Justice and Law Legal Journal

supremecourt.ge

Justice and Law Legal Journal

marTlmsajuleba da kanoni

marTlmsajuleba

N2

'11

da

kanoni

Justice and Law

N2

Justice and Law Legal Journal

#2(29)'11


N

marTlmsajuleba

2(29)

'11

da

kanoni

Justice and Law

#2(29)'11

Legal Journal


marTlmsajuleba

N2

da

kanoni

Justice and Law

saqarTvelos uzenaesi sasamarTlosa da saqarTvelos mosamarTleTa asociaciis iuridiuli Jurnali

LEGAL JOURNAL OF THE SUPREME COURT OF GEORGIA AND OF THE JUDGES’ ASSOCIATION OF GEORGIA

redaqtori

nino ZiZiguri

redaqtoris TanaSemwe

irma beqauri

nomerze muSaobdnen:

inga alaviZe

leila koSkaZe

marine vasaZe

dizaini:

besik danelia

fotouzrunvelyofa:

daviT xizaniSvili

saredaqcio sabWo:

diana berekaSvili

Tamar zambaxiZe

inga kvaWantiraZe

konstantine kublaSvili

zaza meiSvili

valeri cercvaZe

Editorial Board:

DIANA BEREKASHVILI

TAMAR ZAMBAKHIDZE

INGA KVACHANTIRADZE

KONSTANTINE KUBLASHVILI

ZAZA MEISHVILI

VALERI TSERTSVADZE

saqarTvelos mosamarTleTa

asociacia

JUDGES ASSOCIATION OF GEORGIA

akrZalulia aq gamoqveynebuli masalebis

gadabeWdva, gamravleba an gavrceleba

komerciuli mizniT, saqarTvelos

mosamarTleTa asociaciisa da saqarTvelos

uzenaesi sasamarTlos werilobiTi

nebarTvisa da wyaros miTiTebis gareSe.

Editor:

NINO DZIDZIGURI

Assistant to Editor:

IRMA BEKAURI

The issue was prepared by:

INGA ALAVIDZE

LEILA KOSHKADZE

MARINE VASADZE

Designed by

BESIK DANELIA

Photo support by

DAVIT KHIZANISHVILI

English version of articles has been provided by Candidates

of Law faculty of Tbilisi State University

uak (UDC) 340.11+340.130.5

m-306

ISSN 1512-259X

2


sarCevi/CONTENTS

5

levan TevzaZe: `garkveuli sareformo etapebi davasruleT

da kvlav vagrZelebT ganviTarebas...~

LEVAN TEVZADZE: “CERTAIN REFORM STAGES COMPLETED AND WE

CONTINUE DEVELOPING…”

14

Teimuraz Todria

sakasacio sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebis zogierTi

Tavisebureba. sakasacio sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebis

miTiTebebis savaldebulo Zala

SOME SPECIFICITIES OF DECISIONS OF THE CASSATION COURT.

MANDATORY POWER OF THE CASSATION COURT INSTRUCTION

TEIMURAZ TODRIA

35

nunu kvantaliani

pacientis uflebebis dacvis saerTaSoriso standartebi

INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION OF RIGHTS OF PATIENTS

NUNU KVANTALIANI

50

eka zarnaZe

saordero fasiani qaRaldi da misi samarTlebrivi

mowesrigebis ZiriTadi aspeqtebi

ORDER BONDS AND KEY ASPECTS OF LEGAL REGULATION

EKA ZARNADZE

64

ciala Cqareuli

suspenziuri efeqti administraciul saproceso samarTalSi

SUSPENSION EFFECT IN THE ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES LAW

TSIALA CHKAREULI

74

Tamar CitoSvili

usafuZvlo gamdidrebisas davalebisa da moTxovnis

uflebis daTmobis safuZvelze Sesrulebis Sedegebi

TRANSFER RESULTS IN CASES OF UNJUSTIFIED ENRICHMENT BASED ON

GIVING UP DEMAND AND INSTRUCTIONS

TAMAR CHITOSHVILI

88

Tea suxitaSvili

samoqalaqo pasuxismgeblobis subieqtebi

SUBJECTS TO CIVIL RESPONSIBILITY

TEA SUKHITASHVILI

3


marTlmsajuleba

N2

da

kanoni

100

Tea kalandaZe

meuRleTa TanasakuTrebis warmoSobis samarTlebrivi

safuZvlebi

GROUNDS FOR ORIGINATION OF CO-OWNERSHIP RIGHTS OF SPOUSES

THEA KALANDADZE

107

daviT mesxiSvili

organizebuli danaSaulis winaaRmdeg brZola italiaSi

FFFIGHT AGAINST ORGANIZED CRIME IN ITALY

DAVID MESKHISHVILI

118

irine xerxeuliZe

sazogadoebisaTvis sasargeblo Sroma _ arasapatimro saxis

sasjelTa Soris arasrulwlovan damnaSaveTa resocializaciis

erT-erTi saukeTeso agenti

PUBLIC WORKS – ONE OF THE BEST AGENTS AMONG

NON-CUSTODIAL MEASURES FOR RESOCIALIZATION OF JUVENILES

IRINE KHERKHEULIDZE

131

irina aqubardia

nafic msajulTa sasamarTlos verdiqti

VERDICT OF THE JURY TRIAL

IRINA AKUBARDIA

139

daviT kariauli

dazaralebulis uflebrivi mdgomareoba sisxlis

samarTlis axali saproceso kodeqsis mixedviT

RIGHTS OF VICTIMS UNDER THE NEW CRIMINAL PROCEDURES CODE

DAVID KARIAULI

144

ia xarazi

sagadasaxado samarTlis konstituciur-samarTlebrivi

safuZveli sagadasaxado kanonmdeblobis miReba: problemebi

da Taviseburebani

CONSTITUTIONAL BASIS OF THE TAX LAW ADOPTION OF THE TAX

LEGISLATION – PROBLEMS AND SPECIFICITIES

IA KHARAZI

4


`garkveuli

sareformo etapebi

davasruleT da kvlav

vagrZelebT

ganviTarebas...~

`situacia radikalurad Secvlilia _ mosaxleobis

samarTlebrivi TviTSegneba saocrad gaizarda.

maxsovs, wlebis winaT, Zalze xSiri SemTxvevebi, roca

braldebulebi ar aRiarebdnen danaSauls da

samarTaldamcvelebTan TanamSromlobas

Takilobdnen; dazaralebuli moqalaqeebi ki, TavianT

problemebs `quCaSi arCevdnen~. axla piriqiTaa~, _

acxadebs quTaisis saqalaqo sasamarTlos

Tavmjdomare levan TevzaZe, romelTan interviusac

qvemoT SemogTavazebT.

batono levan, sasamarTlo reformis erT-erTi

mimarTuleba iyo sasamarTloebis gaerTianeba _

Seiqmna quTaisis gaerTianebuli sasamarTlo. ras

gulisxmobs sasamarTloebis gaerTianeba da ra Sedegi

mohyva am struqturul siaxles?

_ saqmeTa drouli ganxilva da marTlmsajulebis

xelmisawvdomoba iyo is ZiriTadi faqtorebi, ramac

ganapiroba magistrati mosamarTlis institutis Camoyalibeba,

romelic uzrunvelyofs adamianis konstituciuri uflebebis

SezRudvasTan dakavSirebuli sakiTxebis droul ganxilvas,

administraciul da samoqalaqo kategoriis naklebad rTuli

saqmeebis gadawyvetas. magistrati mosamarTleebis sistema

Sedis didi, gaerTianebuli sasamarTloebis iurisdiqciaSi da

warmoadgens sasamarTlo xelisuflebas im administraciulteritoriul

erTeulSi, sadac ar arsebobs gaerTianebuli

raionuli (saqalaqo) sasamarTloebi. Cvens SemTxvevaSi,

iusticiis umaRlesi sabWos gadawyvetilebiT, 2010 wlis 22

5


marTlmsajuleba

N2

da

kanoni

seqtembridan tyibulis, wyaltubos da

baRdaTis raionuli sasamarTloebi gaxdnen

magistri sasamarTloebi da gaerTiandnen

quTaisis saqalaqo sasamarTloSi. yovelive

aman ki, ganapiroba sasamarTloSi arsebuli

davebis swrafad, efeqtianad da xarisxianad

ganxilva. amasTan, quTaisis saqalaqo

sasamarTloSi mosamarTleebi saqmeebs

ganixilaven specializaciis mixedviT da

mosamarTlis mxridan saqmis ganxilvisas

raime Secdomis daSvebis albaToba

minimumamdea dayvanili.

rogor funqcionirebs magistrati

sasamarTloebi baRdaTSi, wyaltubosa

da tyibulSi... mosaxleobis

momsaxurebis servisis gaumjobesebis

garda kidev ra funqciebi aqvs maT da

rogori kategoriis saqmeebs

ganixilaven?

_ magistri mosamarTleebi TavianT samoqmedo

teritoriaze ganixilaven saqmeebs saproceso

kanonmdeblobiT gansazRvruli uflebamosilebis

farglebSi, kerZod: sisxlis samarTlis

saqmeebze _ adamianis uflebebis SezRudvasTan

da iZulebiT RonisZiebebTan dakavSirebul

sagamoZiebo moqmedebebis kanonierebas,

aRmkveT RonisZiebebs, gamomZieblis an prokuroris

ukanono qmedebebis gamo saCivrebs;

samoqalaqo samarTlis kuTxiT _ qonebriv

davebs, Tu sarCelis fasi ar aRemateba 2000

lars, udavo da gamartivebul warmoebis

saqmeebs, saojaxo urTierTobidan

gamomdinare davebs, garda Svilad ayvanis,

mSoblis uflebis CamorTmevis, mamobis

dadgenis da bavSvis mikuTvnebis Taobaze

warmoebuli davebisa;

xolo administraciuli samarTlis kuTxiT _

administraciul samarTaldarRvevebs _

saxelmwifo socialuri dacvis sakiTxebs,

aRsrulebasTan dakavSirebiT warmoSobil davebs,

sajaro samsaxurSi SromiT urTierTobidan

warmoSobil davebs; mewarmis saqmianobis

Semowmebis Sesaxeb makontrolebeli organos

Suamdgomlobebs brZanebis gamocemis Taobaze;

aranebayoflobiT fsiqiatriuli daxmarebis

mizniT piris stacionarSi moTavsebis sakiTxebs.

saqmeebis ganxilvis msgavsma diferencirebam

xeli Seuwyo davebis swraf da efeqtianad

gadawyvetas. SeiZleba iTqvas, rom

sasamarTloebSi aRar aris TveobiT, wlobiT

ganuxilveli saqmeebi, ufro metic, yvela

kategoriis saqmeze saqmeTa ganxilvis vadis

saerTo maCvenebeli erT Tvemde meryeobs.

sasamarTloSi mosulma moqalaqeebma ukve

kargad ician, rom maT saqmeebs droulad da

xarisxianad ganixilaven.

garda sasamarTloebis gaerTianebisa,

sainteresoa, ra etapzea axla reforma

quTaisis saqalaqo sasamarTloSi da

am periodisTvis ra aris yvelaze

prioritetuli TqvenTvis?

_ rogorc mogexsenebaT, 2008 wlidan daiwyo

sasamarTlo xelisuflebaSi mimdinare

reformis meore talRa. rac, mTeli rigi

progresuli iniciativebisa da proeqtebis

ganxorcielebas iTvaliswinebs _

marTlmsajulebis damoukideblobis,

sazogadoebrivi ndobisa da samarTlebrivi

Segnebis amaRlebis kuTxiT.

rogorc sasamarTlos mTeli sistema, aseve,

quTaisis saqalaqo sasamarTlo mobilizebulia,

rom Tavisi wvlili Seitanos sasamarTlo

reformis warmatebiT ganxorcielebaSi.

reformis pirobebi mimdinare da mzardia,

TiToeuli etapi sazogadoebisa da zogadad,

qveyanaSi samarTlis ganviTarebasTaaa dakav-

Sirebuli. amitomac, getyviT, rom gvaqvs

uzarmazari Sedegebi, rasac sasamarTloSi

SemosvlisTanave igrZnobT. garkveuli etapebi

davasruleT da vagrZelebT ganviTarebas _

Cven vizrdebiT da Sesabamisad, mimdinare

procesebSi aqtiurad varT Cabmuli.

6


sareformo cvlilebebis CamoTvla axla

Znelia, imitom, rom uzarmazari samuSaoebi

Catarda, ris gamoc, miviReT srulyofili,

swrafi, efeqtiani da, rac yvelaze mTavaria,

yvelasTvis xelmisawvdomi marTlmsajuleba.

batono levan, Zalze xSirad

gamoiTqmis pretenziebi

mosamarTleTa kvalifikaciis

Taobaze, rogoria Tqveni

sasamarTlos mosamarTleebis

kvalifikaciis xarisxi? miT umetes,

quTaisis saqalaqo sasamarTloSi

ZiriTadad, axladdaniSnuli

mosamarTleebi saqmianoben.

_ quTaisis saqalaqo sasamarTloSi

mosamarTleebi marTlac axladdaniSnulebi

arian, magram vidre mosamarTleebad

dainiSnebodnen, srulyofili specialuri

momzadeba gaiares iusticiis umaRles

skolaSi.

mosamarTlis kvalifikaciaze upirvelesad,

mis mier ganxiluli saqmeebis xarisxiT unda

visaubroT. unda mogaxsenoT, rom quTaisis

saqalaqo sasamarTloSi damTavrebul saqmeTa

raodenobidan mxolod 10 procenti

saCivrdeba zemdgom sasamarTlo instanciaSi,

sadac, Cvens xelT arsebuli statistikiT,

saqmeebis umtesoba ZalaSi rCeba, rac

mosamarTleTa maRal profesionalizmsa da

kvalifikaciaze miuTiTebs.

garda amisa, mosamarTleTa profesionalizms

adasturebs isic, rom wina wlebTan

SedarebiT gaormagda gansaxilvel saqmeTa

maCvenebeli, rac aseve, pirdapiraa

dakavSirebuli sazogadoebis ndobis zrdasa

da sasamarTlo reformis warmatebasTan.

sasamarTlo sistemis damoukideblobasTan

dakavSirebiT pretenziebs

gamoTqvamen saerTaSoriso organizaciebi,

acxadeben, rom qarTuli

warmatebiT daamTavra ivane javaxiSvilis

saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo

universitetis iuridiuli fakulteti.

2001-2002 wlebSi muSaobda Tbilisis

didube-CuRureTis raionuli prokuraturis

staJior-gamomZiebelad;

2002 wlidan muSaobda saqarTvelos iusticiis

saministros saaRsrulebo departamentis

Tbilisis saaRsrulebo biuros ufrosis

moadgiled, Semdeg iusticiis saministros

saaRsrulebo departamentis saaRsrulebo

warmoebis sammarTvelos dasavleT

saqarTvelos saaRsrulebo warmoebaTa

ganyofilebis ufrosad, sammarTvelos

ufrosad;

2004-2008 wlebSi muSaobda saqarTvelos Sss-s

generalur inspeqciaSi narkomaniis

winaaRmdeg brZolis ganyofilebis ufrosis

moadgiled; Sss-s generaluri inspeqciis

saCivar-gancxadebebze reagirebis

ganyofilebis ufrosis moadgiled; ufros

inspeqtorad; ufros gamomZieblad; Sss-s

generaluri inspeqciis winaswari gamoZiebisa

da disciplinuri devnis sammarTvelos

7


marTlmsajuleba

N2

da

kanoni

finansuri darRvevebis Semowmebis

ganyofilebis ufrosad.

2008 wels warmatebiT Caabara mosamarTlis

sakvalifikacio gamocda da imave wels

dainiSna xelvaCauris raionuli sasamarTlos

mosamarTled; dakisrebuli hqonda

xelvaCauris raionuli sasamarTlos

Tavmjdomaris uflebamosileba.

2009 wlis noembridan mosamarTlis

uflebamosilebas axorcielebs quTaisis

saqalaqo sasamarTloSi da dakisrebuli

aqvs quTaisis saqalaqo sasamarTlos

Tavmjdomaris uflebamosileba.

marTlmsajuleba politizebulia,

rom damoukideblobis xarisxi Zalze

dabalia.

_ Tamamad SemiZlia giTxraT, rom msgavsi

mosazreba safuZvels moklebulia im martivi

mizezis gamo, rom mosamarTlis saqmianobaSi

Careva samarTlebrivi aqtebiT dasjadi

qmedebaa. es kanoni Cvenma mosamarTleebma

kargad ician da damerwmuneT, aseTi faqtis

arsebobis SemTxvevaSi, mas aucileblad

mohyveboda reagireba.

sasamarTlos diskreditaciis mizniT, msgavs

gancxadebebs ZiriTadad, politikurad

angaJirebuli adamianebi akeTeben an

sasamarTlo ganxilvaSi monawile is mxare,

romlis sasurveli gadawyvetilebac ver

gamovida. Tumca, vfiqrob, rom sasamarTlos

mier miRebuli obieqturi, samarTliani da

stabiluri gadawyvetilebebi msgavs

mosazrebebs abaTilebs. rogorc mogaxseneT,

statistika adasturebs, rom Cveni sasamar-

Tlos mosamarTleebis mier gamotanili

gadawyvetilebebi samarTliania da maTi didi

nawili zemdgom instanciaSic aRar icvleba.

sasamarTlos saqmianobis mTavari

Semfasebeli sazogadoebaa, rogoria

Tqveni informacia, sargeblobs

quTaisis sasamarTlo sazogadoebis

ndobiT? arsebuli informaciiT,

sasamarTlos saqmianobis Sesafaseblad

saerTaSoriso organizaciebma

Caatares sasamarTlos momxmarebelTa

kvleva, rogor Seafases moqalaqeebma

Tqveni saqmianoba?

_ absoluturad geTanxmebiT, swored

sazogadoebam unda Seafasos sasamarTlos

saqmianoba. quTaisis saqalaqo

sasamarTloSi saerTaSoriso organizaciebi

sistematurad atareben kvlevebs

sazogadoebrivi ndobis xarisxis gansazRvris

mizniT.

8


saqmis gadawyvetis vadebi, sasamarTlos

TanamSromelTa damokidebulebis Sefaseba,

sasamarTlos mxridan informaciis gacemis

procedurebis simartive, mosamarTleTa

profesionalizmi da sasamarTlosadmi ndoba

_ aseTi gaxldaT im SekiTxvebis zogierTi

CamonaTvali, romelsac sasamarTloSi misul

moqalaqeebs usvamdnen. yvela parametris

mixedviT, mdgomareoba sasamarTloSi

dadebiTad Sefasda, rac, sabolood,

sasamarTlosadmi ndobis gazrdaSi gamoixata.

SarSan Catarebuli kvlevebis mixedviT,

gamokiTxulTa 68 procenti endoboda sasamar-

Tlos. sasamarTlos momxmarebelTa gamokiTxva

sul axlaxan, ganmeorebiT Catarda da

aRmoCnda, rom sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebas

samarTlianad afasebs da sasamarTlos

endoba gamokiTxulTa 70 procenti.

aRmoCnda, rom wina wlebSi Catarebul analogiur

kvlevebTan SedarebiT, situacia sagrZnoblad

gaumjobesebulia yvela mimarTulebiT.

radikalurad Secvlilia _ mosaxleobis

samarTlebrivi TviTSegneba saocrad

gaizarda. maxsovs, wlebis winaT, Zalze xSiri

SemTxvevebi, roca braldebulebi ar

aRiarebdnen danaSauls da samarTaldamcvelebTan

TanamSromlobas Takilobdnen;

dazaralebuli moqalaqeebi ki, TavianT

problemebs `quCaSi arCevdnen~, axla piriqiTaa.

mosaxleobam icis, rom sakuTari interesebis

dasacavad sasamarTlos, samarTaldamcvel

uwyebebs unda mimarTos. moqalaqeebi

samarTaldamcvelebTan TanamSromloben da

darwmunebuli arian, rom maTi problemebi

samarTlebrivi gziT _ sasamarTloSi

mogvardeba. amis dasturia, rom bolo

wlebSi sagrZnoblad moimata saqmeebis

raodenobam. magaliTad, wels SarSandelTan

SedarebiT, gaormagebulia sasamarTloSi

Semosul saqmeTa raodenoba,

gansakuTrebiT, samoqalaqo saqmeebi. es ki,

niSnavs, rom sazogadoebis samarTlebrivi

done gaizarda da maT aqvT sasamarTlos

ndoba.

gamokiTxvebis mizani mxolod cifrebis

dafiqsireba ar gaxlavT. yvela aseT kvlevas

aqvs erTi daniSnulebac _ sasamarTloebSi

arsebuli situaciis realurad danaxva, maTi

analizi da problemis arsebobis SemTxvevaSi,

situaciis gamosworebaze zrunva. roca

situacias ikvlev, es niSnavs, rom mdgomareobis

Sefasebasa da gaumjobesebaze zrunav.

wlebis winaT, roca pirvelad Catarda

kvleva, quTaiselebi Tavs aridebdnen

pasuxis gacemas SekiTxvebze, axla

rogorc Cans, situacia Seicvala.

rogor fiqrobT, gaizarda quTaiselebis

samarTlebrivi ganviTarebis

done? miT umetes, Tu gavixsenebT

periods, roca quTaisi `Savi

samyaros~ gavlenis qveS imyofeboda.

_ samwuxarod, marTlac iyo aseTi periodi,

oRond, wlebis winaT. axla situacia

sainteresoa, samomavlo gegmebi,

kidev ra siaxleebis ganxorcielebas

apirebT sasamarTlo sistemaSi?

_ samomavlo gegmebTan dakavSirebiT,

SemiZlia mogaxsenoT, rom igegmeba saqmis

warmoebis eleqtronuli programis

amoqmedeba, rac moqalaqeebs met komforts

Seuqmnis, xels Seuwyobs da gauadvilebs

sasamarTloSi warmoebul saqmeze detaluri

informaciis miRebas.

nebismier moqalaqes SeeZleba miiRos misi

saqmis Taobaze detaluri informacia _ ra

etapzea saqme, ra damatebiTi informaciaa

saWiro da a.S. anu, nebismieri moqalaqe

Tavisi saqmis mimdinareobis Taobaze

martivad miiRebs operatiul informacias

mosamarTlis TanaSemwesTan da

sasamarTlos sxva TanamSromlebTan

urTierTobis gareSe.

9


marTlmsajuleba

N2

da

kanoni

LEVAN TEVZADZE:

“CERTAIN REFORM

STAGES COMPLETED

AND WE CONTINUE

DEVELOPING…”

“Conditions radically changed – legal awareness of the

population has significantly increased. I remember, years ago,

frequent cases, when accused would not admit to a crime and

would be reluctant to cooperate with law enforcement agencies;

and victims, were trying to “solve” their problems in the street.

Now, everything has changed” – declares Chair of the Kutaisi

City Court Levan Tevzadze, interview with whom is given below.

Mr. Levan, consolidation of courts was one of judicial reform

directions – the consolidated Kutaisi Court has been created.

What does consolidation imply and what are the outcomes of

such a structural innovation?

Timely review of cases and availability of justice were key factors, for

which magistrate judges were introduced; it allows for timely review of

constitutional rights related restrictions, administrative and civil cases

of less complexity. Magistrate judges system is under the jurisdiction

of consolidated courts and represents judicial authorities in those

administrative territorial units, which do not have consolidated district

(city) courts. In our case, by decision of the High Council of Justice,

as of September 22, 2010, Tkibuli, Tskaltubo and Baghdadi district

courts became magistrate courts and were merged with the Kutaisi

City Court. All this led to rapid, effective and quality hearing of cases.

In addition, judges of the Kutaisi City Court hear cases in accordance

with specialization, which minimizes the possibility of judicial

mistakes.

10


How do magistrate courts function in

Baghdadi, Tskaltubo and Tkibuli…. In

addition to improving services to population,

what other functions are borne by them and

what kind of cases do they hear?

In their correspondent jurisdictions, magistrate

judges hear cases within competencies defined by

procedural legislation, namely: criminal cases –

restriction of human rights and legality of

investigative actions in coercive activities,

prevention measures, complaints on illegal actions

of prosecutors or investigators; civil cases –

property disputes if the claim value does not

exceed GEL 2 000, indubitable and cases of

simplified proceedings, family related disputes,

except child adoption and child granting related

disputes; and in administrative cases –

administrative offences – state social security

issues, disputes related to enforcement (execution)

of decisions, disputes arising from labour relations

of public servants; cases related to issuance of

motions by control bodies on auditing

entrepreneurial activities; issues related to

placement of an individual in the special facilities

for psychiatric assistance.

Such differentiation of case reviews facilitated

rapid and effective administration of justice. It can

be said that there are no more cases pending

hearing for months or even years; moreover, all

category of cases are being reviewed within one

month approximately. When citizens address the

court, they very well know that their cases will be

reviewed in a timely manner and with high quality.

In addition to consolidation of courts, it

would be interesting to know the status of the

reform in the Kutaisi court as well as the key

priorities?

As you know, a second wave of judicial reforms

had started in 2008; the second wave envisages

implementation of many progressive initiatives and

projects aimed at judicial independence and

increasing public trust and confidence as well as

raising legal awareness.

As the whole judicial system, the Kutaisi City

Court is committed to contribute to successful

implementation of the judicial reform. Reform

conditions are ongoing and increasing, where each

stage of the reform is aimed at development and

promotion of justice. Therefore, I should say that

we have significant results which one can feel

immediately upon entering the court building.

Certain stages are completed and we continue

developing – we grow and therefore, are actively

involved in ongoing processes.

It is hard to now list changes to be achieved by the

reform implementation since a lot has been done,

due to which we received a comprehensive, rapid,

effective and, most importantly publicly accessible

judiciary.

Mr. Levan, complaints about qualification of

judges are quite frequent. What is the

professional level of judges in your court,

especially considering the fact the fact that

Kutaisi Court basically employs newly

appointed judges?

Judges of the Kutaisi City Court indeed are newly

appointed, but before appointment they have passed

special trainings at the Hugh School of Justice; they

apply obtained knowledge in the Court.

We shall judge about the qualification of the judge

by the quality of reviewed by him/her cases. I must

tell you that appeals to higher instance courts are

made only in 10% of cases reviewed by our Court,

where, according to our statistics, most decisions

remain unchanged and in force; it indicates at high

professionalism and qualification of judges.

In addition, professionalism of judges is proven by

the fact that in comparison to previous years,

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indicator of heard cases has doubled; it is directly

related to increase of public trust and success of

judicial reforms.

International organizations often complain

about the level of judicial independence; they

say that Georgian judiciary is politicized and

that level of independence is quite low.

I can tell you that such statements are groundless

due to a very simple reason that interference with

judicial activities is punishable under the legal acts.

Our judges know that law very well and, trust me,

a relevant response will follow in case of such

facts.

Such statements are usually made by politically

biased persons with the purpose of discrediting

courts; or they are made by parties to the case,

especially those who did not obtain a favourable

decision. However, I think that objective, fair and

stable decisions of the Court nullify such opinions.

As said above, statistics show that decisions of our

judges are fair and large share of them is not

altered in higher instance courts.

Public is a major evaluator of judicial

activities. According to your information,

does public trust the Kutaisi Court?

According to existing information,

international organizations conducted a

research/survey of court customers for the

purpose of assessing judicial activities. How

did citizens appraise you activities?

I completely agree with you. Certainly the public

shall assess activities of courts. International

organizations regularly conduct surveys in the

Kutaisi City Court for the purpose of determining

level of public trust.

Timeframes for deciding the case, evaluation of

attitudes of the court staff, simplicity of releasing

information by courts, professionalism of judges

and trust in courts – these are some of the

questions asked of citizens in courts. According to

all parameters, the Court’s assessment was positive;

and this, in its turn led to increase of trust.

According to the survey of last year, 68% of

respondents said they trusted the Court. Survey of

court users was conducted quite recently again. It

appears that 70% of respondents positively evaluate

fairness of judicial decisions and they trust courts.

It appeared that situation has significantly

improved in comparison to previous years.

Receiving figures is not the only objective of

surveys. They have another purpose as well –

realistic assessment of the judiciary, analysis and in

case of problems, finding solutions. Studying status

of affairs of the court is aimed at assessment and

improvement.

Years ago, when the survey was conducted

for the first time, residents of Kutaisi were

trying to avoid answering questions of the

survey, but nowadays, as it seems, everything

has changed. Do you thin that legal

awareness level of Kutaisi residents has

increased, especially if we remember the time

when Kutaisi was under the influence of the

“Dark world”?

Unfortunately, there really was such time, but that

was years ago. Now the situation has radically

changed – legal awareness of the populations has

significantly increased. I remember that years ago

very often accused would not admit to a crime and

would be reluctant to cooperate with law

enforcement agencies; and victims, were trying to

“solve” their problems in the street. Now

everything has changed. The population knows that

they have to address the court to protect their

interests. Citizens cooperate with law enforcement

agencies and they are sure that their problems can

12


and will be solved by the court. Increased number

of cases is a very good evidence of that. For

instance, in comparison to the last year, the

number of cases filed with the court has doubled,

especially civil cases. It means that legal awareness

of people has increased and they trust the

judiciary.

What are the future plans? What other

innovations are planed in the judiciary?

As to future plans, it is planned to introduce

electronic case management system. It will be very

convenient for citizens; it will also facilitate and

simplify receipt of information about pending

cases.

Any citizen will be able to receive detailed

information about the case – stage of review,

required additional information, etc. In other

words, any citizen will easily obtain information

without direct communication with the judge or

assistant judge.

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sakasacio sasamarTlos

gadawyvetilebis

zogierTi Tavisebureba.

sakasacio sasamarTlos

gadawyvetilebis

miTiTebebis

savaldebulo Zala

Teimuraz Todria

saqarTvelos uzenaesi sasamarTlos mosamarTle

1. sakiTxis dasma

aRniSnul statiaSi vecdebiT calkeuli praqtikuli magali-

Tis ganxilviT yuradReba gavamaxviloT erT SemTxvevaSi _ saapelacio

sasamarTlos mier dadgenili faqtobrivi garemoebebis

samarTlebrivi Sefasebis Sedegebze, xolo meore SemTxvevaSi _

saapelacio sasamarTlos mier faqtobrivi garemoebebis dadgenis

procesis Sefasebis Sedegebze.

gansaxilveli Tematikis farglebSi Cvens interess iwvevs faqtobrivi

garemoebebis mniSvnelobis gavlena sakasacio sasamar-

Tlos mier miRebul gadawyvetilebaze. amasTan, SevexebiT zogierT

sakiTxs, romelic exeba sakasacio sasamarTlos miTiTebis

savaldebuloobas.

sakasacio sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebis instituti gaTvaliswinebulia

saqarTvelos samoqalaqo saproceso kodeqsis L

TaviT. aRniSnuli institutis Tanaxmad, sakasacio sasamarTlos

aqvs uflebamosileba, ucvlelad datovos gasaCivrebuli gadawyvetileba

an gaauqmos igi. kerZod, gasaCivrebuli gadawyvetilebis

ucvlelad datoveba SesaZlebelia sam SemTxvevaSi: rodesac

kanonis miTiTebul darRvevas ara aqvs adgili; saapelacio sasamarTlos

gadawyvetilebas safuZvlad ar udevs kanonis dar-

Rveva; saapelacio sasamarTlos gadawyvetileba arsebiTad

14


sworia, miuxedavad imisa, rom gadawyvetilebis samotivacio nawili ar Seicavs Sesabamis

dasabuTebas. 1

gasaCivrebuli gadawyvetilebis gauqmeba SesaZlebelia sam SemTxvevaSi: saqmis garemoebebi

saproceso normebis iseTi darRveviTaa dadgenili, rom am darRvevis Sedegad saqmeze araswori

gadawyvetileba iqna gamotanili da saWiroa mtkicebulebaTa damatebiTi gamokvleva;

arsebobs am kodeqsis 394-e muxliT gaTvaliswinebuli safuZvlebi, garda aRniSnuli muxlis

`g~ da `e~ qvepunqtebisa; 2 axali gadawyvetilebis miRebis SemTxvevaSi. 3

zemoaRniSnuli procesualuri danawesebi mxolod procesualur kriteriumebs warmoadgens,

sadac moiazreba gasaCivrebuli gadawyvetilebis (ganCinebis) rogorc procesualur-samarTlebrivi,

aseve materialur-samarTlebrivi mxareebis Semowmebis Sedegebi.

amdenad, miTiTebuli Sedegebi damokidebulia erT SemTxvevaSi _ saqmisaTvis mniSvnelovani

(ZiriTadi, saZiebeli) faqtobrivi garemoebebis gansazRvris marTebulobaze, meore SemTxvevaSi

_ am faqtobrivi garemoebebis dadgenis procesis marTebulobaze, xolo mesame SemTxvevaSi, romlis

arsebobaze damokidebulia wina ori SemTxveva, procesualur darRvevebs warmoadgens (ssskis

394-e muxli) da gasaCivrebuli gadawyvetilebis gauqmebis absoluturi safuZvelia. 4

aRniSnuli statiis Tematikis gaTvaliswinebiT, romelic exeba ZiriTadi, saqmisaTvis mniSvnelovani

faqtobrivi garemoebebis mniSvnelobas sakasacio sasamarTlosaTvis, Cven ar SevexebiT

sssk-is 394-e muxliT dadgenili gasaCivrebuli gadawyvetilebis gauqmebis absolutur safuZvels,

garda am muxlis `e~ da `e¹~ qvepunqtebisa (ix.: qvemoT).

amdenad, sakasacio sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebis zemoaRniSnuli SemTxveva xSirad ganpirobebulia

faqtobrivi garemoebebis Semowmebis procesualuri TaviseburebebiT.

zemdgomi sasamarTloebis mniSvnelovan amocanas warmoadgens gaaqarwylon samarTlis normis

interpretaciidan gamomdinare sxvadasxva bundovaneba da am gziT xeli Seuwyon samarTlis ganvi-

Tarebas. 5

2. gasaCivrebuli gadawyvetilebis ucvlelad datovebis samarTlebrivi

kriteriumebi

ganvixiloT SemTxvevebi, rodesac kanonis miTiTebul darRvevas ara aqvs adgili; saapelacio

sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebas safuZvlad ar udevs kanonis darRveva.

pirvel SemTxvevaSi sakasacio saCivarSi miTiTebuli darRveva igulisxmeba, romelic SeiZleba

exebodes rogorc materialur-samarTlebrivi, aseve, procesualur-samarTlebrivi normebis

darRvevas. miuxedavad amisa, sakasacio sasamarTlos Tavisi iniciativiT SeuZlia Seamowmos

materialur-samarTlebrivi normis darRvevebi, xolo procesualur-samarTlebrivi darRvevebis

Semowmeba SeuZlia mxolod sakasacio saCivarSi amis Sesaxeb arsebuli miTiTebebis SemTxvevaSi

da kanoniT gaTvaliswinebul farglebSi. 6 am ukanasknel SemTxvevaSi, mas Tavisi iniciativiT SeuZlia

Seamowmos procesualur darRvevaTa faqtebis damadasturebeli mtkicebulebebi. 7

meore SemTxvevaSi, rodesac saapelacio sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebas safuZvlad ar udevs

kanonis darRveva, sakasacio sasamarTlo TviTon ikvlevs, darRveulia Tu ara materialursamarTlebrivi

norma, aseve, im SemTxvevebs, romlebic gasaCivrebuli gadawyvetilebis gauqmebis

absoluturi safuZvelia.

am SemTxvevaSi, sakasacio sasamarTlom unda Seamowmos, Tu ramdenad sworad iqna gansazRvruli

silogizmis mTavari, pirveli (normatiuli) wanamZRvari. magram iuridiuli Sedegis normatiuli

wanamZRvris gansazRvris (samarTlebrivi normis moZiebis da ganmartebis) aucilebloba

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erT SemTxvevaSi _ ukavSirdeba meoradi wanamZRvris, anu faqtobrivi situaciis sworad gansaz-

Rvras da mis realizacias silogizmis mTavari, anu normatiuli wanamZRvris qveS _ meore SemTxvevaSi.

amdenad, gansaxilvel orive SemTxvevaSi igulisxmeba, rom qvemdgomma sasamarTlom sworad

ganaxorciela zemoaRniSnuli wanamZRvrebis fiqsaciis realizacia, ris Sedegadac kanonieri

gadawyvetileba iqna miRebuli.

aRniSnul daskvnamde sakasacio sasamarTlo deduqciuri kvleviT midis, rac upirvels yovlisa,

niSnavs, rom sakasacio sasamarTlo amowmebs, Tu ramdenad sworad iqna gamoyenebuli da

ganmartebuli samarTlis norma, romelic zogadi da abstraqtuli xasiaTisaa. amdenad, rodesac

sakasacio sasamarTlo ucvlelad tovebs saapelacio sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebas (ganCinebas),

mis motivaciaSi unda Candes, Tu ratom miiCnia, rom am normiT gaTvaliswinebuli Sedegi

realizdeba konkretul SedegSi.

magaliTis saxiT mivmarToT sasamarTlo praqtikas.

erT-erT saqmeze sakasacio sasamarTlom ganmarta, rom `mosarCele `a~ warmoadgens marTlzomier

mflobels, kerZod, saapelacio sasamarTlom daadgina, rom mosarCele `a~-s dadebuli

saijaro xelSekruleba registrirebulia dedofliswyaros raionis miwis marTvis sammarTvelos

saregistracio JurnalSi #1482-iT.

kasatoris mier ar aris wamoyenebuli damatebiTi da dasabuTebuli sakasacio saCivari, romliTac

igi sadavod gaxdida sajaro reestrSi registracias. amdenad, saapelacio sasamarTlos

mier dadgenili faqtobrivi garemoebebi savaldebuloa sasamarTlosaTvis (sssk-is 407-e muxlis

me-2 nawili).

amrigad, `a~-sTan dadebuli ijaris xelSekrulebis registraciis faqti adasturebs im

garemoebas, rom `a~ aris marTlzomieri mflobeli... marTlzomier mfloblad iTvleba piri,

romelic samarTlebriv safuZvelze axorcielebs nivTis mimarT faqtobriv batonobas. saqarTvelos

samoqalaqo kodeqsis 162-e muxlis pirveli nawilis pirveli winadadebis Tanaxmad, dauSvebelia

marTlzomier mflobels moeTxovos nivTis ukan dabruneba. amave muxlis me-2 nawilis

Tanaxmad, es wesi exeba aseve pirdapiri mfloblis urTierTobas arapirdapir mflobelTan. gansaxilveli

normis Tanaxmad `a~-s ufleba aqvs gamoiTxovos `b~-sagan sadavo miwa...

zemoaRniSnulidan gamomdinare, sakasacio palata miiCnevs, rom saqarTvelos samoqalaqo saproceso

kodeqsis 410-e muxlis Tanaxmad, saapelacio sasamarTlos mier gamotanil gadawyvetilebas

safuZvlad ar udevs kanonis darRveva.~ 8

rogorc zemoaRniSnuli magaliTidan Cans, sasamarTlom sworad gansazRvra faqtobrivi garemoebebis

wre da isini procesualuri darRvevis gareSe daadgina.

SesaZlebelia, rom sakasacio saCivari uTiTebdes samarTlis normis interpretaciaze, magram

am SemTxvevaSic, aucilebelia, gaviTvaliswinoT faqtobrivi garemoebebi, radgan mniSvnelovania

ara samarTlis normis interpretaciis (ganmartebis) Semowmeba, aramed, am interpretaciis Sedegad

ramdenad sworad gansazRvra saapelacio sasamarTlom saqmisaTvis mniSvnelovani faqtobrivi

garemoebebi.

magaliTad, erT-erT saqmeSi kasatori _ dmanisis raionis gamgeoba uTiTebda, rom saapelacio

sasamarTlom arasworad ganmarta saqarTvelos samoqalaqo kodeqsis 442-e muxli, romelic iTvaliswinebs

valdebulebis Sewyvetas urTierTgaqviTviT.

amasTan mimarTebiT sakasacio palatam miuTiTa: `saapelacio sasamarTlom sworad ganmarta

saqarTvelos samoqalaqo kodeqsis 442-e muxlis pirveli nawili. kerZod, aRniSnuli muxlis pirveli

nawilis Tanaxmad, or pirs Soris arsebuli urTierTmoTxovna SeiZleba gaqviTviT Sewydes,

Tu damdgaria am moTxovnaTa Sesrulebis vada. amdenad, gansaxilveli normis Tanaxmad, urTierTmoTxovnaTa

gaqviTvisas unda arsebobdes ori aucilebeli winapiroba: orive piri erTmane-

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TisaTvis erTdroulad kreditoric unda iyos da movalec e.i. orives erTmaneTis mimarT unda

ekisrebodes valdebulebis Sesruleba da aseve, dadgenili unda iyos am moTxovnaTa Sesrulebis

vada. aRniSnuli normis Tanaxmad, es ori winapiroba erTdroulad unda arsebobdes, rom ganxorcieldes

urTierTmoTxovnaTa gaqviTva. am wesidan gamonaklisia amave muxlis me-2 nawili,

romlis Tanaxmad, valdebulebaTa gaqviTva SesaZlebelia maSinac, roca erT-erTi moTxovnis

Sesrulebis vada jer ar damdgara, magram am moTxovnis uflebis mqone mxars uWers gaqviTvas.

valdebulebis gaqviTva meore mxarisaTvis SetyobinebiT xorcieldeba. sakasacio palata

ganmartavs, rom konkretul davaze ar vrceldeba es ukanaskneli normis danawesi (442-e muxlis

me-2 nawili), radgan mopasuxe mxars ar uWers gaqviTvas. e.i. ar arsebobs misi neba Sesrulebis

vadis dadgomamde urTierTmoTxovnebis gaqviTvis Sesaxeb, rac aucilebeli pirobaa am normiT

urTierTobis mowesrigebisaTvis.

saapelacio sasamarTlom dadgenilad miiCnia, rom mosarCelis moTxovna mopasuxisaTvis milebis

Rirebulebis dakisrebis Sesaxeb, damokidebulia TviT mis mier mopasuxisaTvis Sesrulebuli

samuSaos Rirebulebis darCenili nawilis gadaxdaze. miTiTebuli Tanxa mxareTa Soris saboloo

angariSsworebisas unda gamokleboda dmanisis raionis gamgeobis mier Sps `saqgazmSenservisisaTvis~

Sesrulebuli samuSaoebis Rirebulebis saxiT asanazRaurebel Tanxas, xolo saboloo

angariSsworeba jer ar Semdgara.~ 9

sakasacio sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebidan movitaneT is nawili, romelic exeboda samarTlis

normis ganmartebas, radgan kasatori am SemTxvevaSi, xelmZRvanelobda sssk-is 393-e muxlis me-2

nawilis `g~ qvepunqtiT. magram imisaTvis, rom sakasacio sasamarTlos Seemowmebina Tu ramdenad

sworad ganmarta saapelacio sasamarTlom sk-is 442-e muxli, ar iyo sakmarisi mxolod silogizmis

mTavari, anu normatiuli wanamZRvris gansazRvra, radgan Semowmebis obieqts warmoadgens ara

samarTlis norma, aramed faqtobrivi garemoebebi. samarTlis normis swor ganmartebas aqvs

sakmaod didi mniSvneloba. xSir SemTxvevaSi, araswor ganmartebas mohyveba araswori gadawyvetilebis

gamotana. magram im SemTxvevaSi, rodesac faqtebis dadgenis procesi davas ar iwvevs, an am

procesualur darRvevebze miTiTeba safuZvels moklebulia, maSin sasamarTlom unda Seamowmos,

Tu ramdenad moiazreba sasamarTlos mier dadgenili faqtobrivi situacia samarTlis normiT

gaTvaliswinebuli faqtobrivi situaciis normatiul aRwerilobaSi, romelic ganmarta saapelacio

sasamarTlom da ramdenad sworad ganaxorcielda subsumireba. sasamarTlo ar ixilavs

abstraqtul urTierTobebs, igi ixilavs da wyvets mxareTa Soris warmoSobil davas, Sesabamisad,

samarTlis normis gamoyenebisa da ganmartebis marTebulobas sakasacio sasamarTlo amowmebs

konkretul faqtebTan mimarTebiT. 10

sakmaod sainteresoa kanonis danawesi, romlis Tanaxmad, sakasacio sasamarTlo ar akmayofilebs

sakasacio saCivars, rodesac saapelacio sasamarTlos gadawyvetileba arsebiTad sworia,

miuxedavad imisa, rom gadawyvetilebis samotivacio nawili ar Seicavs Sesabamis dasabuTebas.

vfiqrobT, am SemTxvevaSi unda ganimartos, Tu ras niSnavs: `gadawyvetileba arsebiTad

sworia~ da `ar Seicavs Sesabamis dasabuTebas.~

imis gaTvaliswinebiT, rom sakasacio sasamarTlo ar aris faqtebis damdgeni sasamarTlo da

amowmebs gasaCivrebuli gadawyvetilebis (ganCinebis) mxolod samarTlebriv mxares, zemoaRniSnuli

danawesis swor ganmartebas didi mniSvneloba aqvs. aRsaniSnavia, rom gasaCivrebuli gadawyvetilebis

samarTlebrivi kuTxiT Semosamowmeblad, igi unda Seicavdes saqmisaTvis mniSvnelovan

dadgenil faqtebs. winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi, adgili eqneba sssk-is 411-e an 412-e muxlebiT

gaTvaliswinebul SemTxvevebs. am ukanasknel SemTxvevebs ufro detalurad qvemoT SevexebiT.

sssk-is 410-e muxliT mocemul SemTxvevaSi, saxeze unda iyos Semowmebis obieqtis (faqtobrivi

garemoebebis) yvela niSani da amasTan, ar unda iyos faqtobrivi garemoebebis dadgenasTan dakav-

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Sirebuli procesualuri darRvevebi. amasTan, mniSvnelovania, rom gasaCivrebuli gadawyvetilebiT

damdgaria swori Sedegi. amdenad, unda arsebobdes subsumirebadi faqtebi.

magram moiazreba Tu ara am SemTxvevaSi, iuridiuli dausabuTebloba? maSinac ki, Tu gadawyvetileba

iuridiulad ar aris sakmaod dasabuTebuli, es warmoadgens misi gauqmebis absolutur

safuZvels (sssk-is 394-e muxlis `e~ qvepunqti). amdenad, gamoricxvis principidan gamomdinare,

sssk-is 410-e muxlis `g~ qvepunqtiT gaTvaliswinebuli SemTxveva unda gavmijnoT amave kodeqsis

394-e muxlis `e~ da `e¹~ qvepunqtebiT gaTvaliswinebuli SemTxvevebisagan, rasac Cven dawvrilebiT

qvemoT SevexebiT.

amdenad, `gadawyvetileba arsebiTad sworia~ da `ar Seicavs Sesabamis dasabuTebas~ unda

gulisxmobdes iseT SemTxvevas, rodesac faqtobrivi situacia (meoradi wanamZRvari) sworad aris

gansazRvruli da dadgenili, magram ar aris sworad ganxorcielebuli subsimireba qmedebis

abstraqtuli normatiuli Semadgenlobis (mTavari wanamZRvari) qveS, miuxedavad imisa, rom saqmeze

swori Sedegi dadga. aRniSnuli SeiZleba ukavSirdebodes SemTxvevebs, rodesac saapelacio

sasamarTlom gamoiyena is norma, romelic ar unda gamoeyenebina an arasworad ganmarta

samarTlis norma (sssk-is 393-e muxlis me-2 nawilis `b~ da `g~ qvepunqtebi).

am mxriv interess iwvevs safrangeTis saproceso kodeqsis Taviseburebebi. kerZod, 620-e

muxlis Tanaxmad, safrangeTis sakasacio sasamarTlos SeuZlia ar daakmayofilos sakasacio

saCivari, magram Secvalos araswori motivacia, samarTlebrivi xasiaTis motivaciiT 11 . TiTqos

Secdoma motivaciaSi iwvevs gasaCivrebuli gadawyvetilebis gauqmebas, magram ekonomiurobis

principis dacvis mizniT, sakasacio sasamarTlo ki ar auqmebs, aramed ZalaSi tovebs gasaCivrebul

gadawyvetilebas, magram Tavis gadawyvetilebaSi araswor motivacias cvlis swori motivaciiT. 12

am SemTxvevaSi, swori unda iyos gadawyvetilebis sarezolucio nawili, magram, rogorc aRiniSna,

icvleba samotivacio nawilis samarTlebrivi dasabuTeba (rejet par substitution de motifs). samarTlebriv

dasabuTebaSi am SemTxvevaSi igulisxmeba an sxva samarTlebrivi normis gamoyeneba an faqtebis

sxvagvari kvalifikacia.

isic aRsaniSnavia, rom gansaxilveli normis mixedviT, gasaCivrebul gadawyvetilebaSi samarTlebrivi

motivi (samarTlebrivi dasabuTeba), anu rogorc uwodeben zedmeti motivacia, sakasacio

sasamarTlom SeiZleba mxedvelobaSi ar miiRos, Tu is seriozul gavlenas ar axdens sarezolucio

nawilze.

magaliTad, safrangeTis sakasacio sasamarTlos erT-erT gadawyvetilebaSi (Soc. 1987 wlis

12 ivnisi, biuleteni V, #378), romelic Sromis kodeqsis LL.122-4-e muxlis darRvevas exeboda,

aRiniSna, rom sazogadoeba «Entreprise Guenzi» asaCivrebs saapelacio sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebas

(Nansy, 3 octombre 1984), romlis mixedviTac daekisra baton lambertinisaTvis gadaexada kompensacia

samsaxuridan gaTavisuflebis gamo; saqmis mixedviT, batoni lambertini samsaxurSi miiRes

1976 wlis 3 maiss, rogorc muSa. 1980 wlis 1 ianvars igi samuSaoebis xelmZRvaneli gaxda, xolo

1980 wlis 6 marts mZime darRvevis gamo samsaxuridan gaaTavisufles. sakasacio saCivris mixedviT

mZime darRveva is aris, rom sazogadoebis mier dasaqmebulma saStato TanamSromelma Tavisi

xelmZRvanelobis qveS myofi muSakebi waaqeza daetovebinaT daumTavrebeli samSeneblo obieqti

samuSao dRis dasrulebamde erTi saaTiT adre, rom maTTan erTad barSi wasuliyo dasalevad;

saapelacio sasamarTlom daadgina, rom batonma lambertinma, romelsac arasdros miuRia gafr-

Txileba, 1980 wlis 6 marts, samuSao saaTebSi, barSi waiyvana sawarmos ori TanamSromeli maSin,

rodesac mSenebloba ar iyo dasrulebuli. saapelacio sasamarTlom SeZlo Seefasebina es faqti,

rom mas ndobis dakargva da sawarmos kargad muSaobaSi xelis SeSla mohyva. miuxedavad imisa,

rom aRniSnuli darRveva Seicavda samsaxuridan gaTavisuflebis realur da seriozul mizezs,

is ar xasiaTdeboda sakmarisi simZimiT, rom batoni lambertinisaTvis ar miekuTvnebinaT xel-

18


Sekrulebis Sewyvetis anazRaureba. amdenad, sakasacio sasamarTlom ar daakmayofila sazogadoebis

sakasacio saCivari. 13

amdenad, daskvnis saxiT SeiZleba aRiniSnos, rom rodesac saapelacio sasamarTlom gansazRvra

saqmisaTvis mniSvnelovani faqtobrivi garemoebebi da, amdenad, sakasacio sasamar-

Tlos SeuZlia es faqtebi samarTlebrivad Seamowmos, magram miuxedavad swori samarTlebrivi

Sedegisa, saapelacio sasamarTlom am faqtebs araswori samarTlebrivi Sefaseba misca,

sakasacio sasamarTlos SeuZlia ucvlelad datovos gasaCivrebuli gadawyvetileba (ganCineba)

axali samarTlebrivi SefasebiT.

3. gasaCivrebuli gadawyvetilebis (ganCinebis) gauqmeba da saqmis xelaxla

gansaxilvelad dabrunebis samarTlebrivi kriteriumebi

rogorc ukve aRvniSneT, sakasacio sasamarTlo TviTon ver miiRebs gadawyvetilebas, rodesac

saqmis garemoebebi saproceso normebis iseTi darRveviTaa dadgenili, rom am darRvevis Sedegad,

saqmeze araswori gadawyvetileba iqna gamotanili da saWiroa mtkicebulebaTa damatebiTi gamokvleva

(sssk-is 412-e muxlis pirveli nawilis `a~ qvepunqti). gansaxilveli normiT mocemuli danawesi,

upirveles yovlisa, ukavSirdeba sakasacio sasamarTlos mier mtkicebiTi procesis Semowmebis

Sedegebs.

aRniSnuli danawesiT gaTvaliswinebuli SemTxvevis Semowmeba warmoadgens sakasacio saCivris

erT-erT safuZvels (sssk-is 393-e muxlis me-3 nawili). faqtebis gansazRvris da dadgenis procesis

Sefasebis Sedegad, SeiZleba aRmoCndes, rom qvemdgomma sasamarTlom faqtobrivi garemoebebi

daadgina procesualuri darRveviT. aqedan gamomdinare, gasaCivrebuli gadawyvetilebis

dasabuTeba SeiZleba Seicavdes iseT procesualur darRvevebs, romelTa aRmofxvra mniSvnelovani

iyos swori samarTlebrivi SedegisaTvis.

es is SemTxvevaa, rodesac kiTxvis niSnis qveS dgas faqtebis dadgenis procesi da aucilebelia

faqtsa da mtkicebulebas Soris dakavSirebuli sxvadasxva sakiTxis gadawyveta.

amdenad, sakasacio sasamarTlos mier sruli samarTlebrivi analizisaTvis aucilebelia ara

marto saapelacio sasamarTlos mier dadgenilad miCneuli faqtobrivi garemoebebi, aramed maT

dadgenasTan dakavSirebuli kanoniT gaTvaliswinebuli wesebis dacva. es aucilebloba, Sesabamisad,

ganpirobebulia dadgenili faqtis savaldebuloobis prezumfciis uaryofis winapirobebiT.

aRniSnuli darRvevebi SeiZleba ukavSirdebodes uSualod procesualur-samarTlebriv

darRvevebs, magram procesualuri darRvevis mizezi, aseve, SeiZleba ukavSirdebodes materialur-samarTlebriv

an logikuri wesebis darRvevas.

aRniSnuli darRvevebi SeiZleba gamovlindes mtkicebis tvirTis araswor ganawilebaSi, mtkicebis

sagnis arasworad gansazRvraSi, im faqtebis arasworad gansazRvraSi, romlebic ar saWiroebs

mtkicebas, mtkicebiT procesSi daSvebul arsebiT SecdomebSi da a.S.

magaliTad, erT-erT ganCinebaSi sakasacio palatam aRniSna, rom sssk-is 412 e muxlis pirveli

nawilis `a~ qvepunqtis Tanaxmad, sakasacio sasamarTlo auqmebs gadawyvetilebas da saqmes

xelaxla gansaxilvelad abrunebs saapelacio sasamarTloSi, vinaidan saWiroa mtkicebulebaTa

damatebiTi gamokvleva. sakasacio sasamarTlom miiCnia, rom gasaCivrebuli ganCinebiT eqspertis

daskvna da saqmeSi warmodgenili mtkicebulebebi saTanadod gamokvleuli ar aris. kerZod,

sasamarTlo uTiTebs: `saqmeze Catarebuli eqspertizis daskvniT dadgenilia, rom denis Zabvisa

da sixSiris cvalebadobas, agreTve eleqtroenergiis xSir CarTva-gamorTvebs SeeZlo eleqtroZravebis

mwyobridan gamoyvana. es garemoeba eqspertma dakiTxvis drosac daadastura. saqmeSi

19


marTlmsajuleba

N2

da

kanoni

aseve warmodgenilia ZiriTadi saSualebebis amoRebis Sesaxeb aqtebi, romlebiTac dasturdeba

eleqtroZravebis dazianebis faqti.~ mocemul SemTxvevaSi eqspertis daskvna ar aris kategoriuli,

vinaidan eqsperti askvnis eleqtroenergiis arastabilur miwodebasa da eleqtroZravebis

dazianebas Soris mizezobrivi kavSiris SesaZleblobas. amdenad, daskvna kategoriulad

ar adgens marTlsawinaaRmdego qmedebis gamo zianis dadgomas.

aRniSnulTan dakavSirebiT, sakasacio sasamarTlo iziarebs kasatoris mosazrebas, rom sasamarTlos

saTanadod ar gamoukvlevia miTiTebuli aqtebi. kerZod, dasaxelebuli aqtebiT Semowmebulia

samgoris, RrmaRelis, zemo vakis, naZaladevis, saguramos sadgurebSi ganTavsebuli

eleqtroZravebi, romelTa eqspluataciis xangrZlivoba gansazRvrulia amave aqtebiT.

Sps `Tbilisis wyali~ sarCelis safuZvlad uTiTebs im garemoebaze, rom man qonebrivi ziani

ganicada aragvis xeobis wyalsadenebisaTvis eleqtroenergiis SeferxebiT miwodebis gamo.

eqspertma, aseve Seamowma masala, romelic asaxavs aragvis xeobis wyalsadenebisaTvis eleqtroenergiis

miwodebis xangrZlivobas. aseT viTarebaSi unda gamoirkves:

ra gavlenas axdens aragvis xeobis wyalsadenisaTvis eleqtroenergiis arastabiluri miwodeba

samgoris, RrmaRelis, zemo vakis, naZaladevis, saguramos sadgurebSi ganTavsebul eleqtroZravebze;

eleqtroZravebis daTvalierebis aqtebSi miTiTebuli Zravebis gamoSvebis TariRisa da

eqspluataciis xangrZlivobis gaTvaliswinebiT, zustad unda dadgindes maTi dazianeba calsaxad

iyo Tu ara gamowveuli eleqtroenergiis miwodebis xarveziT, Tu TviTon nivTis faqtobrivi

mdgomareobiT;

dazianebuli eleqtroZravebi, saqmeSi warmodgenili mtkicebulebebis gaTvaliswinebiT,

mTlianad iqna ganadgurebuli, Tu misi narCeni Rirebulebidan gamomdinare mflobelma raime

sargebeli miiRo Tu ara da dadebiT SemTxvevaSi, zianis odenobis gansazRvrisas es garemoeba

gaTvaliswinebulia Tu ara.

aseve dausabuTebelia saapelacio palatis daskvna Sps `saqarTvelos saxelmwifo eleqtrosistemis~

mier moTxovnili 685910,6 laris dakmayofilebaze uaris Tqmis Taobaze, vinaidan, gaurkvevelia,

Tu ra igulisxmeba am odenobis axlad warmoSobil davalianebaSi. sasamarTlom sar-

Celi SeiZleba ar daakmayofilos misi dausabuTeblobis an usafuZvlobis gamo da ara imis gamo,

rom man ver gaarkvia, Tu raSi mdgomareobda mosarCelis moTxovna da ra mtkicebulebebs afuZnebda

igi am moTxovnas. samoqalaqo saproceso kodeqsis 222-e muxlis Tanaxmad, mosamarTles

ufleba aqvs, mxareebs misces SekiTxvebi, romlebic xels Seuwyoben saqmis gadawyvetisaTvis mniSvnelobis

mqone garemoebaTa srulad da zustad gansazRvras, am garemoebebis dasadastureblad

mtkicebulebaTa gamovlenasa da sasamarTloSi wardgenas, maTi utyuarobis gamokvlevas. aRniSnuli

normis analizidan gamomdinare, samoqalaqo samarTalwarmoeba SejibrebiTobis principis

fonze, gansakuTrebul SemTxvevebSi, uSvebs da saWirod miiCnevs mosamarTlis iniciativas saqmis

saTanadod ganxilvis mizniT.

saqmis xelaxla ganmxilvelma sasamarTlom mxareTa Soris warmoSobil davas mxolod ganCinebis

kvleviT nawilSi miTiTebul garemoebaTa gamokvlevis Semdeg unda misces samarTlebrivi Sefaseba.~ 14

zemoaRniSnuli magaliTi miuTiTebs, rom sasamarTlo ar SeiZleba savaraudo daskvnebs eyrdnobodes.

sasamarTlosaTvis moTxovnisa Tu Sesageblis Sinaarsi ar unda iyos savaraudo. sasamarTlom

unda gamokiTxos mxareebi da daazustos gansaxilvel sakiTxTa wre. zemoaRniSnulSi

saapelacio sasamarTlom ar daakmayofila moTxovna im motiviT, rom gaurkvevelia, Tu ra igulisxmeba

am odenobis axlad warmoSobil davalianebaSi. aseve, aRsaniSnavia, rom dasabuTeba

SeiZleba CaiTvalos srulad, Tu saqmeSi warmodgenili mtkicebulebebis gamokvleva-Sefaseba

xdeba erTobliobaSi, raTa sruli suraTi Seiqmnas faqtebis Sesaxeb.

20


amdenad, miTiTebul magaliTSi eqspertis daskvna ar iyo kategoriuli, vinaidan eqsperti

uSvebda eleqtroenergiis arastabilur miwodebasa da eleqtroZravebis dazianebas Soris mizezobrivi

kavSiris arsebobas. amis gasarkvevad sasamarTlos ar gamoukvlevia aqtebi sadavo

sadgurebSi ganTavsebuli eleqtroZravebis eqspluataciis xangrZlivobis Sesaxeb. Sps `Tbilisis

wyali~ sarCelis safuZvlad uTiTebs im garemoebaze, rom man qonebrivi ziani ganicada aragvis

xeobis wyalsadenebisaTvis eleqtroenergiis SeferxebiT miwodebis gamo, romlis damadasturebeli

mtkicebulebebi gamokvleuli ar yofila.

amdenad, aRniSnuli procesualuri darRvevebi miuTiTebs, rom saapelacio sasamarTlom ar daadgina

faqtobrivi situaciis sruli suraTi, rac aucilebelia saqmeze swori gadawyvetilebis misaRebad.

safrangeTis sakasacio sasamarTlos mier gasaCivrebuli gadawyvetilebis gauqmebis Semdeg,

saqmis xelaxla ganxilvisas mxares ufleba aqvs, kvlav ganacxados mosazrebebi da pretenziebi,

miuTiTos axal faqtebsa da mtkicebulebebze, sasamarTlosagan moiTxovos axali procesualuri

moqmedebebis ganxorcieleba. 15 magram mxares ar SeuZlia moiyvanos is mosazrebebi, romlebic uaryo

sakasacio sasamarTlom. aseve, mosazrebebi sasamarTlos arakompetenturobis Taobaze, rac

sakasacio sasamarTlom ar gaiziara. 16 Tu mxareebma axali mosazrebebi ar waradgines, es iTvleba

SezRudul pretenziebad da moTxovnebad, romlebic waradgines im sasamarTloSi, romlis

gadawyvetileba gaauqma sakasacio sasamarTlom. igive wesi moqmedebs mxaris gamoucxadeblobisas. 17

magaliTad, rodesac saapelacio sasamarTlos samotivacio nawili moklea, saqmis arsebiTi

mxaris ganmxilveli sasamarTloebis mier sadavo faqtebis dadgenili kvalifikaciisa da yovelgvari

Semowmebis ararsebobis Taobaze sakasacio sasamarTlo martivi SexsenebiT Semoifargleba. 18

mtkicebulebebis damaxinjebis Semowmebis gziT mxolod iribad xdeba faqtobrivi garemoebebis

eWvqveS dayeneba.

marTlac, disciplinuri Semowmebis Tanaxmad, 19 sakasacio sasamarTlom unda Seamowmos is gadawyvetilebebi,

romlebSic mxolod faqtebis analizia mocemuli, magram am faqtebis dasadastureblad

ar aris Sefasebuli mtkicebulebebi (mowmeebis Cvenebebi, policiis oqmi, eqspertizis

daskvna da a.S). 20

saqarTvelos samoqalaqo saproceso kodeqsis mixedviT, sakasacio sasamarTlos mier gadawyvetilebis

gauqmebisa da saqmis xelaxla gansaxilvelad dabrunebis SemTxvevaSi, saqme ixileba

xelaxla saapelacio sasamarTlosaTvis dadgenili wesebis mixedviT, im miTiTebebis gaTvaliswinebiT,

romlebic aRniSnulia sakasacio sasamarTlos ganCinebaSi.

sssk-is 412-e muxlis `b~ qvepunqtis Tanaxmad, gasaCivrebuli gadawyvetilebis (ganCinebis)

gauqmebisa da gansaxilvelad ukan dabrunebis safuZveli SeiZleba iyos sssk-is 394-e muxliT

gaTvaliswinebuli SemTxvevebi, garda, amave muxlis `g~ da `e~ qvepunqtebisa. es is procesualuri

darRvevebia, romlebic upirvelesad unda Semowmdes da maTi arsebobis SemTxvevaSi, sasamarTlo

saqmes aRar ixilavs.

saZiebel, anu ZiriTad faqtebTan mimarTebiT, konkretul SemTxvevaSi, Cven gvainteresebs

sssk-is 394-e muxlis `e¹~ qvepunqtis danawesi, romlis Tanaxmad, gadawyvetileba yovelTvis CaiTvleba

kanonis darRveviT miRebulad, Tu gadawyvetilebis dasabuTeba imdenad arasrulia, rom

misi samarTlebrivi safuZvlianobis Semowmeba SeuZlebelia. es zustad is SemTxvevaa, rodesac

ar arsebobs sakasacio sasamarTlos Semowmebis obieqti, anu faqtobrivi garemoebebi (meoradi

wanamZRvari), ris gamoc SeuZlebeli xdeba gasaCivrebuli gadawyvetilebis Semowmeba.

yovelive es aferxebs imis garkvevas, Tu ramdenad sworad gamoiyena an ganmarta materialursamarTlebrivi

norma qvemdgomma sasamarTlom. am SemTxvevebSi, aseve, yovelTvis advili ar aris

sakasacio sasamarTlos mier samarTlebrivi normis gamoyeneba, radgan amisaTvis ar arsebobs

erT-erTi mTavari orientiri _ faqtobrivi situacia.

21


marTlmsajuleba

N2

da

kanoni

magaliTad, erT-erT saqmeze sakasacio palatam aRniSna, rom `iziarebs kasatoris pretenzias

S. n-Ze-C-Zis uZrav nivTze 2/3 wilis mesakuTred cnobis nawilSi gasaCivrebuli gadawyvetilebis

dausabuTeblobis Taobaze da miiCnevs, rom am nawilSi gadawyvetileba unda gauqmdes, xolo

saqme xelaxla gansaxilvelad unda daubrundes imave sasamarTlos.

gauqmebul nawilSi mocemuli gadawyvetileba imdenad dausabuTebelia, rom misi samarTlebrivi

safuZvlianobis Semowmeba SeuZlebelia, rac, samoqalaqo saproceso kodeqsis 394-e muxlis

`e 1 ~ punqtiT, gadawyvetilebis gauqmebis absolutur safuZvels warmoadgens, an erT-erTi

meuRlis yuradsaRebi interesebis gaTvaliswinebiT. kerZod, erT-erTi meuRlis wili SeiZleba

gaizardos imis gaTvaliswinebiT, rom masTan cxovroben arasrulwlovani Svilebi, rom is Sromisuunaroa,

anda _ Tu meore meuRle xarjavda saerTo qonebas ojaxis interesebis sazianod.

miTiTebuli norma meuRleTa TanasakuTrebis reJimis amgvari gansxvavebuli wesiT dadgenas iTvaliswinebs

mxolod amave normiT CamoTvlili SemTxvevebis arsebobisas. mocemuli davis gadawyvetisas,

saapelacio sasamarTlom meuRleTa wilis Tanabrobis sawyiss gadauxvia, rac daasabuTa

imiT, rom S. n-Ze-C-ZesTan cxovrobs misi arasrulwlovani Svili da maT, garda sadavo uZravi

qonebisa, sxva sacxovrebeli ar gaaCniaT.

zemoT aRiniSnuli normis gamoyenebis aucilebel winapirobas warmoadgens ara mxolod arasrulwlovani

Svilis erT-erT meuRlesTan cxovrebis faqti, aramed iseTi garemoebis an garemoebaTa

arseboba, romelic sasamarTlos uqmnis myar Sinagan rwmenas, rom piris (meore meuRlis)

TanasakuTrebis ufleba SesaZlebelia SeizRudos _ Semcirdes. sasamarTlos Sinagani rwmena unda

emyarebodes iseT garemoebebs, romlebic calsaxad adastureben arasrulwlovani Svilebis

interesebis gaTvaliswinebis aucileblobas. es garemoebebi SesaZlebelia iyos arasaTanado

sabinao pirobebi, arasakmarisi sacxovrebeli farTobi da sxva nebismieri faqtori, romelic

arasrulwlovnis interesSia da mis normalur aRzrdas xels uSlis. amdenad, sasamarTlom unda

daasabuTos, rom arasrulwlovani Svili da masTan mcxovrebi mSobeli ufro metad saWiroeben

sacxovrebel farTs, vidre meore mSobeli.

mocemul SemTxvevaSi sasamarTlom samoqalaqo kodeqsis 1168-e muxlis meore nawiliT ise

ganusazRvra S. n-Ze-C-Zes uZrav qonebaze 2/3 wili, rom ar miuTiTebia, Tu romel faqtobriv

garemoebebze daayrdno am muxlis gamoyenebis saWiroeba. sasamarTlo ar uTiTebs, modave mxareTa

TanasakuTrebis Tanabrad gayofa ra gavlenas axdens arasrulwlovani Svilis interesze, an mis

normalur pirobebSi aRzrdaze. aRniSnuliT sasamarTlom daarRvia samoqalaqo saproceso kodeqsis

105-e muxlis meore nawilis moTxovna, romlis ZaliTac sasamarTlo afasebs mtkicebulebebs

Tavisi Sinagani rwmeniT, romelic unda emyarebodes maT yovelmxriv, srul da obieqtur

ganxilvas, ris Sedegadac mas gamoaqvs daskvna saqmisaTvis mniSvnelobis mqone garemoebebis

arsebobis an ararsebobis Sesaxeb.

sakasacio palata ganmartavs, rom samoqalaqo kodeqsis 1168-e muxlis meore nawili adgens

sakuTrebis uflebis mopovebis gansxvavebul reJims, rac mxolod amave normiT gaTvaliswinebul

gansakuTrebul SemTxvevebSia dasaSvebi. Sesabamisad, sasamarTlos gadawyvetileba miTiTebuli

normis gamoyenebisas dasabuTebuli unda iyos iseTi faqtobrivi garemoebebiT, romlebic adastureben

meuRleTa wilis Tanabrobis sawyisisagan gadaxvevis aucileblobas.

saqmis xelaxla ganmxilvelma sasamarTlom, zemoT miTiTebuli msjelobis gaTvaliswinebiT,

unda gamoikvlios da daadginos uZrav nivTTan mimarTebiT meuRleTa wilis gansxvavebuli wesiT

gayofisaTvis aucilebeli winapirobebi da saTanado samarTlebrivi Sefaseba misces maT.~ 21

aRniSnuli magaliTidan Cans, Tu ramdenad didi mniSvneloba aqvs faqtobriv situacias sakasacio

sasamarTlosaTvis. magram amasTan, sakasacio sasamarTlo aseT SemTxvevaSi, upirobod ar

auqmebs gasaCivrebul gadawyvetilebas, aramed sadavo urTierTobis momwesrigebeli materi-

22


alur-samarTlebrivi normis safuZvelze gansazRvravs im faqtebis wres, romelic unda

gamoekvlia da daedgina qvemdgom sasamarTlos.

SesaZlebelia gaCndes kiTxva: Tu saapelacio sasamarTlos ara aqvs dadgenili saqmisaTvis

mniSvnelovani faqtebi e.i. ar arsebobs sakasacio sasamarTlos Semowmebis obieqti, ramdenad

SesaZlebelia sakasacio sasamarTlos mier samarTlis normis zustad gansazRvra.

am kiTxvaze pasuxis gasacemad gasaTvaliswinebelia mravali faqtori, rac dakavSirebulia

konkretuli davis specifikasTan. magaliTad, Cven mier praqtikidan zemoT motanili SemTxveva

sakasacio sasamarTlos aZlevda SesaZleblobas, sworad ganesazRvra samarTalpretenziis

hipoTeza. materialur-samarTlebrivi moTxovna da Sesagebeli am SemTxvevaSi warmoadgens samarTlebrivi

normis moZiebis erT-erT mTavar megzurs. kerZod, gansaxilveli sakiTxi exeboda

meuRleTa Soris TanasakuTrebaSi arsebuli uZravi nivTis gayofas arasrulwlovani bavSvebis

interesebis gaTvaliswinebiT, risTvisac saapelacio sasamarTlom ar gaamaxvila yuradReba im

faqtobriv garemoebebze, romlebic am konkretul situaciaSi iwvevda samoqalaqo kodeqsis 1168-e

muxlis meore nawiliT gaTvaliswinebul Sedegs.

aris SemTxvevebi, rodesac sasamarTlos ara marto ara aqvs dadgenili saqmisaTvis mniSvnelovani

faqtobrivi garemoebebi, aramed ara aqvs gansazRvruli mxareTa materialur-samarTlebrivi

poziciebi, rac sakmaod bundovan da orazrovan daskvnebs iZleva. am SemTxvevaSi, sakasacio

sasamarTlos, saqmis Taviseburebebis gaTvaliswinebiT, SeuZlia miuTiTos mxareTa samar-

Talpretenziebis dadastureba-gansazRvraze imisaTvis, rom SesaZlebeli iyos am urTierTobis

momwesrigebeli normis moZieba. aRniSnuli `gaugebroba~ SeiZleba gamoiwvios mxareebis pretenziebis

permanentulma cvlam, erT moTxovnidan meoreze gadasvlam, Semdeg isev pirvel moTxovnaze

dabrunebam da a.S. aris SemTxvevebi, rodesac sasamarTlo ar axdens saTanado reagirebas

yovelive amaze, rac Semdeg arTulebs sakasacio sasamarTloSi gasaCivrebuli gadawyvetilebis

samarTlebrivi mxaris Semowmebas. vfiqrobT, rom es is SemTxvevaa, rodesac Cven SegviZlia vTqvaT,

rom `sasamarTlom ar unda datovos uyuradRebod am moTxovnebTan winaaRmdegobaSi myofi sasamarTlo

gadawyvetilebebi marto imis gamo, rom mxareebma ver SeamCnies iseTi arsebiTi

darRvevebi, romlebmac aSkarad ganapirobes mcdari gadawyvetilebis miReba.~ 22

4. gasaCivrebuli gadawyvetilebis (ganCinebis) gauqmeba da axali

gadawyvetilebis gamotanis samarTlebrivi kriteriumebi

ra SemTxvevebSi gamoaqvs sakasacio sasamarTlos axali gadawyvetileba? sssk-is 411-e muxlis

Tanaxmad, sakasacio sasamarTlo TviTon miiRebs gadawyvetilebas saqmeze, Tu ar arsebobs am

kodeqsis 412-e muxliT gaTvaliswinebuli gadawyvetilebis gauqmebisa da saqmis saapelacio

sasamarTloSi xelaxla gansaxilvelad dabrunebis safuZveli.

es is SemTxvevaa, rodesac arsebobs gasaCivrebuli gadawyvetilebis gauqmebis absoluturi

safuZveli, magram ar arsebobs saqmis xelaxla gansaxilvelad dabrunebis safuZveli. es niSnavs, rom

saapelacio sasamarTlom sworad gansazRvra da daadgina saqmeze mniSvnelovani faqtobrivi garemoebebi,

magram ar arsebobs maTi samarTlebrivi Sefaseba, ufro zustad, gadawyvetileba iuridiulad ar aris

sakmarisad dasabuTebuli (sssk-is 394-e muxlis `e~ qvepunqti). imisaTvis, rom sakasacio sasamarTlom

SesZlos TviTon miiRos gadawyvetileba, aucilebelia, arsebobdes subsumirebadi faqtebi. es SemTxveva

hgavs Cven mier ganxilul, sssk-is 410-e muxlis `g~ qvepunqtiT gaTvaliswinebul SemTxvevas. magram

sakasacio sasamarTlos mier axali gadawyvetilebis gamotanis erT-erT aucilebel winapirobas

warmoadgens SemTxveva, rodesac gadawyvetileba arsebiTad ar aris swori.

23


marTlmsajuleba

N2

da

kanoni

`samarTlis gamoyeneba ar xorcieldeba zusti meTodiT. kanonis gamoyenebis bundovaneba SeiZleba

iuridiuli silogizmis rogorc normatiuli, ise faqtobrivi wanamZRvrebiT iqnas ganpirobebuli.

sxva sityvebiT, rom vTqvaT interpretaciis aramkafio gansazRvrebiT an savaraudo

faqtobrivi garemoebebiT.~ 23

amdenad, iuridiuli silogizmiT mocemuli sami elementis mixedviT, sakasacio sasamarTlos,

sssk-is 411-e muxlis Tanaxmad, SeuZlia gamoitanos axali gadawyvetileba, Tu saapelacio sasamarTlos

mier ar aris sworad gansazRvruli normatiuli wanamZRvari da daskvna, magram arsebobs

faqtobrivi wanamZRvari. xolo sssk-is 410-e muxlis `g~ qvepunqtis SemTxvevaSi, sasamarTlom

sworad gansazRvra faqtobrivi wanamZRvari da Sedegi, xolo normatiuli wanamZRvari sworad

ver gansazRvra.

magaliTad, erT-erT ganCinebaSi sakasacio sasamarTlom aRniSna, rom `saapelacio sasamarTlom

sadavo brZanebis kanonierebis Semowmebis Sedegad daaskvna, rom sajaro skolas mosarCele

`a~-s mimarT ar unda gamoeyenebina winasaxelSekrulebo urTierTobis maregulirebeli wesebi da

misi Tanamdebobidan gaTavisufleba SromiTi xelSekrulebis gauformeblobis motiviT, Sromis

kodeqsis me-5 muxlis me-7 da me-8 nawilebis safuZvelze, samarTlebrivad arasworia. Tumca,

sasamarTlom brZanebis samarTlebrivi safuZvlis arasworad miTiTeba, misi gauqmebisa da

mosarCelis samuSaoze aRdgenis sakmaris safuZvlad ar miiCnia im motiviT, rom samoqalaqo kodeqsis

52-e muxlis Sesabamisad, sadavo brZanebis gonivruli gansjiT dgindeba damsaqmeblis

namdvili neba.

sakasacio sasamarTlo srulad iziarebs saapelacio palatis argumentacias sadavo brZanebis

arakanonierebaze da Tvlis, rom skolis direqciis mier gamocemuli brZanebiT `a~ arasworad

iqna gaTavisuflebuli samsaxuridan.

amasTan, sakasacio sasamarTlo ar iziarebs saapelacio palatis msjelobas samoqalaqo kodeqsis

52-e muxlis gamoyenebiT `a~-s samuSaodan gaTavisuflebis kanonierebaze im dasabuTebiT,

rom brZanebis gonivruli gansjiT dgindeba damsaqmeblis _ sajaro skolis direqtoris namdvili

neba, Sewyvitos SromiTi urTierToba `a~-sTan.

Sromis kodeqsis pirveli muxlis meore nawiliT, kanoni uSvebs SesaZleblobas Sromis urTierTobebTan

dakavSirebuli sakiTxebi, romlebsac ar awesrigebs es kodeqsi, daregulirdes samoqalaqo

kodeqsis normebiT. Sesabamisad, sakasacio sasamarTlo eTanxmeba saapelacio palatis

msjelobas, rom samuSaodan gaTavisuflebis brZaneba warmoadgens SromiTi urTierTobis erTerTi

mxaris _ damsaqmeblis nebis gamovlenas. amdenad, masTan mimarTebiT, Tuki arsebobs nebis

namdvilobis dadgenis aucilebloba, SeiZleba gamoyenebul iqnes samoqalaqo kodeqsis 52-e muxli,

romelic adgens nebis gamovlenis ganmartebis wess. nebis gamovlenis ganmartebis aucilebloba

warmoiSoba maSin, rodesac arsebobs garigebis mxareebis mier gamovlenil nebaTa konfliqti.

ganmartebis sagans warmoadgens mxaris mier gamovlenili neba, roca es meore mxaris mier

gansxvavebulad iqna aRqmuli an mxaris mier gamovlenili neba ar aris misi ganzraxvis Tanxvedri.

aseT SemTxvevaSi, garigebis mxare TviTonve azustebs, akonkretebs an meore mxaresTan SeuTanxmeblobis

SemTxvevaSi, sadavod miiCnevs xelSekrulebis bundovan da saeWvo azrs.

mocemul SemTxvevaSi davis ori instanciiT ganxilvisas sadavo brZanebis avtors _ skolis

direqtors saeWvod ar miuCnevia mis mier brZanebaSi gamoxatuli neba _ `a~-s samuSaodan ga-

Tavisuflebis safuZveli, Sesabamisad, dausabuTebelia saapelacio sasamarTlos iniciativa

mxaris im nebis ganmartebisa, romelsac TviT mxare saeWvod da bundovnad ar miiCnevs.

aqve gasaTvaliswinebelia is garemoebac, rom nebis ganmarteba unda ganxorcieldes gansamart

teqstTan mWidro kavSirSi. nebis ganmarteba adekvaturi unda iyos faqtisa, rac mocemul Sem-

TxvevaSi, daculi ar aris.

24


sakasacio sasamarTlo iTvaliswinebs im garemoebasac, rom mocemul SemTxvevaSi, mxaris _

skolis direqtoris neba gamovlenilia werilobiTi formiT, rac gamoricxavs nebis gamomvlenis

Secdomis albaTobas, vinaidan nebis werilobiTi formiT gadmocemisas ivaraudeba, rom mxare

Tavis survils mxolod Segnebulad gansjis Semdeg gadmoscems...

aRniSnulidan gamomdinare, sakasacio sasamarTlo miiCnevs, rom saapelacio palatam arasworad

gamoiyena samoqalaqo kodeqsis 52-e muxli, ris gamoc gasaCivrebuli gadawyvetieleba unda

gauqmdes da axali gadawyvetilebiT `a~-s sarCeli dakmayofildes.~ 24

zemoaRniSnulidan gamomdinare, SesaZlebelia davaskvnaT: sakasacio sasamarTlos mier

gasaCivrebuli gadawyvetilebis (ganCinebis) Semowmebis Sedegebi, rac vlindeba erT SemTxvevaSi

_ gasaCivrebuli gadawyvetilebis (ganCinebis) ucvlelad datovebaSi, meore SemTxvevaSi

_ gasaCivrebuli gadawyvetilebis (ganCinebis) gauqmebas da saqmis xelaxla gansaxilvelad

saapelacio sasamarTlosaTvis dabrunebaSi da mesame SemTxvevaSi _ gasaCivrebuli gadawyvetilebis

(ganCinebis) gauqmebas da axali gadawyvetilebis gamotanaSi, ukavSirdeba erT

SemTxvevaSi _ saqmisaTvis mniSvnelovani faqtobrivi garemoebebis gansazRvris marTebulobis,

meore SemTxvevaSi _ am faqtobrivi garemoebebis dadgenis procesis marTebulobis

da gasaCivrebuli gadawyvetilebis gauqmebis absolutur safuZvels.

Sesabamisad, zemoT aRniSnuli Sedegi ganpirobebulia sakasacio sasamarTlos mier faqtobrivi

garemoebebis samarTlebrivi Semowmebis SesaZleblobiT. sakasacio sasamarTlos

mier gadawyvetilebis (ganCinebis) gamotanaze uSualo gavlenas axdens, Tu ramdenad sworad

iqna gansazRvruli iuridiuli silogizmis mixedviT normatiuli (ZiriTadi) wanamZRvari da

faqtobrivi (meoradi) wanamZRvari; aqedan gamomdinare, ramdenad swori Sedegi iqna miRebuli

saqmeze. miTiTebuli wanamZRvrebis gansazRvra gavlenas axdens sakasacio sasamarTloSi

subsumfciis ganxorcielebis procesualur SesaZleblobebze, rac Sesabamisad, aisaxeba

sakasacio sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebis sxvadasxva saxeSi.

5. sakasacio sasamarTlos miTiTebebis farglebi da savaldebulo Zalis

mniSvneloba

sssk-is 412-e muxlis me-2 nawilis pirveli winadadebis Tanaxmad, gasaCivrebuli gadawyvetilebis

gauqmebisa da saapelacio sasamarTloSi saqmis xelaxla gansaxilvelad dabrunebis ganCinebas

sakasacio sasamarTlom safuZvlad unda daudos samarTlebrivi Sefaseba, rac savaldebuloa

saapelacio sasamarTlosaTvis.

aRsaniSnavia, rom iuridiul literaturaSi diskusias iwvevda sakiTxi imis Sesaxeb, Tu ramdenad

unda arsebobdes iseTi danawesi, romlis Tanaxmad, savaldebulo iqneboda sakasacio sasamarTlos

miTiTebebi qvemdgomi sasamarTlosaTvis. magram maSinac, roca aseTi danawesi ar arsebobda

pozitiuri saxiT, sasamarTlo praqtikam aCvena, rom amis moTxovnileba arsebobda samar-

Tlebrivi stabilurobisa da erTgvarovani praqtikis CamoyalibebisaTvis.

aRniSnuli sakiTxi detalurad iqna ganxiluli erT-erT sadisertacio naSromSi, sadac sxvadasxva

qveynis sakanonmdeblo modelebis ganxilvis Sedegad daisva sakiTxi samoqalaqo saproceso

kodeqsSi cvlilebis Setanis Sesaxeb, kerZod: SemoTavazebul iqna danawesi, romlis Tanaxmad,

`sakasacio sasamarTlos samarTlebrivi Sefaseba, romelic safuZvlad daedo gadawyvetilebis

gauqmebasa da saqmis xelaxla gansaxilvelad ukan dabrunebas, agreTve miTiTebebi ama Tu im

saproceso moqmedebis Sesrulebis Sesaxeb, savaldebuloa im sasamarTlosaTvis, romelsac es

saqme daubrunda xelaxla gansaxilvelad.~ 25 faqtobrivad msgavsi Sinaarsis danawess iTvaliswinebs

moqmedi samoqalaqo saproceso kodeqsi.

25


marTlmsajuleba

N2

da

kanoni

aRsaniSnavia, rom sakasacio sasamarTlo mtkicebulebiTi saqmianobis Sefasebisas adgens mtkicebiTi

saqmianobis kriteriumebs, mtkicebulebaTa Sefasebisa da am mtkicebulebebis meSveobiT

faqtobrivi garemoebebis dadgenis aucilebel mimarTulebebs, romlebic Semdeg aisaxeba konkretuli

miTiTebebis saxiT. rodesac saapelacio sasamarTlosaTvis sakasacio sasamarTlos mi-

TiTebebis savaldebuloobaze vsaubrobT, Zalauneburad vexebiT mosamarTleTa damoukideblobisa

da mosamarTlis mxolod kanonisadmi morCilebis princips. saqarTvelos konstituciis

84-e muxlis pirveli punqtis Tanaxmad, `mosamarTle Tavis saqmianobaSi damoukidebelia da

emorCileba mxolod konstituciasa da kanons~.

am mxriv, Cndeba kiTxva: xom ar izRudeba mosamarTlis damoukidebloba am miTiTebebis savaldebulobiT.

26 am kiTxvaze pasuxis gasacemad, upirveles yovlisa, unda ganvsazRvroT am mi-

TiTebebis Sinaarsi, mniSvneloba da aseve, misi farglebi. am SemTxvevaSi, unda vifiqroT, rom es

miTiTebebi exeba samarTalSefardebis gadasinjvis iseT mxareebs, romlebiTac uzrunvelyofilia

faqtobrivi garemoebebis dadgena da maT SefasebasTan dakavSirebuli samarTlebrivi kriteriumebis

gansazRvra. xolo rac Seexeba mtkicebiTi saqmianobis kriteriumebis gansazRvras,

rogorc sakasacio sasamarTlos SefasebiT process, mniSvnelovania procesualur samarTlebrivi

da logikuri mxareebis sworad gansazRvra.

amasTan, vfiqrobT, rom sakasacio sasamarTlos miTiTebebis mniSvneloba ganpirobebulia sakasacio

sasamarTlos instanciurobisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli mtkicebis sagnis mniSvnelobiT, xolo

am ukanasknelis farglebi aisaxeba sakasacio sasamarTlos miTiTebebis farglebze. amdenad,

sakasacio sasamarTlos miTiTebebi SeiZleba exebodes iseT procesualur darRvevebs, rac

ukavSirdeba sssk-is 412-e muxlis `a~ qvepunqtiT saqmisaTvis mniSvnelovani faqtebis daudgenlobas

an arasaTanadod dadgenas, risTvisac aucilebelia mtkicebulebaTa damatebiTi gamokvleva,

an amave kodeqsis 412-e muxlis `b~ qvepunqtSi miTiTebuli gadawyvetilebis gauqmebis absolutur

safuZvlebs. aRsaniSnavia, rom am ukanasknel SemTxvevaSi, procesualuri darRvevebis

arsebobisas sakasacio sasamarTlo Semoifargleba mxolod maTze miTiTebiT.

vfiqrobT, rom es miTiTebebi uSualod ukavSirdeba sakasacio sasamarTlos Semowmebis obieqtis

(faqtobrivi garemoebebis) gansazRvras, romlis gareSec is moklebulia SesaZleblobas,

rom sruli samarTlebrivi daskvnebi gamoitanos saqmidan.

SeiZleba iTqvas, rom aRniSnuli miTiTebebiT uzrunvelyofilia sakasacio sasamarTlos mier

Tavisi iurisdiqciis farglebSi saqmis ganxilvis specifika. amdenad, es miTiTebebi, Tu ganxorcielebulia

kanonis zustad gansazRvrul farglebSi, ar SeiZleba miviCnioT rogorc mosamarTlis

damoukideblobis principis darRveva. aRniSnuli miTiTebebi warmoadgens im aucilebel

samarTlebriv kriteriumebs, romelTa meSveobiT sakasacio sasamarTlo abstraqtulad gansaz-

Rvravs mis mier Sesamowmebel obieqts, magram misi konkretuli gansazRvra (dadgena) ar SeuZlia,

sakasacio sasamarTlos instanciurobidan gamomdinare. amdenad, saproceso kodeqsiT gaTvaliswinebul

SemTxvevaSi, samarTlebrivi Sefasebis savaldebulo Zala unda ganvixiloT, rogorc

subsumirebadi faqtebis gansazRvris kriteriumebi, raTa SesaZlebeli gaxdes am faqtebis

samarTlebrivi Sefaseba.

unda aRiniSnos, rom gansaxilveli normis (sssk-is 412-e muxlis me-2 nawili) mizani mTlianad

emTxveva sakasacio sasamarTlos miznebs, 27 rac gamoixateba individualuri interesebisa da sajaro

interesebis dacvaSi.

vfiqrobT, gansaxilvel sakiTxTan mimarTebaSi yuradReba unda gavamaxviloT sajaro interesebis

dacvis mizanze, romliTac faqtobrivad uzrunvelyofilia individualuri interesebis

dacvis miznis miRweva. sakasacio sasamarTlos aRniSnuli miTiTebebic sabolood, am miznebis

miRwevas unda emsaxurebodes.

26


g. gogiaSvilis statiaSi gamoTqmuli mosazrebis Tanaxmad, `saqarTvelos uzenaesi sasamarTlos

konkretuli mizani unda gaxdes samarTlis dinamikuri, progresirebadi da maunificirebeli

ganmartebis uzrunvelyofa, ramac gadamwyveti roli unda Seasrulos samarTlebrivi usafr-

Txoebis ganmtkicebaSi. am miznis misaRwevad arsebiTi mniSvneloba eniWeba uzenaesi da sakonstitucio

sasamarTloebis gadawyvetilebebis detalur motivirebas... uzenaesi sasamarTlo unda

asrulebdes konstituciisa da kanonmdeblobis, aseve, iuridiuli mniSvnelobis saerTaSoriso

dokumentebisa da maT Soris, adamianis uflebaTa evropis konvenciis gamoyenebis kontrolis

funqcias, rasac, sabolood, moaqvs samarTlis unifikacia~ 28 .

aseve, ar SeiZleba ar daveTanxmoT am statiaSi gamoTqmul mosazrebas, rom `uzenaesi sasamar-

Tlo unda Camoyalibdes wminda sakasacio sasamarTlod, romlis mTavari funqciac iqneba kanonis

dinamikuri ganmarteba da amiT sasamarTlo praqtikis erTgvarovnebis uzrunvelyofa.~ 29

vfiqrobT, rom zemoaRniSnul miznebTan erTad, sakasacio sasamarTlos miTiTebebs aqvs garkveuli

kanonzomiereba, romlis dacviT uzrunvelyofilia ara marto aRniSnuli miznebis miRweva,

aramed mosamarTlis damoukideblobis principis dacvac. am SemTxvevaSi, didi mniSvneloba

eniWeba sakasacio sasamarTlos miTiTebebis saapelacio sasamarTlosaTvis savaldebuloobis

Sinaarsisa da farglebis gansazRvras.

vfiqrobT, rom zemoaRniSnulis Sinaarsis gaTvaliswinebiT, misi farglebi moicavs mxolod

procesualur-samarTlebrivi darRvevis gamosworebis miTiTebas, maTgan erTi nawili ukavSirdeba

faqtobrivi garemoebebis arasworad dadgenas an ardadgenas, xolo meore nawili _ saerTo

sasamarTloebis iurisdiqciis sakiTxebs.

aRniSnuli farglebis dacva aucilebelia ara marto kanonieri gadawyvetilebis misaRebad,

aramed, SesaZlebeli iyos sakasacio sasamarTlos mier saapelacio sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebis

samarTlebrivi mxaris Semowmeba. procesualur-samarTlebrivi kriteriumebis sworad gamoyenebiT

uzrunvelyofilia mxareTa individualuri interesebis dacva, xolo aRniSnuli kriteriumebis

sworad gansazRvris kontrolis funqciiT _ sajaro interesebis dacva. 30

aqedan gamomdinare, aRniSnul miTiTebebs didi mniSvneloba aqvs samarTlis ganviTarebisa da

sasamarTlos erTgvarovani praqtikis CamoyalibebisaTvis. ra Tqma unda, mosamarTles, romelic

ixilavs sakasacio sasamarTlodan dabrunebul saqmes, SeuZlia gamoiyenos da ganmartos kanoni

Tavisi Sexedulebisamebr, rac uzrunvelyofilia mosamarTlis damoukideblobisa da misi mxolod

kanonisadmi damorCilebis principiT. magram mniSvnelovania aRiniSnos, rom samarTlis normis

gamoyeneba da ganmarteba aseve, ukavSirdeba samosamarTlo samarTals, kanonis bundovani adgilebis

ganmartebas, kanonis xarvezis Sevsebasa da sabolood, sasamarTlo praqtikiT Camoyalibebul wesebs.

magram erTgvarovani praqtikis Camoyalibeba ar niSnavs mxolod `erTnairad saqmis gadawyvetas~.

erTgvarovani praqtika niSnavs, upirveles yovlisa, samarTlebrivad swori praqtikis Camoyalibebas,

rasac safuZvlad udevs rogorc Teoriuli codna, aseve, gamocdileba. `mosamar-

Tleebi kanonsa da cxovrebas Soris Suamavlis rols asruleben.~ 31 aqedan gamomdinare, sakasacio

sasamarTlos miTiTebebi samarTlebrivad unda iyos dasabuTebuli, rom ar Cndebodes damatebiTi

kiTxvebi, Tu ratom miiCnia sakasacio sasamarTlom ase da ratom ar gaiziara saapelacio sasamarTlos

motivacia. amdenad, SesaZlebelia, rom saapelacio sasamarTlodan sakasacio sasamar-

TloSi xelmeored Semosuli gadawyvetileba, romliTac ar iqna gaTvaliswinebuli sakasacio

sasamarTlos miTiTebebi, ganpirobebuli iyos TviT am ukanaskneli sasamarTlos miTiTebebis

dausabuTeblobiT. sasamarTlo praqtika warmoadgens rTul process, romlis drosac ixveweba

da yalibdeba samarTlebrivi xedvebi, rasac sabolood, mohyveba garkveuli Sedegi.

amdenad, rogorc aRvniSneT, sakasacio sasamarTlos miTiTebebs aqvs miznebi, romlebic, rogorc

migvaCnia, atarebs konkretul da zogad xasiaTs. am miTiTebebis konkretuli xasiaTi ga-

27


marTlmsajuleba

N2

da

kanoni

moixateba konkretuli davis gadawyvetaSi da yoveli konkretuli saqme gansazRvravs maT

mniSvnelobas. miTiTebebis zogadi mizani emsaxureba samarTlebriv stabilurobas, samarTlis

ganviTarebisa da erTgvarovani sasamarTlo praqtikis Camoyalibebas, rac, Sesabamisad, aisaxeba

sakasacio saCivris dasaSvebobis sakiTxis gadawyvetaSi. 32

ganvixiloT sakasacio saCivris dasaSvebobis mxolod zogierTi winapiroba, rac Cveni Tval-

TaxedviT, ukavSirdeba gansaxilvel Tematikas.

kerZod, sssk-is 391-e muxlis me-5 nawilis `a~, `b~ da `g~ qvepunqtebis Tanaxmad, sakasacio

saCivari dasaSvebia, Tu saqme mniSvnelovania samarTlis ganviTarebisa da erTgvarovani sasamarTlo

praqtikis CamoyalibebisaTvis; saapelacio sasamarTlos gadawyvetileba gansxvavdeba

am kategoriis saqmeebze saqarTvelos uzenaesi sasamarTlos manamde arsebuli praqtikisagan;

saapelacio sasamarTlos mier saqme ganxilulia mniSvnelovani saproceso darRveviT, rasac

SeeZlo arsebiTad emoqmeda saqmis ganxilvis Sedegebze.

aRniSnuli danawesebi sxva mniSvnelovan kriteriumebTan erTad ganapirobeben marTlmsajulebis

funqcionirebis uzrunvelyofasTan erTad kasaciisadmi wayenebuli mTavari moTxovnebis

erTmaneTTan harmoniaSi moyvanas. kerZod: zogadad, marTlwesrigis dacvas da misTvis xelis

Sewyobas erTiani sasamarTlo praqtikis Camoyalibebis meSveobiT da amiT samarTlebrivi stabilurobis

Seqmnas; calkeul SemTxvevebze gadawyvetilebebis samarTlianobas. 33

amdenad, sakasacio sasamarTlos miTiTebebi sabolood, unda uzrunvelyofdes samarTlis

ganviTarebasa da erTgvarovani sasamarTlo praqtikis Camoyalibebas. ceno raihenbeheri Tavis

daskvnaSi aRniSnavs, rom am `kriteriumebs Tu CavuRrmavdebiT, naTeli gaxdeba, rom TiTqmis

yovelTvis, roca saqme mniSvnelovania samarTlis ganviTarebisaTvis, igi aseve, mniSvnelovania

erTgvarovani sasamarTlo praqtikis CamoyalibebisaTvis da piriqiT. aRniSnul konteqstSi ar

ganixileba is SemTxvevebi, rodesac saapelacio sasamarTlos gadawyvetileba gansxvavdeba uzenaesi

sasamarTlos mier damkvidrebuli sasamarTlo praqtikisagan e.w. divergentuli kasacia,

romelsac sssk-is 391-e muxlis me-5 nawilis `b~ da `g~ qvepunqtebi iTvaliswineben.~ 34

amdenad, mniSvnelovania `samarTlis ganviTarebisaTvis~ niSnavs, rom konkretul sakiTxTan

dakavSirebiT ar arsebobs uzenaesi sasamarTlos mier damkvidrebuli praqtika. magaliTad, germaniis

sasamarTloSi damkvidrebuli wesis Tanaxmad, samarTlis ganviTareba moiazrebs or jgufs,

roca: calkeuli saqmis safuZvelze xdeba materialuri da saproceso kanonmdeblobis debulebaTa

ganmartebis zogadi principebis Camoyalibeba da aucilebeli kanonis xarvezis aRmofxvra. 35

aRsaniSnavia, rom gasaCivrebuli gadawyvetilebis gauqmebisa da saqmis ukan dabrunebis SemTxvevaSi,

sakasacio sasamarTlo aseve, mxedvelobaSi iRebs im gadawyvetilebebs (sasamarTlo praqtikas),

romlebic miuTiTebs samarTlebrivi ganviTarebis erTiani praqtikis Camoyalibebaze.

mkveTri, uxeSi gansxvavebebi sasamarTlo praqtikaSi uaryofiTad moqmedebs samarTlebriv stabilurobaze.

magaliTisaTvis isev mivmarToT safrangeTis samoqalaqo saproceso Taviseburebebs. SeiZleba

aRiniSnos, rom sakasacio sasamarTlodan dabrunebuli saqmis xelaxla ganxilvisas sasamarTlos

aqvs ufleba, Tavisuflad gansajos rogorc faqtis sakiTxi, aseve _ samarTlis sakiTxi. mas SeuZlia,

aseve pirdapir Tu iribad Sevides sakasacio sasamarTlosTan konfliqtSi, an axali Tezisi

daamkvidros an safuZvlad gamoiyenos gauqmebuli gadawyvetileba. pirvel SemTxvevaSi, sasamarTlo,

romelmac xelaxla miiRi saqme sakasacio sasamarTlosagan, mimarTavs imave dasabuTebas

da misi gadawyvetilebis gauqmebisas eqneba igive uflebamosileba. meore SemTxvevaSi, frangulma

kanonmdeblobam daadgina sistema, romelic uzrunvelyofs sakasacio sasamarTlos upiratesobas.

kerZod, kvlav im SedegiT dabrunebuli gadawyvetileba, romelic sakasacio sasamarTlom

gaauqma sakasacio sasamarTlos plenaruli sxdomaze, SeiZleba gauqmdes imave motivebiT, rac

28


pirvel SemTxvevaSi. magram samarTalwarmoebis Sesaxeb kodeqsis L. 132-2 muxlis Tanaxmad, saqme

SeiZleba pirdapir dauqvemdebaron plenarul ganxilvas (sakasacio sasamarTloSi saqmis pirvelive

ganxilvaze), Tu es exeba principul sakiTxs (question de principe), kerZod, Tu arsebobs saqmis

arsebiTad ganmxilvel mosamarTleTa (juges de fond) poziciebSi gansxvaveba an arsebobs gansxvaveba

arsebiTad saqmis ganmxilvel mosamarTleTa da sakasacio sasamarTlos mosamarTleTa poziciebs

Soris. 36

im SemTxvevaSi, rodesac gasaCivrebuli gadawyvetileba gauqmebulia sakasacio sasamarTlos

plenarul sxdomaze, sasamarTlom, romelic miiRebs am saqmes, unda misdios sakasacio sasamar-

Tlos plenarul sxdomaze miRebul gadawyvetilebaSi motanil mosazrebebs (samarTalwarmoebis

Sesaxeb kodeqsis L. 131-4 muxlis Tanaxmad). am SemTxvevaSic safrangeTis iuridiul literaturaSi

Cndeba kiTxva: xom ar arRvevs aseTi wesi mosamarTleTa damoukideblobas marTlmsajulebis

ganxorcielebisas. magram miCneulia, rom erTiani praqtikis Camoyalibebis interesebidan gamomdinare,

kanonmdebelma saboloo sityva unda dautovos sakasacio sasamarTlos. 37

amasTan, gasaTvaliswinebelia safrangeTis samoqalaqo kodeqsis me-5 muxlis danawesi, romlis

Tanaxmad, mosamarTleebs ekrZalebaT (il est défendu aux juges) gansaxilvel saqmeebze iseTi

gadawyvetilebebis miReba, romlebic adgens normatiuli xasiaTis saerTo debulebebs (disposition

générale et réglementaire). 38 aRniSnuli danawesi miuTiTebs, rom konkretuli sadavo urTierTobis

gadawyvetisaTvis mniSvneloba eniWeba misi momwesrigebeli normis ganmartebas.

am mxriv, interess iwvevs germaniis sakasacio sasamarTloSi marTlmsajulebis ganxorcielebis

Taviseburebebi, kerZod, sakasacio sasamarTlos samarTlebriv Sefasebas savaldebulo

xasiaTi aqvs saapelacio sasamarTlosaTvis, Tu: gadawyvetilebis gauqmebas safuZvlad udevs es

samarTlebrivi Sefaseba e.i. samarTlebrivi Sefaseba gadawyvetilebis gauqmebis uSualo mizezs

warmoadgens; ucvlelad darCa faqtobrivi garemoebebi, romlebic safuZvlad daedo sakasacio

sasamarTlos samarTlebriv Sefasebas; saapelacio sasamarTlos mier axali gadawyvetilebis

miRebamde ar Secvlila samarTlebrivi mdgomareoba, an sakasacio sasamarTlos ar Seucvlia

samarTalSefaseba, an saapelacio sasamarTloSi axali mtkicebulebebis safuZvelze arsebiTad

Seicvala faqtobrivi garemoebebi. 39

amdenad, gansaxilvel sakiTxTan mimarTebiT zogadad, SeiZleba mivuTiToT germaniis samarTlis

mixedviT mosamarTlis boWvis farglebi: `1. germaniis federaluri sakonstitucio sasamarTlos

gadawyvetileba boWavs yvela sasamarTlos; 2. Tu sakasacio instanciam gadawyvetileba

gaauqma da saqme xelaxla gansaxilvelad daabruna, sasamarTlo SeboWilia zemdgomi sasamarTlos

im mosazrebebiT, romlebic safuZvlad daedo gadawyvetilebis gauqmebas; 3. preiudicias

SemboWveli Zala aqvs, Tu miTiTebebi ganxorcielebulia sasamarTlo gadawyvetilebis meSveobiT;

4. erTsa da imave saqmeze mosamarTle SeboWilia am saqmeze gamoTqmuli sakuTari SexedulebebiT.

yvela sxva SemTxvevaSi, mosamarTle ar aris uSualod SeboWili adre miRebuli gadawyvetilebiT.~

40

amdenad, unda aRiniSnos, rom saqarTvelos samoqalaqo saproceso kodeqsis danawesi, romlis

Tanaxmad, samarTlebriv Sefasebas savaldebulo mniSvneloba aqvs gasaCivrebuli gadawyvetilebis

gamomtani sasamarTlosaTvis, ucxo ar aris sxva qveynis samoqalaqo saproceso samarTlisaTvis.

yovelive zemoaRniSnulidan gamomdinare, SesaZlebelia davaskvnaT, rom sakasacio sasamarTlos

miTiTebebi erT SemTxvevaSi, exeba saproceso darRvevebis CamonaTvals, rasac kanonmdebeli

afasebs amgvarad da rac warmoadgens gadawyvetilebis gauqmebis absolutur

safuZvels, xolo meore SemTxvevaSi, emsaxureba sakasacio sasamarTlos samarTlebrivi Semowmebis

obieqtis gansazRvras, romlis aucilebeli samarTlebrivi kriteriumebis farg-

29


marTlmsajuleba

N2

da

kanoni

lebi mocemulia samoqalaqo saproceso kodeqsiT. am ukanasknel SemTxvevaSi, Tu gamokveTili

an dadgenili ar aris faqtobrivi garemoebebi (sakasacio sasamarTlos samarTlebrivi Sefasebis

obieqti) SeuZlebelia am faqtebis kvalifikacia (subsumfcia) sakasacio sasamarTlos

mier. aRsaniSnavia, rom faqtebTan Semxeblobis kuTxiT, aRniSnuli miTiTebebi aseve, SeiZleba

davyoT or nawilad: miTiTebebi, romlebic moicavs erT SemTxvevaSi _ dasadgeni faqtobrivi

garemoebebis wres, xolo meore SemTxvevaSi _ am faqtebis dadgenasTan dakavSirebuli wesebis

dacvas.

aseve, gasaTvaliswinebelia, rom sakasacio sasamarTlos miTiTebebs gaaCnia sakmaod didi

mniSvneloba samarTlebrivi stabilurobis uzrunvelyofis TvalsazrisiT da emsaxureba

samarTlis ganviTarebasa da erTgvarovani sasamarTlo praqtikis Camoyalibebas.

sakasacio sasamarTlos miTiTebebis savaldebulo mniSvneloba, upirveles yovlisa, uzrunvelyofilia

sakasacio sasamarTlos ganCinebis swori da sruli dasabuTebiT, sadac miTi-

Tebebi aisaxeba, rogorc deduqciuri kvlevis Sedegebi. 41

SeniSvnebi:

1

saqarTvelos samoqalaqo saproceso kodeqsis 410-e muxli.

2

ix.: iqve, 412-e muxli.

3

ix.: iqve, 411-e muxli.

4

Sead. T. mamaiaSvili, sakasacio sasamarTlos gadawyvetileba, Jurnali

`marTlmsajuleba~, #1, 2008, gv. 109.

5

rainhold cipeliusi, iuridiuli meTodebis moZRvreba, miunheni,

2006, gv. 130.

6

saqarTvelos samoqalaqo kodeqsis 404-e muxlis pirveli nawili.

7

Sead.: Boré.J., La cassation en matière civile, Paris, 1997, 2-e partiè, p.396 ; aseve,

T. liluaSvili, v. xrustali, saqarTvelos samoqalaqo saproceso

kodeqsis komentari, meore gamocema, Tb., 2007, gv. 729; aseve, T.

liluaSvili, samoqalaqo saproceso samarTali, Tb., 2005, gv. 520.

8

susg #as-1075-1323-05, 15 maisi, 2006; aseve, ix.: #as-440-754-09,

dekemberi, 2009; # as-444-723-05, 7 dekemberi, 2005; #as-456-805-07, 5

oqtomberi, 2007; #as-725-985-05, 28 noemberi, 2005.

9

susg #as-286-608-09, 22 oqtomberi 2009 w., aseve, ix.: #as-954-1204-04,

4 marti, 2005.

10

aseve, ix.: Marie-Noëlle Jabard-Bachellier, La technique de cassation, pourvois et

arrêts en matière civile, 2010, p, 53-54.

11

Code de procédure civile, art. 620, 2008.

12

E. Prieur, La substitution de morifs par la Cour de cassation, Paris, 1986, p. 17.

13

Soc. 12 juin 1987 (Bull. V. n° 378).

14

susg #as-858-1171-07, 23 ivnisi, 2008; aseve, ix.: #as-452-782-05, 3

Tebervali, 2006; #as-877-1501-03, 22 Tebervali, 2005; #as-782-1069-

09, 9 noemberi, 2009.

15

Soc. 21 janv. 1998, Gaz. Pal. 1998, 2, Panor. 211; Civ. 3-e. 20 mai 1987, JCP 1987,

IV. 251; Soc. 6 fevr. 1985, JCP 1985, IV. 143 (citirebulia Ê. Â. Áàëàêèí,

äèññåðòàöèÿ íà ñîèñêàíèÿ ó÷åíîé ñòåïåíè êàíäèäàòà þðèäè÷åñêèõ

íàóê. Îáæàëîâàíèå ïîñòàíîâëåíèé ñóäîâ ãðàæäàíñêîé þðèñäèêöèè âî

Ôðàíöèè. Ì. 2001ã., ñòð.152).

16

Soc. 21 mars. 1981, JCP 1981, IV. 207 ; Soc. 10 déc. 1980, JCP 1981. IV. 76.

(citirebulia Ê. Â. Áàëàêèí, äèññåðòàöèÿ íà ñîèñêàíèÿ ó÷åíîé

30


ñòåïåíè êàíäèäàòà þðèäè÷åñêèõ íàóê. Îáæàëîâàíèå ïîñòàíîâëåíèé

ñóäîâ ãðàæäàíñêîé þðèñäèêöèè âî Ôðàíöèè. Ì. 2001ã., ñòð.152).

17

Ê. Â. Áàëàêèí, ñòð.152.

18

Civ. 2°, 4 octombre 1978 (Bull. II, n° 202)/ Com., 1 er mars 1983 (Bull. IV, n° 92).

19

safrangeTis sakasacio sasamarTloSi tradiciulad, ganasxvaveben

`normatiul~ Semowmebas da `disciplinur~ Semowmebas. normatiulia

iseTi saxis Semowmeba, rodesac mowmdeba sakasacio sasamarTlosaTvis

gansaxilvelad gadacemuli gadawyvetilebebis arsebiTi mxare

(samarTlebrivi normis interpretacia da gamoyeneba, faqtebis

kvalifikacia da a. S.). sakasacio sasamarTlos mTavari misiaa ganaxorcielos

kontroli kanonis zust gamoyenebasa da dacvaze. disciplinuri

Semowmeba dakavSirebulia gadawyvetilebebis formasTan an

samotivacio nawilTan. arsebiTad, am ukanasknelis mizania mxolod

zogierTi formaluri an proceduruli moTxovnebis ardacvis dadastureba,

arsebiTi mxaris gaTvaliswinebis gareSe. dawv. ix.: Marie-

Noëlle Jabard-Bachellier, La technique de cassation, pourvois et arrêts en matière

civile, 2010, p, 49.

20

Soc. 12 juillet 1989,/ Civ. 1 er , 29 septembre 2004 (n 03/16.400).

21

susg #as-480-791-09, 12 ianvari, 2010; aseve, ix.: #as-468-780-09, 1

dekemberi, 2009 w. da am gadawyvetilebaze gansxvavebuli azri.

22

g. qiria, sasamarTlo gadawyvetilebaTa gadasinjvis Teoriul-praqtikuli

komentarebi, Tb., 2002, gv. 107.

23

rainhold cipeliusi, iuridiuli meTodebis moZRvreba, miunxeni,

2006, gv. 127. Sead. À. Áàðàê. Ñóäåéñêîå óñìîòðåíèå, Ì., 1999 ã., 96-97.

24

susg #as-920-1127-08, 10 marti, 2009; aseve, ix.: #as-781-996-08, 17

marti, 2009.

25

v. xrustali, kasacia samoqalaqo samarTalwarmoebaSi, disertacia

iuridiul mecnierebaTa kandidatis samecniero xarisxis mosapoveblad,

2004, gv. 137.

26

aseve, ix.: giorgi gogiaSvili, samarTlebrivi tendenciebi; rogor

aviTareben mosamarTleebi samarTals, Jurnali `qarTuli samarTlis

mimoxilva~, #1-2, 2005, gv. 74-75; Sead. v. xrustali, kasacia samoqalaqo

samarTalwarmoebaSi, disertacia iuridiul mecnierebaTa kandidatis

samecniero xarisxis mosapoveblad, 2004, gv. 135.

27

aseve, ix.: v. xrustali, kasaciis miznebi da sakasacio saCivris gansaxilvelad

miRebis (dasaSvebobis) winapirobebi, saiubileo krebuli,

Tengiz liluaSvili _ 75, gv. 187.

28

giorgi gogiaSvili, samarTlebrivi tendenciebi; rogor aviTareben

mosamarTleebi samarTals, Jurnali `qarTuli samarTlis mimoxilva~,

#1-2, 2005, gv. 74-75.

29

ix.: iqve, gv. 75.

30

Sead. v. xrustali, saqarTvelos Tanamedrove kasaciis warmoSoba da

ganviTareba, Jurnali `marTlmsajuleba~, #1, 2009, gv. 45.

31

i. gagua, gansjadobis probleba meore instanciis sasamarTloSi samoqalaqo

da administraciuli samarTalwarmoebisas. Jurnali `mar-

Tlmsajuleba~, #1, 2009, gv. 112.

32

2005 wlis 23 ivnisis cvlilebiT, qarTvelma kanonmdebelma SemoiRo

kasaciis forma. Tu aqamde kasacia gaTvaliswinebuli iyo qonebrivsamarTlebriv

davebze, sadac dadgenili iyo saCivris fasi 1000 laridan,

am zRvarma 1000-dan 50 000 larze gadainacvla. 2007 wlis 28 dekembris

cvlilebebis Tanaxmad, sakasacio saCivris fasis zRvruli

31


marTlmsajuleba

N2

da

kanoni

odenoba gauqmda da sakasacio saCivris Rirebuleba ganisazRvra imis

mixedviT, Tu gasaCivrebuli gadawyvetilebis ra zomiT Secvlaze

Seaqvs saCivari mxares. Tu kanonis Zveli redaqcia ar awesrigebda

sakasacio saCivars araqonebriv-samarTlebriv davebze, aRniSnuli

cvlilebebiT, aq ramdenime norma iqna SemoRebuli: sakasacio sa-

Civari dasaSvebia yvela araqonebriv-samarTlebriv davebze, Tu igi

exeba `sityvisa da gamoxatvis Tavisuflebas~ (me-4 nawili). sxva Sem-

TxvevebSi, sakasacio saCivris Setana SesaZlebelia yvela (qonebrivsamarTlebriv

Tu araqonebriv-samarTlebriv) davebze, Tu saqme mniSvnelovania

samarTlis ganviTarebisa da erTgvarovani sasamarTlo

praqtikis CamoyalibebisaTvis an saapelacio sasamarTlos gadawyvetileba

gansxvavdeba am kategoriiis saqmeebze saqarTvelos

uzenaesi sasamarTlos manamde arsebuli praqtikisagan an Tu

saapelacio sasamarTlos mier saqme ganxilulia mniSvnelovani

saproceso darRveviT, romelsac SeeZlo arsebiTad emoqmeda saqmeSi

miRebul gadawyvetilebaze. dabolos, kasacia aseve, dasaSvebia

saapelacio sasamarTlos meore dauswrebel gadawyvetilebaze an

dauswrebeli gadawyvetilebis ucvlelad datovebis Taobaze _

ganCinebaze. aseve, ix.: ceno raihenbeheri. Projekt: Unterstützung des Rechts

– und Gerichtssystems.

33

Zöller/ Gumer, ZPO, vor & 542, RDN. 1. cit. mix. hain boelingi, saqarTvelos

samoqalaqo saproceso kodeqsis axali sakasacio warmoebis Sesaxeb,

Jurnali `marTlmsajuleba da kanoni~ #5(7)05, gv. 78.

34

ceno raihenbeheri, Projekt: Unterstützung des Rechts – und Gerichtssystems.

35

ix.: iqve.

36

Ê. Â. Áàëàêèí, äèññåðòàöèÿ íà ñîèñêàíèÿ ó÷åíîé ñòåïåíè êàíäèäàòà

þðèäè÷åñêèõ íàóê. Îáæàëîâàíèå ïîñòàíîâëåíèé ñóäîâ ãðàæäàíñêîé

þðèñäèêöèè âî Ôðàíöèè, Ì., 2001, ñòð. 154.

37

J. Fouer, G. Cornu., Procédure civile. Paris. 1996. p. 235. Sead. J. Boré, L. Boré.

La cassation en matière civile. Dalloz, 2009-2010. p. 747. aseve, ix.: Ass. plén., 21

mai 1976, N 72-92.002, Bull. ass. plén., N 6.

38

Code civil, art. 5, 2006.

39

Zivilprozessordnung, Kommentar von Prof. Dr. Heinz Thomas, Dr. Klaus Reichold,

Prof. Dr. Hans Putzo, Dr. Rainer Hüsstege, 24, neubearbeitete Auflage, Verlag C.H.

Beck, München, 2002, S.910 (citirebulia v. xrustali, kasacia samoqalaqo

samarTalwarmoebaSi, disertacia iuridiul mecnierebaTa kandidatis

samecniero xarisxis mosapoveblad, 2004, gv. 136).

40

ix.: giorgi xubua, samosamarTlo samarTali: samarTlis wyaro Tu

samarTlis Semecnebis wyaro?, Jurnali `marTlmsajuleba da kanoni~,

#5(7)05).

41

Sead. S. qurdaZe, samoqalaqo saqmeTa ganxilva zemdgomi instanciis

sasamarTloebSi, Tb., 2006, gv. 135-136.

32


SOME SPECIFICITIES

OF DECISIONS OF THE

CASSATION COURT.

MANDATORY POWER

OF THE CASSATION

COURT INSTRUCTION

TEIMURAZ TODRIA

Justice of the Supreme Court of Georgia

In the article below we try to focus on legal outcomes of assessments of

the Appellate Court on one hand, and outcomes of assessment of facts

by the Appellate court on the other. We do it by bringing practical

examples.

Impact of factual circumstances on decisions of the Court of Cassation

raises our interest. In addition, we will discuss mandatory nature of

instructions of the Court of Cassations.

Institute of decisions of the Cassation Court is defined by the Chapter

“L” of the Civil Procedures Code of Georgia.

According to that institution, the Court of Cassation has an authority to

keep the appealed decision or abolish it. Namely, the appealed decision

may be kept unchanged in three cases: when the violation of the law does

not take place; when the decision of the Appellate Court is not based on

the legal violation; when the decision of the Appellate Court is substantially

correct despite the fact that motivation part of the decision does not contain

substantiation 1 .

It is possible to abolish the appealed decision in three cases: circumstances

of the case are established in violation of procedural norms, which led to

incorrect decision and thus is necessary to examine additional evidence;

33


marTlmsajuleba

N2

da

kanoni

when exist grounds listed in the article 394 of the Code, except sub-paragraphs “c” and “e” 2 ; and in case of

issuing the new decision 3 .

Aforementioned procedures represent only procedural criteria, which imply outcomes of the procedural law

as well material law based examination of the decision.

Thus, indicated results (outcomes) depend in one case on correctness of identifying factual circumstances

(key and indexed) important for the case and in the other case – on correctness of the facts establishing

process; and in the third case, two factors above depend on existence of the third one, and it represents

procedural violations (article 394 of the CPC); they represent absolute grounds for annulment of the appealed

decision 4 .

Considering topic of the given article, which concerns importance of vital factual circumstances of the case

for the Court of Cassation, we will not speak about absolute annulment grounds under paragraphs “e” and

“e 1 ” of the article 394 (see later).

Thus, the aforementioned decision of the Court of Cassation is often cased by procedural specificities of

examining factual circumstances of the case.

A very important task of superior courts is to clarify vagueness deriving from interpretation of legal provisions

and facilitate development of the law by this 5 .

FOOTNOTES

1

Article 410 of the Civil Procedures Code of Georgia

2

see article 412

3

see article 411

4

Compare T. Mamiashvili. Decision of the Cassations Court,

“Martlmsajuleba” journal, # 1, 2008, p. 109

5

Reinhold Cipelius, Preaching Legal Methodology, Munich, 2006, p.130

34


olo periodSi, sazogadoebis interesi janmrTelobis uflebasTan

mimarTebiT mkveTrad gaizarda. aRniSnuli gamowveulia

medicinisa da biologiis mecnierebis mzardi ganviTarebiTa da am

dargebSi revoluciuri xasiaTis miRwevebiT, rasac adamianis uflebis

dacvis am sferoSi eTikuri da samarTlebrivi problemebi

mohyva. amavdroulad, eqimebs, pacientebsa da farTo sazogadoebas

Soris urTierTobebma mniSvnelovani cvlilebebi ganicada.

sazogadoebas gauCnda kiTxvebi janmrTelobis uflebis dacvasTan

mimarTebiT. amasTan, es kiTxvebi umetesad Tavs iCens maSin,

rodesac samedicino momsaxurebis mimRebi piri _ pacienti momsaxurebiT

ukmayofiloa da samedicino personalis winaaRmdeg

pretenziebi aqvs. Sesabamisad, am viTarebam medicinaSi da janmrTelobis

dacvis sferoSi rogorc saerTaSoriso aseve, erovnul

doneze samarTlebrivi sakiTxebis sakanonmdeblo doneze

mowesrigebis aucilebloba warmoSva.

am procesSi saqarTvelo ar aris gamonaklisi. janmrTelobis

uflebis dacvasTan dakavSirebuli problemebi Cvens qveyanaSi sakmaod

aqtualuria, ris naTel dadasturebas warmoadgens bolo 4-

5 wlis ganmavlobaSi am uflebis sasamarTlo wesiT dacvis moTxovniT

wardgenili sarCelebis siuxve. am mdgomareobis pirdapirproporciulad

izrdeba sazogadoebis moTxovnileba janmrTelobis

uflebis saTanadod dacvisa, rogorc sakanonmdeblo doneze,

aseve, erovnuli sasamarTloebisa da advokatebis mier arsebuli

kanonebis sworad gamoyenebis TvalsazrisiT. aRsaniSnavia, is faqtic,

rom janmrTelobis uflebis dacvis dargSi mecnieruli naSpacientis

uflebebis dacvis

saerTaSoriso

standartebi

nunu kvantaliani

saqarTvelos uzenaesi sasamarTlos mosamarTle,

saqarTvelos teqnikuri universitetis doqtoranti

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romebi, garda ramdenime statiisa, TiTqmis ar arsebobs, rac praqtikulad mniSvnelovan problemebs

warmoSobs. Tumca, es garemoeba qarTuli kanonmdeblobis simwiriT ar aris gamowveuli.

janmrTelobis uflebis dacva saqarTveloSi garantirebulia 18 erovnuli kanoniT. am kanonebSi

naTladaa deklarirebuli Cveni qveynis Ria interesi adamianis janmrTelobis uflebis

saerTaSoriso aqtebis dacvisa, Tumca, arsebuli realoba maT Tanmimdevrul daxvewas moiTxovs.

am sferoSi, saqarTvelos kanonebSi gamoyenebulia adamianis uflebaTa dacvis saerTaSoriso

aqtebi, rac aumjobesebs uflebis erovnul doneze dacvas.

adamianis uflebaTa saerTaSoriso samarTlis gavlena erovnul kanonmdeblobaze Tvalsa-

Cinod warmoaCens adamianis janmrTelobis uflebis dacvis sferoSi saerTaSoriso aqtebis ganxilvis

mniSvnelobas.

janmrTelobis dacvaze adamianis ufleba vrceldeba rogorc pacientebze (pacienti _ nebismieri

piri, romelic miuxedavad misi janmrTelobis mdgomareobisa, sargeblobs, saWiroebs an

apirebs isargeblos janmrTelobis dacvis sistemis momsaxurebiT 1 ), aseve nebismier pirze. Sesabamisad,

mniSvnelovania, gairkves am uflebis arsi.

adamianis ufleba janmrTelobaze gulisxmobs, rom nebismier qals, kacs, axalgazrdas da bavSvs

ufleba aqvs xeli miuwvdebodes fizikuri da fsiqikuri janmrTelobis umaRles, xelmisawvdom

standartebze, yovelgvari diskriminaciis gareSe. `janmrTelobaze adamianis uflebis~ yvela

aspeqtiT sargebloba sakvanZo mniSvnelobisaa adamianis sicocxlisa da keTildReobisaTvis; am

ukanasknels ki, Tavis mxriv gadamwyveti mniSvneloba eniWeba adamianis sxva ZiriTadi uflebebisa

da Tavisuflebebis realizaciis TvalsazrisiT. janmrTelobis msoflio organizaciis (WHO)

ganmartebiT `janmrTeloba aris sruli fizikuri, fsiqikuri da socialuri keTildReobis

mdgomareoba da ara mxolod daavadebis an uZlurebis ararseboba.~

`ufleba janmrTelobaze~ ar niSnavs uflebas iyo janmrTeli, da aseve, ar niSnavs, rom Raribi

qveynebis mTavrobebma unda Seqmnan jandacvis ZviradRirebuli samsaxurebi, romlisTvisac maT

ar gaaCniaT resursebi; aramed `ufleba janmrTelobaze~ mTavrobebisagan da saxelmwifo organoebisagan

moqmedebis gegmebis Sedgenas moiTxovs, romlebic uzrunvelyofen sayovelTaod xelmisawvdomi

janmrTelobis momsaxurebebis arsebobas umokles SesaZlebel droSi. aRniSnulis uzrunvelyofa,

aramarto adamianis uflebebze momuSave sazogadoebis, aramed sazogadoebrivi

jandacvis specialistebisaTvis mniSvnelovani gamowvevaa. 2

medicinisa da biologiis mecnierebis mzardi ganviTareba, axali meTodebisa da teqnologiebis

danergva sul ufro aqtualurs xdis adamianis uflebebis dacvas janmrTelobis sferoSi.

saxelmwifoebma unda uzrunvelyon janmrTelobis dacvis momsaxurebis mimRebis _ pacientis

uflebebisa da movaleobebis ganmsazRvreli erovnuli kanonmdeblobis SesabamisobaSi moyvana

saerTaSoriso aqtebTan. amavdroulad, saxelmwifoTa valdebulebaa janmrTelobis dacvis seqtoris

iseTi dagegmva, rom maqsimalurad aRmoifxvras pacientis mkurnalobasTan dakavSirebuli

Secdomebi da dainergos usafrTxoebis uzrunvelmyofi procedurebi.

janmrTelobis dacvasTan mimarTebiT mniSvnelovania ganisazRvros am uflebis moqmedebis

sfero. `janmrTeloba metad farTo da subieqturi koncefciaa, romelzec sxvadasxva faqtorebi

moqmedebs, maT Soris: geografiuli, kulturuli da socialur-ekonomikuri. saerTaSoriso samarTlis

Tanaxmad, janmrTelobis uflebis ganxilvisas, Cveni saboloo mizania davadginoT samarTlis

Semadgeneli yvela is elementi, romelic saWiroa, raTa ufleba ar gaxdes imdenad yovlismomcveli,

rom man azri dakargos. janmrTelobis uflebis Semadgeneli elementebi or kategoriad

SeiZleba daiyos: erTi kategoria Sedgeba `jandacvasTan~ dakavSirebuli elementebisagan

(maT Soris, samkurnalo da prevenciuli jandacva), xolo meore kategoria moicavs `janmrTelobis

fuZemdeblur pirobebs.~ am ukanasknels SeiZleba ganekuTvnebodes usafrTxo sasmeli

wyali, saTanado sanitariuli pirobebi, saTanado kveba, janmrTelobis Sesaxeb informacia, garemos

dacviT ganpirobebuli janmrTeloba da jansaRi SromiTi pirobebi. 3

36


zemoaRniSnuli sakiTxis _ janmrTelobis uflebis farglebis garkveva mniSvnelovania, vinaidan

ikveTeba am uflebis Tanxvedra adamianis iseT uflebebTan, rogoricaa sicocxlis ufleba,

fizikuri xelSeuxleblobis ufleba, Sromis ufleba (jansaRi SromiTi pirobebi), usafrTxo garemoSi

cxovrebis ufleba, saTanado sacxovreblis ufleba. dasaxelebuli elementebi janmrTelobis

uflebasTan mWidrodaa dakavSirebuli da umetesad, adamianis janmrTelobis ganmsazRvrelia,

magram isini TavianTi zemniSvnelovani xasiaTis gamo, normatiulad damoukideblad ganixileba.

amavdroulad, es uflebebi adamianis janmrTelobasTan mWidro kavSiris gamo, janmrTelobis

uflebis CarCoebSic ganixileba.

adamianis ZiriTad uflebaTa Soris umTavresad aRiarebulia sicocxlis ufleba, romelic

adamianis uflebaTa ierarqiaSi ualternativod, pirvel safexurze dgas. am uflebis prioriteti

ganpirobebulia im martivi garemoebiT, rom `yvela sxva danarCeni ufleba mxolod garkveul

xarisxs aniWebs sicocxles da Tavis moqmedebaSi damokidebulia TviT sicocxlis arsebobaze. 4

saerTaSoriso samarTali mkveTrad adgens saxelmwifoTa pozitiur valdebulebas adamianis

sicocxlis dacvis sferoSi. saxelmwifoebs ekisrebaT aqtiuri moqmedebis valdebuleba maTi

iurisdiqciis farglebSi sicocxlis uflebis dasacavad. sicocxlis dacvis pozitiuri valdebuleba

moicavs saxelmwifos valdebulebas miiRos yvela zoma adamianis janmrTelobis dasacavad.

pirovnebis janmrTeloba adamianis keTildReobisa da Rirsebis mniSvnelovani pirobaa. aRniSnuli,

ra Tqma unda, ar gulisxmobs saxelmwifos valdebulebas srulad uzrunvelyos mkurnaloba,

aramed Seqmnas janmrTelobis dacvis xelmisawvdomobis Tanamedrove standartebi. saxelmwifom

unda Seqmnas is ZiriTadi pirobebi, sadac daculia pirovnebis janmrTeloba da SesaZlebelia

misi gaumjobeseba, upirvelesad, am uflebis damcavi kanonmdeblobiT.

janmrTelobis dacvisadmi umaRlesi xarisxiT xelmisawvdomoba adamianis sakvanZo uflebaa

da igi amave xarisxiTaa aRiarebuli saerTaSoriso aqtebiT. adamianis janmrTelobis ufleba

daculia rogorc universaluri xasiaTis saerTaSoriso samarTlebrivi aqtebiT, aseve saerTa-

Soriso organizaciebis aqtebiTa da samedicino asociaciebis mier miRebuli qartiebiT.

ukanasknel periodSi SeiniSneba saintereso tendencia. kerZod, rac ufro viTardeba samedicino

teqnologiebi, miT ufro mkacri xdeba pacientis (zogjer, ara marto pacientis, aramed

ufro farTod _ adamianis) uflebebis dacvis meqanizmebis Seqmnisa da maTi samarTlebrivi dacvis

uzrunvelyofa. amis dasturia is saerTaSoriso samarTlebrivi aqtebi, romlebic pirdapir Seexebian

pacientis uflebebis dacvis sakiTxebsa da medicinis sferoSi adamianis uflebebis dacvis

problemebs. gasuli saukunis bolos, pacientTa uflebebis kanonmdeblobis sferoSi gaimarTa

aqtiuri samarTalSemoqmedeba rogorc erovnul, aseve, saerTaSoriso samarTlis doneze. saer-

TaSoriso doneze miRebul iqna axali deklaraciebi, qartiebi da sxva saxis aqtebi, romlebic

detalurad axdenen adamianis uflebebis dacvis meqanizmis Seqmnisa da regulirebis sakiTxebis

reglamentacias, cdiloben daadginon is minimumi zRvari, romlis CarCoebSic samedicino personali

uflebamosilia Caataros samedicino manipulaciebi (eqsperimentebi, mkurnaloba da sxva). 5

janmrTelobis uflebis dacvis sferoSi moqmedi saerTaSoriso samarTlebrivi aqtebi sam

jgufad SeiZleba davyoT: universaluri saerTaSoriso samarTlebrivi aqtebi, saerTaSoriso

organizaciebis aqtebi da samedicino asociaciebis aqtebi.

I. universaluri xasiaTis saerTaSoriso samarTlebrivi aqtebi

janmrTelobis uflebis dacva garantirebulia universaluri xasiaTis saerTaSoriso samar-

Tlebrivi aqtebiT, romlebic zogadad, magram mkafiod aRiareben am uflebis maRal mniSvnelobas

da avaldebuleben saxelmwifoebs, Seqmnan misi dacvis saTanado saSualebebi.

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1. adamianis uflebaTa sayovelTao deklaraciiT aRiarebulia rogorc samoqalaqo da politikuri,

aseve, socialur-ekonomikuri da kulturuli uflebebi. am uflebaTa Soris aRsaniSnavia

sicocxlisa da piradi xelSeuxleblobis ufleba, aseve, kerZo da ojaxuri cxovrebis dacvis

ufleba. marTalia, deklaracia ar aris iuridiulad savaldebulo da sarekomendacio xasiaTisaa,

magram misi debulebebi TiTqmis yvela qveyanam aRiara, rac dasturdeba Sesabamisi Sidasaxelmwifoebrivi

normebisa da kanonebis miRebiT. adamianis janmrTelobis uflebis dacvasTan mimar-

TebiT unda aRiniSnos deklaraciis 25-e muxli, romliTac `yovel adamians aqvs ufleba hqondes

cxovrebis iseTi done, sakvebis, tansacmlis, binis, samedicino movlisa da saWiro socialuri

momsaxurebis CaTvliT, romelic aucilebelia TviTon misi da misi ojaxis janmrTelobisa da

keTildReobis SesanarCuneblad~.

2. saerTaSoriso paqti ekonomikuri, socialuri da kulturuli uflebebis Sesaxeb. adamianis

ekonomikur, socialur da kulturul uflebaTa katalogi moicavs `uflebas janmrTelobaze.~

aRniSnuli koncefcia aerTianebs individis janmrTelobis mdgomareobas, mis Rirsebas,

samarTlianobis, aradiskriminaciis, genderuli Tanasworobisa da monawileobis sakiTxebs.

paqtis monawile saxelmwifoebma erTxmad aRiares TiToeuli adamianis ufleba fizikuri da

fsiqikuri janmrTelobis umaRles SesaZlo standartebze da am uflebis sruli realizaciisaTvis

miznad daisaxes iseTi zomebis miReba, romlebic aucilebelia: a) mkvdradSobadobisa da

bavSvTa sikvdilianobis Semcirebisa da bavSvis jansaRi ganviTarebis uzrunvelsayofad; b) garemos

higienisa da mrewvelobaSi Sromis higienis yvela aspeqtis gasaumjobeseblad; g) epidemiuri,

endemuri, profesiuli da sxva daavadebebis Tavidan asacileblad, samkurnalod da Sesamowmeblad;

d) iseTi pirobebis Sesaqmnelad, romlebic avadmyofobis SemTxvevaSi, yvelasaTvis uzrunvelyofs

samedicino daxmarebasa da movlas (me-12 muxli). 6

3. saerTaSoriso paqti samoqalaqo da politikuri uflebebis Sesaxeb savaldebuloa

saxelmwifoebisaTvis, sadac ganmtkicebulia mravali samoqalaqo da politikuri ufleba. paqti

iTvaliswinebs gaerTianebuli erebis organizaciis wesdebiT gamocxadebul principebs da me-6

muxliT sicocxlis uflebas aRiarebs TiToeuli adamianis ganuyofel uflebad, xolo me-7 muxliT

adgens, rom ar SeiZleba samedicino an samecniero cdebis Catareba arc erT pirze, Tu ar

iqna misi Tavisufali Tanxmoba.

4. evropis socialuri qartia adamianis uflebaTa dacvis sferoSi evropis sabWos mier

SemuSavebuli fuZemdebluri aqtia, romelic sxva ZiriTad uflebebTan erTad ganixilavs janmrTelobis

dacvis uflebis efeqtiani ganxorcielebis gzebs. am uflebis dacvis mizniT qartiis

monawile mxareebi me-11 muxliT valdebulebas iReben uSualod saxelmwifoebTan erTad an kerZo

organizaciebTan TanamSromlobiT miiRon Sesabamisi zomebi, romlebic mimarTulia: `1. maqsimalur

misaRwev doneze janmrTelobis mdgomareobis gauaresebis gamomwvevi mizezebis aRkveTisaken;

2. janmrTelobis ganmtkicebisaTvis da janmrTelobis sakiTxSi daxmarebis da saswavlo

bazis uzrunvelyofisaken; 3. maqsimalurad SesaZlo doneze epidemiologiuri, endemuri da sxva

daavadebebis aRkveTisaken.~

5. evropis sabWos mier miRebuli aqtebidan adamianis uflebaTa dacvis sferoSi gansakuTrebulad

mniSvnelovania evropis konvencia adamianis uflebaTa da ZiriTad TavisuflebaTa

dacvis Sesaxeb. konvencia pirveli iuridiuli saerTaSoriso samarTlebrivi aqtia, romelmac

aRiara adamianis ZiriTadi uflebebi, maT Soris, sicocxlisa da usafrTxoebis ufleba, wamebis,

monobisa da iZulebiTi Sromis akrZalvis ufleba, darRveul uflebaTa efeqtiani aRdgenis ufleba,

diskriminaciis akrZalva da sxva. konvenciis monawile saxelmwifoebi valdebuli arian,

uzrunvelyon konvenciiTa da misi damatebiTi oqmebiT gaTvaliswinebuli uflebebi mis iurisdiqciaSi

myofi pirebisaTvis.

38


II.

saerTaSoriso organizaciebis aqtebi

adamianis janmrTelobis ufleba daculia saerTaSoriso organizaciebis aqtebiT, romlebic

ufro zustad ganixilaven pacientis uflebebis damcav meqanizmebs. maT Soris, aRsaniSnavia:

adamianis uflebebisa da biomedicinis Sesaxeb konvencia;

konvencia qalis diskriminaciis yvela formis mospobis Sesaxeb;

konvencia rasobrivi diskriminaciis yvela formis mospobis Sesaxeb;

bavSvis uflebebis konvencia;

`adamianis uflebebisa da biomedicinis Sesaxeb~ konvenciis damatebiTi oqmi `adamianis organoebisa

da qsovilebis gadanergvis Sesaxeb;~

`biologiasa da medicinaSi adamianis uflebebisa da Rirsebis dacvis Sesaxeb~ konvenciis damatebiTi

oqmi `adamianis klonirebis akrZalvis Sesaxeb.~

1. qalTa diskriminaciis yvela formis aRmofxvris konvenciiT 7 monawile saxelmwifoebi

iReben yvela saWiro zomas, rom aRmofxvran qalTa diskriminacia da Tanasworobis safuZvelze

(muxli 10, 12 da 14) uzrunvelyon ...saganmanaTleblo xasiaTis specialuri informaciis, maT

Soris, ojaxis sididis dagegmvis Sesaxeb informaciisa da konsultaciebis xelmisawvdomoba,

ojaxTa janmrTelobisa da keTildReobisaTvis xelSewyobis mizniT... qalebs uzrunvelyofen

uflebiT, rom isargeblon Sesabamisi samedicino momsaxurebiT, maT Soris, ojaxis sididis

dagegmvis sakiTxebze informaciiT, konsultaciiTa da momsaxurebiT ...isargeblon cxovrebis

jerovani pirobebiT.

2. rasobrivi diskriminaciis yvela formis likvidaciis Sesaxeb 8 saerTaSoriso konvenciis

me-5 muxliT, monawile saxelmwifoebi valdebulebas iReben akrZalon da aRmofxvran nebismieri

formis rasobrivi diskriminacia da uzrunvelyon yvela adamianis Tanasworoba kanonis winaSe,

miuxedavad rasisa, kanis ferisa, erovnuli da eTnikuri kuTvnilebisa, gansakuTrebiT, Semdegi

uflebebis ganxorcielebisaTvis: ...janmrTelobis dacvis, samedicino daxmarebis, socialuri

uzrunvelyofis da socialuri momsaxurebis ufleba.

3. bavSvis uflebebis konvencia 54 muxlisagan Sedgeba da moicavs ara marto samoqalaqo da

politikur uflebebs, aramed socialur da ekonomikur uflebebsac. konvencia awesebs ra, saer-

To standartebs msoflios yvela qveynisaTvis, amasTanave iTvaliswinebs saxelmwifoTaTvis damaxasiaTebel

kulturul, socialur, ekonomikur da politikur realobebs, raTa TiToeul qveyanas

SesaZlebloba hqondes optimalurad ganaxorcielos konvenciis debulebebi. konvencia

gansazRvravs bavSvis janmrTelobisa da keTildReobis pirobebs, mSoblebis, sazogadoebisa da

saxelmwifos mxridan maTi saWiroebebis Sesabamis moTxovnebs.

bavSvis uflebaTa konvencia yovlismomcvelia da erTaderTi, romelic uzrunvelyofs bavSvis

samoqalaqo, politikur, ekonomikur, socialur da kulturul uflebebs. is universaluria,

exeba yvela bavSvs yvela situaciaSi, moicavs erTa mTel Tanamegobrobas: upiroboa, mouwodebs

yvela mTavrobas, Tundac, mwiri resursebis mqones, imoqmedon bavSvis uflebaTa dasacavad.

konvenciaSi warmodgenil uflebaTa Soris mniSvnelovania sicocxle _ bavSvebs aqvT sococxlisa

da gadarCenis ufleba, samedicino momsaxurebiT sargeblobis, wyliTa da sanitariuli

sistemebiT usafrTxod sargeblobis ufleba.

konvencia adgens eqimis valdebulebas gamoikvlios bavSvis gonebrivi SesaZleblobebi nebismieri

mkurnalobisaTvis, gaigos maTi Sexedulebebi amasTan dakavSirebiT. bavSvTa uflebamosilebaa,

miiRos gadawyvetileba daTanxmeba Semdgom mkurnalobaze. es gulisxmobs, erTdroulad

39


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TanamSromlobas bavSvebTan da mSoblebTan, maT srulad CarTvas mkurnalobasa da janmrTelobasTan

dakavSirebuli gadawyvetilebis miRebis procesSi.

gansakuTrebiT aRsaniSnavia konvenciis 24-e muxli, romelic adgens:

`1. monawile saxelmwifoebi aRiareben bavSvis uflebas, isargeblos janmrTelobis dacvis

sistemis yvelaze ufro srulyofili momsaxurebiT da daavadebaTa mkurnalobisa da janmrTelobis

aRdgenis saukeTeso saSualebebiT. monawile saxelmwifoebi cdiloben uzrunvelyon, rom

arc erT bavSvs ar CamoerTvas ufleba, isargeblos janmrTelobis dacvis sistemis aseTi momsaxurebiT.

2. monawile saxelmwifoebi cdiloben miaRwion mocemuli uflebis srul ganxorcielebas da

aucilebel zomebs iReben kerZod: a) CvilTa sikvdilianobis donisa da bavSvTa sikvdilianobis

SemcirebisaTvis; b) yvela bavSvisaTvis aucilebeli samedicino daxmarebisa da janmrTelobis

dacvis uzrunvelyofisaTvis, raTa upiratesi yuradReba daeTmos pirveladi samedicino sanitariuli

daxmarebis gawevas; g) daavadebebTan da SimSilobasTan brZolisaTvis, maT Soris, pirveladi

samedicino-sanitariuli daxmarebis farglebSi, advilad xelmisawvdomi teqnologiisa

da sakmao sursaTiTa da sasmeli wyliT momaragebis gziT, garemos dabinZurebis saSiSroebisa da

riskis gaTvaliswinebiT; d) dedebisaTvis mSobiarobamde da mSobiarobis Semdgom periodSi janmrTelobis

dacvis saTanado momsaxurebis gawevisaTvis; e) sazogadoebis yvela fenis, kerZod,

mSoblebisa da bavSvebisaTvis janmrTelobisa da kvebis Sesaxeb informaciis miwodebis, ZuZuTi

kvebis upiratesobebis gacnobis uzrunvelyofisaTvis, higienis, bavSvis sacxovrebeli garemos

sanitariis dacvisa da ubeduri SemTxvevebis Tavidan acilebis, agreTve maTTvis ganaTlebis

xelmisawvdomobisa da codnis gamoyenebaSi daxmarebis gawevisaTvis; v) profilaqtikuri samedicino

daxmarebisa da ojaxis dagegmvis sferoSi saganmanaTleblo muSaobis gaSlisa da momsaxurebis

ganviTarebisaTvis.

3. monawile saxelmwifoebi atareben yovelgvar efeqtian da aucilebel zomebs im tradiciuli

praqtikis aRmofxvrisaTvis, romelic uaryofiTad moqmedebs bavSvTa janmrTelobaze.~

konvenciiT gaTvaliswinebuli bavSvebis uflebebi janmrTelobis dacvasa da keTildReobaze

SeiZleba Semdegi saxiT Sejamdes:

yvela bavSvs aqvs ufleba: sicocxlisa da ganviTarebis; uzrunvelyofili iyos cxovrebis

saTanado doniT; isargeblos umaRlesi donis samedicino momsaxurebiT; invalidobis SemTxvevaSi,

sargeblobdes gansakuTrebuli mzrunvelobiT, romelic ganumtkicebs mas Rirsebis grZnobas,

uZlierebs sakuTari Tavis rwmenas da uadvilebs sazogadoebriv cxovrebaSi aqtiur monawileobas;

uzrunvelyofili iyos socialuri dacvisa da bavSvis movlis samsaxurebisa da

dawesebulebebis daxmarebiT.

4. biologiisa da medicinis dargSi globalurma miRwevebma msoflio sazogadoeba daafiqra

adamianis uflebebis dacvis sferoSi specifikur sakiTxebze saerTaSoriso aqtebis miRebis

aucileblobaze. pacientis uflebebTan mimarTebiT gansakuTrebul yuradRebas ipyrobs konvencia

adamianis uflebebisa da biomedicinis Sesaxeb 9 . konvencia mTlianad adamianis janmrTelobis

uflebis dacvas eZRvneba. igi pirveli saerTaSoriso dokumentia, romelic awesrigebs

bioeTikur sakiTxebs. misi mizania daicvas adamianebi axali biologiuri da samedicino teqnologiebis

SesaZlo araswori gamoyenebisagan, adamianis ZiriTad uflebaTa da TavisuflebaTa

ganmtkicebis gziT.

`adamianis uflebebisa da biomedicinis Sesaxeb konvenciisa da misi oqmebis mTavari mizania,

uzrunvelyos evropis sabWos wevr qveynebSi, romlebic konvencias miuerTdebian, adamianis uflebebis,

Rirsebisa da individualobis dacva biologiisa da medicinis konteqstSi. saqme is aris,

rom medicina, janmrTelobis dacvis sistema da biomedicinis sferoSi warmoebuli kvlevebi

40


Seicavs sakmaod specifikur risks adamianis uflebebis darRvevasTan dakavSirebiT, risi Tavidan

acilebasac isaxavs miznad zemoxsenebuli konvencia.~ 10

konvencia exeba yvela dargs biologiis da medicinis sferoSi. meore mxriv, is specifikurad

exeba iseT dargebs, rogoricaa: adamianis genomi; adamianis organoTa gadanergva; adamianze Catarebuli

biosamedicino kvleva. am mizniT evropis sabWos bioeTikis samuSao komitetis (GDBI)

mier SemuSavda da miRebulia xelmosawerad Semdegi damatebiTi oqmebi: `adamianis klonirebis

akrZalvis Sesaxeb~ (1998); `adamianis organoebisa da qsovilebis gadanergvis Sesaxeb~ (2001); `biosamedicino

kvlevis Sesaxeb~ (strasburgi, 30 ivnisi, 2004 weli); saqarTvelos mier xelmowerilia

yvela oqmi, magram ratificirebulia mxolod `adamianis klonirebis akrZalvis Sesaxeb~ da `adamianis

qsovilebisa da organoebis gadanergvis Sesaxeb~ oqmebi.

konvencia valdebulebas akisrebs monawile mxareebs `daicvan TiToeuli adamianis Rirseba

da individualoba, yovelgvari diskriminaciis gareSe uzrunvelyon maTi xelSeuxebloba da sxva

uflebebi da ZiriTadi Tavisuflebebi biologiasa da medicinaSi. TiToeulma mxarem Tavis kanonmdeblobaSi

unda Seitanos am konvenciis debulebebis ganxorcielebisaTvis saWiro cvlilebebi

(muxli 1).~ gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania konvenciis meore muxli, romliTac adamianis

interesebi da keTildReoba uzenaesad aris aRiarebuli sazogadoebis da mecnierebis interesebTan

SedarebiT.

konvencia moicavs biomedicinis sferoSi adamianis uflebebis iseT ZiriTad principebs, rogoricaa:

janmrTelobis dacvis sistemis Tanabari xelmisawvdomoba (muxli 3); saTanado profesiuli

standartebi janmrTelobis sferoSi Carevisas (muxli 4); informirebuli Tanxmoba da im pirTa

uflebebis dacva, romelTac ar (an SezRuduli) aqvT Tanxmobis gacxadebis unari (muxli 5); piradi

cxovrebis pativiscemisa da informaciis miRebis ufleba sakuTari janmrTelobis mdgomareobis

Sesaxeb (muxli 6); genetikur sakiTxebze diskriminaciis dauSvebloba (muxli 11); samecniero kvlevaSi

monawile pirebis dacva (Tavi V); transplantaciis mizniT cocxali pirisagan organos an

qsovilis aRebisas pirTa uflebebis dacva (Tavi VI); finansuri sargeblobis akrZalva da adamianis

sxeulis nawilebis gankargva (Tavi VI I ); sanqciebi konvenciis debulebebis darRvevisaTvis da

zaralis anazRaurebis valdebuleba (Tavi VI I I ).

5. aqtualuria `adamianis uflebebisa da biomedicinis Sesaxeb~ konvenciis damatebiTi oqmi

`adamianis organoebisa da qsovilebis gadanergvis Sesaxeb~ (strasburgi, 04.12.2001), romelic

Seexo janmrTelobis dacvis sferoSi mosaxleobisaTvis SeTavazebuli momsaxurebis aRiarebul

formas _ mkurnalobis mizniT organoebisa da qsovilebis gadanergvas. oqmis debulebebis miReba

ganapiroba im safrTxem, rac am momsaxurebis arasaTanado gamoyenebas SeiZleba mohyves, vinaidan

aseTi procesebi pirdapir kavSirSia adamianis sicocxlesTan, keTildReobasa da RirsebasTan.

oqmis debulebebiT dadginda gadanergvis sistemis SemuSavebis aucilebloba, rac uzrunvelyofs

recipientebis Tanabar pirobebSi momsaxurebis miRebis SesaZleblobas; aseve dawesda: cocxali

donorisa da recipientisaTvis informaciis (maT Soris, mosalodnel riskebze) xelmisawvdomobis

savaldebulooba; gadanergvis dasaSveboba cocxali donorisagan mxolod informirebuli

Tanxmobis, xolo gardacvlilisagan _ uflebamosili piris nebarTvis safuZvelze;

organos an qsovilis aRebaze Tanxmobis gacxadebis unaris armqone pirTa dacva _ aseTi pirebis

donoroba daiSveba iSviaTad, mxolod konvenciiT gaTvaliswinebul SemTxvevebSi (ar aris Sesaferisi

donori, romelsac aqvs Tanxmobis gacxadebis unari; recipienti aris donoris da an Zma;

arsebobs misi kanonieri warmomadgenlis nebarTva). oqmiT SemuSavda am sferoSi saTanado profesiuli

samedicino standartebisa da valdebulebebiT saqmianobis ganxorcielebis aucilebloba.

aRsaniSnavia oqmis 21-e da 22-e muxlebis danawesebi, romliTac imperatiulad aikrZala finansuri

mogebis an sxva raime sargeblis miReba, rac ar gulisxmobs am procedurebTan dakav-

41


marTlmsajuleba

N2

da

kanoni

Sirebul aucilebel xarjebsa da samedicino momsaxurebis gadasaxadebs. aseve, akrZalulia organoebiTa

da qsovilebiT vaWroba. mizanSewonilia, aRiniSnos daTqma oqmiT gaTvaliswinebuli debulebebis

darRvevisaTvis, rac mkafiod aisaxa oqmis 24-26-e muxlebSi. kerZod: mxareebma unda

uzrunvelyon oqmSi asaxuli uflebebisa da principebis saTanado samarTlebrivi dacva ukanono

darRvevebis Tavidan acilebisa da aRkveTis mizniT. pirs ufleba aqvs gadanergvis Sedegad

miyenebuli zianisaTvis miiRos samarTliani kompensacia kanoniT gaTvaliswinebuli pirobebisa

da proceduris dacviT. oqmSi mocemuli debulebebis darRvevisaTvis mxareebs daevalaT saTanado

sanqciebis daweseba.

6. meoce saukunis dasasruli aRiniSna revoluciuri gadatrialebiT genetikis dargSi _ adamianebma

iswavles genetikuri informaciis kiTxva, rasac uaRresad didi praqtikuli mniSvneloba

aqvs daavadebebis mkurnalobisa da profilaqtikuri TvalsazrisiT. Tumca, amavdroulad,

garkveul eTikur problemebs warmoSobs da adamianis uflebebTan mimarTebiT angariSgasawev

kiTxvebs badebs. adamianis genomis aRmoCenis istoria iwyeba dnm-is (dezoqsiribonukleinis mJava)

aRmoCenidan. 1988 wels dnm-is cnobili ormagi spiralis erT-erTma pirvelaRmomCenma, nobelis

premiis laureatma j. uotsonma saxalxod gamoTqva azri adamianis dnm-is nukleotiduri

Tanmimdevrobis sruli gaSifvris realuri SesaZleblobis Sesaxeb.

swored am sakiTxs mieZRvna `biologiisa da medicinaSi adamianis uflebebisa da Rirsebis

dacvis Sesaxeb~ konvenciis damatebiTi oqmi `adamianis klonirebis akrZalvis Sesaxeb~ (parizi,

12.01.1998, evropis sabWo). oqmis debulebebi ganixileba, rogorc konvenciis damatebiTi

muxlebi. oqmis miRebisas evropis sabWos wevrma saxelmwifoebma miuTiTes, rom oqmiT dadgenili

debulebebis miReba ganapiroba ZuZumwovrebis dargSi mecnierebis maRali xarisxis miRwevebma,

rac amave xarisxiT teqnikurad SesaZlebels xdis adamianis klonirebas, adamianis depersonalizacia

ki, genetikurad identuri adamianebis winaswarganzraxviT Seqmnis gziT laxavs adamianis

Rirsebas. amagvari winaswarganzraxuli biosamedicino praqtikam TiToeul dainteresebul

individs SeiZleba Seuqmnas samedicino, fsiqologiuri da socialuri xasiaTis siZneleebi. aRniSnulis

gaTvaliswinebiT, dadginda, rom akrZalulia nebismieri Careva, romlis mizania sxva adamianis,

cocxalis an gardacvlilis, genetikurad identuri adamianis Seqmna (muxli 1). 11

`adamianis klonirebis akrZalvis Sesaxeb~ saerTaSoriso aqtis mniSvnelobas naTlad da martivad

warmoaCens Semdegi faqtebi:

klonirebis Sesaxeb xmauri warmoiSva 1997 wels, rodesac mecnierebma ganaxorcieles aramarto

Canasaxis, aramed zrdasruli ZuZumwovara cxovelebis klonireba. SotlandiaSi, roslinis

institutSi mecnierTa jgufma ian vilmatis xelmZRvanelobiT daamuSava meTodika, romelic

iZleva saSualebas deda cxvris curidan amoRebuliyo mTeli memkvidruli informaciis

matarebeli qromosomebis Semcveli birTvi, romliTac Canacvlebuli iqna sxva cxvris ukve

ganayofierebuli kvercxujredis birTvi. Semdgom moxda am kvercxujredis implantacia dedobilis

organizmSi, ris Sedegad qveyanas moevlina donori cxvris zusti asli _ doli.

`2002 wlis bolos gavrcelda sensaciuri cnoba pirveli klonirebuli bavSvis dabadebis Sesaxeb.

kompania Clonaid-is warmomadgenlis brijit buaseliesa da italieli qirurgis severino

antonionis sityvieri gancxadebis Tanaxmad, dekemberSi gaCnda pirveli klonirebuli gogona,

romelsac msoflio icnobs evas saxeliT. sul klonirebuli embrionebi Caenerga xuT surogat

dedas. isini irwmunebian, rom yvela orsuloba mimdinareobda normalurad, magram amasTan, uars

acxadeben nebismieri informaciis gamomzeurebaze mSoblebis vinaobisa da adgilsamyofelis

Sesaxeb. cnobilia mxolod, rom evas deda aris 31 wlis amerikeli qali. kompania Clonaid-is xelmZRvanelma

brijit buaseliem ganacxada, rom 2003 wlis ianvarSi daibada kidev erTi klonirebuli

gogona, romlis deda holandielia. ianvarSi kidev sam klonirebul axalSobils moelian.

42


eqimma antonionim ganacxada, rom klonirebuli axalSobilebi qveyanas moevlinebian mxolod iq,

sadac msgavsi operacia kanoniT ar isjeba.~ 12

evropis umetes qveynebSi adamianis klonireba kanoniT akrZalulia. aSS-s kongresma klonirebis

akrZalvis Sesaxeb gadawyvetileba miiRo jer kidev, gasul wels. klonirebis cdebis akr-

Zalvis moTxovnas eTanxmeba iuneskoc, sadac Tvlian, rom es dauSvebelia eTikis TvalsazrisiT.

III. samedicino asociaciebis aqtebi

pacientis uflebebis da zogadad, adamianis janmrTelobis uflebis dacvis mizniT, msoflio

samedicino asociaciebis mier miRebul iqna araerTi qartia, romlebsac savaldebulo Zala ar

gaaCniaT, magram biosamedicino kvlevebis Catarebisas samedicino personalisaTvis mniSvnelovani

da angariSgasawevia. esenia, msoflios eqimTa asociaciis lisabonis deklaracia pacientTa

uflebebis Sesaxeb, msoflio samedicino asociaciis helsinkis 1964 wlis deklaracia `saxelm-

ZRvanelo principebi adamianze samedicino-biologiuri kvlevebis Catarebis Sesaxeb~, romelic

periodulad ganicdida cvlilebebsa da damatebebs (1975 wlis tokios deklaracia, 1983 wlis

veneciis deklaracia, 1989 wlis hong-kongis deklaracia, 1996 wlis somerset vestis deklaracia).

1975 wlis msoflio samedicino asociaciis tokios deklaracia mTlianad mieZRvna samedicino

personalis saxelmZRvanelo principebs, dakavebulTa da patimarTa wamebisa da sxva sastiki,

araadamianuri an Rirsebis Semlaxavi mopyrobis an sasjelis SemTxvevaSi.

1. upirvelesad, unda aRiniSnos, msoflio samedicino asociaciis generaluri asambleis mier

miRebuli samedicino eTikis saerTaSoriso kodeqsi. kodeqsiT dadginda rogorc eqimis zogadi

movaleobebi, aseve, profesiuli da kolegebTan eTikuri qcevis standartebi. sayuradReboa eTikis

kodeqsis daTqma avadmyofis winaSe eqimis movaleobebis Taobaze, kerZod: eqims yovelTvis

unda axsovdes, rom igi movalea daicvas adamianis sicocxle; eqimi movalea uerTgulos pacients

da mTeli Tavisi codna moaxmaros mas. Tu eqims ara aqvs gamokvlevis an mkurnalobis saSualeba,

man saamisod unda mouxmos sxva eqims, romelsac es SesaZlebloba aqvs; eqimma saidumlod un-da

Seinaxos yovelive Tavisi pacientis Sesaxeb, am ukanasknelis sikvdilis Semdegac ki; gadaudebeli

samedicino daxmarebis aRmoCena eqimis humanitaruli movaleobaa im SemTxvevaSi, Tu igi ar

aris darwmunebuli, rom aseTi daxmarebis gawevis survili an SesaZlebloba sxvebsac aqvT. 13

2. pacientTa uflebebis dacvis sferoSi interess iwvevs luqsemburgis deklaracia pacientTa

usafrTxoebis Sesaxeb, romlis miReba ganapiroba janmrTelobis dacvis seqtorSi SecdomaTa

da arasasurvel SedegTa ganviTarebis prevenciis, seriozul SecdomaTa gansazRvrisa

da acilebis, aseve, usafrTxoebis proceduraTa uzrunvelyofis gaZlierebam.

janmrTelobis dacvis seqtori warmoadgens maRali riskis sferos, vinaidan arakeTilsaimedo

movlenebis dadgoma ufro xSirad, mkurnalobas ukavSirdeba, vidre TviT daavadebas. aRniSnuls

ki, SeuZlia gamoiwvios sikvdili, seriozuli dazianeba, garTuleba da pacientisaTvis tanjvis

miyeneba.

konferencia rekomendacias iZleva, rom `pacientis usafrTxoeba~ evrokavSiris, evrokavSiris

wevri qveynebisa da adgilobrivi janmrTelobis dacvis seqtorSi dagegmil politikur Ronis-

ZiebaTa nusxaSi erT-erT upirveles adgilze unda iqnes ganxiluli. aRniSnulis gaTvaliswinebiT,

konferenciam rekomendaciebi evrokavSiris institutebisaTvis gasca, maT Soris, daarsdes evrokavSiris

forumi, romelSic monawileobas miiReben Sesabamisi dainteresebuli mxareebi, raTa

ganxilul iyos pacientis usafrTxoebasTan dakavSirebuli erovnuli da evropuli masStabiT

mimdinare saqmianobebi. jandacvis msoflio organizaciasTan aliansSi muSaoba pacientis

43


marTlmsajuleba

N2

da

kanoni

usafrTxoebis sakiTxebis saerTo gagebis SesamuSaveblad da `problemaTa gadawyvetis evrokav-

Siris bankis~ Sesaqmnelad, romelic moicavs `mowinave gamocdilebas,~ magaliTebsa da standartebs.

konferencia nacionalur xelisuflebebs rekomendacias aZlevs: uzrunvelyos pacientTTaTvis

maTi janmrTelobis Sesaxeb arsebuli piradi informaciis sruli da Tavisufali miwodeba.

amasTan, ganamtkicos monacemTa sizuste da pacientis mier misdami Catarebuli mkurnalobis

arsis sruli aRqmadoba. izrunos riskis menejmentis rutinis dasaweseblad. magaliTad, gaidlainebisa

da indikatorebis ganviTareba, rogorc janmrTelobis dacvis seqtorSi xarisxis uzrunvelyofis

sistemis nawili. axali teqnologiebis gamoyenebis optimizeba, magaliTad, pacientTa

eleqtronuli Canawerebis sistemis SemoReba. aRniSnuli Canawerebi gaiTvaliswinebs

pirad samedicino profilebs da gadawyvetilebaTa miRebis mxardaWeris programebs jandacvis

profesionalTaTvis, im mizniT rom Semcirdes mkurnalobasTan dakavSirebuli Secdomebis ricxvi

da gaizardos maTi amocnobis SesaZlebloba. konferencia aseve, rekomendacias aZlevs jandacvis

momsaxurebis mimwodeblebs: jandacvis profesionalTa da jandacvis mimwodebelTa ur-

TierTTanamSromlobis wesiT miudgnen da warmarTon janmrTelobis momsaxurebis miwodeba, raTa

ganamtkicon pacientis usafrTxoeba. samuSao adgilebze ganaxorcielon proeqtebi, romlebic

fokusirebul iqneba pacientis usafrTxoebaze da daawesebs SecdomebTan da naklovanebebTan

ufro efeqtiani gamklavebis Ria kulturas.

3. jandacvis msoflio organizaciis pacientTa usafrTxoebisaTvis londonis deklaraciis

(2006 wlis 17 ianvari) mizania jandacvis sferoSi acilebadi safrTxis farTo mozRvavebis Semcireba;

Seiqmnas iseTi samyaro, romelSic jandacvis sferoSi arsebuli Secdomebi minimalizebuli

iqneba. konferenciaze gamoiTqva mzadyofna TanamSromlobaze Semdegi mimarTulebebiT:

pacientTa usafrTxoebisa da pacientTa uflebamosilebis programebis Seqmna da promocia;

pacientTa usafrTxoebis sferoSi moRvawe yvela partniorTan konstruqciuli dialogis

warmarTva; msoflios masStabiT iseTi sistemebis Seqmna, romlebic dakavSirebulia jandacvis

safrTxis angariSgebasTan; ganisazRvros saukeTeso praqtika, romelic dakavSirebulia jandacvasTan

dakavSirebuli safrTxis SemcirebasTan da am praqtikis promocia mTels msoflioSi.

4. msoflios eqimTa asociaciis lisabonis deklaracia pacientTa uflebebis Sesaxeb (miRebulia

34-e msoflio samedicino asambleis mier, lisabonSi, portugalia, 1981 wlis seqtemberoqtomberSi.

Sesworebulia msoflios eqimTa asociaciis 47-e generalur asambleaze, bali,

indonezia, 1995 wlis seqtemberSi saredaqcio gadaxedva moxda asociaciis 171-e sabWos sesiaze,

santiagoSi, Cile, 2005 wlis oqtomberSi) ganixilavs da warmoadgens pacientTa zogierT im

uflebebs, romlebic gaTavisebuli da mxardaWerili unda iyos medicinis profesionalTa mier.

lisabonis deklaraciiT msoflios eqimTa asociaciam aRiara, pacientTa avtonomiurobisa

da samarTlianobis uzrunvelyofis aqtualoba da aucilebloba, amasTan, daadgina, samedicino

momsaxurebis miwodebis procesSi monawile eqimebis, sxva pirebisa da organizaciebis erToblivi

pasuxismgebloba pacientTa uflebebTan mimarTebiT.

5. evropis qveynebSi pacientTa uflebebis harmonizaciis yvelaze ganaxlebul da masStabur

aqtad iTvleba pacientTa uflebebis evropuli qartia (2002 wlis noemberi, romi). qartia gansaxilvelad

gamotanilia samoqalaqo sazogadoebis, erovnuli da evropuli institutebis, yvela

dainteresebuli mxaris aqtiuri da SeTanxmebuli muSaobis Sedegad. evropul jandacvis sivrceSi

Seqmnili realobiT da amave sivrceSi arsebuli ganviTarebis tendenciebis gaTvaliswinebiT,

Sedgenil iqna erTiani, unificirebuli midgoma, romelTa adaptacia nacionalur doneze TiToeuli

qveynis Sesabamisi struqturebisa da sazogadoebriobis upirvelesi movaleobaa. aRsaniSnavia,

rom qartiaSi Camoyalibebuli dokumentebis danergva da realur instrumentebad qceva

moiTxovs jandacvis profesionalTa, menejmentis warmomadgenelTa, mTavrobebis, sakanonmdeblo

44


da administraciuli organoebis erTobliv muSaobas da Zalisxmevas. pacientTa uflebebis evropul

qartiaSi Camoyalibebulia pacientTa 14 ZiriTadi ufleba, rac gamomdinareobs evrokavSiris

fundamentur uflebaTa qartiidan. evrokavSiris (evropis) fundamentur uflebaTa qartia awesebs

mTel rig xelSeuval sayovelTao uflebebs, romlebic ar SeiZleba SeizRudos evrokavSiris

organoebisa da wevri saxelmwifoebis mier. aRniSnuli qartiis 35-e muxli gansazRvravs uflebas

janmrTelobis dacvaze, rogorc `xelmisawvdomobis uflebas prevenciul RonisZiebebze da

uflebas _ isargeblo samedicino momsaxurebiT erovnuli kanonmdeblobiTa da praqtikiT dawesebuli

pirobebiT.~ imave muxlSi aRniSnulia, rom evrokavSiri valdebulia uzrunvelyos `adamianis

janmrTelobis dacvis maRali done,~ xolo am konteqstSi janmrTeloba da janmrTelobis

dacva ganixileba rogorc individualuri, ise socialuri produqti. aRniSnuli formulireba

erovnuli mTavrobebisaTvis awesebs standarts, ar dakmayofildnen da Sesabamisad, ar SeCerdnen

`minimalurad garantirebul standartebze~ jandacvis sferoSi da miznad daisaxon umaRlesi

standartebis miRweva, miuxedavad momsaxurebis mimwodebeli sxvadasxva samsaxurebis gansxvavebuli

SesaZleblobebisa. garda aRniSnuli 35-e muxlisa, qartia aseve, Seicavs mTel rig iseT

debulebebs, romlebic pirdapir an arapirdapir Seexeba pacientTa uflebebs. magaliTad: adamianis

Rirsebis Seuvaloba (muxli 1), sicocxlis ufleba (muxli 2); adamianis pirovnebis xelSeuxebloba

(muxli 3); usafrTxoebis ufleba (muxli 6); piradi monacemebis daculoba (muxli 8);

diskriminaciis dauSvebloba (muxli 21); kulturuli, religiuri da lingvisturi mravalferovnebis

ufleba (muxli 22); bavSvTa uflebebi (muxli 24); mozardTa uflebebi (muxli 25);

socialuri uzrunvelyofisa da dacvis ufleba (muxli 34); garemos dacvis ufleba (muxli 37);

momxmarebelTa uflebebi (muxli 38); cxovrebisa da gadaadgilebis Tavisufleba (muxli 45).

pacientis uflebaTa qartiaSi gadmocemuli 14 ufleba aseve, ukavSirdeba saerTaSoriso dokumentebs

da deklaraciebs, romlebic SemuSavebulia jandacvis msoflio organizaciisa da evrosabWos

mier.

qartia gamoyenebadia yvela moqalaqis mimarT, miuxedavad arsebuli gansxvavebisa asakis, sqesis,

religiis, socialur-ekonomikuri mdgomareobis, ganaTlebis Tu sxva faqtorebisa, romlebmac

SesaZloa gavlena moaxdinon individisaTvis saWiro jandacvis momsaxurebis miwodebis

saWiroebaze. qartia ar iTvaliswinebs eTikur sakiTxebs. pacientis ToTxmeti ufleba warmoadgens

fundamentur uflebaTa faqtiobriv gansaxierebas, ris gamoc isini aRirebuli da dafasebuli

unda iyos miuxedavad finansuri, ekonomikuri an politikuri SezRudvebisa da maTgan gamomdinare,

Sesabamisi kriteriumebisa; aRniSnul uflebaTa aRiareba da pativiscema moicavs rogorc

teqnikur-organizaciul moTxovnaTa aseve, qceviT-profesiuli modelebis damyarebasa

da Sesrulebas. aqedan gamomdinare, dRis wesrigSi dgeba globalur reformaTa saWiroeba, im

gzebze, romlebiTac erovnuli jandacvis sistemebi operireben.

daskvna

zemoT ganxiluli saerTaSoriso aqtebis erToblivi SejerebiT SeiZleba davaskvnaT, rom janmrTelobasTan

dakavSirebuli adamianis uflebebi ganmtkicebulia adamianis uflebebisadmi miZ-

Rvnili yvela ZiriTadi xelSekrulebiTa da konvenciiT da moicavs adamianis uflebas: fizikuri

da fsiqikuri janmrTelobis umaRles xelmisawvdom standartebze; adekvaturi jandacvisa da

janmrTelobasTan dakavSirebuli momsaxurebis Tanabarxelmisawvdomobaze, ganurCevlad sqesisa,

rasisa da sxva mdgomareobebisa; sakvebis samarTlian ganawilebaze; usafrTxo sasmeli wylis da

sanitariuli pirobebis xelmisawvdomobaze; cxovrebisa da dabinavebis adekvatur standartebze;

45


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usafrTxo da jansaR garemoze; usafrTxo da jansaR samuSao pirobebze da orsul qalTa adekvatur

dacvaze maTTvis saxifaTo saqmianobisagan; janmrTelobasTan dakavSirebul ganaTlebasa

da informaciis xelmisawvdomobaze;

miuxedavad janmrTelobis uflebis dacvasTan dakavSirebuli araerTi deklaraciis, rezoluciisa

Tu SeTanxmebisa, zogierT specifikur SemTxvevebSi, pacientTa uflebebi kiTxvis niSnis

qveS eqceva, rogorc iuridiuli niSniT, ise arsebuli realobidan gamomdinare. xSir SemTxvevebSi,

dadgenili iuridiuli normebi, realurad ar xorcieldeba gamomdinare nacionaluri specifikidan,

finansuri situaciidan da aseve, realuri asamoqmedebeli berketebis sisustis an ararsebobis

gamo. kanoniT dadgenili da xSir SemTxvevaSi Seusrulebeli aseTi uflebebi xSirad,

monitoringis da sxvadasxva programebis ganxorcielebis drosac ki, ar aisaxeba, maT xSirad

iviwyeben kidec axladmosuli mTavrobebi, miuxedavad imisa, rom es momentebi SesaZloa asaxulic

ki, iyos maT winasaarCevno platformaSi. aseTi arasasurveli SemTxvevebis acilebis mizniT, upirveles

yovlisa, unda moxdes evropuli qveynebis sakanonmdeblo sakiTxebis harmonizacia da

pacientTa uflebebis dacvis sakanonmdeblo garantiebis dayrdnoba evropis sabWos, jandacvis

msoflio organizaciis da sxva mniSvnelovani saerTaSoriso organizacebis rekomendaciebsa da

deklaraciebze. es ukanasknelni eyrdnobian organizaciul standartebs, teqnikur parametrebs

da aseve, profesiuli qcevis modelebs.

pacientTa uflebebis dacvis sakiTxebisadmi miZRvnili saerTaSoriso dokumentebi metad

myari gzavnilia evropis regionis qveynebisaTvis, raTa maT gaaaqtiuron da xeli Seuwyon saqmianobas

am sakiTxebTan dakavSirebiT, maT Sesabamis iurisdiqciebSi. miuxedavad amisa, pacientTa

socialuri uflebebis ganmtkiceba saxelmwifosagan moiTxovs saTanado sabiujeto dagegmarebasa

da resursebs, risi miRwevac realurad pirdapirproporciulia qveynis ekonomikuri ganviTarebis

donisa. movlenaTa ganviTarebis aseT fonze, aRmosavleT da centraluri evropis

qveynebi gviCveneben realur winsvlas sakanonmdeblo garantiebis praqtikuli ganxorcielebis

aspeqtebSi.

46


ibliografia

1. adamianis uflebaTa saerTaSoriso bili, saqarTvelos axalgazrda

iuristTa asociacia, Tbilisi, 1999;

2. rona k. m. smiti, adamianis saerTaSoriso uflebebi, oqsfordis

universitetis gamomcemloba, 2005;

3. asborn eide, katarina krauze, alan rosa, ekonomikuri, socialuri

da kulturuli uflebebi, Tbilisi, 2006;

4. pacientTa uflebebis dacvis sakiTxebi saerTaSoriso samarTlebriv

normebsa da saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobaSi, marina kvaWaZe, saqarTvelo

da saerTaSoriso samarTali, Tbilisi, 2001;

5. g. javaSvili, komentarebi evropis sabWos konvenciaze `adamianis uflebebisa

da biomedicinis Sesaxeb~;

6. marina kvaWaZe, adamianis uflebebi da Tanamedrove samedicino samar-

Tali, Tbilisi, 1998;

7. http://laws.codexserver.com saqarTvelos sruli sakanonmdeblo baza;

8. http://moh.gov.ge saqarTvelos Sromis, janmrTelobisa da socialuri

dacvis saministro;

9. http://www.psidiscourse.ge sazogadoebrivi ganxilvebi, janmrTelobis

dacva da socialuri sfero;

10. www.medportal.ge

SeniSvnebi:

1

saqarTvelos kanoni `pacientis uflebebis Sesaxeb~, muxli 4. `d~.

2

meri robinsoni, gaerTianebuli erebis adamianis uflebaTa umaRlesi

komisari, 1997-2002.

3

rona k. m. smiti, adamianis saerTaSoriso uflebebi, oqsfordis universitetis

gamomcemloba, 2005, gv. 209.

4

rona k. m. smiti, adamianis saerTaSoriso uflebebi, oqsfordis universitetis

gamomcemloba, 2005, gv. 202.

5

pacientTa uflebebis dacvis sakiTxebi saerTaSoriso samarTlebriv

normebsa da saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobaSi, marina kvaWaZe, saqarTvelo

da saerTaSoriso samarTali, Tbilisi, 2001.

6

adamianis uflebaTa saerTaSoriso bili, saqarTvelos axalgazrda

iuristTa asociacia, Tbilisi, 1999.

7

www.parliament.ge

8

www.parliament.ge

9

www.parliament.ge

10

g. javaSvili, komentarebi evropis sabWos konvenciaze `adamianis uflebebisa

da biomedicinis Sesaxeb~, OCGF.

11

www.medportal.ge

12

`adamianis genomi~, www.Medportal.ge

13

www.Medportal.ge

47


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INTERNATIONAL

STANDARDS FOR

PROTECTION OF

RIGHTS OF PATIENTS

NUNU KVANTALIANI

Justice of the Supreme Court

Doctorate student of the Technical University of Georgia

By summarizing international acts in this paper, we can conclude that

health related human rights are reinforced by all treaties ad conventions

on human rights and includes the following: human right to highest

available physical and mental health standard; equal accessibility of adequate

healthcare and healthcare services notwithstanding sex, race and

other conditions; just distribution of food; accessibility of safe drinking

water and sanitary conditions; the right to life and adequate accommodation;

the right to safe and healthy environment and adequate protection

of pregnant women from hazardous activities; the right to healthcare

related education and information accessibility;

Despite numerous declarations, resolutions and treaties on the right to

healthcare, in some cases, rights of patients are under question from

legal standpoint as well as from the standpoint of existing reality. In

often cases, established legal provisions, are not in fact observed due to

national specificity, financial conditions or weak instruments or the lack

of them. Such rights, established by the law, but never observed, are not

reflected even during monitoring or implementation of other programmes

despite the fact that they are often forgotten by new governments, although

these issues could have been the part of their elections programmes.

In order to avoid such undesirable situations, it is first of all necessary to

harmonize legislative matters and base patients’ rights on EC, World

48


Health Organization’s recommendations and declarations. The latter is based on organizational standards,

technical parameters and professional conduct models.

International documents on patients’ rights represent a sound message to countries of the European Region

in order for them to facilitate and support activities in this area in respective jurisdictions. Despite that,

reinforcement of social rights of patients requires the states to do relevant budget planning and resources; it

is directly proportionate to the level of economic development of the country. In such circumstances,

countries of Eastern and Central Europe show real progress in terms of practical implementation of legislative

guarantees.

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saordero fasiani

qaRaldi da misi

samarTlebrivi

mowesrigebis

ZiriTadi aspeqtebi

eka zarnaZe

goris raionuli sasamarTlos mosamarTle, samarTlis doqtori,

ivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo

universitetis iuridiuli fakultetis kerZo

samarTlis mimarTulebis asocirebuli profesori

samoqalaqo brunvaSi fasiani qaRaldebis, rogorc realuri

saqonlisa da fuladi niSnebis iuridiuli Semcvlelis gamoCena

vaWrobis ganviTarebis bunebriv Sedegs warmoadgens. pirveli

fasiani qaRaldebi evropaSi Sua saukuneebis dasawyisSi warmoiSva.

Tavidan farTo gavrceleba hpova martivma Tamasuqma, Semdeg

gadasapirebeli Tamasuqic gaCnda. fasiani qaRaldebis brunvis

monawileni iyvnen vaWrebi da Cveulebrivi moqalaqeebi, Sesabamisad,

urTierToba savaWro Cveulebebisa da adaTebis safuZvelze

regulirdeboda. TandaTanobiT saxelmwifoTa ekonomikur cxovrebaSi

fasiani qaRaldebis rolis gazrdam moiTxova maTi maregulirebeli

Cveulebebisa da adaTebis sanqcireba, ris Sedegadac

miRebuli iqna sakanonmdeblo aqtebi evropis sxvadasxva qveyanaSi

(meTeqvsmete saukunis meore naxevarSi italiam miiRo Tamasuqis wesdeba,

msgavsi normatiuli aqti miRebul iqna briuselSi, espaneTSi

da sxv). pirveli fasiani qaRaldebi ufro metad saxelobiTi da

saordero xasiaTis iyo. rac Seexeba sawarmdgenlo fasian qa-

Raldebs, isini samoqalaqo brunvaSi ufro mogvianebiT gaCnda _

meCvidmete saukuneSi, safrangeTSi gavrcelda savalo sabuTebi e.w.

billets en blanc, sadac kreditoris vinaobis aRniSvnisaTvis gankuTvnili

adgili carieli iyo. amgvari dokumentebis gamoCenas winaaRmdegoba

mohyva mTavrobis mxridan _ fizikuri pirebis mier maTi

gacema saxifaTod iqna miCneuli saxelmwifo fulis niSnebisaTvis

da 1719 wlidan „usaxelo~ savalo sabuTebi aikrZala. sawarmdgenlo

50


fasiani qaRaldebis winaaRmdegi iyo iuristTa garkveuli nawilic (romanistebi) da mocemuli saxis

savalo sabuTebs romis samarTlis mier aRiarebuli valdebulebis individualurobis principTan

Seusabamod Tvlida. sawarmdgenlo fasiani qaRaldebi aikrZala evropis zogierT sxva

saxelmwifoSic, magram mecxramete saukunisaTvis isini kvlav dabrundnen samoqalaqo brunvaSi. 1

fasiani qaRaldebis calkeuli saxeebi Sua saukuneebis saqarTveloSic iyo gavrcelebuli.

cneba `Tamasuqi~ savalo sabuTis mniSvnelobiT gvxvdeba CveulebiT samarTalSi, vaxtang meeqvsis

samarTlis wignSi. es ukanaskneli Tamasuqis aucilebel rekvizitebsac ki gansazRvravda. TamasuqSi

sxva pirobebTan erTad zogjer valis aRebis maiZulebel garemoebebzec miuTiTebdnen. 2

mecxramete saukunis dasawyisSi, evropaSi ekonomikis aRmavlobam xeli Seuwyo fasiani qaRaldebis

brunvis gaZlierebas, rasac misi samarTlebrivi reglamentaciis ganviTareba mohyva. swored

amave periodSi, germaneli mecnieris bruneris SromebSi gamoCnda fasiani qaRaldebis klasikuri

Teoria da fasiani qaRaldebis samarTali. pirvelad man gaaerTiana sxvadasxva saxis fasiani

qaRaldi erTiani cnebis qveS da scada Camoeyalibebina sawarmdgenlo, saordero da saxelobiT

fasian qaRaldebad maTi dayofis samarTlebrivi safuZvlebi 3 .

fasiani qaRaldi dadgenili formis mqone sabuTia (dokumentia), romlis warmodgenac aucilebelia

masSive gamoxatuli qonebrivi uflebiT Sesrulebis misaRebad. 4 fasiani qaRaldi SeiZleba

uSualod qaRaldis saxiT arc arsebobdes, magram igi yovelTvis gulisxmobs Sesabamisi

qonebrivi uflebisaTvis materialuri matareblis arsebobas, rac aseve, Sesabamisi formis mqone

dokumentad (sabuTad) unda moviazroT. „fasiani qaRaldebisa da birJis sakiTxebi teqnikis gavlenasac

ganicdis. am kanonzomierebisaTvis gverdis aqceva ar SeiZleba, Tu gvinda rom gariyuli

ar aRmovCndeT. mocemuli kanoni (`fasiani qaRaldebis bazris Sesaxeb~ saqarTvelos kanoni) srulad

iTvaliswinebs am momentsac, kerZod, „aramaterialur fasian qaRaldebze,” anu fasiani qa-

Raldebis samarTalze fasiani qaRaldebis gareSe, saubaria kanonis meore muxlSi.” 5 fasiani qa-

Raldebis bazris Sesaxeb saqarTvelos kanonis me-2 muxlis 33-e punqtis mixedviT, aramaterialuri

fasiani qaRaldi `ar arsebobs qaRaldis formiT, magram arsebobs Canaweris saxiT fasiani

qaRaldebis reestrSi an centralur depozitarSi beneficiari mesakuTris an nominaluri mflobelis

saxelze.~ fasiani qaRaldebis reestrSi registraciis warmoebis specialuri wesi, rac

kompiuteruli teqnikiT xorcieldeba aseve, ganisazRvreba specialuri normatiuli aqtebiT. 6

1. saordero fasiani qaRaldis cneba, forma da saxeebi

fasiani qaRaldis institutis erT-erTi mizania uflebis ganxorcielebis gaadvileba. mas

adgili aqvs rogorc kreditoris, ise _ movalis mimarT da misi miRwevis erT-erTi saSualebaa

fasiani qaRaldiT uflebamosili subieqtis legitimaciis wesi. es ukanaskneli fasiani qaRldebis

_ sawarmdgenlo, saordero da saxelobiTad klasifikaciis safuZvelia. subieqtis legitimaciis

saSualeba gulisxmobs fasiani qaRaldis gadacemisa da moTxovnis uflebis mqone piris

gansazRvris garkveul wess. aRniSnuli safuZvliT, fasiani qaRaldebis klasifikacia damaxasiaTebelia

kontinenturi evropis qveynebis samarTlisaTvis. 7 saqarTvelos samoqalaqo kodeqsic

(911-929-e muxli) gansazRvravs ra, fasiani qaRaldebis samarTlis zogad debulebebs, afuZnebs

fasiani qaRaldebis dayofas sawarmdgenlo, saordero da saxelobiT fasian qaRaldebad 8 .

samoqalaqo kodeqsis 911-e muxli gansazRvravs sawarmdgenlo fasiani qaRaldis cnebas da

adgens, Tu vinme gascems dokuments, romliTac is dokumentis mflobels gadaxdas hpirdeba,

maSin mflobels SeuZlia moiTxovos gadaxda dapirebis Tanaxmad, garda im SemTxvevisa, roca mas

amis ufleba ar hqonda.

51


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samoqalaqo kodeqsis 922-e muxlis mixedviT, savalo dokumenti, romliTac emitenti dokumentis

wardgenisas gadaxdas hpirdeba dasaxelebul pirs, SeiZleba gaices saordero fasiani

qaRaldis saxiT.

samoqalaqo kodeqsis 928-e muxli adgens piradi (saxelobiTi) fasiani qaRaldis cnebas _ gansazRvruli

piris saxelze Sedgenili dokumenti SeiZleba gaices im pirobiT, rom movales daekisreba

gadaxda mxolod am piris dokumentis Cabarebis sanacvlod. marTebuli iqneboda samoqalaqo

kodeqss, nacvlad cnebisa „piradi~ gamoeyenebina termini „saxelobiTi~, rac mocemuli

saxis fasiani qaRladis Sinaarss ufro naTlad asaxavs. „piradi” arqonebrivi, pirovnulobasTan

mWidrod dakavSirebuli uflebis amsaxveli cnebaa da ara maRali brunvaunarianobis mqone

qonebrivi uflebisa.

‘‘Order” inglisuri sityvaa, niSnavs brZanebas da am saxis fasian qaRaldebs `brZanebiT qaRaldebsac~

(ïðèêàçíûå áóìàãè) uwodebdnen 9 . saordero fasian qaRaldebSi yovelTvis aRiniSneba

kreditori, gansxvavebiT sawarmdgenlo dokumentebisagan, magram `yovelTvis~ ar niSnavs fasiani

qaRaldis mTeli brunvis ganmavlobaSi. kreditoris saxeli dokumentSi yovelTvis miTiTebulia

misi movalisaTvis wardgenisas. es ukanaskneli mxolod fasiani qaRaldebis pirvel SemZens aRniSnavs

sabuTSi, fasiani qaRaldis yoveli Semdgomi mesakuTre da Sesabamisad, yoveli Semdgomi

kreditori, mieTiTeba misi winamorbedis mier.

saordero fasiani qaRaldi SeiZleba arsebobdes mxolod materialuri formiT. vinaidan,

aramaterialur dokumentebze uflebaTa fiqsacias axorcielebs Tavad emitenti an am ukanasknelis

davalebiT, damoukidebeli registratori specializebul reestrSi. es niSnavs

fasiani qaRaldis mflobelis yoveli Secvlis Sesaxeb movalisaTvis savaldebulo wesiT

Setyobinebasa da fasian qaRaldze sakuTrebis uflebis warmoSobas aRniSnuli registraciis

safuZvelze, rac ewinaaRmdegeba saordero sabuTebis bunebas.

saordero fasiani qaRaldebi SeiZleba gaices konkretuli piris saxelze miTiTebiT: `gankargulebiT~

an aseTi miTiTebis gareSe. konkretuli piris saxelze gacemuli saordero sabuTi,

erTi SexedviT, saxelobiT fasian qaRaldebs hgavs, romelic gaicema aseve, konkretul kreditorze

miTiTebiT, magram am ukanasknelisaTvis kanonmdeblobiT aucilebelia miTiTebis: `aragankargulebisamebr~

gakeTeba an sxva TanabarmniSvnelovani sityvebis aRniSvna (saqarTvelos kanoni

`Cekis Sesaxeb,~ me-10 muxli; saqarTvelos kanoni `Tamasuqis Sesaxeb~, me-8 muxli). aRniSvna `saordero~

fasian qaRaldebze sakanonmdeblo aucileblobas ar warmoadgens. mizanSewonili iqneboda

aseTi aRniSvnis gakeTeba iseT saordero dokumentze, sadac kreditorad dasaxelebulia

konkretuli piri iseTi aRniSvnis gareSe rogoricaa, `gankargulebisamebr.~

samoqalaqo kodeqsi ar icnobs im dokumentebis CamonaTvals, romelic fasian qaRaldad ganixileba.

kodeqsSi aseve, ar aris miTiTeba Tu romeli fasiani qaRaldi SeiZleba arsebobdes

sawarmdgenlo, saordero Tu saxelobiTi fasiani qaRaldis saxiT. samoqalaqo kodeqsis ocdameoTxe

Tavi `fasiani qaRaldebis brunvidan warmoSobili valdebulebani~ (911-928-e muxli) adgens

fasiani qaRladebis samarTlis ZiriTad debulebebs da moTavsebulia valdebulebiTi samarTlis

(wigni mesame) kerZo nawilSi _ `saxelSekrulebo samarTali~, Sesabamisad, masze unda vrceldebodes

zogadi debulebani xelSekrulebaTa Sesaxeb. kerZod, 319-e muxli xelSekrulebis Tavisuflebis

Sesaxeb, rac sxva aspeqtebTan erTad, aseve, gulisxmobs kerZo samarTlis subieqtTa

uflebas dadon xelSekrulebebi, romelic kanoniT gaTvaliswinebuli ar aris, magram ar ewinaaRmdegeba

mas. mocemuli principi pirdapiri mniSvnelobiT ar unda iqnes moazrebuli fasiani qa-

Raldebis mimarT, radgan dokumentis aRiareba fasian qaRaldad masze specialur samarTlebriv

reJims avrcelebs. kanonmdeblobis analizidan gamomdinare, fasian qaRaldad unda iqnes miCneuli

dokumenti Tu mas aseTad kanoni aRiarebs. Tu romeli saxiT SeiZleba arsebobdes fasian

52


qaRaldad kanonmdeblobiT aRiarebuli dokumenti _ saordero, sawarmdgenlo Tu saxelobiTi

saxiT _ unda dadgindes misi momwesrigebeli normebis analizis safuZvelze. marTebuli iqneboda

debuleba imis Sesaxeb, rom fasian qaRaldad miiCneva mxolod dokumenti, romelic aseTadaa

aRiarebuli da ganmtkicebuli kanonmdeblobiT (samoqalaqo kodeqsiT). aseve upriania, calkeuli

fasiani qaRldebis Sesaxeb specialuri normebi pirdapir adgendes Tu ra saxis fasian qaRaldad

SeiZleba igi brunvaSi arsebobdes: saxelobiTi, saordero Tu sawarmdgenlo saxiT (iseve, rogorc

amas adgili aqvs magaliTad, Tamasuqis, Cekis, aqciis SemTxvevaSi).

klasikur saordero fasian qaRalds warmoadgens Tamasuqi, `romlis magaliTzec da romlis

mixedviTac SesaZlebelia amave kategoriis sxva fasiani qaRaldebis regulireba.~ 10 Tamasuqi savalo

dokumentia, romliTac misi gamcemi piri kisrulobs upirobo valdebulebas, gadaixados masSi

aRniSnuli Tanxa piradad an gadaxdas avalebs mesame pirs. igi SeiZleba iyos martivi _ solo

Tamasuqi, an gadasapirebeli _ trata. martivi Tamasuqis gamcemi Tavad kisrulobs aRniSnuli

Tanxis gadaxdas, gadasapirebeli TamasuqiT ki, misi gamcemi-movale gadaxdas sTavazobs mesame

pirs (trasats). es ukanaskneli Cveulebriv, uflebamosilia da ar aris valdebuli gaanaRdos

Tamasuqi. Tumca, zogjer igi SeiZleba valdebulic iyos gadaixados, magaliTad, saaqcepto kreditis

dros, romlis safuZvelzec banki axorcielebs klientis mier wardgenili tratis jer

aqceptirebas, Semdeg ki, gadaxdis vadis dadgomisas, mis ganaRdebas. trasatsa da fasiani qaRaldis

gamcems Soris urTierToba fasian qaRaldSi gamoxatuli samarTlebrivi urTierTobis „farglebs

gareTaa~. trasati Tamasuqs anaRdebs Tavisi saxeliTa da xarjiT. igi namdvilia im urTierTobis

namdvilobis miuxedavad, romelic trasantsa da trasats Soris arsebobs. anglo-amerikul

samarTalSi ki, mesame piri Cveulebriv valdebulia, gaanaRdos Tamasuqi, radgan trasantis

mier trasatis dasaxelebas yovelTvis aqvs samarTlebrivi safuZveli, romlis ararseboba an

baTiloba iwvevs Tamasuqis baTilobas. 11

saordero fasiani qaRaldis saxiT SeiZleba arsebobdes Cekic. saordero CekiT gamcemi avalebs

mesame pirs, kerZod ki, sabanko dawesebulebas _ gaunaRdos Tanxa dasaxelebul pirs (kanoni

`Cekis Sesaxeb,~ 1-2 muxli). erTi SexedviT, Ceki gadasapirebel Tamasuqs hgavs: orive fasiani

qaRaldi Seicavs gamcemis davalebas mesame pirisadmi gaunaRdos aRniSnuli Tanxa dokumentSi

dasaxelebul pirs. magram maT Soris mniSvnelovani gansxvavebacaa _ saordero Ceki aqceptirebas

ar eqvemdebareba. sabanko dawesebuleba valdebulia gaanaRdos Ceki massa da Cekis gamcems Soris

dadebuli xelSekrulebis safuZvelze. igi anaRdebs ra Ceks, moqmedebs Cekis gamcemis saxeliTa

da xarjiT da faqtobrivad, gvevlineba Cekis gamcemis rwmunebulad. dRes farToda gavrcelebuli

unaRdo fuladi angariSsworeba plastikuri baraTis meSveobiT, romelic formis TvalsazrisiT,

Cekis saxecvlilebas warmoadgens, rac teqnikis ganviTarebam ganapiroba. SeiZleba

iTqvas, rom Ceki Tanamedrove urTierTobebSi plastikuri baraTis formiT gvxvdeba, mxolod

igi moiazrebs sawarmdgenlo an saxelobiT Ceks. plastikuri baraTis, iseve rogorc Cekis mflobels

aqvs moTxovnis ufleba sabanko dawesebulebisadmi _ gaanaRdos masSi aRniSnuli Tanxa. amas-

Tan, mxolod im sabanko dawesebulebis mimarT, romelSic inaxeba Cekis Tu plastikuri baraTis

mesakuTris fuladi saxsrebi. aseve, aucilebelia xelSekruleba sabanko dawesebulebasa da Cekis,

plastikuri baraTis mesakuTres Soris. gadasapirebeli gansxvavebiT Tamasuqisagan saCeko ur-

TierToba uSualo kavSirSia Cekis gamcemsa da gamnaRdebels Soris arsebul urTierTobasTan.

fasiani qaRaldebis maRali brunvaunarianoba ganapirobebs, rom brunvaSi zogierTi saxis

saordero fasiani qaRaldi, rogoricaa Tamasuqi da Ceki, Sesabamisad, plastikuri baraTic

SeiZleba arsebobdes egzemplarebis saxiT. gadasapirebeli Tamasuqi, iseve, rogorc Ceki SeiZleba

gamoiweros ramdenime egzemplarad, magram mxolod rigiTi nomrebis aRniSvniT. winaaRmdeg

SemTxvevaSi TiToeuli maTgani CaiTvleba damoukidebel fasian qaRaldad. egzemplaris gacemis

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marTlmsajuleba

N2

da

kanoni

ufleba aqvs mxolod movales (kanoni ‘Tamasuqis Sesaxeb,~ 57-59-e muxli; kanoni ‘Cekis Sesaxeb,~

40-41-e muxli).

saordero fasiani qaRaldis saxiT aseve, SeiZleba arsebobdes sasawyobo mowmoba. igi gaicema

sasaqonlo sawyobSi saqonlis Sesanaxad mibarebisas (samoqalaqo kodeqsi, 789-e muxli).

zemo aRniSnuli saordero fasiani qaRldebisaTvis kanonmdeblobiT ganmtkicebulia fasiani

qaRaldebisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli iseTi niSani, rogoricaa formaluri xasiaTi: fasiani qaRaldi

Sedgenili unda iyos kanoniT gansazRvruli formiT da Seicavdes yvela aucilebel rekvizits,

romlis ugulebelyofa iwvevs fasiani qaRaldis baTilobas. mocemuli niSani pirdapir ar aris

gaTvaliswinebuli samoqalaqo kodeqsis mesame wignis ocdameoTxe TavSi _ `fasiani qaRaldebis

brunvidan warmoSobili valdebulebani~, magram igi dadgenilia specialuri normebiT: `Cekis

Sesaxeb~ kanonis pirveli muxli, `Tamasuqis Sesaxeb~ kanonis pirveli muxli, samoqalaqo kodeqsis

789-e muxli. mkacri formaluri buneba ki, Tavis mxriv ganpirobebulia fasiani qaRaldebis e.w.

literaluri xasiaTiT, rac gulisxmobs subieqtis uflebas moiTxovos movalisagan mxolod

iseTi moqmedebis Sesruleba, romelic miTiTebulia dokumentSi, anu valdebulebis Sinaarsi

mxolod fasiani qaRaldiT ganisazRvreba.

zogierTi qveynis kanonmdeblobiT, saordero fasian qaRalds ipoTekis mowmobac warmoadgens,

romelic bolo periodis erT-erTi mniSvnelovani siaxlea qarTul samoqalaqo kodeqsSi. kodeqsis

289 1- e muxlis Tanaxmad, ipoTekis mowmoba aris fasiani qaRaldi, romelic dgeba erT

egzemplarad da adasturebs misi kanonieri mflobelis uflebas: a) moiTxovos ipoTekis xelSekrulebidan

gamomdinare valdebulebis Sesruleba, b) valdebulebis Seusruleblobis SemTxvevaSi,

moTxovna daikmayofilos ipoTekis sagnidan. 289 2- e muxlis pirveli da meore nawili adgens

ipoTekis mowmobis rekvizitebs da iTvaliswinebs misi dadasturebis aucileblobas sajaro reestris

beWdiT. amave muxlis mesame nawili ganamtkicebs fasiani qaRaldebisaTvis damaxasia-

Tebel formalizmis niSans da adgens, rom am muxlis pirvel da meore nawilebSi aRniSnul moTxovnaTa

darRveva iwvevs mowmobis baTilobas. kodeqsis 289 3 -e muxlis mixedviT, ipoTekis mowmobis

faqtobrivi mflobeli iTvleba mis kanonier mflobelad, vidre sawinaaRmdego ar damtkicdeba,

magram mxolod es danawesi ar aris sakmarisi ipoTekis mowmobis sawarmdgenlo fasian qaRaldad

gansaxilvelad. 12 amave kodeqsis 289 4- e muxlis pirveli nawilis mixedviT, ipoTekis mowmobaSi

mocemuli moTxovnis daTmoba xdeba ipoTekis mowmobaze uflebis gadamcemis sanotaro wesiT

damowmebuli xelmoweriT, xolo meoTxe nawili adgens moTxovnis daTmobis Sesaxeb movalisaTvis

Setyobinebis valdebulebas im pirisaTvis, romlis sasargeblodac moxda moTxovnis daTmoba.

amdenad, qarTulma kanonmdeblobam ipoTekis mowmoba mxolod saxelobiTi fasiani qaRaldis saxiT

aRiara. saxelobiTi fasiani qaRaldebi yvelaze dabali likvidurobiT gamoirCevian fasiani qa-

Raldebis klasifikaciaSi. mocemuli saxis dokumentebi ki, mniSvnelovania ipoTekuri kreditis

meoradi bazris ganviTarebisaTvis da xels uwyobs kreditis refinanasirebis sistemas. igi

aqtiurad ganixileba sabanko kreditis seqtoris ganviTarebis erT-erT elementad amerikul

sabanko da fasiani qaRaldebis samarTalSi 13 . amdenad, upriani iqneboda, kanonmdebels gaeTvaliswinebina

misi saordero fasiani qaRaldis saxiT arseboba, romelic metad brunvaunariania,

vidre saxelobiTi da naklebad brunvaunariania, vidre sawarmdgenlo fasiani qaRaldebi.

saordero fasiani qaRaldebi savaWro an saqonelganmkargavi dokumentebia, romelic regulirdeba

sxvadasxva sakanonmdeblo aqtebiT (saqarTvelos kanoni `Cekis Sesaxeb~, saqarTvelos

kanoni `Tamasuqis Sesaxeb~, saqarTvelos samoqalaqo kodeqsi da sxv.). savaWro fasiani qaRaldebi

Tavis mxriv, saangariSsworebo (Ceki, plastikuri baraTi) an sakredito (Tamasuqi) dokumentebia,

romelic faqtobrivad cvlis fuls qonebriv urTierTobaSi. 14 aqve aRsaniSnavia plastikuri

baraTis, romelic dRes yvelaze metad gavrcelebul saangariSsworebo dokumentia saqarTve-

54


loSi, samarTlebrivi reglamentaciis simwiris Sesaxeb qarTul kanonmdeblobaSi. saqonelganmkargav

fasian qaRaldebs ganekuTvneba iseTi dokumentebi, romelTa gadacemiT gadadis ufleba

gansazRvrul saqonelze (mxolod ara fulze), magaliTad, sasawyobo mowmoba.

amdenad, saordero fasiani qaRaldebi iseTi savaWro an saqonelgamkargavi dokumentebia,

romlis wardgenisas moTxovnis ufleba aqvs Tavad dokumentis SinaarsSi dasaxelebul an indosamentTa

uwyveti rigiT uflebamosil pirs.

2. saordero fasiani qaRaldis gadacemis wesi

saqarTvelos samoqalaqo kodeqsis 923-e muxlis Tanaxmad, saordero fasiani qaRaldi SeiZleba

gadacemul iqnes indosamentiTa da dokumentis gadacemiT. indosamenti keTdeba dokumentze an

mis danarTze, daSvebulia teqnikuri saSualebis gamoyenebac.

indosamenti fasiani qaRaldis mflobelis werilobiTi gankargulebaa dokumentis gadacemis

Sesaxeb. piri, romelic axdens fasiani qaRaldis indosirebas aris indosanti, xolo piri, vis

sasargeblodac adgili aqvs indosirebas _ indosati. indosamentis namdvilobisaTvis aucilebelia

indosantis xelmowera. kanonmdebeli uSvebs iseT indosaments, romelic mxolod xelmoweriT

iqneba warmodgenili (samoqalaqo kodeqsi 923-e muxli).

saordero fasiani qaRaldis gadacema gulisxmobs rogorc dokumentze sanivTo uflebis

gadacemas, ise Tavad qaRaldSi gamoxatuli moTxovnis uflebis daTmobasac.

indosamenti cesiis saxesxvaobas warmoadgens. igi iseve rogorc cesia, iTvaliswinebs kreditoris

mier indosantis _ movalis Tanxmobis gareSe moTxovnis uflebis daTmobas mesame pirisaTvis.

klasikuri cesiis dros moTxovnis uflebis daTmoba xdeba mflobelsa da mesame pirs

Soris dadebuli xelSekrulebis safuZvelze (samoqalaqo kodeqsi 198-199-e muxli). saordero

fasiani qaRaldiT moTxovnis uflebis daTmobis Sesaxeb SeTanxmeba indosamentSi aisaxeba.

saordero fasiani qaRaldis gadacemis safuZvels SeiZleba warmoadgendes nasyidoba, gacvla

da a. S., magram igi gamoxatulebas ar poulobs indosamentSi. es ukanaskneli, iseve rogorc Cveulebrivi

cesia, abstraqtuli garigebaa. indosanti, iseve rogorc cendenti, pasuxs agebs gadacemuli

uflebis namdvilobisaTvis. magram gamomdinare fasiani qaRaldebis, rogorc garigebis,

abstraqtuli bunebidan da sajaro utyuarobidan indosant movales ar SeuZlia aRZras kreditoris

mimarT iseTi sarCeli, romelic gamomdinareobs wina mflobelTan urTierTobidan. klasikuri

cesiis dros ki, `movales ufleba aqvs wauyenos axal mflobels yvela is Sesagebeli, rac

mas hqonda Tavdapirveli mflobelis mimarT moTxovnis daTmobis Sesaxeb cnobis miRebis droisaTvis~

(samoqalaqo kodeqsi 202-e muxli).

indosamenti formis mixedviT SeiZleba iyos saxelobiTi an sablanko (samoqalaqo kodeqsi

923-e muxli). 15 saxelobiT indosamentSi aRiniSneba im piris vinaoba, visac gadaeca ufleba, sablankoSi

ki, indosati ar mieTiTeba. orive indosamentisaTvis aucilebelia xelmowera, sablanko

indosamentisaTvis igi sakmarisic ki aris.

indosamenti yovelTvis sruldeba fasian qaRaldze. kanonmdebeli ar gansazRvravs mis adgils

dokumentze. gamonaklisia mxolod sablanko indosamenti, romelic `Tamasuqis Sesaxeb~ kanonis

me-10 muxlis mixedviT unda Sesruldes dokumentis ukana mxares an darTul furcelze. `Cekis

Sesaxeb~ kanonis me-12 muxlis mixedviT ki, igi `unda waeweros Cekis meore gverds an pirvel

furcels.~

gamoyofen indosamentis or funqcias: uflebis matarebeli (Transport function) da sagarantio

(Garantie function). pirveli _ uflebis matarebeli, romelic gulisxmobs mesame pirisaTvis uflebis

55


marTlmsajuleba

N2

da

kanoni

gadacemas. igi universaluria yvela indosamentisaTvis. indosamentiTa da dokumentis gadacemiT

indosati iZens yvela im uflebas da im moculobiT, romelic hqonda indosants fasiani qaRaldidan

gamomdinare (aseT indosaments `Jiro~ indosamentsac uwodeben la girata).

sagarantio funqcia gulisxmobs TiToeuli indosantis pasuxismgeblobas ara marto gadacemuli

uflebis namdvilobisaTvis, aramed misi ganxorcielebisaTvisac. Cveni kanonmdeblobiT

sagarantio funqcia aqvs saCeko da saTamasuqo indosamentebs. marTebuli iqneboda sagarantio

funqcia qarTvel kanonmdebels yvela saordero fasiani qaRaldis indosamentisaTvis gaeTvaliswinebina,

rac am saxis dokumentebs metad `mimzidvels~ xdis momavali kreditorebisaTvis da

Sesabamisad, xels uwyobs maT brunvas.

indosamenti SeiZleba Sesruldes nebismieri piris sasargeblod, im piris garda, vinc gasca

fasiani qaRaldi. am wesidan gamonakliss warmoadgens Tamasuqi. igi SeiZleba indosirebuli iqnas

rogorc aqceptantze, ise mis gamomSvebze, romelsac Tavis mxriv, SeuZlia Tamasuqis Semdgomi

indosireba (kanoni `Tamasuqis Sesaxeb~ me-8 muxli).

dauSvebelia nawilobrivi indosamenti, anu uflebis nawilis an raime pirobiT fasiani qaRaldis

gadacema. Tumca, am ukanaskneli wesidan kanonmdebeli uSvebs gamonakliss da gansazRvravs

im daTqmebs, romelic SeiZleba gaakeTos uflebamosilma pirma. magaliTad, indosants ufleba

aqvs akrZalos fasiani qaRaldis Semdgomi indosireba, SeuZlia gaakeTos dokumentze warwera

`protests ar eqvemdebareba~, `dabrundes xarjebis gareSe~ an sxva TanabarmniSvnelovani sityvebi,

rac aTavisuflebs mas ganaRdebaze uaris SemTxvevaSi, protestis gaformebisagan (kanoni

`Cekis Sesaxeb~ me-11, 34-e muxli; kanoni `Tamasuqis Sesaxeb~, me-40 muxli).

saordero fasiani qaRaldi Sesrulebis misaRebad SeiZleba gadaeces mesame pirs. am dros

dokumentze keTdeba warwera `Tanxa gadasaxdelad~, `mindobilobiT~ an sxva TanabarmniSvnelovani

sityvebi, romelic naTlad gamoxatavs marwmuneblis nebas. aseTi daTqmiT gakeTebuli indosamenti

warmoadgens mindobilobiT indosaments, romlis safuZvelze rwmunebuli Rebulobs

Sesrulebas marwmuneblis saxeliTa da xarjiT. rwmunebuls ufleba aqvs waradginos fasiani

qaRaldi gasanaRdeblad, miiRos Sesabamisi Tanxa, ganaRdebaze uaris SemTxvevaSi, gaakeTos protesti.

mas SeuZlia ganaxorcielos fasiani qaRaldidan gamomdinare yvela ufleba, garda erTisa,

_ gadasces igi mesame pirs indosamentiT.

saordero fasiani qaRaldi SeiZleba iyos giravnobis sagani (samoqalaqo kodeqsi 259-e, 795-

796-e muxli). dagiraveba SeiZleba ganxorcieldes masze Sesabamisi warwerisa da mogiravnisaTvis

gadacemis gziT. amdenad, SeiZleba gamovyoT indosamentis kidev erTi saxe _ sagiravno indosamenti.

saqonelganmkargavi fasiani qaRldebis SemTxvevaSi, mniSvnelovania fasiani qaRaldis giravnobisa

da im saqonlis, romelze uflebasac fasiani qaRaldi warmoSobs, giravnobis urTierTmimarTebis

sakiTxi.

amdenad, Cveulebrivi (la girata) indosamenti cesiis saxesxvaobaa, romlis safuZvelzec, saordero

fasiani qaRaldis gadacemisaTvis aucilebelia Tavad fasiani qaRaldis gadacemac. indosamenti

Sinaarsis mixedviT, aseve, SeiZleba iyos mindobilobiTi da sagiravno.

3. saordero fasiani qaRaldiT Sesrulebis miReba

samoqalaqo kodeqsis 925-e muxlis Tanaxmad: 1. Tanmimdevruli indosamentebiT dadasturebuli

saordero fasiani qaRaldis mflobels SeuZlia xelmowerili dokumentebis Cabarebis sanacvlod

moiTxovos gadaxda dapirebis Tanaxmad, garda im SemTxvevisa, roca mas amis uflebamosileba

ara aqvs; 2. gadaxda arauflebamosili pirisaTvis, romelmac Tavis ufleba daadastura

56


Tanmimdevruli indosamentis meSveobiT, aTavisuflebs movales, Tu igi ar moqmedebda ganzrax

an gaufrTxileblobiT.

amdenad, saordero fasiani qaRaldiT Sesrulebis misaRebad, iseve rogorc sawarmdgenlo

fasiani qaRaldebis SemTxvevaSi, aucilebelia dokumentis warmodgena, magram arasakmarisi, aseve,

saWiroa mflobelis identuroba dokumentSi dasaxelebul an bolo indosamentSi miTiTebul

pirTan. am ukanasknelis uflebamosileba indosamentTa uwyveti rigidan unda gamomdinareobdes

da im piris mimarT Sesruleba, romlis uflebac Tanmimdevruli indosamentebiT iqna dadasturebuli,

movales aTavisuflebs pasuxismgeblobisagan, Tundac, warmomdgeni aramarTlzomieri

mflobeli iyos. pasuxismgeblobisagan gaTavisufleba mxolod maSin SeiZleba, roca Semsrulebelma

ar icoda da arc SeiZleba scodnoda dokumentis mflobelis aramarTlzomierebis Sesaxeb.

`Cekis Sesaxeb~ kanonis 27-e muxlis mixedviT, gadamxdeli, romelic axdens gacemuli Cekis

ganaRdebas, valdebulia Seamowmos indosamentTa rigis Tanmimdevrobis siswore, magram ara indosantTa

xelmoweris namdviloba. amave kanonis me-7 muxlis mixedviT ki, Tu Ceks aqvs piris

xelmowera, romelsac ar SeuZlia ikisros Cekidan gamomdinare valdebulebebi an yalbi xelmowera,

es gavlenas ar iqoniebs sxva danarCeni xelmowerebis namdvilobaze. `Tamasuqis Sesaxeb~

kanonis me-5 muxlic adgens, Tu TamasuqSi aris im piris xelmowera, romelsac ufleba ara aqvs

ikisros Tamasuqidan gamomdinare valdebulebebi an yalbi xelmowera, es gavlenas ar axdens

danarCeni xelmoweris namdvilobaze. mocemul normebSi asaxuli danawesi fasiani qaRaldis sajaro

utyuarobisa da abstraqtulobis gamoxatulebaa da igi romanul-germanuli samarTlis

qveynebisTvisaa damaxasiaTebeli. anglo-amerikuli samarTlis qveynebSi Tamasuqi baTilad iTvleba,

Tu masze yalbia Tundac erTi indosamenti. 16

fasiani qaRaldis gacemiT iwyeba axali samarTlebrivi urTierToba, romelic mocemuli fasiani

qaRaldiT ganisazRvreba da ar aris kavSirSi im valdebulebasTan, im kauzasTan, romelic

safuZvels warmoadgenda dokumentis gacemisas. Tamasuqis Sesaxeb kanonis pirveli da 68-e muxlis

mixedviT, Tamasuqi unda Seicavdes upirobo valdebulebas miTiTebuli fuladi Tanxis gadaxdis

Sesaxeb. Sesabamisad, Tu magaliTad, erTi mxare gadascems nasyidobis safuZvelze, garkveul

saqonels meore mxares, es ukanaskneli ki, fulis sanacvlod gascems Tamasuqs, am ukanasknelSi

gamoxatul valdebulebasa (fuladi Tanxis gadaxda) da nasyidobidan gamomdinare valdebulebas

Soris ar warmoiSveba kauzaluri kavSiri. TamasuqiT gaTvaliswinebuli valdebulebis Sesruleba

ar SeiZleba sadavo gaxdes nasyidobidan gamomdinare valdebulebis arajerovan Sesrulebaze

miTiTebiT.

fasian qaRaldebis abstraqtuli xasiaTi ganapirobebs, garkveulwilad, maT sajaro utyuarobas.

movales fasiani qaRaldiT SeuZlia ganaxorcielos Sesruleba, Tu dokumenti dadgenili

formisaa da Seicavs yvela aucilebel rekvizits. movale endoba ra, dokumentis formalur

niSnebs ar aris valdebuli da arc aqvs ufleba, Seamowmos misi gacemis safuZveli. 17 aRniSnuli

fasiani qaRaldebis sajaro utyuarobis niSnis materialur mxares warmoadgens. procesualuri

Sinaarsi ki, Sesageblis SezRudvis principSi ganmoixateba. samoqalaqo kodeqsi Sesageblis Sez-

Rudvas iTvaliswinebs mxolod sawarmdgenlo da saordero fasiani qaRaldebis mimarT (samoqalaqo

kodeqsi 912-e, 914-e, 924-e muxli).

saordero fasiani qaRaldebis samarTlebrivi reJimis mniSvnelovani elementia pasuxismgeblobis

gansakuTrebuli wesi, rasac saordero fasiani qaRaldiT valdebulebis arajerovani Sesruleba

iwvevs da romelic saordero indosamentis sagarantio funqciaSi poulobs gamoxatulebas.

rogorc aRiniSna, kanonmdebloba indosaments sagarantio funqcias yvela fasiani qaRaldisaTvis

ar aniWebs. mas saCeko da saTamasuqo indosamenti moicavs. Sesabamisad, uari Cekis an Tamasuqis

ganaRdebaze moiTxovs kanoniT dadgenili wesiT gaformebas. Tamasuqis SemTxvevaSi, dgeba

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marTlmsajuleba

N2

da

kanoni

oficialuri aqti anu protesti. Cekis gaunaRdebloba ki, SeiZleba gaformdes rogorc protestiT,

ise gadamxdelis warweriT Cekze an gadamxdelis gancxadebiT, rom Ceki droulad iyo wardgenili,

magram ar ganaRdebula. fasiani qaRaldis gaunaRdeblobis Sesaxeb indosatma kanoniT

dadgenil vadaSi unda acnobos indosants _ dokumentis gamcems da Tavdebs. TiToeuli indosanti

Tavis mxriv, saTanado Setyobinebas ugzavnis Tavis winamorbeds. mxolod dadgenili vadis dacvis

Semdeg, fasiani qaRaldis mflobels SeuZlia dasvas sakiTxi dokumentiT valdebul pirTa

pasuxismgeblobis Sesaxeb. es ki niSnavs, rom mflobels ufleba aqvs fasiani qaRaldis ganaRdeba

mosTxovos rogorc yvela valdebul pirs erTad, ise TiToeul maTgans an ramdenimes, im Tanmimdevrobis

miuxedavad, romliTac maT valdebuleba ikisres (kanoni `Cekis Sesaxeb~ 35-e muxli;

kanoni `Tamasuqis Sesaxeb~ 41-e muxli). ukumoTxovnisas valdebul pirs waredgineba rogorc

fasiani qaRaldi, aseve protesti.

`Tamasuqis Sesaxeb~ kanonis 42-e muxlis Tanaxmad, kreditors (fasiani qaRaldis mflobels)

TamasuqiT ufleba aqvs sarCeliT moiTxovos: fasiani qaRaldiT gaTvaliswinebuli Tanxa, sargebeli

6%-is odenobiT dokumentis gasanaRdeblad wardgenis dRidan, mis mier gaweuli yvela

xarjis anazRaureba da sauravi Tamasuqis Tanxis 3%-is odenobiT, romelic gadaxdis vadidan

gamoiangariSeba. amave kanonis 43-e muxlis mixedviT, piri, romelmac gaanaRda Tamasuqi, ukumoTxovnis

wesiT iZens uflebas moiTxovos adrindeli indosantebisagan mis mier gadaxdili

mTeli Tanxa, gadaxdili Tanxis eqvsi procentis odenobiT sargebeli gadaxdis dRidan da gaweuli

yvela xarjis anazRaureba. ‘Cekis Sesaxeb~ kanonis 36-e muxlis mixedviT, kreditors CekiT ufleba

aqvs sarCeliT moiTxovos: CekiT pirdapir gaTvaliswinebuli Tanxa, sargebeli erovnuli bankis

mier dadgenili odenobiT Cekis gasanaRdeblad wardgenis dRidan, xarjebis anazRaureba, romelic

dakavSirebulia protestTan an sxva TanabarmniSvnelovan damowmebasTan. amave kanonis 37-

e muxli Cekis gamnaRdebel indosats uflebas aZlevs winamorbed indosants mosTxovos mis mier

ganaRdebuli yvela Tanxa, sargebeli eqvsi procentis odenobiT Cekis gasanaRdeblad wardgenis

dRidan da mis mier gaweuli xarjebis anazRaureba.

saordero fasiani qaRaldiT valdebul pirTa ukumoTxovnis wesiT pasuxismgeblobas kanonmdebeli

solidarul pasuxismgeblobas uwodebs (kanoni `Tamasuqis Sesaxeb~ 41-e muxli; kanoni

`Cekis Sesaxeb~ 35-e muxli), rac ar aris marTebuli. vinaidan, saordero fasiani qaRaldiT ukumoTxovnisas,

uflebamosil pirs SeuZlia moiTxovos mis mier gadaxdili yvela Tanxa, romelic

moicavs dokumentSi aRniSnul Tanxas, sargebels, xarjebs da sauravs; yoveli Semdgomi regresantis

gadasaxdeli Tanxa aRemateba Tavisi winamorbedis mier gadaxdils; samoqalaqo kodeqsis

473-e muxlis Tanaxmad ki, solidaruli pasuxismgeblobisas solidaruli movale valdebulebis

SesrulebiT ukumoTxovnis uflebas iZens danarCeni solidaruli movaleebisagan wilTa Tanabrobis

kvalobaze Tavisi wilis gamoklebiT, erT-erTis valauvalobis SemTxvevaSi ki, misi gadasaxdeli

Tanxa Tanazomierad nawildeba danarCen movaleebze, maT Soris, imazec, romelmac ukve

Seasrula valdebuleba. amdenad, saordero fasiani qaRaldiT valdebul pirTa ukumoTxovnis

wesiT pasuxismgebloba, ar warmoadgens solidarul pasuxismgeblobas da kanonmdeblis mier

cnebis, _ `solidaruli pasuxismgebloba~ gamoyeneba mocemul SemTxvevaSi ar SeiZleba saTanadod

iqnes miCneuli. am SemTxvevaSi, adgili aqvs mxolod fasiani qaRaldebis specialur samarTlebrivi

reJimis CarCoebSi arsebul pasuxismgeblobis wess _ saordero fasiani qaRaldiT valdebul

pirTa ukumoTxovnis wesiT pasuxismgeblobas.

saordero fasiani qaRaldis mflobels SeuZlia moTxovna wauyenos dokumentiT valdebul

yvela pirs, im Tanmimdevrobis miuxedavad, romliTac maT valdebuleba ikisres. Tu mflobeli

ukumoTxovnas wauyenebs ara uSualod Tavis indosants, aramed mis winamorbeds, am ukanasknels,

58


moTxovnis dakmayofilebis Semdeg, ar eqneba ukumoTxovnis ufleba im pirebis mimarT, romelic

kreditorma gamotova.

saCeko da saTamasuqo indosamentma SeiZleba dakargos sagarantio funqcia, Tu indosanti

akrZalavs mis Semdgom indosirebas. Tu indosantis daTqmis miuxedavad, fasiani qaRaldi mainc

iqneba indosirebuli, indosanti, romelmac daTqma gaakeTa, pasuxs aRar agebs regresis wesiT im

pirebis winaSe, vis sasargeblodac moxdeba Semdgomi indosireba (kanoni `Tamasuqis Sesaxeb~ me-

12 muxli; kanoni `Cekis Sesaxeb~ me-14 muxli). indosamentma sagarantio funqcia SeiZleba dakargos

Tu brunvisas igi xelaxla aRmoCndeba indosirebuli im pirze, romelic ukve iyo am fasiani

qaRaldiT indosanti. indosamentma SeiZleba sagarantio funqcia dakargos, maSinac Tu mas Semdegi

indosati gadaSlis.

indosireba mflobelis uflebaa da ara movaleoba da misi ganxorcieleba SeiZleba nebismier

dros. magram `Cekis Sesaxeb~ kanonis me-20 muxlis Tanaxmad, gadaxdis vadis dadgomis Semdeg,

Cekis indosireba warmoadgens dokumentis ubralo gadacemas, rac ukargavs indosaments sagarantio

funqcias. `Tamasuqis Sesaxeb~ kanonis me-16 muxli ki, adgens, rom: indosaments, romelic

gakeTebulia gadaxdis vadis dadgomisas, aqvs igive Sedegebi, rogorc gadaxdis vadis dadgomamde

gakeTebul indosaments; indosamenti, romelic gakeTebulia protestis Semdeg gadaxdis Sesaxeb

an protestisaTvis dawesebuli vadis gasvlis Semdeg, iTvleba Tamasuqis gadacemad. amdenad,

protestis an gadaxdis vadis dadgomis Semdeg, an protestisaTvis dadgenili vadis gasvlis

Semdeg gakeTebuli indosamentiT, uflebamosil pirs erTmeva ukumoTxovnis ufleba indosantebis

mimarT.

saordero fasiani qaRaldiT moTxovnaTa xandazmulobis vada, iseve rogorc sawarmdgenlo

qaRaldebis mimarT, Seadgens ocdaaT wels (samoqalaqo kodeqsi 297-e muxli), Tu specialuri

kanoniT sxva ram ar aris gaTvaliswinebuli. magaliTad, `Tamasuqis Sesaxeb~ kanonis 63-e muxlis

Tanaxmad, aqceptantis mimarT TamasuqTan dakavSirebuli moTxovnis xandazmulobis vadaa sami

weli, indosantebs SeuZliaT warudginon sarCeli erTmaneTs da Tamasuqis gamcems indosantis

mier Tamasuqis gadaxdis dRidan eqvsi Tvis ganmavlobaSi da sxv. xandazmulobis specialur vadebs

iTvaliswinebuls `Cekis Sesaxeb~ kanonic. aRsaniSnavia, `Tamasuqis Sesaxeb~ kanonis 64-e muxliT

gakeTebuli specialuri daTqma xandazmulobis vadis SeCerebis akrZalvis Sesaxeb.

saordero dokumentebi fasiani qaRaldebis samarTlis erT-erTi institutia. fasiani qaRaldebi

sabazro ekonomikis infrastruqturis mniSvnelovani elementia. maTi saSualebiT SeiZleba

sakredito SeTanxmebebis gaformeba, kapitalis mozidva, danazogebis gardaqmna investiciebad,

isini mniSvnelovan rols asruleben saangariSsworebo urTierTobebSic. fasiani qaRaldebis

samarTlis funqciaa „Seqmnas is samarTlebrivi CarCoebi, romelSic SesaZlebeli iqneba danazogebis

gardaqmna industriul investiciebad, vinaidan ekonomikasa da saxelmwifos Tavisi investiciebisaTvis

esaWiroeba kapitali.~ 18 amdenad, mniSvnelovania fasiani qaRaldebis samarTlis

ganviTareba misi momwesrigebeli kanondeblobis srulyofisa da normaTa swori ganmarteba-gamoyenebis

mizniT, rac SeuZlebelia misi institutebis Seswavlis gareSe. es Tavis mxriv, moiazrebs

am institutebis samarTlebrivi mowesrigebis aspeqtebis analizs istoriuli, kompleqsuri, SedarebiT

samarTlebrivi kvlevis meTodebis gamoyenebis, normatiuli masalisa da praqtikis ganzogadebis

safuZvelze.

59


marTlmsajuleba

N2

da

kanoni

SeniSvnebi:

1

Í. Íåðñåñîâ, Ïðåäñòàâèòåëüñòâî è öåííûå áóìàãè â ãðàæäàíñêîì ïðàâå,

Èçä-âî “Ñòàòóò”, Ì., 1998.

2

ix.: ivane javaxiSvili, Txzulebani Tormet tomad, tomi VI I , qarTuli

samarTlis istoria, Tbilisi, 1984, gv. 329-330; ivane javaxiSvili,

istoriis mizani, wyaroebi da meTodebi winaT da axla, tfilisi, 1926,

gv. 51-52.

3

ix.: Ì.Ì. Àãàðêîâ, Ó÷åíèå î öåííûõ áóìàãàõ, Ôèíàíñîâîå èçäàòåëüñòâî

ÍÊÔ, Ì., 1927, ñò. 3.

4

saqarTvelos kanonmdebloba fasiani qaRaldis erTian cnebas ar icnobs.

1998 wlis `fasiani qaRaldebis bazris Sesaxeb~ saqarTvelos

kanonis me-2 muxlis 32-e punqti gansazRvravs terminis `fasiani qa-

Raldi~ Sinaarss mxolod mocemuli kanonis miznebisa da Sinaarsidan

gamomdinare. kanonis regulirebis sfero ki, moicavs mxolod iseT

fasian qaRaldebs, romelic SeiZleba iyos sajaro SeTavazebis sagani

da Sesabamisad, dematerializebuli (p. 32. fasiani qaRaldi _ mimoqcevadi

finansuri instrumentebi da uflebebi, romelTa sajaro Se-

Tavazebac SesaZlebelia wilobrivi Tu sasesxo fasiani qaRldebis

saxiT, an romlebic SeiZleba gardaiqmnas aseTebad an romlebic arian

aseTebze xelmowerisa Tu aseTis SeZenis uflebis matareblebi, sainvesticio

xelSekrulebebi da fasian qaRaldebTan dakavSirebuli sxva

instrumentebi da uflebebi).

5

ix.: p. kluseni, sabirJo da fasiani qaRaldebis samarTali saqarTveloSi.

sakorporacio samarTlis ganviTarebis problemebi saqarTveloSi,

l. Wanturia, r. kniperi, j. zemleri, Tbilisi, 2000, gv. 142.

6

aramaterialuri fasiani qaRaldebis „samSoblod“ aSS iTvleba. maTi

warmoSoba 70-iani wlebSi amerikis birJebze Seqmnilma `qaRaldebis

bumma~ gamoiwvia. kontinenturi evropis samarTalSi dematerializaciis

sanqcireba pirvelad, safrangeTSi moxda 1982 wlis kanoniT `finansebis

Sesaxeb“, romlis sauZvelzec garkveuli fasiani qaRaldebi

iqna dematerializebuli eleqtronuli depozitarebis angariSebze

Canaweris saxiT. depozitarebis rolSi gamovidnen safinanso dawesebulebebi,

romlebsac angariSebi centralur depozitarSi

hqondaT (SICOVAM). Semdeg aramaterialuri fasiani qaRaldebi holandiis

kanonmdeblobamac aRiara _ 1992 wlis kanoniT `fasiani qa-

Raldebis bazris Sesaxeb~, 1995 wels, germaniis kanonma `fasiani qa-

Raldebis Senaxvisa da SeZenis Sesaxeb~ gaiTvaliswina materialuri

dokumentebis nacvlad, globaluri sertifikatebis gamoSvebis SesaZlebloba.

mogvianebiT, msoflioSi mimdinare procesebi dsT-s qveynebis

kanonmdeblobaSic aisaxa. ix.: Uniform Commercial Code. Official

text-1990 with comments. The American Law Institute National Conference

of Comissioners on Uniform State Laws. 12-H ed-West Publishing lo. 1991,

p.711-713; Æàìåí Ñ.,.Ëàêóð Ë., Òîðãîâîå ïðàâî, Ó÷åáíîå ïîñîáèå, Ïåð.

ì ôð. Ì. Ìåæäóíàðîäíûå îòíîøåíèÿ, 1993, ñ.117; Hotman P, Nederveen

A, Guide to the Regulation of securities Market in the Netherlands. A

Commentary on the Securities Market Actof 1992 and the Investment

Undertakings Act of 1990. Amsterdam, 1994, p.15; Ãðàæäàíñêèé êîäåêñ

ÐÔ, ñò. 149; Ãðàæäàíñêèé êîäåêñ Àçåðáàéäæàíñêîé Ðåñïóáëèêè ñò. 996;

Ãðàæäàíñêèé êîäåêñ ðåñïóáëèêè Àðìåíèÿ, ñò. 152 da sxv.

7

ix.: BGB &783-808, Ãåðìàíñêîå ïðàâî, ×àñòü I Ãðàæäàíñêîå óëîæåíèå,

Ì., 2006, ñò.182-187; Ãðàæäàíñêîå è òîðãîâîå ïðàâî çàðóáåæíûõ ñòðàí,

Ïîä ðåä. Â.Â. Áåçáàõà, Â.Ê. Ïó÷èíñêîãî, Ì., 2007. fasiani qaRaldebis

sakanonmdeblo klasifikacias sawarmdgenlo, saordero da saxelobiT

fasian qaRaldebad iTvaliswinebs postsabWouri saxelmwifoebis

60


kanonmdeblobac, rogoricaa magaliTad, latviis, ruseTis, somxeTis,

azerbaijanis samoqalaqo kodeqsebi, litvis da latviis kanonebi

`fasiani qaRalebis Sesaxeb~. ix.: Ãðàæäàíñêèé êîäåêñ ÐÔ îò 21 îêòÿáðÿ,

1994 ãîäà, ñò. 145; Ãðàæäàíñêèé êîäåêñ Ðåñïóáëèêè Àðìåíèÿ, îò 5 ìàÿ,

1998 ãîäà, ñò. 148; Ãðàæäàíñêèé êîäåêñ Àçåðáàéäæàíñêîé Ðåñïóáëèêè

ñïåöèàëüíàÿ ÷àñòü, îò 28 äåêàáðÿ, 1999 ãîäà, ñò. 989, 990, 991. angloamerikuli,

iaponiis samarTali icnobs fasiani qaRaldebis klasifikacias

sainvesticio, savaWro da saqonelganmkargav dokumentebad.

amgvari dayofis safuZvels fasiani qaRaldebis ekonomikuri mizani

ufro warmoadgens, vidre maTi iuridiuli buneba. ix.: Åäèíîîáðàçíûé

òîðãîâûé êîäåêñ. Îôôèöèàëüíûé òåêñò, 1990; Ìåæäóíàðîäûé öåíòð

ôèíàíñîãî-ýêîíîìè÷åñêîãî ðàçâèòèÿ, 1996, Ìîñêâà, Hideki K,

Developmentin Japanes Securrities Regulation: An Overviw. The International

Lawyer, 1995, p.59.

8

fasiani qaRaldebis klasifikaciis Sesaxeb ix.: e. zarnaZe, fasiani qa-

Raldebis cneba da maTi klasifikacia, profesor zurab axvledianis

xsovnisadmi miZRvnili krebuli, gamomcemloba `meridiani~, Tb., 2004,

gv. 95-105.

9

ix.: Øåðøåíåâè÷ Ã.Ô., Êóðñ òîðãîâîãî ïðàâà, ò. Èçä-âî Áðàòüåâ

Áàøìàêîâûõ, 1908, ñò. 2, 62-67.

10

ix.: Àãàðêîâ Ì.Ì., Ó÷åíèå î öåííûõ áóìàãàõ, ñò. 112.

11

D. Larry Soderguist, Securiries regulation. third Editor 2004, Uniform

Commercial Code, Official text-1990 with comments, The American Law

Institute National Conference of Comissioners on Uniform State Laws,

12-H ed-West Publishing lo, 1991.

12

qarTul iuridiul literaturaSi gamoTqmul iqna mosazreba ipo-

Tekis mowmobis sawarmdgenlo fasian qaRaldad ganxilvis Sesaxeb.

ix.: z. WeWelaSvili, sanivTo samarTali, Tbilisi, 2009, gv. 430.

13

D. Larry Soderguist, Securiries regulation, third Editor 2004; Àáðàìîâà

Å., Èðîòå÷íûè ñåðòèôèêàò, Õîçÿéñòâî è ïðàâî, 2008, ¹4, ñò. 63-73.

14

savaWro fasiani qaRaldebi axlos dgas amerikuli samarTlisTvis

cnobili dokumentebis iseT saxesTan, rogoricaa "negotiable instruments".

aSS-s erTgvarovani savaWro kodeqsis mixedviT, sabrunavi

dokumenti ("negotiable instrument") niSnavs upirobo dapirebas an brZanebas

garkveuli fuladi Tanxis gadaxdis Sesaxeb, procentebiT an

uamisod, an masSi miTiTebuli sxva danaricxebiT (par. 3-104). amave

kodeqsis mixedviT, sabrunav dokuments warmoadgens note (martivi

Tamasuqi), draft (gadasapirebeli Tamasuqi) da cashier’s check (sabanko

Ceki), teller check (salaros Ceki), traveler check (turistuli Ceki) da

sxv. H.R.Corley, Fundaments of Business Len, p. 222-223; Åäèíîîáðàçíûé

òîðãîâûé êîäåêñ, ñò. 3-104.

15

saqarTveloSi moqmedi 1902 wlis Tamasuqis wesdeba, sablanko da saxelobiT

indosamentebs `saxelian da usaxelo gardasacems~ uwodebda.

ix.: Tamasuqis wesdeba, sarCeviTa da rusul da sxva ucxo qveynis

saTamasuqo terminTa ganmartebiT, Targmnili da Sedgenili a. m.

axnazarovis mier, tfilisi, 1919 w.

16

Ãðàæäàíñêîå è òîðãîâîå ïðàâî çàðóáåæíûõ ñòðàí. Ïîä ðåä. Â.Â. Áåçáàõà,

Â.Ê. Ïó÷èíñêîãî, Âèøíåâñêèé À.À., Âåêñåëüíîå ïðàâî, Èçä-âî ÁÅÊ,

Ì., 2006.

17

ix.: Àãàðêîâ Ì.Ì., Ó÷åíèå î öåííûõ áóìàãàõ, ñò. 33, 74; Êðàøåííèêîâ

Å.À. Îáûêíîâåííûå öåííûå áóìàãè, Õîçÿèñòâî è ïðàâî, 1996. ¹12. ñò.67.

18

ix.: p. kluseni, sabirJo da fasiani qaRaldebis samarTali saqarTveloSi,

sakorporacio samarTlis ganviTarebis problemebi saqarTveloSi,

2000, gv. 131.

61


marTlmsajuleba

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kanoni

ORDER BONDS AND

KEY ASPECTS OF

LEGAL REGULATION

EKA ZARNADZE

Judge of the Gori Regional Court, Doctor of Law Associate Professor

Private Law Direction Law School of the Tbilisi State University

Order documents represent one of institutions of the securities law. Securities

represent an important element of the market economy infrastructure:

with them it is possible to enter into the credit agreement, attract capital,

transform savings into investment; they play important role settlement of

accounts. Importance of securities law shall not be underestimated in legal

and economic reforms, although the limited number of scientific research

shall be mentioned as well. The paper below is dedicated to some aspects of

legal regulation of order bonds (securities). Based on generalization of legislation

and analysis of juridical literature, the concept of order securities is

defined; namely, it is explained as trade and commodity disposal document,

by presentation of which the authorised by continuous order of endorsement

person or the person named in the order document itself, shall

be able to place a demand. The paper examines key issues related to transfer

or receipt of fulfilment of order securities. The latter is viewed as literal

and formal, public credibility sign of order bonds and is discussed as the

abstract principle. The opinion exists about granting the guarantee function

to endorsement of the order bond by legislation as well impossibility to use

the term “solidary responsibility” to responsibility for retrospective demand

based on the securities, etc. In addition, the idea is expressed on legal

reinforcement (Civil Code) of the concept that only the document recognized

by the law shall be considered as securities.

Function of the securities law is “to create legal framework, which will

allow for transformation of savings into industrial investments, since

62


economy and the state require capital for their investments”1. Therefore, legal development of securities is

important for the purpose of refining legislation and correct interpretation and use of norms, which is

impossible without proper study of its institutions; it, in its turn, implies analysis of legal refinement aspects

based on historical, complex, comparative legal research methods and generalization of practice.

FOOTNOTES

1

see, Klausen, Stock exchange and Securities Law in Georgia. Problems of

development of corporate law in Georgia, 2000, 131

63


marTlmsajuleba

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kanoni

suspenziuri efeqti

administraciul

saproceso

samarTalSi

ciala Cqareuli

sdasu, iuridiuli fakultetis sruli profesori

gasaCivrebuli individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi

aqtis moqmedebis kanonismieri SeCerebis sakiTxi metad aqtualuria,

rac misi TaviseburebebiTaa gamowveuli. sarCelis Setana

iuridiuli faqtia, romlis safuZvelze warmoiSoba konkretuli

administraciul-samarTlebrivi urTierToba mosarCelesa

da sarCelis ganmxilvel sasamarTlos Soris. sarCeli SeiZleba

iyos rogorc individualuri, ise koleqtiuri. saqarTvelos

administraciuli saproceso kodeqsis 29-e muxlis pirvel

nawilSi mocemulia zogadi definicia, rom sasamarTlos mier

sarCelis warmoebaSi miReba aCerebs gasaCivrebuli individualuri

administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis moqmedebas. amasTan,

sarCeli miRebulad iTvleba mxolod mas Semdeg, rodesac sasar-

Celo gancxadebas sasamarTlo miiRebs warmoebaSi. ese igi, sar-

Celis warmoebaSi miRebis ganCinebis gamotaniT SeCerdeba individualuri

administraciulsamarTlebrivi aqtis moqmedeba da

ara mxolod sasarCelo gancxadebis sasamarTlos kancelariaSi

wardgeniT. sasarCelo moTxovna SeiZleba iyos individualuri

administraciulsamarTlebrivi aqtis baTilad cnoba, Zaladakargulad

gamocxadeba an ararad aRiareba. es moTxovna SeiZleba

exebodes ara mTlianad gasaCivrebul aqts, aramed mxolod aqtis

nawilsac. individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis

baTilobis, Zaladakargulad cnobisa da arara aqtad aRiarebis

safuZvlebi mocemulia zogadi administraciuli kodeqsis me-

60, me-60 1 da 61-e muxlebSi. administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqti

64


aTilad, Zaladakargulad an ararad gamocxaddeba ara mxolod misi gasaCivrebis Sedegad, aramed

TavisTavad masSi arsebuli defeqtebis an ukanonobis gamo.

2009 wlis 4 dekembers, administraciul saproceso kodeqsSi ganxorcielebuli cvlilebis

Sedegad, gauqmda is alternatiuli saSualeba, romliTac moqalaqeebs sruli ufleba hqondaT

individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis gauqmebis moTxovniT sakuTari Sexedulebisamebr

miemarTaT administraciuli organosadmi an sasamarTlosaTvis. Tumca, aqve davkonkretdebiT,

rom es `alternativa~ srulebiTac ar gaxldaT identuri im TvalsazrisiT, rom

piri, romelic pirdapir sasamarTlos mimarTavda saxelmwifo baJisagan ar Tavisufldeboda.

amdenad, mosarCele mxaris `Tavisufali~ arCevani mainc garkveulwilad SezRuduli iyo. zemoaRniSnuli

cvlilebisa da administraciuli saproceso kodeqsis me-2 muxlis me-5 nawilis Tanaxmad,

sasamarTlo ar miiRebs administraciul sarCels, Tu mosarCeles ara aqvs gamoyenebuli

zogadi administraciuli kodeqsiT dadgenili administraciuli saCivris erTjeradad wardgenis

SesaZlebloba. aRniSnuli sakiTxisadmi analogiuri midgomaa germanul administraciul samar-

TalSic. vfiqrobT, rom es erTi mxriv, gantvirTavs sasamarTloebs, meore mxriv, administraciul

organoebs miscems SesaZleblobas gamoasworon daSvebuli Secdomebi sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebis

gareSec da aRadginon kanoniereba mmarTvelobis erTian sistemaSi. isic sayuradReboa,

rom administraciul organos gancxadebisa da saCivris garda, sakuTari iniciativiTac SeuZlia

administraciuli warmoebis dawyeba individualuri administraciulsamarTlebrivi aqtis gauqmebis

Tu masSi cvlilebis Setanis mizniT. sasamarTlo ki, yovelive amas mxolod dainteresebuli

mxaris mier sarCelis SetaniT ganaxorcielebs. administraciuli procesis inkviziciurobidan

gamomdinare, mosamarTlis aqtiuri roli calsaxad saxezea, gansxvavebiT samoqalaqo samar-

Talwarmoebisagan, sadac mosamarTle arbitris rolSia da Semofarglulia mxareTa mier mopovebuli

mtkicebulebebiTa da maTi poziciebiT. administraciul procesSi sasamarTlo uflebamosilia

TviTon, sakuTari iniciativiTac moipovos mtkicebulebebi. frangi administrativisti

gui brebani miiCnevs, rom administraciuli mosamarTle Setanili gancxadebisa Tu saCivris

SinaarsiT unda Semoifarglos da dava gadawyvitos mxolod momCivnis argumentaciis farglebSi. 1

vfiqrobT, aseTi midgoma kategoriulia da igi SeiZleba samoqalaqo procesisaTvis misaRebi

iyos. xolo administraciuli saqmis warmoebis Taviseburebidan gamomdinare, administraciuli

mosamarTle ara mxolod uflebamosilia, aramed valdebulicaa ufro Rrmad Caswvdes saxelmwifo

mmarTvelobis sferoSi momxdari darRvevis arss, vinaidan saqme gvaqvs kanonierebis

aRdgenasTan swored mmarTvelobis sferoSi. administraciuli procesis inkviziciurobis

principidan gamomdinare, sasamarTlo uflebamosilia sakuTari iniciativiT moipovos saqmis

gadasawyvetad saWiro mtkicebulebebi. marTalia, sasamarTlos sakuTari iniciativiT, anu uflebamosili

subieqtis sarCelisa Tu gancxadebis gareSe, ar SeuZlia wamoiwyos administraciuli

samarTalwarmoeba, magram Tu aseTi ukve arsebobs, kanoniT gaTvaliswinebul SemTxvevaSi, SeuZlia

aqtiuri daxmareba gauwios mxares sasarCelo moTxovnis formulirebis CamoyalibebaSi (Ziri-

Tadad, amis motivi procesis daCqarebaa) da aRadginos samarTlianoba, kanoniereba.

amave kodeqsis 29-e muxlis 1-li nawili imperatiulad gansazRvravs, rom sasamarTlos mier

sarCelis warmoebaSi miReba avtomaturad aCerebs gasaCivrebuli individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi

aqtis moqmedebas. am samarTlebrivi normis imperatiuli xasiaTis miuxedavad,

praqtikaSi arc Tu ise iSviaTia SemTxvevebi, rodesac sasamarTloebi mis sxvagvar ganmartebebs

gvaZleven. yuradsaRebia, rom suspenziuri efeqti gasaCivrebuli aqtis moqmedebis kanonismierad

SeCerebaSi vlindeba. ufro gasagebad, sarCelis warmoebaSi miReba avtomaturad iwvevs

gasaCivrebuli individualuri administraciulsamarTlebrivi aqtis moqmedebis SeCerebas

ise, rom amis Taobaze arc mxare Suamdgomlobs da arc sasamarTlo msjelobs (savaldebulo

65


marTlmsajuleba

N2

da

kanoni

wesiT ar iRebs dasabuTebul ganCinebas). sarCelis warmoebaSi miRebiT, individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi

aqtis kanonismieri, avtomaturi SeCerebis dros, gasaCivrebuli aqtis

moqmedeba da misiT gamowveuli yvela samarTlebrivi Sedegi gadaideba sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebis

kanonier ZalaSi Sesvlamde. am periodis ganmavlobaSi mosarCeles ubrundeba is samarTlebrivi

da faqtobrivi mdgomareoba, romelic sadavo administraciuli aqtis gamocemamde

arsebobda. mosamarTleTa nawili, ganCinebaSi aqtis moqmedebis SeCerebis Sesaxeb saerTod ar

uTiTebs. es imdenad calsaxaa da saqmis ganmxilvel mosamarTleTa nebaze araa damokidebuli,

rom aqtis moqmedebis SeCerebis damatebiT aRniSvnas azri ekargeba. nawili ki, aseT aRniSvnas

akeTebs, Tumca kanoniT aseTi valdebuleba araa gawerili. Cveni azriT, arcerTi ar warmoadgens

Secdomas. orive forma samarTlebrivad gamarTlebulia. gaugebaria iseTi SemTxvevebi, rodesac

sasamarTlos gamoaqvs ganCineba administraciuli sarCelis warmoebaSi miRebis Taobaze, magram

gasaCivrebuli individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis moqmedebas ar aCerebs, Tanac

sasamarTlo ar asabuTebs aRniSnuls da arc raime samarTlebriv normaze miuTiTebs da rac

mTavaria, saxeze araa igive 29-e muxlis meore nawiliT gaTvaliswinebuli SemTxvevebi. magaliTad,

Tbilisis saqalaqo sasamarTlos administraciul saqmeTa kolegiam 2006 wlis 14 agvistos

ganCinebiT (saqme #3/3590), administraciuli sarCeli individualuri administraciul-samar-

Tlebrivi aqtis baTilad cnobisa da misi moqmedebis SeCerebis moTxovniT warmoebaSi iqna miRebuli,

magram gasaCivrebuli individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis moqmedeba ar

iqna SeCerebuli. aseTi midgoma arasworia, ewinaaRmdegeba kanonis moTxovnas. am konkretul

SemTxvevaSi, sasarCelo gancxadebiT moTxovnili iyo gasaCivrebuli individualuri administraciul

samarTlebrivi aqtis moqmedeba. migvaCnia, rom aseTi moTxovnac rom ar yofiliyo,

sasamarTlo valdebuli iyo SeeCerebina gasaCivrebuli administraciuli aqti, radgan es kanonis

moTxovnaa, romelic srulebiTac araa damokidebuli arc mxaris da arc sasamarTlos survilze.

garda amisa, gasaCivrebul ganCinebas saerTod ar gaaCnda dasabuTeba (faqtobrivad, samotivacio

nawili), Tu ra samarTlebriv safuZvlebze dayrdnobiT ambobda uars administraciuli aqtis

moqmedebis SeCerebaze. calsaxad, sasamarTlos mier arasworad iqna gagebuli (ganmartebuls ver

davarqmevT, vinaidan aseTi saerTod ar yofila) administraciuli saproceso kodeqsis 29-e

muxlis 1-li nawili. samoqalaqo saproceso kodeqsis 285-e muxlis `e~ punqtis Tanaxmad,

ganCinebis SinaarsSi unda aRiniSnos `motivebi, romlebiTac sasamarTlo mivida Tavis daskvnamde

da kanonebi, romlebiTac sasamarTlo xelmZRvanelobda.~ am kuTxiTac, Tbilisis saqalaqo sasamarTlos

mier miRebul ganCinebaSi ar iyo kanonis moTxovnebi daculi. swored amitomac, igi ra

Tqma unda, gaauqma Tbilisis saapelacio sasamarTlom 2006 wlis 21 agvistos ganCinebiT da SeaCera

gasaCivrebuli aqtis moqmedeba (saqme #3b-2795-06). saapelacio sasamarTlom ganmarta: vinaidan

Tbilisis saqalaqo sasamarTlom warmoebaSi miiRo administraciuli sarCeli, es niSnavs, rom

administraciuli saproceso kodeqsis 29-e muxlis 1-li nawilis Tanaxmad, gasaCivrebuli individualuri

administraciulsamarTlebrivi aqtis moqmedeba avtomaturad, saqmis saboloo

ganxilvamde SeCerebulia. agreTve gasaTvaliswinebelia, rom gansaxilvel SemTxvevaSi, saxeze

araa imave muxlis me-2 nawilSi CamoTvlili garemoebebi. ufro metic, quTaisis saqalaqo sasamarTlom

gasaCivrebuli aqtis kanonismieri SeCereba procesualurad absoluturad gaaigiva

samoqalaqo samarTalwarmoebaSi damkvidrebuli sarCelis uzrunvelyofis RonisZiebasTan. magaliTad,

quTaisis saqalaqo sasamarTlos 2011 wlis 05 ianvris ganCineba (saqme #3/3-10). aRniSnuli

exeba Semdeg garemoebas: mosarCelem mimarTa sasamarTlos administraciuli sarCeliT

da garda administraciuli organos mier miRebuli gadawyvetilebis (individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi

aqtis) baTilobisa, agreTve, moiTxova gasaCivrebuli individualuri

administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis SeCereba administraciuli saproceso kodeqsis 29-e

66


muxlis 1-li nawilis Tanaxmad. rogorc ukve aRvniSneT, mxaris moTxovnis miuxedavad (anu, aseTi

moTxovna romc ar yofiliyo), sasamarTlos mier sarCelis warmoebaSi miReba, gasaCivrebuli

aqtis kanonismier SeCerebas iwvevs. Tumca, migvaCnia, rom aseTi moTxovna Secdoma araa da igi

kidev ufro cxadhyofs mosarCelis samarTlebriv interess. sasamarTlom CaTvala, rom `gaugebaria

aseTi moTxovna~, vinaidan igi aris sarCelis uzrunvelyofa, romelic sasarCelo moTxovnis

grafaSi ar unda iyos Camoyalibebuli. aseve, savaldebuloa samoqalaqo saproceso kodeqsis

39-e muxlis pirveli nawilis `e~ qvepunqtis Tanaxmad, saxelmwifo baJis gadaxda sarCelis uzrunvelyofisaTvis.

migvaCnia, rom sasamarTlos mier aRreul iqna ori sruliad sxvadasxva cneba.

faqtia, rom calsaxad, saqme gvaqvs 29-e muxlis pirveli nawiliT gaTvaliswinebul suspenziur

efeqtTan (roca gasaCivreba kanonismierad aCerebs gasaCivrebuli aqtis moqmedebas) da ara

sarCelis uzrunvelyofis RonisZiebasTan. vfiqrobT, rom amgvari midgoma ar Seesabameba kanonis

moTxovnebs da piriqiT, xels uwyobs araswori sasamarTlo praqtikis damkvidrebas. TiTqmis

analogiuri ganCineba iqna miRebuli quTaisis saqalaqo sasamarTlos mier, 2009 wlis 10 ivniss

(saqme #3/101). aqac sasamarTlo gasaCivrebuli individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi

aqtis moqmedebis SeCerebas miiCnevs mxaris Suamdgomlobad, Tumca, iqve apelirebs mosarCelis

mier miTiTebul samarTlebriv safuZvelze _ administraciuli saproceso kodeqsis 29-e muxlis

pirvel nawilze. marTalia, orive SemTxvevaSi faqtobrivad erTi da igive Sedegi dgeba, magram

samarTlebrivad gansxvavebul mdgomareobasTan gvaqvs saqme. igive 29-e muxlis mexuTe nawili

mxares saSualebas aZlevs sarCelis sasamarTloSi Setanamde aRZras Suamdgomloba individualuri

administraciulsamarTlebrivi aqtis moqmedebis SeCerebis Sesaxeb. samoqalaqo saproceso

samarTalSi amas sarCelis uzrunvelyofa hqvia. aRniSnulic, swored administraciuli sarCelis

uzrunvelyofis saSualebaa. magram orive maTgani calsaxad dakavSirebulia mxaris Suamdgomlobasa

da am Suamdgomlobis dasabuTebaze, rac radikalurad gansxvavdeba suspenziuri efeqtisagan.

vinaidan, am dros gasaCivrebul individualur administraciulsamarTlebrivi aqtis

moqmedebas kanoni aCerebs _ mxaris Suamdgomlobisa Tu mosamarTlis gadawyvetilebisagan damoukideblad,

avtomatur reJimSi. sayuradReboa, rom zemoaRniSnul SemTxvevaSi, sarCeli ukve

Setanili iyo, rac TavisTavad gamoricxavda sarCelis aRZvramde individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi

aqtis moqmedebis SeCerebis moTxovnis SuamdgomlobiT mimarTvis SesaZleblobas.

gasagebia, rom saqarTveloSi precedentuli samarTali ar arsebobs, magram isic naTelia,

rom samoqalaqo saproceso kodeqsis 391-e muxlis me-5 nawilis Tanaxmad, sakasacio saCivari

dasaSvebia, Tu saqme mniSvnelovania erTgvarovani sasamarTlo praqtikis CamoyalibebisaTvis

da Tu gasaCivrebuli gadawyvetileba gansxvavdeba analogiuri kategoriis saqmeebze uzenaesi

sasamarTlos mier damkvidrebuli sasamarTlo praqtikisagan. isic gasaTvaliswinebelia, rom

praqtikaSi, sasamarTlo samarTalwarmoebaSi rogorc mxareebi apelireben uzenaesi sasamarTlos

mier miRebul gadawyvetilebebze, aseve sasamarTloebic sakuTar gadawyvetilebebs swored uzenaesi

sasamarTlos rekomendaciebze dayrdnobiT iReben. Cveni azriT, suspenziur efeqtTan dakavSirebiT,

drouli iqneba uzenaesi sasamarTlos rekomendaciebi, raTa Camoyalibdes erTgvarovani

sasamarTlo praqtika da aRmoifxvras sasamarTloebis mier sakuTari Sexedulebisamebr

kanonis moTxovnaTa sxvadasxvagvari interpretacia, rac aSkarad saxezea, Tundac zemoT

motanili magaliTebis mixedviT.

bunebrivia, kanonmdebelma sajaro interesebis dacis gansakuTrebuli mniSvnelobac gaiTvaliswina

da swored amitomac administraciuli saproceso kodeqsis 29-e muxlis meore nawiliT

gansazRvra is eqvsi SemTxveva, rodesac sasamarTlos mier sarCelis warmoebaSi miReba avtomaturad

ar SeaCerebs gasaCivrebuli individualuri administraciul samarTlebrivi aqtis moqmedebas.

aseve, individualuri administraciul samarTlebrivi aqtis moqmedebis SeCereba

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marTlmsajuleba

N2

da

kanoni

dauSvebelia, Tu es pirdapir kanoniTaa dadgenili. magaliTad, saqarTvelos kanonis `licenziebisa

da nebarTvebis Sesaxeb~ 23-e muxlis Tanaxmad, am tipis individualuri administraciulsamarTlebrivi

aqtebis gasaCivreba ar iwvevs maT SeCerebas. Tumca, kodeqsi mxares mainc aZlevs

saSualebas (uflebas), rom zemoaRniSnuli garemoebebis arsebobisasac ki, mimarTos sasamarTlos

individualuri administraciulsamarTlebrivi aqtis SeCerebis moTxovniT. calsaxaa, rom sasamarTlo

SeaCerebs gasaCivrebuli individualuri administraciulsamarTlebrivi aqtis moqmedebas

mxolod mxaris moTxovniT. es ar unda gavigoT, TiTqos sasamarTlos akisria valdebuleba

moTxovnisTanave daeTanxmos mxares. sasamarTlo Seamowmebs moTxovnisa Tu Suamdgomlobis arss,

mis dasabuTebulobas, kanonierebas da ise miiRebs gadawyvetilebas, SeaCeros Tu ara gasaCivrebuli

individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis moqmedeba. am SemTxvevaSi, mxaris

mier moTxovnis dayeneba aucilebelia, rac niSnavs, rom Tu ara mxaris moTxovna, gasaCivrebuli

individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis moqmedeba ar SeCerdeba avtomaturad da

arc sasamarTlos iniciativiT. aRniSnuli ki, radikalurad gansxvavdeba suspenziuri efeqtisagan.

mniSvnelovania, rom mxares kanonmdebloba SesaZleblobas aZlevs mimarTos dasabuTebuli

SuamdgomlobiT sasamarTlos da moiTxovos amave muxlis pirveli nawiliT, anu suspenziuri

efeqtiT SeCerebuli individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis SeCerebis gauqmeba.

anu, sasamarTlo Tavisi gadawyvetilebiT auqmebs kanoniT dadgenili individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi

aqtis suspenziur SeCerebas. kanonis am axal redaqcias iuristTa nawili

saerTod ar eTanxmeba. rasac viziarebT da migvaCnia, rom meoTxe nawili principSi, auqmebs pirvel

nawils. miuxedavad amisa, swored es punqti kidev ufro sarwmunos xdis Cvens mosazrebas, rom 29-

e muxlis pirveli nawiliT imperatiulad dadgenilia gasaCivrebis suspenziuri efeqti da individualuri

administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis moqmedebis SeCereba-arSeCerebis sakiTxi sasamarTlos

gadasawyveti ver iqneba _ igi ukve kanonma SeaCera. iTvaliswinebs ra, suspenziur efeqts

kanonmdebeli, igi mxares aZlevs saSualebas kanonismierad SeCerebuli individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi

aqtis moqmedebis SeCerebis gauqmeba moiTxovos (ra Tqma unda, aseTi

interesis arsebobisas). ase rom ar yofiliyo, individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi

aqtis moqmedebis SeCerebis gauqmebis SesaZleblobis daSveba saerTod azrs dakargavda.

gasaCivrebis suspenziur efeqtTan araa dakavSirebuli, magram zogierT gamonaklis SemTxvevebSi,

sasamarTlo gansaxilvel saqmes warmoebiT aCerebs ise, rom kanonis moTxovnis radikalurad

gansxvavebul interpretacias gvaZlevs. magaliTad, gardabnis raionulma sasamarTlom 2010

wlis 04 maiss miiRo ganCineba (saqme #2-50-10), saqmiswarmoebis SeCerebis Taobaze, vidre igive

davas administraciuli organo ar ganixilavda. sayuradReboa is garemoebac, rom saqmiswarmoebis

SeCerebis moTxovnis Taobaze Suamdgomloba mxarem daayena dagvianebiT, sasamarTlos mTavar

sxdomaze, paeqrobis stadiaze. bunebrivia, aRniSnuliT dairRva samoqalaqo saproceso kodeqsis

215-e muxlis moTxovnebi. cnobisaTvis, Tavisi Sinaarsidan gamomdinare, dava gaxldaT saxelSekrulebo

_ samoqalaqo, swored amgvarad miiRo sarCeli warmoebaSi sasamarTlom. calke gansaxilveli

sakiTxia administraciuli organos qmedebis kanoniereba (razec aq detalurad ar SevCerdebiT),

romelsac zogadi administraciuli kodeqsis 182-e muxlis 1-li nawilis `b~ punqtis Tanaxmad,

ekrZaleba administraciuli saCivris ganxilva, Tu sasamarTlos warmoebaSia saqme davaze

imave mxareebs Soris, imave saganze da imave safuZvliT, rasac adgili hqonda am konkretul

SemTxvevaSi. samoqalaqo saproceso kodeqsis 279-e muxli CamoTvlis SemTxvevebs, ra drosac sasamarTlo

valdebulia SeaCeros saqmiswarmoeba, xolo imave kodeqsis 280-e muxlSi ganxilulia

is SemTxvevebi, ra drosac sasamarTlo uflebamosilia SeaCeros saqmiswarmoeba. arcerT CamoTvlil

garemoebas am konkretul SemTxvevaSi, ar hqonia adgili. miT umetes, gaurkvevelia

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aionuli sasamarTlos pozicia, roca man SesagebelSi dafiqsirebul igive Suamdgomlobis

(saqmis warmoebis SeCerebaze) dakmayofilebaze uari ganacxada, xolo Semdgom, ukve (Tanac, mTavar

sxdomaze) daakmayofila Suamdgomloba saqmis warmoebis SeCerebis Taobaze. ufro metic,

Tbilisis saapelacio sasamarTlom gardabnis raionuli sasamarTlos zemoaRniSnuli gasaCivrebuli

ganCineba sruliad bundovani ganmartebebiT datova ZalaSi (31.01.11 saqme #2b/1746-10).

kerZod, man miiCnia, vinaidan mopasuxe mxarem administraciul organos gancxadebiT mimarTa

sasamarTlos mTavar sxdomamde, amitom saqmis warmoebis SeCerebis safuZvelic swored am dros

dadga. saintereso midgomaa. mosarCele mxare zustad imas xdis sadavod, rom dagvianebiT dayenebuli

Suamdgomloba ara Tu dakmayofilebuli, ganxilulic ki, ar unda iyos. Semdeg, Tbilisis

saapelacio sasamarTlo 2011 wlis 31 ianvris ganCinebaSi apelirebs samoqalaqo saproceso

kodeqsis 279-e muxlis `d~ punqtis im variantze, romelic jer kidev 2010 wlis 24 seqtembridanaa

gauqmebuli (axali redaqcia 1-li oqtombridan Sevida ZalaSi). esec rom ara, Cven ver dave-

TanxmebiT saapelacio sasamarTlos mosazrebas, sadac igi administraciul warmoebas administraciul

samarTalwarmoebasTan aigivebs. calsaxaa, rom samoqalaqo saproceso kodeqsis 106-e

muxli preiudiciulad dadgenil faqtebad miiCnevs sasamarTlos kanonier ZalaSi Sesul gadawyvetilebas,

Tanac mxolod samoqalaqo saqmeze (01.10.10-dan) da im daTqmiT, rom erTi da igive

mxareebi unda iRebdnen orive saqmeSi monawileobas. motanil magaliTSi, arc es garemoeba ar iyo

saxeze. saproceso kodeqsSi miTiTebuli muxlebi imperatiuli xasiaTisaa da sasamarTlos SexedulebiT

ganvrcobas ar eqvemdebareba.

davubrundeT administraciul saproceso samarTalSi arsebul suspenziur efeqts. administraciuli

sasamarTlo valdebulia sami dRis vadaSi miiRos gadawyvetileba Suamdgomlobis

dakmayofilebis (an ar dakmayofilebis) Taobaze. gansxvavebiT samoqalaqo procesisagan, sadac

ganxilva da gadawyveta xdeba dauyovnebliv. bunebrivia, sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebiT SeiZleba

dakmayofildes mxaris Suamdgomloba an uari eTqvas mas. miRebuli gadawyvetileba savaldebulo

wesiT erTi dRis vadaSi egzavnebaT mxareebs. marTalia, am punqtSi ar aris miTiTebuli, magram

zogadi principebidan gamomdinare, sasamarTlo uflebamosilia, TviTon ganusazRvros mosar-

Cele mxares administraciuli sarCelis wardgenis vada. Tu sasamarTlos mier dadgenil vadaSi

ar iqna wardgenili administraciuli sarCeli, bunebrivia, gauqmdeba manamde mis mier miRebuli

sarCelis uzrunvelyofis RonisZieba _ individualuri administraciulsamarTlebrivi aqtis

moqmedebis SeCerebis Sesaxeb. individualuri administraciulsamarTlebrivi aqtis moqmedebis

SeCerebis ganCinebaze SeiZleba kerZo saCivris Setana. Zveli redaqciiT aseTi Canaweri ar arsebobda.

Sesabamisad, metad progresulia am normis SemoReba. aRniSnuli norma arafers ambobs

gasaCivrebis vadebze. aman iuridiul literaturaSi azrTa sxvadasxvaoba gamoiwvia. samoqalaqo

saproceso kodeqsis 416-e muxlis Tanaxmad, kerZo saCivris Setanis vadaa 12 dRe, romelic aiTvleba

ganCinebis Cabarebis momentidan. magram, rodesac mxare iTxovs sarCelis uzrunvelyofis

RonisZiebis gamoyenebas _ individualuri administraciulsamarTlebrivi aqtis moqmedebis

SeCerebas, maSin samoqalaqo saproceso kodeqsis 194-e muxli kerZo saCivris Setanis vadas xuTi

dRiT gansazRvravs. administraciuli saproceso kodeqsis pirvelive muxlSi miTiTebulia, rom

administraciul samarTalwarmoebaSi gamoiyeneba samoqalaqo saproceso kodeqsis debulebani,

Tu am kodeqsiT sxva ram ar aris dadgenili. amasTan dakavSirebiT iuridiul literaturaSi

gamoTqmulia mosazreba, rom `sasamarTloSi SeiZleba arsebobdes Sereuli principi.~ aseT pozicias

gamoTqvamen i. bartikovi, p. dageli, p. eliseikini, romelsac ver daveTanxmebiT. vinaidan,

praqtikulad, ise ar xdeba, rom erTi da igive sakiTxi gadaiWras erTdroulad sxvadasxva samar-

Tlis dargis normebiT. sul sxva viTarebasTan gvaqvs saqme, rodesac esa Tu is sakiTxi administraciuli

saproceso kodeqsiT araa mowesrigebuli da igi SeiZleba gadawydes samoqalaqo

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marTlmsajuleba

N2

da

kanoni

saproceso kodeqsis Sesabamisi normebiT, oRond aucileblad administraciuli procesualuri

formebis dacviT. ese igi, saqme Sereul procesTan, anu erTdroulad orive dargis normebis

gamoyenebasTan ar gvqonia.

administraciul saproceso kodeqsSi 2005 wlis 24 ivniss Setanili cvlilebis Sedegad, daemata

30 1 -e muxli, romelic exeba gasaCivrebuli normatiuli administraciulsamarTlebrivi

aqtis moqmedebis SeCerebas. unda aRiniSnos, rom normatiuli aqtebis SeTxvevaSi, kanoni sruliad

samarTlianad ar uSvebs gasaCivrebuli aqtis kanonismieri SeCerebis SesaZleblobas. normatiuli

administraciulsamarTlebrivi aqtis moqmedebis SeCereba ra Tqma unda, daiSveba, magram mxolod

mxareTa SuamdgomlobiT da mxolod kodeqsiT gansazRvruli pirobebis arsebobisas. kerZod,

Tu arsebobs dasabuTebuli eWvi gasaCivrebuli normatiuli aqtis kanonierebis Taobaze da Tu

misi gadaudebeli aRsrulebiT pirs miadgeba arsebiTi ziani an Tu SeuZlebeli gaxdeba misi

kanonieri uflebebis dacva. Cveni azriT, mxares, romelsac ziani adgeba, misTvis igi yovelTvis

arsebiTia. xolo ziani realurad arsebiTia Tu ara, es ukve sasamarTlos mier unda Sefasdes

yovel konkretul SemTxvevaSi. administraciuli saproceso kodeqsi (da arc sxva) ar gangvimartavs,

Tu ra aris `arsebiTi~. vfiqrobT, subieqtivizmi rom gamoiricxos, kodeqsSi aseTi ganzogadebuli

terminebi ar unda arsebobdes. Tumca, zogadi administraciuli kodeqsis me-60 1 muxlis

meore nawili administraciulsamarTlebrivi aqtis momzadebis an gamocemis wesis arsebiT

darRvevad miiCnevs kanonis iseT darRvevas, romlis ararsebobis SemTxvevaSi, mocemul sakiTxze

miRebuli iqneboda sxvagvari gadawyvetileba. cxadia, mxare sasamarTlos mimarTavs administraciuli

aqtis moqmedebis SeCerebis moTxovniT im SemTxvevaSi, roca igi administraciul (normatiul

Tu individualur) aqts Tvlis ukanonod. migvaCnia, rom termini _ `dasabuTebuli eWvi~

gamarTuli araa, garkveulwilad, logikasac moklebulia. Tu raimes vasabuTebT, es ukve faqtebia,

dadgenili garemoebebia da ara eWvi. xolo piriqiT, Tu raRacis Taobaze gvaqvs eWvi, es

TavisTavad dasabuTebulobas gamoricxavs. normatiuli aqtebis kanonierebis ganxilviT (miT

umetes, maTi moqmedebis SeCerebiT) faqtiurad, sasamarTlo xelisuflebas aRmasrulebeli xelisuflebis

makontrolebeli funqcia eniWeba. es progresulia Tu ara, calke ganxilvis sakiTxia

da amaze aq ar SevCerdebiT. erTia, rom mudmivi an droebiTi da mravaljeradi gamoyenebis qcevis

zogadi wesis Semcveli aqtebis aRusruleblobam ar unda gamoiwvios aRmasrulebeli xelisuflebis

muSaobis paralizeba da qaosi mmarTvelobis sferoSi. calsaxaa, rom normatiul administraciulsamarTlebriv

aqtebs gacilebiT meti socialuri datvirTva aqvT individualur administraciul-samarTlebriv

aqtebTan SedarebiT, Tundac, maTi sayovelTaobis TvalsazrisiT.

am kuTxiT dasafiqrebelia inga Todrias mosazreba, rom `kanonebiT unda ganisazRvros is prioritetuli

sferoebi da sakiTxebi, romelTanac dakavSirebiT miRebuli normatiuli administraciul-samarTlebrivi

aqti SeiZleba gasaCivrdes saerTo sasamarTloSi da amisaTvis saTanado

safuZvlebis arsebobis SemTxvevaSi, SeCerdes.~ 2 amgvari praqtika ukve arsebobs germanul saproceso

samarTalSi, romelic mxolod samSeneblo normatiuli aqtebis kanonierebas ganixilavs.

garda imisa, rom suspenziuri efeqtis sakiTxi TavisTavad mniSvnelovania da garkveulwilad

administraciuli procesis Taviseburebas warmoadgens, igi metad aqtualuria praqtikuli

TvalsazrisiTac. administraciuli organos mxridan ganxorcielebuli moqmedebis (individualuri

administraciul samarTlebrivi aqtis gamocema) Sedegad uflebadarRveuli mxaris (yovel

SemTxvevaSi, mosarCeles ase miaCnia) samarTlebrivi interesi Selaxulia da igi denadi procesia,

mosarCelisTvis, ra Tqma unda, pirvel yovlisa, mniSvnelovania misTvis zianis mimyenebeli individualuri

administraciulsamarTlebrivi aqtis moqmedebis SeCereba, Tundac, sasamarTlos

mier sakiTxis srulad Seswavla-gamokvlevamde. yovelive zemoaRniSnulidan gamomdinare, administraciuli

saproceso kodeqsis 29-e muxlis 1-li nawiliT imperatiulad dadgenilia gasaCiv-

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ebuli individualuri administraciulsamarTlebrivi aqtis avtomaturi, kanonismieri SeCereba,

romelic sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebaze damokidebuli araa. sasamarTlos uflebamosileba

am SemTxvevaSi, mxolod administraciuli sarCelis warmoebaSi miRebiT Semoifargleba.

amdenad, 29-e muxlis 1-li nawilis sxvagvarad (kanonis moTxovnaTa sawinaaRmdegod) ganmarteba

suspenziuri efeqtis rols akninebs da araswor sasamarTlo praqtikasac amkvidrebs. 2007 wels

gamocemul krebulSi uzenaesi sasamarTlos ganxiluli aqvs administraciuli saproceso kodeqsis

29-e muxli, sadac igi calsaxad da erTmniSvnelovnad ganmartavs gasaCivrebuli individualuri

administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis (an misi nawilis) moqmedebis kanonismier SeCerebas.

Tumca, ZiriTadi aqcentebi gakeTebulia (savaraudod, im dros arsebul problematur sakiTxze)

kanonismieri SeCerebis mxaris mier moTxovniT gauqmebis SesaZleblobaze. Sejerebuli mosazrebiT

irkveva, rom individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis moqmedebis SeCerebis

gauqmeba SesaZlebelia da aseTi moTxovnis dayenebis ufleba mxares procesis nebismier etapze

aqvs. miuxedavad uzenaesi sasamarTlos mier rekomendaciebis gamoqveynebisa (albaT, mxolod es

araa sakmarisi), rogorc statiaSi ganxiluli magaliTebidan irkveva, sasamarTloebs mainc ara

aqvT erTgvarovani midgoma suspenziur efeqtTan dakavSirebiT da problema mainc arsebobs. Cven

isic kargad gvesmis, rom rekomendaciebs savaldebulo Zala ar gaaCniaT, magram swrafi da efeqtiani

marTlmsajulebis gansaxorcieleblad, agreTve erTiani samarTlebrivi midgomis Camoyalibebis

TvalsazrisiT, maT gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba eniWebaT. kidev erTxel aRvniSnavT

da gamovTqvamT imeds, rom kanonis (da ara mxolod rekomendaciebis) moTxovnaTa sawinaaRmdego

ganmartebebi ar iqneba (yovel SemTxvevaSi, minimumamde mainc Semcirdeba) da miT umetes, ar damkvidrdeba

araswori sasamarTlo praqtika, romelTanac brZola gacilebiT ufro Zneli iqneba,

vidre imisaTvis garja, rom Tavidanve swori samarTlebrivi Sefasebebi da praqtika damkvidrdes.

SeniSvnebi:

1

Áðýáàí Ã., Ôðàíöóçñêîå àäìèíèñòðàòèâíîå ïðàâî, 1988.

2

saqarTvelos administraciuli saproceso kodeqsis komentari,

Tb., 2005, gv. 173.

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SUSPENSION EFFECT IN

THE ADMINISTRATIVE

PROCEDURES LAW

TSIALA CHKAREULI

DAUG, Law School, Full Professor

Suspension effect, i.e. legal suspension of the appealed individual administrative

act represents a pressing issue in the administrative procedures

law; it is caused by its specificity. Part 1 of the article 29 of the

Administrative Procedures Law imperatively defines that admission of

the claim automatically suspends power of the administrative act in

force. Despite imperative nature of the article, there are quite frequent

cases when courts provide a different interpretation of the provision. It

shall be noted that suspension effect reflects in the legal suspension of

the appealed administrative act. To be more precise, admission of the

claim (appeal) automatically suspends the appealed individual administrative

act without motions filed by the party; neither the court hears the

case (does not adopt a mandatory substantiated decision). By admitting

the claim, during individual and automatic suspension of administrative

acts as well as all ensuing legal outcomes are postponed till court decision

comes into power. During that period of time the claimant’s precious

legal and factual conditions, existing before issuance of the administrative

act, are returned to him/her. Part of judges, does not indicate

in the ruling the fact of suspension of the administrative act at all.

It is so obvious and does not depend on the judge’s will, that it makes no

sense to make a separate or additional record about suspension of the

act. Another part of the judges do make such records in rulings, although

the law does not impose such an obligation. In our opinion,

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neither is a mistake. Both approaches are legally justified. Some cases are unclear, though; for instance,

when the court issues the ruling on admission of the administrative act, but does not suspend the administrative

act in force without substantiation of such a decision, and, most importantly, there are no cases

envisaged by the article 29.2. In practice we see cases, when the court identifies the suspension effect with

security of the administrative act with all the accompanying outcomes, which is not right either. Since in the

first case administrative acts are legally suspended, independently of the party and courts, application of the

enforcement provision entirely depends on the will and substantiated motions of parties, and, most importantly,

all the above shall be assessed by the court. The article offers specific examples with regard to that

problem, as well as court decisions. Due to existence of different opinions in practice, we think that

theoretical opinions on suspension effect would be of interest not only for scientist lawyers, but for all

persons studying this issue.

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usafuZvlo

gamdidrebisas

davalebisa da

moTxovnis uflebis

daTmobis safuZvelze

Sesrulebis Sedegebi

Tamar CitoSvili

samarTlis doqtori

yoveli Sesruleba valdebulebis arsebobas gulisxmobs, xolo

Sesrulebis miReba qonebis marTlzomier gazrdas. Tumca, xSir

SemTxvevaSi, sapirispiro SedegTan gvaqvs saqme, anu yoveli Sesruleba

ar aris valdebuleba da Sesabamisad, Sesrulebulis miRebac

aris usafuZvlo. rogorc wesi, usafuZvlod miRebuli dabrunebas

eqvemdebareba da igi kanonismier valdebulebas warmoadgens,

xolo misgan gamomdinare urTierTobani ki, kanonismieri valdebulebiTi

urTierTobania. magaliTad, Sesrulebulis usafuZvlod

miRebas adgili aqvs maSin, roca garigeba cnobil iqneba

baTilad, Sewydeba an sxva garemoebis gamo aRar arsebobs. aRniSnul

SemTxvevaSi, aucilebelia, rom saxeze iyos usafuZvlod Sesrulebulis

miReba da mimRebisaTvis sargeblis miReba misi qonebis

gazrdiT an dazogviT, romelic aucileblad eqvemdebareba dabrunebas,

anu unda moxdes restitucia, romelic SeiZleba iyos

ormxrivic.

usafuZvlo gamdidrebis Sedegebi agreTve, SeiZleba dadges,

rodesac moqmedeba sruldeba calmxrivi garigebis safuZvelze,

amjerad ar igulisxmeba iseTi garigeba, romelic dadebisa da

Sesrulebis Semdeg baTilad iqna cnobili. es aris davalebis

gareSe sxvisi saqmeebis Sesruleba, rodesac piri Tavisive nebiT

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asrulebs sxvisi (mepatronis) interesebis Sesabamis saqmeebs da Semdeg mepatrone aramarTlzomierad

uars acxadebs Semsruleblis mier gaweuli xarjebis anazRaurebaze.

`davalebis gareSe sxvisi saqmeebis Sesruleba _ kvazixelSekruleba, romelsac adgili aqvs

im SemTxvevaSi, rodesac piri, romelsac ara aqvs Sesabamisi davaleba, kisrulobs valdebulebas

Seasrulos sxva pirisaTvis sargeblis momtani moqmedeba. magaliTad, piri Tavis Tavze iRebs

valdebulebas _ marTos Tavisi megobris qoneba, romelic depresiaSia, an imyofeba Sors, saz-

RvargareT...

uflebebi da movaleobebi davalebis gareSe sxvisi saqmeebis Sesrulebis Sesaxeb kvazixel-

Sekrulebidan warmoiSva ori sxvadasxva wyarodan:

pirveli _ esaa calmxrivi nebis gamovlena, romlis saSualebiTac piri Tavad kisrulobs

sxvisi saqmeebis marTvas.

meore _ xelSekrulebis gareSe gadacemuli qonebis anazRaureba.~ 1

gasaTvaliswinebelia iseTi SemTxvevac, rodesac garigeba daido Tumca, misi Sesruleba

ukavSirdeba pirobis dadgomas, aseTi pirobiani garigeba SeiZleba iyos sxvis qonebaze SecdomiT

xarjebis gawevisa da am qonebis mesakuTris usafuZvlo gamdidrebis safuZveli.

magaliTad:

`a~-sa da `b~-s Soris moxda SeTanxmeba, rom maT Soris daideboda binis nasyidobis xelSekruleba.

amis uzrunvelsayofad `a~-m gadasca `b~-s 1000 lari bes saxiT. maTive SeTanxmebiT gadawyda, rom

nasyidobis xelSekruleba daideboda bes gadacemidan erTi Tvis Semdeg, rodesac `b~ (binis

mesakuTre) dabrundeboda germaniidan, sadac mas saswrafod mouxda wasvla. gamgzavrebamde

`b~-m `a~-s dautova binis gasaRebi da misca binaSi cxovrebis ufleba. aRniSnuli garemoebebis

safuZvelze `a~-m CaTvala, rom bina aucileblad gaxdeboda misi sakuTreba da samzareuloSi

Caatara kapitaluri remonti.

germaniidan dabrunebis Semdeg `b~-m uari ganacxada nasyidobis xelSekrulebis dadebaze da

amiT daarRvia bes miRebiT nakisri valdebuleba. anu piroba, romlis dadgomasac ukavSirdeboda

binis nasyidobis xelSekrulebis dadeba _ dadga, Tumca, valdebuleba ar Sesrulda da xelSekruleba

ar daido. `a~-m moiTxova `b~-sgan bes miRebiT nakisri valdebulebis SeusruleblobiT gamowveuli

zianis anazRaureba da aseve, moiTxova im xarjebis anazRaureba, romliTac gaizarda `b~-s sacxovrebeli

binis Rirebuleba, es ki, niSnavs `b~-s usafuZvlo gamdidrebas.

usafuZvlo gamdidreba saxezea maSinac, rodesac garigeba arsebobda da Sewyda, Tumca am

garigebiT warmoSobili valdebulebis Sesruleba grZeldeboda misi Sewyvetis Semdegac.

magaliTad:

samisdReSio rCenis xelSekrulebis safuZvelze, 2004 wlidan `a~ (marCenali) yovelTviurad

ugzavnida `b~-s (sarCens) 300 lars. 2009 wlis 10 agvistos, `b~ gardaicvala, Tumca, `a~-m sarCenis

gardacvalebis Sesaxeb Seityo 2010 wlis TebervalSi. aRniSnulis Setyobinebis Semdeg `a~-m

moiTxova 2009 wlis 10 agvistodan 2010 wlis Tebervlamde sarCos saxiT gadaxdili Tanxa, rogorc

usafuZvlod gadaxdili. dadginda, rom aRniSnul Tanxas iRebda `b~-s axlobeli, romelic misi

gardacvalebis Semdeg mis kuTvnil binaSi cxovrobda.

usafuZvlod gamdidrebas SeiZleba adgili hqondes maSinac, rodesac pirma sargebeli naxa

uSualod dazaralebulis, anu Semsruleblis moqmedebiT. magaliTad, rodesac piri SecdomiT

fiqrobda, rom Sesruleba misi valdebuleba iyo, xarjebi gaiRo qonebaze, romelzec varaudobda,

rom misi sakuTreba gaxdeboda da a. S.

amdenad, qonebis usafuZvlod SeZena an dazogva (usafuZvlo gamdidreba) SeiZleba gamowveul

iqnes moqmedebiT, an xdomilebiT.

moqmedeba, romelmac gamoiwvia usafuZvlo gamdidreba, SeiZleba ekuTvnodes:

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a) uSualod im pirs, romlis qonebac gaizarda an daizoga sxvis xarjze;

b) pirs, romlis qonebac Semcirda, an romlis uSualo moqmedebamac gamoiwvia viTom kreditoris

usafuZvlod gamdidreba;

g) mesame pirs, romelic uSualod TviTon ar aris viTom kreditori, an viTom movale, Tumca,

misma moqmedebam gamoiwvia SemZenis (viTom kreditoris) qonebis gazrda, an dazogva.

usafuZvlo gamdidreba, aseve, SeiZleba gamoiwvios umoqmedobamac, rac ukavSirdeba SemZenis,

dazaralebulis, an mesame piris qcevas. amdenad, usafuZvlo gamdidreba, romelic SeiZleba

gamoiwvios pirTa moqmedebam an umoqmedobam, gaTvaliswinebulia ss kodeqsis 976-990-e muxlebiT.

usafuZvlo gamdidreba, anu erTi piris qonebis gazrda meore piris qonebis xarjze SeiZleba

moxdes ise, rom adgili ar hqondes arc dazaralebulis, arc usafuZvlod gamdidrebulis da

arc mesame piris qcevas. magaliTad, xdomilebiT, rodesac Sedegi dgeba dauZleveli ZaliT.

SesaZlebelia, swored aseTi SemTxvevbi igulisxmeba ss kodeqsis 991-e muxlSi miTiTebuli

usafuZvlod gamdidrebis sxva SemTxvevebSi. kerZod, `piri, romelic sxva piris xarjze usafuZvlod

gamdidrda sxva saSualebiTac, garda imisa, rac gaTvaliswinebulia am TavSi, movalea daubrunos

mas miRebuli~. Tumca, aRsaniSnavia, rom miTiTebuli muxlis Sinaarsi da Sesabamisad, kidev ra

SeiZleba igulixmebodes `sxva safuZvlebSi~ calke Seswavlis sagania, rac ar warmoadgens mocemuli

statiis mizans.

yovelive aRniSnulidan gamomdinare, saqarTvelos samoqalaqo kodeqsi adgens usafuZvlod

gadacemuli qonebis dabrunebis sxvadasxva wess, rac imaSi mdgomareobs, rom gadacemulis dabruneba

yovelTvis ar xdeba im pirisagan visac uSualod gadaecema qoneba. am TvalsazrisiT, gansakuTrebuli

TaviseburebebiT xasiaTdeba saqarTvelos samoqalaqo kodeqsis 988-e muxliT daregulirebuli

samarTlebrivi urTierTobani. aRniSnuli muxli iTvaliswinebs usafuZvlo gamdidrebis iseT

SemTxvevas, rodesac urTierTobebSi monawileobs mesame piric da mas garkveuli uflebebi da

movaleobebic uCndeba. es ki, dakavSirebulia misTvis Sesrulebulis gadacemasTan, risi dabrunebac

sxvadasxva wesiT xdeba. kerZod, miTiTebuli muxlis pirveli punqtis Sinaarsidan gamomdinare,

`pirs, romelic 976-e muxlis Tanaxmad, raimes gadascems mesame pirs viTom kreditoris miTiTebiT,

SeuZlia Sesrulebulis gamoTxova viTom kreditorisagan ise, TiTqos misTvis gadaeces raime,

Tu viTom kreditoris miTiTeba saeWvoa, maSin ukan dabrunebis moTxovna SeiZleba gamoyenebuli

iqnes mxolod mesame piris mimarT.~

aRniSnulidan gamomdinare, viTom kreditoris miTiTebiT Sesrulebuli gadaecema mesame pirs.

Sesrulebulis, rogorc usafuZvlod gadacemulis ukan gamoTxova erT SemTxvevaSi, SeiZleba

moxdes mesame pirisagan, xolo meore SemTxvevaSi ki, viTom kreditorisagan. orive SemTxvevaSi,

saxezea usafuZvlo gamdidreba, Tumca, adgili aqvs usafuZvlo gamdidrebis sxvadasxva SemTxvevebs.

pirvel SemTxvevaSi, viTom movalisagan Sesrulebulis gadacemas kreditorisaTvis iTxovs

mesame piri kreditorisave moTxovniT. sagulisxmoa, rom mesame pirs viTom movalisagan Sesrulebis

moTxovnis ufleba miniWebuli aqvs viTom kreditorTan dadebuli davalebis xelSekrulebis

safuZvelze, anu mesame piri viTom kreditoris moTxovnas asrulebs davalebis xelSekrulebis

safuZvelze. viTom movale mesame pirs gadascems Sesrulebas da amiT is asrulebs Tavis movaleobas

viTom kreditoris winaSe. aRniSnuli valdebuleba ki, viTom kreditoris moTxovnis dakmayofilebis

Sesaxeb, arsebobs viTom movalesa da viTom kreditors Soris dadebuli ZiriTadi garigebis

safuZvelze, romelic Semdeg baTilad iqna cnobili.

aRniSnul SemTxvevaSi, viTom movalisagan mesame pirisaTvis Sesrulebis gadacema uTanabrdeba

viTom krditorisaTvis Sesrulebulis gadacemas da ZiriTadi garigebis baTilobis SemTxvevaSi,

viTom movale mesame pirze gadacemulis dabrunebas iTxovs ara mesame pirisagan, aramed viTom

kreditorisagan ise, TiTqos misTvis gadaeces raime.

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magaliTad:

`a~-m `b~-s davalebiT moiTxova `c~-sagan Tanxa, romelic `b~-s saxelze iyo gamowerili da

romelic Seadgenda Sromis xelSekrulebis safuZvelze `b~-s mier `c~-s sasargeblod Sesrulebuli

samuSaos Rirebulebas. sazRauris gadacemis Semdeg, dadginda, rom `b~-s saxelze gamowerili

500 lari (Sromis sazRauri), nacvlad 300-isa, ekuTvnoda `d~-s da igi `a~-s saSualebiT arasworad

gadaeca `b~-s.

ss kodeqsis 988-e muxlis Sinaarsidan gamomdinare:

`b~ _ aris viTom kreditori;

`a~ _ aris mesame piri, romelic asrulebs viTom kreditoris miTiTebas;

`c~ _ aris viTom movale;

vinaidan `b~-s gadaeca sxvisi kuTvnili Tanxa da iTvleba viTom kreditorad, igi valdebulia

usafuZvlod miRebuli Tanxa daubrunos `c~-s. Sesabamisad, `c~-s miTiTebuli Tanxis moTxovnis

ufleba aqvs uSualod `b~-sagan, ise, TiTqos mas piradad gadaeces `b~-saTvis Tanxa.

normis Sinaarsidan gamomdinare, Tanxis dabrunebis valdebuleba ekisreba pirs, romlis

qonebac usafuZvlod izrdeba, anu `b~ aris piri, romelic usafuZvlod gamdidrda da Sesabamisad,

mas ekisreba Tanxis dabrunebis valdebuleba.

usafuZvlo gamdidrebis samarTlebrivi Sedegi ukavSirdeba usafuZvlod miRebulis gamoTxovasa

da dabrunebas. amitom, mniSvnelovania imis dadgena konkretulad vin iTvleba gamdidrebulad

da vin aris valdebuli daabrunos viTom movalisagan miRebuli qoneba. miTiTebuli muxlis

pirveli punqtis Sinaarsidan gamomdinare, ganxilulia, agreTve iseTi SemTxveva, rodesac mesame

piri usafuZvlod iyenebs sxvis uflebas, anu eWvis qveS dgeba viTom kreditoris moTxovna da

amiT mesame piri iRebs sargebels. aseT SemTxvevaSi, mesame piri viTom movalisagan Sesrulebas

iTxovs viTom kreditoris nebis gareSe. anu, mesame piri viTom kreditorisagan Sesrulebas iRebs

viTom davalebiT, Tumca, viTom kreditorisagan mas aranairi davaleba movalisagan gamoTxovis

Sesaxeb ar miuRia da Sesabamisad, mesame piris moTxovnac viTom movalisagan aris samarTlebriv

safuZvels moklebuli. amasTan, Tu viTom movalesa da viTom kreditors Soris ZiriTadi valdebuleba

garigebis baTilobis an sxva safuZvlis gamo, ar arsebobs, maSin viTom movales, romelmac ukve

Seasrula valdebuleba, Sesrulebulis ukan gamoTxova SeuZlia mesame pirisgan da ara viTom

kreditorisagan, radgan aseT SemTxvevaSi, gamdidrda ara viTom kreditori, aramed usafuZvlod

gamdidrda mesame piri, romelmac kreditoris miTiTebis gareSe moiTxova movalisagan valdebulebis

Sesruleba.

amdenad, mesame piri valdebulia miRebuli sargebeli daubrunos viTom movales, anu pirs

visganac uSualod miiRo sargebeli. es aris SemTxveva, rodesac uflebis mqone pirsa (viTom

kreditors) da Semsrulebels (viTom movales) Soris arsebuli SeTanxmeba aRmoCndeba baTili,

xolo mesame piris moTxovna viTom kreditoris miTiTebiT saeWvoa.

am SemTxvevas Tu zemoT motanili magaliTis safuZvelze ganvixilavT, maSin gasarkvevia:

visgan moxdeba `c~-s (viTom movalis) mier gadacemuli Tanxis dabruneba, Tuki `a~-s (mesame

piris) moTxovna `b~-s (viTom kreditoris) miTiTebis safuZvelze eWvis qveS dadgeba. Tu `a~

`c~-sagan iTxovs TiTqos `b~-s miTiTebiT Tanxas, romelic warmoadgens `b~-s mier gaweuli Sromis

sazRaurs da dadgindeba, rom `a~-m gaayalba `c~-sagan Tanxis moTxovnis safuZveli, anu `b~-s

aranairi davaleba `c~-sagan Tanxis gamoTxovaze ar miucia `a~-saTvis, maSin `c~ usafuZvlod

gadacemul Tanxas moiTxovs da daibrunebs ara `b~-sagan, aramed `a~-sagan, romelmac faqtobrivad

miiRo Tanxa da usafuZvlod gamdidrda.

aRniSnuli wesi gamarTlebulia im principidan gamomdinare, romelic axasiaTebs usafuZvlo

gamdidrebas, anu usafuZvlod miRebulis gamoTxova unda moxdes im pirisagan, vinc gamdidrda,

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kanoni

visi qonebac gaizarda, an daizoga miRebuli qonebis xarjze. ukan gamoTxova dauSvebelia im

pirisagan, vinc marTalia usafuZvlod miiRo qoneba, Tumca, ar gamdidrebula da aranairi sargebeli

ar miuRia aRniSnuli qonebis xarjze.

kerZo-samarTlebriv urTierTobebSi xSirad SeiZleba moxdes Tavdapirveli kreditoris Secvla

axali kreditoriT, rac SeiZleba ganapirobos moTxovnis uflebis daTmobam, wilis daTmobam,

indosirebam da a. S.

aRniSnuli urTierTobis dros usafuZvlod gadacemuli (miRebuli) qonebis dabrunebis

mniSvnelovani wesia dadgenili ss kodeqsis 988-e muxlis meore punqtis Sesabamisad, kerZod:

`pirs, romelic 976-e muxlis mixedviT, axal viTom kreditors raimes gadascems moTxovnis

wayenebis Semdeg, SeuZlia Tavdapirveli viTom kreditorisagan moiTxovos dabruneba, ise, TiTqos

misTvis gadaeces raime, Tu Tavdapirveli viTom kreditoris miTiTeba saeWvoa, maSin ukumoTxovna

SeiZleba mxolod axali viTom kreditoris mimarT.~

axali kreditoris winaSe movale valdebulebas asrulebs iseTive pirobebis dacviT, rogorc

is Seasrulebda Tavdapirveli kreditoris winaSe. Tavdapirveli, an axali kreditoris winaSe

Sesruleba, Tuki, valdebuleba usafuZvlobis gamo aRar arsebobs, iqneba usafuZvlo gamdidreba

Tavdapirveli kreditoris an viTom axali kreditoris mimarT. gamomdinare iqidan, Tu axali

viTom kreditoris winaSe Sesrulebis rogori safuZveli arsebobs, maSin usafuZvlod Sesrulebulis

dabrunebac gansxvavebulia, rac SemdegSi mdgomareobs:

pirveli _ es aris SemTxveva, rodesac kreditori Tavis moTxovnis uflebas uTmobs sxvas da

valdebuli piri aRniSnulis safuZvelze, valdebulebis Sesrulebis mizniT, axal kreditors

gadascems raimes. Tu Semdeg dadgindeba, rom valdebuleba viTom movales da viTom kreditors

Soris ss kodeqsis 976-e muxlis Tanaxmad, ar arsebobda, an aRar arsebobs, maSin usafuZvlod

gadacemulis dabrunebis moTxovna viTom movalem unda warudginos Tavdapirvel viTom kreditors,

romelmac unda uzrunvelyos dabruneba, radganac Tavdapirveli kreditoris mier moTxovnis

uflebis daTmoba moxda misive nebiT. Sesabamisad, motivs da mizans, miT umetes movalisaTvis,

mniSvneloba ara aqvs. movalis mier axali viTom kreditorisaTvis Sesrulebulis gadacema

gulisxmobs, rom samarTlebrivi Sedegi dadga da Sesabamisad, sargebelic miiRo Tavdapirvelma

kreditorma, amitomac axali viTom kreditorisaTvis raimes gadacema uTanabrdeba Tavdapirveli

viTom kreditorisaTvis gadacemas.

magaliTi:

`a~-m `b~-sagan usasyidlod miiRo 2 tona cementi. mxareebi SeTanxmdnen, rom `a~ cementis

transportirebas moaxdenda meore dRes.

`a~-m cementze sakuTrebisa da Sesabamisad, `b~-sagan moTxovnis ufleba gadasca `c~-s. `c~-m

moTxovnis uflebis daTmobis safuZvelze `b~_sagan miiRo cementi da moaxdina misi transportireba.

dadginda, rom `b~-s ar hqonda cementis gasxvisebis ufleba, ris gamoc `a~-sa da `b~-s Soris

dadebuli SeTanxmeba CaiTvala baTilad.

ss kodeqsis 988-e muxlis meore punqtis pirveli winadadebis Sinaarsidan gamomdinare, `a~

iTvleba Tavdapirvel kreditorad, `c~ ki, romelsac `a~-m gadasca cementze sakuTrebisa da

moTxovnis ufleba aris axali viTom kreditori. Sesabamisad, usasyidlod gadacemuli nivTis

dabrunebis moTxovna `b~-m unda wauyenos `a~-s rogorc Tavdapirvel kreditors da ara `c~-s

_ axal viTom kreditors.

ss kodeqsis 988-e muxlis meore punqtis meore winadadebis SinaarsiT, regulirdeba iseTi

urTierToba, romlis drosac axali viTom kreditoris moTxovna saeWvoa da samarTlebriv safuZvels

moklebulia.

78


kerZod: `...Tu Tavdapirveli viTom kreditoris miTiTeba saeWvoa, maSin ukumoTxovna SeiZleba

mxolod axali viTom kreditoris mimarT~. ras niSnavs gamoTqma `Tu Tavdapirveli viTom kreditoris

miTiTeba saeWvoa.~ anu, ra unda dadges eWvis qveS: Tavdapirveli viTom kreditoris miTiTebis

kanoniereba, Tu axali viTom kreditoris qmedeba. vinaidan, miTiTebuli muxli gadacemulis

dabrunebas akisrebs axal viTom kreditors, unda vivaraudoT, rom axali viTom kreditori,

romelic Tavdapirveli viTom kreditoris mier TiTqosda, misTvis moTxovnis uflebis daTmobis

safuZvelze iTxovs viTom movalisagan Sesrulebulis (raimes) gadacemas, uSualod TviTon

axdens moTxovnis safuZvlis gayalbebas da misive qceviT dgeba Tavdapirveli, viTom kreditoris

miTiTebis kanoniereba eWvis qveS. aqedan gamomdinare, swored, axali viTom kreditoria valdebuli

daubrunos viTom movales usafuZvlod miRebuli qoneba, rogorc usafuZvlod gamdidrebulma

mxarem.

amdenad, miTiTebis eWvqveS dayenebis sakiTxs Tu zemoT motanili magaliTis safuZvelze

ganvixilavT, sadac `a~ Tavdapirveli viTom kreditoria, `b~ _ movale da `c~ _ axali viTom_kreditori,

maSin, saeWvooba SeiZleba vlindebodes axali viTom kreditoris mier moTxovnis uflebis daTmobis

gayalbebaSi, rac adasturebs, rom moTxovnis uflebis daTmoba Tavdapirveli kreditoris mier

ar momxdara. aqedan gamomdinare, xelSekrulebis baTilobis gamo navaraudevi valdebulebis

Sesrulebis safuZvelze, `c~-saTvis nivTis gadacema iTvleba usafuZvlo gamdidrebad da misi

gamoTxova Semsruleblis, anu `b~-s (viTom movalis) mier unda moxdes axali viTom kreditorisagan

da ara Tavdapirveli viTom kreditorisagan.

samarTlebrivi TvalsazrisiT, metad mniSvnelovania ormxrivi xelSekrulebis baTilobis Sedegebi

da misi analizi usafuZvlo gamdidrebasTan mimarTebiT. anu unda dadgindes rogori samarTlebrivi

Sefaseba mieces baTilobis Sedegebs: rogorc usafuZvlo gamdidreba, Tu usafuZvlod miRebulis

dabruneba da mxareTa Tavdapirvel mdgomareobaSi aRdgena, anu ormxrivi restitucia.

aRsaniSnavia, rom `garigeba yovelTvis konkretuli samarTlebrivi Sedegis miRwevas isaxavs

miznad, magram garigebis monawileebis mier arCeuli saSualebebi, an maT mier ganxorcielebuli

moqmedebebi xSirad ar aris samarTliT SemoTavazebuli SesaZleblobebis adekvaturi da eqvivalenturi.

praqtikulad, es niSnavs, rom zogi nebis gamovlena (garigeba) iwvevs dasaxuli samarTlebrivi

Sedegis dadgomas, zogi ki _ ara. am gansxvavebaTa aRsaniSnavad samoqalaqo samarTali

ganamtkicebs namdvili garigebisa da baTili garigebis cnebebs. namdvilad iTvleba iseTi garigeba,

romelic iwvevs garigebis monawileebis mier dasaxuli samarTlebrivi Sedegis dadgomas. garigeba

miiCneva baTilad, Tuki mas Sedegad ar mohyveba dasaxuli mizani imis gamo, rom moqmedi samarTali

ganxorcielebul qmedebas samarTlebrivad uvargisad miiCnevs.~ 2 amdenad, baTili garigebis

drosac dgeba Sedegi, magram es ar aris mxareTa an mxaris mier dasaxuli miznis miRweva, aramed

es Sedegi SesaZloa iyos damdgari zianis, usafuZvlod miRebulis, an dazogilis anazRaureba

da a. S. ase, rom baTili garigebis Sedegebis ganxilva da analizi garkveul yuradRebas imsaxurebs

usafuZvlo gamdidrebasTan mimarTebiT.

aq sakiTxis ganxilva sxvadasxva kuTxiTaa saintereso, raTa dadgindes rogori Sefaseba unda

mieces ormxrivi xelSekrulebis baTilobis Sedegebs, rogorc usafuZvlo gamdidreba Tu rogorc

usafuZvlod miRebulis dabruneba, anda SeiZleba daisvas kiTxva ormxrivi xelSekrulebis baTilobis

SemTxvevaSi, iqneba Tu ara misi Sedegebi yovelTvis usafuZvlo gamdidreba. aRniSnulis Sefasebis

safuZvels iZleva saqarTvelos samoqalaqo kodeqsis 976-e muxlis pirveli punqti, kerZod,

`pirs, romelmac sxvas valdebulebis Sesasruleblad raime gadasca, SeuZlia mosTxovos viTom

kreditors (mimRebs) misi ukan dabruneba, Tu valdebuleba garigebis baTilobis an sxva safuZvlis

gamo ar arsebobs, ar warmoiSoba an Sewyda SemdgomSi.~

79


marTlmsajuleba

N2

da

kanoni

ormxrivi xelSekrulebis baTilobis SemTxvevaSi, mxareebi ubruneben erTmaneTs imas, rac

miiRes baTili garigebis safuZvelze da unda moxdes maTi Tavdapirvel mdgomareobaSi aRdgena,

anu Tu am garigebiT miRebulis safuZvelze orive mxare aRmoCnda (qonebis gazrdisa da dazogvis

TvalsazrisiT) Tanabar mdgomareobaSi da baTilad miCnevis SemTxvevaSi, maTTvis igive Sedegi

dgeba, maSin es iqneba mxareTa mier usafuZvlod miRebulis dabruneba, maTi Tavdapirvel mdgomareobaSi

aRdgena, ormxrivi restitucia. e. i. rodesac arcerTi mxare ar aRmoCndeba qonebrivad

upirates mdgomareobaSi.

magaliTad:

`a~-sa da `b~-s Soris daido binis nasyidobis xelSekruleba. Tumca, `a~-s xelSekrulebis

sanotari wesiT gaformebasa da sajaro reestrSi registraciaze uari ganucxades, radgan dadginda,

rom konkretuli binis gayidvis ufleba gamyidvels ar hqonda da Sesabamisad, es SeTanxmebac

binis nasyidobaze aris baTili. moxda mxareTa Tavdapirvel mdgomareobaSi dabruneba, gamyidvelma

miRebuli Tanxa daubruna myidvels. amave dros dadginda, rom miRebidan myidvelisadmi dabrunebamde

gamyidvels aRebuli Tanxidan aranairi sargebeli ar miuRia da Sesabamisad, arc mis gamdidrebas

(meore mxaresTan SedarebiT) adgili ar hqonia.

aqedan gamomdinare, saxezea Tanxis usafuZvlod miReba da aseve, misi dabruneba ise, rom am

SemTxvevas arcerTi mxaris usafuZvlod gamdidreba ar mohyolia.

sruliad gansxvavebuli samarTlebrivi Sefaseba SeiZleba mieces iseT SemTxvevas, rodesac

ormxrivi xelSekruleba miiCneva baTilad, Sedegad mohyveba ormxrivi restitucia. Tumca, dadgindeba

rom baTilobam gamoiwvia aseve, erT-erTi mxaris qonebrivad upiratesi mdgomareoba e. i. saxezea

erT-erTi mxaris usafuZvlo gamdidreba.

aRniSnuli samarTlebrivi mdgomareoba ganvixiloT zemoT motanili binis nasyidobis xel-

Sekrulebis magaliTze.

myidvelisagan miRebuli Tanxa gamyidvelma imave dRes Seitana sabanko angariSze, rogorc

anabari. amasTan, bina myidvelisaTvis arc faqtobriv mflobelobaSi iyo gadacemuli. garigebis

baTilad cnobis Semdeg moxda gamyidvelis mier myidvelisaTvis, rogorc kreditorisaTvis Tanxis

dabruneba. gamyidvelis mier Tavis sabanko angariSze Setanil Tanxas mogebis saxiT daericxa

procenti.

aRniSnul SemTxvevaSi, ormxrivi xelSekrulebis baTilad cnobas Sedegad mohyva rogorc calmxrivi

restitucia (vinaidan bina myidvelisaTvis arc faqtobriv mflobelobaSi iyo gadacemuli), ise

erT-erTi mxaris usafuZvlo gamdidreba. radgan gamyidvelma, myidvelis mier misTvis gadacemuli

Tanxis saSualebiT, miiRo sargebeli da usafuZvlod gamdidrda. aqedan gamomdinare, igi valdebulia

usafuZvlo gamdidrebis normebis Sesabamisad, moaxdinos viTom myidvelisaTvis rogorc ZiriTadi

Tanxis, ise am Tanxis safuZvelze, procentis saxiT, miRebuli sargeblis dabruneba.

usafuZvlo gamdidreba saxezea mxolod maSin, Tu piris qonebis gazrda, an dazogva moxda gvarovnuli

niSniT gansazRvruli qonebis safuZvelze.

usafuZvlod gadacemuli qonebis gamoTxovis sxva safuZveli arsebobs im SemTxvevaSi, Tuki

usafuZvlod gadacemulia individualuri niSniT gansazRvruli qoneba. am SemTxvevaSi, upirveles

yovlisa, unda dadgindes romeli urTierToba gvaqvs saxeze valdebulebiTi-samarTlebrivi Tu

sanivTo-samarTlebrivi.

sanivTo-samarTlebrivi urTierTobis SemTxvevaSi, moxdeba ara kondiqciuri, aramed savindikacio

sarCelis wardgena. aRniSnul sarCelebs Soris gansxvaveba swored is aris, rom kondiqciuri

sarCelis dros saqme exeba gvarovnuli niSniT gansazRvruli qonebis dabrunebas an kompensacias

razedac mopasuxes warmoeSva sakuTrebis ufleba, moxda am qonebiT misi qonebis gazrda, gadamuSavebis

80


da sxva saxiT gamoyenebis Sedegad miiRo sargebeli (Semosavali). igulisxmeba, rom mopasuxes

usafuZvlod miRebul gvarovnuli niSniT gansazRvrul qonebaze warmoeSva sakuTrebis ufleba.

rac Seexeba savindikacio sarCels, igi gamoiyeneba usafuZvlod miRebuli individualuri

niSniT gansazRvruli qonebis amoRebisas. rodesac mopasuxis mflobelobaSi usafuZvlod aRmoCnda

nivTi, romelic individualuri niSniT aris gansazRvruli da mopasuxes aseT nivTze ar warmoSobia

sakuTrebis ufleba da Sesabamisad, arc am uflebis dakargva xdeba mopasuxisagan nivTis amoRebisas.

magaliTad:

`a~-s Cuqebis dapirebis safuZvelze `b~-saTvis unda gadaeca ZviradRirebuli saaTi. dapirebuli

saCuqris gadacemis valdebulebis Sesruleba `a~-sagan moiTxova `c~-m `b~-s davalebiT. `a~-m

Seasrula moTxovna da `c~-s gadasca dapirebuli saCuqari. Tumca, gairkva, rom `a~-sa da `b~-s

Soris dadebuli dapireba aRmoCnda baTili, radgan `a~-s, rogorc SezRudulqmedunarians, ar

hqonda miTiTebuli saaTis gaCuqebis ufleba. moxda Tu ara saaTis gadacemasTan erTad sakuTrebis

uflebis gadasvla `b~-ze. vinaidan saaTi aris individualuri niSniT gansazRvruli qoneba _

saaTze sakuTrebis ufleba kvlav aqvs `a~-s da Sesabamisad, `b~-sagan saaTis gamoTxova unda

moxdes ara usafuZvlo gamdidrebis normebis Sesabamisad, aramed savindikacio sarCelis safuZvelze,

rogorc sxvisi ukanono mflobelobidan nivTis gamoTxova. e. i. individualuri niSniT gansazRvruli

qonebis mimarT dazaralebuls unarCundeba sakuTrebis ufleba, xolo dazaralebulsa da valdebul

pirs Soris warmoiSoba sanivTo-samarTlebrivi urTierToba, rac gulisxmobs, rom nivTis mflobel

pirs dazaralebuli mesakuTrisagan waeyeneba savindikacio sarCeli.

aRniSnulidan gamomdinare, `a~-s usafuZvlod gadacemuli saaTis gamoTxovis ufleba aqvs

`b~-sagan da ara `c~-sagan, romelic asrulebda `b~-s miTiTebas.

gansxvavebiT kondiqciuri sarCelisagan, savindikacio sarCelis dros gasaTvaliswinebelia

nivTis SemZenis keTilsindisierebisa da arakeTilsindisierebis momenti. aseve, nivTis mesakuTris

(anu gamoTxovis uflebis mqone piris) nebis momenti misi mflobelobidan nivTis gamosvlis momentTan

dakavSirebiT.

gasaTvaliswinebelia iseTi SemTxveva, rodesac savindikacio sarCelis dakmayofileba, anu

nivTis mesakuTrisaTvis dabruneba SeiZleba gaxdes kondiqciuri sarCelis wardgenis safuZvelic.

amas ganapirobebs is SemTxveva, rodesac nivTis flobis periodSi moxdeba am nivTis Rirebulebis

gazrda, razedac nivTis mflobelma gaswia garkveuli xarjebi da Sesabamisad, mas aqvs misi

anazRaurebis moTxovnis ufleba, rac unda mowesrigdes usafuZvlo gamdidrebisa da davalebis

gareSe sxvisi saqmeebis Sesrulebis wesebis Sesabamisad.

pasuxismgebloba viTom kreditoris miTiTebis SesrulebiT usafuZvlo

gamdidrebisas

usafuZvlo gamdidrebis SemTxvevaSi, restitucia xdeba usafuZvlo gamdidrebis specialuri

normebis safuZvelze. aqedan gamomdinare, kondiqciuri sarCelis nacvlad ar SeiZleba gamoviyenoT

deliqturi sarCeli an piriqiT. Tumca, gamoricxuli ar aris, rom usafuZvlo gamdidrebis SemTxvevaSi,

adgili hqondes, aseve, zianis dadgomas. am dros, usafuZvlo gamdidrebis specialur normebTan

erTad moxdeba im zogadi normebis gamoyeneba, romelic ukavSirdeba damdgari zianis anazRaurebas.

amdenad, usafuZvlo gamdidrebis SemTxvevaSi, restitucia SesaZlebelia rogorc kondiqciuri,

ise deliqturi sarCelebis erToblivi gamoyenebiT.

81


marTlmsajuleba

N2

da

kanoni

kondiqciuri sarCelis wardgena da Sesabamisad, misi dakmayofileba moxdeba mxolod da

mxolod im principebze dayrdnobiT, romelic zogadad, usafuZvlo gamdidrebas axasiaTebs,

kerZod:

a) adgili unda hqondes mopasuxis gamdidrebas misTvis qonebis gadacemiT, an misive qonebis

dazogviT.

b) qonebis miReba an dazogva unda moxdes yovelgvari samarTlebrivi safuZvlis gareSe (baTili

garigebiT, mesame piris moqmedebiT, stiqiuri movlenebiT da a. S.), anu gadaxda piris mier

an miReba moxda samarTlebrivi safuZvlis gareSe. rodesac piri Tvlis, rom evaleba sxvisTvis

raime moqmedebis Sesruleba materialuri Rirebulebis qonebis Seqmnis an qonebis gadacemis

mizniT, Tumca, qonebis usafuZvlod miReba (gamdidreba) SeiZleba moxdes sxvadasxva saSualebiT,

moqmedebiT an xdomilebiT.

g) amasTan, ar unda ikveTebodes mimRebi piris ganzraxi moqmedeba, romelic xels uwyobs mis

sasargeblod qonebis SeZenas an dazogvas. aqedan gamomdinare, mecnierebaSi arsebobs gabatonebuli

mosazreba, rom deliqtur da kondiqciur sarCels Soris ZiriTadi ganmasxvavebeli niSani

aris bralis principi.

sayuradReboa, rom mosarCelis mier sarCelis wardgena ar unda xdebodes saxelSekrulebo

an deliqturi moTxovnis safuZvelze, anu sarCelis wardgenis safuZveli ar unda iyos saxelSekrulebo

valdebulebaTa Seusrulebloba, anu sargeblis miReba an qonebis dazogva ar unda iyos gamowveuli

saxelSekrulebo valdebulebaTa arajerovani Sesrulebis Sedegi. aseve, sarCelis mizani ar unda

iyos marTlsawinaaRmdego qmedebiT gamowveuli zianis anazRaureba. amdenad, usafuZvlo gamdidrebis

SemTxvevaSi, mosarCeles sarCelis wardgena unda SeeZlos, rodesac mopasuxis qoneba gaizarda

an daizoga mosarCelis mier mopasuxis sasargeblod Sesrulebuli moqmedebis Sedegad (Tu es

moqmedeba Sesrulda yovelgvari samarTlebrivi safuZvlis gareSe magaliTad: SecdomiT), baTili

garigebiT an xdomilebiT e. i. rodesac stiqiuri movlenebis Sedegad mosarCelis qonebis mierTeba

moxdeba mopasuxis qonebasTan da a. S. usafuZvlo gamdidrebis SemTxvevaSi, usafuZvlod miRebulis

dabrunebis safuZvlebisa da farglebis gansazRvra xdeba rogorc specialuri normebiT, ise im

zogadi wesebiT, romlebic aregulreben zianis anazRaurebaze valdebulebis Sesrulebis wessa

da pirobebs.

aRniSnulidan gamomdinare, viTom kreditoris miTiTebiT Sesrulebis Sedegebis dabruneba

uflebamosili pirisaTvis xdeba rogorc zogadi (mux: 979_980), ise specialuri (mux. 989) wesebis

Sesabamisad.

ss kodeqsis 988-e muxliT gaTvaliswinebul (usafuZvlo gamdidrebis) SemTxvevebSi, mimRebi

valdebulia gamoTxovis uflebis mqone pirs srulad daubrunos rogorc SeZenili qoneba, ise is

sargebeli, romelic am qonebis safuZvelze miiRo.

rogorc cnobilia, usafuZvlo gamdidrebis SemTxvevaSi, mimRebs gadaecema gvarovnuli niSniT

gansazRvruli qoneba. amitom, Tu es qoneba dabrunebis momentSi isev arsebobs im saxiT, ra saxiTac

igi arsebobda mimRebisaTvis gadacemis momentSi, maSin gamoTxovis uflebis mqone pirisaTvis

moxdeba igive qonebis dabruneba, magram Tu igive saxiT ukve aRar arsebobs, maSin misi dabruneba

moxdeba igive (gvarovnuli niSnis mqone) saxis qonebiT an SeTanxmebis safuZvelze moxdeba igive

Rirebulebis sxva saxis qonebiT an anazRaurdeba misi saerTo Rirebuleba (fuladi kompensacia).

usafuZvlod SeZenili qoneba Tu mimRebis bralis gareSe dazianda, ganadgurda an sxva mizeziT

aRar arsebobs (magaliTad, mimRebi piris Tanxmobis gareSe moxda misi gadamuSaveba, Serwyma sxva

nivTTan an sxva qonebasTan erTad sruliad sxva saxiT gardaiqmna), maSin moTxovnis uflebis

mqone pirs igi daubrundeba im saxiT, ra saxiTac braleulma pirma sanacvlo anazRaurebiT gadasca

mimRebs.

82


mimRebi miRebuls Tu imave an Secvlili saxiT ver ubrunebs uflebamosil pirs da unda moxdes

misi saerTo Rirebulebis anazRaureba, maSin Rirebulebis odenoba ganisazRvreba anazRaurebis

moTxovnis uflebis wamoSobis dros arsebuli Rirebulebis mixedviT.

magaliTad:

mimRebma usafuZvlod miRebuli qoneba gankarga Tavisi Sexedulebis mixedviT da am qonebis

dabruneba imave saxiT SeuZlebelia. aseT SemTxvevaSi, uflebamosil pirs mimRebma unda aunazRauros

dasabrunebeli qonebis Rirebuleba, anu unda moxdes misi kompensacia, romlis moculoba unda

Seesabamebodes moTxovnis uflebis warmoSobis momentSi arsebul e. i. sabazro Rirebulebis odenobas.

mimRebi ar aris valdebuli daabrunos (srulad an nawilobriv) qoneba Tu:

a) miRebulis dabruneba SeuZlebelia (srulad an nawilobriv) imis gamo, rom qoneba daiRupa

an dazianda mimRebis bralis gareSe;

b) moTxovnis wayenebis momentSi qoneba aRar arsebobs da Sesabamisad, mimRebic aRar iTvleba

gamdidrebulad;

g) mimRebs aranairi sargebeli am qonebis usafuZvlod miRebis periodSi ar miuRia.

gasaTvaliswinebelia is garemoeba, rom mimRebi (srulad an nawilobriv) mxolod maSin Tavisufldeba

dabrunebis movaleobisagan, Tu zemoxsenebuli yvela piroba saxezea.

mimRebi, rogorc aRiniSna, valdebulia uflebamosil pirs daubrunos sargebelic, romelic

man miiRo ZiriTadi qonebis gamoyenebis Sedegad.

mimRebi ar Tavisufldeba sargeblis miRebis movaleobisagan maSinac, Tu ar miuRia mas aranairi

sargebeli, Tumca, SeeZlo mieRo, magram ver miiRo misive braleuli moqmedebis gamo.

dasabrunebeli sargeblis farglebi e. i. sargeblis moculoba ganisazRvreba im momentidan,

rodesac mimRebma Seityo an unda Seetyo miRebulis usafuZvlobis Sesaxeb.

mimRebi ar Tavisufldeba miRebulis dabrunebis movaleobisagan im SemTxvevaSic, Tu miRebulis

(sruli an nawilobrivi) ganadgureba an dazianeba moxda mesame piris braleuli moqmedebiT. rac

SemdegSi mdgomareobs: viTom kreditori (mimRebi) viTom movalisagan Sesrulebas iRebs mesame

piris saSualebiT. amasTan, mimRebisaTvis gadacemamde mesame piris braleuli qmedebiT xdeba

movalisagan miRebuli qonebis daRupva. Tu dadgindeba, rom ar arsebobda qonebis gadacemis

samarTlebrivi safuZveli, maSin aRniSnul SemTxvevaSi, gadacemuli qonebis gamoTxova movalis

mier moxdeba ara mesame pirisagan, aramed viTom kreditorisagan. Sesabamisad, viTom kreditori

valdebulia daakmayofilos viTom movalis moTxovna. Tumca, viTom kreditorsa da mesame pirs

Soris urTierTobis regulireba moxdeba davalebis xelSekrulebis safuZvelze, rac gamomdinareobs

988-e muxlis pirveli punqtis pirveli winadadebidan, rac ganpirobebulia imiT, rom gadacemis

namdvili safuZvlis SemTxvevaSi, Sedegi da Sesabamisad, sargebeli unda mieRo viTom kreditors.

viTom kreditoris miTiTebis saeWvoobisas ki, dabrunebis movaleoba (usafuZvlo gamdidrebis

SemTxvevaSi) miRebuli qonebisa da sargeblisac ekisreba mesame pirs, vinaidan moTxovnac da Sedegic

am SemTxvevaSi ekuTvnis mesame pirs da ara viTom kreditors. amitom, usafuZvlo gamdidrebis

zogadi principis Tanaxmad, gamoTxova da dabruneba unda moxdes im pirisagan, vinc uSualod

gamdidrda da sargebeli naxa.

piri, romelic ss kodeqsis 988-e muxlis mixedviT, iTvleba mimRebad (viTom kreditori, mesame

piri, Tavdapirveli viTom kreditori an axali viTom kreditori) yovelTvis Tavisufldeba miRebuli

qonebis dabrunebis movaleobisagan, Tu miRebuli qoneba dazianda an gafuWda. dabrunebis

movaleobisagan mimRebi gaTavisufldeba mxolod im SemTxvevaSi, Tu xelSekrulebis namdvilobis

dros qonebis dazianebis an gafuWebis gamo pasuxismgebloba daekisreboda uSualod qonebis

gadamcems (Semsrulebels), rac imaSi gamoixateba, rom xelSekrulebis safuZvelze gadacemuli

qoneba iyo nakliani, uxarisxo da misi daRupva an gafuWeba swored gadamcemis braleulobiT

moxda, risTvisac riski swored am ukanasknelze gadadis.

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usafuZvlo gamdidrebis SemTxvevaSi, restitucia SeiZleba moicavdes mimRebis (viTom kreditoris,

mesame piris, Tavdapirveli viTom kreditoris an axali viTom kreditoris) uflebas moiTxovos

viTom movalisagan im xarjebis anazRaureba, romelic man gaiRo (SemdgomSi baTilad cnobili)

xelSekrulebis safuZvelze miRebuli qonebis gaumjobesebaze. es exeba im SemTxvevas, rodesac

mimRebs miRebuli sagani samudamod SeZenilad miaCnda da swored es gaxda misgan qonebis gaumjobesebisa

da xarjebis gaRebis safuZveli. am SemTxvevaSi, adgili eqneba ormxriv restitucias. anazRaurebis

movaleobani, anu restitucia unda moxdes erTdroulad.

ukan dabrunebis xarjebi da riski ekuTvnis Semsrulebels, anu pirs, romlis moqmedebiTac,

moxda qonebis usafuZvlod gadacema an pirs, romelsac aqvs gamoTxovis ufleba. es Sedegi dgeba

maSinac, Tu piris qonebis gazrda moxda xdomilebis Sedegad.

ra samarTlebrivi Sedegebi SeiZleba dadges im SemTxvevaSi, Tu pirma usafuZvlod miRebuli

qonebis mimarT gaswia xarjebi, Tumca arsebobda iseTi garemoebebi, romlis safuZvelzedac pirs

SeeZlo evarauda, rom qoneba mas ar ekuTvnoda. aseTi qoneba ubrundeba uflebamosil (gamoTxovis

uflebis mqone) pirs, romelic iRebs qonebas ufro gazrdili RirebulebiT. am SemTxvevaSi, xarjebis

gamwev pirs gaweuli xarjebi an warmoSobili qonebrivi danaklisi aunazRaurdeba ara usafuZvlo

gamdidrebis, aramed davalebis gareSe sxvisi saqmeebis Sesrulebis wesebis mixedviT. moxdeba

mxolod aucileblobiT gamowveuli xarjebis an qonebrivi danaklisis anazRaureba.

mesame piris valdebuleba usafuZvlod miRebulis dabrunebisas

saqarTvelos samoqalaqo kodeqsis 989-e muxli iTvaliswinebs specialur wesebs, romelic

exeba usafuZvlod miRebulis dabrunebas. aRniSnul SemTxvevaSi, sayuradReboa erTi momenti,

anu Tavdapirveli viTom kreditoris mier mesame pirisaTvis qonebis gadacema xdeba sasyidliT,

Tu usasyidlod.

ss kodeqsis 989-e muxliT gaTvalswinebuli wesi exeba im SemTxvevas, rodesac mimRebi (an miRebaze

uflebamosili) piri usasyidlod gadascems qonebas an qonebis miRebaze uflebas. kerZod, ss

kodeqsis 989-e muxlis Tanaxmad: `1. 976-e da 988-e muxlebiT gaTvaliswinebul SemTxvevebSi, Tu

mimRebi, romelic movalea daabrunos miRebuli, usasyidlod gadascems mas mesame pirs, maSin

mesame piri aseve, movalea daabrunos miRebuli ise, TiTqis mas kreditorisagan kanonieri safuZvlis

gareSe mieRos raime, Tu mimRebisagan dakmayofileba SeuZlebelia. 2. zianis anazRaurebis mimarT

Sesabamisad, gamoiyeneba 979_981-e muxlebis moTxovnebi.~

aqedan gamomdinare, Tu mimRebi, anu piri, romelic valdebulia daabrunos miRebuli (viTom

kreditori, mesame piri, Tavdapirveli viTom kreditori an axali viTom kreditori), usasyidlod

gadascems miRebul qonebas mesame pirs, maSin mesame piri aris valdebuli daubrunos uflebamosil

pirs. mesame pirs, romelsac usasyidlod gadaeca miRebuli, dabrunebis valdebuleba ekisreba

mxolod garkveul SemTxvevebSi, kerZod:

a) Tu mesame piris qoneba miRebuli qonebis xarjze gaizarda an daizoga, anu man am gadacemiT

naxa sargebeli;

b) Tu mimRebisagan mesame pirisaTvis gadacema ar ukavSirdeba mimRebis mier (mesame piris winaSe)

nakisri valdebulebis Sesrulebas da es Sesruleba exeba gvarovnuli niSniT gansazRvrul

qonebas.

g) Tu mimRebi pirisagan (vinc usasyidlod gadasca mesame pirs qoneba) miReba SeuZlebelia. es

ki, SeiZleba gamowveuli iyos misi gardacvalebiT, gadaxdisuunarobiT da a. S. amasTan, mniSvnelovan

momentad iTvleba is, rom mimRebs qonebis miRebiTa da gadacemiT aranairi sargebeli

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ar unda hqondes miRebuli. aRniSnul SemTxvevaSi, zianis anazRaureba moxdeba, aseve, 979_981-e

muxlebis moTxovnaTa Sesabamisad, razedac ukve iyo saubari.

usafuZvlod miRebul qonebas Tu mimRebi sasyidliT an sanacvlo anazRaurebis miRebiT

gadascems mesame pirs, maSin mimRebia valdebuli aunazRauros uflebamosil pirs sanacvlo

RirebulebiT, rac SeiZleba gamoixatos fuladi kompensaciiT, igive niSniT gansazRvuli qonebis

an igive Rirebulebis mqone nivTis gadacemiT.

SeniSvnebi:

1

Ð. Ñàâàòüå, Òåîðèÿ îáÿçàòåëüñòâ, Ïåðåâîä ñ ôðàíöóçñêîãî è âñòóïèòåëüíàÿ

ñòàòüÿ äîêòîðà þðèäè÷åñêèéõ íàóê Ð.Î. Õàëôèíîé, 1972, ñòð. 367.

2

l. Wanturia, Sesavali saqarTvelos samoqalaqo samarTlis zogad

nawilSi, 1997, gv: 381-382.

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TRANSFER RESULTS

IN CASES OF

UNJUSTIFIED

ENRICHMENT BASED

ON GIVING UP

DEMAND AND

INSTRUCTIONS

TAMAR CHITOSHVILI

Doctor of Law

Relations deriving from unjustified enrichment belong to relationships

of obligations based on the law and it possesses certain features. Main

feature is _ illegal origin of the property.

Unjustified enrichment implies careful spending of property or its expansion

on others’ account; it can happen by means of obtaining, mixture of

somebody’s property (monetary or in-kind) as well as by actions of others

or direct actions of the victim, etc.

Among unjustified enrichment cases, the relationship where the third

person participates with originated certain rights and responsibilities,

represents one of the important components.

In the mentioned case, the so-called debtor execution is transferred to

the third person upon instruction of the so-called creditor; however in

case of termination of the deal or its annulment, due to inexistence of

obligations, the so-called debtor demands the so-called creditor – and

not the third person – to return the transferred items. If instructions of

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the so-called creditor on giving up the right to demand execution are being questioned, then the so-called

debtor has a right to demand return of transferred items from the third person and not from the so-called

creditor.

Filing conditional claims and meeting demands will take place in cases when happens groundless transfer of

patrimonial property.

Beneficiary of groundlessly received property shall return to the authorized person together with the gain

received by him/her from such property, or could receive and did not due to his/her faulty actions.

Beneficiary (including the third person) shall be released from the obligation of returning received property, if

the beneficiary has not enriched by increase of the property, or careful spending, or if receipt of such property

did not give any gain without fault of the beneficiary.

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samoqalaqo

pasuxismgeblobis

subieqtebi

Tea suxitaSvili

ivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis

Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis

iuridiuli fakultetis doqtoranti

dava samarTlis subieqtis raobaze. gasuli saukunis 60-70-

ian wlebSi samoqalaqo pasuxismgeblobis subieqtTan da obieqtTan

dakavSirebiT specialistebs Soris mwvave diskusia gaimarTa. rogorc

cnobilia, samoqalaqo pasuxismgeblobis erTaderT da savaldebulo

safuZvlad aTeuli wlebis ganmavlobaSi miCneuli iyo samarTaldarRvevis

Semadgenloba. dResac, am mimarTulebas sakmao mimdevrebi

hyavs. g. matveevi, xelmZRvanelobda sisxlis samarTlis mecnierebaSi

damkvidrebuli samarTaldarRvevis Semadgenlobis principiT da

samoqalaqo samarTaldarRvevis Semadgenlobas obieqtur da subieqtur

elementebad Semdegi TanmimdevrobiT hyofda: aramarTlzomieri

moqmedeba (umoqmedoba), am moqmedebiT warmoSobili mavne Sedegi

da mizezobrivi kavSiri moqmedebasa da damdgar Sedegs Soris, rogorc

samarTaldarRvevis Semadgenlobis obieqturi elementebi da

samarTaldamrRvevis brali, rogorc samarTaldarRvevis Semadgenlobis

subieqturi elementi. samoqalaqo samarTaldarRveva, ambobs

g. matveevi, swored am saxiT warmoadgens obieqturi da subieqturi

elementebis erTobliobas. profesori g. matveevi SemdgomSic am

poziciis erTguli darCa. 1

s. aleqseevi kategoriulad ar iziarebda samarTaldarRvevis

Semadgenlobis g. matveeviseul struqturas obieqtur da subieqtur

elementebad dayofis Taobaze da werda: samoqalaqo samarTaldarRvevis

Semadgenlobis obieqtur da subieqtur elementebad

dayofiT g. matveevi gaumarTleblad aaxloebs mas danaSaulis

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Semadgenlobis elementebTan; amasTan, gamoricxavs ra, samarTaldarRvevis Semadgenlobidan subieqtis

niSan-Tvisebebs da ar gamohyofs ra, calke samarTaldarRvevis obieqts, igi ver amCnevs am monaTesave

kategoriebs Soris msgavsebas. 2

s. aleqseevi cdilobda danaSaulis Semadgenlobis elementebi gaemijna samoqalaqo samarTaldarRvevis

elementebisagan. igi samoqalaqo samarTaldarRvevis Semadgenlobas Semdegnairad ganmartavda:

Tu samoqalaqo samarTaldarRvevis Semadgenlobis saxelSekrulebo da arasaxelSekrulebo pasuxismgeblobisaTvis

damaxasiaTebeli zogadi niSnebis matarebeli elementebis klasifikacias movaxdenT,

isini sami mimarTulebiT unda ganvalagoT: 1. obieqti, 2. subieqti, 3. obieqturi mxare (aramarTlzomieri

moqmedeba, uaryofiTi Sedegi, mizezobrivi kavSiri). 3 rogorc vxedavT, s. aleqseevi marTalia, kvlav

samarTaldarRvevis Semadgenlobis poziciaze idga, magram TavisTavad danaSaulis Semadgenlobis

elementebis samoqalaqo samarTaldarRvevis Semadgenlobis elementebidan gamijvna problemis

kvlevis dadebiT mcdelobad unda iyos Sefasebuli.

samoqalaqosamarTlebrivi pasuxismgeblobis subieqti, rogorc zogadad, samarTalurTierTobis

subieqti, SeiZleba iyos fizikuri da iuridiuli piri. specialistebs Soris azrTa sxvadasxvaobas

iwvevs samarTlebrivi urTierTobisa da samarTlis subieqtebis cnebaTa gageba. sakiTxis swori

gagebisaTvis mizanSewonilad migvaCnia sazogadoebrivi urTierTobis, samarTlebrivi urTierTobis,

samarTlisa da samarTlis normis urTierTdamokidebulebis garkveva. kerZod _ SeiZleba Tu ara

samarTlebrivi urTierTobis cnebis Setana samarTlis gansazRvrebaSi da samarTlebrivi normebi

aregulireben samarTlebriv urTierTobebs Tu sazogadoebriv urTierTobebs. avtorTa erTi nawili,

magaliTad, a. piontkovski miiCnevda, rom samarTlis cneba samarTlis normebis erTobliobis cnebis

igiveobas ar warmoadgens. piriqiT, samarTali gulisxmobs samarTlis normebisa da samarTlebrivi

urTierTobis erTobliobas. 4 principSi, amave debulebas iziarebda profesori s. bratusi, romelic

samarTlis normebsa da samarTlebriv urTierTobebs Soris damokidebulebas imgvarad warmoadgenda,

TiTqos samarTali mxolod maSin gvaqvs, roca samarTlebrivi normebi xorcieldeba konkretul

samarTlebriv urTierTobebSi, xolo manamde samarTali ar arsebobs. 5

zemoaRniSnul mosazrebaTa logikur gagrZelebas warmoadgenda o. iofes, m. karevas, a. stalgeviCisa

da sxvaTa daskvnebi, rom samarTlebrivi normebi awesrigeben ara konkretul sazogadoebriv

urTierTobebs, aramed samarTlebriv urTierTobebs. a. stalgeviCis mtkicebiT, samarTlis normebs

ar SeuZliaT uSualod sazogadoebrivi urTierTobebis mowesrigeba; samarTlis normebi iTvaliswineben

mxolod iuridiul urTierTobebs, romlebic samarTlis normis farglebSi aregulireben sazogadoebriv

urTierTobebs. 6

a. piontkovskis, a. stalgeviCis, s. bratusisa da sxvaTa Sexedulebebi SemdgomSi samarTlianad

iqna gakritikebuli. b. v. Seindlini statiaSi `samarTlis norma da samarTlebrivi urTierTobebi~

sruliad logikurad miuTiTebda, rom samarTlis cneba da samarTlis normis cneba erTmaneTisadmi

iseTive damokidebulebaSia, rogorc zogadisa da konkretulis (mTelisa da nawilis) filosofiuri

kategoriebio, 7 rasac sruliad veTanxmebiT. aseve, arasworia samarTlis normebsa da samarTlebriv

urTierTobebs Soris damokidebulebis imgvarad warmodgena, TiTqos samarTali mxolod maSin

gvaqvs, roca samarTlebrivi normebi xorcieldeba konkretul samarTlebriv urTierTobebSi da

TiTqos samarTali manamde ar arsebobs. samarTlis normasa da samarTlebriv urTierTobas Soris,

ra Tqma unda, mWidro kavSiria. samarTlebrivi urTierToba yovelTvis gulisxmobs sazogadoebriv

urTierTobasa da samarTlis normebs Soris aucilebel kavSirs, magram amgvari kavSiri ar iZleva

safuZvels, rom samarTlis zogadi cneba ganisazRvros, rogorc samarTlis ori konkretuli formis

_ samarTlis normisa da samarTlebrivi urTierTobis erToblioba.

sazogadoebrivi urTierTobebis, samarTlebrivi urTierTobebisa da samarTlis normebs Soris

damokidebulebaSi garkveuli sicxade Seaqvs samarTlebrivi urTierTobis formisa da Sinaarsis

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dadgenas. rogorc profesori i. tolstoi aRniSnavs, realur sinamdvileSi samarTlebrivi urTierTobebi

yovelTvis gvevlineba rogorc nebiTi ekonomikuri da sxvadasxva zednaSeni urTierTobebis forma,

romelic ganuyofladaa dakavSirebuli am urTierTobaTa SinaarsTan da ganpirobebulia misi

TaviseburebebiT. 8 Sesabamisad, samarTlebrivi urTierToba socialuri Sinaarsisa da samarTlebrivi

formis erTianobas warmoadgens, anu erTi mxriv, gansazRvruli interesebis misaRwevad mimarTul

moqmedebasa da meore mxriv, uflebebsa da movaleobebs Soris erTianobas. samarTlis normebi

aregulireben ra, gansazRvrul sazogadoebriv urTierTobebs, samarTlebrivi regulirebis procesSi

samarTlis normebi sazogadoebriv urTierTobebs aZlevs samarTlebrivi urTierTobebis formas.

kerZod, isini adgenen am sazogadoebrivi urTierTobis monawileTa savaldebulo moqmedebis (qcevis)

wess da amdenad, sazogadoebriv urTierTobebs eniWebaT samarTlebrivi urTierTobebis forma.

amasTan, rogorc ukve iTqva, samarTlebriv urTierTobebs aqvT gansazRvruli Sinaarsic.

iuridiul literaturaSi termini `samarTlebrivi urTierTobis Sinaarsi~ ori gagebiT ixmareba

_ samarTlebrivi urTierTobis socialuri Sinaarsi da samarTlebrivi urTierTobis iuridiuli

Sinaarsi. socialuri Sinaarsis mixedviT, samarTlebrivi urTierTobebi arafriT gansxvavdeba

sazogadoebrivi urTierTobebisagan. samarTliT (samarTlis normiT) mowesrigebuli sazogadoebrivi

urTierTobis monawileebs piradi miznebi da interesebi aqvT. magaliTad, SeiZinon sakvebi, sawvavi

da sxva, romlis misaRwevadac gegmaven TavianT moqmedebas, rac sazogadoebrivi urTierTobis

Sinaarss warmoadgens da romlebic samarTlebrivi regulirebis Sedegad Rebulobs samarTlebrivi

urTierTobis xasiaTs. amitom lev iaviCi samarTlianad aRniSnavs, rom samarTlebrivi urTierTobebi

realuri, cxovrebiseuli urTierTobebia da maTi Sinaarsi adamianTa da organizaciaTa moqmedebas

(qcevas) gulisxmobs. 9 rac Seexeba samarTlebrivi urTierTobis iuridiul Sinaarss, didi xania

damkvidrebulia azri da davas ar iwvevs, rom samarTlebrivi urTierTobis iuridiuli Sinaarsi

gamoixateba am urTierTobis subieqtTa uflebebsa da movaleobebSi, romlebic miuTiTeben urTierTobis

monawileebs, rogori SeiZleba da unda iyos maTi moqmedeba. 10 rogorc vxedavT, samarTlebrivi ur-

TierTobis Sinaarsi ormagi bunebisaa _ socialuri da iuridiuli, amitom samarTlebrivi urTierTobis

cnebis samarTlis (samarTlis normis) ganmartebaSi Setana ar iqneba swori, radgan am ukanasknelisaTvis

mxolod iuridiuli Sinaarsia damaxasiaTebeli.

saxelmwifo ama Tu im sazogadoebriv urTierTobas awesrigebs saxelmwifoebrivi nebis mixedviT,

rac vlindeba samarTlebriv normebSi. samarTlebrivi urTierTobebis xasiaTs arsebiTad saxelmwifos

neba gansazRvravs, magram samarTlebrivi urTierTobebi, rogorc nebiTi urTierTobebi, martooden

saxelmwifos nebiT ar amoiwureba. samarTlebrivi urTierTobis nebiTi xasiaTi aucileblad gulisxmobs

am urTierTobis monawileTa nebis arsebobasac. nasyidobis Tu sxva saxelSekrulebo urTierTobis

momwesrigebeli normebiT dadgenili mxareTa ufleba-movaleobebi saxelmwifos nebis gamoxatulebaa

da isini aseTad (samarTlis normad) darCebian, vidre sazogadoebrivi urTierTobis monawileni

ar gamoxataven nebas _ dadon nasyidobis xelSekruleba, rac samarTlis normiT dadgenil qcevis

zogad wess savaldebulo Zalas SesZens da rac samarTalurTierTobis warmoSobis safuZveli gaxdeba.

amdenad, samarTali (samarTlis norma) mxolod saxelmwifos nebas gamoxatavs, samarTlebrivi urTierToba

ki, gamoxatavs rogorc saxelmwifos, ise urTierTobis monawile subieqtis nebas.

amrigad, forma-Sinaarsisa da nebelobis kriteriumis gaTvaliswinebiT, samarTlebrivi urTierTobisa

da samarTlis cnebebi ar aris erTi da igive. samarTlebrivi urTierTobis subieqti konkretuli

uflebebiTa da movaleobebiT aRWurvili piria, xolo samarTlis subieqtisaTvis damaxasiaTebelia

samarTalsubieqturobis zogadi niSnebi _ samarTalunarianoba da qmedunarianoba statikur mdgomareobaSi.

sxva konkretuli uflebebi da movaleobebi samarTlis subieqts ar gaaCnia. Sesabamisad, samoqalaqo

samarTalurTierTobis pasuxismgeblobis subieqtebisaTvis damaxasiaTebelia konkretuli

uflebebisa da movaleobebis dinamika, xolo samoqalaqo samarTalsubieqturoba am uflebebisa

da movaleobebis warmoSobis aucilebeli wanamZRvaria.

90


samoqalaqo pasuxismgeblobis subieqtis samarTalsubieqturoba da deliqtunarianoba.

samarTalsubieqturobasTan dakavSirebiT, mokled gvinda SevexoT qarTul samoqalaqo kanonmdeblobaSi

da samecniero literaturaSi damkvidrebul araswor termins _ `uflebaunarianobas~. Tu terminis

`uflebaunarianobis~ Sinaarsis garkvevas gramatikuli (sityvasityviTi) ganmartebis saSualebiT

SevecdebiT, erT daskvnamde mivalT, rom es aris piris unari hqondes garkveuli samoqalaqo uflebebi.

mkacri gansjis Sedegad uflebaunarianobis terminSi verafriT moviazrebT piris unars, hqondes

garkveuli movaleobebi, Tumca, dRes sadavo ar aris, rom uflebaunarianobaSi kanonmdebelic da

samecniero wreebic moiazreben piris uflebebsac da movaleobebsac. uflebaunarianobis terminis

araswori dadgena vfiqrobT, unda momdinareobdes saqarTvelos 1923 wlis samoqalaqo samarTlis

kodeqsidan. kodeqsis zogadi nawilis meore Tavi, sadac saubaria subieqtebze, dasaTaurebulia

uflebis subieqtad. amave kodeqsis meoTxe muxlSi vkiTxulobT, rom saqarTvelos ssr aniWebs

yvela moqalaqes, visac ki, sasamarTlos mier ar eqneba ufleba SezRuduli, samoqalaqo uflebaunarianobas.

aRniSnulis sawinaaRmdegod kanonmdebeli iZleva uflebaunarianobis gafarToebul

legalur ganmartebas, rom igi aris piris unari iqonios samoqalaqo uflebebi da movaleobebi.

rogorc vxedavT, uflebaunarianobis termini srulyofilad ver asaxavs mis namdvil mniSvnelobas,

radgan masSi ar Cans piris unari samoqalaqo movaleobis Sesaxeb. mogvianebiT, es xarvezi gaimeora

saqarTvelos 1964 wlis samoqalaqo samarTlis kodeqsma da 1997 wlis samoqalaqo kodeqsmac. am

terminis srulyofisaTvis arc mecnieruli diskusia gamarTula Tu mxedvelobaSi ar miviRebT

profesor vaxtang abaSmaZis mier gamoTqmul samarTlian SeniSvnas _ termini uflebaunarianoba

Seicvalos samarTalunarianobis terminiT. 11

fizikuri Tu iuridiuli piris samoqalaqo pasuxismgeblobis subieqtad aRiarebisaTvis saWiroa,

rom igi akmayofilebdes samarTalsubieqturobisaTvis kanoniT dadgenil yvela moTxovnas, anu

iyos samarTalunariani da qmedunariani. samoqalaqo kodeqsis me-11 muxliT, fizikuri piris samarTalunarianoba

aris piris unari, hqondes samoqalaqo uflebebi da movaleobebi, rac warmoiSoba

dabadebis momentidan da Sewydeba misi gardacvalebiT. samoqalaqo pasuxismgeblobis subieqtad

cnobisaTvis upirvelesad, mainc qmedunarianobaa miCneuli. samoqalaqo kodeqsi piris qmedunarianobis

legalur ganmartebasac iZleva. kodeqsis me 12 muxli qmedunarianobas ganmartavs, rogorc piris

unars, Tavisi nebiTa da moqmedebiT SeiZinos da ganaxorcielos samoqalaqo uflebebi da movaleobebi.

samarTalunarianobisagan gansxvavebiT qmedunarianobis warmoSobas or ZiriTad garemoebas ukavSireben

_ asaks da janmrTelobas. 12

roca saubaria samoqalaqo pasuxismgeblobis subieqtebze, aq mxedvelobaSi unda viqonioT samoqalaqo

pasuxismgeblobis dakisrebis procesSi subieqtTa ganlagebis ra kompoziciasTan gvaqvs saqme. rogorc

saxelSekrulebo, ise arasaxelSekrulebo urTierTobebSi savaldebulo wesiT ori mxare monawileobs

_ kreditori da movale (samarTaldamrRvevi da dazaralebuli). kreditori SeiZleba iyos yvela

fizikuri da iuridiuli piri, xolo movale SeiZleba iyos mxolod deliqtunariani piri. qarTul

samecniero literaturaSi deliqtunarianoba ganmartebulia, rogorc `piri, romelic pasuxs agebs

Tavisi moqmedebisaTvis.~ 13 vfiqrobT, deliqtunarianobis aseTi definicia srulad ver gamoxatavs

mis namdvil mniSvnelobas. magaliTad, sawarmos muSaki, romelsac sruli qmedunarianoba aqvs, zogadad,

deliqtunarian pirad unda CaiTvalos, magram samoqalaqo kodeqsis 997-e muxliT gaTvaliswinebul

SemTxvevebSi, muSaki Tavis qmedebaze pasuxs ar agebs. aq pasuxismgeblobis subieqtad sawarmo gvevlineba,

amitom mocemul konkretul SemTxvevaSi, sawarmo aris deliqtunariani. Sesabamisad, deliqtunarianoba

unda ganimartos rogorc piris unari, pasuxi agos Tavisi an mesame piris qmedebisaTvis (aq termins

`mesame pirs~ farTo gagebiT vxmarobT da mxedvelobaSi gvaqvs, TavisTavad pasuxismgebloba mesame

piris qmedebisaTvis, subsidiaruli pasuxismgebloba, sawarmos pasuxismgebloba muSakis mier miyenebuli

zianisaTvis da sxva).

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marTlmsajuleba

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kanoni

araiuridiuli piris deliqtunarianoba samoqalaqo kanonmdeblobiT daSvebuli gamonaklisi

SemTxvevaa. es niSnavs, rom yvela calkeul SemTxvevaSi, moqalaqeTa gaerTianebebs, romlebic ar

arian iuridiuli pirebi, deliqtunarianoba kanoniT unda hqondeT dakisrebuli. samoqalaqo

kanonmdebloba icnobs sazogadoebaSi farTod gavrcelebul iseT araiuridiul pir moqalaqeTa

gaerTianebebs, romlebic uflebamosilni arian iyvnen samoqalaqo samarTalurTierTobis monawile

subieqtebi, magram es sulac ar gulisxmobs maT aucilebel deliqtunarianobas. magaliTad, samoqalaqo

kanonmdebloba Svilad ayvanisa da misi baTilad cnobis saqmeSi monawileobis aqtiur rols aniWebs

meurveobisa da mzrunvelobis adgilobriv organoebs, magram amave dros kanoni maT raime pasuxismgeblobas

ar ganusazRvravs. aRniSnulis sapirispirod, xSirad, araiuridiuli pirebi deliqtunarian

pirebad arian aRiarebulni. samoqalaqo kodeqsis 39-e muxlis mixedviT, araregistrirebuli kavSiri

ar aris iuridiuli piri, magram kreditorebis winaSe igi pasuxs agebs saerTo qonebidan. didi

praqtikuli mniSvnelobis mqonea binaTmesakuTreTa amxanagobis, rogorc araiuridiuli piris pasuxismgeblobis

subieqtad sworad gansazRvra. binaTmesakuTreTa amxanagobis Sesaxeb kanonis me-14

muxliT binaTmesakuTreTa amxanagobis kreditorebis moTxovnebi SeiZleba dakmayofildes amxanagobis

wevrTa qonebidan. amasTanave, binaTmesakuTreTa amxanagobis mier miRebul gadawyvetilebebze

amxanagobis wevrebi pasuxs ageben amxanagobis wevrTa saerTo qonebaSi TavianTi wilis Sesabamisad,

personalurad da rogorc solidaruli movaleebi. dasaxelebuli norma bevr kiTxvaze moiTxovs

pasuxs, kerZod: 1. amxanagobis kreditorebis moTxovnebi rodis ar SeiZleba dakmayofildes da

rodis SeiZleba dakmayofildes amxanagobis wevrTa qonebidan? 2. rogor gavigoT amxanagobis wevrTa

erTdroulad wilobrivi da solidaruli pasuxismgebloba da sxva.

rogorc vxedavT, dasaxelebul normaSi pirdapir ar aris mocemuli amxanagoba misi kreditorebis

winaSe uSualod TviTon agebs pasuxs Tu misi wevrebi. magram kanonis moTxovna, rom `amxanagobis

kreditorebis moTxovnebi SeiZleba dakmayofildes amxanagobis wevrTa qonebidan,~ subsidiarul

pasuxismgeblobaze migvaniSnebs, rac niSnavs, rom amxanagobis kreditorebis moTxovnebi upirvelesad,

amxanagobis gancalkevebuli qonebidan unda dakmayofildes, xolo Tu aseTi ar aRmoCnda an zianis

anazRaurebis srulad dasafarad arasakmarisia, kreditorebis moTxovnebi amxanagobis wevrebma

unda daakmayofilon solidarulad.

rogorc ukve iTqva imisaTvis, rom amxanagobam misi kreditorebis winaSe TviTon agos pasuxi,

saWiroa, rom mas amxanagobis wevrebisagan gancalkevebuli qoneba hqondes. `binaTmesakuTreTa amxanagobis

Sesaxeb~ kanonis me-4 da me-5 muxlebiT, miwa, Senoba-nageboba da misi calkeuli konstruqciuli

elementebi amxanagobis wevrTa individualuri an saerTo wiladi sakuTrebis obieqtebia. amitom

igive qoneba amxanagobis gancalkevebul qonebad ver CaiTvleba da amxanagobis pasuxismgeblobis

realizacia am qonebiT ar unda ganxorcieldes. amxanagobas misi wevrebisagan gancalkevebuli qoneba

SeiZleba hqondes arasamewarmeo ekonomikuri saqmianobidan miRebuli Semosavlebis saxiT, rogoricaa

qiravnoba, ijara da misT., amxanagobis saerTo saxsrebiT SeZenili uZravi da moZravi qoneba da

sxva.

msgavsi saqmeebis ganxilvisas sasamarTlos marTebs, gaarkvios vin aris saTanado mopasuxe _

araiuridiuli piri binaTmesakuTreTa amxanagoba Tu misi wevrebi. amasTan, subsidiaruli pasuxismgeblobis

SemTxvevaSi, imis gaTvaliswinebiT, rom saqarTveloSi moqmed binaTmesakuTreTa amxanagobebs

faqtobrivad gancalkevebuli qoneba ar gaaCniaT, amxanagobis kreditorebis sarCelebis

saqmeSi mopasuxed amxanagobis wevrebic unda CaerTnen. winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi, sasamarTlos mier

amxanagobis sawinaaRmdegod gamotanili gadawyvetileba aRusrulebeli darCeba, rasac sasamarTloebi

xSirad, ver acnobiereben. samSeneblo kompania Sps `mercxalma~ mopasuxe binaTmesakuTreTa amxanagoba

`gagarinis I I Sesaxvevi #12-14~-is mimarT sarCeli aRZra da moiTxova Catarebuli samSeneblo samuSaoebis

Rirebulebis anazRaureba. amxanagobis wevrebma moiTxoves saqmeSi mopasuxed CarTva. mosarCelis

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winaaRmdegobis gamo sasamarTlom amxanagobis wevrebis moTxovna ar daakmayofila. Tumca, yvelasTvis

cnobili iyo, rom amxanagobas misi wevrebisagan gancalkevebuli qoneba ar hqonia. mxolod sami

wlis Semdeg, rac sxvadasxva instanciebSi saqme ramdenjerme iyo ganxiluli, Tbilisis saapelacio

sasamarTlom am sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT miiRo swori gadawyvetileba.

samoqalaqo pasuxismgeblobis subieqtTa ganlagebis modelebi. qarTuli samoqalaqo kodeqsis

mixedviT, pasuxismgeblobis subieqtTa ganlageba pirobiTad, SeiZleba or jgufad davyoT:

1. pasuxismgeblobis subieqtTa pirveli da ZiriTadi modeli. pasuxismgeblobis subieqtTa

pirvel jgufs ganekuTvneba pasuxismgeblobis subieqtTa iseTi modeli, roca saxelSekrulebo

urTierTobidan warmoSobili zianisaTvis pasuxs agebs uSualod xelSekrulebis monawile piri,

romlis moqmedebiT Tu umoqmedobiT xelSekruleba ar Sesrulda an Sesrulda arajerovnad, ramac

gamoiwvia ziani. pasuxismgeblobis am modelSi xelSekrulebis meore mxare, vinc ganicada ziani,

aris kreditori, romelic uflebamosilia moiTxovos miyenebuli zianis anazRaureba. aseve, deliqtiT

warmoSobili zianisaTvis pasuxismgebloba daekisreba uSualod zianis mimyenebels, xolo meore

mxare aris dazaralebuli, romelmac uSualod ganicada deliqtiT gamowveuli ziani da uflebamosilia

moiTxovos zianis anazRaureba. samoqalaqo samarTali upiratesad pasuxismgeblobis subieqtTa

aseT models iTvaliswinebs, rac erTnairad vrceldeba rogorc fizikuri, ise iuridiuli pirebis

mimarT.

saerTo wesis mixedviT, saxelSekrulebo urTierTobebSi, kreditori uflebamosilia, movales,

romelmac daarRvia valdebuleba, mosTxovos amiT gamowveuli zianis anazRaureba (saqarTvelos

samoqalaqo kodeqsis 394-e muxli); aseve, deliqtur urTierTobebSi piri, romelic sxva pirs marTlsawinaaRmdego,

ganzraxi an gaufrTxilebeli moqmedebiT miayenebs zians, valdebulia aunazRauros

mas es ziani (samoqalaqo kodeqsis 992-e muxli).

pasuxismgeblobis subieqtTa deliqtunarianobasTan dakavSirebiT fizikuri pirebisagan gansxvavebiT

iuridiul pirebTan mimarTebaSi ufro met sadavo sakiTxebs vawydebiT. am mxriv, gansakuTrebuli

TaviseburebiT gamoirCevian komerciuli iuridiuli pirebi, romelTa samoqalaqo pasuxismgeblobis

xasiaTi da moculoba maTsave definiciaSi vlindeba. individualuri mewarme, ramdenadac is ar

warmoadgens iuridiul pirs, saqmian urTierTobebSi Tavis uflebebs axorcielebs da movaleobebs

asrulebs, rogorc fizikuri piri. amitom individualuri mewarme Tavisi samewarmeo saqmianobidan

warmoSobili valdebulebebisaTvis kreditorebis winaSe pasuxs agebs piradad, rogorc fizikuri

piri mTeli Tavisi qonebiT. rac Seexeba SezRuduli pasuxismgeblobis sazogadoebas, saaqcio

sazogadoebasa da kooperativs, es sazogadoebebi maTi kreditorebis winaSe uSualod TviTon ageben

pasuxs mTeli Tavisi qonebiT. Sps-is, ss-isa da kooperativis partniorebi sazogadoebis kreditorebis

winaSe pasuxs ar ageben.

erTi SexedviT, es sakiTxi davas ar unda iwvevdes, magram partnioris zogierTi pasuxismgebloba

gaugebrobas iwvevda jer kidev, `mewarmeTa Sesaxeb~ kanonis pirvelsave redaqciaSi. masSi garkveuli

cvlilebebis Setanis miuxedavad migvaCnia, rom Sps-is partnioris pasuxismgebloba kreditorebis

winaSe calsaxad da saTanado doneze ar aris mowesrigebuli. `mewarmeTa Sesaxeb~ kanonis pirveli

redaqciis 44-e muxlSi naTqvami iyo, rom Sps-is pasuxismgebloba misi kreditorebis winaSe Semoifargleboda

mTeli Tavisi qonebiT, xolo partnioris pasuxismgebloba _ sawesdebo kapitalSi

misi wilis odenobiT; magram es sulac ar niSnavda, rom partniorebi sazogadoebis kreditorebis

winaSe agebdnen pasuxs da iyvnen pasuxismgeblobis subieqtebi. partnioris mier sazogadoebis sawesdebo

kapitalSi Sesrulebuli Senatani sazogadoebis sakuTrebad gadaiqceva, rac saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi,

sazogadoebis valis dasafarad gamoiyeneba. kanons swored es hqonda mxedvelobaSi, magram misi

teqstidan sul sxva Sinaarsi ikiTxeboda. Semdgom kanonSi ganxorcielebuli cvlilebebis Sedegad,

es xarvezi ki gamosworda, magram ara bolomde.

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marTlmsajuleba

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kanoni

`mewarmeTa Sesaxeb~ kanonis me-3 muxlis me-3 da me-6 punqtebis Tanaxmad, komandituri sazogadoebis

SezRuduli partniorebi (komanditebi), Sps-is, ss-isa da kooperativis partniorebi sazogadoebis

kreditorebis winaSe pasuxs ageben maT mier Seutaneli SenataniTac, Tu pasuxismgebloba dadga

partniorTa mier SeTanxmebuli Senatanis srulad Setanamde. aseve, sazogadoebis kreditorebis

winaSe partniorebi pasuxs ageben piradad, Tu isini borotad gamoiyeneben pasuxismgeblobis SezRudvis

samarTlebriv formebs. 14 Cven Sors varT im azrisagan, rom zemoaRniSnul qmedebaTa gamo partniorebs

pasuxismgebloba ar daekisroT. ubralod, gaumarTleblad migvaCnia kanonis mier SemoTavazebuli

pasuxismgeblobis subieqtTa is modeli, roca dasaxelebulma partniorebma pasuxi unda agon sazogadoebis

kreditorebis winaSe. partnioris Senatanis Seutanloba, pasuxismgeblobis SezRudvis

borotad gamoyeneba sazogadoebis wesdebis, anu partniorTa SeTanxmebis (xelSekrulebis) darRvevaa.

Sesabamisad, partniorebis mier sazogadoebis winaSe nakisri valdebulebis SeusruleblobisaTvis

da miyenebuli zianis anazRaurebisaTvis kreditorad unda gamovides sazogadoeba da ara sazogadoebis

kreditori. im SemTxvevaSic, Tu partnioris zemoaRniSnuli qmedebebi sazogadoebis kreditorebisaTvis

zianis momtani iqneba, kreditoris winaSe pasuxi unda agos sazogadoebam, romelic uflebamosili

iqneba regresis wesiT zianis anazRaureba partniorebs mosTxovos.

sasamarTloSi ama Tu im saqmis ganxilvisas WeSmaritebis dadgenis da kanonieri gadawyvetilebis

gamotanis erT-erTi aucilebeli winapiroba pasuxismgeblobis subieqtebis (saTanado mosarCelisa

da mopasuxis) swori gansazRvraa. am sakiTxs sasamarTlo xSirad, zereled ekideba, rac ukanono da

dausabuTebeli gadawyvetilebis gamotaniT mTavrdeba. Tbilisis saqalaqo sasamarTlos samoqalaqo

saqmeTa kolegiam 2009 wlis 4 Tebervlis gadawyvetilebiT, mosarCele S. c-Zis sarCeli mopasuxe

Sps `alia-holdingsa~ da Tbilisis sapatrulo policiis ufrosis g. g-is mimarT pativisa da Rirsebis

Semlaxveli cnobebis uaryofisa da moraluri zianis _ 10 000 dolaris dakisrebis Taobaze ar

dakmayofilda. sasamarTlos gadawyvetileba mosarCele S. c-Zem gaasaCivra saapelacio wesiT.

saqmis masalebiT dadgenilia, rom mosarCele S.c-Zem TviTmkvleloba gadawyvita germaniis sael-

CosTan, ris Sesaxebac Tavad daukavSirda sainformacio saSualebebs. man JurnalistTan ganacxada,

rom misi aseTi survili gamowveuli iyo im mizeziT, rom igi saprezidento arCevnebSi Tanabar

pirobebSi ar Caayenes. amasTan dakavSirebiT gazeTSi `versia~ 2007 wlis 10-11 dekembris 46-e nomerSi,

gamoqveynda statia `skandali _ prezidentobis kandidati germaniis saelCos win Tavs iklavda~,

xolo gazeTSi `qronika~ 2007 wlis 10-16 dekembris 48-e nomerSi, daibeWda statia _ `prezidentobis

kandidatma germaniis saelCos Robeze bawriT Tavis CamoxrCoba scada.~ imave statiaSi vkiTxulobT,

rom respondenti S.c-Ze Jurnalistis SekiTxvaze: `patrulma rom gadagiyvanaT fsiqiatriul

saavadmyofoSi, iq ra giTxres?~ pasuxobs: `araferi, xeli momawerines raRaceebze da gamomiSves.~

Tbilisis saapelacio sasamarTlos samoqalaqo saqmeTa palatam 2009 wlis 27 maisis ganCinebiT

ucvlelad datova pirveli instanciis sasamarTlos gadawyvetileba, rac mosarCele S.c-is mier

gasaCivrebuli iqna sakasacio wesiT. saapelacio sasamarTlom, iseve rogorc pirveli instanciis

sasamarTlom, ganCinebas safuZvlad daudo is garemoeba, rom Tavad faqti _ TviTmkvlelobis mcdelobis

Sesaxeb Seesabameboda sinamdviles da ar iyo cilismwamebluri, magram gasaTvaliswineblia is garemoeba,

rom mosarCele sadavod xdis ara TviTmkvlelobis mcdelobas, aramed fsiqiatriul saavadmyofoSi

misi gadayvanis faqtis sagazeTo statiaSi gamoqveynebas, rac fsiqiatriuli saavadmyofos mier

gacemuli cnobiT marTlac ar Seesabameboda sinamdviles.

saqarTvelos uzenaesi sasamarTlos samoqalaqo, samewarmeo da gakotrebis saqmeTa palatam

2009 wlis 22 oqtombris ganCinebiT gaauqma mocemul saqmeze saapelacio sasamarTlos ganCineba da

saqme xelaxali ganxilvisaTvis daubruna imave sasamarTlos. uzenaesma sasamarTlom Tavis ganCinebas

ZiriTad safuZvlad daudo is garemoeba, rom qvemdgomma sasamarTlom ver gansazRvra saqmeSi

monawile subieqtebis statusi. kerZod, uzenaesi sasamarTlos ganCinebaSi naTqvamia, rom `saqalaqo

94


sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebis Sesaval nawilSi g.g. miTiTebulia fizikur pirad, sarezolucio

nawilSi ki, moxseniebulia rogorc sapatrulo policiis ufrosi. saapelacio sasamarTlos ganCinebis

Sesaval nawilSic g.g-i miTiTebulia fizikur pirad.~ aRniSnulidan gamomdinare, uzenaesi sasamarTlo

sruliad kanonierad askvnis, rom: ‘Tu mosarCele edaveba g.g-s, rogorc Tanamdebobis pirs, mxared

monawileoba unda miiRos saqarTvelos Sinagan saqmeTa saministrom, radgan sapatrulo policiis

sammarTvelo warmoadgens am uwyebis struqturul qvedanayofs. im SemTxvevaSi, Tu mxared saqmeSi

Caebmeba zemoT miTiTebuli saministro, saqme ganxiluli unda iyos administraciul saqmeTa palatis

mier... amdenad, palatam upirvelesad, unda daadginos mopasuxis vinaoba da ise gadawyvitos dava~, 15

askvnis sakasacio sasamarTlo.

2. samoqalaqo pasuxismgeblobis subieqtTa meore models transqmedunarianoba warmoadgens.

misi Taviseburebaa, rom erTi piris mier samarTaldarRveviT (rogorc saxelSekrulebo, ise deliqtiT)

gamowveuli zianis anazRaurebis pasuxismgebloba daekisreba mesame pirs (aq termin `mesame

pirs~ farTo gagebiT vxmarobT da mxedvelobaSi gvaqvs, TavisTavad pasuxismgebloba mesame piris

qmedebisaTvis, subsidiaruli pasuxismgebloba, sawarmos pasuxismgebloba muSakis mier miyenebuli

zianisaTvis da sxva). magaliTad, rwmunebulis mier dadebuli xelSekrulebiT gamowveuli zianisaTvis,

saerTo wesis mixedviT, pasuxismgebloba ekisreba marwmunebels, radgan samoqalaqo kodeqsis 709-e

muxlis Tanaxmad, rwmunebuli mesame pirTan garigebas debs marwmuneblis saxeliTa da xarjiT.

mesame piris pasuxismgebloba ufro mkveTrad vlindeba trastis xelSekrulebis dros. Tu davalebis

xelSekrulebiT rwmunebuli mesame pirTan garigebas marwmuneblis saxeliT debs da arsebobs gamarTleba

marwmuneblisaTvis pasuxismgeblobis dakisrebisaTvis, trastis xelSekrulebis arsebobisas, miuxedavad

imisa, rom mas mindobili mesakuTre Tavisi saxeliT debs, am xelSekrulebiT gamowveuli zianisaTvis

pasuxismgebloba mainc sakuTrebis mimndobs daekisreba. es principi damkvidrebulia samoqalaqo

kodeqsis 725-e muxliT, romlis Tanaxmad, Tu mindobili mesakuTre mindobili sakuTrebisadmi

iseTsave gulisxmierebas iCens, rogorc misi sakuTari saqmeebis mimarT, mesame pirTan dadebuli

xelSekrulebiT gamowveuli zianisaTvis pasuxismgebloba mimndob pirs ekisreba. erTi SexedviT,

garkveul gaugebrobas iwvevs amave kodeqsis 728-e muxli, sadac naTqvamia, rom mesame pirebTan

urTierTobaSi pasuxs agebs mindobili mesakuTre, magram es ise ar unda gavigoT, TiTqos is

pasuxismgebelia Tavisi qonebiT, aramed is pasuxismgebelia `sakuTrebis mimndobis riskiTa da xarjiT.~

mindobili mesakuTre sakuTari qonebiT pasuxs maSin agebs, Tu sakuTrebis mimndobis interesebis

dasacavad ar iCens iseT gulisxmierebas, rogoric mas sakuTari saqmeebis mimarT unda gamoeCina.

aranakleb sainteresoa kanonieri warmomadgenlebis (mSoblebis, meurvis, mzrunvelis) monawileobiT

dadebul garigebebSi maTi pasuxismgeblobis roli. samoqalaqo kodeqsis me-12, me-15, 1293-e

muxlebiT dadgenilia, rom SezRuduli qmedunarianobis mqone pirebi garigebebs deben maTi kanonieri

warmomadgenlis _ mSoblebis an mzrunvelis TanxmobiT, xolo sameurveo piris saxeliT da misi

interesebidan gamomdinare, yvela aucilebel garigebas debs misi kanonieri warmomadgeneli _

mSobeli an meurve. TiTqos davas ar unda iwvevdes, rom amgvari garigebebidan warmoSobili pasuxismgebloba

pirvel SemTxvevaSi, SezRudulqmedunarian pirs unda daekisros, radgan garigebis

monawile mxares is warmoadgens; aseve, meore SemTxvevaSi, marTalia, garigebas sameurveo piris

warmomadgeneli debs, magram garigeba ideba sameurveo piris saxeliT, anu xelSekrulebis mxare

ara kanonieri warmomadgeneli, aramed sameurveo piria. Sesabamisad, pasuxismgeblobis subieqtebad

sameurveo an samzrunvelo pirebi gamodian.

magram yovelTvis ase martivad ar wydeba saqme. 2005 wels, mcirewlovanis meurve a.k-Ze sameurveo

pirTan i.k-ZesTan erTad droebiT sacxovreblad gadavida samuSao adgilis mixedviT, sxva dasaxlebul

punqtSi, xolo sameurveo piris i.k-Zis sakuTari saxli gaaqirava. ramdenime Tvis Semdeg damqiravebelma

a.k-Zes mosTxova gaqiravebul binaSi kapitaluri remontis Catareba. a.k-Zem samsaxurSi mouclelobis

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gamo, saxli droulad ver SeakeTa, amitom damqiravebelma es samuSaoebi Tavisi xarjebiT Caatara

da Semdeg saxlis mesakuTrisagan moiTxova xarjebis, binis qiraSi gaqviTva. i.k Zis meurvem a.k-Zem

CaTvala, rom damqiraveblis mier saremonto xarjebi iyo gazrdili, amitom mxareebma davis gadasawyvetad

mimarTes mudmivmoqmed kerZo arbitraJs. arbitraJSi saqmis ganxilvis procesSi gairkva, rom saremonto

samuSaoebis Rirebuleba marTlac gazrdili iyo imis gamo, rom a.k-Zem damqiraveblis moTxovnisTanave

droulad ar Caatara saremonto samuSaoebi, ramac gamoiwvia damatebiTi saxsrebis gaxarjva. 2008

wlis 9 ivlisis saarbitraJo gadawyvetilebiT damqiraveblis moTxovna dakmayofilda. gadawyvetilebis

aRsrulebis procesSi gadasaxdeli Tanxis mcire mniSvnelobis gamo i.k-Zis sakuTar saxlze aRsrulebis

miqceva gaumarTleblad da mizanSeuwonlad CaiTvala. mxareebma saaRsrulebo warmoeba morigebiT

daamTavres da Sewyda saaRsrulebo warmoeba.

migvaCnia, rom mocemul saqmeze da sxva analogiuri saqmis ganxilvisas ufro principuli mniSvnelobis

sakiTxi unda garkveuliyo. kerZod, vin unda iyos analogiur saqmeSi saTanado mopasuxe _ sameurveo

piri Tu meurve. samoqalaqo kodeqsis 1293-e muxli am sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT, pirdapir pasuxs ar

iZleva, magram amave normaSi miTiTeba imis Sesaxeb, rom meurve sameurveo piris saxeliT garigebas

debs am ukanasknelis interesebis gaTvaliswinebiT, mravlis mTqmelia. sameurveo piris saxeliT

dadebul garigebaSi daculi unda iyos sameurveo piris interesi niSnavs, rom meurvem garigeba

unda Seasrulos sameurveo piris xarjze da kontrahentisagan miiRos Sesabamisi dakmayofileba.

amitom Tu meurvis mxriv xelSekrulebis jerovani SesrulebisaTvis saTanado moqmedebebi ar iqneba

ganxorcielebuli, xelSekrulebiT gamowveuli zianis anazRaurebis pasuxismgeblobac meurves

unda daekisros. zemoT motanil magaliTTan mimarTebaSi, ramdenadac meurvem a.k-Zem ver uzrunvelyo

qiravnobis xelSekrulebis jerovani Sesruleba, ramac gamoiwvia damatebiTi xarjebis gadaxda,

misi anazRaurebis pasuxismgebloba am ukanasknels unda daekisros.

xSiria mesame piris pasuxismgebloba deliqtur urTierTobebSic. rogorc ukve aRvniSneT, saerTo

wesis mixedviT, piri, romelic sxva pirs marTlsawinaaRmdego, ganzraxi an gaufrTxilebeli moqmedebiT

miayenebs zians, valdebulia TviTon aanazRauros igi. samoqalaqo kodeqsi pasuxismgeblobis saerTo

wesidan akeTebs iseT gamonakliss, roca uSualod zianis mimyenebeli da pasuxismgeblobis subieqti

erTi da igive piri ar aris. magaliTad, pasuxismgebloba aTi wlis asaks miuRweveli piris mier

miyenebuli zianisaTvis (994-e muxli), suliT avadmyofis mier da droebiTi sulieri moSlilobis

mdgomareobaSi miyenebuli zianis anazRaureba (995-996-e muxlebi), samsaxurebrivi movaleobis

Sesrulebisas miyenebuli zianis anazRaureba (998-e muxli), saxelmwifos pasuxismgebloba misi

mosamsaxuris mier miyenebuli zianisaTvis (1005-e muxli) da sxva; magram es sulac ar niSnavs, rom

aTi wlis asaks miuRweveli piris mier miyenebuli zianisaTvis, iseve rogorc suliT avadmyofis

mier miyenebuli zianisaTvis pasuxs aravin agebs. aseTi piris mier miyenebuli zianisaTvis, dasaxelebuli

normebis mixedviT, pasuxismgebloba daekisrebaT mSoblebs an maT meTvalyureobaze valdebul

pirebs. aseTive wesi vrceldeba im piris mimarT, romlis muSakmac samsaxurebrivi movaleobis Sesrulebisas

marTlsawinaaRmdego moqmedebiT, magram bralis gareSe, ziani miayena mesame pirs. sxvanairad rom

vTqvaT, aucilebelia, rom muSakis qmedebaSi, romelmac mesame pirs ziani miayena mocemuli warmoebadawesebulebis,

organizaciis is funqcia vlindebodes, romlis Sesrulebac muSakis samsaxurebriv

movaleobas warmoadgens; xolo muSakis mier mesame pirisaTvis miyenebuli zianiaTvis, Tundac

samsaxurebrivi movaleobis Sesrulebis dros, magram imgvari qmedebiT, rac mis samsaxurebriv

movaleobaSi ar Sedis, warmoeba-dawesebuleba, organizacia pasuxs ar agebs. am debulebis sailustraciod

profesorebs v. smirnovsa da a. sobCaks sasamarTlo praqtikidan Semdegi magaliTi mohyavT: sawarmom

misi TanamSromlebi samsaxurebrivi mivlinebiT mezobel qalaqSi gagzavna. gzad mimavalma muSakebma

erT-erT gaCerebaze spiritiani sasmeli dalies, iCxubes da erTma maTganma xulignuri qvenagrZnobiT,

cecxlsasroli iaraRiT mokla meore. gardacvlilis meuRlem sarCeli aRZra sawarmos mimarT

96


marCenalis dakargvis gamo zianis anazRaurebis Sesaxeb im safuZvliT, rom mopasuxis TanamSromelma

samsaxurebrivi movaleobis Sesrulebis dros miayena ziani. ruseTis umaRlesma sasamarTlom Tavis

ganCinebaSi miuTiTa, rom marTalia, ziani miyenebulia sawarmos muSakis mier samsaxurebrivi movaleobis

Sesrulebis dros, magram ara samsaxurebrivi movaleobis SesrulebasTan dakavSirebiT. amitom

sawarmo pasuxs ar agebs. 16

3. samoqalaqo pasuxismgeblobis subieqtTa mesame models ganekuTvneba sajarimo (sakonfiskacio)

modeli, rasac saxelmwifo gansakuTrebul SemTxvevebSi, subieqtTa SezRuduli wris mimarT

gamoiyenebs. pasuxismgeblobis es modeli imiT xasiaTdeba, rom samarTaldamrRvevi pasuxs agebs

ara misi kontrahentis an dazaralebulis winaSe an mesame piris qmedebisaTvis, aramed pasuxs agebs

sakuTari qmedebisaTvis saxelmwifos winaSe. pasuxismgeblobis aseTi modelis gamoyeneba samoqalaqosamarTlebrivi

pasuxismgeblobis dasjiTi meTodis erT-erTi yvelaze naTeli magaliTia,

rac aseve, mimarTulia subieqtTa aramarTlzomieri moqmedebis aRsakveTad. da mainc, samoqalaqo

samarTlis pasuxismgeblobisaTvis ucxo da miuRebelia, amitom kanonmdebeli mas iSviaTi gamonaklisebis

saxiT gamoiyenebs. moqmedi samoqalaqo kodeqsis sulisCamdgmeli da Semoqmedi profesori sergo

jorbenaZe siamayiT aRniSnavda, rom `axali kodeqsiT administraciul-mbrZanebluri ekonomikis

dominirebuli mdgomareobis nacvlad, civilizebuli sabazro ekonomikis principebis mixedviT

wesrigdeba samoqalaqosamarTlebrivi urTierTobani.~ 17 batoni sergo jorbenaZis mxriv aRniSnul

faqtze yuradRebis gamaxvileba imiT iyo gamowveuli, rom saqarTvelos 1923 wlis da 1964 wlis

samoqalaqo samarTlis kodeqsebi administraciulsamarTlebrivi normebiT iyo gajerebuli, rac

sajaro samarTlisaTvis aris damaxasiaTebeli, roca e.w. mxareebs Soris urTierTdaqvemdebarebis

(subordinaciis) principi moqmedebs, maSin, rodesac samoqalaqo samarTalma Tanasworuflebian

mxareebs Soris urTierTobebi unda moawesrigos. saqarTvelos 1964 wlis samoqalaqo samarTlis

kodeqsis 105-e muxli iTvaliswinebda SemTxvevas, rom Tu moqalaqes erTze meti sacxovrebeli

saxli an saxlis nawili aRmoaCndeboda pirad sakuTrebaSi, saxalxo deputatebis raionuli (saqalaqo)

sabWos aRmasrulebeli komitetis gadawyvetilebiT usasyidlod gadaecemoda saxelmwifos (konfiskacia).

amave kodeqsis 137-e muxliT konfiskacias eqvemdebareboda aseve moqalaqis mouvleli piradi

sakuTrebis saxli da sxva.

saqarTvelos 1997 wlis samoqalaqo kodeqsi gaTavisuflda `administraciul-mbrZanebluri

ekonomikis dominirebuli mdgomareobidan,~ magram samoqalaqo pasuxismgeblobis subieqtTa sakonfiskacio

modelma Tavi iCina 2007 wels, saqarTvelos samoqalaqo saproceso kodeqsSi ganxorcielebuli

cvlilebebis Sedegad. mocemuli SemTxvevis magaliTs warmoadgens saqarTvelos samoqalaqo saproceso

kodeqsis 356 1 , 356 2 , 356 3 , 356 4 , 356 5 , 356 6 da 356 7 muxlebiT dadgenili samoqalaqo pasuxismgeblobebi.

dasaxelebuli normebis mixedviT, prokurors evaleba sarCeli aRZras sasamarTloSi reketiris,

Tanamdebobis piris, qurduli samyaros wevris, adamianiT movaWris, narkotikuli saSualebis

gavrcelebis xelSemwyobis, maTi ojaxis wevrebis, axlo naTesavebisa da maTTan dakavSirebuli

pirebis mimarT saxelmwifos sasargeblod qonebis CamorTmevis mizniT.

Cven Sors varT im azrisagan, rom reketiris, qurduli samyaros wevris, adamianiT movaWreebisa

da sxvaTa qonebas, rac danaSaulebrivi gziT aris mopovebuli, ar gaukeTdes konfiskacia. vfiqrobT,

marTebuli ar aris, roca qonebis konfiskacia samoqalaqo sarCeliT xorcieldeba. samoqalaqo

pasuxismgeblobis amgvari modeli uaryofiTad aisaxeba samoqalaqo samarTlis Sefasebisas. iZulebiT

an muqariT dauflebuli qonebis ukan dabrunebisas samoqalaqo samarTali unda dasjerdes samoqalaqo

kodeqsis 978-e da 979-e muxlebiT dadgenil pasuxismgeblobis saxesa da farglebs. rac Seexeba

konfiskacias, is sajaro samarTlis prerogativaa da man unda moawesrigos sakonfiskacio urTierTobebi.

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SeniSvnebi:

1

Ã.Ê. Ìàòâååâ, Âèíà â ñîâåòñêîì ãðàæäàíñêîì ïðàâå, Êèåâ, 1955 ã., ñòð.

23; aseve, ix.: Ã. Ê. Ìàòâååâ, Îñíîâàíèÿ ãðàæäàíñêîïðàâîâîé

îòâåòñòâåííîñòè, Ìîñêâà, 1970 ã., ñòð. 9.

2

Ñ.Ñ. Àëåêñååâ, Î ñîñòàâå ãðàæäàíñêîãî ïðàâîíàðóøåíèÿ, «Ïðàâîâåäåíèå»,

1958 ã., ¹1, ñòð. 49.

3

Ñ.Ñ. Àëåêñååâ, Ãðàæäàíñêàÿ îòâåòñòâåííîñòü çà íåâûïîëíåíèå ïëàíà

æåëåçíîäîðîæíîé ïåðåâîçêè ãðóçîâ, Ãîñþðèçäàò, 1959ã., ñòð. 49.

4

À.À. Ïèîíòêîâñêèé, Íåêîòîðûå âîïðîñû îáùåé òåîðèè ãîñóäàðñòâà è

ïðàâà, æóðíàë «Ñîâåòñêîå ãîñóäàðñòâî è ïðàâî», 1956ã., ¹1, ñòð.19.

5

Ñ.Í. Áðàòóñü, Âîïðîñû òåîðèè ïðàâà â òðóäàõ Â.È. Ëåíèíà, ó÷åíûå

çàïèñêè À.Î.Í ïðè ÖÊ ÊÏÑÑ, âûï.20, Ìîñêâà, 1955ã., ñòð. 44; vaxtang

abaSmaZe, sabWoTa socialisturi samarTlis Teoriis sakiTxebi, I,

Tbilisi, 1979w., gv. 127.

6

À.Ê. Ñòàëãåâè÷, Íåêîòîðûå âîïðîñû òåîðèè ñîöèàëèñòè÷åñêèõ ïðàâîîòíîøåíèé,

æóðíàë «Ñîâåòñêîå ãîñóäàðñòâî è ïðàâî», 1957ã., ¹2, ñòð.

24-25.

7

Á.Â. Øåéíäëèí, Íîðìà ïðàâà è ïðàâîîòíîøåíèå, Âîïðîñû îáùåé òåîðèè

ñîâåòñêîãî ïðàâà, Ìîñêâà, 1960ã., ñòð.121-127.

8

ix.: vaxtan abaSmaZe, sabWoTa socialisturi samarTlis Teoriis

sakiTxebi, Tbilisi, 1979w., gv. 135.

9

Ë.Ñ. ßâè÷, Ïðîáëåìû ïðàâîâîãî ðåãóëèðîâàíèÿ ñîâåòñêèõ îáùåñòâåííûõ

îðãàíèçàöèé, Ìîñêâà, 1961 ã., ñòð. 127-131.

10

Î.Ñ. Èîôôå, Ì.Ä. Øàðãîðîäñêèé, Âîïðîñû òåîðèè ïðàâà, Ìîñêâà,

1961ã., ñòð. 216-219; Ãðàæäàíñêîå ïðàâî, èçäàíèå òðåòüå, ÷àñòü1, ïîä.

ðåäàêöèé À.Ï. Ñåðãååâà è Þ.Ê. Òîëñòîãî, Ìîñêâà , 1998ã., ñòð. 82-84.

11

am sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT ufro srulyofilad ix.: vaxtang abaSmaZe,

sabWoTa socialisturi samarTlis Teoriis sakiTxebi, I, Tbilisi,

1979w., gv. 156-157.

12

piris qmedunarianobis warmoSobis, qmeduunarod aRiarebis, qmedunarianobis

SezRudvasa da emansipaciis Taobaze sakiTxi qarTul samecniero

literaturaSi farTod aris gaSuqebuli. ix.: mag., lado Wanturia,

Sesavali saqarTvelos samoqalaqo samarTlis zogad nawilSi,

Tbilisi, 1997 w., amitom masze yuradRebas aRar SevaCerebT.

13

saqarTvelos samoqalaqo kodeqsis komentari, wigni meoTxe, tomi I I ,

avtorTa koleqtivi, Tbilisi, 2001w., gv. 380.

14

`mewarmeTa Sesaxeb~ saqarTvelos kanonis Tavdapirveli redaqciis

me-3 muxlis meoTxe punqtiT, pasuxismgeblobis SezRudvis borotad

gamoyenebad iTvleba sazogadoebis qonebis Sereva sxva qonebasTan

an sawarmos funqcionirebisaTvis aucilebeli kapitalis arasruli

formireba.

15

saqarTvelos uzenaesi sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebani samoqalaqo,

samewarmeo da gakortebis saqmeebze, 2009w., #3, gv. 11-16.

16

Â.Ò.Ñìèðíîâ, À.À.Ñîá÷àê, Îáùåå ó÷åíèå î äåëèêòíûõ îáÿçàòåëüñòâàõ,

Ëåíèíãðàä, 1983 ã., ñòð. 17.

17

saqarTvelos samoqalaqo kodeqsis komentari, wigni pirveli,

Tbilisi, 1999w., gv. 7.

98


SUBJECTS TO CIVIL

RESPONSIBILITY

THEA SUKHITASHVILI

Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University

Doctorate Student of the Law School

Subjects to civil responsibility are not well studied by the legal science. I

cannot say the same about subjects to civil relationship. Features of the

subjects to civil responsibility are not reflected in reviews of subjects to

civil legal relationships. The paper below aims at research of such features;

however, we could not avoid general description of subjects to

civil relationship.

First part of the paper we tried to review history and show the place of

the subject in the composition of the legal violation and disputes of law

scientists on the subject to law. In order to achieve logical and correct

legal conclusions, it was deemed necessary to clarify public relations,

legal relations, correlation of the law and the legal provision. Form and

content of the legal relationship helps to clarify the aforementioned

issues and defines place of willful criteria – on one hand of the state and

subjects of the relationship on the other hand. As a result, it becomes

absolutely clear that generally subjects to civil law possess legal ability as

well as general ability in a static condition, and subjects to civil relationship

responsibility possesses dynamics of specific rights and responsibilities.

In the next part of the paper are brought examples of legal entities of the

private law and non-registered societies, based on which specificity of

judicial personality and tortuous ability are reviewed. Finally, the paper

reviews models of ordering responsibilities of subjects. Cases, when legal

violators are individually held responsible before the victim (creditor),

belong to the first model; trans-capability represents the second model;

penalty, i.e. confiscation model represents the third group.

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ojaxze, rogorc sazogadoebis mniSvnelovan nawilsa da saxelmwifos

ZiriTad ujredze zrunva qveynis umaRlesi kanonmdeblobiT,

konstituciiT aris ganmtkicebuli, romlis mixedvi-

Tac, saxelmwifo valdebulia izrunos ojaxis keTildReobaze.

saojaxo urTierTobebi wesrigdeba rogorc zneobis normebiT,

CveulebebiTa da tradiciebiT, ise saojaxo samarTlis normebiTac.

samoqalaqo kodeqsi awesrigebs pirTa Tanasworobaze damyarebul

kerZo xasiaTis qonebriv, saojaxo da pirad urTierTobebs.

saojaxo samarTali aris samoqalaqo samarTlis qvedargi,

romelic mTeli rigi saojaxo samarTlebrivi institutebisagan

Sedgeba da awesrigebs iseTi saxis urTierTobebs, romelic warmoiSoba

qorwinebisa da ojaxis safuZvelze. misi regulirebis

sferos ara ojaxi rogorc aseTi, aramed mis wevrebs Soris arsebuli

saojaxo urTierTobebi warmoadgens. e.i. moicavs iseT sakiTxebs,

rogoricaa daqorwinebis wesi da pirobebi, ganqorwineba,

meuRleTa TanasakuTreba, maTi ufleba-movaleobebi erTmaneTis

da Svilebis mimarT da a.S. saojaxo urTierTobebi iuridiuli

bunebiT SeiZleba piradi da qonebrivi xasiaTis iyos.

piradi (araqonebrivi) xasiaTis urTierTobebi warmoiSoba daqorwinebis,

qorwinebis Sewyvetis, meuRleTa mier gvaris arCevis,

mamobis dadgenis, Svilebis aRzrdis, ganaTlebis, sacxovrebeli

adgilisa da sxva sakiTxebis gadawyvetisas. qonebrivi urTiermeuRleTa

TanasakuTrebis

warmoSobis

samarTlebrivi

safuZvlebi

Tea kalandaZe

iuristi

100


Tobebi ojaxSi moicavs meuRleTa Soris uflebebsa da movaleobebs, saerTo da gancalkevebul

qonebaze uflebas, meuRleTa (yofil meuRleTa) urTierTrCenis movaleobas, mSoblebisa da Svilebis,

agreTve ojaxis sxva wevrebis saalimento valdebulebebs.

saojaxo samarTlis erT-erTi mniSvnelovani subieqtia meuRleebi, romelTa Soris samar-

Tlebrivi urTierTobebis warmoSobis safuZveli aris qorwineba. qorwinebis registracia unda

moxdes saqarTvelos iusticiis saministros mmarTvelobis sferoSi Semavali sajaro samarTlis

iuridiuli piris _ samoqalaqo reestris teritoriul samsaxurSi. mxolod aRniSnulis ganxorcieleba

(anu registracia qorwinebis) warmoSobs meuRleTa mimarT iuridiul Sedegebs. mocemuli

ganpirobebulia rogorc saxelmwifo da sazogadoebrivi interesebis uzrunvelsayofad,

ise TviT meuRleTa da maTi Svilebis piradi da qonebrivi uflebebis dacvis mizniT.

ojaxSi meuRleebi sargebloben Tanabari uflebebiTa da movaleobebiT. aRniSnuls safuZvlad

daedo adamianis uflebaTa saerTaSoriso samarTali da saqarTvelos konstitucia, saxeldobr,

me-14 muxli, romelic exeba diskriminaciis akrZalvas da awesebs kanonis winaSe Tanasworobis

princips. aRniSnulis Tanaxmad, yvela adamiani Tanasworia kanonis winaSe ganurCevlad sqesisa

da amave dros mas safuZvlad udevs konstituciis 36-e muxlis pirveli punqtis Sinaarsi _

`qorwineba emyareba meuRleTa uflebriv Tanasworobas.~ zemoaRniSnulma detaluri gamoxatuleba

hpova kodeqsis 1152-e muxlSi, romlis mixedviTac, saojaxo urTierTobebSi meuRleebi

sargebloben Tanabari piradi da qonebrivi uflebebiT da ekisrebaT Tanabari movaleobebi. qorwinebis

registraciis momentidan meuRleTa piradi da qonebrivi ufleba-movaleobebis Tanabroba

saojaxo urTierTobaTa arsebobis yvela etapisaTvis kanoniT garantirebuli aucileblobaa.

meuRleTa qonebrivi ufleba-movaleobebi, urTierTobebi pirobiTad SeiZleba davyoT or

jgufad:

meuRleTa TanasakuTrebasTan dakavSirebuli urTierTobebi;

meuRleTa urTierTrCenasTan dakavSirebuli urTierTobebi (saalimento movaleobani).

Cveni ganxilvis Temas meuRleTa qonebrivi urTierTobebi warmoadgens, anu qorwinebis ganmavlobaSi,

Tanacxovrebis periodSi SeZenili uZravi qonebis samarTlebrivi bedi da misi gayofis

wesi ganqorwinebisas, roca sadavo qonebis registracia sajaro reestrSi ganxorcielebulia

erT-erTi meuRlis saxelze.

ojaxSi meuRleTa qonebas SeiZleba individualuri sakuTreba warmoadgendes, rogoricaa qoneba,

romelic TiToeul maTgans ekuTvnoda daqorwinebamde da qoneba, romelic qorwinebis ganmavlobaSi

miRebulia memkvidreobiT an CuqebiT, aseve, qorwinebis ganmavlobaSi meuRleTa saerTo

TanxebiT SeZenili qoneba, Tu igi gankuTvnilia erT-erTi meuRlis individualuri moTxovnis

dasakmayofileblad da TanasakuTreba, romelSic Sedis qorwinebis ganmavlobaSi SeZenili

qoneba. saqarTvelos samoqalaqo kodeqsis 1163-e muxlis Tanaxmad, TiToeuli meuRlis qoneba

SeiZleba CaiTvalos meuRleTa TanasakuTrebad, Tu dadgindeba, rom qorwinebis ganmavlobaSi

gaweuli xarjebis Sedegad am qonebis Rirebuleba mniSvnelovnad gadidda (gadagegmareba, mSeneblobis

dasruleba, gadakeTeba da sxva). mocemuli wesi ar gamoiyeneba, Tu saqorwino xelSekrulebiT

sxva ram iqneba gaTvaliswinebuli. amasTan dakavSirebiT, aqve aRsaniSnavia, rom erTerT

saqmeze uzenaesma sasamarTlom ganmarta Semdegi: im qonebis mimdinare remonti, romelic erTerT

meuRles ekuTvnis an iseTi umniSvnelo Tanxis dabandeba, romelic ar gamoiwvevs am qonebis

Rirebulebis mniSvnelovnad gadidebas, ar SeiZleba gaxdes safuZveli qonebis saerTo sakuTrebad

aRiarebisaTvis. qonebis remonti an Tanxebis dabandeba mxolod im SemTxvevaSi SeiZleba

gaxdes safuZveli TanasakuTrebad aRiarebisaTvis, Tu am qonebis Rirebuleba mniSvnelovnad

gaizrdeba (ix.: saqme as-33-489-06. 08.09.2006 w.).

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rac Seexeba saCuqriT miRebuli nivTis iuridiul beds, davis SemTxvevaSi, sasamarTloebi

xelmZRvaneloben prezumfciiT, rom ojaxis saerTo sargeblobisaTvis da ara marto erT-erTi

meuRlis piradi moTxovnilebis dakmayofilebisaTvis gankuTvnili nivTebi, Tu sawinaaRmdego

ar aris damtkicebuli, orive meuRlisaTvis naCuqar qonebad unda CaiTvalos da maTze gavrceldes

meuRleTa TanasakuTrebis reJimi.

kanonmdeblobiT aRiarebulia SesaZlebloba meuRleTa mier qonebrivi urTierTobebis saqorwino

xelSekrulebiT mowesrigebisa, romelic saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobaSi novacias warmoadgens.

xelSekruleba aris mxareTa mier nebis gamovlenis Sedegi, romelic mimarTulia samarTlebrivi

urTierTobis warmoSobis, Secvlis an Sewyvetisaken. mxareebs SeuZliaT Tavisuflad

dadon xelSekrulebebi da gansazRvron am xelSekrulebaTa Sinaarsi. xelSekruleba SeiZleba

daidos, rogorc qorwinebis registraciamde ise registraciis Semdeg, magram samarTlebriv

Sedegebs warmoSobs mxareebisaTvis mxolod qorwinebis maregistrirebel organoSi daregistrirebis

Semdeg. kanonmdeblis imperatiuli moTxovnaa, rom xelSekruleba daidos werilobiTi

formiT da damowmdes sanotari wesiT.

meuRleebs SeuZliaT xelSekrulebis gziT daareguliron iseTi sakiTxebi, rogoricaa qorwinebamde

arsebuli qonebis TanasakuTrebad gadaqceva an qorwinebis ganmavlobaSi SeZenil qonebaze

erT-erTi meuRlis sakuTrebis reJimis gavrceleba da a.S.

rogorc zemoT aRiniSna, saqorwino xelSekrulebiT mxareebi xdebian garkveuli ufleba-movaleobebis

matarebelni, magram aris movaleobebi, romelTa Secvlac saqorwino xelSekrulebiT

dauSvebelia (ssk-is 1179-e muxli). esenia: meuRleTa urTierTrCenis movaleoba, mSoblis uflebamovaleobebi

Svilebis mimarT, saalimento movaleobani da davis SemTxvevaSi _ sasamarTloSi

mimarTvis ufleba. aseve, xelSekrulebiT ar SeiZleba gaTvaliswinebul iqnes iseTi pirobebi,

romlebic mZime mdgomareobaSi ayenebs erT-erT meuRles.

meuRleTa qonebis samarTlebrivi statusis gansazRvra mTlianad damokidebulia maT nebasurvilze.

am sferoSi kanonis mxridan raime saxis SezRudva ar aris. rac Seexeba meuRleTa

qonebriv ufleba-movaleobaTa sxva saxeebs, maT mimarT kanoni gansazRvrul sifrTxiles iCens,

rac meuRleTa da ojaxis sxva wevrTa interesebis darRvevis Tavidan acilebis mizniTaa ganpirobebuli.

ra iTvleba meuRleTa TanasakuTrebad? amaze gvpasuxobs ssk-is 1158-e muxli, sadac miTiTebulia

rom qoneba, SeZenili qorwinebis Semdgom iTvleba meuRleTa TanasakuTrebad Tu saqorwino

xelSekrulebiT sxva ram ar aris gansazRvruli.

qonebis cnebis ganmartebas iZleva ssk-is 147-e muxli. qoneba aris yvela nivTi da aramaterialuri

qonebrivi sikeTe, romelTa flobac, sargebloba da gankargva SeuZliaT fizikur da

iuridiul pirebs da romelTa SeZenac SeiZleba SeuzRudavad, Tu es akrZaluli ar aris kanoniT

an ar ewinaaRmdegeba zneobriv normebs. aRniSnuli qoneba, romelic SeiZleba iyos rogorc moZravi,

ise uZravi arsebobs fizikuri da iuridiuli pirebis sakuTrebaSi.

sakuTrebis ufleba adamianis fundamentur uflebaTa ricxvs ganekuTvneba, romlis gareSec

SeuZlebelia demokratiuli saxelmwifos arseboba. sakuTrebis ufleba adamianis ara marto arsebobis

elementaruli safuZvelia, aramed uzrunvelyofs mis Tavisuflebas, misi unarisa da

Tavisuflebis adekvatur realizacias, cxovrebis sakuTari pasuxismgeblobiT warmarTvas. imavdroulad,

kerZo sakuTreba, rogorc instituti, sabazro ekonomikis birTvs warmoadgens. igi

aris demokratiuli saxelmwifos arsebobis erT-erTi umniSvnelovanesi winapiroba. sakuTreba

adamianis bunebiTi uflebaa. igi adamians dabadebidanve aqvs. sakuTrebis ufleba konstituciiT

garantirebuli, aRiarebuli da uzrunvelyofili uflebaa. saqarTvelos konstituciis

21-e muxlis pirveli punqtis Tanaxmad, saqarTveloSi `sakuTreba da memkvidreobis ufleba aRia-

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ebuli da uzrunvelyofilia. dauSvebelia sakuTrebis, misi SeZenis, gasxvisebis an memkvidreobiT

miRebis sayovelTao uflebis gauqmeba.~

sxadasxva samarTlebrivi regulireba axasiaTebs nivTebs imis gaTvaliswinebiT, isini moZravia

Tu uZravi. uZrav nivTze sakuTrebis warmoSobisaTvis amave kodeqsis 183-e muxliT, savaldebuloa

sajaro reestrSi registracia, radgan swored aqedan iwyeba mesakuTris uflebebis ganxorcieleba,

romelic nivTis misi survilisamebr gankargvas ukavSirdeba. qonebaze SeiZleba vrceldebodes

saerTo sakuTrebis reJimi, anu rodesac ufleba ramdenime pirs erToblivad ekuTvnis.

Cvens mier qonebis Tu sakuTrebis arsis zogadi mimoxilva ukavSirdeboda im problemis ukeT

gamokveTas, romelic warmoiSoba da arsebobs maSin, roca meuRleTa qorwinebis ganmavlobaSi

SeZenili uZravi qoneba sakuTrebis uflebiT aRricxulia sajaro reestrSi mxolod erT

maTganze. meuRleebze rogorc uZravi qonebis TanamesakuTreebze saubari SegviZlia maSin, roca

isini amgvarad arian daregistrirebulni Sesabamis organoSi (sajaro reestrSi). rogorc aRiniSna,

uZravi nivTis registracia imperatiuli moTxovnaa da am danawesidan mxareeebs gadaxveva

ar SeuZliaT. aRniSnulis imperatiuloba ganpirobebulia im faqtiTac, rom sajaro reestri

sajaro-samarTlebriv instituts warmoadgens, sadac xdeba calkeuli kerZosamarTlebriv uflebaTa

registracia, saxeldobr, rogoricaa uZrav nivTebze sakuTreba da sxva sanivTo uflebebi.

sajaro reestris ZiriTadi daniSnulebaa, rom igi asrulebs mowesrigebuli samoqalaqo

brunvis garantiis funqcias, romlis mimarTac moqmedebs utyuarobisa da sisrulis prezumfcia,

vidre sawinaaRmdego ar damtkicdeba. Canawerebis mimarT mesame pirs uCndeba dasabuTebuli

varaudi da ndoba rom sajaro reestrSi aRricxuli piri aris nivTis mesakuTre.

msjeloba meuRleTa TanasakuTrebis warmoSobaze mxolod sajaro reestrSi registraciis

Semdeg, erTi SexedviT, SeiZleba CavTvaloT winaaRmdegobad saojaxo samarTlis iseT fuZemdeblur

sakiTxTan, rogoricaa meuRleTa TanasakuTrebis principi. Teoriasa Tu praqtikaSi gavrcelebuli

mosazrebis Tanaxmad, meuRleTa mier qorwinebis ganmavlobaSi SeZenili qoneba maT

saerTo qonebas (TanasakuTrebas) warmoadgens, miuxedavad imisa, orive maTganzea Tu erT-erTze

registrirebuli. TanasakuTrebis ufleba warmoiSoba maSinac, Tu erT-erTi maTgani eweoda saojaxo

saqmianobas, uvlida Svilebs an sxva sapatio mizezis gamo, ar hqonda damoukidebeli Semosavali.

erTi SexedviT, aRniSnuli saqarTvelos samoqalaqo kodeqsis 1158-e muxlidan gamomdinareobs.

Tumca TanasakuTrebasTan amgvar midgomas ver gaviziarebT da aRvniSnavT, rom zemoT miTi-

Tebuli muxli aris sakuTrebis warmoSobis erT-erTi safuZveli, kanonmdeblis mier miniWebuli

ufleba da ara avtomaturi danawesi TanamesakuTred cnobisa. kanonmdebeli gulisxmobs, rom

qorwinebis ganmavlobaSi SeZenil qonebaze TanasakuTrebis ufleba warmoeSoba orive meuRles

da es ufleba saTanado wesiT saWiroebs realizebas, konkretul SemTxvevaSi ki, sajaro reestrSi

registracias orive maTganze (meuRleebze). es ase rom ar iyos, maSin ssk-is 1158-e muxlSi

aucileblad iarsebebda amgvari Canaweri, rom meuRleTa mier qorwinebis ganmavlobaSi SeZenili

qoneba maT saerTo qonebas (TanasakuTrebas) warmoadgens, miuxedavad am qonebis saTanado wesiT

registraciisa. aseTi Canaweri ki, Cveni mosazrebiT, imitom ar gakeTda, rom calsaxad adgili

eqneboda im mesame pirebis, romlebic keTilsindisierad moqmedeben, interesTa darRvevas, radgan

Tu kanoni sakuTrebis warmoSobis zogadi wesidan (uflebis registracia) gansxvavebul wess

gvTavazobs, miT ufro maSin, roca saqarTvelos kanonmdebloba ar iTvaliswinebs meuRleTa

qorwinebis ganmavlobaSi SeZenili qonebis gankargvis (gasxviseba, ipoTekiT datvirTva da a.S.)

SemTxvevaSi, meore meuRlis werilobiTi Tanxmobis wardgenas Sesabamis organoSi. aseT dros

mesame pirisaTvis sirTules warmoadgens imis gageba, Tu vis ekuTvnis es qoneba, individualur

sakuTrebas warmoadgens Tu ara. sajaro reestrSi registracias arasavaldebulo xasiaTi rom

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hqondes, maSin erT-erTi meuRlis Tanxmobis gareSe, dadebuli xelSekrulebis dros gaTvaliswinebuli

iqneboda ara mesame piris (ssk-is 1160-e muxli), aramed dazaralebuli meuRlis interesi,

rac seriozul safrTxes Seuqmnida sabazro urTierTobebis ganviTarebas, dawevda ndobis

xarisxs da qonebis SeZena dakavSirebuli iqneboda sakmao da dasabuTebul riskTan. vfiqrobT,

esec argumentia imisa, rom miniWebuli uflebis ganxorcielebaze uaris TqmiT (umoqmedobiT)

mxare kargavs nivTze batonobis iseT uflebebs, rac mxolod registrirebul mesakuTres unda

hqondes.

samoqalaqo kodeqsis 1159-e muxlis mixedviT, TanasakuTrebaSi arsebul qonebaze meuRleebs

aqvT Tanabari uflebebi. am qonebis floba sargebloba da gankargva xorcieldeba meuRleTa

urTierTSeTanxmebiT. meuRleTa TanasakuTrebaSi arsebuli qonebis gankargvasTan dakavSirebiT

erTis mier dadebuli garigeba ver iqneba baTilad cnobili meoris moTxovniT im safuZvliTac

ki, Tu meore meuRlem ar icoda garigebis Sesaxeb an ar eTanxmeboda aRniSnul garigebas. aseT

dros meuRles ufleba aqvs moiTxovos qonebis gankargviT miRebuli sargebeli.

Teoriulad daculia im meuRlis interesi, romelsac meores moqmedebiT miadga ziani, magram

am uflebis praqtikaSi realizeba iseT sirTuleebTan aris dakavSirebuli, rogoric moTxovnis

realurad dakmayofilebaa, radgan aseT dros sasamarTlos mier dakmayofilebul sarCels uWirs

aRsruleba, Tu mopasuxes ar gaaCnia qoneba (moZravi an uZravi), razedac SemdgomSi SesaZlebelia

moxdes aRsasruleblad miqceva da amitom umravles SemTxvevebSi, meore meuRlis saerTo qonebis

gankargviT miRebuli zianis anazRaureba praqtikulad gadauWreli da daukmayofilebeli rCeba.

kanonmdebeli amgvari danawesiT kidev erTxel, xazs usvams Tanacxovrebis periodSi SeZenili

qonebis registraciis savaldebuloobas, rasac upirveles yovlisa, safuZvlad TviTon meuRleTa

interesi _ saojaxo samarTlis umniSvnelovanesi principis ganxorcielebis uzrunvelyofa

udevs. sajaro reestris utyuarobisa da sisrulis prezumfciidan gamomdinare, mesame pirebs,

romlebsac aqvT kanonieri ndoba mocemuli monacemisadmi, rogorc ukve aRiniSna da moqmedeben

keTilsindisierad, ar SeiZleba miadgeT ziani. dazaralebulma meuRlem, misive nebiT xelidan

gauSva TanamesakuTred yofnis SesaZlebloba Tavisive interesis sazianod. aseve, radgan dava

exeba qonebas (kerZod, uZravs) specialuri normebi unda veZioT sanivTo samarTlis TavSi, sadac

weria, rom mesakuTred iTvleba piri, romelic aseTad aris registrirebuli Sesabamis organoSi,

anu sajaro reestrSi.

praqtikaSi mravlad aris SemTxvevebi, rodesac mxareebi ganqorwinebasTan erTad sasamarTlos

mimarTaven TxovniT Tanacxovrebis periodSi SeZenili qonebis gayofasTan (TanasakuTrebidan

wilis gamoyofa) dakavSirebiT. aRniSnuli moTxovna sasamarTlos mier ar unda iqnes dakmayofilebuli,

radgan saqarTvelos samoqalaqo saproceso kodeqsis 102-e muxlis Tanaxmad, TiToeulma

mxarem unda daamtkicos garemoebani, romlebzedac igi amyarebs Tavis moTxovnebsa da Sesagebels.

amave muxlis mesame nawilis mixedviT ki, saqmis garemoebebi, romlebic kanonis Tanaxmad, unda

dadasturdes garkveuli saxis mtkicebulebebiT, ar SeiZleba dadasturdes sxva saxis mtkicebulebebiT.

aseT dros TanasakuTrebis samtkiceblad mxolod qorwinebis mowmoba (e.i. mtkicebuleba

imisa, rom sadavo qoneba namdvilad qorwinebis ganmavlobaSi aris SeZenili) ar gamodgeba,

saWiroa amonaweri sajaro reestridan, radgan swored es aris imgvari mtkicebuleba rac adasturebs

zemoaRniSnuls (TanasakuTrebas), aseTis arsebobis SemTxvevaSi ki, SesaZlebelia moTxovnil

iqnes TanasakuTrebidan wilis gamoyofa.

zemoT saubari gvqonda kanonmdeblis mier moniWebul uflebaze qorwinebis ganmavlobaSi

SeZenili qonebis _ TanasakuTrebis sajaro reestrSi daregistrirebasTan dakavSirebiT. rogorc

viciT, mxareebi maTi darRveuli uflebis aRdgenis mizniT, xSirad mimarTaven sasamarTlos.

sasamarTlosadmi mimarTvis ufleba yoveli adamianis garantirebuli uflebaa. sasamarTlom ar

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SeiZleba uari Tqvas marTlmsajulebis ganxorcielebaze. roca sakuTrebis uflebis registracia

Tanacxovrebis ganmavlobaSi SeZenil qonebaze aris erT-erT meuRleze ganxorcielebuli da

meore meuRles surs masTan erTad daregistrirdes rogorc TanamesakuTre da gamoiyenos 1158-e

muxliT misTvis miniWebuli ufleba da aseT dros awydeba winaaRmdegobas meore meuRlisagan

rogorc qorwinebis ganmavlobaSi, ise ganqorwinebisas (Tumca, amgvari davebi ufro xSiria ganqorwinebis

dros) mas SeuZlia sasamarTlos mimarTos TanamesakuTred cnobis moTxovniT, roca

warmodgenilia saTanado mtkicebulebebi (aseT dros, ukve qorwinebis mowmoba, imis samtkiceblad

rom qorwinebis ganmavlobaSi moxda SeZena da a.S.) moTxovna safuZvliani da dasabuTebulia.

sajaro reestrisaTvis erT-erTi meuRlis mimarTva im mizniT, rom daaregistriron TanamesakuTred

uZrav qonebaze, radgan SeZenilia qorwinebis ganmavlobaSi da mtkicebulebad qorwinebis

mowmobis wardgena uSedego iqneba, vinaidan qorwineba ar aris sajaro reestrisaTvis

mesakuTred daregistrirebis iseTi safuZveli, rogoricaa nasyidobis, Cuqebis, gacvlis da a.S.

xelSekrulebebi. aseT dros, sasamarTlos mier TanamesakuTed cnobis da reestris monacemebSi

cvlilebebis Setanis moTxovna unda dakmayofildes, radgan mxarem sadavo sakiTxis iZulebiT

mosawesrigeblad, mimarTa marTlmsajulebis ganmxorcielebel organos.

Tu kargad gadavxedavT mocemul sakiTxTan mimarTebiT sasamarTloebis SemuSavebul praqtikas,

mivalT daskvnamde, rom qorwinebis ganmavlobaSi SeZenil qonebaze meuRleTa TanasakuTreba

warmoiSoba miuxedavad registraciisa da sasamarTlo praqtika ambobs, rom meuRleTa TanasakuTrebisadmi

ama Tu im qonebis mikuTvnebisaTvis mniSvneloba aqvs im garemoebas, rom qoneba SeZenili

iyos meuRleTa mier qorwinebis gnmavlobaSi erToblivi SromiTa da saerTo saxsrebiT, rasac ar

veTanxmebiT.

zemoT aRniSnulidan naTlad Cans, rom TanasakuTrebas maSin aqvs adgili, roca uZrav qonebaze

meuRleebi TanamesakuTreebad arian daregistrirebulni sajaro reestrSi da ara avtomaturad,

mxolod im pirobis dakmayofilebiT, rom sadavo qoneba qorwinebis ganmavlobaSi iyos SeZenili.

aqedan gamomdinare, ganxilul sakiTxebTan mimarTebaSi, samoqalaqo brunvis ganviTarebasTan

erTad ufro meti windaxedulebis gamoCena gvmarTebs, raTa SemdgomSi Cvenive umoqmedobiT ar

moxdes sakuTari interesebis Selaxva.

gamoyenebuli literatura:

1. saqarTvelos konstitucia;

2. saqarTvelos samoqalaqo kodeqsi;

3. saqarTvelos samoqalaqo saproceso kodeqsi;

4. saqarTvelos samoqalaqo kodeqsis komentari, Tbilisi, 2000, wigni

mexuTe;

5. saqarTvelos samoqalaqo kodeqsis komentari (wigni meore);

6. roman Sengelia, saojaxo samarTali, kanonTa komentarebi, Tbilisi,

1999;

7. saqarTvelos axalgazrda iuristTa asociacia, sakuTrebis ufleba

saqarTveloSi, Tbilisi, 2007;

8. saqarTvelos uzenaesi sasamaTlos 2006 wlis gadawyvetilebaTa

krebuli;

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GROUNDS FOR

ORIGINATION OF

CO-OWNERSHIP

RIGHTS OF SPOUSES

THEA KALANDADZE

Lawyer

Family law has its own, very peculiar features. Family law regulates

relationships participants to which we automatically become right after

birth; this is when the obligations of parents towards children and vice

versa start. Spouses’, as well as family members’ authorities are defined.

The paper below reviews the subject of property relationships of spouses;

namely, legal future of the property acquired during marriage (when the

given issues is not regulated by the marriage contract). Then, co-ownership

represents the problem according to the Family and Property Law;

as well as collision between provisions regulating origination of the right

to property, which is provided in the two areas of civil law.

Besides, the article reviews problems related to formulation of the demands

of the claim during hearing of the dispute by the court, as well as

the attitude of the court to the arisen problem of marital co-ownership,

etc.

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organizebuli

danaSaulis

winaaRmdeg brZola

italiaSi

daviT mesxiSvili

grigol robaqiZis saxelobis universitetis

iuridiuli fakultetis doqtoranti

organizebul danaSaulTan brZola italiaSi gansakuTrebuli

TaviseburebebiT xasiaTdeba. miuxedavad imisa, rom mafias sakmaod

xangrZlivi istoria aqvs, didi xnis manZilze qveynis xelisufleba

araTu ar ebrZoda, aramed saerTod mis arsebobasac ar

aRiarebda. specialistebis azriT, gadaWarbebuli ar aris mosazreba,

rom mafia mSvidobianad Tanaarsebobs saxelmwifo xelisuflebis

organoebTan erTad. 1 realuri Zvrebi organizebuli dana-

Saulis winaaRmdeg brZolis sferoSi 1982 wlidan daiwyo, ramdenime

Tanamdebobis piris sazareli mkvlelobis Semdeg. 1982-1992

wlebSi miRebulia 114 normatiuli aqti, romelic pirdapir an

arapirdapir mimarTulia organizebuli danaSaulis winaaRmdeg.

maT Soris, yvelaze mniSvnelovania 1982 wlis 13 seqtembris #646

kanoni, romelsac mafiis mier mokluli avtorebis pativsacemad

ronioni da la tores saxelwodebiT moixseneben. garda amisa,

ZiriTadi sakanonmdeblo aqti organizebuli danaSaulis sferoSi

aris 1965 wlis 31 maisis `kanoni mafiis winaaRmdeg~ (antimafia),

sadac sityva `mafia~ pirvelad iqna gamoyenebuli sakanonmdeblo

doneze, agreTve calekuli debulebebi mocemulia

sisxlis samarTlis kodeqssa da sxva sakanonmdeblo aqtebSi.

ZiriTad antimafiur sakanonmdeblo aqtad miiCneva 1965 wlis

31 maisis #575 `kanoni mafiis winaaRmdeg~ (antimafia), romelmac

Semdgom arsebiTi cvlilebebi ganicada. igi exeba pirebs, romlebic

eWvmitanilni arian mafiuri tipis dajgufebebis, kamorasa

107


marTlmsajuleba

N2

da

kanoni

Tu sxva gaerTianebaTa wevrobaSi maTi adgilobrivi dasaxelebis miuxedavad, romlebic mafiuri

gaerTianebis interesebisaTvis iRvwian da Sesabamisi meTodebiTve moqmedeben. 2

amgvarad, amerikuli rikosgan gasxvavebiT, aRniSnuli kanoni sjis konkretuli dajgufebis

wevrobas. is, Tu ra CaiTvleba `mafiozuri dajgufebisaTvis damaxasiaTebel miznad~, kanoniT

gansazRvruli ar aris. am SemTxvevaSi, zogadad, organizebuli danaSaulis ganmartebas unda

daveyrdnoT da amgvar miznad ukanono Semosavlis miReba miviCnioT. rac Seexeba meTodebs, romlebzec

imave muxlSia miTiTebuli, zogadi cnebidan gamomdinare, aseTad unda CaiTvalos Zaladoba

an Zaladobis muqara, nebismier saqmianobaSi monopoliuri mdgomareobis mopoveba, wevrTa

usafrTxoebis uzrunvelsayofad pirTa mosyidva da a.S.

kanonis danarCeni normebi eTmoba qonebis konfiskaciisa da misi saxelmwifosaTvis gadacemis

proceduras. kanoni qonebis cnebaSi aerTianebs uZrav da moZrav qonebas, maT Soris, fasian qaRaldebs.

prokuroris an kvestoris (policiis ufrosi) moTxovnis safuZvelze tribunali iRebs

gadawyvetilebas qonebis dayadaRebis Sesaxeb. igi daeqvemdebareba konfiskacias, Tu ar dadasturda

misi kanonieri warmomavloba, rac unda daamtkicos braldebulma. yadaRis Sesaxeb gadawyvetilebis

miRebamde misi warmoSobis ukanonobas amtkicebs prokurori an kvestori. amgvarad,

saqme gvaqvs mtkicebis tvirTis Sereul saxesTan. 3 CamorTmeuli qonebis marTvisaTvis daniSnuli

administratoris movaleobaa dayadaRebuli sakuTrebis dacva, Senaxva da administrireba, aseve,

SesaZleblobis SemTxvevaSi, qonebis gazrda. yovelive es xorcieldeba mosamarTlis uSualo

zedamxedvelobiT. mkacradaa gansazRvruli administratoris saqmianobis reglamenti, raTa

Tavidan iqnas acilebuli CamorTmeuli qonebis gankargva misi uwindeli mflobelis mier. administrators

ekrZaleba mTeli rigi qmedebebis ganxorcieleba, kerZod: mosamarTlis winaswari

nebarTvis gareSe sesxis aReba, garigebis dadeba, saarbitraJo SeTanxmeba, Tavdeboba, qonebis

ipoTekiT datvirTva, sasamarTlo procesze mxared gamosvla. CamorTmeuli qonebis movlisa da

SenaxvisaTvis saWiro an aucilebel xarjebs anazRaurebs administratori saamisod gamoyofili

Tanxebidan. Tu ar moipoveba dayadaRebuli qonebis samarTavad sakmarisi Tanxa, maSin am xarjebs

gaiRebs saxelmwifo, xolo yadaRis gauqmebis SemTxvevaSi _ qonebis marTvisa da dacvisaTvis

gaRebuli xarjebi saxelmwifos ar aunazRaurdeba. qonebis konfiskaciis Sesaxeb gadawyvetilebis

miRebis SemTxvevaSi, administratoris mier gaweuli saqmianobis, misi momsaxurebis, agreTve,

mis mier damxmare pirebze gacemuli xarjebi anazRaurdeba CamorTmeuli qonebis administrirebis

angariSidan. Tu arsebuli Tanxebi ver faravs zemoxsenebul xarjebs, maT nawilobriv an mTlianad

anazRaurebs saxelmwifo ukuanazRaurebis uflebis gareSe. yadaRis gauqmebis SemTxvevaSi, zemoxsenebul

xarjebs mTlianad gaiRebs saxelmwifo.

1996 wlis 7 marts, kanonSi Setanil iqna cvlileba, romelic CamorTmeuli qonebis Semdgom

gankargvas Seexeba. `aman konfiskacias savsebiT realuri da imavdroulad, keTilSobiluri daniSnuleba

SesZina. kerZod, cvlileba ayalibebs racionalur meqanizms konfiskacias daqvemdebarebuli

qonebis Semdgomi gankargvisaTvis. amgvari qonebis marTvisas Semosuli fuladi saxsrebi

akumulirdeba prefeqturasTan arsebul fondSi, raTa Semdgom SesaZleblobis farglebSi,

CamorTmeuli uZravi qoneba gaices instituciuri, socialuri da sajaro interesebis gansaxorcieleblad,

administrirebis proeqtebis, Tundac, nawilobriv dasafinanseblad. aseve, iseTi

specifikuri saqmianobisaTvis, rogoricaa: dazianebuli sacxovrebeli raionebis aRdgena, si-

Raribisa da segregaciis aRmofxvra, skolebSi marTlwesrigis Semswavleli kursebis danergva,

axalgazrda umuSevarTa Soris samewarmeo kulturisa da mewarmeobis ganviTarebis xelSewyoba.

agreTve, es Tanxebi da uZravi qoneba emsaxureba narkomaniasTan brZolas, narkomanTa mkurnalobasa

da maT reabilitacias, risTvisac isini gadaecema sxvadasxva socialuri funqciis mqone

108


iuridiul pirebs, Tu isini akmayofileben garkveul pirobebs. amdenad, kanoni sazogadoebisaTvis

usamarTlod warTmeul ama Tu im sikeTes sazogadoebasve ubrunebs.~ 4

1982 wlis 13 seqtembers miRebul iqna `debulebani qonebrivi xasiaTis aRmkveTi RonisZiebebis

Sesaxeb,~ romelsac ronioni-la tores saxelwodebiT ixsenieben proeqtis avtorebis, qristiandemokratis,

Sinagan saqmeTa ministris virjinio ronionisa da komunistebis lideris, pio la

tores pativsacemad.

miTiTebulma kanonma Semoitana ori siaxle – modificirebul iqna sisxlis samarTlis 416-e

muxli, ris Sedegadac moxda `mafiuri tipis gaerTianebis~ kriminalizacia da gafarTovda Sesabamisi

organoebis uflebamosileba eWvmitanil pirebze TvalTvalis ganxorcielebasa da maTTvis

gadaadgilebis Tavisuflebis SezRudvaSi.

zemoT miTiTebuli cvlilebebis Sesabamisad Seqmnili sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsis 416 muxlis

Sesabamisad, dajgufeba iTvleba mafiozuri tipis dajgufebad, Tu igi Sedgeba sami

wevrisagan mainc, romlebic iyeneben daSinebas, adgenen morCilebisa da dumilis pirobebs, rac

emsaxureba danaSaulis Cadenas, ekonomikuri saqmianobis menejmentis, koncesiebis, licenziebis,

saxelmwifo kontraqtebisa da sajaro samsaxuris pirdapir an arapirdapir daqvemdebarebas an

masze kontrolis uSualo an irib ganxorcielebas, TavisTvis an sxva pirebisaTvis ukanono Semosavlebis

an upiratesobis misaRebad. 5

damamZimebel garemoebebad iTvleba cecxlsasroli iaraRis floba an gamoyeneba, aseve,

ukanonod mopovebuli Semosavlebis meSveobiT masTan dakavSirebul ekonomikur saqmianobaze

kontrolis mopoveba. 6

aRniSnuli normatiuli aqtis safuZvelze, msjavrdebuli pirebi kargaven sapolicio, vaWrobis,

biTumad vaWrobis, saauqciono brokerobis, sazogadoebrivi wylebis koncesiis licenzirebis

uflebas, aseve, sajaro administraciis kuTvnil samSeneblo samuSaoebis ganmaxorcielebel

kontraqtorTa siaSi registraciis uflebas. am muxlis debulebani exeba kamorasa da

sxva gaerTianebebs, romlebic iyeneben daSinebas da aqvT mafiozuri tipis dajgufebaTa msgavsi

miznebi.

rionioni-la tores kanonis me-3 Tavi finansur debulebebs Seexeba, konkretulad ki, qonebis

CamorTmevis proceduras. finansuri gvardiis sagadasaxado policiis samsaxuri savaluto da

korporaciul danaSaulTa gaxsnis mizniT qvemdebareobis mixedviT axorcielebs im pirebis finansuri

mdgomareobis gamoZiebas, romelTa mimarTac gamotanilia Tundac, arasaboloo ganaCeni

zemoT miTiTebuli qmedebebis CadenisaTvis an romelTa mimarTac miRebulia Tundac, arasaboloo

gadawyvetileba aRmkveTi RonisZiebis Sefardebis Sesaxeb, antimafiis safuZvelze. ganaCenis

an aRmkveTi RonisZiebis gamoyenebis Sesaxeb gadawyvetilebis asli saamisod uflebamosili kancelariis

mier gadaecema am muxlis pirvel nawilSi miTiTebul finansuri gvardiis sagadasaxado

policiis samsaxurs. gadawyvetilebis gauqmeba, romlis safuZvelzec pirs Seefarda aRmkveTi

RonisZieba, ar warmoadgens dabrkolebas gamoZiebisas gamoaSkaravebuli monacemebis safinanso

gamoZiebis mizniT gamoyenebisaTvis. mafiis wevrobaSi msjavrdebuli pirebi, valdebulni arian

sagadasaxado policias acnobon maTi qonebis Rirebulebis nebismieri cvalebadoba, romelic

aRemateba 20 000 000 liras (daaxloebiT, 13 000 aSS dolari). Tu safinanso policiis mier

ganxorcielebuli Semowmebisas gamovlindeba finansuri xasiaTis danaSauli, prokurori awarmoebs

sisxlissamarTlebriv devnas. piris dakaveba yovelTvis savaldebuloa finansuri, savaluto

an korporaciuli xasiaTis danaSaulTa Cadenis SemTxvevaSi, romlebic sasjelis zomis

saxiT iTvaliswinebs Tavisuflebis aRkveTas da Cadenilia im pirTa mier, romelTa mimarTac

gamotanilia saboloo ganaCeni mafiozuri tipis dajgufebis wevrobisaTvis an saboloo gadawyve-

109


marTlmsajuleba

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da

kanoni

tilebiT, maT mimarT ukve moqmedebs aRmkveTi RonisZieba, antimafiis safuZvelze. winaswari

dakavebis vada ganisazRvreba sisxlis samarTlis saproceso kodeqsis 272-e muxliT, rac arc

erT SemTxvevaSi, ar SeiZleba aRematebodes danaSaulisaTvis gaTvaliswinebuli maqsimaluri

sasjelis or mesameds. Tu piris mier finansur, savaluto an korporaciul danaSaulTan erTad

Cadenilia sxva danaSauli, procesis gaerTianeba dauSvebelia. finansuri, savaluto an korporaciuli

danaSaulis saqmes, nebismier SemTxvevaSi, ganixilavs igive sasamarTlo, romelmac am

pirs Seufarda aRmkveTi RonisZieba an daadgina misi kuTvnileba mafiozuri dajgufebisadmi.

sainteresoa, rom ronioni-la tores kanonis 30-e muxlis mixedviT, pirebi, romelTac saboloo

ganaCeniT sasjeli daekisraT sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsis 416-bi muxliT gaTvaliswinebuli

danaSaulis CadenisaTvis an saboloo gadawyvetilebiT daekisraT 1965 wlis 31 maisis #575

kanoniT gaTvaliswinebuli aRmkveTi RonisZieba, ramdenadac eWvmitanilad iqnen miCneuli am

kanonis pirveli muxliT gansazRvruli dajgufebis wevrobaSi, valdebulni arian, am faqtidan

30 dRis vadaSi da 10 wlis ganmavlobaSi sacxovrebeli adgilis mixedviT arsebul sagadasaxado

policiis samsaxurs acnobon maT qonebriv mdgomareobaSi momxdari cvlilebebis Sesaxeb, Tu

maTi qoneba aRemateba 20 milion liras. 10 wlis vadis aTvla iwyeba gadawyvetilebis miRebis an

saboloo ganaCenis gamotanis dRidan. is, vinc kanoniT dadgenil vadebSi ar warmoadgens cnobas

30-e muxliT gaTvaliswinebuli qonebrivi cvlilebebis Sesaxeb, isjeba Tavisuflebis aRkveTiT

vadiT oridan eqvs wlamde da jarimiT 20-dan 40 milion liramde. 7

ronioni-la tores kanonis kidev erTi mniSvnelovani nawilia me-4 Tavi, romelic iTvaliswinebs

mafiasTan sabrZolvelad saparlamento komisiis Seqmnas, romlis mizania:

mafiisa da misi kavSirebis fenomenTan dakavSirebiT miRebuli am kanonisa da sxva saxelmwifo

kanonebis aRsrulebaze kontrolis daweseba;

moqmedi normebisa da sajaro xelisuflebis organoTa mier saTanado reagirebis arsebobis

dadgena, aseve, mafiozuri fenomenis saxecvlilebebTan dakavSirebiT, sakanonmdeblo da

administraciuli xasiaTis winadadebebis formulireba, raTa gaZlierdes saxelmwifos iniciativa;

yovelwliurad da gansakuTrebul SemTxvevebSi, parlamentisaTvis angariSis wardgena.

rac Seexeba komisiis struqturas, igi Sedgeba oci senatorisa da oci deputatisagan, romlebsac

Sesabamisad, irCeven respublikis senatis prezidentis da palatis prezidentis mier

saparlamento jgufebis wevrTa raodenobis proporciulad, raTa daculi iqnas parlamentis

orive palatis yoveli jgufis warmomadgenloba. komisiis Tavmjdomares irCeven ori asambleis

prezidentTa saerTo Tanxmobis safuZvelze _ parlamentis orive palatis wevrTagan. komisia

irCevs or vice-prezidents da or mdivans.

komisiis saqmianoba emyareba Tavad komisiis mierve miRebul Sida reglaments. reglamentSi

cvlilebebis Setana dasaSvebia nebismieri wevris iniciativiT.

garda zemoT ganxiluli ori umniSvnelovanesi specialuri kanonisa, organizebul danaSaul-

Tan dakavSirebuli calkeuli debulebebi ramdenime sakanonmdeblo aqtSia gabneuli. maT Soris,

upirvelesad, unda aRiniSnos, italiis sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsi, romlis 416-e muxli organizebul

danaSauls martivad, sami elementis safuZvelze gansazRvravs _ jgufuroba, organizebuloba

da danaSaulebrivi programa. rac Seexeba mafiozuri tipis dajgufebas, aRniSnuli

calkea gansazRvruli ronioni-la tores kanonis safuZvelze. 8

amgvarad, naTelia, rom sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsiT gaTvaliswinebul cnebas aklia organizebuli

danaSaulisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli iseTi arsebiTi niSnebi, rogoricaa iZulebis gamoyeneba,

didi odenobiT Semosavlis miReba.

aseve mniSvnelovania, sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsis 318-323-e muxlebi, romlebic Seexeba, qrTamis

aRebas da samsaxurebrivi mdgomareobis borotad gamoyenebas, radganac Tanamdebobis

110


pirebisa da samarTaldacavi organos TanamSromlebis mosyidva mafiis saqmianobis Cveulebrivi

formaa. kodeqsi calke gamoyofs qrTamis aRebas ukanono sasamarTlo moqmedebebisaTvis.

fulis gaTeTreba italiuri kanonmdeblobiT 1978 wlidan isjeba. sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsis

648-bi muxlis mixedviT, piris mier danaSaulis Cadenis gziT miRebuli fulis, qonebis an sxva

sargeblis gadacvla an gadaricxva an am qmedebaTa Cadena sxva operaciebis ganxorcielebiT,

romlebic xels uSlis maTi danaSaulebrivi warmomavlobis dadgenas, isjeba Tavisuflebis

aRkveTiT, vadiT oTxidan Tormet wlamde da jarimiT, oridan ocdaaT milion liramde. 20 000

000 liraze meti Tanxis nebismieri transferi saWiroebs deklarirebas.

1993 wlis 28 agvistos #328 kanoni did wilad imeorebs `fulis gaTeTrebis Sesaxeb~ evropuli

konvenciis debulebebs. aRniSnuli aqtis safuZvelze, fulis gaTeTrebas warmoadgens nebismieri

danaSaulis Sedegad miRebuli Semosavlebis reinvestireba da ara mxolod oTxi danaSaulis

(narkotikebiT vaWroba, adamianebis gataceba, yaCaRoba dadamZimebel garemoebSi, gamoZalva),

rogorc es manamde moqmedi kanonmdeblobiT iyo dadgenili, magram kvlav mougvarebeli rCeba

smarfingis problema. `ar arsebobs finansuri tranzaqciebisaTvis Tvalyuris sadevneblad

erTiani sistema. SesaZlebelia moxdes Tanxis dayofa 20 000 000-ze nakleb odenobebad da amgvarad

ganxorcieldes transferi.~ 9

organizebul danaSaulTan brZolis procesSi gansakuTrebulad didi mniSvneloba aqvs sazogadoebis

rols. mafia sazogadoebrivi fenomenia da upirvelesad, swored sazogadoeba unda

aRudges mas, winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi, sasamarTaldamcavi organoebis Zalisxmeva arsebiT Sedegs

ver gamoiRebs.

Tamamad SeiZleba iTqvas, rom organizebuli danaSauli arsad yofila imaze ufro `mZime seni~,

vidre italiaSi. swored amitom, mizanSewonilia im RonisZiebebis mimoxilva, romlebic Tavad

sazogadoebis `mkurnalobisakenaa~ mimarTuli.

saerTod, italiaSi da konkretulad, palermoSi, mafiis winaaRmdeg sazogadoebis gaaqtiureba

jovani falkonesa da paolo borselinos saxels ukavSirdeba. 1992 wels, pirvelad, swored maTma

mkvlelobam aamxedra mosaxleoba da dasabami daudo e.w. `kulturul revolucias~. imisaTvis,

rom naTeli gaxdes, ras niSnavs kulturuli revolucia da ra kavSiri aqvs mas mafiis winaaRmdeg

brZolasTan, sasurvelia am revoluciamde mimdinare da misi gamomwvevi procesebis ganxilva.

falkone da borselino palermoeli mosamarTleebi iyvnen. isini 80-ian wlebSi didi warmatebiT

axorcielebdnen sasamarTlo gamoZiebebs. maT, ramdenime kolegasTan da policiis oficrebTan

erTad, aRmoaCines da gaanadgures mafiis is struqtura, romelic adre misteriisa da

legendebis burusiT iyo moculi da faqtobrivad, xelSeuxeblad iTvleboda. maTi wyalobiT

ganxorcielda cnobili sasamarTlo e. w. `maqsi procesi~ (Maxi trial) mafiis winaaRmdeg, romlis

Sedegadac mafiozuri dajgufebis asobiT wevri iqna mxilebuli, dadanaSaulebuli da msjavrdebuli.

gasuli saukunis 80-iani wlebis dasawyisisaTvis, realurad, mafiam Zalauflebis mwvervals

miaRwia, moixveWa usazRvro simdidre da Tavis statusSi darwmunebuli, dausjelad moqmedebda.

`garegnulad friad uimedo situaciidan amotivtivda erTi SemTxveva, romelic mafiis TviTganadgurebis

marcvals Seicavda. albaT, es iyo sakuTari Zalauflebis gadaWarbebuli rwmena,

ramac ubiZga erT-erTi mafiozuri klanis _ e.w. `korleonelebis~ dajgufebis xelmZRvanel salvatore

`toto~ riinas, rom Sida omi gaeCaRebina organizaciaze mTliani Zalauflebis xelSi

Casagdebad, ramac gamoiwvia aTasamde adamianis mkvleloba. 10 80-iani wlebis pirveli naxevari

aRiniSneba `korleonelebis~ mier umowyalod daxocili mafiozebisa da maTi axloblebis, maT

Soris, qalebisa da bavSvebis dausrulebeli siiT; agreTve, `brwyinvale gvamebis~ aranakleb

sisxliani nusxiT _ mosamarTleebi, policielebi, karabinerebi (samxedro policia), politikuri

moRvaweebi da Jurnalistebi, romlebic imis gamo daxoces, rom safrTxes uqmnidnen maT or-

111


marTlmsajuleba

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da

kanoni

ganizacias an maT bizness eRobebodnen. `korleonelebma~ ver gaacnobieres, rom swored maTma

borotma qedmaRlobam gauCina bzari erT dros SeuRwevad sistemas, romelsac mafia wlebis

ganmavlobaSi qmnida Tavisi moRvaweobiT.~ 11 1987 wels ojaxis aTi wevris mkvlelobis Semdeg,

`korleonelebis~ mowinaaRmdege erT-erTi mafiozuri klanis `kapom~ (igive Capodecina _

aTmeTauri, romelic mafiozuri ojaxis SigniT akontrolebs `jariskacTa~ gansazRvrul odenobas)

12 _ tomazo buSetam Tanxmoba ganacxada policiasTan TanamSromlobaze 13 . realurad, es

`omertas~ (dumilis kanoni) darRvevas niSnavda.

amave periodSi gangaSi atyda samoqalaqo sazogadoebasa da politikur samyaroSi. amdeni mamaci

da patiosani adamianis mkvlelobiT gamowveulma sayovelTao aRSfoTebam biZgi misca mTeli

rigi antimafiozuri asociaciebis Camoyalibebas, romelTac saTaveSi Caudgnen pedagogebi,

religiuri moRvaweebi da sxva moxaliseebi. bolos da bolos kaTolikurma eklesiamac daarRvia

dumili da Riad dagmo mafiis saqmianoba. 14

zemoaRniSnulis Sedegad, 1992 wlis 31 ianvars, sakasacio sasamarTlos ganaCeniT, mafiis yvela

boss, cixeSi myofsa Tu mimaluls, samudamo patimroba miesaja.

amis Semdeg, movlenebi swrafad ganviTarda. jer iyo da 1992 wlis TebervalSi, saxelmwifo

seqtorSi arsebuli korufciis saqmeebi gaixsna, rac salvo limas, evroparlamentis wevrisa da

qristianul-demokratiuli partiis siciliis regionis erT-erTi mTavari warmomadgenlis mkvlelobiT

dasrulda. arsebuli informaciiT aRniSnuli faqti gamoiwvia `korleonelebis~ lideris

_ toto riinas ganrisxebam, rom salvo limam, romelic wlebis ganmavlobaSi mafiis mxardaWeriT

sargeblobda, ver daicva isini, rodesac sakasacio sasamarTlo `maqsi-procesis~ gadawyvetilebas

amtkicebda. 15 amave wels, mafiis mier organizebul afeTqebas emsxverpla jovani falkonesa da

misi meuRlis sicocxle, sam pirad mcvelTan erTad. 16

xalxis reaqcia, romelic falkones mkvlelobas mohyva, warmoudgeneli iyo. falkonesa da

palermoelebs Soris arsebobda gansakuTrebuli damokidebuleba. swored amiT SeiZleba aixsnas

is didi Soki, romelic qalaqma misi mkvlelobiT ganicada. amave aspeqtiT aixsneba xalxis mZafri

reaqciac, rac gamoixata mafiis winaaRmdeg mowyobil demonstraciebSi, sadac ormociaTasamde

adamiani iRebda monawileobas 17 . protestis swored am talRas uwodebs enco lodato `kulturul

revolucias,~ radganac es marTlac iyo xalxis azrovnebis mimarTulebis Secvla. Tumca, mafiam

movlenebi saTanadod ver Seafasa. imave wels, xuT pirad mcvelTan erTad moklul iqna palermos

mTavari prokuroris postze falkones Semcvleli _ paolo borselino. 18 SeiZleba iTqvas, rom

es mkvleloba bolo wveTi gamodga. jovani falkonesa da paolo borselinos mkvlelobebi aTasobiT

italielis mier aRqmul iqna, rogorc Rrma, piradi tkivili, TiTqosda sakuTari megobrebi

dakarges maT. xalxi xelisuflebisagan saTanado reagirebas moiTxovda. sazogadoebis zewolis

Sedegad, erovnulma mTavrobam daiwyo masStaburi antimafiuri kampania, romlis farglebSic

palermos quCebSi Seyvanil iqna 7 000 samxedro. 19 Sedegad dapatimrebul iqnen mafiis mTavari

figurebi. aRniSnulis miuxedavad, yovelTvis arsebobda yuradRebis modunebisa da mafiis

Semobrunebis safrTxe.

swored am riskis Tavidan asacileblad gaCnda `palermos aRorZinebis~ idea, romelic sxvadasxva

mimarTulebis proeqtebs moicavda. upirveles yovlisa, aucilebeli iyo adgilobrivi

mmarTvelobis organoebisaTvis ndobis dabruneba, rasac palermos axalma saqalaqo sabWom

warmatebiT gaarTva Tavi. mTavari, rac kriminalebis amdenxniani batonobis Semdeg sazogadoebas

sWirdeboda, aris samoqalaqo azrovnebis Camoyalibeba da kanonisadmi pativiscemis amaRleba.

swored am mizniT, axalma sabWom saqmianoba sami mimarTulebiT warmarTa. moqmedebis sferoebad

SeirCa skola, qalaqis dagegmareba da kultura.

cxadia, skola umniSvnelovanesi safexuria piris moqalaqed aRzrdis procesSi. `saskolo

kanonmdeblobiT miniWebuli SesaZleblobebis gamoyenebiT da palermos skolebis sammarTvelos

112


mxridan kanonierebis sakiTxebSi ganaTlebis mxardaWeriT, qalaqis ganaTlebis ganyofilebam

alesandra siraguzas xelmZRvanelobiT mTeli rigi farTomasStabiani RonisZiebebi ganaxorciela,

ramac sasikeTo Sedegebi gamoiRo.~ 20

antimafiis saparlamento komisiis zewolis Sedegad, 1993 wlidan skolebis saswavlo programaSi

Setanil iqna masala `karg moqalaqed aRzrdisa~ da `antimafiis~ Sesaxeb. ukve 1998 wlisaTvis

daaxloebiT, 620-ma skolam wamoiwyo aRniSnuli programebisa da masTan dakavSirebuli aTasamde

proeqtis ganxorcieleba, romelic moicavda 8 000 maswavlebelsa da 800 000 mde moswavles. 21

aRniSnuli mimarTulebiT, erT-erTi umniSvnelovanesi iyo 1992 wlis dekemberSi, `evropis

Tanamegobrobis~ patronaJiT samxreT italiaSi dawyebuli proeqti `skola Svilad iyvans Zegls~,

romelic ukve 1994 wlisaTvis erovnul doneze gavrcelda da moicavda 65 qalaqis sabWos, 100

skolasa da 600 000-mde moswavles. 22 programa sTavazobs skolas, rom mouaros romelime istoriul

Zegls. amasTan, moswavleebi axorcieleben informaciuli da sailustracio masalebis moZiebas,

qmnian rukebsa da plakatebs, xdeba gamofenebis organizeba `Svilobili~ Zeglis istoriis

Temaze, aseve, megzurobas uwven Zeglebis daTvalierebis msurvelebs.

1998 wlisaTvis palermo iyo erTaderTi italiuri qalaqi, romelic agrZelebda miTiTebuli

proeqtis ganxorcielebas. 1997-98 akademiuri wlis ganmavlobaSi, qalaqis 124-ma skolam `iSvila~

121 monumenti.

amave periods ukavSirdeba eklesiis gaaqtiureba organizebuli danaSaulis winaaRmdeg.

sxvadasxva konkretuli mRvdlebis qmedebebTan erTad umniSvnelovanesi nabiji iyo 1992 wlis

oqtomberSi, eklesiis doqtrinaluri dadgenilebiT Camoyalibebuli 21-punqtiani dokumenti _

`mafia da qristianobis gavrceleba (evangelization)~, romlis Sesabamisadac, mafiozebad cnobil

pirebs ekrZalebodaT qristianul saidumloebebTan ziareba Tu ar moinaniebdnen da ar daamtkicebdnen

TavianT gulwrfelobas. maT, aseve, CamoerTvaT naTliobis ufleba. agreTve, mafiis

wevrebi, romlebic daiRupebodnen SeiaraRebuli dapirispirebis dros an cixeSi monaniebis raime

niSnis gareSe, rCebodnen religiuri wesis augeblad.

cxadia, yvela am process pirdapiri kavSiri ara aqvs organizebuli danaSaulis winaaRmdeg

brZolasTan, magram amgvari RonisZiebebi aucilebelia sazogadoebis TviTSegnebis amaRlebisa

da socialuri kulturis Camoyalibebis TvalsazrisiT. es ki, TavisTavad erT-erTi mniSvnelovani

safexuria mafiis damarcxebis gzaze. yvela am proeqts erTi saerTo mizani aqvs: `1992 wlis

revoluciuri momentis gamoyeneba da am energiis gardaqmna dadebiT da nayofier Sedegad Tu

konkretul qmedebad. degradaciidan aRdgenisaken, izolaciidan erTianobisaken, korufciidan

gamWirvalobisaken, mafiozuri kulturidan samarTlis kulturisaken, skepticizmidan rwmenisaken,

sibnelidan sinaTlisaken _ swored es aris aRorZinebis is gzebi, romliTac ganagrZobs

svlas qalaqi ara mxolod municipalitetis, aramed samoqalaqo sazogadoebis yvela fenis (samRvdeloeba,

asociaciebi, skolebi, presa, profkavSirebi da sxva samTavrobo saagentoebi) daxmarebiT,

romlebic municipalitetis yovelgvari Carevis gareSe, damoukideblad vidodnen imave

gzebiT.~ 23

zemoTqmulidan gamomdinare, naTeli xdeba Semdegi: organizebuli danaSaulis winaaRmdeg

sabrZolvelad aucilebelia sami momentis erTianoba, esenia: 1. saxelmwifos politikuri neba _

SeinarCunos sifxizle da mudmivad ebrZolos organizebul danaSauls; 2. moqalaqeTa mtkice

survili, gaTavisufldes kriminalebis zewolisagan, maT Soris, fsiqologiuri zewolisagan da

ikisron samoqalaqo pasuxismgebloba; 3. mTavrobis neba da unari, xeli Seuwyos samoqalaqo moZraobas.

samive maTgani aucilebelia Sedegis misaRwevad.

rasakvirvelia, SeuZlebelia Tqma, rom mafia da korufcia bolomde moispo italiaSi. es

bunebrivicaa, organizebul danaSauls fesvebi erT dReSi ar gaudgams da verc ase swrafad moxdeba

misi amoZirkva, magram mxolod palermos magaliTic ki, cxadyofs miRweul Sedegebs.

113


marTlmsajuleba

N2

da

kanoni

organizebul danaSaulTan brZolis procesSi sazogadoebis rolis met-naklebad ganxilvis

Semdeg, aucilebelia Sefasdes ramdenad efeqtiania saxelmwifos qmedeba am mimarTulebiT. saxelmwifos

qmedeba am SemTxvevaSi, moicavs, rogorc sakanonmdeblo procesebs, ise sxva tipis

RonisZiebebsa da samarTaldamcavi organoebis saqmianobas. is faqti, rom aTwleulebis manZilze

mafiis arseboba aRiarebuli ar iyo da mxolod me-20 saukunis 80-iani wlebidan daiwyo maT winaaRmdeg

raime saxis RonisZiebebis gatareba, saxelmwifos sasargeblod ar metyvelebs. wlebis

manZilze xsenebuli danaSaulebrivi sindikati da xelisufleba mSvidobianad Tanaarsebobdnen,

calkeuli pirebis Zalisxmeva ki, mafiis dasamarcxeblad, maTi mkvlelobiT sruldeboda.

me-20 saukunis 50-iani wlebidan mafiam legalur biznesSi SeRweva daiwyo, magram realuri

qmedebebi aRniSnuli procesis sawinaaRmdegod mxolod 1982 wels daiwyo. italiis antimafiur

RonisZiebebs erTi saerTo niSani aqvs, maTi gatareba xdeba naCqarevad, miTiTebuli kriminaluri

organizaciis mier raime sazareli danaSaulis Cadenis Semdeg. `Tamamad SeiZleba iTqvas, rom

italiuri kanonmdebloba mafias araadekvaturad ebrZvis da faqtobrivad, konkretuli gegma am

danaSaulebrivi organizaciis rTuli sqemis yvela aspeqtis amosaZirkvad ar arsebobs. yvela

sakanonmdeblo aqti, SeiZleba CaiTvalos simbolur kanonebad, radganac miRebulia uSualod

Cadenili mZime danaSaulis sapasuxod, saswrafod, mravali praqtikuli aspeqtis gauTvaliswineblad.~

24

umberto santino Tavis statiaSi sakmaod skeptikurad uyurebs mafiis winaaRmdeg gatarebul

RonisZiebebs da Tavad mafiis damarcxebis faqts. `italiur xelisuflebas miaCnia, rom mafia

arsebobs mxolod maSin, roca sazareli mkvlelobebi xdeba, sinamdvileSi ki, mkvlelobebis ararseboba

mxolod imaze miuTiTebs, rom organizebuli danaSaulis saqmianoba uproblemod miedineba.~ 25

amgvari damokidebuleba, SesaZloa, cota gadaWarbebulic iyos, magram is, rom mafiis sabolood

damarcxebaze saubari naadrevia, faqtia.

rogorc zemoT aRiniSna, falkonesa da borselinos mkvlelobis Semdeg, siciliaSi armia

gaigzavna mafiis winaaRmdeg RonisZiebebis gasatareblad. TviT es moqmedebac simboluri iyo,

mafiis teritoriuli kontrolis gaTvaliswinebiT. aRsaniSnavia, rom TviT palermos `maqsi-procesebi~

ar iyo adekvaturi pasuxi. yvela represiuli RonisZieba im periodisaTvis Cadenili sazareli

mkvlelobebis pasuxi iyo. `maqsi-procesebis~ pirveli etapi arcTu warmatebulad dasrulda,

radganac sakasacio sasamarTlom qvemdgomi instanciebis mier dadgenili sasjelebi Seamcira.

sasamarTlom miiCnia, rom mafiozuri dajgufebebi damoukidebeli, avtonomiuri jgufebi

iyvnen, ris Sedegadac maT koleqtiur pasuxismgeblobaze saubaric zedemti iyo. aRniSnuli

Sexeduleba mxolod 1992 wlidan Seicvala.

TviT `mafiis winaaRmdeg~ kanonisa da roniono-la tores kanonis gamoyenebas praqtikaSi bevri

xarvezi aqvs. maTgan mTavari aris qonebis dayadaRebisa da CamorTmevis procesebis arasworad

warmarTva. problema am SemTxvevaSi isaa, rom qonebis dayadaReba metismetad naCqarevad xdeba,

rogorc wesi, mafiis mier Cadenil mZime danaSaulze sapasuxod, Tumca, sasamarTlos ganaCeniT

qonebis mniSvnelovani nawili maT ukan ubrundebaT.

amgvarad, rogorc gamoikveTa, italiis organizebul danaSaulTan brZolis meTodebi efuZneba

`Tavdasxmas Tu mafia gitevs,~ danarCen dros ki, mSvidobian Tanaarsebobas. yvela is mniSvnelovani

RonisZieba, romelic winamdebare statiaSi iqna ganxiluli, mxolod sazogadoebis

zewoliT iyo gamowveuli. rasakvirvelia, es mniSvnelovani wingadadgmuli nabiji iyo, magram

mafia da Sesabamisad, korufcia, jer kidev Sorsaa damarcxebisagan.

114


SeniSvnebi:

1

Franco Roberti, Effective measures to combat organized crime in criminal

processes, http://www.centroimpastato.it

2

Alison Jameson, “The Antimafia”, Anthony Rowe Ltd, Chippenham,

Wiltshire, gv. 17, 1999.

3

ani morgoSia, italiis antikorufciuli da antimafiuri kanonmdebloba

_ qonebis konfiskaciis sakiTxebi, Tbilisi, 2004, gv. 5.

4

ani morgoSia, italiis antikorufciuli da antimafiuri kanonmdebloba

_ qonebis konfiskaciis sakiTxebi, Tbilisi, 2004, gv. 5.

5

Alison Jameson, “The Antimafia”, Anthony Rowe Ltd, Chippenham,

Wiltshire, gv. 28, 1999.

6

Alison Jameson, “The Antimafia”, Anthony Rowe Ltd, Chippenham,

Wiltshire, gv. 28, 1999.

7

ix.: kanoni #646, 1982 wlis 13 seqtemberi, debulebani qonebrivi

xasiaTis aRmkveTi RonisZiebebis Sesaxeb; 1956 wlis 27 dekembris #1924,

1962 wlis 10 Tebervlis #57 da 1965 wlis 31 maisis #575 kanonis

damatebani; ani morgoSia, `italiis antikorufciuli da antimafiuri

kanonmdebloba _ qonebis konfiskaciis sakiTxebi~, Tbilisi, 2004.

8

Umbero Santino “Law Enforcement in Italy and Europe against mafia and

organized crime”, http://www.centroimpastato.it/otherlang/mcdonald.php3

9

Umbero Santino “Law Enforcement in Italy and Europe against mafia and

organized crime”, http://www.centroimpastato.it/otherlang/mcdonald.php3

10

Abadinsky Howard “Organized Crime” 7 th edition (Thomson Wadsworth),

2003 w. gv. 153.

11

enco lodato, `palermos kulturuli revolucia da qalaqis mar-

Tvis ganaxlebis proeqti~; ani morgoSia, `italiis antikorufciuli

da antimafiuri kanonmdebloba _ qonebis konfiskaciis sakiTxebi~,

Tbilisi, 2004, 50.

12

Lyman Michael D., Poter Gary, W., “Organized Crime”, 2 nd edition, 2000

(Prentice-Hall) gv. 339.

13

Abadinsky Howard “Organized Crime” 7 th edition (Thomson Wadsworth),

2003 w. gv. 155.

14

enco lodato, `palermos kulturuli revolucia da qalaqis marTvis

ganaxlebis proeqti~; ani morgoSia, `italiis antikorufciuli da

antimafiuri kanonmdebloba _ qonebis konfiskaciis sakiTxebi~, Tbilisi,

2004, 50.

15

della Porta Donatella and Alberto Vanucci, “Corrupt Exchanges: Actors,

Resources and Mechanizm of Political Corruption”, New York: Walter de

Geruiter, 1999w, gv. 34.

16

Abadinsky Howard “Organized Crime” 7 th edition (Thomson Wadsworth),

2003 w. gv. 156.

17

Cowell Alan “Inquiry into Sicilian Slaying Looks for Mafia Link to Colombia

Drug Cartel”, New York Times (june 21), 1992 w. gv. 3.

18

Cowell Alan “Mafia Throws the Gauntlet in Italy’s Face”, New York Times

(july 21), 1992 w. gv. 5.

19

Hundley Tom “Anty-Mafia Sweep Helps Sicilian Capital Clean Up Its Act”,

Chicago Tribune (November 8), 1998 w, gv. 4.

20

enco lodato, `palermos kulturuli revolucia da qalaqis marTvis

ganaxlebis proeqti~; ani morgoSia, `italiis antikorufciuli

da antimafiuri kanonmdebloba _ qonebis konfiskaciis sakiTxebi~,

Tbilisi, 2004, 56.

115


marTlmsajuleba

N2

da

kanoni

21

Census carried out by “Libera”, 1994-1998, in Alison Jameson, “The

Antimafia”, Anthony Rowe Ltd, Chippenham, Wiltshire, gv. 149, 1999.

22

F. Ramella, C. Triglia, “Associazionismo e mobilitazione contro la criminalita

organizzata nel Mezzogiorno”, 288, 1997.

23

enco lodato, `palermos kulturuli revolucia da qalaqis mar-

Tvis ganaxlebis proeqti~; ani morgoSia, `italiis antikorufciuli

da antimafiuri kanonmdebloba _ qonebis konfiskaciis sakiTxebi~,

Tbilisi, 2004, 67.

24

Umbero Santino “Law Enforcement in Italy and Europe against mafia and

organized crime”, http://www.centroimpastato.it/otherlang/mcdonald.php3,

4

25

Umbero Santino “Law Enforcement in Italy and Europe against mafia and

organized crime”, http://www.centroimpastato.it/otherlang/mcdonald.php3 3

116


FFFIGHT AGAINST

ORGANIZED CRIME

IN ITALY

DAVID MESKHISHVILI

PHD Student of Grigol Robakidze University, Law Faculty

Italy has quite a long history of organized crime. However, it is worth

mentioning that despite this, the history of fighting this crime in Italy is

not very long, as until second half of 20 th Century, the Government would

not acknowledge existence of maphia groups.

Presented Article shortly reviews Italian experience in fighting organized

crime that as mentioned above, started sixties of 20th century. Article also

offers an overview of the peculiarities of this fight and those general circumstances

that made it possible to significantly decrease maphia influence

on state as well as private sector – in the country where Cosa Nostra

had been strong roots in each and every sphere.

117


marTlmsajuleba

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da

kanoni

sazogadoebisaTvis

sasargeblo Sroma _

arasapatimro saxis

sasjelTa Soris

arasrulwlovan

damnaSaveTa resocializaciis

erT-erTi

saukeTeso agenti

(saqarTvelosa da aSS-is sisxlissamarTlebrivi

midgomis SedarebiTi analizi)

irine xerxeuliZe

samarTlis doqtori, ivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis

Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis iuridiuli fakultetis

sisxlis samarTlis mimarTulebis asistent-profesori,

amave universitetis kriminalistikisa da kriminologiis

institutis wevri

Sesavali

kontinenturi Tu saerTo samarTlis bevrma qveyanam sisxlis

samarTlis kanonmdeblobis ganviTarebis sxvadasxva stadiebi gaiara.

TiToeul stadias axasiaTebda sakuTari privilegirebuli

sasjelebi. 1 penitenciur sistemaSi sasjelTa calkeuli saxeebis

warmoSobas da Camoyalibebas sakuTari istoria aqvs.

sasjelTa pirobiTi dayofa or jgufad formisa da Sinaarsis

mixedviT, aseTia: sasjelebi, romlebic iwveven msjavrdebulis

Tavisuflebis SezRudvas an aRkveTas (Tavisuflebis SezRudva,

Tavisuflebis vadiani da uvado aRkveTa) da sasjelebi, romlebic

ar aris dakavSirebuli msjavrdebulis Tavisuflebis Sez-

RudvasTan an aRkveTasTan (jarima, sazogadoebisaTvis sasargeblo

Sroma).

118


miCneulia, rom sazogadoebrivad sasargeblo Sromis gamoyenebis upiratesi xasiaTi Tavisuflebis

aRmkveT sasjelebTan mimarTebiT sxva mravali pozitiuri aspeqtis garda, rogoric

aris magaliTad, resocializaciis ukeTesi perspeqtiva, SeiZleba aisaxos aseve, sasjelis ekonomiis

principis TvalTaxedvidanac.

cixeebis gadatvirTulobis gamo, `pirovnebaze dawesebulma meTvalyureobam mas unda Seuqmnas

Tavisuflebis aRmkveTi sasjelis iluzia. 2 ase iqmneba `axali penologia zedamxedvelobasa da

dasjas Soris.~ 3 misi erT-erTi ZiriTadi maxasiaTebeli ki, swored sazogadoebisaTvis sasargeblo

Sromaa. 4 braldebuls uqmnian garemos, rom ar moxdes axali danaSaulis Cadena (incapacitation),

magram ise, rom ar Seilaxos misi pirovnuli Rirseba cudi mopyrobiT. 5 amasTanave, yvela kanonmdeblobaSi,

axali sasjelebis gverdiT, romlebic Tavisuflebis aRkveTis alternatiulia, arsebobs

tradiciuli sasjelebic. 6 Tumca, tradiciuli sasjelebidan yvelaze ufro xSirad gamoyenebadi

sasjelis _ Tavisuflebis aRkveTis Sefardebisas aucileblad gasaTvaliswinebelia,

rom sasjeli unda iyos _ Ultima Ratio, rodesac faqtebis simZimidan gamomdinare, mosamarTles

sxva gamosavali aRar aqvs. amrigad, Tavisuflebis aRkveTas unda gansazRvravdes danaSaulis

iseTi simZime, rodesac SeuZlebelia sxva alternatiuli sasjelis gamoyeneba. 7

aqedan gamomdinare, saqarTvelos marTlmsajulebis sferoSi meti yuradReba unda daeTmos

da ara marto sakanonmdeblo doneze, aramed praqtikuladac, saqarTvelos ssk-is sasjelTa sistemaSi

gaTvaliswinebul arasapatimro sasjelis iseTi saxes, rogoricaa sazogadoebisaTvis sasargeblo

Sroma, rogorc srulwlovnebTan, ise arasrulwlovanebTan mimarTebiT. es sakiTxi miT

ufro Rrma Seswavlas, analizs da frTxil midgomas arasrulwlovan damnaSaveTa dasjadobasTan

dakavSirebiT moiTxovs, ramdenadac saqarTvelos xelisuflebis mier inicirebuli sisxlis samarTlis

sistemis reformis erT-erTi mniSvnelovani prioriteti swored arasrulwlovanTa

marTlmsajulebis kuTxiT, sisxlis samarTlis politikis ZiriTadi mimarTulebebis axleburi

da progresuli mowyobaa. sisxlis samarTlis sistemis reformis strategia, romelic miRebulia

saqarTvelos prezidentis #591 brZanebulebis safuZvelze, mis prioritetebad swored arasrulwlovanTa

marTlmsajulebisa da sasjelaRsrulebis sistemis reformis kuTxiT, sisxlis

samarTlis politikis ZiriTadi mimarTulebebis Seqmnas isaxavs miznad.

amJamad, saqarTveloSi mimdinare programis mizania daixvewos da gafarTovdes strategia,

raTa man moicvas iseTi sfero, romelic adre ar iyo warmodgenili an gansakuTrebiT aqcentirebuli

saqarTvelos sisxlis samarTlis kanonmdeblobis reformis strategiaSi (kerZod, arasrulwlovanTa

samarTlis, probaciisa da patimrobis alternatiuli zomebis calke Tavad

Camoyalibeba, sisxlis samarTlis seqtoris reforma, romelic gamiznulia cixeebis gadatvirTulobis

Semcirebisa da adamianis uflebebis dacvisaken). aseve, programa eswrafvis, rom SemoRebuli

iqnes Secvlili midgoma danaSaulisa da damnaSaveTa mimarT sazogadoebaSi, raTa moxdes

gadasvla patimarTa dasjasa da gariyvaze orientirebuli sistemidan im sistemaze, romelic

eZiebs danaSaulis mizezebs da iswrafvis damnaSaveebis reabilitaciisa da reintegraciisaken,

rogorc sazogadoebisaTvis sasargeblo wevrebisa. gansakuTrebiT aqcentirebulia arasrulwlovanTa

danaSauli. am mimarTulebiT unda ganxorcieldes RonisZiebebi, romlebic gamiznulia

(SesaZleblobebis arsebobisas) ufro reabilitaciisa da sazogadoebis SigniT dasjisaken, vidre

dapatimrebisaken. 8

aRniSnuli strategia arasrulwlovanTa marTlmsajulebis, ufro konkretulad ki, intervenciis

sakiTxis ganxilvisas, miuTiTebs, rom `Tavisuflebis SezRudva da Tavisuflebis aRkveTa,

119


marTlmsajuleba

N2

da

kanoni

gamoyenebul unda iqnas, rogorc ukiduresi RonisZieba SeZlebisdagvarad, xanmokle droiT.

sistemas unda hqondes Sesabamisi SesaZlebloba, raTa gamoiyenos kanonTan konfliqtSi myofi

bavSvebis mimarT socialuri an saganmanaTleblo xasiaTis RonisZiebebi. intervenciis programebma

xeli unda Seuwyos zogad mizans _ ganaxlebuli danaSaulebriobis Semcirebas. strategia

aseve, uTiTebs alternatiuli sanqciebis gamoyenebis aucileblobaze. alternatiuli sanqciebis

ganviTarebisa da gamoyenebisas gasaTvaliswinebelia bavSvis emociuri, mentaluri da inteleqtualuri

mowifuloba, aseve, konkretuli saqmis Taviseburebani.~ 9

aRsaniSnavia, rom sisxlis samarTlis reformis uwyebaTaSorisi sakoordinacio sabWos mier

Seqmnili sasjelaRsrulebis sistemis reformis samuSao jgufis strategiis erT-erT komponentad

moiazreba cixeebSi gadatvirTulobasTan brZolis strategiac. 10 swored am ukanaknelis

uzrunvelyofas Seuwyobs xels sazogadoebisaTvis sasargeblo Sromis, rogorc sapatimro saxis

sasjelis alternativis xSiri gamoyeneba, radgan misi dadebiTi mxare, sxva upiratesobebTan

erTad, imaSic gamoixateba, rom igi amavdroulad, sasjelaRsrulebis dawesebulebebSi msjavrdebulTa

ricxvis Semcirebas gamoiwvevs.

saqarTvelos mTavrobam gamoxata mzadyofna, saerTaSoriso standartebTan da normebTan

SesabamisobaSi moiyvanos arasrulwlovanTa marTlmsajulebis sistema, romelic prevenciaze,

reabilitaciasa da integraciaze iqneba fokusirebuli. am mimarTebiT sayuradReboa arasrulwlovanTa

sasjelis sistemis farglebSi arasapatimro sasjelis saxis, sazogadoebisaTvis sasargeblo

Sromis arsisa da daniSnulebis ganxilva rogorc saqarTvelos, ise aSS-is kanonmdeblobaSi,

sadac ase farTod da warmatebiT funqcionirebs iuvenaluri iusticiis sistema.

1. arasrulwlovani damnaSavis mimarT sazogadoebisaTvis sasargeblo Sromis

gamoyenebis aspeqtebi saqarTvelosa da aSS-is kanonmdeblobis mixedviT

arasrulwlovanis mimarT gamosayenebeli sasjelis gansazRvra danaSaulis xasiaTsa da arasrulwlovani

damnaSavis individualur Taviseburebebze dafuZnebiT, savaldebuloa gaerTianebuli

erebis organizaciis minimaluri standartuli wesebiT, arasrulwlovanTa mimarT

marTlmsajulebis ganxorcielebis Sesaxeb aqtiT (`pekinuri wesebi~).

am aqtis me-17 wesi adgens sasamarTlo gadawyvetilebis miRebisa da zemoqmedebis zomebis

SerCevisas gasaTvaliswinebel saxelmZRvanelo principebs. wesis Tanaxmad, zemoqmedebis zoma

yovelTvis unda iyos danaSaulis simZimis, arasrulwlovanisa da sazogadoebis moTxovnilebebis

Tanazomieri; Tavisuflebis aRkveTa sasjelis saxed unda gamoiyenebodes mxolod ZaladobiT

an araerTgzis Cadenili danaSaulebisaTvis; arasrulwlovanis mimarT dauSvebelia rogorc

sikvdiliT, ise fizikuri dasjis gamoyeneba. xelisuflebis kompetentur organos unda mieniWos

arasrulwlovanis saqmis sasamarTlo ganxilvis nebismier momentSi Sewyvetis diskreciuli

uflebamosileba. 11

`pekinur wesebSi~ mocemuli debulebebi gaTvaliswinebuli da asaxulia saqarTvelosa da aSSis

sisxlissamarTlebriv procesualur Tu materialur kanonmdeblobebSi. misTvis damaxasia-

Tebeli Taviseburebidan da specifikidan gamomdinare, SevexebiT aSS-is sisxlissamarTlebriv

sferoSi arsebul da moqmed iuvenaluri iusticiis sistemas.

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1.1 sazogadoebisaTvis sasargeblo Sromis gamoyenebis praqtika aSS-Si

aSS-Si damoukidebeli iuvenaluri iusticiis sistemis koncefciis ganxorcieleba jer kidev,

me-20 saukunis dasawyisSi daiwyo. am dromde mozardebis gasamarTleba Cveulebriv sasamarTloebSi

xdeboda, xolo maTTvis Sefardebuli sasjelis aRsruleba ki, imave sasjelaRsrulebiT

dawesebulebebSi, sadac srulwlovani msjavrdebulebi iyvnen moTavsebulni. 12

damoukidebeli iuvenaluri iusticiis sistemis araerTi Teoriis mixedviT, ukanono qmedebis

Camdeni bavSvebi reabilitaciis TvalsazrisiT, ukeTes poziciaSi arian srulwlovan msjavrdebulebTan

SedarebiT. amasTanave, damoukidebeli iusticiis sistema arsebobs imis uzrunvelsayofad,

rom ZiriTadi fokusireba reabilitaciaze gakeTdes. 13

amerikuli sisxlis samarTlis sistemis Taviseburebaa, rom mas arasrulwlovanTa saqmeebisaTvis

specialuri leqsikoni aqvs. 14 `iuvenaluri iusticiis~ sferoSi gansxvavebulia sisxlissamarTlebrivi

pasuximgeblobis asakic, romelic saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobiT dadgenil

pasuxismgeblobis asakTan SedarebiT gacilebiT dabalia da igi 7-8 wlis asakidanac ki, iwyeba 15 ,

magram gasaTvaliswinebelia is garemoeba, rom aseve saqarTvelosagan gansxvavebiT, am qveynaSi

arsebobs `iuvenaluri iusticiis~ kargad ganviTarebuli sistema. miuxedavad pasuxismgeblobis

dabali asakisa, umetes SemTxvevaSi, e.w. `bavSvTa saqmeebis mosmenis~ progresuli sistema 17-

wlamde bavSvebs saSualebas aZlevs, Tavi aaridon marTlmsajulebis formalur sistemasTan

kontaqts. `bavSvTa saqmeebis mosmenis~ sistemis mizania, arasrulwovanTa mimarT upiratesad

iseTi zomebis gamoyeneba, rac ar aris dakavSirebuli Tavisuflebis aRkveTasaTan. sxva srulwlovnebTan

SedarebiT, specialuri prevenciuli wesebia dadgenili 21-wlamde danaSaulis

Camdeni mozardebis mimarT. 16

iuvenaluri iusticiis sistemis meSveobiT SesaZlebelia arasrulwlovanTa mimarT rogorc

aRdgeniTi marTlmsajulebis ganxorcieleba, 17 aseve probaciis aqtiurad gamoyeneba, 18 romelic

xSir SemTxvevaSi, moicavs sazogadoebrivad sasargeblo Sromas. Tumca, sazogadoebrivad sasargeblo

Sroma, rogorc sapatimro saxis sasjelis alternativa, SesaZloa, damoukidebeli formiTac

iqnas gamoyenebuli.

zogadad, sazogadoebrivad sasargeblo Sroma yvelaze novatoruli sasjelia, romelic Seqmna

kanonmdebelma XX saukunis bolo aTwleulebSi. principi Semdegia: braldebuli valdebulia

garkveuli saaTebis ganmavlobaSi usasyidlod imuSaos sazogadoebis sasargeblod. am sasjels

zustad gansazRvruli mniSvneloba aqvs: damnaSavis amgvari saqmianoba sazogadoebas aunazRaurebs

miyenebul zians, imavdroulad uzrunvelyofs damnaSavis reintegracias sazogadoebaSi.

probaciisa da pirobiTi sasjelis dros ori moqmedi piria _ damnaSave da probaciis samsaxuris

agenti. sazogadoebrivad sasargeblo Sroma umatebs mesames, _ komunas, sazogadoebas, dajgufebas,

asociacias an samsaxurs, romelic sTavazobs samuSaos.

sazogadoebrivad sasargeblo Sromis saTavea 1920 wlis sabWoTa xelisuflebis pirmSo koleqtiuri

samuSaoebi Tavisuflebis aRkveTis gareSe. 19 aseve, 1972 wels pirveli WeSmariti sazogadoebrivad

sasargeblo Sroma Tavs iCens inglisSi (Criminals Justice Act 1972 qmnis community

service orders). britanuli kanoni sisxlis samarTlis sistemis sakonsultacio sabWos e.w. vuTonis

moxsenebis safuZvelia. inglisuri Tvalsazrisi Zalze keTilganwyobilia komunis wiaRSi damna-

Saveebis mier `sasargeblo samuSaos~ Sesrulebisa da male sasjelis am axalma saxeobam realur

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marTlmsajuleba

N2

da

kanoni

warmatebas miaRwia. 20 kanadaSi es sasjeli gaerTianda probaciasTan. aRniSnulis Sedegad, magaliTad,

mosamarTle avalebs damnaSaves konkretuli daxmareba gauwios ltolvilebis damcvel

asociacias. sasamarTloebi sazogadoebisaTvis sasargeblo samuSaoebs reabilitaciis saukeTeso

saSualebad Tvlian. igive midgomaa aSS-Sic. 21 magaliTad, arizonas StatSi, probaciis gaZlierebuli

meTvalyureobis pirobebSi (IPS) arasrulwlovnebma probaciis iseTi pirobebis morCilad

dacvasTan erTad, rogoricaa savaldebuli saSualo ganaTlebis miReba da mkurnalobis savaldebulo

kursis gavla, unda aRasrulon aseve, sazogadoebisaTvis sasargeblo Sroma (community

work service), masze meTvalyureobis ganxorcielebiT sul mcire, 32 saaTi yovelkvireulad. 22

ramdenadme gansxvavebuli wesebia mocemuli luizianas StatSi. am StatSi probaciis daniSvnis

pirobebis dadgenisas, sasamarTlom SeiZleba aseve, gansazRvros raime damatebiTi pirobac, Tu

miiCnevs mas bavSvisaTvis sasargeblo interesebis Sesaferisad. aseTi SeiZleba iyos sasamarTlos

mier dadgenili ganaCeni, romelic msjavrdebulisagan moiTxovs sazogadoebisaTvis sasargeblo

Sromas (court-approved community service). 23

kanonmdebeli, rogorc aRiniSna, nebas rTavs mosamarTles gamoiyenos sxvadasxva RonisZiebebi:

maT Soris, sazogadoebisaTvis sasargeblo samuSaos msgavsic. am TvalsazrisiT, Criminal Justice

Act axal formas aZlevs probacias. es aris kombinirebuli daniSvna (combination Order), romlis

wyalobiT, mosamarTle ara mxolod garkveul valdebulebebs, aramed sazogadobrivad sasargeblo

samuSaos Sesrulebasac akisrebs pirs, 50-100 saaTis farglebSi. aSS-Si mdgomareoba icvleba

Statebis mixedviT. zogi Statis kanoni CamoTvlis pirobebs an mosamarTle Tavisufalia am

TvalsazrisiT, xolo sxva StatebSi mosamarTle saqmes gadascems probaciis komitetebs. amerikis

iuristTa asociacia mxars uWers zusti pirobebis arsebobas, imgvari movaleobebis dakisrebis

CaTvliT, rogoric aris samedicino daxmarebis gavla, danaSaulis Sedegebis gamosworeba, miyenebuli

zianis anazRaureba, an gansazRvruli adgilidan gausvlelobis movaleoba. 24

amerikeli mkvlevarebis mier recidivTan brZolis sakiTxSi dadebiTi daskvna keTdeba alternatiuli

sasjelis iseTi saxeebis gamoyenebasTan dakavSirebiT, rogoric aris sazogadoebisaTvis

sasargeblo Sromis ganmaxorcielebeli programebi. am mimarTebiT, sainteresoa, aSS-Si arsebuli

alternatiuli sasjelis iseTi saxeebi, rogoric aris: sazogadoebisaTvis sasargeblo Sromis,

samuSaos Sesasruleblad gaTavisuflebis da SabaT-kviris sasjelis programebi. Tumca,

savaraudod, am programaTagan mxolod sazogadoebisaTvis sasargeblo Sroma gamoiyeneba rogorc

srulwlovani, ise arasrulwlovani damnaSaveebis mimarT, ramdenadac samuSaos Sesasruleblad

gaTavisuflebis da SabaT-kviris sasjelis programebSi ar aris miTiTebuli maTSi arasrulwlovan

delinkventTa SesaZlo monawileobis Sesaxeb.

jinjer martinma statiaSi “The Effectiveness of Community-Based Sanctions in Reducing Recidivism”

25 gamoikvlia monacemebi oregonis Statidan, romelic exeboda recidivis koeficients sasjelis

daniSvnis alternatiul formebze. 1999 wlis ianvridan 2001 wlis dekembramde cixidan

gamosuli 13 219 patimari CarTuli iyo am kvlevaSi. j. martinma aRmoaCina, rom iseTi saSualebebi,

rogoric aris: sazogadoebisaTvis sasargeblo Sroma da samuSaos Sesasruleblad gaTavisufleba

ufro iafi iyo, vidre patimroba da aCvenebdnen recidivis ufro dabal dones 12 Tvis Semdeg. 26

samuSaos Sesasruleblad gaTavisuflebis programa SerCeul patimrebs sasjelis vadis amowurvasTan

miaxloebisas, uflebas aZlevs imuSaon sazogadoebaSi, xolo arasamuSao saaTebis ganmavlobaSi

ki, daubrundnen cixis dawesebulebebs an sazogadoebaSi arsebul sacxovrebel dawese-

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ulebebs. aseTi programebi Seqmnilia saTanadod kontrolirebad garemoSi patimrebis mosamzadeblad

_ sazogadoebaSi dabrunebisaTvis, romlis ganmavlobaSic isini swavloben produqtiulad

muSaobas. samuSaos Sesasruleblad gaTavisufleba aseve, nebas rTavs patimrebs gamoimuSaon garkveuli

Semosavali, aunazRauron saxelmwifos Tavisi patimrobis xarjebi, gaakeTon danazogi sasjelisagan

gaTavisuflebis periodisaTvis da SeiZinon cxovrebisaTvis meti dadebiTi Cvevebi.

sasjelis alternativis saxiT, sazogadoebis sasargeblod damnaSaveTa Sromis gamoyenebis

erT-erTi saxea SabaT-kviris sasjelis programebi. isini, vinc CaerTvebian aseT programebSi,

garkveul dReebs (rogorc wesi, SabaT kviras) atareben cixeSi, magram Tavisufali arian mTeli

danarCeni drois ganmavlobaSi. orive aRniSnuli saxis sasjeli cnobilia, rogorc wyvetili

patimroba (“intermittent incarceration”). Zaladobrivi danaSaulis Camdeni da narkotikul danaSaulSi

braldebulni amoiricxebian am programidan sasamarTlos mier. ohaioSi da Crdilo karolinaSi,

sapatimroSi myofebs SeuZliaT imuSaon saSegirdo xasiaTis samuSao programaSi, romelic

ewyoba kerZo industriaSi, raTa am Segirdebma miiRon sertifikatebi iseTi xelobis dauflebaSi,

rogoric aris: stamburi beWdva da mSenebloba.

rogorc Cans, samuSaos Sesasruleblad gaTavisuflebis programebi exmarebian patimrebs,

raTa dabrundnen sazogadoebaSi. kvlevaSi ‘‘Baltimore Prisoners’’ Experiences Returning Home 27

dadginda, rom `yofili patimrebi, romlebic Souloben samsaxurs gaTavisuflebis Semdeg, metwilad,

sasjelis moxdis periodSi monawileobdnen samuSaos Sesasruleblad gaTavisuflebis

programiT SemoTavzebul samsaxurSi, vidre isini, vinc ver iSova samsaxuri.~ samuSaos Sesasruleblad

gaTavisuflebis programaSi monawileobis dadebiT mxareze miuTiTebs publikacia _

‘‘Chicago Prisoners’’ Experiences Returning Home. 28

sazogadoebisaTvis sasargeblo Sroma (Community Service Programs), rogorc satransporto

danaSaulis CamdenTaTvis dadgenili sasjeli daiwyo 1966 wels, aSS-is alamedas olqSi, kaliforniaSi

da gavrcelda mTel amerikis SeerTebul StatebSi. es sasjeli xSirad, damatebiTi

sasjelia. ZiriTadad, sasjelad misi gamoyeneba xdeba `TeTrsayeloiani~ (“white-collar”)

kriminalebis, arasrulwlovani delinkventebis da maT mimarT, visac ar Caudenia seriozuli

danaSauli. damnaSaveebs, rogorc wesi, moeTxovebaT imuSaon iseT samTavrobo an kerZo arakomerciul

saagentoebSi, romelTa saqmianobac mimarTulia Semdegi saxis samuSaos Sesrulebisaken:

parkebis dasufTaveba, gzispira nagvis Segroveba, sazogadoebrivi movlenebisaTvis skamebis

mowyoba da saeqTno saqmeSi Sesabamisi dawesebulebis daxmareba. aseTi samoqalaqo programebis

magaliTebs Seicavs kaliforniis metyeveobisa da cecxlisagan dacvis departamenti, romelic

iyenebs cixis 1500 binadars, rogorc veluri miwis mexanZreebs da vaSingtonis Statis gamosasworebeli

centris programa qalebisaTvis, sadac mis mobinadreebs aswavlian rogor gawvrTnan da

gamokvebon ZaRlebi, romelTac SeuZliaT daxmareba gauwion unarSezRudulebs. 29

aRsaniSnavia, rom miTiTebul RonisZiebTa zogierTi saxis gamoyeneba xdeba rogorc srulwlovani,

ise arasrulwovani damnaSaveebis mimarT. am ukanasknel SemTxvevaSi ki, arasrulwlovnebTan

mimarTebiT amgvar RonisZiebaTa gamoyenebisas, aucileblad unda gakeTdes aqcenti aRniSnuli

RonisZiebebis Sefardebis samarTlebrivi mizanSewonilobis Semowmebis kuTxiT, raTa

dadgindes, rom ama Tu im saxis Sromis Sesruleba ar aris mozardisaTvis Seusabamo da ar warmoadgens

misi uflebebis darRvevas.

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marTlmsajuleba

N2

da

kanoni

2000 wlis ivnisSi, marTlmsajulebis statistikis biurom (BJS) State Court Organization 1998,

sazogadoebisaTvis sasargeblo Sroma miiCnia `gamonaklisad arakonstituciuri katorRuli

samuSaoebidan,~ romelic iribad exeboda aSS-is konstituciis me-13 Sesworebas. 30

1.2. sazogadoebisaTvis sasargeblo Sromis praqtikuli gamouyeneblobis problema da

misi gadaWris gzebi saqarTveloSi

saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobaSi, aSS-gan gansxvavebiT ar damdgara sazogadoebisaTvis sasargeblo

Sromis konstituciasTan Seusabamoba. aq sakiTxi ufro mwvaved dgas. miuxedavad sasjelis

am saxis kanonmdeblobaSi arsebobisa, arasrulwlovanTa mimarT misi gamoyeneba Zalian Sez-

Rudulad da iSviaTad xdeba. amis mizezad ki, qveyanaSi arsebuli dasaqmebis donis isedac dabali

maCvenebeli da samuSao adgilebis nakleboba saxeldeba.

saqarTvelos ssk-is 85-e muxlis mixedviT, sazogadoebisaTvis sasargeblo Sroma iniSneba

40-dan 320 saaTamde vadiT. 15-wlamde arasrulwlovanisaTvis igi ar unda aRematebodes 4 saaTs,

xolo 15-18-wlamde asakSi _ 6 saaTs. sazogadoebisaTvis sasargeblo Sromis Sinaarss, agreTev

sasjelis moxdis wessa da pirobebs gansazRvravs saqarTvelos sasjelaRsrulebis, probaciisa

da iuridiuli daxmarebis sakiTxTa saministros adgilobrivi sabWo. 31 aseTi Sroma SeiZleba gamoixatos

quCebisa da skverebis gasufTavebaSi, parkebis gamwvanebaSi da a.S.

saqarTveloSi arasapatimro sasjelis aRsrulebis RonisZiebebs aregulirebs saqarTvelos

2007 wlis kanoni `arasapatimro sasjelTa aRsrulebis wesisa da probaciis Sesaxeb.~ Sesabamisad,

kanonis me-3 muxlis Sinaarsidan gamomdinare, sazogadoebisaTvis sasargeblo Sromis aRsrulebas

uzrunvelyofen arasapatimro sasjelTa aRsrulebisa da probaciis erovnuli saagento da am

saagentos teritoriuli organoebi _ arasapatimro sasjelTa aRsrulebisa da probaciis

biuroebi. 32

dReisaTvis moqmedi kanonmdeblobiT sasjelis saxiT sazogadoebisaTvis sasargeblo Sromis

aRsrulebis wesi garkveul etapebs moicavs. kerZod, sazogadoebisaTvis sasargeblo Sromis

daniSvnis Sesaxeb sasamarTlo ganaCenis aslis aRsasruleblad miRebis Semdeg, probaciis biuro

adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis Sesabamis organos ugzavnis moTxovnas sazogadoebisaTvis sasargeblo

Sromis saxisa da msjavrdebulis samuSao adgilis gansazRvris Taobaze. moTxovnaSi

miTiTebuli unda iyos sasamarTlos mier gansazRvruli sazogadoebisaTvis sasargeblo Sromis

mTliani vada da saqarTvelos ssk-iT dadgenili aseTi saxis Sromis yoveldRiuri xangrZlivoba.

Tavis mxriv, adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis organo valdebulia moTxovnis miRebidan erTi

Tvis ganmavlobaSi werilobiT acnobos probaciis oficers sazogadoebisaTvis sasargeblo

Sromis saxis, xangrZlivobisa da msjavrdebulis samuSao adgilis Sesaxeb. amave kanonis 30-e

muxliT, dadgenilia sasjelis saxiT sazogadoebisaTvis sasargeblo Sromis moxdis pirobebi.

kerZod, sazogadoebisaTvis sasargeblo Sroma SeiZleba ganxorcieldes dRis nebismier monakveTSi

msjavrdebulis Tavisufali drois gaTvaliswinebiT. 33 sazogadoebisaTvis sasargeblo

Sromis daniSvna SesaZlebelia, Tumca, SedarebiT garTulebulia maSin, roca arasrulwlovani

Sromas uTavsebs swavlas. amasTanave, es sasjeli gulisxmobs iseTi samuSaos Sesrulebas, romelic

SeuZlia arasrulwlovans. 34 probaciis oficeri periodulad, magram aranakleb 3 TveSi

124


erTxel, sasjelis moxdis adgilze misvliT akontrolebs msjavrdebulis mier misTvis dakisrebul

movaleobaTa Sesrulebas. 35 Tu arasrulwlovani uars ganacxadebs sasjelis am saxeze,

igi mas Seecvleba Tavisuflebis SezRudviT an Tavisuflebis aRkveTiT.

samwuxarod, saqarTvelos sasjelaRsrulebis sistemaSi TiTqmis ar gvxvdeba arasrulwlovanTa

mimarT arasapatimro sasjelis aRsrulebis es forma, radgan aseTi sasjelis Sefardebas qarTul

sasamarTlo praqtikaSi mosamarTleebi naklebad axdenen. sasjelis am saxis gamouyeneblobis

argumentad ki, asaxeleben, rom mniSvnelovania sasjelis Tavad aRsruleba, misi miznebis miRweva

da ara misi mxolod formaluri Sefardeba. ase rom, bolo periodis sakanonmdeblo iniciativamde,

sazogadobrivad sasargeblo Sroma, gamomdinare Sesabamisi organoebis uunarobidan _

uzrunveleyoT misi aRsruleba samuSao adgilebis simciris gamo, arapraqtikul, sasjelis mxolod

formalur saxed moiazreboda. aRniSnuli iniciativa sisxlis samarTlis politikis liberalizaciis

Semadgeneli nawilia da proeqtis saxiT iTvaliswinebs _ `sazogadoebisaTvis sasargeblo

Sromis efeqtian ganxorcielebas.~ sazogadoebrivad sasargeblo Sromis (gansakuTrebiT

ki, arasrulwlovanTa mimarT) praqtikuli gamouyeneblobis problema, misi daZleva, ukanasknel

xans, saqarTvelos xelisuflebis erT-erT prioritetad iqca.

SemuSavebuli iqna axali proeqti, `sazogadoebrivad sasargeblo Sroma~, romlis ganxilvaSic

aqtiurad monawileobdnen saqarTvelos sasjelaRsrulebis, probaciisa da iuridiuli

daxmarebis sakiTxTa da iusticiis saministroebi. axali proeqtiT cvlilebebis Tanaxmad, sazogadoebrivad

sasargeblo Sromis aRsrulebis procesSi izrdeba probaciis sistemis roli. ker-

Zod, probaciis biuro msjavrdebuls ganusazRvarvs sazogadoebrivad sasargeblo Sromis saxes,

yoveldRiur xangrZlivobas da masze monitoringis ganxorcielebas. mniSvnelovania is datvir-

Tva, rasac es axali proeqti atarebs. kerZod, misi mizania ara danaSaulis Camdenis sapyrobileSi

moxvedra, aramed misTvis sapatimro saxis sasjelis alternativis gamonaxva da SesaZleblobis

farglebSi sazogadoebrivad sasargeblo SromaSi CarTva. proeqtis Sinaarsi miT ufro relevanturia

arasrulwlovanTa danaSaulis dasjadobasTan mimarTebiT, vinaidan igi orientirebulia

iseT kanondamrRvevebze, romelTac ar CaudeniaT mZime danaSauli da amavdroulad, sazogadoebisaTvis

potenciur safrTxes ar warmoadgenen. aRniSnuli alternatiuli sasjelis dadebiTi

mxare imaSic gamoixateba, rom igi amavdroulad sasjelaRsrulebis dawesebulebebSi msjavdrebulTa

Semcirebas gamoiwvevs. 36 aRniSnuli proeqtis ganxorcielebaSi CarTulia Tbilisis meriac.

proeqtis efeqtiani ganxorcielebis mizniT, Seiqmneba adgilobrivi sakoordinacio sabWo, romelic

awarmoebs im samuSao adgilebis reestrs, sadac aRsruldeba sazogadoebisaTvis sasargeblo

Sroma. igi TveSi erTxel Seikribeba da ganaaxlebs Sromis adgilTa alternativebis sias,

romelsac miawodebs probaciis erovnul saagentoSi arsebul specialur monacemTa bazas, sadac

Tavs moiyris detaluri informacia SromiTi adgilebisa da maTi samuSao aRwerilobis Sesaxeb.

adgilobrivi TviTmmarTveloba moiZiebs da sistematurad miawodebs sakoordinacio sabWos

informacias axali samuSao adgilebis Sesaxeb. saqarTvelos sasjelaRsrulebis, probaciisa da

iuridiuli daxmarebis sakiTxTa saministrosa da iusticiis saministros erToblivi proeqti _

`sazogadoebisaTvis sasargeblo Sroma~ parlamentSi Sesabamisi kanonproeqtis damtkicebis

Semdeg amoqmeddeba. `saqarTvelos zogierT sakanonmdeblo aqtSi cvlilebebis Setanis Taobaze~

kanonproeqti mTavrobas ukve waredgina da gansaxilvelad parlaments gadaeca. 37

125


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daskvna

amgvarad, sazogadoebrivad sasargeblo Sromis, rogorc arasapatimro saxis sasjelis relevanturi

gamoyenebiT SesaZlebeli xdeba sisxlis samarTlis sistemis reformis strategiis farglebSi

mimdinare programiT iseTi mniSvnelovani Sedegebis miRweva, rogoricaa: `arasrulwlovanTa

samarTlis yovlismomcveli sistemis Camoyalibeba, romelic Seesabameba saerTaSoriso

standartebs da iunisefis rekomendaciebs da romelic gamiznulia arasrulwlovanTa danaSaulze

reagireba moxdes upiratesad socialuri programebis meSveobiT, arasapatimro da gamosasworebeli

sadamsjelo reJimebiT da reabilitaciisa da socialuri integraciis aqcentirebiT.

aseve, patimarTa raodenobis Semcireba (an cixis binadarTa raodenobis zrdis Semcireba

mainc) evropis sabWos rekomendaciebis Sesabamisad. 38

aRsaniSnavia, rom sazogadoebisaTvis sasargeblo Sromis efeqtianad gamoyenebas exeba saqar-

Tvelos sisxlis samarTlis sistemis reformis strategia _ mis erT-erT prioritetad dasaxelebul

probaciis samsaxuris reformirebis sakiTxis gadawyvetisas. aRniSnuli strategiis mixedviT,

sazogadoebisaTvis sasargeblo Sroma aris sasjelis ganxorcielebadi zoma da igi far-

Tod unda iqnes gamoyenebuli. SesaZlebloba sazogadoebisaTvis sasargeblo Sromis ganxorcielebisaTvis

saRamos saaTebSi da uqme dReebSia Seqmnili. 39

daskvnis saxiT SeiZleba iTqvas, rom aRniSnuli progresuli sakanonmdeblo iniciativa mogvagonebs

zemoganxiluli amerikuli gamocdilebidan zogierT sakiTxs, romelic, SesaZloa, Sesabamisad

CaiTvalos arasrulwlovanTa marTlmsajulebis Tanamedrove principebTan da bavSvis

uflebebTan. amasTan, gvevlineba, rogorc recidivis sawinaaRmdego da resocializaciis xel-

Semwyobi arasapatimro sasjeli, romelic Tavisi arsidan gamomdinare, mniSvnelovania sasjelis

ekonomiis TvalsazrisiTac.

126


SeniSvnebi:

1

J. pradeli, SedarebiTi sisxlis samarTali, Tbilisi, 1999, gv. 419.

2

intermediate punishments: intensive supervision, home confinement and

electronic surveillance, koleqtiuri naSrmi, Monsey, New-your, Criminal

Justice Press, 1987; J.P Brodeur, `post-modernistuli azrovneba da

kriminologia~, Criminologie, monreali, tomi XXIV, gv. 101, 1992. N.

Morris, M. Tonry, “Between prison and Probation”, 1990; A. von Hirsch,

“Censure and Sanctions”, Clarendon Press, Oxford 1993, gv. 57 da

momdevno Sefaseba exeba Sualedur sasjelebs; S. Brochu, G. Lemire,

`saboloo moxseneba intensiuri meTvalyureobis programebis Sefasebis

Sesaxeb~, monreali, 1993 wlis aprili. moxseneba miuTiTebs

axali sasjelebis sargeblianobaze: monrealis programam sazogadoebas

warmatebiT SeunarCuna Tavisi klientebis naxevarze meti (52,

6%) 18 Tvis manZilze, maT Soris _ programis dasrulebis Semdegac.

3

J.P Brodeur, dasax, naSr. gv. 101.

4

G. Kellens, `penologiisa da sisxlis samarTlis sasjelebis samarTlis

mokle kursi~, lieJi, 1992, gv, 208.

5

J. pradeli, dasax. naSr., Tbilisi, 1999, gv. 420.

6

J. pradeli, dasax. naSr., Tbilisi, 1999 gv. 420.

7

J. pradeli, dasax. naSr., Tbilisi, 1999, gv.443.

8

http://www.justice.gov.ge/files/Documents/Policy_Reform_Matrix_GEO.pdf

9

saqarTvelos 2009 wlis sisxlis samarTlis sistemis reformis strategia,

miRebuli saqarTvelos prezidentis #591 brZanebulebis safuZvelze,

gv. 17. http://www.justice.gov.ge/files/strategy.pdf

10

http://www.justice.gov.ge/files/Documents/Working_Groups_GEO.pdf

11

i. boxaSvili, m. beniZe, arasrulwlovanTa marTlmsajulebis sakiTxebi,

Jurnali `samarTali~, #2, 2009, gv. gv. 54.

12

http://www.ehow.com/about_5135532_juvenile-justice-system.html

13

http://www.ehow.com/about_5135532_juvenile-justice-system.html

14

floridis iuvenaluri iusticiis sistema, statutidan gamomdinare,

Sesabamisia bavSvTa sakiTxebTan da iyenebs unikalur terminologias,

romelic ar aris dakavaSirebuli zrdasrulTa sisxlissamarTlebrivi

iusticiis sistemasTan, http://www.djj.state.fl.us/Parents/glossary.

html

15

Sdr. arasrulwlovanTa danaSaulis administracia (saqarTvelos

kanonmdebloba da saerTaSoriso samarTlebrivi meqanizmebi), gamocemulia

gaeros bavSvTa fondis (UNICEF) mier, 2004, gv. 7-28 da 196.

16

m. turava, sisxlis samarTlis zogadi nawilis mimoxilva, meSvide gamocema,

Tbilisi, 2010.

17

http://www.rjcolorado.org/

18

http://www.ehow.com/about_5135532_juvenile-justice-system.html

19

J. pradeli, dasax. naSr., Tbilisi, 1999, gv. 436.

20

J. Verin, `inglisuri “community service“ warmateba~, sisxlis samarTlis

samecniero Jurnali, 1979, gv. 636.

21

J. pradeli, dasax. naSr., Tbilisi, 1999, gv. 437.

22

http://www.ehow.com/list_6505860_rules-juvenile-probation.html

23

http://www.ehow.com/list_6383506_louisiana_s-juvenile-probation-rules.html

24

S. Stojkovic, R. Lovell, “Corrections. An Introduction”, Anderson pub.

Cincinnati, Ohio, 1992, gv. 475.

25

Corrections Today Magazine, February, 2003.

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26

http://www.libraryindex.com/pages/2553/Sentencing-ALTERNATIVE-

SENTENCING.html

27

Washington, DC: Urban Institute, March, 2004.

28

Washington, DC: Urban Institute, December, 2004.

29

http://www.libraryindex.com/pages/2553/Sentencing-ALTERNATIVE-

SENTENCING.html

30

http://www.libraryindex.com/pages/2553/Sentencing-ALTERNATIVE-

SENTENCING.html

31

saqarTvelos 2007 wlis kanoni arasapatimro sasjelTa aRsrulebis

wesisa da probaciis Sesaxeb.

32

iqve, muxli 3.

33

saqarTvelos 2007 wlis kanoni arasapatimro sasjelTa aRsrulebis

wesisa da probaciis Sesaxeb, muxli 30.

34

avtorTa koleqtivi, dasax. naSr., gamomcemloba `meridiani~, Tbilisi,

2007, gv. 434.

35

saqarTvelos 2007 wlis kanoni arasapatimro sasjelTa aRsrulebis

wesisa da probaciis Sesaxeb, muxli 33 1 .

36

http://www.justice.gov.ge/index.php?lang_id=GEO&sec_id=143&info_id=

3054

37

http://www.justice.gov.ge/index.php?lang_id=GEO&sec_id =143&info_id=

3069

38

http://www.justice.gov.ge/files/Documents/Policy_Reform_Matrix_GEO.pdf

39

saqarTvelos 2009 wlis sisxlis samarTlis sistemis reformis strategia,

miRebuli saqarTvelos prezidentis #591 brZanebulebis safuZvelze,

gv. 25; http://www.justice.gov.ge/files/strategy.pdf

128


PUBLIC WORKS –

ONE OF THE BEST

AGENTS AMONG

NON-CUSTODIAL

MEASURES FOR

RESOCIALIZATION OF

JUVENILES

IRINE KHERKHEULIDZE

Doctor of Law Assistant Professor Criminal law direction

of the Law School Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University,

Member of the Criminalistics and Criminology Institute of

the Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University

The article below speaks about juvenile sentencing related issues like use

of public works as an alternative non-custodial punishment measure both,

in Georgia and USA. The article lists advantages of using the aforementioned

punishment, which is especially advisable in case of juveniles. It is

perceived that in addition to other advantages of public works (as compared

to custodial type of punishment), like, for instance better perspective

for resocialization, economy of sentence can also be considered one

of advantages.

Grounds, procedures and legal regulation instruments for imposition of

this type of a punishment are reviewed by Georgian and American legal

systems. Namely, application of public works in case of juveniles and in

some instances in case of adults (US experience) is also reviewed in accordance

with Georgian and American laws and based on their comparison.

The topic requires in-depth research, analysis and careful approach to

juveniles’ punishability, since one of the priorities of the initiated by the

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government criminal justice reform is about juvenile justice, which envisages new vision and progressive

approaches. Thus, the article concerns the juvenile justice system as well. This system allows for implementation

of the rehabilitation justice as well as for active use of probation, which, very often, envisages public

works as well. However, public works, as alternative to imprisonment may be used as an independent work.

Mentioned problem deserves attention, since researches clearly show that the US criminal law gives preference

to alternative non-custodial punishments, which are used not only in case of juveniles, but adults as

well. In this regard, the article describes alternative punishments of the US: public works, release for

performance of works and week-end sentence programmes.

Considering all said above, the question is why alternative measures of punishment, like public works, are not

used in Georgian system of justice at least in some cases instead of custodial measures. The article raises the

issue of disuse of public works and offers possible solutions. It also reviews provisions of the law of Georgia

“On enforcement of non-custodial punishments and probation” and the new project “Public Works” developed

by joint effort of the Ministry of Corrections, Probation and Legal Aid and the Ministry of Justice of

Georgia. Goals of the new project are listed as well; the project envisages seeking alternatives to custodial

measures of punishment and engaging offenders in public works. The project is extremely relevant with regard

to juveniles’ punishability, since it is oriented at offenders, who did not commit grave crimes and who do not

represent public threat.

Similar to implementation of such progressive legislative initiatives American experience, is also described

in the article.

130


cnobilia, rom sisxlis samarTlis axali saproceso kodeqsis

erT-erTi umTavresi novaciaa nafic msajulTa sasamarTlos Semo-

Reba. nafic msajulTa sasamarTlo didi xania damkvidrebulia

rogorc saerTo samarTlis, aseve, kontinenturi samarTlis

sistemis rig qveynebSi. qarTuli sazogadoebisaTvis ki, es instituti

faqtobrivad ucxoa. 2004 wels saqarTvelos konstituciaSi

Sesuli cvlilebiT ganisazRvra nafic msajulTa sasamar-

Tlos SemoReba saqarTveloSi, xolo nafic msajulTa Semadgenlobis

formireba, uflebamosileba, gansjadoba 1 da saqmis ganxilvis

saproceso wesi mowesrigebulia saqarTvelos axali sisxlis

samarTlis saproceso kodeqsiT, romelic 2010 wlis 1 oqtombridan

Sevida ZalaSi.

nafic msajulTa sasamarTlos SemoReba saqarTveloSi mimdinare

sasamarTlo reformis axali talRis Semadgeneli nawilia. 2

aqve unda aRiniSnos, rom `marTlmsajulebis Zvel da Tanamedrove

meqanizmTa Soris, faqtobrivad SeuZlebelia moiZebnos Tavisi

imanenturi bunebiT ufro winaaRmdegobrivi, iuristebsa Tu

sazogadoebaSi diametrulad sawinaaRmdego Sefasebebis adresati

meore iseTi instituti, rogoricaa nafic msajulTa sasamarTlo.

3

nafic msajulTa sasamarTlos amoqmedebisas moqalaqeebi pirdapir

Caebmebian marTlmsajulebis ganxorcielebaSi. Tu sazogadoebas

istoriulad ar hqonda sasamarTlos ndoba da fiqrobnafic

msajulTa

sasamarTlos

verdiqti

irina aqubardia

saqarTvelos teqnikuri universitetis

asocirebuli profesori

131


marTlmsajuleba

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kanoni

da, rom mosamarTleebi araswor gadawyvetilebebs iRebdnen, axla xalxi Tavad iqneba am procesis

monawile da gadawyvetilebas Tavad miiRebs... moqalaqeebi gadamwyvet rols Seasruleben

piris braleulobisa Tu udanaSaulobis sakiTxis gadawyvetaSi. mosamarTle kanonis eqsperti

iqneba, magram imoqmedebs rogorc damoukidebeli damkvirvebeli, romelic uzrunvelyofs

samarTliani sasamarTlos Catarebas rogorc braldebulis, aseve, braldebis mxareTaTvis.~ 4

nafic msajulTa sasamarTlo misi arsebobis aTaswliani istoriis manZilze mecnierTa yuradRebas

yovelTvis ipyrobda. saqarTveloSic bevri daiwera masze. Cveni mizani ar aris am mravalmxriv

saintereso institutis yvela rakursiT Seswavla. yuradRebas gavmaxvilebT mxolod

erT konkretul sakiTxze _ verdiqtis gamotanis da misi samarTlebrivi Sedegebis Taviseburebebze.

upirvelesad, SevexoT nafic msajulTa ufleba-movaleobebs, rac regulirebulia axali sisxlis

samarTlis saproceso kodeqsis 235-236-e muxlebiT. aRniSnuli muxlebis analizisas, yurad-

Rebas ipyrobs garkveuli Seusabamoba. kerZod, axali sssk-is 235-e muxlis I nawilis `b~ punqtis

Tanaxmad, msajulebs ufleba aqvT sasamarTlodan miiRon winaswari informacia saqmis garemoebebisa

da gamosarkvevi mtkicebulebebis Sesaxeb. amasTan, aRniSnuli debuleba winaaRmdegobaSi

modis amave kodeqsis 236-e muxlis I nawilis `d~ punqtTan, romlis mixedviTac, nafic msajulebs

ekrZalebaT gansaxilvel saqmesTan dakavSirebiT informaciis moZieba sxdomis farglebs gareT.

vfiqrobT, aRniSnuli winaaRmdegobis dasaZlevad umjobesi iqneboda sssk-is 235-e muxlis I nawilis

`b~ punqti amogveRo, radgan nafic msajulTa mier sasamarTlo sxdomis gareSe, winaswari

informaciis miReba saqmis garemoebebisa da gamosarkvevi mtkicebulebebis Sesaxeb, mTels msoflioSi

miCneulia nafic msajulTa institutis nivelirebis safuZvlad.

aRsaniSnavia, rom axali sisxlis samarTlis saproceso kodeqsis mixedviT, nafic msajulTa

sasamarTloSi garemoebebi, romlebic unda damtkicdes sisxlis samarTlis saqmeze (mtkicebis

sagani) or jgufad iyofa: 1. danaSaulebriv qmedebasTan dakavSirebuli garemoebebi e.w. faqtobrivi

garemoebebi; 2. gansasjelis pirovnebis daxasiaTebasTan dakavSirebuli garemoebebi.

amasTan, pirveli jgufis garemoebebi unda dadgindes verdiqtis gamotanamde, xolo meore

jgufis garemoebebi ki, verdiqtis gamotanis Semdeg.

sasamarTlo ganxilvis orsafexuriani sistema axali ar aris. igi didi xania damkvidrebulia

inglisis (nafic msajulTa, gvirgvinis, magistratTa) sasamarTloebSi. amasTan, am saerTo wesidan

arsebobs gamonaklisi. kerZod, bralmdebels ufleba aqvs nafic msajulebs acnobos, rom gansasjels,

romelsac brali edeba seqsualur xelyofaSi, winaT ukve Cadenili aqvs analogiuri

danaSauli. 5

saqarTvelos axali sisxlis samarTlis saproceso kodeqsic iTvaliswinebs garkveul gamonakliss

aRniSnuli wesidan. kerZod, sssk 238-e muxlis Tanaxmad, verdiqtis gamocxadebamde nafic

msajulebs ar unda ecnoboT braldebulis adrindeli sisxlis samarTlis an administraciul

pasuxisgebaSi yofnis an nasamarTlobis Sesaxeb (Tu es ar aris wardgenili braldebis erT-erTi

makvalificirebeli niSani, an gamiznuli ar aris braldebulis Cvenebis sandoobis Sesamowmeblad).

inglisuri mtkicebiTi samarTlis klasikuri dogmis asaxva saqarTvelos axal sisxlis samar-

Tlis saproceso kodeqsSi marTebulad migvaCnia, radgan braldebulis damnaSaveobis sakiTxis

gadawyvetamde pirovnebis maxasiaTebeli garemoebebis gamokvlevam, romelic ar ukavSirdeba

braldebas, SesaZloa nafici msajulebi uaryofiTad ganawyos am piris mimarT, rasac sabolood,

SeiZleba usamarTlo ganaCenis dadgena mohyves.

amasTan, vfiqrobT, rom sssk 238-e muxlSi aRniSnuli sagamonakliso SemTxvevebi unda daixvewos

da dazustdes. Cveni azriT, gamonaklisebi unda exebodes danaSaulis konkretul Semadgen-

132


lobebs maTi simZimisa da Cadenis specifikis gaTvaliswinebiT da ara braldebulis Cvenebis sandoobis

Semowmebas, radgan aseTi Semowmebisas SesaZlebelia garkveuli TviTneboba da braldebulTa

uflebebis SezRudva.

sasamarTlo sxdomis gaxsnisas da saTaTbiro oTaxSi gasvlamde sxdomis Tavmjdomare nafic

msajulebs aZlevs ganmartebas gamosayenebeli kanonis Taobaze. kerZod, nafic msajulebs ganemartebaT

braldebis Sinaarsi da misi samarTlebrivi safuZveli, mtkicebulebaTa Sefasebis

ZiriTadi wesebi, udanaSaulobis prezumfciis cneba, rom gamamtyunebeli verdiqti unda emyarebodes

sxdomis Tavmjdomaris mier ganmartebul kanons da sasamarTlo ganxilvis dros gamokvleul

eWvis gamomricxav mtkicebulebaTa erTobliobas. agreTve, verdiqti unda daeyrdnos

mxolod sasamarTlo procesis dros ganxilul mtkicebulebebs, rom aranairi mtkicebuleba ar

unda iyos miRebuli mxedvelobaSi sxvisi miTiTebebiT, rom verdiqti ar unda iyos miRebuli

varaudis safuZvelze da dauSvebel mtkicebulebaTa gamoyenebiT.

sxdomis Tavmjdomris ganmartebis miRebis Semdeg, nafici msajulebi gadian saTaTbiro oTaxSi

verdiqtis gamosatanad. aravis aqvs ufleba imyofebodes saTaTbiro oTaxSi nafic da saTadarigo

msajulTa garda da raime saxiT gavlena moaxdinos nafic msajulTa verdiqtze.

vfiqrobT, kanonis aRniSnuli norma daxvewas saWiroebs, radgan saTaTbiro oTaxSi ar unda

imyofebodes saTadarigo msajuli. mas xom xmis micemis ufleba ara aqvs. igi sxdomis darbazSi

imyofeba, rom Secvalos romelime nafici msajuli, Tu dadgeba aseTi Secvlis aucilebloba

sxdomis dasrulebamde da ara saTaTbiro oTaxSi. amitom, vfiqrobT, rom axali sssk-is 256-e

muxlis I nawilidan amosaRebia sityvebi _ `da saTadarigo~.

verdiqti aris nafic msajulTa Jiuris gadawyvetileba braldebulis damnaSaveoba-udanaSaulobis

Sesaxeb. verdiqti rogorc wesi, nafic msajulebs gamoaqvT verbaluri informaciis safuZvelze,

radganac kanonis Tanaxmad, isini ar ecnobian sisxlis samarTlis saqmeSi arsebul

werilobiT masalebs. misi ZiriTadi specifikuri damaxasiaTebeli niSania, rom verdiqti gamoaqvT

motivirebis gareSe.

saTaTbiro oTaxSi ufrosi msajuli Tanamimdevrulad ayenebs Ria kenWisyraze TiToeul sakiTxs,

sxdomis Tavmjdomaris mier gansazRvruli rigiTobiT da formulirebiT. jer kenWi eyreba

yvela wardgenil braldebaze gamamarTlebel verdiqts, xolo Tu verdiqti ver miiReba, kenWi

eyreba gamamtyunebel verdiqts. nafic msajuls ufleba ara aqvs, Tavi Seikavos xmis micemisagan.

nafici msajulebi xmas aZleven msajulTa siaSi maTi rigiTobis mixedviT. ufrosi msajuli xmas

aZlevs bolos da ajamebs kenWisyris saerTo Sedegebs.

sagulisxmoa, rom verdiqtis gamotanis procedura droSi gawelilia. sssk is 261-e muxlis

me-4 nawilis Tanaxmad, Tu nafic msajulTa sasamarTlo 3 saaTis ganmavlobaSi ver moaxerxebs

erTsulovani gadawyvetilebis miRebas, gadawyvetileba momdevno 6 saaTis ganmavlobaSi miiReba

xmaTa Semdegi umravlesobiT: Tu nafic msajulTa sasamarTlo Sedgeba aranakleb 11 nafici

msajulisagan, verdiqti miiReba 8 xmiT; Tu nafic msajulTa sasamarTlo Sedgeba 10 nafici msajulisagan,

verdiqti miiReba 7 xmiT; Tu nafic msajulTa sasamarTlo Sedgeba 9 nafici msajulisagan,

verdiqti miiReba 6 xmiT; Tu nafic msajulTa sasamarTlo Sedgeba 8 nafici msajulisagan, verdiqti

miiReba 5 xmiT; Tu nafic msajulTa sasamarTlo Sedgeba 7 an 6 nafici msajulisagan, verdiqti

miiReba 4 xmiT. anu saWiroa nafic msajulTa Semadgenlobis mixedviT samiT naklebi xmis

micema. im SemTxvevaSi, Tu gansaxilvel saqmeSi braldebuls SeiZleba daeniSnos uvado Tavisuflebis

aRkveTa, verdiqti erTxmad unda iqnes miRebuli.

Tu nafic msajulebs ar SeswevT unari, miaRwion saerTo SeTanxmebas, sxdomis Tavmjdomare

kidev erTxel ganumartavs nafic msajulebs verdiqtis mniSvnelobas da Txovs maT dabrundnen

saTaTbiro oTaxSi da gamoitanon is kanonis Sesabamisad. Tu saTaTbiro oTaxSi dabrunebis Semdeg,

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nafici msajulebi momdevno 3 saaTis ganmavlobaSi mainc ver miiReben verdiqts, maSin mosamarTle

miscems maT gonivrul vadas an daiTxovs maT srul Semadgenlobas da daniSnavs nafic msajulTa

axali Semadgenlobis SerCevis sxdomis TariRs. im SemTxvevaSi, Tu arc am nafic msajulTa

sasamarTlos Seswevs unari, miiRos gadawyvetileba, braldebuli gamarTlebulad CaiTvleba.

migvaCnia, rom verdiqtis gamotanis aseTi xangrZlivi procesi amcirebs misi sarwmunoobis

xarisxs, amitom Cveni azriT, unda Semcirdes dro da ufro gamartivdes verdiqtis gamotanis

procedura.

samarTlebrivi Sedegebi gansxvavebulia verdiqtis formebis mixedviT. Tu naficma msajulebma

gamoitanes gamamarTlebeli verdiqti sasamarTlo sxdomis Tavmjdomare valdebulia dauyovnebliv

gamoitanos gamamarTlebeli ganaCeni, romelic sabolooa da gasaCivrebas ar eqvemdebareba.

gamamtyunebeli verdiqtis gamotanis SemTxvevaSi ki, misi gamocxadebisTanave sxdomis

Tavmjdomare niSnavs sasjelis daniSvnis sxdomas, rac unda gaimarTos verdiqtis gamocxadebidan

ara ugvianes 3 dRisa.

nafic msajulTa sasamarTloSi uflebamosileba, rogorc wesi, gamijnulia. nafici msajulebi

wyveten faqtis sakiTxebs, mosamarTle ki, samarTlis sakiTxebs. aqedan gamomdinare, verdiqtis gamocxadebis

Semdeg, sxdomis Tavmjdomare marTlmsajulebis ganxorcielebaSi monawileobisaTvis

madlobas uxdis nafic msajulebs da daiTxovs maT, magram am wesidan arsebobs gamonaklisi. kerZod,

Tu arc erTi mxare ar ganacxadebs uars _ sasjelis daniSvnis sxdoma imarTeba nafic msajulTa

monawileobiT. amasTan, nafic msajulTa rekomendaciebi sasjelis daniSvnasTan dakavSirebiT

savaldebuloa mosamarTlisaTvis. axali sisxlis samarTlis saproceso kodeqsis 264-e muxlis

Tanaxmad, Tu sasjelis daniSvnis sxdomaze nafici msajulebi xmaTa umravlesobiT miiReben sasjelis

Semsubuqebis rekomendacias, sxdomis Tavmjdomare ar aris uflebamosili braldebuls dauniSnos

am danaSaulisaTvis saqarTvelos sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsiT gansazRvruli sasjelis maqsimaluri

zRvaris or mesamedze meti. xolo Tu nafici msajulebi xmaTa umravlesobiT miiReben sasjelis

damZimebis rekomendacias, sxdomis Tavmjdomare ar aris uflebamosili braldebuls dauniSnos am

danaSaulisaTvis ssk-iT gansazRvruli sasjelis maqsimaluri zRvaris or mesamedze naklebi. Tu

nafic msajulTa sasamarTlos ar Seswevs unari miiRos sasjelis Semsubuqebis an damZimebis

rekomendacia, uSualod mxolod maSin niSnavs sasjels sxdomis Tavmjdomare.

migvaCnia, rom aRniSnuli norma ewinaaRmdegeba mosamarTleTa damoukideblobis princips,

radgan mosamarTles Tavisi Sinagani rwmeniT, kanonis safuZvelze, saqmis faqtobrivi garemoebebisa

da braldebulis pirovnebis gaTvaliswinebiT, ar SeuZlia daniSnos sasjeli. gamodis,

rom nafici msajulebi faqtis sakiTxTan erTad samarTlis sakiTxebsac wyveten, rac vfiqrobT,

mosamarTlis rols akninebs da imavdroulad gaumarTleblad afarToebs nafic msajulTa

uflebamosilebas. sjobda kanonmdebels realurad gaemijna faqtisa da samarTlis sakiTxebi

(Tumca, sadavoa, braleuloba-arabraleulobis dadgena da gadawyveta ramdenad SeiZleba

mivakuTvnoT mxolod faqtis sakiTxs) da funqciebis aRreva ar daeSva. samarTlianad aRniSnavs

prof. T. liluaSvili, rom `Tu msajulebsa da mosamarTles Soris funqciebi ar aris gamijnuli

da saqmis ganxilvis procesSi wamoWril yvela sakiTxs erToblivad wyveten msajulebi da mosamarTle

_ aseT sasamarTlos ar SeiZleba vuwodoT nafic msajulTa sasamarTlo.~ 6 aseTi sasamarTlo

ufro Sereuli tipis sasamarTlos hgavs, sadac profesionali da araprofesionali mosamarTleebi

erToblivad ixilaven saqmeebs. Tanamedrove periodSi xom bevrma qveyanam (magaliTad,

germaniam, safrangeTma) uari Tqva nafic msajulTa sasamarTloze da upiratesoba swored

Sereuli tipis sasamarTloebs mianiWa.

sainteresoa, mosamarTles aqvs Tu ara ufleba Secvalos nafic msajulTa gadawyvetileba,

Tu miiCnevs, rom verdiqti aSkarad usamarTloa? axali sisxlis samarTlis saproceso kodeqsis

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261-e muxlis me-7 punqti Seicavs erTgvar meqanizms, romelic mosamarTles aZlevs SesaZleblobas

gavlena moaxdinos saqmis saboloo gadawyvetaze. kerZod, sxdomis Tavmjdomare uflebamosilia

gaauqmos nafic msajulTa sasamarTlos gamamtyunebeli verdiqti da daniSnos nafic msajulTa

axali Semadgenlobis SerCevis sxdomis TariRi, Tu verdiqti aSkarad ewinaaRmdegeba mtkicebulebaTa

erTobliobas, usafuZvloa da gamamtyunebeli verdiqtis gauqmeba samarTliani marTlmsajulebis

aRsrulebis erTaderTi SesaZleblobaa. sxdomis Tavmjdomare ar aris uflebamosili

gamoiyenos aRniSnuli uflebamosileba im safuZvliT, rom igi ar eTanxmeba nafic msajulTa

mier mowmis sandoobis Sefasebas an romelime mtkicebulebis mniSvnelobas. amasTan, kanoni ar

Seicavs ganmartebas, rom sasamarTlos aRniSnuli uflebamosilebiT erTjeradad SeuZlia isargeblos

Tu SeuzRudavad. isic gasaTvaliswinebelia, rom kanonSi saubaria mxolod gamamtyunebeli

verdiqtis gauqmebis uflebamosilebaze, radgan nafic msajulTa sasamarTlos mier gamotanili

gamamarTlebeli ganaCeni sabolooa da gasaCivrebas ar eqvemdebareba. Tumca, xom ar aris

gamoricxuli, gamamarTlebeli verdiqtis gauqmebac samarTliani marTlmsajulebis aRsrulebis

erTaderTi SesaZlebloba iyos?

nafic msajulTa ufleba kanonis ugulebelyofiT gaamarTlon braldebuli ,,nafic msajulTa

sasamarTlos nulifikaciis~ saxeliTaa cnobili.

`nafic msajulTa sasamarTlos nulifikacia~ inglisurenovani terminia da misi Sinaarsi ganmartebulia

rogorc `nafic msajulTa uflebamosileba _ kanonis ugulvebelyofiT gaamarTlon

gansasjeli Tundac maSin, rodesac warmodgenili mtkicebulebebiT misi brali safuZvliani eWvis

gareSe dgindeba.~ 7

nafic msajulTa sasamarTlos nulifikacia is SemTxvevaa, roca saqmeSi uxvadaa gamamtyunebeli

mtkicebulebebi da nafic msajulebs materialuri da saproceso moTxovnebis miuxedavad,

gamamarTlebeli verdiqti gamoaqvT.

nafic msajulTa sasamarTlos nulifikaciis Tavidan asacileblad efeqtiani meqanizmia mosamarTleTa

mier msajulebisaTvis saqmesTan dakavSirebiT micemuli ganmartebebi, rac erTi mxriv,

aTviTcnobierebs nafic msajulebs samarTlebriv sakiTxebSi, xolo meore mxriv, xels uSlis maT

kanonis gverdis avliT miiRon gadawyvetileba. mosamarTleTa instruqciebi gansakuTrebiT damaxasiaTebelia

Sereuli sistemis sasamarTloebisaTvis. es sistemebi uaryofiT Sefasebas swored

nafic msajulebze mosamarTleTa metismeti zegavlenis gamo `imsaxureben~. praqtikam aCvena,

rom mosamarTlis miTiTebebi gavlenas axdenen saboloo gadawyvetilebaze, rac nulifikaciis

SesaZleblobas maqsimalurad amcirebs. swored amis gamo, saerTo samarTlis qveynebisagan gansxvavebiT,

Sereuli sistemebisaTvis nulifikacia naklebad aris damaxasiaTebeli. sasamarTlo mi-

TiTebebi imiT aris mniSvnelovani, rom mas SeuZlia nafic msajulTa sasamarTlos saqmianoba

samarTlianobisa da miukerZoeblobisaken warmarTos. SesaZloa mosamarTlis miTiTebebi iuridiuli

ganaTlebis armqone nafic msajulebs garkveulwilad ama Tu im mxaris mimarT pozitiurad

ganawyobdes, magram misi gamoyeneba mainc aucilebelia nulifikaciis Tavidan asacileblad.

kanonis Tanaxmad, sxdomis Tavmjdomares sasjelis daniSvnis sxdomaze gamoaqvs ganaCeni,

romelic erTmniSvnelovnad unda eyrdnobodes nafic msajulTa mier gamotanil verdiqts (ssskis

265-e muxli). amasTan, radgan nafic msajulebs ar evalebaT verdiqtis dasabuTeba, Sesabamisad,

mosamarTlec (sxdomis Tavmjdomare) ar asabuTebs ganaCenSi mas. ganaCeni mxolod sasjelis

nawilSi unda iyos motivirebuli.

nafic msajulTa sasamarTlos gamamtyunebeli verdiqti SeiZleba gasaCivrdes mxolod

sakasacio wesiT, saapelacio sasamarTloSi. gasaCivrebis safuZvlebi gansazRvrulia sisxlis

samarTlis saproceso kodeqsis 266-e muxliT. Tu ganaCeni gasaCivrda im motiviT, rom sxdomis

Tavmjdomarem mtkicebulebaTa dasaSvebobis Sesaxeb, an mxaris mier dayenebuli Suamdgomlobis

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ganxilvisas ukanono gadawyvetileba miiRo, aseve, Tu sxdomis Tavmjdomarem nafic msajulTa

saTaTbiro oTaxSi gasvlis win ganmartebebis micemisas arsebiTi Secdoma dauSva an igi ar

daeyrdno ganaCenis gamotanisas nafic msajulTa verdiqts, anda piriqiT, daeyrdno kanonis moTxovnaTa

darRveviT gamotanil verdiqts da es saCivari dakmayofilda _ saqme xelaxali ganxilvisaTvis

gadaecema nafic msajulTa sasamarTlos axal Semadgenlobas.

marTalia, nafic msajulTa sasamarTlos axal SemadgenlobaSi mosamarTlec Sedis, magram

kanonis es ukanaskneli debuleba marTebulad ar migvaCnia Semdeg garemoebaTa gamo: jer erTi,

saqmis ganxilvisas Tu sxdomis Tavmjdomarem dauSva Secdomebi, daarRvia kanoni, ratom unda

moxdes nafic msajulTa Semadgenlobis xelaxali formireba; meore, dasaxelebuli sakiTxebis

gadawyveta isedac ar Sedis nafic msajulTa kompetenciaSi, vinaidan kanonSi calsaxad aris mi-

TiTebuli, rom nafici msajulebi ar monawileoben mtkicebulebaTa dasaSvebobisa da mxareTa

mier dayenebuli Suamdgomlobebis ganxilvasa da gadawyvetaSi; mesame, nafic msajulTa axali

Semadgenlobis formireba dakavSirebulia damatebiT xarjebTan, drois, energiis dakargvasTan

da saqmis ganxilvis usafuZvlo gaWianurebasTan. vfiqrobT, ufro marTebuli iqneboda saqme

xelaxali ganxilvisaTvis gadascemoda sxva mosamarTles da ara nafic msajulTa axal Semadgenlobas.

sssk-is 266-e muxlis me-4 punqtiT Tu nafic msajulTa sasamarTlos ganaCeni gasaCivrda

sasjelis ukanonobis an dausabuTeblobis motiviT, an sxdomis Tavmjdomarem ar gaiTvaliswina

nafic msajulTa mier miRebuli sasjelis Semsubuqebis an damZimebis rekomendacia _ saqme sasjelis

xelaxali daniSvnisaTvis ubrundeba nafic msajulTa sasamarTlos sxdomis Tavmjdomares,

rac aseve, marTebulad ar migvaCnia, radgan sxdomis Tavmjdomarem dauSva Secdomebi sasjelis

daniSvnisas (Segnebulad Tu aracnobierad).

`gaugebaria, Tu ratom ubrundeba saqme sasjelis xelaxali daniSvnisaTvis~ nafic msajulTa

sasamarTlos sxdomis Tavmjdomares, anu darRvevis damSveb pirs... ra garantia arsebobs, rom aq

romelime mimarTulebiT kvlav ar dairRveva kanoni? 8 cxadia, aseT SemTxvevaSi, sasjelis daniSvnis

movaleoba unda daekisros sxva mosamarTles, romelic gamoasworebs daSvebul Secdomebs.~

winamdebare naSromSi, Cven SevexeT nafic msajulTa sasamarTlos uflebamosilebis mxolod

zogierT sakiTxs. naSromSi gamoTqmuli winadadebebis gaTvaliswineba, vfiqrobT, xels Seuwyobs

kanonmdeblobis srulyofas, sisxlis samarTlis saproceso kodeqsis saTanado normebis

daxvewas, raTa realurad am institutma ganapirobos mosamarTleTa damoukideblobis xarisxis

gazrda, marTlmsajulebis ganxorcielebisas moqalaqeTa socialuri kontrolis uzrunvelyofa,

sasamarTlos mimarT da mTlianad arsebuli samarTlebrivi sistemis mimarT xalxis ndobis

amaRleba. sabolood, am mizans emsaxureba nafic msajulTa institutis SemoReba.

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SeniSvnebi:

1

2010 wlis 1 oqtombridan 2012 wlamde nafic msajulTa sasamarTlos

gansjadi iqneba saqarTvelos ssk-is 109-e muxliT gaTvaliswinebuli

danaSauli, 2012 wlidan 2014 wlis 1 oqtombramde ki, ssk-is 111, 137-

e muxlebiT gaTvaliswinebuli danaSaulebic.

2

robert uoTkinsi, `saqarTvelos SeuZlia siamayiT Tqvas, rom did

gamocdas gauZlo,“ Jurn. `marTlmsajuleba da kanoni”, 2009, #1, 6.

3

i. gabisonia, nafic msajulTa, magistratTa da momrigebeli sasamar-

Tloebi, Tb., 2008, 92.

4

jared kinboli, `qarTuli sasamarTlo sistema ukeTesobisken icvleba~,

Jurn. `marTlmsajuleba da kanoni~, 2009, #4, 10.

5

k. f. gucenko, l. v. golovko, b. a. filimonovi, dasavleTis saxelmwifoTa

sisxlis samarTlis procesi, Tb., 2007. gv.120.

6

T. liluaSvili, `gaamarTlebs Tu ara nafic msajulTa sasamarTlo?!~,

Jurn. `samarTali~, 1992, #5, 4.

7

n. vidmari, nafic msajulTa sasamarTlo (saero samarTlis qveynebi),

Tb., 2005, gv. 76.

8

i. gabisonia, nafic msajulTa, magistratTa da momrigebeli sasamar-

Tloebi, Tb., 2008, gv. 472.

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VERDICT OF

THE JURY TRIAL

IRINA AKUBARDIA

Tbilisi Technical University Associate Professor

The paper speaks about one of the major innovations of the criminal

procedure – jury trial. During thousand of years of history, the jury trial

was always in focus of scientists. A lot was written about the institution

in Georgia as well. Goal of the paper is not to study all aspects of the

jury trial institution. Major focus is made on one specific issue – features

and legal outcome of the jury trial verdict.

The paper analyses rights and responsibilities of the jury trial and the

opinion is expressed that in order to overcome contradictions between

articles 235 and 236 of the CPC, it is necessary to remove paragraph “b”

of the article 235, since receiving preliminary information on circumstances

of the case and evidence by the jury before the trial is considered a basis

for leveling the institution of the jury trial. The paper underlines that

procedural law defines timeframes for arriving at the verdict by the jury; it

diminishes its credibility, therefore an opinion is expressed about reducing

the time and simplifying procedure for arriving at the verdict.

The paper also reviews authorities of the jury to decide on issues of the fact and

features of participating in the sentencing hearing, providing recommendation

on sentencing and aggravating as well as mitigating circumstances. In addition,

we discuss potential results of appealing to the guilty verdict.

The paper points out that separate provisions of the new Criminal

Procedures Code, regulating procedure of arriving at the verdict, require

refinement and proposals on improvement of the legislation are made.

138


dazaralebulis

uflebrivi

mdgomareoba sisxlis

samarTlis axali

saproceso kodeqsis

mixedviT

daviT kariauli

sulxan-saba orbelianis saswavlo universitetis

asocirebuli profesori

dazaralebuli sisxlis samarTlis procesis erT-erTi mniSvnelovani

monawilea, romlis uflebebic sxvadasxva dros sxvadasxvanairad

iyo daculi sisxlis samarTlis saproceso kanonmdeblobaSi.

dazaralebulis statuss da mis uflebriv mdgomareobas

didi mniSvneloba eniWeba sisxlis samarTalwarmoebis

ganxorcielebisas. dazaralebulis cneba rogorc Zvel aseve,

sisxlis samarTlis axal saproceso kodeqsSi erTnairad aris

ganmartebuli, rasac ver vityviT mis statusze da uflebriv

mdgomareobaze. 1998 wlis kodeqsis mixedviT, dazaralebuli

warmoadgenda braldebis mxares sisxlis samarTlis procesSi da

gamodioda rogorc sufsidiuri bralmdebeli. aqedan gamomdinareobda

misi mTeli rigi uflebebi, romlebsac axali sisxlis

samarTlis saproceso kodeqsis mixedviT moklebulia. axali kodeqsis

mixedviT dazaralebuli aRar warmoadgens mxares sisxlis

samarTlis procesSi da Sesabamisad, misi mdgomareobac mniSvnelovnad

gansxvavdeba adrindelTan SedarebiT.

axali kodeqsis mixedviT, dazaralebuli ganixileba, rogorc

braldebis mowme da damkvidrebuli praqtikis mixedviT, misi sasamarTlo

procesze gamoZaxeba damokidebulia prokuroris gadawyvetilebaze

_ rodis da romel sxdomaze iqnas igi gamoZaxebuli

da daeswros Tu ara sasamarTlo ganxilvas bolomde procesis

gadadebis SemTxvevaSi, rac Cveni azriT, garkveulwilad

zRudavs dazaralebulis saproceso uflebebs.

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dazaralebulis cneba sisxlis samarTlis axali saproceso kodeqsis mixedviT TiTqmis ar

gansxvavdeba wina kodeqsebisagan. kodeqsis me-3 muxlis 22-e punqtis mixedviT, dazaralebuli

aris saxelmwifo, fizikuri an iuridiuli piri, romelsac moraluri, fizikuri Tu qonebrivi

ziani miadga uSualod danaSaulis Sedegad. rogorc am ganmartebidan irkveva, danaSauli uSualod

mimarTulia dazaralebulis uflebebisa da kanonieri interesebis sawinaaRmdegod da zians

ayenebs mas. aqedan gamomdinare, mas, rogorc sisxlis samarTlis procesis monawiles gansakuTrebuli

adgili ukavia sxva monawileTa Soris. is uSualod aris dainteresebuli sisxlis samar-

Tlis saqmis bediT, raTa erTi mxriv, srulyofilad iqnas daculi misi kanonieri uflebebi da

interesebi, xolo meore mxriv, mxilebul iqnas da saTanadod daisajos is piri, romelsac brali

miuZRvis danaSaulis CadenaSi, aseve, srulad iqnas anazRaurebuli is ziani, rac mas danaSaulis

Sedegad miadga.

dazaralebulis uflebebi mocemulia kodeqsis 57-e muxlSi, kerZod, dazaralebuls ufleba

aqvs:

a) icodes braldebulisaTvis wardgenili braldebis arsi;

b) sasamarTloSi saqmis arsebiTi ganxilvisas da sasjelis Sefardebis Sesaxeb sasamarTlo sxdomaze

misces Cveneba zianis Sesaxeb, romelic mas miadga;

g) ufasod miiRos sisxlissamarTlebrivi devnis an\da gamoZiebis Sewyvetis Sesaxeb dadgenilebis

(ganCinebis), ganaCenis, sxva Semajamebeli sasamarTlo gadawyvetilebis asli;

d) miiRos procesSi minawileobis Sedegad gaweuli xarjebis anazRaureba;

e) daibrunos gamoZiebisa da sasamarTlos ganxilvis dros saqmis saWiroebisaTvis droebiT

CamorTmeuli, misi kuTvnili qoneba;

v) prokurors mosTxovos dacvis specialuri RonisZiebis gatareba, Tu safrTxe emuqreba

rogorc mis, ise misi axlo naTesavis an ojaxis wevris sicocxles, janmrTelobas an\da

sakuTrebas;

z) miiRos ganmarteba Tavisi ufleba-movaleobis Sesaxeb;

T) isargeblos am kodeqsiT gaTvaliswinebuli sxva uflebebiT;

aseve kodeqsis 47-e muxlis (mowme) mixedviT, dazaralebuls, iseve, rogorc gamomZiebels,

prokurors, braldebuls, eqspertsa da Tarjimans sasamarTloSi Cvenebis micemisas eniWeba mowmis

yvela ufleba da movaleoba.

aseTia dazaralebulis statusi da uflebrivi mdgomareoba moqmedi kanonmdeblobis mixedviT.

radganac dazaralebuli, rogorc ukve aRvniSneT, aRar warmoadgens mxares mas veRar eqneba

mTeli rigi uflebebi, romlis meSveobiTac igi axorcielebda sufsidiuri braldebis funqcias

da es bunebrivicaa, magram migvaCnia, rom misTvis zogierTi uflebis miniWeba xels Seuwyobs

marTlmsajulebis ganxorcielebas.

rogorc ukve aRvniSneT, dazaralebuls gansakuTrebuli mdgomareoba ukavia sisxlis samar-

Tlis procesis monawileTa Soris. igi warmoadgens danaSaulis msxverpls da danaSaulebrivi

qmedeba mimarTulia misi kanonieri uflebebis sawinaaRmdegod. dazaralebuli umravles SemTxvevaSi,

danaSaulis TviTmxilvelia, amitom is xSir SemTxvevaSi, yvelaze ukeT flobs saWiro informacias

da SeuZlia warmoadginos mtkicebulebebi danaSaulebrivi qmedebis yvela garemoebis

Sesaxeb. mas aseve, xeli miuwvdeba saqmisaTvis mniSvnelovan mtkicebulebebze, romelic gamo-

Ziebisa da damnaSavis mxilebisaTvis metad mniSvnelovania. aqedan gamomdinare, miuxedavad imisa,

rom dazaralebuli mxares ar warmoadgens, misTvis mtkicebulebaTa wardgenis uflebis miniWeba

vfiqrobT, mizanSewonilia. amiT mas miecema SesaZlebloba ukeT ganaxorcielos Tavisi Selaxuli

uflebebis dacva, xolo procesis mwarmoebeli organos yuradReba gaamaxvilos saqmisaTvis mniSvnelovan

garemoebebze, rac sabolood, xels Seuwyobs saqmeze obieqturi WeSmaritebis dadgenas.

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Tumca, am SemTxvevaSi, Cven ar SeiZleba gadaWarbebulad SevafasoT dazaralebulis mier warmodgenili

mtkicebulebebis utyuaroba. ra Tqma unda, mtkicebulebaTa Sefasebis dros, gaTvaliswinebuli

unda iqnas dazaralebulis interesi danaSaulis swrafi gamoZiebis, damnaSavis mxilebisa

da misi umkacresad dasjisa. amitom mtkicebulebaTa Sefaseba unda moxdes kritikulad,

didi sifrTxiliT, raTa ar iqnas gadametebulad aRqmuli dazaralebulis mier warmodgenili

mtkicebuleba.

dazaralebulis, rogorc sisxlis samarTlis procesis gansakuTrebuli subieqtis mdgomareobaze

metyvelebs isic, rom prokurors iseve, rogorc braldebulad cnobis SemTxvevaSi, gamoaqvs

calke dadgenileba dazaralebulad cnobis Sesaxeb. aRniSnuli sakiTxi arasodes ar iwvevda

davas da sisxlis samarTlis saproceso kanonmdablobis ganviTarebis yvela etapze, erTgvarovnad

iyo mowesrigebuli. amasTan, sisxlis samarTlis saqmeSi ikveTeba ori urTierTdapirispirebuli

subieqti, romelTa interesebic erTmaneTs ewinaaRmdegeba. orive subieqti cdilobs

warmoadginos argumentebi Tavisi poziciebis dasacavad da gasamyareblad. braldebuls moqmedi

saproceso kodeqsis mixedviT, aqvs mTeli rigi uflebebi, romelTa saSualebiTac SeuZlia jerovnad

ganaxorcielos Tavisi interesebis dacva da daicvas Tavi wayenebuli braldebisagan.

meore mxriv, is faqti, rom danaSaulebrivi qmedeba mimarTulia dazaralebulis uflebebis sawinaaRmdegod

metyvelebs, rom dazaralebuls aqvs damoukidebeli saproceso interesi sisxlis

samarTlis saqmis mimarT. aseve, aRsaniSnavia, rom kodeqsis mixedviT, swored dazaralebulis

arsebobasTan aris dakavSirebuli danaSaulis Sedegad miyenebuli ziani. prokuroris mier dazaralebulad

cnobis dadgenilebis gamotanasTan uSualo kavSirSia danaSaulis Sedegad miyenebuli

zianis gansazRvrac. aqedan gamomdinare, marTebuli iqneboda, rom dazaralebulsac

braldebulis msgavad, hqondes zogierTi uflebamosileba iseTi, rogoric aris magaliTad, gasa-

Civreba, romlis meSveobiTac, is SesZlebs daicvas Tavisi poziciebi.

axali sisxlis samarTlis saproceso kodeqsi ar iTvaliswinebs dazaralebulisaTvis iseT

mniSvnelovan uflebas, rogoricaa gasaCivreba. aRniSnuli midgoma gamomdinareobs iqidan, rom

kodeqsi dazaralebuls aRar ganixilavs mxared. Tumca, unda aRiniSnos, rom sisxlis samarTlis

saproceso kanonmdeblobis TiTqmis yvela etapze, imis miuxedavad, warmoadgenda Tu ara dazaralebuli

mxares _ mas yovelTvis hqonda ufleba gaesaCivrebina gamomZieblis da prokuroris

ukanono moqmedeba zemdgom prokurorTan da pirveli instanciis sasamarTlos ganaCeni zemdgom

sasamarTloSi.

kodeqsis 166-e muxlis mixedviT, sisxlissamarTlebrivi devnis dawyebisa da ganxorcielebis

diskreciuli uflebamosileba aqvs mxolod prokurors. kodeqsis 105-e muxlis (gamoZiebis Sewyvetis

an sisxlissamarTlebrivi devnis ardawyebis an Sewyvetis safuZvlebi) me-3-e punqtis mixedviT,

sisxlissamarTlebrivi devna SesaZloa ar daiwyos an Sewydes, Tu is ewinaaRmdegeba sisxlis

samarTlis politikas. am punqtis safuZvelze, saqarTvelos iusticiis ministris 2010 wlis

8 oqtombris #181 brZanebiT, damtkicda `sisxlis samarTlis politikis saxelmZRvanelo principebis

zogadi nawili~, sadac Camoyalibebulia sisxlissamarTlebrivi devnis dawyebis mizan-

Sewonilobis safuZvlebi da rekomendaciebi prokurorisaTvis, am sakiTxebTan dakavSirebiT.

kerZod, am dokumentis I I TavSi naTqvamia rom `saxelmwifos resursi ar aris sakmarisi yvela

danaSaulis faqtze sisxlissamarTlebrivi devnis gansaxorcieleblad... Sesabamisad, sajaro

interesis gansazRvrisas, prokurorma unda gaiTvaliswinos, saxelmwifosaTvis ramdenad prioritetulia

konkretuli danaSaulis sisxlissamarTlebrivi devna.~ amave dokumentis mixedviT,

sisxlissamarTlebrivi devnis dawyebisaTvis aucilebelia saxeze iyos sruli testi. is ki, Tavis

mxriv, Sedgeba ori testisagan: 1. mtkicebulebiTi testi; 2. sajaro interesis testi. aRniSnuli

testebis Sefasebis Semdeg, prokurorma unda gaaanalizos danaSaulis simZime da xasiaTi da

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Tavisi Sexedulebis mixedviT unda gadawyvitos, ramdenad Seesabameba konkretul danaSaulze

sisxlissamarTlebrivi devnis dawyeba sajaro interess da miiRos gadwyvetileba devnis dawyebaardawyebis

Sesaxeb. am SemTxvevaSi, dazaralebuli, romlis interesebis dacvac damokidebulia

imaze, daiwyeba da\an gagrZeldeba Tu ara sisxlissamarTlebrivi devna sisxlis samarTlis dana-

SaulTan dakavSirebiT, moklebulia SesaZleblobas gaasaCivros prokuroris gadawyvetileba zemdgom

prokurorTan (Tu mxedvelobaSi ar miviRebT 168-e muxls, sadac ar aris konkretizacia) da

amiT mieces saSualeba daicvas Tavisi kanonieri uflebebi sisxlis samarTlis devnis dawyebis

etapze.

dazaralebuls aseve, ar gaaCnia ufleba gaasaCivros pirveli instanciis sasamarTlos mier

gamotanili ganaCeni zemdgom sasamarTloSi da is damokidebulia prokuroris iniciativaze _

gaasaCivrebs Tu ara igi sasamarTlos ganaCens. migvaCnia, rom dazaralebuli, rogorc damoukidebeli

saproceso interesis mqone subieqti sisxlis samarTlis saqmeSi aRWurvili unda iyos am

uflebiT. es xels Seuwyobs erTi mxriv, misi uflebebis jerovnad dacvas da meore mxriv, aamaRlebs

saqmeze samarTliani ganaCenis gamotanis SesaZleblobas.

142


RIGHTS OF VICTIMS

UNDER THE NEW

CRIMINAL

PROCEDURES CODE

DAVID KARIAULI

Sulkhan-Saba University Associate Professor

On October 1, 2010 the new Criminal Procedures Code came into force.

It employs new approaches to number of various issues; namely, rights

of parties as well as their status have changed. The article speaks about

rights of the victim – one of the most important subjects of criminal

procedures. Current rights are listed and the issue of granting rights like

presentation of evidence and appeal are reviewed.

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sagadasaxado samarTlis

konstituciursamarTlebrivi

safuZveli sagadasaxado

kanonmdeblobis miReba:

problemebi da

Taviseburebani

(saqarTvelos ekonomikur sazRvarze

saqonlis gadaadgilebis kuTxiT)

ia xarazi

saqarTvelos saaviacio universitetisa da saqarTvelos

daviT aRmaSeneblis saxelobis universitetis asocirebuli

profesori

ukanasknel dros SesamCnevad izrdeba saxelmwifosa da samar-

Tlis roli saqonlis, samuSaoebis, momsaxurebisa da sxvadasxva

informaciis saerTaSoriso gacvlis regulirebaSi. saxelmwifo

emyareba konkretul iuridiul aqtebs, daadgens saqarTvelos

ekonomikur teritoriaze saqonlisa da satransporto saSualebebis

gadaadgilebis Sesabamis sasaqonlo operaciebs, krefs gadasaxads,

amtkicebs portalSi (saqarTvelos ekonomikur sazRvarTan

mdebare kontrolis zonaSi) mgzavrebis, saqonlisa da

satransporto saSualebebis mimarT sagadasaxado kodeqsiT dadgenil

procedurebs da sagareo-ekonomikuri saqmianobis monawileebze

samarTlebrivi da mmarTvelobiTi zemoqmedebis sxva

formebs. samarTlis Sesabamisi normebis meSveobiT samarTaldamcavi

organoebi saqarTvelos ekonomikuri sazRvris ukanonod

gadamkveTi pirebis mimarT, romelTa saqoneli da satransporto

saSualebebi arRveven portalis gadakveTis wess da pirobebs,

iyenebs sxvadasxva zomebs, axorcielebs samZebro-operatiul da

profilaqtikur RonisZiebebs.

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`gansakuTrebuli fuZemdebluri mniSvneloba sagadasaxado samarTlis funqcionirebasa da

ganviTarebaSi 1995 wlis saqarTvelos konstitucias eniWeba. masSi Cadebulia saqarTvelos demokratiuli

da civilizebuli principebi, saqarTvelos demokratiisa da samarTlebrivi sistemebis

da misi calkeuli damatebis, maT Soris, sagadasaxado samarTlis ganviTarebis safuZvlebi.

saqarTvelos konstituciis preambula, me-3, me-6, 21-e, 90-e, 93-e, muxlis me-7 punqti, 94-e

muxlis me-4 da me-5 muxlebi 1 da rigi sxva muxlebi qmnian samarTlis axali dargebis warmoSobisa

da ganviTarebis xelsayrel niadags (mxedvelobaSi gvaqvs dRes ukve sabaJo samarTalTan gaer-

Tianebuli sagadasaxado samarTali 2 , sainvesticio samarTali, fasiani qaRaldebis samarTali,

ekonomikuri samarTali da sxva). gansakuTrebiT aqcenti gvinda gavakeToT konstituciis me-3

muxlze, romlis `v~ punqtis Tanaxmad, mxolod saqarTvelos umaRles saxelmwifo organoTa

gansakuTrebul gamgeblobas miekuTvneba `sagareo vaWroba, sabaJo da satarifo reJimebi.~ aRniSnulma

muxlma gamokveTa sagadasaxado-sabaJo politika (ekonomikuri politika), romelic

aris `saxelmwifos mier dadgenili erTgvari `TamaSis wesebi~ sagadasaxado-sabaJo sferoSi,

romlis mizani gacvliT ganpirobebuli ganawilebiTi marTvaa.~ 3

saqarTvelos sagadasaxado politika viTardeba sayovelTaod aRiarebuli saerTaSoriso

samarTlebriv normebsa da praqtikasTan harmonizaciisa da unifikaciis mimarTulebiT. am Sem-

TxvevaSi, upirvelesi primati ganekuTvneba evrokavSiris (EEG) sabaJo kodeqssa da sabaJo procedurebis

gamartivebisa da harmonizaciis saerTaSoriso konvencias (1973 w. kioto).

`saqarTvelos konstituciis muxlebi qmnian sagadasaxado samarTlis gansazRvrul da arsebiT

sakonstitucio samarTlebriv safuZvlebs, wanamZRvrebs. amasTan, saqarTvelos konstituciaSi

aris ufro vrceli da safuZvliani regulirebisa da im konstituciuri debulebebisa da normebis

damagrebis SesamCnevi rezervebi, romlebic sagadasaxado-sabaJo saqmesa da sagadasaxado-sabaJo

samarTals exeba.~ 4

sagadasaxado kodeqsi sagadasaxado samarTlis sakiTxebis kodificirebuli aqtia.

2011 wlis 1 ianvridan amoqmedebulma sagadasaxado kodeqsma Zaladakargulad gamoacxada

2004 wlis saqarTvelos sagadasaxado kodeqsi da 2007 wlis sabaJo kodeqsi (sagadasaxado kodeqsi,

muxli 310, gardamavali debulebebi).

sagadasaxado kodeqsi Sedgeba XV karisagan, 62 Tavisagan, gardamavali debulebebisagan,

romelic mTlianobaSi moicavs 310 muxls.

saqarTvelos sagadasaxado kodeqsi araerTi novaciiT gamoirCeva, romelic samomavlod xels

Seuwyobs saxelmwifo organoebsa da bizness Soris saqmiani, partnioruli, civilizebuli ur-

TierTobis Camoyalibebas, romelzec mniSvnelovnadaa damokidebuli qveynis ekonomikuri gaZliereba

da TiToeuli moqalaqis keTildReobac.

cxadia, qveynis Semdgomi ganviTarebisaTvis, ekonomikuri berketebis srulyofisaTvis, biznesis

seqtoris ganviTarebisaTvis, udavod gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba aqvs sagadasaxado kodeqsis

muxlebs, romelic wina sagadasaxado da sabaJo kodeqsebTan SedarebiT ufro miaxloebulia

evropul sagadasaxado-sabaJo kanonmdeblobasTan.

WeSmaritebaa, rom samyaroSi srulyofili da idealuri araferia da bunebrivia, sagadasaxado

kodeqsic ver iqneba srulyofili, magram axlo warsulSi moqmedma sagadasaxado da sabaJo kodeqsebma

udavod, ZiriTadad, Seasrules saqarTvelos ekonomikuri ganviTarebis Tanamedrove etapze

Tavisi amocanebi.

sabazro ekonomikis formirebis sawyisi periodi xasiaTdeboda arastabilurobiT. yoveldRiuri

praqtikidan aSkarad Cans, rom vaWrobaSi arsebuli mravali normatiuli samarTlebrivi aqtis

arsebobam ver SeZlo Tavidan aecilebina qveynisaTvis aucilebeli saxsrebis gadineba, ekonomikurad

araxelsayreli kontraqtebis dadeba, sagadasaxado-sabaJo wesebis darRvevebi da sxva.

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sagadasaxado procesis teqnologiaSi xSiri cvlilebebi ver uzrunvelyofs sagareo vaWrobis

ganviTarebis stabilur pirobebs, rasac qveynis ekonomikisaTvis didi mniSvneloba aqvs.

saqarTvelos sakanonmdeblo organoSi axali sagadasaxado kodeqsis ganxilvisas gamoiTqva

mravali mosazreba da SeniSvna ara marto ucxoeli eqspertebisa, aseve, qarTveli mewarme-subieqtebis,

importiorebis mier. bevri saqmiani winadadeba gaTvaliswinebul iqna, romelmac kidev

ufro miaaxlova evropuli sagadasaxado-sabaJo kanonmdeblobis models qarTuli sagadasaxado

kanonmdebloba.

axali sagadasaxado kodeqsi miznad isaxavs qveyanaSi axali saerTaSoriso safinanso institutebis

Seqmnas, romlebic uzrunvelyofen qveyanaSi investiciebis mozidvas, rac Tavis mxriv,

xels Seuwyobs qveyanaSi ekonomikuri efeqtianobis amaRlebas, qveynis mdgrad ganviTarebas, qveynis

ekonomikuri zrdisaTvis xelSewyobas, qveyanaSi saerTaSoriso safinanso centris Camoyalibebas,

aseve, saqarTvelos savaWro-satranzito funqciis amaRlebas. amisaTvis saqarTvelos

samarTlebriv sivrceSi gaCnda iseTi subieqtebi, rogoricaa: a) fiskaluri politika, b) gadasaxadebi

fiskaluri reformis mixedviT, g) saerTaSoriso finansuri kompaniebi, d) Tavisufali

sawyobis sawarmo, e) saerTaSoriso sawarmo.

2011 wlis sagadasaxado kodeqsSi gamovyofdiT Semdeg momentebsa da Taviseburebebs, rac

arsebiTia sagadasaxado kodeqsisaTvis: instituciuri midgoma sistemuri saxiT warmodgenil

ZiriTad problemebze yuradRebis gamaxvilebis saSualebas iZleva. instituciur problemebs

miekuTvneba: sagadasaxado politika, saerTaSoriso sagadasaxado-sabaJo integracia, sagadasaxado

organoebi, saqarTvelos ekonomikur sazRvarze saqonlis gadaadgileba, saxelmwifo kontroli

da saxelmwifo zedamxedveloba, sasaqonlo operaciebi, sagadasaxado davalianebis gadaxdevinebis

uzrunvelyofa, wminda samarTaldamcavi bloki, saqarTvelos ekonomikur sazRvarze

saqonlis ukanono gadaadgilebisaTvis pasuxismgebloba, informireba da konsultaciis

gaweva, sagadasaxado organoebis Tanamdebobis pirebi da sxva.

rogorc vxedavT, sagadasaxado kodeqsi warmodgenilia sagadasaxado organoebisaTvis niSandoblivi

da maTi saqmianobisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli problemebis, mimarTulebebisa da funqcionirebis

da aseve, sagadasaxado sferoSi organoebis, organizaciebis, iuridiuli da fizikuri

pirebis, `mravalferovani speqtriT.~ am debulebebisa da normebis safuZvels emyareba sagadasaxado

samarTali.

sagadasaxado kodeqsSi realizebulia riskebis marTvis koncefcia, romelic miRebulia

ganviTarebuli saxelmwifoebis sagadasaxado kanonmdeblobaSi. es niSnavs: Semosavlebis

samsaxurma portalSi unda gaakontrolos ara yvelaferi, rac misi gavliT moZraobs, aramed

unda airCios miznebi, romlebic ase Tu ise dakavSirebulia ekonomikis, usafrTxoebis, janmrTelobis,

inteleqtualuri sakuTrebis riskebTan. sagadasaxado kodeqsi, masSi Camoyalibebuli

debulebebiT, aRiarebs sakuTari principebisa da sagadasaxado procedurebis Sesaxeb

kiotos konvenciaSi Cadebuli msoflio sabaJo organizaciis principebs.

mzad aris aseTi cvlilebebisaTvis saqarTvelos Semosavlebis samsaxuri?

2011 wlis sagadasaxado kodeqsi gamoricxavs sagareo vaWrobis monawileTa pasuxisgebaSi micemas

sasamarTlo procedurebis gareSe; adgilze saSualebas iZleva Semosavlebis samsaxurs

daqvemdebarebul portalebSi gadawydes davebi Semosavlebis samsaxursa da saqarTvelos ekonomikur

teritoriaze saqonlis gadamaadgilebel pirebs Soris; sagareo vaWrobis monawileTa

saCivrebze maTi miRebisTanave yvela axsna-ganmartebebze reaqcias dauyovnebliv iZleva Semosavlebis

samsaxuris Sesabamisi kompetenturi muSaki.

sagadasaxado kodeqsi _ es aris pirdapiri moqmedebis kanoni. mis sasikeTod unda iTqvas, rom

gamartivda saqonlis gaformebisas gamoyenebuli sasaqonlo operaciebi da man moicva 10 saxe,

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gansxvavebiT wina sabaJo kodeqsisagan, sadac `sabaJo damuSavebis~ terminis qveS moiazreboda,

rogorc TviTon sabaJo reJimebi, aseve, konkretulad `sabaJo damuSavebis operaciaSi~ Sedioda

saqarTvelos sabaJo teritoriidan saqonlis reeqsporti, saqonlis ganadgureba sabaJo zedamxedvelobis

qveS an saqonlis gadacema saxelmwifo sakuTrebaSi, romelic xSir SemTxvevaSi, erTgvar

gaugebrobasac ki iwvevda.

dRes moqmedi sagadasaxado kodeqsiT, saqonlis gaformebisas gamoiyeneba Semdegi sasaqonlo

operaciebi: a) importi; b) eqsporti; g) reeqsporti (adre is sabaJo damuSavebis operaciad

moiazreboda); d) tranziti; e) sawyobi; v) Tavisufali sawyobi; z) Tavisufali zona; T)

droebiTi Semotana; i) Sida gadamuSaveba; k) gare gadamuSaveba.

novacias warmoadgens saqarTvelos finansTa ministris 2009 wlis 21 oqtombris # 679 brZanebiT

`oqros siaSi~ gawevrianebis pirobebis gamartiveba. araerTi dialogi Sedga finansTa saministroSi

biznesseqtorTan. dialogis farglebSi miRebul iqna konkretuli gadawyvetilebebi,

romlebic importiorebs sagadasaxado procedurebs kidev ufro gaumartivebs da xarjebs

dauzogavs.

Semosavlebis samsaxuri savaWro partniorobis programaSi (`oqros siaSi~) monawilis

statusis pirobebs amartivebs axali, gamartivebuli probebis mixedviT, kerZod:

importis sasaqonlo operaciaSi deklarirebuli saqonlis satarifo Rirebulebis wliuri

maRali maCvenebeli _ 10 mln lari Semcirda 3 mln laramde;

gadaxdili importis gadasaxdelebis wliuri odenobis maRali maCvenebeli 1,8 mln lari

Semcirda 900 000 laramde;

araaqcizur saqonelze sagadasaxado valdebulebis uzrunvelyofis garantia 50 000 evro

Semcirda 10 000 laramde;

kandidatis mimarT dawesebuli moTxovna, rom savaWro TanamSromlobis statusis miniWebamde

erTi wlis ganmavlobaSi ar hqonoda Cadenili sagadasaxado samarTaldarRvevebi, Semcirda

6 Tvemde vadiT;

aRvniSnavT, rom es piroba gamoiyeneba im SemTxvevaSi, Tu portalis gverdis avliT an misgan

malulad gatanili an gamotanili saqonlis satarifo Rirebuleba ar aRemateba 10 000 lars.

`oqros siis~ (avtorizebuli ekonomikuri operatoris) SemoRebiT Semosavlebis samsaxuri

imedovnebs, rom pirobebis gamartivebis Semdeg, `oqros siaSi~ gawevrianebis survils kidev ufro

meti kompania gamoTqvams da programa ufro mimzidveli gaxdeba importiorebisaTvis, rac kidev

ufro Seuwyobs xels maTi droisa da zogadad, sagadasaxado sistemis saerTaSoriso standartebTan

harmonizacias, radgan analogiuri programebi moqmedebs evrokavSiris TiTqmis yvela

qveyanaSi. aqve aRvniSnavT, rom biznesmenTa garkveuli nawili sifrTxiliT ekideba am programas

da xSir SemTxvevaSi, eWvs gamoTqvamen am institutis efeqtianobis Sesaxeb. marTalia, yvela

novacias sifrTxiliT da xSirad SiSiTac ki udgebian, magram `oqros siis~ amoqmedeba da misi

praqtikaSi danergva migvaniSnebs mis dadebiT Tu uaryofiT mxareebze.

adre moqmedi sabaJo kodeqsiT gaTvaliswinebuli iyo `sabaJo teritoriaze saqonlis gadamuSaveba~

da `sabaJo teritoriis gareT saqonlis gadamuSaveba,~ romelic gulisxmobda Sesabamisad

ucxouri saqonlis gadamuSavebas saqarTvelos sabaJo teritoriaze gaSvebuli saqonlis

mimarT gadamuSavebis an kidev saqarTvelos sabaJo teritoriis gareT droebiT gatanili

saqarTvelos saqonlis mimarT saqonlis gadamuSavebis erTi an erTze meti operaciis gamoyenebas

da gadamuSavebis produqtis saqarTvelos sabaJo teritoriaze Semotanisas mis Tavisufal mimoqcevaSi

gaSvebas importis gadasaxdelebis (garda, satarifo mosakreblisa) gadaxdisagan

srulad an nawilobriv gaTavisuflebiT. sagadasaxado kodeqsSi am sam, ukve sasaqonlo operacias

(gansxvavebiT, adre arsebuli sabaJo reJimebisa), eZRvneba mxolod 234-236 muxlebi, Tumca,

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Sinaarsobrivad TiTqmis identuria, anu saxeze gvaqvs aqtiuri (qveynis SigniT) da pasiuri (qveynis

gareT) saqonlis gadamuSaveba. sagadasaxado kodeqsis 234-e muxlis mixedviT definirebulia

Sida gadamuSaveba da gare gadamuSaveba, sadac ZiriTadad, saubaria gadamuSavebis operaciebze,

xolo 235-e muxlSi _ `Sida gadamuSavebaze~, 236-e muxlSi ki, `gare gadamuSavebaze~. sagadasaxado

kodeqsis 234-e muxli zogadia Sida (muxli 235) da gare (muxli 236) gadamuSavebisaTvis.

amdenad, albaT ukeTesi iqneboda 234-e muxls darqmeoda `zogadi debulebebi Sida da gare

gadamuSavebisaTvis~, mxolod muxlebs Sesabamisad, damateboda termini (samive muxlis Sem-

TxvevaSi) `saqonlis~, rameTu gadamuSavebis orive tipi (rogorc Sida, aseve, gare gadamuSaveba)

saqonelze gadamuSavebis operaciebis gamoyenebaa (magaliTad, saqonlis montaJi, awyoba, sxva

saqonelze morgeba, saqonlis warmoeba, saqonlis SekeTeba da sxva).

Tu adre moqmedi sabaJo kodeqsiT `saqonlis Semotanas~ 8 muxli eTmoboda da igi moicavda

125-132-mde muxlebs, axali sagadasaxado kodeqsiT igi gamartivebulia da mas mxolod erTi muxli

(muxli 237) eZRvneba.

gansxvavebiT wina kodeqsisagan, romelSic saqonlis droebiTi Semotanis sabaJo reJimSi saqonlis

moqcevis vada ar aRemateboda 2 wels, axali sagadasaxado kodeqsiT droebiTi Semotanis

sasaqonlo operaciaSi saqonlis moqcevis vada `ar unda aRematebodes 3 wels~, garda im SemTxvevebisa,

rodesac Semosavlebis samsaxuri gansxvavebul vadas daadebs. aqac gamovTqvamT Cvens

mosazrebas aRniSnuli muxlis mimarT, rom upriani iqneboda 237-e muxls wamZRvareboda

termini `saqonlis~ da mere rogorc teqstSia.

Tu adre moqmedi sabaJo kodeqsiT (muxli 128) CamoTvlili iyo im saqonelTa nusxa, romlebic

saqonlis droebiTi Semotanis sabaJo reJimis gamoyenebisas importis gadasaxdelebisagan

srulad Tavisufldebodnen, sagadasaxado kodeqsis 237-e muxlis me-2 nawili migvaniSnebs, rom

droebiTi Semotanisas, saqonlis srulad gaTavisuflebis nusxas importis gadasaxdelebisagan

gansazRvravs finansTa ministri.

vfiqrobT, axal sagadasaxado kodeqsSi ukeTesadaa dalagebuli sasaqonlo operaciebi, vidre

adre moqmed sabaJo kodeqsSi iyo mocemuli sabaJo reJimebi. saqonlis importis Semdeg modioda

tranziti da eqsportis sabaJo reJims erT-erTi bolo adgili ekava sabaJo reJimebs Soris. axali

sagadasaxado kodeqsis sasikeTod unda iTqvas, rom eqsporti Tan mosdevs importis sasaqonlo

operacias, rac ufro logikurad migvaCnia. SevniSnavT, rom importi, garda 228-e muxlisa, aseve

ganivTebulia Sesabamisad, sagadasaxado kodeqsis sxva muxlebSic (magaliTad, muxli 162. `importi,

importis Tanxa da dro~, importis gadasaxadi, kari VI I I ). migvaCnia, rom 228-e muxliT

gaTvaliswinebuli unda iyos punqti, sadac aRiniSneboda, rom `finansTa saministros mier

ganisazRvros (instruqciis doneze) `importis sasaqonlo operacia~. igives vityodiT tranzitis

Sesaxeb.

axali sagadasaxado kodeqsi, romelmac gaamartiva sagadasaxado procedurebi, unificirebuli

gaxada da kidev ufro dauaxlova igi evrokavSiris wevri qveynebis sagadasaxado kanonmdeblobas.

misi saukeTeso magaliTia Tundac is faqti, rom sagadasaxado kodeqsma daaregulira

sasaqonlo operaciebis gamoyenebisas gadasaxdelebisa da sagareo vaWrobis maregulirebeli

iseTi RonisZiebebi, rogoricaa importis gadasaxdelebis gamoyenebis pirobebi da sagareo vaWrobis

maregulirebeli sxva normebi, konkretulad, rogoricaa: `saqarTvelos integrirebuli

tarifi~ (muxli 210), `saqonlis klasifikacia~ (muxli 211), `saqonlis warmoSobis qveynis

gansazRvra~ (muxli 212), `saqonlis satarifo Rirebulebis gansazRvra~ (muxli. 213) da sxva,

romlebsac adre moqmedi sabaJo kanonmdeblobis VI I I kari eZRvneboda da erTgvar daqsaqsulobas

iwvevda, did dros moiTxovda ori kodeqsis arsebobis pirobebSi arsebuli institutebis damu-

Savebisas.

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saintereso novaciaa axal sagadasaxado kodeqsSi kari VI I I _ `importis gadasaxadi~, sadac

saubaria gadasaxadis gadamxdelze, dabegvris obieqtze, importis gadasaxadis ganakveTze (mocemulia

cxrilis saxiT), gadasaxadis daricxvisa da gadaxdis wesze da importis gadasaxadisagan

gaTavisuflebaze. adre moqmed sagadasaxado kodeqsSi ki, es kari warmodgenili iyo sabaJo

gadasaxadiT (kari XI I 1

). migvaCnia, rom ramdenadac aRniSnuli gadasaxadis gadamxdeli sasaqonlo

operaciis gamoyenebisas importioria da radgan importiori ixdis yvela saxis gadasaxads, _

droulia da Seesatyviseba sabazro ekonomikis pirobebs, rom dRevandel sagadasaxado kodeqsSi

igi `importis gadasaxadis~ saxeliTa Sevida.

bevr saintereso novacias gvpirdeba axali sagadasaxado kodeqsi, bevri instituti daemata

mas axali definiciiT. magaliTad, `Tavisufali sawyobis sawarmo~ (muxli. 24), romelic Tavisufal

sawyobSi saqmianobis ganmaxorcielebeli saqarTvelos sawarmoa, romelsac gadasaxadisagan

gaTavisuflebis mizniT, miniWebuli aqvs Tavisufali sawyobis statusi; `saerTaSoriso

sawarmo~ (muxli. 25), romelic Tavisufali industriuli zonis sawarmoa, romelsac gadasaxadisagan

gaTavisuflebis mizniT miniWebuli aqvs saerTaSoriso sawarmos statusi; `specialuri

vaWrobis zona (muxli 26), romelic SeiZleba mieniWos pirs, romelic saqarTveloSi vaWrobis

organizebas eweva sakuTari iniciativiT an saqarTvelos mTavrobis gadawyvetilebiT; sagadasaxado

kodeqsiT xmarebaSi Semodis axali termini da Sesabamisad, axali instituti (muxli 42) _

`sagadasaxado ombudsmeni~, romelic gadasaxadis gadamxdelis kanoniT dadgenil uflebebs

daicavs da sxva.

sagadasaxado kanonmdebloba Tavis TavSi moicavs administraciul, samoqalaqo, sisxlis samarTlis

elementebsac. igi garkveulwilad kompleqsuri dargia, romelsac Zalze faqizi midgoma

da regulireba sWirdeba. axali sagadasaxado kanonmdebloba Tavis TavSi sabaJo kanonmdeblobis

bevr aspeqtsac moicavs. Tumca, samwuxarod, sityva `sabaJo~ aRar gamoiyeneba, romelic am kodeqsis

naklad migvaCnia, rameTu saqarTvelo, romelic uamravi saerTaSoriso sabaJo konvenciebis,

Tu regionuli sabaJo xelSekrulebebisa da SeTanxmebebis monawilea da aRiarebs evrokavSiris

sabaJo kodeqss, eswrafvis kiotos konvenciis ratificirebas, romelic sabaJo (xazs vusvamT

_ sabaJo) procedurebis unifikaciisa da gamartivebis dokumentia, _ naCqarevi xom ar iyo kodeqsidan

sityva `sabaJos~ amoReba?

amasTanave, kargi iqneboda, Tu me-8 muxls `terminTa ganmartebaSi~ kidev bevri iseTi terminis

ganmarteba daemateboda, romelic sxvadasxva muxlebSia ganivTebuli da SeiZleba ekonomistisaTvis

ufro misaxvedria, magram iuristisaTvis xSirad, Tavsatexi xdeba. ucxo terminTa ganmartebiT

ki, bevri ram sagadasaxado kodeqsSi advili aRsaqmeli gaxdeboda am dargSi momuSave

iuristebisTvisac.

sagadasaxado kodeqsma axleburi xedva mogvca Tanamedrove samarTlebrivi Tu ekonomikuri

institutebisa, romlebic msoflioSi aprobirebuli da danergilia. misi axali redaqciis amoqmedeba

bunebrivia, Tanamedrove da qmediTi samarTlebrivi bazis Camoyalibebas gaxdis SesaZlebels,

romelic sxva samarTlebriv organoebTan urTierTqmedebaSi uzrunvelyofs saqarTvelos

ekonomikuri institutebis, misi usafrTxoebis realur dacvas.

saqarTvelo damajerebeli, Zlieri nabijebiT, amayad miabijebs evrokavSiris didi ojaxisken,

natosken, samomavlo rwmeniT, qveyanaSi gaCaRebuli Zlieri aRmSeneblobis programiT. aqedan

gamomdinare, swori sagadasaxado politikis amoqmedeba, msoflio savaWro-satranzito sistemaSi

saqarTvelos CarTva kidev erTi sasikeTo svla iqneba mZlavri safinanso institutebis Seqmnisa,

romlebic qveyanaSi xels Seuwyoben ucxouri investiciebis mozidvas, rac Tavis mxriv, qveynis

ekonomikuri amaRlebis myari garanti iqneba. manamde ki, win aris axali sagadasaxado kodeqsis

sasikeTo normebi, romelic bevr kargs, perspeqtiuls hpirdeba saqarTvelos mosaxleobas.

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marTlmsajuleba

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da

kanoni

bunebrivia, samyaroSi arafers da aravis, miT umetes sagadasaxado kodeqssac ver eqneba srulyofilebis

pretenzia. mravali norma droTa ganmavlobaSi sxvanairad dalagdeba, axlebur, droze

morgebul elfers miiRebs drosa da sivrceSi, pirTa wris mimarT, gamoavlens mraval sasikeTos

da am kuTxiT, SemuSavebuli sasamarTlo praqtikac samomavlod udavod kargi xelSewyoba iqneba,

raTa sagadasaxado kodeqsma normalurad ifunqcioniros da xeli Seuwyos jansaRi biznesis

ganviTarebas, ekonomikuri usafrTxoebis dacvas, investiciebis mozidvas da sxva.

gamoyenebuli literatura:

1. saqarTvelos 1995 wlis konstitucia;

2. saqarTvelos 2011 wlis sagadasaxado kodeqsi;

3. evropis gaerTianebis sabaJo kodeqsi, sabWos reglamenti 2913/92;

4. ia xarazi, sabaJo samarTali, Tb., 2010.

SeniSvnebi:

1

i. xarazi, sabaJo samarTali, Tbilisi, 2010, gv. 4.

2

saqarTvelos konstituciis 93-e muxli p. 5.7 da 94-e muxlis p. 4-5 _

amoqmeddeba 2013 wlis oqtombris morigi saprezidento arCevnebis

Sedegad arCeuli prezidentis mier ficis dadebis momentidan. Tumca

SevniSneT, rom sityva `sabaJo gadasaxadebi~ kodeqsSi naxsenebi ar aris,

magram aRniSnuli kodeqsiT gaTvaliswinebuli bevri instituciebi,

romlebic portalis gadakveTis wessa da pirobebs iTvaliswinebs,

swored rom sabaJo instituciebia.

3

i. xarazi, sabaJo samarTali, Tb. 2010, gv. 4.

4

i. xarazi, sabaJo samarTali, Tb. 2010, gv. 5.

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CONSTITUTIONAL

BASIS OF THE TAX

LAW ADOPTION OF

THE TAX LEGISLATION

– PROBLEMS AND

SPECIFICITIES

(Movement of Goods at the Economic Border of Georgia)

IA KHARAZI

Associate Professor Tbilisi Aviation University and DAUG

Tax policy of Georgia develops in the direction of harmonizing with

globally acknowledged international legal norms and practice. In this

case, the EEG Customs Code represents a priority as well as the International

Convention on Simplification and Harmonization of Customs

Procedures (Kyoto Convention, 1973).

New Tax Code aims at creation of international financial institutions in

the country; such institutions will facilitate the process of attracting investments,

which, in its turn, will facilitate growth of economic efficiency,

sustainable development of the country, development of the international

financial centre and increase of the trade and transit function of the country.

For that purpose develop such new subjects like: a) fiscal policy; b)

taxes in accordance with the fiscal reform; c) international financial companies;

d) free storage/warehouse enterprise; e) international ventures.

We would point out main features and specificities of the 2011 Tax Code:

institutional approach allows for focusing on systematic problems. Following

belong to institutional problems: tax policy, international tax and

customs integration, taxation bodies, movement of goods on economic

borders of the country, state control and state supervision, commodity

operations, ensuring payment of tax liabilities. SAS ESN, legal block,

responsibility for illegal movement of goods on economic borders of the

country, informing and consulting, officials of tax authorities, etc.

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saqarTvelos mosamarTleTa asociacia

JUDGES ASSOCIATION OF GEORGIA

tel-faqsi/Tel-Fax: (+995 32) 292 34 90

saqarTvelos uzenaesi sasamarTlo

THE SUPREME COURT OF GEORGIA

tel-faqsi/Tel-Fax: (+995 32) 299 70 01

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