saxelmZRvanelo gamoicema euTos erovnul umciresobaTa umaRlesi

cciir.ge

saxelmZRvanelo gamoicema euTos erovnul umciresobaTa umaRlesi

saxelmZRvanelo gamoicema euTos erovnul umciresobaTa umaRlesi

komisris ofisis mxardaWeriT proeqtis `multilingvuri ganaTlebis

reformis mxardaWera saqarTveloSi~ farglebSi.

saxelmZRvaneloSi wamodgenili mosazrebebi ekuTvnis `samoqalaqo

integraciisa da erovnebaTSorisi urTierTobebis centrs~ da SesaZloa

ar emTxveodes euTos euuk-is Tvalsazriss.

The textbook is published in the framework of the project `Supporting Multilingual

Educational Reform in Georgia`. The project is funded by the office of

OSCE High Commissioner on National Minorities. The contents of this publication

are the sole responsibility of Center for Civil Integration and inter-Ethnic Relations

(CCIIR) and can in no way be taken to reflect the views of the OSCE High

Commissioner on National Minorities.

redaqtori:

Salva tabataZe

2


ISBN 978-9941-0-3082-6

naTia arabuli

maia inasariZe

nino SaraSeniZe

kaxa gabunia

enisa da sagnis integrirebuli swavleba

zogadsaganmanaTleblo skolebis

sabazo da saSualo safexurebze

UDC(uak)37.016+37.016:81-02831 e-688

Tbilisi

2010 weli

3


Sinaarsi

Sesavali . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

Tavi I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

1. enis swavlebis roli da mniSvneloba . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

2. mSobelTa CarTuloba bilingvuri swavlebis procesSi . . . . . . . 14

3. ra midgomebi arsebobs enis swavlebaSi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

4. meore enis swavleba sagnobriv Sinaarsze dafuZnebiT . . . . . . . . 20

5. moswavleTaTvis enis aTvisebis procesSi

gamosayenebeli ZiriTadi principebi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6. enis aTvisebis xelSemwyobi da xelis SemSleli aqtorebi . . . . . 29

7. pedagogTa TanamSromloba bilingvuri swavlebis procesSi . . . . 31

8. mSobliuri enis roli bilingvuri ganaTlebis procesSi . . . . . . 34

Tavi 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39

1. teqstebze muSaoba bilingvuri ganaTlebis procesSi . . . . . . . . . 39

2. grafikuli organizatorebis gamoyeneba . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44

3. Secdomebze muSaoba . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52

4. bilingvuri gakveTilis Sefaseba . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62

Tavi 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67

1. bilingvuri gakveTilis dagegmva . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67

2. bilingvuri gakveTilis dagegmvis etapebi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69

Tavi 4 qarTuli enisa da qimiis integrirebuli swavlebis

sanimuSo gakveTilebi da Tematika . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

danarTi (rekomendebuli funqciuri frazebi

sagnis maswavleblebisTvis) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

bibliografia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161

4

27

76

145


Sesavali

winamdebare wigni bilingvuri ganaTlebis maswav-

leblebisTvisaa gankuTvnili. misi mizania meToduri daxmareba

gauwios sabazo da saSualo skolis pedagogebs bilingvur

klasebSi saswavlo masalis Tematur dagegmvaSi, gakveTilebis

dagegmvasa da SefasebaSi.

gzamkvlevis am nawilSi mimoxilulia is sakiTxebi, romlebic

maswavlebelma saswavlo masalis dagegmvisa da swavlebis procesSi

unda gaiTvaliswinos. es aris moswavlis swavlis stili da

inteleqtis saxeebi, aseve motivaciis xelSemwyobi faqtorebi. aqve

maswavleblebi gaecnobian Tematur dagegmvis komponentebsa da

gakveTilis dagegmvis zogad principebs; aqve iqneba rekomendaciebi

da axsna-ganmartebebi Sefasebis miznebze, tipebze, saxeebsa da

meTodebze.

saxelmZRvanelos meore nawilSi Cven maswavleblebs

SevTavazebT bilingvuri gakveTilebis scenarebs.

5

* * *

ganaTlebis sistemam aucileblad unda gaiTvaliswinos

enobrivi politikis sakiTxebi. ganaTlebis procesi, romelic,

codnis SeZenasTan erTad, moicavs socialuri da kulturuli

faseulobebis dauflebas, xorcieldeba enis saSualebiT.

enis matarebelTa transnacionaluri ganlagebis gamo, erTi da

igive ena erT qveyanaSi SeiZleba warmoadgendes saxelmwifo enas,


meoreSi ki _ erovnul umciresobaTa enas (magaliTad, somxuri da

azerbaijanuli enebi, romlebic saqarTvelos teritoriaze

umciresobaTa enebia, somxeTsa da azerbaijanSi ki - saxelmwifo

enebi). garda amisa, arsebobs adgilobriv eTnikur umciresobaTa

garkveuli raodenoba, romlebic sakmaod mcirericxovanni arian da

saukuneTa ganmavlobaSi cxovroben SezRudul teritoriaze

(magaliTad, afxazebi, bacbebi). xsenebuli jgufebis warmomavloba

da enebi gansxvavdeba umravlesobis eTnikuri warmomavlobisa da

enisagan.

udidesi mniSvneloba eniWeba qveynis moqalaqeTa cxovrebaSi

saxelmwifo enis flobas: urTierToba saxelmwifo instituciebTan,

oficialuri dokumentebis Sedgena, diskusiebi da debatebi

parlamentsa Tu sxva saxelmwifo dawesebulebebSi - saxelmwifo

enaze mimdinareobs; Sesabamisad, umciresobaTa piradi karieris

ganviTarebisa Tu, sazogadod, qveynis cxovrebaSi CarTulobis

uzrunvelyofis TvalsazrisiT, qarTuli enis daufleba uaRresad

saWiro da aucilebelia. Tumca, faqtia, rom dResdReobiT, kvlav

problemaa umciresobebiT kompaqturad dasaxlebul regionebSi

saxelmwifo enis swavla-swavlebis sakiTxi.

saxelmwifo doneze seriozulad dgeba erovnul umciresobaTa

warmomadgenelTa mozardebisTvis Tanamedrove ganaTlebis sistemis

farglebSi saxelmwifo enis iseT doneze swavlebis sakiTxi, rom

maT SeZlon Sromis bazarze arsebul konkurenciaSi mSobliuri

enis matareblebTan Tanabar pirobebSi miiRon monawileoba.

Tumca, saxelmwifo prioritetebi ar SeiZleba iyos wminda

ekonomikuri. maT unda hqondeT socialuri mimarTuleba im mizniT,

rom mosaxleobas gauadvildes adaptacia socialur-ekonomikuri

reorganizaciis periodSi. is garemoeba, rom mosaxleobis did

jgufebs ar SeuZliaT srulfasovani monawileobis miReba

ekonomikur an socialur cxovrebaSi enobrivi problemebis gamo,

6


adasturebs enobrivi kompetenciebis gavlenas saxelmwifos

socialur erTianobaze. erTi mxriv, socialuri da politikuri

xasiaTis problemebs SeuZliaT daayenon dRis wesrigSi saxelmwifo

enis Seswavla im doneze, rom mosaxleobam ar igrZnos Tavi

ganaTlebasa da profesiul karieraSi daCagrulad. meore mxriv,

igive problemebi axdens regionul da erovnul umciresobaTa

enebis Seswavlis stimulirebas.

bevri mSobeli da Temi miiCnevs, rom Tu bavSvis ganaTlebis

procesSi didi dro eTmoba meore da mesame enas, aman SeiZleba

iqonios uaryofiTi gavlena bavSvis pirvel enaze da mis zogad

ganviTarebaze. mSobliuri enis mniSvnelobis SegrZneba exmareba

adamians imis gansazRvraSi, Tu ra adgili ukavia mas sazogadoebaSi.

ena eTnikuri kuTvnilebis TvalsaCino niSania, amitomac is yvelaze

advilad iqceva xolme ama Tu im eTnikuri jgufis simbolod da

ZiriTad Taviseburebad konfliqtur situaciaSi. gamokvlevebi

aCvenebs, rom konfliqturi situaciis warmoqmnis mizezi xdeba ara

ena, aramed sul sxva problemebi. im dros, rodesac socialuri, da

politikuri faqtorebi SeiZleba gaxdes konfliqtis mizezi, enebi

warmoadgenen araTu problemas, aramed misi gadawyvetis

saSualebasac.

unda ganvasxvavoT erTmaneTisagan is programebi, romlebic

Seqmnilia umciresobaTaTvis im qveynis saxelmwifo enis

swavlebisTvis, sadac isini cxovroben da, meore mxriv, ucxo enebis

swavlebis programebi. meore enis swavleba / Seswavlis saboloo

mizania, umciresobaTa warmomadgenlebma aqtiuri monawileoba

qveynis sazogadoebriv cxovrebaSi.

multikulturul sazogadoebaSi yvela wevri unda iyos

Tanasworuflebiani - yvelas (miuxedavad eTnikuri, religiuri Tu

enobrivi sxvaobisa) unda mieces konkurentunarian, Tanaswor

garemoSi arsebobis ufleba.

7


* * *

dResdReobiT saqarTvelos saganmanaTleblo sivrceSi

swavlebis erTaderT formad monolingvuri modeli rCeba:

monolingvuria rogorc dominant (saxelmwifo) enaze mimdinare

swavleba, aseve, eTnikur umciresobaTa warmomadgenlebis enebze

mimdinare swavlebis forma: qarTul skolebSi swavlebis ena erTia

(qarTuli); ucxo ena iswavleba, rogorc sagani; aseve, mxolod erT

enaze mimdinareobs swavleba rusul, somxur, azerbaijanul, osur

skolebSi - saxelmwifo ena iswavleba, rogorc sagani, iseve,

rogorc sxva (ucxo) enebi.

es iyo (da dRemde rCeba) sabWouri modeli. ra Tqma unda,

saTanado pirobebis SeqmniT (garemo, ojaxSi salaparako ena,

meTodikurad momzadebuli pedagogebi da sxva) SesaZlebelia

moswavlem garkveul doneze aiTvisos esa Tu is ena, magram,

samwuxarod, arc aseTi pirobebi gvaqvs (gansakuTrebiT, eTnikuri

umciresobebiT kompaqturad dasaxlebul regionebSi) da amocanac

(igulisxmeba konkurenciis gaweva erTian erovnul gamocdebSi -

qarTul enaSi) araadekvaturia. maSin, rodesac ganaTlebis sistemis

reforma mowodebulia, saerTod aRmofxvras repetitorobis

instituti, am problemis arseboba Zalauneburad xels uwyobs

(metic - erTaderT SesaZleblobad tovebs) socialuri

TvalsazrisiT gaumarTlebel movlenas.

Sesabamisad, unda vifiqroT institucionalur cvlilebebze -

modelze, romelic principulad Secvlis midgomas saskolo

sivrceSi enobrivi ganaTlebis TvalsazrisiT.

8


9

* * *

saskolo mravalenovani ganaTleba nebismieri bavSvis

momzadebis elementia multikulturul sazogadoebaSi, amasTan,

bavSvis mSobliuri kulturuli garemo ki ar iTrguneba, aramed

viTardeba da ukeT warmoCindeba meore enis garemosTan Sedarebis

fonze.

mravalenovani ganaTlebis (bilingvuri ganaTleba

mravalenovani ganaTlebis konkretuli saxea) ZiriTadi gansxvaveba

monolingvurisgan is aris, rom swavlebis ena mxolod saSualeba ki

ar aris, aramed mizanic. aqedan gamomdinare, orive miznis

(pirobiTad - sagnobrivi da enobrivi) misaRwevad saWiroa

gamudmebuli balansireba sagnobriv Sinaarsze fokusirebul

gakveTilsa da specifikuri enobrivi mimarTulebis gakveTils

Soris.

dasavleTis wamyvan qveynebSi miRebuli forma xdeba meore enis

swavleba Sinaarsze dafuZnebiT (content-based second language teaching),

anu sagnobrivi Sinaarsisa da enis integrirebuli swavleba _

swavlebis meTodika, romelic afarToebs enobriv kompetencias

iseTi konkretuli sagnebis (sabunebismetyvelo, sazogadoebrivi,

esTetikuri) Sinaarsze dayrdnobiT, romelic scildeba enis

swavlebis Cveulebriv, tradiciul gakveTils. maswavlebeli,

konkretuli sagnis swavlebasTan erTad, im enis codnis

gaRrmavebaSic exmareba moswavles, romel enazec xorcieldeba

sagnis swavleba.

sagnobrivi Sinaarsisa da enis integrirebuli swavlebis

mizani, erTi mxriv, saxelmwifo enis saTanado doneze aTviseba,

meore mxriv ki - umciresobaTa enebis SenarCunebasa da

ganviTarebaze zrunvaa. aseTi konceptualuri midgoma umciresobaTa

warmomadgenlebs uxsnis enobrivi da masze, ase vTqvaT, `gadabmuli~


erovnuli TviTidentifikaciis dakargvis safrTxis SegrZnebas da

motivacias umaRlebs Semswavlelebsa da maT mSoblebs, Seiswavlon

saxelmwifo ena: maTTvis cxadi xdeba, rom saskolo bilingvuri

ganaTleba mozardis momzadebis instrumentia misi karieruli

winsvlisa da socialur-ekonomikur Tu politikur sferoebSi

warmatebis misaRwevad, amasTan, bavSvis mSobliuri kulturuli

garemo ki ar iTrguneba, aramed viTardeba da ukeT warmoCindeba

meore enis garemosTan Sedarebis fonze.

ganaTlebis tradiciuli sistema umciresobis warmomadgenel

bavSvebs sTavazobs arCevans: an ganaTlebas mSobliur enaze,

romelsac Tan axlavs saxelmwifo enis formaluri swavleba, rac

bavSvebs ar aZlevs saxelmwifo enis srulyofilad Seswavlis

SesaZleblobas, an ganaTlebas saxelmwifo enaze, rac iwvevs

umciresobis mSobliuri enis codnis simwires.

bilingvuri ganaTleba umciresobaTa warmomadgenel bavSvebs

sTavazobs orive enis myari codnis SeZenis SesaZleblobas ise, rom

maT es enebi yoveldRiur cxovrebaSi gamoiyenon.

10


Tavi I

1. enis swavlebis roli da mniSvneloba

enis roli adamianis cxovrebaSi ganusazRvrelia: ena ganasxva-

vebs mas cxovelisgan, qmnis adamianad. SeiZleba iTqvas, rom enam

Seqmna adamiani.

adamians sxva cocxal arsebaTagan ganasxvavebs, upirveles yov-

lisa, is, rom mas SeuZlia gamoiyenos sxvaTa mier mopovebuli (war-

sulSi dagrovebuli) codna. es ki enis gareSe warmoudgenelia.

ena xalxis, eris arsebobis upirvelesi niSania. ena ar aris erTi

adamianis, konkretuli piris kuTvnileba - igi sazogadoebrivi mov-

lenaa. metic - ena erovnuli msoflxedvaa, samyaros Taviseburi aRq-

ma-Secnoba.

enas ori ZiriTadi funqcia (daniSnuleba) aqvs: upirveles yovli-

sa, igi azrovnebis iaraRia (enis eqspresiuli funqcia); magram

azrovneba warmoudgenelia sazogadoebasTan, xalxTan urTierTobis

gareSe. ase rom, enis meore funqcia uSualod ukavSirdeba pirvels

- igi imavdroulad urTierTobis saSualebaa (enis komunikaciuri

funqcia).

rogorc zemoT iTqva, yoveli ena samyaros Tavisebur xedvas

gvTavazobs da sxvadasxvagvarad aSuqebs cnebebs. erTi da imave cne-

bis or sxvadasxva enaze Seswavla mis sxvadasxva kuTxiT ganxilvas

gulisxmobs. `ramdenic meti ena ici, miT meti kaci xaro~... gadmogv-

cems Zveli qarTuli sibrZne.

11


saxelmwifo enis dauflebis saSualebebis SeTavazebiT, sax-

elmwifo Tavis moqalaqeebs codnasa da CarTulobas sTavazobs.

amasTanave, gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania, rom SeTavazeba moxdes

ara mxolod ritorikul doneze, aramed gegmazomieri RonisZiebebis

saxiT. zogadsaganmanaTleblo etapze saxelmwifo enis codnis

uzrunvelyofa erT-erTi pirveli da realisturi amocanaa; amasTa-

nave, cxadia, rom mizanmimarTuli RonisZiebebi mxolod am etapiT

ar unda Semoifarglos. saxelmwifo enis Seswavla yvela asakobrivi

jgufisaTvis unda gaxdes SesaZlebeli, rac uwyveti ganaTlebis

saerTaSoriso mimarTulebasac Tanxvdeba. Tumca dReisaTvis sax-

elmwifo enis swavlebis gaZlierebisaTvis yvelaze bunebrivi

sivrce, rasakvirvelia, skolaa. aq imTaviTve igulisxmeba, rom im

skolebSic, sadac mTeli saswavlo procesi moswavleTa mSobliur,

xolo rusulenovani skolebis SemTxvevaSi _ rusul enaze mimdina-

reobs, qarTuli ena da literatura savaldebulo sagania. Sesabami-

sad, gansakuTrebuli organizaciuli da finansuri Zalisxmevis ga-

reSe problemis gadaWra swored am etapidan aris SesaZlebeli.

Tumca faqtia, rom, iSviaTi gamonaklisebis garda, moswavleebi

skolas ver amTavrebdnen enis codniT aRWurvilebi. aq Tavis rols

TamaSobda qarTuli enobrivi garemos ararseboba, yofiT situa-

ciebSi enis gavrcelebis simwire.

enis Seswavla metad xangrZlivi procesia da did dros moiT-

xovs. yuradReba unda mivaqcioT erT mniSvnelovan detals: sazoga-

dod, ganasxvaveben enobrivi kompetenciis or dones. erTi moicavs

sabazo enobriv kompetencias interpersonaluri komunikaciisaTvis

(siku _ sabazo interpersonaluri sakomunikacio unarebi _ es aris

enis Sre, romelsac viyenebT yofiT situaciebSi da yoveldRiur

urTierTobaSi. enis am Sres bavSvebi iTviseben ezoSi TamaSis,

transportiT mgzavrobis, telefonze saubris, skolaSi

moswavleebTan urTierTobis dros. socialuri urTierTobebi

12


konteqstSia Casmuli da, rogorc wesi, damxmare saSualebebiTaa

ganmtkicebuli _ Jesti, mimika da sxv. isini funqcionaluria da

naklebad moiTxovs kognitur daZabulobas. ena naklebad aris

datvirTuli specifikuri leqsikuri erTeulebiT); meore ki -

kognitur-akademiuri rangis enobriv kompetencias (kalu _

kognitur-akademiuri enobrivi unarebi; kalu aris formaluri

akademiuri swavlis ena. is moicavs mosmenas, laparaks, kiTxvas da

weras sagnobrivi Sinaarsis garSemo).

skola is adgilia, sadac enis orive Sre intensiurad

moqmedebs. swavlisa da cxovrebis sxvadasxva viTarebaSi

moswavleebs orive enobrivi kompetencia esaWiroebaT. enis

efeqturad aTvisebisaTvis, sazogadod, pirvel etapze sabazo

sakomunikacio unarebi unda ganviTardes, rac aratradiciuli

instruqtaJiT ukeT miiRweva.

enebis swavlebis arsebuli, dRes moqmedi saskolo-saswavlo

kursiT SesaZlebelia mxolod pirveli donis (siku) kompetenciebis

daufleba, meore donis (kalu) enobrivi kompetenciis

dasaufleblad ki gacilebiT meti dro da Tvisebrivad sxva tipis

saswavlo strategiis SemuSaveba da damkvidrebaa saWiro; iseTi

strategiisa, romelic moswavles daexmareba am enaze saazrovno

operaciebis Sesrulebas.

swored aseT strategias warmoadgens bilingvuri swavleba.

moswavles uwevs meore enaze konkretuli sagnis Seswavla, rac imas

niSnavs, rom mas uwevs am enaze azrovneba.

13


2. mSobelTa CarTuloba bilingvuri swavlebis procesSi

skola da ojaxi erTmaneTze axdens pirdapir gavlenas da

skolisa da ojaxis TanamSromloba qmnis maqsimalurad efeqtur

saswavlo garemos. bilingvuri ganaTlebis procesSi viTardeba

orenovneba da ormagi wigniereba, radgan skolisa da ojaxis

interesi emTxveva erTmaneTs.

mSoblebs SeuZliaT zegavlena moaxdinon saskolo

urTierTobebze, raTa skolam upasuxos maT moTxovnebs. samwuxarod,

umciresobis moswavleTa mSoblebi gacilebiT iSviaTad

erTiandebian da ayeneben moTxovnebs, realurad ki bilingvizmisa da

bilingvuri ganaTlebis mxardasaWerad maTi xma uaRresad

mniSvnelovania...

skola, ojaxi da Temi urTierTdamokidebuli organizmia da

erTmaneTTan TanamSromlobiT funqcionirebs. mSoblebs mravali

funqcia aqvT; isini arian moxaliseebi, ase vTqvaT, skolis

`arasruli ganakveTis TanamSromlebi~, maswavleblebi saxlSi,

zrdasruli moswavleebi da damxmareebi. ojaxebs SeuZliaT

uzrunvelyon maswavleblebi `codnis fondiT~, rac gulisxmobs

codnasa da informacias, kulturul gamocdilebas, romlis

meSveobiTac es ojaxebi Tavs irCenen, winaurdebian da warmatebebs

aRweven... ojaxis codna, romelic SeiZleba skolam gamoiyenos,

moicavs informacias yvavilebis, xeebis, nargavebis, mcenareTa

Teslebis, soflis meurneobis, wylis ganawilebisa da sanavigacio

sistemebis, administrirebisa da marTvis, cxovelebze zrunvis da

veterinariis, medicinis, manqanaTmSeneblobis, sasoflo

meurneobebis, rewvis, xaliCebis warmoebis eleqtrifikaciis,

xalxuri tradiciebis, simRerebisa da cekvis, saxalxo da bunebrivi

saSualebebiT mkurnalobis, arqeologiis, farikaobis, maTematikisa

14


da biologiis da agreTve uamravi enisa da damwerlobis Sesaxeb.

mSoblebsa da maswavleblebs Soris SesaZlebelia imdenad mWidro

urTierTobebi ganviTardes, rom maswavleblebi iqcnen mSobelTa

socialuri qselis nawilad, rac kidev metad gazrdis mSobelTa

CarTulobas da saswavlo procesis efeqturobas.

aRsaniSnavia, rom Zalian xSirad maswavlebelTa da mSobelTa

urTierToba problematuria, isini xSirad ar TanamSromloben, ver

ugeben erTmaneTs da yalibdeba antagonizmi skolasa da ojaxs

Soris. skolisa da ojaxis urTierTobebis gaanalizebiT xSirad

SesaZlebeli xdeba umciresobaTa moswavleebis akademiuri

CamorCenis mizezebis povna da axsna.

mSoblebma aucileblad unda gaacnobieron, rom maT gaaCniaT

uflebebi da valdebulebebi da agreTve Zalaufleba, rom gavlena

moaxdinon sakuTari Svilis ganaTlebis procesze: yvelaze mTavaria

mSoblis dadebiTi damokidebuleba im faqtis mimarT, rom misi

Svili swavlobs or an sam enaze. miuxedavad imisa, rom mSoblebma

SesaZloa ar icodes romelime maTgani, mas mainc Tavisuflad

SeuZlia daexmaros bavSvs, Seiswavlos es enebi. amisaTvis mSobeli

regularulad unda ekiTxebodes bavSvs, ra Temaze saubroben

skolaSi sxvadasxva gakveTilze, ra iyo misTvis mniSvnelovani, ra

ainteresebs da aRelvebs... amiT bavSvi igrZnobs, rom rasac is

akeTebs skolaSi, mniSvnelovani da seriozulia, igi dainteresdeba

ufro metad. kargi iqneba, mSobelma gamoiyenos SesaZlebloba da

iswavlos sakuTari Svilisgan is ena, romelsac ver flobs... es

daexmareba bavSvs TviTSefasebaSi, swavlaSi da, rasakvirvelia,

ganaviTarebs Tavad mSoblis enobriv SesaZleblobebsac.

bevri miiCnevs, rom bavSvs unda elaparakon aramSobliur

enaze, Tu is swavlobs mravalenovan klasSi. sinamdvileSi es ase ar

aris. Tu mSobeli bavSvTan yovelTvis saubrobda mSobliur enaze

da uceb daiwyebs saubars sxva enaze _ warmoiqmneba arabunebrivi

15


situacia, bavSvica da mSobelic igrZnoben Tavs uxerxulad da

Sedegi iqneba sawinaaRmdego... amitom aucilebelia, saxlSi

gaagrZeloT laparaki im enaze, romelzec saubrobdiT adre. bavSvi

sxva enebs mSoblis Carevis gareSec kargad iswavlis mravalenovan

jgufSi.

mSoblebisTvis saukeTeso rCevaa, daamyaron mWidro kontaqti

maswavleblebTan. maswavleblebi iqnebian maTi madlierebi, Tu isini

dausvamen kiTxvebs da mouyvebian, ra problemebi aqvT; aseve,

mizanSewonilia saubari Svilis warmatebebze. erTad unda

ganixilebodes sirTuleebi saSinao davalebebis Sesrulebisas da,

aseve, erTad gamoinaxos gamosavali. bavSvebi da maswavleblebi

iqnebian mSoblebis madlierebi, Tu isini dainteresdebiT, ra xdeba

skolaSi. mSoblebma aucileblad unda miiRon monawileoba

sxvadasxva saxis RonisZiebebSi da daeswron mSobelTa krebebs.

16


3. ra midgomebi arsebobs enis swavlebaSi

zogadad enis Seswavlis (dauflebis) meTodebi SeiZleba

dayvanil iqnes Semdeg nusxamde:

a) ucxo enis originalur wyarosTan Sexeba:

enis matarebelTan urTierToba;

enis matarebelTa metyvelebis mosmena;

radios, magnitofonis, Canawerebis mosmena;

televizoris, videos yureba;

daumuSavebeli da araadaptirebuli teqstebis kiTxva

(Jurnal-gazeTebi, reklamebi, firniSebi da a. S.);

kompiuteruli programebis gamoyeneba;

kompiuterTan urTierToba interaqtiur da avtonomiur

reJimSi;

kursis mosmena, sadac swavleba mocemul ucxo enaze

mimdinareobs.

b) ucxo enaze arsebuli specialurad SerCeuli zepiri

gamoTqmebis an werilobiTi teqstebis gamoyeneba („xelmisawvdomi

informacia“ sawyis etapze);

g) enis matarebelTan uSualo dialogi. magaliTad,

kompetentur mosaubresTan dialogSi monawileoba;

d) ucxo enaze specialurad SemuSavebul da Seqmnil

davalebebSi uSualo monawileoba („gasagebi informacia“

damamTavrebel etapze);

e) TviTswavleba (vinmes xelmZRvanelobiT), dasaxuli miznis

ganxorcieleba da xelmisawvdom saswavlo saSualebaTa gamoyeneba.

kvlevebma gviCvena, rom enebis swavlebis tradiciuli,

gramatikisa da leqsikis dazepirebaze dafuZnebuli moZvelebuli

oficialuri meTodebi, ar aris sakmarisi da rom bavSvebi ukeTesad

swavloben interaqtiuri meTodebiT, roca isini ki ar izepireben,

17


uSualod iyeneben enas. mravalenovani ganaTlebis kidev erTi win

gadadgmuli nabijia, roca igi sxvadasxva enas iyenebs saswavlo

kursis sxvadasxva nawilis Sesaswavlad. amis meSveobiT moswavleebs

aqvT imis SesaZlebloba da stimuli, rom Tavisuflad flobdnen

enebs. mravalenovan swavlebas safuZvlad udevs Zalian moqnili

koncefcia, romelic sxvadasxva modelis gamoyenebas uSvebs,

magaliTad, imis dadgenaSi, Tu saswavlo kursis ra moculoba unda

iswavlebodes TiToeul enaze. gansxvavebuli SeiZleba iyos agreTve

klasebis Semadgenlobac, magaliTad, klasSi garkveul

gakveTilebze SeiZleba iyvnen umciresobisa da umravlesobis

warmomadgeneli bavSvebi. amas didi upiratesoba aqvs sxvadasxva

jgufebis bavSvebis dasaaxloeblad: am gziT uSualod

stimulirdeba integrireba, Semcirdeba erTmaneTis mimarT mtrobis

riski da dasustdeba uaryofiTi stereotipebi, romlebsac zogjer

sxvadasxva saskolo sistema warmoSobs. umravlesobis

warmomadgenel bavSvebs amiT umciresobis warmomadgenel

klaselebTan daaxloebisa da maTi enisa Tu kulturis gacnobis

SesaZleblobac eZlevaT. aqedan gamomdinare, maTSi gaRvivdeba sxva

kulturisa da enis pativiscema iseve, rogorc sakuTarisa. aseTi

bavSvebi ara mxolod ufro tolerantulebi gaizrdebian

mravalferovnebis mimarT, aramed isini ukeTesad gaigeben

mravalferovani sazogadoebis upiratesobas. Semdegi sakiTxi exeba

asakis SerCevas - romeli asakidan SeiZleba mravalenovani

ganaTlebis dawyeba. es is sakiTxia, romelTan dakavSirebiTac

mTeli rigi qveynebis gamocdilebam gviCvena amgvari ganaTlebis

adreul asakSi dawyebis upiratesoba. am dros ZiriTadi aqcenti

gadatanilia patara bavSvebis mier enebis advilad Seswavlis

unarze.

Zalian efeqturad miiCneven mkvlevrebi transenobriv meTods.

transenobrivi meTodi gulisxmobs, rom kiTxva da mosmena

xorcieldeba erT enaze, xolo producireba (laparaki da wera) -

meore enaze da swavlebis procesSi enebis funqciebi xSirad

18


icvleba. magaliTad, gakveTilze moswavleebi kiTxuloben

inglisurad, xolo diskusia am sakiTxze mimdinareobs espanurad,

xolo maswavlebeli diskusiis procesSi akeTebs dazustebebs

inglisurad. gakveTi-lis bolos moswavleebi asruleben weriT

davalebas espanurad. meore gakveTilze enebis daniSnuleba

icvleba, inglisuri gamoiyeneba producirebisTvis, xolo espanuri

_ mosmenisa da kiTxvis unarebis gansaviTareblad...

19


4. meore enis swavleba sagnobriv Sinaarsze dafuZnebiT

saswavlo sagnis Sinaarsisa da enis aTvisebis integrireba

bilingvuri saswavlo procesis erT-erTi mTavari amocanaa,

romelic maswavlebelma unda Seasrulos, raTa Tavisi sagnis

qarTulad swavlebaze warmatebulad gadasvla SeZlos. es marTlac

rTuli problemaa, romlis gadaWrac mxolod maswavlebelTa

TanamSromlobis Sedegad aris SesaZlebeli. aq, upirvelesad,

igulisxmeba qarTulis, rogorc meore enis, maswavleblebsa da sxva

saswavlo sagnebis maswavleblebs Soris aqtiuri da regularuli

TanamSromloba.

bilingvuri ganaTlebis winaaRmdeg erT-erTi mTavari

argumenti is mosazrebaa, TiTqos moswavleebi saswavlo sagans ver

iTviseben meore enis SezRuduli codnis gamo _ maT saswavlo

sagani unda aiTvison enaze, romelic jer kidev aTvisebis

stadiaSia. marTlac, kvlevebi adasturebs, rom akademiuri da

rTuli enis gamoyeneba saswavlo sagnis aTvisebis dros gadaulaxav

sirTuleebs uqmnis im moswavleebs, romelTac swavlebis enis mwiri

codna aqvT. aseve, ar SeiZleba saswavlo sagnis Sinaarsis

Seswavlis gadadeba _ es iwvevs CamorCenas swavlaSi tolebTan

SedarebiT da swavlis survils ukargavs moswavles (ievina, 2009,

gv.79). amas garda, sagnobrivi pedagogebi SiSoben, integrirebul

gakveTilze enobrivi kompetenciebis amaRlebisTvis garkveuli

drois daTmoba daazaralebs erovnul saswavlo gegmas mocemul

saganSi (maTematikaSi, fizikaSi, geografiaSi da a.S.), romlis

dafarvac savaldebuloa...

swavlebis enisa da saswavlo sagnobrivi Sinaarsis

integrireba niSnavs enobrivi komponentebis sagnobriv gakveTilebSi

CarTvas. integrirebuli midgoma agebs xids meore enis gakveTilebsa

20


da sagnobriv gakveTilebs Soris. am midgomis gamoyenebis Sedegad

ori dadebiTi Sedegi miiRweva: meore enisa da sxva saswavlo sagnis

masalis (sagnobrivi Sinaarsis) aTviseba.

saswavlo sagnis gakveTilze maswavlebeli saswavlo masalas

moswavlis Semecnebis donis Sesabamisad aswavlis, xolo moswavlis

enis codnis donis Sesabamisad irCevs sakomunikacio aqtivobebs; ase

rom, ena iqceva masalis aTvisebis saSualebad, instrumentad da ara

swavlebis sagnad.

enisa da sagnobrivi Sinaarsis integrirebuli swavleba

ramdenime umniSvnelovanesi unaris ganviTarebas moiTxovs

pedagogisgan: es erTnairad exeba rogorc meore enis pedagogs, aseve

sxva sagnebis maswavleblebsac:

mravalferovani informaciis matareblebis gamoyeneba _

raTa meore enis masala SeZlebisdagvarad martivad aRsaqmeli

gaxdes, maswavlebelma informacia Semecnebis mravalferovani

masalis gamoyenebiT unda miawodos moswavleebs: realuri sagnebis,

cxrilebis, gamosaxulebebis, diagramebis, aseve demonstrirebis,

winaswar wakiTxvisa da weris strategiebis gamoyenebiT.

moswavleebze orientirebuli swavlebis procesis

organizeba _ swavlebis centrSi unda iyos moswavle, misi

interesebi da saWiroebebi. moswavle aris aqtiuri obieqti,

maswavleblis funqciaa, moswavleebis TanamSromlobasa da

TiToeuli moswavlis codnis miRebis procesSi aqtiur CarTvas

Seuwyos xeli. maswavlebelma samuSao ise unda dagegmos, rom

moswav-les analizis unari ganuviTaros, rac asaTvisebeli masalis

SemdgomSi gamoyenebisTvis aris aucilebeli (ievina, 2010, gv. 82).

integrirebuli gakveTilis Catarebas seriozuli momzadeba

esaWiroeba: upirvelesad, gansasazRvria rogorc sagnobrivi, aseve

enobrivi miznebi. gasaazrebeli da dasagegmia TiToeuli aqtivoba _

dasazustebelia SerCeul aqtivobaSi TiToeuli enis _

21


mSobliurisa Tu meore enis _ funqcia (magaliTad, terminebs,

sqemebs, TvalsaCinoebas vadgenT qarTul enaze, aseve, qarTulad

vaZlevT martiv instruqciebs: `upasuxe~, `moyevi gakveTili~,

`Seasrule davaleba~ da sxva); rac Seexeba narativs (magaliTad,

moswavlis mier davalebis moyola), am etapze ar unda vaiZuloT

moswavle, meore enaze daZlios es rTuli davaleba.

integrirebuli midgomis dagegmvisTvis upriania momzadebis

Semdegi xerxi: sanam integrirebuli meTodis gamoyenebas daiwyebdes,

sagnis maswavlebelma unda icodes, Tu ra xerxebs iyenebs meore

enis pedagogi Tavis gakveTilebze. am informaciis misaRebad

maswavleb-lebi erTmaneTis gakveTilebs unda daeswron da klasSi

muSaobis process daakvirdnen. rasakvirvelia, kargia, Tuki sagnisa

da enis maswavleblebi winaswar iqnebian momzadebulebi trenirebis

gziT.

enisa da sxva saswavlo sagnis maswavleblebma, erTad

muSaobis dros, unda daadginon enobrivi sirTuleebi da

moswavlisTvis saWiro unarebi, romlebic Sesabamisi sagnis masalis

aTvisebisTvis aris aucilebeli (magaliTad, saxelmZRvanelos

wakiTxvis unari; savarjiSoebis rveulSi davalebis Sesrulebis

unari; sxvadasxva terminis mniSvnelobis garkvevis unari; sakuTari

azris gamoTqmisa da dasabuTebis unari da sxva).

Semdegi nabiji sagnobrivi da enis maswavleblis erToblivi

muSaobis procesSi im problemebis dadgenaa, romlebic SesaZloa

SeeqmnaT moswavleebs ama Tu im masalis (igulisxmeba sagnobrivi

masala) aTvisebisas. aseTi saxis problemebi SeiZleba warmoiSvas,

magaliTad, imis gamo, rom saxelmZRvaneloebis an sxva, damxmare

teqstebis leqsika zedmetad rTulia. aseT SemTxvevebSi meore enis

maswavlebeli exmareba sagnobriv pedagogs TvalsaCinoebebis

SedgenaSi, sadac maqsimalurad gamartivebuli iqneba Sesaswavli

aucilebeli terminebi da is martivi enobrivi konstruqciebi,

22


omelTa gamoyenebiTac moswavle SeZlebs codnis gamovlenas meore

enaze, ZiriTadi saTqmelis gadmocemas qarTulad.

sagnobrivma maswavlebelma unda daadginos Tavisi sagnis

swavlebis procesSi yvelaze xSirad gamosayenebeli sityvebis

CamonaT-vali. meore enis maswavlebelTan TanamSromlobiT unda

uzrunvelyos am sityvebis sworad gamoyenebis unari. SesaZloa,

Zalian gamoadgeT ZiriTadi sityvebis moswavleebisaTvis winaswar

gacnoba. maswavlebels SeuZlia, gakveTilis ganmavlobaSi

gansakuTrebuli yuradReba gaamaxvilos iseT sityvebze, romelTac

SeuZliaT moswavleTa azrovneba swori mimarTulebiT waiyvanon,

daexmaron mizezSedegobrivi kavSiris povnasa da pasuxebis

moZiebaSi.

integrirebuli gakveTilis axsnisas aucilebelia

mravalferovani vizualuri masalis gamoyeneba; magaliTad, SeiZleba

qaRaldze amowerili da amoWrili, qarTul enaze Sesrulebuli

saWiro terminebis mikroba. es damatebiTi informacia garkveuli

periodis ganmavlobaSi SeiZleba darCes vizualur masalaze

ganTavsebuli. roca darwmundebiT, rom moswavleebma axali

terminebi aiTvises, mikrobili furclebis moxsna SegiZliaT. aseve,

maswavlebelma unda Seqmnas situaciebi, romlebSic mas SeuZlia

darwmundes, rom moswavleebi axal terminebs srulad daeuflnen.

gakveTilis dagegmvisas maswavlebelma unda daisaxos

umniSvnelovanesi miznebi da swored maT moargos Sesabamisi masala,

raTa gamousadegari wvrilmanebisa da detalebis swavlebas

aaridos Tavi. sagnis maswavlebels SeuZlia moZebnos

alternatiuli saswavlo wignebi an sxva masala, romelTa

ganmartebebic ufro Seesabameba meore enis aTvisebis procesSi myof

moswavleebs. maswavlebels, aseve, SeuZlia ukve arsebuli teqstebis

moswavlis enis codnis donis Sesabamisad adaptireba; ar unda

dagvaviwydes, rom saWiroa pirvel rigSi Zalian martivad aRsaqmeli

23


masalis momzadeba axali Temis saswavleblad, xolo Semdeg

gakveTilebze enobrivi mraval-ferovnebis TandaTanobiTi zrda,

sanam Tema srulad iqneba aTvisebuli.

Zalian mniSvnelovania, gakveTilis dasawyisSi miznebi dafaze

daiweros da qarTul enaze xmamaRla davasaxeloT (SesaZlebelia,

moswavleebsac gavameorebinoT es miznebi). sasargeblo iqneba aseve

imis ganmarteba, rom es gakveTili wina da Semdeg gakveTilebTan

mWidro kavSirSia.

sanam moswavleebi raime samuSaos Sesrulebas Seudgebodnen,

maswavlebelma maT savarjiSos sruli aRwera unda gaacnos:

sasurvelia, pedagogma SeZlos am aRweris qarTul enaze wardgena,

Tumca, gaviTvaliswinoT, rom pirobis gageba umniSvnelovanesi

komponentia da mSobliuri enis gamoyenebis SezRudva am

komponentSi mizanSeuwonelia. amis Semdeg maswavlebels SeuZlia

moswavleebs misces ufleba, es davaleba safexurebad Tavad

Seasrulon. es xerxi gansakuTrebiT maTematikisa da sxva zusti

mecnierebebis savarjiSoebis SesrulebisTvisaa xelsayreli.

saWiroa, rom moswavleebs TanamSromlobisa da klasSi

samuSaod urTierTkavSirisTvis winapiroba SevuqmnaT. yovlad

dauSvebelia, rom maswavlebelma mxolod leqciis formati

gamoiyenos _ TviTon ilaparakos bevri, xolo moswavleebi

pasiurebi iyvnen; moswavleebis damoukidebel, wyvilebSi an

jgufebSi muSaoba saukeTeso formaa integrirebuli swavlebisaTvis.

isini aqtiurad unda iyvnen CarTulni gakveTilis yvela monakveTSi.

am SemTxvevaSi moswavleebi kargad aiTviseben rogorc sagnobriv

masalas, aseve, gaiumjobeseben enis codnas. maswavlebelma

xelovnurad unda Seqmnas situaciebi, romlebSic moswavleebs

SesaZlebloba miecemaT, sagnis Sesabamisi leqsika gamoiyenon da

sagnobrivi Sinaarsis Sesaxeb sakiTxebze isaubron, aseve,

werilobiT gamoTqvan azri qarTul enaze.

24


enis aTvisebis procesSi moswavleebi saubrisas Secdomebs

uSveben. es bunebrivi movlenaa. bilingvali maswavlebeli

darwmunebuli unda iyos, rom moswavleebs esmiT informacia da ar

unda miaqcios gadaWarbebiT didi yuradReba orTografiisa da

stilistikis aspeqtebs. ra Tqma unda, maswavlebelma Tavad swori

forma unda SesTavazos, magram misgan gamarTuli metyvelebis

moTxovna gaumarTlebelia. mTavari roli enis sworad gamoyenebis

aTvisebaSi enis maswavlebels uWiravs da ara ama Tu im sagnis

pedagogs.

integrirebuli gakveTilis warmatebuli SedegisaTvis didi

mniSvneloba eniWeba sworad da gemovnebiT SerCeul aqtivobebs.

airCieT aqtivobebi, romlebic moswavleebs daexmareba, Tavad

aRmoaCinon axali informacia; maswavlebeli exmareba moswavleebs

informaciis organizebaSi da Sesasrulebeli moqmedebebis

Tanmimdevrobas ugegmavs. sabunebismetyvelo mimarTulebis an

socialur mecnierebaTa gakveTilebze didi warmatebiT SeiZleba im

xerxebis gamoyeneba, romlebSic moswavleebi proeqtis meTodiT

ikvleven Tavisive arCeul Temas. maswavlebeli moqmedebs rogorc

koordinatori _ moswavle gansazRvravs problemas, eZebs mis

mizezebs, atarebs kvlevebs an eqsperiments da problemis

gadawyvetis gzebs eZebs. enis codnis done, azris gasagebad

gamoTqmis unari da proeqtis SemuSavebis procesSi sxvebis azris

gageba iZens konkretul praqtikul mniSvnelobas. am dros

SesaZlebelia qarTuli enis _ rogorc informaciis mogrovebis,

monacemTa damuSavebis, argumentirebis saSualebad gamoyeneba.

rekomendebulia, maswavlebelma gamoiyenos aqtivobebi,

romlebSic moswavleebisTvis nakluli informaciis moZieba iqneba

saWiro: am tipis aqtivobebs miekuTvneba roluri TamaSebi,

situaciuri, kiTxva-pasuxebis savarjiSoebi, problemebis gadawyveta.

TiToeul moswavles (klasSi an jgufSi) aqvs erTi an ori

25


informaciis fragmenti, romlebic savarjiSos Sesasruleblad aris

aucilebeli, magram ar aris saWiro informaciis srulad miwodeba.

moswavleebma erTad unda imuSaon, unda gacvalon informacia. am

xerxiT maTi metyvelebis da azrovnebis unaris gavarjiSeba da enis

donis gaumjobeseba SeiZleba.

26


5. moswavleTaTvis enis aTvisebis procesSi

gamosayenebeli ZiriTadi principebi

gakveTilze gamoyenebuli terminebi, axali sityvebi da

frazebi gaxadeT moswavleTaTvis gasagebi: moaxdineT maTi peri-

frazireba, gaamartiveT isini, gamoiyeneT Jestikulacia, konteqsti,

realizmi da a.S.

gaxsovdeT, rom gageba (gacnobiereba) da warmoTqma (gadmoce-

ma) ar aris erTi da igive. ar DdaaZaloT moswavleebs, gansakuTre-

biT sawyiss etapze, kiTxvebze pasuxis gacema da sityvebis axsna.

mieciT maT imis saSualeba, rom qceviT da moqmedebebiT moaxdinon

reagireba Tqvens naTqvamze.

praqtikuloba

gadaamowmeT winadadebebi, romelTa warmoTqmasac apirebT

gakveTilze sakuTari TavisaTvis ori SekiTxvis dasmis gziT: vi-

tyodi Tu ara rodesme (davsvamdi Tu ara aseT SekiTxvas) Cems

mSobliur enaze? Cem mier warmoTqmuli azri/SekiTxva dakavSire-

bulia Tu ara im codnasTan da unarebTan, romelTa aTvisebasac va-

pirebT programis mixedviT?

interesunarianoba

moerideT iseTi kiTxvebis dasmas, romelTa pasuxebi winaswar

aris nagulisxmevi.

27


mimzidveloba

airCieT mimzidveli Sinaarsis masala da aseve muSaobis

gasarTobi forma. rodesac maswavleblis mizania moswavlisaTvis

enis ganviTareba, xSirad kiTxvebi da davalebebi warmodgenelia

primitiuli saxiT, inteleqtualuri datvirTvis gareSe.

moswavleebs esaWiroebaT axali, ucnobi masalebi, Secdomebze

swavlis SesaZlebloba. iseTi davaleba, romelic moiTxovs

problemis gadaWras, sadac aris moulodnelobebi, saubrisaTvis

ufro met stimuls warmoadgens, gramatikul savarjiSoebTan

SedarebiT.

mieciT moswavleebs sakmarisad bevri Ria tipis davaleba,

raTa aman gamoiwvios axali daugegmavi sityvebi da struqturis

gadmocemis aucilebloba.

SearCieT iseTi davaleba, romelic moiTxovs erTdroulad

ramdenime unaris CarTvas, gaaerTianeT enobrivi Semoqmedeba da

informatiuli elementebi.

Tanmimdevruloba

gakveTilis dagegmvis procesSi, orientireba moaxdineT

moswavleTa gamocdilebaze, aRwereT, Tu rogor SeuZlia moswavles

axlad SeZenili codnisa da unarebis gamoyeneba, da ramdenad

sasargeblo iqneba maTi gamoyeneba momdevno gakveTilze axali

masalisa da unarebis aTvisebis procesSi.

28


6. swavla-swavlebis principebi zogadsaganmanaTleblo

skolebis sabazo da saSualo safexurebze

bilingvuri swavlebis warmatebiT warmarTvisaTvis aucilebelia

swavla/swavlebis principebis gaTvaliswineba sabazo da saSualo

skolaSi.

principi 1. moswavle swavlobs ukeT, roca iTvaliswineben mis in-

dividualur Taviseburebebs.

amisaTvis maswavlebelma unda:

SearCios swavlebis iseTi meTodebi, romlebic Seesatyvise-

ba moswavlis asakobriv Taviseburebebs;

SesTavazos moswavleebs mravalferovani aqtivobebi, sa-

varjiSoebi, davalebebi maTi individualur TaviseburebaTa

gaTvaliswinebiT (xasiaTi, swavlis stili, inteleqtualuri

unarebi, Zlieri da susti mxareebi).

aRWurvos moswavle saswavlo strategiebiT, romlebic mas

swavlas gauadvilebs da ufro damoukidebels gaxdis.

principi 2. moswavle ukeT iswavlis, Tu mas miecema pirovnuli po-

tencialis ganviTarebis saSualeba.

amisaTvis maswavlebelma unda:

gamoumuSavos moswavleebs dadebiTi damokidebuleba sa-

kuTari Tavis, sxvebis, swavlis, garemomcveli samyaros,

saxelmwifo enis mimarT;

Camouyalibos moswavleebs konstruqciuli damokidebule-

ba Secdomis mimarT da gaacnobierebinos mas, rom Secdoma

29


swavlis procesis ganuyofeli nawilia (Secdomebis gamo-

vlena da gaanalizeba ganapirobebs winsvlas);

mkafiod ganusazRvros moswavles, Tu ras elian misgan;

Seqmnas ndobis atmosfero, sadac iqneba TanamSromloba

da ara konkurencia, Sejibri.

principi 3. moswavle ukeT swavlobs enas, rodesac igi motivirebu-

lia.

amisaTvis maswavlebelma unda:

misces moswavles saSualeba daakvirdes asaTvisebel

masalas damoukideblad, gamoTqvas varaudebi, aRmoaCi-

nos, mixvdes, amoicnos, Seadaros, rasac Tanamedrove

pedagogika codnis konstruirebas, agebas uwodebs;

swavlebis Sinaarsi miusadagos moswavleTa interesebs;

Seqmnas iseTi sakomunikacio, realuri situaciebi, ro-

mlebic mimzidveli iqneba moswavleebisaTvis;

dausaxos moswavleebs realisturi, daZlevadi amoca-

nebi da miznebi, raTa moswavleebma igrZnon warmatebis

gemo;

waaxalisos warmateba, daafasos da Seafasos winsvla.

mniSvnelovania im asakobrivi Taviseburebebis gaTvaliswinebac,

romlebic mniSvnelovnad gansazRvravs warmatebas swavlebasa da

swavlaSi.

am etapze gasaTvaliswinebeli asakobrivi Taviseburebebia:

fizikuri da fsiqikuri puberteti (momwifeba). 11-12 wlidan

individis sulieri organizaciis iseTi cvlileba iCens Tavs,

romelic, pirvel rigSi, mis moqmedebaTa Tu gancdaTa stiqiurad

aRkveTaSi vlindeba. mozardis damokidebuleba movlenebTan da

30


sagnebTan, iseve rogorc socialur sinamdvilesTan, sxvagvaria,

vidre bavSvobis xanaSi. igi SemecnebiTia da ara gulubryvilo.

mozardi cdilobs gaiazros movlenebi, swored amitom am asakSi

iwyeba da Semdeg Zlierdeba mozardis fsiqologiuri da

filosofiuri azrovneba. ganviTarebis am safexurze ”mes” manamde

ramdenadme gaurkveveli cnobiereba icvleba cxadi da

gamokveTili TviTcnobierebiT. masSi iRviZebs kritikuli

damokidebuleba sakuTari Tavis mimarT da ara marto sakuTari

Tavis, aramed sxvebis mimarTac. amitom masTan uxeSi

damokidebuleba, mis kritikaze mZafri reagireba konfliqtis

warmoSobis pirobad iqceva. am konfliqtma SeiZleba

gamousworebebli ziani miayenos mozards. mas yvelaze da

yvelaferze sakuTari Sexeduleba gaaCnia da es maswavlebelma

unda gamoiyenos swavlebisa da swavlis procesSi. misces mas

azris Tavisuflad gamoxatvis saSualeba, maT Soris meore

enazec, ar miaqcios yuradReba aseT dros enobriv Secdomebs.

am periodSi aRmocendeba sakuTari pirovnebis socialuri

aRiarebisadmi Zlieri miswrafeba. mozards uCndeba Zlieri

moTxovnileba, hqondes wona socialur garemoSi. amitom am dros

gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba eniWeba waxalisebas, sxvebis TvalSi

misi avtoritetis amaRlebas, misi SesaZleblobebis maqsimalur

warmoCenas. am etapze kvlav aqtualuria roluri TamaSebisa da

situaciuri amocanebis gamoyeneba saswavlo procesSi, magram ise,

rom moswavlem ar igrZnos sakuTari ususuroba enaSi. amisaTvis

maswavlebelma winaswar unda moamzados moswavleebi, miawodos

mas is enobrivi konstruqciebi da Sesabamisi leqsika, romlebic

moswavles am amocanebis daZlevaSi daexmareba.

gardamavali asakis erT-erT damaxasiaTebel movlenas

warmoadgens SromiTi unarianobis daqveiTeba. gansakuTrebiT es

SeimCneva vaJebTan. magram amis gadalaxvac SeiZleba, Tu

31


maswavlebeli gamonaxavs swor gzas. erT-erTi piroba,

davaZlevinoT mozards es sirTule, aris is, rom moswavlis

Sroma, Tundac minimaluri SedegiT, dafasebuli da mowonebuli

iqneba. mozardebisaTvis aucilebelia ufrosebis aRiareba, maSin

maT xalisi uCndebaT gaamarTlon maswavlebelTa pozitiuri

Sexeduleba. sakmarisia mozards daakisron ufrosis funqcia

umcrosebis mimarT, rom maT Secvalon swavlisadmi (Sromisadmi)

damokidebuleba. magaliTad, daxmaros umcrosklaselebs

saswavlo proeqtis ganxorcielebaSi, speqtaklis dadgmaSi an

Tundac waukiTxos maT saintereso moTxrobebi / zRaprebi

qarTul enaze.

kidev erTi damaxasiaTebeli Tavisebureba am asakisaTvis aris ara

ubralod urTierTobis moTxovnileba, aramed Zlieri survili _

ipovos gageba sxvebSi. yovel mozardSi Zlieria tendencia iyos

aRiarebuli, gaugon da ar datovon gverdze.

gardamavali asakis, gansakuTrebiT ki misi bolo fazisaTvis

damaxasiaTebelia interesTa sruliad axali wris aRmoceneba.

saxeldobr, mozards uCndeba interesi cxovrebis sxvadasxva

sferos mimarT, gansakuTrebiT ekonomikuri sferos mimarT. man

kargad icis qonebis an karieris mniSvneloba. aqedan gamomdinare,

imis gacnobireba, rom keTildReobis miRweva da cxovrebaSi

adgilis damkvidreba saxelmwifo enis dauflebiT SeiZleba, mas

uRvivebs motivacias da es unda iyos mxardaWerili

maswavleblebis mier.

32


7. enis aTvisebis xelSemwyobi da xelis SemSleli

faqtorebi

xelSemwyobi faqtorebi:

Tavisufali garemo

moswavleebs SeuZliaT icinon, isxdnen TavianT sayvarel po-

zaSi, gadaadgildnen klasSi, saswavlo procesidan miiRon siamovne-

ba.

gariskvis survili

adamianebs, romlebsac uyvarT gariskva, aseve uyvarT gamoc-

noba. isini ar eridebian sasacilo mdgomareobaSi Cavardnas da

Tvlian., rom ,, vinc ar riskavs, is ver imarjvebs.

warmatebaSi darwmunebuli.

1. moswavleebi, romlebic darwmunebulni arian TavianT

warmatebaSi, advilad moiZieben sxva gzas, im SemTxeve-

vaSi, Tu pirveli cda ar gaamarTlebs.

2. moTmineba da gacnobiereba imisa, rom erTbaSad

yvelafris gageba SeuZlebelia.

3. moswavle, romelic martivad miiRebs im faqts, rom

yvelafris gageba erTbaSad SeuZlebelia, im

SemTxvevaSic aqtiurad iTanamSromlebs, Tu davalebis

Sinaarsi Tavidan ar iqneba misTvis srulebiT naTeli.

33


xelisSemSleli faqtorebi:

aRelveba, nerviuloba

yvelaze Zlieri filtri aris nerviuloba. Tu bavSvi nerviulobs,

wrialebs, oflianobs, fexebs iqnevs, es niSnavs, rom enobrivi

informaciis miRebas xvdeba ,,filtri''.

gariskvis survilis arqona.

adamianebi, romlebsac ar uyvarT riski, advilad ikargebian. maT

eSiniaT Secdomebis daSvebis sxvebis TvalSi sasacilod gamoCenis.

warmatebaSi daeWveba.

moswavleebi, romlebsac sakuTari Tavis rwmena ar gaaCniaT,

arc cdiloben, da amas imiT xsnian, rom mainc ar gamouvaT. isini

yovel Secdomas aRiqvamen ara rogorc axlis swavlis

SesaZleblobas, aramed rogorc sakuTar nakls, rom maT ar

SeuZliaT swavla.

didi moculobis informaciasTan Tavis garTmevis

SeuZlebloba.

moswavle romelsac ar SeuZlia imasTan Segueba, rom yvela-

fris erTad gageba SeuZlebelia, maswavleblis mxridan moiTxovs

gamudmebiT axsnas da amJRavnebs mouTmenlobas, Tu maswavlebeli

myisierad ar uxsnis yvela sityvis mniSvnelobas.

34


8. pedagogTa TanamSromloba bilingvuri swavlebis

procesSi

bilingvuri swavlebis procesis warmatebuli realizebisTvis

aucilebelia TanamSromloba moswavleebs Soris, aseve,

maswavleblebs Soris da moswavleTa da maswavleblebs Soris.

aucilebelia, rom am TanamSromlobis mniSvneloba bilingvuri

ganaTlebis mTavarma realizatorebma gaiazron: ara mxolod

qarTulis, rogorc meore enis, maswavleblebma, aramed sxva sagnebis

maswavleblebmac erovnul umciresobaTa skolebSi. bilingvuri

swavlebis procesis warmatebuli realizeba SeuZlebelia manam,

sanam TiToeuli maswavlebeli mxolod Tavis sagans uRrmavdeba da

imis Semdeg, roca igi gadis klasidan, ar interesdeba romelime

konkretuli klasis mdgomareobiT, ar iqneba informirebuli imis

Sesaxeb, Tu ras da rogor swavloben moswavleebi sxva

gakveTilebze, gansakuTrebiT qarTulis, rogorc meore enis,

gakveTilebze. ramdenime sagnis qarTul enaze swavlis dawyebis

Semdeg izrdeba moswavlis datvirTva. maswavleblebisTvis

sasargeblo iqneboda, xSirad Seikribon da isaubron imaze, Tu ras

swavloben konkretuli klasis moswavleebi TiToeul saganSi. aseTi

saxis informaciis gacvla aucileblad Seuqmnis maT samuSaos

erTmaneTSi SeTanxmebisa da gaiolebis safuZvels. aseve,

maswavleblebs SeuZliaT erTmaneTis gakveTilebs daeswron, raTa

moswavleebis enis codnis doneSi darwmundnen. es TanamSromloba

momgebiani iqneba maswavleblisTvisac, radganac kolegebs Soris

TanamSromloba axali codnis SeZenas uwyobs xels da afarToebs

TiToeuli maswavleblis warmodgenas Teoriisa da praqtikis

gakveTilebze Sefardebis Sesaxeb.

35


Cveulebrivi daxmareba ar niSnavs TanamSromlobas (rac, ra

Tqma unda aseve aucilebelia), es aris samuSao procesis

urTierTSeTanxmeba da kolegisTvis saswavlo gegmis

daregulirebaSi daxmareba. Tu moswavleebi ver xedaven, rom mas-

wavleblebi gundurad muSaoben, verc TviTon moaxerxeben amas.

TanamSromloba unda ganixilebodes rogorc saSualeba, ro-

melic moswavleTa urTierTkontaqts uzrunvelyofs, igi swavlebis

socialuri mxarea. moswavle swavlebis procesSi erTveba, matu-

lobs misi TviTSegneba da Tavdajereba, igi mzad aris riskisTvis,

radganac klasSi dadebiTi socialur emociuri atmosfero sufevs.

aseTi midgomisTvis Sesabamisi garemos Seqmnas, romlis

centrSic moswavlea moqceuli, upirveles yovlisa, gaazreba sWir-

deba, Tu ra unda gakeTdes imisaTvis, rom miRweul iqnes Tanam-

Sromloba viwro gagebiT. es ara mxolod saubars iTvaliswinebs,

aramed kompleqsur midgomas yvela unaris asaTviseblad. magaliTad,

SesaZlebelia, teqsti TiToeulma moswavlem damoukideblad waikiT-

xos, xolo Semdgom wyvilebSi ganixilon igi da mxolod amis Sem-

deg daiwyon imaves ufro did jgufebSi keTeba da, sabolood,

mTelma klasma erTad ganixilos... aseve, weriTi savarjiSoebis Se-

sruleba nebismier safexurze SeiZleba. wakiTxvis an mosmenis win

SesaZlebelia Temis zogadad ganxilva, raTa moswavleebs gavacnoT

da gavuRvivoT interesi.

jgufebSi da wyvilebSi muSaoba moswavleebs Soris Tanam-

Sromlobas zrdis da maswavleblis mTel klasTan saubris auci-

leblobis dros amcirebs. TanamSromlobis gamoyenebiT swavleba

moswavles ayenebs yuradRebis centrSi da radikalurad cvlis

klasikuri swavlebis models, roca maswavlebeli iwyebs saubars,

moswavle mas pasuxobs, Sedegad maswavlebeli mis pasuxs afasebs.

mcirericxovan jgufebSi muSaoba enis Sesaswavlad uaRresad

mniSvnelovania. gasaTvaliswinebelia komunikaciuri swavlebis far-

36


To SesaZleblobebi: uSualo garemo, Tavisufleba da moswavleTa

CarTuloba, aseve, davalebebis diferenciaciis SesaZlebloba. mci-

rericxovan jgufSi iqmneba bunebrivi dialogisTvis ukeTesi piro-

bebi, vidre klasis organizebis nebismieri sxva xerxis gamoyenebis

dros - moswavleebis organizebis es modeli, maswavleblisTvis mi-

sawvdomi meTodebidan, erT-erTi yvelaze moqnili da pozitiuri,

amasTan, integrirebis SesaZleblobis momcemia: jgufSi samuSao

SeiZleba savarjiSoebze iyos koncentrirebuli, rac aviTarebs ro-

gorc sworad, aseve Tavisuflad metyvelebis unars. mas SeuZlia

sworad metyvelebis unaris ganviTarebis swavlebis efeqturobis

gazrdac da moswavleebs jgufurad organizebuli samuSaos Segue-

baSic daexmareba im donemde, rom maT SeZlon Tavisufali metyve-

lebis savarjiSoebis Sesruleba erToblivad. pozitiur Sedegs aZ-

lierebs maswavlebeli `CareviT~ (araformaluri swavlebiT), Ti-

Toeul jgufTan misvliT, rac moswavleebs enis codnis faseul

informacias aZlevs.

37


9. mSobliuri enis roli bilingvuri ganaTlebis procesSi

bilingvurad muSaobis dros ori ena gamoiyeneba, rogorc swav-

lebis saSualeba anu instrumenti: moswavlis mSobliuri (umcire-

sobis) ena da oficialuri (saxelmwifo) ena; an oficialuri ena da

romelime ucxo ena. es ki imas niSnavs, rom maswavleblebi, romle-

bic TavianT sagans moswavleebs bilingvurad aswavlian, muSaoben

erT gundSi: gegmaven saswavlo masalas ara mxolod romelime kon-

kretuli klasisTvis, aramed TiToeuli konkretuli TemisTvis, Se-

saZlebelia raime konkretuli sakiTxisTvisac. am gziT saswavlo

masalis zedmet gameorebas aridebs Tavs, SeTanxmebulia masalis

Tanmimdevroba, aseve saswavlo masalis Seswavlis procesSi gamoye-

nebadi ori enis urTierTTanamSromloba. aseve, mniSvnelovania

swavlebis meTodebis gaazreba. im SemTxvevaSi, Tuki pedagogebi

namdvilad profesionalurad zrunaven TavianTi moswavleebis cod-

nasa da unarebze, yvela maswavleblis samuSao urTierTSeTanxme-

bulia. amis Sedegad gakveTilisTvis gamoyofili dro efeqturad

aris gamoyenebuli.

swavlebis procesSi, ori enis gamoyenebis dros, ZiriTadi

yuradReba unda mieqces konkretuli sagnis masalis aTvisebis pro-

cess. enebi mxolod instrumentebia. mxolod dargis specialists

SeuZlia Tavisi dargis Sesabamisi leqsikis swavleba. enis pedagogs

- arc mSobliuri enis, arc meore enisas - ar SeuZlia iwinaswarme-

tyvelos, SesTavazos da aswavlos yvelaferi romelime konkretuli

enis farglebSi sxvadasxva mecnierebis sferoSi. amitom saswavlo

sagnis maswavlebeli iyenebs, iribad amdidrebs moswavlis leqsikas

da nawilobriv enasac aswavlis maT, imisda miuxedavad, es aris

moswavleebis mSobliuri ena Tu swavlebis procesSi gamoyenebuli

sxva ena.

38


ar aris SemTxveviTi, rom bilingvuri swavlebis meTodolo-

giis sakiTxebis Seswavlisas gansakuTrebuli yuradReba swavlebis

procesSi, gakveTilis msvlelobis dros, enis gamoyenebas eqceva.

enis arCevis ramdenime midgoma arsebobs. maswavlebels gaazrebuli

unda hqondes, anu winaswar unda dagegmos enis gamoyenebis gegma

gakveTilzec, moswavlis damoukidebeli muSaobis drosac, magali-

Tad, saxlSi.

enebis dagegmarebis meTods bevri aspeqti ganapirobebs.

moswavlis asaki, zogadi ganviTareba, mSobliuri enis flobi-

sa da meore enis aTvisebis done, socialuri gamocdileba,

enis praqtikuli gamoyenebis gamocdileba, SesaZleblobebi,

arsebuli codna da unarebi ganapirobebs imas, Tu ra raode-

nobiT unda gamoviyenoT erTi an meore ena.

saswavlo miznebi, davalebebi ganapirobebs, Tu romel enaze

unda tardebodes esa Tu is mecadineoba Tu samuSao.

dabalansebuli saswavlo masalis aTvisebisTvis gamoyofili

drois monakveTis dagegmva ganapirobebs imas, Tu rodis da

romeli ena unda gamoviyenoT axali Temis swavlis, gameore-

bis, ukve naswavli masalis ganmtkicebis an saSinao davalebis

Sesrulebisa Tu Semowmebis dros.

swavlebis meTodebis arCevani ganapirobebs, Tu ras da ra

enaze aswavlis maswavlebeli, Tu rogor da ra enaze muSao-

ben moswavleebi. mniSvnelovania, Tu ramdenad kargad icnobs

maswavlebeli enis swavlebis meTodebs da ramdenad Seswevs

maTi gamoyenebis unari.

saswavlo sagnis Sinaarsi, misi sirTulis safexuri (Teori-

ulica da yoveldRiur praqtikaSi gamoyenebis SesaZlebloba),

sxva saswavlo sagnebTan kavSirSi, SesaZlebelia saswavlo

masalis nawilis yofaSi aTviseba, aseve, meore enaSi, ganapi-

robebs, Tu rodis unda gamoviyenoT erTi an meore ena.

39


gamoyenebuli saswavlo literatura, masala, masSi gamoyene-

buli enis specifika (bavSvebis asakisTvis damaxasiaTebeli

Tvisebebisa da enis ganviTarebis donis Sesabamisi - rogorc

mSobliur enaSi, aseve meore enaSi) gansazRvravs, Tu rogor

da rodis unda daexmaroT moswavleebs ara mxolod saswavlo

masalis aTvisebaSi, aramed, aseve, mis gagebaSi meore enaze.

sxva sagnebSi enis gamoyenebis gamocdileba (maswavleblis

dagegmili) gansazRvravs, Tu ra ician ukve da ra SeuZliaT

moswavleebs meore enis gamoyenebis dros.

moswavlis saWiroebani ganaTlebis miRebis Semdgom procesSi.

aq naxsenebia enebis (mSobliuri Tu meore) gamoyenebis (dagegma-

rebis) mxolod zogierTi aspeqti, romelTa gaTvaliswineba mniSv-

nelovania bilingvuri swavlebisa da swavlis dros. Tumca, kidev

arsebobs TiToeuli saswavlo sagnis aTvisebis pirobebi. mudmivad

unda vadevnoT Tvalyuri imas, Tu ramdenad iTviseben moswavleebi

swavlebis sagans, izrdeba Tu ara meore enis gamoyeneba, umjobesde-

ba Tu ara maTi mSobliuri enis codna.

aqsiomaturia, rom yvelaze kargia swavlebis enad mSobliuri

enis gamoyeneba. fsiqologiuri TvalsazrisiT, mniSvnelovania,

radgan bavSvi avtomaturad iazrebs da unari aqvs, gamoxatos

sakuTari mosazrebebi, roca procesi misTvis nacnob enaze

mimdinareobs. socialurad mniSvnelovania, radgan moswavle

sakuTari Tavis identificirebas axdens sakuTar TemTan.

saganmanaTleblo kuTxiT, is swavlobs ufro swrafad da kargad

mSobliur enaze, vidre misTvis ucxo enaze.

mniSvnelovania, rom sruli Zalisxmeva mivmarToT, raTa bavSvebma

SeZlon mSobliur enaze ganaTlebis miReba... ganaTlebis kuTxiT,

mniSvnelovania, rom rac SeiZleba met xans gagrZeldes swavlebis

procesSi mSobliuri enis gamoyeneba. swavlis dawyebis pirvel

etapze ki umniSvnelovanesia, moswavle mSobliur enaze swavlobdes,

40


adgan, erTi mxriv, kargad gebulobs am enaze da, meore mxriv,

mSobliur enaze swavleba amcirebs im stress, rac moswavleSi

Cndeba ojaxidan skolaSi Sesvlis dros.

roca swavlebis procesSi ar xdeba mSobliuri enis gamoyeneba,

moswavleebi sakuTar Tavs aRiqvamen CamorCenilebad,

arasrulfasovnebad da sulelebad. maTi kultura Seuracxyofili,

xolo moswavleebi SeSinebulebi, dabneulebi da travmirebulni

xdebian. am yovelives SeiZleba hqondes grZelvadiani efeqtic.

mSobliuri enis codna xels uwyobs meore enis aTvisebas.

kvlevebma daadastures, rom moswavleebs, romlebic flobdnen

mSobliur enas, ufro kargad hqondaT ganviTarebuli werisa da

zepirmetyvelebis unarebi meore enaSi mSobliuri enis armcodne

moswavleebTan SedarebiT. mSobliuri enis codna xels uwyobs

unarebis transfers meore enis Seswavlisas.

enobrivi kodebis Secvla (gadasvla mSobliuri enis

gamoyenebidan - meore enis gamoyenebaze da piriqiT) farTod aris

gavrcelebuli bilingvur klasSi. enobrivi kodebis Secvla ara

mxolod gavrcelebulia umravles saganmanaTleblo situaciaSi,

aramed bunebrivi procesicaa, radgan warmoadgens Seqmnili

siZnelisadmi pragmatul pasuxs, radganac aseTi siZneleebi xSirad

gvxvdeba, roca moswavleebi sagnobriv Sinaars swavloben im enaze,

romelsac srulyofilad ver floben. swavleba moiTxovs Zalian

did yuradRebas, xolo yuradRebis misapyrobad enis Secvla xSirad

gauTviTcnobiereblad xdeba. maswavleblebi xSirad verc

acnobiereben, rodis moaxdines enis Secvla, an saerTod Secvales

Tu ara ena klasSi.

enebis Secvlas klasSi moepoveba pedagogiuri da socialuri

funqciebi mkvlevarTa dakvirvebiT, bilingvur klasSi mimdinare

saubrebi da enebis cvlilebebi kargad asaxavs skolaSi arsebul

konteqstsa da tradiciebs. magaliTad, maswavleblis mier enobrivi

41


kodebis gamocvla SeiZleba niSnavdes gakveTilis dawyebas,

gakveTilis sakiTxze gadasvlas, moswavlesTan specifikur

interaqcias an gakveTilis Sinaarsidan saklaso menejmentze

gadasvlas.

klasSi enis gamoyeneba ganpirobebulia 3 faqtoriT: 1)

maswavleblis enisadmi damokidebulebiT; 2) moswavlis enobrivi

kompetenciiTa da enisadmi damokidebulebiT; 3) moswavlesa da

maswavlebels Soris SeTanxmebiT. sawyis etapze enebis arCevani

ganpirobebulia moswavleTa saWiroebebiT. maswavleblebi xSirad

mimarTaven moswavlisaTvis nacnob enas masalis miwodebisas, Tumca

am SemTxvevebSic did rols TamaSobs ganaTlebis sistemisa Tu

skolis politika, romelic SeiZleba krZalavdes romelime enis

gamoyenebas an piriqiT _ axalisebdes moswavlisaTvis gasageb enaze

masalis miwodebas.

saklaso oTaxSi enis gamoyeneba kidev ramdenime faqtoriTaa

ganpirobebuli, kerZod, enebs Soris arsebuli statusiT, ori enis

TanmimdevrobiTa da sinqronizaciiT, moswavlisa da maswavleblis

SeTanxmebiT da a. S. saklaso oTaxSi mimdinare orenovani procesis

gaazreba da axsna SesaZlebeli xdeba mxolod Temis, ekonomikuri,

istoriuli, socialuri da politikuri konteqstis

gaTvaliswinebiT.

42


Tavi II

1. teqstebze muSaoba bilingvuri ganaTlebis procesSi

bilingvuri swavlebis erT-erTi mniSvnelovani sakiTxia

teqstze muSaoba. ramdenadac bilingvuri klasebisaTvis specialuri

saxelmZRvaneloebi ar arsebobs, amdenad ZiriTad saswavlo saSua-

lebad erTenovani saxelmZRvaneloebi gamoiyeneba. am saxelmZRva-

neloebis moxmareba bilingvuri klasebisaTvis garkveuli meTodikis

gaTva;liswinebas moiTxovs, rac teqstze muSaobis principebs gu-

lisxmobs.

teqstze muSaoba ramdenime etapad unda daiyos. pirveli etapi

gulisxmobs maswavleblis muSaobas teqstze. maswavlebeli winaswar

amzadebs teqsts klasisaTvis. amisaTvis igi iTvaliwinebs klasis

enobriv dones, winaswar aanalizebs im problemebs, romlebic

klasSi SeiZleba gaCndes teqstis damuSavebis procesSi. pirvel

rigSi, unda moxdes teqstis enobrivi damuSaveba. amisaTvis maswav-

lebelma sasurvelia gamoyos ramdenime mimarTuleba:

terminebi

da cnebebi

zogadi

leqsika

frazebi konstruqciebi funqciuri

43

frazebi

gakveTilis enac yoveli etapisaTvis winaswar unda daigegmos.

maswavlebelma winaswar unda gaiazros, Tu romeli sakiTxis Sesax-


eb romel enaze isaubrebs an rogor miawodebs dasamuSavebel masa-

las _ TargmaniT, sqemiT, zepiri ganmartebiT Tu sxva saSualebiT.

ganvixiloT TiToeuli mimarTuleba:

terminebi da cnebebi

rogorc aRiniSna, maswavlebelma teqsti winaswar unda daamu-

Saos. teqstis damuSavebisas calke unda gamoiyos is terminebi da

cnebebi, romlebic mniSvnelovania axali sakiTxisaTvis. misi miwo-

deba klasisaTvis SeiZleba saTanado ganmartebebiT moswavlis

mSobliur enazec, magram umjobesia terminebisa da cnebebisaTvis

grafikuli organizatorebis, sqemebis an cxrilebis gamoyeneba. es

efeqturi saSualeba moswavles daexmareba ara marto terminebisa

da cnebebis aTvisebaSi, aramed masalis kargad gaanalizebasac Seu-

wyobs xels, radgan sagakveTilo procesis dasrulebis Semdeg an

momdevno gakveTilze es masala saSualebas miscems moswavles, im-

sjelos ganxilul sakiTxze sayrdeni sityvebis, gaanalizebuli

cnebebisa da terminebi gamoiyenebiT. Tu arsebobs specialuri

TvalsaCinoeba mocemul sakiTxze, sasurvelia maswavlebelma misi

terminebi da cnebebi aseve calke daamuSavebinos klass, raTa,

TvalsaCinoebaze dayrdnobiT, moswavlem advilad SeZlos termine-

bis aTviseba da maTi msjelobaSi gamoyeneba.

zogadi leqsika

calke unda imuSaos maswavlebelma im sityvebze, romlebic

uSualodaa dakavSirebuli sakiTxTan, magram warmoadgens zogad

leqsikas, anu isini sxva sakiTxebze an sagnebSi msjelobisasac das-

Wirdeba moswavles. maTi aTviseba aamaRlebs moswavleTa enobriv

kompetencias. amgvari leqsika sasurvelia klass miewodos rogorc

TargmaniT, ise ganmartebiTi axsniT, sinonimiTa da antonimiT. leq-

sikis aTvisebisaTvis amgvari sqema SeiZleba gamoviyenoT.

44


sityva

frazebi

sityva

gavrcelebuli

sityvaTSexameba

ganmarteba

teqstis winadadeba

axali winadadeba

sinonimi

antonimi

aseve, calke dasamuSavebelia frazebi, anu is Sesityvebebi,

romlebic Temis analizisas da msjelobisas gamoadgeba moswavles.

isini sayrdeni frazebis rols Seasruleben, amitom sasurvelia

teqstidan calke amoviRoT isini da mivawodoT moswavles saTanado

ganmartebiT (aq SesaZlebelia misi mSobliuri enac davixmaroT).

unda gvaxsovdes, rom teqstis Targmna araefeqturi gzaa; amdenad,

rac ufro metad damuSavdeba teqsti frazebis TvalsazrisiT da

gamoiyofa calkeuli elementebi sagakveTilo procesSi, miT ufro

45


gauadvildebaT maT SemdgomSi rogorc konkretul, mocemul masa-

laze, ise sxva sakiTxebze msjeloba. calkeuli frazebi safuZvlia-

nad unda damuSavdes, radgan isini im enobriv saSualebaTa ricxvs

ganekuTvnebian, romlebic zrdis moswavlis mier enis akademiuri

flobis dones da zogadad amaRlebs mis enobriv kompetencias. sa-

survelia garkveuli frazebis gamoyenebiT Seiqmnas axali teqsti,

rogorc werilobiT, ise zepirad, daisvas SekiTxvebi da ase Semdeg.

konstruqciebi

calkea dasamuSavebeli enobrivi konstruqciebi. maTSi igu-

lisxmeba is gramatikuli sakiTxebi, romlebic metad mniSvnelovania

gamarTuli msjelobisaTvis. mSobliuri enis matareblisaTvis es

sruliad arasaWiro sferoa, magram enis SemswavlelisaTvis ki me-

tad mniSvnelovani, radgan man momavalSi SeZlos ara marto sakiT-

xis Sesaxeb azris gamoxatva, aramed SeZlos gamarTuli, salitera-

turo enis normebis dacviT agebuli msjeloba, sworad gamoiyenos

saxelis brunvis, zmnis, Tandebulis, ricxvis formebi... yovelive es

sakiTxebze msjelobisas unda miewodos enis Semswavlels, radgan

calkeul gramatikul sakiTxebze msjeloba misi gamoyenebis praqti-

kul mxares ar gulisxmobs. aseTi konstruqciebi calke unda damu-

Savdes, raTa moswavlem kargad gaacnobieros romeli enobrivi

forma (brunva, ricxvi, Tandebuli, zmnis dro, sxva gramatikuli ka-

tegoria) unda gamoiyenos konkretul SemTxvevaSi. aseTi konstruq-

ciebis miwodebisas, ra Tqma unda, gramatikul sakiTxebze ki ar ga-

maxvildeba yuradReba, aramed enobriv formebze, rogorc azris ga-

moxatvis saSualebaze. konstruqciebSi maswavlebelma yuradReba

unda gaamaxvilos imaze, rom es konkretuli konstruqcia moiTxovs

konkretul brunvas, mocemul Tandebuls, Sesabamis ricxvis formas

da ase Semdeg, Tumca sruliadac araa saWiro gramatikuli terminis

gamoyeneba. aseTi konstruqciebi calke unda amoiweros da mos-

wavles unda ganemartos, rom swori da gamarTuli msjelobisaTvis

46


saWiroa maTi Seucvlelad gamoyeneba, radgan winaaRmdeg SemTxveva-

Si azri damaxinjdeba an Seicvleba. magaliTisaTvis: am garemoebam

gamoiwvia, sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT mniSvnelovania, am problemis

Taobaze, am movlenebma gamoiwvia saTanado Sedegi... calke gamota-

nili aseTi konstruqciebi xels Seuwyobs moswavleTa gamarTuli

metyvelebis unar-Cvevebis gamomuSavebas.

funqciuri frazebi

aseve calke unda damuSavdes da moswavleebs miewodoT is

funqciuri frazebi, romlebic maswavlebels dasWirdeba sakiTxis

axsnisas. magaliTad: vnaxoT cxrilze, daxazeT cxrili, SeavseT

cxrili, SeusabameT swori forma, daakavSireT, daajgufeT, moaxdi-

neT klasifikacia, miuwereT qarTuli Sesatyvisebi, sqemis / cxrilis

mixedviT imsjeleT... da ase Semdeg. maTi ganmartebis gareSe mos-

wavle ver SeZlebs davalebis sworad Sesrulebas. amdenad, maswav-

lebelma winaswar unda gaTvalos, rogor warimarTeba teqstze mu-

Saoba da moswavleebs specialurad, axsna-ganmartebiT unda miawo-

dos is funqciuri frazebi, romlebic sagakveTilo procesSi das-

WirdebaT, raTa aman SemdgomSi ar gamoiwvios Seferxeba.

bilingvuri swavlebis erT-erTi umniSvnelovanesi sakiTxia

teqstze muSaoba, radgan swored teqstia moswavlisaTvis sagnobri-

vi codnis mimcemi da amave dros igi aris misi enobrivi kompeten-

ciis amaRlebis umTavresi saSualeba, radgan enis akademiuri flo-

bis dones mxolod am gziT vaRwevT. sxva SemTxvevaSi ena mxolod

komunikaciis saSualebad darCeba enis SemswavlelisaTvis. amdenad,

Tu teqstze muSaoba sworad ar warimarTa mizani verc erT sferoSi

ver Sesruldeba da Tavad bilingvuri swavlebis formac safrTxis

qveS dadgeba. es kargad unda axsovdes maswavlebels.

47


2. grafikuli organizatorebis gamoyeneba

ian amos komenskim Tavis naSromSi `didi didaqtika~ didaqtikis

erT-erT umTavresad TvalsaCinoebis principi miiCnia: `oqros kano-

nad unda iqces piroba: moswavleebs unda meceT ufleba, SeigrZnon

yvelaferi, rac ki SesaZlebelia SeigrZnon SegrZnebebis doneze:

xilvadi - mxedvelobiT, xma - smeniT, suni - ynosviT, gemo - gemoTi,

Sesaxebi - SexebiT.~

ratom aris xilvadoba ase mniSvnelovani?

komenskis azriT, ra enasac ar unda vaswavlideT _ mSobliur

enasac ki _ unda vaCvenoT nivTebi, romelTa ganmartebac sityvebia

da unda vaswavloT sityvebiT gamoTqma yvelafrisa, rasac vxedavT,

rasac vexebiT, rasac vWamT, raTa metyvelebis procesi da azri yo-

velTvis paralelurad mimdinareobdes da orive viTardebodes er-

Tad. aravis ar SeiZleba wavakiTxoT is, rac mas ar esmis, an movT-

xovoT imis ganxilva, ris gamoTqmac mas sityvebiT ar SeuZlia.

vizualuri saSualebebi damxmare saswavlo saSualebebia, ro-

melTac aCveneben, demonstrirebas ukeTeben gakveTilze, raTa ufro

gasagebi da advilad aRsaqmeli gaxdes saswavlo masala, miwodebu-

li informacia, Teoriuli azri da ase Semdeg. vizualur saSuale-

bebs, Cveulebriv, saswavlo procesis garkveuli safexuris saWiroe-

bebisa da moTxovnebis, aseve moswavleebis asakidan gamomdinare

Tvisebebis Sesabamisad amzadeben. maT ajgufeben bunebriv, xelovnur

da simbolur vizualur masalad.

vizualuri masala SeiZleba iyos:

a) bunebis obieqtebi (demonstrirebis dros, eqskursiebze da gaseir-

nebis dros),

48


) specialurad Seqmnili saSualebebi (plakatebi, sqemebi, gamosax-

ulebebi, foto suraTebi, naxatebi, geometriuli figurebi, muliaJe-

bi, grafikuli cxrilebi, tabulebi),

g) simboluri saSualebebi (rukebi, globusebi),

d) modelebi (aparatebi, xelsawyoebi),

e) saekrano saSualebebi (kino filmebi, diafilmebi, diapozitivebi

da sxva),

v) audiovizualuri saSualebebi (video Canawerebi, audio Canawere-

bi).

jgufi:

tradiciulad gamoiyeneba vizualuri swavlebis meTodis ori

ilustrirebis meTodi (saswavlo masalis amsaxvel saSuale-

bebTan dakavSirebuli - plakatebis, rukebis, naxazebis, sqeme-

bis, gamosaxulebebis, fotosuraTebis, grafikebis, diagrame-

bis, tabulebis - gamoyenebasTan);

demonstrirebis meTodi (raTa naCvenebi iyos sivrciTi sas-

wavlo saSualebebi);

ilustrireba procesia, romlis mizania Teoriis garkveuli ka-

noni an movlena ukeT gasagebi gaxados magaliTis, vizualuri saSu-

alebebis, sityvieri ganmartebebis, moZraobis da ase Semdeg daxma-

rebiT.

demonstrireba SesaZlebelia vizualuri masalis damzadebis

dros, saswavlo eqsperimentebis dros maT Sesaxeb Sefasebebis da

ganmartebebis gziT, anu maswavleblis, moswavlis an sxva pirovnebis

mier naTqvamis gamoyenebiT. demonstrireba Sesaswavli nivTis, ob-

ieqtis, movlenis cocxlad dakvirvebis SesaZleblobas uzrunve-

lyofs, amgvarad, Sesabamisi saswavlo masalis Sinaarsis ukeTesad

gaazrebas da aTvisebas uwyobs xels.

49


vizualuri saswavlo masalis gamoyeneba rom efeqturi

gaxdes, mniSvnelovania gvaxsovdes da gaviTvaliswinoT ramdenime

piroba da moTxovna.

saswavlo procesSi vizualuri meTodebis gamoyeneba moswav-

leebis vizualur mxatvruli azrovnebis ganviTarebas uwyobs

xels; aaqtiurebs yuradRebas da Semecnebis unars; konkreti-

zacias ukeTebs saswavlo an gamosakvlev Teoriul sakiTxebs;

nanax movlenebs ukeTebs sistematizebasa da klasificirebas;

swavlisadmi interess ukeTebs stimulirebas (Sesabamisad, po-

zitiuri motivaciis Camoyalibebas uwyobs xels); procesis da

movlenebis modelirebis SesaZleblobas iZleva, romelTa

realur droSi dakvirveba SeuZlebelia; saswavlo masalis

aTvisebis donis Sesaxeb konkretuli informaciis miRebis Se-

saZleblobas iZleva;

ar SeiZleba xilvadoba TviTmiznad iqces. vizualuri masalis

optimalurad gamoyeneba niSnavs amis mizandasaxulad keTebas,

saswavlo gakveTilis mizanTan da ZiriTad davalebasTan kav-

Siris gaTvaliswinebiT. xilvadobis meTodi unda daba-

lansdes sxva meTodebis gamoyenebiT.

xilvadoba SeiZleba axali saswavlo masalis axsnis dros

iyos gamoyenebuli, aseve ukve naswavlis ganmtkicebisTvis da

Sefasebis dros. mniSvnelovania gvaxsovdes rom vizualuri

masalis gamoyeneba gakveTilisTvis gamoyofili dros

sagrZnoblad dazogvaSi gvexmareba.

vizualuri masalis damzadeba SeuZlia maswavlebels (gamoye-

nebis win an gamoyenebis dros) da aseve moswavleebs (indivi-

dualurad an jgufebSi, wyvilebSi muSaobaSi). damzadebul

masalaSi maswavlebels Tavisufali adgilebis datoveba

SeuZlia, romelic Semdgom moswavles SeeZleba Seavsos (miax-

atos, miaweros rame, an raimes saxeli daarqvas).

50


vizualuri masalis gamoyenebis dros unda darwmundeT, rom

mas yvela moswavle kargad xedavs.

mniSvnelovania moswavleebis asakobrivi jgufisTvis damax-

asiaTebeli Tvisebebis gaTvaliswineba, mexsierebis dominanti

saxeobebi.

bilingvuri swavlisa da swavlebis dros gansakuTrebiT

mniSvnelovania grafikuli organizatorebis gamoyeneba. es xerxi

kargad Seesabameba ori saswavlo sagnis swavlebis miznebs (meore

enisa da raime sxva sagnisa). grafikuli organizatorebis gamoyene-

biT, maswavlebeli uzrunvelyofs rogorc sagnis masalis, aseve

enis aTvisebis warmatebulobas.

grafikuli organizatorebi da maTi funqciebi:

grafikuli organizatorebi informaciis struqturirebis

xerxia _ mowesrigebis (dajgufebis) uniSvnelovanesi xerxi.

grafikuli organizatorebi informacias vizualurad gvaCve-

neben.

grafikuli organizatorebis gamoyeneba aqtiur swavlas

uwyobs xels. magaliTad: saSinao davalebis (savarjiSoebis)

Sesrulebis dros, moswavleebi im enas iyeneben, romelzec

laparakoben, kiTxuloben, weren, ismenen, fiqroben, xolo in-

formaciis grafikulad ganlagebis dros isini iyeneben ro-

gorc nacnob, aseve ucnob informacias.

grafikuli organizatorebis gamoyeneba maswavlebels da

moswavles Soris TanamSromlobas, anu kooperatiul swavle-

bas, uwyobs xels,.

grafikuli organizatorebi gvexmareba teqstis vizualurad

mowesrigebaSi (mis gagebaSi). maTi gamoyeneba SeiZleba:

1) teqstis an axali masalis wakiTxvis win,

51


2) wakiTxvis Semdeg,

3) weris an davalebis werilobiT Sesrulebis win,

4) teqstis an davalebis ganxilvis dros,

5) diskusiis dros,

6) daskvnebis gakeTebis procesSi da a.S.

grafikuli organizatorebis gamoyeneba moswavlis saswavlo

Temis Sesaxeb arsebuli codnis dadgenaSi (gaazrebaSi) gvex-

mareba, aseve _ axali codnis aTvisebisTvis moswavleebis

momzadebaSi.

grafikuli organizatorebis gamoyenebis dros, moswavle da

maswavlebeli erTmaneTisgan swavloben (masalasac, erTmane-

Tis gagebas da erTmaneTTan urTierTobas). bilingvuri swav-

lis procesSi aseT TanamSromlobas gansakuTrebuli mniSv-

neloba aqvs. moswavleebi sakuTari codnis struqturirebas

swavloben da aqedan gamomdinare swavlis sakuTar strate-

gias irCeven.

grafikuli organizatorebis gamoyeneba rogorc vizualuri,

aseve sityvieri (verbaluri) informaciis gamoyenebas ganapi-

robebs. es moswavleebs SesaZleblobas aZlevs airCion, vari-

reba gaukeTon swavlis stils, sakuTari SesaZleblobebis

gaTvaliswinebiT.

grafikuli organizatorebis gamoyenebis upiratesobebi:

SegviZlia gamoviyenoT iseT auditoriaSi, romelSic

moswavleebis enis codnis done sxvadasxvaa.

SegviZlia gamoviyenoT iseT auditoriaSi, romelSic

moswavleebis aTvisebis unaris done sxvadasxvaa.

SegviZlia ganvaviTaroT da gavafarTooT leqsikuri

maragi.

52


moswavlis codnas awesrigebs, xels uwyobs misi disku-

siis unarisa da SesaZleblobis ganviTarebas, aseve sa-

kuTari azris da mis xelT arsebuli informaciis ga-

moTqmis.

im moswavleTa azrisa da enis integrirebas uwyobs

xels, romelTac gansxvavebuli (sxvadasxva) swavlis

stili aqvT.

ufro xelmisawvdoms xdis nebismieri saxis (esoden

rTul, specifikur da ucxo) informacias (saswavlo sa-

gans).

ras unda mivaqcioT yuradReba grafikuli organizatorebis gamoye-

nebis dros?

yuradReba unda mieqces mTavar informacias, cnebebs, azrebs:

mTavari unda gamoikveTos (ufro didi asoebi an naxatebi,

ufro mkveTri feriT gaxazuli an gaferadebuli), naklebad

mniSvnelovani ufro patara asoebiT, an sxvanairad unda dai-

weros (weris mimarTulebis Secvla SeiZleba).

grafikuli organizatorebi sxvadasxva moswavlis individua-

luri gamocdilebisa da codnis dadgenis SesaZleblobas

gvaZlevs, Semdgom am informaciaze dayrdnobiT axali codnis

miRebis SesaZleblobas. es swavlis process realurad amar-

tivebs da aadvilebs.

xeli SeuwyveT cnebebis da zogadi saxelebis ganviTarebas!

grafikuli organizatorebi gviCveneben mTavar azrs, Sesabami-

si leqsikis daxmarebiT. daexmareT moswavleebs cnebebis Se-

madgeneli nawilebis (atributebis) danaxvaSi. mizani aris ga-

geba da swavla, amitom gamoiyeneT iseTi sityvebis maragi,

53


omlebic ganmartavs, azustebs, ilustrirebas ukeTebs in-

formacias.

xSirad gamoiyeneT wera, kiTxva, azrovneba!

moswavleebs rom grafikuli organizatorebis gamoyeneba an

Sedgena SeeZloT, maT bevri unda ikiTxon, ifiqron da weron.

roca moswavleebi grafikulad asaxaven informacias an kama-

Toben mis Sesaxeb, maT uwevT masalis gadakiTxva, erTmaneTSi

molaparakeba, saubari, damtkiceba, Sesabamisad xedaven movle-

naTa urTierT kavSirs, urTierTobas, movlenebis ganviTare-

bas, mizezebsa da Sedegebs.

wera exmareba da xelSemwyobia dagegmarebisa da ganxilvisa!

grafikuli organizatorebi efeqturi saSualebaa diskusiis

principiT muSaobis, gegmis Sedgenis, weris organizebis dros.

yvelafris Caweris Semdeg SegviZlia naSromis Sinaarsis daj-

gufeba da gadaxarisxeba.

ganaviTareT mimdinare diskusia!

grafikuli organizatorebis gamoyeneba azrebs mimarTulebas

aZlevs. moswavleebi avTentur enas xmaroben - interpretire-

bis, analizis, problemis gadawyvetis, daTanxmebis, ardaTanx-

mebis, TanamSromlobis, Secdomebis daSvebis dros - saswavlo

masalidan romelime specifikuri Temis Seswavlis procesSi.

instruqciebis an grafikuli organizatorebis micemis dros

Tqven exmarebiT dagegmvaSi.

grafikuli organizatorebis gamoyenebiT maswavlebeli mos-

wavleebs aCvenebs mTavars raime Temis, cnebis Sesaxeb da

xerxs, Tu rogor SeiZleba axali informaciis aTviseba. igi

faqtobrivad rCevas an instruqcias iZleva, Tu rogor SeiZ-

leba swavlis gagrZeleba (rogor SeiZleba am Temis aTviseba).

54


grafikuli organizatorebi Sefasebis instrumentia. grafi-

kuli organizatorebi moswavlis codnis, Segnebis, swavlis,

fiqris donis obieqturad Sefasebis SesaZleblobas iZleva.

55


3. Secdomebze muSaoba

enis Seswavlis procesSi Secdomebi gardauvalia. igi enis aT-

visebis Tanamdevi movlenaa. Sesaswavl enaze metyvelebis unaris

ganviTareba aucileblad iwvevs Secdomebs, romlebic sxvadasxva

faqtorebiTaa ganpirobebuli: rTulia Sesaswavli enis fonematuri

struqturis srulad aTviseba da misi realizeba, sawarmoTqmo apa-

ratis morgeba axali enis monacemebTan, aseve xdeba mSobliuri enis

yalibis meqanikuri gadatana axal enobriv sistemaSi, an adgili aqvs

konstruqciis arasrulad aTvisebas da miRebuli codnis arasrul-

fasovnad gadatanas praqtikaSi. es da sxva mravali sakiTxi gansa-

kuTrebulad TvalsaCinoa saklaso muSaobisas. rogor unda moiqces

maswavlebeli? reagirebis gareSe datovos Secdomebi Tu meyseulad

mianiSnos masze moswavles? mxolod gausworos Secdoma Tu imsje-

los TiToeul maTganze? ra dro dauTmos Secdomebis analizs? Se-

moitanos axali masala Tu isev imuSaos im masalaze, romelic jer

kidev ar auTvisebia moswavles ise, rom ar dauSvas Secdoma? yvela

Secdomaze hqondes reaqcia maswavlebels Tu mxolod zogierTze an

SerCeviT imsjelos TiToeulze? ra dro dauTmos Secdomebis ana-

lizs da rogor miawodos is klass? individualurad unda moxdes

moswavleTa mier daSvebuli Secdomebis analizi Tu igi saklaso

ganxilvis sagani unda gaxdes? _ es kiTxvebi da maTze pasuxis ga-

cema mniSvnelovania saswavlo procesis srulyofilad agebisaTvis

da sagakveTilo procesSi maswavleblis qmedebis sworad warmarT-

visaTvis.

pirveli da mniSvnelovani piroba, romelic unda Sesruldes,

aris is, rom moswavle, romelic cdilobs Sesaswavl enaze martivi

komunikaciis agebas da axerxebs Tundac elementarul komunikacias,

56


ar unda SevaferxoT; anu am SemTxvevaSi uSecdomo metyveleba an

Secdomebis analizi ki araa mTavari, aramed is, rom Sesaswavl

enaze metyvelebis survili gavuCinoT enis Semswavlels / mos-

wavles. es metad mniSvnelovani fsiqologiuri faqtoria, radgan

enis Seswavlisas yvelas uviTardeba kompleqsi imisa, rom igi aras-

worad an arasrulyofilad gadmoscems azrs. Tu maswavlebeli am

SemTxvevaSi yovel Secdomaze reagirebs, sasurveli Sedegis nac-

vlad, rom moswavlem gamarTulad ilaparakos, SesaZloa sruliad

sapirispiro Sedegi miviRoT _ moswavles daekargeba Sesaswavl

enaze metyvelebis survili.

aRsaniSnavia is, rom Secdomebi mosalodnelia yvela doneze,

magram sxvadasxva doneze Secdomebi sxvadasxvagvari iqneba. enis

Seswavlis pirvelive safexurze Cndeba sawarmoTqmo problemebi. Se-

saswavli enis fonematuri struqtura erTbaSad Zneli aRsaqmeli da

warmosaTqmelia. miT ufro, es exeba specifikuri bgerebis sworad

gamoTqmas. Semdgom etapze Tavs iCens sxvadasxvagvari gramatikuli

sakiTxi. Secdomebi mudmivad vlindeba weraSi. yvela am sakiTxs

etapobrivad da mizanmimarTulad unda damuSaveba. Secdomebze mu-

Saoba saswavlo procesis ganuyofel nawilad unda iqces. enis

swavlebisas Secdomebi gardauvalia, amdenad saswavlo procesis

sworad dagegmva gulisxmobs Secdomebze specialur muSaobas. amg-

varad dagegmili saqmianoba ki safuZveli gaxdeba, erTi mxriv, enis

komunikaciuri aspeqtis ganviTarebisa, xolo meore mxriv, igi gana-

viTarebs da aamaRlebs enis akademiuri flobis dones.

Secdomebze muSaoba warmoTqmaSi

sawarmoTqmo problemebi Tavs iCens enis swavlebis pirvelive

dRidan, magram maTi gamosworeba mcire droSi ar moxdeba, rac ar

unda gaZlierebuli da intensiuri muSaoba Catardes am mxriv. enis

codnis donis amaRlebasTan erTad sawarmoTqmo problemebic mcir-

57


deba, magram igi yovelTvis SeiZleba darCes aqcentis saxiT, anu

srulyofilad swori warmoTqmac verasodes ganxorcieldes. ramde-

nadac es SeiZleba ganvixiloT mkveTrad individualuri Tvisebebisa

da unarebis gamovlenad, amdenad misi srulad daZleva mxolod in-

dividis SesaZleblobebs SeiZleba mivandoT. zogierTi individi bu-

nebrivi smenisa da sxva unar-Cvevebis Sedegad enis aTvisebis para-

lelurad axerxebs sawarmoTqmo aparatis srulyofas da uaqcento

metyvelebas, zogisaTvis ki es mudmiv maxasiaTeblad rCeba, Tumca

SesaZloa, misi enobrivi kompetencia maRalic ki iyos. amdenad, sa-

warmoTqmo problemebis analizisas unda moxdes mxolod ZiriTad

problemebze aqcentireba. rogorc cnobilia, bgeris umTavresi max-

asiaTebeli misi sityvaTganmasxvavebeli funqciaa _ bgeraTa Canac-

vlebiT SeiZleba miviRoT sruliad gansxvavebuli mniSvnelobis si-

tyva. amitom enis SemswavlelTan gansakuTrebulad unda mieqces yu-

radReba amgvar problemebs enaSi da masze specialurad Seiqmnas

savarjiSoebi, raTa sawarmoTqmo problema ar gadaizardos enobriv

problemaSi. amisaTvis:

specialurad damuSavdes Sesaswavli enis fonematuri struq-

tura enis Semswavlelis mSobliur enasTan mimarTebiT da ga-

moiyos gansxvavebuli bgerebi; am bgeraTa gamoyenebiT Seiqmnas

winadadebebi da mcire zomis martivi, araavTenturi teqstebi,

romlebsac gamoviyenebT rogorc sawarmoTqmo miznebisaTvis,

ise karnaxisa da werisaTvis. yoveli nacionaluri jgufisaT-

vis unda ganisazRvros SecdomaTa mosalodneli tipebi. maga-

liTad, Turqul da azerbaijanulenovan moswavleebs, agreTve

evropuli enebis umravles warmomadgenlebs uZneldebaT qar-

Tuli enis yru mkveTr TanxmovanTa warmoTqma, rogorebicaa: p,

t, k; rusulenovan enis Semswavlels gauWirdeba yru fSvin-

vierebis warmoTqma: f, T, q. aseve rTulia afrikatebis (Z, c, w,

j, C, W) warmoTqma zemoTCamoTvlili enebis warmomadgenle-

58


isTvis, magram somxurenovani moswavlisaTvis es ar warmoad-

gens gansakuTrebul problemas. qarTulisaTvis specifikuria

enisZirismieri y Tanxmovani da misi sworad warmoTqma

xangrZliv, SesaZloa dauZlevel problemadac ki darCes qar-

Tuli enis SemswavlelisaTvis. amdenad am problemebze auci-

leblad unda gamaxvildes yuradReba, magram srulyofili

warmoTqmis survilma ar unda Seaferxos enis Seswavlis

procesi da arc enis Semswavlels unda gauCndes iseTi gan-

wyoba, rom es dauZleveli procesia. Tu Secdomebi ar cvlis

sityvis mniSvnelobas, maTze specialurad yuradRebis gamax-

vileba arcaa saWiro, radgan amgvari problemebi enobrivi

kompetenciis amaRlebasTan erTad TandaTan Semcirdeba.

gamoiyos iseTi bgerebi, romelTa araswori gamoyeneba gamoiw-

vevs sityvis mniSvnelobis cvlas. qarTulisaTvis aseTia: p -

f: papa - fafa, piri _ firi, puri _ furi, poni _ foni, paqti _

faqti... T _ t: Tari _ tari, Taro _ taro, TuSi _ tuSi... q _

k: qudi _ kudi, qari _ kari, qera _ kera, qula _ kula... c _

w: celi _ weli, curavs _ wuravs... C _ W: Ciri _ Wiri, Cala _

Wala... g _ R: gori _ Rori, gvari _ Rvari, gomi _ Romi, go-

nieri _ Ronieri... R - y: Ria _ yia, Rele _ yeli... da ase Sem-

deg. sasurvelia, enis Semswavlels sakiTxav da sawarmoTqmo

masalad winaswar mivawodoT aseTi sityvebi, raTa man, erTi

mxriv, yuradReba gaamaxvilos maT sworad warmoTqmaze da

meore mxriv, Tavad icodes mosalodneli Secdomis arseboba.

am sityvaTa gamoyenebiT sasurvelia, Seiqmnas winadadebebi an

mcire moculobis teqstebi, romelTa gamoyeneba SeiZleba sa-

kiTxavad, smenisa da gagebis unaris gasaumjobeseblad, kar-

naxiT werisaTvis. aseve mizanSewonili iqneba Casasmeli sa-

varjiSoebis miwodebac, romlebSic Tavad unda gansazRvros

sityvis konteqsturi mniSvneloba da Tavad unda SearCios

59


mocemul sityvaTagan erT-erTi. aseve mniSvnelovania specia-

luri mizniT Seqmnili audio masalis miwodeba an maswav-

leblis mier warmoTqmuli calkeuli sityvebisa da teqstebis

demonstrireba.

momzaddes specialuri savarjiSoebi sawarmoTqmo aparatis

dasaxvewad; amisaTvis SeiZleba misaRebi iyos `enis gasatexeb-

ic~, magram aq unda gaviTvaliswinoT is, rom enis gasatexis

yvela sityva advilad asaxsneli da gasagebi unda iyos enis

SemswavlelisaTvis.

swavlebis procesSi sasurvelia maswavlebelma CainiSnos is

Secdomebi, romlebsac warmoTqmisas uSveben moswavleebi da

Semdgom Seqmnas specialuri savarjiSoebi maTTvis. amgvari

savarjiSoebis SesaZlo tipebis: TvalsaCinoeba, romelzedac

moxdeba swori da araswori formebis gamijvna (ra aris ga-

moxatuli suraTze: qari Tu kari?, romelia wigni da romeli

ciga?...), demonstrirebaze dayrdnobiT gameoreba, simReris an

leqsis audioCanaweris mosmena da Semdgom moswavleebis mier

imave teqstis gameoreba... es ukanaskneli SesaZloa xSirad Ta-

vad maswavlebelma Seasrulos: mis mier wakiTxul an war-

moTqmul teqsts imeoreben moswavleebi.

moiZebnos masala (leqsebi, simRerebi...), romlebic gamosadegi

iqneba sawarmoTqmo daniSnulebiT.

aseve didi mniSvneloba eqneba multiplikaciuri da mxatvru-

li filmebis naxvas specialuri davalebebiT (magaliTad,

kiTxva-pasuxi: ra Tqva am gmirma? ra upasuxa meorem?...).

Secdomebze muSaoba zepirmetyvelebaSi

rogorc ukve iTqva, maswavleblis pirveli rigis amocanaa, rom

ar Seawyvetinos moswavles metyveleba daSvebuli Secdomebis gamo.

magram amave dros:

60


maswavlebelma unda CainiSnos Secdomebi;

maswavlebelma unda moaxdinos SecdomaTa klasifikacia;

unda ganisazRvros SecdomaTa tipebi enis kompetenciis mixed-

viT, anu moxdes im sakiTxebis gamoyofa, romelzedac yura-

dRebis miqceva SesaZlebeli iqneba enis flobis konkretuli

donisaTvis;

Seiqmnas specialuri savarjiSoebi, testebi mosalodneli

Secdomebis gamosasworeblad;

asakisa da enis flobis donis mixedviT daigegmos samuSaoebi

klasSi Sesasruleblad (maswavleblis saubari, specialuri

ganmarteba, axsna, analizi...).

gramatikul Secdomebze muSaoba

gramatikuli Secdomebis gamosworeba metad xangrZlivi pro-

cesia da igi gansakuTrebul muSaobas moiTxovs rogorc maswav-

leblis, ise enis Semswavlelis mxridan.

maswavlebelma unda CainiSnos yvela is Secdoma, romelsac

moswavleebi uSveben zepirmetyvelebisas Tu werisas. magram yvela

Secdomis analizi, bunebrivia, ver moxdeba erTbaSad, radgan igi

moiTxovs rogorc enobrivi kompetenciis garkveul dones, ise ga-

saTvaliswinebelia asakobrivi sakiTxic, radgan arsebobs Secdoma-

Ta meqanikuri da gaazrebuli daZlevis gzebi. dawyebiTi klasebis

moswavleebs sasurvelia mxolod swori forma mivawodoT xSirad

daSvebuli Secdomebis sanacvlod da specialuri analizis gareSe

mivaRwioT maT gamosworebas. asakobrivi da enobrivi kompetenciis

zrdasTan erTad TandaTanobiT moxdeba enobrivi struqturisa da

enobrivi meqanizmebis gaazreba da SecdomaTa safuZvlian analizs

mxolod am SemTxvevaSi eqneba azri.

gramatikuli Secdomebis analizisas mniSvneloba eniWeba imas,

Tu ra iwvevs am tipis Secdomas. am SemTxvevaSi ramdenime aspeqti

61


unda gaviTvaliswinoT: Secdoma SeiZleba gamowveuli iyos mSobli-

uri enis analogiT, radgan enis Semswavlels pirdapir gadmoaqvs

Tavisi enisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli konstruqcia Sesaswavl enaSi;

gramatikul Secdomebs iwvevs enobrivi kompetenciis dabali done,

anu Sesaswavli enis struqturis arcodna da enobrivi meqanizmebis

gauTvaliswinebloba.

rogor unda vimuSaoT gramatikul Secdomebze?

pirvel rigSi unda moxdes SecdomaTa klasifikacia, magali-

Tad: Secdomebi piris formaTa sworad gamoyenebis sakiTxSi,

zmnis droTa formebis warmoebaSi, Secdomebi zmnur kon-

struqciebSi, anu zmnasTan dakavSirebul saxelTa formebis

sworad gamoyeneba, rTuli winadadebebis konstruqciebis

Sedgena Tu sxva tipisa...

sasurvelia Seiqmnas TvalsaCinoeba _ sqemebi, cxrilebi...

romlebic asaxaven, rogorc Sesaswavli enis Taviseburebebs,

aseve moaxdenen mosalodnel SecdomaTa sapirispirod swori

formebis gaaqtiurebas;

unda Seiqmnas specialuri savarjiSoebi TiToeuli sakiTxi-

saTvis: Casma, swori formis SerCeva, areuli Tanmimdevrobis

dalageba, zmnis, winadadebis, teqstis gadayvana sxva drois /

piris formaSi, kiTxva-pasuxi pirTa formebis gaaqtiurebiT,

minidialogis Sedgena mocemuli formebis gamoyenebiT, situ-

aciuri TamaSebi Sesaswavli formebis gamoyenebiT, gamonakli-

sebze specialuri muSaoba da ase Semdeg...

mocemuli formebis gamoyenebiT winadadebebi an teqstis Sed-

gena;

informaciis gameoreba da axali winadadebis / informaciis

damateba;

dialogis Sedgena mocemuli an gansaxilveli formebis ga-

moyenebiT (wyvilebSi muSaoba)...

62


gramatikuli Secdomebze muSaobis erT-erTi efeqturi gzaa

funqciuri gramatikis sakiTxebis miwodeba enis SemswavlelTaT-

vis. igi gansakuTrebulad avlens gramatikis praqtikul daniS-

nulebas da amave dros aviTarebs enobriv kompetenciebs komuni-

kaciuri situaciebis mixedviT.

Secdomebze muSaoba weris mimarTulebiT

weriTi davalebebi metad mniSvnelovania rogorc uSualod

weris unar-Cvevis, ise zogadad enobrivi kompetenciis ganviTarebi-

saTvis. weris procesi metyvelebasTan SedarebiT nela da pasiuri

codnis gaaqtiurebiT mimdinareobs, ramdenadac enis Semswavlels /

moswavles sakmarisi dro aqvs azris gadmosacemad mis mier aTvise-

buli masalidan gaazrebulad SearCios formebi. amdenad werisas

daSvebuli Secdomebi saukeTeso indikatoria gaazrebuli codnis

doneze arsebul problemaTa gamosavlenad. Tu weriT namuSevarSi

Secdomebi mravladaa, es aSkarad aCvenebs, rom enis Semswavleli-

saTvis garkveuli sakiTxebi jer kidev dauZlevelia. amdenad, weri-

sas daSvebul Secdomebze mizanmimarTulad unda imuSaos rogorc

enis Semswavlelmac, aseve maswavlebelma.

weriTi davalebebis saxiT moswavles SesaZloa sxvadasxva sa-

muSao mieces da TiToeuli maTgani Tavisebur midgomasa da muSao-

bas moiTxovs. upirveles yovlisa ki unda aRiniSnos, rom didi

mniSvneloba eniWeba weriTi namuSevris kargad gamoyenebas Secdoma-

Ta analizisaTvis. amitom maswavlebelma aucileblad unda mianiS-

nos yvela Secdomaze, xolo Semdgom gamokveTilad unda miuTiTos

swori forma an azris gamoxatvis swori enobrivi saSualebebi. vi-

zualizaciis es xerxi kargi saSualebaa moswavlisaTvis sakuTar

SecdomaTa gasaanalizeblad.

dawyebiT safexurze efeqturia karnaxi, radgan igi avlens im

problemebs, romlebic mosmenis, gagebis, enis fonematuri struqtu-

63


isa da orTografiis gaazrebis dones avlens. karnaxi kargad ga-

moavlens, ra problemebia bgeraTa aRqmisa da sworad weris Tval-

sazrisiT.

weriTi davalebis erT-erTi saxeobas warmoadgens winadadebe-

bisa da teqstebis Sedgena. am SemTxvevaSi vlindeba gramatikuli

problemebi, rac aseve unda gaxdes Secdomebis gasworebisa da ana-

lizi safuZveli. rveulSi, specialur adgilze, gamokveTilad, um-

jobesia sqematurad da TvalsaCinod, saTiTaod unda gamoikveTos

yvela Secdoma swori variantis CvenebiT.

M metad efeqturi saSualebaa, moswavleTa mier Secdome-

bis gasworeba. amisaTvis rveulSi unda gamoiyos adgili Secdomebis

gasworebisaTvis, sadac moswavle Tavadve dawers Secdomis sanac-

vlod swor, gamarTul variants.

mokled, Secdomebis analizi weris mimarTulebiT amgvarad

SeiZleba warmovidginoT:

karnaxi da misi analizi;

weriTi davaleba da misi analizi;

naweris gasworebisas mieniSnos yvela Secdoma swori formis

miTiTebiT;

gamoiyos specialuri adgili Secdomebis gasworebisaTvis;

Seiqmnas specialuri davalebebi, teqstebi tipur SecdomaTa

gaanalizebisaTvis.

dasasrul, kidev erTxel mivubrundeT im SekiTxvebs, romleb-

ic daisva da sakiTxis gaTvaliswinebiT maT mokled gavceT pa-

suxi:

amdenad, Secdomebi reagirebis gareSe ar unda darCes, magram

TiToeul maTganze dauyovneblivi reagireba Seaferxebs moswav-

lis metyvelebis process. amitom sasurvelia, maswavlebelma Cai-

niSnos Secdomebi, moaxdinos maTi klasifikacia da Semdgom

gaaanalizos isini. enis Seswavlis sawyis safexurze SeiZleba

64


mxolod mieniSnos swori formis Sesaxeb. aseve efeqturi iqneba

TvalsaCinoebebis, gansakuTrebiT ki sqemebis, gamoyeneba. enobrivi

kompetenciis zrdasTan erTad ki sasurvelia SecdomaTa analizi

da maTze garkveuli msjeloba. SecdomaTa klasifikaciis Semdeg

maswavlebelma enis aTvisebis procesSi TandaTanobiT unda gaaa-

nalizos Secdomebi da igi etapobrivad miawodos klass. araa

aucilebeli Secdomebis analizs mTeli sagakveTilo procesi

daeTmos, an garkveuli TanamimdevrobiT moxdes maTze msjeloba.

piriqiT, maTi gaanalizeba SeniSvnis xasiaTs unda atarebdes.

aseve aucilebelia specialuri savarjiSoebis Sedgena, romleb-

Sic ukve gaanalizebuli Secdomebis praqtikaSi gadatana moxde-

ba. es kidev erTxel gamoavlens imas, ramdenad sworad iyeneben

ganxilul formebs. sasurvelia Secdomebi mTel klasTan erTad

gaanalizdes da ara individualurad, Tumca weris mimarTulebiT

amas mainc individualuri xasiaTi eZleva.

65


4. bilingvuri gakveTilis Sefaseba

B bilingvuri swavlebis procesis Sefasebisas gansakuTrebuli

yuradReba eqceva Tavad swavlebis processa da swavlebis

strategiebs (formatuli Sefaseba) da Sedegebs (Semajamebeli

Sefaseba). amisaTvis gamoiyeneba sxvadasxva xerxi, kerZod:

dakvirveba, interviu, testebi da sxva. producirebis unarebis

Sefaseba gulisxmobs pasuxs Semdeg kiTxvebze:

ra informaciis / sametyvelo funqciis gamoyeneba Seu-

ZliaT mSobliur da meore enaze moswavleebs Secdome-

biT Tu uSecdomod (dasaxuli amocanebis Sesrulebis

Sefaseba)?

visTan _ maswavleblebTan, TanatolebTan da stumrebTan

_ SeuZliaT urTierTqmedeba (komunikaciis problema)?

rogoria maTi lingvisturi unarebi (enobrivi konstruq-

ciebis aTvisebis donis Sefaseba da ara Secdomebis aR-

nusxva)?

SemfasebelTa amocanebSi unda Sediodes saswavlo procesis

analizi (dakvirveba klasSi), maswavleblis / moswavleebis /

mSoblebis urTierTobebi, saswavlo masalebi, aseve moswavleTa

kompetenciebis testireba (formatuli / Semajamebeli). klasSi

dakvirvebisas yuradReba unda mieqces ara marto moswavleebis,

aramed maswavleblis qcevasac: ra gavlenas axdens is moswavleebze

da rodis da rogor iyenebs enebs? rogor qmnis motivacias? rogor

reagirebs Secdomebze? Secdomebis gasworebis rogor formebs

iyenebs: modelirebas (swori formis Tanamimdevruli da xSiri

gameoreba Secdomebis pirdapiri Sesworebis gareSe) Tu xelaxla

66


formulirebas (moswavlis SecdomiT naTqvamis sworad da gasagebad

formulireba)? rogor aris organizebuli saswavlo procesi?

moswavleTa progresis Sesafaseblad bilingvur skolaSi

yuradReba unda mieqces maT miRwevebs saganSi. bilingvur skolaSi

moswavles xuTi weli mainc sWirdeba imisaTvis, rom igi daeuflos

meore enas sagnebis Sesaswavlad. Aam xangrZlivobis gamo moswavles

SeiZleba gauCndes sakuTari ususurobis gancda, Camouyalibdes

dabali TviTSefaseba. am problemis gadasawyvetad arsebobs ori

gza: pirveli _ bilingvuri klasis moswavleTa Sefaseba

specialurad maTTvis Sedgenili standartebis mixedviT. am midgomam

SeiZleba mSoblebisa da sagnebis maswavlebelTa gamoiwvios, radgan

maTi survilia, moswavlis Sedegebi Seesabamebodes saxelmwifo

standarts. amis gamo aucilebeli xdeba Cveulebrivi skolebisaTvis

kuTvnili testebis gamoyeneba. Mmagram, amasTan, unda vifiqroT

testebSi garkveuli cvlilebebis Setanis Sesaxeb. magaliTad, aseTi

SeiZleba iyos orenovani testi. aseve SeiZleba moswavleebs

SeiZleba mieceT damatebiTi dro, neba davrToT, isargeblon

leqsikonebiT an gavumartivoT testuri davalebebis pirobebi.

vafasebT ra bilingvur programebs, ar unda

SemovifargloT mxolod enobrivi unarebis SefasebiT. unda

Sefasdes Sinaarsi, mizani da meTodika.

ras

vafasebT?

qvemoT gTavazobT savaraudo CamonaTvalis cxrils:

moswavleTa

Sefaseba

kompetencias

mSobliur enaSi;

kompetencias sa-

ganSi;

67

bilingvuri

swavlebis

komponentebis

Sefaseba

swavlebis meTodika;

saswavlo Sinaarsi;

maswavlebelTa ur-

TierToba moswavle-

bilingvuri

modelis

Sefaseba

modelis efeq-

turoba;

bilingvuri

swavlebis mas-


vin

afasebs?

kompetencias meore

enaSi;

motivacias;

sxva kompetenciebi

(kognituri unare-

bi, socialuri un-

arebi, sxva saswav-

lo una-rebi);

maswavleble-bi;

saatestacio / saga-

mocdo komisia.

mizani moswavleTa Zlieri

rogor

vafasebT?

da susti mxare-

ebis gamovlena;

standartis Sede-

gebis miRweva;

informacia mSo-

belTaTvis;

SerCeva.

kiTxvarebi;

testebi;

interviu;

dakvirveba.

ebTan. wavlebelTa

damkvirvebelTa jgufi.

xarisxis kontroli;

masalebis gadamuSa-

veba;

maswavlebelTa mom-

zadebis done.

interviu;

dakvirveba klasSi

Catarebul samuSa-

oebze;

zepirmetyvelebis

analizi;

saswavlo masalebis

analizi.

68

momzadeba.

gare monitor-

ingis jgufi.

gadawyvetilebis

miReba modelis

SenarCuneba /

arSenarCunebaze,

ganviTarebaze.

saswavlo prog-

ramebisanali- zi;

kiTxvarebi;

kvlevebi.

gakveTilis Sefasebisas, rekomendebulia, rom maswavleblebma

upasuxon Semdeg kiTxvebs:

miRweuli iyo Tu ara gakveTilis gamokveTili miznebi?


SerCeuli strategiebis saSualebiT ramdenad moxerxda gakveTi-

lis winaSe dasmuli amocanebis gadaWra?

Seesabameba Tu ara gakveTilisaTvis gamoyofili drois gadana-

wileba realur SesaZleblobebs da moswavleTa moTxovnebs?

rogor gamoiyeneben moswavleebi gakveTilze miRebul codnas

momavalSi?

ra SeiZleboda gakeTebuliyo sxvagvarad?

TviTSefaseba

imisaTvis, rom moswavle SeeCvios sakuTari pasuxis Semowme-

bas, Camouyalibdes Secdomis mimarT swori damokidebuleba, daZ-

lios SiSi Secdomis winaSe, xSirad unda mivceT sakuTari namuSev-

ris Sefasebis saSualeba. TviTSefaseba mas exmareba imis gacnobie-

rebaSi, rom Secdomebis aRiareba da gamosworeba winsvlis aucile-

beli pirobaa. TviTSefasebiT igi grZnobs met valdebulebas da

cdilobs iyos maqsimalurad obieqturi.

TviTSefasebis ramdenime xerxi arsebobs. yvelaze gavrcele-

bulia swor pasuxebTan moswavleebis pasuxebis Sedareba. moswav-

leebi am Sedarebis gziT Tavad aRmoaCenen sakuTar Secdomebs da

Semdeg aanalizeben, ratom dauSves es Secdomebi, ris codna da-

akldaT, ra ver gaiTvaliswines, iqneb koncentracia ver moaxerxes

sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT an marTebuli gza ar airCies da sxva.

TviTSefasebis procesSi mniSvnelovani swored sakuTari saq-

mianobis refleqsiis procesia. es aRmoaCeninebs moswavles sakuTar

sust mxareebs, romelTa dasaZlevadac unda mimarTos sakuTari Za-

lisxmeva. Sedegiania TviTSefasebis iseTi xerxi, roca moswavle

winaswar SemuSavebuli Sefasebis sqemis mixedviT afasebs sakuTar

naSroms, Semdeg ucvlis mewyviles da erTmaneTis namuSevrebs afa-

69


seben, bolos ki maswavlebeli afasebs. am SemTxvevaSic mniSvnelo-

vania analizis procesi. ra daemTxva Sefasebis am sam SemTxvevaSi

erTmaneTs, ra _ ara da ratom? ris codna ar eyo moswavles Tavad

an mis Tanaklasels obieqturi SefasebisaTvis.

70


Tavi III

1. bilingvuri gakveTilis dagegmva

riT gansxvavdeba bilingvuri gakveTili meore enis swavlebis

gakveTilisgan?

enis gakveTili gakveTili, romelzedac

viTardeba ena

programa yuradReba maxvildeba yuradReba sagnis

enaze da enis Seswav- Sinaarsa da enobriv

lis miznebze (codna unarebze (sagnis

enaze da enis codna) codna da enis

dagegmva

gamoyeneba)

yuradReba enaze, mis yuradReba enis ga-

struqturaze, enis moyenebaze, vsaubrobT

Seswavlis kontrolsa ra sagnis Sinaarsze;

da praqtikul samu- yuradReba im Si-

Saoze enaSi

naarsze,

wignSia.

romelic

aqtivobebi yuradReba producire- yuradReba sagnis Sibaze

orientirebul naarsidangamomdi- aqtivobebze, savarji- nare savarjiSoebze;

Soebi, romlbic unda aqcenti vizualur

da SeiZleba kon- saSualebebze da matroldebodes.salis

CarTva kiTxvisa

da werisaTvis.

enis arCeva maswavlebeli da moswavle iyenebs

moswavleebi (SeZlebis- enas, romelic Seedagvarad)

mTel sabameba mis codnas;

gakveTilze urTi- maswavlebeli iyenebs

erToben samizne enaze. enas mkacrad gegmiurad,

fiqrobs ra

moswavlesa

ganze.

da sa-

71


gakveTilis dagegmvisas, upiratesoba unda mieniWos iseT sis-

temas, sadac gamoyenebulia kritikuli azrovnebis principebi.

sxvagvarad rom vTqvaT, gakveTilis TiToeul fazaSi garkveuli

problemis dasma unda moxdes. aucilebelia imis damaxsovreba, rom

mecadineobis TiToeul fazaSi saWiroa Sesabamisi meTodisa da

strategiis gamoyeneba. swavlebis strategiisa, Tu meTodis SerCevi-

sas mniSvnelovania gakveTilis miznis da Sefasebis kriteriumebis

gaTvaliswineba.

gakveTilis dagegmvisas, pirvel rigSi saWiroa gakveTilze ga-

mokveTili miznebis Sefaseba da am miznebis ganxorcielebis Se-

saZleblobis gansazRvra gakveTilisaTvis gamoyofili drois gan-

mavlobaSi.

aseve saWiroa gakveTilis TiToeuli fazisaTvis strategiis

SemuSaveba. Tumca, unda gvaxsovdes, rom strategia aris mxolod

saSualeba, romelic gvexmareba dagegmili Sedegebis miRwevaSi.

gakveTilis Semdeg saWiroa miRweuli Sedegebis analizi da

maTi Sesabamisobis dadgena winaswar SemuSavebul miznebTan. es

maswavlebels aZlevs imis saSualebas, rom iswavlos sakuTar

gamocdilebaze da ukeTesad dagegmos yoveli momdevno gakveTili.

bilingvuri gakveTili:

maswavleblis ena enis dagegmva masalebi sayrdeni masala

moswavleTaTvis

rogor leqsika da romel enas ra masala ra daxmareba

frazebia saWiro enas rodis damWirdeba dasWirdeba yve-

moswavleTa

gamoviyeneb? da romel las da ra _

organizebisaTvis? enis romeli enaze? calkeuls?

saganTan

kompetencia

dakavSirebuli

leqsika

ganviTardeba?

72


2. bilingvuri gakveTilis dagegmvis etapebi

a. gakveTilis Tema.

b. motivacia.

risTvis aris saWiro es gakveTili?

ramdenad aris dakavSirebuli gakveTilis Tema im codnasTan,

romlis SeZenac sxva gakveTilebis Sedegad moxda?

dakavSirebulia Tu ara gakveTilis Tema adre miRebul

codnasTan da momavalSi misaReb masalasTan?

ramdenad aris gakveTilis Tema dakavSirebuli moswavleTa

pirad gamocdilebasTan da maT interesebTan?

rogor moxerxdeba am gakveTilis saSualebiT swavlis swavla

da kritikuli azrovnebis ganviTareba?

ra saxis informacias miiReben moswavleebi am gakveTilis

saSualebiT?

rogor unda moxdes gakveTilis gegmis SemuSaveba imgvarad,

rom gaiRviZos TiToeuli moswavlis personalurma interesma?

ra saxis kiTxvebis dasma moxdeba moswavleTaTvis, rogor

gaarTmeven Tavs axali Temis gagebas, rogor SeZleben

axali informaciis gaanalizebas, ideebis sinTezirebas da

a.S.

rogor SeiZleba gakveTilis Temis gamoyeneba imgvarad, rom

ganviTardes kiTxvebis dasmis, analizis, diskusiis SesaZ-

lebloba?

Temis rogori aspeqtebiT aris SesaZlebeli moswavleTaTvis

Semdgomi kvleviTi muSaobisaTvis xelSewyoba?

73


ogor moxdeba aRniSnuli gakveTilis saSualebiT meore enis

aTviseba da rogor Camouyalibebs moswavles dadebiT damoki-

debulebas meore enis mimarT?

ra saxis TanamSromloba iqneba sagnis maswavlebelsa da enis

maswavlebels Soris?

gakveTilis romel etapze da ra mizniT moxdeba mSobliuri

enis da meore enis gamoyeneba?

romeli sityvebis SeTvisebaa aucilebeli meore enidan,

moswavlis leqsikonidan romeli sityvebis aqtivizaciaa

aucilebeli?

swavlebis ra saxis meTodebi da meTodologiuri xerxebi

iqneba gamoyenebuli imisaTvis, rom moswavleSi ganaviTaros

zepirsityvieri da werilobiTi saxiT meore enaze azris da

grZnobis gadmocema?

rogor ganxorcieldeba moswavleTa TanamSromloba da maT

mier axalad aTvisebuli leqsikis gamoyeneba?

g. gakveTilis miznebi

yoveli gakveTilisaTvis saWiroa ramdenime miznis win wamoweva:

mizani, romelic dakavSirebulia aTvisebuli masalis SinaarsTan;

mizani, romelic aviTarebs moswavlis kritikul azrovnebas da

misi swavlebis SesaZleblobebs;

mizani, romelic aviTarebs meore enis SesaZleblobebs da iZleva

kulturul garemoSi integrirebis saSualebas;

d. winaswar wayenebuli pirobebi

aucilebelia imis Sefaseba, Tu ra unda icodes da SeeZlos

moswavles imisaTvis, rom warmatebiT gaarTvas Tavi axal masalas.

ra winaswari codna gaaCnia moswavles Temis irgvliv?

74


imisaTvis rom codna SenarCunebuli da xangrZlivi iyos,

aucilebelia misi SeTviseba ukve nacnob da gasageb konteqstSi,

amitom TiToeuli Temis aTvisebamde saWiroa rom moswavle

flobdes winaswar informacias aRniSnuli Temis Sesaxeb.

gvaZlevs Tu ara moswavleTa niWierebis done, azrovneba da

swavlis unari imis saSualebas, rom maT daZlion maswavlebelTa

mier gakveTilisaTvis SemuSavebuli masala?

Tu xdeba swavlebis axali meTodis gamoyeneba,

moswavleebisaTvis aucilebelia informaciis miwodeba. Tu

gakveTilze gegmavT axali meTodis Setanas, maSin moswavleTa

interesis gamowveva aRniSnuli meTodis mimarT SesaZlebelia

kiTxvebis dasmiT. imis aucilebloba, rom Tavidanve ganviTardes

swavlebis SesaZlebloba, Seexeba moswavleTa jgufur muSaobasac

da swavlebis SesaZleblobis gaTavisebas

ra donezea warmodgenili qarTuli enis codna da bilingvurad

swavlebis mzaoba?

maswavleblisaTvis aucilebelia Seafasos klasSi moswavleTa

mier meore enis codnis done. agreTve aucilebelia imis damaxso-

vreba, rom bilingvur meTodebSi mTavar princips warmoadgens ara

gadaTargmna, aramed Sedareba.

e. gakveTilis Sefaseba

Sefasebis dros mniSvnelovania gvaxsovdes gakveTilis gamokve-

Tili miznebi. fasdeba Semdegi:

rogor aris aTvisebuli saswavlo masala;

iswavles Tu ara moswavleebma fiqri da swavla;

Seivses Tu ara moswavleebma meore enis codna;

Sefasebis warmarTva SesaZlebelia sxvadasxva meTodebis

gamoyenebis gziT. Tu Sefasebis procesSi CarTulebi arian

moswavleebi, maT unda icodnen, Tu romeli davaleba fasdeba

dadebiTad. amisaTvis aucilebelia naTlad Camoyalibdes da

75


Seiqmnas im kriteriumebis formulireba, romelTa saSualebiTac

moxdeba davalebis Sefaseba. Sefasebis kriteriumebis SemuSaveba

umjobesia moswavleebTan erTad, uSualod Sesafasebeli davalebis

Sesrulebis win.

v. droisa da masalebis gadanawileba

gakveTilis dawyebamde saWiroa imis gansazRvra, gakveTilis

msvlelobisas saWiro iqneba Tu ara damxmare masalebi da

xelsawyoebi. ufro rTulia drois gadanawileba. drois

mizanmimarTuli gadanawileba warmoadgens erTgvar winapirobas

imisaTvis, rom swavlebis procesi iyos dinamiuri, kargad

mofiqrebuli, efeqturi, raTa maswavlebelma moaxerxos yvela

winaswar dagegmili ideis ganxorcieleba.

76


3. gakveTilis mimdinareobis dagegmva

gakveTilis safuZvels warmoadgens swavlebisa da swavlis

samsafexuriani meTodi

a. gamxnevebis/waxalisebis faza

waxalisebis fazis dagegmvisas aucilebelia iseTi strategiis

SemuSaveba, romelic ukeT moaxerxebs:

Temis irgvliv winaswari codnis gaerTianebas

moswavleTa waxalisebas, swavlis mowadinebas.

b. codnis gaTavisebis faza

codnis gaTavisebis fazis dagegmvisas, unda moxdes imis Sefase-

ba, Tu rogor moxerxdeba SerCeuli strategiis Sedegad gakveTilze

miRebuli codnis gaTaviseba da rogor ganviTardeba TanamSromlo-

bisa da damoukideblad muSaobis unari.

g. ukukavSiris faza

mocemuli fazis dagegmvisas, saWiroa imis gansazRvra, Tu ro-

gor moxdeba SerCeuli strategiis Sedegad codnis SeTviseba,

agreTve rogor imoqmedebs es strategia miRebuli codnis Semoqme-

debiTad gamoyenebis procesze.

kooperatiuli swavlebis mniSvneloba bilingvur ganaTlebaSi

kvlevebi bilingvur ganaTlebaSi amtkicebs, rom jgufuri

kooperatiuli swavlebis organizebisas:

arsebobs Sinaarsis konteqstidan gagebis SesaZlebloba, agreTve

upiratesoba arsebobs bevri drois TvalsazrisiTac da enis

77


srulyofilad gamoyenebis saSualebiTac; Sinaarsisa da koncef-

ciis ukeTesad gasagebad SesaZlebelia mSobliuri enis gamoyene-

bac;

meore enaSi garkveuli unarebis ganviTarebisas, SesaZlebelia

mSobliuri enis codnis sistemiT operireba;

xdeba moswavleTa stimulireba codnisa da enis aTvisebis

procesSi aqtiurad CasarTavad;

warmoCenilia da gamoyenebulia axali saswavlo masalebi;

swavlebis procesSi yuradReba maxvildeba moswavleTa

gansxvavebul Tvisebebze da stilze da viTardeba maTi

mravalmxrivi SesaZleblobebi;

icvleba maswavleblis roli - informaciis mimwodebeli

adamianisgan, is gadaiqceva informaciis SeTvisebis

organizatorad;

tradiciuli gakveTilis msvlelobisas umeteswilad saubrobs

maswavlebeli. aseTi gakveTilis tipuri sqema SegviZlia

warmovadginoT Semdegi saxiT: maswavleblis SekiTxva-moswavlis

,,swori pasuxi am SekiTxvaze. amavdroulad, TvalsaCinoa droSi

SezRudva. Tu moswavle myisierad ver pasuxobs SekiTxvaze, is eZebs

Sesaferis sityvas, aseT SemTxvevaSi ki maswavlebeli mas ar aZlevs

dros da ekiTxeba sxva moswavles. jgufSi muSaobis dros

aucilebelia da SesaZlebelia enis mravalmxrivi funqciebis

gamoyeneba. rodesac moswavleebi saubroben erTmaneTSi, da ara

mxolod maswavlebelTan, mkveTrad izrdeba enis funqciebis

gamoyenebis SesaZlebloba. arsebobs TanamSromlobis meti

variantebi, rac, Tavis mxriv, iZleva enis gavarjiSebis met

saSualebas. mniSvnelovania isic, rom, rodesac moswavleebi

saintereso problemis gadaWras cdiloben, am dros isini enas

iyeneben ara imitom, rom saxelmZRvanelos tradiciuli davaleba -

,,SeadgineT winadadeba'' Seasrulon, aramed srulad iyeneben

78


codnas meore enaSi. miuxedavad imisa, rom maTi saubari yovelTvis

gramatikulad gamarTuli ar aris, am gziT moswavleebs aqvT azris

gadmocemis saSualeba.

aseve SeiZleba Seicvalos tradiciuli karnaxi, rodesac

maswavlebeli dgas klasis winaSe da mTel klass karnaxobs

garkveul teqsts. misi gardaqmna kooperatiul swavlebad

SesaZlebelia moswavleTa dawyvilebis an jgufebad dayofis gziT,

romlis drosac moswavleebi rig-rigobiT karnaxoben erTmaneTs

srul teqsts, an gamotovebul sityvebs. am gziT mcirdeba stresi,

moswavleebi koncentrirebas axdenen davalebaze da aqtiurad

usmenen erTmaneTs. izrdeba TanamSromlobiTi damokidebuleba da

individualuri pasuxismgeblobis grZnoba.

yoveldRiuri urTierTobisas sakmarisia SezRuduli raodenobis

sityvebis maragi da gramatikuli struqtura; sxvadasxva sakiTxTan

dakavSirebiT sakuTari azris dafiqsirebisas moswavleebs

uviTardebaT farTo leqsikis da enis gansxvavebuli modelebis

gamoyenebis moTxovnileba.

maswavleblebi xSirad sifrTxiliT ekidebian jgufebSi

muSaobas. ase, magaliTad: `rogor SeiZleba viyo darwmunebuli,

rom moswavleebi ar daiwyeben saubars mSobliur enaze? vifiqroT

imaze, Tu rogor mivaRwioT sasurvel Sedegs martivi gziT: mkacri

discipliniT Tu mizanmimarTuli davalebebis SedgeniT?~

specialurad konstruirebuli davaleba, sadac yvela moswavles

aqvs raRac nawili informaciisa da davalebis Sesruleba

SesaZlebelia mxolod am informaciis SegrovebiT, iZleva

pirdapiri reagirebis, individualuri pasuxismgeblobisa da

aqtiuri mosmenis saSualebas.

nuTu saocari ar aris is faqti, rom aTeuli wlebis

ganmavlobaSi moswavleebi wyvilebad isxdnen merxebTan da,

miuxedavad amisa, maT ar hqondaT emociis gaziarebisa da

79


erTmaneTis daxmarebis saSualeba. jgufSi muSaobisas dabali

enobrivi SesaZleblobis mqone moswavles aqvs saSualeba,

SeekiTxos sxvas mSobliur enaze, xolo moswavle, romelic

warmatebulia meore enaSi, moaxdens sakiTxebis perifrazirebas da

amiT moaxdens saubris ganviTarebas.

bilingvur ganaTlebaSi izrdeba maswavleblis roli.

tradiciuli sagnis maswavlebeli zogjer fiqrobs: ,,me var sagnis

maswavlebeli, CemTvis mniSvnelovania, Tu rogor aiTvisa moswavlem

sagnobrivi masala. me vafaseb Sinaarss da ara enas. `bilingvuri

ganaTlebis dros TiToeuli maswavleblis roli farTovdeba da is

gadaiqceva aseve enis maswavleblad. pirvel rigSi, yvela

maswavlebeli xdeba enis momxmarebeli, xSirad ki tardeba Semdegi

principi: ,,viswavloT erTad~.

80


Tavi IV

qarTuli enisa da qimiis

integrirebuli swavlebis

sanimuSo gakveTilebi da Tematika

81


VIII klasi

Tema # Temis mizani enobrivi mizani

warmodgena ato- TvalsaCinoebis xerxe- moswavles SeuZlia

mur-molekulur 1 bis gamoyenebiT, mos- TemisaTvis mniSv-

moZRvrebaze; niv- wavle aRwers da adanelovanitermine- Tierebis Sedgenirebs erTmaneTs elebis qarTulad daloba

– molekumentsa da atoms;

saxeleba, icis am

la, atomi.

amoicnobs zogierTi terminTa qarTuli

elementis simbolos; ganmartebebi,

ganasxvavebs erTmane- SeuZlia sinonimuri

Tisgan elementebs da sityvebiTa da aR-

naerTebs;

weriTi msjelobiT

qimiuri elementi,

qimiuri simbolo,

valentoba; valentobis

mixedviT

ნivTierebis formulis

Sedgena;

nivTierebis მასისა

და Sedgenilobis

mudmivobis

kanonebi, atomuri

masa, molekuluri

masa.

2

aRwers axali nivTierebebis

warmoqmnis

process elementebis

urTierTqmedebisas;

aRwers elementebs

Soris gansxvavebas

garegnuli niSnebisa

da periodul sistema-

Si mdebareobis mixedviT;

adarebs erTmaneTs

erTi da imave elementis

izotopebs.

adgens sxvadasxva

procesis amsaxvel sqemebs

da namuSevris

wardgenisas adekvaturad

iyenebs qimiur

terminebs: atomi, elementi,

naerTi, wva,

Jangbadi, formula,

simbolo, qimiuri

reaqcia, oqsidi da

sxva.

adekvaturad iyenebs

qimiuri elementebis

simboloebs, atomTa

valentobas misTvis

cnobili martivi da

rTuli nivTierebebis

formulebis Casawerad;

xsnis qimiuri gardaqmnebis

dros masis mud-

82

terminTa Secvla

da maTi meSveobiT

mosazrebis gadmocema.

moswavles SeuZlia

sworad gamoiyenos

is konstruqciebi,

romlebic sakiTxze

msjelobisas das-

Wirdeba. saWiroebis

SemTxvevaSi ki

SeuZlia erTi gramatikulikonstruqciis

sxva

konstruqciiT Secvla

ise, rom aagos

swori da gramatikulad

gamarTuli

msjeloba.

moswavlem icis

yvela im funqciuri

frazis mniSvneloba,

rac Temaze mu-

Saobisas sWirdeba

da SeuZlia am frazebis

Tavad gamoyenebac.

moswavles esmis

yvela instruqcia,

rac Temis irgvliv

arsebuli savarji-

SoebisTvis sWirde


martivi da

rTuli nivTierebebi:

metalebi da

arametalebi, oqsidebi,

fuZeebi,

mJavebi da marilebi,

kavSiri

sxvadasxva klasis

naerTebs Soris.

mivobas reaqciaSi monawile

atomebis ucvlelobiT

(qimiuri

gardaqmnebis dros

reagentebis saerTo

masa produqtebis

saerTo masis tolia,

radgan reaqciaSi monawile

atomebi ucvlelia,

Tumca sxvadasxvagvaraduerTdebian

erTmaneTs);

gamoiTvlis sxvadasxva

nivTierebis molekulur

masebs maT SedgenilobaSi

Semavali

elementebis atomuri

masebis codnis gamoyenebiT;

iyenebs nivTierebaTa

qimiur formulebs,

nivTierebis masis mudmivobis

kanons, nivTierebis

Sedgenilobis

mudmivobis kanons da

awarmoebs Sesabamis

gamoTvlebs;

qimiuri gantolebiT

gamosaxavs bunebaSi

mimdinare da sxva

misTvis nacnob qimiur

movlenebs (mag., rkinis

daJangva).

3 ganasxvavebs erTmane-

Tisgan oqsidebs, mJavebs,

fuZeebs (tuteebs)

da marilebs, adgens

maT formulebs;

gegmavs da usafrTxoebis

wesebis dacviT

atarebs cdebs da

misTvis cnobil mJavebsa

da metalebs Soris

urTierTqmedebis

safuZvelze msjelobs

metalTa SedarebiT

aqtiurobaze;

akvirdeba metalTa

83

ba da Tavadac

SeuZlia amgvari instruqciebis

ageba.

moswavle Tavisuflad

asrulebs

tests an sxva specifikur

davalebebs

sakiTxis irgvliv

da Tavadac SeuZlia

amgvari davalebis

Seqmna instruqciebis,

Sesabamisi

funqciuri frazebisa

da konstruqciebis

gamoyenebiT.


qimiuri reaqciis

tipebi: SeerTebis,

daSlis, Canacvlebis

da mimocvlis.

warmodgena atomis

aRnagobaze;

atombirTvi. izotopi.

atomi da

ioni. პerioduli

sistema da atomis

aRnagoba,

qimiuri elementebis

atomebSi eleqtronebisganawileba,eleqtronuli

formulebi,

4

5

Jangvis procesebs yofa-cxovrebaSi,moipovebs

saTanado informacias

da msjelobs

metalTa Tvisebebze;

msjelobs naerTTa

klasebs Soris ur-

TierTkavSirsa da ur-

TierTgardaqmnaze, adgens

zogad martiv sqemebs

(magaliTad, Me

MeO (MeOH)n ...).

axasiaTebs sxvadasxva

tipis qimiur

reaqciebs, msjelobs

maT Soris msgavsebagansxvavebaze,

adgens

reaqciebis zogad

sqemebs (magaliTad, A +

B C );

mohyavs sxvadasxva tipis

reaqciebis magaliTebi

da adgens Sesabamis

qimiur gantolebebs;

CamoTvlis wvisa da

HJangvis magaliTebs

yoveldRiuri cxovrebidan,

maT xelSemwyob

faqtorebs;

msjelobs Jangvisa da

wvis dadebiT da uaryofiT

Sedegebze;

aRwers wvis Tanmxleb

movlenebs (siTbosa da

sinaTlis gamoyofa).

adgens sqemas da adarebs

erTmaneTs elementis

atomsa da ions,

msjelobs maT Soris

Tvisobriv gansxvavebaze

da mohyavs magaliTebi;

eleqtronuli formulis

safuZvelze poulobs

elements periodul

sistemaSi, gamoTqvams

mosazrebas

84


luisis simboloebi.

elementis Tvisebebis

Sesaxeb, asabuTebs Tavis

varauds;

iyenebs periodul sistemas,

adgens ucnobi

elementis eleqtronul

formulas.

85


gakveTili 1

Tema: elementi, nivTiereba, ZiriTadi tipebi,

oqsidi, fuZe/hidroqsidi.

gakveTilis mizani: araorganul naerTTa klasebis-oqsidebis da

fuZeebis gacnoba-daxasiaTeba, formulebis Sedgena,

dasaxeleba.

enobrivi mizani: moswavle Seiswavlis nivTierebaTa klasifikaciis

terminebs; qimiuri elementebis, oqsidebis da fuZeebis

qarTul saxelwodebebs. qarTulad ganmartavs oqsidebis

da fuZeebis klasifikaciis principebs.

nacnobi cnebebi: qimiuri elementi, qimiuri simbolo, qimiuri

formula, nivTiereba, qimiuri naerTi, valentoba, metali,

arametali.

Sesaswavli cnebebi: oqsidi, fuZe, hidroqsidi, mudmivvalentiani,

cvalebadvalentiani elementebi, naerTis saxelwodeba.

funqciuri frazebi: daakvirdiT sqemas, ramdenvalentiania

elementi, SeadgineT oqsidis formula, gansazRvreT

elementis valentoba naerTSi, ganasxvaveben sxvadasxva

tipis oqsidebs.

xangrZlivoba: 45 wT.

resursebi: saxelmZRvanelo, cxrili, sqemebi, hand-outs.

86


aqtivobebi:

aqtivoba N1 (xangrZlivoba - 5 wT.): qimiuri elementebi da maTi

simboloebi (ganvlili masalis ganmeoreba).

maswavlebeli mokled imeorebs qimiuri elementis simboloebs,

saubrobs maT SesaZlo valentobebze, yuradRebas amaxvilebs

rogorc laTinur saxelwodebebze, ise elementebis simboloebis

qarTulad gamoTqmaze. TvalsaCinoebisTvis axsnil masalas urigebs

moswavleebs cxrilis saxiT: (calke furclebze dabeWdils):

zogierTi qimiuri elementis saxelwodeba da simbolo

N ქიმიური

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

სიმბოლო

არამეტალები:

H (I)

O (II)

N (I, II, III, IV, V)

S (II, IV, VI)

P (III, V)

C (II, IV)

ლათინური

სახელწოდება

Hidrogenium

Oxigenium

Nitrogenium

Sulfur

Phosphorus

Carbonium

87

ქართული

სახელწოდება

წყალბადი

ჟანგბადი

აზოდი

გოგირდი

ფოსფორი

ნახშირბადი

სიმბოლოს

გამოთქმა

აშ


ენ

ეს

პე

ცე


1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

მეტალები:

Fe (II, III)

Pb (II, IV)

Cu (I, II)

Zn (II)

Ag (I)

Hg (I, II)

Ferrum

Plumbum

Cuprum

Zincum

Argentum

Hidrargium

88

რკინა

ტყვია

სპილენძი

თუთია

ვერცხლი

ვერცხლისწყალი

ფერუმ

პლუმბუმ

კუპრუმ

ცინკუმ

არგენტუმ

ჰიდრარგიუმ

frCxilebSi miTiTebulia elementis SesaZlo valentobebi.

xazi unda gaesvas imas, rom zogi elementi amJRavnebs mudmiv

valentobas, zogic ki - cvalebadvalentiania. cxrilSi is

elementebia mocemuli, romelTa valentobis dadgena perioduli

sistemis daxmarebiT ver xerxdeba. amitom am cxrilis gamoyeneba,

albaT, sasargeblo unda iyos.

aqtivoba 2 (xangrZlivoba - 10 wT).

maswavlebeli ganmartavs nivTierebas, saubrobs nivTierebis

tipebze, araorganul naerTTa oTx klasze, wers maT zogad

formulebs da sTavazobs moswavleebs axsnili masalis sqematur

gamosaxvas:


sadac x,y - indeqsebia

aRniSvna

n - metalis valentoba , X - mJavas naSTi, Me - metalis

momdevno ori aqtivoba eTmoba am oTxi klasidan oris -

oqsidebisa da fuZeebis/hidroqsidebis ganxilvas.

89


aqtivoba N3 - oqsidi, zogadi formula, warmomadgenlebis

dasaxeleba (xangrZlivoba - 10 wT.).

maswavlebeli saubrobs oqsidebze, maT zogad formulaze,

oqsidebis tipebze, wyalSi xsnadobaze. axsnili masalis safuZvelze,

moswavleebs sTavazobs sqemis Sedgenas, aqcenti keTdeba mudmiv -

da cvalebadvalentiani elementebis oqsidebis dasaxelebebis

Taviseburebebze (ama Tu im naerTis sworad dasaxelebisaTvis

sasargebloa aqtivoba N1-Si mocemuli cxrilis xSiri revizia):

90


aqtivoba N4

maswavlebeli zogadad axasiaTebs fuZeebs, yofs maT wyalSi

xsnadobis mixedviT, mohyavs magaliTebi. formulis Sedgenisas

kargi iqneba iTqvas, rom metalis atomi ierTebs imden hidroqsidis

jgufs, ramden valentianicaa es metali.

წყალში ხსნადი

(ტ უ ტ ე)

LiOH - ლითიუმის

NaOH - ნატრიუმის

KOH - კალიუმის

Ca(OH)2 - კალციუმის

Ba(OH)2 - ბარიუმის

ფუძე/ჰიდროქსიდი

ტუტე

Me(OH)n

xazi esmeva imas, rom wyalSi tute aris wyalSi xsnadi fuZe.

aqtivoba N5 - Temis ganmtkiceba (10 wT.).

aRniSnuli aqtivoba aris wina aqtivobebSi ganxiluli

masalis gameoreba. moswavleebma isrebs unda miuweron is naerTebi,

romelzedac saubari iyo zemoT. sasurvelia yvela naerTis

dasaxeleba. amisaTvis maswavlebeli yofs moswavleebs jgufebad,

urigebs maT sqemebs, romlebic maT unda Seavson axsnil masalaze

dayrdnobiT, samuSaos dasrulebis Semdeg ki xdeba namuSevrebis

Semowmeba ase: erTi jgufi kiTxulobs mag. amfoteruli oqsidebis

formulebs (sami oqsidis), meore - wyalSi xsnadi fuZe oqsidebis

formulebs, mesame jgufi - wyalSi uxsnadis da a.S.

91

წყალში

უხსნადი

Cu(OH)2 - სპილენძ(II)-ის

Fe(OH)2 - რკინა(II)-ის

Mg(OH)2 - მაგნიუმის

Cr(OH)2 - ქრომ(II)-ის

Pb(OH)2 - ტყვია(II)-ის

ჰიდრო

-ქსიდი


aRniSnuli gakveTili emsaxureba araorganul naerTTa klasebis

- oqsidebis da fuZeebis ganxilvas, rac araorganuli qimiis

safuZvels warmoadgens. masalis sqematuri warmodgena mis aTvisebas

ufro efeqturs da saxalisos xdis. bolo aqtivoba mTeli masalis

Tavmoyras da sistematizacias moiTxovs, es ki Sedegis miRwevaSi

daexmareba moswavles.

93


gakveTili 2

Tema: mJava, marili. zogadi daxasiaTeba

gakveTilis mizani: araorganul naerTTa klasebis - mJavebisa da

marilebis gacnoba-daxasiaTeba, formulebis Sedgena,

dasaxeleba.

enobrivi mizani: moswavle Seiswavlis mJavebisa da marilebis

qarTul saxelwodebebs, qarTulad ganmartavs mJavebis

klasifikacias, aRwers sqematurad gamosaxul masalas

qarTulad. amisaTvis iyenebs iseT martiv winadadebebs,

rogoricaa: gogirdmJava aris orfuZiani Jangbadiani

mJava; marilmJava aris erTfuZiani uJangbado mJava;

marili Sedgeba metalisa da mJavas naSTisagan da a.S.

nacnobi cnebebi: qimiuri elementi, oqsidi, metali, arametali,

qimiuri elementis simbolo, qimiuri formula

Sesaswavli cnebebi: mJava, mJavas naSTi,mJavas fuZianoba,

Jangbadianoba,marili, marilebis saxelwodebebi

funqciuri frazebi: Seicavs mJavas naSTs, daaxasiaTeT fuZianobis

mixedviT, gansazRvreT mJavas naSTis valentoba, SeavseT

cxrili, daaxasiaTeT Jangbadianobis mixedviT, SeavseT

gamotovebuli adgilebi, SeadgineT marilis formula,

daasaxeleT naerTi.

xangrZlivoba: 45 wT.

resursebi: saxelmZRvanelo, sqemebi, hand-outs, cxrilebi, perioduli

sistema.

94


aqtivobebi:

aqtivoba 1 - mJavebis daxasiaTeba (15 wT.)

maswavlebeli saubrobs mJavebze, maT Sedgenilobaze, zogad

formulaze, mJavebis tipebze. mJavebs axasiaTebs fuZianobisa da

Jangbadianobis mixedviT da moswavleebs axsnil masalas sTavazobs

sqemis da cxrilis saxiT.

mJavas naSTis valentoba mJavas fuZianoba H-is raodenobა.

N უჟანგბადო მჟავა N ჟანგბადიანი მჟავა

1

2

3

4

5

ერთფუძიან


ორფუძიანი

სამფუძიანი

HF - ფტორწყალბადმჟავა

HCl - ქლორწყალბადმჟავა

HBr -ბრომწყალბადმჟავა

HI -იოდწყალბადმჟავა

H2S - გოგირდ წყალბად მჟავა

მჟავა

HX

95

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

HNO3 - აზოტმჟავა

HNO2 - აზოტოვანი მჟავა

H2SO4 - გოგირდმჟავა

H2SO3 - გოგირდოვანი მჟავა

H2CO3 - ნახშირმჟავა

H2SiO3 - სილიციუმმჟავა

H3PO4 -ფოსფორმჟავა

ჟანგბადიანი

უჟანგბადო

H3PO3 -ფოსფოროვანი მჟავა


am cxrilze dayrdnobiT, maswavlebeli sTxovs

moswavleebs, daaxasiaTon esa Tu es mJava. mag.: gogirdmJava aris

Jangbadiani da orfuZiani, gogirdwyalbadmJava ki - uJangbado

orfuZiani mJavaa, fosformJava ................. da a.S. TiToeul

SemTxvevaSi zepirad unda ganisazRvros/dasaxeldes mJavas naSTis

valentoba, romlis codna aucilebelia marilebis formulebis

Sedgenisas.

aqtivoba N2 - marilebis dasaxelebebi (15 wT.)

maswavlebeli saubrobs marilis Sedgenilobaze, zogad

formulaze, dasaxelebebze. masalas warmoadgens sqematurad:

Me

sqemis gamoyenebiT, maswavlebeli moswavleebs sTavazobs

qvemoT moyvanili cxrilis Sevsebas da yvela marilis dasaxelebas:

MgCl2 CaCl2

Mg(NO3)2

F - ფტორიდი

Cl - ქლორიდი

Br - ბრომიდი

I - იოდიდი

S - სულფიდი

K2SO4 FeSO4

96

Me

NO3 - ნიტრატი

NO2 - ნიტრიტი

SO4 - სულფატი

SO3 - სულფიტი

CO3 - კარბონატი

SiO3 - სილიკატი

PO4 - ფოსფატი

PO3 - ფოსფიტი


aqtivoba N3 - Temis Sejameba (15 wT.)

masalis aTvisebis Semowmebis mizniT, maswavlebeli urigebs

moswavleebs hand-out-ebs da sTavazobs maT, Seavson sqema

individualurad an wyvilebSi /jgufurad:

97


ogorc zemoT moyvanili sqemidan Cans, mJavas warmoqmnis

arametali (gamonaklisi arsebobs) .moswavleebma isrebs unda

miuweron Sesabamisi formulebi da dasaxelon. sasurvelia es

gakeTdes damoukideblad, Tu ara da SeiZleba wina aqtivobebis

gamoyenebac.

am gakveTilSi ganxiluli masala moicavs qimiis safuZvlebs.

amitom misi gaazreba da aTviseba metad mniSvnelovania. masalis

sqematuri warmodgena moswavles daexmareba sakiTxis

kompleqsurad aRqmaSi.

98


Tema

.nivTierebis raodenobis

erTeuli. moli.

avogadros kanoni

airebis moluri

moculoba. airebis

fardobiTi simkvrive

IX klasi

# Temis mizani enobrivi mizani

1 moswavle atarebs

eqsperiments, monacemebis

safuZvelze

adgens qimiuri reaqciis

tolobas, atarebs

raodenobriv

gamoTvlebs;

problemis gadasa-

Wrelad awarmoebs

raodenobriv gamoTvlebs

(mag., awarmoebs

gamoTvlebs

ucnobi nivTierebis

gamosakvlevad, misi

formulis dasadgenad);

adekvaturad iyenebs

nivTierebis raodenobis

erTeuls _

mols, molur masas

reaqciebis raodenobrividaxasiaTebisaTvis

da awarmoebs

Sesabamis gamoTvlebs;

iyenebs Sesabamis

terminologias, SI

sistemis erTeulebs

qimiuri movlenebis

aRwerisas;

iyenebs avogadros

kanons da gamoTvlis

reaqciaSi monawile

gazis molur moculobas.

99

moswavles SeuZlia

TemisaTvis mniSvnelovaniterminebis

qarTulad dasaxeleba,

icis am

terminTa qarTuli

ganmartebebi,

SeuZlia sinonimuri

sityvebiTa da

aRweriTi msjelobiT

terminTa Secvla

da maTi meSveobiT

mosazrebis

gadmocema.

moswavles SeuZlia

sworad gamoiyenos

is konstruqciebi,

romlebic sakiTxze

msjelobisas das-

Wirdeba. saWiroebis

SemTxvevaSi ki

SeuZlia erTi gramatikulikonstruqciis

sxva

konstruqciiT

Secvla ise, rom

aagos swori da

gramatikulad gamarTuli

msjeloba.

moswavlem icis

yvela im funqciuri

frazis mniSvneloba,

rac Temaze mu-

Saobisas sWirdeba

da SeuZlia am

frazebis Tavad gamoyenebac.

moswavles esmis


qimiuri elementebi:

metalebi da arametalebi.

warmodgena

Senadnobze. metalTa

da arametalTa oqsidebi.

marilebi.

2

icavs usafrTxoebis

wesebs da atarebs

cdebs metalTaA fizikur

Tvisebebze

(magaliTad, Tbogamtaroba,eleqtrogamtaroba)dasakvirveblad;msjelobs

metalTa sxva

Tvisebebze (magali-

Tad, maRali lRobis

temperatura,

bzinvareba, Wedadoba,

SenadnobTa

warmoqmna, magnituroba);

sqematurad gamosaxavs

metalur bmas da

akavSirebs masTan

metalTa siTbo- da

eleqtrogamtarobas;

axasiaTebs grafits,

rogorc arametalur

gamtars;

gegmavs da

usafrTxoebis wesebis

dacviT atarebs

cdebs ganzavebul

mJavebTan metalebis

urTierTqmedebis kanonzomierebebisgamosavlenad;gamoiTvlisgamoyofili

wyalbadis moculobas

da/an raodenobas

aRwers arapolaruli

bmis arss wyalbadis

molekulis

magaliTze da sqematurad

gamosaxavs

mas

atarebs cdebs, ikvlevs

metalTa karbonatebisa

da mJavebis

urTierTqmedebis

reaqciebis produqtebs.

adgens, rom gamoyofili

gazi aris

100

yvela instruqcia,

rac Temis irgvliv

arsebuli savarji-

SoebisTvis sWirdeba

da Tavadac

SeuZlia amgvari

instruqciebis ageba.

moswavle Tavisuflad

asrulebs

tests an sxva specifikurdavalebebs

sakiTxis

irgvliv da Tavadac

SeuZlia amgvari

davalebis Seqmna

instruqciebis,

Sesabamisi funqciuri

frazebisa da

konstruqciebis gamoyenebiT.


naxSirorJangi

akavSirebs wylis

Tvisebebs wylis aRnagobasTan,sqematurad

gamosaxavs

wyalbadur bmas;

aRwers polarul

kovalentur bmas

wyalbadis wvis

produqtis _ wylis

magaliTze;

usafrTxod da efeqtianad

iyenebs laboratoriulaRWurvilobas

da atarebs

cdebs marilebis

sxvadasxva gziT

(mag., fuZisTvis mJavas

damatebisas, mJavebis

moqmedeba metalTa

oqsidebTan

da sxva) misaRebad ;

wers reaqciebis

tolobebs simboloebiT

da sityvierad

(mag., mJava +

tute marili +

wyali); asaxelebs

sxvadasxva marilis

gamoyenebis sferoebs;

iyenebs miRebul

codnas da gamoTqvams

varauds ucnobi

mJavasa da fuZis

urTierTqmedebis

produqtebis Sesaxeb;

gamokvlevis Sedegebs

warmoadgens

sxvadasxva (magali-

Tad, grafikebis, sqemebis

da sxva) saxiT,

gansazRvravs gamosakvlev

cvladebs

(magaliTad, metalis

raodenoba, mJavas

moculoba, gamoyofili

gazis raodenoba)

101


asaxelebs arametalTa

zogierT fizikur

Tvisebas (magaliTad,

garegnuli

msgavseba/gansxvaveba,

lRobisa da duRilis

dabali temperatura,

cudi siTbodaeleqtrogamtaroba

da sxv)

ganasxvavebs mJava da

fuZe oqsidebs;

msjelobs maT qimiur

Tvisebebze

(fuZe oqsidebi warmoqmnian

fuZeebs,

mJava oqsidebi _ mJavebs);

wers arametalebis

JangbadTan ur-

TierTqmedebis amsaxvel

reaqciebs; periodulobis

tabulis

gamoyenebiT adgens

misTvis ucnobi arametalebis

oqsidebis

formulebs;

asaxelebs zogierT

marils, maTi gamoyenebis

sferos yofacxovrebaSi

( magaliTad:

natriumis

qloridi _ sufris

marili, kaliumis

nitrati _ Seicavs

Savi denTi, spilen-

Zis sulfati _ Sabiamani,

magniumis

sulfati _ inglisuri

marili,

vercxlis nitrati _

Seicavs fotofiri);

gegmavs da da

usafrTxoebis wesebis

dacviT atarebs

cdebs reaqciis mimdinareobisdamadasturebeli

niSnebis

(magaliTad, gazis

102


warmodgena organul

naerTebze.

naxSirwyalbadebi:

alkanebi, alkenebi,

alkinebi, cikloalkinebi,

dienuri nax-

Sirwyalbadebi.

warmodgena organulenergoresursebze,

airadi, Txevadi,

myari saTbobi.

organuli gamxsnelebi

da maTi gamoyenebayofacxovrebasa

da teqnikaSi.naxSirwyalbadebis

roli nav-

Tobisa da polimerebis

qimiaSi. warmodgena

sinTezur

masalebze. navTobisa

da polimerebis

roli yofa-cxovrebasa

da teqnikaSi.

gamoyofa, temperaturis

cvlileba,

feris Secvla) gamosakvlevad

aRwers metalebis

zogierT saerTo ni-

Sans, romlebic ganapirobeben

maT gamoyenebas

(magali-

Tad, maTi simtkice,

drekadoba, Tbo- da

eleqtrogamtaroba);

moipovebs informacias

metalTa Senadnobebis

gamoyenebis

Sesaxeb;

moipovebs informacias

saqarTveloSi

gavrcelebuli metalebisa

da arametalebis

da maTi gamoyenebis

Sesaxeb.

3 CamoTvlis navTobSi

Semavali organuli

naerTebis klasebs

(alkanebi, cikloal-

kanebi, arenebi

103

და

ს ხ ვ .), iyenebs zogad

formulebs homologiuri

rigis umartivesiwarmomadgenlebis

formulebis

Casawerad;

ganasxvavebs najer

da ujer naxSirwyalbadebs,homologiuri

mwkrivis

warmomadgenlebis

formulebis gamoyenebiT

TvalsaCinod

aCvenebs gansxvavebas

alkenebs, alkinebsa

da alkadienebs

Soris;

aRwers sawvavis misaRebad

navTobis

gadamuSavebis meTodebs,

msjelobs benzinis

xarisxis Se-


eleqtrouaryofiTo

ba.

4

saxeb

moipovebs da warmoadgensinformacias

navTobis

rolze farTo moxmarebis

warmoebaSi;

sagnebis

aRwers polimerebis

miRebis meTodebs da

msjelobs polimerebis

rolze Tanamedrove

adamianis

cxovrebaSi, maTi gamoyenebis

dadebiT

da uaryofiT mxareebze.

atarebs saTanado

cdebs usafrTxoebis

wesebis dacviT da

ikvlevs sxvadasxva

metalis wyalTan

moqmedebas, gamoaqvs

daskvna

akvirdeba sxvadasxva

metalis gamoyenebiT

Catarebuli cdis

Tanmdev movlenebs

(magaliTad, alis

warmoqmna / arwarmoqmna

wyalTan

reaqciis dros, gazis

buStukebis wamoqmna,

siTbos gamoyofa)

da msjelobs

maT Soris

msgavseba – gansxvavebaze,

gamoavlens

zogad kanonzomierebebs;

akvirdeba da aRwers

metalTa cvlilebas

haeris zemoqmedebis

Sedegad, (mag., rkina

iJangeba, vercxli

mqrqaldeba, spilenZi

muqdeba). gansazRvravs,

romeli metalebi

korodirdeba

advilad, romlebi _

104


ara

iyenebs metalTa aqtiurobis

rigs sa-

Tanado varaudis gamosaTqmelad(magaliTad,

natriumi

ufro iolad ur-

TierTqmedebs JangbadTan,

vidre spilenZi);

gegmavs da

saTanado wesebis

dacviT atarebs

cdebs varaudis Sesamowmeblad;

atarebs cdebs da

ikvlevs ganzavebul

mJavebTan metalebis

moqmedebis kanonzomierebebsa

da gamonaklisebs;

wers da ganazogadebs

qimiuri reaqciebis

tolobebs

sityvierad (metali

+ mJava ) da/an

simboloebiT.

105


gakveTili 1

Tema: genetikuri kavSiri araorganul naerTTa klasebs Soris.

gakveTilis mizani: araorganul naerTTa Soris urTierTqmedebis

reaqciebis Seswavla

enobrivi mizani: moswavle SeZlebs Temis Sesabamisi sqemis

qarTulad aRweras. agreTve, reaqciaSi monawile

naerTebis qarTulad dasaxelebas; gamoiyenebs iseT

martiv konstruqciebs, rogoricaa: metali moqmedebs

arametalTan; fuZe oqsidi moqmedebs mJava oqsidTan da

a.S.

nacnobi cnebebi: oqsidi, fuZe, mJava, marili, metali, arametali

Sesaswavli cnebebi: qloridi, sulfidi, fosfati, karbonati,

sulfiti, sulfidi, nitrati,nitriti

funqciuri frazebi: SeusabameT formula saxelwodebas; waikiTxeT

dro: 45 wT

sqema qarTulad; gaaTanabreT, SearCieT koeficientebi;

SeasruleT gardaqmnebi.

resursebi: saxelmZRvanelo, sqemebi, tabula.

106


aqtivoba N1

aqtivobebi:

Sesabamisobis povna naerTis formulasa da mis qarTul

saxelwodebas Soris (muSaoba wyvilebSi).

maswavlebeli arigebs hand-out-ebs, sadac erT svetSi Camowerilia

qimiuri naerTebis danomrili formulebi, xolo meore svetSi -

anbanuri TanmimdevrobiT danomrilia maTi qarTuli dasaxelebebi.

moswavleebma unda moZebnon Sesabamisoba: mag. 1 – v.

1. N2O5

2. HNO3

3. H2SO4

4. K3PO4

5. CuSO4

6. BaSO4

7. CaO

8. Ca(OH)2

9. ZnS

10. FeCl3

11. ZnCl2

12. Na2SO3

13. CaCO3

14. MgSO4

15. Fe(OH)2

107

a) kalciumis fosfati

b) natriumis sulfiti

g) spilenZ(II)-is sulfati

d) bariumis sulfati

e) rkina(III)-is qloridi

v) azot(V)-is oqsidi

z) TuTiis sulfidi

T) azotmJava

i) TuTiis qloridi

k) gogirdmJava

l) kalciumis karbonati

m) kalciumis oqsidi

n) rkina(II)-is hidroqsidi

o) kalciumis tute

p) magniumis sulfati


aqtivoba N2 - genetikuri kavSiri araorganul naerTTa klasebs

Soris

qvemoT moyvanili sqema srulyofilad asaxavs araorganul

naerTTa klasebs Soris genetikur kavSirs. am sqemis aTvisebiT

araorganul naerTTa klasebis Seswavla damTavrebulad SeiZleba

CaiTvalos.

genetikuri kavSiri gulisxmobs araorganul naerTTa

erTmaneTTan urTierTqmedebis SesaZleblobas. genetikur kavSirSi,

rogorc sqemidan Cans,aris ori mimarTuleba : erT SemTxvevaSi

sawyisad aRebulia metali (1,2,3 reaqciebi), xolo meore

SemTxvevaSi – arametali.

(4,5,6 reaqciebi). ormagi isrebiT naCvenebia metaluri da

arametaluri bunebis nivTierebebis urTierTqmedeba( ormagi isrebiT

dakavSirebuli nivTierebebi erTmaneTTan moqmedeben, maSin rodesac

erTmagi isriT dakavSirebuli nivTierebebidan pirveli nivTiereba

aris reagenti, xolo meore - produqti.( mag. 1 reaqcia- reagenti

aris metali, mas emateba meore reagenti Jangbadi da miiReba fuZe

oqsidi, romelic aris produqti).

aRniSnuli sqemis mixedviT, maswavlebeli adgens 15 sityvier

reaqcias, yofs klass sam jgufad da TiToeul jgufs avalebs xuTi

reaqciis tolobis daweras da gaTanabrebas (xangrZlivoba - 10-15

wT.) darCenili dro xmardeba jgufebs Soris namuSevrebis

gaziarebas.

108


109


1) kalciumi + Jangbadi -> kalciumis oqsidi

2) kalciumis oqsidi + wyali -> kalciumis tute

3) kalciumis tute + marilmJava -> kalciumis qloridi + wyali

4) gogirdi + Jangbadi -> gogird(VI)-is oqsidi

5) gogird(VI)-is oqsidi + wyali -> gogirdmJava

6) gogirdmJava + natriumis tute -> natriumis sulfati + wyali

7) vercxliswyali + gogirdi -> vercxliswyal(II)-is sulfidi

rkina + qlori -> rkina (III)-is qloridi

8) TuTia + marilmJava -> TuTiis qloridi + wyalbadi

9) rkina + spilenZ(II)-is qloridi -> rkina(II)-is qloridi + spi-

lenZi

10) kalciumis oqsidi + naxSirbad(IV)-is oqsidi -> kalciumis

karbonati

11) magniumis oqsidi + gogirdmJava -> magniumis sulfati + wyali

spilenZ(II)-is oqsidi + azotmJava -> spilenZ(II)-is nitrati + wyali

12) kalciumis tute + naxSirbad(IV)-is oqsidi -> kalciumis kar-

bonati + wyali

13) spilenZ(II)-is hidroqsidi + marilmJava -> rkina(II)-is qloridi

+ wyali

rkina(III)-is hidroqsidi + azotmJava -> rkina(III)-is nitrati + wyali

14) a) marilmJava + vercxlis nitrati -> vercxlis qloridi +

azotmJava

b) gogirdmJava + bariumis qloridi -> bariumis sulfati +

marilmJava

g) natriumis karbonati + marilmJava-> natriumis qloridi + nax-

SirorJangi+ wyali

d) kalciumis karbonati + marilmJava-> kalciumis qloridi + nax-

SirorJangi + wyali

110


15) natriumis qloridi + vercxlis nitrati -> vercxlis qlori-

di + natriumis nitrati

kaliumis sulfati + bariumis qloridi -> bariumis sulfati + ka-

liumis qloridi

aqtivoba N 2 (meore varianti). qimiuri gardaqmnebi.

im SemTxvevaSi, Tuki zemoT moyvanili sqema moswavleebisaT-

vis rTuli aRmoCndeba, gTavazobT meore, gamartivebul sqemas, ro-

melSic metalisgan da arametalisagan sxvadasxva qimiuri reaqciiT

saboloo produqtis saxiT miiReba marili. dasaweria sul 5 reaq-

cia. aRniSnuli sqemaSi nivTierebebis qarTuli saxelwodebebia mi-

TiTebuli. am sqemis daxmarebiT moswavleebi ageben sqemas, sadac

gamoyenebulia ukve konkretuli metali -kalciumi da konkretuli

arametali-gogirdi; weren am sqemis Sesabamisi qimiuri reaqciebis

tolobebs da aTanabreben, Tu es saWiroa. samuSao sruldeba mas-

wavleblis daxmarebiT.

111


am samuSaos Sesrulebis Semdeg maswavlebeli avalebs

moswavleebs natriumisa (metali) da naxSirbadisgan (arametali)

analogiuri sqemis agebas axla ukve damoukideblad da qimiuri

reaqciebis tolobebis daweras. SesaZlebelia rogorc

individualuri, ise jgufuri muSaoba. samuSaos bolos namuSevrebi

mowmdeba moswavleebis dafasTan rigrigobiT gasvliT (TiToeuli

moswavle wers erT reaqcias), rac bevri moswavlis aqtivobaSi

Cabmis saSualebas iZleva.

112


gakveTili 2

Tema: naxSirwyalbadebis zogadi mimoxilva

gakveTilis mizani: naxSirwyalbadebis formulebis Sedgena, najeri,

ujeri, cikluri, acikluri naxSirwyalbadebis gacnoba,

zogierTi naxSirwyalbadis wvis reaqciis dawera da

gaTanabreba

enobrivi mizani: moswavle Seiswavlis naxSirwyalbadebis sxvadasxva

klasis qarTul saxelwodebebs, agreTve zogierTi

warmomadgenlis qarTul dasaxelebas; daaxasiaTebs maT

martivi frazebiT, mag.: meTani aris najeri acikluri

naxSirwyalbadi; benzoli aris ujeri cikluri

naxSirwyalbadi, ciklopropani aris najeri cikluri

naxSirwyalbadi; naxSirwyalbadis wvis produqtebia

naxSirorJangi da wyali da a.S.

nacnobi cnebebi: naxSirbadi, Jangbadi, wva, qimiuri reaqcia,

koeficienti, indeqsi, naxSirorJangi, oqsidi, wyali

Sesaswavli cnebebi: naxSirwyalbadi, najeri, ujeri, cikluri,

acikluri, alkani, alkeni, alkini, dieni, benzoli,

aromatuli naxSirwyalbadebi (arenebi), (pi) da (sigma)

bmebi, seqsteti

funqciuri frazebi: moaxdineT klasifikacia; dawereT zogadi

dro: 45 wT.

formula; daaxasiaTeT najerobis da ciklurobis

mixedviT; gaamaxvileT yuradReba; dawereT wvis reaqcia;

daasaxeleT wvis produqtebi; gaaTanabreT reaqciis

toloba; SearCieT koeficientebi.

resursebi: saxelmZRvanelo, cxrili, sqema

113


aqtivobebi:

aqtivoba N1 – naxSirwyalbadebis klasebi.

maswavlebeli sTavazobs moswavleebs sqemas, romelzedac

asaxulia naxSirwyalbadebis eqvsi klasi,asxvavebs maT najerobisa

da ciklurobis mixedviT, saubrobs maT zogad formulebze. xazs

usvams imas, rom arsebobs najeri da ujeri ,agreTve cikluri da

acikluri naxSirwyalbadebi.

114


aqtivoba N2 – naxSirwyalbadebis zogierTi warmomadgenlis gacnoba.

maswavlebeli urigebs moswavleebs cxrils, sadac mocemulia

naxSirwyalbadebis eqvsive klasis pirveli warmomadgenlis

molekuluri da struqturuli formulebi, dasaxelebebi,bmis tipebi

da sTxovs maT daaxasiaTon es naerTebi najerobis da

ciklurobis mixedviT da Seavson cxrili:

115


yuradReba unda gamaxvildes dasaxelebebis daboloebebze:

najer naxSirwyalbadebSi –an (alkanebi da cikloalkanebi), ujer

ormagbmian naxSirwyalbadebSi -en (alkenebSi), ujer sammagbmianebSi

– in (alkinebSi), or ormagbmian naxSirwyalbadebSi –dieni.

aqtivoba N3 - naxSirwyalbadebis wva (xangrZlivoba - 15 wT.).

maswavlebeli saubrobs naxSirwyalbadebis erT saerTo

Tvisebaze - wvaze(moqmedeba JangbadTan sinaTlisa da siTbos

gamoyofiT) da xazs usvams imas, rom nebismieri naxSirwyalbadis

wvis produqtebia naxSirorJangi(naxSirbad(IV)-is oqsidi) da wyali.

Semdeg wers alkanebis(a), alkenebis(b) da alkinebis(g) wvis zogad

reaqciebs da xsnis gaTabrebis princips.

ა) CnH2n+2 + O2 -> nCO2 + (n+1)H2O

ბ) CnH2n+2 + O2 -> nCO2 + nH2O

გ) CnH2n+2 + O2 -> nCO2 + (n-1)H2O

am zogadi reaqciebis gamoyenebiT, maswavlebeli moswavleebs

avalebs ukve konkretuli reaqciebis daweras da gaTanabrebas. es

reaqcieba: meTanis (a), eTilenis (b), acetilenis (g) wvis reaqciebi.

moswavleebma unda Seavson gamotovebuli adgilebi da daweron

koeficientebi, sadac es saWiroa.

ა) CH4 + O2 -> ……. + …….

ბ) C2H4 + O2 -> ……. + …….

გ) C2H2 + O2 -> ……. + …….

zemoT ganxiluli aqtivobebi moicavs organuli qimiis

safuZvlebs da daexmareba moswavles me-11 klasis masalis (sadac

ganixileba organuli qimiis yvela ZiriTadi sakiTxi), efeqtianad

aTvisebaSi.

116


Tema

Tanamedrove warmodgena

atomis aRnagobaze.

atombirTvis

Sedgeniloba, izotopis

cneba. kvanturi

ricxvebi da orbitalebi.

umciresi energiis

principi. paulis

principi. hundis wesi.

eleqtronuli konfiguracia.

s-, p- da d-

elementebi.

X klasi

# Temis mizani ენობრივი მიზანი

1

2

moswavle iyenebs atomis

aRnagobis Sesaxeb

Tanamedrove warmodgenebs

da elementebis

Tvisebebs akavSirebs

atomis aRnagobasTan;

gansazRvravs eleqtronebis

ganawilebas

eleqtronul doneebsa

da qvedoneebze. gamoiTvlis

TiToeul energetikul

doneze orbitalebis

raodenobas da

eleqtronebis maqsimalur

ricxvs;

eleqtronebis ganawilebis

ZiriTadi principebisgaTvaliswinebiT

gamosaxavs atom-

Ta eleqtronul konfiguracias

s-, p- da d-

elementebisaTvis;

adarebs erTmaneTs er-

Ti da imave elementis

izotopebs maTi fizikuri

da qimiuri Tvisebebis

mixedviT. miRebul

Sedegs akavSirebs

atomis aRnagobasTan;

bunebaSi izotopebis

gavrcelebis safuZvelze

gamoTvlis elementis

saSualo atomur

masas;

asabuTebs atombirTvis

muxtis mniSvnelobas

elementebis individualobis

gansazRvraSi;

117

moswavles SeuZlia

TemisaTvis

mniSvnelovani

terminebis qar-

Tulad dasaxeleba,

icis am terminTa

qarTuli

ganmartebebi,

SeuZlia sinonimuri

sityvebiTa

da aRweriTi

msjelobiT terminTa

Secvla da

maTi meSveobiT

mosazrebis gadmocema.

moswavles SeuZlia

sworad gamoiyenos

is konstruqciebi,romlebic

sakiTxze

msjelobisas das-

Wirdeba. saWiroebis

SemTxvevaSi ki

SeuZlia erTi

gramatikuli konstruqciis

sxva

konstruqciiT

Secvla ise, rom

aagos swori da

gramatikulad gamarTulimsjeloba.

moswavlem icis

yvela im funqciuri

frazis

mniSvneloba, rac

Temaze muSaobisas

sWirdeba da

SeuZlia am frazebis

Tavad ga-


perioduli sistemis

jgufebi da periodebi

(atomTa eleqtronuli

aRnagobis

moxedviT). eleqtrouaryofiToba.

Jangvis ricxvi. Jangva-aRdgeniTireaqciebis

klasifikacia.

Jangva-aRdgeniTi reaqciebis

tolobebis

Sedgena.

3

akavSirebs erTmaneTTan

periodul sistemaSi

elementis mdebareobasa

da elementis aRnagobas;

adarebs erTmaneTs er-

Ti da imave jgufis an

periodis elementebs

atomis aRnagobis TvalsazrisiT

da gamoaqvs

Sesabamisi daskvna;

akavSirebs elementebis

mier kationebis da

anionebis warmoqmnis

unars maTi savalento

eleqtronebis

nobasTan;raode-

adgens zogierTi elementis

ionebis da ke-

TilSobili airebis

gare garsebis aRnagobis

identurobas (magaliTad,

adarebs

qloris ions argonis

atomis eleqtronul

aRnagobas da msjelobs

qloris ionis SedarebiTi

mdgradobaze).

adarebs Jangvisa da

aRdgenis procesebs.

mohyavs mJangavebisa da

aRmdgenebis magaliTebi,

msjelobs maT gamoyenebaze;

gansazRvravs elementis

JangviT ricxvs sxvadasxva

naerTSi;

abalansebs JangvaaRdgeniT

reaqciebs;

asaxelebs da axasia-

Tebs yoveldRiur cxovrebasa

da bunebaSi

mimdinare JangvaaRdgeniTi

procesebis

magaliTebs da gamoTqvams

mosazrebas maTi

dadebiTi da uaryofi-

Ti Sedegebis Sesaxeb

118

moyenebac.

moswavles esmis

yvela instruqcia,

rac Temis

irgvliv arsebulisavarjiSoebisTvis

sWirdeba

da Tavadac SeuZlia

amgvari instruqciebisageba.

moswavle Tavisuflad

asrulebs

tests an sxva

specifikur davalebebs

sakiTxis

irgvliv da Tavadac

SeuZlia amgvari

davalebis

Seqmna instruqciebis,

Sesabamisi

funqciuri frazebisa

da konstruqciebisgamoyenebiT.


qimiuri bmis tipebi:

kovalenturi (arapolaruli

da polaruli),

ionuri da metaluri.donorulaqceptoruli

bmis

warmoqmnis meqanizmi.

wyalbaduri bma. eleqtronuliorbitalebis

hibridizacia.

- da bmebi.

xsnarebis koncentracia:

ganzavebuli

da koncentrirebuli

xsnarebi. xsnarTa

koncentraciis raodenobrivi

gamosaxvis

xerxebi (procentuli

da moluri koncentracia)

ionebi. xsnarebis

da marilTa

nalRobebis eleqtrogamtareba.

ionTa

moZraoba. araeleqtrolitebi

da susti

eleqtrolitebi. kationebi

da anionebi.

eleqtrolizis gamoyeneba

mrewvelobasa

da teqnikaSi.

4 aRwers sxvadasxva tipis

bmebis warmoqmnis

meqanizmebs;

გ ა ნ asxvavebs ionur, kovalentur

da metalur

bmebs. mohyavs magali-

Tebi;

akavSirebs metalebis

Tvisebebs metaluri

bmis bunebasTan;

axasiaTebs wyalbadur

bmas da akavSirebs mas-

Tan sxvadasxva niv-

Tierebis fizikur Tvisebebs.;

adarebs wyalbadur

bmas kovalentur

da ionur bmebs.

5 akavSirebs eleqtroqimiur

procesebs metal-

Ta aqtiurobis rigsa

da Jangva-aRdgeniT

reaqciebTan;

adgens marilebis nalRobebisa

da

wyalxsnarebis eleqtrolizis

procesSi

eleqtrodebze ionuri

ganmuxtvisas mimdinare

reaqciebis sqemebs;

aanalizebs da afasebs

qimiur mrewvelobasa

da teqnikaSi eleq-

6

trolizuri procesebis

mniSvnelobas;

asrulebs eleqtrolizis

gamoyenebasTan dakavSirebulraodenobriv

gamoTvlebs.

ganasxvavebs Seqcevad

da Seuqcevad reaqciebs.

adgens

lobebs;

Sesabamis to-

ganasxvavebs homogenur

da heterogenur reaqciebs,

ganixilavs magaliTebs.

119


Seqcevadi da Seuqcevadi

reaqciebi.

qimiuri wonasworoba,

le-Satelies principi.

qimiur wonasworobaze

moqmedi

faqtorebi

(koncentracia,

temperatura, wneva).

qimiuri energiis

gardaqmna qimiuri

reaqciebis dros.

egzoTermuli da

endoTermuli

reaqciebi. qimiuri

bmis energia

elementebi: wyalbadi,

halogenebi, Jangbadi,

gogirdi, azoti,

fosfori, naxSirbadi,

siliciumi, natriumi,

kaliumi, magniumi,

kalciumi, alumini,

rkina, manganumi. maTi

mniSvnelovani

naerTebi, Tvisebebi,

gamoyeneba.

7

iyenebs le-Satelies

princips da ganWvrets

sxvadasxva faqtoris

(wneva, nivTierebaTa

koncentracia, temperatura)

qimiur wonasworobaze

gavlenis xasiaTs.

CamoTvlis saTanado

magaliTebs;

moiZiebs da ganixilavs

teqnologiuri procesebis

optimizaciis

mizniT qimiuri wonasworobis

ZiriTadi

principebis gamoyenebis

magaliTebs.

axasiaTebs elementebsa

da maT mniSvnelovan

naerTebs;

msjelobs erTi da

imave elementis alotropiul

formebze;

elementebis fizikur

da mniSvnelovan qimiur

Tvisebebs akavSirebs

maT gamoyenebasTan;

msjelobs qimiuri elementebis

rolsa da gamoyenebazeyofacxovrebasa

da warmoebaSi;

ganazogadebs elementebis

Tvisebebs erTi

jgufis elementebisaTvis;

gegmavs da atarebs

cdebs xist da rbil

wyalSi sapnis aqafebis

procesis Sesaswavlad.

Ggamoaqvs saTanado

daskvna;

gegmavs da atarebs

cdebs metalTa aqtiurobis

Sesadareblad.

miRebuli Sedegebis

siswores amowmebs metalTa

eleqtroqimiuri

Zabvis rigis mixedviT.

120


gakveTili 1

Tema: gogirdi da misi naerTebi.

gakveTilis mizani: gogirdis atomis aRnagobis ganxilva, gogirdis

naerTebis gacnoba, mokle daxasiaTeba, gogirdmJavas

qimiuri Tvisebebis ganxilva.

enobrivi mizani: moswavle Seiswavlis gogirdis naerTebis qarTul

saxelwodebebs; waikiTxavs gardaqmnebis sqemas qarTulad

(mag. gogirdidan miviRoT gogird (IV)-is oqsidi); SeZlebs

gogirdmJavasaTvis damaxasiaTebeli reaqciebis qarTulad

wakiTxvas, mag.: gogirdmJava moqmedebs bariumis

qloridTan, reaqciis Sedegad miiReba bariumis sulfati

da wyali.

nacnobi cnebebi: gogirdi, gogirdis oqsidebi, gogirdJava,

gogirdovani mJava, mJava oqsidi, fuZe oqsidi,

fuZe/hidroqsidi, marili, metali, arametali.

Sesaswavli cnebebi: izotopi, protoni, eleqtroni,

xangZlivoba: 45 wT.

neitroni,energetikuli done.

resursebi: saxelmZRvanelo, sqemebi, tabula, cxrili.

121


aqtivoba N1 - gogirdis izotopebi.

aqtivobebi:

maswavlebeli zogadad saubrobs arametalebze da ganixilavs

gogirds, mis izotopebs, saubrobs izotopebSi protonebis,

neitronebis, eleqtronebis raodenobaze. iyenebs masuri ricxvis

gamosaTvlel formulas A=p+n . wers gogirdis oTx izotops da

moswavleebs avalebs TiToeul izotopSi neitronebis raodenobis

gamoTvlas.

32 S 33 S 34 S 36 S

16

16 16 16

A=32 A=33 A=34 A=36

p=16 p=16 p=16 p=16

n=16 n=17 n=18 n=20

yuradReba unda mieqces imas, rom atomSi protonebisa da

eleqtronebis raodenoba erTmaneTis tolia da rom protonebis

raodenoba ganisazRvreba elementis rigiTi nomriT periodul

tabulaSi. masuri ricxvi ki protonebis da neitronebis masebis

jamis tolia. amasTan, gameorebis mizniT, unda iTqvas, rom protoni

aris dadebiTad damuxtuli nawilaki (misi muxtia +1, xolo masa 1-

is tolia), eleqtroni aris uaryofiTad damuxtuli nawilaki (-1

muxtiT, masa nuls uaxlovdeba), neitroni ki aris umuxto, masa 1-is

tolia).

122


daskvna: erTi da imave elementis izotopebSi erTnairia

protonebis raodenoba, xolo gansxvavebuli - neitronebis

raodenoba.

aqtivoba N2 - gogirdis atomis aRnagoba.

maswavlebeli ganixilavs gogirdis atomis eleqtronul

formulas da saubrobs atomis aRnagobaze. vinaidan gogirdi me-3

periodis elementia, mis atomSi atombirTvis garSemo eleqtronebi

imoZraveben sam energetikul doneze (mrudebi). periodul sistemaSi

gogirdis rigiTi nomeria 16, rac, rogorc zemoT iTqva, niSnavs,

rom mis atomSi (atombirTvSi) aris 16 protoni da atombirTvis

garSemo moZraobs 16 eleqtroni.

S

rogor nawildeba eleqtronebi energetikul doneebze? es

ganawileba emorCileba formulas N=2n2, sadac N aris

eleqtronebis maqsimaluri raodenoba energetikul doneze, xolo n-

energetikuli donis nomeri. mag.:Tu n=1, maSin N=2 (pirveli

energetikuli done); n=2 , maSin N=8 (meore energetikuli done) da

a.S.

+16

2e 8e 6e

aqtivoba N3 - gogirdis naerTebi, struqturuli formulebi,

TiToeul naerTSi gogirdis valentobis gansazRvra.

cnobilia, rom gogirdi SeiZleba iyos or-, oTx- da

eqvsvalentiani. orvalentiania gogirdi wyalbadTan da metalebTan(

sulfidebSi). ramdeni xazic aqvs TiToeuli elementis atoms,

123


imdenvalentiania igi. Jangadi yovelTvis orvalentiania( ori xazi),

wyalbadi-erTvalentiani(erTi xazi) da a.S.

cxrilSi mocemulia gogirdis oqsidebis, gogirdwyalbadis,

gogirdovani mJavasa da gogirdmJavas molekuluri da struqturuli

formulebi:

SO2 SO3 H2S H2SO4 H2SO3

SO2

SO3

H2S

H2SO4

S

H

H

S

O

O

H – O O

S

H – O O

124

O

O S O

გოგირდ(IV)-ის ოქსიდი

გოგირდ(VI)-ის ოქსიდი

გოგირდწყალბადი

გოგირდმჟავა


H2SO3 H – O

H - O

S O

125

გოგირდოვანი მჟავა

maswavlebeli xazs usvams kanonzomierebas, rom mJava oqsids

Seesabameba mJava. mag. gogird(IV)-is oqsids Seesabameba gogirdovani

mJava, xolo gogird(VI)-is oqsids ki- gogirdmJava.

SO2 H2SO3

SO3 H2SO4

aqtivoba N4 - gogirdmJavas qimiuri Tvisebebi.

maswavlebeli sTavazobs moswavleebs mJavas qimiuri Tvisebebis

amsaxvel zogad sqemas.

მჟავა +

saidanac Cans, rom mJava, romelic sazogadod aris

arametaluri bunebis matarebeli (gamonaklisi arsebobs), moqmedebs

naerTebTan, romlebSic yvelgan aris metali. maSasadame

erTmaneTTan moqmedeben sapirispiro bunebis (metaluri da

arametaluri) nivTierebebi.

ფუძე ოქსიდი

ფუძე/ტუტე

მარილი


am sqemis gamoyenebiT, maswavlebeli avalebs moswavleebs ukve

konkretuli reaqciebis daweras gogirdmJavasTvis. sasurvelia

TiToeuli reaqciis wakiTxva qarTulad.

1) H2SO4 + Fe -> FeSO4 + H2

2) H2SO4 + FeO -> FeSO4 + H2O

3) H2SO4 + Fe(OH)2 -> FeSO4 + 2H2O

4) H2SO4 + BaCl2 -> BaSO4 + 2HCl

yuradReba unda gamaxvildes meoTxe reaqciaze (TvisebiTi

reaqcia), rogorc gogirdmJavasa da misi marilebis aRmomCenze -

reaqciis Sedegad gamoiyofa TeTri feris naleqi, bariumis

sulfati.

aqtivoba N5 - gardaqmnebi

axsnili masalis aTvisebis mizniT, moswavleebs urigdebaT

gogirdSemcveli qimiuri naerTebis gardaqmnebis sqema, romlis

mixedviTac maT unda daweron qimiuri reaqciis tolobebi (7

toloba) da daasaxelon qimiuri naerTebi:

S SO2 SO3 H2SO4 BaSO4

Hg

S

SO2

ZnSO4

me-10 klasis programaSi Setanilia elementebis qimia (15-mde

elementi). aRniSnuli scenaris daxmarebiT SesaZlebeli iqneba sxva

arametalebis Sesaxeb gakveTilis ageba. vfiqrob, yuradReba unda

mieqces gardaqmnebs, vinaidan aseTi sqemebi masalis Tavmoyra-

sistematizacias da am gziT mis aTvisebas uwyobs xels.

126


gakveTili 2

Tema: kalciumi da misi naerTebi.

gakveTilis mizani: kalciumis da misi naerTebis daxasiaTeba,

formulebis Sedgena, zogierTi qimiuri reaqciis

ganxilva.

enobrivi mizani: moswavle Seiswavlis kalciumis naerTebis qarTul

saxelwodebebs; SeZlebs kalciumis naerTebisagan

Semdgari sqemis qarTulad aRweras.

nacnobi cnebebi: oqsidi, fuZe, mJava, marili, metali, arametali,

qlori, marilmJava, wyali, wyalbadi.

Sesaswavli cnebebi: kalciumi, kalciumis oqsidi, kalciumis tute,

Camqrali kiri, Caumqrali kiri, kirqva, carci, marmarilo,

energetikuli done, atombirTvi, hidridi( metalis naerTi

wyalbadTan).

funqciuri frazebi: Sedis reaqciaSi, reaqciis Sedegad miiReba,

gaaTanabreT, gaxurebiT iSleba, moqmedebs wyalTan,

urTierTqmedebs marilTan.

xangrZlivoba: 45 wT.

resursebi: saxelmZRvanelo, cxrili, sqemebi, perioduli sistema.

127


aqtivobebi:

aqtivoba N1 – kalciumis atomis aRnagoba , eleqtronebis

ganawileba energetikul doneebze.

maswavlebeli ganixilavs kalciumis atomis eleqtronul

formulas da saubrobs atomis aRnagobaze. vinaidan kalciumi me-4

periodis elementia, mis atomSi atombirTvis garSemo eleqtronebi

imoZraveben oTx energetikul doneze (mrudebi). periodul sistemaSi

kalciumis rigiTi nomeria 20, rac imas niSnavs, rom mis atomSi

aris 20 protoni (atombirTvSi) da amdenive eleqtroni.

Ca

rogor nawildeba eleqtronebi energetikul doneebze? es

ganawileba emorCileba formulas N=2n2, sadac N aris eleqtronebis

maqsimaluri raodenoba energetikul doneze (naklebi SeiZleba

iyos, meti - ara), xolo n- energetikuli donis nomeri. mag.: Tu n=1,

maSin N=2( pirveli energetikuli done); n=2 , maSin N=8 (meore

energetikuli done) da a.S. mTavari qvejgufebis elementebisaTvis

savalento eleqtronebis (gare Sris, kalciumisaTvis es aris me-4

energetikuli done), raodenoba ganisazRvreba jgufis nomriT. e.i.

kalciumis atoms gare Sreze eqneba 2 eleqtroni, radgan igi 2A

jgufis elementia.

+20

2e 8e 8e 2e

128


aqtivoba N2 - kalciumis qimiuri Tvisebebi; mniSvnelovani

naerTebi.

kalciumi 2A jgufis mudmivvalentiani (orvalentiani)

elementia. igi aqtiuri metalia, romelic moqmedebs mTel rig

arametaluri bunebis mqone naerTebTan (qlorTan, gogirdTan,

mJavasTan, wyalbadTan):

kalciumis qimiuri Tvisebebi gamoisaxeba sqemiT:

Ca +

moswavleebi weren sqemis Sesabamisi qimiuri reaqciebis

tolobebs, aTanabreben da qimiur reaqciebs kiTxuloben

qarTulad. mag:

1) Cl2

2) S

3) HCl

4) H2O

5) H2

1) kalciumi moqmedebs qlorTan, miiReba kalciumis qloridi.

129


2) -------------------------------------------------------------------------------

3) -------------------------------------------------------------------------------

4) -------------------------------------------------------------------------------

5) -------------------------------------------------------------------------------

kalciumis mniSvnelovani naerTebi moyvanilia cxrilSi:

CaO Ca(OH)2 CaCO3

კალციუმის ოქსიდი

(ჩაუმქრალი კირი)

კალციუმის ტუტე

(ჩამქრალი კირი)

130

კალციუმის კარბონატი

(კირქვა, ცარცი,

მარმარილო)

maswavlebeli ixilavs kalciumis oqsids, kalciumis tutes,

kalciumis karbonats, wers maT formulebs, saubrobs maT

gamoyenebaze da popularul (trivialur) saxelwodebebze.

aqtivoba N3 - genetikuri kavSiri kalciumsa da mis naerTebs Soris

axsnili masalis ganmtkicebisTvis moswavleebi iyofian jgufebad,

maT urigdebaT hand-out -ebis saxiT gardaqmnebis sqemebi, romelTa

mixedviTac isini weren qimiuri reaqciis tolobebs( 10 toloba),

kiTxuloben am reaqciebs qarTulad.

Ca(OH)2

CaS Ca CaO Ca(OH)2 CaCl2 CaSO4

CaH2 CaCO3

CO2


aqtivoba N4 - naerTTa klasebis gameoreba

wina aqtivobaSi gamoyenebuli naerTebi Tavsdeba qvemoT

moyvanili cxrilis Sesabamis grafebSi. muSaoba - individualurad.

am aqtivobiT kidev erTxel moxdeba naerTTa klasebis revizia.

ოქსიდი ფუძე მჟავა მარილი

aRniSnuli scenariT SesaZlebelia sxva metalebis ganxilvac

(me-10 klasSi aTamde metali iswavleba), rac gauadvilebs

maswavlebels muSaobas da daexmareba moswavles masalis sistemur

aTvisebaSi.

131


Tema

organuli naerTebis

aRnagobis Teoria.

eleqtronuli

Rrublebis hibridizacia

organul

naerTebSi. organuli

naerTebis

klasifikacia. izomeriis

cneba (jaWvis,

jeradi bmebis

mdebareobis, cis-

da trans-

izomeria).

alkanebi:

homologiuri rigi,

aRnagoba,

nomenklatura,

miReba, fizikuri

da qimiuri

Tvisebebi,

gamoyeneba.

alkenebi:

homologiuri rigi,

aRnagoba, miReba,

fizikuri da

qimiuri Tvisebebi,

gamoyeneba.

markovnikovis wesi.

alkinebi: zogadi

daxasiaTeba.

acetileni _

aRnagoba, miReba,

fizikuri da

qimiuri Tvisebebi,

gamoyeneba.

arenebi: benzoli

_ aRnagoba, miReba,

Tvisebebi da

gamoyeneba.

toluoli. atomTa

XI klasi

# Temis mizani enobrivi mizani

1 moswavle

moswavles SeuZlia

msjelobs orga- TemisaTvis mniSvnul

naerTTa nelovanitermi- aRnagobis Teoriis

ZiriTad debulebebze;nebis

qarTulad

dasaxeleba, icis am

terminTa qarTuli

ganmartebebi, SeuZ-

adgens naerTis lia sinonimuri

struqturul for- sityvebiTa da

mulas.formu- aRweriTi msjelolis

mixedviT

organul naerTs

miakuTvnebs Sesabamis

klass da

asaxelebs saerbiT

terminTa Secvla

da maTi meSveobiT

mosazrebis

gadmocema.

moswavles SeuZlia

sworad gamoiyenos

TaSoriso nomen- is konstruqciebi,

klaturismixed- romlebic sakiTxze

viT;

adgens martivi

Sedgenilobis organuli

naerTebis

msjelobisas dasWirdeba.

saWiroebis

SemTxvevaSi ki Seu-

Zlia erTi gramatikuli

konstruqciis

izomerebis struq- sxva konstruqciiT

turulformu- Secvla ise, rom

lebs;

aagos swori da

gramatikulad gama-

naerTis qimiuri

rTuli msjeloba.

formulis gaT-

moswavlem icis

valiswinebiTad- yvela im funqciuri

gens struqturul

frazis mniSvnelo-

formulas da

ba, rac Temaze

axasiaTebs masSi

muSaobisas sWir-

arsebuli bmebs.

deba da SeuZlia am

ganasxvavebs najer

frazebis Tavad

da ujer bmebs.

gamoyenebac.

msjelobs ujeri

moswavles esmis

bmebis warmoqmnis

yvela instruqcia,

meqanizmze da sqe-

rac Temis irgvliv

maturadgamosa- arsebuli savarxavs

- da

132


urTierTgavlena

toluolis

magaliTze.

naxSirwyalbadebis

hidroqsiwarmoebu

lebi: alkanolebi

_ homologiuri

rigi, miReba,

fizikuri da

qimiuri Tvisebebi,

gamoyeneba.

eTilenglikoli

da glicerini.

fenoli. maTi

Tvisebebi da

gamoyeneba.

aldehidebi:

homologiuri rigi,

miReba, fizikuri

da qimiuri Tvisebebi,

gamoyeneba.

ketonebi: acetoni.

karbonmJavebi:

homologiuri rigi,

miReba, fizikuri

da qimiuri Tvisebebi,

gamoyeneba.

WianWvelmJava,

ZmarmJava. warmodgenapalmitinis

da stearinis

mJavebze.

esterebi:

esterifikaciis da

hidrolizis reaqciebi.

cximebi: Txevadi

da myari cximebi,

Tvisebebi da gamoyeneba.

naxSirwylebi:

mono-, di- da

polisaqaridebis

warmomadgenlebi:

glukoza, misi

cikluri formebi

da qimiuri Tvisebebi;

fruqtoza,

saqaroza, saxamebeli

da celuloza,

bmebis warmoqmnas;

akavSirebs organuli

naerTebis

Tvisebebs maT

SedgenilobaSi

Semaval funqciur

jgufTan;

akavSirebs organul

naerTTa umniSvnelovanes

Tvisebebs maT gamoyenebasTanmedicinaSi,yofa-cxovrebaSi,

soflis

meurneobasa da

teqnikaSi;

qmnis naxSirwyalbadebis

da maTi

funqciuri nawarmebis

molekulur

da struqturul

modelebs naxSirbadis

atomSi eleqtronuliRrublebishibridizaciisgaTvaliswinebiT.

iyenebs

maT organul

naerTTa klasebs

Soris urTierTkav-

Siris damadasturebeli

qimiuri

gardaqmnebis da ma-

Ti meqanizmebis demonstrirebisTvis;

gegmavs da atarebs

cdebs naxSirwyalbadTa

da maT

nawarmTa fizikuri

Tvisebebis gamosakvlevad.aanalizebs

Sedegebs;

organuli

133

jiSoebisTvis sWirdeba

da Tavadac

SeuZlia amgvari instruqciebis

ageba.

moswavle Tavisuflad

asrulebs

tests an sxva specifikurdavalebebs

sakiTxis irgvliv

da Tavadac

SeuZlia amgvari

davalebis Seqmna

instruqciebis, Sesabamisi

funqciuri

frazebisa da konstruqciebisgamoyenebiT.


maTi zogadi

daxasiaTeba.

aminebi: Tvisebebi

da gamoyeneba.

aminomJavebi:

aRnagoba da Tvisebebi.

peptiduri

bma.

cilebi: agebuleba,

roli bunebaSi.

maRalmolekuluri

naerTebi:

polimeri, monomeri,elementaruli

rgoli,

polimerizaciis

xarisxi. polimerizaciis

da polikondensaciisreaqciebi.

naerTebis specifikur

Tvisebebs

xsnis maT molekulaSi

Semaval

atomTa an atomTa

jgufebis urTier-

TgavleniT;

aRwers organul

naerTTa

klasebs Soris

kavSirebs da

adgens Sesabamis

sqemebs. wers saTanado

reaqciebis

tolobebs;

asxvavebs bunebriv

da sinTezur boWkoebs

martivi

cdebis safuZvelze.

134


gakveTili 1

Tema: gakveTilis Tema: a) alkenebis qimiuri Tvisebebi

(eTilenis magaliTze). b) naxSirwyalbadebSi elementebis

procentuli Semcvelobis dadgena.

gakveTilis mizani: eTilenis qimiuri Tvisebebis ganxilva, qimiuri

reaqciebis tolobebis dawera da gaTabreba,miRebuli

naerTebis dasaxeleba; naxSirbadis da wyalbadis

procentuli Semcvelobis mixedviT zogierTi

naxSirwyalbadis qimiuri formulis dadgena.

enobrivi mizani: moswavle SeZlebs eTilenis qimiuri Tvisebebis

qarTulad ganxilvas; miRebuli produqtebis qarTuli

saxelwodebebis Seswavlas; konkretuli sqemis

magaliTze organul naerTTa sxvadasxva klass Soris

genetikuri kavSiris qarTulad aRweras.

nacnobi cnebebi: naxSirwyalbadi, najeri, ujeri, cikluri,

acikluri, σ (sigma), π (pi bmebi), naxSirorJangi, eTani,

meTani,eTileni, acetileni, benzoli.

Sesaswavli cnebebi: hidrireba, hidrologenireba, hidratacia,

bromeTani, 1,2-dibromeTani.

funqciuri frazebi: CasviT koeficientebi; SeavseT gamotovebuli

adgilebi; daaxasiaTeT; aRwereT; daasaxeleT; moZebneT

Sesabamisoba; gamoTvaleT elementis masuri wili

naerTSi.

xangrZlivoba: 45 wT.

resursebi: saxelmZRvanelo, sqema, cxrili, hendauTebi.

135


aqtivobebi:

aqtivoba N1 - eTilenis qimiuri Tvisebebi.

maswavlebeli saubrobs alkenebze - ujer, ormagbmian

naxSirwyalbadebze da ixilavs alkenebis qimiur Tvisebebs

homologiuri rigis pirveli wevris - eTilenis magaliTze.

reaqciebs gamosaxavs sqematurad. sqema SeiZleba iyos orgvari:

sityvieri an qimiuri formulebiT agebuli. gTavazobT orive

variants:

136


gakveTilis msvlelobisas SeiZleba moswavleebis dayofa or

jgufad, erT jgufs daurigdeba pirveli sqema, meores - meore sqema.

moswavleebi weren am sqemis Sesabamisi qimiuri reaqciebis

tolobebs, meore sqemaSi damatebiT asaxeleben qimiur naerTebs.

Semdeg jgufebi erTmaneTs umowmeben namuSevars.

aqtivoba N2 – gardaqmnebi.

maswavlebeli isev or-or sqemas ixilavs: sityviers da for-

mulebiT gamosaxuls. moswavleebis erTma jgufma unda daweron

sityvieri sqemis Sesabamisi reaqciebis tolobebi da gaaTanabron,

Tu es saWiroa (sqema 1), xolo meore jgufma unda imuSaos meore

sqemaze, daweros reaqciebis tolobebi da daasaxelos yvela miRe-

buli naerTi. samuSaos dasrulebis Semdeg, jgufebi erTmaneTs ac-

noben namuSevrebs.

137


ეთანი ეთენი(ეთილენი) ეთანოლი ეთანალი ეთანმჟავა

ძმარმჟავაეთილის რთული ეთერი(ეთილაცეტატი)

C2H6 C2H4 C2H5OH CH3COH CH3COOH CH3COOC2H5

138

sqema 1

sqema 2

aqtivoba N3 - naxSirwyalbadebSi elementebis procentuli

Semcvelobis dadgena.

maswavlebeli adgens cxrils, sadac mocemulia xuTi

naxSirwyalbadis qimiuri formulebi. unda dadgindes TiToeul

naxSirwyalbadSi naxSirbadisa da wyalbadis %-uli Semcvelobebi.

pirvel magaliTs xsnis maswavlebeli, danarCenebs ki - moswavleebi

individualurad da miRebuli monacemebi SeaqvT cxrilSi:

N

%C

%H

ქიმიური

ფორმულა

სახელწოდება

/დასახელება

1. 75 25 CH4 მეთანი

2. ............... ............... C2H6 ...............

3. ............... ............... C2H4 ...............

4. ............... ............... C2H2 ...............

5. ............... ............... C6H6 ...............


magaliTi N1

CH4 – meTanSi elementebis %- uli Semcvelobis dasadgenad

jer unda viangariSoT meTanis fardobiTi molekuluri masa,

amisaTvis ki gvWirdeba elementebis fardobiTi atomuri masebi,

romlebic mocemulia periodul sistemaSi: Ar(C)=12, Ar(H)=1,

sadac Ar(C ) da Ar(H) aris Sesabamisad naxSirbadisa da wyalbadis

fardobiTi atomuri masebi, xolo Mr- naerTis (am SemTxvevaSi

meTanis) fardobiTi molekuluri masa.

Mr(CH4)= Ar(C) + 4×Ar(H)= 12 + 4×1 = 16 elementebis %-uli

Semcveloba iangariSeba formulebiT:

% C= ×100% %H= ×100%

%C = x 100% =75% % H= =25%

maSasadame, C-75% H-25%

analogiurad ixsneba danarCeni magaliTebi da ivseba cxrili.

am gakveTilSi gamoyenebuli sqemebiT SeiZleba naxSirwyalbadebis

sxva klasebis- alkanebis, alkinebis, cikloalkanebis, arenebis

qimiuri Tvisebebis ganxilvac, rac maswavlebels muSaobas

gauadvilebs.

139


gakveTili 2

Tema: JangbadSemcveli organuli naerTebi

gakveTilis mizani: JangbadSemcveli organuli naerTebis gacnoba,

dasaxeleba.

enobrivi mizani: moswavle gaecnoba JangbadSemcveli organuli

naerTebis zogadi formulebis qarTul saxelwodebebs,

agreTve zogierTi warmomadgenlis qarTul

saxelwodebebs da maTi gamoyenebiT kiTxulobs

gardaqmnebis sqemebs aseve qarTulad, mag.: meTanidan

miiReba meTanoli da a.S.

nacnobi cnebebi: organuli naerTi, naxSirwyalbadi, meTani, eTani,

benzoli, cikloheqsani, hidrireba( wyalbadis mierTeba),

hidratacia (wylis mierTeba).

Sesaswavli cnebebi: spirti, aldehidi, ketoni, martivi eTeri,

rTuli eTeri, ZmarmJava, WianWvelmJava,

ZmarmJavaeTileTeri, acetoni.

funqciuri frazebi: CamoTvaleT, daaxasiaTeT, SeasruleT

xangrZlivoba: 45 wT.

gardaqmnebi, gamosaxeT sqematurad, daasaxeleT,

dawereT sqemis Sesabamisi qimiuri reaqciebis tolobebi.

resursebi: saxelmZRvanelo, cxrili, sqema.

140


aqtivobebi:

aqtivoba N1 - JangbadSemcveli organuli naerTebi.

maswavlebeli saubrobs JangbadSemcveli organuli naerTebis

klasebze, zogad formulebze, TiToeuli klasisaTvis

damaxasiaTebel funqcionalur jgufebze. masalas warmoadgens

sqematurad:

aqtivoba N2 - zogierTi JangbadSemcveli organuli naerTis

dasaxeleba da qimiuri formula

141


maswavlebeli moswavleebs urigebs cxrils, sadac mocemulia

zogierTi mniSvnelovani organuli naerTis dasaxeleba da qimiuri

formula. es cxrili daexmareba moswavleebs qvemoT moyvanili

aqtivobebis SesrulebaSi.

1. მეთანოლი CH3OH

2. ეთანოლი C2H5OH

3. ეთილენგლიკოლი(ორატომიანი სპირტი) CH2OH-CH2OH

4. გლიცერინი(სამატომიანი სპირტი) CH2OH(CHOH)CH2OH

5. მეთანალი/ჭიანჭველმჟავას

ალდეჰიდი/ფორმალდეჰიდი

6. ეთანალი/ძმრის

ალდეჰიდი/აცეტალდეჰიდი

142

HCHO

CH3CHO

7. ძმარმჟავა/ეთანმჟავა CH3COOH

8. დიმეთილკეტონი(აცეტონი) CH3C(O)CH3

9. დიმეთილეთერი CH3OCH3

10. ძმარმჟავაეთილეთერი CH3COOC2H5

11. ჭიანჭველმჟავა/მეთანმჟავა HCOOH


aqtivoba N3 - meTanis daJangvis sqema.

mocemuli sqemis mixedviT moswavleebma unda daweron

qimiuri reaqciebis tolobebi da gaaTanabron.(sul 4 reaqcia).

sasurvelia yuradReba gamaxvildes naerTebis dasaxelebebis

daboloebebze (gamoyofilia baci SriftiT).

aqtivoba N4 - gardaqmnebi (6 reaqcia).

klasi iyofa or jgufad. pirveli jgufi muSaobs naerTebis

qarTuli saxelwodebebiT Sedgenil sqemaze, wers am sqemis

Sesabamisi qimiuri reaqciebis tolobebs da aTanabrebs. meore

jgufi muSaobs meore, qimiuri formulebiT Sedgenil sqemaze, aseve

wers qimiuri reaqciebis tolobebs da asaxelebs yvela naerTs.

aqtivobis dasasrulebis Semdeg xdeba namuSevrebis

erTmaneTisaTvis gacnoba.

აცეტილენი ეთილენი ეთანოლი დიეთილეთერი

ბენზოლი ქლორბენზოლი

ციკლოჰექსანი

C2H2 C2H4 C2H5OH C2H5OC2H5

C6H6 C6H5Cl

C6H12

143


gakveTilSi moyvanili cxrili, sqematuri masala da

gardaqmnebi daexmareba maswavlebels muSaobis procesSi,

moswavleebs ki masalis aTvisebaSi, organul naerTTa Soris

kavSiris danaxvasa da sakiTxis erT mTlianobad (sistemur)

aRqmaSi.

144


ekomendebuli funqciuri frazebi sxvadasxva

sagnis maswavleblebisTvis

1. misalmeba da socialuri kontaqti

_ dila mSvidobisa!

_ gamajobaT! rogor brZandebiT?

_ gamarjobaT, bavSvebo! dasxediT!

_ gamajobaT! daviwyoT muSaoba!

_ mogesalmebiT! daikaveT Tqveni adgilebi!

2. moswavlis gamokiTxva, misi gamoZaxebis gziT

_ ... (moswavlis saxeli), modi, geTayva, mogviyevi ... !

_ ... (moswavlis saxeli), gTxov, gamodi dafasTan!

145

danarTi

_ ... (moswavlis saxeli), SegiZlia ganmarto / Camoayalibo / daa-

saxelo / dawero / gvaCveno ... ?

_ ... (moswavlis saxeli), gTxov, ganmarte / Camoayalibe / daasax-

ele / CamoTvale / dawere / gvaCvene ... !

3. movaleobebis gadanawileba

_ msurvelebi xom ar arian?

_ mWirdeba damxmare, romelic... .

_ romel Tqvengans surs?

_ aris vinme, vinc mzad iqneboda... ?

_ Tu arc erTs ar surs, maSin gTxov Sen, ... (moswavlis saxeli),

moitane / gaarkvie... !

_ me gavanawileb movaleobebs.


_ kargi, ... (moswavlis saxeli), gTxov moitane...! xolo Sen, ...

(moswavlis saxeli), unda gawmindo dafa!

_ Semdeg kviraSi ... (moswavlis saxeli) da ... (moswavlis saxeli)

Seasruleben Semdeg movaleobebs: ...

_ Semdeg kviraSi morigeebi iqnebian ... (moswavlis saxeli) da ...

(moswavlis saxeli).

_ ... (moswavlis saxeli), gTxov, daarige furclebi / gawminde

dafa / moitane wignebi / daalage klasi / gaaRe fanjara!

neli!

_ ... (moswavlis saxeli), Sen iqnebi TamaSis wamyvani / xelmZRva-

4. gancxadebebi

_ dRes viwyeb axal Temas ... -is Sesaxeb.

_ gakveTilis bolos Catardeba testi / Tavisufal Temaze ... .

_ axla gagacnobT sakontrolo samuSaos Sedegebs.

_ Semdeg gakveTilze muzeumSi mivdivarT eqskursiaze.

_ xval mokle gakveTili iqneba, radganac skolaSi Tojinebis

Teatris speqtakli / sportuli Sejibri / maswavlebelTa kreba

tardeba.

_ momaval kviraSi / Semdeg gakveTilze sakontrolo weraa.

_ paraskevs, 18 saaTze mSobelTa krebaa.

_ yuradReba! gakveTilebis cxrili Seicvala!

_ am gakveTilis Semdeg ... .

5. saSinao davalebebis akreba

_ gadaSaleT Tqveni rveulebi.

_ saSinao davaleba yvelam ukve dawera / Seasrula / gaakeTa /

gaigo / SeZlo dasruleba.

146


6. wina gakveTilis Temis gameoreba

_ gasul / wina gakveTilze Cven vsaubrobdiT / davwereT ... .

_ gavimeoroT mTavari cnebebi!

_ gaixseneT cnebebi, romelic ganvixileT ... !

_ ra darCa TqvenTvis gaugebari wina gakveTilze axsnili

masalidan?

_ gavixsenoT ramdenime faqti / TariRi / cneba / wesi / mizezebi /

warmoqnis mizezebi!

_ daasaxeleT wina gakveTilze naswavli terminebi!

_ CamoayalibeT ...!

_ gadaSaleT wignebi da gaimeoreT ...!

7. axali Temis wardgena

_ am kviraSi ganvagrZob saubars ...-is Sesaxeb.

_ dRes gavecnobiT ... .

_ daviwyoT ... Temis ganxilva / Seswavla.

_ dRes SevavsebT ... -is Sesaxeb Semajamebel cxrils.

_ aseTi problemis gadawyvetas SevecdebiT: ... .

_ Tqven ras fiqrobT, ra aris ... ?

_ dRes wina gakveTilze dawyebul Temis ... Sesaxeb gavagrZelebT

musaobas / saubars.

8. Temis, konkretuli detalebis ganmarteba:

8.1. SekiTxvebi

Txovna, gamoTqvan azri:

_ ras fiqrob am sakiTxze / Temaze / mosazrebaze?

147


_ ra azri / warmodgena gaqvs am sakiTxze?

_ ras fiqrob ...-ze?

_ eTanxmebi am mosazrebas / gamonaTqvams?

_ safuZvlianad geCveneba es Tu ara?

_ Sen ra mosazreba gaqvs?

_ eTanxmebi amas?

_ Sen rogor geCveneba?

SekiTxvebi faqtebis Sesaxeb:

_ romelia udidesi ... ?

_ ra aris umTavresi ... ?

_ rodis daiwyo / dasrulda ... ?

_ sad mdebareobs ... ?

_ ra simaRlisaa... ?

_ romel jgufs miekuTvneba ... ?

_ sad gaemgzavra ... ?

_ ramden xans iarseba ... ?

_ ra iyo ... ?

Txovna, ganmarton:

_ es rogor xdeba?

_ Seni sityvebiT agvixseni!

_ ra aris am moqmedebis mizezebi / Sedegebi?

_ risTvis iqneboda es sasargeblo ... ?

_ ratom moxda ... ?

_ rogor gaxda ... ?

Txovna, daamtkicon:

_ SegiZlia ganmarto amwuTas naTqvami?

_ SegiZlia daamtkico Seni mosazreba / gamonaTqvami?

148


_ SegiZlia raime dokumentis / avtoritetuli avtoris citireba?

_ es mosazreba safuZvlianad geCveneba?

ras fiqroben danarCenebi?

daskvnis gakeTebis Txovna

_ gTxov, miTxari ra aris am TavSi / naSromSi ZiriTadi /

mniSvnelovani?

_ ra iyo am Tavis / naSromis mTavari azri?

_ gTxov, am Tavis / naSromis / Temis Sesaxeb Sesaxeb mokle

Sinaarsi dawere!

_ rogor ggonia, ra iyo umniSvnelovanesi TariRebi / movlenebi /

adgilebi am ... ?

8.2. plakatebis da sxva vizualuri masalis

gamoyeneba

_ plakatze gamosaxulia / naCvenebia ... .

_ dRevandel gakveTilze gamoviyenebT plakats / sqemas / films,

raTa vnaxoT ... .

_ ras adasturebs es eqsperimenti / es savarjiSoebi...?

_ wignSi mocemuli naxatebi / gamosaxulebebi / cxrilebi

gvaZlevs informacias ... .

_ rukaze / wignSi / cxrilSi / koleqciaSi / cxrilSi SegiZliaT

ixiloT ... .

_ ra saintereso faqtebi / movlenebi naxeT am ... ?

8.3. terminologia

_ gavimeoroT aTvisebuli terminebi!

_ amoiwere terminebi teqstidan! ganmarte isini!

_ ipove teqstSi terminis aseTi ganmarteba: ... !

_ es sityva ... TargmanSi niSnavs ... .

149


8.4. mniSvnelobis, Targmanis Sesaxeb SekiTxvebi

_ ra aris am sityvis mniSvneloba / cnebis definicia?

_ es cneba Seni sityvebiT ganmarte!

_ rogor iTargmneba es ... enaze?

_ rogor iTqmis es ... enaze?

8.5. kiTxva

_ waikiTxe teqsti wignis ... gverdze!

_ ra aris teqstis mTavari azri / dedaazri?

_ waikiTxe teqsti da dawere gegma / mokle Sinaarsi!

_ ipove teqstSi aseT kiTxvebze pasuxebi: ... !

8.6. Temebis dakavSireba axali Temis axsnis dros

movlenebis Tanmimdevroba

_ pirvel rigSi, ... , Semdeg ... .

_ daviwyoT imiT, rom ... .

_ upirveles yovlisa ... .

_ Tavidan ... .

_ daaxloebiT 2000 wels ... .

_ maSin ... da Semdeg ... .

_ ese igi ... amis Sedegad ... .

_ am drois ganmavlobaSi ... .

_ da bolos ... .

_ dasasrul ... .

movlenebis mniSvneloba:

_ yvelaze mniSvnelovani, rac unda gavigoT, aris ... .

_ mTavari problema is iyo, rom ... .

_ kidev ufro mniSvnelovani is iyo, rom ... .

_ gasaocari is iyo, rom ... .

150


azris gamoTqma:

_ Cemi azriT, ... .

_ me vfiqrob, rom ... .

_ me mimaCnia, rom ... .

_ me vityodi, rom ... .

_ SesaZlebelia, ise iyos, rom ... ?

_ SesaZlebelia, rom ... .

_ me maqvs eWvi, rom ... .

_ me vgrZnob, rom ... .

_ veWvob, rom ... .

_ oficialuri azri aris - ... .

SeTavazeba:

_ me maqvs SemoTavazeba ... .

_ SegviZlia ... .

_ iqneb SegviZlia ... ?

_ erTi xerxi, romlis daxmarebiTac SegviZlia situaciis gaum-

jobeseba, aris ... .

_ ar SegviZlia ... ?

_ iqneb mogvesinja ... .

_ Tqvens adgilze me movsinjavdi ... .

_ adre Cven yovelTvis ... .

_ tradiciuli midgoma aseTia: ... .

_ ase moviqceT: ... .

_ xom ar ajobebda, rom ... ?

raime TemaSi CaRrmaveba:

_ aqve ... .

_ kidev ... .

151


_ kidev ufro ... .

_ aq gviCndeba SekiTxva ... .

_ Tumca, ZiriTadi azri isaa, rom ... .

_ am faqtma SeiZleba aseT sakiTxze dagva-

fiqros: ... .

_ mindoda Tqveni yuradReba kidev erTi aspeqtisTvis /

garemoebisTvis / faqtisTvis / sakiTxisTvis mimeqcia.

_ ara mxolod es, aramed aseT ... .

_ garda imisa, rom ... .

_ aqve davZendi, rom ... .

mizezebis ganmarteba:

_ es im mizezebis gamo moxda: ... .

_ amitomac ... .

_ am mizeziT ... .

_ imasTan dakavSirebiT ... .

_ amis gamo ... .

_ ase ... .

_ amis Sedegad ... .

_ Sesabamisad ... .

_ amgvarad ... .

_ es aris imis mizezi, rom ... .

winaswar gansazRvruli situaciebi, winapirobebi:

Tu ase moxdeba, maSin ... .

roca ase xdeba, Cveulebriv ... .

rogorc ki es moxdeba, SegviZlia davelodoT ... .

Tu rodesme aseTi situaciis mowmeni gaxdebiT, yuradRebiT daak-

virdiT, rom ... .

nu eliT, rom ... , sanam, upirveles yovlisa, ar iqneba ... .

152


analizi:

es aris ...-is magaliTi.

es adasturebs, rom ... .

es gavfiqrebinebs, rom ... .

es SeiZleba niSnavdes, rom ... .

es SeiZleba iyos ... SemTxveva. es amtkicebs, rom ... .

amis interpretireba SeiZleba, rogorc ... .

moswavlis naTqvamis gameoreba:

_ axla Sen ambob, rom ... .

_ sxva sityvebiT vityodi, ... .

_ Tu sworad gagige, gindoda geTqva, rom ... .

_ Seni naTqvamis gameorebiT ... .

_ Sen migaCnia, rom ... .

wina naTqvamSi Sesworebebis Setana:

_ amiT mindoda meTqva, rom ... .

_ amis safuZvelze vfiqrob, rom ... .

_ vcdilob giTxraT, rom ... .

_ imaves vityvi sxva sityvebiT: ... .

roca mimzidvelad gamoiyureba:

_ gamoiyureba ise, TiTqos ... , magram sinamdvileSi ... .

_ erTi SexedviT SesaZloa ase mogeCvenebaT ... , magram, faqtobri-

vad ... .

upiratesoba:

_ me mirCevnia, rom ... .

_ me ufro momwons, roca Tqven ... .

153


eWvis gamoTqma:

_ eg SesaZlebelia, magram ... .

_ eg simarTlea, magram Tu dafiqrebulxar, rom ... .

_ geTanxmebi, magram gaiTvaliswine, rom ... .

_ eg kargi azria, erTaderTi ... .

_ ki, oRond gaxsovdes, rom ... .

_ eg SesaZlebelia, magram Tu gaiTvaliswine is faqti, rom ... .

sakiTxis sxva aspeqtze yuradRebis gadatana:

_ SesaZlebelia, magram ... .

_ ar dagaviwydes, rom ... .

_ rasac Sen ambob, marTalia, Tumca ... .

_ me mainc mgonia, rom ... .

ganmartebis Txovna:

_ SegiZlia ganmarto, rogor ... ?

_ gTxov gangvimarte Seni pasuxi / azri!

_ SegiZlia ganmarto, ratom airCie es pasuxi?

_ gTxov, gaSale Seni pasuxi!

_ es imas niSnavs, Sen fiqrob, rom ... ?

ganzogadeba:

_ saerTod ... .

_ zogadad Tu ganvixileT ... .

_ zogadad saubrisas ... .

_ Cveulebriv ... .

_ rogorc yovelTvis ... .

_ tipobrivia is, rom ... .

154


ame?

8.9. codnis Semowmeba da gasameorebeli kiTxvebi

_ yvelaferi gaigeT?

_ SekiTxvebi xom ar gaqvT?

_ ... wakiTxvis / mosmenis / yurebis Semdeg gaugebari xom ar aris

_ ras niSnavs es termini / cneba / warmodgena?

_ gTxovT, Tqveni sityvebiT gadmosceT!

_ am TavSi / naSromSi / TemaSi romelia sami mTavari nawili?

_ ra iyo amis naklovaneba / gamomwvevi mizezebi / safuZveli?

_ rogori Sedegebi gamoiwvia arCevnebma / skandalma / gamoyofam

/ gaerTianebam?

saxeb.

_ rogori gamoxmaureba / Sedegebi mohyva am movlenebs?

9. miTiTebebi samuSaos organizebis Sesaxeb

jgufuri samuSao

_ dRes Cven jgufebSi / wyvilebSi vmuSaobT!

_ daiyaviT patara jgufebad 3-dan 5-mde adamiani jgufSi!

_ danarCens wyvilebSi muSaobiT SevasrulebT!

_ davaleba jgufSi waikiTxeT!

_ dawereT ... , ris Sesaxebac SeTanxmdiT!

_ dainawileT movaleobebi jgufSi!

_ 15 wuTis Semdeg unda moyveT Tqveni samuSaos / miRwevebis Se-

_ jgufidan erTi adamiani gamoyaviT / airCieT jgufSi erTi ada-

miani, romelic Tqvens azrs gagvacnobs da erTi - romelic infor-

macias Caiwers!

155


miTiTebebi jgufSi diskusiis dros

_ pirvel rigSi, daiyaviT jgufebad!

_ pirvel jgufs eqneba Tema ... , meore jgufs eqneba ... da mesame

jgufs eqneba ... .

_ airCieT erTi, vinc ilaparakebs da erTi adamiani, vinc yvela-

fers Caiwers!

_ TiToeulma moswavlem unda moamzados moTxroba Tavisi idee-

bis / faqtebis da maTi CarTviT / maT gaacnos danarCenebi.

_ gTxov, Cvenc gagvacani Seni azri!

_ Sen ra azris xar?

_ Sen rogor fiqrob?

_ mogviyevi!

_ Seadare Seni mosazreba jgufis mosazrebas!

_ isaubre da sakiTxi ganixile Seni jgufis wevrebTan!

_ daasabuTe Seni mosazreba magaliTebis / konkretuli faqtebis

daxmarebiT!

_ roca Tqvens jgufebSi yvelani mzad iqnebiT, mogviyveT, Tu ra

gaakeTeT, Cven yuradRebiT mogismenT.

_ Seni referati / aRmoCena yvelas gagvacani!

_ daakonkrete Seni ideebi!

_ sxvebsac SesTavaze azri gamoTqvan da SekiTxvebi dasvan!

TamaSebi rolebis ganawilebiT

_ dRe rolebSi TamaSi monawileobas miiReben ... .

_ gTxovT, gadiT da derefanSi daicadeT!

_ rolebis CamonaTvali waikiTxeT!

_ TamaSi wamyvani iqneba ... .

_ airCieT da gainawileT rolebi Tqvens jgufSi!

_ mayureblebo, daaxasiaTeT msaxiobebi!

156


individualuri davalebebi

_ amjerad individualurad vmuSaobT!

_ yuradRebiT waikiTxe davaleba!

_ damoukideblad Seavse / Seasrule ... !

_ ipove ... / Seadare ... / daadgine ... / daaskveni ... / gvanaxe ... /

daamtkice, rom ... / ipove ... / Camoayalibe ... / daajgufe ... / aRniSne ...

/ moniSne ... / gamoikvlie ... / demonstrireba gaakeTe ... / aRwere ... !

_ Sens gankargulebaSi 10 wuTia.

_ SeTxze ambavi am sityvebis gamoyenebiT!

_ waSale zedmeti sityvebi!

_ gamoiyene cxrili / ruka / atlasi / sayrdeni sityvebi!

_ ipove / moZebne saxelmZRvaneloSi / ... gverdze / rukaze ... !

_ daajgufe ... warmoSobis / zomis / simaRlis / mniSvnelovnebis

mixedviT!

_ Seadare sididis / farTis mixedviT!

_ mocemuli gegmis mixedviT aRwere ... !

_ Seadgine ... sqema!

_ gaarkvie ... wyoba / funqciebi!

sakontrolo samuSaoebi da gamocdebi

_ airCieT / moniSneT swori pasuxi!

_ gadaxazeT araswori debuleba / sityvebi!

_ teqstis wakiTxvis Semdeg upasuxeT kiTxvebs da SeavseT

tabula!

_ wereT fanqriT / pastiT!

_ am davalebis Sesrulebis dros ar SeiZleba koreqtoris /

leqsikonis / saxelmZRvanelos gamoyeneba.

_ moifiqreT da uwodeT gamosaxulebas saxeli!

_ ganmarteT am sityvaTa mniSvneloba!

157


saSinao davalebebi

_ gadaSaleT dRiurebi da CaiwereT ... !

_ Semdegi kviris ganmavlobaSi dawereT Tema ... Sesaxeb!

_ dawereT moTxrobis / statiis / Tavis gegma!

_ gaxazeT mTavari!

_ saxlSi unda iswavloT ... Tavis mexuTedan meSvide gverdamde.

10. aTvisebuli Temis mokle Sinaarsi

_ dRes Tqven gaigeT ... .

_ dRevandeli Temis umTavresi nawili iyo ... .

_ axla Tamamad SegviZlia ganvacxadoT, rom ... .

_ warmodgena SeviqmeniT ... Sesaxeb.

_ mokled rom vTqvaT, ... .

_ yovelive naTqvamis gaTvaliswinebiT, ... .

_ adre naswavlis gameorebis Sedegad, ... .

11. klasis gakontroleba

_ gTxovT yuradRebas!

_ nu laparakobT!

_ imuSaveT damoukideblad!

_ gTxovT, nu xmaurobT!

_ wynarad isxediT!

_ imuSaveT odnav Cumad!

_ iyaviT yuradRebiT!

_ usafrTxoebis wesebi daicaviT!

_ nu uSli sxvebs!

158


daT!

12. Sefaseba

_ gmadlobT samuSaosTvis!

_ Zalian kargi namuSevaria.

_ dRes kargi Sedegebi gvqonda!

_ es Sen / Tqven Zalian kargad / kargad gamogivida / gamogivi-

_ mSvenieria! brwyinvalea! sakmaod kargia!

_ brwyinvale naSromia!

_ mSvenieri azria!

_ kargi pasuxia!

_ Tqveni naSromebi Sinaarsiani da sainteresoa.

_ yvelaferi SevZeliT, rac gvqonda dagegmili.

_ dRes Tqven kargad imuSaveT!

_ ratom ar aris yvela piroba Sesrulebuli?

_ rogor moxda, rom ar aris ... ?

_ Tqven zedapirulad imuSaveT.

_ ratom ar gadaamowmeT faqtebi?

_ es saerTod ar Seexeba am Temas.

_ ase Tu imuSaveT, Sors ver wavalT.

_ am naSroms azri saerTod ar aqvs.

_ darwmunebuli var ukeT SegeZlo.

_ SemdgomSi meti yuradReba miaqcie ... .

_ Sengan ukeTes / ufro moculobiT pasuxs velodi.

_ unda Seecado da kidev ukeTesi gamova.

_ ise, ara uSavs, magram dagaviwyda dagewera / gagexaza /

gamogeTvala / dagemtkica ... .

159


13. dasasruli

_ raime SekiTxvebi xom ar gaqvT?

_ yvelaferi gasagebia?

_ Semdeg gakveTilze gavagrZelebT.

_ momeciT dRiurebi, niSnebs CagiwerT!

_ Semdeg gakveTilze moitaneT ... .

_ yvelaze kargi Sedegebi dRes ... hqondaT.

_ gaxsovdeT, rom xval unda wamoiRoT ... !

_ ar dagaviwydeT, rom xval gakveTili 09:45 -ze daiwyeba!

14. damSvidobeba

_ momaval Sexvedramde!

_ SevxvdebiT Semdeg gakveTilze!

_ warmatebiT!

_ gmadlobT, dReisTvis sul es aris.

_ Tavisuflebi xarT.

_ gmadlobT yuradRebisTvis.

_ kargad iyaviT, Semdeg Sexvedramde!

160


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Tareba (2006).

kolin beikeri, bilingvizmisa da bilingvuri ganaTlebis

safuZvlebi. ,,samoqalaqo integraciisa da

erovnebaTSorisi urTierTobebis centris’’ 2010 wlis

qarTuli versiis gamocema.

bilingvuri ganaTleba, samagido wigni maswavleblebisTvis;

Tbilisi, 2009.

kaxa gabunia, enisa da sagnobrivi Sinaarsis integrirebuli swavlebis

Taviseburebebi bilingvur klasSi; bilingvuri

ganaTleba, # 1, 2010.

nino doborjginiZe, maia inasariZe, mosmenisa da zepirmetyvelebis

unaris ganviTareba (2006).

maia inasariZe, maia naWyebia, qarTuli enisa da literaturis swavlebis

Tanamedrove meTodebi; Tbilisi, 2006.

maia inasariZe, nino doborjginiZe, kiTxvis unar-CvevaTa ganviTareba

(2006).

meTodikuri miTiTebani qarTulis, rogorc meore enis swavlebis

procesSi (maswavlebelTa gzamkvlevi); Tbilisi, 2007.

maia meliqiZe, Wabuki qiria, qarTuli enis gramatikis swavleba

(2006).

multilingvuri ganaTlebis programis debuleba, 2010, saqarTvelos

ganaTlebisa da mecnierebis saministro.

marika oZeli, zurab baRaSvili, komunikaciuri kompetenciis ganvi-

Tareba (2006).

saqarTvelos erovnuli saswavlo gegmebisa da Sefasebis centri,

erovnuli saswavlo gegma; http://www.ncac.ge/index.php?m=854

Salva tabataZe, maia inasariZe, qeTevan CaCxiani, Wabuki qiria

interkulturuli ganaTlebis praqtikuli

saxelmZRvanelo maswavleblebisTvis; Tbilisi, 2010.

Wabuki qiria, maia meliqiZe, leqsikaze muSaobis meTodika meore enis

swavlebisas (2006).

nino SaraSeniZe, Secdomebis analizi da maTze muSaoba enis

aTvisebis procesSi; bilingvuri ganaTleba, # 3, 2010.

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základných školách na Slovensku. - In: Studia Academica Slovaca. 30.

Prednášky XXXVII. letného seminára slovenského jazyka a kultúry.

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Tibinská, Eva, Základné zásady didaktiky a metodiky vyučovania slovenčiny ako cudzieho

jazyka. In: Studia Academica Slovaca 34. Prednášky XLI. letného

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gamomcemloba

`saimedo~

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