„niurnbergis procesSi“ nacisti damnaSaveebis

advokatis roli Seasrula

brwyinvaled. icis es maniloviCma,

icis ra gadaxrebi aqvs mis sayvarel

nataSas?

_ maqsimilian Seli avstriis anSlusis

Semdeg SveicariaSi gaiqca, mTels

mis ojaxs nacistebi ezizRebaT, misma

dam mag niadagze auria kidevac, _

gamovesarCle oskarosan msaxiobs me.

_ TviTon rom nacisti araa da piriqiTaa,

eg ki vici, magram nacistebis

advokatis rolis ostaturad

Sesrulebas maniloviCi ar apatiebs.

uTxari es faqti, iqneb nataSa gulidan

amovagdebinoT da ojaxSi werili

gavagzavninoT, _ lismanisi, rogorc

„SesaniSnavi meojaxe“, marTlac mudmivad

zrunavda yvela ojaxis mTlianobaze.

borias rom vuTxari, _ maqsimilian

Sels oskari nacistebis advokatis

rolis ostaturad SesrulebisTvis

miuRiao, _ gaecina da miTxra, _ xom

vici, am ambavs lismanisi mogiyveboda,

magis metma vin icis ase wvrilad

kinos ambebi Cvens banakSio. gadaeci,

boria maniloviCis saSveli ar aris,

andreiCenkoze 12 leqsi aqvs dawerili,

maT Soris sami soneti, ori balada

da erTi madrigali. rac Seexeba

siyvaruls, namdvili Tu gamogonili

faSistis xelSi Cavardnili sabralo

rusis qali kidev ufro uyvars-Tqo.

kinos sakmaod iSviaTi stumari var,

bolo xanebSi kinoSi mxolod amerikaSi

davdivar da saukeTeso adgils

vikaveb, rogorc wesi, cariel kinodarbazebSi.

gauTavebeli sareklamo

rgolebis Semdeg filmis demonstrireba

rom iwyeba, sul mgonia, rom

uknidan lismanisis mxiarul da energiul

xmas gavigoneb:

_ yuradRebiT SexedeT, ra operatoruli

namuSevaria, mauro fiore

namdvili geniosia, ukana fonze ra

ferebi gaSala! sxvaTa Soris, jeims

kemeroni Teqvsmeti weli muSaobda

„avatarze“, pirveli oTxmocgverdiani

scenari 1994 wels dawera. qarTvelebo

klub-sasadiloSi, im kompiuterul

animatorebs Soris, romelTac

es saswauli Seqmnes, qarTveli kacic

eria!


literaturuli kafe `qaravani~

warmogidgenT:

1 ivnisi, samSabaTi, 17 saaTi

Sexvedra poet vasil guleurTan

literaturuli kafe `qaravani~, mis.: furcelaZis 10


misamarTi: abanos q. N 3

radio „nacnobi“ gepatiJebaT

klubSi „nacnobi“

tradiciuli qarTuli samzareulo

cocxali musika


WWW.LIBERALI.GE

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