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nu miwodebT quCis bavSvs

saqarTveloSi urbanuli quCis bavSvebis

raodenoba da maxasiaTeblebi

katarJina vargani, lari derSemi

federacia `gadavarCinoT bavSvebi~

ACT kvleva

marti, 2008


avtorebis Sesaxeb

katarJina vargani (poloneTi) ukanaskneli xuTi wlis ganmavlobaSi saqarTveloSi cxovrobs da muSaobs. profesiiT bavSvTa

fsiqologs, qalbaton vargans bavSvebTan da mozardebTan muSaobis TiTqmis 15 wlis staJi aqvs. misi profesiuli gamocdileba

moicavs poloneTSi, bavSvTa dawesebulebebsa da mozardTa konsultaciis programebSi muSaobas, amerikis SeerTebul Stateb-

Si, msoflio masStabiT, mozardTa moxaliseobrivi qselis zedamxedvelobas da albaneTsa da makedoniaSi kosovos konfliqts

gadarCenili bavSvebisa da mozardebisaTvis fsiqo-socialuri mxardaWeris aRmoCenas. gavlili aqvs treningebi konfliqtis

mogvarebis, mediaciisa da samSvidobo ganaTlebis dargSi. 2000-2004 wlebSi q-ni vargani kosovosa da saqarTveloSi xelmZRvanelobda

saerTaSoriso proeqtebs, romelTa mizans sxavadasxva eTnikuri jgufebis warmomadgenel bavSvebsa da mozardebs

Soris komunikaciisa da ndobis aRdgena warmoadgenda. 2004 wlidan, q-ni vargani federacia `gadavarCinoT bavSvebis~ mier

ganxorcielebuli, a.S.S. saerTaSoriso ganviTarebis saagentos mier dafinansebuli programis, `axali cxovrebis dasawyisi~,

direqtoria. programa gankuTvnilia saqarTvelos quCis da sxva daucveli fenebis bavSvebisaTvis. igi moicavs bavSvebisa da

ojaxebisaTvis socialuri momsaxurebis nairsaxeobis ganviTarebas, aseve politikis doneze rekomendaciebs da adgilobrivi

SesaZleblobebis ganviTarebas.

doqtori lari derSemi (a.S.S.) federacia `gadavarCinoT bavSvebis~ dizainis, monitoringisa da Sefasebis mrCevelia Sua

aRmosavleT-evraziis regionisaTvis. mas ruseTSi, kavkasiaSi, Sua aziaSi, Sua aRmosavleTsa da afrikaSi raodenobrivi da

Tvisebrivi kvlevebisa da programebis monitoringisa da Sefasebebis Catarebis 18 welze meti xnis gamocdileba aqvs. 1995

wels socialuri kvlevis dargSi, misuris universitetidan filosofiur mecnierebaTa doqtoris xarisxis mflobelia.

saqarTveloSi doqtori derSemi xelmZRvanelobda kvebis naklebobis kvlevas 6 regionSi, sami qveynis masStabiT Catarebuli

ojaxebis kvlevas, aseve kvlevebs narkotikuli nivTierebebis intravenuri momxmareblebisa da komerciuli seqs-muSakebis

Sesaxeb. proeqtis `axali cxovrebis dasawyisi~ farglebSi, mis movaleobebSi proeqtis Sedegebisa da procesebis minotoringisa

da SefasebisaTvis saWiro sistemebisa da meqanizmebis SemuSaveba Sedioda. aseve, aRniSnuli kvlevis farglebSi, mis

movaleobebSi Sedioda ACT-sTan (analizisa da konsultaciebis jgufi) muSaoba wertilovani Sefasebisa da quCis bavSvTa

pirispir interviuebisaTvis SerCevis meTodologiis SesamuSaveblad. igi aseve zedamxedvelobda kiTxvarebis SemuSavebas da

monacemTa damuSavebas.

kvlevaSi aseve wvlili Seitanes: maia zedelaSvilma (ganaTlebisa da saerTaSoriso ganviTarebis eqsperti, saqarTvelos

ganaTlebisa da mecnierebis saministro), doqtorma marine CitaSvilma (fsiqologiis doqtori, Tbilisis saxelmwifo universiteti

da socialur mecnierebaTa centri), vaxtang megreliSvilma (socialuri politikis eqsperti, saqarTvelos Sromis,

janmrTelobisa da socialuri dacvis saministro) da nino kupataZem (bavSvTa keTildReobis samTavrobo komisiis teqnikuri

samdivnos erovnuli koordinatori).

qvemoT mocemuli Sedegebi, interpretaciebi da daskvnebi mTlianad avtorebs ekuTvnis da ar gamoxatavs `gadavarCinoT bavSvebis~,

a.S.S. saerTaSoriso ganviTarebis saagentos, amerikis mTavrobis an gaeros bavSvTa fondis mosazrebebs.

inglisur enaze teqstis redaqtori: pol rimpli

fotoebi: servan leini

© gaeros bavSvTa fondi (iunisefi) 2009

am dokumentis saTauri, aseve yvela misgan gamomdinare saavtoro Tu sxva sakuTrebis ufleba ekuTvnis gaeros bavSvTa fonds

(iunisefi). amis miuxedavad, federacia `gadavarCinoT bavSvebi~ da a.S.S. saerTaSoriso ganviTarebis saagento inarCuneben

araeqskluziur, sayovelTao da saboloo uflebas honoraris gareSe am kvlevis gavrcelebaze, gamoqveynebaze, sxvagvarad

gamoyenebaze an sxvebisTvis am uflebis miniWebaze a.S.S. saerTaSoriso ganviTarebis saagentosa da federaciis `gadavarCinoT

bavSvebi~ arakomerciuli miznebisaTvis.


madliereba

aRniSnuli kvlevis proeqti ganxorcielda quCis

bavSvebze momuSave samuSao jgufis interesidan

gamomdinare, ukeT gacnobodnen saqarTveloSi qu-

Cis bavSvebis arsebul mdgomareobas. gansakuTrebiT

mniSvnelovani iyo jgufis wevrebis mondomeba, qu-

Cis bavSvebis sakiTxebTan dakavSirebuli momavali

politika validur da sistemur mtkicebulebaze daefuZnebinaT.

sxvadasxva eqspertebis, jgufebis da organizaciebis

mxardaWerisa da mWidro TanamSromlobis gareSe es

kvleva ar Sedgeboda. federacias `gadavarCinoT bavSvebi~

surs gamoxatos madliereba amerikis SeerTebuli

Statebis saerTaSoriso ganviTarebis saagentosa

(USAID) da gaeros bavSvTa fondisadmi (UNICEF),

romelTac uzrunvelyves finansuri mxardaWera da

eqspertuli daxmareba kvlevis Casatareblad. kvelvis

xarisxis uzrunvelyofisaTvis Zalian mniSnvnelovani

iyo misi zedmiwevniT yuradRebiT dagegmva. federacias

`gadavarCinoT bavSvebi~ surs gansakuTrebiT

xazi gausvas gaeros bavSvTa fondis konsultantis,

doqtor braian milnis mxardaWeras kvlevis winaswari

dagegmvis stadiaSi.

aRniSnuli kvlevis Catarebis iniciativam saqarTvelos

ganaTlebisa da mecnierebis saministros bavSvze

zrunvis departamentis didi daintereseba da

mxardaWera miiRo. gvsurs gansakuTrebulad gavusvaT

xazi departamentis ufrosis, qalbaton Tamar

golubianis mxardaWeras Seufasebeli daxmarebisa

da profesionali adamianuri resursebis gaziarebis

kuTxiT, ramac savele samuSaoebis droulad da

xarisxianad dasrulebas Seuwyo xeli. aseve gvsurs

mxardaWerisaTvis madloba gadavuxadoT q. quTaisis,

q. baTumisa da q. rusTavis vice-merebsa da socialur

saqmeTa departamentebis ufrosebs.

kvlevis Catarebis mraval aspeqtSi, rogoricaa Ser-

Cevis principebis gansazRvra, savele logistikis

organizeba da Tvisebrivi monacemebis Segroveba da

monacemTa drouli Seyvana, damoukidebelma kvleviTma

kompaniam _ ACT-kvlevam – Tavisi amocanebi

droulad da sruli profesionalizmiT Seasrula.

gvsurs gansakuTrebulad gavusvaT xazi statistikisa

da monacemTa bazis departamentis ufrosis, laSa

bokuCavasa da proeqtebis menejeris, sofo CaCaniZis

wvlils, romelTac Seufasebeli eqspertuli mxardaWera

aRmogviCines SerCevis, kiTxvarebis SemuSavebisa

da xarisxis kontrolis dargSi.

aseve, gvsurs madloba gadavuxadoT yvela, 220-ive

damkvirvebelsa da interviuers, vinc ar daiSura Zalisxmeva

ramdenime dRis ganmavlobaSi, xangrZlivi da

rTuli samuSao dRis pirobebSi kvlevaze muSaobisaTvis.

aseTi didi jgufis mobilizaciisaTvis federacia

`gadavarCinoT bavSvebi~ ramdenime samTavrobo

uwyebasTan, arasamTavrobo organizaciasa da sxva institutTan

TanamSromlobda. maT Sorisaa ganaTlebisa

da mecnierebis saministro (socialuri muSakebi);

Sromis, janmrTelobisa da socialuri dacvis saministro

(socialuri agentebi); `Tanadgoma~, `bavSvi da

garemo~, `biliki~, `mkurnali~, `vorld viJen interneiSeneli~,

quCis bavSvTa gldanis centri, sazogadoebrivi

janmrTelobis imereTis regionuli centri

da Tbilisis saxelmwifo universiteti (socialur

mecnierebaTa fakultetis bolo kursis studentebi).

mkvlevarTa Soris iyvnen yofili quCis bavSvebi `gadavaCinoT

bavSvebisa~ da `mkurnalis~ programebidan.

swored yvela monawile organizaciisa da adamianis

Zalisxmevis Sedegad moxerxda kvlevis sisruleSi

moyvana.

kerZo SemTxvevebi da istoriebi mowodebulia `gadavarCinoT

bavSvebis~ ori adgilobrivi partniori

organizaciis _ `bavSvi da garemos~ da `bilikis~

mier, romelTac quCis bavSvebTan muSaobis mravali

wlis praqtikuli gamocdileba aqvT. maTma codnam

kvlevis SedegebisaTvis mniSvnelovani konteqsti

uzrunvelyo. aseve, `vorld viJen interneiSenalis~

mier quTaissa da baTumSi Catarebulma paralelurma

kvlevam, monacemTa gadamowmebisa da mocemuli kvlevis

zogierTi Sedegis damatebiT WrilSi ganxilvis

SesaZlebloba mogvca.

bolos, kvlevis avtorebi aranakleb madlierebas

gamoxataven yvela quCis bavSvisadmi, romelTac dro

da Zalisxmeva ar daiSures, rom mkvlevarebisaTvis

amomwuravi pasuxebi gaecaT.

aRniSnuli angariSi daiwera katarJina varganis mier

doqtor lari derSemTan, maia zedelaSvilTan, doqtor

marina CitaSvilTan, nino kupataZesTan, vaxtang

megreliSvilTan da `gadavarCinoT bavSvebis~ proeqtis

_ `axali cxovrebis dasawyisi~ _ gundTan (Teona

aslaniSvili, eka javaxiSvili da nino nucubiZe) Tanam-

SromlobiT.


sarCevi

avtorebis Sesaxeb

madliereba .............................................................................................................................. 1

kvlevis Sejameba ....................................................................................................................... 4

Sesavali .................................................................................................................................. 10

informacia qveynis Sesaxeb .................................................................................................... 10

kvlevis miznebi ................................................................................................................... 11

diskusia quCis bavSvebis gansazRvrebis Sesaxeb ......................................................................... 11

saqarTveloSi quCis bavSvebis dajgufeba ................................................................................ 13

kvlevis meTodologia ............................................................................................................... 16

kvlevis Sedegebi ...................................................................................................................... 20

Sedegebis Sejameba .................................................................................................................... 20

raodenoba .......................................................................................................................... 20

demografia ........................................................................................................................ 21

droisa da adgilmdebareobis faqtorebi ................................................................................. 21

quCis bavSvebis ojaxebi ........................................................................................................ 23

quCis bavSvebi da ganaTleba .................................................................................................. 24

Semosavlis gamomuSaveba ...................................................................................................... 24

socialuri momsaxureba ....................................................................................................... 26

saqarTveloSi quCis bavSvebis demografia .................................................................................... 27

bavSvebis profili sqesisa da asakis mixedviT ........................................................................... 27

quCis bavSvebis warmoSobis adgili ......................................................................................... 28

bavSvebis quCis gamocdileba drois mixedviT ................................................................................ 33

quCis bavSvebis mier ojaxuri mdgomareobis aRqma .......................................................................... 38

bavSvis irgvliv mSoblebis an sxva naTesavebis arseboba ............................................................. 38

quCis bavSvebis kavSiri ojaxebTan .......................................................................................... 40

quCis bavSvebis mier mzrunvelebis aRqma ................................................................................. 41

quCis bavSvebis ojaxebi ........................................................................................................ 42

quCis bavSvebis mier ojaxis mTavari problemebis aRqma ............................................................. 45

quCis bavSvebi da skola ............................................................................................................. 52

quCis bavSvebis Semosavlis gamomuSavebis strategiebi ................................................................... 57

socialuri momsaxureba da bavSvebi ............................................................................................. 60

daskvnebi da rekomendaciebi ...................................................................................................... 62

daskvnebi ................................................................................................................................ 62

rekomendaciebi ........................................................................................................................ 62

politikis doneze ............................................................................................................... 62

adgilobrivi mmarTvelobis doneze ........................................................................................ 68

skolis doneze .................................................................................................................... 68

programebi .............................................................................................................................. 69

bibliografia .......................................................................................................................... 71

danarTebi ............................................................................................................................... 73

danarTi 1 – qalaqebis mniSvnelovani Taviseburebebi ...................................................................... 73

Tbilisi ............................................................................................................................. 73

rusTavi ............................................................................................................................. 74

quTaisi .............................................................................................................................. 75

baTumi ............................................................................................................................... 76

danarTi 2- dokumentSi gamoyenebuli zogierTi terminis ganmarteba ................................................ 78

danarTi 3 – saqarTveloSi quCis bavSvebze dakvirvebis kriteriumebi ................................................ 79

2 ❘ nu miwodebT quCis bavSvs


E

E

E

E

grafikebi

grafiki 1 – intervius respondenti quCis bavSvebis ganawileba sqesis, asakisa da qalaqebis mixedviT .................................. 27

grafiki 2 – quCis bavSvebis proporcia asakisa da sqesis mixedviT .............................................................................. 28

grafiki 3 – quCis bavSvebis proporcia migrantis statusisa da migranti quCis bavSvebis warmoSobis mixedviT ...................... 29

grafiki 4 – saxlSi da quCaSi marto yofnis monacemebi droisa (dRe/Rame) da weliwadis droebis mixedviT .............................. 33

grafiki 5 – quCis bavSvebis asaki da sqesi quCaSi gatarebuli wlebis mixedviT ................................................................ 36

grafiki 6 – quCis bavSvebis procenti, visac quCaSi erTi Tve an meti aqvs gatarebuli qalaqebis mixedviT ............................... 36

grafiki 7 – quCis bavSvebis ganaTleba da socialuri momsaxurebis gamoyeneba quCaSi yofnis xangrZlivobis mixedviT ............... 37

grafiki 8 – quCis bavSvebis procenti mSobelTa arsebobisa da qalaqebis mixedviT ........................................................... 38

grafiki 9 – quCis bavSvebis procenti, visac imave qalaqSi deda, mama an naTesavi ar hyavs ................................................... 38

grafiki 10 – quCis bavSvebis imave qalaqSi mcxovrebi naTesavebis saxeoba ......................................................................40

grafiki 11 – quCis bavSvTa procenti, vinc dRes (intervius dRes) esaubra da yoveldRiurad esaubreba dedas, mamas an naTesavs ... 40

grafiki 12 – quCis bavSvebis ZiriTadi mzrunvelebi ............................................................................................... 41

grafiki 13 – quCis bavSvebi sxvadasxva ojaxur mdgomareobaSi (n=301) .......................................................................... 42

grafiki 14 – quCis bavSvebis procenti, vinc ukanaskneli Tvis ganmavlobaSi ojaxis wevrebTan cxovrobda ....................43

grafiki 15 – quCis bavSvebis ojaxuri mowyoba ukanaskneli Tvis ganmavlobaSi (n=301) ...................................................... 43

grafiki 16 – quCis bavSvebis ZiriTadi ojaxuri problemebi (n=301) ............................................................................. 46

grafiki 17 – ojaxuri problemebi: umuSevroba da usaxlkaroba qalaqebis mixedviT (n=301) ................................................ 47

grafiki 18 – ojaxuri problemebi: mSoblis gardacvaleba da ganqorwineba qalaqebis mixedviT (n=301) .................................. 49

grafiki 19 – ojaxuri problemebi: alkoholizmi da ojaxuri Zaladoba qalaqebis mixedviT (n=301) ....................................... 50

grafiki 20 – quCis bavSvebis ricxvi skolebSi, qalaqebis mixedviT ................................................................................ 52

grafiki 21 – skolidan wamosuli bavSvebi da isini, visac arasdros uvliaT skolebSi, qalaqebis mixedviT ................................. 53

grafiki 22 – skolaSi gamoucxadeblobis ZiriTadi mizezebi (n=250)............................................................................... 53

grafiki 23 – ganaTlebis xarisxi, rogorc skolaSi wausvlelobis erT-erTi mizezi (n=250) ...............................................56

grafiki 24 – wera-kiTxvis done quCis bavSvebSi qalaqebis mixedviT ............................................................................ 56

grafiki 25 – quCis bavSvebis procenti, romelTac arasdros gaugiaT an usargebliaT socialuri

momsaxurebiT qalaqebis mixedviT ....................................................................................................................... 60

cxrilebi

cxrili 1 – quCis bavSvebis ZiriTadi qvejgufebi daucvelobis (mowyvladobis) sakiTxebis mixedviT ................................... 15

cxrili 2 – gadamkveTi sakiTxebi quCis bavSvebisaTvis saqarTveloSi ........................................................................ 15

cxrili 3 – pirvel (droisa da adgilmdebareobis mefingi) da meore (wertilovani Sefaseba) safexurze

dakvirvebuli kvadrantebis raodenoba ............................................................................................................... 17

cxrili 4 – interviuirebuli quCis bavSvebis raodenoba nimuSSi qalaqebis mixedviT ................................................ 18

cxrili 5 – Catarebuli interviuebis raodenoba qalaqebis mixedviT ......................................................................... 18

cxrili 6 – dakvirvebuli quCis bavSvebis raodenoba oTx qalaqSi .............................................................................. 20

cxrili 7 – migraciis statusi quCis bavSvebis jgufebis mixedviT ............................................................................... 30

cxrili 8 – quCis bavSvebis procenti mSobelTa arsebobisa da qalaqebis mixedviT ........................................................... 39

cxrili 9 – ZiriTadi ojaxuri problemebi da quCaSi cxovreba (dro/adgili) .................................................................. 51

suraTebi

suraTi 1 – saqarTvelos ruka (aRniSnulia kvlevis Catarebis adgilebi) ...................................................................... 10

suraTi 2 – quCis bavSvebis migracia. wiTeli xazebi miuTiTebs migraciis mimarTulebaze saqarTvelos farglebs garedan,

xolo nacrisferi xazebi- saqarTvelos SigniT. xazebis sisqe migranti bavSvebis raodenobis proporciulia ..........................29

saqarTveloSi urbanuli quCis bavSvebis raodenoba da maxasiaTeblebi ❘ 3


kvlevis Sejameba

urbanuli quCis bavSvebis kvleva saqarTveloSi

Catarda federacia `gadavarCinoT bavSvebis~ mier,

a.S.S. saerTaSoriso ganviTarebis saagentosa da

gaeros bavSvTa fondis erToblivi mxardaWeriT, sxvadasxva

saxelmwifo, arasamTavrobo da akademiur

wreebTan TanamSromlobiT. es kvleva saqarTvelos

oTx did urbanul centrs moicavda: Tbilisi, quTaisi,

rusTavi da baTumi. 1 es adgilebi ganisazRvra ramdenime

dainteresebul mxaresTan diskusiebis Sedegad,

`gadavarCinoT bavSvebis~ mier 2006 wels Catarebuli

quCis bavSvebis adgilmdebareobis winaswar Seswavlaze

dayrdnobiT. winaswari kvlevis respondentTa

Tanaxmad, quCis bavSvebis yvelaze maRali raodenoba

swored am oTx qalaqSi SeiniSneboda.

mocemuli kvleva quCis bavSvebis pirveli mravalmxrivi

Sefasebaa, rac ki odesme saqarTveloSi Catarebula.

igi msoflio masStabiTac unikalur iniciativas

warmoadgens, radgan msgavsi kvlevebi cota Tu arsebobs.

kvlevis mizani iyo: 1) oTx miznobriv urbanul

centrSi quCis bavSvebis miaxloebiTi raodenobis

gansazRvra da 2) maTi Taviseburebebis aRwera ise,

rom 3) mtkicebulebebze dayrdnobiT SesaZlebeli

yofiliyo politikisa da programuli rekomendaciebis

SemuSaveba. kvlevis dros gamoyenebul iqna samsafexuriani

midgoma:

1) dakvirveba – monacemebis rukaze datana droisa da

adgilmdebareobis mixedviT;

2) raodenobrivi wertilovani Sefaseba;

3) pirispir interviuebi.

samive safexuri 2007 wels, sami Tvis ganmavlobaSi

(ivnisi, seqtemberi da noemberi), mimdinareobda. monacemTa

Seyvana da gasufTaveba, aseve monacemTa damuSaveba

2008 wlis Teberval-martSi ganxorcielda.

kvlevis populaciis dasadgenad, quCis bavSvebi ganisazRvra,

rogorc bavSvebi 0-dan 18 wlamde (interviuebis

SemTxvevaSi _ 8-dan 18 wlamde), `romlebic

quCebSi SeiniSnebian~. kvleva ar moicavda iseT `qu-

Cis~ bavSvebs, romlebic bavSvTa centrebSi, TavSesafrebSi

an sxva tipis dawesebulebebSi imyofebodnen.

zogadad, wertilovani Sefasebis Sedegad ganisaz-

Rvra, rom saSualod, 2007 wlis noemberSi oTx qalaqSi

iyo 1,049 bavSvi. maqsimaluri miaxloebiTi raodenoba

iyo 1600 bavSvi. quCis bavSvebi urbanul saqarTveloSi

metwilad 5-dan 14 wlamde asakis biWebi arian, romlebic

ZiriTadad maTxovroben. isini quCaSi zrdasrulis

meTvalyureobis gareSe imyofebian dRis ganmavlobaSi,

Tumca maT umravlesobas hyavs sul cota

erTi cocxali mSobeli an sxva naTesavebi.

kvleva aCvenebs, rom quCis bavSvebis arseboba saqarTveloSi

daucveli bavSvebisa da maTi ojaxebis winaSe

arsebuli mravali socialur-ekonomikuri problemis

gamovlinebaa da ara gancalkevebuli fenomeni.

bavSvebis mier quCaSi gatarebuli drois analizis

Sedegad saintereso daskvnis gamotana SeiZleba: qu-

Cis bavSvebis 40%-ze mets quCaSi sam welze meti aqvs

gatarebuli. Sesabamisad, SeiZleba davaskvnaT, rom

am bavSvebma quCis cxovreba vardebis revoluciamde

an uSualod misi mimdinareobisas/dasrulebisas daiwyes,

rodesac saqarTvelos mosaxleobis udidesi

nawili katastroful socialur-ekonomikur mdgomareobaSi

imyofeboda. Tumca, arseboben ufro mcire

raodenobiT (mxolod erTi meoTxedi) iseTi quCis

bavSvebi, romlebic acxadeben, rom quCaSi bolo orisami

wlis ganmavlobaSi gamovidnen. vardebis revoluciis

Semdgomma periodma, mravali avtoris mtkicebiT,

imedis axali grZnobiT ganawyo saqarTvelos

mosaxleoba. miuxedavad amisa, im quCis bavSvebis

raodenoba, romlebic quCaSi ukanaskneli erTi wlis

an naklebis ganmavlobaSi gamovida, aseve maRalia da

vardebis revoluciamdel maCveneblebs uaxlovdeba.

es zrda saqarTveloSi arsebuli zogadi mdgomareobis

amsaxvelia, vinaidan ukanaskneli wlebis ganmavlobaSi

siRaribis done izrdeboda da qveynis STambeWdavma

ekonomikurma zrdam mcire an uaryofiTi

gavlena iqonia qarTvelebis umravlesobis cxovrebis

standartebis, donis gaumjobesebaze. mniSvnelovnad

gauaresda mosaxleobis zogadi ganwyobac. 2

kargad morgebuli da efeqturi politikisa da

programuli RonisZiebebis SemuSavebisas, gaTvaliswinebuli

unda iqnas quCis bavSvebis mdgomareobis

warmomSobi, damcveli da damabrkolebeli faqtorebis

sirTule. kvleva aCvenebs, rom urbanul saqarTveloSi,

bavSvs quCisken, umravles SemTxvevebSi,

ojaxuri faqtorisa da sazogadoebrivi stresoris

(Cveulebriv, araumetes sami an oTxisa) kombinacia

ubiZgebs. es aris:

_ bavSvis garSemo mSoblis an mSoblebis, aseve sxva

zrdasruli naTesavis ararseboba.

miuxedavad imisa, rom saqarTveloSi mxolod cota

1. es aris saqarTveloSi oTxi yvelaze didi urbanuli centri,

romelTa mosaxleoba Seadgens: Tbilisi- 1,342 aTasi, quTaisi – 165

aTasi, baTumi – 100 aTasi da rusTavi – 95 aTasi (wyaro: saqarTvelos

statistikis departamenti)

2. magaliTisTvis ixileT saerTaSoriso respublikuri instituti

(2007), “saqarTvelos amomrCevelTa kvleva”, IRI, USAID, Baltic Surveys/

The Gallup Organization, IPM

4 ❘ nu miwodebT quCis bavSvs


quCis bavSvi Tu aris mTlianad sakuTar kmayofaze,

ojaxis iseTi wevris danaklisi, romelsac bavSvi mzrunvelad

aRiqvams – maT Soris, mSoblis gardacvaleba,

Zlieri faqtoria, romelsac SeuZlia bavSvs quCa-

Si cxovrebisken ubiZgos. kvleva aCvenebs, rom rac

ufro klebulobs ojaxis wevrebis raodenoba bavSvis

garSemo, miT ufro metad izrdeba albaToba, bavSvma

quCaSi gaataros Rame an 24 saaTi icxovros iq. mSoblis

gardacvalebis garda, mSoblis ararseboba saqarTveloSi

ramdenime formas iRebs. mSoblebi SeiZleba

gadavidnen qalaqidan da bavSvebi dautovon adamianebs,

visac maTi saWiroebebis dakmayofileba ar Seu-

ZliaT. zogi bavSvi tovebs mSoblebs da sxva qalaqSi

naTesavis saxlSi gadadis sacxovreblad, sadac zrunvisa

da dacvis SesaZleblobebi arasakmarisia, an (iSviaT

SemTxvevebSi) bavSvi gadawyvets sadme marto gadavides.

amas garda, mSoblebi datvirTuli grafikiT

muSaoben (rogorc praqtika aCvenebs, adreuli dilidan

gvian Ramemde), elementaruli moTxovnebis dasakmayofileblad

da isini fizikurad veRar axerxeben

monawileoba miiRon bavSvis aRzrdaSi.

_ ekonomikuri problemebi – siRaribe, umuSevroba

da usaxlkaroba

siRaribe saqarTveloSi mcxovrebi quCis bavSvebis

umravlesobisaTvis Cveuli faqtoria. saxlis cudi

pirobebisagan Tavis dasaRwevad bavSvebi cdiloben,

ojaxs gareT, marto cxovrebis gzebi eZion da mopovebuli

fuli sakuTari an megobrebis saWiroebebis

dasakmayofileblad daxarjon. bevri Semosavlis

gamomuSavebas ojaxebis mxardaWeris gzad ganixilavs.

zogierTi bavSvisgan ki piriqiT, moelian an aiZuleben,

gamoimuSavos fuli da ojaxSi moitanos. sacxovreblis

ararsebobam an saSinelma sacxovrebelma

pirobebma SeiZleba aseve quCisken ubiZgos bavSvs.

calke aRebuli, siRaribe bavSvis quCaSi gasvlis mizezi

ar aris. saqarTveloSi ojaxebis umravlesoba,

ukidures ekonomikur pirobebSic ki, bavSvebis saxlSi

SenarCunebas axerxebs. Tumca siRaribem SeiZleba

ukve isedac daucvel ojaxSi arsebuli stresi gaaRrmavos

da ojaxis priorotetebis Secvla gamoiwvios,

sadac bavSvis keTildReoba yuradRebis centrSi

aRar iqneba.

_ ojaxis Semadgenlobis Secvla, rogoricaa ganqorwineba

an mSoblis meored qorwineba

mSoblebis ganqorwineba yvela bavSvisTvis stresia.

saqarTveloSi amas aseve Tan ojaxis sacxovrebeli

pirobebis gauareseba axlavs, gansakuTrebiT Tu

bavSvi dedasTan rCeba – rogorc es umravles SemTxvevebSi

xdeba. saqarTveloSi quCis bavSvebis martoxela

mSoblebisaTvis ganqorwinebis Semdeg xSirad

saqarTveloSi urbanuli quCis bavSvebis raodenoba da maxasiaTeblebi ❘ 5


6 ❘ nu miwodebT quCis bavSvs


mSoblis movaleobebis Sesruleba Zneli xdeba. mSoblis

meored qorwineba xSirad damatebiT siZneleebs

qmnis – SeiZleba warmoiSvas konfliqti bavSvsa da

dedinacvals/maminacvals Soris, an bavSvi SeiZleba

sruliad uaryofil iqnas dedinacvalis/maminacvalis

mier da Tavi iZulebulad igrZnos (an iyos iZulebuli)

datovos saxli.

_ ojaxis gadaadgileba

saqarTveloSi quCis bavSvebis ojaxebi sxva adgilze

sacxovreblad Cveulebrivad bavSvebTan erTad gadadian.

gadaadgilebis ramdenime modeli SeiniSneba:

migracia patara qalaqebidan an soflebidan urbanul

centrebSi; gadasvla didi qalaqebidan TbilisSi; gadasvla

Tbilisidan patara qalaqebSi; mogzauroba sxva

qveynebidan an iZulebiTi gadaadgileba saqarTvelos

konfliqturi zonebidan. garemos Secvla bavSvisTvis

siZneleebs warmoSobs. Tu msgavsi gadaadgileba

ar aris kargad momzadebuli, axal adgilsamyofelze

arsebulma mdgomareobam ojaxis pirobebis gauareseba

SeiZleba gamoiwvios da damatebiTi stres-faqtorebi

warmoqmnas.

_ alkoholizmi da Zaladoba saxlSi

miuxedavad imisa, rom es faqtori bevri bavSvis mier

ar dasaxelebula, alkoholizmi da ojaxuri Zaladoba

bavSvebis cxovrebaSi mZlavri stres-faqtorebia.

isini Zirs uTxrian ojaxis wevrebTan usafrTxo mijaWvulobis

grZnobas da aiZuleben bavSvebs, mdgomareobasTan

Seguebis iseT strategiebs mimarTon,

rogoricaa saxlis mitoveba da quCaSi gasvla. radgan

alkoholizmi da ojaxuri Zaladoba xSirad saxeldeba

im quCis bavSvebis mier, romelTac dakarges mSobeli

an romelTa mSoblebi ganqorwinebulni arian, es

kidev ufro arTulebs garemoebebs.

_ janmrTelobasTan dakavSirebuli problemebi

ojaxSi

siRaribesTan da Sesabamisi socialuri mxardaWeris

ararsebobasTan erTad, ojaxSi arsebulma janmrTelobis

mZime problemebma da am mdgomareobasTan

gamklavebis SeuZleblobam bavSvs skolis mitovebisken,

fuli gamomuSavebis dawyebisken an ubralod,

siZneleebisTvis Tavis aridebis mizniT saxlis datovebisken

SeiZleba ubiZgos.

_ ganaTlebis nakleboba

kvlevis Sedegad dadginda, rom skola quCis bavSvebis

socialuri dacvis erT-erTi mniSvnelovani Semadgeneli

nawilia, magram, amavdroulad, xSirad maTi

Semdgomi socialuri izolaciis damaCqarebels warmoadgens.

saqarTveloSi quCis bavSvebis umravlesoba

skolaSi ar iricxeba. isini ki, vinc jer kidev skolaSi

iricxebian, iq darCenisaTvis ramdenime winaaRmdegobas

awydebian. zogi skolaSi siarulis Semosavlis

gamomuSavebasTan SeaTavsebas cdilobs, rac rTulia

da SeiZleba bavSvs skolis mitovebisken ubiZgos. sxvebs

aucilebeli saskolo nivTebis SeZena ar ZaluZT,

an CaricxvisTvis aucilebeli sabuTebi ar gaaCniaT.

ojaxebi, romelTac bavSvis skolaSi gagzavnasa da

ojaxisTvis damatebiTi Semosavlis mopovebaSi maT

daxmarebas Soris arCevanis gakeTeba uwevT, xSirad

arsebobisaTvis damatebiTi saxsrebis moZiebas

ganaTlebis grZelvadian da bundovad sargebelze win

ayeneben. ojaxuri struqturis Secvlam, rac mSoblis

gardacvalebiT an ganqorwinebiT aris gamowveuli,

ojaxis prioritetebi SeiZleba Secvalos, sadac bavSvis

ganaTlebas wamyvani roli aRar eqneba. da bolos,

bevri quCis bavSvi skolas Tavs anebebs da amis mizezad

interesis naklebobas, sakuTari Tavis skolasTan Seusabamobas

an ganaTlebis dabali xarisxs asaxelebs.

_ bavSvis irgvliv arasakmarisi socialuri dacvis

sistemis arseboba

socialuri momsaxureba, romelsac quCis bavSvebisTvis

maTi quCaSi cxovrebis sxvadasxva etapze mxardaWeris

aRmoCena SeuZlia, Zalian cotaa da maT Sesaxeb

informacia xSirad ar aris sakmarisad xelmisawvdomi

imisaTvis, rom aRkveTos bavSvis quCaSi gasvla an

xeli Seuwyos maT quCaSi yofnisas cxovrebis alternatiuli

gzebis gamonaxvaSi. quCaSi moxvedris Semdeg,

bavSvebi im mcire socialur momsaxurebas mimarTaven,

ris Sesaxebac Seityoben, magram saqarTveloSi quCis

bavSvebis umravlesobas arasdros gaugia Sesabamisi

socialuri samsaxurebis Sesaxeb da arc gamouyenebia

isini.

_ bavSvis dacvis Sidasazogadoebrivi meqanizmebis

ararseboba

zogierT qveyanaSi, bavSvis ojaxSi mTavari mzrunvelis

aryofnas naklebad uaryofiTi efeqti aqvs, vinaidan

bavSvis garSemo arsebuli Temis wevrebi icaven bavSvs,

roca ojaxs es ar ZaluZs. urbanul saqarTveloSi

es ase ar aris – quCis bavSvebis aRqmiT, rodesac isini

mTeli rigi siZneleebis winaSe dganan, farTo sazogadoeba,

rogoricaa, magaliTad: mezoblebi, maT

gverdiT ar arian. amas socialuri an kulturuli indiferentuloba

(an sulac mtruli damokidebuleba)

SeiZleba vuwodoT, rac bavSvis Semdgom socialur

izolacias da TviTSezRudvas iwvevs.

_ quCis bavSvebis ojaxebis socialuri izolacia

kvlevis Sedegebi aCvenebs, rom saqarTveloSi mcxovrebi

quCis bavSvebi yvelaze Raribi da socialurad

izolirebuli ojaxebidan arian. mTeli rigi

siZneleebisas, rogoricaa siRaribe, sacxovreblis

ararseboba, meuRlis dakargva, ganqorwineba an ojaxuri

konfliqtebi, quCis bavSvebis ojaxebs bavSvebis

Sida da gare Sokebisgan dacva xSirad SeuZleblad

miaCniaT. Tu mSoblebs, realurad, farTo ojaxi da

sazogadoeba ar exmareba, xSirad ojaxebi Seguebis

iseT strategiebs mimarTaven, romlebic bavSvisaTvis

Sesabamisi mxardaWeris pirobebs ar qmnis.

rogorc praqtika aCvenebs, quCis bavSvebis bevri ojaxi

e. w. daswavlili daucvelobis 3 simptomebs amJRavnebs

– es aris fsiqologiuri termini, romelic socialur

konteqstSi xsnis, Tu ratom veRar moqmedeben adamianebi,

romlebmac warsulSi mravaljeradi warumatebloba

ganicades da romlebic didi xnis ganmavlobaSi

garkveul winaaRmdegobebs awydebodnen. isini prob-

saqarTveloSi urbanuli quCis bavSvebis raodenoba da maxasiaTeblebi ❘ 7


lemebis gaSinaganebisaken arian midrekilni; yvela

siZneles afaseben, rogorc mravalmxrivs, romelTac

maTi cxovrebis yvela aspeqtze zemoqmedeba SeuZlia

da winaaRmdegobebs mudmiv da Seucvlel, Seuqcevad

procesebad miiCneven.

is faqti, rom saqarTvelos quCebSi asobiT Raribi

da socialurad gariyuli bavSvia, kvalificiuri socialuri

samsaxuris moqmedebis aucileblobas warmoSobs.

quCis bavSvebisa da maTi ojaxebis winaSe arsebuli

sakiTxebi siRaribis Semcirebisa da socialuri

inkluziis farTo konteqstSi unda ganixilebodes.

aucilebelia erTiani da koordinirebuli midgoma,

raTa gadaiWras bavSvebis, ojaxebisa da mTlianad sazogadoebis

faqtorebi, romlebic bavSvs quCisken

ubiZgebs an iq aCerebs. aseTi politika da programuli

pasuxebi bavSvs uflebebis, kompleqsuri saWiroebebisa

da personaluri siZliereebis mqone individad

da ara keTildReobis programebis ubralod mim-

Rebad unda ganixilavdes. ojaxebi da sazogadoeba

ganxilul unda iqnas problemis gadawyvetis saSualebad

da ara problemis nawilad – politika da programebi

mimarTuli unda iyos bavSvebis uflebebis

dacvis dargSi, ojaxisa da socialuri qselis rolis

mxardaWerisaken. am midgomiT, ZiriTadi politika,

sazogadoebrivi da programuli rekomendaciebi

moicavs Semdegs:

politikis doneze:

- saqarTveloSi quCis bavSvebis mdgomareobis regularuli

kvleva am jgufis dinamikis Sesaswavlad da

mTavrobis mier mtkicebulebebze dafuZnebuli programebis

da dafinansebis prioritetebis CamoyalibebisaTvis.

- socialuri mxardaWerisa da socialuri daxmarebis

kriteriumebis, identifikaciis/informaciis gavrcelebis

meqanizmebisa da indikatorebis gadasinjva,

raTa saxelmwifo programebi xelmisawvdomi gaxdes

yvelaze daucveli jgufebisaTvis.

- arsebuli socialuri SeRavaTebis konsolidireba

da maTi morgeba quCis bavSvebis ojaxebSi ukiduresi

siRaribis aRmosafxvrelad; siRaribis Semcirebis

programebi unda moicavdes rCevebs dasaqmebis Sesaxeb

da dasaqmebis programebs maTTvis, visac muSaoba

SeuZlia da materialur an fulad daxmarebas maTTvis,

visac muSaoba ar SeuZlia.

- bavSvis dacvis zogad sistemaSi, quCis bavSvebisaTvis

gankuTvnili asakis Sesabamisi miznobrivi socialuri

momsaxurebis gaTvaliswineba da axali da ufro

mravalricxovani momsaxurebis SemuSaveba, romlebic

rac SeiZleba meti ojaxis dafarvasa da kvalificiur

multi-seqtorul mxardaWeras gaiTvaliswinebs.

3. White, Harrison C. (1992); Identity and Control: A Structural Theory of Social

Action. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press; see also: Petersen, C., Maier,

S.F., Seligman, M.E.P. (1995). Learned Helplessness: A Theory for the Age of

Personal Control. New York: Oxford University Press

- sadac SesaZlebeli da mizanSewonilia, quCis bavSvebisaTvis

regularuli an damatebiTi Semdgomi programebis

misawodeblad arsebuli ZiriTadi resursebis

(magaliTad, skolebis) gamoyeneba. bavSvze zrunvis

axali momsaxurebis ganviTareba, gansakuTrebiT dRis

ganmavlobaSi zrunvis (dRis centrebi), skolis-Semdgomi

programebis, naTesauri Svilobilobis an yvelaze

kritikul SemTxvevaSi, mimReb ojaxSi ganTavsebis

an mcire tipis rezidentul dawesebulebebSi

ganTavsebis saxiT.

- sakuTrebis uflebisa da ganqorwinebis Semdeg usaxlkarobisa

da ukiduresi ekonomikuri gaWirvebis

riskebis Sesamcireblad, dedebisaTvis materialuri

daxmarebis aRmoCenis saxelmwifo kanonmdeblobis

gadasinjva da aRsrulebis axali meqanizmebis danergva.

- iZulebiT gadaadgilebuli pirebisaTvis informaciis

gavrcelebisa da informaciis miwodebis meqanizmebis

daxvewa, gansakuTrebiT kompaqturi Casaxlebis

centrebSi mcxovrebi daucveli ojaxebisaTvis, raTa

isini flobdnen srul informacias da aseve miuwvdebodeT

xeli saxelmwifo daxmarebis arsebul programebze.

- skolis gareT myofi bavSvebisaTvis ganaTlebis xelmisawvdomobis

gaumjobeseba:

1) modificirebuli kurikulumis (dasawevi da Ria/

distanciuri swavlebis) ganviTarebisa da serTificirebis

gziT da aseve am kurikulumis ganaTlebis

savauCero sistemaSi CarTvis gziT; 2) savauCero

sistemis gansazRvra skolaSi daswrebisa da ara

Caricxvis mixedviT; 3) skolebisTvis, profesiuli

ganaTlebis centrebisa da ganaTlebis alternatiuli

sqemis momwodeblebisaTvis, damatebiTi saganmanaTleblo

programebis SesamuSaveblad, damatebi-

Ti resursebiT uzrunvelyofisaTvis, xelmisawvdomi

`inkluziuri ganaTlebis fondis~ Seqmna; 4) zogierT

SemTxvevaSi, profesiuli ganaTlebis centrebSi Casaricxad,

savaldebulo saskolo ganaTlebis wlebis

Semcireba, raTa, quCis bavSvebisaTvis profesiuli

ganaTleba xelmisawvdomi gaxdes.

- piradobis damadasturebeli sabuTebis ararsebobis

gamo, socialuri usafrTxoebis qselisadmi Sez-

Ruduli xelmisawvdomobis problemis mogvareba,

rac quCis bavSvebs da maT ojaxebs saSualebas miscems

droebiT daregistrirdnen, magaliTad TviTidentifikaciis

safuZvelze, da aseve daxmareba iuridiuli

sabuTebis gaformebaSi.

- uzrunvelyofa imisa, rom arsebuli kanonmdebloba

alkoholis momxmarebel ojaxebSi Zaladobisagan

bavSvebis droulad dacvis praqtikul meqanizmebs Seicavs

da aseve Seicavs adekvatur mxardaWeras ojaxebisaTvis,

am problemebisagan Tavis dasaRwevad.

- azartul TamaSebSi bavSvebis monawileobis akrZalvis

efeqturi meqanizmebis danergva.

- policiis treningebis Semadgenel nawilad bavSvis

dacvis sakiTxebis CarTva; bavSvebTan dakavSirebul

sakiTxebSi CarevisaTvis profesionali socialuri

mosamsaxure policielis Tanamdebobis SemoReba

8 ❘ nu miwodebT quCis bavSvs


da policiis moqmedebebis winaaRmdeg anonimuri sa-

Civrebis meqanizmebis SemuSaveba.

- sasamarTlo warmoebis sistemaSi samuSao meqanizmebis

danergva, rac mSoblis dapatimrebis SemTxvevaSi, bavSvebze

Sesabamis zrunvas uzrunvelyofs.

- damoukideblad cxovrebis programebis SemuSaveba

quCis mozardebisaTvis da maTi danergva bavSvze

zrunvis sistemaSi.

- bavSvis dacvaze da ojaxis keTildReobaze pirdapir

an arapirdapir pasuxismgebel yvela uwyebas Soris

formaluri TanamSromlobis, informaciis gaziarebisa

da urTierTmimarTebis meqanizmebis arsebobis

uzrunvelyofa krizisis adreuli identifikaciisa

da drouli multi-seqtoruli Carevis garantirebisaTvis.

adgilobriv doneze:

- qalaqebis Taviseburebebidan gamomdinare, socialuri

inkluziis strategiebis SemuSaveba da danergva;

am strategiebis nawili unda iyos quCis bavSvebisa da

maTi ojaxebis ganviTarebisaTvis Sesabamisi adgilobrivi

samsaxurebis mier finansuri resursebis gamonaxva

da gamoyofa; qalaqebSi usaxlkarobis problemebis

mogvareba.

- qalaqebSi arsebuli socialuri dacvis sistemebs

Soris (skola, arasamTavrobo organizaciebi, socialuri

muSakebi, jandacvis obieqtebi, saxelmwifo

biujetze myofi dawesebulebebis warmomadgenlebi,

administracia da policia) regularuli TanamSromlobisa

da kavSirebis danergva da gazrda.

skolis doneze:

- skolis gareT myofi bavSvebisaTvis damatebiTi saganmanaTleblo

programebis danergva (skolis Semdgomi

klubebi, meTvalyureobis sqemebi, mozardTa

resurs-centrebi), am bavSvebis skolaSi dabrunebis,

an sxva gziT, sabaziso da/an profesiuli ganaTlebis

miRebis uzrunvelsayofad.

- skolis maswavleblebis treningi, individualuri

kurikulumis miwodebaSi da swavlebis fsiqo-socialur

aspeqtebSi; da skola-mSoblis kavSiris gaumjobeseba.

- im bavSvebisaTvis, vinc skolaSi ukiduresi ekonomikuri

gaWirvebis gamo ar iricxeba, waxalisebis

sistemis danergva (rogoricaa dafinanseba, saswavlo

sesxebi da saxelmZRvaneloebiT droebiT sargeblobis

meqnizmebi).

programul doneze:

- bavSvebis/ojaxebisaTvis, individualurad droSi

SezRuduli, kargad morgebuli da miznobrivi intervenciis

strategiebis SemuSaveba, prevenciasa da intervencias

Soris gansxvavebebis gaTvaliswinebiT.

- bavSvebsa da maT ojaxur garemoze programebis gavlenis

gasazomi mkafio indikatorebis SemuSaveba.

- beneficiari bavSvebis ojaxebis (dedmamiSvilebisa

da dedinacvalis/maminacvalis CaTvliT) adreuli

indetificirebisa da sruli monawileobis uzrunvelyofa;

farTo ojaxuri qselebis gamonaxva; ojaxebisa

da sazogadoebis Zlieri mxareebis Sefaseba, rac

individuali momsaxurebis gegmis SemuSavebas daexmareba.

- beneficiarebisaTvis sazogadoebaSi arsebuli programebisa

da daxmarebis Sesaxeb informaciis miwodebis

uzrunvelyofa maTTvis misawvdomi gzebiT da maT

mier am programebis gamoyenebaSi xelis Sewyoba.

- ojaxur krizisebze mimarTulma programebma unda

gamoimuSaon Sesabamisi kompetenciebi (rogoricaa

fsiqologiuri daxmareba alkoholizmis, ganqorwinebis

an ojaxuri Zaladobis SemTxvevaSi, ekonomikuri

aqtivacia da rCevebi samuSaos Sesaxeb, bavSvebis an

avadmyofebis droebiTi movla saxlSi da mSoblebis

unarebis gaumjobeseba) da/an unda ganaviTaron mimarTvis

sistemebi. ojaxis momsaxureba moqnili da

mravali ojaxis momcveli unda iyos da ojaxebs unda

miewodebodeT maTTvis mosaxerxebel adgilas, maTTvis

mosaxerxebel saaTebSi. es aspeqti gansakuTrebiT

aucilebelia imisaTvis, rom Sida ojaxur kavSirebsa

da gadarCenis strategiebs ziani ar miadges.

- programebSi, romlebic eTnikur umciresobebTan

(magaliTad: boSebTan) muSaobas gegmavs, CarTuli

unda iyvnen Sesabamisi eTnikuri jgufis warmomadgenlebi,

rac gazrdis am jgufisaTvis momsaxurebis

xelmisawvdomobas da xels Seuwyobs ndobis Camoyalibebas.

- proeqtebma, romlebic mimarTulia quCis mozardebTan

muSaobaze, unda gamoimuSaon kompetenciebi,

romlebic saWiroa mozardebisaTvis cxovrebiseuli

programebis miwodebisaTvis (maT Soris: jgufuri

sacxovreblis, alternatiuli da profesiuli

ganaTlebis miwodebis da cxovrebiseuli unarebis

swavlebis CaTvliT) da gare daxmarebis xelmisawvdomad

formaluri mimarTvis sistema unda danergos.

amis msgavsad, programebs, romlebic toqsikuri

nivTierebebis momxmarebeli quCis bavSvebis CarTvas

gegmavs, unda SeeZlos am sakiTxebTan gamklaveba an

kavSiri unda hqondes specializebul centrebTan.

- programebi, romlebic, skolis gareT darCenili

quCis bavSvebis sabaziso ganaTlebas iTvaliswinebs,

dafuZnebuli unda iyos serTificirebul an sxvagvarad

oficialurad aRiarebul kurikulumze da

maTi miwodeba moqnili da individualurad morgebuli

meTodebiT unda moxdes. Tu gaTvaliswinebulia

bavSvebis reintegracia formalur saganmanaTleblo

sistemaSi, programebma mWidrod unda iTanamSromlon

skolebTan da maswavleblebisaTvis, moswavleebisa

da mSoblebisaTvis stigmisa da diskriminaciis

Sesamcireblad treningebi da sensitiuri RonisZiebebi

unda Caataron.

- programebi vakuumSi ar unda moqmedebdes; piriqiT,

unda uzrunvelyofdes yvela relevantur socialur

programas Soris mudmiv, struqturul da mizanmimarTul

TanamSromlobas.

saqarTveloSi urbanuli quCis bavSvebis raodenoba da maxasiaTeblebi ❘ 9


Sesavali

informacia qveynis Sesaxeb

saqarTvelos respublika, 4.6 milioniani mosaxleobiT

(romlis daaxloebiT 25% bavSvia), samxreT kavkasiaSi

mdebareobs. igi ruseTs, TurqeTs, azerbaijansa

da somxeTs esazRvreba, strategiuli mdebareoba

ukavia da uZvelesi abreSumis gzis gavliT, dasavleTs

aziasTan akavSirebs.

Savi zRva

baTumi

TurqeTi

ruseTis federacia

saqarTvelo

quTaisi

Tbilisi

rusTavi

somxeTi

suraTi #1 – saqarTvelos ruka (aRniSnulia kvlevis Catarebis

adgilebi)

saqarTvelos mSfoTvare uaxlesma istoriam mniSvnelovani

gavlena iqonia qveynis socialur-ekonomikur

mdgomareobaze. 1990-iani wlebis dasawyisSi,

sabWoTa kavSirisgan damoukideblobis mopovebis Semdeg,

1991 da 1993 wlebis separatistuli konfliqtebis

Sedegad, qveynis daaxloebiT 15% afxazeTisa da

samxreT oseTis araRiarebuli mTavrobebis xelSi

moeqca da asobiT aTasi adamiani iZulebiT gadaadgilebul

pirad aqcia. 1995 wlis konstituciam ganamtkica

demokratiul principebTan Sesabamisoba.

miuxedavad amisa, prezident eduard SevardnaZis

mmarTvelobis dros, aRmasrulebeli xelisufleba

araefeqturi da korumpirebuli iyo, arCevnebi sul

ufro metad yalbdeboda da saqarTvelo xSirad `ar-

Semdgar saxelmwifod~ moixsenieboda.

2003 wels, vardebis revoluciis Sedegad, qveynis

saTaveSi mosulma axalma mTavrobam mraval mniSvnelovan

warmatebas miaRwia. Catarda ramdenime mniSvnelovani

reforma, ramac sajaro samsaxuris efeqturoba

gazarda, korufcia Seamcira, mniSvnelovani

progresi gamoiwvia qveynis ekonomikis aRorZinebis

saqmeSi da Crdilo-atlantikur alianssa (NATO) da

evrokavSirSi integracia mTavar erovnul miznad

dasaxa. am zogad strategiul mimarTulebebTan er-

Tad, saqarTvelos mTavrobam bavSvTa keTildReobis

sistemis reformireba da qveynis kanonmdeblobis

gaeros bavSvTa uflebebis dacvis konvenciasTan SesabamisobaSi

moyvana daiwyo. saqarTvelo aRniSnul

konvencias 1994 wels SeuerTda. gasaWirSi myofi bavSvebisaTvis

pirdapiri daxmarebis aRmoCenis mxriv, reforma

socialur- materialuri daxmarebis sistemis

danergvas da rezidentuli dawesebulebebis alternatiuli

mzrunvelobis formebis SemoRebas moicavda.

rac Seexeba arasrulwlovanTa marTlmsajulebis

sferos _ sisxlis samarTlebrivi pasuxismgeblobis

asakTan, prevenciul RonisZiebebTan da patimrobis

alternatiuli meqanizmebis SemoRebasTan dakavSirebiT

dRemde debatebi mimdinareobs. mzrunvelobis

formebis ganviTarebis kuTxiT, aRiarebulia, rom

bavSvebis calkeuli jgufebi gansakuTrebul yuradRebas

saWiroeben. Ees yuradReba uzrunvelyofs am

garkveuli jgufebis saWiroebebis dasakmayofileblad

SemuSavebuli programebis inkluziurobas. qu-

Cis bavSvebi erT-erTi aseTi jgufia.

dReisaTvis, saqarTveloSi quCis bavSvebis sistemuri

an amomwuravi kvleva ar Catarebula. adgilobrivi

da saerTaSoriso arasamTavrobo organizaciebis SefasebiT,

qveyanaSi quCis bavSvebis raodenoba 500-dan

5000-mde meryeobda. 2006 wlis maisSi, saqarTvelos

parlamentis iniciativiT, federaciam `gadavarCinoT

bavSvebi~ quCis bavSvebis sakiTxebze momuSave samuSao

jgufi Camoayaliba, romelic samTavrobo da arasamTavrobo

organizaciebs aerTianebs. samuSao jgufis

erT-erTi mizani quCis bavSvebze kvlevis Catareba

iyo, raTa maTi ufro zusti raodenoba, saWiroebebi

da am fenomenis gamomwvevi mizezebi dadgeniliyo;

Semdeg ki, aRniSnuli kvleva mTavrobas da arasamTavrobo

organizaciebs Sesabamisi intervenciebisa da

momsaxurebis dagegmvaSi daxmareboda.

2007 wlis dasawyisSi, federacia `gadavarCinoT

bavSvebi~ TanamSromlobda gaeros bavSvTa fond-

Tan, romelmac quCis bavSvebis kvlevis proeqtis

SemuSavebaSi wvlili Seitana eqpertuli rCevebis

saxiT. eqspertul daskvnaSi saubari iyo politikis

SemqmnelTa da damgegmavTa informirebisa da quCis

bavSvebis saWiroebebisadmi misadagebuli programebis

SemuSavebis mizniT, quCis bavSvebis kvlevisadmi

sistemuri midgomis aucileblobaze. quCis bavSvebis

Sesabamisi kvleva saqarTveloSi 2007 wlis ivnisidan

2008 wlis martamde Catarda.

10 ❘ nu miwodebT quCis bavSvs


kvlevis miznebi

mocemuli kvlevis mizania saqarTveloSi quCis bavSvebis

raodenobis, maxasiaTeblebisa da saWiroebebis

Sesaxeb swori da sando monacemebis mopoveba da quCis

bavSvebis raodenobis Sesamcireblad da aseve maTi

moTxovnilebebis dasakmayofileblad marTebuli da

Sesabamisi programebis rekomendeba. am zogadi miznis

farglebSi, kvlevis daniSnulebaa TbilisSi, quTais-

Si, rusTavsa da baTumSi quCis bavSvebis miaxloebiTi

raodenobis gamoTvla. Sesabamisad, kvlevis mizania

sando informaciis mopoveba quCis bavSvebis Sesaxeb

Semdeg sakiTxebze: demografiuli Taviseburebebi,

ojaxuri mdgomareoba, TavSesafari/sacxovrebeli,

ganaTlebis statusi, momsaxurebebis Sesaxeb codna

da maTi gamoyeneba, Semosavlis miReba, fizikuri janmrTelobis

mdgomareoba da cxovrebis xarisxi. da bolos,

kvlevis mizania saqarTveloSi mcxovrebi quCis

bavSvebisaTvis Sesabamisi intervenciebis SesamuSaveblad,

mtkicebulebaze dafuZnebuli rekomendaciebis

momzadeba.

diskusia quCis bavSvebis gansazRvrebis Sesaxeb

wlebis ganmavlobaSi msoflioSi mimdinareobda debatebi

quCis bavSvebis gansazRvrebis Sesaxeb (magaliTad,

ixileT Panter-Brick, 2003). 4 yvelaze gavrcelebuli,

organzomilebiani gansazRvrebebi yuradRebas

amaxvilebs im adgilze (anu quCaze), sadac bavSvebi

drois umetes nawils atareben da aseve bavSvebis maT

ojaxebTan kavSiris intensivobaze. am kriteriumebis

4. Panter-Brick, Catherine (2003); “Street Children, Human Rights and Public

Health” in Children, Youth and Environments Volume 13 No. 1

gamoyenebiT, quCis bavSvebs xSirad QquCis bavSvebad

(anu bavSvebi, romlebic mudmivad quCaSi cxovroben

da iSviaTad an saerTod ar aqvT kontaqti ojaxTan)

da quCaSi myof bavSvebad (anu bavSvebi, romlebic

dRes quCaSi atareben da Rame ojaxebSi brundebian)

hyofen. mtkicebulebaze dafuZnebuli ukeTesi terminologiis

ararsebobis pirobebSi, qarTvelma praqtikosebma

sakuTari gansazRvreba am saerTo definiciebze

dayrdnobiT Camoayalibes da quCis bavSvebis

sami jgufi ganasxvaves:

quCis bavSvebi – isini, romlebic Rames quCaSi an adamianis

cxovrebisaTvis Seusabamo adgilas atareben

(sZinavT) erTi Tvis an meti xnis ganmavlobaSi. maT ar

hyavT ojaxi/mzrunveli, an ar hqoniaT kavSiri ojax-

Tan/mzrunvelTan, erTi Tvis an meti xnis ganmavloba-

Si. isini sakuTar Tavs TviTonve uzrunvelyofen da

mopovebul fuls sakuTar saWiroebebze da quCis garemocvaze

xarjaven.

bavSvebi quCaSi – isini, romlebic yovelTvis an umetesad

saxlSi iZineben, magram dRis ganmavlobaSi

drois udides nawils quCaSi atareben. maT SeiZleba

ojaxTan/mzrunvelTan regularuli (yoveldRiuri)

an araregularuli (yoveldRiurze naklebi sixSiriT)

kavSiri hqondeT. isini sakuTar Tavs TviTonve

uzrunvelyofen da Semosavlis nawili saxlSi (ojaxebTan/mzrunvelebTan)

miaqvT.

quCis ojaxebis bavSvebi _ isini, romlebic Rames

quCaSi an adamianis cxovrebisaTvis Seusabamo adgilas

atareben (sZinavT), ojaxis zrdasrul wevrTan er-

Tad, erTi Tvis an meti xnis ganmavlobaSi. isini quCaSi

Semosavals moipoveben da ojaxis rCenaSi SeaqvT wvlili.

saqarTveloSi urbanuli quCis bavSvebis raodenoba da maxasiaTeblebi ❘ 11


12 ❘ nu miwodebT quCis bavSvs


saqarTveloSi quCis bavSvebis aRweris kidev erTi

saintereso mcdeloba, bavSvebisaTvis momsaxurebis

gamwev qarTul organizacias hqonda. organizaciis

wevrebma, quCis bavSvebis ori jgufi bavSvsa da zrdasruls

Soris arsebul tradiciul kavSirsa da am

kavSiris gawyvetis safuZvelze ganasxvaves:

pirveli jgufi: quCaSi cxovrebis riskis winaSe mdgomi

bavSvebi – bavSvs ukve raRac dro aqvs quCaSi gatarebuli,

magram rolebis ganawileba – mozrdili,

rogorc mzrunveli da bavSvi, rogorc kmayofaze

myofi - SenarCunebulia.

meore jgufi: quCis bavSvebi _ drois udides nawils

quCaSi atareben, radgan mzrunvelis funqciasac

bavSvebi asruleben. isini iZulebulni xdebian, Tavad

irCinon Tavi da xSirad arCinon zrdasrulebic, romlebsac

mzrunvelis funqciis Sesruleba aRar Seu-

ZliaT da bavSvebze damokidebulni xdebian.

zemoaRniSnuli terminebi saqarTveloSi quCas Sefarebuli

bavSvebis damaxasiaTebeli sakiTxebis aRweris

mcdeloba iyo. miuxedavad amisa, maT garkveuli

SezRudvebi axasiaTebT, radgan TiToeuli

yuradRebas amaxvilebs faqtorebis mcire ricxvze

(adgilmdebareoba, urTierToba an quCis aqtivobebi).

garda amisa, isini bavSvebis quCuri cxovrebis cvalebad

bunebas ar asaxavs. rogorc a.S.S. saerTaSoriso

ganivaTarebis saagentos adgilnacval bavSvTa da

obolTa fondis (DCOF) saxelmZRvanelo dokumentSia

gadmocemuli: ukanaskneli kvlevebi aCvenebs, rom

quCaSi myofi bavSvebi da mozardebi quCaSi muSaobisa

(quCaSi arsebuli samsaxuris gziT fulis gamomuSavebaze

daxarjuli dro) da quCaSi cxovrebis (quCaSi

an quCis bavSvebis TavSesafrebSi Zilze daxarjuli

dro) sxvadasxva xarisxiT gamoirCvvian. 5

saqarTveloSi termini `quCis bavSvi~ aseve uaryofi-

Ti konotaciiT aris datvirTuli da xSirad yuradRebas

quCaSi cxovrebis saziano aspeqtebze amaxvilebs

da ara imaTze, vinc aseTi cxovrebiT cxovrobs.

Tavad bavSvebs ar surT `quCis bavSvebad~ iwodebodnen.

kvlevis dros Catarda ori fokus-jgufi

(Tbilissa da rusTavSi) `gadavarCinoT bavSvebis~

proeqtis mobiluri jgufebisaTvis cnobili quCis

bavSvebis monawileobiT. fasilitatorebis SekiTxvaze,

ra saxels iyeneben bavSvebi sakuTari Tavis asaRwerad,

pasuxi iyo _ `ubralod bavSvebi~. CaZiebisas

maT sxva winadadebebic wamoayenes: `momuSave bavSvebi~,

`maTxovari bavSvebi~, an `kai biWebi~. saxelTan

dakavSirebuli stigma da gansazRvrul kategoriebad

bavSvebis dayofis tendencia imdenad Zlieria,

rom xandaxan gvaviwyebs mTavars: `quCis bavSvi~ aris

ubralod bavSvi - individualuri, unikaluri niWiTa

da SesaZleblobebiT.

quCis bavSvebis klasifikaciis gamoyenebisas unda

5. James-Wilson D. (2007); Building Bridges to Mainstream Opportunities;

Displaced Children & Orphans Fund Guidance on Funding Priorities and Parameters

for Street Children Programming ; USAID

gvaxsovdes, rom jgufebi da qvejgufebi aucileblad

erTgvarovani an erTmaneTisagan damoukidebeli ar

aris. nebismieri mkacri gansazRvrebisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli

SezRudvis gaTvaliswinebiT, aRniSnuli kvleva

saqarTveloSi quCis bavSvebis sxvadasxva jgufebis

axali gansazRvrebebis SemuSavebas ar isaxavs

miznad. piriqiT, is cdilobs qveyanaSi aqamde gamoyenebuli

terminologiis gadamowmebas. ZiriTadi _ adgili-dro

ganzomileba jer kidev gamoiyeneba, magram

xdeba misi analizi iseTi faqtorebis mimarT, rogoricaa

demografia, mobiluroba, ojaxi, TavSesafari,

ganaTleba, Semosavlis gamomuSaveba, janmrTeloba da

sxva. kvleva iTvaliswinebs, rom cxovrebis sxvadasxva

etapze, SesaZlebelia, quCis bavSvebi erTi jgufidan

meoreSi gadavidnen an erTsa da imave dros sxvadasxva

jgufis damaxasiaTebel Tvisebebs iziarebdnen.

saqarTveloSi quCis bavSvebis dajgufeba

quCis bavSvebis dajgufebisa da kategorizaciis yvela

zemoTCamoTvlili SezRudvis gaTvaliswinebiT,

monacemTa analizis procesSi ori SesaZlo midgoma

gamoikveTa. erTs SeiZleba tipologiis midgoma

vuwodoT, romelic quCis bavSvebis konkretuli

jgufebisa da qvejgufebis gansazRvrebas da politikis

pasuxebis am saerTo jgufebisaTvis misadagebas

Seecdeboda. am modelis Tanaxmad, termini `quCis

bavSvi~ gamoyenebuli iqneboda gansakuTrebiT mZime

pirobebSi myofi bavSvebis populaciaSi calke kategoriis

dasaxasiaTeblad.

kvlevis monacemTa Tanaxmad, mzrunveli zrdasrulis

(mSoblebis an sxva naTesavebis) arseboba/ararseboba

saqarTveloSi quCis bavSvebis mdgomareobis Ziri-

Tadi ganmsazRvrelia. am indikatoris gamoyenebiT

SeiZleba iTqvas, rom quCis bavSvebis erTi mTavari

jgufi moicavs imaT, vinc ojaxis wevrebTan erTad

ar cxovrobs (mTeli SerCevis 35%). zogadi saTauris

qveS _ `quCis bavSvebi, romlebic ar cxovroben

mSoblebTan an ojaxis wevrebTan erTad~, SeiZleba

gamoiyos Semdegi qvejgufi: `ZiriTadi mzrunvelis

gareSe darCenili bavSvebi~ (isini, vinc ambobs, rom

maTze aravin zrunavs).

meore ZiriTadi jgufi moicavs bavSvebs, romlebsac

SeuZliaT ZiriTadi mzrunvelis gansazRvra da

am jgufis qvejgufs Seadgens ojaxebTan mcxovrebi

bavSvebi.

am farTo kategoriebis SigniT SesaZlebelia Semdgomi

qvejgufebis gamoyofa: `bavSvebi, romlebic mTeli

weli quCaSi cxovroben~ (quCaSi mcxovrebi bavSvebi);

`bavSvebi, romlebic mxolod zafxulis an zamTris

Rameebs atareben quCaSi~ (quCasa da saxlSi mcxovrebi

bavSvebi); `bavSvebi, romlebic quCaSi dRis saaTebs

atareben, magram ara Rames~ (quCaSi aqtiuri bavSvebi).

kvlevis monacemebis Tanaxmad, bavSvebi, romelTac

ar hyavT mzrunveli da isini, vinc ojaxebTan ar cxovroben,

ufro metad atareben Rameebs quCaSi, vidre

bavSvebi, romlebic ojaxebTan cxovroben da/an hyavT

mzrunveli.

saqarTveloSi urbanuli quCis bavSvebis raodenoba da maxasiaTeblebi ❘ 13


meore kategoriaSi (bavSvebi, romelTac hyavT mzrunveli

da/an cxovroben mSoblebTan) qvejgufebis gansazRvra

ufro rTuli xdeba, vinaidan ramdenime potenciuri

qvejgufis SigniT sagrZnobi gansxvavebebia,

zogierTi jgufi erTmaneTs nawilobriv gadafaravs

an msgavsi Tvisebebi gaaCnia. magaliTad: kvleva aCvenebs,

rom orive mSoblis yolisa da mSoblebis imave

qalaqSi cxovrebis SemTxvevaSi, bavSvebi ufro metad

iricxebian skolaSi da nakleb dros atareben quCaSi.

Tumca, sxva qveynidan migrirebuli quCis bavSvebi, imave

qalaqSi mSoblebis arsebobis miuxedavad, umetesad

skolaSi ar iricxebian da ZiriTadad quCaSi arian,

im bavSvebis msgavsad, romlebsac ar hyavT mSoblebi,

magram ar arian migrantebi. unda iyos Tu ara migranti

bavSvi CarTuli pirvel kategoriaSi, radgan mis umetes

maxasiaTeblebs iziarebs? Tu isini unda mivakuTvnoT

meore kategorias, radgan maT hyavT mSoblebi,

miuxedavad imisa, rom sagrZnoblad gansxvavdebian am

jgufis sxva umravlesi wevrebisagan? quCaSi momuSave

mozard biWebze dakvirvebisas, romelTac quCaSi cxovrebis

didi xnis gamocdileba aqvT, igive dilemas

vawydebiT. es biWebi amJRavneben bavSvebis im farTo

jgufis Taviseburebebs, romlebic mSoblebTan ar

cxovroben. magram maTi asakis, Seguebis strategiebis

da samomavlo gegmebis gaTvaliswinebiT SeiZleba

davaskvnaT, rom ojaxs gareT cxovreba maTTvis ise-

Tive dabrkolebaa. unda iyvnen Tu ara isini ojaxs

gareT mcxovreb sxva bavSvebTan erTad klasificirebulebi?

msgavsi kiTxvebi mravlad Cndeba, rodesac

quCis bavSvebis zogadi, modeluri kategoriebis SeqmnasTan

gvaqvs saqme, radgan bavSvebis umravlesobas

gansxvavebuli cxovrebiseuli gamocdileba aqvs da

isini mravali winaaRmdegobis winaSe dganan.

quCis bavSvebi, romlebic ar cxovroben ojaxebTan

da/an ar hyavT mzrunveli (pirveli jgufi) SedarebiT

advili aRsaweria, vinaidan maT bevri saerTo damaxasiaTebeli

Tviseba aqvT. isini ufro met dros atareben

quCaSi. umetesad, isini skolaSi ar iricxebian da

skolidan wamosulTa proporciac maRalia. maT mSoblis

ararseboba an gardacvaleba siRaribeze met an

aranakleb problemad miaCniaT. maT sakuTari Tavis

sarCenad fulis gamomuSaveba sWirdebaT. isini aseve,

gansakuTrebuli saWiroebebis, SesamCnevi fizikuri

travmebisa da toqsikuri nivTierebebis gamoyenebis

ufro maRali doniT gamoirCevian.

dajgufebis kidev erTi meTodi SeiZleba davaxasia-

ToT, rogorc daucvelobis (mowyvladobis) speqtri,

romlis Tanaxmad quCis bavSvi SeiZleba mravali winaaRmdegobis

areSi moeqces. am cnebis Tanaxmad, quCis

bavSvebis gansxvavebuli cxovrebiseuli gamocdilebis

gaanalizeba xdeba iseTi specifikuri sakiTxebis

konteqstSi, rogoricaa migracia, bavSvis garSemo

zrdasrulis arseboba/ararseboba, quCaSi mcxovrebi

mSoblebi, ganaTlebis statusi da socialuri momsaxurebis

xelmisawvdomoba. es midgoma saSualebas

gvaZlevs, bavSvebi siRaribis, ojaxebis daucvelobis,

ganaTlebisa da socialuri usafrTxoebis qselebis

konteqstSi ganvixiloT. drois erT monakveTSi

Catarebuli kvlevis dros, rogoric es kvleva aCvenebs,

TiToeul sakiTxSi arsebuli qvejgufebi urTierTgamomricxavia.

magaliTad, bavSvi ar SeiZleba

iricxebodes skolaSi da amavdroulad, mitovebuli

hqondes skola. am sakiTxebis konteqstSi bavSvebis

ramdenime mTavari jgufi qvemoT mocemul cxrilSi

aris moyvanili.

amavdroulad, arsebobs ramdenime gadamkveTi faqtori,

romlebic sxvadasxva xarisxiT bavSvebis sxvadasxva

qvejgufebze axdens gavlenas. aseT SemTxvevaSi

bavSvi erTi da imave daucvelobis sakiTxis farglebSi

erTze met Sesabamis maxasiaTebels avlens. es moicavs

bavSvis mier ojaxis stresorebis aRqmas, skolaSi arwasvlis

mizezebs da momavali cxovrebis ocnebebs,

Semosavlis gamomuSavebis strategiebs da janmrTe-

14 ❘ nu miwodebT quCis bavSvs


lobis sakiTxebs. es maxasiaTeblebi ar aris urTierTgamomricxavi.

magaliTad, bavSvs SeiZleba xiluli

fizikuri travma hqondes da toqsikuri nivTierebebis

momxmarebeli iyos, an SeiZleba erTze meti ojaxuri

gaWirveba daasaxelos. zogierTi mTavari sakiTxi

qvemoT cxrilSia moyvanili:

mowyvladobis

sakiTxebi

quCis bavSvebis ZiriTadi qve-jgufebi

sakiTxebis mixedviT

gadamkveTi

sakiTxebi

qve-jgufebi sakiTxebis mixedviT

ojaxis aRqmuli

sirTuleebi

mSoblebis gardacvaleba an ar yola

ojaxis daSla

alkoholizmi/ojaxuri Zaladoba

problemebis ar qona

migracia

ara-migranti bavSvebi

migranti bavSvebi saqarTvelos

regionebidan

migranti bavSvebi sxva qveynebidan

skolaSi arwasvlis

aRqmuli mizezebi

quCis aqtivobebi

survilebi momavlisaTvis

ekonomikuri problemebi

skolisadmi interesis arqona

ganaTlebis xarisxi

ojaxis mier skolis dawuneba

CaricxvisaTvis saWiro dokumentebis

arqona

maTxovroba

muSaoba

sxva aqtivobebi fulis

gamosamuSaveblad fuli ar

sWirdebaT/ar gamoimuSaveben

zogadi an specifiuri ganaTleba

samuSao

gaumjobesebuli cxovrebis pirobebi

saxli/ojaxi

ar aris gansazRvruli

mSoblebis yola

socialuri mxardaWeris

done

mzrunvelebis yola

ojaxebi

orive mSobliT oboli bavSvebi

dediT an mamiT oboli bavSvebi

bavSvebi, romlebsac orive mSobeli

cocxali hyavT

bavSvebi, romlebsac naTesavebi

hyavT imave qalaqSi

bavSvebi, romlebsac naTesavebi

ar hyavT imave qalaqSi

bavSvebi, romlebic amboben, rom hyavT

pirveladi mzrunvelebi

bavSvebi, romlebic amboben, rom

aravin zrunavs maTze

bavSvebi, romlebic marto cxovroben

bavSvebi, romlebic ojaxebTan/

naTesavebTan erTad cxovroben

janmrTeloba

bavSvis dakvirvebuli uunaroba

bavSvis dakvirvebuli fizikuri travma

bavSvis dakvirvebuli toqsikuri

nivTierebebis moxmareba

janmrTelobis sakiTxebi aRqmulia

rogorc ojaxis sirTule

janmrTelobis sakiTxebi aRqmulia

rogorc skolaSi arwasvlis mizezi

quCaSi gatarebuli

dro

ganaTleba

quCaSi mcxovrebi bavSvebi

quCaSi da ojaxSi mcxovrebi bavSvebi

quCaSi aqtiuri bavSvebi

skolaSi Caricxuli bavSvebi

skolidan gamogdebuli bavSvebi

bavSvebi, romlebic arasdros

wasulan skolaSi

cxrili #1 – quCis bavSvebis ZiriTadi qvejgufebi daucvelobis

(mowyvladobis) sakiTxebis mixedviT

wera-kiTxvis codna

socialuri

momsaxurebis

xelmisawvdomoba

wera-kiTxvis ucodinari bavSvebi

bavSvebi, romlebsac SeuZliaT

kiTxva da wera

bavSvebi, romlebsac arasdros smeniaT

socialuri momsaxurebis Sesaxeb

bavSvebi, romlebsac smeniaT socialuri

momsaxurebis Sesaxeb, magram

arasdros usargebliaT amiT

bavSvebi, romlebmac isargebles erTi

an ori socialuri momsaxurebiT

cxrili #2 – gadamkveTi sakiTxebi quCis bavSvebisaTvis

saqarTveloSi

saqarTveloSi urbanuli quCis bavSvebis raodenoba da maxasiaTeblebi ❘ 15


kvlevis meTodologia

kvlevis fazebi

quCis bavSvebis kvleva mravalfaziani procesi iyo.

quCis bavSvebis miaxloebiTi raodenobis Sesafaseblad

Semdegi meTodebi iyo gamoyenebuli: monacemebis

rukaze datana droisa da adgilmdebareobis

mixedviT (droisa da adgilmdebareobis mefingi) da

wertilovani Sefaseba. quCis bavSvebis Sesaxeb informaciis

mogrovebis mizniT, Catarda pirispir interviuebi

winaswar gamocdili, standartuli kiTxvaris

gamoyenebiT, romelic am kvlevisaTvis SemuSavda.

yvela faza winaswar damtkicda saqarTvelos Sromis,

jandacvisa da socialur saqmeTa saministros bioeTikis

komisiis mier.

pirveli safexuri: droisa da adgilmdebareobis

mefingi

kvlevis am safexuris mizani saqarTvelos oTx Ser-

Ceul qalaqSi iseTi ubnebisa da drois periodebis

dadgena iyo, romelTaTvisac quCis bavSvebis udidesi

raodenoba iqneboda damaxasiaTebeli.

yvelaze Tanamedrove rukebis gamoyenebiT, qalaqebis

sruli teritoria kvadrantebad iyo dayofili,

romlebzec dakvirveba droisa da adgilmdebareobis

mefingis jgufebs samsaaTiani periodis ganmavlobaSi

manqaniT nela gadaadgilebisas SeeZloT. dakvirvebis

jgufi sami wevrisagan Sedgeboda: a) mZRoli; b) socialuri

mkvlevari da g) socialuri muSaki an quCis

bavSvebTan muSaobis gamocdilebis mqone sxva profesionali.

quCis bavSvebis idintificirebis mizniT, federaciam

`gadavarCinoT bavSvebi~, samuSao jgufTan da

eqspertebTan erTad, saqarTveloSi quCis bavSvebis

dakvirvebadi Tvisebebis sia Seadgina. TvisebaTa kombinirebuli

nusxa oTx jgufad iyo dayofili: 1) fizikuri

maxasiaTeblebi; 2) qceva; 3) adgilmdebareoba; 4)

saqmianoba.

sia SefasebisaTvis gadaeca samuSao jgufis yvela

wevrs, aseve oTxive qalaqSi, droisa da adgilmdebareobis

mefingSi monawile jgufebs, ranJirebis

gziT SefasebisaTvis. yvela maTgans quCis bavSvebis

identifikaciisaTvis saWiro Tvisebebi mniSvnelobis

mixedviT aTquliani skalis gamoyenebiT unda

Seefasebina (1 _ yvelaze naklebad mniSvnelovani;

10 _ yvelaze mniSvnelovani). yvelaze mniSvnelovani

Tvisebebi treningebis dros damkvirveblebs damatebiTi

kriteriumebis saxiT gadaecaT. 6 SeTanxmebisamebr,

sadamkvirveblo kriteriumebi damkvirveblebs

saxelmZRvanelo principebad unda gamoeyenebinaT,

raTa daedginaT, bavSvi quCis bavSvebis jgufs miekuTvneboda

Tu ara. damatebiT, bavSvis mikuTvneba

xdeboda ara erTi Tvisebis, aramed fizikuri, qcevi-

Ti, adgilmdebareobis da saqmianobebis faqtorebis

erTobliobis gaTvaliswinebiT.

yvela damkvirvebeli erTdRian kompleqsur trenings

daewro, romelzec droisa da adgilmdebareobis

mefingis principebi, quCis bavSvebis damaxasiaTebeli

Tvisebebi, sadamkvirveblo angariSis formis Sevsebis

instruqcia, quCis bavSvebis dakvirvebasTan dakav-

Sirebuli eTikuri sakiTxebi iyo ganxiluli. aseve

Catarda quCaSi dakvirvebis warmoebisa da angariSis

Sevsebis praqtikuli savarjiSo. treningis bolos,

yvela sadamkvirveblo jgufs kvadranti da TariRi

ganesazRvra.

droisa da adgilmdebareobis mefingis gundebisaTvis

miwodebuli instruqciis Tanaxmad, maT Caureveli

dakvirvebis teqnika unda gamoeyenebinaT da mefingi

nela moZravi manqanidan unda moexdinaT. damkvirveblebs

manqanis datoveba mxolod im SemTxvevaSi See-

ZloT, roca garkveul adgilebze (magaliTad, parkebi,

Ria bazrebi, avtobusisa an rkinigzis sadgurebi

da miwisqveSa gadasasvlelebi) manqaniT dakvirveba

SeuZlebeli iyo. droisa da adgilmdebareobis mefingi

bavSvebze dakvirvebas mitovebuli Senobebis,

kazinoebis, internet-kafeebis, restornebis, kinoTeatrebis,

sajaro transportis, supermarketebis,

eklesiebis da sxva msgavsi adgilebis SigniT ar

iTvaliswinebda.

droisa da adgilmdebareobis mefingi baTumsa da

quTaisSi 2007 wlis 28 ivniss, xolo rusTavsa da TbilisSi

2007 wlis 29 ivniss Catarda. oTxive qalaqSi 64

kvandrantze 192 damkvirvebeli iyo ganawilebuli.

meore safexuri: wertilovani Sefaseba

am safexuris mizani, SerCeul adgilebSi, quCis bavSvebis

ufro zusti raodenobis dadgena iyo. sandoobis

asamaRleblad gadawyda, rom daTvla sami

Tanmimdevruli dRis ganmavlobaSi, dReSi 20 saaTis

ganmavlobaSi, dilis 6 saaTidan Ramis 2 saaTamde

Catardeboda. quCis bavSvebTan momuSave praqtikosebis

mtkicebiT, TiTqmis arcerTi bavSvi ar aris quCaSi

Ramis 2-dan dilis 6 saaTamde. ase rom, daTvlisas am

6. sia kvlevis bolos mesame danarTis saxiT aris warmodgenili

16 ❘ nu miwodebT quCis bavSvs


Tbilisi rusTavi quTaisi baTumi sul

kvadrantebis raodenoba droisa da 33 7 16 8 64

adgilmdebareobis mefingis

winaswari dakvirvebisaTvis

kvadrantebis raodenoba wertilovani 11 3 4 2 20

Sefasebis daTvlisaTvis

SerCevis cdomileba 3.30% 8% 4.30% 4.30% 2.10%

cxrili #3 – pirvel (droisa da adgilmdebareobis mefingi) da meore (wertilovani Sefaseba) safexurze dakvirvebuli kvadrantebis

raodenoba

4 saaTiani Sualedis gamotoveba winaswar iyo dagegmili.

droisa da adgilmdebareobis mefingma aCvena, rom qu-

Cis bavSvebis 65% 64 kvandrantidan 20-Si iyo Tavmoyrili

da am kvandrantebis SigniT quCis bavSvebis ramdenime

adgilis garSemo jgufdebodnen. Sesabamisad,

wertilovani Sefasebisas mxolod es 20 kvandranti

iyo gamoyenebuli. am safexurze, damkvirveblebs maTi

kvadrantebi fexiT unda SemoevloT. amitom, aucilebeli

gaxda ramdenime didi kvadrantis ufro patara

kvadrantebad dayofa. Sedegad, 20 sawyisi kvadrantidan

5 yvelaze did kvadranti or nawilad gaiyo da Sesabamisad,

oTxive qalaqSi axali kvadrantebis raodenobam

25-s miaRwia. zogadad, kvlevis meore safexurze

dakvirveba ufro nakleb kvadrantze, magram ufro intensiurad

da meti sizustiT Catarda, ris Sedegadac

cdomilebis albaTobam 2,1% Seadgina.

TiToeul kvadrantze, ori damkvirveblisagan Semdgari

sami jgufi iqna gagzavnili (6 adamiani erT kvadrantze).

isini 4 saaTiani SualedebiT muSaobdnen da

8 saaTiani Sesveneba hqondaT. wertilovani Sefasebis

damkvirvebelTa jgufebi federacia `gadavarCinoT

bavSvebis~ partniori organizaciebis da ACT-kvlevis

profesionali interviuerebisagan Sedgeboda. saerTo

jamSi, oTx qalaqSi, 54 jgufSi 150 adamiani iyo gaer-

Tianebuli.

wertilovani Sefaseba oTxive qalaqSi, sami dRis ganmavlobaSi

erTsa da imave dros Catarda: 2007 wlis

25, 26 da 27 seqtembers. TiToeuli jgufi 4 saaTiani

ganakveTiT muSaobda, droisa da adgilis mefingis

3 saaTian ganakveTTan SedarebiT. TiToeuli damkvirveeli

Sefasebebs yovel or saaTSi erTxel afiqsirebda,

rac TiToeul ganakveTSi 2 Sefasebis, dReSi

10 Sefasebis da sami dRis ganmavlobaSi 30 Sefasebis

tolia.EorsaaTiani Sefasebis dafiqsirebis meqanizmi

da oTxive qalaqSi erTsa da imave dros dakvirveba,

quCis bavSvebis daTvlis procesSi, ganmeorebiTi

daTvlis Tavidan acilebas isaxavda miznad. xarisxis

gasakontroleblad, `gadavarCinoT bavSvebisa~ da

ACT–kvlevis TanamSromlebi TiToeul adgilze sadamkvirveblo

gundebs winaswari gafrTxilebis gareSe

ukavSirdebodnen telefoniT an uSualod adgilze

misvliT, raTa kiTxvebze pasuxi gaecaT, wamoWrili

sakiTxebi gadaewyvitaT da procesis gegmis Tanaxmad

warmarTva uzrunveleyoT.

mesame safexuri: pirispir interviuebi

mesame safexuris mizani quCis bavSvebis demografiis,

problemebisa da saWiroebebis Sesaxeb informaciis

Segroveba iyo.

kiTxvaris pirveli variantis SesamuSaveblad, samuSao

jgufis wevrebs kvlevisaTvis mniSvnelovani da

relevanturi sakiTxebi/kiTxvebi unda daesaxelebinaT.

samuSao jgufis wevrebis mier dasaxelebul iqna

yvela mniSvnelovani sakiTxi da Sedgenil iqna Ria

kiTxvebis sia. radgan sia Zalian grZeli iyo da mis

gamoyenebas Zalian didi dro dasWirdeboda, federaciam

`gadavarCinoT bavSvebi~, kvlav ranJirebis

gziT Sefasebas mimarTa da samuSao jgufis wevrebsa

da wertilovani Sefasebis damkvirveblebs kiTxvebis,

maTi mniSvnelobis mixedviT, Sefaseba sTxova.

bolo sacdeli nimuSi yvelaze mniSvnelovnad Sefasebul

40 kiTxvas Seicavda. kiTxvaris nimuSma sacdeli

testireba (pilotireba) Tbilisis quCebSi gaiara da

masSi ramdenime umniSvnelo cvlileba iqna Setanili.

pilotirebis procesisas aseve ganisazRvra SerCevis

yvelaze efeqturi meTodi.

wertilovani Sefasebis Sedegebze dayrdnobiT, ACTkvlevam

pirispir interviuebisaTvis SerCevis meTodi

SeimuSava. oTx qalaqSi pirispir interviusaTvis

8-dan 18 wlamde asakis 300 bavSvi SeirCa. sqesobrivi da

asakobrivi ganawileba wertilovani Sefasebis dros

dasakvirvebel bavSvebSi sqesisa da asakis proporciuli

iyo. TiToeul qalaqSi Catarebuli interviuebis

raodenoba qvemoT cxrilSia moyvanili.

quCis bavSvebTan pirispir interviuebs orkaciani

jgufi atarebda (erTi adamiani svamda kiTxvebs da

meore iwerda pasuxebs). kvlevis am safexurze, sul 20

momzadebuli interviuerisgan Semdgarma 10-ma jgufma

miiRo monawileoba. interviuerTa jgufebi bavSvebis

interviuirebaSi gamocdilebis mqone trening-gavlili

profesionalebisagan Sedgeboda. es adamianebi,

umeteswilad, wina or safexurSi monawile pirovnebebisagan

gansxvavebulni iyvnen, vinaidan bavSvebis interviuireba

gansxvavebul unarebsa da kvalifikacias

moiTxovs. zogierTi interviueri daqiravebuli iyo

im jgufebidan, romlebic monawileobdnen `gadavar-

CinoT bavSvebisa~ da bostonis universitetis 2005-

2007 wlebis kvlevaSi amave organizaciis centrebsa

da saxelmwifo dawesebulebebSi myofi bavSvebis Sesaxeb.

interviuerebi momzaddnen intervius rotaciis

saqarTveloSi urbanuli quCis bavSvebis raodenoba da maxasiaTeblebi ❘ 17


qalaqi wertilovani SerCevis SerCevis

Sefasebis zoma cdomileba

daTvlis Sedegebi

Tbilisi 798 178 6.50%

rusTavi 271 61 11.00%

quTaisi 131 29 16.00%

baTumi 141 32 15.00%

sul 1341 300 5.00%

cxrili 4 – interviuirebuli quCis bavSvebis SerCevebi

qalaqebis mixedviT

gegmaSi (dReSi sami ganakveTi), kiTxvarze, `Tovlis

gundis~ SerCevis angariSis formasa, da uaris formaze

muSaobis teqnikebSi. aseve gaiares bavSvebis interviuirebasTan

dakavSirebuli eTikuri sakiTxebi.

pirispir interviuebi 2007 wlis 19-22 noembers, dilis

8-dan Ramis 10 saaTamde tardeboda.

interviuerebi muSaobas maTTvis gankuTvnil kvadrantze

iwyebdnen da quCis bavSvs ukavSirdebodnen

quCis bavSvebis identificirebisaTvis gamoyenebuli

maxasiaTeblebis (ixileT zemoT) mixedviT. pilotirebis

procesSi, uaris Zalian maRali maCveneblis gamo,

rekrutirebis ori meTodis gamoyeneba gadawyda:

pirveli, Tu interiuerebi xedavdnen sxva quCis bavSvebs,

isini xelmisawvdomobis SerCevis meTods iyenebdnen

anu midiodnen sxva quCis bavSvTan, romelic

garkveul kriteriums akmayofilebda (magaliTad: iyo

8 an meti wlis); meore, Tu sxva quCis bavSvebi irgvliv

ar Candnen, interviuerebi iyenebdnen Tovlis gundis

meTods da quCis bavSvebs, maTTvis cnobili, sxva

quCis bavSvebis moyvanas sTxovdnen. yvela SerCeul

adgilas xdeboda `sawyisi~ bavSvebis identificireba

da Semdgom TiToeuls sTxovdnen, maqsimum sami bavSvi

moeyvana, romelic SerCevis imave kriteriumebs akmayofilebda.

interviuerebi aseTi SerCevis msvlelobas

maTTvis darigebuli Tovlis gundis SerCevis aRweris

formaze afiqsirebdnen.

imisaTvis, rom quCis bavSvebs interviusaTvis dro

daeTmoT, bavSvebSi winawar gamovlenili survilis

mixedviT, sxvadasxva wamaxaliseblebi gamoiyeneboda.

TbilisSi, quTaissa da rusTavSi yvela interviuirebul

bavSvs saCuqrad qudebi, xolo baTumSi mobiluri

telefonis baraTebi gadaecaT. damatebiT, nebismieri

interviuirebuli bavSvi, romelic interviusaTvis

sxva quCis bavSvs moiyvanda, saCuqrad 1 lars iRebda.

savele samuSaoebze kontrols ACT-kvleva xorcielebda,

romlis TanamSromlebma yvela qalaqi da

jgufi moinaxules da gaakontroles interviuerebis

rotacia. problemebis wamoWris SemTxvevaSi isini

pasuxobdnen interviuerebis kiTxvebs da uzrunvelyofdnen

bavSvebis kvotis Sesrulebas. yvela intervius

dasrulebis Semdeg, Sevsebuli kiTxvarebi,

`Tovlis gundis~ SerCevis Sesaxeb angariSebi da uaris

formebi ACT-kvlevis Tbilisis ofisSi Segrovda. ACTkvlevam

moaxdina monacemTa winaswari damuSaveba,

gasufTaveba da am monacemTa Seyvana SPSS-Si.

sul gamoikiTxa 301 bavSvi, 159 (52.8%) interviuirebul

iqna Tovlis gundis meTodiT (32-ma quCis bavSvma

TiTo sxva bavSvi moiyvana; 26 bavSvma _ 2 sxva bavSvi da

25 bavSvma _ 3 sxva bavSvi). darCenili 142 quCis bavSvi

ki, interviusaTvis xelmisawvdomobis SerCevis meTodiT

iqna interviuirebuli. qalaqebis mixedviT interviuirebuli

quCis bavSvebis raodenoba Semdegia:

qalaqi quCis bavSvebTan Catarebuli wili sruli

interviuebis raodenoba SerCevidan

Tbilisi 181 60.10%

rusTavi 32 10.60%

quTaisi 58 19.30%

baTumi 30 10.00%

sul 301 100%

cxrili #5 – Catarebuli interviuebis raodenoba qalaqebis

mixedviT

kvlevis SezRudvebi

SerCevis meTodebs (Tovlis gundis principi da xelmisawvdomobis

SerCeva) – axlavs araSemTxveviTi Ser-

Cevis mikerZoebuloba (sistemuri Secdoma). magram

swored es ori meTodi gamoiyeneba, roca SerCevis

CarCo ar arsebobs. xelmisawvdomobis SerCevis meTodis

gamoyenebisas, mikerZoebulobis Semcireba Sesa-

Zlebelia, Tu SerCeva kvlevis sakiTxTan dakavSirebul

validur da sando kriteriumebze dayrdnobiT

moxdeba. swored es iyo droisa da adgilis mefingisa

da mTavari informatorebis mier quCis bavSvebis

ZiriTadi maxasiaTeblebis Camoyalibebis erT-erTi

mizezi. Tovlis gundis principiT SerCevis meTodis

gamoyenebisas, mikerZoebulobis Semcireba SesaZlebelia

mimarTulebis micemiT (waqezeba garkveuli tipis

adamianis mosayvanad) an erTi adamianis mier eqvsi

da meti axali respondentis moyvanis gziT. mocemul

kvlevaSi, 25-ma bavSvma moaxerxa yvelaze meti _ 3 respondentis

moyvana. umeteswilad, interviuerebi

pirdapiri rekrutirebis meTods iyenebdnen.

mobiluroba – quCis bavSvebi SedarebiT mobilur

jgufs warmoadgenen ojaxebTan erTad. xSirad, maT

ar aqvT mudmivi sacxovrebeli adgili da dRisa da

Ramis sxvadasxva dros SeiZleba sxvadasxva adgilas

SeiniSnebodnen. amitomac, kvlevis erT-erTi yvelaze

didi sirTule oTxive qalaqSi bavSvebis daTvlisas

maTi meored DdaTvlis gamoricxva iyo. gamoiyo ormagi

daTvlis sami tipis SemTxveva, romelTa gakonroleba

saWiro iyo: 1) quCis bavSvebis gadaadgileba qalaqebs

Soris (magaliTad, Tbilisidan rusTavSi), 2) erTi

qalaqis SigniT dasakvirvebel adgilmdebareobebs

(kvadrantebs) Soris moZraoba da 3) damkvirveblis

mier erTi da igive bavSvis orjer daTvla.

18 ❘ nu miwodebT quCis bavSvs


pasuxebis sandooba – intervius dros ori saxis mikerZoebulobis

SesaZlebloba arsebobda. pirveli

ukavSirdeba mexsierebis sizustes: quCis bavSvs

SeiZleba zustad ar axsovdes quCaSi misi cxovrebis

aspeqtebi, dabadebis adgili an asaki; pasuxebis sandoobasTan

dakavSirebuli meore sirTule motyuebaa.

gavrcelebulia mosazreba, rom quCis bavSvebs,

garkveul kiTxvebze winaswar momzadebuli pasuxebi

aqvT fulis miRebisa an samarTaldamcvelebisaTvis

Tavis aridebis mizniT.

gazomvis cdomileba – bevri quCis bavSvisaTvis mTel

rig standartul kiTxvebze pasuxis gacema arc Tu ise

Cveulebrivi saqmea. amasTanave, arsebobs bevri kiTxvis

arasworad gagebis safrTxe. gazomvis cdomilebis

sxva mizezebi Tavad interviuers ukavSirdeba, ker-

Zod ndobis faqtors bavSvsa da interviuers Soris

da imas, Tu ramdenad zustad SeuZlia interviuers

janmrTelobis garkveuli problemebis gansazRvra

(SezRuduli SesaZleblobebi, travma, toqsikuri niv-

Tierebebis moxmareba).

daTvlil da gamokiTxul iqna mxolod `quCaSi myofi~

bavSvebi. kvlevis dasawyisSi, samuSao jgufis wevrebs

Soris mimdinareobda debatebi, CaerToT Tu ara zogierT

dawesebulebaSi (TavSesafrebi, bavSvTa saxlebi,

dRis centrebi, restornebi, internet-kafeebi

da msgavsi) myofi bavSvebi daTvlisa da interviuirebis

procesSi. gadawyda mxolod im bavSvebis daTvla

da gamokiTxva, vinc quCaSi iyo da SeTanxmebul kriteriumebs

miesadageboda. am gadawyvetilebaze orma

mTavarma faqtorma iqonia gavlena. upirveles yovlisa,

rogorc praqtikosebma aRniSnes, arsebuli momsaxurebebiT

mosargeble bevr iseT bavSvs, romelic

quCis bavSvad iTvleba, sinamdvileSi arasodes ucxovria

quCaSi. Sesabamisad, maTi identificireba did

sirTulesTan iqneboda dakavSirebuli. meorec, ker-

Zo sakuTrebaSi myof dawesebulebebSi Sesvla bavSvebis

daTvlisa da interviuirebis mizniT damatebiT

logistikur da bavSvebis dacvasTan dakavSirebul

problemebs wamoWrida, romelTa Semcirebasac es kvleva

Seecada.

uaris SedarebiT maRali done – interviu sul 301

bavSvTan Catarda. amisaTvis, savele samuSaoebis

dros 512 quCis bavSvTan moxda dakontaqteba. aqedan

44-ma ukve sxvis mier aRmoCnda interviuirebuli.

darCenili 167 quCis bavSvidan, 3-ma daiwyo interviu,

magram uari ganacxada mis dasrulebaze, xolo 164-ma

quCis bavSvma Tavidanve ganacxada uari. Sesabamisad,

uaris maCvenebeli 35.6% (167/301+167) iyo. uaris Tqmis

yvelaze maRali maCvenebeli quTaissa da rusTavSi

dafiqsirda.

monacemTa analizi

radgan bavSvebis proporciuli warmomadgenloba

qalaqebis zomis proporciulia, monacemebisaTvis

wonis miniWebas adgili ar hqonia. asakobriv da sqesobriv

jgufebze dayrdnobiT monacemTaTvis wonis

miniWeba aseve ar momxdara.

monacemTa analizi moicavda sixSireebis, krostabulaciebis,

saSualosa da regresiis gamoyenebas.

statistikurad mniSvnelovani gansxvavebebis

gamosaTvlelad, xi-kvadrat kriteriumi iyo gamoyenebuli

krostabulaciisaTvis da T_kriteriumi _ sa-

SualosTvis. SerCevis mcire zomis gamo gamoyenebuli

iqna mniSvnelovnebis 90%-iani done (p


kvlevis Sedegebi

Sedegebis Sejameba

raodenoba

me-6 cxrilSi (qvemoT), qalaqebis mixedviT wertilovani Sefasebis sami dRis ganmavlobaSi dakvirvebuli bavSvebis

minimaluri da maqsimaluri raodenobaa moyvanili. damatebiT, me-6 cxrilSi mocemulia droisa da adgilis

mefingis dros dakvirvebuli bavSvebis minimaluri da maqsimaluri raodenoba im kvadrantebSi, romlebic

ar iqna Seyvanili wertilovan SefasebaSi (daxrili kursiviT). Sejamebisas, aRniSnul oTx qalaqSi, bavSvebis

raodenoba 528-dan 1569-mde meryeobs, rac saSualod 1049-s gvaZlevs.

qalaqi qalaqis kvadrantebi minimaluri maqsimaluri

raodenoba raodenoba

Tbilisi droisa da adgilmdebareobis mefingi 113 334

winaswari dakvirveba

wertilovani daTvlis Sefaseba 207 612

sul qalaqisTvis 320 946

saSualod qalaqisTvis 633

quTaisi droisa da adgilmdebareobis mefingi 30 110

winaswari dakvirveba

wertilovani daTvlis Sefaseba 59 215

sul qalaqisTvis 89 325

saSualod qalaqisTvis 207

baTumi droisa da adgilmdebareobis mefingi 22 49

winaswari dakvirveba

wertilovani daTvlis Sefaseba 45 99

sul qalaqisTvis 67 148

saSualod qalaqisTvis 108

rusTavi droisa da adgilmdebareobis mefingi 18 51

winaswari dakvirveba

wertilovani daTvlis Sefaseba 34 99

sul qalaqisTvis 52 148

saSualod qalaqisTvis 101

sul oTx qalaqSi 528 1569

saSualod oTx qalaqSi 1049

cxrili 6 – dakvirvebuli quCis bavSvebis raodenoba oTx qalaqSi

20 ❘ nu miwodebT quCis bavSvs


demografia

1. saqarTvelos quCis bavSvebs Soris biWebis raodenoba

orjer aRemateba gogonebisas; biWebis wili

kidev ufro metia mozard bavSvebs Soris (15-dan 18

wlamde) da RamiT. es SeiZleba sxvadasxva sqesis bavSvebis

aRzrdis gansxvavebuli midgomebebiT da aseve

saqarTveloSi qalisa da mamakacis rolis kulturuli

sxvadasxvaobiT aixsnas, vinaidan gogonebi ufro

metad arian CarTulni saojaxo saqmeebSi. biWebisaTvis

drois umetesi nawilis TanatolebTan erTad

saxls gareT gatareba maincdamainc negatiurad ar

aRiqmeba. meore mizezi SeiZleba iyos is, rom mSoblis

gardacvalebis an aryofnis SemTxvevaSi, naTesavebi

gogonebs ufro xSirad aZleven TavSesafars, vidre

biWebs. vinaidan gogonebi biWebTan SedarebiT quCaSi

naklebad SeiniSnebian, magram imave problemebis winaSe

dganan, arsebobs saSiSroeba imisa, rom isini naklebad

iReben daxmarebas.

2. saqarTveloSi quCis bavSvebis umravlesobis asaki

14 wels ar aRemateba. maTi umravlesoba quCaSi cxovrebas

skolis dawyebis asakSi iwyebs. amas garda,

SeiniSneba mcirewlovnebisa da Cvili bavSvebis sakmaod

didi raodenoba (15%), romlebic, ZiriTadad

dedebTan erTad maTxovroben. sakmaod bevria quCaSi

axalgazrdebis raodenobac (20%).

3. gavrcelebuli mosazrebis sawinaaRmegod, romlis

Tanaxmad quCis bavSvebi ZiriTadad migrantebi arian,

10-dan 7 bavSvi mTeli cxovreba imave qalaqSi cxovrobda.

danarCeni ori-mesamedi saqarTvelos sxvadasxva

kuTxidan aris Camosuli da erTi-mesamedi _

azerbaijanidan, ruseTidan, moldovidan da ukrainidan.

migranti bavSvebis raodenobis sezonuri mateba

zafxulis TveebSi SeiniSneba. saqarTvelos kuTxeebidan

Camosuli bavSvebi SeiZleba mocemul qalaqSi

mSoblebis gareSe Camovidnen, maSin, roca sazRvargareTidan

Camosuli bavSvebi ZiriTadad migrant

mSoblebTan erTad gadaadgildebian. qveynis SigniT

da sazRvargareT gadaadgileba ZiriTadad ekonomikuri

mizezebiT aixsneba.

4. wera-kiTxvisa da skolaSi Caricxvis ufro maRali

done, iseve, rogorc socialuri momsaxurebis moxmarebis

ufro maRali done da maTxovrobis naklebi

SemTxvevebi, qveynis SigniT gadaadgilebul bavSvebs

Soris, aramigrant da sxva qveynidan Camosul quCis

baSvebTan SedarebiT, ufro Zlier socialur adaptaciaze

miuTiTebs. Tu ratom inarCuneben es bavSvebi

ufro mtkice socialur kavSirebs, nawilobriv

araformaluri mxardaWeris qselebiT (rogoricaa

gafarToebuli ojaxebi), SeiZleba aixsnas, romlebic

ZiriTadad warmarTavs saqarTveloSi migraciis mimarTulebas.

winaaRmdegobebis Jams cxovrebisadmi

ufro pro-aqtiurma midgomam - sxvagan gadasvlis

gadawyvetileba ki amis gamoxatulebaa – SeiZleba

aseve axsnas es faqti.

5. migrant quCis bavSvebs maT aramigrant TanatolebTan

SedarebiT ufro mtkice kavSiri aqvT

ojaxTan, Tumca isini ufro gariyulebi arian sazogadoebisgan,

vidre bavSvebi sxva jgufebidan. vinaidan

es bavSvebi cxovroben ojaxebTan, romlebic umetes

SemTxvevaSi ar arian oficialurad registrirebulni,

ar aqvT adekvaturi sacxovrebeli, xSirad Zalian

Raribebi arian, ar aqvT saidentifikacio dokumentebi

da ar ician qarTuli ena, bavSvebma ar ician wera

-kiTxva, ar iricxebian skolaSi da ar sargebloben

arsebuli socialuri momsaxurebebiT. farTod gavrcelebuli

mosazreba, rom imigranti quCis bavSvebi

`boSebi~ arian, romlebic kulturulad midrekilni

arian maTxovrobisa da quCaSi cxovrebisaken, kidev

ufro zrdis stigmas da maT izolacias.

droisa da adgilmdebareobis faqtorebi

1. saqarTveloSi, quCis bavSvebis umravlesoba mxolod

dRis saaTebSi imyofeba quCaSi marto. arian

aseve quCis bavSvebi (ZiriTadad Cvilebi da mcirewlovani

bavSvebi, gogonebi da isini, vinc maTxovrobs),

romelTac quCaSi zrdasrulebi axlavT Tan.

2. quCis bavSvebis umetesoba Rameebs mSoblebTan an

naTesavebTan erTad atarebs. bavSvebi Rames quCaSi

saqarTveloSi urbanuli quCis bavSvebis raodenoba da maxasiaTeblebi ❘ 21


22 ❘ nu miwodebT quCis bavSvs


ZiriTadad zafxulSi atareben, roca gareT Tbila.

Rameebis quCaSi gatarebis mixedviT SeiZleba quCis

bavSvebis sami jgufi gamoiyos: a) quCaSi mcxovrebi

bavSvebi (romlebsac quCaSi mTeli weli sZinavT – 6%);

b) quCasa da saxlSi mcxovrebi bavSvebi (romlebsac

quCaSi weliwadSi mxolod ramdenime Tve sZinavT –

19%) da g) quCaSi aqtiuri bavSvebi (romlebic mTel

dRes quCaSi atareben, magram iq ar sZinavT – 74%). aris

aseve bavSvebis mcire raodenoba, romelTac quCaSi

ojaxebTan erTad sZinavT.

3. quCaSi mcxovrebi bavSvebi, TiTqmis mTlianad, 11-

dan 18 wlamde asakis biWebi arian. maTi umravlesoba

an orive mSobliT obolia, an Tu maT hyavT mSoblebi,

maTi mSoblebi da naTesavebi sxva qalaqSi cxovroben.

maTi kavSiri ojaxTan _ Tu aseTi arsebobs _ Zalian

sustia. isini ZiriTadad usaxlkaroni arian da siRaribeSi

cxovroben, ar dadian skolaSi an miatoves iq

siaruli. quCaSi mcxovrebi bavSvebis umetesoba ukve

or welze metia quCaSi cxovrobs. maTi gadarCenis

strategia quCaSi fulis gamomuSavebas da arsebuli

socialuri momsaxurebis gamoyenebas moicavs.

4. quCasa da saxlSi mcxovrebi bavSvebi weliwadSi mxolod

ramdenime Tves atareben quCaSi (Cveulebriv,

Tbili Tveebis dros, ZiriTadad zafxulSi). quCaSi

cxovrebisas, maT ojaxebTan susti an saerTod aranairi

kavSiri ara aqvT. isini saxlSi zamTris periodis

ganmavlobaSi brundebian. am bavSvebis umravlesobam

ekonomikuri siduxWire gamoiara; maT aseve dakarges

an hyavT mSobeli, iyvnen mSobelTa alkoholizmis/

ojaxuri Zaladobis, ganqorwinebis an meored daqorwinebis,

rogorc ojaxuri problemebis, momswreebi.

ramdenime jer kidev iricxeba skolaSi, xolo umravlesobam

skola miatova. umravlesoba fuls quCaSi

gamoimuSavebs da sakuTari an ojaxis saWiroebebis

dakmayofilebaze xarjavs.

5. quCaSi aqtiuri bavSvebi Cveulebriv mSoblebTan an

martoxela dedebTan erTad cxovroben. isini imave

problemebis winaSe dganan, rogorc quCasa da saxlSi

mcxovrebi bavSvebi, magram mSoblebs kvlav mTavar

mzrunvelebad Tvlian. isini ojaxis wevrebTan ufro

mtkice kavSirebs inarCuneben. xuTidan erTi bavSvi kvlav

iricxeba skolaSi da mxolod ramdenimem miatova

skola, Tumca umravlesobas saklaso oTaxi arasdros

unaxavs. quCaSi aqtiuri bavSvebi fuls xSirad quCaSi

gamoimuSaveben, rom ojaxSi damatebiTi Semosavali

Seitanon.

6. quCaSi gatarebuli periodis gaxangrZlivebaTan

erTad, bavSvebis kavSiri ojaxTan an skolasTan sustdeba

da isini ufro metad eZeben alternatiul mxardaWeras,

rogoricaa, magaliTad, socialuri momsaxureba

da imave cxovrebiseul situaciaSi myof

TanatolebTan socialuri kavSirebis damyareba.

quCis bavSvebis ojaxebi

1. saqarTveloSi quCis bavSvebis 85%-is erTi mSobeli

mainc cocxalia, 55%-s orive mSobeli hyavs, 24%-s _

mxolod deda da 6%-s _ mxolod mama. im bavSvebs Soris,

visac erTi an orive mSobeli hyavs, 85%-is deda

imave qalaqSi cxovrobs da 71%-s mamac imave qalaqSi

hyavs. bavSvebis umravlesobis da-Zmebi da naTesavebic

imave qalaqSi arian.

2. quCis bavSvebs, visac orive mSobeli hyavs, ufro

mtkice kavSiri aqvs dedasTan, vidre mamasTan. quCis

bavSvebis umravlesoba mTavar mzrunvelebad mSoblebs

an sxva naTesavebs miiCneven. quCis bavSvebis

ojaxebSi dedebi mTavari (da xSirad erTaderTi) mzrunvelebi

arian. bavSvebis daaxloebiT erTi mesamedi

aravis miiCnevs mzrunvelad, magram es bavSvebi

oblebi ar arian. rac ufro met dros atarebs bavSvi

quCaSi, miT ufro sustdeba misi kavSiri mSoblebTan.

aseve, ufros quCis bavSvebs ufro iSviaTad hyavT mzrunvelebi,

vidre umcrosebs.

3. erTi an orive mSoblis aryofnas an gardacvalebas

(anu mzrunvelis naklebobas), bavSvis cxovrebis

mraval aspeqtze aqvs gavlena, gansakuTrebiT Tu sxva

naTesavebi imave qalaqSi ar cxovroben. aseTi bavSvebi

ufro metad arian midrekilni quCaSi Ramis gaTenebisa

an 24 saaTi quCaSi cxovrebisaken. isini ufro naklebad

iricxebian skolaSi da aseve izrdeba skolis

mitovebis albaToba. es bavSvebi mSoblis dakargvas an

aryofnas ekonomikur problemebis tol an ufro did

problemad aRiqvamen. umravlesoba iZulebuli xdeba,

saarsebo fuli moipovos. arsebuli socialuri momsaxureba

quCis oboli bavSvebis Zalian mcire raodenobas

daexmara. ufro metic, araoboli bavSvebi, romlebic

acxadeben, rom maTze aravin zrunavs, ufro

metad iyeneben socialur momsaxurebas.

4. quCis bavSvebis 65% ojaxebSi, orive mSobelTan

an martoxela dedebTan cxovrobs. ojaxebis sxva

formebi moicavs: martoxela mamebs, erT mSobels

ojaxSi da sxva naTesavs mzrunvelis rangSi (xSirad

dedinacvali/maminacvali an bebia/babua) an naTesavebTan

cxovrebas mSoblebis gareSe. danarCeni 35%

ar cxovrobs ojaxebTan, magram maTgan umravlesoba

Rameebs quCaSi ar atarebs da sanacvlod bavSvTa saxlSi,

TavSesafarSi, megobrebTan an daqiravebul iaffasian

sacxovrebelSi sZinavs. erT mSobelTan da sxva

naTesavTan (xSirad dedinacvalTan an maminacvalTan)

mcxovrebi bavSvebi yvelaze metad uCivian gaWirvebas,

xolo orive mSobelTan mcxovrebi bavSvebi _ yvelaze

naklebad.

5. saqarTveloSi quCis bavSvebi saSualod oridan

samamde ojaxur stresors asaxeleben: ekonomikuri

siZneleebi (siRaribe, umuSevroba, usaxlkaroba,

valebi an SimSili), yvelaze xSirad dasaxelebuli

problemaa, romelsac mosdevs ojaxis Semadgenlobis

cvlileba (mSoblis an mSoblebis gardacvaleba an

aryofna, mSoblebis ganqorwineba/meore qorwineba)

da ojaxSi alkoholizmis/ojaxuri Zaladobis da janmrTelobis

problemebi. ojaxis stresorebis sirTulis

zrdasTan erTad, bavSvebi ufro met dros da

xSirad Rameebsac quCaSi atareben. ojaxis stresorebs

Soris arsebobs ori iseTi stresori, romelTac Seu-

saqarTveloSi urbanuli quCis bavSvebis raodenoba da maxasiaTeblebi ❘ 23


ZliaT bavSvs quCaSi cxovrebisaken ubiZgon: mSoblebis

gardacvaleba an aryofna (gansakuTrebiT Tu amas

Tan axlavs sxva zrdasruli naTesavis ararseboba) da

usaxlkaroba.

6. ekonomikuri problemebi yvelaze seriozuli

problemaa bavSvebisTvis, visac imave qalaqSi didi

ojaxi hyavs, aseve martoxela dedebisagan Semdgari

ojaxebisaTvis da naTesavebTan mcxovrebi bavSvebisaTvis.

ojaxis siRaribe yvelaze xSirad dasaxelebuli

problemaa, romelsac mSoblebis umuSevroba da

usaxlkaroba mosdevs. usaxlkarobaSi igulisxmeba

sacxovreblis arqona, sacxovreblis xSiri cvla da

adamianis cxovrebisaTvis Seusabamo adgilebSi cxovreba

(rogoricaa xelovnuri barakebi, cxovrebisaTvis

aucilebeli pirobebis armqone saxlebi da gadatvirTuli

sacxovreblebi). saqarTveloSi gamefebul

ukidures siRatakes xangrZlivi efeqti aqvs da xSirad

axlavs `daswavlili ususurobis~ sindromi, romelic

zrdasrul ojaxis wevrebs mdgomareobis Secvlis unars

ukargavs.

7. arasruli ojaxi quCis bavSvebisaTvis Zalian

Zlieri stresoria. mSoblebis an erTi mSoblis gardacvalebas

an aryofnas (gadasaxlebis an dapatimrebis

gamo), an mSoblebis ganqorwinebas sxva damatebiTi

problemebic axlavs, rogoricaa: ojaxis ekonomikuri

mdgomareobis mkveTri gauareseba da bavSvis cxovrebaSi

arsebuli erTaderTi mzrunvelisadmi mijaWvulobis

dakargva. mSoblebis ganqorwinebis SemTxveva-

Si, damatebiT problemebad gaSorebamde arsebuli

xSiri ojaxuri konfliqtebi da dedinacvalis/maminacvalis

(romelic bavSvebisadmi uaryofiTad aris

ganwyobili) gamoCena gvevlineba.

8. quCis bavSvebis ojaxebSi alkoholizmis problema

ufro metad ojaxSi mamis arsebobas ukavSirdeba, vidre

martoxela dedebis ojaxebs. ojaxuri Zaladoba

xSirad moxseniebulia meore qorwinebis konteqstSi,

rac dedinacvals/maminacvalsa da bavSvebs Soris

konfliqtze miuTiTebs. magram ojaxuri Zaladoba

martoxela dedebis ojaxebSic SeiniSneba. am oridan,

rogorc problema, alkoholizmi ufro xSirad saxeldeba,

vidre ojaxuri Zaladoba, Tumca isic arsebobs.

SesaZlebelia, rom am ukanasknels bavSvebi malaven.

quCis bavSvebi da ganaTleba

1. saqarTveloSi quCis bavSvebis umetesoba savaldebulo

saskolo ganaTlebis asakisaa (14 wlamde),

magram skolebSi ar iricxebian. dawyebiTi saskolo

ganaTlebis asakis (12 wlamde), bavSvebis mxolod 20%

da saSualo skolis asakis (12 wels zemoT) mxolod

10% aris skolebSi registrirebuli, maSin, roca

oficialuri statistikiT, qveyanaSi sabazo ganaTlebas

bavSvebis 95% da saSualo ganaTlebas _ bavSvebis

76% iRebs. biWebi 82%-iT ufro metad iricxebian

skolaSi, vidre gogonebi. magram skolaSi Caricxvis

miuxedavad, gakveTilze daswrebis maCvenebeli Zalze

dabalia.

2. oficialuri statistikis Tanaxmad, saqarTveloSi

skolas bavSvebis 0,3% tovebs. quCis bavSvebis 40%

(ZiriTadad ufrosebi da 2,2-jer meti biWebi, vidre

gogonebi) warsulSi dadiodnen skolaSi, magram miatoves,

xSirad sabazo ganaTlebis dasrulebamde.

saqarTvelos quCis bavSvebis 60%-s arasodes uvlia

skolaSi. statistikiT, gogonebi ufro metad rCebian

skolis miRma, vidre biWebi.

3. ganaTlebaze uaris Tqma an Sewyveta xSirad ukav-

Sirdeba ojaxis uunarobas, aanazRauros skolasTan

dakavSirebuli xarjebi (rogoricaa saskolo masalebi,

tansacmeli, sakvebi an araformaluri gadasaxadebi

skolaSi) da aseve alternatiuli Rirebulebis

problemas, rodesac bavSvis mier skolaSi gatarebuli

dro bavSvis mier sxva iseT aqtivobebSi monawileobis

dros akldeba, romlebic SeiZleba ojaxis gadarCenisaTvis

ufro prioritetuli iyos. ganaTlebis

dabali xarisxi, swavlis uunarobis SegrZneba da

warsulSi skolaSi cudad mopyrobis SemTxvevebi skolis

mitovebis aseve mTavar mizezebad saxeldeba.

sxva SesaZlo mizezebia: mSoblebis gardacvaleba an

aryofna da avadmyofoba ojaxSi. bavSvebma, romlebic

arasdros yofilan skolaSi, mizezad CaricxvisaTvis

savaldebulo sabuTebis mouwesrigebloba da

mSoblebis uari daasaxeles.

4. saqarTveloSi quCis bavSvebis daaxloebiT naxevari

wera-kiTxvis ucodinaria. maT Soris, wera-kiTxvis

yvelaze dabali doniT, sxva qveynebidan migrirebuli

quCis bavSvebi gamoirCevian. wera-kiTxvis codnis

done sagrZnoblad maRalia im bavSvebs Soris, romlebic

skolaSi dadian an adre dadiodnen, im bavSvebTan

SedarebiT, visac skolaSi arasdros uvlia.

5. skola quCis bavSvebisaTvis mniSvnelovani damcavi

faqtoria da quCaSi Rameebis gatarebis albaTobas

mniSvnelovnad amcirebs; aseve mniSvnelovnad zrdis

codnas socialuri momsaxurebis Sesaxeb da maT

gamoyenebas. skola bavSvebs mizanSewonili da mizanmimarTuli

samomavlo gegmebis ganxorcielebaSi exmareba.

magram amavdroulad, SesaZloa, skola bavSvis

Semdgomi izolaciis katalizatori gaxdes, roca warmoiqmneba

problemebi skolis xelmisawvdomobasTan,

adaptaciasa da skolis garemoSi socializaciasTan

dakavSirebiT, ramac bavSvs skolis datovebisa da

quCaSi cxovrebisaken SeiZleba ubiZgos.

Semosavlis gamomuSaveba

1. saqarTveloSi quCis bavSvebis umravlesoba iZulebulia

fulis gamomuSavebaze izrunos, rom sakuTari

Tavi da/an ojaxi arCinos. bavSvebis didi nawili, Semosavlis

miRebis erT an or strategias mimarTavs:

yvelaze gavrcelebulia maTxovroba, gansakuTrebiT

SedarebiT mcirewlovan bavSvebsa da gogonebs Soris,

da muSaoba (rogoricaa wvrilmanebiT vaWroba, saqonlis

gadatana, SuSis an jarTis Segroveba, manqanebis

recxva da sxva). maTxovar bavSvebs xSirad viRac axlavs,

momuSave bavSvebi ki martoni arian xolme. SeiniSneba

nagavSi sagnebis moZiebisa da qurdobis SemTx-

24 ❘ nu miwodebT quCis bavSvs


vevebic. komerciuli seqsis SemTxvevebi, saqarTvelos

quCis bavSvebis mier iSviaTad iyo naxsenebi.

2. bavSvis Cabma Semosavlis mimReb saqmianobaSi, Ziri-

Tadad ojaxis materialuri siduxWiriT aris nakarnaxevi,

gansakuTrebiT ufro mcire asakis bavSvebs Soris,

romlebic Rameebs quCaSi ar atareben. Semosavlis

momtani saqmianoba xSirad emateba (an Caanacvlebs)

ojaxis Semosavals, an saSualebas aZlevs bavSvs, Tavad

mixedos sakuTar Tavs da Sesabamisad, Seamciros

ojaxis xarjebi. zogjer bavSvebi quCis ekonomikur

saqmianobaSi dedebTan an naTesavebTan erTad erTvebian.

mozardi dedebi quCaSi Semosavlis momtan saqmianobaSi

Tavis bavSvebTan erTad arian CarTuli.

3. zogi quCis bavSvi _ gansakuTrebiT mozrdilebi,

romlebic ojaxebis gareSe cxovroben, ar hyavT mzrunveli

an 24 saaTi quCaSi cxovroben, aseve CarTulia

maTxovrobasa an quCis SromaSi, rom sakuTari Tavi

arCinos, vinaidan misi saWiroebebis dakmayofilebaze

aravin zrunavs. es bavSvebi Semosavlis gamomuSavebis

ufro met strategias iyeneben, vidre is bavSvebi,

romlebic ojaxebTan erTad cxovroben da miRebul

Semosavals mxolod sakuTar Tavs axarjaven.

4. yoveli oTxidan erTi quCis bavSvi (gansakuTrebiT,

10 wlis an ufro patarebi da isini, vinc maTxovrobs)

aRniSnavs, rom maT mier gamomuSavebul fuls Ziri-

Tadad sxvebi _ mSoblebi arTmeven. es xSirad ojaxSi

alkoholis moxmarebas da saxlSi fulis armitanis

gamo fizikuri angariSsworebis SiSs ukavSirdeba.

zogi quCis bavSvi azartul TamaSebSi agebs fuls

da iZulebuli xdeba, valis dasafarad fuli iSovos

(xSirad moiparos).

5. maTxovroba, xSir SemTxvevebSi, bavSvisaTvis skolaSi

siarulis SesaZleblobas gamoricxavs. muSaobis

SemTxvevaSi es naklebad xdeba. momuSave bavSvebis 20%

cdilobs skola ekonomikur saqmianobasTan SeaTavsos.

bavSvebs, romlebic Semosavlis momtan saqmianobaSi

CarTuli ar arian, skolaSi Caricxvis yvelaze

maRali (52%) maCvenebeli aqvT.

saqarTveloSi urbanuli quCis bavSvebis raodenoba da maxasiaTeblebi ❘ 25


6. maTxovrobiT dakavebuli bavSvebi ufro metad avlenen

fizikuri travmis niSnebs, vidre maTi momuSave

Tanatolebi an isini, vinc quCaSi Semosavlis gamomuSavebaSi

ar aris CarTuli.

socialuri momsaxureba

1. saqarTvelos QquCis bavSvebs Soris socialuri momsaxurebis

Sesaxeb informacia da maTi gamoyeneba mwiria

_ bavSvebis meoTxeds arasdros smenia an gamouyenebia

socialuri momsaxureba. es SeiZleba nawilobriv aixsnas

im faqtiT, rom socialuri momsaxurebebis raodenoba

da dafarva saWiroebebsa da moTxovnas aranairad

ar Seesabameba.

2. saqarTveloSi quCis bavSvebi socialur momsaxurebebis

gamoyenebas, didi xnis ganmavlobaSi krizisul

mdgomareobaSi yofnis Semdeg iwyeben. prevencias da

adreul intervencias cota yuradReba eTmoba. socialuri

momsaxureba reaqtiuli xasiaTisaa _ bavSvi,

vinc mzrunvelis an sxva damcavi elementebis naklebobas

ganicdis, Tavad eZebs momsaxurebas da ara

piriqiT.

3. saSualod, quCis bavSvebi socialuri momsaxurebis

gamoyenebis SemTxvevebs iSviaTad axseneben. bavSvebi,

visac raime daxmareba miuRia, asaxelebs momsaxureobas,

romelic moklevadian gadarCenazea mimarTuli

bavSvebis erT mesameds gamouyenebia TavSesafari/

bavSvTa saxli an sasadiloebi. sxva momsaxureobebi

moicavs dRis centrebs da mobilur jgufebs (CamoTvlilia

sixSiris mixedviT, Tumca sixSireebi gansxvavdeba

qalaqebis mixedviT).

4. quCis bavSvebis mier gamoyenebuli momsaxureba

maTi cxovrebiseuli mdgomareobis Secvlaze (magaliTad,

rogoricaa skolaSi siaruli, ojaxis gaWirveba

an wera-kiTxvis done) mcire efeqts axdens. am aSkarad

araadekvaturi da arasakmarisi mxardaWeris mizezi is

aris, rom saqarTveloSi quCis bavSvebis momsaxureba

bavSvTa jgufebis xiluli problemebis mogvarebaze

da ara ojaxuri krizisis gamomwvev mizezebzea mimarTuli.

kvleva mxolod quCis bavSvebs moicavda da

ara imaT, vinc aRniSnuli momsaxureobiT sargeblobs.

Sesabamisad, arsebuli mcire mxardaWeris programebis

efeqturobis gansja SeuZlebelia.

5. quCis bavSvebis Sesaxeb arsebuli stereotipebi da

crurwmenebi socialuri momsaxurebis dafarvazec

vrceldeba. Zalian cota maTxovari da migranti bavSvi

iRebs daxmarebas. maTxovari bavSvebis socialur

momsaxurebaSi dabali CarTulobis donis kidev erTi

axsna alternatiuli Rirebulebaa: quCaSi Semosavlis

mimRebi bavSvebi, fulis gamomuSavebisaTvis gamoyofil

dros, socialur samsaxurSi yofniT miRebul

grZelvadian, bundovan perspeqtivas iSviaTad amjobineben.

6. saqarTveloSi, quCis bavSebisaTvis, socialuri

momsaxureba koordinirebulad an strategiulad

ar igegmeba da xSirad zogadi socialuri dacvis

sistemis nawilad ar aRiqmeba. Sedegad, momsaxureba

bavSvebs qaotur da fragmentul daxmarebas sTavazobs,

romelic problemas zedapirulad xsnis da

bavSvebisa da maTi ojaxebis problemis grZelvadian

gadaWras ar warmoadgens.

26 ❘ nu miwodebT quCis bavSvs


saqarTveloSi quCis

bavSvebis demografia

bavSvebis profili sqesisa da asakis mixedviT

kvlevis samive fazis ganmavlobaSi Segrovebuli monacemebis

Tanaxmad, saqarTveloSi quCis bavSvebs Soris

gogonebs biWebi sWarboben. 7 wertilovani Sefasebis

mixedviT, biWebis proporcia 63%-ia, xolo 8-dan

18 wlamde asakis bavSvebis interviuirebis dros, Ser-

Ceul bavSvTa 65% biWi iyo. 8 sxva qveynebis kvlevebis

Sedegebi quCis bavSvebs Soris msgavs genderul gadanawilebas

aCvenebs. 9

rogorc aptekarma 10 aRniSna, amis erT-erTi mizezi

SeiZleba iyos is, rom gogonebisgan saojaxo saqmeebSi

met daxmarebas elodebian, vidre biWebisagan, gansakuTrebiT

im ojaxebSi, romelTac qalebi xelmZRvaneloben.

saqarTvelos quCis bavSvebs Soris aseTi

sxvaoba sqesis mixedviT biWebisa da gogonebis aRzrdisadmi

gansxvavebuli kulturuli midgomiT Sei-

Zleba aixsnas. saqarTveloSi gogonebi tradiciulad

ufro CarTulebi arian saojaxo saqmeebSi da maT mier

quCaSi marto drois didi nawilis gatareba sazogadoebaSi

miRebuli ar aris. aseve, kvlevis Sedegebi

aCvenebs, rom mSoblis gardacvalebis an aryofnis

SemTxvevaSi, naTesavebi gogonebze ufro zrunaven,

vidre biWebze. quCaSi yofnis drosac ki maT ufro

meTvalyureoben, vidre biWebs. biWebisaTvis `quCis

ganaTleba~ da `quCis gamocdileba~ aRzrdis xSirad

mniSvnelovan, kulturulad miRebul elementebad

aRiqmeba. es rwmena qarTul slengSic aisaxeba, sadac

termini `ubnis biWi~, `kai da magar tips~ niSnavs da

mamrobiT Tvisebebs pozitiurad warmoaCens.

zogi avtori miiCnevs, rom quCis gogonebi ojaxSi

Zaladobis msxverpli ufro xSirad arian da biWebTan

SedarebiT fsiqologiur travmas ufro metad avlenen.

11 biWebTan SedarebiT isini naklebad SeimCnevian

quCaSi, magram igive ojaxuri stresorebis winaSe dganan,

rac bavSvebs quCisken ubiZgebs. Tu SemCnevadoba

resursebis ganawilebasTan asocirdeba, gogonebma,

romlebic quCaSi naklebad SeiniSnebian, biWebTan SedarebiT,

SeiZleba naklebi damxmareba miiRon.

gogo

biWi

8-10 wlis 11-14 wlis 15-18 wlis

100%

80%

60%

40%

20%

0%

39.8%

60.2%

Tbilisi

(n=181)

15.6%

84.4%

rusTavi

(n=32)

39.7%

60.3%

quTaisi

(n=58)

20.0%

80.0%

baTumi

(n=30)

35.2%

64.8%

sul

(n=301)

50%

40%

30%

20%

10%

0%

42.0%

35.9%

22.1%

Tbilisi

(n=181)

37.5%

40.6%

21.9%

rusTavi

(n=32)

37.9% 37.9%

quTaisi

(n=58)

24.1%

20.0%

46.7%

baTumi

(n=30)

33.3%

38.5% 37.9%

23.6%

sul

(n=301)

grafiki #1. intervius respondenti quCis bavSvebis ganawileba sqesis, asakisa da qalaqebis mixedviT

7. saqarTvelos mosaxleobaSi sqesis mixedviT, 0-dan 19 wlamde, 48% biWia da 52% gogo. wyaro: statistikis departamenti (2006 wlis

monacemebi).

8. wertilovani Sefasebis dros, bavSvebis 8%- is – mcirewlovnebisa da Cvilebis _ sqesis dadgena dakvirvebiT SeuZlebeli iyo. interviuebis

Sedegad miRebuli monacemebi ufro zustia Sesabamis asakobriv kategoriaSi.

9. magaliTisTvis ixileT: Malcolm, J. (2001), A Study on Street Children in Zimbabwe; Project Concern International Zambia (2002), Rapid Assessment of Street

Children in Lusaka

10. Aptekar, Lewis (2001), Street Children in the Developing World: A Review of Their Condition; San Jose State University Press

11. magaliTisTvis ixileT: Aptekar, Lewis (2000), A Global View of Street Children in the Year 2000, San Jose State University Press

saqarTveloSi urbanuli quCis bavSvebis raodenoba da maxasiaTeblebi ❘ 27


wertilovani Sefasebis meTodi aCvenebs, rom saqarTveloSi

quCis bavSvebis 66% 5-dan 14 wlamde asakisaa. 12

darCenili procentuli raodenoba mcirewlovnebs

da Cvil bavSvebs (0-dan 4 wlamde asakis _ daaxloebiT

15%) da mozrdilebs (15-dan 18 wlamde _ 20%)

Soris nawildeba. intervius fazaSi, romlis dros

8-dan 18 wlamde asakis bavSvebi gamoikiTxa, bavSvebis

umravlesoba (80%) sabaziso skolis asakis (8-dan 14

wlamde) iyo. quCaSi mcirewlovani da Cvili bavSvebis

arsebobas gansxvavebuli konteqstidan unda SevxedoT,

imitom rom maT dedebis mier arCeul arsebobis

strategiaze gavlenis moxdena ar SeuZliaT da arc

sakuTari arsebobis strategiis gamomuSavebis unari

aqvT. Sedegad, aqcenti `bavSvebian quCis dedebze~ da

ara bavSvebze unda gakeTdes. calkeuli magaliTebi

gviCvenebs, rom saqarTveloSi ukve quCis bavSvebis meore

Taobas vxedavT _ am axalgazrda dedebis nawils

quCaSi cxovreba Tavad aqvs gamocdili.

quCis gogonebis ricxvi asakis klebasTan erTad matulobs.

isev da isev, es saqarTveloSi bavSvis aRzrdis

tradiciiTa da genderuli rolebis aRqmiT SeiZleba

aixsnas. gogonebis zrdasTan erTad, saxlSi gazrdil

pasuxismgeblobas da quCaSi yofnis realur, an aRqmul

moralur safrTxeebs, SeuZlia gogonebi quCas

aacilos. qarTveli kacis tradiciuli cneba, romlis

Tanaxmad man sakuTari Tavi da/an ojaxi unda arCinos,

mozrdil biWebs ufro metad aiZulebs, arsebobis

strategiebi saxls miRma eZebon.

gogo

biWi

90%

80%

70%

60%

50%

40%

30%

20%

10%

0%

8 wlis

(n=26)

9 wlis

(n=30)

10 wlis

(n=60)

11 wlis

(n=16)

12 wlis

(n=35)

13 wlis

(n=25)

14 wlis

(n=38)

15 wlis

(n=25)

16 wlis

(n=14)

17 wlis

(n=19)

18 wlis

(n=13)

grafiki 2 – quCis bavSvebis proporcia asakisa da sqesis mixedviT

saqarTveloSi quCis bavSvebis sqesobrivi da asakobrivi

ganawileba dRis drois ganmavlobaSi icvleba.

wertilovani Sefasebis dReebSi, gogonebisa da biWebis

raodenobas Soris Sefardeba 1:2-ze odnav naklebi

iyo. magram Ramis saaTebSi es proporcia 1:3.5-mde izrdeboda.

miuxedavad imisa, rom wertilovani Sefasebis

dros quCis bavSvebis 66%-is asaki 5-dan 14 wlamde

meryeobda, Ramis saaTebSi bavSvebis 70% 11-dan 18

wlamde asakis bavSvebi iyvnen.

12. saqarTveloSi, 0-dan 19 wlamde asakis bavSvebs Soris, 5-dan

14 wlamde asakis bavSvebi 47% Seadgenen. (wyaro: statistikis

departamenti, 2006 wlis monacemebi).

quCis bavSvebis warmoSobis adgili

gavrcelebuli Sexedulebis sawinaaRmdegod, TiTqosD

saqarTveloSi quCis bavSvebis umravlesoba

did qalaqebSi regionebidan Camodis, kvlevis Sedegad

dadginda, rom quCis bavSvebi umetesad adgilobrivebi

arian. anu bavSvebis 65%-ze meti ambobs, rom

isini imave qalaqSi daibadnen. kvlevis miznebidan

gamomdinare, migracia ganisazRvra, rogorc SemTxveva,

rodesac `bavSvi amJamindel qalaqSi gadmosvlamde

sxva adgilas cxovrobda~, miuxedavad imisa,

bavSvi imave qalaqSi daibada Tu ara. am kriteriumis

Tanaxmad, migraciis mixedviT sami ZiriTadi jgufis

gamoyofaa SesaZlebeli: 1) aramigranti bavSvebi

(isini, visac mTeli cxovreba imave qalaqSi aqvs gatarebuli

_ 74%); 2) bavSvebi-migrantebi, Camosulebi

saqarTvelos sxva regionebidan – daaxloebiT 19%;

da 3) bavSvebi-migrantebi, Camosuli sxva qveynebidan

(azerbaijani, ruseTi, moldova da ukraina, sixSiris

mixedviT) – 7%.

28 ❘ nu miwodebT quCis bavSvs


adgilobrivi da migranti

migranti quCis bavSvebis warmoSoba

adgilobrivi migranti

sxva qveynebi sxva regionebi

120%

120%

100%

80%

60%

40%

20%

0%

23.2%

0.768

Tbilisi

(n=175)

53.1%

0.469

rusTavi

(n=32)

25.9% 26.7% 27.2%

0.741 0.733 0.728

quTaisi

(n=58)

baTumi

(n=30)

sul

(n=295)

100%

80%

60%

40%

20%

0%

63.4%

36.6%

Tbilisi

(n=36)

91.7%

8.3%

rusTavi

(n=17)

43.8%

56.2%

quTaisi

(n=15)

100.0%

baTumi

(n=8)

68.0%

32.0%

sul

(n=76)

*6 –ma bavSvma kiTxvas ar upasuxa

grafiki # 3 – quCis bavSvebis proporcia migrantis statusisa da migranti quCis bavSvebis warmoSobis mixedviT

ukraina

moldaveTi

ruseTi

soxumi

muxrani

zugdidi

axaldaba

foTi

quTaisi

tyibuli

mcxeTa

samtredia

lagodexi

ozurgeTi

qobuleTi

Tbilisi

gurjaani

kaxeTi

baTumi

saqarTvelo

veli

mandaeTi

rusTavi

WiaTura

axmeta

zestafoni

gardabani

samgori

azerbaijani

suraTi #2 – quCis bavSvebis migracia. wiTeli xazebi miuTiTebs migraciis mimarTulebaze

saqarTvelos farglebs garedan, xolo nacrisferi xazebi- saqarTvelos SigniT. xazebis

sisqe migranti bavSvebis raodenobis proporciulia.

aramigranti bavSvebi ufro metad arian midrekili 24

saaTi quCaSi cxovrebisaken, vidre migranti bavSvebi.

isini aseve dRis ganmavlobaSi ufro met dros atareben

quCaSi. magram aramigranti bavSvebi zafxulSi,

quCaSi Rameebs naklebad atareben, migrant bavSvebTan

SedarebiT. es Sedegi adasturebs gavrcelebul

mosazrebas, rom saqarTveloSi quCaSi cxovrebis modeli

weliwadis droebis mixedviT gansxvavdeba da, rom

sxva regionebidan da qveynebidan Camosuli migranti

bavSvebis gazrdili aqtivoba zafxulis Tveebis ganmavlobaSi

SeiniSneba. qvemoT mocemuli cxrili asaxavs

am tendencias.

saqarTveloSi urbanuli quCis bavSvebis raodenoba da maxasiaTeblebi ❘ 29


quCis bavSvebis ara-migrantebi migrantebi migrantebi sruli SerCeva

jgufebi saqarTvelodan ucxoeTidan

quCaSi mcxovrebi bavSvebi 6.40% 5.50% 4.80% 6.30%

(n=18)

quCaSi da ojaxSi mcxovrebi 16.90% 21.80% 23.80% 18.60%

bavSvebi

(n=54)

quCaSi aqtiuri bavSvebi 76.70% 72.70% 71.40% 75.10%

(n=223)

sul 100% 100% 100% 100%

(n=219) (n=55) (n=21) (n=295)

cxrili #7 – migraciis statusi quCis bavSvebis jgufebis mixedviT

miuxedavad imisa, rom aramigranti bavSvebis umravlesobas

erTi an orive mSobeli hyavs, oblobis (orive

mSoblis gardacvalebis) albaToba ara-migrant bavSvebs

Soris ufro maRalia migrant quCis bavSvebTan

SedarebiT. ara-migranti bavSvebi aseve mSoblis gardacvalebas

an aryofnasMmTavar problemad ufro xSirad

asaxeleben, vidre maTi migranti Tanatolebi. ufro

metic, samive jgufidan ara-migranti bavSvebi ojaxuri

problemebis yvelaze ufro rTul formebs asaxeleben

da naklebad cxovroben ojaxebTan, miuxedavad

imisa, hyavT Tu ara ojaxi. da bolos, interviuerebma

xiluli travmebis, gansakuTrebuli saWiroebebis da

toqsikuri nivTierebebis gamoyenebis ufro maRali

done, migrant bavSvebTan SedarebiT, ara-migrant bavSvebSi

daafiqsires, rac, savaraudod, quCaSi drois

ufro didi nawilis gatarebiTa da ojaxTan iSviaTi

kavSirebiT aixsneba.

regionebidan Camosuli quCis bavSvebi oblebi naklebad

arian. magram aramigrant bavSvebTan SedarebiT,

maTi mSoblebi ufro xSirad cxovroben sxva qalaqeb-

Si. sainteresoa, rom es bavSvebi mSoblis ararsebobas

mTavar problemad ar asaxeleben. regionebidan Camosul

migrant bavSvebs, aramigrant da sxva qveynebidan

Camosul bavSvebTan SedarebiT, cxovrebaSi hqoniaT

periodi, rodesac isini erTi Tvisa da meti xnis ganmavlobaSi

ar dakavSirebian dedas da gacilebiT ufro iSviaTi

kavSiri aqvT mamebTan. es SeiZleba mianiSnebdes

imas, rom es bavSvebi regionebidan mSoblebis gareSe

Camodian, magram aseTi SemTxvevebi iSviaTia da zafxulis

gazrdil aqtivobebs ukavSirdeba.

aRniSnul kvlevaSi gamoikveTa qveynis Sida migraciis

ori tipi - migracia patara qalaqebidan da soflebidan

urbanul centrebSi an didi qalaqebidan _ dedaqalaq-

Si (ukeTesi SesaZleblobebis ZiebaSi) da Tbilisidan

ufro mcire urbanul centrebSi gadasvla. calkeuli

magaliTebi cxadyofs, rom es ukanaskneli xSirad aixsneba

ojaxis uunarobiT, gauZlos cxovrebis maRal

gadasaxadebsa da samuSao konkurencias dedaqalaqSi.

bavSvTa programebis gamocdileba da quTaissa da ba-

TumSi `vorld viJen interneiSenalis~ mier paralelurad

Catarebuli kvleva, aseve konfliqtis regionebidan,

1990-ianebis dasawyisSi, ojaxebis iZulebiT

gadaadgilebas asaxavs.

sxva qveynebSi Catarebuli kvlevebi urbanul centrebSi

ojaxebis daugegmav gadasvlas bavSvebis quCaSi

gasvlis erT-erT arapirdapir mizezad asaxelebs. 13

saqarTveloSi Sida migraciis ZiriTadi mizezebi

ekonomikuria, magram es kvleva aCvenebs, rom sxvagan

gadasvlis gadawyvetileba bavSvis momavlis an socialuri

kavSirebis gawyvetis xarjze ar aris miRebuli.

qveynis SigniT migranti bavSvebi orjer ufro

metad iricxebian skolaSi, vidre MmTeli SerCevis bavSvebi.

am bavSvebis daaxloebiT 60%-ma wera-kiTxva icis.

igive maCvenebeli mTeli SerCevisaTvis 50%-ia. qveynis

SigniT migrirebuli bavSvebi mSoblebis dakargvas

an aryofnas MmTavar problemad naklebad aRiqvamen

da ara-migrant bavSvebTan SedarebiT, ufro xSirad

ekonomikur mizezebs asaxeleben. saqarTvelos regionebidan

Camosuli bavSvebis TiTqmis naxevari ambobs,

rom socialuri momsaxureba gamouyenebiaT - rac yvelaze

maRal maCvenebels warmoadgens migrantebis sam

jgufs Soris. ara-migrant da sazRvargareTidan migrirebul

bavSvebTan SedarebiT, Sida-migranti bavSvebi

maTxovrobiT naklebad arian dakavebuli da ufro

metad muSaoben an saerTod ar gamoimuSaveben fuls, ar

sWirdebaT fuli. maT aseve ufro metad aqvT survili

da miswrafeba konkretuli samsaxuris Sovnisa, vidre

bavSvebs sxva kategoriebidan.

kvlevis monacemTa analizis procesSi monawile qarTvelma

eqspertebma saqarTveloSi migraciis warmmarTveli

araformaluri socialuri qselis mniSvneloba

msgavsi mdgradobis mizezad daasaxeles. isini aseve

amtkicebdnen, rom sacxovreblad sxva adgilas gadasvlis

gadawyvetileba cxovrebisadmi proaqtiul

damokidebulebaze miuTiTebs, maSin, roca isini, vinc

cxovrebiseuli mdgomareobis Secvlas ar Cqarobs,

ufro metad pasiurad egueba sakuTari da bavSvebis

siZneleebs.

13. magaliTisTvis ixileT: UN ODCCP, UNICEF and WFP (June 2001);

Rapid Situation Assessment on the Situation of Street Children in Cairo and

Alexandria

30 ❘ nu miwodebT quCis bavSvs


SemTxveva #1: ana 7 bavSvisgan Semdgari ojaxis mTavari mzrunvelia. ana mTeli cxovreba TbilisSi cxovrobda da iqve daojaxda.

pirveli bavSvi adreul asakSi gaaCina, Sesabamisad, arasdros umuSavia. imave dros, misma qmarma, daviTma (somxuri

warmoSobis), samsaxuri dakarga. man dedaqalaqSi samsaxuris Sovna ver SeZlo da aseve ver SeZlo ojaxis rCena.

mzardi ekonomikuri siZneleebis pirobebSi, anam da daviTma bavSvebisa da sakuTari TavisaTvis ukeTesi momavlis uzrunvelyofisaTvis

SesaZlo strategiebi ganixiles. Tavdapirvelad, maT TbilisSi samoTaxiani binis gayidva gadawyvites. fuli

TbilisSi sxva sacxovreblis SesaZenada da ojaxis sarCenad sakmarisi ar iyo. magram maT Zalian iafi bina ipoves rusTavSi,

romelic TbilisTan siaxlovis gamoc iyo mimzidveli. meorec, daviTma gadawyvita, droebiTi samsaxuri somxeTSi epova,

sadac am mxriv mdgomareoba ukeTesi Canda.

anasa da misi bavSvebisaTvis sxvagan gadasvlis periodi, romelsac daviTis wasvlac erTvoda Tan, Sesagueblad rTuli

aRmoCnda. Tavdapirvelad daviTis mier sazRvargareTidan gamogzavnili daxmareba mwiri iyo da martoxela anas gauWirda

bavSvebis mixedva. bavSvebs axal skolasTan SeTavseba uWirdaT, axali socialuri qselidan gariyulad grZnobdnen Tavs,

Zvel megobrebTan kontaqti ki aRar hqondaT.

daviTis sazRvargareT gamgzavrebis pirvel etapze misi finansuri mdgomareoba sakmaod rTuli iyo da mis mier ojaxisaTvis

gamogzavnili daxamreba – mwiri, Tumca, mSoblebs ar surdaT, bavSvebs, mdgomareobis sirTulis gamo, rame dahklebodaT.

roca bavSvebma skolis gacdena daiwyes, anam rusTavSi arsebuli socialuri momsaxurebiT isargebla. am momsaxurebis

daxmarebiT, bavSvebi skolaSi dabrundnen da anam ipova mxardaWera, romelic mis ojaxs krizisul periods gadaataninebda.

saqarTveloSi urbanuli quCis bavSvebis raodenoba da maxasiaTeblebi ❘ 31


sxva qveynebidan migrirebuli yvela bavSvis Tanaxmad,

maT orive mSobeli cocxali hyavT. aseve, maTi umravlesoba

ambobs, rom mSoblebic imave qalaqSi cxovroben.

ufro metic - maTma umravlesobam ganacxada,

rom isini erT an orive mSobelTan erTad cxovroben.

es Sedegi adasturebs gavrcelebul mosazrebas, rom

saqarTveloSi Camosuli quCis bavSvebi, saerTaSoriso

sazRvrebs marto ar kveTen. isini ojaxis wevrebTan er-

Tad gadaadgildebian.

sxva qveynebidan Camosuli bavSvebi, mTlian SerCevasTan

SedarebiT, ufro mcire asakisani arian, 11-dan 14 wlis

(orjer ufro meti, vidre ara-migranti da sxva regionebidan

Camosuli bavSvebi). ufros asakobriv kategoriaSi

aseTi bavSvebi Zalian cotaa. migraciis mixedviT

gamoyofil samive jgufs Soris isini yvelaze gaWirvebulebi

arian; sxvebTan SedarebiT, dRis ganmavlobaSi

ufro met dros atareben quCaSi. maTgan 5%-ze naklebi

iricxeba skolaSi da maT ganaTlebis miRebis naklebi

interesi aqvT. bavSvebis umravlesoba (ufro maRali

procenti, vidre mTlian SerCevaSi) wera-kiTxvis ucodinaria.

migraciis sami jgufidan, sazRvargareTidan

Camosuli bavSvebi ufro xSirad Civian ojaxSi janmrTelobis

problemebis Sesaxeb an aqvT gansakuTrebuli

saWiroebebi. maT aseve, ufro xSirad surT ukeTesi

saxli an ojaxuri mdgomareoba da yvelaze naklebad

usargebliaT socialuri momsaxurebebiT. am bavSvebis

umravlesoba Semosavlis momtan saqmianobaSia CarTuli

da maTi 67% - yvelaze maRali maCvenebeli samive

jgufidan – fuls maTxovrobiT Soulobs. es bavSvebi

ojaxebis ekonomikurad motivirebuli gadaadgilebis

nawilia. maTTvis maTxovroba ojaxis arsebobis Senar-

Cunebis strategiad aRiqmeba. calkeuli magaliTebi

aCvenebs, rom saqarTvelo, qarTvelebis qvelmoqmedebisa

da sikeTis Sesaxeb gavrcelebuli Sexedulebis

gamo, didi xania maTxovrebisaTvis karg daniSnulebis

adgilad iTvleba.

sazRvargareTidan Camosuli quCis bavSvebis didi

nawili (50%) azerbaijanidanaa. saqarTveloSi gadmosaxlebulma

yvela azerbaijanelma bavSvma erTi da

igive sacxovrebeli pirobebi aRwera. maT 80%-s orive

mSobeli cocxali hyavs, xolo 20%-s - mxolod erTi;

orive mSobliT oblebi azerbaijanidan migrantTa

Soris ar arian. azerbaijaneli bavSvebis umravlesobis

minimum erTi, xolo 70%-is - orive mSobeli imave

qalaqSi cxovrobs. TiTqmis yvelas (90%) da-Zmac imave

qalaqSia.. bavSvebis mxolod 10%-s ar hyavs sxva naTesavebi

imave qalaqSi. arcerTi bavSvi ar iricxeba skolaSi.

isev da isev, bavSvebis umetesoba (90%) 24 saaTs

quCaSi atarebs (zamTar-zafxul, dRe da Rame). yvela

bavSvi maTxovrobaSia CarTuli da maT 90%-s arasdros

usargeblia socialuri momsaxurebiT.

es Sedegi zogadad adasturebs `gadavarCinoT bavSvebis~

gamocdilebas, romlis Tanaxmad, xSirad ojaxebi

saqarTveloSi sxva qyveynebidan bavSvebiTurT Camodian,

Semosavals maTxovrobiT Souloben da ZiriTadad

ar sargebloben maT sacxovrebel adgilas arsebuli

raime socialuri momsaxurebiT. imigranti quCis bavSvebis

amgvari socialuri izolaciis erT-erTi mizezi

isaa, rom maT xSirad `boSebad~ miiCneven – e saris

cneba, romelsac saqarTveloSi DuaryofiTi datvirTva

aqvs. Sedegad, socialuri daxmarebis jgufebi maT iSviaTad

mimarTaven, radgan gavrcelebulia mosazreba,

rom `boSebs amgvari cxovrebis wesi sisxlSi aqvT gamjdari

da amas veravin Secvlis~. rogorc doqtorma brian

milnem (2007 w.) aRniSna, es ara mxolod ekonomikuri,

aramedi kulturuli da struqturuli siRaribea,

romelic sxva eTnikuri warmomavlobis xalxebis aRqmaze

vrceldeba da SesaZloa gavlenas axdens xalxze,

romelmac icis sakuTari marginalizaciis Sesaxeb da

ar cdilobs SeuerTdes da ar endoba sazogadoebis

ZiriTad nakads. 14

sxva SesaZlo mizezi aris is, rom saqarTveloSi imigrant

quCis bavSvebs mudmivi sacxovrebeli adgili an

registracia ar aqvT, Sesabamisad, isini oficialurad

aralegaluri migrantebi arian da momsaxurebas da

daxmarebas ar eqvemdebarebian. arsebuli kanonmdeblobis

Tanaxmad, im qveynis moqalaqeebs, romlebTanac

saqarTvelos uvizo reJimi aqvs (magaliTad: azerbaijani),

saqarTveloSi registraciis gareSe SueZliaT 3

Tve dahyon. amis Semdeg, isini iusticiis saministro-

Si unda daregistrirdnen da sacxovrebeli adgili

miuTiTon, ris Semdegac erTi wliT cxovrebis uflebas

miiReben. Tu registracia ar moxda an gagrZelda

erTi wlis Semdeg, isini aralegalur imigrantebad

CaiTvlebian.

14. Milne, Brian (March 2007), Assessment of the Situation of Street Children in

Georgia; Research Design and Programme Planning; UNICEF Georgia

32 ❘ nu miwodebT quCis bavSvs


avSvebis quCis

gamocdileba drois

mixedviT

iseTi quCis bavSvi visac saxlTan kavSiri sruliad gawyvetili

aqvs Zalian cotaa. saSualod, bavSvebis umetesoba

Rameebs mSoblebTan/naTesavebTan atarebs da

ara sxva adgilebSi: 59% zafxulSi, 65% intervius wina

Rames da 72% zamTarSi. rogorc ukve aRiniSna, kvlevis

ramdenime Sedegi quCis aqtivobebis sezonurobaze

miuTiTebs: bavSvebi quCaSi marto ufro metad zafxulis

Rameebs atareben (24%) vidre zamTris Rameebs

(7%) 15 da zafxulis dasrulebis Semdeg xSirad saxleb-

Si brundebian.

wertilovani Sefasebis dReebis ganmavlobaSi, 0-dan

18 wlamde asakis bavSvebis 66% quCaSi marto SeiniSneboda.

isini, visac zrdasruli adamiani axlda, Ziri-

Tadad gogonebi, aseve 0-dan 4 wlamde asakis bavSvebi

iyvnen. Tanmxlebi zrdasrulis arseboba aseve bavSvis

aqtivobasTan iyo dakavSirebuli - momuSave bavSvebi

ufro metad iyvnen marto vidre isini vinc maTxovrobda

an sxva saqminoabiT iyo dakavebuli. interviuebidan

miRebuli monacemebis Tanaxmad, 8-dan 18 wlamde asakis

bavSvebis 80% quCaSi atarebs DdRes da es monacemi

weliwadis droebis mixedviT ar icvleba (miuxedavad

imisa, rom bavSvebis mcire raodenoba zafxulis ganmavlobaSi

quCaSi dRes marto atarebs).

saxlSi

marto quCaSi

procenti

100.0%

90.0%

80.0%

70.0%

60.0%

50.0%

40.0%

30.0%

20.0%

10.0%

0%

zafxulis

Rameebi

wina Ramis

umetesi

nawili

zamTris

Rameebi

zafxulis

dReebi

guSindeli

dRis umetesi

nawili

zamTris

dReebi

sezoni

grafiki #4 – saxlSi da quCaSi marto yofnis monacemebi

droisa (dRe/Rame) da weliwadis droebis mixedviT

15. interviuebi gvian noemberSi Catarda, ase rom dro SeiZleba

ganisazRvros, rogorc `zamTris Tveebi, roca civa~. magram intervius

wina Ramis quCaSi gatarebis Sesaxeb monacemebi gansxvavdeba

zamTris Rameebis quCaSi gatarebis monacemebisagan. es SeiZleba

miuTiTebdes imaze, rom zogi bavSvi zamTarSi quCaSi ufro met

dros atarebs, vidre amas aRiarebs.

saqarTveloSi urbanuli quCis bavSvebis raodenoba da maxasiaTeblebi ❘ 33


34 ❘ nu miwodebT quCis bavSvs


Tu gaviTvaliswinebT weliwadis dros, dRis monakveTs

(dRe/Rame) da adgilmdebareobas, saqarTveloSi quCis

bavSvebis sami ZiriTadi jgufis gamoyofa SeiZleba:

1) isini, vinc zamTris da zafxulis Rameebs quCaSi

atarebs (e.w. quCis bavSvebi – mTliani SerCevis 6%);

2) bavSvebi, romlebic zafxulis an zamTris Rameebs

quCaSi atareben, magram gansxvavebuli sacxovrebeli

pirobebi aqvT weliwadis droebis mixedviT (e.w. saxlsa

da quCaSi mcxovrebi bavSvebi - 19%) da 3) isini, vinc

quCaSi mxolod dRis saaTebs atarebs (e.w. quCaSi aqtiuri

bavSvebi -75%).

quCaSi mcxovrebi bavSvebi saqarTveloSi cotaa: aseTia

mTeli quCis bavSvebis mxolod 6% da ZiriTadad biWebi;

quCaSi 24 saaTi mcxovrebTagan gogonebi mxolod 5%-

ia. am bavSvebidan 60% Seadgens 11-dan 14 wlamde asakis

bavSvebsa (es maCvenebeli 20%-iT metia mTliani SerCevis

maCvenebelTan SedarebiT) da mozardebs. 8-dan 10

wlamde asakis bavSvebi am jgufis mxolod mcire nawils

Seadgenen.

quCaSi mcxovrebi bavSvebis erT-erTi yvelaze damaxasiaTebeli

Tviseba gardamavali mdgomareobaa, roca

ojaxuri urTierTobebis dasusteba minimalur socialur

mxardaWeraSi gadaizrdeba. quCaSi mcxovreb

bavSvebs im Tavis TanatolebTan SedarebiT romlebic

quCaSi mxolod dRis garkveul nawils atareben ufro

xSirad ar hyavT mSoblebi – mxolod 25% hyavs orive

mSobeli cocxali. maTi kontaqti ojaxTan - Tu aseTi

hyavT - gacilebiT sustia sxvebTan SedarebiT. maTi umravlesoba

(80%) acxadebs, rom imave qalaqSi sxva naTesavi

ar hyavs da rom maTze aravin zrunavs.

quCaSi mcxovrebi bavSvebi ufro nakleb ojaxur problemas

asaxeleben vidre isini vinc quCaSi 24 saaTi ar

cxovrobs. maT mier CamoTvlili problemebi ZiriTadad

sami Temis irgvlivaa Tavmoyrili: erTi an orive

mSoblis dakargva an aryofna, siRaribe, usaxlkaroba

da ojaxSi janmrTelobis problemebi. isini skolaSi ar

iricxebian da maTi naxevari wera-kiTxvis ucodinaria.

samive jgufs Soris isini skolis mitovebis yvelaze

maRali maCvenebliT gamoirCevian. quCaSi gatarebuli

drois da zrdasruli mzrunvelis ararsebobis gamo

quCaSi mcxovreb bavSvebs ufro xSirad aReniSnebaT

xiluli nakli an fizikuri travmebi da ufro xSirad

moixmaren sxvadasxva nivTierebebs. isini aseve ufro

moxerxebulebi arian, Semosavlis gamomuSavebis ufro

met strategias iyeneben (maTxovrobisa da qurdobis

maRali maCveneblebi) da ufro met socialur momsaxurebas

mimarTaven vidre maTi quCaSi armcxovrebi

Tanatolebi. es ojaxis zrunvis ararsebobis SemTxvevaSi

alternatiuli dacvis sistemebis moZebnis

saWiroebiT aixsneba.

quCasa da saxlSi mcxovreb bavSvebs SeiZleba `zafxulis

quCis bavSvebi~ ewodoT, vinaidan maTi umravlesoba

quCaSi mxolod zafxulis Rameebs atarebs. maT

umetesobas quCaSi yofnis dros erTi Tvis an meti xnis

ganmavlobaSi ojaxTan kavSiri ara aqvs. rogorc quCis

bavSvebisaTvis momsaxurebis mimwodeblebma aRniSnes,

zogierT SemTxvevaSi, mSoblebi sazafxulo, sameurneo

samuSaoebisaTvis soflebSi midian da bavSvebi ki

qalaqSi darCenas amjobineben. Tumca, gamokiTxvis wina

Tves (Sua oqtombridan Sua noembramde) quCasa da saxlSi

mcxovrebi bavSvebis naxevarze metma aRniSna, rom

isini ojaxebTan ar cxovroben da maTze aravin zrunavs.

marTalia, am bavSvebis nawili Rameebs TavSesafrebSi,

bavSvTa saxlebSi, megobrebis saxlebSi an iafad daqiraebul

oTaxebSi aTenebs, maRali procenti SeiZleba

imis mimaniSnebeli iyos, rom sinamdvileSi, es bavSvebi

quCaSi ufro met xans cxovroben vidre amas amboben.

quCasa da saxlSi mcxovrebi bavSvebi quCaSi aqtiur da

quCaSi mcxovreb bavSvebs Soris gardamaval formad

SeiZleba CaiTvalos. isini quCaSi mcxovreb bavSvebTan

SedarebiT ufro mravalmxrivi ojaxuri problemebis

winaSe dganan. maT mier dasaxelebul mizezebs Soris

Warbobda: siRaribe, mSoblebis umuSevroba da

usaxlkaroba. maT mier dasaxelebuli sxva mizezebi

(sixSiris mixedviT) moicavs: erTi an orive mSoblis

dakargva an ararseboba (maTi meoTxedi dediTac da

mamiTac obolia); alkoholizmi, ojaxuri Zaladoba

da mSoblebis ganqorwineba an meored qorwineba. quCasa

da saxlSi mcxovrebi bavSvebis nawili skolisa da

quCaSi cxovrebis SeTavsebas cdilobs, Tumca skolaSi

CaricxulTa maCvenebeli saxlSi Rameebis gamtarebeli

bavSvebis analogiur maCvenebelTan SedarebiT dabalia.

naxevarma skola miatova. maTi umravlesoba acxadebs,

rom isini fulis saSovnelad raRacas akeTeben da

mere fuls ZiriTadad sakuTar saWiroebebze xarjaven.

quCaSi mcxovrebi bavSvebisagan gansxvavebiT maTi 20%

ambobs, rom fulis nawils ojaxs axmars da 12%-is

SemTxvevaSi bavSvebs mSoblebi fuls ZaliT arTmeven.

quCaSi aqtiuri quCis bavSvebi quCaSi mxolod dRis

saaTebs atareben. quCaSi aqtiuri bavSvis mTavari

damaxasiaTebeli Tviseba ojaxuri urTierTobebis

SenarCunebaa da bavSvebi Tavs im ojaxis nawilad Tvlian,

romelsac problemebi aqvs da xSirad grZnoben

pasuxismgeblobas ojaxis interesebis Sesabamisad imoqmedon.

quCaSi aqtiuri bavSvebis umravlesoba orive

mSobelTan an martoxela dedasTan erTad cxovrobs.

samive jgufs Soris, quCaSi aqtiuri bavSvebi ojaxTan

kontaqts didi drois ganmavlobaSi yvelaze naklebad

kargaven da maTi umravlesoba mSobels an naTesavs mTavar

mzrunvelad gansazRvravs. amavdroulad, bavSvebis

samive jgufs Soris isini yvelaze mravalferovani

sirTuleebis winaSe dganan. quCaSi aqtiuri bavSvebis

mxolod 10% aris orive mSobliT oboli. ekonomikuri

siZneleebi yvelaze gavrcelebuli problemaa,

maSin roca, mSoblis gardacvaleba an ararseboba sxva

jgufebTan SedarebiT naklebad saxeldeba (Tumca kvlav

meore adgils inarCunebs problemebis siaSi). sxva

problemebi moicavs: mSoblebis ganqorwinebas an meo-

saqarTveloSi urbanuli quCis bavSvebis raodenoba da maxasiaTeblebi ❘ 35


ed qorwinebas, alkoholizmsa da ojaxur Zaladobas.

quCaSi aqtiuri bavSvebis sagrZnobma nawilma (15%)

ganacxada, rom maT ojaxs problemebi ar aqvs. es bavSvebi

sxvebTan SedarebiT ufro metad iricxebian skolaSi

- Tumca, maCvenebeli mainc dabalia, 16% _ magram

maT Soris yvelaze maRalia maCvenebeli im bavSvebisa

vinc skolaSi saerTod ar yofila. quCaSi aqtiuri bavSvebi

quCaSi gamomuSavebul fuls sakuTar saWiroebebze

yvelaze naklebad xarjaven. maTi TiTqmis 40%

acxadebs, rom fuls ojaxs axmars. amasTanave, quCaSi

aqtiur bavSvebSi yvelaze maRalia naSovni fulis ZaliT

warTmevis maCvenebeli. fuls ZiriTadad mSoblebi

arTmeven.

quCis gamocdilebis xangrZlivoba. saSualod, gamokiTxulTa

40%-s quCaSi erT wlamde dro hqonda gatarebuli,

26% quCaSi 2-3 weli cxovrobda da 36% - 3

welze metxans. quCaSi mcxovrebi bavSvebisaTvis quCaSi

cxovrebis gamocdileba kidev ufro xangrZlivia – daaxloebiT

naxevari quCaSi 3 weliwadze metia cxovrobs.

saqarTveloSi gavrcelebuli mosazrebaa, rom bi-

Webs da ufrosi asakis bavSvebs quCaSi ufro didi xani

(erT welze meti) aqvs gatarebuli, vidre gogonebs da

mcirewlovnebs. gansxvavebebi statistikurad mniSvnelovani

ar aris, magram ramdenime tendencia SeiniSneba.

ufros bavSvebs (15-dan 18 wlamde) ufro metad

aqvT sami da meti weli gatarebuli quCaSi, vidre bavSvebs

ufro patara asakobrivi kategoriidan. genderuli

dayofa gavrcelebul mosazrebas ar amyarebs – ufro

metic, gogonebis raodenoba, romelTac quCaSi sami da

meti weli aqvs gatarebuli, biWebisas aRemateba.

orive mSobliT da dediT obol bavSvebs quCaSi erTi

Tve an meti ufro metad aqvT gatarebuli. rodesac

deda an orive mSobeli cocxalia, bavSvebis 70%-is

gancxadebiT, maT quCaSi cxovrebis aseTi xangrZlivi

gamocdileba ar aqvT.

rac ufro met xans grZeldeba bavSvis quCaSi cxovreba,

miT ufro irRveva misi Cveuli socialuri kavSirebi.

asakobrivi kategoria

sqesi

60%

50%

40%

30%

20%

10%

0%

8-10wlis(n=89)

11-14wlis(n=96)

11-18wlis(n=60)

45%

40%

35%

30%

25%

20%

15%

10%

5%

0%

biWebi(n=155)

gogoebi(n=90)

1 wlis an

naklebi

2-3

wlis

3 wlis an

meti

1 wlis an

naklebi

2-3

wlis

3 wlis an

meti

56-ma quCis bavSvma ar upasuxa.

56-ma quCis bavSvma ar upasuxa.

grafiki #5 – quCis bavSvebis asaki da sqesi quCaSi gatarebuli wlebis mixedviT

procenti

90.0%

80.0%

70.0%

60.0%

50.0%

40.0%

hqonda quCaSi

cxovrebis periodi

ar hqonda quCaSi

cxovrebis periodi

30.0%

20.0%

10.0%

36 ❘ nu miwodebT quCis bavSvs

0.0%

Tbilisi

(n=179)

rusTavi

(n=32)

quTaisi

(n=58)

adgilmdebareobebi

baTumi

(n=30)

grafiki #6 – quCis bavSvebis procenti, visac quCaSi erTi Tve an meti aqvs gatarebuli qalaqebis mixedviT


skolaSi siaruli da socialuri momsaxurebis gamoyeneba

am tendencias kargad asaxavs. bavSvebi, romlebsac

quCaSi eqvs Tvemde dro aqvT gatarebuli ufro

xSirad iricxebodnen skolaSi vidre isini, visi quCaSi

cxovrebis gamocdilebac 6 Tves aRemateba. rac ufro

metad aRemateba quCaSi cxovrebis gamocdileba 6 Tves,

miT ufro mniSvnelovnad iklebs skolaSi wasvlis albaToba.

msgavsi tendenciebi bavSvebis ojaxebTan kontaqtis

mxrivac SeiniSneba. rac ufro Sordebian bavSvebi

damcav faqtorebs (ojaxi, skola), romelnic maT

saWiroebebs unda akmayofilebdnen, isini Seguebis

axal strategiebs mimarTaven, ufro metad iyeneben socialur

momsaxurebas (sadac isini arsebobs), damcavi

faqtorebis dakargvis asanazRaureblad.

saqarTveloSi, quCis bavSvebi Tanatolebis mxardaWeras

sxva quCis bavSvebs Soris eZeben. isini Cveulebriv

icnoben ramdenime sxva bavSvs, romlebic igive saqmianobiT

arian dakavebulni – quCis bavSvebis daaxloebiT

40% icnobs quCis 10 bavSvs, romelic imave qalaqSi

cxovrobs da danarCeni 40% icnobs 11-dan 20-mde aseT

bavSvs. msgavsi Seguebis strategia (socialuri kav-

Sirebis da quCisadmi mikuTvnebulobis grZnobis ganviTareba)

quCis bavSvebis bevr kvlevaSia aRwerili. 16

60%

50%

40%

39.6%

ar arian Caricxulni

skolaSi

gamoyenebuli socialuri

momsaxurebebi

30%

20%

19.1%

17.5%

21.3%

28.1%

23.4%

29.8%

10%

0%

1.8% 2.1% 4.6% 4.3%

8.3%

3 wlis

(n=89)

grafiki #7 – quCis bavSvebis ganaTleba da socialuri momsaxurebis gamoyeneba quCaSi yofnis xangrZlivobis mixedviT

16. magaliTisTvis ixileT, S.H., Hutz, C.S. (1995), Street Children: Psychological

Perspectives in: Interamerican Journal of Psychology, Volume 29

saqarTveloSi urbanuli quCis bavSvebis raodenoba da maxasiaTeblebi ❘ 37


quCis bavSvebis mier

ojaxuri mdgomareobis

aRqma

bavSvis irgvliv mSoblebis an sxva naTesavebis

arseboba

obolTa saerTaSoriso definiciis gamoyenebiT,

saqarTveloSi iseTi quCis bavSvebi, romlebic orive

mSobliT oblebi arian mTliani SerCevis 15%-s Seadgenen.

anu danarCeni 85%-is erTi mSobeli mainc aris

cocxali. im bavSvebs Soris, visac erTi mSobeli mainc

hyavs cocxali 55% ar aris oboli (orive mSobeli

cocxalia), 24% mamiT obolia (mxolod deda hyavs) da

6% - dediT oboli (mxolod mamaa cocxali).

Tan SedarebiT TiTqmis orjer maRalia. yvela quCis

bavSvi, romelic orive mSobliT an dediT obolia ar

iricxeba skolaSi. amasTanave, procentulad skolis

mitovebis yvelaze maRali maCvenebeli im quCis bavSvebs

Soris SeiniSneba, visac deda an arcerTi mSobeli

ar hyavs. mSoblebis gardacvaleba skolis mitovebis

mizezad saxeldeba. maTi interesi ganaTlebisadmi

dabalia da miaCniaT, rom skolaSi siarulis SemxvevaSi

mainc ver iswavlian. yvela maTgani ambobs, rom

sakuTari Tavis sarCenad fuli unda gamoimuSavos.

maT socialuri momsaxureba arasdros gamouyenebiaT.

quCaSi ufro meti drois gatarebis da mzrunveli

zrdasrulis ararsebobis gamo orive mSobliT

oboli bavSvebi ufro metad avlenen gansakuTrebul

saWiroebebs da fizikur travmebs, vidre is bavSvebi,

visac erTi an orive mSobeli hyavs.

araoboli quCis bavSvebis umravlesobis deda an mama,

an orive mSobeli imave qalaqSi cxovrobs. Tu mSoblebi

imave qalaqSi ar cxovroben, bavSvebis naxevars

imave qalaqSi sxva naTesavi hyavs. gamokiTxuli bavSvebis

10%-ze naklebma aRniSna, rom sruliad martoa

– anu imave qalaqSi arc mSobeli da arc sxva naTesavi

ar moeZebneba.

80.0% orive mSobeli

70.0%

68.8%

gardacvlilia

60.0%

56.9%

mxolod dedaa

55.0%

cocxali

50.0%

mxolod mamaa

40.0%

36.7%

cocxali

33.3%

30.0%

26.7%

25.0%

24.1%

orive mSobeli

20.0%

18.8%

cocxalia

14.4%

9.4% 13.8%

10.0%

0%

5.6%

Tbilisi

(n=180)

3.1%

rusTavi

(n=32)

erTi an orive mSoblis gardacvalebas Zalian didi

gavlena aqvs bavSvis cxovrebaze. quCis bavSvebs Soris

erTi an orive mSobliT obol bavSvTa proporcia

quCaSi mcxovreb bavSvebs Soris, mTlian SerCevasgrafiki

#8 – quCis bavSvebis procenti mSobelTa arsebobisa da qalaqebis mixedviT

5.2%

quTaisi

(n=58)

3.3%

baTumi

(n=30)

50%

40%

30%

20%

10%

0%

44.4% 45.5%

38.9%

32.0%

28.7%

22.9%

21.2%

22.2%

15.2% 15.4%

11.1% 11.5%

7.1%

1.6%

1.1%

Tbilisi rusTavi quTaisi baTumi sul

deda cocxalia, magram ar

cxovrobs imave qalaqSi (n=237)

mama cocxalia, magram ar

cxovrobs imave qalaqSi (n=109)

hyavs naTesavebi, magram ara

imave qalaqSi (n=301)

grafiki #9 – quCis bavSvebis procenti, visac imave qalaqSi deda, mama an naTesavi ar hyavs

38 ❘ nu miwodebT quCis bavSvs


quCis bavSvebis 85%-is gancxadebiT, maTi deda imave

qalaqSi cxovrobs, xolo 71%-ma ganacxada, rom mamac

imave qalaqSia. dedebs Soris, romlebic imave qalaqSi

ar cxovroben 9% saqarTvelos sxva regionSi cxovrobs

da 3% qveynis farglebs gareTaa (azerbaijanSi,

ruseTSi, italiaSi, TurqeTSi da saberZneTSi, rogorc

bavSvebma aRniSnes). mamebi, romlebic imave qalaqSi

ar arian, saqarTvelos sxva regionebSi (13%) da saz-

RvargareT (8%) cxovroben. bavSvebis gancxadebiT,

isini ruseTSi, azerbaijanSi, ukrainaSi, moldovaSi,

italiasa an yazaxeTSi arian. rusTavSi, quTaissa da

baTumSi gamokiTxuli quCis bavSvebisaTvis, visi deda

an mama sxva adgilas cxovrobs, dedaqalaqi mSoblebis

cxovrebis yvela gavrcelebuli adgilia (4%-dan 9%-

mde - dedebisaTvis da 8%-dan 19%-mde - mamebisaTvis,

qalaqebis mixedviT).

mSoblebis migracia bavSvebis quCaSi gasvlis mTavar

faqtorad ar unda ganvixiloT. quCis bavSvebi,

romelTa mSoblebi sxvagan cxovroben, sazRvargareT

wasuli mSoblebis mier datovebuli bavSvebis

(romelTa ricxvic sakmaod didia 17 ) mxolod mcire

nawils Seadgenen, magram yvela es bavSvi quCaSi rodi

xvdeba. mSoblis an mSoblebis ararsebobas quCis bavSvis

cxovrebis ramdenime aspeqtze mniSvnelovani gavlena

aqvs.

imave qalaqSi orive mSoblis aryofna mniSvnelovnad

zrdis bavSvis quCaSi 24 saaTiT cxovrebis albaTobas:

bavSvebis 15%, visi mSoblebi imave qalaqSi ar cxovroben,

quCaSi mcxovrebi bavSvia. es maCvenebeli mxolod

4%-s Seadgens im bavSvebisaTvis, visi erTi mSobeli

mainc imave qalaqSi cxovrobs da 2%-s im bavSvebvisaTvis,

visac orive mSobeli imave qalaqSi hyavs. magram,

bavSvebi, visac erTi an orive mSobeli imave qalaqSi

hyavs, ufro metad atareben dRis saaTebs quCaSi (82%)

vidre isini, visi mSoblebic sxvagan arian (57%).

SemTxveva 2: oTxi wlis win, ratis umuSevarma dedam – nonam - gadawyvita ruseTSi eZebna samsaxuri da bavSvi mamasa da bebias

dautova. Tavdapirvelad, nona bavSvTan kavSiris SenarCunebas cdilobda da fulsac ugzavnida. garkveuli drois Semdeg,

kontaqtebic da finansuri mxardaWerac Semcirda da male nona sruliad gaqra ratis cxovrebidan.

im dros biWis mama – zurabi - muSaobda. miuxedavad imisa, rom mama fuls alkoholze ufro xarjavda vidre bavSvis saWiroebebze,

biWs sacxovrebeli adgili mainc hqonda. magram roca zura Tvreboda, igi ratis da mis bebias scemda da rati xSirad

grZnobda, rom saxli aRar iyo usafrTxo TavSesafari, rogorc adre, dedis Sin yofnis dros.

erT dRes, zura daapatimres da ramdenime wliT patimroba miusajes. rati mxolod bebiis amara darCa. bebia moxuci

da avadmyofi iyo, Semosavali ar hqonda da biWisTvis Sesabamisi zrunvisa da daxmarebis aRmoCena ar SeeZlo. SimSilis

pirobebSi da maTxovrobis damamcirebel saqmianobad miCnevis gamo bebia SviliSvilisa da sakuTari saWiroebebis dasakmayofileblad

alternatiuli gzebis Ziebas Seudga. male, orivem qalaqis quCebSi, nagavsayrelebze SuSis boTlebis moZieba

da gayidva daiwyo. biWma skola miatova – misi ganaTleba saarsebo pirobebis dakmayofilebis gamo prioritetuli aRar

iyo. male Sewyda gazisa da eleqtroenergiis miwodeba - bebiasa da SviliSvls komunaluri gadasaxadebis dasafarad sakmarisi

Tanxa ar gaaCndaT. zogjer, fuli puris sayidladac ki ar hyofnidaT da rati mSieri iZinebda.

mSoblebis

adgilsamyofeli

bavSvTa jgufebi

sixSire

procenti

orive mSobeli

imave qalaqSi

1. quCaSi mcxovrebi bavSvebi

2. quCaSi da ojaxSi mcxovrebi

bavSvebi

3. quCaSi aqtiuri bavSvebi

2 1.70%

19 16.40%

95 81.90%

sul

116 100.00%

erTi mSobeli

imave qalaqSi

arcerTi

mSobeli

imave qalaqSi

1. quCaSi mcxovrebi bavSvebi

2. quCaSi da ojaxSi mcxovrebi

bavSvebi

3. quCaSi aqtiuri bavSvebi

sul

1. quCaSi mcxovrebi bavSvebi

2. quCaSi da ojaxSi mcxovrebi

bavSvebi

3. quCaSi aqtiuri bavSvebi

sul

4 4.10%

13 13.20%

81 82.70%

98 100.00%

13 15.10%

24 27.90%

49 57.00%

86 100.00%

cxrili #8 – quCis bavSvebis procenti mSobelTa arsebobisa da qalaqebis mixedviT

17. Svintadze, Ia; Ubiria, Grigol (2007), How Poverty Separates Families: Impact of International Labour Migration on Families and Children

in Georgia, Eurasia Foundation Caucasus Research Resource Centre (CRRC) Fellowship

saqarTveloSi urbanuli quCis bavSvebis raodenoba da maxasiaTeblebi ❘ 39


quCis bavSvebisaTvis, romelTa mSoblebi imave qalaq-

Si ar cxovroben, mSoblebis aryofna ufro mniSvnelovan

problemad aRiqmeba, vidre ekonomikuri

siZneleebi. amasTan, isini naklebad iricxebian skolaSi

da 40%-iT naklebad ainteresebT skola, vidre

maT im Tanatolebs, visac orive mSobeli imave qalaqSi

hyavs. monacemebi aseve cxadyofs, rom im bavSebisaTvis,

romelTa mxolod erTi mSobeli cxovrobs imave

qalaqSi, ufro metia albaToba imisa, rom skolaSi

saerTod ar evloT, vidre im bavSvebisaTvis, visac

orive mSobeli imave qalaqSi hyavs.

gamokiTxuli bavSvebis 82%-ma aRniSna, rom imave

qalaqSi sxva naTesavebi hyavs, rogoricaa da-Zma, bebia-babua,

biZa/mamida an sxva zrdasruli naTesavi.

quCis bavSvebisaTvis xelmisawvdomi socialuri mxardaWeris

donis gasagebad mxolod zrdasruli naTesavebi

iyo miRebuli mxedvelobaSi da ara da-Zma. Tu

bavSvebi ar asaxelebdnen bebia/babuas, biZa/mamidas

an sxva zrdasrul naTesavs, maT 0 qula ewerebodaT.

1 qula eniWeboda maT, visac am kategoriebidan erTerTSi

erTi naTesavi mainc hyavda imave qalaqSi, ori

qula – visac ori naTesavi hyavda ori kategoriidan da

sami - visac sami naTesavi hyavda samive kategoriidan.

analizis Sedegad dadginda, rom socialuri mxardaWeris

zrdasTan erTad bavSvis mier dRis ganmavlobaSi

quCaSi gatarebuli dro mcirdeba. ufro metic, isini

62%-iT naklebad atareben zafxulis Rameebs quCaSi

da aseve ufro naklebad cxovroben quCaSi 24 saaTis

ganmavlobaSi, vidre is bavSvebi, visac imave qalaqSi

zrdasruli naTesavi ar hyavs. socialuri mxardaWeris

ufro maRali done dadebiT gavlenas axdens bavSvis

ganaTlebazec – bavSvebi, visac imave qalaqSi erTi da

meti zrdasruli naTesavi hyavs, 82%-iT ufro metad

iricxebian skolaSi vidre isini, visac aranairi socialuri

mxardaWera ara aqvs.

90.0%

82.8%

da-Zma

80.0%

bebia/papa

70.0%

68.8%

65.6%

60.0%

58.3%

biZa/deida

50.0%

46.6%

sxva ufrosi asakis

41.7%

40.0%

naTesavebi

40.0%

37.5%

40.0%

33.3%

31.19

29.3%

30.0%

ar hyavs naTesavebi

23.9%

25.0%

20.0%

20.0%

13.9%

15.5%

13.3%

10.0%

6.3%

6.9%

0%

Tbilisi

(n=181)

rusTavi

(n=32)

quTaisi

(n=58)

baTumi

(n=30)

grafiki #10 – quCis bavSvebis imave qalaqSi mcxovrebi naTesavebis saxeoba

quCis bavSvebis kavSiri ojaxebTan

roca orive mSobeli cocxalia, quCis bavSvebs

ufro axlo kavSiri aqvT dedasTan, vidre mamasTan.

gamokiTxuli quCis bavSvebis 75%-is mtkicebiT, maT

yoveldRiuri kavSiri aqvT dedasTan da masTan kontaqti

hqondaT intervius Catarebis dResac. bavSvebis

mxolod naxevarma aRniSna, rom im dRes mamasTan

hqonda kavSiri (56%), an (TiTqmis) yoveldRiurad aqvs

kavSiri mamasTan (57%).

90.0% Tbilisi (n=144)

80.0%

70.0%

60.0%

50.0%

40.0%

30.0%

20.0%

10.0%

0%

dRes yoveldRe dRes yoveldRe dRes yoveldRe

esaubra dedas esaubra mamas esaubra naTesavebs

rusTavi (n=32)

quTaisi (n=58)

baTumi (n=30)

grafiki #11 – quCis bavSvTa procenti, vinc dRes (intervius dRes) esaubra da yoveldRiurad esaubreba dedas, mamas an naTesavs

40 ❘ nu miwodebT quCis bavSvs


im quCis bavSvebidan, visac deda cocxali hyavs,

daaxloebiT 20%-ma aRniSna, rom maT cxovrebaSi iyo

periodi, roca dedasTan erTi Tvis an meti xnis ganmavlobaSi

kavSiri ar hqonia. im quCis bavSvebisaTvis

visac mama hyavs cocxali, igive maCvenebeli daaxloebiT

30%-mde izrdeba.

rac ufro met dros atareben bavSvebi quCaSi, miT

ufro mcirdeba maTi kavSiri ojaxebTan. samive jgufs

Soris, quCaSi aqtiuri bavSvebi ojaxTan yvelaze

mWidro kavSirs inarCuneben – maTi mxolod 23% ambobs,

rom garkveuli periodis ganmavlobaSi dedasTan

kavSiri ar hqonia da 39%-s mamasTan. quCasa da

saxlSi mcxovrebi bavSvebis 62% aRniSnavs dedasTan

kavSiris arqonis periodebs da 84% _ mamasTan. quCaSi

mcxovreb bavSvebs Soris, 80%-is cxovrebaSi iyo periodebi,

roca dedasTan an mamasTan erTi Tvis an meti

xnis ganmavlobaSi kavSiri ar hqonia.

quCis bavSvebis mier mzrunvelebis aRqma

bavSvebs unda ganesazRvraT adamiani, romelic maTze

umeteswilad zrunavs. quCis bavSvebis umravlesobam

(62%) aseTad mSoblebi daasaxela. am bavSvebisaTvis

dedebi mTavari da xSirad erTaderTi mzrunvelebi

arian, rac dedasTan kavSiris sixSiriT, dedasTan

cxovrebiT da sxva faqtorebiT dasturdeba. qarTuli

tradiciuli ojaxis modelSi bavSvis aRzrda umetesad

dedis movaleobaa. rogorc gaeros bavSvTa

fondma aRwera (2007), 18 `saqarTveloSi ZiriTadi mzrunvelebi

dedebi arian (91%), Semdeg bebiebi (7%). meoradi

mzrunvelebi ZiriTadad bebiebi arian (42%) da

Semdeg mamebi (17%) quCis bavSvebis ojaxebi am mxriv ar

gansxvavdebian. aTidan erTma bavSvma mTavar mzrunvelad

aseve naTesavebi daasaxela.

procenti

80.0% mSoblebi

70.0%

naTesavebi

60.0%

50.0%

aravin

40.0%

30.0%

20.0%

10.0%

0%

Tbilisi

(n=180)

rusTavi

(n=32)

quTaisi

(n=58)

baTumi

(n=30)

adgilmdebareobebi

grafiki #12 – quCis bavSvebis ZiriTadi mzrunvelebi

18. UNICEF Georgia (2007), Early Childhood Development in Georgia – Findings

from the National Baseline Study

saqarTveloSi urbanuli quCis bavSvebis raodenoba da maxasiaTeblebi ❘ 41


asakis matebasTan erTad, quCis bavSvebi ojaxis mzrunvelobidan

gamodian da Tavad zrunaven sakuTar

Tavze. 8-dan 10 wlamde asakobriv kategoriaSi 7-jer

ufro metia iseTi bavSvi, romelzec mSoblebi an na-

Tesavebi zrunaven, vidre isini, visac mzrunveli ar

hyavs (Tanafardoba 1:7). or ufros asakobriv kategoriaSi

es Tanafardoba Sesabamisad 1:2.2 da 1:1.5-mde

mcirdeba.

bavSvebis 26% - sididiT meore jgufi - ambobs, rom ma-

Tze aravin zrunavs. am bavSvebis mxolod erTi mesamedis

orive mSobeli cocxalia (mTliani SerCevis 55%-

Tan SedarebiT) da 23%-s mxolod deda hyavs cocxali.

am bavSvebs Soris ori jgufis gamoyofa SeiZleba:

isini, visi mSoblebic gardacvlilia an ar arian da

ubralod aravinaa, visac bavSvebi mzrunvelad CaTvlidnen

da isini, visac erTi an orive mSobeli cocxali

hyavs, magram maT mTavar mzrunvelebad ar Tvlian.

mTavari mzrunvelis yofna-aryofna bavSvis cxovrebis

ramdenime aspeqtze axdens gavlenas. quCaSi mcxovreb

bavSvebs Soris mSoblebs mTavar mzrunvelebad Zalian

cota miiCnevs da umravlesoba acxadebs, rom aravinaa,

vinc maTze izrunebs. sapirispirod, quCaSi aqtiuri

bavSvebis umravlesoba mSoblebs an naTesavebs

mTavar mzrunvelebad asaxelebs. mzrunvelis gareSe

myofi quCis bavSvebi ufro met gasaWirSi imyofebian

vidre isini, viszec mSoblebi zrunaven. am bavSvebisaTvis

mSoblebis gardacvaleba an aryofna ufro

mniSvnelovan problemad saxeldeba vidre ekonomikuri

siZneleebi, maSin, roca mSoblebis zrunvis qveS

myofi bavSvebi mTavar problemebad umeteswilad

alkoholizms, ganqorwinebas/meored qorwinebasa da

siRaribes asaxeleben. bavSvebi, romelTac ar hyavT

mzrunveli, skolaSi ar iricxebian, maSin, roca 24% im

bavSvebisa, visac mSoblebi mzrunvelobas uweven, skolaSi

dadian; skolis mitovebis albaToba ufro maRalia

(60%) mSoblebis mzrunvelobis qveS myof bavSvebTan

SedarebiT (40%). isini mSoblebis dakargvas an

sakuTar swavlis unarSi daurwmuneblobas skolaSi

wausvlelobis mTavar mizezebad asaxeleben. bavSvebi,

romelTa ZiriTadi mzrunvelebi mSoblebi arian, skolaSi

wausvlelobis mizezad mSoblebis winaaRmdegobas,

sabuTebis mouwesrigeblobas, ganaTlebis dabal

xarisxsa da ekonomikur siZneleebs asaxeleben.

bavSvebi, romlebic acxadeben, rom maTze aravin

zrunavs, arsebobis SenarCunebis mraval strategias

mimarTaven: isini ufro met socialur momsaxurebas

iyeneben da ufro metad gamoimuSaveben saarsebo

fuls muSaobiT an maTxovrobiT vidre isini, visac mzrunvelebad

mSoblebi hyavs. mzrunvelis ararseboba

bavSvis samomavlo gegmebzec axdens gavlenas - maT

ganaTleba, profesiuli unarebi an samsaxuri naklebad

ainteresebT. mzrunvelis gareSe myofi bavSvebi

xSirad ver asaxeleben raime konkretul survils – ra

surT gaakeTon momavalSi. es aseve gavlenas axdens

maT janmrTelobaze – isini ufro xSirad amJRavneben

gansakuTrebul saWiroebebs, fizikuri travmis niSnebs

an toqsikur nivTierebebze damokidebulebas,

vidre bavSvebi, romelTac mzrunvelebi hyavT.

quCis bavSvebis ojaxebi

im ojaxebis mowyoba, saidanac saqarTvelos quCis

bavSvebi arian warmoSobiT, mravalgvaria, dawyebuli

bavSvebiT, visac orive mSobeli cocxali hyavs

da sxva zrdasrul naTesavebTan erTad imave qalaqSi

cxovrobs, damTavrebuli im bavSvebiT, vinc orive

mSobliT obolia da imave qalaqSi ojaxis sxva wevrebi

ar hyavs. calkeuli magaliTebi cxadyofs, rom bevri

quCis bavSvi cxovrebis manZilze sxvadasxvanairi mowyobis

ojaxebSi cxovrobda da bevri maTgani qorwinebis

gareSe aris dabadebuli.

ojaxuri mxardaWeris sistemis Semcirebasa da kav-

Sirebis dasustebasTan erTad, quCis bavSvebi ufro

met dros da Rameebsac ki quCaSi atareben. es kav-

Siri piramidis saxiT SeiZleba warmovidginoT, sadac

yoveli Sre quCis bavSvebis qve-jgufs asaxavs, romelic

naCvenebia, rogorc mTeli SerCevis procenti. umeteswilad,

es qve-jgufebi urTierTgamomricxavi

ar aris da arc erTmaneTs Seicavs – jgufebs Soris

75%-iani gadafarvaa, rac imas niSnavs, rom bavSvebis

umravlesoba erTsa da imave dros ramdenime jgufs

miekuTvneba. magaliTad, quCaSi mcxovrebi yvela

bavSvi rodi ambobs, rom mzrunveli ar hyavs da orive

mSobliT oboli yvela bavSvic araa quCaSi mcxovrebi

bavSvi.

quCis bavSvebis 58%-is Tanaxmad, isini wina Tves dedasTan

erTad cxovrobdnen. mamasTan cxovreba bavSvebis

34%-ma aRniSna (oTxive qalaqSi es maCvenebeli

ufro naklebi iyo). bavSvebis 38% ambobs, rom isini

sxva naTesavebTan cxovroben an naTesavebs saxlSi

akiTxaven (20%).

quCaSi mcxovrebi bavSvebi

orive mSobliT oblebi

bavSvebi, romlebsac ar

hyavT ZiriTadi mzrunveli

bavSvebi, romlebsac ar

hyavT mSoblebi imave qalaqSi

bavSvebi, romlebic ar

cxovroben TavianT ojaxebTan

bavSvebi, romlebic cxovroben

TavianT ojaxebTan

grafiki #13 – quCis bavSvebi sxvadasxva ojaxur mdgomareobaSi

(n=301)

42 ❘ nu miwodebT quCis bavSvs


procenti

80.0%

70.0%

60.0%

50.0%

40.0%

30.0%

20.0%

10.0%

0%

deda mama sxva naTesavebi

Tbilisi

(n=181)

rusTavi

(n=32)

quTaisi

(n=58)

adgilmdebareobebi

baTumi

(n=30)

grafiki #14 – quCis bavSvebis procenti, vinc ukanaskneli

Tvis ganmavlobaSi ojaxis wevrebTan cxovrobda

mocemuli kvleva Seecada aexsna, Tu ra gavlenas axdens

sxvadasxva ojaxuri mowyobis pirobebSi cxovreba qu-

Cis bavSvebis cxovrebiseul mdgomareobaze. gamoiyo

ojaxis mowyobis eqvsi SesaZlebeli varianti: 1) bavSvebi

ar cxovroben mSoblebTan an naTesavebTan; 2) bavSvebi

cxovroben mxolod dedasTan; 3) bavSvebi cxovroben

mxolod mamasTan; 4) bavSvebi cxovroben mxolod erT

mSobelTan da erT sxva naTesaveTan; 5) bavSvebi cxovroben

orive mSobelTan; 6) bavSvebi cxovroben sxva na-

TesavebTan.

drois erT monakveTSi Catarebuli kvlevis pirobebSi,

rogoricaa es kvleva, Znelia saqarTvelos quCis bavSvebis

ojaxuri mowyobis mudmivobis gansazRvra. maTi

kargad cnobili mobilurobisa da cvalebadi cxovrebis

stilis gaTvaliswinebiT, SeiZleba vivaraudoT,

rom ramdenime bavSvi cxovrebis sxvadasxva etapze

sxvadasxva ojaxuri mowyobis pirobebSi cxovrobs,

magram erTjeradi kvleviT am dinamikis dadgena Seu-

Zlebelia. Sesabamisad, ojaxuri mowyobis qve-jgufebi

aRniSnul kvlevaSi urTierTgamomricxavia – bavSvi ar

SeiZleba marto dedasTan cxovrobdes da ganacxados,

rom imavdroulad orive mSobelTan erTad cxovrobs.

kvlevaSi aRniSnuli erTTviani CarCos ganmavlobaSic

ki bavSvebis mdgomareobaSi sagrZnobi gansxvavebebi igrZnoba

imisda mixedviT Tu visTan cxovroben isini.

ar cxovrobda mSoblebTan

an naTesavebTan

cxovrobda mxolod

dedasTan

cxovrobda mxolod

mamasTan

cxovrobda erT mSobelTan

da sxva naTesavebTan

cxovrobda mSoblebTan

(sxva naTesavebTan erTad

an maT gareSe)

cxovrobda mxolod sxva

naTesavebTan

grafiki #15 – quCis bavSvebis ojaxuri mowyoba ukanaskneli

Tvis ganmavlobaSi (n=301)

orive mSobelTan mcxovrebi bavSvebi (mTeli SerCevis

30%) ekonomikuri siZneleebis yvelaze dabal doneze

miuTiTebdnen (2.2.) 19 sxva tipis ojaxebTan SedarebiT.

Tumca sainteresoa, rom ekonomikuri problemebis

SemTxvevebi sakmaod maRalia – yvela ojaxTan SedarebiT

yvelaze maRali – magram es bavSvebi aseve araproporciulad

xSirad amboben, rom `maT ojaxSi ar aris

problemebi~ (25% mTliani SerCevis 12%-Tan SedarebiT).

quCis bavSvebi aseTi ojaxebidan ufro xSirad iricxebian

skolaSi vidre bavSvebi martoxela mSoblebis

ojaxebidan an ojaxis gareSe mcxovrebi bavSvebi. isini

naklebad maTxovroben im bavSvebTan SedarebiT, vinc

ojaxis gareSe an marto dedasTan cxovrobs. aseve maTi

gancxadebiT, gasuli Tvis ganmavlobaSi maT ar gamoumuSavebiaT

da ar dasWirvebiaT fuli.

mxolod dedasTan mcxovrebi bavSvebi SerCevis 22%-s

Seadgens. es bavSvebi ojaxis mTavar problemad ekonomikur

siZneleebs asaxeleben. meore yvelaze gavrcelebuli

problema mSoblebis ganqorwinebaa – orjer

ufro meti, vidre mTlian SerCevaSi. aseve, yvela sxva

tipis ojaxTan SedarebiT, mxolod dedasTan mcxovrebi

bavSvebi yvelaze naklebad Tvlian, rom maT ojaxSi

problemebi ar aris. isini ufro metad dadian skola-

Si vidre marto mamasTan an ojaxis gareSe mcxovrebi

bavSvebi. am bavSvebs maTxovrobis ufro maRali maCvenebeli

axasiaTebs vidre maT, vinc orive mSobelTan

cxovrobs da Zalian cotam Tu aRniSna, rom wina Tvis

ganmavlobaSi fuli ar gamoumuSavebia.

mxolod mamasTan mcxovrebi bavSvebi ojaxuri mowyobis

yvelaze iSviaTi formaa - mxolod 3%. maSin,

roca sxva tipis ojaxebSi sqesisa da asakis ganawileba

mTliani SerCevis msgavsia, mxolod mamisgan Semdgar

ojaxSi yvela bavSvi sabazo saskolo ganaTlebis asakisaa

(8-dan 14 wlamde) da biWebis raodenoba gogonebisas

TiTqmis 4-jer aRemateba. miuxedavad imisa, rom am

bavSvebis ricxvi mcirea, procentulad alkoholizms,

rogorc ojaxur problemad, yvelaze metad swored

mxolod mamasTan mcxovrebi bavSvebi asaxeleben. es

bavSvebi aseve yvelaze metad aRniSnaven, rom muSaoben

da naklebad arian CarTuli maTxovrobaSi.

quCis bavSvebi, romlebic mxolod erT mSobelTan da

sxva naTesavTan erTad cxovroben, mTliani SerCevis

mxolod 5%-ia. calkeuli magaliTebi mowmobs, rom

msgavsi tipis ojaxebSi `sxva naTesavSi~ ZiriTadad dedinacvali

an maminacvali, mSoblis partniori (xSirad

ramdenime), bavSvis da-Zma an bebia/babua igulisxmeba.

yvela tipis ojaxebs Soris mxolod erT mSobelTan da

sxva naTesavTan mcxovrebi bavSvebi gaWirvebis yvelaze

maRal dones aRniSnaven (3.6.). sxva tipis ojaxebis bavSvebTan

SedarebiT isini ojaxSi ekonomikur problemebze

naklebad saubroben, magram Zalian xSirad mTavar

problemad mSoblebis ganqorwinebas da meored qor-

19. gaWirveba ganisazRvreba bavSvis mier CamoTvlili siZneleebis

raodenobis (simravlis) mixedviT. aRniSnul kvlevaSi

siZneleebis done meryeobda 0-dan (aranairi problemebi ojaxSi)

6-mde (yvela problema saxezea), saSualo maCvenebeli ki mTlian

SerCevaSi iyo 2.5.

saqarTveloSi urbanuli quCis bavSvebis raodenoba da maxasiaTeblebi ❘ 43


44 ❘ nu miwodebT quCis bavSvs


winebas asaxeleben. es bavSvebi naklebad iricxebian

skolaSi im bavSvebTan SedarebiT, vinc orive mSobelTan

da/an sxva naTesavebTan cxovrobs. isini aseve ufro

metad arian CarTuli maTxovrobaSi, vidre sxva tipis

ojaxebSi mcxovrebi bavSvebi. orive mSobelTan an martoxela

dedebTan mcxovreb bavSvebTan SedarebiT am

bavSvebSi ufro metad SeiniSneboda gansakuTrebuli

saWiroebebi, xiluli travmebi da toqsikuri nivTierebebis

gamoyenebis SemTxvevebi.

SemTxveva #3: mari warmoSibiT rusTavTan axlos mdebare soflidanaa, Zalian Raribi ojadixan. mas arasdros uvlia

skolaSi da profesiuli unar-Cvevebi ar aqvs. igi adre daqorwinda da sofelSi qmris saxlSi gadavida. qmarTan mas oTxi

Svili eyola, magram ori Cvilobis asakSi gardaicvala. mZime ekonomikuri pirobebis gamo marim da misma qmarma gadawyvites

sofelSi saxli gaeyidaT da sacxovreblad rusTavSi gadasuliyvnen, sadac Tavdapirvelad sxvadasxva adgilas oTaxebs

qiraobdnen.

male, maris umuSevari qmari kriminalur saqmianobaSi CaerToO da xangrZlivi ganaCeniT cixeSi aRmoCnda. mari mas gaSorda

da sxva kacTan gadavida sacxovreblad. miuxedavad imisa, rom es urTierToba oficialurad registrirebuli ar yofila

mari mas meore qmrad ixseniebda. momdevno wlebSi marim kidev sami Svili gaaCina. pirveli qorwinebidan bavSvebma skolaSi

daiwyes siaruli, magram meore klass ver gascdnen. swored maSin, meore qmarma miatova ojaxi da marim bavSvebis ganaTlebis

uzrunvelyofa ver SeZlo. arsebobis SesanarCuneblad maTxovroba daiwyo.

siRaribem da usaxlkarobam maris axali urTierTobisaken ubiZga da igi mesame partniorTan gadavida. Tavdapirvelad,

bavSvebi dedasTan cxovrobdnen. miuxedavad imisa, rom maris maTxovroba ojaxis rCenis erTaderTi wyaro iyo ojaxs sacxovrebeli

adgili mainc hqonda. magram male gairkva, rom maris partniori bavSvebs ar iRebda da xSirad maT emociur da

fizikur Seuracxyofas ayenebda. bavSvebi Tavs saxlSi usafrTxod aRar grZnobdnen - ufros biWebs mdgomareobam saxlis

datovebisaken ubiZga.

mxolod naTesavebTan mcxovrebi bavSvebi mTeli Ser-

Cevis 4%-s Seadgenen. gaWirvebis done am bavSvebSi

ufro maRalia (2.9) vidre im bavSvebSi, vinc orive mSobelTan

an mxolod dedasTan cxovrobs. ojaxis gareSe

mcxovrebi bavSvebis msgavsad, naTesavebTan mcxovrebi

bavSvebi mSoblebis gardacvalebas mTavar problemad

asaxeleben. sxva tipis ojaxebSi mcxovreb bavSvebTan

SedarebiT es bavSvebi aseve yvelaze xSirad asaxeleben

`mSoblebis aryofnas~. garda amisa, yvela sxva tipis

ojaxebSi mcxovreb bavSvebisagan gansxvavebiT isini

yvelaze xSirad iricxebian skolaSi. miuxedavad maTxovrobis

xSiri SemTxvevebisa es bavSvebi yvelaze xSirad

amboben, rom fuls ar saWiroeben.

da bolos, quCis bavSvebi, vinc wina Tves ojaxSi ar cxovrobda,

yvelaze metia – yvela bavSvis 36%. am bavSvebis

TiTqmis naxevari 11-dan 14 wlamde asakisaa. sainteresoa,

rom ojaxebSi armcxovrebi bavSvebis 50%-ze

meti quCaSi mxolod dRis saaTebSia. zogi maTgani

sacxovreblad bavSTa saxlebs/TavSesafrebs an megobris

saxls asaxelebs. sxvebi, rogorc sxvadasxva arasamTavrobo

organizaciebis proeqtebi varaudoben,

RamiT iaffasian oTaxebs qiraoben. miuxedavad imisa,

rom es bavSvebi ojaxuri problemebis nusxaSi pirvel

adgilze ekonomikur problemebs asaxeleben, maTTvis

ekonomikuri faqtori gacilebiT ufro naklebad

mniSvnelovania, vidre sxva tipis ojaxebSi. ojaxis

wevrebis gareSe mcxovrebi bavSvebisaTvis upirvelesi

problema mSoblebis gardacvalebaa. magram isini mTavar

problemad aseve mxolod erTi mSoblis yolas an

`mSoblebis aryofnas~ asaxeleben. isini ar iricxebian

skolaSi, maSin, roca mTliani SerCevis bavSvebis 14%

skolaSi iricxeba da maTxovrobis da qurdobis ufro

maRali maCvenebliT gamoirCevian (64% da 10%), vidre

bavSvebi mTlian SerCevaSi. mxolod 2%-ma aRniSna, rom

gasuli Tvis ganmavlobaSi fuli ar gamoimuSava (maSin

roca, mTliani SerCevisaTvis Sesabamisi maCvenebeli

TiTqmis 10%-ia). aseve, interviuerebma gansakuTrebuli

saWiroebebi, xiluli fizikuri travmebi da toqsikuri

nivTierebebis gamoyenebis gacilebiT meti

SemTxvevevbi am bavSvebSi SeamCnies.

quCis bavSvebis mier ojaxis mTavari problemebis

aRqma

bavSvebs maTi ojaxis mTavari problema unda daesaxelebinaT

(`pirveli pasuxi~) da Semdeg problemebis

winaswar Sedgenili siidan amoerCiaT meti problemebi

(`daasaxeleT yvela~). CakiTxvis Sedegad, bavSvebi saSualod

2.5 sxvadasxva ojaxur problemas asaxelebdnen.

yvelaze met problemas asaxelebdnen bavSvebi, vinc

erT mSobelTan da sxva naTesavTan cxovrobs – (3.6);

bavSvebi, romelTac mxolod mama hyavT cocxali (3.0);

bavSvebi, visac imave qalaqSi mxolod erTi mSobeli

hyavs da isini, vinc ambobs, rom maTze aravin zrunavs.

socialuri mxardaWeris dones (imave qalaqSi mcxovrebi

zrdasruli naTesavebis raodenoba) da gaWirvebis

dones (CamoTvlili problemebis raodenoba) Soris

mniSvnelovani korelacia ar aris.

yvela ojaxuri problema rva sxvadasxva kategoriaSi

dajgufda. ekonomikur siZneleebSi moiazreboda:

siRaribe ojaxSi, umuSevari mSoblebi, sacxovreblis

uqonloba, valebi da SimSili. problemebis sxva

jgufi moicavda orive an erTi mSoblis gardacvalebas.

`mSoblebis aryofnaSi~ dajgufda mSoblebis

adgilsamyofelis ucodinroba, mSoblebis sazRvargareT

yofna, an mSoblis (xSirad mamis) cixeSi yofna.

`mSoblebi ganqorwinebulia an meored daqorwinebuli~

kategoriaSi bavSvebi ganqorwinebas an meored

qorwinebas calke problemad asaxelebdnen da aseve

dedinacvalTan an maminacvalTan cudi urTierTobis

Sesaxeb saubrobdnen. alkoholizmis/ojaxuri Zaladobis

problema gulisxmobda, rom ojaxSi romelime

saqarTveloSi urbanuli quCis bavSvebis raodenoba da maxasiaTeblebi ❘ 45


problemuri jgufebi

piri bevrs svams an mSoblebi/romelime piri ojaxidan

bavSvs an ojaxis sxva wevrebs scems. janmrTelobis

problemebi zogadad iyo axsnili (avadaa) an xazgasmuli

iyo vin aris avad (deda, mama, an Zma). sxva CamoTvlil

problemebs Sorisaa, magaliTad, erTi mozardi gogona

ambobda, rom eyola bavSvi da ar icis sadaa bavSvis mama.

da bolos, zogi bavSvi ambobda, rom ojaxSi problemebi

ar SeiniSneba.

monacemTa analizi gviCvenebs, rom ojaxis problemebis

sirTulis zrdasTan erTad bavSvebi problemebis gadawyvetas

quCaSi eZeben. ojaxSi mzardi gaWirveba bavSvs

quCaSi meti drois gatarebisken ubiZgebs. magaliTad,

udidesi gasaWiris mqone bavSvebi 34%-iT ufro metad

atareben zafxulis Rameebs quCaSi vidre isini, visac

gasaWiri ar aqvs.

ojaxs ar aqvs problemebi

alkoholizmi/

ojaxuri Zaladoba

ekonomikuri (siRaribe, umu-

Sevroba, usaxlkaroba,valebi)

mSoblebi ganqorwinebuli/

kvlav daqorwinebuli

mSoblebi ar arian (adgilsamyofeli

ucnobia, dapatimrebulia,

ucxoeTSia)

orive/erTi mSobeli

gardacvlilia

0%

daasaxeleT yvela

pirveladi pasuxi

20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 120% 140% 160%

procenti

grafiki #16 – quCis bavSvebis ZiriTadi ojaxuri problemebi

(n=301)

imis miuxedavad, bavSvebi Tavad asaxelebdnen mTavar

ojaxur problemebs (`pirveladi pasuxi~) Tu unda

amoerCiaT problemebis siidan (`daasaxeleT yvela~),

ekonomikuri sakiTxebi yvelaze metad figurirebda.

ekonomikuri problemebis damsaxelebeli bavSvebis

procentuli raodenoba imave qalaqSi mcxovrebi maTi

zrdasruli naTesavebis raodenobis zrdasTan erTad

izrdeba. imave qalaqSi naTesavebis armyoli bavSvebis

mxolod 56% asaxelebs ekonomikur problemebs. igive

maCvenebeli im bavSvebisaTvis, visac imave qalaqSi erTi

tipis zrdasruli naTesavi hyavs 63%-ia; ori tipis zrdasruli

naTesavis myoli bavSvebisaTvis - 68%, xolo

sami tipis zrdasruli naTesavis myoli bavSvebisaTvis

– 85%. igive tendencia ojaxis mowyobis tipebis mixedviTac

SeiniSneba: ekonomikur problemebs procentulad

yvelaze metad is bavSvebi asaxeleben, vinc orive

mSobelTan da sxva naTesavebTan erTad cxovrobs.

Tumca, siRaribe aseve xSirad saxeldeba im bavSvebis

mier, vinc mxolod mSoblebTan erTad cxovrobs, visac

mxolod martoxela deda hyavs da vinc mxolod naTesavebTan

cxovrobs.

SemTxveva #4: 90-iani wlebis dasawyiSi samxreT oseTis

konfliqtis Semdeg, merabis iZulebiT gadaadgilebul

ojaxs devnilTa gansaxlebis komunalur centrSi erTi

oTaxi SesTavazes. merabs misi toli da da patara Zma

hyavda. mravali wlis ganmavlobaSi merabis mSoblebi

ar muSaobdnen da devnilTaTvis gamoyofili mwiri

daxmareba - 11 lari erT kacze TveSi – xuTi kacisgan

Semdgari ojaxis erTaderTi saarsebo wyaro iyo. 20

xangrZlivi krizisis gamo merabis mamam daleva daiwyo.

im SemTxvevaSic ki Tu sadme patara samuSao gamoCneboda

igi gamomuSavebul fuls alkoholze xarjavda da ara

ojaxis saWiroebebze. saxlSic sul ufro nakleb dros

atarebda. merabis dedam ojaxSi yvela pasuxismgebloba

sakuTar Tavze aiRo. igi yovelTvis Zalian yuradRebiani

iyo bavSvebisadmi, miuxedavad arsebuli siZneleebisa

da bavSvebic Zalian mijaWvulni iyvnen masze.

ojaxSi SimSili mudmivi problema iyo. fuli saarsebod

ar kmaroda, miTumetes bavSvebis ganaTlebisaTvis.

merabi da dedamisi xandaxan saWmels qalaqis nagvis

yuTebSi eZebdnen da saxlSi mohqondaT. erT dRes,

msgavsi nagvis produqtebisgan momzadebuli saWmlis

Wamis Semdeg merabis umcrosi Zma sakvebiT moiwamla da

gardaicvala. amis Semdeg, ojaxs nagavSi sakvebi aRar

uZebnia. ojaxis sarCenad axali gzebis gamonaxva iyo

saWiro da merabis dedam jarTis Segroveba da gayidva

daiwyo. dedas xSirad merabic Tan axlda. zogjer, igi da

misi da maTxovrobdnen kidevac. am gziT naSovni fuliT

maT ojaxisaTvis saarsebo produqtebis yidva mainc

SeeZloT.

2007 wels merabis dedas qurdobaSi dasdes brali - mis

mier Cabarebuli jarTi sxvisi sakuTreba aRmoCnda. igi

daakaves, damnaSaved scnes da ramdenimewliani patimroba

miusajes. bavSvebi marto darCnen da deda mas Semdeg

aRar unaxavT.

ojaxis ekonomikur problemaTa Soris mSoblebis umu-

Sevrobis dasaxelebis procentuli maCvenebeli mniSvnelovnad

izrdeba `pirveladi pasuxidan~ (3%), (34%)

`daasaxeleT yvelas~ SemTxvevaSi. rogorc saqarTvelos

quCis bavSvebisadmi miZRvnil programebSi xSirad

SeiniSneba, mSoblis mier samsaxuris dakargvas xangrZlivi

umuSevroba, mzardi siRaribe da samsaxuris

povnis survilis mniSvnelovani Semcireba mosdevs.

sakuTari SesaZleblobebiT dasaqmebis povnis rwmenac

TandaTan ikargeba.

amis msgavsad, sacxovreblis uqonloba iSviaTad saxeldeboda

`pirveladi pasuxebis~ SemTxvevaSi (3%), magram

CakiTxvis Sedegad es maCvenebeli oTxive qalaqSi mniSvnelovnad

gaizarda (24%-mde). usaxlkaroba, susti socialuri

mxardaWeris qselTan erTad, sakmaod Zlieri

faqtoria, romelsac SeuZlia bavSvs quCaSi cxovrebisaken

ubiZgos.

20. imave periodSi, xuTi sulisgan Semdgari ojaxisaTvis saarsebo

minimumi 200 lariT TveSi ganisazRvreboda. wyaro - statistikis

departamenti.http://www.statistics.ge/_files/english/households/Subsistence%20Geo.xls

46 ❘ nu miwodebT quCis bavSvs


mSoblebi ar muSaoben

ojaxs ar aqvs saxli

daasaxeleT yvela

pirveladi pasuxi

daasaxeleT yvela

pirveladi pasuxi

sul

sul

adgilmdebareoba

baTumi

quTaisi

rusTavi

adgilmdebareoba

baTumi

quTaisi

rusTavi

Tbilisi

Tbilisi

0 % 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70%

procenti

procenti

grafiki #17 – ojaxuri problemebi: umuSevroba da usaxlkaroba qalaqebis mixedviT (n=301)

saqarTveloSi urbanuli quCis bavSvebis raodenoba da maxasiaTeblebi ❘ 47


SemTxveva #5: erT-erT qalaqSi, `vorld viJenis~ paralelur kvlevaSi CarTuli bavSvebi sakuTar sacxovrebel pirobebs

aRweren: Cven vcxovrobT xidTan (xidis qveS), dangreuli qarxnis teritoriaze. Cven xelnakeTi saxlebi gvaqvs – karvebi an

muyaos yuTisgan gakeTebuli barakebi. zogjer, erT karavSi 6 adamiani cxovrobs, zogjer - aTi. Cven ar gvaqvs sawoli da

iatakze gvZinavs. iatakze nagavSi napovni muyaos yuTebi an celofania dagebuli da imaze gvZinavs. ar gvaqvs gadasafarebeli

da baliSebi. zogs aqvs Rumeli, magram Cveulebrivad ar aqvs SeSa. SeSas quCaSi vpoulobT da zogjer saxlSi mogvaqvs.

erTxel, roca qalaqSi banki daiwva, viRac kacma Cveni RumelisaTvis namwvavebis narCenebi mogvitana. saxlebs kari da

fanjara ar aqvs da roca qari uberavs SigniT Zalian civa. ar aris wesieri saxuravi da wvimis wyali Camodis. sadac vcxovrobT,

arc gazi da arc eleqtroenergiaa. ar gvaqvs wyali da zogjer wyali kanistrebiT mogvaqvs. zog bavSvs or kviraSi

erTxelac ki ar SeuZlia dabana.

saqarTveloSi, quCis bavSvebze mimarTuli programebi

usaxlkarobis sam formas gamohyofs. pirdapiri usaxlkaroba

niSnavs, rom bavSvs/ojaxs ar aqvs sacxovrebeli

adgili, an cxovrobs adamianis cxovrebisaTvis

Seuferebel adgilas, rogoricaa: sxveni, korpusebis

kibeebi, kioskebi da msgavsi. meore formaa arapirdapiri

usaxlkaroba, roca bavSvs/ojaxs sakuTreba ar

aqvs da Zalian arastabilur da aramdgrad pirobebSi

cxovrobs (magaliTad, viRacis binaSi erTi oTaxis

daqiraveba arastabiluri Semosavlis pirobebSi, ris

gamoc yovelTviurad ver ixdis gadasaxads da xSirad

uwevs sxvagan gadasvla). arapirdapiri usaxlkarobis

kidev erTi formaa cxovrebisaTvis Seusabamo farTis

qona. im SemTxvevaSic ki, roca saqarTveloSi quCis

bavSvebs/ojaxebs aqvT sacxovrebeli, maT ar gaaCniaT

aucilebeli pirobebi – ngrevis piras myofi sacxovreblebi

gazis, eleqtroenergiis, gaTbobisa da avejis

gareSe ar SeiZleba Sesaferis sacxovrebel adgilad

CaiTvalos. aseve, quCis bavSvebis ojaxebi xSirad gadatvirTul

pirobebSi cxovroben, sadac ubralod

sacxovreblad sakmarisi farTi ar aris da bavSvebs

swavlisa da ganmartoebisaTvis pirobebi ar aqvT.

SemTxveva #6: nino, skolis asakis sami quCis bavSvis martoxela deda, Tbilisis erT-erT miwisqveSa gadasasvlelSi maTxovrobs.

30 wlis asakSi ojaxuri problemebisa da ekonomikuri sirTuleebis gamo ninom bina dakarga. ganaTlebis uqonlobis

gamo da sami mcirewlovani bavSviT xelSi samsaxuris Sovna Zalian gauWirda. male ninos mwiri danazogi amoiwura da mas

patara oTaxis daqiravebac ki ar SeeZlo, sadac bavSvebTan erTad icxovrebda. mas aravin eguleboda visac dasaxmareblad

mimarTavda. im dros, maTxovroba arsebobis erTaderTi gza Canda.

yovel diliT, nino `misi~ miwisqveSa gadasasvlelis kibeebze samaTxovrod marto midioda. SuadRisiT, skolidan bavSvebi

brundebodnen. nino maT diliT gamomuSavebuli fuliT nayid sendviCebs aZlevda. bavSvebi skolis CanTebze sxdebodnen,

kibeebze skolis wignebsa da rveulebs gaSlidnen da nino saSinao davalebis momzadebaSi exmareboda. saSinao davalebis

dasrulebis Semdeg, bavSvebi darCenil dros axlomaxlo quCaSi atarebdnen, zogjer dedasTan erTad maTxovrobdnen adre

saRamomde, roca dedas isini mitovebul sardafSi mihyavda, sadac isini iZinebdnen.

arsebul pirobebSi, nino yvelanairad cdilobda ezruna bavSvebze. mas maTxovrobiT ZlivsZlivobiT gahqonda Tavi. igi

cdilobda bavSvebisaTvis siyvaruli da yuradReba ar daeklo da rom isini mSivrebi ar yofiliyvnen da regularulad

evloT skolaSi. roca mas socialuri muSakebi miuaxlovdnen da bavSvebis dRis centrSi gagzavna SesTavazes, ninom,

miuxedavad imisa, rom idea misTvis miuRebeli ar iyo, upasuxa: `ubralod mapovnineT samsaxuri da Weri Tavze da Cven kvlav

normalurad vicxovrebT~.

zogi quCis bavSvi ekonomikuri siZneleebis konteqst-

Si valebsac axsenebs. arasamTavrobo organizaciebidan

da `vorld viJenis~ paraleluri kvlevidan miRebuli

mtkicebulebebi cxadhyofs, rom quCis bavSvebis

ojaxebSi valebi bankebidan aRebul sesxebs ar gulisxmobs,

vinaidan bankebze am ojaxebs xeli iSviaTad miuwvdebaT.

amis nacvlad, ojaxebi fuls araformalurad

sesxuloben (magaliTad, adgilobriv maRaziaSi

produqtebs nisiad yiduloben da mogvianebiT, valis

gadaxda ar SeuZliaT, an momavali Semosavlis molodinSi

ufro met rames yiduloben da mere danakliss ver

faraven). aseve, zogma bavSvma axsena azartul TamaSebSi

monawileoba da Semdgom, azartuli TamaSebis mflobelebis

mimarT valebi, romelic maT mogvianebiT unda

(an iZulebulni arian rom) gadaixadon.

zogi avtoris mtkicebiT, siRaribe SeiZleba ojaxis

daSlis ZiriTadi mizezi iyos, romelic mere bavSvs

quCaSi cxovrebisaken ubiZgebs. 21 sxvebi aRniSnaven,

21. Apterkar, Lewis (2001), ibid.

rom urbanuli siRaribe, romelsac xSirad socialuri

izolacia axlavs Tan, bavSvebSi mijaWvulobasTan

dakavSirebuli usafrTxoebis Camoyalibebis pirobebs

uSlis xels. 22 saqarTveloSi ramdenime bavSvze zrunvis

dawesebulebaSi Catarebuli kvleva 23 aRwers im negatiur

gavlenas, rasac siRaribe qarTuli ojaxis cxovrebis

xarisxze axdens da tkivils da eTikur dilemebs,

romlis winaSec gaRatakebuli mSoblebi dganan,

romelTac surT arCinon Svilebi, magram bavSvebis

aRzrdis movaleobis jerovnad Sesruleba ar ZaluZT.

miuxedavad imisa, rom ekonomikuri sakiTxebi saqarTveloSi

bavSvebis quCaSi cxovrebis amxsneli mniSvnelovani

faqtoria, igi erTaderT faqtorad ar Sei-

Zleba ganvixiloT. qveynis masStabiT, siRaribis done

22. Thomas de Benitez, Sarah (2007), State of the World’s Street Children: Violence,

Consortium for Street Children Street Children Series, London

23. Bolton, Paul; Murray, Laura; Semrau, Katherine; Wessells, Michael (2006),

Causes of Children Living on the Street in Urban Georgia: A Qualitative Assessment;

Boston University School of Public Health & Columbia University

Program on Forced Migration and Health, for the Center for International

Health, for Save the Children and USAID

48 ❘ nu miwodebT quCis bavSvs


jer kidev sakmaod maRalia – 2006 wlis bolodan, saer-

TaSoriso savaluto fondis Tanaxmad, saqarTveloSi

daregistrirebulma siRaribis donem 31%-s miaRwia, 24

da siRaribeSi mcxovrebi bavSvebis done 57%-ia (msoflio

banki, 2005). 25 magram ekonomikurad gaWirvebuli

bavSvebis mxolod mcire procentia Cabmuli quCis aqtivobebSi

an quCis cxovrebaSi. rogorc saqarTveloSi

quCis bavSvebis programebiT dasturdeba, Cven xSirad

vxvdebiT did ojaxebs, romlebic ukidures gaWirveba-

Si sakmaod didi xnis ganmavlobaSi cxovroben (saqarTvelos

statistikis departamentis mier dadgenil

saarsebo minimumze 26 gacilebiT naklebze).

adgilmdebareoba

sul

baTumi

quTaisi

rusTavi

orive/erTi mSobeli gardacvlilia

daasaxeleT yvela

pirveladi pasuxi

winamdebare kvleva sworxazovan pasuxebs ar gvTavazobs

Tu rogoria mizez-Sedegobrivi kavSiri sxvadasxva

problemebs Soris, amitom SeuZlebelia imis

Tqma, Tu rodis aris siRaribe bavSvis quCaSi cxovrebis

mTavari gamomwvevi faqtori da rodis iwvevs amas

sxva siZneleebi an gulgriloba. SeiZleba vamtkicoT,

rom TavisTavad siRaribe sxva wina-faqtorebis Sedegia,

rogoricaa: ojaxis daSla, umuSevroba an ojaxuri

Zaladoba. msoflioSi aRiarebulia, rom rTuli ekonomikuri

pirobebi da socialuri izolacia kidev ufro

zrdis zewolas isedac aramtkice ojaxebze. rogorc

ukve aRiniSna, saqarTveloSi bevri quCis bavSvis mSobeli

daswavlili umweobis mdgomareobaSia – didi xnis

ganmavlobaSi mTel rig siZneleebTan Widilis gamo,

isini sakuTar Tavs problemis nawilad an mizezad

ganixilaven da Tvlian, rom siZneleebi maTi cxovrebis

yvela aspeqtze axdens gavlenas da rom maT arafris

Secvla SeuZliaT.

oTxive qalaqSi gamokiTxuli bavSvebis 82%-ze meti

erTi an orive mSoblis gardacvalebas Tavis upirveles

problemad ar miiCnevs. CakiTxvis Semdegac, bavSvebis

71% mSoblebis gardacvalebas mTavar problemad

ar asaxelebs. da mainc: ekonomikuri sakiTxebis Semdeg,

saqarTvelos quCis bavSvebis mier ojaxis daSla mniSvnelovan

sirTuled aRiqmeba. ojaxis daSlis xSirad

dasaxelebul maxasiaTeblebs miekuTvneba: mSoblebis

gardacvaleba an mxolod erTi mSoblis yola, ganqorwineba

da meored daqorwineba, alkoholizmi da ojaxuri

Zaladoba. mSoblebis dakargva da sxva zrdasruli

naTesavis aryola saqarTveloSi bavSvebisaTvis Zalian

Zlieri – Tundac araxSiri – stres-faqtoria, imdenad

Zlieri, rom sakmarisia bavSvs quCaSi cxovrebisaken

ubiZgos.

24. International Monetary Fund (2007), Georgia: Sixth Review Under the

Three-Year Arrangement Under the Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility,

Country Report No.07/299, Middle East and Central Asia Department, IMF

25. Source: World Bank Household Budget Surveys and Living Standards

Measurement Surveys, in UNICEF’s INNOCENTI Social Monitor (2006);

Understanding Child Poverty in South-Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth

of Independent States

26. statistikis departamentis Tanaxmad, 2007 wlis dekemberSi

xuTi sulisagan Semdgari ojaxisaTvis saarsebo minimumi 231 lari

iyo ; http://www.statistics.ge/_files/english/households/Subsistence%20Geo.xls

adgilmdebareoba

Tbilisi

0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60%

procenti

mSoblebi ganqorwinebulni/kvlav daqorwinebulni

sul

baTumi

quTaisi

rusTavi

Tbilisi

daasaxeleT yvela

0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25%

procenti

pirveladi pasuxi

grafiki #18 – ojaxuri problemebi: mSoblis gardacvaleba da

ganqorwineba qalaqebis mixedviT (n=301)

SemTxveva #7: 18 wlis asakSi, skolis dasrulebisTanave,

nana gaTxovda da axal ojaxSi gadavida. male mas pirveli

Svili eyola. nana saxlSi ijda da bavSvze zrunavda. misi

qmris - zazas - xelfasi xuTi sulisgan Semdgari ojaxis

erTaderTi saarsebo wyaro iyo (nanas dedamTili da misi

da pensionerebi iyvnen). roca zazam samsaxuri dakarga

da axali ver moZebna, siRaribem ojaxur urTierTobebSi

bzaris gaCenas Seuwyo xeli. Ralatma damatebiTi konfliqtebi

warmoSva da rodesac biWi oTxi wlis iyo, nana

qmars gaSorda. igi iZulebuli gaxda saxli daetovebina.

nanas SvilTan erTad wasasvleli arsad hqonda. mis saku-

Tar danawevrebul ojaxs misi ukan miReba ar SeeZlo da

ar surda. qmris ojaxTan cxovrebis dros, mas qonebaze

rame ufleba ar moupovebia. ar hqonda profesiuli

unarebi, romelic samsaxuris SovnaSi daexmarebodada

muSaobis SemTxvevaSi biWs vin mixedavda? nanas bavSvTan

daSoreba da misi bavSvTa saxlSi Cabareba ar surda. man

ipova carieli sxveni Zveli Tbilisis mitovebul saxlSi

da bavSvTan erTad iq dasaxlda. orive fuls eklesiis

SesasvlelSi maTxovrobiT Soulobda, sadac isini mTel

dRes atarebdnen.

saqarTveloSi urbanuli quCis bavSvebis raodenoba da maxasiaTeblebi ❘ 49


alkoholizmi da ojaxuri Zaladoba

ojaxuri Zaladoba

daasaxeleT yvela pirveladi pasuxi daasaxeleT yvela pirveladi pasuxi

sul

sul

adgilmdebareoba

baTumi

quTaisi

rusTavi

adgilmdebareoba

baTumi

quTaisi

rusTavi

Tbilisi

Tbilisi

0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 0% 7% 14% 21% 28% 35% 42%

procenti

procenti

grafiki #19 – ojaxuri problemebi: alkoholizmi da ojaxuri Zaladoba qalaqebis mixedviT (n=301)

oTxive qalaqSi, im bavSvebis procentuli maCvenebeli,

romlebmac mSoblebis ganqorwineba an meored qorwineba

problemaTa ricxvSi daasaxela, mniSvnelovnad

gaizarda `daasaxeleT yvela~-s SemTxvevaSi, `pirveladi

pasuxTan~ SedarebiT. calkeuli magaliTebi migvi-

TiTebs im stres-faqtorebis kompleqsurobaze, romlebic

mSoblebis ganqorwinebis da meored qorwinebis

SemTxvevaSi saqarTveloSi warmoiSoba. maT Sorisaa:

ganqorwinebamde arsebuli ojaxuri konfliqtebiT

gamowveuli travmebi, mSoblebis ganSorebasTan asocirebuli

travma, ojaxis sacxovrebeli standartebis

ucabedi gauareseba (gansakuTrebiT, roca qmrebi

dedebis mxrebze toveben ojaxis rCenis mTel tvirTs),

ojaxSi maminacvlis an dedinacvlis Semosvla. bavSvebi,

romlebic ojaxis Semadgenlobis msgavsi cvlilebis

gamo saxls quCaze cvlian, xSirad maminacvlis/

dedinacvlis mxridan Zaladobisa da uaryofis msxverplni

arian.

oTxive qalaqSi quCis bavSvebis procentuli raodenoba,

romelic problemebad alkoholizmsa da ojaxur

Zaladobas asaxelebs, `pirveladi pasuxTan~ (4%)

SedarebiT `daasaxeleT yvela~-s SemTxvevaSi 40%-mde

izrdeba. am oridan, alkoholizmi ufro xSirad saxeldeba

vidre ojaxuri Zaladoba.

saRi azri gvafiqrebinebs, rom Tu bavSvebi ojaxSi alkoholizmis

da ojaxuri Zaladobis Sesaxeb Civian, es

ojaxSi mamis arsebobasTan (mamasTan cxovrebasTan)

unda iyos dakavSirebuli da bavSvebi, romelTac mxolod

deda hyavT cocxali da imave qalaqSi cxovroben,

naklebad unda asaxelebdnen am problemebs. marTlac,

bavSvebi, romlebic mxolod mamasTan cxovroben,

ufro metad asaxeleben alkoholizms, rogorc ojaxur

problemas vidre sxva tipis ojaxebSi mcxovrebi

bavSvebi. magram alkoholizmi aseve problemad rCeba

bevri im bavSvisaTvis, vinc mxolod dedasTan, an orive

mSobelTan da arcerT naTesavTan erTad ar cxovrobs.

ojaxuri Zaladoba problemad dasaxelda im bavSvebis

mier, romlebic erT mSobelTan da sxva naTesavebTan

da mxolod dedasTan erTad cxovroben, an saerTod ar

cxovroben ojaxis wevrebTan.

bevr qveyanaSi ojaxuri Zaladoba yvelaze zogadi

faqtoria, romelic bavSvs quCisken ubiZgebs 27 . miuxedavad

imisa, rom bevr qarTvel quCis bavSvs alkoholizmi

da ojaxuri Zaladoba mTavar problemad

ar dausaxelebia, es sakiTxebi mainc Rrma Seswavlas

saWiroebs. ukanaskneli angariSebi cxadhyofs, rom

saqarTveloSi ojaxuri Zaladobisa da bavSvze Zaladobis

SemTxvevebi SeiZleba msxverplis mier dafiqsirebuli

ar iyos. msoflios masStabiT Catarebuli

kvlevebi adasturebs ojaxuri Zaladobis damazianebel

gavlenas bavSvis ganviTarebaze 28 da xSirad xazs usvams

`ojaxebis mxardaWeris kritikul aucileblobas,

raTa maT aRmofxvran Zaladoba saxlSi~. 29

quCaSi cxovrebis formebTan erTad bavSvebis mier

maTi mTavari problemebis aRqmac icvleba. mSoblis

gardacvalebis problemad dasaxeleba bavSvis mier

quCaSi Rameebis gatarebasTan erTad izrdeba da quCa-

Si mcxovrebi bavSvebisaTvis ekonomikur siZneleebsac

gadafaravs. meore mxriv, ekonomikuri siZneleebi

ufro mniSvnelovania im bavSvebisaTvis, vinc quCaSi mxolod

dRis saaTebs atarebs. maSin, roca quCaSi aqtiuri

bavSvebis 15% ambobs, rom maT ojaxebs problema

ar aqvT, msgavsi pasuxi arcerT quCaSi mcxovreb bavSvs

ar gaucia da quCasa da saxlSi mcxovrebi bavSvebis mxolod

2%-ma daasaxela.

imave qalaqSi mSoblebis aryofna bavSvis mier problemebis

aRqmaze aseve axdens gavlenas. quCis bavSvebi,

visac imave qalaqSi mSoblebi ar hyavs, marto yofnas

27. Thomas de Benitez, Sarah (2007), ibid

28. magaliTisTvis ixileT Minnesota Advocates for Human Rights & Institute

for Policy Studies (2006), Domestic Violence and Child Abuse in Georgia:

An Assessment of Current Standings of Law and Practice Regarding Domestic

Violence and Child Abuse in Georgia, and Recommendations for Future United

Nations Country Team Involvement. UN Country Team of Georgia, Tbilisi

29. Thomas de Benitez, Sarah (2007), ibid.

50 ❘ nu miwodebT quCis bavSvs


ufro met problemad miiCneven vidre siRaribes. maSin,

roca mSoblebTan imave qalaqSi mcxovrebi bavSvebi

ekonomikur problemebs pirvel adgilze asaxeleben.

bavSvebi, romlebsac imave qalaqSi mxolod erTi mSobeli

hyavT, pirvel adgilze ekonomikur siZneleebs

asaxeleben, magram maT mier dasaxelebuli ori sxva

yvelaze rTuli problema ojaxis mdgomareobas ukav-

Sirdeba: mxolod erTi cocxali mSoblis yola da

mSoblebis ganqorwineba/meored qorwineba.

ojaxuri quCaSi mcxovrebi quCaSi da saxlSi mcxovrebi quCaSi aqtiuri

problemebi bavSvebi (n=19) bavSvebi (n=56) bavSvebi (n=226)

mSoblebi gardacvlili hyavT 42.10% 19.20% 8.00%

ekonomikuri 31.60% 53.70% 57.50%

mxolod erTi mSobeli 5.80% 7.70% 4.90%

hyavT cocxali

cxrili #9 – ZiriTadi ojaxuri problemebi da quCaSi cxovreba (dro/adgili)

saqarTveloSi urbanuli quCis bavSvebis raodenoba da maxasiaTeblebi ❘ 51


quCis bavSvebi da skola

ganaTleba, am sityvis farTo mniSvnelobiT, adamianis

ganviTarebis fundamentia. sabaziso wera-kiTxvis unari

da cxovrebiseuli unari samomavalo Semosavlis

gamosamuSaveblad aucilebelia. Sesabamisad, ganaTlebasTan

dakavSirebuli kiTxvebi gamokiTxvis mniSvnelovan

nawils Seadgenda. analizisas oTxi aspeqti

iyo gaTvaliswinebuli: amJamad skolaSi Caricxvis

maCvenebeli, warsulSi skolaSi siarulis maCvenebeli,

skolaSi arasdros wasvlis an mitovebis mizezebi da

wera-kiTxvis maCvenebeli.

gamokvlevebis Tanaxmad, saqarTvelos skolis bavSvTa

umetesoba savaldebulo saskolo ganaTlebis asakisaa

(14 wlamde). quCis bavSvebis daaxloebiT 86% amJamad

skolaSi ar iricxeba. Tu Cvens bavSvebs, asakis mixedviT,

or kategoriad davajgufebT - dawyebiTi ganaTleba 11

wlamde da saSualo ganaTleba (12 wels zeviT), maSin

pirveli jgufidan bavSvebis 20%, xolo meore jgufidan

maTi 10% iricxeba skolaSi. ganaTlebisa da mecnierebis

saministros monacemebiT, sabaziso-dawyebiT

skolaSi moswavleTa 95%, xolo saSualo skolaSi _

76% iricxeba. 30

procenti

100.0%

90.0%

80.0%

70.0%

60.0%

50.0%

40.0%

30.0%

20.0%

10.0%

0%

Tbilisi

(n=181)

Caricxulni

rusTavi

(n=32)

arCaricxulni

quTaisi

(n=58)

adgilmdebareobebi

baTumi

(n=30)

grafiki #20 – quCis bavSvebis ricxvi skolebSi, qalaqebis mixedviT

skolaSi Caricxvis maCvenebelsa da quCis bavSvebis

skolaSi daswrebis monacemebs Soris sakmaod SesamCnevi

sxvaobaa.

interviuebi bavSvebTan saswavlo wlis mimdinareobisas

Catarda (noembris bolos samSabaTidan xuTSabaTis

30. wyaro: ganaTlebisa da mecnierebis saministros oficialuri

yovelwliuri statistika ganaTlebis Sesaxeb (Sedgenili MIS-is E

mier), gamoqyveynebuli ganaTlebisa da mecnierebis saministros

mier (2007 wels), xelmisawvdomia Semdeg veb-misamarTze: www.mes.

gov.ge (ixileT kvlevebi)

CaTvliT), magram mxolod rusTavis (da ara sxva qalaqebis)

quCis bavSvebis 3%-ma aRniSna, rom wina dRes, dRis

saaTebSi skolaSi imyofeboda. kvleva da calkeuli

magaliTebi aCvenebs, rom zogierTi swavlisa da Semosavlis

gamomuSavebis SeTavsebas cdilobs da radgan

fulis gamomuSaveba maTTvis ufro prioriteulia,

xSirad skolis gacdenas amjobineben, Tu es saaTebi

maT samuSao ganrigs emTxveva.

bavSvTa skolaSi daswrebis oficialuri statistika

xelmisawvdomi ar aris. ganaTlebisa da mecnierebis

saministrom daswrebis maCveneblebis gamoTxova sajaro

skolebidan 2007 wlis seqtemberSi daiwyo, magram

es Sedegebi kvlevisaTvis droulad ar gamoqveynda.

zogierTi axali kvleva xangrZlivi periodis ganmavlobaSi

saqarTveloSi skolis sistematurad gacdenis

maRal doneze miuTiTebs, gansakuTrebiT es umuSevrobis

maRali maCveneblis mqone, urbanul centrebSi mcxovreb

Rarib bavSvebs exeba. 31

saqarTvelos quCis bavSvebis 40%-ma skola ganaTlebis

sxvadasxva safexurze miatova (ZiriTadad sabaziso

ganaTlebis etapze). es monacemebic mniSvnelovnad

gansxvavdeba saqarTveloSi oficialuri statistikisagan

romlis Tanaxmad, saswavleblis mitovebis maCvenebeli

(rogorc skolis yvela moswavlis procenti)

2007-Si daaxloebiT 0.3% iyo, sabaziso ganaTlebis

dasrulebis maCvenebeli ki – 98%. 32 msoflio bankis

bolo kvlevis Tanaxmad, bavSvebi Raribi ojaxebidan

savaldebulo safexuris Semdeg ufro naklebad agr-

Zeleben skolaSi swavlas. 33

yvela gamokiTxuli bavSvis daaxloebiT 60% arasdros

yofila skolaSi. aseTi maRali maCvenebeli maTia vinc

ganaTlebis uflebiT srulad ver sargeblobs. es

mravalganzomilebiani sakiTxia politikis donezec

maSin roca saqarTveloSi sabaziso ganaTleba savaldebuloa.

ar arsebobs praqtikuli, moqmedi meqanizmi,

romelic saskolo asakis bavSvebs gansazRvravs da

maT skolaSi Caricxvas uzrunvelyofs. agreTve, arc

sistemuri midgoma arsebobs im SemTxvevebisaTvis,

roca mSobels ar SeuZlia bavSvebs ganaTlebis miRebaSi

daexmaros. meorec, xSirad ukidures siRaribeSi

myofi ojaxebi, romlebic xangrZlivi umuSevrobisa

da socialuri izolaciis winaSe dganan, ganaTlebas

SvilebisaTvis prioritetulad ar Tvlian da sanacvlod

maT ojaxis yoveldRiuri SemosavlisaTvis

damatebiTi saxsrebis moZiebis saqmianobaSi CarTvas

amjobineben. da bolos, gaunaTlebloba da wera-kiTxvis

arcodna Tu adreul asakSi ar gamosworda, bavSvebisaTvis

socialuri adaptaciis problemebs qmnis.

(gansakuTrebiT vaJTa Soris, romlebic SesamCnevad

sWarboben gogonebs saqarTvelos quCis bavSvebs Soris).

31. Rosati, Furio; Özbil, Zeynep; Marginean, Diana (2006): School-to-Work Transition

and Youth Inclusion in Georgia; The International Bank for Reconstruction

and Development / The World Bank

32. wyaro: saqarTvelos ganaTlebisa da mecnierebis saministros

oficialuri yovelwliuri statistika ganaTlebis Sesaxeb.

33. Rosati, Furio; Özbil, Zeynep; Marginean, Diana (2006), ibid.

52 ❘ nu miwodebT quCis bavSvs


procenti

90.0%

80.0%

70.0%

60.0%

50.0%

40.0%

30.0%

20.0%

10.0%

0%

skolidan

wamosulni

Tbilisi

(n=181)

rusTavi

(n=32)

arasdros uvliaT

skolaSi

quTaisi

(n=58)

adgilmdebareobebi

baTumi

(n=30)

grafiki #21 – skolidan wamosuli bavSvebi da isini, visac arasdros

uvliaT skolebSi, qalaqebis mixedviT

quCis bavSvebis axlandeli Tu warsuli ganaTlebis

statusi maT asaksa da sqess ukavSirdeba. ufrosi asakisani

naklebad arian Caricxulni skolebSi vidre umcrosebi,

magram maT umetesobas mitovebuli aqvs skola.

vaJebis 82% 2.2.-jer metad dadis skolaSi vidre

gogonebi.

ojaxis arsebobas ufro Zlieri gavlena aqvs quCis

bavSvebis ganaTlebaze, vidre ojaxSi ekonomikuri

siZneleebis faqtors. magaliTad, mzrunvelis gareSe

myofi bavSvebi, an orive mSobliT oblebi, an isini, vinc

mxolod mamasTan cxovroben, amJamad skolaSi ar iricxebian.

ufro maRali donis socialuri mxardaWeris

mqone bavSvebi 38%-iT ufro metad iricxebian skola-

Si, vidre is bavSvebi visac imave qalaqSi zrdasruli

naTesavi ar hyavs. amis msgavsad, quCis bavSvebi visac

orive mSobeli cocxali hyavs, ufro metad iricxebian

skolaSi (20%), vidre isini visac mxolod deda an mxolod

mama hyavs (11% da 6%, Sesabamisad). mSoblis an

orive mSoblis gardacvalebas mozardis mier skolis

mitovebaze Zlieri gavlena aqvs: dediT oboli bavSvebis

53%-ma, orive mSobliT oblebis 44%-ma da mamiT

oboli bavSvebis 40%-ma skolaSi siaruli miatova. igive

maCvenebeli im bavSvebisaTvis visac orive mSobeli

cocxali hyavs, 31%-ia. aseve isini, visac orive mSobeli

gardacvlili hyavs, nakleb interess iCenen skolaSi

siarulisadmi, vidre isini, visic orive mSobeli

cocxalia. quCis bavSvTa martoxela dedebi martoxela

mamebTan SedarebiT bavSvebis ganaTlebas ufro

metad afaseben.

bavSvebs ganaTlebis uqonlobis, skolis mitovebis

mTavari mizezi unda daesaxelebinaT da winaswar

momzadebuli siidan pasuxebi unda amoerCiaT. saSualod,

TiToeuli bavSvi or an sam mizezs asaxelebda.

skolaSi arasdros siarulisa an amJamad ardaswrebis

ZiriTadi mizezebi dasaxelebis Tanmimdevrulobis da

sixSiris mixedviT msgavsia da ekonomikuri siZneleebi

da ganaTlebisadmi dabali interesi siis saTaveSia.

ganaTlebis xarisxi da CaricxvisaTvis aucilebeli

sabuTebis mouwesrigebloba Semdegia da aseve sakmaod

xSiria pasuxi: ,,ojaxi ar mrTavs nebas~. bavSvi, romelmac

msgavsi pasuxi gasca sanacvlod fulis gamomuSavebis

saqmeSia Cabmuli da es Tanxa ojaxSi miaqvs.

aseT SemTxvevaSi SeiZleba vivaraudoT, rom bavSvis

skolaSi argagzavnis gadawyvetileba alternatiuli

RirebulebiT motivirdeba, sadac misi wvlili ojaxis

saarsebo saWiroebebis dakmayofilebaSi ufro mniSvnelovania,

vidre grZelvadiani ganaTlebis miReba.

janmrTelobis sakiTxebi

ar aqvs skolaSi CaricxvisTvis

saWiro dokumentebi

daasaxeleT yvela

pirveladi pasuxi

ojaxi ar rTavs nebas

skolaSi wasasvlelad

sxva

mizezebi

ganaTlebis xarisxi

skola ar ainteresebs

ekonomikuri mizezebi

0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90%

procenti

grafiki #22 – skolaSi gamoucxadeblobis ZiriTadi mizezebi (n=250)

saqarTveloSi urbanuli quCis bavSvebis raodenoba da maxasiaTeblebi ❘ 53


54 ❘ nu miwodebT quCis bavSvs


avSvebma ojaxSi siRaribe da fulis gamomuSavebis

aucilebloba skolaSi wausvlelobis mTavar mizezebad

daasaxeles. rogorc zogierTi avtori wers, ojax-

Si siRaribe xSirad saqarTveloSi bavSvebis ganaTlebis

xelmisawvdomobas araTanabars xdis. magaliTad,

rozati da sxvebi (2006) 34 weren, rom ,,Raribi da araRaribi

axalgazrdebisaTvis ganaTlebis SesaZleblobebis

sxvaoba gasaocaria. maSin, roca saxelmwifo erT

moswavleze weliwadSi 20 lars xarjavs (daxloebiT

1 $ 2002 wels), yvelaze mdidari ojaxebis 20% saSualod

22-jer mets xarjavs sakuTari Svilebis ganaTlebaze,

vidre yvelaze Raribi ojaxebis 20%. ukanasknel

wlebSi, piradi xarjebi ganaTlebis xarjebSi yvelaze

araTanabrad ganawilebuli xarji iyo. Sedegad, Sesa-

Zleblobebis gauTanabrebloba droTa ganmavlobaSi

kidev ufro gaizrdeba~.

quCis bavSvebis programebis gamocdileba aCvenebs,

rom saqarTveloSi skolaSi wausvlelobis ukan mdgari

ekonomikuri mizezebi xSirad sakmaod kompleqsuria.

zogi ojaxisaTvis saswavlo nivTebisa da wignebis,

tansacmlis, sadilis, skolis gaTbobisa Tu SekeTebisaTvis

araformaluri gadasaxadebisaTvis saWiro

saxsrebi gacilebiT aRemateba maT SesaZleblobebs.

skolaSi siarulis alternatiuli Rirebuleba aseve

TamaSobs garkveul rols. ukiduresi gaWirvebis Jams,

bevri ojaxi ufro prioritetulad miiCnevs bavSvi

ojaxis arsebobisaTvis aucilebeli yoveldRiuri

saxsrebis moZiebaSi CarTos, vidre skolaSi ramdenime

saaTis gatarebis neba darTos da bavSvis saqmianobidan

miRebuli damatebiTi Semosavali dakargos. aseve,

saqarTveloSi umuSevrobis maRali donis gaTvaliswinebiT

(gansakuTrebiT axalgazrdebs Soris), ojaxebi

bavSvebis ganaTlebas momavalSi maTi ekonomikuri

mdgomareobis gaumjobesebaSi Cadebul investiciad

ar aRiqvamen. rogorc rozati da sxvebi (2007) 35 aRniSnaven,

,,sxvadasxva saqmianobas Soris bavSvis drois

ganawileba am saqmianobebTan SedarebiT sargebelzea

damokidebuli. ramdenadac skolis xarisxi ganaTlebis

sargebelianobaze axdens gavlenas, aseve axdens

gavlenas ojaxis gadawyvetilebaze bavSvis adamianur

kapitalSi investirebis Sesaxeb.~

Tavad bavSvebic SeiZleba Tvlidnen, rom maTi movaleoba

ojaxis arsebobis SenarCunebaSi wvlilis Setana

ufroa, vidre skolaSi siaruli. da bolos, umetesad

Zalian daucveli ojaxebis Svilebs ar aqvT Sesabamisi

pirobebi saxlSi rom iswavlon, aqvT zneobrivi da

eTikuri qcevis problemebi, rac skolis garemoSi

adaptacias aZnelebs da maT akademiur moswrebazec

mniSvnelovnad aisaxeba. ufro metic, siRaribis gamo

xSirad Tanaklaselebi da maswavleblebi maT diskriminacias

axdenen.

avadmyofoba ojaxSi damatebiT problemebs aCens

da kidev ufro metad amcirebs ojaxis Semosavals,

vinaidan ojaxis avadmyof wevrs muSaoba ar SeuZlia

da amavdroulad, wamlebisa da mkurnalobisaTvis

34. Rosati, Furio; Özbil, Zeynep; Marginean, Diana (2006), ibid.

35. Rosati, F.C., Rossi, M (2007), Impact of school quality on child labor and

school attendance: the case of CONAFE Compensatory Education Program

in Mexico, World Bank, UNICEF and ILO - Understanding Children’s Work

(UCW) Project, University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, Faculty of Economics

SemTxveva #8: venera (50), oTxi saskolo asakis bavSvis

wera-kiTxvis ucodinari deda, saqarTvelos erT-erT

qalaqSi iZulebiT gadaadgilebis Semdeg bavSvebis saskolo

gamocdilebas ixsenebs: `me osi var da mTeli bavSvoba

samxreT oseTis erT-erT sofelSi maqvs gatarebuli.

arasdros mivlia skolaSi da amas xSirad vnanob - saku-

Tari saxelis dawerac ki ar SemiZlia. Zalian ubedurad

vgrZnob Tavs, rom sakuTar Svilebs swavlis SesaZlebloba

ver miveci. Cven imdenad Raribebi viyaviT, rom maT-

Tvis fexsacmlisa da tansacmlis yidvac ki ar SemeZlo,

rom aRaraferi vTqva saskolo saxelmZRvaneloebsa da

sxvadasxva nivTebis Sesaxeb. maswavleblebic ar gvexmarebodnen

– maT ar surdaT saklaso oTaxSi aseTi bavSvebi hyolodaT.

xSirad dascinodnen imitom, rom ZonZebi ecvaT,

ar hqondaT rveuli da fanqari, an kidev saSinao davaleba

_ mzad. Cemi Svilebi skolidan xSirad tiriliT brundebodnen,

radgan Tanatolebi abuCad igdebdnen. sabolood,

isini quCaSi ufro met dros atarebdnen vidre sxvagan~.

damatebiTi saxsrebia saWiro. rogorc ramdenime publikaciaSi

aRiniSna, saqarTveloSi, sadac kerZo xarjebi

janmrTelobaze danaxarjebis erT mesameds Seadgens,

sakuTari jibidan gaRebuli danaxarjebi yvelaze

Raribi 15%-is xarjebis 5-jer mets warmoadgens, vidre

yvelaze mdidari 15%-sTvis. 36 avadmyofi wevris arsebobis

SemTxvevaSi bavSvebs SeiZleba kidev ufro metad

uwevdeT ojaxis SemosavalSi sakuTari wvlilis Setana.

rodesac amdagvari problemebia, maT SeiZleba saxlSi

muSaobam, umcros da-Zmebze da ojaxis avadmyof

wevrze zrunva mouwioT, rac skolaSi siarulisaTvis

dros aRar tovebs.

quCis bavSvebis asakiT yvelaze umcrosTa kategoriaSi

orjer ufro metia imaTi raodenoba, vinc skolaSi

wausvlelobis mizezad ekonomikur problemebs

asaxelebs vidre isini, visac swavla ar ainteresebs.

or ufros asakobriv kategoriaSi proporcia sapirispiroa

da swavlisadmi interesis dakargva skolaSi

wausvlelobis mTavar mizezad saxeldeba. amadroulad,

isini ganaTlebis xarisxTan dakavSirebul

ramdenime sakiTxzec amaxvileben yuradRebas (skolaSi

cudad mopyrobisa da sakuTari swavlis SesaZleblobebSi

rwmenis naklebobis CaTvliT) – es monacemi

mniSvnelovnad izrdeba `pirveladi pasuxidan~ `CamoTvaleT

yvelas~ SemTxvevaSi. visac skolaSi arasdros

uvlia, maTTvis ekonomikuri mizezebi, sabuTebis mouwesrigebloba

an mSoblebis uari ufro mniSvnelovani

winaaRmdegobaa, vidre maTTvis, vinc skolaSi siaruli

miatova. bavSvTa aRniSnuli kategoria mizezad swavlisadmi

interesis uqonlobas da swavlebis dabal

xarisxs asaxelebs.

SeiZleba davaskvnaT, rom dRevandeli formiT formaluri

ganaTleba im bavSvebis inkluzias ver uzrunvelyofs,

romlebic iseTi problemebis winaSe dganan,

rogoricaa: siRaribe, cudi mopyroba skolaSi, fulis

gamomuSavebis saWiroeba, mSoblebis uari an saWiro

sabuTebis mouwesrigebloba. es aseve exeba im bavSvebs,

visac iseTi Sinagani winaaRmdegobebi awuxebs, rogoricaa:

TviTSezRudva da araadekvaturobis SegrZneba,

rac sakuTari swavlis SesaZleblobebisadmi rwmenis

naklebobaSi gamoixateba.

36. wyaro: UNICEF’s INNOCENTI Social Monitor (2006), ibid.

saqarTveloSi urbanuli quCis bavSvebis raodenoba da maxasiaTeblebi ❘ 55


ganaTlebis

dabali xarisxi

vfiqrob, rom ver

SevZleb swavlas

warsulSi cudad

epyrobodnen

skolaSi

skola ar aris

xelmisawvdomi im

adgilis axlos

sadac is cxovrobs

0% 2% 4% 6% 8% 10% 12% 14% 16% 18%

procenti

grafiki #23 – ganaTlebis xarisxi, rogorc skolaSi

wausvlelobis erT-erTi mizezi (n=250)

testirebis Sedegad dadginda, rom quCis bavSvebis

45%-ma ar icis kiTxva, 50 % -ma _ wera sakuTar enaze.

sxva qveynebidan Camosuli bavSvebi yvelaze dabali

maCvenebliT gamoirCevian (mxolod 38%-s SeuZlia

kiTxva da 33%-s wera). savaraudod, isini ufro met xans

ar dadian skolaSi, rac xSirad skolaSi CaricxvisaTvis

aucilebeli sabuTebis mouwesrigeblobasa da qarTuli

enis cud codnas ukavSirdeba.

wera-kiTxvis codnasa da skolaSi siaruls Soris

pirdapiri kavSiria. bavSvebma, vinc skolaSi dadioda,

31-jer metad ician kiTxva da 58-jer metad _ wera, vidre

maT, visac skolaSi arasdros uswavlia.

skola quCis bavSvebisaTvis socialuri dacvis mniSvnelovani

elementia, magram xSirad SeiZleba maT Semdgom

socialur izolacias Seuwyos xeli. maT Soris

vinc amJamad skolaSi iricxeba, quCaSi 24 saaTi arcer-

Ti ar cxovrobs. umravlesoba (80%-ze meti) quCaSi mxolod

dRis saaTebs atarebs da 24 saaTi aq arasdros

ucxovria. amis sapirispirod, quCaSi mcxovrebi bavSvebi

ufro metad anebeben skolas Tavs (53%), vidre quCis

aqtiuri bavSvebi (32%).Aaq gatarebuli drois zrdasTan

erTad bavSvis kavSiri saskolo sistemasTan sustdeba

maSin, roca maTi naxevari, visac quCaSi erTi Tve (an naklebi)

aqvs gatarebuli ambobs, rom jer kidev skolaSi

iricxeba. im bavSvebSi romlebsac quCaSi sami weli (da

meti) aqvs gatarebuli, skolaSi Cauricxvelobis done

97% aRwevs.

skolaSi siaruli socialuri momsaxurebis Sesaxeb

bavSvis codnis amaRlebas uwyobs xels. maT, vinc amJamad

skolaSi iricxeba, 80%-iT meti aqvT gagonili socialuri

momsaxurebis Sesaxeb vidre maT, vinc skolaSi

ar iricxeba. aseve maT, vinc cxovrebis raRac manZilze

skolaSi dadioda, 2.5-jer metad gaugiaT erTi an meti

socialuri momsaxurebis Sesaxeb vidre im bavSvebs,

visac skolaSi arasdros uvliaT. daaxloebiT igive

tendencia SeiniSneba socialuri momsaxurebis gamoyenebis

mxriv: visac arasdros uvlia skolaSi, maTgan

mxolod 11%-s usargeblia socialuri momsaxurebiT.

igive maCvenebeli 21%-ia im bavSvebs Sorisac, vinc am-

Jamad skolaSi iricxeba xolo maT Soris, vinc skola

miatova _ 30%. amis msgavsad, wera-kiTxvis codna

bavSvebs socialuri momsaxurebis Sesaxeb codnis ama-

RlebaSi exmareba. wera-kiTxvis ucodinari bavSvebis

mizezebi

daasaxeleT

yvela

pirveladi

pasuxi

70%

60%

50%

40%

30%

20%

10%

0%

58%

54%

Tbilisi

(n=167)

22% 22%

rusTavi

(n=32)

64%

57%

quTaisi

(n=58)

grafiki #24 – wera-kiTxvis done quCis bavSvebSi qalaqebis

mixedviT

daaxloebiT 70%-s arasdros gaugia socialuri momsaxurebis

Sesaxeb da 87%-s arasdros usargeblia ase-

Ti momsaxurebiT. SedarebisTvis, wera-kiTxvis mcodne

bavSvebis 46%-ma icoda socialuri momsaxurebis Sesaxeb

da 30%-s usargeblia msgavsi momsaxurebiT.

skolaSi siarulsa da socialur momsaxurebas Soris

arsebuli kavSiri ramdenime faqtoriT SeiZleba aixsnas:

maswavleblebi, visac mozardebTan yoveldRiuri

kontaqti aqvT, sakmaod kargad icnoben bavSvs da Seu-

ZliaT mis cxovrebaSi krizisis da sagangebo viTarebis

niSnebi SeamCnion. calkeuli magaliTebi adasturebs,

rom pedagogebi msgavs situaciebze xSirad sakuTari

iniciativiT reagireben miuxedavad imisa, rom kanoniT

valdebulebi ar arian. aseve, skolaSi socialuri

urTierTobebi araformalur doneze informaciis gaziarebas

SesaZlebels xdis da zrdis imis albaTobas,

rom skolaSi mosiarule bavSvebi ufro meti socialuri

momsaxurebis Sesaxeb gaigeben im TanatolebTan

SedarebiT, romlebic skolaSi ar dadian.

kvleva gviCvenebs, rom skolaSi gatarebul umcires

drosac ki xangrZlivi gavlena aqvs quCis bavSvis TviTgansazRvrasa

da maT xelaxla motivirebaze _ SeiZinon

codna da unarebi, rac momavalSi cxovrebiseuli mdgomareobis

gaumjobesebaSi daexmarebaT. im bavSvebs, romlebic

amJamad skolaSi iricxebian, samomavlod ufro

metad fokusirebuli da praqtikuli survilebi aqvT

vidre maT, vinc ar dadis an saerTod ar uvlia skola-

Si. magaliTad, amJamad skolaSi Caricxuli moswavlis

33%-s surs iSovos samsaxuri an SeiZinos konkretuli

profesia roca gaizrdeba. maT Soris, vinc skolaSi ar

iricxeba, igive maCvenebeli mxolod 4%-ia.

quCis bavSvebis samomavlo survilebis umetesoba

pirdapir an iribad ganaTlebas ukavSirdeba.

ganaTlebis miRebis survilis mqone quCis bavSvebs Soris

ori jgufis gamoyofa SeiZleba: pirveli, bavSvebi,

visac surs daeuflos profesias (rogoricaa eqimi an

iuristi) formaluri da umaRlesi ganaTlebis gziT

da meore, visac surs SeiZinos praqtikuli unari an

SesaZleblobebi gaxdes sportsmeni, mxatvari, xelosani

an teqnikosi. gogonebs ufro metad ainteresebT

akademiuri sagnebi vidre biWebs (17% da 6% Sesabamisad).

aseve, umcrosi bavSvebi (8-dan 10 wlamde asakis)

ufro dainteresebulebi arian zogadi ganaTlebis

miRebaSi vidre ufrosi asakis bavSvebi. es, sqesisa da

asakis mixedviT morgebuli programuli intervenciis

aucileblobis maniSnebeli SeiZleba iyos.

17%

27%

baTumi

(n=30)

ar SeuZliaT

kiTxva

ar SeuZliaT

wera

56 ❘ nu miwodebT quCis bavSvs


quCis bavSvebis

Semosavlis gamomuSavebis

strategiebi

saqarTvelos quCis, skolis asakis bavSvebis umetesoba

SeiZleba davaxasiaToT rogorc `mSromeli bavSvebi~-

romlebic iZulebulni arian imuSaon, rom sakuTari

Tavisa da ojaxisaTvis Semosavali hqondeT. 37

wertilovani Sefasebis dros dakvirvebis Sedegad,

maTxovroba quCis bavSvebis mTavari saqmianoba aRmoCnda;

SromaSi naklebi bavSvi iyo SemCneuli. gogonebis

ufro maRali procenti maTxovrobs (59%) vidre _ bi-

Webis (37%). esec asakTanaa dakavSirebuli. yvelaze

umcrosi asakobrivi jgufidan (0-dan 4 wlamde), 61%

aqtiurad an pasiurad mSoblebTan erTad am saqminoba-

Sia CarTuli. maTxovrobiT dakavebuli bavSvebis procentuli

raodenoba yovel Semdeg asakobriv jgufTan

erTad mcirdeba. yvelaze dabali maCvenebeli mozardebSi

SeiniSneba - 27%. amis msgavsad, asakis zrdasTan

erTad izrdeba im bavSvebis raodenoba, vinc dakvirvebis

dros muSaobda – yvelaze mcirewlovan bavSvebSi

1%-dan, yvelaze asakovan kategoriaSi _ 31%-mde. 38

interviuebis fazaSi quCis bavSvebis umravlesobam,

daaxloebiT 90%-ma aRniSna, rom interviumde wina Tve-

Si fulis gamosamuSavebel saqmianobaSi iyo CarTuli.

yvelaze gavrcelebuli saqmianobebia: maTxovrobaa,

romlis Sesaxeb bavSvebis 55%-ma ganacxada da muSaoba

(27%). Cveulebisamebr, bavSvebs Semosavlis miRebis

erTi an ori ZiriTadi strategia aqvT. saqarTveloSi,

quCis bavSvebisTvis gankuTvnili programebiT dasturdeba,

rom samuSao ZiriTadad quCaSi mcire sagnebiT

vaWrobas, tvirTis gadazidvas, jarTisa da

minis Segrovebas, gadasamuSavebeli punqtebisaTvis

miyidvas da manqanis recxvas gulisxmobs. zogjer,

bavSvebi soflebSi Cadian da meurneobaSi muSaoben,

magram amisTvis Zalian cotas an saerTod ar iReben

fuls. saqarTvelos quCis bavSvebSi Sromis ukiduresi

formebi (rogoricaa: komerciuli seqsi an bavSvTa

pornografia), Zalian iSviaTia.

fulis gamomuSavebis aucilebloba ojaxSi ekonomikuri

siZneleebiTaa nakarnaxevi, gansakuTrebiT im

bavSvebs Soris, vinc quCaSi mxolod dRis saaTebSia.

maTma 40%-ma aRniSna, rom gamomuSavebul fuls ojaxis

saWiroebebze xarjavs. Bbevri, krizisis dros ojaxis

mxardaWeris saWiroebas Tavad xedavs _ sakuTari SemosavliT

ojaxis Semosavlis gazrdis, an sakuTari

saWiroebebis Tavad dakamyofilebis gziT, rom ojaxs

37. magaliTisTvis ixileT: the World Bank, the Partnership for Child

Development (PCD) at Imperial College, London, and UNICEF (2006): Ensuring

Education Access for Orphans and Vulnerable Children - A Planners’ Handbook,

2nd Edition

38. wertilovani Sefasebis fazaSi bavSvebis sakmaod maRali

maCvenebeli garkveul saqmianobaSi iyo CarTuli, magram na-

Teli ar iyo, es iyo maTxovroba Tu muSaoba. vinaidan am “sxva”

saqmianobebis maCvenebeli maRali iyo intervius fazaSi, ufro

specifiuri informaciis misaRebad, Semosavlis gamomuSavebis

saqmianobebis Sesaxeb kiTxvebi ramdenime kiTxvad daiyo.

maTi rCena aRar mouwios. zogjer, ojaxis wevrebi Tavad

maTxovroben da bavSvebic Tan axlavT. rogorc

ukve aRiniSna, aseve arseboben quCis dedebi (zogjer

15 wlisanic ki), vinc quCaSi Semosavlis gamomuSavebis

saqmianobaSi Tavis patara SvilTan erTadaa CarTuli.

xSirad, bavSvebi ojaxis ZiriTadi saWiroebebis dakmayofilebaSi

sakuTari wvlilis Setanis pasuxismgeblobasac

grZnoben.

SemTxveva #9: `vorld viJenis” mier quTaissa da baTumSi

quCis bavSvebis Sesaxeb Catarebul kvlevaSi zogierTi bavSvi

ojaxis rCenis pasuxismgeblobaze saubrobs: `Cemi pensioneri

da moxucebuli mSoblebi ver muSaoben. puris fulis

gamosamuSaveblad jarTs vagroveb da yvelafers, rasac

vSoulob maT vaZlev~ (vaJi, 19 wlis)

`deda avadaa, mama ar myavs. umcrosi da myavs da masze unda

vizruno. puris fuli ar gvaqvs; Zalian cotas vSoulob da

RumelisTvis SeSas vagroveb.~ (gogona, 15 wlis)

,,dedaCemi da mamaCemi ar muSaoben. Cemi daa avadaa da wamlis

fuli ar gvaqvs. me vmaTxovrob, rom wamlis fuli viSovo.

ojaxSi mxolod erTi adamini (anu me) muSaobs~ (gogona, 16

wlis)

,,ojaxSi xuTi sulia, magram mxolod me SemiZlia muSaoba. mamaCemi

muSaobda roca SeeZlo, magram axla unarSezRudulia.

Cemi da avadaa da dedas samsaxuri ar aqvs~ (vaJi, 15 wlis)

,,dedaCemi ar muSaobs. mamaCemi da Cemi Zma moskovSi arian,

magram fuls ver gvigvzavnian. me avadmyofi Zma myavs, arc

wamlis da arc saWmlis fuli ar gvaqvs. amitomac xatebs

vyidi.~ (gogona, 13 wlis)

`,Tu quCaSi ar gavalT, dedas, bebias da me saWmeli ar

gveqneba.~ (gogona, 13 wlis)

,,mamaCemi mokvda da sxva marCenali ar gvyavs. deda ar

muSaobs. igi maTxovrobs, rom puris fuli iSovos, magram es

ar kmara da amitom mec vexmarebi.~ (gogona, 10 wlis)

bavSvis ekonomikuri saqmianobiT ojaxis Semosavlis

gazrdis fenomeni msoflios masStabiT siRaribes

ukavSirdeba. rogorc edmondsma aRniSna, (2005) 39 , ganviTarebad

qveynebSi Raribi mSoblebi rTuli gadawyvetilebebis

winaSe dganan. bavSvebs ojaxSi produqtiuli

ekonomikuri wvlilis Setana (. . .…), aseve sakuTari

Tavis, da-Zmebis da ojaxis sxva wevrebis gamokveba, Semosva,

Sefareba da sxvamxriv daxmareba SeuZliaT. (. . .…)

maSinac ki, roca alternatiuli SesaZleblobebi arsebobs

(magaliTad, skola), mSoblebs da bavSvebs xSirad

samwuxaro gadawyvetilebis miReba uwevT da bavSvis

muSaoba wina planze gadadis, vinaidan misi Semosavlis

dakargva mniSvnelovnad gaauaresebs ojaxis siRaribis

dones.

Semosavlis miRebis saqmianobaSi CarTvis meore yvelaze

gavrcelebuli mizezi bavSvis mier saarsebo sa-

Sualebis mopovebaa, radgan masze aravin zrunavs. gansakuTrebiT

es quCaSi mcxovreb bavSvebs exeba; aseve

maT, vinc ojaxis wevrebTan erTad ar cxovrobs da maT,

visac mTavari mzrunveli ar hyavs. quCaSi mcxovrebi

bavSvebi Semosavlis miRebis ufro met strategias mimarTaven

vidre bavSvebi zogad SerCevaSi. aseve, isini

39. Edmonds, Eric V. (2005), Understanding Child Labor: Patterns, Types and

Causes, in: E-Journal USA – Economic Perspectives, the U.S. Department of

State/the Bureau of International Information Programs, May 2005

saqarTveloSi urbanuli quCis bavSvebis raodenoba da maxasiaTeblebi ❘ 57


58 ❘ nu miwodebT quCis bavSvs


ufro metad xarjaven miRebul Semosavals mxolod

Tavisi an megobrebis saWiroebebis dasakmayofileblad.

fulis Sovnis yvelaze gavrcelebuli gza maTxovrobaa

da quCaSi mcxovrebi bavSvebi gacilebiT naklebad

asaxeleben muSaobas vidre quCis bavSvebi mTel

SerCevaSi. sxva quCis bavSvebTan SedarebiT, am jgufSi

aseve gacilebiT maRalia nagavSi qeqvisa da qurdobis

SemTxvevebic.

quCis bavSvebis asakis matebasTan da ojaxebis gareSe

cxovrebis albaTobis zrdasTan erTad maTi finansuri

mdgradobis SenarCunebis saWiroeba matulobs.

magaliTad, umcros asakobriv kategoriaSi bavSvebis

naxevari gamomuSavebul fuls ojaxs moaxmars, maSin,

roca ufrosi bavSvebis 75% fuls sakuTari Tavis sar-

Cenad iyenebs.

yvela gamokiTxuli bavSvis TiTqmis erTi meoTxedi

aRniSnavs, rom maT mier gamomuSavebul fuls mSoblebi

(21%) an sxvebi (2%) arTmeven. es SemTxvevebi ZiriTadad

10 wlis da umcros bavSvebs exeba, romlebic maTxovroben.

ufrosi bavSvebis mxolod mcire nawili da isini

vinc muSaobs ambobs, rom fuli waarTves. calkeuli

magaliTebi mowmobs, rom msgavsi SemTxvevebi xSirad

ojaxSi alkoholis (an ufro naklebad, narkotikebis)

moxmarebas ukavSirdeba da saxlSi fulis armitanis

SemTxvevaSi bavSvi SeiZleba fizikurad daisajos.

SemTxveva #10: antons ori ufrosi Zma, da da gonebrivad

SezRuduli umcrosi Zma hyavs. roca igi rva wlis iyo, deda

gardaecvala. male bavSvis mama sxva qalTan gadavida da

Svilebi maTi mozardi da-Zmebis amara datova. erTi wlis

Semdeg, antonis ufrosi da da Zma daqorwindnen da sxvagan

gadavidnen, meore ufrosi Zma ki alkoholze gaxda damokidebuli.

igi ar muSaobda da saxlSi saWmlis fulic ki ar iyo..

antoni grZnobda, rom gonebrivad SezRudul umcros Zmaze

unda ezruna da amitom quCis saqmianobebSi CaerTo. is xSirad

mimarTavda maTxovrobas, jarTis Segrovebas, zogjer ki

- calkeuli nivTebis moparvas da gayidvasac. emociurad

pasuxismgeblobis grZnoba biWisTvis Zalian mZime iyo. mdgomaroebas

kidev ufro auaresebda is garemoeba, rom ufrosi

Zma xSirad aiZulebda alkoholisaTvis fuli moetana da Tu

is fuls ar miscemda fizikurad uswordeboda biWs. sabolo

jamSi, antonma wnexs ver gauZlo da saxlidan wavida.

Semosavlis gamommuSavebeli quCis bavSvebis Sesaxeb

damafiqrebeli dakvirveba `vorld viJenis~ kvleva-

Sia mocemuli. am kvlevis Tanaxmad, ramdenime bavSvi

iZulebulia Semosavali azartul TamaSebSi monawileobis

Sedegad gamoimuSavos. savaraudod, azartuli

saTamaSo adgilebis mflobelebi quCis bavSvebs Semosvlisa

da TamaSis saSualebas aZleven. isini xandaxan

sakmaod mniSvnelovan Tanxas ageben da `valebis~ gastumrebamde

Tavs usafrTxod ar grZnoben. bavSvebi

aRniSnaven, rom isini aiZules emaTxovraT an moeparaT

rame, rom azartuli TamaSebis Sedegad wagebuli fuli

daebrunebinaT. qurdobas ki kanonTan SeusabamobaSi

mivyavarT. ramdenime bavSvma aRniSna, rom isini warmo-

Sobil stress ver umklavdebodnen da TviTmkvleloba

scades.

SemTxveva #11: 14 wlis biWi quTaisidan azartuli TamaSebis

gamocdilebas ixsenebs: `bavSvebi ageben fuls erTxel,

orjer da igi ukan unda daabrunon, magram sakmaris Tanxas

ver Souloben. amis gamo, me da sxvebi vqurdobT. TviTmkvlelobazec

ki vifiqre: werili davwere da gadasaxtomad

xidze davdeqi. gadamarCines. mere Cemma mSoblebma vali aiRes

da azartuli saTamaSo adgilis mflobels fuli daubrunes.

mRvdels SeuZlia daexmaros quCis bavSvebs. mivides saTamaSo

adgilebSi da akrZalos isini. me es ar SemiZlia, amis Zala ar

maqvs; isini metyvian: “Sen vin xar, amas rom gveubnebi?”. visac

mousmenen, iman unda gaakeTos es.~.

quCaSi Semosavlis gamomuSavebis saqmianobasa da

skolaSi siaruls Soris pirdapiri korelaciaa. qu-

Cis bavSvebi, vinc ganacxada, rom fulis gamomuSavebas

ar saWiroebs, ufro metad iricxebian skolaSi

(52%) vidre maTi momuSave Tanatolebi, romelTagan

mxolod 20% iricxeba skolaSi. maSin, roca zogi

bavSvi muSaobisa da skolis SeTavsebas cdilobs,

maTxovroba TiTqmis mTlianad gamoricxavs skola-

Si siaruls (maTxovar bavSvebSi skolaSi Cauricxvelobis

done 96%-ia). rogorc ukve aRiniSna, axlo

momavlis ekonomikuri sargebeli ganaTlebis gr-

Zelvadian sargebelTan SedarebiT ojaxebsa da bavSvebs

xSirad gadawyvetilebis miRebas fulis gamomuSavebis

sasargeblod aiZulebs. gansakuTrebiT,

maTxovrobis SemTxvevaSi, romelic moTxovniT da

SesaZleblobiT gamowveuli RonisZiebaa _ manam,

sanam xalxi quCaSi bavSvebs fuls aZlevs da sxva

gzebiT Tavis rCenis SesaZleblobebi SezRudulia,

quCaSi isini imaTxovreben. ufro metic, Zalian Znelia

ojaxebs da bavSvebs ganaTleba, maTxovrobiT

fulis Sovnis swraf da SedarebiT iol gzasTan

SedarebiT ufro mniSvnelovan alternativad daanaxo.

amasTan, quCaSi maTxovrobasTan asocirebuli

stigma bavSvebs skolaSi maTi TanatolebisaTvis

TiTqmis miuRebels xdis.

quCis saqmianobaTa tipi SesamCnev gavlenas axdens

bavSvis janmrTelobaze. momuSave bavSvebTan SedarebiT,

interviuerebma ufro meti fizikuri

travma im bavSvebSi SeamCnies, romelTac Semosavlis

miRebis mTavar saqmianobad maTxovroba

daasaxeles.


socialuri momsaxureba

da bavSvebi

kvlevis monacemebi aCvenebs, rom quCis bavSvebis mier

gamovlili krizisuli situaciebi saqarTvelos sxva

daucveli ojaxebisa da bavSvebis problemebis msgavsia

(Tumca xSirad ufro mwvave) da xSirad im bavSvebis

mdgomaroebas emTxveva, vinc mere quCaSi ar xvdeba,

magram biologiuri ojaxisgan moSorebiT cxovrobs.

aRiarebulia, rom saqarTveloSi krizisul mdgomareobaSi

myofi ojaxebisa da bavSvebisadmi morgebuli

momsaxureba cotaa. kvleva adasturebs, rom quCis

bavSvebs Soris socialuri momsaxurebis Sesaxeb codnis

done da am momsaxurebis gamoyenebis maCvenebeli

dabalia. saSualod, bavSvebis 41% ambobs, rom aseTi

momsaxurebis Sesaxeb araferi smenia. 46% im bavSvebisa,

vinc ambobs, rom msgavsi momsaxurebis Sesaxeb

smenia, aRniSnavs, rom arasdros gamouyenebia igi. Tu

gamovricxavT bavSvTa saxlebs, TavSesafrebs, yvelaze

xSirad dasaxelebul socialur momsaxurebebs

quCis bavSvebis 80%-s rame socialuri momsaxurebiT

arasdros usargeblia. saSualod, bavSvebi erTze

meti momsaxurebis gamoyenebis Sesaxeb iSviaTad saubroben.

kidev erTxel unda gaesvas xazi im garemoebas, rom am

kvlevis farglebSi mxolod is bavSvebi gamoikiTxa,

vinc quCaSi (da ara TavSesafarSi, dRis centrebSi an

sxva tipis momsaxureobis obieqtSi imyofebodnen) da

Sesabamisad, arsebuli momsaxurebis efeqturobis Sefaseba

arsebuli monacemebis mixedviT SeuZlebelia.

Tumca naTelia, rom momsaxurebis raodenoba da dafarva

arsebuli saWiroebebisaTvis Zalian arasakmarisia.

100%

80%

60%

40%

20%

0%

arasdros smeniaT

socialur

momsaxurebaze

58%

87%

Tbilisi

(n=181)

6%

41%

rusTavi

(n=32)

arasdros usargebliaT

socialuri

momsaxurebiT

grafiki #25 – quCis bavSvebis procenti, romelTac arasdros

gaugiaT an usargebliaT socialuri momsaxurebiT qalaqebis

mixedviT.

52%

88%

quTaisi

(n=58)

37%

67%

baTumi

(n=30)

monacemebi aCvenebs, rom socialuri momsaxurebis

Sesaxeb ufro metad ician da aseT momsaxurebebs

ufro metad iyeneben is bavSvebi, visac quCaSi cxovrebis

erTi Tvis an meti xnis gamocdileba aqvs; vinc

quCaSi erTi weli an meti xani imyofeba; vis ojaxSic

gaWirvebis ufro maRali donea da isini, vinc skola

miatova da quCaSi cxovrobs. amis msgavsad, socialuri

momsaxurebis Sesaxeb yvelaze naklebi ician, naklebad

iyeneben is bavSvebi, vinc Rameebs quCaSi ar

atarebs, vis ojaxSic naklebi problemebia da vinc

quCaSi cxovreba axlaxans daiwyo.

aqedan gamomdinare, SeiZleba davaskvnaT, rom saqarTveloSi

socialuri momsaxureba ZiriTadad im bavSvebzea

fokusirebuli, vinc krizisuli mdgomareoba

ukve gamoiara da problemebis droul gamovlenas,

prevencias da adreul Carevas naklebi yuradReba eTmoba.

rogorc vilsonma aRniSna (2007), 40 reintegracia,

anu `gankurvnis strategiebi~ ufro martivia, radgan

isini pasuxoben SedarebiT konkretul saWiroebebs

(rac ukve SeemTxva viRacas), maSin, roca prevencia

zrdis moqmedebis sferos.. aseve naTelia, rom arsebuli

momsaxureba ufro reaqtiulia. mas quCis

is bavSvebi mimarTaven, visi kavSirebic regularul

socialuri dacvis qselebTan ukve dasustebulia

da romlebic aqtiurad eZeben Semcvlelebs. proaqtiuli

midgoma gulismobs rom momsaxureba bavSvebisa

da ojaxebis gamovlenazea mimarTuli da ara _

piriqiT. roca momsaxureba individualurad gansaz-

Rvravs bavSvis saukeTeso interess _ misi ojaxur garemoSi

gazrdis, ganaTlebis, janmrTelobis, dacvisa

da monawileobis uflebis farglebSi, orive midgoma

unda iqnas gaTvaliswinebuli. zogadad, reaqtiuli

midgoma saqarTvelos dRevandel socialur momsaxureobis

bazarze gavrcelebuli midgomaa, xolo

proaqtiuli midgoma iSviaTia.

saqarTveloSi quCis bavSvebis mier socialuri momsaxurebis

gamoyeneba xSirad gadarCenis moklevadiani

strategiaa (magaliTad: TavSesafrebi, bavSvTa saxlebi

_ dasaZineblad da ufaso sasadiloebi _ sakvebad,

romelsac bavSvebi quCaSi cxovrebis dros mimar-

Taven. Tbilisis gldanis socialuri reabilitaciis

centri am tendenciis kargi maCvenebelia: aq bavSvebi

xSirad TavisiT modian, an viRacas mohyavs, imitom

rom `maT TavSesafari an sakvebi sWirdebaT~. 41 Tavisi

bunebidan gamomdinare, es momsaxurebebi ganaTlebis

grZelvadian sargebels ar iZleva, arc bavSvebis mier

quCaSi gatarebuli drois SemcirebaSi Seaqvs wvlili

da arc bavSvebis socialur adaptacias uwyobs xels.

Tumca sxva socialuri momsaxurebebis gamoyeneba

rogoricaa: dRis centrebi an mobiluri jgufebi

(18%) bavSvis cxovrebiseuli mdgomareobis cvlile-

40. Wilson-James, David (2007), ibid.

41. Wargan, K.; Aslanishvili, T. (2007): Rapid Assessment of Four Residential Care

“Shelters” in Tbilisi; USAID/Save the Children for the Ministry of Education and

Science of Georgia

60 ❘ nu miwodebT quCis bavSvs


aze mniSvnelovan gavlenas axdens. monacemebi aCvenebs,

rom socialuri momsaxureba (bavSvTa saxlebisa

da TavSesafrebis garda) bavSvebis skolaSi siarulis

gazrdaze an wera-kiTxvis donis amaRlebaze statistikurad

mniSvnelovan gavlenas ar axdens. bavSvebi,

romlebmac ician socialuri momsaxurebis Sesaxeb,

skolaSi siaruliT da swavlis surviliT didad ar

gansxvavdebian sxva bavSvebisagan. aseve socialuri

momsaxurebis raodenoba, romelsac bavSvi mimarTavs,

mis mier quCaSi gatarebuli saaTebis raodenobaze

gavlenas ar axdens. 42

calkeuli magaliTebi mowmobs, rom arsebuli momsaxureba

quCis bavSvebis yvelaze mniSvnelovan saWiroebebs

esadageba –xSirad sakmaod kompleqsurad, magram

krizisis gamomwvev ZiriTad mizezebs mainc ver Sve-

lis. msoflio literaturaSi sul ufro matulobs

mtkiceba imisa, rom quCis bavSvebis dasaxmareblad

yvelaze xSirad gamoyenebuli daxmarebis alternativebi

bavSvebis bundovnad gansazRvruli kategoriis

zogad saWiroebebzea morgebuli. daxmareba arasakmaris

yuradRebas aqcevs ojaxisa da socialuri

mxardaWeris qselebs, romelic socialuri institutisaken

bavSvis mijaWvulobas warmarTavs da Seu-

Zlia gaZlierebis nacvlad misi bunebrivi socialuri

kavSirebi Seasustos. 43 zogi eqsperti saqarTveloSi

momsaxurebis araadekvaturobisa da ukmarisobis

mTavar faqtorebad SezRudul adamianur da finansur

resursebs asaxelebs. grZelvadian perspeqtiva-

Si, arsebuli mcire masStabis operaciebis danaxarjebis

efeqturoba saTuoa.

SemTxveva #12: roca nana qmars gaeyara da oTxi wlis SvilTan erTad saxlis datoveba mouwia wasasvleli arsad hqonda da arc

saWiro unarebi gaaCnda samsaxuris saSovnelad. TbilisSi, mitovebel SenobaSi carieli sardafi ipova da bavSvTan erTad iq dasaxlda.

orive, fuls eklesiis SesasvlelSi maTxovrobiT Soulobda. (ixileT SemTxveva #7, gverdi 49).

ojaxuri mdgomareobis analizi nanas cxovrebis ramdenime aspeqtze miuTiTebs, rogoricaa: ganaTlebisa da damoukideblad

cxovrebis unaris nakleboba, ojaxuri konfliqtebi da siRaribe sakuTar ojaxSi, qmris umuSevroba, ramac siRaribe da ojaxuri

konfliqtebi gamoiwvia da ojaxi dangrevisken miiyvana, Semdgomi usaxlkaroba da arsebobis saSualebis uqonloba. aseve, nanas mdgomareobasTan

ramdenime fsiqo-socialuri tendencia asocirdeba: araadekvaturobisa da damnaSaveobis SegrZneba, rac xangrZlivi

ojaxuri konfliqtebis pirobebSi cxovrebis Sedegia; siZneleebis Jams izolaciis aRqma da imis SegrZneba, rom mTeli situaciis

kontroli nanas ar eqvemdebareba.Mam SemTxvevaSi ramdenime Zlieri mxarec SeiniSneba, romelTa Soris dedasa da biWs Soris mtkice

emociuri kavSiria, aseve bavSvis asaki da gonebrivi SesaZleblobebi da is faqti, rom arsebobda naTesavebis sakmaod farTo wre,

romelebic nanas damxarebas SesZlebdnen, Tu maT amaSi xels SevuwyobdiT.

roca arasamTavrobo organizaciis socialuri muSakebi nanas da mis bavSvs pirvelad daukavSirdnen maT biWi ramdenime araformalur

quCis saganmanaTleblo RonisZiebebsa da fsiqologiur daxmarebaSi CarTes. socialuri muSakebi Seecadnen daerwmunebinaT

nana, rom mas biWi quCis bavSvebis sacxovrebel centrSi Caebarebina. mas SvilTan ganSoreba ar undoda da didi xnis ganmavlobaSi

uars acxadebda, magram erT dRes mas manqana daejaxa da avariis Semdeg metyvelebisa da koordinaciis problemebi ganuviTarda.

mxolod maSin daeTanxma igi socialur muSakebs, rom bavSvze zrunva aRar SeeZlo da mis TavSesafarSi moTavzebaze daTanxmda.

2008 wlisTvis biWs TavSesafarSi ramdenime weli hqonda gatarebuli. dedasa da naTesavebTan dasakavSireblad gaweuli samuSaoebis

Sesaxeb informacia ar moipoveba.

maTxovrobaSi CarTulma bavSvebma gacilebiT naklebad

ician socialuri momsaxurebis Sesaxeb da aseve

ufro naklebad miuRiaT socialuri samsaxurebis daxmareba

vidre sxva quCis bavSvebs. es SeiZleba sazogadoebaSi

am bavSvebis mimarT arsebuli stereotipebiT

(magaliTad: ganzogadeba, rom maTxovari bavSvebis

umetesoba boSaa, romelTac maTxovroba sisxlSi aqvT

gamjdari) da maTxovrobasTan dakavSirebuli stigmiT

aixsnas. mTliani mosaxleobis socialuri pasuxismgeblobis

donec aseve kiTxvis niSnis qveSaa: manam,

sanam xalxi quCaSi maTxovar bavSvebs fuls aZlevs, es

bavSvebi quCaSi darCebian da SedarebiT advili gziT

fulis miRebis upiratesobas gamoiyeneben da savaraudod,

im saqmianobaSi monawileobis winaaRmdegebi

iqnebian, romelic maTi maTxovrobis dros amcirebs.

saqarTveloSi quCis bavSvebisaTvis gamiznuli socialuri

momsaxureba `sakuTar miznebs~ emsaxureba

– im mimarTulebiT moqmedebs, romelsac Tavad Tvlis

saWirod. momsaxureba quCis bavSvebis gadaudebeli da

xiluli saWiroebebisadmi erTgvarad qaosur pasuxs

warmoadgens (magaliTad: maTxovrobis SemTxvevaSi

bavSvis TavSesafarSi xangrZlivi droiT moTavseba).

es nawilobriv qveyanaSi quCis bavSvebis sakiTxebisadmi

sistemuri, strategiuli midgomis ararsebobiT

SeiZleba aixsnas, rac socialuri dacvis zogadi

konteqstidan ramdenime arsebuli programis segmentaciaSi

aisaxeba.

42. es dakvirveba nawilobriv saqarTveloSi quCis bavSvebis

programebis gamocdilebas efuZneba da miaxloebiT maCveneblad

unda CaiTvalos, vinaidan kvleva mxolod erTxel Catarda da,

Sesabamisad, bavSvis mier momsaxurebis gamoyenebisa da maT

cxovrebaSi Sesabamisi cvlilebebis dinamikis Sedareba SeuZlebelia.

43. Wilson-James, David (2007), ibid.

saqarTveloSi urbanuli quCis bavSvebis raodenoba da maxasiaTeblebi ❘ 61


daskvnebi da

rekomendaciebi

daskvnebi

ukanaskneli ramdenime wlis ganmavlobaSi, saqarTvelos

mTavrobam siRaribis, socialuri politikisa

da moqalaqeebis cxovrebis donis gaumjobesebis sferoSi

garkveuli nabijebi gadadga. samwuxarod, es

Zalisxmeva saqarTvelos mosaxleobis yvela fenaze

ar aisaxa da qarTul sazogadoebaSi kvlav arseboben

fenebi, romlebic gacilebiT daucvelebi arian vidre

sazogadoeba _ zogadad. quCis bavSvebi da maTi

ojaxebi msgavs fenas miekuTvnebian _ qveynis socio-ekonomikuri

warmatebebis Zalian cota Sedegi

Tu aisaxa qveynis mosaxleobis am segmentis keTildReobaze.

siRaribis sakiTxi, romelic quCis bavSvebis bevri

problemis safuZvelia, qveynis masStabiT gavrcelebuli

problemaa, romelsac saqarTvelos mTavroba am-

Jamad ebrZvis. socialuri politikis sferoSi axali

iniciativebi da saqarTvelos mTavrobis siRaribis

sawinaaRmdego ritorika is ZiriTadi inicitiavebia,

romlebic quCis bavSvebis ojaxebis interesebis dasacavad

aris saWiro. es ki naTlad miuTiTebs, rom siRaribis

dasaZlevad ufro meti sajaro mxardaWeraa

aucilebeli. Tumca, amave konteqtSi sxva sakiTxebsac

unda daeTmos yuradReba, rogoricaa: socialuri

Tanasworoba da inkluzia; proaqtiuli socialuri

programebi, romlebic ojaxSi alkoholizmisa da

ojaxuri Zaladobis problemebs ebrZvis da aseve dangreuli

ojaxebisa da zogadad, socialuri kapitalis

sakiTxebze amaxvilebs yuradRebas. quCis bavSvebi da

maTi ojaxebi qveynis masStabiT siRaribis daZlevis,

socialuri inkluziis, bavSvis dacvisa da ganaTlebis

ufro farTo strategiebSi unda iyvnen CarTulni.

quCis bavSvebis raodenobis Semcirebisa da stabilizaciis

mizniT saqarTveloSi ukve arsebuli ramdenime

administraciuli meqanizmis gamoyeneba SeiZleba. am

programebis CarCoebSi, quCis bavSvebi unda ganixilebodnen,

rogorc uflebebis mqone individebi Tavisi

Zlieri mxareebiT da kompleqsuri saWiroebebiT da

ara rogorc keTildReobis programebis ubralo beneficiarebi.

da bolos, ojaxebi da sazogadoeba ara

problemad, aramed problemis gadawyvetis nawilad

unda ganvixiloT.

oTxive qalaqSi arsebobs resursebi, romlebic

Sesabamisi donori organizaciebis daxmarebiT

sistematurad xmardeba am problemebis gadawyvetas.

adgilobriv municipalur centrebs, ganaTlebisa

da mecnierebis saministros resurs-centrebisa

da Sromis, janmrTelobisa da socialuri dacvis

saministros socialuri daxmarebis saagentos

TanamSromloba absoluturad aucilebelia. qu-

Cis bavSvebis sakiTxebSi saxelmwifo dawesebulebebsa

da samoqalaqo sazogadoebas Soris Sesabamisi

partnioroba siRaribis da socialuri eqskluziis

sakiTxebis gadasaWrelad erTaderTi gzaa. es sakiTxebi

daucveli bavSvebisa da mozardebis daxmarebis

meqanizmebis gamomuSavebis gziT unda gadawydes.

rekomendaciebi

politikis doneze

quCis bavSvebisa da maTi ojaxebis Sesaxeb regularuli

monacemebis Segroveba

1. quCis bavSvebis winamdebare kvleva saqarTveloSi

quCis bavSvebis Sesaxeb odesme Catarebuli pirveli

kvlevaa da unda ganixilebodes rogorc quCaSi myofi

bavSvebis raodenobisa da Taviseburebebis aTvlis

wertili. vinaidan ,,quCis bavSvebi” qveyanaSi SedarebiT

axali fenomenia, maTi da maTi ojaxebis mdgomareobis

regularuli kvleva prioritetuli unda iyos,

raTa arsebuli politikis efeqturoba, programebisa

da dafinansebis mimarTuleba da mtkicebulebebiT

gamyarebuli samomavlo midgoma ganisazRvros. amis

Sesaxeb monacemebis regularuli, anonimuri Segroveba

da damuSaveba arsebul administraciul uwyebas

unda daevalos, rogoricaa: ganaTlebisa da mecnierebis

saministros bavSvze zrunvis an statistikis

departamenti. procesisaTvis aRniSnuli kvlevis

meTodologiis gamoyenebaa SesaZlebeli. perioduli

kvlevebi quCis bavSvebis sxvadasxva jgufebs SigniT

da jgufebs Soris dinamikis danaxvis saSualebas

mogvcems da pasuxs gascems kiTxvaze, Tu ramdeni bavSvia

TiToeul jgufSi da ra aris erTi jgufidan meoreSi

gadasvlis mizezi. momavali kvlevis saintereso

komponenti pozitiuri deviaciis teqnikis gamoyeneba

SeiZleba iyos. am teqnikis saSualebiT, ukve zrdasrul

da sazogadoebaSi warmatebiT reintegrirebul

yofil quCis bavSvebTan CaRrmavebuli interviuebis

saSualebiT im unarebisa da Seguebis meqanizmebis

gansazRvra gaxdeba SesaZlebeli, romelic am adamianebs

quCis cxovrebis mitovebaSi daexmara.

62 ❘ nu miwodebT quCis bavSvs


Sesaferisi, proaqtiuli socialuri daxmarebis

sqemebisa da socialuri momsaxurebis ganviTareba

2. quCis bavSvebis sakiTxebis efeqturi gadawyveta

(romelic gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania quCaSi aqtiuri

bavSvebis SemTxvevaSi, raTa kidev ufro ar

Caeflon quCis cxovrebaSi) im ojaxuri da sazogadoebrivi

faqtorebis kompleqsur erTobliobas unda

iTvaliswinebdes, romelic bavSvs quCisken ubiZgebs

an quCaSi darCenas aiZulebs. amaTgan umniSvnelovanesi

siRaribe da sxva stres-faqtorebia, romelic

quCis bavSvebis ojaxebSi arsebobs. socialuri mxardaWerisa

da daxmarebis misaRebad aucilebeli

kriteriumebi, identifikaciis meqanizmebi da indikatorebi

unda gadaixedos, raTa garantirebuli

iyos, rom saxelmwifo programebi yvelaze daucveli

fenebisTvisaa xelmisawvdomi da ara mxolod im ojaxebisaTvis,

visac daxmarebis moZebna SeuZlia; rom

daxmareba-momsaxurebas mxolod is ojaxebi, bavSvebi

iReben, visac es namdvilad esaWiroeba da mxolod im

drois ganmavlobaSi, romelic maTi problemebis gadasawyvetadaa

aucilebeli. saxelmwifo Carevis monitoringisa

da SefasebisaTvis politikis indikatorebi

da samizneebi unda ganisazRvros. sadac isini ukve

arsebobs, quCis bavSvebTan momuSave organizaciebisa

da programebis beneficiarebis identifikaciisaTvis

gamoyenebaa SesaZlebeli. informaciis Segroveba da

gavrceleba yvela uwyebis meSveobiT unda iyos Sesa-

Zlebeli, rogorebicaa: policia, skola, samedicino

dawesebulebebi, socialuri muSakebis jgufebi da

arasamTavrobo organizaciebis programebi.

3. prevenciuli politika gare Sokebisgan da arastabilurobisagan

bavSvebis dacvas da ojaxebis mxardaWeras

unda uwyobdes xels da uzrunvelyofdes

finansur da organizaciul resursebs, rom bavSvebi

samuSaoze gagzavnisgan an sxva gziT saxlis mitovebisa

da QquCaSi gasvlisagan daicvas. quCis bavSvebis

ojaxebSi ukiduresi siRaribis aRmofxvraze mimarTuli

saxelmwifo programebi, upirveles yovlisa,

Sromisunariani wevrebisaTvis grZelvadiani umuSevrobis

problemis gadaWraze unda iyos mimarTuli,

xolo maTTvis, visac muSaoba ar SeuZlia, finansur

daxmarebas unda iTvaliswinebdes. umuSevarTaTvis

droebiTi fuladi daxmareba profesiul trenings,

samuSaos povnaSi daxmarebas da ojaxis zrdasruli

Sromisunariani wevrebisaTvis dasaqmebis alternativebis

gamonaxvas unda ukavSirdebodes. unda SemuSavdes

dafinansebis moqnili sqema, gansakuTrebiT

socialuri subsidiebi martoxela mSoblebis an bavSvTa

naTesavebisaTvis. siRaribis daZlevis mniSvnelovani

elementi SeiZleba aseve iyos iseTi inovaciuri

midgomebi, rogoricaa: moqnili kreditis meqanizmi

daucveli ojaxebisa da quCis axalgazrdobisaTvis.

aucilebelia arsebuli socialuri sargeblis modificireba,

konsolidacia da misadageba quCis bavSvebis

ojaxebis individualur saWiroebebze. es sargebeli

SeiZleba moicavdes: ganaTlebas, jandacvas da

socialur momsaxurebas, aseve Tanxis gadaricxvebs.

represiuli RonisZiebebi, rogoricaa: bavSvis Sromisa

da maTxovrobis akrZalva, efeqturi ar iqneba manam,

sanam ojaxis sarCenad bavSvis ekonomikur saqmianobaze

moTxovna arsebobs.

4. quCis bavSvebisaTvis gamiznuli momsaxureba bavSvebisa

da ojaxebis zogadi socialuri dacvis sistemis

nawili unda iyos. prevenciuli RonisZiebebi socialuri

mxardaWeris yvela SesaZlo gziT unda gatardes,

romelsac socialuri dacvis qselis miRma darCenili

bavSvebisaTvis morgebuli programebi mohyveba. Tu

ZiriTad institutebs, rogoricaa: baRebi da skolebi,

umcrosi quCis bavSvebis saWiroebebis dasakmayofileblad

tradiciuli an damatebiTi momsaxurebis

gaweva SeuZlia, es SesaZleblobebi maqsimalurad

unda iyos gamoyenebuli. quCaSi cxovrebis didi xnis

gamocdilebis mqone ufrosi quCis bavSvebis mimarT

sxva midgomaa saWiro, rogoricaa: Semdgomi ganaTlebisaTvis

momzadeba an damoukidebeli cxovrebisaTvis

aucilebeli unarebis SeZena.

5. kvleva cxadyofs, rom quCis bavSvebisaTvis arsebuli

socialuri momsaxureba Zalian araadekvaturia

raodenobisa da dafarvis mixedviT. es momsaxureba

amJamad quCaSi myofi bavSvebis umravlesobas ar exeba

da maT cxovrebaSi realuri cvlileba ar Seaqvs. quCis

bavSvebisa da maTi ojaxebisaTvis socialuri momsaxurebis

ganviTarebisaTvis resursebis gaTvaliswineba

saxelmwifo biujetSi unda moxdes, xolo dafinansebis

meqanizmebi moqnili unda iyos, raTa saWiroebis

SemTxvevaSi Tanxis xelmisawvdomoba uzrunvelyos

da droulad moxmardes momsaxurebas. proaqtiuli

midgoma momsaxurebis dafarvis gazrdis mizniT, maT

Soris beneficiarebis moZebna da efeqturi mimarTvis

meqanizmis arseboba, Zalian mniSvnelovania. amasTanave,

unda ganviTardes bavSvisaTvis xelmisawvdomi

momsaxurebis arCevani, rogoricaa: dRis centrebi,

skolis Semdgomi programebi da zogierT SemTxvevaSi,

saxlSi movla, aseve profesiuli xarisxiani fsiqologiuri

daxmareba ojaxebisaTvis.

6. saxelmwifom unda gadaxedos arsebul politikas,

romelic ganqorwinebis SemTxvevaSi kerZo sakuTrebis

uflebebs da dedisa da bavSvebis materialur

daxmarebas aregulirebs da uzrunvelyos, rom ganqorwinebis

SemTxvevaSi dedebisa da bavSvebis usaxlkarobisa

da ukiduresi siRaribisagan dacvis adekvaturi

meqanizmebi arsebobs. monacemebi cxadyofs,

rom miuxedavad imisa, rom arsebuli kanonmdebloba

uzrunvelyofs sacxovrebel adgils dedisa da bavSvisaTvis

ganqorwinebis SemTxvevaSi da mamis mier alimentis

gadaxdas, realobaSi esEiSviaTad sruldeba.

ojaxebis umetesobam, ganqorwinebis SemTxvevaSi, sakuTari

da bavSvebis uflebebis Sesaxeb araferi icis.

mniSvnelovani nabiji am mimarTulebiT ojaxis mxardaWeris

profesiul momsaxurebaSi ufaso iuridiuli

konsultaciebis CarTva da sajaro sainformacio

kampaniebis Catareba SeiZleba iyos.

saqarTveloSi urbanuli quCis bavSvebis raodenoba da maxasiaTeblebi ❘ 63


64 ❘ nu miwodebT quCis bavSvs


7. amJamad, iZulebiT gadaadgilebul pirebs SeuZliaT

miiRon mcire yovelTviuri daxmareba an SeuZliaT

daregistrirdnen sxva socialuri daxmarebis programebSi

da uari Tqvan devnilTa Semweobaze. radgan

sxva SeRavaTebis, daxmarebis Sesaxeb informacia dvvnilTa

Soris mwiria da bevrs eSinia, rom Semweobaze

uaris Tqmis SemTxvevaSi maT SeiZleba sxva daxmarebis

kriteriumebi ar daakmayofilon, bevri ojaxi kvlav

ukidures siRaribeSi cxovrebas agrZelebs. pasuxismgebelma

saxelmwifo uwyebam unda met Zalisxmevas

mimarTos, raTa devnilebs maTTvis xelmisavwdomi Se-

RavaTebis (daxmarebis) da maTi miRebis Sesaxeb sruli

informacia miawodos.

8. ojaxuri krizisis adreuli aRmoCenisaTvis saxelmwifom

ojaxSi bavSvebis mdgomareobis monitoringis

meqanizmi unda Seqmnas, rogoricaa: imunizaciis

savaldebulo monacemTa baza da skolis asakis bavSvebis

skolaSi savaldebulo Caricxvis monacemTa

baza. aseve, quCis bavSvebze mimarTuli arasaxelmwifo

programebs unda miewodos sruli informacia

im kriteriumebTan dakavSirebiT, romlebic saxelmwifo

mxardaWeris sxvadasxva formas gansazRvravs.

maT unda hqondeT SesaZlebloba bavSvebi da ojaxebi

am kriteriumebis mixedviT Seafason da ojaxebs sa-

Sualeba miscen daregistrirdnen am programebSi, an

TviTon daaregistriron isini.

9. quCis bavSvebis problemebi yvelaze xSirad ojaxuri

problemebidan gamomdinareobs. bavSvze zrunvis

sistemaSi, romlis reformac amJamad mimdinareobs,

yuradReba Zalian xSirad mTlianad bavSvze, da

ara mis ojaxze, iyo gamaxvilebuli. qveyanas quCis

bavSvebis ojaxis kompleqsuri problemebis misaxedad

sakmarisi adamianuri resursebi da meqanizmebi

ar aqvs da problemebis gamomwvev mizezebs iSviaTad

eqceva yuradReba. Sesabamisad, quCis bavSvebis da

maTi ojaxebis momzadeba da maTi mdgradi gaerTianebis

monitoringi saqarTveloSi iSviaTad xorcieldeba.

ojaxis mxardaWeris kvalificiuri, moqnili da

individualurad morgebuli sistemebis SemuSavebaa

saWiro. es sistemebi bavSvis keTildReobis sqemis

aucilebeli Semadgeneli nawili unda gaxdes, raTa

garantirebuli iyos bavSvis ufleba, aRizardos

ojaxur garemoSi, rogorc politikis doneze aseve

praqtikaSi.

quCis bavSvebisaTvis skolaSi siarulis variantebis

gaumjobeseba

10. saqarTveloSi quCis bavSvebis ganaTlebis sakiTxebis

gadasaWrelad politikis rekomendaciebi qveynis

mier xelmowerili aTaswleulis ganviTarebis miznebisa

da `ganaTleba yvelasTvis~ strategiis konteqst-

Si unda iyos ganxiluli. saqarTvelos quCis bavSvebis

umravlesobisTvis ganaTlebis xelmisawvdomobaze

uaris Tqma mTavrobisaTvis da qveynisaTvis, romelsac

evrokavSiris standartebis dakmayofilebis ambicia

aqvs, sazianoa. quCis bavSvebi ganaTlebis politikis

miznobriv audienciaSi unda iyos CarTuli da es

politika Sesabamisi jgufebis mimarT samarTlianobisaTvis

pozitiur diskriminacias unda iTvaliswinebdes.

am konteqstSi, ganaTlebis saWiroebebi

siRaribis daZlevis, socialuri inkluziisa da bavSvTa

dacvis strategiebs unda ukavSirdebodes.

11. politikac da programebic ganaTlebis alternatiul

formebs SeiZleba Seicavdes, rogoricaa: formaluri

skola umcrosi jgufebisaTvis, modularul

kurikulumze dafuZnebuli profesiuli swavleba

ufrosi jgufebisaTvis da iseTi moqnili saskolo

sistemebis SemuSaveba, regulireba da sertificireba,

rogoricaa: Ria da distanciuri swavleba. am sistemis

SigniT unda SemuSavdes kurikulumi im bavSvebisaTvis,

visac surs saswavlo process daewios da aseve

Ria/distanciuri swavlebis kurikulumebi (romlebsac

dRis centrebi, mobiluri ganaTlebis jgufebi,

skolebi an sxva institutebi ganaxorcieleben, rom

bavSvis formalur skolaSi reintegracia uzrunvelyon).

Sesabamisma uwyebebma am kurikulumebis akreditacia

unda moaxdinon. swavlebis am alternatiuli

sqemebis monawileTaTvis dafinansebis meqanizmi unda

SemuSavdes, rogorc es Cveulebrivi skolis moswavleebis

SemTxvevaSi xdeba.

12. kvleva cxadyofs, rom quCis bavSvebis amJamad

an warsulSi skolaSi warmatebuli siarulisaTvis

udides winaRobas Semdegi faqtorebi warmoadgens:

ekonomikuri mizezebi, skoliT dainteresebis nakleboba,

ganaTlebis dabali xarisxi, sakuTari swavlis

SesaZleblobebSi dabali rwmena da CaricxvisaTvis

aucilebeli sabuTebis mouwesrigebloba. yvela es

mizezi, ukanasknelis garda, saboloo jamSi erT problemas

ukavSirdeba, romelic mxolod quCis bavSvebisaTvis

ar aris damaxasiaTebeli – es aris mosaxleobis

ekonomikurad da socialurad daucveli fenebisaTvis

`Sesabamisi~ saskolo ganaTlebis problema. bavSvebis

mier skolaSi miRebuli unarebi metwilad gansazRvravs

maT samomavlo SesaZleblobebs. amJamad,

saqarTvelos sajaro ganaTlebis sistema yvelaze

farTod gavrcelebuli problemebis mogvarebas cdilobs,

rogoricaa: saskolo kurikulumis Sesabamisoba

damsaqmebelTa moTxovnilebebTan, maswavlebelTa

momzadebis dabali done, ganaTlebas, saganmanaTleblo

dawesebulebasa da Sromis bazars Soris kavSirebi.

am Zalisxmevas quCis bavSvebis ganaTlebis saqmeSi

mniSvnelovani rolis Sesruleba SeuZlia. profesiuli

ganaTlebis mimdinare reformam da pirveladi

profesiuli ganaTlebis centrebis mzardma qselma

quCis bavSvebis ganaTlebis saqmeSi aseve SeiZleba

mniSvnelovani roli Seasrulos.

13. saxelmwifo donis politika skolaSi Caricxvasa

da daswrebasTan dakavSirebiT skolis savaldebulo

moTxovnebis Sesrulebas da ojaxebisaTvis gacdenebis

SemTxvevaSi sanqciebs unda iTvaliswinebdes. Tumca

amis ganxorcieleba mxolod mas Semdeg SeiZleba,

rac socialuri politika daucvel fenebs (ojaxebs/

saqarTveloSi urbanuli quCis bavSvebis raodenoba da maxasiaTeblebi ❘ 65


mzrunvelebs/sxva zrdasrulebs) daexmareba da arsebobis

SesanarCuneblad bavSvis Sromis aucileblobas

aRmofxvris. ganaTlebisaTvis saxelmwifo

resursebis ganawilebis Ggaumjobeseba SesaZlebelia

Tu skolebis vauCeris sistema bavSvis daswrebaze da

ara Caricxvaze iqneba damokidebuli. bavSvze zrunvis

axali erovnuli standartebis Sesabamisad, saxelmwifom

unda uzrunvelyos, rom ojaxebis gareSe myofi

quCis bavSvebisaTvis alternatiuli zrunvis SemTxvevaSi

ganaTleba prioritetulia.

14. mTavrobas SeuZlia Seqmnas `inkluziuri ganaTlebis

saxelmwifo fondi~, romelic skolebisa da profesiuli

ganaTlebis centrebisaTvis iqneba xelmisawvdomi,

romelTac skolis miRma myofi bavSvebis

inkluziisaTvis damatebiTi programebi sWirdebaT

(gauTvaliswinebeli SemTxvevebis dafinanseba vidre

erT sulze dafinanseba). ganaTlebisa da mecnierebis

saministrom an calkeulma resurs-centrebma da

skolebma SeiZleba SeimuSavon specialuri programa

ekonomikuri stimulebis gaTvaliswinebiT, rogoricaa:

stipendia daswrebisaTvis, ganaTlebis Semdgomi

gagrZelebis SesaZleblobebi, umcrosebisaTvis da

dasaqmebis SesaZleblobebi _ ufrosebisaTvis. amave

sqemiT SeiZleba alternatiuli ganaTlebis mimwodeblebis

dafinansebas (rogoricaa dRis centrebi, bavSvTa

centrebi an mobiluri quCis jgufebi), romlebic

quCis bavSvebisaTvis serTificirebul ganaTlebas

uzrunvelyofen.

15. iuridiuli SezRudvebi, rogoricaa: skolaSi CaricxvisaTvis

aucilebeli sabuTebis mouwesrigebloba,

ganaTlebisa da mecnierebis da iusticiis saministroebis

erToblivi ZalisxmeviT unda gadawydes.

savaldebulo saskolo asakis imigranti bavSvebisa da

Sesabamisi sabuTebis armqone bavSvebisaTvis specialuri

statusis SemuSaveba erT-erTi alternativaa. es,

saministros TanxmobiT, skolebs im bavSvebis Caricxvis

saSualebas miscems, visac yvela sabuTi wesrigSi

ar aqvs. am bavSvebisaTvis individualuri dafinanseba

SeiZleba skolis `gauTvaliwinebeli SemTxvevebis~

fondidan dafinansebiT Seicvalos. es dafinanseba

`inkluziuri ganaTlebis fondidan~ SeiZleba modiodes

da amisaTvis skolebma ganaTlebis saministros

unda mimarTon manam, sanam bavSvi skolaSi yvela

wesis dacviT Cairicxeba an sxva regionSi/skolaSi

gadava. meore mxriv, adgilobriv organoebs SeuZlia

bavSvebis ganaTlebis xarjebi maTi ganaTlebis mxardamWeri

programebis biujetidan dafaros.

quCis bavSvebisaTvis bavSvis dacvis da socialuri

inkluziis meqanizmebis uzrunvelyofa

16. quCis bavSvebs da maT ojaxebs socialuri usafrTxoebis

qselis ZiriTad elementebze xSirad xeli

ar miuwvdebaT, radgan maT saxelmwifo mxardaWerisa

da daxmarebis misaRebad aucilebeli sabuTebi

ar aqvT. mTavrobam imigranti bavSvebisaTvis, maT-

Tvis, visac sabuTebi wesrigSi ar aqvT, anda maTTvis,

visac ar aqvs mudmivi sacxovrebeli, bavSvTa dacvis

droebiTi meqanizmebi unda danergos (jandacva,

socialuri momsaxureba da socialuri daxmareba).

maTTvis, visac dabadebis mowmobebi ar aqvT, iuridiuli

sabuTebis momzadebis procesis dasrulebamde,

ojaxebis an bavSvebis TviTidentifikacia dasaSvebia.

saxelmwifom aseve quCis bavSvebisa da maTi ojaxebisaTvis

Sesabamisi sabuTebis miReba unda gaamartivos

da uzrunvelyos, rom es procesi sruliad ufaso

iyos, maT Soris sasamarTlo xarjebis uzrunvelyofa/gauqmeba

rTuli SemTxvevebis dros. samoqalaqo

reestris saagentos SeuZlia moaxdinos aseTi SemTxvevebis

registracia.

17. arsebuli kanonmdebloba unda Seicvalos, raTa

uzrunvelyos im quCis bavSvebis drouli dacvis praqtikuli

meqanizmebi, romlebic im ojaxebidan modian

sadac alkohols gadaWarbebulad moixmaren da ojaxuri

Zaladobaa gavrcelebuli. aseT SemTxvevebSi,

bavSvis dacvis meqanizmebi aseTi ojaxebis kompleqsuri

mxardaWeris alternativebTan unda iyos SeTavsebuli,

romlebic ojaxebs am problemebTan gamklavebaSi

daexmareba. 44

18. arsebuli kanonmdebloba unda Seicvalos, raTa

uzrunvelyofili iyos bavSvebis azartul TamaSebSi

monawileobis amkrZalavi efeqturi meqanizmebi. 45

aseTi meqanizmebi registrirebul saTamaSo adgilebSi

kontrolis sistemebs (magaliTad: `mistiuri

momxmareblis~ meTodologiiT 46 ) da aseT adgilebSi

bavSvebis aRmoCenis SemTxvevaSi am dawesebulebebis

mflobelTa iuridiul pasuxismgeblobas unda

moicavdes.

19. bavSTa dacva policielebis momzadebis aucilebeli

komponenti unda gaxdes, raTa uzrunvelyos,

rom policia gare Zaladobisa da eqpluataciisagan

quCis bavSvebs daicavs da rom policia Tavad ar

gamoiyenebs Zaladobas quCis bavSvebis winaaRmdeg an

xels Seuwyobs maT kriminalizacias. SeiZleba dainergos

policieli fsiqologis an socialuri muSakis

44. amJamad, saqarTveloSi bavSvTa dacvis mkafio da specifiuri,

koordinirebuli meqanizmebi an procedurebi ar arsebobs.

saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobis Tanaxmad, yvela moqalaqem unda

Seatyobinos bavSvze Zaladobis nebismieri SemTxveva, magram

kanoni ar gansazRvravs bavSvze Zaladobis formebs (Zaladobis

zogadi definicia mocemulia ojaxuri Zaladobis msxverplTa

dacvisa da daxmarebis kanonSi, 3143-is, 2006-05-25). aseve kanoni

ar gansazRvravs zustad vin unda Seatyobinos im SemTxvevebis

Sesaxeb, romelic bavSvis dacvas safrTxis winaSe ayenebs,

Setyobinebas Semdeg ra konkretuli intervenciis procedurebi

unda mohyves da ra damsjeli meqanizmebi arsebobs im SemTxveva-

Si, Tu vinme ar Seatyobinebs msgavsi mdgomareobis Sesaxeb.

45. kanoni arasrulwlovanTa saziano gavlenisgan dacvis Sesaxeb

ukrZalavs arasrulwlovnebs azartul TamaSebSi Cabmas. Tumca,

praqtikaSi ar arsebobs meqanizmi kanonis am debulebis aRsasruleblad.

46. mistiuri momxmarebeli aris piri, romelic daqiravebulia

imisTvis, rom inkognitod ewvios gansazRvrul dawesebulebebs,

rogorc maTi klienti da Seamowmos maTi saqmianobebis zogierTi

aspeqti, rogoricaa: momsaxurebis xarisxi an kanonTan Sesabamisoba.

66 ❘ nu miwodebT quCis bavSvs


pozicia da es adamiani yvela im SemTxvevaSi unda iyos

adgilze, roca policias bavSvebTan pirdapiri kontaqti

aqvs. inovaciuri midgoma SeiZleba moicavdes

meqanizms, romlis farglebSi quCis bavSvebs Sesabamis

damoukidebel erovnul an adgilobr uwyebaSi policielTa

mier Zalis gamoyenebis Sesaxeb konfidencialuri

saCivris Setana SeeZlebaT.

zrunva bavSvebze, romlebsac arasakmarisi an saer-

Tod ar gaaCniaT mSobelTa mxardaWera

20. roca quCis bavSvebs ar hyavT, an droebiT ar Seu-

ZliaT mSoblebTan cxovreba, naTesauri Svilobiloba

prioritetuli unda gaxdes. sagangebo SemTxvevaSi

zrunvis alternativebi (sagangebo Svilobiloba,

krizisuli mzrunveloba mcire saojaxo tipis saxlebSi)

unda dainergos da xelmisawvdomi gaxdes bavSvebisaTvis,

romlebic quCaSi mSoblis gardacvalebis

da farTo ojaxis mier Sesabamisi mxardaWeris arqonis

gamo arian. es alternativebi Sesabamisi da moqnili

dafinansebis sqemebiT unda iyos gamyarebuli.

amis msgavsad, zrunvis mcire dawesebulebebis (mcire

saojaxo tipis saxlebi patarebisaTvis da kontrolirebadi

jgufuri saxlebi ufrosebisaTvis) ganvi-

Tareba quCis bavSvebisaTvis, visac mSoblebi da sxva

naTesavebi ar hyavs, did da Zvirian TavSesafrebTan

SedarebiT prioritetuli unda iyos

21. yvela QquCis bavSvs Soris quCaSi mcxovrebi bavSvebi

yvelaze mcirericxovan, magram yvelaze meti sa-

SiSroebis winaSe myof jgufs warmoadgenen. socialuri

kontaqtebis sruli moSlis Semdeg (maT Soris

ojaxebTanac), maT axali socialuri urTierTobebis

Camoyalibeba mouwiaT, raTa Semosavlis gamomuSavebisa

da yoveldRiuri arsebobisaTvis SeewyoT xeli.

quCaSi mcxovrebi bavSvebi ukve damoukidebeli gadawyvetilebis

mimRebni arian da damoukideblad warmarTaven

sakuTar cxovrebas. Sesabamisad, maT ukve

iswavles rogor iarsebon da maTi mxardaWera regularuli,

struqturirebuli momsaxurebis gziT

ufro kompleqsuria. momsaxureba quCaSi mcxovrebi

bavSvebisaTvis TanamSromelTa Soris yvelaze met

profesionalizms moiTxovs. yvela SemTxveva calcalke

unda ganixilebodes. mxardaWeris sxvadasxva

formebi SeiZleba iyos gamoyenebuli, rogoricaa:

identifikaciis, sabaziso ganaTlebisa da mimarTvebis

SesamuSaveblad quCaSi mobiluri muSaoba; dasaqmebasTan

dakavSirebuli profesiuli ganaTleba an

socialuri momsaxurebis sxva frTxilad SerCeuli

tipebi. iseTi momsaxurebis SeTavazeba, romelic

quCaSi cxovrebas aadvilebs (rogoricaa: bavSvebis

quCaSi gamokveba, tansacmlis miwodeba an mxolod

Ramis TavSesafari) aramdgradi iqneba da ukuefeqts

gamoiRebs Tu quCaSi mcxovrebi bavSvebis problemebis

gamomwvvi mizezebi ar aRmoifxvreba, an Tu bavSvebs

quCaSi cxovrebaze ufro mimzidvel alternativebs

ar SesTavazeben. gamonaklisia jandacvis momsaxureba

quCaSi da igi unda arsebobdes. am momsaxurebis farglebSi,

kvalificiurma samedicino personalma quCaSi

mcxovreb bavSvebs periodulad ufaso gamokvleva da

mkurnaloba unda SesTavazos.

22. bavSvebisaTvis Sesabamisi zrunvis garantireba

mSoblis dapatimrebis SemTxvevaSi sasamarTlo

procesis savaldebulo elementi unda gaxdes da

yovelTvis unda iTvaliswinebdes socialuri mu-

Sakebis CarTvas. miuxedavad imisa, rom msgavsi debulebebi

saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobaSi arsebobs,

kvlevis dros gamovlinda SemTxvevebi, roca bavSvebi

quCaSi aRmoCndnen imitom, rom maTi mSoblebi daapatimres

da bavSvebis mdgomareoba saTanadod ar iqna

gamokvleuli, ris Sedegadac bavSvi mzrunvelobis

gareSe an araadekvaturi zrunvis pirobebSi darCa.

quCis mozardebisaTvis specialuri mxardaWeris

meqanizmebis danergva

23. kvleva cxadyofs, rom ufrosi asakis quCis bavSvebisaTvis,

gansakuTrebiT maTTvis, viszec mSoblebi

ar zrunaven an didi xania quCaSi arian, ojaxebSi reintegracia

an alternatiuli mzrunvelobis qveS

moTavseba SeiZleba saukeTeso arCevani ar iyos.

umjobesia, damoukideblad cxovrebis swavlebis

meqanizmebi SemuSavdes da bavSvze zrunvis momsaxurebis

nawili gaxdes. es meqanizmebi quCaSi mcxovrebi

mozardebisaTvis unda moicavdes: droebiT kontrolirebad

jgufur saxlebs, saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi

_ wera-kiTxvis gakveTilebTan erTad da profesiul

ganaTlebas/rCevebs dasaqmebis Sesaxeb da qveyanaSi

arsebul socialuri daxmarebis sxva meqanizmebs unda

ukavSirdebodes. es yvelaferi SeiZleba mTavrobis im

Zalisxmevis nawili gaxdes, romelic axalgazrdobis

dasaqmebisa da socialuri inkluziis strategiis ganviTarebis

gziT axalgazrdobis umuSevrobis winaaRmdeg

brZolas iTvaliswinebs.

24. am meqanizmebTan erTad, saxelmwifom sabaziso/sa-

Sualo ganaTlebis doneze sasicocxlo/profesiuli

unarebis gamomuSavebaze unda izrunos da profesiuli

ganaTlebis Sesaxeb kanonSi cvlilebebi Seitanos,

romelic gansakuTrebul SemTxvevebSi profesiuli

ganaTlebis centrebs im mozardebisaTvis, visac

savaldebulo ganaTlebis dasrulebis saSualeba ar

hqonda, miRebis moTxovnebis Semcirebis saSualebas

miscems (amJamad, erT-erT aseT moTxovnas 9 klasis

atestati warmoadgens).

erToblivi moqmedeba da TanamSromloba

25. saxelmwifom bavSvebisa da maTi ojaxebis keTildReobaze

da dacvaze pirdapir da arapirdapir pasuxismgebel

uwyebebs Soris (skolebis, samedicino

dawesebulebebis, socialuri muSakebis, saxelmwifo

daxmarebis programebis, socialuri momsaxurebisa

da policiis CaTvliT) TanamSromlobis, informaciis

gaziarebisa da urTierT-mimarTvis formalizaciisaTvis

Sesabamisi iuridiuli CarCos arseboba unda

uzrunvelyos.

saqarTveloSi urbanuli quCis bavSvebis raodenoba da maxasiaTeblebi ❘ 67


26. saxelmwifo uwyebebma, romlebic bavSvisa da

ojaxis keTildReobazea pasuxismgebeli, im qveynebis

Sesabamis uwyebebeTan unda iTanamSromlon, romlebic

imigranti bavSvebisa da maTi ojaxebis warmo-

Sobis yvelaze gavrcelebul adgils warmoadgens da

erToblivad unda SeimuSavon meqanizmebi, romlebic

bavSvebisaTvis sazRvrebs gareT ojaxis migraciis potenciur

riskebs Seamcirebs.

adgilobrivi mmarTvelobis doneze

1. adgilobrivi administracia im qalaqebSi, sadac

quCis bavSvebi SeiniSneba, pasuxismgebeli unda iyos

da adekvaturi resursebi unda hqondes quCis bavSvebisaTvis

adgilobrivad Sesabamisi socialuri momsaxurebis

ganviTarebisaTvis. gamovlenili saWiroebebis

mixedviT, es momsaxureba SeiZleba moicavdes:

mobiluri quCis jgufebs quCis bavSvebisa da maTi

ojaxebis gamovlenis mizniT, quCis ganaTlebas da

mimarTvebs; dRis centrebs da skolis Semdgom programebs

bavSvebisaTvis, vinc quCaSi did dros atarebs

mSoblebis aryofnis an xangrZlivi samuSao dRis gamo;

ufaso mobilur jandacvis momsaxurebas, romelic

quCaSi myof bavSvebs da saxlSi darCenil maT ojaxis

wevrebs moemsaxureba; droebiT TavSesafars quCis

mcire asakis bavSvebTan erTad myofi dedebisaTvis,

romelic sazogadoebaSi arsebul socialuri usafrTxoebis

sxva qselebTan iqneba dakavSirebuli.

amasTan, adgilobrivma xelisuflebam unda gadaWras

qalaqebSi usaxlkarobis problema, magaliTad: droebiTi

kontrolirebadi socialuri sacxovreblis

SeTavazebis gziT.

2. adgilobrivma mmarTvelobam, qalaqebis specifikis

gaTvaliswinebiT, socialuri inkluziis strategiebi

unda SeimuSavos da ganaxorcielos. mtkicebulebiT

gamyarebul sazogadoebriv saWiroebebze dayrdnobiT,

es strategiebi SeiZleba moicavdes Semdegs:

siRaribis daZlevisa da dasaqmebis adgilobrivi

meqanizmebi; mozardebis damoukidebeli cxovrebis

adgilobrivi strategiebi (profesiuli ganaTlebis

programebisa da mozardebis dasaqmebis meqanizmebis

SemuSaveba, finansuri daxmareba da droebiTi daculi

da kontrolirebadi sacxovrebeli) da RonisZiebebi,

romlebic ZiriTadi sazogadoebidan devnilTa

ojaxebisa da maTi bavSvebis gariyvis winaaRmdeg aris

mimarTuli. umciresobis jgufebis (rogoricaa: boSebi

an imigranti ojaxebi) efeqturi dafarvis mizniT

kargi iqneba, Tu adgilobrivi struqturebi (socialuri

muSakebi da socialuri daxmarebis jgufebi) am

jgufebis warmomadgenlebis, rogorc fasilitatorebis,

CarTvasa da trenings ganixilaven.

3. sazogadoebaSi socialuri dacvis sistemebs

(rogoricaa: skolebi, fsiqologiuri daxmareba,

socialuri muSakebi, samedicino dawesebulebebi,

socialuri momsaxureba, arasamTavrobo organizaciebi,

policia da sxvebi) Soris TanamSromlobis

gasaumjobeseblad, adgilobrivma mmarTvelobam rigi

RonisZiebebisa unda gaataros, raTa krizisis drouli

aRmoCena da adreuli multi-seqtoruli Careva

uzrunvelyos. rogorc msgavsi socialuri dacvis

qselebis komponenti, adgilobrivma mmarTvelobam

adgilobrivi socialuri daxmarebis yovlismomcveli

informaciuli paketi unda SeimuSavos, unda ganaxorcielos

sainformacio kampaniebi adgilobrivad arsebuli

socialuri mxardaWerisa da socialuri daxmarebis

formebis Sesaxeb da unda uzrunvelyos quCis

bavSvebisa da maTi ojaxebis drouli mimarTva arsebul

momsaxurebisa da mxardamWer struqturebSi.

skolis doneze

1. vinaidan quCis bavSvebi maT ojaxebSi arsebuli socialur-ekonomikuri

pirobebis da skolis gareT maTi

saqmianobis gamo sxva bavSvebis, maTi ojaxebisa da

maswavleblebis mier stigmatizebulebi arian, decentralizirebuli

skolis doneze SemuSavebuli politika

Semdeg sakiTxebs SeiZleba moicavdes: swavlebis

individualuri/moqnili midgoma, adamianuri urTierTqmedebis

xarisxi, upasuxismgeblobisa da abuCad

agdebis wes-Cveuleba. skolis usafrTxo saxelmwifo

politika, romelic skolis TanamSromlebsa da moswavleebs

Soris urTierTobasa da pozitiuri garemos

Seqmnaze amaxvilebs yuradRebas, msgavsi cvlilebebis

ganxorcielebisaTvis kargi safuZvelia.

2. quCis bavSvebis mier quCaSi gatarebuli drois gaTvaliswinebiT,

skolam dawyebiT klasebSi skolisSemdgomi

saSinao davalebebis jgufebis, saRamo klasebisa

an mentoruli sistemis danergvis SesaZlebloba

unda ganixilos. maRal klasebSi ki, damatebiTi, moqnili

araformaluri klasebis, mentoruli meqanizmebis

da karieris Sesaxeb rCevis SeTavazebis mizniT,

SesaZlebelia axalgazrduli resurs-centrebis

Camoyalibeba.

3. adamianuri urTierTobebis xarisxis gaumjobesebis

mizniT, pedagogigikis fsiqo-socialuri aspeqtebisa

da kurikulumis swavlebis individualuri midgomis

Temaze maswavlebelTa treningi maswavlebelTa

momzadebis aucilebeli komponenti unda gaxdes. amavdroulad,

skolebi mSobeli-skolis kavSiris gaumjobesebaze

unda muSaobdnen da exmarebodnen ojaxebs,

raTa maT xeli Seuwyon bavSvebis ganaTlebis

gagrZlebas.

4. `inkluziuri ganaTlebis fondis~ farglebSi skolebs

unda hqondeT SesaZlebloba mixedon im bavSvebis

problemebs, romlebic skolaSi ukiduresi

ekonomikuri siduxWiris gamo ar dadian. es SeiZleba

miznobrivi stipendiebis an uprocento saswavlo

sesxebis gacemis gziT ganxorcieldes, rac bavSvis

mier skolis daswrebaze iqneba damokidebuli. aseve

SesaZlebelia saskolo wignebis sesxebis meqanizmebis

danergva.

68 ❘ nu miwodebT quCis bavSvs


programebi

1. programuli midgoma mkafiod unda ganasxvavebdes

prevencias, adreul Carevasa da didi xnis quCis bavSvebTan

muSaobas da Sesabamisad, quCaSi mcxovreb da

quCaSi aqtiur bavSvebs gansxvavebuli momsaxureba

unda SesTavazos. programis dizaini arCeuli midgomis

specifikas unda gamoxatavdes, magaliTad, Tu

programa didi xnis quCis bavSvebTan muSaobas iTvaliswinebs,

man mkafiod unda gansazRvros maTi saWiroebebi

da Zlieri mxareebi da savaraudod, mobiluri

dafarvis meqanizmebsa da bavSvebisaTvis xangrZlivad

damoukideblad cxovrebis SesaZleblobebis gamomuSavebaze

unda iyos mimarTuli. programebma, romlebic

jer kidev ojaxTan erTad mcxovrebi bavSvebis

saWiroebebzea mimarTuli, individualuri ojaxis

konteqstSi arsebuli sakiTxis an sakiTxebis gadawyvetis

kompetencia da midgoma unda gamoimuSavos.

yuradReba droSi SezRudul, kargad morgebul da

Zlier fokusirebul intervenciaze unda gamaxvildes

da ojaxisa da individis doneze am Carevis efeqtis gazomvis

indikatorebi unda SemuSavdes.

2. yvela quCis bavSvisaTvis, romelic momsaxurebaSi

an programebSi arian CarTuli, yvelaze mniSvnelovani

da upirvelesi nabiji ojaxis wevrebis identificireba,

(Tu isini arseboben ra Tqma unda) aRmoCena

da maTTan kavSiris damyarebaa. orive mSobliT oboli

bavSvebisaTvis es naTesavebis ufro farTo wris identificirebas

gulisxmobs. aseve, damatebiTi socialuri

mxardaWeris SesaZleblobebis gamovlenis mizniT,

qveynis SigniT migranti quCis bavSvebisa da maTi

ojaxebis warmoSobis adgilebSi naTesavebisa da axloblebis

moZiebis damatebiTi Zalisxmeva unda iyos

ganxorcielebuli. quCis bavSvebis ojaxebi da ufro

farTo sazogadoeba momsaxurebis miwodebaSi Tavidanve

unda iyos CarTuli. intervenciebi bavSvebis,

ojaxebisa da sazogadoebis arsebul da individualuri

kvlevis Sedegad gamovlenil Zlier mxareebs da

ara saWiroebebs unda eyrdnobodes da unda iTvaliwinebdes

bavSvebisa da ojaxebis CarTvas im daxmarebis

programis SemuSavebaSi, romelic maT Seexeba.

3. ojaxuri krizisi, romelic quCis saqmianobaSi bavSvebis

CarTvas uwyobs xels, mxolod erT bavSvze ki ar

axdens gavlenas, aramed mTel ojaxze. programebma

unda uzrunvelyon beneficiari quCis bavSvis da-

Zmebis CarTuloba imave daxmarebaSi. programebma,

romlebic beneficiari bavSvebis ojaxebTan muSaobas

gegmaven, unda SeimuSavon fokusirebuli, saWiroebasa

da resursebze dafuZnebuli ojaxuri mxardaWeris

formebi (an msgavsi formebisadmi mimarTvis sistema),

rogoricaa: fsiqologiuri daxmareba ojaxebisaTvis

ojaxuri Zaladobisa da alkoholis moxmarebasTan

dakavSirebuli problemebis mosagvareblad;

ekonomikuri gaaqtiurebisa da dasaqmebasTan dakav-

Sirebuli konsultaciis programebi ojaxebisaTvis;

ojaxuri fsiqologiuri daxmarebis programebi im

mSoblebisaTvis, romlebic ganqorwinebis/meored

qorwinebis process gadian da maTi bavSvebisaTvis;

ojaxis avadmyof wevrebze adgilze zrunva; sazogadoebaSi

arsebuli iuridiuli da socialuri daxmarebis

meqanizmebis Sesaxeb sruli informaciis miwodeba

da am meqanizmebis xelmisawvdomobis xelSewyoba.

4. zogi ojaxi kontaqtis winaaRmdegi iqneba, radgan an

dro ar aqvs, momsaxurebis TanamSromlebis mier moraluri

gakicxvis eSiniaT, ojaxuri stresorebis gamo

bavSvebis sakiTxebi aRar ainteresebT, an sxva mizezebis

gamo. ojaxis mxardaWeris SesaZleblobebi ar unda

iyos SezRuduli da fokusirebuli mxolod im ojaxebze,

vinc Tavad mimarTavs daxmarebas; unda SemuSavdes

dafarvis meqanizmebi, raTa mSoblebTan dakavSireba

moxdes iq, sadac imyofebian. es meqanizmebi SeiZleba

iyos vizitebi saxlebSi an samuSao adgilze, quCaSi,

cixeebsa an samedicino dawesebulebebSi. am programebs

(mobilur jgufebs) moqnili samuSao grafiki

unda hqondes (maT Soris quCasa da saxlSi daxmarebis

da saRamos programebi), raTa ojaxebs samuSaosgan

an sxva valdebulebebisagan Tavisufal dros daukavSirdnen.

bavSvebs da ojaxebs mxardaWera im gziT

unda aRmouCinon, rom arsebuli ojaxuri kavSiri ar

daziandes. programebi ojaxis amJamindeli arsebobis

strategiaSi minimalurad unda ereodes da etapobrivad

unda uwyobdes xels alternativebis gamonaxvaSi.

5. quCis bavSvebis ojaxebis umravlesoba, gansakuTrebiT

ki martoxela mSoblebis ojaxebi an naTesavebi,

romlebic zrunaven bavSvze, aRzrdis saqmeSi

mxardaWeras saWiroebs. xSirad, es momsaxurebis moqnil

miwodebas da uflebebis, movaleobebis da bavSvis

aRzrdis saqmeSi sazogadoebis mxardaWeris Sesaxeb

mzrunvelebis informirebas gulisxmobs.

6. programebma, romlebic migrant an umciresobis warmomadgenel

quCis bavSvebTan muSaobas gegmavs, `usafrTxo

migraciis~ sainformacio paketebi (romelic

srul informacias moicavs skolis, socialuri

momsaxurebisa da socialuri daxmarebis arsebuli

variantebis Sesaxeb) unda SeimuSavos, raTa axal garemoSi

migranti ojaxebisa da bavSvebis adaptacias

Seuwyos xeli. inovaciuri midgoma eTnikuri umciresobis

warmomadgeneli quCis bavSvebisa da maTi ojaxebis

(rogoricaa boSebi) problemebis mosagvareblad

SeiZleba iyos am umciresobis jgufebis warmomadgenlebis

swavleba da fasilitatorebad programebSi

CarTva, radgan isini ukeT icnoben am jgufebs.

7. programebma, romlebic quCis mozardebis daxmarebas

iTvaliswinebs, mozardebis damoukideblad cxovrebis

programebis SeumuSavebisa da ganxorcielebisaTvis

Sesabamisi kompetencia, midgoma da kavSirebi

unda ganaviTaros. es programebi SeiZleba moicavdes

kontrolirebul jgufur sacxovrebels, alternatiul

da profesiul ganaTlebas da cxovrebiseuli

unarebis swavlebas an sazogadoebaSi arsebul msgavs

programebTan kavSirs. amis msgavsad, programebma,

romlebic toqsikuri nivTierebebis momxmarebeli

saqarTveloSi urbanuli quCis bavSvebis raodenoba da maxasiaTeblebi ❘ 69


quCis bavSvebis fsiqologiur daxmarebas da reabilitacias

iTavliswinebs, unda uzrunvelyos, rom kvalificiuri

da momzadebuli personali hyavs, romelsac

ara mxolod nivTierebebis moxmarebis dauyovnebliv

efeqtTan, aramed aseve bavSvis ojaxSi da sazogadoebaSi

ufro xangrZliv fsiqo-socialur SedegebTan

gamklaveba SeuZlia.

8. programebi, romlebic skolis miRma myofi quCis

bavSvebisaTvis ganaTlebis miwodebas iTvaliswinebs,

serTificirebul an sxvagvarad oficialurad aRiarebul

kurikulums unda efuZnebodes da efeqturobis

gasazomad indikatorebi unda SeimuSavos. saswavlo

programebi (quCaSi, centrebSi an saxlebSi)

moqnili ganrigiT da miwodebis formiT unda gamoir-

Ceodes, rom ojaxTan kavSirs da arsebobis strategiebs

ar uSlides xels. programebma SeiZleba Semdeg

midgomebze gaamaxvilos yuradReba: mobiluri

quCis ganaTleba, saRamos araformaluri ganaTleba

da wera-kiTxvis gakveTilebi quCis bavSvebisaTvis,

`dasawevi~ klasebi an individualuri mentorobis

meqanizmebi, romelTa miwodeba saWiroebis SemTxveva-

Si bavSvis saxlSic iqneba SesaZlebeli. mSoblebis/

mzunvelebis informireba ganaTlebis mniSvnelobis

Sesaxeb da maTTvis xelis Sewyoba, raTa bavSvebs skolis

davalebis momzadebaSi daexmaron, quCis bavSvebis

saswavlo programebis mniSvnelovani komponentia.

zogjer, am programebisaTvis ojaxis zrdasruli

wevris wera-kiTxvis arcodnis an ganaTlebis dabali

donis aRmofxvra SeiZleba iyos aucilebeli. Sesabamisad,

am programebma damatebiTi kompetenciebi unda

gamoimuSavos, rom zrdasrulTa ganaTlebis saqmeSi

efeqturi iyos.

saswavlo programebi SeiZleba aseve miznad isaxavdes

skolis miRma myofi bavSvebis formaluri skolis

sistemaSi dabrunebas, an ukve Caricxuli bavSvebis

mier skolis mitovebis xelis SeSlas. am miznebis misaRwevad

saWiroa, rom saswavlo programebma adgilobriv

sajaro skolebTan Zalian mWidro kavSiri

daamyaron da maswavleblebisaTvis, moswavleebisa da

mSoblebisaTvis sensitizaciis programebi ganaxorcielon,

raTa skolaSi stigmatizacia da diskriminacia

Seamciron.

9. quCis bavSvebze momuSave programebi vakuumSi ar

unda moqmedebdes, aramed quCis bavSvebsa da sazogadoebaSi

arsebul Sesabamis socialur programebs Soris

mudmiv kavSirs unda uzrunvelyofdes. programebi

aseve unda zrunavdes maTi implementaciisaTvis

kargi garemos Sesaqmnelad, rogorc Signidan (quCis

bavSvebTan da maT ojaxebTan momuSave personalis

mudmivi treningisa da unarebis gaZlierebis gziT),

aseve garedan, adgilobrivi miznobrivi sainformacio

da advokatirebis kampaniebis ganxorcielebis

meSveobiT. quCis bavSvebis programebisaTvis kargi

garemos mSeneblobis mniSvnelovani komponenti

ojaxebis daxmarebis sazogadoebis cnobierebis ama-

Rlebis kampaniebTan SeTavseba SeiZleba iyos. es kampaniebi

SeiZleba quCaSi maTxovrobis winaaRmdeg iyos

mimarTuli da xalxs mouwodebdes, rom quCaSi bavSvebisaTvis

fulis micemis nacvlad quCis bavSvebis daxmarebis

programebs daexmaron.

70 ❘ nu miwodebT quCis bavSvs


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72 ❘ nu miwodebT quCis bavSvs


danarTebi

danarTi 1 – qalaqebis

mniSvnelovani Taviseburebebi

Tbilisi

TbilisSi saqarTvelos masStabiT yvelaze meti qu-

Cis bavSvia. maTi raodenoba, wertilovan Sefasebaze

dayrdnobiT, saSualod 600-ia da masqimum 950-s

aRwevs. wertilovani Sefaseba Semodgomis TveebSi

Catarda. Sesabamisad, es cifrebi zafxulis TveebSi

SeiZleba ufro maRali iyos.

TbilisSi quCis bavSvebis ganawileba asakisa da sqesis

mixedviT zogadi SerCevisgan mniSvnelovnad ar

gansxvavdeba. miuxedavad imisa, rom Tbilisi qveynis

Signidan da sazRvargareTidan migrirebuli bavSvebis

mTavari daniSnulebis adgilia, sxva sam qalaqTan

SedarebiT dedaqalaqi aramigranti bavSvebis yvelaze

maRali proporciiT gamoirCeva, rac imas niSnavs, rom

TbilisSi quCis bavSvebis umravlesobas mTeli cxovreba

am qalaqSi aqvs gatarebuli.

sxva qalaqebTan SedarebiT TbilisSi yvelaze maRalia

quCaSi mcxovrebi bavSvebis proporcia (37%),

magram aseve maRalia imaTi procentuli raodenoba

visac quCaSi erTi Tve (an meti xani) arasdros ucxovria.

TbilisSi sxva qalaqebTan SedarebiT aseve

maRalia im quCis bavSvebis procentuli raodenoba,

vinc Rameebs megobris saxlSi atarebs, xolo dRisiT

ojaxis wevrebTan erTad quCaSia.

sxva qalaqebisagan gansxvavebiT, TbilisSi quCis

bavSvebis umravlesobas arasdros hqonia periodi

cxovrebaSi, rodesac dedasTan an mamasTan kavSiri

Seuwyvetia. TbilisSi yvelaze metia procentuli

maCvenebeli im bavSvebisa (80%), visac mama imave qalaq-

Si hyavs da visac yoveldRiuri kavSiri aqvs mSoblebTan.

magram TbilisSi procentulad yvelaze maRalia

im quCis bavSvebis raodenoba, visac farTo socialuri

mxardaWera (imave qalaqSi sxva zrdasruli naTesavis

yofna) ar aqvs. Tbilisis quCis bavSvebs Soris

gaWirvebis done SedarebiT dabalia (2.2). mSoblebis

gardacvaleba da siRaribe naklebad mniSvnelovania,

vidre sxva qalaqebis bavSvebisaTvis. aseve yvelaze

maRalia im bavSvebis procentuli raodenoba (17%),

vinc ambobs, rom maT ojaxs problemebi ar aqvs.

Tbilisis quCis bavSvebis 90% amJamad skolaSi ar iricxeba

da 64%-s arasdros uvlia skolaSi, rac sakmaod

maRali maCvenebelia. skolaSi wausvlelobis

ori mTavari mizezidan skolis mimarT interesis dakargva

ufro xSirad saxeldeba. aseve, xSiria ojaxis

uari da skolaSi CaricxvisaTvis saWiro sabuTebis

mouwesrigebloba sxva qalaqebTan SedarebiT. garda

amisa, Tbilisis quCis bavSvebi ufro metad fiqroben,

rom ver iswavlian. isini fuls maTxovrobiT da - sxva

sam qalaqTan SedarebiT gacilebiT iSviaTad - muSaobiT

Souloben. oTx qalaqs Soris Tbilisis quCis bavSvebi

ufro metad amboben, rom fuls ZaliT sxvebi (ara

mSoblebi) arTmeven.

dedaqalaqSi Zalian maRalia im quCis bavSvebis

proporcia, visac arasdros gamouyenebia socialuri

momsaxureba (87%). magaliTad, ramdenime bavSvma

aRniSna, rom icoda dRis centris arsebobis Sesaxeb,

magram maTgan mxolod 2%-ma Tqva, rom dRis saaTebs

atarebs iq, da isic mxolod zamTarSi. absolutur

ricxvebSi, kvlevis maqsimaluri Sefasebis gaTvaliswinebiT,

es niSnavs, rom dedaqalaqSi 950 quCis bavSvidan

825-ze mets arasdros miuRia raime daxmareba.

es faqti SeiZleba nawilobriv qalaqis mwiri socialuri

momsaxurebiT aixsnas, romelic raodenobrivad

farTo miznobrivi jgufis dasafaravad sakmarisi ar

aris. meorec, TbilisSi quCis bavSvebisaTvis momsaxureba

qalaqis sxvadasxva ubnebSi aris mimofantuli

da maT Soris Zalian mwiri an saerTod ar aris kavSiri.

magaliTad, mobiluri dafarvis jgufma SeiZleba

quCis bavSvebTan qalaqis centrSi imuSavos, magram

yvelaze axlo dRis zrunvis dawesebuleba, sadac

maT bavSvis gagzavna SeuZliaT, daaxloebiT 10 kilometriT

aris daSorebuli da sxva ubanSia. da bolos,

monacemebi cxadyofs, rom TbilisSi quCis bavSvebi

yvelaze met sargebels im profesiuli daxmarebidan

miiReben, romelic maT mSoblebze negatiuri gavlenis

mqone kompleqsur siZneleebs gaumklavdeba. mSoblebi,

rogorc wesi, sxva naTesavebisgan Zalian mwir an

saerTod araviTar daxmarebas ar iReben. qalaqSi arsebul

momsaxurebas am rolis Sesasruleblad Sez-

Ruduli SesaZleblobebi aqvs.

Tbilisis quCis bavSvebi da maTi ojaxebi yvelaze met

sargebels ubnebis mixedviT bavSvisa da ojaxis dacvis

momsaxurebis qselebis CamoyalibebiT miiRebdnen,

romlis farglebSic dafarvis jgufebi da daxmarebis

formebi konkretul adgilze mijaWvuli beneficiarebis

SezRuduli raodenobisaTvis iqneboda xelmisawvdomi.

msgavs ubnis qselebs eyolebodaT sakuTari

saqarTveloSi urbanuli quCis bavSvebis raodenoba da maxasiaTeblebi ❘ 73


dafarvis jgufi, eqnebodaT bavSvze zrunvis dawesebulebebi

(maT Soris arsebuli skolebis SigniT) da

ojaxis mxardaWeris kvalificiuri SesaZleblobebi.

aseve, unda ganviTardes asakis Sesabamisi mcire saojaxo

tipis saxlebi da supervizirebuli damoukidebeli

sacxovreblebi.

rusTavi

wertilovan Sefasebaze dayrdnobiT, rusTavSi quCis

bavSvebis saSualo raodenoba 100, xolo maqsimum 150

bavSvia. aq gacilebiT maRalia quCis biWebis raodenoba

(85%), vidre quCis gogonebis da qalaqis quCis bavSvebis

TiTqmis 80% 11-dan 14 wlamde asakisaa. quCis

bavSvebis naxevarze mets (da orjer mets vidre sxva

qalaqebSi) mTeli cxovreba rusTavSi ar ucxovria;

amaTgan 90% saqarTvelos sxva regionebidan migranti

bavSvebia. rusTavSi aseve yvelaze maRalia – qalaqis

SerCevis TiTqmis naxevari – im bavSvebis procentuli

raodenoba, vinc saqarTvelos sxva regionebSi daibada.

es SeiZleba aixsnas im faqtiT, rom rusTavi xelovnurad

Seqmnili urbanuli centria da rom misi

macxovreblebis umravlesoba rusTavis qarxnebSi

samuSaod gadavida, magram ojaxebi kvlav warmoSobis

adgilas hyavT.

gamokiTxvis Catarebis momentisaTvis rusTavSi

oTxive qalaqs Soris quCaSi mcxovrebi bavSvebis yvelaze

dabali maCvenebli iyo (11%), magram SedarebiT

maRalia procentuli maCvenebeli quCasa da saxlSi

mcxovrebi bavSvebisa, vinc quCaSi erTi Tvis an meti

xnis ganmavlobaSi cxovrobda. es bavSvebi rusTavSi,

quCaSi zafxulis Rameebs gacilebiT metad atareben

vidre zamTarSi; zafxulis TveebSi, bavSvebis naxevarze

meti Rameebs quCaSi atarebs (igive maCvenebeli

zamTarSi mxolod 10%-ia). rusTavi erTaderTi qalaqia,

sadac arcerT bavSvs ar uTqvams, rom quCaSi Rames

ojaxis wevrebTan erTad atarebs da mxolod cotam

(3 %-ma) aRniSna, rom zamTris an zafxulis dReebs

quCaSi mSoblebTan/naTesavebTan erTad atarebs. sxva

qalaqebTan SedarebiT rusTavSi aseve procentulad

yvelaze dabalia im bavSvebis raodenoba, vinc quCaSi

mTel dRes imyofeba.

oTxive qalaqs Soris rusTavSi procentulad yvelaze

metia im bavSvebis raodenoba, visac orive mSobeli

cocxali hyavs (70%) da yvelaze dabalia orive

mSobliT oboli bavSvebis raodenoba (3%). rusTavis

quCis bavSvebis umravlesobas (93%) deda rusTavSi

hyavs, magram erTi mesamedis mama imave qalaqSi ar

aris. maT ufro meti zrdasruli naTesavi hyavT imave

qalaqSi, vidre sxva qalaqebis bavSvebs. Sesabamisad,

maT oTxive qalaqs Soris yvelaze maRali socialuri

mxardaWeris done aqvT. isini aseve ufro metad

moixsenieben mSoblebs, rogorc mTavar mzrunvelebs

da Zalian mcirea im bavSvebis procentuli raodenoba,

vinc ambobs, rom maTze aravin zrunavs. magram

rusTavSi bavSvebi gaWirvebis yvelaze maRal dones

asaxeleben (3.2), sadac ekonomikuri sakiTxebi da

mSoblebis umuSevroba pirvel adgilze figurirebs

da ufro xSirad vidre sxva qalaqebSi. rusTavis quCis

bavSvebis mier gamovlenili sxva yvelaze mniSvnelovan

problemebs Sorisaa: alkoholizmi da ojaxuri

Zaladoba, romlebic gacilebiT ufro xSirad saxeldeba

vidre sxva qalaqebSi.

skolaSi Caricxvis done rusTavSi oTxive qalaqs Soris

yvelaze maRalia mTlian SerCevaSi bavSvebis mxolod

14% iricxeba skolaSi, rusTavSi ki igive maCvenebeli

50%-s aRwevs. rusTavi erTaderTi qalaqia, sadac

bavSvebis garkveuli procenti intervius dReebSi

skolas eswreboda. skolis miRma darCenili bavSvebis

sam meoTxeds skola mitovebuli aqvs (mTlian SerCeva-

Si igive maCvenebeli 42%-ia) da bavSvebis daaxloebiT

erT meoTxeds arasdros uvlia skolaSi. skolaSi ardaswrebis

mTavar mizezad ekonomikuri problemebi

saxeldeba; imave konteqstSi rusTavis quCis bavSvebi

ufro xSirad asaxeleben ojaxSi janmrTelobis

problemebs vidre sxva qalaqebis bavSvebi. rusTavSi

naklebia im bavSvebis proporcia, visac skola ar ainteresebs,

magram bavSvebi warsulSi skolaSi cudad

mopyrobas ufro xSirad uCivian vidre sxva qalaqebSi.

rusTavSi aseve SedarebiT maRalia (80%, mTliani Ser-

Cevis 50%-Tan SedarebiT) wera-kiTxvis mcodne quCis

bavSvebis procentuli raodenoba (zogs qarTuladac

da rusuladac SeuZlia wera-kiTxva).

oTx qalaqs Soris rusTavis bavSvebi yvelaze naklebad

Souloben fuls maTxovrobiT da ufro metad

_ muSaobiT. maTma SedarebiT maRalma raodenobam

ganacxada, rom gamomuSavebul fuls ojaxis saWiroebebs

axmars. amave qalaqSi yvelaze maRalia proporcia

bavSvebisa (TiTqmis 40%) visac gamokiTxvamde

erTi Tvis ganmavlobaSi fuli ar sWirdeboda/ar

gamoumuSavebia. sainteresoa, rom rusTavis bavSvebi

momavalze fiqrisas Zalian mizanmimarTulebi arian

– maTSi procentulad yvelaze metia im bavSvebisa

raodenoba, vinc samsaxuris SovniTaa dainteresebuli

da arcerT bavSvs ar gamouTqvams aseTi cxovrebis

gagrZelebis survili.

saSualod, rusTavis quCis bavSvs sami sxvadasxva socialuri

momsaxurebis Sesaxeb gaugia (oTxive qalaqSi

informirebulobis yvelaze maRali done). rusTavi

erdaderTi qalaqia, sadac ufro metia iseTi bavSvebis

wili, visac socialuri momsaxureoba gamouyenebia

– aq bavSvebis 60%-s erTi an ramdenime socialuri

momsaxurebiT usargeblia. es erTderTi jgufia

oTxive qalaqs Soris, romelic Rameebs sxvadasxva

instituciebSi ar atarebs. rusTavi aseve erTaderTi

qalaqia, sadac bavSvebis garkveuli raodenoba mudmivad

CarTuli Cans dRis centrebis saqmianobaSi –

3% ambobs, rom zafxulis dReebis umetes nawils iq

atarebs, 9%- zamTris dReebs da 16%-ma ganacxada, rom

wina dRis umetesi saaTebi centrSi gaatara. vinaidan

rusTavSi amJamad mxolod erTi aseTi centria (sapovnela,

romelic aSS-s ganviTarebis saagentos mier

finansirebuli `gadavarCinoT bavSvebis~ proeqtis

74 ❘ nu miwodebT quCis bavSvs


– axali cxovrebis dasawyisi farglebSi funqcionirebs),

savaraudoa, rom bavSvebi swored am dawesebulebis

Sesaxeb saubroben.

socialuri momsaxurebis Sesaxeb codnisa da gamoyenebis

SedarebiT maRali done am bavSvebze gamiznul

koordinirebul da moklevadian Zalisxmevas Sei-

Zleba mieweros. TanamSromlebis angariSebze dayrdnobiT,

samuSaos didi nawili miznobriv jgufsa da

momsaxurebis mimwodebel profesionalebs Soris

komunikaciis gaZlierebas daeTmo. sainteresoa,

rom proeqtis axali cxovrebis dasawyisi dasawyisSi

rusTavSi mxolod erTi mobiluri jgufi iyo, dRis

centri da ojaxis mxardaWeris momsaxureba ki mogvianebiT

Seiqmna, roca komunikacia da ndoba ukve Camoyalibebuli

iyo. rusTavis programebis efeqturobaze

qalaqis SedarebiTi kompaqturobac axdens gavlenas

iseve rogorc qalaqSi arsebuli sxvadasxva socialuri

daxmarebis elementebs Soris mWidro Tanam-

Sromloba, adgilobrivi mmarTvelobis pirdapiri

mxardaWerisa da socialur muSakebTan mWidro TanamSromlobis

CaTvliT.

rusTavSi, quCis bavSvebisa da maTi ojaxebisaTvis

yvelaze sasargeblo qalaqis ojaxis mxardaWeris

momsaxurebis gaZlierebaa, romelsac quCis bavSvebis

qalaqSi da ojaxebis warmoSobis adgilas gafarToebuli

ojaxebis resursebis gamoyeneba SeuZlia. ojaxis

mxardaWeris aseTma saSualebebma alkoholis moxmarebasa

da ojaxur ZaladobasTan ojaxis gamklavebis

SesaZleblobebi unda ganaviTaros. aseve unda

gaizardos quCis bavSvebisa da maTi ojaxebisaTvis

profesiuli swavlebisa da dasaqmebis SesaZlelobebi

(es sakiTxi qalaqis bevri ufrosi biWisTvis Zalian

mniSvnelovania). rusTavSi quCis bavSvebis momavali

programebisaTvis prioriteti im dawesebulebebs Soris

sistemuri TanamSromlobis gazrdaa, romlebsac

quCis bavSvebisa da maTi ojaxebis daxmareba SeuZlia

_ maT Soris skolebis, samedicino dawesebulebebis,

policiis da sxvebis CaTvliT. skolaSi quCis bavSvebis

aSkara diskriminaciis aRmofxvris mizniT maswavlebelTa

swavlebisa da sensitizaciis yovlismomcveli

programebi unda dainergos. da bolos, Tu gaviTvaliswinebT,

rom zafxulis ganmavlobaSi im bavSvebis

raodenoba, vinc quCaSi Rames atarebs, mniSvnelovnad

izrdeba, programebs SeuZlia sezonuri RonisZiebebi,

magaliTad: sazafxulo banakebis mowyobis SesaZlebloba

ganixilos.

quTaisi

wertilovan Sefasebaze dayrdnobiT, quTaisSi sa-

Sualod 200 da maqsimum 325 quCis bavSvia. ganawileba

asakisa da sqesis mixedviT mniSvnelovnad ar gansxvavdeba

mTliani SerCevisagan. quTaisis quCis bavSvebis

umravlesobas mTeli cxovreba imave qalaqSi aqvs

gatarebuli. quTaisSi yvelaze maRalia sxva qveynebidan

Camosuli quCis bavSvebis proporcia (40%, maSin

roca mTlian SerCevaSi es maCvenebeli 10%-ze naklebia).

quTaisis SedarebiT bevri aramigranti bavSvi

aseve ambobs, rom isini sxva qveynebSi daibadnen.

quTaisis bavSvebis 16% quCaSi 24 saaTis ganmavlobaSi

marto cxovrobs. oTxive qalaqs Soris quTaisSi yvelaze

maRalia im bavSvebis proporcia, vinc Rameebs

quCaSi mSoblebTan/naTesavebTan erTad atarebs.

qalaqis quCis bavSvebis umravlesoba quCaSi dRes

(Cveulebriv, mTel dRes) mSoblis/naTesavis gareSe

atarebs. maTi TiTqmis naxevars, quCaSi 24 saaTis ganmavlobaSi

erT Tvis an meti xnis manZilze cxovrebis

gamocdileba aqvs (ZiriTadad, zafxulis TveebSi).

quTaisis quCis bavSvebis TiTqmis 95% - yvelaze maRali

maCvenebeli oTx qalaqs Soris - quCaSi ukve ori

wlis an meti xnis manZilzea.

oTxive qalaqs Soris quTaisSi procentulad yvelaze

metia im quCis bavSvebis raodenoba (83%), visac da-Zma

imave qalaqSi hyavs. aqve, aseve yvelaze maRalia mxolod

naTesavebTan mcxovrebi bavSvebis procentuli

maCvenebeli (45%) – ufro metic, bavSvebis Tanaxmad

maT ufro mWidro kavSiri aqvT sxva naTesavebTan vidre

mamebTan. magram quTaiSi aseve maRalia im bavSvebis

raodenoba visac mzrunveli ar hyavs (43%). bavSvebis

erTi mexuTedis deda imave qalaqSi ar cxovrobs

da bevris Tanaxmad, deda sazRvargareTaa. oTxive

qalaqs Soris gaWirvebis xarisxi yvelaze maRalia (3.3)

da mSoblebis aryofna, usaxlkaroba da alkoholizmi

sxva qalaqebTan SedarebiT yvelaze xSirad saxeldeba.

quCis bavSvebma quTaisSi Tavdapirvelad mizezad

ojaxuri Zaladoba daasaxeles; magram CakiTxvis

Semdeg, maT alkoholizmi ufro xSirad daasaxeles

(pasuxebis 26%) vidre ojaxuri Zaladoba (19%). aseve

mniSvnelovania aRiniSnos, rom quCis bavSvebi vinc

ojaxur problemad davalianebas asaxelebs, xSirad

azartul saTamaSo adgilebSi maT mier wagebul Tanxas

gulisxmobs.

quTaisSi yvelaze maRalia im bavSvebis maCvenebeli,

vinc amJamad skolaSi ar iricxeba (93%). bavSvebis im

mcire jgufSic ki, vinc skolaSi iricxeba, arcerT

bavSvs ar uTqvams, rom wina dRis dilis saaTebis umetesi

nawili skolaSi gaatara. aseve, im bavSvebis

proporcia, vinc arasdros yofila skolaSi, oTxive

qalaqs Soris yvelaze maRalia (70%). quTaisis quCis

bavSvebis daaxloebiT 60%-ma sruliad ar icis werakiTxva.

skolaSi ardaswrebis mizezebs Soris bavSvebi

fulis gamomuSavebis aucileblobas ufro xSirad

asaxeleben, vidre bavSvebi sxva qalaqebSi. sxva mizezebi

moicavs: siRaribes ojaxSi, skolisadmi interesis

dakargavs da skolaSi CaricxvisaTvis aucilebeli

sabuTebis mouwesrigeblobas.

quTaisis quCis bavSvebSi yvelaze maRalia maTxovrobisa

da nagavSi qeqvis maCveneblebi (72% da 24% Sesabamisad)

da isini yvelaze naklebad amboben, rom fuli

ar sWirdebaT/ar gamoimuSaveben. bavSvebis TiTqmis

60% ambobs, rom fuls ojaxis saWiroebebze xarjavs.

mSoblebis mier bavSvebisaTvis gamomuSavebuli fusaqarTveloSi

urbanuli quCis bavSvebis raodenoba da maxasiaTeblebi ❘ 75


lis warTmevis yvelaze maRali maCvenebelic quTaisSi

aRiniSneba.

quTaisSi procentulad yvelaze maRalia im quCis

bavSvebis raodenoba visac socialuri momsaxurebis

Sesaxeb arasdros smenia (50%) da vinc bavSvTa saxlSi

yofila (22%). bavSvebis garkveulma procentma aRiara,

rom Rameebs (zamTris ganmavlobaSi) bavSvTa saxlebSi

atarebs. arcerT bavSvs ar dausaxelebia bavSvze

zrunvis dawesebulebebSi dRis saaTebis gatareba,

miuxedavad imisa, rom bavSvebis 17%-s warsulSi dRis

centrebis daxmareba miuRia.

aRsaniSnavia, rom oTxive qalaqs Soris quTaisSi yvelaze

maRalia im bavSvebis procentuli maCvenebeli

visac arsebuli mdgomareoba cxovrebis stilis optimalur

arCevanad miaCnia (16%) da vinc ambobs, rom

momavalSic igive saqmianobis gagrZeleba surs.

quTaisSi, quCis bavSvebis programebi farTo ojaxur

qselebze unda iyos gamiznuli, gansakuTrebiT bavSvebis

da-Zmebisa da naTesavebis CarTvaze. ukiduresi

siRaribisa da pirdapiri Tu iribi usaxlkarobis efeqtis

gasaneitraleblad yvela Zalisxmeva unda iyos

gamoyenebuli. quCis bavSvebis ganaTleba upirvelesi

da umniSvnelovanesi prioritetia. magram imis gaTvaliswinebiT,

rom bavSvebis umravlesoba skolaSi ar

dadis, radgan ojaxis SemosavalSi sakuTari wvlili

unda Seitanon, pirvel rigSi distanciuri an Ria swavlebis

(maT Soris, quCaSi ganaTlebis) meTodebi unda

SemuSavdes vidre ojaxuri siRaribis daZlevis efeqturi

meqanizmebi amuSavdeba da bavSvis formalur

skolaSi reintegraciis sakiTxi ganixileba.

quTaisis quCis bavSvebis mier quCaSi xangrZlivi periodis

ganmavlobaSi yofna maRali xarisxis fsiqosocialuri

daxmarebis saWiroebas qmnis. programa

aseve mniSvnelovan sargebels miiRebs Tu imigrant

an umciresobis jgufebidan mSoblebs an naTesavebs

fasilitatorebad CarTavs. da bolos, aucilebelia

arsebuli socialuri momsaxurebisa da socialuri

mxardaWeris Sesaxeb informaciis xelmisawvdomobis

gaumjobeseba araformaluri arxebis (quCaSi gavrcelebis)

gamoyenebis gziT da ara dabeWdili da media

gancxadebebis saSualebiT.

baTumi

wertilovan Sefasebaze dayrdnobiT, baTumSi quCis

bavSvebis saSualo raonodeba 100, xolo maqsimaluri

raodenoba 150 bavSviT ganisazRvreba. baTumis qu-

Cis bavSvebi sxva qalaqebis bavSvebTan SedarebiT

ufrosebi arian: maTi 80% 11 wlis an ufrosia. oTxjer

meti quCis biWia vidre quCis gogona. bavSvebis 27%

sxva regionebidan aris Camosuli (ZiriTadad, dasavleT

saqarTvelodan) da arcerTi bavSvi ar aris sxva

qveynidan Camosuli.

baTumis quCis bavSvebis TiTqmis 40% quCaSi 24 saaTis

ganmavlobaSi cxovrobs. baTumi sxva qalaqebisgan imi-

Tac gansxvavdeba rom Rameebs saxlSi mSoblebTan/na-

TesavebTan erTad bavSvebis yvelaze mcire procenti

atarebs (30%-ma Tqva, rom wina Rames iyo mSoblebTan/

naTesavebTan erTad, 40%- zamTris RameebSi da 17%

zafxulis RameebSi). baTumis TiTqmis yvela quCis

bavSvi zamTrisa da zafxulis dReebs quCaSi marto

atarebs. quCis bavSvebis 60%-s quCaSi 24 saaTis ganmavlobaSi

erTi Tvis an meti xnis ganmavlobaSi cxovrebis

gamocdileba aqvs. sxva monacemebTan SedarebiT

SeiZleba davaskvnaT, rom msgavsi periodebi umetesad

zafxulis Tveebs emTxveva. sxva qalaqebisgan gansxvavebiT

baTumSi mozardTa mxolod erT mexuTeds aqvs

quCaSi erT welze meti xnis cxovrebis gamocdileba.

oTxive qalaqs Soris baTumSi orive mSobliT oblebis

yvelaze maRali procentuli maCvenebelia (37%) da

bavSvebis mxolod erT mesameds hyavs orive mSobeli

cocxali. im quCis bavSvebs Soris, visac deda an orive

mSobeli cocxali hyavs, baTumSi yvelaze maRalia im

bavSvebis procentuli raodenoba visi dedac imave

qalaqSi ar cxovrobs (28%), Tumca sxva adgilebisgan

gansxvavebiT umeteswilad miCneulia, rom dedebi

saqarTveloSi da ara sazRvargareT arian. baTumis qu-

Cis bavSvebis daaxloebiT naxevaris mama imave qalaqSi

ar cxovrobs (mamebis erTi mexuTedi ruseTSi wasulad

moixsenieba - yvelaze maRali proporcia oTxive

qalaqs Soris). bavSvebis mxolod 50% cxovrobs dedasTan

erTad da 30%- mamasTan. mniSvnelovania maTi

proporcia visac mama an sxva naTesavi cixeSi hyavs

(17% da 9% Sesabamisad). baTumis quCis bavSvebis 40%-

s imave qalaqSi sxva zrdasruli naTesavebi ar hyavs da

yvelaze maRalia maTi procentuli raodenoba (10%)

visac naTesavebTan aranairi kontaqti ar hqonia.

bavSvebis TiTqmis naxevari ambobs, rom mzrunveli ar

hyavs.

baTumis quCis bavSvebi ojaxuri gaWirvebis yvelaze

dabali maCvenebliT gamoirCevian (1.9) – savaraudod

imitom, rom maTi umetesoba dros marto atarebs.

arcerTs arc pirveladi pasuxiT da arc CakiTxvis

Semdeg uTqvams, rom `ojaxs problemebi ar aqvs~.

problemebis nusxaSi usaxlkaroba Zalian xSirad figurirebs.

miuxedavad imisa, rom baTumis bavSvebi mniSvnelovan

problemebs Soris ekonomikur problemebs

da gasankuTrebiT sacxovreblis arqonas asaxeleben,

isini mSoblebis umuSevrobas ekonomikuri siZneleebis

nawilad ar miiCneven. pirvelad pasuxebSi maTi

TiTqmis naxevari mSoblis an mSoblebis gardacvalebas

da siRaribes TiTqmis erTnairi mniSvnelobis

mqone problemebad asaxelebs; `daasaxeleT yvela~

pasuxis SemTxvevaSi mSoblebis gardacvaleba ekonomikuri

sakiTxis Semdeg meore problemad dasaxelda.

sayuradReboa, rom baTumis quCis bavSvebs arc alkoholizmi

da arc ojaxuri Zaladoba pirvelad ojaxur

problemad ar dausaxelebiaT. CakiTxvis Semdeg maT

daasaxeles alkoholis moxmareba, magram fizikuri

Zaladoba ojaxSi faqtorad aravis dausaxelebia.

76 ❘ nu miwodebT quCis bavSvs


unda aRiniSnos, rom baTumis quCis bavSvebs ufro

metad surT ojaxSi cxovreba an saxli, vidre maT

Tanatolebs sxva qalaqebidan.

qalaqis quCis bavSvebis 83% skolaSi ar iricxeba

da saswavleblis mitovebis maCvenebeli (84%) oTx

qalaqs Soris yvelaze maRalia. skolisadmi interesis

dakargva swavlis gaugrZeleblobis ZiriTad mizezad

saxeldeba (ufro xSirad vidre sxva adgilebSi). meore

faqtori fulis saSovnelad muSaobis aucileblobaa.

ganaTlebis dabali xarisxi rogorc faqtori aseve

ufro xSirad figurirebs vidre sxva qalaqebSi, Tumca

arc ise xSirad saxeldeba. mSoblebis gardacvaleba

da ojaxis wevrze zrunvis aucilebloba skolaSi

gamoucxadeblobis mizezebia da baTumSi ufro xSirad

saxeldeba vidre sxva qalaqebSi. oTxive qalaqis

bavSvebs Soris baTumis quCis bavSvebi wera-kiTxvis

codnis yvelaze maRali maCvenebliT gamoirCevian.

baTumis quCis bavSvebisaTvis muSaoba da qurdoba

yvelaze xSirad dasaxelebuli Semosavlis miRebis

strategiebia (qurdobis SemTxvevebi 4-jer ufro

maRalia, vidre sxva adgilebSi). sxva qalaqebisgan

gansxvavebiT baTumis quCis bavSvebis sami meoTxedi

gamomuSavebul fuls sakuTar an megobrebis saWiroebebze

xarjavs da mxolod 25% iyenebs fuls ojaxis

mxardasaWerad.

baTumis quCis bavSvebis or mesameds gaugia socialuri

momsaxurebis Sesaxeb, magram 55%-s arasdros miuRia

raime daxmareba. sacxovrebeli dawesebulebebi

ufro cnobilia baTumis bavSvebisaTvis vidre sxva

qalaqebis bavSvebisaTvis. baTumSi SedarebiT maRalia

im bavSvebis procentuli maCvenebeli (gacilebiT maRali

vidre sxvagan) vinc mudmivad iyenebs Ramis TavSesafris

garkveul saxeobas (27% - wina Rame/zamTris

Rameebi da 17%- zafxulis Rameebi). iqauri socialuri

muSakebis Tanaxmad, bavSvebi savaraudod marTlmadidebeli

eklesiis mier gaxsnil bavSvze zrunvis

rezidentul dawesebulebaze saubroben. aseve, ufro

xSirad axseneben ufaso sasadiloebis gamoyenebas vidre

bavSvebi sxva qalaqebidan.

mzrunvelebis naklebobasa da quCaSi gatarebul xangrZliv

periodTan Sesabamisad, baTumis quCis bavSvebs

ufro metad aReniSnebaT SesamCnevi SezRudvebi,

fizikuri travmebi da toqsikuri nivTierebebis moxmarebis

kvali vidre sxva qalaqebSi.

baTumis quCis bavSvebis specifiuri Taviseburebebi

miuTiTebs, rom droebiTi ojaxis tipis zrunvis

formebis ganviTareba prioritetuli unda iyos.

araobol quCis bavSvebTan muSaobis mniSvnelovani

elementi martoxela dedebis mxardaWera da sxvagan

mcxovrebi ojaxis wevrebTan dakavSireba iqneba. kvlevis

monacemebi aCvenebs, rom bevr SemTxvevaSi ba-

TumSi bavSvis da ara ojaxis siRaribis SemTxvevebi

SeiniSneba. Sesabamisad, programebi am sakiTxze unda

muSaobdes. baTumis quCis bavSvebis ufrosi asakis,

skolis mitovebis maRali maCveneblisa da skolis

ganaTlebisadmi dabali interesis gaTvaliswinebiT,

bavSvebis reintegracia formaluri ganaTlebis

sistemaSi albaT saukeTeso arCevani ar aris. magram,

programebi bavSvebs ganaTlebis dasrulebisa (magaliTad,

distanciuri swavlebis gziT) da serTifikatis

(atestatis) miRebis saSualebas unda aZlevdes. aseve,

ufrosi quCis bavSvebisaTvis mozardebis damoukidebeli

cxovrebis programebis SemuSaveba ukiduresad

mniSvnelovania (supervizirebuli damoukidebeli

sacxovreblis, profesiuli ganaTlebisa da dasaqmebis

meqanizmebis CaTvliT).

saqarTveloSi urbanuli quCis bavSvebis raodenoba da maxasiaTeblebi ❘ 77


danarTi 2- dokumentSi

gamoyenebuli zogierTi

terminis ganmarteba

monacemTa Segrovebisa da damuSavebis procesma

teqstSi gamoyenebul ramdenime termins Zalian

specifiuri mniSvnelova mianiWa. mkafioobis da enobrivi

mudmivobis SenarCunebis mizniT, es terminebi

qvemoT aris ganmartebuli. es terminologia ar gulisxmobs

ukve arsebuli definiciebis ganmeorebas an

Secvlas – igi ubralod xsnis im konteqsts, romlis

farglebSic mocemul kvlevaSi garkveuli gamonaTqvamebia

gamoyenebuli.

saSualo

saSualo niSnavs quCis bavSvebis mTliani SerCevis

procentul maCvenebels.

migranti bavSvebi

migrantia bavSvi, romelic ambobs, rom mTeli cxovreba

imave qalaqSi ar cxovrobda da manamde sxvagan

cxovrobda miuxedavad imisa, imave qalaqSi daibada

Tu ara. gamoiyofa migranti bavSvebis ori jgufi: 1)

amJamindeli qalaqisgan gansxvavebuli saqarTvelos

regionebidan Camosuli bavSvebi da 2) sxva qveynebidan

Camosuli bavSvebi

ojaxebi (Households)

ojaxSi igulisxmeba naTesavebis tipebi (deda, mama,

orive mSobeli da/an sxva naTesavi), visTanac erTad

bavSvi wina Tvis ganmavlobaSi cxovrobda.

gaWirvebis done

gaWirvebis done bavSvis mier dasaxelebuli ojaxuri

problemebis raodenobis mixedviT ganisazRvreba.

gaWirvebis done aRniSnul kvlevaSi 0-dan (ojaxSi

problemebi ar aris) 6-mde (problemebis yvela jgufi

saxezea) meryeobda. mTlian SerCevaSi gaWirvebis sa-

Sualo done 2.5 iyo.

socialuri mxardaWeris done

bavSvis socialuri mxardaWeris done imave qalaqSi

mcxovrebi naTesavebis –bebia/babua, biZa/mamida da sxvebi

(mSoblebis garda) – raodenobiT ganisazRvreba.

wera-kiTxvis codna

wera-kiTxvis codna gulisxmobs, rom bavSvs (mSobliur

enaze) martivi teqstis dawera/wakiTxva SeuZlia.

aRniSnul kvlevaSi cifrebis cnobis unari (cifrebis

cnoba da wera) wera-kiTxvis unarSi ar igulisxmeboda.

oblebi

kvlevaSi gamoyenebulia saerTaSorisod aRiarebuli

terminologia dediT oboli (mxolod dedaa

gardacvlili), mamiT oboli (mxolod mamaa gardacvlili)

da orive mSobliT oboli (dedac da mamac gardacvlilia).

saskolo asaki

sabaziso saskolo asaki ganisazRvreba 8-dan 14

wlamde.

quCis bavSvebi

rogorc ukve aRiniSna, mravalcvladiani analizis safuZvlad

gamoyenebuli iyo quCis bavSvebis dajgufebis

adgili _ drois maCvenebeli.

am maCveneblis Tanaxmad, quCaSi mcxovrebi bavSvebi

(bavSvebi vinc quCaSi 24 saaTi cxovrobs) arian isini

vinc zafxulis da zamTris Rameebs quCaSi atareben.

quCasa da saxlSi mcxovrebi bavSvebi arian isini

vinc quCaSi mxolod zamTris an mxolod zafxulis

Rameebs atareben, magram ara orives. quCaSi aqtiuri

bavSvebi arian isini vinc quCaSi zafxulis an zamTris

an orive drois dRis saaTebs quCaSi atareben, magram

Rame quCaSi ar sZinavT. zogadi termini `quCis bavSvi~

aRniSnavs 0-dan 18 wlamde nebismier bavSvs, vinc am

jgufebs miekuTvneba.

78 ❘ nu miwodebT quCis bavSvs


danarTi 3 – saqarTveloSi quCis bavSvebze

dakvirvebis kriteriumebi

pirveli rigis kriteriumebi

fizikuri maxasiaTeblebi

fexSiSveli

daxeuli tansacmeli

WuWyiani tansacmeli da fexsacmeli

qceva

Seusabamo adgilas marto myofi bavSvi

an bavSvebis jgufi

asertuli da gamaRizianebeli

ucxoebTan urTierTobisas

asocialuri qceva

saqmianoba

quCaSi Zili

celofnis parki weboTi

nagavSi qeqva

meore rigis maxasiaTeblebi

fizikuri maxasiaTeblebi

arajanmrTeli ieri

WuWyiani xelebi

naiarevi xelebsa da tanze

qceva

yvirili

mTeli ZaliT dartyma

arakontrolirebadi moZraoebi

saqmianoba

mizezs gareSe xetiali

sajaro transportSi Zili

alkoholi

mesame rigis kriteriumebi

fizikuri maxasiaTeblebi

gadaparsuli Tavi

naiarevi saxeze

kbilebis arqona

qceva

megobruli, advilad Semodis kontaqtSi

saubris cocxali manera

mxiaruli

saqmianoba

jarTis Segroveba

fizikuri Sroma (mtvirTavoba)

boTlebis Segroveba

Seusabamo zomis tansacmeli da fexsacmeli

WuWyiani saxe da Tma

sezonis Seusabamod Cacmuli

quCaSi an miwisqveSa gadasasvlelebSi marto

an mSoblebTan erTad myofi bavSvi

gineba

Cxubi

qurdoba

moweva

acvia sxvadasxva fexsacmeli

muqi kani

saxeze kani Zvreba da laqebi aqvs

Zalian sustia

qanaobs

mavne (saziano) qcevebi

ucnauri TamaSebi (Seusabamo TamaSebi

Seusabamo adgilas)

vaWroba (sanTlebi, xatebi, yvavilebi)

saqarTveloSi urbanuli quCis bavSvebis raodenoba da maxasiaTeblebi ❘ 79

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