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GEORGIAN ACADEMY OF SCIENCES<br />

TSERETELI INSTITUTE OF OR IENTAL STUDIES<br />

TBILISI INSTITUTE OF ASIA AND AFRICA<br />

GURAM CHIKOVANI<br />

CENTRAL ASIAN ARABIC DIALECTS<br />

QASHQA-DARIA DIALECT<br />

(Phonology, Grammar, Vocabulary)<br />

Tbilisi – 2002


saqarTvelos mecnierebaTa akademia<br />

akad. g. wereTlis saxelobis aRmosavleTmcodneobis<br />

instituti<br />

Tbilisis aziisa da afrikis instituti<br />

guram Ciqovani<br />

Sua aziis arabuli dialeqtebi<br />

kaSkadariuli dialeqti<br />

(fonologia, gramatika, leqsika)<br />

Tbilisi<br />

_ 2002 _<br />

2


naSromSi warmodgenilia Sua aziis kaSkadariuli<br />

arabuli dialeqtis fonologiuri, morfologiuri,<br />

sintaqsuri da leqsikuri analizi. winamdebare gamokvleva<br />

pirveli cdaa kaSkadariuli dialeqtis enobrivi<br />

struqturis sistemuri aRwerisa. igi ZiriTadad eyrdnoba<br />

avtoris mier uzbekeTis respublikis kaSka-dariis mxaris<br />

arabulenovan yiSlaRebSi 80-ian wlebSi da 2000 wels<br />

mopovebul dialeqtologiur masalas.<br />

wigni gankuTvnilia arabisti lingvistebisaTvis. igi<br />

daainteresebs dialeqtologebs da arealuri lingvistikis<br />

specialistebs, semitur-indoevropul-Turquli enobrivi<br />

kontaqtebis mkvlevarebs.<br />

The study deals with the phonological, morphological, syntactic and<br />

lexical analysis of the Qashqa-daryÁ Arabic dialect of Central Asia. The<br />

present research is the first attempt of systemic description of the QashqadaryÁ<br />

Arabic dialect.<br />

The study is mainly based on the dialectological material recorded by the<br />

author in the Arabic-speaking kishlaks of Qashqa-daryÁ region (Uzbekistan)<br />

in the 1980 and 2000.<br />

The book is intended for arabists. It will be interesting for dialectologists,<br />

specialists in areal linguistics and Semitic-Indo-European-Turkic linguistic<br />

contacts.<br />

redaqtori: akademikosi konstantine wereTeli<br />

Edited by Acad. Konstantin Tsereteli<br />

3


4<br />

eZRvneba<br />

akademikos<br />

g i o r g i w e r e T l i s<br />

xsovnas<br />

In Memoriam<br />

Academician<br />

G e o r g e V. T s e r e t e l i<br />

(1904-1973)


Sinaarsi<br />

Sesavali 10<br />

Tavi I. fonologia 47<br />

$ 1. konsonanturi sistema 48<br />

$ 2. fonemaTa relevanturi diferencialuri<br />

niSnebi 51<br />

$ 3. minimaluri opoziciuri wyvilebi da<br />

fonemaTa distribucia 56<br />

$ 4. bgeraTa artikulaciis spontanuri<br />

cvlilebebi 62<br />

$ 5. vokaluri sistema 65<br />

$ 6. bgeraTa kombinatoruli cvlilebebi 70<br />

a) akomodacia 71<br />

b) asimilacia 72<br />

g) disimilacia 75<br />

d) substitucia 76<br />

e) Tanxmovnis amovardna 76<br />

$ 7. marcvali 77<br />

$ 8. maxvili 78<br />

Tavi II. morfologia 79<br />

$ 1. Ziri 79<br />

$ 2. fuZe 81<br />

$ 3. saxeli 81<br />

$ 4. arsebiTi saxeli 82<br />

$ 5. zedsarTavi saxeli 87<br />

$ 6. sqesis kategoria 88<br />

$ 7. ricxvis kategoria 89<br />

$ 8. statusi 90<br />

5


$ 9. ricxviTi saxeli 90<br />

a) pirveli aTeuli 91<br />

b) meore aTeuli 92<br />

g) aTeulebi 92<br />

d) aseulebi 93<br />

e) aTaseulebi 95<br />

v) rigobiTi ricxviTi saxeli 96<br />

$ 10. nacvalsaxeli 97<br />

a) damoukidebeli piris nacvalsaxeli 97<br />

b) nacvalsaxelovani sufiqsebi 99<br />

g) CvenebiTi nacvalsaxeli 100<br />

d) kiTxviTi da uaryofiTi nacvalsaxelebi 100<br />

e) mimarTebiTi nacvalsaxelebi 101<br />

$ 11. zmna 101<br />

a) swori zmna 102<br />

b) guturaluri TanxmovniT ganpirobebuli<br />

zmnis warmoebis Taviseburebani 107<br />

$ 12. kavSirebiTi kilo 109<br />

$ 13. pirobiTi kilo 110<br />

$ 14. imperativi 111<br />

$ 15. drois kategoria 113<br />

a) ganusazRvreli awmyo 114<br />

b) gansazRvruli awmyo 115<br />

g) momavali dro 116<br />

$ 16. nawarmoebi Temebi 117<br />

a) II/ III Tema 119<br />

b) IV Tema 120<br />

g) V/VI Tema 121<br />

d) VII Tema 122<br />

6


e) VIII Tema 123<br />

v) X Tema 124<br />

$ 17. oTxTanxmovniani zmna 125<br />

$ 18. zmnis upiro formebi 127<br />

a) mimReoba 127<br />

b) masdari 128<br />

$ 19. vnebiTi gvari 129<br />

$ 20. geminirebuli zmna 129<br />

a) geminirebuli zmnis nawarmoebi Temebi 131<br />

b) geminirebuli zmnis mimReoba da masdari 132<br />

$ 21. hamziani zmna 133<br />

a) 1 2 3 (zmnebi pirveli Zireuli hamziT) 133<br />

b) 1 2 3 (zmnebi meore Zireuli hamziT) 135<br />

g) 1 2 3 (zmnebi mesame Zireuli hamziT) 135<br />

d) hamziani zmnebis imperativi 137<br />

e) hamziani zmnebis nawarmoebi Temebi: 1 2 3 138<br />

v) hamziani zmnebis mimReoba da masdari: 1 2 3 139<br />

z) hamziani zmnebis nawarmoebi Temebi: 1 2 3 139<br />

T) hamziani zmnebis mimReoba da masdari: 1 2 3 140<br />

i) hamziani zmnebis nawarmoebi Temebi: 1 2 3 140<br />

k) hamziani zmnebis mimReoba da masdari: 1 2 3 141<br />

$ 22. susti zmna 141<br />

a) 1 2 3 (zmnebi I Zireuli susti TanxmovniT) 142<br />

b) 1 2 3 (zmnebi II Zireuli susti TanxmovniT) 143<br />

g) 1 2 3 (zmnebi III Zireuli susti TanxmovniT) 144<br />

d) susti zmnebis imperativi 146<br />

e) susti zmnebis nawarmoebi Temebi: 1 2 3 146<br />

v) susti zmnebis mimReoba da masdari: 1 2 3 147<br />

z) susti zmnebis nawarmoebi Temebi: 1 2 3 147<br />

7


T) susti zmnebis mimReoba da masdari: 1 2 3 148<br />

i) susti zmnebis nawarmoebi Temebi: 1 2 3 148<br />

k) susti zmnebis mimReoba da masdari 1 2 3 149<br />

$ 23. ormagad susti zmnebi 149<br />

$ 24. zmnuri kompozitebi 152<br />

Tavi III. damxmare sityvebi 156<br />

$ 1. zmnizeda 156<br />

$ 2. Tandebuli 157<br />

$ 3. nawilaki 158<br />

$ 4. kavSiri 160<br />

$ 5. Sorisdebuli 160<br />

Tavi IV. sintaqsi 162<br />

$ 1. sintaqsuri konstruqciebi 162<br />

a) sazRvrul - msazRvreli 162<br />

b) Turquli izafeti 162<br />

g) determinatiuli kompoziti 164<br />

$ 2. winadadebis struqtura 165<br />

a) nominali winadadeba 165<br />

b) kiTxviTi winadadeba 168<br />

g) uaryofiTi winadadeba 172<br />

$ 3. verbali winadadeba 173<br />

$ 4. sityvaTa rigi winadadebaSi 175<br />

$ 5. rTuli winadadeba 179<br />

a) Tanwyobili winadadeba 179<br />

b) qvewyobili winadadeba 179<br />

$ 6. qvewyobili winadadebis saxeobebi 181<br />

a) gansazRvrebiTi damokidebuli winadadeba 182<br />

b) damokidebuli winadadeba 182<br />

8


g) adgilis garemoebiTi damokidebuli<br />

winadadeba 183<br />

d) drois garemoebiTi damokidebuli<br />

winadadeba 184<br />

e) pirobiTi damokidebuli winadadeba 184<br />

v) miznis garemoebiTi damokidebuli<br />

winadadeba 185<br />

z) frazis melodika 185<br />

Tavi V. leqsika 186<br />

$ 1. arabuli leqsika 186<br />

$ 2. mniSvnelobaTa modifikaciebi 187<br />

$ 3. dialeqturi leqsika 187<br />

$ 4. nasesxobebi 188<br />

$ 5. morfologiuri modelireba da semantikuri<br />

sityvawarmoeba 189<br />

$ 6. onomasiologiuri struqturebi 190<br />

$ 7. qarTul-kaSkadariuli leqsikuri paralelebi 191<br />

$ 8. ZiriTadi leqsikuri fondi 205<br />

daskvna 211<br />

gamoyenebuli literatura 216<br />

Summary 229<br />

9


Sesavali<br />

naSromi eZRvneba arabuli enaTmecnierebis, kerZod, arabuli<br />

dialeqtologiis mniSvnelovan problemas _ mecnierebisaTvis<br />

naklebad cnobili Sua aziis kaSkadariuli arabuli dialeqtis<br />

enobrivi fenomenis axsnas. Suaaziuri arabulis msgavsad,<br />

periferiul arabul dialeqtebs ganekuTvneba TurqeT-siriis<br />

sasazRvro zolSi arsebuli dialeqtebi, kviprosis arabuli,<br />

andalusiis Zveli arabuli dialeqti, iranis xuzisTanis arabuli<br />

da sxva.<br />

periferiuli arabuli dialeqtebi avlenen mravalferovan<br />

lingvistur Taviseburebebs, rac umeteswilad ganpirobebulia<br />

maTi mWidro enobrivi kontaqtebiT aramonaTesave indoevropul,<br />

Turqul da sxva enebTan. isini Seicaven uaRresad mdidar masalas<br />

zogadlingvisturi problematikis sakvlevad. aRniSnul<br />

dialeqtebze dakvirveba SesaZleblobas iZleva ganisazRvros<br />

semituri enebis ganviTarebis tendenciebi, rac sayuradReboa<br />

istoriuli enaTmecnierebis TvalsazrisiTac.<br />

naSromis mizans warmoadgens Sua aziis kaSkadariuli arabuli<br />

dialeqtis fonetikuri, fonologiuri, morfologiuri,<br />

sintaqsuri da leqsikuri gamokvleva, misi enobrivi arsis srulad<br />

warmoCena. kaSkadariuli dialeqtis enobrivi Taviseburebebi<br />

qmnian sistemas, romlisTvisac damaxasiaTebelia saliteraturo<br />

arabuli enisa da sxva arabuli dialeqtebis msgavsi da<br />

gansxvavebuli niSnebi. naSromSi ZiriTadi yuradReba am<br />

ukanasknelze aris gamaxvilebuli, vinaidan dialeqti, rogorc<br />

metyvelebis faqti, SeuzRudavia cvlilebis TvalsazrisiT.<br />

10


naTqvami ise ar unda gavigoT, TiTqos kaSkadariul dialeqts ar<br />

gaaCndes sakuTari normebi. enis Sinagani ganviTarebis<br />

kanonzomierebebma saukuneebis ganmavlobaSi Camoayalibes<br />

kaSkadariuli dialeqti, romelic funqcionirebs sakuTari<br />

enobrivi maxasiaTeblebiT. igi dResac ganicdis cvlilebebs.<br />

naSromSi ganxilulia enis gramatikuli sistemis rRvevis<br />

SemTxvevebic.<br />

Sua aziis arabuli dialeqtebis mniSvnelovan Taviseburebas<br />

qmnis maTi arabuli samyarosgan mravalsaukunovani izolacia.<br />

buxaruli da kaSkadariuli dialeqtebi xangrZlivi periodis<br />

ganmavlobaSi viTardebodnen arabuli samyarosgan<br />

damoukideblad, mSobliuri enobrivi garemosgan mowyvetilni.<br />

sayuradRebo lingvisturi suraTi miviReT araidentur enobriv<br />

garemocvaSi arabuli dialeqtebis ganviTarebis Sedegad, rodesac<br />

isini saukuneebis ganmavlobaSi Tanaarsebobdnen, enobriv<br />

kontaqtSi imyofebodnen indoevropul (tajikur, avRanur) da<br />

Turqul (uzbekur, Turqmenul) enebTan.<br />

aRniSnulma enobrivma situaciam xeli Seuwyo Sua aziaSi<br />

triglosiis Camoyalibebas. dRes mosaxleobis umetesi nawili<br />

buxarisa da kaSka-dariis regionebSi mSobliuri arabulis<br />

paralelurad flobs da iyenebs tajikur da uzbekur enebs.<br />

amasTanave, unda aRiniSnos, rom buxareli arabebi aramSobliuri<br />

enebidan ukeT floben tajikurs, xolo kaSka-darielebi _<br />

uzbekurs.<br />

Suaaziuri arabuli dialeqtebis CamoyalibebaSi mniSvnelovani<br />

roli iTamaSa istoriulma, geografiulma, socialurma da sxva<br />

eqstralingvisturma faqtorebma, romelTa gaTvaliswineba Sedis<br />

aRniSnuli dialeqtebis kvlevis programaSi.<br />

analizis dros gamovlenilia fonologiuri, morfologiuri,<br />

sintaqsuri da leqsikuri interferenciis SemTxvevebi. aseve<br />

ganxilulia kontaqtSi myof enebSi xangrZlivi periodis<br />

ganmavlobaSi msgavsi da gansxvavebuli niSnebis Camoyalibeba<br />

(enis konvergenciuli da divergenciuli ganviTareba).<br />

dadgenilia, Tu rogor iyenebs individi mSobliur arabul<br />

enasTan erTad aramSobliur tajikur da uzbekur enebs. amave<br />

11


dros, mizanSewonilad miviCnieT aRgvewera metyvelebis dros<br />

enobrivi normebis darRveva, ganpirobebuli kontaqtSi myofi<br />

enebis urTierTzegavleniT. metyvelebis normebidan gadaxveva,<br />

sistematuri ganmeorebadobis SemTxvevaSi, kontaqtSi myofi enebis<br />

maxasiaTeblad ganixileba.<br />

aranaklebi mniSvneloba eniWeba enobrivi kontaqtebis Sedegad<br />

droTa ganmavlobaSi Camoyalibebuli msgavsi lingvisturi<br />

movlenebis analizs. es movlenebi warmoadgenen Tanmimdevrul<br />

process, romelsac mivyavarT enebis damsgavsebisaken. Suaaziuri<br />

arabulis aseTi konvergenciuli aRwera gansakuTrebiT faseulia<br />

struqturulad gansxvavebuli semituri, indoevropuli da<br />

Turquli enebis kontaqtebis SemTxvevaSi.<br />

amave dros, adgili aqvs sakuTari enobrivi normebidan<br />

gadaxvevis gziT saerTo enobrivi wesebis Camoyalibebas, rac<br />

iZleva enobrivi kontaqtebis ganzogadebisa da modelirebis<br />

SesaZleblobas. arsebobs Sinagani kavSiri Suaaziur arabulSi<br />

interferenciasa da konvergencias Soris. orive SemTxvevaSi<br />

ganixileba arabuli enis dialeqtebis gansxvavebuli struqturis<br />

enebTan Tanaarsebobis Sedegebi, maTi cvlilebebi drosa da<br />

sivrceSi.<br />

interferenciis aRweris SemTxvevaSi ganixileba buxaruli da<br />

kaSkadariuli dialeqtebisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli enobrivi<br />

gadaxrebi, SeiZleba iTqvas uzustobebi, ganpirobebuli<br />

tajikurisa da uzbekuris gavleniT. rac Seexeba konvergenciis<br />

aRweras, aq saqme gvaqvs Tvisobriv cvlilebebTan.<br />

amgvarad, enobrivi kontaqtebi Sua aziaSi SeiZleba ganvixiloT<br />

xangrZliv procesad, romelsac garkveul etapze Tan axlavs<br />

raodenobrivi enobrivi cvlilebebis TvisobrivSi gadasvla .<br />

enobrivi kontaqtis Sedegad yalibdeba ara mxolod saerTo<br />

niSnebi, SesaZlebelia ganviTardes divergenciac _ enobrivi<br />

maxasiaTeblebis diferencireba, konvergenciis sawinaaRmdego<br />

movlena. es damaxasiaTebelia kontaqturi enebisaTvis, vinaidan<br />

isini Tanabrad iTviseben msgavsebebsa da gansxvavebebs.<br />

12


Sua aziis buxarisa da kaSka-dariis regionebSi enobrivi<br />

situacia avlens koordinaciul da subordinaciul diglosiasa<br />

da triglosias.<br />

koordinaciuli diglosiis an triglosiis dros bilingvi<br />

(trilingvi) Tavisuflad flobs or (an sam) enas da situaciis<br />

mixedviT axdens gadarTvas erTi enidan meoreze, aucileblobis<br />

SemTxvevaSi ki mesamezec.<br />

subordinaciuli diglosiis (triglosiis) dros ki arabi<br />

bilingvi (trilingvi) Tavisuflad flobs mxolod erT,<br />

mSobliur enas. tajikuris da uzbekuris codnis done aseT<br />

SemTxvevaSi dabalia da bilingvi (trilingvi) metyvelebis<br />

procesSi cdilobs dauqvemdebaros ucxo ena mSobliuri<br />

arabulis normebs. aseTi bilingvebi (trilingvebi) arian,<br />

ZiriTadad, xandazmulebi da ojaxuri cxovrebiT Semofargluli<br />

qalebi. Sua aziaSi davafiqsireT subordinaciuli orenovnebis<br />

saintereso SemTxvevebi, roca axali Taobis warmomadgenlebma<br />

mSobliur arabulze ukeT ician tajikuri an uzbekuri enebi da<br />

ojaxSi, ubanSi, TanasoflelebTan metyvelebis dros uxvad<br />

iyeneben tajikur, uzbekur sityvebsa da gamoTqmebs. es<br />

ganpirobebulia cxovrebis Tanamedrove tendenciebiT uzbekeTis<br />

respublikaSi. amasTanave, buxarisa da kaSka-dariis arabulenovan<br />

yiSlaRebSi ucxo ar aris monolingvizmi. vgulisxmobT Rrmad<br />

moxucebulebs. gansakuTrebiT Znelia monolingvi qalebisgan<br />

dialeqtologiuri masalis Cawera karCaketili cxovrebis gamo.<br />

Suaaziuri dialeqtebis Seswavlas safuZveli Caeyara XX<br />

saukunis 30-ian wlebSi akad. g i o r g i w e r e T l i s da prof.<br />

i s a a k v i n i k o v i s (И. Н. Винников) mier. aRniSnuli dialeqtebis<br />

aRmoCena dakavSirebulia leningradeli eTnografebis n. b u r i k<br />

i n a s (Н. Н. Бурыкина) da m. i z m a i l o -v a s (М. М. Измайлова)<br />

saxelebTan, romlebmac 1930 wels leningradSi gamoaqveynes<br />

pirveli informacia Sua aziaSi arabulenovani mosaxleobis<br />

Sesaxeb (52).<br />

cnobilia, rom akademikosi e g n a t e k r a C k o v s k i (И. Ю.<br />

Крачковский) did mniSvnelobas aniWebda Sua aziaSi arabuli<br />

dialeqtebis aRmoCenas. am movlenas igi miiCnevda “arabul<br />

13


dialeqtologiaSi garkveuli gadatrialebis mauwyebel udides<br />

samecniero aRmoCenad”. niSandoblivia misi Semdegi sityvebi: “Sua<br />

aziis arabuli dialeqtebis aRmoCena da gamokvleva didebis<br />

momtania Cveni mecnierebisaTvis, Cveni qveynisaTvis, xolo<br />

msoflio mecnierebisaTvis, garkveuli TvalsazrisiT,<br />

warmoadgens gadatrialebas” (69, gv. 41).<br />

1936 wlis 16 dekembers akad. e. k r a C k o v s k i g. w e r e T e l s<br />

leningradidan werda: “me yovel Rones vxmarob, rom rac SeiZleba<br />

swrafad dabeWdon Tqveni statia. mis did mniSvnelobas aq yvela<br />

aRiarebs. erTi ki SeiZleba iTqvas danamdvilebiT: gaivlis orisami<br />

weli da verc erTi semitologiuri naSromi gverds ver<br />

auvlis Sua azieli arabebis dialeqtebs. amieridan arabul<br />

dialeqtologiaSi ar daiwereba mTel msoflioSi arc erTi<br />

naSromi Tqveni saxelis xsenebis gareSe” (69, gv. 40).<br />

akad. e. k r a C k o v s k i s T a n erTad did mniSvnelobas<br />

aniWebda Sua aziaSi arabuli dialeqtebis aRmoCenas da Seswavlas<br />

cnobili arabisti prof. n. i u S m a n o v i (Н. В. Юшманов), romelic<br />

30-ian wlebSi leningradis universitetSi kiTxulobda arabuli<br />

dialeqtologiis kurss. 1936 wlis 27 Tebervals igi<br />

g. w e r e T e l s swerda: “Zvirfaso giorgi vasilis Zev, . . . .<br />

mxurvaled gilocavT did warmatebas arabul dialeqtologiaSi:<br />

rogorc iqna Tqven SesZeliT piradad wveodiT yiSlaR jogaris<br />

da CageweraT mecnierulad Rirebuli masala . . . roca Cven<br />

vmsjelobdiT arabuli dialeqtologiis sakiTxebze, albaT ar<br />

gamogeparaT Cemi gansakuTrebuli yuradReba periferiuli<br />

arabuli dialeqtebisadmi, romlebic bedisweriT gariyulni,<br />

mowyvetilni da ukiduresad daSorebulni aRmoCndnen mSobliuri<br />

arabuli kulturis centrebidan.<br />

metyvelebis dialeqtikidan gamomdinare, Cven unda velodoT<br />

uZveles formebs (da amasTanave tendenciebs formaTa<br />

ganviTarebaSi) zustad iq, sadac metyveleba ar aris “sufTa” da<br />

“sanimuSo” zogadstandartuli TvalsazrisiT. Tqveni mdidari<br />

monapovari udavod CaiTvleba mniSvnelovan wvlilad<br />

mecnierebaSi, Tundac araferi vTqvaT imaze, rom yoveli<br />

axladaRwerili arabuli dialeqti arabistTa da semitologTa<br />

udides interess iwvevs“ ( 69, gv. 41-42).<br />

14


akad. g i o r g i w e r e T l i s damsaxurebad unda CaiTvalos mis<br />

mier 1935 wels Sua aziaSi pirveli mivlinebis Sedegad ori _<br />

buxaruli da kaSkadariuli dialeqtebis gamoyofa. winaswar<br />

publikaciaSi 1937 wels mecnieri werda: “gairkva, rom CrdiloeTiT<br />

(buxaris raioni) mcxovrebi arabebis ena Zalian gansxvavdeba<br />

samxreTis (kaSka-dariis mxaris) arabebis metyvelebisagan.<br />

gansxvaveba imdenad didia, rom Tamamad gaxda SesaZlebeli ori<br />

damoukidebeli dialeqtis gamoyofa” (24, gv. 301).<br />

Sua aziis arabuli dialeqtebi _ buxaruli da kaSkadariuli<br />

miekuTvneba arabuli dialeqtebis aRmosavlur jgufs. isini<br />

ganTavsebulia Tanamedrove uzbekeTis teritoriaze. buxarul<br />

dialeqtze metyvelebs buxaris mxaris Rijduvanis raionis<br />

yiSlaR jogarisa (ÓÝgar×) da vobqendis raionis yiSlaR arab-xanas<br />

(÷arab-ÕÝne) mosaxleoba, xolo kaSkadariuli dialeqti<br />

gavrcelebulia uzbekeTis samxreTSi, karSis CrdilodasavleTiT<br />

beSqendis raionis yiSlaRebSi jeÁnausa (ÓeynÆu) da<br />

kamaSiSi (qamaâi). adgilze Cveni dakvirvebiT, mocemul yiSlaRebSi<br />

buxarul dialeqtze amJamad metyvelebs daaxloebiT 3000 kaci,<br />

xolo kaSkadariul dialeqts 1500-mde piri flobs. amave dros,<br />

arabi mosaxleoba dasaxelebul raionebSi ricxvobrivad bevrad<br />

aRemateba mSobliuri enis matareblebs.<br />

Sua aziis arabul dialeqtebs mniSvnelovani naSromebi uZRvnes<br />

akad. g. w e r e T e l m a da prof. i. v i n i k o v m a. gansakuTrebiT<br />

aRsaniSnavia g. w e r e T l i s gamokvleva “Sua azieli arabebis<br />

enis daxasiaTebisaTvis”, romelic 1941 wels gamoqveynda<br />

arabistTa asociaciis meore sesiis SromebSi (117), misive<br />

kapitaluri Sroma “Sua aziis arabuli dialeqtebi, buxaris<br />

arabuli dialeqti” (120); i. v i n i k o v i s “buxareli arabebis ena<br />

da folklori” (63), misive “buxarel arabTa enis leqsikoni”,<br />

gamoqveynebuli 1962 wels JurnalSi «Палестинский сборник» (60) da<br />

sxva. CamoTvlili naSromebi akad. g. w e r e T l i s a da prof. i.<br />

v i n i k o v i s fuZemdebluri naRvawia, romlebmac gansazRvres<br />

Suaaziuri arabulis kvlevis done.<br />

15


1985 wels rusul enaze gamoqveynda prof. v l. a x v l e d i a n i s<br />

monografia «buxaruli arabuli dialeqti» (36), masSi<br />

gaanalizebulia buxaruli dialeqtis fonologiuri da<br />

morfologiuri struqtura. v l. a x v l e d i a n i s aRniSnuli<br />

Sroma mniSvnelovani etapia Sua aziis buxaruli dialeqtis<br />

kvlevis sferoSi. Suaaziur arabuls mniSvnelovani Sromebi<br />

uZRvnes agreTve n. i u S m a n o v m a (137), h. n i b e r g m a H. Nyberg<br />

(184), v. f i S e r m a W. Fischer (154), g. j u r a e v m a Г. Джураев (74),<br />

k. v e r s t i R m a K. Versteegh (197), o. i a s t r o v m a O. Jastrow (170,<br />

171, 172) da sxvebma.<br />

CamoTvlili mkvlevarebis naSromebi ZiriTadad eZRvneba Sua<br />

aziis buxarul dialeqts. es, Cveni azriT, ganpirobebulia<br />

buxaruli arabulis amsaxveli uxvi dialeqtologiuri masalis<br />

arsebobiT samecniero mimoqcevaSi, rac akad. g. w e r e T l i s a da<br />

prof. i. v i n i k o v i s damsaxurebaa.<br />

kaSkadariuli arabuli dialeqtis kvlevasac saTave akad.<br />

g. w e r e T e l m a da prof. i. v i n i k o v m a daudes. 1954 wels g.<br />

w e r e T e l m a (118) da 1963 wels i. v i n i k o v m a (61) gamoaqveynes<br />

kaSkadariel arabTa metyvelebis nimuSebi. 1965 wels bratislavaSi<br />

daibeWda i. v i n i k o v i s kaSkadariuli dialeqtis gramatikis<br />

masalebi (198). miuxedavad amisa, kaSkadariuli dialeqti<br />

naklebadaa cnobili samecniero wreebSi. aRniSnuli dialeqtis<br />

masalebi dRemde ar aris gamoqveynebuli im moculobiT, rac<br />

specialistebs SesaZleblobas miscemda CaetarebinaT dialeqtis<br />

sruli lingvisturi analizi.<br />

winamdebare naSromi ZiriTadad eyrdnoba 80-ian wlebSi da 2000<br />

wlis noemberSi Sua aziis kaSka-dariisa da buxaris mxaris<br />

arabulenovan yiSlaRebSi avtoris mier mopovebul masalas.<br />

informantebTan muSaobisas vcdilobdi Camewera gansxvavebuli<br />

asakisa da sqesis arabul enaSi gawafuli pirebi. amasTanave,<br />

davafiqsire arabuli enis sustad mcodneni, romelTa metyveleba<br />

mniSvnelovnad aris gazavebuli uzbekuriT da tajikuriT.<br />

naSromSi pirvelad aris warmodgenili Sua aziis kaSkadariuli<br />

arabuli dialeqtis sruli lingvisturi analizi _ misi<br />

fonologiuri, morfologiuri da sintaqsuri aRwera; mocemulia<br />

dialeqtis leqsikis daxasiaTeba.<br />

16


Suaaziuri arabuli iZleva uaRresad mdidar masalas enobrivi<br />

kontaqtebis kvlevis TvalsazrisiT. am mxriv gansakuTrebiT<br />

mniSvnelovania gansxvavebuli struqturis enebis sametyvelo<br />

kontaqtebi semituri (arabuli), indoevropuli (tajikuri,<br />

avRanuri) da Turquli (uzbekuri, Turqmenuli) enebis<br />

urTierTobis fonze. es sakiTxi farTod aisaxa monografiaSi,<br />

sadac arabuli dialeqtis enobriv TaviseburebebTan erTad<br />

ganmartebulia uzbekuri da tajikuri gavlenebi,<br />

mravalsaukunovani enobrivi urTierTobis Sedegebi fonologiur,<br />

morfologiur, sintaqsur da leqsikur doneze.<br />

Sua aziaSi Cawerili dialeqtologiuri masala ZiriTadad<br />

aRmosavlur (tajikur, uzbekur) folklors warmoadgens.<br />

zogierTi zRapari ukavSirdeba arabuli zRaprebis cikls «aTas<br />

erTi Ramidan», rac mowmobs arabi mosaxleobis mexsierebaSi<br />

dacul arabul literaturul zepir tradiciebze. igi saukuneebis<br />

ganmavlobaSi gadaecemoda Taobidan Taobas. amasTanave, ar aris<br />

gamoricxuli, aRmosavleTSi gavrcelebuli moaruli arabuli<br />

zRapruli siuJetebis tajikuridan an uzbekuridan moxvedra<br />

buxarul da kaSkadariul arabulSi. amrigad, mopovebuli<br />

dialeqtologiuri masala sayuradReboa Sua aziis xalxTa<br />

folkloris kvlevis TvalsazrisiTac. amasTanave, igi<br />

warmoadgens mniSvnelovan wyaros Sua azieli arabebis istoriis<br />

Sesaswavlad. misi gamoqveyneba TargmaniT da komentarebiT<br />

ganzraxuli gvaqvs uaxloes momavalSi.<br />

kaSkadariuli da buxaruli arabuli dialeqtebis<br />

SeswavlisaTvis didi mniSvneloba eniWeba aRniSnul regionebSi<br />

amJamad mcxovreb arabTa istorias, maTi cxovrebis wess,<br />

eTnografiul maxasiaTeblebs. arabebis Sua aziaSi damkvidrebis<br />

savaraudo TariRisa da Tavdapirveli adgilsamyofelis dadgena<br />

xels Seuwyobs arabuli dialeqtebis enobriv gamokvlevas. am<br />

sakiTxis Seswavlisas gansakuTrebiT unda gamaxvildes yuradReba<br />

istoriul wyaroebze, zepir gadmocemebze da enobriv<br />

Taviseburebebze, sxva arabul dialeqtebTan Sedarebis Sedegad<br />

miRebul Sedegebze.<br />

17


zemoTaRniSnulidan gamomdinare, mizanSewonilad migvaCnia<br />

SevexoT kaSkadariel arabTa migraciis zogierT sakiTxs Sua<br />

aziaSi.<br />

Sua aziaSi arabTa migracias mravalsaukunovani istoria aqvs<br />

(39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 64, 83, 84, 85, 87, 98, 100, 106, 108, 109, 113, 182, 196). igi<br />

dakavSirebulia arabTa dapyrobiT omebTan VII-VIII saukuneebSi. am<br />

periodSi istoriulad aris dadasturebuli Sua aziis did<br />

qalaqebSi – buxarasa da samaryandSi arabTa arsebobis faqti (44,<br />

gv. 22). mogvianebiT arabTa damkvidrebam Sua aziaSi ufro farTo<br />

masStabebi miiRo. IX saukunis geografis, al-iakubis (gard. 897)<br />

cnobiT, xorasani, romelSic Sedioda mavaranahri, dasaxlebuli<br />

iyo arabebiT. arabTa siWarbe gansakuTrebiT qalaqebSi<br />

igrZnoboda (64, gv. 124). dasaSvebia am periodSi qalaqebisgan<br />

moSorebiT arabul dasaxlebaTa arsebobac. amas gvafiqrebinebs<br />

arabTa migraciis farTo masStabebi Sua aziaSi ax.w.-is VII-VIII<br />

saukuneebSi. SemdgomSi arabebma TandaTan dakarges erovnuli<br />

niSnebi da maT Soris umTavresi – ena. ukve IX saukuneSive, aljahizis<br />

(gard. 868) cnobiT, arabebi Seerivnen adgilobriv<br />

mosaxleobas da aRar gansxvavdebodnen misgan (64, gv. 124). rac<br />

Seexeba im arabebs, romlebic ar damkvidrdnen qalaqebSi da<br />

momTabare cxovrebas eweodnen, maT, savaraudoa, SeinarCunes ena da<br />

sxva nacionaluri niSnebi.<br />

siriasa da palestinaSi islamuri dapyrobebis Semdeg arabebma<br />

15 weli moandomes iranSi dapyrobiT omebs. 651 wels maT daipyres<br />

marvi, romelic aRniSnul periodSi mdidari da kulturiT<br />

ganTqmuli qalaqi iyo.<br />

iakuTis (gard. 1229) cnobil TxzulebaSi (kitÁb mu÷Óam al-buldÁn)<br />

da narSahis “buxaris istoriaSi” (Таърихи Бухоро) mocemulia<br />

arabuli Tqmulebebi, romlis Tanaxmad mociqulma muhamadma<br />

uanderZa Tavis mimdevrebs Sua aziis dapyroba. am cnobis mixedviT,<br />

mociqulma mouwoda maT, rom mavaranahris dapyroba muslimTa<br />

wminda da sapatio movaleobas warmoadgenda (68, gv. 145).<br />

mavaranahri igivea, rac arabuli ma warÁöa-n-nahr. am periodSi<br />

mavaranahri dayofili iyo uamrav samefod. isini aravis<br />

18


emorCilebodnen. mmarTvelebi atarebdnen erTmaneTisagan<br />

gansxvavebul iseT titulebs, rogoricaa, magaliTad, xvarazm-Sahi<br />

(xorezmis mmarTveli), buxarxodaT (buxaris mmarTveli), maruia<br />

(marvis mmarTveli), bixan (abiverdis mmarTveli), TermezSahi<br />

(Termezis mmarTveli) da a. S.<br />

marvis Semdeg arabebma gadawyvites mTeli Sua aziis dapyroba.<br />

maT undodaT daekavebinaT soRdis mdidari miwebi, agreTve<br />

Toxaristani, Caganiani (surxardariis miwebi) da xorezmi.<br />

Sua azia am periodSi warmoadgenda msoflios mdidar regions.<br />

aRsaniSnavia 676 wels Sua aziaSi arabi mxedarTmTavris said ibn<br />

usmanis laSqroba buxarasa da soRdis qalaqebSi.<br />

saidma buxaridan medinaSi wamoasxa 30 000 tyve, romlebmac<br />

droTa ganmavlobaSi ganicades asimilacia arabebTan. isini<br />

medinaSi sasoflo-sameurneo saqmianobas eweodnen. IX saukunis<br />

arabi istorikosis, balazuris cnobis Tanaxmad, buxarel tyveebs<br />

medinaSi iyenebdnen muSebad rwyvis sistemebSi.<br />

at-tabaris (gard. 923) cnobiT, xorasnis arabi mmarTvelebi<br />

gazafxulze samxedro laSqrobebs awyobdnen mavaranahris<br />

teritoriaze. zamTarSi isini ukan brundebodnen marvSi (68, gv. 148).<br />

704 wels xorasnis nacvalad dainiSna kuTaiba ibn muslimi,<br />

romelmac TandaTan daipyro da daumorCila arabebs mavaranahri.<br />

igi bahilas arabul toms miekuTvneboda, amitom am tomis arabebs<br />

awinaurebda.<br />

gadawyvetileba mavaranahris dapyrobis Sesaxeb miRebul iqna<br />

xalifa abd al – maliqis mmarTvelobis dasasruls. am dros<br />

saxalifos samxedro Zliereba kidev ufro ganmtkicda da<br />

momzadda niadagi axali samxedro operaciebis Casatareblad.<br />

xorasnis gamgebeli kuTaiba ibn muslimi Tavisi samxedro<br />

niWierebiT, SeupovrobiTa da daundoblobiT warmoadgenda<br />

Sesaferis pirovnebas saxalifos sazRvrebis gasafarToeblad.<br />

mavaranahris dapyrobamde kuTaibam 705 wels daimorCila balha da<br />

706 wels daiZra mavaranahrisaken.<br />

aRsaniSnavia kuTaibas mier qalaq feiqendis aReba. feiqendi<br />

samaryandTan erTad, Sua aziis umniSvnelovanes qalaqs<br />

warmoadgenda. igi iyo mniSvnelovani savaWro centri, kargad<br />

19


gamagrebuli da simdidriT gamorCeuli. 709 wels kuTaibam<br />

buxarac aiRo da daumorCila arabebs. rodesac kuTaiba<br />

mravalricxovani jariT buxaras miadga, qalaqis damcvelebma<br />

daxmarebisaTvis soRdelebs mimarTes. gaimarTa sisxlismRvreli<br />

brZola. kuTaiba 100 dirhams dapirda yvelas, vinc mtris mokveTil<br />

Tavs moutanda (68, gv. 150). mebrZolTa mokveTili Tavebisagan man<br />

piramida aRmarTa da Tavisi sisastikiT Tavzari dasca qalaqis<br />

damcvelebs. buxarelebma ver gauZles arabTa zewolas da<br />

danebdnen. amis Semdeg kuTaibam daimorCila soRdi, mZevlebad<br />

aiyvana samefo ojaxis wevrebi da daawesa yovelwliuri<br />

gadasaxadi. at-tabaris cnobiT, soRdis mecixovneebma ar apaties<br />

mefe tarxuns arabebTan gancdili marcxi da taxtidan Camoagdes<br />

(68, gv. 150). mis nacvlad gamefebuli guraqi gamoirCeoda<br />

sifrTxiliT. igi arabebTan ormagi standartis politikas eweoda.<br />

garegnulad aRiarebda islams da morCilebas ucxadebda xalifas,<br />

zurgs ukan ki molaparakebas awarmoebda Cinel<br />

mxedarTmTavrebTan arabebis Sua aziidan gansadevnad.<br />

719 wels kuTaiba Tavs daesxa mdinare amu darias zemo welSi<br />

arsebul Soumanis samefos, romelic ar cnobda saxalifos<br />

uzenaes mmarTvelobas. kuTaibam daimorCila Soumani da daiZra<br />

nesefisa da qeSisaken. es iyo galaSqreba kaSka-dariisken. nesefi<br />

igivea, rac karSi, xolo qeSi dRevandeli Sahrisabzia. kuTaibam<br />

arabTa mravalricxovani laSqriT daimorCila kaSka-dariis mxare<br />

da gamagrda nesefis (karSis) midamoebSi.<br />

arabebis gavlena TandaTan gavrcelda Sua aziis did qalaqebze.<br />

712 wels kuTaibam daipyro xorezmi – mdidari qveyana, romlis<br />

mcxovreblebmac miiRes islami da SemdgomSi monawileobdnen<br />

islamur dapyrobiT omebSi. xorezmis dapyroba kuTaibas<br />

gauadvila areulobam qveynis SigniT. man kargad gamoiyena<br />

xvarazm-Sahis winaaRmdeg misi Zmis ajanyeba, daexmara xorezmSahs<br />

taxtis SenarCunebaSi da amis sanacvlod Tavs moaxvia morCilebis<br />

tolfasi samSvidobo xelSekruleba. kuTaiba daundoblad<br />

gausworda ajanyebulebs, xolo xorezmSahma daxmarebis<br />

sanacvlod mas 10 000 suli pirutyvi uboZa (68, gv. 151).<br />

gamarjvebiT frTaSesxmuli kuTaiba am periodSi iwyebs<br />

umniSvnelovanes samxedro operacias samaryandis winaaRmdeg.<br />

20


xorezmis damorCilebis Semdeg kuTaiba avrcelebs xmas, rom<br />

nadavliT datvirTuli brundeba marvSi, sinamdvileSi, ki xvarazm-<br />

Sahisa da buxarxodaTis jarebis TanxlebiT miemarTeba<br />

samaryandisken.<br />

samaryandis alya erTi Tve gagrZelda. soRdelebma<br />

daxmarebisaTvis mimarTes SaSas mefes, ferRanis ixSidsa da Turq<br />

xans. maT misweres, rom soRdis dacema kargs aravis uqadda, “Tu<br />

arabebi soRds daipyrobdnen, maTi jeric dadgeboda” (68, gv. 151).<br />

ferRanam da SaSam damxmare jari gamogzavnes, magram kuTaibam<br />

Seityo amis Sesaxeb, mters gza gadauWra da erTianad amoxoca. amis<br />

Semdeg arabebma lodsartyocnebiT daangries qalaqis zRude da<br />

samaryandSi SeiWrnen. gaafrTebuli winaaRmdegobis miuxedavad,<br />

qalaqi daeca. kuTeibam igi umowyalod gaZarcva. at-tabaris<br />

cnobiT, man daangria qalaqis Senobebi, gadawva taZrebi, gadaadno<br />

oqro da vercxli, maT Soris taZrebidan gamotanili soRdelTa<br />

RmerTebis oqros qandakebebi. naZarcvi oqros raodenobam 50 000<br />

misxali (1 misxali = 4,7 grams) Seadgina (68, gv. 151).<br />

kuTaibam samaryandis mcxovreblebs daudgina yovelwliuri<br />

gadasaxadi da mosTxova 30 000 mebrZoli jarSi samsaxurisaTvis.<br />

rogorc zemoT aRvniSneT, arabebi alyaSemortymuli qalaqis<br />

galavnis dasangrevad warmatebiT iyenebdnen lodsatyorcnebs<br />

(ﻖﻴﻨﺠﻨﻣ). magaliTad, werilSi, romelic soRdis mmarTvelma,<br />

gurekma gaugzavna CineTis imperators, weria, rom 712 wels<br />

samaryandis galavnis dasangrevad arabebma gamoiyenes 300<br />

lodsatyorcni manqana.<br />

kuTaibas laSqrobebis Sedegad Sua azia TiTqmis mTlianad<br />

daeqvemdebara arabebs. kaSka-dariis mxare, zarafSani, xorezmi da<br />

sxva mniSvnelovani regionebi arabebis gavlenis qveS moeqca.<br />

axlad dapyrobil regionebSi daiwyo islamis gavrceleba. kuTaiba<br />

did mniSvnelobas aniWebda Sua aziaSi islamis gavrcelebas.<br />

mogvianebiT soRdSi “arabi” da “muslimi” faqtobrivad, erTi da<br />

imave mniSvnelobiT ixmareboda. islamis gavrcelebis Sedegad Sua<br />

aziaSi arabebis gavlena kidev ufro ganmtkicda. regionSi fexi<br />

moikida cxovrebis muslimurma wesma.<br />

islamis gavrcelebamde Sua aziaSi ZiriTad religias<br />

zoroastrizmi warmoadgenda. iyvnen agreTve qristianobisa da<br />

21


udizmis mimdevrebic. arabebma daundobeli brZola gamoucxades<br />

maT. islamis garda yvela sxva religia cru moZRvrebad<br />

gamocxadda da devnas daeqvemdebara. ganadgurda zoroastruli<br />

literatura. masTan erTad, mavaranahris xalxTa<br />

mravalsaukunovani tradiciebis mqone saero literatura.<br />

TiTqmis mTlianad aRigava pirisagan miwisa soRduri werilobiTi<br />

Zeglebi. regionSi islamis damkvidrebis mizniT saxalifom<br />

gaatara araerTi RonisZieba. dawesda SeRavaTebi muslimebisaTvis.<br />

pirvel xanebSi, mosaxleobis gadmobirebis mizniT, fulsac ki<br />

uxdidnen imaT, vinc islams aRiarebda (68, gv. 154).<br />

regionSi islamis gavrcelebas xels uwyobda isic, rom islamze<br />

moqceuli adgilobrivi mosaxleoba Tavisufldeboda<br />

gadasaxadebisagan (jizia da xaraja). zogjer adgili hqonda<br />

aRniSnuli wesidan gadaxvevas. magaliTad, xalifa omar II-is (717-<br />

720 w.w.) mmarTvelobis dros xorasanSi nacvalad dainiSna jarah<br />

ibn abd al-lahi, romelic gadasaxadis akrefis momxre iyo<br />

miuxedavad imisa, islamze moiqceoda Tu ara adgilobrivi<br />

mosaxleoba.<br />

xalifa omar II-m gaiTvaliswina Sua aziis mosaxleobis<br />

ukmayofileba jarah ibn abd al-lahis politikiT da 719 wels<br />

gadaiyvana igi xorasnidan azerbaijanisa da armeniis mmarTvelad.<br />

1933 wels ruseTis mecnierebaTa akademiis eqspediciam<br />

zarafSanSi, kerZod, tajikeTis erT-erT mTaze arsebul cixesimagreSi,<br />

aRmoaCina dokumentebi soRdur enaze. isini<br />

Sesrulebuli iyo tyavze da xeze. iqve ipoves Cinuri warwerebi<br />

bambisagan damzadebul qaRaldze. erTi maTgani gamoikvlia akad. e.<br />

kraCkovskim (87). dokumenti TariRdeba 717-719 wlebiT. masSi<br />

naxsenebia soRdis mmarTveli, anu ixSidi _ tarxuni, misi ori Ze,<br />

CvenTvis cnobili jarah ibn abd al-lahi da sulaiman ibn abu<br />

sarri, agreTve, fianjiqendis mmarTveli divaStiCi. dokumenti<br />

warmoadgens divaStiCis werils jarah ibn abd al-lahisadmi,<br />

romelSic avtori (divaStiCi) Seaxsenebs jarah ibn abd al-lahs<br />

soRdis mmarTvelis, tarxunis ori vaJis beds, romlebic arab<br />

nacvals tyved yavda ayvanili sulaiman ibn abu sarris karze. ori<br />

Zmidan erT-erTi, rogorc proarabuli orientaciis mqone, arabebs<br />

22


soRdis momaval mmarTvelad undodaT daeniSnaT da amisaTvis<br />

Sesaferis dros elodnen (85, gv. 144).<br />

rac Seexeba divaStiCs, igi, at-tabaris cnobiT, iyo samaryandis<br />

dehyani da fianjiqendis mmarTveli, romelic 722 wels soRdSi<br />

saxalxo gamaTavisuflebel moZraobas edga saTaveSi (85, gv. 144).<br />

arabul wyaroebSi aris cnobebi sulaiman ibn abu sarris<br />

divaStiCis winaaRmdeg galaSqrebis Sesaxeb mTiani cixe-simagris<br />

midamoebSi, romelsac abargari erqva. brZola arabi sardlis<br />

gamarjvebiT dasrulda. divaStiCma cixe daTmo da sikvdiliT iqna<br />

dasjili arabi mmarTvelis, haraSis mier (68, gv. 156).<br />

Sua aziaSi arabTa batonobis mniSvnelovan etapad SeiZleba<br />

CaiTvalos xorasanSi da mavaranahrSi nasr ibn saiaris (738- 748<br />

w.w.) mmarTveloba. aRniSnul periodSi Sua azia mTlianad iqna<br />

dapyrobili arabebis mier da dasrulda am vrceli regionis<br />

islamizacia. nasr ibn saiari miekuTvneboda mudarianTa arabul<br />

toms. mas didad afasebda kuTaiba ibn muslimi. at-tabaris<br />

mixedviT, kuTaiba arab jars sapasuxismgeblo brZolebSi xSirad<br />

andobda nasr ibn saiars (85, gv. 150). man erTi didi dasaxleba<br />

jildod uboZa nasr ibn saiars mniSvnelovani samxedro<br />

warmatebisTvis. at-tabaris cnobiT, xorasani da mavaranahri nasr<br />

ibn saiaris mmarTvelobis dros ganviTarda da ayvavda (85, gv. 150).<br />

nasr ibn saiarma miimxro dehyanebi da gaimagra poziciebi. igi<br />

awinaurebda da ekonomikurad mxars uWerda gadmobirebul,<br />

islamze moqceul adgilobriv didebulebs, aniWebda maT<br />

privilegiebs, xels uwyobda adgilobrivi mosaxleobis arabebTan<br />

danaTesavebas, TviT aZlevda maT aseT magaliTs. man colad<br />

SeirTo buxarxodaTis qaliSvili. misi mmarTvelobis dros arabi<br />

mmarTveli elita daunaTesavda da SeeTvisa soRdur, xorezmul da<br />

baqtriul elitas.<br />

zemoaRniSnuli msjeloba mowmobs VII saukunis bolos da VIII<br />

saukunis dasawyisSi buxarisa da kaSka-dariis mxareSi islamis<br />

gamavrcelebel arab mebrZolTa dajgufebebis arsebobas.<br />

rogorc zemoT aRvniSneT, Sua aziaSi arabTa migraciis didi<br />

talRa Seexo xorasnis qalaqebs: marvsa da balhas. isini mdinare<br />

amudarias marcxena napirze mdebareobdnen da arabTa dapyrobiTi<br />

23


operaciebis dros warmoadgendnen maT ZiriTad bazebs. aman<br />

ganapiroba arabTa siWarbe am or qalaqSi. marvisa da Carjous<br />

Soris mdebare stepebSi am periodSi arabTa tomebi<br />

momTabareobdnen. XII saukuneSi q. SahristanTan axlos cnobili<br />

iyo arabTa gamagrebuli punqti (Sahristani Tanamedrove<br />

aSxabadis raionSi mdebareobda). X saukunis geografiuli<br />

Txzulebis “hodud al-alamis” avtoris cnobiT, guzRananis<br />

samflobeloSi Sediodnen andxoi, maimoni, SuburRani da sxva<br />

dasaxlebuli punqtebi. arabebs vxvdebiT agreTve guzRananis<br />

samxreTiT, avRaneTis centralur nawilSi, sadac isini ara marto<br />

momTabareobdnen, aramed ibrZodnen kidec mahmud Raznevis jaris<br />

SemadgenlobaSi (64, gv. 125). XVI saukunis dasawyisSi qabulis<br />

midamoSi dasturdeba momTabare arabebis arseboba. baburis<br />

cnobiT, maT SenarCunebuli hqondaT mSobliuri ena (64, gv. 125). Sua<br />

aziis arabulSi avRanuri elementebis arseboba SeiZleba<br />

aRniSnuli garemoebiT aixsnas. XV saukunis dasasruls arabebi<br />

momTabareobdnen xorasnidan eraySi da - piriqiT. amis<br />

damadasturebel faqts vxvdebiT s. v o l i n i s (С. Л. Волин) mier<br />

dasaxelebul “Tarassuli - marvarid”-Si, romelic warmoadgens<br />

xelnawerTa krebuls da Sedgenilia abdalah ibn muhamad almarvaridis<br />

mier (64, gv. 121). mniSvnelovani informaciis<br />

matarebelia termini “mir hazor”-i _ aTasisTavi, romelic<br />

dakavSirebulia momTabare arabebTan. v. b a r t o l d i s azriT,<br />

es termini gaCnda xan kebekis (1318-1326 w.w.) dros (42, gv. 9). termins<br />

hazora, “aTaseuli” Sua aziaSi vxvdebiT XVI saukunidan.<br />

magaliTad, gaTCis raioni XVI saukunis bolos hazorad<br />

iTvleboda. mir hazoris ZiriTad movaleobas Tavdapirvelad<br />

Seadgenda gadasaxadebis akrefa. igi Tanamdebobis pirs<br />

warmoadgenda. XIX saukunis dasawyisisaTvis mir hazori ukve<br />

administraciuli erTeulis mmarTvelia da misi tituli<br />

memkvidreobiT gadaecemoda (64, gv. 120). istoriuli wyaroebiT<br />

dasturdeba XVI saukunis Sua xanisaTvis arabTa arseboba Sua<br />

aziis im regionebSi, sadac isini dResac arian (64, gv. 117). XVII-XVIII<br />

saukuneebSi cnobebi Sua aziaSi arabTa arsebobis Sesaxeb TiTqmis<br />

ar mogvepoveba. XIX s. dasawyisisaTvis arabebi buxarisa da aqCis<br />

raionebSi qmnian administraciul erTeulebs, romelTa saTaveSi<br />

24


mir hazori dgas. cnobilia, rom avRaneTis qalaqi aqCa XIX<br />

saukunis Sua xanamde buxarel amirebs eqvemdebareboda (64, gv. 116).<br />

buxarasa da aqCaSi arabulenovani mosaxleobis arseboba mowmobs<br />

arabuli Temis siZlieres Sua aziaSi XIX saukunis pirveli<br />

naxevrisaTvis. v. m a i e n d o r f i s (W. Meyendorf) cnobiT, XIX<br />

saukunis 20-ian wlebSi arabebs vxvdebiT, agreTve, karSisa da<br />

Termezis raionebSi (182, gv. 197). v. m a i e n d o r f i s garda Sua<br />

aziaSi arabebis yofnis Sesaxeb cnobebs gvawvdian n. x a n i k o v i<br />

Н. Ханыков (113, gv. 56), a. v a m b e r i A. Vambery (196, gv. 370), a.<br />

g r e b e n k i n i А. Д. Гребенкин (106, gv. 113), m. a n d r e e v i М. С.<br />

Андреев (84, gv. 137), v. v i a t k i n i В. П. Вяткин (83, gv. 16-17),<br />

n. b u r i k i n a, m. i z m a i l o v a (52, gv. 527-549) da sxvebi. isini<br />

erTsulovnad aRniSnaven arabTa gavrcelebis farTo masStabebs<br />

Sua aziaSi XIX saukunis dasasrulisa da XX s-is dasawyisisaTvis.<br />

bunebrivia, ismeba sakiTxi: arabTa migraciis romel talRasTan<br />

arian dakavSirebuli buxarisa da kaSka-dariis mxareSi amJamad<br />

mcxovrebi arabebi? am sakiTxis kvlevas Tavisi istoria aqvs. 1826<br />

wels v. m a i e n d o r f i miiCnevda, rom buxareli arabebis<br />

winaprebi hijris pirveli saukunidan unda dasaxlebuliyvnen am<br />

raionSi (182, gv. 191; 64, gv. 111). igi adasturebs agreTve im<br />

droisaTvis momTabare arabebis arsebobas karSisa da Termezis<br />

midamoebSi. yarSeli arabebis winaparTa aRniSnul regionSi<br />

migraciis savaraudo droze v. m a i e n d o r f i arafers wers. a.<br />

v a m b e r i c, v. m a i e n d o r f i s msgavsad, buxarel arabebs<br />

islamis gamavrcelebel Zlevamosil arab molaSqreTa<br />

STamomavlebad miiCnevs (196, gv. 370).<br />

sayuradReboa rusi avtoris a. g r e b e n k i n i s cnobebi. igi XIX<br />

saukunis 70-ian wlebSi ruseTis jaris SemadgenlobaSi<br />

imyofeboda da monawileobas Rebulobda ruseTis mier Sua aziaSi<br />

Catarebul samxedro operaciebSi. a. g r e b e n k i n s mohyavs<br />

mosaxleobaSi gavrcelebuli ori gadmocema, romelic im<br />

droisaTvis Sua aziaSi mcxovreb arabTa winaprebis aRniSnul<br />

regionSi damkvidrebas exeba. pirvelis mixedviT, Sua aziaSi<br />

mcxovrebi arabebi TavianT winaprebad Tvlidnen islamis<br />

gamavrcelebel arab dampyroblebs, xolo meore gadmocemiT,<br />

arabTa migracias Sua aziaSi Temurlengs miawerdnen. arabebis am<br />

25


nawils Rrmad swamda, rom maTi winaprebi Sua aziaSi Temurlengma<br />

wamoasxa tyveebad (106, gv. 114). aRsaniSnavia a. g r e b e n k i n i s<br />

cnoba karSis midamoSi mcxovrebi arabebis Sesaxeb. isini<br />

ganTqmulebi yofilan saukeTeso jiSis cxvrebiT da rCeuli<br />

cxenebiT (106, gv. 115). arabTa ZiriTadi saqmianobis maRali done,<br />

riTac gansxvavdebodnen yarSeli arabebi sxva Sua azieli<br />

arabebisagan, miuTiTebs aRniSnul raionSi maTi saqmianobis<br />

tradiciulobas.<br />

Sua aziel arabTa winaprebis aRniSnul regionSi migraciis<br />

TariRis dadgenas cdilobda m. a n d r e e v i c (84, gv. 128). igi,<br />

a. g r e b e n k i n i s msgavsad, Semoifargla, ZiriTadad, xalxSi<br />

gavrcelebuli gadmocemebiT. es cnobebi arafriT gansxvavdeba<br />

adre a. g r e b e n k i n i s mier Cawerili gadmocemebisgan, rac<br />

miuTiTebs am sakiTxze xalxuri gadmocemis tradiciulobas, mis<br />

simyares. sayuradReboa m. a n d r e e v i s cnoba imis Sesaxeb, rom<br />

qaTTayorRanis mazraSi mcxovrebi arabebi TavianT Tavs karSis<br />

raionidan gadmoxvewilebad Tvlidnen. gadmocemiT, isini buxaris<br />

emirma gadmoasaxla 250 wlis win (84, gv. 131). es cnoba<br />

mniSvnelovania imiT, rom miuTiTebs arabTa dasaxlebis<br />

xangrZlivobas Sua aziis kaSka-dariis mxareSi, sadac dReisaTvis<br />

mcxovreb arabTa didi nawili hijris I saukuneSi mosul islamis<br />

gamavrcelebel arabebs miiCnevs Tavis uSualo winaprebad.<br />

1930 wels daibeWda Sua azieli arabebisadmi specialurad<br />

miZRvnili statia, romlis avtorebi arian n. b u r i k i n a da m.<br />

i z m a i l o v a (52). maTac Cawerili aqvT gadmocemebi, romlebic<br />

Sua azieli arabebis aRniSnul regionSi damkvidrebas<br />

Temurlengs ukavSirebs. unda aRiniSnos, rom es cnobebi ar aris<br />

erTgvarovani da Seicavs winaaRmdegobebs. magaliTad, arab-xanaSi<br />

(samaryandis raioni), jeÁnauSi (karSis raioni) da qerminis<br />

irgvliv mdebare yiSlaRebSi mcxovrebi arabebis nawili<br />

Temurlengs miawers Sua aziaSi maTi winaprebis moxvedras, magram<br />

azrTa sxvadasxvaobaa imis Taobaze, Tu saidan gadmoasaxla isini<br />

Temurlengma. am SemTxvevaSi zogi irans asaxelebs, zogi - avRaneTs<br />

da zogic - arabul qveynebs. Temurlengis mier arabebis Sua aziaSi<br />

gadasaxlebis faqts marTlac SeiZleba hqonoda adgili. amave<br />

dros unda gaviTvaliswinoT, rom Sua aziaSi gavrcelebuli<br />

26


tradiciis Tanaxmad, istoriul movlenaTa Sesaxeb arsebuli<br />

gadmocemebi, umetes SemTxvevaSi, legendis xasiaTs atarebs da<br />

mosaxleobis mier uyoymanod miewereba Temurlengs. aseTma<br />

tradiciam, cxadia, bevr gadmocemas daukarga sarwmuno xasiaTi.<br />

1980 wlis noemberSi, Sua aziaSi Cveni pirveli mivlinebis dros,<br />

yuradReba miipyro kaSka-dariis mxaris yiSlaR jeÁnauSi daculma<br />

zepirma gadmocemam, romelic am raionSi mcxovrebi arabebis<br />

winaprebad miiCnevs hijris pirvel saukuneSi islamis droSis qveS<br />

gaerTianebul arab dampyroblebs. rogorc aRvniSneT, aseTi<br />

gadmocema Sua aziaSi adre Cawerili aqvT v. m a i e n d o r f s,<br />

a. v a m b e r i s a da a. g r e b e n k i n s, magram ara - kaSka-dariis<br />

mxareSi. yiSlaRi jeÁnau iyofa ubnebad - mahallebad. esenia:<br />

harruki (Ôarræq), avona (÷awÝna), bavora (bawÝra), andxoi (andÕÞy),<br />

Cukurkuli (Éuqurkél) da qaTTafai (kattapÞy). am eqvsi ubnidan<br />

mxolod samSi ician arabuli (harruki, avona, bavora). harrukSi da<br />

avonaSi mcxovrebi arabebi karSSi hijris pirvel saukuneSi<br />

damkvidrebulad Tvlian Tavs, xolo bavoras mkvidrni orad<br />

iyofian. erTni iziareben harruksa da avonaSi mcxovreb arabTa<br />

Tvalsazriss, meore nawili ki Temurlengs miawers maTi<br />

winaprebis jeÁnauSi dasaxlebas. bunebrivia, yuradRebas<br />

imsaxurebs gadmocema yiSlaR jeÁnauSi mcxovrebi arabebis<br />

winaparTa hijris pirvel saukuneebSi Sua aziaSi damkvidrebis<br />

Sesaxeb. am cnobam gauZlo dros da miuxedavad Temurlengis<br />

Sesaxeb SeTxzuli mravalricxovani legendebis zegavlenisa, maT<br />

gverdiT daimkvidra adgili. es gadmocema mniSvnelovan<br />

informaciad migvaCnia, romlisTvisac angariSis gaweva, Cveni<br />

azriT, SeiZleba.<br />

yovelive zemoaRniSnulis Semdeg unda davsvaT sakiTxi: gvaqvs<br />

Tu ara safuZveli daveyrdnoT zemoT moyvanil zepir gadmocemas<br />

da vivaraudoT kaSka-dariis mxaris yiSlaR jeÁnauSi mcxovrebi<br />

arabebis am raionSi damkvidreba hijris I saukunidan.<br />

gasaTvaliswinebelia is garemoeba, rom buxareli arabebis erTi<br />

nawilic Tavs VII-VIII saukuneebSi mosuli arabebis STamomavlebad<br />

miiCnevs. vfiqrobT, dasmuli sakiTxis nawilobriv gadawyveta<br />

SeiZleba, erTi mxriv, istoriuli masalis gaTvaliswinebiT da<br />

meore mxriv, enobrivi analizis moSveliebiT.<br />

27


dasawyisSi Cven mivuTiTeT, rom Sua aziaSi arabebi gamoCndnen<br />

VII-VIII saukuneebSi. amis Sesaxeb weren v. b a r t o l d i (В. В.<br />

Бартольд), v. m a i e n d o r f i, a. v a m b e r i da sxvebi.<br />

mniSvnelovania IX saukunis istorikosis al-iakubis (gard. 897)<br />

cnoba, romelic zemoT moviyvaneT. igi adasturebs arabTa<br />

gavrcelebis farTo masStabebs Sua aziaSi Tavisi droisaTvis.<br />

marTalia, al-iakubi arafers wers karSis midamoebSi arabTa<br />

sacxovrisis Sesaxeb, magram arabTa gavrcelebis farTo<br />

masStabebi da maTi momTabare buneba gvafiqrebinebs Sua aziaSi<br />

aRniSnul periodSi qalaqebisgan moSorebiT arabul dasaxlebaTa<br />

arsebobas. aseTi dasaxlebebi namdvilad rom arsebobda, amas<br />

mxars uWers al-istaxris (gard. 934) cnoba, romlis mixedviTac<br />

“vedaris da am adgilis sxva dasaxlebani ekuTvnis xalxis jgufs<br />

beqr ibn va’ilis tomidan” (64, gv. 124). s. v o l i n i am cnobas<br />

ratomRac saeWvod xdis, magram v. b a r t o l d i samaryandis<br />

CrdiloeTiT mdebare sakuTriv vedaris da mis irgvliv mdebare<br />

teritorias marTlac miiCnevs arabebiT dasaxlebulad X<br />

saukuneSi (41, gv. 111).<br />

uaRresad mniSvnelovan cnobas gvawvdis al-istaxri naxSebis<br />

(karSi) midamoebSi arabTa dasaxlebis Sesaxeb, rodesac asaxelebs<br />

erT-erTi punqtis saxelwodebas “naukad kuraÁS” -s. es miuTiTebs<br />

iqaur mcxovrebTa arabul warmomavlobaze, maT erovnebaze (41, gv.<br />

126). sayuradReboa, rom yarSeli arabebis umravlesoba dResac<br />

yureiSel arabebad miiCnevs Tavs. es safuZvels uqmnis yiSlaR<br />

jeÁnauSi Cven mier Caweril zepir gadmocemas. dReisaTvis<br />

aRniSnul yiSlaRSi mcxovrebi yureiSeli arabebis saSualebiT<br />

ibmeba kavSiri VII-X saukuneebSi Sua aziaSi damkvidrebul<br />

arabebTan. amgvarad, sarwmunod SeiZleba miviCnioT VII-X<br />

saukuneebSi Sua aziis kaSka-dariis mxareSi arabTa migraciis<br />

faqti da maTi kavSiri am raionSi amJamad mcxovreb arabebTan.<br />

vfiqrobT, amas mxars uWers Suaaziuri arabulis enobrivi<br />

analizic.<br />

buxarul da kaSkadariul dialeqtebSi zmnis prefiqsuri<br />

warmoebis mwkrivebSi gansxvaveba gvaqvs. buxarulSi awmyo<br />

iwarmoeba m/mi nawilakiani formebiT. kaSkadariuli dialeqtis<br />

28


zmna rogorc warmoebiT, aseve gaxmovnebiTac klasikur arabuls<br />

emsgavseba.<br />

magaliTebi buxarulidan:<br />

kas×ra dawla iúræÔum mioÕdæna, mioÕdæn<br />

“bevr (mTel) qonebas TavianTTvis iReben (da) midian”<br />

had zag×ru Êabiãum abyaz merkabu, mioÒd×<br />

“is umcrosi Sejdeba TeTr cxenze da midis”<br />

mi÷rifæn-ki min ’×d had fad âuÒl z×n miÓi, mioÕdæn il-pÝâÝ miáænæ<br />

“maT ician, rom igi xelmarjvea (maT ician, rom misi xelidan<br />

kargi saqme gamodis), mihyavT da faSad dasvamen (gaxdian)”.<br />

kaSkadariul dialeqtSi zmnis prefiqsuri warmoebis<br />

mwkrivebTan ar gvxvdeba m/mi nawilakiani formebi:<br />

zÝka iktub<br />

“is wers”<br />

zaklÝn iârubæn<br />

“isini svamen”<br />

’ilai riz ÷Ýne iúræÔ× iâba ÷æn<br />

“Cemi bavSvebi me mgvanan”<br />

ilinÁt nÁsibatna ÓdÁ iúbeitna kÁn iÓænÁt<br />

“Cven saxlSi (stumrad) bevri naTesavi modioda”.<br />

zmnur formaTa gaxmovnebac kaSkadariul dialeqtSi klasikur<br />

arabuls uaxlovdeba:<br />

naÔna âarabna<br />

“Cven SevsviT”<br />

’ileynÁt mÝratna Õubz tuãbuÕ, laÔm tuãbuÕ<br />

“Cveni colebi [ acxoben] purs da amzadeben xorcs”.<br />

kaSkadariul dialeqtSi SeiniSneba klasikuri arabulisaTvis<br />

damaxasiaTebel e. w. apoziciur konstruqciaTa simravle, xSiria<br />

msazRvreli al artiklis xmarebis SemTxvevebi da sxv. yovelive es<br />

ganasxvavebs mas Sua aziis meore – buxaruli dialeqtisagan.<br />

amgvarad, zemomoyvanili enobrivi niSnebi kaSkadariuli<br />

arabulis, rogorc dialeqtis, arqaulobas adasturebs. es<br />

Tvalsazrisi kaSkadarieli arabebis enobrivi izolaciis<br />

29


maCvenebelia da mxars uWers zemoT Cven mier gamoTqmul varauds<br />

kaSkadarieli arabebis aRniSnul regionSi VII-X saukuneebSi<br />

damkvidrebis Sesaxeb. SesaZloa, klasikuri arabuli enisaTvis<br />

damaxasiaTebeli enobrivi niSnebis SenarCuneba kaSkadarieli<br />

arabebis arabuli samyarosgan xangrZlivma geografiulma<br />

izolaciam da karCaketili cxovrebis wesma ganapiroba. rac<br />

Seexeba buxarulSi zmnis warmoebas, b/bi, m/mi prefiqsiani<br />

formebi arabul dialeqtebSi da Sesabamisad, literaturul<br />

ZeglebSi XIV saukunemde ar dasturdeba (26, gv. 461). rogorc g.<br />

w e r e T e l i wers: “buxarulisaTvis damaxasiaTebel m/mi<br />

prefiqsian formebSi Cven sruli analogia gvaqvs arabul<br />

dialeqtebTan da misi kavSiri sparsul mi -sTan saeWvo xdeba. Tu<br />

es debuleba sworia, maSin TavisTavad wydeba sakiTxi misi<br />

genezisuri urTierTobis Sesaxeb egviptur da siria-palestinis<br />

b/bi –sTan. am mxriv sruliad bunebrivi fonetikuri Sesatyvisoba<br />

gvaqvs” (26, gv. 466). b(i) nawilaki ufro iSviaTad gvxvdeba XIV<br />

saukunis literaturul ZeglebSi. XV, XVI, XVII saukuneebis<br />

TxzulebebSi ki igi xSirad dasturdeba, rac imaze miuTiTebs, rom<br />

buxareli arabebis winaparTa metyvelebaSi m/mi nawilaki XIV<br />

saukunemde an uSualod mis winamaval epoqamde ar unda yofiliyo.<br />

Tu am Tvalsazriss gaviziarebT, SegviZlia davuSvaT buxarisa da<br />

kaSka-dariis regionebSi amJamad mcxovrebi arabebis winaparTa<br />

migraciis ori talRa: pirvelis mixedviT, kaSka-dariis raionSi<br />

arabebis damkvidreba VII-X saukuneebSi ivaraudeba, xolo arabTa<br />

migraciis II talRas buxaris raionSi XIV saukuneSi unda hqonoda<br />

adgili Temurlengis erT-erTi laSqrobis dros. amgvarad,<br />

safuZvels iZens buxarel arabebSi daculi zepiri gadmocema maTi<br />

winaprebis Temurlengis mier tyveebad wamosxmis Sesaxeb, rac adre<br />

iyo dafiqsirebuli da amJamadac gavrcelebulia yiSlaR<br />

jogariSi.<br />

miRebuli Sedegebi saboloo saxiT ase warmogvidgeba:<br />

buxarisa da kaSka-dariis mxareSi savaraudoa arabTa migraciis<br />

ori, qronologiurad gansxvavebuli talRa:<br />

1. kaSkadarieli arabebis uSualo winaparTa damkvidrebas<br />

aRniSnul regionSi, SesaZloa, adgili hqonda VII-X saukuneebSi,<br />

rac gamomdinareobs Semdegi argumentebidan:<br />

30


a) yiSlaR jeÁnaus mcxovreblebSi daculia zepiri gadmocema aq<br />

maTi winaprebis hijris pirvel saukuneebSi damkvidrebis Sesaxeb;<br />

b) istoriuli wyaroebiT dasturdeba VII-X saukuneebSi Sua<br />

aziis kaSka-dariis mxareSi arabebis arseboba;<br />

g) kavSiri Tanamedrove kaSkadariel da VII-X saukuneebSi aq<br />

damkvidrebul arabebs Soris myardeba imiT, rom arsebobs alistaxris<br />

metad mniSvnelovani cnoba am regionSi uZveles xanaSi<br />

yureiSel arabTa dasaxlebis Sesaxeb, xolo dReisaTvis am mxareSi<br />

mcxovrebi arabebis umravlesobac Tavis warmomavlobas<br />

yureiSelTa arabul toms ukavSirebs;<br />

d) kaSkadariuli dialeqtis Sedareba buxarulTan enobrivi<br />

monacemebis doneze adasturebs kaSkadariuli dialeqtis umetes<br />

arqaulobas da mis msgavsebas klasikur arabulTan, rac,<br />

SesaZloa, aixsneba kaSkadarieli arabebis arabuli samyarosgan<br />

xangrZlivi geografiuli da enobrivi izolaciiT.<br />

2. buxareli arabebis uSualo winaprebi SesaZloa damkvidrdnen<br />

axlandel Rijduvanis raionSi XIV saukuneSi. amis daSvebis<br />

safuZvels gvaZlevs Semdegi:<br />

a) arsebobs zepiri gadmocema, romlis mixedviTac buxareli<br />

arabebis winaprebi Sua aziaSi gadmoasaxla Temurlengma;<br />

b) buxaruli dialeqtis enobrivi analizi avlens zogierT<br />

dialeqtur maxasiaTebels, romelic saerToa arabuli<br />

dialeqtebisaTvis da XIV saukunemde literaturul ZeglebSi<br />

dadasturebuli ar aris.<br />

sayuradReboa anTropologiuri daskvna Sua azieli arabebis<br />

Sesaxeb, romelic l. o S a n i n s (Л. В. Ошанин) da v. z e z e n k o v a s<br />

(В. И. Зезенкова) ekuTvnis. maTi monacemebiT «kaSkadarieli arabebi<br />

warmoadgenen braxicefalur winaaziur rasobriv tips, rac<br />

emTxveva CrdiloeT mesopotamiis arabTa rasobriv maxasiaTebels»<br />

(100). avtorebma safuZvlianad gamoikvlies Sua aziaSi<br />

gavrcelebuli tipebi. maTi dakvirvebiT, karSis raionis arabebma<br />

saukuneebis ganmavlobaSi SeinarCunes da dRemde moitanes<br />

TavianTi arabuli warmomavlobis damadasturebeli<br />

31


anTropologiuri niSnebi. rac Seexeba Sua aziel arabTa<br />

adgilobriv mosaxleobasTan Serwymis maCveneblebs, mecnierTa<br />

daskvniT, kvali aseTi anTropologiuri Serevisa ukiduresad<br />

umniSvneloa. mizezad avtorebi asaxeleben yarSeli arabebis<br />

ZiriTadi nawilis erT adgilze damkvidrebas, kerZod jeÁnausa da<br />

kamaSis raionebSi. aq ar SeiZleba kvlav ar aRiniSnos al-istaxris<br />

uaRresad mniSvnelovani cnoba naxSebis (karSi) midamoebSi arabTa<br />

dasaxlebis Sesaxeb. igi asaxelebs dasaxlebul punqts,<br />

sacxovriss, saxelwodebiT «naukad kureiS», rac miuTiTebs iq<br />

mcxovrebTa arabul warmomavlobaze.<br />

rogorc zemoT aRvniSneT, Sua aziel arabTa istoria, maTi<br />

regionSi damkvidrebis vadisa da Tavdapirveli sacxovrisis<br />

dadgena, mniSvnelovnad uwyobs xels dialeqtis srul da<br />

amomwurav gamokvlevas. yovelive amas didi mniSvneloba aqvs,<br />

vinaidan gansxvavebas arabul dialeqtebs Soris xSirad<br />

safuZvlad udevs zemoaRniSnuli faqtorebi. Sua aziis arabuli<br />

dialeqtebi, miuxedavad arabuli samyarosgan mravalsaukunovani<br />

izolaciisa, arabul dialeqtologiur sistemaSi arian moqceuli.<br />

amasTan dakavSirebiT SevexebiT arabuli dialeqtebis<br />

klasifikaciis sakiTxs.<br />

arabuli enis dialeqtebis klasifikaciis ramdenime principi<br />

arsebobs:<br />

1. geografiuli: gamoiyofa ori mTavari jgufi _ aRmosavluri<br />

da dasavluri. aRmosavlur arabul dialeqtebs miekuTvneba:<br />

arabeTis naxevarkunZulis dialeqtebi, siriul – libanur –<br />

palestinuri, egvipturi, erayis arabuli dialeqti, sudanuri, Sua<br />

aziuri. dasavluri, anu maRribuli dialeqtebia: libiuri,<br />

Tunisuri, alJiruli, marokouli, hasania (dasavleT afrikaSi).<br />

2. meore principi gaxlavT istoriuli, anu qronologiuri.<br />

igulisxmeba Zveli da Tanamedrove dialeqtebi. Tanamedrove<br />

dialeqtebi ukve davasaxele. Zveli dialeqtebic iyofa<br />

aRmosavlur da dasavlur jgufebad: aRmosavlurs ekuTvnis<br />

Tamimi (tam×m), rabia (rab×÷a), asadi (öasad), bahila (bÁhila), ukaili<br />

(÷uqail), Ratafani (gaãafÁn), abd al-kaisi (÷abd al-qais), Rani (Òan×),<br />

haniфa (Ôan×fa), baqri (bakr×) da TaRlibi (taÒl×b), xolo dasavlurs -<br />

32


himiari (himyÁr), hijazuri (ÔiÓÁz), azdi (öazd), huzaili (huËayl) da tai<br />

(ãayyö) (9, gv. 20).<br />

3. mesame principi gaxlavT dialeqtebis dayofa arabiul da<br />

arabidul dialeqtebad. arabiuli beduinTa dialeqtia, ase<br />

vTqvaT, wminda arabuli, xolo arabiduli – esaa warmoSobiT<br />

araarabTa metyveleba. arabuli farTod gavrcelda aziisa da<br />

afrikis kontinentze. mTelma rigma xalxebma SeiTvises, gaiTavises<br />

arabuli ena da amave dros zegavlena moaxdines masze.<br />

4. Semdegi principi arabuli dialeqtebis klasifikaciisa aris<br />

socialuri. igulisxmeba qalaqelTa, felahebisa da beduinTa<br />

metyveleba. varaudoben, rom saerTo arabuli koine safuZvlad<br />

daedo dialeqtebs. amiT SeiZleba aixsnas dialeqtebisaTvis<br />

damaxasiaTebeli saerTo niSnebi.<br />

bolo xanebSi Cveni yuradReba miipyro arabuli<br />

dialeqtebisadmi miZRvnilma publikaciebma, sadac mocemulia ama<br />

Tu im qveynis an regionis enobrivi daxasiaTeba. am publikaciebSi<br />

mkvlevrebi xSirad miznad isaxaven warmoadginon ama Tu im qveynis<br />

arabuli dialeqti, rogorc damoukidebeli sistema. isini<br />

afiqsireben dialeqtTa maxasiaTebel enobriv Taviseburebebs da<br />

amasTanave niSnebs, riTac es dialeqtebi emsgavsebian sxva arabul<br />

dialeqtebs. aseTi tipis monografiebidan SeiZleba davasaxeloT<br />

i. z a v a d o v s k i s (Ю. Н. Завадовский) Tunisuri da mavriTaniuli<br />

dialeqtebisadmi miZRvnil naSromebi (79; 80), e. m i S k u r o v i s (Э.<br />

Н. Мишкуров) alJiruli da libiuri dialeqtebis gamokvleva (95,<br />

93). 1983 wels q. h o l s m a (C. Holes) gamoaqveyna monografia<br />

"bahreinis dialeqti" (162).<br />

h a i m b l a n k i s (H. Blanc) erT-erTi naSromia «Crdilo<br />

palestinuri arabuli dialeqti» (142). 1994 wels daibeWda m.<br />

v o i d i C i s (M. Woidich) egvipturi arabulisadmi miZRvnili<br />

gamokvleva (200) da sxva.<br />

arc Tu iSviaTad, arabuli dialeqtebisadmi miZRvnil<br />

naSromebSi fiqsirdeba mravalricxovani saerTo enobrivi niSnebi.<br />

magaliTad, romelime arabul dialeqts bevri saerTo SeiZleba<br />

hqondes xuzisTanis an omanis dialeqtTan. specialistebi amas,<br />

ZiriTadad, xsnian sasaubro koineTi, romelic hijris pirveli<br />

33


saukunidan warmoiSva mTels arabeTSi. igi ar emyareboda arc erT<br />

dialeqts da gansxvavdeboda saliteraturo enisagan. aq ar<br />

iTvaliswineben erT mniSvnelovan garemoebas: sasaubro<br />

koinesaTvis damaxasiaTebeli enobrivi niSnebi TiTqmis<br />

normirebulia da sayovelTaod aris cnobili. magaliTad:<br />

1. ikargeba interdentalebi da emfatikurebi;<br />

2. ar aris iyrabi da arc kilos aRmniSvneli daboloebebi;<br />

iSviaTad gvxvdeba iribi brunvebi. magaliTad, gamoTqmaSi<br />

ahlan wa sahlan, magram es mxolod gaqvavebul formebSi.<br />

beduinTa metyvelebaSi gvxvdeba nunacia, magram<br />

klasikurisagan gansxvavebiT, msazRvrel-sazRvrulis<br />

SeTanxmeba ar fiqsirdeba.<br />

3. sinTezuris nacvlad gvaqvs analitikuri wyoba;<br />

4. mdedrobiTi iwarmoeba markeris gareSe;<br />

5. saxelebSi da zmnebSi mravlobiTobis nuni Cavardnilia;<br />

beduinebis metyvelebaSi igi gvxvdeba. kiloSi gansxvaveba ar<br />

gvaqvs;<br />

6. vnebiTi gvari ar iwarmoeba (VII da VIII Tema gamoxatavs<br />

vnebiTobas). aseve, orobiTi ricxvic;<br />

7. imperfeqtivSi, III pirSi, prefiqsalur warmoebaSi damma<br />

moxsnilia;<br />

8. q beduinebTan gamoiTqmis, rogorc g. esec erTerTi principia<br />

dialeqtTa dayofisa. gamoyofen kalis da galis dialeqtebs.<br />

mag., Suaaziuri ori dialeqtidan erTi - (buxaruli) kalis<br />

dialeqtia, xolo meore - (kaSkadariuli) galis. sakiTxi<br />

kal-is da gal-is dialeqtebis Sesaxeb Seswavlili aqvs h a i m<br />

b l a n k s 1964 wels gamoqveynebul naSromSi Communal<br />

Dialects in Baghdad (143). aRsaniSnavia, rom buxarul<br />

dialeqtSi, romelic warmoadgens kal-is dialeqts, rig<br />

leqsemebSi gvxvdeba q-s nacvlad g. kaSka-dariulSic,<br />

zogierT sityvaSi g-s nacvlad q fiqsirdeba. es movlena<br />

SeiZleba aixsnas Sua aziis arabul dialeqtebSi meoreuli<br />

nasesxobebis arsebobiT. mxedvelobaSi gvaqvs arabul<br />

dialeqtSi uzbekuri da tajikuri enebidan arabuli<br />

leqsemebis moxvedra. amasTanave, ar gamovricxavT Sua aziis<br />

34


uxarisa da kaSka-dariis arabulenovan yiSlaRebSi<br />

warmoSobiT momTabare da binadari arabebis Tanacxovrebas.<br />

rogorc cnobilia, beduinebis metyvelebisaTvis<br />

damaxasiaTebelia g, xolo binadari arabebisaTvis q.<br />

xangrZlivi drois ganmavlobaSi beduinTa garkveul<br />

jgufebs SeeZloT binadar cxovrebaze gadasvla da piriqiT,<br />

arabebis garkveuli nawili SeiZleboda momTabare<br />

cxovrebas Sedgomoda, anu retraibalizacias<br />

daqvemdebareboda. arabTa aRniSnuli jgufebis mier<br />

fonetikur TaviseburebaTa SenarCuneba iseve dasaSvebia,<br />

rogorc am jgufebis mier maTTvis tradiciuli warmoTqmis<br />

dakargva da axal enobriv garemosTan asimilacia. ar<br />

gamovricxavT, rom Suaaziur arabulSi aRniSnul<br />

viTarebasTan gvqondes saqme.<br />

rodesac arabuli dialeqtebis saerTo maxasiaTebeli niSnebis<br />

garda mezobel an geografiulad daSorebul arabul<br />

dialeqtebSi fiqsirdeba garkveuli tipis msgavsi enobrivi<br />

movlenebi, es scildeba sasaubro koines farglebs da migvaniSnebs<br />

sruliad damoukidebel enobriv monacemze, rac axsnas moiTxovs.<br />

am poziciidan SevexebiT samxreT-aRmosavleT iemenisa da iranis<br />

samxreT-dasavleTi provinciis, xuzisTanis arabuli dialeqtis<br />

zogierT saerTo enobriv movlenas Cven mier iemensa (1989 w.) da<br />

iranSi (1994 w.) mivlinebis dros mopovebuli dialeqtologiuri<br />

masalis analizis safuZvelze.<br />

xuzisTanis arabuli dialeqti moicavs abadanis, ahvazis,<br />

xoramSahris, Sadiganis da gaCsaranis arabul metyvelebas. zmnis<br />

perfeqtivis da imperfeqtivis warmoeba xuzisTanis, kerZod,<br />

xoramSahris da samxreT-aRmosavleTi iemenis, muqalas<br />

dialeqtebSi TiTqmis identuria. moviyvanT, magaliTad orive<br />

dialeqtSi zmnis perfeqtivis formaTa warmoebas:<br />

muqala xoramSahri<br />

perfeqtivi<br />

mx. r.<br />

35


III mamr. katab ketab<br />

md. katabat ketabat II mamr. katabt ketabt<br />

md. katabti ketabti<br />

I katabt ketabt<br />

mr. r.<br />

III mamr. katabæ ketbÝw<br />

md kataban ketban<br />

II mamr. katabté ketabté<br />

md. katabtan ketabtan<br />

I katabna ketabna<br />

saerTod, arabuli dialeqtebis umravlesobisaTvis naklebad<br />

aris damaxasiaTebeli perfeqtivsa da imperfeqtivSi, mravlobiT<br />

ricxvSi mdedrobiTi sqesis formebi. isini gvxvdeba bahreinel<br />

arabTa metyvelebaSi, agreTve SuaaziurSi.<br />

nacvlad saliteraturo arabuli enis sami modelisa,<br />

xuzisTanis arabulSi, iseve rogorc muqalas metyvelebaSi,<br />

fiqsirdeba swori samTanxmovniani zmnis erTi modeli C1a C2a C3<br />

(C1eC2aC3) fa÷al//fe÷al. imperfeqtivSi warmodgenilia Zireul<br />

xmovanTa alternacia xmovnebiT, romlebic opozicias qmnian<br />

Riaobis TvalsazrisiT: a~i (e~i) katab (ketab) ~ iektib.<br />

orive dialeqtSi SeiniSneba grZeli da mokle xmovnebis moSlis<br />

tendencia. gvxvdeba II da III, V-VI Temis formaTa damTxveva da<br />

amgvarad, orive Temis mniSvnelobis erTi formiT gadmocema: ãalla÷ -<br />

1.asvla 2.Sexedva. Temebi ufro metad sityvawarmoebas asaxaven,<br />

vidre formaTwarmoqmnas. orive dialeqtSi fiqsirdeba saerTo<br />

formebi, romelTac saliteraturo arabulSi ar gaaCniaT<br />

paralelebi. msgavsi viTareba gvaqvs Suaaziur arabulSi, kerZod,<br />

kaSkadariul dialeqtSi.<br />

analogiuria piris nacvalsaxelebi xoramSahrisa da muqalas<br />

arabul dialeqtebSi:<br />

36


xoramSahri muqala<br />

mx. r mr. r. mx. r. mr. r.<br />

III mamr. huwa hum hu hum<br />

md. hiyya hinna hi hinna<br />

II mamr. ente entum anta antum<br />

md. enti enten înti antÙnna<br />

I mamr. na eÔna na naÔna<br />

md. n×yya Ôinna n×yya naÔna<br />

aRsaniSnavia I pirSi sqesis garCeva. fiqsirdeba gansxvavebuli<br />

formebi mxolobiTi ricxvis I pirSi. es movlena mkveTrad<br />

ganasxvavebs am or dialeqts sxva arabuli dialeqtebisgan. I pirSi,<br />

mx. r-Si, mamrobiT sqesSi fiqsirdeba na, xolo mdedrobiTSi n×yya.<br />

es formebi unda gaCeniliyo dialeqtSi mesame da meore piris<br />

analogiiT.<br />

nacvalsaxelovani sufiqsebi<br />

aqac fiqsirdeba erTnairi formebi. gansakuTrebiT aRsaniSnavia<br />

meore piris mdedrobiTi sqesis nacvalsaxelovani sufiqsi iÉ-iâ:<br />

aâtari eliÉ - giyidi Sen (xoramSahri), Sdr. arab. aâtar× laki. kitÁbiâ –<br />

Seni wigni, ÕÁtimiâ – Seni beWedi, Ôaggiâ – Senia? (muqala). es forma<br />

gavrcelebulia muqalasa da abianis (adenis aRmosavleTiT)<br />

provinciebSi. xSirad sufiqsi ixmareba kiTxviTi formiT: ÕÁtimiâ<br />

“Seni beWedia?” paralelurad gvxvdeba ÕÁtim Ôaggiâ? aseTi<br />

Sesityveba xSiria. zogjer iâ sufiqsi mamrobiT sqessac gamoxatavs.<br />

iâ sufiqsis gaCena meore piris mdedrobiT sqesSi unda aixsnas ks<br />

palatalizaciiT: ki>ik>iâ. am movlenis Sesaxeb gvxvdeba<br />

msjeloba Zvel arab gramatikosebTan (kaâkaâa). sibavaÁhi aRniSnavs,<br />

rom k-s gadmocema â-Ti damaxasiaTebeli yofila banu Tamimis<br />

metyvelebisaTvis. j. k a n t i n o s (J. Cantineau) “arabuli<br />

enaTmecnierebis” II tomSi dafiqsirebuli aqvs sibavaÁhis es metad<br />

mniSvnelovani cnoba (146, gv. 65) xoramSahris da muqalas arabul<br />

37


metyvelebaSi aRniSnuli movlenis fiqsacia exmaureba merve<br />

saukunis arabi gramatikosis cnobas da amdenad, warmoadgens<br />

mniSvnelovan dialeqtologiur movlenas. rogorc irkveva,<br />

xoramSahris mkvidri arabebi, Tu mTlianad ara, nawili mainc<br />

warmoSobiT hadramauTidan yofilan. hadramauTi esazRvreba<br />

muqalas provincias. informantis, rogorc banu Tamimis tomis<br />

warmomadgenlis metyvelebisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli k-s<br />

palatalizacia jer kidev sibavaihis aqvs aRniSnuli .<br />

banu Tamimi Tavdapirvelad binadrobda arabeTis<br />

naxevarkunZulis samxreT-aRmosavleTSi. Semdeg gaZlierda da VI<br />

saukunidan ekava arabeTis aRmosavleTi nawili, kerZod nejdi,<br />

bahreini da iemenis nawili. banu Tamimis teritoria samxreTiT<br />

aRwevda dahnaö–is regionamde, Crdilo-aRmosavleTiT<br />

vrceldeboda evfratis sanapiromde. CrdiloeTSi Tamimis<br />

arabuli tomis mezoblebs warmoadgendnen banu asadis tomis<br />

arabebi. maTi samSobloa Crdilo arabeTis dablobi. am regionis<br />

mTian masivebSi cxovrobdnen tais tomis arabebi. banu asadis<br />

samflobelo vrceldeboda samxreTiT da samxreT-aRmosavleTiT<br />

nefæd-amde, Samaris mTebamde. samxreTiT mas esazRvreboda wÁdi-lrumla,<br />

sadac banu Tamimis tomis arabebi cxovrobdnen. enobrivi<br />

analizi xels uwyobs banu Tamimis arabuli tomis arabeTis<br />

naxevarkunZulze da mis mimdebare regionebSi moZraobis dadgenas,<br />

rac sayuradReboa arabuli tomebis istoriisaTvis. arabuli<br />

tomebis (banu Tamimis da banu asadis) enobriv Taviseburebebs<br />

mniSvneloba eniWeba Tanamedrove (da ara mxolod istoriuli)<br />

arabuli dialeqtologiisaTvis. igulisxmeba banu Tamimis da banu<br />

asadis ara mxolod tomobrivi, aramed enobrivi mTlianobis,<br />

TavisTavadobis sakiTxi. mivadevnoT Tvali banu Tamimis toms. igi<br />

moZraobs arabeTis naxevarkunZulis samxreT-aRmosavleTidan<br />

Crdilo-aRmosavleTiT, bahreinamde, iqedan xuzisTanamde.<br />

aRniSnul regionebSi xdeba Tamimis tomis arabebis lokalizeba.<br />

isini, bunebrivia, xasiaTdebian saerTo enobrivi niSnebiT. amitom<br />

muqalas, bahreinisa da xoramSahris arabul dialeqtebs zogadad<br />

SeiZleba vuwodoT “Tamimis Tanamedrove arabuli dialeqti”.<br />

SeiZleba aqve mivaniSnoT, romel qveyanas, regions an provincias<br />

vgulisxmobT. SeiZleba ase: “Tamimis Tanamedrove arabuli<br />

38


dialeqti (samxreT-aRmosavleTi iemeni, bahreini, xuzisTani)”.<br />

yovel SemTxvevaSi, Tamimi migvaniSnebs garkveul da TavisTavad<br />

dialeqtologiur sistemas da sicxade Seaqvs qveynebis da<br />

regionebis mixedviT dialeqtebis saxeldebis bundovanebaSi. ra<br />

Tqma unda, calkeul regionebSi, qveynebSi, droTa ganmavlobaSi<br />

Tavs iCens garkveuli enobrivi niSnebi, rac damoukidebel<br />

Seswavlas moiTxovs, magram Cveni dakvirvebiT, ZiriTadi<br />

dialeqtologiuri Taviseburebani ganpirobebulia Zveli<br />

arabuli dialeqtiT. im enobrivi niSnebis damTxveva sxvadasxva<br />

regionis arabTa metyvelebaSi, romlebic ar ukavSirdebian<br />

sasaubro koines, umeteswilad aixsneba Zveli arabuli dialeqtiT.<br />

sxva Zveli arabuli dialeqtebis monacemebic adastureben<br />

zemoTqmuls. arabuli dialeqtebis aseTi dayofa SesaZleblobas<br />

iZleva warmovadginoT maTi geografiul da enobriv samyaroSi<br />

amJamindeli ganlagebis Sesaxeb arsebul definiciaze ufro<br />

zusti suraTi.<br />

aseTi midgoma dialeqtebisadmi mniSvnelovnad gaaadvilebs<br />

Suaaziuri arabuli dialeqtebis kvlevas. rogorc cnobilia,<br />

kaSka-dariis mxaris yiSlaR jeÁnauSi amJamad cxovroben<br />

yureiSeli arabebis, agreTve Saibanis, haSimianTa da sxva arabuli<br />

tomebis STamomavlebi, romlebsac SenarCunebuli aqvT aRniSnuli<br />

tomebis metyvelebis araerTi Tavisebureba. Sua azieli arabebis<br />

mravalsaukunovani enobrivi izolacia avlens Zveli arabuli<br />

dialeqtebisaTvis damaxasiaTebel araerT enobriv movlenas.<br />

Tanamedrove arabuli dialeqtebis monacemebi aseve warmatebiT<br />

SeiZleba gamoviyenoT Zveli arabuli dialeqtebis<br />

dasaxasiaTeblad, Tuki werilobiTi wyaro ar gagvaCnia ama Tu im<br />

Zveli arabuli dialeqtis Sesaxeb. amdenad, SesaZlebeli xdeba<br />

Tanamedrove arabuli dialeqtis monacemTa gamoyeneba enis<br />

(dialeqtis) Zveli viTarebisa da misi ganviTarebis tendenciebis<br />

Sesaswavlad. Sesabamisad, izrdeba arabuli dialeqtologiis<br />

roli da mniSvneloba semitur enaTmecnierebaSi. Tvalsazrisi,<br />

romlis Tanaxmad arabuli dialeqtebi ganixileba saliteraturo<br />

arabuli enis normebidan gadaxvevad, mis gamartivebad, klasikuri<br />

arabulis erTgvar damaxinjebad, sul ufro kargavs safuZvels,<br />

vinaidan maTSi arabuli enis uZvelesi viTarebaa asaxuli.<br />

39


2000 wlis noemberSi Sua aziaSi dialeqtologiuri eqspediciis<br />

mier lingvisturTan erTad mopovebul iqna axali folkloruli<br />

da eTnografiuli masalac. axal fotomasalasTan erTad<br />

pirvelad iqna gadaRebuli buxarisa da kaSka-dariis<br />

arabulenovan yiSlaRebSi video filmi Suaazieli arabebis<br />

Sesaxeb. maTi cxovrebis, enis, tradiciebisa da yofis amsaxveli<br />

dokumenturi masala droTa ganmavlobaSi kidev ufro did<br />

mniSvnelobas SeiZens.<br />

eqspediciis Sedegad buxaris raionSi dadasturebul iqna<br />

yiSlaRebSi - Sohan-begsa (âohan-beg) da CaRdareSi (ÉaÒdarÎ)<br />

arabuli metyvelebis SenarCunebis faqti, razec 30-ian wlebSi<br />

miuTiTebda akad. g. w e r e T e l i (117, gv. 134). aris, agreTve, mesame<br />

yiSlaRi labrudi (lyabræd), sadac nawili mosaxleobisa<br />

metyvelebs arabulad, magram eseni arian jogaridan labrudSi<br />

gadasaxlebuli arabebi. rac Seexeba Sohan-begisa da CaRdares<br />

arabebs, isini odiTganve am yiSlaRebSi cxovrobdnen. 30-ian<br />

wlebSi Catarebuli eqspediciebis Sedegad buxaris raionSi<br />

ZiriTadi yuradReba gamaxvilda yiSlaRebze: jogarize (ÓÝgar×) da<br />

arab-xanaze (÷arab-ÕÝne). imxanad miCneul iqna, rom srulyofili<br />

dialeqtologiuri masalis mopoveba SeiZleboda am or yiSlaRSi.<br />

amJamad am yiSlaRebs SeiZleba daematos Sohan-begi, CaRdare da<br />

garkveulwilad, labrudic. CaRdares arabuli metyveleba<br />

tajikuris did gavlenas ganicdis. aq aris ori ubani: joфa raboT<br />

(ÓÝfa rabÝt) (arabebis ubani) da Tojikon (toÓikÝn) (tajikebis ubani).<br />

arabebis ubanSi mosaxleoba ZiriTadad arabulad metyvelebs.<br />

semitur-indoevropuli enobrivi kontaqtebis TvalsazrisiT, aq<br />

sayuradRebo masala moipoveba, vinaidan didia arabul dialeqtze<br />

tajikuris gavlena.<br />

Sohan-begi jogaridan ramdenime kilometriT aris daSorebuli.<br />

aqauri arabebis metyveleba xasiaTdeba zogierTi TaviseburebiT,<br />

rac ganasxvavebs mas jogarisa da arab-xanas arabTa<br />

metyvelebisagan. buxaris, samaryandisa da kaSka-dariis mxareSi<br />

100-ze meti toponimia arabebTan dakavSirebuli. esenia, magaliTad:<br />

arab xana (ramdenime aTeuli), arabon (arabÝn), arab saroÁ (arab sarÝi),<br />

40


arab raboT (arab rabÝt), raboTi arab (rabÝti arab), tazi (ãaz×), naukad<br />

kuraÁS (naukad quraiâ), qaxlai kaÕlai (es ukanaskneli, gadmocemiT,<br />

momdinareobs samxreT arabuli tomis saxelidan qaÔãÁn) da sxvebi.<br />

buxarisa da samaryandis regionebSi arabuli toponimebi<br />

ZiriTadad termin ÷arab-s ukavSirdeba (arabon, arab saroÁ, arab<br />

raboT, raboTi arab da a.S.) maSin, rodesac kaSka-dariis raionSi<br />

toponimebs safuZvlad udevs arabuli tomebis saxelwodebebi:<br />

naukad kuraÁS, qaxlai, tazi . . . es mowmobs arabTa migraciis<br />

buxarulTan SedarebiT ufro Zvel talRas kaSka-dariis mxareSi.<br />

÷arab-is Semcveli toponimebi Sua aziaSi ZiriTadad me-13 saukunis<br />

Semdeg Cndeba. adreul xanaSi arabebis aRsaniSnad arabuli tomis<br />

saxelebi gamoiyeneboda, mag: tais tomis xalxi. Sua azieli<br />

arabebis umetesobas dResac axsovs tomobrivi warmomavloba.<br />

zemoT CamoTvlili arabuli tomebis garda, isini asaxeleben iseT<br />

cnobil arabul tomebs, rogoricaa âaybÝnÚ, ÔÁâim× sa÷nÁn× da sxvebi.<br />

kaSka-dariis mxareSi arabTa uZveles periodSi damkvidrebis<br />

damadasturebeli eTnografiuli masalac iqna mopovebuli.<br />

kaSkadarieli arabi qalebi, buxarelebisagan gansxvavebiT,<br />

samkaulis saxiT oqros rgolebs atareben cxvirze, Sublze da<br />

nestoze. Cven mier Cawerili gadmocemebis Tanaxmad, es rgolebi<br />

warmoadgens agaris samkaulebs. saram eWvianobis niadagze<br />

gadawyvita agaris damaxinjeba da ubrZana mas cxvirze rgolis<br />

gakeTeba. rgolma araTu daamaxinja, aramed ufro daamSvena agari.<br />

saram amis Semdeg Sublzec moiTxova rgolis gakeTeba. igi<br />

darwmunebuli iyo, rom axla ki namdvilad daamaxinjebda agars,<br />

magram meore dRes, rodesac agari karvidan gamovida, Sublze<br />

rgoli Zalian uxdeboda. Semdeg sasowarkveTili sara agars<br />

mosTxovs, rom man amjerad nestoze gaikeTos rgoli. aman kidev<br />

ufro daamSvena agari. abrami ufro metad moxibla rgolebiT<br />

damSvenebulma agarma. amis Semdeg arabma qalebma mibaZes agars.<br />

rgolebi cxvirze, nestoze da Sublze iqca maT samkaulebad. dRes<br />

aseTi tradicia SenarCunebulia kaSkadariel arab qalebSi.<br />

arabuli tomebis aRmniSvnel toponimebTan erTad, kaSkadarieli<br />

arabi qalebis Cacmuloba da morTulobis zemoT aRniSnuli<br />

tradicia mowmobs arabTa uZveles migraciebs karSis midamoebSi.<br />

aqve gvinda aRvniSnoT, rom kaSkadariel arabebSi daculia<br />

41


araerTi legenda maTi winaprebis jeÁnauSi VII-VIII saukuneebSi<br />

damkvidrebis Sesaxeb. arabi mosaxleobis didi nawili Tvlis,<br />

rom maTi winaprebi karSis midamoebSi islamis gavrcelebis misiiT<br />

movidnen. am legendebSi xSirad xazi esmeba arabTa<br />

keTilSobilebas, gmirul xasiaTsa da bunebas.<br />

80-iani wlebis dasawyisSi Suaaziur arabul dialeqtebze muSaoba<br />

SemomTavaza saqarTvelos mecnierebaTa akademiis akad. g. wereTlis<br />

saxelobis aRmosavleTmcodneobis institutis semitologiis<br />

ganyofilebis gamgem, akademikosma k o n s t a n t i n e w e r e T e l m a,<br />

romlis samecniero moRvaweobaSi mniSvnelovani adgili ukavia<br />

cocxali semituri enebisadmi miZRvnil fundamentur gamokvlevebs,<br />

Tanamedrove siriuli dialeqtebis masalebis publikaciebs. amave<br />

wlebSi Sua aziis buxaruli dialeqtis kvlevis sferoSi nayofierad<br />

moRvaweobda aw gardacvlili arabisti, prof. v l a d i m e r<br />

a x v l e d i a n i, romlis xelmZRvanelobiTac 80-ian wlebSi momzadda<br />

Sua aziis kaSkadariuli arabuli dialeqtis morfologiuri<br />

struqturisadmi miZRvnili Cveni sakandidato disertacia.<br />

Suaaziuri arabulis kvlevis sferoSi did daxmarebas gviwevda<br />

da gzamkvlevs warmoadgenda CvenTvis akad. g. w e r e T l i s a da prof. i.<br />

v i n i k o v i s fundamenturi naSromebi, romelTa saxelebTanac aris<br />

dakavSirebuli Suaaziuri arabuli dialeqtebis aRmoCena da Seswavla.<br />

minda mowiweba gamovxato sasiqadulo mecnierebis saxelebis mimarT,<br />

romelTa naRvawis daxmarebiTac SesaZlebeli gaxda kvlevis gagrZeleba<br />

arabuli dialeqtologiis am uaRresad mniSvnelovan sferoSi.<br />

qvemoT warmovadgenT Cven mier gamoyenebul satranskrifcio<br />

sistemas, romelic ramdenadme gansxvavdeba akad. g. w e r e T l i s a da<br />

prof. i. v i n i k o v i s satranskrifcio sistemebisagan. aqve mocemulia<br />

bgeraTa fonetikuri daxasiaTeba, rac specialistebs gauadvilebs Sua<br />

aziis arabulenovan yiSlaRebSi avtoris mier Sesrulebuli<br />

Canawerebidan moxmobili magaliTebis fonetikur aRqmas.<br />

viTvaliswinebT im garemoebasac, rom Suaaziuri arabulis - buxarulisa<br />

da kaSkadariulis amsaxveli dialeqtologiuri masalis damuSaveba<br />

Setanilia saqarTvelos mecnierebaTa akademiis akad. g. wereTlis<br />

saxelobis aRmosavleTmcodneobis institutis arabist-aspirantTa,<br />

42


Tbilisis ivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis saxelmwifo universitetis<br />

aRmosavleTmcodneobis fakultetis arabist-magistrantTa da<br />

Tbilisis aziisa da afrikis institutis arabuli ganyofilebis<br />

saswavlo-samecniero programebSi.<br />

konsonantebi<br />

ö - hamza, xorxismieri magari SemarTva. xSirad ikargeba. SenarCunebulia<br />

uaryofiT pauzalur formaSi lÁö "ara". zogjer ÷aini warmoiTqmis,<br />

rogorc hamza. teqstSi aseTi SemTxvevebi dafiqsirebuli gvaqvs.<br />

laringaluri hamza dakargulia arabuli dialeqtebis umetes nawilSi.<br />

hamzis dakargvis SemTxvevaSi ikargeba xmovanic. kad-Si hamziani<br />

samTanxmovniani zmnebi orTanxmovnianad iqcnen: aÕaËa > Õaza “aiRo”.<br />

iSviaTad, hamzas enacvleba ioti (y) an vavi (w): öamar > yamar “ubrZana”.<br />

h - warmoadgens fSvinvier Tanxmovans. misi warmoTqma kad-Si emTxveva h-s<br />

klasikur arabulSi.<br />

÷- faringaluri, mJReri Tanxmovani. iSviaTad gamoiTqmis, rogorc hamza.<br />

sityvis bolos dayruebis Sedegad gvaZlevs Ô-s: mana÷>manaÔ "damala",<br />

"aukrZala".<br />

Ô – faringaluri, yru Tanxmovani. umetes SemTxvevebSi kad-Si<br />

SenarCunebuli aqvs artikulacia. ÷ains da Ô-s axasiaTebT<br />

SeuTavsebloba winaenismier xmovnebTan. amitom i-s nacvlad Cndeba e:<br />

muáÁÔib > muáÁÔeb.<br />

q - kad-Si warmodgenilia orgvarad: emfatikuri Tanxmovnisa da mJReri<br />

g-s saxiT: qatal "mokla" // gÁl "Tqva". umetes SemTxvevaSi q gamoiTqmis<br />

rogorc g.<br />

g – mJReri, Cqamieri Tanxmovani. iseve, rogorc beduinebis metyvelebaSi,<br />

kad-Sic warmoadgens klasikur arabul q - s.<br />

Õ – ukanaenismieri, yru spiranti, Seesabameba klasikur arabul Õ-s.<br />

Ò - warmoadgens Õ - s mJRer korelats. Seesabameba klasikur arabul<br />

Rains.<br />

k - velari, yru Tanxmovani. erayis da arabeTis naxevarkunZulis<br />

dialeqtebisagan gansxvavebiT, TiTqmis ar ganicdis palatalizacias.<br />

Sdr. klasikuri arabuli k.<br />

Ó – palataluri, mJReri afrikati.<br />

43


É - palataluri, yru afrikati. fiqsirdeba, ZiriTadad, tajikur da<br />

uzbekur nasesxobebSi.. arabul sityvebSi Ó –s dayruebis Sedegad<br />

vRebulobT É –s: waÉu – “misi saxe”.<br />

â - prepalataluri, yru SiSina spirantia. Sdr. klasik. arab. â.<br />

í - prepalataluri, mJReri SiSina spiranti. gvxvdeba iSviaTad.<br />

s - sisina, dentaluri spiranti.<br />

z – mJReri, sisina, dentaluri spiranti.<br />

á – velarizebuli, winaenismieri sibilanti. xSirad gadadis s-Si.<br />

ì – velarizebuli, winaenismieri, mJReri sibilanti. am konsonantiT<br />

gadmoicema klasikuri arabulis Ê da Ì. artikulaciis Serbilebis<br />

Sedegad gvaZlevs z-s.<br />

t - dentaluri, yru konsonanti. mis warmoTqmaSi monawileobas<br />

Rebulobs laringali.<br />

ã – velarizebuli, yru, winaenismieri konsonantia. misi artikulacia<br />

kad-Si Serbilebulia.<br />

d - igivea, rac klasikuri arabulis d. igi mJReri, dentaluri<br />

konsonantia.<br />

n – dentaluri, nazali konsonanti.<br />

r - ukana rigis vibranti.<br />

l – rbili, lateraluri vibrantia. warmoTqmaSi aÛÛa l ganicdis<br />

emfatizacias. analogiuri movlena dasturdeba sxva dialeqtebSic.<br />

y - konsonanti y.<br />

w - konsonanti w.<br />

p – yru, bilabialuri Tanxmovani. umeteswilad gvxvdeba nasesxobebSi.<br />

iSviaTad p Cndeba arabul sityvebSi b-s darbilebis Sedegad: harab ><br />

harap.<br />

f – labiodentaluri, yru spiranti.<br />

m - bilabialuri, nazaluri konsonanti.<br />

xmovnebi:<br />

kad-is xmovanTa sistemisaTvis damaxasiaTebelia Riaobis sami<br />

mdgomareoba da monoftongTa tembruli cvlilebani. am ukanasknelis da<br />

44


agreTve, diftongTa reduqciis Sedegad gafarToebulia klasikuri<br />

sistema (ai > e, aw > o). teqstSi warmodgenilia xmovanTa Semdegi niSnebi:<br />

a - saSualo simoklis a.<br />

À - viwro a. igi warmoadgens saSualo xmovans a-sa da e-s Soris.<br />

e - saSualo e.<br />

Í - Zalian viwro e. warmoiTqmis, rogorc i.<br />

i - saSualo i.<br />

o - Ria o.<br />

û - daviwroebuli o.<br />

ê - saSualo xmovani û -sa da å -s Soris.<br />

u - saSualo u.<br />

î - neitraluri xmovani. icvlis tembrs bgeraTa garemocvis Sesabamisad.<br />

masze gavlenas axdens xmovanTa harmonia da konsonantebTan mezobloba.<br />

Ø - msgavsia rusuli ы-s. gvxvdeba ÷ainisa da Ô-s mezoblobaSi.<br />

å - igivea, rac germanuli å.<br />

Ý (Å) - igivea, rac grZeli Ý. Å aris grZeli Ý, romelic miRebulia<br />

grZeli Á-s daviwroebis Sedegad.<br />

Î - grZeli e.<br />

Ï - grZeli Í.<br />

× - grZeli i.<br />

ë - grZeli ê.<br />

æ - grZeli u.<br />

Ø - grZeli Ø.<br />

ç - grZeli å.<br />

diftongebi:<br />

ya, wa - aRmavali diftongebi.<br />

ay, aw - daRmavali diftongebi.<br />

diftongoidebi:<br />

Ïô - viwro Ï. warmoadgens daRmaval diftongoids.<br />

ôÏ - aRmavali diftongoidi. miRebulia meoreuli diftongizaciis<br />

Sedegad Î (Í)- sagan: Î // Í (< aô).<br />

ú - aRniSnavs gadabmas.<br />

45


kaSka-dariis arabuli dialeqtis sruli lingvisturi gamokvleva<br />

warmoadgens arabuli dialeqtologiis gadaudebel amocanas. igi<br />

mniSvnelovania zogadsemitologiuri TvalsazrisiTac.<br />

winamdebare naSromiT srul samecniero mimoqcevaSi Semodis kaSkadariis<br />

periferiuli arabuli dialeqti, romelic Seicavs uaRresad<br />

sayuradRebo lingvistur monacemebs. rig SemTxvevebSi Sua aziis or<br />

dialeqts Soris arsebuli sxvaobis sailustraciod mogvyavs<br />

magaliTebi buxaruli dialeqtidan.<br />

sasiamovno movaleobad mimaCnia madloba gadavuxado<br />

akademikos konstantine wereTels sayuradRebo SeniSvnebisa da<br />

sasargeblo rCevebisaTvis.<br />

madlobas vuxdi saqarTvelos mecnierebaTa akademiis akad. g.<br />

wereTlis saxelobis aRmosavleTmcodneobis institutis<br />

semitologiis ganyofilebis mecnier-TanamSromlebs naSromis<br />

momzadebis procesSi gaweuli daxmarebisaTvis.<br />

madlobas vuxdi agreTve Tbilisis aziisa da afrikis<br />

institutis arabuli ganyofilebis TanamSromlebs TinaTin<br />

gogolaSvils da zaza CikvilaZes, romlebac didi Sroma gaswies<br />

naSromis kompiuterze asawyobad.<br />

46


Tavi I<br />

fonologia<br />

naSromSi kaSka-dariis arabuli dialeqtis fonologiuri<br />

analizi Catarebulia struqturuli lingvistikis meTodebis<br />

gamoyenebiT. ZiriTadi yuradReba gamaxvilebulia minimalur<br />

opoziciebze, romlebic ganixileba fonologiuri wyvilebis<br />

doneze. analizis dros aRiwereba minimaluri enobrivi<br />

erTeulebi, romlebic ufro maRal enobriv doneze Seadgenen<br />

msxvil erTeulebs - sityvebs.<br />

fonemaTa dasaSvebi mimdevrobebi warmoSoben mravalricxovan<br />

kombinaciebs da warmoadgenen mniSvnelobis mqone erTeulTa<br />

eqsponentebs. aq unda gamoiyos fonemis ori funqcia:<br />

konstituciuri da distinqciuri, romelic Cven mier miCneulia<br />

amosavlad.<br />

kaSkadariul dialeqtSi fonologiur doneze gamoiyofa<br />

identuri garemocvani, romlebSic gvxvdeba an ar gvxvdeba<br />

garkveuli segmentebi - fonemuri erTeulebi. sxvadasxva segmentTa<br />

erTsa da imave garemocvaSi dadastureba gagebulia rogorc<br />

fonologiurad sxvadasxva warmonaqmnis maCvenebeli.<br />

kad-is fonologiuri analizisas Cven veyrdnobiT Tvalsazriss,<br />

romlis mixedviTac fonema warmoadgens fonologiuri opoziciis<br />

umcires wevrs (N. Trubetzkoy). aseTi umciresi wevrebi - fonebi<br />

qmnian klasebs, romlis TiToeuli wevri xasiaTdeba garkveuli<br />

niSniT, rac ganasxvavebs mas sxva bgerisagan. gansxvaveba maT Soris<br />

ganpirobebulia imiT, rom fonebi imyofebian damatebiTi<br />

distribuciis damokidebulebaSi an Tavisuflad enacvlebian<br />

erTmaneTs.<br />

Cvens naSromSi fonema ganixileba rogorc alofonTa klasi,<br />

sadac fonebi gaerTianebulia distribuciisa da fonetikuri<br />

msgavsebis kriteriumTa safuZvelze. alofonebi warmoadgenen<br />

bgeraTa erTeulebs, romlebic xasiaTdebian saerTo<br />

konstituciuri niSnebiT. isini xasiaTdebian gansxvavebuli<br />

poziciebiT. aseTi gageba upirispirdeba enis fonetikuri sistemis<br />

47


umciresi erTeulis - bgeris cnebas. fonetikuri bgera, Tavis<br />

mxriv, upirispirdeba sxva bgerebs.<br />

fonema, rogorc alofonTa klasi, aerTianebs fonologiuri<br />

garemocvisagan damoukidebel relevantur niSnebs. alofonebi<br />

imyofebian erTmaneTis mimarT damatebiTi distribuciis<br />

damokidebulebaSi an Tavisufali varirebis mdgomareobaSi.<br />

yoveli ori alofoni, romelic aRebulia sxvadasxva klasidan,<br />

erTmaneTis mimarT SeiZleba iyos mxolod kontrastuli<br />

distribuciis mdgomareobaSi.<br />

damatebiTi distribuciis kriteriumad miCneulia iseTi<br />

SemTxvevebi, rodesac bgerebi ar gvxvdeba erTnair garemocvaSi.<br />

erTi fonemis alofonebi ar gvxvdeba kontrastul situaciaSi.<br />

kontrastis amgvari gageba uaxlovdeba an TiTqmis emTxveva<br />

opoziciis (praRis lingvisturi skola), «komutaciis»<br />

(glosematika) Sinaarss. gansxvavebas qmnis is, rom "ganmasxvavebeli<br />

opoziciis" an "komutaciis" cnebebiT operirebis dros analizi<br />

moiTxovs semantikuri informaciis gaTvaliswinebasac,<br />

kontrastis<br />

moxmobas.<br />

fiqsaciis saSualebad minimaluri wyvilebis<br />

$ 1. konsonanturi sistema<br />

arabuli enis kaSkadariul dialeqtSi konsonantTa da xmovanTa<br />

distribucia SedarebiT erTnairia (daÕal). es movlena mkafiod aris<br />

gamoxatuli saliteraturo arabul enaSi (kataba) da SesamCnevia<br />

aRmosavluri arabuli dialeqtebis umetes nawilSi. dasavluri<br />

arabuli dialeqtebisaTvis damaxasiaTebelia sityvis dasawyisSi<br />

ramdenime Tanxmovnis Tavmoyra (kteb) (75, gv. 29).<br />

Cvens dialeqtSi gamoiyofa TanxmovanTa artikulaciis Svidi<br />

ZiriTadi lokaluri rigi: labialebi, dentalebi, alveolarebi,<br />

palatalebi, velarebi, faringalebi da laringalebi. cxrilis<br />

saxiT kad-is konsonanturi sistema Semdegnairad warmogvidgeba:<br />

48


artikulaciis<br />

adgili<br />

artikulaciis<br />

ragvaroba<br />

bilabiali<br />

labiali<br />

labiodentali<br />

dentali<br />

sisina<br />

alveolari<br />

SiSina<br />

prepalatali da<br />

mediopalatali<br />

palatali<br />

postpalatali<br />

xSuli<br />

yru mJReri<br />

nazali<br />

laterali<br />

49<br />

napralovani<br />

yru mJReri<br />

sibilanti<br />

afrikati<br />

p b m w<br />

t d n ã<br />

f<br />

s z<br />

cxrili #1<br />

vibranti<br />

l r<br />

â<br />

É Ó y<br />

velari k g Õ Ò<br />

uvulari q<br />

faringali Ô ÷<br />

laringali h


kad-Si dakargulia saliteraturo arabuli enis Semdegi<br />

fonemebi: interdentalebi ä>s: äawb>sëb “tansacmeli”;<br />

Ë>z:’aÕaËahu>ÕazÁ “aiRo is”.<br />

b) umetes SemTxvevebSi ikargeba hamza – magari SemarTva:<br />

’aÕaËahu>ÕazÁ “aiRo is”.<br />

g) uvulari q kaSkadariul dialeqtSi umeteswilad gadmoicema<br />

mJReri g-Ti: qal×l>gil×l. ”cota”. iSviaTad, q inarCunebs Tavis<br />

artikulacias: qÝz×- “msajuli”, “mosamarTle”, “yadi”.<br />

d) emfatikuri Tanxmovnebis artikulacia Sesustebulia . Ê da Ì<br />

gadmoicema ì-Ti, romelic zogjer ufro sustdeba da gvaZlevs z-s:<br />

lamzÁtarz “saCivari”.<br />

miuxedavad fonologiuri cvlilebebisa, kad-Si saliteraturo<br />

arabuli enis TanxmovanTa lokalizaciis rigebi ZiriTadad<br />

SenarCunebulia. igi Semdegnairia:<br />

I labialebis rigi _ b m p w, labiodentali f<br />

II dentalebis rigi _ d n t z s ã<br />

III alveolarebis rigi _ l r<br />

IV palatalebis rigi _ Ó É â y<br />

V velarebis da uvularebis rigi _ g k q Ò Õ<br />

VI faringalebis rigi _ ÷ Ô<br />

VII glotalebis rigi _ h<br />

kad-Si gvaqvs ori, saliteraturo arabuli enisaTvis ucxo<br />

fonema: p da É. maTi gaCena mxolod tajikuri da uzbekuri enebis<br />

gavlenas ar unda mieweros. isini Sesabamisi arabuli bgerebis<br />

ganviTarebis Sedegicaa. amitom gvxvdeba p da É rogorc tajikuri<br />

da uzbekuri warmoSobis sityvebSi, aseve wminda arabul<br />

leqsemebSic. mag., poliâta >, “baliSi”, ÉÝi “Cai”, harap


emfatizacias ganicdian /Ü/ /È/ /r/, kaSkadariul dialeqtSi<br />

warmoadgenen araemfatikur fonemaTa variantebs.<br />

kad-Si gamoiyofa 29 fonema: /p/ /b/ /m/ /w/ /f/ /t/ /d/ /n/ /s/ /z/ /l/<br />

/r/ /â/ /É/ /Ó/ /k/ /g/ /Õ/ /y/ /Ò/ /ã/ /Ô/ /‘/ /h/ /a/ /e/ /i/ /u/ /o/<br />

fonetikuri da distribuciuli niSnebis mixedviT isini<br />

iyofian or ZiriTad _ xmovanTa da TanxmovanTa _ klasad. xmovnebi<br />

monawileoben marcvlebis warmoqmnaSi. Tanxmovnebi am TvisebiT ar<br />

xasiaTdebian. Tanxmovan fonemaTa sistema aerTianebs 24 erTeuls.<br />

aqedan mJRerebia: ÷, Ò, g, Ó, y, l, r, d, n, z, b, m, w; yru Tanxmovnebia:<br />

h, Ô, Õ, k, É, â, s, t, ã, f, p; napralovnebia: h, Ô, ö, Ò, Õ, y, â, r, z, s, w, f,<br />

Ó, É, ã. xSuli Tanxmovnebi kad-Si Semdegi saxiT aris<br />

warmodgenili: q, g, k, l, d, t, n, m, b, p.<br />

$ 2. fonemaTa relevanturi diferencialuri niSnebi<br />

kad-is fonemaTa relevanturi diferencialuri niSnebia:<br />

xmovnoba, Tanxmovnoba, kompaqturoba, mJReroba, nazaloba,<br />

myovroba, fSvinviereba, abruptivoba, periferiuloba,<br />

xorxismieroba, palataluroba. es niSnebi binaluria da saWiroa<br />

fonemaTa paradigmatuli identifikaciisaTvis. pirveli ori<br />

binaluri niSani, vokaluroba da konsonanturoba kad-Si Semdeg<br />

klasebs warmoSobs:<br />

1) vokalurebi da arakonsonanturebi: a, e, i, u, o;<br />

2) vokalurebi da konsonanturebi: y, w;<br />

3) konsonanturebi da aravokalurebi: p, b, m, l, d, s, z, â, É, Ó, k,<br />

g, Õ, Ò, ã, Ô, ÷, h.<br />

kompaqturobis diferencialuri niSniT kad-Si xasiaTdebian a<br />

da u xmovnebi. am niSniT isini upirispirdebian arakompaqtur e-sa<br />

da i-s. amave niSniT xasiaTdebian palatalebi â, É, Ó, velarebi k, Õ,<br />

Ò, uvulari q da xorxismierebi Ô, ‘, h.<br />

myovroba axasiaTebs im konsonantebs, romelTa artikulaciis<br />

winaRoba kad-Si minimaluria. esenia kontoidebi, romelTa<br />

warmoTqmas ar axlavs wyveta an xSva. fonetikur literaturaSi<br />

51


aseT Tanxmovnebs miakuTvneben frikativebs. kad-Si myovrobis<br />

diferencialuri niSniT xasiaTdebian f, z, s, Ó, É, â, m, n.<br />

fSvinvieri Tanxmovnebis dialeqturi warmoTqmis dros saxmo<br />

simebis rxevasTan erTad saartikulacio bazis muskulaturis<br />

daZabuloba Sesustebulia. fSvinvierebis diferencialuri<br />

niSniT kad-Si xasiaTdebian É, Ô da h.<br />

dabali tonis Tanxmovnebi upirispirdeba maRali tonis<br />

Tanxmovnebs. maT artikulaciis amsaxvel speqtpgramaze Warbobs<br />

speqtris dabali monakveTi. diferencialurobis es niSani kad-Si<br />

axasiaTebs labial da velar Tanxmovnebs b, p, w, f, g, k, Ò, Õ<br />

dentalebisa da palatalebisagan gansxvavebiT.<br />

abruptivoba aris glotalizebuli Tanxmovnis Tviseba. kad-Si<br />

diferencialurobis am niSniT gamoiyofa q. misTvis<br />

damaxasiaTebelia<br />

araabruptivebs.<br />

yelxSva, riTac is upirispirdeba<br />

glotalizebuli Tanxmovnebi upirispirdebian<br />

araglotalizebulebs. esenia yelxSulebi, romelTa<br />

artikulacia gulisxmobs xSvasa da yelismier SemarTvas.<br />

glotalizebul Tanxmovnebs xSirad ganixilaven abruptivebTan<br />

erTad. kad-Si diferencialurobis am niSniT xasiaTdeba Ô.<br />

palataluri TanxmovnebisaTvis damaxasiaTebelia enis mibjena<br />

magar sasasTan. kad-Si palatalurobis diferencialuri niSniT<br />

xasiaTdebian Ó, É, â da y.<br />

arabul dialeqtologiaSi fonemebi diferencialuri niSnebis<br />

mixedviT pirvelad r. i a k o b s o n m a daaxasiaTa. man gamoyo<br />

Semdegi binaruli wyvilebi: 1. xmovani/araxmovani; 2. Tanxmovani/<br />

araTanxmovani; 3. kompaqturi/difuzuri; 4. mJReri/yru; 5. meyseuli/<br />

myovari; 6. nazaluri/oraluri; 7. fSvinvieri/arafSvinvieri;<br />

52


8. abruptivi/araabruativi; 9. periferiuli/araperiferiuli;<br />

10. palataluri /arapalataluri.<br />

kad-is fonemaTa diferencialuri niSnebi, rogorc Catarebulma<br />

analizma gviCvena, Semdegi binaruli wyvilebis saxiT gamoiyofa:<br />

1. vokaluroba/aravokaluroba; 2. Tanxmovani/araTanxmovani;<br />

3. kompaqturi/difuzuri; 4. mJReri/yru; 5. nazaluri/oraluri;<br />

6. uwyveteloba/wyvetiloba; 7. fSvinviereba/arafSvinviereba;<br />

8. dabali tonis/maRali tonis matarebelni; 9. abruptivi/ araabruptivi;<br />

10. periferiuli/araperiferiuli; 11. glotalizeba/<br />

araglotalizeba; 12. palataluri/ arapalataluri. isini<br />

SeiZleba warmodgenil iqnes cxrilis saxiT (ix. cxrili #2).<br />

akustikuri maxasiaTeblebi artikulaciur niSnebTan erTad<br />

qmnian realur pirobas bgeraTa fonetikuri daxasiaTebisaTvis.<br />

gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania akustikur da artikulaciur<br />

niSanTa urTierTmimarTeba. kvlevam aRniSnuli mimarTulebiT<br />

farTo gamoyeneba hpova eleqtrogamoTvliT manqanebSi.<br />

kaSkadariuli dialeqtis fonemaTa diferencialuri niSnebis<br />

gamovlena SesaZlebelia fonemaTa, ufro sworad, maT<br />

maxasiaTebelTa urTierTdapirispirebis gziT. magaliTad, fonema<br />

/b/ vlindeba Semdeg opoziciebSi:<br />

/b/ : /m/ - aracxvirismieri : cxvirismieri (nazaluri)<br />

/b/ : /p/ - mJReri : aramJReri (yru)<br />

/b/ : /w/ - meyseuli : myovari<br />

mTlianobaSi, fonema /b/ SeiZleba daxasiaTdes Semdegi<br />

diferencialuri niSnebiT: 1. Tanxmovani, 2. labiali, 3. mJReri, 4.<br />

aracxvirismieri, 5. periferiuli, 6. meyseuli.<br />

aviRoT fonema /f/. igi warmoadgens labiodentals. misi<br />

diferecialuri niSnebi vlindeba Semdeg opoziciebSi:<br />

/f/ : /d/ - aramJReri : mJReri<br />

53


f/ : /t/ - myovari : meyseuli<br />

/f/ : /z/ - dabali toni : maRali toni<br />

fonemaTa diferencialuri niSnebi SeiZleba SevadaroT akords,<br />

romelSic erTdroulad aris realizebuli ramdenime niSani. maTi<br />

erToblioba ganapirobebs gansxvavebebs fonemaTa Soris.<br />

amasTanave, gasaTvaliswinebelia, rom erTi da igive<br />

diferencialuri niSani erTi enis gansxvavebul fonemebSi<br />

SeiZleba sxvadasxvanairad realizdebodes. Tavisebureba<br />

SeiZleba iyos akustikuric da artikulatorulic. miuxedavad<br />

aseTi bgeriTi varirebisa, daculia diferencialur niSanTa<br />

ZiriTadi maxasiaTeblebi.<br />

54


fonemebi<br />

dif.<br />

niSnebi<br />

b p w f d t z s Ó É â y<br />

cxrili #2<br />

g<br />

(q) k Ò Õ ã m n l r ÷ Ô h a e i u o<br />

xmovani –<br />

araxmovani - - + - - - - - - - - + - - - - - - - - - - - - + + + + +<br />

TanxmovaniaraTanxmovani<br />

+ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + - - - - -<br />

kompaqturi –<br />

difuzuri - - + - - - - - + + + - + + + + - Ǿ Ǿ - - + + + + - - + Ǿ<br />

mJReri – yru + - Ǿ - + - + - - - - Ǿ + - + - - Ǿ + + + + - - + + + + +<br />

nazaluri-<br />

oraluri - - Ǿ - - - - - - - - Ǿ - - - - - + + Ǿ Ǿ - - - Ǿ Ǿ Ǿ Ǿ Ǿ<br />

meyseulimyovari<br />

- - Ǿ + - - + + + + + Ǿ - - + + Ǿ + + - - + + Ǿ Ǿ Ǿ Ǿ Ǿ Ǿ<br />

fSvinvieri<br />

arafSvinvieri - - - - - - - - - + - - - - - - - - - - - - + + Ǿ Ǿ Ǿ Ǿ Ǿ<br />

dabali toni -<br />

maRali toni + + + + - - - - - - - Ǿ + + + + + + - - Ǿ + + + + - - Ǿ +<br />

abruptiviaraabruptivi<br />

- - - - - - - - - - - -<br />

-<br />

(+)<br />

- - - - - - - - - - - Ǿ Ǿ Ǿ Ǿ Ǿ<br />

periferiuliaraperiferiuli<br />

+ - Ǿ + - - - - - - - Ǿ - - - - - Ǿ Ǿ Ǿ Ǿ - - Ǿ Ǿ Ǿ Ǿ Ǿ Ǿ<br />

glotalizebuliaraglotalizebuli<br />

Ǿ Ǿ Ǿ Ǿ Ǿ Ǿ Ǿ Ǿ Ǿ Ǿ Ǿ Ǿ - - - - Ǿ Ǿ Ǿ Ǿ Ǿ Ǿ + Ǿ Ǿ Ǿ Ǿ Ǿ Ǿ<br />

palataluriarapalataluri<br />

- - + - - - - - + + + + - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -


miuxedavad imisa, rom diferencialuri niSnebi specifikuria<br />

yvela enisTvis, Seiqmna fonemaTa diferencialuri niSnebis<br />

universaluri sistema, romelic miesadageba msoflios yvela enas.<br />

aseTi universaluri sistema SemuSavebul iqna r. i a k o b s o n i s<br />

(R. Jakobson), g. f a n t i s a (G. M. Fant) da m. h a l e s (M. Halle) mier<br />

(134).<br />

$ 3. minimaluri opoziciuri wyvilebi da fonemaTa distribucia<br />

qvemoT mocemulia minimaluri opoziciuri wyvilebi<br />

fonologiur doneze. gamoyofili fonemebi warmodgenilia<br />

saartikulacio lokaluri rigebis Tanmimdevrobis dacviT.<br />

labialebis rigi: /b/ /m/ /p/ /w/, labiodentali /f/<br />

fonema /b/ gamoiyofa Semdegi opozicis mixedviT:<br />

/b/-/m/ bÎit/mÎit “saxli”/”mkvleli”<br />

bÝi/mÝi “bei”/”wyali”<br />

/b/-/w/ bÎn/wÎn “Soris”/”sad”<br />

balad/walad “qveyana”/”biWi”<br />

/b/-/f/ bÁd/fÁd “Semdeg”/”vinme”<br />

sæf/sæb “Salis qsovili”/”tansacmeli”<br />

fonema /m/ gamoiyofa Semdegi opoziciebis mixedviT:<br />

/m/-/b/=/b/-/m/<br />

/m/-/f/ mÁt/fÁt “mokvda”/”vinme”<br />

mad/fad “wavida”/”erTi”<br />

fonema /p/ gamoiyofa Semdegi opoziciebis mixedviT:<br />

/p/-/f/ puk/fêk “sufTa”/”maRla”<br />

56


Ôalap/Ôalaf “alepo”/”fici”<br />

/p/-/m/ harap/haram “garboda”/”codva”<br />

pallaw/mallaw“flavi”/ “mosasxami”, “bambis xalaTi”<br />

/p/-/b/ pæl/bæl “fuli”/”Sardi”<br />

Ôalap/Ôalab “alepo”/”mowvela Zroxa”<br />

arap/arab “garboda”/ “arabi”<br />

fonema /f/ gamoiyofa Semdegi opoziciebis mixedviT:<br />

/f/-/b/=/b/-/f/<br />

/f/-/m/=/m/-/f/<br />

/f/-/p/=/p/-/f/<br />

/f/-/w/ fÁrd/ward “vinme”/ “vardi”<br />

Ôafli/hawli “dResaswauli”/”ezo”, “karmidamo”<br />

fonema /w/ gamoiyofa Semdegi opoziciebis mixedviT:<br />

/w/-/b/=/b/-/w/<br />

/w/-/f/=/f/-/w/<br />

/w/-/m/ sawÁ/samÁ “gaakeTa”/ “daarqva (mas)”<br />

wad/mad “dado”/ “wavida”<br />

dentalebis rigi: /d/, /n/, /t/, /z/, /s/<br />

fonema /d/ gamoiyofa Semdegi opoziciebis mixedviT:<br />

/d/-/t/ mad/mat “wavida”/ “mokvda”<br />

inda/inta “erTad”/ “Sen”<br />

/d/-/s/ dawÁ/sawÁ “wamali”/ “moimoqmeda”<br />

d×n/s×n “religia”/ “kbili”<br />

/d/-/z/ d×n/z×n “religia”/ “kargi”, “mSvenieri”<br />

ard/arz “miwa”/ “saCivari”<br />

/d/-/n/ dÝr/nÝr “saxli”/ “cecxli”<br />

Õada/ÕÝna “aiRo”/ “saxli”<br />

fonema /t/ gamoiyofa Semdegi opoziciebis mixedviT:<br />

/t/-/d/=/d/-/t/<br />

/t/-/s/ tÝr/sÝr “xari”/ “gaxda”, “Seiqna”<br />

t×n/s×n “leRvi”/ “sini”<br />

57


t/-/z/ anta/anza “misca”/ “Txa”<br />

t×n/z×n “leRvi”/ “kargi”<br />

/t/-/n/ tÝr/nÝr “finiki”/ “cecxli”<br />

tam/nam “daamTavra”/ “daiZina”<br />

fonema /n/ gamoiyofa Semdegi opoziciebis mixedviT:<br />

/n/-/d/=/d/-/n/<br />

/n/-/t/=/t/-/n/<br />

/n/-/s/ namawÁt/samawÁt “daiZines”/ “cani”<br />

nÁr/sÁr “cecxli”/ “gaxda”, “Seiqna”<br />

nÁb/sÁb “nabi", "jadoqari”/ “tansacmeli”<br />

/n/-/z/ nÁr/zÁr “cecxli”/ “ewvia”<br />

nÝb/zÝb “moxuci”/ “gadna”<br />

fonema /z/ gamoiyofa Semdegi opoziciebis mixedviT:<br />

/z/-/d/=/d/-/z/<br />

/z/-/t/=/t/-/z/<br />

/z/-/n/=/n/-/z/<br />

/z/-/s/ zÁr/sÁr “ewvia”/ “gaxda”, “Seiqna”<br />

÷azzal/÷assal “gamijna”/ “Tafli”<br />

fonema /s/ gamoiyofa Semdegi opoziciebis mixedviT:<br />

/s/-/d/=/d/-/s/<br />

/s/-/t/=/t/-/s/<br />

/s/-/n/=/n/-/s/<br />

/s/-/z/=/z/-/s/<br />

alveolarebis rigi: /l/, /r/<br />

fonema /l/ gamoiyofa Semdegi opoziciebidan:<br />

/l/-/r/ laham/raham “xorci”/ “wyaloba”<br />

lahma/rahma(t) “xorceuli”/ “madlobT”<br />

/r/-/l/=/l/-/r/<br />

palatalebis rigi: /â/, /É/, /Ó/, /y/<br />

fonema /â/ gamoiyofa Semdegi opoziciebis mixedviT:<br />

/â/-/Ó/ âaf/Óaf “Sexeda”/ “gaxma”<br />

âifr/Óifr “Sifri”/ “Wa”<br />

58


âÁb/ÓÁb “ymawvili”/ “moitana”<br />

/â/-/s/ âabah/sabah “msgavseba”/ “dila”<br />

âar×a/sar×a “SariaTi/ “Cqari”<br />

/â/-/z/<br />

âabÁb/sabÁb “axalgazrda”/ “mizezi”<br />

âÝer/zÝer “poeti”/ “stumari”<br />

âahr/zahr “Tve” / “mxari”<br />

fonema /Ó/ gamoiyofa Semdegi opoziciebis mixedviT:<br />

/Ó/-/â/=/â/-/Ó/<br />

/Ó/-/É/ ÓÝi/ÉÝi “mosuli”/ “Cai”<br />

Óarah/Éarah “Wriloba”/ “daexeteboda”<br />

fonema /É/ gamoiyofa Semdegi opoziciebis mixedviT:<br />

/É/-/Ó/=/Ó/-/É/<br />

/É/-/â/ ÉaÒal/âaÒol “daabnia (fqvili)”/”tura”<br />

ÉÝi/âai “Cai”/ “raime”<br />

ÉarÕ/âarh “saCeCeli”/ “axsna”, “ganmarteba”<br />

velarebisa da uvularebis rigi: /g/, /k/, /Ò/, /Õ/, /q/. uvulari q<br />

kad-Si iSviaTad gvxvdeba.<br />

fonema g (g


Ò/-/k/=/k/-/Ò/<br />

/g/-/Õ/ Òeir/Õeir “sxva”/”sikeTe”<br />

Òalaã/Õalaã “Secdoma”/”auria”<br />

ÒÁli/ÕÁli “Zviri”/”Cemi biZa”<br />

fonema /Õ/ gamoiyofa Semdegi opoziciebis mixedviT:<br />

/Õ/-/g/=/g/-/Õ/<br />

/Õ/-/k/=/k/-/Õ/<br />

/Õ/-/Ò/=/Ò/-/Õ/<br />

faringalebis rigi: /Ô/ da /÷/<br />

fonemebi /Ô/ da /÷/ gamoiyofa Semdeg opoziciebidan:<br />

/Ô/ -/÷/ Ôamal/÷amal “itvirTa”/”saqme”<br />

/÷/-/Ô/ ÷arab/Ôarab “arabi”/”gaiqca”<br />

laringalebis rigi:<br />

fonema h gamoiyofa Semdegi opoziciebidan:<br />

/h/ - /Õ/ hawl×/ Õawl× “ezo”, “karmidamo”/ “Cems irgvliv”<br />

kaSkadariuli dialeqtis fonemaTa distribucia sityvebSi<br />

SeiZleba warmodgenil iqnes cxrilis saxiT. vertikalur rigSi<br />

mocemulia fonemebi, romlebic SeiZleba win uswrebdnen fonemas,<br />

Cawerils horizontalur rigSi. fonemaTa SesaZlebeli kavSirebi<br />

aRiniSneba horizontaluri xaziT (_), absoluturad SeuZlebeli<br />

fonologiuri kavSirebi _ nuliT (0). iseTi mezobloba ori<br />

fonemisa, romelic iSviaTad gvxvdeba ucxo sityvebSi da<br />

arabunebrivia kad-is fonologiuri bunebisTvis, aRiniSneba<br />

niSniT - #.<br />

60


kad-is fonemaTa distribucia cxrili #3<br />

# a e i u o l r n m b p w f d t r s Ó É â y<br />

# - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -<br />

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61<br />

- - - 0 - - 0 - 0 0 - - 0 -<br />

g<br />

(q)<br />

k Ò Õ ã ÷ Ô h


$ 4. bgeraTa artikulaciis spontanuri cvlilebebi<br />

Tanxmovnebi<br />

labialebi<br />

mJReri /b/, zog SemTxvevaSi, gadmoicema yru, fSvinvieri /p/-Ti.<br />

/p/ poziciuri variantia /b/-si. igi gvxvdeba sityvis SuaSi an<br />

boloSi xmovnis Semdeg: arkup


dentalebi<br />

rogorc zemoT aRvniSneT, interdentalebi ä da Ë kad-Si<br />

gadmoicema s-Ti da z-Ti. iSviaT SemTxvevaSi Ë SeiZleba gadmoices<br />

d-Ti, rac buxaruli arabulisaTvis aris ufro damaxasiaTebeli:<br />

hÁda>haËa "es". yiSlaR jeÁnauSi gvxvdeba ä-s t-Ti gadmocemis<br />

SemTxvevebi: maäal>matal.<br />

emfatikuri lateraluri Ê-s artikulacia kad-Si<br />

Sesustebulia. igi gadmoicema ì-Ti: ÷arÊ>arì "miwa". imave sityvaSi<br />

÷arÊ, Ê, artikulaciis Zlieri Sesustebis Sedegad gvaZlevs s-s.<br />

Sdr.: arÊ>ars.<br />

dentali cxvirismieri n zogjer _ sityvis bolos, xmovnis win,<br />

an prekonsonantur poziciaSi (Tu Tanxmovani labialuria),<br />

gadmoicema m-Ti: mim fuq


Tanxmovnebis dayruebis tendencia kad-Si naTlad Cans b–s p–Ti<br />

gadmocemis zemoTaRniSnuli SemTxveviTac.<br />

kad-Si, arabuli sityvebis garda, É gvxvdeba agreTve ucxo<br />

warmomavlobis, sityvebSi. mag., takÉa “Taro, niSa”, kuÉa “quCa” da<br />

sxv.<br />

velarebi da uvularebi<br />

naqismieri q kaSkadariul dialeqtSi umetesad gamoiTqmis<br />

rogorc mJReri g. mag., gil×l “cota”. buxarul dialeqtSi q-s<br />

warmoTqmaSi Seesatyviseba yru q. mag., qara “kiTxulobda”. unda<br />

aRiniSnos, rom zogjer jeÁnaus mkvidrTa metyvelebaSic g–s<br />

paralelurad q SenarCunebulia. mag., qÝzi


formebSi, rac damaxasiaTebelia sxva arabuli<br />

dialeqtebisaTvisac.<br />

$ 5. vokaluri sistema<br />

kad-is xmovanTa sistemisaTvis damaxasiaTebelia Riaobis sami<br />

mdgomareoba da monoftongTa tembruli cvlilebani. am<br />

ukanasknelisa da, agreTve, diftongTa reduqciis xarjze<br />

klasikuri sistema gafarToebulia: (ai>e, aw>o). xmovnebi<br />

samkuTxedSi Semdegnairad nawildebian:<br />

/i/ /u/<br />

/e/ /o/<br />

/a/<br />

kad-Si SeimCneva xmovanTa sigrZis arastabiluroba. gvxvdeba<br />

grZeli, mokle, saSualo sigrZis da ultramokle xmovnebi.<br />

xmovanTa sigrZis cvalebadoba damaxasiaTebelia ara marto kaSkadariis,<br />

aramed sxva arabuli dialeqtebisTvisac. fonetikuri<br />

Canawerebis safuZvelze gamoiyofa xmovanTa Semdegi klasebi:<br />

grZeli umaxvilo: /i/ /Ø/ /Î/ /Ï/ /Á/ /Â/ /Ý/ /æ/ /ç/ /ë/<br />

grZeli maxviliani: /Ú/ /Ö/ /Ñ/ /Ï/ /Ç/ /Â/ /ß/ /é/ /ç/ /ë/<br />

cvalebadi sigrZis: /i/ /Ø/ /e/ /Í/ /À/ /a/ /o/ /u/ /å/ /ê/<br />

saSualo simoklis: /i/ /Ø/ /e/ /î/ /Í/ /À/ /o/ /u/ /å/ /ê/<br />

mokle: /i/ /Ø/ /e/ /î/ /Í/ /a/ /À/ /o/ /û/ /u/ /å/ /ê/<br />

ultramokle: /i/ /Ø/ /e/ /î/ /a/ /À/ /o/ /û/ /u/ /å/ /ê/<br />

imas, Tu xmovnis romeli varianti iqneba realizebuli, xSirad<br />

ganapirobebs pozicia da kontaqti. mezobloba winaenismier,<br />

velarul, faringalur da emfatikur TanxmovnebTan gavlenas<br />

axdens maT tembrze. SeiniSneba grZeli xmovnebis damoklebis<br />

tendencia.<br />

fonema /×/ gamoiyofa Semdegi opoziciebis safuZvelze:<br />

r×z “brinji” -rÝz “saidumloeba”<br />

z×n “unagiri” –zÎn “kargi”<br />

/i/ aris wina rigis xmovani. xasiaTdeba Riaobis minimaluri<br />

xarisxiT. kad-Si misi variantebia Ø, î da i. i rig SemTxvevebSi<br />

65


ganicdis wina an momdevno bgerebis gavlenas. mag., ÷ainisa da Ô-s<br />

mezoblobaSi warmoiTqmis rogorc Ø: gÁ÷Ød “mjdomare”, dÁ÷Øn<br />

“damdebi” an, iSviaTad, rogorc î: îÔmÝr "saxedari”. Ø -s<br />

artikulacias Tan axlavs saxmo simebis daWimuloba, rasac<br />

ganapirobebs faringalebTan mezobloba.<br />

daxurul marcvalSi, labialebis win i ganicdis<br />

labializacias: minbar>mimbar “kaTedra”. igi, Tu moklea,<br />

umaxvilo poziciaSi gvaZlevs a-s: âib÷Án>âab÷Án “maZRari”, xolo<br />

iotis (y) win xasiaTdeba maRali aweulobiT: adîmyÁt “adamianebi”.<br />

i ikargeba Ria, grZeli marcvlis win: âitÁ>âtÁ “zamTari”. zogjer<br />

warmoTqmaSi Sinis (â) win gvesmis ultramokle i: iâta. sxva SemTxvevaSi i inarCunebs klasikur arabulSi misTvis<br />

damaxasiaTebel tembrs da naklebad ganicdis mezobeli<br />

emfatikuri, velaruli, palataluri da faringaluri<br />

Tanxmovnebis gavlenas. xSirad, aseT dros, igi warmoadgens grZel<br />

xmovans. mag., Õat×b “xatibi”, ÷zÒ×r “umcrosi” da a.S.<br />

fonema /e/ gamoiyofa Semdegi opoziciebis mixedviT:<br />

bÎt “saxli” - b×t “Rvino”<br />

bÎd “kvercxi” - bÁd “Semdeg”<br />

/e/-s variantebia Í, Î da î . e saSualo rigis xmovania. igi<br />

xasiaTdeba rigebSi monacvleobis unariT da bagismierebTan<br />

mezoblobaSi ganicdis labializacias. /e/-s erT-erTi varianti Í<br />

viwro xmovania. igi i–s uaxlovdeba. es movlena kad-Si mkveTrad<br />

aris gamoxatuli. mag., iâ>Íâ “ra”. aseve xSiria grZeli Î-s xmarebis<br />

SemTxvevebi: irdÏna


Ôarr “cxeli” - Ôurr “Tavisufleba”<br />

rÁÔ “wavida” - ræÔ “suli”<br />

dÁr “dResaswauli” – dÝr “rigi”<br />

vokali /a/ kad-Si, maqsimaluri Riaobisa da lokalizaciis<br />

TvalsazrisiT, SeuzRudavi xmovania. igi ar ifargleba erTi<br />

saartikulacio rigiT da gamoirCeva neitraluri tembriT.<br />

klasikuri arabulis mokle a ikargeba, Tu is moxvda<br />

ormarcvliani sityvis dasawyisSi da momdevno marcvalSi aris ×:<br />

zaÒ×r>zÒ×r “patara”, kab×r>kb×r “didi”. am wess aqvs gamonaklisebi: a<br />

ar ikargeba, Tu gverdiT labialuri xmovania: ba÷×d “Sori”,<br />

“Soreuli”, baã× “neli”. igi SenarCunebulia agreTve ukana<br />

enismier TanxmovnebTan: ‘aÓ×b “sakvirveli”, Õat×b “mqadagebeli”,<br />

“mola”, qarib “axlo”, “axlobeli”. Tu sityvaSi a-s mosdevs<br />

grZeli æ an Á, igi aseve ar ikargeba: salÁs “sami”, Õaræf “cxvari”.<br />

zogjer grZel u-sTan a-s asimilaciis Sedegad vRebulobT Õuræf-s.<br />

a-s ZiriTadi variantebia À, Â, a, Ã, da Å.<br />

centraluri a gvaqvs faringalebTan: maÔalla “ubani”, ‘abar<br />

“avida”. a win wamoiweva da viwrovdeba ÁotTan: mÝya (mÅya)<br />

“wyali”.<br />

À viwro, a-da e-s Soris mdebare xmovania. igi gvaqvs daxurul<br />

marcvalSi zmnis III piris mx. r-is md. sqesSi: tala÷Àt “avida” da,<br />

agreTve, faringalur TanxmovanTan: ‘Ànab “yurZeni”. À mudam<br />

warmodgenilia sityvaSi ‘ÀndáoÔb<br />

“patroni”. xSirad grZeli Á iZleva Ý-s: mÝya (mÅya) “wyali”. Sua<br />

aziis arabuli dialeqtebisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli es movlena<br />

nawilobriv tajikuri enis gavlenas unda mieweros. buxarulSi igi<br />

ufro mkveTrad aris gamoxatuli, xolo kad-Si o aris Á-sa da Ý-s<br />

Soris mdebare xmovani. amasTanave, kad-Si didi raodenobiT gvaqvs<br />

67


Á da Ý xmovniani paraleluri formebi: ÓavÁb/gavÝb “pasuxi”,<br />

nÁb/nÝb “moxuci” da sxva. aRiniSneba Á-s artikulaciis<br />

SenarCunebis xSiri SemTxvevebi paraleluri Ý xmovniani formebis<br />

gareSec: gÁl “Tqva”, ÓÁ “movida”, kÁn “iyo”.<br />

fonema /u/ gamoiyofa Semdegi opoziciebidan:<br />

rÁÔ “wavida” - ræÔ “suli”<br />

Ôarr “cxeli” - Ôurr “Tavisufleba”<br />

dÝla “qveyana” - dæla “misi saTli”<br />

/u/ aris ukana rigis, maRali aweulobis, minimaluri Riaobis<br />

xmovani. gamoirCeva sufTa tembriT. kad-Si misi variantebia å, ê, o,<br />

ç da ë. faringalebis Semdeg u gvaZlevs o-s: rÁÔo “wavidnen”, ma’o<br />

“masTan erTad”. unda aRiniSnos, rom kad-isaTvis sityvis boloSi<br />

grZeli xmovnebis damokleba misaRebia. emfatikurebTanac u>o-s:<br />

nÞá “naxevari”. am formis paralelurad gvxvdeba nîáf. amgvarad,<br />

kad-Si SeimCneva o-sa da î-s monacvleoba emfatikurebTan<br />

mezoblobaSi. sxva SemTxvevaSi, sityvis bolos, maxvilian<br />

marcvalSi æ gvaZlevs ç-s: âÁfç “maT dainaxes”. arc Tu iSviaTad,<br />

bolo marcvalSi ç-s nacvlad gvesmis å: âÁfå.<br />

u upirispirdeba i-s labializaciis an palatalizaciis<br />

TvalsazrisiT. miuxedavad amisa, kad-Si maT Soris gansxvaveba<br />

minimaluria. gvxvdeba sityvebi, sadac i da u erTmaneTs enacvleba:<br />

Óim÷a/Óum÷a “paraskevi”, ugæb/igæb “Semdeg”.<br />

ê aris saSualo xmovani o-sa da å-s Soris. igi gvxvdeba<br />

umetesad daxurul marcvalSi, sadac xSirad enacvleba å-s:<br />

Õårmata/Õêrmata “misi coli”, måysafÎt/mêysafÎt “moxuci” da sxv.<br />

grZeli ë xSirad miiReba diftongisagan - aw: fëq“maRla”, Sdr.<br />

arab. fawqa.<br />

fonema /o/ gamoiyofa Semdegi opoziciebis mixedviT:<br />

kÝn “bevri” - kÁn “iyo”<br />

bÝl “Sardi” - b×l “niCabi”<br />

/o/-s variantebia û da o. igi aris ukana rigis saSualo Riaobis<br />

xmovani. umetesad gvxvdeba grZeli Ý-s saxiT. es fonema miRebulia<br />

ori gziT: erTi mxriv, grZeli Á gvaZlevs Ý-s: mÁt>mÝt “mokvda”,<br />

xolo meore mxriv, diftongi aw gadmoicema Ý-Ti: nawm>nÝm<br />

68


“Zili”. o-s varianti û Zalian xSirad gvxvdeba, gansakuTrebiT,<br />

daxurul marcvalSi: kûhtil “adgili”. o umetesad Cndeba sityvis<br />

TavSi an boloSi. igi faringalebTan mezoblobaSi an a xmovanTan<br />

asimilaciis Sedegad xSirad icvlis tembrs da gadadis a-Si:<br />

moÔmad>maÔmad “muhamedi”, zaraboh>zarabah “daartyes maT mas”.<br />

kad-Si dasturdeba aRmavali da daRmavali difTongebi.<br />

aRmavali difTongebi ya da wa cvlilebebs TiTqmis ar ganicdian.<br />

mag., hamsÝya “mezobeli”, walad “biWi”. daRmavali difTongebi: ay<br />

da aw, rogorc zemoT aRvniSneT, gvaZleven Semdeg grZel xmovnebs:<br />

ay>e da aw>o. mag., nawm>nÝm “Zili”, bayt>bÎt “saxli”. es<br />

xmovnebi, Tavis mxriv ganicdian cvlilebebs: o>å-sa da ê-s. Sdr.:<br />

nom>nåm, nom nêm, bet>biet. amrigad, meoreuli diftongizaciis<br />

Sedegad vRebulobT aRmaval diftongoid ie-s. daRmavali<br />

diftongoidi ei etimologiurad ay diftongisgan momdinareobs:<br />

ilay>ilei “Cemze”.<br />

Tu grZel marcvals mosdevs meore grZeli maxviliani<br />

marcvali, pirveli mokldeba. es wesi farTod aris gavrcelebuli<br />

kad-Si: bÎt/bit×. am SemTxvevaSi grZeli Î>i-s. es movlena sxva<br />

arabuli dialeqtebisTvisac aris damaxasiaTebeli. kad-Si ori<br />

grZeli marcvali sityvaSi TiTqmis ar gvxvdeba. umaxvilo grZeli<br />

marcvali mokldeba, xolo maxviliani inarCunebs sigrZes: gÁlÁ>galÁ<br />

“uTxra mas”. es movlena sityvaTa fonologiur struqturas ar<br />

arRvevs, vinaidan kad-Si xmovanTa sigrZe-simokle fonologiur<br />

opoziciebs ar qmnis. amis damadasturebelia zmnis II da III Temis<br />

mniSvnelobaTa erTi formiT gadmocemis SemTxvevebi. mag., ‘ayyan<br />

1.”daadgina”; 2. “Sexeda”. pirveli mniSvneloba zmnis meore Temisaa,<br />

xolo meore _ mesame Temis. vinaidan Cvens dialeqtSi aRar aris<br />

grZeli da mokle xmovnebis fonologiuri dapirispireba, erTma<br />

formam ‘ayyan SeiTvisa orive Temis mniSvneloba. Sdr. agreTve<br />

‘aâara ”aTi”; aâar an ÷Áâîr áÝrat “Seiqna fexmZime”, “dafexmZimda”.<br />

amrigad, kad-Si warmodgenilia Semdegi xmovani fonemebi:<br />

fonemebi alofonebi<br />

/a/ /À,Â,a,Ã,Å/<br />

/e/ /Í,Î,î/<br />

69


i/ /Ø, i/<br />

/o/ /û, o/<br />

/u/ /å, ê, o, ç, ë/<br />

gamoyofili 5 ZiriTadi erTeuli ar ganarCevs fonologiurad<br />

sigrZe-simokles. es movlena unda CaiTvalos kad-is vokaluri<br />

sistemis erT-erT ZiriTad maxasiaTeblad. grZeli xmovnebis<br />

arsebobas sityvebSi sxvadasxva faqtorebi unda ganapirobebdes.<br />

vfiqrobT, umTavresi maT Soris aris maxvili. mxedvelobaSia<br />

misaRebi, agreTve, arabul sityvaTa tradiciuli warmoqmnis<br />

SenarCunebis tendencia, rac gaucnobiereblad gadaecema<br />

Taobidan Taobas.<br />

$ 6. bgeraTa kombinatoruli cvlilebebi<br />

kad-Si dasturdeba fonemaTa garkveuli modifikaciebi, rac<br />

Tavs iCens gabmul metyvelebaSi bgeraTa artikulaciuri<br />

cvlilebebis saxiT. aseTi modifikaciebi ZiriTadad ori saxisaa:<br />

kombinatoruli da poziciuri.<br />

bgeraTa artikulaciis kombinatoruli modifikacia<br />

gulisxmobs bgeraTa iseT urTierTqmedebas gabmuli metyvelebis<br />

dros, romlis Sedegadac bgerebi uSualo mezoblobisas, an<br />

siaxlovisas, gavlenas axdenen artikulaciaze.<br />

bgeraTa poziciuri modifikaciebi warmoadgenen bgeraTa<br />

artikulaciis imgvar cvlilebebs, romlebic gamowveulia<br />

sityvaSi bgeris poziciiT (anlautSi, inlautSi da auslautSi),<br />

misi maxvilian da umaxvilo marcvalSi yofniT da a.S.<br />

kad-is bgeraTa artikulaciis kombinatorul cvlilebebSi<br />

unda gamoiyos akomodacia, asimilacia da disimilacia,<br />

substitucia da metaTezisi. dialeqtSi dasturdeba, agreTve,<br />

Tanxmovnisa da xmovnis Cavardna.<br />

70


a) akomodacia<br />

akomodacia gulisxmobs Tanxmovnis artikulaciaze mezobeli<br />

xmovnis zegavlenas, xolo xmovnis artikulaciaze _ Tanxmovnisas.<br />

kad-Si u-sa da o-s wina poziciaSi Tanxmovnebi ganicdian<br />

labializacias:<br />

sÅÔb [s°ÅÔb] “mflobeli”, “patroni”<br />

hamsÅØa [hams°ÅØa] “mezobeli”<br />

ugæb [ug°æb] “Semdeg”<br />

idræn [id°ræn] “SigniT”<br />

cxvirismier [m] da [n] TanxmovnebTan mezoblobaSi xmovnebi<br />

ganicdian Tanxmovnebis artikulaciis gavlenas. nazalizacia<br />

sustia xmovanTa warmoTqmisas anlautSi (Tavkidur poziciaSi),<br />

xolo artikulaciis dasasruls, gamokveTilia.<br />

ham [haùm] “es”<br />

iæm [iæùm] “dRe”<br />

sana [saùna]”weli”<br />

kÁn [kÁùn] “iyo”<br />

faringalebi gavlenas axdenen xmovnebze. fuZeSi faringalebis<br />

arseboba xSirad ganapirobebs mezobeli xmovnis<br />

faringalizacias. asimilaciis Sedegad vRebulobT xmovans,<br />

romlis artikulacias axlavs saxmo simebis daWimuloba:<br />

ØÔmÝr “saxedari”<br />

ØÔda “erT-erTi”<br />

ÔØnna bot. “ina”, “xenZafe”<br />

ØÔne “Suri”, “mtroba”<br />

ØÔna “Cven” < naÔnu. es forma kad-Si iSviaTad gvxvdeba<br />

‘Ørs “qorwili”<br />

‘Ønda “masTan”<br />

‘Ølm “codna”<br />

71


‘Øzme “sidide”<br />

Ø‘dÁd “Tvla”: Ø‘dÁd sawa “daiTvala”<br />

‘ØbÁd 1. “rwmena”; 2. ”morwmuneebi”.<br />

moyvanil magaliTebSi Ø-s zogjer enacvleba viwro xmovani Í,<br />

aseve i, Tanxmovnebis garemocvaSi, xSirad gadadis e-sa da î-Si<br />

(imala):<br />

fÁÕer < fÁÕir “amayi”.<br />

mu‘allîm< mu‘allim “maswavlebeli”<br />

fahem


d. progresuli, nawilobrivi, distanciuri<br />

bt>bd bedkum < betkum “Tqveni saxli”<br />

e. regresuli, sruli, kontaqturi<br />

ts>ss issÝrtt it-tÝÓir


iá-áÝt < il-áÝt “xma”<br />

iá-áÝiÔ < il-áÝiÔ “myvirala”, “damZaxebeli”<br />

lã>ãã aã-ãalab < al-ãalab “Txovna”<br />

aã-ãabaÕ < al-ãabaÕ “saWmlis momzadeba”,<br />

“kulinaria”<br />

aã-ãa‘Ým < al-ãa‘Ým “saWmeli”<br />

iã-ã×ra < il-ã×ra “frinveli”, “Citi”<br />

lì>ìì iì-ìill< il-ìill “Crdili”<br />

ln >nn in-nær < il-nær “sinaTle”<br />

in-nÝb < il-nÝb “moxuci”, “gulTmisani”<br />

in-nÝr < il- nÝr “cecxli”<br />

in-nowm < il-nowm “Zili”<br />

in-nÝim < il-nÝim “mZinare”<br />

in-nahÁr < il-nahÁr “mdinare”<br />

in-na‘Óa < il-na‘Óa “cxvari”<br />

lm > mm im-mÝit < il-mÝit “mkvleli”<br />

im-mad×ne < il-mad×ne “qalaqi”<br />

lr > rr ir-rÝs < il-rÝs “Tavi”<br />

ir-ragîs < il- ragîs “cekva”<br />

ir-raÔme < il- raÔme “wyaloba”<br />

ir-rabbi < il-rabbi “Cemi RmerTi”, “ufali”<br />

tz > zz izzarreb < itzarreb “urtyams”, “cems”<br />

tâ > tt iââæf < itâæf “is (md.) xedavs”<br />

dt > tt gabatta < gabadta “Sen daiWire”, “xelSi<br />

Caigde”<br />

nm > mm mim makka < min makka “meqidan”<br />

v. regresuli, sruli, distanciuri<br />

tã >ãã ãuãlub < tuãlub “mas (md.) unda”, “igi<br />

iTxovs”<br />

ãuãbuÕ < tuãbuÕ “amzadebs”, “acxobs (md.)”<br />

74


ãiãla÷ < tiãla÷ “gamodis (md.)”<br />

z. regresuli, nawilobrivi, kontaqturi<br />

ÒÉ > ÕÉ boÕÉa < boÒÉa “baRi”<br />

Óh > Éh uÉhe < uÓhe “misi saxe”<br />

Òs > Õs ñuÕsub < ñuÒsub “ebrZvis”, “eCxubeba”,<br />

“edaveba”<br />

iÕsil < iÒsil “recxavs”<br />

miÕsal < miÒsal “saqsovi”, “sarTavi” (dazga)<br />

qt >Õt waÕt < waqt “dro”<br />

Ów > Éw naÉwa < naÓwa “saidumloeba”<br />

gz > Õz uÕzub! < ugzub! “daiWire!”<br />

gs > Õs maÕsad < magsad “mizani”<br />

÷f > Ôf naÔfa < na÷fa “maRlobi”<br />

÷s > Ôs baÔsa < ba÷sa “dasawyisi”, “dasabami”<br />

÷t > Ôt ãalaÔt < ãala÷t “gamovedi”<br />

zt > st karast < karazt “Tavi Sevafare”<br />

tr > dr adrÁk < atrÁk “Turqebi”<br />

br > pr maprÝâ p ÷ bu÷pu÷ < bu÷bu÷ “buybuyi”<br />

bã > pã ipãÝn < ibãÝn “Citis bude”<br />

g) disimilacia<br />

a. progresuli, kontaqturi<br />

mm > mb sambÁt < sammÁt “Sxamebi”<br />

75


. progresuli, distanciuri<br />

gã > gd sagadît < sagaãît “Camovarda”<br />

g. regresuli, nawilobrivi, kontaqturi<br />

Ót > ít mazaít < mazaÓt “Sevurie”, “avurie<br />

erTmaneTSi”<br />

qt > Õt waÕt < waqt “dro”<br />

d) substitucia<br />

d > t fat< fad “erTi”, “mavani”<br />

(ganusazRvr.<br />

nacvalsaxeli)<br />

walat < walad “biWi”<br />

b > p harap < harab “garboda”, “mirboda”,<br />

“gaiqca”<br />

÷ > h udah < uda÷ “dado”, “Semodo”<br />

Ó > É zÝÉ < zÝÓ “qmari”<br />

÷ > n anãa < a÷ãa “misca”<br />

ã > t Òab×t < Òab×ã “unagiri (aqlemis)”<br />

ö > y yamar < öamar “ubrZana”<br />

e) Tanxmovnis amovardna<br />

nus < nñsf “naxevari”<br />

orba < orba÷ “oTxi”<br />

ta÷i < ta÷Ál (ilÁ) ÷andi “modi (CemTan)”<br />

76


sityvis dasawyisSi SeiZleba amovardes hamza. magaliTad:<br />

Õaza < öaÕaza “aiRo”. SesaZlebelia sawyis poziciaSi hamzis<br />

Canacvleba iotiT an ÷ainiT:<br />

$ 7 marcvali<br />

yamar < öamar “ubrZana”<br />

÷azan < öazan “yuri daugdo”<br />

marcvali, rogorc minimaluri saartikulacio erTeuli, kad-Si<br />

Sedgeba ori an meti bgerisagan. mis birTvs warmoadgens erT-erTi<br />

xmovani (a, e, i, u, o), xolo periferiul nawils ki _ Tanxmovnebi.<br />

dialeqtSi fiqsirdeba marcvlebi, romlebic Seicaven<br />

ultramokle xmovans. aseTi SemTxvevebi aixsneba swrafi<br />

metyvelebiT. marTalia, xmovnis sruli Cavardna ar xdeba, magram<br />

garkveul poziciaSi, xmovani ultramokle bgeris saxiT<br />

warmoiTqmis.<br />

kad-Si gamoiyofa marcvlis Semdegi ZiriTadi saxeobebi:<br />

1. CV Ria mokle marcvali<br />

2. CV : Ria grZeli marcvali<br />

3. CVC daxuruli grZeli marcvali<br />

4. CVCC ormagad daxuruli grZeli marcvali<br />

aRniSnuli tipebi damaxasiaTebelia saliteraturo arabuli<br />

enisTvisac.<br />

dialeqtSi fiqsirdeba agreTve marcvlis Semdegi saxeobebi:<br />

VC,CVC, VCC, VC.<br />

rogorc moyvanili struqturebidan Cans, kad-Si<br />

marcvlisaTvis, ZiriTadad, damaxasiaTebelia xmovani<br />

prepoziciaSi: irs- “qorwili”, amr - “brZaneba”, da a.S. maTi<br />

arseboba dialeqtSi ganpirobebulia sityvebSi hamzisa da<br />

‘ainis CavardniT.<br />

77


$ 8. maxvili<br />

maxvili kad-Si moZravia. sityvaSi ZiriTadad moudis grZel<br />

marcvals. Tu sityvaSi ori grZeli marcvalia, postpoziciurs<br />

eZleva upiratesoba:<br />

birgÁdÚr “brigadiri”<br />

ilbÁsÇt “tansacmeli”<br />

Tu sityvis bolo marcvali moklea, xolo winamavali xmovani –<br />

grZeli, aseT SemTxvevaSi maxvili moudis boloswina marcvals:<br />

giddÇmu “pirdapir”, “mopirdapire mxares”, “mis win”. saerTod,<br />

kaSka-dariis dialeqtisaTvis damaxasiaTebelia maxvili sityvis<br />

bolo, grZel marcvalze, rac sixSiris TvalsazrisiT, yvela sxva<br />

SemTxvevas aRemateba.<br />

arabuli enis kaSkadariuli dialeqtis fonologiuri analizi<br />

adasturebs, rom mravali saukunis ganmavlobaSi arabuli<br />

samyarosgan mowyvetili da Turqul (uzbekur, Turqmenul) da<br />

indoevropul (tajikur, avRanur) enebTan kontaqtSi myofi<br />

dialeqti Camoyalibda rogorc Taviseburi, damoukidebeli<br />

dialeqturi enobrivi sistema. droTa ganmavlobaSi masSi Tavi<br />

iCina araerTma semiturma da, amasTanave, enobrivi kontaqtebiT<br />

ganpirobebulma enobrivma maxasiaTebelma.<br />

78


Tavi II<br />

morfologia<br />

am nawilSi dadgenilia kanonzomierebani, romlebic safuZvlad<br />

udevs kaSkadariul arabul dialeqtSi Zireul da afiqsalur<br />

segmentTa ganawilebas. maTi funqcionireba eqvemdebareba<br />

garkveul wesebs, romelTa erToblioba gansazRvravs dialeqtis<br />

morfologiur wyobas. kategoriebi, ganxilul formalur niSanTa<br />

mixedviT, naSromSi warmodgenilia rogorc damoukidebeli<br />

morfologiuri struqturebi. sityvaTa morfologiuri analizis<br />

dros veyrdnobiT amosaval sqemas, romelsac safuZvlad udevs<br />

saliteraturo arabuli enis morfologiuri klasifikacia. am<br />

sqemis mixedviT agebuli kaSkadariuli arabuli dialeqtis<br />

morfologiuri sistema grafikulad Semdegnairad gamoixateba:<br />

$ 1. Ziri<br />

Ziris eqsponenti kad-Si, iseve rogorc saerTod, semitur enebSi,<br />

warmodgenilia mxolod konsonanti fonemebiT, romlebic qmnian<br />

79


sityvaTa struqturulad maorganizebel centrebs, anu e.w.<br />

mniSvnelobaTa matarebel ZiriTad birTvebs:<br />

ktb “wera”<br />

qtl “kvla”<br />

zrb “dartyma”<br />

ârb “daleva”<br />

Ziri, rogorc gramatikulad ganuyofeli leqsikuri<br />

abstraqcia, kad-Si aris orTanxmovniani, samTanxmovniani da<br />

iSviaTad, erTTanxmovniani da oTxTanxmovniani:<br />

Ó Sdr. ÓÁ “movida”<br />

md Sdr. mad “wavida”<br />

lhq Sdr. lihiq “miaRwia”<br />

dstr Sdr. dastær “Tanxmoba”<br />

Zireul TanxmovanTa erToblioba aris baza, romelze<br />

dayrdnobiTac aigeba sityvis esa Tu is gramatikuli forma.<br />

marTalia, Zireul TanxmovanTa raodenoba aranormirebulia,<br />

magram samTanxmovniani Zirebis siWarbesTan erTad dialeqtSi<br />

SeimCneva maTi orTanxmovnian Zirebad transformaciis zogierTi<br />

SemTxveva:<br />

gare < qara‘a “waikiTxa”<br />

dÁ‘in “damdebi” Sdr. waÊa‘a<br />

zog SemTxvevaSi yuradRebas imsaxurebs TanxmovanTa<br />

Tanmimdevrobis varireba, rasac ar mosdevs sityvis mniSvnelobis<br />

Secvla. aseTi transpoziciis SemTxvevebi, romlebic gvxvdeba<br />

semitur enebSi, ar ganimarteba fonetikuri gziT. maTi axsna<br />

struqturis sferos ganekuTvneba.<br />

magaliTebi: maftaÔ - maÔfat “gasaRebi”<br />

áafÔa - áaÔfa “foToli”<br />

80


ib‘ir - i‘b×r “aqlemi”<br />

savaraudoa, rom msgavsi SemTxvevebi semitur enebSi mianiSneben<br />

Zireuli struqturis ganviTarebis sawyis etapebs, rodesac enebSi<br />

xdeboda Zirebis formireba.<br />

$ 2. fuZe<br />

xmovnebis, derivaciuli afiqsebis saSualebiT xdeba Ziris<br />

morfologiuri segmentacia da leqsikuri mniSvnelobis<br />

warmoqmna, romlis umartivesi formaa fuZe. igi SeiZleba iyos<br />

nominaluri da verbaluri. magaliTad, verbaluri fuZidan zarab<br />

“daartya”, iwarmoeba mTeli rigi axali fuZeebisa: zarrab, tazarrab<br />

da a. S. amave fuZidan SesaZlebelia nominalur fuZeTa warmoqmna.<br />

igive SeiZleba iTqvas pirveladi niminaluri fuZeebis Sesaxebac:<br />

laÔm “xorci”, laÔÔÁm “yasabi”, izn “yuri”, azzÝn “msmeneli”.<br />

martiv da gafarToebul fuZeTa simravle kad-Si safuZvlad edeba<br />

leqsikur erTeulTa mravalferovan struqturas, romlebic<br />

erTiandebian saxelisa da zmnis gramatikul sistemebSi.<br />

$ 3. saxeli<br />

kad-Si warmodgenilia saxelTa Semdegi klasebi: arsebiTi<br />

saxeli, zedsarTavi saxeli, ricxviTi saxeli da nacvalsaxeli.<br />

ZiriTadi bikonsonanturi fuZeebis gverdiT fiqsirdeba e.w.<br />

nawarmoebi formebi, romelTa funqcionirebis areali dialeqtSi<br />

Sekvecilia. gamoiyofa nasesxobebi, romlebmac ganicades<br />

arabizacia da moergnen semitur morfologiur yalibs. es exeba,<br />

ZiriTadad, uzbekur da tajikur nasesxobebs. fuZeTa modelebi<br />

qvemoT warmodgenilia maTi Sinagani struqturis mixedviT.<br />

sityvebi Tavmoyrilia agreTve Sinaarsoblivi niuansebis<br />

gaTvaliswinebiTac. aq Cveulebrivi, e.w. martivi saxelebis<br />

gverdiT fiqsirdeba zmnuri, saxelidan nawarmoebi axali tipis<br />

nazmnari saxelebi.<br />

81


icxviTi saxeli da nacvalsaxeli gansakuTrebul midgomas<br />

moiTxovs, amitom isini damoukideblad arian gaanalizebuli. rac<br />

Seexeba gansxvavebas arsebiT saxelsa da zedsarTavs Soris, igi<br />

xSirad formalur xasiaTs atarebs, vinaidan praqtikulad, xSirad<br />

fiqsirdeba zedsarTaviT arsebiTi saxelis gadmocemis faqtebi.<br />

$ 4. arsebiTi saxeli<br />

arsebiT saxelTa struqturaSi momxdaria zogierTi cvlileba,<br />

rac, umTavresad, ganpirobebulia fonetikuri TaviseburebebiT.<br />

amis Sedegad, kad-is saxelTa modelebi yovelTvis ar<br />

Seesatyviseba maT saliteraturo paralelebs. ZiriTadad<br />

gamoiyofa Semdegi tipebi:<br />

1. C1VC2C3<br />

aRniSnuli modeli aerTianebs qveklasebs:<br />

a) C1 u C2C3<br />

b) C1 a C2C3<br />

g) C1 i C2C3<br />

d) C1 e C2C3<br />

magaliTebi: a) Õubz “puri”; b) waÕt “dro”; g) bint “gogona”; d)<br />

kezb “tyuili”.<br />

2. C1VC2VC3<br />

aq warmodgenilia Semdegi qveklasebi:<br />

a) C1 aC2 aC3 b) C1 iC2 aC3 g) C1 eC2 aC3 d) C1 a C2 i C3<br />

e) C1 i C2 i C3<br />

82


v) C1 u C2 u C3<br />

magaliTebi: a) faras “cxeni”; b) Óizar “stafilo”; g)÷enab<br />

“yurZeni”; d) waÓi÷ “tkivili”; e)gidir “qvabi”; v) guãun “bamba”.<br />

3. C1VC2V:C3<br />

es modeli Semdeg qveklasebs moicavs:<br />

a) C1 aC2 ÁC3 b) C1 aC2 × C3<br />

g) C1 aC2 æC3 d) C1 aC2 ÝC3 e) C1 aC2 ÎC3 v) C1 iC2 × C3<br />

z) C1 iC2 ÁC3 T) C1 iC2 ÝC3 i) C1 uC2 æC3 k) C1 oC2 ÝC3 magaliTebi:<br />

a) baÔÁr “didi mdinare” < baÔr arab. “zRva”; b) rab×Ô “gazafxuli”;<br />

g) Õaræf “cxvari”; d) ãa‘Ým “saWmeli”, “produqti”; e) ãahÎn “fqvili”<br />

; v) dih×n “karaqi”; z) âiÓÁr “xe”; T) libÝt “qveSagebi”; i) Óufær “Wa”; k)<br />

bodÝm “nuSis guli”.<br />

4. C1V:C2VC3<br />

a) C1 ÁC2 iC3 b) C1 ÝC2 eC3 magaliTebi: a) bÁgir “xari”; b) bÝãen “muceli”.<br />

83


5. C1VC2VC3V:n<br />

am jgufSi gaerTianebulia masdarebi:<br />

a) C1 aC2 aC3Án b) C1 iC2 iC3Án magaliTebi:<br />

“daweva”.<br />

a) rakabÁn “amxedreba”; b) liÔiqÁn “miRweva”,<br />

6. C1VC2C2V:C3<br />

am tipis saxelebSi gaormagebulia meore Zireuli Tanxmovani:<br />

a) C1 iC2C2 ÁC3 b) C1 aC2C2 æC3 g) C1 uC2C2 ÁC3 magaliTebi: a) libbÁt “noxi”; b) Õarræf “cxvari”; g) tuffÁÔ “vaSli”.<br />

7. C1VC2C2V<br />

a) C1aC2C2a<br />

b) C1uC2C2a<br />

magaliTebi: a) kanna “patarZali”; b) umma “deda”.<br />

8. C1VC2V<br />

a) C1aC2e<br />

b) C1iC2a<br />

magaliTebi: a) sabe “biWi”; b) Óila “cikani”.<br />

9. C1V:C2<br />

a) C1ÁC2<br />

b) C1ÝC2<br />

84


g) C1æC2<br />

d) C1ÎC2<br />

e) C1×C2<br />

magaliTebi: a) nÁb “moxuci”; b) rÝz “Tavi”; g) hæz “gube”; bæl<br />

“Sardi”; d) bÎt “saxli”; e) b×t “Rvino”.<br />

10. C1V:C2V<br />

a) C1ÝC2 a<br />

b) C1ÁC2 a<br />

g) C1ÎC2 a<br />

magaliTebi: a) dÝla “qveyana”; b) wÁÉa “saxe”; g) tÎra “qaTami”.<br />

11. C1VC2C3V<br />

a) C1eC2C3a<br />

b) C1iC2C3a<br />

g) C1uC2C3a<br />

magaliTebi: a) meÔna “saqmianoba”; b) Õizma “saqme”; g) Ôunãa<br />

“qeri”.<br />

12. C1VC2VC3V<br />

C1iC2iC3a<br />

magaliTi: liÔiya “wveri”.<br />

13. C1VC2C3VC4<br />

a) C1aC2C3aC4<br />

b) C1uC2C3uC4<br />

85


g) C1aC2C3uC4<br />

magaliTebi: a) ÓanÓal “Cxubi”; b) bulbul “bulbuli”; g) sanduk<br />

“skivri”.<br />

14. maC1C2VC3<br />

maC1C2iC3<br />

magaliTebi: maÒrib “dasavleTi”; maâriq “aRmosavleTi”.<br />

15. CVC<br />

a) C1aC2<br />

b) C1uC2<br />

magaliTebi: a) gap “sityva”; b) Õum “WurWeli”.<br />

16. VCC<br />

a) aCC<br />

b) uCC<br />

g) iCC<br />

magaliTebi: a) alf “aTasi”; b) uÔt “da”; d) iÓl “fexi”.<br />

17. VC<br />

aC<br />

magaliTi: aÔ “Zma”<br />

18. V:C<br />

i:C<br />

magaliTi: ×n “Tvali”<br />

19. VCCV<br />

iCCa<br />

magaliTi: ibra “nemsi”<br />

20. VC1C2V:C3<br />

a) iC1C2a:C3<br />

b) iC1C2o:C3<br />

86


magaliTebi: a) ilÔÁf<br />

“saxedari”.<br />

“gadasafarebeli”, “sabani”; b) iÔmÝr<br />

$ 5. zedsarTavi saxeli<br />

1. feris aRmniSvneli zedsarTavi saxelebi ZiriTadad Semdegi<br />

tipisaa: aCCac mamr. da CaCCa md. magaliTebi: azra÷ “cisferi”,<br />

aswad “Savi” mamr.; hamra “wiTeli”, sawda “Savi”, safra “yviTeli”<br />

md.<br />

2. gavrcelebulia C1VC2C3V:n Semdegi variantebis saxiT:<br />

a) C1aC2C3Án<br />

b) C1oC2C3Ýn<br />

magaliTebi: a) âab‘Án “maZRari”; b) Óow‘Ýn “mSieri”.<br />

3. gamoiyofa Semdegi modelebi:<br />

I. C1VC2V:C3<br />

II. C1V:C2<br />

III. C1VC2V<br />

pirveli modelis variantebia:<br />

a) C1aC2×C3 > C1C2×C3<br />

b) C1iC2×C3 > C1C2×C3<br />

magaliTebi: a) zaÒ×r > zÒ×r “patara”; b) kiv×r > kb×r “didi”.<br />

meore da mesame tipis modelebis magaliTebia: II. zÎn “kargi”; III.<br />

Ôulu “tkbili”. Tvisobriobis aRmniSvnel zedsarTav saxelebTan<br />

erTad kad-Si gamoiyofa sufiqsaciis gziT nawarmoebi<br />

zedsarTavebi: raml× “qviSiani”, Òann× “mdidari”. komparativi<br />

gadmoicema sityviT - ÓædÞ < arab. Óiddan “Zalian”, romelic win<br />

uZRvis zedsarTavs: ÓædÞ kiv×r “ufro didi”, ÓædÞ zÒ×r “ufro<br />

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patara”. iSviaTad gvxvdeba konstruqcia C1VC2V:C3+mÙnu<br />

komparativis gamosaxatavad: kiv×r mÙnu “ufro didi”. es movlena<br />

gamoxatavs dialeqtSi analitizmis tendencias.<br />

$ 6. sqesis kategoria<br />

1. saxelTa sqesi kad-Si ganisazRvreba ori diferencialuri<br />

niSniT: mdedrobiTi-aramdedrobiTi. md. sqesi markirebulia, xolo<br />

mamrobiTi – ara. md. sqesis morfologiuri maCvenebeli kad-Si aris<br />

a da î: na‘Óa “cxvari”, naÓma “varskvlavi”.<br />

kad-Si gamoiyofa mdedrobiTobis aRmniSvneli sityvebi,<br />

romlebic ar arian aRWurvilni morfologiuri markerebiT,<br />

magram ganekuTvnebian md. sqess: bint “asuli”, um “deda”, kan<br />

“patarZali”.<br />

calke jgufdeba bunebis ZalTa da adamianis sxeulis wyvili<br />

nawilebis gamomxatveli sityvebi: nÁr “cecxli”, r×Ô “qari”, gamar<br />

“mTvare”, ÷in “Tvali”, haliq “bage”, izn “yuri”. es sityvebi<br />

ganekuTvnebian md. sqess.<br />

aRsaniSnavia, rom zogierTi sityva, romelsac klasikur<br />

arabulSi mdedrobiTobis aRmniSvneli morfologiuri niSani ar<br />

gaaCnia, kad-Si iZens aseT markers: âamsa < kl. arab. âamsun, waÉî<br />

“saxe” < kl. arab. waÓhun.<br />

mamr. sqesis sityvebi, romlebic saliteraturo arabulSi<br />

bolovdebian t-ze, kad-Si xSirad md. sqess gamoxataven: zÎt “zeTi”,<br />

darbÎt “karebi”. daboloeba t am SemTxvevaSi gagebulia, rogorc<br />

mdedrobiTis maCvenebeli.<br />

uzbekuri da tajikuri enebis gavlenis Sedegad zogierTi mamr.<br />

sqesis saxeli kad-Si md. sqesis xdeba da piriqiT, zogi sityva,<br />

romelic klasikur arabulSi md. sqess miekuTvneba, kad-Si<br />

mamrobiTad gvevlineba.<br />

88


$ 7. ricxvis kategoria<br />

kad-Si, klasikuri arabuli enisagan gansxvavebiT, gvaqvs ori<br />

ricxvi: mxoloobiTi da mravlobiTi. orobiTi ricxvis kvali<br />

SemorCenilia, ZiriTadad, sxeulis wyvili nawilebis aRmniSvnel<br />

sityvebSi: ‘einÎn > ÷inÎn“ori Tvali”, iÓlÎn “ori fexi”. aRniSnuli<br />

faqti, rogorc zemoT aRvniSneT, gamoxatavs saerTo arabul<br />

dialeqtologiur movlenas. orobiTi ricxvis gamoxatvis funqcia<br />

kad-Si mravlobiT ricxvs akisria.<br />

mxoloobiTi ricxvis saxelTa ZiriTadi struqturuli<br />

modelebi mocemulia zemoT.<br />

mravlobiTi ricxvi gvaqvs sami saxis: 1. swori, 2. msxvreuli, 3.<br />

ormagi mravlobiTi. swori mravlobiTi iwarmoeba mamr. sqesis<br />

saxelebSi in-sufiqsis, xolo md. sqesis saxelebSi Át bolosarTis<br />

saSualebiT: faras×n “cxenebi”, na‘ÓÁt “cxvrebi”.<br />

iSviaTad, mravlobiTi ricxvi iwarmoeba m-Ti: Ôamra “fuli”<br />

“oqro”, ÔamrayÁm “fulebi”, “oqroebi”. aRniSnuli movlena<br />

sayuradReboa zogadsemituri TvalsazrisiT. mravlobiTis<br />

warmoeba m sufiqsiT SesaZloa asaxavdes uZveles viTarebas. ar<br />

aris gamoricxuli misi mogvianebiT ganviTareba kad-Si.<br />

msxvreuli mr.-is gavrcelebis areali TandaTan viwrovdeba da<br />

gamodis xmarebidan. amJamad fiqsirdeba aseTi tipis mr.-is<br />

funqcionirebis mxolod erTeuli SemTxvevebi: imãÁr “wvimebi”.<br />

dialeqtSi TandaTan ikafavs gzas da mkvidrdeba mr. r-is<br />

mawarmoebeli Át sufiqsi, romelic, gansxvavebiT klasikuri<br />

arabuli enisagan, kad-Si mravlobiT ricxvs awarmoebs orive<br />

sqesis saxelebTan: kalbÁt “ZaRlebi”, ÕubzÁt “purebi”.<br />

ormagi mravlobiTiT nawarmoeb saxelebSi mravlobiTi<br />

ricxvis formas da erTvis Át sufiqsi: faras×nÁt “cxenebi”, imãÁrÁt<br />

“wvimebi”. savaraudoa, rom Át sufiqsi axlo momavalSi mr. r-is<br />

erTaderTi mawarmoebeli iqneba kad-Si orive sqesis saxelTaTvis.<br />

89


$ 8. statusi<br />

ganusazRvrelobis markerebi kad-Si TiTqmis nuls utoldeba.<br />

es gamowveulia dialeqtSi Tenvinis da brunvis niSanTa moSliT.<br />

aRniSnuli statusi kad-Si gadmoicema ganusazRvrelobis<br />

gamomxatveli ricxviTi saxeliT fad - “erTi” (< arab. fardun<br />

“erTi”).<br />

zogjer arsebiT saxelTan gvxvdeba ganusazRvrelobis markeri<br />

in. ZiriTadad igi fiqsirdeba sazRvrulTan sintaqsur<br />

konstruqciaSi. aseT SemTxvevaSi, zedsarTavi yovelTvis fuZis<br />

saxiT aris warmodgenili: Ôoiã×n kb×r “didi saxli”, ib÷×rin obyaz<br />

“TeTri aqlemi”.<br />

ganusazRvreli – fad kad-Si ismeba saxelis win da eTanxmeba mas:<br />

fad walad “erTi /mavani/ biWi”; fadhate(


a) pirveli aTeuli<br />

sqesSi cvalebadoba axasiaTebs mxolod erTs da ors: fadhatfadhate,<br />

isnÎn-isnÎna. samidan aTamde ricxviTi saxelebi sqesis<br />

mixedviT ar icvlebian.<br />

erTidan oTxis CaTvliT ixmareba mxolod arabuli<br />

saxelwodebebi, xuTidan Svidamde gvaqvs paraleluri arabultajikuri<br />

formebi, Svidis zemoT, aTamde ki mxolod tajikuri. aTi<br />

aRiniSneba arabuli ‘aâara-Ti:<br />

1 _ fadhat/fadhate 6 _ sitta//âiâ<br />

2 _ isnÎn/ isnÎna 7 _ sab‘a//haft<br />

3 _ salÁs 8 _ haât<br />

4 _ öorba 9 _ næh<br />

5 _ Õamsa//panÓ 10 _ ÷aâara<br />

fadhat _ “erTi” miRebulia ori sityvis SerwymiT fad


) meore aTeuli<br />

meore aTeulis ricxviT saxelTa struqtura Semdegnairia: aTi<br />

+ erTeulis aRmniSvneli ricxviTi saxeli. es movlena unda<br />

CaiTvalos kad-Si ricxviTi saxelebis erT-erT ZiriTad<br />

morfologiur Taviseburebad:<br />

11. ‘aâara fadhat//‘aâar waÔda 16. ‘aâara sitta//‘aâara âiâ<br />

12.‘aâar isnÎn 17. ‘aâara sab‘a//‘aâar haft<br />

13. ‘aâara salÁs 18. ‘aâara haât<br />

14. ‘aâar orba 19. ‘aâaranæh<br />

15. ‘aâara Õamsa//‘aâara panÓ<br />

am rigis ricxviTi saxelebidan paraleluri formebi<br />

axasiaTebs TerTmets, TxuTmets, Teqvsmets da Cvidmets. Tu<br />

erTeulis aRmniSvneli ricxviTi saxeli TanxmovniT iwyeba,<br />

winamavali aTis (‘aâara) bolokiduri a SenarCunebulia. TormetSi<br />

da ToTxmetSi aRniSnuli a ikargeba. amas ganapirobebs hamzis<br />

Cavardnis Sedegad am Sedgenili ricxviTi saxelis meore wevris<br />

Tavkidurxmovniani pozicia.<br />

meore aTeulis ricxviT saxelTa pozicia aris prenominaluri.<br />

am rigis ricxviTi saxeli win uswrebs aRsaricxs, romelic<br />

imyofeba mx. r.-Si:<br />

‘aâara fadhat walad “TerTmeti biWi”<br />

‘aâara salÁs hÝiã “cameti saxli”<br />

g) aTeulebi<br />

aTeulebis struqtura gansxvavdeba saliteraturo arabuli<br />

enisagan:<br />

20 _ ‘aâr×n 60 – sitta ‘aârÁt//âiâ ‘aârÁt<br />

30 – salÁs ‘aârÁt 70 – sab’a ‘aârÁt//haft ‘aârÁt<br />

40 – öorba ‘aârÁt 80 – haât ‘aârÁt<br />

50 – Õamsa ‘aârÁt//panÓ ‘aârÁt 90 – næh ‘aârÁt<br />

92


aq mxolod oci (‘aâr×n) iCens msgavsebas saliteraturo<br />

formasTan. rac Seexeba danarCenebs, isini iwarmoebian Semdegi<br />

wesiT: erTeuli + aTeuli mravlobiT ricxvSi. rogorc<br />

mosalodneli iyo, ormocdaaTSi, samocsa da samocdaaTSi<br />

daculia paraleluri formebi.<br />

aTeulTa da erTeulTa kombinaciebi kad-Si SesaZleblobas<br />

iZleva gamoiyos ori jgufi:<br />

a) 20-dan 29-mde<br />

b) 31-dan 99-mde<br />

pirvel jgufSi moqmedebs saliteraturo arabuli enis wesi. aq<br />

gvaqvs Semdegi Tanmimdevroba: erTeuli + oceuli:<br />

fadhat ‘aâr×n “ocdaerTi”<br />

isnÎn ‘aâr×n “ocdaori”<br />

meore jgufi xasiaTdeba Semdegi struqturiT: aTeuli +<br />

erTeuli:<br />

salÁs ‘aârÁt fadhat walad “ocdaTerTmeti biWi”<br />

orba ‘aârÁt fadhat âaÓar “ormocdaerTi xe”<br />

aTeulTa pozicia kad-Si prenominaluria. aRsaricxi,<br />

ZiriTadad, dgas mr. r.-Si:<br />

‘aâr×n na‘ÓÁt “oci cxvari”<br />

salÁs ‘aârÁt motgowÁt “ocdaaTi Zroxa”<br />

gvxvdeba SemTxvevebi, roca aRsaricxi imyofeba mx. r.-Si:<br />

orba ‘aârÁt faras “ormoci cxeni”<br />

salÁs ‘aârÁt bÁgir “ormocdaaTi xari”<br />

d) aseulebi<br />

aseulebis struqtura aseTia: erTeuli + aseuli. zogjer<br />

erTeulis aseulTan gadabmiT warmoTqmis dros, maT Sua Cndeba<br />

93


ultramokle xmovani. es exeba Tanxmovanze daboloebul<br />

erTeulis aRmniSvnel ricxviT saxelebs.<br />

aseulebi kad-Si srulad Semdegi saxiT warmogvidgeba:<br />

100 – m×o 600 – sittî m×o//âiâî m×o<br />

200 – ‘isnÎn m×o 700 – sab’a m×o//haftî m×o<br />

300 – salÁsi m×o 800 – haâtî m×o<br />

400 – orba m×o 900 – nuhî m×o<br />

500 – Õamsa m×o//panÓî m×o<br />

iSviaTad, 200 –is aRsaniSnavad gvxvdeba forma miotÎn, rac<br />

dialeqtSi TiTqmis ar funqcionirebs da amitom zemomoyvanil<br />

siaSi ar SevitaneT. am formis xmarebidan gamosvla aixsneba<br />

danarCen aseulTa warmoebis analogiisadmi midrekilebiT, rac<br />

ganpirobebulia dialeqtSi orobiTi ricxvis dakargviT.<br />

ricxviT saxelTa am rigSi, iseve rogorc aTeulebSi, xuTasi,<br />

eqvsasi da Svidasi gadmoicema paraleluri arabul-tajikuri<br />

formebiT.<br />

aseulis pozicia kad-Si prenominaluria da aRsaricxi masTanac<br />

ZiriTadad, mr. r.-Si, xolo iSviaTad mx. r.-Si dgas:<br />

salÁsm×o ib‘×rÁt “samasi aqlemi”<br />

m×o leilÁt “asi Rame”<br />

öorbam×o faras “oTxasi cxeni”<br />

asis zemoT ricxviTi saxelebi xasiaTdebian Semdegi<br />

struqturiT:<br />

a) aseuli + erTeuli + aTeuli.<br />

b) aseuli + aTeuli + erTeuli.<br />

magaliTebi:<br />

a) m×o u fadhat ÷aâr×n “asocdaerTi”<br />

orba m×o u snÎn ÷aârin “oTxasocdaori”<br />

b) m×o u salÁs ÷aârÁt “asocdaaTi”<br />

Õamsim×o haât aârÁt næh “xuTasoTxmocdacxra”<br />

94


e) aTaseulebi<br />

aTaseulebs ricxviT saxelebSi ukaviaT bolokiduri pozicia.<br />

damaxasiaTebelia, rom nebismier ricxviT saxelTan kombinaciis<br />

dros isini mx. r.-Si ixmareba:<br />

1000 – alf//hazÝr 6000 – sitta alf//âiâ alf<br />

2000 – öisnÎn alf 7000 – sab’a alf//haft alf<br />

3000 – salÁs alf 8000 – haât alf<br />

4000 – öorba alf 9000 – næh alf<br />

5000 – Õamsa alf//panÓ alf<br />

arabuli alf–is “aTasi” paralelurad, iSviaTad ixmareba<br />

tajikuri hazÝr. aseT dros xdeba ubralo Canacvleba, rac ricxviT<br />

saxelSi ar iwvevs raime funqcionalur cvlilebas:<br />

alf tanga//hazÝr tanga “aTasi tanga” *<br />

alf walad//hazÝr walad “aTasi biWi”<br />

aRsaniSnavia agreTve Semdegi aTaseulebi:<br />

11000 – ‘aâara fadhat alf<br />

20000 – ‘aâr×n alf<br />

21000 – fadhat ‘aâr×n alf<br />

30000 – salÁs ‘aârÁt alf<br />

31000 – salÁs ‘aârÁt fadhat alf<br />

100000 - m×o alf<br />

101000 - m×o fadhat alf<br />

1000000 – miliun<br />

___________________________________<br />

*.tanga vercxlis fulia<br />

95


aTaseulis pozicia kad-Si prenominaluria. aRsaricxi SeiZleba<br />

idges rogorc mx. r.-Si, ise mr. r.-Si:<br />

alf kitÁb “aTasi wigni”<br />

alf naÓma “aTasi varskvlavi”<br />

alf leil “aTasi Rame”<br />

salÁs alf ÕubzÁt “sami aTasi puri”<br />

v) rigobiTi ricxviTi saxeli<br />

kad-Si rigobiT ricxviT saxelTa funqcionireba SedarebiT<br />

iSviaTia. isini warmodgenili arian mxolod erTidan aTamde. aTis<br />

zemoT rigobiToba gadmoicema raodenobiTi ricxviTi saxelebiT.<br />

aseTi tendencia gamartivebisaken damaxasiaTebelia ara marto<br />

kad-isaTvis:<br />

awal//awalÁni pirveli sÁtit meeqvse<br />

snÎØn meore sÝbi meSvide<br />

sÁlis /sÝlis mesame hÁâit merve<br />

rÝbi meoTxe næh mecxre<br />

ÕÝmis mexuTe ‘Ýâir meaTe<br />

“pirveli” gvxvdeba ori formiT: 1. awal 2. awalÁni. sayuradReboa<br />

“merve” (hÁâit) da”mecxre” (næh). aqedan “merve” (hÁâit) arabizirebuli<br />

formaa tajikuri ricxviTi saxelisa – hÁât, xolo “mecxre” (næh)<br />

ar ganicdis araviTar cvlilebas da ixmareba raodenobiTi<br />

ricxviTi saxelis formiT.<br />

rigobiT ricxviT saxelebSi ar dasturdeba arabul-tajikuri<br />

paraleluri formebi, romelTa xmarebas, rogorc zemoT iyo<br />

naCvenebi, sistematuri xasiaTi aqvs raodenobiT ricxviT<br />

saxelebSi.<br />

kad-Si fiqsirdeba md. sqesis rigobiTi ricxviTi saxelebic:<br />

æli pirveli sÁtitî meeqvse<br />

snÎyni meore sÝbiyî meSvide<br />

96


sÁlisî mesame hÁâitî merve<br />

rÝbiyî meoTxe næhi mecxre<br />

ÕÝmisî mexuTe ‘Ýâirî meaTe<br />

sqesSi dapirispireba mkveTrad gamoxatuli ar aris. ZiriTadad,<br />

dialeqtSi funqcionirebs mamrobiTi sqesis rigobiTi ricxviTi<br />

saxelebi. isini xSirad ikaveben mdedrobiTi ricxviTi saxelebis<br />

adgils. damaxasiaTebelia raodenobiTi ricxviTi saxelebiT<br />

rigobiTobis gamoxatva.<br />

$ 10. nacvalsaxeli<br />

kad-Si gamoiyofa Semdegi tipis nacvalsaxelebi: a) piris, b)<br />

CvenebiTi, g) kiTxviTi, d) uaryofiTi, e) mimarTebiTi.<br />

piris nacvalsaxeli kad-Si, iseve rogorc saliteraturo<br />

arabul enaSi ori saxisaa:<br />

a) damoukidebeli, b) sufiqsaluri<br />

a) damoukidebeli piris nacvalsaxeli:<br />

piri sqesi ricxvi<br />

III mamr. mx. haw//zÝk h-//z- -aw//-Ý -<br />

md. mx. hai//z×ka h-//z- -ai//-× -<br />

mamr. mr. ziklÝn z - -Ýn<br />

ziklÝnÁt z - -ÝnÁt<br />

zÝkÁt z - -Át<br />

md. mr. ziklÆnna z - -Ænna<br />

II mamr. mx. inta int -a -<br />

md. mx. inti int -i -<br />

mamr. mr. intæ int - æ<br />

intuwÁt int - -uwÁt<br />

md. mr. intÙnna int - -Ùnna<br />

I mx. anÁ anÁ - -<br />

97


mr. naÔna naÔn - -a<br />

naÔnÁt naÔn - -Át<br />

bolokidur morfemebs aqvT alternantebi: (a)-s alternantebia<br />

(Î) da (î). i-s alternantad xSirad gvevlineba (iî), xolo (u)-s<br />

enacvleba (Ýw). magaliTebi:<br />

intî zarabt “Sen (mamr., mx. r.) daartyi”<br />

intî ma tâæf “Sen (mamr., mx. r.) ar giyvars”<br />

inti wÎn inti? “Sen (md., mx. r.) sada xar?”<br />

intÝw kulæ “Tqven (mamr. mr. r.) WameT”<br />

rogorc zemoT moyvanili cxrilidan Cans, piris<br />

nacvalsaxelebisaTvis kad-Si damaxasiaTebelia paraleluri<br />

formebis funqcionireba. mag., III pirSi mx. r-Si aseTi formebia:<br />

haw//zÝk mamr. sqesSi da hai//z×ka md.-Si. haw da hai-s xmarebis<br />

areali Zalian SezRudulia. isini gvxvdebian mxolod uaryofiT<br />

nawilak mÁ–sTan erTad: mÁ haw, mÁ hai.<br />

mesame pirSi, mr. r-Si, mamr. sqesSi ixmareba erTdroulad sami<br />

forma: ziklÝn, ziklÝnÁt da zÝkÁt. amaTgan ziklÝnÁt nawarmoebia ormagi<br />

mravlobiTiT, xolo zÝkÁt miRebulia Sesabamisi mxolobiTis<br />

formaze mravlobiTobis mawarmoebeli Át sufiqsis darTviT.<br />

pirvel pirSi erTmaneTs enacvlebian nahna//nahnÁt. aRniSnuli<br />

formebis varirebis areali kad-Si Zalze farToa. isini xSirad<br />

enacvlebian erTmaneTs.<br />

amrigad, piris nacvalsaxelTa raodenoba kad-Si,<br />

saliteraturo arabul enasTan SedarebiT, gazrdilia. es<br />

ganasxvavebs mas sxva arabuli dialeqtebisganac.<br />

piris nacvalsaxelebs kad-Si, msgavsad sxva arabuli<br />

dialeqtebisa, ar gaaCniaT orobiTi ricxvi. orobiToba gadmoicema<br />

mr.r.-is nacvalsaxelebiT: âÝØmardonkæl aÕu Óerakæl, ziklÝn arabiya<br />

idriya – “Soimardonkuli aris jerakulis Zma, maT (Soimardokulma<br />

da jerakulma) arabuli ician”.<br />

damoukidebeli piris nacvalsaxelebiT xSirad gadmoicema<br />

intensivi, rac ganpirobebulia, erTis mxvriv, maTi Sinaarsoblivi<br />

98


funqciiT da, meores mxriv, am nacvalsaxelebis izolirebuli,<br />

damoukidebeli struqturiT:<br />

anÁ mÁ adri, inta tuktub “me ar vici (igulisxmeba wera), Sen<br />

dawere!”<br />

iâ qatalt inti ?! “rad mokali Sen?!”<br />

sqesis kategoria srulad aris warmodgenili meore da mesame<br />

piris orive ricxvSi. es movlena damaxasiaTebelia saliteraturo<br />

arabuli enisaTvis da naklebad gvxvdeba dialeqtebSi.<br />

b) nacvalsaxelovani sufiqsebi<br />

piri sqesi ricxvi<br />

III mamr. mx. -a (h) (h) - -<br />

md. mx. -a Ø -a -<br />

mamr. mr. -hum//um -h - um<br />

md. mr. -hin -h - in<br />

II mamr. mx. -k, ak -k a- -<br />

md. mx. ik -k -i -<br />

mamr. mr. -kum -k - um<br />

md. mr. kÙnna -k - Ùnna<br />

I mx. -i, -ni -i, -ni Ø -<br />

mr. -na -n - -a<br />

nacvalsaxelovani sufiqsebi zmnebSi miuTiTeben obieqts. isini,<br />

rogorc es zemoTmoyvanili cxrilidan Cans, gamoxataven pirs,<br />

sqess da ricxvs, kerZod, maTi saSualebiT gadmoicema sami piri,<br />

ori sqesi da erTi ricxvi (mravlobiTi).<br />

laringali h sruliad dakargulia mx. r.-is mesame piris md.-Si,<br />

amave ricxvis mamrobiTSi igi dasturdeba, magram aris dakargvis<br />

SemTxvevebi. rac Seexeba mravlobiT ricxvs, aq md. sqesSi h<br />

warmodgenilia, xolo mamr.-Si gvxvdeba paraleluri hum//um<br />

sufiqsiani formebi:<br />

99


kitÝbah “misi (mamr.) wigni”<br />

iÓla “misi (mamr.) fexi”<br />

mind×la “misi (md.) cxvirsaxoci”<br />

bÎthum “maTi (mamr.) saxli”<br />

Ýrzum “maTi (mamr.) miwa”<br />

anzÁthin “maTi (mamr.) Txebi”<br />

g) CvenebiTi nacvalsaxeli<br />

CvenebiTi nacvalsaxeli kad-Si momdinareobs saliteraturo<br />

arabulSi arsebuli hÁËa - dan:<br />

hÁza//had “es (mamr.)”<br />

hÁzi “es (md.)”<br />

hÁlÁn “isini”<br />

hazlÝn “eseni”<br />

CvenebiTi nacvalsaxelebisaTvis damaxasiaTebelia ricxvisa da<br />

sqesis kategoria. mr. r.-Si sqesis kategoria gamoxatuli ar aris,<br />

magram aq Tavs iCens paraleluri forma hazlÝn//hamazlÝn<br />

romelTagan meore intensivs gamoxatavs da ixmareba mniSvnelobis<br />

gasaZliereblad: hamazlÝn qatalæ! “maT mokles!”<br />

d) kiTxviTi da uaryofiTi nacvalsaxelebi<br />

kiTxviTi nacvalsaxelebia min “vin” da eâ “ra”. kiTxviT<br />

nacvalsaxelebs kaSkadariul dialeqtSi moeZebnebaT aSkara<br />

paralelebi sxva arabul dialeqtebSi.<br />

uaryofiTi nacvalsaxeli warmodgenilia kompozitis saxiT<br />

ma+ nacvalsaxelovani sufiqsi:<br />

mÁ-ni Óo‘Ýn “ar var mSieri”<br />

mÁ-hum iúÔÝÖã “ar arian saxlSi”<br />

100


gvxvdeba agreTve forma mÁhad < mÁ ÆÔad“aravin”: mÁhad iÓÁ<br />

“aravin movida”<br />

e) mimarTebiTi nacvalsaxeli<br />

mimarTebiTi nacvalsaxelis funqcia kad-Si akisria li-s da ki-s.<br />

pirveli maTgani arabuli warmoSobisaa. dialeqtSi gvxvdeba<br />

iSviaTad: waldÁn iúzÒ×r rÁh liúÉÝi ÓÁb “patara biWi wavida, romelmac<br />

(adre) Cai moitana”.<br />

ki – iranuli warmoSobis nawilakia. igi kad-Si produqtiulia.<br />

misi saSualebiT xorcieldeba mimarTebiTi kavSiri qvewyobili<br />

winadadebis sintaqsur erTeulebs Soris:<br />

i÷Ýrifæn-ki min ×d hÁd walad âugl z×n iÓi – “maT ician, rom es biWi<br />

xelmarjvea (sityvasityviT: misi xelidan kargi saqme gamodis)”.<br />

amrigad, ricxviTi saxeli da nacvalsaxeli kaSkadariul<br />

dialeqtSi, rig SemTxvevebSi, xasiaTdebian originaluri<br />

formebiT. maTi funqcionireba saliteraturo arabuli enisagan<br />

gansxvavebul suraTs qmnis da exmaureba movlenebs, romlebic<br />

ZiriTadad beduinebis metyvelebisaTvis aris damaxasiaTebeli.<br />

$ 11. zmna<br />

zmnuri sistema agebulia semitur enaTa verbaluri sistemis<br />

funqcionirebis principis mixedviT. gamoiyofa martivi da<br />

nawarmoebi Temebi: perfeqtivi, imperfeqtivi, piris, ricxvisa da<br />

sqesis kategoriebiT gamoxatuli uRlebis mkafio qvesistema,<br />

swori, geminirebuli, hamziani da susti zmnebi, TxrobiTi,<br />

kavSirebiTi da pirobiTi kilo, imperativi. aRniSnul sakiTxebTan<br />

erTad ganxilulia nacvalsaxelovani da sxvadasxva tipis<br />

afiqsaluri markerebi.<br />

101


a) swori zmna<br />

perfeqtivi<br />

perfeqtivSi samTanxmovniani zmnis ori tipi gamoiyofa:<br />

1. CaCaC; 2. CiCiC. gavrcelebis maqsimaluri sixSire<br />

axasiaTebs pirvel tips. meore gvxvdeba SedarebiT iSviaTad.<br />

qvemoT mocemulia orive zmnuri formis sruli paradigma:<br />

I. katab “dawera”<br />

mx.r. piri sqesi ricxvi<br />

III mamr. katab -Ø - -<br />

md. katab-et -Ø -et -<br />

II mamr. katab- t -t - -<br />

md. katab-ti -t -i -<br />

I katab-t -t - -<br />

mr.r.<br />

III mamr. katab-aw - aw - - aw<br />

katab-awÁt - awÁt - - awÁt<br />

md. katab-Ænna -Ænna - -Ænna<br />

II mamr. katab-tæ -t - - æ<br />

katab-tuwÁt -t - -uwÁt<br />

md. katab-tÙnna -t - -Ùnna<br />

I katab-na -n - - a<br />

II liÔig “miaRwia”<br />

mx. r. piri sqesi ricxvi<br />

III mamr. liÔig - Ø - -<br />

md. liÔig-et - Ø - et -<br />

II mamr. liÔig-t - t - -<br />

102


md. liÔig-ti - t - i -<br />

I liÔig-t - t - -<br />

mr. r.<br />

III mamr. liÔig-aw - aw - -aw<br />

liÔig-awÁt - awÁt - -awÁt<br />

md. liÔig-Ðnna - Ðnna - -Ðnna<br />

II mamr. liÔig-tæ - t - -æ<br />

liÔig-tuwÁt - t - -uwÁt<br />

md. liÔig-tÙnna - t - -Ùnna<br />

I liÔig-na - n - -a<br />

orobiTi ricxvi, rogorc zmnaSi, aseve saxelSi warmodgenili<br />

ar aris. am mxriv kad-Si gamoxatulia saerTo dialeqtologiuri<br />

movlena. mx. r-Si, me-2 piris mamr-Si da pirvel pirSi, gvaqvs erTi<br />

omonimuri forma: zaraÔt “Sen daTese”, zarabt “Sen daartyi” // zaraÔt<br />

“me davTese”, zarabt “me davartyi”. piris gamosaxatavad<br />

nacvalsaxelis moxmoba xdeba saWiro: anÁ zarabt “me davartyi”, inta<br />

zarabt “Sen daartyi”. es ar eTanxmeba piris nacvalsaxelTa<br />

funqcionirebis wess saliteraturo arabul enaSi.<br />

me-3 da me-2 pirebis mamr-Si, mr. r-Si fiqsirdeba paraleluri<br />

formebi. esenia e. w. ormagi mravlobiTiT nawarmoebi formebi:<br />

katabaw//katabawÁt “maT daweres”, katabtæ//katabtuwÁt “Tqven<br />

dawereT”.<br />

sufiqsebs – et, ti, tÙnna gaaCniaT Semdegi alomorfebi: at, ît, tî,<br />

tînna. gansxvaveba martivi Temis or tips Soris, Zireul<br />

TanxmovanTa gaxmovnebis garda, gamoixateba zogierTi sufiqsis<br />

xmovnis daviwroebaSic: âarabat “dalia”, Ôilimît “naxa sizmrad”,<br />

“daesizmra”. es movlena aixsneba Zireul xmovanTa fonetikuri<br />

gavleniT.<br />

103


imperfeqtivi<br />

imperfeqtivSi pirveli Zireuli xmovani amovardnilia. meore<br />

Zireuli Tanxmovani inversiul damokidebulebaSia perfeqtis<br />

Zireul xmovanTan. igi viwroa im SemTxvevaSi, Tu perfeqtivSi<br />

maxasiaTebeli xmovani aris Ria da piriqiT - Riaa, Tu sruli<br />

aspeqtis zmnis xmovani viwroa. rogorc aRiniSna, meore SemTxveva<br />

raodenobrivad iSviaTia, xolo Tvisobrivad, inversiuli<br />

damokidebuleba maxasiaTebel xmovnebs Soris yvelgan daculia.<br />

es movlena morfologiuri alternaciis amsaxvelia da gamoxatavs<br />

ablauts. igi dialeqtSi funqcionirebs Sinagani fleqsiis saxiT.<br />

qvemoT mogvyavs orive tipis sruli paradigma:<br />

I tipi<br />

TxrobiTi kilo<br />

mx. r. piri sqesi ricxvi<br />

III mamr. iuktub iu - -<br />

md. tuktub tu - -<br />

II mamr. tuktub tu - -<br />

md. tuktub×n tu -×n -<br />

I aktub a - -<br />

mr. r. piri sqesi ricxvi<br />

III mamr. iuktubæn iu - -æn<br />

iuktubunÁt iu - -unÁt<br />

md. iuktubÙnna iu - -Ùnna<br />

II mamr. tuktubæn tu - -æn<br />

tuktubunÁt tu - -unÁt<br />

md. tuktubÙnna tu - -Ùnna<br />

I nuktub nu - -<br />

104


II tipi<br />

mx. r. piri sqesi ricxvi<br />

III mamr. ilÔag i - -<br />

md. tilÔag ti- - t -<br />

II mamr. tilÔag ti- - -<br />

md tilÔag×n ti- - ×n -<br />

I alÔag a- - -<br />

mr. r.<br />

III mamr. ilÔagæn i- - -æn<br />

ilÔagunÁt i- - -unÁt<br />

md. ilÔagÙnna i- - -Ùnna<br />

II mamr. tilÔagæn ti- - -æn<br />

tilÔagunÁt ti- - -unÁt<br />

md. tilÔagÙnna ti- - -Ùnna<br />

I nalÔag na- - -<br />

orive tipis zmnebSi, me-3 da me-2 piris mr. r-Si, iseve, rogorc<br />

perfeqtSi, aqac damaxasiaTebelia paraleluri formebi: iuktubæn, tuktubæn//iuktubunÁt, tuktubunÁt; ilÔagæn, tilÔagæn//ilÔagunÁt, tilÔagunÁt.<br />

aqve unda aRiniSnos, rom TxrobiT kiloSi ormagi mravlobiTiT<br />

nawarmoebi formebi SedarebiT xSirad gvxvdeba.<br />

zog SemTxvevaSi maxasiaTebeli xmovani imperfeqtivSi ar<br />

Seesatyviseba mis saliteraturo paralels. mag., âarab – iârub.<br />

saliteraturo arabulSi zmnis - âariba maxasiaTebeli xmovani<br />

aris – a. kad-Si igi Secvlilia u-Ti, ix. agreTve labas~ilbis. aq gvaqvs<br />

alternacia a~i nacvlad i~a-s. kad-Si, prefiqsuri warmoebis<br />

mwkrivebSi, m/mi prefiqsiani formebi buxarulisgan gansxvavebiT,<br />

ar dasturdeba. rogorc cnobilia, m/mi, b/bi nawilakiani formebi<br />

aRmosavlur arabul dialeqtebSi XIV saukuneze adre<br />

105


dafiqsirebuli ar aris. igi XIV-XV saukuneebidan gvxvdeba<br />

literaturul ZeglebSi (26, gv.461). kad-Si, imperfeqtSi<br />

prefiqsiani formebi ar ganviTarebula.<br />

imperfeqtivis mawarmoebeli prefiqsebidan da sufiqsebidan<br />

zogierTs aqvs alomorfi. kerZod, 1-li tipis zmnebSi iu-s alomorfia i. igi miRebulia Semdegi gziT: iaktub > i u ktub>iktub.<br />

zogjer Ùnna-s enacvleba ïnna: i u ktubïnna.<br />

Tu zemoTmoyvanili zmnuri formebis paradigmebidan gamovyofT<br />

mawarmoebel afiqsebs, isini cxrilis saxiT Semdegnairad<br />

warmogvidgeba:<br />

perfeqtivi imperfeqtivi<br />

mx. r.<br />

III mamr. - Ø iu - // i<br />

md. -et tu – // ti<br />

II mamr. - t tu - //ti<br />

md. -ti tu - ×n//ti-in<br />

I -t a<br />

mr. r.<br />

III mamr. -aw iu – æn<br />

-awÁt iu – unÁt// i-unÁt<br />

md. - Ænna iu – Ùnna // i – Ùnna<br />

II mamr. - tu tu – æn // ti – æn<br />

- tuwÁt tu – unÁt// ti- unÁt<br />

md. - tÙnna tu - Ùnna // ti-Ùnna<br />

I -na nu - // na<br />

aRniSnul afiqsebs gaaCniaT alternantebi: at ~ ît, ti~ tî, aw ~Ý,<br />

awÁt ~ owÁt, Ænna ~ ïnna, tÙnna ~ tïnna. magaliTebi:<br />

106


âarabat ~âarabît “man dalia / md./”<br />

sakanti~sakantî “Sen cxovrobdi /md./”<br />

daÕalaw~daÕalÝ “isini Semovidnen /mamr./”<br />

ÓalasÆnna~Óalasïnna “isini dasxdnen /md./”<br />

ÒasaltÙnna~Òasaltïnna “Tqven garecxeT /md./”<br />

b) guturaluri TanxmovniT ganpirobebuli zmnis warmoebis<br />

Taviseburebani<br />

kad-Si gamoiyofa zmnebis jgufi, romlisTvisac ar aris<br />

damaxasiaTebeli ablauti. aq Tavmoyrilia umetesad pirveli tipis<br />

zmnebi, romelTa meore an mesame Zireuli Tanxmovani aris<br />

guturali. mag.,<br />

ãala÷~iãla÷ “avida”<br />

na÷an ~in÷am “siamovnebda”<br />

naÓaÔ~inÓaÔ “hqonda warmateba”<br />

daÔar~idÔar “daamarcxa”<br />

karah~ikrah “ejavreboda”, “sZulda”<br />

Óahad~iÓhad “daiRala (SromiT)”<br />

am tipis zmnebi imperfeqtivSi Semdegnairad iuRleba:<br />

mx. r. mr. r.<br />

III mamr. iãla÷ iãla÷æn<br />

iãla÷unÁt<br />

md. tiãla÷ iãla÷Ùnna<br />

II mamr. tiãla÷ tiãla÷æn<br />

tiãla÷unÁt<br />

md. tiãla÷×n tiãla÷Ùnna<br />

I aãla÷ naãla÷<br />

Taviseburebebs avlenen zmnebi, romelTa pirveli Zireuli aris<br />

guturaluri Tanxmovani. aq, imperfeqtivSi, pirvel da meore<br />

107


Zireul Tanxmovans Soris, nacvlad suqunisa, Cndeba xmovani,<br />

xSirad grZeli Ý. amave dros, perfeqtivSi SeiZleba sruliad<br />

daikargos pirveli Zireuli. ZiriTadad es mosdis hamzas. mag.,<br />

haÓam~ihÝÓum “Tavs daesxa”<br />

Ôaraq~iÔÝruq “aanTo”<br />

÷aÓal~i÷ÝÓul “eCqareboda”<br />

Õaza~iÝÕuz “aiRo”<br />

am jgufis zmnis sruli paradigmi imperfeqtivSi Semdegnairad<br />

warmogvidgeba:<br />

mx. r. mr. r.<br />

III mamr. ihÝÓum ihÝÓumæn ihÝÓumunÁt md. ithÝÓum ihÝÓumÙnna II mamr. ithÝÓum ithÝÓumæn ithÝÓumunÁt md. ithÝÓum×n ithÝÓumÙnna I ahÝÓum ahÝÓum<br />

amgvarad, martivi Temis samTanxmovniani zmnis fuZis<br />

struqturuli modeli imperfeqtivSi aris CCVC. afiqsebis<br />

saSualebiT xdeba misi funqcionaluri gaformeba. am formis<br />

zmnisaTvis damaxasiaTebelia ablauti, guturaluri TanxmovnebiT<br />

gamowveuli uRlebis Tavisebureba da orive tipis zmnebSi<br />

mawarmoebel alomorfTa siWarbe. bolo xanebSi kad-Si SesamCnevia<br />

guturaluri TanxmovnebiT gamowveuli wesidan gadaxrebi, rac<br />

enis mkafio gramatikuli sistemis rRvevis maCvenebelia.<br />

obieqtis gamomxatveli nacvalsaxelebiT kad-Si gadmoicema<br />

piri, sqesi da ricxvi. kerZod, sami piri, ori sqesi da erTi ricxvi<br />

(mravlobiTi). mx. r-s markeri ar gaaCnia:<br />

108


mx. r. piri sqesi ricxvi<br />

III mamr. zarab - a(h) -(h) -a- -<br />

md. zaraba - ha - h -a -<br />

II mamr. zarab - ak - k -a- -<br />

md. zarab - ek - k -e- -<br />

I zarabn - ni - n - - -i<br />

mr. r.<br />

III mamr. zarab-hum -h - -um<br />

md. zarab-hin -h - -in<br />

II mamr. zarab-kum -k - -um<br />

md. zarab-kin -k - -in<br />

I zarab-na -n- - -a<br />

aRniSnul nacvalsaxelovan nawilakebs gaaCniaT Semdegi<br />

alomorfebi:<br />

mx.r.<br />

a) II. mamr. /ak/ - /-k/<br />

b) md. /ek/ - /-ik/<br />

mr. r.<br />

g) III. mamr./-hum/ - /-hom/<br />

d) II. mamr. /-kum/ - /kom/<br />

e) I. /-na/ - /-ne/<br />

$ 12. kavSirebiTi kilo<br />

kad-Si kavSirebiTi kilo vlindeba konteqstualurad da<br />

warmoebis mxriv. TxrobiTi kilosagan gansxvavdeba imiT, rom<br />

ormagi sufiqsaluri formebi ar gaaCnia. es wesi vrceldeba orive<br />

tipze:<br />

109


I tipi II tipi<br />

zaman “daayovna”<br />

mx. r.<br />

Ôilim “ocnebobda”<br />

III mamr. iuzmun iÔlam//iÔÝlum<br />

md. tuzmun tiÔlam//itÔÝlum<br />

II mamr. tuzmun tiÔlam//itÔÝlum<br />

md. tuzmun× tiÔlam×//itÔÝlum×<br />

I azmun aÔlam//aÔÝlum<br />

mr. r.<br />

III mamr. iuzmunæ iÔlamæ// iÔÝlumæ<br />

md. iuzmunÙnna iÔlamÙnna//iÔÝlumÙnna<br />

II mamr. tuzmunæ tiÔlamæ//itÔÝlumæ<br />

md. tuzmunÙnna tiÔlamÙnna//itÔÝlumÙnna<br />

I nazmun naÔlam//nuÔÝlum<br />

rogorc mosalodneli iyo, mx. r-is me-2 pirSi, md. sqesSi da mr.<br />

r.-is me-3 da me-2 pirSi moikveca nuni.<br />

magaliTebi: ugæb kokÝÖata iúbÎta Òadaw isæ, iuzmæna(h) “Semdeg<br />

misi Zmebi mis saxlSi wavidnen rom daelodon mas”, awalÁni waÕt<br />

mianÁni ark sawa, iÝlimæ, mîn kis×r gawi ÷Ànda “jer erTmaneTSi<br />

waiCxubes, rom gaegoT, vin ufro Zlieria”.<br />

$ 13. pirobiTi kilo<br />

pirobiTi kilo warmoebis mxriv amJRavnebs imave<br />

Taviseburebebs, rasac kavSirebiTi. aRniSnuli kiloebis fiqsacia<br />

Cvens dialeqtSi unda CaiTvalos mniSvnelovan Taviseburebad.<br />

Tumca aqve unda iTqvas, rom kavSirebiT da pirobiT kiloTa<br />

funqcionireba TandaTan ecema. maTi gamoxatva sul ufro xSirad<br />

ekisreba TxrobiT kilos, romlisTvisac aseTi datvirTva<br />

TandaTan iqceva bunebrivad. pirobiT kiloSi orive tipis zmnis<br />

uRlebis amsaxveli cxrili Semdegnairad warmogvidgeba:<br />

110


mx. r.<br />

I tipi II tipi<br />

rakab – "Sejda" simin - "gasuqda"<br />

III mamr. iurkub isman<br />

md. turkub tisman<br />

II mamr. turkub tisman<br />

md. turkub× tisman×<br />

I arkub asman<br />

mr. r.<br />

III mamr. iurkubæ ismanæ<br />

md. iurkubÙnna ismanÙnna<br />

II mamr. turkubæ tismanæ<br />

md. turkubÙnna tismanÙnna<br />

I nurkub nasman<br />

pirobiTi kilo fiqsirdeba rogorc konteqstualurad, aseve<br />

zogierTi nawilakis Semdegac. Sinaarsoblivad, aRniSnuli<br />

kiloTi SeiZleba gamoixatos survili, akrZalva, Txovna, uaryofa<br />

da sxv.<br />

magaliTebi: agar tuÕruÓ mim orba ÔÝiã, azrubak “Tu gamoxval<br />

oTaxidan, gcem”, agar tÝÕuz, anãak “Tu aiReb, mogcem”. la tÝkul “nu<br />

Wam”.<br />

$ 14. imperativi<br />

imperativis mawarmoebeli sufiqsi kad-Si aris u - pirveli da imeore<br />

tipis zmnebisaTvis. mr. r-Si gvaqvs paraleluri formebi:<br />

111


I tipi II tipi<br />

mx. r.<br />

II mamr. uktub ilÔag<br />

md. uktub× ilÔag×<br />

mr. r.<br />

II mamr. uktubæ//tuktubæ ilhagæ//tilhagæ<br />

md. uktub×n//tuktub×n ilhag×n//tilhag×n<br />

dialeqtSi gvxvdeba brZanebiTis gaqvavebuli formebi: ugæb<br />

nazÁli! gÁl “Semdeg uTxra: Camodi!”, âafa daÕÁli! ma gÁla “Sexeda,<br />

Semodi! - ar uTxra”.<br />

es exeba, ZiriTadad, samTanxmovnian zmnebs. iSviaTad am formiT<br />

gamoixateba cocxali brZanebiTi: ana Ó×t, katÁbi - “me movedi,<br />

dawere”, mæya âarÁbi- “wyali dalie”. aqve unda aRiniSnos, rom<br />

aseTi formebis funqcionirebis sixSire kad-Si SedarebiT<br />

naklebia. ufro produqtiulia brZanebiTis gadmocema – in<br />

daboloebiT: iãla’×n “gamodi!”, iÒsal×n “garecxe!”<br />

magaliTebi:<br />

mæya iârab×n! “dalie wyali!”<br />

libÝt iÒsal×n! “garecxe tansacmeli!”<br />

I tipi<br />

âarab “dalia”, “Sesva”<br />

mx. r.<br />

II mamr. uârub×n<br />

md. uârub×ni<br />

mr. r.<br />

II mamr. uârub×nu<br />

md. uârub×na<br />

112


II tipi<br />

kitif “SeuerTda”<br />

mx. r.<br />

II mamr. iktaf×n<br />

md. iktaf×ni<br />

mr. r.<br />

II mamr. iktaf×nu<br />

iktaf×na<br />

brZanebiTi kilos aseTi warmoeba unda CaiTvalos kad-is erTerT<br />

maxasiaTebel enobriv Taviseburebad.<br />

$ 15. drois kategoria<br />

drois kategoria kad-Si Semdegi jgufebiT gamoixateba:<br />

a) dasrulebuli namyo<br />

b) ganusazRvreli namyo<br />

g) ganusazRvreli awmyo<br />

d) gansazRvruli awmyo<br />

e) ubralo momavali<br />

v) rTuli (dauyovnebeli) momavali<br />

dasrulebuli da ganusazRvreli namyos mniSvnelobiTi<br />

opoziciaa: âarabt –“davlie”, ma âaribni- “ar damilevia”.<br />

ganusazRvreli namyo iwarmoeba aqtiur mimReobaze<br />

nacvalsaxelovani<br />

TurmeobiTs:<br />

mx. r.<br />

sufiqsis darTviT. igi emTxveva qarTul<br />

III mamr. âÁriba(h)<br />

md. âÁribaha<br />

II mamr. âÁribak<br />

113


md. âÁribek<br />

I âÁribni<br />

mr. r.<br />

III mamr. âÁribhum<br />

md. âÁribhin<br />

II mamr. âÁribkum<br />

md. âÁribkin<br />

I âÁribna<br />

ganusazRvreli namyos arseboba kad-Si uzbekuri enis gavlenas<br />

unda mieweros (117, gv. 142. ). zmnuri formebisaTvis Turqul enebSi<br />

damaxasiaTebelia aRniSnuli dro, amitom misi ganviTareba<br />

arabul dialeqtSi xangrZlivi enobrivi kontaqtiT unda aixsnas.<br />

a) ganusazRvreli awmyo<br />

ganusazRvreli awmyo ornairad iwarmoeba: erTi _ Cveulebrivi<br />

imperfeqtiviT da meore - pirveli Temis masdarze sawa damxmare<br />

zmnis darTviT Sesabamis pirSi: ’amalÁn isi – “is saqmianobs<br />

/saerTod/”; ana rakabÁn asi – “me cxens vxedni/saerTod/”.<br />

mx. r.<br />

III mamr. ÷amalÁn isi<br />

md. ÷amalÁn tisi//÷amalÁn itsi<br />

II mamr. ÷amalÁn tisi//÷amalÁn itsi<br />

md. ÷amalÁn tisÚna//÷amalÁn itsÚna<br />

I ÷amalÁn Ási<br />

III mamr.<br />

mr. r.<br />

÷amalÁn isæn<br />

md. ÷amalÁn isÙnna<br />

II mamr. ÷amalÁn tisæn//÷amalÁn itsæn<br />

114


md. ÷amalÁn tisÙnna//÷amalÁn itsÙnna<br />

I ÷amalÁn nasi//÷amalÁn insi<br />

ganusazRvreli awmyo ar gvxvdeba sxva arabul dialeqtebSi. ar<br />

aris igi warmodgenili arc buxarul arabulSi. amgvarad,<br />

ganusazRvreli awmyos aRniSnuli formebi mxolod kad-isaTvis<br />

aris damaxasiaTebeli.<br />

b) gansazRvruli awmyo<br />

gansazRvruli awmyo gangrZobiT dros gadmoscems. igi<br />

daaxloebiT inglisur present continious-s gamoxatavs. aRniSnuli<br />

dro kad-Si iwarmoeba zmnis imperfeqtivis formaze damxmare zmnis<br />

nÁm aqtiuri mimReobis darTviT: iãbuÕ nÁyim “axla acxobs”; nÝkul<br />

nayiminni- “axla vWamT”:<br />

mx. r.<br />

III mamr. iãbuÕ nÁyim//iãbuÕ nayim×nna(h)<br />

md. tuãbuÕ nÁyim//tuãbuÕ nÁyim×nha<br />

II mamr. tuãbuÕ nÁyim// tuãbuÕ nÁyim×nnak<br />

md. tuãbuÕin nÁyim// tuãbuÕin nÁyim×nnek<br />

I aãbuÕ nÁyim//aãbuÕ nÁyim×nni<br />

mr. r.<br />

III mamr. iuãbuÕæn nÁyim//iuãbuÕæn nÁyim×nhum<br />

iuãbuÕunÁt nÁyim//iu md.<br />

ãbuÕunÁt nÁyim×nhum<br />

iuãbuÕÙnna nÁyim//iuãbuÕÙnna nÁyim×nhin<br />

II mamr. tuãbuÕun nÁyim// tuãbuÕun nÁyim×nkum<br />

tuãbuÕunÁt nÁyim//tu md.<br />

ãbuÕunÁt nÁyim×nkum<br />

tuãbuÕÙnna nÁyim//tuãbuÕÙnna nÁyim×nkin<br />

I naãbuÕ nÁyim//naãbuÕ nÁyim×nna<br />

gansazRvruli awmyos arseboba kad-Si aixsneba uzbekuri enis<br />

gavleniT, sadac dadasturebulia aRniSnuli drois formebi (117,<br />

gv. 142).<br />

115


g) momavali dro<br />

ubralo momavali imperfeqtivis formiT gadmoicema. drois<br />

fiqsacia xdeba konteqstis mixedviT: wai sahriya iúbozÝr amid “xval<br />

bazarSi waval”. rac Seexeba rTul, dauyovnebel momavals, igi<br />

iSveliebs ta sufiqss: ta-noÒdi “wavideT”:<br />

III mamr.<br />

mx. r.<br />

ta-iuârub md. ta-tuârub II mamr. ta-tuârub md. ta-tuârub×n I ta-aârub<br />

mr. r.<br />

III mamr. ta-iuârubæn ta-iuârubunÁt md. ta-iuârubÙnna II mamr. ta-tuârubæn ta-tuârubænÁt md. ta-tuârubÙnna I ta-naârub<br />

ta


$ 16. nawarmoebi Temebi 1<br />

nawarmoebi Temebi /II-X/ kad-Si warmodgenilia IX Temis<br />

gamoklebiT. IV Tema, romelic saerTod iSviaTia arabul<br />

dialeqtebSi, kad-Si gvevlineba anãa < a‘ãa-s saxiT /Sdr. siriuli<br />

anãa, erayuli anãa:<br />

bÝi binta ma nãa “beim Tavisi qaliSvili ar misca”;<br />

tÝÓir iúzÝka mÁl kis×r anãa “vaWarma mas bevri qoneba /fuli/<br />

misca”.<br />

kad-Si SeiniSneba grZeli da mokle xmovnebis dapirispirebis<br />

moSlis tendencia. aman rig SemTxvevebSi ganapiroba, erTi mxriv II<br />

da III, xolo meore mxriv, V da VI Temebis formaTa damTxveva.<br />

gvxvdeba dawyvilebuli Temebis leqsikuri mniSvnelobebis erTi<br />

zmnuri formiT gadmocemis SemTxvevebi. maTi ricxvi dialeqtSi<br />

TandaTanobiT matulobs. mag., ‘ayyan - l. “daamkvidra”, 2. “Sexeda”;<br />

takatteb – 1 “rigebad daawyo”. Sdr. am×r timær ‘aâer fadhÁt ‘askar<br />

tekatteb – “Temurlengma TerTmeti aTasi jariskaci rigebad,<br />

kolonebad daawyo”, 2. “hqonda mimowera”. miuxedavad<br />

zemoTqmulisa, dReisaTvis kad-Si fiqsirdeba rogorc II da III,<br />

aseve V da VI TemaTa formebi.<br />

dakvirvebam gviCvena, rom aseT SemTxvevebSi umetesad gvevlineba<br />

formebi, romelTac saliteraturo arabulSi ar gaaCniaT<br />

Sesabamisi Temebi. mag., ‘azzal /II/ “gaaSvela”, fÁÕer /III/ “amayobda”,<br />

tafattam /V/ “gaigo”, ta’Árak /VI/ “Cxubobda”. CamoTvlil formebs,<br />

rogorc aRvniSneT, saliteraturo arabulSi ar daeZebnebaT<br />

Sesabamisad, III, II, VI da V Temebi.<br />

---------------------------------------------------<br />

1. morfologiurad yvelaze martivi I Tema gamoirCeva moqmedebis gadmocemis<br />

mravalferovnebiT. amitom zmnebs am TemaSi ara aqvT mkacrad dadgenili iseTi<br />

semantikuri gansazRvreba, rogorsac vxvdebiT sxva TemebTan. rac Seexeba<br />

saliteraturo arabulSi arsebul sam tips: la2la3a, la2i3a, la2u3a, romlebiTac,<br />

Sesabamisad, gadmoicema moqmedeba, mdgomareoba da Tvisobrioba, kad-Si aseTi<br />

dayofa gamokveTili ar aris.<br />

117


aqve unda aRiniSnos, rom grZeli xmovnebis arsebobas zmnur<br />

formebSi da saerTod, albaT, arabul sityvebSi sxvadasxva<br />

faqtorebi unda ganapirobebdes. vfiqrobT, maT Soris umTavresi<br />

aris maxvili. mxedvelobaSia misaRebi, agreTve, arabul sityvaTa<br />

tradiciuli warmoTqmis SenarCunebis tendencia, romelic<br />

gaucnobiereblad gadaecema Taobidan Taobas.<br />

Temebis saSualebiT kad-Si gadmoicema moqmedebis aqtivoba,<br />

intensivoba, mimarTuleba, konativi, kauzaturoba da vnebiToba.<br />

cxrilis saxiT es Semdegnairad gadmoicema:<br />

mniSvneloba<br />

Tema<br />

I<br />

II<br />

III<br />

V<br />

VI<br />

VII<br />

VIII<br />

X<br />

aqti-<br />

voba<br />

+<br />

+<br />

+<br />

_<br />

_<br />

_<br />

_<br />

_<br />

inten-<br />

sivi<br />

_<br />

+<br />

_<br />

+<br />

_<br />

_<br />

_<br />

_<br />

118<br />

mimarTu-<br />

leba <br />

kona-<br />

tivi<br />

vnebi-<br />

Toba<br />

unda aRiniSnos, rom kad-Si ar xdeba nebismieri zmnidan<br />

saliteraturo arabul enaSi Sesabamisad fiqsirebuli Temis<br />

warmoeba. Temebi ufro metad asaxaven dialeqtSi sityvawarmoebis<br />

da naklebad _ formawarmoqmnis enobriv potencials. aseTi<br />

tendencia damaxasiaTebelia sxva arabuli dialeqtebisTvisac.<br />

swori samTanxmovniani zmnis nawarmoebi Temebis formaTa<br />

paradigmebi kad-Si I da II tips ar ganarCevs. isini Semdegnairad<br />

warmogvidgeba:<br />

_<br />

_<br />

+<br />

_<br />

+<br />

_<br />

_<br />

+<br />

_<br />

_<br />

+<br />

_<br />

_<br />

_<br />

_<br />

_<br />

_<br />

_<br />

_<br />

+<br />

+<br />

+<br />

+<br />

+<br />

kauza-<br />

tivi<br />

_<br />

+<br />

_<br />

_<br />

_<br />

_<br />

_<br />

_


a) II/III Tema<br />

perfeqtivi: C1aCCaC//CÁCaC<br />

III mamr.<br />

mx. r.<br />

÷abbar "gadaiyvana" bÁdal "Secvala"<br />

md. ÷abbarat bÁdalat<br />

II mamr. ÷abbart bÁdalt<br />

md. ÷abbarti bÁdalti<br />

I ÷abbart bÁdalt<br />

III mamr.<br />

mr. r.<br />

÷abbaraw bÁdalaw<br />

÷abbrawÁt bÁdalawÁt<br />

md. ÷abbarÆnna bÁdalÆnna<br />

II mamr. ÷abbartæ bÁdaltæ<br />

÷abbartuwÁt bÁdaltuwÁt<br />

md. ÷abbartÙnna bÁdaltÙnna<br />

I ÷abbarna bÁdalna<br />

imperfeqtivi: iC1aC2C2iC3<br />

III mamr.<br />

mx. r.<br />

i‘abbir ibÁdil<br />

md. it‘abbir itbÁdil<br />

II mamr. it‘abbir itbÁdil<br />

md. it‘abbir×n itbÁdil×n<br />

I a‘abbir abÁdil<br />

III mamr.<br />

mr. r.<br />

i‘abbiræn ibÁdilæn<br />

i‘abbirunÁt ibÁdilunÁt<br />

119


md. i‘abbirÙnna ibÁdilÙnna<br />

II mamr. it‘abbiræn itbÁdilæn<br />

it‘abbirunÁt itbÁdilunÁt<br />

md. it‘abbirÙnna itbÁdilÙnna<br />

I in‘abbir inbÁdil<br />

b) IV Tema<br />

IV Tema, rogorc ukve aRvniSneT, warmodgenilia mxolod erTi<br />

formis saxiT /anãa/. vinaidan dialeqtSi es zmna produqtiulia,<br />

mogvyavs misi uRlebac.<br />

perfeqtivi<br />

mx. r. mr. r.<br />

III mamr. ’anãa anãaw<br />

anãawÁt<br />

md. ’anãat anãÆnna<br />

II mamr. ‘anãeyã ‘anãeytu<br />

‘anãeytuwÁt<br />

md. ‘anãeyti ‘anãeytÙnna<br />

I ‘anãeyt anãeyna<br />

imperfeqtivi<br />

mx. r. mr. r.<br />

III mamr. yenãi yenãæ<br />

yenãuwÁt<br />

md. tenã× yenãÙnna<br />

II mamr. tenã× tenãæ<br />

tenãuwÁt<br />

120


md. tenã×n tenãÙnna<br />

I anã× nanãi<br />

g) V/VI Tema<br />

taC1aC2C2eC3//taC1ÁC2aC3<br />

perfeqtivi<br />

mx. r.<br />

III mamr. tasallem "miiRo" ta‘Árak "SeebrZola"<br />

md. tasallemat ta‘Árakat<br />

II mamr. tasallemt ta‘Árakt<br />

md. tasallemti ta‘Árakti<br />

I tasallemt ta‘Árakt<br />

mr. r.<br />

III mamr. tasallemaw ta‘Árakaw<br />

tasallemawÁt ta‘ÁrakawÁt<br />

md. tasallemÆnna ta‘ÁrakÆnna<br />

II mamr. tasallemtu ta‘Áraktu<br />

tasallemtuwÁt ta‘ÁrakuwÁt<br />

md. tasallemtÙnna ta‘ÁraktÙnna<br />

I tasallemna ta‘Árakna<br />

121


imperfeqtivi<br />

mx. r.<br />

III mamr. it(a)sallem ita‘Árak<br />

md. tit(a)sallem tita‘Árak<br />

II mamr. tit(a)sallem tita‘Árak<br />

md. titsallem×n tita‘Árak×n<br />

I atasallem ata‘Árak<br />

mr. r.<br />

III mamr. itsallemæn ita‘Árakæn<br />

itsallemunÁt ita‘ÁrakunÁt<br />

md. itsallemÙnna ita‘ÁrakÙnna<br />

II mamr. titsallemæn tita‘Árakæn<br />

titsallemunÁt tita‘ÁrakunÁt<br />

md. titsallemÙnna tita‘ÁraktÙnna<br />

I natasallem nata‘Árak<br />

d) VII Tema<br />

perfeqtivi: inC1aC2aC3<br />

mx. r. mr. r.<br />

III mamr. inhazam “gaiqca” inhazamaw<br />

inhazamawÁt<br />

md. inhazamat inazamÆnna<br />

II mamr. inhazamt inhazamtu<br />

inhazamtuwÁt<br />

md. inhazamti inhazamtÙnna<br />

I inhazamt inhazamna<br />

122


imperfeqtivi: ienC1aC2iC3<br />

mx. r. mr. r.<br />

III mamr. ienhazim ienhazimæn<br />

ienhazimunÁt<br />

md. tenhazim ienhazimÙnna<br />

II mamr. tenhazim tenhazimæn<br />

tenhazimunÁt<br />

md. tenhazim×n tenhazimÙnna<br />

I anhazim nanhazim<br />

e) VIII Tema<br />

perfeqtivi:<br />

mx. r. mr. r.<br />

III mamr. igtarab “miuaxlovda” igtarabaw<br />

igtarabawÁt<br />

md. igtarabat igtarabÆnna<br />

II mamr. igtarabt igtarabtæ<br />

igtarabtuwÁt<br />

md. igtarabti igtarabtÙnna<br />

I igtarabt igtarabna<br />

imperfeqtivi: ieC1taC2iC3<br />

mx. r. mr. r.<br />

III mamr. iegtarib iegtaribæn iegtaribunÁt 123


md. tegtarib iegtaribÙnna II mamr. tegtarib tegtaribæn tegtaribunÁt md. tegtarib×n tegtaribÙnna I agtarib nagtarib<br />

v) X Tema<br />

perfeqtivi: (i)staC1C2aC3<br />

mx. r. mr. r.<br />

III mamr. (i)staÕraÓ "gamoiyvana" (i)staÕraÓaw<br />

(i)staÕraÓawÁt<br />

md. (i)staÕraÓat (i)staÕraÓÆnna<br />

II mamr. (i)staÕraÓt (i)staÕraÓtu<br />

(i)staÕraÓtuwÁt<br />

md. (i)staÕraÓti (i)staÕraÓtÙnna<br />

I (i)staÕraÓt (i)staÕraÓna<br />

imperfeqtivi: iestaC1C2iC3<br />

mx. r. mr. r.<br />

III mamr. iestaÕriÓ iestaÕriÓæn iestaÕriÓunÁt md. testaÕriÓ iestaÕriÓÙnna II mamr. testaÕriÓ testaÕriÓæn testaÕriÓænÁt md. testaÕriÓ×n testaÕriÓÙnna I astaÕriÓ nastaÕriÓ<br />

124


$ 17. oTxTanxmovniani zmna<br />

oTxTanxmovniani zmnebis raodenoba kad-Si mcirea. gamoiyofa<br />

ori tipi: 1. C1aC2+C1aC2 pirveli da meore Tanxmovnis<br />

reduplikaciis gziT miiReba oTxTanxmovniani zmnuri forma. mag.,<br />

za’za’ “SeinZra”, “Sezanzarda”. gvxvdeba ucxo enidan nasesxebi<br />

sityvis transformacia oTxTanxmovnian formad: ÓanÓal “Cxubobda”;<br />

2. C1aC2C3aC4 aRniSnuli forma SesabamisobaSia saliteraturo<br />

arabulTan.<br />

oTxTanxmovniani zmna Semdegnairad iuRleba:<br />

perfeqtivi: C1aC2C3aC4<br />

mx. r. mr. r.<br />

III mamr. sardar “meTaurobda” sardaraw<br />

sardarawÁt<br />

md. sardarat sardarÆnna<br />

II mamr. sardart sardartæ<br />

sardartuwÁt<br />

md. sardarti sardartÙnna<br />

I sardart sardarna<br />

imperfeqtivi: iCa1C2C3iC4<br />

mx. r. mr. r.<br />

III mamr. isardir isardiræn<br />

isardirunÁt<br />

md. itsardir isardirÙnna<br />

II mamr. itsardir itsardiræn<br />

itsardirunÁt<br />

125


md. itsardir×n itsardirÙnna<br />

I asardir insardir<br />

II Tema<br />

perfeqtivi: taC1aC2C3aC4<br />

mx. r. mr. r.<br />

III mamr. taza‘za‘ “SeinZra” taza‘za‘aw<br />

taza‘za‘awÁt<br />

md. taza‘za‘at taza‘za‘Ænna<br />

II mamr. taza‘za‘t taza‘za‘tæ<br />

taza‘za‘tuwÁt<br />

md. taza‘za‘ti taza‘za‘tÙnna<br />

I taza‘za‘t taza‘za‘na<br />

imperfeqtivi: ietaC1aC2C3aC4<br />

mx. r. mr. r.<br />

III mamr. ietaza‘za‘ ietaza‘za‘un<br />

ietaza‘za‘unÁt<br />

md. tetaza‘za‘ ietaza‘za‘Ùnna<br />

II mamr. tetaza‘za‘ tetaza‘za‘æn<br />

tetaza‘za‘unÁt<br />

md. tetaza‘za‘×n tetaza‘za‘Ùnna<br />

I ataza‘za‘ nataza‘za‘<br />

III da IV Temis formebi oTxTanxmovnian zmnebSi ar dasturdeba.<br />

126


$ 18. zmnis upiro formebi<br />

a) mimReoba<br />

pirveli Temis aqtiuri mimReoba warmodgenilia Semdegi saxiT:<br />

CÁCiC. arabuli sityvis meoreuli nasesxobis SemTxvevaSi pirvel<br />

ZireulTan a-s nacvlad gvaqvs Ý: tÝÓir Sdr. tajikuri tÝÓir. aseTi<br />

SemTxvevebi mravlad aRinusxeba kad-Si.<br />

I Temis moqmedebiTi gvaris mimReobis sruli paradigma<br />

Semdegnairad warmogvidgeba:<br />

mamr. mx. ãÁliÔ “amsvleli”<br />

md. mx. ãÁliÔî<br />

mamr. mr. ãÁliÔ×n<br />

md mr. ãÁliÔÙnna<br />

rogorc vxedavT, mimReobisaTvis damaxasiaTebelia sqesisa da<br />

ricxvis kategoria. nawarmoebi Temebis mimReobebi kad-Si<br />

iwarmoeba m(i) – m(u) prefiqsis saSualebiT, romelic daerTvis<br />

zmnis imperfeqtivis fuZes.<br />

nawarmoeb TemaTa mimReobebi:<br />

II . muC1aC2C2iC3//miC1aC2C2iC3<br />

a) mu‘allim “maswavlebeli”<br />

b) minazzil “Camomyvani”<br />

III. muC1ÁC2iC3//miC1ÁC2iC3<br />

a) muzÁrib “moCxubari”<br />

b) mibÁdil “gamcvleli”<br />

IV. menãi “mimcemi”<br />

V. mutC1aC2C2iC3//mitC1aC2C2iC3<br />

a) mutzawwiÓ “gaTxovili”<br />

b) mitfarrik “gansxvavebuli”<br />

VI. mut(C1)ÁC2iC3//mitC1ÁC2iC3<br />

a) mutÁrik “moCxubari”, “modave”<br />

127


) mitfÁÕir “Tavmomwone”<br />

VII. munC1aC2iC3//minC1aC2iC3<br />

a) munhazim “gaqceuli”<br />

b) minfaÓir “gaxeTqili”<br />

VIII. muC1taC2iC3//miC1taC2iC3<br />

muÕtasir “moxveuli”<br />

miftaÕir “amayi”<br />

X. mustaC1C2iC3//mistaC1C2iC3<br />

a) musta÷ir “anTebuli”<br />

b) mista÷mil “gamoyenebadi”, “xmarebaSi myofi”, "rac<br />

gamoiyeneba"<br />

oTxTanxmovniani zmnis mimReoba iwarmoeba Semdegi modeliT: 1.<br />

muCaCCaC: musarsar “Worikana ” da 2. mutCaCCaC: mutÓanÓal<br />

“mokamaTe”.<br />

b) masdari<br />

pirveli Temis masdari kad-Si iwarmoeba Án sufiqsis darTviT:<br />

rakabÁn “Sejdoma”, nazalÁn “CamoqveiTeba”. paralelurad gvxvdeba<br />

formebi Án sufiqsis gareSec: rakab, nazal. iSviaTad gvxvdeba forma<br />

CaCCa: mÝrat tabÕa isi “Cemi coli saWmels akeTebs”.<br />

nawarmoeb TemaTa masdarebi iwarmoeba perfeqtivis fuZeze Án<br />

sufiqsis darTviT:<br />

II. C1aC2C2aC3Án<br />

a) zawwaÓÁn “colis SerTva”<br />

b) ÕarraÓÁn<br />

III. C1ÁC2aC3Án<br />

“gamoyvana”<br />

a) ÓÁma‘Án “Sekreba”<br />

V. tC1aC2C2aC3Án<br />

VI. taC1ÁC2aC3Án<br />

b) ‘ÁrakÁn “Cxubi”, “ayalmayali”<br />

a) tfarraÓÁn “naxva”<br />

b) tsaddaqÁn “dajereba”<br />

128


a) taqÁtalÁn “xelCarTuli brZola”<br />

b) tafÁÕarÁn<br />

VII . inC1aC2aC3Án<br />

“Seqeba”, “gandideba”<br />

a) inhazamÁn “gaqceva”<br />

b) ingazafÁn “Cavardna”<br />

VIII. iC1taC2aC3Án<br />

a) iÔtafalÁn “qeifi”<br />

b) igtarabÁn “miaxloeba”<br />

X. istaC1C2aC3Án<br />

a) istaÕdamÁn “momsaxureba”<br />

b) istakâafÁn “moZebna”<br />

mxedvelobaSia misaRebi, rom nawarmoeb TemaTa masdarebi kad-Si<br />

naklebad produqtiulia.<br />

$ 19. vnebiTi gvari<br />

vnebiT gvars kad-Si ar gaaCnia markeri. igi gadmoicema Sesabamis<br />

TemaTa refleqsivebis saSualebiT. am mxriv kad-Si asaxulia<br />

saerTo dialeqtologiuri movlena. Tumca am mxriv zogierTi<br />

arabuli dialeqti gamonakliss warmoadgens.<br />

$ 20. geminirebuli zmna<br />

geminirebuli zmnebisaTvis kad-Si damaxasiaTebelia Semdegi<br />

Taviseburebani:<br />

a) perfeqtivSi, orive ricxvSi, II piris orive sqesSi da I pirSi<br />

fiqsirdeba paraleluri formebi.<br />

b) imperfeqtivSi meore Zireuli xmovani Riaobis<br />

TvalsazrisiT, inversiul damokidebulebaSia perfeqtivis<br />

maxasiaTebel xmovanTan. perfeqtivis a xmovans<br />

imperfeqtivSi i an u moudis. alternacia a~i, a~u<br />

gamokveTilia da kad-Si geminirebuli zmnis warmoebis<br />

maxasiaTeblad gvevlineba.<br />

129


sailustraciod mogvyavs geminirebuli zmnebis raââa “dayara<br />

(Zirs)”, “daagdo” da Ôaããa “dado” uRlebis sruli paradigma:<br />

perfeqtivi<br />

mx. r.<br />

III mamr. raââa Ôaããa<br />

md. raââat Ôaããat<br />

II mamr. raââeyt//raââaât Ôaããeyt// Ôaããaãt<br />

md. raââeyti//raâeâti Ôaããeyti// Ôaãeãti<br />

I raââeyt//raâaât Ôaãeyãt// Ôaããaãt<br />

III mamr.<br />

mr. r.<br />

raââÆw Ôaããaw<br />

raââÆwÁt ÔaããawÁt<br />

md. raââÆnna ÔaããÆnna<br />

II mamr. raââeytæ//raâaâtæ Ôaããeytæ//Ôaãaãtæ<br />

raââeytuwÁt//raâaâtuwÁt ÔaããeytuwÁt//ÔaãaãtuwÁt<br />

md. raââeytÙnna//raâeâtÙnna ÔaããeytÙnna// ÔaãeãtÙnna<br />

I raââeyna//raâaâna Ôaããeyna//Ôaãaãna<br />

imperfeqtivi<br />

III mamr.<br />

mx. r.<br />

iriâ(â) iÔuã(ã)<br />

md. itriâ(â) itÔuã(ã)<br />

II mamr. itriâ(â) itÔuã(ã)<br />

md. itriâ(â)×n itÔuã(ã)×n<br />

I ariâ(â) ahuã(ã)<br />

III mamr.<br />

mr. r.<br />

iriââæn iÔuããæn<br />

iriââunÁt iÔuããunÁt<br />

130


md. iriââÙnna iÔuããÙnna<br />

II mamr. itriââæn itÔuããæn<br />

itriââunÁt itÔuããunÁt<br />

md. itriââÙnna itÔuããÙnna<br />

I inriâ(â) inÔuã(ã)<br />

brZanebiTi Semdegnairad iwarmoeba:<br />

mx. r. mr. r.<br />

II mamr. itriâ(â) itÔuã(ã) itriâ(â)æ itÔuã(ã)æ<br />

II md. itriâ(â)× itÔuã(ã)× itriâ(â)×n itÔuã(ã)×n<br />

moqmedebiTi gvaris mimReoba fiqsirdeba Semdegi modeliT:<br />

C1ÁC2iC2 : rÁâiâ "dampnevi", “damyreli”. gvxvdeba pasivic: mîC1C2æC2<br />

: mîâdæd “damarcxebuli”.<br />

masdaris warmoeba eqvemdebareba zemoaRniSnul wess. misi<br />

modelia C1aC2aC3Án: raâaâÁn “dapneva”, “Zirs dayra”. iSviaTad<br />

geminirebuli zmnis masdari warmodgenilia Semdegi modeliT:<br />

C1aC2ayÁn: raââayÁn. es movlena enis mkafio gramatikuli sistemis<br />

rRvevis erTerTi maCvenebelia.<br />

a) geminirebuli zmnis nawarmoebi Temebi<br />

geminirebuli zmnis nawarmoebi Temebi kad-Si warmodgenilia<br />

Semdegi struqturuli modelebis saxiT:<br />

perfeqtivi:<br />

II C1aC2C2aC2<br />

Òaããaã “CaeSva”, “CaiZira”<br />

V taC1aC2C2aC<br />

taÓaffaf “gaxma”, “gaSra”, “gadaxma”<br />

VIII iC1taC2C2 // iC1tîC2C2<br />

131


iâtad(d)// iâtîd(d) “gamagrda”<br />

X istaC1aC2C2<br />

istazall “iyo CrdilSi”<br />

imperfeqtivi:<br />

II iC1ÝC2iC2 : iÒÝãiã<br />

V itC1aC2aC2 : itÓafaf<br />

VIII iC1tÝC2iC2 : iâtÝdid<br />

X istÝC1iC2C2 : istÝzil(l)<br />

rogorc irkveva, II, VIII da X TemebSi warmoebis mxriv gvaqvs<br />

saliteraturo arabuli enis normidan gadaxveva. II TemaSi pirvel<br />

da meore Zireul Tanxmovnebs Soris Cndeba grZeli Ý. meore<br />

ZireulTan, romelic saliteraturo arabulSi geminirebulia,<br />

gvaqvs mokle i. rac Seexeba X Temas, aq grZeli Ý daerTvis Temis<br />

mawarmoebel prefiqss.<br />

b) geminirebuli zmnis mimReoba da masdari<br />

nawarmoeb TemaTa mimReoba iwarmoeba saerTo wesis mixedviT.<br />

kerZod, imperfeqtivis formis fuZeze mî/mu prefiqsis darTviT.<br />

magaliTebi:<br />

II mîC1ÝC2iC2<br />

mî‘Ýdid “damTvleli”<br />

V mutC1aC2C2aC2<br />

mutgarrar “dadgenili”, “cnobili”<br />

VIII meC1tÝC2iC2<br />

meÔãodid “dadebuli (Zirs)”<br />

X mestÝC1iC2(C2)<br />

mestÝmir “gaxangrZlivebuli”<br />

132


masdari iwarmoeba Án bolosarTis saSualebiT. am mxriv<br />

dialeqtSi warmodgenilia nawarmoeb TemaTa masdaris<br />

gramatikuli warmoebis mkafio suraTi:<br />

kokÝyata iúaÕæhum iúzok b×r ÒaããaãÁn sawaÝn “Zmebma TavianTi Zma am<br />

WaSi CauSves”. sityvasityviT “maTi Zmis CaSveba, Cagdeba qmnes”.<br />

$ 21. hamziani zmna<br />

hamziani zmnebi naSromSi warmodgenilia Semdegi<br />

TanmimdevrobiT:<br />

1 2 3<br />

1 2 3<br />

1 2 3<br />

a) 1 2 3 (zmnebi pirveli Zireuli hamziT)<br />

zmnebi, romelTa pirveli Zireuli Tanxmovani saliteraturo<br />

arabul enaSi aris hamza, kad-is perfeqtivSi ikvecaven mas. kad-Si<br />

aseTi tipis hamzianma zmnebma ganicades cvlileba Ziris<br />

struqturaSi. hamzis dakargvis Sedegad isini iqcnen<br />

orTanxmovnianebad. miuxedavad amisa, morfologiuri warmoebis<br />

sqema darCa tradiciuli da rig SemTxvevebSi adgili aqvs hamzis<br />

aRdgenas. es Cven safuZvels gvaZlevs, nawilobriv aRvadginoT<br />

hamza paradigmebSi. amisaTvis, hamzis Cavardnis adgilze, zogjer<br />

frCxilebSi aRvniSnavT mas. moviyvanT am tipis zmnis uRlebas:<br />

perfeqtivi: C2aC3a<br />

mx. r. mr. r.<br />

III mamr. Õaza Õazaw<br />

ÕazawÁt<br />

md. Õazat ÕazÆnna<br />

II mamr. Õazeyt Õazeytæ<br />

ÕazeytuwÁt<br />

133


md. Õazeyti ÕazeytÙnna<br />

I Õazeyt Õazeyna<br />

imperfeqtivi: i(C1)ÝC2uC3<br />

mx. r. mr. r.<br />

III mamr. i (ö) ÝÕuz i (ö) ÝÕuzæn i (ö) ÝÕuzunÁt md. tÝÕuz i (ö) ÝÕzÙnna<br />

II mamr. tÝÕuz tÝÕuzæn 134<br />

tÝÕ u zunÁt<br />

md. tÝÕ(u)z×n toÕzÙnna<br />

I ÁÕuz nÝÕuz<br />

perfeqtivSi orive ricxvis meore da pirvel pirSi gvaqvs<br />

diftongi ei, romelic grZeli Î-dan momdinareobs: ÕazÎt>Õazeit1 .<br />

rac Seexeba grZel i – s, igi aRniSnul formebSi gaCnda Ziris<br />

morfologiuri kvantitatiurobis aRsadgenad.<br />

imperfeqtivSi, mx. r.-Si rogorc mosalodneli iyo, miviReT<br />

grZelxmovniani prefiqsi. mr. r.-Si me-3 da me-2 piris mamr.-Si<br />

dasturdeba paraleluri formebi, romelTagan tipebSi<br />

ioÕuzæn//toÕuzæn-daculia maxasiaTebeli u xmovani.<br />

________________________________<br />

1. forma ÕazÎt amjerad ar fiqsirdeba. igi dafiqsirebuli aqvs i. n. vinikovs (198,<br />

gv. 271)


) 1 2 3 (zmnebi meore Zireuli hamziT)<br />

zmnebi, romelTac me-2 Zireul Tanxmovnad hamza moudiT,<br />

Semdegnairad iuRlebian:<br />

perfeqtivi: C1aC2aC3<br />

mx. r. mr. r.<br />

III mamr. sayal “hkiTxa” sayalaw<br />

sayalawÁt<br />

md. sayalat sayalÆnna<br />

II mamr. sayalt sayaltæ<br />

sayaltuwÁt<br />

md. sayalti sayaltÙnna<br />

I sayalt sayalna<br />

imperfqtivi: iC1aC2iC3<br />

mx. r. mr. r.<br />

III mamr. isayil isayilæn<br />

isayilunÁt<br />

md. tisayil//tsayl iisaylÙnna<br />

II mamr. tisayil//tsayl tisayilæn//tsaylæn<br />

tisaylunÁt//tsaylunÁt<br />

md. tisayil×n//tsayl×n tisaylÙnna//tsaylÙnna<br />

I asayil insayil<br />

fonetikurad gamarTlebulia hamzis Canacvleba ÁotiT. sxva<br />

mxriv, 1 2 3 literaturul arabulSi analogiuri tipis zmnis<br />

uRlebas misdevs da mxolod paraleluri formebis<br />

funqcionirebiT gamoirCeva. imperfeqtivis mx. r.-is me-3 piris md.-Si<br />

da me-2 piris orive sqesSi, rogorc mx.-Si, aseve mr.-Si.<br />

g) 1 2 3 (zmnebi mesame Zireuli hamziT)<br />

135


perfeqtivi: C1ÁC2e<br />

mx. r. mr. r.<br />

III mamr. gÁre “waikiTxa” gÁraw<br />

gÁrawÁt<br />

md. gÁret gÁrÆnna<br />

II mamr. gÁret//gareyt gÁretæ//gareytæ<br />

gÁretuwÁt//gareituwÁt<br />

md. gÁrete//gareyti gÁretÙnna//gÁreytÙnna<br />

I gÁret gÁrena//gareyna<br />

imperfeqtivi<br />

mx. r. mr. r.<br />

III mamr. igre igræn<br />

igrunÁt<br />

md. tigre igrÙnna<br />

II mamr. tigre tigræ<br />

tigrunÁt<br />

md. tigr×n tigrÙnna<br />

I agri nagri<br />

perfeqtivSi, mx. r.-Si, pirveli Zireulis xmovani grZelia, xolo<br />

meore ZireulTan gvaqvs mokle e. pirveli Zireuli xmovnis sigrZes<br />

hamzis Cavardna ganapirobebs. orive ricxvis me-2 pirSi da mr. r.-is<br />

pirvel pirSi fiqsirdeba paraleluri formebi, rac<br />

ganpirobebulia ey diftongis warmoqmniT. Sedegad, pirvel<br />

ZireulTan mokldeba grZeli xmovani.<br />

136


d) hamziani zmnebis imperativi<br />

qvemoT warmodgenilia hamziani zmnis brZanebiTebi Semdegi<br />

TanmimdevrobiT:<br />

a) 1 2 3; b) 1 2 3; g) 1 2 3<br />

a) 1 2 3:<br />

mx. r. mr. r.<br />

II mamr. uÕuz uÕsuwÁt<br />

b) 1 2 3<br />

md. uÕs× uÕsÙnna<br />

mx. r. mr. r.<br />

II mamr. sÁyl sÁyluwÁt<br />

g) 1 2 3<br />

md. sÁyl× sÁylÙnna<br />

mx. r. mr. r.<br />

II mamr. igre igruwÁt<br />

md. igr× igrÙnna<br />

mr. r.-is mamr.-Si ormagi mravlobiTiT nawarmoebi formebis<br />

arseboba aixsneba ormagi markeris mier kilos mniSvnelobis<br />

gaZlierebiT. aRniSnuli warmoebis paralelurad kad-Si gvxvdeba<br />

in sufiqsiT gadmocemuli brZanebiTis formebi, rac gamoxatavs<br />

dialeqtSi aRniSnuli kilos gadmocemis zogad tendencias.<br />

e) hamziani zmnebis nawarmoebi Temebi: 1 2 3<br />

am tipis hamziani zmnebi perfeqtivSi warmodgenilia Semdegi<br />

modelebiT:<br />

II (C1)aC2C2aC3:<br />

137


(ö) assas “gaakeTa”, “saZirkveli Cayara”<br />

V ta(C1)aC2C2aC3:<br />

ta (ö) allam “stkioda”<br />

VIII ittaC2aC3:<br />

ittaman “miekedla”<br />

X (i)sta(C1)C2aC3:<br />

(i)sta (ö) Óar “daepatrona”<br />

damaxasiaTebelia Semdegi:<br />

Tu zmna II TemaSi iwyeba labialuri TanxmovniT, dasawyisSi<br />

nacvlad a xmovnisa Cndeba u, xolo iSviTad öo: umman//omman<br />

“daicva”.<br />

V TemaSi SeiZleba aRdges hamza. aq dasaSvebia paraleluri<br />

formis arseboba: taallam//ta‘allam.<br />

VIII da X TemebSi hamza Cavardnilia.<br />

imperfeqtivi:<br />

ganxilul formaTa Sesabamisi imperfeqtivebia:<br />

II iÝC2C2iC3: iÝsis<br />

V it(C1)ÆC2C2aC3: it (ö) Ællam<br />

VIII itÝC2iC3: itÝmin<br />

X istÝC2iC3: istÝÓir<br />

v) hamziani zmnebis mimReoba da masdari: 1 2 3<br />

1-el TemaSi fiqsirdeba vnebiTi gvaris mimReoba. igi<br />

warmodgenilia modeliT maC2C3i: makli “SeWmuli”. rac Seexeba<br />

1-eli Temis masdars, igi iwarmoeba fuZeze an/yan sufiqsis<br />

darTviT: ÕazÁn/ÕazayÁn.<br />

nawarmoebi Temebis mimReobidan dadasturebulia mxolod<br />

ramdenime maTgani. V: mutÝÕir “dagvianebuli”, X: mustozin<br />

138


“mqadagebeli”. vinaidan nawarmoeb TemaTa funqcionirebis areali<br />

kad-Si mcirea, mniSvnelobaTa gamoxatvis ZiriTadi simZime 1-el<br />

Temas akisria.<br />

masdari iwarmoeba 1-eli Temis msgavsad an/yan sufiqsis<br />

darTviT: sta (ö) ÓarÁn “Txoveba”, ta (ö) ÁsarÁn “aRelveba”.<br />

z) hamziani zmnebis nawarmoebi Temebi: 1 2 3<br />

zmnebi, meore Zireuli hamziT, TemaTa warmoebis mxriv,<br />

warmodgenili arian ufro mkafiod, xolo funqcionirebis mxriv,<br />

nakleb produqtiulad:<br />

perfeqtivi:<br />

II C1aC2C2aC3:<br />

rayyas “uxelmZRvanela”<br />

VI taC1ÁC2aC3:<br />

t(a)sÁyal 1. “maTxovrobda”; 2. “erTmaneTs<br />

ekiTxebodnen”<br />

VIII iC1taC2aC3:<br />

ifta’ad “gulisxmiereba gamoiCina”<br />

aRsaniSnavia V da VI Temis mniSvnelobaTa erTi formiT<br />

gadmocema: tasÁyal 1.“maTxovrobda”; 2. “erTmaneTs ekiTxebodnen”. es<br />

aixsneba dialeqtSi grZeli da mokle xmovnebis fonologiuri<br />

datvirTvis moSliT. aseTi tendencia unda CaiTvalos kad-is erTerT<br />

maxasiaTeblad.<br />

imperfeqtivi:<br />

II iC1Ý(C2)iC3: irÝ(y)is<br />

V/VI itC1Ý(C2)iC3: itsÝ(y)il<br />

VIII iC1tÝ(C2)iC3: iftÝ(y)id<br />

hamzis Cavardnis Sedegad zemoT dasaxelebul formebSi<br />

miviReT greli Á. daviwroebis Sedegad man mogvca Ý. es movlena<br />

kad-Si tajikuris gavleniT SeiZleba aixsnas.<br />

139


T) hamziani zmnebis mimReoba da masdari: 1 2 3<br />

pirvel TemaSi fiqsirdeba moqmedebiTi gvaris mimReoba<br />

modeliT C1Ý(C2)iC3: sÝ(y)il “SekiTxvis avtori”, “is, vinc ekiTxeba”.<br />

danarCen TemaTa mimReobebi warmodgenilia Semdegi saxiT:<br />

II muC1Ý(C2)iC3:<br />

muzÝ(y)ir “SeSinebuli”<br />

V/VI matC1Ý(C2)iC3:<br />

matmÝ(y)in “datvirTuli”<br />

VIII muC1tÝ(C2)iC3:<br />

mubtÝ(y)is “daRonebuli”, “sevdiani”.<br />

rogorc pirveli, aseve nawarmoeb TemaTa masdarebi iwarmoeba<br />

saerTo wesis dacviT, perfeqtivis me-3 piris mamr. sqesis fuZeze<br />

Án//yÁn sufiqsis darTviT.<br />

i) hamziani zmnebis nawarmoebi Temebi: 1 2 3<br />

am tipis hamziani zmnebis nawarmoeb TemaTa perfeqtivi<br />

dialeqtSi Semdegi modelebiT aris warmodgenili:<br />

II C1aC2C2Á(C3):<br />

V taC1aC2C2Á(C3):<br />

VII inC1aC2a:<br />

nassÁ “qalad aqcia”<br />

taraÓÓÁ “gadado”<br />

inkafÁ “moSorda”, “daucada”.<br />

bolokiduri Á-s alternantia e. uRlebis wesi pirveli Temis<br />

analogiuria. erT-erTi informantis Caweris dros dafiqsirda<br />

meore Temis Semdegnairi modeli: C1ÁC2C2e, rac I Temis analogiiT<br />

aixsneba: nÁsse “qalad aqcia”.<br />

140


unda aRiniSnos, rom zmnas nasa’a saliteraturo arabulSi II<br />

Tema ar gaaCnia. aseve ar moepoveba zmnas taraÓÓa Sesabamisi forma<br />

saliteraturo arabulSi. es movlena adasturebs dialeqtSi<br />

sityvawarmoebis damoukidebeli procesis arsebobas. ufro swori<br />

iqneba Tu vityviT, rom aRniSnuli movlena warmoadgens dialeqtSi<br />

odesRac arsebuli sityvawarmoebis anarekls.<br />

imperfeqtivi:<br />

ganxilul formaTa Sesabamisi imperfeqtivis formebia:<br />

II iC1ÝC2C2e: inÝsse<br />

V itC1aC2C2e: itraÓÓe<br />

VII inC1ÝC2C2e: inkÝffe<br />

k) hamziani zmnebis nawarmoebi Temebis mimReoba da masdari: 1 2 3<br />

I TemaSi dasturdeba vnebiTi gvaris mimReoba mÁC1C2i: mÁgri<br />

“wakiTxuli”. nawarmoeb TemebSi mimReobebi iwarmoeba saerTo<br />

wesis dacviT: imperfeqtivis fuZeze me//mu prefiqsis darTviT.<br />

rac Seexeba masdars, aq gvaqvs warmoeba bolosarTiT _ an/yÁn:<br />

gareyÁn “wakiTxva”.<br />

mimReoba:<br />

II meC1ÝC2C2e(C3):<br />

merÝbbe “gaTanasworebuli”.<br />

V metC1ÝC2C2e(C3):<br />

metrÝÓÓe “gadavadebuli”.<br />

VII manC1ÝC2e(C3):<br />

manÓÝze “nawili”, "ganayofi"<br />

$ 22. susti zmna<br />

kad-Si gamoiyofa susti zmnebis sami ZiriTadi tipi:<br />

a) 1 2 3<br />

b) 1 2 3<br />

141


g) 1 2 3<br />

TiToeul jgufSi gaerTianebuli zmnebi, ganurCevlad imisa, Tu<br />

romelia susti Tanxmovani, xasiaTdebian warmoebis saerTo wesiT.<br />

sul bolos warmodgenili gvaqvs ormagad susti zmnebi sawa<br />

“gaakeTa” da ÓÁ “movida”, romlebic dialeqtSi funqcionirebis<br />

maRali sixSiriT xasiaTdebian.<br />

a) 1 2 3 (zmnebi pirveli Zireuli susti TanxmovniT)<br />

am tipis zmnebidan warmovadgenT zmnis ugaf “gaCerda”/Sdr. kl.<br />

arab. waqafa/ uRlebas:<br />

perfeqtivi:<br />

mx. r. mr. r.<br />

III mamr. ugaf ugafæ//ugafaw<br />

ugafawÁt<br />

md. ugaft ugafÙnna<br />

II mamr. ugaft ugaftæ<br />

ugaftuwÁt<br />

md. ugafti ugaftÙnna<br />

I ugaft ugafna<br />

imperfeqtivi: iuC2uC3<br />

mx. r. mr. r.<br />

III mamr. iuguf iugfæn<br />

iugfunÁt<br />

md. tuguf iugfÙnna<br />

II mamr. tuguf tugfæn<br />

tugfunÁt<br />

md. tuguf×n tugfÙnna<br />

142


I aguf naguf<br />

rogorc uRlebis cxrilidan Cans, am tipis zmna amJRavnebs<br />

siaxloves klasikuri arabulis uRlebis sistemasTan. piris,<br />

ricxvisa da sqesis mawarmoebeli formantebi TiTqmis ar<br />

gansxvavdebian saliteraturo arabuli enisagan (Sdr. ugafti, ugafæ,<br />

ugaftÙnna, naguf da a. S.). sawyisi forma /ugaf/ miRebulia fonetikuri<br />

gziT: Tavkiduri wa – formantis u-d transformaciis Sedegad.<br />

aRsaniSnavia, rom am tipis zmnebis mravlobiTis formebi emTxveva<br />

buxarulSi arsebul analogiur formebs (117, gv. 141; 36, gv. 64).<br />

maxasiaTebel xmovanTa alternacia perfeqtiv-imperfeqtivSi<br />

aris a~u, rac asaxavs inversiul mimarTebas. imperfeqtivSi<br />

maxasiaTebeli u xmovani imsgavsebs prefiqsalur xmovans.<br />

amgvarad, me-3 pirSi vRebulobT models iuC2uC3, romlis<br />

mixedviTac ewyoba danarCeni formebi. es wesi ar vrceldeba<br />

pirvel pirze.<br />

aRsaniSnavia, rom zog SemTxvevaSi fiqsirdeba imperfeqtivis<br />

gansxvavebuli formebi: iÝguf, iÝgufæn, iÝgfunÁt.<br />

b) 1 2 3 (zmnebi meore Zireuli susti TanxmovniT)<br />

zmnebi, romelTac me-2 Zireuli susti aqvT, Semdegnairad<br />

iuRlebian:<br />

perfeqtivi: C 1 V:C2<br />

mx. r. mr. r.<br />

III mamr. gÁl gÁlaw<br />

gÁlawÁt<br />

md. gÁlat gÁlÆnna<br />

II mamr. galeyt galeytæ<br />

143


144<br />

galeytuwÁt<br />

md. galeyti galeytÙnna<br />

I galeyt galeyna<br />

imperfeqtivi iC 1 V:C3<br />

mx. r. mr. r.<br />

III mamr. igæl igælæn<br />

igælunÁt<br />

md. itgæl igælÙnna<br />

II mamr. itgæl itgælæn<br />

itgælænÁt<br />

md. itgul×n itgælÙnna<br />

I agæl ingæl<br />

perfeqtivSi mx. r.-is me-2 pirSi, Zireuli Tanxmovnis da piris<br />

maCvenebeli sufiqsis SesayarTan Cndeba diftongi ey. pirvel<br />

ZireulTan 1-el da me-2 piris orive ricxvSi gvaqvs a, rac aseve<br />

qmnis saliteraturo arabuli enisagan gansxvavebuli uRlebis<br />

suraTs. rac Seexeba imperfeqtivs, aq maxasiaTebeli xmovani aris u,<br />

ganurCevlad Sua susti Tanxmovnis warmoSobis ragvarobisa.<br />

imperfeqtivSi yuradRebas imsaxurebs, agreTve, piris<br />

aRmniSvneli prefiqsaluri formantebi. isini klasikuri<br />

arabulisagan gansxvavebiT warmodgenili arian it TavsarTis<br />

saxiT. aseve mr. r.-is pirvel pirSi, danarCeni pirebis analogiiT,<br />

gvaqvs prefiqsi in nacvlad na-si.<br />

g) 1 2 3 (zmnebi mesame Zireuli susti TanxmovniT)<br />

am tipis zmnis uRlebis sailustraciod mogvyavs zmna Òada<br />

“wavida”, “gaemarTa”.<br />

perfeqtivi: C1aC2a


mx. r. mr. r.<br />

III mamr. Òada Òadaw<br />

ÒadawÁt<br />

md. Òadat ÒadÆnna<br />

II mamr. Òadeyt Òadeytæ<br />

ÒadeytuwÁt<br />

md. Òadeyti ÒadeytÙnna<br />

I Òadeyt Òadeyna<br />

imperfeqtivi: iaC1ÁC2i<br />

mx. r. mr. r.<br />

III mamr. iaÒÇdi ieÒÁdæn<br />

ieÒÁdænÁt<br />

md. taÒÇdi ieÒÁdÙnna<br />

II mamr. taÒÇdi teÒÁdæn<br />

teÒÁdænÁt<br />

md. taÒÇd×n teÒÁdÙnna<br />

I aÒÇde(i) neÒÁdi//noÒd×<br />

perfeqtivSi, mx. da mr. r.-is me-2 pirSi, aqac Cndeba diftongi ei,<br />

rac SeiZleba aixsnas meore ZireulTan istoriulad<br />

dadasturebuli susti Tanxmovnis erTgvari gavleniT.<br />

imperfeqtivis amosaval formaSi nacvlad mosalodneli iuÒdi –<br />

sa, gvaqvs iaÒÁdi. faTha vlindeba uRlebis yvela formaSi. mx. r.-Si<br />

igi gamokveTilia maxviliT. aRniSnuli formebis paralelurad<br />

kad-Si fiqsirdeba imperfeqtivis gansxvavebuli formebic: 1. ioÒdi<br />

III piri, mx. r., 2. ioÒdæn III piri, mr. r. maTi gavrcelebis areali kad-<br />

Si mcirea. ufro xSirad gvxvdeba noÒd× (I piri mr. r.).<br />

d) susti zmnebis imperativi<br />

145


ZanebiTis formebi warmodgenilia Semdegi TanmimdevrobiT:<br />

a) 1 2 3 b) 1 2 3 g) 1 2 3<br />

a) 1 2 3<br />

mx. r. mr. r.<br />

II mamr. uguf ugufæ<br />

b) 1 2 3<br />

md. uguf× ug (u) fÙnna<br />

mx. r. mr. r.<br />

II mamr. gul gulwÁt<br />

g) 1 2 3<br />

md. gul× gælÙnna<br />

mx. r. mr. r.<br />

II mamr. uÒda uÒduwÁt<br />

md. uÒd× uÒdÙnna<br />

e) susti zmnebis nawarmoebi Temebi: 1 2 3<br />

zmnebs, romelTac susti aqvT 1-eli Zireuli Tanxmovani, kad-Si<br />

mxolod II da X Tema gaaCniaT.<br />

perfeqtivi:<br />

II uC2C2aC3:<br />

X istæC2aC3:<br />

ussaÕ “gaaWuWyiana”<br />

ustæsa’ “gafarTovda”<br />

imperfeqtivi:<br />

II iuC2C2ayaC3: iussayaÕ<br />

146


X istÁC2iC3: istÁsi‘<br />

v) susti zmnebis mimReoba da masdari: 1 2 3<br />

pirvel TemaSi moqmedebiTi gvaris mimReobaa C2ÅC3i(n): dÅ’i(n)<br />

“damdebi”. gvxvdeba vnebiTi gvaris mimReobac, romlis modelia<br />

mæC2aC3: mægaf “gaCerebuli”, “mdgomare”.<br />

II da X Temis mimReobebi iwarmoebian imperfeqtivis fuZeze mu<br />

prefiqsis darTviT:<br />

II muC2C2aiC3: murraig “gadafarebuli”<br />

X mustÝC2aC3: mustÝ (w) da‘ “sakuWnao”<br />

z) susti zmnebis nawarmoebi Temebi: 1 2 3<br />

am tipis zmnebs vxvdebiT VII da X TemebSi.<br />

perfeqtivi:<br />

VII inC1æC3:<br />

ingæm “idga”, “iyo SemarTuli”<br />

X (i)staC1æC3:<br />

(i)staræÔ “isvenebda”<br />

rogorc moyvanili magaliTebidan Cans, klasikuri arabulis<br />

grZeli Á aRniSnuli Temebis perfeqtivSi grZeli æ-Ti aris<br />

Secvlili.<br />

imperfeqtivi:<br />

II iunC1ÁiC3: iungÁim<br />

X iustÝC1×C3: iustÝr×Ô<br />

T) susti zmnebis mimReoba da masdari: 1 2 3<br />

pirveli Temis moqmedebiTi gvaris mimReobis modelia – C1ÝiC3:<br />

gÝil “mTqmeli”. III da X TemebSi gvaqvs Semdegi modelebi:<br />

147


VII menC1ÝiC3:<br />

mengÝim “damdgari”, “SemarTuli”<br />

X mustÝC1×C3:<br />

mustÝr×Ô “damsvenebeli”<br />

masdari iwarmoeba Án/yÁn sufiqsis darTviT perfeqtivis<br />

amosavali formis fuZeze: galÁn “Tqma”. TiTqmis yvelgan fuZiseuli<br />

grZeli Á mokldeba momdevno marcvlis maxviliani grZeli Ç-s<br />

fonetikuri zemoqmedebiT.<br />

i) susti zmnebis nawarmoebi Temebi: 1 2 3<br />

am tipis zmnebs aqvT Semdegi Temebi:<br />

perfeqtivi:<br />

II C1aC2C2a:<br />

samma “uwoda”, “saxeli daarqva”<br />

V taC1aC2C2a:<br />

taÒanna “gamdidrda”<br />

VII iC1taC2a:<br />

iltaga “Sexvda”, “Seegeba”<br />

X istaC1C2a:<br />

ista (‘) la “zemoT avida”, “amaRlda”<br />

imperfeqtivi:<br />

II iuC1ÆC2C2e: iusÆmme<br />

V iutC1ÆC2C2e: iutÒÆnne<br />

VII iuC1tuC2: iultug<br />

X iustuC1C2i: iustu (÷) li>iustæli<br />

k) susti zmnebis mimReoba da masdari: 1 2 3<br />

148


1-el TemaSi fiqsirdeba rogorc moqmedebiTi, aseve vnebiTi<br />

gvaris mimReobac: ÒÅdi “wamsvleli”, maÒdi “wasuli”. danarCeni<br />

Temebis moqmedebiTi gvaris mimReobebi Semdegnairad<br />

warmogvidgeba:<br />

II muC1aC2C2e: muÒanne “momRerali”<br />

V mutC1aC2C2e: mutÒadde “wamsvleli”<br />

VII muC1tuC2: mubtun “mSenebare”<br />

X mustæC1C2i: mustæli


imperfeqtivi:<br />

mx. r. mr. r.<br />

III mamr. isi isæn<br />

isunÁt<br />

md. tisi//itsi isÙnna<br />

II mamr. tisi//itsi tisæn//itsæn<br />

tisunÁt//itsunÁt<br />

md. tis×na//its×na tisÙnna<br />

I asi nasi//insi<br />

II ÓÁ (ö) “movida”<br />

perfeqtivi:<br />

mx. r. mr. r.<br />

III mamr. ÓÁ ÓÁw<br />

ÓawÁt<br />

md. ÓÁt ÓÆnna<br />

II mamr. Ó×t Óitæ<br />

ÓituwÁt<br />

md. Ó×t× ÓitÙnna<br />

I Ó×t Ó×na<br />

imperfeqtivi:<br />

III mamr. iÓi iÓæn<br />

md. tiÓi iÓunÁt<br />

iÓÙnna<br />

II mamr. tiÓi tiÓæn<br />

md. tiÓ×n tiÓunÁt<br />

tiÓÙnna<br />

I aÓ× niÓ×<br />

150


imperativi:<br />

mx. r. mr. r.<br />

II mamr. sæ suwÁt<br />

md. suw× suwÙnna<br />

zmna ÓÁ-s brZanebiTi kad-Si ar fiqsirdeba. aRniSnul kiloSi<br />

dasturdeba forma ta‘al! “modi!”, romelic gvxvdeba sxva arabul<br />

dialeqtebSic. saliteraturo arabulSi misi Sesatyvisia ‘alÁ<br />

zmnis VI Temis brZanebiTi. ta‘Ál xasiaTdeba sqesSi da ricxvSi<br />

cvalebadobis unariT. igi SinaarsiT ÓÁ-s brZanebiTs gamoxatavs:<br />

mx. r. mr. r.<br />

II mamr. ta‘Ála ta‘Álæ<br />

md. ta‘Ál× ta‘ÁlÙnna<br />

mimReoba: 1. sÅwi moqm. gv<br />

maswi vn. gv.<br />

2. ÓÁi<br />

masdari: 1. sawÁn//sawayÁn<br />

2. ÓayÁn<br />

yiSlaR jeÁnaus erT-erT ubanSi (mahalla), kerZod avonaSi<br />

dafiqsirda ta‘Ála zmnis cvalebadoba ara marto sqesSi da ricxvSi,<br />

aramed pirSic. es sagulisxmo SemTxveva miuTiTebs dialeqtSi<br />

formaTwarmoqmnis tendencias. gamonaklisis saxiT mogvyavs<br />

aRniSnuli zmnis uRlebis paradigma:<br />

perfeqtivi:<br />

mx. r. mr. r.<br />

III mamr. ta‘Ála ta‘Álaw<br />

ta‘ÁlawÁt<br />

151


md. ta‘Álat ta‘ÁlÙnna<br />

II mamr. ta‘Ált ta‘Áltæ<br />

ta‘ÁltuwÁt<br />

md. ta‘Álti ta‘ÁltÙnna<br />

I ta‘Ált ta‘Álna<br />

imperfeqtivi:<br />

III mamr. ita‘Ál ita‘Álæn<br />

ita‘ÁlunÁt<br />

md. tita‘Ál ita‘ÁlÙnna<br />

II mamr. tita‘Ál tita‘Álæn<br />

tita‘ÁlænÁt<br />

md. tita‘Ál×n tita‘ÁlÙnna<br />

I ata‘Ál nata‘Ál<br />

aseTia verbaluri warmoebis meqanizmi kad-Si. zmnuri sistema<br />

funqcionirebs zogadsemituri enobrivi modelis Sesabamisad.<br />

fiqsirdeba saliteraturo arabuli enisagan gansxvavebuli<br />

movlenebi, rac ganpirobebulia erTi mxriv, enis Sinagani<br />

ganviTarebiT, xolo meore mxriv, uzbekur da tajikur enebTan<br />

enobrivi kontaqtebiT. dialeqtisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli enobrivi<br />

cvlilebebi sayuradReboa ara marto arabuli dialeqtologiis,<br />

aramed zogadsemitologiuri TvalsazrisiTac.<br />

$ 24. zmnuri kompozitebi<br />

kaSkadariul<br />

Semdegi jgufebi:<br />

dialeqtSi gamoiyofa zmnuri kompozitebis<br />

1. kompozitebi, romelTa mniSvneloba gansazRvrulia pirveli<br />

wevriT.<br />

2. kompozitebi, romlebic atareben kompozitis meore wevris<br />

mniSvnelobas.<br />

152


3. kompozitebi sinonimuri mniSvnelobis sityvebiT. mag., Òadamad<br />

“wavida”, “midioda”, “gaeSura”. aseTi tipis kompozitebi<br />

umetesad ixmareba intensivis gamosaxatavad.<br />

4. gamoiyofa kompozitebi, romlebmac SeiZines axali<br />

mniSvneloba. am tipis kompoziti ar gamoxatavs arc erTi<br />

wevris mniSvnelobas. mag., ÷abar-ÓÁ÷ “gadmoxta”: fad way sahriya<br />

zÝk sabi beiga tam, ademiÁt ÷ayyanÁt-tammaw, âÁfæ mim bÝy Ôoyãa<br />

÷abar-ÓÁ÷ “erT dilas biWs daagvianda”(beiga tam


âÁribni gÁl “faSam Tqva: me ar damilevia”. saliteraturo<br />

arabulisaTvis ucxoa ganusazRvreli namyo. igi fiqsirdeba<br />

uzbekurSi. aqac iwarmoeba namyos mimReobaze zmnuri<br />

nacvalsaxeluri sufiqsis darTviT (ix. gv. 113).<br />

drois es forma uzbekurSi ganixileba, rogorc<br />

subieqturi warsuli. zmnis fuZes emateba ud absolutivi,<br />

romelic aRWurvilia Semasmenluri afiqsebiT:<br />

ёз-ud-ман “me Turme damiweria”<br />

ук-ud-ман “me Turme wamikiTxavs”.<br />

danarCeni rTuli formebidan unda gamovyoT<br />

gansazRvruli awmyo da rTuli (dauyovnebeli) momavali.<br />

gansazRvruli awmyo kaSkadariul arabul dialeqtSi<br />

iwarmoeba imperfeqtivis formaze damxmare nÁm zmnis<br />

moqmedebiTi gvaris mimReobis darTviT. mag., iãbuÕ nÁyim<br />

“acxobs, amzadebs axla”, nÝkul nÁyiminni “vWamT axla”.<br />

damxmare nÁm zmnis moqmedebiTi gvaris mimReoba, rogorc<br />

wesi, aRWurvilia nacvalsaxelovani sufiqsiT (ix.gv.115).<br />

rTuli (dauyovneblivi) momavali kaSkadariul dialeqtSi<br />

gadmoicema -ta prefiqsiT: ta-noÒdi “wavideT axlave”, ta-noÕuz<br />

“aviRoT axlave” (ix. gv. 116).<br />

6. kaSkadariul arabulSi calke jgufs qmnian kompozitebi,<br />

romelTa pirveli wevri ucxo warmomavlobis sityvaa, xolo<br />

meore - arabuli zmna.<br />

7. iSviaTad kompoziti Sedgenilia ucxo warmomavlobis orive<br />

wevriT. gvxvdeba uzbekur-tajikuri, uzbekur-uzbekuri,<br />

tajikur-uzbekuri da tajikur-tajikuri variantebi.<br />

8. dialeqtSi fiqsirdeba SemTxvevebi, roca kompozitis<br />

mniSvnelobas gansazRvravs konteqsti. kompozits<br />

winadadebaSi gaaCnia xan pirveli wevris da xanac meore<br />

wevris mniSvneloba. amasTanave, mravladaa kompozitebi<br />

fiqsirebuli mniSvnelobiT.<br />

9. aRsaniSnavia zogierTi SemTxveva, roca kompozitis erTerTi<br />

wevri damoukideblad gvxvdeba meore wevris<br />

mniSvnelobiT. mag., ÀfÀndi ãala÷ “efendi wavida”. ãala÷<br />

kaSkadariul arabulSi ZiriTadad ixmareba mniSvnelobiT -<br />

154


“avida”, “moevlina”. aq informants unda exmara kompoziti<br />

ãala÷-mad “wavida”, “gaemarTa”. kompozitis mniSvnelobas<br />

ganapirobebs meore wevri - mad.<br />

155


Tavi III<br />

damxmare sityvebi<br />

damxmare sityvebi saxelebisa da zmnebisgan gansxvavdebian imiT,<br />

rom maTTvis ar aris damaxasiaTebeli garkveuli konsonanturi<br />

Ziris struqtura da Sesabamisi modeliT gaxmovneba. am jgufSi<br />

gaerTianebulia ramdenime qvejgufi. esenia: zmnizedebi,<br />

Tandebulebi, kavSirebi, nawilakebi da Sorisdebulebi.<br />

$ 1. zmnizeda<br />

zmnizedebSi ZiriTadad gamoiyofa Semdegi sityvebi:<br />

barra “gareT”<br />

Óuwa “SigniT”<br />

kamÁn “kidev”<br />

ÓudÝ “Zalian”<br />

dÁim “mudam”<br />

hamÁna “aq”<br />

hanÁka “iq”<br />

ugæb “Semdeg”<br />

warÁ “ukan”<br />

giddÁm “win”<br />

amsiyya “guSin”<br />

wai saÔriyya “xval”<br />

taÔt “qveviT”<br />

‘ala “zeviT”<br />

zogierTma am zmnizedebidan SeiZleba ikisros nominaluri<br />

funqcia. aseT SemTxvevaSi winadadeba saxeladi tipisaa:<br />

hamÁna ÓudÝ zÎn, min hanÁka<br />

“aq ukeTesia, vidre iq”<br />

156


Óuwa ÓudÝ ks×r, min barra<br />

“SigniT metia, vidre gareT”<br />

hawliÝi giddÁm zÎn, min warÁ<br />

“Cemi karmidamos wina mxare (ufro) kargia, vidre ukana”.<br />

dialeqtSi fiqsirdeba sityvaTa zmnizedebad transformacia<br />

semantikuri cvlilebis Sedegad: sahriya “dila”, sahriya “diliT”,<br />

bÁ‘id “Sori”, bÁ‘id “Sors”, liÝm “dRes”. gamoiyofa, agreTve, ori<br />

sityvis SerwymiT miRebuli kompoziti zmnizedebi: kulwaÔt<br />

“yovelTvis”, badbukra “zeg”, mintaht “qveviT”.<br />

$ 2. Tandebuli<br />

kad-Si fiqsirdeba Semdegi Tandebulebi:<br />

i/fi “Si”<br />

‘and “Tan”<br />

men “dan, gan”<br />

ma‘a “Tan, erTad”<br />

i


zÝk iúbÎt ugaf<br />

“igi saxlTan gaCerda”<br />

ÉupÝn iúÓabÁl ãala‘<br />

“mwyemsi mTaze avida”<br />

mÝrata il-gÁba iúmÝy Òasala<br />

“misma colma xalaTi wyliT garecxa”<br />

amrigad, i - nawilaki kad-Si ixmareba sxvadasxva mniSvnelobiT.<br />

men/min da li Cndeba zmnizedebis win:<br />

mim fæk “zemoT”<br />

litaht “qvemoT”<br />

min ganicdis fonetikur cvlilebas da zogjer gadmoicema<br />

formiT – mim. es xdeba asimilaciis Sedegad maSin, roca<br />

Tandebulis momdevno sityva iwyeba labialuri TanxmovniT:<br />

mim bet “saxlidan”<br />

mim macÎt “meCeTidan”<br />

bolo xanebSi mim enacvleba min–s iq, sadac igi mosalodneli<br />

ar iyo:<br />

mim kuÉa iÓa “quCidan movida”<br />

mim ÕamsÝya ÝÕuz “mezobels gamovarTmev”<br />

$ 3. nawilaki<br />

kiTxviTi: imit “rodis?”<br />

iâqÝ “sad?”, “saiT?”<br />

eâ//iâ “ra?”<br />

li “ratom?”<br />

lem×n “vis?”<br />

kam “ramdeni?”<br />

kif’; “rogor?”<br />

men-wo


aseve rTuli nawilakia iâqÝ “sad”, “saiT”, romlis paralelurad<br />

gvxvdeba eâqÝ.<br />

dialeqtSi xSirad gvxvdeba Turquli warmomavlobis nawilaki<br />

–mi: âaif –mi “xedav?” intÙnna-mi “momeci?”<br />

uaryofiTi:<br />

la “ara”<br />

mÁ “ara”<br />

ma-haw//ma hay “ar aris (is)”, “ara”<br />

gaãiÝm “arasodes”<br />

gaããiâ “araferi”<br />

lÁ-s paralelurad dialeqtSi xSirad ixmareba am uaryofiTi<br />

nawilakis hamziani forma lÁ’, romelic ZiriTadad Tavs iCens<br />

pauzaSi. aRsaniSnavia agreTve mÁ. mas moeZebneba paraleluri<br />

mÁmin, romelic sakmaod gavrcelebulia da gamoxatavs srul<br />

uaryofas:<br />

mÁmin iÓa “aravin mosula”<br />

hanÁka mÁmin “iq aravin aris”<br />

nawilaki mÁ gvxvdeba agreTve nacvalsaxelovan sufiqsTan:<br />

manni ÉåpÝn “me ara var mwyemsi”<br />

mÁhay iúÔÝÖã “is ar aris saxlSi”<br />

formaSi manni “n” gaormagebulia. warmoTqmaSi geminacia ismis<br />

mkveTrad.<br />

gaããiâ “araferi” da gaãiÝm “arasodes” - rTuli formebia. maTi<br />

saerTo elementia gaãã (Sdr. qaããu).<br />

macalkevebeli:<br />

kul “yvela”, “yoveli”, “mTeli”,<br />

ba÷d “zogi”, “zogierTi”<br />

es nawilakebi funqcionireben, rogorc damoukideblad, aseve<br />

nacvalsaxelovan sufiqsebTan erTad:<br />

kul sab× “yoveli biWi”<br />

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a÷d birgad×rÁt “zogi brigadiri (brigadirebi)”<br />

kulhum mad “yvela (yoveli maTgani) wavida”<br />

badkum ÷Ýlim “zogi Tqvengani mecnieria”<br />

nawilakebi kul da ba÷d ixmareba prepoziciaSi rogorc zmnur<br />

formebTan, aseve saxelebTan. amasTanave, saxeli SeiZleba iyos<br />

mxolobiTSic da mravlobiTSic.<br />

mtkicebiTi:<br />

kad-Si mtkicebiT nawilaks warmoadgens ha. igi gvxvdeba<br />

mtkicebiT konstruqciebSi:<br />

inta tgæl! ha agul “Tqvi Sen! - ho, vambob”<br />

ruzqul iÓa? ha öiÓi-nÁim “ruzkoli movida? – diax, ai, modis”<br />

$ 4. kavSiri<br />

kad-Si gavrcelebulia Semdegi kavSirebi:<br />

/u/ “da”<br />

/bas/ “mxolod”, “oRond”, “oRondac”, “lamis”,<br />

“TiTqmis”<br />

/lÁkin/ “magram”, “oRondac”, “Tundac”<br />

/i/ “da”<br />

/ugæb/ “Semdeg”<br />

dasaxelebuli kavSirebi gvxvdeba saxelebTan, zmnebTan,<br />

nacvalsaxelebTan. isini warmodgenilia sintaqsur<br />

konstruqciebSi da winadadebebSi. damaxasiaTebelia paraleluri<br />

formebi: æ//wa; lÁkin//lÁken, ugæb//ogæb; i//wi<br />

$ 5. Sorisdebuli<br />

ah “ah!” “oh!” “uh!”<br />

aÛÛÁ “o, RmerTo!”<br />

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Sorisdebulebi gamoxataven gakvirvebas, aRtacebas, mwuxarebas.<br />

aÛÛÁ warmoadgens mimarTvas alahisadmi . igi xSirad kisrulobs<br />

Sorisdebulis funqcias.<br />

161


Tavi IV<br />

sintaqsi<br />

$ 1. sintaqsuri konstruqciebi<br />

kaSka-dariis arabul dialeqtSi droTa ganmavlobaSi<br />

ganviTarda saliteraturo arabuli enisagan gansxvavebuli<br />

sintaqsuri konstruqciebi. es movlena damaxasiaTebelia<br />

periferiuli arabuli dialeqtebisaTvis. amave dros dialeqtSi<br />

SenarCunebulia arabulisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli sintaqsuri<br />

wyoba. es exeba rogorc msazRvrel-sazRvruls, aseve winadadebis<br />

struqturasac.<br />

dialeqtSi gamoiyofa Semdegi konstruqciebi:<br />

a) sazRvrul-msazRvreli. arabulisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli es<br />

konstruqcia (status constructus) farTod aris gavrcelebuli kad-Si.<br />

sintaqsuri daqvemdebarebis aRniSnuli saxeobis produqtiulobas<br />

dialeqtSi isic uwyobs xels, rom kad-Si fiqsirdeba<br />

gansazRvruli al-artikli, rac naklebad aris damaxasiaTebeli<br />

sxva arabuli dialeqtebisaTvis.<br />

magaliTebi gansazRvruli al – artikliT:<br />

áÝÔb il-bÁgir - "Zroxis patroni"<br />

rÝs il-iÔmÝr – "saxedris Tavi"<br />

magaliTebi al-artiklis gareSe:<br />

laÔm na‘aÓa – "cxvris xorci"<br />

laÔm ÷anza – "Txis xorci"<br />

gid×r palÁw – "flavis qvabi"<br />

b) Turquli izafeti (msazRvrel-sazRvruli). kad-Si uzbekuri<br />

enis gavleniT ganviTarda konstruqcia, romelic ucxoa semituri<br />

enebisaTvis. Turqul izafetSi sazRvruli postpoziciaSia da<br />

aRWurvilia nacvalsaxelovani sufiqsiT:<br />

ÀfÀndi morta “efendis coli”, sityvasityviT: “efendi-misi coli”.<br />

hawliÝy áÝÔbu “karmidamos mflobeli”, sityvasityviT:<br />

“karmidamo –misi mflobeli”<br />

162


waladak farasu “Seni biWis cxeni”, sityvasityviT: “Seni biWi-misi<br />

cxeni”<br />

zÝÓ× bintu “Cemi qmris qaliSvili”, e. i. Cemi geri, sityvasityviT:<br />

“Cemi qmari-misi qaliSvili"<br />

a. k o n o n o v i uzbekurSi aRniSnuli konstruqciis<br />

maxasiaTeblad miiCnevs arsebiTi saxeliT arsebiTis gansazRvras,<br />

romlis drosac msazRvreli prepoziciaSia da SeuZlia<br />

formaucvlel mdgomareobaSi gadmosces sagnis Tviseba da<br />

ragvaroba (86, gv. 237). sazRvruls Turqul izafetSi daerTvis<br />

mesame piris gamomxatveli sufiqsi (-u, -cu), magaliTad:<br />

Синф журнали “saklaso Jurnali”<br />

китоб магазины “wignis maRazia”<br />

krebiTobis gamosaxatavad uzbekurSi msazRvrels daerTvis<br />

mravlobiTobis mawarmoebeli –лар sufiqsi, xolo kaSkadariulSi<br />

markeri –Át.<br />

magaliTebi uzbekuridan:<br />

болалар боfчаси “sabavSvo baRi”<br />

оталар сузи “andazebi”, sityvasityviT: “mamaTa<br />

(winaparTa) sityvebi”<br />

magaliTebi kaSkadariuli dialeqtidan:<br />

na‘aÓÁt áÝÔbu “cxvrebis patroni”, sityvasityviT:<br />

“cxvrebi - maTi patroni”<br />

âurabÁt gidira(h) “wvnianis qvabi”,sityvasityviT: “wvnianimisi<br />

qvabi”<br />

Turqul izafetSi sazRvrulTan dasaSvebia ramdenime<br />

msazRvreli prepoziciaSi:<br />

faras, na÷Óa, ’anza orzum “cxenis, cxvris [da] Txis miwa<br />

(saZovari)”, sityvasityviT: “cxeni, cxvari, Txa – maTi miwa (kad)”<br />

Sdr. uzb.: “Тил,адабиет ва тарих институти” enis, literaturisa<br />

da istoriis instituti.<br />

kodis Secvla (code switching)<br />

ukanasknel xanebSi kaSka-dariis mxareSi davafiqsireT enobrivi<br />

gadarTvis SemTxvevebi, roca informantebi axdenen Turquli<br />

163


izafetis kalkirebas. gamovlenilia uzbekuri enis orwevriani<br />

sintagmis xmarebis araerTi SemTxveva:<br />

a) msazRvreli aRWurvilia naTesaobiTi brunvis mawarmoebeli –<br />

нинг sufiqsiT, xolo sazRvruli III piris u, -cu sufiqsiT:<br />

waladÁn iúzÒ×r iúÊarb ãala‘, iúhama medrese Òada-mad, zÝka dilmurÝdning<br />

kitÝbi Õaza-mad.<br />

“umcrosi vaJi gzas daadga, im medreseSi wavida, man dilmurodis<br />

wigni (sityvasityviT: dil murodi-misi wigni) [Tan]<br />

waiRo”.<br />

poâÝ iúgappÁt iúbÝi ÓudÝ ÕairÝn sÝr, usmaning otasi sayaÔ. ugæb zÝka<br />

iúhamzÝk sayal:<br />

– usmaning otasi agar inta, li mÁ gulta?<br />

“faSa beis sityvebma Zalian gaakvirva, [man] usmanis mamas<br />

(sityvasityviT: usmans - mis mamas) dauZaxa. Semdeg man mas hkiTxa:<br />

- Tu Sen xar usmanis mama, ratom [aqamde] ar Tqvi (es) ?”<br />

b) ileyna iúÓeynÁu болалар бoÒÉasi hast<br />

“CvenTan jeÁnauSi aris sabavSvo baRi (sityvasityviT: bavSvebimaTi<br />

baRi)”.<br />

g) determinatiuli kompoziti warmoadgens izafetur<br />

konstruqcias, romlis pirveli wevri msazRvrelia, xolo meoresazRvruli.<br />

analogiuri konstruqciebi damaxasiaTebelia<br />

indoevropuli enebisaTvis (117, gv. 146). maTi arseboba Suaaziur<br />

arabulSi tajikurTan enobriv kontaqts unda mieweros.<br />

magaliTebi:<br />

wai áaÔariyya bÝi iúbozÝr mad. laÔam mib×Ô iúzÝka gÁl: farasak wenu?<br />

"diliT bei bazarSi wavida. xorcis gamyidvelma mas hkiTxa: -<br />

Seni cxeni sad aris?"<br />

hamsÝyta iúnorbÝn mib×Ô ÓawÁb mÁ nãa<br />

“mezobelma kibis gamyidvels pasuxi ar gasca”.<br />

kodis Secvla (Code switching):<br />

- iúgiddÁmo boÒi sovÕÝz hast<br />

“mis pirdapir meurneobis baRia”<br />

- moratna iúxonai kalÝn kÁnaw<br />

164


“Cveni qalebi (colebi) did oTaxSi iyvnen”.<br />

d) kad-Si uzbekuris gavleniT ganviTarda aRmatebiTi xarisxis<br />

gamomxatveli –În/×n elementi, romelic asrulebs makavSirebeli<br />

formantis funqcias msazRvrelsa da sazRvruls Soris:<br />

adem ×n Õas×s –“Zunwi kaci”<br />

bayt ×n kb×r –“didi saxli”<br />

uzbekurSi энг aRmatebiT xarisxs aRniSnavs. Sdr. энг улуf-<br />

“yvelaze didi”. kad-Si În/×n mxolod makavSirebelia<br />

konstruqciaSi N+În/×n+adj. aRsaniSnavia, rom uzbekuri энг-is<br />

Sesatyvisi Turquli en analogiur funqcias asrulebs samxreT<br />

TurqeTis adanasa da mersinis arabul dialeqtebSi. amave dros ar<br />

gamovricxavT aRniSnuli tipis konstruqciebSi, arsebiT<br />

saxelebTan, ganusazRvrelobis maCvenebeli arabuli Tenvinis<br />

arsebobas (24, gv. 299).<br />

e) Turqulis gavlenas unda mieweros kad-Si iseTi tipis<br />

konstruqciis arseboba, rogoricaa Pronpers+N+Pronsuf. am tipis<br />

sintagmaSi piris nacvalsaxeli win uZRvis saxels, romelsac<br />

daerTvis nacvalsaxelovani sufiqsi:<br />

ana hawliÝi “Cemi karmidamo”<br />

ana ÔÝiã× “Cemi saxli”<br />

inta waladak “Seni biWi”<br />

zÝka iÔmÝru “misi saxedari”<br />

$ 2. winadadebis struqtura<br />

a) nominali winadadeba<br />

kad-Si gamoiyofa nominali winadadebis Semdegi ZiriTadi tipebi:<br />

1. il-n + n + Pron.suf :<br />

il-ÔÝiã bÎtu “es saxli misi sacxovrebelia”<br />

il-Òasl mehnata “recxva misi saqmea”<br />

(i)s-sovdagar÷ia ÔayÝta “vaWroba misi cxovrebaa”<br />

2. n-Pronsuf.+n:<br />

165


maÔallatna Ôarræq “Cveni ubania haruki”<br />

3. n-Pronsuf+adj:<br />

havliÝi kiv×r “Cemi karmidamo didia”<br />

kannata Õuâræya “misi patarZali lamazia”<br />

4. il-n+adj:<br />

il-gid×r malÁn “qvabi savsea”<br />

il-Õuãba zÎna “xutba (qadageba meCeTSi) kargia”<br />

5.1. ilÁ (>ilÎ) – Pron.suf.(-Át)+n: .<br />

ilÎynÁt guãun “Cven gvaqvs bamba”<br />

ilÁy riz÷Ýn “me Svilebi myavs”<br />

5.2. ilÁ (>ilÎ) -Pron.suf.(Át)+n-Pron.suf.+adj:<br />

ileynÁt havl×na kiv×r “Cveni karmidamo didia”<br />

5.3 ilÁ (ilÎ)- Pron.suf. (Át)+n+adj:<br />

ileynÁt mÁl kis×r “Cven saqoneli bevri gvyavs”<br />

5.4. ilÁ (>ilÎ)-Pron.suf. (Át) +Prep.+n – Pron.suf.+n<br />

ilÎyna iúbeytna na÷Óa, bÁgir, öanza<br />

“Cven saxlSi gvyavs cxvari, Zroxa (da) Txa ”<br />

ileynÁt iúÓeinÁu ÕizmÁt ÓådÝ kÝna<br />

“Cven jeÁnauSi Zalin bevri saqme (gvaqvs)”<br />

6.1. Pron.pers.+adj:<br />

z×ka Õuâræya “is lamazia”<br />

zÝka ta÷bÁn “is daRlilia”<br />

6.2. Pron.pers.+n+×n+adj:<br />

inta öaÕu×n i sÒ×r “Sen umcrosi Zma xar”<br />

7. Num.+n+prep-Pron.suf.:<br />

salÁs walad ÷and× “me sami biWi myavs”<br />

8. n+Num.+prep.-Pron.suf.:<br />

bint orba ÷and× “me oTxi qaliSvili myavs”<br />

9. adv.+n+ilÎ-pron.suf. (Át):<br />

hÝzir dÝla il×nÁt “axla qveyana Cvenia”<br />

10. Pron.dem.+n – Pron.suf.+n:<br />

166


hÁza abæ umma arab “misi deda (da) mama arabebia (es - misi mama,<br />

deda-arabia)”<br />

11. Pron.dem.+adj:<br />

hÁza Õaf×f “es msubuqia”<br />

12. n+adj:<br />

ÔÝiã Óid×d “saxli axalia”<br />

Ôal×b Ýbiz “rZe TeTria”<br />

13. (il)n+part.pass.:<br />

(il) gid×r maksær “qvabi gatexilia”<br />

(il) b×r maÔfær “Wa gaTxrilia”<br />

14. adv.-Pron.suf.+Prep.+n:<br />

ba÷du f× -l-bÝÒ “zogi (maTgani) baRSia”<br />

15. n+adv-Pron.suf.:<br />

Òaraba fÝgu “xe aris mis zemoT”<br />

16. Pron.pers.+adj+(v)<br />

zÝka baÕ×l (keyyin) “igi Zunwi (iyo)”<br />

17. adv-Pron.suf.+n+(v)<br />

fÝgu havliÝi (hast) “mis zemoT karmidamoa (aris)”<br />

aRniSnuli konstruqciebis gavrcelebis areali kad-Si farToa.<br />

winadadebis wevrebisTvis damaxasiaTebelia poziciuri<br />

cvlilebebi. predikati xSirad ikavebs qvemdebaris adgils da<br />

gvevlineba prepoziciaSi. magaliTad:<br />

meÔnata il-Òasl<br />

“misi saqmea recxva”(Sdr. il-Òasl meÔnata)<br />

ÔayÝta sovdagaria<br />

“misi cxovreba vaWrobaa” (Sdr.: (i)s-sovdagaria ÔayÝta)<br />

malÁn il-gid×r<br />

“savsea qvabi” (Sdr.: il-gid×r malÁn)<br />

mÁl kis×r ileynÁt<br />

“saqoneli bevri (gvyavs)-Cven” (Sdr.: ileynÁt mÁl kis×r)<br />

ÕizmÁt ÓådÝ kÝna ileynÁt iúÓeinÁw<br />

“Zalian bevri saqmea jeÁnauSi, CvenTan” (Sdr.: ileynÁt iúÓeinÁw<br />

ÕizmÁt ÓådÝ kÝna)<br />

167


÷and× salÁs walÁd<br />

“sami biWi myavs me” (Sdr.: salÁs walÁd ÷and×)<br />

winadadebis wevrTa aseTi gadaadgilebis dros xSirad Cndeba<br />

zmnuri Semasmeneli, rac saerTod ar aris ucxo aRniSnuli tipis<br />

konstruqciebisTvis:<br />

bÎtu il ÔÝiã hast “misi sacxovrebeli es saxlia (aris)”<br />

ÔayÝta-s-sordagar×a kÁnaw “misi cxovreba vaWroba iyo”<br />

zmnuri forma (kÁnaw) mravlobiTSi damaxasiaTebelia aseTi<br />

tipis winadadebebisaTvis. poziciaTa cvalebadoba winadadebis<br />

wevrebs Soris naklebadaa damaxasiaTebeli saliteraturo<br />

arabulisaTvis. dialeqtSi igi SeiZleba aixsnas, rogorc enis<br />

Sinagani ganviTarebiT, aseve kontaqtSi myofi enebis gavleniT.<br />

b) kiTxviTi winadadeba<br />

kiTxviTi windadeba iwarmoeba Semdegi nacvalsaxelebiTa da<br />

kiTxviTi nawilakebiT:<br />

1. min “vin?”<br />

2. eâ//iâ “ra?”<br />

3. kim “vin?”<br />

4. nima “ra?”<br />

5. imit “rodis?”<br />

6. iâqÝ “sad?”, “saiT?”, “romeli mimarTulebiT?”<br />

7. li “ratom?”<br />

8. lem×n “visTvis?”<br />

9. kam “ramdeni?”<br />

10. kil “rogor?”<br />

11. wÎn “sad?”<br />

12. Éi “gana?”, “ara?”, “nuTu?”<br />

13. a (xmovnis Semdeg ya) kiTxviTi nawilaki gamoxatavs agreTve<br />

sinanuls, gakvirvebas, aRtacebas.<br />

14. –mi kiTxviTi nawilaki daerTvis sityvas da aniWebs mas<br />

kiTxviT Sinaarss.<br />

15. k× “vin?”<br />

168


16. É× “ra?”<br />

CamoTvlili formebis umravlesoba arabuli warmomavlobisaa.<br />

aqve gamoiyofa uzbekuri da tajikuri nasesxobebi, romelTa<br />

funqcionirebis areali dialeqtSi SezRuduli ar aris.<br />

informantebi arabuli kiTxviTi nacvalsaxelebisa da<br />

nawilakebis paralelurad xSirad iyeneben uzbekur da tajikur<br />

formebs. esenia: kim uzb. “vin”, nima uzb. “ra?”, Éi uzb. “gana?”,<br />

“nuTu”, “ara?”, a (ya) uzb.-taj. kiTxviTi nawilaki, k× taj. “vin?”, É×<br />

taj. “ra?”. m× tajikuri kiTxviTi nawilakia, warmoadgens<br />

bolosarTs, aniWebs winadadebas kiTxviT Sinaarss. igi<br />

warmodgenilia uzbekurSic. mi nawilakiani konstruqciebi<br />

SeiZleba CaiTvalos Suaaziur arabulSi kiTxviTi winadadebis<br />

gavrcelebul saxeobad:<br />

bÝzÝr ib÷×r hast-mi?<br />

“gana [aq] aqlemis bazaria?”<br />

z×ka Õuâræya hast-mi?<br />

“gana is lamazia?”<br />

zogjer informantis mier ucxouri formis gamoyenebisas saqme<br />

gvaqvs kodis SecvlasTan an SerevasTan. aseT SemTxvevaSi<br />

nasesxoba unda ganvixiloT ara rogorc dialeqtSi<br />

damkvidrebuli ucxo enobrivi erTeuli, aramed rogorc kodis<br />

gadarTva. es movlena damaxasiaTebelia kontaqtSi myofi<br />

enebisaTvis.<br />

qvemoT warmovadgenT kiTxviTi martivi nominali winadadebis<br />

struqturul modelebs magaliTebiTurT:<br />

1. min+Pers.pron?<br />

min inta? “vin xar Sen?”<br />

2. eâ + n?<br />

eâ Õabar? “ra ambavia?”<br />

3. nima eâ + n (+v)?<br />

nima eâ ÷amal (hast)? “ra saqmea?”<br />

4. imit//imta+n?<br />

169


imit//imta bidÁye?<br />

daiwyeba?”<br />

“rodis aris dasawyisi?”, “rodis<br />

5. min iâqo + Pron.dem.+n?<br />

min iâqo hÁma walad? “saidan (aris) es biWi?”<br />

6. lem×n Pron.dem+n<br />

lem×n hama hÝÖã? “visia es saxli?”<br />

7. kam + n?<br />

kam waÕt? “romeli saaTia?”<br />

8. wÎn + n?<br />

wÎn mu÷allim? “sad aris maswavlebeli?”<br />

9. n + wÎn – Pronsuf.<br />

mu÷allim wÎnu? “maswavlebeli _ sad aris (is)?”<br />

10. n – Éi + adv<br />

sobÕÝz-Éi hamÁna? “(gana) meurneoba aq (aris)?”<br />

11. n- Éi+adj?<br />

sobÕÝz-Éi qad×m? “(gana) meurneoba Zvelia?”<br />

12. n+adj-mi?<br />

hÝiã qad×m-mi? "saxli Zvelia?"<br />

13. n +iún + (v) – mi?<br />

ÀfÀndi iúbÎt (hast)-mi? “efendi saxlSia?”<br />

14. n (Pron.pers)+ iún + ki//Éi (min –ki//min-Éi) + (ma) part.<br />

ÀfÀndi iúbawÝra min-ki min-Éi (ma) fÁhim “efendim bavoraSi vin<br />

(da) ra [e.i. iqauri ambebi] (ar) icis”.<br />

kad-Si fiqsirdeba winadadebis mTavar wevrTa poziciis Secvla<br />

winadadebisaTvis kiTxviT Sinaarsis misaniWeblad:<br />

z×ka Õuâræya “is lamazia”<br />

Õuâræya z×ka? “lamazia, is?”<br />

Òaraba fÝgu “xe aris mis zemoT”<br />

fÝgu Òaraba? “(gana) mis zemoT aris xe?”<br />

170


zogierTi konstruqcia uzbekuris analogiuria, rac<br />

xangrZlivi enobrivi kontaqtis Sedegia. mag., hÝiã qad×m-mi?<br />

“saxli Zvelia?” Sdr. uzb. yæ kammami? “saxli didia?”<br />

kad-Si kiTxviTi Sinaarsi winadadebas SeiZleba mieniWos<br />

intonaciis SecvliT, kiTxviTi nawilakis gareSec:<br />

Óeraqul hanÁke? “jerakuli iq aris?”<br />

z×ka mu÷allime? “is maswavlebelia?”<br />

z×ka bÝi binta hast -mi? “is beis qaliSvilia?”<br />

kad-Si kiTxviTi frazis melodika uSualo kavSirSia<br />

winadadebaSi kiTxviTi nawilakis an nebismieri kiTxviTi<br />

elementis poziciasTan. toni maRalia kiTxviT sityvasTan.<br />

winadadebis danarCeni wevrebi daRmavali toniT warmoiTqmis.<br />

intensivis gamoxatvis mizniT frazaSi sityvis gadasmas Tan<br />

axlavs tonis aweuloba winadadebis dasawyisSi. aseT SemTxvevaSi<br />

Tavidanve TvalsaCinoa gansxvaveba TxrobiT da kiTxviT<br />

winadadebas Soris. aseTi winadadebis melodika daRmavalia.<br />

sqematurad kiTxviTi winadadebebis ZiriTadi tipebis melodika<br />

Semdegnairad gamoiyureba.<br />

min iâqo hama walad?<br />

ÀfÀndi iúbawÝra min-ki , min – Éi ma idr×<br />

ÔÝiã qad×m-mi<br />

ÀfÀndi iúbÎt hast-mi?<br />

frazis bolos Sesityveba dabali toniT warmoiTqmeba:<br />

farasak wenu? inta gæla “sad aris Seni cxeni, miTxari!”<br />

frazis melodika SeiZleba dairRves winadadebaSi sityvebisa<br />

da kiTxviTi nawilakebis gadaadgilebiT. am SemTxvevaSic daculia<br />

171


ZiriTadi principi, romlis Tanaxmad, kiTxviT elementebTan toni<br />

mudam aweulia.<br />

kad-Si kiTxvisaTvis gamoyenebulia Turquli nawilaki mi. mi –<br />

nawilakiani formebi SeiZleba CaiTvalos Suaaziur arabulSi<br />

kiTxviTi winadadebis maxasiaTeblad:<br />

bÝzÝr ib÷×r hast-mi? “gana aqlemis bazaria?”<br />

z×ka Õuâræya hast-mi? “gana is lamazia?”<br />

g) uaryofiTi winadadeba<br />

uaryofiTi winadadeba kad-Si iwarmoeba uaryofiTi<br />

nacvalsaxeliT, nawilakebiTa da gamoTqmebiT, romlebic umetes<br />

SemTxvevaSi gvevlineba Tavkidur poziciaSi. kad-Si<br />

funqcionirebs uaryofis gamomxatveli Semdegi elementebi:<br />

1. mÁ “ara”, “ar”, “vera”, “ver”<br />

2. mamin<br />

“veraferi”<br />

“aravin”, “veravin”, “araferi”,<br />

3. mÁhad (


mamin iúÔÝÖã “saxlSi aravin ar aris”<br />

4. mamin+part<br />

mamin ÓÁi “aravin modis”<br />

aRniSnuli konstruqciebisaTvis damaxasiaTebelia poziciuri<br />

cvlilebebi, rac metyvelebis dros Cveulebrivad aRiqmeba da arc<br />

Tu iSviaTad, moqmedebis intensivis gamoxatvas emsaxureba: ÓÁi<br />

mamin! an ÓÁi gaããaÔad! “aravinac ar mosula!”. zogjer intensivis<br />

gadmosacemad uaryofiTis ori forma erTad gvxvdeba: mamin ma<br />

iÓa! “aravinac ar mosula!”.<br />

$ 3. verbali winadadeba<br />

verbali winadadebis umartives saxeobad ganixileba zmnis<br />

perfeqtivis da imperfeqtivis formebi, romlebic subieqtsa da<br />

obieqts gamoxataven da saTanado markerebiT arian aRWurvilni:<br />

katabÆnna “daweres maT” (md.)<br />

lihigawÁt “miaRwies maT” (mamr.)<br />

i÷Ýbir il-bÝg “gadadis [is] baRSi”<br />

winadadebaTa am jgufs miekuTvneba rTuli formebi, romlebic<br />

saliteraturo arabuli enisagan gansxvavebul drois<br />

kategoriebs gamoxataven.<br />

1. ganusazRvreli awmyo:<br />

garayÁn isi “is wera-kiTxvis mcodnea, wignieria”<br />

÷amalÁn isi “is muSaobs” (=mas aqvs samsaxuri)<br />

2. ganusazRvreli namyo:<br />

âÁribni “me damilevia”, anÁ mÁ âÁribni “me ar damilevia”<br />

kÁtibni “me damiweria”, anÁ mÁ kÁtibni “me ar damiweria”<br />

3. gansazRvruli awmyo:<br />

iÓi nÁyim “is modis (axla, am wuTSi)”<br />

iãbuÕ nÁyim “is acxobs (axla, am momentSi)”<br />

4. rTuli (dauyovnebeli) momavali:<br />

ta-noÒdi “wavideT (axla)”<br />

173


ta-nÝkul “vWamoT (axla)”<br />

ganusazRvreli namyoTi gadmocemuli moqmedeba kad-Si<br />

qarTuli TurmeobiTis analogiuria. drois am formisa da<br />

gansazRvruli awmyos gaCena kad-Si uzbekuri enis gavlenas unda<br />

mieweros (117, gv. 142).<br />

gangrZobiTobiT xasiaTdeba formebi, romlebic kÁn damxmare<br />

zmnasTan erTad warsuls gamoxataven:<br />

kÎn igræn “isini kiTxulobdnen”<br />

kÎn iÝÕuzæ “isini iRebdnen”<br />

gardamavali zmna kad-Si aRWurvilia nacvalsaxelovani<br />

sufiqsiT. igi winadadebaSi gamoxatavs obieqts. im SemTxvevaSic ki,<br />

rodesac winadadebaSi damateba warmodgenilia, gardamaval zmnas<br />

obieqtis gamomxatveli nacvalsaxelovani sufiqsi mainc daerTvis.<br />

es movlena SeiZleba CaiTvalos kad-is zmnuri winadadebis erTerT<br />

maxasiaTeblad:<br />

illay ba÷asni<br />

“gamomigzavna (me)”<br />

boi binta il-walad ma-nta<br />

“beim biWs Tavisi qaliSvili ar misca (ar misca mas)”<br />

vinaidan gardamavali zmna mudmivad aRWurvilia<br />

nacvalsaxelovani sufiqsiT, subieqtTan erTad obieqtic<br />

gamoxatulia da aseTi formebi orpirian zmnebad SeiZleba<br />

ganvixiloT. gardamavlobis nebismier SemTxvevaSi<br />

nacvalsaxelovani sufiqsiT fiqsacia unda CaiTvalos kad-is<br />

zmnuri sistemis erT-erT maxasiaTeblad. igi sayuradReboa<br />

verbaluri meqanizmis ganviTarebis zogadi tendenciebis<br />

Sesaswavlad (117, gv. 147). sayuradReboa aRniSnuli movlena im<br />

TvalsazrisiTac, rom mas moeZebneba paraleli kavkasiur enebSi.<br />

verbal winadadebaSi qvemdebaris gamoxatvis funqcia ekisreba<br />

arsebiT saxels, zedsarTavs, piris nacvalsaxels,<br />

nacvalsaxelovan sufiqsebs da ricxviT saxels.<br />

damatebis gamomxatvelia arsebiTi saxeli, nacvalsaxelovani<br />

sufiqsebi, agreTve zmnizedebi da damxmare sityvebi.<br />

174


verbali winadadebis Semasmeneli gamoixateba zmnis martivi da<br />

rTuli formebiT (kompozitebiT, drois gansazRvruli formebiT,<br />

kÁna damxmare zmnisa da misi msgavsi formebis saSualebiT).<br />

$ 4. sityvaTa rigi winadadebaSi<br />

sityvaTa rigi winadadebaSi ar aris regulirebuli<br />

saliteraturo arabulis Sesabamisad. nacvlad Tanmimdevrobisa –<br />

PSO (Semasmeneli – qvemdebare - damateba) ZiriTadad<br />

warmodgenilia Semdegi rigebi:<br />

1. SPO – qvemdebare – zmnuri Semasmeneli – damateba<br />

2. SOP – qvemdebare – damateba – zmnuri Semasmeneli<br />

3. OSP – damateba – qvemdebare – zmnuri Semasmeneli<br />

4. OPS – damateba – zmnuri Semasmeneli – qvemdebare<br />

iSviaTad gvxvdeba Semdegi tipebi:<br />

a. PSO – zmnuri Semasmeneli –qvemdebare – damateba<br />

b. POS – zmnuri Semasmeneli – damateba – qvemdebare.<br />

am SemTxvevaSi zmnas ekisreba moqmedebis intensivobis<br />

gamoxatva.<br />

ganvixilavT TiToeul maTgans cal-calke.<br />

1. SPO – qvemdebare-zmnuri Semasmeneli-damateba (Subject-<br />

Predicate-Object). aRniSnuli Tanmimdevroba gvxvdeba<br />

buxarul dialeqtSic. igi damaxasiaTebelia sxva arabuli<br />

dialeqtebisTvisac. kad-Si gamoirCeva gavrcelebis naklebi<br />

sixSiriT.<br />

magaliTebi:<br />

ÒulÝm fataÔ il-bÁb<br />

“biWma gaaRo kari”<br />

il-Õaã×b ÷abar iúmimbar<br />

“xatibi kaTedraze avida”<br />

2. SOP – qvemdebare-damateba-zmnuri Semasmeneli<br />

175


winadadebis es tipi farTodaa gavrcelebuli kad-Si.<br />

Txrobis dros informantebi xSirad warmoTqvamen sityvebs<br />

winadadebaSi aRniSnuli TanmimdevrobiT. Semasmeneli<br />

winadadebis boloSi saerTod damaxasiaTebelia<br />

tajikurisaTvis. ar aris gamoricxuli am mxriv kad-is<br />

winadadebis struqturaze tajikuri enis zegavlena:<br />

poâo iúwaz×rÁta áayaÔa<br />

“faSam (Tavis) vezirebs uxmo”<br />

ÉupÝn iúbÝÒ ÷abar<br />

“mwyemsi baRSi gadaZvra”<br />

sawdogÁr iúbuÕÝro daÕal<br />

“sovdagari buxaraSi Sevida”<br />

sawdogÁr ÒulÝm minsayyl-sayal: eâÁt ÓayyibinÁt keyyinÁt?<br />

“sovdagarma biWs hkiTxa: ra moitaneT?”<br />

3. OSP – damateba – qvemdebare – zmnuri Semasmeneli<br />

damatebis prepoziciaSi dasma SeiZleba ganxilul iqnes<br />

kad-is erT-erT ZiriTad sintaqsur Taviseburebad. msgavsi<br />

konstruqciebis arseboba dialeqtSi adasturebs mis<br />

daSorebas saliteraturo arabulTan, rac xangrZlivi<br />

periodis ganmavlobaSi mSobliuri enobrivi garemosgan<br />

mowyvetiT aris ganpirobebuli. winadadebaSi wevrebis aseTi<br />

Tavisufali rigis Camoyalibeba dialeqtis uzbekurTan<br />

xangrZliv enobriv kontaqts unda mieweros. amasTanave, ar<br />

gamovricxavT enis Sinagani ganviTarebis tendencias, rasac<br />

SeeZlo gamoewvia aRniSnuli movlena. magaliTebis mixedviT<br />

Tu vimsjelebT, aRniSnuli tipis konstruqciebSi gvaqvs<br />

xazgasma obieqtze, rac misi Tavkiduri poziciiT aris<br />

ganpirobebuli:<br />

iúgaããiâ ma ÷andu pÝâÝ sayal: inta gæla?<br />

“Raribs (arafris mqones) faSam hkiTxa: - Sen Tqvi es?”<br />

iúriwoyÁt sawÁnhum, iúriwoyÁt Õabar igælæn, fad adem×n Õas×s kÎyyin<br />

176


“[rogorc Zvel] TqmulebebSi ambavs yvebian, iyo erTi Zunwi<br />

kaci.<br />

iúdarwÝza walad ugaf<br />

“kibesTan biWi SeCerda”<br />

iúmarw× bÝi áayaÔ áÝr<br />

“mrwyvels beim dauZaxa (moixmo)”<br />

4. OPS – damateba – zmnuri Semasmeneli –qvemdebare<br />

winadadebis aRniSnuli tipi, Cems xelT arsebuli<br />

masalebis Tanaxmad, ar gvxvdeba sxva arabul dialeqtebSi.<br />

ar aris igi warmodgenili arc mesopotamiur arabulSi,<br />

romelTanac saerTo aqvs Suaaziur arabuls (n i b e r g i,<br />

w e r e T e l i 185, 118). mesopotamiur arabulSi qÁl-is da<br />

gÁl-is dialeqtebis gamoyofis Semdeg SesaZlebeli gaxda<br />

aRniSnuli regionis qalaqelTa da beduinebis metyvelebis<br />

TaviseburebaTa aRnusxva (h. b l a n k i 144). miuxedavad aseTi<br />

TvalsaCinoebisa, erayis arabul dialeqtSi konstruqcia<br />

OPS ar dafiqsirebula da arc Tanamedrove literaturaSi<br />

ar aris gamovlenili. zemoTqmulidan gamomdinare,<br />

aRniSnuli tipis winadadeba SeiZleba CaiTvalos Suaaziuri<br />

arabulis damaxasiaTeblad (197).<br />

magaliTebi buxaruli dialeqtidan:<br />

iúgåliqoqo sayal z×b-ÓondÝr<br />

“mgelma yvavils hkiTxa” (yvavils hkiTxa mgelma)<br />

ilu ãalabÁn su tangÁt<br />

“mas mosTxova vercxlis fuli”<br />

iúãangÁt ma uda÷ ×du<br />

“fuli ar aiRo” (fuls xeli ar daado)<br />

magaliTebi kaSkadariuli dialeqtidan:<br />

iúÔÝyiã daÕal aÕu×n iúzÒ×r<br />

177


“umcrosi Zma saxlSi Sevida (saxlSi Sevida umcrosi Zma)”<br />

iúbint Õuâræya âÁfaha il-walad<br />

“Wabukma mzeTunaxavs Sexeda (lamaz asuls Sexeda Wabukma)”<br />

iúdarb gaãa÷ il-faras<br />

“cxenma gza gadaWra (gza gadaWra cxenma)”<br />

brunvis niSnebis moSlam da sityvebis Tavisufalma<br />

monacvleobam winadadebaSi aucilebeli gaxada Suaaziur<br />

arabulSi damatebisaTvis specialuri markeris Seqmna.<br />

gansakuTrebiT saWiro gaxda markeri iseTi tipis konstruqciebSi,<br />

sadac obieqti Tavkidur poziciaSi imyofeba. aseTi funqcia ikisra<br />

i – formantma, romelic zemomoyvanil magaliTebSi damatebas<br />

miuTiTebs. saerTod, i -s gavrcelebis areali kad-Si farToa.<br />

misTvis ucxo ar aris naTesaobiTi da braldebiTi brunvebis<br />

gamoxatva, -Tan, -ze, -Si Tandebuliani formebis gadmocema.<br />

magaliTebi:<br />

pÝâÝ iúÒulÝm sayaÔ<br />

“faSam biWs dauZaxa”<br />

bÝy iúbÎta ÒadÁ-mad<br />

“bei saxlSi wavida”<br />

iúnorbÝn ÀfÀndi ãalaÔ<br />

“efendi kibeze avida”<br />

iúbÝy ÉåpÝn mad<br />

“mwyemsi beisTan wavida”<br />

CamoTvlili konstruqciebi Seadgenen winadadebaTa 6 saxeobas<br />

– esenia: SPO, SOP, OSP, OPS, PSO da POS. aqedan saliteraturo<br />

arabulisaTvis damaxasiaTebelia PSO. SedarebiT iSviaTia<br />

saliteraturo arabulSi POS-s tipis konstruqciebi. danarCeni<br />

zemoTganxiluli tipebidan mxolod Suaaziur arabulSi gvxvdeba<br />

OPS da OSP. SPO da SOP damaxasiaTebelia rogorc aRmosavluri,<br />

ise dasavluri arabuli dialeqtebisaTvis. aqve unda aRiniSnos,<br />

rom ganxiluli saxeobebi sayuradReboa enaTa tipologiuri<br />

178


kvlevis TvalsazrisiTac. kad-Si gamoyofili winadadebis wevrTa<br />

Tanmimdevrobebi TiTqmis universaluria da araerT enaSi gvxvdeba.<br />

am mxriv Cveni masala SeiZleba Sedarebul iqnes Turqul da<br />

indoevropul enebTan, sadac winadadebebSi fiqsirdeba Cven mier<br />

ganxiluli Tanmimdevrobebi.<br />

$ 5. rTuli winadadeba<br />

a) Tanwyobili winadadeba<br />

kad-Si fiqsirdeba rTuli Tanwyobili winadadeba. igi Sedgeba<br />

ori an meti martivi winadadebisgan, romlebic kavSiriT<br />

erTiandebian:<br />

anÁ iúbÝzÝr Òadeyt u hamnÁk ib÷×r âtareyt<br />

“me bazarSi wavedi da iq aqlemi viyide”<br />

muÔammadqæl iúhama qiâlÝq birgad×r kÁnaw (u) zÝka arabÉa kÎyin idr×<br />

“muhamadyuli yiSlaRSi brigadiri iyo da man arabuli icoda”<br />

damaxasiaTebelia kavSiris amovardna:<br />

anÁ iúbÝzÝr Òadeyt, hamnÁk ib÷×r âtareyt<br />

“me bazarSi wavedi, iq aqlemi viyide”<br />

muÔammadqæl iúhama qiâlÝq birgad×r kÁnaw, zÝka arabÉa kÎyin idr×<br />

“muhamadyuli yiSlaRSi brigadiri iyo, man arabuli icoda”<br />

b) qvewyobili winadadeba<br />

rTul winadadebaSi fiqsirdeba Semdegi kavSirebi:<br />

bas “magram”, “oRond”, “oRondac”, “Tumca”, “mxolod”<br />

lÁken


imit “roca”<br />

iâqo “saidan”<br />

hatta “ise, rom”, “sanam ar”, “manamde”, “sanam”<br />

gamoiyofa Semdegi formebi:<br />

qabla an “sanam ar”<br />

qabla mÁ “manamde, sanam”<br />

min iâqo “saidanac”<br />

iúhamÁna “sadac”<br />

ba÷d mÁ “mas Semdeg, rac”<br />

CamoTvlili formebidan ki tajikuridan aris nasesxebi. igi kad-<br />

Si farTod aris gavrcelebuli. misi mniSvnelobaa - “rom”,<br />

“romelic”. -ki gamoiyeneba rTul qvewyobil winadadebaSi<br />

mTavari da damokidebuli winadadebebis dasakavSireblad.<br />

analogiur funqcias asrulebs igi uzbekurSic. uzbekurSi<br />

ZiriTadad -ki-s saSualebiT xdeba qvewyobili winadadebis mTavari<br />

wevris damokidebulTan dakavSireba. im SemTxvevaSi, Tu - ki<br />

daerTvis rTul qvewyobil winadadebaSi mTavari winadadebis<br />

Semasmenels, iwereba masTan gadabmulad, xolo damokidebuli<br />

winadadebis SemasmenelTan mZimiT gamoiyofa. Cven mas defisiT<br />

gamovyofT: gÁl-ki “uTxra, rom”.<br />

magaliTebi kad-idan:<br />

ugæb pÝâÝ gÁl-ki iú÷andu hama walad Ó×bu!”<br />

“Semdeg faSam brZana, rom is biWi misTvis mieyvanaT!”<br />

ÀfÀndi iúhamsÝyta gÁl-ki: “iúnarbÝn limÁ ãala÷et?”<br />

“efendim mezobels hkiTxa: “-kibeze ratom ar axvedi?”<br />

riwÝyÁt isæn-ki fad balad podâÝta wai doniâmÆnda iúfad gÝÆ ãal÷×nÁt<br />

“gadmocemebi (Zveli Tqmulebebi) metyveleben, rom erT qveyanaSi<br />

[erTi] fadiSahi da misi mrCeveli erT qveyanas miadgnen”.<br />

kad-is winadadebis struqturisaTvis damaxasiaTebelia<br />

damokidebuli winadadebis CarTva mTavarSi. aseT SemTxvevaSi<br />

mTavari winadadebis Semasmeneli ikavebs rTuli qvewyobili<br />

winadadebis bolokidur pozicias:<br />

ugæb pÝâÝ – “hama walad iú÷andi Ó×bu! – gÁl<br />

180


Semdeg faSam – “es biWi momgvareT!” - brZana<br />

ÀfÀndi iúhamsÝyta – “iúnorbÝn limÁ ãala÷et?” gÁl<br />

efendim mezobels – “kibeze ratom axvedi?” - hkiTxa<br />

bÝi binta iúhama walad – “anÁ umm× abæya hama Õabar ma igdir<br />

agælya” – gÁlet<br />

“beis asulma (am) Wabuks uTxra: “me ar SemiZlia vuTxra dedas da<br />

mamas es ambavi”. sityvasityviT: “beis asulma (am) Wabuks – “me ar<br />

SemiZlia dedas [da] mamas es ambavi vuambo - uTxra”.<br />

aRsaniSnavia, rom arsebobs mTavar winadadebaSi damokidebulis<br />

CarTvis wesi, romlis Tanaxmad mTavari winadadebis qvemdebare da<br />

damateba inarCuneben Tavkidur pozicias:<br />

pÝâÝ iúwalad – “anÁ ma adr×” – gÁl<br />

“faSam biWs – “me ar vici”-uTxra”<br />

kad-Si winadadebisaTvis damaxasiaTebelia wevris<br />

bolokiduridan Tavkidur poziciaSi gadasma. im SemTxvevaSi, Tu<br />

logikuri maxvili moudis winadadebis romelime wevrs, man<br />

SeiZleba Seicvalos pozicia:<br />

iúgalbi anÁ adr×, imit inti tiÓi iú÷and×<br />

“guli migrZnobs, rodis moxval CemTan (Cems gulSi vici, rodis<br />

moxval Sen CemTan)”<br />

sityvaTa SedarebiT Tavisufali rigi winadadebaSi<br />

damaxasiaTebelia uzbekurisTvis. SesaZloa, analogiuri<br />

tendencia kad-Si dialeqtis sintaqsur struqturaze uzbekuri<br />

enis gavleniT iyos ganpirobebuli.<br />

$ 6. qvewyobili winadadebis saxeobebi<br />

rTuli qvewyobili winadadeba, iseve rogorc saliteraturo<br />

arabulSi, Sedgeba mTavari da damokidebuli winadadebisgan.<br />

makavSirebeli elementebi gansazRvraven qvewyobis tips.<br />

kaSkadarieli arabebi efeqturad iyeneben maT metyvelebis dros.<br />

rogorc zemoT mivuTiTe, gavrcelebis sifarToviT xasiaTdeba<br />

tajikur-uzbekuri -ki elementi. mis garda gvxvdeba yvela zemoT<br />

CamoTvlili makavSirebeli elementi da iSviaTad ÷iz “Tu”,<br />

181


omelic Ôarræk-is metyvelebaSi davafiqsire. kavSiri mTavar da<br />

damokidebul winadadebas Soris xorcieldeba<br />

zemodasaxelebuli makavSirebeli elementebiT.<br />

CamoTvlili formebidan aRsaniSnavia – ki “rom”. igi tajikuruzbekuri<br />

kavSiria.<br />

a) gansazRvrebiTi damokidebuli winadadeba<br />

kad-Si mxolod ramdenime SemTxvevaSi davafiqsireT<br />

gansazRvrebiTi damokidebuli winadadeba. sityva “romelic”<br />

TiTqmis ar gvxvdeba. bawÝra-Si Caviwere Semdegi winadadeba:<br />

waladÁn iúzÒ×r rÁÔ, li ÉÝi ÓÁb<br />

“umcrosi biWi wavida, romelmac Cai moitana”<br />

am SemTxvevaSi li-s mniSvnelobaa “romelmac” da ara “raTa”. biWs<br />

ukve motanili hqonda Cai, rodesac informantma aRniSnuli<br />

winadadeba warmoTqva. sxvisi Canaweri rom wamekiTxa, am<br />

winadadebas Semdegnairad vTargmnidi: “umcrosi biWi wavida Cais<br />

mosatanad (raTa Cai moetana)”. rogorc stumarma da procesis<br />

uSualo monawilem, am SemTxvevaSi, li davafiqsire mniSvnelobiT<br />

“romelmac”. igi sxva SemTxvevaSi ar Semxvedria.<br />

zemoaRniSnulidan gamomdinare, gansazRvrebiT damokidebul<br />

winadadebas kad-Si metad aRar Sevexebi da ganvixilav damatebiT,<br />

adgilisa da drois garemoebiT winadadebebs.<br />

b) damatebiTi damokidebuli winadadeba<br />

damatebiT damokidebul winadadebaSi mTavari winadadeba<br />

damokidebuls ukavSirdeba -ki-s saSualebiT. damatebiTi<br />

winadadeba mosdevs zmnur Semasmenels. aseTi wyoba<br />

damaxasiaTebelia saliteraturo arabuli enisTvisac, sadac<br />

damatebiTi winadadeba damatebis msgavsad, yovelTvis<br />

postpoziciaSia.<br />

magaliTebi kad-idan:<br />

pÝâÝ âÁf-ki, ma Õazaw bint Õuâræya iúbaladu<br />

182


“faSam dainaxa, rom ar waiyvanes [maT] mzeTunaxavi (lamazi<br />

asuli) TavianT qveyanaSi”.<br />

SeiZleba aRniSnuli tipis winadadebaSi mTavari winadadebis<br />

Semasmeneli gadavides damokidebuli winadadebis boloSi.<br />

Semasmenlis aseTi gadasma damaxasiaTebelia kad-isTvis:<br />

pÝâÝ, bint Õuâræya iúbalada ma Õazaw, âÁf-ki.<br />

rogorc magaliTidan Cans, damatebiTi winadadebis damateba<br />

gansazRvrebiTurT gadmovida prepoziciaSi da aRmoCnda mTavari<br />

winadadebis qvemdebaris Semdeg. rac Seexeba mTavari winadadebis<br />

Semasmenels, mas makavSirebeli –ki elementis nacvlad SeiZleba<br />

daerTos nacvalsaxelovani sufiqsi:<br />

pÝâÝ, bint Õuâræya iúbalada ma Õazaw, âÁfÁ. winadadebis<br />

sityvasityviTi Targmani Semdegnairad gamoiyureba:<br />

“faSam, [is, rom maT] lamazi asuli TavianT qveyanaSi ar<br />

waiyvanes – dainaxa [naxa sakuTari TvaliT]”.<br />

g) adgilis garemoebiTi damokidebuli winadadeba<br />

adgilis garemoebiTi damokidebuli winadadebis<br />

makavSirebeli elementebia wÎn “sadac”, “sad”, iúâqÝ “saidan”, min<br />

iâqo “saidanac”, iúhamÁna “sadac”, “iqac”.<br />

damokidebuli winadadeba mTavar winadadebasTan mimarTebaSi<br />

SeiZleba iyos. rogorc postpoziciaSi, aseve prepoziciaSic.<br />

CamoTvlili kavSirebi win uZRvian damokidebul winadadebas:<br />

ÀfÀndi iúbÝzÝr mad, wÎn-iúâqÝ ib÷×r âtara<br />

“efendi bazarSi wavida, sadac aqlemi iyida”<br />

aRsaniSnavia ori formis wÎn-iúâqÝ Serwyma mniSvnelobiT<br />

“sadac”, “saidanac”. aseTi xelovnuri kompozitebi<br />

damaxasiaTebelia kad-isaTvis.<br />

aRniSnuli tipis winadadebaSi mTavari winadadebis Semasmeneli<br />

ar gadadis damokidebuli winadadebis boloSi, rogorc es gvaqvs<br />

damatebiT qvewyobil winadadebaSi.<br />

183


d) drois garemoebiTi damokidebuli qvewyobili winadadeba<br />

drois garemoebiT damokidebul winadadebaSi kavSiri mTavar<br />

da damokidebul winadadebas Soris xorcieldeba Semdegi<br />

makavSirebeli elementebis saSualebiT: imit “roca”, hatta<br />

“manamde”, “sanam, ar”, ba÷da ma “mas Semdeg, rac”, ugæb//ogæb ma<br />

“mas Semdeg, rac”.<br />

damokidebuli winadadeba SeiZleba iyos rogorc prepoziciaSi,<br />

aseve postpoziciaSi:<br />

imit anÁ iúmu÷allim iúdil arabÉa Ó×t, zÝka iúdarb qaããapÝi ãalaÔ<br />

“roca me arabuli enis maswavlebelTan mivedi, igi katapois(ken)<br />

gzas daadga”<br />

ziklÝn iúmad×na dawwÝr sawæ, kis×r dawwÝr sÁwæ, hatta il-bint iúfad<br />

Ôoyyiã×n kb×r âÁfaw<br />

“maT qalaqSi eZebes, bevri eZebes, sanam ar ipoves asuli erT<br />

sasaxleSi (did saxlSi)”<br />

áÝÔb il-bÁgir il-gidir ugæb ma âtara, iúbÎta ÒadÁ-mad<br />

“mas Semdeg rac Zroxis patronma qvabi iyida, saxlSi wavida”.<br />

e) pirobiT damokidebuli winadadeba<br />

am tipis damokidebul winadadebebSi makavSirebel elements<br />

warmoadgens izÁ:<br />

izÁ waáal zinãÁÓ, ilbis ×n gabÁya<br />

“Tu daiWers yinvebs, Caicvi [uzbekuri] xalaTi”.<br />

saliteraturo arabuli enisgan gansxvavebiT, sadac realur,<br />

anu ganxorcielebad pirobas gamoxatavs öin “Tu” nawilaki, xolo<br />

ararealur pirobas, survils – law “Tu”, “rom”, kad-Si, orive<br />

SemTxvevaSi, kavSiri iza gamoiyeneba.<br />

pirobiTi winadadeba SeiZleba Segvxvdes kavSiris gareSec. am<br />

mxriv, kad-Si saliteraturo arabulis analogiuri viTarebaa<br />

asaxuli :<br />

daÕÁli, tufraÒ “Semodi, gagexardeba”<br />

184


v) miznis garemoebiTi damokidebuli winadadeba<br />

am tipis winadadebaSi kavSiris funqcias asrulebs li:<br />

iÓ× nÁyyim li-ÓawÝb igæl “(is) modis (axla), pasuxis saTqmelad”.<br />

moqmedebis miznobrioba SeiZleba gadmoices kavSiris gareSec:<br />

ta-noÒdi, niâtera, noÒsa “wavideT, [raTa] viyidoT [da] wamoviRoT<br />

(is)”.<br />

z) frazis melodika<br />

rTuli qvewyobili winadadebis frazis melodika ori<br />

maxasiaTebliT ganisazRvreba. mTavari winadadebis tipi<br />

daRmavalia, xolo damokidebulis – aRmavali. grafikulad es<br />

Semdegnairad gamoixateba:<br />

agar mÁ imæt zÝka iúqiâlÝqe iaÒÁde<br />

"Tu ar mokvdeba, [maSin] igi dabrundeba yiSlaRSi".<br />

ganxiluli sintaqsuri konstruqciebi da winadadebaTa tipebi<br />

xasiaTdebian saliteraturo arabuli enisagan gansxvavebuli<br />

niSnebiT. kaSkadariuli arabulis, rogorc periferiuli arabuli<br />

dialeqtis sintaqsuri Taviseburebebi mniSvnelovanwilad aris<br />

ganpirobebuli mis uzbekur da tajikur enobriv garemosTan<br />

xangrZlivi kontaqtebiT.<br />

185


Tavi V<br />

leqsika<br />

arabuli enis kaSkadariuli dialeqti xasiaTdeba leqsikuri<br />

fondis mravalplastovani struqturiT. miuxedavad arabuli<br />

samyarosgan mravalsaukunovani izolaciisa, dialeqtis leqsika<br />

ZiriTadad semituria. mWidro kontaqti tajikur da<br />

gansakuTrebiT, uzbekur enasTan garkveul zemoqmedebas axdens<br />

kaSkadariel arabTa metyvelebaze. zogadad kad-isaTvis<br />

damaxasiaTebelia leqsikur erTeulTa semantizacia, enis<br />

midrekileba ekonomiurobisadmi da calkeul individTa<br />

metyvelebis gavlena.<br />

kad-Si gamoiyofa ori ZiriTadi leqsikuri jgufi: 1. arabuli<br />

leqsika; 2. ucxouri nasesxobani. pirveli jgufi Tavis mxriv iyofa<br />

leqsikur plastebad. esenia: a) saliteraturo arabulTan saerTo<br />

leqsika; b) dialeqturi leqsika. meore jgufis arseboba aixsneba<br />

kontaqtSi myofi enebis gavleniT. aq, Tanmimdevrulad, gamoiyofa<br />

Semdegi nasesxobebi: a) uzbekuri; b) tajikuri; g) nawilobriv<br />

Turqmenuli da rusuli.<br />

$ 1. arabuli leqsika<br />

arabuli leqsikuri jgufi ZiriTadia. igi gansazRvravs<br />

dialeqtis leqsikur SesaZleblobebs.<br />

arabuli leqsikidan gamoiyofa saerTo semituri leqsika: iæm<br />

“dRe”, sana “weli”, ræÔ “suli”, öism “saxeli”, dam “sisxli”,<br />

isnÎn “ori”, salÁs “sami”, ÷aâara “aTi”, mÁt “mokvda”, zabaÔ “dakla”,<br />

sama÷ “gaigona” ulidet “dabada”, “Sva”, katab “dawera”, rakab<br />

“amxedrda” da sxv.<br />

arabuli leqsikuri masala SesaZleblobas iZleva gamoiyos<br />

Semdegi jgufebi:<br />

naTesaobis aRmniSvneli sityvebi, sxeulis nawilebi, bunebis<br />

movlenebi da astronomiuli warmodgenebi, Sinauri cxovelebi da<br />

frinvelebi, sasoflo-sameurneo kulturebi, yofiTi leqsika da<br />

sxva.<br />

186


$ 2. mniSvnelobaTa modifikaciebi<br />

dialeqtSi dasturdeba mniSvnelobaTa modifikaciebi. arabul<br />

sityvaTa garkveuli nawili gvxvdeba ara im mniSvnelobiT,<br />

romliTac cnobilia saliteraturo arabulSi: âiÓÁr “balaxi”,<br />

ÔÝiã “oTaxi”, gadir “fasi”, dæla “dovlaTi”. (Sdr. Sesabamisi<br />

sityvebi saliteraturo arabulSi: âaÓÁratun “xe” ÔÁöiãun “kedeli”,<br />

qadrun “zoma”, “sidide”, “xarisxi”, “Rirseba”, dawlatun<br />

“saxelmwifo”). amas ganapirobebs erTi mxriv, dialeqtis SigniT<br />

droTa ganmavlobaSi momxdari semantikuri cvlilebani, xolo<br />

meore mxriv, uzbekuri da tajikuri enebidan ukve mniSvnelobamodificirebuli<br />

arabuli sityvebis sesxeba.<br />

$ 3. dialeqturi leqsika<br />

dialeqturi leqsika. ZiriTadad, warmodgenilia aRmosavlur<br />

arabul dialeqtebSi cnobili sityvebiT: mÝi “wyali”, waÕt<br />

“dro”, gal×l “cota”, faham “gaigo”, âarab “dalia”.<br />

am mxriv kad-s bevri saerTo aqvs erayul da siriul arabul<br />

dialeqtebTan.<br />

aqve unda aRiniSnos Sua aziis meore, buxarul dialeqtTan<br />

saerTo leqsika, romlis arsebobas, ZiriTadad, SeiZleba<br />

ganapirobebdes orive dialeqtis erT regionSi yofna: ãanga<br />

“vercxlis fuli”, guãun “bamba”, gÁba “xalaTi”, pÝâÝ “faSa”.<br />

kad-Si calke fenad gamoiyofa saerTo arabuli dialeqturi<br />

leqsika: eâ “ra”, min “vin”, âÁf “Sexeda”, ÒÁb “moitana”. miuxedavad<br />

arabuli samyarosgan mravalsaukunovani izolaciisa, kad-ma aseTi<br />

leqsikuri erTeulebis garkveuli nawili Semoinaxa. SesaZloa,<br />

garkveuli odenoba msgavsi sityvebisa dialeqtSi damoukideblad<br />

gaCnda, rac aixsneba enobrivi ganviTarebis zogadi tendenciebiT:<br />

min


kaSkadariuli dialeqtizmebi:<br />

arabuli dialeqturi leqsikis garkveul nawils Seadgens<br />

sakuTriv kaSkadariuli dialeqtizmebi, romlebic sxvagan ar<br />

gvxvdeba: zÝka mamr. “is”, z×ka md. “is”, z×klÝn mamr. “isini”, ziklÆnna md.<br />

“isini”. es formebi klasikur arabulSi arsebul ËÁka-s<br />

ukavSirdebian da warmoadgenen dialeqtSi piris nacvalsaxelTa<br />

damoukidebeli ganviTarebis saintereso Sedegs.<br />

$ 4. nasesxobebi<br />

meore leqsikuri jgufi kad-Si warmodgenilia, ZiriTadad,<br />

uzbekuri da tajikuri, xolo nawilobriv, Turqmenuli da rusuli<br />

nasesxobebiT. aRniSnul leqsikur erTeulTa arseboba dialeqtSi<br />

ganapiroba teritoriulma siaxlovem, mravalsaukunovanma<br />

kontaqtebma da amasTanave, kaSkadariel arabTa cxovrebis<br />

Tanamedrove pirobebma. sainteresoa aRiniSnos, rom Tuki sparsul<br />

da Turqulenovan fenebSi xangrZlivi drois ganmavlobaSi<br />

farTod mkvidrdeboda arabuli leqsika, kad-Si piriqiT gvaqvs,<br />

nasesxebma sityvebma dialeqtSi ganicades arabizacia.<br />

magaliTad, tajikuri sityvidan pokusa “sufTa” miviReT zmnis<br />

piriani forma apaksa(h) “vwmend mas”, rac warmoadgens enis mier<br />

sakuTari gramatikuli warmoebisadmi ucxo sityvis<br />

daqvemdebarebas. Sdr. agreTve afarmid “vawesrigeb”, “vaformeb” <<br />

rus. оформить, birgÁd×r “brigadiri” < rus. бригадир da sxva.<br />

uzbekuri da tajikuri nasesxobebi<br />

uzbekuri leqsika moicavs kaSkadariel arabTa cxovrebis<br />

TiTqmis yvela sferos: qaââaq “Rataki”, ÉåpÝn “mwyemsi”. igive<br />

SeiZleba iTqvas tajikuri nasesxobebis Sesaxebac: ÕamsÝya<br />

“mezobeli”, darkÝr “saWiroeba”, bÝÒbÝn “baRi”. unda aRiniSnos,<br />

rom kaSkadariel arabTa absoluturi umravlesoba flobs da<br />

iyenebs uzbekurs, rogorc meore enas, xolo tajikuris mcodneTa<br />

ricxvi maT Soris TandaTan mcirdeba.<br />

188


paraleluri formebi:<br />

kad-Si dasturdeba paraleluri formebi. erTi mniSvnelobis<br />

gamosaxatavad ixmareba rogorc arabuli, aseve nasesxebi sityvac:<br />

kis×r arab. kÝn uzb. “mravali”, gil×l arab. kÝm taj. “cota”.<br />

paralelur formebze dakvirveba gviCvenebs, rom nasesxebi<br />

sityvebi TandaTan ikaveben dialeqtSi arabul leqsemaTa adgils.<br />

es exeba gansakuTrebiT uzbekur nasesxobebs. SeiniSneba agreTve<br />

paralelur formaTa zrdis tendencia, rac dRiTi dRe gzas<br />

ukafavs dialeqtSi uzbekur nasesxobebs.<br />

$ 5. morfologiuri modelireba da semantikuri sityvawarmoeba<br />

sityvaTa warmoSobis ZiriTadi saSualebebidan unda aRiniSnos<br />

morfologiuri modelireba da semantikuri sityvawarmoeba.<br />

morfologiuri modelirebis SemTxvevebidan sayuradReboa zmnur<br />

formaTa TemebSi cvalebadoba, romelTa nawili xasiaTdeba<br />

saliteraturo arabuli enisagan gansxvavebuli mniSvnelobiT,<br />

magaliTad: taÔaããut (V T.) 1. “moaTavsa”; 2. “Caasxa”, “daRvara”.<br />

saliteraturo arabul enaSi taÔaããata-s mniSvnelobaa “gajavrda”,<br />

“ganawyenda” (vinmeze). dialeqtSi arsebuli zogierTi zmnuri<br />

Temis Sesatyvisi saliteraturo arabul enas saerTod ar gaaCnia.<br />

magaliTad, kad-Si dasturdeba forma taÔassam (V T.) “gaifanta”,<br />

maSin rodesac saliteraturo arabulSi Ôasama mexuTe TemaSi ar<br />

gvxvdeba. aq mniSvneloba “gaifanta” gadmoicema Semdegi sityvebiT:<br />

taba÷äara, taâa÷÷aäa, tanÁäara. vinaidan kad-s arc erTi am sityvaTagani<br />

ar gaaCnia, enaSi ganviTarda Ôasama zmnis mexuTe Tema semantikuri<br />

xarvezis Sesavsebad.<br />

semantikuri sityvaTwarmoqmna kad-Si ufro produqtiulia,<br />

vidre morfologiuri modelireba. ori an meti sityvis<br />

dakavSirebiT SeiZleba miviRoT nominaluri mniSvneloba:<br />

gattiâma÷antum “Raribi”, sityvasityviT - “arafris mqone”; matâæf<<br />

÷ainÎn ma tâæf “brma”, sityvasityviT - “Tvalebi ver xedaven” da sxv.<br />

kad-Si gvxvdeba sityvis mniSvnelobis daviwroeba-gafarToeba,<br />

ris Sedegadac leqsema iZens axal mniSvnelobas. es iwvevs<br />

189


dialeqtSi axali semantikuri datvirTvis mqone sityvebis gaCenas:<br />

÷asal “Tafli”>÷asali “tkbili”, go÷Ýn “mSieri”>go÷Ýn “Rataki”, ÔÝiã<br />

“kedeli”>orba ÔÝiã “oTaxi” da sxv.<br />

kad-isTvis ucxo ar aris sityvaTa Serwymac: madri


”beim biWs uTxra, lamazi (qali) myavs”. sityvasityviT: “bei biWs -<br />

SavTvala myavs - eubneba (mas).”<br />

g) fadhÁd alf “bevri”, “mravali”, sityvasityviT: “erTi aTasi”<br />

naÔnÁt Ôafli agar iáor, nÁs alf fadhÁt iáÝr<br />

“Cven rodesac vdResaswaulobT, xalxi bevria”; sityvasityviT:<br />

“xalxi erTi aTasi iqneba (igulisxmeba nadimSi mowveulTa<br />

simravle)”.<br />

moyvanil sintagmaTa aseTi mniSvnelobiTi kompresiebi<br />

gamowveulia dialeqtSi arsebuli semantikuri asociaciebiT.<br />

sintaqsuri konstruqciidan erTi wevris amovardna warmoadgens<br />

dialeqtSi enis ekonomiurobisadmi midrekilebis TvalsaCino<br />

gamoxatulebas. esenia atributuli struqturebi:<br />

kÎyn ma kÎyn, iúzÒ×r kÎyin<br />

“iyo da ara iyo ra, iyo erTi patara (biWi) ”<br />

waladÁn iúzÒ×r ÉÝy ÓÁb. min ÓÁb Õæbz? i-zÒ×r?<br />

“patara biWma Cai moitana. puri vin moitana, patara biWma?”<br />

sintagmaSi waladÁn iúzÒ×r “patara biWi” erTi wevri naklebad<br />

informaciuli gamodga da amovarda, meore komponentma (zÒ×r)<br />

sakuTar Tavze aiRo mTeli semantikuri datvirTva da sruli<br />

nominatis funqcia ikisra.<br />

ganxiluli masala SesaZleblobas iZleva davaskvnaT, rom kadisaTvis<br />

damaxasiaTebelia leqsikur gamomsaxvelobaTa<br />

mravalferovneba. dialeqtSi asaxuli leqsikis ganviTarebis<br />

tendenciebi, ZiriTadad, zogadi xasiaTisaa da sayuradReboa<br />

semitur enaTa leqsikis Seswavlis TvalsazrisiT.<br />

$ 7. qarTul-kaSkadariuli leqsikuri paralelebi<br />

kad-Si fiqsirdeba araerTi sityva, romlis analogi qarTul<br />

leqsikaSi mogvepoveba. cxadia, gamoricxulia uSualo enobrivi<br />

kontaqtebi. saerTo leqsikis arseboba qarTulsa da kad-Si<br />

ganpirobebulia qarTuli enis mravalsaukunovani enobrivi<br />

kontaqtebiT arabulenovan, Turqulenovan da sparsulenovan<br />

samyarosTan. aRmosavluri leqsika qarTulSi Seadgens enis<br />

leqsikuri fondis mniSvnelovan nawils. SevexebiT zogierT<br />

191


maTgans, romlis semantika kad-Si sayuradReboa Sesabamisi<br />

qarTuli leqsemis warmomavlobis dadgenis TvalsazrisiT:<br />

zamTari – zentÁr “sicive”, “yinva”<br />

kad-Si zentÁr aRniSnavs “sicives”, “yinvas” da ara zogadarabul<br />

âita÷ > iâtÁ-s. moviyvanT magaliTebs:<br />

iúñâtÁ zentÁr iáÝr<br />

“zamTarSi yinva iqneba [yinvebs daiWers]”<br />

iúñâtÁ iúnaÐbre-dekÆbre invÇre-febrÁle zentÁr agar iáÝr, ademiÁt iúqiâlÝq<br />

iúí×nÁu iú÷andu nÁr itfÁur, gÁbÁt âitw× ilbisuwÁt<br />

“zamTarSi – noemberSi, dekemberSi, ianvarSi, TebervalSi –<br />

yinvebi roca daiwyeba (dadgeba), yiSlaR jeÁnaus mcxovreblebi<br />

(adamianebi) TavianT (saxlebSi) cecxls daanTeben, zamTris<br />

[Tbil] xalaTebs Caicvamen”.<br />

kokoyÁt iúÊarb ãala÷aw iúhama balad ÒadawÁt-madawÁt. iúleil zinãÁr áÝr<br />

“Zmebi gzas daadgnen, im qveynisaken gaswies. RamiT Zlier<br />

acivda”.<br />

siriuli dialeqtis arabul-rusul leqsikonSi aris zmnuri<br />

forma zÆnãar, romlis mniSvnelobaa: 1. "akankalebda (sicivisgan)"; 2.<br />

"gaiyina", "gaiToSa". aqvea forma zinãÁr× - "yinviani", "susxiani"*.<br />

siriuli dialeqtis leqsikonSi fiqsirdeba agreTve zmÎãar -<br />

"yinuli", "minayini (наледь)". igi damaskos metyvelebisaTvis aris<br />

damaxasiaTebeli. moviyvanT kidev erT formas am leqsikonidan:<br />

zamar – "Zlier uberavda" , "Rmuoda (qari)"<br />

b a r a n o v i s arabul-rusul leqsikonSi gvxvdeba forma<br />

zamhar×r mniSvnelobiT - "yinva", "Zlieri sicive". aRsaniSnavia<br />

arabuli zamÁn 1. "dro", "epoqa"; 2. "sezoni", Sdr. qarTuli "Jami".<br />

aseve sayuradReboa svanuri za-w - "weli", romelic dasaxelebuli<br />

formebis msgavsad dros, sezons gamoxatavs. megrulSi gvaqvs<br />

________________________<br />

*q. alepos mkvidrma, sirielma mweralma da mTargmnelma nizar xalilim<br />

momawoda siriul dialeqtSi gavrcelebuli forma - zantÁr× romelic "zamTars"<br />

niSnavs.<br />

192


"zamTris" Sesatyvisi "zoTonji" .<br />

aRsaniSnavia saS. sparsuli zamistÁn "zamTari" , romelsac prof.<br />

m. a n d r o n i k a S v i l i qarTul "zamTars" ukavSirebs. mecniers<br />

saeWvod miaCnia etimologia, romelic sityva "zamTars" Slis za-<br />

(sv-"za" "weli") +mtar elementebad (ix. m. andronikaSvili,<br />

narkvevebi iranul-qarTuli enobrivi urTierTobidan, Tbilisi,<br />

1966, gv. 322). rac Seexeba mtar-s, arabulSi igi aRniSnavs wvimas<br />

(maãÁr mr. amãÁr).<br />

tajikurSi zamTari aris зимистан Sdr. rusuli зима.<br />

зимистани –«zamTris» da a. S.<br />

ganxiluli formebi sayuradReboa qarTuli «zamTris»<br />

genezisis dadgenis TvalsazrisiT. dasaSvebia kavSiri siriul da<br />

kaSkadariul zmÎtar//zintÁr-Tan. vfiqrob, aranakleb sainteresoa<br />

arabuli enis siriul da kaSkadariul dialeqtebSi saerTo<br />

formis arseboba. isic aRsaniSnavia, rom kad-Si fiqsirdeba<br />

siriuli dialeqtisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli í:<br />

ademiyÁt iúqiâlÝq iúí×nÁw . . .gabÁt âitw× ielbisuwÁt.<br />

jeÁnaus mkvidri arabebis nawili yiSlaRs í×nÁw –s eZaxis da ara<br />

Óeynau-s. zemoTqmulidan gamomdinare, SeiZleba davaskvnaT, rom<br />

arsebobs garkveuli kavSiri am or dialeqts Soris. SesaZloa,<br />

jeÁnaus mkvidri arabebis winaparTa nawili siriidanac iyos<br />

warmoSobiT. í×nÁw toponimi SeiZleba aixsnas siriuli dialeqtis<br />

safuZvelze. siriulSi í×nÁ-s mniSvnelobaa – “Cven movediT”.<br />

kaSkadarieli arabebis azriT, yiSlaRis saxelwodebas safuZvlad<br />

udevs maTi winaprebis aRniSnul teritoriaze mosvla. amitomac<br />

daerqva mas Óeynaw//í×naw “Cven movediT”.<br />

amrigad, qarTuli “zamTris” Sesaxeb mniSvnelovan masalas<br />

gvawvdis siriuli dialeqti da Suaaziuri arabuli. am leqsemis<br />

arseboba qarTulSi aRmosavlur enebTan xangrZlivi enobrivi<br />

urTierTobebis Sedegia.<br />

193


u<br />

qarTuli enis ganmartebiT leqsikonSi ru (rusi)<br />

ganmartebulia, rogorc: 1. sarwyavad gayvanili patara arxi. "miwa<br />

nayofieria da uxvad irwyveba ruebis wyliTa" (i. gogebaSvili).<br />

"[Tedem] wisqvilis ru karga Soridan moiyvana" (vaJa fSavela) 2.<br />

gadat. "aseT arxSi mimdinare wyali. gzas . . . orTav mxriv Rrmad<br />

amoWril arxebSi ankara ruebi moudioda" (ek. gabaSvili).<br />

sulxan saba orbeliani pirdapir miuTiTebs, rom “ru es aris<br />

wyali sarwyavad gaRebuli”.<br />

niko CubinaSvilis qarTul leqsikonSi rus Sesaxeb<br />

vkiTxulobT: “ru, ruvi da rusxmuli – xelovnebiT gatanili<br />

nakaduli”. aqve “wylis” ganmartebisas avtori kidev erTxel<br />

usvams xazs rus xelovnurobas: “sada mdinare ganiyofeba<br />

nawilebad da saSualo maTsa daSTebian kunZulni, mas TiToeuls<br />

nawils hqvian toti, Sto, dilaji da nakaduli; xelovnebiT<br />

gatanils totsa mindobiT sarwyavad, anu wisqviliT sabruneblad<br />

– ru da rusxmuli”.<br />

cxadia, qarTulSi ru, nakadulisagan gansxvavebiT, warmoadgens<br />

xelovnurad gayvanil sarwyav arxs. Cveni azriT, sayuradRebo<br />

unda iyos am mxriv arabulSi arsebuli viTareba. warmovadgenT<br />

saleqsikono formas rawiya x. b a r a n o v i s arabul-rusuli<br />

leqsikonis mixedviT:<br />

rawiya(a) rayyun, riyyun 1. "aivso wyliT", "ivseboda"; 2. "moikla<br />

wyurvili"; II rawwÁ 1. "daarwyula"; 2. "morwya"; IV öarwÁ "morwya"; V<br />

tarawwÁ 1. "aivso wyliT", "irwyveboda"; 2. "imedovnebda"; VIII öirtawÁ<br />

1. "gaivso wyliT", "gajerda"; "moirwya"; 2. "moikla wyurvili".<br />

- öirwÁöun “rwyva”<br />

- öirwÁö×yyun “sarwyavi”<br />

- tarw×yatun “wyliT momarageba”<br />

- rawÁöun “mtknari wyali”<br />

- rayyun “rwyva, irigacia”<br />

194


- rayyatun mr. riyyÁtun “erTjeradi rwyva, morwyva”<br />

- marwan mr. marÁwin “sarwyavi arxi”<br />

- marwiyyun 1. “sarwyavi”; öarÁÊin marwiyya "sarwyavi<br />

miwebi"<br />

arabuli dialeqturi formaa r× “rwyva”, romelic gvxvdeba<br />

siriul da kaSkadariul dialeqtebSi. moviyvanT magaliTebs kadidan:<br />

âamsa kis×r agar iáÝr, iúgo÷a r× iáor<br />

“roca dacxeba (bevri mze iqneba), miwa moirwyveba”<br />

anÁ boÒbÝn ÷andi, fad iÝm iúhama bÝÒbÝn r× kÎn asi<br />

“me baRi maqvs, erT dRes am baRs vrwyavdi”.<br />

aRsaniSnavia sparsul-tajikuri ræd, romelic mdinares niSnavs.<br />

aqve fiqsirdeba rædxoнa – mdinaris kalapoti. cxadia, es formebi<br />

axlos aris arabul r× - sTan da qarTul “ru”-sTan. es<br />

gvafiqrebinebs, rom am SemTxvevaSi saqme gvaqvs e. w. moarul<br />

aRmosavlur leqsikasTan, romelic xangrZlivi enobrivi<br />

urTierTobis Sedegia.<br />

“ru” qarTulSi uZveles periodSi unda damkvidrebuliyo. bolo<br />

wlebSi ivris zeganze uaRresad sayuradRebo arqeologiuri<br />

aRmoCenebi dafiqsirda. gamovlinda qristemde meore<br />

aTaswleulis dasasrulisa da pirveli aTaswleulis dasawyisis<br />

saxelmwifoebrivi struqturebi. aerofotogadaRebebis wakiTxvis<br />

safuZvelze ivris zeganis dasavleT nawilSi, mtkvarsa da iors<br />

Soris, daviT garejis udabnoSi, aRmoCnda kavkasiis uZvelesi –<br />

qristeSobamde II aTaswleulis dasasrulis qalaqebi.<br />

aerofotogadaRebam aCvena uZvelesi sarwyavi sistemebi,<br />

nakrZalebi (11). uaRresad mniSvnelovnad mimaCnia, rom didi<br />

Siraqis samxreT nawilis toponimikaSi SemorCenilia saxelwodeba<br />

“didi rui”. aseTi toponimi uZveles periodSi ivris zeganze<br />

kulturuli ganaSenianebisa da mis sistemaSi magistraluri<br />

sarwyavi arxis arsebobis mauwyebelia. igi toponimis uZveles<br />

warmomavlobaze miuTiTebs.<br />

niSandoblivia qarTulSi iori, rioni, toponimi – ruisi .<br />

rwyva (rwyua(l)-rwyua.<br />

195


qarTulSi fiqsirdeba dialeqturi forma merue, romelic<br />

mrwyvels niSnavs. igi gvxvdeba qarTlis metyvelebaSi. aqve<br />

SeiZleba davasaxeloT qarTuli “arxi”. indoevropul enebSi<br />

arsebuli sityvebidan, romlebic rwyvas, mdinares da kalapots<br />

aRniSnaven, r(v) Zirs ukavSirdeba, inglisuri “river” (mdinare),<br />

rusuli “русло” (kalapoti). “орошение” (rwyva) da sxva.<br />

ganxiluli semituri, qarTuli da indoevropuli formebi<br />

mniSvnelovan informacias Seicaven rwyvasTan dakavSirebuli<br />

leqsikis genezisis Sesaxeb.<br />

sulu lak (sololaki)<br />

qarTlis cxovrebaSi vkiTxulobT: “xolo tfilisi aris sami<br />

qalaqi – tfilisi, kala da isni. hyofs mtkvari kalas, tfiliss da<br />

isns: kalas udis Crdilo-aRmosavliT, tfiliss-CrdiloT da isnsdasavleTiT<br />

da samxriT. xolo kalasa da tfiliss hyofs s a l a l<br />

a k i s w y a l i, romelic gamosdis wavkisisa da koJris mTebsa,<br />

samxriT da aRmosavliT udis kalas da dasavliT tfiliss (5, gv.<br />

333, 334).<br />

. . . kalas aris cixe, naSeni maRals kldesa zeda, da<br />

CamozRudvili s a l a l a k i s à e v i mtkuramde. s a l a l a k i s -<br />

à e v i s kars uwodeben g a n j i s k a r a d” (5, gv. 334).<br />

arabTa batonobis xanaSi axlandeli botanikuri baRis<br />

teritoriaze auSenebiaT akveduki, romelic saukuneebis<br />

ganmavlobaSi funqcionirebda. igi gamosaxulia XVII-XVIII<br />

saukuneebis graviurebze. akvedukiT irwyveboda xexilis baRebi,<br />

venaxi da ulamazesi dekoratiuli mcenareebi. "igi warmoadgenda<br />

sarwyav arxs, romlis nakaduli saTaves kojris mTebSi iRebda.<br />

axlandeli oqroyanis midamoebSi mdebareobda mTavari auzi. igi<br />

or mimarTulebad iyofoda: erTi leRvis xevisken miemarTeboda<br />

mTaboris mTis kalTis gavliT da rwyavda axlandeli botanikuri<br />

baRis teritorias. meore samxreT dasavleTidan samxreT<br />

aRmosavleTisken iRebda kurss da sololakis mTis Txemis<br />

gadalaxvis Semdeg eSveboda axlandeli daviTaSvilis quCaze.<br />

wyalsadenis es ganStoeba XIX saukunis 30-ian wlebamde rwyavda<br />

196


sololakis baRebs. igi wyals awvdida agreTve erevanskis moedans<br />

(axlandel Tavisuflebis moedans) da sionis taZars" (n.<br />

badriaSvili, Tbilisis istoria, gv. 17).<br />

wyals, romelic Zveli Tbilisis am ulamazes nawils<br />

miewodeboda, rogorc zemoT aRvniSneT, sololakis wyali erqva.<br />

xevs da Tavad mTasac, romlis ferdobebzec igi miedineboda,<br />

xalxma sololakis xevi da sololakis mTa Searqva.<br />

samecniero literaturaSi gamoTqmulia mosazreba toponim<br />

sololakis (salalakis) arabuli warmomavlobis Sesaxeb. n.<br />

b a d r i a S v i l i 1959 wels rusul enaze gamoqveynebul<br />

monografiaSi – “Тбилиси”, sololaks miiCnevs arabuli<br />

warmomavlobis kompozitad – “Сулу Лах”. avtoris azriT, Сулу Лах<br />

unda niSnavdes «sarwyav arxs» (ix. Н. Бадриашвили, dasax. naSr, gv.<br />

10).<br />

Cveni azriT, saintereso masalas gvawvdis Sua aziis<br />

kaSkadariuli dialeqti sulu lakis (salalakis) Sesaxeb. kad-Si<br />

sulu lak niSnavs "xelovnurad dagubebul wyals", "auzs":<br />

iúhamÁna r× min sulu lak kÎn iáÝr. hÝzir ma tam “aq [adre] rwyva<br />

wylis auzidan xdeboda, axla aRar xdeba”.<br />

aRsaniSnavia sityva sayÝlÁt “niaRvrebi”, “wylis nakadebi”,<br />

romelic gvxvdeba kad-Si:<br />

agar imãar kis×r iáÝr iúgÝ÷a sayÝlÁt kis×r iáor “Tu bevrs iwvimebs,<br />

(miwaze) niaRvrebi wamova”.<br />

sayÝl mr. sayÝlÁt kad-Si niSnavs “niaRvars”, “nakads”. igi arabul<br />

suyæl–s ukavSirdeba, romelic aris forma sayl-is msxvreuli<br />

mravlobiTi: saylun mr. suyælun “nakadi”, “nakaduli”.<br />

saliteraturo arabulSi, x. b a r a n o v i s arabul - rusuli<br />

leqsikonis mixedviT, aRsaniSnavia Semdegi leqsemebi.<br />

sayalÁnun 1. “dineba”, “mdinareba”:<br />

satas×ru al-miyÁh f× hÁËihi-l-qanÁt bi-s-sayÁlÁn aË-ËÁt× “wyali am<br />

arxSi moedineba TviTdinebiT”<br />

saylatun “nakaduli”<br />

suyælatun “mdinareba”<br />

197


sufiqsebi ak, ek; -la+k TurqulSi awarmoeben “adgilis<br />

saxelebs: ” yatak “sawoli” (Sdr. yat-mak “dawola”); durak<br />

“gaCereba” (Sdr. durmak “dgoma”); s u l a k “wyaluxvoba” (Sdr.<br />

s u l a m a k “rwyva”).<br />

daRestanSi aris mdinare sulaki, romelic saTaves iRebs<br />

kavkasionis qedidan. igi erTvis kaspiis zRvas da aCens deltas.<br />

ikvebeba umTavresad TovliT.<br />

sulakis napirzea qalaqi yiziliurTi. mdinare sulakzea<br />

CiriurTisa da Cirkeis hesebi. iyeneben sarwyavad da<br />

wyalmomaragebisTvis.<br />

tajikurSi сел mTis nakads niSnavs, agreTve wyaluxvobas.<br />

amrigad, salalaki (sololaki) qarTulSi da sulu lak Sua aziis<br />

kaSkadariul arabulSi im moaruli aRmosavluri leqsikidanaa,<br />

romelic sxvadasxva struqturis enebSia damkvidrebuli da<br />

genezisuradaa Sezrdili enis ZiriTad leqsikur fondTan.<br />

aSari<br />

aSari qarTuli enis did ganmartebiT leqsikonSi<br />

ganmartebulia, rogorc “kapasi, anCxli, aSari dedakaci” –<br />

“rogorc ki vuxseneb xolme Tqvens didebul saxels, meti aRar<br />

eWirveba, moTvinierdeba xolme is aSari!” (akaki). ambobda:”ra<br />

gadaarCens ... aSari dedinacvlisagan damonavebul-daZaluls?”<br />

(vaJa). “ra ayvirebs im aSars?” (d. megr.).<br />

erTtomeul qarTuli enis ganmartebiT leqsikonSi aSari<br />

ganmartebulia, rogorc “kapasi, anCxli dedakaci”. miTiTebulia,<br />

rom sityva aris Turquli warmomavlobis.<br />

sabasTan aSari ar fiqsirdeba. sinonimuri warmomavlobis<br />

sityvebi ki warmodgenilia. esenia: anCxli, arjali, glispi.<br />

magaliTad, arjali ganmartebulia, rogorc “urcxvad anCxli”,<br />

glispis Sesaxeb ki weria: “glispi odes gulis wyromasa ver<br />

daiTmendes, siglispe aris, anCxli".<br />

anCxli. "mihgavs da ganeyof(v)is kadniereba siglispesa. odes<br />

sxvisaTvis viRwvideT, kadniereba igi aris, da ukeTu odes TaviT<br />

198


TvisiT CveniT gvenebos Suris geba, siglispe aris igi, romelman<br />

gulis wyroma ver daiTminos, siglispe aris".<br />

rac Seexeba aSars, qarTulSi igi ixmareba mxolod qalTan,<br />

dedakacTan mimarTebaSi. kaci aSari TiTqmis ar gvxvdeba.<br />

erTaderTi SemTxveva fiqsirdeba qarTuli samarTlis ZeglebSi,<br />

romelic rusTavelis akademiuri teqstis damdgenma komisiam<br />

mogvawoda da TariRdeba 1768 wliT. ix. qarTuli samarTlis<br />

Zeglebi, IV, 554, 34, 1768 wlis 15 maisi (“da Cvenis eklesiis ymac ar<br />

iyos, erTi aSari kaci aris”).<br />

aSari yvela sxva SemTxvevaSi aRniSnavs qals, mdedrs. moyvanili<br />

magaliTebi amis damadasturebelia.<br />

Turqul leqsikonebSi haSari (haşari) ganmartebulia, rogorc<br />

arabuli warmomavlobis sityva. mag., did Turqul-rusul<br />

leqsikonSi miTiTebulia, rom igi arabulia. haSari TurqulSi<br />

niSnavs Tavnebas, jiuts. ityvian ZiriTadad cxovelze. Turqulrusul<br />

leqsikonSi pirdapir aris miTiTeba amis Sesaxeb. haşari a …<br />

норовистый, упрямый, (о животных). oCani cxeni TurqulSi iqneba<br />

haSari (haşari). iqve leqsikonSi miTiTebulia haSaris sxva<br />

mniSvnelobebic: ”распущенный, своевольный (о молодежи).<br />

yuradReba unda gamaxvildes imaze, rom haSari TurqulSi<br />

aRniSnavs jiut, Tavneba, oCan, gajiutebul cxovels da<br />

leqsikonSi miTiTebulia am sityvis arabuli warmomavloba.<br />

arabulSi aSari SeiZleba ramdenime sityvas davukavSiroT.<br />

Sari, mogexsenebaT arabuli sityvaa. qarTulis garda igi<br />

gavrcelebulia Turqulsa da sparsulSi.<br />

âarra (a) masd. âarrun "iyo cudi", "boroti", "avi", "gafuWebuli".<br />

antn. ÕÁra.<br />

âarrun mr. âurærun 1. ars. "boroteba"; "usamarTloba"; "ubedureba";<br />

"ziani"; 2. zedsarT. mr. öaârÁrun "boroti", "usamarTlo", "cudi",<br />

"gafuWebuli". antn. Õayrun; âarrun min elat. "ufro cudi", vidre"<br />

(ix. g. wereTeli, arabul-qarTuli leqsikoni).<br />

âirratun - "risxva"<br />

âar×run mr. öaârÁrun - boroti (ix. Х. К. Баранов, Арабско-русский<br />

словарь).<br />

199


moyvanili (elativis) formebi mniSvnelobiT axlos aris<br />

qarTul aSarTan, magram arabul Sar-sa da qarTul aSars Soris<br />

gansxvaveba ufro niSandoblivia. qarTulSi gvaqvs Sari, romlis<br />

kavSiri arabul âarr–Tan eWvs ar iwvevs. Sariani kacic SeiZleba<br />

iyos da qalic, maSin rodesac aSari mxolod qalze iTqmis.<br />

amasTanave arabulSi Sarr-s da xair-s elativi aratradiciuli<br />

gramatikuli normis Sesabamisad ewarmoeba. e.i. ’ašarr-is (ufro<br />

cudis, borotis) nacvlad gvaqvs âarrun min - “ufro cudi, vidre”.<br />

e.i. Sarr-idan momdinare ’ašarr forma ver gavrceldeboda<br />

TurqulSi im elementaruli mizezis gamo, rom Sarr-is elativi<br />

’ašarr-is saxiT arabulSi ar iwarmoeba.<br />

arabuli ricxviTi saxelia ÷aârun aTi, romelic gvxvdeba<br />

Turqulsa da sparsulSi. TurqulSi ašar mr. öšür niSnavs<br />

gadasaxads, meaTeds. aseve sparsulSi ошр (oSr) mr. Àöшар<br />

meaTedia, mosavlis meaTedi. эöшpat niSnavs mxiarulebas, garTobas,<br />

siamovnebas, xolo эшратхана gasarTob adgils.<br />

TurqulSi öaâiri niSnavs gadaWarbebul, metismet,<br />

gansakuTrebul mgrZnobelobas: aşiri gitmek” (aşiri gitmek)<br />

переходить все границы, aşiri hareket – выходить за рамки<br />

дозволенного; aşiri tecavæz - чрезмерная агресcивность”. Sdr.<br />

arabuli taÓÁwaza - (переступать предел) "gadalaxa sazRvari",<br />

"gadaaWarba" (ix. Турецко-русский словарь).<br />

Turquli enis ganmartebiT leqsikonSi (T RKСE S ZL K),<br />

romelic stambulSia gamocemuli 1992 wels Turquli enis<br />

sazogadoebis mier, miTiTebulia, rom ašir – ašri igivea, rac<br />

arabuli ÷aâr. igi Zvelad niSnavda 10-s. amave dros ašir aRniSnavs<br />

namazis Semdeg yuranidan wasakiTxs, romelic Sedgeba 10 aiasgan. es<br />

exeba agreTve sxva wasakiTxebsac religiuri dResaswaulebis<br />

dros.<br />

SevexoT axla arabul ÷aâara –s.<br />

÷aâara (u) ÷aârun 1. iyo meaTe; 2. aiRo meaTedi; II ÷aââara 1. gayo aTad,<br />

aiRo meaTedi nawili; 2. gaanayofiera; ÷aââara-l-ÔimÁr yroyinebda<br />

(saxedari); III ÷aâara - dauaxlovda, daamyara kavSiri; iyo fexmZime,<br />

make (meaTe Tveze – aqlemi, mecxre Tveze – danarCeni cxovelebi).<br />

200


÷iâÁrun mr. ÷uâarÁöu make aqlemi meaTe TveSi. mecxre TveSi -<br />

nebismieri sxva cxoveli.<br />

rogorc irkveva, make aqlemi meaTe TveSi anu mSobiarobis TveSi<br />

gamoirCeva agresiulobiT, anCxlia da kapasi. amis Sesaxeb me<br />

msmenia Sua aziis arabul yiSlaRebSi, aseve iemenSi, saamiroebSi,<br />

sxva arabul qveynebSi.<br />

aRmosavlur literaturaSi gvxvdeba aRniSnulis dadastureba.<br />

magaliTad SeiZleba moviyvanoT nawyveti saSualo sparsuli<br />

poemidan “finikis xe da Txa”, romelic sasanuri iranis poeziis<br />

TvalsaCino nimuSia. poemaSi, romelic falauridan qarTul enaze<br />

Targmna, gamokvleva da leqsikoni daurTo profesorma T e o<br />

C x e i Z e m, erTi mopaeqre meores Semdegi sityvebiT mimarTavs:<br />

“oqros sityvebi,<br />

Sen rom giTxari,<br />

hgavs margaliti<br />

daugo Rorsa,<br />

an Cangi ukra<br />

atexil aqlems”. (22. gv. 47).<br />

Suaaziur arabulSi ÷aâer ixmareba aqlemis garda qalis<br />

orsulobis, fexmZimobis aRsaniSnad, magaliTebi:<br />

ÀfÀndi morta ‘aâer áÝrat<br />

“efendis coli dafexmZimda”<br />

bint Õuâræya kÁnat, ÷aâer kÎnat<br />

“gogo lamazi iyo, fexmZimed iyo”<br />

amgvarad, Sua aziis arabulSi, kerZod, kaSkadariulSi<br />

farTodaa es forma gavrcelebuli.<br />

saliteraturo arabulSi arsebobs agreTve Ôaâara (u) Ôaârun<br />

mniSvnelobiT 1. "Sekriba", "moagrova", "gaaerTiana"; 2. "aavso". am<br />

Zirze x. b a r a n o v i s leqsikonSi aris Semdegi sityvebi: ÔÁâir -<br />

"mowyalebis amRebi", "Semgrovebeli", Ôaârun - "Sekreba"; "Casma",<br />

201


"Cayeneba", "Catenva"; Ôaâaratun mr. ÔaâarÁtun "mweri". mravlobiTSi<br />

ixmareba gadataniTi mniSvnelobiTac da niSnavs naZiralebs.<br />

Ôiâariyyun an Ôiâriyyun niSnavs cnobismoyvares, momabezrebels,<br />

magram es forma ixmareba rogorc kacze, aseve qalze. qarTuli<br />

aSaris dakavSireba arabul ÷aâar-Tan, agresiul, anCxl mdedrTan,<br />

Cveni azriT, ufro dasaSvebia. sxvaTa Soris, JargonSic aris<br />

gavrcelebuli ÷aâar-is forma, romelic rusuli daboloebiT -<br />

ашка, aRniSnavs msubuqi yofaqcevis qals.<br />

zemoaRniSnulidan gamomdinare, qarTuli aSari, ixmareba ra<br />

mxolod qalTan mimarTebaSi, SesaZloa, momdinareobdes arabuli<br />

÷aâar-idan.<br />

akido<br />

akidos sabaseuli ganmarteba aseTia:”akido – xil(n)i erTad<br />

Sebmul(n)i” .<br />

qarTuli enis ganmartebiT leqsikonSi vkiTxulobT: “akido<br />

(akidosi) 1. vazis mokled aWrili wyvilmtevniani rqa (Sdr. krCxa,<br />

Cxa) “aba, gigo, krCxa Tu ginda an jagani, an akido...” (r. erisTavi). 2.<br />

simindis wyvili taro, fuCeCiT gadabmuli. 3. xilis asxmula,<br />

jagani. “xili erTad Sebmuli” (saba). II figur. mTeli sami leqcia<br />

batoni akakisa warmoadgens erTs im dedaazris akidos, rom<br />

rusTavelma gamosaxa Tavis poemaSi sami saqarTvelos sxvadasxva<br />

nawilis, qarTveli (ilia). 4.vazis jiSi dasavleT saqarTveloSi”.<br />

dialeqtebSi farTodaa gavrcelebuli akido, Cxa, krCxa, krCxe<br />

da istoriulad, jagani:<br />

“akido iseTi totia, romelsac ori mtevani abia” (dialeqt.<br />

qarTl.289 qarTlis dialeqti, rusTavelis akademiuri teqstis<br />

damdgeni komisiis masalebidan).<br />

“Cxa (qarTl., kax., TuS., ingil., okrib.,) mtevnebian rqebianad<br />

moWrili Zalian msxmoiare toti vazisa Sesanaxad” (dialeqt., 644);<br />

“bevri mtevani erT rqaze” (kirioni; n. jox., 61); “kaCxa; kilari,<br />

mokled gadaWrili totebiani Zeli” (T. uTurg.); “mtevnebiani toti<br />

vazisa moWrili” m. alav.); “kaCxa, sakideli” (m. jan.; dialeqt., 586;<br />

kirioni; i. javax., 11, 300) (ix. al. Rlonti, qarTul kilo-TqmaTa<br />

sityvis kona).<br />

202


“CxaberZula-i (gur.) vazis jiSia erTgvari “ (al. Rlonti).<br />

“jagani (qarTl., kax.) TokiT, sviiT an wneliT asxmuli yurZnis<br />

mtevnebi, agreTve sxva xilic (msxali, vaSli, broweuli da sxv.) 60-<br />

100 sm. sigrZisa” (S. ZiZ., n. kecx., p. xub., dialeqt. 646); “yurZnis<br />

mtevnebi mxralze (n.) asxmuli erTad (n., jox., 61)" (al. Rlonti).<br />

sabasTan jagani ganmartebulia, rogorc “wkepl(n)i TevzTa da<br />

xilT(a) asasxmeli”.<br />

kaSkadariul arabulSi gvxvdeba sityva agdî, romlis<br />

mniSvnelobaa "yelsabami":<br />

bÝi binta agdî Õazet, iúgÝ÷a uda÷et<br />

"beis asulma yelsabami moixsna [da] miwaze dado".<br />

arabuli iZleva saintereso masalas akidosTan dakavSirebiT.<br />

÷aqada (i) masd. ÷aqdun "Sekra"; "gaskvna", "kvanZi gaukeTa"; ÷aq×datun<br />

mr. ÷aqÁöidu 1."kvanZi", "kavSiri"; 2. "rwmena", "sarwmunoeba"; ÷uqdatun<br />

mr. ÷uqadun 1. "kvanZi", "kavSiri"; "mcenareebiT savse adgili" (g.wer.).<br />

÷iqdun mr. ÷uqædun "yelsabami"; "Sekvra"; ÷iqdun min az-zuhæri<br />

"yvavilebis girlanda", "yvavilwnuli".<br />

÷aqdun "maryuJi", "kvanZi", "kavSiri" (ix. x. baranovi).<br />

aq warmodgenilia sityvebi, romlebic, Cveni azriT,<br />

sayuradReboa da SeiZleba davukavSiroT qarTul akidos. esenia:<br />

÷aq×datun - "kvanZi"; ÷iqdun "yelsabami", ÷aqdun min az-zuhæri<br />

"yvavilwnuli" da a.S.<br />

arabuli ÷aqdun sparsulsa da TurqulSic aris Sesuli.<br />

magaliTad, a÷d (ayd) sparsulSi niSnavs "xelSekrulebas",<br />

"kvanZs"; agreTve "yelsabams", "Tasmas", "yaiTans". TurqulSi<br />

akdetmek aris xelSekrulebis dadeba. berZnulSi ayîda [agiδa] anu<br />

akhda [kiδa] niSnavs ekals.<br />

siriuli ‘qad niSnavs Semoxvevas, Sekvras, yelsabams,<br />

Semosaxvevs. igulisxmeba gveliviT Semoxveva, Sekvra, dagrexa<br />

(Payne Smith).<br />

siriuli (‘qad) niSnavs agreTve "gamagrebas", "ganmtkicebas",<br />

"Sededebas", "Sesqelebas". Sesabamisad ÷aq×dÁ -pasivis mimReobaa da<br />

p e i n s m i t i s (Pain Smith) leqsikonSi misi mniSvnelobaa<br />

"gamagrebuli", "gamxmari", "gamomSrali" (e.i. "daCamiCebuli").<br />

203


SeadareT Cxa, romelic zemoT ganmartebuli iyo, rogorc<br />

“mtevnebTan rqebianad moWrili Zalian msxomiare toti vazisa<br />

Sesanaxad” (dialeqt., 644).<br />

aRsaniSnavia siriulSi ‘enâqa (Sdr. arab. ÷unq) toti.<br />

mravlobiTSi ‘enâqÎ. misi mniSvnelobaa "xis nayofi", "xexili". es<br />

mniSvneloba b r o k e l m a n T a n aris dafiqsirebuli (Lexicon<br />

Syriacum). p e i n s m i t T a n igi ar gvxvdeba.<br />

arabuli ÷Ánaqa III TemaSi niSnavs: "gadaexvia", "yelze SemoeWdo",<br />

"Semoexvia", xolo ÷inÁqun - aris "gadaxveva", "yelze SemoWdoma",<br />

"Semoxveva". sayuradReboa siriuli ‘enâqa – "toti", ‘enâqÎ –<br />

"xexili", "xis nayofi", rac axlos aris akidosTan. siriuli<br />

saerTod saintereso masalas iZleva yurZenTan, vazTan<br />

dakavSirebiT. ase, magaliTad, Tanamedrove asurulSi yurZeni aris<br />

yunteфa.<br />

kaSkadariul dialeqtSi gvxvdeba angæd, romlis mniSvnelobaa<br />

“vazis mtevani”. igi damaxasiaTebelia harukSi mcxovrebi<br />

arabebisaTvis:<br />

âamsa kis×r iáÝr, angæd iáÝr<br />

“[roca] dacxeba (mze bevri iqneba), mtevani [damwifdeba] ”<br />

sayuradReboa, rom h. a W a r i a n i somxuri enis Zirebis<br />

etimologiur leqsikonSi sparsul angûr-s miiCnevs arabuli<br />

anqûad-idan momdinared. vfiqrobT, SeiZleba misi dakavSireba<br />

akidosTan. Sdr.: ta÷anqada - "ekida mtevnebad", "kunwulebad".<br />

÷unqædun mr. ÷anÁq×du "mtevani=yurZnis mtevani" (x. baranovi).<br />

Cven mier ganxiluli variantebidan, vfiqrob, upiratesoba am<br />

ukanasknels unda mieniWos. ÷unqædun, romlis Sesabamisi zmnuri<br />

forma, rogorc aRvniSneT, aris ta÷anqada - ekida mtevnebad. es aris<br />

arabuli oTxTanxmovniani zmna, romlidanacaa nawarmoebi<br />

arabuli "mtevani" – öunqædun mr. ÷anÁq×du . vfiqrob, misi<br />

dakavSireba qarTul akidosTan –- “vazis mokled aWril<br />

wyvilmtevnian rqasTan” yvelaze metad SeiZleba. rac Seexeba<br />

danarCen, siriul da arabul variantebs:’enâqa – enâqÎ- "toti",<br />

"xis nayofi", "xexili"; ÷aq×dÁ – "gamxmari", "gamomSrali" (e.i.<br />

204


daCamiCebuli); arabuli ÷aq×datun, ÷iqdun, ÷aqdun "kvanZi", "Sekvra",<br />

"yvavilebis girlanda", "yvavilwnuli", "maryuJi" . . .<br />

berZnul ayida-s [agia] "ekali", isini, Cveni azriT, sayuradReboa<br />

sakiTxis amomwuravi da zogadi TvalsazrisiT SeswavlisaTvis.<br />

aRsaniSnavia, rom arabuli enis libanur dialeqtSi, kerZod,<br />

zahlesTan gavrcelebulia dialeqturi forma “akido” aq×do,<br />

romelic zustad emTxveva qarTuls. zahle libanSi Rvinis<br />

warmoebiT aris cnobili. libanuri aq×do warmoadgens girlandis<br />

msgavs vazis daxveul tots, romelzec mtevnebi hkidia.<br />

$ 8. ZiriTadi leqsikuri fondi<br />

sxeulis nawilebi da Sinagani organoebi :<br />

rÝs “Tavi” âa÷ar rÝs “Tmebi”<br />

peâÝna “Subli” ÉÁqaq “Subli”<br />

muÕ “tvini” ÷izn “yuri”<br />

ÔaÓib “warbebi” Õaâim “cxviri”<br />

÷eyn “Tvali” miÓÓa “quTuTo”<br />

hal×k “piri” sin “kbili”<br />

ilsÁn “ena” riÔlat waÉ “loya”<br />

waÉe “saxe” moylab taj. “ulvaSi”<br />

manaÔ “nikapi” liÔ×ya “wveri”<br />

rugba “kiseri” hanÓur “yeli”<br />

katif “mxari” ×d “xeli”<br />

tirsak “idayvi” buÓulak//buÉulak “maja”<br />

l×lia “TiTi” iftir “frCxili”<br />

Óasad “tani” boãen “muceli”<br />

iÓil “fexi” zonia “muxli”<br />

bugulak “terfi” poâna “qusli”<br />

tahat iÓil “fexis guli” waÉ iÓil “fexis guli”<br />

galb “guli” âuâ “filtvi”<br />

kilva “Tirkmeli” kabda “RviZli”<br />

205


feri - lÝn<br />

Ýbiz “TeTri” aswad “Savi”<br />

aÔamar “wiTeli” guybarra// aáfar taj.<br />

“yviTeli”<br />

aÕazar “mwvane” azaraq “lurji”<br />

ranga-gÝ÷a-iâbah “miwisferi” Õulægi “melnisferi”<br />

rangin mianÁni aÔmar- rangin miana Ýbizaswad<br />

“yavisferi” aswad “nacrisferi”<br />

naTesaoba<br />

öabu, bÝba “mama” mÝma, um “deda”<br />

walad “vaJiSvili” bint “qaliSvili”<br />

aÕu “umcrosi Zma” koka “ufrosi Zma”<br />

uÕt “umcrosi da” dÁdÁ “ufrosi da”<br />

Óadde “babua” Óuddo “bebia”<br />

nab×ra “SviliSvili” ÷ab×ra “SvilTaSvili”<br />

aÕÁwa “biZaSvilebi” amaki baÉa “biZaSvili”<br />

÷ammi “mamis mxridan biZa” lÝli “dedis mxridan biZa”<br />

÷amma “mamida” lÝla “deida”<br />

suÔur “siZe” kanna “rZali”,<br />

“patarZali”<br />

qæda “mZaxali” hamÁ “colis Zma”<br />

dro -waÕt<br />

saÔariyya “dila” way saÔriyya “diliT”<br />

way saÔriyya “xval” leyl “Rame”<br />

way saÔriyya bar waÕt “adre” fazzayl//hamma wakt “mudam”<br />

yÝm “dRe” hama l-yÝm “dRes”<br />

hafta taj. “kvira” âahar “Tve”<br />

ba÷ad “Semdeg” gÁbil “adre”, “mde”<br />

206


sana “weli” sanawÁt mÁÊ× “warsuli”<br />

tansacmeli-libÝs<br />

gabÁ “bambis xalaTi” iaqtaya “xalaTi” (ara<br />

bambis)<br />

sÝb “perangi” salla “Suaaziuri Calma”<br />

Éalbar “Sarvali” kissa “jibe”<br />

ÓirÁb “winda” maÕsia “fexsacmeli”<br />

mæza “Ceqma” sæb “kaba”<br />

hinna - xelisgulis moxatuloba ÷×d-iãaibæn “xelsaxoci”,<br />

(qalebisTvis, dResaswaulze) “pirsaxoci”, “mandili”<br />

(welze Semosaxvevi)<br />

samkauli<br />

gz×a “mandili” buÕnaq “qalis samkauli”<br />

izmÁm “cxviris sayure” Õatabag “Sublis sayure”<br />

halka “sayure” uzuk “beWedi”<br />

tugma “Rili” daswÝna taj. “samajuri”<br />

saWmeli<br />

Õubz “puri” mæya “wyali”<br />

hal×b “rZe” ÷idÁm “mawoni”<br />

ÉÝy “Cai” zÁt arab. “flavi”<br />

palÁw “flavi” uzb. lahma ÷anza “Txis xorci”<br />

dihin sama “erbo” digik “fqvili”<br />

melÔ “marili” maraga “wvnianis saxeoba”<br />

tarmiwayÁt “xili” zanÓab×la “TeTri kamfeti”<br />

÷aÒ×n “comi” lahm na÷aÓa “cxvris xorci”<br />

r×z “brinji” dihn “cximi”, “erbo”<br />

lahm “xorci” z×ra “Zira”<br />

207


huliÁt “namcxvari”<br />

soflis meurneobasTan dakavSirebuli leqsika<br />

Òaraba “xe” ÷inÁb “yurZeni”<br />

tuffaÔ “vaSli” ÷aÓÓær//biãã×Õa “nesvi”<br />

handuk “sazamTro” nÝk uzb. “msxali”<br />

qarÝle uzb. “qliavi” aluÉa taj. “aluCa”<br />

gilÁs uzb. “bali” zab×b “qiSmiSi”<br />

Õurma “xurma” Ýlum “gargari”<br />

anÝr uzb. “broweuli” bodom “nuSi”<br />

Ôunãa “xorbali” iâ÷×r “fqvili”<br />

âiÓÁr “balaxi” tibin “salaTi”<br />

ÓizÁr “stafilo” kadwa “gogra”<br />

guãun “bamba” baáal “xaxvi”<br />

gul “yvavili” Éangaruk “fiCxi”<br />

zirÁ÷a “soflis meurneoba” ÷asal “Tafli”<br />

tana uzb. “toti” ãanat Òaraba “toti (xis)”<br />

waraqa “foToli” misãe “nayofi”<br />

isãa “mwifdeba” badrÙn “kitri”<br />

cxovelTa da frinvelTa samyaro<br />

motgÝwa//bÝâa “Zroxa” bÁgir “xari”<br />

faras “cxeni” ib÷×r “aqlemi”<br />

ÔÁâe “kozaki” iÔmÝr “viri”, “saxedari”<br />

na÷aga “cxvari” Õaræf “batkani”<br />

÷anza “Txa” Óide md. Óidia “cikani”<br />

bÝr× “mgeli” ÒazÁla “qurciki”, “gareuli<br />

Txa”<br />

÷aiÒ “daTvi” tulk× “mela”<br />

Õargæâ taj “kurdReli” iírÎdi “Tagvi”<br />

hayya “gveli” balÒ uzb. “Tevzi”<br />

208


t×ra “qaTami” Õuræs “mamali”<br />

kaftar uzb. “mtredi” ÷aqqa “yvavi”<br />

burgut uzb. “arwivi” ÉumÉuÒ “beRura”<br />

nÝga “mdedri aqlemi” ÷arwÝna “mdedri aqlemi”<br />

låk “calkuza aqlemi” arwÝntin ÷aâara “mSobiare<br />

aqlemi”<br />

nÝgtin ÷aâara “make aqlemi” ÷aire “orkuziani aqlemi”<br />

mwerebi<br />

zambæ "krazana"<br />

÷asalare//÷asalzambær "futkari"<br />

sayofacxovrebo leqsika<br />

bÎt “saxli” ÔÝyiã “oTaxi”<br />

orba ÔÝyiã “oTaxi” dÁrbet “karebi”<br />

dar×Éa “fanjara” parda “farda”<br />

busoÒa “parmaRi” paÕsa uzb. “kedeli”<br />

Ôawle “ezo”, “karmidamo” bÝÒ “baRi”<br />

ibsÝt “xaliCa” pÝliâta “baliSi”<br />

kårpaÉa “leibi” ilÔÁf “gadasafarebeli”<br />

guãun “baliSis piri” pÎÉ “Rumeli”<br />

gidir “qvabi flavis” âurba “wvniani”<br />

darwÝza “WiSkari” libbÁt “Salis fardagi”<br />

sar×r “sawoli”, “akvani” âalla “bambis fardagi”,<br />

“dasafeni”<br />

ÉiÒil “saceri” (xorblis ãaÕãa “dafa”, “xorcis<br />

gasacreli) dasaWreli xis dafa”<br />

piala “fiala” Õoâæga “kovzi”<br />

hadda “dana” ÷ÝâãaÕãa “xorcis dasaWreli<br />

dafa”<br />

Éayna “Caidani” Òalb×r “wvrili saceri”<br />

209


maÕfara “sufra” sufra“tyavis mrgvali<br />

sufra, iyeneben comis<br />

mosazelad”<br />

Óufur “Wa” tarÝâa; “SeSa”<br />

hæz “wylis avzi”<br />

Õaãab “fiCxi”<br />

ÉayÓuâ “Cais mosaduRebeli”<br />

qaãan//yaãaÒ uzb. “pirutyvis molÕÝna “pirutyvis<br />

sadgomi” sadgomi”< mol uzb. “pi-<br />

ÕÝna taj . “saxli”, “sadgomi” rutyvi”+ ÕÝna taj.<br />

boseli<br />

ÝâÕÝna “samzareulo”<br />

gidir "qvabi"<br />

tandir “Tone”<br />

buneba – tabi÷Át, samyaro<br />

samÁ “ca” qim “Rrubeli”<br />

gÝ÷a “miwa” naÓma “varskvlavi”<br />

âamsa “mze” gamar “mTvare”<br />

âarq “aRmosavleTi” Òarb “dasavleTi”<br />

âimÝl “CrdiloeTi” Óanæb “samxreTi”<br />

baÔar “mdinare” maãÁr//ræd “wvima”<br />

äalÓ “Tovli” nahÁr “arxi”<br />

rab× “gazafxuli-zafxuli” iâtÁÔ “Semodgoma-zamTari”<br />

tramÝ “Semodgoma” Ôarr “sicxe”<br />

áaÔra “udabno” bard//zentÁr “sicive”<br />

iubæsya “gvalva” Óabala “mTa”<br />

âiÓÁr “balaxi” Õiât “klde”<br />

haÓar “Tixis didi beltebi”<br />

210


daskvna<br />

kaSka-dariulma dialeqtma arabuli samyarosagan<br />

mravalsaukunovani izolaciis Sedegad ganvlo ganviTarebis<br />

damoukidebeli gza. misi enobrivi sistema xasiaTdeba uaRresad<br />

sayuradRebo fonologiuri, morfologiuri, sintaqsuri da<br />

leqsikuri TaviseburebebiT.<br />

gansakuTrebuli gavlena iqonia Sua aziis kaSkadariul da<br />

buxarul dialeqtebze uzbekurma da tajikurma enebma.<br />

araidenturma enobrivma garemocvam garkveulwilad Camoayaliba<br />

kaSkadariuli dialeqtis enobrivi sistema, romelic avlens Sua<br />

aziis meore – buxaruli dialeqtisganac gansxvavebul niSnebs.<br />

zemomoyvanili enobrivi maxasiaTeblebi adastureben am<br />

debulebas.<br />

fonologiis sferoSi unda aRiniSnos kad-Si droTa<br />

ganmavlobaSi saliteraturo arabulisaTvis ucxo, ori fonemis<br />

gaCena. esenia: /p/ da /É/. dialeqtSi maTi damkvidreba unda aixsnas<br />

ara marto uzbekuri da tajikuri enebis gavleniT, aramed<br />

Sesabamisi arabuli bgerebis ganviTarebiTac.<br />

vokaluri sistema dialeqtSi xuTi xmovniT aris warmodgenili:<br />

/a/ /e/ /i/ /o/ /u/. ganviTarebulia grZeli da mokle xmovnebis<br />

dapirispirebis moSlis tendencia. aman gamoiwvia cvlilebebi<br />

morfologiaSi.<br />

kad-is morfologia ZiriTadad xasiaTdeba semituri enebis<br />

morfologiuri sistemisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli niSnebiT.<br />

cvlilebebi saxelisa da zmnis struqturaSi umeteswilad<br />

ganpirobebulia uzbekuri da tajikuri enebis gavleniT (elativis,<br />

meore aTeulis ricxviTi saxelebis, ganusazRvreli namyosa da<br />

gansazRvruli awmyos drois formaTa warmoeba)<br />

zmnuri warmoebis rigi Taviseburebebi ganpirobebulia enis<br />

ganviTarebis Sinagani kanonzomierebebiT. kad-is verbaluri<br />

sistemis Taviseburebani yvelaze ukeT vlindeba swori<br />

samTanxmovniani zmnis morfologiuri analiziT.<br />

211


zmnisaTvis kad-Si damaxasiaTebelia uRlebis piris, ricxvis,<br />

sqesis, drois, kilos kategoriebi. TiToeuli kategoria<br />

gamoixateba Sesabamisad markerebiT. maTi erToblioba<br />

gansazRvravs dialeqtSi verbaluri meqanizmis funqcionirebis<br />

xasiaTs.<br />

perfeqtivSi samTanxmovniani zmnis mxolod ori tipi gamoiyofa:<br />

1. CaCaC; 2. CiCiC<br />

perfeqtivisa da imperfeqtivis maxasiaTebel xmovnebs Soris<br />

fiqsirdeba inversiuli damokidebuleba. morfologiuri<br />

alternacia: daxuruli-Ria an piriqiT; Ria-daxuruli _<br />

gamoxatavs ablauts. igi dialeqtSi funqcionirebs Sinagani<br />

fleqsiis saxiT.<br />

kategoriaTa gamomxatveli markerebi xasiaTdebian<br />

alternantebis siuxviT. alomorfebis aseTi siWarbe naklebad<br />

aris damaxasiaTebeli sxva aRmosavluri arabuli<br />

dialeqtebisaTvis.<br />

kad-is prefiqsaluri warmoebis mwkrivebi Zireulad<br />

gansxvavdeba Sua aziis meore - buxaruli dialeqtisagan.<br />

morfologiis sferoSi gansxvaveba am or dialeqts Soris m/mi<br />

prefiqsis fiqsaciis doneze xels uwyobs aRniSnul dialeqtebze<br />

molaparake ori arabulenovani eTnikuri jgufis warmoSobisa da<br />

Sua aziaSi damkvidrebis qronologiis sakiTxis garkvevas.<br />

martivi Temis samTanxmovniani zmnis fuZis struqturuli<br />

modeli aris CCVC. afiqsebis saSualebiT xdeba misi<br />

funqcionaluri gaformeba.<br />

Taviseburebas avlenen zmnebi, romelTa pirveli Zireuli aris<br />

guturaluri Tanxmovani. aq, imperfeqtivSi, pirvel da meore<br />

Zireul Tanxmovans Soris, nacvlad suqunisa, Cndeba xmovani,<br />

xSirad grZeli Ý. amave dros, perfeqtivSi SeiZleba sruliad<br />

daikargos pirveli Zireuli. ZiriTadad es mosdis hamzas.<br />

gamoiyofa zmnebis jgufi, romelTaTvisac ar aris<br />

damaxasiaTebeli ablauti. am jgufSi Tavmoyrilia pirveli tipis<br />

zmnebi, romelTa meore an mesame Zireuli Tanxmovani aris<br />

guturali.<br />

212


guturaluri TanxmovnebiT gamowveuli Taviseburebani kad-is<br />

zmnur sistemas sayurdRebos xdis ara mxolod arabulis, aramed<br />

saerTod, semitur enaTa morfologiis kvlevis TvalsazrisiT.<br />

aqve unda aRiniSnos, rom boloxanebSi kad-Si SesamCnevia<br />

guturaluri TanxmovnebiT gamowveuli wesidan gadaxrebi, rac<br />

enis mkafio gramatikuli sistemis rRvevis momaswavvbelia.<br />

kad-Si garda TxrobiTi kilosi, fiqsirdeba kavSirebiTi da<br />

pirobiTi kiloebi. isini vlindebian rogorc konteqstualurad,<br />

aseve warmoebis mxriv.<br />

drois kategoria dialeqtSi warmodgenilia Semdegi jgufebiT:<br />

a) dasrulebuli namyo<br />

b) ganusazRvreli namyo<br />

g) ganusazRvreli awmyo<br />

d) gansazRvruli/sruli awmyo<br />

e) ubralo momavali<br />

v) rTuli/dauyovnebeli momavali<br />

kad-Si SeiniSneba grZeli da mokle xmovnebis fonologiuri<br />

dapirispirebis moSlis tendencia. aman, rig SemTxvevebSi<br />

ganapiroba erTis mxriv, II da III, xolo meores mxriv, V da VI<br />

Temebis formaTa damTxveva. gvxvdeba dawyvilebuli Temebis<br />

leqsikuri mniSvnelobis erTi zmnuri formiT gadmocemis zogi<br />

SemTxvevac. maTi ricxvi dialeqtSi TandaTanobiT matulobs.<br />

miuxedavad zemoTqmulisa, dReisaTvis fiqsirdeba rogorc II da III,<br />

aseve V da VI TemaTa formebi.<br />

grZeli xmovnebis arsebobas zmnur formebSi da saerTod,<br />

arabuli warmoSobis leqsemebSi vfiqrobT, unda ganapirobebdes<br />

maxvili. mxedvelobaSia misaRebi agreTve arabul sityvaTa<br />

tradiciuli warmoTqmis SenarCunebis tendencia, romelic<br />

gaucnobiereblad gadaecema Taobidan Taobas.<br />

nawarmoebi Temebis warmoeba kad-Si naklebad produqtiulia.<br />

araswori zmnebis Temebis fiqsacia ZiriTadad xerxdeba calkeuli<br />

formebis gamovleniT. xSiria SemTxvevebi, roca hamzian an sust<br />

zmnas mxolod erTi forma gaaCnia romelime nawarmoeb TemaSi.<br />

aseTi formebis daZebnis da dalagebis Sedegad SevecadeT<br />

213


aRgvedgina geminirebuli, hamziani da susti zmnebis nawarmoebi<br />

Temebi, Tumca, rogorc aRvniSneT, Temebi kad-Si ufro metad<br />

asaxaven sityvawarmoebis enobriv potencials, vidre<br />

formawarmoqmnas.<br />

dialeqtSi arawesieri zmnebis raodenoba ufro naklebia, vidre<br />

swori zmnis formebisa. amiT gamowveuli semantikuri xarvezi<br />

Sevsebulia uzbekuri da tajikuri nasesxobebiT.<br />

ucxo warmoSobis sityvebi kad-Si eqcevian arabuli<br />

morfologiis yalibSi da warmoebis saerTo wess eqvemdebarebian.<br />

vinaidan nawarmoeb TemaTa funqcionirebis areali kad-Si<br />

mcirea da mniSvnelobaTa gamoxatvis ZiriTadi simZime pirvel<br />

Temas akisria, xSirad igi sxvadasxva niuansis mqone semantikur<br />

datvirTvas Rebulobs.<br />

niSandoblivia perfeqtivisa da imperfeqtivis mx. r.-Si me-3 da<br />

me-2 pirSi or-ori – mamrobiTi da mdedrobiTi formebis arseboba.<br />

maTi warmoeba uaxlovdeba klasikur arabuls. am mxriv kad-s<br />

paraleli mxolod beduinebis metyvelebaSi moeZebneba.<br />

dialeqtSi dasturdeba hamzis an susti Tanxmovnis mokvecis<br />

Sedegad saliteraturo arabuli enis orTanxmovniani an<br />

samTanxmovniani Zirebis transformacia, Sesabamisad,<br />

erTTanxmovnian da orTanxmovnianebad. miuxedavad Tanxmovnis<br />

Cavardnisa, Cven aseTi zmnebi movaTavseT saliteraturo enis<br />

tradiciul sqemaSi da modelebis prezentaciis dros frCxilebSi<br />

SevitaneT isini.<br />

naSromSi gamovlenili kad-is zmnis warmoebis ZiriTadi<br />

Taviseburebani miuTiTeben mSobliur enobriv niadags mowyvetili<br />

da xangrZlivi drois ganmavlobaSi aramonaTesave enebTan<br />

kontaqtSi myofi arabuli dialeqtis TviTmyofadobas. isini<br />

sayuradReboa arabuli zmnis ganviTarebis tendenciebis<br />

Sesaswavlad.<br />

leqsika gamdidrebulia uzbekuri, Turqmenuli, tajikuri,<br />

avRanuri, rusuli nasesxobebiT. amave dros fiqsirdeba iSviaTi<br />

arabuli arqaizmebi.<br />

kad-isaTvis damaxasiaTebeli, saliteraturo arabulisagan<br />

gansxvavebuli sintaqsuri konstruqciebidan aRsaniSnavia<br />

214


Turquli izafeti da determinatiuli konstruqciebi.<br />

ganviTarebulia enobrivi gadarTvebi. winadadebebis saxeobebidan<br />

gavrcelebis sifarToviT xasiaTdeba Semdegi tipebi: 1. SVO<br />

(qvemdebare-Semasmeneli-damateba; 2. SOV (qvemdebare-damateba-<br />

Semasmeneli); 3. OVS (damateba-Semasmeneli-qvemdebare).<br />

kaSkadariuli dialeqti warmoadgens periferiuli arabuli<br />

dialeqtebidan erT-erT yvelaze mniSvnelovan enobriv fenomens,<br />

romlis enobrivi maxasiaTeblebi sayuradReboa ara marto<br />

arabuli enis, aramed, zogadad, semituri enebis Seswavlis<br />

TvalsazrisiTac.<br />

215


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2. axvlediani v., ricxviTi saxeli buxaris arabulSi,<br />

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3. axvlediani v., erTi tipologiuri paralelis Sesaxeb arabul<br />

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4. axvlediani v., SeniSvnebi semitur enaTa ricxviTi saxelis<br />

Sesaxeb, tipologiuri Ziebani, III, Tbilisi, 1994<br />

5. batoniSvili v., qarTlis cxovreba, t. IV, Tbilisi, 1973<br />

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216


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228


CENTRAL ASIAN ARABIC DIALECTS<br />

QASHQA-DARYA DIALECT<br />

(Phonology, Grammar, Vocabulary)<br />

Summary<br />

The work is devoted to the study of an important problem of Arabic<br />

linguistics, namely Arabic dialectology – the linguistic phenomenon of<br />

Central Asian Qashqa-daryÁ Arabic dialect (hereinafter – the QAD), little<br />

known to scholarship. Similar to Central Asian Arabic, the dialects of the<br />

border zone of Turkey and Syria, Cypriot Arabic, the old Arabic dialect of<br />

Andalusia, Arabic of Iran’s Khuzistan (Khorramshahr speech) etc, also<br />

belong to peripheral Arabic dialects.<br />

Peripheral Arabic dialects manifest various linguistic peculiarities, which<br />

is mainly caused by their close linguistic contact with the non-kindred<br />

Indo-European, Turkic and other languages. They contain extremely rich<br />

material for the study of problems of general linguistics. Observation of<br />

above-mentioned dialects provides an opportunity to define the tendencies<br />

of development of Semitic languages, which is also significant from the<br />

viewpoint of historical linguistics.<br />

The aim of the work is to carry out a phonetic, phonological,<br />

morphological, syntactic and lexical study of the Central Asian QAD, to<br />

disclose fully its linguistic essence. Linguistic peculiarities of the QAD<br />

constitute a system characterized by features, which are similar to and<br />

different from those of the literary Arabic language and other Arabic<br />

dialects. Attention in the work is mainly focused on the different features,<br />

for dialect as a speech fact is not restricted from the viewpoint of change.<br />

This should not be interpreted as though the QAD does not have its own<br />

norms. The QAD, forms as a result of laws of inner development of<br />

language over the centuries, functions with its own linguistic features. It<br />

undergoes modifications even at present. The work also deals with the<br />

cases of description of the clear-cut grammatical system of the language.<br />

Century-old isolation from the Arabic world is an important peculiarity<br />

of Central Asian Arabic dialects. The Bukhara and QAD dialects developed<br />

independently of the Arabic world, torn from their native linguistic<br />

environment, over a long period of time. A significant linguistic picture has<br />

resulted from the development of Arabic dialects in the non-identical<br />

linguistic environment, when they co-existed, being in linguistic contact<br />

with the Indo-European (Tajik, Afghan) and Turkic (Uzbek, Turkmen)<br />

languages over centuries. This favored the development of triglossia in<br />

Central Asia – nowadays the majority of the population of Bukhara and<br />

Qashqa-daryÁ regions speaks and makes wide use of the Tajik and Uzbek<br />

229


languages, along with their native Arabic. It should also be noted that of<br />

the non-native languages Bukhara Arabs speak Tajik more fluently,<br />

whereas Qashqa-daryÁ Arabs use Uzbek with more fluency. Historical,<br />

geographic, social and other extralinguistic factors played an important role<br />

in the development of Central Asian Arabic dialects and they are taken<br />

into account in the program of research into these dialects.<br />

Instances of phonetic, morphological, syntactic and lexical interference<br />

have been identified on the basis of the analyses. Development of similar<br />

and different features in languages being in contact over a long period<br />

(convergent and divergent development of language) are also discussed. It<br />

is established finally how an individual uses the non – native Tajik and<br />

Uzbek languages along with his native Arabic. At this point the author<br />

considered it advisable to describe interference first. Breakdown of<br />

linguistic features in speech by a trilingual individual is due to the<br />

influence of the contacting languages. Deviation from speech norms in<br />

case of systematic recurrence is regarded as a characteristic feature of the<br />

languages being in contact. Analysis of similar linguistic phenomena, which<br />

have resulted from linguistic contacts over a certain period, is also equally<br />

important. It is a consistent process leading to the assimilation of<br />

languages.<br />

Such convergent description of Central Asian Arabic is especially<br />

valuable in case of contact of the structurally non- – identical Semitic,<br />

Indo – European and Turkic languages. In this case common linguistic<br />

rules have developed as a result of deviation from the norms of the native<br />

language, which gives an opportunity to generalize and simulate linguistic<br />

contacts. There is an inner relation between interference and convergence<br />

in Central Asian Arabic. In both cases the results of co – existence of<br />

Arabic dialects with languages of a different structure, their changes in<br />

time and space are discussed. The difference is that in describing<br />

interference linguistic deviates – may be said – inaccuracies, caused by the<br />

influence if Tajik and Uzbek, characteristic of Bukhara and QAD dialects,<br />

are studied. As regards description of convergence, here we are dealing<br />

with qualitative modifications. Thus, linguistic contacts in Central Asia can<br />

be viewed as a long process, accompanied at certain stages by transition of<br />

quantitative changes to qualitative ones.<br />

Linguistic contacts do not lead only to the appearance of common<br />

features; development of divergence – differentiation of linguistic features,<br />

opposite phenomenon of convergence is possible as well. This, too, is<br />

characteristic of languages being in contact, for they adopt similarities and<br />

differences to an equal degree.<br />

Linguistic situation in Bukhara and Qashqa-daryÁ regions is marked by<br />

the existence of coordinate and subordinate diglossia (triglossia). In case of<br />

230


coordinate diglossia (triglossia) a bilingual (trilingual) person speaks two<br />

(or three) languages fluently, he switches from one language to the second<br />

according to third language if necessary. Under subordinate diglossia an<br />

Arab bilingual (trilingual) individual speaks fluently only one language –<br />

his native language. The level of knowledge of Tajik and Uzbek in such<br />

cases is low, the bilingual (trilingual) person tries to subordinate a foreign<br />

language to the norms of his native Arabic. These bilinguals (trilinguals)<br />

are mainly elderly people and women limited to their family life.<br />

Interesting cases of subordinate bilingualism were recorded in Central Asia<br />

– these are instances when young people speak the Tajik and Uzbek<br />

languages more fluently than their native Arabic, using foreign words and<br />

expressions abundantly in speech in their family, their quarter, talking to<br />

the people in the same village. This can be explained by modern<br />

tendencies in the Uzbek Republic. At the same time, monolingualism is<br />

not uncommon in the Arabic – speaking qishlaqs of Bukhara and QashqadaryÁ.<br />

Monolinguals are mostly very old people. It is especially difficult to<br />

obtain dialectological material from monolingual women due to their<br />

traditional way of life.<br />

The foundation for the study of Central Asia dialects was laid in the<br />

1930s by Acad. G. Tsereteli and Prof. I. Vinnikov. The discovery of these<br />

dialects is linked to the names of Leningrad ethnographers N. N. Burikina<br />

and M. M. Izmailova, who were the first scholars to publish information<br />

about the Arabic – speaking population of Central Asia. It is known that<br />

Acad. I. Krachkovski attached great importance to the discovery of Arabic<br />

dialects in Central Asia. He regarded this event as “the greatest scholarly<br />

discovery indicative of a certain revolution in Arabic dialectology”. His<br />

following words are noteworthy: “ The discovery and study of Central<br />

Asian Arabic dialects brings glory to our scholarship, our country, being a<br />

revolution for world science from a certain viewpoint”.<br />

Along with I. Krachkovski, eminent Arabist N. Yushmanov, delivering a<br />

course in Arabic dialectology at Leningrad University in the 1930s, also<br />

attached great importance to the discovery and study of Arabic dialects in<br />

Central Asia.<br />

The credit should go to George Tsereteli for demonstrating the<br />

existence of two different dialects – Bukhara and Qashqa-daryÁ, as a result<br />

of his first scholarly mission to Central Asia in 1935. The scholar wrote in<br />

the preliminary publication in 1937: “It was established that the language<br />

of the Arabs living in the North (Bukhara region) differs considerably from<br />

the speech of the Arabs of the South (Qashqa-daryÁ region). The<br />

difference is so great, that it was possible to distinguish with confidence<br />

two independent dialects”.<br />

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The Central Asian dialects – Bukhara and QAD belong to the eastern<br />

group of Arabic dialects. They are spoken in the territory of modern<br />

Uzbekistan. The Bukhara dialect is spoken by the population of the<br />

qishlaqs: JÝgarÚ, ChaghdarÑ, Shohan-beg, Ghijduvan area, Bukhara region,<br />

as well as the qishlaq Arab KhÅna, Wobkend region, whereas QAD is<br />

spoken in the qishlaq Jeynau and Qamashi, Beshkend region, North –<br />

West of Qarshi. According to our observation on the spot, the Bukhara<br />

dialect is spoken by approximately 3000 people in the given qishlaq at<br />

present, whereas up to 1500 people know the QAD. At the same time, the<br />

Arab population in residential areas exceeds greatly number of native<br />

speakers.<br />

Important studies were devoted to Central Asian Arabic dialects by<br />

Acad. G.Tsereteli and Prof. I.Vinnikov. Special mention should be made<br />

of “A Description of the language of Central Asian Arabs “ (in Russian)<br />

by G. Tsereteli, published in the proceedings of the second session of the<br />

Arabists Association in Leningrad, in 1941; “Central Asian Arabic<br />

Dialects, the Bukhara Arabic Dialect” (in Georgian), major work by the<br />

same author, Tbilisi, 1956; “ The Language and Folklore of Bukhara<br />

Arabs” by I. Vinnikov, Moscow, 1969; “A. Dictionary of the Language of<br />

Bukhara Arabs” by the same author, published in “Палестинский сборник”<br />

in 1962, etc. The above listed studies are foundational work by Acad. G.<br />

Tsereteli and Prof. I. Vinnikov, which have contributed to the level of<br />

study of Central Asian Arabic.<br />

“ The Bukhara Arabic Dialect”, monograph by Prof. V. G. Akhvlediani<br />

was published in 1985. It deals with the analysis of the phonological and<br />

morphological structure of the Bukhara dialect. N. Yushmanov, H. Niberg,<br />

V. Fisher also devoted significant works to Central Asian Arabic. G.<br />

Juraev, O. Yastrov, K. Versteegh and others.<br />

The works by these scholars are largely devoted to the study of the<br />

Central Asian Bukhara dialect. This, in the present writer’s view, is due to<br />

the existence of rich dialectological material reflective of Bukhara Arabic<br />

in scholarly use, the credit for which goes to Acad. G. Tsereteli and Prof.<br />

I. Vinnikov.<br />

Acad. G. Tsereteli and Prof. I. Vinnikov laid the foundation for the<br />

study of the QAD. In 1954 G. Tsereteli and in 1963 I. Vinnikov published<br />

examples of speech of the Qashqa-daryÁ Arabs. Materials of the Grammar<br />

of the Qashqa-daryÁ dialect by I. Vinnikov were published in Bratislava in<br />

1965. In spite of this, the QAD is little known in scholarly circles.<br />

Materials of this dialect have not been published to an extent that would<br />

enable specialists to carry out thorough linguistic analysis of the dialect.<br />

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The present work aims at filling this gap. Dialectological material was<br />

obtained during our scholarly missions in Central Asia in the qishlaqs<br />

Jeinau and Qamashi, the city of Qarshi, Qashqa-daryÁ region, in 1980,<br />

1986, 2000. Working with informants, the present writer tried to record the<br />

speech of people of different age and sex, with a good command of Arabic.<br />

The people with poor knowledge of the Arabic language were also<br />

recorded, whose speech was considerably interspersed with Uzbek and<br />

Tajik idioms.<br />

The work is the first attempt to present a comprehensive linguistic<br />

analysis of the Central Asian QAD – Description of the language on the<br />

phonological, morphological and syntactic levels, characterization of the<br />

vocabulary of the dialect is given. Linguistic date of the Bukhara dialect is<br />

presented abundantly in the work.<br />

Qashqa-daryÁ Arabic offers extremely wealthy material from the<br />

viewpoint of study of linguistic contacts. In this respect speech contacts of<br />

languages with different structure on the level of relationship of the<br />

Semitic (Arabic), the Indo-European (Tajik, Afgan) and the Turkic<br />

(Uzbek, Turkmen) languages is especially important. This question found<br />

broad expression in the work.<br />

The question of the history of Arabs in Central Asia is given special<br />

place in the preface. Presumable dates of setting of ancestors of the<br />

Qashqa-daryÁ and Bukhara Arabs in Central Asia are established on the<br />

basis of historical sources and the direct observation of linguistic data by<br />

the author.<br />

Arab migration to Central Asia has a century-old history. It is linked to<br />

the wars of conquest of Arabs in the 7 th -8 th centuries. The fact of existence<br />

of Arabs in Bukhara and Samarqand is attested by historical sources.<br />

Settling of Arabs in Central Asia acquired a broader scale later on.<br />

According to the report by Al- Ia÷qæb×, 9 th -century geographer, Khorasan,<br />

including Maverannahr, was inhabited by Arabs. The large number of<br />

Arabs was especially felt in cities. Existence of Arab settlements away from<br />

cities is presumable in this period. This is suggested by the large-scale<br />

migration of Arabs to Central Asia in A.D. the 7 th -8 th centuries. Later, as a<br />

result of assimilation with the local population, the Arabs living in cities<br />

gradually lost their national traits including the most important of thesethe<br />

language. According to the evidence of Al-JÁhiz, Arabs intermixed with<br />

the local population and did not differ from it any longer. As regards the<br />

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Arabs, who had not settled in cities and led a nomadic life, they<br />

presumably preserved their language and other national traits.<br />

The question as to with which wave of Arab migration the Arabs,<br />

inhabiting Bukhara and Qashqa-daryÁ regions at present were linked,<br />

naturally arises.<br />

On the bases of the study conducted by us, two chronologically different<br />

waves of Arab migration can be assumed in Bukhara and Qashqa-daryÁ<br />

regions:<br />

1. The settlement of the direct ancestors of Qashqa-daryÁ Arabs in this<br />

region might have taken place in the 7 th -10 th centuries, which<br />

follows from the arguments given below:<br />

a) Inhabitants of the qishlaq Jeinau have preserved an oral tradition<br />

about the settlement of their ancestors in the first centuries of<br />

Hijra;<br />

b) Historical sources attest to the existence of Arabs in Qashqa-daryÁ<br />

region, Central Asia, in the 7 th -12 th centuries.<br />

c) The Arabs living in present-day Qashqa-daryÁ and those who settled<br />

here in the 7 th -10 th centuries are related through a very important<br />

evidence by Al-Isãakhr× concerning the settlement of Quraish Arabs<br />

in this region in early times, the majority of Arabs inhabiting this<br />

region at present links their origin with the Quraishan Arabic tribe.<br />

d) Comparison of the QAD with the Bukhara dialect on the level of<br />

linguistic data proves that the QAD is more archaic and it bears<br />

more resemblance to classical Arabic, which may be explained by<br />

long geographic and linguistic isolation of Qashqa-daryÁ Arabs from<br />

the Arabic world.<br />

2. Direct ancestors of Bukhara Arabs may have settled in present day<br />

Ghijduvan region in the 14 th century. This can be assumed on the<br />

basis of the following:<br />

a) According to an oral tradition ancestors of Bukhara Arabs were<br />

settled in Central Asia by Timur Lenk;<br />

b) Linguistic analysis of the Bukhara dialect reveals some dialectal<br />

phenomena, which are common to Arabic dialects, not attested in<br />

literary sources until the 14 th century. Anthropological conclusion<br />

on Central Asian Arabs made by L. Oshanin and V. Zezenkova is<br />

noteworthy.<br />

c) According to their evidence, “Qashqa-daryÁ Arabs belong to<br />

brachycephalic racial types of Near East, which coincides, with the<br />

racial trait of Arabs living in the North, Mesopotamia”. The authors<br />

made an extensive study of the types found in Central Asia.<br />

According to their observation, the Arabs living in Qarshi area have<br />

preserved their anthropological traits proving their Arabic origin<br />

234


ight up to the present day. As to indicators of assimilation of<br />

Central Asia Arabs with the local population, according to the<br />

conclusion of the scholars, the trace of such anthropological mixture<br />

is extremely insignificant. The authors assign this to the fact that the<br />

bulk of Qarshi Arabs took up a fixed residence, namely in Jeynau<br />

and Qamashi regions over the centuries. Again mention should be<br />

made of the extremely important evidence by Al-Isãakhr× on the<br />

settlement of Arabs in the neighborhood of Nakhshebi (Qarshi). He<br />

names a residential area called Naukad Quraish, which points to the<br />

Arabic origin of its inhabitants. Quraish Arabs living in Jeinau at<br />

present serve as a link to the Arabs who settled in Central Asia in<br />

the 7 th -10 th centuries. Thus, the fact of Arab migration to QashqadaryÁ<br />

region of Central Asia in the 7 th -10 th centuries and their<br />

relation to the Arabs inhabiting Jeinau and Qamashi at present can<br />

be considered reliable.<br />

Phonology<br />

The present study deals with the phonemic analysis of the QAD<br />

applying the methods of modern structural linguistics. Attention is focused<br />

mainly on minimal oppositions which are duscussed on the level of<br />

phonological pairs. The principle of discreteness of language is taken into<br />

account in the analysis, according to which minimal units making up<br />

larger ones are chosen as the linguistic units to be described.<br />

Distribution of consonants and vowels in the QAD is comparatively<br />

equal (daÕal). This phenomenon is clearly manifested in the literary Arabic<br />

language (kataba) and is noticeable in the majority of Eastern Arabic<br />

dialects. It is the other way found in Western Arabic dialects. Vocalization<br />

here is minimal and occurrence of several consonants in initial position is<br />

typical (kteb). Seven main classes of articulation of consonants are<br />

identifiable in the given dialect: labial, dental, alveolar, palatal, velar,<br />

pharyngeal and laryngeal.<br />

The following phonemes of literary Arabic are lost in the Qad:<br />

a) interdental ä > s: äawb > sub “clothes”; Ë > z: öaÕaËahu > ÕazÁ<br />

“he took it”<br />

b) In most cases hamza is dropped: öaÕaËahu > ÕazÁ “he took it”.<br />

c) The velar q is mostly rendered by voiced g: qal×l > gil×l “little, few”.<br />

Rarely articulation of q is preserved: qÝz× - “judge”.<br />

d) Emphatic consonants have weak articulation d and Ì are conveyed<br />

by ì, which is sometimes further weakened, resulting in z: lamzÁt < lafÌÁt<br />

235


– “words”, “expressions”. The suffix Át here denotes Fem. pl; ÷arÊ > arz<br />

“petition”.<br />

Despite phonological changes localization rows of consonants are<br />

mainly preserved in the QAD. There are:<br />

I The row of labials: b m p w labiodental f<br />

IIThe row of dentals: d n t z s ã<br />

III The row of alveolars: l r<br />

IV The row of palatals: Ó É í â y<br />

V The row of velars and uvulars: g k q Ò Õ<br />

VI The row of pharyngeals: ÷ Ô<br />

VII The row of glottals: h<br />

Two phonemes not found in literary Arabic are encountered in the<br />

QAD, these are: p and É. Their emergence should not be ascribed only to<br />

the influence of the Tajik and Uzbek langauges. This is also caused by the<br />

development of corresponding Arabic sounds. That is why p and É occur in<br />

in words of Tajik and Uzbek origin as well as purely Arabic lexemes. e. g.<br />

poliâta “pillow”, Éai “tea”, harap < harab “fled, bolted, escaped”, uÉi “my<br />

face”. Some consonants are characterized by emphasization. e. g. /r/ - ros<br />

“head”, /b/ - raÈÈ “hord”; /Ü/ uÜÜa – “mother”. If a syllable contains<br />

an emphatic vowel, it undergoes emphasization. This phenomenon is<br />

found in Arabic, both in the literary language and its dialects. Emphasized<br />

sounds /Ü/ /b/ /r/ are the variants of nonemphatic phonemes. In some<br />

cases they occur as independent phonemes.<br />

29 phonemes are distinguished in the QAD: /p/ /b/ /m/ /w/ /f/ /t/ /d/<br />

/n/ /s/ /z/ /l/ /r/ /â/ /É/ /Ó/ /k/ /g/ /Õ/ /y/ /Ò/ /ã/ /Ô/ /÷/ /h/ /a/ /e/<br />

/i/ /u/ /o/<br />

According to their phonetic and distributional features they are divided<br />

into two classes: consonants and vowels. Vowels serve to form syllables,<br />

whereas consonants lack this features. The system of consonantal<br />

phonemes contains 24 units – 7 sonorous sounds, 15 voiceless consonants<br />

and 2 affricates.<br />

The following distinctive features of phonemes are identifiable in the<br />

QAD: vocalic, consonantal, compact, voiced, nasal, continuant, aspirate,<br />

strident, peripheral, glottalized, palatal.<br />

These are binary features, needed for paradigmatic identification of<br />

phonemes.<br />

According to the first two binary features – vocalic – consonantal, the<br />

following classes are distinguishable in the QAD:<br />

1. Vocalic and non-consonantal: a e i u o<br />

2. Vocalic and consonantal: y w<br />

3. consonantal and non-vocalic: p b m l d s z â É Ó k g Õ q Ò ã Ô ÷ h<br />

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The distinctive feature of compactness is typical of the vowels a and u<br />

in the QAD. In this respect they are opposed to the non-compact e and i.<br />

The same feature is characteristic of the palatals â, É, Ò, the velars k, Õ, Ò,<br />

the uvular q and the glottals Ô, ÷, h.<br />

Continuity is typical of those consonants in the QAD which are<br />

contoids whose articulation does not involve interruption or occlusion.<br />

Such consonants are referred to as fricatives in phonetic literature. The<br />

distinctive feature of continuity is typical of f, z, s, Ó, É, â, m, n in the<br />

QAD.<br />

Aspirated consonants are produced with no vibration of the vocal<br />

chords and relaxed articulatory muscles. Aspiration is typical of É, Ô and h<br />

in the QAD.<br />

Low-tone consonants contrast with high-tone ones.The low segment of<br />

the spectrum is dominant in their pronunsiation. This distinctive feature is<br />

characteristic of labial and velar consonants (b, p, w, f, g, k, Ò, Õ) as<br />

opposed to dentals and palatals.<br />

Stridency is characteristic of glottal consonants . In the QAD this<br />

distinctive feature is typical of q. It is produced by closure of glottis, thus<br />

contrasting with mellow phonemes.<br />

Glottalized consonants contrast with non-glottalized ones. These are<br />

stops whose articulation involves work of the vocal chords and glottal<br />

occlusion. Glottalized consonants are often discussed along with strident<br />

consonants. This distinctive feature is typical of Ô in the QAD.<br />

Palatal consonants are formed by pressing the tongue against the hard<br />

palate. This feature is characteristic of Ó, É, í and y.<br />

The analysis carried out by the present writer has shown that distictive<br />

features of the QAD phonemes are identified in the form of the following<br />

binary pairs:<br />

1. vocalic / non-vocalic; 2. consonantal / non-consonantal; 3.<br />

compact/ diffuse; 4. voiced / voiceless; 5. nasal / oral; 6. continuant /<br />

discontinuant; 7. aspirated / unaspirated; 8. low-tone / high-tone; 9.<br />

strident / mellow; 10. peripheral / non – peripheral; 11. glottalized / non<br />

– glottalized; 12. palatal / non- palatal. They are presented in the table<br />

#2.<br />

In the work is presented minimal phonological binary pairs of QAD and<br />

distribution of the QAD phonemes in words.<br />

237


Spontaneous changes of articulation of sounds<br />

Consonants<br />

Labials<br />

The voiced /b/ is sometimes conveyed by the voiceless, aspirated /p/,<br />

the latter being its positional variants. /p/ occurs in the middle of words or<br />

final position after a vowel: arkup< öarkaba “ascended”, arap ars.<br />

The dental nasal n is conveyed by m in final position before a vowel or<br />

in pre-consonantal position (if the consonant is labial): fatam< faãan<br />

“understood”, mimbará. This phenomenon can be explained by<br />

the influence of the emphasized r. It should also be noted that along with<br />

the word rÝs is also found in the QAD, the latter being more common.<br />

238


The QAD consonant Ó is devoiced in some cases, resulting in É:<br />

haÉ


e/ /o/<br />

/a/<br />

Length of vowels in the QAD is not stable. There are long, short,<br />

medium – length and ultra – short vowels. Variation of vowel length is<br />

typical not only of the QAD but also other Arabic dialects. The following<br />

classes of vowels are identifiable on the basis of phonetic records:<br />

Long unstressed /×/ /Ø/ /Î/ /Ï/ /Á/ /Â/ /Ý/ /æ/ /ç/ /ë/<br />

Long stressed /×/ /Ø/ /Î/ /Ï/ /Á/ /Â/ /Ý/ /æ/ /ç/ /ë/<br />

Of variable length /i/ /Ø/ /e/ /Í/ /a/ /À/ /o/ /u/ /å/ /ê/<br />

Middle short /i/ /Ú/ /e/ /î/ /Í/ /À/ /o/ /u/ /å/ /ê/<br />

Short /i/ /Ø/ /e/ /î/ /Í/ /a/ /À/ /o/ /û/ /u/ /å/ /ê/<br />

Overshort /i/ /Ø/ /e/ /î/ /a/ /À/ /o/ /û/ /u/ /å/ /ê/<br />

The quality of vowel realisation is often determined by its position and<br />

contact. The neighbourhood of forelingual, velar, pharyngeal and emphatic<br />

consonants affects the timbre of the vowels.<br />

Thus the following vowel phonemes are identifiable in the QAD.<br />

Phonemes Allophpones<br />

/a/ /À Â a o û/<br />

/e/ /e Î î/<br />

/i/ /Ø Ù/<br />

/o/ /û o/<br />

/u/ /å æ o ç ê/<br />

The identified 5 cardinal phonological units do not distinguish<br />

phonological length.<br />

This phenomenon should be considered as a characteristic feature of the<br />

QAD vowel system. Occurrence of long vowels in words should be ascribed<br />

to various factors. The most important of these, in the present writer’s<br />

view, is stress. The tendency of preserving traditional pronunciation of<br />

Arabic words, handed down unconsciously from generation to generation,<br />

should also be taken into account.<br />

Combinative changes of sounds<br />

A mechanism of modifications is evidenced in the QAD, which is<br />

manifacted in connected speech in the form of articulatory changes.<br />

These modifications are of two basic kinds: combinative and positional.<br />

Combinative modification of sounds involves interaction of sounds in<br />

connected speech as a result of which phonemes in immediate<br />

neighborhood or proximity affect the articulation.<br />

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Positional modifications of sounds are caused by the position of a sound<br />

or in the word (Initial, middle, final), its occurrence in a stressed or<br />

unstressed syllable etc.<br />

The following changes can be distinguished in the combinative<br />

modifications of the QAD sounds: accomodation, assimilation and<br />

dissimilation, substitution and metathesis.<br />

Loss of consonants and vowels and transposition of sound are also<br />

found in the given dialect.<br />

Syllable<br />

The following varieties of syllables are identifiable in the QAD:<br />

1. CV open short syllable<br />

2. CV open long syllable<br />

3. CVC closed long syllable<br />

4. CVCC doubly closed long syllable<br />

5. VC<br />

6. CVC<br />

7. VCC<br />

8. VC<br />

As is clear from these varieties, the structure of the QAD syllables is<br />

characterised by a vocal sound in preposition: irs “wedding”, amr “order”<br />

etc.<br />

Their occurrence in the dialect is caused by dropping of hamza and<br />

÷ayn.<br />

Stress<br />

Stress is not fixed in the QAD. It falls manly on long syllables. If the<br />

word contains two long syllables, postposition is given preference.<br />

birgÁdÙr “team-leader”<br />

ilbÁsÇt “clothes”<br />

Morphology<br />

In this part the regularities underlying the distribution of root and affixal<br />

segments in the Qashqa-daryÁ Arabic Dialect are determined. Their<br />

functioning obeys certain rules whose unity defines the morphological<br />

structure of the dialect. The categories, analysed according to the formal<br />

241


markers, are dealt with in the work as independent morphological<br />

structures.<br />

The root, as the grammatically indivisible lexical abstraction, in the<br />

Qashqa-daryÁ Arabic dialect consists of two or three consonants, and<br />

rarely of one or four consonants:<br />

Ó cf ÓÁ "he came", md cf mad "he went away", lhg cf lihig "he arrived at<br />

a point", dstr cf dastær "consent".<br />

The Unity of root-consonant constitutes a base on which this or that<br />

grammatical form is built. Although, the number of root-consonants is not<br />

fixed, along with the abundance of three-consonant roots in the dialect,<br />

instances of their transformation into two-consonant roots are also found:<br />

gare


egards mainly to the Uzbek and Tajiki borrowings. Models of stems are<br />

represented in the work according to their inner structure. Along with the<br />

so-called simple nominals, new-type verbal nominals are found as well.<br />

The structure of nouns has undergone certain changes, which was<br />

chiefly due to phonetic peculiarities. As a result, models of the QAD nouns<br />

do not always correspond to their literary parallels. The nominal categories<br />

of gender, number and definiteness are also discussed at this point.<br />

The basic marker of the feminine gender in the QAD is the element<br />

a/e. The allomorphs -at, -×t, -t are, evidenced as well. The situation is<br />

analogous in the Bukhara dialect. A marker is characteristic of some words<br />

which had no marker of the fem. gender in Classical Arabic: âamse "the<br />

sun" waÉe "face".<br />

The plural in the QAD is formed mainly with the suffix - Át. This rule<br />

applies both to the fem. and masc. nouns. Rarely, to build the plural,<br />

masc. nouns take the suffix -in, and fem. nouns - the suffix yÁm or Ám:<br />

hamrayÁm "gold coins". Broken plural forms: imãÁr "rains" are also<br />

preserved in the dialect. The double plural is characteristic too: faras×nÁt<br />

"horses", imãÁrÁt "rains".<br />

The dual number in the QAD is represented in the set forms denoting<br />

two corresponding bodily parts: ×dÎn "two hands" ÷ainÎn "two eyes", "eyes".<br />

In the Bukhara dialect forms of the dual number drop næn in the<br />

position of the modified: ÷ainÎy adamiy "man's two eyes". This confirms<br />

the linguistic potential of formation of the dual number in the Bukhara<br />

dialect.<br />

indefinitness in the QAD is expressed by means of the indefinite<br />

pronoun - fad "one", "someone", "somebody". It derives from Arabic -<br />

fardun "one". fad is used in preposition and it agrees with the noun in<br />

gender. fad sab× "one boy", fadhate mÝra "one woman".<br />

Notably enough, in the QAD, unlike the Bukhara dialect, the definite<br />

article il is found rarely: áoÔb il-Ôoiã "the owner of the house" pÝâÝ ilwalad<br />

áayaÔ "the pasha called (this boy)".<br />

Forms with the endings - in/×n are widespread in the Bukhara dialect,<br />

they are found between the modifier and the modified, constituting a<br />

certain linking element. For instance: kalb×n kb×r "big dog", such nunation<br />

is typical of the Qashqa-daryÁ dialect as well: Ôoiã×n Ód×d "new house".<br />

In the structure of the adjective the following main types are<br />

identifiable: aCCaC for masc. form and CaCCa for fem. forms. The type<br />

C1VC2C3V is widespread with the following variants: a) C1 a C2C3Án and b)<br />

C1oC2C3Ýn : âab÷Án "satisfied" Óow÷Ýn "hungry".<br />

In the analysis of the adjective attention is manly focused on the<br />

formation of the superlative degree which differs from the literary Arabic.<br />

243


The element used to build the superlative here is the form Óådo: Óådo zen<br />

"the best", Óådo kb×r "the biggest". Such formation of the elative must be<br />

ascribed to the influence of the Uzbek language. As to the form Óådo, it is<br />

linked with Arabic - Óiddan.<br />

Numerals<br />

The structure of numerals in QAD has changed in comparison with<br />

Literary Arabic. This applies to ordinal and cardinal numbers equally.<br />

Cardinal numbers are marked with the following features:<br />

From one to ten, only numerals for one and two have both genders:<br />

fadhat-fadhate, isnÎn-isnÎna.<br />

From three to ten, numbers have similar forms for both genders.<br />

From one to four the Arabic forms are used, from five to seven - both<br />

Arabic and Tajik, for eight and nine only Tajik words are used, while ten is<br />

expressed by means of Arabic aâara:<br />

1. fadhat-fadhate 6. sitta/âiâ<br />

2. isnÎn-isnÎna 7. sab÷a/haft<br />

3. salÁs 8. haât<br />

4. öorba 9. næn<br />

5. Õamsa/panÓ 10. ÷aâara<br />

fadhat "one" is the result of merging the two words: fad


The numerals for 11,15,16, and 17 have clearly parallel forms. When<br />

the numeral, denoting the units, begins with a consonant, the word ÷aâara<br />

keeps its final vowel –a. Alternatively, in numbers 12 and 14 the vowel-a is<br />

omitted, because the second word in these compound numerals begins<br />

with a vowel, following the muting of hamza.<br />

Numerals of this category precede nouns in the singular form:<br />

÷aâara fadhÁt walad "eleven boys"<br />

÷aâara salÁs hÝiã "thirteen houses"<br />

Decimals<br />

By their structure decimals differ from the corresponding numerals of<br />

the Literary Arabic:<br />

20-÷aâr×n 60-sitta aârÁt // âiâ aârÁt<br />

30-salÁs aârÁt 70-sab'a aârÁt // haft aârÁt<br />

40-orba aÁrÁt 80-haât aârÁt<br />

50-Õams aârÁt // panÓ aârÁt 90-næh aârÁt<br />

We can see, that only 20 is similar to the relevant form in Literary<br />

Arabic. The other forms follow the structure: unit + tens (pl. fem.). As<br />

would be expected, in the numerals for 50,60,70 parallel forms are<br />

preserved.<br />

We can further distinguish two groups, according to the combination of<br />

decimals and units: a) from 20 to 29; b) from 31 to 99.<br />

For the first group the same rule as that of Literary Arabic applies. The<br />

following sequence is preserved: unit + twenty:<br />

fadhat ÷aâr×n "twenty one"; isnÎn ÷aâr×n "twenty two".<br />

The second group has the following structure: decimals +unit.<br />

salÁs ÷aârÁt fadhat "thirty one"; orba ÷aârÁt isnÎn "forty two".<br />

Decimals in the Literary Arabic precede the noun they qualify. The<br />

noun has the plural form: ÷aâr×n naöÓÁt "twenty rams"; salÁs ÷aârÁt<br />

motgowÁt "thirty cows".<br />

Sometimes nouns in the QAD are in singular forms:<br />

orba ÷aârÁt faras "forty horses"; Õamsa ÷aârÁt bagir "fifty bulls".<br />

In the same part of the dissertation the main characteristics of the<br />

hundreds and thousands are given.<br />

Pronouns<br />

The Personal, Demonstrative, Interrogative, Negative and Relative<br />

pronouns are distinguished in QAD.<br />

Independent personal pronouns<br />

The following are the independent personal pronouns:<br />

Singular Plural<br />

245


3 m haw ziklÝn<br />

zÝk ziklonÁt<br />

zÝkÁt<br />

f. hay ziklÇnna<br />

z×ka<br />

2m. inta intæ /intuwÁt<br />

f. inti intÙnna<br />

1. anÁ naÔna /naÔnÁt<br />

In the 3 rd person of sg. and pl., also in the 2 nd and 1 st persons of pl.<br />

there are following parallel forms: haw/zÝk sg.m. hay/z×ka sg.f.,<br />

ziklÝn/ziklÝnÁt/zÝkÁt pl.m., intæ/intuwÁt pl.m., naÔna/naÔnÁt pl.<br />

The functional frequency of haw/hay (sg. 3 rd person) is very low, These<br />

forms appear in the dialect mostly with the negative particle mÁ: ma-haw,<br />

ma-hay. Usually in the dialect we have zÝk/z×ka in sg. 3 rd person. As for<br />

plural, 3 rd person, we have three forms: ziklÝn, ziklÝnÁt, zÝkÁt. ziklÝnÁt is<br />

formed by means of the double plural (ziklÝn + Át). As for zÝkÁt, it is<br />

formed by adding the plural marker Át to the singular form of the 3 rd<br />

person zÝk.<br />

In the first person we have the alternation of naÔna with naÔnÁt. naÔnÁt<br />

is a double form of plural. In QAD functional frequency of this form is<br />

very high.<br />

It is perfectly clear, that the quantity of personal pronouns in QAD is<br />

much greater than that in the Literary Arabic Language.<br />

These pronominal forms have phonetic variations, for examples, instead<br />

of /a/ we have in the speech of informants /e/ and /î/. Often we have<br />

/ie/ instead of /i/ and / Ýw/ instead of /æ/:<br />

intî zatabt "You (m) striked"; intiõ wÎn "Where are You (f) ?"<br />

inte mÁtâæf "You (m) don’t love"; intÝw Kulæ!"You m. pl. must eat!"<br />

The plural forms are used in QAD for the expression of the dual:<br />

âoymardenqul AÕu Óeraqul, ziklÝn Arab×ya idriya "Shoimardenqul is<br />

Geraqul’s brother. They know Arabic.”<br />

Personal pronouns are often used for emphasis:<br />

anÁ mÁ adri, inta tuktub! "I don't know (i.e. I cannot write), YOU<br />

write!"<br />

iâ qatalt intà? "Why did YOU kill?"<br />

The masculine and feminine gender are fixed in both - singular and<br />

plural forms of the 2 nd and 3 rd persons, which is characteristic for Literary<br />

Arabic and occurs very rarely in Arabic Dialects.<br />

Pronominal suffixes:<br />

246


Singular Plural<br />

III m. -a (h) III m. -hum//um<br />

f. -a f. -hin<br />

II m. -k,-ak II m. -kum<br />

f. -ki f. -kinna<br />

I -i,-ni -na<br />

The pronominal suffixes in verbs reflect the object. They denote the<br />

person (1 st , 2 nd , 3 rd ), the gender (m. and f.) and the number (pl. only).<br />

The singular number is not marked.<br />

Demonstrative pronouns<br />

Demonstrative pronouns in the Qashqa-daryÁ Arabic Dialect are<br />

originated from the Arabic hÁËa<br />

hÁza//hÁd "this" (masc.) halÁn "these"<br />

hÁzi//hÁdi "this" (fem.) hazlÝn "those"<br />

Demonstrative pronouns distinguish the categories of number and<br />

gender. In the plural the category of gender is not expressed. Two parallel<br />

forms of hazlÝn/hamazlÝn, occur , the latter denoting the intensive form.<br />

hamazlÝn qatalæ! "THEY are who’ve killed"!<br />

Interrogative and Negative Pronouns:<br />

Interrogative pronouns in QAD are represented by min "who" and eâ//iâ<br />

"what". These pronouns have parallels in other Arabic Dialects also.<br />

min iÓa? "Who is coming?"; eâ saweyta? "What did you do?".<br />

The Negative pronoun is represented as a composite: negative particle -mÁ<br />

+pronominal suffix:<br />

mÁni Óo÷Ýn "I am not hungry"; mÁhum i úbÎt "They are not at<br />

home".<br />

The forms of mÁhad and mÁmin in the meaning of "nobody" are<br />

infrequent:<br />

mÁhad iÓa "Nobody has come"; mÁmin sayal "Nobody has asked".<br />

Sometimes mÁmin conveys the meaning of "nothing", "none":<br />

anÁ i úbÎt mÁmin ÷andi "I have nothing at home".<br />

Relative Pronoun<br />

li and ki are used as relative pronouns in QAD. The former is of the<br />

Arabic origin: li


The use of li in QAD is relatively rare. The element ki is of the Tajik<br />

origin. It is productive in QAD. It links together related syntactical units of<br />

the complex sentence:<br />

Óib-ki, ana zÎn aâæfa "Bring that what I like".<br />

gÁl-ki, ugæb mÁt "Said (that), who afterwards died".<br />

Thus, the classes of pronouns and numerals in QAD are characterized<br />

by the presence of formation, which make it stand out clearly among the<br />

other Arabic dialects. The foregoing analysis proves the originality of the<br />

structure and function of these idiosyncratic forms.<br />

Verb Formation<br />

The verbal system in the QAD is constructed in accordance with the<br />

principle of functioning of the verbal system of Semitic languages. Simple<br />

and derivative forms are identifiable: perfective, imperfective, a clearlydefined<br />

subsystem of conjugation expressed by the categories of person,<br />

number and gender, with regular, geminate, hamzaed, weak and doubly<br />

weak verbal forms, indicative and imperative moods.<br />

Alongside the indicated categories, pronominal and other types of affixal<br />

markers are distinguished.<br />

Regular verb<br />

Perfect<br />

In the perfect two types of the tri-consonantal root are singled out:<br />

1.CaCaC and 2.CiCiC. The maximal frequency of spread is characteristic<br />

of the former type, the latter occurring rather rarely. In plural the<br />

difference of formation is appeared either in QAD or BAD:<br />

QAD BAD<br />

sing.<br />

III masc. katab “ daÕal<br />

fem. katab-et daÕal-et<br />

II masc. katab-t daÕal-t<br />

fem. katab-ti daÕal-ti<br />

I katab-t daÕal-t<br />

plur.<br />

III masc. katab-aw daÕal-æ<br />

katab-awÁt<br />

fem. katab-Ænna daÕal-en<br />

II masc. katab-tæ daÕal-tæ<br />

katab-tuwÁt<br />

fem. katab-tÙnna daÕal-ten<br />

I katab-na daÕal-na<br />

248


The dual is not represented in the verb and the noun. In this respect the<br />

QAD follows to the common dialectological tendency.<br />

A verb in the singular, II p., masc. and I p. has a homonymous form:<br />

zaraÔt – “you sowed (smth)”, zarabt – “you smote (smb)” // zaraÔt – “I<br />

sowed (smth)”, zarabt – “I smote (smb.)”. In order to express the person<br />

it is necessary to apply personal pronouns: ana zarabt – “I smote (smth.)”,<br />

inta zarabt – “you smote (smb)”. As is known, this does not match with<br />

the rules functioning of personal pronouns’ in the literary Arabic language.<br />

In the third and second persons, masc. plur. parallel forms are present.<br />

They are formed by means of the so called double plural: katabaw //<br />

katabawÁt – “they wrote”, katabtu // katabtuwÁt – “you wrote”.<br />

The suffixes et, ti and tÙnna have allomorphs: t, te, tÐnna. The difference<br />

between the two types of the simple form, besides sounding consonants,<br />

is expressed via narrowing the vowel of some suffixes: âarabat – “drank”,<br />

Ôilimet – “had a dream”. This phenomenon can be explained by the<br />

phonetic influence of the stem’s vowels.<br />

Imperfective<br />

In the imperfective , similar by to the literary Arabic language, the first<br />

root vowel falls out. The second vowel maintains an inversive connection<br />

with the vowel of the prefect. It is narrow in the case when a typical vowel<br />

in the perfect is wide and vice versa – wide, when the vowel of complete<br />

aspect is narrow. As has been remarked, the latter occurs in case of<br />

quantitatively relationship rarely, but from the qualitative point of view<br />

inversive between characteristic vowels is everywhere preserved. This fact is<br />

a reflection of morphonological alternation and functions in the dialect in<br />

the shape of internal flexion. below are given full paradigms of both types:<br />

Indicative mood<br />

QAD BAD<br />

sing.<br />

III masc. i u ktub mudÕul<br />

fem. t u ktub tudÕul<br />

II masc. t u ktub tutÕul<br />

fem. t u ktub×n tutÕul×n<br />

I aktub matÕul<br />

plur.<br />

III masc. i u ktubæn mudÕulæn<br />

i u ktubænÁt<br />

fem. i u ktubÙnna mudÕul×n<br />

II masc tuktubæn tutÕulæn<br />

249


. tuktubæn<br />

fem. tuktubÙnna tutÕul×n<br />

I nuktub nutÕul<br />

As is obvious from the verb paradigms, in the forms of the first and<br />

second persons of the plural, as well as in the perfect in QAD, we find<br />

parallel forms: i u ktubæn, t u ktubæn // iuktubunat, tuktubunat.<br />

It should be noted here also that in the indicative mood forms of double<br />

plural are of comparatively rare.<br />

In separate cases characteristic vowels of the imperfect do not correspond<br />

to their parallels in the literary language. E.g.: âarab ~ iârub. At the time<br />

when as a typical vowel of the verb âariba in literary Arabic functions as a,<br />

in the QAD it is replaced by i. E.g.: labas ~ ilbis – here we have the<br />

alternation a~i instead of the expected i~a.<br />

In the QAD,in a row of prefixal formations, forms with the prefix<br />

m/mi, unlike the Bukhara dialect, are absent. As is known, the forms with<br />

the particles m/mi, b/bi in Arabic dialects are not traced down earlier than<br />

the 14 th century. They are to be met with, beginning from the 14 th -15 th<br />

centuries, in literary monuments. In the QAD forms with the prefixes<br />

m/mi in the imperfect have not developed.<br />

Some prefixes and suffixes, building the impefect, have allomorphs,<br />

namely in the first type verbs an allomorph of i u is i. It is obtained as a<br />

result of reduction of the prefix’s vowel: iaktub>iuktub>iktub. Sometimes<br />

Ùnna alternates with ïnna: tuktubïnna.<br />

In the QAD a group of verbs may be identified of which ablaut is not<br />

characteristic. It includes, on the whole, the first type verbs, for which the<br />

second or third radicals are gutturals:<br />

ãala÷~iãla’ “to rise”<br />

na’am~in’am “to be pleasant”<br />

naÓaÔ~inÓaÔ “to have success”<br />

daÔar~idÔar “to conquer”, “to overcome”<br />

karah~ikrah “to hate”<br />

Óahad~iÓhad “to be tired of working”<br />

Some features are also evinced by verbs with the first guttural consonant.<br />

Here, in the imperfect, between the first and second radicals and<br />

consonants instead of sukun there appears a vowel, more probably o. At<br />

the same time in the perfect the first consonant may completely disappear.<br />

Mainly it occurs with hamza:<br />

haÓam~ihoÓum “to assault, “to attack”<br />

Ôaraq~iÔÝruq “to kindle”; “to set on fire”<br />

‘aÓal~i’ÝÓul “to hurry”<br />

250


Õaza~iÝÕuz “to take”<br />

Among verbs of this group occurs metathesis of the prefixal vowel in the<br />

second person of both numbers and genders:<br />

ithÝÓum, ithÝÓ u m×n, ithÝÓ u mæn, ithÝÓ u mÙnna.<br />

Thus, the structural model of the stem of a tri-consonantal verb of simple<br />

form in the imperfect is this: CCVC. Its functional shaping takes place by<br />

means of affixes.Verbs of this category are characterized ablaut, some<br />

peculiarities of conjugation, brought about by the presence of guttural<br />

consonants in the root, and also by the abundance of forming allomorphs<br />

in verbs of both types. Lately, some deviation from the rule has been<br />

noticed in the QAD, caused by the presence of guttural consonants,<br />

heralding break-down of the clearly-defined grammatical system.<br />

Imperative Mood<br />

Suffixes forming the imperative mood in the QAD are: for the first type<br />

verbs –u, for the second type verb –i. In the plural we have parallel forms:<br />

I type<br />

sing. plur.<br />

II masc. uktub uktubæ//tuktubæ<br />

fem. uktub× uktub×n//tuktub×n<br />

II type<br />

sing. plur.<br />

II masc. ilÔag ilÔagu//tilÔagu<br />

fem. ilÔag× ilÔagin//tilÔagin<br />

In BAD there is analogical formation. Fossilized forms of the<br />

imperative occur in the QAD: ugæb nazÁli gÁl – “Then he said to him:<br />

descend!” sÁfa daÕÁli mÁ gÁla – “Looked at him – did not say, come in!”<br />

This, mainly, refers to tri-consonantal verbs. Rarely this form expresses a<br />

lively impertaive: anÁ g×t, katÁbi – “I came, write!” muya âarÁbi – Drink<br />

some water!” It should be noted here, that the frequency of such forms<br />

functioning in the QAD is comparatively low. More widespread and<br />

common is conveyinging the imperative mood by means of the suffix ×n,<br />

e.g.:<br />

I type<br />

sing. plur.<br />

II masc. uârub×n uârub×nu<br />

fem. uârub×ni uârub×na<br />

251


II type<br />

kitif – “to unite”<br />

sing. plur.<br />

II masc. iktaf×n iktaf×nu<br />

fem. iktaf×ni iktaf×na<br />

Such formation of the imperative mood should be considered as one of<br />

the characteristic morphological peculiarities of the QAD.<br />

Tense<br />

The category of tense in the QAD is represented with the following<br />

groups:<br />

a)Past perfect<br />

b)Past indefinite<br />

c)Present indefinite<br />

d)Present definite<br />

e)Simple future<br />

f)Complex (immediate) future<br />

In the dialect the semantic opposition is obvious between the completed<br />

and indefinite past, e.g.: âarabt “I drank”, ma âÁribni – “I have not<br />

drunk”.<br />

The past indefinite is formed by adding a pronominal suffix to the form of<br />

active participle. By its contents the past indefinite coincides with the<br />

Georgian tense “resultative”.<br />

The presence of the past indefinite form in the QAD could be explained by<br />

the influence of the Turkic setting, in which the given tense form is<br />

attached.<br />

The present indefinite is formed in two ways: one with the usual<br />

imperfect and the other by adding the imperfect form of the auxiliary verb<br />

sawa “to do smth.”, “to perform smth.” to a masdar of the first form in a<br />

corresponding person, e.g.: ÷amalÁn isi “he works (as a rule)”, rakabÁn asi<br />

“I’m charged (in the general) with breaking in horses”.<br />

The present definite conveys a continuous, prolonged action. To a<br />

certain extent it resembles the English present continuous. The indicated<br />

tense is formed in the QAD by adding active participle forms of the verb<br />

nÁm to a form of the imperfect, e.g.: iãbuÕ nÁyim “(smb.) is now baking<br />

252


(smth.)”, nÝkul nÁyimÙnni – “we’re now eating”. should be noted here<br />

that the participle of the auxiliary verb nÁm is frequently supplied with a<br />

pronominal suffix.<br />

The simple future is conveyed by a form of the imperfect. The tense is<br />

conveyed by the context, e.g.: way saÔriya IúbozÝr amid – “Tomorrow I’ll<br />

go to the bazaar”. If the expression way saÔriya “tomorrow” is absent, the<br />

sentence could be translated thus: “I’m going to the bazaar”. As for the<br />

complex (immediate) future, it has recource to the prefix –ta, e.g.: tanoÒdi<br />

– “let’s go”, “we’ll go right now”, “we’ve already set out” .<br />

Derivative Forms<br />

Represented in the QAD are all derivative forms from the second to the<br />

tenth including, except the ninth. Activity, intensity, direction, conative,<br />

causative and the meaning of the passive voice are conveyed by the means<br />

of the forms in the QAD. Here it should be noted that derivative forms in<br />

the QAD are not formed from any verb. The forms attested in the dialect<br />

do reflect the linguistic potential of world-building rather than of form<br />

building. A similar tendency is characteristic of other Arabic dialects as<br />

well.<br />

The fourth form, rarely to be met with in Arabic dialects, in our dialect<br />

appears in the shape of anãa


The most important among them, On the author’s view, is the accent.<br />

The tendency towards preserving the traditional pronunciation of Arabic<br />

words, which unconsciously is conveyed through generations, is also to be<br />

taken into account.<br />

Structural Words<br />

This part deals with adverbs, prepositions, conjunctions, particles and<br />

interjections. Along with the data of the Qashqa-daryÁ dialect, the<br />

characteristic forms of the Bukhara dialect are also analysed.<br />

The Adverb<br />

The following words are identifiable among adverbs: barra “outside”,<br />

Óuwa “inside”, kamÁn “again”, ÓudÝ “very”, dÁim “always”, hamÁna<br />

“here”, hanÁka “there”, ugæb “after”, warÁ “behind”, giddÁm “in front<br />

of”, amsiyya “yesterday”, bukra “tomorrow”, taÔt “down”, ÷ala “up”.<br />

Some of these adverbs may carry the nominal function. In this case, the<br />

sentence type is nominative:<br />

hamÁna ÓudÝ zÎn, min hanÁka “It is better here than there”<br />

Óuwa ÓudÝ ks×r, min barra “There are more inside than outside”<br />

hawliÝi giddÁm zÎn, min warÁ “The front part of my farmhouse is<br />

better than the back one”<br />

There are instances of transformation of some words into adverbs by<br />

means of semantic change in the dialect: áahriya “morning”, sahriya “in<br />

the morning”, bÁöid “far”, bÁ÷id “far away” liÝm “today”. Compound<br />

adverbs formed by joining two words can also be singled out: kulwaÔt<br />

“always”, badbukra “the day after tomorrow”, mintaht “down”<br />

The preposition<br />

The following prepositions are identifiable in the QAD: f× “in”, ÷and<br />

“at”, men “from”, ma÷a “with”, “together”, i


mÝrata il-gÁda mÝy Òasala “His wife washed the oriental robe with<br />

water”<br />

“min” undergoes a change and is sometimes rendered by the form<br />

“mim”. This occurs mostly when the word after the preposition begins<br />

with a labial consonant and assimilation takes place: mim bet “from the<br />

house”, mim macÎt “from the mosque”.<br />

It should be noted that over the recent period of time “mim” has been<br />

substituted for “min” where it has not been exceptable: mim kuÉa iÓa “he<br />

came from the street”, mim hamsÝya ÝÕuz “I borrowed it from my<br />

neighbour”.<br />

The particle<br />

Interrogative: imit “when”, iâqÝ “where”, “which way”, eâ “what”, li<br />

“why”, lem×n “whom” kam “how many”, kif “how”<br />

Of the interrogative particles mention should be of eâ “what”. It is a<br />

compound particle, it corresponds to li öayy âayiöin in classical Arabic. iâqo<br />

“where”, “which way” is also a compound particle, with the parallel form<br />

eâqÝ.<br />

The particle of the Turkish origin “mi” is often found in the dialect:<br />

âa×f-mi “Can you see?”. intinna-mi “Did you give it to me?”<br />

Negative: lÁ “no”, mÁ “no”, gaã×Ým “never”, gaãã×â “nothing”,<br />

Along with “lÁ”, the hamza form of this interrogative particle lÁö is<br />

often used in the dialect, which occurs mostly at intervals. Note should be<br />

made of “mÁ” too. It has the parallel form “mÁmin” which is fairly<br />

widespread and expresses full negation.<br />

Syntactic Constructions<br />

Syntactic constructions different from the literary Arabic language have<br />

developed in the QAD through time. This phenomenon is characteristic of<br />

peripheral Arabic dialects. At the same time the syntactic pattern which is<br />

typical of Arabic is preserved in the dialect, this applies to the modifier -<br />

the modified as well as the syntactic structure.<br />

The following constructions can be singled out in the dialect.<br />

1. the modified – the modifier (status - constructus). This construction<br />

typical of Arabic is widespread in the QAD. Productivity of this variety of<br />

syntactic subordination in the dialect is also favoured by the existence of<br />

the definite article “il”, less typical of other Arabic dialects.<br />

Examples with the definite article “il”: áÝÔb il-bÁgir “the owner of the<br />

cow” , rÝs il-iÔmÝr “the donkey’s head”<br />

Examples without the article “il”: laÔm na÷aÓa – “mutton”, laÔm ÷anza<br />

“the flesh of a goat”, gid×r palÁw “the pan of pilaf”.<br />

2. Turkish Izafet (the modifier-the modified)<br />

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As a result of the influence of the Uzbek language a construction which<br />

is alien to the Semitic languages has developed in the QAD. In Turkish<br />

Izafet the modified is in postposition and is equipped with a pronominal<br />

suffix: ÀfÀndi morta “the effendi’s wife”, literally: “the effendi-his wife”;<br />

hawliÝy áÝÔbu “the owner of the farmhouse”, literally: “the farmhouse- its<br />

owner”, waladak farasu “your boy’s horse”, literally: “your boy-his horse”;<br />

zÝÓ× b×ntu “my husband’s doughter” i. e. my step-daughter, literally: “my<br />

husband-his daughter”.<br />

Modifying of a noun by another noun is regarded by A. Kononov as a<br />

characterstic of this construction in the Uzbek language, where the<br />

modifier is in preposition and without changing its form can express the<br />

quality and type of a thing.<br />

The modified in Turkish Izafet is added the suffix expressing the third<br />

person (-u, -cu). e.g.:Синф журнали «class register», китоб магазины<br />

«bookshop».<br />

In order to express collectivity the modified in the Uzbek language<br />

takes the plural suffix –лар, whereas in the Qashqa-daryÁ dialect it takes<br />

the marker Át.<br />

Examples from Uzbek: болалар боfracu “kindergarten”, оталар сузи<br />

“Proverbs”, literally: “Fathers” (ancestors) words.<br />

Examples from the Qashqa-daryÁ dialect: na÷aÓÁt áÝÔba “the owner of<br />

the sheep”. literally: "the sheep-their owner"; âurabÁt gidira(h) “the pan of<br />

soup”, literally: “the soap-its pan”.<br />

In Turkish Izafet the use of several modifiers with the modified in<br />

preposition is permissible:<br />

faras, na÷Óa, ÷anza orzum “the land (pasture) of horse, sheep [and]<br />

goat”, literally: “horse, sheep, goat-their land (the QAD)”. cf. Uzb. Тил,<br />

адабиет ва тарих институти “The Institute of Language, Literature and<br />

History”.<br />

Code Switching<br />

As a result of the scientific mission to the Qashqa-daryÁ region during a<br />

recent period of time instances of code-switching were identified, where<br />

Turkish Izafet is borrowed by informants as a loan translation.<br />

Numerous instances of the use of two-component syntagmas of the<br />

Uzbek language have been revealed:<br />

a) The modifier takes the Genitive case suffix – нинг, and the modified<br />

is added the third person suffix – u, cu:<br />

waladÁn iúzÒ×r iúdarb ãala‘, iúhama medrese Òada-mad, zÝka dilmurÝdning<br />

kitÝbi Õaza-mad.<br />

“The younger son set off, he went to the madrasah, he took a book by<br />

Dil-Murod (literally: Dil Murod – his book) with him”.<br />

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poâÝ iúgappÁt iúbÝi ÓudÝ ÕairÝn sÝr, usmaning otasi sayaÔ. ugæb zÝka<br />

ihamzÝk sayal:<br />

– usmaning otasi agar inta, li mÁ gulta?<br />

“The pasha was very surprised at the bey’s words, [he] called Usman’s<br />

father (literally: Usman-his father). Then he asked him: - if you are<br />

Usman’s father, why didn’t you say (this) [before]?”<br />

b) ileynÁ iúÓeynÁu болалар бoÒÉasi hast<br />

“There is a kindergarten here in Jeinau (literally: children-their<br />

garden)”<br />

3. Determinative composite is an Izafetic construction, the first<br />

component of which is the modifier, and the second – the modified.<br />

Analogous constructions are typical of the Indo-European languages and<br />

their existence in Central Asia Arabic should be ascribed to the linguistic<br />

contact with the Tajik language.<br />

Examples: wai áaÔariyya bÝi iúbozÝr mad. laÔam mib×Ô iúzÝka gÁl:<br />

farasak wenu? “In the morning bey went to market. The vendor of meat<br />

asked him: Where is your horse?”<br />

hamsÝyta iúnorbÝn mib×Ô ÓawÁb mÁ nãa<br />

“The neighbour did not answer the seller of ladders”<br />

Code Switching<br />

iúgiddÁmo bÝÒi sovÕÝz hast<br />

“There is a garden of the Farmers’ union opposite to it”<br />

mÝratna iúxonai kalÝn kÁnaw<br />

“Our women (wives) were in the large room”<br />

4. As a result of the influence of the Uzbek language the - În/×n suffix<br />

was developed in the QAD which expresses the superlative degree and<br />

fulfils the function of a connective formant between the modifier and the<br />

modified: adem×n Õas×s “a stingy man”, bayt ×n kb×r “a big house”<br />

In Uzbek энг expresses the superlative degree. cf. энг улуf “the<br />

biggest”.În/×n in the QAD serves merely as a connective in the<br />

construction N+ În/×n +adj: It should be noted that Turkish en<br />

corresponding to Uzbek энг carries the analogous function in the Adana<br />

and the Mersin Arabic dialects of Southern Turkey.<br />

5. Extence of the constructions such as Pronpers+N+Pronsuf must be<br />

ascribed to the influence of Turkish. In a syntagma of this type the<br />

personal pronoun precedes the noun which takes a pronominal suffix: anÁ<br />

hawliÝi «my farmhouse», ana ÔÝÖãi “my house”, inta waladak “your boy”;<br />

zÝka iÔmor “his donkey”.<br />

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The Structure of The Sentences<br />

The most characteristic types of sentence in QAD are the following: 1.<br />

SPO (Subject- Predicate- Object): pÝâÝ gÁl iúwalad “Pasha said to the<br />

boy”; 2. SOP (Subject-Object-Predicate): bÝy iúbint Õuâræya gÁl-ki “Bei<br />

said to the beautiful girl”; 3. OPS (Object-Predicate-Subject): mÝrati<br />

iúhama mÁnã×-gÁl-ki “He said: I don’t give him my wife”. The type SOP is<br />

spread most of all in QAD.<br />

Such free word order in the sentence can be explained by the linguistic<br />

contact with the Uzbek language. The phrase structure in the QAD often is<br />

not based on the subject and it’s action. On the contrary, the object is<br />

underlined in the sentence and hence the attention is focused on the<br />

process of the action. Thus, the construction OV can be regarded as one of<br />

the basic syntactic peculiarities of Central Asia Arabic. Constructions of<br />

this type are found both in the Qashqa-daryÁ and the Bukhara dialects.<br />

The analyzed material proves the development of new linguistic forms<br />

in Central Asia Arabic, which is the result of the long-term contacts of<br />

Arabic dialects with the structurally non-identical Turkic (Uzbek) and<br />

Indo-European (Tajik) languages.<br />

Vocabulary<br />

Two basic lexical groups can be singled out in the QAD: 1. Arabic<br />

vocabulary. 2. Foreign borrowings. The first group in its turn is divided<br />

into several lexical layers. These are: a) The vocabulary in common with<br />

literary Arabic. b) The dialectal vocabulary. The existence of the second<br />

group can be explained by the influence of the Uzbek and Tajik languages.<br />

Here the following borrowings are identifiable: a) Uzbek; b) Tajik; c)<br />

partially: Turkmen and Russian.<br />

The dialectal vocabulary is manly represented by words known in<br />

eastern Arabic dialects. In this respect the QAD has much in common<br />

with the Iraq and the Syria Arabic dialects. The vocabulary in common<br />

with another dialect of Central Asia, namely, the Bukhara dialect is<br />

evidenced in the dialect, the existence of which mainly may be caused by<br />

the presence of both dialects in one region: ãanga “silver money”, guãun<br />

“cotton”, gÁba “oriental robe”, pÝâÝ “pasha”.<br />

A part of the vocabulary is made up of Qashqa-daryÁn dialecticisms<br />

proper which do not occur anywhere else: zÝka “he”, “zika “she”, ziklÝn<br />

“they” (masc.). These forms are related to “ËÁka” found in Classical<br />

Arabic, which represents an interesting result of the development of<br />

personal pronouns in the dialect.<br />

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Among foreign words, mainly Uzbek and Tajik, and partially, Turkmen<br />

and Russian borrowings are found in the QAD.<br />

The work deals with the basic lexical features of borrowings.<br />

The tendency to the creation of new onomasiologic structures is notable<br />

in the QAD. This is due to the dropping of certain elements in the<br />

structure of the nominate. This can be viewed as an economical means of<br />

expressing an idea, which underlies the formation of new meanings in the<br />

dialect. The following instances of compression of thought can be singled<br />

out: 1. transformation of a word comination into a single word (kulsa< fi<br />

kulli sÁ÷atin “always”); 2. Dropping of one component from the syntactic<br />

construction (hÝÖã


The discussed material enables us to conclude that the QAD is<br />

characterised by a great variety of lexical expressive means. The tendencies<br />

of development of the vocabulary reflected in the dialect are mostly of<br />

general character and they are noteworthy from the viewpoint of the study<br />

of the vocabulary of the Semitic languages:<br />

260