werili pirveli werili pirveli

literaturatmcodneoba.tsu.ge

werili pirveli werili pirveli

«polemikuri polemikuri werilebi

werilebi

“cxovreba “cxovreba da da da kanonis” kanonis” gamo gamo» gamo

werili werili pirveli

pirveli

tfilisi, 3 ianvari

am Svidis wlis winad “iveriam”, * jer roca

Jurnali iyo, gamosTqva, rom sofeli erT wodebaTa

gaurCvels sazogadoebas unda warmoadgendes;

1) rom soflis marTvelobasa da gamgeobaSi wodebaTa

garCeva ar unda iyos; rom ufleba da movaleoba

erTnairis TanasworobiT ganawilebul unda

iqmnes soflis yvela mkvidrze, imisda miuxedavad,

Tu mkvidri romlis wodebisaa. “iveriam” winadve

aRiara Tvisi SiSi maszed, rom am Cvens azrs TviTmsjelobas

moklebuli kaci moeseva da uvicobis

laRobiT pentvas dauwyebso. winadgrZnobam ar

umtyunva “iverias” da imav “iveriis” furclebzed

erTma liberalma, liberalobis saxeliT, gamoilaSqra

am azrzed da mis avtors retrogradoba

Seswama. 2) amiT gaTavda maSin es saqme. avtorma

* ixile Jurnali iveria, 1879 w.


pasuxi ar gasca Tavmomwone liberals, magram am

liberals cudi saqme daemarTa. ucebobis naxtomi

aq iseTi didi mouvida, rom Tavmowonebuli liberali,

misda daukiTxavad, retrogradTa wreSi

moeqca. iqneba mere bevric ioca, es ra momividao,

magram raRas uSvelida.

ar gasula erTi weliwadi, da profesorma

gradovskim gamosTqva igive azri, rac “iveriam”. ra

Tqma unda, es garemoeba kidev sakmarisi ar

iqneboda, rom tyuilis liberalobis cecxliT

apilpilebuli da gaxurebuli kaci ganelebuliyo.

am samisa Tu oTxis wlis winad, roca aw

gansvenebulma aksakovma niSnis migebiT waayvedra

ruseTis liberalebs, Tqvenc ar iciT ra gsurTo,

da Tu iciT, aba erTi gvaCveneT, Tqvens droSazed

ra aweriao, maSin Jurnalma “Вестник Европы“-m liberalebis

saxeliT sxvaTa Soris daasaxela igive

azri, rac Jurnalma “iveriam gamoTqva, da rac ase

gabedviT iTakila Cvenma Sinaurma liberalma,

rogorc retrogradebis azri. xolo saocari

ambavi ki moxda. mas aqed am azrs eurCebian da

ebrZvian ruseTSi retrogradebi, da liberalebi ki

mfarveloben da esrClebian. visac yuri udevnia

rusul Jurnal-gazeTebisaTvis da erTob literaturisaTvis,

amis sabuTs ar mogvTxoven.

“iveriisagan” gamoTquli azri da Cvenis liberalisagan

dawunebuli, dRes ruseTSi dids garCevaSia

da sabaaso sagania, radganac TviT umaRlesi

mTavroba hzrunavs, rom soflis saTemo mmarTveloba

ukeTesad moawyos, imitom rom SeniSnulia

misi exlandeli naklulovaneba.

13-s dekembers warsulis wlisas erTs samecniero

sazogadoebaSi * peterburgSi b-n arsenievis

referatis gamo amave saganzed Camovardnila lapa-

* Административное Отделение Юридического Обшества.

9


aki da b-n arsenievs Tvis mopirdapireTaTvis

uTqvams: yovelTa wodebaTa saerTo sasoflo Temoba

(всесословная волостъ) erTaderTi Ronea da saxsari,

erTaderTi SesaZlebeli agebulebaa adgilobrivis

mmarTvelobisa da mTlad Seefereba exlandelis

cxovrebis moTxovnilebasao. b-ns spasoviCs

gamoucxadebia, rom srulad Tanamoziare var b-n

arsenievis azrisao da mec erTaderT Roned

yovelTa wodebaTa saerTo sasoflo Temoba mimaCniao.

ara gvgonia, Cvenma Sinaurma liberalma Tavis

gasamarTleblad ikadnieros da b-nni arsenievi da

spasoviCi retrogradTa ricxvSi moaqcios. Zneli

saqmea, roca kaci liberalobs da ar icis cnoba

azrisa, Tu qveS ar uweria, es azri ama da am ferisaao.

amasa hqvian, rusebi rom ityvian: “своя своих

не познаша”.

Cven Tu es daviwyebuli ambavi gavixseneT, marto

imisaTvis, rom dRes aqauri mTavrobac da

umaRlesic imis zrunvaSia, rom ganakargos

sasoflo TviTmarTveloba. meti ar iqneba, rom

aqaurma axalis wesis SemadgenelTa saxeSi iqonion

saTanagrZnobeli azri b-nT arsenievisa da

spasoviCisa.

10


«pur pur pureul

euliT eul iT vaWrobis vaWrobis saqme saqme CvenSi CvenSi» CvenSi CvenSi

tfilisi, 5 ianvari,

Cveni werilebi puris vaWrobis Taobazed CvenSi

savse ar iqneba, rom erTi is garemoebac ar warmovudginoT

mkiTxvels, romlis gamoc CvenSi

aRZruli 1885 da 1886 wels puris vaWroba Sem-

Txvevas unda mieweros da ara mkvidrad dayenebuls

warmatebas puris moyvanisas. vis ar

axsovs, rarigad daiwia CvenSi puris fasma 1884

wels da am daweulma fasma sagrZnoblad arc 1885

wels aiwia. garda amisa, Tumca fasebi metad daweuli

iyo, am 1884 wels TiTqmis muStari ara

hyvanda Cvens pursa. ai, amisi mazezi ra iyo. am

1884 wels puri dahklebia, CetvertobiT rom viangariSoT:

inglissa da irlandias ....................................23.900.000

safrangeTs ..................................................................9.200.000

germanias .......................................................................3.500.000

belgiasa da golandias ........................................1.750.000

ispaniasa da portugalias ....................................500.000

italiasa da sicilias ..........................................1.500.000

Sveicarias ....................................................................1.250.000

meqsikas .............................................................................250.000

dasavleT-indoeTs ......................................................950.000

Sida-amerikas ................................................................990.000

11


12

perus ..................................................................................100.000

brazilias .......................................................................250.000

samxreT-amerikas .........................................................500.000

_________

sul: ..........................................................................44.640.000

amave 1884 wels puri mohmatebia

osmaleTs .......................................................................2.750.000

avstro-vengrias ............................................................500.000

ruminias ..........................................................................1.000.000

ruseTs ..........................................................................13.200.000

sparseTs .......................................................................... 250.000

aRmosavleT indoeTs ..............................................8.000.000

avstralias .......................................................................750.000

axal zelandias ............................................................600.000

Crdilo-amerikis Statebs ................................30.000.000

kanadas .................................................................................650.000

Cilis ...................................................................................750.000

laplatas .........................................................................200.000

_________

sul: 58.650.000

am cifrebidam sCans, rom saqveyno bazars

purisas 44.640.000 Cetvertis muStari hyolia da

gamsyidveli ki 58.650.000 Cetvertisa. am saxiT

saqveyno bazrisaTvis ToTxmeti milioni * Cetverti

puri meti yofila imazed, rac saWiro iyo. aSkaraa,

puris fasi unda dacemuliyo saqveyno

bazarSi; aSkaraa, raki Cvens samzRvargared

amodenad meti puri iyo, rom iqac muStari ver

eSovna, CvenSi iqidam puris sasyidlad aravin

movidoda 1884 wels. aman Zalian daswia puris

fasi yvelgan da nametnavad CvenSi.

puris fasis Zlierma dawevam is Sedegi iqonia,

rom inglisma irCia sapured saxnav-saTess

miwebzed_puris magier sxva ufro Zviris fasis

* Англо-Руский торговый журнал 1884 г. №10, gverdi 226.


mcenareni ram moeyvana da amitomac xvna-Tesva

purisaTvis Seamokla ase, rom aszed ToTxmeti

daaklo. amerikaSi puris fasis dawevis gamo

bevrs adgilas mosuli yanebi aRar damkes da ise

mianebes Tavi mindvrebzed, radganac momkisa da galewvis

fasadac ara hqondaT imedi puri gaeyidnaT.

indoeTSi 227, 481 akriT * naklebi miwebi moxnes

da moTeses. amis gamo puris raodenobam 1885 w. da

nametnavad 1886 w. Zalian iklo da fasma aiwia.

raki saqveyno bazars puri Semoaklda im

adgilebidan, saidamac aqamde mosdioda puri, ra

Tqma unda, muStari yvelgan daiwyebda Zebnas

purisas. amis gamo puris muStari samzRvargareTidam

CvenSiac movida da mas aqeTia puris

fasi hmatulobs.

aSkaraa, es magaliTi da iSviaTi SemTxveva Wkvas

aswavlis inglissac da imisTana puris boRazebsac,

rogornic arian amerika, indoeTi da avstralia.

arasgziT mosalodneli ar aris rom 1885 da 1886

wlebiT ganswavluli inglisi, amerika, indoeTi da

avstralia, Cven Tavis muStars purisas

dagviTmobs. piriqiT, yovels Rones ixmareben, rom

Cveni sakuTari muStaric wagvarTvan. es usabuTo

SiSi ar aris da Zalian Wkuazed axloa, Tu kaci

kargad daakvirdeba miwaTmoqmedebisaTvis avkargianobas

Cvenis qveynis gared. am saganzed Semdegs

nomerSi zogierTs mosazrebas warvudgenT mkiTxvelsa.

* akri imerul qcevazed 41 oTxkuTxi saJeniT naklebia.

13


14

tfilisi, 7 ianvari

sakvirveli gaxSireba samiwaTmomqmedo maSinebisa

amerikaSi xarjs puris moyvanisas metismetad

acotavebs. TiTqmis ar aris imisTana samu-

Sao miwisa, rom maSiniT ara keTdebodes. garda

amisa, rom xarji iq am gziT Semoklebulia, Tvi-

Ton mosavalic purisa didia, imitom rom codniT

ekidebian saqmes da yovels saxsars da Rones

mecnierebisas hxmaroben mosavlis gandidebis da

gaZlierebisaTvis. ra Tqma unda, ese yoveli imodenad

gaaiafebs pursa, rom Cven amaSi cilobis

gaweva ar SegviZlian. Tund esec ar iyos, marto

is garemoeba, rom yoveli WurWeli amerikisa rkinis

gziT aris SeerTebuli navsadgurebTan da rkinis

gzebiT puris gadatana dauyovnebelia, swrafia

da iafi, _ marto es garemoeba sakmaoa daafolos

Cveni puri saqveyno bazarSi da iqidam, rogorc

metiCara, gamodevnos. amasTan isic daumateT, rom

amerikis miwaTmomqmeds daujereblad iafi krediti

aqvs saxelmwifosagan, ase rom gaWirvebis dros

miwaTmomqmedi subuqad da advilad xels inacvlebs.

amas isic zed daurTeT, rom dids aRebmicemobaSi

sazogadod da purisaSi sakuTriv patiosneba

da namusic dids saqonlad miaCniaT amerikaSi.

Cveneburi vaWari ise TiTqmis aras gahyidis,

rom muStari ar moatyuos da amiT estibari ar

gaifuWos samermisod. aq CvenSi vaWroba motyuebazed

ufroa damyarebuli, vidre imis cdazed, rom

saqonlis sikeTiT da iefobiT mudami muStari

aiCinos kacma da Tavnis xSirad da bevrjel

gadatrialebiT imdeni moigos, ramodenisac erTxanad

vaWars sixarbe aqvs. amerikeli vaWari cota

sargebelsac sjerdeba, radganac iq Tavni iefia da

amasTan iseTi estibari da ndoba aqvs evropiis


vaWrebTana, rom unaxavadac marto erTis depeSiT

milionebis pursa hyidis da hyidulobs da

darwmunebulia, rom arc meoreSi arc TviTon

mostyuvdeba da arc sxvas moatyuebs.

yovelive es imisTana garemoebaa, rom amerikis

puris vaWroba Cvens vaWrobas purisas ar axeirebs

saqveyno bazarSi, Tu erTi ubeduri weliwadi ar

Sexvda amerikasa.

meore didi boRazi purisa indoeTia, romelsac

dRes TiTqmis mesame adgili uWiravs puris

saqveyno bazarSi. indoeTSi muSa Zlier iefia, da

Tumca didi sasixarulo aq ara aris ra, magram am

iefobis gamo puris moyvanac iefad ujdebaT. Tvi-

Ton miwebi Zlier nayofieria da cda ingliselebisa,

rom puris vaWrobaSi indoeTma Tu ar

ajobos amerikas, bevriT aRaras CamorCes ra, amao

cda ar aris. jer es warmoidgineT, rom iq aTas

xuTasi millioni desetina mSvenieri miwa jer Tavisufalia,

uqmad aris da elis kacis marjvena

xels, rom sul sayaned gadaiqces. garda amisa,

indoeTi evropiis bazarzed ufro axloa, vidre

amerika. es garemoeba puris gadatanis fass hcvlis

indoeTis sasargeblod da amerikis sawinaaRmdegod.

garda amisa, ingliselebi hcdiloben indoeTis

Sida gzebi imodenad kargi iqonion, rom puris

gamotana Signidam navsadgurebamde bevri ara hjdebodes.

imis magaliTad, Tu ramodenad marjved mihyavT

ingliselebs am mxriT saqme, sayuradReboa

Semdegi cifrebi. 1853 wels indoeTSi rkinis gzebi

sul 20 1 / 2 inglisuri milis * manZilzed iyo; 1860

w. 839 mili rkinis gza hqondaT ukve; 1870 w. _

4,775; 1895 w. _ 6,519 da 1881 wlis dasasruls

_9,875. ese swrafad keTeba rkinis gzebisa am

sidide manZilzed im qveyanaSi, saca imodena sim-

* inglisuri mili - 1 1 /2 verstia.

15


avlea mkvidrTa da imodena buneburi simdidrea,

aSkarad gvaCvenebs imas, Tu ra bedi moelis

indoeTs saqveyno bazarSi sazogadod da puris

vaWrobaSi sakuTriv. TiTqmis amisTana saxeiro

gzazedve sdgas avstraliaca, es meoTxe boRazi

purisa, da modiT da Tqven iqonieT imedi, rom,

Tu ar uecari da iSviaTi ram ubedureba Camo-

Tvlil qveynebisa, sxva raime aiZulebs saqveyno

bazris muStars am boRazebs purisas Tavi daanebos

da CvenSi movides savaWrod!.. am iSviaTis ubedurobis

imediT nuravin nu mostyuvdeba da xvnis da

Tesvis raodenoba marto Sinaurs bazarzed gaiangariSos.

Torem Tu wascda da am 1885 da 1886

wlebis iSviaTs magaliTebs mihyva, puri ambrebSi

daulpeba da zaralis mets aras hnaxavs. imas aRar

vityviT, rom arc am wlebis fasebma purisam

imodenad aiwia, rom didad saxarbielo yofiliyo

miwaTmomqmedisaTvis. Tu es asea dRes, roca aseTi

iSviaTi da CvenTvis saxeiro weliwadebi Segveswro,

ra unda vigulisxmoT maSin, roca ruseTs,

amerikas, indoeTs, avstralias da sxva qveynebs

Tavisi orTa Sua mosavali mouvaT!.. maSin is

iqneba, rac 1884 w. mogvivida; Sin saxmarzed nametani

puri fuTi Svid Saurad, or abazad da cxra

Saurad Znelad iyideboda da es TiTqmis marto

momkisa, kalozed mitanis da galewvis fassac ar

aayenebs; xvna-farcxva, Tesli, Rala ki tyuilubralod

ikargeba samudamod. aSkaraa, Cveni qveyana am

mxriT wels ver gaimagrebs. Cven marto imas unda

vecadoT, _ puri imodenad moviyvanoT, rom sasyideli

ar gagvixdes Cven da Cvens Sinaurs eyos. miwaTmoqmedeba

da sazogadod soflis meurneoba Cveni

sxva imisTana saganzed unda miiqces, romlis

gamoc CvenTan cilobis gaweva saqveyno vaWrobaSi

Znelia. adgili da hava amis nebas gvaZlevs. sxva

rom ara vsTqvaT ra, ai Tund aviRoT magaliTad

16


Rvino. amaSi Cveni bevrni mocileni ver amogviCndebian

da Tu amogviCndebian, aqauris Rvinis sike-

Te Rones gvaZlevs brZolisaTvis da imeds gamarjvebisas.

17


18

«bambis bambis moyvanis moyvanis saqme saqme da da bazris

bazris

sakiTxi sakiTxi»

sakiTxi sakiTxi

tfilisi, 8 ianvari

ruseTSi didZali fabrikebi da qarxanebia bambeulobis

saqonlis safeiqrosi. Tanxa, romelsac

am saqmeSi ruseTi yovelwliv atrialebs, ramdensame

ass milions maneTs iWers. am bambeulobis saqonlis

safeiqro fabrikebsa da qarxanebsa ramdenime

asi aTasi muSakaci undeba. maSasadame,

esgvari safabriko mrewveloba inaxavs da hkvebavs

ramdensame asi aTas muSakacs Tavis saxleulobiTa

da col-SviliTa. aqedama sCans, ra didi mniSvneloba

unda hqondes saero ekonomiisaTvis da saxelmwifo

interesisaTvis amgvars mrewvelobasa.

xolo sxva mxriTac metad sazrunvelia da safiqrebeli

eg mrewveloba ruseTisaTvis. saqme is

aris, rom TviTon masala am fabrikebisaTvis, e.i.

bamba, ruseTs samzRvargareTidam Semoaqvs da amis

gamo es uSvelebeli mrewveloba ruseTisa sxva

qveynebzea damokidebuli. ruseTi bambas samzRvargared

hyidulobs da am gziT samzRvargareTs

yovelwliv TiTqmis 75 millioni maneTi oqros

fuli gaaqvs ruseTidam. es garemoeba aramc Tu av-


nebs egred wodebuls ”savaWro balanss” *

ruseTisas, aramed TviT veqsilis kurssac afolebs

da am mxriT vneba moaqvs saxelmwifo interesebisaTvisac.

yovelive es karga xania SeniSnulia mTavrobisaganac

da ruseTis Jurnal-gazeTebisaganac.

dRes am bambis Taobaze laparakia atexili im azriT,

rom ruseTma rogorme Tavisi sakuTari bamba

gaiCinos da iqonios. saqarTvelo sakuTriv,

amierkavkasia saerTod, da Sida azia, saca exla

ruseTs uzarmazari adgilebi upyria, aseTi qveynebi

arian, romelTac hava, adgilmdebareoba da

TviTon adgili xels uwyobs bambis moyvanisaTvis.

am ambavma Cven gagvaxsena 1862 da Semdegi wlebi,

roca qarTl-kaxeTSi da nametnavad imereTSi bambis

moyvanazed miimarTa didi da patara, visac ki codna

da weli miuZRoda. im xanebSi karga Zali bamba

mohyvandaT da kai fasadac iyideboda. nametnavad

imereTma imarjva am SemTxvevaSi, radganac zRva axlo

hqonda da gadatanis fasi SesaZlebel hyofda

bambis sapalnebis sxvazed iefad zidvasa. rom es

ambavi CvenTvis sakuTriv da amierkavkasiisaTvis

saerTod alalbedobisa da SemTxvevis mowyaleba

iyo, rogorc dRes puris vaWrobaa CvenSi, es imiTi

mtkicdeba, rom dRes bamba TiTqmis aRaravis mohyavs

da mis moyvanazed TiTqmis xeli aiRes. ra

SemTxveva iyo iseTi, rom maSin amisTana ciebcxeleba

SeudgaT bambis moyvanisa da dRes ki ase

dascxra da ganelda?

yvelazed udidesi boRazi bambisa isev Crdilo

amerikaa. aseTive iyo igi winadac. mTels saqveyno

bazars TiTqmis marto Crdilo amerika uZRveboda

* savaWro balansi imas hqvian, roca Sewonilia Semotanilis da gatanilis

saqonlis fasi, da Tu Semotanilisa aRemateba gatanilisas, maSin amboben,

balansi sazaraloao.

19


da aZRobda, minam Crdilo amerikis saqme Tavis rigsa

da weszed midioda, bamba ruseTis umTavres bazarSi

niJegarodis “iarmukazed” fuTi oTxsa da

xuT maneTad gadioda. maSin, rasakvirvelia, Cveneburs

mowarmoebs bambisas xels ar miscemda bamba

moeyvana, radganac marto gadatanis fasi manaTamde

adioda fuTzed da mwarmoebels fudzed marto

manaTi an ori manaTiRa rCeboda yovelgvar xarjis

asayeneblad da Tavis gasamrjelod. Tqma ar unda,

rom amisTana garemoeba aravis waaqezebda im

rTulsa, xarjians da Znel muSaobisaTvis, romelic

bambis moyvanas sWirdeba. amitomac im dromde

bambis moyvana CvenSi ise kantikuntad sadme, xilad

Tu iqneboda, Torem gamosarComad ki TiTqmis arsad

iyo, erevnis guberniis garda. erevnis guberniaSi

bambis moyvana xels aZlevda maSin imitom,

rom Sin da ruseTSi rkinis gzebi ase xSiri ar

iyo da amerikis bambis Semotana Sida ruseTSi avis

gzebis xarjs ZlivZliobiT asdioda. ase, rom

erevnidan bambis waReba cotaodnad ufro sarfa

iyo, vidre amerikidama. es imitom, rom Sida ruse-

Tis gzebzed erevnis gubernia ufro axloa, vidre

amerika, da Tu am gzebzed orsave erTi xarji

undebodaT, amerikis bambas fasi emateboda

amerikidam ruseTamde mosatanisa.

xolo roca Crdilo amerikis Stateb Soris

omi astyda, maSin bambis iqidam zidva Seswyda. ase,

rom evropiis bazarSi TiTqmis xsenebac ki gaswyda

bambisa. maSin iyo is saxelovani gaWirveba, romelsac

“bambis kriziss” eZaxian da romelmanc

auarebeli qoneba mefabrikeebisa da meqarxneebisa

STanTqa da TviTon fabrikebi da qarxanebi inglissa

da ruseTSi pirqve daamxo. marto ruseTSi

659 safeiqro fabrikebidam, romelnic 1860 wels

moqmedebdnen, 1863 wels 388-Ra darCa, TiTqmis

naxevarze Camoxta. isic ZlivZlivobiT suls

20


itrialebdnen. bamba Sida aziisa da buxarisa,

romelic 1860-mde fuTi oTx da xuT manaTad Zliv

gadioda niJegorodis dids bazarSi, Crdilo

amerikis Statebis omis dros 1861 w. Svid-rva manaTamde

aiwia, 1862 wels _ Tormet-camet mana-

Tamde da 1863 wels ki ocdaor-ocdasam manaTamde.

ra Tqma unda, amgvarma yofam bambis saqmisam mTels

qveynierobazed Tavisi zemoqmedeba iqonia. muStari

bambisa buzsaviT yvelgan ireoda, rasakvirvelia, im

qveynebSi ki, sadac hava da adgili bambis mosayvanad

Sesaferisi iyo. am didma fasebma da muStarma

Cvenamdinac moaRwia da yvela, didi da patara,

visac ki xeli miuwvdeboda, miawyda bambis saqmesa.

im xanad imereTma kargi gamorComa hnaxa da es

SemTxveva yvelazed ukeTesad iman gamoiyena: did-

Zali Tesva bambisa daiwyes imereTSi da karga

fuli gainaRdes am gziT. dRes bambis moyvanis

saqme CvenSi srulad Semwydaria da es wyaro simdidrisa

xelidan gamogvecala. ra iyo amisi mizezi

da ra RonisZiebaa saxmari, rom es saxeiro saqme

CvenTvisac da ruseTisaTvisac kvlav aRorZindes,

amazed Semdegs nomerSi movilaparakebT

21


22

tfilisi, 9 ianvari

ra Tqma unda, rom Tu ruseTs hsurs Tavisi

sakuTari bamba iqonios da am mxriT sxva

qveynebzed ar iyos damokidebuli, bambis moyvanas

Zalian xeli unda Seuwyos yvelgan, saca ki hava

da adgili Sesaferia am mcenarisa. Sida aziis

garda, bamba Zalian kargad modis amierkavkasiaSi.

qarTl-kaxeTi da erTob imereTi amisaTvis Zalian

kargi adgilebia da am mxareSi rom mTavrobam

Tavisi Semweoba moaSvelos miwismoqmedTa da

pirvel xanebSi mainc yovelisferSi xeli

gaumarTos, yovelgvari SeRavaTi misces, didZals

bambas ruseTi jer am amierkavkasiaSi iSovis.

swored ese moiqcnen ingliselebi. roca Crdilo

amerikis Statebs Soris omi astyda da bambis

krizisma Tavi iCina, ingliselebma araviTari Rone,

araviTari xarji, araviTari Semweoba ar dahzoges,

rom sadme Tavis saxelmwifos samzRvrebSi

aaRorZinon da fexzed daayenon. indoeTsa da

egvipteSiac ki, romelic ingliselebs arc ki

ekuTvniT, didZali mecadineoba ixmares, didZali

fuli daatriales amis gulisaTvis. garda amisa,

TviT inglisis fulis patronTac, rogorc kerZo

kacTa, didZali fuli miaSveles brazilias da

xvna-Tesva bambisa didad gaaZlieres iqac ki. am

mTavrobisa da kerZo kacTa cdam da xarjma amaod

ar CauaraT ingliselebsa. am mecadineobis da

xarjis Sedegi is iyo, rom 1.800.000 fuTi bamba,

romelic 1862_63 w.w. gamohqondaT, magaliTebr,

egviptidam, cxra million fuTamde aiyvanes 1884-

85 wlebSi. es imodena bambaa, ramodenic ruseTis

mrewvelobas da erTob ruseTis bazars TiTqmis

srulebiTa hyofnis. dRes inglisi cotad Tu

bevrad daimedebulia, rom rac unda uecari

ubedureba SeemTxves Crdilo amerikis bambasa,


inglisi cotad Tu bevrad daimedebuli iqneba, rom

fabrikebi da qarxanebi ar moucdeba.

ingliselebis mixedviT, Tu sakuTaris mignebiT,

ruseTSiac fulis patronebma, kerZo kacebma xeli

mohkides am saqmesa da ganizraxes riTme moh-

Svelebodnen im qveynebs, saca bamba modis. amas

winad sovdagarma marozovma Cvens soflis sameurnio

sazogadoebas bambis Tesli gamougzavna, rom

xalxs daurigdes da xalisi aRuZras bambis moyvanisa.

sazogadoebam dauriga igi Tesli, magram,

samwuxarod, Tesli imodenad uxeiro gamodga, rom

moscda da ar amovida. TviT mTavrobasac ori naswavli

kaci gaugzavnia amerikaSi, rom iswavlon

bambis moyvanis xeli da mere ruseTis samzRvrebSi

mohfinon Tavisi swavla da codna da am mxriT,

Seweoba aRmouCinon mowaTmomqmedTa. rasakvirvelia,

es RonisZiebani sakmaoni ar arian, rom xalxma xeli

mohkidos bambis moyvanis saqmesa, Tumca arc

uimisoa, rom cotaodnad mainc xeli ar moumar-

Tos. CvenSi bambis moyvanis saqmis codna, mar-

Talia, imodena ar aris, ramodenic sanatrelia,

magram imodeni kia, kaci cotad Tu bevrad am

mxriT dids dabrkolebas vera hnaxavs. xom iyo

CvenSi cotad Tu bevrad gaZlierebuli bambis

moyvanis saqme 1862-63-64 da sxva wlebSi, minam

bamba kai fasad gadioda da xalxs xels aZlevda.

saqme is aris,_xalxma guli daajeros, rom bambis

moyvana sarfaa, Torem moiyvanos da im fasad

hyidos, rom xarji Zlivs aayenos, _ amas vera

miwaTmomqmedi ver gauZlebs. es garemoeba suls

amoarTmevs xelaxlad dawyobils saqmesa da xalxi,

rasakvirvelia, moerideba, rac unda kargi Tesli

bambisa urigon da rac unda bevri uqadagon mswavlulma

da mcodne kacebma.

rom es ase ar moxdes, saWiroa xalxi darwmunebuli

iyos, rom 1) misi bamba ruseTis

23


azarSi gava da 2) fasi gamosarComi eqmneba. saca

saqonels bazari ara aqvs da amasTanac gamorComa

ram, iq yovelive cda amaoa. Tu marTla sasurvelia

ruseTisaTvis, rom amierkavkasiam Tavisi bamba

miaSvelos, saqme ise unda moawyon, rom am survilis

aRsrulebis gzac misce. Cveni ekonomiuri

ubedureba is aris aqac, rac puris vaWrobaSi:

gadatanis xarji metad Zvirad ujdeba mwarmoebels

da esa gvxuTavs Cven yovelisferSi. jer rom rkinis

gza metad did fuls iRebs saqonlis waRebwamoRebisaTvis,

mere TviTon rkinis gzamdinac mitana

Wiria ugzoukvloobis gamo. ai, am mxriT

moSveleba unda, visac hsurs bambis moyvanis saqmes

fexi aadgmevinos CvenSi. gamocnobilia da gamoangariSebuli,

rom Tu bambis mitana moskovSi

manaTzed da manaTs uzalTunzed meti dajda, Cvens

bambas gasavali ar eqmneba, an Tu eqmneba, bambis

patroni zaralis mets verasa hnaxavs. rusuli

gazeTebi amboben, rom samxreT ruseTis rkinis

gzebisa ruseTis naosnobis da vaWrobis sazogadoebis

Soris molaparakeba ariso, rom Sida aziis

bambis gadmotana moskovamde xuT abaz uzalTunzed

meti ar daujdes fuTio. swored amisTana gankargulebaa

saWiro Cvenis mxris bambisaTvisac, Tu

visme hsurs bambis moyvanas CvenSi fexi aadgmevinos

imodenad, ramodenadac sasurvelia. Torem dRes

fuTi moskovamde TiTqmis sami manaTi marto gadatana

jdeba da sad gauZlebs amodena xarjs Cveneburi

bamba?

24


«iase iase andronikaSvili

andronikaSvili»

andronikaSvili

tfilisi, 10 ianvari.

Cumi, mSvidobiani, dinji, aramyvirala da Cxavana

moRvaweoba, _ saca unda iyos, _ Tu gulmxurvalobiT

aris gamTbari, gulmodgineobiT warmar-

Tuli, erTgulebiT Zirmagari da patiosnebiT na-

Telcxebuli, _ utyuari niSania moRvawis didbunebovanobisa.

iqneba zogierTebs examuSos,

zogierTs eucxovos es Cveni azri, da sityva Semogvibrunos:

“didi saqmea marto utyuari niSani

TviTon mosaqmis didbunebovanobisao”. es marTalia,

Tu saqme qmnilia. Tu ar aris qmnili da marto

amao TavmowonebiT da cudmedidobiT xelwatanebulia,

maSin saqme didia Tu patara, sul erTia: igi

xelis wamtanebelis qarafSutobas ufro gvisabu-

Tebs da gvimtkicebs, vidre didbunebovanobasa.

maSasadame, am SemTxvevaSi Zala qmnasa hqonia da

ara marto xelis watanebasa da fotinsa. araqmna

yovel dids saqmes amcirebs da qmna ki patarasac

didsa hxdis. esec marTalia, rom qveyanazed bevri,

imisTana bevri saqmea, romelic TavisTavad hxmaurobs,

qarbuqs ayenebs da yvelas Tvalwin udga

mTelis Tavis sididiTa. xolo imisTana saqmenic

arian, romelTac JRarunebi ara aqvT da ara

hxmauroben, magram miT ara naklebi mniSvneloba

25


aqvT wuTisoflis simwaris dasatkboblad da simwvavis

gasaneleblad, amisTana saqmea, magaliTad,

marTlmsajuleba. igi ar daiareba qveyanazed buki-

Ta da naRariTa. misTa msaxurTa mzadmzareuli

gvirgvini Saravandedisa ar adgiaT Tavzed, rom

diadobis qari hqondes kacTa TvalTaTvis. rogorc

TviTon marTlmsajuleba, isec misni msaxurni,

mSvidobianad, ubuknaRarod saqmoben Tavis saqmesa

da mSvidobas qveynisas, sikeTes ojaxisas, namuss

da patiosnebas adamianisas hpatronoben da esar-

Clebian. Tu ese ar aris, ase mainc unda iyos da

Cven maszed ki ar vlaparakobT, rac aris, aramed

maszed, rac unda iyos.

nuTu am aramyvirala saqmeSi kaci Cabmuli da

patiosnad moRvawe, ar SeiZleba didbunebovani

iyos, marto imitom, rom TviTon saqme myvirala

ar aris, Cumia da xmaamouRebeli? nuTu TviTon

saqme, uromlisodac mTeli qveynieroba erTs

areuls da erTmaneTis mWamels mxecTa grovas

warmoadgenda, nuTu, _ vambobT, _ TviTon eg saqme

didi ar aris marto imitom, rom bukiTa da naRariT

ar iCens Tavsa!... saqme didia da didi aris

igic, vinc gulTbilad, kacTmoyvareobiT, patiosnad

da sworis sasworiT xelSi emsaxura da

hmsaxurobs.

erTi amisTana msaxuri marTlmsajulebisa aris

T. iase adamis Ze andronikaSvili, romelsac 23-s

Tebervals 1887 wlisas usruldeba ormocdaaTi

weliwadi mas aqed, rac saxelmwifo samsaxurSia

da ormocdaerTi weliwadi mas aqed, rac

hmsajulobs CvenSi. maSasadame, igi yofila msajulad

imisTana xanebSiac, roca axali wesebi Semo-

Rebulni ar iyvnen da Zvelni ki, samarTlianad

aTvalwunebulni, msajuls saxsars aZlevda

yovelive cudkacoba Caedina da samarTlis saswori

ise ebrudebina, rogorc gunebaSi gauvlida. Tqma

26


ar unda, rom amisTana yofa marTlmsajulebisa

mizezs aZlevda kacs aTasnairi marTali da

tyuili brali SeewamaT maSindel msajulTaTvis,

magram T. iase andronikaSvilma dResaqamomde ise

patiosnad da marTlad atara Tavisi saxeli, rom

arc erTxel TviTon cilmac ki ver Sehbeda ciliswameba;

arc erTxel yovelTa siwmindis SembRalveli

borotebac ki avgulis kacisa imodenad

ver gakadnierda, rom mcireodeni Crdili mainc

mieyenebina mis keTilsindisianobisa da patiosnebisaTvis.

metad wminda da Suqsxmuli patiosneba

unda iyos, rom amodena xnis ganmavlobaSi yovelis

gambedavi cili da boroteba adamianisa ver hbedavdes

moscxos ram da enaCavardnili da gabaTilebuli

mis winaSe pirqve daemxos!...

marto am mxriT ar aris cnobili CvenSi T.

iase andronikaSvili. misi miudgomeli piruTvneli

simarTle, misi gulmodgineba saqmisa, dauRalavi

Sroma, misi saqmeSi suliT da guliT Caxedva,

misi gulSematkivroba, kacTmoyvareoba, siTbo da

sitkbo, _ yvelam icis, yvelas enazed akeria. saca

marTalia, iq T. andronikaSvilisaTvis sxva ar

aris ra marTlis meti: arc naTesaoba, arc megobroba,

arc Txovna-vedreba ara sWris-ra erTxel

mis mier aRiarebul marTlis meti. ara erTxel da

orjel Cvenis yuriT gagvigonia: madloba RmerTs,

dRes T. iase andronikaSvili iqneba Cemis saqmis

msajulada, sxvaTa Soris, da imedia, marTals mosarCle

eyoleba da samarTlis saswors _ mfarveli

ganaCenis dadgenis drosao. vinc icis, ra didi

ganZi unda zneobisa, rom kacma sazogadod da msajulma

sakuTriv amisTana ndoba moipovos, is Cven

aRar mogvkiTxavs qebasa da didebasa T. andronikaSvilisas,

rogorc sasiqadulo kacisas da yovlad

patiosan msajulisas.

27


saxelmwifo samsaxurSi myofsa, arc sazogadoebis

samsaxuri dahzarebia odesme T. andronikaSvils.

aTi weliwadi emsaxura Cvenis bankis saqmesa

uangarod, usasyidlod, imave siyvaruliT,

gulmxurvaleobiT da gulmodginebiT, rogorc

cnobilia yvelgan da yvelasagan. arc erTi samadlo

saqme ara keTdeba CvenSi, rom iq T. iase andronikaSvilis

wvlili da xeli ar erios. amisaTvis

ara xarjs, ara garjas da Semweobas ar mohridebia

Tvis da sasaxelod da umweoTa sasixarulod.

aseTia igi kaci, romelsac upireben dRe

ormocdaaTis wlis moRvaweobisa pativiscemiT gadauxadono!

ufross Tavmjdomares sasamarTlos

palatisas b-n ganCarovs, aqaur gazeTebis sityviT,

ganuzraxavs, sasamarTlos moxeleTa erTob pativi

agon dRes T. iase andronikaSvilis ormocdaaTi

wlis Seumwikvlel samsaxurisas da miT daumtkicon

Tvisi piruTvneli, guliTadi pativiscema

kacs, romelic yovlad Rirseuli warmomadgenelia

marTlmsajulebisa kavkasiaSi.

Tu marto sasamarTlos moxeleTaTvis ar aris

es ganzraxva, rasakvirvelia, mravalni sxvanic

moiwadineben monawileoba miiRon da am gziT

gamoucxadon Tavisi guliTadi pativiscema da siyvaruli

kacs, romlis moRvaweoba esoden yvelasaTvis

samagaliToa. Tu ara da sasurvelia, rom tfilisis

sazogadoebam, yvelam saerTod, pativi sces

am dRes T. andronikaSvils Tavis mxriTac da amiT

daamtkicos, rom kaikacobas, keTil-sinidisianobas

da patiosnebas, didsa Tu patara saqmeSi, CvenSiac

pativi da dideba aqvs da eqneba. Znelad Sexvdeba

kaci, rom pativiscema da siyvaruli sazogadoebisa

ise marTlad da utyuarad Seewonos WeSmarits

Rirsebasa, rogorc am SemTxvevaSi. nu viqnebiT

umadurni da yvelas Tavisi mivuwyoT xolme.

xalisi amiTi mxneobs da mxneoba amiT hxalisobs.

28


«bismarkis bismarkis bismarkis sityva sityva samxedro samxedro kanonis

kanonis

Sesaxeb Sesaxeb» Sesaxeb

tfilisi, 12 ianvari.

mTeli evropaa da T. bismarkis sityva, Tqmuli

parlamentSi samxedro kanonis Sesaxeb T. bismarki

da, maSasadame, mTavroba germaniisa hTxoulobda,

rom parlamentma neba da fuli misces 41 000

kaciT meti jari iyolios germaniam. vidre exla

hyavs im ueWvelis zed damatebiT, rom amisi neba

da fuli hqondes mTavrobasa Svidis wlis ganmavlobaSi

Seucvlelad da daurRvevlad. parlamenti,

romelic hxedavs rarig mZime tvirTad

daawveba xarji am 41 000 kacisa germaniis ersa,

uimisodac metad damZimebulsa da Sewuxebuls

mravalgvaris xarjiTa, winaaRudga am axals

kanons. SesaniSnavi es aris, rom parlamentma

mTlad ara hyo uari da gadaswyvita, eg kanoni

miRebul iqnas marto samis wliTa da ara Svidis

wliTa. am gadawyvetilebaSi ori sagania sagulisxmiero;

erTi isa rom TviTon parlamenti

guldajerebuli yofila, rom exlandeli mdgomareoba

germaniisa marTla jaris momatebas

hTxoulobs da maSasadame, SiSi ram dasdgomia

Tvalwin parlamentsa; meore isa, rom parlamenti

veRara hndobia T. bismarkis politikas didis

29


xnobiT da amisaTvis samis wlis vadiT neba miucia

meti jari iyolios da mere ki xelaxlad gansajos

TviTon parlamentma, _ saWiroa kidev Tu

ara amodena jaris yola. ase axsna opoziciis mo-

Tavem vindgorstma samis wlis vadianoba, romelzedac

bolos TviT parlamentic dadga. T. bismarkma

bevri ilaparaka maszed, rom Cveni kanonproeqti

an ucvlelad miiReT, ese igi, mTelis

Svidis wlis vadiTao, an arada parlaments davi-

TxovT da xelaxlad arCevans davniSnavTo. parlamenti

ar SeuSinda am muqarasa da ar Seiwynara

bismarkis Txovna. T bismarkma iqav parlamentSive

amoiRo ubidam brZaneba imperatorisa, winadve

momzadebuli, da waukiTxa parlamentsa, rom

daTxovnili xarT da axali arCevania daniSnulio.

am saxiT dRes germaniaSi parlamenti daSlilia.

am ambavma mTeli qveyana aayayana. zogi ras

ambobs, zogi rasa da marTali ki jer gamocnobili

ar aris. ra Tqma unda, rom am marTlis sapovnelad

mivardnen T. bismarkis sityvas, parlamentSi

Tqmuls. amisTana orpira da orazrovani sityva

bevri ara Tqmula parlamentSi. cxadia T. bismarkma

mTeli Tavisi ostatoba ixmara, rom is ar

eTqva, rac gulSi edva da rasac marTali iTxovda.

avstriasTan Zalian da metismetad kargada varTo,

sTqva bismarkma; ruseTTan ise megobrulad varT,

rom aq araviTari eWvi ar gvaqvso; safrangeTs Cven

ar davecemiT, Tu isini ar dagvecemian da arca

gvgonia TviTon safrangeTmac am xanebSi xeli

gamoiRoso, da rac Seexeba bolgariis saqmes, Cven

iq ara gvtkivarao. maS, jaris momzadeba raRad

gindaTo, _ hkiTxes bismarksa, Tu yovelis mxriT

aseTi mSvidobiamoba mogveliso. aq iCina Tavi T.

bismarkis ostatobam. vin icis, ra ar moxdeso,

upasuxa: marTalia, dRes safrangeTi xmas ar iRebs,

magram is iseTi qveyanaa, xval aravin icis ras

30


moaxdenso. erTis sityviT, orWobad laparaki T

bismarkisa dRes mTelis evropis salaparako

sagania. TviTon T. bismarkmac ki aRiara, rom misi

sityva erTsa da imave dros “hoc” aris da “araca”.

“venaSi Cems sityvas ruseTis siyvarulSi

CamomarTmeven da peterburgSi _ avstria-vengriis

siyvarulSio”, sTqva man sxvaTa Soris. gamarTlda

es winaswarmetyveleba Tu ara, Cven ar viciT. Cven

mxolod amas vityviT, rom bismarkis sityvaSi

zogi SiSis sabuTs hxedavs, zogi nugeSinisas da

erTic da meorec marTalia: erTsa da imave

sityvaSi SiSic aris da nugeSic. Wkviani kaci

imiTia Wkviani, rom icis “zogjer TqmiTac

daSavdebis”. axla yvelafers xom ver vityviT,

wamoscda erTgan T. bismarksa. modi da aq is kaci

gaamtyune, romelic sxvas maxes ugebs, _ ratom ar

gveubnebi, ra maxes, sad da rogor gvigebo. amazea

naTqvami:

“swyurodes, wyalsa vin dahRvris

kaci uSmago, cnobili”!

31


32

«safrangeTis safrangeTis saerTaSoriso

saerTaSoriso

saerTaSoriso

mdgomareobis

mdgomareobis

mdgomareobis

ganmtkicebisaTvis ganmtkicebisaTvis zr zrunva zr zrunva

unva» unva

tfilisi, 13 ianvari.

am mTavar-ministrobidan gadamdgar freisines

magier, bevrsa hlaparakobdnen safrangeTSi, floke

gaministrdebao, magram es ver moxda da mTavar

ministrad mowveul iqmna goble. es floke

prezidenti iyo deputatTa palatisa da pirvels

ianvars xelmeored amorCeul iqmna am

TanamdebobisaTvis. daiWira Tu ara Tavisi adgili

palataSi, b-ma flokem, Cveulebisamebr, sityva

warmoTqva da madloba gadauxada palatas xelaxalad

amorCevisaTvis. rasakvirvelia, marto

madlobis Tqma ar ikmara b-ma flokem da arc

TviTon palata ikmarebda amisTana gaWirebuls

dros, Sina Tu gared. marTalia, politikaSi

gavlenian kacebs wesad miRebuli aqvT da xSirad

iZulebulnic arian sxvadasxva garemoebis gamo

mokle sityva grZlada sTqvan da amasTanave

iostaton da ara sTqvan ra. magram sityva mainc

sityvaa da kacma rac unda Tavi imalos soroSi,

rogorRac moxdeba xolme, rom kudi gared hrCeba.

bevri gazeTi, Sinauri Tu gareuli, flokes

sityvas mSvidobis momaswavebels sityvaTa sTvlis.


iqneba egrec iyos, xolo mis mier TqmulSi

oriode imisTana sityva urevia, rom kacs sul

sxvarigad Caafiqrebs.

b-nma flokem gadauxada ra madloba palatas

xelaxlad arCevisaTvis, sagrZnobelis sityviT

miiwvia palata, erToba da Tanxmoba urTierTSoris

iqonios, radganac simtkice da simkvidre

sarespubliko mTavrobisa amas iTxovs da uamisod

Tavs Znelad daiWerso. suliT da guliT

monatrebuli varT, rom igi mamuliSviluri cda

da msxverpli, romelsac safrangeTi eweva dRes

Cvenis erovnulis wyobis warmatebisaTvis da

gansakuTrebiT jaris gaZlierebisaTvis ar

dascxres da ar ganeldeso. “Tu Cven, dasTa sxvadasxvaobis

miuxedavad, erTnairis gulistkiviliT

mxars vaZlevT Cvens mSromels da gamrjels

ymawvilkacobas, Tu Cven erTsulobisagan

frTaasxmulni ara vzogavT arc Tavs, arc qonebas

Cvenis Zal-Ronis gaZlierebisaTvis, _ eg SiSiT ki

ar mogvdis, an gulswrafobiT da mouTmenelobiTa:

Cven gvinda safrangeTs moupovoT da SevurCinoT

sayovelTavo pativiscema”. am sityvazed mTelma

palatam taSis cemiT daigriala.

visac axsovs, rom safrangeTis damarcxebis

Semdeg, ese igi 1870 wels aqed bismarkis

mecadineobiT da xerxiT gamoZevebul iqmna vropiis

areopagidam; visac axsovs, rom damarcxebuli,

Ronemixdili, dazaralebuli, mamulebCamorTmeuli

safrangeTi dRes aqamomde, bismarkis wyalobiT,

CrdilSi iyo miyenebuli, TiTqmis aravin aras

ekiTxeboda saqveyno saqmeebSi, TiTqo ar arsebobso

da bismarkic arc erTs SemTxvevas ara hkargavda,

rom safrangeTis araraoba ar egrZnobinebina

safrangeTisaTvisve, _ visac yovelive es axsoms,

igi b-n flokes sityvaSi erTs axals sagans

dainaxavs, romlisaTvisac safrangeTi Tavs

33


gamoidebs. aqamde safrangeTis wina-kacni iZaxodnen,

rom Cven omis atexa ar gvinda, Tu Cvens arsebobas

ar Seexebiano. TviTon misTanebSi metad kadnieri

da gambedavi samxedro ministri bulanJe amas

ambobda xolme, roca SemTxveva da garemoeba

gamoiwvevda saTqmelad. exla b-n flokes

sityvisagan Cans, rom safrangeTi mzad aris Tavi

gamoidos aramcTu maSin, roca mis arsebobas

Seexebian, aramed sayovelTavo pativiscemis

mosapoebladac da SesarCenad. visac sagnis gulSi

Caxedvis unari aqvs, is aSkarad dainaxavs, rom

arsebobis dacva da pativis Sovnis wyurvili erTi

da igive sagani ar aris. pirvels wamlad eyofa

frTxili lodinica, kargad mzad yofa mtris

mosagereblad da dasaxvedrad, meores – xelTa

ganZreva unda, fexis win wadgma da ara dgoma da

lodini. raca gaqvs, imisaTvis faria saWiro, rac

saSovaria, imisaTvis – xmali. erTs dgoma unda,

meores – svla. es flokes sityva, erTianis taSiT

miRebuli safrangeTis deputatTa palatisagan,

nugeSia Tu sxva ram – eg TviTon mkiTxvelma

gamoicnos. Cven ki ese gvgonia, rom T. bismarks

erTi aqamde utkivari tkivili unda moematos: T.

bismarkma Zalian kargad icis, rom modi da mnaxe, -

erTia, da moval da gnaxav – sul sxvaa, roca

mteri mters eubneba. pirvelSi Sen gelodeba,

meoreSi Sen galodinebs. erTs erTi qari aqvs,

meores – meore. esea da ese! ... ras izam!

34

“ar dawynardeba qveyana

da misi sanaxavebi”.


«aJiotaJi aJiotaJi bismarkis bismarkis sityvis sityvis gamo gamo» gamo

tfilisi, 15 ianvari.

mTeli evropa hcdilobs RviZli upovos

bismarkis sityvasa, misi gulisnadebi xelis

gulzed gaigoros. “rogor da riT gaTavdeba

yovelive esao? es Savi Rrublebi, romelic Tavs

dastrialebs evropasa, gaifanteba, Tu Weqaquxilis

momaswavebeliao?” hkiTxuloben yvelani,

didi Tu patara. veravis ver miugnia, - ra sTqva

bismarkma TqmiTa da ra ara sTqva araTqmiTa.

“bismarkis sityvaSio,_ ambobs erTi gazeTi:

SesaZloa kacma nugeSi mSvidobianobisac ipovoso.

arc ki es aris dasamalavi, rom imav sityvaSi

yvelaferia, rasac ki kaci moindomebso”.

nametnavad safrangeTis gazeTebma miaqcies am

sityvas yuradReba da TiTqo gamocnobaSi

erTmaneTs ejibrebiano, ise xarbad ewafebian

yvelani am sityvasa. sakvirvelic ar aris.

mometebuli nawili bismarkis sityvisa imazea

miqceuli, reixstagi daajeros, rom adre Tu gvian

omi safrangeTsa da germaniis Sua aucilebelia.

aSkaraa, gazeTebi safrangeTisa amisTana laparaks

ar gauCumdebodnen. es ki unda iTqvas rom

safrangeTis Jurnal-gazeToba bismarkis sityvas

frTxilad da TavdaWeriT moepyra. sityva-pasuxi

35


safrangeTis gazeTebisa am saganze ise moqmedobs,

TiTqo bismarkis sityvaSi safrangeTisaTvis

nugeSisa da dawynarebis meti ara iyo ra da

TiTqo bismarkma yovelive SiSi gansacdelisa

ganufanta. magram vin icis? gveli garedam aris

Wreli, kaci Signidam. iqneba guli rom kargad

dauCxrikos adamianma safrangeTis gazeTebis

Tqmulsa, sul sxva gamovides. iqneba safrangeTi

gambetas anderZs misdevs. erTxel amana sTqva: ”oms

nu axsenebT Tavis dReSi da omis wadili ki

yovelTvis gulSi gqondeT da amisaTvis zrunevdeTo”.

SeiZleba esec iyos.

bismarkma es kargad icis. “safrangeTSio, sTqva

man: amboben Cven vSiSobT, germania ar dagveces

Tavzed. nu daijerebT, rom marTla es ase iyos da

vinc amas ambobs safrangeTSi, TviTon imanac icis,

rom marTals ar ambobso”... “gana ariso,- ambobs

sxva adgilas bismarki: an erTi gazeTi

safrangeTSi, an erTi kaci imisTana, rom sTqvas, -

Cven xeli agviRia elzas-lotaringiazedao?”

maSasadame, bismarkis azriT, tkivili safrangeTisa

dauamebelia da omic aucilebeli, Tumca amas ki

umatebs, rom exlandels saministros safrangeTisas

omi fiqradac ara aqvso, magram vin icis,

xval vin Caigdebs xelSi safrangeTis gamgeblobasao?

uceb generali bulanJe rom moeqces

kenweroSio, maSin?... samxedro diqtatura gana

axali ambavia safrangeTisaTvisao? erTxel

momxdara eg ambavi, Tu orjelo? Tu diqtatoroba

safrangeTSi bevrjel yofila, ratom exla ki ar

SeiZleba moxdeso? esa da amisebrivi sxva sabuTebi

mohyavs bismarks imis dasamtkiceblad, rom omi

aucilebelia safrangeTsa da germanias Soris.

“rodis aris mosalodneli eg omio? hkiTxulobs

bismarki: aTs dRes ukan Tu aTs wels ukan? ai

sakiTxavi, romlis pasuxi me ver gamomicvnia. me

36


jer 1867 w. vsTqvi, rom luqsemburgis Taobazed

ara Rirs omi avstexoT meTqi; exlac amasve vambob.

me guldajerebiT veras vityvi mermiszeda. es ki

vici, rom mermisSi garemoeba ufro Cvenda

saxeirod moewyoba swored ise, rogorc 1870

wels moewyo, vidre 1867 w. iyo mowyobilio”.

1867 w. bismarkma ukan daixia da omi ar autexa

safrangeTs luqsemburgis gamo, Tumca aq bevri ram

uwoda maSindels germanias, ratom, imitom rom

garemoeba xels ar uwyobda. 1870 wels ki mtveri

aadina safrangeTs, radganac maSin garemoeba misken

iyo. “exlac imas vambob, rasac maSinao”. aqedam

gamodis, vaTomc exlac safrangeTi aqvs niSanSi

amoRebuli da marto elis, garemoeba misda

sasargeblod moewyos, rom miesios da tuta

adinos. amis meti daskvna sxva ar SeiZleba ra

kacma gamoiyvanos mis zemoTqmul sityvebisagan.

marTla ki egrea? ara gvgonia. ara gvgonia, imitom

rom WkvaTamyofeli kaci Tavis mters egre aSkarad

ar gadauSlis Tavis gulisnadebsa. es erTi, meore

isa, rom gonieri kaci Tavis mters ver etyvis:

exla garemoeba imodenad ara mSveliso, rom Sen

mogeriovo da mere ki me vicio. orSi erTi: an

bismarki atyuebs safrangeTsa, rom magas eubneba,

miTam da, dee, uRonod migulos, vacdino da

gamemklavoso, an TvaliT erTisaken iyureba da

niSanSi ki sxva hyavs amoRebuli sacdenada!.. Cven

es ukanaskneli ufro WkvasTan axlod migvaCnia.

aba, zemoTqmuls sityvaSi “luqsemburgis” magier

“bolgaria” CasviT, da cota CaufiqrdiT

exlandels dros da exlandels garemoebas, Tu

amocana TavisTavad erTad ar gadixsnas! .. am crusamyofels

wuTisofelSi yvelaferi mosalodnelia.

an ra gvikvirdes sawuTrosi! “ra uqmnia uarako’’!

37


38

«belgiis belgiis saomari mzadeba mzadeba»

mzadeba mzadeba

tfilisi, 16 ianvari.

1866 wels, roca bismarkma daupira avstrias

omi, raTa srulebiT germaniazed xeli aaRebinos

da piri aRmosavleTisaken aqmnevinos, maSin aqa-iq

xmebi ismoda, rom bismarki napoleons dahpirdao,

oRond Sen xels nu gamoiReb, nu damiSli

avstriazed guli vijero da im nawils belgiisas,

romelic Sens mxriv aris, Sens anabarad dagigdeb,

Tunda gadaylape, Tunda rac ginda, is uyavio;

erTis sityviT,_ Senc “su’’, roca me avstrias

wewvas davuwyeb da mec “su’’, roca Sen belgias

klanWs gamosdebo. ra Tqma unda, bismarkma

napoleoni amiT daiTaTbira, avstria miamtvria,

germaniidam gamoaZeva da ubrZana: Sen aq xeli ara

gaqvs, Seni saqme aRmosavleTiao da napoleons ki

SeuTvala, belgiazed nuras ukacravodao. es xmebi

maSin Worad dadioda da am Wors zogierTi sabuTi

hqonda. safrangeTisaTvis avstria didi ram iyo,

radganac scdilobda misis momxreobis SiSiT

prusia, romelic dRedadRe Zlierdeboda, Tavis

qerqSi emyofebina miT ufro, rom maSin germaniaSi

upiratesobisaTvis avstrias da prusias mudam

erTmaneTSi cili hqondaT da erTmaneTis jibri.

vis ar unda gahkvireboda, rom napoleonma xma ar


amoiRo da avstria prusias gaaTelvina da

amisaTvis ara gamorCa ra!... ai, im xmebis saTave sad

da raSi iyo. Tu im xmebs davijerebT, napoleoni

III, maSin evropis Tavmomwone da Zlieri

mbrZanebeli, am Cvenma bismarkma yinulzed gaacura,

Tavis wadili aisrula da imas ki TiTi gamouyo.

Tu kidev im xmebs avyvebiT, - es ambavi napoleonma

gulSi Caixvia da roca 1870 wels safrangeTi da

germania erTmaneTzed saomrad ailursnen da

Setotindnen, xma gaisma evropis Jurnal-gaze-

TobaSi, rom TavidaTavi mizezi amaTis aSlilobisa

bismarkisagan napoleonis motyueba ariso da

napoleoni javrs iyriso.

ramodenad marTalia is ambavi, rom

safrangeTsa da germanias belgiazed raRac

laparaki hqoniaT da raRac sixarbiT Tvali

sWeriaT, Cven amis gamokvlevas ver gamovudgebiT

da dRes arc saWiroa. Cven mxolod amas

SevniSnavT, rom, roca germanias da safrangeTs

mtroba gaumwvavdebaT, pataras da bedniers

belgias havo aeSleba xolme. sakvirvelic ar aris,

erTs lukmas belgias cal mxriT safrangeTi

miswolia da meores mxriT germania da aba,

aqlemebi rom waikidnen, kozaks ra xeiri daeyreba.

da ai, belgia saomars mzadebaSia da amis gamo

erTi gazeTi ambobs: “mTelis evropis gasaoceblad

exlandelis vaivaglaxis mizezad pawia belgia

gamodiso’’. amis Tqma _ Tu dacinva ar aris,

metismeti siTamamea gazeTis mier, magram belgia

iseTis siswrafiT da siCqariT iWurveba iaraRiTa

da saomrad emzadeba, rom marTla SesaniSnavia.

belgiis samxedro ministrs am dReebSi uTqvams,

rom swrafad SeiaraReba aucilebeli saWiroeba

ariso. gamosula belgiis mefis brZaneba, rom jars

moematos kidev ori axali razmi. Sin daTxovnilis

zurgis jaris aficrebi moiwvies, rom yvelam Tav-

39


Tavisi adgili daiWiros jarSi da amasac umateben,

rom am dReebSi palataSi Setanili iqneba

winadadeba, rom aekrZaloT cxenebis gayvana

belgiidam da winadve aRiniSnos wesi saomaris

begarisa, Tu vinicobaa omi moxda. ra Tqma unda,

aqed-iqidam ikiTxavdnen, - am facafucis mizezi ra

ariso da amazed belgiis mefis leopoldis

saministro pasuxs iZleva, rom Cven fiqrad sxva

ara gvaqvs ra garda imisa, rom mtris Semosevis

SiSi gvaqvs da imis dasaxvedrad vemzadebiTo; ar

gvinda saqmeTa garemoebas da gansacdels ise

xelcarielebi davxvdeT, rogorc 1870 wels

mogvivida, roca kinaRam Cven Cveni damoukidebloba

xelidam ar gamogvecalao.

ra Tqma unda, belgiam ase unda axsnas Tavisi

dRevandeli yofa da gacxarebuli mzadeba. sxva

sabuTic rom hqondes da sxva gulisnadebi, amis

winaswar Tqma miutevebeli cdoma iqneba belgiis

mxriT. vin icis, belgias ris alRo auRia da ris

qari da zari amoqmedebs? adamianis sixarbes

sazRvari ara aqvs: veravin ityvis, rom cal-mxriT

safrangeTs da cal-mxriT germanias gemrielis

lukmis pirSi Cadeba ezarebodeT. marTalia,

belgiis damoukideblobis Tavdeboba inglissa

aqvs nakisrebi, magram aqedamac aravin icis, ra

gamova. Zneli gamosacnobia, dro da Jami ras

moitans, vis rogor gauWirebs saqmes, vis visTvis

da rogor moaclis? dRes ki iseTi dRea, rom

yvelas marto Tavis Tavi gaxdomia TavSi sacemlad.

40


«navTis navTis saqme kavkasiaSi

kavkasiaSi»

kavkasiaSi

I

tfilisi, 17 ianvari

“ra qmnas kargma monardema, drozed SaSi Tu ar

mova”, _ swored Cvens amierkavkasiazed iTqmis.

aqeT-iqiT iyurebi, sinjav da hxedav, rom mTeli es

mSvenieri kunWuli dedamiwisa, Savisa da TeTris

(kaspiis) zRvis Sua mdebare, TiTqo sabudaria,

romelSiac uangaro da guluxvi buneba, rogorc

kruxi, Camjdara, da dauRalavad, ganuwyvetliv,

Seuferxeblad sCeks yovelsgvars simdidresa. aq

mcxovrebi kaci ki mainc Raribia da Raribi. eg

kidev cota vsTqviT: zogjer TviT eg simdidre

Tavisis auareblobiT adamianis damamxobel

mizezadac gvixdeba da am gziT sabednierod micemuli

simdidre bunebisa Wirad gadagveqceva xolme.

ai Tund magaliTad aviRoT navTi. imodena navTi,

rac dRes baqoSi amodis da RvTis wyalobiT

kidevac amova, TiTqmis zRvas Sehqmnis, magram ra

gamovida? daatyo ram am simdidrem aqaurobas?

piriqiT, ramodena qoneba CanTqa am simdidris

veSapma da ramodena kaci SeZlebuli da qonebiani

Tan Caitana da miwasTan gaaswora.

41


mTels qveyanaze yvelazed gamoCenili adgilebi

navTisa sul oria: erTi amerika da meore Cveni

kavkasia. kavkasiaSi bevrs adgilas amodis navTi,

magram imodena ki, rac baqoSi, arsad ar aris.

navTi amodis amierkavkasiaSi Semaxiisa da

tfilisis axlo, kaxeTSi mTeli tbebia zogan,

magaliTebr, zemo xodaSenSi b-n saginovebis

mamulSi, TuqurmiSaSi da bevrgan sxvagan.

marTalia, rom CvenSi navTi bevrgan aris, magram

navTis mrewvelobam fexi moikida marto baqoSi.

amis mizezi is aris, rom iq navTi auarebelia,

didi Txra da vai-vaglaxi ar unda imis amoRebas,

ase rom Savis navTis amoReba fuTi 1 1 / 2 _ 3

kapikamde ujdeba amomRebsa. sxva adgilebSi ki

bevrs ecadnen, magram fuTis navTis amoReba or da

sam Saur nakleb ver daisves. ra Tqma unda, rom es

amisTana garemoeba arafers xeirs ar moaswavebda

mSromelisaTvis da amitomac SemaxiaSi, tfilisis

gareSemoSi, kaxeTSi da sxva amisTana adgilebSi

navTis saqmem Tavi ver daiWira, an rogor

daiWerda, roca baqos navTi gawmendili da

gadaxalisebuli, tfilissa da SemaxiaSi marto

oriode SauriT metad hRirs, vidre adgilobrivi

gauwmendeli da pirdapir amoRebuli navTi.

baqos navTis wyaroni ise mdidarni arian, rom

marTla gasaocari da iSviaTi ambavia. mTels

dedamiwis zurgzed Tavis dReSi ara yofila aseTi

uleveli da metismetad mdidari auzi navTisa.

sakvirveli is aris, rom zRva navTi amodis yovel

cisamara dRes da navTi aramcTu klebulobs,

dRiTidRe matulobs kidec maSin, rodesac sxvagan,

magaliTebr, amerikaSi, klebulobs. ro cota mainc

SevatyobinoT mkiTxvels, ra didZali simdidrea

navTisa baqoSi, sakmaoa marto cifrebi valaparakoT.

yvelgan amerikaa cnobili erT imisTana

qveynad, saca mravali da mdidari adgilebia

42


navTisa da saca navTis mrewveloba didi xania

fexmokidebulia da fexgamagrebuli. ai baqos

navTis metnakleboba rom am amerikis navTis

metnaklebobas pirispir davuyenoT, maSin cifrebi

Tavis utyuars ganaCens ityvian.

yoveldRe baqoSi amodis 500.000 fuTi Savi

navTi. es navTi amodis 160-is Widam. am Weebs

uWiravs sul oTxi oTxkuTxi versti. amdenive

navTi amodis amerikaSi yoveldRe. xolo iq

moqmedobs 24.000 Wa, da adgili, saca es Weebi

muSaoben _ sigrZiT 200 verstia da siganiT 40-I,

anu 8000 oTxkuTxi versti. garda amisa

SemCneulia, rom amerikaSi yovel eqvss weliwadSi

Wa navTisa hSreba da amis gamo yovels eqvs

weliwadzed navTis mrewvelni iZulebul arian

gadinacvlon xolme fexi da axla sxvagan sTxaron

da eZion navTi. am ukanasknel droSi amerikelT

orjel gadunacvliaT fexi, sxva adgilebzed

gadasulan, radganac pirvandel adgilebzed navTi

damSrala. baqoSi ki am aTis wlis ganmavlobaSi

aramc Tu uklia navTsa, aramed erTiorad umatnia.

magaliTebr, 1880 wela baqoSi 35 millioni fuTi

navti amouRiaT, 1885 w. _ 115 millioni da

warsuls 1886 wels _ 170 millioni. aqamomde

sul amouRiaT navTi 600 millioni fuTi. sul

800 dRiuri miwa kia is adgili, romelic am

uzarmazars ricxvs navTs iZleva, ase rom TiTo

dRiurs uZlevia TiTqmis ¾ millioni fuTi.

mecnierni, romelTac am or sxvadasxvanairs

garemoebas navTis wyaroebisas yuradReba miaqcies,

amboben, rom aq Sinagani mizezi moqmedobso. am

Sinagan mizezad sTvlian geologiur wyobas

miwisas baqosas da amerikisas. amboben, rom

amerikaSi didi xania miwisqveS navTi keTebula da

gaCenilao. igi navTni, romelTaganac navTi keTdeba

miwisqveSeTis ZalTagan, amerikaSi sul moilia da

43


aRar arsebobeno, da amitom, rac wina droTagan

navTi keTebula da darCenila miwis qveS, dRes

amerikaSi marto isRa amoaqvT, da raki amoswurven,

rasakvirvelia, mas mermed Wa Srebao. xolo im

garemoebidam, rom baqoSi navTi dRes aramcTu

hklebulobs, hmatulobs kidec, mecnierT is azri

gamohyvaT, rom dRes baqoSi miwisqveSeTni

nivTierebani navTis Sesadgenad aramcTu mospobilan,

aramed jer kidev bevri ariso da dRes

navTis momavlinebeli mizezni jer kidev ganuwyvetliv

moqmedebeno. am saxiT gamodis, rom

baqos navTis wyaro jer kidev didxans ar daSreba

da ar moswydeba Turme.

baqos navTis mrewveloba aramcTu am mxriT

ufro kargs garemoebaSi unda iyos da unda

sjobnides amerikis mrewvelobas, aramed sxva

mxriTac. amerikaSi navTisaTvis kaci metad Rrmad

unda Cavides miwaSi da iqidam amoswuros navTi.

baqoSi navTi ise Rrmad Casvlas ar iTxovs,

radganac dedamiwis zedapirzed axloa navTi. es

erTi. meore isa, rom amerikaSi gangeb amowurva

unda da aq baqoSi ki, raki Was cotad Tu bevrad

amosTxrian, navTi Sadrevanad scems da uxarjod

da uSromelad TavisTavad amodis. am saxiT,

amerikas erTis fuTis navTis amoReba erTi abazi

ujdeba, baqos ki samis groSidam eqvs groSamde.

kaci amaebis SemniSvneli da mnaxveli ityvis: maS

baqos navTis saqme gakeTebula, rogorRa gauwevs

amerikis navTi cilobas baqos navTs saqveyno

bazarSio!.. sabuTi da loRika sabuTisa swored

amas ambobs da saqme ki sul sxvasa, da es baqos

navTis Sadrevanebze aranakleb gasaocaria. rogorc

amerikisaTvis, isec baqosaTvis TiTqmis erTaderTi

bazari evropaa, romelic Cvenzed ufro axloa,

vidre amerikazed, ase rom am mxriTac ki baqo win

aris. magram saocari es aris, rom yovel mxriT

44


unebisagan xelmouwyobeli amerika evropis

bazarSi yovelwliv cxra millions fuTs navTs

asaRebs da baqo, yovel mxriT bunebisagan xelmowyobili,

million-naxevarsa! modi da nu

gaocdebiT. gagonila! baqos navTi bevri aqvs,

amoReba TiTqmis erTisamad, xan erT Tormetad

nakleb ujdeba, gzac axlo aqvs, da amerikis

navTis cileba ki ver autania, roca evropaSi

gaaqvT.

navTi imodenaa dRes baqoSi da yoveldRe

imodena amodis, rom lamis warRvnas mTeli baqo,

uSvelebeli tbebia navTis Weebis gareSemo,

adgilic ara aqvT sad Seinaxon. gamoxdas da

gadawmendasac veRar aswroben da bazari ki ver

gauxsnia, bazari ki ver Seuqmnia. amas vina sCivis?

navTis adgilebis patronebs es simdidre TavSi

sacemad gaxdomiaT, radganac ar ician, ra uyon,

rogor mouaron, sad Seinaxon da rogor

upatronon! calke kacia aq am ubedurobis mizezi,

garemoeba kacTaganve Seqmnili, Tu guneba, _ eg

Tqven gamoicaniT. qveyanasac ki sasacilodac ar

eyofa, rom RmerTsac moucia aseTi Zvirfasi

simdidre da Cven ki Wirad gadagvqcevia. maxlas!..

II

II

tfilisi, 19 ianvari

Cven wina werilSi navTzed CamovagdeT laparaki

da exlac amazed gvsurs ganvagrZoT saubari. ra

Tqma unda, rom Cven am saganzed arafers axals

ver vityviT, da srulebiTac gunebaSi ar

gagvitarebia, es saqme mTelis Tavis sigrZe-siganiT

gamovikvlioT. Cven amisaTvis arc saWiro codna

gvaqvs da arc saWiro Rone. Cven gvsurs mxolod

45


zogierTs cnobas am saqmis Taobazed Tavi erTad

movuyaroT da am erTad Tavmoyril cnobaTagan

cotaodeni naTeli movfinoT navTis saqmesa,

romelzedac bevrs ucabedad hlaparakoben.

yvelazed win SesaniSnavi baqos navTis gamo is

aris, rom Tu Wa dReSi 1.000 fuTzed nakleb

navTs iZleva, meqarxneebi amisTana Was Tavs

anebeben, radganac xarjsac ar ayenebs. gamoangariSebulia,

rom sxvadasxva xarji navTis

amoRebisa, sul rom cota vTqvaT, fuTzed 3 / 4

¾ kapeiki modis. esec im SemTxvevaSi, Tu 1.000 fuTs

mainc iZleva dReSi TiTo Wa. Tu amazed naklebi

navTi amodis, xarji kidev is undeba, rac aTas

fuTsa, da Tu amazed naklebi navTi amova, aSkara

zaralia. amerikaSi axlad gaTxrili Wa iZleva

dReSi 80_200 fuTamde navTsa da iq mainc

imisTana Weebs amoqmedeben iseTis ostatobiT, rom

aramc Tu hzaraloben, gamorComasac moelian.

CvenSi ki amisTana Weebi unavTo Weebad iTvleba da

amisTana Wazed Tavis dReSi aravin ar moscdeba. am

saxiT Wa, romelic amerikaSi simdidris wyarod

iTvleba, CvenSi siRaribis mizezad Sericxulia.

ra aris amis mizezi? yvelazed uwinares isa,

rom satexniko codna ara aqvT aqaurs menavTeebs.

am ucodinarobis bralia, rom Widam amoRebul Sav

navTs hxdian da gadawmindaven xolme marto

sanTeblad xmarebisaTvis, da rac am gamoxdas da

gawmendas gadarCeba, imis gamoyeneba ar ician Cvenma

meqarxneebma. TviTon am gamoxdaSiac aTSi marto

sams fuTs sanTebels navTs Zlivs ayeneben,

danarCeni Svidi fuTi ki gadasayrelad uxdebaT.

saxelganTqmuli qimikosi mendeleevi ki ambobs,

rom Tu meqarxneebs kargi codna eqnebaT, aTs

fuT Sav navTidam aramcTu marto sami fuTi

sanaTebeli gamova, aramed rvao. Tundac amodena

wminda navTis gamoxda ar iyos SesaZlebeli, mainc

46


kidev navTis gamonaxadi, romelic ucodinarobiT

tyuilubralod hfuWdeba da gadiyreba xolme,

mravalgvarad gamosayenia da gamosarComi, Tu kacs

codna da xerxi eqmneba. saqme imaSia, rom Savi

navTi marto imiTi ki ar aris saxeiro da

gamosarComi, rom sanaTebel navTad gadiwmindeba

xolme, aramed imitomac, rom danarCen

gamonaxadidam SeiZleba kidev bevri sxva ram

sabazro nivTic gamoixados, metad kai fasad

gasasaRebeli. magaliTebr, wasasmeli zeTi

(смазочныя масла), benzini, vazelini, erTgvari

sunnelovani zeTi, romelsac “ароматический

углеводород”- hqvian da sxvani. TiTeuls amas kai

gasavali aqvs evropis bazarSi da kai fasica.

yovelive es baqoSi metad cota keTdeba dRes,

jer, rasakvirvelia, imitom, rom meqarxneebma amisi

xeli an sul ar ician, an Zalian cota ician, da

meore imitom, rom aqac gadasatans Rones

moklebulni arian.

exla aSkaraa Cvenis mkiTxvelisaTvis, rad

aris ise, rom Wa dReSi 80_200 fuTamde navTis

momcemi amerikaSi simdidred iTvleba da CvenSi ki

kaci axlos ar udgeba. amerikaSi yovlis

ostatobiT da codniT ekidebian am saqmes. garda

imisa, rom erTisa da imave zomis navTisagan ufro

bevri sanaTebeli gadawmendili navTi gamoyavT, im

danarCen gamonaxadsac bevrs rasmes hrCebian, ase,

rom TiTqmis TviTveuli nawili gamonaxadisa sxva

raime safasurs da sasargeblo nivTs iZleva. iq

ara ikargeba ra, CvenSi aTSi Svidi fuTi

tyuilubralod gadasayrelia; iq aTs fuTSi rvas

mainc ase TuU ise fass amoaRebinebs kaci da aq

CvenSi aTSi marto sams fuTsa. modi da amisTana

garemoebas win daudeqiT!..

47


aqom Tundac im mravalgvarobiT gamoiyenos

navTis gamonaxadi, rogorc amerika sCadis, _ sad

gaasaRos da an rogor gaitanos saqveyno bazarSi?

jer marto es viqonioT saxeSi, rom navTis

gamonaxadidam gakeTebul sxvadasxva nivTierebasa

TviTon ruseTSiac ver gauxsnia bazari. dResac

ruseTSi amerikidam motanils ufro hyiduloben,

vidre baqodam. aqamomde saqme ise ver mouwyviaT,

rom ruseTma TviTonve moixmaros Tavisi sakuTari

simdidre.

48

III

III

tfilisi, 20 ianvari.

am winaze Cvena vsTqviT, rom uTvalavi da

auarebeli navTi amierkavkasiisa ver mogvixmaria da

lamis eg, jer-xanad dauSrobeli wyaro simdidrisa,

TavSi sacemlad gagvixdeso. umTavresi mizezi

am mouxmareblobisa is aris, rom navTis bazarSi

gasatani saxsari ara aqvT. marTalia, amierkavkasiis

rkinis gza, romelic dRes muSaobs baqosa da

baToms Sua, ezideba dRemudam navTsa, magram

imodena navTis gadatanis Zal-Rone ara aqvs,

ramodenac saWiroa navTis simravlis mixedviTa.

bevrsa hlaparakobdnen vagonebis momatebazed,

magram rac momateba SesaZlo iyo, moumates, da

exla Tunda kidevac moumaton, veras gaxdebian,

imitom rom matareblebi saaTSi erTxel daiarebian

da amazed xSirad siaruli SeuZlebelia. roca

amazed guli daajeres rkinis gza gamgebelTa da

navTis mwarmoebelTa, maSin daapires meore

liandagis dageba, rom navTis sazidavma vagonebma

oris gziT iaron. ufro mdidarT navTis

mwarmoebelT azri mouvidaT, rkinis gzas Tavi


daanebon da milebi daawyon baqodam baTomamde da

miliT ataron navTi. meore liandagis dagebazed

laparaki am bolos dros sruliad Seswyda,

milebiT navTis gayvanazed ki dResac bevri

laparakia.

fiqrada aqvT, miTam Savi navTi gaiyvanon

miliTa im zomiT, rom weliwadSi 50 millioni

fuTi gavides baqodam baTumSi. am bolos xanebSi

isic ismis, rom eg milebi samtrediis sadgurTan

unda gaortotdes, erTi toti wavides foTzed da

meore baTomzed, professor mendelevis angariSiT

erTi fuTi Savi navTi miliT gayvanili baqodam

baTomSi dajdeba ara umetes 10_11 kapeikisa. erTi

ucnobi avtori ”Биржевыя Ведомости”-Si amtkicebs,

rom fuTis navTis gadatana baqodam baTomSi cxra

kapeikze meti ar dajdebao. am saxiT gamodis, rom

fuTi navTi Tavis safasuriT da xarjiT 12_15

kapeikamde dajdeba baTomSi. radganac igive navTi

amerikas 20 kapeikad ujdeba da amasTanave baTomSi

Catanili navTi evropis bazarzed ufro axloa,

vidre amerikisa, amitom, b-n mendeleevis azriT,

baqos navTs SeuZlian ciloba gauwios amerikis

navTsa da amiT aswios da ganaZlieros Cveni

cocxal-mkvdari mrewveloba navTisa. rasakvirvelia,

am azris asasruleblad saWiroa baTomSi

gaimarTos Savis navTis saxdeli da gasawmendeli

qarxnebi, Torem Savis navTis muStris Sovna

Znelia. amasve hfiqroben miliT navTis gatanis

momxreni. Cven amazed calke gveqneba saubari. exla

ki amas vityviT, rom miliT navTis gatanis saqme

xazinam Tavis xelidam ar unda gauSvaso, _ amboben

milis momxreni, _ TviTon milebic xazinam Tavisis

xarjiT unda daawyoso, Torem Tu calke kacs

mieca amis neba, usaTuod monopolias gamoiwvevs

49


da es monopolia bevrs navTis meqarxneebs bolos

mouRebso.

gamoangariSebulia, rom navTis gasayvanad

milebis dawyoba da erTob amisi xarji 25

millions manaTs fuls daiWerso. Znelad

gasabedia xazinisaTvis exlandels gaWirvebuls

droSi amodena fuli am saqmes moaxmaros da aq

daabandos. garda amis, erTi ramec aris

safiqrebeli: marTalia baqoSi Zlier bevri navTia

da jer aramcTu daSrobis, momatebis niSnebia,

magram advilad safiqrebelia, rom adre iqneba, Tu

gvian, iq, saca exla navTi amodis, odesme bolo

unda moeRos navTsa. amis SiSsa da fiqrsa miscemia

imisTana specialisti, rogoric cnobili inJineri

sokolovskia. Tu marTla aucilebelia, rom

odesme baqos navTi klebaSi Seva, am mxriT

gamokvleva saqmisa metad saWiroa winaTve, vidre

milebis dawyobas Seudgebian. Tu navTis klebis

dros rkinis gzasTan milebic iqmneba, maSin an

erTma unda daiSalos navTis zidva da maSasadame,

Semosavalzed xeli aiRos, an meorem. orsave

SemTxvevaSi xazina izaralebs.

“Биржевыя Ведомости”-s am wlis #8-Si

zemoxsenebuli ucnobi avtori amtkicebs, rom

miliT navTis gayvana araviTars sargebels ar

moaswavebso. igi ambobs, rom, marTalia, exla

gadatana gawmendilis navTisa fuTi 16 kapeikada

hRirso, magram SeiZleba es fasi 8 1 / 2 kapeikzed

Camoaxdinos kacma da mainc kidev rkinis gza

mogebaSi iqmnebao. miliT gayvanili navTi ki da

mere baTomSi gadawmendili 18 kapeikad dajdeba

fuTio. amis dasamtkiceblad ai ra angariSi

mohyavs: Savi navTis gadatana baTomSi miliTa

dajdeba fuTi 9 kapeikad. oris fuTis Savis

navTidam gamoixdeba wminda navTi da sxva saxmari

50


da sasargeblo zeTebi sul erTad marto erTi

fuTio; maSasadame fuTi gadawmendili navTi Tavis

zeTebiT 18 kapeiki modiso. esec maSin dagvijdeba,

rodesac miliT gaviyvanT Savs navTs yovelwliv

50 milion fuTzed aranakleb. Tu raime mizeziT

am ricxvma iklo, maSin is ori fuTi Savi navTi,

romelic marto erTs fuTs wminda navTs ayenebs

Tavisis zeTebiT, 18 kapeikzed ufro Zvirad

dajdebao, imitom rom xarji erTi da igivea erTs

milion fuTs gamoiyvan milebSi, Tu ormocdaaTs

milionsao. rkinis gzas ki bevri eqmneba gadasatani,

Tu cota, SeuZlia rva kapeiknaxevrad

hzidos baqodan baTomamde navTi da ara izaralos

rao.

am saxiT, saubari da baasi didia, da amasobaSi

arc rkinis gza hfiqrobs navTis gadasatani fasi

8 1 / 2 kapeikzed Camoaxdinos da arc milis dawyobas

Sesdgomia vinme. minam an erTisagan gamova wyaloba,

an meorisagan, navTis mwarmoebelT suli exuTebaT

da simdidris tbebSi mcuravTa lamis SimSilisagan

suli amouvideT. modiT da nu gaocdebiT!..

51


«saSemosavlo «saSemosavlo «saSemosavlo gadasaxadis gadasaxadis SemoReba

SemoReba»

SemoReba

52

tfilisi, 21 ianvari

ruseTis gazeTebma mogvitanes ambavi, viTomc

peterburgSi gaxSirebuli laparakia safinanso

sferaSi maszed, rom am axlo xanebSi kanonad

daidgineba gadasaxadi Semosavalze. amboben, rom im

auarebel arapirdapir gadasaxadebis magier,

romelic am mokle xanebSi dawesda da romelic

mrewvelobas da warmoebas ufro hxuTavs, vidre

hrgebs rasme saxelmwifo xazinasa, dawesdeba

gadasaxadi Semosavalzeo /подоходный налогъ/. amnairive

gadasaxadi didi xania SemoRebulia

evropaSi da exla ruseTSiac SemoaqvT, rogorca

sCans. Tavdapirvelad am gadasaxadis SemoReba unda

mieweros yofils finansTa ministrs b-ns bunges,

romelmac daawesa aszed xuTi manaTi gadasaxadi im

Semosavlidam, rasac Tavni fuli aZlevs fulis

patronsa. exla ganuzraxavT eg gadasaxadi daedvas

yvela Semosavals, rasac ki uZravi da moZravi sakuTreba

aZlevs kacsa da amas garda sakuTari

Sromaca. rasakvirvelia, amasTan gansazRvruli iqneba

ris nakleb ar unda iyos Semosavali, rom

gadasaxadi ixados. Semosavlis gadasaxads unda eqvemdebaron

yvela qveSevrdomni ruseTisani da

garda amisa is ucxo qveynis kacnic, romelTac an


modmivi cxovreba aqvT, an erTs weliwadzed metsa

rCebian xolme ruseTis imperiaSi, da yvelani,

visac uZravi ram sakuTreba aqvT, Semosavlis momcemi.

gansazRvruli gardasaxadi gamoerTmeva orgvarad:

mTlad da uklebliv imas, visac garja da

Sroma SeuZlian da amisaTvis wlovanebaa dadebuli

18-dam 55-mde da imaT ki visac TviTon garja da

Sroma ar SeuZliaT da Tavis sakuTar saqmes ver

gauZRvebian, is SeRavaTi eZlevaT, rom gadasaxadi

daklebuli gamoerTmevaT. am saxiT gansazRvruli

Semosavlis gadasaxadi daklebulis zomiT gamoer-

TmevaT: 1/ maT, vinc samxedro begaras ixdis

mTelis im xanis ganmavalobaSi, minam jarSia; 2/

imaT, vinc jarSi samsaxuris dros daWrilan, an

daSavebulan da Caricxulni arian pirvel sams

xarisxSi daWrilebTa Soris; 3/ imaT, vinc

swavlaSi arian saswavleblebSi, vidre 26 wlisad

ar Sesruldebian; 4/ uvadod da vadiT daTxovnil

jariskacebma da yazaxebma, minam daTxovnilni

arian, mTlad unda ixadon gadasaxadi da roca

miwveul iqmnebian jarSi samsaxurisaTvis, maSin ki

naklebad gamoerTmevaT. mTeli wlis gadasaxadi

orad ganiyofeba, erTi naxevari 1-s ivlisamde unda

iqmnas xazinaSi Setanili da meore 1-s dekembersa.

am vadebs vinc gadaacilebs, didi jarima unda

gadixadon.

ai, umTavresni safuZvelni, romelzedac ganuzraxavT

axalis kanon-proeqtis aSeneba da ageba. es

proeqti momzaddeba Tu ara, waredgineba jer

umaRless safinanso kamisias da mere Setanil iqmneba

saxelmwifo rjuldebulebis wesis gziTao.

amave dros mzaddeba Turme proeqti Sesaxeb zogierTis

wvrilmanis gadasaxadis amokveTisa im

azriT, rom warmatebis gza gauxsnan da

gaufarTovon mrewvelobas da warmoebas ruseTisas.

53


54

«safrangeTsa safrangeTsa da da germanias germanias Soris

Soris

urTierTobis urTierTobis gamwvaveba

gamwvaveba»

gamwvaveba

tfilisi, 22 ianvari

am ukanaskneli dReebis gazeTebs rom yuri

ugdos kacma, evropaSi omis suni htrialebs da

zogni iqamdinac ki midian, rom gadawyvetilad da

gadaWriT amboben, am gazafxulze evropa Tavis

beds ar gadurCeba uomradao. marTladac, saidac

ginda miixedoT, yvelgan gaZlierebuli mzadebaa.

patara saxelmwifonic ki, romelTac uRonobis

gamo sixarbe ara aqvT visme ra waarTvan, visme

piridam lukma gamohglijon, isinic iWireben

saqmes da Tof-iaraRqveS sdgebian. Sveicaria,

belgia, dania, Svecia-norvegia da sxva amisTanani

dRedaRam imis mecadineobaSi arian, rom winadnagrZnobma

gansacdelma moumzadeblad ar moaswros

da amodena xnis mSvidobiani da keTili cxovreba –

sul erTma wuTma ar amoaSxamos. am SemTxvevaSi

zrunva da cda am wvrilTa saxelmwifoTa marto

imazea miqceuli, rom ZlierTa Soris TviTon

rogorme ar gaiWyliton. maSsadame, aqedan SiSi da

gansacdeli mosalodneli ar aris, radganac es

wvrilni saxelmwifoni fars imzadeben

mosagereblad da ara xmals satevrad.


safrangeTi da germania orad ori

saxelmwifoni arian, romelT Sorisac metad

gamwvavebulia saqme da, Tu garemoeba xels

Seuwyobs, arc erTi ar moerideba erTmaneTTan

gamklavebas. Tavmomwone safrangeTi ar iviwyebs

Tavis damarcxebas germaniisagan da CamorTmeulis

qveynebis ukan dabrunebis imeds ar iSorebs

gulidam da germania metad TavgamometebiT

ufrTxis, rom gamarjvebisagan mopoebuli da didi

msxverpliT SeZenili erToba germaniisa da

upiratesoba evropaSi xelidam ar gamoecalos. es

ori saxelmwifo karga xania erTmaneTs mtrulis

TvaliT uyurebs da TviTveuli maTgani marto

Tvisda saxeiro garemoebas elis, rom eces da Tan

gaitanos meore.

es meSvidmete weliwadia mas aqed, rac

safrangeTi daamarcxa germaniam da im dRidan

moyolebuli aqamomde arc safrangeTs, arc germanias

xeli ar dauyenebia, rom xelaxlad dajaxebisaTvis

ar mzadebuliyvnen. laSqarT Sinagani

wyoba da darazmva gindaT, Tu Tof-iaraRi, tyviawamali,

zarbazani da sxva mravali kacTa mmusravi

manqana, _ yovels amazed auarebeli Sroma da

fulia daxarjuli orisave mxriT. dRe midis da

yovelive es urTierTis mixedviT hmatulobs da

hmatulobs ase, rom haraqaTi da ilaji gauwydaT,

nametnavad germaniis ersa, romelic gacilebiT

Raribia safrangeTis erzed. ai, dResac germaniis

mTavrobam Svidis wliT mosTxova germaniis

saimperio parlaments fuli 41.000 jariskacis

momatebisaTvis da sabuTad is warudgina, rom

germaniis Zlierebas jer kidev bevri gansacdeli

moelis dasavleTidam da aRmosavleTidamao, da

mzad unda viyvneTo. parlamentma ar Seimwynara es

sabuTi da Tumca dahyva 41.000 jariskacis

momatebaze, magram daumata, rom amis nebas samis

55


wlis vadiT mogcemTo. Tamamma da yovelTvis

kadnierma bismarkma aiRo da parlamenti daSala da

axali arCevani daniSna. dRes gacxarebuli brZolaa

atexili am arCevanis gamo germaniaSi mTavrobisa

da parlamentis momxreTa Soris. arvin icis, vin

gaimarjvebs am axal arCevanSi, amas ki yvelani

guldajerebiT amtkiceben, rom Tu vinicobaa

paralamentis momxreni gaimarjveben, bismarki arc

amas Seudrkeba da ase Tu ise uparlamentodac

Tavisas gaiyvanso.

am garemoebas kaci rom kargad daukvirdes,

hnaxavs, rom aq sxva ambavia. aq marto imazed ki ar

aris laparaki, rom fuli da samati jari mieces

Svidisa Tu samis wliT bismarksa. aq ufro mwvavi

sagania dayenebuli germaniis eris winaSe:

parlamenti germaniisa didi xania ebrZvis bismarkis

TviTnebobasa. bismarki didi xania hcdilobs

parlaments gadamwyveti xma SeuxuTos da

SeurCinos marto xma rCevisa. amas parlamenti

hTakilobs da ibrZvis TviTarsebobisaTvis. es

ambavi marto dRevandeli ambavi ar aris. didi

xania saimperio parlamenti hgrZnobs, rom igi

bismarks unda mrCevelad iyolios mxolod da ara

saqmeTa gadamwyvetelad da gamgebelad. dRes aqamomde

egredwodebuli pasuxismgebloba saministrosi

germaniaSi ar aris, Tumca parlamenti ki

didi xania. amitomac erTi magaliTi ara yofila,

rom parlamentis mier dawunebulma moqmedebam

ministrisa iZulebul hyos, ministri samsaxuridam

gadasdges, rogorc es xSiria xolme safrangeTsa,

inglisSi da sxvaganac bevrgan, saca parlamenti

Tvis kuTvnils ZalaSia.

dRes brZola dasTa Soris germaniaSi swored

am saganzed htrialebs. jaris momatebis kanoni

marto mizezia. parlamentis momxreTa dasma am

mizezs Caavlo xeli da hsurs, rom parlaments

56


Tavisi kuTvnili Zala da xma moupovos. ai dRes

swored es burTia gagdebuli arCevanis moedanzed

germaniaSi da vin gaitans am burTs, dro gamoaCens.

12-s ianvars bismarkma pirdapir usayvedura

saimperio parlaments, roca prusiis seimSi Tavi

imarTla saimperio parlamentis daSlisa gamo da

am sayvedurSi ismoda, rom parlamenti xels

miSlis germaniis erToba, saxeli da upiratesoba

evropaSi mtkice safuvelzed davayenovo. ai, sada

scems bismarki, _ da misni mopirdapireni Wkvagadalayebulni

xom ar arian, rom ver gaigon ra

moaswavebs rasa! amgvarad Sin aSlili saqme

germaniisaTvis saxumaro ar aris. marTalia, bevri

magaliTebi gvinaxavs, rom amgvarebs bismarki

yovelTvis guldagul daxvedria da mainc Tavisi

gauyvania. 1864 wels, roca Slezvig-golSteinis

gamo prusia danias eomeboda, imave dass daniis

mxare eWira; 1866 w. igive dasi ewinaaRmdega

avstriasTan omsa, am omis Semdeg Crdilo

germaniis parlamentis winaaRmdegi iyo da 1869

welsa, roca prusias xviTqiT ofli sdioda da

safrangeTTan omis asatexad emzadeboda, igive dasi

hTxoulobda Tof-iaraRis ayrasa da jarebis

Secotavebasa, - magram bismarkma yuric ar Seibertya.

daniasac lazaTianad CamoarTva SlezviggolSteini,

avstriac kargad miamtvria, safrangeTic

mihbertya da dRes isev is bismarkia, mxolod

ufro saxelovani, ufro didebuli. magram

naTqvamia, koka yovelTvis wyals ar moitans,

erTxelac iqneba, gatydebao.

amboben, dRes amisi SiSi Sehparvia bismarksa da

viTomc amitom iZulebulia, xelaxlad daejaxos

safrangeTsa, rom es Sinauri tkivili daaviwyebinos

germaniis ersa da raki gared

gaimarjvebs, maSin xom Sinac gamarjvebuli iqneba

da gamarjvebuli. xmas viRa amoiRebs!... gamarjvebam

57


Zalian Tavbrus dasxma icis da pirSi burTis

Cadeba...

asea Tu ise, dRes es ki aSkaraa, rom germaniis

gazeTebi kadnierad da raRac SeteviT hlaparakoben

safrangeTzed. safrangeTis gazeTebi ki

mSvidobianis xmiT urCeven safrangeTsa da mis

ersa: nu aCqardebiT, wynarad da mSvidobianad

iyaviTo. amasobaSi germania, rogorc dasavleTis

samzRvrebs, ise aRmosavleTisas amagrebs da

jarebiT aZlierebs. safrangeTis ufro dids cdasa

da zrunvaSia da arasfers ara hzogavs mzad

yofisaTvis. safrangeTi da germania dRes xom ese

Setotebulni arian erTmaneTzed, magram vin icis,

mermisi da bedi vis saiTken miaxedebs.

58


«evropis evropis wvril wvril saxelmwifoTa

saxelmwifoTa

saomari saomari mzadeba mzadeba»

mzadeba

tfilisi, 23 ianvari

.

bolgariis saqmem dRes Tavisi pirvelxarisxovneba

dakarga evropiis politikis sarbielzed.

mis magier fexzed wamodga sazaro

landsa da aCrdilsaviT safrangeTisa da germaniis

erTmaneTTan gamklavebis molodini. dRes mTeli

Jurnal-gazeToba amazea moclili, didi da patara

sul amazed hlaparakobs da hTrTis xvalindeli

dRisaTvis. germaniis gazeTebs rom daujeros

kacma, TavidaTavi mizezi saSinelis am

amrezilobisa, romelica hsufevs safrangeTisa da

germaniis Sua, safrangeTis samxedro ministri

generali bulanJea da amisi daucxromeli garja

da Sroma safrangeTis jaris gankargebisa da

rigian fexzed dayenebisaTvis. zogierTi gazeTi am

garemoebas ise azviadebs, rom ambobs: safrangeTma

an bulanJe unda daiTxovos samsaxuridam an omi

gamoucxados germaniaso, sxva ara saxsari ar aris,

rom evropa dascxres da dawynardeso. Cven dRes

amazed laparaks Tavs davanebebT da yuradRebas

mkiTxvelisas mivaqcevT sul sxva garemoebazed,

romelic mravalmniSvnelovania da Zalianac

angariSSi misaRebi.

59


Cven guSinaca vsTqviT, rom didTa mayurebelni

wvrilni saxelmwifonica dids mzadebaSi arian.

ufro SeniSnulia, rom belgia, dania da Svecianorvegia,

rac Zali da Rone SeswevT, hcdiloben

Tavisi jarebi gaawyon da gaaZlieron. ganzraxva

belgiisa Tumca zedmiwevniT aravin icis, magram

Tvalad es mainca sCans, rom Tu vinicobaa ors

maTs mezobels, safrangeTs da germanias omi

autydaT, belgias ar unda gadelaxvinos. sityviT

amas ambobs belgiis mTavroba da gulSi ra aqvs,

Zneli gamosacnobia. patara dania Tavis gulis

nadebs ara hmalavs da pirdapir gulaxdilad

hlaparakobs. misma samxedro ministrma generalma

bansonma arc gaxia, arc gafxriwa da mourideblad

sTqva: Cvenis qveynis erTi nawili, erTi nawili

Cvenis sisxlisa da xorcis erisa prusiis

uRelqveS hkvnesiso. aSkaraa, daniis mzadeba ras

moaswavebs da sakvirveli es aris, rom uRono,

pawia dania ar hSiSobs amis Tqmasa da ar ufrTxis

wyromas Zlieris prusiisas. germaniis gazeTebi am

xmebzed swored yalxzed Sesdgnen: rogor Tu

dania germanias mtrobas ubedavso. ra Tqma unda,

dania martoka Sinidam fexsac ar gamosdgams

yovlad Zlieri germaniis winaaRmdeg. sCans, danias

imisi imedi aqvs, rom vinicobaa safrangeTi

germanias saqmes gauWirebs, maSin daniac ecdeba

javri iyaros germaniazed da warTmeuli germaniisagan

Slezvig-golSteini rogorme isev xelT

igdos da daibrunos. rac unda iyos, Tumca dania

calked saSiSari ar aris germaniisaTvis, magram

Tu germania da safrangeTi erTmaneTs daejaxnen,

germaniam erTi 40000 kaci mainc unda moacdinos

daniis gasaZRolad. es germaniisaTvis dids

angariSs Seadgens didis omis dros. erTi sityviT,

daniasac mizezi aqvs mzadebisa da Tof-iaraRis

asxmisa. amocanad marto Svecia _ norvegiaa. es di-

60


dis xnidam mSvidobianad myofi qveyana ram aamRvria

da ram aiZula saomrad mzadebisaTvis? jer

SarSanve, vidre bolgariis saqme gamwvavdeboda,

Svecia mzadebas Seudga da dResac imave saqmezea

gadagebuli. es ambavi, rasakvirvelia, Seutyobrad

ar darCa evropasa. xolo qveyanass ukvirs, rom

Sveciis mefem oskarma exlaxan parlamentSi Tavisi

sefe-sityva warmosTqva da srulebiT xma ar

amoiRo arc imazed Tu - ras moaswavebs eg

daucxromeli mzadeba, arc imazed Tu, – ra

guliT, ra gunebiT aris Svecia-norvegia sagareo

politikisa gamo. am xmaamouReblobam, am gaCumebam

ufro Zlier aacqvetina yurebi diplomatiasa. rada

da risTvisao? hkiTxulobs cnobismoyvare

gulswrafoba adamianisa. maTa da misTvisao, iZaxis

metiCroba gulTmisnobisa... es amisTana pasuxi, Tu

gnebavT arc arafersa hniSnavs da, Tu gnebavT,

bevrs rasmesaca.

61


«WaWis WaWis aryis aryis gamoxdazed gamoxdazed SeRavaTiani

SeRavaTiani

sabaJo sabaJo wesebis wesebis SemoRebis SemoRebis Sesaxeb Sesaxeb» Sesaxeb Sesaxeb

62

tfilisi, 24 ianvari.

ruseTis Jurnal-gazeTobamac, rogorc iqmna,

miaqcia yuradReba im sabaJo wesebs, romelmac

pirqve daamxo CvenSi WaWisagan arayis xda 1876

wlidan romelmac wvrilman patronebs venaxebisas

didi zarali misca. “araviTari eWvi ar ariso,

ambobs erTi gazeTi: rom venaxisa da Rvinis keTeba,

arayis xdasTan erTad umTavresi Stoa sasoflo

meurneobisa kavkasiaSi; rom am Stos warmatebazed

damokidebulia iqaurTa mkvidrTa keTil

mdgomareoba da aRyvaveba TviTon mxrisa. dro iyo

da ara Sori droc, roca TiTqmis mTeli

glexkacoba kavkasiisa da erTob soflis mkvidrni

didis gamorCobiT venaxisa da Rvinis keTebazed

iyvnen miqceulni da amasTan WaWisagan araysa

xdidnen da amisaTvis bevrs glexTa, venaxis

patronTa, Tavisi sakuTari saxdeli qvabebi

hqondaT. xda arayisa ufro saSinao mrewveloba

iyo da sakmaod mxars aZlevda sasoflo meurneobas,

radganac WaWa-Txlesac Tavisi sargebloba

mohqonda da amas garda, roca yurZeni raime

mizeziT hfuWdeboda, an setyvisagan gailaxeboda

da dasawurad aRar vargoda, imisaganac araysa


hxdidnen da amiT glexkacoba xels inacvlebda. am

bedniers dros kavkasielni ixseneben exla,

rogorc “oqros drosa”. am “oqros drom” moaRwia

1876 wlamde da mas Semdeg ki saqmeTa mdgomareobam

saswrafod feri icvala da dRes

warmoadgens suraTs mTlad damxobisasa.

mTavrobas, rogorc etyoba, yuradReba

mouqcevia am marTlada sazaralos wesebisaTvis da

dRes, erTis gazeTis sityviT, saxelmwifo sabWoSi

finansTa saministros proeqti warudgenia, rom

WaWisa da Txlisagan arayis xdas Sveba da

SeRavaTi mieces da amiT xeli moemarToT venaxis

sxvilTa da wvrilTa patronenTa. Cvenda

samwuxarod, gazeTs, romlisaganac es cnobani

mogvyavs, dawvrilebiT da TvalnaTlad ar mohyavs,

ra Sveba da SeRavaTi ganuzraxavs, mianiWos venaxis

patronebsa finansTa saministrom Txle-WaWisagan

arayis xdis gamo. igi gazeTi amas ambobs, rom:

“mTavrobis sferoSi sabolood gadawyvetilia,

rom am axal wlis 1-s ivlisidam amier-kavkasiaSic

Setanil iqmnas zogadni wesni imperiisa arayis

xdisaTvis dadgenilni da momqmedni. amave droidan

Semdegis zomis baJia dawesebuli Txle-WaWisagan

gamoxdil arayzed. im arayzed, romelic gamoxdili

iqneba Sinauris qvabiTa Txle-WaWisagan venaxebis

patronTagan amier-kavkasiaSi, CernogoriaSi,

yubanisa da Tergis mxares, stavropolis guberniaSi,

Tu vinicobaa arayi gasayidad gaitaneba,

gadaxdeba or kapeiknaxevari graduszed traleris

“spirtometriT” Semowmebulzed. or weliwadSi

erTxel graduszed TiTo kapeiki baJi moemateba im

dromde, vidre iqamde miva, rom WaWis aryis baJi

marto oTxis kapeikiT iyos naklebi puris arayis

baJzeda. dasamJavebeli WurWeli arayis saxdel

qarxnisa /saca ki qarxanaa da ara Sinauri saxdeli

qvabi/ unda itevdes ara nakleb 360 vedrasa.”

63


ogorc etyoba, Sveba da SeRavaTi am

SemTxvevaSi orgvaria: erTi TviTon zoma baJisa,

romelic graduszed 2 1 / 2 kapeikamde Camoaxdina

axlad ganzraxulma kanonma da meore isa, rom 360

vedriani WurWeli dauwesebiaT meqarxneTaTvis

gamosaxdel masalis dasamJaveblad. Cvena gvgonia,

es amodena WurWeli imitom dauvalebiaT meqarxneTaTvis,

rom wvrilma qarxanebma Sinaurs

qvabebs ciloba ar gauwion glexkacobas, romelsac

marto Sinaur saxdedlis qvabis Sovnis Rone

Zliva aqvs, xelidam ar gamoacalon is gamorComa

da sarfa, rasac Sin gamoxda WaWa-Txlisa moutans.

RmerTma hqmnas, es axlad ganzraxuli kanoni

kargad mouxdes Cvens qveyanasa da igi simdidre,

romelic aqamde Cveni glex-kacoba iZulebuliyo

TiTqmis gadaeyara aw momqmed sabaJo wesis

wyalobiTa, ukanve daubrundes da uwindelebr

xelis gasamarTav wyarod Seeqmnes.

64


«parlamenti parlamenti Tu saministro

saministro»

saministro

saministro

tfilisi, 26 ianvari.

Cven ramdenisame dRis winad movixsenieT, rom

germaniaSi atexili mSvidobiani brZola

parlamentisa erTis mxriT da germaniis kancleris

bismarkisa meores mxriT ar moaswavebs samxedro

kanon-proeqtis gamo brZolas. Cvena vsTqviT, rom

eg kanon-proeqti marto mizezad Seiqmna, Torem aq

sul sxva tkivilma gaiRviZao. bismarkmac kargad

icis esa, radganac prusiis seimSi exlaxans

warmoTqva, rom parlamentisagan uaryofa Cvenis

samxedro kanon-proeqtisa dedaazris saqmea da ara

im calke SemTxvevisa, romelmac TviTon kanonproeqti

gamoiwviao. rom cota ram TvalnaTlad

davinaxoT am bundmodebul saqmeSi, meti ar iqneba

mokle istoria warmovudginoT mkiTxvels misi Tu,

- rodindeli ambavia es axlad dRes warmomdgari

ambavi da raSi mdgomareobs igi dedaazri,

romelsac bismarkma kanon-proeqtis uaryofa

daabrala. aSkaraa, rom dRes germaniaSi ori

dedaazri daejaxa erTmaneTs da TviTveuli maTgani

hlamobs gamarjvebasa. erTis dedaazris mimdevaria

bismarki da meorisa parlamentis momxreni. minam eg

dedaazrni egre medgrad gaemklavebodnen erTmaneTs

cxovrebaSi adgilis dasaWerad, jer, rasakvir-

65


velia, mecnierebaSi iyvnen dajaxebulni da

saxelganTqmul mecnierTa Soris dRes erTis

momxrenic moipovebian da meorisanic, nametnavad

germaniaSi. am saxiT am saganzed, romlis gamoc

dRes ibrZvian germaniaSi, orgvari mdinareobaa

azrisa, erTi meoris winaaRmdegia da erTsac da

meoresac mecnieri momxreni hyavs. amitomac

metismeti umarTebuloba iqmneba, dRevandeli moqmedeba

bismarkisa marto mis TviTnebobas da

jiutobas SevwamoT. SesaZloa igi rwmeniTac

moqmedobdes, rwmeniT, romelic Cvenis azriT

Seuwynarebelia, magram damyarebuli kia saxelganTqmul

mecnierTa moZRvrebazed. marTalia,

rwmena yovelTvis WeSmaritebad misaRebi ar aris,

magram pativsacemi ki yovelTvis aris.

gamoCenils mecniers lorenc Steins, romelic

meore gamoCenil mecnier gneistTan erTad

avtoritetad aris cnobili germaniaSi sapolitiko

saqmeTa codnasa da axsnaSi da romelic –

CvenSi ki iTqvas – cota TvaldaxuWuli uyurebs

egreTwodebuls “parlamentarobas”, mohyavs orgvari

magaliTi parlamentarobisa: erTi, saca

aRmasrulebeli Zali saxelmwifosi, ese igi

saministro, srulad emorCileba rjulTmdebels

parlamentsa, rogorc magaliTebr, inglisia, da

meore, saca saministro TiTqmis damokidebuli ar

aris parlamentzeda, rogorc dRes germaniaSia.

Tqma ar unda, rom Steins ufro germaniis wesi

moswons da swunobs inglisis wessa. Steinis

sityviT, inglisis saministro saxelmwifos

mosamsaxure ar aris; igi aris yurmoWrili yma im

dasisa, romelic sxvadasxva SemTxvevisa gamo

hmetobs parlamentSi da romelic cvalebadia.

igio, ambobs Steini, warmomadgenelia parlamentSi

gauflebulis dasisa da amitomac zogadi xasiaTi

mTavrobisa inglisSi igia, rom TavisiT mTavrobas

66


ara xasiaTi ara aqvso. iq pasuxisgeba saministosi

fuWi sityvaao, imitom, rom ministrebis damoukideblobasTan

erTad maTi pasuxisgebac gahqrao,

radganac raki dasi ganagebs da marTvelobs,

eg pasuxisgeba umizezoao. Steinis azriT, - raki

ministrebi gauflebulis dasis warmomadgenelni

da winamZRolelni arian da unda iyvnen kidec, Tu

ara da, unda daeTxovon TavianT Tanamdebobas, maS

araviTari SemTxveva ar iqneba SesaZlebeli, rom

saministro parlamentis survilis aRmsrulebeli

ar iyos yovelTvis. raki esea, mizezic pasuxisgebisa

Tavis dReSi ar aRmoCndeba. Tu mizezi

pasuxisgebisa saTaveSi mowyvetilia, pasuxisgeba

riRas maqnisia. amazed amyarebs Steini Tavis azrs

imis Sesaxeb, rom inglisSi pasuxisgeba ministrebisa

uqmi sityvaao da swunobs iqaurs rigsa

da wessa.

meores mxriT, Steini TiTqmis mTlad iwonebs

im rigsa da wessa, romlis ZaliTac ministrebi

ise damoukidebelni ar arian, rom zogjer metad

“uceremoniod” ekidebian parlamentis survilsa.

igi gvarwmunebs, viTomc germaniis saministroni

emsaxurebian gauflebuls dass ki ara, aramed

“umaRles ideas, dedaazrs” da amitomac germaniao

“ukeTesi magaliTia WeSmaritis mimoqcevisa

erTmaneTSi erTis mxriT saministrosi da meores

mxriT, parlamentisao”. “didad SesamCneviao, ambobs

Semdeg Steini: rom germaniis saxelmwifoni Tavis

dReSi ar gadasdgomian WeSmarits bunebas saministrosasao,

Tumca wesni marTvelobisani jer

SemTavrebuli da dasrulebuli ara aqvso. am

saukunis dasawyisSi germanias yvelgan ara hyolia

ministrebi, garna saca ki hyolia, namdvili ministrebi

iyvneno”.

Cven ar gamovudgebiT Steinis azris garCevas.

CvenTvis amJamad saWiro ar aris vicodeT, raSia

67


Steini marTali da raSi mtyuani. es sul sxva

sagania da amisaTvis Cven arc dro migviZRvis da

arc adgilia. Cven Tu amazed CamovagdeT laparaki,

marto imisTvis, rom dRevandels moqmedebas

bismarkisas erTis mxriT, da germaniis

parlamentisas meores mxriT saTave vupovoT. kaci

rom daukvirdes Steinis azrsa da am azrs qveS

dauyenos bismarkis dRevandeli moqmedeba,

TvalnaTlad dainaxavs, ra wyaros daswafebia

bismarki da ra dedaazri gauxdia sagnad Tvisis

moqmedebisa. am ocis wlis winad, bismarkma

pirdapir gamoucxada prusiis palatas, roca

dRevandelebr erTmaneTs daetaknen, rom “Cven

Tqveni ministrebi ki ara varT, Cvena varT

ministrebi misis didebulebis korolisao”. mere

saimperio seimSi 1879 w. igive azri warmosTqva:

“saministros SeuZlia dauTmos romelsame dass,

rom zedmoqmedeba iqonios zogierTa saqmeTa

msvlelobazed im momxreobis samagierod,

romelsac dasi saministros aRmouCens. xolo Tu

igi dasi moiwadinebs, rom TviTon ganagebdes

saministrosa, amiT igi iZulebulhyofs mTavrobasa

win gadudgeso. me Tavis dReSi, mas aqed, rac

ministrada var, arc erTs dassa ar vkuTnebulvar

da arc mindoda vkuTnebodi. rac dasebi arian,

TviTveulad yvelasa vZuldi, iqneba zogierTs ki

vuyvardi. me ar SemiZlian, mTavrobas ar SeuZlian

kudad gamoebas romelsame calke dassa da imis

ukan irbinos. mTavroba unda vidodes im gziT,

romelic TviTon mas swore gzad miaCnia da

parlamentis gadawyvetileba unda marto amowmebdes

siswores gzisas. saministrosaTvis saWiroa

momxreoba dasebisa, magram igi Tavis dReSi ar

daemorCileba batonobas arc erTis dasisas”.

68


aba yovelive es SeuwoneT Steinis Tqmulsa da

hnaxavT, rom bismarki am saqmeSi mimdevaria

xsenebul mecnierisa da warmomadgenelia da

ganmaxorcielebeli Steinis dedaazrisa. am dedaazris

gamo, romelsac ase ufrTxildeba

bismarki da romlisTvisac igi dRes ebrZvis

germaniis parlamentsa, germaniaSi egreTwodebuls

“saministro kriziss” sul sxva feri adevs. iq

saministro krizisis mizezad gaxdeba xolme

marto uTanxmoeba romelisame calke ministrisa

da saimpero kancleris Soris. “viRac falkebi da

fridentalebi, _ ambobs erTi mwerali: iZulebul

arian daeTxovon samsaxursa, Tu gabedaven da ar

eTanxmebian bismarksao”. eseTia didis xnis

survili bismarkisa da raki dRes saqmeTa

msvlelobam germaniis parlamenti gaduRoba win am

survilsa, advili misaxvedria ra gamwarebuli

unda iyos bismarki.

axla vikiTxoT, ras Txouloben parlamentis

momxreni? am sakiTxavzed pasuxi mcireodenad

zemoTqmulSiac moipoveba da garda amisa, Cven amas

winadac gakvriT movixsenieT Cvens gazeTSi. xolo

TviTon momxreTa rom vaTqmevinoT amisi pasuxi,

ufro marTali da dasajerebeli iqneba. dRes,

rogorc mogexsenebaT, germaniis parlamenti

daTxovilia da axali arCevania daniSnuli, rom

germaniis erma Tvisi azri gamosTqas – axlad

arCeul deputatTa piriTa. rom germaniis eri ar

motyuvdes da sakiTxav sagnad parlamentis mier

dawunebuli kanon-proeqti ar miiRos, parlamentis

momxreebma amisTana saarCevno manifestiT mihmarTes

amomrCevlebs:

Tanamoazreno da Tanamemamuleno! saimperio

mTavrobam gadaayena reixstagi da Tqven mogmarTaT

sakiTxavad. am saxiT, Tqven win wamomdgaria erTi

69


sagani gadasawyvetad: hsurs qveyanas, iqonios

cxadi da arsebiTi sakonstitucio ufleba, Tu

sTmobs da xels iRebs amazed?

mometebuli nawili reixstagisa dasTanxmda,

rom karga blomad moematos jarsa. am mxriT,

veraferi ver davaTmobineT. mainc am mometebuls

nawils reixstagisas swamoben, rom vneba miayena

saxelmwifos mxedrobis Zlierebasao. Cven davuTmeT

saxelmwifos yvelaferi, razedac ki Cveni

sindisi nebas gvaZlevda. Cven mxolod ar gvindoda

gaTamamebuls brZanebas davmorCilebuliyaviT; Cven

ar movindomeT gagvewira Cveni ufleba zedamxedaobisa.

mRviZared iyaviT; Tavi gamoideT yvelgan, saca

ki SegiZlianT da epirispireT marTalis SebRalvas

da tyuils braldebas. nu daiviwyebT, rom Tu

reixstagi am saqmeSi Tavs moixris, Rone aRar

eqmneba winaaRudges siTamames saministrosas

araferSi...

dRevandeli dRe iseTia, rom an “ho” da an

“ara”. oRond yvelam Tavisi movaleoba aRasrulos,

marTali Seimoseba ZleviT da germaniis imperia

gadurCeba im saSinels gansacdelsa, romlis

msgavsic jer ar unaxavs mis aqed, rac xelaxlad

aRorZinda.

ai, WeSmariti mniSvneloba dRevandelis Wapanwyvetisa

germaniaSi. am saqmis ZarRvi iseTia, rom

misi xelis xleba da didis tkivilebis aSla

germaniisaTvis erTia. amitomac sakvirveli ar

aris, rom mTeli qveyana mouTmenlad moelis, -

ras ixerxebs yovlis momxerxebeli bismarki? Tu

arCevanma momxreebi gamougzavna bismarks

reixstagSi, maSin pasuxi cxadia da saqmis

gaZRola Zneli ar aris. gaWireba maSin iqneba, Tu

arCevanma umtyuna bismarks. aba swored amas

70


hkiTxuloben, maSin rasa iqms bismarkio? visac

bismarkis vaJkacoba da siTamame Setyobili aqvs, is

amasac pasuxs moupovebs. xolo rasa iqms germaniis

eri, Tu bismarki Tavis Tvisebebisamebr lomsaviT

moiqca? ai sakiTxavi, romelzedac pasuxi “ar

egebis”.

71


«salusberis salusberis saministros saministros gasaWiri

gasaWiri»

gasaWiri

72

tfilisi, 27 ianvari.

inglisis saministrom xma patara daimdabla da

iseTis rixiT aRar hlaparakobs sagareo

politikis saqmeTa mimdinareobazed. markimi

salusberi, romlis dauZinebels moqmedebas

zogerTni abraleben, rom bolgaria aqamde urCobs,

TavisTavs vera hgrZnobs kargs gunebazed. misi

siTamame karga sakmaod dascxra, roca lordi

CerCili daeTxova saministrosa, gadga da egred

wodebuls “neo- konservatorebs” moTaved gauxda.

amis gamosvlam saministrodam sxva Rrubelic

miayena salusberis saministros. gladstonis dasma

da radikalT-disidentebis moTavem Camberlenma

erTmaneTs molaparakeba dauwyes Serigebazed da

bevrnic imedovneben, rom es nawili liberalebisa

kvlav miemxroba gladstonsao, liberalTa dasi

gladstonis moZRvrebisa kvlav gaZlierdeba da,

vin icis, iqneba daamxos kideca salusberis

saministroo. TviTon inglisis ermac, romelmac

ukanasknel arCevanSi gladstonis moZRvreba da

politika daiwuna, exla, rogorca sCans, sxvafriv

aaxila Tvali da gladstonis politika dRedadRe

momxreebsa hSoulobs. Cvens mkiTxvelebs ukve

moexsenebaT, rom, roca lord CerCili, romelic


finansTa ministrad iyo salusberis saministrosi,

gamovida saministrodam, salusberim bevris aqediqiT

mecadineobis Semdeg Zlivs ipova axali

ministri lord CerCilis samagierod. axali

ministri goSeni gladstonisagan gadamdgar liberalTa

dasis kacia. inglisis wesiT yoveli ministri

usaTuod deputatad unda iyos amorCeuli

parlamentSi. uamisod ministrad yofna SeuZlebelia.

radganac axlad daniSnuli ministri

goSeni deputatad ar iricxeboda, amis gamo

saWiroebam, anu uked vsTqvaT, sakonstitucio

wesma moiTxova, rom goSens kenWi eyara da sadme

amorCeuliyo. swored am dros qalaqs liverpuls

deputati aklda parlamentSi. goSenma aiRo da

Tavisi kandidatoba deputatobisa aq wamoayena da

aq gaixada saarCevnod Tavi. aq goSenma da

salusberim miT ufro didis imediT gahbedes

arCevani, rom liverpulma am bolos sazogado

arCevanis dros konservatorTa dasis kaci

amoirCiva Tavis warmomadgenlad parlamentSi da

egonaT rom exlac ese moxdebao. gladstonis

momxreebma Tavisi kaci daupirispires goSensa da

goSeni damarcxda: gladstonis momxrem Svidis

kenWiT ajoba. Sexta da Semotrialda salusberi

da misni momxreni. bevri simrude da urigoba

Seswames am arCevansa, undodaT rogorme gaeuqmebinaT

da axali arCevani moexdinaT. bevri

iostates, magram saqme rom gasinjes, veraferi

uwesoeba ver damtkicda da gladstonis momxre

kanonierad amorCeul deputatad aRiares.

es ambavi Tumca Tvalad mcire ram aris, magram

TiTqmis yvelam imis sabuTad miiRes, rom inglisis

erma azri icvalao da guneba da guli isev

gladstonisaken moibrunao. exla goSeni am

saministos unda daeTxovos, an iseTs saarCevno

olqs warudginos Tvisi kandidatoba, romelic

73


cnobilia, viTarca erTguli momxre

konservatorebisa. dRes saqme salusberis

saministrosi amazea Semdgari da Tu aqac Tavisi

survili kvlav ar auxda, fexTa qveS miwa

moulxveba. Tund egec ar iyos, maincdamainc

uqadian salusberis saministros, rom dRe

aRsasrulisa moaxloebulia; dResa Tu xvale,

saqme iqamde miaRwevs, rom an dRevandeli

parlamenti daiTxovos da xelaxlad daekiTxos

ersao, an salusberi Tavisi momxreebiT unda

gadadges da burTi da moedani gladstons

gadaulocoso. amboben, rom Tundac parlamenti

daiTxovon da axali arCevani daniSnon, maSinac

imedi ar aris, rom salusberis saministrom

gaimarjvos da Tavi daiWiros, imedi aqvT, rom

exla inglisis eri gladstonis momxreebs

amoirCevs saparlamentodao.

74


«bulgareTis bulgareTis saqmis saqmis mSvidobianad

mSvidobianad

damTavrebis damTavrebis cda cda» cda cda

tfilisi, 28 ianvari.

bolgariis saqme iqamde inaxes gauTaveblad,

vidre diplomatebis qseli mravalgvarad ar gaiba

evropaSi didTa saxelmwifoTa Soris. dRes evropa

am qselisagan isea gablanduli, rom Tavi da bolo

ar uCans. is ostati, romelic xelSi aTamaSebs

marTulebs politikisas, xerxianad aTamaSebs,

rogorc etyoba. dRes aqamomde arev-darevis

erTaderT mizezad balkanis naxevarkunZuli epyra

xelSi da roca am mizezma saxelmwifoni erTmaneTSi

aSala da am aSlis korianteli adga, maSin

sul sxva saganzed mihmarTa Tvali da yuri

evropisa. am saxiT bolgariis saqmem Tavisi

sicxare dahkarga da ganelda. dRes es saqme,

ruseTis oficialuri gazeTis sityviT,

samSvidoboSia gasuli da SesaZloa marto

molaparakebiTac gaTavdeso.

am imeds iZleva igi garemoeba, rom dragani

cankovi, exlandelis regentebis opoziciis moTave,

didma vezirma osmaleTisam ruseTis elCis nelidovis

dakiTxviTa miiwvia stambolSi mosalaparakebladao.

iqav unda mividnen deputatnic

exlandelis bolgariis mTavrobisa, romelnic amas

winad evropaSi gagzavnil iyvnen da romelnic,

75


gazeTis sityviT, veraferis nugeSiT ver

daubrundnen bolgariasao. osmaleTma am saxiT

ikisra cda, rom bolgariis saqme rogorme

daabolovos sayovelTavo sasiamovnod. amis gulisaTvis

sulTanis mTavrobam mihmarTa TviTveuls

dids saxelmwifos TxovniTa, rom Tqvens elCebs

stambolSi ubrZaneT, am molaparakebaSi monawileoba

miiRono da mxari mogvceno bolgariis

saqmis mSvodobianad gaTavebisaTvisao. es Txovna

mometebulma nawilma didTa saxelmwifoTagan ar

iucxova da TanagrZnobiT miiRo. marto erTi

inglisi pirvel xanebSi htokavda da TiTqmis

uarzed idga. exla amboben, rom ruseTma, avstrivengriam,

italiam, germaniam da safrangeTma

TviTveulma Tav-Tavis elCs daavala monawileoba

miiRon molaparakebaSi da saqmis keTilad

warmarTvaSi. inglismac uari aRara sTqva miT

ufro, misi elCi uaiti exla sxvarigad gaewyo

osmaleTis mTavrobasTana.

zogierTi diplomatebi Zalian scdilobdnen,

rom am elCTa molaparakebas konferenciis saxeli

ar erqvas. es imasa hniSnavs, rom am elCTa krebis

ganaCeni, Tu romelsame dids saxelmwifos ar

moewona, SesaZloa im saxelmwifos mier savaldebulod

ar iqnas miRebuli. maS ris momaswavebelia

es amisTana molaparakeba, es amisTana kreba, Tu

rasac ityvian da rasac daadgenen, yvelasaTvis

savaldebulo ar iqneba? orSi erTi: amis damwyobT

an imedi aqvT, rom igi kreba yvelas sasiamovnod

da saxeirod gaaTavebs saqmes.......

76


«italiis italiis italiis mier mier mas massovas mas mas ovas dapyrobis

dapyrobis

mcdeloba

mcdeloba»

mcdeloba

tfilisi, 29 ianvari

am ramdenime wlis winad yvela saxemwifos

evropaSi, didsa Tu pataras, erTi cieb-cxeleba

SeudgaT sakolonio politikisa, TiTqo Sin

sakuTari da TavSi sacemi saqme gamoeliaTo.

safrangeTma tonkinisaken gaiwoda xeli da karga

blomad xarji fuliT Tu kaciT zed Sealia.

inglisma birmaniis imperias Cahkida xeli da amas

garda aqed-iqidac Tvali moatriala, xom ar aris

imisTana rame, rom xelT vigdoo. ispanias da

germanias xom raRac korolinis kunZulebzed

kinaRam omic ar autydaT, Tu rom papis Suakacobas

ar eSvela. am cieb-cxelebas arc italia

gadurCa. amanac gaiwia da afrikaSi mewamulis

zRvis piras, abisiniis axlos, massova daiWira.

amboben, rom italia aq inglisma waityua. ingliss

maSin sudanis daWera undoda, sadac saxelovani da

aw gansvenebuli mahdi, axali winaswarmetyveli

mahmadianTa, win aRudga mTelis eriTa. am mahdim

ise gauWira saqme inglissa, rom inglisma aRar

icoda, ra eqmna da mSvelels eZebda mezobelTa

Soris. am sudanis saqmeSi marto sams saxelmwifos

SeeZlo gareuliyo, marto imisTana saxel-

77


mwifos, romelsac didi interesi aqvs xmelTaSua

zRvaSi, radganac afrikas am zRvazed moudevs Tavi

CrdiloeTiT. amisTana saxelmwifoni arian

osmaleTi, safrangeTi da italia. osmaleTi da

safrangeTi ver miexmarebodnen ingliss, radganac

oriv eseni amrezilni iyvnen da dResac arian

ingliszed egviptisa da suezis arxis gamo. darCa

marto italia. inglisma oqros mTebi dauqada

italias, zemoxsenebuli massova da am gziT gaaba

saqmeSi. ingliss imis imedi hqonda, rom italia

samxreT-aRmosavleTiT moawveba sudansa, mec

zevidam wamoval da Sig movimwyvdevT sudanelebsao.

marTalia, italiam massova daiWira,

magram ingliss survili ver ausrulda. massovaSi

fexis Sedgmam italiis mxriT abisiniis niguSi

/mefe/ ioane didi sagonebelSi Caagdo. ioanes ar

eWaSnika italiis mezobloba da italielebs

daxvda win jariTa.

am ianvarSi italiaSi massovidam sul cudi

ambebi modioda. imis garda, rom italiis jarebi

wydeboda im cxel qveyanaSi autanelis havisa gamo,

xmebi ismoda, rom abisiniis jari modis

italielebzeo. am xmebma iZulebelhyves italiis

parlamentis deputatni ekiTxaT mTavrobisaTvis, -

ra ambavia massovaSio. 12-s ianvars am kiTxvazed

italiis ministrma robilanma pasuxi misca, rom

Tumca, marTalia, abisiniis jari Cvens jarzed

modiso, magram Cveni generali jene, romelsac

Cveni jari abaria massovaSi, iwereba, SiSi

arafrisaa, radganac sakmao Rone maqvs ukuvaqcio

abisinelebio. amas TavisiT robinalma isic

daumata, rom am SiSis xmebsa didi mniSvneloba ar

unda mieceso. generali jene marto imas

hTxoulobda, rom 600 kaci momaSveleT da me

gavuZRvebi abisinelebsa, miT ufro, rom ara mgonia

niguSma ioanem mtroba Semogvbedoso.

78


13-s ianvars ambavi movida italiaSi, rom

abisiniis sardali rass-aluda dascemia

italielebs massovaSi da 200 kaciT dazaralebula

maSin, rodesac italielebs xuTi kaci

mohkvdomiaT. am ambavs suakimidam is ambavic mohyva,

rom massovaSi areuloba moxda da omi italielebsa

da abisinelTa Soris sacaa astydebao.

14-s ianvars robilani mainc kidev arwmunebda

parlaments, rom SiSi arafrisaao da rac iq jari

gvyavs, sakmaoa “barbarozni” ukuaqcios damarcxebulio.

21-s ianvars ambavi movida, rom massovis

axlos saatisSi abisinelebi Tavs dasxmian

italielebs da rac aficrebi yofilan italiis

jarSi, sul gauJletiaT. sCans, Zalian damarcxebula

italiis jari, Tuki erTi aficeric ver

gadarCenila. am ambis miRebisve umal italiis

mTavroba Sesdgomia 600 kacis magier, romelTac

hTxoulobda aw damarcxebuli generali jene,

aTiaTasi kaci Casxas xomaldebSi da miaSvelos.

amisaTvis brZanebac gaica, rom italiis gemxomaldebs

Tavi moeyaraT neapolSi jarebis

wasayvanad. Tumca italiis senatma, moismina ra es

samwuxaro ambavi, dadgina, gamoecxados saministros

sruli ndoba, magram maSinve xma

davarda, rom robilanis saminstro Tavs veRar

daiWerso. guSindelma depeSam gvacnoba, rom es xma

gamarTlda da robilanis saministro gadadga. es

ambavi miT ufro sayuradReboa, rom Tavis

zedmoqmedebas iqoniebs evropis exlandels

politikazed, radganac robilani cnobilia, vi-

Tarca erTguli momxre avstriisa da, saca gindaT

da ar gindaT, avstrias mxars aZlevda da sarCls

uwevda.

79


80

«“zemski “zemski naCalnikis” SemoRebis

aucilebloba

aucilebloba»

aucilebloba

tfilisi, 30 ianvari

karga xania rac SinaganTa saqmeTa saministroSi

Semdgaria egreTwodebuli gansakuTrebuli komisia,

romelsac mindobili aqvs xelaxlad ganxilva

kanonebisa, romelTa krebas hqvian: “положение о

уездныхъ учреждениахъ”. am komisiaSi miwveul arian

gubernatorebi da Tavad-aznaurTa marSlebi. am komisias

saWirod daunaxavs, axali Tanamdeboba “zemskis

naCalnikiss” da am saganzed dawvrilebiTi

wesdeba ukve SeudgeniaT, gvauwyeben moskovis gaze-

Tebi. Sedgenilis proeqtis mixedviT, “zemskis na-

Calnikebs” miendobaT gamgeoba yovelis administrateburis

da mazris patronobis saqmeni. um-

Tavresi movaleobani am axalis Tanamdebobisa arian

Semdegni: 1) “zemskis naCalnikebi”, unda iyvnen

miucilebelni wevrni samazro da sagubernio erobaTa

krebisa da maTze iqneba damokidebuli warmarTva

saqmeTa, romelnic Seexebian ekonomiurs

yofa-cxovrebas TviTveulis mxarisas. 2)”zemskis

naCalnikebs” mieniWebaT yovelive administrateburi

Zali da ufleba momrigebel Suakacebisa /мировых

посредниковъ/ da amasTanac ufleba gadaxedvinebisa,

Tu vinicobaa vinmem daarRvia dadgenili wesi. 3)

garda administrateburis uflebisa “zemskis na-


Calnikebs” miecemaT gansamarTlebis uflebaca

wvrilman bralisa da danaSaulobisaTvis da maTve

eqvemdebareba samoqalaqo saqmenica, Tu sadavo sagani

ocdaaTs Tumans ar aRemateba. 4) ganzraxulia

momrigebel- mosamarTleni gauqmebul

iqmnan mazrebSi da maTi saqmeni unda sul gadaeces

“zemskis naCalnikebs”. 5) appelaciis gansaxilvelad

dadgenilia saerTo kreba “zemskis naCalnikebisa”,

romelnic unda Seiyarnon xolme yovels

TTves imdenjer, ramdenjerac winadve iqmneba dawesebuli.

6) am “zemskis naCalnikebsve” valad

daedebaT zedamxedveloba iqonion, rom aRsrulebul

iqmnan saero krebaTa ganaCenebi, romelnic

Seexebian sazogado janmrTlianobas, gzebis

keTebas da mSvidobianobis dacvasa da patronobas.

ganweseba “zemskis naCalnikebisa” orgvarad unda

moxdes: a/ im guberniebSi, saca TavadaznaurTa

arCevanebia, “zemskis naCalnikebi” unda amorCeul

iqmnen adgilobriv Tavad-aznaurTagan Tavisis wridam

da am saxiT amorCeulsa gubernatori daamtkicebs

da b/ im guberniebSi ki, saca Tavad-aznaurTa

warmomadgenlobas saarCevno ufleba ara

aqvT miniWebuli, “zemskis naCalnikebi” dainiSnebian

adgilobriv gubernatorTagan da damtkicebuli iqmnebian

SinaganTa ministrisagan, rac Seexeba Cinebis

miRebas da jamagirebsa, “zemskis naCalnikebi” momrigebel

SuakacTa weszed iqnebian im gansxvavebiT,

rom jamagirebi ramdenadme meti eqmnebaT exlandel

cxovrebis da mazrisa da guberniis metnaklebobis

mixedviTa. “zemskis naCalnikebi”pirdapir eqvemdebarebian

adgilobrivs gubernators.

es axali Tanamdeboba dawesebulia marto im 36

guberniisaTvis, saca saero dawesebulebani ukve

moqmedoben. es Tanamdeboba ar iqneba SemoRebuli

amier-kavkasiaSi, vilenisa, kovenisa, grodnisa, minskisa

da vislis midamo guberniebSi.

81


82

«abisiniis abisiniis saxelmwifos saxelmwifos raoba raoba» raoba

tfilisi, 31 ianvari.

evropis diplomatiam, daRalulma da moqanculma

bolgariis tyuilubralod gaWianurebul

saqmisagan da eldacemulma safrangeTis da germaniis

erTmaneTzed amrezilobisagan, dRes piri

ibruna italiisaken. abisinelTa gamarjveba italielebze

massovaSi axal sacoxnel sagnad

SeeqmnaT. Tumca es ambavi Tvalad umniSvneloa,

magram diplomatia raRac kavSirsa hxedavs am

ambavisa da saxelmwifoTa erTmaneTSi xelaxlad

gawyobis Soris. depretisis saministroSi sagareo

saqmeTa ministroba eWira robinals, kacsa metad

daaxloebuls avstriis didkacobasTan da

sxvafrivadac dids momxres avstriisas. am

robilans abraleben, rom bolo TriasaviT aeTria

am bolos Jams Tavis Zvels mters avstriasa,

avstriisa da inglisis politikas kudad gamoeba

da daaSora safrangeTsa. radikalTa dasi italiisa

metad swunobda am politikasa da roca ki

SemTxveva eZlevoda, ara hzogavda saministros

depretisisas gasakicxavad. exla, roca massovidam

mosulma ambavma moindo depretisis saministro da

depretisi Tavisi robilaniT gadadga samsaxuridam,

diplomatias sabuTi mieca imedi iqonios, rom

politika italiisa evropis saqmeebSi fers


icvlis da am cvlilebas sxva axali ganwyobileba

mohyveba didTa saxelmwifoTa Soris, ese igi, exla

saxelmwifoni sxvarigad daewyobian erTmaneTSio.

am sabuTs, rasakvirvelia, Tavisi simarTle aqvs,

radganac depretisisagan daclils moedans saministroisas

daiWers radikalTa dasi, romelsac

guli ufro safrangeTisaken miuwevs, vidre sxva

vismesaken, da avstriasa da inglissa, italiazed

daimedebulT, frTa aekvecebaT.

Tumca Soreuli ambavia, magram meti ara

gvgonia, Cvens mkiTxvelebs mokled mainc vauwyoT

ra aris massova, rad daiWira igi italiam, rad

gamoidva Tavi abisiniam italielebis sapirispirod

da TviT abisinia ra qveyanaa.

abesinia, abisinia, anu habeSi Zvels droSi

cnobilia efiopiad. igi mdebareobs afrikis

aRmosavleTis mxares, mewamulis zRvis piras.

uWiravs 16.000 oTxkuTxi milli da xuTi

millioni mkvidri hyavs. igini qristianebi arian

marTlmadidebelni, ebraelTa da mahmadianTa

rjulisanic arian zogan. sataxto qalaqs

abisiniisas gondari hqvian. meTvramete saukunemde

abisinia erTs dids saxelmwifos Seadgenda erTis

mefis * brZanebis qveS. mas mermed mTlianoba

saxelmwifosi daibzara da daiyo cal-calke

samefoebad da samTavroebad. amaT Soris sxvebzed

ufro Zlieri iyo Crdilo-aRmosavleTisaken

samefo tigre, amgara, romelsac gondari eWira,

takaces mdinaredgan dasavleTisaken da samxreTiT

Soa. am ukanasknel droTa ganmavlobaSi gondaris

brZanebelma, saxelad yazim, daipyro mometebuli

nawili abisiniisa, 1855 wels daamarcxa mefe

tigresi da abisiniis taxtzed avida mefed da

saxelad Teodore dairqva. am Teodores

* mefes imaTeburad negusi hqvian.

83


Zlevamosilebas gadaurCa mxolod samefo Soa,

romelic dResac damoukidebeli samefoa da

romelmac yuradReba miaqcia am bolos xanebSi,

roca italielebsa da abisinelebs SuRli

CamouvardaT. am SoaSi mefed menelikia. meneliki

daibada 1818 w. gamefda 1841 welsa. meneliks

Tavisi STamomavloba gamohyavs mefe solomonisa

da dedofal savasagan. es ki namdvilad cnobilia,

rom roca wminda frumentim Seitana qristianoba

abisiniaSi, winaparni menelikisa ukve mefobdnen

Soas. roca mere meTeqvsmete saukuneSi abisiniaSi

gamefebulma gvareulobam miiRi kaTolikeTa

sarwmunoeba, maSin Soas mefe iakobi kaToliked

moinaTla. mas Semdeg iezuitebsa da abisiniis

mefes Cxubi mouvidaT da abisiniis mefem uaryo

kaTolikeTa sarwmunoeba. amis magaliTsve mihyva

Soas samefo gvareulobaca. TviTon meneliki ki,

exlandeli mefe Soasi, Zalian TanamgrZnobeli da

Semwea kaTolikeTa sarwmunoebis misionerebisa da

amis gamo exlandelma papma 1879 wels gaugzavna

oqros gvirgvini. italiis xelmwifem niSani misca.

1868 wels, roca ingliselebi daecnen malagas,

maSin menelikma ar miaSvela jari neguss

Teodores da amiT igi Semoimwyrala. Tumca

meneliki damoukidebeli mefea, magram abisiniis

mefis winaSe erTi valdebuleba aqvs: omis dros

jariT unda mieSvelos xolme. ai ra mxriT aris

mefe Soasi meneliki saferebeli da xelSi

dasaWeri italielebisaTvis, roca abisinelTa da

italielT Soris Cxubia. ra Tqma unda, rom am

saxiT Soas samefos didi mniSvneloba aqvs dRes,

roca italia da abisinia erTmaneTs hlamian

datakebas. italielebi yovels RonisZiebas, yovels

ostatobas ixmareben, rom meneliki moimxron da am

gziT cixe abisiniisa Signidamve gastexon.

84


asakvirvelia, yovels amas TavisTavad

araviTari mniSvneloba ara aqvs evropiis

politikisaTvis, magram radganac italia

Zalauneburad gaebmis afrikis saqmeSi, jari amazed

unda moacdinos, didi xarji gaswios, veRar

moiclis evropiis saqmeTaTvis da ise

xelgaxsnilad veRar imoqmedebs, rogorc aqamdisa.

yovel amas is unda mohyves, rom evropiis

diplomatTa saTvalavSi italia imodena adgils

veRar daiWers, rom bevrad misaRebi iyos

angariSSi. Cvenc am mxriT mivaqcieT am ambavs

yuradReba da Semdegs werilSi vecdebiT danarCeni

garemoebanic am saqmisa avxsnaT.

85


86

«italiisa taliisa da da abisinias abisinias Soris

Soris

urTierTobis urTierTobis urTierTobis gamwvaveba gamwvaveba massovas

massovas

gamo gamo» gamo

tfilisi, 3 Tebervali

qalaqs massovas uWiravs erTi patara kunZuli

mewamulis zRvazed afrikaSi. eg adgili, mdebare

abisiniisa da mewamulis zRvis Sua, erTaderTi

karia Sesasvleli abisiniaSi zRvidam da magisTana

kargi da marjve navTsadguri mis axlo-maxlo sxva

ar aris mewamulis zRvazeda abisiniisaTvis. rac ki

vaWroba da aReb-micemobaa abisiniasTan, sul am

qalaqiT midis da modis. vaWrobas gamoaqvs

abisiniidam tyavi, yava, wminda sanTeli, spilos

Zvali, Tafli, erbo, rqosani saqoneli, jor-cxeni,

oqro, Tambaqo da siraqlemas frTa, romelic kai

fasad iyideba evropaSi, - da Seaqvs abisiniaSi

ufro Tof-iaraRi, abreSumisa da bambis saqoneli.

1881 wlis cnobidama sCans, rom TiTqmis samis

millionis manaTis vaWroba hqonia evropas

abisiniasTan.

massova suakimTan erTad zRvisnapira adgilia

da Zveladganve ekuTvnoda abisinias, meTeqvsmete

saukuneSi es adgilebi daipyro osmaleTma da 1865

w. dauTmo egviptesa. SarSan 8-s Tebervals


italiam arc aiRo, arc daiRo, mivida da daiWira

massova im ganzraxviT, rom massovas mdebareobis

SemweobiT xelT igdos ukeTesi navTsadguri

mewamulis zRvazed da aqedam gza gaixsnas

vaWrobisaTvis abisiniasTan. jer maSinve ambobdnen,

rom es Zalmomreoba gamoiwvevs Cxubsa abisiniasTan,

radganac es massova erTaderTi karia, rom

abisiniam rigiani aReb-micemoba iqonios evropasTan.

italia bevrs ecada, rom rogorme moego guli

abisiniis exlandelis mefisa ioannesi, magram mefe

ioanne verasgziT ver moinadires. italiis

xelmwifem humbertma mociqulic gaugzavna generali

polocini didis saCuqrebiTa da ZRveniTa.

magram ioannem uari SemouTvala da ar miiRo

mociquli. im dRidan aqamomde yoveldRe moelodnen,

rom abisinia da italia erTmaneTs daeZgerebiano

da marTladac daeZgernen.

italielebma, marTalia, kargad gaamagres

massova da gareSamo didsa da patara manZilzed,

saca saWiro iyo, cixe-simagreni amarTes, magram

jari ki metad cota hyvandaT. generali jene,

romelic winamZRvrobs iqaurs jarsa, metad

ekadniereboda abisinielebs, TiTqmis ararad agdebda

da marto 4.500 kaciT imedovnebda ukuqcevas

abisinielebisas, ukeTu ieriSs moitandnen. 15-s

ianvars tigresis vice-koroli ras-aluli

dascemia italielebs massovasTan, auRia wina cixesimagreni,

italiis axal-moSeneni gauJletia ase,

rom 480 kacodam 50-Ra gadarCenila. am ambavma

moaRwia Tu ara romamde, didi aliaqoTi astexa

romSi. Seiyvana maSinve parlamenti da parlaments

imodena gaborotebuli xalxi daedo, rom mTavroba

iZulebul Seiqmna jari Semoertya parlamentisaTvis

rigisa da wesis dasacavad. xalxi

Turme hyviroda, “ganaZeT depretisi, massovis

damnaSaveo”. depretisi mTavari ministria italiisa

87


da, rogorc depeSidam viciT, dRes amis gamo unda

gadamdgariyo ministrobidam, es ambavi rom

avstriaSi mivida, metad Sewuxdnen, advilad

misaxvedric aris radac. depretisi da sagareo

saqmeTa ministri robilani didni momxreni da

amyolni iyvnen avstriisa da germaniisa. amaTi

gadadgoma da am samTa saxelmwifoTa Soris

kavSiris cotad Tu bevrad Seryeva erTia.

Tumca zogni gavlenianni kacni didi xania

iZaxodnen, davaneboT Tavi massovas, ra xeli gvaqvs

iqa da an ra sargeblobas unda movelodneTo,

magram exla, roca aseTi marcxi mouvidaT da

abrus gatexa afrikaSi emZimebaT, amitomac TiTqmis

erTxmad gadawyvites, rom jari miaSvelon general

jenes aTi aTas kacamde mainc. dRes italia am

jarebis gadayvanis TadarigSia miT ufro, rom

anbavi mosula, TviTon abisiniis mefe ioanne modis

italielebzed didis laSqriTao. dRes aqamomde

italielebs es mouxerxebiaT, rom Soas mefe

meneliki moubirebiaT da momxreTa hyavT. amboben,

meneliks dahpirebian, abisiniis mefes ioannes

taxts wavarTmevT da Sen agiyvanT abisiniis mefis

taxtzedao. ra Tqma unda, rom meneliki amis

imediT yovels RonisZiebas ixmarebs italielebis

SewevnisaTvis. am saxiT, ueWvelia, rom abisinias

da italias erTmaneTSi omi autydebaT da riT

gaTavdeba, vin icis. italiisaTvis es omi metad

uxerxuls dros modis. evropaSi saqmeebi ise

daxvlanjilia, rom italia orisave TvaliT aqediqiT

unda iyurebodes, imisTana ara moxdes ra,

rom italia carielzed dasvan da raime

gansacdeli SeamTxvion. raki igi abisiniasTan omSi

gaebmis, evropiis saqmeTaTvis igi ise xelgaxsnili

ar iqmneba, rogorc aqamdis iyo. garda amisa, Tu

depretisis magier radikalTa dasis kacT Caigdes

saministro, mTeli politika italiisa, romelic

88


dRes aqamomde germaniisa da avstriis kudad iyo,

sul sxva saxes da mimarTulebas miiRebs. ai,

amitoma vsTqviT wina werilSi, rom es massovis

ambavi Tavis zedmoqmedebas iqoniebso saxelmwifoTa

Soris gabmul da daxlarTul sadiplomatio

qselzedao.

89


90

«daZabuli daZabuli politikuri politikuri viTareba

viTareba

evropaSi

evropaSi»

evropaSi

evropaSi

tfilisi, 4 Tebervali.

is gaWirebuli mdgomareoba, romelmac am

ramdenisame xnis winad Seafiqra mSvidobismoyvareni

evropaSi, zogireTis sityviT, exla sakmaod ganelda

da mSvidobianobisaken midrikao. zogni kidev

mainc iZaxian, rom gansacdelis Rrubeli jer ar

gaduyria sapolitiko casao da gansacdeli maincdamainc

mosalodneliao. mSvidobianobis msurvelni

da moyvareni iZaxian, rom sul tyuili farTi-furTi

iyovo, rasac aqamde an erTi an meore mxare

qadulobda. bismarks Sin saqme gauWirdao da iZulebul

Seiqmna SiSis zariT emoqmedna Tavisis

sityvis da survilis gasayvanad germaniaSi, romelic

mis mier mowveulia axalis reixstagis

deputatTa arCevanisaTvisao da Tu am SiSma es

samsaxuri gauwia bismarksa, mere yovelisferi

dalagdeba da dawynardebao.

omio, iZaxian sxvani, marto maSin astydebao,

Tu bismarki moiwadinebso da amasTanac umateben,

rom bismarki saqveynod ambobso, omi sulac ar unda

germanias da germania pirveli ar amoiRebs

xmals qarqaSidam, Tu zed ar moeseva vinme da ma-

Sin meti ra gzaa, mtris mosagereblad mzad unda

viyvneTo. am saxiT sCans, viTom germaniis mxriT


mosalodneli ar aris raime uecari gansacdeli.

iqiT safrangeTi Tavis bedis gamgebelTa kacTa piriT

dRe mudam arwmunebs qveyanasa, rom mSvidobianobis

msurvelia da araviTari SiSi ar moelis

am mSvidobianobasao. exlaxan safrangeTis sagareo

saqmeTa ministrs fluranss gamoucxadebia, rom

Cvenis elCebisagan miRebulma ambebma sruliad

gadagviyares yovelive SiSi mSvidobianobis dar-

Rvevisao. bolgariis saqmea da amazedac amboben,

rom imedia aqac evropa samSvidobo gzazeda sdgaso,

imedia, arc es saqme Caagdebs evropas gansacdelSio

da yvelaferi yovelTa sasurvelad gaTavdebao.

avstriamac, Tumca delegatebic moiwvia,

rom jarisaTvis 25 millioni gamosTxovos da

garda amisa mometebulis daxarjvis nebaca, Tu

vinicobaa saqmeTa viTareba da saWiroeba moiTxovs,

magram igi avstriac ki anugeSebs qveyanas, rom Si-

Si arafrisaao da Tu Cven vemzadebiT, marto

imisaTvis, rom yovel SemTxvevisaTvis mzad viyvneTo.

erTis sityviT, saidac ki miixedavT, yvelani

imas iZaxian, rom mSvidobis wyurvilia Cveni

wyurvili da saxelmwifos gamgebelni kacni rac

Zali da Rone aqvT iZaxian, saSiSars xmebs aravi-

Tari sabuTi ara aqvs da sul yvelaferi mogonili

ambavia marto imisaTvis, rom birJas elda scen da

xarbma kacebma birJazed moTamaSeebma, am arevdarevaSi

xeli moiTbon.

rasakvirvelia, es SiSis xmebi Jurnal-gaze-

Tobam mohfina qveyanazed da arc is aris sakvirveli,

rom mTeli oficialuri evropa egre

gulmodgined uarhyofs im xmebsa da qveyanas amSvidebs,

arafris SiSiao. aq erTi moswrebuli sityva

bismarkisa gvagondeba. Jurnal-gazeTobis mier mofenils

xmas nu daijerebT im dromde, vidre oficialurad

uaryofil ar iqmneso, sTqva erTxel

Wkvamaxvilma bismarkma.

91


92

«bis bis bismarkis bis markis avtoritetis avtoritetis Sesusteba

Sesusteba

germaniaSi

germaniaSi»

germaniaSi

tfilisi, 5 Tebervali.

T. bismarki, etyoba, exla ise yovlad Zlierad

ara hgrZnobs Tavis Tavsa germaniaSi, rogorc

aqamde yvelas samarTlianad egona. raki kacs saqme

ise gauxdeba, rom sxvas unda Seexvewos,

momexmareo, is magrad ar unda idges fexzed da

imedi TavisiT gamarjvebisa da Zlevisa cotad Tu

bevrad Seryeuli unda hqondes. Tavadma bismarkma

aw daTxovnil reixstagSi muqara gauwia Suagulis

dasis kacTa, romelTac vidhorsti hwinamZRvrobs

da romelnic viT kaTolikeni papis yurmoWrilni

monani arian, rom Tu vinicobaa “Svidwleuls”

samxedro kanons ar daamtkicebT, papis samduravs

daimsaxurebTo. es muqara gauwia reixstags im

kacma, romelic ramdenisame wlis winad Tamamad

iZaxda, rom paps araviTari neba da sabuTi ara aqvs

germaniis Sinaur saqmeebSi raime xma da gavlena

iqonioso. exla TviTve iwvevs paps maszed, razedac

winad TavgamodebiT uars eubneboda da aras

gziT ar iwynarebda.

ra Tqma unda, am muqaram, friad sasiamovnom

vatikanis TavmowonebisaTvis, papis yuramde miaRwia

da xerxiani, gamWriaxi politika kaTolikeTa

umaRlesis samRvdeloebisa gaacocxla moqme-


debisaTvis. sakvirvelic ar aris, raki

bismarkisaviT Zlieri kaci Tavisis saxeliTa,

ueWvelia paps, bevrs mware dRis mnaxvels, es

garemoeba nebas miscemda eTqva, sCans mec kidev

erTi ram vyofilvar qveyanaSio, da am garemoebas

moqmedebac unda mohyoloda, rom papis saxeli da

mniSvneloba Zirs ar daSvebuliyo, egrec moxda.

papis kancelariidam, bismarkisave TxovniT da

mecadineobiT, epistole miuvidaT germaniis

reixstagis Suagulis dasis moTaveTa da

winamZRvarTa. am epistoleSi papi urCevda Suaguls

dassa, mieRoT “Svidwleuli” samxedro kanoni. am

saxiT survili bismarkisa aRsrulebul iqmna.

xolo sakvirveli is aris, rom am bolos xanamde

es epistole arsad iyo dabeWdili da mxolod am

ukanasknel dReebSi saWirod dainaxes daebeWdaT.

yvelas ukvirs es ambavi da veravin ver mimxvdara,

rad ar daibeWda miRebisve umal. zogi amas ambobs,

rom TviTon epistoleSi iyo zedmiwerili, rom

unda daibeWdos, radganac bismarkisaTvis isic

sakmaoa, rom papma weriliT gamoacxada igi, rac

bismarks swaddao. zogi imas abralebs, TviT

Suagulis dasis winamZRvarTa saWirod ar dainaxes

imisTana werilis dabeWdva, romelic ase Tu ise

imoqmedebda exlandels arCevanebzeo.

bismarki, rogorc mogexsenebaT, imisTana kacia,

raki erTxel gaiwevs, bolomde gaiwevs da Sua

gzazed ar gaCerdeba. am mxriT misi mxneoba da

Jini ukan dauxevelia. imdeni imecadina bismarkma,

rom sawadeli aisrula: aramcTu pirveli

epistole daabeWdina, rom qveyanam waikiTxos,

aramed meorec ki daawerina papis kancelariasa da

maSinve daabeWdina. eg meore epistole kardinalis

iakobinis saxeliT aris dawerili papis warmomadgenelTan

miunxenSi. es ukanaskneli epistole

or nawilad ganiyofeba: erTSi moxsenebulia, rom

93


wminda papi saWirod hxedavs reixstagSi usaTuod

arsebobdes Suagulis dasi da am dass igi aZlevs

sruls Tavisuflebas rogorc hsurdes, ise

imoqmedos sapolitiko saqmeebis gamo. meoreSi

kardinali iakobini ixseniebs “Svidwleuls”

samxedro kanonsa da amis Taobzed ambobs:

“Tu wminda mamam saWirod scna gamoecxadebina

Tavisi azri da survili am “Svidwleulis”

kanonis Sesaxeb, amisi mizezi is aris, rom mag

kanonzed damokidebulni arian saqmeni sareligio

da sazneo mniSvnelobisani”.

es sityvebi ase iTargmneba mdabio sikvdilis

SvilTa enazed: maisis kanonebi, romelic bismarkma

ZalmomreobiT Semoitana germaniaSi kaTolikeTa

samRvdeloebis SesaxuTavad da abrus gasatexad,

Cven xeirs ar gvayriso. amitomac “wminda taxts

papisas hsurs aamos imperatorsa da bismarksao”.

Suagulis dasis moTaveebma yuric ar Seibrtyes

arc pirvel epistolezed, arc meorezed. imaT

pirdapir gamoacxades, rom Cven vemorCilebiT

wminda paps marto sasuliero saqmeSi da saero

saqmeebSi ki imas CvenTan xeli ara aqvso; aq marto

eris mondobiloba win migviZRvis da Cveni

sakuTari sindisio, sxva verara Zali ver Searyevs

Cvens nebasao. meore epistole kardinalis

iakobinisa xom ise ostaturad gamoiyenes bismarkis

winaaRmdeg, rom meti aRar iqneba. jer pirvelSi,

roca daibeWda es epistole, yvelas egona, rom

raki aseTia survili papis, daTxovnilis

reixstagis umravlesobas mTeli Suaguli dasi

Camoecleba da gamarjveba arCevnebSi bismarks

dahrCebao. magram vindhorstma, Suagulis dasis

winamZRolma, Zalian uxerxa da ara gvgonia es

94


xerxi Zalian eWaSnikoT bismarkis momxreebsa. amas

winad kelnSi krebaze Seiyara xuTi aTasi kaci.

vindhorsts aq sityva unda warmoeTqva da yvelani

mouTmenlad elodnen, ras ityviso iakobinis mier

gamocxadebul papis survilis gamovo. vindhorstma

metad maxvilgonivrad da moswrebulad auxsna

krebas epistoleSi mowerili saqme: papi xom

sruls Tavisuflebas gvaZlevs sapolitiko saqmeebSi,

Cvenc amazed meti ara gvinda rao.

epistole iakobinisa marto imisaTvis aris

dawerili, rom “aamos da asiamovnos imperatorsa

da bismarksao”. amas TviTon iakobinive brZanebs da

amtkicebso: es amovneba amovnebad darCes da Cven

Cveni vimecadinoT, amas Cven papi ar gviSliso. ai,

ese ostaturad gamoiyena vindhorstma is fandi,

romelic misis dasis saZlevad iyo ganzraxuli.

Tunca dRes saqme am yofaSia, magram mainc

winad ver iTqmis, burTi da moedani arCevnebSi vis

darCeba: bismarks, Tu parlamentarsa? ufro bevri

niSnebi kia, rom bismarki erTxel kideva sZlevs.

Cven es ambavi imitom moviyvaneT, rom sxvafriv

aris sagulisxmiero, saxeldobr, im mxriv, rom

bismarks Zalian gaWirebia Sin saqme, radganac papis

uRono kalTasac ki mohkidebia. es gaWireba

bismarkisa miT ufro Zlieria, rom moxucebuli

imperatori vilhelmi dRes ise Tanaziari ar aris

bismarkisa, rogorc aqamdis iyo. imperators ara

hsurs Turme danarCeni dReebi Caimwaros an imiT,

rom samtrod gamoekidos romelsame saxelmwifos

germania, an imiT, rom Sin Tavis erTan raime

ganxeTqileba ram Cauvardes parlamentis gamo.

amboben, am xanebSi ubZanebia, rom araviTars

saqciels saministrosas ar Seiwynarebs, Tu ram

sakonstitucio wes-wyobilebis winaaRmdegi

iqnebao. am sityvebs imperatorisas hxdian mizezad,

rom bismarkma am bolos xanebSi TiTqmis arc erTi

95


SemTxveva ar dahkarga, rom ar eTqva, me fiqradac

ar gamitarebia sakonstitucio wes-wyobilebisas

gadavcde maSinac ki, roca gaWireba Tavis

umwvervaless wertilamde mivao. asea Tu ise,

dRes germaniaSi didma tkivilma iCina Tavi da ra

wamals dasdebs Tavis Tavs germaniis eri,

exlandeli arCevanebi gamoaCenen. es aSkarad

SesamCnevia, rom dRes bismarks sityva ise aRar

uWris germaniaSi, rogorc uwin da mis aqamde

Zlevamosils msvlelobas ise ueklod savali

aRara aqvs.

96


«ermolovi ermolovi da da Crdilo Crdilo-kavkasiis

Crdilo kavkasiis

Rvinoebi

Rvinoebi»

Rvinoebi

tfilisi, 6 Tebervali.

b-ni a. s. ermolivi, Tu ara vcdebiT, SarSan Tu

SarSanwin gamogzavnili iyo saxelmwifo qonebaTa

saministrosagan kavkasiaSi aqauris Rvinis keTebis

saqmis Sesaswavlad da sacodnelad. b-ni ermolovi

karga xans yofila imierkavkasiis mxares, yizlarSi

da sxvagan Crdilo kavkasiaSi, saca vazi hxeirobs

da Rvino modis, amierkavkasiasac swvevia, magram

cota xniT, rogorc gvaxsovs, egrec unda yofiliyo,

Tu Tqvenc ityviT: amierkavkasiaSi

venaxebic bevria, Rvinoc bevri da kargic modis,

da visac Rvinis keTebis naxva da gasinjva unda, aq

ki ar unda momcdariyo didis xniT dayovnebiT, aq

ki, saca boRazia Rvinisa, ar unda dahkvirveboda

gasasinjad da sacodnelad Rvinis keTebis saqmesa,

aramed iq, saca Wyapurta Rvino modis, “Cixirad

cnobili, da saca yurZnis wvenis Rvinod

qcevisaTvis bevri sxva masalaa kidev Sesarevi da

samati. magram kacia da gunebao, naTqvamia, b-n

ermolovs ase unebebia da amitomac misi nakvlevi,

naxuli da nacadi, ufro Crdilo kavkasiis Rvinis

keTebas Seexeba, vidre samxreTisas.

97


28-s am ianvrisas erTs sazogadoebis krebaSi *

b-ns ermolovs am imierkavkasiis Rvinis keTebis

saqmezed ulaparaknia. jer yvelazed uwinaresad bns

ermolovs Seudarebia sikeTe imierkavkasiis

Rvinoebisa amieris Rvinoebis sikeTesTan da

uTqvams, rom pirvelsaxed amierkavkasiis Rvinoebisad

cnobilia kaxuri Rvino, magram es

tyuili brZanebaao, radganac amierkavkasiis

Rvinoebi mravalgvarni arian da amaTSi kaxuri

ufro gavrcelebuliao, xolo exla sxvagvar

Rvinoebsac bazari exsnebao. umTavresi Tviseba

Crdilo kavkasiis Rvinoebisa is aris, rom

araviTari gansxvavebuli, gansakuTrebeli Tviseba

ara aqvTo, da amitomac SesaZloa maTi msgavsi

Rvino gangebac gakeTdeso (подделка), ra gemosac

gindaT, ra fersac, yvelafers iTvisebs da

iSvnevso. es arTvisebobis Tviseba, b-n ermolovis

sityviT, imiTia kargi, rom Crdilo kavkasiis

Rvinoebi ufro advilad SesakeTebelia; Tu codniT

da kargad SekeTdebao, imisTana Rirsebas miiRebs,

rom sasiamovno iqneba imaTTvis, vinc ucxo

qveynebis Rvinoebs SesCveviao. imierkavkasiis Rvino

bevriT ukeTesia amierisazed, amierkavkasiis Rvino,

Rvino ki ar aris, marto Rvinis masalaa,

romlisaganac SesaZloa kai Rvinis dayenebacao da

sxvani da sxvani amgvarni. roca amaebsa da amis

msgavs hkiTxulobT, hkvirobT da gaocebiT

hkiTxavT Tqvens Tavs: nuTu amgvarebis codnisaTvis

saWiro iyo kavkasiaSi wamosvla peterburgidam?

rad garjila? gana es cnobani TviTon peterburgSi

ki ver moikrifeboda? magram vin icis?

iqneba b-ma ermolovma bevri imisTanac aRmoaCina an

amier an imier kavkasiaSi, romelic marto adgil-

* 2-ое отделение Императорского Волъно-екологического Общества.

98


zevea SesaZlo aRmosaCenad. Tu asea, brali Cvenis

samduravisa im gazeTs unda daedvas, romelmac

Cven marto amisTana cnobani gadmogvca b-n

ermolovis naTqvamisagan.

es kia, rom b-n ermolovs yuradReba miuqcevia

imisaTvis Tu, ra aris saWiro Rvinis keTebis

warmatebisaTvis kavkasiaSi, oci sagani dausaxelebia,

romlis ZaliTac SesaZloa gankargeba da

warmateba venaxisa da Rvinis keTebisa Rvinis

aRebmicemobisa kavkasiaSi da erTob ruseTSiac. am

oc saganTa Soris moxsenebulia: skolebis

gamarTva, magaliTebr, yizlarSi! saca uwinac

yofila; xazinis xarjiT, anu xazinis SemweobiT,

gamarTva sawnexelebisa, agreTve sardafebisa, saca

unda mogrovil iqmnas tkbili Rvinis dasayenebelad

da sakeTeblad; gamarRva sawyobisa, saca

ukeTesi iaraRi Rvinis keTebisa unda iyidebodes,

yizlaramde (kidev yizlaramde? aba, Rvinis boRazi

upovia b-ns ermolovs!) rostov-vladikavkasiis

rkinis gzis gayvana da Rvinis gadatanis fasis

dakleba, yizlaridam astraxanamde fostis gzis

gaxsna, navTasvla Tergsa da kumazed, risTvisac

saWiroa CaRrmaveba da Casworeba ama mdinareebis

savalisa da sxvani da sxvani. yovelive es didis

mowonebiT miuRia pativcemuls krebas, krebaSi

gamoCenilan imisTana kacnic, romelTac erTi

marTla friad saWiro da advilad aRsasrulebeli

Ronec daumatebiaT b-n ermolovis mier

warmoTqmul zomaTaTvis Rvinis keTebis warsamateblad.

uTqvamT, rom saWiroa Rvinis mkeTebelT

xeli moewyoT fulis miSvelebiTao da amisaTvis

unda mieceT krediti rogorc kerZo, isec

saxelmwifo bankisaganao da amas garda venaxebi

Seikras (страхование), filoqserisaganao. saekonomio

sazogadoebis krebas miuRia yvela es

99


winadadebani da daudgenia iTanamSromlos mTavrobis

winaSe yovel amisaTvis.

Cven, rasakvirvelia, ara gvSurs yizlaris

Rvinis mkeTebelTaTvis yovelive es sikeTe,

RmerTma erTiaTad metic misceT, magram raki

sityva Rvinozea Camogdebuli, nuTu amirkavkasia,

romelic yovelisfriT dedaa Rvinisa, daviwyebuli,

gamoklebuli da saxsenebeli ar unda iyos? yurs

esmis da gonebas ara sjera es saarako ambavi...

100


«evropis evropis politikis politikis politikis cvalebadoba

cvalebadoba»

cvalebadoba

cvalebadoba

tfilisi, 10 Tebervali.

evropis politikam kidev xelaxlad icvala

sagani da gza. am samisa Tu oTxis kviris winad

evropa, jer SeSinebuli bismarkis sityvebisagan da

mere ufro eldacemuli germanul gazeTebis

muqarisagan, marto safrangeTsa da germaniasRa

Sehyurebda da JamTa viTarebis sve-bedsa am didTa

saxelmwifoTa SuRlisa da mtrobisagan gamoelodda.

balkaniis naxevarkunZulis saqme Tavisis gauTavebel

bolgariis saqmiTurT am mizeziT CrdilSi

miyenebul iqmna, TiTqo am wyluls araviTari SiSi

ar mosdevso; yvelam daiviwya bolgaria da Tu ityodnen

rasmes xolme kanti-kuntad, isic imitom,

rom guli moifxanon. mTelis evropis Tvali ki

safrangeTsa da germaniazed iyo miqceuli da Si-

SiT gaCerebuli. exla, rogorc etyoba, es SuRli

da mtroba am oris didis saxelmwifosi cota ar

iyos dascxra, ganelda. igi saSineli gansacdeli,

romelic hlamoda Seeryia mTeli evropa da didi

da patara erTmaneTisaTvis daejaxebina, exla TiTqo

ganqarda, ganifanta Tu samudamod ara, droebiT

mainca. am saxiT dRes evropam, dasavleTzed

TiTqmis guldamSvidebulma, isev aRmosavleTisaken

ibruna piri da bolgariis saqmes dauwyo cqera

101


winandelebr gulaSfoTebiT. ra iyo da ra aris

mizezi am TiTqmis uecaris cvalebadobisa?

sxvam rac unda sTqvas da Cven ki gavbedavT da

vityviT, rom naskvi am gamocanisa erTi patara

saxelmwifoa da im patara saxelmwifos belgia

hqvian. am saxelmwifoze erTis mxridam germaniaa

zed modgomili da meore mxridam safrangeTi. arc

erTs da arc meores, rogorc mogexsenebaT, mada

ar akliaT, rom am bednierT pawia saxelmwifoTi

piri Caigemrielon, miT ufro, rom madis garda

erTsac da meorasac iseTi Ronieri kuWebi aqvT,

rom advilad moineleben im mgelTa Sua kravad

dabadebuls qveyanas, romelsac belgia hqvian.

dRes. es kravi xom ar aris gamzadebuli Sesawiravad?

Tumca es Tamami fiqria, magram aq SeuZlebeli

ara aris ra. gana didi saqmea, T. bismarkma

yurSi CauwveTos safrangeTs: kaco, ras Camcivebixar?

ager belgia, erTis mxriv Sensken aris

gamowolili, CaiWer da “su”!... jerxanad egec kai

mosanelebeli lukmaa; jer eg ikmare da sxva drosa

da JamTa viTarebas mianebe da me ki xel-fexi

gamixsen, me sxva saqme maqvs da “sxvagan hqris Cemi

gonebao”. aq saarako da daujerebeli bevri ara

aris ra.

esea Tu ara, es dasavleTis cidam Rrublebis

gadayra, cis mowmenda, dacxroma da ganeleba rom

saxeSi viqonioT da dRevandeli yofa belgiisa am

ambavs SevuwonoT, dids sagonebelSi Cavardeba kaci.

inglissa aqvs nakisri belgiis damoukideblobis

mfarveloba. jer warsul omSi, roca safrangeTi

da prusia erTmaneTs daetaknen, maSin inglisma

Tamamad gamoido Tavi belgiisaTvis da saqveynod

gamoacxada, rom Tu an erTis laSqarma, an

meorisam gadalaxa belgiis miwa-wyali, mec mtrad

miguloso. yvelas egona, rom dResac inglisi am

Tavis daqadebuls sityvas ar gastexs da dResac

102


Tavs gamoidebs belgiisaTvis, Tu vinicobaa safrangeTi

da germania erTmaneTs xelaxlad Seetaknen

da erTman an meorem fexi daadga belgiis miwasao.

ai, exla inglisis saministros gazeTi “Standard“-i

ambobs: belgia TavisTavis anabarad unda darCeso;

inglisi TiTsac ar gaanZreva mis dasaxsnelad da

dasafaravadao. ras hniSnavs es naTqvami saministros

gazeTisa? nuTu mas, rom inglisma saWirod

dainaxa belgia, romlisaTvis uwin saomrad

Tavs imetebda igiv inglisi, ufro sxva dids interess

Seswiros!

TviTon belgiac ki hgrZnobs, rom Tavis saku-

Tars bedzea Tavminebebuli. igi didis TavganwirviT

emzadeba TavisTavis dasaxsnelad da gadasarCenad.

igi hcdilobs 130.000 kacamde aiyvanos

Tvisi saomrad gasasvleli mxedroba da mravalis

cixe-simagreebiT SemoizRudos garSemo. rasakvirvelia,

SesaZloa kacma yovelive es metismets sifrTxilesac

miaweros belgiis mxriT: roca ori

didi mezobeli aqed-iqidam erTmaneTs qeCoSi waswvdeba,

maSin SuaSi mdgomi mesamec fexzed unda

idges mzad yovelis SemTxvevisaTvis, Torem an er-

Ti gahqelavs, an meore. magram roca imisTana pawia

saxelmwifo, rogorc belgiaa, 130.000 kacs saomrad

amzadebs da ara xarjs ar erideba, rom simagreebis

salte gars Semoirtyas – eg welebzed fexis

dadgmaa, romelic marto saSinelma ganwirulebam

icis da saSinelis gansacdelis molodinma.

amitomac vgonebT, rom Cveni eWvic usabuTo ar

aris, Tu nametnavad imasac gavixsenebT, rom am bolos

dros SesaniSnavad mourbilda da moutkbilda

safrangeTsa evropis iupiteri Tavadi bismarki

da safrangeTma xom Tavdapirvelidganve yuri

mouyrua yovels muqaras da qadilsa.

103


«adgilobriv adgilobriv adgilobriv Sav Sav navTze navTze da

da

ucxoeTidan ucxoeTidan Semotanil Semotanil navTze navTze baJis

baJis

dadebis dadebis sakiTxis sakiTxis gamo gamo» gamo

104

tfilisi, 11 Tebervali

am ukanasknel dReebSi depeSam gvacnoba, rom

navTisa da navTis nakveTarzed baJis dadebis saqme

gadudviaT orisa Tu samis wliT. Tumca es ambavi

gazeTebis mier moifina, magram irwmunebian, rom

marTali ariso da namdvilad Setyobilio. Cven

amis garCevas ar SevudgebiT, Tumca sakvirveli kia.

sakvirvelia imitom, rom kacma ar icis, ra unda

hqmnas navTis mrewvelobam am baJis dadebis

lodinSi? rogor gaiangariSos Tavisi dRevandeli

moqmedeba? ras Seuwonos da ras dauyenos qveS?

amis molodinSi yovelTvis frTxili fuli xom

adamianis jibidamac ver amohyofs Tavsa, ver

Caereva im mrewvelobaSi, romelmac ar icis, orisa

Tu samis wlis Semdeg ris gadamxdeli Seiqmneba,

ra tvirTis mzidveli? am orisa Tu samis wlis

mayurebeli fulis patroni marto oris wliT Tu

gahbedavs fuli daabandos navTis saqmeSi da is

xangrZlivi dabandeba fulisa ki, romelic ase

saWiroa mkvidrad saqmis daWerisaTvis da TviTon

mrewvelobis warmatebisaTvis, am or weliwadSi

marto uqm natvrad unda darCes, vidre baJis saqme


ase Tu ise gadawydeba. Cven es ucnauri garemoeba

ise gakvriT movixsenieT.

Cven zemodxsenebulma depeSam mogvagona navTis

baJis saqme da am saqmem iseTi ucnauri ambavica,

romelic pirveli SexedviT daujerebelia da wina

Tqmuls ucnaurzed ufro ucnauria! rogora

ggoniaT? sarTi daswrebisa vis unda ergos

navTzed baJis dadebis saqmis atexazed? sanaZleo,

waugebeli sanaZleo SeiZleba kacma dasdos, Tu

vinme Soridam mainc mixvdeba, gumans mainc miitans

imazed, rom vinc es baJi moiwadina. warmoidgineT,

gamodis rom navTzed baJis dadeba moiwadina TviT

navTis mrewvelmave!... gana isic erTma da orma,_

mTelma krebulma. am krebulma sTxova mTavrobas

didis TxovniTa, rom wyaloba gviyaviT da Cvens

Savs navTs, ese igi jer gaduwmendels da

gamouxdels, baJi daadeT, Torem am didis

simdidris momaswavebels mrewvelobas navTisas

hlamis suli SeexuTos da Tavis sakuTars

simdidreSive CairCoso. roca Sav navTs baJi

daedeba da daZvirdeba, maSin qarxanis patroni

ecdeba erTsa da imave navTisagan rac SeiZleba

meti sabazro sagani akeTos, _ da exla, roca

aTisagan marto samis gamorCena aqvTo da Svids ki

cudubralod hyriano. auarebeli simdidre mtvrad

midis da ikargebao. garda amisa xazinasac

Semosavali moemateba, radganac navTis baJi karga

bloma fuls Seadgenso. es uTxovniaT TviT navTis

mrewvelTa da am sabuTebiT mourTavT Tavisi

saocari Txovna, romelic jerxanad mTavrobas _

RvTis madliT _ ar Seuwynarebia, depeSis

sityviTa.

Cven vecdebiT Semdegs nomerSi am ucnaurs

Txovnas Signeuli gamovuwlaT da maSin aSkarad

davinaxavT am jer arSewynarebulT mTxovnelT ris

muclis tkivilica aqvT.

105


106

tfilisi. 12 Tebervali.

Cven wina werilSi vsTqviT, rom navTzed baJis

dadeba iTxova TviTon navTis mrewvelmave da mere

erTma da orma ki ara, _ mTelma krebulmao. amas

cota gasworeba unda, an uked vsTqvaT, ufro

naTlad gamoTqma, gamomzeeba.

xom mogexsenebaT, rom navTis mrewvelobas

miawyda bloma xalxi. am bloma xalxSi imisTananic

arian, romelnic uRonobisa da SeuZleblobis gamo

cota fuls atrialeben da imisTananic, romelTac

millionebi Caayares am navTis saqmesa. ai, am didis

fulis patronebi arian isini, visac bednieri

fiqri mosvliaT, mTavrobas sTxovon baJi daadon

Savs navTsa da miT miTam xazina gaamdidron.

yvelam icis, rom fuli ramodenac bevria,

imodenad xarbia da gaumaZRari da amitomac

pirvel SexedviT kacs ukvirs, am didfulebianebs

saidan aRZvriaT gulistkivili sxvis gadidrebisaTvis.

yvela brali SeiZleba kacma

didfulians Seswamos da amisTana cili ki, rom

sxvis gamdidrebisaTvis gulmtkinveulobdes,

metismeti usamarTloba iqneba. Tumca rusebi

amboben, rom “Голъ на выдумка хитра”, magram arc ki

mdidari kaci yofila amisTanebSi beCavi da

mouxerxebeli. ai saqme Turme raSia:

navTis saqmes bevri wvrili xalxi daexvia.

TviTveuli maTgani calke, rasakvirvelia, erT

dResac ver gauZlebda didfulians da

gabaTilebul iqmneboda, rogorc uqmi Tamasuqi;

didfuliani, roca ki moisurvebs, TviTveuls

calke imisave navTSi CaarCobda da burTsa da

moedans navTis warmoebisas TviTon daisakuTrebda.

magram Wiri is aris, rom es wvrilni mosaqmeni

navTisa ricxviT sakmaod blomad arian da

didfulians mwarmoebelT saqme ise gauWires, rom


hlamis gaakutron. didfulianebi Tu gamoxdil da

gawmendil navTs fuTs, magaliTebr, oTx abazad

gauSveben bazarSi, es wvrilni sams abazsa

sjerdebian da navTis fass Zirs Camoaxdenen

xolme; didfulianebi Tu sams abazzed Camovlen

amaTis mixedviT, isini maSinve fuTs aT Saurad

gaxdian da am ubedurebisaTvis didfulianebs

veraviTari wamali ver daudviaT. amisTana

cilebas da jibrs ver uZleben mdidarni

mrewvelni da xalxs ki, ese igi, vinc navTsa

hyidulobs da hxmarobs, am cilebisa da jibris

wyalobiT navTi iefad ujdeba. am cilebas da

jibrs es sikeTe moaqvs sayovelTavod, da Raribs

xalxs sanaTebeli navTi Tavis jibis

SeZlebisadagvarad ujdeba da uxerxdeba. rom es

ase aRar iyos da wvrilTa mwarmoebelTa ilaji

da saxsari amgvaris cilobisa sul gauqarwylon,

mdidrebma es Rone moigones, rom Sav navTs baJi

daedos. ai, ra angariSi miuZRvis win mdidrebsa:

raki Sav navTs baJi daedeba, maSin navTis

warmoebisagan marto is ixeirebs da gamorComas

naxavs, vinc didsa da Zvirfass qarxanas iwoniebs,

da radganac wvrils mwarmoebels navTisas magisi

Rone da SeZleba ara aqvs, unda Tu ara, far-xmali

Zirs unda dahyaros da gulzed xelebi daikrifos.

exla fuTi Savi navTi eqvs groSamde Rirs xolme

adgilze. vsTqvaT foTs ori Sauri baJi daades da

am gziT futi Savi navTi 13 kapeikad gaxda. Tu

qarxana yovels mxriT ise mowyobili da

gamarTuli ar aris, rogorc exlandeli teqnika

da mecniereba iTxovs, aTis fuTis Savis navTisagan

bevri-bevri sami futi sabazro nakeTari * ram

daayenos, sxva Svidi fuTi ki gadasayrelia da

araferSi gamosayeni. am saxiT, raki baJi aTis

* продукт.

107


fuTisa iqmneba gadaxdili da am aT fuTidam

marto sami fuTiRa daudgeba gamosayeni da

danarCeni gadasayreli, ra Tqma unda, mTelis aTis

fuTis baJi am samma fuTma unda uzRos

mwarmoebelsa. aTis fuTis baJi Seadgens,

zemoxsenebul angariSiT, erTs manaTs, maSasadame,

es erTi manaTi samma fuTma unda hzRos, an TviTo

fuTma 33 1 / 2 kapeiki. karga mowyobili da

gamarTuli qarxana ki aTis fuTidam rva fuTs

sxvadasxvagvars nakeTars navTisas daayenebs,

rogorc mecnierTagan gamokvleulia. maSasadame, is

erTi manaTi baJi, aTs fuTzed gadaxdili, am

SemTxvevaSi rva fuTma unda hzRos. aq fuTs

Sexvdeba 12 1 / 2 kap. aba sad 12 1 / 2 kap. gadasaxadi

da sad TiTqmis Svidi Sauri, rogorc wvrils

mwarmoebelT mouvaT. raki fasebSi ase didi

gansxvaveba iqneba, rogorRa gauwevs wvrili

mwarmoebeli cilobas saqveyno bazarSi? iman

TiTqmis xuTi SauriT metad unda hyidos navTis

nakeTari, rom didi qarxnis patronis odenoba

gaswios, an arada xeli unda aiRos warmoebazed.

ra Tqma unda, Zalauneburad es ukanaskneli RoneRa

darCeba sacodavs.

gana es ikmares am qveynis mokeTeebma. vsTqvaT,

am baJis dadebiT wvrilni mwarmoebelni gaaba-

Tilon da pirqve dascen. mainc kidev erTi Zlieri

metoqe darCebaT. eg metoqe amerikaa. romlis navTi

gzas ar aZlevs baqos navTsa saqveyno bazarSi. amis

gaclaca hsurT ruseTis bazridam mainc, da

amitomac hsTxoven mTavrobas, rom ruseTSi

Semotana gauZneldeT amerikelebsao. rasakvirvelia,

jer mTavrobam arc erTi amaTi Txovna ar

Seiwynara, magram Txovnas amiTi Tavi sunnelovaneba

ar dahklebia da exla yvelam viciT, sada scems im

didTa mwarmoebelTa gulSematkivroba.

108


aki mdidrebi im gziT Semoiclian wvrilebs,

romelnic dRes kriWaSi udganan, raki

amerikelebsac baJiT gzas gaduRoben, maSin burTic

imaT darCebaT ucilod da moedanic da maSin

mSvidobiT iefobav navTisav. mdabio xalxi, romelsac

iefoba navTisa SeZlebas aZlevda saxli

gaenaTebina, saxlSi sanaTuri hqonoda, maSin unda

gamoesalmos am netarebas imitom, rom gul-

Sematkivarni didfuliani mwarmoebelni navTisani

ecdebian iseTi fasebi dasdon navTsa, rom

xelmokle kaci ver Seswvdeba. ai, ra muclis

gvrema SehyriaT didfulian mwarmoebelT navTisas,

rom uTxovniaT Sav navTs baJi daadeTo. swored

amisTana saqme dahmarTa Txle-WaWisagan aryis xdas

aw gansvenebulma fissunma, romelmac aseTi baJi da

wesebi SemoiRo, rom Tu ar Zvirfasi qarxana, sxva

araviTari Rone ar iyo am baJebsa da wesebs

gasZRoloda.

109


«Cveni Cveni sofluri meurneobis

SesaZleblobani SesaZleblobani SesaZleblobani da da biurokratizmi

biurokratizmi»

biurokratizmi

110

tfilisi, 16 Tebervali.

am bolo xanebSi Cvenma qveyanam da ufro misma

buneburma simdidrem moizida yuradReba, rogorc

TviTon ruseTisa, isec samzRvargareTisa. saiTac

ki miixedavT, yovlis mxridam marto is ismis, rom

ai es da es fuliani an kaci an sazogadoeba modis

da ama da am saqmes hkidebs xelsao. an aqamde

ratom ar iyo es ambavi, gvikvirs. amierkavkasia

havisa da miwis sikeTiTa SemZlebeli TiTqmis

yovlisferisa, rac ki ram izrdeba, modis da

xeirobs dedamiwis zurgzed. qinaqinis xe da Cais

buCqic ki gamozarda Cvenma qveyanam imodenad

kargad, rom exla TviTon mTavrobac ki hcdilobs

meurneoba erTisa da meorisac aayvavos aq da

gaavrcelos. ra Tqma unda, rom amgvarebisaTvis

mecadineoba da xarji uqmad ar Caivlis da dids

sarfas miscems rogorc Cvens qveyanas, isec mTels

saxelmwifos, Tu qinaqinis xe da Cais buCqi marto

TeTrs qaRaldzed ar dairga da Savis melniT ar

moirwya. amisTana saqmeSi armcodne kaci, Tunda

gulmodgineca, verafers gaawyobs miwer-moweris

mets da am miwer-moweraSi ise aurev-daurevs

davTrebs, rom qinaqinis xe da Cais buCqi yvelas

daaviwydebaT da darCeba saxsovrad marto


uSvelebeli zvini qaRaldebisa, romelic marto

imas gvimowmebs Tu, ra gziT vin gauxmo Ziri

qinaqinis xes da Cais buCqsac. ase mouvida

abreSumis saqmes nuxSi, ase mouvida venaxisa da

Rvinis saqmes kaxeTSi. nuxSiac da kaxeTSiac

mTavrobam araferi dahzoga, rom abreSumis saqme

da Rvinisac kargad moemarTa da fexzed

daeyenebina, magram moxeleobam, romelsac Caabares

es saqmeni, verc erTgan ver gaamarTla imedi

mTavrobisa. amisTana saqmes, rogorc axali

simdidris gzis gaxsnaa, saqmiani, moxerxebuli,

gamrjeli, saqmeSi daostatebuli kaci unda.

amisaTvis sakmarisi ar aris marto diplomi,

romelic yovelTvis ara hmowmobs, rom mis

patrons jerovani codna aqvs, da Tundac

hmowmobdes, saqme marto codna ki ar aris,

gamocdilebaa. Cven aq sityvas “gamocdilebas”

mTelis Tavisis mniSvnelobiT vxmarobT. jer xom

kacs Tavisi codna unda TviTon saqmeSi ecadnos

da mere zedmiwevniT naxuli da nacadi hqondes, ra

bunebasTan aqvs saqme da ra xalxTana.

adgilobrivis bunebisa da xalxisa Tu ara icis

ra, igi amisTana saqmeSi, rogorc axalis risame

gasaCenad SemoRebaa, erTs nabijsac umarcxod ver

gadasdgams. ara erTi da ori magaliTi yofila

CvenSi, romelsac Tvalad daunaxvebia CvenTvis, rom

uimisod, raca vsTqviT, xelidam araferi

gamosvlia kacs da saqmisaTvis is vnebac miuyenebia,

rom sxvisTvisac guli auyrevinebia da aucruebia

kargsa da sarfians saqmezeda.

111


112

«Rvino Rvino _ _ Cveni Cveni qve qveynis qve qve ynis simdidris

wyaro wyaro» wyaro

tfilisi, 17 Tebervali.

guSin sityva CamovagdeT maszed, rom Cvens

qveyanaSi qinaqinis xisa da Cais buCqis gaCenas

gvpirdebian. es, rasakvirvelia, samermiso saqmea da

RmerTma xeli moumarToT, visac fiqrad mosvlia,

am axalis SemoRebiT Cveni qveyana cotad Tu bevrad

gaamdidros. yvela axali, Tuki miT mogvemateba

ram, kargia da sanatreli. magram es

qinaqinis xe da Cais buCqi xvalindeli qaTamia, da

is dRevandeli kvercxi ki, romelic xelT gvipyria,

daudevrobiT lamis gagvilaydes. samermiso

mermiss mivandoT, sadReisod ki ukeTesi da ufro

Wkuas axlos iqneboda gvefiqra maszed, rac dRes

xelTa gvaqvs, rac hlamis simdidris karga

mozrdil wyarod gadaeqces Cvens qveyanasa, Tu ki

xelSemwyobi eyoleba...

eg wyaro Rvinoa. amitomac am sagnis viTarebis

gamoZieba da gamokvleva da yovel amis dawvrilebiT

codna meti ar iqneba CvenTvis. minam

vityodeT rasme, ra abrkolebs da ra hSvelis

Rvinis saqmes CvenSi, saWiroa vicodeT, ramodena

Rvino modis CvenSi da ramodenis bazaris imedi

unda gvqondes RvinisaTvis. Cvenda samwuxarod,


cnobebi Rvinis raodenobisa marto erTis wlisa

gvaqvs, saxeldobr, 1870-isa. erTis wlis

cnobebzed Zlier Znelia raime daskvnis gamoyvana,

miT ufro, rom arc ki viciT, sandoni arian is

cnobani Tu ara, radganac im wignSi * , saidamac Cven

amis qvemod amovkrebT am cnobebs, ar aris naCvenebi,

razed aris dafuZnebuli. radganac jer

xelT ukeTesi sxva ara gvaqvs ra, meti ra gzaa,

igi unda gavimZRvaroT win da mas davefuZnoT.

amierkavkasia Rvinis mosavlis kvalobazed xuT

nawilad aris gayofili xsenebul wignSi da TviTo

nawilis mosavali calkea moxsenebuli: esec ar

unda daviviwyoT, rom es cnobani 1870 wels ekuTvnian

da “vedriT” ** arian aricxulni:

mosavali Sin mouxmariaT gauyidniaT

Savi zRvisa da rionis napirebi……3.753.500 2.276.750 975.750

kaxeTi .................................................. 2.915.080 728.770 2.186.310

mtvris napirebi ............................... 1.425.910 875.546 570.364

araxsis napirebi .............................. 952.200 575.520 383.680

Samaxa-geokCai .................................... 95.737 23.934 71.003

_______________________________

sul amierkavkasiaSi ..................... 8.648.427 __ 4.460.520 __ 4.187.907

am saxiT gamodis, rom naxevarzed meti Rvino

Sin ismeva da marto naxevarzed cota naklebi gadis

bazarSi gasasyidad. rom gaviangariSoT, gamova,

rom aszed

Sin ismeva iyideba

imereTSi ......................... 70 30

kaxeTSi ............................ 25 75

qarTl_somxiTSi ....... 60 40

* Историко-Статистический обзор промишленности Росии Т. I.

** vedra sami Tungia anu 16 boTli.

113


maSasadame, amierkavkasias TiTqmis 4 1 / 4 millioni

vedra Rvino aqvs bazarSi gasatani da gasasyidi;

vedra rom erTierTmaneTzed maneT-naxevrad

viangariSoT, gamova, rom Rvinisagan amierkavkasias

unda Semouvides eqvsi millioni da

375.000maneTi; aqedam imereTs TiTqmis millionnaxevari,

kaxeTs sami millioni da TiTqmis

279.000 maneTi, qarTlsa da somxiTs TiTqmis

855.000 maneTi da sxvani.

imierkavkasiasa, daRestansa da yubanis mxaresa,

sul modis 2.212.800 vedra Rvino. aqedam Sin sasmelad

rCeba 588.245 da 1.624.735 gasayidad gadis.

bessarabiaSi, yirimsa, donzed da astraxnis guberniaSi

modis sul 4.042 950 vedra; aqedam Sin sasmelad

hrCeba 539.296 da gasasyidad gadis

3.503.654.

am saxiT gamodis, rom amier da imierkavkasiaSi

da danarCens adgilebSi ruseTs sul 15 millionamde

vedra Rvino mosdis weliwadSi; aqedam

5.588.061 Sin sasmelad hrCeba Rvinis patronebs da

danarCeni 9.316.296 gadis gasasyidad. exla

ikiTxavs mkiTxveli, ra bazari unda gauZRves amodena

Rvinosao? miT ufro WkvaSi mosasvleli

sakiTxavia es, rom samzRvargared sul 0.02% Rvino

ar gaaqvT ruseTis samzRvrebidam da TviTon

ruseTis xalxic yurZnis wvenis Rvinos SeCveulni

ar arian da ara hxmaroben. xom asea, magram ori

da sami magodena Rvinoc rom iyos, marto ruseTis

bazars ver auva, Tuki Cveni Rvinoebi gzas gaixsnian

da ruseTs moawoneben Tavsa. amis dasamtkiceblad

moviyvanT Semdegs cifrebs ruseTidam

samzRvargared gatanilis Rvinisas da arayisas da

iqidam Semotanilisas fulad:

114


orTa orTa Sua Sua ricxviT

ricxviT

wlidam wlamde gatanili Semotanili

1853 1855 11.120 man 5.888.405 man.

1856 1860 39.200 “ 6.322.905 “

1861 1865 72.425 “ 6.989.923 “

1866 1870 30.600 “ 7..586.604 “

1871 1875 24.600 “ 13.802.819 “

1876 1880 99.950 “ 12.095.665 “

1880 wels ruseTSi SemoutaniaT Rvino TiTqmis

18 1 / 2 million manaTisa. aqedam gamodis, rom

ruseTi SigniTve asaRebs aramc Tu im 10

millions vedras, romelic ruseTs TviTon aqvs

yovelwliv gasasyidlad, aramed Tvramet million

maneTisas kidev sxvagan yidulobs da Semoaqvs.

maSasadame, amierkavkasiis xuTi millioni vedra

Rvino erTioTxad da xuTadac rom iqces, maSinac

Zlivs gauZRveba marto ruseTis bazarsa. aq marto

gzebis gaxsna unda da bazris daWera Rvinis

sikeTiTa da iefobiTa. Cvens Rvinos Zlieri

metoqe da mocile hyavs ruseTis bazarSi: eg

metoqe evropaa, romlis Rvinosac ruseTi didi

xania svams da didi xania SeCveulia. am metoqis

gandevna ruseTis bazridam da misis adgilis

daWera metad rTuli da Zneli saqmea. am mxriT

odesme movelaparakebiT Cvens mkiTxvelebs, da minam

qinaqinis xes da Cais buCqsa CvenSi vaxeirebdeT,

rom amas, rac dRes xelSi gvaqvs, xeli Seuwyon

da gza miscen, ar iqmneba urigo.

115


«egvipte egvipte _ _ evropis evropis evropis saxelmwifoTa

saxelmwifoTa

erTmaneTSi erTmaneTSi erTmaneTSi mourigeblobis mourigeblobis mizezi mizezi» mizezi

116

tfilisi, 18 Tebervali.

evropis erTmaneTSi morigebas da garigebas

Zalian abrkolebs da uSlis egviptis saqme. am

egviptis gamo sami saxelmwifoa gulnatkeni da

natkenobisagan, cota ar iyos mtrobac aris

fexadgmuli. es mtroba da aSliloba

ganxeTqilebis mizezad hxdeba am sam saxelmwifos

Soris maSin, rodesac eg egviptes saqme rom ar

iyos, sxva bevri imisTana interesebia evropaSi,

rom es dRes erTmaneTTan mokamaTe saxelmwifoni

SesaZloa erTad gaswevdnen dRevandelis dRis

uRelsa da Tu erTad ara, erTmaneTs mainc ar

dauSlidnen. es sami saxelmwifo osmaleTia,

inglisi da safrangeTi. Cvenma mkiTxvelebma ukve

unda icodnen, am samSi vis ra ewvis egviptis

saqmeTa gamo.

egvipte osmalos sulTanis sabatonoa da amis

gamo damokidebulia osmaleTzed, romelsac

egvipte amis niSnad xarksac aZlevs. egvipte da

suezis arxi safrangeTisaTvis TiTqmis erTaderTi

aucilebeli saWiro gzaa safrangeTis kaloniebSi

misvla-mosvlisaTvis da inglisisaTvis TiTqmis

karia zRviT indoeTSi Sesasvlelad. am gare-


moebisagan kaci advilad Seadgens azrs maszed Tu,

- vis ra emZimeba egvipteSi.

inglisma sxvadasxva garemoebis gamo, romelTac

politikaSi wesierebis dadgenas eZaxian da

Cveneburad, mdabiurad ki mizez-mizez dos marili

akliao hqvian, egvipte xelT igdo TiTqmis, Tavisi

jarebi Caayena da TiTqmis da samarTvelodac

Tavisi kacebi miuCina, drumond volfi da beringi,

romelnic dRes egviptes ganageben inglisis

survilisamebr; swored inglisis ministrebi arian

egvipteSi ganwesebulni. erTi saSinao saqmeTa

mmarTvelia da meore sagareoTa swored ise,

rogorc ministrebi arian inglisSi. ra Tqma unda,

aseTi yofa egviptisa WkvaSi ar mosdis osmaleTs,

arc safrangeTsa da erTic da meorec iTxoven,

rom egvipte dacalos inglisma da Tavis bedzed

amyofos. inglisi didxans urCobda da amis gamo

safrangeTsa da osmalos erTis mxriT da inglisis

meores mxriT erTi-erTmaneTzed guli aeSalaT. es

aSliloba nebas ar aZlevda arc erTs mxares, rom

evropis sxva saqmeebSi mxari-mxars evloT. exla,

rogorc ismis, inglisi uwindeleb aRar aris

akviatebuli da mzad aris egviptis gamo cotad

Tu bevrad orsave saxelmwifos guli mougos.

gazeTebis sityviT, ingliss Tavisi mociqulis

drumond volfis piriT gamoucxadebia osmalosTvis,

rom egvipte saneitralo qveynad

aRiarebul iqmnas, mxolod im pirobiT ki ara,

rogorc belgiaa, romlis neitraloba kisrad

udvia inglissa, rac Seexeba egviptis damokideblobas

da misTa samzRvarTa daurRvevlobas,

amisaTvis winad araferi iyos dadgenili. mxolod

didsa saxelmwifoTa xelSekruloba dasdvan, rom

hedivis, egviptis marTvelis, adgil-mamuli

xelSeuxeblad darCes. inglisi Tanaxmaa suezis

arxiT jarebi Tavisuflad gadiyvan-gadmoiyvanon

117


saxelmwifoebma, egviptis finansebzed saerTo

zedamxedveloba iqonion, oRond ki inglisis

aficrebi daniSnul iyvnen egviptis jarebSi.

inglisis jarebi gamoyvanili iqmneba egviptidam;

mSvidobianobis da wesierebis dacva hedivsa da

sulTans daevaleba; sulTans neba eZleva Tavisi

jarebi gahgzavnos yairSi. mxolod maSin ki, roca

sazogado mSvidobianoba darRveul iqmneba, inglisi

am SemTxvevisaTvis itovebs nebas Tvisi jarebi

Caayenos egvipteSi; yovels sxva SemTxvevaSi ki

inglisi ise imoqmedebs, rogorc wevri

erTaSorisis komisiisa. rom am pirobebzed

daiyolios osmaleTi, inglisi hpirdeba, rac

egviptisagan xarki gekuTvnis, ramdenisame wlisa

winadve Cemgan miiReo.

am saxiT inglisi mzad aris saneitralod

gahxados aramcTu marto suezis arxi, aramed TviT

egvipteca da mis sakuTrad daCemebazed xeli

aiRos. amboben, ingliss es aqnevina safrangeTis

muqarama da ruseTma, romelsac am saqmeSi

safrangeTis mxare uWiravs. Tu safrangeTma da

osmalom yovelive es ikmara, maT da inglisis

Soris samduravis mizezi moispoba da maSin SesaZloa,

saxelmwifoTa erTmaneTSi ganwyobam sxva

gza airCios da sxva mimarTuleba miiRos.

118


«Rvinis «Rvinis qarTulad qarTulad qarTulad dayeneba»

dayeneba»

tfilisi, 19 Tebervali.

Cvens ekonomiurs yofa-cxovrebas rom kaci

rigianad da gonierad daakvirdes, bevrs

sagulisxmos ipovis. erTi udidesi da upirvelesi

saxsari Cvenis ekonomiurisEcxovrebisa miwaTmoqmedobaa

da sxvagvari saxsari jer CvenSi

TiTqmis arc ki daZrula, xelnaxlebic ar aris,

mermiss elis. miwaTmoqmedebas ori sagani moaqvs

Cvenis qveynis gasaZRolad, Rvino da yovelgvari

egredwodebuli sapure marcvali. am orgvars

warmoebas didi xania vadgivarT da didi xania mis

gzazed vSromobT da Tavs avad Tu kargad

vikvebavT. Cven amas arafrad vagdebT, TiTqo am

xangrZlivs warmoebas CvenTvis ara uswavlebia ra,

araviTari gamocdileba ar moucia, TiTqos yovels

mas, rasac dRes warmoebaSi vxedavT, araviTari

sabuTi da mizezi ara hqonia, TiTqo yovelive

alalbedobiT, ucabedobiT mogvsvlia. ai es, Cvenis

fiqriT, riT aixsneba:

Cvenma Zvelma istoriam ar mogvacala, rom

codna-swavlis gza gvekafna da Cvenis sulisa da

gulis ZaliT mecnierebis axo gamogveRo umecrebis

bardebiT da jagiT moculs aremarezed. am mxriT,

Zalian CamovrCiT danarCens kacobriobas, romelic

119


dReyovel codnisa da swavlis warmatebasa da

winsvlaSi iyo. saxelovanma da saocarma namoqmedarma

kacobriobis codnisam da swavlisam ise

mogvaswro Cven, rogorc sabneleTidam uecrad

mzeze gamosulsa! metis sinaTlisa da Suqisagan

TvalT dagvibnelda. Zalovanma mecnierebam, romlis

naRvawi Cvens uvicobas xSirad saswaulad miaCnda

da miaCnia, ise dabriyva Cveni Wkua da goneba, ise

Tavbru daasxa, rom erTic da meorec yurmoWril

ymad gaixada da rogorc tyve, gahbawra. aba, saca

ucxenod da ukambeCod uzarmazaris saxlebis tareba

moigones, saca telegrafma da telefonma

sivrce gaabaTila da eleqtronma lamis Zveleburs

Tilismobas gadaaWarbos, iq Cveni beCavi umecreba

da uvicoba xmas rogorRa amoiRebda. rogor ar

unda gvegrZno Cveni araraoba? rogor ar unda

gveTqva: Cven rani varT? rac yofilan, isini

yofilano! raki kacobriobis codna-swavlis

saocarma Zlevamosilebam ase aSkarad dagvanaxva

sxva qveynebis upiratesoba da warCinebuloba, Cven

erTic da meorec kisrad unda gvedo da

davdumebuliyaviT, rogorc Zlieris winaSe

uZluri, mecnierebis winaSe umecari. swored

egrec dagvemarTa: Cvenc davdumdiT da imodenad

davdumdiT, rom raki kaci ucxo qveynidam

movidoda CvenSi, swavlulia Tu uswavleli,

Wkviani Tu suleli,_ amas aRar davdevdiT da

pirRia SevyurebdiT, Wkuis maswavlebeli aba es

ariso. garda amisa, sakmao iyo kacs eTqva,

samzRvargared ese ariso, rom Cvenc migveRo

ganusjelad, auwonlad, daufiqreblad. iqaurma

xalxma es Cveni pirRiaobis ambavi kargad icoda da

amitomac yvela isini, visac Tavis qveyanaSi vera

gaekeTebina ra, Cvenken gamorboda, Tan oriode

mzad gakeTebuli da mogonebuli receptic

mohqonda da mtvers agviyenebda xolme Tvalwin

120


Cven umecrebs da ucodinarebs codnisa da

mecnierebis saxeliTa. samzRvargared eseao, Tqvenc

ese unda moiqceTo da Cvenc sxva gza ara gvqonda,

unda dagvejerebina da vijerebdiT kidec. amas

kidev ar gvakmarebdnen xolme: rac ki ram Cvens

samSobloSi iyo, yvelas gvifolavdnen, Tqven ra

iciT, briyvebi xarTo, aba kargi ra geqnebaTo.

Cvenc viZaxodiT: marTali brZanebaao.

raki sxvagan Cvenzed gacilebiT didi ostatoba

gamoiCina bevrma bevrSi, Cvenc davijereT, rom,

bevri bevrSi ki ara, yvelani yvelaferSi Cvenzed

ukeTesni ostatebi arian. davijereT da mere

rogor? Cveni aRaraferi viwameT, aRaraferi

vigulveT. is ki gonebidam gamogvepara, rom Cvenc

gvicxovria, gvimoqmednia Tavis sakvebad, CvenSiac

yofila xeloba da ostatoba miwaTmoqmedobisa, da

Tu Cveni nacxovari, nakeTari da namoqmedari

mecnierebamde ar agviyvania, angariSSi Casagdebi

gamosaZiebeli da gamosakvlevi xom aris, rogorc

nacadi didi xnisa, rogorc mravalis wlis

moRvaweobiT Semowmebuli saqme da saqmianoba. es

Cveni nacadi, es Cveni gamocdiloba gagvibaTila,

gagviqarwyla saxelma da abrum ucxo qveynisam,

romelmac yvelaferSi brmad CagviTria, radganac

bevrSi samarTali da sabuTi miuZRvodaT, rogorc

gacilebiT Cvenzed win mavalTa da warmatebulTa.

am garemoebas erTi aravin Caufiqrda da ara sTqva:

kaco, iqneba CvenSiac iyos erTi ram kargi, sxvisis

sityviT yvelafers ratom ese xelaRebiT

viwunebT!..

eg Cvenis umecrebis, ucodinarobis bralia.

TviT msjeloba SegviSina ucxo qveynebis abruma,

gambedaoba gamoacala. amis gamo Cveni veRara

vikvlieT ra, veRara gamoviZieT ra. an raRas

vikvlevdiT, rom Cveni aRara gvjeroda ra. yovels

mxares Cvenis cxovrebisas am gaubedaobam gonebisam

121


Tavisi damRa daasva da dRes CvenSi ucxo qveyneli

sulelic Wkvian kacad gadis da iqauri tyuili

marTlada, mere rogori tyuili? iqav tyuilad

cnobili da aRiarebuli. am tyuilma ise arsad ar

iCina Tavi, rogorc Cvenebur Rvinis keTebis

saqmeSi. aq aramcTu ucxo qveynelebi gza-kvals

gvireven, TviTon Cvenebic ki, maTis saxeliT da

sityviT brmad gatacebulni da fexis xmis

amyolni, imaTzed uaresad gvxveven mCvarSi. Cvenni

Sinaurni ostatebi brZaneben, rom Cveneburi Rvinis

keTeba groSad ara hRirso; Cven ar viciT verc

erTnairis da gamZle Rvinis keTeba, verc

Sampanurisa, verc koniakisa da sxva amgvar

didfasian sasmelebisao. samzRvargared ki,

mecnierebis SemweobiT, erTnairs gamZles Rvinos

akeTben, Sapanurs, koniaks da sxva amisTana

sasmelebs xom raRa Tqma undao. aqedam, am

azrebidam wamosulni Cveni Sinauri ostatebi

hcdiloben rogorme mogvarjulon Rvinis keTeba

Segvacvlevinon evropielTa mixedviTa da am cdas

morjulebisas did samsaxurad gviTvlian.

rasakvirvelia, es Cveni Tavisianebi TavisiT arras

amboben. eseni Segirdebi arian ucxo qveynel

ostatebisa, da rac maTgan gaugiaT, ganusjelad

gauzepirebiaT, da fiqradac ar mosvliaT, rom

maTi ostatebi SesaZloa styuodnen, SesaZloa

maTma ostatebma bevri ara icodnen ra. es ki

gonebis Tvalisagan mohsxletiaT, rom Rvinis

keTebas CvenSi mTeli aTasis wlebis istoria aqvs

da, maSasadame, aris ram mizezi, romlis ZaliTac

Cveni eri Tavisebur Rvinis keTebas hrCeobs da

evropiuls ufrTxis da erideba dResac. vin icis,

iqneba es mizezi pativsadebia, Wkvad misaRebia? amas

gamoZieba, gamokvleva unda da uamisod Cvenebur

Rvinozed wunis dadeba, Rvinis Cveneburad keTebis

abuCad agdeba, moSlilis wisqvilis raxunia da

122


tyuilis ostatobis Tavgazviadebuli sibriyve da

kadnierebaa. nuravin nu ifiqrebs, viTomc Cven amiT

imis Tqma gvinda, rom Cvens keTebas da dayenebas

Rvinisas ara aklia ra. Cven amas ver vityviT.

bevri ram aklia, amas Tqma ar unda. mxolod igi

nakli Cvenis Rvinisa, romelsac Cveneburs Rvinos

wunad uTvlian CvenSi Sinaurni Tu gareulni

ostatebi, swored igi nakli Rirsebaa Cvenis

Rvinisa, da Tu Cveni Rvino odesme gzas gaixsnis

saqveyno bazrisas, swored am Rirsebis wyalobiT

gaixsnis, Tu Zaladamacxovne Sinaur ostatebis

zedmosevas da qadagebas RvTisa da Tqvenis

wyalobiT gadvurCiT.

Cven vecdebiT Semdegs werilebSi es Cveni azri

sagulisxmo sabuTebiT SevamowmoT.

123


124

tfilisi, 20 Tebervali.

Cven minam moviyvandeT Cven mier wina werilSi

dapirebul sabuTebs Cveneburad Rvinis keTebis

Sesaxeb da aqedam Cvenis Rvinis avkargianobazed

gamovikvlevdeT rasme, saWiroa avRnusxoT, _ ra

wunsa sdeben Cvens Rvinos da ra wamals gvirCeven;

maSin davinaxavT, sadamde midis marTali da

tyuili. sazogadod unda vsTqvaT, rom Cven

yvelaferSi CamorCenili varT sxvebzed, da raki

yvelaferSi ukana varT, Rvinis saqmeSiac ukan unda

viyvneT, maSasadame, Cveni, rac kia, ar unda

vargodes. am sabuTiT SeiaraRebulni sakmarisad

hxedven marto zogadis frazebiT wunis dadebas da

amiT iolad wasvlasa. erTs amisTana magaliTs

warmogvidgens erTi patara wignaki, romelic

SarSan daibeWda moskovSi rusulad am saxeliT: О

главнейших нуждах и потребностях Кахетии.

pativcemuls avtors, raki Cvenzed hlaparakobs,

hgonebia, rom rac ki unda sTqvas Cveneburis

Rvinisa da venaxebis keTebis Taobazed, sul

marTali iqneba, oRond qeba da mowoneba risame ar

iyos da amitomac brZanebs:

“Кахетинские виноградники доходны, что главным образом

обусловливается неудачных выбором места для виноградников и

патриархалъным способом обработки виноградной почвы”.

gamodis, rom b-n avtoris azriT, Cven arc

adgilis SerCeva gvcodnia savenaxed da venaxis

keTebac adamisJmuri gvqonia. aq arc erTis

dasamkicebeli sabuTi ar aris moyvanili. an ra

saWiro iyo! gana sakmarisi ar aris, rom

qarTvelebma ar ician ra da, maSasadame, arc es

ecodinebaT. erTi es fiqrad mainc rogor ar

mouvida b-ns avtors, rom ramdenime saukunea, rac

saqarTveloSi venaxobas misdeven, da ra RmerTi


gagviwyreboda, adgilis amorCevac ver gveswavla.

Cven ki gvgonia, rom adgilis amorCevazed Cven

abuCad veravin ver agvigdebs. Cvens venaxebs

ukeTesi adgilebi uWiravT. amas amtkicebs is

garemoeba, rom saca dRes venaxebia, im adgilebidam

kargi Rvino gamodis da venaxebis didi xnis

warsulic gvemowmeba amas. Tund egec ar iyos, bnma

avtorma aiRos romelime sofeli da

migviTiTos imisTana adgilzed, romelic im

adgilebzed ukeTesia, saca dRes venaxebia. magas

ver izams, aTasSi erTsac ver gvaCvenebs. es

magaliTi nuTu imis momaswavebeli ar aris, rom

adgilis amorCeva venaxebisaTvis viciT da arc

SesaZloa ar gvcodnoda, imitom, rom venaxis

keTeba CvenSi guSindeli saqme ar aris da kargis

arCevanisaTvis ramdenisame saukunis gamocdileba

xelTa gvaqvs. vinc cotaodnad mcodnea Cvenis

venaxis patronebisa, is gvimowmebs, rom TiTqmis

arc erTi venaxis patroni glexi ar aris CvenSi,

rom am saganzed Wkvad misaRebi darigeba da rCeva

ar mogceT. am mxriT Cveneburi glexi evropiel

mecniersac ki ajobebs, imitom rom miwaTmoqmedobaSi

saerTod da venaxobis saqmeSi calke

gamocdileba didiEram aris, da Cveneburi glexi

evropiels mecnierzed gamocdilebiT metismetad

win iqneba imitom, rom adgilis kacia. tyuilad ki

ar aris naTqvami, adgilis kurdRels adgilis

mwevari daiWerso. Secdoma mosvlia pativcemuls

avtors, am gziT ar gamouZiebia saqme da marto

imas dasjerebia, rom aba amaT saidam ra ecodinebaT,

yvelaferSi CamorCenilni arian da amaSic

CamorCenilni iqnebiano. am saxiTve mohqcevia b-ni

avtori venaxebis Cveneburad keTebis saqmesa. ras

gviwunebs b-ni avtori? garkveviT da CamoTvliT

aras gveubneba. marto amas ambobs, rom venaxis

miwas adamisJmur wesiT akeTebeno. TviTon vazis

125


movlis wess ki srulebiTac ar ixseniebs. Cvenc am

vazis movlis saqmes Tavi davaneboT da miwis

keTebis saqmes SevudgeT.

raSi mdgomareobs es adamisJmuri wesi, arc

amas gveubneba, usaTuod imav mosazrebis ZaliT,

rom Zveli xalxia, ukan CamorComili, da ra didi

lari da xaziRa unda, rom adamisJmuri wesi

eqmnebaTo. miwis keTeba venaxisaTvis _ barva da

Toxvnaa da amazed damokidebuli gawmenda venaxisa,

dawvena da damuxlva vazisa; sxva ra aris,

gvibZanon. avtori rom venaxis miwis keTebas

gviwunebs, nuTu amiT imisi Tqma unda, rom barva

da Toxvna da maTze damokidebuli muSaoba venaxis

miwisa CvenSi jer saWirod cnobili ar aris? an

Tu cnobilia, nuTu hgonebia, barva da Toxvna ar

viciT, rogorc rigia? yvelaferSi SeuZlian

mCvarSi gagvaxvios kacma, magram sTqvas ki, rom

qarTvelma kacma barva, Toxvna, gawmenda venaxisa,

vazis damuxlva da dawvena ar icodes, _ es

mTqmelis mtknari umecroba iqmneba da ara Cvenis

xalxisa. marTalia, CvenSi egredwodebul “plantaJiT”

momzadeba miwisa venaxisaTvis ar aris jer

SemoRebuli, da Tu aris, kantikuntad, da arc

larzed Cayra vazisaa CvenSi gaxSirebuli, magram

sxvafriv venaxis miwis keTeba da movla, romelic

arsebiTs saWiroebas Seadgens venaxis kargad

keTebisas, CvenSi sakmaod kargad ician, imodenad

kargad, rom romels evropielsac es Cveneburi

codna win ar waumZRvarebia da Tavis WkuiT

ukeTebia CvenSi venaxi, gaSenebulic ki amovardnia.

amisi magaliTi dResac Tvalwin gvidga zogs

alagas da mxolod dasaxeleba ara gvsurs.

Cven amiTi imis Tqma ar gvinda, rom viTomc

Cveneburad venaxisaTvis miwis keTebas sanatreli

aRara hqondes ra. eg tyuili baqiaoba iqmneba. Cven

marto is gvindoda gveTqva, rom Cveneburs keTebas

126


miwisas venaxebisaTvis bevri Tavisi sakuTari

mizezi sabuTi aqvs, gamocdilebiT Semowmebuli da

mecnierTaganac Wkvad misaRebi. eg wesi miwis

keTebisa CvenSiac igivea, rac sxvagan, da zogjer

sxvagan is ar aris, rac CvenSia. magaliTebr, vazis

gadawvenasa da CamuxlvaSi Cven bevri aravina

gvjobia da bevrs SeuZlian Cvengan iswavlos

ramec. amis gamo gadaWarbebuli Tavmowoneba ar

iqneba vsTqvaT, rom Tu zogi ram aklia Cvens

xalxs venaxisaTvis miwis keTebis saqmeSi, zogic

imisTana ram icis, rom sxvasac aswavlis. urigo

ar iqneba msurvelma iswavlos eg zogi ram da

tyuilis abruTi gazviadebuli ar iZaxodes:

adamisJmuri wesiao. ara, batonebo, TavidaTavi

tkivili Cvenis Rvinis saqmisa iq ar aris, saca ese

advilad hpouloben Cveni sxvisiT molaparake

mecnierni.

III

III

tfilisi, 21 Tebervali.

erTi juris ostatebi xom venaxis miwis

keTebas gviwuneben, Cvens codnas da gamocdilebas

amis Sesaxeb Caladac ar agdeben, meore jurisani

TviTon Rvinis dayenebas da keTebas Cvensas abuCad

igdeben. arc am juris kacsa aqvs zedmiwevniT

gamokvleuli, risTvis ras ambobs! yovelis keTebis

avkargianoba nakeTarma unda gamoaCinos. ramodenadac

nakeTaria kargi an cudi, imdonad keTebac

kargi, an cudi iyos. es aSkaraa erTma rom kargi

uremi gaakeTos, meore ver etyvis, gamkeTebels

urmis keTeba ara scodniao. Cvenis Rvinis

ostatobis damwunebels rom Cveni Rvino esinja da

mis avkargianobisagan gamoeyvana wuni, maSin, ra

Tqma unda, sityvas ver SevubrunebdiT, magram ese

127


ar iqceva. mas unaxavs, an gaugonia, rom evropaSi

sxvadasxva ostatobaa Rvinis keTebisa da

dayenebisa, da radganac magave ostatobas aq vera

hxedaven, marto amiT swunoben Cveneburs Rvinis

keTebas. magaliTebr, safrangeTis ministrma

qimikosma Saptalma aRmoaCina, rom SesaZloa mJave

Rvinos simJave daukargos kacma Tu fxvnili

marmarilo Caayara, simJaves marmarilo Seisvams da

mere Zirs daileqebao. mere marmarilos magierad

amisaTvisve TabaSirs (Гипс.) dauwyes xmareba da am

TabaSiriT nakeTobas safrangeTSi Platrage-s eZaxian

da TviTon sistemas ki “Saptalizacias”. doqtorma

ludvig galma Tavis mxriT, sxva ram moigona.

amisis azriT, Rvinis sikeTe imazea damokidebuli,

Tu ramodena sitkbo aqvs yurZnis wvensa, ese igi,

ramodena Saqari, da Tu yurZnis wvens es aklia,

unda gangeb Caematoso. amas “gallizacias” eZaxian.

garda amisa Rvinos feris misacemad sandals

uSvrebian, Wiafersa, lila, alublis wvens, anwls

da sxva aTasgvar wamalsa, magaliTebr, Sabsa,

rkinis arjaspsa, spirtsa da erTgvars Senarevs

tyviisas, romelsac protoqsids (Cerbonate) tyviisas

eZaxian. erTgvars nivTierebasac xmaroben Rvinis

saferavad da am nivTierebas fuqsini hqvian da

zogjer zed dariSxanasac umateben, amas

“fuqsinizacias” eZaxian. marTali ki unda sTqvas

kacma, rom yovels amas evropaSi didis mecnierobiT,

ostatobiT da xerxiT axerxeben, magram

gana kargia yovelive es? nuTu es sakiTxavi da

gamosaZiebeli ar aris!

raki yovelive es evropaSia da raki amisTana

abruiani saxelebica aqvs, rogoc “Saptalizacia”,

“gallizacia”, “fuqsinizacia”, Cvens ostatebs

Rvinisas Tavbru unda dasxmodaT. aba Cvenma kacma

rogorRa Sehbedos gamoZieba, sityvis Sebruneba,

128


mere visa? evropas da evropis mecnierebas! sCans

yovelive es kargia, radganac evropaSia miRebuli,

da radganac CvenSi, _ jer RvTis madliT, _

SemoRebul ar aris, arc Rvinis keTeba gvcodnia

da arc rigiani Rvino gvqonia. ai, razea aSenebuli

azri Cvenis mwurTvnelisa Sinaurisa Tu gareulisa.

ratom aRar ikiTxaven, rom am

ostatobiT da mecnierebiT keTeba Rvinisa Rvinis

sunsRa arCens yurZnis wvensa? ratom ar ikiTxven,

egred nakeTebi Rvino Rvinod CaiTvlebaRa, ese igi

im margebel sasmelad, romlisvTvisac buneburi,

marTali Rvinoa daniSnuli?

yovels sasmels, Tu saWmels, yovelT

uwinaress is upirvelesi Rirseba unda hqondes,

rom agebulebisaTvis margebeli iyos da

maincdamainc mawyinari ara. yurZnis wvenis

sxvadasxva ostatobiT mecnierTagan aRmoCenil

wamlebiT gadasxvaveba nuTu ise brmad mosawonia,

rom imis mixedviT daiwunos kacma Cveneburi

Rvinis keTeba, romelic marto imazea miqceuli,

rom yurZnis wvens ara ra Seerios da Rvinos

Tavisi buneburi, Seureveli Tviseba hqondes! eg

raRac “Platrage”_ia da “fuqsinizacia”, Zalian

gavrcelebulia Turme samxreT safrangeTsa,

ispaniasa da italiaSi. nuTu es sakmaoa, rom Cvenc

imaT avyveT da margebeli sasmeli mawyinarad da

adamianis mosawamlavad gadavaqcioT. ai, am

fuqsiniT Sezavebul Rvinozed ras ambobs erTi

mecnieri hussoni: “erTi Wiqa davlie Tu ara,

maSinve yeli gamiSra da SemekumSa, tuCebzed da

tuCis kuTxeebSi raRac ugemuroba vigrZeni ase,

rom iZulebul gavxdi eniT mesvelebina wamdauwum.

gemo SabiT nakeTebs Rvinos ugvanda. ena da tuCebi

cotaodnad SemeReba, gulis zidili vigrZen ufro

imisagan, rom magisTana Rvino unda damelia”.

129


es fuqsiniT nakeTebi Rvino iseTi mawyinaria,

rom, _ ukacraod ar viyoT _ Sardsa wiTlada

hRebavs da adamians tanSi hxsnis; modiT da amas

iqiT gviTxariT, ratom fuqsiniT Rvinos ar

akeTebT!.. ratom “fuqsinizacia” _ es maRalxmovani

sistema, miRebuli ara gaqvT-Tqo!.. iqneba bevrSi

cudad veqceodeT Rvinosa CvenSi, magram amas ki

vityviT, rom cudad nakeTebi Rvino margebeli da

umjobesia, vidre kargad nakeTebi da mawyinari.

amazed dawvrilebiT SemdegSi vecdebiT movilaparakoT

da iqneba cotad Tu bevrad davajeroT

vinme, rom Cveneburi Rvinis keTeba ise abuCad

asagdebi, ise mCvarSi gasaxvevi ar aris, rogorc

zogierTsa hgoniaT, evropis mixedviT TavbrudasxmulTa.

130

IV

tfilisi, 24 Tebervali.

jer minam SevudgebodeT imis garCevas, Tu

romeli keTeba Rvinisa umjobesia, Cveneburi Tu

sxvaeburi, da erTisa da meoris avkargianobas

erTmaneTs pirSi wauyenebdeT utyuaris ganaCenis

dasadgenad, saWiroa vicodeT, raSia WeSmariti

Rirseba Rvinisa. ra Tqma unda, Rvino, rogorc

sasmeli, romelsac marto adamiani hxmarobs, unda

gaisinjos imisda mixedviT Tu, _ ragvar uxdeba,

ragvars Semweobas uwevs adamianis agebulebas, anu,

uked vsTqvaT, ra unda moeTxovebodes Rvinosa.

am saganzed ai ra azria gamoTqmuli

mecnierTagan. Rvino sakvebavi ar aris adamianis

agebulebisaTvis; igi agebulebas sazrdos ar

aZlevso; igi marto sanelebelia da yvelazed

ukeTesi sanelebelic, romelic Zalian kargad


moqmedebs adamianis ZarRvebsa, gunebasa da

gonebazeda. amisTana Tvisebam Rvinisam iseTs

aRtacebaSi moiyvana Zvels droSi asklepiadi,

hipokratis * mimdevari, rom man Tavis TxzulebaSi

sTqva: “RmerTTa Zlierebama ara mgonia imodena

hqmnas, rac Rvinis sikeTem da sargeblobamao”. es

asklepiadi pirveli iyo, rom sxvadasxvagvars

sneulebas ufro RviniT swamlobda. mis magaliTs

ahyvnen bolos mkurnalni sidenhami, sviteni,

hufelandi, granti, huqsami da dasasrul,

brounica, romelmac mTeli skola mkurnalobisa

Seadgina inglisSi da misi RviniT wamloba dResac

cnobilia misisave saxeliT “brounizmi”. mkurnali

stokesi dublinSi saxads da saofles RviniT

arCens, fodere wiTelas marto RviniTa swamlobs,

lebenstein-lebeli TiTqmis yvela sensa marto

RviniTa hkurnavs.

es Rvinis margebloba damtkicebulia mecnierTa

gamocdilebiTa. magaliTebr, zRvaSi Relvis dros

ori gemi momwydeuli yofila, erTi ingliselebisa

da meore frangebisa, orsave gemSi gaCeniliyo

erTgvari avadmyofoba, romelsac CvenSi piris

tkivils, da ufro gaZlierebuls, vgonebT, elqans

eZaxian, da mkurnalobaSi “skorbuti” hqvian.

frangis mexomaldeTa, romelTac Rvinos asmevdnen

Turme, am saSinelma sneulebam ara daaklo ra,

ingliselebi ki arays asmevdnen da kinaRam ar

gawydnen. rodesac pariJs gars ertya germaniis

jari da gasvla-gamosvla aRaravis SeeZlo,

zemoxsenebuli seni saSinelis simZlavriT gaCnda.

maSin mkurnalma bruadelma Rvino ixmara wamlad

da amiT arCina sneulni. amasac amboben, viTomc

cieb-cxelebaSi cxroebas anelebs Rvino da

* saxelovani mkurnali Zvelis saberZneTisa scx”ovrebda qristes winad

mexuTe saukuneSi da mkurnalTa mamamTavrad dResac cnobilia.

131


sazogadod agrilebs adamianis agebulebasa. erTi

safrangeTis mwerali Turme amtkicebs, rom im

qveynis eri, saca Rvino modis, ufro gonebiT

swrafia, moswrebulia, maxvilgonieria, vidre im

qveynisa, saca sasmelad ludsa (pivas) hxmarobeno.

es iqneba germanelTa mtrobiT mosdis frangsa,

iqneba yovels amaSi cotad Tu bevrad gadaWarbebac

iyos, magram is ki ueWvelia, rom zomierad

miRebuli Rvino Zaliana hrgebs adamiansa; amRerebs

da aRonierebs ZarRvebs moqmedebisaTvis, adamianis

agebulebas, kuWsa hSvelis kargad moxarSvas da

monelebas saWmlisas da yovel amiT aZlierebs

Zalsa sacxovrisas. am saxiT, _ ambobs erTi

mwerali, _ Rvino margebeli sanelebelia, yvela

saneleblebzed gacilebiT umjobesi da upatiosnesi,

imitom rom yvelazed ukeT aRamaRlebs

xolme adamianis Wkuasa da gulsa. erTi ylapi

kargis Rvinisa gamoaxalasebs moxucsa da

gamoacocxlebs sneulsa, igi Rones moukrebs

xolme dauZlurebuls da dasustebulsa.

ra hxdis Rvinos esoden margebelad, esoden

sasargeblod! marto erTi yovladSemZlebeli,

Seucdomeli, gabrZnobili ostati, romelsac

buneba hqvian. marto buneburs Rvinosa sWirs

esodeni sikeTe, esodeni madli.

132

V

tfilisi, 28 Tebervali.

Cven Rvinis keTebis avkargianobis gamo wina werilSi

* vsTqviT, rom Rvinos margebel da

* ix. “iveria” # 41


sasargeblo sasmelada hxdis marto erTi buneba

da veravin ver gvetyvis, rom aq, Rvinis keTebaSi

bunebas kacma ajobos. bussengo, romlis Rvinis

analizebi ukanaskneli sityvaa mecnierebisa da

romelic am saqmeSi avtoritetad iTvleba, Tavis

moxsenebaSi ambobs, rom Tumca mecnierebam am ukanasknels

droSi bevri ram axali aRmoaCina, magram

Znelad iTqmis, rom SesaZloa iyos bunebur Rvinis

msgavsi ram gangeb gaakeTos adamianis ostatobam

da xelmao. eg imitomao, rom buneburis Rvinis gemo,

suni (buketi) da janis Sesaxebi keTil-moqmedeba,

damokidebulia imisTana nivTierebazed, romelic

jer Cvengan gamocnobili da mignebuli ar

ariso. germaniis rjuldeba pirdapir da cxadad

ambobs, rom Rvino marto imasa hqvian, rac marto

yurZnis wvenisagan keTdeba da sxva ara ra gangeb

Careuli da Camatebuli ara aqvs rao. marTalia,

sxvadasxvagvari ostatoba Rvinis keTebisa, magaliTebr,

Saptalizacia, gallizacia, petionizacia

da sxva akrZaluli ar aris, magram am ostatobiT

nakeTebi sasmeli ar SeiZleba kacma hyidos, Tu

WurWelzed zed warwerili ar iqneba, ra gziT

aris nakeTebio. safrangeTis kanonebi wyalis Camatebasac

ki RvinoSi falsifikacias eZaxian, ese igi

yalbi Rvinis keTebasa * .

CvenSi am saganzed Tavis dReSi araviTari

rjuldeba ara yofila, da Tu yofila, Cven arsad

Segvxvedria. magram es ki viciT, rom Cveneburi

xalxi Zalian hTakilobs RvinoSi yurZnis wvenis

meti sxva raime Caurios, da visac eg kantikuntad

* “Journal des Debats” 10 Tebervals 1884 welsa ambobs, _ rom ara kanoni ar

uSlis kacs RvinoSi ramdenic unda wyali Caurios, oRond ki, Tu hyidis

amisTana Rvinos, muStari ar moatyuos da Rvinis magier wyalRvino ar

miaCeCoso.

erTi sityviT, gamsyidvelma unda gamoacxados xolme, RvinoSi amdeni wyalia

gangeb dasxmuli da amdeni Rvinovo.

133


sadme gaubednia, yovelive RonisZieba uxmaria,

aravin Semityoso, esoden sircxvilad da codvad

miaCnda CvenSi yvelas wminda wveni bunebisagan

mocemulis yurZnisa waewymida da SeebRala riTime

TavisgniT CamatebuliT da CareviTa. am sifrTxiles

zneobiTis Tvisebisas, sxva sifrTxile da

SiSic mosdevda, imitom rom arc erTi vaWari, arc

erTi siraji imisTana kacis marans arc ki miekareboda,

axloc ar gauvlida, da roca amqrobas

Tavisi Zala hqonda, Sehkravda kidec marans, rom

aravis gaeWaWana. eseTi pativi hqonda CvenSi buneburs

Rvinos, da Tumca eseTi pativi ara aqvs dRes

evropaSi, magram iqac ki mainc Znelad moipoveba

kaci, rom wminda Seurevel, xelTuqmnels Rvinos

yovelTvis win ar ayenebdes xelTqmnilzed.

maSasadame, WeSmariti sagani Rvinis keTebisa, amisi

Tavi da bolo, buneburis Rvinis Seqmnaa, ese igi

yurZnis wvenis daRvinebaa im gziT, ra gziTac

TviTon buneba yurZnis wvens saRvinoed amoqmedebs

da bussengo ambobs, rom araviTari adamianis mier

mogonili Rone amas ver SesZlebso, Tumca mecnierebam

bevri axali iaraRic misca xelSio. mecnierebam

bevri ram aRmoaCina qveyanazed: magaliTebr,

Rvinis daferva Tu ginda, rkinis Sabiamani

Caurie RvinoSio; an roca RvinoSi wyals asxam,

rom es ar SeemCnios, gogirdis mJave (серная кислота)

Caasxio; da gana igive mecniereba ar iZaxis,

erTic, meorec da mesamec mawyinariao! kacs wyalis

gasaReba unda Rvinis saxeliTa da siyalbes

gogirdis mJaviT hmalavs, kacs wamlebiT SeuRebavs

Rvino da amiT muStaris motyueba hsurs, _ es

Rvinis keTebaa?!

ara, Sors Cvengan amisTana Rvinis keTeba!

yovels imas, rasac kaci TavisgniT yurZnis wvenSi

umatebs, wyalia, Saqaria, Tu gadawmendili arayi

da an sxva ram, Cven Rvinis waxdenad CavTvliT da

134


amas cotad Tu bevrad davinaxavT, roca imis

garCevaSi SevalT, ras iTxovs buneba, rom

buneburi Rvino Seiqmnas, da ras moaswaveben is

sistemebi Rvinis keTebisa, romelnic Camatebasa da

Serevnazed arian dafuZnebulni da Seelizaciad,

Saptalizaciad, gallizaciad da petionizaciad

saxelganTqmulni.

VI

tfilisi, 3 marti

ori juria Rvinis muStrisa da TviTveuli

maTgani Rvinisagan imasa hTxoulobs, rac sakuTrad

misTvis sarfaa da saxeiro. am sxvadasxvaobas

muStrisas didi mniSvneloba aqvs, imitom rom am

sxvadasxvaobis mixedviT sistemac Rvinis keTebisa

ornairia. erTgvari muStari Rvinisa Rvinis

pirdapiri mxmarebelia, ese igi kaci, romelic

hyidulobs Rvinos imisaTvis, rom TviTon svas,

TviTon gamoiyenos da moixmaros; meore Rvinis

vaWaria, ese igi kaci, romelic hyidulobs Rvinos

marto imisaTvis, rom hyidos. pirvels Rvinis

saxeliT imisTana sasmeli unda, rom aramc da

aramc mawyinari ar iyos, da amisTana sasmeli,

rogorc SemdegSi vnaxavT, marto buneburi,

Seurevneli, wminda yurZnis wvenis Rvinoa. meore

ki, ese igi Rvinis vaWari, marto imas daeZebs, rom

sasmeli erTnairis ferisa, erTnairis gemosi,

erTnairad gamZle iyos yovels SemTxvevaSi da

imodenad hgvandes Rvinosa, rom pirdapirs

mxmarebelzed gaasaRos xolme Rvinis saxeliTa.

yovelive es SeuZlebelia bunebur RvinisaTvis, Tu

wamlebiT SekeTebuli da Serevnili ar aris. amas

mere vnaxavT da exla ki vityviT, rom am

135


ukanasknel SemTxvevaSi sasmelis uwyinaroba ukan

aris dayenebuli, rogorc imisTana bargi,

uromlisodac SeiZleba iolad wasvla, maSin

rodesac pirvels SemTxvevaSi am uwyinarobas

pirveli da ukanaskneli adgili uWiravs.

Cveneburad Rvinis keTebas Rvinis pirdapiri

mxmarebeli hyavs saxeSi da evropiulad keTebas _

ufro Rvinis vaWari. am orSi romeli keTebaa

Rvinisa ufro marTali, ufro kargi, ufro

samjobinari da mosawyeni Tavisis azriTa da

ganzraxviTa _ eg advilad gamosacnobia.

Cven jer SevudgebiT imis aRweras Tu igi

sistema, romelsac saxeSi hyavs pidapiri

mxmarebeli Rvinisa, raSi mdgomareobs da rogor

uZRveba Tavis daniSnulebas. eg sistema imaSi

mdgomareobs, rom kacma moaSoros yovelive is,

rac TviTon bunebas uSlis yurZnis wvenis bunebur

Rvinod srulad da savsebiT Seqmnasa da im

yurZnis wvenSive arsebulTa da moqmedTa ZalTa

bunebisasa xeli Seuwyos, xeli moumarTos. magram

minam saqme amazed midgeba, Rvinis damyenebelma

unda icodes, ra adgilma ragvari Rvino icis, da

ragvari Rvinoc hsurs, imgvars SeurCios savenaxe

adgilica * buneburi Rvino sxvadasxva aris da eg

sxvadasxvaoba damokidebulia miwis sxvadasxvaobazed.

mZime, ese igi Rrmad saxnavs Tixians

miwas mohyavs Rvino moWirebulis ferisa, Zlieris

suniTa, gemrieli da gamZle. qviSians adgilzed

Rvino ise magari ar aris, sunic naklebi aqvs da

ufro naklebad gamZlea. kirreul miwaSi Rvino

ufro tkbilia da suniT ar aris Zalian

gamoCinebuli. mSralis qvianis adgilis Rvino

* Cven aq amazed imitom vlaparakobT, rom jer CvenSi _ RvTis madliT _

Rvinis mkeTebeli da venaxisa erTi da igive momqmedia, amitomac rac venaxis

patronis avkargianobas uWirs, is Rvinis mkeTebelsac da rac Rvinis

mkeTebels, is venaxis patronsaca.

136


tkbilia, magari, did xans gamZle da Zlieri suni

ki ara aqvs. havasac, rakvirvelia, didi

mniSvneloba aqvs Rvinis sikeTisaTvis. humboltis

sityviT, orTa Sua temperatura unda iyos 9,5 0

reomurisa. amasTan zamTris orTa Sua temperatura

ar unda iyos 0,5 0 -ze ufro civi da zafxulisa _

18 0 -ze ara naklebi Tbili. yurZnis wvenis

sitkbozed didi keTilmoqmedeba aqvs mziansa da

Tbils darsa RvinobisTTveSi. ra Tqma unda, rac

havas, dars, sicxe-sicives wlisas Seexeba, aq

adamiani yovlad uRonoa Svela ram gauwios

bunebasa, minam yurZeni daukrefavia, magram miwis

amorCeva da ganoyiereba-gaRoniereba ki mis xelT

aris. Rvinis avkargianobazed zedmoqmedeba aqvs

TviTon sasuqsac. Zroxis pativi venaxis sasuqad

yvelazed ukeTesad cnobilia. Zalian kargad

moqmedebs Zvlebis fxvnilica, mJave fosfori, mJave

kirica (Суперфосфат), romelsac Zvlebisaganve

akeTeben da fosfor-mJave aqvs. CvenSi sasuqs

iSviaTad sadme hxmaroben. kaxeTSi TiTqmis sul ar

ician, zogan ki, magaliTebr, qarTlSi da somxiTSi

ar eridebian. CvenSi am saganzed erTob is azri

aqvT, rom sasuqi Rvinos gemos aZlevs da axdenso.

marTalic aris: zogierTi sasuqi, raSiac erTnairi

nivTiereba “ammoniaki” metismetad Warbad urevia,

an sxva ram Zlierad sagrZnobeli ynosisaTvis,

hvnebs Rvinosa. raki esea, Cveneburi kaci, kargis

Rvinis damyenebeli, erideba sasuqis Setanas

saerTod, ra gvaris sasuqic unda iyos. aqac, Tu

gnebavT, igiv TanasagrZnobeli azri moqmedobs, rom

kacma TavisiT ara gaurios ra, ara Caumatos ra

Rvinosa da es uvicobad aravin ar unda

CamoarTvas, imitom rom Tu Cveneburma kacma

superfosfatebis gakeTeba ar icis, Zroxis

pativiT gapativeba xom icis sayaneebisa, da ra

dauSlida amave Ronis xmarebas venaxebis gapati-

137


vebisaTvisac, Tu ar is azri, rom eg Rvinos

avnebso.

rasakvirvelia, adamianis xeliTve aris,

TviTonve yurZnis dakrefasac dro SeurCios, da

amasac Rvinis sikeTisaTvis didi mniSvneloba aqvs.

CvenSi da yvelgan sxvaganac RvinobisTTvis

naxevramde daiwyoba xolme yurZnis krefa, zogjer

cota gvianac, radganac, Tu kai daria, yurZeni

ufro keTdeba, da amas evropaSi cnobuloben

sxvadasxa iaraRiTa da RonisZiebiTa, da CvenSi ki

gaWyleten marcvals TiTebSua, da Tu TiTebi

wvenis gamo erTmaneTs ewebeba da es dawebeba

dRedadRe ufro matulobs, amboben, yurZens jer

kidev “webo” ematebao da dacla, daxaneba undao

imitom, rom am webos metnaklebobazed damokidebulia

Rvinis sikeTe. am or RonisZiebaTa gamo

marto is iTqmis, rom evropiuli ufro xerxiania

da meore ufro sada da ubralo, yurZnis kargad

damwifebis da Semosvlis sacodnelad ki orive

gamosadegia. ra Tqma unda, rom Cveneburma kacma is

evropiuli iaraRi SemoiRos, ukeTesi iqneba. xolo

eg imas ara hniSnavs, rom Cveneburad Rvinis keTebaSi

daviwyebuli iyos, an ar vicodeT igi wesi,

igi moTxovnileba, romelic gveubneba, rom yurZnis

dakrefas dro unda SeerCioso.

yurZnis dakrefis dRidgan Tavdeba movaleoba

venaxis mkeTebelisa da iwyeba saqme da movaleoba

Rvinis mkeTebelisa. Cven venaxis keTebazed bevri

ara vsTqviT ra. imitom, rom aq Cven bevrs veravin

ras dagviwunebs, visac ki codniT da winadauRebelis

azriT es saqme CvenSi uswavlia. kidevac

gavkadnierdebiT da vityviT, rom venaxis da

nametnavad vazis movlaSi Cveneburi kaci sxvas

aramc Tu Camouvardeba, zogSi sxvas aswavlis

kidec. Cven abuCad agdebulni varT marto Rvinis

keTebis saqmeSi. dRes gazeTSi uadgilobis gamo

138


Cven SevdgebiT im mijnazed, saca Tavdeba venaxis

mkeTebloba da iwyeba mkeTebloba Rvinisa.

VII

VII

tfilisi, 4 marti

SevudgebiT ra Rvinis keTebis saqmis aRwerasa,

saWiroda vracxT gavixsenoT, rom mecnierebam

Tumca bevri RonisZieba aRmouCina kacs yalbis

Rvinis keTebisaTvis, magram imav mecnierebam bevri

sxva Ronec misca adamians, rom buneburi Rvino

jerovanad keTdebodes. Cven marto jer am ukanasknel

RoneTa CamoTvliT da masTan erTad vecdebiT

davanaxoT mkiTxvels, ramodenad axloa Tu Sorsaa

Cveneburi Rvinis mkeTebeli imazed, rasac am mxriT

mecniereba gvirCevs.

raki yurZeni daikrifa im darisa da drois

SerCeviTa, rac wina werilSi vsTqviT, kaci unda

ecados, SeZlebisamebr, marcvali yurZnisa moaSoros

klertsa da gadaarCios. klerts rom CvenSi

ar aclian yurZensa, amazed imas amboben, rom

klertiT marcvali ufro kargad da Cqarac isriseba

fexqveS da wurvas am gziT hSvelis da

uxdebao. garda amisa klertis SerCena imisaTvisac

saWiroao, rom dawmindavebis dros, roca Rvinos

quds gautexen da daureven, klerti Zirs Cadis da

leqi Rvinisac Zirs Caaqvso, amis gamo Rvino male

dawminddavdeba xolmeo. es ar viciT, ramodenad

marTalia da amas marto gamoZieba gamoaCens. xolo

es ki cnobilia mecnierTagan, rom klertzed

daduRebuli Rvino pirsa hblandavs, Tumca esec ki

marTalia, rom klertzed daduRebuli Rvino, ese

igi Cveneburi Rvino, ufro adre da male

dawminddavdeba xolme, vidre uklerto. Rvinis

139


sabazro sagnad gaxdomisaTvis erTi upirvelesi

saWiroeba misi dawmendilobaa. rom Cveneburi kaci

hzrunavdes, Rvino male aqcios sabazro, savaWro

sagnad, eg advilad misaxvedria da Sesawynarebelica.

Cvens fuliT xelmokle kacs male unda nake-

Taris fulad qceva, rom Semdegis samuSavosaTvis

da cxovrebisaTvis saxsari da Rone iqonios. imas

Tanxa ara aqvs, rom xeli moinacvlos. Tumca ese

xeldaxel Semzadebuli Rvino didxans ara sZlebs,

magram Cveneburi bazari amas ar ufrTxis, radganac

iq, saca Rvino iSviaTi sanugbari ar aris da Rvinis

sma TiTqmis saWiroebad aris gadaqceuli,

rogorc CvenSi, Rvino male saRdeba da didxans

Sesanaxad aRar uxdeba saqme sirajsa. sul sxvaa

evropasa da ruseTSi. erTgan da meoreTganac Rvinos

marto mdidari xalxi svams da mdidari xalxi

yvelgan cotaa. saamaTod gamZle Rvinoebi unda,

rom gza aitanos da muStars elodos da ucados.

xolo iq, saca, magaliTebr safrangeTSi, Rvinos

ufro bevri Sinauri msmeli hyavs, maSasadame, muStrad

TviTon Tavisive xalxi eguleba, rogorc

CvenSi, iqac hcdiloben axali Rvino male momzaddes

da gamZleobisas amisTana RvinoebisaTvis

bevrs arafers dagideven. iq amisaTvis bevrs gvars

ostatobas hxmaroben da amis gamo, magaliTebr pariJSi,

sayoveldReo xalxisaTvis sasmel RvinoSi

imodena marTali yurZnis wvenia xolme, ramodenadac

wamlebiT SekeTebul kvrinCxis wvenSi. es

ostatoba iq Zalian kargad ician da, Cvenda

sabednierod, jer Cven ar viciT. maincdamainc,

Cvenis fiqriT, gemosaTvis uklertod Rvinis

dayeneba sjobia, Tumca Cveneburs xalxs Zalian

uyvars is piris blandveli Tviseba Cveneburis

Rvinisa da umagisod Rvinos gangeb nakeTebs eZaxis.

kacia da gunebao, naTqvamia, da Cveneburs kacs rom

Tavisi sakuTari guneba hqondes am SemTxvevaSi, vin

140


ad unda sZraxos. Tu dasZraxavs, igi daarRvevs

im evropiuls andazas, romelic gviqadagebs: De

gustibus non est disputandum, ese igi, gemos Taobazed

kacs sityva ar Seebrunebao.

yovel amiT imisi Tqma ar gvinda, viTomc CvenSi

klertis gamocda ar icodnen. ician, magram sakvirveli

is aris, rom marto im adgilebSi ician,

saca Rvino maWrobaSive iyideba TiTqmis dauwmendavi,

magaliTebr, kaxeTis soflebSi _ Saqriansa,

faSaanssa, turiscixesa da zegaanSi, saca

Rvino maWrobaSive iyideba. ra wamsac daswuraven

xolme, maSinve WaWidam gadaarCeven klertsa da

uklerto WaWazed daaduReben Rvinosa. am adgilebis

maWari gaTqmulia da vaWaric dawurvisve

umal etaneba. gansxvaveba aq marto is aris, rom

klerts CvenSi dawurvis Semdeg aclian da sadu-

Rarad an sul ar aZleven, an Zalian cotas. ra

Tqma unda, rom amas sCadis marto SeZlebuli kaci,

imitom rom klertis gadarCevas dro d xarji

unda. urigo ar iqneba, Cvenma mecnierebma Tavis

tyuils abrus cota xans Tavi daanebon da gamoiZion:

Cveneburi xalxi, roca yurZnis wveni saRvined

unda, ratom ar aclis klertsa da roca ki

samaWred _ maSin ki rad aclis? es miT ufro sagulixmoa,

rom Cveneburma kacma klertis gacla

zog SemTxvevaSi icis da zogSi ara da; raki esea,

umizezo ar iqneba, saRvine wvens yurZnisas klertzed

aduReben CvenSi yvelgan gamoukebliv, roca

ki marTlad Cveneburad ayeneben Rvinosa. vin icis,

iqneb klertzed naduRari Rvino ufro gamZlec

iyos. amas gvaniSnebs is ambavi, rom saRvine wvens

yurZnisas uklertod ar aduReben da samaWres ki

aduReben; sCans aq saqme Rvinis gamZleobazea

mimdgari da iqneba klerti am gamZleobas rasme

hSvelodes. ra Tqma unda, amisi gadaWriT Tqma

141


gamouZiebliv Znelia da meti ar iqneba, rom

gamoZiebul iqnas klertis Tviseba am mxriT.

142

VIII

VIII

tfilisi, 5 marti

evropaSi aramcTu yuradRebas aqceven, rom

yurZnis marcvals klerti moaSoron da ise

swuron da daaduRon Rvino, aramed zogierTs

saxelovans venaxSi dakrefis dros zed mtevanzedve

makratliT amosWrian xolme gafuWebuls

da dagolvils yurZnis marcvlebsa winadve, minam

dahkrefen dasawuravad. CvenSi balRic ar

moipoveba iseTi, rom ar icodes, ra kargia

RvinisaTvis gadarCeva yurZnisa. da Tu yurZnis

gadurCevlobas vinme codvad gviTvlis, es Cvens

uvicobas, arcodnas ar unda mieweros. aq sxva

mizezia da didad pativsadebica. egred gadarCeva

karga dros, jafasa da xarjsa hTxoulobs da

Cvenis Rvinis fasi ki dRevandels bazarSi iseTi

dabalia, rom uamisodac Zlivs ayenebs sazogado

xarjsa, rac magis garda Rvinis keTebas unda.

rasakvirvelia, magisTana jafas da xarjsa ar

moerideba, magaliTebr, Satodikebis patroni

markizi lur salusi, romelsac boTli Rvino

TiTqmis oTx-xuT manaTad usaRdeba. amisTana fasi

ras ar SeaZlebinebs kacsa! aki esec aris. am

markizis venaxSi ufro Sorsac midian, magaliTebr

TviTveul mtevnisagan marto damwifebul da

kargad Semosuls marcvlebs Camoaclian xolme da

Semousvlels zed vazzedve danarCenis mtevniT

stoveben dasamwifeblad.. modiT da amis mnaxvelma

usayvedureT Cveneburs Rvinis mkeTebels, ratom

Senc ase ar iqcevi-Tqo. aba oTxisa da xuTis


manaTis magier boTlSi erTi manaTi mainc

aRuTqviT Cveneburs mkeTebels Rvinisas, Tu amanac

Tavisi codna yurZnis gadarCevis Taobazed

saWirod ar dainaxos da saqmeSi ar gamoiyenos.

saqmeSi arxmarebuli codna ucodinarobas ar

hniSnavs. vin ar icis CvenSi, rom gadarCeva

yurZnisa kargia, da ufro ukeTesia marcvleulad

darCeva Tund markiz salusisamebr! mere sarfaa,

xeiria CvenSi egeTi mZime da Zviri jafa da

garja, Tu am codnis saqmeSi gamoyeneba zaralis

mets aras miscems kacsa, radganac am SemTxvevaSi

Rvinos siZviriT aravin miekareba... CvenSi vin

oxeri iqneba Tavisi Qqoneba zed gadaayolos

Rvinis keTebasa, romlis saekonomio mniSvneloba

marto sarfa da gamorComaa da sxva ara ra.

yurZeni raki moikrifa da gadirCa, SeZlebisaebr,

dasawuravad midis. amisaTvis CvenSi an xis

navia, an qvitkiris sawnaxelebia, kargad galesili.

evropaSi sxvagvari sawnaxelebia. iq ficrisagan

Sekrulia erTi uSvelebeli oTxkuTxiani ujra,

romelsac oTxkuTxiv gverdebi amaRlebuli aqvs.

rogorc CvenSi, ise evropaSi amgvar sawnaxelebSi

fexiTa swuraven * . iqneba fexiT wurva, romelic

CvenSi yvelgan xmarebulia, sasacilod aigdon!

marTalia, evropaSi yurZnis dasawuravad exla

saqajavsac (Пресс) hxmaroben, magram es kidev

sabuTs ar aZlevs Cveneburs mecniers, cxviri

zeviT aiwios. jer xom TviTon evropielnic

bevrgan fexiTa swuraven da maSasadame, iqac ise

yofila. amas Cveni mecnierebi evropielebs ver

gaubedaven, metad TvalsaCino tyuili iqneba. meore

isa, rom TviTon marTlad mecnierni evropielni

* moiwveven xolme memusikeTa, romelnic sacekvavs ukraven da muSebi

sawnaxelSi, SiSvela fexiT Camdgarni, hcekvaoben da am saxiT Seeqcevian

kidec da saqmec keTdeba.

143


amtkiceben, _ fexiT wurva yurZnisa bevriT

sjobnis saqajaviT wurvasao. imaTis sityviT,

fexiT wurvisagan ufro Tanabarad isriseba

yurZnis marcvali da wipwa marcvlisa, ese igi

kurka yurZnisa, ar iWylitebao. saqajvs uamisod

veras gziT ver gadaurCeba wipwao da gaWyletili

wipwa ki Rvinos wklartavso da amwarebso. es

fexiT wurva zogierTs RviniT gamoCenils

adgilebSi ise pativcemulia evropielTagan, rom

pirvel mtevnebs venaxis patrons _ qals

miarTmeven xolme da igi mourideblad xalxis

winaSe gaixdis fexsacmelsa da sakuTaris fexiT

swuravs morTmeuls yurZensa. Tumca esea, magram

am ukanasknel droSi yvela SemZlebeli kaci

hyidulobs saqajavsa marto imis gamo, rom

saqajaviT ufro male, ufro uxarjod iwurveba

yurZeni. saqajavebi CvenSi didi xania SemoRebulia,

magram xalxi ara hxmarobs pirvel gadawurvisaTvis;

mxolod fexiT nawur WaWas

gaatarebs xolme saqajavSi danarCenis wvenis

gamosawuravad. marTalia, Cveneburi saqajavi iseTi

ostaturi ar aris, rogorc evropiuli, magram

arc ise Zviria, rogorc iqauri. aSkaraa, CvenSiac

scodniaT, rom SeiZleba wurva saqajaviTac, da

erTi vikiTxoT, ratom saqajaviT wurva ar

dauwyviaT?! vsTqvaT evropiuls saqajavs imitom

ara hxmaroben CvenSi, rom Zviria, an moxmareba ar

icis Cveneburma kacma, ratom Sinauri saqajavi

mainc ar uxmariaT, _ es xom arc Zviria da arc

Zneli mosaxmarebeli? sCans amas sxva mizezi aqvs

da im mizezTa Soris ukanaskneli adgili ar

uWiravs mas, rac fexiT wurvis sikeTezed Cven

zeviT movixsenieT. aq xarji, siswrafe muSaobisa

kidev imisaTvis Seuwiravs Cveneburs kacsa, rom

RvinoSi wipwis iotic ar gaerios, ese igi sxva

gareSe ram. amas Zalian erideba Cveneburi Rvinis

144


keTeba, rogorc winadac vsTqviT, da es SiSi da

sifrxTile TanasagrZnobelia.

IX

tfilisi, 7 marti

raki yurZeni daiwureba xolme ase Tu ise,

tkbils miuSveben xolme boWkaSi. TiTqmis yvela

evropielni Rvinis WurWlad am SemTxvevaSi da

sazogadodac, boWkasa hxmaroben. rasakvirvelia,

Sesanaxavad sxva saxis boWkaa da saduRarad sxva

saxis, da am ukanasknelT rusulad hqvian “Cani”.

CvenSi ki ufro bevrgan pirdapir sawnaxelisa Tu

navis milidan qvevrSi miuSveben xolme. xolo am

bolos xanebSi zogan “Canebsaca” hxmaroben da Sig

“CanebSica” swuraven kidec, gansakuTvrebiT

wiTels Rvinosa. arsad ar Segvxvedria amogvekiTxa,

rom evropaSi tkbili ramdensame wverad

gahyon da ise cal-calke WurWelSi aduRon.

CvenSi ki ician: visac didi mosavali mosdis, sawnaxelidamve

gamosuls tkbils sam wverad dahyobs

da calke-calke qvevrSi miuSvebs. erTi wvero

igia, rac muSebis pirvel gavlaze wveni wamova

sawnaxelidam. amas calke miuSveben da amboben,

amisi dabali Rvino dadgebao, radganac rac WuWyi,

mtveri Cahyolia yurZens da rac meti wyali aqvs,

am pirvel nawur wvens gahyvebao. am wvenis feri

TiTqmis mRvrie wylis feria. wveni amis Semdeg

male icvlis xolme fersa, ase rom kaci TvaliT

advilad SeamCnevs. raki es moxdeba, axla wvens

sxva qvevrSi miuSveben; nabolovarad wveni erTxel

kidev icvlis fersa, ufro moWirebulis ferisa

Seiqmneba, ufro sqeli da weboiani, da maSin mesame

qvevrSi miuSveben. ra Tqma unda, amas marto didis

145


mosavlis patroni iqms. saqme is aris, rom am sam

wverad dayofas tkbilisas Tvisi cxadi azri da

sabuTi aqvs. amgvarad gancalkevebas sxvadasxva

siwmindisa, ferisa da sisqis tkbilisas, cota Tu

bevri zedmoqmedeba unda hqondes Rvinis sike-

Tezedac.

amas marto erTi nakli aqvs, Tumca advilad

mosaSorebeli, magram sakmaod yurs ar aTxoveben

CvenSi. am SemTxvevaSi TviTveul wver tkbilisaTvis

qvevri imodena unda iyos, rom erTs dRis

nawurma tkbilma saduRarad mohyaros qvevri. Tu

qvevri imodenad didia, rom ramdenisame dRis

sawuri saduRarad Zlivs mohyris, maSin tkbilis

meore da mesame dRes Camateba duRils axanebs,

agvianebs: duRilis male gaTavebisaTvis saWiroa

erTisa da imave drois nawuriT erTsa da imave

dRes qvevri, Tu ram sxva WurWeli, imodenad

aivsos, ramodenadac qvevrs Tu WurWels

duRilisaTvis avseben xolme.

raki tkbils, ese igi wvens yurZnisas, qvevrSi

Tu raime sxva WurWelSi Caayeneben, mas mermed

daiwyeba is buneburi moqmedeba, romelsac CvenSi

duRils eZaxian. yvelazed metad, Tu ar mTlad, am

bunebur moqmedebazea damokidebuli Rvinis siavkarge,

imitom rom yovelisfriT erTisa da imave

yurZnis wvenisagan SesaZloa sxvadasxva Rvinoc

dadges, Tu duRili sxvadasxva garemoebaSi mosvlia,

sxvadasxva gvarisa da xarisxisa hqonia.

saWiroa WaWa da klerti Caayolon tkbilsa,

Tu ara? Cven duRils buneburi moqmedeba vuwodeT,

imitom rom duRili aq kacis xeliT micemulis

wamliT, Tu nivTierebiT ar aRiZvris xolme;

nivTierebas Tu wamals TviTon buneba aZlevs

yurZensa. gamoCenilma pasterma daamtkica, rom igi

nawevri, romlis gamoc tkbili aduRdeba xolme,

zed yurZnis marcvlis kanzedve aris mtversaviT,

146


anu ukeT vsTqvaT, haosaviT. pasterma gangeb

sacdelad didi sifrTxiliT wveni ise gamowura

yurZnis marcvalsa, rom hao ar Caayola; nawuri

minis WurWelSi Caasxa da haeri ar miakara, imitom

rom haerSiac yovelTvis aris is samikroskopo

sxeuli, romelsac amaduRebeli Tviseba aqvs.

yurZnis wveni minaSi ar aduRda da roca is

mtveri, Tu hao, yurZnis marcvlis kanisa CauSva,

marto mas Semdeg daiwyo wvenma duRili. aqedan ra

gamodis? ras gvaswavlis, ras gveubneba es

magaliTi? amis pasuxs Semdeg nomerSi mogaxsenebT

da am pasuxisagan aixsneba, ris maqnisic aris WaWa

da ra saWiroebas Seadgens Rvinis keTebis saqmeSi.

X

tfilisi, 9 marti

wina werilSi moviyvaneT gamoCenilis pasteris

nacadi, rom yurZnis marcvlis kanzed aris

erTgvari mtveri, Tu hao, romelic aduRebs

yurZnis wvensa da uromlisodac wveni srulebiT

ara hduRs. aqedam ra gamodis? is gamodis, rom

vinc WaWas ar Caayolebs tkbils, igi imas aklebs,

rac duRilsa hSvelis da xels umarTavs, imitom

rom, Tumca nawurs tkbils nametnavad fexiT

nawurs, igi amaduRebeli hao gahyveba, magram ufro

meti ki zed WaWas SerCeba da amitomac uWaWoba

unda auZlurebdes duRils da miT agvianebdes da

axanebdes. iqneba kidec es iyos mizezi im

yvelasagan cnobil ambavisa, rom uWaWod naduRi

tkbili gvian dawminddavdeba, gvian daRvinovdeba

xolme, radganac adre dawmindaveba Rvinisa adre

daduRebazea damokidebuli. ra Tqma unda, rom

WaWis micema tkbilis kargad da male aduRebisa

147


da daduRebisaTvis egre mecnierulad ar aris

mignebuli CvenSi, rogorc pasters miugnia, magram

gamocdilebiT ki ucvnia Cveneburs kacs, rom

Rvinis kargad aduRebisaTvis WaWa saWiroa.

garda amisa WaWa TeTri yurZnisa, Tu Savisa, _

sxva samsaxursac uwevs Rvinosa: igi fers aZlevs,

hRebavs Rvinos. TviTon evropielni wiTelis

Rvinis dasayeneblad Savis yurZnis WaWas aZleven

duRilis dros, ise rogorc CvenSi viciT, imitom

rom saferavi Tu saReravi yurZnis marcvlis

kanSia * . es saferavi, rogorc Savs yurZensa aqvs,

isec TeTrsa TavTavisdagvarad. am saferavebiT

TeTriT TeTrs da SaviT Savs Rvinosa vferavT

xolme, roca WaWazed vaduRebT tkbilsa, imitom

rom duRilis dros marcvlis kansa tkbili

gamoswovs xolme saferavsa da iRebeba, Tu

nametnavad kani kargad gasresilia. es viciT da

WaWas sxvaTa Soris amisTvisac CavayolebT xolme

tkbilsa. xolo es ki zogjer gvaviwydeba, rom

raki Rvinos davurevT da WaWa Zirs wava da

daileqeba, mas Semdeg WaWa aRarc Semdegis Cumis

duRilisaTvis aris saWiro, aRarc saferavad, da

Tu ar axdens, aRara hSvelis. axla gvetyvian: rad

gindaT rom TeTrs Rvinosac hRebavTo? Cven kidev

amas vetyviT: kacia da guneba. Tu WaWis gamo

wiTeli Rvino ara hxdeba, radganac TviTon

evropielni wiTelis RvinisaTvis tkbils usaTuod

WaWazed aduReben, TeTris Rvinis WaWazed dayeneba

rad unda gveyvedrebodes da arcodnaSi gveTvlebodes!

TeTri moWirebuli feri Rvinisa

moswons Cvens xalxsa da dRevandels bazars, ise

rogorc Savi moWirebuli feri wiTelis Rvinisa.

* iqneba CvenSi ar icodes zogma, rom Savis yurZnis wveni, ise frTxilad

gamowuruli, rom tyavi marcvlisa ar gaisrisos, TeTria, anu, uked

vsTqvaT, wylis feria.

148


eseTi mowoneba iqamde gaZlierebulia CvenSi, am

bolos xanebSi sirajebi siyalbesac ki aRar

eridebian da sxvadasxvagvar wamlebiT TeTrs,

magram mcqral Rvinos, gangeb moWirebul fers

aZleven.

klerts rom ar aclian da tkbils Tan

Caayoleben CvenSi, amasac Tavisi sabuTi hqonia da

aqvs imis garda, rac winad vsTqviT. klerti

Rvinos keTil sunnovanobas hmatebs da gamZleobis

Rones aZlevs Turme. klertSi erTgvari nawevaria

(Дубилъное вещесто), romelic am samsaxurs uwevs

Rvinosa. uamisod keTilsunnovaneba da gamZleoba

imodenad ar gamohyveba Turme Rvinos. amas TviTon

mecnieri RvinismkeTebeli tardani amtkicebs da Tu

amas davujerebT, Rvinis gemosac ki ufro sasiamovnoda

hxdis is simJave, romelic enasa hkbens

da klrtisagan warmosdgebao. gamodis, rom im

sikeTis garda, rac klertzed winaTa vsTqviT, _

es sikeTenic klertis wyalobiT hqonia Rvinosa.

ar viciT, es ramdenad marTalia da Tu marTalia,

marTalni yofilan Cveneburi Rvinis damyenebelnica,

romelnic uklertod Rvinos ar

aduReben. Tqma ar unda, rom yvelgan saWiroa

zomiereba. zomas gadametebuli puris Wamac ki

mawyinaria. CvenSi kargma Rvinis mkeTebelma da

damyenebelma kargad icis, ramdeni WaWa da klerti

misces da zomas Tavis dReSi ar gadaacilebs.

CvenSi kargad ician, rom gadaWarbebuli WaWa da

klerti Rvinos avnebs. amazed ityvian xolme,

“daswvavso” Rvinos. maSasadame, Tu esea, rom

klerti Rvinis gemos aramcTu afuWebs, akeTebs

kidec, da amas garda sxva sikeTec moaqvs _ raRa

sabuTi aqvT wuni dasdon Cvens Rvinis keTebas am

mxriTa! Tu es klertis Cayoleba Secdomaa da Tu

amisTanebSi imisTana mecnieri hcdeba, rogorc

149


tardani, Cven es Secdoma rad unda gvekiJinos

abrugazviadebul gabedviT da kadnierebiTa!

150

XI

XI

tfilisi, 11 marti

sawnaxelidam yurZnis wvenis gamoSvebis Semdeg

iwyeba sxva axali xana Rvinis keTebisa da am xanas

yvelazed meti mniSvneloba aqvs Rvinis sike-

TisaTvis. eg xana igi droa, rodesac tkbili

duRilSi Sedis. evropaSi duRilisaTvis qvis

WurWelic aris da xisac, rogorc magaliTebr,

“Cani” da “boWka”, da yvela is Wurweli haerzed

dgas sardafSi, an maranSi. CvenSi TiTqmis yvelgan

qvevri ician, miwaSi cotad Tu bevrad Rrmad

Cafluli. am qvevrsac gviwuneben. Semdeg naxavT,

zogierT mcireoden uxerxobasTan, ramdeni saxerxo

da samjobinari sikeTe sWirs Cveneburs qvevrsa da

ramodenad eggvari WurWeli Seferebulia masTan,

rasac duRili iTxovs da Senaxva.

kargis duRilisaTvis, garda imisa, rom kargad

damwifebulis yurZnis wveni unda iyos, saWiroa

siTbo ara nakleb 10 0 -isa da ara umetes 15 0 -isa

reomuris termometriT. evropaSi, maranSi, anu

sardafSi, saca tkbili hduRs, Tu 10 0 -zed naklebi

siTboa, an “Cans”namjas Semoaxveven garSemo, an

cecxls aanTeben gangeb amisaTvis gakeTebul

buxarSi da oTaxsaviT aTboben ramdenic saWiroa,

_ da Tu 15 0 -zed metia, gangeb agrileben.

maSasadame, sardafi an marani gangeb am or

SemTxvevisaTvis aSenebuli unda iyos. aseTi marani,

Tu sardafi, Zvirad daujdeba kacs; amazed rom

kaci zed gadaegos CvenSi xeiria da gamorComis

imedic imodena unda hqondes, rom Rvinom, Tavis


sakuTaris xarjis garda, sardafzed, an maranzed

daxarjulis fulis Tavni da sargebeli Tavis

drozed cotcotaobiT daubrunos patronsa. zogan

aris kidec CvenSi amisTana Zvirfasi marnebi, magram

ufro saxelisaTvis, vidre saxravisaTvis da

gamorComisaTvis; winadaca vsTqviT, _ Rvino CvenSi

jer Zlivs aayenebs xolme Tavis xarjis fassa da

im mcireodens gamorComas, rasac yoveli kaci

yovelis mrewvelobisagan samarTlianad moelis.

maincdamainc amisTana marans marto SeZlebuli

kaci Tu Sewvdeba da amisTana kacebi CvenSi marto

oriodea, umravlesoba ki uRonoa amisaTvis.

amitomac CvenSi ufro bevrgan farRalala

marnebia, xSirad marto walmiT daxuruli, bevrgan

ukedleboca. maSasadame, pirvel SexedviT kaci

ifiqrebs, rom CvenSi ara scodniaT haeris siTbosigrilis

mniSvneloba duRilisaTvis. aba farRalala

maranSi, ra Tqma unda, Tavisuflad imuSavebs

civi Tu Tbili haeri da amitom arc mets siTbos

eSveleba da arc mets sigrilesa. Sescdebian, vinc

ase ifiqrebs: daakvirdiT, WurWeli, raSiac CvenSi

tkbils aduReben, ra adgilas aris. igi Rrmad

Casmulia da gared haerzed ara sdgas. ratom?

sxvaTa Soris imitom, rom verc gareTi sicxe

Caatans miwas ise male da xelaRebiT, verc sicive.

miwa inaxavs qvevrs erTsa da imave siTbosigrileSi

da gareTi haeris cvlileba magodenad

ara swvdeba qvevrsa da aqedam tkbilsa, romelica

qvevrSi hduRs. ityvian, rom radganac qvevri

awowvilia, ese igi, maRali, amis gamo sxvadasxva

wels tkbilisas sxvadasxva siTbo-sigrile

eqmnebao: TavSi, miwis zedapirze axlos tkbili

erTs siTbo-sigrileSi mohyveba, qveda pirSi

sxvaSio. es cotad Tu bevrad marTalia, magram eg

imodena TabauTs ara iqms, rom xelCasakidebel

mizezad gaxdes qvevris dawunebisaTvis. gada-

151


metebul sicxes Znelad Tu Sexvdeba kaci,

radganac kai venaxis patrons mouxdeba Rvinis

daduReba an enkenisTTvis bolos an RvinobisTTvis

dasawyiss, roca magrerigad ara cxela da CvenSi

am xanebSi iSviaTia iseTi sicivec, rom miwa 10 0 -

zed nakleb siTbozed Camoaxdinos. saqme is aris,

rom am 10 0 da 15 0 -s SuaTanabari siTbo-sigrile

hqondes WurWels garSemo, _ da qvevrs, miwaSi

Cveneburad Cafluls, usaTuod es Tanabaroba

eqmneba, radganac, aki vambobT, cvlileba gareTis

haerisa miwas magrerigad ver Caatans xolme da

mis siTbo-sigriles egre advilad ver Sescvlis.

Tu kacma termometriT asinja miwis siTbosigrile

qvevris miwis Tavidam bolomde

sxvadasxva siRrmezed, ara gvgonia rom enkenisTTvis

dasasruls da RvinobisTTvis dasawyiss

termometrma 11 0 _12 0 -zed naklebi aCvenos da 15 0 -

zed meti, Tu Zalian iSviaTs weliwads ar

SevxvdebiT. CvenSi gadametebulis siTbosi ufro

hSinebiaT, rogorc etyoba, imitom rom kargi

damyenebeli Rvinisa TrTvils elis da mere

hkrefavs venaxsa. TrTvili dasawyisia sicivisa,

aqedam sCans gadametebulis sicxis SiSi ufro

hqoniaT. marTalia, es imiTac aixsneba, rom

TrTvili yurZnis marcvals hkumSavs, cotad

aWknobs da, amboben, mets wyals acliso, magram am

patara sikeTes ar anacvlebdnen im dids sikeTesa,

rac RvinosaTvis duRilia, Tu Tan imisi imedi ara

hqonodaT, rom enkenisTTvis bolos da RvinobisTTvis

dasawyiss duRilisaTvis meti sicxe

ufro safiqrebelia, vidre meti sicive. xSirad

asec aris, nametnavad kaxeTSi.

garda amisa, erTs rasmes kidev vityviT. vin ar

icis enkenisTTvis damlevs da RvinobisTTvis

dasawyiss dRis siTbo-sigrile ramodenad icvleba

RamRamobiT CvenSi. es cvlileba omdenad didia,

152


om yvela WurWels Seatans, haerzed mdgomares,

ase rom WurWels dRisiT rom 12 0 -s siTbos

scemdes, RamRamobiT 9 0 _da 10 0 _ siTbo dahkravs,

Tu ar kidev naklebi. esodeni cvlileba gana ar

imoqmedebs amgvars WurWelSi Rvinis duRilzed?

mere Sekruls sardafsa da maranSi xom wminda

haerisaTvis samuSavod sadme an fanjara, an kari

Ria hqondes, rom naxSirJangis buRma kaci ar

daarCos. aSkaraa, am metnaklebobas siTbosigrilisas

am SemTxvevaSi Znelad ram eSveleba da

WurWeli, raSiaca hduRs tkbili, dRisiT

mometebul siTboSi iqneba da RamiT naklebSi.

qvevrs ki amiT an sul ara dauSavdeba ra, an

Zalian cota ram, imitom rom miwaSia, da gareTis

haeris cvlileba ise advilad ver Caatans da,

maSasadame, ver Sescvlis miwis siTbo-sigrilesa.

Cvenis marnebis farRalalobas erTi sxva

sikeTe sWirs: amisTana marani uSiSia adamianisaTvis

da amas ar SeiZleba yuradReba ar mieqces.

daxuruls, yovelis mxriT Sekruls marans, Tu

sardafs, duRilis dros sifrTxile unda, Torem

SeiZleba kacic Seiwiros. roca tkbili dids

duRilSia da buybuyebs, maSin zemoT burcebs anu

qafs moigdebs. aqedam erTnairi buRi gamodis,

romelsac naxSirmJaves eZaxian mecnierni. es buRi

rom CaisunTqos kacma Zalian advilad dairCoba.

rom daxuruls da Sekruls maranSi, Tu sardafSi,

kacs es ar daemarTos duRilis dros, xSirad

unda amisTana sardafsa, Tu maranSi wminda haeri

amuSavos da atrialos, rom is buRi gavides da

wminda haeri Sevides. evropaSi amis asacdenelad

kargad damwvars kirsac hxmaroben: sardafsa Tu

maranSi, mohfenen xolme kirsa, da radganac

naxSirmJaves Zalian izidavs kiri, amitomac, ramodenadac

amodis duRilis gamo, imodenad kiri

sWams, Tu ese iTqmis.

153


Cveneburs kacs gamocdilebiT ucvnia es

viTareba duRilisa da rom meti jafa da

sifrTxile ar aekviatebina, samjobinarad daunaxavs

Ria marani, saca yovelTvis naxSirmJavesac

gamosavali aqvs da wminda haersac Sesavali; asaduReblad

saWiro siTbo-sigrilis TanabarobisaTvis

qvevri cotad Tu bevrad Rrmad Causvams

miwaSi da amasTanave aucilebeli saWiroeba Rvinis

keTebisa Tavis jibis metnaklebobisaTvis Seuferebia.

aq, rogorc vnaxeT, magrerigad arc mwvadi

iwvis da arc Samfuri.

154

XII XII

XII

tfilisi, 13 marti.

ra yurZenic gindaT aiRoT, misi wveni, mecnierTa

gamokvleviT, erTisa da imave nawevrebisagan

aris Semdgari, gansxvaveba marto nawevrebis metnaklebobaSia.

es nawevrebi arian 1) Saqari, romelsac

zogjer asSi ocdaaTi wili uWiravs, ese igi,

30% da 14%-ze naklebi ki ar varga rom iyos; 2)

azoti, romelic duRils hSvelis, 0,2% _ 0,8%;

3) peqtini da sxva webos momcemi nawevrebi; 4)

sxva nawevarebi, romelnic jer gamocnobilni ar

arian da romelnic Rvinos gemosa da suns aZleven;

5) organiuri simJaveni da marilebi _ tartarisa

da 6) uorganiuri: fosforis simJave, xlori kalciiT,

patasi, magnezia rkiniTa da Savi qviTa.

wveni yurZnisa, Tbil dReSi dakrefilisa,

dawurvilisa, TiTqmis maSinve mohyveba duRilsa da

erTis dRisa Tu dRenaxevris ganmavlobaSi hmatulobs

imisdagvarad, ramodena siTboa maranSi.

TviTon duRili aTbobs wvens zogjer reumuris

termometris 28 0 -dan, magram duRilma rom Tavis


igzed imuSavos, saWiroa wvenis siTbo 22 0 _ 23 0 -

mde mainc avides. Tu 29 0 -s gadascilda siTbo, ma-

Sin Saqris alkogolad gadaqcevas xeli eSleba da

TviT alkogolic cxare duRilSi naxSirmJaves

gasdevs. Saqris alkogolad gadaqcevaSia umTavresi

da upirvelesi mniSvneloba duRilisa.

duRilis xangrZlioba imazea damokidebuli, Tu

raodeni Saqari aqvs wvens da ramodenad Tbila,

amis gamo zogan didxans hduRs Rvinoebi. zogan

ara, ase rom sul naklebi oTxi dRea, da meti or

kviras Znelad gadascildeba. xani duRilisa orTa

Suad miRebulia rva dRidgan xuTmet dRemde. kaci

advilad Seatyobs, roca duRili gaTavdeba xolme.

duRilis gaTavebis Tavis drozed Setyobas Tavis

mniSvneloba aqvs da es mniSvneloba Cveneburma kacmac

icis, ise rogorc evropielma. jer TvaliTac

Seetyoba duRilis gaTaveba. raki buybuyi aRar

ismis da burcs, romelSiac naxSirmJavea, aRar

ikeTebs wveni, didi duRili gaTavebulia. yuri ki

rom daadoT qvevris pirs, anu “Cans”, romelSiac

evropielebi tkbils adureben, Signidam mainc

SiSini mogesmis. es patara duRilia. TandaTan es

SiSinic ufro nakleb da nakleb ismis da bolos

srulad miswydeba. amis Semdeg, WaWa zeviT wamova

da Tavzed ise magrad Seikvris, rom ketiT

gasarRvevi gaxdeba xolme. amas rogorc CvenSi,

isec safrangeTSi, quds eZaxian. rogorc CvenSi,

isec safrangeTSi am qudsa stexen da daureven.

duRili xelaxlad Tavs iCens. am duRilSi zemod

moqceuli WaWa da Txle TandaTan Zirs Cadis da

Rvino iwmindeba. amasobaSi Rvinos siTbo TandaTan

akldeba ase, rom Sig RvinoSi oTxi-xuTi gradusi

siTboRaa meti gareTis haeris siTboze. yvelazed

utyuari maCvenebeli misi, rom duRili gaTavda

erTi niSania: ramdenadac Saqari alkogolad

iqceva, imdenad sisqe (плотностъ) Rvinisa hklebu-

155


lobs da Txeldeba. es kleba sisqisa duRilis

klebis maCvenebelia; amisaTvis erTnairi iaraRi

aqvT evropielebs, romelsac “areometrs” eZaxian,

_ amas CauSveben RvinoSi da Tu 12-is saaTis

ganmavlobaSi cvlileba ara aCvena ra, utyuari

sabuTia duRilis gaTavebisa. marTalia, Cven am

iaraRs ara vxmarobT da sasurvelia, rom

xmarebaSi Semovides, _ magdonadac Zviri ar aris

da advili mosaxmarebelia, _ xolo aqedam is ar

gamodis, rom raki magas ara vxmarobT, arc is

viciT, rom duRilis gaTavebas Tavis drozed

Setyoba unda da SetyobisaTvis cotad Tu bevrad

gzac ar vicodeT.

am qudis gatexis da darevis Semdeg Rvino dasawmendad

miiqceva xolme. Cveneburi kaci TviTon

Rvinis bunebas miendoba xolme am SemTxvevaSiac da

dawmendisaTvis arafers wamals ara hxmarobs. raki

WaWa-Txle Zirs wava da Tan Caitans RvinoSi gauxsnel

nawevarebsac, Semdeg amisa Rvinos simJave akldeba,

eZleva suni, da maSin ityvian, Rvino dadga,

maWari daRvinovdao. raki Rvino am donemde mivida

maSinve unda gadaiRon, nametnavad Tu WaWa da

klerti micemuli aqvs, imitom rom WaWa da klerti

amis Semdeg swyens Rvinosa da aRarafersa

hSvelis.

CvenSi amas yurs ar aTxoveben xolme, imitom

ki ara, viTomc ar icodnen, rom WaWa da Txle

dawmendis mermed swyins Rvinosa, Tu xani dascalda,

aramed imitom, rom CvenSi axlad dawmendils

Rvinos muStari uCndeba TiTqmis maSinve

da amis lodinSi Cveneburi gaWirvebuli kaci ara

hCqarobs Rvinis gadaRebas, miT ufro, rom WaWa-

Txlezed Rvino ufro gemoiani, sunnelovani da

wmindaa xolme da muStars advilad moawonebs

Tavsa. amitomac imis magier, rom giorgobisTTveSi

gadaiRos Rvino da xelaxlad ucados imis daw-

156


mendas muStrisaTvis, igi didxans Txle-WaWazed

inaxavs Rvinos, da Tu moucda lodini, mainc Tebervals

da marts aRar gadaacilebs da gadaiRebs

xolme. mets Znelad Tu vinme ayovnebs, imitom

rom, Tu gadaRebaSi siTbom moaswro, SesaZloa

Rvinom xelaxlad duRili daiwyos da am gvians

duRils Rvinis waxdena mosdevs. es CvenSiac ise

kargad ician, rogorc evropaSi, da amitomac, minam

siciveebi gava, Rvinos usaTuod gadaiReben xolme.

raki Rvino gadaRebisaTvis mzad Seiqmneba, am

dRidam Rvinis dayeneba Tavdeba da iwyeba Tadarigi

Rvinis Senaxvisa.

XIII

XIII

tfilisi, 17 marti

Rvinis SenaxvisaTvis yvelazed uwinares

saWiroa, rom TviTon yurZnis wvensa hqondes unari

gamZleobisa bunebiT dayolili. CvenSiac da

evropaSiac es Zalian kargad ician. aqac da iqac

isic Zalian kargad ician, rom gamZleoba buneburis

Rvinisa sxvasxva wamlebzed ki ar aris

damokidebuli, aramed imazed, Tu ra juris

yurZenis wvenia Rvinod gardaqmnili da ra miwazea

gaCenili TviTon yurZeni. CvenSi, magaliTebr, miRebulia,

rom rqawiTeli, mwvane, romelTac xSirad

ferisaTvis mcvivanas ureven, an mcvivanis yurZnis

WaWazed aduReben, TeTrs gamZle Rvinos iZleva,

agredve wiTels gamZle Rvinos – wminda, Seureveli

saferavi. es kidev sakmao ar aris, rom

Rvinis gamZleobis imedi iqonios kacma. didi saqmea

isic, Tu romels da ra Tvisebis miwazea moyvanili

yurZeni. Tu rqawiTeli, mwvane an saferavi

mZime, Rrmad mosaxnav Tixian miwazea, _ amaTi wveni

157


ufro gamZle Rvinos iZleva, vidre igive yurZeni

qviSians miwazed mosuli, es CvenSiac ise kargad

ician, rogorc evropaSi. amitomac tyuili cdaa, _

yovel juris da miwis yurZnis Rvinos gamZleoba

mianiWon, Tu ar sxvadasxva wamlebiT, da maSin

bunebur Rvinozed xom xeli unda aiRon.

Cven Rvinoebs swamoben, rom gamZleoba ara

aqvso, male hfuWdebao. es bevrSi marTalia, magram

es ucodinarobis brali ki ar aris, aramed imisi,

rom ufro bevri Rvino CvenSi im miwis venaxebisaa

da im juris yurZnisa, romelnic bunebiTad gamZle

Rvinos ar iZlevian, Tu raime wamlebiT ar Seazave

da am gziT adre da male ar gaafuWe, ese igi,

buneburi Rvino wamlebiT nakeTeb Rvinod ar

gardahqmen. Cven rom vsTqviT, gauZleoba Cvenis

Rvinisa bevrSi marTaliao, imitoma vsTqviT, rom

zogSi marTali ar aris. CvenSiac aris gamZle

Tvisebis Rvino, saca jura yurZnisa da Tviseba

miwisa amas xels umarTavs da Seswevs. ara erTi

da ori venaxis patronia CvenSi, romelsac ucdia,

rva, aTi da meti weliwadic Seunaxavs Rvino, da

unaxavs, rom mis Rvinos gauZlia didxans da am

gaZlebaSi ufro gakeTebula yvelafriT. amisi

magaliTi ara erTi da ori yofila da aris CvenSi

dResac. ratom yvela Rvino ar aris amisTanao, _

amis Tqma, da imisi, ratom yvela kaci bismarki ar

ariso _ erTi da igivea. ufro Wkuas axloa kacma

es ikiTxos: Tu egrea, ratom didi xniT Sesanaxavad

Rvinos sulac ar ayenebeno sabazrod? imitom

rom sarfa ar aris, radganac, rac dReisamde

bazaria CvenSi, siZvires amgvaris Rvinisas ver

aitans da arc muStari hyavs.

aba aiReT, magaliTad, Semdegi angariSi. Sevinaxe

da gamovayene, vsTqvaT, aTis wlis Rvino ricxviT

oTxasi Tungi, ese igi erTi kaxuri uremi; imisTana

Rvino, romelic Sesanaxavad gamodgeba, cotad Tu

158


evrad kargi Tavi Rvino unda iyos; amisTana

Rvinos, sul cota rom vsTqvaT, ormoc Tumnad

gahyidiT adgilobriv, axlobaSive, ese igi, boTls

erTs abazad. vinaxe es Rvino aTi weliwadi, jer

martivi sargebeli, Tund eqvsi rom viangariSoT,

aTs weliwadSi ormoc Tumanzed ocdaoTxs Tuman

Seadgens; aRaras vityviT rTuls sargebelzed,

romelic Tavns TiTqmis uswordeba rva weliwadSi,

ese igi aTs weliwadzed adre. jer am gziT aTs

weliwads ukan igi erTi uremi Rvino samocdaoTx

Tumnad unda damijdes. axla amisi movla am aTs

weliwadSi, Rvinis dakleba gadawmend-gadmowmendaSi,

xarji, WurWelis daxafreba, WurWelis

recxva da sxva amisTana, erTs amodenas Tu ar

mets esec Seadgens da am saxiT aTs weliwads Semdeg

Cemi ormocTumniani Rvino ass Tumnad mizis

da Tu boTli adgilobrivve aTs Saurad mainc ar

gavyide, me verc Cems gasamjelosRa aviReb,

romelsac am SemTxvevaSi mTels aTs weliwadSi

sul Tormet Tumans vangariSob, verc sargebels

da Tavnzedac ZlivZlivobiT gamoval. aba erTi

ikiTxeT: romeli suleli iqneba, dRevandeli

ormocTumniani Rvino aTi weliwadi inaxos, rom

ass Tumnad daujdes da, maSasadame ass Tumnadac

rom gahyidos, TiTqmis ara moigos ra. Tund

amisTana suleli iyos vinme, axla amas aRar

ikiTxavT: sad aris amisTana Rvinis msyidveli?

maSin, rodesac Cveneburi bazari amav Rvinos

axlobaSive boTls erT abazad hyidulobs

alagobriv da Tu TviTon aTs Saurzed nakleb gahyida,

hzaralobs kidec, _ imedia gana TviTon es

bazari aTs Saurad boTls iyidda alagobriv? aT

Saurad alagobriv nayidi boTli xom manaTnaxevrad

unda gahyidos, an sul cota _ manaTad mainc, rom

gamorComa hnaxos rame. vin aris CvenSi am Zviris

Rvinis msmeli? erTi oriode kaci, isic sagangebod

159


da ara sayoveldReod. suleloba da ugunurobaa

oriode kaczed gaangariSebuli, daimedebuli,

saero mrewveloba rame, magaliTebr amisTana,

rogorc CvenSi Rvinis mrewveloba aris. an ra

Wkuaa, _ kacma aTis wlis Rvino svas mamasisxlad

sasyidi da axlobaSive sasiamovno da gacilebiT

iefs Rvinos ki Tavi daanebos! es ueWveli

Sormxedveloba aqvs Cveneburs Rvinis mkeTebelsa,

marto Cveneburs bazarzed dRevandlamde damokidebuls

da Rvinos ise akeTebs, rom male iyos

sasiamovnod sasmeli, radganac aq CvenSi Rvinos

TiTqmis mTeli eri svams da amis gamo did xans

dgomas ar hsaWiroebs, male, TiTqmis meore mosavlamdeve

hsaRdeba. mTeli Cveni Rvinis vaWroba am

winad danaxuls azrzea agebuli da amitomac arc

erTs sirajs, arc erTs vaWars Rvinisas imisi

samzadisi ara aqvs, rom Rvino mis sardafSi ori,

sami da oTxi weliwadi inaxebodes. raki amdens

xans Rvino gausyidavi ar daurCeba _ ra xelsayrelia

amisTana samzadisi?

am bolos xanebSi Cveneburma Rvinom fexi Sedga

ruseTis bazarSi. es garemoeba, rasakvirvelia,

Rvinis gamZleobis Tavdarigs gaaZlierebs CvenSi,

radganac im siSorezed gadatanas Rvinisas exlandelzed

mometebuli gamZleoba unda hqondes

da vaWroba Rvinisac iq, saca, rogorc ruseTSi,

Rvinos marto SeZlebuli kaci svams, unda

imedovnebdes, rom daxanebuli Rvino imis sardafSi

ar gafuWdeba gauZleobis gamo. nurvin ifiqrebs,

rom am Tavdarigs ver Seudgeba Cveneburi kaci

uvicobis, ucodinarobis gamo. Rvinis xeli am

SemTxvevisaTvisac Zalian kargad icis Cveneburma

kacma da Tu Camouvardeba evropiels raSime,

marto imaSi, rom margebelis Rvinis wamlobiT

sawamlavad gardaqmna gamZleobisaTvis ar icis da

madli RmerTsac, rom egrea.

160


am saxiT gabedviT davarwmunebT yvelas, rom

Tu Cveneburs kacs buneburis Rvinis Senaxva hsurs

did xans, Zalian kargad icis, rom jer TviTon

Rvino unda airCios Sesaferis juris yurZnisa da

im venaxisa, romlis miwa am unars aZlevs yurZnis

wvens bunebiTad. amas garda isic icis, am Sem-

TxvevaSi ra gziT aris saWiro xelis Sewyoba, da

isic icis, bunebur ZalTa Rvinisas ra gaubrundebs

xolme gzasa da ra uSlis maTs Tavisufal moqmedebasa

Rvinis gasamZleod, am codnas gamoiyenebs

kidec, Tu dainaxavs sarfas, _ am erTaderTs

saekonomio sanatrels yovelis mrewvelobisas.

XIV

XIV

tfilisi, 18 marti

Cven is dagvaviwyda gveTqva, rom CvenSi,

rogorc evropaSiac, ornairi duRili ician

Rvinisa, da radganac es Tavis adgilas ar

movixsenieT, bodiSs vixdiT, rom xelaxlad am

saganzed CamovagdebT saubarsa. erTnairi duRili

daxurulia da meore – axdili. CvenSi daxuruls

duRils misdeven ufro alaznis marjvena mxares,

nametnavad siRnaRis mazris soflebSi, da axdils

ki – ufro gaRma mxareSi, alaznis marcxena mxaris

adgilebSi. saca daxuruli duRilia, iq raki

Tavis zomis WaWas miscemen “tkbilsa”, qvevris

yelSi jvaredinad joxebs gasWeden sakmaod

xSirad, rom, Tu vinicobaa WaWam duRilis gamo

qudis gasakeTeblad Zalian amoiwios, qvevrs

sarqveli ar axados da ar amovides. agre

gawyobils qvevrs daxurven sarqvels da miwas

miayrian. duRilisagan amomxdars buRsa,

magaliTebr naxSirmJavisas, am gziT gamosavali

aqvs imodenad sakmao, rom Sig ar hgubdeba da

161


gareTis haeris mikarebas ki am gziT cota ar iyos

dabrkoleba eZleva, radganac daxurulis duRilis

erTi mizezi es aris, sxvaTa Soris. axdilis

duRilisaTvis ki sarqvels xSirad ara hxuraven,

da Tu hxuraven, miwas aRar ayrian, ase rom

tkbili zeze hduRs da zogjer mduRari tkbili

qvevris napirebzedac gadmova xolme. roca tkbili

didis duRilis Semdeg ukan Caiwevs, joxebs

qvevris yelSi maSin ukeTeben, mas Semdeg dahxurven

da miwas miayrian. rva-cxra dRis Semdeg WaWa

zeviT amova, miebjineba joxebs da quds ikeTebs. am

quds, minam gastexen da daureven, jer zemo pirs

moswmenden didis gulmodginebiT iqamde, vidre

mSrals WaWas mTlad ar amoiReben da svelzed ar

davlen, da amis Semdeg daureven. amas amitom

Svrebian, rom simSralisagan damJavebuli da

ZmarSeparuli WaWa, WaWisa da Rvinis WuWyi ar

Caayolon. Rvino, rasakvirvelia, darevis Semdeg

kidev cota wamohduRdeba, WaWa TandaTan Zirs wava

da TxlesTan erTad daiZireba. ama xani unda da am

xanis gavlis Semdeg ki axdian qvevrsa, da Tu

qvevrs wipwa ram, anu prke, anu raime qafi zed

mougdia, amas yovels bejiTad amoswmenden, da Tu

aburculi yurZnis marcvlis kania, amas ki

xelaxlad dasresen xeliT da tkbils miscemen.

mere gadavsebis Tavdarigs Seudgebian, gadavsebaSi

dids sifrTxiles hxmaroben, rom erTierTmaneTis

feris, simagris da gemos Rvino miuyenon. xSirad

srulad gavsebas qvevrisas dromde aqac eridebian,

radganac ician, rom Rvino Cums duRils didxans

ar moiSlis da eSiniaT an Rvinom ar amoiwios da

ar gadmovides qvevridama, an qvevri ar gaxeTqos

dautevrobisagan, Tu sxva gza ara aqvs. evropaSi

daxuruls duRils, _ mxolod imodenad ki daxuruls,

rom duRilis buRs gamosavali hqondes, _

amjobineben. Tu CvenSi zogan axdili duRilia, es

162


uvicobas ar unda miaweron, radganac Cvenc viciT

daxuruli duRili, da Tu zogan ar mivsdevT

amnairs duRilsa da zogan mivdevT, raime pativsadebi

mizezi unda iyos, an adgilzed, an havazed,

an sxva razedme damokidebuli. Cveneburni mecnierni,

imis magier, rom xelaRebiT mCvarSi

gvxveven, isa jobia am mizezis gamoZiebas Sesdgomodnen.

iqneba amiT sacodneli Rirsi ram amoeCinad

da imaTTvisac kargi iqneboda da CvenTvisac.

exla gadavideT, Rvinis gamZleobisaTvis ra

Ronea CvenSi miRebuli. winadac vsTqviT, _

CvenSiac, rogorc sxvagan, yvelam kargad icis, rom

gamZleobis unari, Tu TviTon Rvinos ara aqvs

bunebisagan Tandayolili, uwamlod amisi aCena

SeuZlebelia. eseca vsTqviT, rom aris CvenSi

imisTana juri yurZnisa da imisTana adgilis

Rvino, romelsac es unari bunebiTad Tandayolili

aqvs. romelic Rvinis mowamvlas erideba da marto

bunebur Rvinozea miqceuli, rogorc CvenSi, iman

Zalian kargad icis romeli yurZnis wveni gamZle

Rvinos iZleva da romeli adgili, da ragvarad

kacma xeli unda Seuwyos, rom es gamZleobis

unari Rvinisa ar daixSos. Cveneburma kacma Zalian

kargad icis, rom amisaTvis marto erTaderTi

Ronea _ imdenjer wmindad gadaReba Rvinisa, vidre

Rvino leqis keTebas ar moiSlis. amis Sesatyobrad

ai ra aris saWiro: roca qvevrSi, Tu

boWkaSi, Txle-WaWidam gadaiReben dawmendils

Rvinos, maSin erTi boTli Rvino unda amoiRos

kacma, kargad daucvas da amav qvevris Tu boWkis

adgilas dasdgas. drogamoSvebiT inaxulos es

boTli, da roca hnaxavs, rom Rvinos leqi gauke-

Tebia boTlSi, usaTuod qvevrsa da boWkaSiac

leqs gaikeTebda. qvevrisaTvis es iseTi zedmiwevnili

niSani ar aris, rogorc boWkisaTvis,

imitom rom qvevri, radganac miwaSia, da boTli

163


zeze haerzed, garemoeba erTisa da meorisa

sxvadasxva aris siTbo-sicivis da sinaTlis

sxvadasxvaobis gamo. amitomac SesaZloa, rom

qvevrma ufro gvian gaikeTos leqi, vidre boTlma.

aq marto dros metnakleboba iTamaSebs da amas

gamocdileba aucileblad daaswavlis kacs,

romeli ikeTebs adre Tu gvian leqsa. am saxiT,

raki boTlSi Rvinom leqi gaikeTa, maSinve unda

gadaiRon, da ese moiqcnen, vidre ukanasknelad

gadaRebuli Rvino boTlSi leqs aRar gaikeTebs.

leqi aRar eqmnebao rom vsTqviT, eg metismeti

mogvivida, imitom rom, am gziT Zalian kargad

gamoyenebuli Rvinoc ki, Tu Zalian didxans

Seinaxa boTlSi, mainc leqs gaikeTebs Tavis

drozed, magram kargad gamoyenebulis Rvinis leqi

erTs larzed anu xazzed keTdeba da garSemo

kedlebs boTlisas ar gaekvris xolme, rogor es

gamoyenebulma Rvinom icis. Rvinos zemoxsenebulis

gziT gamoyenebas xuTi da eqvsi weliwadi undeba,

da am xanSi leqis gakeTebis umalve gadaReba da

gadawmenda usaTuod saWiroa, Tu gsurT, rom

Rvino gamZle iyos.

raki ese mouareT xuTisa Tu eqvsis wlis

ganmavlobaSi Rvinosa, mere ki boWkebidam Tu

qvevrebidam Rvino boTlebSi unda Caisxas da gangeb

arCeulis probkiT daicvas magrad. boTlebis

dawveniT Senaxvas ufro hrCeoben evropielni,

radganac am gziT probka yovelTvis svelia, da Tu

gaSra ki, rogorc ayenebuls boTls mosdis,

Rvinis suni advilad gzas ipovis gamosasvlelad.

Tu amrigad dawvenilma boTlma garSemo kedlebzedac

leqi moikida, es imisi niSania, rom aCqarebulan

da kargad gamoyenebuli Rvino ar

CausxamT. ucodinarni ki swored am kedlebzed

gakrul leqiT styuvdebian da uvicobis gamo

iZaxian:Laba, kargad gamomdgari Rvino es ariso.

164


sul sxvaa Tu boTlma leqi gaikeTa marto im

mxriv, romelzedac dawvenilia da marto am mxris

erTis xazis gayolebaze; maSin iTqmis, rom Rvino

kargad gamoyenebuli CausxamT boTlSi. marTalia,

am gziT Rvinos gamZleoba eZleva da rac xani

gadis, ufro da ufro keTdeba, xolo xans

Rvinisas, mis gamZleobas, Tavisi sazRvari aqvs, da

Tu Rvino am sazRvars gadascilda, ekargeba Tavisi

gemo, Rirseba da fasi.

Cven Cvens mecadineobas boTlebSi gadaRebamde

ara vWimavT, imitom rom saxeSi ara gvyavs, visTvis

da risTvis avikviatoT amodena davidaraba da vaivaglaxi.

Cven Rvinis qvevrSi Senaxvis iqiT aRar

mivdivarT, radganac Cvenis exlandelis bazris

mixedviT _ eg meti cieb-cxelebaa. aba utkivars

Tavs gangeb vin aitkiebs marto cariel

saxelisaTvis, nametnavad imisTana saqmeSi, saca

saxelTan erTad gamorComis imedic amoqmedebs

kacsa, rogorc magaliTebr yovels saekonomio

moRvaweobaSi saerTod da RvinisaSi sakuTriv.

XV

tfilisi, 19 marti

Cven wina werilSi vsTqviT, rom Cveni Tavdaragi

Rvinis gamZleobis Taobazed qvevrSi Rvinis

Senaxvis iqiT aRar midis. radganac Cveni qvevri

metad aTvalwunebulia CvenTa mecnierTagan, amitomac

meti ar iqneba qvevris avkargianoba am mxri-

Tac SeZlebisamebr gamoviZioT. jer yvelazed

uwinares qvevris sikeTisaTvis saWiroa kargi

Tixisa iyos da kargad gamomwvari. amitomac Cveneburi

kaci vidre qvevrs iyiddes, jer gamoikiTxavs,

ra adgilis Tixisaa da sad aris gamomwvari. yve-

165


lam icis, sad da ra adgilis qvevria kargi. amas

didis gulmodginebiT eZieben da amisaTvis fassac

ki ara hzogaven. qvevrs Tu ar Cahkirven, ise ar

Casdgmen miwaSi, visac ki weli misdevs. exla ki

zogan SeuZleblobis gamo am xarjs aRar ewevian

da es SeuZlebelnic survils imodenad ar sWimven,

rom Rvinis sikeTiT Tavi viCinoTo. kargs qvevrs,

kargad Cakiruls da miwaSi Cadgmuls, rac unda

kargi iyos, erTi didi wuni mainc aqvs da aqvs. es

didi wuni Cvenis qvevrisa is aris, rom arc

gamosaSvebi mili mouxerdeba, arc isea miwaSi

Cadgmuli, rom sifoniT Rbinis gadaReba SeiZlebodes

erTi qvevridam meoreSi, radganac sifoniT

gadaRebisas erTi qvevri maRla unda idges da

meore dabla. sadamdinac dabla mdgomi maRla

mdgomsa swvdeba, swored im xazamde gadmova sifoniT

Rvino maRalidam dabla da meti erTi cvaric

ar gadmohyveba. amitomac saWiroa, rom erTis

qvevris Ziri meore qvevris pirTan erTs larzed

movides, rom sifoniT SesaZlo iyos mTlad

gadaReba Rvinisa qvevridam qvevrSi. radganac Cveni

qvevrebi erTs mwkrivzea xolme Casmuli miwaSi, da

radganac miwaSia, verc mosaSvebi mili gaukeT-deba,

_ da amave dros jer sxva Rvinis amosaRebi

manqana * SemoRebul ar aris,_ amitom Cveneburi

kaci iZulebulia xeliT da CafiT gadiRos Rvino.

erTic da meorec male amRvrevs Rvinosa, didxansac

undeba kaci. garda amisa, rom amnairs gada-

Rebas ufro meti xarji da dro unda, amnairi gadaReba

Zaliana hlaxavs Rvinos, is efirebi da nawevarebi,

romelic sasiamovno da Rirebuls suns

aZlevs, ecleba da ekargeba, nametnavad Tu CafiT

* exla amisTana manqana aris Turme mogonili. Cven ar gvinaxavs, da amboben

ki, Zalian kargi ariso, Txlemde ise amoaqvs Rvino, rom srulebiT ar

amRvrevso. erTs daubarebia es manqana evropidam da ocdaToTxmeti Tumani

dasjdomia.

166


amoRebuls Rvinos RarebSi asxmen da ise miuSveben

qvevrSi. haeridamac Rvino mavnebels nawevarebs da

mtvers Caiyolebs xolme: Rvino metad azizi ram

aris da yovel amas mis sikeTezed moqmedeba aqvs.

iqneba bevrma ar icodes da CvenSi qvevris am

naklzed ara erTi da ori dafiqrebula: cdac ki

iyo am naklis mosaSoreblad. CvenSi iyo erTi T.

gurgeniZe, romelic hcdilobda es nakli qvevrisa

rogorme aecilebina, da amas aq imitom vixseniebT,

rom mis azrs am saganzed Tavisi sabuTi aqvs da

adviladac Sesasrulebelia. gansvenebuli T.

gurgeniZe im azrs daadga, rom Cveneburi marani

sxvarigad unda aigos. igi ambobda, marani sam kibed

mainc unda CaiTxaroso, anu uked vsTqvaT,

marans sami didi baqani (terassa) unda gaukeTdeso

imodenad erTimeorezed maRali, ramodenic qvevrs

simaRle aqvs, ase rom Sua baqanis qvevris piri zemo

baqanis qvevris ZirTan modiodes da qvemo baqanisa

Sua baqanis qvevris ZirTan. orTa Sua simaRle

qvevrisa rom viqonioT saxeSi, klavmaRla gaWimulad

awvdil kacis simaRlezed meti ar gamova,

anu, uked vsTqvaT, ori gazandris adli. maSasadame,

TviTo baqnis simaRles moundeba ori adli

da sams eqvsi adli. TviTeuls baqans, rasakvirvelia,

imodena didi moedani unda hqondes, rom

qvevri Tavisuflad Caidgas da CaTxril gverdidam

imodena siganis miwa SehrCes, ramodenadac cvlilebas

gareTis haerisas gauZlebs da ar Seiyoliebs.

es CaTxrili gverdia marto aq saSiSi, vai

Tu aman ver gauZlos gareTis haeris cvlilebas,

Sesaferi urCoba ver gauwios, cvlileba haerisa

qvevrsac miswvdes da erTis gverdidam qvevrs

erTis zomis siTbo-sicivem Seatanos da sxva gverdebidam

sxva zomisam. maSin qvevrs Tavisi umTavresi

mniSvneloba daekargeba, saxeldobr, isa, rom

ise pirdapir miwaSi Cadgmuls Tanabari siTbo-

167


sicive artyia garsa, _ zafxulSi RvinisaTvis

sakmaod grili, zamTarSi sakmaod Tbili, gareTs

haers Tu SeadarebT, _ da es Rvinis gamZleobisaTvis

didi ram aris. am mxriT, gvgonia, moevlebodes

ram T. gurgeniZis azrsa, da Tu moevleba,

T. gurgeniZis azri metismetad sayuradReboa da

mCvarSi gasaxvevi ar aris. amnairad agebuls maran-

Si sifoni Zalian kargad imuSavebs Rvinis gadasa-

Rebad da dids SeRavaTs da xeirsac aCvenebs amis-

Tana marnis patrons. miT ufro, rom sifoni metismetad

iefia da advilad saxmari.

Cveneburs qvevrs erTs sxva wunsac sdeben Cveni

mecnierni: miwidam wyalsa da nests swovso da

RvinoSi Seaqvso. es marTalia, Tu qvevri kargad

Cakiruli ar aris da amasTan kargis Tixisa da

kargad gamomwvari. es aris mizezi, rom roca zogierTs

qvevrs cotad moakleb, isev ramdenisame

xnis Semdeg aivseba xolme, Tu nametnavad maransa

hrwyven. es mateba zogs qvevris sikeTed miaCnia,

madliani, dalocvili qvevria da TviTon hmatulobso,

da imas ki ara hfiqroben, rom es utyuari

niSania qvevris uvargisobisa: an cudis Tixisaa, an

cudad gamomwvaria, an cudad Cakiruli.

168

XVI

XVI

tfilisi, 20 marti.

garda imisa, rac wina werilSi movixsenieT,

sxva ra wuni aqvs Cveneburs qvevrsa? araferi, Tu

kargad arCeulia, kargad movlili da napatronebi.

jer erTi isa, rom TiTqmis qvad qceulia da

boWkasaviT Rvinos im erTgvars nawevars ara

hmatebs, rac muxis ficarsa aqvs da Rvinos

zogjer metad mwklarts gemos aZlevs. es kidev


araferi, radganac xSirad ar moxdeba xolme,

nametnavad Tu Rvino Zalian didxans ara hrCeba

boWkaSi da Tavis drozea gadaRebuli boTlebSi;

Tu ara da boWkaSi Zalian didxans nadgoms Rvinos

raRac kupris msgavsi (дегтярной вкус) gemo eZleva.

Rvino rom kargad Seinaxebodes WurWelSi,

minam boTlSi gadasaRebi gaxdeba amisaTvis saWiroa

arc metismets nestians adgilas idges, arc

metismets mSrals adgilas. boWka radganac zezea,

verc nestisagan Seinaxavs Tavs, verc simSralisagan,

roca an svelobaa, an golva. nestisagan

boWkas obi ekideba, wel-sartymeli wneli ulpeba,

hwydeba da xSirad ise moulodneladac da anazdeulad,

rom Rvinos daRvrisagan verc ki gadaar-

Cenen xolme. es xSirad moxdeba xolme gazafxulsa

da Semodgomaze, roca dRe da Rame

erTmaneTs uswordeba. roca golvaa da mSraloba,

maSin boWka Zalian iSrobs Rvinosa, ase, rom

asormocdaaTs Tungzed Svid-rva boTls iklebs

TTveSi, maSin rodesac zomierd nestianobaSi ki

marto orsa, da Tu gasWirda sams boTlsa. amis

gamo, Tu mSralobaa, boWkas TTveSi oTxjer da

xuTjerac gadavseba unda, da Tu zomieri

nestianobaa _ orjel maincdamainc.

Rvino iTxovs, rom misi WurWeli, raSiac

sdgas, dids sicxesac mocilebuli iyos da dids

sicivesac, da maincdamainc iseTs garemoebaSi iyos,

swrafad cvla gareTis haeris siTbo-sicivisa ver

miswvdes.

mzis sxivis sinaTle ar unda swvdebodes

WurWelsa, imitom rom mzis sxivi aTbobs da

Rvinos afuWebs. yovels amas iseTi WurWeli,

romelic boWkasaviT zeze unda idges, verasgziT

ver aicilebs.

Rvinom rom Tavi daiWiros, saWiroa 10 0 -zed

naklebi da 12 0 -zed meti siTbo ar erCodes. zeze

169


mdgomels WurWels, romelsac haeri axvevia

yovelis mxriT, aucileblad xan meti siTbo eqneba

da xan naklebi imisda mixedviT, ra siTbo-sicivea

gareTs haerSi. maincdamainc Tanabreoba, siTbosicivis

zomis igiveoba aucilebels saWiroebas

Seadgens Rvinis kargad SenaxvisaTvis.

rasakvirvelia, Tumca boWkas amodena

gansacdeli sdevs, magram wamalica aqvs. radganac

boWka imisTana WurWelia, rom arc erTs

zemoxsenebuls gansacdels TviTon ver uZlebs da

evropaSi esgvari WurWeli TiTqmis yvelgan

xmarebulia, amitomac iq, rac WurWels aklia, imas

TviTon marans, anu sardafs mosTxoven xolme. Cven

ar gamovudgebiT imis aRweras, Tu rogors marans,

an sardafs aSeneben. CvenTvis amJamad sakmaoa

marto isa vsTqvaT, rom sardafs, anu marans, im

windaxedulobiT akeTeben, rom saWiro siTbosicivis

zomac, sinaTlisa, Tu nest-mSralobisa, _

roca undaT, _ im donezed daayenon xolme, ra

donesac dro da haeris cvlileba moiTxovs. am

saxiT iq marans, anu sardafs, akeTeben im windaxedulobiT,

rom Rvinis WurWeli xsenebuls

gansacdelebs moaSoron, da Cven ki TviTon Wur-

Wels Rvinisas vayenebT im mdgomareobaSi, romelzedac

im gansacdelebs xeli ar miuwvdebaT.

Cveni kargi qvevri, imiT, rom TiTqmis

qvadqceul Tixisaa da miwaSi hzis swored, _ im

samsaxurs gviwevs, rasac kargi sardafi, anu

marani evropiels. aba yoveli zemoxsenebuli

gansacdeli CamosTvaleT da Cvenebur qvevriT

Senaxvas Rvinisas zed miayeneT, Tu yovels amaSi

Cvenma qvevrma Tavi ar daiWiros, ar imarTlos da

boWkazed meti sikeTec sarTad ar daamatos, jer

imiT, rom qvevriT gawyobili marani gacilebiT

iefia, vidre evropiuli marani, romelic imdenad

ufro Zviria, ramodenadac bevri gansacdelia win

170


dasanaxavi boWkis gamo. meore isa, rom Cveni qvevri

ar iSrobs Rvinosa da boWka ki, rac unda kargad

gakeTebuli da Zvirfasi marani iyos, usaTuod

SeiSrobs da TTveSi ukanasknelad orjel mainc

gadavsebas hsaWiroebs. mesame isa, rom qvevri

mTels saukunoebsa sZlebs da boWka ki ara. esec

didi angariSia saekonomio saqmeSi. erTi es aris,

rom qvevridam Rvinis amoReba ufro xarjiania,

ufro cotad Tu bevrad sazaraloa, rogorc

zemoT vsTqviT, xolo igive qvevri, rogorc Rvinis

saduRari da Sesanaxi QWurWeli, Cvenis fiqriT,

Tu ara sjobia boWkas, araferSi ara Camouvardeba.

rogor inaxavs Tanabrad siTbo-sicives Cveni

qvevri _ es xom winadac vsTqviT, roca duRilzed

vlaparakobdiT. isic vsTqviT, rom miwiT mWidrod

garSemortymuli da sakmaod Rrmad miwaSi Camjdari

qvevri zamTarSi imodena siTboSia, rac

saWiroa, da zafxulSiac sakmao sigrileSia,

radganac miwa zamTarSi gareTs haerzed bevrad

Tbilia da zafxulSi bevrad grili, da Znelad

erTsac da meore SemTxvevaSiac siTbo 10 0 -zed

naklebi da 12 0 -zed meti eqneba, nametnavad CvenSi.

sinestec gadametebuli ara aqvs BCvenSi miwas. aq

CvenSi metismeti simSrale ufro safiqrebelia,

vidre sineste, da roca es aris, maransa hrwyven

xolme. mzis sxivi xom veras gziT ver miekareba

miwaSi Cadgmuls qvevrsa, da Cvena gvgonia, es

sibnele, raSiac qvevri imyofeba, iqneba swyindes

kidec Rvinos da erTi wunic qvevrisa SesaZloa es

garemoebac iyos.

am saxiT erTi da igive saWiroeba Rvinis

SenaxvisaTvis Cvenganac imodenad cnobilia,

ramodenadac evropaSi, da imodenadve dakmayofilebulia,

xolo sxvadasxva gziT ki. iq marans

akeTeben imisTanas, rom Rvinis WurWeli gansacdels

moaridon, Cven ki TviTon WurWels imis-

171


Tanas vakeTebT da ise vinaxavT, rom umarnodac ara

gansacdeli ar erCodes.

172

XVII XVII

XVII

tfilisi, 23 marti

rac dRevandlamde werilebi iyo dabeWdili,

imiTi vaTavebT bunebur Rvinis keTebazed saubars.

rasakvirvelia, Cven aq yvelaferi ver CamovTvaleT,

rac CvenSi bunebur Rvinis keTebis rTuls saqmes

Seadgens. am rTulis saqmis yovelis codna TviTon

xalxSi unda moiZebnos, da davarwmunebT, rom

CvenSi bevrs imisTana kacs ipovian, romelnic amis

Sesaxeb bevrs rasme aswavlian Cvens mecnierebs,

bevrs imisTanas, rac gagonebiTac ar gaugoniaT da

friad gamosayeni ki aris. es dawvrilebiT da

ukeTesis codniT aRwera Cveneburad Rvinis

keTebisa Cvenzed ufro mcodne kacs unda daeTmos,

da Cven ki amJamad sakmaod davinaxeT gveCvenebina

mkiTxvelisaTvis marto is umTavresi moqmedebani

Rvinis keTebisa, movlisa da Senaxvisa, romelic

aSkara magaliTi da sabuTia imisa, rom, rac

bunebur RvinisaTvis saWiroa, Cvenc imodenad

viciT, ramodenac evropielTa. gansxvaveba Tu rame-

Sia, marto imaSia, rom iqneba isini ufro saswrafos

da xerxians Ronesa hxmaroben, da Cven ufro

gviansa da uxerxuls erTsa da imave saWiroebisaTvis,

xolo orsave Rones erTsa da imave

sagnamde mihyavs. rkinis gziT momavali qalaqs da

urmiT, orniv qalaqSi Camovlen. erTi male da

gauWirveblad, meore gvian da gaWirvebiT, magram

pirveli amis gamo ver ukiJinebs, Sen ar ici sad

moxvidodio. esec ar unda daviviwyoT, rom rkinis

gza xom kai gzaa, magram tfilisidam, vsTqvaT,

lilomde aravin gaiyvans, imitom rom xarji meti


iqneba mogebazed da aravin dagvZraxavs: “daxe, ra

ucodinarni arian! maSin, rodesac evropaSi rkinis

gzebi ician, aq ki amisi gagebac ara aqvT, auRiaT

da tfilisidam lilomde urmiT dadiano”. yvelas

Tavisi mizezi aqvs, Rvinis keTebis saqmes Tavisi,

da didad pativsadebica, imitom, rom Rvinis saqmis

mizezni saekonomio mizezni arian da, maSasadame,

iseTnive garduvalni, rogorc TviTon bunebis

moTxovnilebani. Cven iqneba bevrs raSime vcdebodeT,

radganac Cveni codna Cveneburad Rvinis keTebisa

Zalian fexmoklea im codnasTan, rac TviTon

Cvenma xalxma icis. amaSi Cven aravis avuxirdebiT.

xolo mTeli es Cveni gZeli saubari marto imazea

miqceuli, rom zogierTs umTavress moqmedebas

CvenSi Rvinis keTebisas, Cvenis SeZlebisamebr,

mizezi avuxseniT da sabuTi vupoveT da vecadeniT

dagvemtkicebina, rom arc erTi da arc meore

uvicobisagan ar aris warmomdgari. piriqiT, rac

saWiroa buneburis RvinisaTvis, Cven igi yoveli

gvcodnia, radganac Cveneburs TviTveuls moqmedebas

iq mivyevarT, saca midian evropielni, roca

buneburis Rvinis dayeneba hsurT. da Tu am svlaSi

raime metnaklebobaa Cvensa da maT Soris, eg im

rTul garemoebaTa bralia, romelTa krebulic

xSirad codnas ukan ayenebs da gamorComisaTvis

aTmobinebs adgilsa. eseTi Zala aqvs saekonomio

Zalasa.

davamtkiceT Cven yovelive es Tu ara, eg

mkiTxvelis saqmea, da Cven ki mxolod amas

vikmarebT, Tu Cvengan axsnili mizezni da sabuTni

imdenad yuradRebis Rirsni aRmoCndebian, rom kacma

zurgi ar Seuqcios da angariSi gauwios, roca

Cveneburad Rvinis keTebis avkargianobazed

hlaparakoben. Cveni drtvinva da Civili marto is

aris, rom mizezTa da sabuTTa gaCxrekasa da

gamorkvevazed ar aris damyarebuli CvenTa wunmde-

173


elTa wuni. es metismeti kadnierebaa mTelis eris

winaSe, nametnavad, roca erisagan SeTvisebuls da

warmoebuls saqmes mTelis aTasis wlis istoria

aqvs da, maSasadame, mTelis saukunoebis gamocdileba

win udevs. Cven ar vityviT, rom amisTana

SemTxvevaSi xangrZlioba yovelTvis simarTles

moaswavebdes, magram imodenad pativsadebi kia

cnobieris kacisagan, rom ganurCevlad, gamouZieblad

uaryofas iucxovebs da ukadrisobad

CasTvlis.

174

XV XVIII XV

III

tfilisi, 24 marti.

rac Seexeba adamianis ostatobiTa da xeliT

bunebur Rvinis gardaqmnasa, anu yalbis Rvinis

Seqmnas, romelsa Cveni mecnierni mainc keTebas

eZaxian, amaSi ki, unda gamovstydeT, evropielni

uangariSo manZilzed Cvenzed win arian. rac

dRevandlamde mecnierebas am sagnis gamo

aRmouCenia, sul yoveli xelTa aqvT evropielT

ostatebsa. Tumca am TiTqmis yovlad SemZlebelma

mecnierebam didi Zal-Rone mihmadla yalbis Rvinis

ostatebs, magram amav piruTvnelma mecnierebam

gamoaqveyna sayovelTavod yovelive eSmakoba, rac

ki buneburs Rvinos, _ am margebels da sasiamovnos

sasmels adamianisas, _ hryvnis, afuWebs da

xSirad sneulebis mizezad da zogjer sawamlavadaca

hxdis.

vidre amis ganxilvas SevudgebodeT, saWiroa

yvelazed uwinares erTs azrs, araerTxel

gamoTqmuls CvenSi, pasuxi gavceT. miT ufro

angariSSi mosatania es azri, rom igi SigniT

tyuilia da Tvalad ki marTalsa hgavs. am azrs

Zalian eWidebian ostaturis Rvinis keTebis


momxreni. igini amboben: marto umecari Tu ityvis,

rom qveyanazed buneburi Rvinoao, gana buneba

Rvinosa hqmniso? aq rac aris, kacia da imisi

ostatoba da xelio! kaci rom ar iyos, gana buneba

Rvinos Sehqmniso? aba magaliTi gviCvenono, sad

akeTebs buneba Rvinosao?

am xuTmet weliwadis win venaSi Rvinis keTebis

Taobazed gamovida germanuls enazed erTi patara

wigni b-n berSisa. igi swored amasve ambobs, TiTqo

Cvenebur mecnierTaTTvis yuri moukravs, amaTgan

usesxnia igi zemodmoyvanili azri, da TuTiyuSsaviT

imeorebso, _ ise saocrada hgavs imis

naTqvami Cvenis mecnierebis naTqvamsa. b-ni berSi

ambobs:

“yvelazed Zlieri da Tvalad gamWre xmali, romelic

xelSi uWiravT Rvinis ostaturad keTebis mopirdapireTa,

erTi yvelasagan cnobili frazaa: “ yovelive, rasac ki

bunebur RvinoSi Caumateb, siyalbea, da sasmeli am saxiT

Serevnili, Rvino ki aRar aris, nakeTi sasmelia, janmrTelobisaTvis

mavnebelio”, xolo eseTi azri uRonoa im

sabuTis winaSe, rom egredwodebuli “buneburi Rvino”

sulac ar arsebobs; rom rogorc gamomcxvari puri, isec

Rvino bunebis namoqmedari ar aris”.

cota amas qvemod ase ganagrZobs:

“yurZeni, Tavis anabarobazed migdebuli, Tavis dReSi ar

gardaqmnila Rvinod, swored ise, rogorc xorbali

TavisTavad ar qceula Tavis dReSi fqvilad da purad”.

yovelive es metismeti marTalia, magram

tyuilia marto aqedam gamonaskuli azri. aqao da

xorbali TavisTavad fqvilad ara qceula, gana

aqedam is gamodis, rom fqvilSi kiris gareva

Zalian kargia, an RvinoSi anwlisa? ra aris

fqvili? igiv bunebis namoqmedari xorbalia,

fxvnilad qceuli adamianisagan. ra ari Rvino?

igiv bunebis namoqmedari wvenia yurZnisa, sxva

saxed qceuli misisave Tandayolilis bunebis

ZalTagan, romelsac kacma marto Tavis nebisa da

175


survilisamebr mimarTuleba misca da romelTac

marto xeli Seuwyo. roca kaci ityvis: es fqvili

buneburia, amiT imisi Tqma unda, rom aq fqvilis

xorblis meti ara aris ra. roca kaci ambobs: es

Rvino buneburia, es imas niSnavs, rom aq yurZnis

wvenis meti sxva ara aris ra. ese rom ar iyos da

b-n berSis azrs avyveT, maSin gafcqvnili da

daWrili vaSlic bunebis namoqmedari ar iqneba,

radganac vaSli, Tavis anabarobazed datovebuli,

Tavis dReSi ar gaifcqvneba da ar daiWreba im

saxiT mainc, rogorc amas kaci izams xolme.

Tumca b-ni berSi aseTi Tavgamodebuli momxrea

Rvinis ostaturad keTebisa, magram isic ki Tavs

iWers da marto sams nivTierebas hxadis

Sesawynareblad da marto am sams nivTierebazed

ambobs, rom mxolod eseni SeiZleba Caematos

Rvinis gabevrebisa da sikeTisaTviso, _ saxeldobr:

wyali, Saqari da Seurevneli, gadawmendili

WaWisa Tu Rvinis arayio (spirti). amis Camatebas

igi imiT amarTlebs, rom es nivTierebani TviT

bunebiTa aqvs miniWebuli yurZnis wvensa, Tu

Rvinosa, da amitomac maTi Camateba bunebis garyvna

ar ariso.

“gana sul erTi ar ariso, _ ambobs igi, - yurZnis

wvenis Saqari TviTon yurZenma gaikeTa, Tu Saqris lerwamma

da Warxalma, radganac wvenis duRilSi erTic da meorec

erTsa da imave sagans iZlevao. am saxiTve gana sul erTi ar

aris, alkogoli Rvinisa im Saqridam warmosdga, romelic

yurZensa aqvs, Tu kartofilis Saqridamao. mTelis qveynis

qimikosebi ver gamoicnoben, alkogoli yurZnis Saqrisagan

aris warmomdgari, Tu gangeb Camatebulis Saqrisagana. amas

ver gamoicnoben, imitom rom araviTari gansxvaveba ar

ariso’’.

jer TviTon am sityvebidam sCans, rom b-ni

berSi ki hTakilobs, Znelad hbedavs, Cvenebur

Rvinis Serevnasa, da radganac guli mainc Rvinis

Serevnisaken miuwevs da igiv guli amave dros

176


ogorRac eTanaRreba, Tavs imiT marTlulobs,

rom wyali, Saqari, alkogoli, TviTon bunebiT

dayolili Tvisebaa yurZnis wvenisa Tu Rvinisa da

amiTi Camateba bunebis winaaRmdegi ar unda iyoso;

roca, magaliTebr, amindma xeli ar Seuwyo, yur-

Zeni ar moawia da wveni mJanea, maSin sCanso, ambobs

igi, rom bunebam ver moaswro Sesaferis sitkbos

micema, da rac bunebam daaklo, is Cven rom

CavumatoT _ eg bunebis garyvna ki ar iqneba, naklis

Sevseba iqnebao. wyals, rasakvirvelia, marto

Rvinis gabevrebisaTvis hxmaroben, Saqarsac amisaTvisac

da alkogolis SeqmnisaTvis, da gadawmendils

arays simagrisaTvis da ufro xSirad gam-

ZleobisaTvis.

ai is Tavgamodebulni momxrenic im ostatobisa,

romelnic marto amaebs ureven yurZnis wven-

Si, razedac afuZneben TavianTs azrsa da riT mar-

Tluloben Tavsa. Semdeg werilebSi jer am TviTveuls

Sesarevs cal-calke gavarCevT da mere imas,

rasac sxva ostatebi hxmaroben metis yalbobisaTvis.

XIX IX

tfilisi, 27 marti

xelTnaqmaris, anu ostatobiT namoqmedaris

RvinisaTvis ramdensame Rones xmaroben evropielni.

erTi im RoneTagan imazea miqceuli, rom cota

Rvino gaaebevron, ese igi erTsa da imave yurZnisagan

rac SeiZleba bevri wveni daayenon da Rvinod

aqcion. sxva Roneebs ki saxeSi marto isaa aqvT,

rom Rvinis nakli gangeb Seavson da miT ganakargon.

Rvinis gabevrebisaTvis dRes aqamomde evropaSi

cnobilia EerTaderTi Rone, erTaderTi sistema

177


omelsac petiotizacia eZaxian. es sistema, anu

Rone, moigona da pirvelad ixmara burgundiaSi

1854 wels erTma frangma, saxelad petiom (Petiot).

es sakvirveli aRmonaCeni, romlis gamo b-nma

petiom saqveynod saxeli gaiTqva, miT ufro

sakvirveli, rom aTadam-babadamve Turme aRmoCenili

yofila da aris. mere sada da visgan? Turme Tu

ityviT, saqarTveloSi da qarTvelTagan, magram

radganac amas “RoniaSvilizacia”, anu “qandara-

Svilizacia” ara hqvian, amitomac yuri aravis

uTxovebia. petiom ki aRmoCenilis aRmoCeniTa

qveyanaSi saxeli moipova. Cven amiTi imisi Tqma ar

gvinda, rom petiom Cveni ram miiTvisa da Tavisis

saxeliT gamoamJRavna. Cvena gvwams, rom igi

TavisTavad mixvda, man TavisTavad miagno imas, rac

CvenSi didi xania mignebuli iyo da aris dResac,

da iqneba Cveni mignebuli ramdenisame saukunis

xnisac iyos da evropam ki marto 1854 wels

miagno.

razed aris dafuZnebuli petios aRmonaCeni?

imazed rom WaWaSi imodena Rvinis nawevrebi rCeba

kidev, rom SesaZloa RvinisaTvis wveni kidev

gamoiwuros wurviT ki ara, wylis dasxmiTa da Tu

wyals SaqriTac SeazavebT da carielis wylis

magier Saqarwyals daasxamT, ufro kargi iqneba.

rasakvirvelia, yvela es zomiTi da sawyaoTi unda.

wylis dasxma WaWazed Cvenc Zalian kargad viciT.

zomac viciT ramdenic unda. isic viciT, rom

wyaldasxmuli WaWa duRilsac daiwyebs, Tumca

Zalian sustad. balRs ver ipovi CvenSi, rom am

gziT Rvinis gabevreba ar icodes da amisTana

Rvinis saxeli ar giTxras. amas CvenSi “Samans”

eZaxian da mdabio xalxi, muSa svams.

petio marto cariels wyalsa ara sjerdeba.

igi Saqarsac umatebs da imdenad atkbilebs

wyalsa, ramodenadac tkbilia marTali wveni

178


yurZnisa. am gziT erTsa da imave WaWisagan samjeroTxjer

gamoxdis xolme im wvens, romelsac

safrangeTSi “pikets” eZaxian da CvenSi ki

“Samansa”. petiom xelaxlad aRmoCena, rom ar

dagvaswros ukve CvenSi aRmoCenilisa, aq saWiroa

vsTqvaT, rom igi marto Savis yurZnis WaWisagan

hxdis Tavis “pikets”. sjobia Cven davaswroT da

gamovacxadoT, rom CvenSi TeTris yurZnis

WaWisaganac Samans akeTeben da amas iqiT Tu

aRmoCena unda Cvens mecnierebs, esec aRmoaCinon.

axla vikiTxoT ra gansxvavebaa Cvensa da

petios Soris? isa, rom petio wyals Saqarsac

uSvreba da Cven ki ara. saTave, safuZveli ki

orsave moqmedebas erTi da igive aqvs. organve

erTi da igive dedaazria, saxeldobr igi, rom

WaWisagan wylis dasxmiT kidev SesaZloa Rvinis

msgavsi ram sasmeli dadges. ratom ara vxmarobT

amisaTvis Cven Saqarsa, rogorc petio, da marto

wyalsa vjerdebiT? nuTu imisaTvis viTom,

Cveneburma kacma ar icodes gatkbilebuli wyali

ufro kargad aaduRebs da kargs Samans daayenebs?

amis ucodinarobaSi balRsac ver daiWerT CvenSi.

Zalian kargad viciT, mag dRemde mainca, vin giJi

iqneboda Samanzed exmara is; rac xilad da

wamladac ki sanatreli hqonda. es erTi, meore:

visTvis unda gaewia es didi xarji Saqrisa? gana

CvenSi dResac ki an erTi vaWari Rvinisa fexs

Seadgams im maranSi, saca SaqarwyliT Rvinos

akeTeben? an visac gindaT uCveneT petios Samani,

auxseniT ra gziT aris nakeTebi, da Tumca yvelani

amtkiceben, rom SaqarwyliT nakeTebi Samani

mSvenieris gemosi, sunisa da magaric ariso, magram

ara gvgonia, sasyidlad axlo gauaros vinmem.

gamoCenili qimikosi safrangeTisa Jirari,

romelic pariJis qalaqis laboratoriis ufrosia,

ambobs, rom Tumca petios sasmels simagreca aqvs,

179


sunic da gamZlec ariso, da Tumca Rvinosaca

hgavso, magram Rvino ki ar ariso. safrangeTSi

akrZalulia, rom eg petios Samani vaWrebma Rvinos

saxeliT hyidon, Torem yalbobad da muStaris

motyuebad CamoerTmevaT.

mecnierni petenkoferi, forsteri da hilgeri

amtkiceben, rom petios SamanSi bevri Saqari hrCeba

gauxsneli, alkogolad argadaqceuli. Saqari

imisTana Tvisebisaa Turme, rom mTlad Seewoveba

adamianis agebulebas sxvadasxva, duRiliT

aragadaqmnil nawevrebTan erTad, grovdeba maTTan

erTadve da agebulebidam arc Sardsa da arc

gamonavals ar gamosdevs. raki zomas gadadis,

gamosvlas hlamis, gzas eZebs, da saxsrebs

xelisas, muxlisas, fexisas miadgeba, da radganac

aq gza ara aqvs, simsivnesa da tkivils aCens.

amitomac hfiqroben, rom egreTwodebuli rusulad

“podagra” * am mizeziT mosdis kacsa amgvarad

nakeTeb Rvinoebisaganao. WkuasTan axloa es ambavi

“podagra” SeuniSnavT evropiul Rvinis msmel-

TaTvis, ara marto imaTTvis, vinc uzomada hsmen,

aramed imaTTvisac, visac zomierad yoveldRe,

magram xangrZlivad ki, evropiuli gangeb SaqriT

nakeTebi Rvinoebi usvams.

ra Tqma unda, rom Cven es “podagris” ambavi

ise garkveviT da zedmiwevniT ver avxseniT,

rogorc amas mkurnali iqmoda. xolo es ki ueWvelad

cnobilia, rom gangeb micemuli Saqari zogi

wili isev Saqrada hrCeba RvinoSi, gauxsneli,

garduqmneli, da amasTan sxva gauxsnel da garduqmnel

nawevrebTan erTad abraleben egreTwodebul

“podagrasa”. CvenSi ki, saca TiTqmis

* erTgvari simsivnea xelis, muxlisa, Tu fexis saxsrebisa da amis

mixedviT sxvadasxva saxelebica aqvs.

180


yvelani Rvinosa hsmen da xSirad bevrsaca, es

gvari sneuleba SemCneuli ar aris.

am saxiT, petiotizaciiT Rvinis gabevreba

CvenSiac scodniaT, magram Cven ufro uwyinari

sasmeli gvikeTebia mag gziT, vidre gamoCenils

petiosa, imitom rom Cvens Samans gangeb garedam

micemuli Saqari ar urevia. Tu swored gvkiTxavT

ki, Cveneburi Samanic da petios “piketic” oriv

RmerTma Seinaxos, orive yalbobad migvaCnia Tumca

Cven is simarTle migviZRvis, rom Samani Rvinis

saxeliT gared ar gamogvaqvs gasasyidad da aravis

vatyuebT.

XX

tfilisi, 28 marti

wyalsa da Saqars hxmaroben evropaSi sxvagvaradac

Rvinis gabevrebisaTvis. es rigi gabevrebisa

moigona ludvig gallma da amitomac am

rigs, anu sistemas eZaxian gallizacias. petios

sistema marto imazea miqceuli, rom erTisa da

imave zomis yurZnisagan rac SeiZleba blomad

wveni gamoxados Rvinis msgavs sasmelis dasayeneblad

da amisaTvis Saqris wyals WaWazed

asxams. gallis sistemas ki sxva saganica aqvs

saxeSi: amiT gabevrebasTan TviTon Rvinis

gankargebaca hsurs da imav wamalsa hxmarobs.

xolo gansxvaveba es aris, rom galli Saqarwyals

uSvreba TviTon yurZnis wvensa da ara WaWasa. igi

arafrad agdebs arc suns Rvinisas, arc sxvas mis

Tvisebasa, da marto imazeda hdgas, rom yurZnis

wvens marto erTi ram unda moeTxovebodeso, ese

igi is, rom bevri simJave ara hqondes da sakmao

Saqari ki usaTuodao. roca an erTi metia, an

181


meore naklebi, maSin cudi Rvino dadgebao da

amitomac saWiroa Saqarwyali Caematos yurZnis

wvensa; am gziT Rvino bevrdeba kideca da ukeTesic

dgebao.

gallis sistema ai ragvaria. vsTqvaT, rom

kargis Rvinis dasayeneblad saWiroa yurZnis wvens

asSi oci wili Saqari hqondes * da 1 / 2 wili

Tavisufali simJave. vsTqvaT, rom cudi weliwadi

Sexvda, yurZeni ver moiwia sakmaod da yurZnis

wvenSi aRmoCnda, rom ass wilSi marto aTi wili

Saqaria da mTeli erTi wili simJave. aviRoT

magaliTad erTi Tungi amisTana yurZnis wveni. ra

unda hqnas Rvinis damyenebelma? galli ambobs,

rom erTi Tungive Saqarwyali gaakeTeT, ise ki,

rom 70 wili wyali iyos da 30 Saqari; im erTs

Tungs yurZnis wvens daasxiT da erTmaneTSi

gadurieT; maSin erTis Tungis magier, romelsac

marto 10 wili Saqari hqonda da erTi wili

simJave, exla ori Tungi wveni geqnebaT da am

wvens 40 wili Saqari eqmneba da erTi wili

simJave. amgvarad TiTo TungSi ass wilzed mouva

20 wili Saqari da 1 / 2 wili simJave, ese igi

imdeni, rac magaliTisaTvis saWirod vigulisxmeT.

am saxiT Rvinoc erTiorad meti dagidgebaT da

arc iseTi mJave iqneba, rogorc uamisod.

Cvena gvgonia, rom am gziT kvrinCxis wvenic

SesaZloa Rvinod gardiqces, Tuki axirdebian da

Rvinos daarqmeven. aki eseca hSvrebian evropaSi:

yovelgvar xilisagan, romelsac ki Saqari cotad

mainca aqvs, Rvinos akeTeben; magaliTebr,

apelsinisa, kriJovniki da smarodinis wvenisagan

aseTs Rvinoebs ayeneben, rom Cveneburi mecnierni

* Saqris raodenobis Sesatyoblad erTi iaraRia mogonili evropaSi,

romelsac sawyaos Saqrisas eZaxian; amisTana iaraRi bevrgvaria da ufro

cnobilia babosi da heksleisa.

182


usaTuod aRtacebaSi movlen, Tu jer ar modian.

b-ni berSi da misis moZRvrebis mimdevarni dagvi-

Jineben da ityvian: radganac yurZnis wvenisagan

TavisTavad Rvino ara keTdeba bunebaSi kacis

Seuwevnelad, yurZnis wveni rom ar iyos da

kriJovnikisa iyos, ra uSavso!

davaneboT am sasacilo sabuTs Tavi da isev

gallis sistemiT Rvinis gabevrebasa da

gankargebazed vilaparakoT. jer TviTon am sistemis

saxelovani momgoni b-ni galli TiTqmis

araviTars mniSvnelobas ar aZlevs im jer

mecnierebis mier gamoucnobels eqstraqtuls

nawevrebs, uromlisodac, TviTon b-n berSis

sityviTac ki, ara Rvino ar gakeTdeba, ar Seiqmneba.

b-ns galls RvinoSi TiTqos sxva ara

daunaxavs ra, garda wylisa, Saqrisa da simJavisa.

igi ambobs, rom kargis Rvinis dasayeneblad

saWiroa yurZnis wvens as wilSi 24 wili Saqari

hqondes 1 / 2 wili simJave da 75 1 / 2 wyalio. sxva

nawevrebi? magaliTebr, nawevari cilasi, Rvinis

marili, Rvinisa da vaSlis simJave, sunis mimcemi

efirebi da is eqstraqtuli nawevarebi, uromlisodac

Rvino Rvino ar aris da raRac yalbi

xelTnaqmari sasmelia? vsTqvaT, galli am

nawevrebsac gulisxmobs, _ da am SerevniT ra

emarTeba im nawevrebs, romelnic Zvirfass Rirsebas

aZleven Rvinosa, amas b-ni galli ar dagidevT. mis

sistemiT erTi orad qceul RvinoSi, saca marto

Saqarwyalia Camatebuli, xom es nawevrebi erTi

orad naklebi iqneba, imitom, rom rac erTs Tungs

yurZnis wvensa hqonda, exla ors Tungze gaiyofa,

da, maSasadame, erTi orad naklebi sabuTi gveqneba,

mis Rvinos Rvino davarqvaT.

raki vambobT, amas b-ni galli ar dagidevT da

masTan erTad ar dagideven isinic, romelnic

marTalis Rvinis magier naxevar Saqarwyals da

183


naxevar yurZnis wvens asaReben; amas amboben, rom

es muStris motyueba ar aris, es siyalbe ar

ariso.

maS, aba erTi muStars, vinc unda iyos, es

uTxariT: wels metad mJave yurZeni iyo, Rvino

cudi dadgeboda. Cven aviReT da rac yurZnis wveni

iyo, imdeni Saqarwyali gavurieT, ase gavatkbileT

da ai, mSvenieri Rvinoa, iyideT; Tu asSi erTi

mogekarebaT, didi saqme iqneba.

am b-nis gallis momxreni Tumca amboben, rom

gallizaciiT gakeTebuli Rvino gemrielia da

kargio, magram mainc iZulebul arian sTqvan, rom

yvela Saqari uwyinar Rvinos akeTebso. usaTuod

yurZnis Saqari unda, Torem sxva, magaliTebr

kartofilisa, duRilSi metad mawyinars alkogols

iZleva da didad hvnebs adamianis agebulebasao;

TviTon Saqris lerwmis Saqris Taobazedac

ki gadaWriT ver iTqmis, rom uvnebelia,

roca RvinoSia Careuli.

184

XXI

XXI

tfilisi, 31 marti

Rvinis simagrisa da gamZleobisaTvis evropaSi

umateben alkogolsa, ese igi gadawmendils araysa.

amas eZaxian alkogolizacias. am alkogols ufro

maSin Caureven xolme maWarSi, roca pirveli didi

duRili gaTavdeba. gamoCenili da Rvinis

analizebSi avtoritetad cnobili qimikosi

bussengo ambobs, rom Tu Rvinos 18% alkogoli

aqvs, anu meti, igi bunebur Rvinod aRar

CaiTvlebao, imitom rom amodena alkogoliani

wveni yurZnisa duRilis unars hkargavs da wvenSi

namyofi Saqari alkogolad aRar gadadiso. igi


pirdapir ambobs, rom am simagris Rvino buneburi

ar ariso.

amisda miuxedavad, mainc evropaSi Rvinos

gadawmendils arays asxamen. amisaTvis, ra Tqma

unda, yovlad wminda araysa hxmaroben, imisTanas,

romelSiac alkogolisa da wylis meti sxva ara

aris ra; bazarSi rom gadawmendili arayi (spirti)

iyideba, amisaTvis bevrad gamosadegi ar aris,

radganac imodenad gadawmendili ar aris,

ramodenadac nazi buneba Rvinosi iTxovs. yvelazed

ukeTesi, WaWisa anu TviTon Rvinisagan gamoxdili

da gangeb gadawmendili arayia. Zalian iSviaTi

saSovaria amisTana arayi bazarSi, Tu gangeb

amisaTvis gadawmendili ar aris. magram rac unda

Zalian kargi arayi iSovoT amisaTvis, mainc gangeb

Camatebuli arayi Rvinos ufro axdens, vidre

akeTebs.

amis dasamtkiceblad ai ra mogvyavs. mecnier-

Tagan gamokvleulia, Tu arayi (spirti) Warbad

mieciT Rvinos, magaliTebr 5%_6%, Rvino maSinve

aireva, aimRvreva, rac unda wminda ankara Rvino

iyos, Rvino, romelic minamde ankarasaviT wminda

iyo, ZirSi leqs gaikeTebs da amasTanave fersac

icvlis. qimiurad rom kargad gamoiZioT es leqi,

hnaxavT rom is eqstraqtuli nawevarebi, uromlisodac

Rvino Rvino ar aris, Rvinodam gamosula,

gamoridebula da leqSi gamozidula.

cota arayi (spirti) rom CaumatoT Rvinos,

magaliTebr 2%_3%, maSinac egeve ambavi moxdeba,

mxolod im gansxvavebiT, rom pirvel xanSive ara.

pirvel xanSi Rvinos am SemTxvevaSi ara daetyoba

ra, arc aimRvreva, arc feri ecvleba. magram

ramdenisame TTvis Semdeg, anu erTis wlis mermed,

Tu qimiuri analizi moaxdineT, imav ambavs hnaxavT,

rac winad Tqmuls SemTxvevaSi. gamoCenilma da

saxelovanma qimikosma Sarl Jirarma bevrgvarad

185


scada zemoqmedeba arayisa Rvinozed. amisaTvis

aiRo burgundiis Rvino da 20 ivliss 1883 wels

analizi gaukeTa. analiziT aRmoCnda, rom am

Rvinos aqvs 19,24% is eqstraqtuli nawevari,

uromlisodac, vimeorebT, Rvino Rvinod ar

iTvleba TviT bunebur Rvinis uarmyofelTaganac.

es Rvino aiRo da Caasxa xuTs boTlSi. pirvels

boTls marto 1% wminda arayi (spirti) Caumata,

meores_2%, mesames_3%, meoTxes_4% da

mexuTes_5%. sams TTves Semdeg qimiuri analizi

gaukeTa sams boTls romelTSiac 1%, 3% da 5%

arayi iyo Camatebuli. RvinoSi, romelsac arayis

Camatebamde 19,24% eqstraqtuli nawevari hqonda,

es nawevari am zomisaRa aRmoCnda:

1% boTlSi _ 16,40% eqst. nawevari;

3% boTlSi _ 15,84% “ “ ,

5% boTlSi _ 15,80% “ “ ,

am saxiT gamovida, rom pirvelma TiTqmis sami

wili eqstraqtuli nawevari daiklo 19,24

wilidam, meorem da mesamem, cota metnaklebobiT,

oTx wilamde.

danarCens ors boTls analizi gaukeTa erTis

wlis Semdeg, da romels boTlsac 2% arayi

hqonda Camatebuli, iq marto 15,30% eqstraqtuli

nawevariRa aRmoCnda, da romels boTlsac 4%

arayi hqonda _ 14,30%. Jirarma ifiqra, iqneba

TviTon Rvinoc uarayodac TavisTavad ase icvleba

da aq arayi arafers SuaSiao. amisaTvis 20-s

ivliss 1884 wels wminda, Seurevel Rvinos

analizi gaukeTa da isev im zomis eqstraqtuli

nawevari aRmoCnda, ese igi ass nawilSi 19,24. es

ar ikmara frTxilma mecnierma. ocis TTvis Semdeg

kidev gaukeTa analizi Senaxuls boTls, romelsac

2% arayi hqonda Camatebuli da aRmoCnda, rom

eqstraqtulis nawevaris zoma buneburis Rvinisa

Camoxda 19,24-dam 12,76-mde. maSin ki sarwmuno

186


sabuTi mieca am ambebidam jerovani daskvna

gamoeyvana, da misda mixedviT Cven sarwmuno sabuTi

gvaqvs vsTqvaT, rom rac unda wminda arayi

CaumatoT Rvinos, Tund ass wilSi erTi, an ori

wili, Rvino amiT ki ara keTdeba, aramed, rac dro

gadis, ufro fuWdeba da fuWdeba.

safrangeTis mecnieri diuma ambobs, rom Warbad

micemuli arayi pirvelSive afuWebs Rvinosa;

zomierad da naklebad micemuli ki _ nel-nela,

TandaTan, droTa mimavlobaSio; rac unda cota

arayi miematos, ERvinos Tavis dReSi ara hrgebso

da adre iqneba Tu gvian, Zlier mavnebels

cvlilebas moaxdenso.

arman gotiec amave azrisaa. igi ambobs, _

rodesac Rvinos umateben gangeb araysa, wyalsa anu

sxvas rasme, Rvino xelmeored aduRdeba xolme da

am udroo duRilis gamo RvinoSi imisTana sxvadasxvagvari

wveni (жидкостъ) Cndeba, romelic

didad mawyinaria adamianis janmrTelobisaTvisao.

pariJis saeqimo akademiaSi daarsebulia senatis

komisia saxelovan mecnierTagan da am komisias

davalebuli aqvs gamoikvlios, rarigad moqmedobs

adamianis kargamyofobazed sxvadasxvagvarad Sezavebuli

Rvino. am komisiam didi xnis cdisa da

gamoZiebis Semdeg sTqva, rom evropiis Rvinoebi,

romelSiac ki ureven gadawmendils araysa

(spirtsa), imodenadve mawyinaria, im sneulebasve

uCens kacsa, rasac cudi, dabali, gauwmendavi

arayi, * imitom rom gadawmendili arayi afuWebs

RvinoSi imas, rac Zlier sasargeblo aris kacis

agebulebisaTvisao. mTelis safrangeTis, italiis,

vengriis da ispaniis Rvinoebi sul gafuWebulia

Rvinis mkeTebelTagan da amitom mawyinariao. es

aris mizezi, rom is kacic, romelic cuds,

gauwmendavs araysa svams, da isic, romelic am

187


evropiis Rvinoebsa hxmarobs sasmelad, erTisa da

imave seniT sneuldebiano.

188

XXII

XXII

tfilisi, 1 aprili

Cven gavsinjeT sami evropiuli sistema Rvinis

keTebisa anu uked vsTqvaT, Rvinis Sezavebisa

gangeb Camatebulis wyliT, SaqriT da alkogoliTa.

es sami sistema miT aris SesaniSnavi, rom

amis momxreni uarhyofen am SezavebiT Rvinis

bunebis gardaqmnasa im sabuTiT, rom wyali, Saqari

da alkogoli buneburi kuTvnilebaa Rvinisa, da

maSasadame, amaebis Camateba RvinisaTvis ucxo ramis

Camateba ar ariso. Cvena vnaxeT, yovelive es

ramodenad hvnebs TviTon Rvinosa da am cotad Tu

bevrad margebels sasmels es “buneburni kuTvnilebani

Rvinisa” ramodenad scvlian savneblad

adamianis janmrTelobisaTvis. am wyalsa, Saqarsa

da alkogolis garda kidev ramdeni sxva sagani da

nivTierebaa, romelTac evropielni hxmaroben

RvinoSi sxvadasxva azriT. Tu isinic ki, romelnic

“bunebur kuTvnilebad” arian cnobilni, axdenen

Rvinosa, _ raRa unda iTqvas im saganzed, romelnic

am buneburobasac moklebulni arian?

Cvena vsTqviT, rom gallizacia Saqarwyals

umatebs RvinoSi, Tu yurZnis wvens cota sitkbo

aqvs da bevri simJave. am SaqarwyliT Rvinos

sitkbo emateba da simJave Tumca imodenadve hrCeba

yurZnis wvenSi, magram sitkbos momatebiT simJave

Tavis Zalas aRar iCens. xolo aris meore

sistemac, romelsac saxeSi aqvs TviTon simJave

pirdapir daaklos, gamohzidos yurZnis wvenisagan.

am sistemas Saptalizacias eZaxian, radganac igi

moigona yofilma safrangeTis ministrma Saptalma.


am sistemazed gakvriT erTs wina werilSiac

movixsenieT, xolo aq patara vrclad vityviT.

ai raSi mdgomareobs es sistema: ra wamsac

saduRarad mohyrian yurZnis wvens, Sig Caayrian an

fxvnils TabaSirs (gipsi) an fxvnils marmarilos.

TabaSirs is Tviseba aqvs, rom wvenis duRilis

dros gaixsneba, amaduRebels nawevars gaauqmebs da

amis gamo Rvino male daiwmindeba xolme. es

sistema Zalian gavrcelebulia samxreTs safrangeTsa,

ispaniasa, italiaSi da sxvaganac. am

TabaSiris Camatebazed dafuZnebulia Saptalizaciac.

fxvnili marmarilo, Tu TabaSiri, izidavs,

isvams simJavesa, Zirs midis da ileqeba. xolo

imisaTvis, rom duRili ar dadges, Saptali

Saqarsac umatebs; Saqari aZlierebs duRils da

hmatebs Rvinos alkogolsa. am gziT TabaSirsa, Tu

marmarilos, ekargeba is Tviseba, romlis ZaliTac

duRils Seakavebs xolme da simJavis gamoklebis

TvisebaRa hrCeba. ai ra wuni sdevs am sistemasa.

rac unda TabaSirma, anu marmarilom, miizidos da

Seisvas simJave da mas mermed Zirs daileqos,

RvinoSi mainc hrCeba misgan sxvadasxva kireuli

nawevarebi, marilebi, an gaxsnili RvinoSi, an

mexanurad SeerTebuli, da es marilebi mawyinarni

arian, cuds gemos aZleven Rvinos da yovelive es

Zalian Zneli gamosaclelia Rvinisagan ** . amitomac

safrangeTSi iqaur samxedro saministrosagan

akrZalulia SaptalizaciiT nakeTebi Rvino

ixmaron samkurnaloebSi; Tu erTs litrs *** Rvino-

* visaca hsurs dawvrilebiT Seityos, ra didad mavnebelia adamianisaTvis

arayi sazogadod da dabalis xarisxisa sakuTrad. vurCevT waikiTxos

leqcia am saganzed bungesi, romelic fiziologiur qimiis profesoria

bazelSi. es leqcia am ukanasknel xanebSi daibeWda da rusuladac aris

Tarmnili.

** tardani, 178 gverdi.

*** litri _ franguli sawyaoa, Cveneburad TiTqmis or boTl naxevari.

189


Si es TabaSiri ors grammzed **** meti aRmoCnda,

amisTana Rvinos arc erTs samkurnaloSi ara

xmaroben. Saqris Camatebis ambavi xom viciT. yovelive

es rom saxeSi viqonioT, aSkarad davinaxavT,

ra sikeTesa sZens es Saptalizacia Rvinos.

190

XXIII

XXIII

tfilisi, 13 aprili

movawyineT Tavi Cvens mkiTxvelebs ase grZlad

laparakiT Rvinis Taobazed. magram raki amisTana

sayuradRebo saqmeSi SevtopeT, unda boloc

gavatanoT da rac saTqmeli gvaqvs, yovelive

vsTqvaT.

RvinoSi aris erTnairi nawevari, romelsac

gcilerini hqvian. es glicerini ise cotaa

RvinoSi, rom erTs boTlze erTi misxali Zlivs

modis xolme. radganac am glicerins, sxvaTa

Soris, is Tvisebaca aqvs, rom Rvinos gamZleobas

aZlevs, amitomac xSirad umateben xolme.

glicerini im zomiT, ra zomiTac buneburs

RvinoSia, srulebiT mawyinari ar aris, magram

boTls RvinoSi rom erTis misxalis magier xuTi

iyos, maSin adanians swyins da Sards aklebs, da

Tu aTsa da TerTmets misxals gadascilda, maSin

iqamde vnebs adamians, rom sisxlis Sardzedac

gaiyvans. magram radganac glicerini Turme

gamZleobas hmatebs Rvinosa, amitomac erTma

kacTmoyvare meafTeqem, SeamCnia ra es Tviseba

glicerinisa, daiwyo gliceriniT Rvinis Sezaveba

da keTeba. am vaJbatons Seeli erqva da amitomac

mis sistemas Seelizacia daerqva, raTa ka-

**** gramm = 1 /3 misxalsa.


cobriobas ar daviwyeboda Zvirfasi saxeli misi,

vinc Rvinis gamZleobis siyvaruliTa adamianis

mowamlvasac ar moerida. amboben, Tu glicerinTan

erTad alkogolic Camatebulia, maSin glicerini

ise ara swyenso da amitomac marto glicerinis

micema RvinoSi sastikad asakrZalveliao*.

garda amisa, aris kidev erTgvari mJave,

romelsac salicinis mJaves eZaxian. am mJaves

xmaroben Rvinis gamosakeTeblad da gasamZleod.

yofilma ministrma safrangeTisam tirardma

akrZala amisi xmareba, radganac metad mawyinarad

icna adamianis agebulebisaTvis, da es bZaneba

gamovida Tu ara bordoSi, imodena Rvino aRmoCnda

salicilis mJaviT nakeTebi, rom ministri

iZulebuli gaxda paemani daedva im Rvinoebis

gasasaReblad, Tumca mawyinarad cnobilni iyvnen.

aseTi Zlieri iyo drtvinva da RaRadi Rvinis

vaWrebisa, rom maTma jibis interesma sZlia

danarCenis eris janmrTelobis interessa. am

Seundobelma sisustem ministrisam Rone moaklo

misve kanons da salicilis mJaviT Rvinis

mkeTebels sastikad devna veRar dauwyes. zogierTi

sasamarTloebi amarTlebdnen kidec amaSi

damnaSavesa. xolo sahigieno komitetma safrangeTSi

scna silicilis mJavis xmareba uebar

sawamlavad adamianis agebulebisaTvis da pariJis

prefeqtma 23 Tebervals 1881 w. gamosca mTelis

pariJisaTvis savaldebulo bZaneba, rom silicilis

mJave ar iqmnas xmarebuli arc sasmelSi raSime,

arc xorageulobaSi.

raki alkogolis CamatebiT Rvinos simagres

hmateben da am simagres hmateben imisaTvis, rom

Rvinom wyalis dasxma aitanos, da am gziT erTi

orad iqces, Tqma ar unda, rom Rvino fers

* “enciklopedi saWmel-sasmlisa”, tomi I.

191


dahkargavs. am borotebas da siyalbes zed mosdevs

sxva siyalbe da boroteba, romelic imazea

miqceuli, rom dakarguli feri daubrunon

Rvinosa da siyalbe Tvalad SesamCnevi ar iyos.

amis gamo Rvinos gangeb feraven. Rvinis

dasaferavad bevrgvari wamlebia evropaSi cnobili.

yvelazed gavrcelebulia egreT wodebuli

fuqsiniaa. fuqsiniazed laparaki Cven wina

werilebSiaca gvqonda da aq meti iqneba ganmeoreba

misi, Tu ramodenad mavnebelia eg fuqsinia da

ramodenad Sesawynarebeli TviT sistema, romelic

gaTqmulia fuqsinizaciis saxeliTa.

Cven aRar gamovudgebiT sxva mravalgvars

mowamvlas Rvinisas. TiTqmis uTvalavia sxvadasxva

xerxi, sxvadasxva wamali, romlis wyalobiTac

evropaSi Rvinoebs swamlaven muStaris mosatyueblad

da mosawamlavad da gamorComas

anacvaleben eris janmrTelobas. Cven aq moviyvanT

pariJis samunicipalo laboratoriis gamokvlevas

am saganzed da iqidam davinaxavT, ramodenad

gavrcelebulia safrangeTSi, am Rvinis boRazSi,

arabuneburi Rvinis keTeba. am laboratoriaSi

gasinjuli iyo 133 WaSniki sxvadasxva Rvinosi * da

aRmoCnda, rom 130 WaSniki avis Tvisebisa iyo da

marto 3 kargisa. Jurnal “Yoltaire”-Si 1883 wlis 15

noembers gamocxadebulia amave laboratoriis

analizebi da ai, ra aRmoCenila: gausinjavT 650

WaSniki sxvadasxva Rvinoebisa, romelnic wardgenili

yofila laboratoriaSi da marto 60

aRmoCenila uwyinari. am analizebidam aRmoCnda,

rom 871 sxvadasxva xerxi uxmariaT yalbobisaTvis

da 281 SemTxvevaSi orjer gadauyalbebiaT erTi da

igive. es Rvinoebi oqtomberSi usinjavT,

* “Petit dictionnare des falsifications”, L. Doufur.

192


dekemberSiac amave laboratoriaSi warmoudgeniaT

821 WaSniki sxvadasxva Rvinosi da amaTSi

gauyalbebeli Rvino aRmoCenila marto 143 da

yalbobis sxvadasxva xerxi 968 dauTvliaT! aba ra

qmnas muStarma, roca ass sxvadasxva RvinoSi

marto aTi urevia marTali Rvino? zogi iqneba

isec mokvdes, rom Tavis sicocxleSi am aTs

SemTxvevaSi erTi SemTxvevac ar ergos marTalis

Rvinis syidvisa da iZulebulia Zalauneburad

svas yalbi da mawyinari Rvino da iwamlos nelnela

Tavi.

Cven amiT vaTavebT Rvinis keTebis Taobazed

laparaks da marto isRa dagvrCa, rom ganvuziaroT

mkiTxvels Cveni azri, ris gamoc saWirod

davinaxeT ase gZlad laparaki Rvinozed.

XXIV XIV

tfilisi, 15 aprili

rac rama vsTqviT Rvinis keTebis Taobazed, Tu

yovels imas gavixsenebT da gonebis Tvalwin

warmovidgenT, davinaxavT, rom Rvinis keTeba

orgvaria: erTi yalbis Rvinis keTeba da meore

buneburisa. buneburis Rvinis keTeba, igi xeli Tu

ostatobaa, romelsac sagnada aqvs marto wminda,

Seurevneli yurZnis wveni aqcios Rvinod da es

qceva daamyaros marto yurZnis wvenis bunebur

Tvisebazed. amgvars Rvinis mkeTebels marto

pirdapiri msmeli Rvinisa hyavs muStrad saxeSi da

pirdapiri msmeli yovelTvis wminda yurZnis wvenis

Rvinos irCevs, vidre gangeb wamlebiT Sezavabuls

da gakeTebuls, rac unda es ukanaskneli Tvalisa

da gemosaTvis ufro samacduro iyos pirvelzed.

ara gvgonia qveyanazed moipovebodes imisTana

193


msmeli Rvinisa, romelmac, raki darwmunebuli

iqneba, rom es Rvino wminda yurZnis wvenisaa, da

meore gangeb wamlebiT Sezavebuli, marTals

Rvinos ar daavlos xeli, rac unda yalbs Rvinozed

dabali iyos.

Cvena vnaxeT, rom marTalis Rvinis keTebisaTvis

CvenSiac igive codnaa, rac evropaSi, da

Tu amaSi cota ram metnaklebobaa, imodenad

RirsSesaniSnavi ara aris ra, rom kacma misda

mixedviT an erTi aqos, an meore daiwunos. Tqma ar

unda, rom didi bazari evropisa, saca marTals

evropuls Rvinoebs didi fasi aqvT, _ dids Rones

da SeZlebas aZlevs iqaurs mkeTebels marTalis

Rvinisas ufro mometebuli Sroma da xarji

gaswios, Rvinis keTebas ufro meti fuli moixmaros,

ufro ukeTesi iaraRi da WurWeli axmaros,

garemoeba ufro saxerxuli mouwyos, rom marTals

Rvinos mTeli Tavisi buneburi Tviseba da Rirseba

SearCinos rogorc sikeTisa, isec gamZleobisaTvis.

Tu am mxriT evropielni Cvenzed win arian, ese

igi, Tu am mxriT evropielni Cvenzed ukeTes Ronesa,

xerxsa da iaraRsa hxmaroben _ eg marto

saekonomio mizeziT aixsneba: iq dids xarjs keTebisas

didi fasi hfaravs da mogebasac aZlevs; Cven-

Si ki Cveneburi Rvino, marto Cvens Sinaurs viwrod

Semofargluls bazarSi momwyvdeuli, dids

xarjs keTebisas ver aitans da zaralis meti ara

gamova ra. amas unda mieweros zogierTi Cveni

uxerxuloba Rvinis keTebaSi da ara imas, viTom ar

vicodeT, ra gziT SesaZloa Rvinis kargad dayeneba

da keTeba. es erTi, meore mizezi, isev saekonomio

Tvisebisa is aris, rom CvenSi Rvino sayovelTavo

saxmari sasmelia: didi da patara, Raribi da mdidari,

Cveulia Rvinis smasa. amis gamo aq, CvenSi

Rvinis keTebis saekonomio angariSi ufro mravalTaTvis

unda iyos daWerili, vidre evropaSi,

194


saca Rvinos, nametnavad marTals, marto mdidari

kaci Tu svams da eRirseba. raki muStari Rvinisa

eris simravlea, maSasadame ara mdidari xalxi, _

Rvino, Tu iefi ar aris, unda hSiSobdes, rom

gausyidveli darCeba. rac unda didi vaWari iyos

Rvinisa, Znelad iqmneba, rom aTs urems iefis fasis

RvinosTan erTi uremi Zvirfasi Tavi Rvino

gaasaRos. Cvens bazarSi Zvirfas Tavs Rvinos mdidari

kacic Zliva hyavs muStrada da amisTana mdidari

bevri ar aris, da isic, rac aris, Zvirfas

Rvinos iSviaTad Tu hxmarobs iSviaTs SemTxvevaSi,

roca didi da gamosaCeni wveuleba aqvs. amis gamo

Cveneburma Rvinis keTebam marto imisTana Rones

Cahkida xeli marTalis Rvinis SeqmnisaTvis, romelic

Tumca xandisxan uxerxulia, magram iefia da

Zvirad ar ujdeba Rvinis mkeTebelsa. eg iefoba

xarjisa nebas aZlevs Rvinis mkeTebels iefad hyidos

Rvino imitom, rom am SemTxvevaSi marto muStris

simravlea Tavdebi, rom Rvino gausyidveli

ar darCeba. mTels evropaSi verc erTs adgils

ver gviCvenebT, rom wminda yurZnis wvenis Rvino,

Seurevneli da sxvadasxva wamlebiT ar Sedgenili,

ise iefi iyos, rogorc CvenSi.

exla Cvens Rvinos sxva bazaric exsneba. eg bazari

ruseTia. Cveni guliTadi rwmena es aris, rom

Cveni Rvinoebi am dids bazarSi fexs moikideben

Tu Cveni Zveleburi patiosani sagani Rvinis keTebisa

ar SevcvaleT. am bazarma guli unda daajeros,

rom Cveneburi Rvino marTali Rvinoa; rom

Cvens RvinoSi ara aris ra, garda yurZnis wvenisa.

Cveneburs Rvinis keTebas dRevandlamde amis meti

sxva sagani ara hqonia. Tu hsurT, rom ruseTis

bazarSi Cvenma Rvinom adgili daiWiros da evropuls

yalbs Rvinoebs ajobos da gza daaclevinos,

es marto imiT SesaZloa moxdes, rom gasamklaveblad

evropuls yalbs Rvinos Cveni marTali

195


Rvino pirSi wavuyenoT. aq Cveni gamarjveba ueWvelia

imitom, rom ar ari qveyanazed kaci, romelmac

marTali yalbs ar amjobinos, rac unda es

yalbi samacduro iyos. Cvens Rvinoebs sxva imedi

ar unda hqondes gauZlos evropul Rvinoebis cilobasa:

yalbis Rvinis keTebaSi Cven evropas ver

daveweviT, gaswrobas viRa ityvis. maSasadame,

erTiRa dagvrCenia: marTlis Rvinis keTebas nu

vuRalatebT; es raRac Saptalizaciebi, gallizaciebi

da sxva “ciebi” Sors Cvengan da Cvenis qveynis

gared, rogorc SigniTac, marto marTali Rvinoebi

gavitanoT bazarSi. evropam rom Rvinis keTebaSi

siyalbe aRar ixmaros da marto marTali Rvino

akeTos, es misi marTali Rvino meaTe nawilsac

ver gaswvdeba, maSasadame, Cvens marTals Rvinoebs

mazanda didi eqmneba da mocilec metad uRono

eyoleba marTalis Rvinis uqonlobis gamo.

radganac dRes saxelmwifo qonebaTa saministros

fiqrada aqvs, Cveneburis Rvinis keTebas

ukeTesi da ufro saxeiro gza misces da

warmatebaSi Seiyvanos, _ amas Sors wasvla ar

unda. amisaTvis, Cvenis fiqriT, marto ori ram

aris saWiro: 1) azri da sagani Cveneburis Rvinis

keTebisa arasgziT ar Seicvalos, ese igi buneburis

Rvinis keTebas araviTari siyalbe ar

Seeparos, da radganac am azrisa da sagnis gansaxorcieleblad

bevri kargi sxvadasxva Rone da

saxsaria CvenSi Tu gared, am Ronisa da saxsris

codnisa da daxmarebisaTvis sami skola mainc

gaimarTos: erTi kaxeTSi, meore qarTlSi da mesame

imereTSi; 2) kanonad daidvas, rom Tu RvinoSi

garda yurZnis wvenisa raimea gareuli, an

gasabevreblad, an dasawmendad, an gasamagreblad, an

saferavad, an gasamZleod, Rvinis gamsyidavi meduqne

movale iyos Rvinis WurWelzed, _ boTli

iqneba, Tu boWka, _ daaweros, rom es Rvino ama da

196


am nawevariT Sezavebuliao. es kanoni germaniaSi

moqmedobs da ruseTSiac miRebuli rom iyos, dids

Semweobas miscems Cveneburs Rvinosa.

Cven aq, rasakvirvelia, marto xelsamZRvani

azri aRvniSneT, igi azri, romelic, Cvenis fiqriT,

safuZvlad unda daedos kanons Rvinis Taobazed,

Tu hsurT, rom Sinaurma Rvinom gza gaikafos

ruseTis bazrisaken da igi auarebeli fuli Sin,

ruseTSive dahrCes, romelic evropuls yalbs da

mawyinars Rvinoebzed exarjeba dResa, da amasTan

uwyinari Rvinoc svas xalxma. am xelsamZRvano

azrs bevri sxva saWiroebac mosdevs, rom survili

kanonisa uqmad ar darCes. am kanonebis vrclad

SemuSaveba Cven azrad ara gvqonia da amitomac

amiT vaTavebT Cvens grZels laparaksa Rvinis

Taobazed.

[Tebervali _ aprili]

197


198

«bismarkis ismarkis muqara muqara» muqara

tfilisi, 23 Tebervali.

roca bismarkma Seitana reixstagSi Tavisi

samxedro kanonproeqti da Svidis wliT iTxova im

kanonis miReba, maSin umTaves sabuTad is

waradgina, rom Tu Svidis wliT daadgenT am

kanons, xom mSvidobianoba evropisa ar dairRvevao

da Tu samis wliT _ omis atexa aucilebeliao.

rogorc TviTveulma kacma calke, isec reixstagma

saerTod Zalian kargad icis, rom sityva

yovelTvis imas ar ambobs, rac kacs gulSi aqvs

da amitomac reixstagi bismarkis muqaras ar

SeuSinda da kanoni miiRo marto samis wlis

vadiTa. bismarkmac arc aciva, arc acxela, aiRo da

parlamenti daiTxova da axali arCevani daniSna,

ese igi, germaniis eri moiwvia _ gamosTqvi arCevaniT

am saganzed, Sen ra azrisa xaro.

amis Semdeg, rasakvirvelia, mTeli evropa

TiTqmis guliscemiT ucdida am arCevanebis

gaTavebas germaniaSi. marTali iyo T. bismarkis

muqara, Tu tyuili, yvela ki hgrZnobda, rom

gansacdeli an samis wliT kanonis miRebaSi

imalavs Tavs, an Svidis wlisaSi. amazed evropaSi

ar iWvneulobda, umizezod es saqme ese ar

gamwvavdebodao, yvela amas iZaxoda. ai dRes

arCevani TiTqmis gaTavebulia. 396 deputati,


omelic saimperio parlaments germaniisas

Seadgens, ukve amorCeulia; zogan Tumca xelaxlad

arCevani unda moxdes, magram uamarCevanebodac

cxadia, rom T. bismarkma gaimarjva da germaniis

erma Tavis parlaments erTxel kidev uTxra, Sen

“su”, roca bismarki xmas iRebso.

dRes oficialurad gamocxadebulia sad ra

kacebi amourCevia germaniis ersa: korservativebi

_ 75; saimperio dasisa _ 34; nacional-liberalebi

_ 84; Suagul dasisa _ 90; Tavisufal-msjelni _

24; socialisti _ 6; elmasebi _ 15; polaki _ 13;

velfi _ 2; daneli _ 1; imisTanani, romelT

mimarTuleba jer ar ician _ 2 da xelaxlad

asarCevi 60 kacia kidev.

amaTSi konservativebi, nacional-liberalebi,

saimperio dasis kacni erTgulni yurmoWrilni

ymani yofilan bismarkisa, arian da iqnebian,

danarCenebi sul erTnairad ewinaaRmdegebian

bismarksa, rac Zali da Rone aqvT. am saxiT

gamodis, rom samxedro kanonis Taobazed bismarks

axals parlamentSi eyoleba erTgul momxeT 193

kaci da mopirdapired _143. danarCeni 60 kaci

xelaxlad amosarCevi rom sul mopirdapireTa

dasis kacni gamodgnen, maSin, ra Tqma unda,

parlamentSi aTis kaciT eseni ajobeben bismarkelebs,

magram amis imedi aravisa aqvs. bevribevrio,

amboben mcodne kacni, es samoci kaci Sua

gaiyoso da ocdaaTi kaci erTs ergoso da

ocdaaTi meoresao. Tu ese moxda, maSin 223 kaci

bismarks eyoleba da 173 mis mopirdapireTa.

am saxiT bismarkis gamarjveba aucilebelia,

eWvi aRarafrisaa, rom germaniis parlamenti

miiRebs bismarkis samxedro kanons Svidis wliTa

da am gziT imperators vilhelms, bismarks da

moltkes TavianTi Zalian mowadinebuli survili

ausruldebaT. ra iqmneba amis Semdegao,

199


hkiTxulobs didi da patara da veravis guldasajeri

pasuxi ver moupovebia. evropiis JurnalgazeTobam

am amocanis axsnisaTvis bevrs kalams

mostexa wveri, bevri melani amoaSro, bevrgvarad

dResac ramlsa hyris, gulTmisnobs, magram jer

bejiTad vera gaugia ra. yovels amaSi metismeti

sakvirveli erTi ram aris. dRevandels evropas

sami gasaWirebeli saqme aqvs, samiv mizeziani da

gansacdeliani: erTi germaniis da safrangeTis

SuRli da mtroba, meore egviptis saqme da mesame

_ bolgariisa. aba SeniSneT, Tu raRac jadosnoba

da Tilisma xan erTs imodenad ar gaamwvavebdes,

rom kacs SiSiT guli uTrTis, xan meores, xan

mesames da saocari es aris, rom, roca erTi

gamwvavdeba, sxva ori miyuCdeba, miscxreba, TiTqo

arc yofila da arc ariso. visTvis ra xelsayrelia,

rom politikis mavTulebi kukebsaviT

xan safrangeTs amoaxtuneben xolme, xan egviptes,

xan bedkruls bolgarias? sCans wyurvili da

survili visime amaebSi jerxanad Tavs imalavs da

sinjavs, _ vnaxoT vin romelis kukis sanaxavad

mova da ra TvaliT daacqerdebao. Cvenis fiqriT,

evropa amis cdaSia da radganac jer es cda

gaTavebuli ar aris da jer kidev saqmeSia,

amitomac jerxanad veravis verara gaugia ra

gamova risagan.

200


«Rirseulis Rirseulis dafaseba

dafaseba»

dafaseba

dafaseba

tfilisi, 25 Tebervali.

23-s Tebervals T. iase adamis Zes andronikaSvils

gadauxades ormocdaaTis wlis samsaxuris

dReoba. sazogadoebam Tavisi pativiscema

da madloba sajarod gamoucxada kacs, romelsac

arc saxelovani omi mougia, arc qveyana daupyria,

arc imisTana ram mouxdenia, rac TavisTavad

hyviris, hxmaurobs da buksa da naRaras scems.

maS ram gamoiwvia es sajaro pativiscema da

madloba? nuTu man, rom kacma ormocdaaTis wlis

samsaxurs gauZlo, esoden xangrZlivad hzida

tvirTi saxelmwifo Tanamdebobisa? ara. Cvenda

sasiamovnod is unda vaRiaroT, rom aq, am ambavSi

sxva umaRlesi zneobiTi azria. marTali moaxsenes

T. andronikaSvils: ”xangrZlivoba ra aris? eg

janis simrTelis saqmea. janis simrTele kidev

erTi umaRlesi madlia, romelsac ki RmerTi

mianiWebs xolme Tvis rCeulsa, magram mainc

madlia da ara Rvawlio”! sasiqadulo da sasaxelo

TviT T. andronikaSvilisaTvis igi zneobiTi azria,

romelic saTaved udevs mis dReobis ambavsa. aq

sazogadoebam xangrZlioba moRvaweobisa ki ar

daafasa, aramed is, rom naxevar saukunis ganmavlobaSi

kacma arc erTxel ar umtyuna Tavis

201


movaleobasa, Tavis Tanamdebobasa da arc erTxel

ciliswamebasac ki ar SeabRalvina Tavisi wminda

da patiosani saxeli, mere iciT, ra mizeziania igi

Tanamdeboba mosamarTlisa, msajulisa, romelic

mTeli ormoci weliwadi wilad xvda T.

andronikaSvilsa! vinc es icis, man isic unda

icodes, ra didbunebovanobaa kacis mxriT, rom

cilsac ki vera gaabedvinos ra, cilsac ki ena

mosWras, xma ar amoaRebinos.

yovels adgilas, yovels saqmeSi _ rac unda

Cumi iyos, rac unda mcire _ adamians SeuZlia

aRmoaCinos sidiade Rvawlisa. tyuilad ki ar aris

naTqvami erTis mecnierisagan: “vinc ori marcvali

moiyvana iq, saca manamde marto erTi marcvali

modioda, igi erTs udidess samsaxurs uwevs

kacobriobasao”.

am wuTisofelSi adamians bevri da mravalsaxis

saqme aqvs sakeTebeli, rogorc kerZod Tavis

TavisaTvis, isec sazogadod yvelasaTvis. saTiTaod

yvelas erTnairi daniSnuleba ara aqvs, saTiTaod

yvelas raime daniSnuleba ki usaTuod aqvs. maRal

zneobis Tvalis winaSe sidide adamianisa daniSnulebis

sididezed ar aris damokidebuli.

mravalgvaria niWiereba, Rone da midrekileba

adamianisa. sidide da Rirseba is aris, vin rogor

aurCia saqme Tavis niWsa, Ronesa, midrekilebasa da

vin rogor uZRveba. TviTon saqmis metnakleboba aq

arafers SuaSia, didi da patara sul erTia,

oRond kacma imas mihmarTos, imas CahWidos xeli,

razedac guli miuwevs da niWi da unari

miuwvdeba. uamisod yoveli misi saqme mcirea da

amisiT ki yoveli patarac ki didia.

mosamarTloba, msajuloba, Cumia, wynari,

uxmauro, ubuknaRaro. Rvawli mosamarTlisa,

msajulisa iseTi erTiani ar aris, rogorc,

magaliTebr, cixis aReba, qveynis dapyroba, omis

202


mogeba da sxva ram amgvari didi. TvalsaCino da

erTbamad dasanaxavi saqme, romelic erTbamadve

acvifrebs adamians. igi ganuwyveteli Zewkvia

yoveldRiuris Rvawlisa; igi erTi-erTmaneTzed

zedasxmuli marcvalebia adamianis sayoveldReo

moqmedebisa. raodenad sinaTle da sikeTe unda

Caayolos kacma am uCinars marcvalebs Tavis

ganuwyvetelis moRvaweobisas, rom maTi krebuli

imad gamoCndes, rasac moqalaqobrivs qvelobas

eZaxian da rac samarTlianad gamoiwvevs xolme

qebas, didebas, pativiscemas da madlobis

gadaxdasa. erTis didis saqmiT amis damsaxureba

imodenad Zneli ar aris, Cvenis fiqriT, rac an

xagrZlivis dauRalavis RvawliT, dRemudam erTierTmaneTzed

zedmiyolilis sikeTiT mopoebuli.

imitom rom didi saqme zogjer bedisagan wilad

xdomilia da adamiani marto far-xmalia bedisagan

arCeuli. aq ki gamudmebuli Tavdadeba unda, didi

gulmodgineba, didi Rone zneobisa, daucxromeli

siyvaruli, dauRalavi bejiToba da gautexloba

gulpatiosanis muSakisa da gamrjelisa. yovelive

es unda, rom marcvleulobiT naRvawi bolos

imodena xvavad aqcios kacma sazogadoebis TvalSi,

rom sajarod pativiscema da madloba gamoiwvios.

aq adamiani Taosnobs, ixarjeba da ara bedi.

ai, ras vxedavT da ras vpoulobT Cven T.

andronikaSvilis dReobaSi misda WeSmarit sasiqadulod

da sasaxelod. TviT igi sazogadoeabac

ki pativiT da saxeliT mosaxsenebelia, romelsac

Tvali uWris amgvaris Rvawlis dasanaxavad. es

utyuari niSania mis gonebis aRmatebisa, imitom

rom ubuknaRaros saqmes, Cumsa da uCinars sasargeblo

Rvawls xorcis Zvali Znelad miswvdeba. aq

gonebis Wreli Tvali unda, rom Tvalad mcireni,

magram keTilni saqmeni, romelic gamudmebul

SromiT erTmanerTzed ganuwyvetlad akinZulia,

203


zednakecia, icnas didis zneobis saqmed da

pativiscemis Rirsad gahxados. didis danaxva

advilia, saqme is aris, imaT CumTa muSakTa uCinari

Rvawli dainaxos kacma, romelTa naRvawic

acxovrebs qveyanasa da dedaboZad udga TviT

sazogadoebas.

204


«germaniis germaniis SeSfoTebis SeSfoTebis mizezi mizezi» mizezi

tfilisi, 27 Tebervali.

germaniis awindeli yofa da qceva yvelas

aocebs. didi da patara imas Sescqeris da

hkiTxulobs, ese ra gasWirebia, rom jarebis

momatebis survili dRedaRam mosvenebas ar

aZlevso. iq paps mivarda da Semweobas Seevedrao,

paps, romelsac TviTon T. bismarki erT dros ise

aurzaurad moekida da mis samRvdeloebas germaniaSi

xel-fexi SeuxuTa, iezuitebic ki gamodevna

germaniis samzRvrebidam da amiT metad awyina da

gaarisxa papi. exlaxans, roca italiaSi saministro

depretisisa da robilanisa daeTxova

samsaxursa, T-ma bismarkma mTeli Tavisi ostatoba

da saxeli moixmara, rom isev depretisisa da

robilanis saministro Semdgariyo da ara karolisa

an krispisa; vsTqvaT, rom depretisi da

robilani didi momxrea germaniisa da avstriisa,

magram rad uWirs germanias amaTi momxreoba? vin

emuqreba? visi da risi SiSi aqvs? aqed ixedebiT,

iqid ixedebiT da ra ki hxedavT, rom gansacdeli

germaniisaTvis mosalodneli arsaidam ar aris,

hkvirobT saidam ra landi uCndeba germanias, rom

yvelgan hfacurobs da yvelaferSi mSvelels

eZiebs? arCevanebis gaTavebac ki aRar moicada T_ma

205


ismarkma da axlad amorCeuli reixstagi moiwvia.

rasa sCqarobs? ra iseTi didi sagani misdis da

ecleba xelidam, rom xansac aRar ayovnebs, TiTqos

raisame SiSisagan eldacemuliao da scdilobso

rom SiSs rac SeiZleba adre da male win

uswroso?

miTam safrangeTis Tavdasxma afiqrebs T.

bismarksa? ara gvgonia, imitom, rom safrangeTsa,

Tumca evropaSi dRes erTi Zlieri TanamgrZnobeli

hyavs, magram pirdapiri momxreoba ki jer arsad

uCans. umomxreod safrangeTi arasgziT germanias

oms ver gaubedavs. maSasadame, sxva ra tkivili

aqvs germaniasa?

germanias igi tkivili aqvs, rom orsav mxriT,

dasavleTiT da aRmosavleTiT mezoblebi metismetad

gauZlierdnen da gauRonierdnen. Tumca arc

erTisagan Tavdasxmas germania ar moelodineba da

jer xanad arc safiqrebelia, magram T. bismarki

metad aSkarad hxedavs, rom dRes ruseTi calis

mxriT da safrangeTi, meoris mxriT imodenad

gaZlierdnen, rom amodenis RvawliT, sisxliT da

xarjiT germaniis mier mopoebuli pirveloba

evropaSi lamis xelidam gamoecalos; lamis

gegemonia evropaSi CamoerTos germaniasa. eg

pirveloba, upiratesoba germaniisa evropaSi T.

bismarkis karga xnis Rvawlia. mTeli misi saxeli,

misi didkacoba, misi abru geniosobisa am miznad

Seqmnils germaniis upiratesobaSia da ai, dRes T.

bismarki hgrZnobs, rom amis naRvaws Zlierni

mocileni gamouCndnen evropaSi da lamis imodenis

msxverpliT aSenebuli dideba germaniisa da am

didebiT mopovebuli saxeli TviTon imperatoris

vilhelmisa da T. bismarkisa fuWad waxdes da

dadnes SarSandelis TovliviTa. ai, sagani, romelic

germaniis tkivils Seadgens dResa da romlis

dasacveladac dRes T. bismarki da masTan mTeli

206


germaniac iRvwis da mecadineobs dRedaRam

saocaris gamalebiTa da siswrafiTa, amitomac

sakvirveli ar aris, rom T. bismarki ara RonisZiebas

ara hTakilobs, yovels gvars xerxsa da

ostatobas xelsa hkidebs, rom didma Rvawlma

amaod ar Cauaros arc imperators vilhelms, arc

TviTon bismarks, arc germaniis ersa da germanias

kvlavac igiv upiratesoba SearCinos.

207


208

«mamulebis mamulebis gamijvnis gamijvnis ukeT

ukeT

mowyobisaTv

mowyobisaTvis

mowyobisaTv

mowyobisaTvis

is» is

tfilisi, 6 marti

Cvens gazeTSi iyo Tqmuli, rom mTavrobas

saWirod daunaxavs, aaCqaros Cvens qveyanaSi aqamde

taatiT moaruli gamijnaveba mamulebisa. es ambavi

didad sasixaruloa yvela imisaTvis, vinc ki icis,

ra didi dabrkolebaa ganusazRvreloba kuTvnilebisa

meurneobisaTvis, erisaTvis da TviT saxelmwifosaTvisac,

romelsac amis gamo auarebeli

saqmeebi uCndeba, rogorc sasisxlo samarTliT

gasarCevi, radganac xSirad mamulis gamo Cxubs

danaSaulebic mosdevs xolme, ise samoqalaqo

samarTliTac, radganac davidaraba yovelTvis

gasarCevad da gadasawyvetad sasamarTloebamde

adis da uamaTod ara Tavdeba.

radganac gasamijnavad dadgenilis wesisa da

rigisamebr yvelas neba eZleva _ arc SeiZleba ar

mieces, _ rac Tavis dReSi ar udavnia, imasac

xeli waatanos da sadavod gahxados, amitomac

raki moxele mamulis gasamijnavad miva sadme,

yvelani hswrafoben, dava gamoacxadon, isinic ki,

romelTac manamde fiqradac ara hqoniaT waedavnon

visme rame. amis gamo saca ori da sami sabuTiani

davaa memamuleTa Soris, iq aTi da oci usabuTo,


“iqnebazed” damokidebuli dava Tavs wamohyofs

xolme. es garemoeba amravlebs saqmeebs da

rasakvirvelia, Zlier abrkolebs gamijvnis svlasa

CvenSi. am usabuTod davis atexas kerZo kacisagan,

ara eSveleba ra, rac unda didi jarima gauCinoT

bolos gadasaxdelad tyuilis davisaTvis. rac

mere, bolos iqneba is ise ar aSinebs kacsa,

rogorc dRes aqezebs “iqnebazed” damokidebuli

imedi. usabuTod modaves ki winadve ver

aukrZalavs kanoni, nu idavebo. eg samoqalaqo

uflebis CamorTmeva iqneba da amas kanoni Tavis

dReSi ar moindomebs.

CvenSi hdavoben mamulebs aramcTu marto kerZo

memamuleTa da xazinisa erTmaneTSi. im Cvens

gazeTSi moxsenebul ambavidama sCans, rom

mTavrobas ganuzraxavs aq CvenSi sakuTari veqilebi

iyolios saxazino kuTvnilebis dasacavad, Tu

vinicobaa mamulebis gamijvnis dros kerZo

kacTagan raime dava astydao. rasakvirvelia, es

kargi saqmea saxazino saqmeTaTvis, Tu kerZo kacma

xazinas dava autexa. aki vsTqviT, aq kerZo kacsa

usabuTo davisaTvisac ki gza ver gadaeRobeba,

Tumca sanatrelia, Tu rom es SesaZlebeli iyos

rogorme, xolo Cven es unda vTqvaT, rom mravali

saqmea TviTon xazinisagan dawyebuli; mravali

saqmea, saca TviTon xazina edaveba kerZo kacsa da

ara kerZo kaci xazinasa. Tqma ar unda, rom verc

xazinas daeSleba Tavisi kuTvnileba eZios kerZo

kacis xelisagan. magram xazinasa da kerZos kacs

Soris didi gansxvavebaa. xazina, saxelmwifo,

rogorc umaRlesi mfarveli marTlisa, ar

ikadrebs Tu ar sabuTzec, sxva rasmezed daemyaros

davis asatexad, an sxva romelsame gulis Tqmas

ahyves, kerZo kacs ki, Cvenda samwuxarod, xSirad

sixarbe waacdens da aiyoliebs xolme. raki esea,

209


nuTu am mxriT mainc Secotavebas davidarabisas

ara eSveleba ra?

Cvenis fiqriT, am mxriv SesaZloa didZali

ricxvi saqmeebisa moSordes sasamarTloebsaca da

qveyanasac da amiT gaadvildes gamijvnis saqmis

svla. rom es ase moxdes, ai, Cvenis azriT, ra ari

saWiro: saxelmwifo qonebaTa gamgeobam ar unda

miandos, rogorc aqamde winaswar, ganurCevlad

davis gamocxadeba “lesniCis” an calke moxelisa,

romelmac xSirad arc ki icis sagani davisa da ra

sabuTi miuZRvis xazinas davis gamosacxadeblad.

gamijvnis sasamarTlo yovel wliv ramdenisame

TTviT win atyobinebs xalxs, ra dros da ra

adgilas Seudgeba moqmedebas mamulebis gasamijnavad.

saxelmwifo qonebaTa gamgeobas rom

kolejia hyvandes samis mcodne moxelesagan

Semdgari da vidre davas astexda sadme, am kolejiam

Tavisad gamoiZios: gasamijnavad daniSnul

mamulebSi, sad vis ra edavos, ra mijnebSi da

kuTvnilebis sabuTi aqvs raime Sesawynarebeli da

xelis mosakidebeli, Tu ara. am gamoZiebis Semdeg

daadgines: Rirs da sabuTia Tu ara, dava daiwyos

da Tu Rirs da sabuTia, mxolod maSin gamgeobam

visac hsurs, imas miandos davis gamocxadeba. amis

Semdeg, vin aris marTali da vin ara, xom

samarTali gaarCevs, am gziT bevri usabuTo saqme

Tavsac ar gamoiCens. yvela modave rom egre jer

TviTon samarTlianad da miudgomlad Caukvirdes

saqmes da mere, Tu sinidisi etyvis, daiwyos dava,

maSin xom naxevarzed meti saqme TavSive moswydeba,

_ da zneobiani kaci yovelTvis egred iqceva

kidec. xolo Zneli es aris, rom yovels calke

kacs eg ver moeTxoveba da saxelmwifosaTvis ki

yovlad SelaZlebelia da advilad Sesasrulebeli

imitom, rom saxelmwifos amisTanaebrSi win marto

marTali da sabuTi miuZRvis da sxva ara ra,

210


usabuTo davas saxelmwifo aravis ar uwonebs da

TviT rad ikadrebs magisTana davasa.

Cven es gza vaCveneT, magram SesaZloa am azris

misaRwevad sxvam ufro kargi gza aCvenos; Cven

imazed vdgevarT, rom did SeRavaTs miscems

xalxsac da sasamarTloebsac, Tu saxelmwifo

qonebaTa gamgeoba winaswar TviTon darwmundebodes

xolme, rom dava sabuTiania da ise daiwyebdes

saqmesa.

211


212

«safrangeTsa safrangeTsa safrangeTsa da da germanias germanias Soris

Soris

daZabulobis daZabulobis Senelebis Senelebis cdebi cdebi» cdebi cdebi

tfilisi, 10 marti

germaniisa da safrangeTs Soris jer SarSanve

astyda ayal-mayali. Cven, ese igi, Cveni gazeTi

maSinve iZaxoda * rom am mxriT Zneli mosalodnelia

didi SiSi, romelic SarSanve Seepara

evropasa. Cven sul amas vambobdiT, rom T,

bismarks ise gauWirdeba saqme, rom an yvela saxelmwifos

moibirebs da gaimartovebs safrangeTsa,

an safrangeTs moimxrobs da amisaTvis belgiaSi

rasmes mouWris da Tu metismetad gauWirda,

elzas-lotaringiasac ki gamoimetebs. Cven am

azris gansasuraTeblad moviyvaneT sityvac ki

gambetasi, romelmac erTxel sTqva; “dro mova da

elzas-lotaringia usisxlod dagvibrundebao.”

iqneba es Cveni azri maSinac examuSa visme,

rogorc daujerebeli da alalbedobazed naTqvami;

SesaZloa dResac ase miaCndes visme da sasacilod

agvigdos, es ”iveria” raebsa hbodavso. marTalic

aris: amodena xarji gaswia germaniam kaciT Tu

fuliT, amodena sisxli daRvara Zlivs SemoierTa

* ixileT SarSandeli iveria ## 194, 201, 219, 231 da sxvani, romelnic

exla xelad ar gvaxsovs da wlevandeli # 10, 17, da 31.


elzas-lotaringia da amiT safrangeTidam Semosasevs

mters kari TiTqmis dauketa da exla rogor

unda dasTmos!... gaWireba miCvene da gaqcevas

giCvenebo, naTqvamia. gaWirebas bevri rame SeuZlian.

amodenad ra uWirs dRes germanias? is uWirs, rom,

rogorc amas winadac vsTqviT, batonoba evropaSi

xelidam misdis germaniasa da amis gamo TviTon

prusias germaniaSi gegemonia uqarwyldeba. prusiis

gegemonis momduravi bevria germaniaSi da evropaSi

germaniis abrus gatexas prusiis abrus gatexa

mosdevs da yovelive es iseTi ram aris T. bismarkisaTvis,

rom amasTan elzas-lotaringiazed xelis

aReba Calad ara hRirs.

asea Tu ise, dRes Cven amazed ara gvsurda

Camogvegdo sityva, Cven mxolod is gvindoda

gveTqva, rom lamis Cveni naTqvami elzaslotaringiazed

gamarTldes, “Московския Ведомости”

-Si exlaxan dabeWdilia korrespondencia

pariJidam da am sagnis Sesaxeb metad saintereso

ambavia moTxrobili. korrespondenti ambobs:

“T. bismarki am wams yovel Ronesa

hxmarobs daajeros safrangeTi, rom

Cemgan nurafris SiSi nu gaqvTo, eg

kidev araferi. T. bismarki xelis gulzed

ugordeba safrangeTsa da samacduro

pirobas udebs, Tu gulwrfelad Semirigdebi

da aRmiTqvam, xels ar gamoiReb,

Tu vinicobaa sadme saomrad gavebao.

sxvaTa Soris pirobas aZlevs elzas -

lotaringias luqsemburgs SemovuerTebo

da saneitralo qveynad Sevqmni germaniisa

da safrangeTis Sorisao: arc Cveni iyos

da arc Tqvenio. amis samagierod me holandias

Cavkideb xelsao. ise gadakvriT

ki ufro mosazidavs pirobas uTvlis:

213


elzas-lotaringias Sen dagibruneb da me

belgias da holandias daviWero”.

gamodis, rom Cveni winad Tqmuli sityva ise

alalbedad naTqvami da daujerebeli ar aris,

rogorc SesaZlo iyo mieCnia visme. maincdamainc

SesaniSnavi ambavia saxelganTqmulis lesepsis

gagzavna germaniaSi. safrangeTma es saxelovani

kaci gaistumra germaniaSi viTom imisaTvis, rom

safrangeTis elCs herberts “sapatio legionis”

niSani miutanos. Znelad safiqrebelia, rom

amisTana gamoCenili kaci, rogorc lesepsia, am

ubralo saqmisaTvis SeewuxebinaT da moecdinaT.

yvelam kargad icis, lesepsi imisTana saxelis

kacia, rom yvelgan didis pativiT iqneba germaniaSi

miRebuli, imperator vilhelmidam dawyebuli

ukanasknel germanielamde. swored am mizeziT mis

misvla-mosvlas imperator vilhelmTan, bismarkTan

da sxva didkacebTan sapolitiko mniSvnelobas

iseTis gabedviT veravin Seswamebs da maSasadame,

ayal-mayalis atexas diplomatiaSi cotad Tu

bevrad gza Seekvris. sxva kaci rom gaegzavna

safrangeTs niSanis wasaRebad da imperator

vilhelms, bismarks an sxva didkacs visme enaxa,

maSinve atydebodnen diplomatebi calke da

Jurnal-gazeTebi calke, rad inaxula vilhelma,

bismarkma, an sxva, Tu aq sapolitiko saqme ram ar

iyoso. lesepzed ki amas ar ityvian, imitom, rom

amas Tavisis gamoCenilis saxeliTac yvelgan kari

Ria dahxvdeba, romels qveyanaSiac unda mivides.

marTladac, yvelgan germaniaSi lesepsi didis

pativiT miRebul iqmna. axla Cven rom CavufiqrdeT

am ambavsa, davijeroTRa, rom am leseps araferi

ara aqvs ra davalebuli safrangeTis mTavrobisagan!...

davijeroT, rom zemoT moyvanil korespondentis

naambobi aq arafers SuaSia!

214


es ki aSkaraa, rom lesepsis germaniaSi misvlis

Semdeg Zalian dauwynardnen erTmaneTs germania da

safrangeTi da ise apilpilebulni aRar arian,

rogorc aqamomde iyvnen. Tu es marTali gamodgeba,

gvixarian, rom am mxriT SiSis molodini aRar

eqmneba qveyanasa, uamisodac lodiniT daRalulsa

da Sewuxebulsa.

215


216

«avstriis «avstriis orWofuli orWofuli politika»

politika»

tfilisi, 12 marti

araerTxel gviTqvams Cven, rom avstria

istoriis viTarebaTa gamo orwyalSuaa Camdgari.

gamodevnili 1886 wels germaniidam, saca am

wlamde igi TiTqmis marto upiratesobda, man, meti

gza ar iyo, xeli daibana germaniaSi batonobaze,

gamoecala prusiis uZveles metoqobas da piri

aRmosavleTisaken ibruna. gulSi ki, rasakvirvelia,

es Tavisi marcxi xvanjad Rrmad Seinaxa. moSorda

dasavleTs, magram arc aRmosavleTi daxvda umetoqod.

aq pirispir Sexvda mas ruseTi, romlis

metoqobac avstriisaTvis TiTqmis imodenadve

uZlevelia, ramodenadac exlandeli germania, Tu

ufro meti ara, imitom, rom ruseTi aRmosavleTzed

Tavis dReSi xels ar aiRebs Tavgamoumeteblad.

ruseTs es Tavis istoriul

daniSnulebad miaCnia. amgvarma droTa viTarebisagan

warmomdgarma mdgomareobam avstria Zalauneburad

damokidebuli gaxada erTis mxriT, germaniazed da

meores mxriT, ruseTzed. ase rom, verc aRmosavleTisaken

gaiwevs, Tu germaniam xeli ar

Seuwyo, verc dasavleTisaken, Tu ruseTma mxari

ar misca. amitomac 1886 wlidam dRemde avstria am

orTa ZlierTa saxelmwifoTa Soris htokavs da


Tavisi sakuTaris, sxvazed damoukidebelis

politikisaTvis xeli ver Caukidnia. am Zalauneburs

mdgomareobas avstriisas is mohyva, rom

xan garemoeba evropiis politikisa dayuCebuls da

jer ar gamTelebuls Zvels tkivilebs dasavle-

Tisas mohgvris xolme avstriasa, xan aRmosavleTis

axlad aCenils sanatrelzed saRerRels

auSlis. eg imazea xolme damokidebuli Tu, ra

dros, vis, rogor ucinis politikis bedi.

minam germania myar kldesaviT Seuryeveli

egonaT yvelas, avstrias Tavisi politika

nalosaviT gamobmuli hqonda germaniis politikazed

da is gulSi Senaxuli xvanji Zvelis

marcxisa SiSiT sulganabuli iyo. TviTon bavariis

korolis uecarma sikvdilmac ki, romelsac ar

SeeZlo ar aeSala Zveli tkivili avstriisaTvis,

ver gaabedvina avstrias xma amoeRo, Tumca

metismeti mizeziani saqme iyo Zvelis angariSebis

gasawmendavad germaniaSi. eseTi xmaamouRebloba

sifrTxiles avstriisas unda mieweros da ara

imas, rom avstrias samudamod gulidam amoRebuli

aqvs wyurvili germaniaSi uwindelebr fexis

Sedgmisa. habsburgebis imperatorebi arasdros ar

daiviwyeben, rom erTs dros germaniis imperatorebi

iyvnen da imav dros avstrias pirveli xma

hqonda germaniaSi.

exla dro Seicvala. am ukanasknel droSi

aRmoCnda, rom germanias dRes marto ara aqvs

darCenili evropiis politikis burTi da moedani.

yvela hxedavs, rom dRes germanias calis mxriT,

safrangeTis Zliereba asustebs da, meores mxriT,

ruseTisa da amiT germaniis batonobasa da uZlevelobas

evropaSi Ziri eryeva. amas kargada hxedavs

avstriaca, romelmac Tavisi muqaris xma ruseTis

mimarT exla ufro tkbils galobazed Sescvala.

Tu gazeTebs davujerebT, avstria TiTqo mowadi-

217


nebulia dahyves ruseTs bolgariis saqmeSi da

ruseTis survilis aRsrulebas mxari misces. ris

imediT? im imediT, rom germanias, rogorc etyoba,

dRedadRe saqme ufro da ufro uWirdeba da iqneba

avstriis bedma ise imuSavos, rom rasac

bolgariaSi daTmobiT avstria dahkargavs, is erTi

orad gainaRdos germaniaSi. erTi safrangeTis

gazeTi “Matin”–i ai am saganzed ras ambobs Tavisis

korrespondentis piriT venidam:

218

“darwmunebuli iyaviT, rom avstrias

jer kidev kargad axsovs 1886 weli.

arc germania, arc bismarki aq ar uyvarT

da dRevandlamde avstrias imedi ar

gadauwyvetia sadovis* samagieros gadaxdisa.

karga xania ostatoba gasdioda

bismarks, rom avstrias aRmosavleTis

politikis raRac landebiT acdunebda,

magram misma sityvam reixstagSi yvelas

Tvalebi auxila: dRes yvela kargad

hxedavs, ras moaswavebs avstriisaTvis

germaniasTan dazaveba. erTi es viki-

TxoT: imis magier, rom Tavi gaibas

aRmosavleTis gansacdelians saqmeSi, is

ara sjobia avstriam ufro axlo, Tavis

gareSemo mimoixedos da Tvali moatrialos?

gana SesaZlebeli ar aris,

odesme avstria miemxros ruseTsa da

safrangeTsa da gaarRvios Sua evropis

saxelmwifoTa kavSiri? damijereT, aq

SeuZlebeli ara aris ra. amazed dRes

yvelgan laparakoben da Zalian bevrsac.

erTis sityviT, yvelas raRac winad-

* sadovazed daamarcxa prusiam avstria 1886 wels.


grZnoba eubneba, rom dRes iqneba, Tu

xvale didi cvlileba unda mohxdes da

egreTwodebuli saswori evropisa sxva

xazzed unda dahdges. ra Tqma unda, jer

yovelive es sadiplomato sferaSi ar

aris Sesuli, magram maincdamainc am

ambebis movlenis niSnebi _ winamorbedi

_ ki asanusxavia. gavix-senoT, rom

kalnoki winaaRmdegi ar ars ruseTTan

daaxlovebisa da ruseTis elCs venaSi

Tav. lobanovs, am azris did TanamrgZobels,

xSiri misvla-mosvla aqvs

xelmwife imperatorTan da b_n

girsTan”.

ramdenad marTlada sWris Sormxedveloba amis

momweris korrespondentisa, amis Tqma exla metad

Znelia, imitom, rom avstria, rogorc saxelmwifo,

or wverad yelSi waWirebuli, sul tokvaSi unda

iyos, vidre erTi romelime mxare ueWvels

Zlierebas da Rones ar gamoiCens. maSin, rasakvirvelia,

Zliers da Roniers miudgeba da, amis

mixedviT mohmarTavs ra Tavis politikasa, an

aRmosavleTisaken gaiwvdens xels, an dasavle-

Tisaken, radganac iqac da aqac organve gulis

mosafxani sagani aqvs da sanatreli interesi.

eseTi yofa avstriisa kargic aris da avic da

rogor gamoiyenebs avstria, amas dro gamoaCens.

219


220

«polemikuri polemikuri polemikuri werilebi

werilebi

“cxovreba “cxovreba da da kanonis kanonis gamo” gamo”» gamo” gamo”

werili werili werili meore

meore

tfilisi, 14 marti

b-nma xudadovma Cvenis erTis meTauris gamo

mogviZRvna werili. igi werili ukve dabeWdilia

“iveriis” # 51-Si. b-nma xudadovma dagviwuna, rom

liberalTa dasis kacni da imav dasis Jurnali

“Вестник Европы” vimowmeT erTs SemTxvevaSi.

saxeldobr, im SemTxvevaSi, rom sxvadasxva

wodebaTa gamoukleblad da ganurCevlad ageba

soflis sazogadoebisa Tu Temisa _ liberalTa

dasis moZRvrebaa sxvaTa Soris. rasakvirvelia, es

azri TavisTavadac aniSnebs kacs, ra banakisac

aris. dRes balRmac ki icis, rom uswormasworoba,

ujraujroba, gundgundoba kacTa sazogadoebis

agebulebaSi, _ pataraa igi sazogadoeba Tu didi,

_ yvela warCinebul kacTagan cnobilia warmatebis

damabrkolebel mizezad. ruseTSiac scnes esa, da

am bolos dros hsciloben erTi ganurCeveli

saTemo Sehqmnan, exlandel marto saglexo saTemos

magier. yvela ganaTlebul qveynebSi eg patara

administratiuli wrec sxvasTan erTad am


dedaazrzea agebuli. amis codnas didi lari da

xazi ar unda, _ Tu gnebavT, _ metic iyo Cvenis

mxriT, rom sxvebi vimowmeT. magram sityvam

moitana da Cvenc igi mowmebi davasaxeleT imisaTvis

ki ara, rom Cvenis azris sabuTianoba imaTs

mowmobazed dagvemyarebina, aramed imisTvis, rom am

azrs erT dros retrogradoba ukiJines, da am

kiJinis ukusaqcevad ukeTesi ra iqneboda, Tu ar

mowmoba TviTon liberalebisa, rom eg Cveni azri

da moZRvreba ariso. zogisaTvis amisTana

beWeddakruli mowmobaa saWiro, radganac TviT

buneba azrisa maTTvis miuwdomelia. b-ns xudadovs

ki hgonia, rom Cven TviTon sabuTianoba azrisa am

mowmobiT gvindoda dagvemtkicebina. goniaoba, Tu

sadave miuSviT, ufro Sorsac wava xolme.

eg araferi. Cven arc erTgan arc erTi sityva

ar wagvcdenia, rom kacma dagviwamos, viTom

“rixianis muqariT” gveTqvas, “rogor gabedeT” da

Cvenis mowmebis winaaRmdeg sTqviT rameo. marTalia,

kacia da gunebao, magram kacsac da gunabasac

Tavisi samzRvari aqvs. gavkadnierdebiT da

movaxsenebT b-ns xudadovs, rom igi am samzRvars

gadacilebula, radganac unebebia da swored amasa

gvwamebs, rom Cvens meTaurs werilSi viTom _

“sul rixiani muqaraa, Tu rogor gabedeT da

winaarmdeg gradovskisa, arseniebisa da spaCoviCisa

xma amoiReTo”.

b-n xudadovis adgilas Cven amisTana sulelobas

aravis SevwamebdiT. aq “kacia da guneba” _ veraferi

meSveulia. imas, rac b-nma xudadovma

Segvwama, arc vityviT Tavis dReSi da arc

gviTqvams, da vinc esa sTqva, imasve SeekamaTos

amisi damwamebeli, Tu sakmao mocaleoba aqvs. b-nis

xudadovis werili sxva mxriT aris SesaniSnavi. iq

erTi azria gamoTqmuli. romelsac erTs dros

didi fxa da avala hqonda ruseTSi da romelmac

221


marto miT, rom cnobierad gagebuli ar iyo, ara

erTsa da ors ymawvilkacs gza-kvali daubniva iqac

da CvenSiac. am azrs b-n xudadovisagan bundad,

yrud da gakvirviT gamoTqmuls, ganmarteba unda,

da Tu dRes b-n xudadovis werilis gamo

CamovagdeT laparaki Cveni Tavdapirveli survili

mag azris ganmartebaa.

avtoritetebis mowmad mowvevis gamo b-n

xudadovi erTs, cota ar iyos JamTa viTarebiT

gaxunebuls zogads azrs gviqadagebs am saxiT:

“eh, darbaiselo, didixania kerpTmsaxureba

gadavarda da sxvadasxva bobolebis Tayvaniscema

ugunurobad migvaCnia.”

Cven rom b-n xudadovsaviT, kacia da guneba _

am andazas davadgenT, vityodiT, rom es metismeti

mosvlia amis mTqmels da amaod Tavmowonebas

ufro moaswavebs, vidre damjdar gonebis

gamonakvlevs. magram Cven kargad viciT, rom b-n

xudadovi gonebagaxsnili kacia, naswavlia, mcodnea

da amotom vambobT, rom am sityvebSi is ar unda

vigulisxmoT, rasac sityvebi pirdapir gveubnebian.

Tu ara vcdebiT, _ b-ns xudadovs amiT imisi Tqma

unda, rom avtoritetebi, ese igi, yvelasgan

cnobilni, saxelmopoebulni mecnierni yovelTvis

arian da iqnebian, da imaTi Tayvaniscema ar

daileva qveynierobazed, vidre adamianis WeSmarits

Rvawls, zedismiwevnil codnas, mecnierebas,

sibrZnes da amaTiT mopovebuls saxels kacis

TvalSi pativi, fasi da dideba eqnebaT. xolo

brmad dajereba yovel imisa, rasac avtoriteti

ambobs, ris Semowmebasac yurismgdebeli Wkua,

goneba miswvdeba da rasac es Semowmeba uarhyobs,

_ marTla didi xania ugunurobad aris miCneuli.

TviT ikvlie, Tu SeZleba da garemoeba Segwevs,

mosCrxrike, Seamowme, da Tu avtoritetis azri

gamarTlda, daijere mxolod maSin, da am saxiT

222


Sens sakuTar rwmenad gardahqmen sxvisagan

aRmoCenili da nakvlebi, xolo saca goneba da

Wkua, romelisame mizeziT, ver migiwvdes da

arCevanSi xar, Sens argamorkveuls azrs, arcodnas,

sxvisi, saxelganTqmulis mecnieris, garkveuli

azri da codna moaSveleo, _ ai, es aris

exlandeli moZRvreba avtoritetebis gamo, da

brmad dandoba ki da ayola sxvisa iq, saca Seni

sakuTari goneba sabuTianad sxvagvarad gaWris, _

eg uwindeburi codvaa, ugunurobad miCneuli da

samarTlianad gandevnili, uaryofili. aqao da

aristotelma sTqvao, da rac unda aSkarad

dasarRvevi sabuTi gqondaT, aristoteles sityvas

ver SeubrundiT, codvad CagviTvlidnen, didi

xania, ese brmad ayola, ese daZabuneba Wkuisa da

gonebisa Cvenda sabednierod Cailulis wyals

gahyva.

magram aqedam srulebiT is ar gamodis, rom

avtoritetoba exla Semusvrilia da Tayvaniscema

misi ugunurobad cnobili. ai swored egred

umecrad gagebulma gamolaSqrebam avtoritetebzed

doinji Semoayrevina mtknars uvicobas da

aZaxebina: Seqspiri, spenseri, heksli, hekkeli vina

gdiao; avtoritetebi ras miqvian, da sxvani da

sxvani. aseTma Tavgasulobam uvicobisa bevrs auria

gza da kvali. imitom, rom amisTanad Tavgasuli

kaci xom TviTon ara aris ra, sxvasac aravis

kacad ar agdebs. nuTu es goniereba da hekslis da

hekkelis did mecnierebad, did avtoritetad cnoba

da Tayvaniscema ki ugunurobaa.

Cven ara gvgonia, rom amis Tqma sdomebodes bns

xudadovs, da Tu marTla imis Tqma hsurvebia,

rasac misi zemod moyvanili sityvebi pirdapir

gveubnebian, maSin sxvaa da amazed Semdegs nomerSi

movilaparakebT.

223


224

tfilisi, 16 marti

kacma rom sTqvas avtoritetoba, avtoriteti

didi xania gadavarda da Tayvaniscema erTisa da

meorisac ugunuroba ariso, _ an ar unda esmodes,

ras hniSnavs avtoritetoba da avtoriteti, an

amisi Tqma ar hsurvebia. es cxadad gamoCndeba, Tu

am sityvebis WeSmarits mniSvnelobas gonebis

Tvalwin warmovidgenT.

marTlada ra aris avtoritetoba, avtoriteti,

ese igi is, rasac b-ni xudadovi “bobolaobis” da

“bobolas” saxeliT windauxedavad sasacilod

igdebs? avtoritetoba im SemTxvevaSi, ra Sem-

TxvevaSiac b-n xudadovs unebebia misi devna da

gandevna, im gavlenian saxelovanebisa hqvian, romelsac

adamiani moipovebs xolme didis sibrZniT,

didis gamocdilebiT, didis mecnierobiT * . avtoriteti

mecnierebaSi igi kacia, romelsac mis mier

SeTvisebuls mecnierebaSi gauTqvams saxeli da

moupovebia ndoba imodenad Seuryevelad da

ucilobelad, rom erTic da meorec sakmao

Tavmdebia misis azris Seucdomelobisa. amisTana

kacebi, kacTa sabednierod da b-n xudadovis gulis

sawyromad da sasacilod, cotani ar arian qveynierobazed

da maT Soris Cvenc Tunda imaT davasaxelebT,

vinc TviTon b-s xudadovs CamouTvlia

Tavis werilSi, saxeldobr: spenseri, heksli da

hekkeli. exla vikiTxoT: rodis gadavarda Tund

amaTi avtoritetoba? neta rodis Sehmusra amaTi

saxeli da ndoba an b-nma xudadovima da an sxvama?

da Tu Sehmusra, aqedam sxva ara gamovida ra, rom

Semusrvilis magier Semmusrveli Cadgeboda;

* aris kidev erTgvari avtoritetoba, avtoritetoba uflebisa, romlis

mniSvneloba uflebis mniSvnelobazea damokidebuli. am gvars avtoritetobas

aq ar vixseniebT, radganac Cvens sabaaso saganTan araviTari kavSiri ara

aqvs.


maSasadame, avtoritetoba mainc avtoritetobad

darCeboda, Tumca exla sxva kacis saxels

dairqmevda.

ra aris b-n xudadovis mier am SemTxvevaSi

xsenebuli “Tayvaniscema”, Tu ar isa, rom kaci

gavlenian saxelovanobas spenserisas, hekslisas,

hekkelisas da maTTa mimarT ndobas aRiarebs miT,

rom igini ufro Seucdomelni hgonia, vidre,

magaliTad, redaqtori “iveriisa”, an Tunda TviTon

b-ni xudadovi? nuTu amas ugunurobad CasTvlis

vinme! iqneba egec moxdes, magram es sasacilo

CaTvla mosalodnelia am SemTxvevaSi marto ori

kacisagan: “iveriis” redaqtorisa da b-n xudadovisagan,

isic usaTuod maSin, Tu erTsac da

meoresac abru gasiebuli eqnebaT im erTnair

avadmyofobisagan, romelsac amao Tavmoyvareobas,

tyuils abrus eZaxian da romelac wamali ara

aqvs. maS rad miaCnia Tayvaniscema spenserisa,

hekslisa da hekkelisa ugunurobad b-n xudadovsa?

amisi Tqma da imisi, rom spensers, heksls da

hekkels nuras daujerebTo _ xom erTi da igivea.

neta romeli kaci ityvis qveyanazed, rom nuras

daujerebTo am WkuiT, codniT, sibrZniT, mecnierebiT

gamoCenils da mTelis qveynisagan am

saxiT cnobils kacebs, da Tu daujerebT, ugunuroba

iqnebao. maS, yvelaferi davijeroT amaTio? _

ikiTxavT Tqven. diax. swored yvelaferi, vidre

winaaRmdegis ueWveli sabuTi xelT ara gaqvT.

dRes rom kritikas Tavisufali gza da

msvleloba aqvs da ra avtoritetic ginda iyos,

kaci ar erideba kritikis qarcecxlSi gamoataros,

nuTu b-ni xudadovi amaSi hxedavs avtoritetebis

mimarT Tayvaniscemis ugunurobasa! kritikiT da

mTelis dRevandelis mecnierobis ZaliT rom

ieriSi miitanon, vsTqvaT, heklsa da hekkelzed,

nuTu hgoniaT, rom amiT maTi avtoritetoba

225


dadneba, Seimusreba da ara ufro Semowmdeba,

gamarTldeba da miT ufro Tayvaniscema ar

moemateba erTsaca da meoresac! gana sasacilo ar

iqneba, rom kacs Tayvaniscema maSin moaklo, misi

saxeli maSin Sehmusro, roca utyuarad da kargad

Semowmebulis sabuTiT damtkicdeba, rom misi

naTqvami gamarTlda. aq, piriqiT, avtoritetobam

ufro unda imatos, Tayvaniscema da pativi ufro

unda gaZlierdes. swored esec aris am wuTissofelSi,

da ar viciT, _ es ambavi rad unda miaCndes

visme ugunurobad, _ da Tu miaCnia, eg axali

ki ar aris, Zalian ZvelisZveli ambavia, da

saxeladac donkixotoba hqvian. vidre kritikas ar

gaumtyunebia avtoritetad cnobili kaci, mis

avtoritetobas veravin Sehmusravs marto imiT,

rom dilidam saRamomdi da saRamodam dilamde

iZaxos b-n xudadovisaviT: me ugunurobad mimaCnia

avtoritets Tayvani vceo.

swored kritikiT SemowmebulTa da gamar-

TlebulTa mecnierTa moipoves igi saxeli da

Tayvaniscema, romelic b-n xudadovs ugunurobad

hgonia. kacobrioba ar SeuSinda b-n xudadovis

mkacrs ganaCensa da misgan ugunurobis darqmeva

ikisra, da is ki ver uarhyo, rom qveyanazed sando

mecnierni arian da mere Rirsnic Tayvaniscemisa.

davaneboT amas yvelafers Tavi. erTi es

vikiTxoT: viTom ugunurobad unda miviCnioT, rom

TviTon didni brZenni, udidesni mecnierni da

avtoritetebi xSirad sxva avtoritetebs imowmeben

xolme? romelic gnebavT wigni aiReT didis

mecnierisa, Znelad SevxvdebiT imisTanas, rom erTi

meores ar imowmebdes. _ nuTu amisi momqmedni

yvelani ugunurebi arian, rom ase Tayvanscemen

avtoritetsa! ai Tunda jon stuart milli,

saxelovani mecnieri, romlis wigni amJamad xelSi

Segvxvda, _ erTs adgilas ras ambobs Tavis azris

226


dasamtkiceblad: momyavso “ mowmoba simondisa,

romelsa sxva mwerlebzed meti upiratesoba imiTi

ekuTvnis, rom yvelazed zedmiwevniT da daaxloebiT

icis saqmeo”.

b-n xudadovis sityviT, jon stuart milli

didi ugunuri kaci yofila, rom amisTana Tayvani

ucia avtoritetad cnobilisaTvis. ra milli? gana

sxva saxelgaTqmulni mecnierni ki cotani arian,

rom sxvis saavtoriteto sityviT aZliereben,

amtkiceben TavianT azrsa, da zogjer uamisobas

versad ver wasvlian! maS es sul ugunurobad

unda miviCnioT! maS Cvenzed ufro mets mcodnes,

Cvenzed ufro metis zedmiwevniT mkvlevars

azrisas, mere imisTanas, romelic qveyanierobisagan

ukeTes mcodned da ukeTes mkvlevarad cnobilia

da gaTqmuli, _ fasi aRar adevs, da vinc fassa

sdebs, igi ugunuria! amis mTqmeli da imisa, rom

Cemzed Wkviani, Cemzed ufro mcodne qveyanazed

aravin ariso, _ gana erTmaneTzed Zalian Sors

iqnebian!

Tumca brmad mindoba da ayola sxvisa Zalian

cudia, magram arc ki brmad daJinebaa kargi imisa,

rom didsaxelovanis saxelganTqmulis mecnieris

pativi da Tayvaniscema ugunuroba iyos. ara,

batono, swored amisTana kacs unda pativi da

Tayvaniscema, Tunda imiT, rom imisi sityva, Tund

Seumowmebladac ki, sxvisazed win daayeno, Tu

gamtyunebuli ar aris ueWvelis sabuTiTa. sxvam

rac unda gikiJinoT, da Tu erTsa da imave

saganzed heksli erTs ambobs da, Tund magaliTad,

b-ni xudadovi sxvas, icodeT, rom ugunurobaSi

aravin ar CamogarTmevT, Tu heksls ufro

daujerebT, vidre b-ns xudadovs. Tu Tqvenis

azris gasamarTleblad hekkels imowmebT b-n

xudadovis winaaRmdeg, an TviTon b-n xudadovisagan

dawunebul spasoviCsa _ sasisxlo rju-

227


lierobis mecnierebaSi, arc es iqneba axirebuli

suleloba. SesaZloa gviTxran: gana b-n xudadovs

ar ZaluZs heksls, hekkels ajoboso. SesaZloa,

radganac msjobs mjobi ar daeleva, magran minam bni

xudadovi amas iqmodes, im dromde _ nuras

ukacraod, rom heksli, hekkeli avtoritetad

vicnoT da Tayvani vceT marto imiT, rom maTi

sityva ufro vijeroT, Tu aSkara sabuTi ar

gveqneba dasarRvevad.

es amisTana laxtis qneva avtoritetebis

Sesamusravad cxonebul pisarevis Semdeg movida

ruseTSi; cota xans ifarfaSa da mere aprialebul

CalasaviT Cahqra, da dRes amis gamo marto Cven da

b-ni xudadoviRa vlaparakobT mTels qveynierobazed.

sxvisaTvis ki aq sakamaTo aRar aris

ra. dRes balRmac ki icis, rom Tqveni azri, didis

romelimesame mecnieris sityviT Semowmebuli,

ufro sandoa, ufro dasajeri, da am mowmobas

qveyanazed aravina hkiTxulobs imis SiSiT, rom bni

xudadovi ugunurobas damwamebso.

xolo pisarevis saxelis am mxriT SeubRalvelobisaTvis

isic unda vsTqvaT, rom igi

srulad imas ara hqadagobda, rasac dRes b-ni

xudadovi gveubneba avtoritetis Sesaxeb. marto

uvicobam waarTva sadave kacsa da pisarevis

moZRvreba am sagnis Taobazed herkulesis svetebamde

miiyvana. aq pisarevis araviTari brali ara

aqvs.

avtoritetoba yovelTvis iqneba mecnierobaSiac

da cxovrebaSiac. sneuli rom mkurnals mihmarTavs

xolme, _ rogorc hgonia b-ns xudadovs, _ ra

moqmedobs aq, Tu ar rwmena, rom mkurnali

mkurnalobis ukeTesi mcodnea, da es rwmena ra

aris, Tu ar igiv avtoritetoba kacisa, romelsac

mkurnalobaSi imodena ukeTesobis saxeli da ndoba

yvelasaTvis sakmao Tavmdebia misis am saqmeSi

228


upiratesobisa? modiT da amas iqiT suleli

dauZaxeT mas, vinc am SemTxvevaSi mkurnals endoba

da ujerebs. Tu gvkiTxavT, igi “kerpTmsaxureba”

da igi “Tayvaniscema”, romelic b-n xudadovs

ugunurobad miaCnia, aq ufro sagulisxmoa,

radganac am SemTxvevaSi brmad dandobas, brmad

dajerebas ufro meti adgili uWiravs, vidre sxva

raSime da TiTqmis aucilebelic aris. maSasadame,

igi ndoba da dajereba romelic kacs mkurnalisken

izidavs, b-n xudadovis sityviT, “kerpTmsaxurebaa”,

romelic didi xania gardavardnila, “bobolaebis

Tayvaniscema”, romelic b-ns xudadovs ugunurobad

miaCnia. sxva mecnierT viRa sCivis, vai mkurnalTa,

Tu es marTla asea, qveynis saubedurod.

229


230

«tragedia tragedia rkinigzaze

rkinigzaze»

rkinigzaze

rkinigzaze

tfilisi, 26 marti

Cvenis gazeTis mkiTxvelebma ukve ician _ ra

ubedureba moxda rkinigzis gzazed wifasa da

fonas sadgurebs Sua. zvavi miwisa morRveula,

dascemia sayaraulosa, miungrev-moungrevia sayaraulo,

saca sZinebia Tormet muSa-kacsa, qveS

gautania yvela eseni da gamousalmebia wuTissoflisaTvis

TavisianTa da maxlobelTa

dautireblad.

sacodavni!... SimSilisa da wyurvilisagan saidam

sad wasulan samuSaod, uwyalo bedma sad

gauTxara samare? korrespondentebi iwerebian,

sacodavebs colebi da wvrilSvilni darCeniaT.

swored am col_Svilis, gaWirebis mayurebelTa

veRar aitanes naklebuloba da mwuxareba, col-

Svils gamoeTxovnen im azriT, rom wavalT,

gavirjebiT, oriod groSs vipoviT da aRdgoma

dRes mainc maZRrobisas da sixarulisas

gagiTenebTo, magram maTma Sav-bedma ise imuSava,

rom igini Seakla am imeds. Cveni korrespondenti

iwereba.

ase uecrad gamoesalmnen es sacodavni am

wuTisofels da naTesavTa da col-SvilTa cremli


ar eRirsaT. aTas gaWirebas gauZles im imediT,

rom saaRdgomod mainc vnaxavT Cvens col-Svils

da gavaxarebT Cvenis namuSevariTao. magram ise

Tqvenma mterma gaixaros, rogorc maTi col-Svili

gaixarebs am ambis gagonebazed!...

imedma oriode DdRis gamZRrobisam ise umtyuna,

rom samudamo wyaro sazdoebisac srulad dauSro

maTs damSeuls col-Svilsa, sixaruli aRdgomisa

saukunod miZinebis glovad gadauqcia. aRdgomis

ciskris zari maTTvis glovis zari iqneba,

sixaruli aRdgomisa maTTvis tirili da TavSi

cema iqneba. yvelani ityvian yovelTa qristianTa

sasixarulo sityvas: qriste aRsdgao da imaT ki

TavSi cemiT, pirTa xokviT, viSiT da vaiT una

sTqvan: patroni mogvikvdao. maTTvis saflavi

gairRva mkvdaris aRdgomisaTvis ki ara, cocxalis

damarxvisaTvis!...

maT marto sayvareli qmari, mama, Zma ki ar

moukvdaT, moukvdaT lukmis momawvdeneli kaci,

moukvdaT is, viszedac damokidebulia xuTisa,

eqvsisa da iqneba metisac gamozda, gamokveba, janmrTeloba,

sicocxle.

sayvarelis qmaris, mamis anu Zmis glova sulis

mwuxarebaa. aq Cven verc amis simwvaves gavunelebT

WirisufalTa da verc tkivils danakargisas

davayuCebT. eg sulis vaebaa da aq moyvasi moyvass

xels magrerigad ver miawvdens: verc sityva

nugeSisa sWris sakmaod, verc cremli gul-

Sematkivarobisa. Tu aq veras vuSveliT WirisufalTa,

es xom Cvens xelT aris, rom maTi col-

Svilni, maTi ususurni wvrilSvilni, maTi daoblebuli

ojaxi maTs Semdeg oriode dRe mainc

SevinaxoT uSimSilod, umwyurvalod. Tu

samudamod ara, saaRdgomod mainc mivawodoT TiTo

lukma, rom maTma balRebma am saufliswulo dRes

231


mainc aravis Sehnatron, aravis Sestoron: gvSian,

puri mogvitexeTo. amas iTxovs kacTmoyvareoba,

amas iTxovs igi RmerTi, romelic RaribTa da

gaWirebulTaTvis jvars ecva da romlis

sadidebladac aRdgoma dRes mTeli qristianoba

sixaruliT igalobebs: qriste aRzdgao.

qristes aRzdegis saxeliT mivmarTavT yvelas,

rom Tavisi wvlili Seswiron egre ubedurad

gardacvalebulebis ojaxebsa da wvrilSvilsa.

Cvenis gazeTis redaqcia yovelTvis Ria iqneba

SemwirvelTaTvis. yovelive Semowiruloba Tav-

Tavis drozed gamocxadebuli iqneba gazeTSive.

232


«siwynare siwynare siwynare evropis evropis evropis politikur

politikur

sarbielze

sarbielze»

sarbielze

tfilisi, 30 marti

ra ambavia qveynierobazed, anu uked vsTqvaT,

evropaSi, imitom, rom dRes qveynieroba evropaa!

gaimarjva bismarkma reixstagSi Tu ara, miswyda

xmebic safrangeTisa da germaniis Soris SuRlisa

da omis atexisa. TvalisaTvis iqamde miyuCda am

mxridam qveynis tkivili, rom bismarki TiTqo

moutkbilda kidec safrangeTsa da mkvaxe sityvebis

magier TiTqmis laqucic dauwyo. dasavleTidam

evropis sasworma gaaTava tokva Tu ara, axla

aRmosavleTidam SeiZra uReli sasworisa xelaxlad:

astyda bolgariaSi regentebis winaaRmdeg

aSliloba. rogorc iyo am aSlilobasac bolo

moeRo, Tumca kanti-kuntad xma mainc ismis, rom

aqa-iq kidev regentebis mopirdapireni Tavisas ar

iSliano. Sefucxunda orpira osmaleTi, gagzavna

bolgariaSi Tavis mociqulad riza-bei, viTom

imisaTvis, rom mopirdapireni erTmaneTs moarigos

da mSvidoba Camoagdos.

ra Tqma unda, veras gaxda riza-bei da yvelas

ukvirs, Tuki osmaleTi awindels regentobas

ukanonobas swamebs da marTal mTavrobad ara

scnobs, am tyuils mTavrobis winaSe mociquli

233


ada hyavso? zogs swyins es ambavi da hcdilobs

sulTanis winaSe, rom riza-bei ukanve daabrunos

da mociquli ar iyolios im mTavrobis winaSe,

romelmac, osmaleTis azriTve, Zalad da ukanond

Caigdo xelSi mmarTveloba bolgariisa. zogs ki

uxarian, rom osmaleTi ase moiqca da Tu sityviT

ara, saqmiT mainc sulTanma isa hqmna, rac am

moxarulT undodaT, saxeldobr, isa, rom am gziT

osmaleTmac icno bolgariis exlandeli regentebi

kanonier mmarTvelebad.

maincdamainc bolgariis saqmem, ese igi, iq

momxdarma areulobam da dasTa brZolam, is

gansacdeli ar gamoiwvia, rac pirvel SexedviT

mosalodneli iyo. roca evropam am mxriTac guli

daimSvida, Tu samudamod ara, droebiT mainc, axla

gatyvra uecari ambavi avRanistanidam. gavarda xma,

rom rjulis saxeliT mflobeli avRanistanisa

omis gamocxadebas hlamiso da amisaTvis mzadebasac

Sesdgomiao. es xma ver gamarTlda, Tumca inglisis

gazeTebma ki am xmebzed frTebi Seisxes. Zneli

dasajerebelic aris imitom, rom rjulis saxeliT

omis gamocxadeba marto xalifas SeuZlian da

xalifad marto osmaleTis xonTqari swamT

mahmadianebs da xonTqarsve abaria mwvane bairaRi

mahomedisa, romlis gamotana da gaSla rjulis

oms moaswavebs.

xma ki mainc dagdebuli iyo da dRevandlamde

kidev ismis. gamarTldeba es xma, Tu gamtyundeba _

es dRes bevrs aras hniSnavs, saqme amisTana xmis

dagdebaa da amitomac sakiTxavi es aris: vis rad

unda amisTana Tavgamodeba avRanis emirisa? Tu

visme hsurs wewva-gleja moaxdinos, gana TviTon

ki evropaSi naklebi mizezia kbilCasakidebeli? aq

erTi ram aris safiqrebeli: saxeldobr isa, rom

sulTans aSineben, riTa? imiT, rom, ha, Tu Cven ar

mogvemxrobi, avRanis emirs avstexT, rjulis

234


saxeliT oms gamovacxadebinebT da amiT xalifobis

gzas avRanis emirs gavuxsniT da Sen mag Zvirfass

uflebas xelidam gamogacliTo...

amitomac sagulisxmoa, rom vinc avRanis emiris

mier mzadebis xma daagdo rjulis saxeliT

omisaTvis, bevrs ar inaRvlebda gamarTldeba, Tu

ara es xma. imisaTvis sakmaoa, rom sulTanma es

SesaZlisi saqmec saxeSi iqonios, roca hfiqrobs,

saiT mihmarTos Tavisi politika am gaWirebul

dros, roca yoveli saxelmwifo evropisa

meSvels da momxreebs yovelgan da yovelis RoniT

daeZebs.

erTi sxva ramec aris aq safiqrebeli. xom ara

hsurT, rom aziaSic saqme aSalon? iq erTis aSla,

nametnavad avRanisa, aSlis sparseTsac, iqneba

CineTic aalaparakos. SesaZloa, saqme iqamde

mivides, rom TviT evropiis saxelmwifonic,

romelTac didi interesebi aqvT aziaSi, iZulebul

gaxdnen xeli gamoiRon. am saxiT SesaZloa es

saxelmwifoni ase Sors gaaban, ase Sors daaxafrebinon

jarebi da am saxiT amisTana qslebis

gambmelebma burTi da moedani evropaSi mtrebisa

da mopirdapireTagan daacarielon da TviT

dainarCunon.

rasakvirvelia, yovelive es marto fiqrad

mosasvlelia. am saganze bevri “hoc” iTqmis da

bevri “arac”. magram Tu zemoxsenebuls xmis

dayris mizezs dauwyebs kaci Zebnas, arSesaZloa,

rom Cven mier Tqmulmac kacs TavSi ar gauelvos.

xolo sakvirveli is aris: amboben germaniam,

avstriam, italiam kudi erTmaneTs ukve gadaabeso

da Wirisa da lxinis gaziarebas erTmaneTs

Sehpirdneno. inglisic Tumca amaTSi ar Careula,

magram ufro amaTken aris, vidre sxvisaken. nuTu

amaT kidev gaZliereba swadianT da kidev momxreebs

eZeben?

235


o eZeben, es aSkaraa da ramdensac kidev mets

SeiZenen, imodenad SeuZlebelad gaxdian omis

atexas da maSin imas gaiyvanen evropaSi usisxlod,

uomrad, rac marto sisxliT da omiTRa iyo

SesaZlebeli. exlandels yofas evropisas rom kaci

daukvirdes, ar SeiZleba amisTana qsels exlandelis

politikisas ar waawydes. Tu es moxerxda,

maSin uomrad saqmis gaTavebas win aRara daudgeba

ra da radganac, Cvenis fiqriT, evropa dRes amis

cdaSia da amis lodinSi, amitomac omis atexis

Taobazed xmebi miwyda da miyuCda am bolo xanebSi.

236


tfilisi, 4 aprili

qriste aRzdga! aRzdga macxovari kacobriobisa!

mTelis qveynis qristianoba hgalobs didebuls

sagalobels qristes aRzdegisas. didi da patara

sixaruliT hRaRadebs: “qriste aRzdga mkvdreTiT,

sikvdiliTa sikvdilisa damTrgunveli da

saflavebis SinaTa cxovrebis momniWebeli”.

qristianobam icis _ risTvis aqebs da adidebs am

dRes: mkvdreTiT aRzdga qriste da aRadgina Tvisi

kacTa mxsneli moZRvreba, Tvisi axali cxovrebis

momniWebeli aRTqma.

riT mogvaniWa cxovreba mkvdreTiT aRdgomilma

RmerTma, qveyanazed movlinebulma, viTarca

WeSmariti Ze kacisa? Zvelis moZRvrebisagan gandidebuls,

gapatiebuls xorcs, romelsac marto

“kbili kbilisa wil hSioda da Tvali Tvalisa

wil”, mokvdinebuli hyvanda suli, romelic marto

yovlad mxsnelis siyvarulis sxiviTa hnaTobs,

hTbeba, hyvavis, scocxlobs da suldgmulobs. ai

es mkvdari suli aRzdga mkvdreTiT qristes

aRdgomiTa. ra sacxovari Zali iyo esoden Zlieri,

rom mkvdari suli mkvdreTiT aRadgina? es iyo da

aris marto erTi mcneba, romelic fesvad gaedga,

saZirkvlad daedva mTels mSveniers, didebuls,

marTlada cxovrebis momniWebels moZRvrebas

qristesas: “giyvardes moyvasi Seni, viTarca Tavi

Seni”.

ai, mxsneli kacobriobisa! ai, macxovari!.. amas

gared adamians Svela ara aqvs, Tu unda, rom

kacad, RvTis saxed da msgavsebad darCes. am yovlad

macxovars, yovlad mxsnels fesvzed amovida,

gaiSala, gadahfina Stoebi, ayvavda mTeli igi

diadi xe axalis cxovrebisa, romelsac axali

aRTqma, qristianoba hqvian da romelsac es mcneba,

rogorc mze, anaTebs da aTbobs. am mcnebam gaapo

237


kacobriobis cxovreba or did nawilad da Sua

gautara didi kvali samzRvrada. kvals iqiT darCa

moZRvreba SurisZiebisa, samagieros gadaxdisa,

javrisa da mrisxanebisa, da kvals aqed _

moZRvreba urTierTobisa, urTierTis siyvarulisa,

Sendobisa, mitevebisa, mSvidobisa Sewynarebisa. iq

risxva da msjavria, aq mSvidobis yofa da miteveba!

“ara kac kla, ara imruSo, ara iparo, da ara

cili swamo, ara guli giTqmides ararazed, raic

iyos moyvasisa Senisa”,_ambobda Zveli moZRvreba

Zvelis cxovrebisa. ra aris es _ nu mohklav, nu

moiparav, nu imruSeb, nu cils swameb, nu

SeiSurveb? es is aris, rom nu iqm borotsao.

movida axali aRTqma, axali moZRvreba axalis

cxovrebisa da gveubneva: aramc Tu nu iqm

borotsa, hqmen keTilio. nu iqm borotsa mcnebaa

Zvelisa, hqmen keTili, mcnebaa axalisa da amiT

ganirCeva Zveli aRTqma axalisagan. didi manZilia

borotis araqmnisa da keTilis qmnis Soris.

erTmaneTs arasferSi ara hgvanan. borotis araqmna

igia, rom ar miayeno vneba moyvassa, keTilis qmna

igia, rom sikeTe mianiWo, sikeTe uyo. sakmao ar

aris, rom kaci ar mohkla, unda acocxlo kidec;

sakmao ar aris ara gamoswiro ra, unda SesZino

kidec; sakmao ar aris ara cili swamo, unda

marTals miuwyavde kidec; sakmao ar aris ara

guli giTqmides moZmis keTilisaTvis, unda

gixarodes, mxiarulobde kidec, unda Svelode,

xels uwyobde; sakmao ar aris ara gZuldes moZme,

unda giyvardes kidec, sakmao ar aris aryofa

borotisa, unda keTilis yofa; sakmao ar aris

borotisaTvis xel-fexi Seikra, unda sikeTisaTvis

xeli, fexi gaSalo, amoqmedo.

Zveli aRTqma xorcis uvneblobisaTvis fari

iyo, axali aRTqma sulis aRdgomisaTvis sacxovari

Ronea. amitomac iq kbili kbilis wil aris da

238


Tvali Tvalis wil, ese igi xorci xorcis wil,

aq ki siyvaruli, Sendoba da miteveba. ese igi,

sulis dadeba moyvasisaTvis. didma moZRvrebam

yovlad macxovar siyvarulisam gahfanta bneli,

gaadno yinuli Zvelis uwyalobisa da moavlina igi

naTeli da siTbo wyalobisa, uromlisodac

qveynierobazed araferi ara hxeirobs, araferi ar

modis, ar izrdeba, ara hyvavis, ara scxovrobs.

gaiyara Zveli da axali, bneli da naTeli,

sikvdili da sicocxle da mogveniWa cxovreba,

imitom _ rom mkvdar iyo suli Cveni da qristem

aRadgina mkvdreTiT.

aba daukvirdiT TviTon Jams qristes aRzdegis

dResaswaulisas, da saocrad gansuraTebulia es

Zvelisa da axlis, sikvdilisa da sicocxlis,

bnelisa da naTelis erTmaneTisagan gayra. TiTqo

igavia, TiTqo gangeb aris ase momxdari, rom

TvaliTac davinaxoT is, rasac guliTa vgrZnobT,

gonebiTa vxedavT. rodis modis dResaswauli

qristes aRzdegisa? TiTqmis pirvel xans gazafxulisas,

ese igi, maSin, roca zamTrisagan

gayinuli, sudara-mosili, ganZrcvnili, umwvano,

uyvavilo, usixarulo, usicocxlo buneba sicocxlisaTvis

Tvals axels, iRviZebs xelaxlad

amwvanebisaTvis, ayvavebisaTvis, axalis cxovrebisaTvis.

Tu zamTrisagan kvdeba buneba,

gazafxulisagan mkvdreTiT aRzdgeba xolme. iq

miZinebuli sikvdilia Zvelisa, aq mkvdreTiT

aRdgomili, axlad gamoRviZebuli sicocxlea. Tu

zamTari siberea, miZinebisa, sikvdilisa, gazafxuli

saxea axlobisa, aRdgomisa, sicocxlisa.

aramc Tu dro wlisa, aramed saaTic ki dRisa,

roca pirvelad aRmovityviT xolme “qriste

aRzdgao”. _ es saaTic ki gvaSinebs, ris momaswavebelia

aRdgoma qristesi: aRzdga qriste da

bneli unda ganSordes naTelsa, naTelma unda

239


imefos, ixelmwifos. es is saaTia, roca Rame

ukuiqceva Tvisis sibneliTa da mis magier

cxovelmyofeli dRe modis Tvisis sinaTliTa.

amodis Tu ara cazed alioni _ es winamorbedi

ganTiadisa da mtredisfrad gariJraJdeba gumbaTi

cisa, zari dResaswaulisa gviwvebs sadideblad da

sagalobelad qristes aRzdegisaTvis, TiTqo

gveubnebodes: aRzdegiT Zilisagan, midis bneli da

movals naTeli. ixileT da gaixareT! es is saaTia,

roca Ramis sibnele uTmobs adgils dRis

sinaTlesa, rogorc Zvelis cxovrebis bnelma

dauTmo adgili axalis naTelsa.

cxovrebis momniWebel qristes aRzdegis

dResaswauls ukeTesi dro ver SeerCeoda, Tu ara

ganTiadi gazafxulisa, ese igi, is xani da saaTi,

roca cxovelmyofeli siTbo scvlis sicives,

naTeli bnelsa da mTels bunebas aRimilebs

sacxovari Zali axlad aRorZinebisa, axlad

gaSlisa, axlad ayvavebisa, axlad cxovrebisa...

moZRvreba qristesi igive ganTiadi iyo, igive

gazafxuli kacobriobis cxovrebisaTvis!

240

D


«evropis evropis evropis saomari saomari saomari mzadeba mzadeba»

mzadeba

tfilisi, 14 aprili

evropa mainc Tavisas ar iSlis da dids

saomars mzadebaSia. zarbaznis qarxana krupisa

gacxarebuls SromaSia da rac SekveTili aqvs

sxvadasxva saxelmwifoTagan ZlivsZlivobiTRa

aswrobs. samxedro saministroni, saidac ki

miixedavT, yvelgan dids TadarigSi arian: iq

cixeebs aSeneben, aq ukve aSenebuls ufro amagreben,

gzebi gahyavT da gamohyavT, jarebs umateben,

saxarjod auarebel millionebs hTxouloben,

parlamentebic uars ar eubnebian da arian davidarabasa

da vai-vaglaxSi. amasobaSi yovelis

mxridam marto isRa ismis, rom yovelive es

mSvidobianobis surviliT mogvdiso da sapolitiko

ca ase gadawmendili gansacdelian Rrublebisagan

didi xania ara yofilao. Cvenc yurs vugdebT

da viZaxiT: Tqvens pirs Saqario.

TiTqo am samSvidobo xmebs sabuTica aqvs.

evropaSi dRes mizeziani saqme marto bolgariis

saqmea. am saqmis gamo laparaki rogorRac miswyda

am bolos dros; erTi mxare iZaxis, dee, rac unda

hqmnano, Cven bolgariis Sinaurs saqmeSi ar

gavereviTo; meore iZaxis, me minamde Cumad viqmnebi,

vidre TviTon bolgarelni xvewnas ar damiwyeben,

241


an vidre exlandelni regentebi ar gadadgebian da

sxva kanoniers marTvelobas ar dauTmoben

adgilsao. erTi mxarec Ronieria da meoreca da

bolgarelT wlulni orisave mxridganve stkivaT

da ar ician, ra hqmnan. am arcodnasa da tokvaSi

bolgariis saqmem Tavisi simwvave, jerxanad mainc,

dahkarga da dRe igi mxolod damcxrals tkivils

warmoadgens. sakvirveli ki es aris: Cacxreba Tu

ara aliaqoTi bolgariis gamo, maSinve ar SeiZleba

sxvagan sadme cecxlmosakidebi muguzali vinmem ar

gaaCanCxaros da saSiSi naperwklebi ar gaayrevinos.

es daemarTa amas winad evropas, roca bismarkma

Tavisi samxedro kanoni Seitana reixstagSi da

mTeli evropa safrangedzed miaxeda, TiTqo

cecxlis gaCenas aqedam hlamobdao. aqedam rom

vera gamodna ra, xelaxlad aiSala saqme bolgariaSi.

jarebis areulobam wamohyo Tavi. esec

xom damSvidda da aqedamac ara gamovida ra. arc

amis gamo daetaknen erTmaneTs saxelmwifoni da

windaxedulma sifrTxilem Tavi aravis gamoadebina

saomrad. axla avRanistanis keras waekida cecxli,

iqneba aqedam mainc gamodnes rameo.

vin aris yovel amis momqmedni? vis uWiravs

xelSi manqanis marTulebi, rom qveyanas egre Tavis

nebazed aTamaSebs? markizi salusberi mTavar–

ministri inglisisa amisTanaebSi metad gaTqmuli

da gaostatebulia, magram ara gvgonia igi am

saqmeSi gaerios, vidre irlandiis gamo kanonebi ar

gautarebia parlamentSi da parlamentis momxreobiT

zurgi ar gaumagrebia. Tumca eg kanonebi

orjel ukve waukiTxavT parlamentSi da orjelve

SeuwynarebiaT, magram saqme mesame jeria. Tu

mesamejerac mag kanonma parlamentSi mSvidobiT

gaiara, maSin, ra Tqma unda, parlamentiT zurggamagrebuli

salusberi mTels Tavis ostatobas

ixmarebs, rom evropa ariv-darivos. amisTanaebSi

242


igi TviTon bismarksac ar Camouvardeba. minamde ki

Znelad safiqrebelia, rom gabedos da dasaxvanWavi

qseli ram gaabas evropaSi – Tu T. bismarks

vigulisxmebT, radganac dRevandelis politikis

sablis orive wveri xelT uWiravs, egec Zneli

dasajerebelia mas aqeT, rac italiis saministroSi

adgili daiWira b-nma krispim, TiTqmis

aSkara momxrem safrangeTisam.

dRes am italiis saministros cvlilebis gamo

avstriisa, germaniisa da italiis kavSiri

rogorRac saimedo aRar aris. italia rogorRac

ganzed udgeba avstriasa da germanias da Tumca

sxvas aravisTan kavSirs ar apirobs, magram arc am

or saxelmwifosTan unda erTad yofna. esec

sakmarisia, rom T. bismarkis siTamames da

kadnierebas karga blomad frTa Seekvecos. Tu

italia da inglisi kavSiris gared darCebian, maSin

evropa, erTi mxriT warmoadgens avstrias da

germanias, meores mxriT, ruseTsa da safrangeTs,

romelTac Tumca erTmaneTSi araviTari piroba ara

aqvT jer dadebuli, magram SesaZloa garemoebam es

orni erTmaneTs Sehyaros. amisi SiSi didi xania

guls uxeTqs bismarksa. raki erTis mxriT avstria

da germania iqmneba da meores mxriT ruseTi da

safrangeTi, maSin orisave mxris Zliereba

gaTanasworebuli iqneba da maSasadame, gamarjvebac

saTuo da saeWvo gaxdeba. T. bismarks ki jer arc

erTi omi ar dauwyvia ise, rom yovelive garemoeba

gamarjvebisa saTuod gauxada, ara gvgonia T.

bismarkma mizeziRa eZebos arev-darevisa. ufro

safiqrebelia, rom mopirdapire mxarem eseTi

gaTanasworeba Zlierebisa Tavisad icnas da

gahbedos ram dRes, roca saxelmwifoTa ganwyobileba

erTmaneTSi am xazzed dadga.

243


244

«zneobrivi zneobrivi siwmindis siwmindis mniSvneloba

mniSvneloba

eris eris mermisisaTvis

mermisisaTvis»

mermisisaTvis

mermisisaTvis

tfilisi, 16 aprili

safrangeTis mecnieri, saxelganTqmuli renani,

hlaparakobs ra qristes aqed, pirvelis saukunis

naxevarzed da gvixatavs ra mTelis qveynierobis

cxovrebis suraTs am xanSi, ambobs, rom Tumca

romis imperia mowamluli iyo mravalgvaris

mwikvliTa da garyvnilobiTa, magram mainc es dro

imisTana ar iyo, rom kacs am mxriT sasoeba

warekveTna da qveynis zneobiTad damxobis molodins

miscemodao. “marTalic ariso, ganagrZobs

renani: Zveli suli romisa kidev hscocxlobda da

htrialebda. patiosneba kacuris xasiaTisa jer

Sors iyo saukunod wawymedisagan da ar gamqraliyo.

didni anderZni Tavmowonebulis ridisa da

saTnoebisa Seikedla Tavis safarvels qveS

zogierTma ojaxma, romelmac imperatoris neronis

dros xelisuflebamde miaRwies da brwyinvale

Saravandedi mohfines antoninebis saukunesa,

mWermetyvelebiT tacitis mier aRwerilsa. igi

dro, romelmac gamozarda, gamoayena, axeira iseTi

Rrmad patiosanis Wkuis kacni, rogorc

kvintiliani, plini umcrosi, taciti, imisTana ar

iyo, rom SesaZlo yofiliyo adamiani sasowar-


kveTilebas miscemoda, umarTebuloba zedapirisa

Tavis dReSi ar dasvwvdenia im dids saZirkvels

patiosanebisa da WkvaTamyoflobisas, romelsac

romis kargi sazogadoeba Seadgina. zogierTi

ojaxebi jer kidev Tavdadebulni iyvnen keTilzneobisaTvis,

movaleobis erTgulebisaTvis,

Tanxmobisa da saTnoebisaTvis. keTilSobil

saxleulobaSi kaci Sexvdeboda didad patiosans

meuRles, mSveniers da didad patiosan dasa. gana

yofila visime bedi gulSesatkivebelad samagaliTo,

rogorc axalgazrda da ubiwoebiT savse

oktaviasi, klavdiis asulisa da neronis colisa,

romelsac siwminde Tvisi ar SeubRalvia arc

erTis moqmedebiTa, Tumca bilwi, mwikvli gars

exvia! igi ocdaoris wlisa moakvdines, ese igi,

maSin roca jer arc erTi sixarulic ar egemna

qveynierobazed. colebi qmrebs misdevdnen

eqsoriaSi, sxvani qmrebTan erTad hrCeobdnen saxelovans

sikvdilsa. Zveli, sada cxovreba romisa

ar iyo gamqrali, Svilebs didis zrunviT da

TavdadebiT hzrdidnen. qalebi didis ojaxebisa da

gvareulebisa ara hTakilobdnen matylis keTebasa

da rTvasa; morTvisa da pranWiaobis zrunva kargs

ojaxebSi TiTqmis arc ki icodnen, ra aris”.

garda amisa ra saocari magaliTebia maSindeli

kacebis didbunebovanobisa, nuTu marTla gamoke-

Tebis Zalni TviTve ar aqvs im sazogadoebas, romelic

hbadavs, hzdis da gamoayenebs xolme mtkice

xasiaTebis kacebs, gmirebs? gana am SemTxvevaSi

samarTlianad xelzed dasaxvevi da Wkuad misaRebi

sabuTi ar aris, magaliTebr, helvidi priskusis

gmiroba, romelsac TviT renani mogviTxrobs? es

helvidi vespasianis drosa scxovrobda da radganac

amxilebda im droebis borotsa, sikvdiliT

dasja gadauwyvites da roca vespasianma es gamoucxada,

_ helvidma mSvidobianad da Tavmowo-

245


nebiT uTxra: “Seni saqmea kvla da Cemi saqme ki kacurad

sikvdilio”. anu magaliTebr demetre cinikis

ambavi, roca ganrisxebuls da gamwyrals nerons

upasuxa: “Tqven me memuqrebiT sikvdils da

buneba Tqven gemuqrebaT magasveo”.

amisTana kacebis aRmzrdeli da sulisCamdgmeli

Zali didi Zalia da am Zalis meqons sazogadoebas

ver eTqmis, rom fesvi cxovrebisa Sehsustebia.

amaebzed afuZnebs renani im azrs, rom, saca mis

mier CamoTvlilni saTnoebanni jer kidev

arseboben, binas hpouloben da Tavs irCenen, iq

sazogadoeba jer Sors aris aRmofxvrisagana da

gamZleobis Zalni TviTve aqvso. kacobrioba ki ara,

romi daeca, viTarca TviTmpyrobeli maSindelis

qveynisa da mis gasamZleo naSTzed aSenda axali

qveyana, warmodgnen sxva, axalni Tu Zvelni erni,

romelTac dRes sve-bedi qveynierobisa xelT

uWiravT da kacobriobas win uZRvebian.

Cven am azris garCevaSi ar SevalT. es ki unda

vsTqvaT, rom Zalian dasafiqrebeli azria, gulSi

metad mosaxvedria da dasaWdevi. marTalia igi, Tu

ar aris marTali romis istoriis axsnisaTvis,

mainc Znelia kacma mag azrs angariSi ar gauwios,

roca romelisame eris yofa _ cxovrebaSi Rrmad

Caixedavs. es erTi ki, Cvenis fiqriT, ueWvelia: Tu

renanis mier CamoTvlilni saTnoebani dedakacobisa,

Tu mamakacobisa, aqa-iq sazogadoebaSi darCenilni,

ar arian Tavmdebni bevr wilad mixwnilis eris

gamokeTebisa, gamobrunebisa, am saTnoebaTa arqona

ki usaTuo niSania, rom eri qveynis zurgidam

asagvelad gadadebulia. Tu am saTnoebaTa kantikuntad

qona ver SesZlebs eri win waayenos

gamokeTebis gzazed, arqona ki usaTuod ukan damwevi

mizezia. amitomac ers, romelsac dRegrZeloba

da mermisi hsurs, erTi fiqri unda hqondes:

saTnoeba dargos da axaros Tavis gulSi, Tavis

246


ojaxSi. amisaTvis saWiroa zneobis amaRleba da

gawmenda. amazed unda miiqces mTeli Rone eris

gulSematkivaris kacisa. igi deda, Tu mama,

romelic Tavisi SvilisaTvis mzrunvelobas imazed

ar miaqcevs, rom kacuri kaci gamouvides, igi Wiaa,

romelic Tavis ers mermisis Zirs uTxris da

uRrRnis dRe mudam da iqneba arc ki hgrZnobdes,

ra codvaSi hdgeba: igi nel-nela hlesavs danas,

romelsac adre iqneba Tu gvian yeli unda

gamosWras misve STamomavalsa, misve ersa.

247


248

«Snebeles Snebeles saqme saqme» saqme

tfilisi, 21 aprili

safrangeTis gazeTi “Nation”-i, romelic sxvazed

ufro mSvidobismoyvareobiT cnobilia, ambobs:

“is ambavi, rac panieSi moxda, Tu raime

Secdomis Sedegi ar aris, pirdapir omSi

gamowvevis ambad unda CaiTvalos. germania saomrad

gviwvevs da hsurs omi Cven dagvawyebinos. Cven ver

wagvityueben. Cveni pirveli vali is aris, rom

Tavi daviWiroT da ar avCqardeT. Tavis daWera da

gulmagrobaa yvelazed uwinares saWiro CvenTvisa!

gaufrTxilebels sityvas anu moqmedebas SeuZlian

saqme omamde miiyvanos da safrangeTi im maxeSi

gaibas, rasac germania ugebs. evropa Tavis mxriTa

hxedavs, rom safrangeTs omi ar hsurs. safrangeTsa

hsurs Tavisis Rirsebis sakadrisi mSvidobianoba

da arasgziT ara aitans, rom sircxvili

aWamos vinmem. safrangeTi hcdilobs oms moeridos,

magram ukanasknels groSs, ukanasknels jariskacs

gamoimetebs, Tu mis patiosnebas, Tavmowonebas da

damoukideblobas Seexnen”.

amave ambavzed inglisis gazeTi “Times”-i ambobs:


“jer imedi viqonioT, rom es ambavi male

sruliad aixsneba da rac exla gaugebaria, mas

Suqi moefineba, maincdamainc ki exla Znelia, kacma

Tavi daiWiros, am ambis ganmartebas xeli ar

waatanos. Tu marTla yovelive es marTalia, rasac

safrangeTSi hlaparakoben, aq xalxTa Soris

marTebulobis darRveva iseTi didia, rom dauyovnebliv

ganTavisufleba Snebelesi aucilebelia da

amasTanave germaniis mTavrobam b-n gauCis moqmedeba

ukanono moqmedebad unda aRiaros, uamisod

aucilebelia, rom sadiplomato usiamovnobam Tavi

ar iCinos”.

ra aris panieSi momxdari ambavi? vin aris

Snebeli, gauCi da ra moxda iseTi, rom ase mkvaxed

aalaparaka gazeTebi da SiSis zari igrZno

yvelama? Snebeli gaxlavT safrangeTis policieli

kamisari zed safrangeTis samzRvarzed da exla 60

wlis kacia. igi Tavdadebuli, erTguli mamulis-

Svilia safrangeTisa da amis gamo metad

pativcemuli da cnobili safrangeTSi. igi sapatio

legionis niSanis mqonebelia, sarwmunoebiT

protestantia. bismarkma araerTxel SeaZlia didi

Tanamdeboba, oRond germaniaSi gadmodi samsaxurSio,

magram Snebelem dabali Tanamdeboba irCia

safrangeTSi, vidre germaniaSi maRali. Snebeles

didi xma, gavlena da kavSiri hqonda elzaslotarenis

mamuliSvilebTan da safrangeTSiac

Zalian TanaugrZnobda da hSveloda egredwodebul

“samamuliSvilo ligasa”, romelsac am ukanasknel

dReebamde moTaved hyvanda saxelganTqmuli

deruledi da exla elzaseli sanbefi hyavs, kaci

Tavgamodebuli, gulmagari da gambedavi, rogorc

deruledi gvarwmunebs. am Snebeles germanielni

avis TvaliT uyurebdnen, radganac swamebdnen,

viTom igi aqezebs elzas-lotarenis mkvidrTagan

249


gamoyvanil jariskacT, rom germaniis jarebs

mohSordnen da safrangeTSi gamoiqcnen. amasTan

isic mizezad daxveuli hqondaT germanelebs, rom

elzas-lotarenidam safrangeTis momxreobis gamo

gandevnils reixstagis deputats antuans

maspinZloba gauwia da kargad dauxvda.

gauCi germaniis policieli kamisaria, mzveraobiT

“SpionobiT” cnobili. panie sabaJo

sadguria, TiTqmis zed samzRvarzed safrangeTisa

da germaniis Sua, mecTan axlos, sul sams

gadanacvlobis manZilzed. am sazRvarzed, rasakvirvelia,

mijnis saniSnavi boZebia damwkrivebuli.

erTi am boZTagani, germaniis mxriT gadaqceul iyo.

radganac wesisamebr gadaqceulis boZis xelaxlad

aRdgena mosamzRvreTa kamisarebis TanadaswrebiT

unda moxdes, amitomac germaniis kamisars gauCs

baraTi miuweria SnebelesaTvis da uTxovnia,

daeswros. Snebele misula, magram gauCi ar

dahxvedria, radganac ecnobebina exla ara

mcaliano. amis Semdeg meored miuweria da Snebele

xelaxlad misula. gauCi ar daxvedroda da amis

lodinSi Snebele bolTis cemas mosdgomia da

ramdenisame adlis manZilzed gadmoscdenia

samzRvars. maSin iqav axlo venaxidam gamocvivnula

ori Casafrebuli kaci da wautanebiaT xeli

dasaWerad. Snebele Turme Zalian xelRonieri

kacia da orive daucia dedamiwaze; TiTon ki

moukurcxlavs da safrangeTis kuTvnils adgilzed

gadasula. es ori kaci wamomdgara, gamosdgomia,

moswevnia da dauWeriaT Snebele. radganac aqac

gasZalebia, gauyriaT xel-fexSi borkili da ise

zezeulad wamouRiaT. germanielT, rasakvirvelia,

arc acives da arc acxeles, aiRes da pativcemuli

Snebele mecis cixeSi CaabZanes.

exla amboben, rom sul yovelive ese win

dawyebuli oinbazobaa gauCisao: gamoityuva

250


Snebele samzRvarzed da xafangSi moamwyvdiao.

amasac amboben, rom TviTon gauCi imave venaxSi

yofila Casafrebuli, saidamac is ori kaci

gadmomxtara Snebeles dasaWerada. es ki aSkarad

damtkicebulia, rom is ori kaci swored prusiis

policielni yofilan, mexres tanisamosiT gangeb

Cacmulni.

ai, is panies da Snebeles ambavi, romelmac ase

aayayana exla mTeli Jurnal-gazeToba evropisa da

fexzed daayena safrangeTisa da germaniis

diplomatia. exla safrangeTis mxriTac da

germaniis mxriTac didi gamoZiebaa am saganzed

daniSnuli. am ambavs Zalian aumRvrevia guli

mTelis safrangeTisaTvis da birJazedac ki birJis

qaRaldebis fasi Zirs dauwevia. TviTon zemomoyvanilis

“Nation”-is da “Times” – is sityvebisagan

sCans am Tvalad pawia saqmes ra mniSvneloba aqvs

drevandel uamisodac gulamRvreul da Semrezil

dRisaTvis. Tqma ar unda, rom germanias dasWirdeba

bodiSis moxda da Tu am gziT rogorme guli ar

mougo safrangeTsa da mis samarTlians Tavmowonebas

nugeSi ara misca ra, SesaZloa saqme

xmalzed mivardes. amisTana ukadrisobas ver

aitans vera TavisTavis pativmcemeli eri da

nametnavad imisTana Tavmomwone, rogoric

safrangeTis eria.

251


«gamofenis gamofenis mowyobis uperspeqtivoba

uperspeqtivoba»

uperspeqtivoba

uperspeqtivoba

252

tfilisi, 22 aprili

visac ki cotad mainc Tval-yuri udevnebia

misTvis Tu, ra mdgomareobaSia exlandeli samrewvelo

da sameurneo warmoeba sruliad ruseTisa,

ecodineba, rom amJamad bevrma ruseTis ekonomistebma

yvelam yuradReba miiqcia, TavianTi

karabadinebi gadaSales da wamlisa da malamos

rCeva daiwyes. TviTveuli amas ambobda da ambobs:

Tu Cem mier narCevs gzas daadgebian, saekonomio

walkoti sruliad ruseTisa mTlad gadiSleba da

ayvavdebao.

sxvaTa da sxvaTa karabadinebSi napovn malamoTa

Soris, romliTac an erTs, an meores hsurs

wyluli samrewvelo da sameurneo warmoebisa

gaamTelos, gamofenebis gamarTvaa. marTlada,

wlevandels weliwads yvela am gamofenam gaitaca

da TiTqo Sesayari da gadamdebi ram senio, didsa

da pataras enazed sul eg akeria. jer es

weliwadi imiTi daiwyo, rom moskovSi meTevzeoba

da Tevzeulobis gamofena gaimarTa; apiroben

gamarTvas “sruliad ruseTis sameurneo gamofenisas”

xarkovSi, “uralis samrewvelo gamofenas”,

ekaterineburgSi; ganzraxva iyo gaemarTnaT

peterburgSi “Tevzis moSenebisa da Tevzis Weris

gamofena sruliad ruseTisa”, magram jerxanad


saxelmwifo qonebaTa saministrom Seayena da

samermisod gadasdves. arc Cveni mxare gadurCa am

gamofenis wyurvilsa.

Cvenc, Cvenis mxriT, kavkasiis sameurneo

gamofena gavmarToTo, brZana b-nma din gelStetma

da aramcTu brZana, mTeli moxseneba waikiTxa am

saganzed kavkasiis sameurneo sazogadoebaSi da

hsurda amave 1887 wels gamarTuliyo tfilisSi

sruliad kavkasiis gamofena.

riT da ris gamoa sanatreli gamofena? amboben,

rom gamofena mwarmoebels imiT axalisebs, aqezebs

Tavisi nawarmoebi gamoitanos gamofenazeo, rom Tu

mosawonia, jildos miiRebs. am jildos imediT

yvela ecdeba, nawarmoebi, rac SesaZloa, ganakargos

da am gziT gankargdeba TviT warmoebacao.

raki yvela, Tu umetesi nawili gamoitans gamofenaze

Tavis nawarmoebs, Cveni inteligenciac

dainaxavs sruls suraTs im mdgomareobisas, ra-

Siac imyofeba sasoflo da samrewvelo warmoebao.

samzRvargareTidamac gvewveviano, hnaxven Cvens

avla-didebas, Cvens mSveniers nawarmoebs da

aRebmicemobas gagvimarTveno. TviTon mwarmoebelic

erTmaneTs dainaxven, Tavis mezobel da moZmes

gaicnoben erTmaneTis avsa da kargs gaigebeno da

sxvani da sxvani.

es yvelaferi Zalian kargia, Tu marTla egrea.

egre kia? egre marTali marto maSin iqneba, Tu

kacs daanaxvebT erTs mSvenier romelsame sasaxles

tfilisSi da amiT afiqrebinebT, rom mTeli

saqarTvelos eri amisTana sasaxleebSi qeifobs.

marTalia, Svenierad morTulad ujrebSi minis

saxuravqveS gamowyobili iqmneba mSvenieri, TeTri

da saocari matyli, saocari da mSvenieri

xorbali, bamba, abreSumi, Rvino, CiTi, naqsovi da

sxva saucxovod da sagangebod gakeTebuli, an

moyvanili nivTi ram. nuTu es marTali suraTi

253


iqneba misi, rac marTla da namdvilad aris? is

saocari nivTebi, rac gamofenazed gamoaqvT, rom

sanTliT eZeboT gamofenis sadguris gared xom

veRarsad hnaxavT! igini xom sul nimuSebia da

sanimuSed gangeb gakeTebuli Tu moyvanili; xom am

nimuSis saqonels versad ipoviT sayidlad imitom,

rom Cveneburi uTavbolo bazari sxvadasxva

mizezis gamo mag qebaTa qebis Rirs saqonels

maminacvlad ekideba da TviTon sazogadoebamac da

ermac kargad icis, rom yvela eg saxelisaTvis

aris da ara saxravisaTvis, yvela eg namdvili

Svili ki ar aris Cvenis meurneobisa, aramed geria,

azizad da saTuTad gazrdili mokmaz-mopranWuli

maminacvlisagan TavmowonebisaTvis.

Cvenis fiqriT, aramsoflio gamofenis azri

umTavresad da yovelT uwinares is unda iyos,

rom vnaxoT igi, rac saxelwodebul eris

saekonomio sagzals Seadgens, riTac eri sayoveldReod

hrCeba, ikvebeba, aRebmicemobs da Wirs da

sixaruls ama qveynisas ase Tu ise uZRveba. aq

imisTana nimuSia saWiro, romelic tipad misaRebia

ama da am eris warmoebisa, romelic gvaniSnebs

sikeTes zogadis nawarmoebisa da ara marto

gansakuTrebulisas da sagangebod namoqmedarisas.

eris saekonomio mdgomareobis codnisaTvis marto

eseTi gamofenaa saWiro, Tund am gamofenazed

erTic ar iyos nimuSi sagangebod gakeTebulisa Tu

moyvanilisa. mxolod maSin warmoudgeba kacs

gamofenaze eri Tavis orTa Sua Zal-RoniT, Tavis

ekonomiur yofis metnaklebobiT, radganac amisi

maCvenebeli marto Sua saxea nawarmoebisa da ara

calke sagangebo ram.

SesaZloa da saWiroc, rasakvirvelia, sagangebod

namoqmedaris naxvaca, rom kacs Tvalwin

hqondes magaliTi imisi Tu, sadamde misaRwevia ama

da am dros da ama da am adgils gankargeba rome-

254


lisame nivTisa, an saqonlisa, Tu kaci codniT,

gamWriaxobiT da bejiTad Seudgeba saqmes. xolo

eg eris saekonomio Zal-Ronis maCvenebeli ki ar

aris, aramed TviTveulis calke ostatisa, _ da

amisTana ostatebis CamoTvlas CvenSi adamianis aTi

TiTic eyofa. CvenTis, romelTac ara viciT ra

Cvenis qveynisa, ufro saWiroa imisTana nawarmoebis

gamofena, romelic gvaniSnebs rac CvenSi

sayoveldReoa da ara iSviaTi da sagangebo; rac

CvenSi aTasSi cxraasi mainc aris da ara aTasSi

erTia marto gamosarCevi da TiTiT saCvenebeli.

jer erTi, es vsTqvaT, rom imisTana gamofenaSi

romelsac marTven xolme viTomda mwarmoebelis

saxeliTa da mis sacodnelad da gamosakeTeblad,

mwarmoebeli TiTqmis wres gareSe hrCeba da am

gamofenisagan arc eciveba da arc ecxuneba.

wamdauwum ki mwarmoebels axseneben, mwarmoebelis

sabednierod hnaRvloben da marTven gamofenas.

sainteresoa SevityoT, _ ra nugbari ergebaT

xolme TviT mwarmoeblebs? Tqma ar unda, kai

saqmea ukeTesma mwarmoebelma jildo miiRos, kai

saqmea Tu Tavisi ara, sxvisi kargad nakeTebi

hnaxos da iswavlos, magram erTi es vikiTxoT:

romels gamofenaSi miuRia monawileoba TviT

mwarmoebels? an rogor miiRos, Tu gamofena

marto sagangebod nakeTebs egebeba sixaruliT da

sayoveldReozed ki cxvirs maRla iwevs? am

SemTxvevaSi gamofena iSviaTs hTxoulobs da

mwarmoebeli ki sazogadod iSviaTis mkeTebeli ar

aris. iSviaTis gamomtanni ki calke kacni arian da

ara krebuli zogad mwarmoebelTa. amitom moxdeba

xolme is sasacilo ambavi, rom gamofenis jildo

xSirad imas Sexvdeba xolme, visac dajildoebulis

sagnis Sesaqmnelad xelic ki ar

gaunZrevia. vin ar icis, rom “sruliad ruseTis

gamofenazed” petrus makarovma miiRo jildo

255


kargis kaxuris RvinisaTvis da vgonebT araerTxel

da orjelac, magram amasTan vin ar icis, rom

petrus makarovs kargis kaxuris Rvinis brali

imodenad daedeba, ramodenadac CineTis boRdixansa.

ra nugeSia TviTon Rvinis mwarmoebelisaTvis, rom

sirajma misgan nayids RvinoSi jildo gaikras! aba,

ra SuaSia aq mwarmoebeli? sad aris imisi saxeli?

Cvenis fiqriT, raki gamofena im azrzed iqneba

marto agebuli, rom sagangebo nawarmoebis kolleqciiT

isaxelos Tavi, mwarmoebeli, romelic

sazogadod orTaSua sikeTis mqonebels saqonels

amzadebs, moridebuli iqmneba da marto meqarxneebi,

vaWrebi da CarCebi Tu gamoiyeneben

gamofenas im mxriT, rom saxeli gaiTqvan, duqanzed

daaweron “dajildoebulia ama da am gamofenazed”

da muStari moipovon. aba amisTana jildomiRebuls

vaWars, meqarxnes, Tu CarCsa uTxariT: im nimuSis

saqoneli minda viyido, rac Sen gamofenazed

gqonda da mamyideo, Tu sasacilod ar agigdoT,

rogorc ugunuri mtredi.

256


«kvlav kvlav kvlav Snebelesa Snebelesa da da da gauCis gauCis Sesaxeb Sesaxeb» Sesaxeb Sesaxeb

tfilisi, 23 aprili

Snebeles saqmea da mTeli Jurnal-gazeToba,

raSi mdgomareos es saqme, ukve movaxseneT Cvens

mkiTxvelebs. exla meti ar iqneba movuCxrikoT

saTave da wveri vupovoT gamosaxsneli im

mravalferobaSi, romelSiac es saqme JurnalgazeTebis

sityviT, dRes Cayenebulia. Snebeles

daWeras TiTqmis yvela gazeTebi germanulTa garda

da zogierTi germanulic, bismarks abraleben,

radganac TiTqmis yvelani amas amtkiceben da

bismarksac amisTanaebi ar daeficeba. exla

sakiTxavi es aris: risTvis mohsurvebia bismarks

amisTana naperwkalis gadagdeba iqiT, saca

uamisodac asafeTqeblad gadadebulia mSvidobianoba,

Tofis wamliT garSemortymuli?

aq Jurnal-gazeTobis azri ornairia: erTni

amboben, rom bismarki exlac ise moiqca, rogorc

Svidwleulis samxedro kanonis gasinjvis drosa

parlamentSio. maSin bismarkma Tavisi gazeTebi

gaalaSqra safrangeTzed im azriT, rom

gaaborotos safrangeTi, meti ram aTqmevinos, an

aqmnevinos da germanelT aniSnos, rom ai, omis

SiSi saidam aris da amis dasaxvedrad Svidwleuli

samxedro kanonia uebar Roned cnobilio. am

moxerxebulma SiSma Tavisi hqmna da reixstagSi

germanelT imisTna kacebi amoarCevina, rom igi sam-

257


xedro kanoni ise miiRes, rogorc bismarksa hsurda.

exlac amisTana gaWireba daadga bismarksa, radganac

50 millioni mosTxova reixstags marto

jarebis gaZlierebisaTvis, vaiTu, amazedac uari

miTxrano da es Snebeles ambavi gangeb

gamoatyvrina, rom qveyana da nametnavad safrangeTi

mkvaxed aalaparakos Tu aamoqmedos da amis gamo

omis atexazed miTiTebiT xelaxlad SeaSinos gulubryvilo

germanelni. Jurnal-gazeTebi, am azris

momxreni, umateben, rom raki Snebeles ambis Semdeg

reixstagma eg 50 millioni kvlav daumtkica bismarks,

exla, rasakvirvelia, xerxiani bismarki am

gansacdelian ambavs CaafuCeCebs da, Tu gaWirda,

bodiSsac mouxdis safrangeTs da saqme amiT gaTavdebao.

sxva gazeTebi sxvas amboben am Snebeles ambis

gamo: bismarks amaTi sityviT dRes omis atexa

emarjvebao. Raribi germania didxans ver gauZlebs

amodena auarebels xarjs mxedrobisas, rasac dRes

ewevao. amitom bismarks guli ucems, rom rac

SeiZleba male gamoiyvanos germania am gaWirebisagan

da saqme da bedi xmlis trialzed

miagdoso. bismarkma amasTan Zalian kargad icis,

rom sisxlisRvras mTeli evropa erideba, rogorc

usamarTlo da uRvTo saqmes da bismarks ara

hsurs, _ am uRvTo saqmis brali brali TviTon

daidvas, an germanias dasdvas, radganac es brali

bismarksa da germaniazed guls aayrevinebs

evropasa. amis gamo yovels Ronesa hxmarobs, rom

safrangeTi gaaborotos da pirvelad imas

amoaRebinos xmali da brali sisxlis Rvrisa

safrangeTs moaxvios kiserzed evropis winaSe. ai,

xsenebul gazeTebis sityviT, saTave Snebeles

saqmisa sad unda moiZebnos. marTalic aris: Tu

kacs romelisame eris gamwareba unda, Znelad

safiqrebelia imazed umwvavesad gulSi wyenis

258


Subis daZgerebia, rogorc Snebeles ambavia. ai ra

sabuTiT.

Svidis dRis winad, vidre eg ambavi moxdeboda,

bZaneba misvlia germanel policiis kamisars gauCs,

Snebele daiWireo. rogor daeWira? Snebele

sagrangeTis moxele kacia, safrangeTis miwa-wyalzed

bina aqvs. gauCs, amboben, gangeb gaduqcevinebia

samzRvris niSani boZi da daubarebia Snebele _

modi, boZi aRvadginoTo. amiT gamoutyuebia Snebele,

kacebi Casafrebuli hyolia, TviTonac iqav

yofila damaluli da mosula Tu ara Snebele,

dauWeriaT. germanelni amtkiceben, rom germaniis

miwa-wyalzed daviWireTo da safrangeTi _ ki ambobs,

Cems miwa-wyalzea daWerilio. saca unda

iyos daWerili Snebele, yvela amas aRiarebs, rom

es ambavi metismeti umarTebuloa da igi samar-

Tliani wyena, romelsac safrangeTi unda hgrZnobdes,

Sem-Zlebelia safrangeTs Tavi gamoadebinos

imodenad, rom TviTon saministromac Tavi veRar

dauWiros gamwarebuls da gulamRvreuls ersao.

Tu marTla es Snebeles ambavi saparlamento

xerxi iyo, bismarki iseTi ostatia, rom Caafu-

CeCebs am saqmes da safrangeTis eris Tavmowonebas

yovelgvar kmayofilebas miscems, da Tu ara, maSin

ki Tu atyda rame, ara gvgonia amiT Tvalebi

auxvios visme da mizezi uwyalo omisa TviTon ar

Seiqmnas evropis winaSe. Snebele dRes gan-

Tavisuflebulia, magram marto es ara kmara, rom

safrangeTis erma es umagaliTo kadniereba bismarkisa

advilad daiviwyos da sircxvili ukadrisobisa

aitanos: sul cota rom vsTqvaT, safrangeTma

bodiSic unda moaxdevinos bismarksa. inebebs

amas bismarki Tu ara? Tu amazed dahyva safrangeTsa,

aSkaraa omis atexis survili gulSi ara

sdebia, roca germaniam safrangeTs Snebeles saqme

maxed daugo.

259


«politikis politikis feriscvaleba feriscvaleba balkaneTis

balkaneTis

balkaneTis

naxevarkunZulze

naxevarkunZulze»

naxevarkunZulze

260

tfilisi, 24 aprili

gazeTebidam amokiTxul depeSebs Tu davukvirdiT

da nametnavad Tu davujereT, gamoCndeba,

rom balkanis naxevarkunZulzed politikam Tu feri

ar icvala, apirobs feris cvalobas. serbiaSi

saministro garaSaninisa gadadgao da mefe milanma

misi samsaxuridam gasvla Seiwynara da xorvatoviCi

moiwoda, rom Caebarebina mTavar-ministrobao.

garaSanini didi momxre iyo, avstriisa da serbiis

politika sul imazed hqonda miqceuli, rom

avstriasTan erToba hqonoda serbiasa da raki

avstriasTan, maSasadame, germaniasTanac. amboben,

garaSaninis gadadgoma im ganxeTqilebam moaxdina,

ramac am bolos xanebSi TviTon serbiis samefo

sasaxleSi Tavi iCina.

mefe milanis meuRle dedofali natalia didi

xania cnobilia, viTarca momxre ruseTisa da gara-

Saninis politikis mopirdapireTa moTaved didi

xania dedofali iTvleboda samefo sasaxleSi.

dRes sCans, dedofals gaumarjvnia da garaSanins

Tavi veRar dauWeria. garaSaninis samsaxuridam gamosvla

imas moaswavebs, rom serbiis politika


cotad Tu bevrad dahSordeba avstriis politikasa

da dauaxlovda ruseTisas.

serbiis gazeTi “odieki” ambobs, rom serbiis

erma unda mosTxovos mTavrobas, xeli aiRos avstriis

momxreobazed da miekedlos rusT-frangTa

kavSirsa, romelic dRes iqneba Tu xvale mosalodneliao.

berlineli gazeTi “Post”-i iZaxis, rom

es “odiekis” Tqmuli winamorbedi niSania saministros

Secvlisa da maSasadame, serbiis politikisaca.

Tu marTalia, rom mefe milanma xorvatoviCi

moiwvia mTavar ministrad, sCans rom politika

serbiisa, Tu sruliad ara, cotad mainc gamzadebulia

ruseTisaken gadaxrisaTvis. xorvatoviCi

iseTi cxare mopirdapire ar aris ruseTis

momxreobisa, rogorc garaSanini. es winadac

daamtkica xorvatoviCma, roca serbiis mTavrobas

winadadeba misca, rom serbiis aficrebi ruseTis

samxedro akademiaSiac unda igzavnebodnen saswavlebladao.

exlac amisi utyuari sabuTi xelT

mogvca: mefe milans gamoucxadebia Tu ara, rom

Sen minda dagavalo mTavar-ministrobao, xorvatoviCs

is piroba daudvia, rom ristiCi sagareo

saqmeTa ministrad dainiSnoso. ristiCi ruseTis

gulmodgine momxrea da winaaRmdegi avstriisa,

mefe milans ar uyabulnia ristiCis ministroba da

xorvatoviCsac uari mouxsenebia.

es ambavi imitom moviyvaneT, rom aqedam cxadada

sCans feriscvaleba serbiis politikisa cudad Tu

bevrad.

bolgariaSic am feriscvalebis niSnebia. gaze-

TebSi moyvanili depeSebi amtkiceben, rom maiori

papovi, sofiis mecixovneTa ufrosi da sagareo

saqmeTa ministri naCeviCi aramcTu samsaxurs Tavs

261


anebebeno, aramed bolgariidam samzRvargared gasvlasac

apirobeno. papovi da naCeviCi cnobilni

arian, viTarca mopirdapireni ruseTisa. amaT samsaxuridam

gamosvlis xmas Zalian umoqmednia bolgariis

mxedrobazed, ase, rom ramdensame aficers

da maTTa Soris gansakuTrebiT daniSnuls kamisars

saregentosas petrovs arza miuciaT samsaxuridam

daTxovnisa. Tumca maTi Txovna jer Sewynarebuli

ar aris, magram TviTon es ambavi da nametnavad mizezi,

romelsac auZulebia papovi da naCeviCi samsaxuridam

gamosuliyvnen, metad sayuradReboa.

am bolos xanebSi papovs araerTxel sajarod

ulaparaknia, rom evropam xeli aiRo bolgariazed,

battenbergis dabruneba SeuZlebeli gaxda da sa-

Wiroa aramcTu dauyovnebliv mowveva saero

krebisa, aramed ruseTTan Serigebacao. am sityvebs

ruseTi mopirdapire kacisas Zlier umoqmednia

bolgariaSi.

yovels amas isic daumateT, rom osmalos

SeuTvlia bolgariis saregentosaTvis: saregento

gadadges, Cemi kamisari riza-bei exlandel saministrosTan

erTad Caibarebs bolgariis saqmeTa winam-

ZRolobas da mere mowveul iqmneba saero kreba

mTavris amosarCevado. ai, gazeTis sityviT, dRevandelTa

saqmeTa mdgomareoba ors umTavres saxelmwifoSi

balkanis naxevarkunZulzed.

Cvenis fiqriT, yovels zemoTqmuls kavSiri

aqvs Snebeles saqmesTan, romelmac evropis yuradReba

srulad miipyra da Tvali evropisa

moaSora sxva saqmeebsa. raki eg saqme dasavleTis

evropisa dascxreba da ganeldeba yovlad SemZlebelis

bismarkis xerxianobiTa da mSvidobianobas am

mxriT, aRara efiqreba ra. SesaZloa yovelive icvalos

aRmosavleT evropaSiac. ase stokavs uReli

politikis sasworisa evropaSi bismarkis manqanebiTa

da minam bismarki Tavis wadils ase Tu

262


ise ar aisrulebs, es uReli Tavis larsa da

donezed ar dadgeba.

263


264

«avlabrelebis avlabrelebis saqme saqme» saqme

I

tfilisi, 25 aprili

paraskevs saRamos, 24-s aprilsa, qalaqis

sabWoSi gairCa erTi friad sayuradRebo saqme.

saqme ese mdgomareobs SemdegSi: mefe erekle meore

rom dabrunebula Samqoris omidam, Tan

gadmouyvania ramdenime komli somexi, aotebulni

yizilbaSebisagan, da dausaxlebia avlabarSi. aq

uboZebia maTTvis, sxvaTa avlabrelebTa erTad

avlabris gareSemo mamuli saxnav-saTesad da

saZovrad. es gadmosaxlebulni jer pirvelad

samefo glexebad CauricxavT da mere saxasod.

TviTon avlabris mamuli ki dedoflis darias

wiladxdomili mamuli yofila da am avlabris

glexTa sazogadoebas uZlevia Rala, erTi meaTedi

mosavlisa. Semdeg daria dedoflisa xazina

dahpatronebia am mamuls da Rala xazinas uRia. am

saukunis pirvel meoTxedSi viRaca SarubaTovs

wautanebia xeli am mamulebisaTvis da sakuTarebad

daCemebisaTvis dava gaumarTavs. avlabrelebs, ra

Tqma unda, Tavi gamoudviaT da bolos saqme

senatamdinac misula. senats 1837 w. daudgenia

ganaCeni da mamuli daugdia avlabrelTa xelSi.

avlabrelebs es dava karga fuli dasjdomiaT, da


aki mainc Tavisad hgulebiaT, sxva xarjic ar

dauzogavT am mamulebis gankargebisaTvis: gamouyvaniaT

TavianTis xarjiT wyali milebiT, qviTkiris

auzebi auSenebiaT, daumarTavT gomebi da farexebi

da yovel amisaTvis karga xarji gauweviaT.

1869 w. es avlabris mamuli gaduciaT qalaqisaTvis

saZovrad da sanaxired. ra gziT, ra

piroboT gadasula es mamuli qalaqis xelSi _

amisi cnoba ar aris Turme qalaqis saqmeebSi. mas

aqed igi mamulebi mainc avlabrelebs sWeriaT,

mxolod im gansxvavebiT rom ijara qalaqisaTvis

uZleviaT. bolos, 16 marts 1887 w., qalaqis

gamgeobas auRia, avlabrelebi gamouwiravs da eg

mamuli ijariT miucia axnazarovisa da

qiSmiSovisaTvis weliwadSi oras Tumnad. 1869

wlidam am 1887 wlamde qalaqis gamgeobas didi

miwer-mowera hqonia am saganzed. am miwermoweridama

sCans, rom avlabrelebs gulidam ar

amouRiaT is marTla da samarTliani imedi, rom eg

mamuli, Tu ijariT gasacemia, maTTvis ufro

upriania, radganac imaTa sWeriaT, imaT udavniaT,

imaT SeunaxavT, imaT ganukargebiaT, da amisaTvis

ara erTi aTasi Tumani dauxarjavT im xanis

ganmavlobaSi, rac xelSi sWeriaT. garda amisa, am

mamulzed yofila damokidebuli cxovrebis

saxsari avlabrelebis sazogadoebisa, romelSiac

ara erTi da ori aTeuli komli kaci iTvleba.

raki SeumCneviaT, rom qalaqis gamgeoba mixrila

imazed, rom eg mamuli Zvelis wesiT aRar amyofos

da ijariT gacemuli unda iqnas, avlabrelebs

araerTxel am aTis-TxuTmetis wlis ganmavlobaSi

uTxovniaT gamgeobisaTvis, Cven nu gamogvwiravT da

ijariT Cven mogveciT Cvenive naWeri miwebi da

calke kacs nu SemogvisevTo. pirvel xanebSi

qalaqis gamgeobas gulmtkivneulobiT Seuwynarebia

avlabrelebis Txovna. amis sabuTs warmoadgens

265


oqmi gamgeobisa 22 maisisa 1876 w., da nametnavad

oqmi TviTon qalaqis sabWosi 12 noembrisa 1879 w.

am ukanasknel oqmSi sweria, rom eg mamuli

usaTuod ijariT gaices da saWiro vaWroba

moxdes, da Tu avlabrelebi aiReben ijariT, maTi

urTierTi Tavdeboba miiRon fulis magier ijaris

fulis Semotanis saimedod, da Tu calke kaci,

imas ki windawin windad an fuli Semoataninon, an

bankis bileTebi.

mere da mere es gulmtkivneuloba qalaqis

gamgeobisa cota ar iyos ganelebula da bolos

ise momxdara saqme, rom eg mamulebi sajaro

vaWrobiT calke kacebs darCeniaT saijarod oras

Tumnad. saqmis sisrulisaTvis esec unda iTqvas,

rarigad momxdara igi sajaro vaWroba. vaWrobaSi

mosulan axnazarovi da qiSmiSovi da aTiode

avlabreli, rom erTobilad ivaWron da asi Tumani

windad SeutaniaT. meore mxare ara yofila.

amasTana dasaxsomia, rom axnazarovs da qiSmiSovs

es piroba SeutaniaT, rom Tu vinicobaa im aTiod

avlabrelma Tavisi wiladxdomili am asis

Tumnisagan ar Semoitanos, ijara marto

axnazarovsa da qiSmiSovzed damtkicdes. Tqma ar

unda, rom ar Semoitanes da daumtkices

axnazarovsa da qiSmiSovsa

xmosans T. mixeil maCabels daunaxavs, rom

qalaqis gamgeoba da sabWo am saqmeSi usamarTlod

mohqcevian avlabrelebs da ramdenime aTeuli

komli kaci gauwiravT umizezod; winadadeba

SeutaniaT, gaauqmon ijara axnazarovisa da

qiSmiSovisa, isev avlabrelebs miscen ijariT maTi

naWeri mamulebi urTierTobis TavdebobiTa.

paraskevs, 24 aprils T. mixeil maCabelma am

saganzed didi moxseneba waikiTxa sabWos winaSe,

romelsac 47 xmosani daeswro. moxseneba kargad

Sedgenilia, yovelive garemoeba saqmisa naTlad

266


axsnilia. sCans, rom T. maCabels zedmiwevniT

Seuswavlia TviTveuli calke garemoeba am saqmisa

da yovelive gadasawyvetad saWiro cnoba

gulmodgineT uZebnia da gamoukvlevia.

Tumca sabWom uarhyo ocdaeqvsis xmiT

winaaRmdeg ocdaerTisa winadadeba T. maCablisa,

magram amiT gza ar Seekvris kacs _ eZios,

marTali romels mxares aris. amis gamoZiebas

Semdeg SevudgebiT.

II

tfilisi, 27 aprili

metismetad sainteresoa cnobani maszed, Tu ra

saxis sazogadoeba hqoniaT avlabrelebs im miwebis

xmarebis gamo, romelTac igini iTxovdnen

saijarod qalaqis gamgeobisagan. es mxare saqmisa

sakmaod vrclad gamokvleulia xmosanis T. mixeil

maCabelis moxsenebaSi.

am moxsenebisagan sCans, rom mag sazogadoebas

Seadgens sul 56 komli, romelSiac 332 suli

iTvleba orisave sqesisa. am sazogadoebis saqmes

ganageben Turme sazogadoebisagan amorCeulni

kacni: nacvali, gziri da sazogadoebis kreba.

yovelis rigisa, wesisa, xarjisa da sxva ram

gardasaxadisa aRmniSvneli da damadginebeli

sazogado krebaa. nacvali da gziri marto

aRmsrulebelni moxeleni arian. sazogadoebis

winaSe yovelisferSi pasuxismgebeli aris ufrosi

kaci komlisa da ara yvela mozdili ojaxisSvili.

Tumca TavidaTavi am sazogadoebaSi glexoba aris,

magram dRes sazogadoebaSi iTvleba Turme sxva

wodebis kacni, magaliTebr, vaWarni, Cinovnikebi da

sapatio moqalaqeni da sxvani, romelnic glexobis

STamomavalni arian da romelT winaparni avlabris

267


glexTa sazogadoebas ekuTvnodnen. amaT SerCeniaT

igi ufleba da movaleoba, rac maT winaparTa

hqoniaT avlabris sazogadoebaSi. am sazogadoebis

Sinagans bunebas da agebulebas kaci rom

daukvirdes, dRes imas SehniSnavs, rom am

sazogadoebas SerCenia marto Tviseba da xasiaTi

sameurneo gamgeobisa da sxva aRaraferi.

amis mixedviT, TviTveuli calke komli litra-

Careqobis kvalobazed aris monawile am sameurno

sazogadoebaSi. am litra-Careqobazed ganwirulia

miwebis xmareba, anu uked vsTqvaT, miwebisagan

gamorComa, da amave litra-Careqobazedve aris

gawerili xarji. radganac umciresi wili Careqia

da udidesi litra, da radganac litraSi oTxi

Careqia, amitomac litriani kaci erTi-oTxad mets

ixdis yovelgvars xarjs da erTi-oTxadac meti

gamorComa aqvs sazogado miwebisagan. am

sazogadoebaSi Careqianzed naklebi da litriazed

meti mekomuri ar aris Sewynarebuli; ase rom

mekomurs erTis litrianis wilis meti ar SeeZlo

sWeroda. metad sayuradRebo wesi am sazogadoebisa

is aris, rom RaribTa, SeuZlebelTa, obolqvrivTa,

romelTac Rone ara aqvT xarjis wevisa

da Tavis xvedris xarjis gaRebisa, miwebisagan

gamorComaSi wili edvaT TavTavisdagvarad da

xarjs ki sazogadoeba maT magier TviTon ixdida.

am sazogadoebas hyavs Turme: 758 sxvili

saqoneli muSa da mocadi, 82 cxeni, 42 saxedari,

80 Rori da 7126 cxvari. marto 16 komlia

imisTana, rom ara hyavs saqoneli. gamgeobis mier

dawesebulia Turme, rom sxils saqonelzed

weliwadSi 1 manaTzed meti ar unda aiRon

sabalaxe da wvrilzed 25 kap. meti. am angariSiT

avlabris sazogadoeba ixdis Turme 2420 manaTsa

weliwadSi.

268


ai, igi sazogadoeba, romelic avlabrelebis

saxeliT sTxovda qalaqis gamgeobas, Cveni naWeri

mamuli Cvenve mogveciT ijariT, radganac mag

mamulzea damokidebuli 332 sulis saxsari

cxovrebisao. mas aqed, rac eg mamulebi qalaqs

miakuTvnes, ese igi, 1869 wlidam, beds am

sazogadoebisas, romelsac kaci Znelad Tu ar

TanaugrZnobs, Ziri Seerya, da qalaqis gamgeoba im

dRidam Tavis mecadineobas ar aklebda, rom es

sazogadoeba srulad gaenadgurebina. jer,

rogorca vsTqviT, pirvel xanebSi, rogorc

qalaqis gamgeoba, isec mTavroba, qalaqis gamgeobis

meoxebiT, gulmtkivneulad moeqca am sazogadoebas,

magram bolosdabolos gamgeobam daiviwya eg

gulmtkivneuloba da TandaTan Ziri mouTxara da

dRes xom sul pirqve daamxo. Cvens Semdegs

nomerSi kvaldakval avyvebiT da warmovudgenT

mkiTxvels imis istorias, Tu rarigad hneldeboda

TandaTan es gulmtkivneuloba. ar gvindoda ase

gagrZeleba am werilebisa, magram vxedavT, rom Tu

ama saqmis garemoeba vrclad ar gamoesaxa kacs

gonebis Tvalwin, Znelia utyuari sja iqonios.

III

tfilisi, 28 aprili

rogorc winad mogaxseneT, avlabrelebis naWeri

miwebi, romelT gamoc exla Cven laparaki gvaqvs,

miuzomes qalaqs saZovarad da sanaxirod 1869

welsa. qalaqis gamgeobam pirvel xanSive miaqcia

yuradReba am miwebs, rogorc axals wyaros

gamorComisas saqalaqod. Tumca maSindelma

sazogado krebam qalaqisam es gamorComis azri win

waimZRvara, magram misda sasaxelod esec unda

vsTqvaT, rom avlabrelebis sazogadoebis

269


gaWirebac Tvalwin daiyena da amitomac Tavisi

mecadineoba ar moaklo, rom avlabrelebsve

TavianT wesisamebr sWerodaT igi mamuli. 27

marts 1872 wels am sazogado krebam qalaqisam

daadgina ganaCeni, rom eg mamuli ijariT gaices

samis wlis vadiT 1-s agvistodam 1871 wlisa 1-s

agvistomde 1874 wlisa, da Tu avlabris

sazogadoeba isurvebs, mas mieces, Tu arada gareSe

kacTa, mxolod sajaro vaWrobiT ki.

avlabris sazogadoebam Seityo es Tu ara,

maSinve Tavisis veqilebis piriT iTxova maSindel

qalaqis marTvelobisagan, sajaro vaWrobis

mouxdenelad miscen sazogadoebas igi mamuli

ijariT weliwadSi 1300 maneTad samis wlis

vadiT, xolo dasawyisi vadisa iyos 1-i agvisto

1871 wlisa ki ara, aramed 1-i agvisto 1872 wlisa.

qalaqis marTvelobam Seiwynara es Txovna da

iSuamdgomla tfilisis gubernatoris winaSe, rom

igi mamuli uvaWrelad mieces avlabris

sazogadoebas da vadac ijarisa Seicvalos

avlabrelebis Txovnisamebr. am Suamdgomlobam

miaRwia aqaurs umaRles mTavrobamde da mis mier

Sewynarebul iqmna. Tumca zogierTi formaluris

mizezisa gamo ijaris xelSekruloba maSin ar

daiwera, magram avlabris sazogadoeba hxmarobda

zemoxsenebul pirobiT mamulebsa da ijaris fuli

1300 maneTi weliwadSi Sehqonda qalaqis xazinaSi.

aSkarada sCans aqedam, maSindeli mmarTveloba

qalaqisa ra gulmtkivneulad mohkidebia saqmes da

cdila qalaqisaTvis gamorComa ram yofiliyo da

avlabrelebic ar gamoewira.

roca am pirvelis ijaris vada 1875 wels

gavida. qalaqis gamgeoba ufro gaiyolia

gamorComis survilma da avlabrelebis interesi

cota ar iyos CrdilSi miayena. es cxadada sCans

im ganaCenisagan, romelic qalaqis gamgeobam

270


daadgina 19-s seqtembers 1875 w. am ganaCenSi

sweria: miRebul iqmna ra saxeSi, rom mTavrobis

mier nebadarTuls ijaras vada Seusrulda 1-s

agvistos 1875 welsa, saWiroa rom igi saijaro

mamuli qalaqis saZovrad da sanaxirod daidvas im

pirobiT, rom sxvils saqonelzed erTi maneTi

iRos qalaqma da wvrilzed sami Sauri TTveSi; am

gziT qalaqi mets gamorComas hnaxavs... da amitom

tfilisis saqalaqo gamgeobam daadgina: “vsTxovoT

qalaqis sabWos, igi mamulebi aRar gaices ijariTa

da saZovrad da sanaxirod darCes qalaqsa da

zemoxsenebulis zomiT gamoerTvas sabalaxo

saqonlis patronebs saqonlis ZovebisaTvis”.

es ganaCeni gairCa qalaqis sabWoSi 9-sa da 13-s

oqtombers 1875 welsa. qalaqis sabWo daadgina:

darCes eg mamuli saZovrad da sanaxirod qalaqis

mcxovrebTa da droebiT CamosulTa soflelTaTvis

usasyidlo xmarebisaTvis saqonlis saZoeblad;

gamgeobas daevalos Seadginos proeqti pirobebisa,

romlis ZaliTac unda eg mamuli gaeces ijariTa

da Sedgenili proeqti warmoadginos gansaxilvelad

sabWoSi. am ganaCenis ZaliT Semdgar iqmna

calke komisia da moxseneba am komisiisa 22 maiss

1876 w. Sig CarTulia TviTon gamgeobis ganaCenSi.

am gamgeobis ganaCenSi ai rasa swers gamgeoba:

“radganac am mamulis ijariT aRebaSi upiratesoba

unda mieces qalaqis mkvidrTa, romelnic sasoflo

meurneobiT scxovreben, uamisod igini Zalian dids

gaWirvebaSi Cascvivian da calke kacebs Cauvardebian

xelSi gamosarComad, -_ gamgeobam moiwvia

warmomadgenelni kukiisa, avlabrisa da naTluxis

sazogadoebisani mosalaparakeblad. am warmomadgenelTa

gamoacxades survili, aiRon qalaqis

mamulebi ijariT, xolo sTqves, rom ijara

uamisodac didia da eZnelebaT magodena ijaris

gaReba da amitom momateba ijarisa SeuZlebelia

271


da amazed sityvac ar unda iyos Camogdebulio.

ramdenjerme kidev iqmnen mowveulni es

warmomadgenelni da gamgeobam Tanaxma gaixada eseni

ijarisaTvis moematebinaT, xolo pirvel

wlisaTvis iTxoves ijara winandelis zomiT

darCeniliyo”.

gamgeoba am ganaCenSi, sxvaTa Soris, ai, ra

samarTlian azrs ambobs: iqneba SesaZloc iyos

metis ijaris aReba, magram am SemTxvevaSi

uaryofil unda iqmnas interesebi Raribis

xalxisa, romelic Zveladganve soflis meurneobas

misdevs qalaqis miwebzed da romelsac am bolos

dromde Tavisad eguleboda eg miwebi. momateba

ijarisa metismetad TviTon qalaqisaTvisac ar

aris sasargeblo, imitom rom eg momateba mZime

tvirTad daadgeba qalaqis mkvidrTa Raribs

nawilsa. qalaqis mmarTvelobis warmomadgenelTa

ar unda moiwonon es ambavi, radganac maTda

Tavdapirveli vali is aris, rom izrunon qalaqis

keTildReobisaTvis im mxriT, rom udidesma

nawilma qalaqis mkvidrTa sikeTe, gankargeba da

Sesubuqeba ram igrZnos.

yovel amis gamo gamgeobam daadgina: gamoirCes

im mamulebidam qalaqis sanaxirod dasadeblad

Sesaferisi nawili da danarCeni mieces ijariT

xsenebul sazogadoebaT samis wlis vadiT im

fasad, rac manamde iyo. es ganaCeni gamgeobisa

damtkicebul iqmna sabWosagan 24 maiss 1876

welsa. am gziT iara am saqmem da bolos imazed

Sedga, rom avlabrelebis sazogadoebas darCa misi

naWeri mamulebi ijariT weliwadSi oras Tumnad

samis wlis vadiT 1880 wlamde.

12 noembers 1879 wels, imis gamo, rom

avlabrelebis ijaris vada Tavdeboda, 1-s ianvars

1880 welsa, qalaqis gamgeobam Seitana Tavisi

ganaCeni sabWoSi da iTxova nebarTva, rom axali

272


sajaro vaWroba dainiSnos im mamulis ijariT

gasacemad. sabWos oqmSi moxsenebulia, rom

zogierTma xmosanma iTxova Turme, rom ueWvelad

isev avlabrelebs mieciT ijariT igi mamuli,

magram sabWom gadaswyvita, usaTuod sajaro

vaWroba moxdes da pirobad daidvas Semdegi: Tu

vinicobaa avlabris mkvidrni aiReben ijaras, maT

urTierTobis Tavdeboba CamoerToT ijaris fulis

saimedod, da Tu calke kacni dairCenen vaWrobis

dros ijaras, imaT ki windad gamoerTvaT fuli.

am istoriidama sCans, rom ramodenadac dro

gadioda, imodenad Tavdapirveli samarTliani

mzrunveloba avlabrelTa sazogadoebis mimarT

klebulobda da gamorComis survili saqalaqod

hmatulobda. bolosdabolos gamorComis survilma

sul gaabaTila winandeli azri qalaqis

marTvelobisa, romelic ambobda: qalaqisaTvis

gamorComis survilma unda aq adgili dauTmos

Raribis xalxis gaWirebas da interesebsao. Semdeg

Cvena vnaxavT, rom qalaqis gamgeobam da sabWom am

saqmiT da mamulebiT verc veraferi moumata

qalaqis xazinasa da avlabrelebsac mamulzed

xeli daabanina da mTeli 332 suli gaswira. friad

sayuradReboa, ra gziT moxda es saocari ambavi,

rom verc qalaqi gamorCa metsa, da avlabrelebis

sazogadoebasac mTxovaris guda-nabadi ahkides da

imaTi sve-bedi, wyaro cxovrebisa, ors-sams kacs

Caugdes xelSi.

IV

tfilisi, 29 aprili

Cven wina werilSi movixsenieT, rom qalaqis

gamgeobam avlabrelebis saqmis gamo yovelisferi

fexqveS gauSala saqalaqod gamorComis survilsa:

273


namdvili simarTlec, Raribebis sve-bedic, mTelis

karga mozdilis mkvidrTa nawilis interesebica.

xolo saocari bolo hqonda am TavisTavadac

ujero survilsa. survili xom survili iyo da

gamgeobam saqme ise miiyvana, rom rasac

avlabrelebi iZleodnen, imav fasad da imav

pirobiT maTi naWeri mamuli sams kacs Caugdo

xelSi da am saxiT arc gamorComa gamorComad

gamodga da avlabrelebic 332 suli carielzed

dasva. Cven ukve vsTqviT, rom 1880 wlamde igi

mamuli mainc avlabrelebs hqondaT ijariTa.

1880 welsa xelaxlad moxda sajaro vaWroba

im memamuleebis ijariT gasacemad. am wels

yofilma gamgeobam Tavisi yovlad SemZlebeli

ieriSi miitana im mcireoden upiratesobazedac,

romelic qalaqis sabWom arguna avlabrelebs 1879

wlis ganaCeniTa. es mciredi aCrdilic maSindelis

sabWos mzrunvelobisa TiTqo TvalSi eklad

hqonebia gamgeobas da Tavis nebiTa da ZaliT

gauuqmebia. amas imitom vambobT, rom 1879 wels

sabWos mier dadgenili iyo, Tu avlabrelebi

aiRebdnen ijariT xsenebuls mamuls, maT fuli ar

unda gamoerTos ijaris fuli saRad Semotanis

saimedod, aramed unda CamoerTvas marto

urTierTobis Tavdeboba. es ganaCeni sabWoSi

dRevandlamde xelSeuxebelia da amitomac Zala

unda hqonoda gamgeobisaTvis, radganac gamgeoba

yovelsferSi xelqveviTia sabWosi. magram gamgeobam

gaauqma Tavisis nebiT es ganaCeni, da roca 1880

wlis sajaro vaWrobaSi igi mamuli kvlav

avlabrelebs darCaT ijariTa weliwadSi oras

Tumnad, Tavdebobis magier gamgeobam ormocdaaTi

Tumani Semoatanina windrad. es zogierTTagani

ieriSia, romelic gamgeobam miitana avlabrelebis

sazogadoebis dasarRvevad da amasTanave cxadi

magaliTia imisi, rom xelqveviTma gamgeobam Tavis

274


mbrZanebelis sabWos ganaCeni uarhyo, gaauqma da

arafrad Caagdo. aq gamgeobis TviTnebobis mets

sxvas arafers umoqmednia.

am saxiT 1880 wlidam 1883 wlamde xsenebuli

mamuli kidev avlabris sazogadoebas eWira

ijariTa. 1883 wels, raki vada gavida, kidev moxda

sajaro vaWroba. avlabrelebi, ricxviT 30 kaci,

mosula savaWrod da gamgeobisaTvis

gamoucxadebiaT, rom avetiqa iSxanovi, daviT

foraqovi da Saqara TaTulovi maTis sazogadoebis

veqilebi arian da piroba daudviaT, rom kanoniers

rwmunebis werils warmoadgenen. bolos

warmoadgines kidec da ijariT amxanadac darCaT

mamuli avlabrelebs da ijaris qaRaldi

moawerines maTs veqilebsa. xolo sayuradReboa

TviTon ganaCeni gamgeobisa, romelSiac gamgeoba

aRiarebs, rom iSxanovi da TaTulovi sazogadoebis

veqilebi ki ar arian, aramed imisTanave wurbelebi,

rogorc sxvani. am sityvebisagan sCans, rom

gamgeobas am saqmeSi codvad miuCnevia da uaruyvia.

es xom esea 1883 wels, magram 1886 wels ki imav

gamgeobas yovelive RonisZieba uxmaria, rom

swored mag erTxel dawunebuls mis mier

myvlefavobas didi da farTo gza gaxsnoda.

am axals ijaras, roca mamuli kidev

avlabrelebs sWeriaT weliwadSi oras Tumnad,

vada gasvlia 1-s ianvars 1886 welsa. amitomac 30

noembers 1885 w. dauniSnavs axali sajaro vaWroba

gamgeobas da Tumca avlabrelebs kidev hqondaT

ijaris vada 1886 wlis 1-s ianvramde, magram

maSinve CamourTmevia mamulebica im mizeziT, rom

ijaris fulis Semotana daugvianebiaT. saocari

ambavi, ambavi veras gziT ver aRsaxsneli, am

vaWrobazed moxda. am xnis savaWro oqmSi 1 ( 1

ixileT oqmi 1885 wlis 30 noemberi.) sweria:

”savaWrod movidnen meore gildiis vaWarni yazar

275


axnazarovi, avetiqa axnazarovi da iakob qiSmiSovi

da cameti kaci avlabrelni, cal-calke

dasaxelebulni da gamoacxades, rom yovel amaT

undaT vaWroba”, “warmoadgines windrad asi

Tumani”.

aq kidev sakvirveli ara aris ra: Teqvsmetma

kacma erTad isurva mamuli ijariT aiRon da asi

Tumani windrad warmoadgines. saswauli meore

moqmedebaSia, da ramodenad sabaraqaloa es

saswauli, mkiTxveli dainaxavs Semdegidam.

radganac mocile ara hyoliaT, ra Tqma unda,

Teqvsmets kacs gamoucxadebiaT Tavisi fasi orasi

Tumani weliwadSi da es loRikisa da kanonis

winaaRmdegi vaWroba vaWrobad Seuracxavs

gamgeobas. imis Sesaxeb Tu, _ ra aris loRikiT da

kanoniT sajaro vaWroba, mere movilaparakebT, da

exla ki ai, ra saocars ambavs gavuwyebT.

darCeniaT ra ijara xsenebul 16 kacs, imaTgan sams

kacs, yazara da avetiqa axnazarovebs da iakob

qiSmiSovs, am “meore gildiis kupwebs” es piroba

daudviaT (sajaro vaWrobaSi ?!): “Tu vinicobaa

danarCenni maTi amxanagni ar Seavseben ukve

windrad Semotanils ass Tumans, ijara marto sams

kacs daumtkicdes da ijaris qaRaldic marto

imaTs saxelzed daiweros”. gaigeT!... yvelani

saerTod, saamxanagod hvaWroben, saamxanagodve

SemoaqvT sawindravi fuli, da maTSi sami kaci

rarigad atrialebs saqmesa da gamgeobac, amazed

yurs iyruebs! sajaro vaWrobis wesi ki is aris,

rom yoveli piroba winad gamocxadebuli unda

iyos sayovelTavod romelisame oqmiTa. aq sul

uecari piroba iyo Sewynarebuli, mere visi?

gamgeobisa? sabWosi? ara: axnazarovebisa da

qiSmiSovisa. am saxiT gamodis, rom saqalaqo

sajaro vaWrobis pirobebis mdebeli sabWo da

276


gamgeoba ki ara yofila, aramed axnazarovebi da

qiSmiSovi.

ra Tqma unda, danarCenTa amxanagTa am

qiSmiSovisa da axnazarovTagan dadgenili piroba

ar Seasrules, iqneba imitomac, rom arc ki

icodnen es ra pirobaa, da ijara darCaT

xsenebuls sams kacsa imave fasad, rasac TviTom

avlabrelTa sazogadoeba iZlevoda, da imave

pirobebiTa. am saxiT gamovida, rom gamgeobam igi

kacni, romelnic mTelis avlabris sazogadoebis

veqilni iyvnen, calke myvlefar kacebad CasTvala,

da marTla calke kacni _ axnazarovebi da

qiSmiSovi _ ki sazogado interesebis

warmomadgenelad!...

es kidev araferi: saswaulmoqmedeba gamgeobisa

amazed ar SeCerda. winandelis ijarisa 370 manaTi

avlabrelebzed iyo darCenili. roca ukanaskneli

ijara axnazarovebs da qiSmiSovs daumtkices, eg

darCenili avlabrelebzed fuli amaT akisres da

Seitanes saqalaqo xazinaSi. radao? Zneli

pasuxissagebelia es sakiTxavi, magram gamgeobam

aqac Tavi iCina. avlabrelebs jarimad ormocdaaTi

Tumani swerebia, Tu romelsame muxls ijaris

xelSekrulobisas daarRveven. gamgeobas auRia da

axal ijaradar qiSmiSovisaTvis rwmunebis

weriliT miundvia, es ormocdaaTi Tumani

gadaaxdevinos avlabrelebs, aqedam 129 man. da 75

kapeiki warmoudginos, da danarCeni Tavis

sasamarTlos xarjiTa da borjiTa qiSmiSovma

miiRos gasamsjelod da im 370 manaTSi, romelic

ijaradrebma Seitanes winad avlabrelebis magier.

rogor mogwonT gankarguleba! saqalaqo

mmarTvelobas, romelsac wliuris jamagiriT

Tavisi sakuTari veqili hyavs, auRia da Tavisi

sadavo saqme gadaucia gareSe kacisaTvis, mere

visTvis? ijaradarisaTvis, romelic uamisodac

277


mexisa da setyvasaviT Tavze unda dascemoda

avlabrelebs, radganac maTi upriani mamuli da

erTaderTi saxsari cxovrebisa imav kacis xelSi

Caagdo gamgeobam. diaR, gulmtkivneulma gamgeobam,

tfilelTa mkvidrTa keTildReobis monaRvlema da

mzrunvelma, erTi mizezi 332 sulis dawiokebisa

kidev xelT misca gareSe kacsa!.. modiT da amas

iqiT sTqviT, rom tfilisis qalaqis gamgeoba ara

hzrunavs da ara hnaRvlobs mkvidrTa

sikeTisaTvis!...

278

V

tfilisi. 30 aprili

16 marts am 1887 wlisas qalaqis sabWom

gaarCia saCivari avlabris sazogadoebis veqilebisa

avetiqa iSxanovisa da Saqara TaTulovisa.

uCivodnen qalaqis gamgeobas maszed, rom calke

kacebs misces sazogadoebis mier naWeri mamulebi

ijariT da miT xelidam gamoacales miwebi,

romelTac igi sazogadoeba hxmarobda saqarTvelos

mefeebis droTgan. gamgeobam moaxsena sabWos

sityvierad, rom iSxanovisa da TaTulovis

saCivari usabuToa, radganac saqalaqo wesdebis

SemoRebis Semdeg avlabris mamuli qalaqis

sakuTarebad daidva da exla xmac ar amoeRebaT

avlabrelebs im mamulebis kuTvnilobazed. garda

amisa, acxadebs gamgeoba, Cven araviTari avlabris

sazogadoeba ar viciT, radganac magisTana

iuridiuli piri ar arsebobso da TviT iSxanovi

da TaTulovi arian “wurbelebi” (кулаки),

romelTac araviTari upiratesoba ar miuZRviT

winaSe axnazarovebisa da qiSmiSovisao. am

mizezebiT da imis gamoc, rom ukanasknelad amaT


Tavis drozed ijaris fuli ar Semoitanes da

axalT ijaradarT ki Semoitanes isic, rac

Zvelebze darCenili iyo, amitomac gamgeoba

iTxovda sabWosagan avlabrelebis saCivari

uyuradRebod daetovebina da ar Seewynarebina.

sabWomac daujera gamgeobas da 16 marts 1887

wlisas avlabrelebs saCivarzed uari uTxra.

rogorc ukve uwyebul arian Cvenni mkiTxvelni,

xmosanma mixeil maCabelma iTxova xelaxlad

gadasinjva 16 martis ganaCenisa da masTan erTad

iTxoves eseve 15 sxva xmosanma. sabWo iZulebul

iyo kanoniT xelaxlad gaerCia es saqme. moismina

sabWom sabuTebi xmosani maCabelisa am 26 aprils.

gamgeobam Tavisis wevris b-n papovis piriT

warmosTqva Tavisi azri b-n maCablis mier

warmodgenil sabuTebis gamo. b-ma papovma daiwyo

miT, rom xmosanis maCablis moxseneba zogan metia,

zogan naklebia, zogan arev-dareulia da dahpirda

sabWos, rom yovels amas daamtkicebs. sabWo smenad

gadaiqca. misi naTqvami uklebliv dabeWdilia

“Новое Oбозрение”-Si da visac hsurs Cveni amis

qvemore naTqvami azri Seamowmos, imas amisi

RonisZieba aqvs. amitomac Cven sityvas aRar

gavagrZelebT b-n papovis naTqvamis aRmoweriTa.

xolo es ki unda iTqvas, rom b-nma papovma Tavisi

dapireba ar ausrula sabWos da arc erTi

TvalsaCino sabuTi ar daurRvia b-ns maCabels: arc

is daamtkica, ra aris meti b-n maCablis moxsenebaSi,

ra aris arev-dareuli da ra aris daklebuli.

ukacraod, daklebuli ki marTla aRmoCnda, b-n

papovis uneburad. b-nma papovma sTqva, rom

gamgeobam avlabrelebs xeli aaRebina ijarazed,

radganac saRni ar iyvnen ijaris fulis SemotanaSio.

amazed b-nma maCabelma miugo, rom magisi

mizezi TviTon gamgeoba iyovo da ai sabuTicao:

279


axnazarovs, exlandels ijaradars, rogorc didis

saqonlis patrons, avlabrelebis saijaro mamulSi

saqoneli uZovebia da amis gamo avlabrelebis

samoci Tumani, Tu cota met-naklebi, sabalaxe

dasdebia. gamgeobas axnazarovis saCivris gamo

gankarguleba mouxdenia, rom avlabrelebma aramc

da aramc eg fuli ar gamoarTvan axnazarovsa. Tu

gamgeoba ase uSlida avlabrelebs Tavis kuTvnilis

miRebas, aSkaraa TviTon avlabrelebic pirnaTlad

ver gamovidodnen gamgeobis winaSe, radganac aq

aRebazea damokidebuli micemacao. ai igi nakli,

sayovelTao saocrad Seavsebina b-nma papovma

momxsenebels.

b-n papovis sityva rom gamovwuroT, marto imas

davinaxavT, rom aqileosis terfi gamgeobis sabu-

Tebisa, romlis ZaliTac avlabrelebi carielzed

darCnen, isa yofila, viTom avlabrelebi vera

yofilan saRi ijaris fulis SemotanaSi, da garda

amisa b-ni papovi imasac arwmunebda sabWos, rom

gamgeoba yovelTvis gulmtkivneulad hzrunavda

avlabrelebisaTvis da cdilobda igini ar

gamoewira, da ramdenjerac am gulmtkivneulobiT

Tvisi azri warudgina sabWos, imdejer sabWom

uari hyo.

xmosanma n. d. zubalovma upasuxa, rom me aq

gulmtkivneulobas vera vxedav; piriqiT cxadia,

rom saqme Sinaurulad ukeTebia gamgeobasa Tavis

kabineTSi da ara sajarod. maS ra aris, Tu ar

Sinaurulad keTeba saqmisa is ambavi, rom

axnazarovebs da qiSmiSovs darCaT ijara oras

Tumnad da amas garda kidev 370 maneTi Semoataines

Zvels ijaradrebzed darCenilio. axnazarovebi da

qiSmiSovi ra SuaSi iyvnen, rom sxvis vals

ixdidnen, Tu aq kabineTSi molaparakebuli saqme

ar ariso. am sityviT ramdenjerme mihmarTa

xmosanT b-nma zubalovma da pasuxad xmagakmendili

280


dumili daxvda. ar viciT, es dumili gaocebisa

iyo, Tu wyenisa.

xmosanma miqelaZem ikiTxa: ramdeni mxare iyo

30 noembris sajaro vaWrobaSi, roca mamuli

axnazarovebma da qiSmiSovma dainarCunes? da roca

miiRo pasuxad, rom marto erTi mxare iyovo,

sTqva: eg sajaro vaWroba ar aris da gamgeobas,

sazogado kanonis ZaliT, romelic usaTuod

sajaro vaWrobaSi ors mxares hTxoulobs, eg

vaWroba vaWrobad ar unda CaeTvalao. amazed

upasuxes, rom sazogado kanoni qalaqis gamgeobisaTvis

savaldebulo ar ariso da raRac

muxlic waukiTxes. Cven yuri ver movkariT, es

ucnauri muxli romeli muxli iyo. Cven gveoca es

ambavi da mTeli qalaqis wesdeba gadavsinjeT da

aseTi muxli versad ver vipoveT. amazed sityva

merec gveqneba.

b-nma izmailovma, meore wevrma gamgeobisam,

sTqva, rom avlabris sazogadoeba sameurneo

sazogadoeba ar ariso, radganac iq, b-n maCablis

sityvisamebr, zogi dalaqia, zogi vaWari, zogi

moxele (Cinovniki) da zogi sapatio moqalaqeo. eg

marto krebulia moqalaqeTa. iqneba odesRac, roca

avlabari sofeli yofila, maSin sameurneo

sazogadoebis feri sdebia, exla ki sul sxva

ariso. meo, sTqva man sxvaTa Soris, istoriuli

ufleba ara mjerao. xolo aqileosis terfi b-n

izmailovis sabuTisa is iyo, rom qalaqSi 130

aTasi mkvidria da amaTs interesebs ver

vanacvalebT avlabrelebis interesebsao. eg

adgilebi saZovrad unda hqondes qalaqsa, da Tu

mand xvnasac mohyvnen avlabrelni, saZovari sakmao

aRar iqnebao. amazed xmosanma bebuTovma upasuxa:

im xansac ara sjeroda da ara swamda istoriuli

ufleba, romelmac daawioka, aiklo somxebi maTTa

istoriul binazed da amis gamo igi somxebi

281


ubedurma, magram didma erekle mefem gadmoiyvana

da avlabarSi daasaxlao. gana amiT istoriuls

uflebas Tavisi mniSvneloba daekargao? rogorc

xmosanma bebuTovma, isec sxvebma upasuxes b-n

izmailovs, rom aq araferi mosayvania 130 aTasi

mkvidri qalaqisa da Tu es 130 aTasi mkvidri

bednieri iqmneba, roca avlabris mamulebi sams

kacs miecema gamosarComad, _ ratomRa iqneba

ubeduri maSin, roca imav pirobiT 332 suli

daiWers im mamulebs gamosarComad? aq cifirebis

areva tyuili wadilia Savi TeTrad gamoiyvanos

kacmao. aq saqme imaSia, romeli ufro sayuradReboa:

interesebi mTelis sazogadoebisa, saca

332 sulia, Tu interesebi axnazarovebisa da

qiSmiSovisao.

didi TanagrZnoba gamoiwvia xmosanis m. i.

TamamSovis sityvam. man sTqva: Cven unda kvlav

aRvadginoT avlabris sazogadoeba. qalaqis

keTildReoba ukan iwevs da unda xeli Svelisa

mivawvdinoT avlabris sazogadoebas, romlis

keTildReoba imatebs, raki miwebi mas daeTmoba.

saWiroa rac SeiZleba bevrs mkvidrs mivceT

saxsari cxovrebisa, amisaTvis unda gamoviyenoT

yoveli marcvali da Tu amisTana marcvali

avlabarSi aris, xeli unda movkidoT da vaxeiroT.

am saqmeSi me bralsa vsdeb gamgeobas ki ara, im

kancelaruls rigsa da wessa, romelic gamgeobaSi

hsufevs.

bevrma sxvam ilaparaka da sakvirveli is aris,

vinc ki ilaparaka xmosanTagan, sul yvelani

xmosanis maCablis azrs miemxrnen. arc erTs

xmosans amis winaaRmdegi ara uTqvams ra.

kenWisyram ki dagvanaxva, rom im krebulma, saca

“aras” mTqmeli erTi kacic ar aRmoCnda, im

krebulma 26 xmiT 21-s winaaRmdeg xmosanis

maCablisa uarhyo. Cvena gvgonia, rom amisTana

282


ambavs sxva meore magaliTi ar moepoveba mTels

istoriaSi. ar viciT, gaugonia visme, rom krebuli

swyvetdes romelsame saqmes, arc erTs kacs

krebulisas winadadebis winaaRmdegoba ar

gamoecxadebinos, piriqiT, visac ki elaparaknos,

sul winadadebis sasargeblod da winadadeba ki

gauqmebuliyos da uaryofiliyos!

VI

tfilisi, 1 maisi

wina werilebSi moyvanili cnobani, CarTulni

xmosanis maCablis moxsenebaSi, miT ufro sabuTad

mosaxmarni arian, rom jer, pirveli, siglebzea

damyarebuli, da meore, _ arc erTis gamgeobis

wevrisagan, arc erTis xmosanisagan ar aris

darRveulni. Tavi rom davaneboT istoriuls

warmomdinareobas avlabrelebis sazogadoebisas,

Tavi rom davaneboT masac, rom avlabrelebs

zogierTi sabuTi miuZRodaT avlabris mamulebis

mflobelobisaTvis, _ yovels amas rom Tavi

davaneboT, Tvalwin cxadad da utyuarad

dagvidgeba Semdegi:

1) avlabrelebs hqoniaT sazogadoeba saerTo

meurneobisa. Tu am sameurneo sazogadoebaSi sxvaTa

Soris dalaqic aris monawile, anu bazazi, miT

sameurneo sazogadoebis Tviseba ar gardiqmneba, ar

icvleba; oRond TviTon meurneoba ar gardiqmnas,

ar gardicvalos, da amas dalaqi misdevs, Tu

yasabi, sul erTia.

2) avlabris sazogadoebaSi, rogorc am bolos

dros SevityveT, 332 sulzed ufro meti kaci da

dedakaci monawileni arian. cxadia, viszed unda

gulmtkivneulad mimaruliyo mzrunveloba qalaqis

gamgeobisa da sabWosi, romelsac erTaderTi sagani

283


da mizezi arsebobisa qalaqis mkvidrTa

keTildReobaa. es gulmtkivneuli mzrunveloba miT

ufro aSkarad unda gamoCeniliyo im SemTxvevaSi,

raki calmxriT avlabrelTa sazogadoebam da

meores mxriT, orma axnazarovebma da qiSmiSovma

erTi da igive piroba kisrad ides da erTi da

igive fasi SeaZlies. raki avlabrelebi imav

pirobiT da imave fasad hTxoulobdnen mamuls

ijariT, aq gamgeobisagan 130 aTasis qalaqis

mkvidris saxeliT gamosarCleba axnazarovebis da

qiSmiSovis sasargeblod metismeti gambedaobaa.

3) avlabrelebs sWeriaT eg mamuli Zveladganve,

maT udavniaT, maT wyali gamouyvaniaT, miT karga

fuli dasjdomiaT, karga xarji gauweviaT mamulis

gankargebisaTvis, maTve is pirobebi da is fuli

uZleviaT, rac sams calke kacs, da mainc iginive

gamoswira gamgeobam da mere sabWom.

yovel aqedama sCans, rom mTeli sinidisieri

simarTle avlabrelebis mxriv iyo. Tu am

sinidisieri simarTlis ganxorcielebas raime

kanonieri wesi da rigi ar iwynarebs, maSin, ra

Tqma unda, gamgeoba da sabWo gasamtyunarni ar

arian, rom avlabrelebis Txovna jer 16 marts da

mere 26 aprils ar Seiwynares da maTi upriani

mamuli ijariT sams calke kacsa daumtkices.

Cvenda samwuxarod unda vsTqvaT, Tu am

SemTxvevaSi kanonieri wesi da rigi darRveulia,

es darRveva sinidisieris simarTlis saoxad ki ar

moxda, aramed axnazarovebisa da qiSmiSovis

sasargeblod. am saxiT gamodis, rom Tumca erTs

mxarezed sinidisieri, Tu ar iuridikuli,

simarTle idga, da kanonieri wesi da rigi ki

dasarRvevad im mxarisaken miidrika, saca mag

simarTlis CamiCumic ar iyo. ai, amis sabuTebi:

1. roca axnazarovebs da qiSmiSovs darCaT

sajaro vaWrobiT mamulebi, maSin vaWrobaSi marto

284


erTi mxare iyo: ori axnazarovebi, qiSmiSovi da

maTTan erTad saerTod movaWreni 13 avlabreli.

imperatoris aleqsandre II wesdebas gansamarTlebisas

waikiTxavT, Tu X tomis kanonebs, Tu

calke dawesebulebaTa wesdebas, magaliTebr,

bankebisas, saqalaqo sakredito sazogadoebisas,

yvelgan cxadad gamoTqmulia, rom, raki sajaro

vaWrobaa risame, usaTuod ori erTmaneTis mocile

mxare unda daeswros, uamisod, ese igi, Tu marto

erTi mxarea da sxva mocile ar aris, sajaro

vaWroba ar SeiZleba moxdes.

gamgeobam 26 aprils b-nis izmailovis

piriT gamoacxada, rom eg zogadi kanonebi qalaqis

gamgeobisaTvis ar aris dawerilio. Cven

gadavsinjeT qalaqis marTvelobis wesdeba am

saganzed marto 142 muxli wesdebisa vipoveT. am

muxlSi sweria, rom qalaqis sabWos neba aqvs

romelime Semosavliani saqme gasces an sajaro

vaWrobiT, an calke kacs miandos, an TviT qalaqis

gamgeobas daavalos im saqmis movla da patronoba.

Tu sabWos erT-erTi am RoneTagani ar dauniSnavs

winad, maSin gamgeobas neba aqvs saxelmZRvanelod

erT-erTi am RoneTagani amoirCios. rom am samSi

sajaro vaWroba iqmneba amorCeuli, ra Tqma unda,

igi vaWroba zogadis kanonebis mier dadgenils

wessa da rigs unda eqvemdebarebodes. am 142

muxls wesdebisas SeniSvna aqvs zed miwerili, rom

saca saqalaqo marTvelobis wesi SemoRebulia, im

qalaqisaTvis savaldebulo ar aris igi, rac am

saganzed moxsenebulia saxogado kanonebis 1489,

1503, 1710 da 1805 muxlTa Sina.

nuTu aqedam is utyuari azri ar gamodis, rom

sxva yoveli ki zogadis kanonebisa, rac

CamoTvlil muxlebSi ar aris moxsenebuli,

savaldebuloa qalaqis gamgeobisa da sabWosaTvis!..

maS vnaxoT, xsenebulis muxlebis ZaliT, riT aris

285