PDF - Guram Chikovani

gchikovani

PDF - Guram Chikovani

GEORGIAN ACADEMY OF SCIENCES

TSERETELI INSTITUTE OF OR IENTAL STUDIES

TBILISI INSTITUTE OF ASIA AND AFRICA

GURAM CHIKOVANI

CENTRAL ASIAN ARABIC DIALECTS

QASHQA-DARIA DIALECT

(Phonology, Grammar, Vocabulary)

Tbilisi – 2002


saqarTvelos mecnierebaTa akademia

akad. g. wereTlis saxelobis aRmosavleTmcodneobis

instituti

Tbilisis aziisa da afrikis instituti

guram Ciqovani

Sua aziis arabuli dialeqtebi

kaSkadariuli dialeqti

(fonologia, gramatika, leqsika)

Tbilisi

_ 2002 _

2


naSromSi warmodgenilia Sua aziis kaSkadariuli

arabuli dialeqtis fonologiuri, morfologiuri,

sintaqsuri da leqsikuri analizi. winamdebare gamokvleva

pirveli cdaa kaSkadariuli dialeqtis enobrivi

struqturis sistemuri aRwerisa. igi ZiriTadad eyrdnoba

avtoris mier uzbekeTis respublikis kaSka-dariis mxaris

arabulenovan yiSlaRebSi 80-ian wlebSi da 2000 wels

mopovebul dialeqtologiur masalas.

wigni gankuTvnilia arabisti lingvistebisaTvis. igi

daainteresebs dialeqtologebs da arealuri lingvistikis

specialistebs, semitur-indoevropul-Turquli enobrivi

kontaqtebis mkvlevarebs.

The study deals with the phonological, morphological, syntactic and

lexical analysis of the Qashqa-daryÁ Arabic dialect of Central Asia. The

present research is the first attempt of systemic description of the QashqadaryÁ

Arabic dialect.

The study is mainly based on the dialectological material recorded by the

author in the Arabic-speaking kishlaks of Qashqa-daryÁ region (Uzbekistan)

in the 1980 and 2000.

The book is intended for arabists. It will be interesting for dialectologists,

specialists in areal linguistics and Semitic-Indo-European-Turkic linguistic

contacts.

redaqtori: akademikosi konstantine wereTeli

Edited by Acad. Konstantin Tsereteli

3


4

eZRvneba

akademikos

g i o r g i w e r e T l i s

xsovnas

In Memoriam

Academician

G e o r g e V. T s e r e t e l i

(1904-1973)


Sinaarsi

Sesavali 10

Tavi I. fonologia 47

$ 1. konsonanturi sistema 48

$ 2. fonemaTa relevanturi diferencialuri

niSnebi 51

$ 3. minimaluri opoziciuri wyvilebi da

fonemaTa distribucia 56

$ 4. bgeraTa artikulaciis spontanuri

cvlilebebi 62

$ 5. vokaluri sistema 65

$ 6. bgeraTa kombinatoruli cvlilebebi 70

a) akomodacia 71

b) asimilacia 72

g) disimilacia 75

d) substitucia 76

e) Tanxmovnis amovardna 76

$ 7. marcvali 77

$ 8. maxvili 78

Tavi II. morfologia 79

$ 1. Ziri 79

$ 2. fuZe 81

$ 3. saxeli 81

$ 4. arsebiTi saxeli 82

$ 5. zedsarTavi saxeli 87

$ 6. sqesis kategoria 88

$ 7. ricxvis kategoria 89

$ 8. statusi 90

5


$ 9. ricxviTi saxeli 90

a) pirveli aTeuli 91

b) meore aTeuli 92

g) aTeulebi 92

d) aseulebi 93

e) aTaseulebi 95

v) rigobiTi ricxviTi saxeli 96

$ 10. nacvalsaxeli 97

a) damoukidebeli piris nacvalsaxeli 97

b) nacvalsaxelovani sufiqsebi 99

g) CvenebiTi nacvalsaxeli 100

d) kiTxviTi da uaryofiTi nacvalsaxelebi 100

e) mimarTebiTi nacvalsaxelebi 101

$ 11. zmna 101

a) swori zmna 102

b) guturaluri TanxmovniT ganpirobebuli

zmnis warmoebis Taviseburebani 107

$ 12. kavSirebiTi kilo 109

$ 13. pirobiTi kilo 110

$ 14. imperativi 111

$ 15. drois kategoria 113

a) ganusazRvreli awmyo 114

b) gansazRvruli awmyo 115

g) momavali dro 116

$ 16. nawarmoebi Temebi 117

a) II/ III Tema 119

b) IV Tema 120

g) V/VI Tema 121

d) VII Tema 122

6


e) VIII Tema 123

v) X Tema 124

$ 17. oTxTanxmovniani zmna 125

$ 18. zmnis upiro formebi 127

a) mimReoba 127

b) masdari 128

$ 19. vnebiTi gvari 129

$ 20. geminirebuli zmna 129

a) geminirebuli zmnis nawarmoebi Temebi 131

b) geminirebuli zmnis mimReoba da masdari 132

$ 21. hamziani zmna 133

a) 1 2 3 (zmnebi pirveli Zireuli hamziT) 133

b) 1 2 3 (zmnebi meore Zireuli hamziT) 135

g) 1 2 3 (zmnebi mesame Zireuli hamziT) 135

d) hamziani zmnebis imperativi 137

e) hamziani zmnebis nawarmoebi Temebi: 1 2 3 138

v) hamziani zmnebis mimReoba da masdari: 1 2 3 139

z) hamziani zmnebis nawarmoebi Temebi: 1 2 3 139

T) hamziani zmnebis mimReoba da masdari: 1 2 3 140

i) hamziani zmnebis nawarmoebi Temebi: 1 2 3 140

k) hamziani zmnebis mimReoba da masdari: 1 2 3 141

$ 22. susti zmna 141

a) 1 2 3 (zmnebi I Zireuli susti TanxmovniT) 142

b) 1 2 3 (zmnebi II Zireuli susti TanxmovniT) 143

g) 1 2 3 (zmnebi III Zireuli susti TanxmovniT) 144

d) susti zmnebis imperativi 146

e) susti zmnebis nawarmoebi Temebi: 1 2 3 146

v) susti zmnebis mimReoba da masdari: 1 2 3 147

z) susti zmnebis nawarmoebi Temebi: 1 2 3 147

7


T) susti zmnebis mimReoba da masdari: 1 2 3 148

i) susti zmnebis nawarmoebi Temebi: 1 2 3 148

k) susti zmnebis mimReoba da masdari 1 2 3 149

$ 23. ormagad susti zmnebi 149

$ 24. zmnuri kompozitebi 152

Tavi III. damxmare sityvebi 156

$ 1. zmnizeda 156

$ 2. Tandebuli 157

$ 3. nawilaki 158

$ 4. kavSiri 160

$ 5. Sorisdebuli 160

Tavi IV. sintaqsi 162

$ 1. sintaqsuri konstruqciebi 162

a) sazRvrul - msazRvreli 162

b) Turquli izafeti 162

g) determinatiuli kompoziti 164

$ 2. winadadebis struqtura 165

a) nominali winadadeba 165

b) kiTxviTi winadadeba 168

g) uaryofiTi winadadeba 172

$ 3. verbali winadadeba 173

$ 4. sityvaTa rigi winadadebaSi 175

$ 5. rTuli winadadeba 179

a) Tanwyobili winadadeba 179

b) qvewyobili winadadeba 179

$ 6. qvewyobili winadadebis saxeobebi 181

a) gansazRvrebiTi damokidebuli winadadeba 182

b) damokidebuli winadadeba 182

8


g) adgilis garemoebiTi damokidebuli

winadadeba 183

d) drois garemoebiTi damokidebuli

winadadeba 184

e) pirobiTi damokidebuli winadadeba 184

v) miznis garemoebiTi damokidebuli

winadadeba 185

z) frazis melodika 185

Tavi V. leqsika 186

$ 1. arabuli leqsika 186

$ 2. mniSvnelobaTa modifikaciebi 187

$ 3. dialeqturi leqsika 187

$ 4. nasesxobebi 188

$ 5. morfologiuri modelireba da semantikuri

sityvawarmoeba 189

$ 6. onomasiologiuri struqturebi 190

$ 7. qarTul-kaSkadariuli leqsikuri paralelebi 191

$ 8. ZiriTadi leqsikuri fondi 205

daskvna 211

gamoyenebuli literatura 216

Summary 229

9


Sesavali

naSromi eZRvneba arabuli enaTmecnierebis, kerZod, arabuli

dialeqtologiis mniSvnelovan problemas _ mecnierebisaTvis

naklebad cnobili Sua aziis kaSkadariuli arabuli dialeqtis

enobrivi fenomenis axsnas. Suaaziuri arabulis msgavsad,

periferiul arabul dialeqtebs ganekuTvneba TurqeT-siriis

sasazRvro zolSi arsebuli dialeqtebi, kviprosis arabuli,

andalusiis Zveli arabuli dialeqti, iranis xuzisTanis arabuli

da sxva.

periferiuli arabuli dialeqtebi avlenen mravalferovan

lingvistur Taviseburebebs, rac umeteswilad ganpirobebulia

maTi mWidro enobrivi kontaqtebiT aramonaTesave indoevropul,

Turqul da sxva enebTan. isini Seicaven uaRresad mdidar masalas

zogadlingvisturi problematikis sakvlevad. aRniSnul

dialeqtebze dakvirveba SesaZleblobas iZleva ganisazRvros

semituri enebis ganviTarebis tendenciebi, rac sayuradReboa

istoriuli enaTmecnierebis TvalsazrisiTac.

naSromis mizans warmoadgens Sua aziis kaSkadariuli arabuli

dialeqtis fonetikuri, fonologiuri, morfologiuri,

sintaqsuri da leqsikuri gamokvleva, misi enobrivi arsis srulad

warmoCena. kaSkadariuli dialeqtis enobrivi Taviseburebebi

qmnian sistemas, romlisTvisac damaxasiaTebelia saliteraturo

arabuli enisa da sxva arabuli dialeqtebis msgavsi da

gansxvavebuli niSnebi. naSromSi ZiriTadi yuradReba am

ukanasknelze aris gamaxvilebuli, vinaidan dialeqti, rogorc

metyvelebis faqti, SeuzRudavia cvlilebis TvalsazrisiT.

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naTqvami ise ar unda gavigoT, TiTqos kaSkadariul dialeqts ar

gaaCndes sakuTari normebi. enis Sinagani ganviTarebis

kanonzomierebebma saukuneebis ganmavlobaSi Camoayalibes

kaSkadariuli dialeqti, romelic funqcionirebs sakuTari

enobrivi maxasiaTeblebiT. igi dResac ganicdis cvlilebebs.

naSromSi ganxilulia enis gramatikuli sistemis rRvevis

SemTxvevebic.

Sua aziis arabuli dialeqtebis mniSvnelovan Taviseburebas

qmnis maTi arabuli samyarosgan mravalsaukunovani izolacia.

buxaruli da kaSkadariuli dialeqtebi xangrZlivi periodis

ganmavlobaSi viTardebodnen arabuli samyarosgan

damoukideblad, mSobliuri enobrivi garemosgan mowyvetilni.

sayuradRebo lingvisturi suraTi miviReT araidentur enobriv

garemocvaSi arabuli dialeqtebis ganviTarebis Sedegad, rodesac

isini saukuneebis ganmavlobaSi Tanaarsebobdnen, enobriv

kontaqtSi imyofebodnen indoevropul (tajikur, avRanur) da

Turqul (uzbekur, Turqmenul) enebTan.

aRniSnulma enobrivma situaciam xeli Seuwyo Sua aziaSi

triglosiis Camoyalibebas. dRes mosaxleobis umetesi nawili

buxarisa da kaSka-dariis regionebSi mSobliuri arabulis

paralelurad flobs da iyenebs tajikur da uzbekur enebs.

amasTanave, unda aRiniSnos, rom buxareli arabebi aramSobliuri

enebidan ukeT floben tajikurs, xolo kaSka-darielebi _

uzbekurs.

Suaaziuri arabuli dialeqtebis CamoyalibebaSi mniSvnelovani

roli iTamaSa istoriulma, geografiulma, socialurma da sxva

eqstralingvisturma faqtorebma, romelTa gaTvaliswineba Sedis

aRniSnuli dialeqtebis kvlevis programaSi.

analizis dros gamovlenilia fonologiuri, morfologiuri,

sintaqsuri da leqsikuri interferenciis SemTxvevebi. aseve

ganxilulia kontaqtSi myof enebSi xangrZlivi periodis

ganmavlobaSi msgavsi da gansxvavebuli niSnebis Camoyalibeba

(enis konvergenciuli da divergenciuli ganviTareba).

dadgenilia, Tu rogor iyenebs individi mSobliur arabul

enasTan erTad aramSobliur tajikur da uzbekur enebs. amave

11


dros, mizanSewonilad miviCnieT aRgvewera metyvelebis dros

enobrivi normebis darRveva, ganpirobebuli kontaqtSi myofi

enebis urTierTzegavleniT. metyvelebis normebidan gadaxveva,

sistematuri ganmeorebadobis SemTxvevaSi, kontaqtSi myofi enebis

maxasiaTeblad ganixileba.

aranaklebi mniSvneloba eniWeba enobrivi kontaqtebis Sedegad

droTa ganmavlobaSi Camoyalibebuli msgavsi lingvisturi

movlenebis analizs. es movlenebi warmoadgenen Tanmimdevrul

process, romelsac mivyavarT enebis damsgavsebisaken. Suaaziuri

arabulis aseTi konvergenciuli aRwera gansakuTrebiT faseulia

struqturulad gansxvavebuli semituri, indoevropuli da

Turquli enebis kontaqtebis SemTxvevaSi.

amave dros, adgili aqvs sakuTari enobrivi normebidan

gadaxvevis gziT saerTo enobrivi wesebis Camoyalibebas, rac

iZleva enobrivi kontaqtebis ganzogadebisa da modelirebis

SesaZleblobas. arsebobs Sinagani kavSiri Suaaziur arabulSi

interferenciasa da konvergencias Soris. orive SemTxvevaSi

ganixileba arabuli enis dialeqtebis gansxvavebuli struqturis

enebTan Tanaarsebobis Sedegebi, maTi cvlilebebi drosa da

sivrceSi.

interferenciis aRweris SemTxvevaSi ganixileba buxaruli da

kaSkadariuli dialeqtebisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli enobrivi

gadaxrebi, SeiZleba iTqvas uzustobebi, ganpirobebuli

tajikurisa da uzbekuris gavleniT. rac Seexeba konvergenciis

aRweras, aq saqme gvaqvs Tvisobriv cvlilebebTan.

amgvarad, enobrivi kontaqtebi Sua aziaSi SeiZleba ganvixiloT

xangrZliv procesad, romelsac garkveul etapze Tan axlavs

raodenobrivi enobrivi cvlilebebis TvisobrivSi gadasvla .

enobrivi kontaqtis Sedegad yalibdeba ara mxolod saerTo

niSnebi, SesaZlebelia ganviTardes divergenciac _ enobrivi

maxasiaTeblebis diferencireba, konvergenciis sawinaaRmdego

movlena. es damaxasiaTebelia kontaqturi enebisaTvis, vinaidan

isini Tanabrad iTviseben msgavsebebsa da gansxvavebebs.

12


Sua aziis buxarisa da kaSka-dariis regionebSi enobrivi

situacia avlens koordinaciul da subordinaciul diglosiasa

da triglosias.

koordinaciuli diglosiis an triglosiis dros bilingvi

(trilingvi) Tavisuflad flobs or (an sam) enas da situaciis

mixedviT axdens gadarTvas erTi enidan meoreze, aucileblobis

SemTxvevaSi ki mesamezec.

subordinaciuli diglosiis (triglosiis) dros ki arabi

bilingvi (trilingvi) Tavisuflad flobs mxolod erT,

mSobliur enas. tajikuris da uzbekuris codnis done aseT

SemTxvevaSi dabalia da bilingvi (trilingvi) metyvelebis

procesSi cdilobs dauqvemdebaros ucxo ena mSobliuri

arabulis normebs. aseTi bilingvebi (trilingvebi) arian,

ZiriTadad, xandazmulebi da ojaxuri cxovrebiT Semofargluli

qalebi. Sua aziaSi davafiqsireT subordinaciuli orenovnebis

saintereso SemTxvevebi, roca axali Taobis warmomadgenlebma

mSobliur arabulze ukeT ician tajikuri an uzbekuri enebi da

ojaxSi, ubanSi, TanasoflelebTan metyvelebis dros uxvad

iyeneben tajikur, uzbekur sityvebsa da gamoTqmebs. es

ganpirobebulia cxovrebis Tanamedrove tendenciebiT uzbekeTis

respublikaSi. amasTanave, buxarisa da kaSka-dariis arabulenovan

yiSlaRebSi ucxo ar aris monolingvizmi. vgulisxmobT Rrmad

moxucebulebs. gansakuTrebiT Znelia monolingvi qalebisgan

dialeqtologiuri masalis Cawera karCaketili cxovrebis gamo.

Suaaziuri dialeqtebis Seswavlas safuZveli Caeyara XX

saukunis 30-ian wlebSi akad. g i o r g i w e r e T l i s da prof.

i s a a k v i n i k o v i s (И. Н. Винников) mier. aRniSnuli dialeqtebis

aRmoCena dakavSirebulia leningradeli eTnografebis n. b u r i k

i n a s (Н. Н. Бурыкина) da m. i z m a i l o -v a s (М. М. Измайлова)

saxelebTan, romlebmac 1930 wels leningradSi gamoaqveynes

pirveli informacia Sua aziaSi arabulenovani mosaxleobis

Sesaxeb (52).

cnobilia, rom akademikosi e g n a t e k r a C k o v s k i (И. Ю.

Крачковский) did mniSvnelobas aniWebda Sua aziaSi arabuli

dialeqtebis aRmoCenas. am movlenas igi miiCnevda “arabul

13


dialeqtologiaSi garkveuli gadatrialebis mauwyebel udides

samecniero aRmoCenad”. niSandoblivia misi Semdegi sityvebi: “Sua

aziis arabuli dialeqtebis aRmoCena da gamokvleva didebis

momtania Cveni mecnierebisaTvis, Cveni qveynisaTvis, xolo

msoflio mecnierebisaTvis, garkveuli TvalsazrisiT,

warmoadgens gadatrialebas” (69, gv. 41).

1936 wlis 16 dekembers akad. e. k r a C k o v s k i g. w e r e T e l s

leningradidan werda: “me yovel Rones vxmarob, rom rac SeiZleba

swrafad dabeWdon Tqveni statia. mis did mniSvnelobas aq yvela

aRiarebs. erTi ki SeiZleba iTqvas danamdvilebiT: gaivlis orisami

weli da verc erTi semitologiuri naSromi gverds ver

auvlis Sua azieli arabebis dialeqtebs. amieridan arabul

dialeqtologiaSi ar daiwereba mTel msoflioSi arc erTi

naSromi Tqveni saxelis xsenebis gareSe” (69, gv. 40).

akad. e. k r a C k o v s k i s T a n erTad did mniSvnelobas

aniWebda Sua aziaSi arabuli dialeqtebis aRmoCenas da Seswavlas

cnobili arabisti prof. n. i u S m a n o v i (Н. В. Юшманов), romelic

30-ian wlebSi leningradis universitetSi kiTxulobda arabuli

dialeqtologiis kurss. 1936 wlis 27 Tebervals igi

g. w e r e T e l s swerda: “Zvirfaso giorgi vasilis Zev, . . . .

mxurvaled gilocavT did warmatebas arabul dialeqtologiaSi:

rogorc iqna Tqven SesZeliT piradad wveodiT yiSlaR jogaris

da CageweraT mecnierulad Rirebuli masala . . . roca Cven

vmsjelobdiT arabuli dialeqtologiis sakiTxebze, albaT ar

gamogeparaT Cemi gansakuTrebuli yuradReba periferiuli

arabuli dialeqtebisadmi, romlebic bedisweriT gariyulni,

mowyvetilni da ukiduresad daSorebulni aRmoCndnen mSobliuri

arabuli kulturis centrebidan.

metyvelebis dialeqtikidan gamomdinare, Cven unda velodoT

uZveles formebs (da amasTanave tendenciebs formaTa

ganviTarebaSi) zustad iq, sadac metyveleba ar aris “sufTa” da

“sanimuSo” zogadstandartuli TvalsazrisiT. Tqveni mdidari

monapovari udavod CaiTvleba mniSvnelovan wvlilad

mecnierebaSi, Tundac araferi vTqvaT imaze, rom yoveli

axladaRwerili arabuli dialeqti arabistTa da semitologTa

udides interess iwvevs“ ( 69, gv. 41-42).

14


akad. g i o r g i w e r e T l i s damsaxurebad unda CaiTvalos mis

mier 1935 wels Sua aziaSi pirveli mivlinebis Sedegad ori _

buxaruli da kaSkadariuli dialeqtebis gamoyofa. winaswar

publikaciaSi 1937 wels mecnieri werda: “gairkva, rom CrdiloeTiT

(buxaris raioni) mcxovrebi arabebis ena Zalian gansxvavdeba

samxreTis (kaSka-dariis mxaris) arabebis metyvelebisagan.

gansxvaveba imdenad didia, rom Tamamad gaxda SesaZlebeli ori

damoukidebeli dialeqtis gamoyofa” (24, gv. 301).

Sua aziis arabuli dialeqtebi _ buxaruli da kaSkadariuli

miekuTvneba arabuli dialeqtebis aRmosavlur jgufs. isini

ganTavsebulia Tanamedrove uzbekeTis teritoriaze. buxarul

dialeqtze metyvelebs buxaris mxaris Rijduvanis raionis

yiSlaR jogarisa (ÓÝgar×) da vobqendis raionis yiSlaR arab-xanas

(÷arab-ÕÝne) mosaxleoba, xolo kaSkadariuli dialeqti

gavrcelebulia uzbekeTis samxreTSi, karSis CrdilodasavleTiT

beSqendis raionis yiSlaRebSi jeÁnausa (ÓeynÆu) da

kamaSiSi (qamaâi). adgilze Cveni dakvirvebiT, mocemul yiSlaRebSi

buxarul dialeqtze amJamad metyvelebs daaxloebiT 3000 kaci,

xolo kaSkadariul dialeqts 1500-mde piri flobs. amave dros,

arabi mosaxleoba dasaxelebul raionebSi ricxvobrivad bevrad

aRemateba mSobliuri enis matareblebs.

Sua aziis arabul dialeqtebs mniSvnelovani naSromebi uZRvnes

akad. g. w e r e T e l m a da prof. i. v i n i k o v m a. gansakuTrebiT

aRsaniSnavia g. w e r e T l i s gamokvleva “Sua azieli arabebis

enis daxasiaTebisaTvis”, romelic 1941 wels gamoqveynda

arabistTa asociaciis meore sesiis SromebSi (117), misive

kapitaluri Sroma “Sua aziis arabuli dialeqtebi, buxaris

arabuli dialeqti” (120); i. v i n i k o v i s “buxareli arabebis ena

da folklori” (63), misive “buxarel arabTa enis leqsikoni”,

gamoqveynebuli 1962 wels JurnalSi «Палестинский сборник» (60) da

sxva. CamoTvlili naSromebi akad. g. w e r e T l i s a da prof. i.

v i n i k o v i s fuZemdebluri naRvawia, romlebmac gansazRvres

Suaaziuri arabulis kvlevis done.

15


1985 wels rusul enaze gamoqveynda prof. v l. a x v l e d i a n i s

monografia «buxaruli arabuli dialeqti» (36), masSi

gaanalizebulia buxaruli dialeqtis fonologiuri da

morfologiuri struqtura. v l. a x v l e d i a n i s aRniSnuli

Sroma mniSvnelovani etapia Sua aziis buxaruli dialeqtis

kvlevis sferoSi. Suaaziur arabuls mniSvnelovani Sromebi

uZRvnes agreTve n. i u S m a n o v m a (137), h. n i b e r g m a H. Nyberg

(184), v. f i S e r m a W. Fischer (154), g. j u r a e v m a Г. Джураев (74),

k. v e r s t i R m a K. Versteegh (197), o. i a s t r o v m a O. Jastrow (170,

171, 172) da sxvebma.

CamoTvlili mkvlevarebis naSromebi ZiriTadad eZRvneba Sua

aziis buxarul dialeqts. es, Cveni azriT, ganpirobebulia

buxaruli arabulis amsaxveli uxvi dialeqtologiuri masalis

arsebobiT samecniero mimoqcevaSi, rac akad. g. w e r e T l i s a da

prof. i. v i n i k o v i s damsaxurebaa.

kaSkadariuli arabuli dialeqtis kvlevasac saTave akad.

g. w e r e T e l m a da prof. i. v i n i k o v m a daudes. 1954 wels g.

w e r e T e l m a (118) da 1963 wels i. v i n i k o v m a (61) gamoaqveynes

kaSkadariel arabTa metyvelebis nimuSebi. 1965 wels bratislavaSi

daibeWda i. v i n i k o v i s kaSkadariuli dialeqtis gramatikis

masalebi (198). miuxedavad amisa, kaSkadariuli dialeqti

naklebadaa cnobili samecniero wreebSi. aRniSnuli dialeqtis

masalebi dRemde ar aris gamoqveynebuli im moculobiT, rac

specialistebs SesaZleblobas miscemda CaetarebinaT dialeqtis

sruli lingvisturi analizi.

winamdebare naSromi ZiriTadad eyrdnoba 80-ian wlebSi da 2000

wlis noemberSi Sua aziis kaSka-dariisa da buxaris mxaris

arabulenovan yiSlaRebSi avtoris mier mopovebul masalas.

informantebTan muSaobisas vcdilobdi Camewera gansxvavebuli

asakisa da sqesis arabul enaSi gawafuli pirebi. amasTanave,

davafiqsire arabuli enis sustad mcodneni, romelTa metyveleba

mniSvnelovnad aris gazavebuli uzbekuriT da tajikuriT.

naSromSi pirvelad aris warmodgenili Sua aziis kaSkadariuli

arabuli dialeqtis sruli lingvisturi analizi _ misi

fonologiuri, morfologiuri da sintaqsuri aRwera; mocemulia

dialeqtis leqsikis daxasiaTeba.

16


Suaaziuri arabuli iZleva uaRresad mdidar masalas enobrivi

kontaqtebis kvlevis TvalsazrisiT. am mxriv gansakuTrebiT

mniSvnelovania gansxvavebuli struqturis enebis sametyvelo

kontaqtebi semituri (arabuli), indoevropuli (tajikuri,

avRanuri) da Turquli (uzbekuri, Turqmenuli) enebis

urTierTobis fonze. es sakiTxi farTod aisaxa monografiaSi,

sadac arabuli dialeqtis enobriv TaviseburebebTan erTad

ganmartebulia uzbekuri da tajikuri gavlenebi,

mravalsaukunovani enobrivi urTierTobis Sedegebi fonologiur,

morfologiur, sintaqsur da leqsikur doneze.

Sua aziaSi Cawerili dialeqtologiuri masala ZiriTadad

aRmosavlur (tajikur, uzbekur) folklors warmoadgens.

zogierTi zRapari ukavSirdeba arabuli zRaprebis cikls «aTas

erTi Ramidan», rac mowmobs arabi mosaxleobis mexsierebaSi

dacul arabul literaturul zepir tradiciebze. igi saukuneebis

ganmavlobaSi gadaecemoda Taobidan Taobas. amasTanave, ar aris

gamoricxuli, aRmosavleTSi gavrcelebuli moaruli arabuli

zRapruli siuJetebis tajikuridan an uzbekuridan moxvedra

buxarul da kaSkadariul arabulSi. amrigad, mopovebuli

dialeqtologiuri masala sayuradReboa Sua aziis xalxTa

folkloris kvlevis TvalsazrisiTac. amasTanave, igi

warmoadgens mniSvnelovan wyaros Sua azieli arabebis istoriis

Sesaswavlad. misi gamoqveyneba TargmaniT da komentarebiT

ganzraxuli gvaqvs uaxloes momavalSi.

kaSkadariuli da buxaruli arabuli dialeqtebis

SeswavlisaTvis didi mniSvneloba eniWeba aRniSnul regionebSi

amJamad mcxovreb arabTa istorias, maTi cxovrebis wess,

eTnografiul maxasiaTeblebs. arabebis Sua aziaSi damkvidrebis

savaraudo TariRisa da Tavdapirveli adgilsamyofelis dadgena

xels Seuwyobs arabuli dialeqtebis enobriv gamokvlevas. am

sakiTxis Seswavlisas gansakuTrebiT unda gamaxvildes yuradReba

istoriul wyaroebze, zepir gadmocemebze da enobriv

Taviseburebebze, sxva arabul dialeqtebTan Sedarebis Sedegad

miRebul Sedegebze.

17


zemoTaRniSnulidan gamomdinare, mizanSewonilad migvaCnia

SevexoT kaSkadariel arabTa migraciis zogierT sakiTxs Sua

aziaSi.

Sua aziaSi arabTa migracias mravalsaukunovani istoria aqvs

(39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 64, 83, 84, 85, 87, 98, 100, 106, 108, 109, 113, 182, 196). igi

dakavSirebulia arabTa dapyrobiT omebTan VII-VIII saukuneebSi. am

periodSi istoriulad aris dadasturebuli Sua aziis did

qalaqebSi – buxarasa da samaryandSi arabTa arsebobis faqti (44,

gv. 22). mogvianebiT arabTa damkvidrebam Sua aziaSi ufro farTo

masStabebi miiRo. IX saukunis geografis, al-iakubis (gard. 897)

cnobiT, xorasani, romelSic Sedioda mavaranahri, dasaxlebuli

iyo arabebiT. arabTa siWarbe gansakuTrebiT qalaqebSi

igrZnoboda (64, gv. 124). dasaSvebia am periodSi qalaqebisgan

moSorebiT arabul dasaxlebaTa arsebobac. amas gvafiqrebinebs

arabTa migraciis farTo masStabebi Sua aziaSi ax.w.-is VII-VIII

saukuneebSi. SemdgomSi arabebma TandaTan dakarges erovnuli

niSnebi da maT Soris umTavresi – ena. ukve IX saukuneSive, aljahizis

(gard. 868) cnobiT, arabebi Seerivnen adgilobriv

mosaxleobas da aRar gansxvavdebodnen misgan (64, gv. 124). rac

Seexeba im arabebs, romlebic ar damkvidrdnen qalaqebSi da

momTabare cxovrebas eweodnen, maT, savaraudoa, SeinarCunes ena da

sxva nacionaluri niSnebi.

siriasa da palestinaSi islamuri dapyrobebis Semdeg arabebma

15 weli moandomes iranSi dapyrobiT omebs. 651 wels maT daipyres

marvi, romelic aRniSnul periodSi mdidari da kulturiT

ganTqmuli qalaqi iyo.

iakuTis (gard. 1229) cnobil TxzulebaSi (kitÁb mu÷Óam al-buldÁn)

da narSahis “buxaris istoriaSi” (Таърихи Бухоро) mocemulia

arabuli Tqmulebebi, romlis Tanaxmad mociqulma muhamadma

uanderZa Tavis mimdevrebs Sua aziis dapyroba. am cnobis mixedviT,

mociqulma mouwoda maT, rom mavaranahris dapyroba muslimTa

wminda da sapatio movaleobas warmoadgenda (68, gv. 145).

mavaranahri igivea, rac arabuli ma warÁöa-n-nahr. am periodSi

mavaranahri dayofili iyo uamrav samefod. isini aravis

18


emorCilebodnen. mmarTvelebi atarebdnen erTmaneTisagan

gansxvavebul iseT titulebs, rogoricaa, magaliTad, xvarazm-Sahi

(xorezmis mmarTveli), buxarxodaT (buxaris mmarTveli), maruia

(marvis mmarTveli), bixan (abiverdis mmarTveli), TermezSahi

(Termezis mmarTveli) da a. S.

marvis Semdeg arabebma gadawyvites mTeli Sua aziis dapyroba.

maT undodaT daekavebinaT soRdis mdidari miwebi, agreTve

Toxaristani, Caganiani (surxardariis miwebi) da xorezmi.

Sua azia am periodSi warmoadgenda msoflios mdidar regions.

aRsaniSnavia 676 wels Sua aziaSi arabi mxedarTmTavris said ibn

usmanis laSqroba buxarasa da soRdis qalaqebSi.

saidma buxaridan medinaSi wamoasxa 30 000 tyve, romlebmac

droTa ganmavlobaSi ganicades asimilacia arabebTan. isini

medinaSi sasoflo-sameurneo saqmianobas eweodnen. IX saukunis

arabi istorikosis, balazuris cnobis Tanaxmad, buxarel tyveebs

medinaSi iyenebdnen muSebad rwyvis sistemebSi.

at-tabaris (gard. 923) cnobiT, xorasnis arabi mmarTvelebi

gazafxulze samxedro laSqrobebs awyobdnen mavaranahris

teritoriaze. zamTarSi isini ukan brundebodnen marvSi (68, gv. 148).

704 wels xorasnis nacvalad dainiSna kuTaiba ibn muslimi,

romelmac TandaTan daipyro da daumorCila arabebs mavaranahri.

igi bahilas arabul toms miekuTvneboda, amitom am tomis arabebs

awinaurebda.

gadawyvetileba mavaranahris dapyrobis Sesaxeb miRebul iqna

xalifa abd al – maliqis mmarTvelobis dasasruls. am dros

saxalifos samxedro Zliereba kidev ufro ganmtkicda da

momzadda niadagi axali samxedro operaciebis Casatareblad.

xorasnis gamgebeli kuTaiba ibn muslimi Tavisi samxedro

niWierebiT, SeupovrobiTa da daundoblobiT warmoadgenda

Sesaferis pirovnebas saxalifos sazRvrebis gasafarToeblad.

mavaranahris dapyrobamde kuTaibam 705 wels daimorCila balha da

706 wels daiZra mavaranahrisaken.

aRsaniSnavia kuTaibas mier qalaq feiqendis aReba. feiqendi

samaryandTan erTad, Sua aziis umniSvnelovanes qalaqs

warmoadgenda. igi iyo mniSvnelovani savaWro centri, kargad

19


gamagrebuli da simdidriT gamorCeuli. 709 wels kuTaibam

buxarac aiRo da daumorCila arabebs. rodesac kuTaiba

mravalricxovani jariT buxaras miadga, qalaqis damcvelebma

daxmarebisaTvis soRdelebs mimarTes. gaimarTa sisxlismRvreli

brZola. kuTaiba 100 dirhams dapirda yvelas, vinc mtris mokveTil

Tavs moutanda (68, gv. 150). mebrZolTa mokveTili Tavebisagan man

piramida aRmarTa da Tavisi sisastikiT Tavzari dasca qalaqis

damcvelebs. buxarelebma ver gauZles arabTa zewolas da

danebdnen. amis Semdeg kuTaibam daimorCila soRdi, mZevlebad

aiyvana samefo ojaxis wevrebi da daawesa yovelwliuri

gadasaxadi. at-tabaris cnobiT, soRdis mecixovneebma ar apaties

mefe tarxuns arabebTan gancdili marcxi da taxtidan Camoagdes

(68, gv. 150). mis nacvlad gamefebuli guraqi gamoirCeoda

sifrTxiliT. igi arabebTan ormagi standartis politikas eweoda.

garegnulad aRiarebda islams da morCilebas ucxadebda xalifas,

zurgs ukan ki molaparakebas awarmoebda Cinel

mxedarTmTavrebTan arabebis Sua aziidan gansadevnad.

719 wels kuTaiba Tavs daesxa mdinare amu darias zemo welSi

arsebul Soumanis samefos, romelic ar cnobda saxalifos

uzenaes mmarTvelobas. kuTaibam daimorCila Soumani da daiZra

nesefisa da qeSisaken. es iyo galaSqreba kaSka-dariisken. nesefi

igivea, rac karSi, xolo qeSi dRevandeli Sahrisabzia. kuTaibam

arabTa mravalricxovani laSqriT daimorCila kaSka-dariis mxare

da gamagrda nesefis (karSis) midamoebSi.

arabebis gavlena TandaTan gavrcelda Sua aziis did qalaqebze.

712 wels kuTaibam daipyro xorezmi – mdidari qveyana, romlis

mcxovreblebmac miiRes islami da SemdgomSi monawileobdnen

islamur dapyrobiT omebSi. xorezmis dapyroba kuTaibas

gauadvila areulobam qveynis SigniT. man kargad gamoiyena

xvarazm-Sahis winaaRmdeg misi Zmis ajanyeba, daexmara xorezmSahs

taxtis SenarCunebaSi da amis sanacvlod Tavs moaxvia morCilebis

tolfasi samSvidobo xelSekruleba. kuTaiba daundoblad

gausworda ajanyebulebs, xolo xorezmSahma daxmarebis

sanacvlod mas 10 000 suli pirutyvi uboZa (68, gv. 151).

gamarjvebiT frTaSesxmuli kuTaiba am periodSi iwyebs

umniSvnelovanes samxedro operacias samaryandis winaaRmdeg.

20


xorezmis damorCilebis Semdeg kuTaiba avrcelebs xmas, rom

nadavliT datvirTuli brundeba marvSi, sinamdvileSi, ki xvarazm-

Sahisa da buxarxodaTis jarebis TanxlebiT miemarTeba

samaryandisken.

samaryandis alya erTi Tve gagrZelda. soRdelebma

daxmarebisaTvis mimarTes SaSas mefes, ferRanis ixSidsa da Turq

xans. maT misweres, rom soRdis dacema kargs aravis uqadda, “Tu

arabebi soRds daipyrobdnen, maTi jeric dadgeboda” (68, gv. 151).

ferRanam da SaSam damxmare jari gamogzavnes, magram kuTaibam

Seityo amis Sesaxeb, mters gza gadauWra da erTianad amoxoca. amis

Semdeg arabebma lodsartyocnebiT daangries qalaqis zRude da

samaryandSi SeiWrnen. gaafrTebuli winaaRmdegobis miuxedavad,

qalaqi daeca. kuTeibam igi umowyalod gaZarcva. at-tabaris

cnobiT, man daangria qalaqis Senobebi, gadawva taZrebi, gadaadno

oqro da vercxli, maT Soris taZrebidan gamotanili soRdelTa

RmerTebis oqros qandakebebi. naZarcvi oqros raodenobam 50 000

misxali (1 misxali = 4,7 grams) Seadgina (68, gv. 151).

kuTaibam samaryandis mcxovreblebs daudgina yovelwliuri

gadasaxadi da mosTxova 30 000 mebrZoli jarSi samsaxurisaTvis.

rogorc zemoT aRvniSneT, arabebi alyaSemortymuli qalaqis

galavnis dasangrevad warmatebiT iyenebdnen lodsatyorcnebs

(ﻖﻴﻨﺠﻨﻣ). magaliTad, werilSi, romelic soRdis mmarTvelma,

gurekma gaugzavna CineTis imperators, weria, rom 712 wels

samaryandis galavnis dasangrevad arabebma gamoiyenes 300

lodsatyorcni manqana.

kuTaibas laSqrobebis Sedegad Sua azia TiTqmis mTlianad

daeqvemdebara arabebs. kaSka-dariis mxare, zarafSani, xorezmi da

sxva mniSvnelovani regionebi arabebis gavlenis qveS moeqca.

axlad dapyrobil regionebSi daiwyo islamis gavrceleba. kuTaiba

did mniSvnelobas aniWebda Sua aziaSi islamis gavrcelebas.

mogvianebiT soRdSi “arabi” da “muslimi” faqtobrivad, erTi da

imave mniSvnelobiT ixmareboda. islamis gavrcelebis Sedegad Sua

aziaSi arabebis gavlena kidev ufro ganmtkicda. regionSi fexi

moikida cxovrebis muslimurma wesma.

islamis gavrcelebamde Sua aziaSi ZiriTad religias

zoroastrizmi warmoadgenda. iyvnen agreTve qristianobisa da

21


udizmis mimdevrebic. arabebma daundobeli brZola gamoucxades

maT. islamis garda yvela sxva religia cru moZRvrebad

gamocxadda da devnas daeqvemdebara. ganadgurda zoroastruli

literatura. masTan erTad, mavaranahris xalxTa

mravalsaukunovani tradiciebis mqone saero literatura.

TiTqmis mTlianad aRigava pirisagan miwisa soRduri werilobiTi

Zeglebi. regionSi islamis damkvidrebis mizniT saxalifom

gaatara araerTi RonisZieba. dawesda SeRavaTebi muslimebisaTvis.

pirvel xanebSi, mosaxleobis gadmobirebis mizniT, fulsac ki

uxdidnen imaT, vinc islams aRiarebda (68, gv. 154).

regionSi islamis gavrcelebas xels uwyobda isic, rom islamze

moqceuli adgilobrivi mosaxleoba Tavisufldeboda

gadasaxadebisagan (jizia da xaraja). zogjer adgili hqonda

aRniSnuli wesidan gadaxvevas. magaliTad, xalifa omar II-is (717-

720 w.w.) mmarTvelobis dros xorasanSi nacvalad dainiSna jarah

ibn abd al-lahi, romelic gadasaxadis akrefis momxre iyo

miuxedavad imisa, islamze moiqceoda Tu ara adgilobrivi

mosaxleoba.

xalifa omar II-m gaiTvaliswina Sua aziis mosaxleobis

ukmayofileba jarah ibn abd al-lahis politikiT da 719 wels

gadaiyvana igi xorasnidan azerbaijanisa da armeniis mmarTvelad.

1933 wels ruseTis mecnierebaTa akademiis eqspediciam

zarafSanSi, kerZod, tajikeTis erT-erT mTaze arsebul cixesimagreSi,

aRmoaCina dokumentebi soRdur enaze. isini

Sesrulebuli iyo tyavze da xeze. iqve ipoves Cinuri warwerebi

bambisagan damzadebul qaRaldze. erTi maTgani gamoikvlia akad. e.

kraCkovskim (87). dokumenti TariRdeba 717-719 wlebiT. masSi

naxsenebia soRdis mmarTveli, anu ixSidi _ tarxuni, misi ori Ze,

CvenTvis cnobili jarah ibn abd al-lahi da sulaiman ibn abu

sarri, agreTve, fianjiqendis mmarTveli divaStiCi. dokumenti

warmoadgens divaStiCis werils jarah ibn abd al-lahisadmi,

romelSic avtori (divaStiCi) Seaxsenebs jarah ibn abd al-lahs

soRdis mmarTvelis, tarxunis ori vaJis beds, romlebic arab

nacvals tyved yavda ayvanili sulaiman ibn abu sarris karze. ori

Zmidan erT-erTi, rogorc proarabuli orientaciis mqone, arabebs

22


soRdis momaval mmarTvelad undodaT daeniSnaT da amisaTvis

Sesaferis dros elodnen (85, gv. 144).

rac Seexeba divaStiCs, igi, at-tabaris cnobiT, iyo samaryandis

dehyani da fianjiqendis mmarTveli, romelic 722 wels soRdSi

saxalxo gamaTavisuflebel moZraobas edga saTaveSi (85, gv. 144).

arabul wyaroebSi aris cnobebi sulaiman ibn abu sarris

divaStiCis winaaRmdeg galaSqrebis Sesaxeb mTiani cixe-simagris

midamoebSi, romelsac abargari erqva. brZola arabi sardlis

gamarjvebiT dasrulda. divaStiCma cixe daTmo da sikvdiliT iqna

dasjili arabi mmarTvelis, haraSis mier (68, gv. 156).

Sua aziaSi arabTa batonobis mniSvnelovan etapad SeiZleba

CaiTvalos xorasanSi da mavaranahrSi nasr ibn saiaris (738- 748

w.w.) mmarTveloba. aRniSnul periodSi Sua azia mTlianad iqna

dapyrobili arabebis mier da dasrulda am vrceli regionis

islamizacia. nasr ibn saiari miekuTvneboda mudarianTa arabul

toms. mas didad afasebda kuTaiba ibn muslimi. at-tabaris

mixedviT, kuTaiba arab jars sapasuxismgeblo brZolebSi xSirad

andobda nasr ibn saiars (85, gv. 150). man erTi didi dasaxleba

jildod uboZa nasr ibn saiars mniSvnelovani samxedro

warmatebisTvis. at-tabaris cnobiT, xorasani da mavaranahri nasr

ibn saiaris mmarTvelobis dros ganviTarda da ayvavda (85, gv. 150).

nasr ibn saiarma miimxro dehyanebi da gaimagra poziciebi. igi

awinaurebda da ekonomikurad mxars uWerda gadmobirebul,

islamze moqceul adgilobriv didebulebs, aniWebda maT

privilegiebs, xels uwyobda adgilobrivi mosaxleobis arabebTan

danaTesavebas, TviT aZlevda maT aseT magaliTs. man colad

SeirTo buxarxodaTis qaliSvili. misi mmarTvelobis dros arabi

mmarTveli elita daunaTesavda da SeeTvisa soRdur, xorezmul da

baqtriul elitas.

zemoaRniSnuli msjeloba mowmobs VII saukunis bolos da VIII

saukunis dasawyisSi buxarisa da kaSka-dariis mxareSi islamis

gamavrcelebel arab mebrZolTa dajgufebebis arsebobas.

rogorc zemoT aRvniSneT, Sua aziaSi arabTa migraciis didi

talRa Seexo xorasnis qalaqebs: marvsa da balhas. isini mdinare

amudarias marcxena napirze mdebareobdnen da arabTa dapyrobiTi

23


operaciebis dros warmoadgendnen maT ZiriTad bazebs. aman

ganapiroba arabTa siWarbe am or qalaqSi. marvisa da Carjous

Soris mdebare stepebSi am periodSi arabTa tomebi

momTabareobdnen. XII saukuneSi q. SahristanTan axlos cnobili

iyo arabTa gamagrebuli punqti (Sahristani Tanamedrove

aSxabadis raionSi mdebareobda). X saukunis geografiuli

Txzulebis “hodud al-alamis” avtoris cnobiT, guzRananis

samflobeloSi Sediodnen andxoi, maimoni, SuburRani da sxva

dasaxlebuli punqtebi. arabebs vxvdebiT agreTve guzRananis

samxreTiT, avRaneTis centralur nawilSi, sadac isini ara marto

momTabareobdnen, aramed ibrZodnen kidec mahmud Raznevis jaris

SemadgenlobaSi (64, gv. 125). XVI saukunis dasawyisSi qabulis

midamoSi dasturdeba momTabare arabebis arseboba. baburis

cnobiT, maT SenarCunebuli hqondaT mSobliuri ena (64, gv. 125). Sua

aziis arabulSi avRanuri elementebis arseboba SeiZleba

aRniSnuli garemoebiT aixsnas. XV saukunis dasasruls arabebi

momTabareobdnen xorasnidan eraySi da - piriqiT. amis

damadasturebel faqts vxvdebiT s. v o l i n i s (С. Л. Волин) mier

dasaxelebul “Tarassuli - marvarid”-Si, romelic warmoadgens

xelnawerTa krebuls da Sedgenilia abdalah ibn muhamad almarvaridis

mier (64, gv. 121). mniSvnelovani informaciis

matarebelia termini “mir hazor”-i _ aTasisTavi, romelic

dakavSirebulia momTabare arabebTan. v. b a r t o l d i s azriT,

es termini gaCnda xan kebekis (1318-1326 w.w.) dros (42, gv. 9). termins

hazora, “aTaseuli” Sua aziaSi vxvdebiT XVI saukunidan.

magaliTad, gaTCis raioni XVI saukunis bolos hazorad

iTvleboda. mir hazoris ZiriTad movaleobas Tavdapirvelad

Seadgenda gadasaxadebis akrefa. igi Tanamdebobis pirs

warmoadgenda. XIX saukunis dasawyisisaTvis mir hazori ukve

administraciuli erTeulis mmarTvelia da misi tituli

memkvidreobiT gadaecemoda (64, gv. 120). istoriuli wyaroebiT

dasturdeba XVI saukunis Sua xanisaTvis arabTa arseboba Sua

aziis im regionebSi, sadac isini dResac arian (64, gv. 117). XVII-XVIII

saukuneebSi cnobebi Sua aziaSi arabTa arsebobis Sesaxeb TiTqmis

ar mogvepoveba. XIX s. dasawyisisaTvis arabebi buxarisa da aqCis

raionebSi qmnian administraciul erTeulebs, romelTa saTaveSi

24


mir hazori dgas. cnobilia, rom avRaneTis qalaqi aqCa XIX

saukunis Sua xanamde buxarel amirebs eqvemdebareboda (64, gv. 116).

buxarasa da aqCaSi arabulenovani mosaxleobis arseboba mowmobs

arabuli Temis siZlieres Sua aziaSi XIX saukunis pirveli

naxevrisaTvis. v. m a i e n d o r f i s (W. Meyendorf) cnobiT, XIX

saukunis 20-ian wlebSi arabebs vxvdebiT, agreTve, karSisa da

Termezis raionebSi (182, gv. 197). v. m a i e n d o r f i s garda Sua

aziaSi arabebis yofnis Sesaxeb cnobebs gvawvdian n. x a n i k o v i

Н. Ханыков (113, gv. 56), a. v a m b e r i A. Vambery (196, gv. 370), a.

g r e b e n k i n i А. Д. Гребенкин (106, gv. 113), m. a n d r e e v i М. С.

Андреев (84, gv. 137), v. v i a t k i n i В. П. Вяткин (83, gv. 16-17),

n. b u r i k i n a, m. i z m a i l o v a (52, gv. 527-549) da sxvebi. isini

erTsulovnad aRniSnaven arabTa gavrcelebis farTo masStabebs

Sua aziaSi XIX saukunis dasasrulisa da XX s-is dasawyisisaTvis.

bunebrivia, ismeba sakiTxi: arabTa migraciis romel talRasTan

arian dakavSirebuli buxarisa da kaSka-dariis mxareSi amJamad

mcxovrebi arabebi? am sakiTxis kvlevas Tavisi istoria aqvs. 1826

wels v. m a i e n d o r f i miiCnevda, rom buxareli arabebis

winaprebi hijris pirveli saukunidan unda dasaxlebuliyvnen am

raionSi (182, gv. 191; 64, gv. 111). igi adasturebs agreTve im

droisaTvis momTabare arabebis arsebobas karSisa da Termezis

midamoebSi. yarSeli arabebis winaparTa aRniSnul regionSi

migraciis savaraudo droze v. m a i e n d o r f i arafers wers. a.

v a m b e r i c, v. m a i e n d o r f i s msgavsad, buxarel arabebs

islamis gamavrcelebel Zlevamosil arab molaSqreTa

STamomavlebad miiCnevs (196, gv. 370).

sayuradReboa rusi avtoris a. g r e b e n k i n i s cnobebi. igi XIX

saukunis 70-ian wlebSi ruseTis jaris SemadgenlobaSi

imyofeboda da monawileobas Rebulobda ruseTis mier Sua aziaSi

Catarebul samxedro operaciebSi. a. g r e b e n k i n s mohyavs

mosaxleobaSi gavrcelebuli ori gadmocema, romelic im

droisaTvis Sua aziaSi mcxovreb arabTa winaprebis aRniSnul

regionSi damkvidrebas exeba. pirvelis mixedviT, Sua aziaSi

mcxovrebi arabebi TavianT winaprebad Tvlidnen islamis

gamavrcelebel arab dampyroblebs, xolo meore gadmocemiT,

arabTa migracias Sua aziaSi Temurlengs miawerdnen. arabebis am

25


nawils Rrmad swamda, rom maTi winaprebi Sua aziaSi Temurlengma

wamoasxa tyveebad (106, gv. 114). aRsaniSnavia a. g r e b e n k i n i s

cnoba karSis midamoSi mcxovrebi arabebis Sesaxeb. isini

ganTqmulebi yofilan saukeTeso jiSis cxvrebiT da rCeuli

cxenebiT (106, gv. 115). arabTa ZiriTadi saqmianobis maRali done,

riTac gansxvavdebodnen yarSeli arabebi sxva Sua azieli

arabebisagan, miuTiTebs aRniSnul raionSi maTi saqmianobis

tradiciulobas.

Sua aziel arabTa winaprebis aRniSnul regionSi migraciis

TariRis dadgenas cdilobda m. a n d r e e v i c (84, gv. 128). igi,

a. g r e b e n k i n i s msgavsad, Semoifargla, ZiriTadad, xalxSi

gavrcelebuli gadmocemebiT. es cnobebi arafriT gansxvavdeba

adre a. g r e b e n k i n i s mier Cawerili gadmocemebisgan, rac

miuTiTebs am sakiTxze xalxuri gadmocemis tradiciulobas, mis

simyares. sayuradReboa m. a n d r e e v i s cnoba imis Sesaxeb, rom

qaTTayorRanis mazraSi mcxovrebi arabebi TavianT Tavs karSis

raionidan gadmoxvewilebad Tvlidnen. gadmocemiT, isini buxaris

emirma gadmoasaxla 250 wlis win (84, gv. 131). es cnoba

mniSvnelovania imiT, rom miuTiTebs arabTa dasaxlebis

xangrZlivobas Sua aziis kaSka-dariis mxareSi, sadac dReisaTvis

mcxovreb arabTa didi nawili hijris I saukuneSi mosul islamis

gamavrcelebel arabebs miiCnevs Tavis uSualo winaprebad.

1930 wels daibeWda Sua azieli arabebisadmi specialurad

miZRvnili statia, romlis avtorebi arian n. b u r i k i n a da m.

i z m a i l o v a (52). maTac Cawerili aqvT gadmocemebi, romlebic

Sua azieli arabebis aRniSnul regionSi damkvidrebas

Temurlengs ukavSirebs. unda aRiniSnos, rom es cnobebi ar aris

erTgvarovani da Seicavs winaaRmdegobebs. magaliTad, arab-xanaSi

(samaryandis raioni), jeÁnauSi (karSis raioni) da qerminis

irgvliv mdebare yiSlaRebSi mcxovrebi arabebis nawili

Temurlengs miawers Sua aziaSi maTi winaprebis moxvedras, magram

azrTa sxvadasxvaobaa imis Taobaze, Tu saidan gadmoasaxla isini

Temurlengma. am SemTxvevaSi zogi irans asaxelebs, zogi - avRaneTs

da zogic - arabul qveynebs. Temurlengis mier arabebis Sua aziaSi

gadasaxlebis faqts marTlac SeiZleba hqonoda adgili. amave

dros unda gaviTvaliswinoT, rom Sua aziaSi gavrcelebuli

26


tradiciis Tanaxmad, istoriul movlenaTa Sesaxeb arsebuli

gadmocemebi, umetes SemTxvevaSi, legendis xasiaTs atarebs da

mosaxleobis mier uyoymanod miewereba Temurlengs. aseTma

tradiciam, cxadia, bevr gadmocemas daukarga sarwmuno xasiaTi.

1980 wlis noemberSi, Sua aziaSi Cveni pirveli mivlinebis dros,

yuradReba miipyro kaSka-dariis mxaris yiSlaR jeÁnauSi daculma

zepirma gadmocemam, romelic am raionSi mcxovrebi arabebis

winaprebad miiCnevs hijris pirvel saukuneSi islamis droSis qveS

gaerTianebul arab dampyroblebs. rogorc aRvniSneT, aseTi

gadmocema Sua aziaSi adre Cawerili aqvT v. m a i e n d o r f s,

a. v a m b e r i s a da a. g r e b e n k i n s, magram ara - kaSka-dariis

mxareSi. yiSlaRi jeÁnau iyofa ubnebad - mahallebad. esenia:

harruki (Ôarræq), avona (÷awÝna), bavora (bawÝra), andxoi (andÕÞy),

Cukurkuli (Éuqurkél) da qaTTafai (kattapÞy). am eqvsi ubnidan

mxolod samSi ician arabuli (harruki, avona, bavora). harrukSi da

avonaSi mcxovrebi arabebi karSSi hijris pirvel saukuneSi

damkvidrebulad Tvlian Tavs, xolo bavoras mkvidrni orad

iyofian. erTni iziareben harruksa da avonaSi mcxovreb arabTa

Tvalsazriss, meore nawili ki Temurlengs miawers maTi

winaprebis jeÁnauSi dasaxlebas. bunebrivia, yuradRebas

imsaxurebs gadmocema yiSlaR jeÁnauSi mcxovrebi arabebis

winaparTa hijris pirvel saukuneebSi Sua aziaSi damkvidrebis

Sesaxeb. am cnobam gauZlo dros da miuxedavad Temurlengis

Sesaxeb SeTxzuli mravalricxovani legendebis zegavlenisa, maT

gverdiT daimkvidra adgili. es gadmocema mniSvnelovan

informaciad migvaCnia, romlisTvisac angariSis gaweva, Cveni

azriT, SeiZleba.

yovelive zemoaRniSnulis Semdeg unda davsvaT sakiTxi: gvaqvs

Tu ara safuZveli daveyrdnoT zemoT moyvanil zepir gadmocemas

da vivaraudoT kaSka-dariis mxaris yiSlaR jeÁnauSi mcxovrebi

arabebis am raionSi damkvidreba hijris I saukunidan.

gasaTvaliswinebelia is garemoeba, rom buxareli arabebis erTi

nawilic Tavs VII-VIII saukuneebSi mosuli arabebis STamomavlebad

miiCnevs. vfiqrobT, dasmuli sakiTxis nawilobriv gadawyveta

SeiZleba, erTi mxriv, istoriuli masalis gaTvaliswinebiT da

meore mxriv, enobrivi analizis moSveliebiT.

27


dasawyisSi Cven mivuTiTeT, rom Sua aziaSi arabebi gamoCndnen

VII-VIII saukuneebSi. amis Sesaxeb weren v. b a r t o l d i (В. В.

Бартольд), v. m a i e n d o r f i, a. v a m b e r i da sxvebi.

mniSvnelovania IX saukunis istorikosis al-iakubis (gard. 897)

cnoba, romelic zemoT moviyvaneT. igi adasturebs arabTa

gavrcelebis farTo masStabebs Sua aziaSi Tavisi droisaTvis.

marTalia, al-iakubi arafers wers karSis midamoebSi arabTa

sacxovrisis Sesaxeb, magram arabTa gavrcelebis farTo

masStabebi da maTi momTabare buneba gvafiqrebinebs Sua aziaSi

aRniSnul periodSi qalaqebisgan moSorebiT arabul dasaxlebaTa

arsebobas. aseTi dasaxlebebi namdvilad rom arsebobda, amas

mxars uWers al-istaxris (gard. 934) cnoba, romlis mixedviTac

“vedaris da am adgilis sxva dasaxlebani ekuTvnis xalxis jgufs

beqr ibn va’ilis tomidan” (64, gv. 124). s. v o l i n i am cnobas

ratomRac saeWvod xdis, magram v. b a r t o l d i samaryandis

CrdiloeTiT mdebare sakuTriv vedaris da mis irgvliv mdebare

teritorias marTlac miiCnevs arabebiT dasaxlebulad X

saukuneSi (41, gv. 111).

uaRresad mniSvnelovan cnobas gvawvdis al-istaxri naxSebis

(karSi) midamoebSi arabTa dasaxlebis Sesaxeb, rodesac asaxelebs

erT-erTi punqtis saxelwodebas “naukad kuraÁS” -s. es miuTiTebs

iqaur mcxovrebTa arabul warmomavlobaze, maT erovnebaze (41, gv.

126). sayuradReboa, rom yarSeli arabebis umravlesoba dResac

yureiSel arabebad miiCnevs Tavs. es safuZvels uqmnis yiSlaR

jeÁnauSi Cven mier Caweril zepir gadmocemas. dReisaTvis

aRniSnul yiSlaRSi mcxovrebi yureiSeli arabebis saSualebiT

ibmeba kavSiri VII-X saukuneebSi Sua aziaSi damkvidrebul

arabebTan. amgvarad, sarwmunod SeiZleba miviCnioT VII-X

saukuneebSi Sua aziis kaSka-dariis mxareSi arabTa migraciis

faqti da maTi kavSiri am raionSi amJamad mcxovreb arabebTan.

vfiqrobT, amas mxars uWers Suaaziuri arabulis enobrivi

analizic.

buxarul da kaSkadariul dialeqtebSi zmnis prefiqsuri

warmoebis mwkrivebSi gansxvaveba gvaqvs. buxarulSi awmyo

iwarmoeba m/mi nawilakiani formebiT. kaSkadariuli dialeqtis

28


zmna rogorc warmoebiT, aseve gaxmovnebiTac klasikur arabuls

emsgavseba.

magaliTebi buxarulidan:

kas×ra dawla iúræÔum mioÕdæna, mioÕdæn

“bevr (mTel) qonebas TavianTTvis iReben (da) midian”

had zag×ru Êabiãum abyaz merkabu, mioÒd×

“is umcrosi Sejdeba TeTr cxenze da midis”

mi÷rifæn-ki min ’×d had fad âuÒl z×n miÓi, mioÕdæn il-pÝâÝ miáænæ

“maT ician, rom igi xelmarjvea (maT ician, rom misi xelidan

kargi saqme gamodis), mihyavT da faSad dasvamen (gaxdian)”.

kaSkadariul dialeqtSi zmnis prefiqsuri warmoebis

mwkrivebTan ar gvxvdeba m/mi nawilakiani formebi:

zÝka iktub

“is wers”

zaklÝn iârubæn

“isini svamen”

’ilai riz ÷Ýne iúræÔ× iâba ÷æn

“Cemi bavSvebi me mgvanan”

ilinÁt nÁsibatna ÓdÁ iúbeitna kÁn iÓænÁt

“Cven saxlSi (stumrad) bevri naTesavi modioda”.

zmnur formaTa gaxmovnebac kaSkadariul dialeqtSi klasikur

arabuls uaxlovdeba:

naÔna âarabna

“Cven SevsviT”

’ileynÁt mÝratna Õubz tuãbuÕ, laÔm tuãbuÕ

“Cveni colebi [ acxoben] purs da amzadeben xorcs”.

kaSkadariul dialeqtSi SeiniSneba klasikuri arabulisaTvis

damaxasiaTebel e. w. apoziciur konstruqciaTa simravle, xSiria

msazRvreli al artiklis xmarebis SemTxvevebi da sxv. yovelive es

ganasxvavebs mas Sua aziis meore – buxaruli dialeqtisagan.

amgvarad, zemomoyvanili enobrivi niSnebi kaSkadariuli

arabulis, rogorc dialeqtis, arqaulobas adasturebs. es

Tvalsazrisi kaSkadarieli arabebis enobrivi izolaciis

29


maCvenebelia da mxars uWers zemoT Cven mier gamoTqmul varauds

kaSkadarieli arabebis aRniSnul regionSi VII-X saukuneebSi

damkvidrebis Sesaxeb. SesaZloa, klasikuri arabuli enisaTvis

damaxasiaTebeli enobrivi niSnebis SenarCuneba kaSkadarieli

arabebis arabuli samyarosgan xangrZlivma geografiulma

izolaciam da karCaketili cxovrebis wesma ganapiroba. rac

Seexeba buxarulSi zmnis warmoebas, b/bi, m/mi prefiqsiani

formebi arabul dialeqtebSi da Sesabamisad, literaturul

ZeglebSi XIV saukunemde ar dasturdeba (26, gv. 461). rogorc g.

w e r e T e l i wers: “buxarulisaTvis damaxasiaTebel m/mi

prefiqsian formebSi Cven sruli analogia gvaqvs arabul

dialeqtebTan da misi kavSiri sparsul mi -sTan saeWvo xdeba. Tu

es debuleba sworia, maSin TavisTavad wydeba sakiTxi misi

genezisuri urTierTobis Sesaxeb egviptur da siria-palestinis

b/bi –sTan. am mxriv sruliad bunebrivi fonetikuri Sesatyvisoba

gvaqvs” (26, gv. 466). b(i) nawilaki ufro iSviaTad gvxvdeba XIV

saukunis literaturul ZeglebSi. XV, XVI, XVII saukuneebis

TxzulebebSi ki igi xSirad dasturdeba, rac imaze miuTiTebs, rom

buxareli arabebis winaparTa metyvelebaSi m/mi nawilaki XIV

saukunemde an uSualod mis winamaval epoqamde ar unda yofiliyo.

Tu am Tvalsazriss gaviziarebT, SegviZlia davuSvaT buxarisa da

kaSka-dariis regionebSi amJamad mcxovrebi arabebis winaparTa

migraciis ori talRa: pirvelis mixedviT, kaSka-dariis raionSi

arabebis damkvidreba VII-X saukuneebSi ivaraudeba, xolo arabTa

migraciis II talRas buxaris raionSi XIV saukuneSi unda hqonoda

adgili Temurlengis erT-erTi laSqrobis dros. amgvarad,

safuZvels iZens buxarel arabebSi daculi zepiri gadmocema maTi

winaprebis Temurlengis mier tyveebad wamosxmis Sesaxeb, rac adre

iyo dafiqsirebuli da amJamadac gavrcelebulia yiSlaR

jogariSi.

miRebuli Sedegebi saboloo saxiT ase warmogvidgeba:

buxarisa da kaSka-dariis mxareSi savaraudoa arabTa migraciis

ori, qronologiurad gansxvavebuli talRa:

1. kaSkadarieli arabebis uSualo winaparTa damkvidrebas

aRniSnul regionSi, SesaZloa, adgili hqonda VII-X saukuneebSi,

rac gamomdinareobs Semdegi argumentebidan:

30


a) yiSlaR jeÁnaus mcxovreblebSi daculia zepiri gadmocema aq

maTi winaprebis hijris pirvel saukuneebSi damkvidrebis Sesaxeb;

b) istoriuli wyaroebiT dasturdeba VII-X saukuneebSi Sua

aziis kaSka-dariis mxareSi arabebis arseboba;

g) kavSiri Tanamedrove kaSkadariel da VII-X saukuneebSi aq

damkvidrebul arabebs Soris myardeba imiT, rom arsebobs alistaxris

metad mniSvnelovani cnoba am regionSi uZveles xanaSi

yureiSel arabTa dasaxlebis Sesaxeb, xolo dReisaTvis am mxareSi

mcxovrebi arabebis umravlesobac Tavis warmomavlobas

yureiSelTa arabul toms ukavSirebs;

d) kaSkadariuli dialeqtis Sedareba buxarulTan enobrivi

monacemebis doneze adasturebs kaSkadariuli dialeqtis umetes

arqaulobas da mis msgavsebas klasikur arabulTan, rac,

SesaZloa, aixsneba kaSkadarieli arabebis arabuli samyarosgan

xangrZlivi geografiuli da enobrivi izolaciiT.

2. buxareli arabebis uSualo winaprebi SesaZloa damkvidrdnen

axlandel Rijduvanis raionSi XIV saukuneSi. amis daSvebis

safuZvels gvaZlevs Semdegi:

a) arsebobs zepiri gadmocema, romlis mixedviTac buxareli

arabebis winaprebi Sua aziaSi gadmoasaxla Temurlengma;

b) buxaruli dialeqtis enobrivi analizi avlens zogierT

dialeqtur maxasiaTebels, romelic saerToa arabuli

dialeqtebisaTvis da XIV saukunemde literaturul ZeglebSi

dadasturebuli ar aris.

sayuradReboa anTropologiuri daskvna Sua azieli arabebis

Sesaxeb, romelic l. o S a n i n s (Л. В. Ошанин) da v. z e z e n k o v a s

(В. И. Зезенкова) ekuTvnis. maTi monacemebiT «kaSkadarieli arabebi

warmoadgenen braxicefalur winaaziur rasobriv tips, rac

emTxveva CrdiloeT mesopotamiis arabTa rasobriv maxasiaTebels»

(100). avtorebma safuZvlianad gamoikvlies Sua aziaSi

gavrcelebuli tipebi. maTi dakvirvebiT, karSis raionis arabebma

saukuneebis ganmavlobaSi SeinarCunes da dRemde moitanes

TavianTi arabuli warmomavlobis damadasturebeli

31


anTropologiuri niSnebi. rac Seexeba Sua aziel arabTa

adgilobriv mosaxleobasTan Serwymis maCveneblebs, mecnierTa

daskvniT, kvali aseTi anTropologiuri Serevisa ukiduresad

umniSvneloa. mizezad avtorebi asaxeleben yarSeli arabebis

ZiriTadi nawilis erT adgilze damkvidrebas, kerZod jeÁnausa da

kamaSis raionebSi. aq ar SeiZleba kvlav ar aRiniSnos al-istaxris

uaRresad mniSvnelovani cnoba naxSebis (karSi) midamoebSi arabTa

dasaxlebis Sesaxeb. igi asaxelebs dasaxlebul punqts,

sacxovriss, saxelwodebiT «naukad kureiS», rac miuTiTebs iq

mcxovrebTa arabul warmomavlobaze.

rogorc zemoT aRvniSneT, Sua aziel arabTa istoria, maTi

regionSi damkvidrebis vadisa da Tavdapirveli sacxovrisis

dadgena, mniSvnelovnad uwyobs xels dialeqtis srul da

amomwurav gamokvlevas. yovelive amas didi mniSvneloba aqvs,

vinaidan gansxvavebas arabul dialeqtebs Soris xSirad

safuZvlad udevs zemoaRniSnuli faqtorebi. Sua aziis arabuli

dialeqtebi, miuxedavad arabuli samyarosgan mravalsaukunovani

izolaciisa, arabul dialeqtologiur sistemaSi arian moqceuli.

amasTan dakavSirebiT SevexebiT arabuli dialeqtebis

klasifikaciis sakiTxs.

arabuli enis dialeqtebis klasifikaciis ramdenime principi

arsebobs:

1. geografiuli: gamoiyofa ori mTavari jgufi _ aRmosavluri

da dasavluri. aRmosavlur arabul dialeqtebs miekuTvneba:

arabeTis naxevarkunZulis dialeqtebi, siriul – libanur –

palestinuri, egvipturi, erayis arabuli dialeqti, sudanuri, Sua

aziuri. dasavluri, anu maRribuli dialeqtebia: libiuri,

Tunisuri, alJiruli, marokouli, hasania (dasavleT afrikaSi).

2. meore principi gaxlavT istoriuli, anu qronologiuri.

igulisxmeba Zveli da Tanamedrove dialeqtebi. Tanamedrove

dialeqtebi ukve davasaxele. Zveli dialeqtebic iyofa

aRmosavlur da dasavlur jgufebad: aRmosavlurs ekuTvnis

Tamimi (tam×m), rabia (rab×÷a), asadi (öasad), bahila (bÁhila), ukaili

(÷uqail), Ratafani (gaãafÁn), abd al-kaisi (÷abd al-qais), Rani (Òan×),

haniфa (Ôan×fa), baqri (bakr×) da TaRlibi (taÒl×b), xolo dasavlurs -

32


himiari (himyÁr), hijazuri (ÔiÓÁz), azdi (öazd), huzaili (huËayl) da tai

(ãayyö) (9, gv. 20).

3. mesame principi gaxlavT dialeqtebis dayofa arabiul da

arabidul dialeqtebad. arabiuli beduinTa dialeqtia, ase

vTqvaT, wminda arabuli, xolo arabiduli – esaa warmoSobiT

araarabTa metyveleba. arabuli farTod gavrcelda aziisa da

afrikis kontinentze. mTelma rigma xalxebma SeiTvises, gaiTavises

arabuli ena da amave dros zegavlena moaxdines masze.

4. Semdegi principi arabuli dialeqtebis klasifikaciisa aris

socialuri. igulisxmeba qalaqelTa, felahebisa da beduinTa

metyveleba. varaudoben, rom saerTo arabuli koine safuZvlad

daedo dialeqtebs. amiT SeiZleba aixsnas dialeqtebisaTvis

damaxasiaTebeli saerTo niSnebi.

bolo xanebSi Cveni yuradReba miipyro arabuli

dialeqtebisadmi miZRvnilma publikaciebma, sadac mocemulia ama

Tu im qveynis an regionis enobrivi daxasiaTeba. am publikaciebSi

mkvlevrebi xSirad miznad isaxaven warmoadginon ama Tu im qveynis

arabuli dialeqti, rogorc damoukidebeli sistema. isini

afiqsireben dialeqtTa maxasiaTebel enobriv Taviseburebebs da

amasTanave niSnebs, riTac es dialeqtebi emsgavsebian sxva arabul

dialeqtebs. aseTi tipis monografiebidan SeiZleba davasaxeloT

i. z a v a d o v s k i s (Ю. Н. Завадовский) Tunisuri da mavriTaniuli

dialeqtebisadmi miZRvnil naSromebi (79; 80), e. m i S k u r o v i s (Э.

Н. Мишкуров) alJiruli da libiuri dialeqtebis gamokvleva (95,

93). 1983 wels q. h o l s m a (C. Holes) gamoaqveyna monografia

"bahreinis dialeqti" (162).

h a i m b l a n k i s (H. Blanc) erT-erTi naSromia «Crdilo

palestinuri arabuli dialeqti» (142). 1994 wels daibeWda m.

v o i d i C i s (M. Woidich) egvipturi arabulisadmi miZRvnili

gamokvleva (200) da sxva.

arc Tu iSviaTad, arabuli dialeqtebisadmi miZRvnil

naSromebSi fiqsirdeba mravalricxovani saerTo enobrivi niSnebi.

magaliTad, romelime arabul dialeqts bevri saerTo SeiZleba

hqondes xuzisTanis an omanis dialeqtTan. specialistebi amas,

ZiriTadad, xsnian sasaubro koineTi, romelic hijris pirveli

33


saukunidan warmoiSva mTels arabeTSi. igi ar emyareboda arc erT

dialeqts da gansxvavdeboda saliteraturo enisagan. aq ar

iTvaliswineben erT mniSvnelovan garemoebas: sasaubro

koinesaTvis damaxasiaTebeli enobrivi niSnebi TiTqmis

normirebulia da sayovelTaod aris cnobili. magaliTad:

1. ikargeba interdentalebi da emfatikurebi;

2. ar aris iyrabi da arc kilos aRmniSvneli daboloebebi;

iSviaTad gvxvdeba iribi brunvebi. magaliTad, gamoTqmaSi

ahlan wa sahlan, magram es mxolod gaqvavebul formebSi.

beduinTa metyvelebaSi gvxvdeba nunacia, magram

klasikurisagan gansxvavebiT, msazRvrel-sazRvrulis

SeTanxmeba ar fiqsirdeba.

3. sinTezuris nacvlad gvaqvs analitikuri wyoba;

4. mdedrobiTi iwarmoeba markeris gareSe;

5. saxelebSi da zmnebSi mravlobiTobis nuni Cavardnilia;

beduinebis metyvelebaSi igi gvxvdeba. kiloSi gansxvaveba ar

gvaqvs;

6. vnebiTi gvari ar iwarmoeba (VII da VIII Tema gamoxatavs

vnebiTobas). aseve, orobiTi ricxvic;

7. imperfeqtivSi, III pirSi, prefiqsalur warmoebaSi damma

moxsnilia;

8. q beduinebTan gamoiTqmis, rogorc g. esec erTerTi principia

dialeqtTa dayofisa. gamoyofen kalis da galis dialeqtebs.

mag., Suaaziuri ori dialeqtidan erTi - (buxaruli) kalis

dialeqtia, xolo meore - (kaSkadariuli) galis. sakiTxi

kal-is da gal-is dialeqtebis Sesaxeb Seswavlili aqvs h a i m

b l a n k s 1964 wels gamoqveynebul naSromSi Communal

Dialects in Baghdad (143). aRsaniSnavia, rom buxarul

dialeqtSi, romelic warmoadgens kal-is dialeqts, rig

leqsemebSi gvxvdeba q-s nacvlad g. kaSka-dariulSic,

zogierT sityvaSi g-s nacvlad q fiqsirdeba. es movlena

SeiZleba aixsnas Sua aziis arabul dialeqtebSi meoreuli

nasesxobebis arsebobiT. mxedvelobaSi gvaqvs arabul

dialeqtSi uzbekuri da tajikuri enebidan arabuli

leqsemebis moxvedra. amasTanave, ar gamovricxavT Sua aziis

34


uxarisa da kaSka-dariis arabulenovan yiSlaRebSi

warmoSobiT momTabare da binadari arabebis Tanacxovrebas.

rogorc cnobilia, beduinebis metyvelebisaTvis

damaxasiaTebelia g, xolo binadari arabebisaTvis q.

xangrZlivi drois ganmavlobaSi beduinTa garkveul

jgufebs SeeZloT binadar cxovrebaze gadasvla da piriqiT,

arabebis garkveuli nawili SeiZleboda momTabare

cxovrebas Sedgomoda, anu retraibalizacias

daqvemdebareboda. arabTa aRniSnuli jgufebis mier

fonetikur TaviseburebaTa SenarCuneba iseve dasaSvebia,

rogorc am jgufebis mier maTTvis tradiciuli warmoTqmis

dakargva da axal enobriv garemosTan asimilacia. ar

gamovricxavT, rom Suaaziur arabulSi aRniSnul

viTarebasTan gvqondes saqme.

rodesac arabuli dialeqtebis saerTo maxasiaTebeli niSnebis

garda mezobel an geografiulad daSorebul arabul

dialeqtebSi fiqsirdeba garkveuli tipis msgavsi enobrivi

movlenebi, es scildeba sasaubro koines farglebs da migvaniSnebs

sruliad damoukidebel enobriv monacemze, rac axsnas moiTxovs.

am poziciidan SevexebiT samxreT-aRmosavleT iemenisa da iranis

samxreT-dasavleTi provinciis, xuzisTanis arabuli dialeqtis

zogierT saerTo enobriv movlenas Cven mier iemensa (1989 w.) da

iranSi (1994 w.) mivlinebis dros mopovebuli dialeqtologiuri

masalis analizis safuZvelze.

xuzisTanis arabuli dialeqti moicavs abadanis, ahvazis,

xoramSahris, Sadiganis da gaCsaranis arabul metyvelebas. zmnis

perfeqtivis da imperfeqtivis warmoeba xuzisTanis, kerZod,

xoramSahris da samxreT-aRmosavleTi iemenis, muqalas

dialeqtebSi TiTqmis identuria. moviyvanT, magaliTad orive

dialeqtSi zmnis perfeqtivis formaTa warmoebas:

muqala xoramSahri

perfeqtivi

mx. r.

35


III mamr. katab ketab

md. katabat ketabat II mamr. katabt ketabt

md. katabti ketabti

I katabt ketabt

mr. r.

III mamr. katabæ ketbÝw

md kataban ketban

II mamr. katabté ketabté

md. katabtan ketabtan

I katabna ketabna

saerTod, arabuli dialeqtebis umravlesobisaTvis naklebad

aris damaxasiaTebeli perfeqtivsa da imperfeqtivSi, mravlobiT

ricxvSi mdedrobiTi sqesis formebi. isini gvxvdeba bahreinel

arabTa metyvelebaSi, agreTve SuaaziurSi.

nacvlad saliteraturo arabuli enis sami modelisa,

xuzisTanis arabulSi, iseve rogorc muqalas metyvelebaSi,

fiqsirdeba swori samTanxmovniani zmnis erTi modeli C1a C2a C3

(C1eC2aC3) fa÷al//fe÷al. imperfeqtivSi warmodgenilia Zireul

xmovanTa alternacia xmovnebiT, romlebic opozicias qmnian

Riaobis TvalsazrisiT: a~i (e~i) katab (ketab) ~ iektib.

orive dialeqtSi SeiniSneba grZeli da mokle xmovnebis moSlis

tendencia. gvxvdeba II da III, V-VI Temis formaTa damTxveva da

amgvarad, orive Temis mniSvnelobis erTi formiT gadmocema: ãalla÷ -

1.asvla 2.Sexedva. Temebi ufro metad sityvawarmoebas asaxaven,

vidre formaTwarmoqmnas. orive dialeqtSi fiqsirdeba saerTo

formebi, romelTac saliteraturo arabulSi ar gaaCniaT

paralelebi. msgavsi viTareba gvaqvs Suaaziur arabulSi, kerZod,

kaSkadariul dialeqtSi.

analogiuria piris nacvalsaxelebi xoramSahrisa da muqalas

arabul dialeqtebSi:

36


xoramSahri muqala

mx. r mr. r. mx. r. mr. r.

III mamr. huwa hum hu hum

md. hiyya hinna hi hinna

II mamr. ente entum anta antum

md. enti enten înti antÙnna

I mamr. na eÔna na naÔna

md. n×yya Ôinna n×yya naÔna

aRsaniSnavia I pirSi sqesis garCeva. fiqsirdeba gansxvavebuli

formebi mxolobiTi ricxvis I pirSi. es movlena mkveTrad

ganasxvavebs am or dialeqts sxva arabuli dialeqtebisgan. I pirSi,

mx. r-Si, mamrobiT sqesSi fiqsirdeba na, xolo mdedrobiTSi n×yya.

es formebi unda gaCeniliyo dialeqtSi mesame da meore piris

analogiiT.

nacvalsaxelovani sufiqsebi

aqac fiqsirdeba erTnairi formebi. gansakuTrebiT aRsaniSnavia

meore piris mdedrobiTi sqesis nacvalsaxelovani sufiqsi iÉ-iâ:

aâtari eliÉ - giyidi Sen (xoramSahri), Sdr. arab. aâtar× laki. kitÁbiâ –

Seni wigni, ÕÁtimiâ – Seni beWedi, Ôaggiâ – Senia? (muqala). es forma

gavrcelebulia muqalasa da abianis (adenis aRmosavleTiT)

provinciebSi. xSirad sufiqsi ixmareba kiTxviTi formiT: ÕÁtimiâ

“Seni beWedia?” paralelurad gvxvdeba ÕÁtim Ôaggiâ? aseTi

Sesityveba xSiria. zogjer iâ sufiqsi mamrobiT sqessac gamoxatavs.

iâ sufiqsis gaCena meore piris mdedrobiT sqesSi unda aixsnas ks

palatalizaciiT: ki>ik>iâ. am movlenis Sesaxeb gvxvdeba

msjeloba Zvel arab gramatikosebTan (kaâkaâa). sibavaÁhi aRniSnavs,

rom k-s gadmocema â-Ti damaxasiaTebeli yofila banu Tamimis

metyvelebisaTvis. j. k a n t i n o s (J. Cantineau) “arabuli

enaTmecnierebis” II tomSi dafiqsirebuli aqvs sibavaÁhis es metad

mniSvnelovani cnoba (146, gv. 65) xoramSahris da muqalas arabul

37


metyvelebaSi aRniSnuli movlenis fiqsacia exmaureba merve

saukunis arabi gramatikosis cnobas da amdenad, warmoadgens

mniSvnelovan dialeqtologiur movlenas. rogorc irkveva,

xoramSahris mkvidri arabebi, Tu mTlianad ara, nawili mainc

warmoSobiT hadramauTidan yofilan. hadramauTi esazRvreba

muqalas provincias. informantis, rogorc banu Tamimis tomis

warmomadgenlis metyvelebisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli k-s

palatalizacia jer kidev sibavaihis aqvs aRniSnuli .

banu Tamimi Tavdapirvelad binadrobda arabeTis

naxevarkunZulis samxreT-aRmosavleTSi. Semdeg gaZlierda da VI

saukunidan ekava arabeTis aRmosavleTi nawili, kerZod nejdi,

bahreini da iemenis nawili. banu Tamimis teritoria samxreTiT

aRwevda dahnaö–is regionamde, Crdilo-aRmosavleTiT

vrceldeboda evfratis sanapiromde. CrdiloeTSi Tamimis

arabuli tomis mezoblebs warmoadgendnen banu asadis tomis

arabebi. maTi samSobloa Crdilo arabeTis dablobi. am regionis

mTian masivebSi cxovrobdnen tais tomis arabebi. banu asadis

samflobelo vrceldeboda samxreTiT da samxreT-aRmosavleTiT

nefæd-amde, Samaris mTebamde. samxreTiT mas esazRvreboda wÁdi-lrumla,

sadac banu Tamimis tomis arabebi cxovrobdnen. enobrivi

analizi xels uwyobs banu Tamimis arabuli tomis arabeTis

naxevarkunZulze da mis mimdebare regionebSi moZraobis dadgenas,

rac sayuradReboa arabuli tomebis istoriisaTvis. arabuli

tomebis (banu Tamimis da banu asadis) enobriv Taviseburebebs

mniSvneloba eniWeba Tanamedrove (da ara mxolod istoriuli)

arabuli dialeqtologiisaTvis. igulisxmeba banu Tamimis da banu

asadis ara mxolod tomobrivi, aramed enobrivi mTlianobis,

TavisTavadobis sakiTxi. mivadevnoT Tvali banu Tamimis toms. igi

moZraobs arabeTis naxevarkunZulis samxreT-aRmosavleTidan

Crdilo-aRmosavleTiT, bahreinamde, iqedan xuzisTanamde.

aRniSnul regionebSi xdeba Tamimis tomis arabebis lokalizeba.

isini, bunebrivia, xasiaTdebian saerTo enobrivi niSnebiT. amitom

muqalas, bahreinisa da xoramSahris arabul dialeqtebs zogadad

SeiZleba vuwodoT “Tamimis Tanamedrove arabuli dialeqti”.

SeiZleba aqve mivaniSnoT, romel qveyanas, regions an provincias

vgulisxmobT. SeiZleba ase: “Tamimis Tanamedrove arabuli

38


dialeqti (samxreT-aRmosavleTi iemeni, bahreini, xuzisTani)”.

yovel SemTxvevaSi, Tamimi migvaniSnebs garkveul da TavisTavad

dialeqtologiur sistemas da sicxade Seaqvs qveynebis da

regionebis mixedviT dialeqtebis saxeldebis bundovanebaSi. ra

Tqma unda, calkeul regionebSi, qveynebSi, droTa ganmavlobaSi

Tavs iCens garkveuli enobrivi niSnebi, rac damoukidebel

Seswavlas moiTxovs, magram Cveni dakvirvebiT, ZiriTadi

dialeqtologiuri Taviseburebani ganpirobebulia Zveli

arabuli dialeqtiT. im enobrivi niSnebis damTxveva sxvadasxva

regionis arabTa metyvelebaSi, romlebic ar ukavSirdebian

sasaubro koines, umeteswilad aixsneba Zveli arabuli dialeqtiT.

sxva Zveli arabuli dialeqtebis monacemebic adastureben

zemoTqmuls. arabuli dialeqtebis aseTi dayofa SesaZleblobas

iZleva warmovadginoT maTi geografiul da enobriv samyaroSi

amJamindeli ganlagebis Sesaxeb arsebul definiciaze ufro

zusti suraTi.

aseTi midgoma dialeqtebisadmi mniSvnelovnad gaaadvilebs

Suaaziuri arabuli dialeqtebis kvlevas. rogorc cnobilia,

kaSka-dariis mxaris yiSlaR jeÁnauSi amJamad cxovroben

yureiSeli arabebis, agreTve Saibanis, haSimianTa da sxva arabuli

tomebis STamomavlebi, romlebsac SenarCunebuli aqvT aRniSnuli

tomebis metyvelebis araerTi Tavisebureba. Sua azieli arabebis

mravalsaukunovani enobrivi izolacia avlens Zveli arabuli

dialeqtebisaTvis damaxasiaTebel araerT enobriv movlenas.

Tanamedrove arabuli dialeqtebis monacemebi aseve warmatebiT

SeiZleba gamoviyenoT Zveli arabuli dialeqtebis

dasaxasiaTeblad, Tuki werilobiTi wyaro ar gagvaCnia ama Tu im

Zveli arabuli dialeqtis Sesaxeb. amdenad, SesaZlebeli xdeba

Tanamedrove arabuli dialeqtis monacemTa gamoyeneba enis

(dialeqtis) Zveli viTarebisa da misi ganviTarebis tendenciebis

Sesaswavlad. Sesabamisad, izrdeba arabuli dialeqtologiis

roli da mniSvneloba semitur enaTmecnierebaSi. Tvalsazrisi,

romlis Tanaxmad arabuli dialeqtebi ganixileba saliteraturo

arabuli enis normebidan gadaxvevad, mis gamartivebad, klasikuri

arabulis erTgvar damaxinjebad, sul ufro kargavs safuZvels,

vinaidan maTSi arabuli enis uZvelesi viTarebaa asaxuli.

39


2000 wlis noemberSi Sua aziaSi dialeqtologiuri eqspediciis

mier lingvisturTan erTad mopovebul iqna axali folkloruli

da eTnografiuli masalac. axal fotomasalasTan erTad

pirvelad iqna gadaRebuli buxarisa da kaSka-dariis

arabulenovan yiSlaRebSi video filmi Suaazieli arabebis

Sesaxeb. maTi cxovrebis, enis, tradiciebisa da yofis amsaxveli

dokumenturi masala droTa ganmavlobaSi kidev ufro did

mniSvnelobas SeiZens.

eqspediciis Sedegad buxaris raionSi dadasturebul iqna

yiSlaRebSi - Sohan-begsa (âohan-beg) da CaRdareSi (ÉaÒdarÎ)

arabuli metyvelebis SenarCunebis faqti, razec 30-ian wlebSi

miuTiTebda akad. g. w e r e T e l i (117, gv. 134). aris, agreTve, mesame

yiSlaRi labrudi (lyabræd), sadac nawili mosaxleobisa

metyvelebs arabulad, magram eseni arian jogaridan labrudSi

gadasaxlebuli arabebi. rac Seexeba Sohan-begisa da CaRdares

arabebs, isini odiTganve am yiSlaRebSi cxovrobdnen. 30-ian

wlebSi Catarebuli eqspediciebis Sedegad buxaris raionSi

ZiriTadi yuradReba gamaxvilda yiSlaRebze: jogarize (ÓÝgar×) da

arab-xanaze (÷arab-ÕÝne). imxanad miCneul iqna, rom srulyofili

dialeqtologiuri masalis mopoveba SeiZleboda am or yiSlaRSi.

amJamad am yiSlaRebs SeiZleba daematos Sohan-begi, CaRdare da

garkveulwilad, labrudic. CaRdares arabuli metyveleba

tajikuris did gavlenas ganicdis. aq aris ori ubani: joфa raboT

(ÓÝfa rabÝt) (arabebis ubani) da Tojikon (toÓikÝn) (tajikebis ubani).

arabebis ubanSi mosaxleoba ZiriTadad arabulad metyvelebs.

semitur-indoevropuli enobrivi kontaqtebis TvalsazrisiT, aq

sayuradRebo masala moipoveba, vinaidan didia arabul dialeqtze

tajikuris gavlena.

Sohan-begi jogaridan ramdenime kilometriT aris daSorebuli.

aqauri arabebis metyveleba xasiaTdeba zogierTi TaviseburebiT,

rac ganasxvavebs mas jogarisa da arab-xanas arabTa

metyvelebisagan. buxaris, samaryandisa da kaSka-dariis mxareSi

100-ze meti toponimia arabebTan dakavSirebuli. esenia, magaliTad:

arab xana (ramdenime aTeuli), arabon (arabÝn), arab saroÁ (arab sarÝi),

40


arab raboT (arab rabÝt), raboTi arab (rabÝti arab), tazi (ãaz×), naukad

kuraÁS (naukad quraiâ), qaxlai kaÕlai (es ukanaskneli, gadmocemiT,

momdinareobs samxreT arabuli tomis saxelidan qaÔãÁn) da sxvebi.

buxarisa da samaryandis regionebSi arabuli toponimebi

ZiriTadad termin ÷arab-s ukavSirdeba (arabon, arab saroÁ, arab

raboT, raboTi arab da a.S.) maSin, rodesac kaSka-dariis raionSi

toponimebs safuZvlad udevs arabuli tomebis saxelwodebebi:

naukad kuraÁS, qaxlai, tazi . . . es mowmobs arabTa migraciis

buxarulTan SedarebiT ufro Zvel talRas kaSka-dariis mxareSi.

÷arab-is Semcveli toponimebi Sua aziaSi ZiriTadad me-13 saukunis

Semdeg Cndeba. adreul xanaSi arabebis aRsaniSnad arabuli tomis

saxelebi gamoiyeneboda, mag: tais tomis xalxi. Sua azieli

arabebis umetesobas dResac axsovs tomobrivi warmomavloba.

zemoT CamoTvlili arabuli tomebis garda, isini asaxeleben iseT

cnobil arabul tomebs, rogoricaa âaybÝnÚ, ÔÁâim× sa÷nÁn× da sxvebi.

kaSka-dariis mxareSi arabTa uZveles periodSi damkvidrebis

damadasturebeli eTnografiuli masalac iqna mopovebuli.

kaSkadarieli arabi qalebi, buxarelebisagan gansxvavebiT,

samkaulis saxiT oqros rgolebs atareben cxvirze, Sublze da

nestoze. Cven mier Cawerili gadmocemebis Tanaxmad, es rgolebi

warmoadgens agaris samkaulebs. saram eWvianobis niadagze

gadawyvita agaris damaxinjeba da ubrZana mas cxvirze rgolis

gakeTeba. rgolma araTu daamaxinja, aramed ufro daamSvena agari.

saram amis Semdeg Sublzec moiTxova rgolis gakeTeba. igi

darwmunebuli iyo, rom axla ki namdvilad daamaxinjebda agars,

magram meore dRes, rodesac agari karvidan gamovida, Sublze

rgoli Zalian uxdeboda. Semdeg sasowarkveTili sara agars

mosTxovs, rom man amjerad nestoze gaikeTos rgoli. aman kidev

ufro daamSvena agari. abrami ufro metad moxibla rgolebiT

damSvenebulma agarma. amis Semdeg arabma qalebma mibaZes agars.

rgolebi cxvirze, nestoze da Sublze iqca maT samkaulebad. dRes

aseTi tradicia SenarCunebulia kaSkadariel arab qalebSi.

arabuli tomebis aRmniSvnel toponimebTan erTad, kaSkadarieli

arabi qalebis Cacmuloba da morTulobis zemoT aRniSnuli

tradicia mowmobs arabTa uZveles migraciebs karSis midamoebSi.

aqve gvinda aRvniSnoT, rom kaSkadariel arabebSi daculia

41


araerTi legenda maTi winaprebis jeÁnauSi VII-VIII saukuneebSi

damkvidrebis Sesaxeb. arabi mosaxleobis didi nawili Tvlis,

rom maTi winaprebi karSis midamoebSi islamis gavrcelebis misiiT

movidnen. am legendebSi xSirad xazi esmeba arabTa

keTilSobilebas, gmirul xasiaTsa da bunebas.

80-iani wlebis dasawyisSi Suaaziur arabul dialeqtebze muSaoba

SemomTavaza saqarTvelos mecnierebaTa akademiis akad. g. wereTlis

saxelobis aRmosavleTmcodneobis institutis semitologiis

ganyofilebis gamgem, akademikosma k o n s t a n t i n e w e r e T e l m a,

romlis samecniero moRvaweobaSi mniSvnelovani adgili ukavia

cocxali semituri enebisadmi miZRvnil fundamentur gamokvlevebs,

Tanamedrove siriuli dialeqtebis masalebis publikaciebs. amave

wlebSi Sua aziis buxaruli dialeqtis kvlevis sferoSi nayofierad

moRvaweobda aw gardacvlili arabisti, prof. v l a d i m e r

a x v l e d i a n i, romlis xelmZRvanelobiTac 80-ian wlebSi momzadda

Sua aziis kaSkadariuli arabuli dialeqtis morfologiuri

struqturisadmi miZRvnili Cveni sakandidato disertacia.

Suaaziuri arabulis kvlevis sferoSi did daxmarebas gviwevda

da gzamkvlevs warmoadgenda CvenTvis akad. g. w e r e T l i s a da prof. i.

v i n i k o v i s fundamenturi naSromebi, romelTa saxelebTanac aris

dakavSirebuli Suaaziuri arabuli dialeqtebis aRmoCena da Seswavla.

minda mowiweba gamovxato sasiqadulo mecnierebis saxelebis mimarT,

romelTa naRvawis daxmarebiTac SesaZlebeli gaxda kvlevis gagrZeleba

arabuli dialeqtologiis am uaRresad mniSvnelovan sferoSi.

qvemoT warmovadgenT Cven mier gamoyenebul satranskrifcio

sistemas, romelic ramdenadme gansxvavdeba akad. g. w e r e T l i s a da

prof. i. v i n i k o v i s satranskrifcio sistemebisagan. aqve mocemulia

bgeraTa fonetikuri daxasiaTeba, rac specialistebs gauadvilebs Sua

aziis arabulenovan yiSlaRebSi avtoris mier Sesrulebuli

Canawerebidan moxmobili magaliTebis fonetikur aRqmas.

viTvaliswinebT im garemoebasac, rom Suaaziuri arabulis - buxarulisa

da kaSkadariulis amsaxveli dialeqtologiuri masalis damuSaveba

Setanilia saqarTvelos mecnierebaTa akademiis akad. g. wereTlis

saxelobis aRmosavleTmcodneobis institutis arabist-aspirantTa,

42


Tbilisis ivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis saxelmwifo universitetis

aRmosavleTmcodneobis fakultetis arabist-magistrantTa da

Tbilisis aziisa da afrikis institutis arabuli ganyofilebis

saswavlo-samecniero programebSi.

konsonantebi

ö - hamza, xorxismieri magari SemarTva. xSirad ikargeba. SenarCunebulia

uaryofiT pauzalur formaSi lÁö "ara". zogjer ÷aini warmoiTqmis,

rogorc hamza. teqstSi aseTi SemTxvevebi dafiqsirebuli gvaqvs.

laringaluri hamza dakargulia arabuli dialeqtebis umetes nawilSi.

hamzis dakargvis SemTxvevaSi ikargeba xmovanic. kad-Si hamziani

samTanxmovniani zmnebi orTanxmovnianad iqcnen: aÕaËa > Õaza “aiRo”.

iSviaTad, hamzas enacvleba ioti (y) an vavi (w): öamar > yamar “ubrZana”.

h - warmoadgens fSvinvier Tanxmovans. misi warmoTqma kad-Si emTxveva h-s

klasikur arabulSi.

÷- faringaluri, mJReri Tanxmovani. iSviaTad gamoiTqmis, rogorc hamza.

sityvis bolos dayruebis Sedegad gvaZlevs Ô-s: mana÷>manaÔ "damala",

"aukrZala".

Ô – faringaluri, yru Tanxmovani. umetes SemTxvevebSi kad-Si

SenarCunebuli aqvs artikulacia. ÷ains da Ô-s axasiaTebT

SeuTavsebloba winaenismier xmovnebTan. amitom i-s nacvlad Cndeba e:

muáÁÔib > muáÁÔeb.

q - kad-Si warmodgenilia orgvarad: emfatikuri Tanxmovnisa da mJReri

g-s saxiT: qatal "mokla" // gÁl "Tqva". umetes SemTxvevaSi q gamoiTqmis

rogorc g.

g – mJReri, Cqamieri Tanxmovani. iseve, rogorc beduinebis metyvelebaSi,

kad-Sic warmoadgens klasikur arabul q - s.

Õ – ukanaenismieri, yru spiranti, Seesabameba klasikur arabul Õ-s.

Ò - warmoadgens Õ - s mJRer korelats. Seesabameba klasikur arabul

Rains.

k - velari, yru Tanxmovani. erayis da arabeTis naxevarkunZulis

dialeqtebisagan gansxvavebiT, TiTqmis ar ganicdis palatalizacias.

Sdr. klasikuri arabuli k.

Ó – palataluri, mJReri afrikati.

43


É - palataluri, yru afrikati. fiqsirdeba, ZiriTadad, tajikur da

uzbekur nasesxobebSi.. arabul sityvebSi Ó –s dayruebis Sedegad

vRebulobT É –s: waÉu – “misi saxe”.

â - prepalataluri, yru SiSina spirantia. Sdr. klasik. arab. â.

í - prepalataluri, mJReri SiSina spiranti. gvxvdeba iSviaTad.

s - sisina, dentaluri spiranti.

z – mJReri, sisina, dentaluri spiranti.

á – velarizebuli, winaenismieri sibilanti. xSirad gadadis s-Si.

ì – velarizebuli, winaenismieri, mJReri sibilanti. am konsonantiT

gadmoicema klasikuri arabulis Ê da Ì. artikulaciis Serbilebis

Sedegad gvaZlevs z-s.

t - dentaluri, yru konsonanti. mis warmoTqmaSi monawileobas

Rebulobs laringali.

ã – velarizebuli, yru, winaenismieri konsonantia. misi artikulacia

kad-Si Serbilebulia.

d - igivea, rac klasikuri arabulis d. igi mJReri, dentaluri

konsonantia.

n – dentaluri, nazali konsonanti.

r - ukana rigis vibranti.

l – rbili, lateraluri vibrantia. warmoTqmaSi aÛÛa l ganicdis

emfatizacias. analogiuri movlena dasturdeba sxva dialeqtebSic.

y - konsonanti y.

w - konsonanti w.

p – yru, bilabialuri Tanxmovani. umeteswilad gvxvdeba nasesxobebSi.

iSviaTad p Cndeba arabul sityvebSi b-s darbilebis Sedegad: harab >

harap.

f – labiodentaluri, yru spiranti.

m - bilabialuri, nazaluri konsonanti.

xmovnebi:

kad-is xmovanTa sistemisaTvis damaxasiaTebelia Riaobis sami

mdgomareoba da monoftongTa tembruli cvlilebani. am ukanasknelis da

44


agreTve, diftongTa reduqciis Sedegad gafarToebulia klasikuri

sistema (ai > e, aw > o). teqstSi warmodgenilia xmovanTa Semdegi niSnebi:

a - saSualo simoklis a.

À - viwro a. igi warmoadgens saSualo xmovans a-sa da e-s Soris.

e - saSualo e.

Í - Zalian viwro e. warmoiTqmis, rogorc i.

i - saSualo i.

o - Ria o.

û - daviwroebuli o.

ê - saSualo xmovani û -sa da å -s Soris.

u - saSualo u.

î - neitraluri xmovani. icvlis tembrs bgeraTa garemocvis Sesabamisad.

masze gavlenas axdens xmovanTa harmonia da konsonantebTan mezobloba.

Ø - msgavsia rusuli ы-s. gvxvdeba ÷ainisa da Ô-s mezoblobaSi.

å - igivea, rac germanuli å.

Ý (Å) - igivea, rac grZeli Ý. Å aris grZeli Ý, romelic miRebulia

grZeli Á-s daviwroebis Sedegad.

Î - grZeli e.

Ï - grZeli Í.

× - grZeli i.

ë - grZeli ê.

æ - grZeli u.

Ø - grZeli Ø.

ç - grZeli å.

diftongebi:

ya, wa - aRmavali diftongebi.

ay, aw - daRmavali diftongebi.

diftongoidebi:

Ïô - viwro Ï. warmoadgens daRmaval diftongoids.

ôÏ - aRmavali diftongoidi. miRebulia meoreuli diftongizaciis

Sedegad Î (Í)- sagan: Î // Í (< aô).

ú - aRniSnavs gadabmas.

45


kaSka-dariis arabuli dialeqtis sruli lingvisturi gamokvleva

warmoadgens arabuli dialeqtologiis gadaudebel amocanas. igi

mniSvnelovania zogadsemitologiuri TvalsazrisiTac.

winamdebare naSromiT srul samecniero mimoqcevaSi Semodis kaSkadariis

periferiuli arabuli dialeqti, romelic Seicavs uaRresad

sayuradRebo lingvistur monacemebs. rig SemTxvevebSi Sua aziis or

dialeqts Soris arsebuli sxvaobis sailustraciod mogvyavs

magaliTebi buxaruli dialeqtidan.

sasiamovno movaleobad mimaCnia madloba gadavuxado

akademikos konstantine wereTels sayuradRebo SeniSvnebisa da

sasargeblo rCevebisaTvis.

madlobas vuxdi saqarTvelos mecnierebaTa akademiis akad. g.

wereTlis saxelobis aRmosavleTmcodneobis institutis

semitologiis ganyofilebis mecnier-TanamSromlebs naSromis

momzadebis procesSi gaweuli daxmarebisaTvis.

madlobas vuxdi agreTve Tbilisis aziisa da afrikis

institutis arabuli ganyofilebis TanamSromlebs TinaTin

gogolaSvils da zaza CikvilaZes, romlebac didi Sroma gaswies

naSromis kompiuterze asawyobad.

46


Tavi I

fonologia

naSromSi kaSka-dariis arabuli dialeqtis fonologiuri

analizi Catarebulia struqturuli lingvistikis meTodebis

gamoyenebiT. ZiriTadi yuradReba gamaxvilebulia minimalur

opoziciebze, romlebic ganixileba fonologiuri wyvilebis

doneze. analizis dros aRiwereba minimaluri enobrivi

erTeulebi, romlebic ufro maRal enobriv doneze Seadgenen

msxvil erTeulebs - sityvebs.

fonemaTa dasaSvebi mimdevrobebi warmoSoben mravalricxovan

kombinaciebs da warmoadgenen mniSvnelobis mqone erTeulTa

eqsponentebs. aq unda gamoiyos fonemis ori funqcia:

konstituciuri da distinqciuri, romelic Cven mier miCneulia

amosavlad.

kaSkadariul dialeqtSi fonologiur doneze gamoiyofa

identuri garemocvani, romlebSic gvxvdeba an ar gvxvdeba

garkveuli segmentebi - fonemuri erTeulebi. sxvadasxva segmentTa

erTsa da imave garemocvaSi dadastureba gagebulia rogorc

fonologiurad sxvadasxva warmonaqmnis maCvenebeli.

kad-is fonologiuri analizisas Cven veyrdnobiT Tvalsazriss,

romlis mixedviTac fonema warmoadgens fonologiuri opoziciis

umcires wevrs (N. Trubetzkoy). aseTi umciresi wevrebi - fonebi

qmnian klasebs, romlis TiToeuli wevri xasiaTdeba garkveuli

niSniT, rac ganasxvavebs mas sxva bgerisagan. gansxvaveba maT Soris

ganpirobebulia imiT, rom fonebi imyofebian damatebiTi

distribuciis damokidebulebaSi an Tavisuflad enacvlebian

erTmaneTs.

Cvens naSromSi fonema ganixileba rogorc alofonTa klasi,

sadac fonebi gaerTianebulia distribuciisa da fonetikuri

msgavsebis kriteriumTa safuZvelze. alofonebi warmoadgenen

bgeraTa erTeulebs, romlebic xasiaTdebian saerTo

konstituciuri niSnebiT. isini xasiaTdebian gansxvavebuli

poziciebiT. aseTi gageba upirispirdeba enis fonetikuri sistemis

47


umciresi erTeulis - bgeris cnebas. fonetikuri bgera, Tavis

mxriv, upirispirdeba sxva bgerebs.

fonema, rogorc alofonTa klasi, aerTianebs fonologiuri

garemocvisagan damoukidebel relevantur niSnebs. alofonebi

imyofebian erTmaneTis mimarT damatebiTi distribuciis

damokidebulebaSi an Tavisufali varirebis mdgomareobaSi.

yoveli ori alofoni, romelic aRebulia sxvadasxva klasidan,

erTmaneTis mimarT SeiZleba iyos mxolod kontrastuli

distribuciis mdgomareobaSi.

damatebiTi distribuciis kriteriumad miCneulia iseTi

SemTxvevebi, rodesac bgerebi ar gvxvdeba erTnair garemocvaSi.

erTi fonemis alofonebi ar gvxvdeba kontrastul situaciaSi.

kontrastis amgvari gageba uaxlovdeba an TiTqmis emTxveva

opoziciis (praRis lingvisturi skola), «komutaciis»

(glosematika) Sinaarss. gansxvavebas qmnis is, rom "ganmasxvavebeli

opoziciis" an "komutaciis" cnebebiT operirebis dros analizi

moiTxovs semantikuri informaciis gaTvaliswinebasac,

kontrastis

moxmobas.

fiqsaciis saSualebad minimaluri wyvilebis

$ 1. konsonanturi sistema

arabuli enis kaSkadariul dialeqtSi konsonantTa da xmovanTa

distribucia SedarebiT erTnairia (daÕal). es movlena mkafiod aris

gamoxatuli saliteraturo arabul enaSi (kataba) da SesamCnevia

aRmosavluri arabuli dialeqtebis umetes nawilSi. dasavluri

arabuli dialeqtebisaTvis damaxasiaTebelia sityvis dasawyisSi

ramdenime Tanxmovnis Tavmoyra (kteb) (75, gv. 29).

Cvens dialeqtSi gamoiyofa TanxmovanTa artikulaciis Svidi

ZiriTadi lokaluri rigi: labialebi, dentalebi, alveolarebi,

palatalebi, velarebi, faringalebi da laringalebi. cxrilis

saxiT kad-is konsonanturi sistema Semdegnairad warmogvidgeba:

48


artikulaciis

adgili

artikulaciis

ragvaroba

bilabiali

labiali

labiodentali

dentali

sisina

alveolari

SiSina

prepalatali da

mediopalatali

palatali

postpalatali

xSuli

yru mJReri

nazali

laterali

49

napralovani

yru mJReri

sibilanti

afrikati

p b m w

t d n ã

f

s z

cxrili #1

vibranti

l r

â

É Ó y

velari k g Õ Ò

uvulari q

faringali Ô ÷

laringali h


kad-Si dakargulia saliteraturo arabuli enis Semdegi

fonemebi: interdentalebi ä>s: äawb>sëb “tansacmeli”;

Ë>z:’aÕaËahu>ÕazÁ “aiRo is”.

b) umetes SemTxvevebSi ikargeba hamza – magari SemarTva:

’aÕaËahu>ÕazÁ “aiRo is”.

g) uvulari q kaSkadariul dialeqtSi umeteswilad gadmoicema

mJReri g-Ti: qal×l>gil×l. ”cota”. iSviaTad, q inarCunebs Tavis

artikulacias: qÝz×- “msajuli”, “mosamarTle”, “yadi”.

d) emfatikuri Tanxmovnebis artikulacia Sesustebulia . Ê da Ì

gadmoicema ì-Ti, romelic zogjer ufro sustdeba da gvaZlevs z-s:

lamzÁtarz “saCivari”.

miuxedavad fonologiuri cvlilebebisa, kad-Si saliteraturo

arabuli enis TanxmovanTa lokalizaciis rigebi ZiriTadad

SenarCunebulia. igi Semdegnairia:

I labialebis rigi _ b m p w, labiodentali f

II dentalebis rigi _ d n t z s ã

III alveolarebis rigi _ l r

IV palatalebis rigi _ Ó É â y

V velarebis da uvularebis rigi _ g k q Ò Õ

VI faringalebis rigi _ ÷ Ô

VII glotalebis rigi _ h

kad-Si gvaqvs ori, saliteraturo arabuli enisaTvis ucxo

fonema: p da É. maTi gaCena mxolod tajikuri da uzbekuri enebis

gavlenas ar unda mieweros. isini Sesabamisi arabuli bgerebis

ganviTarebis Sedegicaa. amitom gvxvdeba p da É rogorc tajikuri

da uzbekuri warmoSobis sityvebSi, aseve wminda arabul

leqsemebSic. mag., poliâta >, “baliSi”, ÉÝi “Cai”, harap


emfatizacias ganicdian /Ü/ /È/ /r/, kaSkadariul dialeqtSi

warmoadgenen araemfatikur fonemaTa variantebs.

kad-Si gamoiyofa 29 fonema: /p/ /b/ /m/ /w/ /f/ /t/ /d/ /n/ /s/ /z/ /l/

/r/ /â/ /É/ /Ó/ /k/ /g/ /Õ/ /y/ /Ò/ /ã/ /Ô/ /‘/ /h/ /a/ /e/ /i/ /u/ /o/

fonetikuri da distribuciuli niSnebis mixedviT isini

iyofian or ZiriTad _ xmovanTa da TanxmovanTa _ klasad. xmovnebi

monawileoben marcvlebis warmoqmnaSi. Tanxmovnebi am TvisebiT ar

xasiaTdebian. Tanxmovan fonemaTa sistema aerTianebs 24 erTeuls.

aqedan mJRerebia: ÷, Ò, g, Ó, y, l, r, d, n, z, b, m, w; yru Tanxmovnebia:

h, Ô, Õ, k, É, â, s, t, ã, f, p; napralovnebia: h, Ô, ö, Ò, Õ, y, â, r, z, s, w, f,

Ó, É, ã. xSuli Tanxmovnebi kad-Si Semdegi saxiT aris

warmodgenili: q, g, k, l, d, t, n, m, b, p.

$ 2. fonemaTa relevanturi diferencialuri niSnebi

kad-is fonemaTa relevanturi diferencialuri niSnebia:

xmovnoba, Tanxmovnoba, kompaqturoba, mJReroba, nazaloba,

myovroba, fSvinviereba, abruptivoba, periferiuloba,

xorxismieroba, palataluroba. es niSnebi binaluria da saWiroa

fonemaTa paradigmatuli identifikaciisaTvis. pirveli ori

binaluri niSani, vokaluroba da konsonanturoba kad-Si Semdeg

klasebs warmoSobs:

1) vokalurebi da arakonsonanturebi: a, e, i, u, o;

2) vokalurebi da konsonanturebi: y, w;

3) konsonanturebi da aravokalurebi: p, b, m, l, d, s, z, â, É, Ó, k,

g, Õ, Ò, ã, Ô, ÷, h.

kompaqturobis diferencialuri niSniT kad-Si xasiaTdebian a

da u xmovnebi. am niSniT isini upirispirdebian arakompaqtur e-sa

da i-s. amave niSniT xasiaTdebian palatalebi â, É, Ó, velarebi k, Õ,

Ò, uvulari q da xorxismierebi Ô, ‘, h.

myovroba axasiaTebs im konsonantebs, romelTa artikulaciis

winaRoba kad-Si minimaluria. esenia kontoidebi, romelTa

warmoTqmas ar axlavs wyveta an xSva. fonetikur literaturaSi

51


aseT Tanxmovnebs miakuTvneben frikativebs. kad-Si myovrobis

diferencialuri niSniT xasiaTdebian f, z, s, Ó, É, â, m, n.

fSvinvieri Tanxmovnebis dialeqturi warmoTqmis dros saxmo

simebis rxevasTan erTad saartikulacio bazis muskulaturis

daZabuloba Sesustebulia. fSvinvierebis diferencialuri

niSniT kad-Si xasiaTdebian É, Ô da h.

dabali tonis Tanxmovnebi upirispirdeba maRali tonis

Tanxmovnebs. maT artikulaciis amsaxvel speqtpgramaze Warbobs

speqtris dabali monakveTi. diferencialurobis es niSani kad-Si

axasiaTebs labial da velar Tanxmovnebs b, p, w, f, g, k, Ò, Õ

dentalebisa da palatalebisagan gansxvavebiT.

abruptivoba aris glotalizebuli Tanxmovnis Tviseba. kad-Si

diferencialurobis am niSniT gamoiyofa q. misTvis

damaxasiaTebelia

araabruptivebs.

yelxSva, riTac is upirispirdeba

glotalizebuli Tanxmovnebi upirispirdebian

araglotalizebulebs. esenia yelxSulebi, romelTa

artikulacia gulisxmobs xSvasa da yelismier SemarTvas.

glotalizebul Tanxmovnebs xSirad ganixilaven abruptivebTan

erTad. kad-Si diferencialurobis am niSniT xasiaTdeba Ô.

palataluri TanxmovnebisaTvis damaxasiaTebelia enis mibjena

magar sasasTan. kad-Si palatalurobis diferencialuri niSniT

xasiaTdebian Ó, É, â da y.

arabul dialeqtologiaSi fonemebi diferencialuri niSnebis

mixedviT pirvelad r. i a k o b s o n m a daaxasiaTa. man gamoyo

Semdegi binaruli wyvilebi: 1. xmovani/araxmovani; 2. Tanxmovani/

araTanxmovani; 3. kompaqturi/difuzuri; 4. mJReri/yru; 5. meyseuli/

myovari; 6. nazaluri/oraluri; 7. fSvinvieri/arafSvinvieri;

52


8. abruptivi/araabruativi; 9. periferiuli/araperiferiuli;

10. palataluri /arapalataluri.

kad-is fonemaTa diferencialuri niSnebi, rogorc Catarebulma

analizma gviCvena, Semdegi binaruli wyvilebis saxiT gamoiyofa:

1. vokaluroba/aravokaluroba; 2. Tanxmovani/araTanxmovani;

3. kompaqturi/difuzuri; 4. mJReri/yru; 5. nazaluri/oraluri;

6. uwyveteloba/wyvetiloba; 7. fSvinviereba/arafSvinviereba;

8. dabali tonis/maRali tonis matarebelni; 9. abruptivi/ araabruptivi;

10. periferiuli/araperiferiuli; 11. glotalizeba/

araglotalizeba; 12. palataluri/ arapalataluri. isini

SeiZleba warmodgenil iqnes cxrilis saxiT (ix. cxrili #2).

akustikuri maxasiaTeblebi artikulaciur niSnebTan erTad

qmnian realur pirobas bgeraTa fonetikuri daxasiaTebisaTvis.

gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania akustikur da artikulaciur

niSanTa urTierTmimarTeba. kvlevam aRniSnuli mimarTulebiT

farTo gamoyeneba hpova eleqtrogamoTvliT manqanebSi.

kaSkadariuli dialeqtis fonemaTa diferencialuri niSnebis

gamovlena SesaZlebelia fonemaTa, ufro sworad, maT

maxasiaTebelTa urTierTdapirispirebis gziT. magaliTad, fonema

/b/ vlindeba Semdeg opoziciebSi:

/b/ : /m/ - aracxvirismieri : cxvirismieri (nazaluri)

/b/ : /p/ - mJReri : aramJReri (yru)

/b/ : /w/ - meyseuli : myovari

mTlianobaSi, fonema /b/ SeiZleba daxasiaTdes Semdegi

diferencialuri niSnebiT: 1. Tanxmovani, 2. labiali, 3. mJReri, 4.

aracxvirismieri, 5. periferiuli, 6. meyseuli.

aviRoT fonema /f/. igi warmoadgens labiodentals. misi

diferecialuri niSnebi vlindeba Semdeg opoziciebSi:

/f/ : /d/ - aramJReri : mJReri

53


f/ : /t/ - myovari : meyseuli

/f/ : /z/ - dabali toni : maRali toni

fonemaTa diferencialuri niSnebi SeiZleba SevadaroT akords,

romelSic erTdroulad aris realizebuli ramdenime niSani. maTi

erToblioba ganapirobebs gansxvavebebs fonemaTa Soris.

amasTanave, gasaTvaliswinebelia, rom erTi da igive

diferencialuri niSani erTi enis gansxvavebul fonemebSi

SeiZleba sxvadasxvanairad realizdebodes. Tavisebureba

SeiZleba iyos akustikuric da artikulatorulic. miuxedavad

aseTi bgeriTi varirebisa, daculia diferencialur niSanTa

ZiriTadi maxasiaTeblebi.

54


fonemebi

dif.

niSnebi

b p w f d t z s Ó É â y

cxrili #2

g

(q) k Ò Õ ã m n l r ÷ Ô h a e i u o

xmovani –

araxmovani - - + - - - - - - - - + - - - - - - - - - - - - + + + + +

TanxmovaniaraTanxmovani

+ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + - - - - -

kompaqturi –

difuzuri - - + - - - - - + + + - + + + + - Ǿ Ǿ - - + + + + - - + Ǿ

mJReri – yru + - Ǿ - + - + - - - - Ǿ + - + - - Ǿ + + + + - - + + + + +

nazaluri-

oraluri - - Ǿ - - - - - - - - Ǿ - - - - - + + Ǿ Ǿ - - - Ǿ Ǿ Ǿ Ǿ Ǿ

meyseulimyovari

- - Ǿ + - - + + + + + Ǿ - - + + Ǿ + + - - + + Ǿ Ǿ Ǿ Ǿ Ǿ Ǿ

fSvinvieri

arafSvinvieri - - - - - - - - - + - - - - - - - - - - - - + + Ǿ Ǿ Ǿ Ǿ Ǿ

dabali toni -

maRali toni + + + + - - - - - - - Ǿ + + + + + + - - Ǿ + + + + - - Ǿ +

abruptiviaraabruptivi

- - - - - - - - - - - -

-

(+)

- - - - - - - - - - - Ǿ Ǿ Ǿ Ǿ Ǿ

periferiuliaraperiferiuli

+ - Ǿ + - - - - - - - Ǿ - - - - - Ǿ Ǿ Ǿ Ǿ - - Ǿ Ǿ Ǿ Ǿ Ǿ Ǿ

glotalizebuliaraglotalizebuli

Ǿ Ǿ Ǿ Ǿ Ǿ Ǿ Ǿ Ǿ Ǿ Ǿ Ǿ Ǿ - - - - Ǿ Ǿ Ǿ Ǿ Ǿ Ǿ + Ǿ Ǿ Ǿ Ǿ Ǿ Ǿ

palataluriarapalataluri

- - + - - - - - + + + + - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -


miuxedavad imisa, rom diferencialuri niSnebi specifikuria

yvela enisTvis, Seiqmna fonemaTa diferencialuri niSnebis

universaluri sistema, romelic miesadageba msoflios yvela enas.

aseTi universaluri sistema SemuSavebul iqna r. i a k o b s o n i s

(R. Jakobson), g. f a n t i s a (G. M. Fant) da m. h a l e s (M. Halle) mier

(134).

$ 3. minimaluri opoziciuri wyvilebi da fonemaTa distribucia

qvemoT mocemulia minimaluri opoziciuri wyvilebi

fonologiur doneze. gamoyofili fonemebi warmodgenilia

saartikulacio lokaluri rigebis Tanmimdevrobis dacviT.

labialebis rigi: /b/ /m/ /p/ /w/, labiodentali /f/

fonema /b/ gamoiyofa Semdegi opozicis mixedviT:

/b/-/m/ bÎit/mÎit “saxli”/”mkvleli”

bÝi/mÝi “bei”/”wyali”

/b/-/w/ bÎn/wÎn “Soris”/”sad”

balad/walad “qveyana”/”biWi”

/b/-/f/ bÁd/fÁd “Semdeg”/”vinme”

sæf/sæb “Salis qsovili”/”tansacmeli”

fonema /m/ gamoiyofa Semdegi opoziciebis mixedviT:

/m/-/b/=/b/-/m/

/m/-/f/ mÁt/fÁt “mokvda”/”vinme”

mad/fad “wavida”/”erTi”

fonema /p/ gamoiyofa Semdegi opoziciebis mixedviT:

/p/-/f/ puk/fêk “sufTa”/”maRla”

56


Ôalap/Ôalaf “alepo”/”fici”

/p/-/m/ harap/haram “garboda”/”codva”

pallaw/mallaw“flavi”/ “mosasxami”, “bambis xalaTi”

/p/-/b/ pæl/bæl “fuli”/”Sardi”

Ôalap/Ôalab “alepo”/”mowvela Zroxa”

arap/arab “garboda”/ “arabi”

fonema /f/ gamoiyofa Semdegi opoziciebis mixedviT:

/f/-/b/=/b/-/f/

/f/-/m/=/m/-/f/

/f/-/p/=/p/-/f/

/f/-/w/ fÁrd/ward “vinme”/ “vardi”

Ôafli/hawli “dResaswauli”/”ezo”, “karmidamo”

fonema /w/ gamoiyofa Semdegi opoziciebis mixedviT:

/w/-/b/=/b/-/w/

/w/-/f/=/f/-/w/

/w/-/m/ sawÁ/samÁ “gaakeTa”/ “daarqva (mas)”

wad/mad “dado”/ “wavida”

dentalebis rigi: /d/, /n/, /t/, /z/, /s/

fonema /d/ gamoiyofa Semdegi opoziciebis mixedviT:

/d/-/t/ mad/mat “wavida”/ “mokvda”

inda/inta “erTad”/ “Sen”

/d/-/s/ dawÁ/sawÁ “wamali”/ “moimoqmeda”

d×n/s×n “religia”/ “kbili”

/d/-/z/ d×n/z×n “religia”/ “kargi”, “mSvenieri”

ard/arz “miwa”/ “saCivari”

/d/-/n/ dÝr/nÝr “saxli”/ “cecxli”

Õada/ÕÝna “aiRo”/ “saxli”

fonema /t/ gamoiyofa Semdegi opoziciebis mixedviT:

/t/-/d/=/d/-/t/

/t/-/s/ tÝr/sÝr “xari”/ “gaxda”, “Seiqna”

t×n/s×n “leRvi”/ “sini”

57


t/-/z/ anta/anza “misca”/ “Txa”

t×n/z×n “leRvi”/ “kargi”

/t/-/n/ tÝr/nÝr “finiki”/ “cecxli”

tam/nam “daamTavra”/ “daiZina”

fonema /n/ gamoiyofa Semdegi opoziciebis mixedviT:

/n/-/d/=/d/-/n/

/n/-/t/=/t/-/n/

/n/-/s/ namawÁt/samawÁt “daiZines”/ “cani”

nÁr/sÁr “cecxli”/ “gaxda”, “Seiqna”

nÁb/sÁb “nabi", "jadoqari”/ “tansacmeli”

/n/-/z/ nÁr/zÁr “cecxli”/ “ewvia”

nÝb/zÝb “moxuci”/ “gadna”

fonema /z/ gamoiyofa Semdegi opoziciebis mixedviT:

/z/-/d/=/d/-/z/

/z/-/t/=/t/-/z/

/z/-/n/=/n/-/z/

/z/-/s/ zÁr/sÁr “ewvia”/ “gaxda”, “Seiqna”

÷azzal/÷assal “gamijna”/ “Tafli”

fonema /s/ gamoiyofa Semdegi opoziciebis mixedviT:

/s/-/d/=/d/-/s/

/s/-/t/=/t/-/s/

/s/-/n/=/n/-/s/

/s/-/z/=/z/-/s/

alveolarebis rigi: /l/, /r/

fonema /l/ gamoiyofa Semdegi opoziciebidan:

/l/-/r/ laham/raham “xorci”/ “wyaloba”

lahma/rahma(t) “xorceuli”/ “madlobT”

/r/-/l/=/l/-/r/

palatalebis rigi: /â/, /É/, /Ó/, /y/

fonema /â/ gamoiyofa Semdegi opoziciebis mixedviT:

/â/-/Ó/ âaf/Óaf “Sexeda”/ “gaxma”

âifr/Óifr “Sifri”/ “Wa”

58


âÁb/ÓÁb “ymawvili”/ “moitana”

/â/-/s/ âabah/sabah “msgavseba”/ “dila”

âar×a/sar×a “SariaTi/ “Cqari”

/â/-/z/

âabÁb/sabÁb “axalgazrda”/ “mizezi”

âÝer/zÝer “poeti”/ “stumari”

âahr/zahr “Tve” / “mxari”

fonema /Ó/ gamoiyofa Semdegi opoziciebis mixedviT:

/Ó/-/â/=/â/-/Ó/

/Ó/-/É/ ÓÝi/ÉÝi “mosuli”/ “Cai”

Óarah/Éarah “Wriloba”/ “daexeteboda”

fonema /É/ gamoiyofa Semdegi opoziciebis mixedviT:

/É/-/Ó/=/Ó/-/É/

/É/-/â/ ÉaÒal/âaÒol “daabnia (fqvili)”/”tura”

ÉÝi/âai “Cai”/ “raime”

ÉarÕ/âarh “saCeCeli”/ “axsna”, “ganmarteba”

velarebisa da uvularebis rigi: /g/, /k/, /Ò/, /Õ/, /q/. uvulari q

kad-Si iSviaTad gvxvdeba.

fonema g (g


Ò/-/k/=/k/-/Ò/

/g/-/Õ/ Òeir/Õeir “sxva”/”sikeTe”

Òalaã/Õalaã “Secdoma”/”auria”

ÒÁli/ÕÁli “Zviri”/”Cemi biZa”

fonema /Õ/ gamoiyofa Semdegi opoziciebis mixedviT:

/Õ/-/g/=/g/-/Õ/

/Õ/-/k/=/k/-/Õ/

/Õ/-/Ò/=/Ò/-/Õ/

faringalebis rigi: /Ô/ da /÷/

fonemebi /Ô/ da /÷/ gamoiyofa Semdeg opoziciebidan:

/Ô/ -/÷/ Ôamal/÷amal “itvirTa”/”saqme”

/÷/-/Ô/ ÷arab/Ôarab “arabi”/”gaiqca”

laringalebis rigi:

fonema h gamoiyofa Semdegi opoziciebidan:

/h/ - /Õ/ hawl×/ Õawl× “ezo”, “karmidamo”/ “Cems irgvliv”

kaSkadariuli dialeqtis fonemaTa distribucia sityvebSi

SeiZleba warmodgenil iqnes cxrilis saxiT. vertikalur rigSi

mocemulia fonemebi, romlebic SeiZleba win uswrebdnen fonemas,

Cawerils horizontalur rigSi. fonemaTa SesaZlebeli kavSirebi

aRiniSneba horizontaluri xaziT (_), absoluturad SeuZlebeli

fonologiuri kavSirebi _ nuliT (0). iseTi mezobloba ori

fonemisa, romelic iSviaTad gvxvdeba ucxo sityvebSi da

arabunebrivia kad-is fonologiuri bunebisTvis, aRiniSneba

niSniT - #.

60


kad-is fonemaTa distribucia cxrili #3

# a e i u o l r n m b p w f d t r s Ó É â y

# - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

a - - 0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

e - - - - 0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

i - 0 0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

u - 0 0 - 0 0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

o - 0 - - - 0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

l - - - - - - 0 0 0 - - - - - 0 0 0 - - 0 - - - - - - 0 0 - -

r - - - - - - - - - - - 0 - - 0 0 - - - 0 - - 0 - 0 - 0 0 0 -

n - - - - - - - 0 - - - 0 0 0 - - - - 0 0 - - 0 - - - 0 0 0 -

m - - - - - - - - - 0 - 0 0 0 - - - 0 0 0 - - - - - 0 0 0 - 0

b - - - - - - - - - - - 0 0 0 - 0 - 0 0 0 - - - - - 0 - - 0 -

p - - - - - - 0 - - - 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 - - 0 0 - 0 0 0 - 0 - 0 0

w - - - - 0 - 0 0 - - - - 0 - - - - - - - - - 0 - - - 0 - -

f - - - - - - - - - - 0 0 - - - - - 0 0 0 - - - - - 0 - 0 - -

d - - - - - - - - - - - 0 - - - 0 - 0 0 0 0 - 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

t - - - - - - - - - - - 0 0 - 0 - - 0 - 0 - - 0 0 0 0 0 - 0 0

r - - - - - - - - - - - 0 - - - - - - - 0 - - 0 - 0 0 - - - -

s - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 0 0 - 0 - - - - 0 0 0

ÓóÓ - - - - - - - - - - - - - 0 - - - 0 0 0 0 - 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -

É - - - - - - - - - - - 0 - 0 0 0 - 0 0 - 0 - 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -

â - - - - - - - - - - 0 - - - - - - - 0 - - - - 0 - 0 - 0 -

y - - 0 0 - - 0 - - - - - 0 - - - - 0 0 0 - - - 0 - - - - - -

g - - - - - - - - - - - - 0 0 - 0 - - - 0 0 - - 0 - 0 - 0 0 -

k - - - - - - - - - - - 0 0 - - - - - - - - - - 0 0 - - 0 0 -

Ò - - - - - - - - - - - - - 0 - 0 - - - 0 - - 0 0 0 0 - 0 0 0

Õ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 0 - - 0 0 0 - - 0 - 0

ã - - - - - - - - - - - - - 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 - 0 0 0 0 - 0 - -

q - - - - - - 0 0 - - - 0 0 0 - 0 - 0 0 0 0 - 0 0 0 - 0 - 0 -

÷ - - - - - - 0 - - - 0 0 0 0 0 - 0 - - 0 - - 0 - 0 - - - - -

Ô - - - - - - - - - - - 0 - 0 0 0 - - - 0 - - - - 0 0 - - - 0

h - - - - - - - - - - - 0 - - - -

61

- - - 0 - - 0 - 0 0 - - 0 -

g

(q)

k Ò Õ ã ÷ Ô h


$ 4. bgeraTa artikulaciis spontanuri cvlilebebi

Tanxmovnebi

labialebi

mJReri /b/, zog SemTxvevaSi, gadmoicema yru, fSvinvieri /p/-Ti.

/p/ poziciuri variantia /b/-si. igi gvxvdeba sityvis SuaSi an

boloSi xmovnis Semdeg: arkup


dentalebi

rogorc zemoT aRvniSneT, interdentalebi ä da Ë kad-Si

gadmoicema s-Ti da z-Ti. iSviaT SemTxvevaSi Ë SeiZleba gadmoices

d-Ti, rac buxaruli arabulisaTvis aris ufro damaxasiaTebeli:

hÁda>haËa "es". yiSlaR jeÁnauSi gvxvdeba ä-s t-Ti gadmocemis

SemTxvevebi: maäal>matal.

emfatikuri lateraluri Ê-s artikulacia kad-Si

Sesustebulia. igi gadmoicema ì-Ti: ÷arÊ>arì "miwa". imave sityvaSi

÷arÊ, Ê, artikulaciis Zlieri Sesustebis Sedegad gvaZlevs s-s.

Sdr.: arÊ>ars.

dentali cxvirismieri n zogjer _ sityvis bolos, xmovnis win,

an prekonsonantur poziciaSi (Tu Tanxmovani labialuria),

gadmoicema m-Ti: mim fuq


Tanxmovnebis dayruebis tendencia kad-Si naTlad Cans b–s p–Ti

gadmocemis zemoTaRniSnuli SemTxveviTac.

kad-Si, arabuli sityvebis garda, É gvxvdeba agreTve ucxo

warmomavlobis, sityvebSi. mag., takÉa “Taro, niSa”, kuÉa “quCa” da

sxv.

velarebi da uvularebi

naqismieri q kaSkadariul dialeqtSi umetesad gamoiTqmis

rogorc mJReri g. mag., gil×l “cota”. buxarul dialeqtSi q-s

warmoTqmaSi Seesatyviseba yru q. mag., qara “kiTxulobda”. unda

aRiniSnos, rom zogjer jeÁnaus mkvidrTa metyvelebaSic g–s

paralelurad q SenarCunebulia. mag., qÝzi


formebSi, rac damaxasiaTebelia sxva arabuli

dialeqtebisaTvisac.

$ 5. vokaluri sistema

kad-is xmovanTa sistemisaTvis damaxasiaTebelia Riaobis sami

mdgomareoba da monoftongTa tembruli cvlilebani. am

ukanasknelisa da, agreTve, diftongTa reduqciis xarjze

klasikuri sistema gafarToebulia: (ai>e, aw>o). xmovnebi

samkuTxedSi Semdegnairad nawildebian:

/i/ /u/

/e/ /o/

/a/

kad-Si SeimCneva xmovanTa sigrZis arastabiluroba. gvxvdeba

grZeli, mokle, saSualo sigrZis da ultramokle xmovnebi.

xmovanTa sigrZis cvalebadoba damaxasiaTebelia ara marto kaSkadariis,

aramed sxva arabuli dialeqtebisTvisac. fonetikuri

Canawerebis safuZvelze gamoiyofa xmovanTa Semdegi klasebi:

grZeli umaxvilo: /i/ /Ø/ /Î/ /Ï/ /Á/ /Â/ /Ý/ /æ/ /ç/ /ë/

grZeli maxviliani: /Ú/ /Ö/ /Ñ/ /Ï/ /Ç/ /Â/ /ß/ /é/ /ç/ /ë/

cvalebadi sigrZis: /i/ /Ø/ /e/ /Í/ /À/ /a/ /o/ /u/ /å/ /ê/

saSualo simoklis: /i/ /Ø/ /e/ /î/ /Í/ /À/ /o/ /u/ /å/ /ê/

mokle: /i/ /Ø/ /e/ /î/ /Í/ /a/ /À/ /o/ /û/ /u/ /å/ /ê/

ultramokle: /i/ /Ø/ /e/ /î/ /a/ /À/ /o/ /û/ /u/ /å/ /ê/

imas, Tu xmovnis romeli varianti iqneba realizebuli, xSirad

ganapirobebs pozicia da kontaqti. mezobloba winaenismier,

velarul, faringalur da emfatikur TanxmovnebTan gavlenas

axdens maT tembrze. SeiniSneba grZeli xmovnebis damoklebis

tendencia.

fonema /×/ gamoiyofa Semdegi opoziciebis safuZvelze:

r×z “brinji” -rÝz “saidumloeba”

z×n “unagiri” –zÎn “kargi”

/i/ aris wina rigis xmovani. xasiaTdeba Riaobis minimaluri

xarisxiT. kad-Si misi variantebia Ø, î da i. i rig SemTxvevebSi

65


ganicdis wina an momdevno bgerebis gavlenas. mag., ÷ainisa da Ô-s

mezoblobaSi warmoiTqmis rogorc Ø: gÁ÷Ød “mjdomare”, dÁ÷Øn

“damdebi” an, iSviaTad, rogorc î: îÔmÝr "saxedari”. Ø -s

artikulacias Tan axlavs saxmo simebis daWimuloba, rasac

ganapirobebs faringalebTan mezobloba.

daxurul marcvalSi, labialebis win i ganicdis

labializacias: minbar>mimbar “kaTedra”. igi, Tu moklea,

umaxvilo poziciaSi gvaZlevs a-s: âib÷Án>âab÷Án “maZRari”, xolo

iotis (y) win xasiaTdeba maRali aweulobiT: adîmyÁt “adamianebi”.

i ikargeba Ria, grZeli marcvlis win: âitÁ>âtÁ “zamTari”. zogjer

warmoTqmaSi Sinis (â) win gvesmis ultramokle i: iâta. sxva SemTxvevaSi i inarCunebs klasikur arabulSi misTvis

damaxasiaTebel tembrs da naklebad ganicdis mezobeli

emfatikuri, velaruli, palataluri da faringaluri

Tanxmovnebis gavlenas. xSirad, aseT dros, igi warmoadgens grZel

xmovans. mag., Õat×b “xatibi”, ÷zÒ×r “umcrosi” da a.S.

fonema /e/ gamoiyofa Semdegi opoziciebis mixedviT:

bÎt “saxli” - b×t “Rvino”

bÎd “kvercxi” - bÁd “Semdeg”

/e/-s variantebia Í, Î da î . e saSualo rigis xmovania. igi

xasiaTdeba rigebSi monacvleobis unariT da bagismierebTan

mezoblobaSi ganicdis labializacias. /e/-s erT-erTi varianti Í

viwro xmovania. igi i–s uaxlovdeba. es movlena kad-Si mkveTrad

aris gamoxatuli. mag., iâ>Íâ “ra”. aseve xSiria grZeli Î-s xmarebis

SemTxvevebi: irdÏna


Ôarr “cxeli” - Ôurr “Tavisufleba”

rÁÔ “wavida” - ræÔ “suli”

dÁr “dResaswauli” – dÝr “rigi”

vokali /a/ kad-Si, maqsimaluri Riaobisa da lokalizaciis

TvalsazrisiT, SeuzRudavi xmovania. igi ar ifargleba erTi

saartikulacio rigiT da gamoirCeva neitraluri tembriT.

klasikuri arabulis mokle a ikargeba, Tu is moxvda

ormarcvliani sityvis dasawyisSi da momdevno marcvalSi aris ×:

zaÒ×r>zÒ×r “patara”, kab×r>kb×r “didi”. am wess aqvs gamonaklisebi: a

ar ikargeba, Tu gverdiT labialuri xmovania: ba÷×d “Sori”,

“Soreuli”, baã× “neli”. igi SenarCunebulia agreTve ukana

enismier TanxmovnebTan: ‘aÓ×b “sakvirveli”, Õat×b “mqadagebeli”,

“mola”, qarib “axlo”, “axlobeli”. Tu sityvaSi a-s mosdevs

grZeli æ an Á, igi aseve ar ikargeba: salÁs “sami”, Õaræf “cxvari”.

zogjer grZel u-sTan a-s asimilaciis Sedegad vRebulobT Õuræf-s.

a-s ZiriTadi variantebia À, Â, a, Ã, da Å.

centraluri a gvaqvs faringalebTan: maÔalla “ubani”, ‘abar

“avida”. a win wamoiweva da viwrovdeba ÁotTan: mÝya (mÅya)

“wyali”.

À viwro, a-da e-s Soris mdebare xmovania. igi gvaqvs daxurul

marcvalSi zmnis III piris mx. r-is md. sqesSi: tala÷Àt “avida” da,

agreTve, faringalur TanxmovanTan: ‘Ànab “yurZeni”. À mudam

warmodgenilia sityvaSi ‘ÀndáoÔb

“patroni”. xSirad grZeli Á iZleva Ý-s: mÝya (mÅya) “wyali”. Sua

aziis arabuli dialeqtebisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli es movlena

nawilobriv tajikuri enis gavlenas unda mieweros. buxarulSi igi

ufro mkveTrad aris gamoxatuli, xolo kad-Si o aris Á-sa da Ý-s

Soris mdebare xmovani. amasTanave, kad-Si didi raodenobiT gvaqvs

67


Á da Ý xmovniani paraleluri formebi: ÓavÁb/gavÝb “pasuxi”,

nÁb/nÝb “moxuci” da sxva. aRiniSneba Á-s artikulaciis

SenarCunebis xSiri SemTxvevebi paraleluri Ý xmovniani formebis

gareSec: gÁl “Tqva”, ÓÁ “movida”, kÁn “iyo”.

fonema /u/ gamoiyofa Semdegi opoziciebidan:

rÁÔ “wavida” - ræÔ “suli”

Ôarr “cxeli” - Ôurr “Tavisufleba”

dÝla “qveyana” - dæla “misi saTli”

/u/ aris ukana rigis, maRali aweulobis, minimaluri Riaobis

xmovani. gamoirCeva sufTa tembriT. kad-Si misi variantebia å, ê, o,

ç da ë. faringalebis Semdeg u gvaZlevs o-s: rÁÔo “wavidnen”, ma’o

“masTan erTad”. unda aRiniSnos, rom kad-isaTvis sityvis boloSi

grZeli xmovnebis damokleba misaRebia. emfatikurebTanac u>o-s:

nÞá “naxevari”. am formis paralelurad gvxvdeba nîáf. amgvarad,

kad-Si SeimCneva o-sa da î-s monacvleoba emfatikurebTan

mezoblobaSi. sxva SemTxvevaSi, sityvis bolos, maxvilian

marcvalSi æ gvaZlevs ç-s: âÁfç “maT dainaxes”. arc Tu iSviaTad,

bolo marcvalSi ç-s nacvlad gvesmis å: âÁfå.

u upirispirdeba i-s labializaciis an palatalizaciis

TvalsazrisiT. miuxedavad amisa, kad-Si maT Soris gansxvaveba

minimaluria. gvxvdeba sityvebi, sadac i da u erTmaneTs enacvleba:

Óim÷a/Óum÷a “paraskevi”, ugæb/igæb “Semdeg”.

ê aris saSualo xmovani o-sa da å-s Soris. igi gvxvdeba

umetesad daxurul marcvalSi, sadac xSirad enacvleba å-s:

Õårmata/Õêrmata “misi coli”, måysafÎt/mêysafÎt “moxuci” da sxv.

grZeli ë xSirad miiReba diftongisagan - aw: fëq“maRla”, Sdr.

arab. fawqa.

fonema /o/ gamoiyofa Semdegi opoziciebis mixedviT:

kÝn “bevri” - kÁn “iyo”

bÝl “Sardi” - b×l “niCabi”

/o/-s variantebia û da o. igi aris ukana rigis saSualo Riaobis

xmovani. umetesad gvxvdeba grZeli Ý-s saxiT. es fonema miRebulia

ori gziT: erTi mxriv, grZeli Á gvaZlevs Ý-s: mÁt>mÝt “mokvda”,

xolo meore mxriv, diftongi aw gadmoicema Ý-Ti: nawm>nÝm

68


“Zili”. o-s varianti û Zalian xSirad gvxvdeba, gansakuTrebiT,

daxurul marcvalSi: kûhtil “adgili”. o umetesad Cndeba sityvis

TavSi an boloSi. igi faringalebTan mezoblobaSi an a xmovanTan

asimilaciis Sedegad xSirad icvlis tembrs da gadadis a-Si:

moÔmad>maÔmad “muhamedi”, zaraboh>zarabah “daartyes maT mas”.

kad-Si dasturdeba aRmavali da daRmavali difTongebi.

aRmavali difTongebi ya da wa cvlilebebs TiTqmis ar ganicdian.

mag., hamsÝya “mezobeli”, walad “biWi”. daRmavali difTongebi: ay

da aw, rogorc zemoT aRvniSneT, gvaZleven Semdeg grZel xmovnebs:

ay>e da aw>o. mag., nawm>nÝm “Zili”, bayt>bÎt “saxli”. es

xmovnebi, Tavis mxriv ganicdian cvlilebebs: o>å-sa da ê-s. Sdr.:

nom>nåm, nom nêm, bet>biet. amrigad, meoreuli diftongizaciis

Sedegad vRebulobT aRmaval diftongoid ie-s. daRmavali

diftongoidi ei etimologiurad ay diftongisgan momdinareobs:

ilay>ilei “Cemze”.

Tu grZel marcvals mosdevs meore grZeli maxviliani

marcvali, pirveli mokldeba. es wesi farTod aris gavrcelebuli

kad-Si: bÎt/bit×. am SemTxvevaSi grZeli Î>i-s. es movlena sxva

arabuli dialeqtebisTvisac aris damaxasiaTebeli. kad-Si ori

grZeli marcvali sityvaSi TiTqmis ar gvxvdeba. umaxvilo grZeli

marcvali mokldeba, xolo maxviliani inarCunebs sigrZes: gÁlÁ>galÁ

“uTxra mas”. es movlena sityvaTa fonologiur struqturas ar

arRvevs, vinaidan kad-Si xmovanTa sigrZe-simokle fonologiur

opoziciebs ar qmnis. amis damadasturebelia zmnis II da III Temis

mniSvnelobaTa erTi formiT gadmocemis SemTxvevebi. mag., ‘ayyan

1.”daadgina”; 2. “Sexeda”. pirveli mniSvneloba zmnis meore Temisaa,

xolo meore _ mesame Temis. vinaidan Cvens dialeqtSi aRar aris

grZeli da mokle xmovnebis fonologiuri dapirispireba, erTma

formam ‘ayyan SeiTvisa orive Temis mniSvneloba. Sdr. agreTve

‘aâara ”aTi”; aâar an ÷Áâîr áÝrat “Seiqna fexmZime”, “dafexmZimda”.

amrigad, kad-Si warmodgenilia Semdegi xmovani fonemebi:

fonemebi alofonebi

/a/ /À,Â,a,Ã,Å/

/e/ /Í,Î,î/

69


i/ /Ø, i/

/o/ /û, o/

/u/ /å, ê, o, ç, ë/

gamoyofili 5 ZiriTadi erTeuli ar ganarCevs fonologiurad

sigrZe-simokles. es movlena unda CaiTvalos kad-is vokaluri

sistemis erT-erT ZiriTad maxasiaTeblad. grZeli xmovnebis

arsebobas sityvebSi sxvadasxva faqtorebi unda ganapirobebdes.

vfiqrobT, umTavresi maT Soris aris maxvili. mxedvelobaSia

misaRebi, agreTve, arabul sityvaTa tradiciuli warmoqmnis

SenarCunebis tendencia, rac gaucnobiereblad gadaecema

Taobidan Taobas.

$ 6. bgeraTa kombinatoruli cvlilebebi

kad-Si dasturdeba fonemaTa garkveuli modifikaciebi, rac

Tavs iCens gabmul metyvelebaSi bgeraTa artikulaciuri

cvlilebebis saxiT. aseTi modifikaciebi ZiriTadad ori saxisaa:

kombinatoruli da poziciuri.

bgeraTa artikulaciis kombinatoruli modifikacia

gulisxmobs bgeraTa iseT urTierTqmedebas gabmuli metyvelebis

dros, romlis Sedegadac bgerebi uSualo mezoblobisas, an

siaxlovisas, gavlenas axdenen artikulaciaze.

bgeraTa poziciuri modifikaciebi warmoadgenen bgeraTa

artikulaciis imgvar cvlilebebs, romlebic gamowveulia

sityvaSi bgeris poziciiT (anlautSi, inlautSi da auslautSi),

misi maxvilian da umaxvilo marcvalSi yofniT da a.S.

kad-is bgeraTa artikulaciis kombinatorul cvlilebebSi

unda gamoiyos akomodacia, asimilacia da disimilacia,

substitucia da metaTezisi. dialeqtSi dasturdeba, agreTve,

Tanxmovnisa da xmovnis Cavardna.

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a) akomodacia

akomodacia gulisxmobs Tanxmovnis artikulaciaze mezobeli

xmovnis zegavlenas, xolo xmovnis artikulaciaze _ Tanxmovnisas.

kad-Si u-sa da o-s wina poziciaSi Tanxmovnebi ganicdian

labializacias:

sÅÔb [s°ÅÔb] “mflobeli”, “patroni”

hamsÅØa [hams°ÅØa] “mezobeli”

ugæb [ug°æb] “Semdeg”

idræn [id°ræn] “SigniT”

cxvirismier [m] da [n] TanxmovnebTan mezoblobaSi xmovnebi

ganicdian Tanxmovnebis artikulaciis gavlenas. nazalizacia

sustia xmovanTa warmoTqmisas anlautSi (Tavkidur poziciaSi),

xolo artikulaciis dasasruls, gamokveTilia.

ham [haùm] “es”

iæm [iæùm] “dRe”

sana [saùna]”weli”

kÁn [kÁùn] “iyo”

faringalebi gavlenas axdenen xmovnebze. fuZeSi faringalebis

arseboba xSirad ganapirobebs mezobeli xmovnis

faringalizacias. asimilaciis Sedegad vRebulobT xmovans,

romlis artikulacias axlavs saxmo simebis daWimuloba:

ØÔmÝr “saxedari”

ØÔda “erT-erTi”

ÔØnna bot. “ina”, “xenZafe”

ØÔne “Suri”, “mtroba”

ØÔna “Cven” < naÔnu. es forma kad-Si iSviaTad gvxvdeba

‘Ørs “qorwili”

‘Ønda “masTan”

‘Ølm “codna”

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‘Øzme “sidide”

Ø‘dÁd “Tvla”: Ø‘dÁd sawa “daiTvala”

‘ØbÁd 1. “rwmena”; 2. ”morwmuneebi”.

moyvanil magaliTebSi Ø-s zogjer enacvleba viwro xmovani Í,

aseve i, Tanxmovnebis garemocvaSi, xSirad gadadis e-sa da î-Si

(imala):

fÁÕer < fÁÕir “amayi”.

mu‘allîm< mu‘allim “maswavlebeli”

fahem


d. progresuli, nawilobrivi, distanciuri

bt>bd bedkum < betkum “Tqveni saxli”

e. regresuli, sruli, kontaqturi

ts>ss issÝrtt it-tÝÓir


iá-áÝt < il-áÝt “xma”

iá-áÝiÔ < il-áÝiÔ “myvirala”, “damZaxebeli”

lã>ãã aã-ãalab < al-ãalab “Txovna”

aã-ãabaÕ < al-ãabaÕ “saWmlis momzadeba”,

“kulinaria”

aã-ãa‘Ým < al-ãa‘Ým “saWmeli”

iã-ã×ra < il-ã×ra “frinveli”, “Citi”

lì>ìì iì-ìill< il-ìill “Crdili”

ln >nn in-nær < il-nær “sinaTle”

in-nÝb < il-nÝb “moxuci”, “gulTmisani”

in-nÝr < il- nÝr “cecxli”

in-nowm < il-nowm “Zili”

in-nÝim < il-nÝim “mZinare”

in-nahÁr < il-nahÁr “mdinare”

in-na‘Óa < il-na‘Óa “cxvari”

lm > mm im-mÝit < il-mÝit “mkvleli”

im-mad×ne < il-mad×ne “qalaqi”

lr > rr ir-rÝs < il-rÝs “Tavi”

ir-ragîs < il- ragîs “cekva”

ir-raÔme < il- raÔme “wyaloba”

ir-rabbi < il-rabbi “Cemi RmerTi”, “ufali”

tz > zz izzarreb < itzarreb “urtyams”, “cems”

tâ > tt iââæf < itâæf “is (md.) xedavs”

dt > tt gabatta < gabadta “Sen daiWire”, “xelSi

Caigde”

nm > mm mim makka < min makka “meqidan”

v. regresuli, sruli, distanciuri

tã >ãã ãuãlub < tuãlub “mas (md.) unda”, “igi

iTxovs”

ãuãbuÕ < tuãbuÕ “amzadebs”, “acxobs (md.)”

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ãiãla÷ < tiãla÷ “gamodis (md.)”

z. regresuli, nawilobrivi, kontaqturi

ÒÉ > ÕÉ boÕÉa < boÒÉa “baRi”

Óh > Éh uÉhe < uÓhe “misi saxe”

Òs > Õs ñuÕsub < ñuÒsub “ebrZvis”, “eCxubeba”,

“edaveba”

iÕsil < iÒsil “recxavs”

miÕsal < miÒsal “saqsovi”, “sarTavi” (dazga)

qt >Õt waÕt < waqt “dro”

Ów > Éw naÉwa < naÓwa “saidumloeba”

gz > Õz uÕzub! < ugzub! “daiWire!”

gs > Õs maÕsad < magsad “mizani”

÷f > Ôf naÔfa < na÷fa “maRlobi”

÷s > Ôs baÔsa < ba÷sa “dasawyisi”, “dasabami”

÷t > Ôt ãalaÔt < ãala÷t “gamovedi”

zt > st karast < karazt “Tavi Sevafare”

tr > dr adrÁk < atrÁk “Turqebi”

br > pr maprÝâ p ÷ bu÷pu÷ < bu÷bu÷ “buybuyi”

bã > pã ipãÝn < ibãÝn “Citis bude”

g) disimilacia

a. progresuli, kontaqturi

mm > mb sambÁt < sammÁt “Sxamebi”

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. progresuli, distanciuri

gã > gd sagadît < sagaãît “Camovarda”

g. regresuli, nawilobrivi, kontaqturi

Ót > ít mazaít < mazaÓt “Sevurie”, “avurie

erTmaneTSi”

qt > Õt waÕt < waqt “dro”

d) substitucia

d > t fat< fad “erTi”, “mavani”

(ganusazRvr.

nacvalsaxeli)

walat < walad “biWi”

b > p harap < harab “garboda”, “mirboda”,

“gaiqca”

÷ > h udah < uda÷ “dado”, “Semodo”

Ó > É zÝÉ < zÝÓ “qmari”

÷ > n anãa < a÷ãa “misca”

ã > t Òab×t < Òab×ã “unagiri (aqlemis)”

ö > y yamar < öamar “ubrZana”

e) Tanxmovnis amovardna

nus < nñsf “naxevari”

orba < orba÷ “oTxi”

ta÷i < ta÷Ál (ilÁ) ÷andi “modi (CemTan)”

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sityvis dasawyisSi SeiZleba amovardes hamza. magaliTad:

Õaza < öaÕaza “aiRo”. SesaZlebelia sawyis poziciaSi hamzis

Canacvleba iotiT an ÷ainiT:

$ 7 marcvali

yamar < öamar “ubrZana”

÷azan < öazan “yuri daugdo”

marcvali, rogorc minimaluri saartikulacio erTeuli, kad-Si

Sedgeba ori an meti bgerisagan. mis birTvs warmoadgens erT-erTi

xmovani (a, e, i, u, o), xolo periferiul nawils ki _ Tanxmovnebi.

dialeqtSi fiqsirdeba marcvlebi, romlebic Seicaven

ultramokle xmovans. aseTi SemTxvevebi aixsneba swrafi

metyvelebiT. marTalia, xmovnis sruli Cavardna ar xdeba, magram

garkveul poziciaSi, xmovani ultramokle bgeris saxiT

warmoiTqmis.

kad-Si gamoiyofa marcvlis Semdegi ZiriTadi saxeobebi:

1. CV Ria mokle marcvali

2. CV : Ria grZeli marcvali

3. CVC daxuruli grZeli marcvali

4. CVCC ormagad daxuruli grZeli marcvali

aRniSnuli tipebi damaxasiaTebelia saliteraturo arabuli

enisTvisac.

dialeqtSi fiqsirdeba agreTve marcvlis Semdegi saxeobebi:

VC,CVC, VCC, VC.

rogorc moyvanili struqturebidan Cans, kad-Si

marcvlisaTvis, ZiriTadad, damaxasiaTebelia xmovani

prepoziciaSi: irs- “qorwili”, amr - “brZaneba”, da a.S. maTi

arseboba dialeqtSi ganpirobebulia sityvebSi hamzisa da

‘ainis CavardniT.

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$ 8. maxvili

maxvili kad-Si moZravia. sityvaSi ZiriTadad moudis grZel

marcvals. Tu sityvaSi ori grZeli marcvalia, postpoziciurs

eZleva upiratesoba:

birgÁdÚr “brigadiri”

ilbÁsÇt “tansacmeli”

Tu sityvis bolo marcvali moklea, xolo winamavali xmovani –

grZeli, aseT SemTxvevaSi maxvili moudis boloswina marcvals:

giddÇmu “pirdapir”, “mopirdapire mxares”, “mis win”. saerTod,

kaSka-dariis dialeqtisaTvis damaxasiaTebelia maxvili sityvis

bolo, grZel marcvalze, rac sixSiris TvalsazrisiT, yvela sxva

SemTxvevas aRemateba.

arabuli enis kaSkadariuli dialeqtis fonologiuri analizi

adasturebs, rom mravali saukunis ganmavlobaSi arabuli

samyarosgan mowyvetili da Turqul (uzbekur, Turqmenul) da

indoevropul (tajikur, avRanur) enebTan kontaqtSi myofi

dialeqti Camoyalibda rogorc Taviseburi, damoukidebeli

dialeqturi enobrivi sistema. droTa ganmavlobaSi masSi Tavi

iCina araerTma semiturma da, amasTanave, enobrivi kontaqtebiT

ganpirobebulma enobrivma maxasiaTebelma.

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Tavi II

morfologia

am nawilSi dadgenilia kanonzomierebani, romlebic safuZvlad

udevs kaSkadariul arabul dialeqtSi Zireul da afiqsalur

segmentTa ganawilebas. maTi funqcionireba eqvemdebareba

garkveul wesebs, romelTa erToblioba gansazRvravs dialeqtis

morfologiur wyobas. kategoriebi, ganxilul formalur niSanTa

mixedviT, naSromSi warmodgenilia rogorc damoukidebeli

morfologiuri struqturebi. sityvaTa morfologiuri analizis

dros veyrdnobiT amosaval sqemas, romelsac safuZvlad udevs

saliteraturo arabuli enis morfologiuri klasifikacia. am

sqemis mixedviT agebuli kaSkadariuli arabuli dialeqtis

morfologiuri sistema grafikulad Semdegnairad gamoixateba:

$ 1. Ziri

Ziris eqsponenti kad-Si, iseve rogorc saerTod, semitur enebSi,

warmodgenilia mxolod konsonanti fonemebiT, romlebic qmnian

79


sityvaTa struqturulad maorganizebel centrebs, anu e.w.

mniSvnelobaTa matarebel ZiriTad birTvebs:

ktb “wera”

qtl “kvla”

zrb “dartyma”

ârb “daleva”

Ziri, rogorc gramatikulad ganuyofeli leqsikuri

abstraqcia, kad-Si aris orTanxmovniani, samTanxmovniani da

iSviaTad, erTTanxmovniani da oTxTanxmovniani:

Ó Sdr. ÓÁ “movida”

md Sdr. mad “wavida”

lhq Sdr. lihiq “miaRwia”

dstr Sdr. dastær “Tanxmoba”

Zireul TanxmovanTa erToblioba aris baza, romelze

dayrdnobiTac aigeba sityvis esa Tu is gramatikuli forma.

marTalia, Zireul TanxmovanTa raodenoba aranormirebulia,

magram samTanxmovniani Zirebis siWarbesTan erTad dialeqtSi

SeimCneva maTi orTanxmovnian Zirebad transformaciis zogierTi

SemTxveva:

gare < qara‘a “waikiTxa”

dÁ‘in “damdebi” Sdr. waÊa‘a

zog SemTxvevaSi yuradRebas imsaxurebs TanxmovanTa

Tanmimdevrobis varireba, rasac ar mosdevs sityvis mniSvnelobis

Secvla. aseTi transpoziciis SemTxvevebi, romlebic gvxvdeba

semitur enebSi, ar ganimarteba fonetikuri gziT. maTi axsna

struqturis sferos ganekuTvneba.

magaliTebi: maftaÔ - maÔfat “gasaRebi”

áafÔa - áaÔfa “foToli”

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ib‘ir - i‘b×r “aqlemi”

savaraudoa, rom msgavsi SemTxvevebi semitur enebSi mianiSneben

Zireuli struqturis ganviTarebis sawyis etapebs, rodesac enebSi

xdeboda Zirebis formireba.

$ 2. fuZe

xmovnebis, derivaciuli afiqsebis saSualebiT xdeba Ziris

morfologiuri segmentacia da leqsikuri mniSvnelobis

warmoqmna, romlis umartivesi formaa fuZe. igi SeiZleba iyos

nominaluri da verbaluri. magaliTad, verbaluri fuZidan zarab

“daartya”, iwarmoeba mTeli rigi axali fuZeebisa: zarrab, tazarrab

da a. S. amave fuZidan SesaZlebelia nominalur fuZeTa warmoqmna.

igive SeiZleba iTqvas pirveladi niminaluri fuZeebis Sesaxebac:

laÔm “xorci”, laÔÔÁm “yasabi”, izn “yuri”, azzÝn “msmeneli”.

martiv da gafarToebul fuZeTa simravle kad-Si safuZvlad edeba

leqsikur erTeulTa mravalferovan struqturas, romlebic

erTiandebian saxelisa da zmnis gramatikul sistemebSi.

$ 3. saxeli

kad-Si warmodgenilia saxelTa Semdegi klasebi: arsebiTi

saxeli, zedsarTavi saxeli, ricxviTi saxeli da nacvalsaxeli.

ZiriTadi bikonsonanturi fuZeebis gverdiT fiqsirdeba e.w.

nawarmoebi formebi, romelTa funqcionirebis areali dialeqtSi

Sekvecilia. gamoiyofa nasesxobebi, romlebmac ganicades

arabizacia da moergnen semitur morfologiur yalibs. es exeba,

ZiriTadad, uzbekur da tajikur nasesxobebs. fuZeTa modelebi

qvemoT warmodgenilia maTi Sinagani struqturis mixedviT.

sityvebi Tavmoyrilia agreTve Sinaarsoblivi niuansebis

gaTvaliswinebiTac. aq Cveulebrivi, e.w. martivi saxelebis

gverdiT fiqsirdeba zmnuri, saxelidan nawarmoebi axali tipis

nazmnari saxelebi.

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icxviTi saxeli da nacvalsaxeli gansakuTrebul midgomas

moiTxovs, amitom isini damoukideblad arian gaanalizebuli. rac

Seexeba gansxvavebas arsebiT saxelsa da zedsarTavs Soris, igi

xSirad formalur xasiaTs atarebs, vinaidan praqtikulad, xSirad

fiqsirdeba zedsarTaviT arsebiTi saxelis gadmocemis faqtebi.

$ 4. arsebiTi saxeli

arsebiT saxelTa struqturaSi momxdaria zogierTi cvlileba,

rac, umTavresad, ganpirobebulia fonetikuri TaviseburebebiT.

amis Sedegad, kad-is saxelTa modelebi yovelTvis ar

Seesatyviseba maT saliteraturo paralelebs. ZiriTadad

gamoiyofa Semdegi tipebi:

1. C1VC2C3

aRniSnuli modeli aerTianebs qveklasebs:

a) C1 u C2C3

b) C1 a C2C3

g) C1 i C2C3

d) C1 e C2C3

magaliTebi: a) Õubz “puri”; b) waÕt “dro”; g) bint “gogona”; d)

kezb “tyuili”.

2. C1VC2VC3

aq warmodgenilia Semdegi qveklasebi:

a) C1 aC2 aC3 b) C1 iC2 aC3 g) C1 eC2 aC3 d) C1 a C2 i C3

e) C1 i C2 i C3

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v) C1 u C2 u C3

magaliTebi: a) faras “cxeni”; b) Óizar “stafilo”; g)÷enab

“yurZeni”; d) waÓi÷ “tkivili”; e)gidir “qvabi”; v) guãun “bamba”.

3. C1VC2V:C3

es modeli Semdeg qveklasebs moicavs:

a) C1 aC2 ÁC3 b) C1 aC2 × C3

g) C1 aC2 æC3 d) C1 aC2 ÝC3 e) C1 aC2 ÎC3 v) C1 iC2 × C3

z) C1 iC2 ÁC3 T) C1 iC2 ÝC3 i) C1 uC2 æC3 k) C1 oC2 ÝC3 magaliTebi:

a) baÔÁr “didi mdinare” < baÔr arab. “zRva”; b) rab×Ô “gazafxuli”;

g) Õaræf “cxvari”; d) ãa‘Ým “saWmeli”, “produqti”; e) ãahÎn “fqvili”

; v) dih×n “karaqi”; z) âiÓÁr “xe”; T) libÝt “qveSagebi”; i) Óufær “Wa”; k)

bodÝm “nuSis guli”.

4. C1V:C2VC3

a) C1 ÁC2 iC3 b) C1 ÝC2 eC3 magaliTebi: a) bÁgir “xari”; b) bÝãen “muceli”.

83


5. C1VC2VC3V:n

am jgufSi gaerTianebulia masdarebi:

a) C1 aC2 aC3Án b) C1 iC2 iC3Án magaliTebi:

“daweva”.

a) rakabÁn “amxedreba”; b) liÔiqÁn “miRweva”,

6. C1VC2C2V:C3

am tipis saxelebSi gaormagebulia meore Zireuli Tanxmovani:

a) C1 iC2C2 ÁC3 b) C1 aC2C2 æC3 g) C1 uC2C2 ÁC3 magaliTebi: a) libbÁt “noxi”; b) Õarræf “cxvari”; g) tuffÁÔ “vaSli”.

7. C1VC2C2V

a) C1aC2C2a

b) C1uC2C2a

magaliTebi: a) kanna “patarZali”; b) umma “deda”.

8. C1VC2V

a) C1aC2e

b) C1iC2a

magaliTebi: a) sabe “biWi”; b) Óila “cikani”.

9. C1V:C2

a) C1ÁC2

b) C1ÝC2

84


g) C1æC2

d) C1ÎC2

e) C1×C2

magaliTebi: a) nÁb “moxuci”; b) rÝz “Tavi”; g) hæz “gube”; bæl

“Sardi”; d) bÎt “saxli”; e) b×t “Rvino”.

10. C1V:C2V

a) C1ÝC2 a

b) C1ÁC2 a

g) C1ÎC2 a

magaliTebi: a) dÝla “qveyana”; b) wÁÉa “saxe”; g) tÎra “qaTami”.

11. C1VC2C3V

a) C1eC2C3a

b) C1iC2C3a

g) C1uC2C3a

magaliTebi: a) meÔna “saqmianoba”; b) Õizma “saqme”; g) Ôunãa

“qeri”.

12. C1VC2VC3V

C1iC2iC3a

magaliTi: liÔiya “wveri”.

13. C1VC2C3VC4

a) C1aC2C3aC4

b) C1uC2C3uC4

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g) C1aC2C3uC4

magaliTebi: a) ÓanÓal “Cxubi”; b) bulbul “bulbuli”; g) sanduk

“skivri”.

14. maC1C2VC3

maC1C2iC3

magaliTebi: maÒrib “dasavleTi”; maâriq “aRmosavleTi”.

15. CVC

a) C1aC2

b) C1uC2

magaliTebi: a) gap “sityva”; b) Õum “WurWeli”.

16. VCC

a) aCC

b) uCC

g) iCC

magaliTebi: a) alf “aTasi”; b) uÔt “da”; d) iÓl “fexi”.

17. VC

aC

magaliTi: aÔ “Zma”

18. V:C

i:C

magaliTi: ×n “Tvali”

19. VCCV

iCCa

magaliTi: ibra “nemsi”

20. VC1C2V:C3

a) iC1C2a:C3

b) iC1C2o:C3

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magaliTebi: a) ilÔÁf

“saxedari”.

“gadasafarebeli”, “sabani”; b) iÔmÝr

$ 5. zedsarTavi saxeli

1. feris aRmniSvneli zedsarTavi saxelebi ZiriTadad Semdegi

tipisaa: aCCac mamr. da CaCCa md. magaliTebi: azra÷ “cisferi”,

aswad “Savi” mamr.; hamra “wiTeli”, sawda “Savi”, safra “yviTeli”

md.

2. gavrcelebulia C1VC2C3V:n Semdegi variantebis saxiT:

a) C1aC2C3Án

b) C1oC2C3Ýn

magaliTebi: a) âab‘Án “maZRari”; b) Óow‘Ýn “mSieri”.

3. gamoiyofa Semdegi modelebi:

I. C1VC2V:C3

II. C1V:C2

III. C1VC2V

pirveli modelis variantebia:

a) C1aC2×C3 > C1C2×C3

b) C1iC2×C3 > C1C2×C3

magaliTebi: a) zaÒ×r > zÒ×r “patara”; b) kiv×r > kb×r “didi”.

meore da mesame tipis modelebis magaliTebia: II. zÎn “kargi”; III.

Ôulu “tkbili”. Tvisobriobis aRmniSvnel zedsarTav saxelebTan

erTad kad-Si gamoiyofa sufiqsaciis gziT nawarmoebi

zedsarTavebi: raml× “qviSiani”, Òann× “mdidari”. komparativi

gadmoicema sityviT - ÓædÞ < arab. Óiddan “Zalian”, romelic win

uZRvis zedsarTavs: ÓædÞ kiv×r “ufro didi”, ÓædÞ zÒ×r “ufro

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patara”. iSviaTad gvxvdeba konstruqcia C1VC2V:C3+mÙnu

komparativis gamosaxatavad: kiv×r mÙnu “ufro didi”. es movlena

gamoxatavs dialeqtSi analitizmis tendencias.

$ 6. sqesis kategoria

1. saxelTa sqesi kad-Si ganisazRvreba ori diferencialuri

niSniT: mdedrobiTi-aramdedrobiTi. md. sqesi markirebulia, xolo

mamrobiTi – ara. md. sqesis morfologiuri maCvenebeli kad-Si aris

a da î: na‘Óa “cxvari”, naÓma “varskvlavi”.

kad-Si gamoiyofa mdedrobiTobis aRmniSvneli sityvebi,

romlebic ar arian aRWurvilni morfologiuri markerebiT,

magram ganekuTvnebian md. sqess: bint “asuli”, um “deda”, kan

“patarZali”.

calke jgufdeba bunebis ZalTa da adamianis sxeulis wyvili

nawilebis gamomxatveli sityvebi: nÁr “cecxli”, r×Ô “qari”, gamar

“mTvare”, ÷in “Tvali”, haliq “bage”, izn “yuri”. es sityvebi

ganekuTvnebian md. sqess.

aRsaniSnavia, rom zogierTi sityva, romelsac klasikur

arabulSi mdedrobiTobis aRmniSvneli morfologiuri niSani ar

gaaCnia, kad-Si iZens aseT markers: âamsa < kl. arab. âamsun, waÉî

“saxe” < kl. arab. waÓhun.

mamr. sqesis sityvebi, romlebic saliteraturo arabulSi

bolovdebian t-ze, kad-Si xSirad md. sqess gamoxataven: zÎt “zeTi”,

darbÎt “karebi”. daboloeba t am SemTxvevaSi gagebulia, rogorc

mdedrobiTis maCvenebeli.

uzbekuri da tajikuri enebis gavlenis Sedegad zogierTi mamr.

sqesis saxeli kad-Si md. sqesis xdeba da piriqiT, zogi sityva,

romelic klasikur arabulSi md. sqess miekuTvneba, kad-Si

mamrobiTad gvevlineba.

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$ 7. ricxvis kategoria

kad-Si, klasikuri arabuli enisagan gansxvavebiT, gvaqvs ori

ricxvi: mxoloobiTi da mravlobiTi. orobiTi ricxvis kvali

SemorCenilia, ZiriTadad, sxeulis wyvili nawilebis aRmniSvnel

sityvebSi: ‘einÎn > ÷inÎn“ori Tvali”, iÓlÎn “ori fexi”. aRniSnuli

faqti, rogorc zemoT aRvniSneT, gamoxatavs saerTo arabul

dialeqtologiur movlenas. orobiTi ricxvis gamoxatvis funqcia

kad-Si mravlobiT ricxvs akisria.

mxoloobiTi ricxvis saxelTa ZiriTadi struqturuli

modelebi mocemulia zemoT.

mravlobiTi ricxvi gvaqvs sami saxis: 1. swori, 2. msxvreuli, 3.

ormagi mravlobiTi. swori mravlobiTi iwarmoeba mamr. sqesis

saxelebSi in-sufiqsis, xolo md. sqesis saxelebSi Át bolosarTis

saSualebiT: faras×n “cxenebi”, na‘ÓÁt “cxvrebi”.

iSviaTad, mravlobiTi ricxvi iwarmoeba m-Ti: Ôamra “fuli”

“oqro”, ÔamrayÁm “fulebi”, “oqroebi”. aRniSnuli movlena

sayuradReboa zogadsemituri TvalsazrisiT. mravlobiTis

warmoeba m sufiqsiT SesaZloa asaxavdes uZveles viTarebas. ar

aris gamoricxuli misi mogvianebiT ganviTareba kad-Si.

msxvreuli mr.-is gavrcelebis areali TandaTan viwrovdeba da

gamodis xmarebidan. amJamad fiqsirdeba aseTi tipis mr.-is

funqcionirebis mxolod erTeuli SemTxvevebi: imãÁr “wvimebi”.

dialeqtSi TandaTan ikafavs gzas da mkvidrdeba mr. r-is

mawarmoebeli Át sufiqsi, romelic, gansxvavebiT klasikuri

arabuli enisagan, kad-Si mravlobiT ricxvs awarmoebs orive

sqesis saxelebTan: kalbÁt “ZaRlebi”, ÕubzÁt “purebi”.

ormagi mravlobiTiT nawarmoeb saxelebSi mravlobiTi

ricxvis formas da erTvis Át sufiqsi: faras×nÁt “cxenebi”, imãÁrÁt

“wvimebi”. savaraudoa, rom Át sufiqsi axlo momavalSi mr. r-is

erTaderTi mawarmoebeli iqneba kad-Si orive sqesis saxelTaTvis.

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$ 8. statusi

ganusazRvrelobis markerebi kad-Si TiTqmis nuls utoldeba.

es gamowveulia dialeqtSi Tenvinis da brunvis niSanTa moSliT.

aRniSnuli statusi kad-Si gadmoicema ganusazRvrelobis

gamomxatveli ricxviTi saxeliT fad - “erTi” (< arab. fardun

“erTi”).

zogjer arsebiT saxelTan gvxvdeba ganusazRvrelobis markeri

in. ZiriTadad igi fiqsirdeba sazRvrulTan sintaqsur

konstruqciaSi. aseT SemTxvevaSi, zedsarTavi yovelTvis fuZis

saxiT aris warmodgenili: Ôoiã×n kb×r “didi saxli”, ib÷×rin obyaz

“TeTri aqlemi”.

ganusazRvreli – fad kad-Si ismeba saxelis win da eTanxmeba mas:

fad walad “erTi /mavani/ biWi”; fadhate(


a) pirveli aTeuli

sqesSi cvalebadoba axasiaTebs mxolod erTs da ors: fadhatfadhate,

isnÎn-isnÎna. samidan aTamde ricxviTi saxelebi sqesis

mixedviT ar icvlebian.

erTidan oTxis CaTvliT ixmareba mxolod arabuli

saxelwodebebi, xuTidan Svidamde gvaqvs paraleluri arabultajikuri

formebi, Svidis zemoT, aTamde ki mxolod tajikuri. aTi

aRiniSneba arabuli ‘aâara-Ti:

1 _ fadhat/fadhate 6 _ sitta//âiâ

2 _ isnÎn/ isnÎna 7 _ sab‘a//haft

3 _ salÁs 8 _ haât

4 _ öorba 9 _ næh

5 _ Õamsa//panÓ 10 _ ÷aâara

fadhat _ “erTi” miRebulia ori sityvis SerwymiT fad


) meore aTeuli

meore aTeulis ricxviT saxelTa struqtura Semdegnairia: aTi

+ erTeulis aRmniSvneli ricxviTi saxeli. es movlena unda

CaiTvalos kad-Si ricxviTi saxelebis erT-erT ZiriTad

morfologiur Taviseburebad:

11. ‘aâara fadhat//‘aâar waÔda 16. ‘aâara sitta//‘aâara âiâ

12.‘aâar isnÎn 17. ‘aâara sab‘a//‘aâar haft

13. ‘aâara salÁs 18. ‘aâara haât

14. ‘aâar orba 19. ‘aâaranæh

15. ‘aâara Õamsa//‘aâara panÓ

am rigis ricxviTi saxelebidan paraleluri formebi

axasiaTebs TerTmets, TxuTmets, Teqvsmets da Cvidmets. Tu

erTeulis aRmniSvneli ricxviTi saxeli TanxmovniT iwyeba,

winamavali aTis (‘aâara) bolokiduri a SenarCunebulia. TormetSi

da ToTxmetSi aRniSnuli a ikargeba. amas ganapirobebs hamzis

Cavardnis Sedegad am Sedgenili ricxviTi saxelis meore wevris

Tavkidurxmovniani pozicia.

meore aTeulis ricxviT saxelTa pozicia aris prenominaluri.

am rigis ricxviTi saxeli win uswrebs aRsaricxs, romelic

imyofeba mx. r.-Si:

‘aâara fadhat walad “TerTmeti biWi”

‘aâara salÁs hÝiã “cameti saxli”

g) aTeulebi

aTeulebis struqtura gansxvavdeba saliteraturo arabuli

enisagan:

20 _ ‘aâr×n 60 – sitta ‘aârÁt//âiâ ‘aârÁt

30 – salÁs ‘aârÁt 70 – sab’a ‘aârÁt//haft ‘aârÁt

40 – öorba ‘aârÁt 80 – haât ‘aârÁt

50 – Õamsa ‘aârÁt//panÓ ‘aârÁt 90 – næh ‘aârÁt

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aq mxolod oci (‘aâr×n) iCens msgavsebas saliteraturo

formasTan. rac Seexeba danarCenebs, isini iwarmoebian Semdegi

wesiT: erTeuli + aTeuli mravlobiT ricxvSi. rogorc

mosalodneli iyo, ormocdaaTSi, samocsa da samocdaaTSi

daculia paraleluri formebi.

aTeulTa da erTeulTa kombinaciebi kad-Si SesaZleblobas

iZleva gamoiyos ori jgufi:

a) 20-dan 29-mde

b) 31-dan 99-mde

pirvel jgufSi moqmedebs saliteraturo arabuli enis wesi. aq

gvaqvs Semdegi Tanmimdevroba: erTeuli + oceuli:

fadhat ‘aâr×n “ocdaerTi”

isnÎn ‘aâr×n “ocdaori”

meore jgufi xasiaTdeba Semdegi struqturiT: aTeuli +

erTeuli:

salÁs ‘aârÁt fadhat walad “ocdaTerTmeti biWi”

orba ‘aârÁt fadhat âaÓar “ormocdaerTi xe”

aTeulTa pozicia kad-Si prenominaluria. aRsaricxi,

ZiriTadad, dgas mr. r.-Si:

‘aâr×n na‘ÓÁt “oci cxvari”

salÁs ‘aârÁt motgowÁt “ocdaaTi Zroxa”

gvxvdeba SemTxvevebi, roca aRsaricxi imyofeba mx. r.-Si:

orba ‘aârÁt faras “ormoci cxeni”

salÁs ‘aârÁt bÁgir “ormocdaaTi xari”

d) aseulebi

aseulebis struqtura aseTia: erTeuli + aseuli. zogjer

erTeulis aseulTan gadabmiT warmoTqmis dros, maT Sua Cndeba

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ultramokle xmovani. es exeba Tanxmovanze daboloebul

erTeulis aRmniSvnel ricxviT saxelebs.

aseulebi kad-Si srulad Semdegi saxiT warmogvidgeba:

100 – m×o 600 – sittî m×o//âiâî m×o

200 – ‘isnÎn m×o 700 – sab’a m×o//haftî m×o

300 – salÁsi m×o 800 – haâtî m×o

400 – orba m×o 900 – nuhî m×o

500 – Õamsa m×o//panÓî m×o

iSviaTad, 200 –is aRsaniSnavad gvxvdeba forma miotÎn, rac

dialeqtSi TiTqmis ar funqcionirebs da amitom zemomoyvanil

siaSi ar SevitaneT. am formis xmarebidan gamosvla aixsneba

danarCen aseulTa warmoebis analogiisadmi midrekilebiT, rac

ganpirobebulia dialeqtSi orobiTi ricxvis dakargviT.

ricxviT saxelTa am rigSi, iseve rogorc aTeulebSi, xuTasi,

eqvsasi da Svidasi gadmoicema paraleluri arabul-tajikuri

formebiT.

aseulis pozicia kad-Si prenominaluria da aRsaricxi masTanac

ZiriTadad, mr. r.-Si, xolo iSviaTad mx. r.-Si dgas:

salÁsm×o ib‘×rÁt “samasi aqlemi”

m×o leilÁt “asi Rame”

öorbam×o faras “oTxasi cxeni”

asis zemoT ricxviTi saxelebi xasiaTdebian Semdegi

struqturiT:

a) aseuli + erTeuli + aTeuli.

b) aseuli + aTeuli + erTeuli.

magaliTebi:

a) m×o u fadhat ÷aâr×n “asocdaerTi”

orba m×o u snÎn ÷aârin “oTxasocdaori”

b) m×o u salÁs ÷aârÁt “asocdaaTi”

Õamsim×o haât aârÁt næh “xuTasoTxmocdacxra”

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e) aTaseulebi

aTaseulebs ricxviT saxelebSi ukaviaT bolokiduri pozicia.

damaxasiaTebelia, rom nebismier ricxviT saxelTan kombinaciis

dros isini mx. r.-Si ixmareba:

1000 – alf//hazÝr 6000 – sitta alf//âiâ alf

2000 – öisnÎn alf 7000 – sab’a alf//haft alf

3000 – salÁs alf 8000 – haât alf

4000 – öorba alf 9000 – næh alf

5000 – Õamsa alf//panÓ alf

arabuli alf–is “aTasi” paralelurad, iSviaTad ixmareba

tajikuri hazÝr. aseT dros xdeba ubralo Canacvleba, rac ricxviT

saxelSi ar iwvevs raime funqcionalur cvlilebas:

alf tanga//hazÝr tanga “aTasi tanga” *

alf walad//hazÝr walad “aTasi biWi”

aRsaniSnavia agreTve Semdegi aTaseulebi:

11000 – ‘aâara fadhat alf

20000 – ‘aâr×n alf

21000 – fadhat ‘aâr×n alf

30000 – salÁs ‘aârÁt alf

31000 – salÁs ‘aârÁt fadhat alf

100000 - m×o alf

101000 - m×o fadhat alf

1000000 – miliun

___________________________________

*.tanga vercxlis fulia

95


aTaseulis pozicia kad-Si prenominaluria. aRsaricxi SeiZleba

idges rogorc mx. r.-Si, ise mr. r.-Si:

alf kitÁb “aTasi wigni”

alf naÓma “aTasi varskvlavi”

alf leil “aTasi Rame”

salÁs alf ÕubzÁt “sami aTasi puri”

v) rigobiTi ricxviTi saxeli

kad-Si rigobiT ricxviT saxelTa funqcionireba SedarebiT

iSviaTia. isini warmodgenili arian mxolod erTidan aTamde. aTis

zemoT rigobiToba gadmoicema raodenobiTi ricxviTi saxelebiT.

aseTi tendencia gamartivebisaken damaxasiaTebelia ara marto

kad-isaTvis:

awal//awalÁni pirveli sÁtit meeqvse

snÎØn meore sÝbi meSvide

sÁlis /sÝlis mesame hÁâit merve

rÝbi meoTxe næh mecxre

ÕÝmis mexuTe ‘Ýâir meaTe

“pirveli” gvxvdeba ori formiT: 1. awal 2. awalÁni. sayuradReboa

“merve” (hÁâit) da”mecxre” (næh). aqedan “merve” (hÁâit) arabizirebuli

formaa tajikuri ricxviTi saxelisa – hÁât, xolo “mecxre” (næh)

ar ganicdis araviTar cvlilebas da ixmareba raodenobiTi

ricxviTi saxelis formiT.

rigobiT ricxviT saxelebSi ar dasturdeba arabul-tajikuri

paraleluri formebi, romelTa xmarebas, rogorc zemoT iyo

naCvenebi, sistematuri xasiaTi aqvs raodenobiT ricxviT

saxelebSi.

kad-Si fiqsirdeba md. sqesis rigobiTi ricxviTi saxelebic:

æli pirveli sÁtitî meeqvse

snÎyni meore sÝbiyî meSvide

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sÁlisî mesame hÁâitî merve

rÝbiyî meoTxe næhi mecxre

ÕÝmisî mexuTe ‘Ýâirî meaTe

sqesSi dapirispireba mkveTrad gamoxatuli ar aris. ZiriTadad,

dialeqtSi funqcionirebs mamrobiTi sqesis rigobiTi ricxviTi

saxelebi. isini xSirad ikaveben mdedrobiTi ricxviTi saxelebis

adgils. damaxasiaTebelia raodenobiTi ricxviTi saxelebiT

rigobiTobis gamoxatva.

$ 10. nacvalsaxeli

kad-Si gamoiyofa Semdegi tipis nacvalsaxelebi: a) piris, b)

CvenebiTi, g) kiTxviTi, d) uaryofiTi, e) mimarTebiTi.

piris nacvalsaxeli kad-Si, iseve rogorc saliteraturo

arabul enaSi ori saxisaa:

a) damoukidebeli, b) sufiqsaluri

a) damoukidebeli piris nacvalsaxeli:

piri sqesi ricxvi

III mamr. mx. haw//zÝk h-//z- -aw//-Ý -

md. mx. hai//z×ka h-//z- -ai//-× -

mamr. mr. ziklÝn z - -Ýn

ziklÝnÁt z - -ÝnÁt

zÝkÁt z - -Át

md. mr. ziklÆnna z - -Ænna

II mamr. mx. inta int -a -

md. mx. inti int -i -

mamr. mr. intæ int - æ

intuwÁt int - -uwÁt

md. mr. intÙnna int - -Ùnna

I mx. anÁ anÁ - -

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mr. naÔna naÔn - -a

naÔnÁt naÔn - -Át

bolokidur morfemebs aqvT alternantebi: (a)-s alternantebia

(Î) da (î). i-s alternantad xSirad gvevlineba (iî), xolo (u)-s

enacvleba (Ýw). magaliTebi:

intî zarabt “Sen (mamr., mx. r.) daartyi”

intî ma tâæf “Sen (mamr., mx. r.) ar giyvars”

inti wÎn inti? “Sen (md., mx. r.) sada xar?”

intÝw kulæ “Tqven (mamr. mr. r.) WameT”

rogorc zemoT moyvanili cxrilidan Cans, piris

nacvalsaxelebisaTvis kad-Si damaxasiaTebelia paraleluri

formebis funqcionireba. mag., III pirSi mx. r-Si aseTi formebia:

haw//zÝk mamr. sqesSi da hai//z×ka md.-Si. haw da hai-s xmarebis

areali Zalian SezRudulia. isini gvxvdebian mxolod uaryofiT

nawilak mÁ–sTan erTad: mÁ haw, mÁ hai.

mesame pirSi, mr. r-Si, mamr. sqesSi ixmareba erTdroulad sami

forma: ziklÝn, ziklÝnÁt da zÝkÁt. amaTgan ziklÝnÁt nawarmoebia ormagi

mravlobiTiT, xolo zÝkÁt miRebulia Sesabamisi mxolobiTis

formaze mravlobiTobis mawarmoebeli Át sufiqsis darTviT.

pirvel pirSi erTmaneTs enacvlebian nahna//nahnÁt. aRniSnuli

formebis varirebis areali kad-Si Zalze farToa. isini xSirad

enacvlebian erTmaneTs.

amrigad, piris nacvalsaxelTa raodenoba kad-Si,

saliteraturo arabul enasTan SedarebiT, gazrdilia. es

ganasxvavebs mas sxva arabuli dialeqtebisganac.

piris nacvalsaxelebs kad-Si, msgavsad sxva arabuli

dialeqtebisa, ar gaaCniaT orobiTi ricxvi. orobiToba gadmoicema

mr.r.-is nacvalsaxelebiT: âÝØmardonkæl aÕu Óerakæl, ziklÝn arabiya

idriya – “Soimardonkuli aris jerakulis Zma, maT (Soimardokulma

da jerakulma) arabuli ician”.

damoukidebeli piris nacvalsaxelebiT xSirad gadmoicema

intensivi, rac ganpirobebulia, erTis mxvriv, maTi Sinaarsoblivi

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funqciiT da, meores mxriv, am nacvalsaxelebis izolirebuli,

damoukidebeli struqturiT:

anÁ mÁ adri, inta tuktub “me ar vici (igulisxmeba wera), Sen

dawere!”

iâ qatalt inti ?! “rad mokali Sen?!”

sqesis kategoria srulad aris warmodgenili meore da mesame

piris orive ricxvSi. es movlena damaxasiaTebelia saliteraturo

arabuli enisaTvis da naklebad gvxvdeba dialeqtebSi.

b) nacvalsaxelovani sufiqsebi

piri sqesi ricxvi

III mamr. mx. -a (h) (h) - -

md. mx. -a Ø -a -

mamr. mr. -hum//um -h - um

md. mr. -hin -h - in

II mamr. mx. -k, ak -k a- -

md. mx. ik -k -i -

mamr. mr. -kum -k - um

md. mr. kÙnna -k - Ùnna

I mx. -i, -ni -i, -ni Ø -

mr. -na -n - -a

nacvalsaxelovani sufiqsebi zmnebSi miuTiTeben obieqts. isini,

rogorc es zemoTmoyvanili cxrilidan Cans, gamoxataven pirs,

sqess da ricxvs, kerZod, maTi saSualebiT gadmoicema sami piri,

ori sqesi da erTi ricxvi (mravlobiTi).

laringali h sruliad dakargulia mx. r.-is mesame piris md.-Si,

amave ricxvis mamrobiTSi igi dasturdeba, magram aris dakargvis

SemTxvevebi. rac Seexeba mravlobiT ricxvs, aq md. sqesSi h

warmodgenilia, xolo mamr.-Si gvxvdeba paraleluri hum//um

sufiqsiani formebi:

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kitÝbah “misi (mamr.) wigni”

iÓla “misi (mamr.) fexi”

mind×la “misi (md.) cxvirsaxoci”

bÎthum “maTi (mamr.) saxli”

Ýrzum “maTi (mamr.) miwa”

anzÁthin “maTi (mamr.) Txebi”

g) CvenebiTi nacvalsaxeli

CvenebiTi nacvalsaxeli kad-Si momdinareobs saliteraturo

arabulSi arsebuli hÁËa - dan:

hÁza//had “es (mamr.)”

hÁzi “es (md.)”

hÁlÁn “isini”

hazlÝn “eseni”

CvenebiTi nacvalsaxelebisaTvis damaxasiaTebelia ricxvisa da

sqesis kategoria. mr. r.-Si sqesis kategoria gamoxatuli ar aris,

magram aq Tavs iCens paraleluri forma hazlÝn//hamazlÝn

romelTagan meore intensivs gamoxatavs da ixmareba mniSvnelobis

gasaZliereblad: hamazlÝn qatalæ! “maT mokles!”

d) kiTxviTi da uaryofiTi nacvalsaxelebi

kiTxviTi nacvalsaxelebia min “vin” da eâ “ra”. kiTxviT

nacvalsaxelebs kaSkadariul dialeqtSi moeZebnebaT aSkara

paralelebi sxva arabul dialeqtebSi.

uaryofiTi nacvalsaxeli warmodgenilia kompozitis saxiT

ma+ nacvalsaxelovani sufiqsi:

mÁ-ni Óo‘Ýn “ar var mSieri”

mÁ-hum iúÔÝÖã “ar arian saxlSi”

100


gvxvdeba agreTve forma mÁhad < mÁ ÆÔad“aravin”: mÁhad iÓÁ

“aravin movida”

e) mimarTebiTi nacvalsaxeli

mimarTebiTi nacvalsaxelis funqcia kad-Si akisria li-s da ki-s.

pirveli maTgani arabuli warmoSobisaa. dialeqtSi gvxvdeba

iSviaTad: waldÁn iúzÒ×r rÁh liúÉÝi ÓÁb “patara biWi wavida, romelmac

(adre) Cai moitana”.

ki – iranuli warmoSobis nawilakia. igi kad-Si produqtiulia.

misi saSualebiT xorcieldeba mimarTebiTi kavSiri qvewyobili

winadadebis sintaqsur erTeulebs Soris:

i÷Ýrifæn-ki min ×d hÁd walad âugl z×n iÓi – “maT ician, rom es biWi

xelmarjvea (sityvasityviT: misi xelidan kargi saqme gamodis)”.

amrigad, ricxviTi saxeli da nacvalsaxeli kaSkadariul

dialeqtSi, rig SemTxvevebSi, xasiaTdebian originaluri

formebiT. maTi funqcionireba saliteraturo arabuli enisagan

gansxvavebul suraTs qmnis da exmaureba movlenebs, romlebic

ZiriTadad beduinebis metyvelebisaTvis aris damaxasiaTebeli.

$ 11. zmna

zmnuri sistema agebulia semitur enaTa verbaluri sistemis

funqcionirebis principis mixedviT. gamoiyofa martivi da

nawarmoebi Temebi: perfeqtivi, imperfeqtivi, piris, ricxvisa da

sqesis kategoriebiT gamoxatuli uRlebis mkafio qvesistema,

swori, geminirebuli, hamziani da susti zmnebi, TxrobiTi,

kavSirebiTi da pirobiTi kilo, imperativi. aRniSnul sakiTxebTan

erTad ganxilulia nacvalsaxelovani da sxvadasxva tipis

afiqsaluri markerebi.

101


a) swori zmna

perfeqtivi

perfeqtivSi samTanxmovniani zmnis ori tipi gamoiyofa:

1. CaCaC; 2. CiCiC. gavrcelebis maqsimaluri sixSire

axasiaTebs pirvel tips. meore gvxvdeba SedarebiT iSviaTad.

qvemoT mocemulia orive zmnuri formis sruli paradigma:

I. katab “dawera”

mx.r. piri sqesi ricxvi

III mamr. katab -Ø - -

md. katab-et -Ø -et -

II mamr. katab- t -t - -

md. katab-ti -t -i -

I katab-t -t - -

mr.r.

III mamr. katab-aw - aw - - aw

katab-awÁt - awÁt - - awÁt

md. katab-Ænna -Ænna - -Ænna

II mamr. katab-tæ -t - - æ

katab-tuwÁt -t - -uwÁt

md. katab-tÙnna -t - -Ùnna

I katab-na -n - - a

II liÔig “miaRwia”

mx. r. piri sqesi ricxvi

III mamr. liÔig - Ø - -

md. liÔig-et - Ø - et -

II mamr. liÔig-t - t - -

102


md. liÔig-ti - t - i -

I liÔig-t - t - -

mr. r.

III mamr. liÔig-aw - aw - -aw

liÔig-awÁt - awÁt - -awÁt

md. liÔig-Ðnna - Ðnna - -Ðnna

II mamr. liÔig-tæ - t - -æ

liÔig-tuwÁt - t - -uwÁt

md. liÔig-tÙnna - t - -Ùnna

I liÔig-na - n - -a

orobiTi ricxvi, rogorc zmnaSi, aseve saxelSi warmodgenili

ar aris. am mxriv kad-Si gamoxatulia saerTo dialeqtologiuri

movlena. mx. r-Si, me-2 piris mamr-Si da pirvel pirSi, gvaqvs erTi

omonimuri forma: zaraÔt “Sen daTese”, zarabt “Sen daartyi” // zaraÔt

“me davTese”, zarabt “me davartyi”. piris gamosaxatavad

nacvalsaxelis moxmoba xdeba saWiro: anÁ zarabt “me davartyi”, inta

zarabt “Sen daartyi”. es ar eTanxmeba piris nacvalsaxelTa

funqcionirebis wess saliteraturo arabul enaSi.

me-3 da me-2 pirebis mamr-Si, mr. r-Si fiqsirdeba paraleluri

formebi. esenia e. w. ormagi mravlobiTiT nawarmoebi formebi:

katabaw//katabawÁt “maT daweres”, katabtæ//katabtuwÁt “Tqven

dawereT”.

sufiqsebs – et, ti, tÙnna gaaCniaT Semdegi alomorfebi: at, ît, tî,

tînna. gansxvaveba martivi Temis or tips Soris, Zireul

TanxmovanTa gaxmovnebis garda, gamoixateba zogierTi sufiqsis

xmovnis daviwroebaSic: âarabat “dalia”, Ôilimît “naxa sizmrad”,

“daesizmra”. es movlena aixsneba Zireul xmovanTa fonetikuri

gavleniT.

103


imperfeqtivi

imperfeqtivSi pirveli Zireuli xmovani amovardnilia. meore

Zireuli Tanxmovani inversiul damokidebulebaSia perfeqtis

Zireul xmovanTan. igi viwroa im SemTxvevaSi, Tu perfeqtivSi

maxasiaTebeli xmovani aris Ria da piriqiT - Riaa, Tu sruli

aspeqtis zmnis xmovani viwroa. rogorc aRiniSna, meore SemTxveva

raodenobrivad iSviaTia, xolo Tvisobrivad, inversiuli

damokidebuleba maxasiaTebel xmovnebs Soris yvelgan daculia.

es movlena morfologiuri alternaciis amsaxvelia da gamoxatavs

ablauts. igi dialeqtSi funqcionirebs Sinagani fleqsiis saxiT.

qvemoT mogvyavs orive tipis sruli paradigma:

I tipi

TxrobiTi kilo

mx. r. piri sqesi ricxvi

III mamr. iuktub iu - -

md. tuktub tu - -

II mamr. tuktub tu - -

md. tuktub×n tu -×n -

I aktub a - -

mr. r. piri sqesi ricxvi

III mamr. iuktubæn iu - -æn

iuktubunÁt iu - -unÁt

md. iuktubÙnna iu - -Ùnna

II mamr. tuktubæn tu - -æn

tuktubunÁt tu - -unÁt

md. tuktubÙnna tu - -Ùnna

I nuktub nu - -

104


II tipi

mx. r. piri sqesi ricxvi

III mamr. ilÔag i - -

md. tilÔag ti- - t -

II mamr. tilÔag ti- - -

md tilÔag×n ti- - ×n -

I alÔag a- - -

mr. r.

III mamr. ilÔagæn i- - -æn

ilÔagunÁt i- - -unÁt

md. ilÔagÙnna i- - -Ùnna

II mamr. tilÔagæn ti- - -æn

tilÔagunÁt ti- - -unÁt

md. tilÔagÙnna ti- - -Ùnna

I nalÔag na- - -

orive tipis zmnebSi, me-3 da me-2 piris mr. r-Si, iseve, rogorc

perfeqtSi, aqac damaxasiaTebelia paraleluri formebi: iuktubæn, tuktubæn//iuktubunÁt, tuktubunÁt; ilÔagæn, tilÔagæn//ilÔagunÁt, tilÔagunÁt.

aqve unda aRiniSnos, rom TxrobiT kiloSi ormagi mravlobiTiT

nawarmoebi formebi SedarebiT xSirad gvxvdeba.

zog SemTxvevaSi maxasiaTebeli xmovani imperfeqtivSi ar

Seesatyviseba mis saliteraturo paralels. mag., âarab – iârub.

saliteraturo arabulSi zmnis - âariba maxasiaTebeli xmovani

aris – a. kad-Si igi Secvlilia u-Ti, ix. agreTve labas~ilbis. aq gvaqvs

alternacia a~i nacvlad i~a-s. kad-Si, prefiqsuri warmoebis

mwkrivebSi, m/mi prefiqsiani formebi buxarulisgan gansxvavebiT,

ar dasturdeba. rogorc cnobilia, m/mi, b/bi nawilakiani formebi

aRmosavlur arabul dialeqtebSi XIV saukuneze adre

105


dafiqsirebuli ar aris. igi XIV-XV saukuneebidan gvxvdeba

literaturul ZeglebSi (26, gv.461). kad-Si, imperfeqtSi

prefiqsiani formebi ar ganviTarebula.

imperfeqtivis mawarmoebeli prefiqsebidan da sufiqsebidan

zogierTs aqvs alomorfi. kerZod, 1-li tipis zmnebSi iu-s alomorfia i. igi miRebulia Semdegi gziT: iaktub > i u ktub>iktub.

zogjer Ùnna-s enacvleba ïnna: i u ktubïnna.

Tu zemoTmoyvanili zmnuri formebis paradigmebidan gamovyofT

mawarmoebel afiqsebs, isini cxrilis saxiT Semdegnairad

warmogvidgeba:

perfeqtivi imperfeqtivi

mx. r.

III mamr. - Ø iu - // i

md. -et tu – // ti

II mamr. - t tu - //ti

md. -ti tu - ×n//ti-in

I -t a

mr. r.

III mamr. -aw iu – æn

-awÁt iu – unÁt// i-unÁt

md. - Ænna iu – Ùnna // i – Ùnna

II mamr. - tu tu – æn // ti – æn

- tuwÁt tu – unÁt// ti- unÁt

md. - tÙnna tu - Ùnna // ti-Ùnna

I -na nu - // na

aRniSnul afiqsebs gaaCniaT alternantebi: at ~ ît, ti~ tî, aw ~Ý,

awÁt ~ owÁt, Ænna ~ ïnna, tÙnna ~ tïnna. magaliTebi:

106


âarabat ~âarabît “man dalia / md./”

sakanti~sakantî “Sen cxovrobdi /md./”

daÕalaw~daÕalÝ “isini Semovidnen /mamr./”

ÓalasÆnna~Óalasïnna “isini dasxdnen /md./”

ÒasaltÙnna~Òasaltïnna “Tqven garecxeT /md./”

b) guturaluri TanxmovniT ganpirobebuli zmnis warmoebis

Taviseburebani

kad-Si gamoiyofa zmnebis jgufi, romlisTvisac ar aris

damaxasiaTebeli ablauti. aq Tavmoyrilia umetesad pirveli tipis

zmnebi, romelTa meore an mesame Zireuli Tanxmovani aris

guturali. mag.,

ãala÷~iãla÷ “avida”

na÷an ~in÷am “siamovnebda”

naÓaÔ~inÓaÔ “hqonda warmateba”

daÔar~idÔar “daamarcxa”

karah~ikrah “ejavreboda”, “sZulda”

Óahad~iÓhad “daiRala (SromiT)”

am tipis zmnebi imperfeqtivSi Semdegnairad iuRleba:

mx. r. mr. r.

III mamr. iãla÷ iãla÷æn

iãla÷unÁt

md. tiãla÷ iãla÷Ùnna

II mamr. tiãla÷ tiãla÷æn

tiãla÷unÁt

md. tiãla÷×n tiãla÷Ùnna

I aãla÷ naãla÷

Taviseburebebs avlenen zmnebi, romelTa pirveli Zireuli aris

guturaluri Tanxmovani. aq, imperfeqtivSi, pirvel da meore

107


Zireul Tanxmovans Soris, nacvlad suqunisa, Cndeba xmovani,

xSirad grZeli Ý. amave dros, perfeqtivSi SeiZleba sruliad

daikargos pirveli Zireuli. ZiriTadad es mosdis hamzas. mag.,

haÓam~ihÝÓum “Tavs daesxa”

Ôaraq~iÔÝruq “aanTo”

÷aÓal~i÷ÝÓul “eCqareboda”

Õaza~iÝÕuz “aiRo”

am jgufis zmnis sruli paradigmi imperfeqtivSi Semdegnairad

warmogvidgeba:

mx. r. mr. r.

III mamr. ihÝÓum ihÝÓumæn ihÝÓumunÁt md. ithÝÓum ihÝÓumÙnna II mamr. ithÝÓum ithÝÓumæn ithÝÓumunÁt md. ithÝÓum×n ithÝÓumÙnna I ahÝÓum ahÝÓum

amgvarad, martivi Temis samTanxmovniani zmnis fuZis

struqturuli modeli imperfeqtivSi aris CCVC. afiqsebis

saSualebiT xdeba misi funqcionaluri gaformeba. am formis

zmnisaTvis damaxasiaTebelia ablauti, guturaluri TanxmovnebiT

gamowveuli uRlebis Tavisebureba da orive tipis zmnebSi

mawarmoebel alomorfTa siWarbe. bolo xanebSi kad-Si SesamCnevia

guturaluri TanxmovnebiT gamowveuli wesidan gadaxrebi, rac

enis mkafio gramatikuli sistemis rRvevis maCvenebelia.

obieqtis gamomxatveli nacvalsaxelebiT kad-Si gadmoicema

piri, sqesi da ricxvi. kerZod, sami piri, ori sqesi da erTi ricxvi

(mravlobiTi). mx. r-s markeri ar gaaCnia:

108


mx. r. piri sqesi ricxvi

III mamr. zarab - a(h) -(h) -a- -

md. zaraba - ha - h -a -

II mamr. zarab - ak - k -a- -

md. zarab - ek - k -e- -

I zarabn - ni - n - - -i

mr. r.

III mamr. zarab-hum -h - -um

md. zarab-hin -h - -in

II mamr. zarab-kum -k - -um

md. zarab-kin -k - -in

I zarab-na -n- - -a

aRniSnul nacvalsaxelovan nawilakebs gaaCniaT Semdegi

alomorfebi:

mx.r.

a) II. mamr. /ak/ - /-k/

b) md. /ek/ - /-ik/

mr. r.

g) III. mamr./-hum/ - /-hom/

d) II. mamr. /-kum/ - /kom/

e) I. /-na/ - /-ne/

$ 12. kavSirebiTi kilo

kad-Si kavSirebiTi kilo vlindeba konteqstualurad da

warmoebis mxriv. TxrobiTi kilosagan gansxvavdeba imiT, rom

ormagi sufiqsaluri formebi ar gaaCnia. es wesi vrceldeba orive

tipze:

109


I tipi II tipi

zaman “daayovna”

mx. r.

Ôilim “ocnebobda”

III mamr. iuzmun iÔlam//iÔÝlum

md. tuzmun tiÔlam//itÔÝlum

II mamr. tuzmun tiÔlam//itÔÝlum

md. tuzmun× tiÔlam×//itÔÝlum×

I azmun aÔlam//aÔÝlum

mr. r.

III mamr. iuzmunæ iÔlamæ// iÔÝlumæ

md. iuzmunÙnna iÔlamÙnna//iÔÝlumÙnna

II mamr. tuzmunæ tiÔlamæ//itÔÝlumæ

md. tuzmunÙnna tiÔlamÙnna//itÔÝlumÙnna

I nazmun naÔlam//nuÔÝlum

rogorc mosalodneli iyo, mx. r-is me-2 pirSi, md. sqesSi da mr.

r.-is me-3 da me-2 pirSi moikveca nuni.

magaliTebi: ugæb kokÝÖata iúbÎta Òadaw isæ, iuzmæna(h) “Semdeg

misi Zmebi mis saxlSi wavidnen rom daelodon mas”, awalÁni waÕt

mianÁni ark sawa, iÝlimæ, mîn kis×r gawi ÷Ànda “jer erTmaneTSi

waiCxubes, rom gaegoT, vin ufro Zlieria”.

$ 13. pirobiTi kilo

pirobiTi kilo warmoebis mxriv amJRavnebs imave

Taviseburebebs, rasac kavSirebiTi. aRniSnuli kiloebis fiqsacia

Cvens dialeqtSi unda CaiTvalos mniSvnelovan Taviseburebad.

Tumca aqve unda iTqvas, rom kavSirebiT da pirobiT kiloTa

funqcionireba TandaTan ecema. maTi gamoxatva sul ufro xSirad

ekisreba TxrobiT kilos, romlisTvisac aseTi datvirTva

TandaTan iqceva bunebrivad. pirobiT kiloSi orive tipis zmnis

uRlebis amsaxveli cxrili Semdegnairad warmogvidgeba:

110


mx. r.

I tipi II tipi

rakab – "Sejda" simin - "gasuqda"

III mamr. iurkub isman

md. turkub tisman

II mamr. turkub tisman

md. turkub× tisman×

I arkub asman

mr. r.

III mamr. iurkubæ ismanæ

md. iurkubÙnna ismanÙnna

II mamr. turkubæ tismanæ

md. turkubÙnna tismanÙnna

I nurkub nasman

pirobiTi kilo fiqsirdeba rogorc konteqstualurad, aseve

zogierTi nawilakis Semdegac. Sinaarsoblivad, aRniSnuli

kiloTi SeiZleba gamoixatos survili, akrZalva, Txovna, uaryofa

da sxv.

magaliTebi: agar tuÕruÓ mim orba ÔÝiã, azrubak “Tu gamoxval

oTaxidan, gcem”, agar tÝÕuz, anãak “Tu aiReb, mogcem”. la tÝkul “nu

Wam”.

$ 14. imperativi

imperativis mawarmoebeli sufiqsi kad-Si aris u - pirveli da imeore

tipis zmnebisaTvis. mr. r-Si gvaqvs paraleluri formebi:

111


I tipi II tipi

mx. r.

II mamr. uktub ilÔag

md. uktub× ilÔag×

mr. r.

II mamr. uktubæ//tuktubæ ilhagæ//tilhagæ

md. uktub×n//tuktub×n ilhag×n//tilhag×n

dialeqtSi gvxvdeba brZanebiTis gaqvavebuli formebi: ugæb

nazÁli! gÁl “Semdeg uTxra: Camodi!”, âafa daÕÁli! ma gÁla “Sexeda,

Semodi! - ar uTxra”.

es exeba, ZiriTadad, samTanxmovnian zmnebs. iSviaTad am formiT

gamoixateba cocxali brZanebiTi: ana Ó×t, katÁbi - “me movedi,

dawere”, mæya âarÁbi- “wyali dalie”. aqve unda aRiniSnos, rom

aseTi formebis funqcionirebis sixSire kad-Si SedarebiT

naklebia. ufro produqtiulia brZanebiTis gadmocema – in

daboloebiT: iãla’×n “gamodi!”, iÒsal×n “garecxe!”

magaliTebi:

mæya iârab×n! “dalie wyali!”

libÝt iÒsal×n! “garecxe tansacmeli!”

I tipi

âarab “dalia”, “Sesva”

mx. r.

II mamr. uârub×n

md. uârub×ni

mr. r.

II mamr. uârub×nu

md. uârub×na

112


II tipi

kitif “SeuerTda”

mx. r.

II mamr. iktaf×n

md. iktaf×ni

mr. r.

II mamr. iktaf×nu

iktaf×na

brZanebiTi kilos aseTi warmoeba unda CaiTvalos kad-is erTerT

maxasiaTebel enobriv Taviseburebad.

$ 15. drois kategoria

drois kategoria kad-Si Semdegi jgufebiT gamoixateba:

a) dasrulebuli namyo

b) ganusazRvreli namyo

g) ganusazRvreli awmyo

d) gansazRvruli awmyo

e) ubralo momavali

v) rTuli (dauyovnebeli) momavali

dasrulebuli da ganusazRvreli namyos mniSvnelobiTi

opoziciaa: âarabt –“davlie”, ma âaribni- “ar damilevia”.

ganusazRvreli namyo iwarmoeba aqtiur mimReobaze

nacvalsaxelovani

TurmeobiTs:

mx. r.

sufiqsis darTviT. igi emTxveva qarTul

III mamr. âÁriba(h)

md. âÁribaha

II mamr. âÁribak

113


md. âÁribek

I âÁribni

mr. r.

III mamr. âÁribhum

md. âÁribhin

II mamr. âÁribkum

md. âÁribkin

I âÁribna

ganusazRvreli namyos arseboba kad-Si uzbekuri enis gavlenas

unda mieweros (117, gv. 142. ). zmnuri formebisaTvis Turqul enebSi

damaxasiaTebelia aRniSnuli dro, amitom misi ganviTareba

arabul dialeqtSi xangrZlivi enobrivi kontaqtiT unda aixsnas.

a) ganusazRvreli awmyo

ganusazRvreli awmyo ornairad iwarmoeba: erTi _ Cveulebrivi

imperfeqtiviT da meore - pirveli Temis masdarze sawa damxmare

zmnis darTviT Sesabamis pirSi: ’amalÁn isi – “is saqmianobs

/saerTod/”; ana rakabÁn asi – “me cxens vxedni/saerTod/”.

mx. r.

III mamr. ÷amalÁn isi

md. ÷amalÁn tisi//÷amalÁn itsi

II mamr. ÷amalÁn tisi//÷amalÁn itsi

md. ÷amalÁn tisÚna//÷amalÁn itsÚna

I ÷amalÁn Ási

III mamr.

mr. r.

÷amalÁn isæn

md. ÷amalÁn isÙnna

II mamr. ÷amalÁn tisæn//÷amalÁn itsæn

114


md. ÷amalÁn tisÙnna//÷amalÁn itsÙnna

I ÷amalÁn nasi//÷amalÁn insi

ganusazRvreli awmyo ar gvxvdeba sxva arabul dialeqtebSi. ar

aris igi warmodgenili arc buxarul arabulSi. amgvarad,

ganusazRvreli awmyos aRniSnuli formebi mxolod kad-isaTvis

aris damaxasiaTebeli.

b) gansazRvruli awmyo

gansazRvruli awmyo gangrZobiT dros gadmoscems. igi

daaxloebiT inglisur present continious-s gamoxatavs. aRniSnuli

dro kad-Si iwarmoeba zmnis imperfeqtivis formaze damxmare zmnis

nÁm aqtiuri mimReobis darTviT: iãbuÕ nÁyim “axla acxobs”; nÝkul

nayiminni- “axla vWamT”:

mx. r.

III mamr. iãbuÕ nÁyim//iãbuÕ nayim×nna(h)

md. tuãbuÕ nÁyim//tuãbuÕ nÁyim×nha

II mamr. tuãbuÕ nÁyim// tuãbuÕ nÁyim×nnak

md. tuãbuÕin nÁyim// tuãbuÕin nÁyim×nnek

I aãbuÕ nÁyim//aãbuÕ nÁyim×nni

mr. r.

III mamr. iuãbuÕæn nÁyim//iuãbuÕæn nÁyim×nhum

iuãbuÕunÁt nÁyim//iu md.

ãbuÕunÁt nÁyim×nhum

iuãbuÕÙnna nÁyim//iuãbuÕÙnna nÁyim×nhin

II mamr. tuãbuÕun nÁyim// tuãbuÕun nÁyim×nkum

tuãbuÕunÁt nÁyim//tu md.

ãbuÕunÁt nÁyim×nkum

tuãbuÕÙnna nÁyim//tuãbuÕÙnna nÁyim×nkin

I naãbuÕ nÁyim//naãbuÕ nÁyim×nna

gansazRvruli awmyos arseboba kad-Si aixsneba uzbekuri enis

gavleniT, sadac dadasturebulia aRniSnuli drois formebi (117,

gv. 142).

115


g) momavali dro

ubralo momavali imperfeqtivis formiT gadmoicema. drois

fiqsacia xdeba konteqstis mixedviT: wai sahriya iúbozÝr amid “xval

bazarSi waval”. rac Seexeba rTul, dauyovnebel momavals, igi

iSveliebs ta sufiqss: ta-noÒdi “wavideT”:

III mamr.

mx. r.

ta-iuârub md. ta-tuârub II mamr. ta-tuârub md. ta-tuârub×n I ta-aârub

mr. r.

III mamr. ta-iuârubæn ta-iuârubunÁt md. ta-iuârubÙnna II mamr. ta-tuârubæn ta-tuârubænÁt md. ta-tuârubÙnna I ta-naârub

ta


$ 16. nawarmoebi Temebi 1

nawarmoebi Temebi /II-X/ kad-Si warmodgenilia IX Temis

gamoklebiT. IV Tema, romelic saerTod iSviaTia arabul

dialeqtebSi, kad-Si gvevlineba anãa < a‘ãa-s saxiT /Sdr. siriuli

anãa, erayuli anãa:

bÝi binta ma nãa “beim Tavisi qaliSvili ar misca”;

tÝÓir iúzÝka mÁl kis×r anãa “vaWarma mas bevri qoneba /fuli/

misca”.

kad-Si SeiniSneba grZeli da mokle xmovnebis dapirispirebis

moSlis tendencia. aman rig SemTxvevebSi ganapiroba, erTi mxriv II

da III, xolo meore mxriv, V da VI Temebis formaTa damTxveva.

gvxvdeba dawyvilebuli Temebis leqsikuri mniSvnelobebis erTi

zmnuri formiT gadmocemis SemTxvevebi. maTi ricxvi dialeqtSi

TandaTanobiT matulobs. mag., ‘ayyan - l. “daamkvidra”, 2. “Sexeda”;

takatteb – 1 “rigebad daawyo”. Sdr. am×r timær ‘aâer fadhÁt ‘askar

tekatteb – “Temurlengma TerTmeti aTasi jariskaci rigebad,

kolonebad daawyo”, 2. “hqonda mimowera”. miuxedavad

zemoTqmulisa, dReisaTvis kad-Si fiqsirdeba rogorc II da III,

aseve V da VI TemaTa formebi.

dakvirvebam gviCvena, rom aseT SemTxvevebSi umetesad gvevlineba

formebi, romelTac saliteraturo arabulSi ar gaaCniaT

Sesabamisi Temebi. mag., ‘azzal /II/ “gaaSvela”, fÁÕer /III/ “amayobda”,

tafattam /V/ “gaigo”, ta’Árak /VI/ “Cxubobda”. CamoTvlil formebs,

rogorc aRvniSneT, saliteraturo arabulSi ar daeZebnebaT

Sesabamisad, III, II, VI da V Temebi.

---------------------------------------------------

1. morfologiurad yvelaze martivi I Tema gamoirCeva moqmedebis gadmocemis

mravalferovnebiT. amitom zmnebs am TemaSi ara aqvT mkacrad dadgenili iseTi

semantikuri gansazRvreba, rogorsac vxvdebiT sxva TemebTan. rac Seexeba

saliteraturo arabulSi arsebul sam tips: la2la3a, la2i3a, la2u3a, romlebiTac,

Sesabamisad, gadmoicema moqmedeba, mdgomareoba da Tvisobrioba, kad-Si aseTi

dayofa gamokveTili ar aris.

117


aqve unda aRiniSnos, rom grZeli xmovnebis arsebobas zmnur

formebSi da saerTod, albaT, arabul sityvebSi sxvadasxva

faqtorebi unda ganapirobebdes. vfiqrobT, maT Soris umTavresi

aris maxvili. mxedvelobaSia misaRebi, agreTve, arabul sityvaTa

tradiciuli warmoTqmis SenarCunebis tendencia, romelic

gaucnobiereblad gadaecema Taobidan Taobas.

Temebis saSualebiT kad-Si gadmoicema moqmedebis aqtivoba,

intensivoba, mimarTuleba, konativi, kauzaturoba da vnebiToba.

cxrilis saxiT es Semdegnairad gadmoicema:

mniSvneloba

Tema

I

II

III

V

VI

VII

VIII

X

aqti-

voba

+

+

+

_

_

_

_

_

inten-

sivi

_

+

_

+

_

_

_

_

118

mimarTu-

leba

kona-

tivi

vnebi-

Toba

unda aRiniSnos, rom kad-Si ar xdeba nebismieri zmnidan

saliteraturo arabul enaSi Sesabamisad fiqsirebuli Temis

warmoeba. Temebi ufro metad asaxaven dialeqtSi sityvawarmoebis

da naklebad _ formawarmoqmnis enobriv potencials. aseTi

tendencia damaxasiaTebelia sxva arabuli dialeqtebisTvisac.

swori samTanxmovniani zmnis nawarmoebi Temebis formaTa

paradigmebi kad-Si I da II tips ar ganarCevs. isini Semdegnairad

warmogvidgeba:

_

_

+

_

+

_

_

+

_

_

+

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

+

+

+

+

+

kauza-

tivi

_

+

_

_

_

_

_

_


a) II/III Tema

perfeqtivi: C1aCCaC//CÁCaC

III mamr.

mx. r.

÷abbar "gadaiyvana" bÁdal "Secvala"

md. ÷abbarat bÁdalat

II mamr. ÷abbart bÁdalt

md. ÷abbarti bÁdalti

I ÷abbart bÁdalt

III mamr.

mr. r.

÷abbaraw bÁdalaw

÷abbrawÁt bÁdalawÁt

md. ÷abbarÆnna bÁdalÆnna

II mamr. ÷abbartæ bÁdaltæ

÷abbartuwÁt bÁdaltuwÁt

md. ÷abbartÙnna bÁdaltÙnna

I ÷abbarna bÁdalna

imperfeqtivi: iC1aC2C2iC3

III mamr.

mx. r.

i‘abbir ibÁdil

md. it‘abbir itbÁdil

II mamr. it‘abbir itbÁdil

md. it‘abbir×n itbÁdil×n

I a‘abbir abÁdil

III mamr.

mr. r.

i‘abbiræn ibÁdilæn

i‘abbirunÁt ibÁdilunÁt

119


md. i‘abbirÙnna ibÁdilÙnna

II mamr. it‘abbiræn itbÁdilæn

it‘abbirunÁt itbÁdilunÁt

md. it‘abbirÙnna itbÁdilÙnna

I in‘abbir inbÁdil

b) IV Tema

IV Tema, rogorc ukve aRvniSneT, warmodgenilia mxolod erTi

formis saxiT /anãa/. vinaidan dialeqtSi es zmna produqtiulia,

mogvyavs misi uRlebac.

perfeqtivi

mx. r. mr. r.

III mamr. ’anãa anãaw

anãawÁt

md. ’anãat anãÆnna

II mamr. ‘anãeyã ‘anãeytu

‘anãeytuwÁt

md. ‘anãeyti ‘anãeytÙnna

I ‘anãeyt anãeyna

imperfeqtivi

mx. r. mr. r.

III mamr. yenãi yenãæ

yenãuwÁt

md. tenã× yenãÙnna

II mamr. tenã× tenãæ

tenãuwÁt

120


md. tenã×n tenãÙnna

I anã× nanãi

g) V/VI Tema

taC1aC2C2eC3//taC1ÁC2aC3

perfeqtivi

mx. r.

III mamr. tasallem "miiRo" ta‘Árak "SeebrZola"

md. tasallemat ta‘Árakat

II mamr. tasallemt ta‘Árakt

md. tasallemti ta‘Árakti

I tasallemt ta‘Árakt

mr. r.

III mamr. tasallemaw ta‘Árakaw

tasallemawÁt ta‘ÁrakawÁt

md. tasallemÆnna ta‘ÁrakÆnna

II mamr. tasallemtu ta‘Áraktu

tasallemtuwÁt ta‘ÁrakuwÁt

md. tasallemtÙnna ta‘ÁraktÙnna

I tasallemna ta‘Árakna

121


imperfeqtivi

mx. r.

III mamr. it(a)sallem ita‘Árak

md. tit(a)sallem tita‘Árak

II mamr. tit(a)sallem tita‘Árak

md. titsallem×n tita‘Árak×n

I atasallem ata‘Árak

mr. r.

III mamr. itsallemæn ita‘Árakæn

itsallemunÁt ita‘ÁrakunÁt

md. itsallemÙnna ita‘ÁrakÙnna

II mamr. titsallemæn tita‘Árakæn

titsallemunÁt tita‘ÁrakunÁt

md. titsallemÙnna tita‘ÁraktÙnna

I natasallem nata‘Árak

d) VII Tema

perfeqtivi: inC1aC2aC3

mx. r. mr. r.

III mamr. inhazam “gaiqca” inhazamaw

inhazamawÁt

md. inhazamat inazamÆnna

II mamr. inhazamt inhazamtu

inhazamtuwÁt

md. inhazamti inhazamtÙnna

I inhazamt inhazamna

122


imperfeqtivi: ienC1aC2iC3

mx. r. mr. r.

III mamr. ienhazim ienhazimæn

ienhazimunÁt

md. tenhazim ienhazimÙnna

II mamr. tenhazim tenhazimæn

tenhazimunÁt

md. tenhazim×n tenhazimÙnna

I anhazim nanhazim

e) VIII Tema

perfeqtivi:

mx. r. mr. r.

III mamr. igtarab “miuaxlovda” igtarabaw

igtarabawÁt

md. igtarabat igtarabÆnna

II mamr. igtarabt igtarabtæ

igtarabtuwÁt

md. igtarabti igtarabtÙnna

I igtarabt igtarabna

imperfeqtivi: ieC1taC2iC3

mx. r. mr. r.

III mamr. iegtarib iegtaribæn iegtaribunÁt 123


md. tegtarib iegtaribÙnna II mamr. tegtarib tegtaribæn tegtaribunÁt md. tegtarib×n tegtaribÙnna I agtarib nagtarib

v) X Tema

perfeqtivi: (i)staC1C2aC3

mx. r. mr. r.

III mamr. (i)staÕraÓ "gamoiyvana" (i)staÕraÓaw

(i)staÕraÓawÁt

md. (i)staÕraÓat (i)staÕraÓÆnna

II mamr. (i)staÕraÓt (i)staÕraÓtu

(i)staÕraÓtuwÁt

md. (i)staÕraÓti (i)staÕraÓtÙnna

I (i)staÕraÓt (i)staÕraÓna

imperfeqtivi: iestaC1C2iC3

mx. r. mr. r.

III mamr. iestaÕriÓ iestaÕriÓæn iestaÕriÓunÁt md. testaÕriÓ iestaÕriÓÙnna II mamr. testaÕriÓ testaÕriÓæn testaÕriÓænÁt md. testaÕriÓ×n testaÕriÓÙnna I astaÕriÓ nastaÕriÓ

124


$ 17. oTxTanxmovniani zmna

oTxTanxmovniani zmnebis raodenoba kad-Si mcirea. gamoiyofa

ori tipi: 1. C1aC2+C1aC2 pirveli da meore Tanxmovnis

reduplikaciis gziT miiReba oTxTanxmovniani zmnuri forma. mag.,

za’za’ “SeinZra”, “Sezanzarda”. gvxvdeba ucxo enidan nasesxebi

sityvis transformacia oTxTanxmovnian formad: ÓanÓal “Cxubobda”;

2. C1aC2C3aC4 aRniSnuli forma SesabamisobaSia saliteraturo

arabulTan.

oTxTanxmovniani zmna Semdegnairad iuRleba:

perfeqtivi: C1aC2C3aC4

mx. r. mr. r.

III mamr. sardar “meTaurobda” sardaraw

sardarawÁt

md. sardarat sardarÆnna

II mamr. sardart sardartæ

sardartuwÁt

md. sardarti sardartÙnna

I sardart sardarna

imperfeqtivi: iCa1C2C3iC4

mx. r. mr. r.

III mamr. isardir isardiræn

isardirunÁt

md. itsardir isardirÙnna

II mamr. itsardir itsardiræn

itsardirunÁt

125


md. itsardir×n itsardirÙnna

I asardir insardir

II Tema

perfeqtivi: taC1aC2C3aC4

mx. r. mr. r.

III mamr. taza‘za‘ “SeinZra” taza‘za‘aw

taza‘za‘awÁt

md. taza‘za‘at taza‘za‘Ænna

II mamr. taza‘za‘t taza‘za‘tæ

taza‘za‘tuwÁt

md. taza‘za‘ti taza‘za‘tÙnna

I taza‘za‘t taza‘za‘na

imperfeqtivi: ietaC1aC2C3aC4

mx. r. mr. r.

III mamr. ietaza‘za‘ ietaza‘za‘un

ietaza‘za‘unÁt

md. tetaza‘za‘ ietaza‘za‘Ùnna

II mamr. tetaza‘za‘ tetaza‘za‘æn

tetaza‘za‘unÁt

md. tetaza‘za‘×n tetaza‘za‘Ùnna

I ataza‘za‘ nataza‘za‘

III da IV Temis formebi oTxTanxmovnian zmnebSi ar dasturdeba.

126


$ 18. zmnis upiro formebi

a) mimReoba

pirveli Temis aqtiuri mimReoba warmodgenilia Semdegi saxiT:

CÁCiC. arabuli sityvis meoreuli nasesxobis SemTxvevaSi pirvel

ZireulTan a-s nacvlad gvaqvs Ý: tÝÓir Sdr. tajikuri tÝÓir. aseTi

SemTxvevebi mravlad aRinusxeba kad-Si.

I Temis moqmedebiTi gvaris mimReobis sruli paradigma

Semdegnairad warmogvidgeba:

mamr. mx. ãÁliÔ “amsvleli”

md. mx. ãÁliÔî

mamr. mr. ãÁliÔ×n

md mr. ãÁliÔÙnna

rogorc vxedavT, mimReobisaTvis damaxasiaTebelia sqesisa da

ricxvis kategoria. nawarmoebi Temebis mimReobebi kad-Si

iwarmoeba m(i) – m(u) prefiqsis saSualebiT, romelic daerTvis

zmnis imperfeqtivis fuZes.

nawarmoeb TemaTa mimReobebi:

II . muC1aC2C2iC3//miC1aC2C2iC3

a) mu‘allim “maswavlebeli”

b) minazzil “Camomyvani”

III. muC1ÁC2iC3//miC1ÁC2iC3

a) muzÁrib “moCxubari”

b) mibÁdil “gamcvleli”

IV. menãi “mimcemi”

V. mutC1aC2C2iC3//mitC1aC2C2iC3

a) mutzawwiÓ “gaTxovili”

b) mitfarrik “gansxvavebuli”

VI. mut(C1)ÁC2iC3//mitC1ÁC2iC3

a) mutÁrik “moCxubari”, “modave”

127


) mitfÁÕir “Tavmomwone”

VII. munC1aC2iC3//minC1aC2iC3

a) munhazim “gaqceuli”

b) minfaÓir “gaxeTqili”

VIII. muC1taC2iC3//miC1taC2iC3

muÕtasir “moxveuli”

miftaÕir “amayi”

X. mustaC1C2iC3//mistaC1C2iC3

a) musta÷ir “anTebuli”

b) mista÷mil “gamoyenebadi”, “xmarebaSi myofi”, "rac

gamoiyeneba"

oTxTanxmovniani zmnis mimReoba iwarmoeba Semdegi modeliT: 1.

muCaCCaC: musarsar “Worikana ” da 2. mutCaCCaC: mutÓanÓal

“mokamaTe”.

b) masdari

pirveli Temis masdari kad-Si iwarmoeba Án sufiqsis darTviT:

rakabÁn “Sejdoma”, nazalÁn “CamoqveiTeba”. paralelurad gvxvdeba

formebi Án sufiqsis gareSec: rakab, nazal. iSviaTad gvxvdeba forma

CaCCa: mÝrat tabÕa isi “Cemi coli saWmels akeTebs”.

nawarmoeb TemaTa masdarebi iwarmoeba perfeqtivis fuZeze Án

sufiqsis darTviT:

II. C1aC2C2aC3Án

a) zawwaÓÁn “colis SerTva”

b) ÕarraÓÁn

III. C1ÁC2aC3Án

“gamoyvana”

a) ÓÁma‘Án “Sekreba”

V. tC1aC2C2aC3Án

VI. taC1ÁC2aC3Án

b) ‘ÁrakÁn “Cxubi”, “ayalmayali”

a) tfarraÓÁn “naxva”

b) tsaddaqÁn “dajereba”

128


a) taqÁtalÁn “xelCarTuli brZola”

b) tafÁÕarÁn

VII . inC1aC2aC3Án

“Seqeba”, “gandideba”

a) inhazamÁn “gaqceva”

b) ingazafÁn “Cavardna”

VIII. iC1taC2aC3Án

a) iÔtafalÁn “qeifi”

b) igtarabÁn “miaxloeba”

X. istaC1C2aC3Án

a) istaÕdamÁn “momsaxureba”

b) istakâafÁn “moZebna”

mxedvelobaSia misaRebi, rom nawarmoeb TemaTa masdarebi kad-Si

naklebad produqtiulia.

$ 19. vnebiTi gvari

vnebiT gvars kad-Si ar gaaCnia markeri. igi gadmoicema Sesabamis

TemaTa refleqsivebis saSualebiT. am mxriv kad-Si asaxulia

saerTo dialeqtologiuri movlena. Tumca am mxriv zogierTi

arabuli dialeqti gamonakliss warmoadgens.

$ 20. geminirebuli zmna

geminirebuli zmnebisaTvis kad-Si damaxasiaTebelia Semdegi

Taviseburebani:

a) perfeqtivSi, orive ricxvSi, II piris orive sqesSi da I pirSi

fiqsirdeba paraleluri formebi.

b) imperfeqtivSi meore Zireuli xmovani Riaobis

TvalsazrisiT, inversiul damokidebulebaSia perfeqtivis

maxasiaTebel xmovanTan. perfeqtivis a xmovans

imperfeqtivSi i an u moudis. alternacia a~i, a~u

gamokveTilia da kad-Si geminirebuli zmnis warmoebis

maxasiaTeblad gvevlineba.

129


sailustraciod mogvyavs geminirebuli zmnebis raââa “dayara

(Zirs)”, “daagdo” da Ôaããa “dado” uRlebis sruli paradigma:

perfeqtivi

mx. r.

III mamr. raââa Ôaããa

md. raââat Ôaããat

II mamr. raââeyt//raââaât Ôaããeyt// Ôaããaãt

md. raââeyti//raâeâti Ôaããeyti// Ôaãeãti

I raââeyt//raâaât Ôaãeyãt// Ôaããaãt

III mamr.

mr. r.

raââÆw Ôaããaw

raââÆwÁt ÔaããawÁt

md. raââÆnna ÔaããÆnna

II mamr. raââeytæ//raâaâtæ Ôaããeytæ//Ôaãaãtæ

raââeytuwÁt//raâaâtuwÁt ÔaããeytuwÁt//ÔaãaãtuwÁt

md. raââeytÙnna//raâeâtÙnna ÔaããeytÙnna// ÔaãeãtÙnna

I raââeyna//raâaâna Ôaããeyna//Ôaãaãna

imperfeqtivi

III mamr.

mx. r.

iriâ(â) iÔuã(ã)

md. itriâ(â) itÔuã(ã)

II mamr. itriâ(â) itÔuã(ã)

md. itriâ(â)×n itÔuã(ã)×n

I ariâ(â) ahuã(ã)

III mamr.

mr. r.

iriââæn iÔuããæn

iriââunÁt iÔuããunÁt

130


md. iriââÙnna iÔuããÙnna

II mamr. itriââæn itÔuããæn

itriââunÁt itÔuããunÁt

md. itriââÙnna itÔuããÙnna

I inriâ(â) inÔuã(ã)

brZanebiTi Semdegnairad iwarmoeba:

mx. r. mr. r.

II mamr. itriâ(â) itÔuã(ã) itriâ(â)æ itÔuã(ã)æ

II md. itriâ(â)× itÔuã(ã)× itriâ(â)×n itÔuã(ã)×n

moqmedebiTi gvaris mimReoba fiqsirdeba Semdegi modeliT:

C1ÁC2iC2 : rÁâiâ "dampnevi", “damyreli”. gvxvdeba pasivic: mîC1C2æC2

: mîâdæd “damarcxebuli”.

masdaris warmoeba eqvemdebareba zemoaRniSnul wess. misi

modelia C1aC2aC3Án: raâaâÁn “dapneva”, “Zirs dayra”. iSviaTad

geminirebuli zmnis masdari warmodgenilia Semdegi modeliT:

C1aC2ayÁn: raââayÁn. es movlena enis mkafio gramatikuli sistemis

rRvevis erTerTi maCvenebelia.

a) geminirebuli zmnis nawarmoebi Temebi

geminirebuli zmnis nawarmoebi Temebi kad-Si warmodgenilia

Semdegi struqturuli modelebis saxiT:

perfeqtivi:

II C1aC2C2aC2

Òaããaã “CaeSva”, “CaiZira”

V taC1aC2C2aC

taÓaffaf “gaxma”, “gaSra”, “gadaxma”

VIII iC1taC2C2 // iC1tîC2C2

131


iâtad(d)// iâtîd(d) “gamagrda”

X istaC1aC2C2

istazall “iyo CrdilSi”

imperfeqtivi:

II iC1ÝC2iC2 : iÒÝãiã

V itC1aC2aC2 : itÓafaf

VIII iC1tÝC2iC2 : iâtÝdid

X istÝC1iC2C2 : istÝzil(l)

rogorc irkveva, II, VIII da X TemebSi warmoebis mxriv gvaqvs

saliteraturo arabuli enis normidan gadaxveva. II TemaSi pirvel

da meore Zireul Tanxmovnebs Soris Cndeba grZeli Ý. meore

ZireulTan, romelic saliteraturo arabulSi geminirebulia,

gvaqvs mokle i. rac Seexeba X Temas, aq grZeli Ý daerTvis Temis

mawarmoebel prefiqss.

b) geminirebuli zmnis mimReoba da masdari

nawarmoeb TemaTa mimReoba iwarmoeba saerTo wesis mixedviT.

kerZod, imperfeqtivis formis fuZeze mî/mu prefiqsis darTviT.

magaliTebi:

II mîC1ÝC2iC2

mî‘Ýdid “damTvleli”

V mutC1aC2C2aC2

mutgarrar “dadgenili”, “cnobili”

VIII meC1tÝC2iC2

meÔãodid “dadebuli (Zirs)”

X mestÝC1iC2(C2)

mestÝmir “gaxangrZlivebuli”

132


masdari iwarmoeba Án bolosarTis saSualebiT. am mxriv

dialeqtSi warmodgenilia nawarmoeb TemaTa masdaris

gramatikuli warmoebis mkafio suraTi:

kokÝyata iúaÕæhum iúzok b×r ÒaããaãÁn sawaÝn “Zmebma TavianTi Zma am

WaSi CauSves”. sityvasityviT “maTi Zmis CaSveba, Cagdeba qmnes”.

$ 21. hamziani zmna

hamziani zmnebi naSromSi warmodgenilia Semdegi

TanmimdevrobiT:

1 2 3

1 2 3

1 2 3

a) 1 2 3 (zmnebi pirveli Zireuli hamziT)

zmnebi, romelTa pirveli Zireuli Tanxmovani saliteraturo

arabul enaSi aris hamza, kad-is perfeqtivSi ikvecaven mas. kad-Si

aseTi tipis hamzianma zmnebma ganicades cvlileba Ziris

struqturaSi. hamzis dakargvis Sedegad isini iqcnen

orTanxmovnianebad. miuxedavad amisa, morfologiuri warmoebis

sqema darCa tradiciuli da rig SemTxvevebSi adgili aqvs hamzis

aRdgenas. es Cven safuZvels gvaZlevs, nawilobriv aRvadginoT

hamza paradigmebSi. amisaTvis, hamzis Cavardnis adgilze, zogjer

frCxilebSi aRvniSnavT mas. moviyvanT am tipis zmnis uRlebas:

perfeqtivi: C2aC3a

mx. r. mr. r.

III mamr. Õaza Õazaw

ÕazawÁt

md. Õazat ÕazÆnna

II mamr. Õazeyt Õazeytæ

ÕazeytuwÁt

133


md. Õazeyti ÕazeytÙnna

I Õazeyt Õazeyna

imperfeqtivi: i(C1)ÝC2uC3

mx. r. mr. r.

III mamr. i (ö) ÝÕuz i (ö) ÝÕuzæn i (ö) ÝÕuzunÁt md. tÝÕuz i (ö) ÝÕzÙnna

II mamr. tÝÕuz tÝÕuzæn 134

tÝÕ u zunÁt

md. tÝÕ(u)z×n toÕzÙnna

I ÁÕuz nÝÕuz

perfeqtivSi orive ricxvis meore da pirvel pirSi gvaqvs

diftongi ei, romelic grZeli Î-dan momdinareobs: ÕazÎt>Õazeit1 .

rac Seexeba grZel i – s, igi aRniSnul formebSi gaCnda Ziris

morfologiuri kvantitatiurobis aRsadgenad.

imperfeqtivSi, mx. r.-Si rogorc mosalodneli iyo, miviReT

grZelxmovniani prefiqsi. mr. r.-Si me-3 da me-2 piris mamr.-Si

dasturdeba paraleluri formebi, romelTagan tipebSi

ioÕuzæn//toÕuzæn-daculia maxasiaTebeli u xmovani.

________________________________

1. forma ÕazÎt amjerad ar fiqsirdeba. igi dafiqsirebuli aqvs i. n. vinikovs (198,

gv. 271)


) 1 2 3 (zmnebi meore Zireuli hamziT)

zmnebi, romelTac me-2 Zireul Tanxmovnad hamza moudiT,

Semdegnairad iuRlebian:

perfeqtivi: C1aC2aC3

mx. r. mr. r.

III mamr. sayal “hkiTxa” sayalaw

sayalawÁt

md. sayalat sayalÆnna

II mamr. sayalt sayaltæ

sayaltuwÁt

md. sayalti sayaltÙnna

I sayalt sayalna

imperfqtivi: iC1aC2iC3

mx. r. mr. r.

III mamr. isayil isayilæn

isayilunÁt

md. tisayil//tsayl iisaylÙnna

II mamr. tisayil//tsayl tisayilæn//tsaylæn

tisaylunÁt//tsaylunÁt

md. tisayil×n//tsayl×n tisaylÙnna//tsaylÙnna

I asayil insayil

fonetikurad gamarTlebulia hamzis Canacvleba ÁotiT. sxva

mxriv, 1 2 3 literaturul arabulSi analogiuri tipis zmnis

uRlebas misdevs da mxolod paraleluri formebis

funqcionirebiT gamoirCeva. imperfeqtivis mx. r.-is me-3 piris md.-Si

da me-2 piris orive sqesSi, rogorc mx.-Si, aseve mr.-Si.

g) 1 2 3 (zmnebi mesame Zireuli hamziT)

135


perfeqtivi: C1ÁC2e

mx. r. mr. r.

III mamr. gÁre “waikiTxa” gÁraw

gÁrawÁt

md. gÁret gÁrÆnna

II mamr. gÁret//gareyt gÁretæ//gareytæ

gÁretuwÁt//gareituwÁt

md. gÁrete//gareyti gÁretÙnna//gÁreytÙnna

I gÁret gÁrena//gareyna

imperfeqtivi

mx. r. mr. r.

III mamr. igre igræn

igrunÁt

md. tigre igrÙnna

II mamr. tigre tigræ

tigrunÁt

md. tigr×n tigrÙnna

I agri nagri

perfeqtivSi, mx. r.-Si, pirveli Zireulis xmovani grZelia, xolo

meore ZireulTan gvaqvs mokle e. pirveli Zireuli xmovnis sigrZes

hamzis Cavardna ganapirobebs. orive ricxvis me-2 pirSi da mr. r.-is

pirvel pirSi fiqsirdeba paraleluri formebi, rac

ganpirobebulia ey diftongis warmoqmniT. Sedegad, pirvel

ZireulTan mokldeba grZeli xmovani.

136


d) hamziani zmnebis imperativi

qvemoT warmodgenilia hamziani zmnis brZanebiTebi Semdegi

TanmimdevrobiT:

a) 1 2 3; b) 1 2 3; g) 1 2 3

a) 1 2 3:

mx. r. mr. r.

II mamr. uÕuz uÕsuwÁt

b) 1 2 3

md. uÕs× uÕsÙnna

mx. r. mr. r.

II mamr. sÁyl sÁyluwÁt

g) 1 2 3

md. sÁyl× sÁylÙnna

mx. r. mr. r.

II mamr. igre igruwÁt

md. igr× igrÙnna

mr. r.-is mamr.-Si ormagi mravlobiTiT nawarmoebi formebis

arseboba aixsneba ormagi markeris mier kilos mniSvnelobis

gaZlierebiT. aRniSnuli warmoebis paralelurad kad-Si gvxvdeba

in sufiqsiT gadmocemuli brZanebiTis formebi, rac gamoxatavs

dialeqtSi aRniSnuli kilos gadmocemis zogad tendencias.

e) hamziani zmnebis nawarmoebi Temebi: 1 2 3

am tipis hamziani zmnebi perfeqtivSi warmodgenilia Semdegi

modelebiT:

II (C1)aC2C2aC3:

137


(ö) assas “gaakeTa”, “saZirkveli Cayara”

V ta(C1)aC2C2aC3:

ta (ö) allam “stkioda”

VIII ittaC2aC3:

ittaman “miekedla”

X (i)sta(C1)C2aC3:

(i)sta (ö) Óar “daepatrona”

damaxasiaTebelia Semdegi:

Tu zmna II TemaSi iwyeba labialuri TanxmovniT, dasawyisSi

nacvlad a xmovnisa Cndeba u, xolo iSviTad öo: umman//omman

“daicva”.

V TemaSi SeiZleba aRdges hamza. aq dasaSvebia paraleluri

formis arseboba: taallam//ta‘allam.

VIII da X TemebSi hamza Cavardnilia.

imperfeqtivi:

ganxilul formaTa Sesabamisi imperfeqtivebia:

II iÝC2C2iC3: iÝsis

V it(C1)ÆC2C2aC3: it (ö) Ællam

VIII itÝC2iC3: itÝmin

X istÝC2iC3: istÝÓir

v) hamziani zmnebis mimReoba da masdari: 1 2 3

1-el TemaSi fiqsirdeba vnebiTi gvaris mimReoba. igi

warmodgenilia modeliT maC2C3i: makli “SeWmuli”. rac Seexeba

1-eli Temis masdars, igi iwarmoeba fuZeze an/yan sufiqsis

darTviT: ÕazÁn/ÕazayÁn.

nawarmoebi Temebis mimReobidan dadasturebulia mxolod

ramdenime maTgani. V: mutÝÕir “dagvianebuli”, X: mustozin

138


“mqadagebeli”. vinaidan nawarmoeb TemaTa funqcionirebis areali

kad-Si mcirea, mniSvnelobaTa gamoxatvis ZiriTadi simZime 1-el

Temas akisria.

masdari iwarmoeba 1-eli Temis msgavsad an/yan sufiqsis

darTviT: sta (ö) ÓarÁn “Txoveba”, ta (ö) ÁsarÁn “aRelveba”.

z) hamziani zmnebis nawarmoebi Temebi: 1 2 3

zmnebi, meore Zireuli hamziT, TemaTa warmoebis mxriv,

warmodgenili arian ufro mkafiod, xolo funqcionirebis mxriv,

nakleb produqtiulad:

perfeqtivi:

II C1aC2C2aC3:

rayyas “uxelmZRvanela”

VI taC1ÁC2aC3:

t(a)sÁyal 1. “maTxovrobda”; 2. “erTmaneTs

ekiTxebodnen”

VIII iC1taC2aC3:

ifta’ad “gulisxmiereba gamoiCina”

aRsaniSnavia V da VI Temis mniSvnelobaTa erTi formiT

gadmocema: tasÁyal 1.“maTxovrobda”; 2. “erTmaneTs ekiTxebodnen”. es

aixsneba dialeqtSi grZeli da mokle xmovnebis fonologiuri

datvirTvis moSliT. aseTi tendencia unda CaiTvalos kad-is erTerT

maxasiaTeblad.

imperfeqtivi:

II iC1Ý(C2)iC3: irÝ(y)is

V/VI itC1Ý(C2)iC3: itsÝ(y)il

VIII iC1tÝ(C2)iC3: iftÝ(y)id

hamzis Cavardnis Sedegad zemoT dasaxelebul formebSi

miviReT greli Á. daviwroebis Sedegad man mogvca Ý. es movlena

kad-Si tajikuris gavleniT SeiZleba aixsnas.

139


T) hamziani zmnebis mimReoba da masdari: 1 2 3

pirvel TemaSi fiqsirdeba moqmedebiTi gvaris mimReoba

modeliT C1Ý(C2)iC3: sÝ(y)il “SekiTxvis avtori”, “is, vinc ekiTxeba”.

danarCen TemaTa mimReobebi warmodgenilia Semdegi saxiT:

II muC1Ý(C2)iC3:

muzÝ(y)ir “SeSinebuli”

V/VI matC1Ý(C2)iC3:

matmÝ(y)in “datvirTuli”

VIII muC1tÝ(C2)iC3:

mubtÝ(y)is “daRonebuli”, “sevdiani”.

rogorc pirveli, aseve nawarmoeb TemaTa masdarebi iwarmoeba

saerTo wesis dacviT, perfeqtivis me-3 piris mamr. sqesis fuZeze

Án//yÁn sufiqsis darTviT.

i) hamziani zmnebis nawarmoebi Temebi: 1 2 3

am tipis hamziani zmnebis nawarmoeb TemaTa perfeqtivi

dialeqtSi Semdegi modelebiT aris warmodgenili:

II C1aC2C2Á(C3):

V taC1aC2C2Á(C3):

VII inC1aC2a:

nassÁ “qalad aqcia”

taraÓÓÁ “gadado”

inkafÁ “moSorda”, “daucada”.

bolokiduri Á-s alternantia e. uRlebis wesi pirveli Temis

analogiuria. erT-erTi informantis Caweris dros dafiqsirda

meore Temis Semdegnairi modeli: C1ÁC2C2e, rac I Temis analogiiT

aixsneba: nÁsse “qalad aqcia”.

140


unda aRiniSnos, rom zmnas nasa’a saliteraturo arabulSi II

Tema ar gaaCnia. aseve ar moepoveba zmnas taraÓÓa Sesabamisi forma

saliteraturo arabulSi. es movlena adasturebs dialeqtSi

sityvawarmoebis damoukidebeli procesis arsebobas. ufro swori

iqneba Tu vityviT, rom aRniSnuli movlena warmoadgens dialeqtSi

odesRac arsebuli sityvawarmoebis anarekls.

imperfeqtivi:

ganxilul formaTa Sesabamisi imperfeqtivis formebia:

II iC1ÝC2C2e: inÝsse

V itC1aC2C2e: itraÓÓe

VII inC1ÝC2C2e: inkÝffe

k) hamziani zmnebis nawarmoebi Temebis mimReoba da masdari: 1 2 3

I TemaSi dasturdeba vnebiTi gvaris mimReoba mÁC1C2i: mÁgri

“wakiTxuli”. nawarmoeb TemebSi mimReobebi iwarmoeba saerTo

wesis dacviT: imperfeqtivis fuZeze me//mu prefiqsis darTviT.

rac Seexeba masdars, aq gvaqvs warmoeba bolosarTiT _ an/yÁn:

gareyÁn “wakiTxva”.

mimReoba:

II meC1ÝC2C2e(C3):

merÝbbe “gaTanasworebuli”.

V metC1ÝC2C2e(C3):

metrÝÓÓe “gadavadebuli”.

VII manC1ÝC2e(C3):

manÓÝze “nawili”, "ganayofi"

$ 22. susti zmna

kad-Si gamoiyofa susti zmnebis sami ZiriTadi tipi:

a) 1 2 3

b) 1 2 3

141


g) 1 2 3

TiToeul jgufSi gaerTianebuli zmnebi, ganurCevlad imisa, Tu

romelia susti Tanxmovani, xasiaTdebian warmoebis saerTo wesiT.

sul bolos warmodgenili gvaqvs ormagad susti zmnebi sawa

“gaakeTa” da ÓÁ “movida”, romlebic dialeqtSi funqcionirebis

maRali sixSiriT xasiaTdebian.

a) 1 2 3 (zmnebi pirveli Zireuli susti TanxmovniT)

am tipis zmnebidan warmovadgenT zmnis ugaf “gaCerda”/Sdr. kl.

arab. waqafa/ uRlebas:

perfeqtivi:

mx. r. mr. r.

III mamr. ugaf ugafæ//ugafaw

ugafawÁt

md. ugaft ugafÙnna

II mamr. ugaft ugaftæ

ugaftuwÁt

md. ugafti ugaftÙnna

I ugaft ugafna

imperfeqtivi: iuC2uC3

mx. r. mr. r.

III mamr. iuguf iugfæn

iugfunÁt

md. tuguf iugfÙnna

II mamr. tuguf tugfæn

tugfunÁt

md. tuguf×n tugfÙnna

142


I aguf naguf

rogorc uRlebis cxrilidan Cans, am tipis zmna amJRavnebs

siaxloves klasikuri arabulis uRlebis sistemasTan. piris,

ricxvisa da sqesis mawarmoebeli formantebi TiTqmis ar

gansxvavdebian saliteraturo arabuli enisagan (Sdr. ugafti, ugafæ,

ugaftÙnna, naguf da a. S.). sawyisi forma /ugaf/ miRebulia fonetikuri

gziT: Tavkiduri wa – formantis u-d transformaciis Sedegad.

aRsaniSnavia, rom am tipis zmnebis mravlobiTis formebi emTxveva

buxarulSi arsebul analogiur formebs (117, gv. 141; 36, gv. 64).

maxasiaTebel xmovanTa alternacia perfeqtiv-imperfeqtivSi

aris a~u, rac asaxavs inversiul mimarTebas. imperfeqtivSi

maxasiaTebeli u xmovani imsgavsebs prefiqsalur xmovans.

amgvarad, me-3 pirSi vRebulobT models iuC2uC3, romlis

mixedviTac ewyoba danarCeni formebi. es wesi ar vrceldeba

pirvel pirze.

aRsaniSnavia, rom zog SemTxvevaSi fiqsirdeba imperfeqtivis

gansxvavebuli formebi: iÝguf, iÝgufæn, iÝgfunÁt.

b) 1 2 3 (zmnebi meore Zireuli susti TanxmovniT)

zmnebi, romelTac me-2 Zireuli susti aqvT, Semdegnairad

iuRlebian:

perfeqtivi: C 1 V:C2

mx. r. mr. r.

III mamr. gÁl gÁlaw

gÁlawÁt

md. gÁlat gÁlÆnna

II mamr. galeyt galeytæ

143


144

galeytuwÁt

md. galeyti galeytÙnna

I galeyt galeyna

imperfeqtivi iC 1 V:C3

mx. r. mr. r.

III mamr. igæl igælæn

igælunÁt

md. itgæl igælÙnna

II mamr. itgæl itgælæn

itgælænÁt

md. itgul×n itgælÙnna

I agæl ingæl

perfeqtivSi mx. r.-is me-2 pirSi, Zireuli Tanxmovnis da piris

maCvenebeli sufiqsis SesayarTan Cndeba diftongi ey. pirvel

ZireulTan 1-el da me-2 piris orive ricxvSi gvaqvs a, rac aseve

qmnis saliteraturo arabuli enisagan gansxvavebuli uRlebis

suraTs. rac Seexeba imperfeqtivs, aq maxasiaTebeli xmovani aris u,

ganurCevlad Sua susti Tanxmovnis warmoSobis ragvarobisa.

imperfeqtivSi yuradRebas imsaxurebs, agreTve, piris

aRmniSvneli prefiqsaluri formantebi. isini klasikuri

arabulisagan gansxvavebiT warmodgenili arian it TavsarTis

saxiT. aseve mr. r.-is pirvel pirSi, danarCeni pirebis analogiiT,

gvaqvs prefiqsi in nacvlad na-si.

g) 1 2 3 (zmnebi mesame Zireuli susti TanxmovniT)

am tipis zmnis uRlebis sailustraciod mogvyavs zmna Òada

“wavida”, “gaemarTa”.

perfeqtivi: C1aC2a


mx. r. mr. r.

III mamr. Òada Òadaw

ÒadawÁt

md. Òadat ÒadÆnna

II mamr. Òadeyt Òadeytæ

ÒadeytuwÁt

md. Òadeyti ÒadeytÙnna

I Òadeyt Òadeyna

imperfeqtivi: iaC1ÁC2i

mx. r. mr. r.

III mamr. iaÒÇdi ieÒÁdæn

ieÒÁdænÁt

md. taÒÇdi ieÒÁdÙnna

II mamr. taÒÇdi teÒÁdæn

teÒÁdænÁt

md. taÒÇd×n teÒÁdÙnna

I aÒÇde(i) neÒÁdi//noÒd×

perfeqtivSi, mx. da mr. r.-is me-2 pirSi, aqac Cndeba diftongi ei,

rac SeiZleba aixsnas meore ZireulTan istoriulad

dadasturebuli susti Tanxmovnis erTgvari gavleniT.

imperfeqtivis amosaval formaSi nacvlad mosalodneli iuÒdi –

sa, gvaqvs iaÒÁdi. faTha vlindeba uRlebis yvela formaSi. mx. r.-Si

igi gamokveTilia maxviliT. aRniSnuli formebis paralelurad

kad-Si fiqsirdeba imperfeqtivis gansxvavebuli formebic: 1. ioÒdi

III piri, mx. r., 2. ioÒdæn III piri, mr. r. maTi gavrcelebis areali kad-

Si mcirea. ufro xSirad gvxvdeba noÒd× (I piri mr. r.).

d) susti zmnebis imperativi

145


ZanebiTis formebi warmodgenilia Semdegi TanmimdevrobiT:

a) 1 2 3 b) 1 2 3 g) 1 2 3

a) 1 2 3

mx. r. mr. r.

II mamr. uguf ugufæ

b) 1 2 3

md. uguf× ug (u) fÙnna

mx. r. mr. r.

II mamr. gul gulwÁt

g) 1 2 3

md. gul× gælÙnna

mx. r. mr. r.

II mamr. uÒda uÒduwÁt

md. uÒd× uÒdÙnna

e) susti zmnebis nawarmoebi Temebi: 1 2 3

zmnebs, romelTac susti aqvT 1-eli Zireuli Tanxmovani, kad-Si

mxolod II da X Tema gaaCniaT.

perfeqtivi:

II uC2C2aC3:

X istæC2aC3:

ussaÕ “gaaWuWyiana”

ustæsa’ “gafarTovda”

imperfeqtivi:

II iuC2C2ayaC3: iussayaÕ

146


X istÁC2iC3: istÁsi‘

v) susti zmnebis mimReoba da masdari: 1 2 3

pirvel TemaSi moqmedebiTi gvaris mimReobaa C2ÅC3i(n): dÅ’i(n)

“damdebi”. gvxvdeba vnebiTi gvaris mimReobac, romlis modelia

mæC2aC3: mægaf “gaCerebuli”, “mdgomare”.

II da X Temis mimReobebi iwarmoebian imperfeqtivis fuZeze mu

prefiqsis darTviT:

II muC2C2aiC3: murraig “gadafarebuli”

X mustÝC2aC3: mustÝ (w) da‘ “sakuWnao”

z) susti zmnebis nawarmoebi Temebi: 1 2 3

am tipis zmnebs vxvdebiT VII da X TemebSi.

perfeqtivi:

VII inC1æC3:

ingæm “idga”, “iyo SemarTuli”

X (i)staC1æC3:

(i)staræÔ “isvenebda”

rogorc moyvanili magaliTebidan Cans, klasikuri arabulis

grZeli Á aRniSnuli Temebis perfeqtivSi grZeli æ-Ti aris

Secvlili.

imperfeqtivi:

II iunC1ÁiC3: iungÁim

X iustÝC1×C3: iustÝr×Ô

T) susti zmnebis mimReoba da masdari: 1 2 3

pirveli Temis moqmedebiTi gvaris mimReobis modelia – C1ÝiC3:

gÝil “mTqmeli”. III da X TemebSi gvaqvs Semdegi modelebi:

147


VII menC1ÝiC3:

mengÝim “damdgari”, “SemarTuli”

X mustÝC1×C3:

mustÝr×Ô “damsvenebeli”

masdari iwarmoeba Án/yÁn sufiqsis darTviT perfeqtivis

amosavali formis fuZeze: galÁn “Tqma”. TiTqmis yvelgan fuZiseuli

grZeli Á mokldeba momdevno marcvlis maxviliani grZeli Ç-s

fonetikuri zemoqmedebiT.

i) susti zmnebis nawarmoebi Temebi: 1 2 3

am tipis zmnebs aqvT Semdegi Temebi:

perfeqtivi:

II C1aC2C2a:

samma “uwoda”, “saxeli daarqva”

V taC1aC2C2a:

taÒanna “gamdidrda”

VII iC1taC2a:

iltaga “Sexvda”, “Seegeba”

X istaC1C2a:

ista (‘) la “zemoT avida”, “amaRlda”

imperfeqtivi:

II iuC1ÆC2C2e: iusÆmme

V iutC1ÆC2C2e: iutÒÆnne

VII iuC1tuC2: iultug

X iustuC1C2i: iustu (÷) li>iustæli

k) susti zmnebis mimReoba da masdari: 1 2 3

148


1-el TemaSi fiqsirdeba rogorc moqmedebiTi, aseve vnebiTi

gvaris mimReobac: ÒÅdi “wamsvleli”, maÒdi “wasuli”. danarCeni

Temebis moqmedebiTi gvaris mimReobebi Semdegnairad

warmogvidgeba:

II muC1aC2C2e: muÒanne “momRerali”

V mutC1aC2C2e: mutÒadde “wamsvleli”

VII muC1tuC2: mubtun “mSenebare”

X mustæC1C2i: mustæli


imperfeqtivi:

mx. r. mr. r.

III mamr. isi isæn

isunÁt

md. tisi//itsi isÙnna

II mamr. tisi//itsi tisæn//itsæn

tisunÁt//itsunÁt

md. tis×na//its×na tisÙnna

I asi nasi//insi

II ÓÁ (ö) “movida”

perfeqtivi:

mx. r. mr. r.

III mamr. ÓÁ ÓÁw

ÓawÁt

md. ÓÁt ÓÆnna

II mamr. Ó×t Óitæ

ÓituwÁt

md. Ó×t× ÓitÙnna

I Ó×t Ó×na

imperfeqtivi:

III mamr. iÓi iÓæn

md. tiÓi iÓunÁt

iÓÙnna

II mamr. tiÓi tiÓæn

md. tiÓ×n tiÓunÁt

tiÓÙnna

I aÓ× niÓ×

150


imperativi:

mx. r. mr. r.

II mamr. sæ suwÁt

md. suw× suwÙnna

zmna ÓÁ-s brZanebiTi kad-Si ar fiqsirdeba. aRniSnul kiloSi

dasturdeba forma ta‘al! “modi!”, romelic gvxvdeba sxva arabul

dialeqtebSic. saliteraturo arabulSi misi Sesatyvisia ‘alÁ

zmnis VI Temis brZanebiTi. ta‘Ál xasiaTdeba sqesSi da ricxvSi

cvalebadobis unariT. igi SinaarsiT ÓÁ-s brZanebiTs gamoxatavs:

mx. r. mr. r.

II mamr. ta‘Ála ta‘Álæ

md. ta‘Ál× ta‘ÁlÙnna

mimReoba: 1. sÅwi moqm. gv

maswi vn. gv.

2. ÓÁi

masdari: 1. sawÁn//sawayÁn

2. ÓayÁn

yiSlaR jeÁnaus erT-erT ubanSi (mahalla), kerZod avonaSi

dafiqsirda ta‘Ála zmnis cvalebadoba ara marto sqesSi da ricxvSi,

aramed pirSic. es sagulisxmo SemTxveva miuTiTebs dialeqtSi

formaTwarmoqmnis tendencias. gamonaklisis saxiT mogvyavs

aRniSnuli zmnis uRlebis paradigma:

perfeqtivi:

mx. r. mr. r.

III mamr. ta‘Ála ta‘Álaw

ta‘ÁlawÁt

151


md. ta‘Álat ta‘ÁlÙnna

II mamr. ta‘Ált ta‘Áltæ

ta‘ÁltuwÁt

md. ta‘Álti ta‘ÁltÙnna

I ta‘Ált ta‘Álna

imperfeqtivi:

III mamr. ita‘Ál ita‘Álæn

ita‘ÁlunÁt

md. tita‘Ál ita‘ÁlÙnna

II mamr. tita‘Ál tita‘Álæn

tita‘ÁlænÁt

md. tita‘Ál×n tita‘ÁlÙnna

I ata‘Ál nata‘Ál

aseTia verbaluri warmoebis meqanizmi kad-Si. zmnuri sistema

funqcionirebs zogadsemituri enobrivi modelis Sesabamisad.

fiqsirdeba saliteraturo arabuli enisagan gansxvavebuli

movlenebi, rac ganpirobebulia erTi mxriv, enis Sinagani

ganviTarebiT, xolo meore mxriv, uzbekur da tajikur enebTan

enobrivi kontaqtebiT. dialeqtisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli enobrivi

cvlilebebi sayuradReboa ara marto arabuli dialeqtologiis,

aramed zogadsemitologiuri TvalsazrisiTac.

$ 24. zmnuri kompozitebi

kaSkadariul

Semdegi jgufebi:

dialeqtSi gamoiyofa zmnuri kompozitebis

1. kompozitebi, romelTa mniSvneloba gansazRvrulia pirveli

wevriT.

2. kompozitebi, romlebic atareben kompozitis meore wevris

mniSvnelobas.

152


3. kompozitebi sinonimuri mniSvnelobis sityvebiT. mag., Òadamad

“wavida”, “midioda”, “gaeSura”. aseTi tipis kompozitebi

umetesad ixmareba intensivis gamosaxatavad.

4. gamoiyofa kompozitebi, romlebmac SeiZines axali

mniSvneloba. am tipis kompoziti ar gamoxatavs arc erTi

wevris mniSvnelobas. mag., ÷abar-ÓÁ÷ “gadmoxta”: fad way sahriya

zÝk sabi beiga tam, ademiÁt ÷ayyanÁt-tammaw, âÁfæ mim bÝy Ôoyãa

÷abar-ÓÁ÷ “erT dilas biWs daagvianda”(beiga tam


âÁribni gÁl “faSam Tqva: me ar damilevia”. saliteraturo

arabulisaTvis ucxoa ganusazRvreli namyo. igi fiqsirdeba

uzbekurSi. aqac iwarmoeba namyos mimReobaze zmnuri

nacvalsaxeluri sufiqsis darTviT (ix. gv. 113).

drois es forma uzbekurSi ganixileba, rogorc

subieqturi warsuli. zmnis fuZes emateba ud absolutivi,

romelic aRWurvilia Semasmenluri afiqsebiT:

ёз-ud-ман “me Turme damiweria”

ук-ud-ман “me Turme wamikiTxavs”.

danarCeni rTuli formebidan unda gamovyoT

gansazRvruli awmyo da rTuli (dauyovnebeli) momavali.

gansazRvruli awmyo kaSkadariul arabul dialeqtSi

iwarmoeba imperfeqtivis formaze damxmare nÁm zmnis

moqmedebiTi gvaris mimReobis darTviT. mag., iãbuÕ nÁyim

“acxobs, amzadebs axla”, nÝkul nÁyiminni “vWamT axla”.

damxmare nÁm zmnis moqmedebiTi gvaris mimReoba, rogorc

wesi, aRWurvilia nacvalsaxelovani sufiqsiT (ix.gv.115).

rTuli (dauyovneblivi) momavali kaSkadariul dialeqtSi

gadmoicema -ta prefiqsiT: ta-noÒdi “wavideT axlave”, ta-noÕuz

“aviRoT axlave” (ix. gv. 116).

6. kaSkadariul arabulSi calke jgufs qmnian kompozitebi,

romelTa pirveli wevri ucxo warmomavlobis sityvaa, xolo

meore - arabuli zmna.

7. iSviaTad kompoziti Sedgenilia ucxo warmomavlobis orive

wevriT. gvxvdeba uzbekur-tajikuri, uzbekur-uzbekuri,

tajikur-uzbekuri da tajikur-tajikuri variantebi.

8. dialeqtSi fiqsirdeba SemTxvevebi, roca kompozitis

mniSvnelobas gansazRvravs konteqsti. kompozits

winadadebaSi gaaCnia xan pirveli wevris da xanac meore

wevris mniSvneloba. amasTanave, mravladaa kompozitebi

fiqsirebuli mniSvnelobiT.

9. aRsaniSnavia zogierTi SemTxveva, roca kompozitis erTerTi

wevri damoukideblad gvxvdeba meore wevris

mniSvnelobiT. mag., ÀfÀndi ãala÷ “efendi wavida”. ãala÷

kaSkadariul arabulSi ZiriTadad ixmareba mniSvnelobiT -

154


“avida”, “moevlina”. aq informants unda exmara kompoziti

ãala÷-mad “wavida”, “gaemarTa”. kompozitis mniSvnelobas

ganapirobebs meore wevri - mad.

155


Tavi III

damxmare sityvebi

damxmare sityvebi saxelebisa da zmnebisgan gansxvavdebian imiT,

rom maTTvis ar aris damaxasiaTebeli garkveuli konsonanturi

Ziris struqtura da Sesabamisi modeliT gaxmovneba. am jgufSi

gaerTianebulia ramdenime qvejgufi. esenia: zmnizedebi,

Tandebulebi, kavSirebi, nawilakebi da Sorisdebulebi.

$ 1. zmnizeda

zmnizedebSi ZiriTadad gamoiyofa Semdegi sityvebi:

barra “gareT”

Óuwa “SigniT”

kamÁn “kidev”

ÓudÝ “Zalian”

dÁim “mudam”

hamÁna “aq”

hanÁka “iq”

ugæb “Semdeg”

warÁ “ukan”

giddÁm “win”

amsiyya “guSin”

wai saÔriyya “xval”

taÔt “qveviT”

‘ala “zeviT”

zogierTma am zmnizedebidan SeiZleba ikisros nominaluri

funqcia. aseT SemTxvevaSi winadadeba saxeladi tipisaa:

hamÁna ÓudÝ zÎn, min hanÁka

“aq ukeTesia, vidre iq”

156


Óuwa ÓudÝ ks×r, min barra

“SigniT metia, vidre gareT”

hawliÝi giddÁm zÎn, min warÁ

“Cemi karmidamos wina mxare (ufro) kargia, vidre ukana”.

dialeqtSi fiqsirdeba sityvaTa zmnizedebad transformacia

semantikuri cvlilebis Sedegad: sahriya “dila”, sahriya “diliT”,

bÁ‘id “Sori”, bÁ‘id “Sors”, liÝm “dRes”. gamoiyofa, agreTve, ori

sityvis SerwymiT miRebuli kompoziti zmnizedebi: kulwaÔt

“yovelTvis”, badbukra “zeg”, mintaht “qveviT”.

$ 2. Tandebuli

kad-Si fiqsirdeba Semdegi Tandebulebi:

i/fi “Si”

‘and “Tan”

men “dan, gan”

ma‘a “Tan, erTad”

i


zÝk iúbÎt ugaf

“igi saxlTan gaCerda”

ÉupÝn iúÓabÁl ãala‘

“mwyemsi mTaze avida”

mÝrata il-gÁba iúmÝy Òasala

“misma colma xalaTi wyliT garecxa”

amrigad, i - nawilaki kad-Si ixmareba sxvadasxva mniSvnelobiT.

men/min da li Cndeba zmnizedebis win:

mim fæk “zemoT”

litaht “qvemoT”

min ganicdis fonetikur cvlilebas da zogjer gadmoicema

formiT – mim. es xdeba asimilaciis Sedegad maSin, roca

Tandebulis momdevno sityva iwyeba labialuri TanxmovniT:

mim bet “saxlidan”

mim macÎt “meCeTidan”

bolo xanebSi mim enacvleba min–s iq, sadac igi mosalodneli

ar iyo:

mim kuÉa iÓa “quCidan movida”

mim ÕamsÝya ÝÕuz “mezobels gamovarTmev”

$ 3. nawilaki

kiTxviTi: imit “rodis?”

iâqÝ “sad?”, “saiT?”

eâ//iâ “ra?”

li “ratom?”

lem×n “vis?”

kam “ramdeni?”

kif’; “rogor?”

men-wo


aseve rTuli nawilakia iâqÝ “sad”, “saiT”, romlis paralelurad

gvxvdeba eâqÝ.

dialeqtSi xSirad gvxvdeba Turquli warmomavlobis nawilaki

–mi: âaif –mi “xedav?” intÙnna-mi “momeci?”

uaryofiTi:

la “ara”

mÁ “ara”

ma-haw//ma hay “ar aris (is)”, “ara”

gaãiÝm “arasodes”

gaããiâ “araferi”

lÁ-s paralelurad dialeqtSi xSirad ixmareba am uaryofiTi

nawilakis hamziani forma lÁ’, romelic ZiriTadad Tavs iCens

pauzaSi. aRsaniSnavia agreTve mÁ. mas moeZebneba paraleluri

mÁmin, romelic sakmaod gavrcelebulia da gamoxatavs srul

uaryofas:

mÁmin iÓa “aravin mosula”

hanÁka mÁmin “iq aravin aris”

nawilaki mÁ gvxvdeba agreTve nacvalsaxelovan sufiqsTan:

manni ÉåpÝn “me ara var mwyemsi”

mÁhay iúÔÝÖã “is ar aris saxlSi”

formaSi manni “n” gaormagebulia. warmoTqmaSi geminacia ismis

mkveTrad.

gaããiâ “araferi” da gaãiÝm “arasodes” - rTuli formebia. maTi

saerTo elementia gaãã (Sdr. qaããu).

macalkevebeli:

kul “yvela”, “yoveli”, “mTeli”,

ba÷d “zogi”, “zogierTi”

es nawilakebi funqcionireben, rogorc damoukideblad, aseve

nacvalsaxelovan sufiqsebTan erTad:

kul sab× “yoveli biWi”

159


a÷d birgad×rÁt “zogi brigadiri (brigadirebi)”

kulhum mad “yvela (yoveli maTgani) wavida”

badkum ÷Ýlim “zogi Tqvengani mecnieria”

nawilakebi kul da ba÷d ixmareba prepoziciaSi rogorc zmnur

formebTan, aseve saxelebTan. amasTanave, saxeli SeiZleba iyos

mxolobiTSic da mravlobiTSic.

mtkicebiTi:

kad-Si mtkicebiT nawilaks warmoadgens ha. igi gvxvdeba

mtkicebiT konstruqciebSi:

inta tgæl! ha agul “Tqvi Sen! - ho, vambob”

ruzqul iÓa? ha öiÓi-nÁim “ruzkoli movida? – diax, ai, modis”

$ 4. kavSiri

kad-Si gavrcelebulia Semdegi kavSirebi:

/u/ “da”

/bas/ “mxolod”, “oRond”, “oRondac”, “lamis”,

“TiTqmis”

/lÁkin/ “magram”, “oRondac”, “Tundac”

/i/ “da”

/ugæb/ “Semdeg”

dasaxelebuli kavSirebi gvxvdeba saxelebTan, zmnebTan,

nacvalsaxelebTan. isini warmodgenilia sintaqsur

konstruqciebSi da winadadebebSi. damaxasiaTebelia paraleluri

formebi: æ//wa; lÁkin//lÁken, ugæb//ogæb; i//wi

$ 5. Sorisdebuli

ah “ah!” “oh!” “uh!”

aÛÛÁ “o, RmerTo!”

160


Sorisdebulebi gamoxataven gakvirvebas, aRtacebas, mwuxarebas.

aÛÛÁ warmoadgens mimarTvas alahisadmi . igi xSirad kisrulobs

Sorisdebulis funqcias.

161


Tavi IV

sintaqsi

$ 1. sintaqsuri konstruqciebi

kaSka-dariis arabul dialeqtSi droTa ganmavlobaSi

ganviTarda saliteraturo arabuli enisagan gansxvavebuli

sintaqsuri konstruqciebi. es movlena damaxasiaTebelia

periferiuli arabuli dialeqtebisaTvis. amave dros dialeqtSi

SenarCunebulia arabulisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli sintaqsuri

wyoba. es exeba rogorc msazRvrel-sazRvruls, aseve winadadebis

struqturasac.

dialeqtSi gamoiyofa Semdegi konstruqciebi:

a) sazRvrul-msazRvreli. arabulisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli es

konstruqcia (status constructus) farTod aris gavrcelebuli kad-Si.

sintaqsuri daqvemdebarebis aRniSnuli saxeobis produqtiulobas

dialeqtSi isic uwyobs xels, rom kad-Si fiqsirdeba

gansazRvruli al-artikli, rac naklebad aris damaxasiaTebeli

sxva arabuli dialeqtebisaTvis.

magaliTebi gansazRvruli al – artikliT:

áÝÔb il-bÁgir - "Zroxis patroni"

rÝs il-iÔmÝr – "saxedris Tavi"

magaliTebi al-artiklis gareSe:

laÔm na‘aÓa – "cxvris xorci"

laÔm ÷anza – "Txis xorci"

gid×r palÁw – "flavis qvabi"

b) Turquli izafeti (msazRvrel-sazRvruli). kad-Si uzbekuri

enis gavleniT ganviTarda konstruqcia, romelic ucxoa semituri

enebisaTvis. Turqul izafetSi sazRvruli postpoziciaSia da

aRWurvilia nacvalsaxelovani sufiqsiT:

ÀfÀndi morta “efendis coli”, sityvasityviT: “efendi-misi coli”.

hawliÝy áÝÔbu “karmidamos mflobeli”, sityvasityviT:

“karmidamo –misi mflobeli”

162


waladak farasu “Seni biWis cxeni”, sityvasityviT: “Seni biWi-misi

cxeni”

zÝÓ× bintu “Cemi qmris qaliSvili”, e. i. Cemi geri, sityvasityviT:

“Cemi qmari-misi qaliSvili"

a. k o n o n o v i uzbekurSi aRniSnuli konstruqciis

maxasiaTeblad miiCnevs arsebiTi saxeliT arsebiTis gansazRvras,

romlis drosac msazRvreli prepoziciaSia da SeuZlia

formaucvlel mdgomareobaSi gadmosces sagnis Tviseba da

ragvaroba (86, gv. 237). sazRvruls Turqul izafetSi daerTvis

mesame piris gamomxatveli sufiqsi (-u, -cu), magaliTad:

Синф журнали “saklaso Jurnali”

китоб магазины “wignis maRazia”

krebiTobis gamosaxatavad uzbekurSi msazRvrels daerTvis

mravlobiTobis mawarmoebeli –лар sufiqsi, xolo kaSkadariulSi

markeri –Át.

magaliTebi uzbekuridan:

болалар боfчаси “sabavSvo baRi”

оталар сузи “andazebi”, sityvasityviT: “mamaTa

(winaparTa) sityvebi”

magaliTebi kaSkadariuli dialeqtidan:

na‘aÓÁt áÝÔbu “cxvrebis patroni”, sityvasityviT:

“cxvrebi - maTi patroni”

âurabÁt gidira(h) “wvnianis qvabi”,sityvasityviT: “wvnianimisi

qvabi”

Turqul izafetSi sazRvrulTan dasaSvebia ramdenime

msazRvreli prepoziciaSi:

faras, na÷Óa, ’anza orzum “cxenis, cxvris [da] Txis miwa

(saZovari)”, sityvasityviT: “cxeni, cxvari, Txa – maTi miwa (kad)”

Sdr. uzb.: “Тил,адабиет ва тарих институти” enis, literaturisa

da istoriis instituti.

kodis Secvla (code switching)

ukanasknel xanebSi kaSka-dariis mxareSi davafiqsireT enobrivi

gadarTvis SemTxvevebi, roca informantebi axdenen Turquli

163


izafetis kalkirebas. gamovlenilia uzbekuri enis orwevriani

sintagmis xmarebis araerTi SemTxveva:

a) msazRvreli aRWurvilia naTesaobiTi brunvis mawarmoebeli –

нинг sufiqsiT, xolo sazRvruli III piris u, -cu sufiqsiT:

waladÁn iúzÒ×r iúÊarb ãala‘, iúhama medrese Òada-mad, zÝka dilmurÝdning

kitÝbi Õaza-mad.

“umcrosi vaJi gzas daadga, im medreseSi wavida, man dilmurodis

wigni (sityvasityviT: dil murodi-misi wigni) [Tan]

waiRo”.

poâÝ iúgappÁt iúbÝi ÓudÝ ÕairÝn sÝr, usmaning otasi sayaÔ. ugæb zÝka

iúhamzÝk sayal:

– usmaning otasi agar inta, li mÁ gulta?

“faSa beis sityvebma Zalian gaakvirva, [man] usmanis mamas

(sityvasityviT: usmans - mis mamas) dauZaxa. Semdeg man mas hkiTxa:

- Tu Sen xar usmanis mama, ratom [aqamde] ar Tqvi (es) ?”

b) ileyna iúÓeynÁu болалар бoÒÉasi hast

“CvenTan jeÁnauSi aris sabavSvo baRi (sityvasityviT: bavSvebimaTi

baRi)”.

g) determinatiuli kompoziti warmoadgens izafetur

konstruqcias, romlis pirveli wevri msazRvrelia, xolo meoresazRvruli.

analogiuri konstruqciebi damaxasiaTebelia

indoevropuli enebisaTvis (117, gv. 146). maTi arseboba Suaaziur

arabulSi tajikurTan enobriv kontaqts unda mieweros.

magaliTebi:

wai áaÔariyya bÝi iúbozÝr mad. laÔam mib×Ô iúzÝka gÁl: farasak wenu?

"diliT bei bazarSi wavida. xorcis gamyidvelma mas hkiTxa: -

Seni cxeni sad aris?"

hamsÝyta iúnorbÝn mib×Ô ÓawÁb mÁ nãa

“mezobelma kibis gamyidvels pasuxi ar gasca”.

kodis Secvla (Code switching):

- iúgiddÁmo boÒi sovÕÝz hast

“mis pirdapir meurneobis baRia”

- moratna iúxonai kalÝn kÁnaw

164


“Cveni qalebi (colebi) did oTaxSi iyvnen”.

d) kad-Si uzbekuris gavleniT ganviTarda aRmatebiTi xarisxis

gamomxatveli –În/×n elementi, romelic asrulebs makavSirebeli

formantis funqcias msazRvrelsa da sazRvruls Soris:

adem ×n Õas×s –“Zunwi kaci”

bayt ×n kb×r –“didi saxli”

uzbekurSi энг aRmatebiT xarisxs aRniSnavs. Sdr. энг улуf-

“yvelaze didi”. kad-Si În/×n mxolod makavSirebelia

konstruqciaSi N+În/×n+adj. aRsaniSnavia, rom uzbekuri энг-is

Sesatyvisi Turquli en analogiur funqcias asrulebs samxreT

TurqeTis adanasa da mersinis arabul dialeqtebSi. amave dros ar

gamovricxavT aRniSnuli tipis konstruqciebSi, arsebiT

saxelebTan, ganusazRvrelobis maCvenebeli arabuli Tenvinis

arsebobas (24, gv. 299).

e) Turqulis gavlenas unda mieweros kad-Si iseTi tipis

konstruqciis arseboba, rogoricaa Pronpers+N+Pronsuf. am tipis

sintagmaSi piris nacvalsaxeli win uZRvis saxels, romelsac

daerTvis nacvalsaxelovani sufiqsi:

ana hawliÝi “Cemi karmidamo”

ana ÔÝiã× “Cemi saxli”

inta waladak “Seni biWi”

zÝka iÔmÝru “misi saxedari”

$ 2. winadadebis struqtura

a) nominali winadadeba

kad-Si gamoiyofa nominali winadadebis Semdegi ZiriTadi tipebi:

1. il-n + n + Pron.suf :

il-ÔÝiã bÎtu “es saxli misi sacxovrebelia”

il-Òasl mehnata “recxva misi saqmea”

(i)s-sovdagar÷ia ÔayÝta “vaWroba misi cxovrebaa”

2. n-Pronsuf.+n:

165


maÔallatna Ôarræq “Cveni ubania haruki”

3. n-Pronsuf+adj:

havliÝi kiv×r “Cemi karmidamo didia”

kannata Õuâræya “misi patarZali lamazia”

4. il-n+adj:

il-gid×r malÁn “qvabi savsea”

il-Õuãba zÎna “xutba (qadageba meCeTSi) kargia”

5.1. ilÁ (>ilÎ) – Pron.suf.(-Át)+n: .

ilÎynÁt guãun “Cven gvaqvs bamba”

ilÁy riz÷Ýn “me Svilebi myavs”

5.2. ilÁ (>ilÎ) -Pron.suf.(Át)+n-Pron.suf.+adj:

ileynÁt havl×na kiv×r “Cveni karmidamo didia”

5.3 ilÁ (ilÎ)- Pron.suf. (Át)+n+adj:

ileynÁt mÁl kis×r “Cven saqoneli bevri gvyavs”

5.4. ilÁ (>ilÎ)-Pron.suf. (Át) +Prep.+n – Pron.suf.+n

ilÎyna iúbeytna na÷Óa, bÁgir, öanza

“Cven saxlSi gvyavs cxvari, Zroxa (da) Txa ”

ileynÁt iúÓeinÁu ÕizmÁt ÓådÝ kÝna

“Cven jeÁnauSi Zalin bevri saqme (gvaqvs)”

6.1. Pron.pers.+adj:

z×ka Õuâræya “is lamazia”

zÝka ta÷bÁn “is daRlilia”

6.2. Pron.pers.+n+×n+adj:

inta öaÕu×n i sÒ×r “Sen umcrosi Zma xar”

7. Num.+n+prep-Pron.suf.:

salÁs walad ÷and× “me sami biWi myavs”

8. n+Num.+prep.-Pron.suf.:

bint orba ÷and× “me oTxi qaliSvili myavs”

9. adv.+n+ilÎ-pron.suf. (Át):

hÝzir dÝla il×nÁt “axla qveyana Cvenia”

10. Pron.dem.+n – Pron.suf.+n:

166


hÁza abæ umma arab “misi deda (da) mama arabebia (es - misi mama,

deda-arabia)”

11. Pron.dem.+adj:

hÁza Õaf×f “es msubuqia”

12. n+adj:

ÔÝiã Óid×d “saxli axalia”

Ôal×b Ýbiz “rZe TeTria”

13. (il)n+part.pass.:

(il) gid×r maksær “qvabi gatexilia”

(il) b×r maÔfær “Wa gaTxrilia”

14. adv.-Pron.suf.+Prep.+n:

ba÷du f× -l-bÝÒ “zogi (maTgani) baRSia”

15. n+adv-Pron.suf.:

Òaraba fÝgu “xe aris mis zemoT”

16. Pron.pers.+adj+(v)

zÝka baÕ×l (keyyin) “igi Zunwi (iyo)”

17. adv-Pron.suf.+n+(v)

fÝgu havliÝi (hast) “mis zemoT karmidamoa (aris)”

aRniSnuli konstruqciebis gavrcelebis areali kad-Si farToa.

winadadebis wevrebisTvis damaxasiaTebelia poziciuri

cvlilebebi. predikati xSirad ikavebs qvemdebaris adgils da

gvevlineba prepoziciaSi. magaliTad:

meÔnata il-Òasl

“misi saqmea recxva”(Sdr. il-Òasl meÔnata)

ÔayÝta sovdagaria

“misi cxovreba vaWrobaa” (Sdr.: (i)s-sovdagaria ÔayÝta)

malÁn il-gid×r

“savsea qvabi” (Sdr.: il-gid×r malÁn)

mÁl kis×r ileynÁt

“saqoneli bevri (gvyavs)-Cven” (Sdr.: ileynÁt mÁl kis×r)

ÕizmÁt ÓådÝ kÝna ileynÁt iúÓeinÁw

“Zalian bevri saqmea jeÁnauSi, CvenTan” (Sdr.: ileynÁt iúÓeinÁw

ÕizmÁt ÓådÝ kÝna)

167


÷and× salÁs walÁd

“sami biWi myavs me” (Sdr.: salÁs walÁd ÷and×)

winadadebis wevrTa aseTi gadaadgilebis dros xSirad Cndeba

zmnuri Semasmeneli, rac saerTod ar aris ucxo aRniSnuli tipis

konstruqciebisTvis:

bÎtu il ÔÝiã hast “misi sacxovrebeli es saxlia (aris)”

ÔayÝta-s-sordagar×a kÁnaw “misi cxovreba vaWroba iyo”

zmnuri forma (kÁnaw) mravlobiTSi damaxasiaTebelia aseTi

tipis winadadebebisaTvis. poziciaTa cvalebadoba winadadebis

wevrebs Soris naklebadaa damaxasiaTebeli saliteraturo

arabulisaTvis. dialeqtSi igi SeiZleba aixsnas, rogorc enis

Sinagani ganviTarebiT, aseve kontaqtSi myofi enebis gavleniT.

b) kiTxviTi winadadeba

kiTxviTi windadeba iwarmoeba Semdegi nacvalsaxelebiTa da

kiTxviTi nawilakebiT:

1. min “vin?”

2. eâ//iâ “ra?”

3. kim “vin?”

4. nima “ra?”

5. imit “rodis?”

6. iâqÝ “sad?”, “saiT?”, “romeli mimarTulebiT?”

7. li “ratom?”

8. lem×n “visTvis?”

9. kam “ramdeni?”

10. kil “rogor?”

11. wÎn “sad?”

12. Éi “gana?”, “ara?”, “nuTu?”

13. a (xmovnis Semdeg ya) kiTxviTi nawilaki gamoxatavs agreTve

sinanuls, gakvirvebas, aRtacebas.

14. –mi kiTxviTi nawilaki daerTvis sityvas da aniWebs mas

kiTxviT Sinaarss.

15. k× “vin?”

168


16. É× “ra?”

CamoTvlili formebis umravlesoba arabuli warmomavlobisaa.

aqve gamoiyofa uzbekuri da tajikuri nasesxobebi, romelTa

funqcionirebis areali dialeqtSi SezRuduli ar aris.

informantebi arabuli kiTxviTi nacvalsaxelebisa da

nawilakebis paralelurad xSirad iyeneben uzbekur da tajikur

formebs. esenia: kim uzb. “vin”, nima uzb. “ra?”, Éi uzb. “gana?”,

“nuTu”, “ara?”, a (ya) uzb.-taj. kiTxviTi nawilaki, k× taj. “vin?”, É×

taj. “ra?”. m× tajikuri kiTxviTi nawilakia, warmoadgens

bolosarTs, aniWebs winadadebas kiTxviT Sinaarss. igi

warmodgenilia uzbekurSic. mi nawilakiani konstruqciebi

SeiZleba CaiTvalos Suaaziur arabulSi kiTxviTi winadadebis

gavrcelebul saxeobad:

bÝzÝr ib÷×r hast-mi?

“gana [aq] aqlemis bazaria?”

z×ka Õuâræya hast-mi?

“gana is lamazia?”

zogjer informantis mier ucxouri formis gamoyenebisas saqme

gvaqvs kodis SecvlasTan an SerevasTan. aseT SemTxvevaSi

nasesxoba unda ganvixiloT ara rogorc dialeqtSi

damkvidrebuli ucxo enobrivi erTeuli, aramed rogorc kodis

gadarTva. es movlena damaxasiaTebelia kontaqtSi myofi

enebisaTvis.

qvemoT warmovadgenT kiTxviTi martivi nominali winadadebis

struqturul modelebs magaliTebiTurT:

1. min+Pers.pron?

min inta? “vin xar Sen?”

2. eâ + n?

eâ Õabar? “ra ambavia?”

3. nima eâ + n (+v)?

nima eâ ÷amal (hast)? “ra saqmea?”

4. imit//imta+n?

169


imit//imta bidÁye?

daiwyeba?”

“rodis aris dasawyisi?”, “rodis

5. min iâqo + Pron.dem.+n?

min iâqo hÁma walad? “saidan (aris) es biWi?”

6. lem×n Pron.dem+n

lem×n hama hÝÖã? “visia es saxli?”

7. kam + n?

kam waÕt? “romeli saaTia?”

8. wÎn + n?

wÎn mu÷allim? “sad aris maswavlebeli?”

9. n + wÎn – Pronsuf.

mu÷allim wÎnu? “maswavlebeli _ sad aris (is)?”

10. n – Éi + adv

sobÕÝz-Éi hamÁna? “(gana) meurneoba aq (aris)?”

11. n- Éi+adj?

sobÕÝz-Éi qad×m? “(gana) meurneoba Zvelia?”

12. n+adj-mi?

hÝiã qad×m-mi? "saxli Zvelia?"

13. n +iún + (v) – mi?

ÀfÀndi iúbÎt (hast)-mi? “efendi saxlSia?”

14. n (Pron.pers)+ iún + ki//Éi (min –ki//min-Éi) + (ma) part.

ÀfÀndi iúbawÝra min-ki min-Éi (ma) fÁhim “efendim bavoraSi vin

(da) ra [e.i. iqauri ambebi] (ar) icis”.

kad-Si fiqsirdeba winadadebis mTavar wevrTa poziciis Secvla

winadadebisaTvis kiTxviT Sinaarsis misaniWeblad:

z×ka Õuâræya “is lamazia”

Õuâræya z×ka? “lamazia, is?”

Òaraba fÝgu “xe aris mis zemoT”

fÝgu Òaraba? “(gana) mis zemoT aris xe?”

170


zogierTi konstruqcia uzbekuris analogiuria, rac

xangrZlivi enobrivi kontaqtis Sedegia. mag., hÝiã qad×m-mi?

“saxli Zvelia?” Sdr. uzb. yæ kammami? “saxli didia?”

kad-Si kiTxviTi Sinaarsi winadadebas SeiZleba mieniWos

intonaciis SecvliT, kiTxviTi nawilakis gareSec:

Óeraqul hanÁke? “jerakuli iq aris?”

z×ka mu÷allime? “is maswavlebelia?”

z×ka bÝi binta hast -mi? “is beis qaliSvilia?”

kad-Si kiTxviTi frazis melodika uSualo kavSirSia

winadadebaSi kiTxviTi nawilakis an nebismieri kiTxviTi

elementis poziciasTan. toni maRalia kiTxviT sityvasTan.

winadadebis danarCeni wevrebi daRmavali toniT warmoiTqmis.

intensivis gamoxatvis mizniT frazaSi sityvis gadasmas Tan

axlavs tonis aweuloba winadadebis dasawyisSi. aseT SemTxvevaSi

Tavidanve TvalsaCinoa gansxvaveba TxrobiT da kiTxviT

winadadebas Soris. aseTi winadadebis melodika daRmavalia.

sqematurad kiTxviTi winadadebebis ZiriTadi tipebis melodika

Semdegnairad gamoiyureba.

min iâqo hama walad?

ÀfÀndi iúbawÝra min-ki , min – Éi ma idr×

ÔÝiã qad×m-mi

ÀfÀndi iúbÎt hast-mi?

frazis bolos Sesityveba dabali toniT warmoiTqmeba:

farasak wenu? inta gæla “sad aris Seni cxeni, miTxari!”

frazis melodika SeiZleba dairRves winadadebaSi sityvebisa

da kiTxviTi nawilakebis gadaadgilebiT. am SemTxvevaSic daculia

171


ZiriTadi principi, romlis Tanaxmad, kiTxviT elementebTan toni

mudam aweulia.

kad-Si kiTxvisaTvis gamoyenebulia Turquli nawilaki mi. mi –

nawilakiani formebi SeiZleba CaiTvalos Suaaziur arabulSi

kiTxviTi winadadebis maxasiaTeblad:

bÝzÝr ib÷×r hast-mi? “gana aqlemis bazaria?”

z×ka Õuâræya hast-mi? “gana is lamazia?”

g) uaryofiTi winadadeba

uaryofiTi winadadeba kad-Si iwarmoeba uaryofiTi

nacvalsaxeliT, nawilakebiTa da gamoTqmebiT, romlebic umetes

SemTxvevaSi gvevlineba Tavkidur poziciaSi. kad-Si

funqcionirebs uaryofis gamomxatveli Semdegi elementebi:

1. mÁ “ara”, “ar”, “vera”, “ver”

2. mamin

“veraferi”

“aravin”, “veravin”, “araferi”,

3. mÁhad (


mamin iúÔÝÖã “saxlSi aravin ar aris”

4. mamin+part

mamin ÓÁi “aravin modis”

aRniSnuli konstruqciebisaTvis damaxasiaTebelia poziciuri

cvlilebebi, rac metyvelebis dros Cveulebrivad aRiqmeba da arc

Tu iSviaTad, moqmedebis intensivis gamoxatvas emsaxureba: ÓÁi

mamin! an ÓÁi gaããaÔad! “aravinac ar mosula!”. zogjer intensivis

gadmosacemad uaryofiTis ori forma erTad gvxvdeba: mamin ma

iÓa! “aravinac ar mosula!”.

$ 3. verbali winadadeba

verbali winadadebis umartives saxeobad ganixileba zmnis

perfeqtivis da imperfeqtivis formebi, romlebic subieqtsa da

obieqts gamoxataven da saTanado markerebiT arian aRWurvilni:

katabÆnna “daweres maT” (md.)

lihigawÁt “miaRwies maT” (mamr.)

i÷Ýbir il-bÝg “gadadis [is] baRSi”

winadadebaTa am jgufs miekuTvneba rTuli formebi, romlebic

saliteraturo arabuli enisagan gansxvavebul drois

kategoriebs gamoxataven.

1. ganusazRvreli awmyo:

garayÁn isi “is wera-kiTxvis mcodnea, wignieria”

÷amalÁn isi “is muSaobs” (=mas aqvs samsaxuri)

2. ganusazRvreli namyo:

âÁribni “me damilevia”, anÁ mÁ âÁribni “me ar damilevia”

kÁtibni “me damiweria”, anÁ mÁ kÁtibni “me ar damiweria”

3. gansazRvruli awmyo:

iÓi nÁyim “is modis (axla, am wuTSi)”

iãbuÕ nÁyim “is acxobs (axla, am momentSi)”

4. rTuli (dauyovnebeli) momavali:

ta-noÒdi “wavideT (axla)”

173


ta-nÝkul “vWamoT (axla)”

ganusazRvreli namyoTi gadmocemuli moqmedeba kad-Si

qarTuli TurmeobiTis analogiuria. drois am formisa da

gansazRvruli awmyos gaCena kad-Si uzbekuri enis gavlenas unda

mieweros (117, gv. 142).

gangrZobiTobiT xasiaTdeba formebi, romlebic kÁn damxmare

zmnasTan erTad warsuls gamoxataven:

kÎn igræn “isini kiTxulobdnen”

kÎn iÝÕuzæ “isini iRebdnen”

gardamavali zmna kad-Si aRWurvilia nacvalsaxelovani

sufiqsiT. igi winadadebaSi gamoxatavs obieqts. im SemTxvevaSic ki,

rodesac winadadebaSi damateba warmodgenilia, gardamaval zmnas

obieqtis gamomxatveli nacvalsaxelovani sufiqsi mainc daerTvis.

es movlena SeiZleba CaiTvalos kad-is zmnuri winadadebis erTerT

maxasiaTeblad:

illay ba÷asni

“gamomigzavna (me)”

boi binta il-walad ma-nta

“beim biWs Tavisi qaliSvili ar misca (ar misca mas)”

vinaidan gardamavali zmna mudmivad aRWurvilia

nacvalsaxelovani sufiqsiT, subieqtTan erTad obieqtic

gamoxatulia da aseTi formebi orpirian zmnebad SeiZleba

ganvixiloT. gardamavlobis nebismier SemTxvevaSi

nacvalsaxelovani sufiqsiT fiqsacia unda CaiTvalos kad-is

zmnuri sistemis erT-erT maxasiaTeblad. igi sayuradReboa

verbaluri meqanizmis ganviTarebis zogadi tendenciebis

Sesaswavlad (117, gv. 147). sayuradReboa aRniSnuli movlena im

TvalsazrisiTac, rom mas moeZebneba paraleli kavkasiur enebSi.

verbal winadadebaSi qvemdebaris gamoxatvis funqcia ekisreba

arsebiT saxels, zedsarTavs, piris nacvalsaxels,

nacvalsaxelovan sufiqsebs da ricxviT saxels.

damatebis gamomxatvelia arsebiTi saxeli, nacvalsaxelovani

sufiqsebi, agreTve zmnizedebi da damxmare sityvebi.

174


verbali winadadebis Semasmeneli gamoixateba zmnis martivi da

rTuli formebiT (kompozitebiT, drois gansazRvruli formebiT,

kÁna damxmare zmnisa da misi msgavsi formebis saSualebiT).

$ 4. sityvaTa rigi winadadebaSi

sityvaTa rigi winadadebaSi ar aris regulirebuli

saliteraturo arabulis Sesabamisad. nacvlad Tanmimdevrobisa –

PSO (Semasmeneli – qvemdebare - damateba) ZiriTadad

warmodgenilia Semdegi rigebi:

1. SPO – qvemdebare – zmnuri Semasmeneli – damateba

2. SOP – qvemdebare – damateba – zmnuri Semasmeneli

3. OSP – damateba – qvemdebare – zmnuri Semasmeneli

4. OPS – damateba – zmnuri Semasmeneli – qvemdebare

iSviaTad gvxvdeba Semdegi tipebi:

a. PSO – zmnuri Semasmeneli –qvemdebare – damateba

b. POS – zmnuri Semasmeneli – damateba – qvemdebare.

am SemTxvevaSi zmnas ekisreba moqmedebis intensivobis

gamoxatva.

ganvixilavT TiToeul maTgans cal-calke.

1. SPO – qvemdebare-zmnuri Semasmeneli-damateba (Subject-

Predicate-Object). aRniSnuli Tanmimdevroba gvxvdeba

buxarul dialeqtSic. igi damaxasiaTebelia sxva arabuli

dialeqtebisTvisac. kad-Si gamoirCeva gavrcelebis naklebi

sixSiriT.

magaliTebi:

ÒulÝm fataÔ il-bÁb

“biWma gaaRo kari”

il-Õaã×b ÷abar iúmimbar

“xatibi kaTedraze avida”

2. SOP – qvemdebare-damateba-zmnuri Semasmeneli

175


winadadebis es tipi farTodaa gavrcelebuli kad-Si.

Txrobis dros informantebi xSirad warmoTqvamen sityvebs

winadadebaSi aRniSnuli TanmimdevrobiT. Semasmeneli

winadadebis boloSi saerTod damaxasiaTebelia

tajikurisaTvis. ar aris gamoricxuli am mxriv kad-is

winadadebis struqturaze tajikuri enis zegavlena:

poâo iúwaz×rÁta áayaÔa

“faSam (Tavis) vezirebs uxmo”

ÉupÝn iúbÝÒ ÷abar

“mwyemsi baRSi gadaZvra”

sawdogÁr iúbuÕÝro daÕal

“sovdagari buxaraSi Sevida”

sawdogÁr ÒulÝm minsayyl-sayal: eâÁt ÓayyibinÁt keyyinÁt?

“sovdagarma biWs hkiTxa: ra moitaneT?”

3. OSP – damateba – qvemdebare – zmnuri Semasmeneli

damatebis prepoziciaSi dasma SeiZleba ganxilul iqnes

kad-is erT-erT ZiriTad sintaqsur Taviseburebad. msgavsi

konstruqciebis arseboba dialeqtSi adasturebs mis

daSorebas saliteraturo arabulTan, rac xangrZlivi

periodis ganmavlobaSi mSobliuri enobrivi garemosgan

mowyvetiT aris ganpirobebuli. winadadebaSi wevrebis aseTi

Tavisufali rigis Camoyalibeba dialeqtis uzbekurTan

xangrZliv enobriv kontaqts unda mieweros. amasTanave, ar

gamovricxavT enis Sinagani ganviTarebis tendencias, rasac

SeeZlo gamoewvia aRniSnuli movlena. magaliTebis mixedviT

Tu vimsjelebT, aRniSnuli tipis konstruqciebSi gvaqvs

xazgasma obieqtze, rac misi Tavkiduri poziciiT aris

ganpirobebuli:

iúgaããiâ ma ÷andu pÝâÝ sayal: inta gæla?

“Raribs (arafris mqones) faSam hkiTxa: - Sen Tqvi es?”

iúriwoyÁt sawÁnhum, iúriwoyÁt Õabar igælæn, fad adem×n Õas×s kÎyyin

176


“[rogorc Zvel] TqmulebebSi ambavs yvebian, iyo erTi Zunwi

kaci.

iúdarwÝza walad ugaf

“kibesTan biWi SeCerda”

iúmarw× bÝi áayaÔ áÝr

“mrwyvels beim dauZaxa (moixmo)”

4. OPS – damateba – zmnuri Semasmeneli –qvemdebare

winadadebis aRniSnuli tipi, Cems xelT arsebuli

masalebis Tanaxmad, ar gvxvdeba sxva arabul dialeqtebSi.

ar aris igi warmodgenili arc mesopotamiur arabulSi,

romelTanac saerTo aqvs Suaaziur arabuls (n i b e r g i,

w e r e T e l i 185, 118). mesopotamiur arabulSi qÁl-is da

gÁl-is dialeqtebis gamoyofis Semdeg SesaZlebeli gaxda

aRniSnuli regionis qalaqelTa da beduinebis metyvelebis

TaviseburebaTa aRnusxva (h. b l a n k i 144). miuxedavad aseTi

TvalsaCinoebisa, erayis arabul dialeqtSi konstruqcia

OPS ar dafiqsirebula da arc Tanamedrove literaturaSi

ar aris gamovlenili. zemoTqmulidan gamomdinare,

aRniSnuli tipis winadadeba SeiZleba CaiTvalos Suaaziuri

arabulis damaxasiaTeblad (197).

magaliTebi buxaruli dialeqtidan:

iúgåliqoqo sayal z×b-ÓondÝr

“mgelma yvavils hkiTxa” (yvavils hkiTxa mgelma)

ilu ãalabÁn su tangÁt

“mas mosTxova vercxlis fuli”

iúãangÁt ma uda÷ ×du

“fuli ar aiRo” (fuls xeli ar daado)

magaliTebi kaSkadariuli dialeqtidan:

iúÔÝyiã daÕal aÕu×n iúzÒ×r

177


“umcrosi Zma saxlSi Sevida (saxlSi Sevida umcrosi Zma)”

iúbint Õuâræya âÁfaha il-walad

“Wabukma mzeTunaxavs Sexeda (lamaz asuls Sexeda Wabukma)”

iúdarb gaãa÷ il-faras

“cxenma gza gadaWra (gza gadaWra cxenma)”

brunvis niSnebis moSlam da sityvebis Tavisufalma

monacvleobam winadadebaSi aucilebeli gaxada Suaaziur

arabulSi damatebisaTvis specialuri markeris Seqmna.

gansakuTrebiT saWiro gaxda markeri iseTi tipis konstruqciebSi,

sadac obieqti Tavkidur poziciaSi imyofeba. aseTi funqcia ikisra

i – formantma, romelic zemomoyvanil magaliTebSi damatebas

miuTiTebs. saerTod, i -s gavrcelebis areali kad-Si farToa.

misTvis ucxo ar aris naTesaobiTi da braldebiTi brunvebis

gamoxatva, -Tan, -ze, -Si Tandebuliani formebis gadmocema.

magaliTebi:

pÝâÝ iúÒulÝm sayaÔ

“faSam biWs dauZaxa”

bÝy iúbÎta ÒadÁ-mad

“bei saxlSi wavida”

iúnorbÝn ÀfÀndi ãalaÔ

“efendi kibeze avida”

iúbÝy ÉåpÝn mad

“mwyemsi beisTan wavida”

CamoTvlili konstruqciebi Seadgenen winadadebaTa 6 saxeobas

– esenia: SPO, SOP, OSP, OPS, PSO da POS. aqedan saliteraturo

arabulisaTvis damaxasiaTebelia PSO. SedarebiT iSviaTia

saliteraturo arabulSi POS-s tipis konstruqciebi. danarCeni

zemoTganxiluli tipebidan mxolod Suaaziur arabulSi gvxvdeba

OPS da OSP. SPO da SOP damaxasiaTebelia rogorc aRmosavluri,

ise dasavluri arabuli dialeqtebisaTvis. aqve unda aRiniSnos,

rom ganxiluli saxeobebi sayuradReboa enaTa tipologiuri

178


kvlevis TvalsazrisiTac. kad-Si gamoyofili winadadebis wevrTa

Tanmimdevrobebi TiTqmis universaluria da araerT enaSi gvxvdeba.

am mxriv Cveni masala SeiZleba Sedarebul iqnes Turqul da

indoevropul enebTan, sadac winadadebebSi fiqsirdeba Cven mier

ganxiluli Tanmimdevrobebi.

$ 5. rTuli winadadeba

a) Tanwyobili winadadeba

kad-Si fiqsirdeba rTuli Tanwyobili winadadeba. igi Sedgeba

ori an meti martivi winadadebisgan, romlebic kavSiriT

erTiandebian:

anÁ iúbÝzÝr Òadeyt u hamnÁk ib÷×r âtareyt

“me bazarSi wavedi da iq aqlemi viyide”

muÔammadqæl iúhama qiâlÝq birgad×r kÁnaw (u) zÝka arabÉa kÎyin idr×

“muhamadyuli yiSlaRSi brigadiri iyo da man arabuli icoda”

damaxasiaTebelia kavSiris amovardna:

anÁ iúbÝzÝr Òadeyt, hamnÁk ib÷×r âtareyt

“me bazarSi wavedi, iq aqlemi viyide”

muÔammadqæl iúhama qiâlÝq birgad×r kÁnaw, zÝka arabÉa kÎyin idr×

“muhamadyuli yiSlaRSi brigadiri iyo, man arabuli icoda”

b) qvewyobili winadadeba

rTul winadadebaSi fiqsirdeba Semdegi kavSirebi:

bas “magram”, “oRond”, “oRondac”, “Tumca”, “mxolod”

lÁken


imit “roca”

iâqo “saidan”

hatta “ise, rom”, “sanam ar”, “manamde”, “sanam”

gamoiyofa Semdegi formebi:

qabla an “sanam ar”

qabla mÁ “manamde, sanam”

min iâqo “saidanac”

iúhamÁna “sadac”

ba÷d mÁ “mas Semdeg, rac”

CamoTvlili formebidan ki tajikuridan aris nasesxebi. igi kad-

Si farTod aris gavrcelebuli. misi mniSvnelobaa - “rom”,

“romelic”. -ki gamoiyeneba rTul qvewyobil winadadebaSi

mTavari da damokidebuli winadadebebis dasakavSireblad.

analogiur funqcias asrulebs igi uzbekurSic. uzbekurSi

ZiriTadad -ki-s saSualebiT xdeba qvewyobili winadadebis mTavari

wevris damokidebulTan dakavSireba. im SemTxvevaSi, Tu - ki

daerTvis rTul qvewyobil winadadebaSi mTavari winadadebis

Semasmenels, iwereba masTan gadabmulad, xolo damokidebuli

winadadebis SemasmenelTan mZimiT gamoiyofa. Cven mas defisiT

gamovyofT: gÁl-ki “uTxra, rom”.

magaliTebi kad-idan:

ugæb pÝâÝ gÁl-ki iú÷andu hama walad Ó×bu!”

“Semdeg faSam brZana, rom is biWi misTvis mieyvanaT!”

ÀfÀndi iúhamsÝyta gÁl-ki: “iúnarbÝn limÁ ãala÷et?”

“efendim mezobels hkiTxa: “-kibeze ratom ar axvedi?”

riwÝyÁt isæn-ki fad balad podâÝta wai doniâmÆnda iúfad gÝÆ ãal÷×nÁt

“gadmocemebi (Zveli Tqmulebebi) metyveleben, rom erT qveyanaSi

[erTi] fadiSahi da misi mrCeveli erT qveyanas miadgnen”.

kad-is winadadebis struqturisaTvis damaxasiaTebelia

damokidebuli winadadebis CarTva mTavarSi. aseT SemTxvevaSi

mTavari winadadebis Semasmeneli ikavebs rTuli qvewyobili

winadadebis bolokidur pozicias:

ugæb pÝâÝ – “hama walad iú÷andi Ó×bu! – gÁl

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Semdeg faSam – “es biWi momgvareT!” - brZana

ÀfÀndi iúhamsÝyta – “iúnorbÝn limÁ ãala÷et?” gÁl

efendim mezobels – “kibeze ratom axvedi?” - hkiTxa

bÝi binta iúhama walad – “anÁ umm× abæya hama Õabar ma igdir

agælya” – gÁlet

“beis asulma (am) Wabuks uTxra: “me ar SemiZlia vuTxra dedas da

mamas es ambavi”. sityvasityviT: “beis asulma (am) Wabuks – “me ar

SemiZlia dedas [da] mamas es ambavi vuambo - uTxra”.

aRsaniSnavia, rom arsebobs mTavar winadadebaSi damokidebulis

CarTvis wesi, romlis Tanaxmad mTavari winadadebis qvemdebare da

damateba inarCuneben Tavkidur pozicias:

pÝâÝ iúwalad – “anÁ ma adr×” – gÁl

“faSam biWs – “me ar vici”-uTxra”

kad-Si winadadebisaTvis damaxasiaTebelia wevris

bolokiduridan Tavkidur poziciaSi gadasma. im SemTxvevaSi, Tu

logikuri maxvili moudis winadadebis romelime wevrs, man

SeiZleba Seicvalos pozicia:

iúgalbi anÁ adr×, imit inti tiÓi iú÷and×

“guli migrZnobs, rodis moxval CemTan (Cems gulSi vici, rodis

moxval Sen CemTan)”

sityvaTa SedarebiT Tavisufali rigi winadadebaSi

damaxasiaTebelia uzbekurisTvis. SesaZloa, analogiuri

tendencia kad-Si dialeqtis sintaqsur struqturaze uzbekuri

enis gavleniT iyos ganpirobebuli.

$ 6. qvewyobili winadadebis saxeobebi

rTuli qvewyobili winadadeba, iseve rogorc saliteraturo

arabulSi, Sedgeba mTavari da damokidebuli winadadebisgan.

makavSirebeli elementebi gansazRvraven qvewyobis tips.

kaSkadarieli arabebi efeqturad iyeneben maT metyvelebis dros.

rogorc zemoT mivuTiTe, gavrcelebis sifarToviT xasiaTdeba

tajikur-uzbekuri -ki elementi. mis garda gvxvdeba yvela zemoT

CamoTvlili makavSirebeli elementi da iSviaTad ÷iz “Tu”,

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omelic Ôarræk-is metyvelebaSi davafiqsire. kavSiri mTavar da

damokidebul winadadebas Soris xorcieldeba

zemodasaxelebuli makavSirebeli elementebiT.

CamoTvlili formebidan aRsaniSnavia – ki “rom”. igi tajikuruzbekuri

kavSiria.

a) gansazRvrebiTi damokidebuli winadadeba

kad-Si mxolod ramdenime SemTxvevaSi davafiqsireT

gansazRvrebiTi damokidebuli winadadeba. sityva “romelic”

TiTqmis ar gvxvdeba. bawÝra-Si Caviwere Semdegi winadadeba:

waladÁn iúzÒ×r rÁÔ, li ÉÝi ÓÁb

“umcrosi biWi wavida, romelmac Cai moitana”

am SemTxvevaSi li-s mniSvnelobaa “romelmac” da ara “raTa”. biWs

ukve motanili hqonda Cai, rodesac informantma aRniSnuli

winadadeba warmoTqva. sxvisi Canaweri rom wamekiTxa, am

winadadebas Semdegnairad vTargmnidi: “umcrosi biWi wavida Cais

mosatanad (raTa Cai moetana)”. rogorc stumarma da procesis

uSualo monawilem, am SemTxvevaSi, li davafiqsire mniSvnelobiT

“romelmac”. igi sxva SemTxvevaSi ar Semxvedria.

zemoaRniSnulidan gamomdinare, gansazRvrebiT damokidebul

winadadebas kad-Si metad aRar Sevexebi da ganvixilav damatebiT,

adgilisa da drois garemoebiT winadadebebs.

b) damatebiTi damokidebuli winadadeba

damatebiT damokidebul winadadebaSi mTavari winadadeba

damokidebuls ukavSirdeba -ki-s saSualebiT. damatebiTi

winadadeba mosdevs zmnur Semasmenels. aseTi wyoba

damaxasiaTebelia saliteraturo arabuli enisTvisac, sadac

damatebiTi winadadeba damatebis msgavsad, yovelTvis

postpoziciaSia.

magaliTebi kad-idan:

pÝâÝ âÁf-ki, ma Õazaw bint Õuâræya iúbaladu

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“faSam dainaxa, rom ar waiyvanes [maT] mzeTunaxavi (lamazi

asuli) TavianT qveyanaSi”.

SeiZleba aRniSnuli tipis winadadebaSi mTavari winadadebis

Semasmeneli gadavides damokidebuli winadadebis boloSi.

Semasmenlis aseTi gadasma damaxasiaTebelia kad-isTvis:

pÝâÝ, bint Õuâræya iúbalada ma Õazaw, âÁf-ki.

rogorc magaliTidan Cans, damatebiTi winadadebis damateba

gansazRvrebiTurT gadmovida prepoziciaSi da aRmoCnda mTavari

winadadebis qvemdebaris Semdeg. rac Seexeba mTavari winadadebis

Semasmenels, mas makavSirebeli –ki elementis nacvlad SeiZleba

daerTos nacvalsaxelovani sufiqsi:

pÝâÝ, bint Õuâræya iúbalada ma Õazaw, âÁfÁ. winadadebis

sityvasityviTi Targmani Semdegnairad gamoiyureba:

“faSam, [is, rom maT] lamazi asuli TavianT qveyanaSi ar

waiyvanes – dainaxa [naxa sakuTari TvaliT]”.

g) adgilis garemoebiTi damokidebuli winadadeba

adgilis garemoebiTi damokidebuli winadadebis

makavSirebeli elementebia wÎn “sadac”, “sad”, iúâqÝ “saidan”, min

iâqo “saidanac”, iúhamÁna “sadac”, “iqac”.

damokidebuli winadadeba mTavar winadadebasTan mimarTebaSi

SeiZleba iyos. rogorc postpoziciaSi, aseve prepoziciaSic.

CamoTvlili kavSirebi win uZRvian damokidebul winadadebas:

ÀfÀndi iúbÝzÝr mad, wÎn-iúâqÝ ib÷×r âtara

“efendi bazarSi wavida, sadac aqlemi iyida”

aRsaniSnavia ori formis wÎn-iúâqÝ Serwyma mniSvnelobiT

“sadac”, “saidanac”. aseTi xelovnuri kompozitebi

damaxasiaTebelia kad-isaTvis.

aRniSnuli tipis winadadebaSi mTavari winadadebis Semasmeneli

ar gadadis damokidebuli winadadebis boloSi, rogorc es gvaqvs

damatebiT qvewyobil winadadebaSi.

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d) drois garemoebiTi damokidebuli qvewyobili winadadeba

drois garemoebiT damokidebul winadadebaSi kavSiri mTavar

da damokidebul winadadebas Soris xorcieldeba Semdegi

makavSirebeli elementebis saSualebiT: imit “roca”, hatta

“manamde”, “sanam, ar”, ba÷da ma “mas Semdeg, rac”, ugæb//ogæb ma

“mas Semdeg, rac”.

damokidebuli winadadeba SeiZleba iyos rogorc prepoziciaSi,

aseve postpoziciaSi:

imit anÁ iúmu÷allim iúdil arabÉa Ó×t, zÝka iúdarb qaããapÝi ãalaÔ

“roca me arabuli enis maswavlebelTan mivedi, igi katapois(ken)

gzas daadga”

ziklÝn iúmad×na dawwÝr sawæ, kis×r dawwÝr sÁwæ, hatta il-bint iúfad

Ôoyyiã×n kb×r âÁfaw

“maT qalaqSi eZebes, bevri eZebes, sanam ar ipoves asuli erT

sasaxleSi (did saxlSi)”

áÝÔb il-bÁgir il-gidir ugæb ma âtara, iúbÎta ÒadÁ-mad

“mas Semdeg rac Zroxis patronma qvabi iyida, saxlSi wavida”.

e) pirobiT damokidebuli winadadeba

am tipis damokidebul winadadebebSi makavSirebel elements

warmoadgens izÁ:

izÁ waáal zinãÁÓ, ilbis ×n gabÁya

“Tu daiWers yinvebs, Caicvi [uzbekuri] xalaTi”.

saliteraturo arabuli enisgan gansxvavebiT, sadac realur,

anu ganxorcielebad pirobas gamoxatavs öin “Tu” nawilaki, xolo

ararealur pirobas, survils – law “Tu”, “rom”, kad-Si, orive

SemTxvevaSi, kavSiri iza gamoiyeneba.

pirobiTi winadadeba SeiZleba Segvxvdes kavSiris gareSec. am

mxriv, kad-Si saliteraturo arabulis analogiuri viTarebaa

asaxuli :

daÕÁli, tufraÒ “Semodi, gagexardeba”

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v) miznis garemoebiTi damokidebuli winadadeba

am tipis winadadebaSi kavSiris funqcias asrulebs li:

iÓ× nÁyyim li-ÓawÝb igæl “(is) modis (axla), pasuxis saTqmelad”.

moqmedebis miznobrioba SeiZleba gadmoices kavSiris gareSec:

ta-noÒdi, niâtera, noÒsa “wavideT, [raTa] viyidoT [da] wamoviRoT

(is)”.

z) frazis melodika

rTuli qvewyobili winadadebis frazis melodika ori

maxasiaTebliT ganisazRvreba. mTavari winadadebis tipi

daRmavalia, xolo damokidebulis – aRmavali. grafikulad es

Semdegnairad gamoixateba:

agar mÁ imæt zÝka iúqiâlÝqe iaÒÁde

"Tu ar mokvdeba, [maSin] igi dabrundeba yiSlaRSi".

ganxiluli sintaqsuri konstruqciebi da winadadebaTa tipebi

xasiaTdebian saliteraturo arabuli enisagan gansxvavebuli

niSnebiT. kaSkadariuli arabulis, rogorc periferiuli arabuli

dialeqtis sintaqsuri Taviseburebebi mniSvnelovanwilad aris

ganpirobebuli mis uzbekur da tajikur enobriv garemosTan

xangrZlivi kontaqtebiT.

185


Tavi V

leqsika

arabuli enis kaSkadariuli dialeqti xasiaTdeba leqsikuri

fondis mravalplastovani struqturiT. miuxedavad arabuli

samyarosgan mravalsaukunovani izolaciisa, dialeqtis leqsika

ZiriTadad semituria. mWidro kontaqti tajikur da

gansakuTrebiT, uzbekur enasTan garkveul zemoqmedebas axdens

kaSkadariel arabTa metyvelebaze. zogadad kad-isaTvis

damaxasiaTebelia leqsikur erTeulTa semantizacia, enis

midrekileba ekonomiurobisadmi da calkeul individTa

metyvelebis gavlena.

kad-Si gamoiyofa ori ZiriTadi leqsikuri jgufi: 1. arabuli

leqsika; 2. ucxouri nasesxobani. pirveli jgufi Tavis mxriv iyofa

leqsikur plastebad. esenia: a) saliteraturo arabulTan saerTo

leqsika; b) dialeqturi leqsika. meore jgufis arseboba aixsneba

kontaqtSi myofi enebis gavleniT. aq, Tanmimdevrulad, gamoiyofa

Semdegi nasesxobebi: a) uzbekuri; b) tajikuri; g) nawilobriv

Turqmenuli da rusuli.

$ 1. arabuli leqsika

arabuli leqsikuri jgufi ZiriTadia. igi gansazRvravs

dialeqtis leqsikur SesaZleblobebs.

arabuli leqsikidan gamoiyofa saerTo semituri leqsika: iæm

“dRe”, sana “weli”, ræÔ “suli”, öism “saxeli”, dam “sisxli”,

isnÎn “ori”, salÁs “sami”, ÷aâara “aTi”, mÁt “mokvda”, zabaÔ “dakla”,

sama÷ “gaigona” ulidet “dabada”, “Sva”, katab “dawera”, rakab

“amxedrda” da sxv.

arabuli leqsikuri masala SesaZleblobas iZleva gamoiyos

Semdegi jgufebi:

naTesaobis aRmniSvneli sityvebi, sxeulis nawilebi, bunebis

movlenebi da astronomiuli warmodgenebi, Sinauri cxovelebi da

frinvelebi, sasoflo-sameurneo kulturebi, yofiTi leqsika da

sxva.

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$ 2. mniSvnelobaTa modifikaciebi

dialeqtSi dasturdeba mniSvnelobaTa modifikaciebi. arabul

sityvaTa garkveuli nawili gvxvdeba ara im mniSvnelobiT,

romliTac cnobilia saliteraturo arabulSi: âiÓÁr “balaxi”,

ÔÝiã “oTaxi”, gadir “fasi”, dæla “dovlaTi”. (Sdr. Sesabamisi

sityvebi saliteraturo arabulSi: âaÓÁratun “xe” ÔÁöiãun “kedeli”,

qadrun “zoma”, “sidide”, “xarisxi”, “Rirseba”, dawlatun

“saxelmwifo”). amas ganapirobebs erTi mxriv, dialeqtis SigniT

droTa ganmavlobaSi momxdari semantikuri cvlilebani, xolo

meore mxriv, uzbekuri da tajikuri enebidan ukve mniSvnelobamodificirebuli

arabuli sityvebis sesxeba.

$ 3. dialeqturi leqsika

dialeqturi leqsika. ZiriTadad, warmodgenilia aRmosavlur

arabul dialeqtebSi cnobili sityvebiT: mÝi “wyali”, waÕt

“dro”, gal×l “cota”, faham “gaigo”, âarab “dalia”.

am mxriv kad-s bevri saerTo aqvs erayul da siriul arabul

dialeqtebTan.

aqve unda aRiniSnos Sua aziis meore, buxarul dialeqtTan

saerTo leqsika, romlis arsebobas, ZiriTadad, SeiZleba

ganapirobebdes orive dialeqtis erT regionSi yofna: ãanga

“vercxlis fuli”, guãun “bamba”, gÁba “xalaTi”, pÝâÝ “faSa”.

kad-Si calke fenad gamoiyofa saerTo arabuli dialeqturi

leqsika: eâ “ra”, min “vin”, âÁf “Sexeda”, ÒÁb “moitana”. miuxedavad

arabuli samyarosgan mravalsaukunovani izolaciisa, kad-ma aseTi

leqsikuri erTeulebis garkveuli nawili Semoinaxa. SesaZloa,

garkveuli odenoba msgavsi sityvebisa dialeqtSi damoukideblad

gaCnda, rac aixsneba enobrivi ganviTarebis zogadi tendenciebiT:

min


kaSkadariuli dialeqtizmebi:

arabuli dialeqturi leqsikis garkveul nawils Seadgens

sakuTriv kaSkadariuli dialeqtizmebi, romlebic sxvagan ar

gvxvdeba: zÝka mamr. “is”, z×ka md. “is”, z×klÝn mamr. “isini”, ziklÆnna md.

“isini”. es formebi klasikur arabulSi arsebul ËÁka-s

ukavSirdebian da warmoadgenen dialeqtSi piris nacvalsaxelTa

damoukidebeli ganviTarebis saintereso Sedegs.

$ 4. nasesxobebi

meore leqsikuri jgufi kad-Si warmodgenilia, ZiriTadad,

uzbekuri da tajikuri, xolo nawilobriv, Turqmenuli da rusuli

nasesxobebiT. aRniSnul leqsikur erTeulTa arseboba dialeqtSi

ganapiroba teritoriulma siaxlovem, mravalsaukunovanma

kontaqtebma da amasTanave, kaSkadariel arabTa cxovrebis

Tanamedrove pirobebma. sainteresoa aRiniSnos, rom Tuki sparsul

da Turqulenovan fenebSi xangrZlivi drois ganmavlobaSi

farTod mkvidrdeboda arabuli leqsika, kad-Si piriqiT gvaqvs,

nasesxebma sityvebma dialeqtSi ganicades arabizacia.

magaliTad, tajikuri sityvidan pokusa “sufTa” miviReT zmnis

piriani forma apaksa(h) “vwmend mas”, rac warmoadgens enis mier

sakuTari gramatikuli warmoebisadmi ucxo sityvis

daqvemdebarebas. Sdr. agreTve afarmid “vawesrigeb”, “vaformeb” <

rus. оформить, birgÁd×r “brigadiri” < rus. бригадир da sxva.

uzbekuri da tajikuri nasesxobebi

uzbekuri leqsika moicavs kaSkadariel arabTa cxovrebis

TiTqmis yvela sferos: qaââaq “Rataki”, ÉåpÝn “mwyemsi”. igive

SeiZleba iTqvas tajikuri nasesxobebis Sesaxebac: ÕamsÝya

“mezobeli”, darkÝr “saWiroeba”, bÝÒbÝn “baRi”. unda aRiniSnos,

rom kaSkadariel arabTa absoluturi umravlesoba flobs da

iyenebs uzbekurs, rogorc meore enas, xolo tajikuris mcodneTa

ricxvi maT Soris TandaTan mcirdeba.

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paraleluri formebi:

kad-Si dasturdeba paraleluri formebi. erTi mniSvnelobis

gamosaxatavad ixmareba rogorc arabuli, aseve nasesxebi sityvac:

kis×r arab. kÝn uzb. “mravali”, gil×l arab. kÝm taj. “cota”.

paralelur formebze dakvirveba gviCvenebs, rom nasesxebi

sityvebi TandaTan ikaveben dialeqtSi arabul leqsemaTa adgils.

es exeba gansakuTrebiT uzbekur nasesxobebs. SeiniSneba agreTve

paralelur formaTa zrdis tendencia, rac dRiTi dRe gzas

ukafavs dialeqtSi uzbekur nasesxobebs.

$ 5. morfologiuri modelireba da semantikuri sityvawarmoeba

sityvaTa warmoSobis ZiriTadi saSualebebidan unda aRiniSnos

morfologiuri modelireba da semantikuri sityvawarmoeba.

morfologiuri modelirebis SemTxvevebidan sayuradReboa zmnur

formaTa TemebSi cvalebadoba, romelTa nawili xasiaTdeba

saliteraturo arabuli enisagan gansxvavebuli mniSvnelobiT,

magaliTad: taÔaããut (V T.) 1. “moaTavsa”; 2. “Caasxa”, “daRvara”.

saliteraturo arabul enaSi taÔaããata-s mniSvnelobaa “gajavrda”,

“ganawyenda” (vinmeze). dialeqtSi arsebuli zogierTi zmnuri

Temis Sesatyvisi saliteraturo arabul enas saerTod ar gaaCnia.

magaliTad, kad-Si dasturdeba forma taÔassam (V T.) “gaifanta”,

maSin rodesac saliteraturo arabulSi Ôasama mexuTe TemaSi ar

gvxvdeba. aq mniSvneloba “gaifanta” gadmoicema Semdegi sityvebiT:

taba÷äara, taâa÷÷aäa, tanÁäara. vinaidan kad-s arc erTi am sityvaTagani

ar gaaCnia, enaSi ganviTarda Ôasama zmnis mexuTe Tema semantikuri

xarvezis Sesavsebad.

semantikuri sityvaTwarmoqmna kad-Si ufro produqtiulia,

vidre morfologiuri modelireba. ori an meti sityvis

dakavSirebiT SeiZleba miviRoT nominaluri mniSvneloba:

gattiâma÷antum “Raribi”, sityvasityviT - “arafris mqone”; matâæf<

÷ainÎn ma tâæf “brma”, sityvasityviT - “Tvalebi ver xedaven” da sxv.

kad-Si gvxvdeba sityvis mniSvnelobis daviwroeba-gafarToeba,

ris Sedegadac leqsema iZens axal mniSvnelobas. es iwvevs

189


dialeqtSi axali semantikuri datvirTvis mqone sityvebis gaCenas:

÷asal “Tafli”>÷asali “tkbili”, go÷Ýn “mSieri”>go÷Ýn “Rataki”, ÔÝiã

“kedeli”>orba ÔÝiã “oTaxi” da sxv.

kad-isTvis ucxo ar aris sityvaTa Serwymac: madri


”beim biWs uTxra, lamazi (qali) myavs”. sityvasityviT: “bei biWs -

SavTvala myavs - eubneba (mas).”

g) fadhÁd alf “bevri”, “mravali”, sityvasityviT: “erTi aTasi”

naÔnÁt Ôafli agar iáor, nÁs alf fadhÁt iáÝr

“Cven rodesac vdResaswaulobT, xalxi bevria”; sityvasityviT:

“xalxi erTi aTasi iqneba (igulisxmeba nadimSi mowveulTa

simravle)”.

moyvanil sintagmaTa aseTi mniSvnelobiTi kompresiebi

gamowveulia dialeqtSi arsebuli semantikuri asociaciebiT.

sintaqsuri konstruqciidan erTi wevris amovardna warmoadgens

dialeqtSi enis ekonomiurobisadmi midrekilebis TvalsaCino

gamoxatulebas. esenia atributuli struqturebi:

kÎyn ma kÎyn, iúzÒ×r kÎyin

“iyo da ara iyo ra, iyo erTi patara (biWi) ”

waladÁn iúzÒ×r ÉÝy ÓÁb. min ÓÁb Õæbz? i-zÒ×r?

“patara biWma Cai moitana. puri vin moitana, patara biWma?”

sintagmaSi waladÁn iúzÒ×r “patara biWi” erTi wevri naklebad

informaciuli gamodga da amovarda, meore komponentma (zÒ×r)

sakuTar Tavze aiRo mTeli semantikuri datvirTva da sruli

nominatis funqcia ikisra.

ganxiluli masala SesaZleblobas iZleva davaskvnaT, rom kadisaTvis

damaxasiaTebelia leqsikur gamomsaxvelobaTa

mravalferovneba. dialeqtSi asaxuli leqsikis ganviTarebis

tendenciebi, ZiriTadad, zogadi xasiaTisaa da sayuradReboa

semitur enaTa leqsikis Seswavlis TvalsazrisiT.

$ 7. qarTul-kaSkadariuli leqsikuri paralelebi

kad-Si fiqsirdeba araerTi sityva, romlis analogi qarTul

leqsikaSi mogvepoveba. cxadia, gamoricxulia uSualo enobrivi

kontaqtebi. saerTo leqsikis arseboba qarTulsa da kad-Si

ganpirobebulia qarTuli enis mravalsaukunovani enobrivi

kontaqtebiT arabulenovan, Turqulenovan da sparsulenovan

samyarosTan. aRmosavluri leqsika qarTulSi Seadgens enis

leqsikuri fondis mniSvnelovan nawils. SevexebiT zogierT

191


maTgans, romlis semantika kad-Si sayuradReboa Sesabamisi

qarTuli leqsemis warmomavlobis dadgenis TvalsazrisiT:

zamTari – zentÁr “sicive”, “yinva”

kad-Si zentÁr aRniSnavs “sicives”, “yinvas” da ara zogadarabul

âita÷ > iâtÁ-s. moviyvanT magaliTebs:

iúñâtÁ zentÁr iáÝr

“zamTarSi yinva iqneba [yinvebs daiWers]”

iúñâtÁ iúnaÐbre-dekÆbre invÇre-febrÁle zentÁr agar iáÝr, ademiÁt iúqiâlÝq

iúí×nÁu iú÷andu nÁr itfÁur, gÁbÁt âitw× ilbisuwÁt

“zamTarSi – noemberSi, dekemberSi, ianvarSi, TebervalSi –

yinvebi roca daiwyeba (dadgeba), yiSlaR jeÁnaus mcxovreblebi

(adamianebi) TavianT (saxlebSi) cecxls daanTeben, zamTris

[Tbil] xalaTebs Caicvamen”.

kokoyÁt iúÊarb ãala÷aw iúhama balad ÒadawÁt-madawÁt. iúleil zinãÁr áÝr

“Zmebi gzas daadgnen, im qveynisaken gaswies. RamiT Zlier

acivda”.

siriuli dialeqtis arabul-rusul leqsikonSi aris zmnuri

forma zÆnãar, romlis mniSvnelobaa: 1. "akankalebda (sicivisgan)"; 2.

"gaiyina", "gaiToSa". aqvea forma zinãÁr× - "yinviani", "susxiani"*.

siriuli dialeqtis leqsikonSi fiqsirdeba agreTve zmÎãar -

"yinuli", "minayini (наледь)". igi damaskos metyvelebisaTvis aris

damaxasiaTebeli. moviyvanT kidev erT formas am leqsikonidan:

zamar – "Zlier uberavda" , "Rmuoda (qari)"

b a r a n o v i s arabul-rusul leqsikonSi gvxvdeba forma

zamhar×r mniSvnelobiT - "yinva", "Zlieri sicive". aRsaniSnavia

arabuli zamÁn 1. "dro", "epoqa"; 2. "sezoni", Sdr. qarTuli "Jami".

aseve sayuradReboa svanuri za-w - "weli", romelic dasaxelebuli

formebis msgavsad dros, sezons gamoxatavs. megrulSi gvaqvs

________________________

*q. alepos mkvidrma, sirielma mweralma da mTargmnelma nizar xalilim

momawoda siriul dialeqtSi gavrcelebuli forma - zantÁr× romelic "zamTars"

niSnavs.

192


"zamTris" Sesatyvisi "zoTonji" .

aRsaniSnavia saS. sparsuli zamistÁn "zamTari" , romelsac prof.

m. a n d r o n i k a S v i l i qarTul "zamTars" ukavSirebs. mecniers

saeWvod miaCnia etimologia, romelic sityva "zamTars" Slis za-

(sv-"za" "weli") +mtar elementebad (ix. m. andronikaSvili,

narkvevebi iranul-qarTuli enobrivi urTierTobidan, Tbilisi,

1966, gv. 322). rac Seexeba mtar-s, arabulSi igi aRniSnavs wvimas

(maãÁr mr. amãÁr).

tajikurSi zamTari aris зимистан Sdr. rusuli зима.

зимистани –«zamTris» da a. S.

ganxiluli formebi sayuradReboa qarTuli «zamTris»

genezisis dadgenis TvalsazrisiT. dasaSvebia kavSiri siriul da

kaSkadariul zmÎtar//zintÁr-Tan. vfiqrob, aranakleb sainteresoa

arabuli enis siriul da kaSkadariul dialeqtebSi saerTo

formis arseboba. isic aRsaniSnavia, rom kad-Si fiqsirdeba

siriuli dialeqtisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli í:

ademiyÁt iúqiâlÝq iúí×nÁw . . .gabÁt âitw× ielbisuwÁt.

jeÁnaus mkvidri arabebis nawili yiSlaRs í×nÁw –s eZaxis da ara

Óeynau-s. zemoTqmulidan gamomdinare, SeiZleba davaskvnaT, rom

arsebobs garkveuli kavSiri am or dialeqts Soris. SesaZloa,

jeÁnaus mkvidri arabebis winaparTa nawili siriidanac iyos

warmoSobiT. í×nÁw toponimi SeiZleba aixsnas siriuli dialeqtis

safuZvelze. siriulSi í×nÁ-s mniSvnelobaa – “Cven movediT”.

kaSkadarieli arabebis azriT, yiSlaRis saxelwodebas safuZvlad

udevs maTi winaprebis aRniSnul teritoriaze mosvla. amitomac

daerqva mas Óeynaw//í×naw “Cven movediT”.

amrigad, qarTuli “zamTris” Sesaxeb mniSvnelovan masalas

gvawvdis siriuli dialeqti da Suaaziuri arabuli. am leqsemis

arseboba qarTulSi aRmosavlur enebTan xangrZlivi enobrivi

urTierTobebis Sedegia.

193


u

qarTuli enis ganmartebiT leqsikonSi ru (rusi)

ganmartebulia, rogorc: 1. sarwyavad gayvanili patara arxi. "miwa

nayofieria da uxvad irwyveba ruebis wyliTa" (i. gogebaSvili).

"[Tedem] wisqvilis ru karga Soridan moiyvana" (vaJa fSavela) 2.

gadat. "aseT arxSi mimdinare wyali. gzas . . . orTav mxriv Rrmad

amoWril arxebSi ankara ruebi moudioda" (ek. gabaSvili).

sulxan saba orbeliani pirdapir miuTiTebs, rom “ru es aris

wyali sarwyavad gaRebuli”.

niko CubinaSvilis qarTul leqsikonSi rus Sesaxeb

vkiTxulobT: “ru, ruvi da rusxmuli – xelovnebiT gatanili

nakaduli”. aqve “wylis” ganmartebisas avtori kidev erTxel

usvams xazs rus xelovnurobas: “sada mdinare ganiyofeba

nawilebad da saSualo maTsa daSTebian kunZulni, mas TiToeuls

nawils hqvian toti, Sto, dilaji da nakaduli; xelovnebiT

gatanils totsa mindobiT sarwyavad, anu wisqviliT sabruneblad

– ru da rusxmuli”.

cxadia, qarTulSi ru, nakadulisagan gansxvavebiT, warmoadgens

xelovnurad gayvanil sarwyav arxs. Cveni azriT, sayuradRebo

unda iyos am mxriv arabulSi arsebuli viTareba. warmovadgenT

saleqsikono formas rawiya x. b a r a n o v i s arabul-rusuli

leqsikonis mixedviT:

rawiya(a) rayyun, riyyun 1. "aivso wyliT", "ivseboda"; 2. "moikla

wyurvili"; II rawwÁ 1. "daarwyula"; 2. "morwya"; IV öarwÁ "morwya"; V

tarawwÁ 1. "aivso wyliT", "irwyveboda"; 2. "imedovnebda"; VIII öirtawÁ

1. "gaivso wyliT", "gajerda"; "moirwya"; 2. "moikla wyurvili".

- öirwÁöun “rwyva”

- öirwÁö×yyun “sarwyavi”

- tarw×yatun “wyliT momarageba”

- rawÁöun “mtknari wyali”

- rayyun “rwyva, irigacia”

194


- rayyatun mr. riyyÁtun “erTjeradi rwyva, morwyva”

- marwan mr. marÁwin “sarwyavi arxi”

- marwiyyun 1. “sarwyavi”; öarÁÊin marwiyya "sarwyavi

miwebi"

arabuli dialeqturi formaa r× “rwyva”, romelic gvxvdeba

siriul da kaSkadariul dialeqtebSi. moviyvanT magaliTebs kadidan:

âamsa kis×r agar iáÝr, iúgo÷a r× iáor

“roca dacxeba (bevri mze iqneba), miwa moirwyveba”

anÁ boÒbÝn ÷andi, fad iÝm iúhama bÝÒbÝn r× kÎn asi

“me baRi maqvs, erT dRes am baRs vrwyavdi”.

aRsaniSnavia sparsul-tajikuri ræd, romelic mdinares niSnavs.

aqve fiqsirdeba rædxoнa – mdinaris kalapoti. cxadia, es formebi

axlos aris arabul r× - sTan da qarTul “ru”-sTan. es

gvafiqrebinebs, rom am SemTxvevaSi saqme gvaqvs e. w. moarul

aRmosavlur leqsikasTan, romelic xangrZlivi enobrivi

urTierTobis Sedegia.

“ru” qarTulSi uZveles periodSi unda damkvidrebuliyo. bolo

wlebSi ivris zeganze uaRresad sayuradRebo arqeologiuri

aRmoCenebi dafiqsirda. gamovlinda qristemde meore

aTaswleulis dasasrulisa da pirveli aTaswleulis dasawyisis

saxelmwifoebrivi struqturebi. aerofotogadaRebebis wakiTxvis

safuZvelze ivris zeganis dasavleT nawilSi, mtkvarsa da iors

Soris, daviT garejis udabnoSi, aRmoCnda kavkasiis uZvelesi –

qristeSobamde II aTaswleulis dasasrulis qalaqebi.

aerofotogadaRebam aCvena uZvelesi sarwyavi sistemebi,

nakrZalebi (11). uaRresad mniSvnelovnad mimaCnia, rom didi

Siraqis samxreT nawilis toponimikaSi SemorCenilia saxelwodeba

“didi rui”. aseTi toponimi uZveles periodSi ivris zeganze

kulturuli ganaSenianebisa da mis sistemaSi magistraluri

sarwyavi arxis arsebobis mauwyebelia. igi toponimis uZveles

warmomavlobaze miuTiTebs.

niSandoblivia qarTulSi iori, rioni, toponimi – ruisi .

rwyva (rwyua(l)-rwyua.

195


qarTulSi fiqsirdeba dialeqturi forma merue, romelic

mrwyvels niSnavs. igi gvxvdeba qarTlis metyvelebaSi. aqve

SeiZleba davasaxeloT qarTuli “arxi”. indoevropul enebSi

arsebuli sityvebidan, romlebic rwyvas, mdinares da kalapots

aRniSnaven, r(v) Zirs ukavSirdeba, inglisuri “river” (mdinare),

rusuli “русло” (kalapoti). “орошение” (rwyva) da sxva.

ganxiluli semituri, qarTuli da indoevropuli formebi

mniSvnelovan informacias Seicaven rwyvasTan dakavSirebuli

leqsikis genezisis Sesaxeb.

sulu lak (sololaki)

qarTlis cxovrebaSi vkiTxulobT: “xolo tfilisi aris sami

qalaqi – tfilisi, kala da isni. hyofs mtkvari kalas, tfiliss da

isns: kalas udis Crdilo-aRmosavliT, tfiliss-CrdiloT da isnsdasavleTiT

da samxriT. xolo kalasa da tfiliss hyofs s a l a l

a k i s w y a l i, romelic gamosdis wavkisisa da koJris mTebsa,

samxriT da aRmosavliT udis kalas da dasavliT tfiliss (5, gv.

333, 334).

. . . kalas aris cixe, naSeni maRals kldesa zeda, da

CamozRudvili s a l a l a k i s à e v i mtkuramde. s a l a l a k i s -

à e v i s kars uwodeben g a n j i s k a r a d” (5, gv. 334).

arabTa batonobis xanaSi axlandeli botanikuri baRis

teritoriaze auSenebiaT akveduki, romelic saukuneebis

ganmavlobaSi funqcionirebda. igi gamosaxulia XVII-XVIII

saukuneebis graviurebze. akvedukiT irwyveboda xexilis baRebi,

venaxi da ulamazesi dekoratiuli mcenareebi. "igi warmoadgenda

sarwyav arxs, romlis nakaduli saTaves kojris mTebSi iRebda.

axlandeli oqroyanis midamoebSi mdebareobda mTavari auzi. igi

or mimarTulebad iyofoda: erTi leRvis xevisken miemarTeboda

mTaboris mTis kalTis gavliT da rwyavda axlandeli botanikuri

baRis teritorias. meore samxreT dasavleTidan samxreT

aRmosavleTisken iRebda kurss da sololakis mTis Txemis

gadalaxvis Semdeg eSveboda axlandeli daviTaSvilis quCaze.

wyalsadenis es ganStoeba XIX saukunis 30-ian wlebamde rwyavda

196


sololakis baRebs. igi wyals awvdida agreTve erevanskis moedans

(axlandel Tavisuflebis moedans) da sionis taZars" (n.

badriaSvili, Tbilisis istoria, gv. 17).

wyals, romelic Zveli Tbilisis am ulamazes nawils

miewodeboda, rogorc zemoT aRvniSneT, sololakis wyali erqva.

xevs da Tavad mTasac, romlis ferdobebzec igi miedineboda,

xalxma sololakis xevi da sololakis mTa Searqva.

samecniero literaturaSi gamoTqmulia mosazreba toponim

sololakis (salalakis) arabuli warmomavlobis Sesaxeb. n.

b a d r i a S v i l i 1959 wels rusul enaze gamoqveynebul

monografiaSi – “Тбилиси”, sololaks miiCnevs arabuli

warmomavlobis kompozitad – “Сулу Лах”. avtoris azriT, Сулу Лах

unda niSnavdes «sarwyav arxs» (ix. Н. Бадриашвили, dasax. naSr, gv.

10).

Cveni azriT, saintereso masalas gvawvdis Sua aziis

kaSkadariuli dialeqti sulu lakis (salalakis) Sesaxeb. kad-Si

sulu lak niSnavs "xelovnurad dagubebul wyals", "auzs":

iúhamÁna r× min sulu lak kÎn iáÝr. hÝzir ma tam “aq [adre] rwyva

wylis auzidan xdeboda, axla aRar xdeba”.

aRsaniSnavia sityva sayÝlÁt “niaRvrebi”, “wylis nakadebi”,

romelic gvxvdeba kad-Si:

agar imãar kis×r iáÝr iúgÝ÷a sayÝlÁt kis×r iáor “Tu bevrs iwvimebs,

(miwaze) niaRvrebi wamova”.

sayÝl mr. sayÝlÁt kad-Si niSnavs “niaRvars”, “nakads”. igi arabul

suyæl–s ukavSirdeba, romelic aris forma sayl-is msxvreuli

mravlobiTi: saylun mr. suyælun “nakadi”, “nakaduli”.

saliteraturo arabulSi, x. b a r a n o v i s arabul - rusuli

leqsikonis mixedviT, aRsaniSnavia Semdegi leqsemebi.

sayalÁnun 1. “dineba”, “mdinareba”:

satas×ru al-miyÁh f× hÁËihi-l-qanÁt bi-s-sayÁlÁn aË-ËÁt× “wyali am

arxSi moedineba TviTdinebiT”

saylatun “nakaduli”

suyælatun “mdinareba”

197


sufiqsebi ak, ek; -la+k TurqulSi awarmoeben “adgilis

saxelebs: ” yatak “sawoli” (Sdr. yat-mak “dawola”); durak

“gaCereba” (Sdr. durmak “dgoma”); s u l a k “wyaluxvoba” (Sdr.

s u l a m a k “rwyva”).

daRestanSi aris mdinare sulaki, romelic saTaves iRebs

kavkasionis qedidan. igi erTvis kaspiis zRvas da aCens deltas.

ikvebeba umTavresad TovliT.

sulakis napirzea qalaqi yiziliurTi. mdinare sulakzea

CiriurTisa da Cirkeis hesebi. iyeneben sarwyavad da

wyalmomaragebisTvis.

tajikurSi сел mTis nakads niSnavs, agreTve wyaluxvobas.

amrigad, salalaki (sololaki) qarTulSi da sulu lak Sua aziis

kaSkadariul arabulSi im moaruli aRmosavluri leqsikidanaa,

romelic sxvadasxva struqturis enebSia damkvidrebuli da

genezisuradaa Sezrdili enis ZiriTad leqsikur fondTan.

aSari

aSari qarTuli enis did ganmartebiT leqsikonSi

ganmartebulia, rogorc “kapasi, anCxli, aSari dedakaci” –

“rogorc ki vuxseneb xolme Tqvens didebul saxels, meti aRar

eWirveba, moTvinierdeba xolme is aSari!” (akaki). ambobda:”ra

gadaarCens ... aSari dedinacvlisagan damonavebul-daZaluls?”

(vaJa). “ra ayvirebs im aSars?” (d. megr.).

erTtomeul qarTuli enis ganmartebiT leqsikonSi aSari

ganmartebulia, rogorc “kapasi, anCxli dedakaci”. miTiTebulia,

rom sityva aris Turquli warmomavlobis.

sabasTan aSari ar fiqsirdeba. sinonimuri warmomavlobis

sityvebi ki warmodgenilia. esenia: anCxli, arjali, glispi.

magaliTad, arjali ganmartebulia, rogorc “urcxvad anCxli”,

glispis Sesaxeb ki weria: “glispi odes gulis wyromasa ver

daiTmendes, siglispe aris, anCxli".

anCxli. "mihgavs da ganeyof(v)is kadniereba siglispesa. odes

sxvisaTvis viRwvideT, kadniereba igi aris, da ukeTu odes TaviT

198


TvisiT CveniT gvenebos Suris geba, siglispe aris igi, romelman

gulis wyroma ver daiTminos, siglispe aris".

rac Seexeba aSars, qarTulSi igi ixmareba mxolod qalTan,

dedakacTan mimarTebaSi. kaci aSari TiTqmis ar gvxvdeba.

erTaderTi SemTxveva fiqsirdeba qarTuli samarTlis ZeglebSi,

romelic rusTavelis akademiuri teqstis damdgenma komisiam

mogvawoda da TariRdeba 1768 wliT. ix. qarTuli samarTlis

Zeglebi, IV, 554, 34, 1768 wlis 15 maisi (“da Cvenis eklesiis ymac ar

iyos, erTi aSari kaci aris”).

aSari yvela sxva SemTxvevaSi aRniSnavs qals, mdedrs. moyvanili

magaliTebi amis damadasturebelia.

Turqul leqsikonebSi haSari (haşari) ganmartebulia, rogorc

arabuli warmomavlobis sityva. mag., did Turqul-rusul

leqsikonSi miTiTebulia, rom igi arabulia. haSari TurqulSi

niSnavs Tavnebas, jiuts. ityvian ZiriTadad cxovelze. Turqulrusul

leqsikonSi pirdapir aris miTiTeba amis Sesaxeb. haşari a …

норовистый, упрямый, (о животных). oCani cxeni TurqulSi iqneba

haSari (haşari). iqve leqsikonSi miTiTebulia haSaris sxva

mniSvnelobebic: ”распущенный, своевольный (о молодежи).

yuradReba unda gamaxvildes imaze, rom haSari TurqulSi

aRniSnavs jiut, Tavneba, oCan, gajiutebul cxovels da

leqsikonSi miTiTebulia am sityvis arabuli warmomavloba.

arabulSi aSari SeiZleba ramdenime sityvas davukavSiroT.

Sari, mogexsenebaT arabuli sityvaa. qarTulis garda igi

gavrcelebulia Turqulsa da sparsulSi.

âarra (a) masd. âarrun "iyo cudi", "boroti", "avi", "gafuWebuli".

antn. ÕÁra.

âarrun mr. âurærun 1. ars. "boroteba"; "usamarTloba"; "ubedureba";

"ziani"; 2. zedsarT. mr. öaârÁrun "boroti", "usamarTlo", "cudi",

"gafuWebuli". antn. Õayrun; âarrun min elat. "ufro cudi", vidre"

(ix. g. wereTeli, arabul-qarTuli leqsikoni).

âirratun - "risxva"

âar×run mr. öaârÁrun - boroti (ix. Х. К. Баранов, Арабско-русский

словарь).

199


moyvanili (elativis) formebi mniSvnelobiT axlos aris

qarTul aSarTan, magram arabul Sar-sa da qarTul aSars Soris

gansxvaveba ufro niSandoblivia. qarTulSi gvaqvs Sari, romlis

kavSiri arabul âarr–Tan eWvs ar iwvevs. Sariani kacic SeiZleba

iyos da qalic, maSin rodesac aSari mxolod qalze iTqmis.

amasTanave arabulSi Sarr-s da xair-s elativi aratradiciuli

gramatikuli normis Sesabamisad ewarmoeba. e.i. ’ašarr-is (ufro

cudis, borotis) nacvlad gvaqvs âarrun min - “ufro cudi, vidre”.

e.i. Sarr-idan momdinare ’ašarr forma ver gavrceldeboda

TurqulSi im elementaruli mizezis gamo, rom Sarr-is elativi

’ašarr-is saxiT arabulSi ar iwarmoeba.

arabuli ricxviTi saxelia ÷aârun aTi, romelic gvxvdeba

Turqulsa da sparsulSi. TurqulSi ašar mr. öšür niSnavs

gadasaxads, meaTeds. aseve sparsulSi ошр (oSr) mr. Àöшар

meaTedia, mosavlis meaTedi. эöшpat niSnavs mxiarulebas, garTobas,

siamovnebas, xolo эшратхана gasarTob adgils.

TurqulSi öaâiri niSnavs gadaWarbebul, metismet,

gansakuTrebul mgrZnobelobas: aşiri gitmek” (aşiri gitmek)

переходить все границы, aşiri hareket – выходить за рамки

дозволенного; aşiri tecavæz - чрезмерная агресcивность”. Sdr.

arabuli taÓÁwaza - (переступать предел) "gadalaxa sazRvari",

"gadaaWarba" (ix. Турецко-русский словарь).

Turquli enis ganmartebiT leqsikonSi (T RKСE S ZL K),

romelic stambulSia gamocemuli 1992 wels Turquli enis

sazogadoebis mier, miTiTebulia, rom ašir – ašri igivea, rac

arabuli ÷aâr. igi Zvelad niSnavda 10-s. amave dros ašir aRniSnavs

namazis Semdeg yuranidan wasakiTxs, romelic Sedgeba 10 aiasgan. es

exeba agreTve sxva wasakiTxebsac religiuri dResaswaulebis

dros.

SevexoT axla arabul ÷aâara –s.

÷aâara (u) ÷aârun 1. iyo meaTe; 2. aiRo meaTedi; II ÷aââara 1. gayo aTad,

aiRo meaTedi nawili; 2. gaanayofiera; ÷aââara-l-ÔimÁr yroyinebda

(saxedari); III ÷aâara - dauaxlovda, daamyara kavSiri; iyo fexmZime,

make (meaTe Tveze – aqlemi, mecxre Tveze – danarCeni cxovelebi).

200


÷iâÁrun mr. ÷uâarÁöu make aqlemi meaTe TveSi. mecxre TveSi -

nebismieri sxva cxoveli.

rogorc irkveva, make aqlemi meaTe TveSi anu mSobiarobis TveSi

gamoirCeva agresiulobiT, anCxlia da kapasi. amis Sesaxeb me

msmenia Sua aziis arabul yiSlaRebSi, aseve iemenSi, saamiroebSi,

sxva arabul qveynebSi.

aRmosavlur literaturaSi gvxvdeba aRniSnulis dadastureba.

magaliTad SeiZleba moviyvanoT nawyveti saSualo sparsuli

poemidan “finikis xe da Txa”, romelic sasanuri iranis poeziis

TvalsaCino nimuSia. poemaSi, romelic falauridan qarTul enaze

Targmna, gamokvleva da leqsikoni daurTo profesorma T e o

C x e i Z e m, erTi mopaeqre meores Semdegi sityvebiT mimarTavs:

“oqros sityvebi,

Sen rom giTxari,

hgavs margaliti

daugo Rorsa,

an Cangi ukra

atexil aqlems”. (22. gv. 47).

Suaaziur arabulSi ÷aâer ixmareba aqlemis garda qalis

orsulobis, fexmZimobis aRsaniSnad, magaliTebi:

ÀfÀndi morta ‘aâer áÝrat

“efendis coli dafexmZimda”

bint Õuâræya kÁnat, ÷aâer kÎnat

“gogo lamazi iyo, fexmZimed iyo”

amgvarad, Sua aziis arabulSi, kerZod, kaSkadariulSi

farTodaa es forma gavrcelebuli.

saliteraturo arabulSi arsebobs agreTve Ôaâara (u) Ôaârun

mniSvnelobiT 1. "Sekriba", "moagrova", "gaaerTiana"; 2. "aavso". am

Zirze x. b a r a n o v i s leqsikonSi aris Semdegi sityvebi: ÔÁâir -

"mowyalebis amRebi", "Semgrovebeli", Ôaârun - "Sekreba"; "Casma",

201


"Cayeneba", "Catenva"; Ôaâaratun mr. ÔaâarÁtun "mweri". mravlobiTSi

ixmareba gadataniTi mniSvnelobiTac da niSnavs naZiralebs.

Ôiâariyyun an Ôiâriyyun niSnavs cnobismoyvares, momabezrebels,

magram es forma ixmareba rogorc kacze, aseve qalze. qarTuli

aSaris dakavSireba arabul ÷aâar-Tan, agresiul, anCxl mdedrTan,

Cveni azriT, ufro dasaSvebia. sxvaTa Soris, JargonSic aris

gavrcelebuli ÷aâar-is forma, romelic rusuli daboloebiT -

ашка, aRniSnavs msubuqi yofaqcevis qals.

zemoaRniSnulidan gamomdinare, qarTuli aSari, ixmareba ra

mxolod qalTan mimarTebaSi, SesaZloa, momdinareobdes arabuli

÷aâar-idan.

akido

akidos sabaseuli ganmarteba aseTia:”akido – xil(n)i erTad

Sebmul(n)i” .

qarTuli enis ganmartebiT leqsikonSi vkiTxulobT: “akido

(akidosi) 1. vazis mokled aWrili wyvilmtevniani rqa (Sdr. krCxa,

Cxa) “aba, gigo, krCxa Tu ginda an jagani, an akido...” (r. erisTavi). 2.

simindis wyvili taro, fuCeCiT gadabmuli. 3. xilis asxmula,

jagani. “xili erTad Sebmuli” (saba). II figur. mTeli sami leqcia

batoni akakisa warmoadgens erTs im dedaazris akidos, rom

rusTavelma gamosaxa Tavis poemaSi sami saqarTvelos sxvadasxva

nawilis, qarTveli (ilia). 4.vazis jiSi dasavleT saqarTveloSi”.

dialeqtebSi farTodaa gavrcelebuli akido, Cxa, krCxa, krCxe

da istoriulad, jagani:

“akido iseTi totia, romelsac ori mtevani abia” (dialeqt.

qarTl.289 qarTlis dialeqti, rusTavelis akademiuri teqstis

damdgeni komisiis masalebidan).

“Cxa (qarTl., kax., TuS., ingil., okrib.,) mtevnebian rqebianad

moWrili Zalian msxmoiare toti vazisa Sesanaxad” (dialeqt., 644);

“bevri mtevani erT rqaze” (kirioni; n. jox., 61); “kaCxa; kilari,

mokled gadaWrili totebiani Zeli” (T. uTurg.); “mtevnebiani toti

vazisa moWrili” m. alav.); “kaCxa, sakideli” (m. jan.; dialeqt., 586;

kirioni; i. javax., 11, 300) (ix. al. Rlonti, qarTul kilo-TqmaTa

sityvis kona).

202


“CxaberZula-i (gur.) vazis jiSia erTgvari “ (al. Rlonti).

“jagani (qarTl., kax.) TokiT, sviiT an wneliT asxmuli yurZnis

mtevnebi, agreTve sxva xilic (msxali, vaSli, broweuli da sxv.) 60-

100 sm. sigrZisa” (S. ZiZ., n. kecx., p. xub., dialeqt. 646); “yurZnis

mtevnebi mxralze (n.) asxmuli erTad (n., jox., 61)" (al. Rlonti).

sabasTan jagani ganmartebulia, rogorc “wkepl(n)i TevzTa da

xilT(a) asasxmeli”.

kaSkadariul arabulSi gvxvdeba sityva agdî, romlis

mniSvnelobaa "yelsabami":

bÝi binta agdî Õazet, iúgÝ÷a uda÷et

"beis asulma yelsabami moixsna [da] miwaze dado".

arabuli iZleva saintereso masalas akidosTan dakavSirebiT.

÷aqada (i) masd. ÷aqdun "Sekra"; "gaskvna", "kvanZi gaukeTa"; ÷aq×datun

mr. ÷aqÁöidu 1."kvanZi", "kavSiri"; 2. "rwmena", "sarwmunoeba"; ÷uqdatun

mr. ÷uqadun 1. "kvanZi", "kavSiri"; "mcenareebiT savse adgili" (g.wer.).

÷iqdun mr. ÷uqædun "yelsabami"; "Sekvra"; ÷iqdun min az-zuhæri

"yvavilebis girlanda", "yvavilwnuli".

÷aqdun "maryuJi", "kvanZi", "kavSiri" (ix. x. baranovi).

aq warmodgenilia sityvebi, romlebic, Cveni azriT,

sayuradReboa da SeiZleba davukavSiroT qarTul akidos. esenia:

÷aq×datun - "kvanZi"; ÷iqdun "yelsabami", ÷aqdun min az-zuhæri

"yvavilwnuli" da a.S.

arabuli ÷aqdun sparsulsa da TurqulSic aris Sesuli.

magaliTad, a÷d (ayd) sparsulSi niSnavs "xelSekrulebas",

"kvanZs"; agreTve "yelsabams", "Tasmas", "yaiTans". TurqulSi

akdetmek aris xelSekrulebis dadeba. berZnulSi ayîda [agiδa] anu

akhda [kiδa] niSnavs ekals.

siriuli ‘qad niSnavs Semoxvevas, Sekvras, yelsabams,

Semosaxvevs. igulisxmeba gveliviT Semoxveva, Sekvra, dagrexa

(Payne Smith).

siriuli (‘qad) niSnavs agreTve "gamagrebas", "ganmtkicebas",

"Sededebas", "Sesqelebas". Sesabamisad ÷aq×dÁ -pasivis mimReobaa da

p e i n s m i t i s (Pain Smith) leqsikonSi misi mniSvnelobaa

"gamagrebuli", "gamxmari", "gamomSrali" (e.i. "daCamiCebuli").

203


SeadareT Cxa, romelic zemoT ganmartebuli iyo, rogorc

“mtevnebTan rqebianad moWrili Zalian msxomiare toti vazisa

Sesanaxad” (dialeqt., 644).

aRsaniSnavia siriulSi ‘enâqa (Sdr. arab. ÷unq) toti.

mravlobiTSi ‘enâqÎ. misi mniSvnelobaa "xis nayofi", "xexili". es

mniSvneloba b r o k e l m a n T a n aris dafiqsirebuli (Lexicon

Syriacum). p e i n s m i t T a n igi ar gvxvdeba.

arabuli ÷Ánaqa III TemaSi niSnavs: "gadaexvia", "yelze SemoeWdo",

"Semoexvia", xolo ÷inÁqun - aris "gadaxveva", "yelze SemoWdoma",

"Semoxveva". sayuradReboa siriuli ‘enâqa – "toti", ‘enâqÎ –

"xexili", "xis nayofi", rac axlos aris akidosTan. siriuli

saerTod saintereso masalas iZleva yurZenTan, vazTan

dakavSirebiT. ase, magaliTad, Tanamedrove asurulSi yurZeni aris

yunteфa.

kaSkadariul dialeqtSi gvxvdeba angæd, romlis mniSvnelobaa

“vazis mtevani”. igi damaxasiaTebelia harukSi mcxovrebi

arabebisaTvis:

âamsa kis×r iáÝr, angæd iáÝr

“[roca] dacxeba (mze bevri iqneba), mtevani [damwifdeba] ”

sayuradReboa, rom h. a W a r i a n i somxuri enis Zirebis

etimologiur leqsikonSi sparsul angûr-s miiCnevs arabuli

anqûad-idan momdinared. vfiqrobT, SeiZleba misi dakavSireba

akidosTan. Sdr.: ta÷anqada - "ekida mtevnebad", "kunwulebad".

÷unqædun mr. ÷anÁq×du "mtevani=yurZnis mtevani" (x. baranovi).

Cven mier ganxiluli variantebidan, vfiqrob, upiratesoba am

ukanasknels unda mieniWos. ÷unqædun, romlis Sesabamisi zmnuri

forma, rogorc aRvniSneT, aris ta÷anqada - ekida mtevnebad. es aris

arabuli oTxTanxmovniani zmna, romlidanacaa nawarmoebi

arabuli "mtevani" – öunqædun mr. ÷anÁq×du . vfiqrob, misi

dakavSireba qarTul akidosTan –- “vazis mokled aWril

wyvilmtevnian rqasTan” yvelaze metad SeiZleba. rac Seexeba

danarCen, siriul da arabul variantebs:’enâqa – enâqÎ- "toti",

"xis nayofi", "xexili"; ÷aq×dÁ – "gamxmari", "gamomSrali" (e.i.

204


daCamiCebuli); arabuli ÷aq×datun, ÷iqdun, ÷aqdun "kvanZi", "Sekvra",

"yvavilebis girlanda", "yvavilwnuli", "maryuJi" . . .

berZnul ayida-s [agia] "ekali", isini, Cveni azriT, sayuradReboa

sakiTxis amomwuravi da zogadi TvalsazrisiT SeswavlisaTvis.

aRsaniSnavia, rom arabuli enis libanur dialeqtSi, kerZod,

zahlesTan gavrcelebulia dialeqturi forma “akido” aq×do,

romelic zustad emTxveva qarTuls. zahle libanSi Rvinis

warmoebiT aris cnobili. libanuri aq×do warmoadgens girlandis

msgavs vazis daxveul tots, romelzec mtevnebi hkidia.

$ 8. ZiriTadi leqsikuri fondi

sxeulis nawilebi da Sinagani organoebi :

rÝs “Tavi” âa÷ar rÝs “Tmebi”

peâÝna “Subli” ÉÁqaq “Subli”

muÕ “tvini” ÷izn “yuri”

ÔaÓib “warbebi” Õaâim “cxviri”

÷eyn “Tvali” miÓÓa “quTuTo”

hal×k “piri” sin “kbili”

ilsÁn “ena” riÔlat waÉ “loya”

waÉe “saxe” moylab taj. “ulvaSi”

manaÔ “nikapi” liÔ×ya “wveri”

rugba “kiseri” hanÓur “yeli”

katif “mxari” ×d “xeli”

tirsak “idayvi” buÓulak//buÉulak “maja”

l×lia “TiTi” iftir “frCxili”

Óasad “tani” boãen “muceli”

iÓil “fexi” zonia “muxli”

bugulak “terfi” poâna “qusli”

tahat iÓil “fexis guli” waÉ iÓil “fexis guli”

galb “guli” âuâ “filtvi”

kilva “Tirkmeli” kabda “RviZli”

205


feri - lÝn

Ýbiz “TeTri” aswad “Savi”

aÔamar “wiTeli” guybarra// aáfar taj.

“yviTeli”

aÕazar “mwvane” azaraq “lurji”

ranga-gÝ÷a-iâbah “miwisferi” Õulægi “melnisferi”

rangin mianÁni aÔmar- rangin miana Ýbizaswad

“yavisferi” aswad “nacrisferi”

naTesaoba

öabu, bÝba “mama” mÝma, um “deda”

walad “vaJiSvili” bint “qaliSvili”

aÕu “umcrosi Zma” koka “ufrosi Zma”

uÕt “umcrosi da” dÁdÁ “ufrosi da”

Óadde “babua” Óuddo “bebia”

nab×ra “SviliSvili” ÷ab×ra “SvilTaSvili”

aÕÁwa “biZaSvilebi” amaki baÉa “biZaSvili”

÷ammi “mamis mxridan biZa” lÝli “dedis mxridan biZa”

÷amma “mamida” lÝla “deida”

suÔur “siZe” kanna “rZali”,

“patarZali”

qæda “mZaxali” hamÁ “colis Zma”

dro -waÕt

saÔariyya “dila” way saÔriyya “diliT”

way saÔriyya “xval” leyl “Rame”

way saÔriyya bar waÕt “adre” fazzayl//hamma wakt “mudam”

yÝm “dRe” hama l-yÝm “dRes”

hafta taj. “kvira” âahar “Tve”

ba÷ad “Semdeg” gÁbil “adre”, “mde”

206


sana “weli” sanawÁt mÁÊ× “warsuli”

tansacmeli-libÝs

gabÁ “bambis xalaTi” iaqtaya “xalaTi” (ara

bambis)

sÝb “perangi” salla “Suaaziuri Calma”

Éalbar “Sarvali” kissa “jibe”

ÓirÁb “winda” maÕsia “fexsacmeli”

mæza “Ceqma” sæb “kaba”

hinna - xelisgulis moxatuloba ÷×d-iãaibæn “xelsaxoci”,

(qalebisTvis, dResaswaulze) “pirsaxoci”, “mandili”

(welze Semosaxvevi)

samkauli

gz×a “mandili” buÕnaq “qalis samkauli”

izmÁm “cxviris sayure” Õatabag “Sublis sayure”

halka “sayure” uzuk “beWedi”

tugma “Rili” daswÝna taj. “samajuri”

saWmeli

Õubz “puri” mæya “wyali”

hal×b “rZe” ÷idÁm “mawoni”

ÉÝy “Cai” zÁt arab. “flavi”

palÁw “flavi” uzb. lahma ÷anza “Txis xorci”

dihin sama “erbo” digik “fqvili”

melÔ “marili” maraga “wvnianis saxeoba”

tarmiwayÁt “xili” zanÓab×la “TeTri kamfeti”

÷aÒ×n “comi” lahm na÷aÓa “cxvris xorci”

r×z “brinji” dihn “cximi”, “erbo”

lahm “xorci” z×ra “Zira”

207


huliÁt “namcxvari”

soflis meurneobasTan dakavSirebuli leqsika

Òaraba “xe” ÷inÁb “yurZeni”

tuffaÔ “vaSli” ÷aÓÓær//biãã×Õa “nesvi”

handuk “sazamTro” nÝk uzb. “msxali”

qarÝle uzb. “qliavi” aluÉa taj. “aluCa”

gilÁs uzb. “bali” zab×b “qiSmiSi”

Õurma “xurma” Ýlum “gargari”

anÝr uzb. “broweuli” bodom “nuSi”

Ôunãa “xorbali” iâ÷×r “fqvili”

âiÓÁr “balaxi” tibin “salaTi”

ÓizÁr “stafilo” kadwa “gogra”

guãun “bamba” baáal “xaxvi”

gul “yvavili” Éangaruk “fiCxi”

zirÁ÷a “soflis meurneoba” ÷asal “Tafli”

tana uzb. “toti” ãanat Òaraba “toti (xis)”

waraqa “foToli” misãe “nayofi”

isãa “mwifdeba” badrÙn “kitri”

cxovelTa da frinvelTa samyaro

motgÝwa//bÝâa “Zroxa” bÁgir “xari”

faras “cxeni” ib÷×r “aqlemi”

ÔÁâe “kozaki” iÔmÝr “viri”, “saxedari”

na÷aga “cxvari” Õaræf “batkani”

÷anza “Txa” Óide md. Óidia “cikani”

bÝr× “mgeli” ÒazÁla “qurciki”, “gareuli

Txa”

÷aiÒ “daTvi” tulk× “mela”

Õargæâ taj “kurdReli” iírÎdi “Tagvi”

hayya “gveli” balÒ uzb. “Tevzi”

208


t×ra “qaTami” Õuræs “mamali”

kaftar uzb. “mtredi” ÷aqqa “yvavi”

burgut uzb. “arwivi” ÉumÉuÒ “beRura”

nÝga “mdedri aqlemi” ÷arwÝna “mdedri aqlemi”

låk “calkuza aqlemi” arwÝntin ÷aâara “mSobiare

aqlemi”

nÝgtin ÷aâara “make aqlemi” ÷aire “orkuziani aqlemi”

mwerebi

zambæ "krazana"

÷asalare//÷asalzambær "futkari"

sayofacxovrebo leqsika

bÎt “saxli” ÔÝyiã “oTaxi”

orba ÔÝyiã “oTaxi” dÁrbet “karebi”

dar×Éa “fanjara” parda “farda”

busoÒa “parmaRi” paÕsa uzb. “kedeli”

Ôawle “ezo”, “karmidamo” bÝÒ “baRi”

ibsÝt “xaliCa” pÝliâta “baliSi”

kårpaÉa “leibi” ilÔÁf “gadasafarebeli”

guãun “baliSis piri” pÎÉ “Rumeli”

gidir “qvabi flavis” âurba “wvniani”

darwÝza “WiSkari” libbÁt “Salis fardagi”

sar×r “sawoli”, “akvani” âalla “bambis fardagi”,

“dasafeni”

ÉiÒil “saceri” (xorblis ãaÕãa “dafa”, “xorcis

gasacreli) dasaWreli xis dafa”

piala “fiala” Õoâæga “kovzi”

hadda “dana” ÷ÝâãaÕãa “xorcis dasaWreli

dafa”

Éayna “Caidani” Òalb×r “wvrili saceri”

209


maÕfara “sufra” sufra“tyavis mrgvali

sufra, iyeneben comis

mosazelad”

Óufur “Wa” tarÝâa; “SeSa”

hæz “wylis avzi”

Õaãab “fiCxi”

ÉayÓuâ “Cais mosaduRebeli”

qaãan//yaãaÒ uzb. “pirutyvis molÕÝna “pirutyvis

sadgomi” sadgomi”< mol uzb. “pi-

ÕÝna taj . “saxli”, “sadgomi” rutyvi”+ ÕÝna taj.

boseli

ÝâÕÝna “samzareulo”

gidir "qvabi"

tandir “Tone”

buneba – tabi÷Át, samyaro

samÁ “ca” qim “Rrubeli”

gÝ÷a “miwa” naÓma “varskvlavi”

âamsa “mze” gamar “mTvare”

âarq “aRmosavleTi” Òarb “dasavleTi”

âimÝl “CrdiloeTi” Óanæb “samxreTi”

baÔar “mdinare” maãÁr//ræd “wvima”

äalÓ “Tovli” nahÁr “arxi”

rab× “gazafxuli-zafxuli” iâtÁÔ “Semodgoma-zamTari”

tramÝ “Semodgoma” Ôarr “sicxe”

áaÔra “udabno” bard//zentÁr “sicive”

iubæsya “gvalva” Óabala “mTa”

âiÓÁr “balaxi” Õiât “klde”

haÓar “Tixis didi beltebi”

210


daskvna

kaSka-dariulma dialeqtma arabuli samyarosagan

mravalsaukunovani izolaciis Sedegad ganvlo ganviTarebis

damoukidebeli gza. misi enobrivi sistema xasiaTdeba uaRresad

sayuradRebo fonologiuri, morfologiuri, sintaqsuri da

leqsikuri TaviseburebebiT.

gansakuTrebuli gavlena iqonia Sua aziis kaSkadariul da

buxarul dialeqtebze uzbekurma da tajikurma enebma.

araidenturma enobrivma garemocvam garkveulwilad Camoayaliba

kaSkadariuli dialeqtis enobrivi sistema, romelic avlens Sua

aziis meore – buxaruli dialeqtisganac gansxvavebul niSnebs.

zemomoyvanili enobrivi maxasiaTeblebi adastureben am

debulebas.

fonologiis sferoSi unda aRiniSnos kad-Si droTa

ganmavlobaSi saliteraturo arabulisaTvis ucxo, ori fonemis

gaCena. esenia: /p/ da /É/. dialeqtSi maTi damkvidreba unda aixsnas

ara marto uzbekuri da tajikuri enebis gavleniT, aramed

Sesabamisi arabuli bgerebis ganviTarebiTac.

vokaluri sistema dialeqtSi xuTi xmovniT aris warmodgenili:

/a/ /e/ /i/ /o/ /u/. ganviTarebulia grZeli da mokle xmovnebis

dapirispirebis moSlis tendencia. aman gamoiwvia cvlilebebi

morfologiaSi.

kad-is morfologia ZiriTadad xasiaTdeba semituri enebis

morfologiuri sistemisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli niSnebiT.

cvlilebebi saxelisa da zmnis struqturaSi umeteswilad

ganpirobebulia uzbekuri da tajikuri enebis gavleniT (elativis,

meore aTeulis ricxviTi saxelebis, ganusazRvreli namyosa da

gansazRvruli awmyos drois formaTa warmoeba)

zmnuri warmoebis rigi Taviseburebebi ganpirobebulia enis

ganviTarebis Sinagani kanonzomierebebiT. kad-is verbaluri

sistemis Taviseburebani yvelaze ukeT vlindeba swori

samTanxmovniani zmnis morfologiuri analiziT.

211


zmnisaTvis kad-Si damaxasiaTebelia uRlebis piris, ricxvis,

sqesis, drois, kilos kategoriebi. TiToeuli kategoria

gamoixateba Sesabamisad markerebiT. maTi erToblioba

gansazRvravs dialeqtSi verbaluri meqanizmis funqcionirebis

xasiaTs.

perfeqtivSi samTanxmovniani zmnis mxolod ori tipi gamoiyofa:

1. CaCaC; 2. CiCiC

perfeqtivisa da imperfeqtivis maxasiaTebel xmovnebs Soris

fiqsirdeba inversiuli damokidebuleba. morfologiuri

alternacia: daxuruli-Ria an piriqiT; Ria-daxuruli _

gamoxatavs ablauts. igi dialeqtSi funqcionirebs Sinagani

fleqsiis saxiT.

kategoriaTa gamomxatveli markerebi xasiaTdebian

alternantebis siuxviT. alomorfebis aseTi siWarbe naklebad

aris damaxasiaTebeli sxva aRmosavluri arabuli

dialeqtebisaTvis.

kad-is prefiqsaluri warmoebis mwkrivebi Zireulad

gansxvavdeba Sua aziis meore - buxaruli dialeqtisagan.

morfologiis sferoSi gansxvaveba am or dialeqts Soris m/mi

prefiqsis fiqsaciis doneze xels uwyobs aRniSnul dialeqtebze

molaparake ori arabulenovani eTnikuri jgufis warmoSobisa da

Sua aziaSi damkvidrebis qronologiis sakiTxis garkvevas.

martivi Temis samTanxmovniani zmnis fuZis struqturuli

modeli aris CCVC. afiqsebis saSualebiT xdeba misi

funqcionaluri gaformeba.

Taviseburebas avlenen zmnebi, romelTa pirveli Zireuli aris

guturaluri Tanxmovani. aq, imperfeqtivSi, pirvel da meore

Zireul Tanxmovans Soris, nacvlad suqunisa, Cndeba xmovani,

xSirad grZeli Ý. amave dros, perfeqtivSi SeiZleba sruliad

daikargos pirveli Zireuli. ZiriTadad es mosdis hamzas.

gamoiyofa zmnebis jgufi, romelTaTvisac ar aris

damaxasiaTebeli ablauti. am jgufSi Tavmoyrilia pirveli tipis

zmnebi, romelTa meore an mesame Zireuli Tanxmovani aris

guturali.

212


guturaluri TanxmovnebiT gamowveuli Taviseburebani kad-is

zmnur sistemas sayurdRebos xdis ara mxolod arabulis, aramed

saerTod, semitur enaTa morfologiis kvlevis TvalsazrisiT.

aqve unda aRiniSnos, rom boloxanebSi kad-Si SesamCnevia

guturaluri TanxmovnebiT gamowveuli wesidan gadaxrebi, rac

enis mkafio gramatikuli sistemis rRvevis momaswavvbelia.

kad-Si garda TxrobiTi kilosi, fiqsirdeba kavSirebiTi da

pirobiTi kiloebi. isini vlindebian rogorc konteqstualurad,

aseve warmoebis mxriv.

drois kategoria dialeqtSi warmodgenilia Semdegi jgufebiT:

a) dasrulebuli namyo

b) ganusazRvreli namyo

g) ganusazRvreli awmyo

d) gansazRvruli/sruli awmyo

e) ubralo momavali

v) rTuli/dauyovnebeli momavali

kad-Si SeiniSneba grZeli da mokle xmovnebis fonologiuri

dapirispirebis moSlis tendencia. aman, rig SemTxvevebSi

ganapiroba erTis mxriv, II da III, xolo meores mxriv, V da VI

Temebis formaTa damTxveva. gvxvdeba dawyvilebuli Temebis

leqsikuri mniSvnelobis erTi zmnuri formiT gadmocemis zogi

SemTxvevac. maTi ricxvi dialeqtSi TandaTanobiT matulobs.

miuxedavad zemoTqmulisa, dReisaTvis fiqsirdeba rogorc II da III,

aseve V da VI TemaTa formebi.

grZeli xmovnebis arsebobas zmnur formebSi da saerTod,

arabuli warmoSobis leqsemebSi vfiqrobT, unda ganapirobebdes

maxvili. mxedvelobaSia misaRebi agreTve arabul sityvaTa

tradiciuli warmoTqmis SenarCunebis tendencia, romelic

gaucnobiereblad gadaecema Taobidan Taobas.

nawarmoebi Temebis warmoeba kad-Si naklebad produqtiulia.

araswori zmnebis Temebis fiqsacia ZiriTadad xerxdeba calkeuli

formebis gamovleniT. xSiria SemTxvevebi, roca hamzian an sust

zmnas mxolod erTi forma gaaCnia romelime nawarmoeb TemaSi.

aseTi formebis daZebnis da dalagebis Sedegad SevecadeT

213


aRgvedgina geminirebuli, hamziani da susti zmnebis nawarmoebi

Temebi, Tumca, rogorc aRvniSneT, Temebi kad-Si ufro metad

asaxaven sityvawarmoebis enobriv potencials, vidre

formawarmoqmnas.

dialeqtSi arawesieri zmnebis raodenoba ufro naklebia, vidre

swori zmnis formebisa. amiT gamowveuli semantikuri xarvezi

Sevsebulia uzbekuri da tajikuri nasesxobebiT.

ucxo warmoSobis sityvebi kad-Si eqcevian arabuli

morfologiis yalibSi da warmoebis saerTo wess eqvemdebarebian.

vinaidan nawarmoeb TemaTa funqcionirebis areali kad-Si

mcirea da mniSvnelobaTa gamoxatvis ZiriTadi simZime pirvel

Temas akisria, xSirad igi sxvadasxva niuansis mqone semantikur

datvirTvas Rebulobs.

niSandoblivia perfeqtivisa da imperfeqtivis mx. r.-Si me-3 da

me-2 pirSi or-ori – mamrobiTi da mdedrobiTi formebis arseboba.

maTi warmoeba uaxlovdeba klasikur arabuls. am mxriv kad-s

paraleli mxolod beduinebis metyvelebaSi moeZebneba.

dialeqtSi dasturdeba hamzis an susti Tanxmovnis mokvecis

Sedegad saliteraturo arabuli enis orTanxmovniani an

samTanxmovniani Zirebis transformacia, Sesabamisad,

erTTanxmovnian da orTanxmovnianebad. miuxedavad Tanxmovnis

Cavardnisa, Cven aseTi zmnebi movaTavseT saliteraturo enis

tradiciul sqemaSi da modelebis prezentaciis dros frCxilebSi

SevitaneT isini.

naSromSi gamovlenili kad-is zmnis warmoebis ZiriTadi

Taviseburebani miuTiTeben mSobliur enobriv niadags mowyvetili

da xangrZlivi drois ganmavlobaSi aramonaTesave enebTan

kontaqtSi myofi arabuli dialeqtis TviTmyofadobas. isini

sayuradReboa arabuli zmnis ganviTarebis tendenciebis

Sesaswavlad.

leqsika gamdidrebulia uzbekuri, Turqmenuli, tajikuri,

avRanuri, rusuli nasesxobebiT. amave dros fiqsirdeba iSviaTi

arabuli arqaizmebi.

kad-isaTvis damaxasiaTebeli, saliteraturo arabulisagan

gansxvavebuli sintaqsuri konstruqciebidan aRsaniSnavia

214


Turquli izafeti da determinatiuli konstruqciebi.

ganviTarebulia enobrivi gadarTvebi. winadadebebis saxeobebidan

gavrcelebis sifarToviT xasiaTdeba Semdegi tipebi: 1. SVO

(qvemdebare-Semasmeneli-damateba; 2. SOV (qvemdebare-damateba-

Semasmeneli); 3. OVS (damateba-Semasmeneli-qvemdebare).

kaSkadariuli dialeqti warmoadgens periferiuli arabuli

dialeqtebidan erT-erT yvelaze mniSvnelovan enobriv fenomens,

romlis enobrivi maxasiaTeblebi sayuradReboa ara marto

arabuli enis, aramed, zogadad, semituri enebis Seswavlis

TvalsazrisiTac.

215


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228


CENTRAL ASIAN ARABIC DIALECTS

QASHQA-DARYA DIALECT

(Phonology, Grammar, Vocabulary)

Summary

The work is devoted to the study of an important problem of Arabic

linguistics, namely Arabic dialectology – the linguistic phenomenon of

Central Asian Qashqa-daryÁ Arabic dialect (hereinafter – the QAD), little

known to scholarship. Similar to Central Asian Arabic, the dialects of the

border zone of Turkey and Syria, Cypriot Arabic, the old Arabic dialect of

Andalusia, Arabic of Iran’s Khuzistan (Khorramshahr speech) etc, also

belong to peripheral Arabic dialects.

Peripheral Arabic dialects manifest various linguistic peculiarities, which

is mainly caused by their close linguistic contact with the non-kindred

Indo-European, Turkic and other languages. They contain extremely rich

material for the study of problems of general linguistics. Observation of

above-mentioned dialects provides an opportunity to define the tendencies

of development of Semitic languages, which is also significant from the

viewpoint of historical linguistics.

The aim of the work is to carry out a phonetic, phonological,

morphological, syntactic and lexical study of the Central Asian QAD, to

disclose fully its linguistic essence. Linguistic peculiarities of the QAD

constitute a system characterized by features, which are similar to and

different from those of the literary Arabic language and other Arabic

dialects. Attention in the work is mainly focused on the different features,

for dialect as a speech fact is not restricted from the viewpoint of change.

This should not be interpreted as though the QAD does not have its own

norms. The QAD, forms as a result of laws of inner development of

language over the centuries, functions with its own linguistic features. It

undergoes modifications even at present. The work also deals with the

cases of description of the clear-cut grammatical system of the language.

Century-old isolation from the Arabic world is an important peculiarity

of Central Asian Arabic dialects. The Bukhara and QAD dialects developed

independently of the Arabic world, torn from their native linguistic

environment, over a long period of time. A significant linguistic picture has

resulted from the development of Arabic dialects in the non-identical

linguistic environment, when they co-existed, being in linguistic contact

with the Indo-European (Tajik, Afghan) and Turkic (Uzbek, Turkmen)

languages over centuries. This favored the development of triglossia in

Central Asia – nowadays the majority of the population of Bukhara and

Qashqa-daryÁ regions speaks and makes wide use of the Tajik and Uzbek

229


languages, along with their native Arabic. It should also be noted that of

the non-native languages Bukhara Arabs speak Tajik more fluently,

whereas Qashqa-daryÁ Arabs use Uzbek with more fluency. Historical,

geographic, social and other extralinguistic factors played an important role

in the development of Central Asian Arabic dialects and they are taken

into account in the program of research into these dialects.

Instances of phonetic, morphological, syntactic and lexical interference

have been identified on the basis of the analyses. Development of similar

and different features in languages being in contact over a long period

(convergent and divergent development of language) are also discussed. It

is established finally how an individual uses the non – native Tajik and

Uzbek languages along with his native Arabic. At this point the author

considered it advisable to describe interference first. Breakdown of

linguistic features in speech by a trilingual individual is due to the

influence of the contacting languages. Deviation from speech norms in

case of systematic recurrence is regarded as a characteristic feature of the

languages being in contact. Analysis of similar linguistic phenomena, which

have resulted from linguistic contacts over a certain period, is also equally

important. It is a consistent process leading to the assimilation of

languages.

Such convergent description of Central Asian Arabic is especially

valuable in case of contact of the structurally non- – identical Semitic,

Indo – European and Turkic languages. In this case common linguistic

rules have developed as a result of deviation from the norms of the native

language, which gives an opportunity to generalize and simulate linguistic

contacts. There is an inner relation between interference and convergence

in Central Asian Arabic. In both cases the results of co – existence of

Arabic dialects with languages of a different structure, their changes in

time and space are discussed. The difference is that in describing

interference linguistic deviates – may be said – inaccuracies, caused by the

influence if Tajik and Uzbek, characteristic of Bukhara and QAD dialects,

are studied. As regards description of convergence, here we are dealing

with qualitative modifications. Thus, linguistic contacts in Central Asia can

be viewed as a long process, accompanied at certain stages by transition of

quantitative changes to qualitative ones.

Linguistic contacts do not lead only to the appearance of common

features; development of divergence – differentiation of linguistic features,

opposite phenomenon of convergence is possible as well. This, too, is

characteristic of languages being in contact, for they adopt similarities and

differences to an equal degree.

Linguistic situation in Bukhara and Qashqa-daryÁ regions is marked by

the existence of coordinate and subordinate diglossia (triglossia). In case of

230


coordinate diglossia (triglossia) a bilingual (trilingual) person speaks two

(or three) languages fluently, he switches from one language to the second

according to third language if necessary. Under subordinate diglossia an

Arab bilingual (trilingual) individual speaks fluently only one language –

his native language. The level of knowledge of Tajik and Uzbek in such

cases is low, the bilingual (trilingual) person tries to subordinate a foreign

language to the norms of his native Arabic. These bilinguals (trilinguals)

are mainly elderly people and women limited to their family life.

Interesting cases of subordinate bilingualism were recorded in Central Asia

– these are instances when young people speak the Tajik and Uzbek

languages more fluently than their native Arabic, using foreign words and

expressions abundantly in speech in their family, their quarter, talking to

the people in the same village. This can be explained by modern

tendencies in the Uzbek Republic. At the same time, monolingualism is

not uncommon in the Arabic – speaking qishlaqs of Bukhara and QashqadaryÁ.

Monolinguals are mostly very old people. It is especially difficult to

obtain dialectological material from monolingual women due to their

traditional way of life.

The foundation for the study of Central Asia dialects was laid in the

1930s by Acad. G. Tsereteli and Prof. I. Vinnikov. The discovery of these

dialects is linked to the names of Leningrad ethnographers N. N. Burikina

and M. M. Izmailova, who were the first scholars to publish information

about the Arabic – speaking population of Central Asia. It is known that

Acad. I. Krachkovski attached great importance to the discovery of Arabic

dialects in Central Asia. He regarded this event as “the greatest scholarly

discovery indicative of a certain revolution in Arabic dialectology”. His

following words are noteworthy: “ The discovery and study of Central

Asian Arabic dialects brings glory to our scholarship, our country, being a

revolution for world science from a certain viewpoint”.

Along with I. Krachkovski, eminent Arabist N. Yushmanov, delivering a

course in Arabic dialectology at Leningrad University in the 1930s, also

attached great importance to the discovery and study of Arabic dialects in

Central Asia.

The credit should go to George Tsereteli for demonstrating the

existence of two different dialects – Bukhara and Qashqa-daryÁ, as a result

of his first scholarly mission to Central Asia in 1935. The scholar wrote in

the preliminary publication in 1937: “It was established that the language

of the Arabs living in the North (Bukhara region) differs considerably from

the speech of the Arabs of the South (Qashqa-daryÁ region). The

difference is so great, that it was possible to distinguish with confidence

two independent dialects”.

231


The Central Asian dialects – Bukhara and QAD belong to the eastern

group of Arabic dialects. They are spoken in the territory of modern

Uzbekistan. The Bukhara dialect is spoken by the population of the

qishlaqs: JÝgarÚ, ChaghdarÑ, Shohan-beg, Ghijduvan area, Bukhara region,

as well as the qishlaq Arab KhÅna, Wobkend region, whereas QAD is

spoken in the qishlaq Jeynau and Qamashi, Beshkend region, North –

West of Qarshi. According to our observation on the spot, the Bukhara

dialect is spoken by approximately 3000 people in the given qishlaq at

present, whereas up to 1500 people know the QAD. At the same time, the

Arab population in residential areas exceeds greatly number of native

speakers.

Important studies were devoted to Central Asian Arabic dialects by

Acad. G.Tsereteli and Prof. I.Vinnikov. Special mention should be made

of “A Description of the language of Central Asian Arabs “ (in Russian)

by G. Tsereteli, published in the proceedings of the second session of the

Arabists Association in Leningrad, in 1941; “Central Asian Arabic

Dialects, the Bukhara Arabic Dialect” (in Georgian), major work by the

same author, Tbilisi, 1956; “ The Language and Folklore of Bukhara

Arabs” by I. Vinnikov, Moscow, 1969; “A. Dictionary of the Language of

Bukhara Arabs” by the same author, published in “Палестинский сборник”

in 1962, etc. The above listed studies are foundational work by Acad. G.

Tsereteli and Prof. I. Vinnikov, which have contributed to the level of

study of Central Asian Arabic.

“ The Bukhara Arabic Dialect”, monograph by Prof. V. G. Akhvlediani

was published in 1985. It deals with the analysis of the phonological and

morphological structure of the Bukhara dialect. N. Yushmanov, H. Niberg,

V. Fisher also devoted significant works to Central Asian Arabic. G.

Juraev, O. Yastrov, K. Versteegh and others.

The works by these scholars are largely devoted to the study of the

Central Asian Bukhara dialect. This, in the present writer’s view, is due to

the existence of rich dialectological material reflective of Bukhara Arabic

in scholarly use, the credit for which goes to Acad. G. Tsereteli and Prof.

I. Vinnikov.

Acad. G. Tsereteli and Prof. I. Vinnikov laid the foundation for the

study of the QAD. In 1954 G. Tsereteli and in 1963 I. Vinnikov published

examples of speech of the Qashqa-daryÁ Arabs. Materials of the Grammar

of the Qashqa-daryÁ dialect by I. Vinnikov were published in Bratislava in

1965. In spite of this, the QAD is little known in scholarly circles.

Materials of this dialect have not been published to an extent that would

enable specialists to carry out thorough linguistic analysis of the dialect.

232


The present work aims at filling this gap. Dialectological material was

obtained during our scholarly missions in Central Asia in the qishlaqs

Jeinau and Qamashi, the city of Qarshi, Qashqa-daryÁ region, in 1980,

1986, 2000. Working with informants, the present writer tried to record the

speech of people of different age and sex, with a good command of Arabic.

The people with poor knowledge of the Arabic language were also

recorded, whose speech was considerably interspersed with Uzbek and

Tajik idioms.

The work is the first attempt to present a comprehensive linguistic

analysis of the Central Asian QAD – Description of the language on the

phonological, morphological and syntactic levels, characterization of the

vocabulary of the dialect is given. Linguistic date of the Bukhara dialect is

presented abundantly in the work.

Qashqa-daryÁ Arabic offers extremely wealthy material from the

viewpoint of study of linguistic contacts. In this respect speech contacts of

languages with different structure on the level of relationship of the

Semitic (Arabic), the Indo-European (Tajik, Afgan) and the Turkic

(Uzbek, Turkmen) languages is especially important. This question found

broad expression in the work.

The question of the history of Arabs in Central Asia is given special

place in the preface. Presumable dates of setting of ancestors of the

Qashqa-daryÁ and Bukhara Arabs in Central Asia are established on the

basis of historical sources and the direct observation of linguistic data by

the author.

Arab migration to Central Asia has a century-old history. It is linked to

the wars of conquest of Arabs in the 7 th -8 th centuries. The fact of existence

of Arabs in Bukhara and Samarqand is attested by historical sources.

Settling of Arabs in Central Asia acquired a broader scale later on.

According to the report by Al- Ia÷qæb×, 9 th -century geographer, Khorasan,

including Maverannahr, was inhabited by Arabs. The large number of

Arabs was especially felt in cities. Existence of Arab settlements away from

cities is presumable in this period. This is suggested by the large-scale

migration of Arabs to Central Asia in A.D. the 7 th -8 th centuries. Later, as a

result of assimilation with the local population, the Arabs living in cities

gradually lost their national traits including the most important of thesethe

language. According to the evidence of Al-JÁhiz, Arabs intermixed with

the local population and did not differ from it any longer. As regards the

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Arabs, who had not settled in cities and led a nomadic life, they

presumably preserved their language and other national traits.

The question as to with which wave of Arab migration the Arabs,

inhabiting Bukhara and Qashqa-daryÁ regions at present were linked,

naturally arises.

On the bases of the study conducted by us, two chronologically different

waves of Arab migration can be assumed in Bukhara and Qashqa-daryÁ

regions:

1. The settlement of the direct ancestors of Qashqa-daryÁ Arabs in this

region might have taken place in the 7 th -10 th centuries, which

follows from the arguments given below:

a) Inhabitants of the qishlaq Jeinau have preserved an oral tradition

about the settlement of their ancestors in the first centuries of

Hijra;

b) Historical sources attest to the existence of Arabs in Qashqa-daryÁ

region, Central Asia, in the 7 th -12 th centuries.

c) The Arabs living in present-day Qashqa-daryÁ and those who settled

here in the 7 th -10 th centuries are related through a very important

evidence by Al-Isãakhr× concerning the settlement of Quraish Arabs

in this region in early times, the majority of Arabs inhabiting this

region at present links their origin with the Quraishan Arabic tribe.

d) Comparison of the QAD with the Bukhara dialect on the level of

linguistic data proves that the QAD is more archaic and it bears

more resemblance to classical Arabic, which may be explained by

long geographic and linguistic isolation of Qashqa-daryÁ Arabs from

the Arabic world.

2. Direct ancestors of Bukhara Arabs may have settled in present day

Ghijduvan region in the 14 th century. This can be assumed on the

basis of the following:

a) According to an oral tradition ancestors of Bukhara Arabs were

settled in Central Asia by Timur Lenk;

b) Linguistic analysis of the Bukhara dialect reveals some dialectal

phenomena, which are common to Arabic dialects, not attested in

literary sources until the 14 th century. Anthropological conclusion

on Central Asian Arabs made by L. Oshanin and V. Zezenkova is

noteworthy.

c) According to their evidence, “Qashqa-daryÁ Arabs belong to

brachycephalic racial types of Near East, which coincides, with the

racial trait of Arabs living in the North, Mesopotamia”. The authors

made an extensive study of the types found in Central Asia.

According to their observation, the Arabs living in Qarshi area have

preserved their anthropological traits proving their Arabic origin

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ight up to the present day. As to indicators of assimilation of

Central Asia Arabs with the local population, according to the

conclusion of the scholars, the trace of such anthropological mixture

is extremely insignificant. The authors assign this to the fact that the

bulk of Qarshi Arabs took up a fixed residence, namely in Jeynau

and Qamashi regions over the centuries. Again mention should be

made of the extremely important evidence by Al-Isãakhr× on the

settlement of Arabs in the neighborhood of Nakhshebi (Qarshi). He

names a residential area called Naukad Quraish, which points to the

Arabic origin of its inhabitants. Quraish Arabs living in Jeinau at

present serve as a link to the Arabs who settled in Central Asia in

the 7 th -10 th centuries. Thus, the fact of Arab migration to QashqadaryÁ

region of Central Asia in the 7 th -10 th centuries and their

relation to the Arabs inhabiting Jeinau and Qamashi at present can

be considered reliable.

Phonology

The present study deals with the phonemic analysis of the QAD

applying the methods of modern structural linguistics. Attention is focused

mainly on minimal oppositions which are duscussed on the level of

phonological pairs. The principle of discreteness of language is taken into

account in the analysis, according to which minimal units making up

larger ones are chosen as the linguistic units to be described.

Distribution of consonants and vowels in the QAD is comparatively

equal (daÕal). This phenomenon is clearly manifested in the literary Arabic

language (kataba) and is noticeable in the majority of Eastern Arabic

dialects. It is the other way found in Western Arabic dialects. Vocalization

here is minimal and occurrence of several consonants in initial position is

typical (kteb). Seven main classes of articulation of consonants are

identifiable in the given dialect: labial, dental, alveolar, palatal, velar,

pharyngeal and laryngeal.

The following phonemes of literary Arabic are lost in the Qad:

a) interdental ä > s: äawb > sub “clothes”; Ë > z: öaÕaËahu > ÕazÁ

“he took it”

b) In most cases hamza is dropped: öaÕaËahu > ÕazÁ “he took it”.

c) The velar q is mostly rendered by voiced g: qal×l > gil×l “little, few”.

Rarely articulation of q is preserved: qÝz× - “judge”.

d) Emphatic consonants have weak articulation d and Ì are conveyed

by ì, which is sometimes further weakened, resulting in z: lamzÁt < lafÌÁt

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– “words”, “expressions”. The suffix Át here denotes Fem. pl; ÷arÊ > arz

“petition”.

Despite phonological changes localization rows of consonants are

mainly preserved in the QAD. There are:

I The row of labials: b m p w labiodental f

IIThe row of dentals: d n t z s ã

III The row of alveolars: l r

IV The row of palatals: Ó É í â y

V The row of velars and uvulars: g k q Ò Õ

VI The row of pharyngeals: ÷ Ô

VII The row of glottals: h

Two phonemes not found in literary Arabic are encountered in the

QAD, these are: p and É. Their emergence should not be ascribed only to

the influence of the Tajik and Uzbek langauges. This is also caused by the

development of corresponding Arabic sounds. That is why p and É occur in

in words of Tajik and Uzbek origin as well as purely Arabic lexemes. e. g.

poliâta “pillow”, Éai “tea”, harap < harab “fled, bolted, escaped”, uÉi “my

face”. Some consonants are characterized by emphasization. e. g. /r/ - ros

“head”, /b/ - raÈÈ “hord”; /Ü/ uÜÜa – “mother”. If a syllable contains

an emphatic vowel, it undergoes emphasization. This phenomenon is

found in Arabic, both in the literary language and its dialects. Emphasized

sounds /Ü/ /b/ /r/ are the variants of nonemphatic phonemes. In some

cases they occur as independent phonemes.

29 phonemes are distinguished in the QAD: /p/ /b/ /m/ /w/ /f/ /t/ /d/

/n/ /s/ /z/ /l/ /r/ /â/ /É/ /Ó/ /k/ /g/ /Õ/ /y/ /Ò/ /ã/ /Ô/ /÷/ /h/ /a/ /e/

/i/ /u/ /o/

According to their phonetic and distributional features they are divided

into two classes: consonants and vowels. Vowels serve to form syllables,

whereas consonants lack this features. The system of consonantal

phonemes contains 24 units – 7 sonorous sounds, 15 voiceless consonants

and 2 affricates.

The following distinctive features of phonemes are identifiable in the

QAD: vocalic, consonantal, compact, voiced, nasal, continuant, aspirate,

strident, peripheral, glottalized, palatal.

These are binary features, needed for paradigmatic identification of

phonemes.

According to the first two binary features – vocalic – consonantal, the

following classes are distinguishable in the QAD:

1. Vocalic and non-consonantal: a e i u o

2. Vocalic and consonantal: y w

3. consonantal and non-vocalic: p b m l d s z â É Ó k g Õ q Ò ã Ô ÷ h

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The distinctive feature of compactness is typical of the vowels a and u

in the QAD. In this respect they are opposed to the non-compact e and i.

The same feature is characteristic of the palatals â, É, Ò, the velars k, Õ, Ò,

the uvular q and the glottals Ô, ÷, h.

Continuity is typical of those consonants in the QAD which are

contoids whose articulation does not involve interruption or occlusion.

Such consonants are referred to as fricatives in phonetic literature. The

distinctive feature of continuity is typical of f, z, s, Ó, É, â, m, n in the

QAD.

Aspirated consonants are produced with no vibration of the vocal

chords and relaxed articulatory muscles. Aspiration is typical of É, Ô and h

in the QAD.

Low-tone consonants contrast with high-tone ones.The low segment of

the spectrum is dominant in their pronunsiation. This distinctive feature is

characteristic of labial and velar consonants (b, p, w, f, g, k, Ò, Õ) as

opposed to dentals and palatals.

Stridency is characteristic of glottal consonants . In the QAD this

distinctive feature is typical of q. It is produced by closure of glottis, thus

contrasting with mellow phonemes.

Glottalized consonants contrast with non-glottalized ones. These are

stops whose articulation involves work of the vocal chords and glottal

occlusion. Glottalized consonants are often discussed along with strident

consonants. This distinctive feature is typical of Ô in the QAD.

Palatal consonants are formed by pressing the tongue against the hard

palate. This feature is characteristic of Ó, É, í and y.

The analysis carried out by the present writer has shown that distictive

features of the QAD phonemes are identified in the form of the following

binary pairs:

1. vocalic / non-vocalic; 2. consonantal / non-consonantal; 3.

compact/ diffuse; 4. voiced / voiceless; 5. nasal / oral; 6. continuant /

discontinuant; 7. aspirated / unaspirated; 8. low-tone / high-tone; 9.

strident / mellow; 10. peripheral / non – peripheral; 11. glottalized / non

– glottalized; 12. palatal / non- palatal. They are presented in the table

#2.

In the work is presented minimal phonological binary pairs of QAD and

distribution of the QAD phonemes in words.

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Spontaneous changes of articulation of sounds

Consonants

Labials

The voiced /b/ is sometimes conveyed by the voiceless, aspirated /p/,

the latter being its positional variants. /p/ occurs in the middle of words or

final position after a vowel: arkup< öarkaba “ascended”, arap ars.

The dental nasal n is conveyed by m in final position before a vowel or

in pre-consonantal position (if the consonant is labial): fatam< faãan

“understood”, mimbará. This phenomenon can be explained by

the influence of the emphasized r. It should also be noted that along with

the word rÝs is also found in the QAD, the latter being more common.

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The QAD consonant Ó is devoiced in some cases, resulting in É:

haÉ


e/ /o/

/a/

Length of vowels in the QAD is not stable. There are long, short,

medium – length and ultra – short vowels. Variation of vowel length is

typical not only of the QAD but also other Arabic dialects. The following

classes of vowels are identifiable on the basis of phonetic records:

Long unstressed /×/ /Ø/ /Î/ /Ï/ /Á/ /Â/ /Ý/ /æ/ /ç/ /ë/

Long stressed /×/ /Ø/ /Î/ /Ï/ /Á/ /Â/ /Ý/ /æ/ /ç/ /ë/

Of variable length /i/ /Ø/ /e/ /Í/ /a/ /À/ /o/ /u/ /å/ /ê/

Middle short /i/ /Ú/ /e/ /î/ /Í/ /À/ /o/ /u/ /å/ /ê/

Short /i/ /Ø/ /e/ /î/ /Í/ /a/ /À/ /o/ /û/ /u/ /å/ /ê/

Overshort /i/ /Ø/ /e/ /î/ /a/ /À/ /o/ /û/ /u/ /å/ /ê/

The quality of vowel realisation is often determined by its position and

contact. The neighbourhood of forelingual, velar, pharyngeal and emphatic

consonants affects the timbre of the vowels.

Thus the following vowel phonemes are identifiable in the QAD.

Phonemes Allophpones

/a/ /À Â a o û/

/e/ /e Î î/

/i/ /Ø Ù/

/o/ /û o/

/u/ /å æ o ç ê/

The identified 5 cardinal phonological units do not distinguish

phonological length.

This phenomenon should be considered as a characteristic feature of the

QAD vowel system. Occurrence of long vowels in words should be ascribed

to various factors. The most important of these, in the present writer’s

view, is stress. The tendency of preserving traditional pronunciation of

Arabic words, handed down unconsciously from generation to generation,

should also be taken into account.

Combinative changes of sounds

A mechanism of modifications is evidenced in the QAD, which is

manifacted in connected speech in the form of articulatory changes.

These modifications are of two basic kinds: combinative and positional.

Combinative modification of sounds involves interaction of sounds in

connected speech as a result of which phonemes in immediate

neighborhood or proximity affect the articulation.

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Positional modifications of sounds are caused by the position of a sound

or in the word (Initial, middle, final), its occurrence in a stressed or

unstressed syllable etc.

The following changes can be distinguished in the combinative

modifications of the QAD sounds: accomodation, assimilation and

dissimilation, substitution and metathesis.

Loss of consonants and vowels and transposition of sound are also

found in the given dialect.

Syllable

The following varieties of syllables are identifiable in the QAD:

1. CV open short syllable

2. CV open long syllable

3. CVC closed long syllable

4. CVCC doubly closed long syllable

5. VC

6. CVC

7. VCC

8. VC

As is clear from these varieties, the structure of the QAD syllables is

characterised by a vocal sound in preposition: irs “wedding”, amr “order”

etc.

Their occurrence in the dialect is caused by dropping of hamza and

÷ayn.

Stress

Stress is not fixed in the QAD. It falls manly on long syllables. If the

word contains two long syllables, postposition is given preference.

birgÁdÙr “team-leader”

ilbÁsÇt “clothes”

Morphology

In this part the regularities underlying the distribution of root and affixal

segments in the Qashqa-daryÁ Arabic Dialect are determined. Their

functioning obeys certain rules whose unity defines the morphological

structure of the dialect. The categories, analysed according to the formal

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markers, are dealt with in the work as independent morphological

structures.

The root, as the grammatically indivisible lexical abstraction, in the

Qashqa-daryÁ Arabic dialect consists of two or three consonants, and

rarely of one or four consonants:

Ó cf ÓÁ "he came", md cf mad "he went away", lhg cf lihig "he arrived at

a point", dstr cf dastær "consent".

The Unity of root-consonant constitutes a base on which this or that

grammatical form is built. Although, the number of root-consonants is not

fixed, along with the abundance of three-consonant roots in the dialect,

instances of their transformation into two-consonant roots are also found:

gare


egards mainly to the Uzbek and Tajiki borrowings. Models of stems are

represented in the work according to their inner structure. Along with the

so-called simple nominals, new-type verbal nominals are found as well.

The structure of nouns has undergone certain changes, which was

chiefly due to phonetic peculiarities. As a result, models of the QAD nouns

do not always correspond to their literary parallels. The nominal categories

of gender, number and definiteness are also discussed at this point.

The basic marker of the feminine gender in the QAD is the element

a/e. The allomorphs -at, -×t, -t are, evidenced as well. The situation is

analogous in the Bukhara dialect. A marker is characteristic of some words

which had no marker of the fem. gender in Classical Arabic: âamse "the

sun" waÉe "face".

The plural in the QAD is formed mainly with the suffix - Át. This rule

applies both to the fem. and masc. nouns. Rarely, to build the plural,

masc. nouns take the suffix -in, and fem. nouns - the suffix yÁm or Ám:

hamrayÁm "gold coins". Broken plural forms: imãÁr "rains" are also

preserved in the dialect. The double plural is characteristic too: faras×nÁt

"horses", imãÁrÁt "rains".

The dual number in the QAD is represented in the set forms denoting

two corresponding bodily parts: ×dÎn "two hands" ÷ainÎn "two eyes", "eyes".

In the Bukhara dialect forms of the dual number drop næn in the

position of the modified: ÷ainÎy adamiy "man's two eyes". This confirms

the linguistic potential of formation of the dual number in the Bukhara

dialect.

indefinitness in the QAD is expressed by means of the indefinite

pronoun - fad "one", "someone", "somebody". It derives from Arabic -

fardun "one". fad is used in preposition and it agrees with the noun in

gender. fad sab× "one boy", fadhate mÝra "one woman".

Notably enough, in the QAD, unlike the Bukhara dialect, the definite

article il is found rarely: áoÔb il-Ôoiã "the owner of the house" pÝâÝ ilwalad

áayaÔ "the pasha called (this boy)".

Forms with the endings - in/×n are widespread in the Bukhara dialect,

they are found between the modifier and the modified, constituting a

certain linking element. For instance: kalb×n kb×r "big dog", such nunation

is typical of the Qashqa-daryÁ dialect as well: Ôoiã×n Ód×d "new house".

In the structure of the adjective the following main types are

identifiable: aCCaC for masc. form and CaCCa for fem. forms. The type

C1VC2C3V is widespread with the following variants: a) C1 a C2C3Án and b)

C1oC2C3Ýn : âab÷Án "satisfied" Óow÷Ýn "hungry".

In the analysis of the adjective attention is manly focused on the

formation of the superlative degree which differs from the literary Arabic.

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The element used to build the superlative here is the form Óådo: Óådo zen

"the best", Óådo kb×r "the biggest". Such formation of the elative must be

ascribed to the influence of the Uzbek language. As to the form Óådo, it is

linked with Arabic - Óiddan.

Numerals

The structure of numerals in QAD has changed in comparison with

Literary Arabic. This applies to ordinal and cardinal numbers equally.

Cardinal numbers are marked with the following features:

From one to ten, only numerals for one and two have both genders:

fadhat-fadhate, isnÎn-isnÎna.

From three to ten, numbers have similar forms for both genders.

From one to four the Arabic forms are used, from five to seven - both

Arabic and Tajik, for eight and nine only Tajik words are used, while ten is

expressed by means of Arabic aâara:

1. fadhat-fadhate 6. sitta/âiâ

2. isnÎn-isnÎna 7. sab÷a/haft

3. salÁs 8. haât

4. öorba 9. næn

5. Õamsa/panÓ 10. ÷aâara

fadhat "one" is the result of merging the two words: fad


The numerals for 11,15,16, and 17 have clearly parallel forms. When

the numeral, denoting the units, begins with a consonant, the word ÷aâara

keeps its final vowel –a. Alternatively, in numbers 12 and 14 the vowel-a is

omitted, because the second word in these compound numerals begins

with a vowel, following the muting of hamza.

Numerals of this category precede nouns in the singular form:

÷aâara fadhÁt walad "eleven boys"

÷aâara salÁs hÝiã "thirteen houses"

Decimals

By their structure decimals differ from the corresponding numerals of

the Literary Arabic:

20-÷aâr×n 60-sitta aârÁt // âiâ aârÁt

30-salÁs aârÁt 70-sab'a aârÁt // haft aârÁt

40-orba aÁrÁt 80-haât aârÁt

50-Õams aârÁt // panÓ aârÁt 90-næh aârÁt

We can see, that only 20 is similar to the relevant form in Literary

Arabic. The other forms follow the structure: unit + tens (pl. fem.). As

would be expected, in the numerals for 50,60,70 parallel forms are

preserved.

We can further distinguish two groups, according to the combination of

decimals and units: a) from 20 to 29; b) from 31 to 99.

For the first group the same rule as that of Literary Arabic applies. The

following sequence is preserved: unit + twenty:

fadhat ÷aâr×n "twenty one"; isnÎn ÷aâr×n "twenty two".

The second group has the following structure: decimals +unit.

salÁs ÷aârÁt fadhat "thirty one"; orba ÷aârÁt isnÎn "forty two".

Decimals in the Literary Arabic precede the noun they qualify. The

noun has the plural form: ÷aâr×n naöÓÁt "twenty rams"; salÁs ÷aârÁt

motgowÁt "thirty cows".

Sometimes nouns in the QAD are in singular forms:

orba ÷aârÁt faras "forty horses"; Õamsa ÷aârÁt bagir "fifty bulls".

In the same part of the dissertation the main characteristics of the

hundreds and thousands are given.

Pronouns

The Personal, Demonstrative, Interrogative, Negative and Relative

pronouns are distinguished in QAD.

Independent personal pronouns

The following are the independent personal pronouns:

Singular Plural

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3 m haw ziklÝn

zÝk ziklonÁt

zÝkÁt

f. hay ziklÇnna

z×ka

2m. inta intæ /intuwÁt

f. inti intÙnna

1. anÁ naÔna /naÔnÁt

In the 3 rd person of sg. and pl., also in the 2 nd and 1 st persons of pl.

there are following parallel forms: haw/zÝk sg.m. hay/z×ka sg.f.,

ziklÝn/ziklÝnÁt/zÝkÁt pl.m., intæ/intuwÁt pl.m., naÔna/naÔnÁt pl.

The functional frequency of haw/hay (sg. 3 rd person) is very low, These

forms appear in the dialect mostly with the negative particle mÁ: ma-haw,

ma-hay. Usually in the dialect we have zÝk/z×ka in sg. 3 rd person. As for

plural, 3 rd person, we have three forms: ziklÝn, ziklÝnÁt, zÝkÁt. ziklÝnÁt is

formed by means of the double plural (ziklÝn + Át). As for zÝkÁt, it is

formed by adding the plural marker Át to the singular form of the 3 rd

person zÝk.

In the first person we have the alternation of naÔna with naÔnÁt. naÔnÁt

is a double form of plural. In QAD functional frequency of this form is

very high.

It is perfectly clear, that the quantity of personal pronouns in QAD is

much greater than that in the Literary Arabic Language.

These pronominal forms have phonetic variations, for examples, instead

of /a/ we have in the speech of informants /e/ and /î/. Often we have

/ie/ instead of /i/ and / Ýw/ instead of /æ/:

intî zatabt "You (m) striked"; intiõ wÎn "Where are You (f) ?"

inte mÁtâæf "You (m) don’t love"; intÝw Kulæ!"You m. pl. must eat!"

The plural forms are used in QAD for the expression of the dual:

âoymardenqul AÕu Óeraqul, ziklÝn Arab×ya idriya "Shoimardenqul is

Geraqul’s brother. They know Arabic.”

Personal pronouns are often used for emphasis:

anÁ mÁ adri, inta tuktub! "I don't know (i.e. I cannot write), YOU

write!"

iâ qatalt intà? "Why did YOU kill?"

The masculine and feminine gender are fixed in both - singular and

plural forms of the 2 nd and 3 rd persons, which is characteristic for Literary

Arabic and occurs very rarely in Arabic Dialects.

Pronominal suffixes:

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Singular Plural

III m. -a (h) III m. -hum//um

f. -a f. -hin

II m. -k,-ak II m. -kum

f. -ki f. -kinna

I -i,-ni -na

The pronominal suffixes in verbs reflect the object. They denote the

person (1 st , 2 nd , 3 rd ), the gender (m. and f.) and the number (pl. only).

The singular number is not marked.

Demonstrative pronouns

Demonstrative pronouns in the Qashqa-daryÁ Arabic Dialect are

originated from the Arabic hÁËa

hÁza//hÁd "this" (masc.) halÁn "these"

hÁzi//hÁdi "this" (fem.) hazlÝn "those"

Demonstrative pronouns distinguish the categories of number and

gender. In the plural the category of gender is not expressed. Two parallel

forms of hazlÝn/hamazlÝn, occur , the latter denoting the intensive form.

hamazlÝn qatalæ! "THEY are who’ve killed"!

Interrogative and Negative Pronouns:

Interrogative pronouns in QAD are represented by min "who" and eâ//iâ

"what". These pronouns have parallels in other Arabic Dialects also.

min iÓa? "Who is coming?"; eâ saweyta? "What did you do?".

The Negative pronoun is represented as a composite: negative particle -mÁ

+pronominal suffix:

mÁni Óo÷Ýn "I am not hungry"; mÁhum i úbÎt "They are not at

home".

The forms of mÁhad and mÁmin in the meaning of "nobody" are

infrequent:

mÁhad iÓa "Nobody has come"; mÁmin sayal "Nobody has asked".

Sometimes mÁmin conveys the meaning of "nothing", "none":

anÁ i úbÎt mÁmin ÷andi "I have nothing at home".

Relative Pronoun

li and ki are used as relative pronouns in QAD. The former is of the

Arabic origin: li


The use of li in QAD is relatively rare. The element ki is of the Tajik

origin. It is productive in QAD. It links together related syntactical units of

the complex sentence:

Óib-ki, ana zÎn aâæfa "Bring that what I like".

gÁl-ki, ugæb mÁt "Said (that), who afterwards died".

Thus, the classes of pronouns and numerals in QAD are characterized

by the presence of formation, which make it stand out clearly among the

other Arabic dialects. The foregoing analysis proves the originality of the

structure and function of these idiosyncratic forms.

Verb Formation

The verbal system in the QAD is constructed in accordance with the

principle of functioning of the verbal system of Semitic languages. Simple

and derivative forms are identifiable: perfective, imperfective, a clearlydefined

subsystem of conjugation expressed by the categories of person,

number and gender, with regular, geminate, hamzaed, weak and doubly

weak verbal forms, indicative and imperative moods.

Alongside the indicated categories, pronominal and other types of affixal

markers are distinguished.

Regular verb

Perfect

In the perfect two types of the tri-consonantal root are singled out:

1.CaCaC and 2.CiCiC. The maximal frequency of spread is characteristic

of the former type, the latter occurring rather rarely. In plural the

difference of formation is appeared either in QAD or BAD:

QAD BAD

sing.

III masc. katab “ daÕal

fem. katab-et daÕal-et

II masc. katab-t daÕal-t

fem. katab-ti daÕal-ti

I katab-t daÕal-t

plur.

III masc. katab-aw daÕal-æ

katab-awÁt

fem. katab-Ænna daÕal-en

II masc. katab-tæ daÕal-tæ

katab-tuwÁt

fem. katab-tÙnna daÕal-ten

I katab-na daÕal-na

248


The dual is not represented in the verb and the noun. In this respect the

QAD follows to the common dialectological tendency.

A verb in the singular, II p., masc. and I p. has a homonymous form:

zaraÔt – “you sowed (smth)”, zarabt – “you smote (smb)” // zaraÔt – “I

sowed (smth)”, zarabt – “I smote (smb.)”. In order to express the person

it is necessary to apply personal pronouns: ana zarabt – “I smote (smth.)”,

inta zarabt – “you smote (smb)”. As is known, this does not match with

the rules functioning of personal pronouns’ in the literary Arabic language.

In the third and second persons, masc. plur. parallel forms are present.

They are formed by means of the so called double plural: katabaw //

katabawÁt – “they wrote”, katabtu // katabtuwÁt – “you wrote”.

The suffixes et, ti and tÙnna have allomorphs: t, te, tÐnna. The difference

between the two types of the simple form, besides sounding consonants,

is expressed via narrowing the vowel of some suffixes: âarabat – “drank”,

Ôilimet – “had a dream”. This phenomenon can be explained by the

phonetic influence of the stem’s vowels.

Imperfective

In the imperfective , similar by to the literary Arabic language, the first

root vowel falls out. The second vowel maintains an inversive connection

with the vowel of the prefect. It is narrow in the case when a typical vowel

in the perfect is wide and vice versa – wide, when the vowel of complete

aspect is narrow. As has been remarked, the latter occurs in case of

quantitatively relationship rarely, but from the qualitative point of view

inversive between characteristic vowels is everywhere preserved. This fact is

a reflection of morphonological alternation and functions in the dialect in

the shape of internal flexion. below are given full paradigms of both types:

Indicative mood

QAD BAD

sing.

III masc. i u ktub mudÕul

fem. t u ktub tudÕul

II masc. t u ktub tutÕul

fem. t u ktub×n tutÕul×n

I aktub matÕul

plur.

III masc. i u ktubæn mudÕulæn

i u ktubænÁt

fem. i u ktubÙnna mudÕul×n

II masc tuktubæn tutÕulæn

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. tuktubæn

fem. tuktubÙnna tutÕul×n

I nuktub nutÕul

As is obvious from the verb paradigms, in the forms of the first and

second persons of the plural, as well as in the perfect in QAD, we find

parallel forms: i u ktubæn, t u ktubæn // iuktubunat, tuktubunat.

It should be noted here also that in the indicative mood forms of double

plural are of comparatively rare.

In separate cases characteristic vowels of the imperfect do not correspond

to their parallels in the literary language. E.g.: âarab ~ iârub. At the time

when as a typical vowel of the verb âariba in literary Arabic functions as a,

in the QAD it is replaced by i. E.g.: labas ~ ilbis – here we have the

alternation a~i instead of the expected i~a.

In the QAD,in a row of prefixal formations, forms with the prefix

m/mi, unlike the Bukhara dialect, are absent. As is known, the forms with

the particles m/mi, b/bi in Arabic dialects are not traced down earlier than

the 14 th century. They are to be met with, beginning from the 14 th -15 th

centuries, in literary monuments. In the QAD forms with the prefixes

m/mi in the imperfect have not developed.

Some prefixes and suffixes, building the impefect, have allomorphs,

namely in the first type verbs an allomorph of i u is i. It is obtained as a

result of reduction of the prefix’s vowel: iaktub>iuktub>iktub. Sometimes

Ùnna alternates with ïnna: tuktubïnna.

In the QAD a group of verbs may be identified of which ablaut is not

characteristic. It includes, on the whole, the first type verbs, for which the

second or third radicals are gutturals:

ãala÷~iãla’ “to rise”

na’am~in’am “to be pleasant”

naÓaÔ~inÓaÔ “to have success”

daÔar~idÔar “to conquer”, “to overcome”

karah~ikrah “to hate”

Óahad~iÓhad “to be tired of working”

Some features are also evinced by verbs with the first guttural consonant.

Here, in the imperfect, between the first and second radicals and

consonants instead of sukun there appears a vowel, more probably o. At

the same time in the perfect the first consonant may completely disappear.

Mainly it occurs with hamza:

haÓam~ihoÓum “to assault, “to attack”

Ôaraq~iÔÝruq “to kindle”; “to set on fire”

‘aÓal~i’ÝÓul “to hurry”

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Õaza~iÝÕuz “to take”

Among verbs of this group occurs metathesis of the prefixal vowel in the

second person of both numbers and genders:

ithÝÓum, ithÝÓ u m×n, ithÝÓ u mæn, ithÝÓ u mÙnna.

Thus, the structural model of the stem of a tri-consonantal verb of simple

form in the imperfect is this: CCVC. Its functional shaping takes place by

means of affixes.Verbs of this category are characterized ablaut, some

peculiarities of conjugation, brought about by the presence of guttural

consonants in the root, and also by the abundance of forming allomorphs

in verbs of both types. Lately, some deviation from the rule has been

noticed in the QAD, caused by the presence of guttural consonants,

heralding break-down of the clearly-defined grammatical system.

Imperative Mood

Suffixes forming the imperative mood in the QAD are: for the first type

verbs –u, for the second type verb –i. In the plural we have parallel forms:

I type

sing. plur.

II masc. uktub uktubæ//tuktubæ

fem. uktub× uktub×n//tuktub×n

II type

sing. plur.

II masc. ilÔag ilÔagu//tilÔagu

fem. ilÔag× ilÔagin//tilÔagin

In BAD there is analogical formation. Fossilized forms of the

imperative occur in the QAD: ugæb nazÁli gÁl – “Then he said to him:

descend!” sÁfa daÕÁli mÁ gÁla – “Looked at him – did not say, come in!”

This, mainly, refers to tri-consonantal verbs. Rarely this form expresses a

lively impertaive: anÁ g×t, katÁbi – “I came, write!” muya âarÁbi – Drink

some water!” It should be noted here, that the frequency of such forms

functioning in the QAD is comparatively low. More widespread and

common is conveyinging the imperative mood by means of the suffix ×n,

e.g.:

I type

sing. plur.

II masc. uârub×n uârub×nu

fem. uârub×ni uârub×na

251


II type

kitif – “to unite”

sing. plur.

II masc. iktaf×n iktaf×nu

fem. iktaf×ni iktaf×na

Such formation of the imperative mood should be considered as one of

the characteristic morphological peculiarities of the QAD.

Tense

The category of tense in the QAD is represented with the following

groups:

a)Past perfect

b)Past indefinite

c)Present indefinite

d)Present definite

e)Simple future

f)Complex (immediate) future

In the dialect the semantic opposition is obvious between the completed

and indefinite past, e.g.: âarabt “I drank”, ma âÁribni – “I have not

drunk”.

The past indefinite is formed by adding a pronominal suffix to the form of

active participle. By its contents the past indefinite coincides with the

Georgian tense “resultative”.

The presence of the past indefinite form in the QAD could be explained by

the influence of the Turkic setting, in which the given tense form is

attached.

The present indefinite is formed in two ways: one with the usual

imperfect and the other by adding the imperfect form of the auxiliary verb

sawa “to do smth.”, “to perform smth.” to a masdar of the first form in a

corresponding person, e.g.: ÷amalÁn isi “he works (as a rule)”, rakabÁn asi

“I’m charged (in the general) with breaking in horses”.

The present definite conveys a continuous, prolonged action. To a

certain extent it resembles the English present continuous. The indicated

tense is formed in the QAD by adding active participle forms of the verb

nÁm to a form of the imperfect, e.g.: iãbuÕ nÁyim “(smb.) is now baking

252


(smth.)”, nÝkul nÁyimÙnni – “we’re now eating”. should be noted here

that the participle of the auxiliary verb nÁm is frequently supplied with a

pronominal suffix.

The simple future is conveyed by a form of the imperfect. The tense is

conveyed by the context, e.g.: way saÔriya IúbozÝr amid – “Tomorrow I’ll

go to the bazaar”. If the expression way saÔriya “tomorrow” is absent, the

sentence could be translated thus: “I’m going to the bazaar”. As for the

complex (immediate) future, it has recource to the prefix –ta, e.g.: tanoÒdi

– “let’s go”, “we’ll go right now”, “we’ve already set out” .

Derivative Forms

Represented in the QAD are all derivative forms from the second to the

tenth including, except the ninth. Activity, intensity, direction, conative,

causative and the meaning of the passive voice are conveyed by the means

of the forms in the QAD. Here it should be noted that derivative forms in

the QAD are not formed from any verb. The forms attested in the dialect

do reflect the linguistic potential of world-building rather than of form

building. A similar tendency is characteristic of other Arabic dialects as

well.

The fourth form, rarely to be met with in Arabic dialects, in our dialect

appears in the shape of anãa


The most important among them, On the author’s view, is the accent.

The tendency towards preserving the traditional pronunciation of Arabic

words, which unconsciously is conveyed through generations, is also to be

taken into account.

Structural Words

This part deals with adverbs, prepositions, conjunctions, particles and

interjections. Along with the data of the Qashqa-daryÁ dialect, the

characteristic forms of the Bukhara dialect are also analysed.

The Adverb

The following words are identifiable among adverbs: barra “outside”,

Óuwa “inside”, kamÁn “again”, ÓudÝ “very”, dÁim “always”, hamÁna

“here”, hanÁka “there”, ugæb “after”, warÁ “behind”, giddÁm “in front

of”, amsiyya “yesterday”, bukra “tomorrow”, taÔt “down”, ÷ala “up”.

Some of these adverbs may carry the nominal function. In this case, the

sentence type is nominative:

hamÁna ÓudÝ zÎn, min hanÁka “It is better here than there”

Óuwa ÓudÝ ks×r, min barra “There are more inside than outside”

hawliÝi giddÁm zÎn, min warÁ “The front part of my farmhouse is

better than the back one”

There are instances of transformation of some words into adverbs by

means of semantic change in the dialect: áahriya “morning”, sahriya “in

the morning”, bÁöid “far”, bÁ÷id “far away” liÝm “today”. Compound

adverbs formed by joining two words can also be singled out: kulwaÔt

“always”, badbukra “the day after tomorrow”, mintaht “down”

The preposition

The following prepositions are identifiable in the QAD: f× “in”, ÷and

“at”, men “from”, ma÷a “with”, “together”, i


mÝrata il-gÁda mÝy Òasala “His wife washed the oriental robe with

water”

“min” undergoes a change and is sometimes rendered by the form

“mim”. This occurs mostly when the word after the preposition begins

with a labial consonant and assimilation takes place: mim bet “from the

house”, mim macÎt “from the mosque”.

It should be noted that over the recent period of time “mim” has been

substituted for “min” where it has not been exceptable: mim kuÉa iÓa “he

came from the street”, mim hamsÝya ÝÕuz “I borrowed it from my

neighbour”.

The particle

Interrogative: imit “when”, iâqÝ “where”, “which way”, eâ “what”, li

“why”, lem×n “whom” kam “how many”, kif “how”

Of the interrogative particles mention should be of eâ “what”. It is a

compound particle, it corresponds to li öayy âayiöin in classical Arabic. iâqo

“where”, “which way” is also a compound particle, with the parallel form

eâqÝ.

The particle of the Turkish origin “mi” is often found in the dialect:

âa×f-mi “Can you see?”. intinna-mi “Did you give it to me?”

Negative: lÁ “no”, mÁ “no”, gaã×Ým “never”, gaãã×â “nothing”,

Along with “lÁ”, the hamza form of this interrogative particle lÁö is

often used in the dialect, which occurs mostly at intervals. Note should be

made of “mÁ” too. It has the parallel form “mÁmin” which is fairly

widespread and expresses full negation.

Syntactic Constructions

Syntactic constructions different from the literary Arabic language have

developed in the QAD through time. This phenomenon is characteristic of

peripheral Arabic dialects. At the same time the syntactic pattern which is

typical of Arabic is preserved in the dialect, this applies to the modifier -

the modified as well as the syntactic structure.

The following constructions can be singled out in the dialect.

1. the modified – the modifier (status - constructus). This construction

typical of Arabic is widespread in the QAD. Productivity of this variety of

syntactic subordination in the dialect is also favoured by the existence of

the definite article “il”, less typical of other Arabic dialects.

Examples with the definite article “il”: áÝÔb il-bÁgir “the owner of the

cow” , rÝs il-iÔmÝr “the donkey’s head”

Examples without the article “il”: laÔm na÷aÓa – “mutton”, laÔm ÷anza

“the flesh of a goat”, gid×r palÁw “the pan of pilaf”.

2. Turkish Izafet (the modifier-the modified)

255


As a result of the influence of the Uzbek language a construction which

is alien to the Semitic languages has developed in the QAD. In Turkish

Izafet the modified is in postposition and is equipped with a pronominal

suffix: ÀfÀndi morta “the effendi’s wife”, literally: “the effendi-his wife”;

hawliÝy áÝÔbu “the owner of the farmhouse”, literally: “the farmhouse- its

owner”, waladak farasu “your boy’s horse”, literally: “your boy-his horse”;

zÝÓ× b×ntu “my husband’s doughter” i. e. my step-daughter, literally: “my

husband-his daughter”.

Modifying of a noun by another noun is regarded by A. Kononov as a

characterstic of this construction in the Uzbek language, where the

modifier is in preposition and without changing its form can express the

quality and type of a thing.

The modified in Turkish Izafet is added the suffix expressing the third

person (-u, -cu). e.g.:Синф журнали «class register», китоб магазины

«bookshop».

In order to express collectivity the modified in the Uzbek language

takes the plural suffix –лар, whereas in the Qashqa-daryÁ dialect it takes

the marker Át.

Examples from Uzbek: болалар боfracu “kindergarten”, оталар сузи

“Proverbs”, literally: “Fathers” (ancestors) words.

Examples from the Qashqa-daryÁ dialect: na÷aÓÁt áÝÔba “the owner of

the sheep”. literally: "the sheep-their owner"; âurabÁt gidira(h) “the pan of

soup”, literally: “the soap-its pan”.

In Turkish Izafet the use of several modifiers with the modified in

preposition is permissible:

faras, na÷Óa, ÷anza orzum “the land (pasture) of horse, sheep [and]

goat”, literally: “horse, sheep, goat-their land (the QAD)”. cf. Uzb. Тил,

адабиет ва тарих институти “The Institute of Language, Literature and

History”.

Code Switching

As a result of the scientific mission to the Qashqa-daryÁ region during a

recent period of time instances of code-switching were identified, where

Turkish Izafet is borrowed by informants as a loan translation.

Numerous instances of the use of two-component syntagmas of the

Uzbek language have been revealed:

a) The modifier takes the Genitive case suffix – нинг, and the modified

is added the third person suffix – u, cu:

waladÁn iúzÒ×r iúdarb ãala‘, iúhama medrese Òada-mad, zÝka dilmurÝdning

kitÝbi Õaza-mad.

“The younger son set off, he went to the madrasah, he took a book by

Dil-Murod (literally: Dil Murod – his book) with him”.

256


poâÝ iúgappÁt iúbÝi ÓudÝ ÕairÝn sÝr, usmaning otasi sayaÔ. ugæb zÝka

ihamzÝk sayal:

– usmaning otasi agar inta, li mÁ gulta?

“The pasha was very surprised at the bey’s words, [he] called Usman’s

father (literally: Usman-his father). Then he asked him: - if you are

Usman’s father, why didn’t you say (this) [before]?”

b) ileynÁ iúÓeynÁu болалар бoÒÉasi hast

“There is a kindergarten here in Jeinau (literally: children-their

garden)”

3. Determinative composite is an Izafetic construction, the first

component of which is the modifier, and the second – the modified.

Analogous constructions are typical of the Indo-European languages and

their existence in Central Asia Arabic should be ascribed to the linguistic

contact with the Tajik language.

Examples: wai áaÔariyya bÝi iúbozÝr mad. laÔam mib×Ô iúzÝka gÁl:

farasak wenu? “In the morning bey went to market. The vendor of meat

asked him: Where is your horse?”

hamsÝyta iúnorbÝn mib×Ô ÓawÁb mÁ nãa

“The neighbour did not answer the seller of ladders”

Code Switching

iúgiddÁmo bÝÒi sovÕÝz hast

“There is a garden of the Farmers’ union opposite to it”

mÝratna iúxonai kalÝn kÁnaw

“Our women (wives) were in the large room”

4. As a result of the influence of the Uzbek language the - În/×n suffix

was developed in the QAD which expresses the superlative degree and

fulfils the function of a connective formant between the modifier and the

modified: adem×n Õas×s “a stingy man”, bayt ×n kb×r “a big house”

In Uzbek энг expresses the superlative degree. cf. энг улуf “the

biggest”.În/×n in the QAD serves merely as a connective in the

construction N+ În/×n +adj: It should be noted that Turkish en

corresponding to Uzbek энг carries the analogous function in the Adana

and the Mersin Arabic dialects of Southern Turkey.

5. Extence of the constructions such as Pronpers+N+Pronsuf must be

ascribed to the influence of Turkish. In a syntagma of this type the

personal pronoun precedes the noun which takes a pronominal suffix: anÁ

hawliÝi «my farmhouse», ana ÔÝÖãi “my house”, inta waladak “your boy”;

zÝka iÔmor “his donkey”.

257


The Structure of The Sentences

The most characteristic types of sentence in QAD are the following: 1.

SPO (Subject- Predicate- Object): pÝâÝ gÁl iúwalad “Pasha said to the

boy”; 2. SOP (Subject-Object-Predicate): bÝy iúbint Õuâræya gÁl-ki “Bei

said to the beautiful girl”; 3. OPS (Object-Predicate-Subject): mÝrati

iúhama mÁnã×-gÁl-ki “He said: I don’t give him my wife”. The type SOP is

spread most of all in QAD.

Such free word order in the sentence can be explained by the linguistic

contact with the Uzbek language. The phrase structure in the QAD often is

not based on the subject and it’s action. On the contrary, the object is

underlined in the sentence and hence the attention is focused on the

process of the action. Thus, the construction OV can be regarded as one of

the basic syntactic peculiarities of Central Asia Arabic. Constructions of

this type are found both in the Qashqa-daryÁ and the Bukhara dialects.

The analyzed material proves the development of new linguistic forms

in Central Asia Arabic, which is the result of the long-term contacts of

Arabic dialects with the structurally non-identical Turkic (Uzbek) and

Indo-European (Tajik) languages.

Vocabulary

Two basic lexical groups can be singled out in the QAD: 1. Arabic

vocabulary. 2. Foreign borrowings. The first group in its turn is divided

into several lexical layers. These are: a) The vocabulary in common with

literary Arabic. b) The dialectal vocabulary. The existence of the second

group can be explained by the influence of the Uzbek and Tajik languages.

Here the following borrowings are identifiable: a) Uzbek; b) Tajik; c)

partially: Turkmen and Russian.

The dialectal vocabulary is manly represented by words known in

eastern Arabic dialects. In this respect the QAD has much in common

with the Iraq and the Syria Arabic dialects. The vocabulary in common

with another dialect of Central Asia, namely, the Bukhara dialect is

evidenced in the dialect, the existence of which mainly may be caused by

the presence of both dialects in one region: ãanga “silver money”, guãun

“cotton”, gÁba “oriental robe”, pÝâÝ “pasha”.

A part of the vocabulary is made up of Qashqa-daryÁn dialecticisms

proper which do not occur anywhere else: zÝka “he”, “zika “she”, ziklÝn

“they” (masc.). These forms are related to “ËÁka” found in Classical

Arabic, which represents an interesting result of the development of

personal pronouns in the dialect.

258


Among foreign words, mainly Uzbek and Tajik, and partially, Turkmen

and Russian borrowings are found in the QAD.

The work deals with the basic lexical features of borrowings.

The tendency to the creation of new onomasiologic structures is notable

in the QAD. This is due to the dropping of certain elements in the

structure of the nominate. This can be viewed as an economical means of

expressing an idea, which underlies the formation of new meanings in the

dialect. The following instances of compression of thought can be singled

out: 1. transformation of a word comination into a single word (kulsa< fi

kulli sÁ÷atin “always”); 2. Dropping of one component from the syntactic

construction (hÝÖã


The discussed material enables us to conclude that the QAD is

characterised by a great variety of lexical expressive means. The tendencies

of development of the vocabulary reflected in the dialect are mostly of

general character and they are noteworthy from the viewpoint of the study

of the vocabulary of the Semitic languages:

260

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