daviT guramiSvili

literaturatmcodneoba.tsu.ge

daviT guramiSvili

SoTa rusTavelis qarTuli literaturis

instituti

Shota Rustaveli Institute of Georgian Literature

1


2

Tamaz Vasadze

Literature

in Search

of Verity

Tbilisi

2010


Tamaz vasaZe

literatura

WeSmaritebis

ZiebaSi

Tbilisi

2010

3


UDC(uak) 821.353.1.09.

v-224

redaqtori

maka elbaqiZe

dizaineri

soso tabucaZe

kompiuteruli uzrunvelyofa

TinaTin duglaZe, paata axraxaZe

redaqciis misamarTi: 0108, Tbilisi, 2010

merab kostavas q. 5

© SoTa rusTavelis qarTuli literaturis instituti

tel. 99-53-00; E-mail: litinst@litinstituti.ge

ISBN 978-9941-0-2240-1

4


daviT guramiSvili

sar Cevi

Suagulis gadanacvleba.......................................................9

araamayi qarTveli...............................................................18

nikoloz baraTaSvili

mTawmindis mTvare .............................................................20

sabediswero Zala ................................................................28

Tavisuflebisken moZraoba..............................................34

ilia WavWavaZe

gaxedva iliasken…...............................................................36

orgvari cnobiereba............................................................40

gzajvaredinze......................................................................48

zneobrivi dilema ...............................................................59

`yovlad Zlieri mSveniereba~ ........................................64

akaki wereTeli

Rirsebis aRsadgenad..........................................................76

vaJa-fSavela

humanizmis ganwiruleba....................................................79

gamaerTianebeli tanjva....................................................84

sxva simarTle........................................................................91

5


`gvelis mWameli~_

`mowiweba sicocxlis mimarT~........................................101

daviT kldiaSvili

igavi TavkerZobis Sesaxeb...............................................113

faruli Sinasamyaro..........................................................117

vasil barnovi

dacemebi da zeaRsvlebi..................................................125

wamebuli RmerTi................................................................134

niko lorTqifaniZe

saerTo elferi...................................................................146

tiranis saxecvaleba.........................................................152

yalbi miTis rRveva .........................................................154

gabrZoleba ..........................................................................166

mixeil javaxiSvili

ideologia da xasiaTi......................................................170

`avtors asamarTleben gmirebi~...................................179

Tvalisaxela .....................................................................187

leo qiaCeli

6

sulis Tavgadasavlebi.....................................................194

`haki aZba~..............................................................................198

cduneba ...............................................................................203


geronti qiqoZe

realistis simarTle da sisadave.................................209

grigol robaqiZe

gansacdeli...........................................................................215

galaktion tabiZe

enigmaturi saxe da analizi............................................223

sulieri wyurvili.............................................................228

musikalurobis safuZveli............................................231

giorgi leoniZe

sicocxlis poezia..............................................................235

tician tabiZe

tragikuli eqstazi...........................................................238

valerian gafrindaSvili

sanatreli da realuri....................................................241

SoTa CantlaZe

`zeca da ironia~.................................................................247

rwmenis tragikomedia......................................................253

guram rCeuliSvili

bedniereba sikvdilis fonze.........................................256

yvelaze didi vneba............................................................274

7


oTar WilaZe

sivrcis ori saxe.................................................................279

besik xaranauli

azris silaRe.......................................................................283

jemal qarCxaZe

Tavisufal pirovnebad yofna.......................................288

literatura WeSmaritebis Ziebaa

drois siRrmidan Cvenamde..............................................291

stadiebi................................................................................295

literatura WeSmaritebis Ziebaa................................304

sikvdilis pirispir .........................................................310

ganmmartebeli.....................................................................314

literaturuli kerpTayvanismcemloba....................318

proza poeziis qveyanaSi .................................................322

erovnuli da dasavluri

8

individualizmi Tu egoizmi..........................................328

qarTuli orsaxovneba ....................................................331

Tavmomwoneobis bangi.......................................................334

myari saxelmwifos gareSe...............................................339

erovnuli da dasavluri ................................................344

ilias formula Cvens droSi..........................................347


daviT guramiSvili

Suagulis gadanacvleba

avtobiografiuloba guramiSvilis `daviTianis~

erT-erTi Zireuli Taviseburebaa, magram mainc am wign-

Si avtoris cxovrebis konkretuli faqtebi mxolod

sababad gvevlineba sinamdvilis religiur-simboluri

gaazrebisTvis da TiTqmis mTlianad qreba masSi.

erTaderTi biografiuli faqti, romelic isea gadmocemuli,

rom misi konkretuloba simbolur saxeobriobaSi

ar aris Cakarguli, lekebis mier guramiSvilis

datyvevebis da misi tyveobidan Tavdaxsnis ambavia. simbolur-spiritualuri

lirika `daviTianis~ am nawilSi

Tanaarsebobs avtoris Tavgadasavlis sagnobriv TxrobasTan,

cxovrebiseul situaciaTa mRelvare poetur

aRdgenasTan.

am ambisadmi gansakuTrebuli yuradReba imiT unda

iyos gamowveuli, rom igi guramiSvilis cxovrebis sabediswero

gardatexis punqtia, misi empiriuli da sulieri

biografiis mTavari, gadamwyveti mniSvnelobis

mqone momentia, guramiSvilis msoflmimarTebis Ziri-

Tadi Camomyalibebelia.

datyveveba sruliad axalgazrda, ocdasami wlis

guramiSvilisTvis _ cxadia, Tavidanve religiurad

ganwyobili adamianisTvis _ aRmoCndeba tanjvis is

gamocdileba, romlis meSveobiTac gauRrmavdeba, ganumtkicdeba

rwmena da daumyardeba RmerTTan cocxali

Sinagani kavSiri, qristianuli msoflgancda erTianad

eufleba da moukveTelad Seezrdeba mis sulier

samyaros. Tanamedrove cnebaTa enaze rom vTqvaT,

guramiSvili xvdeba eqstremalur, zRvrul situaciaSi,

sadac adamiani ganicdis did Sinagan Zvrebs, gaSiSvlebulad

xedavs TavisTavs da samyaros, amowmebs Tavis

faseulobebs, Tvali exileba ucnob WeSmaritebaze; anda

xelaxla aRmoaCens TiTqosda manamdec nacnob WeSma-

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itebas, es ki niSnavs, rom rac icoda ganyenebulad,

formalurad, Turme uSualod da mwvaved exeba piradad

mas.

eqstremaluri situaciis cneba da misi gaazreba arsebiTad

tanjvis qristianul interpretacias emyareba.

qristianul msoflxedvas tanjvis fenomeni esaxeba

codvebis sazRaurad da codvebisgan ganmwmendad, adamianis

sulis, misi rwmenis gamomcdelad da gamomrwTobad;

tanjviT adamiani Sinaganad uaxlovdeba qristes,

tanjul RmerTs, Sinaganad ganicdis da eziareba cxovrebis

qristianuli gagebis WeSmaritebas; tanjva adamianis

da sinamdvilis gaxleCaa, is amJRavnebs, rom amqveyniuri

realoba arasaimedo sayrdenia, romelic SeiZleba

uecrad gamoecalos adamians; igi, qristianuli

TvalTaxediT, aaSkaravebs, rom adamiani mxolod saku-

Tar Zalebs ver daendoba, mxolod TavisTavis imedad

ver iqneba, rom is Tavisi arsebobis yvelaze Rrma ganzomilebaSi

RmerTis gareSe daucveli da umweoa; tanjva

SesaZlebelia gamouval sasowarkveTilebaSi Camgdebic

iyos, magram igi Seicavs potencias, pirovnebis

yofierebis Suaguli misi sakuTari arsebidan RmerTSi

gadaanacvlos.

tanjva, romelic guramiSvils xvda wilad, masSi

swored yofierebis Suagulis gadanacvlebas iwvevs.

Tavisuflebis sruliad moulodneli dakargva da bunebrivi

cxovrebiseuli samyarodan katastrofuli simkveTriT

mowyveta, fizikuri gvema, damcireba, sikvdilis

SiSi da absoluturi martooba aiZulebs guramiSvils,

mTeli arsebiT Setrialdes transcendenturi

samyarosken, eZios RmerTi, mieswrafos masTan sulier

siaxloves da erTianobas.

`daviTianSi~ pirvelad aq warmodgeba RmerTi uSualo

sulieri urTierTobisTvis misawvdom pirovnul

arsebad, ara imdenad Tavdaviwyebuli himnebis Soreul

da abstraqtul obieqtad, ramdenadac uintimures aRsarebaTa

da locvaTa konkretul gulisxmier adresatad.

`erTia icode RmerTi rogorc transcendenturi

da suverenuli `me~ da raRac sul sxvaa, Sen TviTon,

10


mTeli Sinagani sisavsiT (sakuTari yofierebiT, sisxliT

da xorciT) Sexvide cocxal kavSirSi, romelSic

Seqmnili subieqturoba pirispir awydeba transcendentur

subieqturobas da TrTolviT da siyvaruliT eZiebs

masSi xsnas. religia arsebiTad aris is, rac aravi-

Tari filosofia ar SeiZleba iyos: pirovnebis urTier-

Toba pirovnebasTan mTeli misi riskiT, saidumloTi,

SiSiT, ndobiT, aRfrTovanebiT da tkiviliani ltolviT~

(J. mariteni).

martoobaSi, umweobaSi da SiSSi edeba saTave guramiSvilis

amgvar axal urTierTobas RmerTTan.

`marto viyav, arvin myavda me RvTis meti sxva patroni,

arca maqvnda saimedod saWurveli samxedroni;

RmerTs mivendev, man ismina igi Cemi savedroni...~.

RmerTis Ziebas Tavdapirvel biZgs aZlevs RmerTisgan

mitovebulobis mtkivneuli grZnoba. tyveobaSi

guramiSvilis sulieri arsebobis dramatul peripetias

Seadgens SemaZrwunebeli martoobis, RmerTisgan

mowyvetilobis gancda da am martoobis gadalaxvis,

RmerTTan sulieri miaxloebis sanukvari wadili da

imedi.

`Senis ver xilvis sevdiTa sulsa risTvisa maZroba?

mzev, momeSvele, ganmaTbe, siciviT nu damazroba~;

`ganTiadisa varskvlavo, mis mzeTa-mzisa mTiebo,

vikargvi bnelis RamiTa, dRev, rad ar momiZiebo!~.

sulis siRrmeSi mimdinareobs agznebuli da amasTanave

uaRresad faqizi saubari RmerTTan rogorc cocxal

da konkretul subieqtTan, individuumTan, romelsac

SeiZleba ubralod uTxra `Sen~. `Sen~ miemarTeba

Soreuls, oRond axlomyofebze axlobels. axlomyof-

Ta Soris ar aris, vinac SeiZleboda misTvis gamxdariyo

`Sen~ _ SeniSnavs revaz siraZe `daviTianis~ am rkalis

erT-erTi leqsis ganxilvisas. tanjvis da martoobis

ufskrulidan amomavali guramiSvilis xma cdilobs

miwvdes RvTaebriv pirovnebas, erTaderTs, vinc SeiZleba

gamoexmauros: `arsada myavs misamarTi, me Sen mogmarTeo~.

misTvis xsna aris egreTwodebuli `martosulis

aRmafrena martosulisken~. es aRmafrena, Rmer-

11


Tisken ltolva Tavisi simZlavriT qarTul poeziaSi,

albaT, Seudarebelia.

`sayvarelo, saxiT Tqmulo usasyidlo margalito!

vis gadaro, CemTvis mkvdaro, mzev, mzeTa-mzis magali-

To! gevedrebi Semibralo, Tavs momWrian mangaliTo,

odes suli amomglijon, Senke miswi manganiTo! mtanjven,

sTmeo, aw viT dagTmo, viT umankov tredo-gvrito?

Sen, SarbaTi, viT dagRvaro da Zimwaris wveni vxvrito;

bnelsa vzivar, geajebi sasinaTlo amixvrito, amovs-

Zvre da gamoviqce, movide da Sena gWvrito~.

niSandoblivia, rom `fsalmunSi~, romelic gurami-

SvilisTvis religiuri poeziis etalons warmoadgens,

uxvad aris mtanjveli martoobis eqspresiuli gamoxatulebebi;

igi aRsavsea RmerTis siaxloves moklebuli

martosulis CiviliT, moTqmiT (`rodemde damiviwyeb,

ufalo samudamod? rodemde iqnebi pirmiqceuli Cemgan~;

`RmerTo Cemo! mogixmob dRisiT da ar mipasuxeb,

RamiT _ da ar aris simSvide CemTvis~...).

martooba, romelic TavisTavidan badebs urTier-

Tobis wyurvils, yvelaze srulad, srulfasovnad daiZleva

siyvarulSi, `martoobaTa gacvlis cdaSi~ (ortega-i-gaseti).

da es exeba RmerTisadmi siyvarulsac.

guramiSvilis leqsi `odes daviTs tyveobasa Sina scioda

da mze Rrublis gamo TvaliT ara Canda, imaze

Tqmuli~ am siyvarulis aRmocenebis gacxadebaa. siyvaruli,

miTumetes RmerTisadmi siyvaruli, moaswavebs

sayvareli arsebisTvis yvelasTan da yvelaferTan SedarebiT

upirobo upiratesobis miniWebas, mis absolutur

gamorCevas da arCevas. leqsSi swored aseTi arCevis,

upiratesobis miniWebis idumali da sazeimo aqtia

aRbeWdili: mosiyvarule Tvali xilul mzes (`Tina-

Tins~), materialur mSvenierebas mowydeba da uxilavi

mzisken, RmerTisken mimarTavs mzeras; leqsis avtoris

cnobierebaSi arsebiTi Zvra, Semobruneba, faseulobrivi

orientaciis Secvla xdeba.

`sjobs vetrfialo mzeTamzes, mzisaTvis Tavi vaxelo,

naTlisa gavxde mijnuri, radgan Tvalebsa vaxelo,

12


mis ukeTesi moyvare sad vpovo, sada vaxelo? mze miwyens,

Tu mzis sanacvlod TinaTins xeli vaxelo~.

arCevanis, gadawyvetilebis miRebis aqts aireklavs

sityvieri formac, romelic xazgasmulad meordeba

(`zurgT mZime tvirTi mkidia codvisa, ar subuqia...

sjobs vetrfialo mzeTa-mzes, momfinos mzisa Suqia~).

axladSobili siyvarulis, sayvareli arsebisTvis

sruli upiratesobis miniWebis da Sinagani Semobrunebis

gacxadeba sruldeba erTgulebis ficis msgavsi um-

Zafresi poeturi gamonaTqvamiT:

`ragind me asre gavgiJde, Tavi vaxalo tinzeda,

mxecni, frinvelni vasero Cemsa xorcsa da tvinzeda! ig

margaliti TaRliTze, oqro gavcvalo sinzeda, vgoneb

arc maSin gavcvalo igi mze TinaTinzeda~.

siyvaruli sayvareli arsebis WeSmariti intuituri

Semecnebaa, RmerTic mxolod man SeiZleba `icodes~,

visac igi uyvars. amas efuZneba RmerTis mistikuri

wvdoma. guramiSvili erTmaneTs upirispirebs RmerTis

gonebismieri Semecnebis cdas da masTan siyvaruliT

ziarebas. is, vinc RmerTis gonebiT Secnobas cdilobs,

verafers aRwevs (`ver scnobs Sens gzasa da kvalsa!~).

mxolod siyvaruliT SeiZleba RmerTTan sulieri miaxloeba,

Sexeba, uSualo erTianobis gancda.

`vis uyvarxar, miaCnixar, Tumc ar icis, sadac zixar,

SenTvis swvavs xorcsa da Zvalsa, is scnobs Sens gzasa

da kvalsa!~.

guramiSvili dramatulad mieltvis RmerTTan amgvar

miaxloebas. es miaxloeba misTvis RvTisgan `WeSmariti

gzis~ Setyobis tolfasia (`viT me gTxove, WeSmariti

gza Sen mauwyeo!~). `WeSmarit gzas~, rogorc guramiSvilis

mxatvruli azrovnebisTvis saerTod aris damaxasiaTebeli,

sagnobrivi da zogadi, sulieri mniSvneloba

aqvs: erTi mxriv, es aris tyveobidan TavisdaRwevis

gza da, meore mxriv, _ marTali cxovrebis gza. es

mniSvnelobebi erTmaneTs mTlianad erwymis _ tyveobidan

Tavdaxsna SesaZlebelia mxolod WeSmarit,

RvTisTvis sasurvel yofierebis wesze moqceviT.

13


da ai, guramiSvils `WeSmarit gzas~ auwyebs sakuTari

guli, romelSic ukve gaRviZebulia RmerTisadmi

siyvaruli, RmerTis Semcnobi Zala.

`gulman miTxra: adeo! raRaT maicadeo? Tu ara iq,

viT iqnas, rac rom daiqadeo? jer rac ufalT yalani

gedvas, gardixadeo, sTxove, Zala man mogces, visganc

daibadeo, kvlav wadi da ganxeTqe mterT maxe da badeo;

mas kacs, RvTisa sayvarels, mihyev, Tavi andeo, visac

daviT xadodes, uflad Sen mas xadeo! aadeo, adeo!

guliT maiwadeo! Sors axlixar sayvarels, axlos ganemzadeo,

saxe misi, suraTi Tvalwin mailandeo, mis win ise

stirode, iq mas Saebraldeo! Tu gwads, Sensa sayvarels

guliT Seuyvardeo, SenTvis laxvriT daWrilsa sisxlsa

cremliT bandeo; ganagdeo, dadeo, nu sul avsa gazdeo;

damorCildi ufalsa, xade, uRaRadeo; suli, guli musvrili

RvTis winaSe dadeo! sayvareli giyvardes, sxvas

nuravis dazdeo, mis gayrasa nu ityvi, ragind Tavs awamdeo,

Torem diaR giZulebs, Sen rom sxvasa yvandeo, daviTisa

mcnebaze dadeq, ar gardaxdeo!~.

es leqsi _ `svinidisis mxileba daviTisa odes datyoebulman

gamoparva gaivlo gulSia~ _ yvelaze xilulad,

srulad da ganzogadebulad amJRavnebs avtoris

sulier samyaroSi tyveobisas momxdar gardatexas _

RmerTisken radikalur Sebrunebas, RvTis rwmenaze da

imedze erTianad damyarebas, misdami mTlianad damor-

Cilebas da Tavis miZRvnas, mis mimarT erTguli siyvaruliT

aRvsebas. mTavari da cxovelmyofeli zneobrivi

kanoni, romelic guramiSvilis sulis siRrmeSi SeaRwevs

da romelsac igi mTel am gardatexasTan erTad

daviT fsalmunTmetyvelis msoflmxedvelobasTan

akavSirebs, aris sinanuli, RmerTis winaSe codvilobis

gancda, gamovlenili wrfel locva-vedrebaSi.

aq uSualod vadevnebT Tvals Rrmad nagrZnobi da

uCveulo simkveTriT danaxuli WeSmaritebis mier pirovnebis

sulieri arsebis energiulad da savsebiT gamsWvalvas,

axali `Sinagani adamianis~ dabadebas, guramiSvilis

cnobierebaSi im religiur-zneobrivi mrwam-

14


sis saboloo gamokveTis da gamyarebis aqts, romelic

safuZvlad edeba `daviTians~.

axali, Rrma religiuri gamocdileba asazrdoebs

mxneobas da gabedulebas, qmedebis unars, romelic

tyveobidan Tavdasaxsnelad aris saWiro (`mxneman, viT

Cqarman wyaroman, ganxeTqos mTa da goria~).

sizmari, romelSic guramiSvils RvTis warmogzavnili

arseba ecxadeba da Tavisi warmomgzavnelis nebas

amcnobs, gaparvisken aqezebs, aseve gaparvisas gamovlenili

RvTaebrivi mfarvelobis sxva niSnebi fizikuri

sicxadiT daanaxebs guramiSvils, rom WeSmariteba, romelic

euwya da romelic man mTeli arsebiT SeiTvisa,

utyuaria. ganuzomel madlierebas, gancvifrebas, aRfrTovanebas

iwvevs RmerTis sidiade da amave dros siaxlove,

misi mowyaleoba, RvTis rwmenis gamaognebeli dadastureba,

rac am rwmenas kidev ufro aRrmavebs, daungrevelad

mtkices xdis. amas gvimxels RmerTis, gansakuTrebiT

ki RvTismSoblis mimarT aRvlenili himnebi,

agreTve oda `fsalmunis~ avtorisadmi (`simRera daviT

guramiSvilisa, tyveobidam gamosvlis dros daviTis

Sesxma~), romelTa saxeobrivi siuxve siyvarulis da

bednierebis siuxvis ukufenaa. aRmoCndeba, rom `daviTs

(fsalmunTmetyvels) rac uTqvams~, marTlac `sworia~

_ `sworia~, rom RmerTi adamianis `fari~ da `burjia~,

`mterTa maxisgan~ damxsnelia; rom RmerTis sidiadis

grZnobiT aRvseba da misi gamoTqma, sulieri msxverpl-

Sewirva magiuri Zalis mqonea; rom, rac mTavaria, sinanuli,

codvis aRiareba da Sewyalebis vedreba, RmerTis

morCileba da masTan sulieri siaxlovis gamudmebuli

Zieba xsnis sawindaria, gadamrCenelia...

tyveobaSi yofna da RmerTis daxmarebiT tyveobidan

TavdaRweva erT-erTi niSandoblivi bibliuri motivia.

Tavis xvedrs guramiSvili iazrebs rogorc am bibliuri

motivis Tanxmiers (`caTa Sina israelTa sazdo uwvimeo,

egreca naTlis svetiTa Rame avlineo, qveyanasa var

ucxosa dakarguli tyveo, zeda mTasa avarTasa, aw mameSveleo~).

bibliaSi tyved yofna RvTis sasjelia,

15


tyveobidan gaTavisufleba _ RvTis wyaloba, rwmenis

gamRvivebeli da gamaZlierebeli.

tyveoba RvTis sasjelia `daviTianSic~. guramiSvilis

datyvevebis ambavi uSualod mosdevs, agrZelebs

RmerTis mier qarTvelebis codvebisTvis dasjis ambavs

_ rogorc saqarTveloSi momxdari ubedurebaa qarTvelebis

mimarT RvTis risxvis gamovlineba, aseve guramiSvilis

datyveveba aris sakuTriv misi dasja. `davi-

TianSi~ warmosaxuli guramiSvilis gansacdelis es sazrisi

ikveTeba agreTve mis Sinagan mxatvrul mimarTebaSi

RmerTis mier adamianebis Serisxvis sxva istoria-

Ta gadmocemasTan (adamis da kaenis gankiTxva, warRvna,

babilonis godolis daqceva).

sasjeli, RmerTis mier movlenili tanjva `daviTianSi~

kacobriobis, eris da adamianis aRzrdis mkacri,

magram keTilmyofeli saSualebaa. bavSvis aRzrda,

`swavla moswavleTa~, romelic guramiSvils dasjis,

tkivilebis gareSe ar warmoudgenia, kacobriobis da

adamianis aRzrdis paradigmaa, nimuSia. Tu bavSvis aRzrdaze

guramiSvili rigoristulad ambobs: `nu genaRvlebis

swavlaze yrmis wkeplis cemiT kivili~, radgan

`wkeplis cemiT daSuSxva sjobs saukunod cecxlSi

bmaTa!~, zogadad adamianze amgvar azrs gamoTqvams:

`Cvenca gvmarTebs RmerTs dauTmoT, swavlad gvemiT

rac gvatkina~.

guramiSvilis tyveobis da tyveobidan Tavdaxsnis

ambavi aris RvTiuri sasjelis keTilmyoflobis igavuri

gamosaxuleba, tipologiurad bibliuri iobis an

ionas ambavTa msgavsi. mas, iseve rogorc mTel `daviTians~,

avtori didaqtikur mizandasaxulobas aZlevs,

aRmzrdelobiTi mniSvnelobis mqone TvalsaCino magaliTad

gaiazrebs.

magram sasjeli, tanjva SeiZleba unayofoc iyos.

`qarTlis WirSi~ aRwerili RvTis risxva adamianebs verafers

Seagonebs, radgan isini tanjvis mizezs _ saku-

Tar codvilobas ver grZnoben:

16


`Wmunvidnen, arad SeswevdaT codvis unanlad

wuxili~.

TviT guramiSvils tanjva upirvelesad sinanulis

religiur-zneobriv azrs, gamakeTilSobilebel Zalas

aziarebs. tanjvaSi, martoobaSi da umweobaSi igi

grZnobs RmerTis mZlavr, moralurad ganmwmend mizidulobas.

ukiduresi gansacdelidan gamoaRwevs religiur

da eTikur WeSmaritebaTa Rrmad Semsisxlxorcebeli

adamiani, poeti daviT guramiSvili.

1993

17


araamayi qarTveli

guramiSvilis ironia da TviTironia aRmocenebulia

misi Taviseburi qristianuli skepticizmidan, imis naRvliani

gancdidan da gacnobierebidan, rom codva TiTqmis

SeuzRudvelad batonobs adamianze, rom araferi

eSveleba adamianis biwierebas, sulier sibrmaves da uZlurebas.

adamiani sasikeTod ver Secvala verc Rmer-

Tis mier misma mravaljer Serisxvam, dasjam, verc

RmerTis didma wyalobam, qristes msxverplgaRebam;

yvelaferi amao gamodga. guramiSvilis TvalTaxedviT,

adamiani gamousworebeli arsebaa, gamousworeblad

esaxeba mas sakuTari Tavic. misi xvedria momabezrebeli

wrebrunva codvidan monaniebamde da monaniebidan

codvamde da es ironiulad ganawyobs saerTod adamianis

da kerZod Tavisi ubadrukobis mimarT.

cnobierad Tu qveSecneulad guramiSvili imgvarad

aRiqvams sakuTar arsebas da garemomcvel realobas,

rogoric, misi warmodgeniT, RmerTis TvalSi unda

Candnen; amitom gamaxvilebulad xedavs Tavisi Tavis da

qveynierebis komikur simdares, simrudes. gansakuTrebiT

materialuri, sxulebrivi sawyisis arasrulfasovneba

aRuZravs ironias, Tumca guramiSvils mainc uyvars

es iseTive naklulovani nivTieri sinamdvile, rogoric

TviTon aris. samyaros materialurobis ironiuli

da amasTanave axlobluri aRqmis ukufenaa gurami-

Svilis stilisTvis damaxasiaTebeli naturalisturi

elementebis siuxve, groteskulad daRvlarWnili

enobrivi faqtura da saxeebi, miwiseburi siTbo da xorklianoba...

aristokrati guramiSvilis stili xSirad

glexurad mouxeSavia.

raki mwvaved grZnobs RmerTis mzeras, romlisTvisac

araferia dafaruli, guramiSvili bolomde gulaxdili

da utyuaria, araCveulebrivad ueSmako, ubralo

da Tavmdabalia. arsebobs TviTdamcirebis, TviTgvemis

siamaye, magram guramiSvilisTvis aseTi siamayec ucxoa.

mas ar surs imaze ukeTesad gamoiyurebodes, vidre

sinamdvileSia; azradac ar mosdis Tavisi faTerakiani

18


Tavgadasavlebis gamoyeneba vaJkacuri, heroikuli avtoportretis

dasaxatad, rac sxvas mis adgilas siamovnebiT

SeiZleboda gaekeTebina. tipiuri tradiciuli

qarTvelisgan gansxvavebiT guramiSvils ar eTakileba

gaamxilos sakuTari SiSi, umweoba, sisawyle, gamo-

Cndes garegan Rirsebas moklebuli da sasaciloc ki.

2001

19


nikoloz baraTaSvili

mTawmindis mTvare

xSirad Cven ver vamCnevT, rom nacnobi, SeCveuli da

TiTqos savsebiT gasagebi ram sinamdvileSi ucnauri da

idumalia, ver vamCnevT, radgan swored SeCveva, aRqmis

avtomatizmi gviSlis xels.

ai, magaliTad, baraTaSvilis leqsSi `SemoRameba

mTawmindaze~ TiTqos sruliad gamWvirvalea am frazis

azri: `he, cao, cao, xateba Seni jer kidev gulzed maqvs

daCneuli!~. magram Tu aRqmis avtomatizmis daZlevas

SevecdebiT, SesaZloa es sityvebi arc ise gamWvirvale

da ubralo gveCvenos. marTlac, ras niSnavs `cis xateba~,

an ratom unda daaCndes igi guls? ase mxolod

iseT rameze SeiZleba saubari, rac erTaderTxel ixiles,

Semdeg ki gauCinarda da xsovnam Semoinaxa. ranairad

SeiZleba aseTi ram ca iyos?

rogorc Cans, garkveul momentSi baraTaSvilis lirikul

gmirs ca gansakuTrebulad, ganumeoreblad metyveli

da mimzidveli saxiT warmoudga. `SemoRamebaSi~

aris kidec cis es `xateba~:

`sdumda yoveli mun aremare, bindi gadekra cisa

kamaras,

mosdevs mTovares, viTa mijnuri, varskvlavi marto

misa amara.

ginaxavT suli jereT umanko, mxurvale locviT

miqancebuli?

mas hgavda mTvare nazad moare, diskogadaxriT

Suqmibinduli!~.

ase xatavs baraTaSvili cas, es aris cis erTaderTi

saxe am leqsSi, saxe, romelic lirikuli gmiris suls

daCnevia. magram poeti Segnebulad aSoriSorebs emociur

SeZaxils `he, cao, cao...~ da cis xats, pirdapir arafers

ambobs maTi kavSiris Sesaxeb.

20


araTaSvili ise xveulad agebs leqss, ise arasworxazovnad

anawilebs saTqmels, rom nawarmoebis TviT

wyoba xdeba idumalebis gancdis gamRvivebeli. leqsi

raRacas gars uvlis da masze Riad ar laparakobs.

baraTaSvilma TiTqos icis gviandeli poeturi principi,

rom raimes gamWvirvaled warmoCena misTvis mSvenierebis

moklebas niSnavs. `SemoRamebaSi~ igi ukve flobs

aramxolod gamoTqmis, aramed `arTqmis~, faqizi miniSnebis,

gasaidumloebis da daqaragmebis xelovnebasac.

am mxrivac baraTaSvilis memkvidre meoce saukuneSi

`mTawmindis mTvaris~ avtoria.

am leqsSi, romlis siaxlove `SemoRamebasTan~ aSkaraa,

galaktioni tyuil-ubralod ar axdens mTvaris

xatis aqcentirebas. igi grZnobs, rom es aris `SemoRamebis~

centraluri saxe.

sainteresoa, mTvaris da mijnuriviT mTvaris mdevari

varskvlavis xati ratom Semounaxavs ase saTuTad

mexsierebas, ratom eniWeba mas aseTi mniSvneloba.

amis mizezi is aris, rom SemoRamebisas xiluli zeca

lirikuli gmirisTvis Taviseburi niSansvetia, romelic

saTaves udebs mis ltolvas idealuri sferoebisken:

`he, cao, cao, xateba Seni jer kidev gulzed maqvs

daCneuli.

awca ra Tvalni laJvards gixilven, myis fiqrni

Senda moiswrafvian,

magram Senamdin ver moaRweven da haerSive

ganibnevian!

me, Sensa mWvretels, maviwydebis sawuTroeba,

gulis-Tqma Cemi Sens iqiTa eZiebs sadgurs,

zenaarT samyofs, rom daSTos aq amaoeba...

magram ver scnoben, glax, mokvdavni gangebas

ciurs!~.

SemoRamebiseuli cis xateba aris zecis rogorc sulieri

samSoblos karibWis pirveli xilva. es xilva

baraTaSvilis `cisferi yvavilia~, romelic mas mudam

Tavisken uxmobs da izidavs.

21


faqizi, spetaki sulis msgavsi mTvare _ ai, ra ajadoebs

leqsis lirikul gmirs, radgan baraTaSvilis-

Tvis umaRlesi faseuloba mSvenieri sulia, anu naTeli,

umanko suli (`daimarxe mSveniereba sulisa, umankoeba

gulisa! ai, WeSmariti bedniereba, umaRlesi siame, romelsac

ki kaci waiRebs am soflisagan~ _ urCevs poeti

maiko orbelians). WeSmariti, `saukuno trfialebis~

saganic aseTi sulia: `TviT ukvdaveba mSveniersa sulSi

mdgomarebs, mas verc SemTxveva da verc xani ver daaberebs.

mxolod kavSiri esreTT sulTa hSobs siyvarulsa,

zegardmo madliT dauxsnelad damtkicebulsa!~.

baraTaSvilis lirikuli gmiri caze mSvenier suls

xedavs, romelTanac monaTesave sulis kavSiri badebs

samaradiso siyvaruls.

sagulisxmoa, rom `SemoRamebis~ adrindel variant-

Si mTvare qalwulTan aris mimsgavsebuli: `... misi

libri ars minazebuli, magram miT ufro usatrfoe ars,

viT damaSvrali locviT qalwuli~.

metyvelia es detalic: `mosdevs mTovares, viTa

mijnuri, varskvlavi, marto misa amara~ _ baraTaSvilis

poeziaSi idealuri siyvaruli srul ganxorcielebas

samyaros maradiul fenomenebSi povebs da kosmiur

asparezs saWiroebs. asea gaazrebuli siyvaruli, ker-

Zod, leqsSi `ar ukiJino, satrfoo...~. `SemoRamebaSi~ es

motivi SekumSulad, miniaturulad aris gamoxatuli.

baraTaSvilisTvis saerTod damaxasiaTebelia sayvareli

arsebis ciur mnaTobad warmosaxva (`Cems varskvlavs~,

`aRmoxda mnaTi...~). misi saxeba, akaki gawerelias

sityviT, `iseve ikavebs adgils varskvlavebis xomlSi,

rogorc dantes beatriCe an petrarkas laura, romelic

angelozebs Soris imyofeba da cidan mouxmobs Tavis

mijnurs~.

`SemoRamebaSi~ ca lirikuli gmiris monaTesave, sayvareli

sulis samyofelia da amitom xdeba igi mZafri

swrafvis obieqti. caze aRbeWdili mSvenieri sulis

xats baraTaSvilis lirikuli gmiri ciur sferoebTan

Tavisi sulieri naTesaobis saswaulebriv niSnad

aRiqvams.

22


* * *

`SemoRamebaSi~ poetur subieqts da garemomcvel

sinamdviles Soris sruli Tanaziaroba da harmonia sufevs

_ buneba TiTqos mgrZnobiare musikaluri sakravia,

romelic adamianis sulis yovel SeTrTolebaze

sapasuxo xmas gamoscems. aq pirovneba ise myudrod,

Sinaurulad grZnobs Tavs bunebaSi, TiTqos es buneba

misive Seqmnili iyos.

buneba mSobliuri garemoa vaJasTvisac, magram mainc

mis mxatvrul samyaroSi mkafiod aris gavlebuli

adamianis da bunebis gamyofi mijna. buneba vaJasTan

warmodgeba rogorc TavisTavadi, obieqturi sinamdvile,

romelic sakuTari kanonebiT cxovrobs. vaJas

lirikuli gmiris ganwyoba metwilad misgan aris

Cagonebuli.

baraTaSvilTan buneba TiTqos lirikuli gmiris Sinagani

samyarodan amoizideba missave saxed da xatad da

arsebiTad misi oreulia.

da baraTaSvili lirikuli gmiris sulieri samyaros

aseTive proeqciad gvevlineba `SemoRamebaSi~ zecac,

radgan es gmiri TavisTavs aRmoaCens aramarto buneba-

Si, aramed kosmosSic. marTalia, `zenaarT samyofi~ miuwvdomeli

rCeba, magram gamJRavndeba, rom adamiani

Tavisi sulierebiT masTan organulad aris dakavSirebuli.

mTawmindis saRamo lirikul gmirs gaucxadebs,

rom misi suli enaTesaveba rogorc bunebas, aseve usasrulo

suls da swored amiT aris es saRamo

araCveulebrivi.

rogorc qristianul taZars gumbaTi, bunebis da

adamianis srul Tanxmobas `SemoRamebaSi~ agvirgvinebs

cis TaRi, romelzec lirikuli gmirisTvis Zvirfasi,

axlobeli sulis xatebaa aRbeWdili. harmonia bunebas-

Tan warmoadgens imis sayrdens, rom adamiani ufro

maRal harmonias eziaros _ harmonias zecasTan.

poeturi subieqtis mier uSualod nagrZnobi da danaxuli

Tavisi naTesaoba casTan asazrdoebs did,

yovlismomcvel imeds:

23


`hoi, saRamov, myudrov, saamov, Sen damSTi Cemad

sanugeSeblad!

ros mWmunvareba Semomesevis, Senda moviltvi

gansaqarveblad!

mwuxri gulisa, sevda gulisa nugeSsa amas Sengan

miiRebs,

rom gaTendeba dila mziani da yovel bindsa is

gananaTlebs!~.

rom ara cidan miRebuli niSani, mixmoba `zenaarT

samyofisken~, rom ara Taviseburi gamocxadeba, mxolod

bunebis da adamianis sulis Tanxmiereba ver dabadebda

ase farTod ganfenil rwmenas da imeds. buneba lirikuli

gmiris TanamgrZnobelia, vTqvaT, leqsSic `fiqrni

mtkvris piras~, magram es leqsi Tavisi skeptikurmelanqoliuri

ganwyobiT SesamCnevad gansxvavdeba

`SemoRamebisgan~...

* * *

`SemoRamebaSi~ TviT bunebac, lirikuli gmiris

msgavsad, TiTqos maRla izideba, zeviT iswrafis. igi

TiTqos rituals, RvTismsaxurebas asrulebs, wminda

msxverpls wiravs. nawarmoebis kamertonia, rogorc

simon Ciqovani uwodebs, `liturgikuli~ saxe:

`Zirs gaSlil lamaz velsa yvavilni mohfenen, viTa

tablas wmindasa,

da viT gundruksa samadlobelsa, Senda aRkmeven

sunnelebasa!~.

es is SemTxvevaa, rodesac, romantikuli tipis amerikeli

moazrovnis ralf emersonis sityvebiT rom

vTqvaT, `bunebis Rirseuli amocana xdeba, mogvevlinos

RvTaebis niSnad. buneba aris organo, romlis meSveobiTac

sayovelTao suli adamianTan saubrobs da adamianis

TavisTan dabrunebas cdilobs~.

24


literaturis istorikosebi aRniSnaven baraTaSvilis

siaxloves qristianul kulturasTan; Seswavlilia

baraTaSvilis poeziis kavSirebi bibliasTan, himnografiasTan;

dadgenilia misi garkveuli motivebis, saxeebis

Tu sityvieri formulebis momdinareoba sasuliero

literaturidan.

aSkaraa, magaliTad, rom Cveulebriv poetur metaforas

ar warmoadgens aseTi saxe: `cxovrebis wyarov,

masv wmindaTa wyalTagan SenTa~, rom aq baraTaSvili

metyvelebs garkveuli kulturis sakralur cnebaTa da

simboloTa enaze.

igive unda iTqvas yvavilovani velis `SemoRamebiseul~

xilvazec. ai, rogor iyo gacxadebuli es saxe leqsis

pirvel variantSi:

`Zirs gaSlils almad velsa yvavilni mohfenen

reca tablas wmindasa

da gundruks RmerTTan samadlobelsa Senda

aRkmeven sunnelebasa~.

naTeli xdeba, vis eZRvneba yvavilTa `samadlobeli~

da amis garda uneblieT vfiqrobT, rom RvTisadmi gankuTvnil

gundruks tyuilad ar aRukmeven mTawmindas.

Semdeg baraTaSvili miniSnebaTa xelovnebas eufleba

da imas, visac wminda msxverpls wiraven, saxeldebiT

aRar axsenebs, magram arsi ucvleli rCeba.

davakvirdeT leqsis dasawyiss: `hoi, mTawmindav,

mTao wmindav~. `mTwminda~ ubralo toponimad aRiqmeba,

pirveladi azri masSi dayruebulia. amitom baraTaSvili

Slis sityvas da mis Zireul mniSvnelobas aRadgens

_ `mTao wmindav~, mkafios xdis, rom mTawminda marTlac

wminda, sakraluri adgilia da ara Cveulebrivi mTa.

es aris tipiuri romantikuli SemoqmedebiTi aqti.

`imis wyalobiT, rom me vaniWeb umdabless umaRles

azrs, Cveulebrivs _ saidumlo elfers, nacnobs ucnobis

Rirsebas, sasruls _ usasrulos iers, me vaxorcieleb

yovelive amis romantizebas~ (novalisi).

25


samyaros miTosur Tu religiur modelebSi mTa

RvTis (RvTaebaTa) samyofelia, an, yovel SemTxvevaSi,

miwis da cis Sesayaria, sadac zebunebrivi Zalebi ufro

cxovlad moqmedeben, vidre sxvagan; mTaze asvla Sinagan

ganwmendad, amaRlebad, RvTaebrivTan miaxloebad

da ziarebad aris warmodgenili.

wminda mTa xSirad ixsenieba fsalmunSi: `ufalo, vin

daeSenos karavsa Sensa, anu vin daemkvidros mTasa wmindasa

Sensa~; `gamoavline naTeli Seni da WeSmaritebai

Seni, eseni mimiZRues da mimiyvanes me mTasa wmidasa

Sensa da sayofelTa SenTa~...

literaturismcodneobaSi garkveulia, rom baraTa-

Svilis poeturi metyvelebis da azrovnebis erT-erTi

saTave aris fsalmuni. wminda mTis motivic mas fsalmunidan

unda hqondes SeTvisebuli.

`mTao cxovelo~ _ saRvTo epiTetiT mimarTavs

baraTaSvili mTawmindas.

da am `cxovel~, wminda mTaze, sakralur garemoSi

`SemoRamebis~ lirikulma gmirma uCveulo ram ganicada

_ igrZno Tavisi naTesaoba zecasTan da aReZra `zenaarT

samyofTan~ SeerTebis mZafri survili, radgan

miiRo gamocxadeba sulieri samSoblodan, ixila usasrulo

sulierebasTan sakuTari Sinagani erTianobis

damadasturebeli xateba.

magram amasTanave aucilebelia iTqvas isic, rom

Tumca baraTaSvilisTvis amosavali bibliuri arqetipia,

mainc poeti SeuzRudvelia masTan damokidebulebaSi.

fsalmuniseuli motivi baraTaSvilis mkveTrad

individualisturi, subieqtivisturi msoflxedvis

areSi xvdeba, misdami daqvemdebarebul elementad iqceva

da misive gamJRavnebis formad gvevlineba. mTis

siwminde, baraTaSvilis gaazrebiT, is aris, rom aq yofnisas

romantikul martosuls zecazec Tavisi msgavsebis

aRmoCena SeuZlia.

baraTaSvili individualisti da subieqtivistia religiur

ZiebaSic. am sferoSic misTvis WeSmaritebis

erTaderTi macne individualuri sulieri gamocdilebaa,

sakuTari fiqri, grZnoba, ltolva da warmosaxvaa.

26


`SemoRamebiseuli~ gamocxadebis Sinaarsic mTlianad

subieqturia _ es aris romantikuli individuumis monaTesave

suli, romelic cazea gamosaxuli.

* * *

`SemoRameba mTawmindaze~ adamianis da samyaros,

kosmosis harmoniis srulyofili gamoxatulebaa qar-

Tul lirikaSi. `Всё во мне и я во всём~ _ tiutCevis es

poeturi formula zedmiwevniT esadageba baraTaSvilis

leqss. adamianis guli aq TiTqos mTel samyaros

itevs, is da samyaro erTmaneTis ritmiT moZraoben.

`SemoRameba mTawmindaze~ _ harmoniis srulfasovani

mxatvruli gacxadeba _ baraTaSvilis poeziis erTi

polusia. mis meore poluss warmoadgens `merani~ _

tragikuli msoflgancdis umZafresi gamovlineba Cvens

lirikaSi. maT TiTqos ufskruli TiSavT.

amave dros baraTaSvilis sulieri da poeturi evoluciis

es niSansvetebi siRrmiseul urTierTkavSirs

da erTianobasac amJRavneben.

`meranSi~ TiTqos ganxorcielebulia miwisgan mowyvetis,

`amaoebis daSTomis~ wadili, romelsac `SemoRamebis~

lirikul gmirs zeempiriuli samyarosken mimxmobi

ciuri niSani aRuZravs.

`SemoRamebaSi~ adamianur SesaZleblobaTa SezRuduloba

aferxebs miRmuri samyarosken swrafvas (`magram

ver scnoben, glax, mokvdavni gangebas ciurs~),

oRond dramatizms gaRvivebis saSualebas ar aZlevs

adamianis da cis uSualod ganWvretili naTesaobis

grZnoba, `SemoRamebis~ paTosis ZiriTadi msazRvreli.

`merani~ srulyofili Tavisuflebisken adamianis

miswrafebis damabrkolebel zRudeTa gadalaxvis ukve

aqtiuri cdaa da am mcdelobis tragizmi isic aris, rom

`meranis~ mxedris `ugzo-ukvlo~, `giJur ltolvas~

aRar aqvs garkveuli orientiri, mkafio mizani: misi

mSfoTvareba veRar dacxreba im `sadgurSi~, TavSesafrad

rom esaxeba `SemoRamebis~ lirikul gmirs.

1983

27


sabediswero Zala

`bedi qarTlisas~ kritikul interpretaciebs Soris

siRrmiT gamoirCeva Tvalsazrisi, romlis mixedviTac

poema agebulia Tavisuflebis da aucileblobis konfliqtze

da am konfliqtSi, saboloo angariSiT, imarjvebs

istoriuli bediswera.

mTlianobaSi savsebiT damajerebeli es Tvalsazrisi

mxolod Tavisi erTi aspeqtiT iwvevs eWvs: istoriuli

aucilebloba warmodgenilia rogorc ganyenebuli,

anonimuri Zala, romelic adamianebisgan sruliad

damoukidebelia.

`bedi qarTlisas~ mxatvrul realobaSi gardauvaloba

marTlac moqmedebs, oRond igi ase abstraqtuli

da usaxo ar aris. am gardauvalobis namdvili Sinaarsi

da xasiaTi didi xnis win aqvs SeniSnuli kita abaSiZes.

`saqarTvelosTvis, romlis sazogadoeba dacemuli

iyo suliTa da zneobiT, TviTarseboba SeuZlebeli iyo.

mefe grZnobda, rom aRar SeeZlo iseT erzed damyarebuliyo,

romelsac SeamCnia muxTloba, roca SeamCnia

`moymeTa TvisTa esden damcroba~, rom TiTqmis mogebuli

omi waagebines muxanaTobiT da iudasaviT gahyides

samSoblo. maSin gadawyvita, rom `mas aRar iTvisebs

qarTvelTa guli, romelTa mefe euli~ igi iyo; xedavda,

rom Rirseuli da mamulisaTvis gamosadegari memkvidre

ar hyavda da, garda amisa, TviTon mis Svilebs Soris

iseTi ayal-mayali da areuloba iyo, rom saqmes ver

gauZRvebodnen. yvela amas xedavda mefe da gadawyvita

bedi qarTlisa...~.

es azri Semdeg rogorRac miiCqmala Cvens literaturismcodneobaSi,

albaT, imitom, rom igi erovnuli

TavmoyvareobisTvis maincdamainc sasiamovno ar aris.

ufro iolia istoriis brma msvlelobis, istoriis usulo

kanonebis ucodveli msxverpli iyo, vidre TviTon

agebde pasuxs sakuTar bed-iRbalze.

baraTaSvilis poemis koncefciaSi ki fataluri

roli eris sulier-zneobrivi raobis garkveul mxareebs

ekisreba da ara ganyenebul istoriul aucileblo-

28


as an Tundac konkretul politikur pirobebs, romlebic

poemaSi mxolod gakvriTaa moxazuli.

baraTaSvilis poeturi TvalTxedviT, saqarTvelos

mier damoukideblobis dakargva, TavisTavad, iseve ar

aris gardauvali, rogorc ar aris gardauvali krwanisis

brZolaSi qarTvelebis damarcxeba. am brZolaSi

qarTvelebs mxedruli Tavdadebis da mefis gamWriaxobis

wyalobiT gamarjvebis SesaZlebloba aqvT, metic,

gamarjveba TiTqmis mopovebulia, magram Tavs iCens

Ralati da marcxi gardauvali xdeba.

`aRa-mahmad-xan moadga cixes, sami dRe da Ram mas

adga jariT, magram verara avno versaiT; daRonda

sparsTa mefe borgvnili da Turme yovliT imedmixdili

qarTliTgan wasvlas daapirebda; magram iuda Jams

eZiebda! aha, man igi aw moixelTa da muxTalisa angarTa

xelTa ahyares mamuls simtkicis bWeni! man mters umsxverpla

Tvisi moZmeni!~.

bedisweras aq savsebiT miwieri saxe aqvs, am saxiT

ecxadeba erekles da mefe iZulebulia aRiaros Tavisi

damarcxeba mis winaSe.

`ar miTvisebda qarTvelTa guli, rom viyav maTi

mefe euli; Cemi mefoba ze davasrule, rom Zlivs igini

gavierTgule! da axla, odes Cems xelmwifobas ganvumzadebdi

Jam-keTilobas, ai, mis nacvlad rai momapyres

me CemTa ZeTa da vin axares!..~.

erekle mtkivneulad icnobierebs, rom krwanisis

brZola mas waagebina marcxma mTavar brZolaSi _ xangrZliv,

daZabul brZolaSi eris sulieri gamTlianebis-

Tvis. igi aRmoaCens, rom qarTvelebis TavkerZoba dauZlevelia

da misi aRkveTis yvela cda amaoa, ris gamoc

SeuZlebeli xdeba qveynis Tavisuflebis SenarCuneba

Tundac ubedurebis da tanjvis fasad. leoniZis replikas

_ `iraklim icis, rome qarTvelebs arad miaCniT

ubedureba, Tu aqvT Tvis WerT qveS Tavisufleba!~ _

erekle pasuxobs: `qarTvelTa ra hyon am ubedobis da

darRvevis dros?~. `darRvevis~ Seukavebeli, sabediswero

procesi, roca qarTvelebi `urTierTs hbZarven~,

xolo mefes `Rirseuli~, saimedo memkvidre ara hyavs,

29


uxSobs qveyanas TviTmyofadi arsebobis perspeqtivas.

igi gansazRvravs imis gardauvalobas, `rom dRes iqneba,

Tu xval iqneba, qarTlsa daicavs rusT xelmwifeba!~.

erekles azrs, rom saqarTvelo gardauvalad Seuer-

Tdeba ruseTs, aRmoacenebs is, rac man krwanisis brZolisas

momxdar RalatSi ganWvrita _ Tavisi qveSevrdomebis

mankier midrekilebaTa uvnebelyofis fataluri

SeuZlebloba.

baraTaSvili erekles warmosaxavs rogorc bediswerasTan

brZolis unayofobiT, `moymeTa TvisTa esden

damcrobiT~ Rrmad imedgacruebul, iluziebdamsxvreul

romantikul gmirs. sxvaTaSoris, aseve mwared aris

imedgacruebuli holderlinis romantikuli gmiri hiperioni,

roca TiTqosda TavisuflebisTvis mebrZoli

berZnebi sulmdabali mZarcvelebi gamodgebian.

magram erekles yofnis Zala, uyvardes da ebralebodes

Tavisi xalxi, zrunavdes masze, TviTonve ikisros

imis aRsruleba, rac gardauvali gamxdara, raTa

qarTvelebs aaridos ukve uazro msxverpli (`hoi, Rmer-

To, RmerTo, amazed metad nuRar gaswirav qarTvelTa

tanjvad~).

qarTlis beds wyvets qarTuli sazogadoebis aRmoufxvreli

partikularizmi. erekle mxolod adasturebs

ganaCens, radgan garkveviT dainaxavs, rom SeuZlebelia

am sabediswero Zalis daokeba. Tanac, misi azriT,

ruseTTan SeerTeba, riskenac qveyanas es Zala gardauvalad

eweva, mainc ar aris sruli katastrofa, mSvidobas

da qristianuli sarwmunoebis usafrTxoebas

uzrunvelyofs.

leoniZe Tumca sworad grZnobs, rom mefes gadawyvetileba

omis dros momxdarma Ralatma ukarnaxa, magram

mas yvelaferi monarqis emociebze dayavs da ver

wvdeba sabediswero kanonzomierebas, romelic ereklem

Ralatis faqtSi amoicno.

`veWvob, sofio, rome irakli qarTvelebzeda iyos

gulnakli; mas zed etyoba, rom misi suli Zlierad aris

aRelvebuli! mwared upirebs batoni dasjas Tavis Svilebis

ama urCebas!~.

30


magram cxadia, rom erekles amoZravebs ara ubralod

bunebrivi aRSfoTeba Ralatis gamo, aramed azri

qarTuli TavkerZobis fatalurobis Sesaxeb, romelic

Ralatma gamoaaSkarava.

amas adasturebs poemis finalic. erekle agrZelebs

brZolas saqarTvelos agresiul mezoblebTan da warmatebasac

aRwevs, magram misi azri mainc ucvleli

rCeba.

`warvidnen welni mosvenebisa da kvlav iraklim xmali

brZolisa aRiRo lekTa Sesamusvrelad! arc sparsni

darCnen daumarcxeblad; siberis Jamsa moica Zali da

SeaZrwuna kvalad osmali; kvlav asaxela Tavis saxeli,

magram amao iyo yoveli: didi xania, rom bedi qarTlis

gardaiwyvita gulman iraklis!~.

erekle axerxebs gaauvneblos saSiSroeba, romelsac

qveyanas krwanisis damarcxeba uqmnis. am saSiSroebas mefe

naTlad iTvaliswinebs da roca Tavisi gadawyvetilebis

motivebs ayalibebs, maszec miuTiTebs:

`amieriTgan gaqezebuli mahmad-xanisa mosisxle guli

ar dagvawynarebs siamayiTa: mas Jami Seswevs yovlis

RoniTa; es xma lekTaca agviyayanebs; osmali mxolod

drosa uyurebs...~.

rogorc vxedavT, poemis finalSi swored es safrTxea

neitralizebuli. magram amis miuxedavad mefis azri

saqarTvelos bedis Sesaxeb ar icvleba, radgan igi sabolood

darwmunda, rom unayofoa brZola qarTvelebis

`gasaerTguleblad~ da amitom qveyana gardauvalad

gamoeTxoveba Tavisuflebas.

Tavisuflebis umaRlesi idealis ganwirulebas baraTaSvili

Sekavebuli tragikuli grZnobiT gamoxatavs.

* * *

baraTaSvilis poeziis mkvlevarebs garkveuli aqvT,

ra didi zegavlena moaxdina poetis sulier da SemoqmedebiT

formirebaze 1832 wlis SeTqmulebam.

am istoriuli movlenis anabeWdebi upirveles yovlisa

`bedi qarTlisaSi~ moCans. aq erTgan miniSnebuli

31


unda iyos TviT SeTqmulebis faqti (`maSin visaRa moesurveba,

naxos qarTlisa kvlav amboxeba!~); SeTqmulebis

ideologiis gamoZaxilia mefis SeuzRudveli xelisuflebis

leoniZiseuli kritika.

SeimCneva poemis ufro Rrma kavSiric 1832 wlis SeTqmulebis

faqtTan.

qarTlis bedi gadawyda da ruseTTan kavSiris gardauvaloba

gamJRavnda baraTaSvilis Tvalwin, roca

gamcemlobam CaSala 1832 wlis SeTqmuleba.

`bedi qarTlisaSi~ krwanisis brZolisas momxdari

Ralati imitom aris erovnuli Tavisuflebis SeuZleblobis

ueWveli niSani, rom masSi baraTaSvili 1832 wlis

gamcemlobis proecirebas axdens. 1832 wlis da krwanisis

ambebis logikis Tanxvedra poetis cnobierebaSi

badebs azrs fataluri Zalis Sesaxeb, romelic saqarTvelos

damoukidebeli arsebobis unars ukargavs.

es Tvalsazrisi Sorsaa providencializmisgan, igi

ar cnobs RvTiur gangebas Tu sasjels, romelsac arsebiTi

mniSvneloba eniWeba guramiSvilis istoriul panoramaSi.

baraTaSvilisTvis organuli istoriis romantikuli

xedva ar cnobs arc obieqturi garemoebebis

tiranias _ adamianebs SeuZliaT yvelaferi, Tuki Zleven

sakuTar Tavs, sakuTar bunebas. magram es buneba,

romlis Zlevac ar xerxdeba, maT bediswerad evlinebaT.

Tumca `bedi qarTlisaSi~ warmoCenilia qarTvelebis

Tavdadebuli siyvarulic mefisadmi, qveynisadmi,

mainc gadamwyvet momentSi boroteba mZlavrobs, rac

sabediswero kanonzomierebad aRiqmeba.

`Cvenma uxeirobam dagvRupa! vai, Cveno qarTlis

bedo!~ _ megobrisTvis, konstantine mamacaSvilisTvis

naTqvam baraTaSvilis am sityvebSi `bedi qarTlisas~

sazrisia gamxelili.

axal droSi baraTaSvilma pirvelma aqcia kritikuli

fiqris sagnad erovnuli xasiaTis naklovani mxareebi.

erT werilSi igi gulistkiviliT mianiSnebs im

`sneulebaze~, `romlisa gamoc qarTveli Tavisians ar

gamoadgeba~; sxvagan mwared kiTxulobs: `gana qarTvelebSi

aris megobruli da naTesavebrivi grZnoba?~.

32


aseTi kritikuli TvalTaxedva Semdeg sistemuri

saxiT da Semtevi paTosiT gamovlinda ilia WavWavaZis

da misi Tanamoazreebis SemoqmedebaSi. Tavisi Tavisadmi

mkacri, uSeRavaTo damokidebuleba eris, iseve rogorc

pirovnebis, kulturis niSania, mis goniT simwifes mowmobs.

amitom bunebrivia, rom moazrovne qarTveli patriotebi

mzeras Tavisi xalxis xasiaTis im Tvisebebisken

mimarTaven, cnobil obieqtur faqtorebTan erTad

misi bediswera rom gansazRvres; bediswera, romelTan

Seurigeblobac baraTaSvilis `meranSi~ uyoymanod da

samudamod aris arCeuli.

1988

33


Tavisuflebisken moZraoba

usasrulobasTan, maradiulobasTan ziarebisken

ltolva _ romantikuli msoflgancdis organuli

Tviseba _ baraTaSvilis poeziis erT-erTi arsebiTi

aspeqtia. am ltolvaSi mJRavndeba raRac iseTis aRmo-

Cenis da masTan SekavSirebis Rrma adamianuri moTxovnileba,

rac warmavalobaze da amaoebaze Zlieria, rasac

sikvdili ver anadgurebs. es yvelaze TvalsaCinoa bara-

TaSvilis or leqsSi _ `ar ukiJino, satrfoo~ da

`merani~.

`ar ukiJino~ romantikuli ocneba, fantazirebaa

usasrulobasTan Serwymaze. usasrulobasTan, maradisobasTan

SeerTebis nebis ZaliT lirikuli gmiri da is,

vinc mas uyvars, gvevlinebian iseT fenomenebad, romlebic

mudmivad myofoben samyaroSi _ mzed, namad.

isini mTliandebian da dausruleblad badeben sikeTes.

`rom mxolod mzisa ciagi mas dilis namsa iSrobdes da

erTad Sesxivebulni Svebas mohfendnen sicocxles,

ares avsebdnen siamiT mcenareT ganmacxoveblad, iyvnen

maradis, uxsnelad, soflisa gansaTaveblad~. sikvdilis

Zleva da usasrulobasTan ziareba miiRweva samyaroSi

maradiulad mimdinare pozitiur procesSi _

sicocxlis aRmocenebis da zrdis procesSi warmosaxviTi

TanamonawileobiT.

`ar ukiJinosgan~ gansxvavebiT `meranSi~ usasrulobasTan

ziarebis cda yofierebis tragikul, anu ufro

Rrma da WeSmarit ganzomilebaSi xorcieldeba. miswrafebas

usasrulobisken, `bedis samZRvris~ gadalaxvisken

aRkveTs sikvdili _ bedisweris mTavari iaraRi.

Tanac es aris romantikulad maqsimalizebuli sikvdili,

`satrfos cremlis~, `naTesavT glovis~, samSoblo-

Si `winaparT saflavebs Soris~ damarxvis gareSe, imis

gareSe, rac adamians sikvdilis Semdeg raRac kavSirs

unarCunebs Tavis sociokulturul garemosTan. meranis

mxedars wilad xvdeba ara Cveulebrivi, `ganelebuli~

sikvdili, aramed daRupva srul martoobaSi, ucxo

da ukacriel sivrceSi, sadac mis gmirul msxverplga-

34


Rebas mowme, TanamgrZnobeli da damfasebeli ar hyavs,

sadac ukvalod qreba amqveynidan. sikvdili movlenilia

Tavisi maararavebeli Zalis mTeli sisruliT, raTa

ufro meti mniSvneloba mieces mis Zlevas.

ra SeaZlebinebs meranis mxedars daTanxmdes amgvar

`srul~ sikvdils? is, rom igi sinamdvileSi ki ar qreba

adamianTa samyarodan, aramed piriqiT, samaradisod

mkvidrdeba masSi, ramdenadac bediswerisadmi daumor-

CileblobiT gakvalul gzas uxsnis sxvaTa Tavisuflebas

da uerTdeba imas, rac usasrulod grZeldeba

amqveynad _ Tavisuflebisken moZraobas. metic, Tavisi

qmedebiT is obieqturad xdeba Tavisuflebis saboloo,

samudamo aRzevebis Tanamonawile, Tu vigulisxmebT,

rom misi `moZme~ momavalSi aramarto Seupovrad ebrZvis,

aramed amarcxebs kidec bedisweras. TviTSewirvis

wyalobiT `meranis~ gmiri usasrulo momavalSi fuZndeba,

usxlteba warmavalobas. mis Tavgametebas sruliad

araritorikul, aradeklaraciul iers, Rrma simarTles

da damajereblobas sZens is, rom msxverplgaRebis

sanacvlod igi SeukavSirdeba imas, rac sikvdilis

mier zRvardaudebia _ samyaroSi Tavisuflebis

gavrcobis adamianuri cdis ganuwyvetlobas.

2001

35


ilia WavWavaZe

gaxedva iliasken

Cveni sazogadoebis damokidebuleba ilias mimarT

sakultoa, ritualuria _ es damokidebuleba sabWoTa

periodSi Camoyalibda da ritualebis moyvare qarTuli

cnobierebis anabeWdTan erTad sabWour damRasac

atarebs. ilia vaqcieT usicocxlo fetiSad, romelsac

farisevlur himnebs aRvuvlenT da am himnebSi Warbadaa

provinciuli paTosiT gaJRenTili epiTetebi: `didi~,

`bumberazi~, `brZeni~... ilias gamonaTqvamebs artistuli

mowiwebiT vimowmebT rogorc dogmatebs. ar vake-

TebT mxolod imas, rac aucilebelia _ ar vcdilobT

seriozulad vifiqroT masTan erTad. es gasagebic aris

_ igi gvWirdeba mxolod rogorc Cveni `simagris~

damadasturebeli, TvalismomWrelad mbrwyinavi kerpi.

TviTon ilia ki Cveni `simagris~ dadasturebas Cvens

sisusteTa Sesaxeb gansjas amjobinebda. arc iliamde da

arc mis Semdeg saqarTveloSi ar yofila moazrovne,

romelsac ase gamudmebiT, aseTi tkiviliT efiqros

qarTuli xasiaTis Tu mentalobis naklovanebebze. misi

siyvaruli saqarTvelosadmi iyo Zalian vnebiani da amave

dros `civi~, obieqturi da uSeRavaTo _ namdvili

siyvaruli Tavisi arsiT momTxovni da mkacria, radgan

surs, rom is, viskenac aris mimarTuli, realurad iyos

siyvarulis Rirsi, im faseulobaTa realurad xorc-

Semsxmeli, romlebic siyvaruls imsaxurebs.

ilia yvelaze tragikuli bedis pirovnebaa qarTul

istoriaSi da kulturaSi _ ara imdenad misi sazareli

aRsasrulis gamo, ramdenadac imitom, rom mis TvalTaxedvas

da mizanswrafvas ar iziarebda da ar iziarebs

misi xalxi. ilias mkvleloba kvlav grZeldeba, ilias yoveldRe

klavs saqarTvelos ugunureba, uzneoba, uniaToba...

axalgazrda ilias Tavidan radikaluri Tvalsazrisi

hqonda rogorc socialur, aseve erovnul problemaze.

magram male, axalgazrdobaSive, ilias Wabukur da

36


sakmaod zedapirul radikalizms sinamdvilis seriozul

analizze dafuZnebuli pozicia cvlis, misi revoluciuri

sificxe da mouTmenloba qreba.

rogorc Cans, ilias msoflmxedvelobis aseT Secvlas

biZgi da mimarTuleba misca ruseTis imperiaSi ganxorcielebulma

reformam, batonymobis gauqmebam, samoqalaqo

sazogadoebis Camoyalibebis dawyebam. am reformis

CatarebaSi ilia uSualod monawileobda kidec,

roca saqarTvelos erT-erT mxareSi momrigebel mosamarTled

muSaobda.

rodesac pirovnebis da sazogadoebis Semoqmedebi-

Ti Zalebis SemboWveli batonymuri sistema dairRva,

iliam dainaxa, rom SesaZlebelia SedarebiT gazrdili

Tavisuflebis gamoyeneba da qveynis TandaTanobiT gajansaReba

da gaZliereba, anu damoukideblobisTvis

qveynis bunebrivi momwifeba. socialuri, ekonomikuri

da kulturuli progresi qveynis Tavisuflebis aucilebeli

wanamZRvaria _ aseTi pozicia amoicnoba ilias

mxatvrul da publicistur SemoqmedebaSi.

progresis ganmaxorcielebelia organizebuli Sroma

da fxizeli, naTeli gonebis aqtivoba _ faseulobebi

da fenomenebi, romelTac ilia dauRalavad, jiutad

amkvidrebs. aseve dauRalavad da jiutad ebrZvis igi

imas, rac Sromis da gonierebis rogorc arsebobis

mTavari principebis damkvidrebas win eRobeba _ gviandel

feodalur cnobierebas da cxovrebis wess: gonebis

da sxeulis sizarmaces, TavkerZobas da sazogadoebrivi

interesebisadmi gulgrilobas, araracionalurobas,

miTebis, iluziebis tyveobas, uniadago ampartavnobas

da Tavmomwoneobas... amis satiruli gamomzeurebaa

TaTqariZeTa saxeebi. xolo is, ramac qveyana

am feodaluri balastisgan unda gaaTavisuflos _

axleburi Sromis kultura da fxizeli goniereba, Zlieri

da mizanswrafuli nebisyofa, socialuri aqtiuroba

_ `oTaraanT qvrivis~ mTavar gmirebSi gansaxierda.

axleburi Sroma da racionaluri, ganaTlebuli

cnobiereba, ilias TvalsazrisiT, araTu qveynis ganvi-

Tarebis da gaTavisuflebis pirobaa, aramed gadarCenis

37


pirobac aris, radgan Tu feodalizmis rRveva da kapitalizmze

gadasvla, erTi mxriv, meti Tavisuflebis da

SemoqmedebiTi SesaZleblobebis momniWebelia, meore

mxriv, es qveynisTvis axali istoriuli gamowvevaa, axal

brZolaSi misi Cabmis momaswavebelia. igi misgan Zalebis

srul mokrebas da adrindelze ufro rTul, Znel aqtivobas

moiTxovs. kapitalizmi aramxolod individebis,

aramed erebis da qveynebis konkurenciacaa, sicocxlis

arsebiTi da maradiuli maxasiaTeblis _ brZolis SedarebiT

civilizebuli gamovlinebaa da brZolis am nairsaxeobis

iaraRi swored organizebuli Sroma da ganaTlebuli

gonebaa. garkveuli azriT es brZola ufro mkacric aris,

vidre brZolis pirdapiri da uxeSi formebi. konkurenciis

gulauCvilebeli kanonebisgan SeRavaTebs ar unda

velodeT. `xmlian mters gavuZeliT, gadavrCiT... SromiT

da garjiT, codniT da xerxiT mosuli ki Tan gagvitans,

fex-qveSidam miwas gamogvaclis, saxels gagviqrobs,

gagviwyvets, saxsenebeli qarTvelisa amoikveTeba,

da Cvens mSvenier qveyanas, rogorc upatrono saydars,

sxvani daepatronebian. Sromasa da garjas, codnasa

da xerxs veravin-Ra gauZlebs, Tu Sroma da garja,

codna da xerxi ar mivagebeT, win ar davaxvedreT, win ar

davuyeneT. varT ki yovelive amisaTvis mzad? an gvetyoba

raSime, rom yovelive es viciT da vemzadebiT?..~.

Cveni axlandeli istoriuli situacia mniSvnelovanwilad

im istoriuli viTarebis msgavsia, romelSic

iliam qveynis modernizaciis programa SeimuSava da mis

xorcSesxmas Seudga _ iSleba Zveli, gamofituli sistema

(erT SemTxvevaSi batonymoba, meoreSi _ socializmi),

iwyeba kapitalizmis damkvidreba, progresis xelisSemSleli

maSinac iyo da axlac aris feodaluri

cnobierebis da cxovrebis yaidis atavizmi... logikuri

iqneboda, Cveni reagirebac aseT istoriul viTarebaze

im inteleqtualuri da praqtikuli reagirebis msgavsi

yofiliyo, romelic iliam moaxdina Tavis Tanadroul

istoriul garemoebebze. magram yvelaferi swored logikis

sawinaaRmdegod warimarTa da ar moxda gardauvalad

moaxloebuli Ria ekonomikuri da socialur-

38


politikuri sistemis srulfasovnad danergvisTvis

aucilebeli mkveTri orientireba modernizebul Sromaze

da cnobierebis racionalizaciaze, anu namdvili,

aradeklaraciuli orientireba dasavleTze. amis gare-

Se ki, rogorc ilia gvafrTxilebs, kapitalisturi konkurencia

sasikeTos arafers gviqadis. am rTul amocanas

saqarTvelom feodaluri sulis amofrqveviT upasuxa.

misi cnobiereba miTebis da iluziebis, sakraluri sityvebis,

simboloebis da ritualebis warmosaxviT samyaros Seefara

da iq daemala daZabuli Sromis da gonebrivi aqtivobis

aucileblobas. aRorZinda Zveli, mamapapuri, feodaluri

cxovrebis praqtika _ ambiciebis gaafTrebuli

Sexla, klanebis SuRli, iaraRis da Zalis kulti,

qveynis daqucmaceba, maRalfardovani fuWsityvaoba...

Zneli saTqmelia, ramdenad moaxerxebs qarTuli sazogadoeba

meToduri Sromis da ganaTlebuli, racionaluri

cnobierebis kultivirebas. amisTvis aucilebelia

im Zalis aRorZineba, romelsac ilia yvelaze

cxovelmyofelad miiCnevda. es aris Rirsebis grZnoba,

Tavmoyvareoba _ is, rac, erTi ucxoeli mwerlis TqmiT,

cxovrebas gemos aZlevs. swored Rirsebis grZnobaa ilias

`oTaraanT qvrivSi~ warmoCenili Sromaze dafuZnebuli

eTikis RerZi. ilia Rirsebis grZnobas `RvTaebrivs~

uwodebs, misi fiqriT, `rogorc sxivi mzisgan, yvela ni-

Wi da madli adamianisa, sulieri Tu xorcieli, am

grZnobidan warmomdinarebs da yovelive isev ukan

mierTmeva, viT Tavis dasabams~.

pirovnuli Rirsebis grZnoba, Tavmoyvareoba CvenSi

amRvreuli da damaxinjebulia, ampartavnobis, pativmoyvareobis,

egoisturi TavmoTneobis mier aris STanTqmuli.

xolo erovnuli Rirsebis grZnoba gadagvarebulia

cru, iluziebze damyarebul siamayed, romlis usafuZvlobac

axla yvelas Tvalwin tragikulad gamoaSkaravda.

magram iqneb Cvens mier gancdilma nacionalurma

sircxvilma gamoaRviZos Rirsebis grZnoba rogorc zneobis,

gonierebis da SemoqmedebiTi Sromis masazrdoebeli

sawyisi _ Segvabrunos iliasken, anu gagvaxedos win.

1993

39


orgvari cnobiereba

zogadad SegviZlia vTqvaT, rom ilia WavWavaZis

patriotuli ideali iyo saqarTvelo rogorc Tavisufali,

civilizebuli, evropeizebuli qveyana; xolo

konkretulad Tu vilaparakebT, mis prozaSi gamokve-

Tilia orgvari cxovrebis yaida da cnobierebis wyoba,

romelTagan erTi mTlianad ewinaaRmdegeba da gamoricxavs

qveynis evropeizaciis geziT ganviTarebas,

meore ki am geziT svlis mamoZravebelia.

sinamdvilisadmi evropul damokidebulebas arsebi-

Tad is gansazRvravs, rom dasavleli adamiani Tavis-

Tavis da cxovrebis aRmSenebeli da gardamqmnelia. misi

yofiereba realobis mizanmimarTuli Secvlis, gaumjobesebis

sistematuri cdaa, radgan igi Tvlis, rom es

realoba mudmiv srulyofas saWiroebs. dasavleli adamiani

energiulad eswrafis bunebrivi da socialuri

garemos mowesrigebas, marTvas, raTa igi TavisTvis ufro

keTilmyofeli da Sesaferisi gaxados. yovel

SemTxvevaSi, renesansis epoqidan mokidebuli dasavleli

adamiani swored aseTi Cans, Tumca amis fesvebi

ufro Rrmaa...

Zneli warmosadgenia sinamdvilisadmi amgvari damokidebulebis

ufro sruli uaryofa, vidre ilia WavWavaZis

`kacia-adamianis?!~ personaJebis arsebobaa: mouwyobeli

da mouwesrigebeli yofa da sacxovrebeli garemo,

romelsac mis mimarT adamianis ukiduresi daudevrobis

daRi adevs; ucvleloba, erTis da imaves gau-

Tavebeli gameoreba, roca droc TiTqos uZravia; uqmi

da modunebuli, uenergio sicocxle, romlis sifuturoves

avsebs xorcieli tkboba, gancxroma, SeiZleba

iTqvas, `aRmosavluri hedonizmi~, oRond iseTive uxeSi

da primitiuli, rogoric aris yvelaferi, rasac mwerali

TaTqariZeebisTvis damaxasiaTeblad miiCnevs.

cxovrebisadmi dasavluri, aqtiuri damokidebuleba

saTaves iRebs gonebis primatidan, romelmac sabolood

Tavisi cxadi gacnobiereba da aRiareba racionalizmSi

da ganmanaTleblobaSi pova. gonebaa aqti-

40


uri, moZravi, sinamdvilis wvdomis, gagebis da amdenad

dauflebis daJinebiT mcdeli. gonebis raobaa maradiuli

maZiebloba, ukve miRweuliT daukmayofilebloba,

sisrulisken Seusvenebeli ltolva. `fausturi adamianis~

gonebis mousvenrobaa ukufenili evropis socialuri

da kulturuli cxovrebis aqtiur-dinamiur xasiaTSi,

intensiur SemoqmedebaSi, SromaSi, romelmac

sinamdviles gonebis moTxovnebis Sesatyvisi Tvisebrioba

da saxe unda mianiWos.

ilia WavWavaZe rogorc racionalisti da ganmanaTlebeli

Tavisi satiris Zireul Temad ugunurebas ir-

Cevs da Tavisi gmirebis samarcxvino dacemulobis pirvelmizezs

ugunurebaSi xedavs. `kacia-adamianis?!~ personaJebisTvis

upirvelesad swored gonebis sizantea

niSandoblivi da maTi fizikuri inertuloba, mZime da

umoZrao materialuroba maTive gonebrivi uZraobis

mxatvruli gansxeulebac aris. TaTqariZeebis mTeli

arseboba sruliad araracionaluria da, avtoris

TvalTaxedviT, pirvel rigSi amiT aris damaRoneblad

komikuri. moTxrobis gmirebi TiTqos buranSi, mTvlemarebaSi

arian Cafluli. maT moSlili aqvT kavSiri realur,

cocxal sinamdvilesTan, ar gaaCniaT misi saRad

aRqmis da gaazrebis unari. isini Caketili arian yalbi

tradiciuli Sexedulebebis, crurwmenebis, iluziebis

_ gonebiT da sinamdvilis logikiT daudasturebeli

warmodgenebis moCvenebiT samyaroSi, romelsac namdvili

samyarosgan yru, sqeli kedeli mijnavs.

moTxrobis personaJebis cnobiereba `miTosur-poeturia~,

`magiuria~. am cnobierebas SeiZleba eWvmiutanel

WeSmaritebad miaCndes zRapruli istoria xe cnobadisas

zurmuxtis nayofis Sesaxeb, romelic did saxelmwifoTa

Soris cilobis sagania da qveynad arev-darevas

iwvevs. ymebis momaval gaTavisuflebas es cnobiereba

imiT xsnis, rom mzes gveleSapi Semoexvia, radgan

adamianebis codvebma imata _ zogierTi mebatone uRirsad

iqceva, tradicias Ralatobs da vaWariviT mogebas

eZebs. sakuTar uSvilobasac, rogorc gvaxsovs,

TaTqariZeebi zemiwieri Zalebis wyromas Tu boroti

41


sulebis xrikebs miaweren da am ubedurebisgan Tavdasaxsnelad

`magiur~ saSualebebs iyeneben. sinamdvilis

movlenebs Soris realuri mimarTebebis, mizez-Sedegobrivi

kavSirebis danaxva da gageba maT ar SeuZliaT

da sruliad araidumali ambebi `jadosnur-mistikurad~

aixsneba. amgvari araracionaluri azrovnebis nimuSia,

vTqvaT, luarsabis mier batonymobis gamarTlebac

RvTis nebaze miTiTebiT da im utyuari sabuTiT,

rom adamianis xelis TiTebic ki RmerTma araTanabari

zomis Seqmna.

moTxrobaSi komizms xSirad badebs personaJebis azrovnebis

alogikuroba, maT mier gamomJRavnebuli logikuri

dasabuTebis uunaroba, maTi `azrebis~ da am

`azrebis~ dasamtkiceblad moSveliebuli `faqtebis~,

`argumentebis~ Seusatyvisoba. amis klasikuri magali-

Tia cnobili `buzebis epizodi~, sadac sinamdvilis

elementaruli logikis vergagebaa gamasxrebuli. aseve

cnobil pasaJSi, romelic kulinariis sakiTxebze kamaTs

eZRvneba, gamWvirvalea aramxolod TaTqariZeTa

interesebis simdable, aramed agreTve cnobierebis

garkveuli, araracionaluri wyoba, kamaTis sagnis ar-

CevaSive rom vlindeba _ ar SeiZleba imis logikuri

argumentireba, Tu romeli kerZia `kerZebis mefe~, an

romeli Tevzi _ `Tevzebis mefe~, es `poetur-pirobi-

Ti~ warmodgenebis sferoa. amitom `argumentad~ gvevlineba

gmirebis Wirveuli subieqtivizmi, romelsac

jiutad ar surs ukan daxeva.

es gamamxiarulebeli viTareba arc ise mxiaruli

daskvnebis gamotanisken gvibiZgebs. racionaluri azrovneba

gulisxmobs sinamdvilis kanonebis da obieqturi

wyobis adekvatur aRqmas, moiTxovs adamianis arsebobis

realobasTan SeTanadebas, igi subieqts garkveul

sazRvrebs uwesebs. xolo racionaluri azrovnebis ganuviTarebloba

realisturi aRqmis sisustes moaswavebs

da infantilurad Jinian subieqtivizms gasaqani

eZleva. gonebis umoqmedoba da siRatake, gonebis kontrolis

ararseboba aadvilebs qvena grZnobebis da vne-

42


ebis, moqiSpeobis, jibris, Suris galaRebas, rogorc

es TaTqariZeebis cxovrebaSia.

`kacia-adamianis?!~ personaJTa cnobierebaSi gabatonebul

crurwmenebs Soris ganaTlebis da codnis _

sistematuri gonebrivi aqtivobis SiSnarevi aTvalwunebac

aris. aseve Clungi aTvalwunebiT uyureben isini

Sromas. moTxrobis personaJebs CveviaT warsulis ganusjeli

idealizacia, romelic mJRavndeba, magali-

Tad, aseT absurdSi _ adrindeli dro imiT jobs awmyos,

rom maSin saZraxis saqmeebs ukeTesad aCumaTebdnen.

yvelaferi, rac axal civilizaciasTan aris dakav-

Sirebuli, maT `magiur~ da konservatul cnobierebas

saxifaTo jadoqrobad, eSmakis manqanebad warmoesaxeba

(ase aRiqvamen qalaqis cxovrebas). cnobiswadili, raime

siaxlis gaazrebis moTxovnileba am daxSul cnobierebaSi

ar iZvris.

TaTqariZeebis arsebobis erT-erTi burjia crurwmena,

rom uxeSi Zaladoba aucilebelia wesrigisTvis

_ amaze metyvelebs kolorituli epizodi, sadac ugunuri

egzekucia _ ymebis dawiokebaa aRwerili, agreTve

luarsabis da darejanis gauxunari Segonebani imis

Taobaze, rom ymebi mudam SiSSi unda amyofo, Torem

Tavs gauvaT... erTi moazrovnis mtkicebiT, Zaladobis

absoluturi efeqtianobis uryevi aRiareba, adamianze

gonivruli, damarwmunebeli sityviT zemoqmedebis nacvlad

ZaladobisTvis upiratesobis miniWebac iyo aRmosavluri

samyaros CamorCenis, gaxevebis mizezi. da TaTqariZeebic

xom arsebiTad aRmosavlelebi, azielebi

arian...

araadekvaturia, iluzorulia moTxrobis mTavari

personaJebis warmodgena sakuTar Tavze: rogorc ver

xedaven realobas, aseve ver xedaven TavisTavs realobaSi.

maTi dabinduli, burusSi CaZiruli goneba uZluria

realisturad aRiqvas da gansajos maTive raoba,

SesaZleblobebi da amis Sedegad Tavs iCens komikurad

gadaWarbebuli TviTSefasebani, Tavmomwoneoba, rac

uzomo kvexnaSi da qadilSi gamoixateba. isini amJRavneben

gansakuTrebul `niWs~ Seiqmnan, ganimtkicon da

43


SeinarCunon iluziebi, yvelaferi warmoidginon ise,

rogorc maTTvisaa xelsayreli _ sakmarisia movigonoT

uSvilobiT aRZruli peripetia da misi damagvirgvinebeli

iluzoruli gamarjveba, romlis aRsaniSnavadac

xalisiani dResaswauli ewyoba. maTze damatyveveblad

moqmedebs qeba da pirferoba, radgan es tkbili

iluziebis SenarCunebaSi exmarebaT da advilad mosatyueblebi

arian, imitom, rom adamiani yvelaze metad im

tyuils ijerebs, romelic mis Tavismotyuebis survils

Tanxvdeba.

gonierebiT arc moTxrobis danarCeni personaJebi

gamoirCevian, Tumca zogierT maTgans aqvs patara eSmakuri

Wkua, romelic mxolod sxvebis gabriyvebis da ra-

Racis gamorCenis unarSi vlindeba.

TaTqariZeebis cnobierebis wyobas ilia WavWavaZe

gviandeli, ukve gamofituli feodalizmis socialur

struqturasTan akavSirebs, mis maxinj nayofad warmogvidgens.

magram TaTqariZeTa saxeebi socialur SinaarsTan

erTad garkveuli epoqis qarTuli mentalobis

momcvelia, rasac moTxrobis avtori TviTon

gvaniSnebs.

ilias mier Seqmnil satirul saxeebs mniSvnelovnebas

da sicocxlis xangrZlivobas uwinaresad swored

maTSi gamoxatuli mentalobis buneba aniWebs. TaTqari-

Zeebis yofiTi cxovrebis wesis da empiriuli xasiaTis

zogierTi niSani SedarebiT ioli Sesacvleli (Tu SesaniRbavi)

aRmoCnda, maTi cnobierebis gvianfeodaluri

wyoba ki ufro gamZle gamodga da mniSvnelovanwilad

jerac daurRvevelia.

amis mTavari mizezi ase ikveTeba _ ilia WavWavaZis

mier energiulad wamowyebuli ganmanaTlebluri sulieri

revoluciis gagrZelebas da gaRrmavebas, kapitalisturi

ekonomikis da socialuri urTierTobebis

ganviTarebis paralelurad, unda moyoloda qarTuli

cnobierebis racionalizacia, magram igi CaaxSo marqsistulma

moCvenebiTma racionalizmma, sinamdvileSi

kvlavindeburad `miTologiam~, `magiam~. is aRzrdis da

amkvidrebs cnobierebas, romelic ar aris orientire-

44


uli samyaros adekvatur aRqma-gagebaze da ar wyalobs

racionaluri azrovnebis iseT kriteriumebs, rogoricaa

sicxade, realizmi, mizanmimarTuloba, logikuri

Tanmimdevruloba, kritikuloba... aseTi kriteriumebiT

aRWurvili cnobiereba xelaRebiT, myari safuZvlis

gareSe arafers irwmunebs an uaryofs.

racionalizmsac axlavs garkveuli safrTxe: is SeiZleba

mowydes cocxal sinamdviles da gauCndes yovlisSemZleobis

pretenzia; iqces sqematur doqtriniorobad,

realobisgan ganyenebul utopizmad, an dacildes

humanizms da gamJRavndes rogorc emociuri siRaribe

da simSrale, usulgulo pragmatizmi, sinamdvilis

da adamianisadmi momxmarebluri damokidebuleba... magram

yovelive es sxva msjelobis Temaa. amJamad sxva

yvelaferze metad swored Cveni naklebad racionaluri

cnobiereba gveRobeba win, gviZnelebs demokratiuli

sazogadoebis da saxelmwifos Seqmnas, ramdenadac

dasavluri demokratiis formirebis erT-erTi ZiriTadi

wanamZRvari swored dasavluri racionalizmi iyo,

xolo axla misi simkvidris erT-erTi ZiriTadi

garantia.

racionalizmi ar cnobs apriorul, gonebiT da

cdiT Seumowmebel WeSmaritebebs, romelTa wvdomis da

flobis monopoliis daweseba da miTviseba avtoritaruli

mmarTvelobis mier warmoadgens mis ideologiur

samagrs; igi gulisxmobs sinamdvilis SemecnebiTi

aTvisebis procesis usasrulobas, rac arsebobis uflebas

aniWebs azrovnebis pluralizms, aRvivebs Semwynareblobas;

is iqceva sazogadoebrivi cxovrebis optimaluri

mowyobis sawindrad, ramdenadac sinamdvilis

racionaluri daufleba moiTxovs gonebis principebis

_ WeSmaritebis, samarTlianobis, adamianis (rogorc

gonieri arsebis) Tavisuflebis da bednierebis _

xorcSesxmas da sazogadoebis Sesabamis organizebasac;

sinamdvilisadmi racionaluri mimarTeba SesaZlebels

xdis individTa interesebis urTierTSexamebas, gonivruli

TviTSezRudvis wyalobiT TviTeuli individis

Tavisuflebis Tanaarsebobas sxvebis TavisuflebasTan.

45


Tavisufali sazogadoebis yvelaze mtkice sayrdenia

racionaluri, Tavisufali Sroma, romelic xels

uwyobs Sesaferisi sulieri wyobis mqone adamianis

Camoyalibebas.

ilia WavWavaZe eZiebda aseTi tipis adamians qarTul

sinamdvileSi, man icoda, rogori unda yofiliyo igi.

`oTaraanT qvrivis~ gmirebSi vxedavT mis idealur nimuSs,

romelic metnaklebi mxatvruli srulfasovnebiT

aris realizebuli (qvrivis saxe gacilebiT ufro

sisxlsavsea, vidre giorgis saxe). am gmirebis yofierebis

saZirkveli Sromaa, pirad sakuTrebaze damyarebuli

Tavisufali, racionaluri Sroma. adamianebis Sefasebis

mTavari da uSeRavaTo sazomic maTTvis keTilsindisieri

Sromis, nayofieri aqtivobis unaria. Sromas

efuZneba maTi Sinagani damoukidebloba, Rirsebis gamaxvilebuli

grZnoba da samarTlianobis mZafri moTxovnileba,

Tavisi adamianuri uflebebis dacvis SemZleoba,

agreTve sxvaTa kerZo sakuTrebisadmi pativiscema

da moqalaqeobrivi Segneba.

moTxrobis mTavari personaJebi, upirvelesad oTaraanT

qvrivi, arsebiTad imave eTikis ganmaxorcieleblebi

arian, romelsac maqs veberi `protestantul Sromis

eTikas~ uwodebs da `kapitalizmis sulis~ gaCenis da

damkvidrebis mZlavr faqtorad miiCnevs. igi moiTxovs

meTodur sibejiTes, yairaTianobas, sifxizles, yofacxovrebis

da meurneobis gonivrul reglamentirebas,

organizebas. vfiqrobT, saWiro ar aris moTxrobis Sesabamisi

monakveTebis vrclad ganxilva imis dasadastureblad,

Tu ramdenad damaxasiaTebelia nawarmoebis

gmirebisTvis amgvari eTika (niSandoblivia Tundac is,

rogor gegmazomierad anawilebs qvrivi Tavis Semosavals).

oRond maT Tvisebebs ar ganekuTvneba iseTi

burJuaziuli mankiereba, rogoric xelmoWerilobaa.

oTaraanT qvrivs mwerali qristianuli qvelmoqmedebis

saTnoebiTac ajildoebs, romelsac is garegnuli

siuxeSiT avlens, raTa mowyalebis mimRebs Rirsebis

grZnoba da damoukidebeli arsebobis moTxovnileba

gauRvivos.

46


veberi protestantuli Sromis eTikis realizebas

gansazRvravs rogorc `saero asketizms~. ilias gmiric

pirquSi puritani qalia, cxovrebis simZimesTan brZolaSi

da tanjvis moTmenaSi asketiviT gamkacrebuli,

Tavisi grZnobebis da survilebis asketuri simtkiciT

damaurvebeli.

es morwmune adamiani, TaTqariZeebisgan gansxvavebiT,

fatalistur pasiurobas mkveTrad uaryofs da

imeds pirvel rigSi sakuTar gonebaze da qmedebaze

amyarebs. fxizeli da basri goniereba, sruli realizmi,

simarTlis, Tundac sastiki simarTlis danaxvis wadili

da unari megzurobs mas cxovrebaSi. misi cnobiereba

racionaluria _ iluziebiT, crurwmenebiT Seuborkavi,

cxadi azris da miznis gamomkveTi, myari logikis

mimyoli, kritikuli da TavisTavadi. ilias gmirs aRizianebs

yovelive, rac gonebas adunebs da sinaTles

aklebs. TviTon iliasac xom gansakuTrebiT gonebis

Zili aRizianebda.

racionaluri, gonebas dandobili cnobierebis

formireba racionaluri da Tavisufali Sromis safuZvelze,

avtonomiuri pirovnebis gonivruli aqtivoba

isaxeba ilia WavWavaZis SemoqmedebaSi qveynis aRorZinebis

da ganviTarebis pirobad. amgvar Tvalsazriss

ukeTesi alternativa axlac iseve ara aqvs, rogorc

ilias dros ar hqonda.

1992

47


gzajvaredinze

axali qarTuli, realisturi prozis erT-erTi pirveli

nimuSi `mgzavris werilebi~ amave dros qarTuli

lirikuli prozis erT-erTi pirveli nimuSic aris. am

nawarmoebis centraluri figura avtoria, ufro zustad

ki, lirikuli gmiria, romlis STabeWdilebebi, gancdebi,

fiqrebi gaivlis Cvens Tvalwin da nawarmoebis

mxatvrul organizms qmnis. warmogvidgeba pirovnebis

sulieri samyaros dinamiuri da daZabuli suraTi.

cocxali emociuroba, mRelvareba, SeiZleba iTqvas,

dramatizmi msWvalavs `mgzavris werilebs~. igi ar daiyvaneba

ilia WavWavaZis mwerluri Tu moqalaqeobrivi

poziciis erTmniSvnelovan formulirebebze. aranakleb

sayuradReboa subieqturi, intimuri gancda da azri,

romlidanac es formulirebebia aRmocenebuli da

romelic Sesulia kidec maT SedgenilobaSi.

zogad mniSvnelobasTan erTad subieqtur-pirovnul

Sinaarss vpovebT Tergis da myinvaris, dRis da

Ramis saxe-simboloebSi.

`mgzavris werilebis~ lirikuli gmiri gzajvaredinzea,

arsebiTi arCevanis winaSea. cxovrebis da Semoqmedebis

or tips, or SesaZleblobas, romelTa Sorisac

man arCevani unda gaakeTos, upirveles yovlisa Tergi

da myinvari ganasaxierebs. ori pozicia abstraqtulad

ki ar upirispirdeba erTmaneTs, abstraqtulad ki ar

xdeba erTis uaryofa da meoris WeSmaritebis aRiareba,

aramed _ lirikuli gmiris gulSi da gonebaSi. marTalia,

misi simpaTia mkveTrad aris gadaxrili ori SesaZleblobidan

erT-erTis mxares, magram arCevanis aqti

garkveuli siZnelisganac ar aris dazRveuli.

davakvirdeT am pasaJs: `daRamda, magram me mainc

stanciis gareTa var da daJinebiT yuracqvetili gonebas

vadevneb Tergis TavzexelaRebuli denis xuilsa.

yvela dadumda da Sen ar sdumob, Tergo! merwmuneT, me

mesmis am xmagakmendils qveyanaSi Tergis dauCumari Civili.

arian adamianis cxovrebaSi imisTana wuTni martoobisa,

roca bunebas Sen TiTqo Sensas agebineb da igi

48


Tavisas Sen gagebinebs. amitomac SegiZlian sTqva, rom

martoobaSic arsad marto ara xar, hoi, orfexo cxovelo,

romelsac adamians geZaxian. am Rames vgrZnob,

rom Cemis fiqrebisa da Tergis Civilis Sua aris raRac

idumali kavSiri, aris raRac Tanxmoba. guli mitoks da

mklavi miTrTis. risTvis? dros davacaloT amis pasuxis

gacema~.

Tergi aq axleburad warmodgeba, moulodnelad saxes

icvlis _ dRisiT es saxe gmirulia. `daloca

RmerTma isev Tavzed xelaRebuli, giJi, gadareuli,

Seupovari da daumonavi mRvrie Tergi. Savi kldis gulidam

gadmomskdari modis da mobRavis da abRavlebs

Tavis gareSemosa. miyvars Tergis zariani xuili, gamalebuli

brZola, drtvinva da vai-vaglaxi~. sxvagan lirikuli

gmiri ase mimarTavs Tergs: `Seni Weqa-quxili,

Seni zariani xmauroba, Seni SfoTva da foTva, Seni

gauTavebeli brZola qva-klde-RresTan, TiTqos Seni

ganieri wadili Sens viwro sawolSi ver moTavsebulao.

bevri ram sagulisxmoa SenSi, Cveno daumonavo Tergo,

Sens Zlevamosils da Seupovars denaSia~. mimzidvelia,

STamagonebelia Tergis heroikuli ieri, Tergis rogorc

brZolis da daudgromlobis, energiuli moZraobis

xati. misi mSveniereba misi simZlavre da simZafrea.

am aqtiuri arsebobisgan ganuyofelia SeWirveba. `Tergi

saxea adamianis gaRviZebulis cxovrebisa, amaRelvebeli

da Rirssacnobi saxec aris: mis mRvrie wyalSi

sCans mTelis qveynis ubedurebis nacartuta~. magram es

SeWirvebac heroikulia, igi Tergis amayi da Zlieri

xmauriT, `drtvinviT~ aris gamJRavnebuli.

RamiT ki Tergis heroika qreba da mas elegiuroba

enacvleba. dRisiT mebrZoli da meamboxe Tergi RamiT

Civis im mousvenrobis, SfoTvis gamo, romelic misi

xvedria. Civili tkivilisgan daRlis, Taviseburi sisustis

gamovlenaa. ase gamoxatuli tkivili ufro ga-

SiSvlebuli da xelSesaxebia, vidre heroikuli tanjva.

tkivils, romelic Tergis `dauCumarma Civilma~ gaamxila,

Camoclili aqvs efeqturi forma, sanaxaobrioba.

samagierod Tergis Rameuli xma Tavisi lirikuli

49


siwrfeliT da aRsarebiTobiT srulad da Seuferavad

avlens tkivilis mTel siRrmes, simwares.

Tergis Civils da lirikuli gmiris fiqrebs Soris

Tanxmoba niSnavs, rom es gmiri gamaxvilebulad grZnobs

misTvis sasurveli da TergiT gansaxierebuli aqtiuri

cxovrebis simZimes da mtkivneulobas. mdinaris Civili

mas misi momavali arsebobis siZneles umJRavnebs. ilias

lirikul gmirs uCndeba ganwyoba, winaTgrZnoba, romelsac

axlavs mRelvareba, sisuste, SiSi. ras moaswavebs

aseTi ganwyoba, momavalSi gairkveva. `guli mitoks

da mklavi miTrTis, risTvis? dros davacaloT amis

pasuxis gacema~.

drom marTlac gasca am kiTxvas sastiki pasuxi...

magram aseTi fiqrebis da gancdebis miuxedavad lirikuli

gmiris miswrafeba aqtiuri cxovrebisken ucvlelia

da es miswrafeba axla ufro faseulia _ lirikul

gmirs ukeTesad aqvs gacnobierebuli, ris arCevas

apirebs da mainc am mSfoTvare, tkivilian yofnas amjobinebs,

romlis saxe-simbolodac Tergis gverdiT

dRec gvevlineba. `momeciT me naTeli da mousvenari

dRe Tavisi tanjviTa, wvalebiTa, brZoliTa da vai-vaglaxiTa~.

magram Semdeg SiSi, eWvi kvlav Cndeba. `SevsxediT

cxenebze da wamovediT stefanwmindidam. ukanasknelad

Sevxede myinvars. igi rogorRac didkacurad ib-

Rvireboda Tavis simaRlidam. aman amiria im diliT

damSvidebuli goneba. gulma kvlav tokva damiwyo da

mklavma TrTola. srulis mZulvarebiT movaSore Tvali

myinvaris didebulebasa da ufro didis pativiscemiT

gamoveTxove mis fexTa qveS gagiJebiT mavals

Tergsa~.

rogorc vxedavT, lirikul gmirs igive SiSi da uRonoba,

mRelvareba moicavs, romelmac Tergis Civilis

mosmenisas Seipyro. fsiqologiuri mdgomareobis igiveobas

mowmobs misi gamomxatveli frazis gameoreba:

`guli mitokavs da mklavi miTrTis~ _ `gulma kvlav

tokva damiwyo da mklavma TrTola~. mRelvareba imiT

aris gamowveuli, rom myinvari kidev erTxel Seaxsenebs

ilias lirikul gmirs cxovrebis sakmaod momxiblav

50


wess, romelic gulisxmobs socialuri yofis tkivilebis

da sazrunavisgan, saWirboroto problemebisgan garidebas,

yoveldRiurobisgan ganyenebas, maradiulobaze

da ara konkretul droze orientirebas. aqtiuri

cxovrebisadmi RamiT gancdilma SiSma, rogorc Cans,

ukvalod ar Caiara da amitom myinvaris mizidulobis

ZalisTvis winaaRmdegobis gaweva axla ufro Znelia. ai,

ram `auria~ goneba `mgzavris werilebis~ gmirs. mas

kvlav eZaleba SiSi imisadmi, rac myinvariviT amaRlebuli

da ganyenebuli arsebobis antiTezaa _ mSfoTvare

sazogadoebrivi cxovrebisadmi. magram orWofobas da

sisustes nebisyofa axSobs da ukve sabolood, gadaWriT

xorcieldeba arCevani imis sasargeblod, rasac

qveynis sasicocxlo interesebi moiTxovs.

myinvars Tavisi mimzidveloba aqvs `mgzavris werilebis~

lirikuli gmirisTvis. Tergis da myinvaris dapirispireba

arc ise martivi da sworxazovania, rogorc

erTi SexedviT gveCveneba. es ar aris usulo ritorikuli

figura. am saxe-simboloebiT zogadi principebis

garda gamoxatulia adamianuri arCevanis aqti, romelic

moklebuli ar aris tkivils. es savsebiT bunebrivia

_ ilias lirikuli gmiri sityvebiT ki ar TamaSobs,

aramed sakuTar momavals gansazRvravs, saku-

Tar beds wyvets. sazogadoebrivi cxovrebisgan gandgoma

Tu masSi aqtiuri monawileoba ilias pirovnuli

dilemaa. `mgzavris werilebSi~ gadawyvetili es dilema

ufro safuZvlianad `gandegilSi~ wydeba.

ilia WavWavaZis sulieri siZlieris, misi moqalaqeobrivi

da SemoqmedebiTi poziciis simyaris sawindari

is ki ar aris, rom misTvis ucxoa eWvi, aramed is, rom

igi eWvebs da orWofobas nebisyofis simtkiciT, rwmeniT

da azris sinaTliT igeriebs.

51


* * *

`mgzavris werilebis~ lirikuli gmirisTvis Tergis

Civilis gagoneba ucnauri movlenaa, bunebis da

adamianis iSviaTi, gansakuTrebuli kontaqtis Sedegia.

kidev gadavikiTxoT es striqonebi: `arian adamianis

cxovrebaSi imisTana wuTni martoobisa, roca bunebas

Sen TiTqos Sensas agebineb da igi Tavisas Sen gagebinebs.

amitomac SegiZlian sTqva, rom martoobaSic

arsad marto ara xar, hoi, orfexa cxovelo, romelsac

adamians geZaxian. am Rames vgrZnob, rom Cemis fiqrebisa

da Tergis Civilis Sua aris raRac idumali kavSiri,

aris raRac Tanxmoba~.

bunebis da adamianis aseTi sulieri urTierTkav-

Siris idea romantikuli msoflmxedvelobis kuTvnilebaa.

mis safuZvels Seadgens bunebis rogorc suliT da

azriT aRsavse cocxali mTlianobis aRqma. ase aRiqvamda

bunebas, magaliTad, baraTaSvili: `mrwams, rom ars

ena ram saidumlo uasakoTac da usulT Soris, da ucxoveles

sxvaTa enaTa ars mniSvneloba maTis saubris!~.

romantikosebi Tvlian, rom bunebis sulis wvdoma, misi

metyvelebis mosmena da gageba, masTan Sinagani dialogi

da urTierTgandoba SesaZlebelia. buneba maTi mesaidumlea,

aq egulebaT is, ris povnac adamianebSi uWirT

_ utyuari WeSmariteba, namdvili sulieri Tanaziaroba,

Tavisi fiqrebis da grZnobebis gamoZaxili. `bunebaSi

yvelaferi suls enaTesaveba da sulis Tanxmieria,

is yvela simReras pasuxs aZlevs, is eqoa da xSirad

pirveli iwyebs imis mReras, rasac me vfiqrob...~ _

ambobs, magaliTad, erTi romantikosi mwerali...

aseTi Tvalsazrisi gasagebs xdis, ratom aris buneba

romantikuli gmiris TavSesafari: igi bunebaSi aRar

aris marto, igi ganmartoebulia. Tu martooba mZime da

usiamovnoa, ganmartoeba, piriqiT, sasurveli mdgomareobaa,

Sinaganad savse da nayofieri. bunebis meoxebiT

martooba ganmartoebad gardaiqmneba.

ilias lirikuli gmiric bunebasTan `idumali kavSiriT~,

`TanxmobiT~ martoobisgan Tavisufldeba, Tanam-

52


grZnobels da Tanamoazres poulobs, es ki tipiuri

romantikuli situaciaa.

mas axlavs romantizmis iseTi niSandoblivi atributic,

rogoric Ramis saxea.

`Ramis saxes romantikul xelovnebaSi orgvari mniSvneloba

aqvs. erTi mxriv, Rame aris yofierebis pirquSi

xasiaTis simbolo. misi siSave samyaros bneli koloritis

gamoxatulebaa. mdabali da civi samyaro TiTqos

wyvdiadiT aris dafaruli. Rame gamouvali, pesimisturi

gancdebis Tanxmieria. Rameuli peizaJis fonze

trialdeba saSinelebebi, adamianebis cxovrebaSi erevian

Semzaravi imqveyniuri Zalebi, xdeba koSmaruli dana-

Saulobebi, iRviZebs usufTao sindisis qenjna... meore

mxriv, dRis usaxur cxovrebas RameSi gaurbian. Rame

axdens samyaros winaaRmdegobebis vualirebas, ukmari

harmonia Seaqvs samyaroSi. RamiT aexdeba cxovrebas

saburveli, romelic WeSmaritebas gvimalavs, qreba

TvalismomWreli sinaTle, samyaros namdvili arsi ki

Tavisi siSiSvliT warmogvidgeba. adamianis suli intimurad

exeba qveynierebis sulier arss, masSi cocxldeba

da iRviZebs dRis zedapiruli cxovrebis mier Cakluli

grZnobebi~ (v. vanslovi, romantizmis esTetika).

am Sexedulebis sailustraciod romantikuli poeziis

oriode qrestomaTiuli nimuSi gavixsenoT. Tavis

erT leqsSi Rameuli harmoniis aseT suraTs qmnis lermontovi:

`Выхожу одни я на дорогу, Сквозь туман кремнистый

путь блестит. Ночь тиха. Пустыня внемлет Богу… И звезда с

звездою говорит~.

samyaros RvTaebrivi wesrigi, romelic dRisiT uCinaria,

RamiT TvalsaCino xdeba. marTlac, `adamianis suli

intimurad exeba qveynierebis sulier arss~. mis winaSea

ara mkvdari da utyvi materia, aramed goniT da

metyvelebiT dajildoebuli qmnileba.

Ramis saSineli saxe ki SegviZlia davinaxoT, vTqvaT,

tiutCevis leqsSi `dRe da Rame~. `И бездна нам обнажена С

своими страхами и мглами, И нет преград меж ей и нами – Вот

почему нам ночь страшна!~.

53


Rame samyaros gonebiT miuwvdomel, iracionalur

siRrmeebs aSiSvlebs da am gaugebari uZirobis pirispir

adamians uzomo SiSi ipyrobs.

iliaseul Ramis saxeSi am fenomenis orivenairi

romantikuli gaazrebaa SeTavsebuli. igi harmoniulic

aris da saSinelic. garegnulad aq harmonia sufevs _

adamiani uaxlovdeba bunebas, raRac idumali ZaliT

mis enas igebs, mis suls wvdeba; martooba gadalaxulia.

amitom saxis zedapiri mTlianobaSi sakmaod wynaria,

magram mis miRma Rameuli STabeWdilebebiT aRZruli

SiSia mimaluli.

ilia erTianad uaryofs yovelive amas, uaryofs

romantikul msoflgagebas da esTetikas.

uaryofis mTavari samizne, rasakvirvelia, Ramis

SiSmomgvreli iracionaluroba da idumalebaa _ ganzogaddeba

lirikuli gmiris mier RamiT gancdili SiSi,

misi sakuTari sulieri gamocdileba. `hoi, bnelo Ramev,

mejavrebi Sen me! Sen rom ar daarsebuliyav qveynisaTvisa,

me mgonia, rom naxevari ubedurebac adamianisa

qveyanazed ar iqneboda. SenTa movlenaTa dasces

pirvelad Tavzari adamianis gonebasa da daafrTxes igi.

mas aqeT SeSinebulsa gza Tavisi ver upovnia, _ da aha,

ibrZvis adamiani da dRevandlamde aTasSi erTsa Tavisi

erTxel damfrTxali goneba frTxolas ver gadauCvevia.

ai mizezi qveynis ubedurebisa~. romantikul msoflgagebasTan

kamaTSi mkvidrdeba racionalisturi, gonebis

Zalis rwmenaze daSenebuli msoflmxedveloba.

gonebam Tavi unda daaRwios SiSs garemomcveli samyaros

winaSe da Tavisi SesaZleblobebi ganaxorcielos,

adamianis cxovrebis gezismimcemad iqces _ aseTia

Ramisadmi mimarTuli inveqtivis gamWvirvale Sinagani

azri. swored es azri ganasxvavebs Ramis saxis iliaseul

interpretacias im romantikuli Tvalsazrisisgan,

romlis mixedviTac Rame samyaros namdvili bunebis

_ bneli iracionalurobis anareklia da amitom

misi saSinelebis Zleva SeuZlebelia, mas mxolod ganicdian

da Wvreten. iliasTvis ki Ramis saSinelebas ara

aqvs substancia, igi SeiZleba gaqres da unda gaqres ki-

54


dec. es moxdeba Tu ara, imazea damokidebuli, danebdeba

Tu moereva SiSs goneba. ilia TiTqos mecnierulad

ganmartavs Ramis fenomens, mis raobas da `qveynis ubedurebis

mizezs~ adgens _ racionalisturia aramarto

ilias zogadi pozicia, aramed azrovnebis wesic.

Ramis saxes TandaTan Sordeba yovelgvari romantikuli

iracionalizmi, metafizikuri ganzomileba, is

realisturi SinaarsiT ivseba. `hoi, bnelo Ramev, mejavrebi

Sen me. Senis kalTis qveSa, vin icis, ramdeni gaborotebuli

mteri adamianisa exla Tavs imalavs? vin

icis, am bnel fardis qveS, romelic exla Cems Tvals

Camoafare, ramdeni mWedveli da mtarvali qveynisa

sWedavs borkilTa adamianis bedis SesaWedad?~. ilias

ganmanaTlebluri SexedulebiT, gonebis daTrgunuloba,

umecreba tiranebis mokavSirea, maTi batonobis ganmamtkicebelia.

adamians emuqrebian ara idumali, aramed

savsebiT realuri socialuri Zalebi da Rame maT

simbolurad gamoxatavs.

amasTanave irRveva Ramis romantikuli harmoniac,

Rameuli simSvide da myudroeba, zmanebebi gafantulia.

`wariReT es bneli da mSvidobiani Rame Tavisi ZiliTa

da sizmrebiTa...~. es gasagebic aris, `mSvidobianoba~

xom moCvenebiTi da zedapirulia, saSinelebis SemniRbveli.

daSinebuli gonebis umweoba samyaros winaSe badebs

iluziebs da ilia uaryofs Rames rogorc iluziebis

mSobels. `Sen (Rame) xar xelis Semwyobi im xelobisa,

romelsac TvalTmaqcobas eZaxian da romelic

adamianis damfrTxal gonebasa ubedurebas bednierebad

aCvenebs xolme~. yvelafers, rac sinamdviles gva-

Sorebs, rac mas idealizebulad warmogvidgens, arsebobis

ufleba erTmeva. sinamdvilis mkacrad realisturi

xedva, iluziebisgan Tavisufleba iliasTvis erTaderTi

swori poziciaa. es pozicia `mgzavris werilebis~

dasawyisSive ikveTeba, sadac mwerali ironiulad SeniSnavs:

`amboben: И дым отечества нам сладок и приятен. kvamlis

sitkboebazed ki ukacravad, da siamovnebazed ki

imas mogaxsenebT, rom kvamli friad sasiamovnoa... imis-

Tvis, rom kvamli Tvals efareba da marTlWvretas uS-

55


lis... oh, mamulis kvamlo, marTla-da tkbili da sasiamovno

xar: xandaxan ise agvibam Tvalebs xolme, rom Cven

Cvens sakuTar ubedurebasac vera vxedavT~. cxadia,

`marTlWvretas~ Rameuli iluziebic verafriT

daexmareba.

iracionalizmTan da idumalebasTan erTad ilia

emijneba romantikul individualizms. rogorc davinaxeT,

mis lirikul gmirs bunebasTan idumalma siaxlovem

martooba Seuvso, martooba sulierad savse ganmartoebiT

Seucvala, magram Semdeg aRmoCndeba, rom es

iluziaa, sruliad arasakmarisi da aradamakmayofilebelia.

`daRamda, miswyda adamianis fexis xma, miswyda

adamianis morWmuli xmauroba, aRar ismis misis daRlilis

zrunvisa da wadilis guguni, qveynis tkivilma dai-

Zina, adamiani aRara Cans Cems garSemo. vai, ra carielia

es savse qveyana uadamianod!~. Rame intimuri cxovrebis,

sakuTar TavSi CaRrmavebis, martoobis Tu ganmartoebis

droa, rodesac adamiani mowyvetilia sociums. am

dros igi Wvretas eZleva, uSualod da faqizad ukav-

Sirdeba samyaros da Tavisi Tavis arss. amitom RamiT

romantikuli individualizmi gasaqans poulobs.

ilia uars ambobs ganmartoebaze socialuri cxovrebis

sasargeblod. igi uars ambobs agreTve pasiur

romantikul mWvretelobaze aqtiuri moqmedebis

sasargeblod.

romantizmTan ilias dapirispirebis simkveTres

cxadyofs aseTi kontrastic.

`nuTu dila gardauvalia?~ _ SeSfoTebiT kiTxulobs

novalisi `himnebSi Ramisadmi~. magram swored is,

rac romantikoss aSfoTebs, iliasTvis damaimedebelia.

`daRamda, magram ar vici, ras viqmodi, rom imedi ara

mqondes kvlav gaTenebisa. sicocxle sicocxledRa

eRireboda?.. miyvars, bunebav, Seni dawyobiloba, romlis

meoxebiTac yoveli Rame Tendeba xolme~. `himnebSi

Ramisadmi~ naTqvamia: `vinc igema dafaruli, vinc idga

msoflios umaRles, sasazRvro mwvervalze da Caixeda

dabla, Seucnobel siRrmeSi, Ramis sabudarSi, WeSmaritad,

igi ar dabrundeba miwier oromtrialSi, qveya-

56


naSi, sadac maradiuli gangaSia da batonobs sinaTle~.

ilias lirikuli gmiri ki TiTqos am azris gasabaTileblad

zurgs aqcevs `Ramis sabudars~ da brundeba `miwier

oromtrialSi~.

ilia mosinjavs romantikul pozicias, mcire xniT

ikavebs kidec am pozicias, Semdeg ki mTlianad uaryofs

mas. romantizmTan polemikaSi ayalibebs igi Tavis

mrwamss. es aris kamaTi literaturul-kulturul

tradiciasTan, romelic, ra Tqma unda, saqarTveloSic

arsebobs. kerZod, Ramis esTetikis gamovlinebaa grigol

orbelianis `saRamo gamosalmebisa~, `Rame~ an

baraTaSvilis `SemoRameba mTawmindaze~, Tumca es

poetebic upiratesobas aniWeben da mZafrad mieltvian

sinaTles _ qarTuli mxatvruli azrovnebis saerTo

tendencia aqac Tavs iCens. grigol orbeliani wers: `vi-

Ta RameSi gzasa mavali hgrZnobs idumalad siamovnesa,

odes varskvlavi dilis win msrboli mkrTolvarebs zecas

laJvardovansa da moaswavebs dResa naTelsa~. xolo

baraTaSvilis leqsi, romelSic daisis mTeli mSveniereba

da idumalebaa nagrZnobi, mTavrdeba paradoqsulad

_ bindis gamrRvevi sinaTlis natvriT.

magram Ramis saxe qarTul romantizmSi aris da masSi

romantizmis araerTi mxare mJRavndeba _ iracionalizmi,

bunebis kulti, individualizmi, WvretiToba,

rac metnaklebad qarTveli romantikosebis SemoqmedebaSic

SeimCneva. amdenad imis miuxedavad, rom ilia maT-

Tan bevri ramiT memkvidreobiTad aris dakavSirebuli,

polemika maTkenac aris mimarTuli; magram ara uSualod

da ara upiratesad _ ilias mxedvelobaSi uwinares

yovlisa aqvs zogadad romantizmi rogorc specifikuri

msoflgageba da esTetikuri sistema.

romantizmTan ilias mimarTeba ar aris erTgvarovani,

radgan TviT romantizmic ar aris erTgvarovani

da ilias masSi, bunebrivia, izidavs maZiebeli azri,

meamboxuri suli, rasac `mgzavris werilebSi~ baironi

ganasaxierebs. romantizmis garkveuli tendenciebi ki

iliasTvis miuRebelia, radgan isini Seurigebel wina-

57


aRmdegobaSia mis socialur-erovnul da esTetikur

poziciasTan.

gava dro da ilia WavWavaZis mier uaryofili esTetika

ganaxlebuli saxiT qarTul simbolizmSi gacxaddeba.

galaktion tabiZe, romlis poeziac mniSvnelovanwilad

Rameuli poeziaa, ityvis: `gana SuaRames ara aqvs

Tavis ganumeorebeli silamaze, rogorc magaliTad

mzis amosvlas?~; xolo Tavis simbolistur SemoqmedebiT

kredos ase Camoayalibebs: `axal stilSi aris bundovaneba

da am nislSi Zlivs gasarCevad irevian crumorwmunoebis

sanTlebi, uZilo Rameebis saSiSari aCrdilebi,

saSineli Rameebi, sulieri qenjna, romelic iRviZebs

sul mcireoden xmaurobaze, saocari ocnebebi,

romlebic gaukvirdeboda dRis sicxades...~.

58

1987


zneobrivi dilema

SurisZiebis istoria, romelic `glaxis naambobSia~

moTxrobili, banaluri iqneboda, garTulebuli rom ar

iyos seriozuli eTikuri problemebis gaazrebiT.

ilias es nawarmoebi dRemde sainteresoa Tavisi sulier-moraluri

koliziebiT da zneobrivi koncefciiT,

mwerlis gamaxvilebuli eTikuri TvalTaxedviT da

mgrZnobelobiT, romelic masSi vlindeba.

moTxrobis Sinagan, azrobriv dramatizms gansazRvravs

da mis ideur-zneobriv koncefcias ayalibebs

mRvdlis saxis da gabrielis bedis urTierTmimarTeba.

is, rasac mRvdeli qadagebs, Seicavs gabrielis cxovrebis

zneobrivi gagebis kriteriums. Tavis mxriv

gabrielis Tavgadasavali mRvdlis miswrafebebis realobasTan

Sesabamisobis gamocdaa.

ori mTavari principia mRvdlis qadagebaSi _ adamianis

Rirseba da moyvasis Tavdadebuli siyvaruli.

mRvdeli gabriels pirvel rigSi imas Caagonebs, rom yoveli

adamiani RvTis Svilia da amdenad Rirsebis mqone

da Tanasworia. Tanasworobas, Tavisi epoqis erT-erT

yvelaze gavlenian ideas, ilia qristianul mrwamsze

afuZnebs. `yvelas gulSi, _ eubneba gabriels mRvdeli

_ batonia Tu yma, me var Tu Sena, _ RvTisagan an-

Tebuli cecxli anTia, is cecxli ar unda gavaqroT, Tu

gvinda, rom pirnaTlad SeveyaroT Cven gamCensa~. Rirsebis

grZnoba, romelsac mRvdeli gabriels uRvivebs,

mis adamianur bunebas Rrmad SeeTviseba.

Rirsebis grZnoba moyvasis siyvarulisgan ganuyofelia

_ adamianis Rirsebis safuZveli is aris, rom mas

moyvasis siyvarulis da samsaxuris unari RmerTisgan

aqvs miniWebuli. mRvdeli piradi magaliTiT da emociuri

sityvis, Segonebis ZaliT gabriels qristianuli

siyvarulis momxibvlelobas aziarebs. unda iTqvas,

rom Tumca mRvdlis saxeSi Warbadaa didaqtikur-ritorikuli

elementebi da igi sworxazovnad idealizebulia,

mainc mas aqvs mxatvruli simarTle, romelsac

59


upirveles yovlisa qmnis metyvelebis wrfeli, guliTadi

toni, metyvelebis suliereba da siTbo...

mRvdlisgan gabrieli moyvasis siyvaruls SeiTvisebs

aramarto rogorc movaleobas, aramed upiratesad

rogorc Rrma sulier moTxovnilebas. moyvasis siyvaruli,

TanagrZnoba, samsaxuri, misTvis Tavganwirva

gabrielis mowodebad iqceva.

amitom patimrobidan daxsnili gabrieli Zneli dilemis

winaSe aRmoCndeba: erTi mxriv, moyvasis qristianuli

siyvaruli, Tanalmoba da erTguleba, misi adamianuri

Rirsebis dacva, rac am SemTxvevaSi, gabrielis

gagebiT, Tavisi damcirebuli da gawiruli axloblebisTvis

SurisZiebas gulisxmobs; meore mxriv, aseve

qristianuli zneobrivi kanonebi, romlebic adamians

adamianis kvlas ukrZalavs da mtris patiebas avalebs.

am dilemis gadaWrisas gabrielis cnobiereba qristianul

zneobas paradoqsulad gardatexs da igi uZaladobis

da mimteveblobis nacvlad moyvasis da saku-

Tari adamianuri Rirsebis Tundac momakvdinebeli ZaladobiT

dacvas miiCnevs qristianis valad.

magram SurisZiebis Semdeg gabriels tanjavs fiqri,

sworia Tu ara mis mier borotebis Camdenis sikvdiliT

dasja RvTaebrivi samarTlis TvalsazrisiT da RvTis

samsjavro aSinebs. Tumca es ar niSnavs, rom igi inaniebs.

rogor vlindeba monanieba analogiur viTarebaSi,

Cans Sileris `yaCaRebis~ SurismaZiebeli gmiris

mimarTvaSi RmerTisadmi: `Cemnair or adamians SeeZlo

samyaros zneobrivi wesrigis mTeli Senobis dangreva!

Seiwyale patara biWi, romelmac gadawyvita daeswro

Seni samsjavrosTvis! Senia Surisgeba da Sen miageb. Sen

ar gWirdeba adamianis xeli~. sinanuliT Sepyrobil am

personaJs axsendeba bibliuri formula, romelic SurisZiebas

ara adamianis, aramed RmerTis prerogativad

saxavs. xolo ilias gmiri TavisTavs aniWebs uflebas

gansazRvros, rogori adamianis mkvleloba ar iqneba

`didi codva~ da am uflebas bolomde ar Tmobs.

eWvis, tanjvis da SiSis miuxedavad gabrieli mainc

miiCnevs, rom misi qmedeba mRvdlis mier misTvis naqa-

60


dagebi qristianuli moZRvrebis Sesatyvisia. mRvdlis

kiTxvas, Tu ram gariya da dasca igi, sikvdilis win is

amayad pasuxobs: `im cecxlma, romelic yvelas RvTisagan

gulSi gvinTia, rogorc Sen erTxel mibrZane~.

mRvdlisTvis gabrielis xvedri gansakuTrebulad

mtkivneuli unda iyos, radgan es xvedri imaze metyvelebs,

rom qristianuli moralis aRzeveba batonymobis

pirobebSi iluziaa...

avtoris Rrma simpaTia da TanagrZnoba gabrielisadmi

aSkaraa, magram misi damokidebuleba nawarmoebSi

wamoWrili SurisZiebis dilemisadmi aseve aSkarad

gamoxatuli ar aris. SesaZloa, es damokidebuleba miniSnebuli

iyos imiT, rom ziarebis mouTmenlad momlodine

SurismaZiebeli uziarebeli kvdeba...

Tumca mTavaria, rom moTxrobaSi SurisZiebis Sefaseba

siuJetis mTeli mxatvruli logikiT aris

gamokveTili.

arsebiTia is garemoeba, rom daTiko patimrobidan

inkognitod aTavisuflebs adamianebs, romlebic misi

mtrebi arian da safiqrebelia, ar daindoben. imas, rom

daTikos savsebiT Segnebuli aqvs Tavisi moqmedebis mosalodneli

Sedegebi, mowmobs misi sikvdiliswina dialogi

gabrielTan. `mainc Senis xeliT movkvdi! gaxsovs,

maSin rom giTxari: sanTel-sakmeveli Tavis gzas ar

dahkargavs-meTqi, aki ar dahkarga... _ risTvis dagvixseni?..

_ vera hxedav? ai, am dRisTvisa~.

patimrebis damxsneli daTiko am adamianebis mimteveblobis

imeds itovebs, magram mzad aris imisTvisac,

rom SurisZiebis samizne iyos. misi moulodneli sasikeTo

qmedebis motivi sinanulze, sindisis qenjnaze

metad aristokratuli Rirsebis grZnoba Cans, romelic

man Selaxa, roca gabrieli motyuebiT daaWerina.

daTikom Tavisi Rirsebis mimarTac Secoda da upirvelesad

am Secodebis gamosyidva unda. mas surs daamtkicos,

rom ar eSinia gabrielis, daadasturos Tavisi

vaJkacoba (amitom nanobs sikvdilisas, rom gabriels

`niSanic ver daasva~, `usaxelod moekvlevina~).

61


daTiko kvdeba mkvlelis mimarT upiratesobis SegnebiT.

mas aqvs kidec moraluri upiratesoba, radgan

gvian, magram mainc gamoiCina aristokratuli sulis

sifarTove, misma mowinaaRmdegem ki qristianuli patieba

ver SeZlo. `mSvidobiT da gamarjvebiT, gamarjvebulo

gabriel!~ _ ironiulad JRers es sityvebi,

radgan sinamdvileSi gabrieli damarcxebulia. momakvdavi

dascinis SurismaZiebels, romelsac marcxi agema:

`tuCebzed iseTi Rimi SerCa, TiTqo daicinebao. hm,

siciliT mokvda, tiriliT naSobi~.

gabrielis SurisZieba fuWi aRmoCndeba, daTikos moulodneli

moraluri saqcieli, sikvdilisTvis mzadyofna

da sikvdilTan mSvidi Sexvedra mas zneobriv

sazriss aclis. SurisZieba dakninebulia daTikos uSfoTveli

sikvdilis da momakvdavi gabrielis SfoTvis

kontrastiTac. isic mravlismetyvelia, rom kaci, romlis

arsebobis mTavari impulsi Rirsebis grZnoba iyo,

sicocxles amTavrebs rogorc `glaxa~, maTxovari.

Tu poemaSi `ramdenime suraTi anu epizodi yaCaRis

cxovrebidan~ gmirebi, romlebic usamarTlobis pasuxad

sisxls Rvrian, romantizebulebi arian, `glaxis

naambobSi~ amgvari romantika adgils ver povebs. saer-

Todac ilias socialur-eTikuri poziciis Sinagani dinamika

revoluciuri radikalizmidan qristianuli humanizmisken

aris mimarTuli.

poemisgan gansxvavebiT moTxrobaSi nebismieri

mkvleloba Sefasebulia qristianuli moralis TvalsazrisiT

_ rogorc codva (`kacis kvla, rac unda iyos,

mainc codvaa~). problema aq is aris, SeiZleba Tu ara

mkvlelobis codva gamarTlebuli iyos Tundac iseTi

faseulobebis dafuZnebis aucileblobiT, rogoricaa

moyvasis siyvaruli, adamianis Rirseba, samarTlianoba.

es problema Soreulad exmianeba XIX saukunis rusul

literaturaSi tragikuli siRrmiT gamJRavnebul dilemas

_ dasaSvebia Tu ara kaciskvla didi Rirebulebebis

da miznebis gansaxorcieleblad.

ilias wams, rom adamianis sicocxle xelSeuxebeli

faseulobaa, radgan TviT zneobrivad ukiduresad deg-

62


adirebul adamianSic ar SeiZleba mTlianad aRmofxvrili

iyos moraluri sawyisi, mTlianad Camqrali iyos

`RvTisagan anTebuli cecxli~; amitom Tavisi tanjuli

gmirisadmi mwvave TanagrZnobis miuxedavad ver amarTlebs

mis SurisZiebas. arsebiTad es aris sikvdiliT

dasjasTan ilias dapirispirebis pirveli gamoxatuleba.

ilias zneobrivi poziciis simarTle gansakuTrebiT

sagrZnobi da cxadi xdeba, roca `samarTliani~ mkvlelobis

moralur normad revoluciur-totalitaruli

damkvidrebis tragikul Sedegebs viTvaliswinebT meoce

saukuneSi.

1987

63


`yovlad Zlieri mSveniereba~

mwuxare filosofoss uwodebda kita abaSiZe ilia

WavWavaZis gandegils. marTlac, ilias gmiri moazrovne,

samyaros da adamianis raobaze dafiqrebuli kacia,

romelsac garkveuli msoflmxedveloba aqvs - igi pesimistia,

Tvlis, rom miwieri arseboba, cxovreba Tavisi

arsiT boroteba da codvaa. es Tvalsazrisia misi gandgomis

wanamZRvari, gandgomis sxva, piradul-biografiuli

motivebi poemaSi ar Cans. is gandegilia imitom,

rom cxovrebas aRiqvams rogorc erTian da yovlismomcvel

borotebas; gandegiloba Rrma pesimizmis

Sedegia.

`... ganSorebia, viT codvis sadgurs,

viT sameufos borotisasa,

sadac marTali gzas ver auqcevs

gansacdelsa mas eSmakisasa;

sad codva kacsa sdevnis dRe da Ram,

viTa mparavi da mtacebeli.

sad, rasac hxadis marTali marTlad,

mas umarTlobad hqmnis codvis xeli;

sad ryvna, wawymeda da Ralatia,

sadac Zma hxarobs sisxlsa Zmisasa,

sad cili, zakva Zulebada hxdis

wminda siyvaruls moyvasisasa.

ganSorebia am wuTisofels,

sad yovli niWi macdurebaa,

sad TviT siturfe da saTnoeba

eSmakis maxe da cdunebaa~.

meoce saukunis erTi poeti ambobs, rom `cxovreba is

adgilia, sadac cxovreba SeuZlebelia~. ase fiqrobs

gandegilic. misi azriT, amqveyniur arsebobaSi maRali

sulieri, eTikuri Rirebulebebi ganuxorcielebelia;

aq yvela faseuloba ganwirulia saimisod, rom gadagvardes

da antifaseulobad iqces: samarTlianoba _

usamarTlobad, siyvaruli _ siZulvilad, sikeTe _

borotebad; yvelaferi cdunebas warmoadgens, yvela-

64


feri codviT aris wabilwuli, maT Soris mSvenierebac

(`TviT siturfe~); isic borotebisken ubiZgebs adamians

`borotis sameufoSi~; miwieri sinamdvile, adamianis

amqveyniuri yofa eSmakeulia da ara RvTaebrivi.

aseTi pirquSi msoflxedva bunebrivad karnaxobs

ilias gmirs cxovrebas gaecalos, mTlianad aramiwieri

sinamdvilisken Sebrundes da masTan miaxloebaze izrunos;

`borotis sameufoSi~ sulis xsna ar xerxdeba,

sulis siwmindis da simaRlis miRweva SeiZleba mxolod

am qveynis moZulebiT da misgan gandgomiT.

poemaSi am msoflmxedvelobrivi modelis da masze

damyarebuli adamianuri arsebobis wesis rRvevaa

warmosaxuli.

`gandegili~ msoflmxedvelobrivi tragediaa, tragediaa

adamianis, romelsac mrwamsi daemsxvra.

poemaSi asketis msoflmxedvelobrivi krizisi faqizad

aris motivirebuli. radikaluri asketizmis uaryofa

xorcieldeba avtoris sagangebo miTiTebebis,

ganmartebebis, gansjiT-analitikuri Carevebis gareSe,

avtoris tendenciis gamouaSkaraveblad. nawarmoebis

koncefcia gacxaddeba mxatvruli sinamdvilis obieqturi

logikiT, saxeTa metyveli SexamebiT da SepirispirebiT,

qveteqstebiT, miniSnebebiT.

`gandegilSi~ moqmedebis kvanZis ganaskvas, berTan

mwyemsi qalis misvlas win uswrebs aseTi pasaJi:

`mze gadaxrili jer kidev srulad

mTisa gadaRma ar dasuliyo

da mTis wverzed, viT cecxlis borbali

irgvliv sxivgaSliT anTebuliyo.

cisa laJvardi, viT nakverCxali,

wiTlad da yviTlad mzisgan hRuoda,

da gamsWvaluli misiT Rrubeli

Sors aTas-ferad sxivebSi hTrToda.

ama ubiwo diadis xilviT

wartyvevnil iqna ganyenebuli

da viT cxovels xats RvTis didebisas

Sescqerda mzesa gancvifrebuli~.

65


mSvenieri sanaxaoba Tvals stacebs gandegils, niv-

Tieri, materialuri samyaros ucnauri silamaze xiblavs

da, rac mTavaria, am silamazeSi igi RmerTis sidiadis

gamovlinebas xedavs. amqveyniur, xilul mSvenierebaSi,

grZnobad silamazeSi Cans RmerTi da gandegils

aocebs es; Turme nivTieri SeiZleba RvTiuri

iyos, nivTieri sinamdvilis mSveniereba RvTaebrivia,

mSveniereba RvTis `cxoveli xatia~.

Znelia imis Tqma, rom gandegili acnobierebs yovelive

amas, magram es Rrma emociuri STabeWdileba swored

aseT azrs moaswavebs, aseTi azris Canasaxs Seicavs,

romelic Semdeg gaRvivdeba da gamoikveTeba.

asketis mrwamss pirveli, Znelad SesamCnevi, magram

sabediswero bzari aq uCndeba, aq iwyeba gandegilis

ideuri marcxis motivireba.aqve Semodis nawarmoebSi

mSvenierebis Tema, romelic mwyemsi qalis gamoCenisas

kidev ufro Zlierad aJRerdeba. gandegils kvlav uCveulo

silamaze warmoudgeba.

`TviT madls trfobisas rom moesurvos

xorcsxmulad vlena odesme qveynad,

ukeTess saxes ver inatrebda

Tavis sicxovlis gamomsaxvelad.

maSinac vin sTqvas, _ vin vis amSvenebs,

madli am saxes, Tu saxe madlsa!..

TviT Suri, mtroba ver upovida

qals mSveniersa verafers naklsa.

mis TvalTa elviT, RawvTa SuqfeniT,

gul-mkerdis rxeviT vin ar aTrToldes!..

daxe mis tuCTa!.. TiTqo TviT trfobas

Tvis nazi kocna zed darCenodes~.

qalis silamaze miwieria, xorcielia da igi Tavisi

miwierebiTve imdenad srulyofilia, rom religiursakraluri

cnebiT gamoxatuli maRali da cxovelmyofeli

Zalis _ siyvarulis `madlis~ mTeli sisavsis

damtevia; xorcieli silamaze araTu biwieri da codvili

ar aris, aramed `madliT~ aris mosili. beri jer-

66


jerobiT arc amas icnobierebs, magram aseTi azris

gamRvivebeli, pirvelis msgavsi emociuri STabeWdileba

axlac mZafria. qalis silamaze iseve aocebs gandegils,

rogorc mSvenieri mze _ RvTis xati: `gasaocari

raRac Sveneba gandegils Tvalwin warmoedgina~ _ `da

viT cxovels xats RvTis didebisas Sescqerda mzesa

gancvifrebuli~. igi amjeradac iseve moxibluli da

datyvevebulia, rogorc mzis xilvisas: `da ucodvelis

gulistkiviliT qals SeaCera tyveqmnili Tvali~ _ `ama

ubiwos diadis xilviT wartyvevnil iqna ganyenebuli~.

qalis silamaziT gandegilis moxibvla Semzadebuli da

gaadvilebulia mzis Casvlis RvTaebrivad mSvenieri

suraTis Wvretisas miRebuli mZlavri STabeWdilebiT.

gandegilis arseba ukve Riaa silamazisTvis, igi ukve

endoba nivTier silamazes, radgan RvTaebam swored

xilul, grZnobad mSvenierebaSi gaumJRavna Tavisi Tavi.

amitom aris, rom is dayveba qalis mSvenierebis zemoqmedebas

da winandeburad ar fiqrobs, rom `TviT siturfe

da saTnoeba eSmakis maxe da cdunebaa~.

`vis ar moimxrobs, moinadirebs

yovlad Zlieri mSveniereba!

Tqmula _ mxecic ki gaafTrebuli

mis win datkbeba da dawynardeba.

da dauwynarda Zals mSvenebisas

igi mwirica mwyrali, gulmSrali,

da ucodvelis gulistkiviliT

qals SeaCera tyveqmnili Tvali~.

mravlismetyvelia fsiqologiuri detali _ `ucodvelis

gulistkiviliT~. erotiul ltolvas mwyemsi

qalisadmi gandegili ar ganicdis, igi mxolod mojadoebulia

qalis mSvenierebiT da tkivils grZnobs imis

gamo, rom es araCveulebrivi silamaze misi arsebobis

miRmaa darCenili, rom misi cxovreba aseTi silamazis

gareSe mimdinareobs.

rogorc vxedavT, gandegilis Sinagan samyaroSi SesamCnevi

Zvrebi xdeba, asketis msoflmxedvelobis sa-

67


fuZveli Setortmanebulia. qalTan dialogSi igi arsebiTad

ganiaraRebuli ebmeba. saubrisas gamoaSkaravdeba

da dasruldeba is, rac manamde daiwyo. kamaTSi

gandegilis ioli damarcxeba ganpirobebulia imiT, rac

dialogs win uZRoda da Tan axlavs kidec, im STabeWdilebebiT,

romlebic mwiris suls ase aRelveben.

mwyobri mxatvruli logika vlindeba imaSi, rom

qalis alaparakebisTanave kvlav Cndeba mzis saxe.

`lamazi iyo am dRis saRamo,

ra-rig Svenoda mze damavali!

Sevxede Tu ar im mzes, im casa,

gavSterdi, veRar movsxlite Tvali.

RvTis saxesaviT gars Suqmosxmuli

mTis wverzed didi mze brwyinvalebda

da sakvirveli is sanaxavi

TvalTana erTad gulsa mtacebda...

magram ras izam, modi, guls uTxar,

_ kargs sanaxavze nu xar-Tqo xarbi!..~

qali iseve aRiqvams mzis Casvlas, rogorc gandegili

_ mzis mSvenierebaSi RvTis xats xedavs da moxiblulia

saocari silamaziT. amave dros is Seafasebs Tavis

STabeWdilebas da midis daskvnamde, romelsac mwiris

STabeWdilebac moicavs potenciurad _ miswrafeba

am RvTaebrivi silamazisken bunebrivia, ar aris

aRsakveTi.

es azri kidev ufro mkafiod Camoyalibdeba maSin,

roca qali ukve ara farul, aramed pirdapir kamaTs

gaumarTavs asketur msoflmxedvelobas.

68

`... miTqvams: iq yofna

ras argebs sulsa?

gana swyins RmerTs, rom kaci Sehxaris

qveyanas, RvTisve dabadebulsa?

vfiqrobdi: neta maS risTvis morTo

ese lamazad wuTisofeli?

gana misTvis, rom adamianma

SeaCvenos da aiRos xeli?~.


aseTia qalis mTavari argumenti _ ar SeiZleba uarsayofi

da mosaZulebeli iyos is, rac RvTis Seqmnilia

da TviTonac RvTiuria, RvTaebrivad mSvenieria.

amas eyrdnoba qalis momdevno argumenti: ucnauri

da gaugebaria im sulieri kavSirebis gawyveta, romlebic

adamians axloblebTan aerTebs da romlebSic

uTuod aris sikeTis da siyvarulis sawyisi.

`... ar gagondeba arc mama, deda,

an Zma, anu da, an saxli, kari?

nuTu mis dReSi ara gyolia

mokeTe, gulis Sematkivari?!~.

gandegilis cnobierebaze Zlier STabeWdilebas axdens

isic, rom qali mas uSualod da damajereblad

uCvenebs adamianuri axloblobis, guliTadi, siyvaruliT

gamsWvaluli adamianuri urTierTobis siZvirfases.

amgvar urTierTobas asaxierebs mwyemsi qalis da

misi mamis urTierTdamokidebuleba, romelic Tavisufalia

egoizmisgan, romelSic mTavari meore adamianze

uangaro zrunvaa _ SeuZlebelia aseT siyvarulSi

RvTiuri sawyisi ar davinaxoT da miviCnioT, rom igi

eSmakis mier adamianebisTvis dagebuli xafangia. es

ewinaaRmdegeba gandegilis mrwamss, rom amqveyniuri

sinamdvilis substancia borotebaa da yovelgvar sike-

Tes, siyvaruls boroteba nTqavs.

rac mTavaria, axla igi imitom veRar moiSveliebs

Tavis pesimistur Tvalsazriss, _ miwieri arseboba

`borotis sameufoa~_ rom TviTonve ixila, rogor

vlindeba RvTaeba amqveynad, Tanac mis winaSea iseve

mSvenieri arseba, rogoric RmerTis xatad warmoCenili

mzea. igi TviTonve xedavs da ganicdis imas, rasac qali

umtkicebs _ mzis xatis da qalis silamaze amqveyniuri

yofnis RvTaebrivi arsis cocxali gansaxierebaa. logikuri,

oRond sakmaod martivi argumentebi, romlebic

mas daupirispires, swored amis gamo xdeba mougeriebeli.

is, rom RmerTma `ese lamazad morTo wuTisofeli~

da amdenad wuTisofelze xelis aReba gaumarTlebelia,

69


gandegilisTvis ganyenebuli msjeloba ki ar aris,

aramed uSualod aRsaqmeli, TvalsaCino sinamdvilea.

aseT Setevas asketuri mrwamsi ver uZlebs.

`... ra giTxra Svilo?

yvelaze ufro suli tkbilia,

igi tyve aris wuTis-soflisa

da eg yoveli mis borkilia.

_ maS vinc qveynad varT, yvela wavwydebiT,

veRar davixsniT verafriT sulsa?

_ xsna yvelgan aris... xolo gza xsnisa

eseTi mergo me... ubedursa...~.

gandegili erTxel kidev gaibrZolebs, amqveyniurobas

sulieri swrafvebis damabrkoleblad acxadebs,

magram ara yovlismomcvel borotebad, rogorc adre;

misi radikaluri Tvalsazrisi aq Serbilebulia. amave

dros igi arapirdapir aRiarebs, rom `sulis~ garda

sxva ramec aris Zvirfasi (`yvelaze ufro suli tkbilia~

_ es aris pasuxi qalis naTqvamze: `an Sen rogor

sZleb uwuTisoflod! mere ici ki ra-rig tkbilia!~).

mTavari mainc is aris, rom gandegili iZulebulia

cnos _ `xsna yvelgan aris~. axla misTvis cxadi xdeba,

rom isini, vinc amqveyniuri cxovrebiT cxovroben, ar

`wawydebian~, rom miwieri sinamdvile RvTiuri arsis

mqonea da ara eSmakeuli `borotis sameufo~; xsnis gza,

romelsac adgas, ar yofila erTaderTi da xsnis sxva

SesaZleblobis fonze gansakuTrebiT sagrZnobia misi

siZnele, martoobis, usixarulobis simZime.

ase irRveva gandegilis pirquSi mrwamsi, ase aRmoaCens

igi, rom amqveyniuri sinamdvile arasworad Seufasebia

da amis gamo cxovrebis wesis arCevaSic Semcdara.

asketur msoflmxdvelobas amarcxebs `yovlad Zlieri

mSveniereba~, romlis RvTaebrivi warmomavloba da

arsi gandegils mzis xatma gaumJRavna da romelic Semdeg

qalis saxiT gamoecxada. igia asketizmis sawinaaRmdego

upirvelesi, ZiriTadi argumenti, dadasturebuli,

gaSlili da azris sicxademde miyvanili qalis

logikuri argumentebiT.

70


gandegilis Sinagan samyaroSi Zvelis uarmyofi axali

WeSmariteba ikveTeba. magram misTvis metad mtkivneulia

imis daTmoba, rac didi xnis manZilze wamda, rasac

amdeni sulieri energia Sealia da TiTqos miaRwia

kidec mizans. asketuri mrwamsi gandegils sisxlxorc-

Si aqvs gamjdari da asketis nawrTobi nebisyofa mTeli

ZaliT aRudgeba win axladSobil WeSmaritebas, cdilobs

mis CaxSobas.

oRond qalis araCveulebrivi mSvenierebis xibls

gandegili Tavs ver aRwevs. es mSveniereba kvlav RvTaebasaviT

amSvidebs; grZnobac, romelic qalisadmi uCndeba,

amaRlebulia da Tu gandegilma jer miwieri sinamdvilis

RvTiuroba aRmoaCina, axla araCveulebrivad

mSvenieri miwieri arsebis mimarT gaCenili am

grZnobis RvTiuroba xdeba misTvis gasagebi; sulis

RvTaebrivi aRzeveba, romelsac imqveynad moelis,

Turme amqveynadve SesaZlebelia.

`rogor iwamos da ra daarqvas

am jer ar-cnobils sitkboebasa?

Tu codva aris, egre rada hgavs

sulisTvis aRTqmul ukvdavebasa?~.

es msoflmxedvelobrivi Zvrebi gzas uxsnis gandegilis

ltolvas, eziaros qalis xorciel silamazes.

magram kvlav amoqmeddeba asketis zeadamianuri nebisyofa,

asketuri mrwamsis mZlavri iaraRi da mwiri

axerxebs Tavis Sekavebas, magram simSvides veRar moipovebs.

saSvelad RvTismSobels mimarTavs, magram misi

xati mwyemsi qalis saxes iRebs _ RvTaebrivad mSvenieri,

RvTaebrivi grZnobis aRmZvreli qali gandegilis

sulier samyaroSi RvTaebis adgils ikavebs, rac misi

msoflmxedvelobrivi metamorfozis bunebrivi dasasrulia,

asketuri cnobierebis TvalsazrisiT ki imis

niSania, rom gandegilma saSineli codva Caidina da

RmerTisTvis sasurveli aRar aris. amasve niSnavs isic,

rom sxivi locvans veRar daiWers.

71


qalisadmi xorcieli ltolvis aRkveTas gandegili

axerxebs. misi Secodeba ufro seriozulia _ man Sinaganad

irwmuna axali WeSmariteba, romelic uaryofs

asketur ideas. am Secodebis simZimes ver uZlebs igi.

arsebiTad gandegilis asketur sulier konstituciaSi

sicocxlisunarianobas inarCunebs mxolod askezaSi

gawvrTnili nebisyofa, romelsac Tavisi monapovris

daTmoba ar unda.

`nuTu iZlia! ara da ara!..

mis sasoeba ar dauZlurdes

da raca swyurda aqamde mis suls,

igive unda bolomde surdes!..~.

mtkice nebisyofiT aRWurvili asketuri cnobiereba

codvianad saxavs qalsac da mTel wuTisofelsac, Tumca

gandegilis Sinagani gamocdileba sruliad sapirispiros

metyvelebs. asketis nebisyofa imdenad mZlavri

gamodgeba, rom axal WeSmaritebas Trgunavs, xolo

TviTon, moklebuli sazriss, romelic axali WeSmaritebis

mier ukve gabaTilebulia, am sazrisis magivrobas

ver gawevs.

`gandegili~ tragikuli nawarmoebia. fiqroben, rom

mis tragizms qmnis `xorcis~ da `sulis~ Seurigebeli

konfliqti. magram es imas niSnavs, rom konfliqti gaiazreba

TviT asketuri msoflmxedvelobis kategoriebiT

_ am cnebebiT gandegili aRniSnavs mis arsebaSi

SebrZolebul Zalebs. sinamdvileSi, rogorc davinaxeT,

gandegili xorcis sisustis msxverpli ar aris.

xorcieli ltolva mas uCndeba bolos da niadags povebs

misi cnobierebis krizisis Sedegad. tragikuli koliziac

warmoiSoba personaJis sulier samyaroSi ori

msoflmxedvelobrivi principis dapirispirebis gamo -

_ asketur ideas upirispirdeba Tvalsazrisi, romlis

mixedviTac amqveyniuri sinamdvile Tavisi arsiT RvTaebrivia,

rasac mowmobs misi mSveniereba _ RvTis xiluli

xati; amdenad es sinamdvile ar aris uarsayofi, misken

swrafva ar aris codva, piriqiT, umaRlesi sulieri

72


moTxovnilebebis da Rirebulebebis xorcSesxma masSia

SesaZlebeli. magram am axal WeSmaritebas mtkiced damkvidreba

ar uweria, radgan Zalian Zlieria isic, rac

mas brZolas umarTavs _ asketuri TviTSegneba, asketuri

neba. es sawyisebi Tanabari Zalisaa da pirovnebis-

Tvis Tanabrad mniSvnelovania, amitom maTi Sejaxeba

mTavrdeba TviT pirovnebis ganadgurebiT.

aristoteles gansazRvrebis Tanaxmad, tragikuli

gmiris ubedureba Sedegia ara misi mankierebis da simdablis,

aramed mis mier daSvebuli Secdomis. gandegilis

tragikuli Secdoma, tragikuli brali msoflmxedvelobrivia

_ man SecdomiT Seafasa amqveyniuri arseboba

rogorc totaluri boroteba da mTlianad uaryo

igi. am Secdomis gacnobierebas gardauvalad moyveba

misi daRupva. daRupvis aucileblobas gansazRvravs

tragikuli personaJis buneba _ is ukompromiso maqsimalistia,

romelsac veraferi gaunelebs mrwamsis

msxvrevis tkivils.

tragikuli xelovneba tanjvis da TanagrZnobis xelovnebaa.

`tragikuli TavisTavSi moicavs usasrulo

Semwynareblobas~ (kirkegori). avtoric TanagrZnobiT

da SemwynareblobiT ekideba Tavis didbunebovan, sulieri

ZaliT gamorCeul gmirs. misTvis dasanania, rom am

gmiris Sinagani energia tragikuli Secdomis gamo

fuWad daixarja, ukvalod gaqra.

* * *

ilias `gandegilSi~, gansxvavebiT floberis `wminda

antonis cdunebisgan~ an zolas `abat mures Secodebisgan~,

ar aris antiqristianuli, antireligiuri tendencia.

aq asketuri idealis uaryofa xdeba qristianuli

msoflmxedvelobis safuZvelzeve (qristianobis farglebs

ar cildeba WeSmaritebis Zieba tolstois `mama

sergiSic~). rogorc mkvlevari g. kalandariSvili SeniSnavs,

`mwyemsma qalma mwiris senakSi moitana gulubryvilo

da wrfeli, xalxis mier guliT da ndobiT miRebuli

religia, gamotarebuli saukuneebSi~.

73


damaxasiaTebelia, rom pirquSi asketuri msoflgagebis

mcdaroba `gandegilSi~ danaxulia swored xalxis

TvaliT da es ilias Semoqmedebis saerTo kanonzomierebas

Seesabameba. `mgzavris werilebSi~ ubralo adamiani

ambobs mwerlis sanukvar saTqmels; `glaxis naambobSi~

da `oTaraanT qvrivSi~ xalxia zneobrivi idealis

Semnaxveli; moTxrobaSi `sarCobelazed~ gulubryvilo

glexis TvalTaxedviTaa aRqmuli da Sefasebuli

sikvdiliT dasjis simaxinje...

ilias mier asketizmisTvis dapirispirebuli sicocxlismoyvare

msoflmxedveloba, romelsac amqveyniuri

sinamdvilis arsad RvTiuri sikeTe da mSveniereba esaxeba,

axlosaa `vefxistyaosnis~ gammsWvalav msoflgagebasTan

_ boroteba ararsia, amqveyniuri samyaros

arsi aris sikeTe da mSveniereba, romelic RvTaebrivia

Tavisi warmomavlobiT da bunebiT; amdenad adamianebis

amqveyniuri moTxovnilebebi da swrafvebi arsebiTad

RvTaebrivia da maTi ganxorcieleba amqveynadvea

SesaZlebeli.

rusTavelis poemaSi da optimistur, amqveyniuri silamazis

moyvare da damfasebel nacionalur msoflaRqmaSi

poulobs ilia WavWavaZe asketizmis damZlev

pozitiur mrwamss.

yvelaferi is, rac `gandegilSi~ asketizmis daZlevaze

iTqva, unda Seivsos aucilebeli ganmartebiT:

ilias poemaSi marcxs ganicdis ara bermonazvnuri ideali

saerTod, aramed asketizmis ukiduresi forma, romelic

gulisxmobs amqveyniuri realobis absoluturad

uaryofiT Sefasebas da, aqedan gamomdinare, misgan

srul ganapirebas, yovelgvar adamianur urTierToba-

Tagan garidebas. amitom aris, rom nawarmoebis dasawyisSi

da finalSi mTavar gmirTan Sepirispirebulia berebis

krebuli, romelsac gandegilisgan ganasxvavebs

SemoqmedebiTi, aRmSeneblobiTi mizanswrafva _ igi

miudgomel adgilas RvTis taZars amkvidrebs. es aris

moyvasis qristianul siyvarulze dafuZnebuli Zmoba,

romlis arsebobis SesaZleblobasac gandegilis unugeSo

Tvalsazrisi gamoricxavs _ mis mier wuTisoflis

74


mitovebis mTavari motivi swored is aris, rom `cili,

zakva Zulebada hxdis wminda siyvaruls moyvasisasa~.

gasagebia, rom is, berebis Zmobis wevrTagan gansxvavebiT,

`sul martod-marto dayudebula~...

asketizmis ukiduresi forma ilias mxatvruli interesis

sagnad iqca misi zogadi msoflmxedvelobrivi

aspeqtebis gamo, romlebic Sordeba garkveuli kulturul-istoriuli

movlenis sazRvrebs. es aris pesimizmi

da ukiduresi individualizmi.

`gandegilis~ analizisas, Cveulebriv, pesimizmi _

ukiduresi individualizmis wanamZRvari _ yuradRebis

gareSe rCeba xolme da Zneldeba imis damajereblad

warmoCena, rogor marcxdeba poemaSi gandegiloba,

farTo gagebiT radikaluri individualizmi _ pesimizmis

Sedegi. ilias mxatvruli azrovneba ki logikurad

Tanmimdevrulia da nawarmoebSi uwinares yovlisa

swored pesimisturi msoflgagebis rRvevaa warmoCenili,

rac pesimizmis Tanmxleb radikalur individualizmsac

aclis safuZvels.

Tavisi azrTawyobiT da mizandasaxulobiT `gandegili~

bunebrivad da Rrmad aris dakavSirebuli qarTveli

xalxis erovnul-kulturul amocanebTan, romlebic

XIX saukunis meore naxevarSi gamoikveTa: erovnuli

aRorZinebis cda nayofieri SeiZleba mxolod maSin

iyos, Tu igi emyareba pozitiur msoflmxedvelobas,

pozitiur Tvalsazriss samyaros da adamianis Sesaxeb;

xolo Tu samyaro absoluturi borotebaa, Cixia, am

cdasac yovelgvari azri ekargeba; pesimizmi da ukiduresi

individualizmi, cxadia, qveynis ukeTes da

TviTmyofad momavals ver Seqmnis, saamisod aucilebelia

optimisturi msoflmxedveloba, rwmena, rom

samyaros, adamianis yofnas aqvs naTeli sazrisi, keTili

arsi; aucilebelia optimisturi mrwamsiT nasazrdoebi

socialuri aqtivoba.

am aucileblobis karnaxiT aris dawerili ilias

`gandegili~.

1987

75


akaki wereTeli

Rirsebis aRsadgenad

,,gamzrdelSi’’, baTusTan safar-begis stumrad misvlis

scenaSi aris aseTi metafora: safari xumrobiT ise

iqceva, TiTqos ucxoa, sagangebod ifaravs saxes da

baTu mas ver cnobs _ safar-begi Secvlilia, mas axla

sxva saxe aqvs, baTusTvis dafaruli da ucnobi.

safar-begs zneobriv saxes zia-xanumTan urTierToba

ucvlis, umRvrevs. safari ukve uzneobis gzazea

damdgari (zia-xanumis davaleba qurdobis da yaCaRobisken

ubiZgebs), am gzas miyavs baTus ojaxSi da im

borotebamde, romelsac iq Cadis.

safar-begis da zia-xanumis urTierTobaSi mTavaria

am adamianebis TavmoTneoba da pativmoyvareoba. mamakacebis

gulis dapyrobiT, imiT, rom maT Tavis nebaze

aTamaSebs, zia-xanumi, sabediswero qalis tipis gansaxiereba,

pativmoyvareobas da Zalauflebismoyvareobas

ikmayofilebs, tkbeba sakuTari momxibvleli ZaliT da

misi safar-begTan damokidebulebac amgvaria. Tumca

verc zia-xanumisadmi safaris damokidebulebas miviCnevT

namdvil siyvarulad, masac pativmoyvareoba amoZravebs

_ gamorCeuli qalis yuradRebis da simpaTiis

mopoveba misTvis sapatioa. safars rom zia-xanumi mar-

Tla uyvardes, is ver Caidenda imas, rac baTus ojaxSi

Caidina. safaris grZnoba namdvili rom ar aris, amas

mowmobs mis mier zia-xanumis davalebis sxvisTvis dakisrebac

_ igi apirebs sxvisi gakeTebuli saqme miiweros,

anu gulwrfeli ar aris qalis winaSe.

safaris Selaxuli morali megobarTan mis urTier-

Tobasac ayalbebs _ zia-xanumis davalebis SesrulebaSi

daxmarebis TxovniT faqtobrivad safari baTus

uzneo saqmis, qurdobis Cadenas avalebs, TviTon ki arc

iRebs monawileobas am saZraxisi da saxifaTo Canafiqris

ganxorcielebaSi. safaris damokidebuleba baTu-

76


sadmi angarebiania, gamoyenebiTia. yovelive es Seamzadebs

mis srul moralur kraxs.

gansxvavebiT zia-xanumis da safaris urTierTobisgan,

romelic damyarebulia egoizmze da pativmoyvareobaze,

sicrueze, baTus da nazibrolas siyvaruli

namdvilia, wrfelia da amitom masSi egoizmis da TavmoTneobisTvis,

sicruisTvis adgili ar rCeba. nazibrolas

moralurad ar SeuZlia SeiniRbos baTus wina-

Se, daumalos momxdari, xolo baTus damokidebuleba

colisadmi cxadyofs mis Tavisuflebas egoisturi

siamayisgan, TavmoTneobisgan. baTus urTierToba col-

Tan aRazasadmi joyolas delikaturobas gvaxsenebs.

baTus da nazibrolas siyvaruli umZimes gansacdels

uZlebs, radgan WeSmaritia.

zneobrivi gansacdeli, romelic baTus xvdeba wilad,

mas marto misi siyvarulis dangreviT ki ara,

sakuTari ZiZiSvilis mkvlelad qceviTac emuqreba. is

axerxebs amis Tavidan acilebas imiT, rom sjis codvils

ara fizikuri angariSsworebiT, aramed dandobiT,

sjis sindisis qenjniT da sircxviliT, amarcxebs,

Trgunavs mas Tavisi moraluri simaRliT. SesaZloa,

gansacdelisTvis Tavis Rirseulad daRwevas baTus

uadvilebs is, rom man momxdari mis mier Cadenili

qurdobis samarTlian RvTaebriv sazRaurad CaTvala _

baTus saubari colTan safuZvels gvaZlevs, ase vifiqroT

(`yovelgvari mosavali kacis Tavze uneburi,

RvTis risxvaa...~).

baTus winaSe Tavs Sercxvenilad safar-begis garda

haji-usubic grZnobs, romelsac baTum safaris piriT

arsebiTad is SeuTvala, rom zneobrivi Sefaseba unda

mieca aramarto safaris samarcxvino saqcielisTvis,

aramed sakuTari samarcxvino mdgomareobisTvisac, romelSic

aRmoCnda rogorc safaris aRmzrdeli. es kaci

ki Tavisi arsebobis azrs, mTel Tavis Rirsebas swored

aRmzrdelobaSi xedavs. baTus mier gamoCenili sulgr-

Zeloba, misi zneobrivi simaRle kidev ufro damTrgunvels

xdis haji-usubisTvis safaris sulmdablobas,

kidev ufro umZafrebs mas sircxvilis grZnobas. igi

77


ver egueba, rom aseTi Rirseuli kacis TvalSi damcirebuli

Candes. baTus winaSe sircxvilis Camorecxvis

da Rirsebis aRdgenis survili ubiZgebs haji-usubs

TviTmkvlelobisken, es aris misi qcevis realuri fsiqologiuri

motivi. Tu es motivi mxedvelobis miRma

dagvrCeba, SeiZleba haji-usubis TviTmkvleloba mxatvrulad

naklebad damajerebeli, `Teatralur-afeqtaciuri~

mogveCvenos.

78

2005


vaJa-fSavela

humanizmis ganwiruleba

`stumar-maspinZlis~ dasawyisSi joyolas da zviadaurs

Soris TiTqos konfliqti unda warmoiSvas, magram

ase ar xdeba da es erTaderTi arSemdgari, CanasaxSive

Camqrali konfliqtia am sastiki konfliqtebiT savse

poemaSi.

konfliqtis Tavidan acileba joyolas damsaxurebaa.

moulodnelia gulisxmiereba da sulis siuxve, romelsac

joyola iCens ucnobi xevsuris mimarT _ joyolasTvis

yoveli adamiani, misi erovnebis da sarwmunoebis

miuxedavad, upirveles yovlisa swored adamiania;

misTvis zviadauri ar aris mteri ubralod imis

gamo, rom is xevsuria; igi xevsurTa mTel modgmaSi

mtrebs apriorulad ar xedavs da es uCveuloa im samyaroSi,

romelSic dapirispirebul sazogadoebaTa ur-

TierToba `mtris xatzea~ damyarebuli. amiT ganiara-

Rebuli zviadauri dayveba joyolas nebas da did risks

wevs, stumrad midis Tavisi mtrebis banakSi.

qistur TemSi nebismieri xevsuris stumrad miyvana,

Tundac is qistebis gamorCeuli mteri ar iyos, ucnauri,

gamomwvevi saqcielia. rogorc Cans, Tavisi amgvari

araordinarulobis gamo joyola TemisTvis adrec

Znelad dasamorCilebeli adamiani iyo (mogvianebiT

Temi masze ambobs: `winad xom bevrjer agvria~). es

aris imis mizezi, rom Temi Tavidanve ar endoba mas,

iniRbeba, xrikebs mimarTavs masTan urTierTobaSi. Temis

da joyolas urTierTdamokidebulebaSi adreve

arsebuli daZabuloba zviadauris gamo uceb ifeTqebs,

mwvave konfliqtSi gadaizrdeba.

joyolas adamianuri bunebis sirTule Cans im moraluri

grZnobebis mravalgvarobaSi, romlebic mas zviadaurTan

akavSirebs maTi xanmokle, magram Rrma ur-

TierTobis safuZvelze. simpaTiis da sulieri naTesaobis

grZnobis garda es aris movaleobis grZnoba _ man

79


unda uzrunvelyos am adamianis xelSeuxebloba, romelic

TavisTan stumrad TviTon waiyvana; es aris TanagrZnoba,

sibraluli: joyolas umZims imis xilva, rogor

jabnian bevrni erT, umweo mdgomareobaSi Cavardnil

adamians (`uiaraRos awvalebT, guli rasa hgrZnobs

Tavada~); es aris sircxvilis grZnoba _ joyolas

rcxvenia zviadauris Tavis TanatomelTa qcevis gamo,

miTumetes ar surs TviTon Seelaxos Rirseba zviadauris

TvalSi, raime iseTi gaakeTos, rac zviadauris

winaSe moralurad daakninebs.

nawarmoebSi yvelaze didi zneobrivi gansacdelis

pirispir joyola aRmoCndeba. am gansacdelma mas SeiZleba

daakargvinos is, rac uZvirfasesi aqvs: pirovnuli

saxe, Rirseba, Sinagani Tavisufleba da damoukidebloba,

humanuroba. mTeli samyaro imisken ubiZgebs joyolas,

rom gawiros zviadauri, yvelaferze metad ki is,

rom Tu ase moiqceva, socialuri moralis TvalsazrisiT

marTali iqneba, ramdenadac zviadaurma moatyua,

Tavisi vinaoba daumala. magram arCevanis gakeTebisas is

emorCileba ara socialur morals, aramed mxolod sakuTar

pirovnul zneobas, yurs ugdebs mxolod sakuTari

sindisis, Rirsebis grZnobis, adamianurobis uRrmes

xmas da gadarCeba rogorc zneobrivi pirovneba.

joyola zneobriv gamocdas uZlebs maSinac, roca

aRaza umxels, rom zviadauri daitira. aRazas aRsarebaze

joyolas pasuxSi arsebiTia is, rom joyola _

damoukidebeli da Rirseuli pirovneba _ pativs cems

meore adamianis damoukideblobas da Rirsebas; mkacri,

uxeSi samyaros mkvidri, mtkice da Seupovari joyola

amasTanave sulierad faqizia, daxvewilia da ar iWreba

sxvis intimur samyaroSi, aRiarebs am samyaros xelSeuvalobas

(`me ra gamge var magisa?~). es aris adamianis

mier sxva adamianis Tavisuflebis aRiarebis umniSvnelovanesi

gamoxatuleba qarTul literaturaSi.

joyolas buneba, morali da msoflxedva dogmebiT

da crurwmenebiT SeuzRudavia, misTvis sulis simaRle

zogadadamianuri siqvelea (`diacs mudamac uxdeba

glova vaJkacis kargisa~).

80


joyolas pasuxSi Cans misi Rrma siyvaruli aRazasadmi,

radgan WeSmariti siyvarulis erT-erTi Zireuli

niSani sayvareli adamianis damoukideblobis aRiarebaa.

joyola rom bolomde ar ijerebs Sin dabrunebuli

aRazas naambobs, es ar aris colisadmi misi undoblobis

gamovlineba _ mas surs, rom aRaza savsebiT gulaxdili

iyos mis mimarT, arafers umalavdes da erTmane-

Tis winaSe sruli gulaxdilobis, siwrfelis es moTxovnilebac

Rrma siyvarulis niSania.

sulieri siRrmiT da sifaqiziT, iseve rogorc pirovnuli

avtonomiiT da sakuTari principebisTvis Tavis

gawirvis unariT joyola axlosaa aluda qeTelaurTan,

Tumca aludas Sinagani samyaro mainc ufro

rTulia, mtkivneuli fiqriT, azriT ufro mdidaria.

aluda did sulier cvlilebebs ganicdis, axal religiur

da eTikur faseulobebs miakvlevs, rasac joyolaze

ver vityviT _ is, rom mowinaaRmdege eTnosis

warmomadgenlebi `rjulZaRlebi~ da araadamianebi ar

arian, rac aludam Zlieri Sinagani Zvrebis Sedegad

aRmoaCina, joyolasTvis Tavidanve da TavisTavadve

cxadia. joyolas adamianuri arsi ki ar icvleba, aramed

vlindeba daZabul situaciebSi.

sulis sirTulis, sifaqizis miuxedavad joyola

monoliTuri pirovnebaa, romelsac bolomde myarad

wams sakuTari poziciis siswore TemTan konfliqtSi.

misgan gansxvavebiT aRazas Sinagan ZalasTan erTad

sisustec axasiaTebs, is rogorc qali ufro metad aris

damokidebuli sxvebis, sazogadoebis azrze, rac misi

saxis mxatvruli simarTlis da individualurobis

sayrdenia. aRaza TavisTavSi atarebs Temis cnobierebas,

mis TvalTaxedvas da am TvalTaxedviTac aRiqvams

da afasebs sakuTar fiqrebs, gancdebs, qmedebebs. Temis

SiSi, Temis winaSe sircxvili mas Tavisi Sinasamyaros

siRrmidan eZaleba da tanjavs, fantasmagoriis saxes

iRebs da ase atydeba Tavs. misi sulieri Tavisufleba,

mokluli zviadaurisadmi misi TanagrZnoba da mzrunveloba

miTufro namdvili da faseulia, rom xorcs

isxams didi Sinagani winaaRmdegobebis gamovlis, konf-

81


liqtebis gadatanis xarjze. aRazas saSineli martooba,

mis mier Tavisi saqcielis monanieba, am saTuTi arsebis

umweoba da sasowarkveTa avi, ulmobeli samyaros pirispir,

romelsac mdinaris sazareli xati asaxierebs,

yvelaferze ufro mtkivneulad gvagrZnobinebs amqveynad

humanisturi Rirebulebebis da idealis tragikul

ganwirulebas. poemis personaJTa Soris yvelaze mravalferovani

emociebis aRmZvreli aRazas saxea _ es

aris aramarto simpaTia da aRtaceba, aramed mwvave sibraluli

da dananebac. aRazas bunebas da xvedrs ireklavs

ufskrulis piras amosuli pirimzis xati _ cxovrebis

sisastike ganadgurebiT emuqreba faqiz adamianurobas,

keTilSobil, mSvenier adamianur grZnobebs

da miswrafebebs.

Tu joyola da aRaza Zneli zneobrivi arCevanis winaSe

dgebian, _ rogor moeqcnen kacs, romelsac maT

umaspinZles, is ki maTi uaxloesi adamianis mkvleli gamodga,

zviadauris winaSe martivi arCevania _ gardauvali

sikvdilis pirispir simtkicis SenarCuneba an sulieri

dacema. realurad aseTi alternativa zviadaurisTvis

arc arsebobs. imisTvis, rom saSualeba ar misces

Tavis mtrebs aramarto fizikurad, aramed sulieradac

moklan, mas mxolod is Wirdeba, iyos vinc aris _

Zlieri, uSiSari, mtris moZule meomari. SesaZloa,

zviadaurs Sinagani Zala da gamZleoba Semata joyolas

Tavganwirulma erTgulebam mis mimarT; sxva rom araferi

iyos, igi joyolas ver CamorCeba vaJkacobaSi, mis

TvalSi ver Seircxvens Tavs. zviadauris saxe yvelaze

ufro heroikulia da yvelaze naklebad tragikulia

nawarmoebSi.

zviadauris sikvdilis epizodSi ufro rTulad

gamoikveTeba masis saxe, romelic joyolas ojaxze Tavdasxmisas

erTmniSvnelovnad warmoCndeba rogorc agresiuli,

SurisZiebis JiniT Sepyrobili brbo. zviadauris

msxverplad Sewirvis scenaSi vlindeba, rom

qistTa TemisTvis mtris siZulvili, mterze SurisZieba

uzenaesi da Seuvali religiur- eTikuri kanonia (`magram

mters mtrulad moeqe, TviTon ufalma brZanao~) da

82


misi SeuTavsebloba humanur principebTan Seadgens

kidec nawarmoebis gamouval, tragikul konfliqts.

am scenaSi masa agresiis da SurismaZieblobis garda

mtris vaJkacobis dafasebis da Tavisi qmedebis gamo

sinanulis gancdis unarsac avlens. magram igi advilad

ixSobs keTilSobil impulsebs imiT, rom sakuTar TavSi

kvlav mtris siZulvils aRvivebs _ vaJa xedavs, rom

masas zneobrivi ganwmenda da gardaqmna, sindisis karnaxiT

arseboba ar SeuZlia; es SeuZlia mxolod avtonomiur

pirovnebas; xolo masa amgvar pirovnebaTa zegavlenis

wyalobiT Tu ganicdis sasikeTo zneobriv

cvlilebas. zviadauris mokvlis epizodi cxadyofs didi,

destruqciuli fizikuri da fsiqikuri ZaliT aR-

Wurvili masis uZlurebas Rirseuli pirovnebis winaSe.

Rrma pirovnebaTaSorisi Tanaziarobis da erTguli

solidarobis umaRles faseulobad dasaxva `stumarmaspinZels~

genetikurad `vefxistyaosanTan~ akavSirebs.

`stumar-maspinZelSi~, iseve rogorc rusTavelis

poemaSi, eTnikuri gansxvavebuloba xels ar uSlis adamianebs,

swrafad gadalaxon siucxove imis wyalobiT,

rom erTbaSad grZnoben sulier naTesaobas erTmaneT-

Tan da erTmaneTisTvis Seucvlelad Zvirfasebi xdebian.

`stumar-maspinZelSi~ tragikuli kuTxiT gardatexili,

amqveynad ganuxorcielebeli saxiT warmodgeba

adamianTa sayovelTao, universaluri solidarobis da

siyvarulis ideali, romelic `vefxistyaosanSi~ xorc-

Sesxmul da Zlevamosil realobad gvevlineba.

2005

83


gamaerTianebeli tanjva

adamianis sulieri feriscvaleba, romelic vaJafSavelas

`aluda qeTelaurSia~ warmosaxuli, ucnauria

Tavisi radikalurobiT _ gamocdili, mravali

mtris momkvleli meomari, mtruli eTnosis da sarwmunoebis

mimarT fanatikuri siZulviliT da zizRiT

gaJRenTili kaci morigi mxedruli faTerakis Semdeg

ucabedad imsWvaleba adamianTa modgmis erTianobis

SegnebiT da universaluri religiurobiT; SeiZagebs

cxovrebis agresiul wess, sisastikes, sisxlisRvras,

rac manamde aramarto sruliad bunebrivi iyo misTvis,

aramed siqveledac eTvleboda, da mkacri tradiciebiT,

dogmebiT Semosaltuli, erTsaxovani sazogadoebis

organuli elementi damoukidebel, humanur pirovnebad

gardaiqmneba...

da mainc, ucnaurobis miuxedavad aludas feriscvaleba

mTlianad damajerebelia. rogor miiRweva es?

raRac xdeba araCveulebrivi, rac aludas cnobierebas

ise Secvlis, rom maszec SeiZleba iTqvas `gvelis mWamelSi~

mindias Sesaxeb naTqvami: `axalad suli Caedga,

axalad xorci aesxa, gulis xedva da Tvalebis, rogorc

yrus da brmas gaexsna~. raRac gansakuTrebuli impulsia

aucilebeli imisTvis, rom mkvlels mokluli _

`urjulo~, TiTqmis araadamiani _ ise Zlierad Seebralos

da Seuyvardes, rom `Tavis lamaz Zmad~ miiCnios

igi.

aludas metamorfozis Ziri is aris, rac man mucal-

Tan orTabrZolisas igrZno. mkvlevarebi xazs usvamen

imas, rom aluda moxibla mucalis vaJkacobam da ase

dainaxa mterSi adamiani, Tavisi msgavsi. mucalis vaJkacoba

marTlac did STabeWdilebas axdens aludaze, magram

es ar unda iyos aludas Sinagani gardaqmnis mTavari

stimuli.

imis garda, rom aluda da mucali erTnairad Zlieri,

uSiSari da Seupovari mebrZolebi arian, isini erTnair

Seurigeblobas da mZulvarebas iCenen mowinaaRmdegis

sarwmunoebis mimarT. am niSniT maTi paradoqsu-

84


li msgavseba imdenad srulia, rom TiTqos erTmaneTis

oreulebad aqcevs mtrebs. orTabrZolis paralelurad

mimdinare sityvier duelSi maTi replikebi absoluturad

urTierTmsgavsia. yvelaze metad am replikebs

amsgavsebs mimarTva `rjul-ZaRlo~ _ aluda da

mucali erTi da imave sityviT gamoxataven erTnair,

Seuwynarebel da zizRian damokidebulebas mtris religiisadmi.

es saSineli sityva tyviasaviT zuzunebs da

tyviebis moZraobas sdevs Tan.

`... _ ara gWirsaa, rjul-ZaRlo?! _ mucali eubneboda.

_ nu ggonav, mWirdes, rjul-ZaRlo, ymasa gudanis

jvrisasa... _ ar mogxvdaua, rjul-ZaRlo? _ isev

eZaxis imasa. _ mucals ara sWirs, rjul-ZaRlo, namtvrevs

maSlida kldisasa...~.

mucalTan orTabrZolis Semdeg aludas msoflxedvaSi

momxdari gardatexis Sinaarss upirvelesad imis

Secnoba Seadgens, rom adamianebis gamijvna _ rjulianebad

da urjuloebad, RmerTis madliT mosilebad da

RmerTisgan moZulebulebad, srulfasovnebad da arasrulfasovnebad

_ arasworia. da aluda am daskvnas

akeTebs imis safuZvelzec, rom misi da mucalis damokidebuleba

erTamaneTis religiisadmi savsebiT msgavsia,

erTnaiaria: mucali iseve sastikad icavs Tavisi

sarwmunoebis upiratesobas da Zuls mtris religia,

rogorc aluda icavs Tavis erTaderT WeSmarit rjuls

da Zuls mucalis religia; mtrebis poziciaTa es absurduli

msgavseba, erTgvarobaa samyarosTan aseTi mimarTebis

sisworeSi damaeWvebeli, misi Semaryeveli.

SatilSi dabrunebuli aluda xevsurebs mouTxrobs

mucalTan brZolis ambavs da misTvis mtkivneuli gasaxsenebelia,

rom mucali Tavisi sicocxlis ukanasknel

wamsac rjuls uginebda mas: `suls ar aclida amosvlas,

kidev mixsena rjulia~. aluda TavisTavs cnobs mucal-

Si, Tavis mcdar TvalTaxedvas cnobs mucalis TvalTaxedvaSi

_ man xom TviTonac araerTxel zustad aseve

augad uxsena rjuli mucals. amitom mosdevs uSualod

amas dakanonebul TvalsazrisSi Rrma daeWvebis da

amasTanave axali mrwamsis konturis gamomkveTi aludas

85


gansja: `Cven vityviT, kacni Cvena varT, martoT Cven

gvzrdian dedani; Cvena vscxondebiT, urjuloT kuprSi

mielis qSenani. amis TqmiT vwaramaraobT, RvTisSvilT

ukeTes ician. yvelani marTals amboben, gana vinaca

hfician?!~.

aqeTken aludas cnobierebas, upirvelesad ki qvecnobierebas

kidev ufro mZlavrad warmarTavs agreTve

sxva ram, rac mucalTan orTabrZolisas ixila da ganicada.

es aris mucalis agonia.

literaturismcodneebs SemCneuli aqvT am momentis

gansakuTrebuli mniSvnelovneba (Tamaz Cxenkeli,

guram asaTiani). es mniSvnelovneba dasturdeba imiT,

rom aluda Tavidan ver icilebs mogonebas mucalis

sikvdilis Sesaxeb _ igi dramatulad gaxmiandeba aludas

saubarSi xevsurebTan, mtkivneulad amotivtivdeba

aludas sizmarSi.

riT aris es momenti sagangebo mniSvnelobis mqone,

rogor aZlevs impulss aludas feriscvalebas?

`mucals ar swadis sikvdili, fers ara hkargavs

mglisasa. mahglejs, daifevs wylulSia mwvanes balaxsa

mTisasa~.

ai, es suraTi axsendeba xolme Semdeg aludas _ is

dauviwyaria imis gamo, rom saSineli sicxadiT aCens sicocxlis

umZafres wyurvils, nebas da sikvdilis aseve

umZafres arndomas, sastik sasikvdilo tanjvas. mucalis

uCveulo, sasowarkveTili Jesti _ balaxis mogleja

da WrilobaSi Cafena _ sulisSemZvrelia, masSi erTbaSad

xdeba xiluli sicocxlesTan ganSorebis tkivilis

ganuzomeli siRrme. da es araCveulebrivad metyveli,

tragikuli Jesti daanaxebs da agrZnobinebs

aludas, _ pirvelad mis cxovrebaSi _ ra sazarelia

sikvdili, sicocxlesTan gayra. amitom igi igrZnobs

imasac, ra saSinelebaa sicocxle waarTva sxva adamians,

iyo mkvleli. xolo yovelive es miTufro mkveTrad

ganicdeba aludas mier, rom kvdeba masaviT Zlieri adamiani,

gamorCeuli meomari.

swored am mZime STabeWdilebiT aris siRrmiseulad

motivirebuli, masTan kavSirSia bunebrivi da gasagebi

86


aludas Sinagani metamorfozis iseTi arsebiTi mxare,

rogoricaa kaciskvlis, sisxlisRvris SezizReba.

mtrobaze, agresiaze, sisxlian SurisZiebaze damyarebuli

cxovrebisadmi aludas zizRi mJRavndeba mis koSmarul

xilvebSi da sizmarSi. mucalis mokvlis Semdeg

Satilisken mimaval aludas adamianebis agresiuli arseboba

ase warmoesaxeba: `visac mteroba moswyurdes,

gaaRos saxlis karia, sisxl daigubos keraSi, TviTonac

Sigve mdgaria. Rvinodac imas dahlevdes, puradac mosaxmaria.

pirjvari daiwerodis, miTam saydarSi aria.

sisxlSia hqondes qorwili, iq daiweros jvaria, daipatiJos

stumrebi, daamwkriodis jaria, sisxlSi daigos

logini, gverds daiwvinos calia, bevri iyolos Svilebi,

bevri vaJi da qalia. iqve saflavi gaTxaros, iq

daimarxos mkvdaria. Sen ro sxva mahkla, Senc mogkvlen,

mkvlels ar SaarCens gvaria!~.

aseTia uwinaresad TviT aludas cxovreba, agreTve

misi yvelaze mosalodneli dasasruli da amaze mas

mucalis mokvlis Semdeg exileba Tvali. es Semzaravi

xilvebi bunebrivad aRmocendeba im kacis qvecnobierebaSi,

vinc axlaxan mokla sxva kaci, sicocxlesTan gan-

Sorebis tanjvis mowme gaxda da SeaZrwuna mkvlelobis

codvam. aludas koSmari am mwvave gancdebis uSualo

anareklia.

sizmarSi ki aludas, romelic kvlav salaSqrod wasvlas,

anu sisxlisRvris, kaciskvlis gagrZelebas apirebs,

TavisTavi adamianis xorcis mWamelad evlineba;

kaciskvla esaxeba mas kaciWamiobad da es dakavSirebulia

mucalis mokvlis, misi agoniis saSinel xsovnas-

Tan. `erT wams xel vinam damtaca, tari Camidva xanjrisa.

Savxeden, mucali iyo, tanT ecva jaWvi rvalisa,

gulzed emCniva niSani me-d imis brZolis wamisa, efina

natyviarSia lega safevi brZamisa. klded idga, gautexlada,

creml ar Camosdis Tvalisa. minda sikvdili, ar

vkvdebi, mamkalo, miTxra xvewniTa. Tqven dagrCeT wuTisofeli,

me ki wavide qveyniTa, daZeRiT, xevsurT Svilebo,

laSqrobiT, xmlebis qneviTa~.

87


mucali sizmarSi Cndeba im saxiT, romelic aludas

zaravs _ WrilobaSi Cafenili balaxiT, rac kidev erTxel

agrZnobinebs aludas, rom igi mucalisTvis sasikvdilo

tanjvis mimyenebelia, misi sicocxlis momspobia.

es grZnoba autaneli simZimiT Trgunavs aludas: mucali

mas xelSi xanjals udebs da rogorc gawafuli da

sisxlmowyurebuli mkvlelisgan, sikvdils iTxovs

misgan (aq, albaT, momakvdavi mucalis mier aludasTvis

Tofis datovebaa gardatexili). ase rom, sizmarSi

aludam xelmeored unda Caidinos is, rac ase awamebs,

xelaxla unda moklas mucali, romlis agonia, sulTmobrZaobis

tanjva TiTqos usasrulod grZeldeba,

aRar mTavrdeba (`minda sikvdili, ar vkvdebi~). aq reliefurad

Cans, ra Rrma tkiviliT ganicada aludam mucalis

agonia, rogor awuxebs, rom mucalisTvis sicocxlis

wamrTmevia.

sizmarSi nanaxi mucali arsebiTad gansxvavdeba

namdvilisgan. realobaSi `mucals ar swadis sikvdili~,

simwriT, tanjviT ebRauWeba sicocxles da momakvdavic

agrZelebs brZolas, sizmarSi ki igi TviTon eZebs sikvdils,

raTa sxvebs (xevsurebs) dautovos es samyaro _

sisxlisRvris asparezi. aludas sizmarSi momxdari mucalis

gardasaxvis es zedmiwevniT zusti kontrastuloba

realobis mimarT imas mowmobs, rom orTabrZolisas

aluda gulistkiviliT amCnevs momakvdavi mowinaaRmdegis

mier sicocxlis mZlavri nebis gamovlenas,

sikvdilisgan mis mZlavr ganzidvas.

aluda aramarto TviTon ganicdis zneobriv kaTarziss,

aramed mucalsac ufro akeTilSobilebs, amaRlebs.

ar Rirs iseT sicocxleze gamwarebiT moWideba,

iseT sicocxlesTan ganSorebis gamo tanjva, iseT sicocxleSi

monawileoba, romlis arsic `laSqrobiT,

xmlebis qneviT ZRomaa~, kaciWamiobaa _ aseTia mucalis

sizmriseuli metamorfozis azri. mucali aq aludas

oreulia, romelic mis idumal saTqmels ambobs, misi

Sinasamyaros saukeTeso sawyiss _ sindiss ganasaxierebs.

isini erTni arian, erT arsebas qmnian. ase axlobeli

gaxada mucali aludasTvis misi sasikvdilo tanj-

88


vis gaziarebam. es gaziarebuli tanjva TavisTavSive,

Tavis arsebaSive aRmoaCeninebs aludas mcnebas `ara kac

hkla~, ganaSorebs mas kaciskvlis sazarel codvas.

mucalTan aludas sulieri gamTlianeba sizmramdec,

cxadSic mJRavndeba. aluda uambobs xevsurebs,

rogor mokvda mucali:

`...mkerdze nakravma tyviama gaunaZoZa gulia, natyviars

brZamiT ifevda, isre dalia sulia~.

didi tkivili, TanagrZnoba gamosWvivis aludas

TxrobaSi. gansakuTrebiT sityva `gaunaZoZa~ aRiWurveba

tkiviliani eqspresiiT. aluda Sinaganad ganicdis

mucalis kvdomas, Sinaganad SeigrZnobs imas, rac ar

SeiZleba fizikurad SeigrZnos an dainaxos _ rogor

uglejs mucals tyvia guls. aludaze, rogorc Cans,

mZafri emociuri zemoqmedeba moaxdina sasikvdilod

daWrili mucalis ganwirulma SeZaxilmac: `gulSi

mWirs, gulSi, rjul-ZaRlo~. es SeZaxili imasve gamoxatavs,

rasac Wrilobidan sisxldenis Sekavebis sasowarkveTili

cda _ sicocxlesTan gayris simwares.

Sopenhaueris Tvalsazrisis mixedviT, TanagrZnoba,

Tanalmoba yvela adamianis siRrmiseuli erTianobis

intuituri wvdomaa; TanagrZnobis sazrisi imis uSualo

ganWvretaa, rom sicocxlis neba, romlis Seferxeba da

daTrgunva iwvevs tanjvas, adamianebSi erTiania,

saerToa.

sicocxlis wyurvili, neba da am nebis aRkveTis tanjva,

romelic vlindeba mucalis sulisSemZrav agonia-

Si, mucalis vaJkacobasTan erTad, agrZnobinebs aludas

momakvdavTan Sinagan erTianobas, arsismier naTesaobas

da msgavsebas. amis gamoa, rom mucalis sikvdilisTanave,

TanagrZnobis cremliT misi datirebisas,

aluda mas Tavis msgavs srulfasovan adamianad aRiarebs

_ `vaJkaco, Cemgan moklulo, RmerTma gacxovnos

mkvdaria~ _ da ar asrulebs mis mimarT marjvenis moWris

uadamiano wess. `urjulos~, `rjulZaRlis~ cxoneba

swored imas niSnavs, rom isic iseTive RvTisSvilia,

rogoric aluda, rom oriveni ekuTvnian adamianTa er-

Tian modgmas, romelsac erTi RmerTi hyavs. Semdeg

89


aluda am gumaniT nagrZnob, jer kidev mkafiod gaucnobierebel

da ganuzogadebel WeSmaritebas ukve mkveTrad

gaazrebuli da ganzogadebuli saxiT gamoTqvams

xevsurebTan dialogSi (`Cven vityviT, kacni Cvena

varT...~), xolo sabolood `Tavis lamaz Zmas~ uwodebs

mucals; anu igi uaxloesi adamianiviT Seiyvarebs mters

da SeZlebs Taviseburad Seasrulos gansakuTrebiT

Znelad Sesasrulebeli qristianuli mcneba: `giyvardeT

mterni Tqvenni~.

sicocxlis neba da sikvdilis tkivili adamianTa

uRrmesi, yvelaze universaluri Tvisebebia. vaJafSavela

wers: `bunebas Tavisive kanoni aqvs kacTa cxovrebisaTvis

damyarebuli... mTeli kacobrioba, Cveni

planetis mcxovrebni, ramdenime modgmad ganiyofebian,

xolo modgmani erebad. yovelive eri Sesdgeba adamianebisagan,

romelnic ganirCevian isev erTierTmaneTisagan

saxierebiT, gonebrivi da sulieri TvisebebiT.

saerTo Tvisebac sufevs maT Soris, da ara marto erTi

eris individebs, aramed mTels xmeleTis mcxovrebTac

SegviZlian upovnoT saerTo ram, ai, Tundac, magali-

Tad, siyvaruli sicocxlisa da mwuxareba sikvdilisa

gamo...~.

upirvelesad sicocxlis sayovelTao nebasTan da

sikvdilis sayovelTao tragikulobasTan _ mTeli

kacobriobisTvis saziaro fenomenebTan SexebiT aRmoa-

Cens aluda `urjulo~ mterSi adamians, aRmoaCens adamianTa

erTianobas da yvelasTvis erT, qristianulad

kacTmoyvare RmerTs, romlisTvisac eTnosis da

konfesiis ganurCevlad yvela adamiani Zvirfasia. es

aqcevs aludas Sinaganad Tavisufal, sulierad Rrma

pirovnebad.

90

1996


sxva simarTle

Tumca `baxtrioni~ vaJa-fSavelas erT-erT saukeTeso

epikur nawarmoebadaa miCneuli da mas `aluda

qeTelauris~, `stumar-maspinZlis~, `gvelis mWamelis~

gverdiT ayeneben, mainc igi, Cveulebriv, izolirebulad,

am poemebis arsebiTi da Rrma saTqmelisgan mowyvetilad

aris xolme ganxiluli. rogorRac ise gamodis,

rom raki poema patriotul grZnobas da ideas

gamoxatavs, mis azrobriv wyobaSi saintereso bevri

araferia.

sinamdvileSi `baxtrionis~ azrobriv-mxatvruli

koncefcia sakmaod rTulia da vaJas yvelaze mniSvnelovani

poemebis koncefciaTa msgavsad dayrdnobilia

iseT urTierTSepirispirebul zneobriv-msoflmxedvelobriv

kategoriebze, rogoricaa daundobloba da

sibraluli, sazogadoebrivi Tavdacvis, TviTSenarCunebis

interesebi da moraluri ideali, humanizmi, masa

da avtonomiuri pirovneba. oRond `baxtrionSi~, sxva

poemebisgan gansxvavebiT, am sawyisebs Soris tragikuli

kolizia ar warmoiSoba. maTi urTierTmimarTebis

daZabuloba Serbilebuli da araTvalSisacemia Zlevamosili

saerTo-saxalxo SekavSirebis monumentur suraTSi;

magram Tumca winaaRmdegobebi Senelebulia,

isini harmonizebuli ar aris.

orgvarad warmodgeba `baxtrionSi~ masa.

erTi mxriv, es aris zneobrivi mizniT gamTlianebuli

xalxi. mas warmarTavs miswrafeba, ixnas qveyana da

Tanamemamuleebi tanjvisgan, damcirebisgan, Tavisufleba

da Rirseba daubrunos maT. vaJa qmnis adamianTa

erTsulovnebiT aRvsebis, erTi keTilSobili vnebiT

gamsWvalvis didebul, amaRlebul xats.

xalxis mTavari gamamTlianebeli Zala religiurobaa

_ Zalian intensiuri, RvTaebis didi siaxloviT ganmcdeli.

es RvTaeba ganyenebuli da transcendenturi

ki ar aris, aramed TiTqos am xalxis sxeulSi binadrobs

da misi cocxali sulia, nebaa. es aris `nacionaluri

91


RmerTi~, romelic idealuri meomris saxiT warmoidgineba

da rogorc mfarveli da winamZRoli TiTqos xiluladac

evlineba xalxs. am RvTaebasTan ziareba iwvevs

saerTo enTuziazms da mkafio gamoxatulebas ani-

Webs xalxis Sekrul nebas. axla es xalxi Tavganwirvis-

Tvis mzadmyofia, individTa kerZo, viwro interesebi

qreba da yvela zeindividualur, zneobrivad Rirebul

mizanswrafvas emorCileba. rogorc masis fsiqologiis

mkvlevarebi aRniSnaven, swored TavganwirvisTvis

mzadyofna da individTa egoizmis daZleva warmoadgens

masis pozitiur Tvisebas. aseT masas vaJa aRtacebuli

TanagancdiT warmosaxavs.

masobrivi religiuri eqstazis, xalxis zeaweuli

erTsulovnebis warmoCenas mosdevs SesaniSnavi meditaciuri

wiaRsvla.

`netavi cecxli ciuri, visac ki gulSi hnTebia, jer

ar gauqres, Tu gaqres, isivac amohgznebia! mkvdaria

ugrZnobi kaci, usazarlesi mkvdarzeda, miT rome

sicocxle udgas salis yinulis taxtzeda. ar ebraleba

moyvasi, mis win ro acvan jvarzeda, ise mokvdeba, ver

Sedges erT wams trfobisa mTazeda, Sors aris, metad

Sors aris daSorebuli mazeda. WaobSi aris Cafluli,

vicnob mowamluls xmazeda. sazarelia dadgoma ugrZnobelobis

gzazeda!~.

Tu es lirikuli monologi Tavisi dasawyisiT uSualod

exmianeba mis win daxatul masis religiuri aRmafrenis

suraTs, monologis momdevno monakveTSi Tavsdeba

poemis problemuri centri, gamxelilia poemis

mTavari Sinagani Tema _ sibraluli da Seubralebloba.

epizodebi, romlebic moyveba am lirikul-meditaciur

pasaJs, masSi moniSnul poemis siRrmiseul Temas

ireklavs.

masis ganwyobileba sruliad uecrad da moulodnelad

icvleba. moulodnelobis STabeWdilebas isic aZlierebs,

rom religiur enTuziazms erTvis xalxis aRfrTovaneba

mTaTa vaJkacuri silamaziT, amayi mxedruli

ieriT. da ai, masis aseTi amaRlebuli da wminda gan-

92


wyoba ucbad imRvreva eWviT _ Tavisi bunebiT masa aramyari,

swrafad cvalebadia.

ase imitomac aris, rom igi advilad eqvemdebareba

Cagonebas. xoSareulis mier kvirias gauCinarebis gamo

gamoTqmuli eWvi erTbaSad gadaedeba mas da sul cota

xnis win amaRlebulad ganwyobili xalxi moRalatis

mxilebas iwyebs. e. kanetis SexedulebiT, `masis sicocxlis

yvelaze mkveTrad SesamCnev niSnebs ganekuTvneba

erTi ram, rasac devnis impulsi SeiZleba vuwodoT.

igulisxmeba gansakuTrebuli agznebadoba, mrisxane ga-

Rizianeba maT mimarT, vinc erTxel da samudamod cxaddeba

mtrad~. ganusjelad da naCqarevad sdebs xalxi

kvirias bralad moRalateobas, gamyidvelobas. `_ ra

gaigeba, iqneba briyvma gagvyidos fulzeda, fici gatexos

usircxvod, xeli aiRos rjulzeda, cocxlad dagvmarxos,

TviTonve miwa gvayaros gulzeda~. msjavri, romelsac

masa kvirias ganumzadebs, moraluri sikvdilis

tolfasia. xdeba pirovnebis Rirsebis daundobeli

xelyofa.

am viTarebaSi adamianis damcveli luxumia. misi goniereba

da gulisxmiereba mkveTr kontrasts qmnis masis

impulsurobasTan da pirovnebis mimarT ugrZnoblobasTan.

luxumisTvis amosavalia ara faqti, SemTxveva

(kviria sadRac gaqra), aramed pirovnebis individualoba:

`kacs magis metad ver icnobT, magis met ar gaqvT

Snoeba?~. kvirias tragikul-winaswarmetyveluri, Rrma

aRsarebiTi gancdiT moTxrobili sizmris gulisxmierad

momsmens am adamianSi (romelsac Tavis gawirva aqvs

ganzraxuli) eWvi ar unda Seeparos. sizmars yvelani ismenen,

kvirias Sinagan bunebas ki mxolod luxumi wvdeba.

luxumis TqmiT, aseTi sazizRari Ralati _ saku-

Tari xalxis saomrad gamoyvana da mtris xafangSi Setyueba

_ umagaliTo da daujerebelia, xalxma ki es warmoudgeneli

ram advilad, yovelgvari safuZvlis gare-

Se irwmuna da daunaneblad abralebs adamians saSineli

danaSaulis Cadenas. luxumi arcxvens xalxs imis gamo,

rom igi erTsulovnebis da eqstazis didebul Jams mdabali

eWvebiT bRalavs, `diacebri WorebiT~ Seuracx-

93


yofs bunebis sisaRes da sidiades. `rad ar gahxednebT,

briyvebo, Cvenis samSoblos gorebsa?!~.

luxumi xedavs, rom moRalatis Ziebis sarCuli SiSia

(`Tavis fiqridgam SemkrTalTa exlav mogkidaT cxroeba?~),

romelsac dabneuloba da arev-dareva mosdevs.

luxumi ar dauSvebs movlenaTa aseT ganviTarebas, iseve

iolad aqcevs xalxs Tavisi zegavlenis qveS, rogorc

manamde _ xoSareuli. male xalxi acnobierebs, rom kviria

tyuilubralod gaumetebia ase sastikad. `_ ara,

tyuilad nu vityviT, codos nu videbT kisrada, mSvildze

nu vagebT kvirias, nu vaTamaSebT israda!~.

luxumis sasikeTo zegavlena rom ara, masa pirovnebis

ulmobeli SerisxvisTvis, `erTxel da samudamod

mtrad gamocxadebisTvis~ iyo momarTuli. luxumi

SeaCerebs `ugrZnobelobis gzaze~ damdgar xalxs.

ugrZnoblobis, Seubraleblobis Tema axlavs wiwolas

ambavsac. brZolis velidan gaqceul wiwolas sazareli

ZaliT atydeba Tavs sazogadoebis zizRi _ amieridan

is moraluri da socialuri TvalsazrisiT araraobaa,

sazogadoebisgan gariyulia. xalxis damokidebuleba

mis mimarT Zalian mkacria, magram samarTliani.

oRond simkacre ukve daundoblobad gvevlineba imis

Semdeg, rac wiwola Tavs CamoixrCobs da gamoisyidis

Tavis sisustes da Secodebas. bunebrivi da mosalodnelia,

rom aman xalxis risxva daacxros, adamianebi

ufro lmobieri gaxados. magram xalxis guls verc braleulis

tanjuli sikvdili albobs da mis gvams igi

ZaRlebs ugdebs sajijgnad. `Tasi daRvares xatSia, axlos

miudges arvina, wiwolas danaSauli aweulia camdina,

daamcro Cveni saxeli, mTels laSqars guli atkina.

arc vin samares gauTxris, arc vin Seukravs kubosa, martom

itiros dedama, cremli win daigubosa!~. wiwolas

dedis moTqmaSic ufro sircxvili da Svilisadmi simkacrec

ki igrZnoba, vidre Svilis sikvdilis simware,

radgan is iZulebulia glovis drosac angariSi gauwios

Temis Seuval ulmoblobas. am SemTxvevaSi Temis

Sesaxeb SeiZleba iTqvas, rom mas `ar ebraleba moyvasi,

mis win ro acvan jvarzeda~. erTaderTi kaci, romelic

94


Sinaganad ar gaiziarebda xalxis gasastikebul damokidebulebas

Tavisi Secodebis sikvdiliT gamomsyidveli

adamianisadmi, luxumia, omis Semdeg gauCinarebuli.

`baxtrionSi~ zustad, danawevrebulad aris gaazrebuli

da warmoCenili, ris wyalobiT axerxeben mTielebi

iranelebis batonobisgan kaxeTis daxsnas, ra ganapirobebs

mTielTa sazogadoebis gansakuTrebul siZlieres.

misi sawindari specifikuri da Temis monoliTad

Semkvreli religiurobis garda aris mkveTri socialuri

morali. igi, erTi mxriv, awesebs gmirebis da gmirobis

kults, ganuzomeli didebiT ajildoebs mxedrul

siqveles da Tavdadebas da amiT qmediT stimuls aZlevs

individs, iyos iseTi da moiqces ise, rom ase Zvirad-

Rirebuli socialuri aRiareba moipovos. meore mxriv,

mTielTa socialuri morali moicavs umkacres sanqciebs

individis mimarT socialuri movaleobis SeusruleblobisTvis

autaneli zizRis, Sercxvenis da sazogadoebisgan

mokveTis saxiT. es, rogorc davinaxeT, gulqvaobaSi

da sisastikeSic SeiZleba gadaizardos, magram

TavisTavad, `baxtrionis~ mixedviT, aucilebelia, radgan

sazogadoebas TviTSenarCunebis Zalas matebs.

mTielTa morali amkvidrebs SurisZiebis kanons,

mtris mimarT gansakuTrebul, ulmobel siZulvils da

Seurigeblobas. es Zalian mZafrad Cans sanaTas, lelas,

kvirias saxeebSi. `baxtrionSi~ SurisZiebis Jini da

mtris daundobeli siZulvili bunebrivi, adekvaturi

emociuri pasuxia im uadamiano sisastikeze, romelsac

iranelebi iCenen saqarTveloSi da romelic poemaSi sagangebod

aris aqcentirebuli. Surisgebis es mwvave wadili

da siZulvili sabrZolo energiis, Tavganwirvis

unaris Semmatebelia. magaliTad, SurisZiebis wyurvili

ubiZgebs Tavganwirvisken lelas, Tumca isic saTqmelia,

rom es wyurvili Tavis mxriv aRiZvreba TanagrZnobiT

axloblebis tanjvisadmi, xolo sanaTas SurisZiebis

wyurvili _ TanagrZnobiT qarTvelebis mTeli

mravalsaukunovani tanjva-wamebisadmi...

95


mtrisadmi siZulvilis, zizRis, misTvis samagieros

gadaxdis motivebi Tavs iyris da, SeiZleba iTqvas, garkveul

ideologiad yalibdeba zezvas TvalsazrisSi.

luxumTan misi paeqroba rogorc TviT mis, aseve

luxumis bunebas arsobrivad avlens da sibralulis da

Seubraleblobis problemasac yvelaze dramatulad

wamoWris.

zezva igonebs, rogor `acxes qadada~ lekebi da rogor

mokveTa man erT leks Tavi. `_ Tavi gagorda miwaze,

tuCebm dauwyo kapuni, ityodi, sarekelasa wisqvilze

gaaqv rakuni. Sen Sagebrala urjulo, mogiwylianda

Tvalebi... uTuod, saiT enaxve, mogafurTxebdnen qalebi.

me ar mebralvis, luxumo, mounaTlavi arodis, magaT

siwuntis naRveli yelSi duRiliT amodis. visac Cven ar

vebralebiT, Cven SevibraloT risada? sikvdili Tvi-

Ton ufalsa gauCenia mtrisada!~.

upirvelesad yuradRebas iqcevs, rom zezvas metyvelebis

yaida iseTia, TiTqos laparaki adamians ar exebodes.

qadis cxoba, sarekelas rakuni wisqvilze _ lekebis

mimarT naxmari es ironiuli gamoTqmebi imis ni-

Sania, rom zezva mters adamianTa modgmis miRma warmoidgens,

mteri misTvis usulo da knini sagnebis

tolfardia.

zezva tkbeba mtris damdablebiT da ganadgurebiT.

mteri mas zoologiur zizRs gvris, mis cnobierebaSi

amotvifrulia sazizRari, saZageli `mtris xati~. `urjulosadmi~,

`mounaTlavisadmi~, anu faqtobrivad araadamianisadmi

damokidebuleba gamoricxavs raime humanur

grZnobas, masze ar vrceldeba sibraluli, raki is

TviTon Seubralebelia Cvendami. zezvas SefasebiT,

luxumis mier mtris Sebraleba saZraxisi da samarcxvinoa,

radgan mtrisTvis gankuTvnilia ara sibraluli,

aramed mxolod sikvdili da es RmerTis nebaa _ mtrisadmi

Seubralebloba, zezvas gagebiT, Seuvali religiur-moraluri

mcnebaa.

zezvas poziciis siswores adasturebs TviT cxovreba;

mtris sisastike, misgan kaxeTis umowyalo akleba,

ramac mTielebi erTad Seyara qveynis saSvelad, utyua-

96


ad amtkicebs, rom zezva marTali iyo da aris; igi

niSns ugebs luxums. aseT fonze luxumi arafers Tu verafers

pasuxobs zezvas. magram misi dumili marto

amiT ar aris gamowveuli da arc mxolod imiT, rom dampyroblebTan

didi, gadamwyveti brZolis win humanizmis

qadageba aSkara Seusabamobaa. mTavaria, rom Tavisi

dumiliT luxumi aRiarebs zezvas poziciis praqtikul

mizanSewonilobas _ zezvas sityva mtris siZulviliT

da zizRiT muxtavs saomrad gamzadebul jars da amiT

mis sabrZolo SemarTebas ganamtkicebs.

baxtrionis aRebis da mtris Zlevis, samarTliani

Surisgebis aRsrulebis suraTi swored zezvas suliskveTebiT

ixateba, mtrisadmi sisastike, mtris Seubralebeli

ganadgureba tkbobiT aris gancdili (`alaznisake

wavida urjulos sisxlis Rvaria~; `gaswyvita Cvenma

laSqarma mteri, uRmerTod dalia~; `aivso TaTris

ZvlebiTa im baxtrionis aria, cixe-galavnad egeba, ise

gamravlda mkvdaria~...).

TiTqos ukve yvelaferi gairkva, zezvas Tvalsazrisma

udavo da sruli gamarjveba moipova, luxummac

TiTqos uxmod cno mtris Sebralebis gaumarTlebloba,

daeTanxma imas, rom misi acremleba mtris sikvdilis

gamo samarcxvinoa. es motivi TiTqos savsebiT amoiwura

da gaqra...

magram poemis finali am moCvenebiTad martiv garkveulobas

aqarwylebs da nawarmoebis konceptualur

Sinaarss aRrmavebs, afaqizebs.

poemis miTosuri finalis Sesaxeb damkvidrebulia

Sexeduleba, rom gvelis mier momakvdavi luxumis gadarCenis

mxatvruli mniSvneloba patriotuli Tavdadebis

ideis gandidebaa. es idea aq uTuod unda vigulisxmoT,

magram am saxis saTqmelis masze dayvana aRaribebs

mis poetur sazriss da, Sesabamisad, mTlianad

nawarmoebis sazrissac.

finaluri pasaJi erTianad da TvalsaCinod aris dafuZnebuli

Seubraleblobis da sibralulis siRrmiseul

Temaze.

97


vaJa aq warmosaxavs sibraluls rogorc universalur

da saswaulmoqmed Zalas, romelic Zlevs TviT

TiTqosda totalur borotebas. igi gvevlineba iseT

idumal fenomenad, rogoradac mas Sopenhaueri axasia-

Tebs. sastik mxecSi ucnaurad iRviZebs sibraluli,

romelic mis mTel arsebas eufleba. `bevris codvebis

moqmedsa gadaubrunda guneba, ra sibraluliT imsWvalvis

misi gveluri buneba!~.

am idumalebiT mocul aqts garkveuli motivireba

mainc aqvs. TanagrZnobis pirveli impulsi monstrs

uCndeba momakvdavi, sulTmobrZavi adamianis xilvisas,

sasikvdilo tanjvis winaSe, romelSic ukiduresi simkveTriT

vlindeba adamianebis da saerTod yvela cocxali

arsebis Zireuli da tragikuli naTesaoba. amgvaradve

aRiZvreba aludas sibraluli mucalisadmi, aRazas

sibraluli zviadaurisadmi, TviT luxumis sibraluli

mokluli lekisadmi; da momakvdavisadmi gaCenili

gvelis sibralulic iseve gadmoiRvreba cremlebad,

rogorc am gmirebis da, kerZod, luxumis aseTnairadve

aRmocenebuli sibraluli (`Tan mkerds usvelebs mxedarsa

cremlebis CamodeniTa~).

ra Tqma unda, ar aris SemTxveviTi, rom gvelis saswaulebriv

sibraluls iwvevs swored luxumi _ adamiani,

romelic sibralulis uCveulo unars amJRavnebs.

TiTqos miniSnebulic aris, rom gveli, adamianis fantaziis

mier sibrZniT aRWurvili, Seicnobs luxumis bunebas,

mis did sikeTes da es uRrmavebs TanagrZnobas

(`zed daaSterda sneulsa Tavis gveluri saxiTa, dascqeris

sulis mabrZolsa gulis mzaravis TvaliTa. dafiqrda

gveli Zlierad, guli evseba braliTa~). Tumca

asec rom ar iyos, mainc safiqrebelia _ luxums gvelis

idumali TanagrZnoba ergo imitom, rom TviTon is

TanagrZnobis araCveulebrivi niWiT aris aRsavse.

magram mTavari is aris, rom gvelis sibraluli,

iseve rogorc luxumis (aludas, aRazas) TanagrZnoba,

mtrisken aris mimarTuli, mtrobis TiTqosda gauvali

zRudis gamrRvevia. gveli, vaJas daxasiaTebiT, `adamis

tomis mteria~, rac Zvel, cnobil kulturul tradici-

98


as Seesatyviseba. gvelis arsebaSi ucnaurad gaRvivebuli

sibraluli adamianis mimarT, anu misadmi mtruli

modgmis warmomadgenlis mimarT ewinaaRmdegeba da

problematurs xdis zezvas erTi SexedviT absoluturad

urRvev logikas: `visac Cven ar vebralebiT, Cven

SevibraloT risada? sikvdili TviTon ufalsa gauCenia

mtrisada!~.

`baxtrionis~ finali `stumar-maspinZlis~ dasasrulis

msgavsia: orivegan cxovrebaSi gamjdar mtrobas,

agresias, sisxlis wyurvils da sisastikes fantastikur-miTosur,

idealur sferoSi gadaZalavs Tanagr-

Znoba da solidaroba.

saerTodac `baxtrionis~ koncefcias met naTels

fens rogorc `stumar-maspinZlis~, aseve `aluda qeTelauris~

azrobriv struqturasTan Sedareba. am poemeb-

Si, rogorc aRniSnaven, ori simarTle Seetakeba tragikulad

erTmaneTs _ sazogadoebis TviTSenarCunebis

aucilebloba da pirovnebis universalur-humanisturi

morali. mtrul garemocvaSi arsebuli, mudmivad saomar

viTarebaSi myofi sazogadoeba, romelic `mtris

xatis~ pirispir aris mobilizebuli, ver eTviseba zogadkacobriul

zneobas, gamorCeul pirovnebaTa cnobierebaSi

rom ibadeba. arsebiTad aludas da joyolas

maTi sazogadoebebi swored `mtris xatis~ damsxvrevis

cdas ar apatieben, ramdenadac mniSvnelovanwilad

mtrisadmi rogorc araadamianisadmi zoologiur si-

Zulvils da zizRs emyareba am sazogadoebaTa simkvidre

(ori simarTle ibrZvis `gvelis mWamelSic~, magram aq

mainc Taviseburi viTarebaa).

cxadia, `stumar-maspinZelSi~ da `aluda qeTelaur-

Si~ tragikulad Sejaxebul, SeuTavsebel simarTleTagan

avtoris simpaTia avtonomiuri pirovnebis morals

ekuTvnis rogorc ufro maRali rangisas, rogorc

srulfasovans.

`baxtrionSi~, am nawarmoebTagan gansxvavebiT, vaJa

uSualod aCvenebs sazogadoebis TviTSenarCunebisTvis

gamiznuli, SezRuduli da ulmoblobamde mkacri moralis

efeqtianobas. dampyroblebze mopovebul gamar-

99


jvebaSi misi wili arsebiTia. amitom ufro maRali da

farTo, ufro faqizi zneobrioba ukan ixevs `mtris

xatze~ damyarebuli moralis winaSe da maTi konfliqturi

Sejaxeba ar xdeba. magram `baxtrionSic~, rogorc

sxva poemebSi, avtonomiuri pirovnebis es universaluri

da faqizi zneobrioba vaJasTvis mainc Rirebulebrivad

uzenaesia. vaJas Rrma sulieri wyurvilis daokeba

mxolod mas SeuZlia.

`baxtrionis~ avtors aRafrTovanebs qarTvelebis

mier sastiki mtris damarcxeba, magram kidev ufro meti

faseuloba mis TvalSi TanagrZnobis, humanizmis mier

sisastikis da mtrobis damarcxebas aqvs.

100

1995


`gvelis mWameli~ _

`mowiweba sicocxlis mimarT~

`gvelis mWamelis~ mTavari gmiri bunebis enas eufleba,

bunebis idumal Sinagan arsebobas wvdeba. ras xedavs

mindia bunebaSi, ras eubneba buneba Tavisi eniT,

rogoria bunebis arsi, romelsac mindia ganWvrets _ am

kiTxvebis dausmelad da maTze pasuxis gaucemlad nebiT

Tu uneblieT mindias sibrZnes daviyvanT imis mixvedris

unarze, romeli mcenare risi wamalia da a. S.,

anu daviyvanT grZneulebaze. sinamdvileSi es sibrZne

ufro Rrmaa da grZneuleba mxolod misi garsia.

mindia upirveles yovlisa imas igebs, rom bunebaSic

arsebula sixaruli da tanjva, iseve rogorc adamianebis

cxovrebaSi. `esmis dReidan yoveli, rasac frinvelni

galoben, an mcenareni, cxovelni rodis ilxenen,

wvaloben~. mindia xdeba bunebis sixarulis da tanjvis

Tanaganmcdeli, amitom mis sibrZnes didi sixarulic

axlavs da didi mwuxarebac. is mindias bednierebasac

agrZnobinebs da yofierebis tragizmsac.

ra badebs, bunebaSi, kerZod, tanjvas, saidan warmodgeba

igi?

bunebaSi tanjvis gamomwvevia sikvdilis SiSi, sicocxlis

gaqrobis winaSe Zrwola. mindias mTavari aRmoCena

is aris, rom yvelafers, rac bunebaSi arsebobs,

adamianis msgavsad surs sicocxle da zaravs sicocxlesTan

ganSoreba. roca mindia xeebis moWras daapirebs,

isini tirils, Civils iwyeben; xe, romelsac mindia

culs Semokravs, emudareba mas: `nu momklav, Cemo

mindiav, nu damibneleb mzesao~.

oRond aq jer kidev ar Cans, rom mindias mier bunebaSi

sikvdilis winaSe Zrwolis aRmoCenas avtori sagangebo

interesis da fiqris sagnad aqcevs, gansakuTrebul,

konceptualur mniSvnelobas aniWebs. es cxadi

xdeba sxvagan, nawarmoebis erT-erT yvelaze mniSvnelovan

da dramatul pasaJSi, sadac Temis da mindias konfliqtis

ukiduresi gamwvavebaa naCvenebi: mindias Tvistomebi

mis mier mcenareTa da cxovelTa mospobis cod-

101


vad Seracxvas gaumarTleblad, Tavisi arsebobisTvis

mavned miiCneven da bunebis saidumlos wvdomis mindiaseul

unars sulac cru gamonagonad acxadeben. axla

unda gamoirkves, marTla SeuZlia Tu ara mindias bunebis

Sinacxovrebis gageba da sworia Tu ara misi Tvalsazrisi,

rom mcenareebis da cxovelebis xocvaze adamianebma

xeli unda aiRon. mindia amtkicebs Tavis simarTles

_ ara msjelobiT, Teoriuli argumentebiT,

aramed bunebis siRrmeSi wvdomis unaris uSualo

gamovleniT.

mindia raRacas daJinebiT uyurebs da tiris. SekiTxvaze,

ra atirebs, is pasuxobs: `_ ager im Citebs yurs

vugdeb, _ TiTiT uCvena Citebze (orni frTebCamoSvebulni

ifnis qveS isxdnen sipebze), _ erTi meores uambobs

sikvdilis ambavs Svilebze; marcxniT mjdomare

dedaa, marjvniske _ ambis mTxrobeli. Tqvens mters,

rom gulmoklulada Svilebsa tiris mSobeli~. Citebs

exla-Ra Sescqeris xevsurTa kreba srulia, CitTagan

erTi im drosa, TiTqos mohsvlodes rulia, sipidan

dabla daeca da ganuteva sulia. romeli mokvda orTagan,

amis gageba rjulia!~.

kritikul situaciaSi, roca mindias sibrZne eWvqveS

aris dayenebuli, mkveTrad gamJRavndeba am sibrZnis

arsi _ bunebis qmnilebebisTvis sikvdili, sikvdilis

elda aranakleb SemaZrwunebelia, vidre adamianebis-

Tvis; buneba amiT adamians enaTesaveba. magaliTad, bunebaSic

arsebobs imis msgavsi ram, rac adamianur samyaroSi

dedaSviluri grZnobaa, Svilis sikvdiliT gamowveuli

gamanadgurebeli tkivilia.

raki TemisTvis aSkara gaxda mindias sibrZne da

xalxma TvalnaTliv dainaxa, rom sikvdilis saSinelebas

bunebis qmnilebebi adamianTa msgavsad da, SesaZloa,

kidev ufro mZafradac ganicdian, amas TiTqos unda

moyves Temis mxridanac mcenareTa da cxovelTa mospobaze

xelis aReba _ ar SeiZleba mokla is, visac SensaviT

surs sicocxle da SensaviT aSfoTebs sikvdili.

magram ase ar xdeba. `darwmundnen imis codnaSi, saqme

win edva yvelasa, magram nagrZnobsa guliTa gonebiT

102


hSvelen verasa: balaxsac sTiben, nadirs hkvlen, SeSiT

anTeben kerasa. qaTmis xorcs ra SeaZulebs, Tqvenve

miTxariT, melasa?!~.

imas, rom mindias sibrZnis arss bunebis gammsWvalavi

sicocxlis nebis da sikvdilis SiSis wvdoma Seadgens,

isic mowmobs, Tu rogor kargavs igi naTelxilvis

unars: roca mindia Ralatobs Tavisi grZnobismieri, intuituri

codnis arsidan uSualod gamomdinare princips

_ cocxal arsebaTa arkvlis princips, anu roca

mas aRar surs yuradiRos is, rasac bunebis qmnilebebi

eubnebian, _ rogor surT sicocxle da rogor aSinebT

sikvdili _ buneba munjdeba misTvis.

nawarmoebSi yvelgan, sadac konkretulad gamoisaxeba

buneba, sicocxlis neba da sikvdilis SiSi misi

Zireuli Tvisebebia. asea epizodSic, sadac naCvenebia

ucnauri ram _ rogor eqstazurad mkis mindia yanas

imis miuxedavad, rom man TavisTavs aRukveTa cocxal

arsebaTa kvla. es paradoqsi imiT aixsneba, rom puris

TavTavebs aSinebT aramarto sikvdili saerTod, aramed

kidev ufro metad uazro sikvdili rogorc fuWi arsebobis

dasasruli. mindia aseTi sikvdilisgan ixsnis,

axal sicocxles aniWebs maT, _ aniWebs imas, rac wyuriaT

_ ramdenadac SesaZleblobas aZlevs emsaxuron

sicocxlis gagrZelebas da gaZlierebas, ukvalod da

unayofod ar gaqrnen. `ara, me momWer, mindiav, nu mtoveb,

Seni kvnesame!~ `ara, me, _ sxva gaiZaxis, _ ufro ma-

Sinebs zeca me. patara nislic rom vnaxo, CamoviSlebi

taniTa, vai, Tu setyva movides, yeli gamomWras daniTa~.

sxva ufroc hyviris: `nu mwirav, ixare Tavis janiTa!~

...yanasa setyva aSinebs, _ kacT usazrdood darCena,

Torem viT namgals, setyvasa siT SeuZlia waxdena?!

kacT sargod Tavsa hzogaven TavTavni oqrosferani, ar

swadiT oxrad lpebodnen, hkenkavdnen yvavni, Zerani.

mitom Cqaroben momkasa, erTad Jivian yvelani, hsurT

purad iqcnen, saWmelad, rom miTi gaZRnen mSierni~.

mindias mier danaxul bunebaSi zneobrivi sawyisi,

zneobrivi grZnobebi da moTxovnilebebi vlindeba _

ara ubralod sikvdilis arndoma, aramed amaod daRup-

103


vis SiSi, sxvaTa sicocxlis Svelis survili. rogorc

mindia grZnobs bunebis tanjvas, sikvdilis winaSe Zrwolas,

aseve bunebis qmnilebebi (yovel SemTxvevaSi, zogierTni)

grZnoben adamianebis tanjvas, maTdami damuqrebul

sikvdilis safrTxes. aramarto mindia TanaugrZnobs

bunebas, aramed xdeba isec, rom bunebac TanaugrZnobs

adamians, mzad aris Seewiros mas da amiT tanjva da

sikvdili aaridos. is yvavilebi, mindias rom amcnoben,

Tu ra sneulebebis samkurnalod gamodgebian, Tanaugr-

Znoben adamianTa sasikvdilo tanjvas da sakuTari sicocxlis

sisavses wiraven maTi sasicocxlo Zalis aRdgenas.

`Turme zneda sWirT yvavilTa, oRond ewamlon

sneulTa, sicocxliT gafufunebuls arad agdeben sxeulTa;

salxinod hsaxven, kacT sargod, Zval-xorcTa CamorRveulTa~.

yvavilebs ar aSinebT, piriqiT, Svebas

gvriT aseTi sikvdili, romelic arsebiTad arc aris

yofnis dasasruli, aramed sxva sicocxlea, axal sicocxled

gardasaxva da sicocxlis nakadSi kvlav monawileobaa.

yvavilTa survili, tanjvis da sikvdilisgan

ixsnan adamianebi, igive sicocxlis nebaa, oRond

zneobrivad gakeTilSobilebuli, romelsac SeuZlia

sikvdilis tanjvis sxvebisTvis asaSoreblad uari

Tqvas TavisTavze da sxvaTa sicocxlisTvis TavisSewirviT

axali, ufro srulfasovani xorcSesxma moipovos.

ase rom, bunebazec SeiZleba iTqvas is, rasac vaJa

erT werilSi adamianze ambobs: `TiTqos kacs sicocxle

yvelaze metad uyvars, magram rom xSirad sikvdilSi

kaci sicocxles hpoulobs? bunebac amas albaT imitom

Caadeninebs kacs, rom imisTvis sikvdili, rac kacs

uyvars da ebraleba, igive sicocxlea~.

mindia, rogorc vxedavT, bunebaSi aRmoaCens sicocxlis

nebas da xaliss (gansakuTrebuli sisavsiT igi

ixateba gazafxulis dadgomis suraTSi: `roca ki gazafxuldeba,

gamoiRviZebs qveyana, silaRe, simxiarule

daseirnoben yvelgana...~); aRmoaCens sicocxlis wyurvilisgan

ganuyofel sikvdilis SiSs da arndomas, rac

bunebas adamianTan anaTesavebs. am naTesaobis mxatvruli

gamosaxva gaRrmavebuli da gamZafrebulia imiT,

104


om bunebaSi warmoCndeba sicocxlis nebis da sikvdilis

SiSis aramarto instinqturi gamovlinebebi, aramed

am fenomenTa ufro rTuli, zneobrivi Sinaarsis

Semcveli formebic.

* * *

vaJa-fSavelas prozaSi gamosaxuli bunebis samyaro

arsebiTad mindiasTvis damaxasiaTebeli `gulis xedviT~

danaxuli da gagebuli samyaroa. is, Tu rogor

aRiqvams bunebas mindia, gamokveTilia aramarto `gvelis

mWamelSi~, aramed vaJas moTxrobebSic. iseve rogorc

`gvelis mWamelSi~, vaJas prozaSic bunebis arsi

sicocxlis wyurvili da sikvdilisgan ganzidvaa. am

elementarul da amasTanave Zireul ZalTa warmoCena

gansazRvravs upirveles yovlisa vaJa-fSavelas prozisTvis

niSandobliv simartivis da siRrmis ucnaur

Serwymas.

vaJas moTxrobebSi bunebis qmnilebebi sicocxles

ganicdian rogorc Zvirfas saCuqars, nazad da vnebianad

arian Seyvarebuli sicocxleze da miT ufro Zlierad

natroben xangrZliv arsebobas, rac ufro mwvaved

grZnoben sikvdilis safrTxes, rac ufro eldisdamcemia

maTTvis aryofnis SiSi.

`oh, adamianebo!.. ara hgrZnobT, rom Cvenc gviyvars

Tavisufleba, ara hgrZnobT Tqvenis Seubralebelis

guliT, rom Cvenc gviyvars sicocxle~ _ ambobs `Svlis

nukris naambobis~ gmiri, romelic mudam SeSfoTebiT

moelis sikvdils; `didxans sicocxles danatrebul~

ias SiSs gvris sikvdilis xilva; mTis wyaro sizmarSi

TavisTavs damSrals xedavs _ masac sikvdili akrTobs;

quCis vedrebaSic sicocxlis wyurvili da sikvdilis

SiSia gamJRavnebuli: `mzeo, damxede, wvimav, damname!

kldeo maRalo, Seinaxe Cemi fesvebi, sicocxles nu

daukargav, nu amomTxri, nu amomagdeb!.. dambadebelo,

Seminaxe unayofo kldezed dakidebuli quCi...~; aseve

irems, `radgan cocxalia, uyvars sicocxle~, magram

arasdros asvenebs sikvdilis safrTxe; klde Civis:

105


`ramdenic meti momwydeba (lodebi) gulidan da Caileweba

jurRmulSi, imdenad me sikvdils vuaxlovdebi,

ukvdavebis motrfiale, msasoebeli mTeli Cemi arsebiT~;

verxvi yurs ugdebs yvavilebs, romlebic `mudam-

Jams sicocxleze saubrobdnen, mzesa da dedamiwas

hlocavdnen da RmerTs evedrebodnen: `RmerTo, nu

mogviReb male bolos, didxans gvacocxleo!~. aseTi magaliTebi

moyvana kidev mravlad SeiZleba.

vaJas prozaSi, `gvelis mWamelis~ msgavsad, bunebas

zneobrivi ieri aqvs _ masSi Tavs iCens sikeTis uqmnelad,

unayofod gaqrobis SiSi, sxvaTa sasikvdilo tanjvis

Tanaziaroba, sxvaTa sicocxlis dacvis survili...

vaJas moTxrobebSi, Cveulebriv, adamiani yrua bunebis

enisadmi. adamianebs fiqradac ar mosdiT yuri miugdon

bunebis enas da Cawvdnen imas, rac am eniT gamoiTqmeba.

maT ubralod ver warmoudgeniaT, rom aseTi realoba

arsebobs da amitom bunebis mimarT sastikebi, mo-

Zaladeebi arian. erT moTxrobaSi xis fesvebi yvebian,

rogor mospo `Seubralebelma~ kacma maTi Svili _ muxa.

`...culiT dauwyo Wra; imas ar esmoda Cveni da Cveni

Svilebis kvnesa. culs rom gvcemen, Cven vkvnesiT da

Tqven ki, kacni, amas `rakuns~ eZaxiT. gadmogvdis sisxli

da Tqven Cvens sisxls `xis wvens~ uwodebT...~.

Tumca zogjer adamiani axerxebs Tvalaxelili da

smenagaxsnili iyos bunebis mimarT, gaigos, Tavis enaze

`Targmnos~ bunebis ena, vTqvaT, SaSvis an bulbulis galoba,

kvlav sicocxlis siyvaruls da sikvdilis arndomas

rom gamoxatavs (`bunebis mgosnebi~).

vaJa-fSavelas erT komizmiT Seferil moTxrobaSi

aRwerilia monadiris sizmari, romelSic igi da misi

msxverpli rolebs ucvlian erTmaneTs. imisTvis, raTa

igrZnos, Tu ra codvas Cadis, roca cxovelebs xocavs,

ras niSnavs cocxali arsebis mokvla, monadirem TviTon

unda gamocados sikvdilis saSineleba, TviTon unda

ganicados, rogor ewameba sikvdilis winaSe myofi...

sxva moTxrobaSi momakvdav frinvels Seibralebs da

Seifarebs TviTonac sikvdils miaxloebuli, `didi

tanjva-vaebis mnaxveli~, yvelaze sayvarel adamianTa

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sikvdilis gadamtani kaci... ase rom, adamianma imdenad

SeiZleba igrZnos bunebis qmnilebebis sikvdilismieri

tanjva, ramdenadac is TviTon gamocdis sikvdilis

satanjvels.

mindia swored aseTi mtkivneuli gamocdilebis mqone

adamiania.

gamoTqmulia azri, rom mindia qajebTan tyveobaSi

tanjvis gamovliT moipovebs naTelxilvis unars.

es saintereso azri Sevsebas moiTxovs _ tanjvagamovlili

mindias mier mopovebuli naTelxilvis unari

upirvelesad bunebis qmnilebaTa tanjvis gaziarebis

unaria. bunebaSi tanjvis gamomwvevi ki, rogorc davinaxeT,

sikvdilis saSinelebaa, risi wvdomac Seadgens

mindias sibrZnis arsebiT Sinaarss. da nawarmoebSi warmoCenilia,

rom am sibrZnes, bunebis sikvdilismieri

tanjvis Tanagancdis niWs mindia iZens sikvdilTan uSualo

SexebiT, SejaxebiT.

literaturismcodneebs garkveuli aqvT, rom miTosuri

TvalsazrisiT mindias tyveoba qajebTan niSnavs

qvesknelSi, anu sikvdilis qveyanaSi yofnas, rac aucilebelia

iniciaciisTvis, magiur codnasTan ziarebisTvis.

unda vifiqroT, rom vaJa-fSavela miTosuri xatovanebiT,

simbolikiT mindias Sinagan, sulier da zneobriv

gamocdilebas gviCvenebs, romlidanac misi sibrZne iSva

_ mindiam gamocada sikvdili, is sikvdilis Semcnobi

kacia.

magram qajebTan mindias tyveobis ambis gadmocemisas

mwerali ufro konkretuladac aRbeWdavs Tavisi

gmiris sikvdilTan Sexvedras, romelic saTaves aZlevs

mis sibrZnes: dausrulebeli tyveobiT sasowarkveTili

mindia Tavis mokvlas cdilobs da am mizniT gvelis

xorcs Wams. bunebrivi iqneba Tu vigulisxmebT, rom

TviTmkvlelobis cdisas Seicnobs mindia sikvdils,

ukiduresi uSualobiT da sisruliT igrZnobs, ra aris

sikvdili da ase iZens sibrZnes, romlis arsi imis ganWvretaa,

rom amqveynad yoveli arseba sikvdilis saSinelebiT

itanjeba da wyuria sicocxle _ vinc Rrmad

icis sikvdili, man aseve icis sicocxlis nebis siZlie-

107


e, sicocxlis siZvirfase... sikvdilis wvdoma aramarto

sibrZnesTan ziarebis gzaa, aramed am sibrZnis Ziri-

Tadi Sinaarsic.

nawarmoebSi sikvdili da sibrZne faqtobrivad gaigivebulia.

naTelmxilvelad qceulma mindiam `Seigno,

Wama gvelisa qajTagan iyo zmaneba. sibrZne aCvenes

gvelada, rom hzizReboda saWmelad~. amgvarad, avtors

aqcentirebuli aqvs, rom gvelis Wama simboloa da am

simbolos azri sibrZnesTan ziarebaa. simboluri mniSvnelobis

mqone `zmanebis~ miRma ki realurad mxolod is

Cans, rom mindia `igemebs~ sikvdils, ramdenadac gvelis

xorcis Wamas igi TviTmkvlelobis saSualebad miiCnevs

da rom swored sikvdilis es Secnobaa sibrZne.

sikvdilis pirispir myofi mindias Sinagani samyaro,

qvecnobiereba SeiZreba da manamde Cveulebriv adamian-

Si iRviZebs araCveulebrivad maxvili intuicia, umZafresi

Tanagancdis unari, Zlieri, intensiuri warmosaxva.

mas gaexsneba `gulis xedva~, romelic daanaxebs, rom

sikvdili sazarelia yovelive cocxalisTvis da amitom

bunebis mimarT Zaladoba rogorc mkvleloba unda

aRikveTos.

mindias _ ubralo xevsuris naTelmxilvelad qcevis

ambavSi gamosWvivis vaJa-fSavelas yvelaze mniSvnelovan,

mTavar nawarmoebTa fundamenturi, ganmeorebadi

azrobriv-siuJeturi struqtura: sikvdilTan dramatuli

Sexvedra siRrmiseulad avlens personaJTa bunebas

an stimuls aZlevs maT pozitiur sulier-zneobriv

feriscvalebas. gavixsenoT _ mucalTan samkvdrosasicocxlo

orTabrZola, mucalis sikvdilis xilva da

Rrma gancda, sikvdilis tragikulobis aRmoCena aZlevs

biZgs aludas Sinagan metamorfozas; mTel Tavis pirovnul

Rirsebas aCens joyola kritikul viTarebaSi, romelic

mis axladSeZenil megobars aSkara sasikvdilo

safrTxes uqmnis; zviadauris sikvdilis tkiviliani aRqma

uCveulo sulier siRrmes, sifaqizes da siZlieres

gamoamJRavnebinebs aRazas; luxumis agoniis Semxedvare

urCxulis arsebaSi saswaulebrivi gardaqmna xdeba,

Rrma sibraluli aRmocendeba; SedarebiT naklebmniSv-

108


nelovan poemaSi `gogoTur da afSina~ sikvdilTan Sexvedris

motivi reliefurad ar ikveTeba, magram misi monaxazi

mainc SeimCneva _ gogoTurTan saxifaTo Setakebis

Semdeg xdeba afSinas zneobrivi feriscvaleba.

`gvelis mWamelSic~ vaJas poeturi eposis es myari

da arsebiTi motivia xorcSesxmuli.

* * *

`gvelis mWamelSi~ miniSnebulia vaJa-fSavelas mxatvruli

`bunebismetyvelebis~, bunebis vaJaseuli mxatvruli

aRqmis da gansaxierebis saTave _ swored is, rom

buneba adamianTa samyaros msgavsad aRsavsea sicocxlis

nebiT da sikvdilis tkiviliT, edeba safuZvlad

bunebis anTropomorful warmosaxvas, aqezebs vaJas

fantazias, sxva adamianuri niSnebic Sematos bunebas...

bunebas da adamians anaTesavebs agreTve enismqoneoba

da es momentic bunebis anTropomorfuli warmosaxvis

sayrdenad gvevlineba. `rac ki ram daubadia ufals

sulier-usulo, _ yvelasac Turme ena aqvs, ara yofila

urjulo~. enis, ufro sworad, enebis arseboba bunebaSi

ar auqmebs sulierTa da usuloTa gansxvavebas, rogorc

erTi SexedviT SeiZleba mogveCvenos. aq arc is

igulisxmeba, rom bunebis ena iseTivea, rogoric adamianis

ena, rom es aris ena adamianuri enis mniSvnelobiT:

poemaSi `mTaTa erToba~ buneba daxasiaTebulia rogorc

`uen-piro~, anu rogorc swored adamianur enas

da metyvelebis unars moklebuli. magram buneba metyvelia

arapirdapiri azriT _ eqspresiulia, raRacis

gamomTqmelia. bunebis qmnilebaTa Sinagani arsi garegnulad

gamoixateba garkveuli ieriT, xatiT, moZraobiT,

xmiT _ garkveuli niSnebiT. am niSnebis erTobliobaSi,

anu Tavisebur enaSi ganfenilia bunebis sazrisi,

neba, miswrafeba, sixaruli, tkivili da amis wyalobiT

aris SesaZlebeli bunebis wvdoma-gageba _ hermenevtikis

erT-erTi amosavali principi is aris, rom gagebis

SesaZleblobas ena iZleva. vaJas SemoqmedebaSi bunebis

109


enis adamianur enaze `Targmnis~ sistemuri cdaa ganxorcielebuli.

vaJa-fSavelas TvalsazrisiT, bunebis enis da, Sesabamisad,

bunebis saTqmelis gageba SeiZleba, Tu adamiani

bunebasTan urTierTobas amyarebs siyvaruliT, TanagrZnobiT,

gulisxmieri intuiciiT, gamZafrebuli

warmosaxviT. roca asea, bunebac guls aRebs adamianis-

Tvis, ndobiT axedebs mas Tavis Sinagan arsebobaSi. ma-

Sin aRmoCndeba, rom buneba `ara yofila urjulo~.

bunebis am daxasiaTebaSi konceptualuri azria SekumSuli

da mis naTelsayofad unda gaviTvaliswinoT,

ra mniSvnelobis Semcvelia `urjulos~ saxe vaJas SemoqmedebaSi:

`urjulo~ aris is, vis sicocxlis nebas da

uflebas ar unda vaRiarebdeT, visi sasikvdilo tanjva

ar unda gvaRelvebdes, vinc sruliad ucxoa CvenTvis,

arafriT ar gvgavs da amdenad misi gageba ar SegviZlia

da ar gvinda; anu `urjulos~ mimarT ara gvaqvs da arc

unda gvqondes eTikuri damokidebuleba rogorc RvTis

da zneobis gareSe arsebulisadmi. amitom `gvelis mWamelis~

mTavari gmiris mier imis aRmoCena, rom buneba ar

aris `urjulo~, niSnavs _ bunebis mimarT unda damkvidrdes

eTikuri damokidebuleba, Semwynarebloba, TanagrZnoba,

araagresiuloba. mucalis Rirsebis da amas-

Tanave misi sasikvdilo tanjvis da sicocxlisken

swrafvis mxedveli aluda aseve aRmoaCens, rom igi `ara

yofila urjulo~ da eTikuri damokidebulebis Rirsia.

bunebis vaJa-fSavelaseuli xedva da gaazreba, iseve

rogorc vaJas Semoqmedeba saerTod, farTo kulturul-istoriul

konteqstSi ganxilvas saWiroebs. amjerad

mokled SeiZleba iTqvas, rom bunebis vaJaseuli

xedva mniSvnelovanwilad Tanxvedrilia qristianul

TvalsazrisTan, romlis mixedviTac pirveli adamianis

codviTdacemis Semdeg bunebac dacemulia, sikvdils

emoneba da amis gamo itanjeba, pavle mociqulis TqmiT,

`gminavs da kvnesis~. is adamianTan erTad elis sikvdilisgan

mxsnels... bunebisadmi mindias damokidebuleba

gvagonebs induri religiuri azrovnebis princips

`axinsas~, romelic gulisxmobs cocxal arsebaTa arkv-

110


las, maTTvis zianis miuyeneblobas... vaJa-fSavelas Semoqmedebis

analizi bevr aseT sakiTxs wamoWris da isini,

cxadia, sagangebo Seswavlas moiTxovs. aq maTgan

erTs SevexebiT.

SeiniSneba arsebiTi msgavseba vaJa-fSavelas msoflmxedvelobas

da albert Svaiceris filosofiur-eTikur

koncefcias Soris.

Svaiceri Tavis moZRvrebas uwodebs `mowiwebas sicocxlis

mimarT~ da mis ZiriTad princips ase ayalibebs:

`me var sicocxle, romelsac surs sicocxle sxva

sicocxleTa Soris, romelTac CemsaviT surT sicocxle~.

Svaiceri miiCnevs, rom yvelaze elementaruli da

aSkara ram, rasac adamiani TavisTavSi da Tavis irgvliv

awydeba, aris sicocxlis neba, romelic yvelaSi da yvelaferSi

erTgvaria Tavisi arsiT. am ubralo da naTel

WeSmaritebas unda daemyaros, Svaiceris azriT, eTika.

`rogorc Cemi sicocxlis neba moicavs vnebian swrafvas

sicocxlis gagrZelebisken... da SiSs sicocxlis nebis

ganadgurebis da misi idumali damdablebis winaSe, romelsac,

Cveulebriv, tkivils uwodeben, aseve damaxasiaTebelia

es momentebi sicocxlis nebisTvis, romelic

Cems garSemo arsebobs, imis miuxedavad, gamoiTqmeba es

neba Tu munji rCeba. amdenad eTikuria is, rom me Tanabari

mowiwebiT vekidebi rogorc Cems sicocxlis nebas,

aseve nebismier sxva sicocxlis nebas. swored es aris

zneobis mTavari principi. sikeTe aris is, rac emsaxureba

sicocxlis SenarCunebas da ganviTarebas, boroteba

_ rac anadgurebs an aferxebs sicocxles~. es eTika

ar ifargleba adamianTa samyaroTi, bunebazec

vrceldeba _ adamiani WeSmaritad zneobrivia mxolod

maSin, roca mowiwebiT aRiqvams da ufrTxildeba TviT

yvelaze patara, TiTqosda umniSvnelo, naklebRirebul

sicocxles, Tavs ikavebs misi dazianebis da mospobisgan.

vaJa-fSavelas mrwamssac zustad gamoxatavs formula

`mowiweba sicocxlis mimarT~. is, rac Svaiceris moZ-

Rvrebis fundaments warmoadgens, vaJasTvisac Zireuli

WeSmaritebaa: `yvela da yvelaferi, sadac ki Tvali da

yuri miuwvdeba adamians, gvelaparakeba Semdegs: me co-

111


cxali var, cocxali da minda kvlav vicocxlo; sicocxle

Cemi unda iyos dausrulebelio~. erTnairia vaJafSavelas

da Svaiceris eTikuri Tvalsazrisic, romelic

am pirveladi WeSmaritebidan aris amozrdili _

yoveli sicocxle gasafrTxilebelia.

`gvelis mWamelis~ mTavari gmiris msgavsad albert

Svaiceri mkurnali iyo, aramarto qadagebda `mowiwebas

sicocxlis mimarT~, aramed praqtikuladac iRvwoda

sicocxlis SesanarCuneblad da gasaZliereblad. igi

misTvis ucnobi literaturuli personaJiviT cdilobda

Seesustebina sicocxlis nebis Semborkavi da damTrgunveli

agresiuloba, tkivili, sikvdili.

112

1997


daviT kldiaSvili

igavi TavkerZobis Sesaxeb

arsebobs nawarmoebebi, romlebSic mxolod literaturis

istorikosTa sareanimacio procedurebis waylobiT

bJutavs sicocxlis naperwkali.

daviT kldiaSvilis `samaniSvilis dedinacvali~,

cxadia, aseT procedurebs ar saWiroebs, igi droTa

ganmavlobaSi bunebriv sicocxlisunarianobas ar kargavs.

am sicocxlisunarianobis sawindris Sesaxeb kidev

erTxel dafiqreba, albaT, zedmeti ar unda iyos.

`samaniSvilis dedinacvalze~ msjelobisas tragikulis

da komikuris cnebebi gamoiyeneba, oRond tragikuli

gagebulia yoveldRiur-yofiTi azriT, `ubedurebis~

mniSvnelobiT.

sinamdvileSi daviT kldiaSvilis moTxroba Seicavs

tragikulis rogorc specifikuri esTetikuri kategoriis

zogierT moments.

is, rasac platon samaniSvili Seejaxeba, arsebiTad

aris istoriuli kanonzomiereba, romelic xels moucaravs

aznaurTa fenas, magram es daundobeli istoriuli

aucilebloba movlenilia ara uSualod, aramed rogorc

bediswera.

bediswerasTan adamianis Sejaxebis motivi ki tragikuli

motivia. man yvelaze sruli gamovlena pova berZnul

tragediaSi, xolo gansakuTrebuli simkveTriT

xorci Seisxa sofokles `oidipos mefeSi~.

aq bunebrivad Cndeba skeptikuri kiTxva _ ra SeiZleba

hqondes saerTo kldiaSvilis uRimRamo personaJs

didebulebiT mosil tragikul gmirebTan, romelTac

amaRlebuli fiqri, zraxvebi da Rrma vnebaTaRelva

gamoarCevT?

tragikuli gmiris arsebiTi Tvisebaa is, rom igi,

Seqspiris sityvebs Tu moviSveliebT, `mozRvavebul

ubedurebasTan~ aris SebrZolebuli da rogori Rimi-

113


lismomgvrelic unda iyos amis Tqma, platon samaniSvilic

erTgvarad `mozRvavebul ubedurebas~ ebrZvis.

tragikuli gmirisTvis damaxasiaTebelia agreTve,

rom igi nebiT Tu uneblieT Tavad aRasrulebs gardauvals,

sakuTari qmedebiT axorcielebs bedisweris mis-

Tvisve mkacr ganaCens. tragikul personaJs platoni am

niSniTac uaxlovdeba.

platons Taviseburad yvelaferi zustad aqvs gaTvlili

da dagegmili, magram mainc xdeba is, rac TiTqos

yvelaze naklebad unda iyos mosalodneli, ris armosaxdenadac

man amdeni iwvala; bedisweram platonis

uneblie daxmarebiT Tavisi gaitana.

bedisweris motivs daviT kldiaSvili Tavisi personaJebis

yofiT-Cveulebriv saubarSi Tu fiqrSi `Seaparebs~:

`egeba marTladac es qali mamamisis bedi unda

iyos?! marTla ra aris, aba, rom Tavidanve am qals uxseneben

da yoveli garemoeba ise ewyoba, rom usaTuod am

qalis mxsenebeli xvdeba yvelgan, TiTqos gangeb piri

SeekraT amaze!.. xom aravin icoda? mas xom erTi sityvac

ar dascdenia Tavisi saidumlos Sesaxeb gverdevaniZes-

Tan _ TviTon iman axsena da aqo es qali... qorwilidan

saxlSi brundeboda, magram mainc aqeT wamovida... aq

movida da, TiTqo gangeba iyos, es qvaSaviZe daxvda da

imave qals urCevs da aZalebs!.. ras miaweros?.. ese umniSvnelod

rava iqneba, rava xdeba es ambavi?! egeb

marTla RmerTi aniSnebdes da gaWirvebuls daxmarebas

aZlevdes, eweodes, saqmes uadvilebdes, bedze

uTiTebdes!~.

platonis Tavgadasavali bedisweris mier adamianis

gamasxrebaa. bedis ironiis motivis wyalobiT `samaniSvilis

dedinacvali~ warmodgeba aramarto konkretuli

drois da garemos, konkretuli socialuri fenis warmomadgenelTa

yofis amsaxvel suraTad, aramed igavadac

adamianuri TavkerZobis da misi sasjelis Sesaxeb.

ironiul-komikur igavad aqcevs `samaniSvilis dedinacvals~

is, rom tragikuli elementi aq Tanmimdevrulad

iSleba.

114


amgvari elementis Semcvel situaciaSi moqceulia

`patara adamiani~, romelic tragikuli gmiris, `suldidi

qmnilebis~ msgavsad raime sayovelTao faseulobas,

princips ki ar amkvidrebs TavganwirviT, sakuTari

kerZo, ubadruki miznis miRwevisTvis Tavis damamcireblad

codvilobs. swored am egoisturi SezRudulobiT

da uRirsobiT, Tavisi adamianuri da aznauruli

Rirsebis gaTelviT imsaxurebs igi bedis dacinvas (TavkerZobis

gamo bekinac isjeba).

tragikuli motivi _ adamiani bedisweris pirispir

_ xorcSesxmulia misTvis sruliad Seusabamo, damamdablebel,

anekdotur fabulaSi _ Svili mamis maWanklobas

kisrulobs, berw sadedinacvlos daeZebs. ulmobeli

bediswera platon samaniSvils evlineba savsebiT

demiTologizebuli saxiT _ rogorc erTi sawyali

qvrivi dedaberi.

bediswerasTan adamianis Sejaxebis tragediuli motivi

CanasaxSive profanirebuli da komizebulia: platoni

viTom eurCeba, sinamdvileSi ki gaurbis beds.

moTxrobis komizmis siRrmiseuli safuZvelia is, rom

mTavari personaJis cdebi, gaeqces bedisweras, swored

bedisweris aRsrulebaa. komizmi aqveiTebs da mTlianad

nTqavs tragikul moments.

qarTuli sinamdvilis dakninebis mowmobaa, rom `samaniSvilis

dedinacvlis~ mxatvrul realobaSi tragikuli

motivi aucileblad sakuTari Tavis parodiul

uaryofad unda iqces, rom am realobaSi misi adekvaturad

gamovlena SeuZlebelia.

`samaniSvilis dedinacvalSi~ ZvelisZveli tragikuli

modeli komikurad mdare, srulebiT aragmirul da

arapaTetikur sinamdvileSi damiwda, rac niSandoblivi

aRmoCnda Semdgomdroindeli mxatvruli azrovnebisTvis.

Tumca nawarmoebis bolos komizmic qreba, specifikurad

tragikulic aq araferi Cans, _ protagonisti

ar iRupeba da araCveulebriv tanjvasac ar ganicdis,

arc didi faseulobebi da idealebi imsxvreva _ TiTqos

mxolod Cveulebrivi ubedureba rCeba, anu `tragedia~

yoveldRiuri gagebiT.

115


magram `samaniSvilis dedinacvlis~ finalSi aris

reducirebuli namdvili tragediis natexic _ iRupeba

adamianis suli, misi sindisi; sikeTes platonis arsebaSi

axSobs daundobloba, gaborotebul sulSi ibadeba

SurismaZiebluri kiTxva:`me Semibrala vinmem?~. platons

ar SeuZlia daTmoba, beds damorCileba, amis safasuri

ki misi zneobrivi sikvdilia.

116

1982


faruli Sinasamyaro

sinamdvilis warmosaxva krizisis fazaSi niSandoblivia

daviT kldiaSvilis realizmisTvis, rac upiratesad

gulisxmobs feodaluri faseulobebis rRvevis

xedvas gaRaribebuli aznaurebis yofaSi. magram qarTuli

sinamdvilis Sinagan kriziss gamoxatavs mwerali im

nawarmoebebSic, sadac misi mzera gadanacvlebulia

maTze, vinc qarTveli xalxis yvelaze mravalricxovan

fenas Seadgenda _ soflis ubralo mkvidrebze, glexebze.

aq dramatulad aris naCvenebi qarTveli adamianis

mier Tavisi tradiciuli orientiris, cxovrebis

qristianuli gagebis, qristianuli moralis uaryofa.

`SerisxvaSi~ Cveulebrivi da sakmaod umniSvnelo

yofiTi konfliqti mTavari gmiris aramartiv, mkveTr

xasiaTs gamoamzeurebs da misi sulieri dramis biZgismimcemi

xdeba.

mTavari personaJis da soflis konfliqts Tu davakvirdebiT,

davinaxavT, rom personaJis pasuxi konfliqtur

situaciaze ar aris Sesaferisi, Tanazomadi:

usamarTloba, Tundac igi sazogadoebas namdvilad

hqondes Cadenili, ar aris im zomis, rom masze aseTi

reagireba mosalodneli iyos. saqme ar exeba materialuri

an moraluri TvalsazrisiT raRac gansakuTrebuli

mniSvnelobis mqone raimes. miwis im nakveTze,

romelzec sofeli gzas gaiyvans, kacias keTildReoba

ar aris damokidebuli, xolo wyena, sofelma nebiT Tu

uneblieT rom miayena, bunebrivi iqneboda droTa

ganmavlobaSi mainc ganelebuliyo imis SegnebiT, rom

sofels sxva saSveli ar hqonda. wregadasulia kacias

javri, gakerpeba, SurisZiebis Jini _ amis realur

mizezs bevrad gadametebuli. misi gaborotebuli amxedreba

yvelas da yvelafris, TviT RmerTis winaaRmdeg

gamowveulia misive mwvave egocentrizmiT.

TavisTavze maRal `instancias~ kacia ar cnobs _

arc sazogadoebis nebas da interesebs, arc samarTals

da kanons, arc RmerTs. igi TviTonaa WeSmaritebis er-

TaderTi mflobeli, mxolod man icis, ra aris simarT-

117


le da samarTlianoba; RmerTis samarTlianobis, metic,

arsebobis aRiarebis piroba xdeba mis mier socialuri

samarTlianobis aRsruleba ise, rogorc am adamians

warmoudgenia sworad; yvelaferi ise unda iyos, rogorc

kacias surs, TviT RmerTis neba mis nebas unda

daemTxves. qristianuli cnobiereba darRveuli da amopirqvavebulia:

imis nacvlad, rom RvTis nebas, zneobriv

mcnebebs emorCilebodes, moTxrobis gmiri Rmer-

Tisgan moiTxovs morCilebas, Tavisi simarTlis damowmebas

da Tavis mterze Surisgebas. cxadia, TviT Suris-

Ziebis wyurvils da RvTisgan mtris dasjis jiut, gaavebul

moTxovnas qristianobasTan saerTo araferi

aqvs, mtris xatze gadacema SeniRbuli warmarTuli

magiaa.

RmerTis mimarT kacias amboxi TiTqos ar aris moklebuli

Tavisebur principul safuZvels _ misi azriT,

RmerTi movalea dasajos damnaSave, raTa adamianebs

codvis da madlis gasarCevi TvalsaCino da ucdomeli

sazomi hqondeT. magram RmerTisadmi wayenebuli

es pretenzia, kulturaSi dadasturebuli RmerTTan

brZolis seriozul gamovlinebaTagan gansxvavebiT, sinamdvileSi

ar gvevlineba raime sayovelTao humanisturi

faseulobis dacvad, aRZrulia mxolod sakuTari

Jinis dakmayofilebis Seupovari moTxovnilebiT, usaz-

Rvro TavnebobiT. Tu kacias amboxs SevudarebT vaJafSavelas

mier warmosaxul pirovnebis msoflmxedvelobriv

dapirispirebas sazogadoebasTan da tradiciul

gaqvavebul religiasTan, kidev ufro cxadi iqneba

am personaJis protestis masazrdoebel impulsTa egocentruli

warmomavloba.

RmerTisadmi kacias urCoba sulieri wamebiT icvleba,

magram es tanjvac imas mowmobs, rom moTxrobis

gmiris religiuri cnobiereba gamrudebulia _ mas ara

aqvs monaniebis Zalis rwmena da RvTisgan patiebis mi-

Rebis imedi. kacias Tanasoflelebis Segnebac arsebi-

Tad araqristianulia, masSic aRmofxvrilia Semwyale

da mimtevebeli qristianuli RmerTis saxeba: isini

Tvlian, rom kacias datirebiT RmerTs gaanawyeneben.

118


moTxrobis mTavari saTqmeli SemWidroebulia

mRvdlis qadagebaSi, romelic kacias moqmedebis gaazrebas

da Sefasebas Seicavs. `erTob ucnauri xasiaTisa

varT... buzs ar gadavifrenT xandaxan Tavze... Tu ram

davijineT, imis gadaTqmas sikvdils varCevT, Tundac

mtyuanic viyveT... guliswyromas xom sazRvari ara aqvs

xSirad... uTuod Cvens nebaze unda iqnes yvelaferi da

Tu ise ar iqna, saSualebasac aRar varCevT, oRond ki

survili avisruloT... daTmena ra aris... xSirad arc ki

gvinda vicodeT. da ai, sadamdis mivyavarT amnair Cvens

xasiaTs... TviT RmerTsac ki vebrZviT... kaci wmindans

ebrZvis, ratom Cems nebaze ar gaiareo, ratom Cemi neba

ar aasruleo... ai, sadamdis midis Cveni ugunuri guliswyroma...

damSviddiT, Svilebo, iswavleT moTmineba...~.

es gansja xels uwyobs nawarmoebSi moTxrobili araordinaruli

SemTxvevis ganzogadebas, misi azrobrivi

diapazonis gavrcobas; moTxrobis personaJis dramas

erovnuli xasiaTis TaviseburebaSi aqvs Zlieri wanamZ-

Rvrebi. `Serisxva~ gvimxels saukuneebis mijnaze qarTveli

adamianis tradiciuli religiur-zneobrivi cnobierebis

daSlis gaRrmavebas da, Sesabamisad, misi Tvi-

Tnebobis gamZlavrebas, TviTnebobis, romelic grigol

robaqiZes qarTvelisTvis umTavres safrTxed miaCnda.

`Serisxva~ daviT kldiaSvilis erT-erTi pirveli nawarmoebia

da TiTqos cota gaubedavad, SeboWilad aris

dawerili. masSi SedarebiT naklebia is wvrilmanebi da

niuansebi, romlebiTac daviT kldiaSvili, Cveulebriv,

ase aferadovnebs Tavis naxats.

samagierod ufro gvian Seqmnili, ideur-problemuri

TvalsazrisiT `Serisxvis~ monaTesave moTxroba `miqela~

Sesrulebulia zedmiwevniT faqizi da zusti niuansirebiT.

moTxrobis stili plastikuri gamokveTilobis

da moculobriobis mqonea, amave dros es plastika

fsiqologizebulia, sulierebis gamtaria. moTxrobas

mosavs mkafiod sagrZnobi atmosferuli garsi,

misi mwuxare, moqufruli tonaloba gadmomdebi ZaliT

aris aRbeWdili.

119


iseve rogorc kacia, miqelac tradiciuli religiur-zneobrivi

msoflgagebisgan gandgomilia, Tumca

mas `Serisxvis~ gmirisgan gansxvavebiT marTlac didi

gasaWiri adgas, TiTqmis mTeli mravalricxovani ojaxi

amouwydeba. Tavidan moxucis sayrdeni am ubedurebaSi

RmerTis rwmena da morCilebaa, qristianuli moTminebaa.

magram ojaxis kidev erTi wevris avad gaxdoma miqelas

moTminebas ukargavs, mis sulSi raRac ucnauri

ryeva iwyeba. es kaci, avtoris daxasiaTebiT, `Cumi, yuCi,

bus msgavsi ... romelic gulgrilad ekideboda yvelafers,

rac mis garSemo xdeboda~, manamde uxilav, namdvil

saxes aCens. miqelas cnobierebaSi mZafri procesi

aRiZvreba, romlis arssac mwerali mwyobr formulad

Seamkvrivebs: `masSi TiTqos gaiRviZa SigniT damalulma

adamianma Tavisi grZnobebiTa da wadilebiT~.

`grZnobebi~ da `wadilebi~, romlebic moTxrobis

gmiris aqamde farul, axla ki gamomJRavnebul Sinasamyaros

euflebian, erTi SexedviT, mxolod ojaxis sruli

ganadgurebis SiSi da am sazareli safrTxis Tavidan

acilebis survilia. magram Tu davukvirdebiT, aRmoCndeba,

rom miqelas SeSfoTebas amis garda aqvs siRrmiseuli

motivic _ ojaxis amowyvetis SesaZlebloba upirveles

yovlisa imiT aforiaqebs, rom TviT mis suls sikvdilis

Semdeg amqveyniuri mzrunveli aRar eyoleba,

TviT misi individualuri arsebobis imqveynad damkvidrebas

da gagrZelebas dabrkoleba eqmneba; da miqelas

amqveynad memkvidre Wirdeba, raTa misi ojaxi ar moSalos

da, rac mTavaria, `aqedan~ mis `iqaur~ sicocxles

Seewios. am kacis mTavari mamoZravebeli rom es metad

Zlieri motivia, moTxrobaSi araerTxelaa miniSnebuli.

amgvar miniSnebebs Soris yvelaze xazgasmuli nawarmoebis

finalSia moqceuli da gmiris moqmedebis warmmar-

Tav motivs saboloo, Semajamebeli garkveulobiT amJ-

Ravnebs. Tavis jansaR SviliSvilze, vis gadarCenasac

cdilobs, miqela ambobs: `is kargad meyolos da me misi

Wiri wamiRia!.. misi Wiri wamiRia!.. Cemi sulis macxoneblis

_ da moxucebulma isev Rrmad amoioxra. _ misi Wiris

sanacvlo viyve, Cveni sulis macxoneblis!..~. raki

120


ojaxis micvalebulTa da pirvel rigSi ki misi sakuTari

`sulis macxonebeli~ uvneblad eguleba, moxuci Tavis

moaxloebul sikvdilze aRar wuxs.

miqelas rwmenis raoba, rom saiqios gadasaxlebul

suls miwieri samyarodan mzrunveloba da xelSewyoba

usaTuod esaWiroeba, konkretuli saxiT warmoCndeba

imaSi, Tu rogor eSurebian adamianebi Tavisi micvalebulebis

saiqio bedis gagebas miqelas avadmyofi SviliSvilisgan,

spidonasgan, romelic TiTqos imqveynidan

erTi wlis vadiT aris dabrunebuli. isini naRvloben,

xom araferi akliaT, xom araferi awuxebT gardacvlilebs

`ugunur~ da `miuxdomel~ WirisufalTa

mizeziT. Zneli warmosadgeni ar aris, rogori iqneba im

sulis sikvdilisSemdgomi xvedri, romelsac saerTod

ar rCeba Wirisufali. es unugeSo perspeqtiva awvalebs

miqelas. ucnauria aseTi religiuroba, magram Tavisi

sulisTvis uSfoTveli da myari imqveyniuri arsebobis

uzrunvelyofis mZafri moTxovnileba aiZulebs miqelas,

aRar iyos RvTis sikeTis imedad da TviTon iRonos

rame. miqelas RmerTs aSorebs TviTSenarCunebis awrialebuli

instinqti.

Sexeduleba, rom gardacvlilis mdgomareoba saiqioSi

ase arsebiTad aris damokidebuli mis mimarT amqveyniur

mzrunvelobaze, qristianobis gayalbebaa. es

aris SeniRbuli materializmi: fuZiseulia miwieri samyaro,

imqveyniuri cxovreba ki ubralod misi gagrZeleba

da Sors gadatanaa. crurwmena sadinars aZlevs miqelas

metismetad mwvave TviTSenarCunebis wadils.

RmerTis morCilebaze da moTminebaze xels rom

iRebs, miqela wydeba qristianul zneobas, iviwyebs

gulmowyalebas, Sebralebas. misi gezismimcemi axla

brZolis da gadarCenis moralia, romelmac Sebraleba

ar icis, igi moiTxovs sisastikes, sxva adamianis gawirvas.

TviTgadarCenisken, sakuTari `mes~ samudamo damkvidrebisken

ltolva miqelas did energias aZlevs da

daZabuli moqmedebisken ubiZgebs. da misi moqmedeba

adamianis qristianobamdel, warmarTul msxverplSewirvas

gavs. qristianuli morali efuZneba yoveli ada-

121


mianis rogorc RvTisSvilis unikaluri faseulobis

Segnebas; qristianuli TvalTxedviT, nebismieri adamianis

sicocxle gasafrTxilebelia da ridis Rirsia, dauSvebelia

misi saSualebad gamoyeneba raime (Tundac

maRali) miznis misaRwevad. amis sapirispirod miqela

adamians wiravs gvaris, modgmis, ojaxis gadasarCenad,

romelic araTu amqveynad gaagrZelebs mis sicocxles,

aramed misi imqveyniuri srulfasovani arsebobis sawindaric

iqneba. igi moqmedebs, ase vTqvaT, `bunebrivi gadarCevis~

principiT _ Zlierebi da jansaRebi unda gadarCnen,

xolo sustebi unda daiRupon, ZlierTa ke-

TildReobas emsxverplon.

Tavis SviliSvilebSi miqela ver xedavs TviTmyofad,

ganumeorebel adamianebs, cocxal sulebs. misTvis isini

arsebiTad Taviseburi obieqtebi arian, romelTagan

erTi, avadmyofi, misi miznis asrulebas xels uSlis,

xolo meore, jansaRi _ piruku, xels uwyobs. es gansaz-

Rvravs moxucis sxvadasxvagvar damokidebulebas SviliSvilebisadmi.

jansaRi SviliSvili misi arsebobis

gagrZelebis erTaderTi imedia da amitom mas Tbilad

ekideba, es bavSvi utilitarulad aris misTvis Zvirfasi.

maxvili fsiqologizmiTaa Sesrulebuli pasaJi, sadac

miqela ojaxidan gaxiznul janmrTel SviliSvils

moinatrebs da masTan midis: miqelas TiTqos ar sjera

misi arseboba da mZafrad surs Tavisi imedis ganmasaxierebeli

sakuTari TvaliT ixilos kargadmyofi, xeli

Seaxos, raTa TviT imedis safuZvlianoba irwmunos; imdenad

Zlieria es survili, rom gzaSi SviliSvili

elandeba.

Sekavebuli, uxmauro dramatizmiT da sulisSemZravi

xelSesaxeblobiT aris gamosaxuli miqelasTvis dabrkolebad

qceuli da ojaxidan mokveTili, sasikvdilod

gawiruli avadmyofi bavSvis martooba, fizikuri

da Sinagani tanjva. xolo misi damRupveli bunebis stiqiis

suraTi TiTqos metaforulad adamianebis cxovrebis

da samyaros sisastikes, ugunurebas gamoxatavs.

ver vityviT, rom miqela srulebiT ar wuxdes Tavisi

daundoblobis gamo, rom misTvis srulebiT ucxo iyos

122


sibralulis grZnoba. misi amgvari grZnobebi ase Tu ise

mainc gamoJonavs, yovel SemTxvevaSi, bavSvis sikvdilis

Semdeg. magram es ver gadafaravs imas, rac moTxrobaSi

mTavaria _ tradiciuli religiuri da moraluri

mrwamsisgan adamianis daSorebas da amis kanonzomier

Sedegebs: sisastikes, damokidebulebas adamianisadmi

rogorc usulo obieqtisadmi, saSualebisadmi, ris

miRmac TviTSenarCunebis Seukavebeli instinqti

ikveTeba.

avtori, romlis msoflgancda da stili ver iguebs

moralur msjavrmdeblobas, arc miqelas ganikiTxavs,

es gasastikebuli adamiani misTvis upirveles yovlisa

mainc sacodavi arsebaa. igi am personaJs, iseve rogorc

Tavisi personaJebis umetesobas, xedavs damTrgunvel

garemoebebze damokidebuls, materialuri siduxWiris,

gonebrivi sibnelis, instinqtis sacecebSi umweod

momwyvdeuls da Rrmad, mtkivneulad TanaugrZnobs mas.

sibralulis, lmobierebis gansakuTrebuli niWi vaJafSavelasTan

anaTesavebs daviT kldiaSvils. magram

Semwynarebloba, Tavisi gmirebis sacodaobis saTuTi

gancda xels ar uSlis mwerals cxadad gaarCios erTmaneTisgan

maTi codva da madli.

Tu daviT kldiaSvilis moTxrobaSi TviTSenarCunebis

jiuti neba, romelsac adamiani sxva adamianis sasikvdilod

gametebamde miyavs, qristianuli eTikis poziciidan

aris gancdili da gagebuli rogorc codva,

zneobrivi danaSauli, igi daaxloebiT imave periodis

ucxour literaturaSi sruliad sxvagvari, biologisturi

da `zekacobis~ damamkvidrebeli interpretaciis

saganic gamxdara. amis nimuSia jek londonis proza,

sadac yvelanairi saSualebiT sicocxleze magrad mo-

Wideba, `bunebrivi gadarCeva~, modgmis faseulobrivi

upiratesoba individuumis mimarT warmoisaxeba rogorc

bunebis da sazogadoebis universaluri da normaluri

kanoni. aseT fonze kidev ufro TvalsaCinoa

daviT kldiaSvilis msoflaRqmis qristianul-humanisturi

safuZvlebi.

123


imis msgavsi sulier-zneobrivi situacia, rogoric

`SerisxvaSi~ da `miqelaSi~ saxierdeba, daviT kldiaSvilis

sxva nawarmoebebSic aris aRbeWdili. `msxverplSi~

tradiciuli moraluri cnobiereba darRveulia da

adamianebs erTmaneTis agresiuli TviTnebobisgan araferi

icavT; RmerTis morCilebis da moTminebis moralis

sicocxlisunarianoba daSretili Cans piesaSi

`ubedureba~: piesis personaJebi gaWirvebas pasiuri

moTminebis nacvlad aqtiur qmedebas da solidarobas,

erTgvar `gonivrul egoizms~ upirispireben, magram solidaroba

moklebulia cocxal TanagrZnobas, egoizmi

`gonierebaze~ bevrad Zlieri aRmoCndeba, sazogadoebas

ganxeTqileba xleCs da iRvreba sisxli _ xdeba

ufro didi ubedureba, vidre is iyo, romelsac TiTqos

win aRudgnen. am igavisebur piesaSi TiTqos Cveni Tanamedroveobac

irekleba...

`SerisxvaSi~ da `miqelaSi~ xorcSesxmulia daviT

kldiaSvilis SemoqmedebisTvis niSandoblivi siuJeturi

modeli _ aqtivoba gasaWirisgan TavdasaRwevad da

misi Sedegi, romelic Tavdapirvel mdgomareobaze gacilebiT

uaresia (asea imave `ubedurebaSi~, `samaniSvilis

dedinacvalSi~...). aqtivoba, romelic zneobas

gverds uqcevs, sulieri simrTelisTvis mavnea.

qarTveli adamianis individualizmi miT ufro kargavs

zomierebas, rac ufro cildeba Tavis tradiciul

regulators, qristianul msoflgagebas da morals.

did sulier da socialur gansacdelTa epoqis damdegs

es saxifaTod gazrdili daSoreba daviT kldiaSvilma

utyuari realizmiT cxadyo.

124

1992


vasil barnovi

dacemebi da zeaRsvlebi

TiTqos ar aklia aRiareba da dafaseba vasil

barnovs, misi prozis Seswavlac unayofo, rasakvirvelia,

ar yofila, magram mwerlis vrceli Semoqmedebis

is nawili, romelsac Tanamedrove mkiTxvelis cocxali

interesis gamowveva SeuZlia, gamorCeuli da aqtualizebuli

ar aris. amis mizezi isic Cans, rom kritikis

yuradReba ZiriTadad mipyrobili iyo barnovis msoflmxedvelobisken,

romelic filosofiuri da religiuri

azrovnebis Zvel tradiciebzea aRmocenebuli da TavisTavad

marTlac sayuradReboa, xolo mTavari, esTetikuri

kriteriumi mas naklebad hqonda momarjvebuli.

barnovis saukeTeso moTxrobebSi filosofiur-religiur

ideebs isrutavs saxeobrivi stiqia, intuituri

da gancdili, originaluri mxatvruli xilva Zlevs

ilustraciulobas, sqematurobas; zogierTi esTetikurad

faseuli moTxroba ki saerTod ar aris mwerlis

filosofiur da religiur msoflmxedvelobasTan

uSualod dakavSirebuli. moTxrobebSi `suli mTvlemare~,

`yvavilebSi~ da a.S., rogorc `Teoriis~ Semcvel

srulfasovan mxatvrul nawarmoebebs saerTod axasia-

TebT, doqtrina ki ar iyenebs mxatvrul saxes ilustraciad,

aramed piriqiT, cxovrebis mxatvruli xedva _

uSualo grZnobad-goniTi Wvreta iSveliebs ganyenebul

ideas da amiT siRrmes Seimatebs, Tavis horizonts

Sors gadawevs. aq filosofiur-religiuri Tvalsazrisi,

sulTa gadasaxlebis (metemfsiqozis) Teoria gaxevebul

dominantad ki ar gvevlineba, aramed damxmare

orientirad barnovisgan ganuSorebeli sicocxlis

idumalebis grZnobisTvis.

xolo sicocxlis saidumlo barnovisTvis uwinares

yovlisa individuaciis saidumloa, individualuri xa-

125


siaTis da bedis gamocanaa. individualoba da xasiaTi,

mwerlis TvalTaxedviT, sabedisweroa.

`suli mTvlemareSi~ barnovi gansakuTrebiT aqcentirebulad

gamoxatavs individualobis idumalebas.

moTxrobis mTavari personaJis ucnauri ieri, xasiaTi

xatovani siuxviT da sisruliT inakvTeba.

gigola materiis uxeSad formirebuli, mZime da

zanti masaa, romelSic aseve zanti sulia Cakarguli;

erTaderTi qmedeba, romelic am tlanqi da dune cxovelis

msgavs arsebas izidavs, miwis zelaa, Tixis damu-

Savebaa: is TiTqos bunebam amisTvis Caifiqra da Seqmna,

TiTqos TviTonac miwis stiqiidan aris warmoSobili da

mSobliur stiqias SeenivTeba. es inertuli da uwyinari

goliaTi sakuTari nebiT raime seriozuli konfliqtis

monawile ar gaxdeba. magram SeuZlebelia cxovreba did

borotebasTan Sejaxebis gareSe, romlis drosac

adamianis zneobrivi bedi wydeba. am aucileblobas

verc gigola acdeba; colis aqtivobis Sedegad, romelic

qmris antipodia, _ msubuqi, gamrje, mousvenari _

is misTvis bunebriv arsebobis wess wydeba da qalaqSi

gadainacvlebs, sadac zneobrivi gansacdeli elis: mas,

erT-erTi dawesebulebis keTilsindisier darajs,

kinaRam kaci Semoakvdeba...

erTi SexedviT, es personaJi metafizikuri Zalebis,

gangebis sakuTar nebas moklebuli saTamaSoa. am STabeWdilebas

badebs barnovis poetikisTvis damaxasiaTebeli

gaupirovnebeli, idumali dialogi, romelic exeba

gigolas sulis warsul da momaval xvedrs _ wina

cxovrebaSi igi romeliRac didi cxovelis sxeulSi

saxlobda, Semdgom arsebobaSi ki ufro dawmendili ganxorcieldeba.

magram amis Sesaxeb mainc kategoriulad

ar aris laparaki dialogSi, romelic moTxrobis mTavari

gmiris saxes da siuJets kosmiur-maradiuli yofierebis

anarekliT amdidrebs.

sinamdvileSi gigola TviTon aris Tavisi bedis Semoqmedi

_ is yurad iRebs `gafrTxilebas~, alRoTi

wvdeba SemTxveuli ambis azrs: Tu borotebisgan saimedod

ar moizRudavs Tavs, SeiZleba sulierad daiRu-

126


pos. codvis kvlav Cadenis safrTxis SegrZneba mis Sinasamyaros

Searyevs da nel-nela, mtkivneulad aamoZravebs.

is, rac gigolas fsiqikaSi sabolood mkafio saxes

iZens, aris azri isev miwis stiqiasTan mibrunebis

Sesaxeb, romelic misi bunebis instinqturi ltolvidan

ibadeba. Tu Tavidan igi am stiqias sruliad gaucnobiereblad

erwymis, bolos ucdomeli alRoTi grZnobs,

rom es aris erTaderTi ram, riTac Tavis daniSnulebas

axorcielebs, ris gareSe arsebobac borotebasTan aaxloebs.

Tu manamde gigolas sizante, sizarmace TiTqos

codvisgan instinqturi Tavdacvac iyo, axla is Sinaganad

xedavs, ra aaridebs codvas. arsebiTad igi zneobriv

arCevans akeTebs _ borotebas gaurbis da amoicnobs

Tavis erTaderT mowodebas, romlis Sesruleba

borotebisgan Tavdaxsnas iseve uadvilebs adamians,

rogorc sakuTari mowodebis SeusruleblobiT uadvilebs

igi borotebas TavisTavze batonobas. sikeTis da

borotebis msoflio `balansSi~ gigola sikeTes

Seemateba.

moTxroba Tavis xibls mniSvnelovanwilad dakargavda,

mas rom ar dasTamaSebdes avtoris Rimili, _

keTilmosurne da Semwynarebeli, oRond amasTanave

ironiuli _ romelic gvimxels, rom Tumca moTxrobis

gmiri absoluturi faseulobis mqonea rogorc ganumeorebeli

individualoba, is mainc patara da sabraloa;

misi xvedri keTilic aris da ubadrukic; igi erTdroulad

aris kosmosis maradiuli wrebrunvis aucilebeli

da metismetad mcire elementi.

Tavis primitiul gmirSi da mis martiv TavgadasavalSi

barnovi Wvrets samyaros arsebiT tendenciebs da

sawyisebs: unikalur individuacias da sayovelTao

xvedrs, suls da materias, aucileblobas da Tavisuflebas,

sikeTes da borotebas. `suli mTvlemareSi~ organulad

aris Sexamebuli yofiTi realizmis simyare,

gaucxoebuli groteskuli saxeobrioba, samyaros usasrulobis

mistikuri gancda.

raRac imis msgavsi, rac `suli mTvlemareSi~ gigolasTvis

miwis zelaa, `vaSlebis~ gmirisTvis, rogorc

127


moTxrobis saTauric gvaniSnebs, aris vaSlebis uzomo

siyvaruli, saerTod mucelRmerToba. individualobis

Tavisebureba aq ufro realisturad aris gaazrebuli

rogorc bavSvobaSi formirebuli da ramdenadme

socialurad determinirebulic (moTxrobis personaJi

xelmokle ojaxis Svilia da gaWirvebac uviTarebs

kuriozul sixarbes). dro ver exeba am individualobis

arss, birTvs, icvleba misi socialuri statusi, cxovrebis

garegani forma, magram dauZleveli rCeba ucnauri

vneba, romelic am ukve respeqtabeluri kacis

TiTqosda bednier yofas farulad bzaravs. personaJis

individualobis erTi SexedviT uwyinari Tviseba bediswerasaviT

mourevelia da Taviseburad marTlac

sabediswero aRmoCndeba: ojaxis samarcxvino saidumlod

iqceva da ojaxuri konfliqtebis amouwuravi wayroa;

moTxrobis gmiris coli zizRs grZnobs qmris mimarT,

Tumca amas saguldagulod malavs. efeqturia

uCinari Sinagani realobis gamomzeurebis xerxi: saTakilo

saidumloTa gamJRavnebaSi katalizatoris rols

TamaSobs mTxrobeli, romlis mier waqezebuli moTxrobis

gmiri megobrul vaxSamze yovelgvar sanovages

da gansakuTrebiT vaSlebs musrs gaavlebs. nawarmoebis

xalisiani da naTeli iumori mTlianobaSi pirquS xasiaTs

iRebs, sasacilos da TavSesaqcevis miRma gamouvali

adamianuri ubedureba imaleba.

moTxrobaSi `Rimi damRupi~ groteskulad aris gamosaxuli

bedisweriT dadaRuli individualobis mqone

adamiani, samyaros arsSi datanebuli disharmoniis,

tragikomikuri sawyisis xorcSesxma. `buneba oxunjia,

uyvars winaaRmdegobis moTavseba erT fargalSi, erTsa

da imave pirovnebaSi erTmaneTis uarmyofeli xorcisa

da sulisa. iRimeba buneba arsTa Zalebis aseTs SeTama-

Sebazed. _ da eg misi Rimili Zvirad ujdeba qmnilebas~.

moTxrobis personaJis tragikomedia is aris, rom mis

mouxeSav sxeulSi faqizi suli binadrobs, romelic monaTesave

qalur suls eZebs, magram am ltolvas uxerxulad

da komikurad, amave dros avad, sabediswerod

128


eRobeba win misive Seuferebeli, mouqneli sxeulebrivi

garsi.

kidev ufro usixaruloa moTxrobis `yvavilebSi~

gmiris xvedri. adamianuri tanjvis iseT gamWriax, amas-

Tanave emociur xedvas da warmosaxvas, rogoric am

moTxrobas gamoarCevs, bevrgan ver vipoviT Cvens

prozaSi.

nawarmoebis mTavari gmiris sulieri cxovrebis gadmocema

STambeWdavia aramarto daZabuli eqspresiulobiT,

aramed analitikuri sabasriTac. igi vlindeba rogorc

calkeul dakvirvebaTa utyuarobaSi, aseve sulier

mdgomareobaTa kanonzomieri cvlis warmoCenaSi.

ubeduri SemTxvevis gamo patara gogonas kuzi uCndeba

_ raRac umowyalo Zala babucas sxeuls, cnobierebas,

mTel arsebobas TiTqos marwuxSi moimwyvdevs da

yvelafris deformirebas axdens. mis tanjvas gansakuTrebiT

Znelad asatans xdis is damamcirebeli Sefaseba,

romelsac adamianebi an uxeSad umJRavneben, an maT

mzeraSi gamosWvivis; mainc ebRauWeba macdur imeds,

sazogadoebaSi normaluri adamianis statusi moipovos,

romelsac erotiuli ltolvis gaRviveba uZlierebs

_ axladgaRviZebuli es ltolva bednierebis misawvdomobis

rwmenas Causaxavs adamians. amas saSineli

gamofxizleba da Rrma melanqoliaSi CaZirva mosdevs...

xelovnuri yvavilebis keTeba babucas ubedurebis

atanaSi Svelis, magram TandaTan am saqmianobisas mis

arsebaSi dafaruli warmosaxvis mdidari niWi gamomzeurdeba,

romelic meqanikur Sromas Semoqmedebad aqcevs,

amasTanave qals erTgvar avtomiTs Seaqmnevinebs

da WeSmaritebad warmouCens: wina cxovrebaSi man masze

Seyvarebuli adamiani TviTmkvlelobamde miiyvana da am

codvis sasjelia babucas simaxinje da tanjva. sakuTar

xilvaTa namdvilobis dajerebis aseTi unari aqvs Semoqmeds,

xelovans. ase rom, moTxrobis personaJi Svebas

da sicocxlis sazriss povebs Tavisi individualuri

SemoqmedebiTi mowodebis aRmoCenis da realizebis

wyalobiT.

129


sulTa gadasaxlebis idea aq warmogvidgeba ara avtoris

mza mrwamsad, aramed TviT gmiris mier gamotanjul

ocnebad, nugeSad. personaJis metafizikuri xilvebi

WeSmaritia mxatvrulad, mkacrad Sepirobebulia

misi bedis da xasiaTis logikiT. am xilvaTa mxatvruli

simarTle umTavresad is aris, rom maTSi babucas ubedurebis

mizezad wina cxovrebaSi mis mier gamovlenili

qedmaRloba warmoisaxeba, xolo moTxrobaSi aRbeWdili

misi tanjva gamwvavebulia swored gansakuTrebuli

siamayiT.

moTxrobaSi Tavs iCens orsamyarovneba, romelic

romantizmisTvis aris damaxasiaTebeli _ magaliTis-

Tvis gavixsenoT hofmanis proza, sadac yoveldRiuri

sinamdvilis miRma jadosnuri samyaro gadaiSleba...

romantikuli orsamyarovneba mJRavndeba `ganaskvil

simSic~. moTxrobis gmirs mwvave sulieri krizisis

momentSi vxvdebiT. mis sasowarkveTil SfoTvas gvimxels

dialogi arapersonificirebul xmasTan _ lirikuli

prozis erT-erTi efeqturi nimuSi barnovis lirizmiT

gajerebul SemoqmedebaSi. nawarmoebis gmirs

kaeSans auSlis arsebobis sazrisis dabindva, socialuri

cxovrebis moyirWeba, adamianebSi da sicocxlis faseulobaSi

daeWveba, rac mTavaria, aryofnis SiSi, maradiuli

samyarosgan gaucxoeba.

daZabuli da idumali lirikis eqo wvdeba realistur-yofiT

scenebsac, romlebSic gadmocemulia

mTxrobelis Zvel, glaxakad qceul megobarTan Sexvedra,

mis duxWir ojaxSi stumroba... sacodavi adamianebis

es ubadruki samyofeli brma qalis, Taviseburi mediumis

wyalobiT mTxrobelisTvis iqceva romantikul

meore samyarod, TavSesafrad, sadac gardasulTa aCrdilebs

uaxlovdeba da misi Rrma sevda da martoobis

grZnoba cxreba. oRond aqac, iseve rogorc `yvavileb-

Si~, metafizikurs da masTan ziarebas mxatvruli pirobiTobis

ieri aqvs: es mTxrobelis sulieri wyurvilis

xati ufroa, vidre ueWveli realoba.

moTxrobaSi `soko, soko~ xeibari axalgazrda kaci

damTrgunavi yoveldRiurobis gverdiT Svebismomgv-

130


el poetur-romantikul samyaros aRmoaCens da bunebis

samefos Tavisufal mkvidrTagan ubralo WeSmaritebas

SeiTvisebs _ amqveynad gaCena nebismier SemTxvevaSi

RvTis saCuqaria. moTxrobis personaJi bunebis

qmnilebebTan erTad da maT msgavsad iwyebs arsebobas

_ amao survilebis gareSe, upretenziod da Tavisuflad.

am moTxrobis romantikuli gmiris antipodia ironiiT

daxatuli `Sinaur mterSi~. bunebaSi mas araferi

izidavs da xiblavs, bunebasTan siaxlove yofiT uxerxulobebs

uqmnis, sofelSi SeCveul komforts moklebulia;

moklebulia prestiJul sazogadoebas, pativs

da sxva siamovnebebs, gasarTobebs, imas, rac mis arsebobas

Seadgens da TviTkmayofilebas aniWebs. Cinovnikur-meSCanuri

fenis warmomadgenlis standartuli

cxovrebis wesi TiTqos sagangebod aris mogonili imis-

Tvis, rom adamiani raimeze seriozulad ar dafiqrdes

da Rrmad araferi igrZnos; misi daniSnuleba TiTqos is

aris, rom sulier sicarieles gadaefaros. xolo sofelSi

aseTi safarveli ar arsebobs da moTxrobis gmiris

gamofituloba SiSvldeba. es aris usulgulo adamiani,

romelsac ar gaaCnia sxvisi ubedurebis gancdis,

TanagrZnobis unari. xolo ubedurebas, romlis mowmec

is xdeba, ucnauri saxe aqvs _ fsiqikurad travmirebuli

kaci, gakotrebuli vaWari Tavisi uiRblobis mizezis

xorcSesxmas xedavs moSlil gramofonSi, mas aRiqvams

Segnebul arsebad, vinc ganzrax uwyobs sabotaJs

da ebrZvis am arsebas rogorc borot bedisweras.

moTxrobis mTavari gmirisTvis es tragikomikuri sanaxaoba

iqceva gasarTobad, autaneli mowyenilobis gamqarveblad;

TviTonac gamosadegi aRmoCndeba vaWris-

Tvis rogorc cocxali reklama... mainc mTavari personaJis

arsebaSi ganadgurebul adamianTan Sexvedra usiamovno

naleqs tovebs, qveSecneulad SeaSfoTebs mas da

is cdilobs mexsierebidan amoiSalos SeSlilis saxe:

mis keTilmowyobil da utkivilo, komfortul mikrosamyaroSi

araviTar ubedurebas disonansi ar unda Sheqondes,

mas arafrad Wirdeba imis codna, rom arsebobs

131


edis ulmobeli, adamianis cxovrebis damangreveli

dartymebi...

adamianTa gaucxoeba bunebisgan, gaucxoeba sakuTari

adamianuri arsisgan da erTmaneTisgan, maTi momxmarebluri

urTierTdamokidebuleba, adamianis arsebobaSi

teqnikis rolis sabediswero gaZliereba, gasarTobis

da sanaxaobis gamudmebuli Zieba _ es motivebi

moTxrobas meoce saukunis cxovrebis niSandoblivi

tendenciebis gamosaxulebad aqcevs.

Tu `Sinauri mtris~ gmiris sulieri defeqti ugrZnoblobaa,

`aRdgomis codvaSi~ adamianis bunebis mankiereba

Tavisi ufro aqtiuri, arsebiTad demonuri gamovlinebebiT

warmogvidgeba. sxarti, basri siuJetis meSveobiT

warmoiqmneba Wrili, romelSic uCveulo sicxadiT

Cans dafaruli, SeniRbuli adamianuri impulsebi

_ erTmaneTSia gadaxlarTuli da erTmaneTs kvebavs

Suri, SurisZiebis wyurvili, mdabali cnobismoyvareoba,

avi, sadisturi sixaruli, aRZruli sxva adamianis

Tavmoyvareobis SelaxviT, erotiuli sixarbe...

maT Soris gansakuTrebulad Zlieri da saSineli

sxvisi damcirebiT da tkiviliT sadisturi tkbobaa,

radgan igi adamianis sulis iracionalur SreebSi yvelaze

Rrmad aris fesvgadgmuli. am iracionaluri Zalis

ganmasaxierebeli demoni amarcxebs angarebis ganmasaxierebel

demons, radgan angareba, sxvisi gasaWiris

momgebianad gamoyenebis survili iracionalur siRrmes

moklebulia, SedarebiT ufro zedapiruli da

Cveulebrivia.

bneli impulsebis winaSe mTavari personaJis umweobis

mizezi qristianobisgan misi gaucxoebaa, ris gamoxatvasac

amZafrebs mkveTri kontrasti _ demonuri

vnebebi personaJs aRdgomis dResaswaulze eufleba.

aRdgomis dResaswaulis garSemo aigeba agreTve `sapaseqo

namcxvris~ siuJeturi da azrobrivi struqtura.

moTxrobis personaJebis cxovrebaSi am dResaswauls

araviTari maRali Sinaarsi aRar aqvs _ arc qristianuli,

sulier-zneobrivad gamakeTilSobilebeli da

arc winaqristianuli, siyvarulis da nayofierebis

132


kultTan, vitaluri Zalebis sagazafxulo ganaxlebas-

Tan dakavSirebuli. amgvar Sinaarss meSCanuri garemodan

aZevebs gastronomiul-kulinariuli materializmi,

wvrilmani pativmoyvareoba da usulo erotika,

warmarTuli erotiuli kultis parodiuli naSTi. es

Tavisi zedapiriT yofiTi da saxumaro moTxroba arsebiTad

maradiulobas daSorebuli adamianis dakninebis

maxvilgonivruli dacinvaa.

ucnaurad simuqegadakruli iumori, tragikomikuri

tonaloba, individualuri xasiaTis da bedis gamocana-

Ta groteskuli warmoCena da adamianis sulis dacemaTa

Tu zeaRsvlaTa maradiulobis rakursiT Wvreta is

ZiriTadi Tvisebebia, romlebic barnovis moTxrobebis

erT wyebas mxatvrul srulfasovnebas da sicocxlisunarianobas

aniWebs.

1992

133


wamebuli RmerTi

Tavisi msoflxedva vasil barnovma gansakuTrebuli

mxatvruli sisavsiT gamoavlina romanSi `trfoba wamebuli~.

mwerlis religiuri, zneobrivi da esTetikuri

ideali am romanSi ikveTeba adamianuri bunebis realobasTan

tragikul SejaxebaSi, adamianis sulis mravalgvar

moZraobaTa mkveTri aJRerebiT; Zlieri adamianebis

vnebaTaRelva ixateba Zlieri sityviT da SemoqmedebiTi

agznebiT.

romanis avtori miwieri da amavdroulad amaRlebuli

siyvarulis kultis Tayvanismcemelia. aseTi siyvaruli

misTvis warmoadgens dedamiwaze RvTaebrivis

gadmofenas, mis yvelaze adekvatur gamomJRavnebas da

uzenaesi sikeTis, WeSmaritebis, mSvenierebis ganxorcielebul

sinTezs.

mwerlis es Tvalsazrisi da masTan dakavSirebuli

miwieri silamazis sakralizacia, rogorc SeniSnulia,

axlosaa platonizmTan da saerTod antikur msoflgancdasTan.

misi saTavea aseve samyaros renesansuli aRqma,

`vefxistyaosani~. SesamCnevad exmianeba igi ilia

WavWavaZis `gandegilis~ koncefcias.

aSotis da Suqias siyvaruli romanSi warmosaxulia

rogorc Cveulebrivi cxovrebis miRma arsebuli romantikuli

savane, TavSesafari, romelSic aRmofxvrilia

boroteba Tavisi mravalgvarobiT da xorcieli

tkbobac sulieri aRmafreniT aris ganwmendili; daZleulia

egoizmi da Seyvarebulebi erTmaneTSi poveben

Tavisi arsebis srulqmnas. aSotis da Suqias siyvaruli

TiTqos pirvelyofil codvas Zlevs da edemSi dabrunebad

iqceva. barnovi `himnografiuli~ maneriT gamoxatavs

amaRlebuli siyvarulis metafizikas.

romanSi aSotis saxe or planSi iSleba, romlebic

ewinaaRmdegeba erTmaneTs _ erTi mxriv, igi naCvenebia

socialuri cxovrebis aspeqtiT, rogorc qveynis mesveuri.

is zedmiwevniT Seefereba Tavis statuss da xalxis

TvalSi gmiria, zekacia. es plani swored xalxis Tvalsazrisis

gamtaria, aq mefe garedan da Soridan danaxu-

134


li moCans. meore mxriv, aSots vxedavT Signidan, TavisTavis

winaSe darCenils _ sulieri SimSiliT gawamebuls,

mgrZnobiares da martosuls; mas wyuria siTbo,

TanagrZnoba, uangaro yuradReba, misi faruli lirizmi

da silbo sazrdos da gamomJRavnebas saWiroebs. pirvel

planSi is warmogvidgeba apologeturi matianis Tu

saraindo eposis personaJad da Warbad idealizebulia;

romanis Sesabamisi monakveTebi gaWianurebuli da naklebad

sainteresoa; magram idealizeba nawilobriv

funqciuria: igi kontrastulad amkveTrebs meore

plans, sadac mefe pirovnul-Sinagan ganzomilebaSi

warmoCndeba da xalxiseul, Taviseburad swor, magram

zerele aRqmas avtoris analitikuri xedva, natifi lirizmi

da TviT personaJis meditaciebi, Sinagani monologebi

cvlis.

aSots ar SeuZlia icxovros pativmoyvareobis amara,

is WeSmarit siyvarulze ocnebobs. dedofals, piriqiT,

aqvs mZlavri da xarbi pativmoyvareoba da ar

SeuZlia da ar surs siyvaruli. niSandoblivi detalebiT

gamoisaxeba guranduxtis civi miukarebloba, misi

gorozi sulis mousvenari ltolva kidev ufro meti

Zlierebis da pativis moxveWisken. aseT adamians, bunebrivia,

ar SeuZlia misces aSots is, rasac igi mTeli

arsebiT eswrafis: `amaod eZebda sip qvazed naz yvavils

turfa gazafxulisas~. aSotTan dedofals urTierToba

aqvs rogorc mxolod mefesTan, rogorc socialuri

rolis SemsrulebelTan da daJinebiT moiTxovs misgan,

srulyos es roli.

romanis ideur arss uSualod ukavSirdeba guranduxtis

specifikuri religiuroba. qveynisTvis da mefis

ojaxisTvis sasikvdilo gansacdelis dros, kritikul

situaciaSi mJRavndeba dedoflis religiurobis

raoba _ igi, vinc gangebisgan movlinebulad Tvlis

Tavs saqarTvelos gasaerTianeblad, RmerTs codvaTa

mitevebas ki ar Txovs, aramed uwyreba, radgan qristianebs

mfarveloba moaklo da mahmadianebs gaamarjvebina;

mxolod sajarod acxadebs gansacdels RvTis samar-

Tlian risxvad da xalxs mouwodebs sinanulisken. ro-

135


gorc vxedavT, dedoflis qristianoba sxvebisadmia

momTxovni da ara sakuTari Tavisadmi; is mas Wirdeba

rogorc Tavisi nebis damkvidrebis, adamianebis damor-

Cilebis saSualeba. guranduxtis aseTi mimarTeba religiasTan

gansakuTrebiT mkveTrad iCens Tavs, rodesac

igi aSotis da Suqias kavSiris Sesaxeb Seityobs. dedoflis

sulieri SfoTva mravalelferiani fsiqologiuri

analiziT aris gadmocemuli _ saSinelia am metismetad

amayi adamianis Seuracxyofili Tavmoyvareobis

tanjva. mas sevda, gulistkivili ar eufleba axlobeli

adamianis sulierad dakargvis gamo, imas ar ufiqrdeba,

mxolod xorcieli gatacebaa Tu raRac metia

aSotis da Suqias urTierToba da TviTonac xom ar aris

Tavisi siciviT am urTierTobis warmoSobis mizezi... is

TavisTavSi ar ixedeba, TavisTavs arafers mokiTxavs.

qristianul sindisierebasTan erTad verc qristianuli

moTmineba, Tviniereba eTviseba mis xasiaTs: dedoflis

arsebas savsebiT msWvalavs SurisZiebis vneba. raTa

mtrebis ganadgurebisken misi swrafva kanonieri iyos,

maT eSmakeulebad Seracxavs, magram eSmaks emsgavseba

TviT is RmerTi, romlisganac igi daJinebiT moiTxovs

Tavisi Seuracxmyofelebis mimarT SurisZiebas da

romelsac despotad warmoidgens. `_ amaod moiwvev,

dedofalo, Semoqmeds: yovlad keTilisagan ar egebis

Suquris mospoba sixarulis momniWeblisa, saxierisagan

ver SeiZleba Caqroba silamazisa... uxme RmerTs sastiks,

ufals mrisxanes, sinaTlis mqrobels, sikvdilis

damrgvels... vinc cecxliT daswva aTaseulni Tavisuflebis

dasaxvis gamo... mas Seevedre, sastiksa mflobels

sastikis guliT. _ RmerTsa sastiksa Tu TviT satanas?

_ meufes sastiks, gina belzebels bnelTa mflobels!~.

ai, am daundobeli, SiSismomgvreli RmerTis msaxur-

Ta Soris poulobs guranduxti mokavSireebs. grigoli

da Tebronia acxadeben, rom satanur codvas ebrZvian

qristianobis da saxelmwifos umaRlesi interesebis

dasacavad _ raTa mefis codvam rogorc umsgavsma magaliTma

xalxis zneoba ar garyvnas da qveyanas, rome-

136


lic mahmadianuri agresiisgan icavs Tavs, religiursulieri

Zala ar Seusustdes.

barnovi aqac, rogorc aSotis saxis kveTisas, orfenian

suraTs qmnis, or plans gamoyofs _ oficialurs

da Sinagans, romelic uCumrad warmarTavs imas, rac zedapirze

xdeba. sajarod gacxadebuli motivebis miRma

Sefarulia Zlieri egoisturi impulsebi, romelTa gamomzeureba

ar SeiZleba, romlebmac SeniRbulad unda

imoqmedon. oRond grigoli da Tebronia trivialuri

farisevlebi ar arian. es adamianebi aiZuleben Tavis-

Tavs daijeron, rom marTlac keTil, saRvTo saqmes

aRasruleben. maT ar undaT simarTle icodnen sakuTari

Tavis Sesaxeb da Tu gulis siRrmeSi es simarTle

mainc ician, axerxeben daiviwyon moqmedebisas. Tavisi

aqtivobis saeWvo xasiaTs, mis saCoTiro motivebs rom

grZnoben, miTufro ficxad aRiZvrebian satanasTan saomrad

da aRtkinebiT, egzaltaciiT iyrueben sindisis

xmas... am personaJebis sulier cxovrebaSi gamosWvivis

fenomeni, romelsac Tanamedrove fsiqologia racionalizacias

uwodebs. saerTod, `trfoba wamebuli~ meoce

saukunis dasawyisis qarTuli prozis TvalsaCino

movlenaa upirvelesad swored garTulebuli fsiqologizmiT.

TviTeul personaJs, romelic aSotis da Suqias siyvarulis

winaaRmdeg amxedrdeba, Tavisi maluli stimulebi

aqvs saamisod, magram es stimulebi sabediswerod

gadaexlarTeba erTmaneTs da mrisxane Zalad iqceva.

grigolis da aSotis bavSvobisdroindeli metoqeoba

da Suri erTmaneTis mimarT gansakuTrebiT Rrma

kvals grigolis arsebaSi tovebs. aqedan mokidebuli

misi mamoZravebelia faruli survili, radac unda

daujdes gautoldes da aRematos kidec aSots, iyos

ufro didi sulierebis sferoSi, vidre aSotia saxelmwifoebrivi

saqmianobis sferoSi. mefis karze aRsazrdelad

ayvanili bavSvi damcirebas grZnobs ufliswulis

gverdiT Tavisi meorexarisxovani mdgomareobis

gamo da am damcirebis kompensirebis moTxovnileba

grigols daZabuli qmedebisken, Tavdauzogavi Sromis-

137


ken ubiZgebs, nebisyofas uaRresad ukaJebs. igi eswrafis

RmerTTan siaxloves, wmindanur srulyofilebas,

oRond amave dros surs iqces amqveyniur saTayvanebladac,

amqveynad ukvdavyos Tavisi saxeli. pativmoyvareobaa

grigolis energiis dauSreteli masazrdoebeli

da is garkveulwilad axerxebs am Zalis SemoqmedebiT,

aRmSeneblobiT aqtivobad sublimirebas. grigolis

pativmoyvareobas avtori am kuTxiT Semwynareblurad

uyurebs _ raki adamiani RvTis msgavsebaa, mas aqvs

ukvdavebis wyurvili, sakuTari individualobis iseTi

zrdis wadili, romelic RvTaebriv sisrules emsgavseba;

mwerlis amgvar Tvalsazriss renesansuli suli

msWvalavs, iseve rogorc mis siyvarulis koncefcias;

igi moicavs adamianis SemoqmedebiTi SesaZleblobebis

rwmenas _ ukvdavebis moTxovnileba did saqmeebSi da

qmnilebebSi ganivTdeba; grigolis SemoqmedebiTi

aqtivobac daZabuli da produqtiulia.

grigols rogorc qristians Segnebuli aqvs pativmoyvareobis

saZraxisoba, magram TavisTavSi mis aRmofxvras

ki ar cdilobs, aramed RmerTisgan pativmoyvarul

miswrafebaTa Sendobas elis da imedovnebs, rom

maT Zalas sasikeTo moRvaweobaSi gadaadnobs. Tumca

pativmoyvareobis SemoqmedebiT energiad savsebiT gardaqmna,

misi savsebiT uvnebelyofa ar xerxdeba.

pativmoyvareoba ise Rrmad aris gamjdari grigolis

arsebaSi, rom mis garegnul Tavmdablobasac sarCulad

dayveba _ saeklesio ierarqis didebaze is uars imitom

ambobs, rom mxolod wmindanis dideba aiyvans yvelas-

Tvis, maT Soris mefisTvisac miuwvdomel simaRleze...

grigoli kompromisze midis Tavisi pativmoyvareobis,

gandidebisken swrafvis winaSe, im ltolvis winaSe,

romelic qristianuli TvalsazrisiT satanuria da

romlis daTrgunva aris morwmunis da miTufro asketis

mudmivi sazrunavi. raki qristianoba satanis da adamianis

dacemis mizezad gamrudebul Tavisufal nebas,

Tavnebobas da TavmoTneobas miiCnevs, igi uwinaresad

swored am sawyisTan brZolas saxavs aucileblobad. s.

averincevis TqmiT, `qristianul asketikaSi, saboloo

138


angariSiT, amosavalia `morCilebis~ da `TviTnebobis~

dapirispireba, neoplatonur asketikaSi _ sulis da

materiis dapirispireba~.

grigoli askezas naklebad mimarTavs TavmoTneobis

dasaZlevad da Tavisi mtkice nebisyofis mTel Zalas

xorcieli ltolvebis aRkveTas axmars. rac ufro didi

da Zlieria misi faruli pativmoyvareoba, miT ufro

sastikad axSobs igi xorcielebas da uaxlovdeba Tavis

mizans, wmindanis simaRlis miRwevas. magram mTavari is

aris, rom wmindanoba mizania ara TavisTavad, aramed

imdenad, ramdenadac igi Tavisi simaRlidan amqveyniurobaze

mbrZaneblobs. miwieri samyaros uaryofa am

samyaroze Teokratiuli batonobis SesaZleblobis

momniWebelia.

xorcis damTrgunavi Tavgametebuli asketuri Rvawlis

Sesaxeb grigoli eubneba Tebronias: `is aris gza

cxovrebisadmi dausrulebelisa, igive mauflebs me

qveyniur ZalTa zedan yovelgvarTa. kargad Seigne:

igive mauflebs me yovelTa qveyniurTa ZalTa zedan!

Senc gauflebs, Cemo kargo~; nebisyofis gamowrToba

xorcieli swrafvebisadmi dapirispirebis sisastikeSi,

TavisTavze batonobis unaris srulyofa sxvebis damorCilebis

wanamZRvaria. mkacri TviTaRkveTa grigolis-

Tvis sakuTari Zalauflebis damkvidrebis saSualebaa.

Tebronia, misi siyvaruli Wirdeba grigols, raTa

xorcTan brZolas simwvave Sematos da Tavisi nebac

ufro metad gamobrZmedos, siyvarulis msxverplad SewirviT

RvTis winaSe Tavisi Rvawli gaadidos. grigolisTvis

Tebronia TiTqos cdispiria, romelzec Zalebs

mosinjavs _ TavisTavze da sxvebze batonobisas.

aRwevs kidec sawadels, Tavsac imorCilebs da qalis

nebasac Tavisi mZlavri gavlenis areSi samudamod

moamwyvdevs.

Tebronias uaryofil, tanjul siyvaruls mwerali

gamosaxavs rogorc emociaTa mravalferovan gamas,

imeds da sasowarkveTas Soris meryeobis wamebas, romelic

agresiul impulsebsac moicavs. Tebronia asketi

xdeba ara RmerTis siyvarulis, RmerTTan sulieri

139


miaxloebis wyurvilis ZaliT, aramed imis gamo, rom

moSurne mtrobiT da zizRiT iJRinTeba misTvis miuwvdomeli

miwieri siyvarulis da bednierebisadmi, romelsac

codvad mxolod imitom Tvlis, rom TviTon mas

ar xvda wilad.

Tebronia da grigoli, TavisTavSi rom sastikad

ixSoben miwier survilebs, Tavis irgvlivac imave sisastikiT

lamoben maT amoZirkvas. es ar aris ucnauri,

radgan adamianis siRrmiseuli mimarTeba sakuTari

Tavisadmi da sxvebisadmi, rogorc e. fromi ganmartavs,

arsebiTad erTgvarovania. gaugebari ar aris isic, rom

grigolis da Tebronias warmodgenaSi arsebuli Rmer-

Ti aRar aris lmobieri da gulmowyale, ganuzomeli

siyvaruliT aRsavse qristianuli RmerTi, `romels

sibraluliT evseboda guli adamianis tanjvis xilvazed

da mzad iyo Seendo yovelTvis, yovelTaTvis~.

sinamdvileSi isini Tayvans cemen `macxovars kacTa

sisastikisagan Seqmnils, ugulos, romels gznebul

koconzed ahyvanda yvela, vinc eaxleboda mas ara

rogorc mona usityvo mis win mZrwolare~. RmerTze

warmodgenis raoba gezs aZlevs rogorc RmerTisadmi,

aseve TavisTavisadmi da sxvebisadmi adamianis damokidebulebas,

mis faseulobebs da mizanswrafvebs. Tu

adamians RmerTi SiSismomgvrel tiranad esaxeba, xolo

sakuTar Tavs misi nebis mediumad miiCnevs, bunebrivia,

is Zalauflebaze da batonobaze iqneba orientirebuli

da Tavis zeciur kerps emsgavseba. swored ase formirdeba

grigolis da Tebronias msoflmimarTeba.

mefis sasiyvarulo kavSiris mxileba da darRveva

xelsayrel saSualebad iqceva grigolis da Tebronias

faruli zraxvebis realizaciisTvis. dgeba maTi moRvaweobis

kulminaciuri momenti, roca sakuTari Zalebis

sruli mobilizeba da demonstrireba unda moaxdinon,

Tavisi Zalaufleba savsebiT da mtkiced daamyaron,

mware marcxi agemon mefes da... siyvaruls, romelic

TavisTavSi ase daundoblad gasrises, daundoblad,

magram ara daunaneblad da es gamaborotebeli sinanu-

140


lic aiZulebT Suri iZion maTze, visac didi siyvarulis

bedniereba ergo.

romanis personaJebs Soris grigolis saxe yvelaze

rTulia. Tavisi msoflgagebis WeSmaritebaSi es Rrmad

darwmunebuli kaci drodadro eWvis mtkivneul Setevebs

ganicdis, SiSobs, xom ar uaryo Tebronias siyvarulis

saxiT TviT RmerTis amqveyniuri gamocxadeba...

aseTi eWvi eZaleba mas, roca Suqias daatyvevebs da

monasterSi miyavs; grigoli mZlevelic aris da Zleulic,

mbrZaneblobs qalze da amave dros ixibleba misiT,

Sinaganad gatexilia orWofuli fiqriT... magram

daeWveba mZlavri nebisyofiT CaixSoba da is ver arbilebs

grigolis moqmedebis simkveTres. mis mier Suqias

sulieri da faqtobrivad fizikuri iZulebiTac sasaxlidan

gamoyvanis da monasterSi gamomwyvdevis aqti

arsebiTad tiranulia. metoqeobis da gandidebis, batonobis

maluli vnebebi, TviTdarwmunebuli Seuwynarebloba

satanurad miCneulisadmi da misi yvelanairi sa-

SualebiT ganadgurebis Jini bunebrivad gasruldeba

ZaladobiT, codvilad Seracxilis sulze da sxeulze

ZalmomreobiT; qristianoba, siyvarulis da Tavisuflebis

religia, inkviziciad, Tavis sapirispiro movlenad

gardaiqmneba.

mefes SuqiasTan ZaliT ganSoreba sulierad axevebs,

es ki mahmadianobisgan Seviwroebul qveyanas umeTaurod

tovebs _ garegnulad saxelmwifos sakeTildReod

ganxorcielebul aqts swored saxelmwifosTvis saziano

Sedegi moyveba. grigoli, zneobis egzaltirebuli

damcveli, gakvirvebiT acnobierebs, rom rac Rmer-

Tis nebis Sesatyvisad warmoedgina, realurad Zalze

Sorsaa qristesgan, misi lmobierebis da mimteveblobisgan;

acnobierebs, rom marTebulia codvisadmi winaRdgoma

ara sisastikiT, aramed adamianisadmi qristeseburi

TanagrZnobiT; sisastikes, Zalmomreobas mxolod

adamianisTvis Tavisuflebis warTmeva SeuZlia da

ara misi WeSmaritebasTan miyvana, RmerTs ki surs, rom

adamiani Tavisufali iyos da WeSmaritebasac Tavisuflad

eziaros... axla grigoli imasac naTlad xedavs,

141


a didi wili udevs qristianuli lmobierebisgan mis

dacilebaSi TavmoTneobas da pativmoyvareobas, romlis

nayofad mxolod did da keTil saqmeTa xilvis

imedi hqonda.

magram es gamofxizleba nagvianevia, radgan xorcielebis

fanatikuri siZulvili arsebobs mdabiuri, ganuviTarebeli

cnobierebis donezec da waqezebulia swored

sarwmunoebriv winamZRolTa mier. monazoni ivdiTi

grigolis da Tebronias arsis primitiuli da Semzaravad

hipertrofirebuli xorcSesxmaa, romelsac logikur

dasasrulamde, mSvenieri da saTno qalis barbarosul

mospobamde miyavs maT mier wamowyebuli daundobeli

brZola. Seuwynarebloba, ideologiuri agresia

momakvdinebel fizikur agresiaSi gadaizrdeba.

brZolis moTaveebis, grigolis da TebroniasTvis es

moraluri kraxia _ asketebi, sulieri siwmindis da

gmirobisken mZafrad mswrafveli adamianebi saSineli

codvis pasuxismgeblobas kisruloben. maT maqsimalizms

aSotis gasastikebac moyveba, xolo sarwmunoebis

da eklesiis avtoriteti, imis nacvlad, rom ganmtkicebuliyo,

ilaxeba, rac simbolurad gamoixateba

romanis finaliT _ Suqias Zmebis mier aSotis taZarSi

mokvliT.

sakuTari Secdomis da misi samwuxro Sedegis mtkivneuli

sicxadiT gacnobiereba grigols tragikul pirovnebad

warmogvidgens. magram is mainc ver axerxebs

Tavis Seupovar arsebaSi umTavresi qristianuli siqveleebisTvis

_ lmobierebis da TavmdablobisTvis adgilis

povnas. samyaro misTvis bolomde rCeba keTilis da

borotis gaafTrebul kveTebad. `raindi iyo is mebr-

Zoli eklesiisa da vin sTqva brZolaSi lmobiereba?!~.

nebis da poziciis aseTi Seuryevloba grigolis figuras

pirquS didebulebas matebs.

grigoli da Tebronia TiTqos marTal saqmes, qristianuli

zneobis ganmtkicebas emsaxurebian, am msaxurebis

rezultati ki antiqristianulia, risi pirvelmizezic

maTi usiyvarulobaa. siyvaruli rogorc urTierTltolva

maT TavisTavSi jvars acves, magram maTSi

142


Cakvdeba saerTod siyvarulis niWic, siyvaruli adamianisadmi,

moyvasisadmi, romelic RmerTisadmi siyvarulis

utyuari, metic, erTaderTi sazomia. isini asketebi

siyvarulis xarjze arian, mTel Tavis religiur arsebobas

amyareben siyvarulisgan daSretil xriok niadagze,

energias da STagonebas poveben ara siyvarulSi,

aramed imis Seurigebel siZulvilSi, rasac satanurad

Tvlian. usiyvarulobis gamo maTTvis mTavari xdeba

sakuTari Zalauflebis nebis dafuZneba, rac adamianis

mimarT ulmoblobiT miiRweva.

maT xelSi, romelsac siyvaruli ar warmarTavs,

qristianuli zneobrivi kanonebi, RmerTis da kacis

cocxali siyvaruli rom udevs safuZvlad, iqceva adamianis

damTrgunav, gaxevebul da usulo konstruqciad,

uxeS iaraRad, romliTac klaven siyvaruls, klaven

RmerTs. roca yovelive amas viTvaliswinebT, SesamCnevi

xdeba, rom romanis saTauri marto aSotis da

Suqias tragikul siyvaruls ki ar gulisxmobs, aramed

siyvarulis rogorc amqveynad movlenili RmerTis

wamebasac.

nawarmoebSi namdvil qristianul faseulobebs, adamianis

siyvaruls, TanagrZnobas da gulmowyalebas, Semwynareblobas

ganasaxiereben epizoduri, magram dasamaxsovrebeli

personaJebi _ kaTalikosi, monazoni Temistio;

udrtvinvelad swiravs Tavs RmerTs da qveyanas

episkoposi timoTe, Cumi, ubralo beri... Tavisi bunebiT

qristiania TviT Suqia, romelic yvelas mimarT keTilmosurnea

da romelsac suls ar umRvrevs mediduroba;

da bolos, nawarmoebs kacTmoyvaruli qristianuli suliT

aTbobs avtoris lirikuli monologebi, komentarebi,

CanarTebi.

`trfoba wamebulis~ centralur konfliqts da

mxatvrul sazriss qmnis avtoritaruli da humanisturi

religiurobis dapirispireba. pirveli adamians

SiSiT qeds moadrekinebs da araraobad aqcevs, mis Tavisuflebas,

sulieri potenciis realizacias boWavs da

adamianze batonobisTvis gamoiyeneba; meore adamianis

individualobisadmi pativiscemas, Tavisuflebis da

143


ednierebisken misi swrafvis bunebriobis aRiarebas da

adamianis maRali, RvTiuri Rirsebis dafasebas emyareba.

romanis mixedviT, qarTveli xalxis msoflgancda

ewinaaRmdegeba avtoritarul religias da religiurobis

humanistur tips mieltvis. `qarTveli sjulis moyvaruli

iyo, misTvis Tavdadebuli, magram Tvis RmerT-

Tan urTierTobaSi uarsa hyofda sastik wesebs; laRad

moqmedebda winaSe RvTisa, rogorc mamis win, romlisadmi

pativi da siyvaruli Rrma aris, Zrwola ki dakninebul-damcirebuli.

uyvars qarTvels Tavisi meufe,

xolo alRoTi icis, rom SiSi uaryofs yovel siyvaruls,

gare gandevnis mas~.

aseTi msoflmxedvelobrivi motivebi da problematika

iqvemdebarebs romanSi istoriul realobas da

istoriuli pirovnebebis, grigolis da Tebronias saxeebic

amis Sesabamisad _ konceptualizebulad warmodgebian.

maT monumentur figurebSi warmoCndeba avtoritaruli

tipis adamiani. am figurebSi, erTi SexedviT

Tanamedroveobas sruliad mowyvetili rom arian, obieqturad

(avtoris mizandasaxulobisgan damoukideblad)

meoce saukunis, mZvinvare avtoritarizmis epoqis

sulieri fizionomiis nakvTebi icnoba.

arsebobs garkveuli Tanxvedra barnovis romans da

meoce saukunis evropuli literaturis zogierT movlenas

Soris. avtoritarulad religiuri adamianis saxes

qmnis fransua moriaki romanSi `fariseveli~. brijit

piani qristianuli zneobis Tavgamodebuli damcvelia,

RvTis nebis ukompromiso damamkvidrebelia, magram

es sinamdvileSi am adamianis sakuTari nebis damkvidrebaa,

garSemomyofi adamianebis moraluri terorizebaa,

maTze batonobaa, riTac misi ampartavnoba da

TavmoTneoba nayrdeba. man rogorRac yovelTvis zustad

`icis~, ras moiTxovs RmerTi adamianebisgan da Tavdajerebulad,

uxeSad iWreba maT intimur cxovrebaSi,

aseTi Carevis Sedegebi ki tragikulia. misi RmerTi

iseTivea, rogoric TviTon aris _ siyvarulis unars

moklebuli, Seubralebeli zedamxedveli. bolos mas

TviTonve Sezaravs Tavisi usiyvarulo, moyvasisadmi

144


ugrZnobeli da Seuwynarebeli RvTismosaobis codvili

nakvalevi... moriakis TvalTaxedva qristianul humanizms

eyrdnoba.

Sexebis momentebi aqvs barnoviseul grigolis saxes

JorJ bernanosis romanis `satanis mzis qveS~ mTavar

gmirTan. donisans, Tavisi Tavisadmi uSeRavaTo askets,

romelic sicocxlis azrs satanasTan heroikulad Tavganwirul

da sastik brZolaSi povebs, aRar SeuZlia uyvardes,

ar ezizRebodes adamianebi, romlebSic veRarafers

xedavs satanuri simdablis garda da misi metismeti

sicxare codvis amoZirkvisas axalgazrda qals

Seiwiravs. boroteba sxva SemTxvevaSic Zlevs donisans

sakuTar sagangebo misiaSi misi dajerebulobis gamo da

kvlav matulobs adamianuri tkivili da ubedureba.

Tavis titanur personaJs bernanosi Saravandeds ar

aclis, magram imasve aCvenebs, rac barnovis romanSi

davinaxeT _ ramdenad iolia humanisturi orientaciisgan

acdena da swored borotebis gaZliereba imis aRmofxvris

maqsimalisturi da fanatikuri cdisas, rac

satanur borotebad daisaxeba.

1992

145


niko lorTqifaniZe

saerTo elferi

niko lorTqifaniZes dawerili aqvs araerTi Taviseburad

momxiblavi, keTilSobilebiT da sifaqiziT savse

nawarmoebi, sadac Sors da mkrTalad moCans miwa, cxovreba,

adamiani...

miTufro gasakviria ukiduresad fxizeli realizmi,

romliTac niko lorTiqfaniZis moTxrobaTa erTi

nawili gamoirCeva da romelic gansakuTrebiT mkafiod

istoriul Temaze Seqmnil nawarmoebebSi vlindeba.

niko lorTqifaniZe lirikuli bunebis mweralia, natif,

rbil lirikul melodias gaadevnebs Tavis nawarmoebebs,

xolo misi mravali miniatura mTlianad

mgrZnobiare sulis lirikuli JReraa.

magram istoriul moTxrobebSi niko lorTqifaniZe

uaryofs lirizms, intimur-subieqtur tonalobas.

`mrisxane batoni~, `JamTa siave~, `raindebi~ uCveulo

obieqtivizmiT xasiaTdeba _ vgulisxmobT aramxolod

imas, rom mwerali faravs Tavis subieqtur ganwyobas,

ar amxels Tavis tendencias; am nawarmoebTa gansakuTrebul

obieqtivizms kidev ufro metad gansazRvravs

is, rom avtori ar kisrulobs megzuris da ganmmarteblis

rols (anda naTelia, rom aseTi roli mas

naklebad izidavs); ukuagdebs vrcel avtoriseul aRwerilobebs,

saguldagulo da gabmul, Tanmimdevrul avtoriseul

Txrobas; aq iSviaTad Tu vnaxavT avtoris

mier mowodebul personaJTa daxasiaTebebs, imasac

metismetad Zunws; mwerali ar gvTavazobs gmirebis

`savizito baraTebs~...

niko lorTqifaniZis es moTxrobebi aRiqmeba reaqciad

prozaSi aRweriTi da TxrobiTi komponentebis si-

Warbis winaaRmdeg. mwerali Segnebulad iswrafis gandevnos

an ukiduresad SezRudos yvelaferi is, rac, misi

rwmeniT, xels uSlis prozas iyos ufro kompaqturi,

146


moqnili da sinamdvilis TviTmdinarebis meti uSualobiT

aRmbeWdveli.

epikuri siuxve, sisavse da safuZvlianoba aSkarad

ar aris istoriul moTxrobaTa sayrdeni mxatvruli

principi. magram mas enacvleba ara lirikuloba, aramed

prozis Sinagani wyobis miaxloeba dramasTan, prozis

mkveTri dramatizacia _ aseTi daskvna SeiZleba gamovitanoT

pirveli dakvirvebis Semdeg.

literaturaSi gardaqmnebi yovelTvis sruli mxatvruli

simarTlis dasamkvidreblad xorcieldeba da am

SemTxvevaSic asea. istoriuli triptiqis avtori nebayoflobiT

uCinardeba, raTa TviT sinamdvilis xedebi

gadagveSalos Tvalwin, TviT sinamdvile ametyveldes

da SevxvdeT mas TiTqosda xelovanis dauxmareblad, misi

mediumobis gareSe.

da marTlac, niko lorTqifaniZem ucnaurad moaaxlova

warsuli, TiTqos ki ar Seqmna istoriis suraTi,

aramed ubralod farda gadawia da mis miRma gardasuli

yofa amoZravda. `mrisxane batoni~, `JamTa siave~, `raindebi~

dokumenturobis STabeWdilebas aRZravs.

amave dros mwerlis SemoqmedebiTi manera arsebiT

cvlilebebs ar ganicdis: fragmentuloba, wyvetili,

mqrqalad moniSnuli xazebi, myife, gabneuli kompozicia...

sruli naturalurobis, namdvilobis STabeWdileba

miRweulia ara wvrilmanTa, detalTa naturalisturi

daxvavebiT, ara mxatvruli energiis daZabviT da

gamomsaxvelobis gamZafrebiT, aramed funjis Zaldautanebeli,

nebieri da iSviaTi monasmebiT.

vrcel nawarmoebebSi da sxvaganac niko lorTqifaniZis

fragmentuli, texili manera, romelic impresionistuli

warmomavlobis Cans, Zalian gavs imas, rac kinoxelovnebaSi

montaJis saxeliT aris cnobili.

`kadrebi kinoSi ar gaiSlebian Tanmimdevrul wyebad

_ kadrebi enacvlebian erTmaneTs. aseTia montaJis safuZveli.

isini monacvleoben ise, rogorc erTi saleqso

striqoni, erTi metruli mTlianoba icvleba meoriT

_ zust sazRvarze. kino axorcielebs naxtomebs

kadridan kadrisken, rogorc leqsi _ striqonidan

147


striqonisken... arsebiTad kadri mniSvnelovania rogorc

mxolod `warmomadgeneli~: mocemulia xolme ara

im scenis yvela kadri, romelsac gmiri ixsenebs, aramed

mxolod detali _ erTi kadri. saerTodac, kadri ar

amowuravs ama Tu im fabulur viTarebas, aramed gvevlineba

mxolod mis `warmomadgenlad~ kadrTa urTierTmimarTebaSi~

(iuri tinianovi, kinos safuZvlebis

Sesaxeb).

niko lorTqifaniZis poetikis Taviseburebas mniSvnelovanwilad

swored montaJi, `kadrebis~ naxtomuri

monacvleoba qmnis.

gavixsenoT lorTqifaniZiseuli nusxebi, romleb-

Sic saerTo stiluri tendencia yvelaze aSkarad mJRavndeba:

`jamebiT xarSo... meriqifeebi... doqebi... kaTxebi...

suni da oxSivari moxarSulisa da Semwvarisa; jer

kidev Cumi sma; gamalebuli Wama...~. amgvari nusxis TviTeuli

elementi arsebiTad warmoadgens calke

`kadrs~, romelic msxvili planiT aRibeWdavs garkveul

gamosaxulebas da yoveli `kadri~ mxolod niSania,

`warmomadgenelia~ ama Tu im fabuluri viTarebis, ar

amowuravs mas. niSanTa moZraoba ki swrafi da

naxtomuria.

es principi metnaklebi simkveTriT vlindeba, magram

gamWolia. mwerali xSirad uecrad wyvets pasaJs,

kvecavs dialogs, suraTs, gverds uvlis gardamaval

fazebs da erTbaSad, Semzadebis gareSe warmoaCens moqmedebis

ganviTarebis gviandel etapebs. ai, erTi damaxasiaTebeli

nimuSi: `_ daewie stumrebs! leCxumel batons

xom icnob, imas miarTvi jer es wigni; Tu ar mii-

Ros, es dambaCa miarTvi da moaxsene, dagviwyebia-Tqo...

_ ki, batono. _ biWi didxans ar dabrunebula. igi aTvalierebda

wignis suraTebs, waikiTxa sayvareli taepebi

da mere daewia ZunZuliT cxenosnebs. _ miarTvi? ki,

batono. _ ra giTxra? _ araferi, batono, mxolod wigni

ukanve miboZa...~.

Zalze naTlad Cans kompoziciis montaJuri agebuleba

epizodidan epizodze, scenidan scenaze naxtomur

gadasvlebSi. ucabedad, motivirebis gareSe Cndeba

148


axali segmenti, ufro zustad, misi Suaguli, erTi SexedviT

nebismierad SerCeuli nawyveti. calkeuli suraTebi

uwyvet rigad ki ar ganlagdebian, maraosavoT ki

ar iSlebian, uSualo logikur gagrZelebas da dasrulebas

ki ar poveben momdevno suraTebSi, aramed Tavisuflad

da `arakanonzomierad~, myisierad cvlian erTmaneTs

rogorc kinematografSi.

TvalTaxedvis aseTi winaswarganuWvreti, TiTqosda

spontanuri gadanacvlebebi avseben sinamdvilis TviTmoZraobis

iluzias, aZliereben naturalurobis

STabeWdilebas.

mwerali montaJurad warmarTavs sakuTriv Txrobis

processac _ dawvrilebiTi, amomwuraobaze orientirebuli

Txrobis gaSlis nacvlad sauwyeblis natexebs

moabnevs. `kadrebis~ monacvleobiT sxartad da mkveTrad

aRibeWdeba ambavi, romelic Tavis emociur saxes

TiTqos msxvili planiT gviCvenebs:

`gavidnen welni.

Sinaurma da gareulma qurdebma gaaRataka glexoba.

aznaurni ajanydnen.

mezoblebma jer gaaoxres, moiTareSes da bolos

mTlad miiTvises cixe, saxl-kari...

TviT coli, erTguli coli, pirvelad ZaliT gatacebuli,

xasaT daisva Tedom...~.

istoriul moTxrobaTagan gansxvavebiT `Tavsafrian

dedakacSi~ am xerxis meToduri gamoyenebiT mTeli

mxatvruli realobis gammsWvalavi lirikuli, naRvliani

fiqris ganwyobacaa gaRvivebuli, konkretizebuli

TxrobiT Seuvsebel sivrces elegiuri poezia avsebs...

montaJi, wyvetilebi, kinoTxrobisTvis damaxasiaTebeli

dinamizmi, siuJetis naxtomebrivi ganviTareba,

rac suraTze Riobebs tovebs, istoriul moTxrobebSi

moulodnelad intensiurs xdis xedviTobas.

`mrisxane batoni~, `JamTa siave~, `raindebi~, SeiZleba

iTqvas, isea Sesrulebuli, rom naxmari ar aris arc

erTi feri, saRebavi _ ferwera specifikuri mniSvnelobiT,

anu samyaros ferebiT gamosaxva ucxoa am nawarmoebebisTvis.

magram kidev ufro sagulisxmoa is, rom

149


maTSi, Tu davukvirdebiT, ar aris warmosaxuli sagnobrivi,

nivTieri sinamdvile, romlis erT-erTi maxasia-

Tebelic feri iqneboda. aq praqtikulad ar aris portretebi,

peizaJebi, interierebi, TiTqmis sruliad ar

aris aRbeWdili garemo, sadac personaJebi cxovroben

da moqmedeben _ isini TiTqos cariel sivrceSi moZraoben.

mwerali ar cdilobs TvalsaCinod, konkretuli

niSan-Tvisebebis gamorCeviT da grZnobad-materialuri

sisavsiT daxatos xiluli, xelSesaxebi samyaro.

grafikuli monaxazic didi iSviaTobaa, araTu sityvieri

ferwera am cnebis farTo gagebiT _ sinamdvilis

ieris sityvaSi gacocxleba.

es miTufro ucnauria, rom istoriul nawarmoebeb-

Si, Cveulebriv, gansakuTrebuli adgili eTmoba land-

Saftebis Tu epoqis anturaJis, vTqvaT, personaJTa

tanisamosis aRweras...

rogori mkveTri, `JReradi~ saRebavebiT, grZnobadi,

xorcieli detalebis rogori TavmoyriT SeiZleboda

daxatuliyo Tundac vaxtangis da cicinos daxocvis

Semzaravi suraTi `mrisxane batonSi~, magram mwerali

sisxlis arc erTi wveTiT ar Rebavs mas _ igi fizikuri

qmedebis ZiriTad fazebs aRnusxavs da dinamiurad miadevnebs

erTmaneTs.

amgvari stili specifikur TvalsaCinoebas qmnis _

mkiTxvelis warmosaxva iZabeba da maxvildeba, uneburad

cdilobs `xarvezTa~ Sevsebas. aseTi xilvadoba, bunebrivia,

naklebad materializebulia, aq mTavaria Sinagani

xedvis unaris TviT mobilizeba.

saxviTi planis simwire istoriul moTxrobebSi sagangebod

gamiznulia: is, rom stilis mier gverdavlilia

sinamdvilis, cxovrebis mTeli fenebi, badebs gulis

SemkumSavi sicarielis, ganZarculobis, siduxWiris

gancdas, gvaiZulebs mtkivneulad vigrZnoT am

cxovrebis gapartaxeba Tu gaSiSvlebuli sisastike.

aseve, istoriul triptiqSi sinamdvilis feriTi aspeqtis

gauCinareba gansazRvravs imas, rom gamosaxuli

realoba erTi, erTaderTi elferiT aRbeWdili, bindSi

CaZiruli da TalxiT mosili warmogvidgeba. simuqis am

150


TiTqmis fizikurad mkafio SegrZnebas kidev ufro am-

Zafrebs sxva garemoebac _ niko lorTqifaniZis istoriul

tiloebze ar aris sinaTlis wyaro, mis mier Seqmnil

mxatvrul sinamdviles araferi anaTebs, aq dedamiwas

cidan Suqi ar wvdeba; adamianebi TiTqos bnels CaunTqavs,

isini TiTqos wyvdiadSi ugzoukvlod

rialeben.

niko lorTqifaniZe `Zvel matianeSi aRwerili romelime

namdvili SemTxvevis beletrizacias ar axdenda,

igi ar qmnida uSualod raime istoriul qronikaze agebul

nawarmoebs, aramed saqarTvelos istoriis ramdenime

monakveTidan miRebul STabeWdilebas asaxavda da

maSindeli istoriuli sinamdvilis saerTo elferis

aRdgenas cdilobda~ _ wers simon Ciqovani.

ase, am saSualebebiT gamosaxa mweralma gardasuli

cxovrebis mkacri tonaloba, mianiWa mas iSviaTi mxatvruli

mTlianoba da xelSesaxebloba.

1982

151


tiranis saxecvaleba

Tu Zvel literaturaSi qristianobisTvis wamebul

personaJebs vxedavT, bolo saukuneebis literaturis

personaJTa nawili ewameba imis gamo, rom qristianobas

mowyda. gviandeli literaturis zogierT personaJs

codvilobis, cdomilebis da urwmunobis `martvili~

SeiZleba vuwodoT.

urwunobiT suldamZimebuli, mravali codvis Camdeni,

sastiki tirani, romelsac niko lorTqifaniZe xatavs

`mrisxane batonSi~, bolos uecrad qristianul askezas

tvirTulobs da Tumca levanis gardaqmna ucnauri

da gaugebari Cans, sinamdvileSi mis mier Tavisi

gamrudebuli cxovrebis erTbaSad uaryofa fsiqologiur-mxatvrulad

savsebiT marTali da aucilebelia.

adamianebs Soris tirani, albaT, yvelaze Sors aris

qristesgan, misi yvelaze `srulyofili~ antipodia,

radgan Zalmomreoba da daundobloba yvelaze metad

upirispirdeba qristianul siyvaruls da gulmowyalebas.

cnobierad Tu gaucnobiereblad tirani eswrafis

RmerTs Seenacvlos, TviTon iqces uzenaes arsebad,

romelic adamianTa beds ganagebs. amitom RmerTi tiranisTvis

`xelisSemSlelia~, is RmerTisgan aucileblad

unda gaTavisufldes (Tundac Tavs RvTis nebis ganmaxorcieleblad

acxadebdes). Rrmad kanonzomieria, rom

saxarebaSi upirvelesad swored tirani _ herode mo-

Cans qristes sapirispiro polusze, gaafTrebiT

mtrobs qristes, ewinaaRmdegeba amqveynad mis movlinebas.

meore saxarebiseuli tirani, pirvelis mosaxele,

ioane naTlismcemlis mkvleli, mTeli Tavisi arsebiT

_ usiyvarulobiT, garyvnilebiT, ZaladobiT, SeubraleblobiT

_ qristianobisadmi absoluturi siucxovis

gansaxierebaa.

`mrisxane batonSi~ SeiniSneba ioane naTlismcemlis

mkvlelobis bibliuri istoriis literaturul interpretaciaTa

anarekli (kritikaSi miuTiTeben floberis

`herodiadaze~ da uaildis `salomeaze~). magram niko

lorTqifaniZis ZiriTadi Canafiqri da saTqmeli Tavi-

152


seburia, qristianuli msoflgagebis da faseulobebis

arsis organul wvdomaze dafuZnebuli.

`mrisxane batonSi~ vxedavT, rom tirans bevri ram

SeuZlia, magram ar SeuZlia is, rac yvelaze mTavari da

faseulia _ namdvili siyvarulis gancda da meore adamianSi

misi gaRviZeba. vidre borotebis gzas daagdebdes,

levani marcxdeba am gzaze, kargavs qals, romlis-

Tvisac tiranis antagonistis zneobrivi sisufTave, sikeTe

Rrmad momxibvleli da demonuri vnebebisgan gama-

Tavisuflebeli aRmoCndeba. sikeTis mimzidvelobis winaSe

tiranis mTeli Zalmosileba da sisastike uRonoa

_ mas SeuZlia sikeTe fizikurad daTrgunos, magram

mis substanciur, arsismier WeSmaritebas da momxibvlelobas

ver anadgurebs.

adamianuri yofierebis siRrmiseul ganzomilebaSi

borotebis, agresiis, uxeSi materialuri Zalis uZlurebis

danaxva aiZulebs `mrisxane batonis~ mTavar

gmirs, Sebrundes sikeTis saTavisken, RmerTisken.

2004

153


yalbi miTis rRveva

yvelasTvis cnobilia, rom diqtaturis pirobebSi

simarTle, rogorc wesi, dums, xolo sicrue gamayrueblad

xmaurobs. magram maSinac ki, roca amis gakeTeba

TiTqmis SeuZlebeli iyo, CvenSi iqmneboda calkeuli

nawarmoebebi, romlebSic antitiranuli paTosia

gamovlenili.

moTxrobaSi `qeduxrelni~ niko lorTqifaniZe nar-

Taulad aRbeWdavs Tavis Tvalsazriss sastik droze,

romelSic cxovreba mouxda.

legendas suramis cixeze igi am drois Sesatyvis siuJetur

da azrobriv-emociur struqturas aniWebs.

`qeduxrelni~ sakmaod TvalsaCinod aireklavs Tavis

Tanadroul realobas _ nawarmoebi iwereboda 1938-44

wlebSi _ xelisuflebis represiulobas, xalxis uuflebobas

da wamebas, siRaribes, oms... es iwvevs folkloruli

Tu literaturuli tradiciis mkveTr gadasinjvas,

rasac ukve is moaswavebs, rom niko lorTqifaniZe uars ambobs

fabulis geografiul SemosazRvrulobaze _ moTxrobaSi

surami ar ixsenieba. sivrcis (da drois) lokalizaciis

uaryofa Seesabameba mwerlis miswrafebas,

simboluri mniSvneloba misces ambavs, igavi Seqmnas misgan.

`qeduxrelnSi~ deklarirebulic aris gamijvna legendis

literaturuli versiisgan, daniel WonqaZis

`suramis cixisgan,~ sadac Tqmuleba arsebiTad saSineli

qaluri SurisZiebis motivzea dayvanili _ mTxrobeli,

saxalxo mTqmeli iwunebs legendis mwignobrul

variants da acxadebs, rom yvelaferi sxvanairad iyo,

ise, rogorc igi gviambobs. mas aqvs kidec amis ufleba,

radgan TviTon icxovra imgvar sinamdvileSi, rogoric

mis mier naambob TqmulebaSia warmoCenili. mTxrobelis

da gayiduli tyve gogonas Tavgadasavali am sinamdvilis

raobas gamoxatavs _ adamianis sicocxle ukiduresad

gaufasurebulia, mis beds Wirveuli SemTxveviToba

atrialebs; uzneoba normalur movlenadaa qceuli da

TiTqos arc gamoirCeva cxovrebis Cveulebriv mdinarebaSi,

iseve ar imsaxurebs sagangebo yuradRebas, ro-

154


gorc sxva SeCveuli movlenebi, vTqvaT, sunTqva an siaruli.

da mweralic odnav komikurad Seferili uSfoTveli

toniT gadmogvcems Tavisi gmirebis cxovrebis

peripetias, romelic bednierad sruldeba _ isev SemTxveviTobis,

amjerad bednieri SemTxveviTobis ZaliT.

moTxrobis eqspoziciur nawilSi niko lorTqifani-

Ze yofiTi realizmis meTodiT aRbeWdavs im sinamdvilisTvis

tipiur istorias, romelic Semdeg legendurigavuri

saSualebebiT warmoisaxeba. amasTanave mTxrobelis

piriT xalxi gamoTqvams Tavis azrs da miswrafebebs.

epoqis tragikuli gamocdilebis miuxedavad mwerali

mainc imedovnebs, rom xalxis gonierebis da zneobrivi

grZnobis sruli daClungeba SeuZlebelia.

saxalxo mTqmelis TvalTaxedva moTxrobaSi SeTavsebulia

sxva, avtorisTvis Sinaganad mainc ufro organul

TvalTaxedvasTan. mwerals nawarmoebSi Semoyavs

axalgazrda arqiteqtori, ganaTlebuli, moazrovne da

dakvirvebuli kaci, dRevandeli gagebiT inteligenti.

igi Svelis avtors, miuaxlovdes gamosasaxvel samyaros,

Tavisi sulieri gamocdileba, fiqri ufro Tavisuflad

gaazavos masSi.

ucxoeTSi saswavleblad wasuli ediSeri samSoblo-

Si brundeba _ Cveni saukunis mravali qarTveli inteligentis,

maT Soris niko lorTqifaniZis biografiis

qarga gvecnoba. nawarmoebSi qveynis mdgomareoba metwilad

am gmiris gaaxlebuli, cnobismoyvare mzeriTaa

aRqmuli. bevri ram akvirvebs da eCoTireba, afiqrebs

ediSers.

mis aryofnaSi SemoRebuli wesis Tanaxmad pirvelad

mefesTan unda gamocxaddes. sasaxles raRac ucxo ieri

aqvs. `didia da ulazaTo, _ fiqrobda ymawvili, _ mZimed

daswolia miwas. ar hgavs Cvenebur nagebobas _ na-

Tels, msubuqs da garemosTan Sexamebuls. masala metia

daxarjuli, vidre Sedegia miRweuli, nafiqri ufroa

didebis STabeWdilebis mosaxdenad, vidre Seqmnilia

gulisnadebis gamosaxatavad~. aseTi mouxeSavi, pompezuri

arqiteqturuli stilis cnobac Zneli ar unda

iyos CvenTvis.

155


kidev ufro Semacbunebelia is, rac ediSers am mZime

da uSno Senobis SigniT dauxvdeba. sasaxleSi SiSi, mefis

monuri morCilebaa damkvidrebuli, uniWobas da

pirferobas darCenia asparezi; xolo namdvili ostati

sazarlad aris dasjili, radgan uars ambobs cixis SenobaSi

cocxali adamianis Cakirvaze. ganwirulis gabedulebiT

eubneba igi mefes simarTles imis Taobaze,

ratom iSleba cixe. `_ ra giSlis xels? _ Tqven ... sZags

yvelas es Tqveni cixe, hgoniaT, rom mtris magier Sig

maTve CaaxrCobT...~.

qveynis sisustis namdvili mizezi xelisuflebisadmi

xalxis siZulvili da undoblobaa. tiranuli saxelmwifos

ganmtkiceba xalxs afrTxobs, radgan amiT misi

tanjva mxolod imatebs. xalxis aseTi ganwyobaa moTxrobis

erT-erTi gamWoli motivia, es ganwyobaa araerTxelaa

naCvenebi. mefis da xuroTmoZRvris konfliqti

xalxis fantazias ase warmoudgeba: `yvelaferi miuxlia

pirSi Tamamad, dalagebiT, xalxs yvelaferi SeuZlia, oRond

Seni ar swamso. ver amourCevia, Sen, Sinauri mtarvali

sjobixar, Tu saTareSod mosuli ucxo mterio. mefes dilegSi

Caugdia... iq gvelebia, Turme, koWebamde wyali

swvdeba, saxeze virTxebi daudis... dabrmavebula kidec,

magram ver daiTanxma mefem mainc, cocxali kaci saZirkvelSi

moaqcios~; anda am dialogs movusminoT: `ramdenia

axla CvenSi qvrivi da oboli, zogi tyved aris wayvanili,

zogi mohkles, magram bevri dilegsa da sakanSi

lpeba. _ magas ar ityvi?.. Seniani rom gtanjavs _ isaa

cecxli! ver gaarCev, vin sjobia, Sinauri Tu gareuli _

gind mgels SeuWamivar da gind mglisfer ZaRls~.

xalxi gaTiSulia xelisuflebisgan, gareSe mterze

ukeTesi ar gonia igi da ar cdeba: arsebiTi gansxvaveba

ar aris despotiis mier daTrgunul da ucxoelebis

mier dapyrobil qveyanas Soris. ucnauri ar aris, rom

cixes ugulod aSeneben `naqiravebi da modenili~ adamianebi,

romlebisTvisac es araa da verc iqneba sakuTari

da sisxlxorceuli saqme, radgan qveyana maT ar ekuTvniT.

qveynis baton-patroni sxvaa da xalxis Tavdadebis

monapovarsac is miiTvisebs, Tavis sakeTildReod gamo-

156


iyenebs da, gaZlierebuli, kidev ufro daundobeli

iqneba qveSevrdomebisadmi. xalxi xvdeba amas da, bunebrivia,

cixes simtkice akldeba.

sxvanairia mefis logika: `lmobierebis~ bralia, rom

sxva qveynebisgan gansxvavebiT, sadac sisastikes ar eridebian,

`am qveyanas angrevs da awiokebs yoveli gamvleli~;

saxelmwifos simtkicis misaRwevad arsebobs er-

TaderTi saSualeba _ ukiduresi, araadamianuri sisastike;

mxolod cocxali kacis dataneba miscems cixes

saWiro simagres.

suramis cixis legendaSi niko lorTqifaniZem aqtualuri

simbolika aRmoaCina _ saxelmwifos Senoba

aigeba adamianis sisxliT gaJRenTil saZirkvelze, igi

iarsebebs sastikad natanji adamianis sicocxlis fasad.

sainteresoa, rom msgavsi saxe gamoxatavs epoqis

arss platonovis cnobil `qvabulSic~.

dasanania, rom zogierT xelovans legenda Cakirul

adamianze am simbolikis gareSe, aRmosavluri egzotikis

Wrel saburvelSi gaxveuli warmoesaxeba... Tumca

TviT veluri sisastike, romelic aq Tavs iCens, marTlac

`aRmosavluria~. `aseTi sisastike arc Seefereba

qarTvelis xasiaTsa da sxva Cveulebebs~ _ mefis gadajerebas

cdilobs SeZrwunebuli ediSeri, romelsac

cixis ageba daakisres. magram mefes aseTi ram ar miaCnia

saSinelebad da mwerali migvaniSnebs, rom misi despoturi

reJimi ucxoa qarTveli xalxisTvis: mefe gamahmadianebulia,

Tavisi xalxis zneobis uarmyofelia. am motivirebis

damajerebloba is aris, rom igi kulturulistoriul

realobas eyrdnoba _ mahmadianuri samyarosgan

rom ganizidebodnen, qarTvelebis imasac eswrafodnen,

aeSorebinaT maTTvis miuRebeli saxelmwifoebrivi

wyobileba _ aRmosavluri despotia. ar aris SemTxveviTi,

rom moTxrobaSi `Cakirvis ideis~ Tavgamodebul

adeptad warmodgenilia nalekari _ yofili mahmadiani...

niko lorTqifaniZe guldasmiT akvirdeba, amowmebs

qarTul sulierebas da cdilobs gaarkvios, aris Tu

ara masSi iseTi Sreebi, romlebic mefis saSinel Canafiqrs

SeiZleba asazrdoebdes.

157


ediSeri monawileobs religiur dResaswaulSi da

gaocebulia, `rom TviT viTom mlocvelni Tavis codvas

ki ar inaniebdnen, aramed Tavis gaWirvebis mospobas,

simSvides, bednierebas mosTxovdnen RvTaebas. aq ar iyo

arc moskovSi nanaxi gulze mjiRis kvriT codvis aRsareba,

arc italiis uaryofa aqauri cxovrebisa, arc kamaTi

mlocvelTa Soris sarwmunoebaze. TviT dedabrebi

mxolod wuTiT SeCerdebodnen eklesiis karebis win,

anTebdnen Taflis sanTlebs da saswrafod modiodnen,

rom ebaasnaT, garTuliyvnen, Tavisi ojaxuri ambebi gadaecaT

unaxav nacnobebisTvis da gaegoT maTi ambavi~.

Tu am dakvirvebas vendobiT, qarTuli religiuroba

moklebulia midrekilebas fanatizmisken, daundobeli

TviTgvemisken (rac iolad SeiZleba Semotrialdes

sxvaTa gvemad); mas ar itacebs ganyenebuli Ziebebi, arc

miwieri samyarosgan ganiltvis; piriqiT, RmerTisgan

swored amqveyniur bednierebas iTxovs da moelis. rasakvirvelia,

mwerals mxedvelobis areSi aqvs is, rac

ufro tipiuria koleqtiuri cnobierebisTvis da ara

movlenebis mTeli mravalgvarovani simravle; mTavaria,

rasTan SedarebiT ras aniWebs eri upiratesobas,

ras rogor afasebs, sad miuCens adgils Tavisi Rirebulebebis

sistemaSi; ra ufro metad aris xalxisgan mosalodneli

da ra _ naklebad. xolo xalxisgan, romlis

religiuri grZnoba aseTi amqveyniuri da eqscesebs

garidebulia, romlisTvisac ar aris damaxasiaTebeli

gonebis damabnelebeli fanatizmi, araa mosalodneli

adamianis Cakirvis sastiki ritualis keTilmyofelobis

dajereba da ganxorcieleba.

qarTuli religiurobis bunebaze niko lorTqifani-

Zis dakvirveba, cxadia, ar aris yovlismomcveli, magram

unda vifiqroT, rom istoriul procesSi gamokveTili

misi arsebiTi Tviseba aq moxelTebulia. amgvari religiuroba,

albaT, arc mTlad unakloa, oRond qimeruli

ideebis da brma sisastikis gamRvivebeli ar aris. niko

lorTqifaniZe marto `qeduxrelnSi~ ar iCens interess

erovnuli religiurobis mimarT, mis adamianurad ara-

158


mkacr xasiaTs da aseve adamianur sisusteebs igi rbili

iumoriT gamosaxavs moTxrobaSi `episkopozi nadirobaze~.

erovnuli cnobierebis wyobaa gacxadebuli eklesis

ierSic, romelsac ediSeri dResaswaulisas akvirdeba.

mwerali qmnis qarTuli eklesiis dasamaxsovrebel

mxatvrul daxasiaTebas. `gansacvifreblad aris SerCeuli

adgili SenobisTvis, TiTqos Tan Sezrdili iyos

mTasTan. iseTive nazi, msubuqi, iseTive mxiaruli da sadaa...

es ar aris SiSisagan Seqmnili codvaTa mosananieblad,

aramed siyvaruliT da aRtacebiT mSvenier bunebisadmi.

mas arc gaqceva unda caSi, arc gaurbis sinaTlesa

da haers, aramed stkbeba mzis sinaTliT, mTvaris

SuqiT, mwvane WalebiT, yvavilebis surnelebiT da

Soreuli zRviT.~

sicocxlis da silamazis moyvare, xalisiani msoflaRqmis

xatia es nageboba. misi amSenebeli xalxisTvis

ucxoa Seucnoblis winaSe iseTi Zrwola, sakuTari codvilobis,

simdablis iseTi damTrgunveli grZnoba, romelic

sazarel adamianur msxverplSewirvaSi ipovida

sadinars; ucxoa sipirquSe, romliTac es rituali

gamoirCeva.

nawarmoebSi gamosaxuli religiuri dResaswaulis

xasiaTi da atmosfero saero ufroa. RmerTi da wminda

giorgi, visac dResaswauli eZRvneba, TiTqos aRaravis

axsovs; xalxi erToba da mxiarulobs, sacirko sanaxaobas

uyurebs, xelisuflebs amasxrebs (Tumca es dausjeli

ar rCeba). magram misi qristianuli suliereba mkafiod

mJRavndeba mis eTosSi. adamianisadmi TanagrZnoba,

gasaWirSi myofis Sebraleba da daxmareba am xalxis religiuri

gznebiT gancdili mrwamsia. `sofels ver gaaTbob,

sofels ver Semosav, sofels ver daapureb. magram

mSiers rom lukma ar gauwodo, ise nu gauSveb, titvels

xeli mainc ar daafaro, ise nu dastoveb, gayinuli

rom ar dazilo, ise nu daagdeb~. gulisxmierebaze aranakleb

niSandoblivi aq realizmia, imis codnaa, rom sayovelTao

keTildReoba miuRwevelia; is ki SesaZlebelia,

yovelma kacma imdeni sikeTe gaakeTos, ramdensac

gawvdeba. rogor gansxvavdeba aseTi TvalTaxedva maqsi-

159


malizmisgan, romelic mTeli qveynierebis gabednierebaze

mcire mizans ar cnobs...

sxva eris Tu sarwmunoebis warmomadgenelTa mimarT

qarTvelebis Semwynarebloba moinadirebs nalekars,

romelic adre saqarTveloSi sayaCaRod dadioda. daRlilic

aris es xalxi amdeni Zaladobisgan, sisxlis-

Rvrisgan: dResaswaulze Sekrebilebi SiSiT adevneben

Tvals Tokze mosiarule jambazs, ar undaT sisxliani

sanaxaobis mowme gaxdnen.

niko lorTqifaniZis prozaSi qarTuli sinamdvile

calsaxovnad ar warmodgeba da arc misi mrude nakvTebia

vualirebuli, magram `qeduxrelnSi~ mwerali xedvas

mimarTavs ara erovnuli cxovrebis konkretul-istoriuli

Wrilisken, aramed eris tradiciulad Camoyalibebuli

msoflgagebis birTvisken. da masSi igi ver

poulobs wesad danergili, religiuri kultis rangSi

ayvanili sisastikis Zirebs, romelsac sasargeblo Tvisebebi

miewereba...

xelisuflebi amaxinjeben nalekaris ideas _ mis mier

gagonili gadmocema gulisxmobs adamianis ara ZaliT

Cakirvas, aramed nebayoflobiT msxverplgaRebas.

esec saSinelebad miaCnia ediSers, magram gaWris nalekaris

argumentebi. `Tu misi survilia, mokvdes, erTi

dRiT adre Tavis nebiT, Tu ori dRiT gvian bunebis

kanoniT... ar aris didi gansxvaveba da ubedureba. odnav

meti tkivili xorcisa da meti araferi...~; Tavganwiruli

xom samaradiso pativs moixveWs. xalxi ar iviwyebs,

Tayvans cems Tavdadebulebs. igi yveba legendas gmirze,

romelic martodmarto jiutad angrevs kldes da

natexebisgan mTas agebs _ xalxis TavSesafars. magram

mere `xalxs isev daatyda Tavze gareSe mterze ufro

saSineli ubedureba~ _ tirania. igi legendaSi warmodgenilia

mefe-monstrad, romelic Cvili bavSvebis tviniT

ikvebeba da Tavdadebulis mier aRmarTul mTaze

aSenebul sasaxleSi fuZndeba: xalxis TavdadebiT tirania

sargeblobs, Semzarav Zalas iZens da xalxsve

tanjavs.

160


`sasaxleSi SeyvaniT yovel dRe SehyvandaT bavSvebi,

magram gamosuli ki aravin enaxaT. sasaxlis namdvili ambavi

aravin icoda, magram xmebi Tavzars scemda qveyanas.

yvelaze saSineli TiTqos is iyo, rom vinc sasaxlis

karibWes gadaacilebda, usastikesi sasjeliT, wamebiT

da jojoxeTiT emuqrebodnen: araferi wamogcdes, aq

rac naxo an gaigonovo, _ da isinic naxuliT gaSterebulni,

ganagoniT gabruebulni, gadmodiodnen kisermoRrecilni,

munjni da gaSterebulni. TviT Rrma sardafebSiac

xalxi cdilobda pirispir aravis Sexvedroda,

rom, Tu saWiro gaxdeboda, eTqva, arc minaxavs, arc

ra gamigonia da, aba, vinc ar minaxavs, mas ras vetyodio.

elvis siswrafiT qreboda am samTavroSi yoveli Rimi

saxeze da Tvalebi mudam Secremlili rCeboda, tuCebis

kuTxeebSi ymawvilTac ki naoWebi gauCnda. aRar ismoda

araTu adamianTa galoba da simRera, TviT Citebmac ki

Seswyvites WikWiki da stvena, haeri damZimda, TiTqos

xeliT gasaxleCi gaxda da kaeSnis frinvelebma, sazari

Sexedulebis qimerebma, majlajunebma da urCxulebma,

ucnobma da unaxavma zlazvniT daiwyes haerSi foriaqi.

da roca yvelas imedi daekarga, yvela beds Seurigda da

yvela micvalebulTa sulebiviT rigSi Camdgari TviT

gaemgzavra saflavisken, gamoCnda viRac ymawvili _

qadagi...~.

es zRapruli fantasmagoria Zalian axlosaa realobasTan,

sastiki epoqis utyuar anabeWds atarebs... Tumca

adamianebma ician, rom sikvdili ar acdebaT, ver bedaven

tiraniisTvis winaaRmdegobis gawevas. mainc aRmoCndeba

Tavganwiruli kaci, romelic mospobs urCxuls,

aRmoCndeba deda, romelic Svils Sewiravs Tavisuflebas.

Svarcis `drakonis~ asociacias iwvevs es

legenda.

tirania emxoba, mefe-urCxulis sasaxle ingreva.

swored am sasaxlis nangrevebze agebs xelisufleba cixes

_ tiraniis Zveli siZlieris restavrireba unda

isev xalxis Tavdadebis xarjze, Tumca iluzias qmnis,

TiTqos qveynis da xalxis usafrTxoebaze zrunavs.

161


uWirT ediSers da nalekars iseTi adamianis moZebna,

romelic nebayoflobiT Caekireba, miTumetes, rom is

unda iyos mdabio da arafrismqone, `erTperangiani~.

aseTebi ki ar Tvlian Tavs movaleebad qveynis da mTavrobis

winaSe, Tavganwirva aRzevebulebs moeTxovebaT

_ ase fiqroben isini. bolos mainc miagneben imas, vinc

mzadaa qveynisTvis Tavi dados. zurabis saxe mwerlis-

Tvis Cveuli eskizuri maneriT aris moxazuli, magram

misi Tavganwirvis fsiqologiuri wanamZRvrebi fiqsirebulia

_ esaa mamis, qveynisTvis Tavdadebuli kacis

magaliTi da martooba, romelsac samSoblos ubedurebaze

wuxili da fiqri avsebs.

zurabis Tavganwirva ar aris fanatikurad aRtkinebuli

da ugono. mas savsebiT bunebrivi eWvebi uCndeba

_ ixsnis ki qveyanas cixis aSeneba, anda kacis Cakirva

marTla ganamtkicebs cixes? nalekari am kiTxvebis pasuxs

xalxis rwmenis, tradiciis anonimur avtoritetze

amyarebs. ase pasuxobs igi ufro adre ediSersac, romelic

Cakirvas `ugunurebas da sisuleles~ uwodebs. nalekari

Tumca gulwrfelad dajerebulia Tavis simar-

TleSi, magram obieqturad igi exmareba xelisuflebas,

saSineli saqme xalxis saxels amoafaros, rac tiraniis

nacadi xerxia.

sxva eWvic awvalebs zurabs: `mefe rom Cvensave

xalxs apatimrebs... ar gvzogavs... Tu masve eqneba cixe,

ufro ar gazviaddeba da ufro ar dagvCagravs?~. bunebrivi

da gonivrulia zurabis dedis kiTxvac: `es wyeuli

cixec raRad gvinda, Tu Sig CavikirebiT?~. nalekaris

gansja, rom garedan saimedod daculi qveyana Tavis

mmarTvelebsac alagmavs, arwmunebs zurabs Tavganwirvis

aucileblobaSi.

xalxis pirveli reaqcia zurabis gadawyvetilebaze

gaognebaa, mis saR azrs es gonierebis sazRvrebis dar-

Rvevad warmoudgeba, magram Semdeg gaogneba aRfrTovanebiT,

enTuziazmiT da cixis mSeneblobaSi monawileobiTac

ki icvleba. xalxi gamorCeuli siyvaruliT da

pativiscemiT ekideba qveynisTvis Tavdadebuls da, ra

162


Tqma unda, marTalia. magram es ar aris sruli simarTle,

romelic sabolood gacxaddeba.

enTuziazmi manamde grZeldeba, vidre cocxlad Cakirvis

saSineli rituali daiwyeba. warmoudgeneli sisastikis

naxva xalxs afxizlebs, saRad azrovnebis unars

ubrunebs. `aris ki RmerTi?! Tu RmerTi iyos, amden

sacodaobas rogor uyurebs, gulxeldakrefili? mouSvas

erTi cecxlis wvima da kupris niaRvari!~; `aseTi

arc cixe minda da arc taxti!~; `amis yurebas, me wamiyvanon

tyved, ara sjobia?!~. xalxis azri ubralo, gonivruli

da keTilia _ aseTi msxverplSewirva uRmerTobaa;

ar arsebobs araferi ise mniSvnelovani, rac aseT

sisastiked Rirdes. sxvaTaSoris, analogiuri azria

gamokveTili suramis cixis motivze daweril kita megreliZis

literaturul zRaparSic; es nawarmoebi da

`qeduxrelni~ TiTqmis erTdroulad iqmneboda.

mainc xalxi pasiuri rCeba, sanam yvelafers naTels

mofens xuroTmoZRvari. `_ vinc TqvenTvis Tavs sdebs,

mas hqolavT?! Zvels Tqmulebas azraT hqonda, ueWvelia,

gamoecada, aris Tu ara qveynisTvis Tavdadebuli,

Torem namdvili Cakirva vis sWirdeba?! es gadmocema

daiviwya kidec xalxma, rogorc veluri, da axla gindaT,

isev aRadginoT! xom damtkicda, rom kidev aris

Tavganwiruli xalxi...~.

absurdulia viTareba, roca xalxis Tvalwin da

TiTqos xalxis gulisTvis sastiki wamebiT uazrod

kvdeba am xalxis saukeTeso Svili; is, rac xdeba, barbarosobis,

arqauli sisastikis da ugunurebis aRorZinebaa;

gadmocemaSi ki WeSmaritia mxolod misi metaforuli

mniSvneloba, romelic mdgomareobs Tavganwirvis

umaRlesi faseulobis damkvidrebaSi; Tqmulebis sityvasityviT

gageba da realizacia mTeli im kulturuli

gamocdilebis daviwyebaa, romelic velurobas aSorebs

adamians; gadmocemis arsi droTa ganmavlobaSi Seicvala,

gakeTilSobilda, zustad ise, rogorc warmarTuli

sakerpo gardaiqmna qristianul eklesiad, romelic

moTxrobaSia aRwerili. `TviT eklesia xom marto trapezidan

Sedgeba. da Sig trapezi rom aris, es xom lodia,

163


msxverplis zed dasadebad da dasaklavad. hgavs, qristianebs

saZirkvelze Sesaferisi saydari auSenebiaT;

ase SeuerTebiaT Zveli da axali~.

aq isic miniSnebulia, rom qristianobam sisxliani

msxverpli gaauqma. man Zireulad Secvala da aamaRla

msxverplSewirvis idea _ RmerTs rames an vinmes ki

aRar wiraven, aramed, qristes msgavsad, sakuTar suls,

sicocxles.

adamianis msxverplad Sewirvis uaryofas da msxverplgaRebis

axali idealis Casaxvas ukve Zvel aRTqmaSi

gvauwyebs abramis ambavi, romelsac RmerTi Svils moTxovs

msxverplad, magram msxverplSewirva aRar gaxdeba

saWiro, raki aRmoCndeba, rom abrami Sinaganad mzad

aris misTvis. `qeduxrelnSi~ legenda cocxlad Cakirul

adamianze iseT metamorfozas ganicdis, rom am

bibliur ambavs emsgavseba _ igi sisxliani ritualis

Sesrulebas ki aRar moiTxovs, aramed TavganwirvisTvis

mzadyofnas.

adamianis SenobaSi Catanebis rituali odesRac bevrgan

unda arsebuliyo, savaraudoa, CvenTanac. jeims

frezers `oqros rtoSi~ aRnusxuli aqvs XIX saukunis

saberZneTSi da transilvaniaSi SemorCenili Cveuleba

_ Senobis saZirkvelSi kacis Crdils `atanen~. rogorc

Cans, es adamianis msxverplad Sewirvis magiuri wesis gadmonaSTia,

romelic, albaT, gaTvlili iyo imaze, rom moklulis

ganrisxebuli suli mtrisgan daicavda Senobas...

niko lorTqifaniZis moTxrobaSi tiranias surs

aaRorZinos didi xnis win daviwyebuli, qristianobis

mier aRmofxvrili barbarosuli wesi, adamianis msxverplad

mitana. Tavganwirvis fenomens tirania uzneo

manipulaciis sagnad aqcevs. magram qveyanas mainc Tavganwirva

ixsnis, cxadia, ara imiT, rac Cafiqrebuli iyo,

aramed gabedulebis impulsiT, romelsac igi xalxs gadascems.

xelisuflebis sisastikiT aRSfoTebul xalxs

zurabis araCveulebrivi Tavdadeba SiSs aviwyebs _ tirania

emxoba.

`qeduxrelnis~ koncefciis mixedviT, ubralo adamianebis

zneobaze da gonierebaze bevrad aris damokide-

164


uli qveynis da qveyanaSi Tavisuflebis bedi; xalxSia

zneobriobis is maragi, romelic Tavganwirul gmirebs

aRmoacenebs. etyoba, moTxrobis gammsWvalavma demokratizmma

mouduna sifxizle `xalxis mtrebis~ gafacicebiT

maZiebel `xalxis megobrebs~.

arsebiTia is, rom zurabis Tavganwirva WeSmarit

azrs da gamarTlebas SeiZens, WeSmaritad sasikeTo Sedegs

gamoiRebs mxolod wamebuli, Tavdadebuli xuroTmoZRvris

meoxebiT _ zneobrivad Zlieri xalxis

da inteligenciis erTianobaa, mwerlis TvalsazrisiT,

tiraniisgan gaTavisuflebis piroba.

niko lorTqifaniZe qristianobaze damyarebuli

qarTuli kulturis tradiciebis kvaldakval, Tundac

`meranis~ da ilia WavWavaZis Semoqmedebis faseulobrivi

orientaciis kvaldakval, Tavganwirvas saxavs adamianis

zneobriobis umaRles gamovlinebad. magram mis

winaSe axali, drois mier wamoWrili Zneli problemaa

_ SeunarCunos Tavganwirvas namdvil RirebulebebTan

kavSiri, gamoaaSkaraos antihumanuri miznebisTvis misi

cinikuri eqspluatacia. igi tiraniis winaaRmdeg mimar-

Tuli Tavganwirvis apologias qmnis.

Zveli legendis meSveobiT niko lorTqifaniZem Tavisi

garemomcveli sinamdvile igavurad warmosaxa rogorc

civilizaciis regresi da barbarobisken ukuqceva;

uRmerTobis, uadamianobis, ugunurebis samefo,

sadac cxovrebas mZimed awevs yalbi miTi sisastikis ke-

Tilmoqmedi, aRmSeneblobiTi Zalis Sesaxeb. am miTs

arRvevs mwerali da arsebiTad antimiTs qmnis.

dRes `qeduxrelnisadmi~ Cveni damokidebulebis

ganmsazRvrelia aramarto niko lorTqifaniZis Canafiqris

originaluroba da azris simaxvile, aramed ganyenebul,

ramdenadme sqematur da Zunw TxrobaSi Sefaruli

misi tkivili da protestis grZnoba, uimedo vi-

TarebaSi SenarCunebuli simxneve, mwerluri sindisi,

romelic simarTlis Ralats yvelaze araadamianur situaciaSic

krZalavs.

1988

165


gabrZoleba

dasavlur samyarosTan SepirispirebiT gaixsneba

qarTuli cnobiereba niko lorTqifaniZis moTxrobaSi

`Selocva radioTi~ da es samyaro aq Zalian kritikulad

aris danaxuli. dasavleTisadmi kritikuli damokidebuleba

meoce saukunis 20-ian wlebSi sxva qarTveli

mwerlebis mier Seqmnil nawarmoebebSic aSkaraa. am

damokidebulebas hqonda garkveuli obieqturi safuZveli:

dasavluri kapitalizmi maSin jer kidev sakmaod

uxeSi iyo; cxadia, arc dasavluri kolonializmi warmoadgenda

humanisturi idealebis xorcSesxmas; pirveli

msoflio omis Semdeg dasavleTs aryevda Zlieri

politikuri da ekonomikur-socialuri winaaRmdegobebi,

sulieri krizisi da faseulobaTa gamofitva,

cxovrebis standartizacia da vulgarizacia, rasac

ortega _ i-gaseti `masebis amboxs~ uwodebs; mainc yovelive

amaze metad dasavleTisadmi negatiur ganwyobas,

rogorc Cans, warmoSobda is, rom saqarTvelo marto

aRmoCnda bolSevikuri ruseTis agresiis winaSe.

niko lorTqifaniZis mier warmosaxul dasavlur

samyaroSi fulis da materialuri simdidris kulti mefobs,

usulgulo pragmatizmi gansazRvravs cxovrebis

atmosferos. am samyaros ganasaxiereben ironiulad gariTmuli

gvarebis mqone personaJebi — evropeli heqslei

da amerikeli bromlei. heqslei cdilobs warmoCndes

ise, rogorc moiTxovs Zveli evropuli, aristokratuli

kultura (Zveli qarTulis msgavsi), warmodges

rogorc Rirsebis grZnobiT aRsavse, samarTlianobis

damcveli, siyvaruliT STagonebuli raindi, qalisTvis

uangaro mfarvelobis gamwevi jentlmeni. SesaZloa, Sinaganad

es roli mTlad ucxo arc aris misTvis, magram

ar SeuZlia Tanmimdevrulad iTamaSos igi, radgan masSi

mZlavrobs zneobrivad ganurCeveli swrafva simdidris

moxveWisken, gamomyenebluri damokidebuleba adamianebisadmi,

romelic jentlmenobas Tavis niRbad da

instrumentad aqcevs.

166


misgan gansxvavebiT amerikeli magnati bromlei `orfenovani~

ar aris, es gauTleli kaci, guSindeli kovboi

ar TamaSobs da iniRbeba. igi bevrad aRemateba

heqsleis energiulobiT, nebisyofis simtkiciT da mizanswrafulobiT.

mas uxvad aqvs vitaluri Zalebi da

ar emuqreba buninis mier daxatuli amerikeli kapitalistis,

`san-franciskoeli batonis~ xvedri _ sicocxlisunarianobis

daSretiT gamowveuli absurdulad

uecari sikvdili. niSandoblivia is, rom niko lorTqifaniZis

amerikeli personaJi TandaTan civilizebuli

iers iZens, igi icvleba da izrdeba. tragedia, romelic

moTxrobaSi xdeba, swored misTvis gamodgeba sulierebis

gakveTili, is SeZlebs gaigos am tragediis mniSvneloba...

qarTveli aristokrati qali eli gordeliani evropaSi

heqsleis raindul-romantikul siyvaruls mindobili

xvdeba, Semdeg ki aRmoaCens, rom es siyvaruli

crua, rom martoa da mis garSemo angariSis da angarebis,

praqticistuli racionalizmis sicive sufevs.

is sastiki sicxadiT xedavs, rogor umzadeben heqsleis

indoeli msaxuris, Tavisi batonis mier bromleisTvis

miyiduli raminos beds, Tavdadebuli erTgulebis unariT

haki aZbas rom gvagonebs.

magram Tu TavisTavSi koncentrirebuli indoeli

protestis niSnad uxmaurod uCinardeba, eli gordelianis

protesti skandalur-eqscentrulia. saxifaTo

erotiul SouSi monawileoba, cekva gvelebiT elis

ajanyebaa usiyvarulobis da angarebis winaaRmdeg. igi

erTbaSad emijneba usulo sinamdviles, Tavis irgvliv

poetur-magiur sivrces Semowers da masSi mkvidrdeba.

eli dasavlelTa gamomTvlel racios upirispirebs

araracionalur gabedulebas, sicocxlis sasworze

Segdebas, maT saqmian sifxizles _ dionisur Trobas da

eqstazs, Tavdaviwyebas, maT nelTbil sasiyvarulo TamaSebs

_ sikvdilis zRvarze yofniT gamZafrebul erotikas.

gvelebiT cekva bunebis stiqiur ZalebTan, miwas-

Tan siaxlovis gamoxatulebaa. es arqauli, ritualuri

warmomavlobis mqone fenomeni Tavisi arsiT ewinaaRmdegeba

racionalistur-teqnicistur dasavlur civi-

167


lizacias, am civilizacias igi mxolod gasarTob sanaxaobad

qceuli SeiZleba SeuTavsdes.

eli gordelianis araordinaruli qmedebis mravalmniSvnelovan

xatSi gamosWvivis qarTuli nacionaluri

msoflgagebis, kulturis arsebiTi sazrisebi: TviTSewirvis,

codvaTa gamomsyidveli msxverplgaRebis qristianuli

principi (romelzec moTxrobis epigrafic

migvaniSnebs); uRirsi sicocxlis aristokratulad amayi

ugulebelyofa (gavixsenoT `sjobs sicocxlesa naZraxsa...~

an galaktionis striqonebi: `sikvdils me rodi

SevuSindebi, igi, Zma, mudam Cvens mxarezea, me meSinia

imgvar sicocxlis, sikvdils rom hgavs da uaresia~);

bedisweris winaaRmdeg iracionaluri amboxis paradigma,

araerTxel realizebuli saqarTvelos istoriaSi,

rogorc, magaliTad, 1924 wels, ramdenime wliT adre

niko lorTqifaniZis moTxrobis daweramde; `giJuri

ltolva~, aRbeWdili baraTaSvilis mier, romelsac

elis saxe nawarmoebSi asociaciurad ukavSirdeba.

qarTuli cnobierebis mTavar Tvisebad moTxrobaSi

ikveTeba saswaulis rwmena da molodini. es cnobiereba,

Spengleris klasifikaciis mixedviT, SeiZleba daxasiaTdes

rogorc `magiuri suli~. misi gamovlinebaa elis

imedi, rom gvelebiT cekvisas sikvdils saswaulebrivad

gadarCenili samSobloSi dabrunebas SeZlebs. `magiuri

sulis~ karnaxiT gamoaxmobinebs momakvdavi eli

saqarTvelodan Selocvas, romelmac mas sicocxle unda

SeunarCunos. magram elis bedis saswaulebrivad sasikeTo

Semobruneba ar xdeba _ radio ar SeiZleba iyos

jadosnuri Zalebis gamtari, aRmosavluri `magiuri suli~

da dasavluri racio, teqnika erTmaneTs gamoricxaven.

Tavisi msxverplgaRebiT, ganwiruli heroikul-artistuli

gabrZolebiT eli gordeliani maRldeba garemomcvel

usulobaze, aRidgens dakargul Rirsebas.

igi erotiul Sous nebiT Tu uneburad tragediad aqcevs

da aaSkaravebs adamianisadmi momxmarebluri damokidebulebis

usaxur arss.

magram dasavlur civilizacias im mxareebTan er-

Tad, romlebsac eli tragikulad aprotestebs, aqvs

168


sxva, ufro Rrma da arsebiTi aspeqtic, romelic elis

SeumCneveli rCeba da romelze dayrdnobiTac mas SeeZlo

Rirsebis aRdgena tragikuli msxverplgaRebis gareSe.

heqslei Caagonebs elis, rom Tavisi bunebrivi monacemebis,

alRos da gonebis simaxvilis, gemovnebis waylobiT

mas aqvs SesaZlebloba did warmatebas miaRwios

dasavleTSi, vTqvaT, rogorc msaxiobma. heqsleis angareba

amoZravebs, surs qali sakuTar kinobiznesSi Caabas

da amiT sargebloba naxos. elic aq swored angarebas

xedavs da amitom mtkivneulad aRiqvams da uaryofs

heqsleis SeTavazebas. magram is ver Tu ar iazrebs,

rom am SeTavazebis miReba saSualebas aZlevs mas,

aRar iyos sxvis (anu heqsleis) kmayofaze, TviTon Seqmnas

Tavisi arsebobis materialuri safuZveli, gaxdes

damoukidebeli da Tavisi bedis ganmsazRvreli. is, rac

qarTveli aristokratisTvis gaugebari da miuRebeli

aRmoCndeba, aris dasavluri civilizaciis fundamenturi

principi _ Tavisufali individualuri TviTrealizacia.

dasavluri samyaros siZlieris da nayofierebis

sawindaria is, rom am samyaroSi adamianebs mopovebuli

aqvT SesaZlebloba, gamoamJRavnon da ganaviTaron

Tavisi unarebi, SromiT da SemoqmedebiT daafuZnon

sakuTari Rirseba da damoukidebloba. roca Tavisufali

individualuri TviTrealizaciis principi xorcieldeba,

cxadi xdeba, rom dasavlur civilizaciaSi

swored igia mTavari da ara uaryofiTi tendenciebi.

niko lorTqifaniZe ferebis gamuqebiT warmosaxavs

Tavis Tanadroul dasavleTs, magram mainc moniSnavs

masSi produqtiul, adamianisTvis gasaqanis mimcem sawyiss,

romelic SemdgomSi ufro gamoikveTa da gaZlierda.

eli gordelianma tragediiT, sikvdiliT daamkvidra

Tavisi pirovnuli da erovnuli mniSvnelovneba, nacionaluri

msoflgancdis radikalizebiT da mkveTri,

gamomwvevi demonstrirebiT daadastura sakuTari Rirseba.

misTvis ucxo darCa TviTdamkvidrebis dasavluri

wesi, romelic naklebad romantikuli Cans, radgan yoveldRiuri,

meToduri Sromis aucileblobas gulisxmobs.

5

2000

169


mixeil javaxiSvili

ideologia da xasiaTi

bevri qarTuli literaturuli nawarmoebi ar aRelvebs

qarTvel adamians ise, rogorc mixeil javaxiSvilis

`jayos xiznebi~, XX saukunis `qarTlis Wiri~ da

`bedi qarTlisa~.

am romanis ukiduresad mwvave saTqmeli kvlav da

kvlav gvaiZulebs fiqrs, daJinebiT gvTxovs yuradRebas.

vin aris Teimuraz xevisTavi, ratom marcxdeba ase

samarcxvinod, vis da ras ganasaxierebs igi _ ai, kiTxvebi,

romelTa pasuxic rac SeiZleba mkafio da Sinaarsiani

gvinda iyos.

miCneulia, rom `jayos xiznebi~ aris alegoriul saxeebze

agebuli nawarmoebi da is, rac am azrSi igulisxmeba,

axloa simarTlesTan, magram, rogorc Cans, meti

sizustea saWiro.

unda gavixsenoT, rom alegoriuli saxe moklebulia

TavisTavad mniSvnelobas da Rirebulebas, igi mxolod

imis TvalsaCino nimuSs, magaliTs warmoadgens, rac

saxis miRmaa. `jayos xiznebis~ personaJebi ki iseTi msuye

saRebavebiT, ise ferxorcielad da reliefurad arian

daxatuli, ise energiulad, vnebiT da gatacebiT gamoyavs

mwerals maTi nakvTebi, rom SeuZlebelia isini

gluv alegoriul figurebad aRviqvaT.

SegviZlia vTqvaT, rom es personaJebi satiruli

gadaWarbebis meTodiT Seqmnil, mkveTrad individualizebul

xasiaTebs warmoadgenen; amasTan erTad socialuri

da fsiqologiuri tipiurobis niSans atareben.

magram arc aseTi gansazRvrebaa savsebiT damakmayofilebeli:

Cven vgrZnobT, rom Sinaarsi, romelic romanis

personaJebSia ganxorcielebuli, ufro farTo da

zogadia, vidre literaturulma xasiaTma an tipma SeiZleba

moicvas.

`jayos xiznebis~ personaJebi _ uwinaresad Teimurazi

_ ideologiis ganmasaxierebeli xasiaTebi arian

170


da swored amis wyalobiTaa, rom TviTon maTac da

mTlianad nawarmoebsac simboluri ganzomileba da

gamomxatveloba eniWeba.

amgvar personaJs, erTi mxriv, aqvs SexedulebaTa

garkveuli sistema, garkveuli ideologia, xolo meore

mxriv, igi rogorc xasiaTi Tavadaa imave ideologiis

gansxeuleba. xasiaTi iseTia, rogoric ideologias, mis

raobas Seferis.

Teimuraz xevisTavis individualoba misive msoflmxedvelobis

satiruli metaforaa. xevisTavis pirovnuli

arasrulfasovneba da siberwe xevisTavisve msoflmxedvelobis

naklulovnebis saxeobrivi ukufenaa. xevisTavis

pirovnuli marcxi im ideologiis kraxia,

romlis adeptic is aris da romelsac asaxierebs.

garkveuli ideologiis groteskulad utrirebuli

gamoxatulebaa jayos saxe, xasiaTic.

`jayos xiznebis~ siRrmiseuli kolizia ideologiuri

koliziaa. mas ayavs romanSi aRbeWdili, droSi da

sivrceSi lokalizebuli, empiriuli konkretulobiT

da damajereblobiT warmosaxuli sinamdvile masStaburi

ganzogadebis xarisxSi.

ideologiur-msoflmxedvelobrivi planis meoxebiT

mixeil javaxiSvili `jayos xiznebSi~ asaxuli movlenis

mizezs iZiebs, Zirebs wvdeba. jayos gamarjveba

kanonzomieria, gardauvalia, radgan umweoa msoflmxedveloba,

romelic mas win unda aRdgomoda.

raSi mdgomareobs Teimurazis ideologiis arsi?

Teimuraz xevisTavi evropeistia, mas sjera axali

evropuli kulturis principebis da Rirebulebebis, _

gonebis, mecnierebis, ganaTlebis da codnis, ekonomikuri,

socialur-moraluri da politikuri progresis

_ romlebic dasabams ganmanaTleblobaSi iRebs.

xevisTavi darwmunebulia, rom goneba, azri ufro

Zlieria, vidre sinamdvile, rom sinamdvile azris karnaxiT

moZraobs da viTardeba. `movifiqroT, movisazroT~

_ akeria pirze Teimurazs; mas gonia, rom sakmarisia

WeSmariti azris gamokveTa da realoba xalisiT

aRasrulebs gonebis gadawyvetilebas. roca gamoirkve-

171


va, rom yvelaferi sxvanairadaa mowyobili, is gaognebuli

rCeba.

`axali da cocxali cxovreba ara hgavda Teimurazis

da imis maswavlebel mwignobarTa naroSvars. xedavda am

ucnaurobas Teimurazi da gulubryvilod brazobda

imis gamo, rom cxovreba wignebs ar emorCileboda, arc

ki ekiTxeboda, da brZenTa nebadaurTvelad, Tavisi

gziT Tavxedurad miabijebda~.

Semdeg xevisTavi bolomde Seignebs Tavis ideologiur

kraxs da imedgacruebulis geslianobiT laparakobs

imaze, rac mis msoflmxedvelobriv orientirs,

ideals warmoadgenda. `_ ooh, RmerTo didebulo! neta

rodis ganibneva kacTa Soris es uudidesi crumorwmuneoba

da maradiuli landi?! codna!.. ena!.. Segneba!.. Semecneba!..

RmerTma rom adamiani gaaCina, progresis,

codnis da WeSmaritebis landi CasCara tikinasaviT...

dasCoCavs mas aqeT xuTi wlis kacobrioba xuT mil...

lion weliwads da amayad gaiZaxis: `codna! WeSmariteba!

Segneba! metyveleba!~... Tavisi Tavi qveynis batoni hgonia

da samyarosac ise epotineba, rogorc p... patara

bavSvi mTvares~.

adre ki Teimurazi xotbas asxamda gonebis, mecnierebis

monapovrebs, kopernikis, galileis, niutonis,

stefensonis did aRmoCenebs. TviTonac mecnierebis-

Tvis iRvwis: xan qarTuli kulturis istorias wers, xan

herbariums adgens, xan mwerebs agrovebs.

Teimurazis gansakuTrebuli Tayvaniscemis obieqtia

luka paColis mier Seqmnili buxhalteria, yvela

amqveyniuri sikeTis safuZveli. `es qveyana buRalteriaze

aris aSenebuli!.. sadac buRalteria ician, iq yvelaferi

ician: wesi, dis...sciplina, Sroma da momavali,

sadac ar ician, iq uwesoba, anarqia, arev-dareva da

wyvdiadi mefobs~.

sinamdvile, dawyebuli sameurneo sferoTi, racios

unda ujerebdes, sxvanairad sazogado bedniereba miuRwevelia

_ miaCnia Teimurazs.

racionalizmi, Teimurazis gagebiT, pirvel rigSi

swored materialuri kulturis ganviTarebisTvis aris

172


aucilebeli piroba, burJuaziuli keTilgoniereba,

yairaTianoba, angariSianoba materialuri progresis

sawindaria. materialuri progresis idea ki Teimuraz

xevisTavis msoflmxedvelobis fundaments Seadgens da

mas igi qristianobis adgilas ayenebs, religiis mniSvnelobas

aniWebs.

`vaWrobisTvis da mrewvelobisTvis saWiroa didi

Taosnoba, garja da momWirneoba, ese igi oris Sovna da

erTis daxarjva, ese igi TavdaWerili, dinji da angariSiani

cxovreba, sulisa da xorcis disciplina, ese

igi Sroma da nebisyofa... ho, Sroma, isev Sroma da Sroma!

Sroma axali drois axali sarwmunoebaa, axali religia,

qristianobaze ufro mZlavri, ufro saWiro da

sasargeblo~.

da Teimurazic emsaxureba am axal religias _ racionalizms

da materialur progress; ukve cxovrebisgan

uaryofili, mainc ar wyvets ganmanaTleblur moRvaweobas,

avrcelebs codnas, leqciebs ukiTxavs glexebs

dasavluri mecnierebis da teqnikis saocrebebze, anda,

vTqvaT, miwis gapoxierebis racionalur meTodze.

amave dros xevisTavi arc ganmanaTleblobis humanur

socialur-politikur principebs iviwyebs: qadagebs

Zmobas da mSvidobas, erTobas da Tavisuflebas.

rogorc ganmanaTlebluri idealebiT gamsWvalul

enTuziasts SeSvenis, Teimuraz xevisTavi msoflios

moqalaqea, mTeli qveynierebis bediT aris aRelvebuli,

gulTan axlos miaqvs Soreuli qveynebis ambebi. misi

fiqri kacobriobas dastrialebs Tavs. xevisTavi am

mxrivac evropaSi sakmaod didi xnis dawyebuli moZraobis

gamgrZelebelia, romlis Sesaxebac albert Svaiceri

wers: `progresisken miswrafeba, ase damaxasiaTebeli

XVIII saukunisTvis, religiur crurwmenebTan er-

Tad nacionalur crurwmenebsac spobs. saukunis mowinave

adamianebi mouwodeben erovnuli CarCoebis

msxvrevisken da miuTiTeben kacobriobaze rogorc sidideze,

romelsac idealebi unda SeeTanados~. Tumca

Semdgom Teimurazi kosmopolitizmsac eTxoveba: `me

173


om Cemi siyvaruli da energia mTel kacobriobas gavunawilo,

Cems Zmas erTi memiliardedic aRar ergeba~.

kacobriobis arseboba, adamianTa sazogadoeba racionalur

sawyiss unda daemyaros; roca mecnierebis

da ganaTlebis miRwevebiT SeiaraRebuli goneba mar-

Tavs realobas, mkvidrdeba gonivruli da samarTliani,

demokratiuli politikuri sistema, xorcieldeba materialuri

progresi, xolo materialur progress daeSeneba

zneobrivi progresi, miiRweva sayovelTao harmonia,

`mSvidoba, Zmoba, erToba da Tavisufleba~; gamarjvebas

izeimebs humanisturi ideali, mokled, Txa

da mgeli erTad moZoven. da yovelive es aRsruldeba

Zaldautaneblad, realoba, ra Tqma unda, winaaRmdegobas

ar gauwevs gonebismier principebs _ zogadad ase

warmodgeba Teimuraz xevisTavis kredo, misi utopizmis

elementebiT Sezavebuli ganmanaTlebluri ideologia,

Tu Tavs movuyriT yvelafers, rac amis Sesaxeb

pirdapir an narTaulad aris romanSi naTqvami.

aucilebelia iTqvas, rom mixeil javaxiSvili am

ideologias afasebs ara saerTod, aramed im saxiT, romliTac

man saqarTveloSi gaamJRavna Tavi, mwerali

mxatvrulad ikvlevs mis, ase vTqvaT, qarTul variants.

saqarTveloSi ki es ideologia gakotrda.

`rogor moxda aseTi ucnauri saswauli: zne-CveulebiT,

suliTa da sisxliT aristokratma qarTvelma rogor

moaxerxa damyareba udemokratiules respublikisa?..

Sua aziaSi meore Sveicariis Seqmna ganvizraxeT, xaxa!

sasaciloa, magram satiralic aris es ambavi... Cven

Cven Tavsac vatyuebdiT da q...qveyanasac. esec Cveni

kudabzikur-aznauruli maimunoba gaxlavT... wambaZvelobis

niWi... uudidesi saCuqaria, magram RmerTma gadaaWarba:

Wkua dagvaklo da wabaZvis niWi naW...Warbevad

mogvca. Cvenc amitom davemsgavseT maimuns, sadac ar

gvyofnis sakuTari Wkua, mxneoba, gamZleoba da nebisyofa,

iq ucxoelTa wabaZviT vlamobT fons gasvlas da

lelos gatanas~.

Teimurazis ideologiis marcxs apirobebs am ideologiis

Tandayolili nakli _ cocxali sinamdvilis

174


zedapiruli gageba, misi mTeli sirTulis da winaaRmdegobriobis

gauTvaliswinebloba; ganmanaTlebluri

idealizmi axdens konkretuli erovnuli realobis bunebis,

specifikis ugulebelyofas da mas CvenSi SeemTxveva

daaxloebiT is, rac mis arqetips adre dasavleTSi

SeemTxva. `metismeti dajerebuloba gonierebis eWvSeuvalobaSi

badebs ganzraxvas, gatardes reformebi iqac

ki, sadac isini jer kidev ar aris sakmaod Semzadebuli

azris muSaobiT. aseTi warumatebeli cdebi mTavrdeba

CavardnebiT, romlebic xangrZlivad aferxeben winsvlas~;

`progresis rwmenas ewera Sejaxeboda faqts, romlis

winaSec igi sruliad moumzadebeli aRmoCnda. aqamde

mas brZola uxdeboda mxolod metad Tu naklebad

dromoWmul sinamdvilesTan. magram safrangeTis revoluciis

da momdevno movlenebis periodSi is Seejaxa

stiqiuri ZalebiT mocul sinamdviles~ (a. Svaiceri).

xevisTavis bolo tirada imasac gvafiqrebinebs, rom

ideuri kredo, romelsac igi aRiarebda, misTvis organuli,

sisxlxorceuli ar yofila da mimbaZvelobis nayofi

ufroa, vidre bunebrivad, Sinagan winaaRmdegoba-

Ta gamovliT Sobili da gazrdili rwmena. es, ra Tqma

unda, ar niSnavs, rom Teimurazi vulgaruli farisevelia,

magram sakuTari ideologia mas ver aqvs im siRrmiT

gancdili da gaTavisebuli, rom igi WeSmarit rwmenad

eqces da iseTi sulieri ZaliT aRWurvos, rogorsac

rwmena iZleva.

Teimuraz xevisTavis sisuste uwinaresad sulis sisustea

da igi gamowveulia aramxolod misi ideologiis

sinamdvilisgan ganyenebulobiT, aramed imiTac, rom

es ideologia ver iZens Rrma da mtkice rwmenis sagnis

Tvisebas.

romanSi rwmenis da urwmunobis problema arsebiTia.

xevisTavis msoflmxedvelobrivi _ da amis Sedegad pirovnuli,

piradadamianuri _ kraxis mTavari mizezi

namdvili rwmenis uqonlobaa.

Teimurazis racionalisturi ideologiis Tavida-

Tavi aris aTeizmi da qristianobasTan dapirispireba.

rogorc vnaxeT, qristianuli religiis magivroba, Tei-

175


murazis fiqriT, progresis _ upirvelesad materialuri

progresis _ idealma unda gawios. Tumca Sinaganad

qristianobas mTlad ar aris mowyvetili, mainc sakmaod

Sors aris misgan. amitom roca progresis ideali

_ rwmenis surogati da ara sakuTriv rwmena _ Seeryeva

(mwerali am idealis ngrevas araerTbaSad, etapobrivad

gviCvenebs), igi ufskrulis Tavze haerSi gamokiduli

aRmoCndeba.

`ver aviwie miwidan... wignma momtaca rwmenis suli da

mecnierebam damwyvita uflisadmi asafreni frTebi.

codnisa da iWvis Wiam ise damiRrRna goneba da gamomifita

suli, rom nivTier qveyanas erTi gojiTac ver

movswydi... codna da rwmena ver movarige, erTad ver Sevad..duRe

da verc erTmaneTs davaSore. rwmenisa da urwmunoebis

orRobeSi gaviCxire da verc rwmenis saTaves-

Tan gavedi, veRarc ukan davbrundi~.

raTa rogorme gaeridos absoluturi nihilizmis

ufskruls, xevisTavi isev qristianuli `rwmenis saTavisken~

mieSureba. misi Semdgomi sulieri cxovreba dakarguli

religiuri idealis Ziebis niSniT warimarTeba.

nawarmoebSi fsiqologiuri gamWriaxobiT aris warmosaxuli

Teimurazis sasowarkveTili cdebi, xelaxla

eziaros uaryofil da daviwyebul ideals. rac ufro

itanjeba Teimurazi, rac ufro mtkivneul dartymebs

iRebs sinamdvilisgan, romlis saSinelebazec Zalauneburad

Tvali exileba, _ anu rac ufro aSkaravdeba

TeimurazisTvis mis adrindel SexedulebaTa uniadagoba

_ miT ufro metad cdilobs igi RmerTis rwmenis

mopovebas, qristianobis wiaRSi sayrdenis povnas; xolo

rodesac urwmunod Zalian gauWirdeba da raRacas

aucileblad unda CaebRauWos, naucbaTevad, saxeldaxelod

`moiqceva~. bunebrivia, naCqarevad agebuli religiuri

TavSesafari swrafadve ingreva.

Teimuraz xevisTavis ubedurebis mizezTa mizezi is

aris, rom mas ar SeuZlia hqondes Rrma da WeSmariti

rwmena. xevisTavma Rrmad verc progresis ideali iwama,

verc _ qristianuli. urwmunobis vakuumSi ki Cndeba da

ibudebs jayo.

176


Tumca umjobesia isev Teimurazma gviTxras amis

Taobaze saTqmeli. `Cvenc rom semitebis rwmenis Zala

gvqondes, ukvdavni viqnebodiT. arc erT ers ara swams

iseTi simZlavriT Tvisi RmerTi, rogorc semit ebraels

swams Tavis iegova da semit arabs _ Tavisi allah.

neta warmarTebi mainc vyofiliyaviT. warmarTebs kerpebi

hyavdaT. isini loculobdnen zevss, iupiters,

cecxls, elvas da aTass cxadsa da uCinar RmerTs. warmarTebs...

viRac an raRac swamdaT, Cven ki urwmunoni

varT. q...qarTvel xalxs aRarc qriste swams, aRarc

mahmadi, arc iegova, arc budda da arc zevesi, arc

saerTod romelime RmerTi an eSmaki... Cveni uudidesi

ubedurebac swored is aris, rom eSmakic aRar gvwams.

visac eSmaki swams, imas raRac an v...vviRac swams, ese igi

_ mas hqonia rwmenis wyurvili da unari, ese igi _ mas

hqonia adamianis suli, ese igi _ TviTonac ukve ada-mia-ni

yofila, vinaidan mxolod suliT da rwmeniT ganirCeva

adamiani pirutyvisagan. Cven ki eSmakic aRar

gvwams, maSasadame, aRarc suli gvqonia da aRarc a-dami-a-ni

vyofilvarT~. ∗

urwmunoba ganmanaTleblur principebTan da utopizmTan

erTad warmoadgens Teimuraz xevisTavis saxis

ideur Suaguls, xolo sakuTriv saxe, xasiaTi, xasiaTis

konkretuli Tvisebebi _ sulieri uRonoba, meryeoba

da unebisyofoba, Sinagani simSrale, garemomcveli sinamdvilis

da adamianebis mimarT sibrmave, mCate optimisturi

ganwyoba da ioli enTuziazmi, frazioroba da

a.S. _ misi satirul-groteskuli proeqciaa. rasakvirvelia,

is, rasac Cven Teoriulad vacalkevebT, romanSi

organulad SenivTebulia.

msoflmxedvelobrivi plani, rwmena-urwmunobis Zireuli

Tema, idealebis da Rirebulebrivi orientirebis

rRvevis, ganmanaTlebluri cnobierebis krizisis

∗ `eSmaki~ bolSevizms unda gulisxmobdes, magram statiis pirvelad

gamoqveynebis periodSi amis Tqma, cxadia, SeuZlebeli iyo, iseve

rogorc imaze laparaki, rom jayo bolSevizmis gansaxierebaa.

177


problemebi `jayos xiznebs~ epoqis sulieri cxovrebis

arsebiTi tendenciebis Tanxmiers xdis.

romanis msoflmxedvelobrivi problematika gansazRvravs

mis mxatvrul-stilur bunebas _ tragikomikurobas

da groteskulobas, radgan, rogorc SeniSnulia,

situacias, rodesac Zveli idealebi adamianis

TvalSi gaufasurebulia, xolo axali ar Cans, zedmiwevniT

esadageba tragikomedia da groteski.

178

1985


`avtors asamarTleben gmirebi~

rodesac xangrZlivi pauzis Semdeg mixeil javaxiSvili

literaturul Semoqmedebas daubrunda, misi

TvalTaxedvis SuagulSi istoriuli procesi moeqca.

aforiaqebuli epoqis tragediebi da farsebi, niSandoblivi

tipebi meoce saukunis 20-ian wlebSi mZlavrad

euflebian mwerlis warmosaxvas.

istoriuli procesis moZraoba da gezi, misi tragikuli

da amasTanave ironiuli arsia danaxuli mixeil

javaxiSvilis vrcel moTxrobaSi `lambalo da yaSa~.

iranis Zvel miwaze xdeba am moTxrobaSi gadmocemuli

ambavi. adre Zlieri es saxelmwifo pirveli msoflio

omis dros imdenad dasustebulia, rom faqtobrivad

inglisis da ruseTis mier aris gayofili. iranis

bedic iseTia, rogoric sxva didi saxelmwifoebis da

imperiebis _ gardauvali daqveiTeba, daknineba, iqneb

gaqrobac. es bedi ewiaT im saxelmwifoebs, romlebic

iranis teritoriaze odesRac arsebobdnen _ midias,

asureTs, parTias. maT TiTqos monawileoba miiRes

msoflio istoriis sanaxobaSi da Semdeg sxvebma iZulebiT

daaclevines scena, raTa TviTon daesakuTrebinaT

igi. am kanonzomierebaSi mixeil javaxiSvili TiTqos

istoriuli optimizmis safuZvels poulobs _ yvela

Zalmomreobas Tavisi angariSis gamsworebeli gamouCndeba,

magram es ucnauri, mware optimizmia, radgan Zalmomreobas

kvlav Zalmomreoba enacvleba.

`saarako raSebze midielTa aCrdilebi Sesxdnen da

ukuneTs gadaikargnen, xolo maT nacvlad urmiis tbas

donis cxenebi da tamboveli Ceqmebi dastrialebdnen da

im Ceqmebs, nebsiT da uneblieT, CanCaliT misdevdnen

aSurbanipalis, tigran didisa da vaxtang gorgaslanis

memkvidreni. da gogsa da magogs, haikanelebs da qarduelebs,

donis cxenebsa da tambovur Ceqmebs kldidan

gakvirvebiT dascqerian qvis ficarze gamoWrili makedonelis

legionerebi, maTi frakielebi, bucefalebi

da sami gadarCenili berZnuli aso, `a...os~ _ aleqsandros...

asiode wlis winaT im kldeze jer kidev iwvoda

179


Turme Svidiode sityva, `me aleqsandros... yovelive

aqauri emorCilebis nebasa Cemsa~. axla ki im kldis

mkerdidan is sami aso ise moismis, rogorc wyalwaRebulis

uimedo Zaxili: _ aa... o-o-o-o-os~.

yovlismZleveli dro aqarwylebs da dascinis imperiebis

didebas da maTi mbrZaneblebis pretenziebs,

Tavdajerebas, medidur survilebs... istorias ar uyvars

erTsaxeoba, gaxeveba, misi Jinia axlis qmna da daSla,

uCveulo da ucxo konfiguraciebis Sedgena. istoriis

samefo TiTqos maias samefoa, moCvenebis, iluziis,

umdgradobis qveyana. moTxrobaSi istoriis qameleonuri

bunebis plastikuri saxea aRmosavlurad msuye koloritiT

daxatuli urmiis tba, romelic `dReSi aTjer

mainc icvlis iers da xazebs~.

istoriuli bedisweris damcinavi cvalebadobis gamovlinebaa,

rom irani, yofili sastiki dampyrobeli,

TviTonaa dapyrobili, rom tradiciulad Semtev islams

mwvaved uteven, xolo qarTveli adamiani, visi sam-

Sobloc iranma saukuneebis manZilze tanja, dapyrobilebis

damcvelia.

moTxrobas araordinarulobas da mniSvnelovnebas

pirvel rigSi dapyrobili iranelebis da maTi mosarCle

qarTveli eqimis Seurigebeli antagonistis _ yaSa

lazares TvalSisacemi figura aniWebs.

es saxe enaTesaveba mixeil javaxiSvilis mier imave

periodSi Seqmnil jayos da rasputinis saxeebs. maT

msgavsad yaSa lazarec uzomod mdabali, tlanqi da gaumaZRaria,

destruqciulia. am personaJebs mwerali

groteskis meTodiT gamosaxavs: mimarTavs bunebrivi

proporciebis mkveTr deformacias, cxoveluris da

paTologiuris moWarbebas, komikuris da sazarelis

Sexamebas _ komikuria maTi gonebis da sulis siRatake,

saSinelia maTi mZlavri mtacebluri instinqti.

paTologiuri personaJebi adrec hyavda mixeil javaxiSvils,

magram `jayos xiznebSi~, `kvaWi kvaWantira-

ZeSi~, `lambalosa da yaSaSi~ paTologiis Cveneba ukve

epoqis arsis mxatvruli analizis saSualebaa.

180


yaSa lazares _ sadists _ mwerali akvirdeba rogorc

gansazRvruli politikuri, ideologiuri tendenciebis

Tanmdev movlenas, maTi wyalobiT aRzevebul

tips.

sadistebi yovelTvis arsebobdnen da iarsebeben,

magram imisTvis, rom cxovrebas daepatronon, maT gansakuTrebuli

pirobebi da viTareba WirdebaT.

swored aseTia istoriuli viTareba, romelic moTxrobaSia

warmosaxuli.

ruseTis imperia Tavisi batonobis arealis gafar-

Toebas, iranSi fexis mokidebas eswrafis. am miswrafebas

emsaxureba rusuli eklesia, qristianuli religia

eqspansiis saSualebad gamoiyeneba. imperiis miznebs emsaxureboda

ruseTis eklesia qristianul qveynebSic,

xolo islamur samyaroSi igi, gasagebia, kidev ufro

Semtevi xdeba (cxadia, es rusuli qristianuli kulturis

mier Seqmnil sulier faseulobebs ar aqarwylebs).

iranSi ruseTis eklesiis emisari episkoposi pavle

ideologiuri aRWurvilobiT uzrunvelyofs imperiis

dampyroblur politikas, aRvivebs siZulvils da Seuwynareblobas

`uwminduri~ mahmadianebis, `wupaki persukebis~

mimarT. Tumca arc qristianobis aramarTlmadidebluri

mimdinareobebi sargebloben misi keTilganwyobiT,

radgan isinic Tavis mxriv sxva saxelmwifoebis

politikur miznebs axorcieleben, rusuli eklesiis

msgavsad cdiloben Tavisi gavlenis qveS moaqcion

iranSi mcxovrebi aisorebi. es qristiani xalxi ki `damkvreli~

Zalaa mahmadianebTan brZolaSi. religia aq mxolod

Zalauflebis, batonobis instrumentia, profanacias

ganicdis.

amgvar situaciaSi aisori mRvdeli yaSa lazare Tavisi

mZvinvare energiulobiT, daundoblobiT, veragobiT

metad gamosadegia episkoposi pavles sistemisTvis,

ruseTis imperiis politikur-ideologiuri sistemis-

Tvis _ misi funqciaa aisorebis gadabireba da mahmadianebis

devna. da piriqiT, es sistema metad gamosadegia

yaSasTvis _ igi mas saSiS Zalas aZlevs, Zalauflebas

aziarebs.

181


yaSa naZiralaa, qurdi da mkvlelia da, cxadia,

qristianobasTan mas Sinaganad araferi akavSirebs, am

mtacebel arsebas saerTod ar SeiZleba raime seriozuli

mrwamsi da idea hqondes. mis bunebas da statuss

Soris arsebuli Seusabamobac qmnis grotesks _ sadisti

mRvdeli, anaforiani jalaTi. is farisevelia, Tumca

SedarebiT naklebad SeniRbuli, vidre farisevlobis

Zveli ostatebi, molieris tartiufi an saltikov-

SCedrinis iuduSka.

magram amave dros, ra ucnauric unda iyos erTi SexedviT,

yaSa fanatikosia _ mas gaafrTebiT Zuls mahmadianebi.

amaSi igi ar TvalTmaqcobs, saerTodac siZulvili,

siyvarulisgan gansxvavebiT, aranamdvili da aragulwrfeli

iSviaTad aris. yaSas siZulvili mahmadianebisadmi

`ideuria~, mis mier lambalos devnis Zireuli

motivi raime praqtikuli miznis miRweva ar aris. mTavaria,

rom lambalo mahmadiania _ `uwminduri~, `Rori~,

`mahmadis ZaRli~. yaSa lazare `qristiania~ mxolod imdenad,

ramdenadac Seuwynarebeli da ulmobelia mahmadianebisadmi.

amiT igi drois avi niSania. XX saukunis sisxliani

tragediebis avtorebs da xorcSemsxmelebs ufro metad

gamoarCevdaT ara sakuTari pozitiurad miCneuli

ideis erTguleba da `aRTqmul qveyanaze~ ocneba, aramed

siZulvili da agresia imaT mimarT, visac maTi ideologia

mtrad saxavda, vinc am ideologias ar iziarebda,

miTumetes upirispirdeboda. aseTebi iyvnen

`klasobrivi mtrebi~, arasaimedo inteligencia, anda

`rasis siwmindis~ ammRvrevebi...

mixeil javaxiSvilis mier warmosaxuli bneli, avxorci

salosi rasputini mxolod im niSniTaa `qristiani~,

rom sastikad Zuls qristianuli ruseTis namdvili

Tu gamogonili mtrebi; episkoposi pavle, maRali

sazogadoebis garegnulad daxvewili kaci da moqnili

politikosi, amasTanave fanatikosia, rac vlindeba ara

qristianuli idealebis erTgulebaSi, aramed araqristianebisadmi

da ararusebisadmi gaborotebaSi, romelic

mas gonebas ubindavs da Seiwiravs.

182


arsebiTia is, rom yaSa lazares daucxromeli, Sxamiani

siZulvili mahmadianebis mimarT misi kacTmoZuleobis

gamomJRavnebaa, qristianobis dacvis motiviT

moCvenebiTad gamarTlebuli da nebadarTuli. kacTmo-

Zuleoba, antihumanuroba ubralod sxva sarwmunoebis

adamianebs irCevs obieqtebad, raTa ufro Tavisuflad,

xelgaxsnilad imoqmedos. sinamdvileSi yaSas agresiuloba

usazRvroa, is sakuTar mamasac ar indobs. yaSas

aravin uyvars, arc qristianebi, Tundac Tavisi Tanamemamuleebi,

misma Zalauflebis wyurvilma Sebraleba

aravis mimarT ar icis; moTxrobaSi naTqvamia, rom Tu

daWirda, aisorebs uklebliv amoxocavs, sakuTari col

-Svilis CaTvliT. roca `Tavisianebs~, qristianebs emtereba,

iaraRis didxans Zebna ar uxdeba, mzad aqvs ideologiur

quraSi nawrTobi maxvili _ araqristianeb-

Tan faruli kavSiris dabraleba. ase wamebs yaSa cils

qarTvel eqims, TiTqos igi qurTebis beladTan saidumlod

aris dakavSirebuli.

yaSa lazare marjved flobs im meTodebs, romlebic

farTod gamoiyeneboda mixeil javaxiSvilis Tanadroul

politikur sinamdvileSi.

jaSuSoba, dasmena, provokacia, sinamdvilis utifari

gayalbeba, braldebis SeTxzva _ aseTia yaSas arsenali.

qurTebis da aisorebis Cveulebriv yofiT Sexla-

Semoxlas is qurTebis ajanyebad asaRebs, rasac sagangebo

samxedro operaciis ganxorcieleba da `ajanyebulebis~

darbeva moyveba; igi awyobs aisorebze mahmadianebis

Tavdasxmis inscenirebas da `damnaSaveebs~ ulmoblad

sjian.

yaSas xasiaTis mZafri TvalsaCinoebiT gamomxatvelia

misi triumfis suraTi. `TxuTmetis gminva yaSa

lazares Zlevamosilma kiJinma STanTqa. pirvelive dakvraze

TviTonac ise aigrixa, TiTqos TxuTmetive joxi

im TaTrebis magivrad wiTel yaSas moxvedroda. mere

acqmutunda da axtunavda. grZel xelebs da mogrexil

fexebs ucnaurad iqnevda, wiTel wvers acancarebda da

giJiviT xiTxiTebda. jalaTebi rom joxebs aRmarTavdnen

xolme, yaSa marjvena xels joxiviT ahfSekavda, Tvi-

183


Tonac aisveteboda da ucnaurad gaizrdeboda. jala-

Tebi rom joxebs daiqnevdnen, yaSa aSveril xels joxiviT

wamoiRebda da ise mZlavrad dauSvebda miwamde,

TiTqos erTi dakvriT mTel musulmanobas Tavs

uWeWyavdao...~.

saerTod, `wiTeli maimunis~ saxe gaSmagebuli moZraobiT

da cofiani replikebiT ixateba, fsiqologiuri

analizis gareSe. yaSas Sinagani raoba mainc srulad

aSkaravdeba, Tundac mis karikaturul portretSi. igi

arsobrivad da mkveTrad mJRavndeba pasaJSic, sadac

yaSa bilwavs lambalos da misi mamis, maSadi izaTis mier

gaTxril Was: yaSas boroti daniSnuleba sicocxlis

wayroebis SebRalva, gauwmindurebaa. lambalo da maSadi

izaTi, piriqiT, wylis mesaidumleebi arian da sicocxlesTan,

bunebasTan maTi erTianoba asec aris

gamoxatuli. yaSa xrwnas avrcelebs Tavis garSemo, isini

_ qmnian, sicocxlis zrdas exmarebian. lambalo upirispirdeba

yaSas rogorc ubralo, normaluri, daumaxinjebeli

adamianuroba paTologiurobas da cxovelurobas.

igi gulRiaa, alali, mxiaruli, sicocxlis,

adamianis da Sromis moyvare _ igi bunebrivia. Tbili,

msubuqi iumoriT gamosaxavs mwerali yaSas antipods.

yaSa cxovelmyofel bunebas, bunebriobas Telavs da

mxatvrulad logikuri, kanonzomieria, Tu rogor

kvdeba igi _ maSadi izaTis gvelebis mier misi dageslva

TiTqos bunebis sibrZnis SurisZiebaa moZaladis mimarT,

TiTqos sicocxlis wylebis da nayofierebis

mcveli suli uxdis samagieros sikvdilis mTesvels.

eqims ar SeuZlia ar TanaugrZnos maSadi izaTis SurisZiebas,

miTumetes, rom momakvdavi `RvTismsaxuri~

kvlav RvarZls anTxevs. mTxrobeli da masTan erTad

avtori zneobrivad amarTleben saSineli arsebis mospobas;

vinc adamianis saxes kargavs, urCxulad iqceva,

Sendobas ar imsaxurebs. aseTi poziciis mxatvruli da

eTikuri ucilobloba kidev ufro cxadi xdeba imis

gaTvaliswinebisas, rom yaSas an jayosnair totalurad

borot adamians Cveni literatura adre ar icnobda.

184


iranelebisadmi qarTveli eqimis keTilganwyobis

uSualo stimuli is aris, rom istoriis kaprizuli nebiT

saqarTvelo da irani msgavs mdgomareobaSi aRmoCndnen.

mTxrobels amoZravebs simarTlis da samarTlianobis

bunebrivi grZnoba, romelsac aRaSfoTebs, rom

xalxs sakuTar qveyanaSi amcireben, aviwroeben; miTufro,

rom qarTvelma adamianma icis, ra Znelad asatania

aseTi Zalmomreoba, icis Tundac TviT iranis `wyalobiT~

da gulgrili ver aris usamarTlobis mimarT. da is

uTanasworo brZolas marTavs Zalmomreobis sistemas-

Tan, win aRudgeba mZlavr politikur-ideologiur manqanas.

amas avalebs sakuTari buneba da mrwamsi. igi adamianebs

afasebs ara ideologiuri, aramed eTikuri kriteriumiT.

yaSasadmi da lambalosadmi mTxrobelis ganwyoba

ganisazRvreba ara imiT, rom erTi qristiania da

meore mahmadiani, aramed imiT, rom erTi zneobrivad

jansaRi da agresiulobas moklebulia, meore _ zneobrivad

maxinji da moZalade. sxva viTarebaSi igi aseve

daicavda qristians fanatikosi mahmadianis devnisgan.

mTxrobeli ambobs: `Tavdapirvelad adamiani var, merme

eqimi da bolos qristiani, an jer qristiani da Semdeg

eqimi~. es aris moraluri kriteriumis uzenaesobis aRiareba

yvela sxva kriteriumis mimarT, rac swored qristianuli

kulturis monapovaria. Semwynareblobac imas

gulisxmobs, rom moraluri kanoni vrceldeba yvelaze,

Tavisianzec da gareSezec, rom damokidebuleba nebismieri

adamianisadmi, aRmsareblobis da sxva niSnebis ganurCevlad,

unda emyarebodes zneobriv mcnebebs.

qarTuli sulierebisTvis es WeSmariteba saidumlos

ar warmoadgens. sakmarisia iTqvas, rom igi mTeli

sisavsiT igrZno da Seicno vaJa-fSavelam. mixeil javaxiSvilic

zogadadamianuri moralis uzenaesobas, Semwynareblobas

afuZnebs _ fenomens, romelsac meoce

saukunem arnaxuli gansacdeli Seaxvedra.

adamianis Sefasebis mTavari sazomi gaxda misi ideologiuri

mrwamsi, socialur-klasobrivi, nacionaluri,

rasobrivi kuTvnileba da aman Seaviwrova zogadadamianuri

moraluri kriteriumi _ `mtruli~ jgufebis

185


warmomadgenlebi faqtobrivad moikveTebian adamianebis

modgmisgan da maT ise eqcevian, rogorc araadamianebs,

maT mimarT yovelgvari uzneobis Cadena gamarTlebulia.

dadga yaSa lazareTa dro, romelTa daundobel

Seuwynareblobas `ucxoebisadmi~ agresiis da batonobis

nebis amouwuravi rezervuari amaragebda `sawvaviT~.

es tipi sxvadasxva garemoSi, bunebrivia, sxvadasxvagvar

ideologiur Seferilobas Rebulobs. is SeiZleba

mogvevlinos, vTqvaT, rogorc amerikeli rasisti

persi grimi folkneris `agvistos naTelSi~, an rogorc

germaneli nacisti iudeani volfgang kopenis romanidan

`sikvdili romSi~, magram misi arsi yvelgan erTnairad

martivi da saSinelia. stiqiur ubedurebasaviT

gadaivlis igi dedamiwaze da Tavis nakvalevze cxedrebs

tovebs. man icis Tu alRoTi grZnobs, rom `amqveynad

SeuzRudveli Zalaufleba marto sikvdils aqvs da

Zalauflebis namdvili gancdisTvis saWiroa mxolod

erTi ram _ mkvleloba~ (v. kopeni).

gansakuTrebiT Zlevamosili da damangreveli yaSa

lazares tipi mainc Cvens sinamdvileSi iyo.

mixeil javaxiSvils, gadmocemiT, uTqvams: `minda

erTi moTxroba davwero Temaze: Cemi romanebisa da

moTxrobebis gmirebi Cems oTaxSi Segrovdnen da sasamarTlo

gamimarTes, avtors asamarTleben misi nawarmoebebis

gmirebi... ra dRes damayrian, vin icis, ramden

sayvedurs metyvian. me mgoni, saintereso Canafiqria.

rogorme amisaTvis movicli~.

am Canafiqrs moTxrobis nacvlad cxovrebaSi ewera

ganxorcieleba. personaJebma gaasamarTles avtori,

oRond sayvedurebs ar dajerdnen; ar apaties, rom man

isini adreve SeniSna da gaaSiSvla.

186

1989


Tvalisaxela

niSan-Tvisebebi, romlebic mixeil javaxiSvilis ni-

Wis arss Seadgens, tradiciulad ar dominirebs qar-

Tul mxatvrul azrovnebaSi. es aris midrekileba adamianis

saxis mkveTri deheroizaciisken, adamianis `SiSvlad~

xilvisken, cxovrebis xedvis xazgasmuli, mkacri

miwiereba, romelic aviwroebs amaRlebul-romantikul

sawyiss, am xedvis basri ironiuloba, susxiani skeptikuroba,

qarTuli sinamdvilis kritikuli aRqma...

mixeil javaxiSvilis SemoqmedebiTi mowodeba simar-

Tlis daJinebuli, SeiZleba iTqvas, gasastikebuli maZieblobaa,

romelic mis TvalsawierSi moqceul yovelgvar

moCvenebiTobas da iluzias acamtverebs.

saerTod, realizmi SeiZleba ganisazRvros rogorc

siyalbeTa, moCvenebiTobaTa da iluziaTa gamoaSkaravebaze,

gaqarwylebaze damyarebuli mxatvruli meTodi,

rogorc iluziebis damamsxvreveli mxatvruli instrumenti.

balzakis erT-erTi romanis saTauri `gamqrali

iluziebi~, SesaZloa, gamodges realizmis formulad,

romelic erTnairad miesadageba adrindeli Tu

klasikuri realizmis nimuSebs, vTqvaT, `don kixots~ an

`madam bovaris~.

iluziebis realistur gaqarwylebaSi mixeil javaxiSvili

did simZafres, gabedulebas da ganuxrel Tanmimdevrulobas

iCens. qarTul literaturaSi misi winamorbedi

iluziebis gamqarwylebeli daviT kldiaSvilia,

oRond ufro lmobieri da Semwynarebeli.

iluziaTa miRma arsebuli, Tundac sastiki da sazizRari

simarTlis wvdomis moTxovnileba ayalibebs

mixeil javaxiSvilis msoflmxedvelobas da stils. mis

yvelaze mniSvnelovan nawarmoebTa erT wyebaSi ki realobis

da iluziis Sejaxeba arsebiTi motivi Tu problemaa,

personaJis saxis da siuJetis agebis warmmarTveli

principia.

sistemuri simwyobriT da gamokveTilobiT mJRavndeba

yovelive es moTxrobaSi `kurdReli~, sadac niuansuri

fsiqologizmiT aris aRbeWdili dramatuli su-

187


lieri orTabrZola avadmyof qals da fsiqiatrs Soris,

romelic pacients fantastikuri iluziidan sinamdvileSi

abrunebs. iluzia, danaSaulis gausaZlisi grZnobisgan

gaTavisuflebisken ltolvis nayofi, sakvirvel

simyares da gamZleobas avlens, magram kidev ufro

mtkicea eqimis realizmi, jiuti meTodurobiT rom aRmofxvris

mas. eqimis Seupovroba da azarti ar sazrdoobs

mxolod rTuli profesiuli amocanis gadawyvetis

da warmatebis miRwevis surviliT. am adamianis mcdelobas

upirvelesad warmarTavs misi zneobrivi Tval-

Taxedva _ avadmyofur iluziaSi TavSefareba sulieri

da moraluri uZlurebis niSania; is gulisxmobs sicrues,

Tavismotyuebas da moklebulia raime Rirebulebas,

radgan arafers, araras eyrdnoba; es aris gza adamianurobis

sruli degradaciisken. eqimis realizmi Zalian

mkacria, garkveuli azriT sastikic, magram amave dros

humanuria, adamianis srulfasovnebaze zrunviT aris

nakarnaxevi. aseTivea TviT mixeil javaxiSvilis mxatvruli

xedva _ ukiduresad mkacri da humanuri.

eqimis mcdelobis zneobrivi sazrisi isic aris, rom

pacientis sinamdvileSi dabruneba axlobel adamianeb-

Tan misi gawyvetili sulier- moraluri kavSiris aRdgenas

moaswavebs. iluzia avadmyofi qalis gaucxoebuli

egoizmis citadelad iqceva, saidanac igi Znelad

gamoyavs eqims.

mixeil javaxiSvili adamianis bunebis sisusteTa mimarT

ironiulobis miuxedavad Tanagancdismieri gagebiT

xatavs da mZafrad gvagrZnobinebs SeWirvebul sulier

da cxovrebiseul mdgomareobebs, saidanac iluziebi

ibadeba, aseve tkivilebs, romelTac iluziaTa

damsxvreva, ulmobel realobasTan pirispir darCena

iwvevs.

sinamdvileze Tvalisaxelis metaforis realizaciad

warmodgeba moTxroba `ybaCam daigviana~ _ brma gogonas

gankurnebis ambavi cxovrebis daundoblobasTan

misi Sexlis istoriad iqceva.

mixeil javaxiSvilis poetika ukiduresobaTa poetikaa.

mwerlis esTetikuri radikalizmi eZebs gansakuT-

188


ebulad mwvave siuJetur da fsiqologiur viTarebebs,

konfliqtebs; mieltvis dasaxati sagnis hipertrofirebas,

personaJTa saxeebis gamsxvilebas, xSirad groteskuls,

situaciebis da xasiaTebis daZabul kontrastulobas.

moTxrobaSi `ybaCam daigviana~ Tina da solo silamazis

da simaxinjis dramatul kontrasts qmnian. solos

Semzarav garegnul iers misi Sinagani bunebis zogierTi

niSanic Seesatyviseba _ es bogano proletari

xarbad Seigulebs sakbilos, rogorzec verc iocnebebda

da uceremoniod eufleba brma, ususur qaliSvils.

magram mainc mwerals zneobrivi monstris daxatva ar

aqvs ganzraxuli: solo Taviseburi siTboTi da mzrunvelobiT

ekideba mSvenier Tinas, romelic ukve misi

sakuTrebaa. rac ufro Rrmaa axalgazrda brma qalis

erTguleba Tavisi usaxuri sabedosadmi, miT ufro

mtkivneulia misTvis saSinel realobaze Tvalisaxela

da sruli bednierebis iluziis buranidan gamosvla;

miT ufro mwvaved sagrZnobia cxovrebis sastiki ironia

adamianis mimarT. avtoris eTikur mrwamss ireklavs is,

rom Tvalaxelili Tina TavisTavSi poulobs zneobriv

Zalas, ar gaeqces Znelad Sesaguebel sinamdviles.

`oqros kbilis~ personaJi Toma SadiSvili ki samudamod

realobis miRma rCeba. es moTxroba fsiqoanalizis,

groteskis da romantikis uCveulo naerTia. avadmyofuri

seqsualuri vnebebiT da kompleqsebiT Sepyrobil

axalgazrda kacs da sasikvdilod daavadebul

qaliSvils uCndebaT mZafri urTierTmiziduloba, romelic

upirvelesad sqesobrivia, magram amave dros aRmatebulic

aris sqesobriv impulsze, ramdenadac erTmaneTis

Seucvlelobis gancdas moicavs. am adamianebis

grZnobebi sikvdilis nayofia _ maT warmoSobs qalis

gamomwvevi qceva, romelsac ganapirobebs is, rom sikvdilis

siaxlove mas sicocxlis wyurvils da erotiulobas

uaTkecebs; meore mxriv, moTxrobis gmirTa ur-

TierTltolvas sikvdili eRobeba win, ese igi, is, rac

biZgs aZlevs siyvaruls, fatalurad abrkolebs kidec

mas; avadmyofuri martoobis garRvevis, srulfasovani

189


arsebobis dawyebis TiTqosda realuri SesaZlebloba,

romelic sqesis winaSe SiSiT daTrgunul moTxrobis

mTavar personaJs eZleva, faqtobrivad sikvdilis mier

movlenili veragi iluziaa. obieqturad igi sruliad

qarwyldeba _ qali kvdeba, magram es rCeba Tomas Tvalsawieris

miRma da is kvlav iluziis morCilia, tanjviT

ganagrZobs misTvis sanukvari adamianis Zebnas, romelic

ukve iseTive fantomia, rogoric romantikuli Tu

simbolisturi poeziis Soreuli da miuwvdomeli qalis

xateba. mwerali ar Seajaxebs Tavis personaJs unugeSo

simarTlesTan, radgan mis mier qalis sikvdilis Setyoba

melodramad aqcevda nawarmoebs, romelSic isedac

mkacri gemovnebis moTxovnaTa darRvevis riskiT aris

gamoyenebuli melodramatuli elementebi siyvarulis

romantikis gamosaxatad. Tumca ufro arsebiTi is

aris, rom TviT personaJs ar surs, Zala ar yofnis Seicnos

simarTle, maSin, roca sul axlosaa masTan _ misi

saxe groteskul simrudes bolomde inarCunebs. am personaJis

mdgomareoba, romelic Tavisi arsiT `kurdRelis~

gmiris avadmyofobas gvagonebs, ufro saSineli da

gamouvalia, vidre nebismieri melodrama, saerTod Cveulebrivi

adamianuri ubedureba. iluziis tyveobaSi

samudamod darCena da realobaSi damkvidrebis absoluturi

SeuZlebloba, _ Tundac iluzias gmiris pa-

Tologiur cxovrebaSi WeSmariti adamianuri swrafva

Sehqondes _ mwerlis TvalTaxedviT, Tavadac paTologiaa,

arasrulfasovnebisTvis ganwirulebaa.

`jayos xiznebi~ iluziaTa katastrofuli msxvrevis

da Tvalisaxelis mravalaqtian tragikomedias warmoadgens.

iluziebi aq aRar aris Semofargluli mxolod

adamianebis kerZo cxovrebiT, socialur-politikur

da msoflmxedvelobriv sferoebs wvdeba.

Teimuraz xevisTavis azrovneba, miswrafebebi, `saqmianoba~

mTlianad iluziebzea damyarebuli da raRac

fantastikuri elferi aqvs. Teimurazis progresistuli

ocnebebi, misi warmosaxvis gamudmebuli naxtomebi

globalur politikaSi, misi moCvenebiTi sazogadoebrivi

aqtivoba didad aSorebs mas cocxal realobas da

190


am realobis evropul yaidaze gardaqmnis miraJs alandebs.

yovelive es ganamtkicebs xevisTavis iluzorul

warmodgenas sakuTari aRmatebuli mniSvnelovnebis

Sesaxeb.

socialur-politikuri da msoflmxedvelobrivi

iluziebi imiT aris saxifaTo, rom uneblieT uwyobs

xels uyuradRebod mitovebul sinamdvileSi raRac

iseTis warmoqmnas da zrdas, rac Tavisi bunebiT mTlianad

ewinaaRmdegeba yovelgvar idealizms. sinamdvilis

SurisZieba iluziebiT dabrmavebuli Teimurazis mimarT

iseTi sastikia, rom Znelia misTvis analogis mo-

Zebna da aramarto qarTul literaturaSi.

magram xevisTavis saxeSi gasaocari da iSviaTi, erTdroulad

tragikuli da komikuri is aris, rom am adamianis

cnobiereba yvelaze sazareli, TiTqosda saboloo

Tvalisaxelis Semdeg kvlav iluziebs badebs da

ebRauWeba, vidre morig kraxs ganicdides. Teimurazi

gamudmebiT mieqaneba iluziebidan iluziebisken _ racionalisturi

utopiidan qristianobis meoxebiT sulieri

aRorZinebis uniadago imedisken, anda ulmobeli

zekacis viTomda mxsneli idealisken... Tumca iluziebis

gacamtverebis da reanimaciis es procesi mTlad

unayofo ar aris, radgan Teimurazs Tvali exileba Tavis

pasuxismgeblobaze imis gamo, rac moxda.

Teimurazs ar uqreba margosTan SeerTebis imedi da

es iluzia, romelmac sinamdvilis umZimes dartymebs

gauZlo, sulis sisustis garda ucnauri erTgulebis

gamomJRavnebacaa. magram aqac, iseve rogorc `oqros

kbilSi~, iluzia da adamianuri srulfasovneba erTmaneTTan

SeuTavsebelia.

iluziebis gaqarwyleba da Tvalisaxela `TeTr sayeloSic~

xdeba, oRond ise dramatuli ar aris, rogorc

moTxrobebSi da `jayos xiznebSi~. qalaquri, civilizebuli

cxovrebiT, arsebiTad ki sabWoTa reJimiT gabezrebuli

inteligentisTvis miuRebeli realobisgan gammijvneli

romantikuli TavSesafaria xevsurebis miuvali

sofeli _ arqauli samyaro, sadac istoriuli dro

SeCerebulia, batonobs tradicia da miTi. magram eliz-

191


aris SeTviseba am samyarosTan, Tanamedrove rTuli

cxovrebis patriarqaluri idiliiT Senacvlebis cda

iluzoruli aRmoCndeba.

Tu grigol robaqiZis an konstantine gamsaxurdias-

Tvis arqaika da miTi mowiwebis aRmZvreli sakraluri

sferoa, WeSmaritebis da idealis saunjeTa sacavia,

mixeil javaxiSvilisTvis is kritikul-realisturi

dakvirvebis sagania sxva saganTa Soris. Tumca uZvelesi

warsulis romantikul samkvidrebelSi, romelic

`TeTr sayeloSi~ warmoisaxeba, ueWvelad pozitiuri

Rirebulebebia Semonaxuli (bunebasTan siaxlove, vaJkacoba,

megobrobis kulti, ojaxis simyare) da romanis

mTavari gmiri eziareba maT, mainc mas imedgacrueba ar

acdeba: misi xedva TandaTan sul ufro fxizeli xdeba

da sabolood miTosis absolutur WeSmaritebad aRiareba

crurwmenad warmoudgeba, codna-ganaTlebis da

teqnikisTvis zurgSeqceva da primitiuli yofa _ velur

CamorCenilobad; elizbaris antipaTias iwvevs

sxvadasxva rituali, adaTi Tu cxovrebis wesis Tavisebureba,

gansakuTrebiT kaciskvlisadmi msubuqi

damokidebuleba...

elizbars ar SeuZlia miTosuri cnobierebis mqone

adamianebiviT iwamos, magaliTad, rom male iaponiidan

mefe erekles SviliSvili Camova da saqarTveloSi

bagrationebis dinastia aRdgeba, ar SeuZlia gaiziaros

maTi sibrmave garemomcveli mkacri samyaros da misi

kanonebisadmi, miTumetes, rom am samyaros Semotevis

winaSe siZvelis da miTis amayi sauflo Tavis srul umweobas

aCens. aSkaraa, rom mcire xanSi mas Tanamedroveoba

STanTqavs, romelTan SedarebiTac ise gamoiyureba,

rogorc raRac irealuri, gamogonili. mixeil

javaxiSvilis gmiri acnobierebs, rom warsulSi ukuqceva

sinamdvilidan sulmokle iluzoruli gaqcevaa,

rom arqaika da miTi sabWoTa realobis seriozul, sicocxlisunarian

alternativad ar gamodgeba; am realobasTan

dapirispireba Tanamedrove civilizaciis

mTeli sirTulis gaTvaliswinebiTaa SesaZlebeli da

ara Soreul warsulSi da miTosSi gadasaxlebiT...

192


mixeil javaxiSvils simarTlis mware gemo erCivna

iluziebis macdunebel sitkbos, radgan miaCnda, rom

sibrmave, Tavismotyueba sabediswero, amave dros adamianis

Rirsebis damamcirebeli sisustea da mxolod

simarTleze Tvalaxelilobaa adamianisTvis Sesaferisi

yofierebis forma, rac unda Znelad mosaTmeni iyos

es simarTle da tkivilis momyenebeli _ iluziebis

gareSe arseboba.

1996

193


leo qiaCeli

sulis Tavgadasavlebi

mecxramete saukunis qarTuli prozis realizms da

pozitivistur msoflxedvas leo qiaCeli rogorc novelisti

xSirad ucnauris da uCveulos romantikul

esTetikas unacvlebs.

qiaCelis yuradRebas Zlierad izidavs fsiqikuri

movlenebi, romlebic cxovrebis zedapiruli mdinarebis

logikas ar eqvemdebareba; mwerali eZebs adamianis

arsebobis realisturi azrovnebisTvis gaugebar sawyisebs,

imas, rac SeCveuli realobis mkveTr sicxades

eWvqveS ayenebs; qiaCeli _ romantikuli bunebis Semoqmedi,

neoromantikosi _ sinamdvilis empiriul-yoveldRiur

mocemulobas ar aris mijaWvuli, yoveldRiurs

da Cveulebrivs araCveulebrivs da iSviaTs amjobinebs.

amgvari mxatvruli midrekilebebis gasamJRavneblad

novelis Janruli forma zedmiwevniT nayofieria,

novela xom, rogorc goeTe ambobs, `sxva araferia, Tu

ara gaugonari SemTxveva~. `gaugonari SemTxveva~ ki

SeiZleba fsiqikis sferosac ganekuTvnebodes. aseT

SemTxvevebze araerTi nawarmoebi aqvT agebuli gamoCenil

novelistebs, upirvelesad romantikosebs, magali-

Tad, klaists an edgar pos. adamianis sulis uCveulo,

idumal Tavgadasavlebs qiaCelic mogviTxrobs.

aseT TavgadasavalTa Semcvel novelebSi adamianis

Sinarealobis garTulebuli, diferencirebuli modelis

anarekli moCans. es modeli gulisxmobs, rom adamianis

fsiqika mravali sxvadasxvagvari, maT Soris iracionaluri

Zalis momcvel samyaros warmoadgens; suli

kargavs mTlianobas da nawevrdeba, polifoniuri xdeba.

pirovnebis warmosaxvis aseTi principi metad damaxasiaTebelia

XX saukunis mxatvruli azrovnebisTvis,

Tumca igi manamdec iCenda Tavs.

194


novelaSi `mkvleloba koxta goraze~ Warbadaa xSiri

xmarebisgan gacveTili pirobiT-poeturi xatovaneba

(`Ramisebri wamwamebiT dafaruli satrfos Tvalebi~

da a.S); aris moZvelebuli stilisturi yalibebi, martivi

kompoziciuri da fsiqologiuri kontrastebi,

magram amave dros adamianis bunebis gaRrmavebuli da

garTulebuli koncefciis konturia moxazuli.

novelis gmiri sayvarel qalTan alersis Semdeg aRmoaCens,

rom am qals misTvis ucnobi Sinagani saxec hqonia,

rom mis sulSi verasdros SeaRwevs. novelaSi sulis

Seucnobloba magiuri yvavilis zRaprul-fantastikuri

motivis meSveobiT samyaros mmarTav iracionalur

sawyiss, gangebas ukavSirdeba _ adamianis sulis

iracionalurobas mistikuri elferi eZleva da asea

romantizebuli.

novelis koncefcias sabolood ayalibebs is, rom

mTavari gmiri sakuTar TavSive poulobs iseT Zalebs,

romelTa Sesaxeb adre araferi icoda; araTu sxva adamiani,

TviTonac ucnobi yofila sakuTari TavisTvis;

misi sulis moZraoba da qmedeba _ mkvleloba Tavad

misTvisvea auxsneli, TiTqos masSi viRac ucxo

Casaxlebula.

rogorc vxedavT, novelaSi romantizebulad aris

warmosaxuli qvecnobierebis sabediswero Zliereba

adamianis yofierebaSi.

adamianis suli sxvadasxva sawyisebad dacalkevebuli

warmodgeba novelaSic `me da Cemi ori me~ _ personificirebuli

fsiqikuri Zalebidan erT-erTi,

tlanq instinqtTa ganmasaxierebeli, danarCenebs, inteligenturad

rbilebs anadgurebs. sulier polifonias,

sulSi gaTamaSebul ucnaur dramas mwerali amjerad

ukve misTvis saerTod damaxasiaTebeli uCumari, Sekavebuli

iumoriT aRiqvams. amis wyalobiT igi maRla dgeba

siuJetis pirobiTobaze, fantastikurobaze da gvaniSnebs,

rom epoqis socialur-politikuri koliziebi

adamianis sulis disharmoniuli bunebis warmonaqmnia.

pirobiTi gamomxatvelobis miRma gamosWvivis mwerlis

mier nagrZnobi da gaazrebuli simarTle _ adamianis

195


fsiqika Seusabamobebis sferoa, masSi ucnaurad xvdebian

da gadaikveTebian urTierTgamomricxavi Zalebi.

leo qiaCeli skeptikuri TvalTaxedvis mweralia,

oRond misi skepticizmi uwinares yovlisa mimarTulia

imisken, rac, Cveulebriv, skepticizmis sayrdens Seadgens

_ empiriuli cnobierebisken, grZnobadi aRqmisken.

`SeuracxyofilSi~ zusti detalebis siuxviT aris

naCvenebi, rom sinamdvilis grZnobadi aRqmis adamianuri

`aparati~ naklovania da amitom Zalze Znelia Tu

sulac SeuZlebelia WeSmaritebas mivuaxlovdeT. realobis

personaJiseuli aRqma, romlis safuZvelSic

erotiuli impulsia Sefaruli, metad mkveTri da konkretikiT

savsea saimisod, rom iluzoruli gamodges,

magram fsiqikis paradoqsic es aris _ rac ufro darwmunebulia

empirikas mindobili adamiani raimes WeSmaritebaSi,

miT ufro iolad SeiZleba daSordes

sinamdviles.

Tavisi koncefciiT `SeuracxyofilTan~ axlosaa

`eskalade~, romlis gmiric, evropaSi karnavalisas

datrialebuli ucnauri ambebis Semxedvare, adamianuri

arsebobis da grZnobad aRqmaze damokidebuli adamianuri

Semecnebis miraJul xasiaTs wvdeba: yoveli adamiani

niRabia, sulierad uxilavia; mTeli sinamdvile da

sakacobrio idealebic moCvenebiTobaa; niRabTa da

iluzorul warmodgenaTa iqiT gadaxedva, WeSmaritebis

xilva adamianis cnobierebas ar uweria.

novelaSi `iskanderi~ daujerebeli ram aris realobad

qceuli _ mkvdari laparakobs: `gicxadebT, rom me

sruliad sxvanairi cnobierebis sferoSi vimyofebi, da

yovelive, rac am axali cnobierebis sferoSi gadasvlamde

iyo Cems cxovrebaSi, axla ise sasacilod meCveneba,

rom Tqven mand verc ki warmoidgenT amas.. gicqeriT

da Zalian sasaciloni ki meCvenebiT, me da Cemma

RmerTma. a? Cveneburad gindaT rom mitiroT, ara?~. gaucnaurebuli

sikvdilis winaSe yvelaze arasaxarbielod

gamoiyureba da tragikomikurad umweoa eqimi,

praqtikuli mecnierebis da crurwmenaTagan dazRveuli

gonebis gansaxiereba _ adamianis empiriuli cnobi-

196


erebis, TavisTavSi darwmunebuli `saRi azris~ SezRudulobas

amxels avtoris damcinavi skepticizmi, novelaSi

moTxrobili fantastikur-groteskuli istoria.

adamianis sulieri raobis skeptikuri xedva gasdevs

novelas `iSviaTi SemTxvevis gmiri~. nawarmoebis personaJi

pikantur viTarebaSi raRac gaucnobierebeli fsiqikuri

Zalis zegavleniT patiosnad iqceva da Tavisi

saqcieli TviTonve akvirvebs. novelis saTauric gvkarnaxobs,

rom personaJis qceva uCveuloa da es ironiul

Seferilobas iZens _ zneobrivi saqcielia iSviaTi da

ucnauri...

1984

197


`haki aZba~

rogorc neoromantikosi, leo qiaCeli afxazeTs

aRiqvams kulturis im Zveli plastebis Semnaxvel mxared,

romelTac haki aZbasnairi, bunebrivi, civilizaciis

mankierebebiT Seuryvneli, monoliTuri da mZafri

sulis adamiani SeuZliaT warmoSvan _ romantikosi Tu

romantizmTan genetikurad dakavSirebuli mwerlebi

eZeben iseT eTnokulturul arealebs, sadac saSualo

adamianisgan gansxvavebul, Zlieri suliT da vnebebiT

gamorCeul naturebs aRmoaCenen (vTqvaT, stendalis-

Tvis aseTi areali italiaa, merimesTvis _ espaneTi...).

haki aZbas romantikulad uCveulo figura ikveTeba

soxumis sazogadoebis antiromantikul, meSCanur-filisterul

fsiqologiasTan da moralTan SepirispirebiT.

mwerlis uCumrad damcinavi mzeriT danaxuli am

sazogadoebisTvis mTavaria uSfoTveli cxovrebis,

kmayofili arsebobis simdoris SenarCuneba da amisTvis

nebismier moralur Rirebulebas uprincipod daTmobs,

yovelgvar damcirebas aitans, sindisis qenjnis gareSe

gawiravs Tanamoqalaqeebs (upirvelesad es vaWrebze

iTqmis, romlebic TavgamodebiT icaven TavianTi qonebis

usafrTxoebas). soxumis mkvidrebi, romlebsac panikuri

SiSi mTel maT uRirsobas, pirferobas da farisevlobas

gamoamJRavnebinebs, Tavisi zRvargadasuli konformizmiT

arsebiTad TviTonve axdenen saxifaTo situaciis

provocirebas. niSandoblivia isic, rom soxumis

wvrilburJuaziulad `keTilgonieri~, mfrTxali da

Tvinieri sazogadoeba erTbaSad iqceva agresiul, daundobel

brbod da namdvil nadirobas marTavs adamianze,

vinc Tavisi araordinaruli _ zneobrivi saqcieliT

mas myudroeba daurRvia.

filisteruli, heroizmisgan sruliad daclili da

konformistuli sazogadoebis bunebriv produqts

warmoadgenen misi revoluciurobiT SeniRbuli fariseveli

liderebi, romelTa namdvili saxe yvelaze cxadad

bolSevikebis kreiserze maTi damamcirebeli vizitebisas

Cans.

198


SedarebiT Rirseulad TiTqos aristokratia gamoiyureba

(Tu ar CavTvliT bolSevikebTan Setakebisas

ujuS emxas mimtovebel mis aristokrat `megobrebs~),

magram ase imis wyalobiT aris, rom aristokratebi

ufro iniRbebian, maT sxvebze ukeTesad ician Rirsebis

imitireba. sinamdvileSi maTac mxolod sakuTari

usafrTxoeba da Tavisi kastis statusis uryeoba adardebT

da ara axlobeli adamianebis sicocxle da bedi,

rasac beqirbi CaCbaze garegnuli zrunviT da maT mier

gawiruli emxasadmi demonstraciuli TanagrZnobiT

faraven. roca haki aZbas Tanganwirvas iwoneben, soxumeli

Tavadebi adamianis bedisadmi gulgrilobasTan

erTad TvalTaxedvis socialur siviwroves amJRavneben

_ Tvlian, rom bunebrivi iqneba, Tu glexi Tavads

sicocxles Sewiravs. gaqvavebuli socialuri sqemebiT,

stereotipebiT azrovneba maT paradoqsulad amsgavsebs

TavianT mters _ bolSevik kapitans.

kapitnis saxec, haki aZbas (aseve emxas) saxesTan er-

Tad, filisterul sazogadoebasTan Sepirispirebulia.

es personaJi romantikulad gaucnaurebuli, gaidumalebuli

da TiTqmis demonizebulia _ aRWurvilia

monstriseburi ieriT, SiSismomgvreli Sinagani ZaliT,

gamoucnobi suliT. is aramarto adamianebs, aramed

TiTqos bunebis stiqiebsac imorCilebs. kilgas uCveulo

da idumali figura gvagonebs kapitan aqabis

romantikulad demonizebul saxes melvilis `mobi

dikidan~.

kapitnis romantikul - heroikuli figura TandaTan

knindeba, Saravendedisgan ganiZarcveba, emxas sapirispirod,

romelic Tavidan dakninebulia da TandaTan

maRldeba. revoluciis mrisxane Zalis da nebis, revoluciis

uzenaesi simarTlis ganmasaxierebeli arseba

Sinaganad Rataki, gonebaSezRuduli fanatikosi aRmoCndeba,

romlis TiTqosda Seucnoblad Rrma suli viwro

marqsistul dogmaSia Cateuli. klasTa brZolis Teoriis

miRma is ver xedavs cocxal adamianebs, maT simar-

Tles da Sordeba imasac, risTvisac TiTqos revolucia

moxda _ revoluciis deklarirebuli mizani swored

199


hakisnairi socialuri warmomavlobis adamianebis qomagobaa

da kapitnis ideuri da moraluri kraxia is, rom

igi amgvari adamianis mimarTac sulier sibrmaves iCens.

kapitani, romelic hakis monad miiCnevs, TviTon gamodgeba

Tavisi dogmis, agresiuli impulsebis da Zalauflebismoyvareobis

mona.

sulieri siRaribis da sibrmavis gamo bolSeviki kapitani

ar SeiZleba iyos tragikuli _ Tundac tragikulad

Semcdari _ gmiri. sulis siviwrove am TiTqosda

araCveulebriv adamians primitiuli moZaladis, tragikuli

gmirebis usaxuri jalaTis rols argunebs.

`haki aZba~ tragikuli fenomenis erT-erTi yvelaze

srulyofili xorcSesxmaa qarTul literaturaSi. mis

tragizms qmnis is, rom rogorc filisterul-meSCanuri

konformizmi da uprincipoba, aseve bolSevikuri

fanatizmi gardauvalad, fatalurad ewinaaRmdegeba

adamianur Rirsebas, erTgulebas da siyvaruls, simar-

Tles. amitom moTxrobaSi movlenaTa ganviTarebas, siuJetis

moZraobasac fataluri aucileblobis xasiaTi

eZleva. amaSi Tavisi wvlili Seaqvs agreTve bedisweris

idumali winaTgrZnobis romantikul motivs.

moTxrobaSi warmoisaxeba tragikuli situacia,

roca gardauvali xdeba adamianebis mier sicocxlis

msxverplad gaReba im faseulobebis gadasarCenad, romelTa

gulisTvisac Rirs amqveynad sicocxle; konkretuli

adamianebis sicocxle unda Seewiros imas, rac

sazogadod adamianis sicocxles aniWebs sazriss.

haki aZba, nawarmoebis upirvelesi tragikuli gmiri,

Tavisi erTguli siyvaruliT ujuS emxasac tragikuli

gmiris sulier rangs moapovebinebs. hakis damokidebuleba

ujuSisadmi, cxadia, ZiZiSvilobis tradicias

efuZneba, romelic Tavadebis da glexebis urTierTobas

zneobriv da humanur xasiaTs aZlevs, magram tradicia

am urTierTobis kulturul-simboluri forma ufroa,

misi Sinaarsi ki WeSmariti adamianuri siyvarulia,

WeSmariti megobrobaa. `haki aZbaSi~, iseve rogorc akaki

wereTlis `gamzrdelSi~, ZiZiSvilobis tradiciis Rrma

azri is aris, rom amqveynad adamianur siyvarulze da

200


megobrobaze didi faseuloba ar arsebobs, rom adamianis

yofierebis gamarTleba moyvasis Tavgametebuli

siyvarulia.

haki aZba ujuSis sicocxlis gadarCenas ver SeZlebs,

magram is, rasac igi aRwevs, aranakleb mniSvnelovani da

faseulia _ haki Tavisi Tavganwiruli erTgulebiT

ujuSs Rirseulad sikvdils SeaZlebinebs. emxa, romelic

bolSevikebisadmi mistikuri ZrwoliT aris Sepyrobili,

mxolod hakis gverdiT, misi wyalobiT ibrunebs

Sinagan Zalas da Rirsebas _ hakis gareSe is TiTqos

arasruli, nakluli adamiania. emxa hakis meoxebiT

kvdeba amayi, is, Tavisi jalaTebis mimarT moraluri

upiratesobis grZnobiT Sinaganad gamagrebuli, azidavs

tragikuli gmiris tvirTs.

haki, romantizebuli ubralo glexi, sulis simdidriT

bevrad aRemateba maT, vinc socialurad da TiTqos

kulturiTac masze maRla dgas. Tu qalaqis mesveurebi

sakuTar pasuxismgeblobas koleqtiur upasuxismgeblobaSi

gaurbian, haki sxvis pasuxismgeblobas kisrulobs;

hakis, kapitnisgan gansxvavebiT, SeuZlia mowinaaRmdegis

TvaliT, misi poziciidan Sexedos sinamdviles;

haki aSkarad ufro gonieria ujuSis axlobel Tavadebze,

romlebsac maTi TanasworiviT esaubreba (esec

mowmobs, rom, kilgas azris sawinaaRmdegod, mis arseba-

Si monobis natamali ar aris); miTumetes aSkaraa Tavadebis

mimarT hakis zneobrivi upiratesoba. hakis sulier

da moralur ierTan Sedareba amJRavnebs yvela socialuri

Zalis zneobriv siRaribes, romlebic nawarmoebSi

arian warmoCenili. aseTi adamianis mier cxovrebis

uaryofa niSnavs, rom am cxovrebaSi simarTles,

Rirsebas, siyvaruls adgili aRar rCeba.

`haki aZbaSi~ vaJa-fSavelas poemebis, gansakuTrebiT

`stumar-maspinZlis~ tragikuli suli ganagrZobs

arsebobas. qiaCelis novela am poema-tragediis msgavsad

agebulia Seunelebeli dinamikiT gaSlil eqstremalur

situaciebze, fataluri simtkiciT Sekrul movlenaTa

wyebaze; aqac mkveTria TviTmyofadi pirovnebebis

SeuTavsebloba kritikulad daxatul agresiul

201


masasTan da es mTeli sisavsiT warmoaCens pirovnebaTa

daurRveveli solidarobis faseulobas, humanuri

tradiciebis mkvidr mniSvnelobas; `stumar-maspinZel-

Si~ da `haki aZbaSi~ erTnairia mtrisadmi damokidebuleba

_ misi sisastike gamowveulia imiT, rom mteri

faqtobrivad araadamianad aris miCneuli da amitom mis

mimarT yovelgvari uzneobis Cadena gamarTlebulia;

mterTan urTierToba SeiZleba emyarebodes mxolod

SurisZiebis kanons: rogorc zviadaurs swiraven qistebi

TavianT mkvdars, aseve swiraven bolSevikebi emxas

moklul mezRvaurs...

`haki aZbaSi~ qarTuli kultura bolSevizms upirispirebs

Tavisi faseulobaTa sistemis birTvs _ adamian-

Ta Rrma sulier kavSirs, axloblobis kults, rainduli

moraliT nasazrdoeb Rirsebis grZnobas.

hakis saxe tradiciuli qarTuli msoflgagebis da

eTikis gviani gacxadebaa. haki aZbas literaturuli arqetipi

avTandilia. amave dros qiaCelis gmiris winaparia

istoriuli pirovneba _ cotne dadiani, romelSic

TiTqos `vefxistyaosnidan~ gadmosaxlda avTandilis

suli, misi Tavgametebuli siyvaruli da erTguleba

moyvasisadmi, misi gonebamaxviloba, moxerxebuloba da

artistizmi, romelsac Tavisi keTilSobiluri miznebis

misaRwevad iyenebs.

cotnes msgavsad mters nebayoflobiT Cabarebuli

haki aZbac misgan axloblis gamosaxsnelad moxerxebulobas

da artistizms iSveliebs, SeniRbvas mimarTavs

da ase cdilobs bolSevikTa atamanis gulis molbobas.

magram cotne dadianis mier dayoliebuli monRolisgan

gansxvavebiT, misi Soreuli bolSeviki memkvidris

moxibvla da gulis mogeba SeuZlebelia. bolSeviki,

totalitaruli adamiani brmaa sxva civilizaciis warmomadgenlis

faseulobebisadmi, moklebulia unars

Cawvdes sxvis Tavisebur sulierebas, gansxvavebul

pozicias da simarTles. igi Trgunavs yvelafers, rac

mas ar gavs, rac misi viwro simarTlis miRmaa.

202

2005


cduneba

romani `sisxli~ mxatvruli RirsebiT da popularobiT

Camouvardeba leo qiaCelis yvelaze mniSvnelovan

nawarmoebebs. praqtikulad is TiTqmis miviwyebulia.

`sisxlSi~ faqtografia xSirad faravs movlenebis

Sida, arsebiT ganzomilebas, personaJebis saxeebi arasakmarisadaa

gamokveTili... magram amasTanave romanSi

aris maRali SemoqmedebiTi tonusiT dawerili monakve-

Tebi, gansakuTrebiT sikvdilTan dakavSirebuli scenebi

(sikvdilis gancda-warmoCenis siZliere saerTodac

gamoarCevs leo qiaCels); igrZnoba is gulisxmiereba

pirovnebis Sinagani, sxvebisTvis dafaruli sicocxlis

mimarT, romelic epoqis mxatvruli cnobierebis mkafio

Tvisebaa; romanis stili TiTqos qveteqstis teqnikas

mogvagonebs saqmiani, Tanabari toniT, pirdapir

uTqmelis, nagulisxmevis gazrdili wiliT; zogjer ki

aseT maneras, romelsac yru ironiac erTvis, eqspresionistulad

agznebuli saxeobrioba enacvleba; rac

mTavaria, `sisxlSi~ realisturi miukerZoeblobiT

aris naCvenebi qarTveli social-demokratebis cxovreba

saukunis dasawyisSi; romani mogviTxrobs, rogor

Tavisufldeba doqtrinis salteebisgan axalgazrda

inteligenti _ menSeviki; am procesis gamosaxva yovel-

Tvis ar aris reliefuri, magram mTlianobaSi sakmaod

damajerebelia.

arCil dadiSianis marqsistul msoflmxedvelobas

bzaravs adamianuri arsebobis siRrmiseul fenomeneb-

Tan misi pirispir Sexvedra _ siyvarulis tanjva, drois

Cumi, idumali qroba da yofierebis umyaroba, sikvdilis

saSineleba marqsistuli doqtrinis Tvalsawieris

miRmaa.

social-demokratiuli ideologiisadmi agulgrilebs

arCils revolucionerebTan axlo urTierToba

da maTi kargad gacnobac. Tu erTi maTgani axirebuli

fanatikosia, romelic Tvlis, rom engelsze ufro sworad

esmis marqsizmi, sxvebi ideur mrwamss moklebuli

arian. revolucioneroba maTTvis ubralod xelobaa,

203


omliskenac gaboroteba, SurisZiebis Jini ewevaT (rogorc

amas arCilis ZiZiSvilis Tavgadasavali mowmobs).

maT saxeebs mwerali TavSekavebiT xatavs da Ria Sefasebebs

gaurbis _ aramarto imitom, rom mkacri obieqturoba

misi stilis maxasiaTebelia, aramed imitomac, rom

romani ukve ocian wlebSi iwereboda (is 1927 wels gamoqveynda).

mainc TvalsaCinoa am xalxis raoba _ Zaladoba

da sisxlisRvra maTTvis normaluri movlenaa, isini

moralur problemebze Tavs ar imtvreven. avismomaswavebeli

nakvTebi SeiniSneba revolucionerebis saxeebSi.

social-demokratebis, gansakuTrebiT bolSevikebis

wreSi arCil dadiSiani orTodoqsiis da Seuwynareblobis

damTrgunvelobas grZnobs. pirovnebis sulieri

Tavisufleba, damoukidebeli azrovnebis, eWvis ufleba

CaixSoba. esec TandaTan aSorebs arCils socialdemokratebisgan.

misi maZiebeli buneba veRar eTviseba

doqtrinis sworxazovnebas. igi imsWvaleba pativiscemiT

cocxali sinamdvilisadmi, romelic aRemateba nebismier

gonebaWvretiT sqemas da proeqts, nebismier

dogmas.

mainc social-demokratiuli ideologiisgan arCil

dadiSianis gandgomis mTavari mizezi erovnuli fenomenisadmi

am ideologiis nihilisturi damokidebulebaa.

erovnuli nihilizmisgan dadiSianis gankurneba danawevrebulad

ar aris warmoCenili, magram misi gardamtexi

momentebis motivireba damafiqrebel dakvirvebebs

Seicavs.

cixeSi arCil dadiSians leqciis wakiTxva mouxdeba

erovnuli sakiTxis marqsistuli gagebis Temaze _

dadiSianis WeSmarit marqsistobaSi eWvi eparebaT da es

eWvi leqciam unda gafantos. igi aramarto axerxebs

amas, aramed TavisTavSi imden paToss aRmoaCens, rom

TviTonve ukvirs. marqsizmis aRar sjera, magram marqsistul

Tvalsazriss erovnul sakiTxze iseTi gulwrfeli

TavgamodebiT icavs, rom ver gaugia, ra alaparakebs

ase. mxolod bundovnad gauelvebs SegnebaSi `molandeba...

odesRac Zlieri, magram amJamad ganadgurebuli

modgmis daSinebuli sulisa, romelsac sakuTari

204


Tavis uaryofa daSTenoda Tavdacvis ukanasknel da

erTaderT saSualebad, rom arseboba ganegrZo~.

es paradoqsi SeiZleba ase gavigoT _ `modgmis suli~

daiqanca erovnuli TviTmyofobisTvis brZolaSi

gancdili mravali marcxiT, daiTrguna am brZolis

uperspeqtivobis grZnobiT da amitom ebRauWeba moZRvrebas,

romelic erovnul problemas saerTod ar miiCnevs

arsebiTad, socialuri samarTlianobis damyarebas

saxavs yvela problemis gadaWris pirobad; erovnuli

Cagvris Ziric socialuri Cagvra, usamarTlobaa da

mizezis mospobiT moispoba Sedegic; patara, dauZlurebul

ers, amgvarad, TiTqos gadarCenis Sansi eZleva...

SesaZlebelia, amgvarma ganwyobamac ganapiroba is, rom

social-demokratiuli moZraoba saqarTveloSi masobrivi

mxardaWeriT sargeblobda.

arCil dadiSiani Semdegac ganagrZobs fiqrs ucnauri

leqciis Sesaxeb da agnebs im ZiriTad motivs, romelic

sakuTar erovnebas ase gatacebiT uarayofinebs.

Tavis megobars, patriotuli enTuziazmiT savse

kacs Salva ramaZes arCili umxels: `cixeSi rom viyavi,

uCveulo azrebi damebadnen... im azrebis uCveuloba

imaSi gamoixateboda, rom... rogor giTxra... qarTveli

rom viyavi, amis gamo Tavi Zalian mecodeboda. amas isic

daemata, rom Zalian mindoda erovnulad didi vyofiliyavi,

sul erTia, warsuliT Tu awmyoTi, magram gansakuTrebuli

didebiT mindoda meamayna. ai, rogorc es

inglisels, an frangs, germanels, russ SeuZlia, ginda

Zvelebs mravals kidev, berZnebs, romaelebs da sxvebs.

magram, warmoidgine, saamayo Cvens istoriaSi maincdamainc

veraferi ver aRmovaCine... ra iyo mizezi, rom sul

ubedureba gvWirda da monobas Tavi verasodes ver

davaRwieT...~.

uTuod Rirs am iSviaT aRsarebaSi gamkrTali fenomenis

gageba vcadoT.

sakuTari dabeCavebuli eris uaryofisken pirovnebas

ubiZgebs survili, aRar iziarebdes mis ubedurebas

da uRonobas, magram am movlenis mTavari wanamZRvari

mainc sxva ram aris _ pirovnebis survili, iyos `erov-

205


nulad didi~, ekuTvnodes mZlavr, dawinaurebul mTlianobas,

wili edos mis warmatebebSi. xolo es arsebiTad

niSnavs, rom pirovnebas unda TviTon iyos `didi~, siamayis

da Tavmomwoneobis uflebis mqone. survili, iyo

`erovnulad didi~, Tavis siRrmeSi, arsSi emTxveva survils,

iyo `pirovnulad didi~.

`sididis~ moTxovnilebas, arCil dadiSiani rom

grZnobs, rogorRac unda pasuxobdes ideologia, romlis

saxeliTac igi erovnul interesebs ugulebelyofs.

marqsistuli ideologia principulad da xazgasmulad

internacionaluria, miznad isaxavs aucileblad

sakacobrio masStabiT ganxorcieldes, kacobrioba er-

Tiani da erTgvarovani gaxados. da es Zalian uadvilebda

mcire, susti da uCinari eris warmomadgenels

arasrulfasovnebis da sipataravis kompleqsisgan ga-

Tavisuflebas _ marqsistul ideasTan ziarebiT igi

erTbaSad mZlavri saerTaSoriso socialisturi moZraobis

nawilad da revoluciurad gardasaqmneli msoflios

moqalaqed iqceoda; doqtrinis maRiarebeli ra-

Rac dids, globalurs ekedleboda da amiT TviTonac

`diddeboda~; misi ambiciis winaSe araxelsayreli erovnuli

warmoSoba barierad aRar aRimarTeboda; es doqtrina

mis pativmoyvareobas da TviTdamkvidrebis survils

Tavazobda uzarmazar samoqmedo sivrces _ mTel

planetas, anda Cvens pirobebSi ruseTis imperias mainc.

gandidebis am SesaZleblobebs gamZafrebulad

grZnobdnen qarTveli marqsistebi, xolo erT-erTma

maTi srulad gamoyenebac SeZlo. qarTvelma menSevikebma

ki msoflio didebis wyurvili imiT moikles, rom

qveynierebis dasanaxad TiTqos wamoiwyes uCveulo da

evropisTvisac ki sanimuSo ram _ demokratiis da socializmis

Serwyma; saqarTvelo aramarto daubrunda civilizebul

samyaros, aramed TiTqos mis avangardSic

moeqca.

saqarTvelos Tavis istoriul tragediaSi fatumad

evropisgan mowyvetilobac evlineboda da CvenSi yovelTvis

cocxlobda civilizaciis ganviTarebis centrTan

SeerTebis survili. da ai, movida TiTqosda yve-

206


laze progresuli evropuli moZRvreba, romelic araviTar

manZilebs da sxva dabrkolebebs ar epueboda da

msoflios gaerTianebas apirebda. gaCnda macduri perspeqtiva

_ swrafi naxtomiT sakacobrio progresis orbitaze

isev gasvlis, provinciuli mivardnilobis da

uCinarobisgan Tavisdaxsnis, msoflios avanscenaze

gaRwevis perspeqtiva. qarTvelebis swrafvas `sididisken~,

TavisgamoCenis da vrcel sarbielze damkvidrebisken

axali moZRvreba bevrs aRuTqvamda.

magram ra muxtavs, ra aZlevs impulss am swrafvas?

qiaCelis romanSi es kiTxva ase JRers: `aviRoT Cveni

saerTo sulis xasiaTi, didis daCemeba rom gvCvevia da

misi faqtiuri SesaZlebloba ki rom ara gvaqvs. saidan

aris es Seusabamo gaqaneba, siTamame? bolos da bolos,

ramdeni or milioniani xalxi cxovrobs qveyanaze, da ra

SeviqeniT maincdamainc Cven, rom amden pretenzias vacxadebT...

damafiqrebeli ar aris gana, rom Cveni Segneba

meorexarisxovani eris xvedrs istoriaSi ar urigdeba

da imaze mets moiTxovs, risi mocemac Cvens awindels,

faqtiur ZalRones SeuZlia~.

am ucnauri movlenis Salva ramaZiseuli ganmarteba

miTopoeturi ieris mqonea: qarTvelebi warmoadgenen

didi da mZlavri modgmis naSTs, romelic odesRac

erT-erT mTavar rols TamaSobda msoflio istoriaSi

da msoflio kulturis erT-erTi mTavari Semoqmedi

iyo. Semdeg man msoflio hegemoniisTvis brZolaSi katastrofa

ganicada da misi gadarCenili nawili kavkasias

Seexizna. `im energiis mcire nakadma, romelic

qarTvel tomebs maTi didebis samSoblodan gamohyva,

aRar ikmara kvlav didi istoriis Sesaqmnelad. man isRa

SeZlo, rom or aTeul saukuneze meti kidev ibrZola

Tavis saxis SesanarCuneblad, xolo kacobriuli idealisTvis

mis mier gaweuli umagaliTo, magram amao

brZolis aRsabeWdad, istoriis sinidisSi amiran-mijaWvuli

palo Caaso, rogorc xorcSesxmuli, samaradiso

mxileba imisa, rac iyo da rac axla aris... saukuneebis

manZilze drogamoSvebiT aqac ifeTqebda xalxis wiaR-

Si, mis qveSegnebaSi, mileqili mogoneba gardasuli di-

207


debisa... didi rusTaveli, magaliTad, im didebidan

momdinareobs. Cveni modgmis meore periods, romelsac

sakuTriv saqarTvelos istorias vuwodebT, rusTavelis

warmoSoba ar SeeZlo. amitom hgavs is saswauls.

rusTavelis saxiT Cvenma modgmam erTxel kidev moigona

Tavisi didebis xana... da Cveni gardauvali zmanebac

didebisa... casaviT rom Cvens suls gadaxurvia,

sizmruli molandebaa imisa, rac odesRac iyo... da unda

gvwamdes, rom qarTveli xalxi Tavisi gardasuli didebis

mosagoneblad kvlav gviCvenebs saswauls. es iqneba

axali amiranis movlineba, magram zRaparSi ki ara,

_ sinamdvileSi~.

es yvelaferi emociurad STambeWdavia, magram ufro

realisturi iqneba vifiqroT, rom qarTvelTa `gardasuli

dideba~ burusiT mocul SoreTSi ki ar aris sa-

Zebneli, aramed swored rusTavelis epoqaSi, rodesac

saqarTvelos yovelmxrivma aRmavlobam am masStabis

figura savsebiT kanonzomierad warmoSva. maSin saqar-

Tvelo realurad iyo `istoriis qartexilebze gamarjvebuli

erovnuli organizmi da qartexilebis mbrZanebeli,

gind momavlinebeli erovnuli nebisyofa~ _ iyo

istoriis mniSvnelovani da aqtiuri subieqti.

qiaCelis gmiris romantikuli Teoria sworia im

mxriv, rom qarTvelebis `survilTa diadobani~ marTlac

istoriuli warsulis cnobieri Tu qvecnobieri

xsovnidan aris aRmocenebuli.

meoce saukuneSi xangrZlivi dakninebis da daCrdilulobisTvis

TavisdaRwevis dagubebuli Jini, pativis

da didebis moxveWis wadili, msoflio istoriaSi kvlav

Carevis da mniSvnelovani funqciis kisrebis moTxovnileba,

romelsac eris istoriuli mexsierebis noyieri

fena kvebavda, Cveni Tanamemamuleebis garkveul nawil-

Si gamrudebulad gamovlinda. es ltolvebi moeWidnen

doqtrinas, romelic maT xorcSesxmis macdunebel SesaZleblobebs

usaxavda, oRond sanacvlod erovnuli

da, Tu ukiduresobaze vilaparakebT, saerTod humanisturi

faseulobebis gawirvas moiTxovda.

1990

208


geronti qiqoZe

realistis simarTle da sisadave

qarTuli memuaruli da dokumenturi literaturis

bolodroindel SevsebasTan erTad Seivso Cveni warmodgena

im gansacdelze, romlis gadatanac saqarTvelos

mouxda meoce saukuneSi. amgvari literaturis

siuxveSi geronti qiqoZis `Tanamedrovis Canawerebi~

gamoirCeva iSviaTi obieqturobiT, dakvirvebis da analizis

iSviaTi simaxviliT. ndobiT gangvawyobs avtoris

upretenzioba _ is arasdros daJinebiT Tavs ar gvaxvevs

sakuTar Tvalsazriss da gadmocemul movlenebSi

sakuTar rolsac momabezreblad ar usvams xazs. igi

sinamdvilisadmi realisturi erTgulebiT gviziarebs,

risi mowmec iyo da Tavis damokidebulebas Txrobis

sagnisadmi TviT am saganSi faqizad gaazavebs.

imis miuxedavad, rom mwerali Tavisi Sinagani samyaros

gamJRavnebaSi TavSekavebas iCens, es samyaro,

avtoris sulieri ieri cxadad warmogvidgeba. Cven

vgrZnobT mwerlis gangeb dayruebul tkivils, uxmauro

principulobas adamianebis da faqtebis zneobriv SefasebaSi,

mis TavmdablobiT mosil sibrZnes, romelsac

araferi akvirvebs, skepticizms, romelic xSirad simarTlis

wvdomis ufro saimedo saSualebaa, vidre

gulwrfeli enTuziazmi... momxiblavia geronti qiqoZis

Taviseburi stoicizmi, romelic mdgomareobs tragikul

viTarebaTa winaSe sulis aumRvrevlobis da gonebis

sinaTlis SenarCunebaSi da TiTqos sazrdoobs samyaros

faruli, maradiuli moraluri sazrisis WvretiT,

sikeTis da borotebis mudmivi mimoqcevis

SegnebiT.

geronti qiqoZe sinamdviles xSirad ironiiT umzers.

Tumca es ironia zogjer momakvdinebelicaa, is

ar aris TvalismomWreli, radgan Cumi melanqoliiTaa

ganelebuli, melanqoliiT, romelic axlavs geronti

qiqoZis mTel eseistur da kritikul Semoqmedebas.

209


`Tanamedrovis CanawerebSi~ mwerlis ena, rogorc

misTvis saerTod aris damaxasiaTebeli, dawmendili da

moqnilia; plastikuri stiliT ikveTeba qarTveli politikosebis

da inteligentebis portretTa wyeba. es

portretebi ixateba dauZabavad, mxolod arsebiTi nakvTebis

moxazviT, ramdenime zedmiwevniT zusti Strixis

meSveobiT. geronti qiqoZis mwerlur bunebasTan

erTnairad SeuTavsebelia ikonografiac da karikaturac.

igi mudam cdilobs esa Tu is pirovneba dainaxos

mTlianobaSi, rogorc RirsebaTa da sisusteTa organuli

xlarTi, imisgan damoukideblad, ranairad aris ganwyobili

am pirovnebisadmi. mis TxrobaSi usimpaTio subieqtebic

rogorRac adamianurad gamoiyurebian.

geronti qiqoZis SemoqmedebiTi individualobis-

Tvis niSandoblivia miswrafeba, pirovnebis fsiqologiur

TaviseburebebTan erTad gamokveTos misi kulturuli

da msoflmxedvelobrivi profili. ase iqmneba

lakonuri, magram mravlis metyveli da damtevi grafikuli

saxeebi. realisturi simarTliT da sisadaviT,

yovelgvari gadaWarbebis Tu paTetikis gareSe arian

warmodgenili noe Jordania, arCil jorjaZe, irakli

wereTeli, karlo CxeiZe, spiridon kedia, sergo orjonikiZe,

pavle sayvareliZe, mixeil javaxiSvili, paolo

iaSvili da sxvebi.

geronti qiqoZisTvis saerTod da kerZod rogorc

istoriuli movlenebis ganmsjelis da SemfaseblisTvis

gamorCeulad damaxasiaTebelia zomierebis grZnoba,

rac dakavSirebulia rTuli procesebis dialeqtikuri

Wvretis unarTan _ igi miiltvis mxedvelobaSi

iqonios am procesebis winaaRmdegobrivi mxareebis da

momentebis mTlianoba. amgvari TvalTaxedviT aris

aRqmuli `Tanamedrovis CanawerebSi~ saqarTvelos damoukideblobis

periodi, saqarTvelos maSindeli mesveurebis

saqmianoba, imdroindeli cxovrebis atmosfero.

es atmosfero ar iyo erTgvarovani, igi xalxis

aweuli ganwyobis garda imasac moicavda, rasac mwerali

daxvewili ironiiT aRbeWdavs: `sagareo bazris

uqonlobis gamo saxelmwifo da kerZo marnebSi did-

210


Zali Rvino dagrovda. mxedrobis da inteligenciis

farTo wreebi TiTqo SiSma moicva, es Rvino ar daZmarebuliyo.

radgan yvelas ar SeeZlo oficialur banketebs

daswreboda, daiwyo gauTavebeli Rreoba kerZo

ojaxebsa, yavaxanebsa, sasadiloebSi. es iyo namdvili

lxini Jamianobis dros~.

savsebiT uiluziod hyavs danaxuli geronti qiqo-

Zes social-demokrati liderebi, Seuferavad aqvs warmodgenili

maTi nakli da Secdomebi, magram aseve cxadad

iTvaliswinebs igi saqarTvelosTvis arakeTilmyofel

istoriul viTarebas, garemoebaTa simZimes. amitom

misi kritikul-ironiuli gansja moklebulia aRSfoTebas

da sabraldebo daskvnis simkacres. es imiTac

ganisazRvreba, rom mwerals SeumCneveli ar rCeba damoukideblobis

swrafwarmavlobis erT-erTi mizezi _

imdroindeli qarTuli sazogadoebis zneobis defeqtebi,

misi nacionaluri TviTSegnebis sisuste. ai, amis

amsaxveli patara detali: `qarelSi Tu gomSi erTi gzad

mimavali glexi SeCerda da rusulad wamoiZaxa: _ Zirs

simindis respublika! _ vis dascinis, Tavis Tavs? _

ikiTxa gaocebulma rusma oficerma~.

aseTi detalebis, wvrilmanebis, SemTxvevebis mimarT

geronti qiqoZe mgrZnobiare da yuradRebiania,

maTSi povebs socialur-politikuri sinamdvilis sulier

arss, did istoriul cvlilebaTa adamianur ganzomilebas,

rac misTvis yvelaferze ufro saintereso

da mniSvnelovania. amas es pasaJic mowmobs: `Rame wisqvilSi

gavaTieT, sadac moxuci mewisqvile Semwvari kvaxiT

da izabelas RviniT gagvimaspinZlda. Semovida vi-

Rac axalgazrda glexi, komunisturi partiis axali

nergi da Cveni Raribi trapezi gaiziara, gviambo, ori

dRis winaT tyeSi Sevedi wnelis mosaWrelad da iq moulodnelad

qajs Seveyareo. sruliad titveli iyo, lamazi

qalis saxe hqonda, xSiri Tma gaeSalao. waldi Semovkari,

iwivla da miimalao~. advili warmosadgenia,

saxelmwifo ideologiis rogori Clungi, fanatikuri

damcveli dadgeba am axalgazrda bolSevikisgan, ro-

211


gor Semateben Zalas mis politikur aqtivobas Warbi

erotiuli impulsebi.

memuarebis emociur-azrobriv da kompoziciur

centrs qmnis masobrivi represiebis periodis analizi.

saqarTveloSi am represiebis mTavari ganmaxorcieleblis,

berias aRzevebis wanamZRvrad geronti qiqoZe garkveul

politikur tendencias miiCnevs: nepma, `socializmis

ukandaxevam~ bolSevikur partiaSi Seasusta

Zveli gvardiis dogmatikosTa poziciebi; eretikosebis

Seviwroebamac adgili gaaTavisufla stalinis diqtaturis

mxardamWerTaTvis, romelTac ideuroba maincdamainc

ar moeTxovebodaT, piriqiT, uprincipoba stalinisTvis

iolad mosaxmars xdida da winsvlaSi xels

uwyobda maT.

roca mwerali berias saqmianobisTvis migvadevnebinebs

Tvals, mis garegnulad dinj, mkafiod mowesrigebul

Txrobas Sinagani daZabuloba da simwvave dayveba.

geronti qiqoZis azriT, beriam saqarTvelos didi ziani

imiTac miayena, rom xalxs patriotis niRbiT evlineboda,

aman ki bevri Seiyvana SecdomaSi. zogs dResac

sjera berias patriotizmi. es an gulubryvilobaa, an

patriotizmze damaxinjebuli warmodgenis gamovlineba,

radgan beriasnairi adamianis patriotuli grZnoba

sinamdvileSi SeiZleba mxolod raRac zoologiuri

instinqti iyos. maxvilgonivruli da zedgamoWrilia

saqarTvelos jalaTis geronti qiqoZiseuli xatovani

daxasiaTeba: `sulTmobrZavTa xrials Tbilisis diqtatori

ise iyo SeCveuli, rom albaT misi SewyvetisTanave

eRviZeboda, rogorc eRviZeba mewisqviles, roca dolabis

xriali Cerdeba~.

represiebis aRwerisas avtori dagvanaxebs cxovrebis

paradoqsebs, ucnaurobebs, bedis ironias. skeptikosi

mixeil javaxiSvili, sabWoTa reJimis mamxilebeli,

da pavle sayvareliZe, aTeisti, marqsisti, sikvdilis

win erTnairad eZeben nugeSs religiaSi... anda, vTqvaT,

Seurigebeli mtrebi, erTmaneTis moZule adamianebi

gverdigverd aRmoCndebian rogorc gansasjelebi.

212


geronti qiqoZe gamokveTs sabWoTa reJimis erT-erT

yvelaze Rrma Sinagan winaaRmdegobas _ es reJimi Tavis

ZiriTad principad koleqtivizms acxadebda, sinamdvileSi

ki mudmivi teroris viTareba adamianis egoistur

ltolvebs amZafrebda. `sazogadoebis erTi nawili daemsgavsa

cecxlis mfrqveveli mTis Ziras aSenebuli

qalaqis mcxovreblebs, romlebic Cqaroben siamovnebis

fiala amoswuron, vinaidan xvalindeli dRe uzrunvelyofili

ara aqvT~.

magram geronti qiqoZe fiqrobs, rom sabWoTa reJimis

arseboba da sicocxlisunarianoba teroris, SiSis

garda sxva safuZvlebsac emyareba. mwerali analitikurad

aRwers bolSevikebis mier Seqmnili sazogadoebis

struqturas da am struqturas saxavs reJimis gamZleobis

pirobad. es aris ierarqiuli sazogadoeba, magram

misi zeda fenebis Semadgenloba cvalebadia, amitom

qveda fenebis mkvidrT iq moxvedris macdunebeli SesaZlebloba

eZlevaT. cxadia, es cirkulacia ganamtkicebs

reJims; bolSevikebma uzrunvelyves xelisuflebisadmi

muSebis mxardaWera, romelTa materialuri da

moraluri mdgomareoba erTgvarad gaumjobesda; efeqtiani

aRmoCnda maT pativmoyvareobaze ostaturi zemoqmedebac,

maTi namdvil Tu potenciur gmirebad Seracxva;

xolo sabWoTa xelisuflebis mier daymevebuli

glexobisTvis `mainc erTgvari sanazRauro iyo, rom

misi Wirnaxulis didi nawili saxelmwifos mihqonda da

ara uqm memamules~; reJims emadlierebian isini, visac

sabWoTa saxelmwifom ganaTlebis miRebis saSualeba

misca da vinc axali, naklebad kvalificiuri da nayofieri

inteligenciis mravalricxovani amqari Seadgina.

avtori aRniSnavs sabWoTa reJimis dros saqarTveloSi

momxdar garkveul ekonomikur da kulturul

Zvrebs, magram misTvis mTavaria is mavne Sedegebi, romlebic

maT axlda _ saqarTvelos gadaqceva monokulturebis

qveynad, araqarTvelTa migraciis saxifaTo

gaZliereba da am fonze qarTuli kulturis jansaRi

funqcionirebis Seferxeba, xalxis iniciativis

Seborkva...

213


memuarebis erT-erTi mTavari personaJia stalini,

romelsac mwerali xedvis Tavisi meTodis Sesatyvisad

_ aracalmxrivad da araerTmniSvnelovnad warmogvidgens.

udavoa, rom stalini Zlieri politikosi iyo, romelmac

mkveTri kvali daaCnia istorias, magram Znelia

daeTanxmo mwerals imaSi, TiTqos stalinis saqmianoba

ase Tu ise progress uxsnida gzas. mainc memuarebis

avtori mTlianobaSi obieqturia stalinis fenomenisadmi,

igi natifi ironiiT xelSesaxebad aRadgens

stalinis gandidebis da TviTgandidebis avadmyofur

process. geronti qiqoZe Rrma realizmiT ganWvrets am

SiSismomgvreli adamianis sulier arss. `stalini, albaT,

imdenad general denikinis, partiuli opoziciebis,

feldmarSal guderianis winaaRmdeg brZolas ar

dauRlia, rogorc jer hitlerTan SeTanxmebam, xolo

Semdeg ruzveltsa da CerCilTan damegobrebam daRala.

rogor SeeZlo vinmes xangrZlivad damegobreboda

adamiani, romelic cxovrebas sayovelTao Seunelebel

omad Tvlida. kaci mas an unda gascloda, an damorCileboda.

misi mZafri xelis moZraoba (meore xeli Semxmari

hqonda), misi damcinavi Rimili Txel tuCebze, misi

gamsWvalavi Tvalebis gamometyveleba mowmobdnen, rom

is aTvaliswunebiT an undoblad uyurebda adamianTa

modgmas, umravlesobas an advilad mosasyidad Tvlida,

an monuri morCilebis da dasjis Rirsad~.

kanonzomieria, rom geronti qiqoZe memuarebs

stalinis glovis monumenturi suraTiT amTavrebs _

amiT dasrulda mTeli tragikuli epoqa, romelmac

TviT memuarebis avtorsac bevri tkivili agema. magram

geronti qiqoZem mainc SeZlo Tavisi moraluri saxis,

Sinagani Tavisuflebis da inteleqtualuri patiosnebis

gadarCena. misi daurRveveli sulis da daxvewili

gonebis anareklia `Tanamedrovis Canawerebic~.

214

1991


grigol robaqiZe

gansacdeli

sabWoeTis fantastikuri realoba, bolSevikuri

reJimis buneba da qarTuli sulierebis bedi am reJimis

pirobebSi, epoqaluri tragediis saTaveebi da mizezebi,

stalinis pirovneba _ yovelive amis mxatvrulanalitikuri

ganWvretis cdaa grigol robaqiZis romani

`Cakluli suli~.

romanis mxatvruli simarTle upirvelesad is aris,

rom masSi moxelTebuli da ganfenilia epoqis SiSismomgvreli

atmosfero. igi yvelaferSi atans, mis gamomfitav

zegavlenas veravin usxlteba. ver usxlteba

mas verc romanis mTavari gmiri. mis saxeSi TiTqos

idealuri qarTvelis stereotipuli xati gamosWvivis:

is raindulad vaJkacuria, amayi da SemarTuli, sicocxlis

Sekavebuli xalisiT savse da Sinagan silbosac ar

aris moklebuli magram es xati Signidan irRveva, masze

damSlelad moqmedebs SiSi, romelic am Zlieri kacis

sulSi Separula da gamjdara.

mtkivneulad akvirdeba Tamazi sabWoTa kavSirSi

RmerTis winaaRmdeg warmowyebul laSqrobas, avadmyofur

movlenas, romelSic sabWourobis arss xedavs.

magram, misi azriT, is, rac xdeba, aucilebelia, radgan

uRmerTo kulturam revoluciis jojoxeTi unda gamoiaros,

krizisi bolomde unda gamwvavdes, raTa mas

rwmenis aRorZineba moyves. es krizisi TviTon Tamazis

arsebasac moicavs, RmerTi arsebiTad masac dakarguli

hyavs. Tumca pozitivizmis da aTeizmis mimarT Zalian

kritikulad, antipaTiurad aris ganwyobili da samyaros

aRiqvams rogorc saidumlos, mainc pirovnuli absolutisgan

mowyvetilia. samyarodan RmerTis da ma-

Rali sulierebis, mowiwebis aRmZvreli faseulobebis

gaZevebas, `jados axsnas~, rac dasavlur civilizaciaSi

spontanuria, xolo sabWoTa sinamdvileSi gegmazomie-

215


ad da amave dros ugono enTuziazmiT xorcieldeba,

igi Sinaganad emijneba da uZaliandeba. magram mas ara

aqvs RmerTis da sulis ukvdavebis cocxali rwmenis fari,

sastiki reJimis masirebuli Semotevisgan rom daicavda.

romanis gmiri iwamleba SiSiT, romlisac rcxvenia

da romelic tanjavs, xolo sakuTari bunebrivi si-

Tamame, drodadro rom ver iokebs, kidev ufro aSfoTebs.

misi suli Tavidanve ganiaraRebulia adamianis

dasaTrgunad konstruirebuli sistemis winaSe, romlis

mTavari samizne swored Tavisufali sulia. is iZulebulia

daeqvemdebaros sistemis mudmiv da ufxizles

kontrols. es kontroli `axali RmerTis~ _ partiuli

saxelmwifos, gpu-s _ Tvalia. `socialisturi koleqtivi

saWiros xdis aseT idumal Tvals. RmerTi kvdeba

_ mis adgils es Tvali ikavebs~. Rrma dakvirvebaa _

religiur sazogadoebaSi adamianebi RmerTis mzeras

grZnoben, es mzeraa maTi cxovrebis universaluri Semmowmebeli,

totalitaruli saxelmwifo ki swored

RmerTs enacvleba, mis prerogativebs iTvisebs.

es Senacvleba iwvevs imas, rom adamianis Sinagani

samyaro daixSoba, yrud Cairazeba. mas aRar SeuZlia

sxva adamianis gulis Sesagebeblad Tavisuflad gai-

Ros, mas ndobiT Seexos, Seerwyas _ `guli misces gulisaTvis~.

romanis gmiri, bunebiT gulRia adamiani,

mowyurebulia aseT urTierTobas, romelic misTvis

RvTaebrivi, sakraluri aqtia, magram boWavs SiSi, `um-

Tavresi seni sicocxlis~ da ver axerxebs xorci Seasxas

am Zlier moTxovnilebas. yvelaze metad Tamazs es

awvalebs, es agrZnobinebs RvTisgan mitovebulobas.

magram adamianzec xom aris damokidebuli, iqneba Tu

ara RmerTi samyaroSi: `RmerTi yvelganaa sadac guli

Riaa, samsxverplo cxovelis darad mzad aris Tavis SesaTavazeblad~.

msxverplgaRebis unari, tanjva-wamebis

tvirTvis Zala aklia Tamazs, vinaidan aklia am Tvisebis

ganmasaxierebel qristianul RmerTTan Sinagani siaxlove.

Tavisi msoflgancdiT igi warmarTi ufroa, miwieri,

xorcieli yofiereba, sicocxle misTvis metad

Zvirfasi da tkbilia. Tavis modgmasTan, bunebis, samya-

216


os cxovelmyofel ZalebTan mas organuli kavSiri

aqvs, rac mis leqsebSic Cans. es romanis gmirs TiTqos

zogierT cisferyanwel poets amsgavsebs. warmarTuli

hedonizmi aramarto mSobliuri stiqiaa misTvis, aramed

sulismosaTqmelic SiSismomgvrel sabWoTa yofaSi.

samyarosTan, sicocxlesTan harmoniul Tanxmobas ani-

Webs mas natas siyvaruli da Tumca am siyvarulSic dalandavs

samyaroSi datanebul bnel, sikvdilismier

elements, mainc avismauwyebel mixvedrebs Zlevs sicocxlis

rogorc RvTisgan dalocvili fenomenis grZnoba.

Tamazi amarTlebs TviT adamianis pirvelcodvas,

radgan amiT miwieri sicocxlis gamravlebas mieca

dasabami.

sicocxlis Tayvaniscema, sicocxlis RvTiuri madlis

gancda, samyaros da adamianebisTvis gulisgaxsnis

wadili aramarto romanis mTavari gmiris sulierebis

Tvisebaa, aramed erovnuli msoflSegrZnebis Zireuli

tendenciac aris, Tuki es msoflSegrZneba Seuryvneli

da aumRvrevelia. `qarTvelebi sufras usxdnen. Tvali

rom qveyanas, mzes, mTebs, xeebs, cxovelebs, adamianebs

ucqers, guls sixaruli efineba da surs Semoqmeds

qeba-dideba Seasxas. dalocvilia wami, roca lxeniT

savse guli meorisaTvis ixsneba, gulis Trobaa, rasac

qarTveli lxinSi ganicdis aq erTmaneTis gaxarebaa

mTavari _ `gana bedniereba ar aris, rom gxedav? rom

vcocxlob? rom gxvdebi da mxvdebi?~. amgvar msoflgancdasTan

Seurigebel winaaRmdegobaSia sabWoTa re-

Jimi, romelic erTmaneTisadmi SiSiT da undoblobiT

aavadebs adamianebs, aiZulebs TavisTavSi gamoemwyvdnen,

sulebi daimunjon da uxSobs erTmaneTTan Sinagani

Sexmianebis, gamTlianebisken swrafvas.

xolo im kacis mTavari Tviseba, vinc es reJimi misi

bunebis Sesabamisad `srulyo~, swored sicocxlis

madlTan Tanaziarobis uunarobaa. stalinisTvis Tavisi

sastiki mamisadmi siZulvilis gamo sicocxle Tavidanve

dawyevlilia da borotebaa. igi gaTiSulia samyaros

mTlianobisgan da TavisTavSia Caketili. `mas araferi

axarebs. mis guls ar ZaluZs kosmiurad ZirisZi-

217


amde gaixsnas. is ar aris aalebuli, xorcSesxmuli nawili

mistiurad daglejili RmerTisa: is civia, mtkice

da pirquSi. aseTi adamianisTvis ar arsebobs eqstazi.

aseT umamos rom beThovenis mecxre simfonia moesmina

_ gansakuTrebiT dasasruli, sadac mRelvare orkestrSi

adamianTa xmebi iWrebian, xmebi dionisos mier daglejil

arsebaTa, romlebic sxva sicocxles, axals,

adamianurs Tu zeadamianurs acxadeben _ is mainc ver

gaxleCda Tavis viwro naWuWs, raTa unapiro sinamdviles

SeerTeboda. is civi, mtkice da pirquSi darCeboda~.

stalini adreve agnebs misTvis saWiro da Sesaferis

msoflgagebas. nihilizmis daxmarebiT is `Tavisufldeba~

RmerTis, zneobis da yovelgvari Rirebulebebisgan

da sicocxlisadmi mtrobis ideur sanqcias iRebs; nihilisturi

SexedulebiT xom samyaro da adamiani uRmer-

To, SemTxveviTi da mdabalia da amdenad maT mimarT mouridebeli,

agresiuli damokidebuleba fuZndeba; `ga-

Tavisuflebulis~ destruqciul TviTnebobas win aRaraferi

eRobeba, mis usazRvro egocentrizms aRaraferi

borkavs.

sabolood poulobs stalini TavisTavs marqsizmis

bolSevikur nairsaxeobaSi, romelic SeniRbuli da Zalauflebis

mosapoveblad mobilizebuli nihilizmia.

stalinis fenomenis ganmartebisas grigol robaqiZe

dostoevskis Semoqmedebas iSveliebs, kerZod, romans

`eSmakni~. am romanis personaJi verxovenski stalinis

namdvili (Tumca masTan SedarebiT uferuli) arqetipia,

pirvel rigSi imiT, rom sicocxle misTvisac sibilwea,

araferi aRuZravs rids da mowiwebas, amitom nebismier

saSinelebas Caifiqrebs da Caidens. SeiZleba gavixsenoT

dostoevskis eSmakTa naSieri sologubis antigmiric

romanidan `patara eSmaki~. Tavis personaJs, romelic

samyarosadmi mtruladaa dapirispirebuli da

samyarosganac mudam mtrobas moelis, avtori ase axasiaTebs:

`pirovnuli da gancalkevebuli yofierebis

cdunebebiT dabrmavebuls ar esmoda dionisuri, stiqiuri

aRfrTovaneba, bunebaSi rom zeimobda da xmianobda~.

grigol robaqiZis mier warmosaxuli stalinic

218


antidionisuri adamiania, im azriT, rom igi moklebulia

Tavdaviwyebis, Trobis, aRfrTovanebis da samyarosTan

eqstazurad gamTlianebis unars. romanis avtorisTvis

amosavalia dionisuris nicSeseuli gageba.

`Caklul sulSi~ aris personaJi, romelic cdilobs

stalinis Zlierebis saidumlos daeuflos da Zlios

mas. berzini, SesaZloa, bolSevikis erT-erTi saukeTeso

literaturuli saxe iyos.

stalinis upiratesoba metoqeebTan SedarebiT swored

misi ucecxloba, civsisxlianobaa da berzinic eswrafis

TavisTavSi cecxli da eqstazi moaTvinieros,

raTa Tavisi mamoZravebeli ltolva _ Zalauflebis,

sxvaTa damarcxebis da daTrgunvis neba ise gamoawrTos

da Seuxrelad mizanmimarTuli gaxados, rom stalinze

gaimarjvos. amisTvis Wirdeba mas natasTan aranormaluri

urTierToba. es urTierToba samyaros da adamianisadmi

damokidebulebis bolSevikuri wesis simboloseburad

SemWidroebul da ganzogadebul gamoxatulebad

gvevlineba _ samyaros, adamians pativi aeyrebaT,

amoralurad gamoiyenebian raRac miznis misaRwevad

mosaxmar, TavisTavadi Rirebulebis armqone instrumentad

berzinis survilia ara samyarosTan harmoniuli

Serwyma, aramed sakuTari egos ganmtkiceba, gazrda.

misi moTxovnilebaa ara Tavisi arsebis gaReba,

aramed samyaros sasicocxlo Zalebis miTviseba da

STanTqma.

berzinis sizmari, romelic romanSi gamorCeulad

STambeWdavia, bneli sulebis gamSuqebeli mxatvruli

xilviT cxadyofs, rom berzinisnairi WeSmariti bolSevikic

ki stalinTan, kidev ufro WeSmarit bolSevikTan

brZolaSi uRonoa. ase imis gamoc aris, rom stalini

gafacicebuli instinqtiT gansakuTrebulad SeigrZnobs

masis Sinagan impulsebs da marTavs maT. stalini

daumarcxebeli imiTacaa, rom SeuZlia masis ZaliT

aRivsos, misi nebis gamtari iyos.

sabWoTa masis damangreveli zemoqmedeba pirovnebaze

zustad aris nagrZnobi da naCvenebi epizodSi, sadac

Tamazi saqarTvelos gasabWoebisadmi miZRvnil

219


sazeimo sxdomas sityviT mimarTavs. pirovnebis `sazRvrebi

waiSleba~, misi namdvili `me~ warixoceba da is ambobs

imas, rac ar wams, amarTlebs Zaladobas, `sisxlis

gamoSvebas~. romanis mTavari gmiri mTlianobaSi iTqvifeba,

magram es, cxadia, aris ara is Tavisufali da bunebrivi

Tanaziaroba samyarosTan da adamianebTan, romelsac

igi natrobs, aramed pirovnebis sulieri TviTmyofobis

gaqrobaa, pirovnebis araraobad qcevaa.

cru ideis safuZvelze adamianebis aseTi aranamdvili,

araTavisufali gamTlianeba mimdinareobs sabWoTa

kavSirSi da es procesi romanSi sinamdvilis fantastikuri

absurdiT Senacvlebad warmodgeba (`akaSas qronika~).

qimera batondeba, Zalmomreobs realobaze da

cxovrebas SemaSfoTeblad ucxo ieri edeba, avadmyofuri

fantaziis gamonagons emsgavseba. TavisTavisgan

ucxovdeba, ucnaurad gardaiqmneba romanis mTavari

personaJic, roca saqarTvelos okupaciis wlisTavze

aRtkinebul sityvas warmoTqvams.

sakuTari Tavisadmi am Ralatis sazRaurad miiCnevs

igi dapatimrebas. magram moraluri sazRauris gadaxda

am SemTxvevaSi niSnavs sikvdilis SiSis morevas, sikvdili

ki Zalian axlodan imuqreba. `dRisiT aq (gpu-Si)

samariseburi simSvide sufevda, RamiT ki _ ase samsa da

oTx saaTs Soris _ SiSismomgvreli xmebi gaismoda:

TiTqos Citis galiaSi SemZvrali gveli xoxviT miikvlevda

gzas, enas asisinebda, nel-nela aqanebda Tavs.

tusaRebi damunjebulni ugdebdnen yurs am Cqams gareT

sabargo manqana Rmuoda. virTxebi cocxldebodnen,

TiTqos moaxloebuli leSis suni winaswar ikreso.

yvela idumalad grZnobda mosaxdens. TviT Zilsac ki

elviseburad xvretda intuicia, romelic erTbaSad

anaTebda yvelafers. tani saSinelis siaxloves grZnobda.

momspobi xaxa daRebuli iyo, bneli, gauZRomeli.

kidev erTxel ewameboda dionise. nabijebi derefanSi

yru Sikrikebi iyvnen sikdilis~.

Tamazma gonebiT icis, rom `roca RmerTiT cxovrob,

veravin wagarTmevs sicocxles~, magram amis ganyenebuli

codna ar kmara sikvdilis SiSis mosagerieblad;

220


omanis mTavar gmirs ki patimrobaSi umZafrdeba

RvTisgan mitovebulobis grZnoba. is ver icnobierebs

da isisxlxorcebs imas, risi wvdomisganac TiTqos Sors

ar aris _ qristianuli RmerTi swored tanjuli

RmerTia da adamiani yvelaze metad maSin uaxlovdeba

qristes, roca codvaTa gamosasyidad tanjvas tvirTulobs

da WeSmaritebisTvis ewameba. Tamazs, miwieri

sicocxlis gamaRmerTebels, es unari ar aRmoaCndeba.

magram dacemis Semdeg is _ sikvdils gadarCenili

berzinis Tu sxvaTagan gansxvavebiT _ sulmokled ar

CaebRauWeba sicocxles. warmarTi kvdeba masSi. igi

Tvals usworebs Tavisi sisustis mizezs, TavisTavze

iRebs dacemiT gamowveuli sulieri tanjvis simZimes

rogorc damsaxurebul sasjels da ase aRasrulebs

imas, rac manamde ver SeZlo; mxolod am tanjviT aRmoaCens

da eziareba qristes rogorc cocxal WeSmaritebas

da realobas, aRmoaCens, rom qristes gareSe misi

saTayvanebeli amqveyniuri mSvenierebac sikvdilis,

araras kuTvnilebaa. grigol robaqiZis gmiri TviTon

gamocdis sakuTari Teoriuli Tvalsazrisis simarTles:

`revolucia arnaxulad waaqezebs uRmerTobas,

xolo SiSveli, uRmerTo adamiani erTbaSad igrZnobs

sicarieles da aRmafreniT moinatrebs dakarguls~.

romanis finals kvals aCnevs is garemoeba, rom

grigol robaqiZis meTodSi da stilSi aris simbolizm-

Tan dakavSirebuli fena _ simbolizmis danaSrevia

realobis gaidumaleba, demonizmi, movlenebis faruli,

zeempiriuli ganzomilebis aqcentireba; ZiriTadad

romanSi es sakmaod zomierad vlindeba, metwilad cxovrebiseul

masalas, TiTqosda irealur sabWoTa sinamdviles

Seezrdeba; realisti Tvalyurs adevnebs da awonasworebs

simbolists; finalSi ki mistika uceb gau-

Sualeblad iWreba da mxatvruli simarTlis xarisxi

klebulobs.

`Cakluli suli~ inteleqtualizmis primatiT aRbeWdili

nawarmoebia, rac iSviaTobas ar warmoadgens

Cveni saukunis literaturaSi. oRond romanSi iqac, sadac

inteleqtualuri, eseisturi elementi Warbobs,

221


SenarCunebulia mxatvrul-fsiqologiuri atmosferos

mTlianoba. nawarmoebSi empiriuli garemos da xasiaTebis

detalizebuli xatva Canacvlebulia personaJebis

sulieri ieris da azrTawyobis warmodgeniT, albaT,

zedmetadac. Sesrulebis manera SekumSuli, gantvir-

Tulia, avtori efeqturad avlebs da ganalagebs mokveTil

Strixebs. mwerlis daZabuli goneba, intuicia da

fantazia axlodan dagvanaxebs sulierebis tragikul

gansacdels.

222

1990


galaktion tabiZe

enigmaturi saxe da analizi

yoveli xelovani arsebiTad TviTonve karnaxobs

mkvlevarebs mis mier Seqmnili mxatvruli sinamdvilis

analitikuri ganxilvis wess. is, rac gamaxvilebul yuradRebas

moiTxovs erTi xelovanis Semoqmedebis kvlevisas,

ase mniSvnelovani ar aris sxva xelovanis Semoqmedebis

kritikuli analizisTvis.

cnobilia, rom galaktionis saxeebis, tropebis,

asociaciebis mniSvnelovani nawili enigmaturad bundovania.

cnobilia agreTve, rom amas simbolistur poetur

kulturasTan galaktionis siaxlove ganapirobebs.

rogor unda moekidos literaturismcodneoba am

saxeebs, ra SeiZleba vicodeT da risi imedi unda

gvqondes?

gamoTqmulia Tvalsazrisi, romlis mixedviTac amgvar

saxeTa analizi saerTod SeuZlebeli da mizanSeuwonelia.

es Tvalsazrisi eWvqveS iqna dayenebuli _

rogorc Cans, Tu yvela ara, am tipis zogierTi xati

mainc eqvemdebareba logikur ganxilvas, logikis enaze

`Targmnas~, xerxdeba maTi warmoqmnis procesisTvis

Tvalis midevneba, maTi genezisis dadgena...

magaliTisTvis SevexoT galaktionis enigmatur saxeTagan

erTs. gavixsenoT leqsi `qarebs qaroba~:

`daetyo kidec qarebs qaroba,

roca mtrobaa da edgaroba,

sanTelo, garxevs Ramis fiqrebi,

magram Sen mainc nu Camiqrebi,

nu mimatoveb.

aRar etyoba Tvalebs Tvaloba,

roca Rrea da miuvaloba,

ayefdebian mTvaris tyupebi,

o, Sen mainc ar daiRupebi,

cremls nu aToveb.~

223


`ayefdebian mTvaris tyupebi~ marTlac gasaidumloebuli,

erTi SexedviT, amouxsneli saxea, magram,

vfiqrobT, misi ganmartebis cda mTlad uimedo saqme ar

unda iyos.

anatol fransis `TaisSi~ Cveni yuradReba miipyro

da uneblieT galaktionis es xati gagvaxsena erTma adgilma,

sadac avtori axasiaTebs nawarmoebis mTavar

gmirs: `mas swamda RvTiuri gangeba, borot sulTa yovlisSemZleoba,

jadoqroba, Selocvebi; mas swamda ieso

qriste da sirielTa RvTaeba; mas sjeroda isic, rom

ZaRlebi yefdnen, roca pirquSi hekate gzajvaredinebze

gamoCndeboda xolme~.

berZnul miTologiaSi hekate mTvaris RvTaebaa.

`wyvdiadis da jadoqrobis es qalRmerTi daxetialobs

saflavebs Soris da gamoixmobs mkvdrebis aCrdilebs.

is aerTianebs or samyaros _ cocxlebisas da mkvdrebisas.

hekate monadirea, romelsac ZaRlebis xrova axlavs,

misi nadiroba avbediTi Rameuli nadirobaa~

(`msoflios xalxTa miTebi~).

amgvarad, fransi sargeblobs berZnuli miTologiuri

warmodgeniT.

Cveni varaudiT, galaktionic mas unda iyenebdes.

am varaudis moSveliebiT SegviZlia gaviazroT, ra

kavSirSia ZaRlebis yefa mTvaresTan da ratom aRZravs

igi daRupvis SiSs _ es mTvaris RvTaebis, mkvdrebis

sulebis, aCrdilebis gamomxmobi Semzaravi qalRmerTis

Rameuli svlis niSania, es misi Tanmxlebi ZaRlebis

xrova iyefeba.

rogorc Cans, `mTvaris tyupebi~ mTvaris zedmiwevniT

msgavsebs, oreulebs ki ar niSnavs, aramed mTvaris,

hekates `kuTvnili~ da misgan ganuyreli ZaRlebis

erTsaxovan simravles gamoxatavs.

is garemoeba, rom galaktioni mTvaris da ZaRlebis

kavSiris saxeldebas axdens sityva `tyupebiT~, ase or-

Wofulad da bundovnad, metad niSandoblivia _ poeti

gangeb aidumalebs am kavSirs.

amiT galaktioni Segnebulad faravs Tavisi metaforis

warmomavlobasac, ase vTqvaT, Slis kvals, ayru-

224


ebs berZnuli miTis eqos. es metafora ar Seicavs aluzias,

romelic garkveuli kulturuli fenomenisken

warmarTavs aRmqmelis cnobierebas. piriqiT, galaktioni

cdilobs rac SeiZleba SeumCneveli gaxados Tavisi

metaforis saTave.

galaktionisTvis miTosuri warmodgena mxolod da

mxolod masalaa, `nedleulia~, romelic mTlianad unda

CainTqas misi warmosaxvis produqtSi. antikuri miTi

Cawurulia galaktionis metaforaSi da TiTqmis savsebiT

gauCinarebulia.

amgvarad qmnis poeti xats, romelic Seucnoblobis,

iracionalurobis STabeWdilebas badebs.

saerTod, galaktionis simbolisturi, nislovani saxeebis

daniSnulebaa Cagvagonon, rom raRac araamqveyniurs

SevexeT. es iTqmis saxezec `ayefdebian mTvaris

tyupebi~. igi gamoxatavs gansacdelis molodins, magram

ara Cveulebrivs, ara konkretuli mizeziT gamowveuls,

aramed samyaros iracionalur sawyisTa anazdeuli

gancdis Sedegad gaCenils. es saxe gadmogvcems

SiSs samyaros siRrmeSi dabudebuli Seucnobeli da

bneli Zalebis winaSe, romlebic daRupvas uqadian lirikul

gmirs.

magram Tuki asea, maSin unda vaRiaroT, rom saxis

amgvari emociur-xatovani Sinaarsi isedac ganicdeba

da gaiazreba, misi analizis, misi warmomavlobis dadgenis

gareSec. saxe uamisodac ambobs Tavis saTqmels,

gvagrZnobinebs imas, rac unda gvagrZnobinos. anu aRmoCnda,

rom saxis axsnam arsebiTad ver Seavso, ver gaamdidra

am saxis da mTlianad leqsis poeturi Sinaarsi.

kvlevis Sedegi sakmaod mokrZalebuli gamodga.

SevecadeT amogvexsna idumalebiT aRbeWdili xati

da gamoirkva, rom TviTon igi swored imas mieltvis,

idumali da gamoucnobi darCes; rom TviT misi arsebobis

sazrisia amouxsneli, burusSi CaZiruli iyos, ra-

Ta Cvenc saidumlos gancda dagveuflos.

unda davaskvnaT: galaktionis xatSi namdvilad sagulisxmoa

ara is, rasac es xati faravs, aramed sakuTriv

SegrZneba, STabeWdileba, rom igi raRacas faravs.

225


amgvar saxeTa amoxsnis Jini ki gaunelebelia.

mainc ratom gvsurs idumal xatTa logikis naTel

sferoSi gadmoyvana, imis gageba, ra aris maTSi

nagulisxmevi?

Cven gvaqvs imedi, _ metwilad gaucnobierebeli _

rom amgvar saxeTa amocnobis Sedegad movixelTebT,

gamovamzeurebT da vixilavT azrs, `logoss~, konceptualuri,

msoflmxedvelobrivi datvirTvis mzidvel

fenomens.

erT-erTi idumali metaforis ganxilvam gviCvena,

rom poets berZnuli miTi SeukumSavs masSi, magram veraferi

gviTxra iseTi, rac ufro mkafios da sruls

gaxdida Cvens warmodgenas galaktion tabiZis mrwamsze,

msoflmxedvelobaze, ver gagvimJRavna poetis raime

gansakuTrebuli mniSvnelobis mqone Tvalsazrisi. arada,

imedi gvqonda, rom raRac Zalian mravlismetyvels,

arsebiTs mivakvlevdiT.

rodesac literaturismcodneebi daJinebiT cdiloben

gaarkvion, vTqvaT, rusTaveliseuli `mziani

Ramis~ raoba, es gasagebi da bunebrivia, radgan am saxis

azris konkretizeba, misi genezisis gamokvleva erTgvarad

naTels fens rusTavelis msoflmxedvelobas, imas,

rogoria poetis warmodgena RvTaebaze, romel filosofiur

Tu religiur moZRvrebazea orientirebuli

igi.

galaktionis enigmaturi saxe ki msoflmxedvelobrivad

niSandobliv azrs ar Seicavs, aseTi saxis danawevreba,

misi warmomavlobis dadgena poetis msoflmxedvelobis

arsTan ar gvaaxloebs.

leqsSi `isev efemera~ galaktioni ambobs:

`oh, siyvaruli zRvebis qafia! _

mieciT warsuls elva da xmali,

rom amokveTos epitafia:

`mis cxovrebaSi SeiWra qali~.

siyvarulis qalRmerTi afrodite zRvis qafidan

iSveba, ase rom, `siyvaruli zRvebis qafia~ berZnuli

226


miTis metaforul gardaTqmas warmoadgens. magram ra

azrobrivi, konceptualuri momentebiT amdidrebs saxes

amis garkveva? es saxe imis mixvedras ki ar moiTxovs,

rom masSi afroditea nagulisxmevi, aramed siyvarulis

Seucnobel bunebas gamoxatavs, adamianis cxovrebaSi

stiqiasaviT SeWrili siyvarulis damRupvel siZlieres

gaacxadebs. saxis amgvari Sinaarsi yovelgvar ganmartebamde

aRiqmeba, igi iSviaTi gznebiT aris xorcSesxmuli

da gacocxlebuli. ganmarteba mas arsebiTad arafers

matebs...

da mainc galaktionis enigmatur xatTa analizi garkveuli

azriT gamarTlebulia. Tumca maTdami analitikuri

midgoma, rogorc Cans, poetis mizandasaxulobas

ar Seesatyviseba, _ galaktions `ar surs~, rom misi

enigmaturi saxeebi amovxsnaT, piriqiT, cdilobs Seucnoblobis

nislSi gaxvios isini, _ magram literaturismcodneobasac

sakuTari kanonieri interesebi aqvs.

bunebrivia moTxovnileba, naTelvyoT galaktionis

SemoqmedebiTi fsiqologia, gavecnoT mis SemoqmedebiT

laboratorias, vicodeT, ra elementTa SezavebiT aRwevs

galaktioni Tavis poetur efeqtebs, ra masala aqvs

xelT _ risgan da ranairad qmnis igi Tavis poetur

samyaros.

oRond ar Rirs imis daviwyeba, rom es mainc masala

da teqnologiaa, anu raRac damxmare, TavisTavad arafaseuli,

araarsebiTi. mTavaria is axali, TviTmyofadi

da organuli mTlianoba, romelic amis meSveobiT, mravali

alqimiuri procesis gamovliT ibadeba, mTavaria,

rogoria misi mxatvruli buneba da daniSnuleba.

galaktionis enigmatur saxeTa analizisas aucilebelia

gaviTvaliswinoT am analizis SefardebiTi Rirebuleba

da mniSvneloba. ar unda movelodeT, rom enigmaturi

saxeebis amocnoba Cvens winaSe gadaSlis raime

iseTs, ris gareSec galaktion tabiZis poeziasTan Tanaziaroba,

misi wvdoma SeuZlebelia.

1984

227


sulieri wyurvili

imgvari sulieri wyobis poeti, rogoric galaktion

tabiZea, SeiZleboda warmoSobiliyo mxolod qristianuli

safuZvlis mqone kulturaSi, iseve rogorc simbolizmi,

romelTanac galaktionis poeziaa dakavSirebuli,

SeiZleboda bunebrivad SeeeTvisebina mxolod

qristianul tradiciaze damyarebul kulturas.

galaktionis poeturi individualobis Rrma Tvisebaa

gaunelebeli sulieri wyurvili, srul da srulyofil

WeSmaritebasTan, sikeTesTan, mSvenierebasTan ziarebis

gardauvali moTxovnileba, romelic qristianuli

kulturis mier aris formirebuli. galaktioni absolutis,

absoluturi faseulobebis, maTi samoTxiseburi

sisavsis maZiebeli poetia. misi Semoqmedeba SeiZleba

aRviqvaT rogorc absolutis maZieblis lirikuli

avtobiografia, romelSic `uCvev naTelTan~ misaaxloeblad

zeaRsvla da miwaze danarcxeba Tu jojoxeT-

Si vardna gamudmebiT enacvleba erTmaneTs.

Znelia daasaxelo meoce saukunis poeti, romelic

galaktionze mwvaved grZnobdes qristianobisgan gaucxoebis

tragizms, RmerTisgan gaucxoebuli samyaros

saSinelebas. qarTul poeziaSi am mxriv galaktionTan

yvelaze axlos niko samadaSvilia.

galaktionis iseT gamorCeul leqsebSi, rogorebicaa

`silaJvarde, anu vardi silaSi~, `Semodgoma `umanko

Casaxebis~ mamaTa savaneSi~, `lurja cxenebi~, tradiciul

religiurobas daSorebuli, tradiciul religiur

nugeSs moklebuli adamianis godeba gaismis...

leqsSi `Tu brZola ar aris~ epoqis krizisulobis mizezad

qristianobisgan mowyveta, religiuri cnobierebis

rRveva da sabunebismetyvelo mecnierebis diqtati,

teqnikur-urbanistuli civilizaciis moZaleba ikveTeba:

`mraval saxeze aris obloba, mravals aSfoTebs ra-

Rac monoba: rogor SeviZloT uRvTismSobloba, viT

avitanoT umadonoba? gahqra zmaneba, gahqra feria, nu-

Tu bodleric araferia? Selic hiugos daemgvaneba?

miusse, verlen? RmerTi? kaeni? aha, qalaqTa gviani ne-

228


iT burusebSi sCans ainStaini~. galaktionis TvalTaxedviT,

uRmerToba amkvidrebs ara Tavisuflebas (rogorc

bevri fiqrobda), aramed `monobas~ da sulier si-

Ratakes; religiis daSreta empirikiT SeuboWavi mxatvruli

warmosaxvis, Rrma da maRali mxatvruli azrovnebis

masazrdoebeli niadagis gamofitvis tolfasia.

TviT galaktioni inarCunebs cocxal, nayofier kav-

Sirs am niadagTan. misi mxatvruli msoflaRqma mravali

xiluli Tu uxilavi ZafiT aris Seqsovili religiur,

qristianul kulturasTan. galaktioni Tavisi iSviaTi

poeturi intuiciis wyalobiT wvdeba da sityvaSi moixelTebs

qristianobis unikalur sulier atmosferos.

`xomalds mihyveba TeTri madona da yvavilebi giiadona~

_ rogori siwminde, alersi, silbo, keTili xareba

iRvreba uCveulo sityvidan `giiadona~... qristianobis

sulis zedmiwevniTi poeturi sizustiT ametyveleba

Semdgom ana kalandaZis lirikis niSandobliv Taviseburebad

mogvevlina.

galaktionis poeziaSi igrZnoba mtkivneuli nostalgia

qristianobis sulieri dominirebis xanisadmi,

iseve rogorc adamianis warmosaxvis transcendenturisken

mimmarTavi qristianuli xatovanebisadmi, romelsac

poeti sityvis magiuri xelovnebiT axlad qmnis.

`gadia, laJvard sirmareuli gumbaTebis qveS xatebs evlebi,

mTvareuli da sizmareuli geCvenebian sasufevlebi.

kvlav gumbaTidan unazes lilas gangialeben sneul

ferebiT _ Sav marmarilos, TeTr marmarilos da

marmarilos vardis CqerebiT. gwyuria, odes sanTlebi

elavs, waiRo suliT aurzauri, bagiT Seexo madonas

xelebs da igrZno sunTqva araqauri~ (`Cveni dRis ambebs

Zalian mwyrali...~).

galaktioni bolomde absolutis maZieblad, sulieri

wyurviliT Sepyrobilad darCa. SesaZloa, es yvelaze

gamWvirvaled Candes gviandel leqsSi `varskvlavia~,

romelSic transcendenturis uecari, gamaognebeli

gamonaTeba ukanaskneli locvis Tu aRsarebis utyuarobiT

da sisadaviT aris aRbeWdili. samyaroSi gamefebuli

amaoebis, wyvdiadis miuxedavad mainc SeigrZ-

229


noba idumali, nugeSis momfeni Suqis arseboba, Tumca

ufro swori iqneba Tu vityviT, rom Cvens epoqaSi

amgvari Suqis aRmosaCenad swored iseTi gamouvali

amaoebis da ukiduresi sasowarkveTilebis gancdaa

aucilebeli, rogoric galaktionis poeziaSi xSirad

aris gamJRavnebuli. `neta rogor xdeba aseT sibneleSi,

aseT sibneleSi Sen cas rom anaTeb da Sen vervin gxedavs

da Sen ver ugrZnixarT. o, ra mizezia, neta gacodina,

aseT dabrmavebis, gasaocaria, gasaocaria, Zlier, metismetad!

cremlic ar arsebobs, yvela, yvelaferi

midis udabnoSi...~.

230

2004


musikalurobis safuZveli

winamorbedi qarTveli poetebis Semoqmedebisgan

galaktionis lirika erTi niSniTac gansxvavdeba _ mas-

Si ganxorcielebulia poeturi `me~-s sruli intimizacia.

galaktionis poeziaSi gansaxierebuli adamianis

mTeli arseboba intimuri saidumloa da amdenad misi

gamoxatva gandobaa. magram is gvimxels Tavis saidumlos

ise, rom raRacas yovelTvis gaumxelels itovebs.

rac mTavaria, igi TviTonac ar flobs sakuTar saidumlos

mTlianad, nawil-nawil wvdeba, moixelTebs mas _

igi idumali, gamoucnobi da moulodnelia Tavisi TavisTvisac.

galaktionis lirikuli gmirisTvis mudam

dafarulia, ra SeemTxveva Sinaganad, ra moxdeba masSi.

misi arseba Riaa yofierebis ganuWvreteli SesaZleblobebis

winaSe, elastiuria. ilia WavWavaZis, akaki

wereTlis an vaJa-fSavelas lirikuli gmiri gacilebiT

gamWvirvale da mdgradia, myaria. am mxriv galaktioni

axlos baraTaSvilTan aris, oRond sulismieri moulodnelobebi

galaktionis lirikaSi ufro mkveTrad

da uxvad iCens Tavs.

magram baraTaSvilisganac galaktions arsebiTad

ganasxvavebs is, rom man qarTul poeziaSi srulfasovan

lirikul Temad daamkvidra sulis yovelwamiereba.

baraTaSvili leqsSi aRbeWdavs mxolod sruliad gansakuTrebul,

ase vTqvaT, Semajamebel sulier mdgomareobebs

da SeiZleba esec aris imis mizezi, rom misi memkvidreoba

ar aris vrceli. galaktionisTvis swrafwarmavali

sulieri moZraobac gansakuTrebuli da aRbeWdvis

Rirsia. galaktionis poezia sulis SeuCerebeli

arsebobis gadmoSlaa, suli aq gamudmebiT icvleba, yovelTvis

sxvadasxvanairia. Sinagani cxovrebis ganuwyveteli

cvalebadobis aRbeWdva galaktionis Semoqmedebis

emociur tonTa da ganwyobilebaTa diapazons ganuzomlad

afarToebs.

galaktionma gamoxatvis sagnad aqcia sulis spontanuri

sicocxle, romelic cnobier gancdebTan da garesinamdvilidan

atacebul STabeWdilebebTan erTad xSi-

231


ad moicavs qvecnobierebidan SemoWril impulsebs _

bundovan SegrZnebebs, mogonebebs da mixvedrebs, winaTgrZnobebs,

sizmris fragmentebs ... galaktionis

ciebcxelebiani fantasmagoriebic Rrma fsiqologiuri

simarTlis gamoxatulebaa, ramdenadac spontanuria,

qvecnobierebis uZirobidan cnobierebis zedapirze

ucabedad da gaugebrad aRmocenebuli, iqidan wamierad

sinaTleSi moxvedrili. iqmneba sulierebis nakadi, mdinareba,

romelic Tavis talRovan moZraobaSi danTqavs

da Seadnobs garegnulad erTmaneTTan daukavSirebel

fenomenebsac. adamianis suli galaktionis poeziaSi

srulad avlens imas, rom igi Tavisi arsiT, bunebiT musikaluria

_ moZravi, denadi mTlianobaa, erTiani nakadia.

sulis da musikis Sinagani naTesaoba, msgavseba, romelic

dadasturebulia esTetikur mecnierebaSi, swored

maT dinamiur da denad, nakadisebur bunebaSi

mJRavndeba (n. hartmani).

roca galaktionis poeziis musikalurobaze vlaparakobT

xolme, mxedvelobaSi gvaqvs misi melodikis,

ritmul-intonaciuri wyobis momnusxveloba, galaktionis

saxeobrivi azrovnebis sugestiuri nislovaneba.

es, rasakvirvelia, sworia, magram mTavari is aris,

rom musikaluria TviT poetis msoflgancdis, msoflaRqmis

siRrmiseuli safuZveli.

galaktionisTvis adamianis suli da mTlianad samyaro

TavisTavad aris musika _ dineba, nakadi, qrola.

`oh, sicocxlec uecari qaria~ _ ambobs is erT leqsSi.

sxvagan naTqvami aqvs: `irgvliv nakadebia, msubuqi da

faruli~. suls da samyaros galaktioni ganicdis rogorc

Wavlebis pulsirebas da maT Sexvedras, gadakve-

Tas, erTmaneTSi SeRwevas. galaktionis msoflgancdis

es arsebiTi Tavisebureba xelSesaxebad aSkaravdeba

qaris xatebSi da aramarto maTSi.

`TovlqveS ki, rogorc qsovili badis, mraval miuval

gzebiT faruli, aTiaTasi nakadi gaCnda, mCqefi,

ankara da moxaruli. miwis qveS gzebi vidodnen wynarad

da iq sxvadasxva adgilas rguli, erTi meores eZebda

marad asiaTasi mdinaris guli~.

232


dinebebi, romlebic samyaroSi moZraobs, mravalnairia

_ xiluli, uxilavi, susti da nazi, an mZafri, boboqari

... galaktionis poeziaSi nakadebad iSleba da ganifineba

sxvadasxva stiqia da fenomeni _ haeri, cecxli,

wyali, Tovli, sinaTle, feri, sibnele, xma, surneleba ...

Tvali mivadevnoT, magaliTad, rogor efineba da

moicavs realobas Rameuli Suqis da ferebis nakadi:

`is tyea mTvariT qsovili, viT loengrines sizmari,

laJvardiT gadaTovlili da vercxliT naTilismari~.

anda vnaxoT, rogor eufleba samyaros sibnelis

stiqia:

`mTvareSi Savi Srialebs Cala, Savi leCaqi daeca

Sarebs~.

mzis cxovelmyofeli energiis nakadTa frqveva ase

gamoixateba:

`o, mziT gadanacxaro cxra muxa da cxra wyaro~.

iseve rogorc es neologizmi _ `gadanacxari~,

galaktionis sityvaTSemoqmedebis sxva nimuSebic xSirad

swored nakadebis, Wavlebis da maTi vibraciis Tu

ganfenis zedmiwevniT zusti bgeradi niSnebia: broleba,

SemoTeTreba, aloceba, monaiavebi, zianeba, gadasosneba...

sulier nakadad msWvalavs arsebobas idumaleba,

Seucnobloba:

`modis, feTqs da izrdeba suli misi mxrCobeli,

foTlebs ametistebiT faravs Seucnobeli~.

galaktionis poeturi natura samyaros nakadebis da

dinebebis zemgrZnobiare gamtaria. amave dros poeti

samyarosac aseTive zemgrZnobiare gamtarad aqcevs Tavisi

emociebis, ganwyobilebebis da vnebebisTvis; poetis

suliereba talRebad moedeba da faravs samyaros,

deniviT dauvlis mas da iqmneba, vTqvaT, aseTi saxe:

`mesmis bilikTa sixaruliT gadanazafri uvertiura~.

poets da samyaros Soris kontaqtis mTavari saSualebaa

fluidebis uCinari gacvla, mimoqceva, romlis

arxic poetis ufaqizesi nervebia (SeiZleba saubari

`nervulobaze~ rogorc esTetikur Tvisebaze, romelic

qarTul poezias galaktionma Semata).

233


galaktionis poeziaSi samyaros da adamianis yofierebis

fuZiseuli fenomenebi, _ RvTaebrivi da demonuri,

sikeTe da boroteba, sikvdili da sicocxle, Tavisufleba

da monoba, aRfrTovaneba da tanjva, imedi

da sasowarkveTa _ maTi arsi da mimarTebebi naklebad

gaixsneba meditaciur-inteleqtualuri lirikis eniT;

es fenomenebic upiratesad gamoixateba rogorc samyaroSi

da adamianis sulSi moZravi sxvadasxvagvari atmosferuli

nakadebi. galaktionis lirika filosofiuria

ise, rogorc musika SeiZleba iyos filosofiuri.

igi samyaros, cnobierebis da qvecnobierebis siRrmiseuli

moZraobebis da dinebebis poetur-musikaluri

gaazrebaa.

234

1992


giorgi leoniZe

sicocxlis poezia

giorgi leoniZis poeziaSi gansakuTrebuli ZaliT

aris gamovlenili qarTuli erovnuli msoflaRqmis da

mxatvruli azrovnebis erT-erTi aspeqti — miwieri

samyaros mSvenierebis mZafrad mosiyvarule gancda,

xorcielebis kulti, grZnobadi tkbobis stiqia,

hedonizmi...

samyaro giorgi leoniZisTvis Tavisi arsiT erTiani,

didi sikeTea, romelsac uyoymanod unda miendo — amas

utyuarad mowmobs nivTieri sinamdvilis mravalsaxovani,

gamoulevi da TvalismomWreli silamaze. am silamazis

xotbaa giorgi leoniZis poezia. es aris aRfrTovanebuli

madlierebis gamoxatva imis gamo, rom aseTi

mSveniereba arsebobs da poets misi xilvis bedniereba

ergo. giorgi leoniZe daucxromelia silamazis sensualuri

sisavsiT aRqmaSi da gansaxierebaSi, grZnobadi silamaziT

Tavdaviwyebul tkbobaSi. poeti TiTqos Si-

Sobs, misi romelime nakvTi mxedvelobidan ar gamorCes.

samyaros poeturi xotba, apologia saxeTa siuxves

da hiperbolizms iTxovs. giorgi leoniZis leqsi warmodgeba

ara rogorc poeturi azris ganviTareba, aramed

rogorc Warbad xorcieli, feradovani da SuqiTmosili

saxeebis dabadeba da zrda, gamravleba. `brwyinavs

qarTli, vardis baRi, Sefrqveuli minanqariT,

iagundis wvima daswvims, surnelebis dahqris qari...

brwyinavs baRi, elavs baRi, firuzqari darxeuli, yurZnis

msxvili iagundi, vazi, varskvlav-Caxveuli~.

giorgi leoniZis poeturi warmosaxva myarad efuZneba

empiriul realobas. amave dros igi am realobas

uCveulod adidebs da aZlierebs, uCveulod amkveTrebs

mis vizualobas da xmovanebas. aseve Cveulebriv adamianur

emociebze bevrad ufro masStaburia poetis

vnebebi. giorgi leoniZis poeturi samyaro Zalian amqveyniuria,

miwieria, materiiT datvirTuli Tu sulac

gadatvirTuli, magram amasTanave is amaRlebuli da

235


idealizebulia. misi raoba SeiZleba ganisazRvros rogorc

`materialisturi romantizmi~ an `warmarTuli

romantizmi~.

marTlac `warmarTulia~, ZvelisZvelia, Tanamedrove

civilizaciis mkvidrisTvis ucnauria miwis, miwierebis,

samyaros materialurobis iseTi aRtacebuli, gamaRmerTebeli

aRqma, rogoric giorgi leoniZis poeziaSia

gamoxatuli.

giorgi leoniZisTvis mimzidveli da mSvenieria yovelive,

rac sisxl-xorciT savse da sicocxlisunariania,

uxvi sasicocxlo energiiT aRWurvilia. `ulamazesi

mxolod is aris, vinc avsebula Tavis dros ZaliT _

adidebuli, damwifebuli yana, mdinare, venaxi, qali...

da rac ki sunTqavs dRes qveyanaze, rac sicocxleTi

ari cxoveli: miwa, foToli, Rrublis nagleji _ Seni

sityvebis Rimils moelis~.

sijansaRe, Zliereba, energiuloba sicocxlis is

Tvisebebia, romelTac giorgi leoniZis TvalSi upiratesi

esTetikuri Rirebuleba aqvT. amas ukavSirdeba

yivCaRis saxe, barbarosobis poetizacia mis SemoqmedebaSi.

Warbi sasicocxlo Zalis gamovlinebebi esTetikurad

momxibvlelia maSinac, roca es Zala agresiulia,

damangrevelia. `tramal da tramal gamogedevne, Semovamtvere

gzebi triali, mcxeTas vumtvrie saketurebi,

vlewe taZrebi kelaptriani!~. es TiTqos nicSes sicocxlis

filosofiaSi gamokveTili zekacis ideis poeturi

ekvivalentia.

sicocxlisgan ganuyofelia brZola da Zlieri sicocxlisadmi

giorgi leoniZis siyvaruli brZolis siyvarulsac

moicavs. amiT aris ganpirobebuli mis poeziaSi

urTierTSexlis, Zlevis, dauflebis (an, Sesabamisad,

damarcxebis, damxobis, ganadgurebis) niSniT aRbeWdil

xatTa sixSire, saxeobriobis mxedruli ieri.

giorgi leoniZes gamorCeulad uyvars is, rac samyaroSi

axalia, axladSobili Tu axladaRmocenebulia,

radgan masSi sicocxle yvelaze metad Rvivis. amis gamoa,

rom samyaros axalgazrdulad xarbi pirvelaRqma,

romelic am samyaros aaxlebs da sasicocxlo Zalas

236


matebs, mas poeziis aucilebel niSnad esaxeba _ `siWabuke

da leqsi erTia~. siyvarulic _ siWabukis Tanamgzavri

_ mis SemoqmedebaSi jansaRi vitaluri energiis

mozRvavebaa, romelic ucnaurad aris Serwymuli silbosTan

da sifaqizesTan _ `nazi grigalia~. siyvaruli

TiTqos yovlisSemZled aqcevs adamians da igi eufleba

samyaros, sicocxlis elvare silamazis mTel

simdidres.

giorgi leoniZis poeturi ena, stili sicocxlis

sisavsis Tu dramatulobis mZlavri xorcSesxmaa. `gelandeba

najaxebi da grigali damjaxebi mwared agaTr-

Tolebs. cas janRebis ajanyebiT, setyvas, mbrwyinav

Tovlebs, damdnar ZvlebiT egebebi, martoxeo, ole!~.

poeti is aris, visac ena Tavis saidumlos gaandobs

da amiT samyaros namdvili saxis danaxvis SesaZleblobas

aniWebs. enis Sidaxedis, sityvebis Cveulebriv Seum-

Cneveli urTierTkavSiris ganWvretas SeuZlia samyaros

Sinagani wyobis ganWvreta gauadvilos poets, rogorc

giorgi leoniZisTvis gansakuTrebulad axlobel

rusTavels da vaJa-fSavelas. es TviT giorgi leoniZezec

SeiZleba iTqvas. mkveTr nacionalur Seferilobasac

giorgi leoniZis poezias upirvelesad enis sicocxlis

SuagulSi SeRweva aZlevs.

1999

237


tician tabiZe

tragikuli eqstazi

tician tabiZis poeturi msoflSegrZnebis yvelaze

TvalSisacemi Tviseba sicocxlis vnebiani siyvarulia,

magram mis poeziaSi aranakleb mZlavria sapirispiro

emociuri sawyisic _ sikvdilis gancda.

gansxvavebiT giorgi leoniZisgan, romelic misTvis

Zvirfasi miwieri silamazis galaRebuli mflobelia,

tician tabiZes es mSvenieri, sinaTliT da siTboTi savse

qveyana xelidan ecleba. igi TiTqos cdilobs mzeraSi

daiyovnos misgan Seukaveblad, aCqarebiT ganziduli

qveynierebis xati.

kritikaSi sakmaodaa Tqmuli imis Sesaxeb, rom

tician tabiZe xSirad amJRavnebs moaxloebuli sikvdilis,

daRupvis winaTgrZnobas. da sikvdili miT ufro

usaxuria misTvis, rac ufro uyvars sicocxle, sicocxlismoyvareobis

simZafre mas sikvdilis gancdasac

aseve umZafrebs, umwarebs. magram yvelaze niSandoblivi

is aris, rom am simwareSi Taviseburi sitkbo urevia,

sakuTari sastiki bedisweris ganWvretas Sxamiani sixaruli

axlavs. `ra saWiroa satrfos cremlebi, arc qars

vawuxeb saflavis TxrisTvis, moisveneben isedac Zvlebi,

Tu krematori aRirses Tbiliss~. es tragikuli eqstazi

enaTesaveba `meranSi~ gamoxatul msoflSegrZnebas,

rasac citirebuli striqonebi pirdapir gvimxels.

gardauvali daRupvis tkbobanarevi gancda tician

tabiZis poeturi bunebis organuli gamovlinebaa garkveul

politikur situaciaSi.

tician tabiZis SemoqmedebiT naturaSi mkafiod

aris gamomJRavnebuli sawyisi, romelsac nicSes esTetikuri

klasifikaciis mixedviT `dionisuri~ ewodeba

_ midrekileba `gaxelebisken~, individualur-gancalkevebuli

arsebobis garsis garRvevis da samyaros pirvelstiqiebSi

Cakargvisken, eqstatiuri Tavgametebis-

238


ken. igi sadinars aZlevs gausaZlisad Zlieri, mtkivneuli

Tu sasixarulo emociebis mozRvavebas.

gansakuTrebuli simkveTriT da sisavsiT es vlindeba

leqsSi `me yaCaRebma momkles aragvze~. miTiuri

ieris mqone, pirvelyofilad mrisxane bunebis, misi stiqiuri

Zalebis pirispir aRmoCenil tician tabiZis lirikul

gmirs dionisuri siSmage, samyaros dionisurad

mSfoTvare da mborgav, qaotur fuZeSi danTqmis, masSi

Tavisi individualobis gaTqvefis eqstazi ipyrobs. `wameqca

Tavze ca garRveuli da caze kidev _ sxva myinvaris

ca, da darialiT gadareuli Tvalebs cremlebis

Tergi mirecxavs. da gadavayureb almas ufskrulebs,

kvaldakval Cemi demoni momdevs, vxedav gigantis Soltis

muskulebs da rkinis bawars, yelze rom momdebs.

vici, momelis mainc es bedi da isic vici, Cemze axia,

Zvirfaso, ar var, icode, ybedi, an Tavis mokvla ra

trabaxia. magram mitacebs qariSxaliviT am Tvaluwvdeni

xramebis fskeri...~.

kidev ufro mniSvnelovani da damaxasiaTebelia is,

rom Tavisi sulis dionisur impulsebs poeti zneobriv

sazriss uZebnis.

rogorc davinaxeT, tician tabiZis lirikuli gmiris

dionisur gaxelebas bunebis mZvinvareba iwvevs.

sxva leqsebSi poeti peizaJs warmosaxavs rogorc bunebis

warmonaqmnTa gaafTrebul, samkvdro-sasicocxlo

Sexlas. aseTi, bataluri suraTis msgavsi peizaJi

tician tabiZisTvis adamianis Rirseuli qcevis etalons

asaxierebs.

amgvari poeturi TvalTaxedva, emociuri impulsebi

da eTikuri mizanswrafva mZlavrad aris xorcSesxmuli

leqsSi `mewyeri mewyers~: `gaelavs, dahkravs mexi mexs

mwvervals, mTa titvelia, ar aqvs safari, TviTon mexia

da TviTon elavs, rogorc Samilis TeTri fafari... var

gaTelili lekis nabadi, yvela saxsari maqvs dalewili,

magram vaJkacma mxolod gabede da mec vaJkacis damide

wili. ra saWiroa melnad giSris tba da kalmad kidev

mina rxeuli, Tu am sibraziT guli gagiTba, Tu am

Jruantels igrZnobs sxeuli. mewyeri mewyers, lanqeri

239


lanqers, klde kldes awydeba, zvavs Rupavs zvavi, ca

mowyalebiT Tavze damcqeris, ar memeteba movikla

Tavi~.

ltolvas TviTganadgurebisken zneobriv sazriss

aniWebs da amiT gardasaxavs is, rom dionisuri eqstazi

tragikuli msxverplgaRebis xasiaTs iZens, radgan ukve

Tavisuflebis ideals amkvidrebs.

240

1983


valerian gafrindaSvili

sanatreli da realuri

faqizi poezia da poeziis Sesaxeb naazrevi, poeturi

Targmanebi _ valerian gafrindaSvilis SemoqmedebiTi

memkvidreoba pirvelad warmogvidga mTlianad mis erTtomeulSi

(merani, 1990; dasafasebelia Sroma, romelic

wignis Sesadgenad marine Wyoniam gawia; winasityvaobis

avtoria guram benaSvili).

simbolistebma qarTul poeziaSi uwinares yovlisa

lirikuli subieqtis statusi Secvales, aamaRles _

lirikuli subieqti maT obieqturi samyaros tolfardi

gaxades da mas TviTkmaroba mianiWes. igi TavisTavidan,

Tavisi Sinagani usasrulobidan badebs da amozidavs

ucnob avtonomiur sinamdviles, Wvrets mis ucxo,

egzotikur landSaftebs.

valerian gafrindaSvilis poeziaSi aseTi SemoqmedebiTi

wamowyeba gansakuTrebuli, SeiZleba iTqvas,

meToduri TanmimdevrulobiT da daJinebiT aris ganxorcielebuli.

amitom aq sxva cisferyanwelebis lirikasTan

SedarebiT metia miRmurTan Sexebis cdebi _ lirikuli

gmiris TavisTavadoba, TviTkmaroba miT ufro

sagrZnobia, rac ufro eTiSeba is garemomcvel empiriul

sinamdviles. valerian gafrindaSvilis mraval

leqsSia warmosaxuli realobisgan gamijnuli sulis

`interieri~, masSi dadgmuli feeriuli warmodgenebi,

romelTa personaJebi poetTan da mis oreulTan erTad

miTologiuri da literaturuli gmirebis aCrdilebi

arian.

unda iTqvas, rom xSirad es landuri warmodgenebi

racionalurad konstruirebuls ufro gavs, vidre

iracionaluris spontanur gamocxadebas. am rkalis

leqsebSi, maRali ostatobiT da formis, enobrivi stilis

elvarebiT rom aris Semkuli, gamoirCeva zogier-

Ti, sadac poetis xma misi sulieri samyaros wrfeli

241


pirvelsaTaveebidan moismis. aseTia, magaliTad, `me _

sarkeSi~, `iavnana samgloviaro~, `Semodgoma~, `ofeliaevridika~,

`interieri _ meore~, `sentimentaluri trioleti~...

Tumca valerian gafrindaSvilis lirikuli

gmiri gatacebiT iltvis landebis samflobelosken,

drodadro mas Rrma da namdvili, `araTeatraluri~ Si-

Si ipyrobs iracionaluris winaSe, romelic samyarodan

Tu sakuTari arsebis Signidan eZaleba. krToma, Tavisi

sisustis da simyifis gancda uzarmazar da saidumloebiT

savse samyaroSi niSandoblivia valerian gafrinda-

SvilisTvis. igi gamotanjuli siwrfeliT mJRavndeba.

`Sen, sulo Cemo, sevdiT daRaldi, da genatreba

Ramis maRaro. Tu gsurs gafiTrdi, rogorc qaRaldi,

mxolod oreuls ar Semayaro~.

sxva SemTxvevebSi, roca saxeobriobis garkveuli

xelovnuroba SeiniSneba, sakuTriv poeturi gancda,

emocia SeuTxzvelia. es emocia xSirad aris kulturiT

da sulieri kdemamosilebiT ganelebuli siyvarulis

natvra, Cumi, mTrTolvare molodini. valerian gafrindaSvilis

faqiz poetur mzeras sanatreli qalis xatSi

xiblavs araordinaruli nakvTi, raRac iseTi, rac banaluri

gagebiT ar aris mimzidveli (`mizeziani trfoba~).

am TvalsazrisiT damaxasiaTebelia `fantastiuri surdo~,

sadac iumori, prozauli Strixebi da simbolisturi

eTeruloba mTliandeba. galanturi TamaSis elementi,

kurtuazuli sinatife, romelic valerian gafrindaSvilis

sasiyvarulo lirikas axlavs, srulyofil

gansaxierebas povebs leqsSi `TeTri sacolo~.

valerian gafrindaSvilis poeturi naturis sifaqizes

mowmobs misi SemoqmedebiTi midrekileba, aRmoaCinos

mSvenieri Tu arsebiTi raRac mcireSi, Znelad gamosarCevSi,

araTvalismomWrelSi. es midrekileba mniSvnelovanwilad

gansazRvravs valerian gafrindaSvilis

poeziis individualur iers da gamZleobasac, ramdenadac

uaxlesi poeturi azrovnebis ganviTarebis gezs

Tanxvdeba. igi aRmoacenebs, pirobiTad rom vuwodoT,

mcire sidideTa esTetikas.

242


`zRvas aRar unda Tavis sisrule, TiTqo wurbeli

gulze moeba; uRono trfobiT is daisrula _ surs

beWdis TvalSi ganmartoeba; rom qinZisTavis igrZnos

sinaze da gahyves smeniT mcire nakaduls, rom saqanelas

msubuq sinaze Camoekidos, rogorc kakadu~.

`wumwumebis simReraSi~ damwvari da quCaSi gadayrili

asanTis Rerebi Tavis SeumCnevlobas dastirian, Civian,

rom maT mimarT yvela gulgrili da uyuradReboa;

mxolod poeti iCens maTdami sisaTuTes, aametyvelebs

da mniSvnelobas aniWebs am patara da ukve gamousadegar

CiraRdnebs, bolos ki sanatrel xvedrs argunebs

_ sinaTlis samSobloSi, varskvlaveTSi gaxiznavs; daisebis

asoTamwyobi _ mokrZalebuli da uCinari xelobis

kaci, sxvisi Semoqmedebis Cumi msaxuri, poetis nebiT

amaRlebuli grZnobebis da xatebis samyaros eziareba,

misi patara figura moulodnelad izrdeba; mzesumziras

gamyidveli, aseve `patara adamiani~, `fexebmorTxmuli

mona cxovrebis~, sulierad empiriuli sinamdvilis

miRma aziduli sferos binadaria.

`is dauzogav zamTar-zafxulebs welSi sakmaod gauzneqia,

iTvlis naSovar spilenZis fulebs quCis meloti

nacarqeqia. mzesumziraTi avsebul WiqiT igi adidebs

zeciur alaxs, uTuod xedavs Rrublebis iqiT baRebs,

guriebs, samoTxis balaxs~.

arsebiTad igive tendencia vlindeba, roca uRimRamos,

yofiT-banalurs iumoris Tu TviTironiis obertonebis

daxmarebiT moulodnelad Seejvareba ocnebismieri

sawyisi. ase erwymis erTmaneTs, vTqvaT, gripiT

avadmyofis arasaxarbielo yofa da ocneba diadze da

momxiblavze. `zRva CemTvis marTavs did dResaswauls,

ra vqna, rom seniT var Sepyrobili! blomad dafantavs

Tavis samkauls nibelungebis ganZTa mflobeli. mudam

gonia daxuWul Tvalebs, rom sul axloa zRva Soreuli,

yinulis buSti Tavze kankalebs, rogorc meduza

qafmoreuli~.

valerian gafrindaSvili xSirad qmnis leqss raime

SemTxvevis, TavisTavad umniSvnelo, mcire faqtis, ubralo,

SeumCneveli sagnis Tu movlenis `gagrZelebiT~,

243


proecirebiT fantaziis areSi; maTze rogorc `bazisze~

ocnebis da Tavisuflad gaSlili xilvebis damyarebiT.

aseTi TviTmyofadi poeturi principia xorcSesxmuli

leqsebSi `ucnobi quCa~, `wyneTis gzaze~, `gazafxuli

TebervalSi~, `eleqtroSuqis Caqrobidan lamfis anTebamde~,

`noxi napoleoniT~, `askili~, `xidi~... sinamdvilis

ocnebiT gardasaxva da gaSuqeba, poetis rwmeniT,

aucilebelia, `rom sixaruli da gulisZgera yofnis

qarbuqSi ar gaiyinos~.

poeti araerT leqsSi gvimxels, rom misi masuldgmulebeli

WeSmaritebis Ziebaa, samyaros saidumloebis

amoxsnis wadilia (`me mainc vcdilob, rom sikvdilamde

gavigo yofa gaugebari~). Tavdapirvelad WeSmariteba

mas usazRvroebaSi, SoreulSi da `iqiTurSi~ eguleba.

Semdeg igi usazRvroebidan mciredis da maxloblisken

Semobrundeba (`winad mxiblavda usazRvroeba, dRes

ocnebisTvis kmara SuamTa~) da igrZnobs, rom WeSmaritebis

samyofeli adamianis da am maxlobeli sinamdvilis

Tanxmobaa, ocnebiseulis da miwieris Tanazomierebaa.

erT leqsSi qari poets Zveli ocnebis axdenas _

amaRlebas da samyaros grZneul idumalebaTa moxilvas

pirdeba. am aRmafrenis dasrulebis, jadosnurTan

gamoTxovebis sevdas ki amsubuqebs amqveyniurobasTan

dabrunebis aucileblobis aRiareba.

`Cven gadavaswrebT Sor TviTmfrinavebs, Zvirfas

varskvlavebs avxvetT peSvebiT, wuTiT Rrubelze davbinavdebiT

da Semdeg isev Zirs daveSvebiT~ (`qviSxeTis

qari~).

valerian gafrindaSvils rogorc poets Tavidanve

dayva didi Sinagani simSvidis, simyudrovis mopovebis

survili. es uSfoTveloba ecxadeba mas siTeTreSi, romelic,

malarmes msgavsad, gansakuTrebiT izidavs _

igi zegrZnobadi samyaros absoluturi simSvidis aRmTqmelia.

magram SemdgomSi sulis aumRvrevlobis da sinaTlis

miRweva, rasac poeti Tavisken mimxmob, magram

Seuval miRmurobasTan miaxloebiT amaod cdilobda,

xiluli samyaros, bunebis sada, mokrZalebul silamazeTa

WvretiT xdeba SesaZlebeli. am sada mSvenierebaSi

244


wvdeba ocneba Tavis sagans da aaferadebs mas. Turme is,

rac warmosaxvas Sors itacebs rogorc unaklulo

bednierebis bundovani xati, namdvilad arsebobs, arsebobs

aqve, bunebaSi, mis qmnilebebSi. amis aRmoCena iwvevs

netarebis _ wynari sisavsis, samyarosadmi mowiwebis

da madlierebis religiuri grZnobis msgavs

gancdas.

manamde valerian gafrindaSvilis zogierT gamor-

Ceul nawarmoebSi buneba saSiSi an macduri saxiT warmoCndeba.

kerZod, cnobil leqsSi `zamTari~ igi TiTqos

oms ucxadebs qalaqs, rasac poeti originalurad gamoxatavs

bunebis samyaroSi istoriis da kulturis sferoTa

realiebis gadanacvlebiT: `zamTari modis Tavis

teroriT, man daikava yvela quCebi, zamTari modis, viT

komandori, maTxovrebiT da TuTiyuSebiT~. xolo `provincialur

gazafxulSi~ sicocxlis ganaxlebis xalasi

detalebiT daxatuli suraTi gasaocari kontrapunqtiT

gadaizrdeba sikvdilis uZlevelobis xilvaSi.

`caze hkidia mze _ molaRuri, aprili akravs mwvane

afiSebs, viT baldaxinis TeTri msaxuri sasaflaosken

is miabijebs. sadac moelis leSi uZravi gazafxuls,

rogorc Tavis messias da azraili Seumusravi kidev

moiTxovs Sav procesias~.

amgvar poetur aRqmas enacvleba bunebis warmosaxva

sanatrelis da realuris SenivTebad, romelTan Tanaziaroba

sulier wylulebs amrTelebs. ase iqmneba `gaseirneba

taSiskarSi~, `rioni~, `Tivis zvini~, `dideba

xes~, `broweulis tye~, `botanikuri baRi~, `maisis vardi~,

`zeciuri soneti~, `bavSvoba da nislebi~, `bunebas~

... poeturi sityva da saxe savsebiT organuli, TavisiT

mzardi da moZravi xdeba, sicocxlis denas gadmoscems.

valerian gafrindaSvilis stili manaTobel gamWvirvalobas

moipovebs, Tumca zogjer am gamWvirvalobaSi

raRac zmanebiseulic gamokrTis.

`Seni talRebis didi amaliT da ZlierebiT kvlav

gamaxare. Seni qafisa Tund natamali Semomafrqvie rogorc

wamali, da Cemi saxe SxefiT dafare ... Sens margalitebs

ara aqvs fasi da mainc miyvars Seni meduza,

245


ogorc Sileris mgznebare Tasi, rogorc saunje aTi

aTasi, viT saocari, mTrTolvare muza ...mraval idumal

mziT moqsovili, da mewamuli, rogorc marjani, gadamafare

talRa soveli, ukanasknelad SenTan moveli _

an momkali da an momarCine~.

esTetikuri devizi `dabruneba miwasTan~, romelmac

cisferyanwelebis poeturi evoluciis mimarTuleba

moniSna, TviT misi avtoris, valerian gafrindaSvilis-

Tvis moaswavebda, rom `miwasTan~ miaxloebis sazrisi

miwier mSvenierebaSi `ciuris~ _ saocnebos ganWvretacaa.

valerian gafrindaSvilis, iseve rogorc saerTod

cisferyanwelebis, mTavari SemoqmedebiTi mizanswrafva

qarTuli poeziis xelaxali evropeizacia iyo. es

mizanswrafva poeziis garda TvalsaCinoa mis TargmanebSi

da gansakuTrebiT eseebSi, romlebSic gamosWvivis

poeturi xelovnebis araCveulebrivi siyvaruli da

Tayvaniscema, poeziis bunebis Rrma gageba, SesaniSnavi

erudicia da gemovneba. valerian gafrindaSvilis statiebSi

evropuli lirikis fonze faqtobrivad simbolizmis

sakmaod mwyobri Teoriaa gadmocemuli. qar-

Tul klasikur poeziaSic valerian gafrindaSvilis-

Tvis upiratesad saintereso da Zvirfasia is, rac evropuli

yaidisaa, rasac simbolisturi poeziis TaviseburebaTa

winasaxed miiCnevs. amgvar niSnebs eZebs igi

guramiSvilis da baraTaSvilis SemoqmedebaSi. SesaZloa,

aq yvelferi ar iyos mkacrad dasabuTebuli, magram

mTlianobaSi es aris qarTuli literaturis miRwevaTa

evropuli kulturis konteqstSi ganfenis stimulismomcemi

cdebi.

eseistikaSic valerian gafrindaSvili warmogvesaxeba

iseTi, rogoric poeziaSia aRbeWdili _ rafinirebuli,

sulierad mdidari da maRali pirovneba da

Semoqmedi.

246

1991


SoTa CantlaZe

`zeca da ironia~

meoce saukunis qarTul lirikaSi SoTa CantlaZe

erT-erTi yvelaze ufro naRvliani, tkiviliani poetia.

mas mudam raRac uRrRnis suls, awvalebs, ar eSveba. is

TiTqos raRac fataluris tyvea da gaTavisufleba ar

SeuZlia.

yvelaferi, rac mniSvnelovani da Rirebulia Seqmnili,

didi ukmarobis (anda didi ocnebis) nayofia. aseTi

ukmarobaa SoTa CantlaZis poeziis safuZvelic.

`matarebeli. mgzavrebi ikaveben adgilebs. matarebeli

iZvris. ucnobi mgzavrebi iwyeben saubars erTmaneTSi.

saubroben tkbilad. maT Soris TviT isinic, romlebic

matareblis daZvramde adgilze edavebodnen

erTmaneTs. vismen maT saubars da sxeulSi siTbo mivlis.

vfiqrob: _ diax, SeiZleba adamianma icxovros

adamianTan tkbilad ... rasakvirvelia, mxolod maSin,

Tu qveyanaze iqneba aseTi ganwyoba, rogoric matarebelSia,

romelic ukve daZrula~.

ra ganawyobs mgzavrebs erTmaneTisadmi keTilad, ra

aerTianebs maT? is, rom matarebeli moZraobs da aqvs

gansazRvruli mimarTuleba, daniSnulebis adgili, mizani.

adamianebma rom adamianurad icxovron, adamianuri

urTierToba hqondeT, saWiroa cxadi da saerTo, sayovelTao

mizani.

magram es mizani ar Cans, xolo samyaros umiznoba,

piriqiT, SoTa CantlaZisTvis mtkivneulad TvalsaCinoa,

TvalsaCinoa sazrisis _ miznobrivi azris

ararseboba.

`mze cxreba ukve, ukve dneba da iRuneba, gadikargeba

ucxo mxareSi, da uRran tyeSi xvadi mglebi daiRmuvleben,

miznis gareSe ... da dedamiwa varskvlavebiT

gadixureba _ zRva sizmareTi ...~.

247


arsebobis umiznobis gancda tragikuli vnebis simaRles

aRwevs leqsSi `aq erT dros~, sadac yvelaze sa-

Sineli amaoeba, sidiadis amaoebaa gamoxatuli. gauqmebuli,

dacarielebuli monastris suraTi monumenturi

da Sinaganad vrcelia, gamanadgurebeli drois farTo

masivebis momcvelia.

`da bolos dastoves monastris areni _ sikvdilis

Jamma Tu dareka, qarsa da qviSaze umiznod nareni, qarma

da qviSamve waleka ... wavida wvima da movidnen qarebi,

wvimebi, qarebi meased, cioda mariams da dedis mklavebSi

cioda patara iesos~.

is, rac samyaros ganagebs, rac arsebobis Ziria, ganuzomlad

metia, vidre misi obieqtivaciebi adamianur

warmodgenebSi, religiur moZRvrebebSi Tu filosofiur

koncefciebSi; ufro sworad, sul sxvaa, saerTod

ganusazRvrelia, radgan `is miedineba gareSe miznisa,

gareSe azrebis~. igi faravs TavisTavs da gansakuTrebiT

swored maSin, roca TiTqos Tavs acxadebs _ igi

mTxzvelia, gamomgonebelia, ironiuli mistifikatoria.

`igi maradisi, igi mTvareuli, igi Seucnobi da moxetiale.

igia arvisi, is cnobismoyvare adamianebs marad

STaagonebs, uambobs Tavis Tavze tyuilebs uamravs

da mere icinis da mere icinis da maT ar ician, rom

Secdnen isini~.

am ucnobi gamomgoneblis erT-erTi `Txzulebaa~

didi qalaqi. `Cemi magidis wigni~ qalaqis gaSlili da

mTliani metaforaa, romlis pirobiTobac daZleulia

poetis gancdili TvalsazrisiT _ qalaqi `viRacis~

mosawyeni qmnilebaa, adamianisTvis ucxo da Tavsmoxveuli,

romelsac versad gaeqcevi.

Tanamedrove adamianis msoflSegrZnebisgan ganuyofeli

mowyenilobis grZnoba SoTa CantlaZem gansakuTrebuli

wvdomiT da ZaliT aametyvela. mowyena adamianis

adekvaturi emociuri pasuxia samyaros umiznobaze,

usazrisobaze. mowyeniloba niSnavs, rom maradiuli

mistifikatori veRar gvatyuebs; samyaros TiTqos feri

misdis, mimzidvelobas kargavs, yvela misi sacduri

uZluria survili aRgviZras, nebeloba gagviRizianos;

248


araferi ar gvinda, anu swored da mxolod araferi

gvinda; Cveni sicariele samyaros sicarielis zusti

anareklia da piriqiT; mowyeniloba gveubneba, rom aq

araferi gvesaqmeba.

`me yvelaferi momwyinda exla, mzis mxurvaleba,

mTavris sinaTle. niavis qrola, qarebis Sexla, yvela

tyuili, yvela simarTle~.

samyaro, bunebis sicocxle, weliwadis droebis wrebrunva

SoTa CantlaZes warmoudgeba rogorc erTferovani

da dausrulebeli speqtaklis dekoraciebis

cvla. SeiZleba es dekoraciebi zogjer TavisTavad lamazic

iyos, magram pirvel rigSi sagrZnobia maTi monacvleobis

erTxel da samudamod dakanonebuli

ritmis monotonuroba, radgan warmodgenis azri

gaugebaria.

`totebSi _ rogorc TeTri Citebi _ cis nafleTebi

Canan. tyis sibneleSi dRe iWvriteba da dRe sacaa

Cava. dRe Caesveneba da mova sicive, _ moyveba Sriali

mZlavri ... iqux