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marTlmsajuleba da kanoni<br />

marTlmsajuleba<br />

N1<br />

'11<br />

da<br />

kanoni<br />

<strong>Justice</strong> <strong>and</strong> <strong>Law</strong><br />

N1<br />

<strong>Justice</strong> <strong>and</strong> <strong>Law</strong> <strong>Legal</strong> <strong>Journal</strong><br />

#1(28)'11


N<br />

marTlmsajuleba<br />

1(28)<br />

'11<br />

da<br />

kanoni<br />

<strong>Justice</strong> <strong>and</strong> <strong>Law</strong><br />

#1(28)'11<br />

<strong>Legal</strong> <strong>Journal</strong>


marTlmsajuleba<br />

N1<br />

da<br />

kanoni<br />

<strong>Justice</strong> <strong>and</strong> <strong>Law</strong><br />

saqarTvelos uzenaesi sasamarTlosa da saqarTvelos mosamarTleTa asociaciis iuridiuli Jurnali<br />

LEGAL JOURNAL OF THE SUPREME COURT OF GEORGIA AND OF THE JUDGES’ ASSOCIATION OF GEORGIA<br />

redaqtori<br />

nino ZiZiguri<br />

redaqtoris TanaSemwe<br />

irma beqauri<br />

nomerze muSaobdnen:<br />

inga alaviZe<br />

leila koSkaZe<br />

marine vasaZe<br />

dizaini:<br />

besik danelia<br />

fotouzrunvelyofa:<br />

daviT xizaniSvili<br />

saredaqcio sabWo:<br />

diana berekaSvili<br />

Tamar zambaxiZe<br />

inga kvaWantiraZe<br />

konstantine kublaSvili<br />

zaza meiSvili<br />

valeri cercvaZe<br />

Editorial Board:<br />

DIANA BEREKASHVILI<br />

TAMAR ZAMBAKHIDZE<br />

INGA KVACHANTIRADZE<br />

KONSTANTINE KUBLASHVILI<br />

ZAZA MEISHVILI<br />

VALERI TSERTSVADZE<br />

saqarTvelos mosamarTleTa<br />

asociacia<br />

JUDGES ASSOCIATION OF GEORGIA<br />

akrZalulia aq gamoqveynebuli masalebis<br />

gadabeWdva, gamravleba an gavrceleba<br />

komerciuli mizniT, saqarTvelos<br />

mosamarTleTa asociaciisa da saqarTvelos<br />

uzenaesi sasamarTlos werilobiTi<br />

nebarTvisa da wyaros miTiTebis gareSe.<br />

Editor:<br />

NINO DZIDZIGURI<br />

Assistant to Editor:<br />

IRMA BEKAURI<br />

The issue was prepared by:<br />

INGA ALAVIDZE<br />

LEILA KOSHKADZE<br />

MARINE VASADZE<br />

Designed by<br />

BESIK DANELIA<br />

Photo support by<br />

DAVIT KHIZANISHVILI<br />

English version of articles has been provided by C<strong>and</strong>idates<br />

of <strong>Law</strong> faculty of Tbilisi State University<br />

uak (UDC) 340.11+340.130.5<br />

m-306<br />

ISSN 1512-259X<br />

2


sarCevi/CONTENTS<br />

5<br />

malxaz guruli: `sasamarTlos mimarT mosaxleobis ndoba<br />

gazrdilia~<br />

MALKHAZ GURULI: "PUBLIC TRUST TOWARD COURTS IS INCREASED"<br />

13<br />

joni xecuriani<br />

saqarTvelos saxelmwifo ena<br />

STATE LANGUAGE OF GEORGIA<br />

JOHN KHETSURIANI<br />

31<br />

irma peraniZe<br />

damoukidebeli sasarCelo moTxovnis gareSe mesame piri<br />

samoqalaqo samarTalwarmoebaSi<br />

THE THIRD PARTY IN CIVIL PROCEEDINGS WITHOUT SEPARATE CLAIM<br />

IRMA PERANIDZE<br />

41<br />

simon CxaiZe<br />

movaleTa da kreditorTa simravle valdebulebaSi<br />

MULTITUDE OF DEBTORS AND CREDITORS IN LIABILITY<br />

SIMON CHKHAIDZE<br />

56<br />

zurab Wyonia<br />

samoqalaqo samarTalwarmoebisa da aRsrulebis sakiTxebi<br />

sabWoTa saqarTveloSi<br />

ISSUES OF CIVIL PROCEEDINGS AND EXECUTION IN THE SOVIET GEORGIA<br />

ZURAB CHKONIA<br />

72<br />

laura miqava<br />

vindikaciuri sarCeli, rogorc sanivTo uflebis dacvis<br />

samarTlebrivi saSualeba<br />

VINDICTIVE APPEAL AS LEGAL MEANS OF PROTECTING<br />

THE PROPERTY RIGHT<br />

LAURA MIKAVA<br />

89<br />

daviT mesxiSvili<br />

gaerTianebuli erebis organizaciis konvencia<br />

transnacionaluri organizebuli danaSaulis winaaRmdeg<br />

UNITED NATIONS CONVENTION AGAINST TRANSNATIONAL<br />

ORGANIZED CRIME<br />

DAVID MESKHISHVILI<br />

3


marTlmsajuleba<br />

N1<br />

da<br />

kanoni<br />

101<br />

giorgi dgebuaZe<br />

kriminaluri miznobrivi dajgufebis - JOINT CRIMINAL<br />

ENTERPRISE doqtrinis Seqmnisa da gamoyenebis aucilebloba<br />

saerTaSoriso sisxlis samarTalSi<br />

NEED FOR CREATION AND USAGE OF THE JOINT CRIMINAL<br />

ENTERPRISE DOCTRINE IN THE INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL LAW<br />

GEORGE DGEBUADZE<br />

111<br />

adam maxaraZe<br />

sasjelis daniSvnis sakiTxisaTvis TanamonawileobiT<br />

Cadenil danaSaulSi<br />

THE PUNISHMENT INDIVIDUALIZATION MATTER IN COMMITTING CRIME<br />

WITH ACCEESSARY<br />

ADAM MAKHARADZE<br />

123<br />

nino osaZe<br />

fulis gaTeTreba ofSoruli zonebis gamoyenebis gziT<br />

MONEY LAUNDERING THROUGH OFFSHORE ZONES<br />

NINO OSADZE<br />

131<br />

axali wignebi<br />

4


`sasamarTlos mimarT<br />

mosaxleobis ndoba<br />

gazrdilia~<br />

saqarTvelos erT-erTi yvelaze didi sasamarTlos _<br />

quTaisis saapelacio sasamarTlos Tavmjdomare<br />

malxaz guruli acxadebs, rom statistikuri<br />

monacemebis mixedviT, quTaisis saapelacio<br />

sasamarTlom 2010 wels sakmaod produqtiulad<br />

imuSava da wina welTan SedarebiT gacilebiT meti<br />

saqme ganixila.<br />

quTaisis saapelacio sasamarTlos saqmianobis,<br />

mimdinare reformisa da mosalodneli siaxleebis<br />

Sesaxeb gTavazobT intervius quTaisis saapelacio<br />

sasamarTlos TavmjdomaresTan, malxaz gurulTan.<br />

batono malxaz, gasuli wlis 1 oqtombridan amoqmedda<br />

sisxlis samarTlis axali saproceso kodeqsi<br />

da, Sesabamisad, amoqmedda sruliad axali tipis<br />

marTlmsajuleba. ukve oTxi Tve gavida da sainteresoa,<br />

rogor `moergo~ quTaisis saapelacio sasamarTlo<br />

axal process?<br />

_ sisxlis samarTlis axali saproceso kodeqsis amoqmedebiT<br />

sruliad Seicvala sisxlis samarTalwarmoeba. es<br />

5


marTlmsajuleba<br />

N1<br />

da<br />

kanoni<br />

aris procesi, romelic dafuZnebulia mxareTa<br />

Tanasworobisa da SejibrebiTobis<br />

principze, rac niSnavs, rom mxareebis kvalifikaciazea<br />

damokidebuli, Tu rogor<br />

gadawyvetilebas miiRebs mosamarTle, romelic<br />

procesze mxolod arbitris rolSia<br />

da mxareebis mier wardgenil mtkicebulebebs<br />

afasebs.<br />

sasamarTloSi moewyo videokonferenciis<br />

da saprezentacio darbazebi, romlis meSveobiTac,<br />

sasamarTlo procesze aRar iqneba<br />

saWiro regionebidan mowmeebis Camoyvana.<br />

isini daikiTxebian sasamarTloSi<br />

TavianTi sacxovrebeli adgilis mixedviT,<br />

rac xels Seuwyobs swrafi da efeqtiani<br />

marTlmsajulebis ganxorcielebas.<br />

rac Seexeba quTaisis saapelacio sasamar-<br />

Tlos, Cven iseve, rogorc mTlianad sasamarTlo<br />

sistema, momzadebuli SevxvdiT am<br />

cvlilebebs. mosamarTleebi ori wlis ganmavlobaSi<br />

intensiur treningebs gadiodnen,<br />

rogorc qarTvel, ise ucxoel eqspertebTan.<br />

Tamamad SeiZleba iTqvas, rom sisxlis<br />

samarTlis axali saproceso kodeqsis<br />

implementacia warmatebiT mimdinareobs.<br />

quTaisis saapelacio sasamarTlo<br />

erT-erTi yvelaze msxvili sasamar-<br />

Tloa, emsaxurebiT dasavleT saqar-<br />

Tvelos, amitomac, sainteresoa,<br />

Tqveni analizi, rogor SeafasebdiT<br />

quTaisis saapelacio sasamarTlos<br />

muSaobas 2010 wels?<br />

_ statistikuri monacemebis mixedviT, qu-<br />

Taisis saapelacio sasamarTlom 2010 wels<br />

sakmaod produqtiulad imuSava da wina<br />

welTan SedarebiT ufro meti saqme daasrula.<br />

aRsaniSnavia, rom 2010 wels SemoRebuli<br />

iqna sasamarTlo gadawyvetilebis axali<br />

formebi samoqalaqo da administraciul<br />

saqmeebze, romlis meSveobiTac, sasamarTlos<br />

mier gamotanili gadawyvetilebebi<br />

ufro daixvewa da moqalaqeebisaTvis advilad<br />

aRsaqmeli gaxda.<br />

administraciuli marTlmsajuleba<br />

saqarTveloSi 10 welia rac moqmedebs,<br />

SeiZleba Tqma, rom is mainc<br />

axali rgolia marTlmsajulebisaTvis<br />

rogor SeafasebdiT Tqveni sasamarTlos<br />

administraciuli kolegiis<br />

saqmianobas? miT umetes, rom<br />

administraciuli davisas, erTmane-<br />

Tis pirispir dgas moqalaqe da saxelmwifo,<br />

sajaro samsaxuris saxiT.<br />

rogori maCvenebeli aqvs quTaisis<br />

saapelacio sasamarTlos _ gadawyvetilebebis<br />

ramdeni procentia moqalaqeebis<br />

sasargeblod gamotanili?<br />

_ postsabWoTa qveynebs Soris, administraciuli<br />

samarTalwarmoebis mxriv, saqar-<br />

Tvelo lideria da es naTlad dadasturda<br />

cota xnis winaT kievSi gamarTul saerTa-<br />

Soriso konferenciaze, sadac sxvadasxva<br />

qveynebis warmomadgenlebi TavianT moxsenebebSi<br />

xazgasmiT saubrobdnen im warmatebebis<br />

Sesaxeb, romelsac saqarTvelom<br />

administraciuli marTlmsajulebis mxriv<br />

am 10 wlis ganmavlobaSi miaRwia.<br />

rac Seexeba moqalaqeTa sasargeblod gamotanil<br />

gadawyvetilebebs, arsebuli monacemebiT,<br />

gadawyvetilebebis 60 procenti<br />

maT sasargeblod gamodis.<br />

6


sasamarTlos saqmianobis maCvenebeli<br />

mosamarTleebis mier gamotanili<br />

gadawyvetilebebis xarisxia.<br />

rogor fiqrobT, quTaisis saapelacio<br />

sasamarTlos mosamarTleebis<br />

profesionalizmi da kvalifikacia<br />

akmayofilebs Tanamedrove sasamar-<br />

Tlos st<strong>and</strong>artebs?<br />

_ geTanxmebiT, rom sasamarTlos saqmianobis<br />

maCvenebeli mosamarTleebis mier gamotanili<br />

gadawyvetilebebis xarisxzea damokidebuli.<br />

gadawyvetilebebis xarisxs ki<br />

gansazRvravs, Tu ramdenad xSirad xdeba<br />

maTi Secvla zemdgomi instanciis mier. Cveni<br />

sasamarTlos statistikis mixedviT, sakasacio<br />

wesiT gasaCivrebuli saqmeebis<br />

umetesoba ZalaSi rCeba, rac quTaisis saapelacio<br />

sasamarTlos mosamarTleebis ma-<br />

Ral profesionalizmze metyvelebs.<br />

Tumca, mTavari Semfasebeli mainc<br />

sazogadoebaa, rogor fiqrobT, gaizarda<br />

Tu ara sazogadoebis ndoba<br />

sasamarTlo xelisuflebis mimarT?<br />

_ Cveni saqmianobis yvelaze obieqturi Semfasebelni<br />

arian is moqalaqeebi, romelTac<br />

uSualo Sexeba hqondaT sasamarTlosTan.<br />

2010 wels, sxvadasxva saerTaSoriso organizaciebis<br />

mier Catarebuli gamokiTxvebis<br />

mixedviT, sasamarTlos mimarT mosaxleobis<br />

ndoba aSkarad gazrdilia da igi saSualod,<br />

daaxloebiT, 60 procents Seadgens.<br />

sainteresoa, Tqveni azri kodeqsiT<br />

gaTvaliswinebul mniSvnelovan siaxlesTan<br />

_ nafic msajulTa sasamarTlosTan<br />

dakavSirebiT. am insmalxaz<br />

guruli _ 1996 wels, Tbilisis ivane<br />

javaxiSvilis saxelobis saxelmwifo universitetis<br />

iuridiuli fakultetis dam-<br />

Tavrebis Semdeg, zestafonis Sinagan saqme-<br />

Ta raiganyofilebis ekologiis policiis<br />

qveganyofilebaSi ufros momkvlev inspeqtorad<br />

muSaobda.<br />

1998 wels, iusticiis saswavlo centrSi warmatebiT<br />

gaiara samTviani sasawavlo kursi<br />

mosamarTlis TanaSemwis Tanamdebobis dasakaveblad.<br />

1999-2004 wlebSi muSaobda Tbilisis saolqo<br />

sasamarTloSi mosamarTlis TanaSemwed<br />

_ samoqalaqo saqmeTa saapelacio palataSi<br />

da sisxlis samarTlis saqmeTa saapelacio<br />

palataSi.<br />

2003 wels, warmatebiT Caabara prokuraturis<br />

muSakTa sakvalifikacio gamocda. 2004<br />

wels, aseve warmatebiT Caabara advokatTa<br />

7


marTlmsajuleba<br />

N1<br />

da<br />

kanoni<br />

sakvalifikacio gamocda. 2004-2005 wlebSi<br />

muSaobda Sida qarTlis saolqo prokuraturaSi,<br />

prokurorad.<br />

2005 wels, Caabara mosamarTlis sakvalifikacio<br />

gamocda sisxlis samarTlis specializaciiT.<br />

imave wels, saqarTvelos prezidentis<br />

brZanebulebiT dainiSna foTis saqalaqo<br />

sasamarTlos mosamarTled. Semdeg,<br />

saqarTvelos prezidentis gankargulebiT,<br />

daekisra quTaisis saqalaqo sasamarTlos<br />

Tavmjdomaris uflebamosileba.<br />

2006 wels, saqarTvelos mosamarTleTa konferenciis<br />

administraciuli komitetis<br />

dadgenilebiT airCies saqarTvelos iusticiis<br />

umaRlesi sabWos wevrad.<br />

2007 wels, saqarTvelos prezidentis brZanebulebiT<br />

dainiSna quTaisis saapelacio<br />

sasamarTlos mosamarTled da saqarTvelos<br />

iusticiis umaRlesi sabWos gadawyvetilebiT<br />

daekisra quTaisis saapelacio sasamar-<br />

Tlos Tavmjdomaris uflebamosileba.<br />

saqarTvelos mosamarTleTa konferenciis<br />

administraciuli komitetis 2007 wlis 31<br />

ivlisis #6 dadgenilebiT, airCies saqarTvelos<br />

iusticiis umaRlesi sabWos wevrad.<br />

tituts garda momxreebisa, mowinaaRmdegeebic<br />

mravlad hyavs, romel-<br />

Ta mtkicebiT, es instituti saqarTveloSi<br />

ver imuSavebs.<br />

_ nafic msajulTa sasamarTlos amoqmedebiT<br />

moqalaqeebs miecaT Sansi pirdapir CaerTon<br />

marTlmsajulebis ganxorcielebaSi<br />

da gadawyviton pirovnebis damnaSaveobis<br />

Tu udanaSaulobis sakiTxi, Tavis Tavze gamocadon,<br />

Tu rogori rTulia mosamarTleoba,<br />

rac gamoiwvevs maTi marTlSegnebis<br />

amaRlebas da xels Seuwyobs sasamarTlos<br />

imijis kidev ufro gazrdas.<br />

am institutis mowinaaRmdegeebis argumentebi<br />

ZiriTadad, is aris, rom nafic msajulTa<br />

sasamarTlo ver iqneba Cvens qveyanaSi<br />

warmatebuli, radgan patara qveyanaa<br />

da naTesauri kavSirebi Zalze gavrcelebulia.<br />

es aris absurduli mosazreba, radgan<br />

gasaTvaliswinebelia im qveynebis gamocdileba,<br />

romlebic saqarTvelos hgavs.<br />

am mxriv, aRsaniSnavia Sotl<strong>and</strong>ia, romelic<br />

aseve, patara qveyanaa da sazogadoebac axlo<br />

kavSirebze aris dafuZnebuli. amis miuxedavad,<br />

nafic msajulTa sasamarTlo<br />

Sotl<strong>and</strong>iaSi mainc warmatebiT muSaobas.<br />

2007 wlis 15 oqtombers, saqarTvelos iusticiis<br />

umaRlesi sabWos gadawyvetilebiT,<br />

dainiSna quTaisis saapelacio sasamarTlos<br />

sisxlis samarTlis saqmeTa palatis Tavmjdomared.<br />

2007 wlis 15 oqtombers, saqarTvelos iusticiis<br />

umaRlesi sabWos gadawyvetilebiT,<br />

dainiSna quTaisis saapelacio sasamarTlos<br />

Tavmjdomared.<br />

ra azris xarT kidev erT siaxleze<br />

_ sakonstitucio cvlilebaze, romlis<br />

mixedviTac, mosamarTleebi uvadod<br />

unda dainiSnon?<br />

_ es aris Zalian mniSvnelovani sakonstitucio<br />

cvlileba da sasamarTlo reformis<br />

erT-erTi yvelaze pozitiuri nabiji. uvadod<br />

daniSnul mosamarTles stabilurobis<br />

da damoukideblobis ufro meti gancda<br />

aqvs.<br />

8


sasamarTlo reformis ramdenimewliani<br />

gegma arsebobs, sainteresoa,<br />

reforma quTaisis saapelacio sasamarTloSi<br />

rogor mimdinareobs, reformis<br />

romel etapze xarT axla da<br />

2011 wlisTvis ra siaxleebs gegmavT?<br />

_ saqarTveloSi sasamarTlo reforma warmatebulad<br />

mimdinareobs. amis Tqmis saSualebas<br />

maZlevs sxvadasxva avtoritetuli<br />

saerTaSoriso organizaciebis mier Catarebuli<br />

kvlevis Sedegebi, romlis mixedviT,<br />

sasamarTlos momxmarebelTa ndobis<br />

maCvenebeli sakmaod maRalia.<br />

rac Seexeba siaxleebs, 2011 wlisTvis vgegmavT<br />

saqmis warmoebis eleqtronuli programis<br />

amaoqmedebas, rac nebismier moqalaqes<br />

sasamarTloSi warmoebuli misi saqmis<br />

Sesaxeb detaluri informaciis miRebis sa-<br />

Sualebas miscems.<br />

9


marTlmsajuleba<br />

N1<br />

da<br />

kanoni<br />

PUBLIC TRUST TOWARD<br />

COURTS IS INCREASED<br />

Chairman of the Kutaisi Appellate Court _ one of the biggest courts<br />

in Georgia, Malkhaz Guruli states that according to the statistics,<br />

year 2010 was quite productive for this court <strong>and</strong> has deliberated<br />

much more cases compared to the previous year.<br />

To review activities, reforms <strong>and</strong> anticipated novelties, we offer<br />

interview with the Chairman of Kutaisi Appellate Court, Mr. Malkhaz<br />

Guruli.<br />

Mr. Malkhaz, starting October 1, last year, new Criminal Procedure<br />

Code entered the legal force <strong>and</strong> accordingly, entirely new<br />

model of administration of justice in enforced. 4 months passed<br />

<strong>and</strong> it is interesting, how Kutaisi Appellate Court adjusted to<br />

the novelties?<br />

_ New Criminal Procedure <strong>Law</strong> completely changed criminal proceedings.<br />

This process is based on the adversarial principle between the parties. This<br />

means that the decision of a judge completely depends on the competence<br />

of the parties. Judge has the role of arbiter <strong>and</strong> evaluates the evidences presented<br />

by the parties.<br />

As for the Kutaisi Appellate Court, we as well as the entire judiciary, were<br />

ready for these changes. Judges had been trained during two years with Georgian<br />

as well as international experts. We can easily say that the implementation<br />

of the new Criminal Procedure Code is successful.<br />

10


Kutaisi Appellate Court is one of the biggest<br />

courts, you cover west Georgia, thus it is interesting<br />

to know your analysis, how would<br />

you evaluate the work of Kutaisi Appellate<br />

Court in 2010?<br />

_ According to the statistics, Kutaisi Appellate Court<br />

worked very productively in 2010 <strong>and</strong> finished more<br />

cases than last year.<br />

It has to be mentioned that the new templates were introduced<br />

for civil <strong>and</strong> administrative cases in 2010. This<br />

facilitated improvement of the decisions <strong>and</strong> making<br />

them easier to underst<strong>and</strong> for the citizens.<br />

Indicator of the court’s work is the quality of<br />

the court decisions. Do you think the competence<br />

<strong>and</strong> qualification of the Kutaisi Appellate<br />

Court judges comply with modern st<strong>and</strong>ards<br />

in the courts?<br />

_ I agree – indicator of the court work depend on the<br />

quality of the court decisions. Quality of the decisions is<br />

verified when <strong>and</strong> how often they are appealed <strong>and</strong><br />

changed in the upper instances. According to the statistics<br />

of our court, the majority of the decisions that are<br />

appealed in the cassation, are maintained – this confirms<br />

the competence <strong>and</strong> high qualification oft he Kutaisi<br />

Appellate Court judges.<br />

Video Conference <strong>and</strong> presentation rooms have been<br />

arranged in the court. Through that there will be no<br />

need to bring witnesses from the regions <strong>and</strong> they will<br />

be questioned in the court according to their residence<br />

– this will facilitate ensuring speedy <strong>and</strong> effective administration<br />

of justice.<br />

Administrative case proceeding is enforced in<br />

Georgia for 10 years, it being relatively new, how<br />

would you evaluate the work of administrative<br />

collegium? It is especially interesting as during<br />

this proceeding we have a citizen <strong>and</strong> the<br />

state, through the public service, as opposing<br />

parties. What is the statistics of the Kutaisi<br />

Appellate Court – what is the percentage of<br />

the decisions made in favor of the citizens?<br />

_ Among the post soviet countries, Georgia is leader in<br />

administrative case processing <strong>and</strong> this was proved at the<br />

recent international Conference held in Kiev. Representatives<br />

of different countries spoke about the success that<br />

Georgia achieved in this field during the last 10 years.<br />

However, the main appraiser is public; do<br />

you think the public confidence towards judiciary<br />

has increased?<br />

– The most objective assessors of our activities, are those<br />

citizens that had to deal with the courts. According to<br />

the surveys conducted by different international research<br />

organizations, the public confidence towards courts has<br />

clearly increased <strong>and</strong> composes 60-65 %.<br />

It is interesting to know your opinion regarding<br />

the most important novelty of the Code<br />

– Jury Trail. This institute had many supporters<br />

as well as many opponents, who argue<br />

that this institute will not work in Georgia.<br />

– Through introducing the jury trail court, citizens got<br />

opportunity to directly participate in the administration<br />

of justice <strong>and</strong> decide the guilt <strong>and</strong> innocence of a person;<br />

to judge themselves how difficult it is to be a judge. This<br />

is result in raising their legal awareness <strong>and</strong> will facilitate<br />

improvement of the court image.<br />

As for the percentage of court decisions made in favor of<br />

citizens, 60 % of the decisions are made in favor of them.<br />

The opponents of this institute mainly refer to the fact<br />

that the country is small <strong>and</strong> connections are too strong<br />

11


marTlmsajuleba<br />

N1<br />

da<br />

kanoni<br />

– thus this institute will not work. This is absurd because<br />

we have to see the experience of the countries<br />

similar to Georgia. For example Scotl<strong>and</strong> that is also a<br />

small country <strong>and</strong> society is based on the strong connection.<br />

Regardless this, jury trail is very successfully<br />

implemented in Scotl<strong>and</strong>.<br />

What do you think about one more novelty –<br />

constitutional amendment according to which<br />

judges will be appointed for the lifetime?<br />

– This is a significant constitutional amendment <strong>and</strong> one<br />

of the most positive steps in the judicial reform. Judge<br />

appointed for life will have higher sense of stability <strong>and</strong><br />

independence.<br />

There is the plan of the judicial reform for the<br />

years to come. It is interesting to know how is<br />

the reform going on in Kutaisi Appellate Court.<br />

At which stage are you currently <strong>and</strong> what kind<br />

of novelties do you plan for 2011?<br />

– Judicial reform is successfully implemented. The surveys<br />

conducted by different international organizations<br />

allow me to say this – confidence of court consumers<br />

towards the judiciary is quite high.<br />

As for the novelties, in 2011 we plan to start implementation<br />

of the new electronic case management program<br />

that will allow all the citizens to receive detailed information<br />

on his / her case in the proceeding.<br />

12


saqarTvelos<br />

saxelmwifo ena<br />

joni xecuriani<br />

saqarTvelos sakonstitucio sasamarTlos mosamarTle,<br />

iuridiul mecnierebaTa doqtori, profesori,<br />

saqarTvelos mecnierebaTa erovnuli akademiis<br />

wevr-korespondenti<br />

qarTuli ena uZvelesi enaa, romelsac unikaluri damwerloba<br />

aqvs qarTuli anbanis saxiT. msoflioSi 14 anbania,<br />

maT Soris, erT-erTi qarTulia. marTalia, qarTuli<br />

werilobiTi Zeglebi dReisaTvis mxolod V saukunidan<br />

mogvepoveba, magram qarTuli damwerlobis SemoRebas XI saukunis<br />

qarTveli istorikosi leonti mroveli farnavaz<br />

mefis (Zv.w. I I I s.) damsaxurebad miiCnevs, romelmac `ganavrco<br />

ena qarTuli da arRara izraxeboda sxva ena qarTlsa<br />

Sina Tvinier qarTulisa, da aman Seqmna mwignobroba qar-<br />

Tuli.~ 1<br />

qarTuli ena ara mxolod saero enaa. IV saukunidan, rodesac<br />

saqarTveloSi qristianoba saxelmwifo religiad gamocxadda,<br />

qarTuli ena saqarTvelos marTlmadidebeli<br />

eklesiis, RvTismsaxurebis enac gaxda.<br />

qarTulma marTlmadidebelma eklesiam didi roli Seasrula<br />

qveyanaSi wera-kiTxvisa da ganaTlebis gavrcelebaSi.<br />

eklesia-monastrebTan iyo skolebi da akademiebi (gelaTSi,<br />

iyalToSi), sadac eklesiis mecnieri msaxurni eweodnen<br />

mwignobrul moRvaweobas. maT Seqmnes erovnuli hagiografiuli<br />

literaturis, filosofiuri da saistorio<br />

mwerlobis mniSvnelovani Zeglebi.<br />

qarTuli ena aZlierebda erovnuli erTianobis Segnebas.<br />

kulturasTan, religiasTan da istoriasTan erTad qarTu-<br />

13


marTlmsajuleba<br />

N1<br />

da<br />

kanoni<br />

li ena erovnulobis, nacionaluri identobis umTavresi niSani iyo. igi yovelTvis<br />

erovnuli mTlianobisa da konsolidaciis mZlavr saSualebas warmoadgenda da qarTvelTa<br />

kulturul da eTnikur erTobas uzrunvelyofda. samefoebad da samTavroebad<br />

saqarTvelos daSlisa da daqucmacebis drosac ki, qarTuli ena sruliad saqarTvelos<br />

mwignobrobisa da eklesiis enad rCeboda. swored amitom ambobda giorgi merCule (X s.),<br />

rom `qarTlad friadi qveyana aRiracxebis, romelsaca Sina qarTuliTa eniTa Jami<br />

Seiwirvis da locva yoveli aResrulebis.~ 2<br />

qarTulma enam da damwerlobam mraval istoriul qartexils gauZlo da miuxedavad<br />

qarTuli saxelmwifos ara Tu daSlisa da danawevrebis, aramed misi sruli gauqmebis<br />

drosac ki, ganagrZobda arsebobasa da ganviTarebas. qarTveli eris istoriis am monakveTSi,<br />

qarTuli ena saxelmwifoebriobawarTmeul qarTvelTa erovnuli cnobierebisa<br />

da TviTmyofadobis SenarCunebis, qarTvelTa gadagvarebisagan gadarCenis umTavres<br />

Zalas warmoadgenda.<br />

XIX saukunis damdegs, ruseTis mier saqarTvelos aneqsias Sedegad mohyva qarTuli<br />

saxelmwifoebriobisa da qarTuli marTlmadidebeli eklesiis avtokefaliis gauqmeba.<br />

saqarTvelo ruseTis imperiis nawili gaxda. qarTul enas saxelmwifoebrivi mniSvneloba<br />

da funqcia daekarga, radgan aRar arsebobda qarTuli saxelmwifo _ saqarTvelo.<br />

mravalsaukunovani qarTuli saxelmwifoebriobis gauqmebis Semdeg, caristuli ruseTi<br />

yovelgvari saSualebiT cdilobda qarTuli erovnuli erTobis moSlas, raTa qar-<br />

Tvel xalxs aRarasodes gasCenoda sakuTari saxelmwifoebriobis aRdgenis survili.<br />

am miznis misaRwevad mTeli ZaliT amoqmedda antiqarTuli, gamarusebeli politika,<br />

romlis mTavari samizne swored qarTvelTa erovnuli erTobis erT-erTi safuZveli _<br />

qarTuli ena gaxda. sajaro da sazogadoebriv dawesebulebebSi rusuli enis damkvidrebasTan<br />

erTad daiwyo skolebidan da eklesiidan qarTuli enis gamodevna, romlis<br />

adgils rusuli ena ikavebda. amasTanave, samegrelos, svaneTisa da aWaris skolebSi<br />

qarTuli enis nacvlad swavleba SemoiRes megrulad, svanurad da Turqulad. ieriSi<br />

qarTul damwerlobazec miitanes. 1889 wels rusuli anbanis mixedviT Seqmnes `megruli<br />

anbani~. daiwyes saRvTo wignebis megrulad Targmna. ufro adre ki, 1864 wels rusuli<br />

grafikis safuZvelze Seiqmna svanuri saanbano wigni ("luSnu anban"). damoukidebel, araqarTvel<br />

xalxebad cxaddebodnen megrelebi, svanebi, aWarlebi, xevsurebi da sxva. 3 rogorc<br />

samecniero literaturaSi aRniSnaven, `es iyo aSkarad gamiznuli politikuri<br />

nabiji, romlis mizansac qarTuli enis, rogorc eris SemakavSirebeli da gamaerTianebeli<br />

faqtoris, Ziris gamoTxra, saqarTvelos sxvadasxva eTnokulturebis dapirispireba<br />

da saerTo qarTuli cnobierebis mospoba warmoadgenda.~ 4<br />

safrTxe marTlac realuri iyo. saxelmwifo mxardaWeras moklebuli, ufunqciod<br />

darCenili qarTuli ena e.w. mkvdari enebis xvedrisaTvis iyo gamzadebuli. swored am<br />

dros saqarTvelos erovnul-ganmaTavisuflebeli moZraobis mesveurebma (il. WavWavaZe,<br />

d. yifiani, i. gogebaSvili, ak. wereTeli da sxva) naTlad gaacnobieres, rom enis sikvdili<br />

TviT eris sikvdils moaswavebda da saTaveSi Caudgnen erovnul-kulturul moZraobas<br />

qarTuli enis gadasarCenad, romelic imavdroulad qarTveli eris gadarCenisaTvis<br />

brZolas niSnavda mefis ruseTis antiqarTuli gamarusebeli politikis pirobebSi.<br />

14


maTi mondomebiTa da ZalisxmeviT ganaxlda da ganviTarda qarTuli kultura, ganaTleba,<br />

mecniereba, literatura, presa, wigni, xelovneba. ganxorcielda Tavad qar-<br />

Tuli anbanisa da saliteraturo enis reforma samwerlobo enis sasaubro enasTan daaxloebis<br />

gziT, raTa qarTuli saliteraturo ena mTeli erisaTvis gasagebi gamxdariyo.<br />

aRadgines qarTuli Teatri, daaarses sajaro biblioTeka, gamosces qarTuli JurnalgazeTebi<br />

(`ciskari~, `saqarTvelos moambe~, `iveria~) da sxva. 5 uaRresad STambeWdavia<br />

ganaTlebis sferoSi maTi moRvaweoba. qarTuli enis gadarCena skolis gareSe warmoudgeneli<br />

iyo. ilia WavWavaZe da misi Taoba moiTxovdnen, rom dawyebiT skolebSi swavleba<br />

mxolod mSobliur enaze warmarTuliyo. amis Semdeg ki, SesaZlebeli iqneboda<br />

rusuli enis `viTarca saxelmwifo enis~ Seswavla. dedaenisa da rusuli enis erTdroulad<br />

Seswavlas dawyebiT skolebSi isini yovlad miuReblad miiCnevdnen. `cxadia, rom<br />

saero skola, rogorc pirvel-dawyebiTi skola erisa, sxva ara unda iyos-ra, garda dedaenisa<br />

da samSoblo qveynis maswavlebel skolisa...~ _ werda ilia WavWavaZe. 6 amasTanave,<br />

mowinave qarTveli moRvaweebi mxolod msjelobebiTa da survilebiT rodi kmayofildebian<br />

da saganmanaTleblo sakiTxebis gadasawyvetad praqtikul nabijebs dgamen. 1879<br />

wels maT daarses `qarTvelTa Soris wera-kiTxvis gamavrcelebeli sazogadoeba~, romlis<br />

uaRresad farTo kulturul-saganmanaTleblo saqmianobaSi umTavres mimarTulebas<br />

qarTuli saxalxo skolebis daarseba, qarTuli saskolo saxelmZRvaneloebis Seqmna<br />

da gamocema warmoadgenda. sazogadoebam Seiswavla skolebis mdgomareoba saqar-<br />

Tvelos sxvadasxva kuTxeSi. aRricxa saskolo asakis bavSvebis raodenoba da Seudga<br />

saxalxo skolebis daarsebas saqarTvelos teritoriaze da mis farglebs gareTac, sadac<br />

qarTvelebi kompaqturad saxlobdnen (magaliTad, vladikavkazSi, alagirSi, mozdokSi,<br />

nalCikSi, baqoSi da sxv.). didi Sroma gaswia sazogadoebam baTumis skolis daarsebisaTvis,<br />

radgan igi unda yofiliyo qarTuli enis sayrdeni da gamavrcelebeli axalSemoerTebuli<br />

aWaris gamahmadianebul qarTvel mosaxleobaSi. gansakuTrebuli yurad-<br />

Reba mieqca skolebis gaxsnas borCaloSi, saingiloSi, mesxeT-javaxeTSi. sazogadoebis<br />

TaosnobiT ibeWdeboda iakob gogebaSvilis `deda ena~, `bunebis kari~, agreTve sxva avtorebis<br />

mier Seqmnili geografiis, bunebismetyvelebis, ariTmetikis, saqarTvelos<br />

istoriis da sxva saxelmZRvaneloebi. 7 da mainc, qarTuli enis gadarCenis saqmeSi sruliad<br />

gamorCeuli roli ekuTvnis iakob gogebaSvilis `deda enas~, romelzedac aRizardnen<br />

qarTvelTa mTeli Taobebi. 8 `qarTvelTa Soris wera-kiTxvis gamavrcelebelma<br />

sazogadoebam~, rogorc moswrebulad iTqva literaturaSi, `ruseTis mier dapyrobil<br />

uuflebo saqarTveloSi faqtobrivad, ganaTlebis saministros funqcia Seasrula.~ 9<br />

ilia WavWavaZisa da misi Taobis brZolas qarTuli enis gadarCenisa da axali saliteraturo<br />

qarTulis damkvidrebisaTvis uSedegod ar Cauvlia. `am brZolam didad Seuwyo<br />

xeli eris dacemuli vinaobis aRdgenas. qarTuli ena T<strong>and</strong>aTan iqca mecnierebis, literaturis,<br />

skolis, erTiani qarTuli saxelmwifos saxelmwifo enad.~ 10<br />

1917 wlis Teberval-martSi ruseTSi momxdari revoluciis Semdeg, ruseTis imperiis<br />

dapyrobil erebSi erovnul-ganmaTavisuflebeli moZraobis gaZlierebis gamo, ruseTis<br />

droebiTi mTavroba iZulebuli gaxda, garkveulad SeezRuda rusuli enis monopoliuri<br />

mdgomareoba da nacionaluri enebisaTvis meti asparezi mieca.<br />

15


marTlmsajuleba<br />

N1<br />

da<br />

kanoni<br />

1917 wlis 10 seqtembers, ruseTis droebiTi mTavrobis amierkavkasiis sagangebo komitetma<br />

daamtkica debuleba kavkasiis saskolo olqSi saswavlo dawesebulebaTa nacionalizaciis<br />

(gaerovnebis) Sesaxeb. masSi naTqvami iyo, rom saxelmwifos mier dafinansebul<br />

skolebSi swavleba unda warmarTuliyo mSobliur enaze erovnuli saskolo komitetebis<br />

mier Sedgenili da damtkicebuli programebis mixedviT. erovnul sagnebad<br />

miCneuli iyo dedaena, erovnuli literatura, eris istoria da geografia 11 .<br />

1917 wlis oqtomberSi ruseTSi bolSevikuri gadatrialebis Semdeg, saqarTvelo<br />

ruseTis imperiisagan Tavis daRwevisa da damoukidebel saxelmwifod Camoyalibebis gzas<br />

daadga. saqarTvelos erovnulma yrilobam 1917 wlis 20 noembers Seqmna skolebisa da<br />

universitetis seqcia, romlis xelmZRvanelad airCies ivane javaxiSvili. am seqcias unda<br />

SeemuSavebina da erovnuli sabWosaTvis dasamtkiceblad waredgina saqarTveloSi arsebuli<br />

skolebis gaqarTulebisa da erovnuli universitetis daarsebis proeqti, 12 rac<br />

SemdgomSi warmartebiT ganxorcielda.<br />

1918 wlis 26 maiss, saqarTvelos saxelmwifoebrivi damoukideblobis aRdgenis Semdeg,<br />

saswavlo da saganmanaTleblo dawesebulebebis paralelurad gaerovnebis (rusuli<br />

enidan qarTul enaze gadasvlis) procesi saxelmwifoebriv da sazogadoebriv dawesebulebebSic<br />

daiwyo. am mxriv gansakuTrebul gulmodginebas iusticiis saministro iCenda<br />

(ministri Salva aleqsi-mesxiSvili). am uwyebaSi aikrZala rusul enaze dawerili gancxadebebis<br />

miReba. saministrom miiRo dadgenileba, mosamarTleebad qarTuli enis<br />

mcodneni gaemwesebinaT, marTlmsajuleba qarTul enaze ewarmoebinaT. amasTanave, saqarTvelos<br />

mTavrobam miiRo dadgenileba, saministroebsa da uwyebebSi Seqmniliyo qar-<br />

Tuli enis Semswavleli ufaso kursebi qarTuli enis armcodne moxeleTaTvis, raTa<br />

qarTuli enis arcodna ar gamxdariyo maTi samuSaodan gaTavisuflebis safuZveli. 13<br />

saqarTvelos erovnulma xelisuflebam 1918 wlis 1 oqtombers miiRo kanoni `saqarTvelos<br />

saxelmwifo enisa,~ 14 romliTac qarTul enas saxelmwifo enis statusi mianiWa.<br />

kanonis Tanaxmad, saqarTvelos erovnul sabWoSi 15 yovelnairi saqmis warmoeba da kamaTi<br />

unda gamarTuliyo qarTul enaze. amasTanave, kanonSi miTiTebuli iyo, rom erovnul<br />

umciresobaTa enis xmareba sxvadasxva dawesebulebaSi calke kanoniT ganisazRvreboda.<br />

imave wlis 15 oqtombers miRebuli kanoniT `wesi enis xmarebisa~ 16 damateba Sevida parlamentis<br />

reglamentSi da saxelmwifo enasTan erTad ganisazRvra erovnul umciresobaTa<br />

enebis gamoyenebis pirobebi da procedurebi. kanonma daadgina zogadi wesi, rom<br />

parlamentis wevrebs sityva unda warmoeTqvaT qarTul enaze. amasTanave, qarTulidan<br />

sxva enaze sityva ar gadaiTargmneboda. rac Seexeba parlamentar erovnul umciresobaTa<br />

warmomadgenlebs, romlebmac qarTuli ena ar icodnen, kanonis Tanaxmad, maT SeeZloT<br />

sityvis warmoTqma, garda Tavisi dedaenisa, umciresobis enaze, romelic parlamentis<br />

prezidiumis erTma wevrma mainc icoda. amave dros, umciresobis enaze warmoTqmuli<br />

sityvis dedaazri gadmocemuli unda yofiliyo qarTul enaze, Tu amas aranakleb 15<br />

deputati mainc moiTxovda. werilobiTi winadadebebis, Sesworebisa da sxvaTa Setana<br />

ki, SeiZleboda mxolod qarTul enaze. erovnuli umciresobis warmomadgenlis mier<br />

warmoTqmuli sityva sxva umciresobis enaze ar gadaiTargmneboda.<br />

16


kanonis am normebSi aSkarad moCans gardamavali epoqis kvali. axalfexadgmuli qar-<br />

Tuli saxelmwifo cdilobda, erTi mxriv, imperiuli rusuli enis nacvlad qarTuli<br />

enis rogorc saxelmwifo enis damkvidrebas saxelisuflebo organoebSi, xolo meore<br />

mxriv, enobriv bariers naklebad SeeSala xeli saqarTveloSi mcxovrebi erovnuli umciresobebis<br />

qveynis marTvaSi monawileobisaTvis.<br />

erovnulma xelisuflebam aseve, sagangebo yuradReba dauTmo enebis gamoyenebis sakiTxs<br />

adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis organoebSi. am mizniT, 1919 wlis 14 ianvars miRebuli<br />

kanoniT `adgilobriv TviTmarTvelobaTa organoebSi enis xmarebisa~ 17 dadginda,<br />

rom `msjeloba, saqmis warmoeba da miwer-mowera qalaqis da erobis TviTmarTvelobaSi<br />

swarmoebs saxelmwifo eniT~. amave dros kanonma gaiTvaliswina sagamonakliso wesebic,<br />

saxeldobr, `ukeTu romelime TviTmarTvelobis farglebSi mcxovreb respublikis moqalaqeTa<br />

naxevarze metisaTvis salaparako ena aris mxolod erTi romelime ara qarTuli<br />

adgilobrivi ena, TviTmarTvelobis organoebis dadgenilebiT msjeloba da saqmis<br />

warmoeba saxelmwifo enasTan erTad SeiZleba SemoRebul iqnes am umravlesobis enazec.~<br />

am da sxva sakanonmdeblo aqtebma samarTlebrivi safuZvlebi Seuqmnes qarTuli enis<br />

saxelmwifoebriv statuss, amasTanave, gansazRvres saqarTveloSi mcxovreb erovnul<br />

umciresobaTa enebis gamoyenebis pirobebi da farglebi, rac Semdeg saTanadod aisaxa<br />

saqarTvelos 1921 wlis konstituciaSi. 18 saqarTvelos pirvelma konstituciam saqarTvelos<br />

saxelmwifo enad qarTuli ena daadgina (me-3 muxli). saqarTvelos istoriaSi<br />

pirvelad qarTulma enam, rogorc saxelmwifo enam, konstituciuri statusi moipova.<br />

saqarTvelos ZiriTad kanonSi aseve, mniSvnelovani adgili daeTmo erovnul umciresobaTa<br />

enebis sakiTxs. konstituciis me-14 Tavi, romelic mTlianad erovnul umciresobaTa<br />

uflebebs eZRvneba, im epoqisaTvis uaRresad progresul normebs adgenda.<br />

konstituciiT ikrZaleboda saqarTvelos respublikis erovnuli umciresobis misi<br />

dedaeniT swavla-aRzrdis SezRudva (129-e muxli). amasTanave, adgilobrivi mmarTveloba<br />

valdebuli iyo swavla-ganaTlebisaTvis gamiznuli TanxebiT daearsebina skolebis<br />

sakmao raodenoba moqalaqeTa erovnuli Semadgenlobis proporciulad (134-e muxli).<br />

adgilobrivi mmarTvelobis farglebSi, sadac erTi romelime erovnuli umciresobis<br />

raodenoba aRemateboda yvela moqalaqis 20 procents, am umciresobis moTxovniT,<br />

msjeloba da saqmiswarmoeba saxelmwifo da sazogadoebriv dawesebulebaSi, saxelmwifo<br />

enasTan erTad, SemoRebuli unda yofiliyo mis mSobliur enazec (136-e muxli). araqar-<br />

Tvel deputats, romelmac sakmarisad ar icoda saxelmwifo ena, SeeZlo parlamentSi<br />

sityva warmoeTqva mSobliur enaze, romlis swor Targmans winaswar warudgenda<br />

parlamentis prezidiums (137-e muxli).<br />

amasTan dakavSirebiT, saWirod migvaCnia, aRvniSnoT, rom saqarTvelos 1921 wlis konstituciis<br />

zemoaRniSnul normebSi asaxuli erovnul umciresobaTa enobrivi uflebebi<br />

saqarTvelos konstituciis miRebidan mxolod naxevari saukunis Semdeg gamocemul<br />

saerTaSoriso samarTlebrivi aqtebiT aRiares adamianis saerTaSoriso uflebebad. 19<br />

samwuxarod, saqarTvelos damoukidebeli saxelmwifoebrivi ganviTarebis gza saqar-<br />

Tvelos 1921 wlis konstituciis miRebisTanave Sewyda. sabWoTa ruseTis mier 1921 wlis<br />

17


marTlmsajuleba<br />

N1<br />

da<br />

kanoni<br />

TebervalSi, saqarTvelos mimarT ganxorcielebul intervencias, okupaciasa da aneqsias<br />

Sedegad mohyva saqarTveloSi socialisturi tipis saxelmwifos Camoyalibeba saqarTvelos<br />

sabWoTa socialisturi respublikis saxiT, romelic sabWoTa kavSirSi iZulebiT<br />

iqna gaerTianebuli.<br />

sabWoTa kavSiri, romelic modernizebul rusul imperias warmoadgenda, enobriv<br />

politikas ori ZiriTadi mimarTulebiT atarebda. erTi mxriv, oficialurad aRiarebda<br />

mokavSire respublikebSi maT erovnul enebs saxelmwifo enad, rasac garkveul etapze<br />

politikuri da ideologiuri mniSvneloba hqonda saqmis ise warmosaCenad, TiTqos sab-<br />

WoTa kavSirSi gaerTianebuli erebi inarCunebdnen TavianT TviTmyofadobas da uzrunvelyofili<br />

iyo sruli enobrivi Tanasworoba, xolo meore mxriv, sakavSiro xelisuflebis<br />

organoebis samuSao enas faqtobrivad rusuli ena warmoadgenda. amasTanave, rusuli<br />

ena ganixileboda, rogorc sabWoTa kavSirSi mcxovreb xalxTa Soris urTierTobis<br />

ena. Caketil sabWour sivrceSi igi am funqcias marTlac asrulebda. rusuli ena faqtobrivad<br />

dominanti ena gaxda mTel sabWoeTSi, rasac uzrunvelyofda mTeli sabWoTa<br />

politikuri, partiuli da ideologiuri institutebis mizanmimarTuli saqmianoba saxelmwifoebrivi<br />

da sazogadoebrivi cxovrebis TiTqmis yvela sferoSi rusuli enis<br />

dasamkvidreblad.<br />

sabWoTa saxelmwifos amgvari enobrivi politikis gavleniT Camoyalibda imdroindeli<br />

sakanonmdeblo aqtebic, kerZod, rusuli ena sabWoTa kavSiris arc erTi konstituciiT<br />

(1924, 1936, 1977 w.w.) saxelmwifo enad ar iyo aRiarebuli, xolo mokavSire respublikebSi,<br />

magaliTad, saqarTveloSi qarTuli ena sabWoTa saqarTvelos oTxive konstituciiT<br />

(1922, 1927, 1937, 1978 w.w.) aRiarebuli iyo, rogorc saxelmwifo ena.<br />

gasuli saukunis 70-ani wlebis bolos, sabWoTa xelisuflebam ganacxada, rom sabWoTa<br />

kavSirSi aSenebulia ganviTarebuli socialisturi sazogadoeba, romlis erT-erTi gamoxatuleba<br />

iyo yvela klasisa da socialuri jgufis daaxloebis, yvela eris iuridiuli<br />

da faqtobrivi Tanasworobisa da maTi Zmuri TanamSromlobis safuZvelze, adamianTa<br />

axali istoriuli erTobis (îáùíîñòü) _ sabWoTa xalxis Camoyalibeba. azri martivi<br />

iyo: sabWoTa kavSirSi mcxovrebi erebi imdenad daaxlovdnen, rom maTi eTnikuri gansxvavebebi<br />

TiTqmis waiSala da Sedegad miviReT sabWoTa xalxi. sabWoTa xalxs ki, erT<br />

enaze unda elaparaka. es ena, ra Tqma unda, rusuli ena unda yofiliyo. axali `istoriuli<br />

sinamdvile~ saTanadod unda asaxuliyo sabWoTa kavSirisa da mokavSire respublikebis<br />

konstituciebSi, romelTa miReba dagegmili iyo 1977-1978 wlebSi. imisaTvis,<br />

rom rusuli ena iuridiulad ssr kavSiris saxelmwifo enad gamocxadebuliyo da mis<br />

oficialur gamoyenebas mokavSire respublikebSi samarTlebrivi safuZveli Sehqmnoda,<br />

sabWoTa xelisuflebam ssr kavSiris 1977 wlis axal konstituciaSi Tavi aarida saxelmwifo<br />

enis gansazRvris sakiTxs, samagierod mokavSire respublikebs mosTxova, maT axal<br />

konstituciebSi adgilobrivi nacionaluri enebis saxelmwifoebrivi statusi aRar gaeTvaliswinebinaT.<br />

Tu es Canafiqri warmatebiT Sesruldeboda, maSin amis Semdeg ssr<br />

kavSiris konstituciaSi Seit<strong>and</strong>nen damatebas rusuli enis ssr kavSiris saxelmwifo<br />

enad gamocxadebis Sesaxeb da mTel sabWoeTSi es ena ukve iuridiulad erTaderTi saxelmwifo<br />

ena iqneboda.<br />

18


am gegmis ganxorcielebas 1978 wels Seudgnen. magaliTad, saqarTvelos ssr 1937 wlis<br />

konstituciisagan 20 gansxvavebiT, sadac garkveviT iyo naTqvami, rom `saqarTvelos ssr-s<br />

saxelmwifo ena aris qarTuli ena~ (156-e muxli), 1978 wlis 23 marts sayovelTao-saxalxo<br />

ganxilvisaTvis gamoqveynebul saqarTvelos ssr axali konstituciis proeqtSi qarTuli<br />

ena saqarTvelos ssr-is saxelmwifo enad ukve aRar iyo moxseniebuli. proeqtis 75-e<br />

muxli aseTi Sinaarsis iyo: `saqarTvelos ss respublika uzrunvelyofs qarTuli enis<br />

xmarebas saxelmwifo da sazogadoebriv organoebSi, kulturul da sxva dawesebulebebSi<br />

da axorcielebs saxelmwifo zrunvas misi yoveli RonisZiebiT ganviTarebisaTvis. saqar-<br />

Tvelos ss respublikaSi, Tanasworuflebianobis safuZvelze, uzrunvelyofilia yvela<br />

am organosa da dawesebulebaSi rusuli, agreTve sxva enebis Tavisufali xmareba, romlebiTac<br />

mosaxleoba sargeblobs. raime privilegiebi an SezRudvebi ama Tu im enis xmarebaSi<br />

ar daiSveba.~ 21<br />

proeqtis am normaSi sagulisxmo iyo ori principuli xasiaTis siaxle. jer erTi, qar-<br />

Tuli enis saxelmwifoebrivi statusi gauqmebuli iyo, saqarTvelos saxelmwifo enas<br />

konstitucia aRar adgenda da meore, pirvelad saqarTvelos konstituciaSi qarTuli<br />

enis Tanabari statusi eniWeboda rusul enas.<br />

saqarTvelos ss respublikis axali konstituciis proeqtis gamoqveynebas, romelic<br />

qarTuli enis saxelmwifoebriv statuss auqmebda, 1978 wlis 14 aprils, TbilisSi moqalaqeTa<br />

farTomasStabiani saprotesto aqcia mohyva mSobliuri enis dasacavad. xelisuflebam<br />

ukan daixia da qarTul enas saxelmwifo enis statusi SeunarCunda. saqarTvelos<br />

ss respublikis 1978 wlis konstituciis 75-e muxlSi Caiwera, rom `saqarTvelos<br />

sabWoTa socialisturi respublikis saxelmwifo ena aris qarTuli ena.~ 22 amasTanave,<br />

konstituciis proeqtSi arsebuli Canaweri rusuli enis Tavisufali xmarebisa saxelmwifo<br />

organoebsa da sazogadoebriv dawesebulebebSi, konstituciaSi ucvlelad gadavida.<br />

ufro metic, axali konstituciiT saqarTvelos ss respublikis kanonebis, umaRlesi<br />

sabWos dadgenilebebisa da sxva aqtebis gamoqveyneba qarTulTan erTad rusuladac<br />

savaldebulo gaxda (110-e muxli).<br />

sabWoTa kavSiris xelisuflebam am etapze dasaxul mizans srulad ver miaRwia, rusuli<br />

ena ssr kavSiris saxelmwifo enad ar iqna aRiarebuli, xolo saqarTveloSi qarTulma<br />

enam kvlav SeinarCuna saxelmwifo enis statusi. am movlenebma qarTul sazogadoebaSi<br />

kidev ufro gaaRviva mSobliuri enis pativiscemisa da dacvis interesi. 23 miuxedavad<br />

amisa, sabWoTa xelisuflebas dasaxuli miznis miRwevaze xeli ar auRia. rusuli enis<br />

saxelmwifo enad iuridiulad gaformebis miswrafeba imdenad Zlieri iyo, rom zemoaRniSnuli<br />

movlenebidan zustad me-12 wlisTavze, 1990 wlis 24 aprils agoniaSi myofma<br />

sabWoTa kavSirma gamosca kanoni `ssr kavSiris xalxTa enebis Sesaxeb,~ 24 romlis Tanaxmad,<br />

ssr kavSirSi rusuli ena oficialur (anu saxelmwifo) enad gamocxadda. kanonis me-4<br />

muxlSi naTqvami iyo: `istoriulad damkvidrebuli pirobebis gaTvaliswinebiT da saerTo<br />

sakavSiro amocanebis uzrunvelyofis mizniT rusuli ena ssr kavSiris teritoriaze<br />

miCneulia ssr kavSiris oficialur enad da gamoiyeneba rogorc erovnebaTaSorisi<br />

urTierTobis saSualeba.~<br />

unda aRiniSnos, rom am kanonma rusuli enis, rogorc oficialuri enis, gamoyenebis<br />

imdenad farTo areali daadgina, rom mokavSire respublikebis saxelmwifo enebi faq-<br />

19


marTlmsajuleba<br />

N1<br />

da<br />

kanoni<br />

tobrivad oficialuri (rusuli) enis danamatad gadaaqcia, romlebic droTa ganmavlobaSi<br />

usaTuod dakargavdnen saxelmwifoebriv mniSvnelobas da, saukeTeso SemTxvevaSi,<br />

mxolod yofiTi urTierTobebis enad SemorCeboda.<br />

marTalia, sabWoTa kavSiris xelisuflebam zemoaRniSnuli kanonis miRebiT didi xnis<br />

Canafiqri sabolood mainc aisrula, magram kanonis samoqmedod SemoRebidan weliwadnaxevarSi<br />

ssr kavSirma, rogorc saxelmwifom da masTan erTad am kanonmac Sewyvita arseboba,<br />

samagierod, saqarTvelom 1991 wlis 9 aprils saxelmwifoebrivi damoukidebloba<br />

aRidgina.<br />

erovnulma xelisuflebam saqarTveloSi gardamavali periodi gamoacxada da axali<br />

konstituciis SemuSavebamde Seudga saqarTvelos imJamad moqmedi (1978 wlis) konstituciis<br />

modernizebas. sxva mniSvnelovan sakiTxebTan erTad cvlilebebi Seexo saqarTvelos<br />

konstituciis 75-e muxlsac, romelic, rogorc es zemoT iTqva, saqarTveloSi<br />

enebis samarTlebriv statuss adgenda. cvlilebebis Sedegad, konstituciis am normidan<br />

amoRebuli iqna `rusuli ena~, romelic gamorCeulad iyo moxseniebuli saqarTveloSi<br />

mcxovreb erovnul umciresobaTa sxva enebTan SedarebiT.<br />

saqarTvelos saxelmwifoebrivi damoukideblobis aRdgenis Semdeg naTlad gamoCnda<br />

sabWoTa xelisuflebis mier aTeuli wlebis ganmavlobaSi gatarebuli rusifikatoruli<br />

enobrivi politikis Sedegebi. miuxedavad imisa, rom sabWoTa periodis saqarTveloSi<br />

qveynis ZiriTadi kanoniT saxelmwifoebrivi statusi mxolod qarTul enas hqonda, misi<br />

gamoyenebis areali saqarTvelos teritoriaze mainc mniSvnelovnad iyo SezRuduli.<br />

sakmarisia iTqvas, rom saqarTveloSi mcxovreb erovnul umciresobaTa 25 didma nawilma<br />

(gansakuTrebiT maTi kompaqturad dasaxlebis adgilebSi) saerTod ar icoda qarTuli<br />

ena. isini flobdnen mxolod maT mSobliur da rusul enebs, rac maTTvis savsebiT<br />

sakmarisi iyo qveynis saxelmwifoebriv da sazogadoebriv cxovrebaSi, SromiT da ekonomikur<br />

urTierTobebSi integrirebisaTvis.<br />

aseTi iyo realuri enobrivi situacia saqarTveloSi gasuli saukunis 90-iani wlebis<br />

dasawyisisaTvis. am realobebis gaTvaliswinebiT, `saqarTvelos moqalaqeobis Sesaxeb~<br />

1993 wlis 25 marts miRebulma saqarTvelos respublikis kanonma 26 saqarTvelos moqalaqeebad<br />

CaTvala saqarTveloSi mcxovrebi pirebi mxolod maTi binadrobis cenzis mixedviT<br />

(rasakvirvelia, Tu isini uars ar ganacxadebdnen saqarTvelos moqalaqeobaze).<br />

rac Seexeba qarTuli enis codnas, am kanoniT igi erT-erT pirobad iqna gaTvaliswinebuli<br />

naturalizaciiT saqarTvelos moqalaqeobis miRebisas. amrigad, `saqarTvelos<br />

moqalaqeobis Sesaxeb~ kanonis amoqmedebis Semdeg, saqarTveloSi mcxovrebi qarTuli<br />

enis armcodne erovnul umciresobaTa warmomadgenlebi saqarTvelos moqalaqeebi gaxdnen,<br />

maTi STamomavlebi ki, qarTuli enis dauflebis gareSec xdebian dabadebiT saqar-<br />

Tvelos moqalaqeebi.<br />

am arasaxarbielo mdgomareobis gamosworeba, uwinares yovlisa, saxelmwifo enis Sesaxeb<br />

kanonis miRebiT unda dawyebuliyo, xolo Semdeg, aucilebeli iyo am kanonis aRsrulebisaTvis<br />

iseTi programis SemuSaveba da ganxorcieleba, romelic Seqmnida pirobebs<br />

saxelmwifoebriv da mosaxleobis yoveldRiur saqmianobaSi saxelmwifo enis gamoyenebisaTvis.<br />

Tumca saqarTvelos saxelmwifo enis Sesaxeb kanonis miRebis sakiTxma gan-<br />

20


sakuTrebuli aqtualuroba mxolod saqarTvelos 1995 wlis konstituciis miRebis Semdeg<br />

SeiZina. qveynis ZiriTadma kanonma saqarTvelos mTel teritoriaze saxelmwifo enad<br />

qarTuli ena daadgina, xolo afxazeTis avtonomiur respublikaSi agreTve _ afxazuri.<br />

aRsaniSnavia, rom pirvelad saqarTvelos konstituciiT, afxazur enas mieniWa saxelmwifo<br />

enis statusi. saqarTvelos 1995 wlis konstituciis miRebamde, afxazuri enis<br />

saxelmwifoebrivi statusi ganmtkicebuli iyo mxolod afxazeTis avtonomiuri respublikis<br />

konstituciiT. amasTanave, unda iTqvas, rom afxazeTis avtonomiuri ss respublikis<br />

1978 wlis konstituciiT saxelmwifo enis statusi afxazurTan erTad mikuTvnebuli<br />

hqonda qarTul da rusul enebsac. 27<br />

saxelmwifo enis kanonproeqtze muSaoba 1997 wels daiwyo enis saxelmwifo palatis<br />

iniciativiT da ramdenime weliwads gagrZelda. sabolood, 2001 wlis 19 ivniss, saqarTvelos<br />

prezidentma `saxelmwifo enis Sesaxeb~ saqarTvelos kanonis proeqti sakanonmdeblo<br />

iniciativiT parlaments warudgina.<br />

amave periodSi, kanonproeqtis ganxilvaSi aqtiurad Caeba evropis uSiSroebisa da<br />

TanamSromlobis organizacia (euTo). erovnul umciresobaTa umaRlesi komisari rolf<br />

ekeusi `saxelmwifo enis Sesaxeb~ kanonproeqtis parlamentSi pirveli mosmeniT ganxilvamde<br />

erTi TviT adre, 2002 wlis 8 aprils, parlamentis xelmZRvanelobisadmi gagzavnil<br />

werilSi aRniSnavda: `saxelmwifo enis Sesaxeb kanonis miReba saqarTvelos ara mxolod<br />

suverenuli uflebaa, aramed es aris aucilebeli nabiji, raTa Seiqmnas Zlieri da erTiani<br />

qarTuli saxelmwifo... swored amitom saxelmwifo enis kanonis miReba prioritetuli<br />

sakiTxia. mimaCnia, rom saWiroa saqarTveloSi saxelmwifo enis statusi ganmtkicdes,<br />

gaZlierdes da Seiqmnas pirobebi qveynis teritoriaze mis gamosayeneblad... amasTanave,<br />

aucilebelia saqarTvelos parlamentma da mTavrobam dauyovnebliv daiwyon SemuSaveba<br />

farTo programisa, romelic uzrunvelyofs enis Seswavlas da mTel qveyanaSi mis gamoyenebas,<br />

gaaCaRebs saxelmwifo enis Seswavlis masStabur process saxalxo ganaTlebisa<br />

da sajaro samsaxuris sferoSi (es gansakuTrebiT exeba qveynis zog regions), ...minda<br />

dagarwmunoT, rom Cems movaleobad mimaCnia, am mniSvnelovan procesSi saqarTvelos<br />

parlamentsa da mTavrobas daxmareba gavuwioT TviT finansuri mxardaWeris CaTvliT.~ 28<br />

2002 wlisaTvis TiTqos yvela wina piroba iyo Seqmnili `saxelmwifo enis Sesaxeb~<br />

kanonis misaRebad, magram samwuxarod, parlamentis wevrebs saamisod ar aRmoaCndaT<br />

politikuri neba da kanonproeqtis ganxilva gaurkveveli vadiT gadaido. 2004 wlis 23<br />

agvistos ki, es kanonproeqti ukan gamoiTxova misma iniciatorma. amgvarad, qveyana darCa<br />

saxelmwifo enis kanonis, xolo saxelmwifo enobrivi politika _ sakanonmdeblo uzrunvelyofis<br />

gareSe.<br />

samagierod, 2005 wlis 13 oqtombers, saqarTvelos parlaments saTanado politikuri<br />

neba aRmoaCnda `erovnul umciresobaTa dacvis Sesaxeb~ evrosabWos 1995 wlis CarCo<br />

konvenciis ratificirebisaTvis. 29 es konvencia xelSemkvreli mxareebisaTvis erovnul<br />

umciresobaTa enebis saxelmwifoebriv da sazogadoebriv cxovrebaSi gamoyenebis uzrunvelyofisa<br />

da maTi dacvis mraval valdebulebas iTvaliswinebs.<br />

amasTanave, obieqturobisaTvis unda iTqvas, rom saqarTvelos parlaments upirobod<br />

ar mouxdenia CarCo konvenciis ratificireba da Tavisi dadgenilebiT mniSvnelovani<br />

21


marTlmsajuleba<br />

N1<br />

da<br />

kanoni<br />

daTqmebi daurTo saratifikacio dokuments. 30 aRsaniSnavia, rom daTqmebis ZiriTadi<br />

nawili Seexeba erovnul umciresobaTa enebis gamoyenebis sakiTxs.<br />

`erovnul umciresobaTa dacvis Sesaxeb~ CarCo konvenciis ratificirebis Taobaze<br />

saqarTvelos parlamentis dadgenilebiT, saqarTvelom aiRo valdebuleba, erovnuli<br />

umciresobebisadmi mikuTvnebuli pirebi 31 administraciul organoebTan urTierTobaSi<br />

da samarTalwarmoebis procesSi uzrunvelyos Tarjimnis daxmarebiT. amasTanave, saqar-<br />

Tvelom aiRo valdebuleba, da es metad mniSvnelovania, maqsimalurad Seuqmnas pirobebi<br />

erovnuli umciresobebisadmi mikuTvnebul pirebs saxelmwifo enis Sesaswavlad (meore<br />

punqtis `b~ qvepunqti). parlamentis dadgenilebaSi aRniSnulia, rom oficialur dokumentebSi<br />

erovnuli umciresobebisadmi mikuTvnebul pirTa saxelebisa da gvarebis<br />

Cawera qarTul enaze ise, rom imavdroulad, SeZlebisdagvarad, daculi iyos maT enaze<br />

gamoTqmis wesi, ganisazRvreba saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobiT (meore punqtis `g~ qvepunqti).<br />

saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobiT unda ganisazRvros agreTve CarCo konvenciis<br />

me-11 muxlis pirveli punqtiT gaTvaliswinebuli is debulebebi, romlebic Seexeba<br />

erovnuli umciresobebiT tradiciulad dasaxlebul regionebSi quCebisa da sxva topografiuli<br />

dasaxelebis qarTul da erovnul umciresobaTa enaze gamoyenebas. amas-<br />

Tanave, parlamentis dadgenilebaSi miTiTebulia, rom saqarTvelo ar ganixilavs erovnul<br />

umciresobaTa am uflebas rogorc saxelmwifos valdebulebas, Secvalos teritoriuli<br />

erTeulebis arsebuli dasaxelebebi (meore punqtis `d~ qvepunqti).<br />

rac Seexeba meore saerTaSoriso samarTlebriv aqts, kerZod, evrosabWos 1992 wlis<br />

2 oqtombris `evropul qartias regionuli an umciresobaTa enebis Sesaxeb~, 32 saqarTvelos<br />

parlaments jerjerobiT misi ratificireba ar mouxdenia, Tumca amis valdebuleba<br />

saqarTvelos nakisri aqvs da darwmunebuli unda viyoT, rom am valdebulebis<br />

Sesrulebas usaTuod moiTxoven.<br />

Cveni azriT, rac ar unda damajereblad JRerdes evropuli qartiis debulebebi,<br />

rom `regionuli an umciresobaTa enebis dacvam da waxalisebam ziani ar unda miayenos<br />

oficialur enebsa da maTi Seswavlis aucileblobas~, an kidev `qveynis suverenitetisa<br />

da teritoriuli mTlianobis dacvis principebs~, im enobrivi situaciis gaTvaliswinebiT,<br />

romelic Cvens qveyanaSia amJamad Seqmnili, zemoaRniSnuli evropuli qartiis<br />

ratificireba da amoqmedeba ara gvgonia mizanSewonili iyos. amis safuZvels iZleva is<br />

garemoeba, rom evropuli qartiis mixedviT, mxareebi iReben valdebulebas im teritoriebze,<br />

sadac regionuli an umciresobaTa enebi gamoiyeneba, xelmisawvdomi gaxadon am<br />

enebze araTu skolamdeli, dawyebiTi, saSualo, teqnikuri da profesiuli, aramed sauniversiteto<br />

da sxva saxis umaRlesi ganaTleba; sasamarTloebSi nebismieri samarTalwarmoeba<br />

(sisxlis, samoqalaqo, administraciuli) erT-erTi mxaris moTxovniT unda<br />

ganxorcieldes regionul an umciresobaTa enebze; xelisuflebis administraciulma<br />

organoebma unda gamoiyenon regionuli an umciresobaTa enebi dokumentebis Sedgenisa da<br />

saqmiswarmoebis CaTvliT, uzrunvelyon Tundac erTi radiosadgurisa da satelevizio<br />

arxis Seqmna regionul an umciresobaTa enebze, dafaron im masmediis damatebiTi xarjebi,<br />

romlebic iyeneben am enebs; komerciul praqtikasTan dakavSirebiT, safinanso da<br />

sabanko sferoSi nebadarTuli unda iyos regionuli an umciresobebis enebis gamoyeneba,<br />

22


gadaxdis orderebis (Cekebi, Tamasuqebi) an sxva finansuri dokumentebis Sedgena da<br />

sxva.<br />

Zneli ar unda iyos imis mixvedra, rom Tu saqarTvelos parlamenti moaxdens am saerTaSoriso<br />

samarTlebrivi aqtis ratificirebas da igi srulad amoqmeddeba, erovnuli<br />

umciresobebiT kompaqturad dasaxlebul saqarTvelos regionebidan, sadac qarTuli<br />

enis gamoyenebis areali isedac SezRudulia, saqarTvelos saxelmwifo ena sabolood<br />

iqneba gamodevnili da am regionebis mosaxleoba saqarTvelos saxelmwifoebrivi da<br />

sazogadoebrivi cxovrebisagan mowyvetili aRmoCndeba. Cven, ra Tqma unda, sruliadac<br />

ara varT imis winaaRmdegi, rom erovnul umciresobaTa enebi saTanadod iyos daculi,<br />

waxalisebuli da mxardaWerili saxelmwifosagan, magram ara ise, rom amas Sedegad mohyves<br />

saxelmwifo enis daknineba da qarTveli xalxis dezintegracia, daSla da dacalkeveba,<br />

saqarTveloSi mcxovreb moqalaqeTa jgufebis erTmaneTisagan gaucxoeba, rac sabolood,<br />

qveynis mTlianobas realur safrTxes Seuqmnis.<br />

imisaTvis, rom kargad gavacnobieroT, Tu rasTan gvaqvs saqme, magaliTisaTvis SeiZleba<br />

movitanoT belgia, evropis erT-erTi ganviTarebuli da dawinaurebuli qveyana,<br />

sadac konstituciiT 33 Seqmnilia oTxi enobrivi regioni: frangulenovani regioni,<br />

niderl<strong>and</strong>urenovani regioni, dedaqalaq briuselis orenovani regioni da germanulenovani<br />

regioni, romelTa sazRvrebis Secvla an dazusteba SeiZleba mxolod parlamentis<br />

TiToeul palataSi arsebuli yoveli enobrivi jgufis xmaTa Tanabrobis dacviT<br />

miRebuli kanoniT (me-4 muxli). SeiZleba iTqvas, rom msoflios arc erTi qveynis konstituciaSi<br />

ar eniWeba enobriv principebs iseTi mniSvneloba saxelmwifo xelisuflebis<br />

organoTa formirebasa da saxelmwifoebriv-teritoriul mowyobaSi, rogorc es belgiaSia.<br />

enebis gamoyenebisa da maT warmomadgenelTa proporciulobis gaTvaliswinebiT<br />

yalibdeba belgiis parlamenti, mTavroba, erTiani marTlmsajulebis sabWo da sxva organoebi,<br />

rom aRaraferi vTqvaT ganaTlebis sistemaze. amasTan, belgiam gasuli saukunis<br />

meore naxevarSi, qveynis erTianobis SenarCunebis mizniT mniSvnelovani nabijebi gadadga<br />

decentralizaciisaken. flam<strong>and</strong>urma, frangulma da germanulma gaerTianebebma oficialuri<br />

avtonomiis statusi miiRes da qveyana T<strong>and</strong>aTanobiT unitarizmidan federalur<br />

mowyobaze gadavida. 34 miuxedavad yovelive amisa, belgiis samefom enobrivi regionebis<br />

dapirispirebisa da qveynis erTianobis SenarCunebis problemebi mainc ver daZlia.<br />

rogorc iuridiul literaturaSi aRniSnaven, erT-erTi partiis lideris, Jiul<br />

destres mimarTvas belgiis mefe albert I-sadmi 1912 wels, rom `belgiaSi arian valonebi<br />

da flam<strong>and</strong>elebi, magram ara belgielebi~, dRemde ar daukargavs Tavisi aqtualuroba. 35<br />

samwuxarod, saqarTveloSi regionuli enebis dakanonebis Tu enobrivi regionebis<br />

Seqmnis ideas dResac gamouCndnen momxreebi. mimdinare wels masobrivi informaciis sa-<br />

SualebebiT gavrcelda cnoba, rom samegreloSi arasamaTavrobo organizaciam _ ganaTlebis<br />

centrma `kolxidam~ megrul enaze gamosca gazeTi `Surobumu~ (uTqmeli). sagazeTo<br />

interviuSi misi damfuZnebeli dabejiTebiT moiTxovs megruli da svanuri enebisaTvis<br />

regionuli enebis statusis miniWebas. misi azriT, `megrelebi arian kolxebi da<br />

ara gurjebi~. saqarTvelo ki, unda gadakeTdes federaciad, sadac yvela regioni Tanasworuflebiani<br />

iqneba. am gazeTSi megrul enaze gamoqveynebulia fragmentebi ioanes<br />

23


marTlmsajuleba<br />

N1<br />

da<br />

kanoni<br />

saxarebidan (`saxareba ioaneSi~) da vefxistyaosnidan (`yiloStyebami~). 36 XIX saukunis<br />

ruseTis imperiis antiqarTuli politikis gamoZaxili, rogorc vxedavT, XXI saukuneSic<br />

gaismis. amasTan dakavSirebiT, sworad SeniSnavs profesori soso sigua: `es imTaviTve<br />

qarTuli cnobierebis daSlisken mimarTuli movlena iyo. ruseTs xels aZlevda svanuri,<br />

megruli da qarTuli enebis dacalkeveba, raTa advilad gaenadgurebina qarTuli<br />

saxelmwifoebrioba.~ 37<br />

Tanamedrove periodSi am safrTxeze sagangebod miuTiTebs sruliad saqarTvelos<br />

kaTolikos-patriarqi ilia I I 2010 wlis saSobao epistoleSi. kaTolikos-patriarqi<br />

qarTul enas qarTveli eris rwmenis, erTobis da mTlianobis saZirkvelsa da mtkice<br />

fuZes uwodebs da aRniSnavs: `dResac, rodesac Cvens winaSea umniSvnelovanesi amocana<br />

teritoriuli mTlianobis aRdgenisa, T<strong>and</strong>aTan izrdeba meore, aranaklebi safrTxe<br />

enobrivi daSlisa; arian iseTi Zalebi, romelnic naklebad moazrovne adamianebs ubiZgeben,<br />

rom iTargmnos biblia an sxva wignebi megrulad, svanurad, lazurad da moamzadon<br />

niadagi imisaTvis, rom axlo momavalSi qarTuli enis es ganStoebani ukve calke enebad<br />

gamoacxadon.<br />

msoflioSi vrceldeba rukebi da kvalifikaciebi, TiTqos saqarTvelo aWarlebis,<br />

lazebis, svanebis, megrelebis, TuSebis da sxvaTa xelovnuri gaerTianebaa, TiTqos yvelas<br />

Cven-Cveni ena da kultura gvaqvs. amiT undaT Cveni eris sxvadasxva erovnul gaer-<br />

Tianebebad warmoCena. aqedan ki, saxelmwifos daSlamde erTi nabijia.~ 38<br />

cxadia, Tu saqarTvelo am gzas daadgeba da regionul enebs oficialurad aRiarebs,<br />

maSin regionuli enebidan enobriv regionebamde erTi nabijia, enobrivi regionebidan<br />

politikur avtonomiebamde meore, mesame ki, ueWvelad qveynis daSla iqneba.<br />

es safrTxe rom Tavidan aviciloT, amisaTvis aucilebelia saxelmwifos swori enobrivi<br />

politika hqondes. Cveni azriT, qarTuli saxelmwifos enobrivi politika sami<br />

ZiriTadi mimarTulebiT unda warimarTos:<br />

pirveli, qarTuli enis, rogorc saxelmwifo enis (afxazeTSi agreTve afxazuri enis),<br />

srulyofili sakanonmdeblo safuZvlebis, misi dacvis samarTlebrivi da instituciuri<br />

garantiebis Seqmna;<br />

meore, saqarTvelos moqalaqeebis, agreTve saqarTveloSi mcxovrebi sxva pirebisaTvis<br />

qarTuli enis Sesaswavlad saTanado pirobebis Seqmna;<br />

mesame, saqarTveloSi mcxovreb erovnul umciresobaTa enebis gamoyenebis farglebis<br />

dadgena da maTi dacvis uzrunvelyofa.<br />

Tu enobrivi politikis meore da mesame mimarTulebiT saqarTveloSi garkveuli<br />

praqtika arsebobs, romelic, rasakvirvelia, saWiroebs Semdgom srulyofas, qarTuli<br />

enis, rogorc saxelmwifo enis, sakanonmdeblo safuZvlebi jer kidev, Sesaqmnelia. saqarTvelos,<br />

rogorc es ukve iTqva, ara aqvs saxelmwifo enis kanoni. saxelmwifo enasTan<br />

dakavSirebuli urTierTobebis momwesrigebeli samarTlis normebi amJamad sxvadasxva<br />

dargobriv sakanonmdeblo aqtebSia gafantuli. mxedvelobaSi gvaqvs saqarTvelos moqalaqeobis,<br />

reklamis, mauwyeblobis, ganaTlebis, sajaro samsaxuris Sesaxeb kanonebi,<br />

zogadi administraciuli kodeqsi da sxv. ra Tqma unda, sakanonmdeblo teqnikis TvalsazrisiT,<br />

es Cveulebrivi movlenaa da ama Tu im sferoSi samarTlebrivi regulirebis<br />

24


sagnis TaviseburebebiTaa ganpirobebuli. magram, amasTanave, aucileblad migvaCnia<br />

saxelmwifo enis Sesaxeb CarCo kanonis miReba, radganac swored am kanonSi Camoyalibebuli<br />

normebisa da principebis Sesabamisad unda ganxorcieldes sxvadasxva sferoebSi<br />

saxelmwifo enis gamoyenebis konkretuli sakanonmdeblo regulaciebi. amisaTvis ki,<br />

saWiroa saxelmwifo enis Sesaxeb sakanonmdeblo aqti organuli kanonis rangSi iyos<br />

ayvanili, raTa misi iuridiuli Zala aRematebodes sxva Cveulebrivi, dargobrivi kanonebis<br />

iuridiul Zalas. es Tavidan agvacilebs saxelmwifo enis Sesaxeb organuli kanoniT<br />

dadgenili normebisa da principebis sawinaaRmdego wesebis dadgenas mimdinare<br />

sakanonmdeblo aqtebiT da uzrunvelyofs saxelmwifo enis sakanonmdeblo regulirebis<br />

erTianobas.<br />

saxelmwifo enis organulma kanonma, uwinares yovlisa, unda gansazRvros saxelmwifoebrivi<br />

da sazogadoebrivi cxovrebis is sferoebi, sadac qarTuli enis gamoyeneba<br />

savaldebulo iqneba. Cveni azriT, qarTuli enis gamoyeneba savaldebulo unda iyos:<br />

saxelmwifo xelisuflebis, maT Soris, avtonomiuri respublikebis xelisuflebis, adgilobrivi<br />

TviTmmarTvelobisa da sxva sajaro dawesebulebebis saqmianobaSi, maT mier<br />

miRebuli samarTlebrivi aqtebis oficialuri gamoqveynebisas; samxedro ZalebSi; sakonstitucio,<br />

sisxlis, samoqalaqo, administraciul samarTalwarmoebaSi; sanotaro<br />

moqmedebaSi; referendumisa da arCevnebis Catarebisas; zogadi, profesiuli da umaRlesi<br />

ganaTlebis miRebisas; informatikaSi; kavSirgabmulobaSi; satransporto, savaWro<br />

da sxva saxis momsaxurebaSi; teleradio mauwyeblobasa da beWdviT mediaSi; reklamebSi;<br />

geografiuli obieqtebis, agreTve, sagzao niSnebis aRniSvnisas. saqarTvelos saxelmwifo<br />

da sxva sajaro dawesebulebebis mier Catarebuli oficialuri Sexvedrebisas;<br />

sajaro samarTlis iuridiuli pirebis mier ganxorcielebul saregistracio saqmianobaSi;<br />

saqarTvelos iuridiuli pirebis mier dokumentebis warmoebisas; saqarTvelos<br />

teritoriaze fizikuri da iuridiuli pirebis mier garigebebis dadebisas.<br />

ra Tqma unda, es sruliadac ar aris qarTuli enis savaldebulo gamoyenebis sferoebis<br />

amomwuravi CamonaTvali. organuli kanoniT kidev ufro dazustdeba rogorc qar-<br />

Tuli enis savaldebulo gamoyenebis sferoebi, ise misi gamoyenebis konkretuli SemTxvevebi<br />

da wesebi. amasTanave, am kanoniT qarTuli enis savaldebulo gamoyenebis zogierT<br />

sferoSi (magaliTad, ganaTlebis miRebisas) gaTvaliswinebuli iqneba saqarTveloSi<br />

mcxovrebi erovnuli umciresobebis enebis da ucxo enebis gamoyenebis SesaZleblobebi<br />

da pirobebi.<br />

saxelmwifo enis organulma kanonma unda daadginos aseve, iuridiuli pasuxismgebloba<br />

saxelmwifo enis Sesaxeb kanonmdeblobis darRvevisaTvis. am samarTaldarRvevaTa<br />

konkretuli saxeobebis da maTi Sesabamisi iuridiuli pasuxismgeblobis zomebi gaTvaliswinebuli<br />

unda iyos samarTlis sxvadasxva dargis (sisxlis, administraciuli, samoqalaqo)<br />

sakanonmdeblo aqtebiT.<br />

saxelmwifo enis organulma kanonma unda gaiTvaliswinos saxelmwifos enobrivi<br />

politikis ganxorcielebis, agreTve, saxelmwifo enis Sesaxeb kanonmdeblobis moTxovna-<br />

Ta aRsrulebisa da saxelmwifo enis dacvis uzrunvelyofis instituciuri garantiebi.<br />

SeiZleba iTqvas, rom am mxriv amJamad arsebuli mdgomareoba aradamakmayofilebelia.<br />

25


marTlmsajuleba<br />

N1<br />

da<br />

kanoni<br />

Cveni azriT, ar iyo marTebuli 2004 wels saqarTvelos enis saxelmwifo palatis<br />

gauqmeba, romelic 1997 wels Seiqmna, damoukideblobiT sargeblobda, angariSvaldebuli<br />

iyo mxolod saqarTvelos prezidentis winaSe da amasTanave, realuri makontrolebeli<br />

funqciebiT iyo aRWurvili saxelmwifo enis funqcionirebisa da qarTuli saliteraturo<br />

enis normaTa dacvis, saxelmwifo enobrivi politikis ganxorcielebisa<br />

da moqalaqeTa enobrivi uflebebis dacvis sferoSi. sadReisod saxelmwifo enobrivi<br />

politikis ganxorcieleba, saxelmwifo enis swavlebisa da ganviTarebis xelis Sewyoba,<br />

agreTve Tvalyuris devneba mis swor gamoyenebaze saqarTvelos ganaTlebisa da mecnierebis<br />

saministros aqvs mikuTvnebuli. saministros struqturaSi am amocanebis Sesruleba,<br />

sxva sakiTxebTan erTad, davalebuli aqvs or qvedanayofs: samarTlebrivi uzrunvelyofis<br />

departamentsa da zogadi da profesiuli ganaTlebis ganviTarebis<br />

departaments. 39<br />

vfiqrobT, mxolod Tvalyuris devneba saxelmwifo enis swor gamoyenebaze saqmes<br />

ver uSvelis. Tvalyuris devnebas Tu ar axlavs danaxulsa da gagonilze mkacri reagireba,<br />

saxelmwifo enis upativcemulobisa da araswori gamoyenebis SemTxvevebi kvlavac<br />

mravlad iqneba. am saqmis Sesruleba mizanSewonilia daekisros saTanado damoukideblobisa<br />

da uflebamosilebis mqone specialur organos, romelic kanoniT iqneba aRWurvili<br />

am sferoSi kontrolisa da zedamxedvelobis funqciebiT. Cveni azriT, `sajaro<br />

samarTlis iuridiuli piris Sesaxeb~ saqarTvelos kanoni aseTi dawesebulebis Seqmnis<br />

SesaZleblobas iZleva.<br />

qarTuli enis, rogorc saxelmwifo enis dacva gulisxmobs ara mxolod mis uflebriv<br />

dacvas, aramed, rac ase aucilebelia Tanamedrove periodSi, misi siwmindis dacvasac.<br />

am mizniT, saxelmwifo enis organulma kanonma unda gansazRvros qarTuli saliteraturo<br />

enis normebis damdgeni samTavrobo organo (komisia), misi samarTlebrivi statusi<br />

da qarTuli saliteraturo enis normebis dacvis savaldebulooba.<br />

yovelive zemoaRniSnulidan gasagebia, Tu ra ganuzomeli mniSvneloba aqvs qarTul<br />

enas qarTuli saxelmwifoebriobisaTvis da rom misi dacva, mofrTxileba da masze zrunva<br />

uaRresad saSuri saqmea, miT umetes dRes, rodesac kacobriobas e.w. globalizaciis<br />

epoqa daudga. Tu adre, imperiebis SemadgenlobaSi saqarTvelos yofnisas qarTul enas<br />

safrTxes uqmnida imperiuli enis, rogorc oficialuri enis da imperiaSi Semavali<br />

erebis saurTierTobo saSualebis privilegirebuli mdgomareoba, axla, globalizaciis<br />

epoqaSi, igive safrTxe arsebobs ucxo enebiT qarTuli enis Canacvlebis zRvardaudebeli<br />

da ukontrolo praqtikis gamo. Tu es praqtika saswrafod ar ailagma, uaxloes<br />

momavalSi qarTuli enis adgils aucileblad daikavebs ucxo ena. es ar aris gadaWarbebuli<br />

Sefaseba. safrTxe realuria, radganac saqarTvelos saxelmwifo enis kanoni ar<br />

gaaCnia da amdenad, am procesis winaaRmdegobis gamwevi kanonismieri saSualebebic ar<br />

arsebobs.<br />

qarTuli enis patroni mxolod qarTuli saxelmwifoa. qarTul enas ara aqvs qveynis<br />

gareT xalxTa Soris sakomunikacio mniSvneloba. amitom, Tu qarTuli ena Tavad qarTuli<br />

saxelmwifos mzrunvelobis gareSe darCa, maSin darwmunebuli unda viyoT, rom masze<br />

sxva aravin izrunebs.<br />

26


qarTuli enis saxelmwifoebrivi statusis mxolod konstituciiT deklarireba ar<br />

aris sakmarisi. saWiroa saxelmwifo enis Sesaxeb specialuri kanonis miReba da efeqtiani<br />

saxelmwifo enobrivi politikis gatareba am kanonis moTxovnaTa aRsrulebisaTvis.<br />

winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi, saqarTvelo SesaZlebelia irl<strong>and</strong>iis mdgomareobaSi aRmoCndes,<br />

sadac irl<strong>and</strong>iur enaze, romelic konstituciiT aRiarebulia erovnul enad da pirvel<br />

oficialur enad, laparakobs mosaxleobis mesamedze naklebi, xolo inglisur enaze,<br />

romelic konstituciiT meore oficialuri enaa, laparakobs mosaxleobis naxevarze<br />

meti. 40<br />

rogorc vxedavT, qarTuli ena, uwinares yovlisa, saxelmwifoebriv mxardaWeras sa-<br />

Wiroebs. swored saxelmwifom unda Seqmnas iseTi pirobebi, rodesac qarTuli ena srulad<br />

iqneba damkvidrebuli saxelmwifoebriv da sazogadoebriv cxovrebaSi qveynis mTel<br />

teritoriaze.<br />

27


marTlmsajuleba<br />

N1<br />

da<br />

kanoni<br />

SeniSvnebi:<br />

1<br />

qarTlis cxovreba, mT. red. roin metreveli, `meridiani~, `artanuji~,<br />

Tbilisi, 2008, gv. 46.<br />

2<br />

giorgi merCule, grigol xanZTelis cxovreba, qarTuli proza, wigni I,<br />

Tbilisi, 1982, gv. 279-280.<br />

3<br />

ix.: qarTuli ena, enciklopedia, `erovnuli mwerloba~, Tbilisi, 2008,<br />

gv. 180.<br />

4<br />

ix.: omar gogiaSvili, ilia dRes, ideologia, politika, Tbilisi, 2008,<br />

gv. 408.<br />

5<br />

ix.: mixeil gafrindaSvili, qarTuli sazogadoebrivi azrovnebis istoria<br />

uZvelesi droidan meoce saukunemde, `mecniereba~, Tbilisi, 2004,<br />

gv. 499-507; mamia faRava, ilia WavWavaZe da qarTuli saliteraturo<br />

enis problemebi, krebuli: `ilia WavWavaZe 170~, gamomcemloba `baTumis<br />

universiteti~, 2007, gv. 26-54.<br />

6<br />

ilia WavWavaZe, b-n ianovskis werilisa gamo, rCeuli nawarmoebebi 5<br />

tomad, Tbilisi, 1987, tomi me-4, gv. 197.<br />

7<br />

qarTuli ena, enciklopedia, gv. 495.<br />

8<br />

sagulisxmoa, rom i. gogebaSvilis `deda enis~ I nawili 45-jer gamoica<br />

milionsamasiaTasiani tiraJiT, xolo me-2 nawili 36-jer, 670 aTasi<br />

calis odenobiT (ix.: qarTuli ena, enciklopedia, gv. 139; mamia CorgolaSvili,<br />

mTawminda, gamomcemloba `xelovneba~, Tbilisi, 1991, gv. 80).<br />

9<br />

vaJa SubiTiZe, yvela drois asi udidesi qarTveli, Tbilisi, 2008, gv.<br />

313.<br />

10<br />

mamia faRava, miT. naSromi, gv. 54.<br />

11<br />

ix.: aleqs<strong>and</strong>re bendianiSvili, saqarTvelos pirveli respublika (1918-<br />

1921w.w.), Tbilisi, 2001, gv. 257.<br />

12<br />

aleqs<strong>and</strong>re bendianiSvili, miT. naSromi, gv. 258.<br />

13<br />

iqve, gv. 258-259.<br />

14<br />

saqarTvelos demokratiuli respublikis samarTlebrivi aqtebis krebuli,<br />

1918-1921, `iverTa mxare~, Tbilisi, 1990, gv. 80-81.<br />

15<br />

1918 wlis 8 oqtombridan erovnul sabWos saqarTvelos parlamenti<br />

ewoda.<br />

16<br />

saqarTvelos demokratiuli respublikis samarTlebrivi aqtebis krebuli,<br />

gv. 83.<br />

17<br />

saqarTvelos demokratiuli respublikis samarTlebrivi aqtebis krebuli,<br />

gv. 206.<br />

18<br />

saqarTvelos demokratiuli respublikis samarTlebrivi aqtebis<br />

krebuli, gv. 458-484.<br />

19<br />

ix.: rona k. m. smiti, adamianis saerTaSoriso uflebebi, saxelmZRvanelo,<br />

meore gamocema. oqsfordis universitetis gamomcemloba, mTargmneli<br />

m. kobiaSvili, `sezani~, Tbilisi, 2005, gv. 446-463.<br />

20<br />

saqarTvelos ssr konstituciuri aqtebis krebuli (1921-1978), Semdgeneli<br />

prof. gr. eremovi, Tbilisis universitetis gamomcemloba,<br />

Tbilisi, 1983, gv. 131-160.<br />

21<br />

saqarTvelos ssr konstituciuri aqtebis krebuli (1921-1978), gv. 192.<br />

22<br />

saqarTvelos ssr konstituciuri aqtebis krebuli (1921-1978), gv. 268.<br />

23<br />

1983 wels uprecedento ram moxda, TbilisSi aRimarTa dedaenis, anu<br />

qarTuli enis Zegli.<br />

24<br />

ix.: gazeTi `komunisti~, 1990 wlis 8 maisi.<br />

28


25<br />

1990 wlisaTvis erovnul umciresobaTa raodenoba saqarTvelos mosaxleobis<br />

TiTqmis erT mesameds Seadgenda (ix.: saqarTvelos mosaxleoba,<br />

statistikuri krebuli, Tbilisi, 2003, gv. 68).<br />

26<br />

saqarTvelos parlamentis uwyebebi, #5 (622), 1993, marti, mux. 66.<br />

27<br />

ix.: qarTuli sabWoTa enciklopedia, Tbilisi, 1985, t. 9, gv. 245.<br />

28<br />

ix.: saqarTvelos parlamentSi 2002 wlis 7-10 maiss `saxelmwifo enis<br />

Sesaxeb~ kanonproeqtis ganxilvis masalebi.<br />

29<br />

CarCo konvencia erovnul umciresobaTa dacvis Sesaxeb, strasburgi,<br />

1995, 1 Tebervali, ix.: adamianis uflebaTa sferoSi ZiriTadi saerTa-<br />

Soriso samarTlebrivi aqtebis krebuli, saxalxo damcvelis biblioTeka,<br />

meore nawili, Tbilisi, 2008, gv. 207-220.<br />

30<br />

ix.: saqarTvelos sakanonmdeblo macne, nawili mesame, 2005, 27 oqtomberi,<br />

#125, mux. 1401.<br />

31<br />

saqarTvelos parlamentis zemoaRniSnuli dadgenilebiT gansazRvrulia,<br />

pirTa romeli jgufi SeiZleba CaiTvalos erovnul umciresobad.<br />

dadgenilebis mixedviT, pirTa jgufi erovnuli umciresobis<br />

statusiT SeiZleba sargeblobdes, Tu: misi wevrebi arian saqarTvelos<br />

moqalaqeebi; isini mosaxleobis udidesi nawilisagan gansxvavdebian<br />

sakuTari enobrivi, kulturuli da eTnikuri identurobiT;<br />

xangrZlivi drois ganmavlobaSi cxovroben saqarTvelos teritoriaze<br />

da kompaqturad arian dasaxlebulebi (meore punqtis `a~ qvepunqti).<br />

32<br />

ix.: adamianis uflebaTa sferoSi ZiriTadi saerTaSoriso samarTlebrivi<br />

aqtebis krebuli, saxalxo damcvelis biblioTeka, Tbilisi, 2008,<br />

gv. 221-244.<br />

33<br />

sazRvargareTis qveynebis konstituciebi, red. v. gonaSvili, nawili<br />

IV, Tbilisi, 2007, gv. 106-161.<br />

34<br />

sazRvargareTis qveynebis konstituciebi, red. v. gonaSvili, nawili<br />

IV, gv. 90.<br />

35<br />

Êîíñòèòóöèè ãîñóäàðñòâ Åâðîïåéñêîãî Ñîþçà, Ïîä ðåä. Ë. À. Îêóíüêîâà,<br />

"Íîðìà-Èíôðà", Ì., 1997, ñ. 103.<br />

36<br />

`kviris palitra~, yovelkvireuli gazeTi, #44 (848), 1-7 noemberi<br />

2010, gv. 5.<br />

37<br />

iqve.<br />

38<br />

`yvela siaxle~, sazogadoebriv-politikuri gazeTi (#193), 7-13 ianvari,<br />

2010, gv. 11.<br />

39<br />

ix.: saqarTvelos sakanonmdeblo macne, 2004, #54, nawili I I I , muxli 460.<br />

40<br />

sazRvargareTis qveynebis konstituciebi, red. v. gonaSvili, nawili<br />

V, gv. 254.<br />

29


marTlmsajuleba<br />

N1<br />

da<br />

kanoni<br />

STATE LANGUAGE<br />

OF GEORGIA<br />

JOHN KHETSURIANI<br />

Judge of the Constitutional Court of Georgia,<br />

Doctor of <strong>Law</strong>, Professor, Member of the National Science Academy of Georgia<br />

Georgia language is an ancient language having its own, unique alphabet.<br />

The historians believe that the King Parnavaz (III c. BC) was the one to popularize<br />

the Georgian language <strong>and</strong> literacy in Georgia. Since IV century AD, when<br />

the Christianity was declared as the state religion of Georgia, the Georgian language<br />

has become the service language of the Georgian Orthodox Church.<br />

Notwithst<strong>and</strong>ing of the Russification politics of the Russian Empire <strong>and</strong> the<br />

Soviet Authorities, the Georgian people managed to preserve <strong>and</strong> develop the<br />

national language. During the times of the first republic of Georgia (1918-1921)<br />

the Georgian language was legally assigned the status of State Language for the<br />

first time with the means of the special law (in 1918), as well as the Constitution<br />

of Georgia (in 1921). Throughout the Soviet times, the Georgian Language was<br />

recognized as the state language by all four constitutions of Georgia. According<br />

to the acting Constitution of Georgia (since 1995) “The state language of Georgia<br />

shall be Georgian, <strong>and</strong> in Abkhazia – also Abkhazian” (Article 8).<br />

To our opinion, declaring the status of the Georgian as the State language<br />

only by the Constitution of Georgia is not enough. The globalization<br />

process poses the Georgian language increased threat to be replaced with<br />

some foreign languages. This threat is real, since the State does not have the<br />

law on language <strong>and</strong> therefore legal means of fighting against this threat is<br />

unavailable. Therefore, organic law on the state language shall be developed<br />

<strong>and</strong> adopted. The law would define the rules for m<strong>and</strong>atory usage of State<br />

language in various fields of state <strong>and</strong> social life, determine the legal liability<br />

for violating the law on state language, provide for the institutional guarantees<br />

for the protection of state language <strong>and</strong> ensure the implementation of<br />

the state language policy in general.<br />

30


damoukidebeli<br />

sasarCelo moTxovnis<br />

gareSe mesame piri<br />

samoqalaqo<br />

samarTalwarmoebaSi<br />

irma peraniZe<br />

quTaisis saapelacio sasamarTlos mosamarTle<br />

saqarTvelos samoqalaqo saproceso kodeqsi aris kodificirebuli<br />

normatiuli aqti, romelic detalurad gansazRvravs<br />

samarTalwarmoebis zogad principebs, sasamar-<br />

Tlos uwyebriv qvemdebareobas da gansjadobas, procesis<br />

monawile mxareebs, maT uflebaunarianobasa da qmedunarianobas,<br />

saqmeTa warmoebas yvela instanciis sasamarTlo-<br />

Si, sasamarTlo gadawyvetilebaTa gasaCivrebas da a.S.<br />

sasamarTloSi samoqalaqo davis ganxilvaSi monawile<br />

TiToeul pirs Tavisi saproceso statusi da Sesabamisi ufleba-movaleobebi<br />

aqvs. ZiriTad mxareebs mosarCele da mopasuxe<br />

warmoadgenen, Tumca erT-erTi umniSvnelovanesi<br />

subieqtia mesame piri.<br />

samoqalaqo saproceso kodeqsi ganasxvavebs mesame pirebs<br />

damoukidebeli sasarCelo moTxovniTa da damoukidebeli<br />

sasarCelo moTxovnis gareSe.<br />

saqarTvelos samoqalaqo saproceso kodeqsis 89-e muxlis<br />

pirvel nawilSi mocemulia damoukidebeli sasarCelo<br />

moTxovnis gareSe mesame piris definicia.<br />

31


marTlmsajuleba<br />

N1<br />

da<br />

kanoni<br />

miTiTebuli normis Tanaxmad, damoukidebeli sasarCelo moTxovnis gareSe mesame<br />

piri aris saproceso subieqti, romelic, marTalia, uSualod ar aris sadavo samar-<br />

TalurTierTobis monawile, ar acxadebs damoukidebel moTxovnas davis saganze an mis<br />

nawilze, magram mimdinare sasamarTlo davis samarTlebrivi Sedegebi samomavlod SeiZleba<br />

uSualod Seexos mis kanonier ufleba-movaleobebsa da interesebs. igi SesaZloa<br />

momdevno davaSi iyos mopasuxe.<br />

ganvixiloT ramdenime SemTxveva:<br />

1. samoqalaqo kodeqsis 301-e muxlis 1-li nawilis Sesabamisad, Tu movale ar daakmayofilebs<br />

moTxovnas, romlis uzrunvelyofis saSualebac aris ipoTeka, ipoTekari<br />

uflebamosilia moiTxovos uZravi nivTis realizacia, Tu ipoTekis xelSekrulebiT<br />

sxva ram ar aris gaTvaliswinebuli.<br />

iseT SemTxvevaSi, rodesac ipoTekis sagnis mesakuTre da piradi movale erTi da<br />

igive piri ar aris, ipoTekiT uzrunvelyofili sesxis dabrunebis Taobaze mimdinare<br />

davaSi SesaZlebelia damoukidebeli moTxovnis gareSe mesame pirad Cabmuli iqnes<br />

ipoTekis sagnis mesakuTre, vinaidan, Tuki dakmayofildeba kreditoris sasarCelo<br />

moTxovna da Tanxis gadaxda daekisreba movales, samoqalaqo kodeqsis 301-e muxlis<br />

1-li nawilis safuZvelze samomavlo davaSi savaraudo mopasuxe iqneba ipoTekis<br />

sagnis mesakuTre.<br />

2. samoqalaqo kodeqsis 199-e muxlis Sesabamisad, moTxovnis mflobels (kreditors)<br />

SeuZlia movalis Tanxmobis gareSe moTxovna dauTmos mesame pirs... aseT SemTxvevaSi<br />

Tavdapirveli mflobelis adgils ikavebs mesame piri.<br />

Tuki sasamarTlo warmoebaSi iqneba axali kreditoris (visac dauTmes moTxovna) dava<br />

movalis mimarT, saqmeSi damoukidebeli moTxovnis gareSe mesame pirad SeiZleba Cabmuli<br />

iqnes Tavdapirveli kreditori, romelmac sk is 199-e muxlis Sesabamisad, gadasca<br />

moTxovnis ufleba axal kreditors, vinaidan, saqmeSi monawileobiT SesaZloa<br />

igi daexmaros mosarCeles, daicvas misi moTxovna mopasuxis mimarT.<br />

garda amisa, mocemuli davis dasrulebis Semdeg, SesaZloa axal kreditors gauCndes<br />

regresis wesiT moTxovnis ufleba Zveli kreditoris mimarT.<br />

3. samoqalaqo kodeqsis Sesabamisad, mometebuli safrTxis wyarodan gamomdinare, zianis<br />

anazRaurebis sarCelebSi materialuri samarTalurTierToba arsebobs mosar-<br />

Celes (dazaralebuli) da mometebuli safrTxis wyaros mflobels Soris da ara mosarCelesa<br />

da zianis uSualo mimyenebels Soris. uSualod zianis mimyenebeli SeiZleba<br />

saqmeSi monawileobdes damoukidebeli moTxovnis gareSe, mesame pirad.<br />

amdenad, ganxilul magaliTebze dayrdnobiT dasturdeba, rom damoukidebeli moTxovnis<br />

gareSe, mesame piri aris fizikuri an iuridiuli piri, romelsac aqvs safuZvliani<br />

samarTlebrivi interesi mimdinare samarTalwarmoebis mimarT. procesSi maTi monawileoba<br />

ganpirobebulia materialursamarTlebrivi urTierTobidan. saqmeSi Car-<br />

Tuli damoukidebeli moTxovnis gareSe, mesame piri cdilobs daexmaros im pirs, romlis<br />

mxaresac igi monawileobs procesSi, raTa daicvas Tavisi piradi interesebi. igi ebmeba<br />

Tavdapirvel mxareTa Soris ukve dawyebul da mimdinare procesSi. misi mizani procesSi<br />

monawileobisas aris piradi interesebis dacva, radgan ZiriTad davaze sasamarTlo<br />

32


gadawyvetilebam SeiZleba gavlena moaxdinos mis uflebebsa da movaleobebze erT-erTi<br />

mxaris mimarT.<br />

Tu SevadarebT Tanamonawilisa da mopasuxis mxareze Cabmul damoukidebeli moTxovnis<br />

gareSe mesame pirs, maTi interesebi erTmaneTisagan gansxvavdeba: Tanamopasuxe yovelTvis<br />

aris mosarCelis mowinaaRmdege mxare da mis winaSe gaaCnia, mTlianad an nawilobriv,<br />

uSualo, pirdapiri pasuxismgebloba, xolo mopasuxis mxareze damoukidebeli<br />

moTxovnis gareSe, mesame piri imyofeba materialursamarTlebriv damokidebulebaSi<br />

mxolod mopasuxesTan da pirdapiri pasuxismgebloba mosarCelis mimarT ar gaaCnia.<br />

aseT mesame pirs pasuxismgebloba SeiZleba daekisros mopasuxis mier regresuli wesiT<br />

wardgenil damoukidebel procesSi.<br />

unda aRiniSnos, rom umTavres SemTxvevaSi, tipiuri safuZveli ukve dawyebul saqmeSi<br />

damoukidebeli moTxovnis gareSe, mesame piris CarTvisa aris ZiriTad davaze sasamar-<br />

Tlo gadawyvetilebis gamotanis Semdeg erT-erTi modave mxaris regresuli sarCelis<br />

wardgenis SesaZlebloba mesame piris mimarT.<br />

mniSvnelovania im sakiTxis garkveva, SesaZlebelia Tu ara erTad iqnes ganxiluli<br />

ZiriTadi da regresuli sarCelebi.<br />

sasamarTlo praqtikis analiziT dgindeba, rom ufro xSirad isini ganixileba<br />

damoukideblad, Tumca, saproceso kanonmdebloba ar gamoricxavs maTi erTad ganxilvis<br />

SesaZleblobas.<br />

samoqalaqo saproceso kodeqsis 182-e muxlis me-4 nawilis Sesabamisad, Tu sasamar-<br />

Tlos warmoebaSia ramdenime erTgvarovani da samarTlebrivad erTmaneTTan dakavSirebuli<br />

saqme, romlebSic erTi da igive an sxvadasxva mxare monawileobs, sasamarTlos<br />

SeuZlia Tavisi iniciativiT an mxaris SuamdgomlobiT gaaerTianos es saqmeebi erT warmoebad,<br />

erTad ganxilvisaTvis, Tu aseT gaerTianebas Sedegad mohyveba davis swrafad<br />

da sworad ganxilva.<br />

miTiTebuli normis Tanaxmad, dasaSvebia erTad iqnes ganxiluli damoukidebeli moTxovnis<br />

gareSe mesame piris monawileobiT ZiriTadi da regresuli sarCelebi, rac gamoiwvevs<br />

sasamarTlo droisa da resursis ekonomias.<br />

damoukidebeli moTxovnis gareSe, mesame piris saqmeSi daSvebis sakiTxi regulirdeba<br />

samoqalaqo saproceso kodeqsis 89-90-e muxlebiT.<br />

sssk-is 89-e muxlis Sesabamisad, `yovel dainteresebul pirs, romelic ar acxadebs<br />

damoukidebel moTxovnas davis saganze, an mis nawilze, SeuZlia mimarTos sasamarTlos<br />

gancxadebiT, raTa dauSvas igi mesame pirad mosarCelis an mopasuxis mxareze, radgan<br />

sasamarTlo gadawyvetilebas am saqmeze SeuZlia SemdgomSi gavlena moaxdinos mis uflebebsa<br />

da movaleobebze erT-erTi mxaris mimarT. damoukidebeli moTxovnis gareSe,<br />

mesame pirad daSvebis sakiTxs mxareTa mosazrebebis gaTvaliswinebiT, wyvets sasamar-<br />

Tlo~.<br />

sssk-is 90-e muxlis Sesabamisad, mesame piri damoukidebeli sasarCelo moTxovnis<br />

gareSe SeiZleba saqmeSi Cabmuli iqnes erT-erTi mxaris iniciativiT, risTvisac igi<br />

mimarTavs sasamarTlos motivirebuli gancxadebiT. aseTi gancxadeba sasamarTlo gadawyvetilebis<br />

gamotanamde SeiZleba gakeTdes rogorc werilobiTi, ise zepiri formiT.<br />

33


marTlmsajuleba<br />

N1<br />

da<br />

kanoni<br />

zepiri formis gancxadeba Seitaneba sasamarTlo sxdomis oqmSi. mxareTa mosazrebebis<br />

gaTvaliswinebiT, sasamarTlo gamoitans ganCinebas mesame piris saqmeSi monawileobisaTvis<br />

Cabmis an aseT Cabmaze uaris Tqmis Sesaxeb.<br />

miTiTebul normaTa mixedviT, mesame piri, mosarCelisa da mopasuxisagan gansxvavebiT,<br />

erTveba ukve dawyebul sasamarTlo proceSi da iuridiuli interesi aqvs gansaxilveli<br />

davis mimarT.<br />

samoqalaqo saproceso kodeqsis mixedviT damoukidebeli moTxovnis gareSe, mesame<br />

piris Cabmis samarTlebriv safuZvels mxolod iuridiuli interesi ar warmoadgens.<br />

igi aucilebelia, magram arsebobs maSin, rodesac sasamarTlo gadawyvetilebas SeuZlia<br />

gavlena moaxdinos mesame piris uflebebsa da movaleobebze erT-erTi mxaris mimarT. 1<br />

mesame piri damoukidebeli sasarCelo moTxovnis gareSe, saqmeSi SeiZleba daSvebul<br />

iqnas rogorc Tavad dainteresebuli mxaris, aseve, mosarCelis an mopasuxis SuamdgomlobiT<br />

(gancxadebiT).<br />

praqtikuli daskvnebi am gadawyvetilebisa mdgomareobs SemdegSi: Tu mopasuxe yovelTvis<br />

mxolod pasiuri mxarea saqmeSi imdenad, ramdenadac mas iwvevs mosarCele, damoukidebeli<br />

moTxovnis gareSe mesame piris saqmeSi Cabma SeiZleba iyos Tavad am piris<br />

piradi iniciativa, anu adreuli miswrafeba, gamoricxos SesaZlebloba mopasuxis regresuli<br />

sarCeliT misTvis gansazRvruli valdebulebis dakisrebisa.<br />

damoukidebeli moTxovnis gareSe, mesame piris procesSi CabmisaTvis ar aris sakmarisi<br />

mxolod mxaris Suamdgomloba (gancxadeba). gancxadeba damoukidebeli moTxovnis<br />

gareSe, mesame piris saqmeSi CarTvis Taobaze motivirebuli unda iyos. igi SeiZleba ar<br />

daakmayofilos sasamarTlom. aRniSnulis Taobaze pirdapir ar aris miTiTebuli samoqalaqo<br />

saproceso kodeqsSi, Tumca, miTiTebulia, rom saqmis momzadebis etapze sasamarTlo<br />

wyvets sakiTxs damoukidebeli moTxovnis gareSe, mesame piris saqmeSi monawileobasTan<br />

dakavSirebiT (ssk-is 201-e muxlis me-2 nawilis `z.b~ qvepunqti).<br />

rogorc werilobiTi, aseve, zepiri Suamdgomlobis ganxilvisas, sasamarTlo valdebulia<br />

moisminos mxareTa mosazrebebi da motivirebuli ganCinebiT saqmeSi CarTos damoukidebeli<br />

moTxovnis gareSe, mesame piri an uari Tqvas mis CarTvaze. sasamarTlos gan-<br />

Cineba unda Seicavdes miTiTebas, Tu vis mxareze xdeba mesame piris CarTva da konkretulad<br />

raSi gamoixateba misi iuridiuli interesi, agreTve, ra gavlena SeiZleba moaxdinos<br />

sasamarTlo gadawyvetilebam mesame piris uflebebsa an/da valdebulebebze procesis<br />

monawile erT-erTi mxaris mimarT. 2<br />

aqedan gamomdinare, imisaTvis, rom sworad e.i. kanonis Sesabamisad, gadawyvitos mesame<br />

pirad daSvebis sakiTxi, sasamarTlom zustad da naTlad unda gaarkvios, ra gavlenas<br />

moaxdens am saqmeze gamotanili gadawyvetileba im piris erT-erTi mxaris mimarT uflebebsa<br />

da movaleobebze, romlebic mesame pirad saqmeSi CarTvas moiTxovs. 3<br />

sasamarTlo praqtikaSi gvxvdeba SemTxvevebi, rodesac saqmeSi mesame pirebad damoukidebeli<br />

sasarCelo moTxovnis gareSe Cabmulni arian pirebi, romlebsac mocemul saqmeze<br />

gamotanili gadawyvetilebiT ar SeiZleba warmoeSvaT raime uflebebi da movaleobebi<br />

saqmeSi monawile romelime mxaris mimarT. magaliTad, nasyidobis xelSekrulebis<br />

baTilad cnobis Sesaxeb sarCelebze mesame pirad Cabmul notariuss sarCelis dakmayo-<br />

34


filebis, an maszed uaris Tqmis SemTxvevaSi, aranairi uflebebi da movaleobebi mxareTa<br />

mimarT ar warmoeSoba.<br />

Sesabamisad, SeiZleba davaskvnaT, rom amosaval wertils saqmeSi mesame pirad damoukidebeli<br />

sasarCelo moTxovnis gareSe Cabmis sakiTxis gadawyvetisas gasarkvevia, warmoeSoba<br />

Tu ara dainteresebul pirs sasamarTlos mier miRebuli gadawyvetilebiT garkveuli<br />

uflebebi da movaleobebi romelime mxaris mimarT. 4<br />

dReisaTvis, saqarTveloSi arsebuli sasamarTlo praqtikiT, nebismier SemTxvevaSi,<br />

sasamarTlom unda daakmayofilos Suamdgomloba da Caabas saqmeSi mesame piri damoukidebeli<br />

sasarCelo moTxovnis gareSe, Tu daadgens, rom sasamarTlo gadawyvetilebas<br />

am saqmeze SeuZlia, SemdgomSi, gavlena moaxdinos piris uflebebsa da movaleobebze<br />

erT-erTi mxaris mimarT. aseTi mesame piri davaSi, rogorc wesi, erTveba mxolod pirveli<br />

instanciis sasamarTlo gadawyvetilebis gamotanamde, xolo saapelacio sasamarTloSi<br />

misi CarTva dasaSvebia, Tu arsebobs samoqalaqo saproceso kodeqsis 215-e muxlis<br />

me-3 nawiliT gaTvaliswinebuli sapatio mizezebi aseTi Suamdgomlobis pirveli<br />

instanciis sasamarTloSi warudgenlobisa.<br />

aRsaniSnavia, rom damoukidebeli moTxovnis gareSe, mesame pirs, rogorc saproceso<br />

subieqts da misi davaSi Cabmis wesebs aseve, iTvaliswinebs sazRvargareTis qveynebis<br />

saproceso kanonmdebloba.<br />

magaliTad, ruseTis samoqalaqo saproceso kodeqsis 43-e muxlisa da ruseTis arbitraJis<br />

saproceso kodeqsis 39-e muxlis mixedviT, damoukidebeli moTxovnis gareSe, mesame<br />

pirebi SeiZleba saqmeSi monawileobisaTvis Cabmuli iqnen mxolod pirveli instanciis<br />

sasamarTlo gadawyvetilebis an arbitraJis gadawyvetilebis gamotanamde, saqmeSi<br />

monawile pirTa SuamdgomlobiT an sasamarTlos (arbitraJis) iniciativiT.<br />

ruseTisa da saqarTvelos saproceso kanonmdeblobebiT damoukidebeli moTxovnis<br />

gareSe, mesame pirebis saqmeSi CarTvis wesebs Soris is arsebiTi gansxvavebaa, rom saqar-<br />

Tvelos kanonmdebloba ar iTvaliswinebs sasamarTlos iniciativiT aseTi mesame piris<br />

saqmeSi Cabmis procesualur SesaZleblobas. Tumca, sssk-is 201-e muxlis me-2 nawilis<br />

`z.b~ qvepunqti uflebas aZlevs sasamarTlos winadadeba misces mxareebs droulad ganacxadon,<br />

Tu vin SeiZleba Caebas saqmeSi mesame pirad, damoukidebeli moTxovnis gareSe. 5<br />

garda amisa, ruseTis kanonmdeblobisagan gansxvavebiT, saqarTvelos kanonmdebloba<br />

ar gamoricxavs saapelacio instanciis sasamarTloSi damoukidebeli moTxovnis gareSe,<br />

mesame pirebis davaSi Cabmis SesaZleblobas.<br />

davis ganxilvaSi damoukidebeli moTxovnis gareSe, mesame piris monawileoba uzrunvelyofs<br />

procesualuri amocanebis mTeli kompleqsis Sesrulebas: upirvelesad, es aris<br />

damoukidebeli moTxovnis gareSe, mesame piris saxiT monawile subieqtis materialursamarTlebrivi<br />

interesis dacva; meore mxriv, saqmeSi mosarCeled an mopasuxed monawile<br />

pirTa subieqturi uflebebis dacvaSi daxmareba; mesame _ saqmeze yvela garemoebis<br />

mravalmxrivi, sruli gamokvleva da sworad dadgena; meoTxe _ sasamarTlo droisa da<br />

resursis ekonomia. 6<br />

rogorc irkveva, mesame pirebi, damoukidebeli sasarCelo moTxovnis gareSe, davaSi<br />

mniSvnelovan subieqts warmoadgenen. Tumca, samoqalaqo saproceso kodeqsis Tanaxmad,<br />

35


marTlmsajuleba<br />

N1<br />

da<br />

kanoni<br />

isini ar sargebloben mxaris yvela uflebiT, kerZod, maT ar gaaCniaT ufleba: gaadidon<br />

an Seamciron sasarCelo moTxovnis odenoba; Secvalon sarCelis safuZveli an sagani;<br />

cnon sarCeli; uari Tqvan sarCelze; morigdnen; aRZran Segebebuli sarCeli; saapelacio<br />

an sakasacio wesiT gaasaCivron sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebebi; moiTxovon sasamarTlo<br />

gadawyvetilebis iZulebiTi aRsruleba 7 (ssk-is 91-e, 364-e muxlebi). Tumca, aRsaniSnavia,<br />

rom damoukidebeli moTxovnis gareSe, mesame pirebis saproceso uflebebi, am normisgan<br />

gansxvavebiT, ufro ganvrcobilad aris ganmartebuli sasamarTlo praqtikiT, razedac<br />

SemdgomSi iqneba saubari.<br />

damoukidebeli sasarCelo moTxovnis gareSe, mesame piris erT-erTi umTavresi saproceso<br />

uflebaa, samoqalaqo saproceso kodeqsis 414-e muxlis me-2 punqtiT gaTvaliswinebul<br />

SemTxvevaSi, waradginos kerZo saCivari iseT ganCinebebze, romlebic Seexeba<br />

mis interesebs da romelTa gasaCivreba damoukideblad aris SesaZlebeli.<br />

garda 414-e muxlis me-2 punqtiT gaTvaliswinebuli gasaCivrebis uflebisa, saqmis<br />

ganxilvaSi monawileobisas damoukidebeli moTxovnis gareSe, mesame pirebi iZlevian<br />

ganmartebebs saqmesTan dakavSirebiT, maT SeuZliaT monawileoba miiRon mowmeTa dakiTxvaSi,<br />

werilobiT da nivTier mtkicebulebaTa gamokvlevaSi, eqspertTa dakiTxvaSi,<br />

monawileoba miiRon sasamarTlo kamaTSi da a.S. 8<br />

marTalia, saqarTvelos samoqalaqo saproceso kodeqsis mixedviT, damoukidebeli<br />

moTxovnis gareSe, mesame pirs ara aqvs ufleba saapelacio Tu sakasacio wesiT gaasaCivros<br />

sasamarTlos gadawyvetileba, magram dReisaTvis arsebuli sasamarTlo praqtikiT<br />

dadgenilia, rom calkeul SemTxvevebSi, aseTi gasaCivreba SesaZlebelia.<br />

saqarTvelos uzenaesi sasamarTlos 2007 wlis 28 maisis ganCinebiT samoqalaqo saqmeze<br />

#as-323-676-07 ganxiluli iqna damoukidebeli moTxovnis gareSe, mesame piris saapelacio<br />

saCivris dasaSvebobis sakiTxi.<br />

saqmis masalebis Tanaxmad, modave mxareebs (mosarCele, mopasuxe) warmoadgendenen<br />

pirveli rigis memkvidreebi, xolo davis sagans warmoadgenda samkvidros miRebis vadis<br />

aRdgena da memkvidred cnoba. aRniSnul davaSi Cabmuli iqna damoukidebeli moTxovnis<br />

gareSe, mesame piri, romelsac Cuqebis xelSekrulebis safuZvelze, gadaeca sadavo samkvidro<br />

uZravi qoneba. pirveli instanciis sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebiT sarCeli dakmayofilda<br />

da, imavdroulad, gauqmda damoukidebeli moTxovnis gareSe, mesame piris<br />

saxelze Sedgenili Cuqebis sanotaro xelSekruleba. pirveli instanciis sasamarTlo<br />

gadawyvetileba saapelacio wesiT gaasaCivra damoukidebeli moTxovnis gareSe, mesame<br />

pirma. misi saapelacio saCivari dauSveblad iqna miCneuli, rac kerZo saCivris safuZvelze,<br />

sakasacio sasamarTlos msjelobis sagani gaxda.<br />

sakasacio sasamarTlom ganmarta, rom samoqalaqo saproceso kodeqsis 364-e muxlis<br />

Tanaxmad, sasamarTlos pirveli instanciiT gamotanili gadawyvetileba mxareebma da<br />

mesame pirebma damoukidebeli sasarCelo moTxovniT SeiZleba kanoniT dadgenil vadaSi<br />

gaasaCivron saapelacio sasamarTloSi. miTiTebuli normis analizi cxadyofs, rom<br />

kanonmdebeli, gansazRvravs ra, saapelacio saCivris Setanaze uflebamosil pirTa wres,<br />

aRniSnul SesaZleblobas aZlevs im pirebs, romelTa kanonier interesebsac uSualod<br />

exeba gasaCivrebuli gadawyvetileba. amasTan, Tu sasamarTlos gadawyvetileba Seexo<br />

36


iseTi piris uflebebs, romelic saqmeSi ar iyo Cabmuli mosarCeled, mopasuxed an Tanamonawiled,<br />

arc mesame pirad, damoukidebeli sasarCelo moTxovniT da arc uflebamonacvled,<br />

aseT pirs ufleba aqvs gaasaCivros gadawyvetileba, radgan darRveulia<br />

mxaris kanoniT garantirebuli ufleba _ monawileoba miiRos saqmis ganxilvaSi. 9<br />

sakasacio sasamarTlom miTiTebul davaze aRniSna, pirveli instanciis sasamarTlos<br />

gadawyvetilebiT gauqmda ra, damoukidebeli moTxovnis gareSe, mesame piris saxelze<br />

sanotaro aqtis safuZvelze Sedgenili uZravi qonebis Cuqebis xelSekruleba, igi uflebamosili<br />

iyo saapelacio wesiT gaesaCivrebina mis mimarT gamotanili gadawyvetileba.<br />

aRsaniSnavia, rom uzenaesi sasamarTlos ganCinebaSi asaxulia is konkretuli SemTxveva,<br />

rodesac gadawyvetilebis sarezolucio nawiliT gadawyda sakiTxi, romelic uSualod<br />

Seexo damoukidebeli moTxovnis gareSe, mesame piris uflebas.<br />

am msjelobidan gamomdinareobs, rom damoukidebeli moTxovnis gareSe, mesame pirs<br />

yvela SemTxvevaSi ara aqvs gadawyvetilebis gasaCivrebis ufleba. mas SeuZlia gadawyvetileba<br />

gaasaCivros mxolod im SemTxvevaSi, rodesac gadawyvetileba pirdapir da<br />

uSualod Seexeba kanoniT dacul mis uflebebs.<br />

mniSvnelovania im SemTxvevis ganxilva, Tu ra gavlenas axdens gadawyvetilebiT dadgenili<br />

faqtebi da samarTlebrivi urTierTobebi damoukidebeli moTxovnis gareSe, mesame<br />

piris uflebebze:<br />

samoqalaqo saproceso kodeqsis 266-e muxlis Sesabamisad, gadawyvetilebis kanonier ZalaSi<br />

Sesvlis Semdeg, mxareebs, agreTve maT uflebamonacvleebs, ar SeuZliaT... sadavo gaxadon sxva<br />

procesSi gadawyvetilebiT dadgenili faqtebi da samarTlebrivi urTierTobani.<br />

amave kodeqsis 106-e muxlis `b~ punqtis Tanaxmad, mxareebi Tavisufldebian mtkicebulebaTa<br />

warmodgenisagan iseTi faqtebis dasadastureblad, romlebsac Tumca emyareba<br />

maTi moTxovnebi, Tu Sesagebeli, magram damtkicebas ar saWiroeben. esenia: faqtebi,<br />

romlebic dadgenilia erT samoqalaqo saqmeze sasamarTlos kanonier ZalaSi Sesuli gadawyvetilebiT,<br />

Tu sxva samoqalaqo saqmeebis ganxilvisas igive mxareebi monawileoben.<br />

miTiTebul normaTa mixedviT, damoukidebeli moTxovnis gareSe mesame pirTa monawileobiT<br />

gamotanili, kanonier ZalaSi Sesuli sasamarTlo gadawyvetilebiT dadgenili<br />

faqtebi, rogorc preiudiciuli mniSvnelobisa, vrceldeba mesame pirTa mimarTac da<br />

regresuli sarCelebis procesSi ar SeiZleba sadavo gaxdes.<br />

magaliTad, Tu sasamarTlos kanonier ZalaSi Sesuli gadawyvetilebiT mopasuxes mosarCelis<br />

sasargeblod daekisreba zianis anazRaureba, aseT davaSi monawile damoukidebeli<br />

moTxovnis gareSe, mesame piris mimarT ukumoTxovnis wayenebisas, anu regresuli<br />

sarCelis ganxilvisas damoukidebeli moTxovnis gareSe, mesame pirs aRar eqneba ufleba<br />

amtkicos, rom ukumoTxovnis wamyenebels usafuZvlod daekisra zianis anazRaureba.<br />

mas mxolod maSin aqvs ufleba amtkicos, rom ukumoTxovnis aRmZvrel mosarCeles usafuZvlod<br />

daekisra zianis anazRaureba, Tu igi ar iyo Cabmuli procesSi (ar iyo saTanadod<br />

gafrTxilebuli procesis Sesaxeb). es niSnavs, rom faqtebis dadgenis nawilSi<br />

gadawyvetilebis kanonieri Zala vrceldeba mesame pirze, damoukidebeli moTxovnis<br />

gareSe, Tu igi Cabmuli iyo saqmis ganxilvaSi. 10<br />

37


marTlmsajuleba<br />

N1<br />

da<br />

kanoni<br />

rogorc ukve aRiniSna, nebismier SemTxvevaSi, sasamarTlom unda daakmayofilos dasabuTebuli<br />

Suamdgomloba da Caabas saqmeSi mesame piri, damoukidebeli sasarCelo<br />

moTxovnis gareSe, Tu daadgens, rom sasamarTlo gadawyvetilebas am saqmeze SeuZlia,<br />

SemdgomSi, gavlena moaxdinos aseTi piris uflebebsa da movaleobebze erT-erTi mxaris<br />

mimarT. Tumca, aseTma moqmedebam SesaZloa mesame pirs samomavlo davaSi SeuzRudos<br />

samoqalaqo saproceso kodeqsiT gaTvaliswinebuli ZiriTadi uflebebi, rac gamomdinareobs<br />

Tanasworobis, SejibrebiTobisa da dipoziciurobis principebidan.<br />

samoqalaqo saproceso kodeqsis me-4 muxlis Tanaxmad, `samarTalwarmoeba mimdinareobs<br />

SejibrebiTobis safuZvelze. mxareebi sargebloben Tanabari uflebebiTa da SesaZleblobebiT,<br />

daasabuTon TavianTi moTxovnebi, uaryon an gaaqarwylon meore mxaris<br />

mier wamoyenebuli moTxovnebi Tu mtkicebulebebi. mxareebi TviTon gansazRvraven, Tu<br />

romeli faqtebi unda daedos safuZvlad maT moTxovnebs, an romeli mtkicebulebebiT<br />

unda iqnes dadasturebuli es faqtebi.~<br />

amdenad, davis warmoebisas, mopasuxes ufleba aqvs gamoTqvas mosazrebebi mosarCelis<br />

mier warmodgenili faqtebis uarsayofad, agreTve, warudginos sasamarTlos faqtebi<br />

da mtkicebulebebi, romlebic amarTleben mis Sesagebels, aqarwyleben mosarCelis mier<br />

warmodgenil mtkicebulebebs, adastureben am mtkicebulebaTa siyalbes, arasarwmunoobas<br />

da a.S.<br />

Tu sarCeli wardgenili iqneba im mopasuxis mimarT, romelic Tavdapirvel davaSi<br />

monawileobda, rogorc damoukidebeli moTxovnis gareSe, mesame piri, aseTi mopasuxe<br />

araTanabar mdgomareobaSi aRmoCndeba mosarCelis mimarT, radganac dadasturebulad<br />

CaiTvleba kanonier ZalaSi Sesuli gadawyvetilebiT dadgenili is faqtobrivi garemoebebi,<br />

romelTa Sedavebisa da gasaCivrebis SesaZlebloba mxares, rogorc damoukidebeli<br />

moTxovnis gareSe, mesame pirs ar gaaCnda.<br />

dReisaTvis moqmedi saproceso kanonmdebloba ar iTvaliswinebs mxaris, maT Soris<br />

damoukidebeli sasarCelo moTxovnis gareSe, mesame piris, saqmidan amoricxvis SesaZleblobas<br />

da, rodesac igi saqmeSi Cabmulia mosarCelis, an mopasuxis iniciativiT, aRniSnuli<br />

iwvevs dispoziciurobisa da SejibrebiTobis principebidan gamomdinare,<br />

uflebebSi SezRuduli piris davaSi iZulebiT monawileobas da zrdis samomavlo davaSi<br />

misi, rogorc mopasuxis, uflebebis SezRudvis risks.<br />

Sesabamisad, misi davaSi Cabmis sakiTxis gadawyvetisas, sasamarTlo mxolod saproceso<br />

normis sityvasityviTi ganmartebiT ar unda Semoifarglos, samomavlod sasamar-<br />

Tlom unda gaiTvaliswinos ramdenad iqneba daculi damoukidebeli moTxovnis gareSe,<br />

mesame piris uflebebi, xom ar iqneba darRveuli samoqalaqo samarTalwarmoebis Ziri-<br />

Tadi principebi da ise gadawyvitos mosarCelis an mopasuxis Suamdgomlobis safuZvelze,<br />

damoukidebeli moTxovnis gareSe, mesame piris saqmeSi daSvebis sakiTxi.<br />

mosarCelis an mopasuxis Suamdgomlobis safuZvelze, saqmeSi damoukidebeli moTxovnis<br />

gareSe, mesame piris daSvebis sakiTxis gadawyvetamde mizanSewonilia, sasamarTlom<br />

moisminos aseTi piris mosazreba da mxolod misi Tanxmobis SemTxvevaSi, Caabas igi<br />

davaSi. aseTi moqmedebiT daculi iqneba ZiriTad mxareTagan gansxvavebiT uflebaSez-<br />

Ruduli mesame piri, raTa aicilos samomavlo davaSi sssk-is 106-e muxliT gansazRvruli<br />

saproceso Sedegebi.<br />

38


SeniSvnebi:<br />

1. T. liluaSvili, samoqalaqo saproceso samarTali Tb., 2005, gv. 135;<br />

2. T. liluaSvili, samoqalaqo saproceso samarTali Tb., 2005, gv. 136;<br />

3. T. liluaSvili, samoqalaqo saproceso samarTali Tb., 2005, gv.131;<br />

4. T. liluaSvilisadmi miZRvnili saiubileo krebuli, Tb., 2003, gv. 267-<br />

272;<br />

5. T. liluaSvili, v. xrustali, saqarTvelos samoqalaqo saproceso<br />

kodeqsis komentari, meore gamocema, Tb., 2007, gv. 173;<br />

6. Ãðàæäàíñêèé ïðîöåññ, Þðèäè÷åñêàÿ ëèòåðàòóðà, Ìîñêâà, 1968, ñòð.<br />

86-93;<br />

7. T. liluaSvili, samoqalaqo saproceso samarTali Tb., 2005, gv. 137;<br />

8. Ãðàæäàíñêèé ïðîöåññ, Þðèäè÷åñêàÿ ëèòåðàòóðà, Ìîñêâà, 1968, ñòð. 90;<br />

9. saqarTvelos uzenaesi sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebani samoqalaqo,<br />

samewarmeo da gakotrebis saqmeebze, 2005 weli, #12, gv. 50-52; am sakiTxTan<br />

dakavSirebiT ix. agreTve: T. liluaSvili, apelacia samoqalaqo<br />

procesSi, Tb., 2005, gv. 31-33;<br />

10. T. liluaSvili, samoqalaqo saproceso samarTali Tb., 2005, gv. 382-<br />

384.<br />

gamoyenebuli literatura:<br />

1. saqarTvelos samoqalaqo saproceso kodeqsi, Tb., 2011;<br />

2. T. liluaSvili, v. xrustali, saqarTvelos samoqalaqo saproceso<br />

kodeqsis komentari, meore gamocema, Tb., 2007;<br />

3. T. liluaSvili, samoqalaqo saproceso samarTali Tb., 2005;<br />

4. saqarTvelos uzenaesi sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebani samoqalaqo,<br />

samewarmeo da gakotrebis saqmeebze, 2005 weli, #12;<br />

5. Ãðàæäàíñêèé ïðîöåññ, Þðèäè÷åñêàÿ ëèòåðàòóðà, Ìîñêâà, 1968;<br />

6. T. liluaSvilisadmi miZRvnili saiubileo krebuli, Tb., 2003;<br />

7. T. liluaSvili, apelacia samoqalaqo procesSi, Tb., 2005;<br />

8. saqarTvelos konstitucia, Tb., 1995.<br />

39


marTlmsajuleba<br />

N1<br />

da<br />

kanoni<br />

THE THIRD PARTY IN CIVIL<br />

PROCEEDINGS WITHOUT<br />

SEPARATE CLAIM<br />

IRMA PERANIDZE<br />

Judge of the Kutaisi Appellate Court<br />

The new Civil Procedure Code of Georgia, which is substantially different<br />

from the Civil Procedure code of Georgia dated back to 1964, entered into<br />

force in 1997, though some set of norms that comply with current social <strong>and</strong><br />

economic requirements are retained in a new code as well.<br />

Substantial law is basically dispositional <strong>and</strong> enables the participants of<br />

legal relations to freely define the contents, rights <strong>and</strong> responsibilities of<br />

these relations.<br />

Whereas the norms of procedure law are normally of imperative nature<br />

<strong>and</strong> the participants of these legal relations are not authorized to change or<br />

transform them.<br />

In other words, participants of formal relationships are equipped only<br />

with those rights <strong>and</strong> responsibilities prescribed by legislation or law practice.<br />

Therefore, the quality of democracy <strong>and</strong> freedom of the legal system of<br />

state is determined on the bases of procedure legislation.<br />

Despite of the amount of rights a person has, they will be deemed if the<br />

person fails to realize <strong>and</strong> protect these rights through coercion mechanisms<br />

of the state.<br />

Therefore, the European Court of Human Rights when dealing with the<br />

cases involving the violation of Article 6 of the European Convention on<br />

Human Rights, always examines whether the formal, procedure rights of the<br />

applicant were observed <strong>and</strong> whether these rights recognized by national<br />

legislation comply with prescribed human rights st<strong>and</strong>ards.<br />

The Civil Procedure Code defines the separate issues of law proceedings in<br />

details, but after adoption of this law, it is necessary to find out whether the procedure<br />

norm is effective, <strong>and</strong> whether some amendments <strong>and</strong> additions are needed.<br />

Chapter XI of the Civil Procedure Code refers to third parties. The code<br />

differentiates between the third parties with separate claim <strong>and</strong> the third<br />

parties without separate claim.<br />

This article aims to analyze the acting norms related with the rightsresponsibilities<br />

of the third party without separate claim, envisaged under<br />

the Civil Procedure Code <strong>and</strong> to provide suggestions on the protection of<br />

rights of these persons.<br />

40


movaleTa da<br />

kreditorTa simravle<br />

valdebulebaSi<br />

simon CxaiZe<br />

quTaisis saapalacio sasamarTlos mosamarTle<br />

vaxtang abaSmaZe wignSi `qarTuli inteleqtualuri fenomeni~<br />

ganixilavs kolxeTis mefis, gubazis mkvlelobas-<br />

Tan dakavSirebul sasamarTlo process da aRniSnavs `anonim<br />

kolx swavlul iuristTa~ gawafulobas, ara marto qarTul,<br />

aramed Zvel romaul samarTalSic 1 . es kidev erTxel mowmobs,<br />

rom saqarTvelosaTvis odiTganve ar iyo ucxo romauli<br />

samarTali da is, rasac am samarTlis recefcia daerqva,<br />

CvenSi, dasavleT evropasTan SedarebiT adre unda momxdariyo.<br />

magram, rogorc ityvian, istoriulma bedukuRmarTobam<br />

sxvagvarad warmarTa qveynis bedi. amitom, me-20<br />

saukunis bolos, romanul-germanuli samarTlis principebze<br />

agebuli samoqalaqo kodeqsis miReba CvenTvis tradiciebisaken<br />

mibrunebaa da ara axlis Seqmna.<br />

romaelebi samoqalaqo samarTlis Semoqmedni arian. samarTlis<br />

am dargis umniSvnelovanesi sakiTxebi pirvelad,<br />

swored maT daaregulires. maT Soris iyo e.w. solidaruli<br />

urTierTobebic.<br />

solidarul urTierTobaTa arsi romSi ramdenadme gansxvavdeboda<br />

Tanamedrovesagan. uwinares yovlisa, unda aRiniSnos,<br />

rom movaleTa da kreditorTa yoveli simravle solidarulobad<br />

ar iTvleboda. valdebulebebs in solidum<br />

(srulad) hqonda Tavisi moqmedebis sfero da iyofoda ara<br />

marto aqtiur da pasiur, aramed ufro viwro kuTxiT: uSualo<br />

da korealur solidarulobad (Tumca, mogvianebiT,<br />

am meore datvirTvam Tavisi mniSvneloba dakarga). amasTan,<br />

Tuki pirvel dayofas gaaCnda hqonda materialursamarTlebrivi<br />

Sinaarsi, meore ufro procesTan iyo dakavSirebuli<br />

da, rogorc Cans, Tavdapirvelad specifikur mniSvnelobas<br />

atarebda.<br />

41


marTlmsajuleba<br />

N1<br />

da<br />

kanoni<br />

romSi solidaruloba SeeZlo gaeTvaliswinebina kanons an xelSekrulebas. im SemTxvevaSi,<br />

roca es ase ar xdeboda, dgeboda pirTa wilobrivi valdebuleba, amasTan, Cveulebriv,<br />

Tu sxva ram ar iyo daTqmuli, igulisxmeboda Tanabari wili. Tumca, savaldebulo<br />

ar iyo pirdapir miTiTebuliyo in solidum, amisaTvis sakmarisi iqneboda movaleTa<br />

urTierTTavdeboba. aseTive TaviseburebiT xasiaTdeboda deliqturi pasuxismgeblobac.<br />

zogierTi maTganis dadgoma iwvevda pirTa movaleobas gadaexadaT jarima sruli<br />

moculobiT da es ar gaaTavisuflebda sxva movaleebs imave valdebulebis Sesrulebisagan.<br />

ase, rom kreditors SeeZlo mieRo anazRaureba imdenjer, ramdeni movalec hyavda. 2<br />

amaT garda, arsebobda valdebulebebi in solidum, romelSic igulisxmeboda:<br />

a) kreditorTa simravle (aqtiuri solidaruloba), rodesac movales SeeZlo valdebuleba<br />

Seesrulebina nebismieri kreditoris winaSe da piriqiT: nebismier kreditors<br />

ufleba hqonda moeTxova valdebulebis Sesruleba sruli moculobiT da es gaaTavisuflebda<br />

movales valdebulebisagan sxva kreditorebis mimarT, magram ar xsnida uflebas<br />

Tavad kreditorebs moeTxovaT valdebulebis Sesruleba, oRond amjerad yofili<br />

Tanakreditoris mier, rasakvirvelia, misi wilis gamoklebiT.<br />

b) movaleTa simravle (pasiuri solidaruloba), rodesac kreditors SeeZlo mTeli<br />

valdebulebis Sesruleba mieRo nebismieri movalisagan (e.i. erT valdebulebaze<br />

arsebobda ramdenime movale) da valdebulebis Sesruleba, am SemTxvevaSi, wyvetda valdebulebis<br />

moqmedebas yvela sxva movalis mimarT. aqac valdebuleba amsrulebel movaleze<br />

gadavidoda e.i. mas warmoeSoboda pasiuri solidaruloba yofil TanamovaleTa<br />

mimarT.<br />

raRa Tqma unda, SeiZleboda arsebuliyo erTdroulad pasiuri da aqtiuri solidaruloba,<br />

es im SemTxvevaSi, Tu erT valdebulebaze erTdroulad ramdenime movale da<br />

kreditori gamovidoda.<br />

rogorc aRvniSneT, klasikuri periodis samarTali solidarulobas sxva kuTxiTac<br />

ganasxvavebda: maT Soris, sakuTriv solidaruloba, warmoiSoboda im SemTxvevaSi, Tu<br />

valdebuleba pirebs ekisrebodaT maTi nebisagan damoukideblad, anu kanonis ZaliT, rac<br />

gulisxmobda, rom valdebulebis Sesruleba erT-erTi movalis mier aTavisuflebda sxva<br />

movaleebs am valdebulebisagan, xolo meore _ korealuri, im SemTxvevaSi, Tu solidaruloba<br />

warmoiSoboda valdebulebis monawile mxareTa nebiT, igive Sedegi dadgeboda,<br />

roca kreditori miiyv<strong>and</strong>a sarCels erT-erTi movalis mimarT litiskontestaciamde,<br />

Tundac sarCeli ar dakmayofilebuliyo. mogvianebiT, iustinianes kodifikaciisas, am<br />

or saxes Soris gansxvaveba ukve aRar arsebobda da litiskontestacia aRar iTvleboda<br />

valdebulebis moqmedebis Semwyvet pirobad. 3<br />

arsebobda Tu ara qarTul samarTalSi valdebulebebi in solidum, rTuli saTqmelia.<br />

rogorc ivane javaxiSvili araerTxel aRniSnavs, wyaroTa simcire aZnelebs qarTuli<br />

samarTlis kvlevas. 4 gansakuTrebiT es SeiZleba qarTuli samoqalaqo samarTlis Sesaxeb<br />

iTqvas, magram msgavsi urTierTobebis arseboba (da, rom arsebobda xelSekruleba davuSvaT<br />

sesxisa, sadac ramdenime piri monawileobda, udavod dadasturebulia faqtebiTa<br />

da dokumentebiT), agreTve qarTuli da romauli (SemdgomSi _ bizantiuri) samarTlis<br />

mWidro kavSiri gvafiqrebinebs, rom solidarul valdebulebaTa sistema CvenSiac<br />

42


mowesrigebuli unda yofiliyo. yovel SemTxvevaSi, erT-erTi piroba solidarulobisa,<br />

Tavdeboba valdebulebebSi, namdvilad arsebobda, rac SesaniSnavad aqvs gamokvleuli<br />

ivane javaxiSvils da, agreTve, mas exeba (marTalia, sxva kuTxiT) ilia WavWavaZec aRniSnavs<br />

Tavis cnobil narkvevTa ciklSi `cxovreba da kanoni~, sadac igi pirdapir miuTi-<br />

Tebs, rom valdebulebebze Tavdebobas qarTveli glexebi solidaruli valdebulebis<br />

warmomSobad Tvlidnen (rasakvirvelia, am termins igi ar xmarobs, magram Sinaarsobrivad<br />

zustad es igulisxmeba) da gaurbodnen. 5 yvelaferi es gvafiqrebinebs, rom saWiroa am<br />

sagnis ufro saguldagulo kvleva da, saerTod, mTeli qarTuli samarTlis, rac Cveni<br />

Tanamedrove samoqalaqo kanonmdeblobis srulyofas udavod Seuwyobs xels.<br />

vidre, saqarTveloSi moqmed solidarul urTierTobebze gadavidodeT, oriode sityviT<br />

unda mimovixiloT dasavleTis qveynebSi arsebuli solidarul urTierTobaTa<br />

sistema. am mxriv, yvelaze samagaliTod SeiZleba franguli sistema miviCnioT, radgan<br />

Tu romaelebma saerTod samoqalaqo samarTali Seqmnes, frangebi arian Tanamedrove<br />

samoqalaqo samarTlis Semoqmedni.<br />

solidarul urTierTobaTa franguli koncefcia, ZiriTadad, emyareba imave principebs,<br />

rasac Zveli romauli. aqac ganasxvaveben erTmaneTisagan aqtiursa da pasiur<br />

solidarulobas da agreTve, sakuTriv solidarulobasa da valdebulebebs in solidum,<br />

Tumca, am ukanasknels gansxvavebuli datvirTva aqvs. aqtiuri solidaruloba warmoiSoba<br />

valdebulebebSi kreditorTa simravlis dros. kreditorTa simravle gamoixateba<br />

imaSi, rom nebismieri kreditorTagan aris mTeli valdebulebis kreditori da aqvs<br />

valdebulebis mTlianad Sesrulebis moTxovnis ufleba, xolo Tu movale srulad Seusrulebs<br />

valdebulebas kreditorTagan erT-erTs, igi mTlianad Tavisufldeba movaleobisagan.<br />

6 aqtiuri solidarulobis principebia:<br />

1. yvela kreditors calk-calke aqvs valdebulebis Sesrulebis moTxovnis ufleba;<br />

2. erT-erTi kreditoris mier valdebulebis Sesrulebis vadis darRvevis aRniSvna an<br />

moqmedeba, romelic wyvets sasarCelo x<strong>and</strong>azmulobas ericxeba yvela kreditors;<br />

3. movale uflebamosilia, Seusrulos sruli valdebuleba nebismier kreditors da amiT<br />

gaTavisufldes. amas igi akeTebs sakuTari arCevaniT, Tu ra Tqma unda, romelimes<br />

mier ar aris aRZruli sarCeli;<br />

4. kreditorTagan is, romelic miiRebs mTeli valdebulebis Sesrulebas, movalea, Tu<br />

valdebuleba gayofadia, danarCenebs misces is wili, rac maT ekuTvniT.<br />

pasiuri solidaruloba dgeba maSin, roca erT valdebulebaze ramdenime movalea<br />

(aqac romauli samarTlis principi moqmedebs). valdebulebis Sesrulebis moTxovnis<br />

ufleba saerTo kreditors aqvs nebismieri movalisagan. es uflebamosileba wydeba ma-<br />

Sin, rodesac erT-erTi movale gardaicvleba. STamomavlobaze gadadis mxolod wili<br />

da ara solidaruli pasuxismgebloba sxva movaleTa msgavsad (Tu xelSekrulebiT sxva ram<br />

ar aris daTqmuli). pasiuri solidaruloba aris garantia kreditorTaTvis erT-erTi<br />

movalis gadaxdisuunarobis SemTxvevaSi. 7 Cveulebriv, am xelSekrulebas deben Tavdeb-<br />

Tanac (magaliTad, rodesac piri Tavdebobs sesxSi).<br />

franguli samarTlis mixedviT, `solidaruloba ar igulisxmeba~, 8 radgan igi aris<br />

gamonaklisi saerTo wesidan, rac Tavis Sedegebs iwvevs:<br />

43


marTlmsajuleba<br />

N1<br />

da<br />

kanoni<br />

1. vinc miuTiTebs solidarulobaze, unda amtkicos, rom amis Sesaxeb iyo gamoTqmuli<br />

mxareTa neba;<br />

2. sasamarTlos ara aqvs ufleba daadasturos solidarulobis arseboba movaleTa<br />

Soris, misi warmoSobis safuZvlebis miTiTebis gareSe, winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi, gadawyvetileba<br />

eqvemdebareba gauqmebas sakasacio instanciaSi.<br />

is, rom solidaruloba unda iyos dadasturebuli ar gulisxmobs, rom garigebaSi<br />

aucileblad unda arsebobdes werilobiTi daTqma solidarulobis arsebobis Sesaxeb,<br />

sakmarisia, mxareTa neba gamoxatuli iyos aSkarad da pirdapir.<br />

savaWro samarTali gamonaklisia wesidan _ aq solidaruloba igulisxmeba.<br />

romauli tradiciis Tanaxmad, solidarulobis safuZveli garda mxareTa nebisa, aris<br />

kanoni. es xdeba sam SemTxvevaSi:<br />

1. mxareTa nebis ganmartebiT:<br />

a) rodesac ramdenime piri aiRebs sesxs erToblivad, isini kreditoris winaSe solidarulad<br />

arian pasuxismgebelni;<br />

b) rodesac mindobil pirs rwmuneba miecema ramdenime marwmuneblis mier erToblivad,<br />

rwmunebuli marwmunebelTa winaSe solidarulad agebs pasuxs;<br />

g) sruli amxanagobis (sps) partniorebi solidarulad arian pasuxismgebelni sawarmos<br />

mier nakisr valdebulebebze, Tundac warmomadgenlobiTi uflebamosileba ganexorcielebina<br />

ara yvela partniors erToblivad, aramed mxolod erT-erT maTgans;<br />

d) indosantebi Tamasuqze, Tamasuqis gamcemTan erTad solidarulad arian pasuxismgebelni<br />

Tamasuqis mflobelis winaSe.<br />

2. kanoni, garantiis saxiT, solidarulobas awesebs im kreditorebis mimarT, romlebic<br />

gansakuTrebul mzrunvelobas saWiroeben, magaliTad, meurve daqorwinebis<br />

Semdeg meuRlesTan erTad solidarulad aris pasuxismgebeli sameurveo piris<br />

qonebis marTvaze.<br />

3. solidaruli pasuxismgebloba aris zianis anazRaurebis uzrunvelyofis saSualeba<br />

kanoniT gansazRvrul zogierT SemTxvevaSi:<br />

a) Tu erT-erTi meuRlis gardacvalebis Semdgom cocxali meuRle, romelic gaxdeba<br />

Tavisi arasrulwlovani Svilis meurve (franguli samoqalaqo kanonmdeblobis mixedviT,<br />

mSoblebis samarTalurTierToba SvilebTan ganisazRvreba, rogorc kanonismieri<br />

_ oficialuri meurvisa sameurveo pirTan) ar Caatarebs meuRleTa saerTo<br />

qonebis aRweras, mas ekisreba solidaruli pasuxismgebloba meurvis moadgilesTan<br />

erTad yvela im moTxovnaze, romlis dakmayofilebis uflebac aqvs meurveobis qveS<br />

myof pirs;<br />

b) sa<strong>and</strong>erZo danakisris amsrulebelni arian solidarulad pasuxismgebelni;<br />

g) yvela piri, romelic dasjili iqneba erToblivi danaSaulisaTvis an gadacdomisaTvis,<br />

solidarulad aris pasuxismgebeli jarimis gadaxdaze da qonebis dabrunebaze;<br />

d) pirebi, romlebic erToblivi danaSaulebrivi qmedebiT zians miayeneben pirs solidarulad<br />

arian pasuximgebelni mis winaSe. es principi amoRebulia romis samarTlisa<br />

da revoluciamdeli franguli samarTlis praqtikidan, Tumca, garkveulwilad winaaRmdegobaSia<br />

safrangeTis samoqalaqo kodeqsis 1202-e muxlTan, rom solidaruloba<br />

44


ar igulisxmeba. magram frangi iuristebi zemoxsenebul muxls avrceleben mxolod<br />

saxelSekrulebo valdebulebebze. 9 amiT isini yvela am princips icaven da savsebiT<br />

samarTlianadac.<br />

solidaruli movaleobis dros kreditoris uflebebi efuZneba erTiani valis cnebas,<br />

valdebulebis erTi sagniTa da ramdenime movaliT, romelTagan yoveli piradad da<br />

sxvebisagan damoukideblad agebs pasuxs am valis mTlianad, sruli moculobiT dafarvaze.<br />

amasve efuZneba movalis dacviTi saSualebebi. Sesabamisad, pasiuri solidarulobis<br />

dros moqmedebs ori principi: a) valis erTianoba; b) movaleobaTa simravle. am<br />

or princips emyareba, rogorc kreditorTa, aseve movaleTa uflebebi.<br />

kreditoris uflebebia:<br />

erTiani valis principis Sedegad:<br />

moTxovos nebismier movales valis mTlianad dafarva da Sesabamisad, moTxovnis<br />

daukmayofileblobis SemTxvevaSi, Seitanos sarCeli amis Taobaze, nebismieri<br />

solidaruli movalis mimarT. movales, Tavis mxriv, ufleba aqvs daayenos Suamdgomloba<br />

saqmeSi TanamovaleTa CarTvis moTxovniT.<br />

movaleobaTa simravlis principis Sedegad:<br />

es principi gamomdinareobs, rom nebismieri TanamovaleTagan movaleobas damoukideblad<br />

atarebs, amis gamo:<br />

a) erT-erTi movalis mimarT sarCelis Setana kreditors xels ar uSlis sarCeli Seitanos<br />

sxva TanamovaleTa mimarTac;<br />

b) erT-erTi Tanamovalis gardacvalebis SemTxvevaSi, memkvidreebi valdebulni arian<br />

ara solidarulad, aramed wilobrivad, Sesabamisad, maTi wilisa samkvidroSi. es safrTxes<br />

uqmnis kreditors da amitom, Cveulebriv, xelSekrulebaSi uTiTeben ara marto<br />

valdebulebis solidarulobas, aramed mis ganuyoflobasac. 10<br />

solidarul movaleTa dacviTi saSualebebia:<br />

erTiani valis principis Sedegad:<br />

a) yovel Tanamovales ufleba aqvs miuTiTos im safuZvlebze, romelic valdebulebis<br />

mTlianad gauqmebas gamoiwvevs. magaliTad, gadaxda, x<strong>and</strong>azmulobis vadis gasvla da<br />

a.S.<br />

b) yovel movales ufleba aqvs kreditoris sarCelis winaaRmdeg wamoayenos is Sesagebeli,<br />

romelic exeba valdebulebis arss. magaliTad, valdebulebis baTiloba misi<br />

kanonsawinaaRmdegobisa an saTanado formis daucvelobis gamo. amas ewodeba yoveli<br />

movalisaTvis saerTo Sesagebeli.<br />

movaleobaTa simravlis principis Sedegad:<br />

a) erT-erTi movalis valdebulebebi SesaZlebelia ar emTxveodes TanamovaleTa valdebulebebs.<br />

magaliTad, kreditoris mier erT-erTi Tanamovalis gaTavisufleba<br />

valdebulebisagan, movalis mier saerTo kreditoris kreditorad an erTaderT memkvidred<br />

gaxdoma da a.S. msgavsi urTierTdamTxvevebi faravs mxolod aRniSnuli movalis<br />

valdebulebas. franguli doqtrinis Tanaxmad, amas movleTa piradi Sesagebeli<br />

ewodeba.<br />

piradi Sesagebeli SesaZlebelia iyos:<br />

45


marTlmsajuleba<br />

N1<br />

da<br />

kanoni<br />

a) wmindad piradi. magaliTad, rodesac valdebulebis CaTvlis moTxovnis ufleba aqvs<br />

mxolod am Tanamovales piradad;<br />

b) ubralod piradi, rodesac valdebulebis CaTvlis moTxovnis ufleba aqvT sxva<br />

Tanamovaleebsac, rasakvirvelia, CasaTvleli valdebulebis wilis odenobiT.<br />

franguli koncefciis mixedviT, solidaruli valdebuleba, garda ZiriTadisa iwvevs,<br />

agreTve, e.w. meorexarisxovan Sedegebsac. ganasxvaveben sam meorexarisxovan Sedegs: 11<br />

1) erT-erTi Tanamovalis mier valdebulebis Sesrulebis vadis gadacilebis dadgena<br />

iTvleba imaves dadgenad yvela Tanamovalis mimarT da iwvevs Sesabamis Sedegebs<br />

(procentebisa da pirgasamtexlos daricxva da a.S.);<br />

2) kreditoris mier erT-erTi Tanamovalis mimarT sarCelis Setana wyets sasarCelo<br />

x<strong>and</strong>azmulobis vadis moqmedebas sxva TanamovaleTa mimarTac;<br />

3) Tu nivTi, romelic iyo valdebulebis sagani ganadgurdeba erT-erTi Tanamovalis<br />

braliT, zianis anazRaurebaze movaleebi solidarulad ageben pasuxs, magram mxolod<br />

nivTis daRupvaSi braleul movales SeiZleba daekisros damatebiTi pasuxismgebloba.<br />

erT-erTi Tanamovalis mier valdebulebis srulad Sesrulebis Semdeg dgeba regresuli<br />

anazRaurebis problema. franguli samoqalaqo kodeqsi aRiarebs movalis ukumoTxovnis<br />

uflebas. am SemTxvevaSi, darCenil Tanamovaleebs anazRaureba ekisrebaT<br />

valdebulebaSi maTi wilis proporciulad. roca amis dadgena SeuZlebelia, anazRaurebis<br />

sakiTxs wyvets sasamarTlo. regresuli anazRaurebis moTxovnis ufleba cxadia<br />

ar dgeba Tavdebobisas, rodesac valdebulebas Seasrulebs movale da ara Tavdebi.<br />

safrangeTSi regresuli moTxovna xorcieldeba Semdegi sarCelebis meSveobiT:<br />

1) mindobilobis xelSekrulebis sarCeli;<br />

2) sxvisi saqmeebis mindobilobis gareSe warmoebis sarCeli.<br />

orive SemTxvevaSi, fuladi valdebulebisas, dasaSvebia, rom gadaxdis dRis dadgomidan<br />

mTlianad gadasaxdel Tanxas daericxos procentebi.<br />

Sesabamisad, valdebulebis Sesrulebis Semdeg movale xdeba yofil TanamovaleTa<br />

kreditori, oRond darCenili movaleebi mis winaSe valdebulni arian ara solidarulad,<br />

aramed valdebulebaSi TavianTi wilis Sesabamisad, magram im SemTxvevaSi, Tu erTerTi<br />

movale aRmoCndeba valauvali, misi wili valdebulebaSi nawildeba yvela sxva<br />

gadaxdisunarian movaleze, gakreditorebuli movalis CaTvliT.<br />

solidarul valdebulebebTan dakavSirebiT franguli doqtrina did mniSvnelobas<br />

aniWebs valdebulebis ganuyoflobis cnebasac.<br />

ganuyofelia valdebuleba, romlis Sesruleba SeiZleba mxolod da mxolod srulad,<br />

ufro zustad: `valdebuleba gayofadia an ganuyofelia imis mixedviT, SeiZleba Tu ara<br />

gaiyos is nivTi an moqmedeba, romelic Seadgens mis sagans.~ 12 Tu valdebulebaSi aris<br />

erTi kreditori da erTi movale, valdebuleba yovelTvis srulad unda Sesruldes<br />

(rasakvirvelia, Tu ar arsebobs kanonisa an xelSekrulebis specialuri daTqma). kreditori<br />

uflebamosilia es movalisagan moiTxovos, xolo movales, Tundac valdebuleba<br />

iyofodes, ara aqvs ufleba aiZulos mevale valdebulebis nawil-nawil Sesrulebis<br />

miRebaze. magram, rodesac movaleTa an\da kreditorTa simravlea, valdebulebaTa<br />

46


gayofa-ganuyofloba seriozuli msjelobis sagania, radgan, rodesac valdebulebis<br />

erT-erTi subieqti gardaicvleba da datovebs ramdenime memkvidres: a) valdebuleba,<br />

romelic iyofa, gaiyofa memkvidreebze, samkvidroSi maTi wilis proporciulad; b) ganuyofadi<br />

valdebuleba warmoSobs aqtiur an pasiur soldarulobas. e.i. gansxvaveba<br />

valdebulebaTa ganuyoflobas da solidarul valdebulebebs Soris is aris, rom<br />

ganuyofeli valdebuleba memkvidreebze gadadis srulad, xolo gayofadi _ wilis Sesabamisad.<br />

ganuyofeli valdebuleba, amasTanave, ar iwvevs e.w. meorexarisxovan Sedegebs,<br />

garda x<strong>and</strong>azmulobis vadasTan dakavSirebuli Sedegebisa.<br />

garda solidaruli valdebulebebisa, rogorc aRvniSneT, franguli samarTali icnobs<br />

valdebulebebs in solidum. arsebiTad, es aris igive solidaruli valdebulebebi,<br />

oRond yovelgvari meorexarisxovani Sedegis gareSe da ZiriTadad, exeba samoqalaqo<br />

samarTlebriv deliqtebs, kerZod: braleuli qmedeba; erToblivad miyenebuli ziani;<br />

agreTve, Tamasuqidan warmoSobili valdebulebani da msg.<br />

amiT SegviZlia davasruloT frangul samoqalaqo samarTalSi solidarul urTier-<br />

TobaTa sistemis mimoxilva da gadavideT uSulod qarTul sistemaze.<br />

saqarTvelos samoqalaqo kodeqsSi solidarul urTierTobebs exeba mesame wignis<br />

meSvide kari; agreTve, muxlebi 895_896 _ solidaruloba Tavdebobisas; muxli. 998 _<br />

deliqturi solidaruloba da msg. samewarmeo sferoSi solidarul urTierTobebs<br />

aregulirebs saqarTvelos kanoni `mewarmeTa Sesaxeb~ (muxlebi dakavSirebuli sps-sTan;<br />

ks-sTan; agreTve, zogadi nawilis zogierTi muxli) da a.S. solidarul pasuxismgeblobas<br />

awesebs, aseve, zogierTi sxva kanonic (mag., saqarTvelos kanoni `fasiani qaRaldebis<br />

bazris Sesaxeb,~ sadac solidaruli pasuxismgebloba, ratomRac sajaro samarTalTanaa<br />

kavSirSi 13 ) da a.S. qarTuli koncefcia icnobs solidarulobis or saxes: aqtiursa da<br />

pasiurs. valdebulebebi in solidum Cveni samarTlis sistemas ar gaaCnia.<br />

aqtiuri solidaruloba dgeba im SemTxvevaSi, roca ramdenime piri uflebamosilia<br />

moiTxovos valdebulebis Sesruleba ise, rom TiToeuls SeuZlia mTliani Sesrulebis<br />

moTxovna, xolo movale valdebulia mxolod erTjeradad Seasrulos. am SemTxvevaSi,<br />

zemoxsenebul pirebs ewodebaT solidarulad uflebamosili pirebi, anu solidaruli<br />

kreditorebi. 14 rogorc gansazRvrebidan Cans, aqtiuri solidarulobis dasadgomad<br />

saWiroa ramdenime piroba:<br />

1. unda arsebobdes valdebulebis monawile ramdenime piri (kreditori);<br />

2. TiToeul kreditors unda hqondes valdebulebis mTlianad Sesrulebis moTxovnis<br />

ufleba;<br />

3. movales unda evalebodes valdebulebis erTjeradad Sesruleba.<br />

aqedan gamomdinareobs, rom movales kreditorebis mimarT aqvs saerTo valdebuleba,<br />

aseve samoqalaqo kodeqsis 378-e muxlis mixedviT: kreditoris Tanxmobis SemTxvevaSi,<br />

movales ufleba aqvs valdebuleba nawil-nawil Seasrulos. definiciis meore<br />

punqtidan gamomdinare, aseTi Tanxmoba SeiZleba gasces mxolod yvela kreditorma erTxmad.<br />

dabolos, Cveni samoqalaqo kanonmdeblobiT dauSvebelia Zveli romauli wesis<br />

gamoyeneba deliqturi solidarulobis SemTxvevaSi. kodeqsi ar azustebs, igulisxmeba<br />

Tu ara solidaruloba, Tumca, zogadi specifikidan gamomdinare, SeiZleba rig SemTxvevaSi,<br />

am kiTxvas dadebiTi pasuxi gavceT.<br />

47


marTlmsajuleba<br />

N1<br />

da<br />

kanoni<br />

solidarulobis sami safuZveli arsebobs:<br />

1. kanoni;<br />

2. xelSekruleba;<br />

3. valdebulebis sagnis ganuyofloba.<br />

sxva danarCen SemTxvevaSi, wilobrivi valdebuleba pirTa simravliT warmoiSoba. 15<br />

kanonis mixedviT, solidaruli valdebuleba warmoiSoba: Tavdebobis SemTxvevaSi,<br />

deliqturi valdebulebis SemTxvevaSi, agreTve samewarmeo urTierTobebSi. amaTgan,<br />

aqtiuri solidaruloba SeiZleba warmoiSvas bolo or SemTxvevaSi.<br />

deliqturi valdebuleba warmoSobs aqtiur solidarulobas maSin, rodesac erTi piri<br />

an pirTa jgufi miayenebs ramdenime pirs saerTo zians. aqtiuri solidaruloba aqvT<br />

solidaruli pasuxismgeblobis sazogadoebis partniorebsa da kom<strong>and</strong>ituri sazogadoebis<br />

komplementarebs sawarmos movaleTa mimarT. xelSekrulebam SeiZleba gaiTvaliswinos<br />

solidaruloba nebismier SemTxvevaSi da aseT daTqmas eqneba savaldebulo<br />

Zala. Tu ra igulisxmeba ganuyofel valdebulebebSi, ganmartebuli araa, magram SegviZlia<br />

davaskvnaT, rom es aris iseTi valdebulebebi, romelTa cal-calke Sesruleba<br />

SeuZlebelia. aqedan gamomdinare, samoqalaqo kodeqsis 461-e muxli, romlic Tanaxmad,<br />

Tu solidarul kreditors hyavs ramdenime memkvidre, maTze gadadis mxolod is wili<br />

valze uflebisa, rac maT samkvidro wils Seesabameba, moiTxovs dazustebas, rameTu:<br />

a) valdebulebis sagnis ganuyoflobis SemTxvevaSi, rTuldeba am saganSi memkvidreTa<br />

wilis gansazRvra, Tumca, aq SesaZlebelia analogiiT amoqmeddes muxli 1459, romelic<br />

gulisxmobs, rom ganuyofeli qoneba (davumatoT _ moTxovna) ar eqvemdebareba<br />

gayofas da xdeba memkvidreTa saerTo sakuTreba (saerTo ufleba); 16<br />

b) gaurkvevelia, solidaruli kreditoris gardacvalebis SemTxvevaSi, rogor urTier-<br />

TobaSi iqnebian misi memkvidreebi TanakreditorebTan, anu maT Soris imoqmedebs isev<br />

aqtiuri solidaruloba, Tu iqneba wilobrivi. aqac, Tu analogiiT gamoviyenebT<br />

`mewarmeTa Sesaxeb~ kanonis 33-e muxls SegviZlia davaskvnaT, rom: a) msgavsi SeTanxmeba<br />

SeiZleba gaiTvaliswinos xelSekrulebam; b) SeiZleba aseTi gadawyvetileba<br />

miiRon Tanakreditorebma memkvidris gancxadebis safuZvelze, gansakuTrebiT im Sem-<br />

TxvevaSi, Tu piri iqneba erTaderTi memkvidre samkvidros damtoveblisa. nebismier<br />

SemTxvevaSi, gadawyvetileba unda ecnobos movaleebs. aseTi gadawyvetileba did mniSvnelobas<br />

iZens aqtiuri solidarulobis specifikidan gamomdinare. saxeldobr, movalis<br />

uflebamosilebidan Seasrulos valdebuleba nebismieri Tanakreditoris winaSe<br />

(Tuki romelime maTgans ara aqvs mis mimarT wayenebuli Sesagebeli) da, amasTan,<br />

gaTavisufldes valdebulebisagan aseTi Sesrulebis Semdeg.<br />

garda amas, bevri sxva sakiTxic bundovani rCeba. kerZod: wyvets Tu ara erT-erTi<br />

kreditoris mier valdebulebis Sesrulebaze sarCelis aRZvra sasarCelo x<strong>and</strong>azmulobis<br />

moqmedebas yvela danarCeni kreditoris mimarT; ra saxis valdebulebebi ekisrebaT<br />

movalis memkvidreebs; rogor daregulirdeba valdebulebisa da moTxovnis Tanxvedra<br />

erT pirovnebaSi (savaraudoa, rom aseT SemTxvevaSi, movales unda gamoakldes am<br />

kreditoris wili, magram maSin iqneba problema valdebulebis sagnis ganuyoflobasTan<br />

dakavSirebiT, radgan, nebismier SemTxvevaSi, aseTi valdebuleba unda Sesruldes sru-<br />

48


lad) da, ukanasknelic, Tu movale gaxdeba Tanakreditoris kreditori moxdeba Tu ara<br />

valdebulebis CaTvla sxva kreditorebis mimarTac.<br />

am kiTxvebs, erTgvarad, naTels hfens samoqalaqo kodeqsis 459-e muxli, romlis mixedviTac:<br />

`Tu erT-erTi kreditori uars ityvis movalis winaSe moTxovnaze, maSin movale<br />

Tavisufldeba mxolod im nawilis gadaxdisagan, romelic mocemul kreditors<br />

ergeboda~. Tumca, igi mainc zog kiTxvas srulad da zogsac _ saerTod ar pasuxobs.<br />

kodeqsi aregulirebs aqtiuri solidarulobis zogierT procesualur mxaresac (igulisxmeba<br />

ara formalur-samarTlebrivi, aramed procesTan dakavSirebuli). kerZod,<br />

movales ar SeuZlia erT-erTi kreditoris mimarT gamoiyenos is faqtebi, romlebic sxva<br />

kreditorTanaa dakavSirebuli (es muxlic erTgvarad pasuxobs dasmul kiTxvebs, magram<br />

misi komentari mravalgvarad SeiZleba, radgan erTob zogadia), aq saubari exeba valdebulebis<br />

CaTvlas, Camoweras da msg. am muxlis analogiiT, arc solidarul kreditors<br />

unda hqondes imis ufleba, wamoayenos movalis mimarT iseTi moTxovna, romelic eqneboda<br />

mis Tanakreditors saerTo valdebulebis mimarT. yvela am problemis gadaWra, albaT,<br />

mxolod Sesabamisi sasamarTlo gadawyvetilebebis precedentebis safuZvelze moxerxdeba.<br />

dabolos, movale uflebamosilia valdebuleba Seasrulos nebismieri solidaruli<br />

kreditoris winaSe. rasakvirvelia, aseTi Sesrulebis Semdeg, am kreditors ekisreba<br />

garkveuli valdebulebebi TanakreditorTa mimarT. aseTi Sesruleba ar warmoSobs axal<br />

aqtiur solidarulobas, aramed mxolod kreditoris movaleobas gadauxados danarCen<br />

kreditorebs kuTvnili wili. am wilis odenobas gansazRvraven Tavad kreditorebi, xolo<br />

Tu ar arsebobs aseTi gansazRvra, igulisxmeba, rom TiToeul maTgans Tanabari wili<br />

aqvs. 17 sakorporacio samarTalSi aseT wils gansazRvraven `mewarmeTa Sesaxeb~ kanonis<br />

Sesabamisi muxlebi.<br />

rogorc aRvniSneT, saqarTvelos kanoni garda aqtiurisa, icnobs pasiur solidarulobasac.<br />

kanonis mixedviT, solidaruli valdebuleba dgeba im SemTxvevaSi, rodesac ramdenime<br />

pirs evaleba valdebulebis Sesruleba ise, rom TiToeulma unda miiRos monawileoba<br />

mTliani valdebulebis SesrulebaSi, xolo kreditors eqneba Sesrulebis mxolod<br />

erTjeradi moTxovnis ufleba. e.i. solidaruli valdebuleba (pasiuri solidaruloba)<br />

dgeba, roca:<br />

1. aris erTiani valdebuleba;<br />

2. aris am valdebulebaze erToblivad pasuxismgebeli ramdenime movale;<br />

3. aris kreditori;<br />

4. valdebuleba unda Sesruldes erTxel.<br />

pasiuri solidaruloba, iseve, rogorc aqtiuri dgeba xelSekrulebiT, kanoniT an<br />

valdebulebis sagnis ganuyoflobiT. kanoniT pasiuri solidaruloba SeiZleba gamoiwvios<br />

Tavdebobamac. am SemTxvevaSi, solidaruli valdebuleba dgeba, Tu:<br />

1. Tavdebi ikisrebs pasuxismgeblobas solidarulad an sxva TanabarmniSvnelovani saxiT;<br />

2. erTsa da imave valdebulebaze iqneba ramdenime Tavdebi, Tundac amaT Tavdeboba<br />

erTad ar ekisraT;<br />

3. Tavdebi kreditoris winaSe ivaldebulebs winamorbed TavdebTa mier nakisr valdebulebaTa<br />

Sesrulebas.<br />

49


marTlmsajuleba<br />

N1<br />

da<br />

kanoni<br />

am sami daTqmidan, pirvelSi, Tavdebs solidaruli valdebuleba warmoeSoba ZiriTad<br />

movalesTan erTad, xolo danarCen or SemTxvevaSi _ sxva TavdebebTan erTad. Tumca,<br />

rasakvirvelia, Tavdebi, nebismier SemTxvevaSi, aris damatebiTi movale da masze valdebulebis<br />

Sesrulebis moqceva daiSveba mxolod mas Semdeg, rac kreditori uSedegod<br />

ecdeba igive ganaxorcielos ZiriTad movalesTan. Tumca Tavdebis mier kreditoris<br />

dakmayofilebis Semdeg, masze gadadis kreditoris moTxovna ZiriTadi movalis mimarT.<br />

deliqtur valdebulebebze pasiuri solidaruloba dgeba, roca ramdenime piri er-<br />

Toblivad miayenebs zians dazaralebuls. am SemTxvevaSi, solidaruloba gavrceldeba<br />

im pirebzec, vinc:<br />

1. daiyolia zianis mimyenebeli aseT moqmedebaze;<br />

2. xeli Seuwyo mas;<br />

3. Segnebulad isargebla miyenebuli zianiT.<br />

naTelia, rom `xelSemwyobSi~ igulisxmeba, ara marto, damxmare, aramed zianis miyenebis<br />

organizatoric.<br />

sakorporacio samarTalSi pasiuri solidaruloba, iseve, rogorc aqtiuri warmoi-<br />

Soba solidaruli pasuxismgeblobis sazogadoebebSi, kom<strong>and</strong>itur sazogadoebebSi, agreTve,<br />

zogierT sxva SemTxvevaSi. magaliTad: sawarmos Camoyalibebamde nakisr valdebulebebze;<br />

18 sazogadoebis xelmZRvanelTa valdebulebebze movaleobaTa arajerovani<br />

SesrulebisaTvis 19 da msg.<br />

fasiani qaRaldebis brunvidan warmoSobili valdebulebebi ganuyofeli valdebulebebia<br />

da aqac pasiuri solidaruloba upirobod moqmedebs.<br />

rogorc definiciidan gamomdinareobs, kreditors aqvs mxolod erTjeradi moTxovnis<br />

ufleba, Tumca, es moTxovna man sakuTari arCevaniT SeiZleba nebismieri movalis<br />

winaSe ganaxorcielos. kreditorma SeiZleba moiTxovos movalisagan valdebulebis<br />

mTlianad Sesruleba, an misi Sesruleba nawilobriv. Tu erT-erTi movale valdebulebas<br />

mTlianad Seasrulebs, maSin es Sesruleba moxsnis kreditors uflebas, xolo danarCen<br />

movaleebs movaleobas _ Seasrulon valdebuleba (sainteresoa, rom Tu isini Seutyobineblobis<br />

an sxva ram mizezis gamo, mainc Seasruleben mas, maT Tavad mouwevT aseTi<br />

Sesrulebis usafuZvlobis mtkiceba, radgan samoqalaqo kodeqsis 361-e muxlis Tanaxmad,<br />

moqmedebs valdebulebis arsebobis prezumfcia). nebismier SemTxvevaSi, Tundac<br />

movale apirebdes kreditoris winaSe valdebulebis mTlianad Sesrulebas, Sesrulebamde<br />

danarCeni movaleebis valdebuleba ZalaSi rCeba (e.i. maT SeiZleba moeTxovoT<br />

Sesruleba; aRiZras sarCeli da a.S.).<br />

garda valdebulebis Sesrulebisa, valdebulebis Sinaarsze moqmedebs, agreTve:<br />

1. erT-erT movalis mier valdebulebis nawilobriv Sesruleba;<br />

2. erT-erTi movalis mier kreditorTan valdebulebis gaqviTva;<br />

3. erT-erTi movalis valis gaerTianeba kreditoris moTxovnasTan;<br />

4. kreditoris mier valis patieba movalisaTvis.<br />

rogori damokidebuleba eqneba nawilobrivi Sesrulebis Semdeg movales TanamovaleebTan,<br />

gansazRvruli ar aris, magram logikuria, rom amis Semdeg dadges ramdenime<br />

Sedegi:<br />

50


1. Tu Sesrulebuli valdebuleba Seesabameba movalis wils saerTo valdebulebaSi,<br />

igi gaTavisufldeba, rogorc valdebulebisagan, agreTve regresuli moTxovnis uflebamosilebisagan.<br />

aseve, Tanamovaleebis saerTo valdebulebas gamoakldeba gaTavisuflebuli<br />

movalis wili;<br />

2. Tu aRemateba an naklebia wilze, am SemTxvevaSi, Sesabamisad:<br />

a) gaTavisufldes valdebulebisagan da darCes regresuli anazRaurebis moTxovnis<br />

ufleba im valdebulebaze, rac zedmetad Seasrula;<br />

b) gaTavisufldes valdebulebisagan saerTo kreditoris mimarT da darCes Sesasrulebel<br />

valdebulebaze movaleoba TanamovaleTa mimarT.<br />

3. Tu solidaruloba warmoSobilia Tavdebobis safuZvelze, movaleobis nawilobrivi<br />

Sesruleba ver gaaTavisuflebs ZiriTad movales valdebulebis mTlianad Sesrulebisagan<br />

an yovel SemTxvevaSi, es ar warmoSobs Tavdebis valdebulebas Seasrulos<br />

movaleoba mTlianad.<br />

valdebulebis gaqviTva SeiZleba moxdes, Tu movale gaxdeba kreditoris kreditori,<br />

agreTve, zogierT sxva SemTxvevaSi. gaqviTva SeiZleba moxdes, rogorc mTlianad valisa,<br />

aseve misi nawilisac. gaqviTva, yovelTvis vrceldeba saerTo valze da yvela movaleze<br />

e.i. Tu solidarul movalesa da kreditors Soris moxdeba valis gaqviTva mTeli TanxiT,<br />

es gaaTavisuflebs Sesrulebis movaleobisagan danarCen Tanamovaleebsac. Tumca, aqac<br />

saWiro iqneba ramdenime ganmarteba. kerZod: a) aseTi gaqviTvis Semdeg im movales, romelmac<br />

moaxdina gaqviTva unda warmoeSvas regresuli anazRaurebis ufleba sxva TanamovaleTa<br />

winaSe; b) solidarul movales Tu saerTos garda piradi aqvs valic kreditorisa,<br />

gaqviTva SeiZleba moxdes swored am kerZo valis da ara saerTo valisa, amas-<br />

Tan gadawyvetilebis miRebis ufleba unda hqondes kreditors. garda amisa, kanoniT<br />

miTiTebulia SemTxvevebi, rodesac valis gaqviTva dauSvebelia, kerZod:<br />

a) Tu es winaswar iyo gamoricxuli;<br />

b) deliqturi valdebulebis SemTxvevaSi, roca miyenebulia ziani (maT Soris, erToblivi)<br />

piris janmrTelobisa da sicocxlisaTvis da msg.<br />

erT-erTi movalisaTvis valis patieba aTavisuflebs sxva solidarul movaleebsac,<br />

magram aqac arsebobs daTqma: ar unda iyos miTiTebuli, rom vali epatieba mxolod da<br />

mxolod erT movales. aseT SemTxvevaSi, danarCen TanamovaleTa pasuxismgebloba rCeba,<br />

oRond, ra Tqma unda, gaTavisuflebuli movalis wilis gamoklebiT.<br />

kidev erTi garemoeba, romelic moqmedebs valdebulebis bunebaze aris kreditoris<br />

moTxovnis gaerTianeba erT-erTi solidaruli movalis valTan. amasve unda mivakuTvnoT<br />

is SemTxvevebi, rodesac kreditori da erT-erTi movale aRmoCndebian erTi da<br />

igive piri. es SeiZleba moxdes im SemTxvevaSi, Tu movale aRmoCndeba kreditoris erTaderTi<br />

memkvidre an piriqiT. msgavsi situacia daregulirebulia samoqalaqo kodeqsis<br />

1493-e muxliT, romlis mixedviTac: `Tu mamkvidrebelma Tavisi qoneba kreditors<br />

u<strong>and</strong>erZa, es ar SeiZleba CaiTvalos kreditoris moTxovnis uflebis gaqviTvad.~ Tumca,<br />

es specialuri daTqmaa. moTxovnisa da valis faqtobrivi gaerTianeba aTavisuflebs<br />

movales valdebulebis Sesrulebisagan, xolo saerTo vals danarCeni movaleebisaTvis<br />

akldeba gaTavisuflebuli movalis wili.<br />

51


marTlmsajuleba<br />

N1<br />

da<br />

kanoni<br />

rogorc cnobilia, valdebulebaTa arsi gulisxmobs, ara marto, movalis Sesrulebis<br />

valdebulebas, aramed kreditoris valdebulebasac miiRos Susruleba. rasakvirvelia,<br />

Sesrulebis miReba SeiZleba dayovndes kreditoris an movalis mizeziT. Cveni kanonmdeblobis<br />

Tanaxmad, Tu Sesruleba dayovnebulia kreditoris mizeziT, misi Sedegebi gavrceldeba<br />

yvela solidarul movaleze, xolo Tu erT-erTi movalis mizeziT _ Sedegebis<br />

gavrceleba yvela movaleze dauSvebelia (Sedegi ki, SeiZleba iyos procentebis daricxva,<br />

pirgasamtexlos gadaxda da a.S.).<br />

solidarul movaleTa mier valdebulebis Seusrulebloba aris safuZveli kreditoris<br />

mier sarCelis Setanisa. kreditors ufleba aqvs sarCeli Seitanos, rogorc erTi<br />

movalis, agreTve, yvela movalis mimarTac. amasTan, erTi movalis mimarT sarCelis Setana<br />

sxva movaleebzec sasamarTlo wesiT, moTxovnis uflebas ar arTmevs. e.w. meorexarisxovani<br />

Sedegebi, romelsac franguli samarTali icnobs, Cveni sistemis mier ar aris<br />

aRiarebuli. davazustebT: erT movaleze sarCelis Setana ar wyvets x<strong>and</strong>azmulobis<br />

moqmedebas sxva movaleebze. cxadia, am SemTxvevaSi, upriania kreditorma Seitanos<br />

saerTo sarCeli. aRsaniSnavia, rom es wesebi ar SeiZleba gavrceldes deliqtur valdebulebebze<br />

da sakorporacio samarTliT daregulirebul urTierTobebze.<br />

zogadad, rogorc Cans, solidarul valdebulebebSi kanonmdebeli kreditorTa interesTan<br />

erTad, cdilobda maqsimalurad daculi yofiliyo movaleTa interesebic.<br />

sasamarTlo davis SemTxvevaSi, movales ufleba aqvs kreditors warudginos yvela is<br />

Sesagebeli, romelic:<br />

a) gamomdinareobs valdebulebis arsidan;<br />

b) romlis uflebac aqvs marto mas;<br />

g) romelic saerToa yvela solidaruli movalisaTvis.<br />

kreditors ki, Tavis mxriv, ufleba aqvs, erT-erTi solidaruli movalis winaaRmdeg<br />

gamoiyenos mxolod is faqtebi, romlebic uSualod mas exeba. magram Tu konkretuli<br />

valdebulebiTi urTierTobidan sxva ram gamomdinareobs, zemoxsenebuli principi aRar<br />

imoqmedebs.<br />

rogorc zemoT aRiniSna, movaleTa solidaruloba aris kreditorisaTvis valdebulebis<br />

Sesrulebis garantia. es pirdapiraa miTiTebuli kanonSi, romlis mixedviTac,<br />

Tu erT-erTi movale aRmoCndeba valauvli, misi wili nawildeba yvela sxva gadaxdisunarian<br />

movaleze. aman unda uzrunvelyos movalisaTvis valdebulebis utyuarad<br />

Sesruleba.<br />

mas Semdeg, rac erT-erTi movale valdebulebas mTlianad Seasrulebs kreditoris<br />

winaSe, mas uCndeba ukumoTxovnis ufleba yofil TanamovaleTa mimarT. 20 am SemTxvevaSi,<br />

SeiZleba amoqmeddes ori wesi:<br />

1. moeTxovos Tanamovaleebs anazRaureba gadamxdelis wilis gamoklebiT;<br />

2. moeTxovos anazRaureba srulad.<br />

es meore SemTxveva SeiZleba gaiTvaliswinos:<br />

a) kanonma. magaliTad, Tavdebobis SemTxvevaSi, rodesac Tavdebi dafaravs ZiriTadi<br />

movalis vals;<br />

b) mxareTa SeTanxmebam.<br />

52


wili ganisazRvreba:<br />

a) mxareTa SeTanxmebiT;<br />

b) logikuri analiziT.<br />

roca SeTanxmeba ar arsebobs da sxvagvaradac SeuZlebelia pasuxismgeblobis odenobis<br />

gansazRvra, igulisxmeba Tanabari wili. amas garda, moqmedebs erTi friad mniSvnelovani<br />

wesi: Tu erT-erTi solidaruli movale miiRebs sargebels am solidaruli valdebulebidan,<br />

maSin im solidarul movales, romelsac sargebeli ar miuRia, SeuZlia<br />

moTxovos mas dakmayofileba Tavisi valdebulebis Sesasruleblad. solidaruli valdebulebis<br />

arseboba, garda erToblivi movaleobisa, gulixmobs erTobliv mizans,<br />

amasTanave, movaleTa garkveuli xasiaTis Tanadgomas. swored am postulatebidan gamomdinareobs<br />

zemoxsenebuli muxli, sadac aRsaniSnavia sami momenti:<br />

1. erT-erTma movalem miiRo mogeba swored saerTo solidaruli valdebulebisagan<br />

da ara sxvagvari movaleobiTa da uflebiT;<br />

2. Tanamovales sargebeli ar miuRia;<br />

3. am ukanasknels ufleba aqvs mosTxovos pirvels dakmayofileba mxolod im odenobiT,<br />

rac saWiroa kreditoris winaSe solidaruli valdebulebis dasafaravad.<br />

savaraudod, am valdebulebis Secvla SeuZlia movaleTa SeTanxmebas.<br />

dabolos, kidev erTi sakiTxi, romelic unda ganvixiloT, aris movalis memkvidreTa<br />

uflebebi. rogorc aqtiuri solidarulobis SemTxvevaSi, pasiuri solidarulobisas memkvidreze<br />

gadadis mxolod wili valdebulebisa (Sesabamisad _ uflebisa), gamomdinare<br />

samkvidro qonebidan, magram es wesi ar imoqmedebs valdebulebis ganuyoflobis Sem-<br />

TxvevaSi, amitom frangebis msgavsad, kreditorisaTvis umjobesia aseTi daTqma gaukeTdes<br />

xelSekrulebis teqsts. am SemTxvevaSi, amoqmeddeba 1484-e muxlis me-2 nawili, romlis<br />

mixediTac: Tu mamkvidrebeli memkvidreebze gadasuli valebiT solidaruli movale iyo,<br />

maSin memkvidreebic solidarulad ageben pasuxs. es SeiZleba moxdes samkvidro qonebis<br />

gayofamdec. solidaruli movalis memkvidreTa SeTanxmebiT SesaZlebelia erT-erTi<br />

memkvidrisaTvis valdebulebis Sesrulebis mTlianad dakisreba, samkvidrodan valdebulebis<br />

Sesabamisad gazrdili wilis micemis sanacvlod. 21 savaraudod, aseT SeTanxmebas,<br />

valdebulebis sagnis ganuyoflobisas dasWirdeba kreditoris Tanxmoba.<br />

daskvna<br />

daskvnis saxiT SegviZlia vTqvaT, rom qarTuli samoqalaqo kodeqsiT ganmtkicebuli<br />

solidaruli urTierTobebis sistema uaRresad daxvewilia da savsebiT Seesabameba,<br />

rogorc Tanamedrove dasavlur sistemas, aseve mTlianad samoqalaqo samarTlebriv<br />

tradicias.<br />

53


marTlmsajuleba<br />

N1<br />

da<br />

kanoni<br />

gamoyenebuli literatura<br />

1. vaxtang abaSmaZe, qarTuli inteleqtualuri fenomeni;<br />

2. ivane javaxiSvili, qarTuli samarTlis istoria;<br />

3. ilia WavWavaZe, cxovreba da kanoni;<br />

4. saqarTvelos samoqalaqo kodeqsi;<br />

5. saqarTvelos kanoni `mewarmeTa Sesaxeb~;<br />

6. saqarTvelos kanoni `fasiani qaRaldebis bazris Sesaxeb~;<br />

7. `mewarmeTa Sesaxeb~ kanonis komentari, me-2 gamocema;<br />

8. zurab axvlediani, valdebulebiTi samarTali;<br />

9. Salva CikvaSvili, saojaxo da memkidreobiTi samarTali;<br />

10. saqarTvelos samoqalaqo kodeqsis komentari, wigni I;<br />

11. Ëåîí Æþëëèî äå ëà Ìîðàíäüåð, Ãðàæäàíñêîå ïðàâî Ôðàíöèè;<br />

12. È. Á. Íîâèöêèé, È. Ñ. Ïåòåðñêèé, Ðèìñêîå ÷àñòíîå ïðàâî;<br />

13. Ãðàæäàíñêîå, òîðãîâîå è ñåìåéíîå ïðàâî êàï. ñòðàí,<br />

Ñáîðíèê íîðìàòèâíûõ àêòîâ.<br />

SeniSvnebi:<br />

1<br />

vaxtang abaSmaZe, qarTuli inteleqtualuri fenomeni, Tb., 1992.<br />

2<br />

È. Á. Íîâèöêèé, È. Ñ. Ïåòåðñêèé, Ðèìñêîå ÷àñòíîå ïðàâî, Ìîñêâà, 1994.<br />

3<br />

È. Á. Íîâèöêèé, È. Ñ. Ïåòåðñêèé, Ðèìñêîå ÷àñòíîå ïðàâî, Ìîñêâà, 1994.<br />

4<br />

ivane javaxiSvili, qarTuli samarTlis istoria, Txzulebani Tormet<br />

tomad, t. VI.<br />

5<br />

ilia WavWavaZe, cxovreba da kanoni, rCeuli xuT tomad, t. IV, Tb., 1987.<br />

6<br />

Ãðàæäàíñêîå, òîðãîâîå è ñåìåéíîå ïðàâî êàï. ñòðàí, Code civil, ñòàòüÿ.<br />

1197, Ì., 1986.<br />

7<br />

Ëåîí Æþëëèî äå ëà Ìîðàíäüåð, Ãðàæäàíñêîå ïðàâî Ôðàíöèè, Ò. I,<br />

Ìîñêâà, 1960.<br />

8<br />

Ãðàæäàíñêîå, òîðãîâîå è ñåìåéíîå ïðàâî êàï. ñòðàí, Code civil. ñòàòüÿ.<br />

1202, Ìîñêâà, 1986.<br />

9<br />

Ëåîí Æþëëèî äå ëà Ìîðàíäüåð, Ãðàæäàíñêîå ïðàâî Ôðàíöèè, Ò. I,<br />

Ìîñêâà, 1960.<br />

10<br />

Ëåîí Æþëëèî äå ëà Ìîðàíäüåð, Ãðàæäàíñêîå ïðàâî Ôðàíöèè, Ò. I,<br />

Ìîñêâà, 1960.<br />

11<br />

Ãðàæäàíñêîå, òîðãîâîå è ñåìåéíîå ïðàâî êàï. ñòðàí, Code civil, Article.<br />

1205-1207, Ìîñêâà, 1986.<br />

12<br />

Ãðàæäàíñêîå, òîðãîâîå è ñåìåéíîå ïðàâî êàï. ñòðàí, Code civil, Article.<br />

1217, Ìîñêâà, 1986.<br />

13<br />

saqarTvelos kanoni `fasiani qaRaldebis bazris Sesaxeb~, muxli 4.13.<br />

14<br />

saqarTvelos samoqalaqo kodeqsi, muxli 455, Tb., 1997.<br />

15<br />

zurab axvlediani, valdebulebiTi samarTali, Tb., 1999.<br />

16<br />

Salva CikvaSvili, saojaxo da memkidreobiTi samarTali, Tb., 1999. unda<br />

moxdes nivTis (uflebis) iseTi gayofa, `romelic am nivTs ar<br />

daukargavs sameurneo an sxva miznobriv daniSnulebas~.<br />

17<br />

zurab axvlediani, valdebulebiTi samarTali, Tb., 1999.<br />

18<br />

saqarTvelos kanoni `mewarmeTa Sesaxeb~, muxli 3.4.<br />

19<br />

iqve, muxli 9.7.<br />

20<br />

zurab axvlediani, valdebulebiTi samarTali, Tb., 1999.<br />

21<br />

Salva CikvaSvili, saojaxo da memkidreobiTi samarTali, Tb., 1999.<br />

54


MULTITUDE OF DEBTORS<br />

AND CREDITORS IN<br />

LIABILITY<br />

SIMON CHKHAIDZE<br />

Judge of the Kutaisi Appellate Court<br />

Pursuant to the Article 455 of the Civil Code of Georgia, if several persons<br />

are authorized to request the fulfillment of liability in a form, where each of<br />

them can request absolute fulfillment <strong>and</strong> where the debtor is obliged to<br />

fulfill it only once, they can be referred as solidery authorized persons –<br />

Solider creditors.<br />

In accordance with the Article 463 of the same Code, if several persons<br />

are obliged to fulfill their liability in a form, where each of them should<br />

participate in the fulfillment of the common liability (solider liability), <strong>and</strong><br />

the creditor is authorized to file as single request on fullfillment, then they<br />

represent solider debtors.<br />

According to the law, these types of legal relations are referred as multitude<br />

of creditors <strong>and</strong> debtors in liability.<br />

Similar types of legal relations are also covered by the Roman Civil <strong>Law</strong><br />

<strong>and</strong> as a result of its processing, modern civil law of Continental Europe <strong>and</strong><br />

the civil legislation of the Continental European states were developed. Our<br />

country joined these laws on November 25, 1997, immediately after the Civil<br />

Code of Georgia entered into force.<br />

In order to better realize the contents of legal relations, it is necessary to<br />

study the grounds <strong>and</strong> sources that after processing <strong>and</strong> development served<br />

as the bases for the establishment of legal system in its current form.<br />

The presented paper serves the same purpose.<br />

55


marTlmsajuleba<br />

N1<br />

da<br />

kanoni<br />

samoqalaqo<br />

samarTalwarmoebisa<br />

da aRsrulebis<br />

sakiTxebi sabWoTa<br />

saqarTveloSi<br />

zurab Wyonia<br />

saqarTvelos teqnikuri universitetis doqtoranti<br />

saqarTvelos damoukideblobis aRdgenis Semdeg dadga<br />

sakiTxi im samoqalaqo, Tu sxva dargis marTlmsajulebis<br />

mankieri da korufciuli sistemisagan gaTavisuflebisa,<br />

romelic saqarTvelos sabWoTa epoqidan memkvidreobiT ergo.<br />

swored amitomac, damoukideblobis Semdeg pirveli wlebi<br />

saqarTveloSi gardamaval etapad gamocxadda. 1995 wels<br />

miRebul iqna saqarTvelos konstitucia. daiwyo sasamar-<br />

Tlo sistemisa da samoqalaqo saproceso kanonmdeblobis<br />

reforma, romelic dRemde ar dasrulebula. zemoaRniSnulidan<br />

gamomdinare, mniSvnelovnad migvaCnia sabWoTa samoqalaqo<br />

samarTalwarmoebisa da misi efeqtianobis ganmsazRvreli<br />

saaRsrulebo warmoebis, rogorc uaryofiTi,<br />

ise dadebiTi mxareebis mimoxilva da analizi, raTa reformisas<br />

gaTvaliswinebul iqnes aRniSnuli gamocdileba.<br />

sabWoTa xelisufleba aneqsiisTanave Seudga saqarTveloSi<br />

marTlmsajulebis sistemis uzurpacias. am mizniT<br />

revkomma gaauqma damoukidebeli saqarTvelos sasamarTlo<br />

xelisufleba. 1 1923 wels miRebul iqna debuleba sasamar-<br />

Tlo wyobilebis Sesaxeb, xolo 1924 wels ki, samoqalaqo<br />

samarTlis saproceso kodeqsi. 2<br />

sabWoTa saqarTveloSi saerTo sasamarTloebis sistemaSi<br />

arsebobda ori instanciis sasamarTlo. I instanciis<br />

sasamarTlo saqmes wyvetda arsebiTad, xolo meore instan-<br />

56


cia (sakasacio, anu sarevizio) ki, saqmeebs amowmebda mxolod iuridiuli kuTxiT. 3 Seiqmna<br />

da moqmedebda aRmosavleT da dasavleT saqarTvelos olqis sasamarTloebi, aseve<br />

uzenaesi sasamarTlo. afxazeTSi, aWaraSi da oseTSi arsebobda sakuTari sasamarTloebi.<br />

4 sakasacio sasamarTlo axdenda aseve, kanonis ganmartebas gadawyvetilebis gamotanisas,<br />

rac savaldebulo iyo konkretuli ganxiluli saqmisaTvis, amasTan, saxelmZRvanelo<br />

xasiaTis gaxldaT analogiuri saqmis gadawyvetisas, anu praqtikuli mniSvneloba<br />

hqonda. Tumca, realurad sasamarTlo praqtikis Camoyalibeba SesaZlebeli<br />

iqneboda mxolod erTi sakasacio instanciis arsebobis SemTxvevaSi. .5<br />

pirveli instanciis wesiT saqmeebi ganixileboda saxalxo sasamarTloebSi, olqis<br />

sasamarTloebSi da aseve uzenaes sasamarTloSic. 6<br />

saxalxo mosamarTlisaTvis da saxalxo sasamarTloebisaTvis sakasacio instancias<br />

warmoadgenda olqis sasamarTlo (samoqalaqo sakasacio Tanaganyofileba), olqis sasamarTloebisaTvis<br />

_ uzenaesi sasamarTlo (sakasacio kolegia), xolo uzenaesi sasamarTlosaTvis<br />

sakasacio instancia ar arsebobda. 7<br />

saqmeebis ganxilva ZiriTadad, saerTo sasamarTloebSi mimdinareobda kolegiurad<br />

_ yvela instanciis sasamarTloebSi, kerZod: saxalxo sasamarTloSi erTi mudmivi mosamarTlisa<br />

da ori saxalxo msajulis SemadgenlobiT, olqis sasamarTloebSi da uzenaes<br />

sasamarTloSi ki, sasamarTlos erTi wevrisa da ori msajulis SemadgenlobiT. 8 mxolod<br />

SedarebiT martivi saqmeebis gadawyveta iyo SesaZlebeli I instanciis saxalxo mosamarTlis<br />

mier erTpirovnulad. 9<br />

mudmivi mosamarTle iniSneboda 1 wliT, xolo saxalxo msajuli miiwveoda sxdomaze<br />

weliwadSi mxolod 6 dRiT. mosamarTleobis k<strong>and</strong>idats ar moeTxoveboda arc iuridiuli<br />

da arc saerTo ganaTleba. mosamarTled SeiZleboda daniSnuliyo 18 wels miRweuli<br />

piri. 10 mosamarTlis Tanamdeboba gaxldaT arCeviTi da misi arCeva xdeboda samazro aRmasrulebeli<br />

komitetis im k<strong>and</strong>idatTa siidan, romlebic naCvenebi iqnebodnen olqis<br />

sasamarTlos an iusticiis saxalxo komisariatis mier. 11<br />

rac Seexeba mosamarTlis damoukideblobas, unda iTqvas, rom mosamarTle ar gaxldaT<br />

damoukidebeli da arc Seucvleli. igi SeiZleba gamowveuliyo vadamdec, im organoebis<br />

mier, romlebic mas irCevdnen. maSin moqmedi konstitucia saxelmwifo xelisuflebis<br />

ramdenime Stod danawilebas ar scnobda. amis dasturia aseve, cnobili lozungi<br />

`mTeli xelisufleba sabWoebs~. `muSaTa da glexTa saxelmwifos xelisuflebisagan<br />

damoukidebeli ver iqneba verc erTi organo an Tanamdebobis piri, maSasadame verc<br />

mosamarTle.~ 12<br />

maSin moqmedi samoqalaqo procesi scnobda dispoziciurobis princips, Tumca, es<br />

principi kanonmdeblobiT gaxldaT mniSvnelovnad ugulebelyofili. magaliTisaTvis,<br />

marTalia saqmis ganxilvas sasamarTlo iwyebda mxolod dainteresebuli mxaris gancxadebiT<br />

da mxares SeeZlo sasarCelo moTxovnis gadideba da Semcireba, Tumca, samoqalaqo<br />

saqmis aRZvris ufleba hqonda prokurorsac, rogorc saxelmwifo xelisuflebis<br />

warmomadgenels, rodesac misi azriT, amas moiTxovda saxelmwofos an mSromelTa<br />

interesi. amave mizniT prokurors ufleba hqonda Careuliyo sxvis mier dawyebul procesSi.<br />

13 amasTan, sasamarTlos SeeZlo mxareTa moTxovnis farglebs gascdenoda da<br />

57


marTlmsajuleba<br />

N1<br />

da<br />

kanoni<br />

mxarisaTvis imaze meti miekuTvnebina, rasac igi moiTxovda. mxares SeeZlo uari eTqva<br />

Tavis uflebaze da aseve, saqme daemTavrebina morigebiT, Tumca uaric da morigebac<br />

eqvemdebareboda sasamarTlos kontrols. procesi iTvaliswinebda gadawyvetilebis<br />

gauqmebas mxaris saCivris arsebobis miuxedavad, Tavad uzenaesi sasamarTlos iniciativiT<br />

da aseve, Sesabamisi dawesebulebis da Tanamdebobis pirTa iniciativiTac, im<br />

SemTxvevaSic ki, Tundac gadawyvetileba ZalaSi yofiliyo Sesuli. 14<br />

dispoziciurobis principis msgavsad mniSvnelovnad SezRuduli gaxldaT SejibrebiTobis<br />

principic, vinaidan sasamarTlos Tavad hqonda miniWebuli farTo iniciativa. 15<br />

maSin moqmedi saproceso kanonmdeblobiT saqmeTa ganxilva mimdinareobda sajarod.<br />

rac Seexeba saaRsrulebo warmoebas procesis Tanaxmad, ZiriTadad, aRsrulebas axdendnen<br />

sasamarTlo aRmasruleblebi, Tumca, sasamarTlo gadawyvetilebiT aRsrulebis<br />

movaleoba SeiZleboda dakisreboda milicias da raionis aRmasrulebel komitets.<br />

isini aRsrulebisas xelmZRvanelobdnen sasamarTlo aRmasrulebisaTvis gansazRvruli<br />

wesebiT. 16 is piri, romlis sasargeblodac gamotanili iyo gadawyvetileba iwodeboda<br />

`gadamxdevineblad~, xolo is vis winaaRmdegac iyo gadawyvetileba miRebuli, iwodeboda<br />

`movaled~. sasamarTlo gadawyvetilebis aRsruleba iwyeboda gadamxdevineblis mier<br />

sasamarTlos gacemuli aRsrulebis furclis wardgeniT im adgilis saaRsrulebo organoSi,<br />

sadac unda aRsrulebuliyo gadawyvetileba. aRsrulebis procesSi monawileobda<br />

orive mxare. 17 gadawyvetilebis gadadebis, SeCerebisa da Sewyvetis ufleba aRmasrulebels<br />

hqonda mxolod gadamxdevineblis gancxadebis safuZvelze mosamarTlis<br />

specialuri dadgenilebiT. 18 aRmasrulebels miniWebuli hqonda uflebamosileba, Tu<br />

gadamxdevinebeli konkretulad ver miuTiTebda sasamarTlo aRmasrulebels movalis<br />

qonebaze, aRmasrulebels ufleba hqonda gaeCxrika movalis bina miliciis da saxlis<br />

administraciis warmomadgenlis daswrebiT. 19 fulis iZulebiT gadaxdevineba xdeboda<br />

aRweriT da gayidviT. amasTan, Tuki movale iyo saxelwifo dawesebuleba, centraluri,<br />

Tu adgilobrivi, saxelmwifo biujetze myofi ar SeiZleboda misi qonebis aRwera da<br />

gayidva. Tu gadawyvetilebas ar Seasrulebda nebayoflobiT, gadamxdevinebels SeeZlo<br />

eCivla movalis zemdgom organosTan. Tu dawesebuleba ar gadaixdida iseTi saaRsrulebo<br />

furcliT, romelic gacemuli iyo Sromis sasamarTlos mier, Sromis prokuroris<br />

gankargulebiT, gadawyvetileba SeiZleba iZulebiT yofiliyo aRsrulebuli an damna-<br />

Save Tanamdebobis piri SeiZleba pasuxisgebaSi yofiliyo micemuli. .20<br />

aRsaniSnavia, rom procesiT gansazRvruli iyo is minimumi, romelzedac ar SeiZleboda<br />

iZulebiTi aRsruleba. 21<br />

aRmasruleblis moqmedeba da gadawyvetileba mxareebs SeeZloT gaesaCivrebinaT sasamarTloSi.<br />

22<br />

procesSi arsebuli xarvezis Taobaze aRsrulebasTan dakavSirebiT, cnobili qarTveli<br />

procesualisti sergi jafariZe aRniSnavda, rom `samoqalaqo procesi sruliad aras<br />

ambobs imis Sesaxeb, Tu ra wesiT unda aRsruldes sasamarTlos gadawyvetileba maSin,<br />

rodesac mopasuxes davalebuli aqvs iseTi moqmedebis Sesruleba, rac sxvisi saSualebiT<br />

ar Sesruldeba, an raime moqmedebisagan Tavis Sekaveba.~ 23<br />

58


1929 wels, f. m. naximsoni ganmartavda, rom `sasamarTlo gadawyvetilebis aRsruleba<br />

warmoadgens Cvens samuSaoSi erT-erT yvelaze mniSvnelovan funqcias. dRemde saqmis am<br />

ubanze Cven gvaqvs sruliad arasaxarbielo mdgomareoba. centrSi amJamad muSavdeba<br />

sakiTxi sasamarTlo aRsrulebis aparatis Zirfesviani reorganizaciis da racionalizaciis<br />

Sesaxeb~. 24.<br />

rac Seexeba ucxo qveynebis sasamarTloebis gadawyvetilebis aRsrulebas, aRsrulebas<br />

eqvemdebareboda mxolod im qveynebis sasamarTlo gadawyvetilebebi, romlebTanac<br />

sabWoTa kavSirs dadebuli hqonda xelSekruleba. 25<br />

1931 wels miRebul iqna saqarTvelos ssr samoqalaqo samarTlis saproceso kodeqsi.<br />

am kodeqsis me-11 muxlis Tanaxmad, saqmiswarmoeba mimdinareobda qarTul enaze an saTanado<br />

adgilis mosaxleobis umetesobis enaze. 26 amave kodeqsis 98-e muxlis Sesabamisad,<br />

saqmis garCeva mimdinareobda sajarod da sityvierad. gansakuTrebul SemTxvevebSi,<br />

saqme unda ganxiluliyo daxurul sxdomaze, Tumca, me-100 muxlis Tanaxmad, sasamar-<br />

Tlos gadawyvetileba sajarod unda gamocxadebuliyo. 101-e muxlis Sesabamisad, sasamarTlos<br />

SeeZlo saqmeSi monawile pirebis gaZeveba am pirTa mxridan wesrigis darRvevisas,<br />

amasTan, ar SeiZleboda prokuraturis warmomadgenlis da damcvelis gaZeveba.<br />

rac Seexeba dispoziciurobas da SejibrebiTobas, procesi aRiarebda aRniSnul principebs,<br />

27 Tumca, realurad sasamarTlo gaxldaT inkviciziuri da mas miniWebuli hqonda<br />

uflebamosileba xSir SemTxvevaSi, sakuTari iniciativiT mniSvnelovani sakiTxebis gadawyvetisa.<br />

cnobili procesualisti s. abramovi ganmartavda, rom `gamomdinare iqidan,<br />

rom sabWoTa marTlmsajulebis uryev mizans warmoadgens materialuri WeSmaritebis<br />

dadgena, kanoni (sssr samoqalaqo samarTlis saproceso kodeqsis muxli. 6) avaldebulebs<br />

sasamarTlos, rom manve yoveli Rone ixmaros, raTa gamoarkvios mxareTa namdvili<br />

uflebani da urTierTobani.~ 28 samoqalaqo saproceso kodeqsis 182-e muxliT sasamarTlos<br />

ufleba hqonda gascdenoda sarCelis moTxovnas da saqmis garemoebebis gaTvaliswinebiT,<br />

mxarisaTvis miekuTvnebina imaze meti, vidre is moiTxovda. mtkicebis tvir-<br />

Ti mxareebs Soris nawildeboda Tanabrad. 1931 wlis samoqalaqo samarTlis saproceso<br />

kodeqsis 126-e muxliT TiToeulma mxarem unda daamtkicos is garemoeba, razedac igi<br />

amyarebs Tavis moTxovnas da Sesagebels.<br />

1936 wels miRebul iqna sabWoTa socialisturi respublikebis kavSiris konstitucia.<br />

29 `procesis mTeli rigi principebi damkvidrebul iqna stalinuri konstituciiT,<br />

amitomac maT sxvagvari Tviseba SeiZines. aseT principebs miekuTvneba a) marTlmsajulebis<br />

ganxorcieleba mxolod sasamarTlos mier (ssr kavSiris konstituciis 102-e muxli);<br />

b) marTlmsajulebis ganxorcieleba kolegiuri sasamarTlos mier (ssr kavSiris<br />

konstituciis 103-e muxli); g) marTlmsajulebis ganxorcieleba saxalxo msajulebis<br />

monawileobiT (ssr kavSiris konstituciis 103-e muxli); d) marTlmsajulebis ganxorcieleba<br />

arCeul mosamarTleTa mier (ssr kavSiris konstituciis 105-109-e muxlebi);<br />

marTlmsajulebis ganxorcieleba damoukidebel da mxolod kanonisadmi damorCilebul<br />

mosamarTleTa mier (ssr kavSiris konstituciis 112-e muxli); v) marTlmsajulebis<br />

ganxorcieleba mokavSire an avtonomiuri respublikis, avtonomiuri olqis, naciona-<br />

59


marTlmsajuleba<br />

N1<br />

da<br />

kanoni<br />

luri okrugis an raionis enaze, moqalaqeTaTvis sasamarTloSi dedaenaze gamosvlis<br />

uflebis uzrunvelyofiT (ssr kavSiris konstituciis 110-e muxli); z) marTlmsajulebis<br />

ganxorcieleba sajaro procesis safuZvelze (ssr kavSiris konstituciis 111-e muxli).~<br />

30<br />

1936 wlis `ssr kavSiris konstitucia iTvaliswinebda mTel ssr kavSirisaTvis erTiani<br />

samoqalaqo saproceso kodeqsis gamocemas. 31<br />

samoqalaqo samarTlis saproceso kodeqsiT gansazRvruli iyo saqmis warmoeba sasarCelo<br />

wesiT (nawili I) da aseve, saqmis warmoeba gansakuTrebuli wesiT (nawili II ), anu<br />

udavo warmoebis wesiT.<br />

sasamarTlo gadawyvetileba samoqalaqo samarTlis saproceso kodeqsis 266-e muxliT<br />

saCivrdeboda sakasacio wesiT, xolo 290-e muxliT respublikis prokurors da<br />

uzenaesi sasamarTlos Tavmjdomares ufleba hqondaT gamoeTxovaT respublikis yoveli<br />

sasamarTlodan zedamxedvelobis wesiT gadaTvalierebisaTvis kanonier ZalaSi Sesuli<br />

yvela saqme, gadawyvetileba da SeeCerebinaT gadawyvetilebis aRsruleba saqmis<br />

warmoebis zedamxedvelobis wesiT damTavrebamde. Tu aRmoCndeboda, rom gadawyvetilebiT<br />

arsebiTad da TvalsaCinod iyo darRveuli moqmedi kanoni, an kanonis pidapiri<br />

moTxovnis miuxedavad, aSkarad darRveuli iyo muSaTa da glexTa saxelmwifos, Tu mSromeli<br />

masebis interesebi, respublikis prokurors da uzenasi sasamarTlos Tavmjdomares<br />

ufleba hqondaT gaeprotestebinaT es gadawyvetileba zedamxedvelobis wesiT<br />

uzenaes sasamarTloSi. protests ganixilavda sasamarTlos samoqalaqo sakasacio kolegiis<br />

plenumi, xolo uzenaesi sasamarTlo kolegiis gadawyvetilebaze da uzenaesi<br />

sasamarTlos sakasacio kolegiis gadawyvetilebaze _ uzenaesi sasamarTlos plenumi.<br />

gamomdinare zemoaRniSnulidan, 290-e muxli gaxldaT dispoziciurobis principis ugulebelyofis<br />

klasikuri magaliTi.<br />

1933 wels sabWoTa kavSiris prokuraturis CamoyalibebiT uzenaesi sasamarTlo gaTavisuflda<br />

kanonierebaze saerTo zedamxedvelobis funqciidan. amasTan, gaizarda misi<br />

sasamarTlo-sazedamxedvelo funqciebi. 32 1938 wels miRebul iqna kanoni sasamarTlo<br />

wyobilebis Sesaxeb, xolo 1958 wlis 25 dekembers ki, kanonmdeblobis safuZvlebi sab-<br />

WoTa kavSirisa da mokavSire respublikebis sasamarTlo mowyobis, samoqalaqo da sisxlis<br />

samarTlis samarTalwarmoebis Sesaxeb. 33<br />

saaRsrulebo warmoeba 1931 wels miRebuli samoqalaqo samarTlis saproceso kodeqsiT<br />

daregulirebuli gaxldaT kodeqsis V nawiliT. ssr kavSiris, mokavSire da avtonomiuri<br />

respublikebis sasamarTlo wyobilebis kanonis me-80 muxliT, sasamarTlo ganaCenebis,<br />

gadawyvetilebebisa da dadgenilebebis aRsrulebasTan dakavSirebiT, sasamarTlo<br />

aRmasruleblis mier wardgenili moTxovna savaldebulo iyo yvela Tanamdebobis<br />

pirisa da moqalaqisaTvis. sasamarTlo aRmasrulebels gadawyvetileba sisruleSi<br />

mohyavda aRmasrulebeli furcliT, romelsac rogorc wesi, gascemda sasamarTlo, gadawyvetilebis<br />

ZalaSi Sesvlis Semdeg (aRmasrulebeli furceli gaicemoda dauyovnebliv<br />

aRsasrulebel gadawyvetilebaze). 34 saaRsrulebo moqmedebas sasamarTlos aRmasrulebeli<br />

Seudgeba gadamxdevineblis sityvieri an werilobiTi gancxadebiT, agreTve,<br />

sasamarTlos an prokuroris winadadebiT, saTanadod gacemuli saaRsrulebo dokumentis<br />

safuZvelze. 35 aRsaniSnavia, rom alimentis gadaxdevinebis saqmeze aRmasrulebeli<br />

60


furceli ara ugvianes meore dRisa, dRidan gadawyvetilebis gamotanisa, unda gadagzavniliyo<br />

movalis samuSao adgilis Sesabamisad. 36<br />

maSin moqmedi saqarTvelos samoqalaqo samarTlis saproceso kodeqsis 301-e muxlis<br />

Sesabamisad, `ukeTu nebayoflobiT aRsrulebisaTvis sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebiT<br />

gansakuTrebuli vada ar iqneba micemuli, sasamarTlo aRmasrulebeli, movalisaTvis<br />

uwyebis wardgenisa da gagzavnisTanave dauniSnavs mas aRsasrulebel vadas ara umetes<br />

5 dRisa~. 303-e muxliT saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi, sasamarTlo aRmasrulebels SeeZlo<br />

daeTvalierebina movalis sadgomi da sacavebi saxlis administraciis an sasoflo sab-<br />

Wos warmomadgenlis T<strong>and</strong>aswrebiT. sasamarTlo aRmasrulebels iZulebiTi aRsruleba<br />

unda daemTavrebina 10 dRis vadaSi. iZulebiTi aRsrulebisas sasamarTlo aRmasrulebels<br />

ufleba ar hqonda mosarCelisa an mopasuxisaTvis gadaexdevinebina raime gamosa-<br />

Rebi gadawyvetilebis aRsrulebisaTvis. 37<br />

saxelmwifo, kooperaciul-sakolmeurneo da sxva sazogadoebriv dawesebulebaTa,<br />

sawarmoTa da organizaciaTa Soris davebis gamo sasamarTlo gadawyvetilebaTa aRsrulebisaTvis<br />

dadgenili iyo erTwliani x<strong>and</strong>azmulobis vada. yvela sxva davaTa gamo ki,<br />

samwliani vada. 38<br />

gadawyvetilebis iZulebiTi aRsruleba SesaZlebeli gaxldaT mxolod dedani aRmasrulebeli<br />

furclis safuZvelze. amasTan, Tundac, notariulad damowmebuli asliT, ar<br />

daiSveboda aRsruleba. dakargvis SemTxvevaSi, dainteresebul pirs SeeZlo miemarTa<br />

sasamarTlosaTvis TxovniT gaeca aRmasrulebeli furclis dublikati. mosamarTle<br />

saTanado gamokvlevis Semdeg dadgenilebis safuZvelze gascemda dublikats, anu gamoiwereboda<br />

aRmasrulebeli furceli, romelzedac keTdeboda warwera `dublikati~. 39<br />

`saxalxo mosamarTleni da saTanado sasamarTloebis Tavmjdomareni pasuxs ageben<br />

sasamarTlo gadawyvetilebaTa aRsrulebis dargSi muSaobis mdgomareobaze da, rom maT<br />

ekisrebaT mudmivi kontroli gauwion sasamarTlos aRmasrulebelTa muSaobas.~ 40 sasamarTlo<br />

aRmasruleblis saqmianobaze mudmiv kontrols uwevda sasamarTlo, rogorc<br />

administraciuli zedamxedveli mis daqvemdebarebaSi myof Tanamdebobis pirs. 41 sasamar-<br />

Tlo aRmasruleblis moqmedebaze saCivari ori saxis iyo, kerZod, saCivari, romelic<br />

ganixileboda sasamarTlo wesiT da saCivari, romelic ganixileboda administraciuli<br />

wesiT. saCivari sasamarTlo wesiT ganixileboda sasamarTlo aRmasruleblis moqmedebaze<br />

mis mier kanonis araswor gamoyenebaze, xolo saCivari sasamarTlo aRmasruleblis<br />

moqmedebaze ganixileboda mis araswor samsaxurebriv moqmedebaze. 42 saCivari sasamarTlo<br />

wesiT ganixileboda erTpirovnulad, saxalxo mosamarTlis mier (1941 wlis 29<br />

martis cvlilebiT ki, kolegiurad) samsjavro sxdomaze. 43<br />

1964 wlis 26 dekembers miRebul iqna axali saqarTvelos ssr samoqalaqo samarTlis<br />

saproceso kodeqsi, romelic samoqmedod SemoRebul iqna 1965 wlis 1 ivlisidan. 44 am<br />

kodeqsis 1-li muxlis Tanaxmad, aseve, ganixileboda sasamarTlos mier administraciulsamarTlebrivi<br />

urTierTobidan gamomdinare davebi. me-4 muxliT sasarCelo warmoebis<br />

saqmeebze Sedioda sasarCelo gancxadebebi, xolo administraciulsamarTlebrivi<br />

urTierTobidan warmoSobil saqmeebze da gansakuTrebuli warmoebis saqmeebze _<br />

saCivrebi da gancxadebebi. me-5 muxliT marTlmsajulebas samoqalaqo saqmeebze axorci-<br />

61


marTlmsajuleba<br />

N1<br />

da<br />

kanoni<br />

elebda mxolod sasamarTlo kanonisa da sasamarTlos winaSe yvela moqalaqis Tanasworobis<br />

sawyisebze. me-6 muxlis Tanaxmad, samoqalaqo saqmeebs ssr yvela sasamarTloSi<br />

ganixilavdnen mosamarTleni da saxalxo msajulebi, romlebic arCeuli iyvnen kanoniT<br />

dadgenili wesiT. amave muxliT samoqalaqo saqmeebi pirveli instanciis yvela sasamar-<br />

TloSi ganixileboda ori saxalxo msajulis SemadgenlobiT, romlebic sargeblobdnen<br />

sasamarTlo sxdomis Tavmjdomaris Tanaswori uflebebiT yvela sakiTxis gadaWraSi.<br />

sasamarTloebi saqmeebis ganxilvas sakasacio wesiT axorcielebdnen sasamarTlos sami<br />

wevris SemadgenlobiT, xolo sasamarTlo zedamxedvelobis wesiT _ sasamarTlos sul<br />

cota, sami wevris SemadgenlobiT.<br />

saproceso kodeqsis me-10 muxliT uzrunvelyofili gaxldaT saqmeTa ganxilvisas<br />

sajarooba. imave kodeqsis me-8 muxliT aRiarebuli iyo mosamarTleTa da msajulTa<br />

damoukideblobis principi. amave kodeqsis 52-e muxliT TiToeul mxares unda daemtkicebina<br />

is garemoebani, romlebzedac igi amyarebda Tavis moTxovnas da Sesagebels.<br />

sasamarTlos movaleoba iyo saqmeze obieqturi WeSmaritebis dadgena. samoqalaqo<br />

samarTlis saproceso kodeqsis me-11 muxliT, `sasamarTlo movalea ar dasjerdes<br />

warmodgenil masalebsa da axsna-ganmartebebs da miiRos kanoniT gaTvaliswinebuli<br />

yvela zoma, raTa yovelmxriv, srulad da obieqturad gamoarkvios saqmis namdvili<br />

garemoebani da mxareTa ufleba-movaleobani.~ aqedan gamomdinare, aSkaraa, rom sasamarTlo<br />

mkveTrad inkviziciuri iyo, anu procesi ar emyareboda SejibrebiTobis princips.<br />

marTalia, saproceso kodeqsis 34-e muxli formalurad Seicavda dispoziciurobis<br />

princips, magram ara tradiciuli gagebiT. dispoziciurobis principi Tavad 1977 wels<br />

miRebul sabWoTa kavSiris konstiutuciis 37-e muxliT iyo garantirebuli, Tumca,<br />

saqarTvelos samoqalaqo samarTlis saproceso kodeqsis 34-e muxlis meore abzaciT,<br />

es principi faqtobrivad fundamenturad SezRuduli gaxldaT, vinaidan meore abzacis<br />

Tanaxmad, `sasamarTlo ar miiRebs mosarCelis uars sarCelze, mopasuxis mier sarCelis<br />

cnobas da ar daamtkicebs mxareTa morigebas, Tu es moqmedeba ewinaaRmdegeba kanons an<br />

arRvevs visime uflebebs da kanoniT dacul interess.~ zemoaRniSnuli SezRudva ki,<br />

ukavSirdeboda imave saproceso kodeqsis me-2 muxlis meore abzaciT gansazRvrul daTqmas,<br />

romlis Tanaxmadac, `samoqalaqo samarTalwarmoeba xels unda uwyobdes socialisturi<br />

kanonierebis ganmtkicebas, samarTaldarRvevis Tavidan acilebas, moqalaqeTa<br />

aRzrdas sabWoTa kanonebis ganuxreli Sesrulebisa da socialisturi saerTo cxovrebis<br />

wesebis pativiscemis suliskveTebas.~ amasTan, saqmis aRZvra sasamarTloSi SesaZlebeli<br />

iyo prokuroris gancxadebis safuZvelzec. aseve, sazedamxedvelo warmoebis aRZvra<br />

SeeZloT ara dainteresebul pirebs, aramed protestis aRZvris uflebamosilebis mqone<br />

prokuraturis da sasamarTlos Tanamdebobis pirebs. 45<br />

migvaCnia, rom yuradRebas imsaxurebs saqarTvelos samoqalaqo samarTlis saproceso<br />

kodeqsis 164-e muxli, romliTac gansazRvrulia sxdomaze saqmeSi monawile pirTa da<br />

maT warmomadgenelTa gamoucxadeblobis Sedegebi. am muxlis Tanaxmad, sasamarTlo uflebamosili<br />

iyo erT-erTi mxaris gamoucxadeblobis SemTxvevaSi (Tuki saqmeSi iyo cnoba,<br />

rom mas uwyeba Cabarda) mosamarTles SeeZlo ganexila saqme mis dauswreblad, anu<br />

62


procesi iTvaliswinebda ara dauswrebeli gadawyvetilebis gamotanas, aramed, gadawyvetilebis<br />

mxaris dauswreblad miRebas. amasTan, imave muxlis Tanaxmad, sasamarTlos miniWebuli<br />

hqonda uflebamosileba, Tu igi saWirod scnobda gamoucxadebeli mxaris<br />

piradi axsna-ganmartebis mosmenas, gadaedo saqmis ganxilva. sagulisxmoa, rom imave<br />

muxliT, sasamarTlos SeeZlo mosarCelis an mopasuxis piradi axsna-ganmartebisaTvis<br />

dabareba, im SemTxvevaSic, Tu saqmeSi maTi warmomadgenlebi monawileobdnen. 166-e muxliT<br />

alimentis saqmeebze sasamarTlos SeeZlo savaldebulod ecno mopasuxis gamocxadeba,<br />

xolo gamoucxadeblobis SemTxvevaSi, daejarimebina 10 maneTamde da daedgina<br />

iZulebis wesiT misi sasamarTloSi miyvana. 167-e muxliT, Tu orive mxare (mopasuxe da<br />

mosarCele) ar gamocxaddebodnen sapatio mizezis gareSe, sasamarTlo gadadebda saqmis<br />

ganxilvas im SemTxvevaSi, Tu arc erTi mxarisagan ar Sevidoda gancxadeba saqmis mis<br />

dauswreblad ganxilvis Sesaxeb. ganmeorebiT dabarebuli mxareebis arasapatio mizeziT<br />

gamoucxadeblobis SemTxvevaSi, sasamarTlo gamoit<strong>and</strong>a ganCinebas sarCelis ganuxilvelad<br />

datovebis Sesaxeb. imave kodeqis 201-e muxliT sasamarTlos, msgavsad 1931 wlis<br />

redaqciis samoqalaqo samarTlis saproceso kodeqsisa, saqmis garemoebaTa gamorkvevis<br />

mixedviT SeeZlo gascdenoda mosarCelis moTxovnis farglebs.<br />

rac Seexeba sabWoTa sasamarTlo praqtikis mniSvnelobas, aRniSnulze parizis universitetis<br />

profesori rene davidi Tavis monografiaSi werda, rom `im viTarebaSi, roca<br />

samarTali Zalian mWidrodaa dakavSirebuli saxelmwifo politikasTan da roca ase<br />

mowadinebuli arian xalxis suvereniteti qmediTi gaxadon, gamoricxulia SesaZlebloba,<br />

rom sasamarTlo samarTlis Semqmnelad gvevlinebodes da mas mxolod samarTlis<br />

zusti ganmarteba ZaluZs~. 46 imave naSromSi igi aseve ganmartavs, rom `xazgasmiT unda<br />

aRiniSnos is faqti, rom sabWoTa kavSirSi sasamarTloebis gamocdilebas ar ugulebelyofen.<br />

47<br />

sabWoTa periodSi sasamarTlos damoukidebloba gaxldaT konstituciiT aRiarebuli<br />

principi, Tumca, realurad am mxriv, qveyanaSi Seqmnili iyo sruliad radikaluri mdgomareoba,<br />

kerZod, `mosamarTlis arCeva Tanamdebobaze xdeboda mxolod maSin, Tu is iyo<br />

komunisturi partiis wevri, rac arCevis momentidanve iZleoda saSualebas masze ganxorcielebuliyo<br />

umkacresi partiuli kontroli da moexdinaT masze gavlena. es e.w.<br />

`satelefono samarTlis~ periodia, rodesac mosamarTleTa mier partiuli xelmZRvanelebis<br />

davalebis sawinaaRmdego yoveli gadawyvetilebis gamotanis Semdeg, xdeboda<br />

maTi `gamogdeba xaliCaze~, dawyebuli raikomis an qalaqkomis pirveli mdivnidan da<br />

nebismieri ganyofilebis instruqtoriT damTavrebuli.~ 48<br />

sabWoTa periodSi `Tavad gageba `sasamarTlo xelisufleba~ praqtikulad ucnobi<br />

gaxldaT, vinaidan sasamarTlo organoebis sistema ganixileboda ara xelisuflebis<br />

gagebis principiT, aramed sasamarTlo saqmianobis poziciidan~. 49 `sasamarTlo xelisuflebis~<br />

Sesaxeb ufro seriozuli midgomis dasawyiss miekuTvneba 80-iani wlebis bolo<br />

da 90-iani wlebis periodi. aRiarebul iqna, ra `sasamarTlo xelisuflebis~ gagebis<br />

uqonloba da rom sabWoTa kavSiris istoriis manZilze sasamarTlo xelisuflebas<br />

arasodes ekava saTanado adgili da ar iyo damoukidebeli aRmasrulebeli xelisuflebisagan<br />

da sxva xelisuflebis Stoebisagan~. 50<br />

63


marTlmsajuleba<br />

N1<br />

da<br />

kanoni<br />

`unda aRiniSnos aseve, rom mosamarTleTa materialuri mdgomareoba gaxldaT imdenad<br />

mZime (rigiTi mosamarTlis xelfasi, romelsac hqonda mcire staJi, Seadgenda 180<br />

maneTs), rom bevr mosamarTles ubiZgebda qrTamis aRebisaken.~ 51<br />

sabWoTa xelisuflebis damyarebis Semdeg, sameurneo urTierTobebis ganviTarebas-<br />

Tan erTad, gaCnda aucilebloba saxelmwifo sawarmoebsa da organizaciebs Soris davebis<br />

gadawyvetis mizniT specialuri organos Seqmnisa. am mizniT 1922 wels Seiqmna<br />

saarbitraJo komisiebi. 1931 wels, mmarTvelobis organoebis sistemaSi Seiqmna saxelmwifo<br />

arbitraJi dawesebulebaTa, sawarmoTa da sabWoTa sameurneo organizaciaTa Soris<br />

qonebrivi davebis gadasawyvetad. Camoyalibda ori saxis arbitraJi _ saxelmwifo da<br />

sauwyebo. saxelmwifo arbitraJSi wydeboda davebi sxvadasxva uwyebaTa daqvemdebarebis<br />

sawarmoTa da organizaciaTa Soris, xolo sauwyeboSi ki, erT uwyebas daqvemdebarebul<br />

organizaciebs Soris (saministros, komitetis da sxva daqvemdebarebis). 52<br />

arbitraJebis saqmianobam gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba SeiZina 1965 wlis sameurneo<br />

reformis Semdeg, rodesac daiwyo saxalxo meurneobis gadayvana dagegmvisa da ekonomikuri<br />

stimulirebis axal sistemaze. 53<br />

saxelmwifo arbitraJis saboloo etapi dakavSirebulia 1977 wels, ssrk konstituciis<br />

miRebisTan, sadac arbitraJi cnobil iqna sakonstitucio organod. saxelmwifo<br />

arbitraJis muSaobis organizacia da wesi pirvelad ganisazRvra 1979 wlis 30 noembers<br />

miRebuli ssrk-is kanoniT `ssrk saxelmwifo arbitraJis Sesaxeb.~ 54 am kanonis miRebamde<br />

saqarTvelos saxelmwifo arbitraJis saqmianoba regulirdeboda 1974 wlis 14 maisis<br />

specialuri debulebiT. 55 ssrk ministrTa sabWos 1980 wlis 5 ivnisis dadgenilebiT damtkicda<br />

saxelmwifo arbitraJis mier sameurneo davebis ganxilvis wesebi. 56<br />

profesori rene davidi sabWoTa arbitraJis Sesaxeb werda, rom `davis dasaxelebuli<br />

kategoria imitomac ar SeiZleba sasamarTloebs gadaeces, rom sasamarTloebis dakompleqtebis<br />

wesi ver uzrunvelyofs amgvari davis sakmaod kvalificiur gadawyvetas.<br />

roca moqalaqeTa yoveldRiuri cxovrebis interesebsa da garemoebebzea saubari, ar-<br />

CeviT mosamarTles, zogadi kompetenciiT, SeuZlia dava gadawyvitos da kanoni gamoiyenos.<br />

saxelmwifo da sameurneo sawarmoebs Soris warmoSobil davas ki, sruliad sxva<br />

xasiaTi aqvs, maTi gadawyveta organizaciul-teqnikur normebs ufro ukavSirdeba, vidre<br />

samarTlisa da moralis gagebas. 57<br />

rac Seexeba ssrk-is saxelmwifo arbitraJis organoebs, is Sedgeboda ssrk ministrTa<br />

sabWosTan arsebuli saxelmwifo arbitraJisagan, aseve, mokavSire da avtonomiuri respublikebisa<br />

da ministrTa sabWoebTan, mSromelTa deputatebis samxareo, saolqo da saqalaqo<br />

(moskovi, leningradi) sabWoebis aRmaskomebTan arsebuli saxelmwifo arbitra-<br />

Jebisagan (saqarTvelos ssr-Si Semaval avtonomiur respublikebSi da samxreT oseTis<br />

avtonomiur olqSi arbitraJi ar arsebobda). saxelmwifo arbitraJis organoebs saTaveSi<br />

edgnen mTavari arbitrebi da maTi moadgileebi. arbitraJSi saqme aRiZvreboda dainteresebuli<br />

mxaris mier an arbitraJis mier. davas ganixilavdnen saxelmwifo arbitri da<br />

mxareTa warmomadgenlebi. arbitraJis gadawyvetileba dauyovnebliv Sedioda ZalaSi.<br />

gadawyvetilebis Sesasruleblad arbitraJi gamoscems brZanebas. arbitraJi saministros<br />

(uwyebis) organo iyo da iqmneboda mis aparatSi da muSaobda misi xelmZRvanelobiT. 58<br />

64


progresulad unda iqnes miCneuli, rom rogorc sakavSiro, ise saqarTvelos ss respublikis<br />

kanonmdebloba aseve, iTvaliswinebda samoqalaqo davebis samediatoro sasamarTloebis<br />

mier gadawyvetis SesaZleblobas. saqarTvelos ssr samoqalaqo saproceso<br />

kodeqsi Seicavda danarTs #3 saxelwodebiT, `debuleba samediatoro sasamarTloebis<br />

Sesaxeb~. am debulebis 1 muxlis Sesabamisad, `moqalaqeebs SeuZliaT maT Soris warmo-<br />

Sobili yoveli dava gadasces gansaxilvelad samediatoro sasamarTlos, garda davisa,<br />

romelic gamomdinareobs SromiTi da ojaxuri urTierTobidan.~ debulebis me-7 muxlis<br />

Sesabamisad, `saqmis ganxilva samediatoro sasamarTloSi usasyidlod warmoebs~. debulebis<br />

me-2 muxliT, sasamarTlo iqmneboda mxareTa SeTanxmebiT erTi an ramdenime mosamarTlisagan,<br />

romelTac irCevdnen mxareebi. samediatoro sasamarTlos gadawyvetileba<br />

Tanaxmad, saproceso kodeqsis 352-e muxlis me-10 punqtisa eqvemdebareboda iZulebiT<br />

aRsrulebas. zemoaRniSnuli debulebis me-17 muxliT iZulebiTi aRsruleba SesaZlebeli<br />

iyo saxalxo sasamarTlos mier gacemuli saaRsrulebo furcliT. garda droebiT<br />

konkretuli saqmeTa gadawyvetisaTvis Seqmnili samediatoro sasamarTloebisa, moqmedebda<br />

mudmivmoqmedi samediatoro sasamarTloebi. 59<br />

sabWoTa saqarTveloSi aseve, arsebobda arCeviTi sazogadoebrivi organo amxanaguri<br />

sasamarTlo, romelic iqmneboda sawarmoebSi, dawesebulebebSi, organizaciebSi, umaRles<br />

da saSualo spec. saswavleblebSi, kolmeurneobebSi, dabebsa da soflebSi, saxlmmarTvelobebsa<br />

da quCis komitetebTan. sasamarTlos wevrebs weliwadSi erTxel Ria<br />

kenWisyriT irCevda mSromelTa koleqtivis saerTo kreba. amxanaguri sasamarTloebi<br />

ganixilavdnen Sromis disciplinis darRvevis da administraciuli gadacdomebis SemTxvevebs,<br />

roca saqme gadacemuli iyo saTanado organoebis mier, aseve, zogierTi samoqalaqo<br />

samarTlebrivi saqme (sacxovrebel da arasacxovrebel SenobaTa dazianeba, moqalaqeTa<br />

dava damxmare saTavsoebiT sargeblobis Taobaze da sxva). saqmeebi ganixileboda<br />

Ria sxdomaze da gadawyvetileba cxaddeboda sajarod. samarTaldamrRvevze SeiZleboda<br />

gamoyenebuli yofiliyo gafrTxileba, sazogadoebrivi gakicxva, jarima, sayveduri<br />

da sxva. gamotanili gadawyvetileba saboloo iyo, magram Tu igi ewinaaRmdegeboda<br />

saqmis garemoebebs an moqmed kanonmdeblobas, profkavSiris Sesabamisi komitetis an adgilobrivi<br />

sabWos aRmaskomis winadadebiT amxanaguri sasamarTlo saqmes xelaxla arCevda. 60<br />

rac Seexeba saaRsrulebo warmoebas, is daregulirebuli gaxldaT 1964 wlis redaqciis<br />

saqarTvelos ssr samoqalaqo samarTlis saproceso kodeqsis V kariT. amave kodeqsis<br />

362-e muxliT, `sasamarTloebisa da sxva organoebis dadgenilebaTa aRsrulebas<br />

awarmoebdnen sasamarTlo aRmasruleblebi, romlebic raionul (saqalaqo) saxalxo sasamarTloebTan<br />

funqcionirebdnen.~ 363-e muxliT, kvlav, `gadawyvetilebaTa droulad<br />

da sworad aRsrulebaze kontrols axorcielebs mosamarTle.~ SemdgomSi sasamarTlo<br />

aRmasruleblebi aRmoCndnen ormag daqvemdebarebaSi, kerZod, maT niSnavda da aTavisuflebda<br />

iusticiis ministri, Tumca, isini sasamarTloebTan iyvnen da maT xelmZRvanelobas<br />

sasamarTlos Tavmjdomare axorcielebda. aseTma Taviseburma ormagma daqvemdebarebam<br />

realurad gamoiwvia sasamarTlo aRmasruleblebis moqmedebaTa ukontroloba.<br />

61 garda aRniSnulisa, sasamarTlo aRmasruleblis moqmedebis kanonierebaze kontrols<br />

axorcielebda prokuratura. 62<br />

65


marTlmsajuleba<br />

N1<br />

da<br />

kanoni<br />

unda aRiniSnos, rom 1964 wlis redaqciis saqarTvelos ssr-is axali samoqalaqo samarTlis<br />

saproceso kodeqsiT arsebiTi cvlilebebi saaRsrulebo warmoebaSi ar ganxorcielebula.<br />

garda zemoaRniSnulisa, saaRsrulebo warmoeba regulirdeboda 1985<br />

wlis 15 noembers ssrk-is ministrTa sabWos brZanebiT damtkicebuli instruqciiT `saaRsrulebo<br />

warmoebaTa Sesaxeb.~ 63<br />

daskvna<br />

saqarTvelSi, sabWoTa aneqsiis Semdeg, Camoyalibda aRmasrulebel xelisuflebaze<br />

da mis politikur nebaze mniSvnelovnad damokidebuli sasamarTlo sistema. sabWoTa<br />

kanonmdebloba ar scnobda saxelmwifo xelisuflebis danawilebas ramdenime Stod.<br />

zemoaRniSnulidan gamomdinare, sasamarTlo organo sabWoTa periodSi saerTod ar<br />

ganixileboda, rogorc `xelisufleba~. sasamarTloze prokuraturis zedamxedveli<br />

funqcia mniSvnelovnad zRudavda mis damoukideblobas da Sesabamisad, gamoricxavda<br />

samarTliani sasamarTlos arsebobas. samoqalaqo saqmis ganxilvisas, sasamarTlos<br />

inkviciziuri xasiaTi, prokuroris monawileoba da misi SeuzRudavi roli ugulebelyofda<br />

iseT saproceso principebs, rogoricaa dispoziciurobis, SejibrebiTobis<br />

da sxva principi, rac procesis monawile mxareebis uflebaTa arsebiTad SelaxvaSi<br />

vlindeboda.<br />

marTalia, kanoniT aRiarebuli iyo mosamarTleTa damoukidebloba da mosamarTled<br />

gamweseba xdeboda arCevnebis gziT, magram, aRniSnuli realurad ver uzrunvelyofda<br />

maT damoukideblobas, vinaidan arCevnebi atarebda formalur xasiaTs da amasTan,<br />

aucilebeli iyo k<strong>and</strong>idatisaTvis komunisturi partiis wevroba, rac TavisTavad gamoricxavda<br />

mosamarTlis obieqturobas da damoukideblobas, vinaidan partiuli interesi<br />

yvela sxva interesze maRla idga. aseve, sabWoTa sasamarTlos erT-erTi uaryofiTi<br />

momenti iyo mosamarTleTa da msajulTa arakvalificiuroba.<br />

garda zemoaRniSnulisa, aseve, uaryofiTad unda Sefasdes sabWoTa sasamarTlo sistemaSi<br />

apelaciis uqonloba.<br />

rac Seexeba saaRsrulebo warmoebas, unda iTqvas, rom igi mTeli sabWoTa periodis<br />

ganmavlobaSi, rogorc saqarTveloSi, ise mTels sabWoTa kavSirSi naklebad efeqturi<br />

iyo.<br />

miuxedavad yovelive zemoaRniSnulisa, sabWoTa periodis samoqalaqo samarTalwarmoeba<br />

da aRsruleba ar SeiZleba Sefasdes mxolod uaryofiTad, vinaidan aRniSnuli<br />

periodis ganmavlobaSi, sxva rom araferi, dagrovda mdidari sasamarTlo praqtika.<br />

aseve, pozitiurad unda miviCnioT davebis gadawyvetis sasamarTlos alternatiuli<br />

saSualebebis _ arbitraJis, samediatoro da amxanaguri sasamarTloebis arseboba. Tumca,<br />

msgavsad sasamarTlo xelisuflebisa, aRniSnuli sistemebic gaxldnen politizebuli,<br />

vinaidan saqmis politikuri da saproceso mniSvneloba erTimeorisagan ganuyoflad<br />

iyo miCneuli. 64<br />

66


migvaCnia, rom Tanamedrove periodSi mimdinare samoqalaqo samarTalwarmoebis reformis<br />

warmatebisaTvis ualternativo gzaa aramarto sasamarTlo sistemis da saproceso<br />

kanonmdeblobis srulyofa, aramed iseTi sakanonmdeblo bazis Seqmna, romlis<br />

pirobebSic erT-erTi mniSvnelovani adgili samoqalaqo samarTalwarmoebis sistemaSi<br />

miCenili eqneba davaTa gadawyvetis saSualebebs sasamarTlos alternatiuli gzebiT.<br />

gamoyenebuli literatura<br />

1. Ghttp://ka.wikipedia.org/wiki/ saqarTvelos sabWoTa socialisturi<br />

respublika;<br />

2. sergi jafariZe, samoqalaqo procesi, iusticiis saxalxo komisariatis<br />

gamomcemloba, tfilisi, 1926, gv. 10;<br />

3. iqve, gv. 16;<br />

4. iqve, gv. 17;<br />

5. iqve, gv. 16;<br />

6. iqve, gv. 32;<br />

7. iqve, gv. 32;<br />

8. iqve, gv. 32;<br />

9. iqve, gv. 14;<br />

10. iqve, gv. 23;<br />

11. iqve, gv. 24;<br />

12. Ïðîô. Ãóðâè÷, Îñíîâû Ñîâåòñêîé êîíñòèòóöèè, èçä. 4-îå, ñò. 78-79;<br />

13. sergi jafariZe, samoqalaqo procesi, iusticiis saxalxo komisariatis<br />

gamomcemloba, tfilisi, 1926, gv. 66, 67;<br />

14. iqve, gv. 67, 68;<br />

15. iqve, gv. 68;<br />

16. iqve, gv. 142;<br />

17. iqve, gv. 143;<br />

18. iqve, gv. 144;<br />

19. iqve, gv. 144;<br />

20. iqve, gv. 145;<br />

21. iqve, gv. 145, 146;<br />

22. iqve, gv. 152;<br />

23. iqve, gv. 140;<br />

24. Ä. ß. Ìàëåèøèí, èñïîëíèòåüíîå ïðîèçâîäñòâî (ôóíêöèè ñóäà), 2-å<br />

èçäàíèå, ïåðåðàáîòàíîå è äîïîëíåíîå, îàî Èçäàòåëüñêèé äîì “Ãîðîäåö”,<br />

Ìîñêâà, 2005, ñ. 39;<br />

67


marTlmsajuleba<br />

N1<br />

da<br />

kanoni<br />

25. iqve, gv. 141;<br />

26. saqarTvelos ssr samoqalaqo samarTlis saproceso kodeqsi, gamomcemloba<br />

`saxelgami~, 1956;<br />

27. s. abramovi, samoqalaqo samarTlis procesi, wigni 5, saqarTvelos ssr<br />

saxelmwifo gamomcemloba, 1952, gv. 58;<br />

28. iqve, gv. 67;<br />

29. Âûñøèé ñóäåáíèé îðãàí ÑÑÑÐ, “Þðèäè÷åñêàÿ ëèòåðàòóðà”, Ìîñêâà,<br />

1984, ñ. 14;<br />

30. s. abramovi, samoqalaqo samarTlis procesi, wigni 5, saqarTvelos<br />

ssr saxelmwifo gamomcemloba, 1952, gv. 57, 58;<br />

31. iqve, gv. 63;<br />

32. Âûñøèé ñóäåáíèé îðãàí ÑÑÑÐ, “Þðèäè÷åñêàÿ ëèòåðàòóðà”, Ìîñêâà,<br />

1984, ñ. 12;<br />

33. iqve, gv. 15;<br />

34. b. a. liskoveci da g. v. Cugunovi, sasamarTlo gadawyvetilebaTa aRsruleba,<br />

saxalxo mosamarTlis biblioTeka, wigi 9, `saxelgami~, 1954,<br />

gv. 8, 9;<br />

35. iqve, gv. 39;<br />

36. iqve, gv. 14;<br />

37. iqve, gv. 44;<br />

38. s. abramovi, samoqalaqo samarTlis procesi, wigni 5, saqarTvelos<br />

ssr saxelmwifo gamomcemloba, 1952, gv. 213;<br />

39. iqve, gv. 214;<br />

40. b.a. liskoveci da g. v. Cugunovi, sasamarTlo gadawyvetilebaTa aRsruleba,<br />

saxalxo mosamarTlis biblioTeka, wigni 9, `saxelgami~, 1954,<br />

gv. 187;<br />

41. s. abramovi, samoqalaqo samarTlis procesi, wigni 5, saqarTvelos ssr<br />

saxelmwifo gamomcemloba, 1952, gv. 217;<br />

42. b.a. liskoveci da g. v. Cugunovi, sasamarTlo gadawyvetilebaTa aRsruleba,<br />

saxalxo mosamarTlis biblioTeka, wigni 9, `saxelgami~, 1954,<br />

gv. 170;<br />

43. s. abramovi, samoqalaqo samarTlis procesi, saxelmwifo gamomcemloba,<br />

1952, gv. 218;<br />

44. `saqarTvelos ssr umaRlesi sabWos uwyebebi~, 1964, #36, mux. 662;<br />

45. Àâòîðñêèé êîëëåêòèâ, Ñîâåòñêèé ãðàæäàíñêèé ïðîöåññ, èçä.-âî “Þðèäè-<br />

÷åñêàÿ ëèòåðàòóðà”, Ìîñêâà, 1985, ñ. 42;<br />

46. rene daviTi, Tanamdroveobis ZiriTadi samarTlebrivi sistemebi, gamomcemloba<br />

ganaTleba, Tbilisi, 1993, gv. 187;<br />

47. iqve, gv. 189;<br />

48. Âàøèíñêèé Å. Â., æóðíàë, “Àðáèòðàæíûé è ãðàæäàíñêèé ïðîöåññ”,<br />

èçäàòåëêàÿ ãðóïïà “Þðèñò”, 2003, ¹2, ñ. 12;<br />

49. À. Ñ. Áåçíàñþê, Õ.Ó. Ðóñòàìîâ, ”Ñóäåáíàÿ âëàñòü”, Ó÷åáíèê, èçä-âî<br />

þíèòè-äàíà, Ìîñêâà, 2002, ñ. 25;<br />

50. òàìæå. Ñ. 28;<br />

51. Âàøèíñêèé Å. Â., æóðíàë “Àðáèòðàæíûé è ãðàæäàíñêèé ïðîöåññ”,<br />

èçäàòåëüêàÿ ãðóïïà “Þðèñò”, 2003, ¹2, ñ.12;<br />

68


52. Ä.Õ. Ñàèäóìîâ, Íàó÷íî-ïðàêòè÷åñêèé æóðíàë “Ñîâðåìåííîå ïðàâî”,<br />

èçä-âî íîâûé èíäåêñ, 2010, ¹10, c. 98;<br />

53. qarTuli sabWoTa enciklopedia tomi I, specialuri samecniero<br />

redaqcia, Tbilisi 1975 w. gv. 547;<br />

54. Ä.Õ. ñàèäóìîâ, Íàó÷íî-ïðàòè÷åñêèé æóðíàë “Ñîâðåìåííîå ïðàâî”,<br />

èçä-âî íîâèé èíäåêñ, 2010, ¹10, c. 98;<br />

55. qarTuli sabWoTa enciklopedia tomi I, specialuri samecniero<br />

redaqcia, Tbilisi 1975 w. gv. 547;<br />

56. Àâòîðñêèé êîëëåêòèâ, Ñîâåòñêèé ãðàæäàíñêèé ïðîöåññ, èçä.-âî “Þðèäè÷åñêàÿ<br />

ëèòåðàòóðà”, Ìîñêâà, 1985, ñ. 438, 439;<br />

57. rene daviTi, Tanamdroveobis ZiriTadi samarTlebrivi sistemebi,<br />

gamomcemloba ganaTleba, Tbilisi 1993 w. gv. 181;<br />

58. qarTuli sabWoTa enciklopedia tomi I, specialuri samecniero<br />

redaqcia, Tbilisi 1975 w. gv. 547;<br />

59. Àâòîðñêèé êîëëåêòèâ, Ñîâåòñêèé ãðàæäàíñêèé ïðîöåññ, èçä.-âî “Þðèäè÷åñêàÿ<br />

ëèòåðàòóðà”, Ìîñêâà, 1985, ñ. 489, 490;<br />

60. qarTuli sabWoTa enciklopedia tomi I, specialuri samecniero<br />

redaqcia, Tbilisi 1975 w. gv. 417;<br />

61. Ä. ß. Ìàëåèøèí, Èñïîëíèòåëüíîå ïðîèçâîäñòâî (ôóíêöèè ñóäà), 2-å<br />

èçäàíèå, ïåðåðàáîòàííîå è äîïîëíåíîå, ÎÀÎ Èçäàòåëüêèé äîì “Ãîðîäåö”,<br />

Ìîñêâà, 2005, ñ. 40,41;<br />

62. Â.À. Ãóðååâ, Â.Â. Ãóùèí, Èñïîëíèòåëüíîå ïðîèçâîäñòâî, èçä.-âî “Åêñìî”,<br />

Ìîñêâà, 2009, ñ. 42;<br />

63. iqve, gv. 43;<br />

64. s. abramovi, samoqalaqo samarTlis procesi, wigni 5, saqarTvelos ssr<br />

saxelmwifo gamomcemloba, 1952, gv. 56.<br />

69


marTlmsajuleba<br />

N1<br />

da<br />

kanoni<br />

ISSUES OF CIVIL<br />

PROCEEDINGS AND<br />

EXECUTION IN<br />

THE SOVIET GEORGIA<br />

ZURAB CHKONIA<br />

Doctoral C<strong>and</strong>idate, Technical University of Georgia<br />

After the Soviet annexation of Georgia, the Judicial system of the state<br />

became significantly dependant upon the executive authorities <strong>and</strong> their political<br />

wills. The Soviet legislation did not recognize the separation of state<br />

authorities into several branches. Therefore, during the Soviet era, the judicial<br />

body was not considered as an “authority” at all. The supervisory function<br />

of the prosecutor’s office over the judiciary, limited its independence<br />

<strong>and</strong> accordingly possibility of having fair trial was completely excluded. While<br />

considering the civil cases, the inquisitive nature of the court, prosecutor’s<br />

participation <strong>and</strong> his/her unrestricted role would disregard proceeding principles<br />

of disposition, adversity <strong>and</strong> others, that were reflected in substantial<br />

violation of the rights of the Parties.<br />

The law officially recognized the independence of judges <strong>and</strong> they were<br />

elected on the bases of elections, but in reality, it still failed to guarantee their<br />

independence. The elections were just a formality <strong>and</strong> at the same time, the<br />

potential c<strong>and</strong>idates were required to be the members of the Communist<br />

party, which automatically excluded the possibility of having objective <strong>and</strong><br />

independent judge, since the Party interest was the priority. Lack of qualified<br />

judges was one more negative side of the Soviet Judiciary.<br />

Besides the above mentioned, the negative side of the soviet system was<br />

the lack of possibility for the appeal.<br />

As for the execution proceedings, we should say that during the entire<br />

period of soviet time, in Georgia, as well as in entire Soviet Union, it was less<br />

effective.<br />

70


Besides all above mentioned, the civil case proceedings during the soviet time <strong>and</strong> the execution may not be<br />

evaluated only as negative. Along with other things, during this period, we have collected a very reach court<br />

practice. Also, a very positive thing was possibility of alternative dispute resolution through arbitrage, mediation<br />

<strong>and</strong> friendship courts. Although, similar to the judiciary, the above-mentioned systems were also extremely politicized.<br />

As the procedural <strong>and</strong> political meaning of the case were not differentiated.<br />

We believe that in modern times, in order to ensure the success of the civil case proceedings, the only successful<br />

way is not just reformation of the judiciary <strong>and</strong> procedural legislations, but also introducing the legislation that<br />

will allow <strong>and</strong> even prioritize the alternative dispute resolutions in civil case proceedings.<br />

71


marTlmsajuleba<br />

N1<br />

da<br />

kanoni<br />

vindikaciuri sarCeli,<br />

rogorc sanivTo<br />

uflebis dacvis<br />

samarTlebrivi saSualeba<br />

Ibi jus, ibi remedium _ sadac uflebaa, iqvea misi dacvis saSualebac<br />

laura miqava<br />

zugdidis raionuli sasamarTlos mosamarTle,<br />

ivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo<br />

universitetis iuridiuli fakultetis doqtoranti<br />

sakuTrebis uflebis dacva samarTlis arsebobisa da samarTlebrivi<br />

sistemis funqcionirebis erT-erTi umniSvnelovanesi<br />

qvakuTxedia. sakuTrebis ufleba adamianis<br />

fundamentur uflebaTa ricxvs ganekuTvneba, romlis gareSec<br />

SeuZlebelia demokratiuli saxelmwifos arseboba.<br />

saqarTvelos sakonstituco sasamarTlos erT-erT gadawyvetilebaSi<br />

vkiTxulobT: `sakuTreba aris instituti, romelic<br />

saxelmwifos ekonomikur safuZvels warmoadgens.<br />

sakuTrebis uflebis dacva ucxoa totalitaruli saxelmwifosaTvis,<br />

xolo demokratiuli, samarTlebrivi da socialuri<br />

saxelmwifosaTvis sasicocxlod aucilebelia<br />

erTi mxriv, sakuTrebis, rogorc institutis konstituciursamarTlebrivi<br />

garantireba, xolo meore mxriv _ mesakuTrisaTvis,<br />

rogorc subieqtisaTvis uflebis samarTlebrivi<br />

dacvis sakmarisi saSualebebis miniWeba, misi xel-<br />

Sewyobisa da uzrunvelyofis garantiebis Seqmna. sakuTrebis<br />

uflebis ignorireba gamoricxavs Tavisufali sabazro<br />

ekonomikis ganviTarebas mTlianad sazogadoebisa da mis<br />

calkeul wevrTa Rirseuli cxovrebis uzrunvelyofas da<br />

politikur, ekonomikur Tu socialur stabilurobas. de-<br />

72


mokratiuli, samarTlebrivi da socialuri saxelmwifos ekonomikuri siZliere swored<br />

sakuTrebis uflebis pativiscemasa da dacvas eyrdnoba.~ 1<br />

sakuTrebis ufleba warmoSobilia adamianis bunebidan, vinaidan igi individualuri<br />

survilebis ganviTarebis saSualebaa. sakuTreba fundamentur rols asrulebs ekonomikaSi<br />

imdenad, ramdenadac uzrunvelyofs qonebis mimoqcevas, mis moxmarebasa da eqspluatacias,<br />

simdidris wyaros. sakuTreba aris konkretuli gamoyeneba Tavisuflebisa<br />

romelic icavs adamianebis Tanasworobas sakuTrebaze Tavisuflad xelmisawvdomobis<br />

meSveobiT da aseve, icavs maT Rirsebas, qonebis gamoyenebisas pasuxismgeblobis gziT.<br />

sakuTreba sazogadoebrivi urTierTobebisa da ekonomikuri saqmianobis safuZvelia,<br />

misi dacva Tanabar SesaZleblobas iZleva, arapirdapir uzrunvelvyoT mTeli rigi fundamenturi<br />

uflebebis dacva (mrewvelobis Tavisufleba, socialuri da ekonomikuri<br />

urTierTobebis Tavisufleba, Tanasworoba, Rirseba, samarTali). 2<br />

bunebrivia, demokratiuli saxelmwifos arseboba praqtikulad, SeuZlebelia sakuTrebis<br />

uflebis dasacavad myari samarTlebrivi garantiebis Seqmnisa da maTi realurad<br />

uzrunvelyofis gareSe.<br />

rogorc zemoT aRiniSna, sakuTrebis ufleba waruvali da uzenaesi adamianuri Rirebulebaa,<br />

demokratiuli sazogadoebisa da samarTlebrivi saxelmwifos qvakuTxedia.<br />

Tumca, sakuTrebis uflebis ganxorcielebam ar unda daarRvios sxvaTa uflebebi, sakuTrebiT<br />

sargebloba imavdroulad unda emsaxurebodes saerTo keTildReobas, vinaidan<br />

sakuTreba adamianis yofierebis arsebiTi safuZvelia. aseve aRiniSna isic, rom<br />

sakuTrebis ufleba adamianis ZiriTad uflebaTa jgufs ganekuTvneba, xolo `ZiriTadi<br />

uflebebis dacva SeuZlebelia, Tuki, ar arsebobs uflebaTa saerTo wesrigi. es wesrigi<br />

adamianis organizmiviTaa da rac ufro janmrTelia igi, miT ufro garantirebulia<br />

aRniSnuli uflebebis dacva. sakuTrebis uflebis garantiebs sakuTrebiTi wesrigi<br />

qmnis. samoqalaqo brunvis wesrigi safuZvelia samoqalaqo uflebebis realizaciisaTvis.<br />

nebismieri uflebis dacva samarTlebrivi wesrigis sivrceSi unda jdebodes~. 3 saqarTveloSi<br />

sakuTrebis arsebobis da dacvis fundamentur garantias qmnis saqarTvelos<br />

konstitucia, romlis 21-e muxlis pirveli punqtis Tanaxmad, `sakuTreba da memkvidreobis<br />

ufleba aRiarebuli da uzrunvelyofilia. dauSvebelia sakuTrebis, misi SeZenis,<br />

gasxvisebis an memkvidreobiT miRebis sayovelTao uflebis gauqmeba.~ sakuTrebis ufleba<br />

aRiarebulia adamianis uflebaTa da ZiriTad TavisuflebaTa dacvis evropuli<br />

konvenciis pirveli damatebiTi oqmiT, romlis pirveli muxlis Tanaxmad: `yovel fizikur<br />

da iuridiul pirs aqvs Tavisi sakuTrebiT Seuferxeblad sargeblobis ufleba...~<br />

2001 wlis 27 dekembers, saqarTvelos parlamentma 1950 wlis evropuli konvenciis pirveli<br />

damatebiTi oqmis ratificireba moaxdina, 4 riTac Tavisi iurisdiqciis farglebSi,<br />

sakuTar Tavze aiRo sakuTrebis uflebis dacvis uzrunvelyofis valdebuleba. swored<br />

saxelmwifos valdebuleba, uzrunvelyos sakuTrebis ufleba, moiTxovs Sesabamisi samarTlebrivi<br />

wesrigis, maT Soris, kerZosamarTlebrivi wesrigis Seqmnas. sakuTrebis<br />

uflebis sruli da efeqtiani dacvisaTvis aucilebelia adekvaturi, srulyofili da<br />

detalurad gawerili procedurebis arseboba, raTa mesakuTrem SeZlos qonebis kuTvnilebis<br />

marTlzomierebaze dava da am gziT uzrunvelyofil iqnes sakuTrebis insti-<br />

73


marTlmsajuleba<br />

N1<br />

da<br />

kanoni<br />

tutis xelSeuxebloba. yovelive es kanonmdebels avaldebulebs, Seqmnas materialur<br />

da procesualur normaTa iseTi sistema, romelic am institutis arsebobas eWvqveS ar<br />

daayenebs.<br />

samarTlebriv saxelmwifoSi yvelaze mniSvnelovania samarTlebrivi garantiebi sakuTrebis<br />

uflebebis dacvis sferoSi. Tavis mxriv, sakuTrebis uflebebis dacvis garantiebi<br />

gamoxatulebas poulobs kanonis calkeul normebSi, romlebic akontroleben<br />

sakuTrebasTan dakavSirebul uflebebs, adgenen misi ganxorcielebis wesebsa da dacvis<br />

saSualebebs. es normebi unda icavdes TiToeuli piris sakuTrebis uflebas, rac aseve,<br />

moicavs mesakuTris samarTlebriv SesaZleblobas, nebismieri sxva piris mxridan mis<br />

sakuTrebaSi ukanono Carevis SemTxvevaSi, sakuTrebis uflebis dasacavad sarCeliT<br />

warsdges sasamarTloSi. sainteresoa, evro sasamarTlos ganmarteba, sadac saubaria,<br />

rom `nebismieri RonisZieba, romelic ereva sakuTrebiT daubrkoleblad sargeblobis<br />

uflebis gamoyenebaSi, samarTlian wonasworobas unda amyarebdes sazogadoebis zogadi<br />

interesis moTxovnilebebsa da individis ZiriTadi uflebebis dacvis moTxovnebs<br />

Soris.~ 5 aqve unda aRiniSnos, rom demokratiul sazogadoebaSi sakuTrebis uflebis<br />

garanti kanonis uzenaesobaa, xolo kanonis uzenaesobis umaRlesi damcveli _ sasamar-<br />

Tlo. davis SemTxvevaSi, mxolod sasamarTlos gziT sakuTrebis dacvas SeuZlia uzrunvelyos<br />

am fundamenturi uflebis realizacia.<br />

sasamarTlos gziT sakuTrebis uflebis dacvis samoqalaqosamarTlebriv saSualebebs<br />

Soris erT-erT umniSvnelovanes da uZveles samarTlebriv meqanizms vindikaciuri<br />

sarCeli warmoadgens, romlis ZaliTac mesakuTre uflebamosilia sxvisi ukanono mflobelobidan<br />

gamoiTxovos nivTi (moaxdinos nivTis vindicireba). vindikaciuri sarCeli,<br />

rogorc sakuTrebis uflebis dacvis sanivTosamarTlebrivi saSualeba, uzrunvelyofs<br />

kanonis ZaliT sakuTrebis uflebis dacvas. vindikaciur sarCels mravali qveynis samar-<br />

Tali icnobs, Tavdapirvelad ki, igi Zveli romis civilur samarTalSi warmoiSva (rei<br />

vindicatio da actio negatoria). gaiusis 6 azriT _ sanivToa sarCeli (actio in rem), roca vacxadebT<br />

pretenzias sxeulebrivi nivTis kuTvnilebaze. nivTze sakuTrebis uflebis warmoSobisaTvis<br />

romis samarTlis mixedviT saWiro iyo nivTis gadacema _ "tradicio". adamianebs<br />

Soris nivTebis Taobaze warmoqmnili urTierTobebi sanivTo samarTliT wesrigdeboda,<br />

romliTac calkeul pirTa an pirTa jgufebisaTvis nivTebis kuTvnilebis forma da maTi<br />

sruli gankargvis dadgena xdeboda. Zveli romauli samarTlis mixedviT nivTze sakuTrebis<br />

uflebis (dominium) 7 safuZvelze, nivTis mimarT nivTis mesakuTres absoluturi<br />

samarTlebrivi pozicia hqonda. nivTze sakuTrebis uflebis Taobaze gamarTul sasamar-<br />

Tlo procesze (in rem) mesakuTres, nebismier mesame pirze, maT Soris, imave nivTze raime<br />

sxva uflebis mqoneze, gacilebiT myari samarTlebrivi mdgomareoba hqonda. amitom<br />

sakuTrebis uflebiT yovelgvari samarTlebrivi SezRudvis gareSe, nivTze piris abstraqtuli<br />

kuTvnileba (proprietas) sruli moculobiT igulisxmeboda. maSasadame, mxolod<br />

mesakuTres SeeZlo eTqva, rom nivTi mxolod mas ekuTvnoda (meum esse aio).<br />

romauli samarTlis mixedviT, `vindikaciur sarCelze ufleba mesakuTres eniWeboda<br />

im SemTxvevaSi, rodesac vinme TavisTan akavebda mesakuTris kuTvnil nivTs da ar ubrunebda<br />

mas. amdenad, pirs sakuTrebis uflebis srulad darRvevisas rei vindicatio<br />

74


eniWeboda. 8 `vindikaciuri sarCelis meSveobiT mflobel aramesakuTres edaveboda<br />

mesakuTre aramflobeli. TiToeuli modave mxareTagani acxadebda magistratis winaSe<br />

sakuTari mesakuTruli uflebebis Sesaxeb da Tavisi naTqvamis dasadastureblad joxs<br />

_ `viniktas~ daadebda sadavo nivTs. aqedan warmoiSva saxelwodeba – vindikacuri<br />

procesi, sadac mosarCeles awva mtkicebis tvirTi _ `onus propadi~. es ki imas niSnavda,<br />

rom mosarCeles unda emtkicebina, rom sadavo nivTi mas ekuTvnoda sakuTrebis uflebiT,<br />

xolo mopasuxe ar iyo valdebuli raime emtkicebina misi uflebis Sesaxeb. `iTvleboda,<br />

rom mopasuxis sasargeblod metyvelebda TviT nivTis flobis faqti. im SemTxvevaSi,<br />

Tu mosarCele ver SeZlebda Tavisi kanonieri uflebis damtkicebas, rom nivTi<br />

mas ekuTvnoda sakuTrebis uflebiT, mas sarCelze uars etyodnen. romis samoqalaqo<br />

samarTals Camoyalibebuli hqonda wesi: sadac me vipovni Cems nivTs, iq vavendicireb _<br />

vibruneb (Ubi meam rem invenio, ibi eam vindicio). Rei indicatio-s meSveobiT xdeboda mesakuTris<br />

uflebis dacva, romelsac misi nebis sawinaaRmdegod CamoarTves nivTis flobis ufleba.<br />

civilur mesakuTres SeeZlo vindikaciuri sarCelis wardgena im SemTxvevaSi, Tu<br />

moxdeboda mis sakuTrebaSi arsebuli nivTis flobis xelyofa. mosarCele sasarCelo<br />

moTxovnas im mopasuxes uyenebda, romelic uSualod flobda sadavo nivTs.<br />

rogorc zemoT aRiniSna, davis SemTxvevaSi, mopasuxes ukeTesi mdgomareoba hqonda,<br />

vinaidan swored mosarCeles awva mtkicebis tvirTi, rom sadavo nivTze sakuTrebis ufleba<br />

mxolod mas ekuTvnoda, amitom xSirad vindikaciur process win uswrebda ganxilva,<br />

Tu ramdenad marTlzomierad flobda nivTs mopasuxe. romauli samarTlis mixedviT,<br />

nivTze mflobelobis aRdgena sami aspeqtis gaTvaliswinebiT unda momxdariyo: 1. nivTis<br />

nayofisa da damatebiTi nawilebis daangariSeba; 2. im xarjebis dacva, rolmlebic nivTis<br />

mflobelma nivTis mimarT gaswia; 3. nivTisaTvis miyenebuli zianis an zaralis Sedegebi.<br />

samive aspeqtis Sinaarsze gavlenas axdenda mosamarTlis gadawyvetileba imis Taobaze,<br />

iyo Tu ara nivTis faqtobrivi mflobeli-mopasuxe keTilsindisieri an arakeTilsindisieri<br />

(possessio icesta, possesssio inuista (vitiosa)) SemZeni.<br />

romis samarTlis mixedviT, nivTi mesakuTres ubrundeboda nayofisa da namatis CaTvliT.<br />

mflobelis mier nivTis mimarT gaweuli xarjebi sami kriteriumiT fasdeboda: 1.<br />

aucilebeli xarjebi, romelTa gaweva gardauvali iyo nivTis Senaxvis mizniT; 2. sasargeblo<br />

xarjebi, romlebmac xeli Seuwyves nivTis gadidebas an gaumjobesebas; 3. TviTneburi<br />

an fuWi xarjebi, romelTa mizani ar iyo sameurneo efeqtis miReba da Sesabamisad,<br />

ar SeiZleboda maTi xarjebis safasurSi CaTvla. klasikur samarTalSi, keTilsindisieri<br />

mflobelis mier gaweuli saWiro da sasargeblo xarjebis anazRaureba nivTis mesakuTres<br />

evaleboda, Tu aseTi xarjebis gaweva davis sagnis (litis colntestatio) dadgenamde<br />

moxdeboda. keTilsindisieri mflobeli mxolod im zianis gamo agebda pasuxs, romelic<br />

nivTs misi braleuli qmedebis Sedegad miadga, Tumca, mxolod davis sagnis (litis colntestatio)<br />

dadgenamde da araviTar SemTxvevaSi, mis Semdgom. arakeTilsindisieri mflobeli ki,<br />

pasuxismgebeli iyo nebismier viTarebaSi. `nivTi mesakuTres ubrundeboda mflobelis<br />

keTilsindisierebis miuxedavad, vinaidan romis samoqalaqo samarTali idga SeuzRudavi<br />

vindikaciis poziciaze.~ 9 qarTul feodalur samarTalSic sapatio adgili hqonda daTmobili<br />

vindikacias. amasTan dakavSirebiT vaxtang meeqvsis samarTlis wignma Semogvinaxa<br />

75


marTlmsajuleba<br />

N1<br />

da<br />

kanoni<br />

Zveli qarTuli wesi _ `kaci Tavis saqonels icnobs, Suas wyalSi CaeWidebiso~ (158-e<br />

muxli).~ 10<br />

romanul-germanuli samarTlebrivi sistemis qveynebSi sakuTrebis uflebis dasacavad<br />

aseve, gamoiyeneba vindikaciuri sarCeli _ sasarCelo moTxovnis gziT mesakuTris<br />

mier sxvisi ukanono mflobelobidan nivTis gamoTxovaze. imdenad, ramdenadac vindikaciur<br />

sarCels aqvs mizani daicvas mesakuTris interesi konkretuli obieqtis mimarT,<br />

romelic gamovida mesakuTris xelidan da ara raime kompensaciis micema nivTis dakargvis<br />

safasurad, is gankuTvnilia mesakuTris uflebis dasacavad individualurad gansazRvrul<br />

saqonelze an im sagnebze, romlebic SeiZleba iyvnen individualizebulni.<br />

es ar niSnavs, rom gansazRvrul situaciaSi vindikaciuri sarCelis wardgena ar SeiZleba<br />

damTavrdes mosarCelis mimarT saTanado anazRaurebis gadaxdiT. aseTi anazRaureba<br />

gaTvaliswinebulia germaniis samoqalaqo samarTalSi, kerZod, im SemTxvevaSi, rodesac<br />

sasamarTloSi saqmis aRZvris Semdeg, saqoneli daiRupa mflobeli-mopasuxis braliT<br />

(par. 989 gsk). 11<br />

romis samarTlis gavleniT, rei vindicatio-s iTvaliswinebs franguli samarTali.<br />

Tumca, aRniSnuli sarCelebi, safrangeTis samoqalaqo kodeqsis normaTa Sinaarsidan<br />

gamomdinare, eniWeboda, rogorc wesi, mxolod miwis nakveTis mesakuTres. 12 safrangeTSi<br />

wesebi vindikaciur sarCelze ar aris gaTvaliswinebuli samoqalaqo kodeqsiT, magram<br />

damuSavebulia doqtriniT da sasamarTlo praqtikiT. 13 aseTi SezRudva ar arsebobs<br />

germaniis samoqalaqo kodeqsSi, romelSic sakuTrebis uflebidan gamomdinare, moTxovnis<br />

uflebebi, maT Soris, nivTis ukanono mflobelobidan gamoTxovis Sesaxeb moTxovnebi<br />

SemuSavebulia mesame wignis meoTxe TavSi (par. 985-1007 gsk); italiis samoqalaqo<br />

kodeqsSi sakuTrebis uflebidan gamomdinare moTxovnis uflebebs daTmobili aqvs 948-<br />

949 muxlebi; kvebekis samoqalaqo kodeqsSi _ 929-e, 953-e muxlebi; hol<strong>and</strong>iis samoqalaqo<br />

kodeqsSi ki, 5:1 muxlis me-2 punqti.<br />

germaniis samoqalaqo kodeqsis mixedviT vindikaciuria sarCeli, rodesac qonebis<br />

aramflobeli mesakuTre sarCeliT iTxovs mflobeli aramesakuTris mier am qonebis<br />

dabrunebas (par. 985, 1004 gsk). germaniis samoqalaqo samarTalSi arsebobs prezumfcia,<br />

rom moZravi qonebis mflobeli iTvleba mis mesakuTred (par. 1006 gsk); safrangeTis<br />

samoqalaqo kodeqsis mixedviT (2279 fsk) `moZravi qonebis mflobeloba erTgvarovania<br />

masze uflebamosilebis~ (analogiurad aris mowesrigebuli es sakiTxi Sveicariis samoqalaqo<br />

kodeqsiT _ 930 Ssk). `mesakuTres, romelic axorcielebs vindikacias nivTze<br />

(saqonelze) SeuZlia mimarTos sxvadasxva xerxs, raTa gaaqarwylos miTiTebuli prezumfcia<br />

da mtkiceba imisa, rom mopasuxe aris am qonebis mflobeli. uwinares yovlisa, mesakuTres<br />

aqvs saSualeba amtkicos, rom mopasuxis mier ganxorcielebuli mflobeloba<br />

ar Seesabameba moTxovnebs, romlebsac iTvaliswinebs kanoni mflobelobis dacvaze, mopasuxem<br />

unda amtkicos kanonieri safuZvlis arseboba _ masze gacemuli sakuTrebis<br />

ufleba, miuxedavad imisa, rom es ewinaaRmdegeba prezumfcias _ dawesebuls mis sasargeblod<br />

da Tu is ver SeZlebs daamtkicos aRniSnulis arseboba, nivTi iqneba gamoTxovili,<br />

anu CamorTmeuli mosarCele-mesakuTris sasargeblod; mesakuTris interesebis<br />

dasacavad SeiZleba gamoyenebul iqnes sxva xerxic, kerZod, mas aqvs ufleba warmo-<br />

76


adginos mopasuxis mier mflobelobis ganxorcielebis arakeTilsindisieri xasiaTis<br />

mtkicebulebebi. am SemTxvevaSi zemoT naxsenebi prezumfcia ar aTavisuflebs mopasuxemflobels<br />

nivTze misi mflobelobis safuZvlebze miTiTebisagan, kerZod, man unda<br />

waradginos mtkicebuleba (aqti), ris safuZvelzec mas ergo es nivTi dabolos, mosarCele-mesakuTrem<br />

SeiZleba miuTiTos mtkicebulebaze, rom mopasuxem arakeTilsindisierad<br />

Caigdo xelSi nivTi. magaliTad: icoda, rom is iyo moparuli, dakarguli an<br />

sxvagvarad gasuli mesakuTris mflobelobidan, es debuleba, rogorc gamonaklisi saerTo<br />

prezumfciisagan (par. 1006) aRiarebulia agreTve, franguli sasamarTlo praqtikiT.<br />

vindikaciis pirobebSi mesakuTre valdebulia daamtkicos ara marto qurdobis<br />

faqti an nivTis dakargva (gaqroba) misi nebis gareSe, aramed nivTis SemZeni mopasuxemflobelis<br />

arakeTilsindisiereba. ganviTarebuli qveynebis samoqalaqo samarTali (par.<br />

932 gsk, 933 Ssk, 2-403 aSS, franguli sasamarTlo praqtika), romelic uzrunvlyofs<br />

keTilsindisieri SemZenis intersebis dacvas, iTvaliswinebs seriozul zRvars mesakuTris<br />

mier nivTis gamoTxovaze. saerTo principis Tanaxmad, nivTi SeiZleba iyos gamoTxovili<br />

mesakuTris mier mxolod arakeTilsindisieri mflobelisagan. 14 aseT mflobelad<br />

igulisxmeba pirovneba, romelic marTlsawinaaRmdegod daeufla nivTs, an icoda, rom<br />

iZens am nivTs arauflebamosili pirisagan (magaliTad, Semnaxvelisagan, romelic mar-<br />

TlsawinaaRmdegod daeufla aRniSnul nivTs _ par. 932 gsk). keTilsindisieri mflobelis<br />

uflebebi kanoniT daculia am nivTis aramflobeli mesakuTrisagan. keTilsindisierad<br />

iTvleba is mflobeli, romelic uxeSi daudevrobis gareSe moqmedebs, ar icis,<br />

rom nivTi (saqoneli) ar ekuTvnis mis gamsxvisebels (par. 932 gsk). gamonakliss warmoadgens<br />

mxolod SemTxveva, roca xdeba iseTi nivTis ukan dabruneba, romelic gamosulia<br />

mesakuTris mflobelobidan misi nebis gareSe. nivTis vindikaciis SemTxvevaSi, romelic<br />

SeZenil iqna sajaro bazrobaze (par. 932-935 gsk). 15 moZravi nivTi, keTilsindisierad<br />

SeZenili nebismieri pirisagan, maT Soris, mis gasxvisebaze arauflebamosilisaganac,<br />

ar SeiZleba gamoTxovil iqnes mesakuTris mier, is xdeba SemZenis sakuTreba. `piri, romelsac<br />

aqvs sakamaTo tituli, SeuZlia gadasces srulfasovani tituli keTilsindisier<br />

SemZens anazRaurebad sawyisebze~ (2-403 aSS). aseTi pozicia ganapirobebs saxelmwifos<br />

miswrafebas gaamartivos samoqalaqo brunva, gamoricxos SemZenis mier yvela SemTxvevaSi,<br />

Semowmeba gamsxviseblis uflebamosilebisa, rac xels uSlis samoqalaqo brunvis<br />

ganviTarebas. miwasTan dakavSirebuli saqmianoba eqvemdebareba specialur gaformebas,<br />

sadac ufro advilia gamsxviseblis uflebis dadgena. saerTo wesidan keTilsindisieri<br />

SemZenis dasacavad keTdeba gamonaklisi imasTan dakavSirebiT, Tu ra pirobebSi dakarga<br />

mesakuTrem qoneba, pirveli gamonaklisi aris nivTis dakargva mesakuTris nebis gareSe.<br />

safrangeTis samoqalaqo kodeqsis Tanaxmad, qurdobis an sxva gziT nivTis dakargvisas<br />

mesakuTres aqvs ufleba mosTxovos nivTi keTilsindisier mflobels sami wlis vadaSi<br />

dRidan dakargvisa an qurdobisa (2279 fsk), germaniis samoqalaqo kodeqsis mixedviT,<br />

mesakuTre uflebamosilia mosTxovos keTilsindisier SemZens praqtikulad, yvela<br />

saqonlis dabruneba, romelic misi nebis gareSea gasuli misi mflobelobidan. meore<br />

gamonaklisi exeba saqonlis vindikacias, romelic SeZenilia sajaro vaWrobis dros<br />

(auqcionze). germaniis samoqalaqo kodeqsis Tanaxmad, aseT SemTxvevaSi, ar aris daSve-<br />

77


marTlmsajuleba<br />

N1<br />

da<br />

kanoni<br />

buli nivTis gamoTxova mesakuTris mier (par. 935 gsk). franguli samarTliT vindikacia<br />

SeiZleba nivTis keTilsindisieri SemZenisagan, magram im pirobiT rom mas gadaecema<br />

fuladi anazRaureba, rac man gadaixada am nivTze (2280 fsk). amavdroulad mesakuTre<br />

uflebamosilia moiTxovos misi saqonlis ara marto dabruneba, aramed nivTis nayofi<br />

da Semosavalic. arakeTilsindisieri mflobeli valdebulia gadasces yvela nayofi da<br />

Semosavali, romelic miRebuli aqvs qonebis gamoyenebis dros, keTilsindisieri<br />

mflobeli ki, valdebulia gadasces is nayofi da Semosavali, romelic miRebulia im<br />

droidan, roca man gaigo arakanonier mflobelobaze an sarCelis wardgenis mere. Tu<br />

es saqoneli mas aqvs SeZenili anazRaurebis gareSe, maSin is valdebulia nayofi da Semosavali<br />

gadasces usafuZvlo gamdidrebis wesiT (par. 987-988, 990 gsk). garda valdebulebisa,<br />

daubrunos nayofi da Semosavali, mflobeli valdebulia aunazRauros mesakuTres<br />

dakarguli sargebeli (par. 987 gsk). Tanaxmad kvebekis samoqalaqo kodeqsisa,<br />

nayofsa da Semosavals ubrunebs mxolod keTilsindisieri mflobeli im droidan, roca<br />

misi mflobeloba gaxda arakeTilsindisieri. mflobels, visganac vindicirebulia (gamoTxovilia)<br />

nivTi, aqvs ufleba aunazRauron aucilebeli xarjebi mis Senaxvaze. rogorc<br />

keTilsindisier, ise arakeTilsindisier mflobels aqvs ufleba Sesabamisi anaz-<br />

Raurebis: safrangeTSi _ mTeli mflobelobis dros (1381 fsk), germaniaSi _ sasamarTloSi<br />

sarCelis aRZvramde (par. 994 gsk), Sveicariis samoqalaqo kodeqsiT, mxolod ke-<br />

Tilsindisier mflobels aqvs ufleba xarjebis anazRaurebaze da rogorc germanul<br />

samarTalSi _ aqvs ufleba iqonios nivTi im dromde, vidre meore mxare ar aanazRaurebs<br />

xarjebs (939-940 Ssk, par. 1000 gsk). mflobels aseve, aqvs ufleba moiTxovos xarjebis<br />

anazRaureba, romelic man gaswia saqonlis gaumjobesebaze im dromde, roca misTvis<br />

cnobili gaxda samarTlebrivi safuZvlis gareSe, mflobelobis Sesaxeb. safrangeTSi,<br />

SveicariaSi, germaniaSi aseT xarjebs uwodeben sasargeblo xarjebs (1381 fsk, 939 Ssk).<br />

Tanaxmad, germaniis samoqalaqo kodeqsisa, isini ganisazRvrebian, rogorc mflobelis<br />

xarjebi, ris gamoc gaizarda saqonlis Rirebuleba (par. 996 gsk). 16 aRniSnulidan gamomdinare,<br />

vindikaciuri sarCelis pirobebSi mesakuTrisa da nivTis mflobels Soris<br />

urTierTobebi moicavs Semdegi saxis urTierTmavaldebulebel moTxovnebs: ‘roca mesakuTres<br />

SeuZlia mosTxovos mflobels nivTis gadacema; roca mesakuTres aqvs ufleba<br />

mosTxovos zaralis anazRaureba nivTis gauaresebis an ganadgurebasTan dakavSirebiT;<br />

mesakuTres SeuZlia mosTxovos Semosavlebis dabruneba, miRebuli mflobelis mier<br />

nivTis gamoyenebis Sedegad; roca mesakuTre piriqiT, valdebulia aunazRauros mflobels<br />

xarjebi, romlebic dakavSirebulia nivTis SenaxvasTan (e. w. `saWiro xarjebi~). 17<br />

naTelia, rom vindikaciuri sarCelis arsi sakuTrebis absoluturi bunebidan momdinareobs.<br />

saqarTvelos samoqalaqo kodeqsis 170-e muxlis Tanaxmad, mesakuTres SeuZlia<br />

kanonismieri an sxvagvari, kerZod, saxelSekrulebo SeboWvis farglebSi Tavisuflad<br />

flobdes da sargeblobdes qonebiT (nivTiT), ar dauSvas sxva pirTa mier am qonebiT<br />

sargebloba, gankargos igi. amave muxlis me-3 nawilis, agreTve ssk 158-e muxlis Sesabamisad,<br />

mesakuTres ufleba aqvs ar flobdes an ar sargeblobdes kuTvnili nivTiT.<br />

amdenad, mesakuTres aqvs sakuTari nivTis Tavisufali flobisa da sargeblobis ufleba,<br />

Tu ar arsebobs sargeblobis aucilebeli socialuri interesi. es ki, gulisxmobs<br />

78


mesakuTris Tavisuflebas, nebismier dros daeuflos kuTvnil nivTs an isargeblos am<br />

nivTiT, maT Soris, gamoiTxovos kuTvnili nivTi sxva piris ukanono mflobelobidan.<br />

ukanono mflobelobidan nivTis gamoTxovis ufleba mesakuTris prerogativaa da mas<br />

SeuZlia nivTis mflobels mosTxovos nivTis dabruneba sasamarTloSi sarCelis Setanis<br />

gziT. yovel konkretul SemTxvevaSi, vindikaciuri sarCelis aRZvris safuZveli vlindeba<br />

ukanono mflobelobaSi arsebuli qonebis gamoTxovaSi _ ukanono, anu samarTlebrivi<br />

safuZvlis gareSe, mesakuTris nebis sawinaaRmdegod arsebuli qonebis mopasuxis<br />

mflobelobidan gamoTxovaSi. maSasadame, gansaxilveli sarCeli miznad isaxavs<br />

arauflebamosil pirTagan nivTis gamoTxovas da mis gadacemas uflebamosili pirisaTvis.<br />

aRniSnul urTierTobas awesrigebs saqarTvelos samoqalaqo kodeqsis 172-e muxlis<br />

pirveli nawili, kerZod, `mesakuTres SeuZlia mflobels mosTxovos nivTis ukan dabruneba,<br />

garda im SemTxevebisa, roca mflobels hqonda am nivTis flobis ufleba~. mflobelis<br />

mimarT mesakuTres wardgenili unda hqondes dasabuTebuli pretenzia, amisaTvis<br />

vindikaciuri sarCeli unda akmayofilebdes ssk 172-e muxlis pirveli nawilis Semadgenel<br />

sam elements:<br />

1. mosarCele unda iyos nivTis mesakuTre;<br />

2. mopasuxe unda iyos nivTis mflobeli;<br />

3. mopasuxes ar unda hqondes am nivTis flobis ufleba (normis aRwerilobiTi nawilis<br />

e.w. negatiuri, uaryofiTi Semadgeneli elementi).<br />

mxolod mas Semdeg, rodesac mosamarTle am samive winapirobis (normis aRwerilobiTi<br />

nawilis Semadgeneli elementebis) arsebobas daadgens, SeuZlia ganawesos samarTlebrivi<br />

Sedegi: mosarCelis sasargeblod mopasuxisaTvis ukanono mflobelobidan nivTis<br />

gamoTxovis dakisreba. 18<br />

rogorc zemoT aRiniSna, vindikaciuri sarCelis dakmayofilebis pirveli pirobaa,<br />

rom mosarCele unda iyos nivTis mesakuTre. saqarTvelos samoqalaqo kodeqsis 172-e<br />

muxlis 1-li nawilis normiT dadgenili moTxovnis ufleba ekuTvnis, rogorc moZravi,<br />

ise uZravi nivTis mesakuTres. nivTis ukanono mflobelobidan gamoTxova aseve, SeuZlia<br />

erT-erT TanamesakuTresac, Tu adgili aqvs saerTo sakuTrebaSi arsebul nivTze ukanono<br />

mflobelobis ganxorcielebas. am SemTxvevaSi, TanamesakuTrem nivTi unda gamoiTxovos<br />

mxolod mTlianad, yvela TanamesakuTris sasargeblod da ara mxolod Tavisi<br />

wilis farglebSi (saqarTvelos samoqalaqo kodeqsis 173-e muxlis 1-li nawilis me-3<br />

winadadeba). vindikaciaze uflebis subieqtia mesakuTre (mosarCele), xolo valdebulebis<br />

subieqtia aramarTlzomieri mflobeli (mopasuxe), romelic faqtobrivad flobs<br />

sadavo nivTs moTxovnis wardgenis momentisaTvis. `vindikaciis viTarebaSi mesakuTres<br />

SerCenili aqvs mxolod nivTze sakuTrebis ufleba, romelic TavisTavad aramaterialuri<br />

uflebaa da vis xelSic ar unda iyos sakuTrebis obieqti, mesakuTres es ufleba ar<br />

waerTmeva. vindicirebis wesi mTlianad damokidebulia, Tu ra gziTaa gamosuli mesakuTris<br />

xelidan sakuTrebis obieqti~, 19 iyo Tu ara nivTis mflobeli am nivTis keTilsindisieri<br />

SemZeni. kanonmdebloba mesakuTrisa da keTilsindisieri SemZenis interesTa<br />

konfliqtis sakiTxs gansxvavebulad awesrigebs moZravi da uZravi qonebis brunvis<br />

SemTxvevaSi. Tu pirvel SemTxvevaSi, wina planze dgas qonebis mesakuTris interesebi,<br />

79


marTlmsajuleba<br />

N1<br />

da<br />

kanoni<br />

meore SemTxvevaSi, prioriteti eZleva keTilsindisieri SemZenis interesebs. uZrav<br />

qonebaze sakuTrebis warmoSobisaTvis `aucilebelia garigebis werilobiTi formiT<br />

dadeba da SemZenze am garigebiT gansazRvruli sakuTrebis uflebis registracia sajaro<br />

reestrSi~ (ssk 183-e muxli). `uZravi qonebis SeZenis es wesi ganapirobebs keTilsindisieri<br />

SemZenis interesebis dacvis mowesrigebas. samoqalaqo kodeqsis 185-e muxlSi<br />

aRniSnulia: `SemZenis interesebidan gamomdinare, gamsxvisebeli iTvleba mesakuTred,<br />

Tu igi aseTad aris registrirebuli sajaro reestrSi, garda im SemTxvevebisa, roca<br />

SemZenma icoda, rom gamsxvisebeli ar iyo mesakuTre~. keTilsindisieri SemZenis aseTi<br />

uflebrivi mdgomareoba gamowveulia sajaro reestris specifikuri daniSnulebiT<br />

samoqalaqo brunvis meqanizmSi. `uZravi nivTis gamsxviseblis mesakuTred miCnevisaTvis<br />

SemZenisaTvis sakmaris safuZvelia, rom gamsxvisebeli mesakuTred registrirebuli<br />

iyos sajaro reestrSi. Tumca, am wesidan gamonaklisi dadgenilia amave normiT. es is<br />

SemTxvevaa, rodesac SemZenma icis, rom sajaro reestrSi registrirebuli gamsxvisebeli<br />

ar aris mesakuTre. amdenad, aRniSnuli normiT dawesebuli SemZenis keTilsindisierebis<br />

dadgenisaTvis, sakmarisi ar aris mxolod sajaro reestris monacemebis gaTvaliswineba,<br />

vinaidan mocemul SemTxvevaSi, arsebiTi sakiTxia mesakuTris vinaobisadmi SemZenis<br />

subieqturi damokidebuleba (icoda Tu ar icoda). Sesabamisad, SemZenis interesebis<br />

dacvis maregulirebeli normis gamoyenebisas unda Semowmdes rogorc sajaro reestris<br />

monacemebi, aseve utyuarad unda dadgindes, rom SemZenma ar icoda qonebis sxva<br />

mesakuTris Taobaze.~ 20 sxva SemTxvevaSi reestris monacemebs kanonmdebeli apriorulad<br />

utyuarobisa da sisrulis niSniT naTlavs. samoqalaqo kodeqsis 312-e muxliT: `1. reestris<br />

monacemebis mimarT moqmedebs utyuarobisa da sisrulis prezumfcia e.i. reestris<br />

Canawerebi iTvleba sworad, vidre ar damtkicdeba maTi uzustoba. 2. im piris<br />

sasargeblod, romelic garigebis safuZvelze sxva pirisagan iZens romelime uflebas<br />

da es ufleba gamsxviseblis saxelze iyo reestrSi registrirebuli, reestris Canaweri<br />

iTvleba sworad, garda im SemTxvevebisa, roca am Canaweris sawinaaRmdegod Setanilia<br />

saCivari, an SemZenma icoda, rom Canaweri uzustoa~. amgvarad, roca saqme exeba uZravi<br />

qonebis SeZenas, aq sajaro reestris (uflebis registraciis faqtis) s<strong>and</strong>oobis prezumfcia<br />

gvaqvs saxeze, romelic warmoadgens samoqalaqo brunvis garants da emsaxureba<br />

brunvis monawilis interesebis uzrunvelyofas da dacvas. aRniSnuli principis safuZvelze,<br />

obieqturad arsebuli faqti _ sajaro reestrSi uflebis registracia, icavs<br />

ndobisa da keTilsindisierebis princips sajaro reestrSi registraciaunarian uflebebis<br />

gankargvis dros da misi sisworis prezumfcia exeba rogorc adrindeli mesakuTris,<br />

aseve, axali SemZenis uflebebs. …mag.: a-m sarCeli aRZra sasamarTloSi b-s mimarT<br />

da moiTxova ukanono mflobelobidan nivTis gamoTxova im safuZvliT, rom sadavo qoneba<br />

warmoadgenda mis sakuTrebas, rac dasturdeboda g-sTan dadebuli yidva-gayidvis<br />

xelSekrulebiT, xolo `b~ aRniSnul qonebas flobda ukanonod. b-m sarCeli ar cno,<br />

vinaidan igi sadavo qonebas flobda d-sTan dadebuli qiravnobis xelSekrulebis safuZvelze.<br />

sasamarTlom dadgenilad miiCnia, rom sadavo qonebis mesakuTre iyo `a~, vinaidan<br />

misi sakuTrebis ufleba uZrav qonebaze dasturdeboda sajaro reestris monacemebiT,<br />

xolo `b~ ki, flobda qonebas, magram ar gaaCnda misi flobis ufleba, vinaidan man qirav-<br />

80


nobis xelSekruleba dado d-sTan, romelic ar warmoadgenda aRniSnuli qonebis mesakuTres.<br />

sasamarTlom sruliad samarTlianad b-s daakisra sadavo farTobis gamonTavisuflebis<br />

movaleoba. dasaxelebuli normebidan naTlad Cans, rom uZravi nivTis<br />

keTilsindisieri SeZena am qonebaze sakuTrebis SeZenis TaviseburebiTaa ganpirobebuli.<br />

uZravi qonebis SeZenisas dapirispirebul mxareebs Soris dgas, uxeSad rom vTqvaT,<br />

`arbitri~, romelic pasuximgeblobis ZiriTad tvirTs Tavis Tavze iRebs. es `arbitri~<br />

sajaro reestria, romlis wyalobiTaa, rom keTilsindisiereba imarjvebs sakuTrebaze. 21<br />

Tumca, iuridiul literaturaSi gamoTqmuli mosazrebis Tanaxmad, `is garemoeba, rom<br />

myidveli SeiZleba aRmoCndes keTilsindisieri SemZenis rolSi, romlis mimarTac<br />

kanonmdebeli ar uSvebs vindikacias, ar unda uSlides mesakuTres xels, waradginos<br />

sarCeli baTili (arara) garigebis Sedegebidan gamomdinare,~ 22 arara garigebebi samar-<br />

Tlebriv Sedegebs ar warmoSobs da Sesabamisad, realurad ar moxdeba amgvari nasyidobis<br />

dros sakuTrebis uflebis gadacema myidvelze, anu aseT SemTxvevebSi, myidvelis<br />

keTilsindisiereba damabrkolebeli garemoeba ar unda iyos titulovani mesakuTrisaTvis.<br />

kanonmdeblis aseTi midgoma o. skvorcovis azriT, ganixileba, rogorc xarvezi<br />

vindikaciis maregulirebel normebSi, kerZod, igi aRniSnavs, rom `xarvezebs vindikaciis<br />

wesis konstruirebaSi Tanamedrove civilur modelSi iuridiulad mivyavarT sakuTrebis<br />

uflebis usafuZvlo SeZenis legitimaciisaken, iseT xarvezian faqtebze dayrdnobiT,<br />

rogoricaa baTili garigebebi.~ 23<br />

Cvens mier motanil normebSi erTmaneTis pirispir dganan mesakuTre da keTilsindisieri<br />

SemZeni. rogorc ukve iTqva, maTi mdgomareoba arsebiTad gansxavebulia moZravi<br />

da uZravi nivTebis SeZenisas. samoqalaqo kodeqsis 186-e muxlidan gamomdinare, moZrav<br />

qonebaze sakuTrebis SeZena xdeba misi gadacemiT. aq iseTi sinamdvile yalibdeba, rodesac<br />

erTmaneTis pirispir dganan nivTis mesakuTre da misi SemZeni. maT Soris ar dgas<br />

araviTari sxva iseTi piri, romelic uxeSad rom vTqvaT, TavisTavze aiRebda raime pasuxismgeblobas.<br />

nivTis SemZenis bed-iRbali mTlianadaa damokidebuli gamsxviseblis<br />

samarTlebriv mdgomareobaze da sakuTar windaxedulobaze. ar aRmoCndeba gamsxvisebeli<br />

mesakuTre _ SemZenis keTilsindisiereba ver gaxdeba yovelTvis misi uflebis dacvis<br />

iaraRi. umeteswilad, aq sakuTreba imarjvebs keTilsindisierebaze da amis gamo<br />

orTabrZola mesakuTris sasargeblod mTavrdeba. aseve, samoqalaqo brunvis mniSvnelovani<br />

Taviseburebaa, rom yoveli mxare im tvirTis matarebeli SeiZleba iyos, romlis<br />

zidvac mas SeuZlia. roca mtkicdeba, rom igi uZluria zidos es tvirTi, pasuxismgeblobis<br />

sakiTxic ixsneba. 24 sanivTo samarTalSi moqmedebs principi _ ,,nemo plus iuris ad alium<br />

transferrepotest quam ipsehabet”, rac niSnavs, rom aravis SeuZlia imaze ukeTesi ufleba gadasces<br />

sxvas nivTze, rac TviTon mas aqvs. amis Sedegia, rom Tu `a~ usasyidlod gadascems `b~-s<br />

nivTs, romlis mesakuTre aris ara TviTon, aramed `g~, `d~ ver gaxdeba am nivTis mesakuTre.<br />

Tu d dauflebulia aRniSnul nivTs, `g~-s SeuZlia, aRZras sarCeli `d~-s mimarT<br />

da gamoiTxovos igi. erTaderTi ufleba, rac `d~-s kanoniT aqvs, aris ufleba, aRZras<br />

sarCeli `a~-s mimarT miyenebuli zianis gamo (meoradi moTxovnis ufleba). sanivTo samarTlis<br />

xisti wesebis mixedviT, mniSvneloba ara aqvs d-m icoda Tu ara, rom g iyo<br />

misTvis gadacemuli nivTis mesakuTre da ara `a~. sagulisxmoa, rom moZravi nivTis mflo-<br />

81


marTlmsajuleba<br />

N1<br />

da<br />

kanoni<br />

belis SemTxvevaSi, SesaZeni uflebis namdvilobis da aqedan gamomdinare, s<strong>and</strong>oobis<br />

varaudi gvaqvs saxeze. es kargad Cans samoqalaqo kodeqsis 158-e muxliT; dadgenilia:<br />

`1. ivaraudeba, rom nivTis mflobeli aris misi mesakuTre. 2. es wesi ar moqmedebs im<br />

SemTxvevaSi, roca nivTze sakuTrebiTi urTierTobis xasiaTi vlindeba sajaro<br />

reestridan. sakuTrebis prezumfcia ar gamoiyeneba arc Zveli mflobelis mimarT, Tu<br />

man es nivTi dakarga, mopares an sxvagvarad gavida igi misi mflobelobidan. sakuTrebis<br />

prezumfcia moqmedebs Zveli mflobelis sasargeblod mxolod misi mflobelobis<br />

periodSi.~ 25<br />

saqarTvelos samoqalaqo kodeqsis danawesebidan gamomdinare, aseve sayuradReboa,<br />

namdvili mesakuTris mflobelobidan moZravi nivTis gamosvlis nebiTi momentis gansaz-<br />

Rvra, anu Tu keTilsindisieri SemZenis mier SeZenili moZravi nivTi mesakuTris mflobelobidan<br />

gamovida misi nebis gareSe, e. i. mopares, dakarga da a. S. maSin keTilsindisierebis<br />

miuxedavad, mesame piri ver gaxdeba misi mesakuTre da igi valdebulia, nivTi<br />

daubrunos namdvil mesakuTres 26 . Tumca, aseT SemTxvevaSi dgeba restituciis sakiTxi.<br />

sk-is 187-e muxlis 1-li nawilis Tanaxmad, SemZeni xdeba moZravi nivTis mesakuTre maSinac,<br />

roca gamsxvisebeli ar iyo uflebamosili piri (nivTis mesakuTre), magram SemZeni<br />

am faqtis mimarT keTilsindisieria. piri keTilsindisieria maSin, roca man ar icoda da<br />

arc movale iyo, scodnoda is garemoeba, rom gamsxvisebeli ar aris mesakuTre (sk-is<br />

187-e muxlis I nawilis me-2 winadadeba), magram yovelTvis, roca saeWvo xdeba gamsxviseblis<br />

uflebamosilebis sakiTxi, sakuTrebis SeZena ar miiCneva keTilsindisierad. aseT<br />

SemTxvevaSi dagvexmareba sk-is 158-e muxliT gaTvaliswinebuli mesakuTred yofnis prezumfcia,<br />

romlis mixedviT, ivaraudeba, rom wina mflobeli misi flobis periodSi iyo<br />

mesakuTre. urTierTsawinaaRmdego prezumfciaTa konfliqtis SemTxvevaSi, sayurad-<br />

Reboa, sk-is 158-e muxlis me-2 nawilis me-2 winadadeba: sakuTrebis prezumfcia axl<strong>and</strong>eli<br />

mflobelis sasargeblod ar gamoiyeneba Zveli mflobelis mimarT, Tu man es nivTi<br />

dakarga an mopares. es debuleba zemoT aRniSnul sk-187-e muxlis me-2 nawils exmaureba.<br />

amiT navaraudevia uflebamosili piris sakuTreba misi mflobelobis periodSi, radgan<br />

Tu dadgenilia qurdobis faqti, gamoiricxeba Semdgom periodSi sakuTrebis keTilsindisieri<br />

SeZena da arc erT amJamindel mflobels ar SeuZlia daeyrdnos sk-158-e<br />

muxlis I nawiliT gaTvaliswinebul prezumfcias. 27 `umetesoba samarTlis sistemebSi<br />

zemoT aRniSnuli SeuTavseblobis gadaWra xdeba amgvarad: xelSesaxebi sagnebis SemTxvevaSi<br />

mxare, romelic keTilsindisierad SeiZens nivTs _ gaxdeba nivTis kanonieri mesakuTre,<br />

xolo Tavdapirveli mesakuTre kargavs sakuTrebis uflebas da rCeba arakeTilsindisieri<br />

gamyidvelis winaaRmdeg zianis anazRaurebis moTxovnis amara. magaliTad,<br />

b-m iqirava velosipedi Tavisi axlo megobari a-sgan, raTa gaiseirnos, magram dRis bolos<br />

man es velosipedi mihyida `c~-s, rom iSovos cota fuli da iyidos ludi, radgan mas<br />

Zalian moswyurda mTeli dRe velosipedze seirnobis Semdeg. Tu `c~ keTilsindisierad<br />

moqmedebs, maSin is gaxdeba velosipedis mesakuTre da igi valdebuli ar iqneba daubrunos<br />

velosipedi `a~-s. `a~-s ki, rCeba erTaderTi SesaZlebloba, rom ziani ainazRauros<br />

`b~-sgan, romelmac daarRvia Tavisi valdebuleba `a~-s mimarT _ dRis bolos daebru-<br />

82


nebina misTvis velosipedi, amasTan, mTlianad daxarja fuli, rac velosipedis gayidviT<br />

moipova, riTac `a~ ugergilo moTxovnis uflebis amara datova.~ 28<br />

vindikaciuri sarCelis dakmayofilebis meore aucilebel pirobas warmoadgens, rom<br />

mopasuxe unda iyos nivTis mflobeli. aRniSnuli TavisTavad gamomdinareobs moTxovnis<br />

arsidan, vinaidan sasarCelo moTxovna exeba nivTis mflobelobidan gamoTxovas, magram<br />

aqve aRsaniSnavia, rom mflobeloba ar unda iyos kanonieri, vinaidan ssk 172-e muxlis<br />

pirveli nawili mxolod im SemTxvevaSi iZleva mflobelobidan nivTis gamoTxovis<br />

SesaZleblobas, Tu mflobeloba arakanonieria, mflobeli arakeTilsindisieria, Sesabamisad,<br />

keTilsindisier mflobels ar SeiZleba CamoerTvas nivTi. mflobeloba wydeba<br />

mxolod maSin, `Tu mesakuTre mflobels wauyenebs dasabuTebul pretenzias~ (sk-168-e<br />

muxli).<br />

`keTilsindisieri mflobelis cneba mocemulia sk-is 159-e muxlSi: keTilsindisieria<br />

mflobeli, romelic nivTs marTlzomierad flobs, an romelic uflebamosil pirad<br />

SeiZleba iqnes miCneuli saqmian urTierTobebSi, saWiro gulmodgine Semowmebis safuZvelze.<br />

unda aRiniSnos, rom uflebamosili mflobeli ar warmoadgens keTilsindisieri<br />

mflobelis qvesaxeobas, aramed sruliad sxvas, mis sapirispiros: erTmaneTisgan unda<br />

ganvasxvaoT mflobeli, romelsac faqtobrivad aqvs mflobelobis ufleba (Sead. sk<br />

172-e muxlis pirveli nawilis bolo winadadeba) da mflobeli, romelsac ara aqvs<br />

mflobelobis ufleba, magram saqmian urTierTobebSi saWiro gulmodgine arabraleuli<br />

(bralis xarisxi gamomdinareobs sk-is 395-e da 326-e muxlebidan) Semowmebis safuZvelze,<br />

SeiZleba uflebamosil pirad iqnes miCneuli. mxolod am ukanasknels Seesabameba ke-<br />

Tilsindisierebis cneba. sasurvelia, rom 159-e muxlis cnebis amgvari ganmartebis gziT,<br />

erTmaneTisagan gaimijnos uflebamosili da keTilsindisieri mflobelebi~. 29<br />

uZrav nivTebTan mimarTebiT sakiTxi martivad wydeba, vinaidan sakuTrebis ufleba<br />

sajaro reestridan dasturdeba, xolo rac Seexeba moZrav nivTebs, am SemTxvevaSi sasamarTlom<br />

unda gaiTvaliswinos iseTi mniSvnelovani garemoebebi, rogoricaa mewarmis<br />

gulisxmiereba, sakuTrebis uflebis gadacemis momenti da a.S. magaliTad, `a~-m sarCeli<br />

aRZra sasamarTloSi `b~-s mimarT da moiTxova ukanono mflobelobidan nivTis gamoTxova<br />

Semdegi safuZvlebidan gamomdinare: `a~-m zepiri garigebis Sedegad avtomanqana gadasca<br />

`g~-s, im pirobiT, rom `g~ avtomanqanas gadaiformebda mxolod Rirebulebis gadaxdis<br />

Semdeg. `g~-m isargebla avtomanqanis saregistracio mowmobiT da notariusTan SeTanxmebis<br />

gziT, avtomanqana daagirava `b~-sTan 8000 aSS dolaris sesxis uzrunvelsayofad<br />

da miimala. samoqalaqo kodeqsis 186-e muxlis pirveli nawilis Tanaxmad‚ moZrav niv-<br />

Tebze sakuTrebis gadasacemad aucilebelia‚ rom mesakuTrem namdvili uflebis safuZvelze<br />

gadasces SemZens nivTi. amrigad‚ moZrav nivTze sakuTrebis gadacemisavTis aucilebelia<br />

ori winapirobis arseboba _ namdvili ufleba (am konkretul SemTxvevaSi nasyidobis<br />

xelSekrulebidan warmoSobili ufleba myidvelisa moiTxovos nivTis gadacema)<br />

da nivTis faqtobrivi gadacema (am SemTxvevaSi avtomanqanis gadacema myidvelze). samoqalaqo<br />

kodeqsis 188-e muxlis pirveli nawilis, pirveli winadadebis Tanaxmad, Tu gamsxvisebelma<br />

pirobad daTqva sakuTrebis gadasvla SemZenze mxolod nivTis safasuris<br />

83


marTlmsajuleba<br />

N1<br />

da<br />

kanoni<br />

gadaxdis Semdeg, SemZenze gadacemuli nivTi safasuris srulad gadaxdamde, gamsxviseblis<br />

sakuTrebaa. miuxedavad, `a~-sa da `b~-s Soris dadebuli nasyidobis xelSekrulebisa‚<br />

`a~ darCa avtomanqanis mesakuTred da sakuTrebis ufleba avtomanqanaze `b~sTvis<br />

ar gadaucia. amitom rogorc mesakuTres‚ mas SeuZlia samoqalaqo kodeqsis 172-e<br />

muxlis pirveli nawilis Sesabamisad‚ moiTxovos sxvisi ukanono mflobelobidan avtomanqanis<br />

gamoTxova. 30<br />

aRsaniSnavia isic, rom `samoqalaqo brunvis monawileebs yovelTvis ar SeuZliaT,<br />

namdvili uflebebis Sesaxeb zusti da amomwuravi informacia miiRon maSin, rodesac<br />

brunvam ukve upirovno formebi SeiZina. Sesabamisad, isini mudmivi saSiSroebis winaSe<br />

dganan, Tu daujereben faqtobriv viTarebas, magaliTad, rom moZravi nivTis mflobeli<br />

namdvilad misi mesakuTrea (sk-is 158-e muxlis pirveli nawili), sinamdvileSi ki, nivTze<br />

mflobeloba SeiZleba titulovanma mesakuTrem dakarga misi nebis sawinaaRmdegod.<br />

problemas SesaZlebelia sami ukiduresi gadawyveta hqondes: 1. SesaZlo Secdomis yvela<br />

riskis gadatana moxdes mesakuTreze; 2. yvela riski gadatanil iqnes myidvelze; 3. yvela<br />

SesaZlo riskis Tavidan asacileblad, SemoRebul iqnes yoveli uflebis registraciisa<br />

da aRricxvis reestrebi. gasagebia, rom nebismieri maTganisaTvis upiratesobis miniWeba<br />

samoqalaqo brunvis paralizebas gamoiwvevda. mesakuTris nebis ararsebobis SemTxvevaSi,<br />

sakuTrebis mkacrad ganusxviseblobis principis dacva dasaSvebia, mxolod sustad<br />

ganviTarebuli sasaqonlo brunvis pirobebSi. brunvis swraf ganviTarebas, rac<br />

TavisTavad gulisxmobs upirovno dinamikis zrdas, mivyavarT sagamonakliso wesebis<br />

rigorizmTan Sejaxebamde. gamosavali am dapirispirebis SerbilebaSia da swored amitom,<br />

kanonmdebeli mimarTavs e.w. or borotebas Soris `naklebi borotebis~ arCevanis gzas,<br />

rac keTilsindisieri SemZenis institutis SemoRebas ukavSirdeba (sk-is 185-e da 187-e<br />

muxlebi). 31<br />

nivTis ukanono mflobelobidan gamoTxovis ufleba waredgineba mflobels, romelic<br />

ar aris uflebamosili nivTis flobaze. Tu mflobeli nivTs flobs gansazRvruli<br />

samarTlebrivi safuZvliT, maSin aRniSnuli moTxovnis wardgena dauSvebelia. samar-<br />

Tlebriv safuZvels warmoadgens, magaliTad, xelSekruleba, romlis pirobis Tanaxmad,<br />

SeiZleba an unda ganxorcieldes nivTze mflobeloba, aseve sanivTo uflebebi, romlebic<br />

Tavisi Sinaarsidan gamomdinare, dakavSirebulia gansazRvruli nivTis mflobelobasTan,<br />

kerZod, uzufruqti, servituti, giravnoba. aseT mflobels saqarTvelos<br />

samoqalaqo kodeqsi marTlzomier mflobelad miiCnevs da mas icavs agreTve, 162-e<br />

muxliTac, romlis 1-li nawilis 1-li winadadebis Tanaxmad: `dauSvebelia marTlzomier<br />

mflobels moeTxovos nivTis ukan dabruneba.~ 32 magaliTad: Tu gamqiravebelma nivTi<br />

droebiT sargeblobaSi gadasca damqiravebels (sk muxli 531), mas ara aqvs ufleba SemdgomSi<br />

vindikaciuri sarCeliT daibrunos es nivTi, aramed man unda ixelmZRvanelos<br />

mxolod qiravnobis xelSekrulebiT gansazRvruli qonebis gadacemisa da dabrunebis<br />

pirobebiT. am wesis praqtikuli azri aSkaraa: Tu mesakuTres nebismier SemTxvevaSi (rogorc<br />

saxelSekrulebo, ise sxva SemTxvevebSic) eqneba vindikaciuri sarCelis wardgenis<br />

ufleba, anu Tu davuSvebT erTdroulad sanivTo da valdebulebiTi sarCelis wardgenis<br />

SesaZleblobas, maSin mesakuTre aSkarad privilegirebul mdgomareobaSi aRmoCn-<br />

84


deba, xolo samoqalaqo brunva ar ganviTardeba da igi mxolod martivi yidva-gayidvebiT<br />

iqneba Semofargluli. `garda aRniSnulisa, kanoniT dadgenilia SemTxvevebi, rodesac<br />

ara marto marTlzomier, aramed aramarTlzomier mflobelsac SeuZlia uari ganacxados<br />

nivTis ukan dabrunebaze im pirobiT, rom igi nivTs flobs keTilsindisierad. ker-<br />

Zod saqarTvelos samoqalaqo kodeqsis 163-e muxlis Tanaxmad, keTilsindisier mflobels<br />

SeuZlia uflebamosil pirs mosTxovos im gaumjobesebisa da xarjebis anazRaureba,<br />

rac man gaiRo nivTze keTilsindisieri mflobelobis dros da rac ar aris kompensirebuli<br />

am nivTiT sargeblobiTa da misgan miRebuli nayofiT. mflobelis braliT miuRebeli<br />

nayofis Rirebuleba unda gamoiqviTos. igive wesi vrceldeba iseT gaumjobesebebze,<br />

romelTa Sedegadac gaizarda nivTis Rirebuleba, Tuki gazrdili Rirebuleba<br />

nivTis dabrunebis momentisaTvis jer kidev arsebobda. swored aRniSnuli moTxovnebis<br />

dakmayofilebamde aris keTilsindisieri mflobeli uflebamosili uari ganacxados<br />

nivTis ukan dabrunebaze. 33<br />

rogorc zemoT aRvniSneT vindikaciuri sarCelis dakmayofilebis erT-erT aucilebel<br />

pirobas warmoadgens, rom mopasuxe unda iyos nivTis mflobeli. aqve aRiniSna isic,<br />

rom mflobeloba ar unda iyos kanonieri, Sesabamisad, keTilsindisier mflobels ar<br />

SeiZleba CamoerTvas nivTi. mflobeloba wydeba mxolod maSin, `Tu mesakuTre mflobels<br />

wauyenebs dasabuTebul pretenzias~ (sk-168-e muxli). Tumca, rodesac vambobT, rom<br />

prioritetulia mesakuTris uflebebi da vacxadebT, rom mesakuTris ufleba yvela<br />

SemTxvevaSi unda dakmayofildes _ garkveuli sifrTxile gvmarTebs, raTa ukiduresobaSi<br />

ar gadavvardeT da mflobelobis aranakleb, mniSvnelovani ufleba ar ugulebelvyoT.<br />

mflobelobis uflebas mTeli rigi normebi da institutebi eZRvneba saqarTvelos<br />

samoqalaqo kodeqsSi, sakmaod didi Teoriuli safuZvlebia imisaTvis, rom ganvacxadoT:<br />

`mflobelobis instituti farTo gagebiT moicavs sakuTrebasac.~ miT umetes Tu gaviTvaliswinebT,<br />

rom sabazro urTierTobebSi, gansakuTrebiT, samoqalaqo brunvis dros<br />

garkveuli brunvis obieqtebis mesakuTre yvela ver iqneba, magram is, rom brunvaSi Cven<br />

ama Tu im nivTebs viyenebT da ama Tu im moqmedebebs vaxorcielebT, ar unda dagvaviwydes<br />

swored, rom mflobeloba aniWebs brunvis monawileebs imis uflebamosilebas, rom esa<br />

Tu is nivTebi mflobelobis institutis safuZvelze iyos brunvaSi moqceuli. amitom aq<br />

erTgvari sirTulec iqmneba, magaliTad: SesaZlebelia Tu ara nebismier dros, Tu mesakuTres<br />

dasabuTebuli pretenzia aqvs, movTxovoT mflobels nivTis ukan dabruneba?<br />

raSi unda gamoixatebodes dasabuTebuli pretenzia? Tumca isic naTeli da calsaxaa,<br />

rom mflobelobac ar unda iyos mudmivi da uwyveti xasiaTis. gulwrfelad unda gvawuxebdes<br />

mesakuTris interesebi, mesakuTris bedi, magram aranakleb, mflobelTa interesebi.<br />

es sakiTxi dRemde sadavoa da arc sasamarTlo praqtikaSi ar aris srulyofilad<br />

daregulirebuli.<br />

85


marTlmsajuleba<br />

N1<br />

da<br />

kanoni<br />

SeniSvnebi:<br />

1<br />

saqarTvelos sakonstitucio sasamarTlos gadawyvetileba #2/1-370,<br />

382, 390, 402, 404, 18 maisi, 2007 w. (saqmis dasax.: saqarTvelos moqalaqeebi:<br />

z. elaSvili, s. maSia, r. gogia da sxvebi da saqarTvelos saxalxo<br />

damcveli saqarTvelos parlamentis winaaRmdeg).<br />

2<br />

natali frisero, ufleba qonebis pativiscemaze, gamoqveynebulia<br />

wignSi `sakuTrebis ufleba da samarTliani sasamarTlos ufleba~,<br />

saerTaSoriso samecniero-praqtikuli konferenciis masalebi, Tbilisi,<br />

2005 w., gv. 33.<br />

3<br />

besarion zoiZe, sakonstitucio kontroli da RirebulebaTa wesrigi<br />

saqarTveloSi, Tbilisi, 2007 w., gv. 45.<br />

4<br />

ix.: saqarTvelos parlamentis 27.12.2001 wlis #1243 dadgenileba _<br />

`adamianis uflebaTa da ZiriTad TavisuflebaTa dacvis evropis konvenciis<br />

pirveli oqmis ratificirebis Sesaxeb~. pirveli oqmis mimarT<br />

saqarTvelom gaakeTa rigi daTqmebi. ix.: evropis sabWos saxelSekrulebo<br />

samsaxuris veb-gverdi: http://conventions.coe.int.<br />

5<br />

adamianis uflebaTa evropuli sasamarTlo, meore seqcia, pinkova da<br />

pinki CexeTis respublikis winaaRmdeg (ganacxadi #36548/97), saboloo<br />

versia 05/02/2003 ganCineba, strasburgi, 2002 wlis 5 noemberi, gv. 17.<br />

6<br />

gaiusi moRvaweobda daaxloebiT qr. Sobis 117/138-180/192 w.w. mis kalams<br />

ekuTvnis: kerZo samarTlis klasikuri saxelmZRvanelo "Institutiones".<br />

7<br />

uZveles romaul samarTalSi sakuTrebis aRmniSvneli specialuri termini<br />

ar arsebobda. vinmes xelisuflebaSi arsebuli raime nivTis aRsaniSnavad,<br />

yvela SemTxvevaSi, batonobis aRmniSvneli Zalze Zveli<br />

termini dominium (zmna moTvinierebidan) gamoiyeneboda. civiluri,<br />

kvirituli sakuTrebis uZveles saxes dominium ex iure Quiritium<br />

ewodeboda.<br />

8<br />

Wolf Manfred, Sachenrecht, 13. Auflage, München, 1996, gv. 77.<br />

9<br />

ix.: Î. Ñ. Èîôôå, Â. À. Ìóñèí, Îñíîâû ðèìñêîãî ãðàæäàíñêîãî ïðàâà,<br />

Ë., 1974, ñòð. 79.<br />

10<br />

giorgi nadareiSvli, romis samoqalaqo samarTali, Tbilisi, 2007, gv.<br />

82-83.<br />

11<br />

Å.À. Âàñèëüåâ, À.Ñ. Êîìàðîâ, Ãðàæäàíñêîå è òîðãîâîå ïðàâî çàðóáåæíûõ<br />

ãîñóäàðñòâ, ò. I., Ìîñêâà, 2004, ñòð. 372; germanul iuridiul literaturaSi<br />

vxvdebiT termins `fuladi vindikacia~, aRniSnulTan mimar-<br />

TebiT farTod ganixileboda sakiTxi _ aucilebeli iyo Tu ara individualizebis<br />

moTxovna fuladi vindikaciis SemTxvevaSi. am kiTxvas<br />

uaryofiTi pasuxi gaeca, upirveles yovlisa, h. vestermanis da pingeris<br />

mier, radgan fulis gadaxdis SemTxvevaSi, kreditoris interesi<br />

Rirebulebas exeba, xolo (BGB par. 985) sanivTo sarCeli, rogorc<br />

wesi, ganixileboda valdebulebiTi samarTlis mixedviT, amitom germaneli<br />

iuristebis azriT, fuladi vindikacia warmoadgens ara saniv-<br />

To vindikacias, aramed Rirebulebis vindikacias, radgan igi exeba ara<br />

konkretul kupiurebs, aramed Rirebulebas. Hh. vestermanis es msjeloba<br />

fulad vindikaciasTan dakavSirebiT ar iqna aRiarebuli, radgan<br />

am interesis dakmayofileba xdeba wminda valdebulebiTsamarTlebrivi<br />

moTxovnebiT da ara sanivTosamarTlebrivi miTxovnis gziT...<br />

germaniis samoqalaqo kodeqsis mixedviT vindikacia orientirebulia<br />

ZiriTadad, qonebis gadacemaze, garkveul SemTxvevebSi, igi moicavs<br />

nivTze wvdomis ganxorcielebis SesaZleblobas... ix.: C. H. Beck.<br />

Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch Sachenrecht 4. Auflage, gv. 1061-1062.<br />

86


12<br />

ix.: Zachariä von Lingenthal, Karl Salomo: H<strong>and</strong>buch des französischen<br />

Civilrechts, 8., verm. und verb. Aufl. / bearb. von Carl Crome, Freiburg<br />

i. B. B<strong>and</strong> 2 - 1894, gv. 610.<br />

13<br />

Å.À. Âàñèëüåâ, À.Ñ. Êîìàðîâ, Ãðàæäàíñêîå è òîðãîâîå ïðàâî çàðóáåæíûõ<br />

ãîñóäàðñòâ, ò. I., Ìîñêâà, 2004 , ñòð. 373.<br />

14<br />

Å.À. Âàñèëüåâ, À.Ñ. Êîìàðîâ, dasax. naSromi, gv. 374-375.<br />

15<br />

Ñ. Þ. Ïÿòèí, Ãðàæäàíñêîå è òîðãîâîå ïðàâî çàðóáåæíûõ ñòðàí, Ìîñêâà,<br />

2009, ñòð. 102-103.<br />

16<br />

ix.: Å.À. Âàñèëüåâ, À.Ñ. Êîìàðîâ, dasax. naSromi, gv. 375-377.<br />

17<br />

Ïðîáëåìû ãðàæäàíñêîãî è ïðåäïðèíèìàòåëüñêîãî ïðàâà Ãåðìàíèè,<br />

Êíèãà 2, Èçäàòåë ñåðèè – ïð. Â. Áåðãìàíí, Ìîñêâà, Èçäàòåëüñòâî<br />

ÁÅÊ, 2001, gv. 187.<br />

18<br />

www.Supremecourt.ge, ix.: saqarTvelos uzenaesi sasamarTlos erTgvarovani<br />

praqtika samoqalaqo saqmeebTan dakavSirebiT.<br />

19<br />

besarion zoiZe, qarTuli sanivTo samarTali, Tbilisi, 2003, gv. 97.<br />

20<br />

www.Supremecourt.ge, ix.: saqarTvelos uzenaesi sasamarTlos samoqalaqo,<br />

samewarmeo da gakotrebis saqmeTa palatis gadawyvetileba<br />

#as-980-1243-05, q. Tbilisi, 9 marti, 2006 w. gadawyvetileba (kasatori<br />

_ l. suTiZe, mowinaaRmdege mxare _ a. gogSeliZe).<br />

21<br />

www.Supremecourt.ge, ix.: saqarTvelos uzenaesi sasamarTlos erTgvarovani<br />

praqtika samoqalaqo saqmeebTan dakavSirebiT.<br />

22<br />

Ì. Áðàãèíñêè, Âèòðÿíñêè, Äîãîâîðíîãî ïðàâà, Ìîñêâà, 1997, ñòð. 654.<br />

23<br />

Î. Þ. Ñêâîðöîâ, Âåùíûå èñêè â ñóäåáíî-àðáèòðàæíîé ïðàêòèêå,<br />

Ìîñêâà, 1998, ñòð. 59.<br />

24<br />

www.Supremecourt.ge, ix.: saqarTvelos uzenaesi sasamarTlos erTgvarovani<br />

praqtika samoqalaqo saqmeebTan dakavSirebiT.<br />

25<br />

www.Supremecourt.ge, ix.: saqarTvelos uzenaesi sasamarTlos erTgvarovani<br />

praqtika samoqalaqo saqmeebTan dakavSirebiT.<br />

26<br />

mesame pirisadmi aRniSnul midgomas aviTarebs kontinenturi evropis<br />

samarTalic, maT Soris, hol<strong>and</strong>iuric, Tumca am ukanasknel SemTxvevaSi,<br />

hol<strong>and</strong>ielma kanonmdebelma 3.68 muxlis mesame nawilSi gaiTvaliswina<br />

gamonaklisis gamonaklisi da Cawera, rom mesame piri, romelic,<br />

rogorc momxmarebeli, keTilsindisierad SeiZens xelSesaxeb<br />

nivTs pirisgan, romelic misi Cveulebrivi samewarmeo saqmianobis<br />

farglebSi yidis am nivTs (magaliTad, Tu momxmarebeli SeiZens velosipeds<br />

Cveulebriv velosipedebis maRaziaSi), aseTi myidveli daculia<br />

da igi xdeba saqonlis mesakuTre (ix.: hol<strong>and</strong>iis samoqalaqo<br />

kodeqsi; agreTve, m. Todua, h. vilemsi dasax. naSromi, gv. 80.).<br />

27<br />

hain boelingi, peter lutringhausi, saqarTvelos samoqalaqo kodeqsis<br />

calkeuli moTxovnis safuZvlebis sistemuri analizi, bremeni-Tbilisi,<br />

2004-2009w.w. gv. 63-66.<br />

28<br />

mzia Todua, huub vilemsi, valdebulebiTi samarTali, nawili I I , Tbilisi,<br />

2006, gv. 79-80.<br />

29<br />

hain boelingi, lado Wanturia. samoqalaqo saqmeebze sasamarTlo gadawyvetilebaTa<br />

miRebis meTodika, Tbilisi, 2004, gv. 126.<br />

30<br />

www.Supremecourt.ge, ix.: saqarTvelos uzenaesi sasamarTlos erTgvarovani<br />

praqtika samoqalaqo saqmeebTan dakavSirebiT.<br />

31<br />

mzia Todua, huub vilemsi, valdebulebiTi samarTali, Tbilisi, 2006,<br />

gv. 10-11.<br />

32<br />

zurab WeWelaSvili, sanivTo samarTali, Tbilisi, 2009, gv. 331.<br />

33<br />

ix.: z. WeWelaSvili, dasax. naSromi, gv. 331.<br />

87


marTlmsajuleba<br />

N1<br />

da<br />

kanoni<br />

VINDICTIVE APPEAL AS<br />

LEGAL MEANS OF<br />

PROTECTING<br />

THE PROPERTY RIGHT<br />

LAURA MIKAVA<br />

Judge, Zugdidi District Court,<br />

Doctoral C<strong>and</strong>idate of the <strong>Law</strong> department, Tbilisi Iv. Javakhishvili State University<br />

The article refers to the legal means of protecting the property right –<br />

vindictive appeal, its role <strong>and</strong> importance on all stages of law development<br />

from the point of view of protecting the fundamental right of a person.<br />

This topic is reviewed based on the analysis of the relevant norms from<br />

the Civil Code of Georgia <strong>and</strong> the developed states back from the time of<br />

Rome law up to present. Special attention is paid to the contradiction between<br />

the legal interests of the proprietor <strong>and</strong> the property owner from the point<br />

of protection of the property rights; In addition, analysis of the court practice<br />

is presented; challenges related to the movable <strong>and</strong> immovable property cases<br />

are outlined <strong>and</strong> the opinions related to their solutions <strong>and</strong> solution means<br />

are proposed.<br />

88


gaerTianebuli erebis<br />

organizaciis<br />

konvencia<br />

transnacionaluri<br />

organizebuli<br />

danaSaulis winaaRmdeg<br />

daviT mesxiSvili<br />

grigol robaqiZis saxelobis universitetis<br />

iuridiuli fakultetis doqtoranti<br />

aRiarebulia, rom organizebuli danaSauli gvevlineba<br />

kriminalis erT-erT yvelaze rTul da saSiS saxeobad, romelic<br />

gavlenas axdens sazogadoebis ekonomikur, politikur,<br />

samarTlebriv da zneobriv sferoebze. amasTan,<br />

aseve xazgasasmelia, rom xsenebuli saxis kriminali ufro<br />

da ufro iRebs transnacionalur xasiaTs. Sesabamisad, dRis<br />

wesrigSi dgeba saerTaSoriso doneze organizebuli danaSaulis<br />

winaaRmdeg RonisZiebebis ganxorcieleba, rac cxadia,<br />

naklebad efeqtiani iqneba Sesabamisi aqtebis arsebobis<br />

gareSe, romelTa safuZvelzedac gansazRvruli iqneba<br />

sxvadasxva qveynebis mier, miTiTebuli saxis kriminalis dasamarcxeblad,<br />

rogorc erTiani strategiis dasaxvis, aseve,<br />

TanamSromlobis Zireuli principebis SemuSaveba.<br />

organizebuli danaSaulis winaaRmdeg brZolis erTerT<br />

umniSvnelovanes saerTaSoriso aqts warmoadgens gaerTianebuli<br />

erebis organizaciis konvencia `transnacionaluri<br />

organizebuli danaSaulis winaaRmdeg~, romelic<br />

miRebul iqna 2000 wlis 15 noembers da misive 38-e muxlis<br />

Tanaxmad, ZalaSi Sevida 2003 wlis 29 seqtembers. aRniSnuli<br />

89


marTlmsajuleba<br />

N1<br />

da<br />

kanoni<br />

konvencia saqarTvelos saxelmwifos mier xelmoweril iqna 2000 wlis 13 dekembers, xolo<br />

misi ratificireba ki, 2006 wlis 7 ivniss moxda.<br />

upirvelesad, aRsaniSnavia, rom miTiTebuli konvencia organizebuli danaSaulis<br />

definicias ar adgens, Tumca, masSi detaluradaa ganmartebuli miTiTebuli saxeobis<br />

kriminalTan dakavSirebuli terminebi da aseve, mkafiod aris gadmocemuli mis winaaRmdeg<br />

brZolis meTodebi.<br />

`transnacionaluri organizebuli danaSaulis winaaRmdeg~ gaeros konvenciis me-2<br />

muxliT amave aqtis miznebisaTvis ganmartebulia iseTi terminebi, rogoricaa damna-<br />

SaveTa organizebuli jgufi, mZime danaSauli, struqturuli formis mqone jgufi, qoneba,<br />

danaSaulebrivi gziT miRebuli Semosavali, yadaRa, amoReba, konfiskacia, kontrolirebadi<br />

miwodeba da a.S. konvenciis terminebis ganmartebas aqvs erTi metad mniSvnelovani<br />

datvirTva, kerZod, konvencia Tavisi SinaarsiT, daniSnulebiTa da gamoyenebis<br />

sferoebiT erTgvarovnad unda iqnas aRqmuli amave konvenciis monawile yvela saxelmwifos<br />

mier, raTa TanamSromlobis periodSi, misi implementaciisa Tu pirdapiri gamoyenebis<br />

etapze ar warmoiSvas kiTxvebi konvenciiT gaTvaliswinebuli danaSaulebis SemadgenlobasTan<br />

dakavSirebiT, rac, TavisTavad, eWvqveS daayenebs aRniSnuli saerTa-<br />

Soriso aqtis gamoyenebis efeqtianobas. konvenciiT gaTvaliswinebul danaSaulebis cnebebis<br />

ganmartebebTan dakavSirebiT aRsaniSnavia, rom saqarTvelo konvenciis im monawile<br />

saxelmwifoebis ricxvs ganekuTvneba, romlebmac organizebuli danaSaulis winaaRmdeg<br />

brZolis mizniT erovnul doneze sakanonmdeblo normebis SemuSavebisas aRniSnuli<br />

konvenciis cnebebiT ixelmZRvaneles. magaliTisaTvis, saqarTvelos sisxlis<br />

samarTlis kodeqsis 27-e muxlis mesame nawilSi mocemuli organizebuli jgufis ganmarteba<br />

konvenciiT gaTvaliswinebuli organizebuli jgufis cnebis identuria.<br />

`transnacionaluri organizebuli danaSaulis Sesaxeb~ gaeros konvenciiT gansazRvrulia<br />

misi moqmedebis sfero. kerZod, igi gamoiyeneba, raTa aRikveTos, gamoZiebul<br />

iqnes da sisxlissamarTlebriv devnas daeqvemdebaros:<br />

damnaSaveTa organizebul jgufSi monawileoba;<br />

danaSaulebrivi gziT miRebuli Semosavlebis gaTeTreba;<br />

korufcia;<br />

marTlmsajulebis ganxorcielebisaTvis xelis SeSla.<br />

miTiTebulTan erTad konvenciis moqmedebis sferoSi aseve, eqceva nebismieri mZime<br />

danaSauli, Tu igi atarebs transnacionalur xasiaTs da Cadenilia organizebuli danaSaulebrivi<br />

dajgufebis mier. `transnacionaluri organizebuli danaSaulis winaaRmdeg~<br />

gaeros konvenciis mixedviT, mZime danaSauls warmoadgens danaSauli, romlis<br />

CadenisTvisac sasjelis maqsimaluri zRvari warmoadgens aranakleb oTx wels. 1 rac<br />

Seexeba kriminaluri qmedebis transnacionalurobas, aRniSnuli ganmartebulia miTiTebuli<br />

konvenciiT, romlis Sesabamisadac, danaSaulebrivi saqmianoba transnacionaluria,<br />

Tu igi:<br />

Cadenilia erTze met saxelmwifoSi;<br />

Cadenilia erT saxelmwifoSi, magram misi momzadebis, dagegmvis, xelmZRvanelobis<br />

an kontrolis arsebiTi nawili ganxorcielda sxva saxelmwifoSi;<br />

90


Cadenilia erT saxelmwifoSi, magram damnaSaveTa organizebuli jgufis monawileobiT,<br />

romelic danaSaulebriv saqmianobas eweva erTze met saxelmwifoSi;<br />

Cadenilia erT saxelmwifoSi, magram misi arsebiTi Sedegebi vlindeba meore<br />

saxelmwifoSi. 2<br />

rogorc zemoaRniSnulidan Cans, garda konkretulad gansazRvruli danaSaulebebisa,<br />

miTiTebuli konvenciis moqmedebis sferoSi aseve, xvdeba nebismieri kriminaluri<br />

qmedeba, romlis CadenisTvisac sasjelis maqsimumi warmoadgens aranakleb oTx wels,<br />

oRond amasTan, igi ganxorcielebuli unda iyos organizebuli danaSaulebrivi jgufis<br />

mier da atarebdes transnacionalur xasiaTs.<br />

imisaTvis, rom detalurad moxdes organizebuli danaSaulis winaaRmdeg gaerTianebuli<br />

erebis organizaciis konvenciis iurisdiqciis dadgena, sasurvelia, cal-calke<br />

iqnes ganxiluli TiToeuli danaSaulebrivi qmedeba, romelzedac vrceldeba winamdebare<br />

saerTaSoriso aqti.<br />

miTiTebuli konvenciis me-2 muxlis `a~ punqtis Sesabamisad, damnaSaveTa organizebuli<br />

jgufi niSnavs erTi an ramdenime mZime danaSaulis an am konvenciis mier aseTad<br />

miCneuli danaSaulis Cadenis mizniT drois gansazRvrul periodSi arsebul da SeTanxmebulad<br />

moqmed struqturuli formis mqone, sami an meti pirisagan Semdgar jgufs,<br />

romlis mizania pirdapir an arapirdapir miiRos finansuri an sxvagvari sargebeli. 3<br />

amave muxlis `b~ punqtis Sesabamisad, mZimea danaSauli, romlis CadenisTvisac sasjelis<br />

maqsimumi warmoadgens aranakleb oTx wels, xolo rac Seexeba struqturuli formis<br />

mqone jgufs, `c~ punqtis Sesabamisad, miTiTebuls warmoadgens jgufi, romelic ar<br />

aris SemTxveviT Seqmnili danaSaulis dauyovnebliv Casadenad da romelSic aucilebeli<br />

ar aris, formalurad iyos ganawilebuli rolebi mis wevrTa Soris, wevrobas hqondes<br />

uwyveti xasiaTi an Camoyalibebuli iyos ganviTarebuli struqtura. 4<br />

zemoT aRniSnulis ganxilvis Sedegad Tamamad SeiZleba iTqvas, rom saqarTvelos<br />

sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsSi organizebul jgufTan dakavSirebuli definiciebi Seqmnilia<br />

swored am konvenciis debulebaTa gavleniT. kerZod, saqarTvelos sisxlis samar-<br />

Tlis kodeqsis 27-e muxlis me-3 nawili gansazRvravs, Tu ra SemTxvevaSi CaiTvleba dana-<br />

Sauli organizebuli jgufis mier Cadenilad. miTiTebul muxls konvenciisagan ganasxvavebs<br />

mxolod is, rom saqarTvelos sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsSi ar aris dakonkretebuli<br />

jgufSi wevrebis minimaluri odenoba, kvalifikaciisaTvis mniSvneloba ar eniWeba<br />

Tu ra kategoriis danaSaulebis Casadenad SekavSirdnen kriminalebi, xolo Semosavlis<br />

miRebis saxe ki, dakonkretebulia, kerZod, sargebeli SesaZlebelia miRebul iqnes<br />

mxolod ukanono gziT.<br />

rogorc winamdebare konvenciidan Cans, imisaTvis, rom danaSaulebrivi gaerTianeba<br />

CaiTvalos organizebul jgufad,<br />

igi unda arsebobdes drois gansazRvrul periodSi;<br />

masSi wevrTa odenoba ar unda iyos samze naklebi;<br />

jgufis moqmedeba unda iyos urTierTSeTanxmebuli;<br />

jgufs unda hqondes struqturuli forma;<br />

wevrebi unda gaerTi<strong>and</strong>nen erTi an meti mZime danaSaulis Casadenad;<br />

91


marTlmsajuleba<br />

N1<br />

da<br />

kanoni<br />

mizans unda warmoadgendes pirdapiri an arapirdapiri, finansuri an sxva saxis<br />

sargeblis miReba.<br />

axla SesaZlebelia saTiTaod ganxilul iqnes zemoT CamoTvlili niSnebi. imisaTvis,<br />

rom `transnacionaluri organizebuli danaSaulis winaaRmdeg~ gaeros konvenciis konteqstSi<br />

jgufi CaiTvalos organizebul jgufad amisaTvis upirvelesad, saWiroa, rom:<br />

igi arsebobdes drois garkveul periodSi, anu jgufis Seqmnidan danaSaulis Cadenamde<br />

aris drois gansazRvruli monakveTi. cxadia, jgufuri danaSaulis SemTxvevaSi,<br />

kriminaluri qmedebis Cadenas, yovelTvis win uswrebs adamianTa SekavSireba, romelic<br />

SeiZleba ganxorcieldes, rogorc uSualod qmedebis ganxorcielebisas winaswar Seu-<br />

Tanxmeblad, ise winaswari SeTanxmebiT, magram organizebuli jgufis SemTxvevaSi, igi<br />

garkveuli periodis ganmavlobaSi arsebobs, rogorc danaSaulebrivi ganzraxviT gaerTianebul<br />

pirTa erToba, drois aRniSnul periodSi xdeba danaSaulTa detaluri<br />

dagegmva, funqciaTa gadanawileba da a.S.<br />

wevrTa odenoba jgufSi ar unda iyos samze naklebi, anu nebismier SemTxvevaSi, Tu<br />

kriminalur gaerTianebaSi mxolod ori wevria, imisda miuxedavad ra danaSauls Caidenen<br />

isini, an eqneba Tu ara maT ganxorcielebul kriminalur qmedebebs transnacionaluri<br />

xasiaTi, aRniSnuli mainc ar iqneba organizebuli danaSaulebrivi dajgufeba.<br />

jgufis moqmedeba unda iyos urTierTSeTanxmebuli, anu organizebuli jgufis<br />

mier danaSaulis Cadena ar xdeba spontanurad, misi wevrebis TiToeuli nabiji aris<br />

winaswar SeTanxmebuli, kargad dagegmili da yovelive amis Semdeg xdeba qmedebis ganxorcielebaze<br />

gadawyvetilebis miReba, rac Zalian efeqturs xdis maT danaSaulebriv<br />

saqmianobas.<br />

jgufs unda hqondes struqturuli forma. winamdebare konvenciis Sesabamisad,<br />

jgufis struqturuli formis mqone jgufad CasaTvlelad aucilebelia, rom igi ar iyos<br />

SemTxveviT Seqmnili danaSaulis dauyovnebliv Casadenad, aucilebeli araa formalurad<br />

ganawilebuli iqnes rolebi wevrTa Soris, wevrobas hqondes uwyveti xasiaTi an<br />

Camoyalibebuli iyos ganviTarebuli struqtura. rogorc miTiTebuli punqtidan Cans,<br />

imisaTvis, rom jgufi CaiTvalos struqturuli formis mqone jgufad, misi Seqmna ar<br />

unda moxdes SemTxveviT danaSaulis dauyovnebliv Casadenad, anu miTiTebuli gaerTianebis<br />

Camoyalibebas safuZvlad udevs, rogorc wesi, gamocdil kriminalTa myari er-<br />

Toba. ra Tqma unda, miznebi aris danaSaulebrivi, magram am miznebis miRweva xdeba kargad<br />

dagegmili da gansazRvruli qmedebebis ganxorcielebiT. organizebul jgufSi<br />

pirTa kavSiri ara marto winaswaria, e.i. danaSaulis Cadenamdea organizebuli, aramed gansakuTrebiT<br />

myaria, imdenad mtkicea, rom mis mier danaSaulis Cadenas win araferi udgas. 5<br />

aqve aRsaniSnavia isic, rom konvenciis Tanaxmad, ar aris aucilebeli wevrTa Soris<br />

rolebis formaluri gadanawileba, mkacri subordinacia, radgan SesaZlebelia jgufi<br />

Seqmnas erTma pirma, moamzados danaSaulis Casadenad, xolo uSualod danaSaulebrivi<br />

qmedeba jgufma ganaxorcielos meore wevris xelmZRvanelobiT. aseve, araa aucilebeli,<br />

rom organizebuli jgufis wevrobas hqondes uwyveti xasiaTi. erTi mxriv, wevrobis<br />

uwyvetoba savaldebulo araa, radgan miuxedavad imisa, rom organizebuli jgufi, rogorc<br />

wesi, iqmneba ramdenime mZime an gansakuTrebiT mZime danaSaulis Casadenad, gamo-<br />

92


icxuli araa, rom igi Camoyalibdes mxolod erTi danaSaulis Casadenadac, 6 Sesabamisad,<br />

am danaSaulis Cadenis Semdeg jgufi daiSleba da wevrobac Sewydeba. meore mxriv,<br />

wevrebis cvalebadoba SesaZlebelia ganxorcieldes organizebul jgufSi, romelic<br />

Seqmnilia araerTi danaSaulis Casadenad, rac SeiZleba ganpirobebuli iyos im faqtiT,<br />

rom TviTon organizebuli jgufis Seqmna miuTiTebs wevrebis mizanze, rom maT ganaxorcielon<br />

gansakuTrebiT rTuli danaSaulebi, radgan yoveli kriminaluri qmedeba da<br />

misi Semadgenloba individualuria. maTi ganxorcieleba moiTxovs sxvadasxva xerxebis<br />

SerCevas, Sesabamisad, saWiro xdeba yoveli konkretuli danaSaulis Casadenad specialuri<br />

codnis mqone pirebis gamoyeneba. amdenad, maT winaSe arsebuli amocanebidan<br />

gamomdinare, cvlilebebi organizebul jgufSi SeiZleba Seexos pirebs, romlebic specializebulni<br />

arian sxvadasxva konkretuli danaSaulebrivi qmedebebis ganxorcielebaSi.<br />

Tumca, aRsaniSnavia, is faqtic, rom jgufSi wevrTa cvalebadoba xorcieldeba<br />

mkacri kontrolisa da konspiraciis pirobebSi, raTa am jgufis saqmianoba sxva pirebisaTvis<br />

ucnobi darCes, an masSi ar SeaRwion SemTxveviTma pirebma, romlebmac SeiZleba<br />

jgufis dezorganizacia gamoiwvion. 7<br />

jgufis wevrebi unda gaerTi<strong>and</strong>nen erTi an ramdenime mZime danaSaulis Casadenad.<br />

rogorc zemoT aRiniSna, winamdebare konvenciis Sesabamisad, mZimea danaSauli, romlisTvisac<br />

Tavisuflebis aRkveTis maqsimaluri vada aris aranakleb oTxi wlisa, Sesabamisad,<br />

kriminaluri gaerTianebis wevrebs miznad unda hqondeT erTi an ramdenime<br />

danaSaulis Cadena, romelTaTvisac sasjelis maqsimumi oTx welze naklebi ar aris.<br />

mizani unda iyos pirdapiri an arapirdapiri finansuri an sxva saxis sargeblis<br />

miReba. aRniSnuli warmoadgens erT-erT yvelaze mTavar niSans. sabolood, organizebuli<br />

jgufis Seqmnis idea da mizani, pirdapiri an arapirdapiri finansuri an sxva materialuri<br />

sargeblis miRebaa. 8 aqve aRsaniSnavia, rom gansxvavebiT saqarTvelos sisxlis<br />

samarTlis kodeqsisagan, romlis Sesabamisadac, organizebuli jgufis mizani Semosavlis<br />

ukanono miReba unda iyos, miTiTebuli konvencia ar akonkretebs Semosavlis<br />

saxeobas, mxolod miuTiTebs, rom mizani unda iyos pirdapiri an arapirdapiri finansuri<br />

an sxva saxis sargeblis miReba.<br />

rogorc zemoT aRiniSna, transnacionaluri organizebuli danaSaulis winaaRmdeg<br />

gaeros konvenciis moqmedebis sferoSi eqceva damnaSaveTa organizebul jgufSi monawileoba.<br />

organizebuli danaSaulebrivi dajgufebis garkvevis Semdeg, aseve sasurvelia,<br />

detalurad ganvixiloT, Tu ra saxis monawileobaa dasjadi miTiTebuli saxeobis<br />

kriminalur gaerTianebaSi.<br />

upirvelesad, aRsaniSnavia, rom miTiTebuli konvencia yvela monawile saxelmwifos<br />

avaldebulebs miiRos iseTi sakanonmdeblo an sxva zoma, romelTa Sesabamisad, qvemoT<br />

CamoTvlili qmedebebi ganzrax Cadenis SemTxvevaSi, CaiTvleba danaSaulad:<br />

1. qvemoT dasaxelebul qmedebaTagan erT-erTi an orive danaSaulebriv qmedebaTa<br />

ganxorcieleba miuxedavad imisa, Cadenil iqna mcdeloba, Tu dasrulebuli danaSauli:<br />

erT an ramdenime pirTan SeTanxmeba mZime danaSaulis Casadenad, pirdapiri an arapirdapiri<br />

gziT, finansuri an sxva materialuri sargeblis miRebis mizniT, da Tu<br />

amas iTvaliswinebs Sida kanonmdebloba, aseve moicavs romelime monawilis mier<br />

93


marTlmsajuleba<br />

N1<br />

da<br />

kanoni<br />

SeTanxmebis sisruleSi mosayvanad garkveuli qmedebis Sesrulebas an organizebuli<br />

danaSaulebrivi jgufis saqmianobaSi Cabmas;<br />

piris, romelic acnobierebs damnaSaveTa organizebuli jgufis mizans da saerTo<br />

danaSaulebriv saqmianobas, an am jgufis ganzraxvas, Caidinos Sesabamisi danaSaulebi,<br />

aqtiuri monawileoba:<br />

a. organizebuli danSaulebrivi jgufis saqmianobaSi;<br />

b. organizebul danaSaulebriv jgufSi sxvagvari saqmianoba, imis winaswari SecnobiT,<br />

rom amgvari monawileoba xels uwyobs gaerTianebis kriminaluri miznis miRwevas.<br />

2. organizebuli danaSaulebrivi jgufis mier mZime danaSaulis Cadenis organizeba,<br />

xelmZRvaneloba, xelSewyoba, waqezeba, daxmareba an rCevis micema. 9<br />

rogorc miTiTebulidan Cans, konvencia avaldebulebs xelmomwer saxelmwifoebs, rom<br />

miiRon zomebi, romelTa safuZvelzec, danaSaulad CaiTvleba pirTa SeTanxmeba mZime<br />

danaSaulis Casadenad, pirdapiri an arapirdapiri materialuri sargeblis miRebis mizniT,<br />

am SeTanxmebis sisruleSi mosayvanad garkveuli qmedebis Sesruleba, an danaSaulebrivi<br />

gaerTianebis saqmianobaSi CarTva. aseve unda moxdes organizebuli danaSaulebrivi jgufis<br />

saqmianobaSi aqtiuri monawileobis miReba gaerTianebis miznis miRwevaSi dasaxmareblad.<br />

Tumca aRsaniSnavia, rom nebismieri zemoT CamoTvlili qmedeba ganxorcielebul<br />

unda iqnes ganzrax da damnaSaves gacnobierebuli unda hqondes misi qmedebis arsi,<br />

xolo winaswari Secnobis, ganzraxvis, Canafiqrisa, Tu miznis dadgena unda moxdes saqmis<br />

obieqturi faqtobrivi garemoebebis gamokvlevis Sedegad. aqve xazgasasmelia is faqti,<br />

rom konvenciis Tanaxmad, aseve, dasjadad unda CaiTvalos ara mxolod uSualod monawileobis<br />

miReba organizebuli danaSaulebrivi jgufis saqmianobaSi, aramed kriminaluri<br />

gaerTianebis monawileobiT mZime danaSaulis Cadenis xelmZRvaneloba, organizeba, xel-<br />

Sewyoba da a.S.<br />

yovelive zemoaRniSnulidan gamomdinare, SesaZlebelia gakeTdes daskvna, rom gacnobierebulia<br />

ra organizebuli danaSaulis didi safrTxe, konvenciiT xdeba sawinaaRmdego<br />

zomebis gatareba ara mxolod uSualod organizebul jgufSi CarTul pirTa<br />

mimarT, aramed nebismieris, romelic Tavis qmedebiT xels Seuwyobs kriminaluri gaer-<br />

Tianebis miznis miRwevas.<br />

transnacionaluri organizebuli danaSaulis winaaRmdeg gaeros konvenciis me-6<br />

muxliT xdeba danaSaulebrivi gziT miRebuli Semosavlebis gaTeTrebis kriminalizacia.<br />

miTiTebuli normiT konvenciis yvela wevr saxelmwifos ekisreba valdebuleba miiRos<br />

iseTi sakanonmdeblo an sxva zomebi, romelTa Sedegad danaSaulad iqneba aRiarebuli<br />

Semdegi ganzraxi qmedebebi:<br />

winaswari SecnobiT danaSaulebrivi gziT miRebuli qonebis gardaqmna an gadacema<br />

am qonebis ukanono warmoSobis dafarvis an damalvis mizniT an daxmarebis gaweva<br />

nebismieri pirisaTvis, romelic monawileobda `ZiriTadi samarTaldarRvevis~ 10<br />

CadenaSi, raTa Tavidan airidos mis mier ganxorcielebul qmedebebze samarTlebrivi<br />

pasuxismgebloba;<br />

94


winaswari SecnobiT danaSaulebrivi gziT miRebuli qonebis namdvili xasiaTis,<br />

wyaros, adgilmdebareobis, gadaadgilebis, qonebaze uflebis an misi kuTvnilebis<br />

dafarva an Secvla. 11<br />

rogorc miTiTebulidan Cans, wevr saxelmwifoebs ekisrebaT valdebuleba, ganaxorcielon<br />

sxvadasxva zomebi, romelTa safuZvelzec winaswari SecnobiT danaSaulebrivi<br />

gziT miRebuli qonebisaTvis kanonieri saxis micemis procesSi monawileoba CaiTvleba<br />

danaSaulad. Tumca, aqve unda aRiniSnos, rom konvenciis normebi ufro Sorsac midis<br />

da ukanono qonebis legalizaciis procesSi monawileobis garda, dasjadad acxadebs,<br />

aseve:<br />

winaswari SecnobiT danaSaulebrivi gziT mopovebuli qonebis SeZenas, flobasa<br />

da gamoyenebas;<br />

zemoT miTiTebuli danaSaulebis Casadenad SekavSirebas, Cadenis mcdelobasa da<br />

mis Casadenad daxmarebas, waqezebas, uzrunvelyofasa da rCevis micemas. 12<br />

amdenad, konvenciiT gansazRvrulia, rom ara mxolod aqtiuri qmedeba unda daisajos<br />

ukanono Semosavlis gaTeTrebis procesSi, aramed iseTi pasiuri, `umniSvnelo~ qmedebac,<br />

rogoricaa magaliTad, samarTaldamrRvevebisaTvis rCevis micema saqmianobis gansaxorcieleblad.<br />

aqve aRsaniSnavia is faqtic, rom konvenciis Sesabamisad, zemoT miTiTebuli qmedebebi<br />

CaiTvleba dasjadad mxolod im SemTxvevaSi, Tu isini ganxorcielda ganzrax da winaswari<br />

SecnobiT, xolo amave muxlis `f~ punqtiT ganmartebulia, rom danaSaulebrivi<br />

qmedebebis miTiTebuli Semadgeneli elementebi unda dadgindes yovel konkretul<br />

saqmeze garemoebaTa obieqturi gamokvlevis Sedegad.<br />

konvencia monawile saxelmwifoebs avaldebulebs, rom maT sakanonmdeblo zomebis<br />

garda unda ganaxorcielon sxva qmedebebic, romlebiTac aRikveTeba danaSaulebrivi<br />

gziT miRebuli qonebis legalizacia. aRniSnuli mimarTulebiT saxelmwifoTa movaleobas<br />

warmoadgens erTiani yovelmxrivi regulaciebis da reJimis SemuSaveba, romelic<br />

mimarTuli iqneba danaSaulebrivi Semosavlis gaTeTrebis winaaRmdeg da gaTvlili iqneba<br />

bankebisa da arasabanko finansuri institutebisaTvis, aseve organizaciebisaTvis,<br />

romlebic gansakuTrebiT daucvelni arian ukanono Semosavlis legalizaciis TvalsazrisiT.<br />

aRniSnuli reJimis farglebSi unda moxdes klientTa identificireba, aseve,<br />

saeWvo tranzaqciebis dafiqsireba da Setyobineba.<br />

konvenciis Sesabamisad, wevri saxelmwifoebi valdebulebas iReben, xeli Seuwyon<br />

miTiTebuli danaSaulis winaaRmdeg mebrZoli organizaciebisa da dawesebulebebis<br />

urTierTTanamSromlobas, rogorc erovnul, aseve, saerTaSoriso doneze. aRniSnuli miznis<br />

srulyofili ganxorcielebisTvis savaldebuloa finansuri dazvervis samsaxuris<br />

Seqmna, romelic fulis gaTeTrebis SemTxvevebSi imoqmedebs, rogorc informaciis Segrovebis,<br />

analizisa da gavrcelebis erovnuli centri.<br />

yovelive aRniSnulTan erTad, wevr saxelmwifoebs eZlevaT rekomendacia, rom ganaxorcielon<br />

sxvadasxva RonisZiebebi maT sazRvarze naRdi fuladi saxsrebisa da Sesabamisi<br />

sabrunavi dokumentebis gadaadgilebis gamovlenisa da kontrolis mizniT. Tum-<br />

95


marTlmsajuleba<br />

N1<br />

da<br />

kanoni<br />

ca, aqve miTiTebulia, rom miRebuli informacia araviTar SemTxvevaSi ar unda iqnes<br />

gamoyenebuli kanonieri kapitalis nebismieri gziT gadaadgilebis xelis SesaSlelad.<br />

rogorc yovelive zemoaRniSnulidan Cans, organizebuli danaSaulebrivi dajgufebis<br />

wevrobis garda, miTiTebuli konvencia aseve, avaldebulebs wevr saxelmwifoebs,<br />

miiRon sxvadasxva zomebi, raTa danaSaulebrivi gziT miRebuli qonebis legalizacia<br />

CaiTvalos danaSaulad. aRniSnuls Zalian didi mniSvneloba aqvs, radgan, rogorc cnobilia,<br />

organizebuli danaSaulis mizani, upirvelesad, Semosavlis miRebaa, xolo imisaTvis,<br />

rom miRebuli resursebi gamoyenebul iqnes, saWiroa misTvis kanonieri saxis<br />

micema, winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi, danaSaulebriv saqmianobas azri ekargeba. Sesabamisad,<br />

konvencia adgens valdebulebebs wevri saxelmwifoebisaTvis, rom gansakuTrebiT gaamkacron<br />

brZola, rogorc ukanono Semosavlebis legalizaciis, aseve, maTi gadaadgilebis<br />

winaaRmdeg.<br />

`transnacionaluri organizebuli danaSaulis winaaRmdeg~ gaeros konvencia aseve,<br />

did yuradRebas uTmobs korufcias. aRniSnuli sworedac rom metad mniSvnelovan mimarTulebas<br />

warmoadgens, radgan cnobilia, rom korufcia organizebuli danaSaulebrivi<br />

dajgufebis arsebobis erT-erTi berketia. kriminalebis mier xdeba sajaro pirTa<br />

mosyidva, Sesabamisad, damnaSaveebi iReben oficialur moxeleTa mfarvelobas, rac<br />

Zalian arTulebs organizebuli danaSaulis winaaRmdeg brZolas.<br />

konvenciis me-8 muxlis Sesabamisad, TiToeuli wevri saxelmwifo valdebulia miiRos<br />

iseTi sakanonmdeblo da sxva zomebi, romelTa Sedegad danaSaulad CaiTvleba:<br />

sajaro moxelisaTvis, pirdapir an arapirdapir, raime aramarTlzomieri upiratesobis<br />

dapireba, SeTavazeba an miniWeba moxelis an sxva iuridiuli Tu fizikuri<br />

piris sasargeblod, imisaTvis, rom am moxelem misi Tanamdebobrivi movaleobis<br />

Sesrulebisas ganaxorcielos raime moqmedeba an Tavi Seikavos misi Sesrulebisgan;<br />

pirdapir an arapirdapir, raime aramarTlzomieri upiratesobis miReba an moTxovna<br />

sajaro moxelis mier, piradad am moxelis an sxva iuridiuli Tu fizikuri<br />

piris sasargeblod, rom am moxelem misi Tanamdebobrivi movaleobis Sesrulebisas<br />

ganaxorcielos raime moqmedeba an Tavi Seikavos raime moqmedebis ganxorcielebisagan.<br />

13<br />

konvencia aseve, miuTiTebs, rom uSualo Sesrulebis garda, danaSaulad miCneul unda<br />

iqnes miTiTebul qmedebebSi Tanamonawileobac. garda amisa, xazi esmeba saxelmwifoTa<br />

valdebulebebs, rom sisxlissamarTlebrivad dasjad qmedebad miiCnios, rodesac zemoT<br />

miTiTebul qmedebebs axorcielebs ucxo qveynis sajaro moxele an saerTaSoriso samoqalaqo<br />

samsaxurSi myofi piri.<br />

rogorc vxedavT, transnacionaluri organizebuli danaSaulis winaaRmdeg gaeros<br />

konvencia did yuradRebas uTmobs korufcias, rac udavod gasaTvaliswinebelia zemoT<br />

aRniSnuli mizezebidan gamomdinare. savaraudod, yovelgvari valdebulebis miuxedavad,<br />

romelTac konvencia uwesebs wevr saxelmwifoebs, korufcia isedac dasjadia<br />

yvela qveyanaSi. korufciis kriminalizaciaze aqcentis gakeTebiT, gaerTianebuli erebis<br />

organizaciam kidev erTxel gausva xazi miTiTebuli kanonsawinaaRmdego qmedebis<br />

96


ols organizebuli danaSaulobis sistemaSi da mis winaaRmdeg ukompromiso brZolis<br />

warmoebis saWiroebas.<br />

konvencia transnacionaluri organizebuli danaSaulis winaaRmdeg brZolis procesSi<br />

erT-erT umniSvnelovanes faqtorad miiCnevs marTlmsajulebis ganxorcielebisaTvis<br />

xelis SeSlis kriminalizacias. wevr saxelmwifoebs valdebuleba ekisrebaT<br />

gaataron RonisZiebebi, romelTa Sedegad danaSaulad CaiTvleba ganzrax Cadenili<br />

Semdegi qmedebebi:<br />

fizikuri Zalis, muqaris an daSinebis gamoyeneba an aramarTlzomieri upiratesobis<br />

dapireba, SeTavazeba an miniWeba, yalbi Cvenebis micemaze dayoliebis an Cvenebis<br />

micemaSi an mtkicebulebis wardgenaSi Carevis mizniT, miTiTebuli konvenciiT<br />

gaTvaliswinebul danaSaulebTan dakavSirebul samarTalwarmoebis procesSi;<br />

am konvenciiT gaTvaliswinebul danaSaulebTan dakavSirebul samarTalwarmoebis<br />

procesSi sasamarTlo an sxva samarTaldamcavi organos Tanamdebobis piris<br />

samsaxurebrivi movaleobis ganxorcielebaSi Carevis mizniT fizikuri Zalis, muqaris<br />

an daSinebis gamoyeneba. Tumca, aRniSnuli ar zRudavs saxelmwifos uflebas,<br />

Seqmnas kanonmdebloba samarTalwarmoebis sxva monawileTa dasacavadac. 14<br />

rogorc aRniSnulidan Cans, konvencia zemoT miTiTebul qmedebas imdenad mniSvnelovnad<br />

miiCnevs, rom mas iseTi mZime danaSaulebis gverdiT ayenebs, rogoricaa organizebul<br />

danaSaulebriv dajgufebaSi monawileoba, ukanono Semosavlis legalizacia<br />

da korufcia, rac safuZvels moklebuli namdvilad ar unda iyos, radgan organizebuli<br />

danaSaulis winaaRmdeg brZolis warmoebisas, rogorc samarTaldamcavi organoebis<br />

warmomadgenelTaTvis, aseve, mowmeTaTvis metad mniSvnelovania, rom maT Tavi usafrTxod<br />

igrZnon. winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi, isini Tavs Seikaveben samarTalwarmoebaSi aqtiurad<br />

monawileobis miRebisagan, rac mniSvnelovanwilad Seasustebs organizebul<br />

danaSaulTan brZolis efeqtianobas.<br />

zemoT aRniSnulis paralelurad, konvencia avaldebulebs wevr saxelmwifoebs, rom<br />

uzrunvelyon sxvadasxva zomebis miReba mowmeTa (sacxovrebeli adgilis Secvla, pirovnebisa<br />

da adgilsamyofelis Sesaxeb informaciis gasaidumloeba da a.S.) da dazaralebulTa<br />

dasacavad da samarTalwarmoebis procesSi monawileobis misaRebad.<br />

garda danaSaulebrivi qmedebebisa, romelTac yvelze didi yuradReba unda mieqces<br />

organizebuli danaSaulis winaaRmdeg brZolis saqmeSi, winamdebare konvencia aseve,<br />

adgens rekomendaciebs saerTaSoriso TanamSromlobis TvalsazrisiT, rac aRniSnul<br />

saerTaSoriso aqts kidev ufro met Rirebulebas aniWebs. wevr saxelmwifoebs saSualeba<br />

aqvT ganaxorcielon samarTlebrivi daxmareba, awarmoon erToblivi gamoZieba da damnaSaveTa<br />

eqstradicia miuxedavad imisa, aqvT Tu ara maT urTierTSoris raime sxva Se-<br />

Tanxmeba. amasTan, aRsaniSnavia is faqtic, rom konvencia did mniSvnelobas aniWebs, rogorc<br />

wevri qveynebis samarTaldamcavTa Soris praqtikis gaziarebas, aseve, erTmaneTis<br />

kadrebis profesiul momzadebasa da gadamzadebas, rac metad mniSvnelovania, radgan<br />

transnacionaluri organizebuli danaSauli, TviT definiciidan gamomdinare, scildeba<br />

erTi konkretuli qveynis teritoriis farglebs. Sesabamisad, msgavs dajgufebaSi<br />

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marTlmsajuleba<br />

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kanoni<br />

SeiZleba monawileobdnen sxvadasxva qveynis kriminalebi, romelTac saqmianobis saku-<br />

Tari meTodebi aqvT. cxadia, aseT dros fasdaudebelia kriminalis warmoSobis qveynis<br />

samarTaldamcavi sistemis rogorc gamocdileba, aseve, momzadebisa da gadamzadebis<br />

kursebi, sadac kargadaa gaanalizebuli da Seswavlili adgilobrivi danaSaulebis<br />

Taviseburebani.<br />

aseve metad mniSvnelovania, rom konvenciis Sesabamisad, saxelmwifoebi valdebulebas<br />

iReben, ganixilon sasjelis Semcirebis SesaZlebloba im pirisaTvis, romelic arsebiTad<br />

TanamSromlobs gamoZiebasTan. miTiTebuli garemoebis aucilebloba gamowveulia<br />

imiT, rom umetes SemTxvevaSi, tradiciuli transnacionaluri danaSaulebrivi<br />

dajgufebebis saqmianoba, maTi wesebi da wevrTa Semadgenloba gasaidumloebulia. Sesabamisad,<br />

samarTaldamcavi organoebisaTvis ukiduresad Zneli xdeba maT winaaRmdeg<br />

brZola, radgan ar gaaCniaT informacia maTi Sida saqmianobisa Tu struqturis Sesaxeb.<br />

miTiTebuli danawesi gansakuTrebiT Rirebuli da efeqtiania Tanamedrove kriminaluri<br />

dajgufebebis struqturis pirobebSi. kerZod, gasaTvaliswinebelia, rom liderebi<br />

maqsimalurad arian izolirebulni rigiTi wevrebisagan da uSualod, isini araviTar<br />

danaSaulebriv qmedebas ar axorcieleben. Tumca, swored maT mier xdeba danaSaulebrivi<br />

sindikatis saqmianobis politikis SemuSaveba da swored maTi davalebis Sedegad xdeba<br />

kanonsawinaaRmdego moqmedebebis ganxorcieleba. aqedan gamomdinare, erTi mxriv, saxezea<br />

piri, romelic warmarTavs danaSaulebrivi dajgufebis saqmianobas, xolo meore<br />

mxriv ki, mis mimarT sisxlissamarTlebrivi devnis ganxorcieleba TiTqmis SeuZlebelia,<br />

radgan uSualod igi danaSaulebriv qmedebas ar Cadis. Sesabamisad, aseT dros didi<br />

mniSvneloba eniWeba kriminaluri gaerTianebis wevris mier mowodebul informacias,<br />

romelsac cxadia, amgvari informaciis gamJRavnebis motivi unda hqondes. sasjelis<br />

Semcireba ki, amgvari motivaciis Sesaqmnelad aprobirebuli meTodia, romelic Tu gaviTvaliswinebT<br />

saerTaSoriso praqtikasa da saqarTvelos gamocdilebas, danaSaulTan<br />

brZolis saqmeSi sakmaod efeqtianad muSaobs.<br />

yovelive zemoaRniSnulidan gamomdinare, SesaZlebelia gamotanil iqnes daskvna, rom<br />

`transnacionaluri organizebuli danaSaulis winaaRmdeg~ gaeros konvencia erT-erTi<br />

yvelaze mniSnvelovani saerTaSoriso aqtia miTiTebuli saxis kriminalTan brZolaSi.<br />

metad mniSvnelovania, rom winamdebare konvencia akonkretebs, Tu romel qmedebebze<br />

unda gamaxvildes yuradReba transnacionaluri kriminaluri dajgufebebis winaaRmdeg<br />

brZolisas. aseve mniSvnelovania, rom konvenciis wevri saxelmwifoebi iReben valdebulebas,<br />

moaxdinon gansazRvruli qmedebebis kriminalizacia Sida kanonmdeblobaSi,<br />

rac xels Seuwyobs transnacionalur danaSaulTan erTobliv brZolas, radgan cxadia,<br />

romelime qmedeba Tu danaSaulia erT qveyanaSi, xolo meoreSi ki, ara, isini ver iTanamSromleben<br />

aseTi saxis kriminalis winaaRmdeg. amasTan, didi mniSvneloba eniWeba rekomendaciebs,<br />

romelic Seexeba TanamSromlobas wevr saxelmwifoTa Sesabamis organoebs<br />

Soris. aRniSnuli momenti gadamwyvetia transnacionaluri organizebuli danaSaulis<br />

winaaRmdeg brZolis procesSi, radgan rogorc zemoT aRiniSna, msgavsi xasiaTis<br />

kriminalis ganmaxorcielebli organizebuli dajgufeba arasdros moqmedebs erTi<br />

qveynis teritoriaze. Sesabamisad, Tu ar iqneba am qveynebs Soris mWidro urTierTTa-<br />

98


namSromloba, misi bolomde damarcxeba SeuZlebeli iqneba. aseve xazgasasmelia, rom<br />

winamdebare xelSekrulebiT mxareebs eZlevaT saSualeba ganaxorcielon samarTlebrivi<br />

urTierTdaxmareba da damnaSaveTa eqstradicia, rac aseve, mniSvnelovania, radgan rig<br />

SemTxvevaSi, SeiZleba qveynebs ar gaaCndeT SeTanxmeba msgavs sakiTxebSi TanamSromlobis<br />

Sesaxeb. am dros, saWiro xdeba konkretul faqtTan dakavSirebiT SeTanxmebis gaformeba,<br />

rasac xangrZlivi dro sWirdeba, xolo organizebul danaSaulTan brZolaSi operatiulobas<br />

gadamwyveti mniSvneloba eniWeba. amasTan, aucileblad unda aRiniSnos wevri<br />

saxelmwifoebis movaleoba erTmaneTis kadrebis momzadebis Sesaxeb. vinaidan, specialuri<br />

codnis gareSe, rac ar unda aqtiurad ganxorcieldes qmedebebi kriminalTan<br />

sabrZolvelad, igi efeqtiani ver iqneba, radgan yovel konkretul dajgufebasTan warmatebis<br />

misaRwevad gansxvavebuli midgomaa saWiro. Sesabamisad, swored am meTodebisa<br />

da wesebis Sewavla iqneba SesaZlebeli partniori qveynis samarTaldamcavTa specialur<br />

saswavleblebSi.<br />

SeniSvnebi<br />

1<br />

United Nations Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime, Article<br />

2, Sec. (b).<br />

2<br />

United Nations Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime, Article<br />

3, Sec.2.<br />

3<br />

United Nations Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime, Article<br />

2, Sec. (a).<br />

4<br />

United Nations Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime, Article<br />

2, Sec. (c).<br />

5<br />

avtorTa koleqtivi, sisxlis samarTlis zogadi nawili, Tbilisi, 2007<br />

weli, gv. 225.<br />

6<br />

merab turava, sisxlis samarTali _ zogadi nawilis mimoxilva,<br />

Tbilisi, 2008 weli, gv. 297.<br />

7<br />

avtorTa koleqtivi, sisxlis samarTlis zogadi nawili, Tbilisi, 2007<br />

weli, gv. 225.<br />

8<br />

oTar gamyreliZe, saqarTvelos sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsis ganmarteba,<br />

Tbilisi, 2008 weli, gv. 210.<br />

9<br />

United Nations Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime, Article<br />

5, Sec. 1.<br />

10<br />

nebismieri samarTaldarRveva, romlis Sedegadac miRebuli iqna Semosavali,<br />

romelic Semdgom SeiZleba gaxdes e. w. `gaTeTrebis~ obieqti.<br />

11<br />

United Nations Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime, Article<br />

6, Sec. 1 (a).<br />

12<br />

United Nations Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime, Article<br />

6, Sec. 1 (b).<br />

13<br />

United Nations Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime, Article<br />

8, Sec. 1.<br />

14<br />

United Nations Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime, Article<br />

23.<br />

99


marTlmsajuleba<br />

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UNITED NATIONS<br />

CONVENTION AGAINST<br />

TRANSNATIONAL<br />

ORGANIZED CRIME<br />

DAVIT MESKHISHVILI<br />

Doctoral C<strong>and</strong>idate of the <strong>Law</strong> department, Grigol Robakidze University<br />

It is well know that the organized crime is one of the most complicated<br />

<strong>and</strong> dangerous for of crime that is effects all spheres of public life. Besides,<br />

the mentioned crime, is almost never the problem of one sole country. It is<br />

becoming more <strong>and</strong> more transnational. Baring this in mind, it is even more<br />

important to facilitate the mutual legal assistance between the states at the<br />

international level – <strong>and</strong> this without the relevant legal framework would be<br />

impossible to implement. The Article reviews one of the most important<br />

international act in this field – UN Convention against the Transnational<br />

Organized Crime.<br />

This Article analysis the general principles of the above-mentioned Convention.<br />

Specifically, it reviews the definitions provided in the Convention,<br />

like: organized group, heavy crime, structured group, property <strong>and</strong> income<br />

obtained through the criminal ways. In accordance with the Criminal Code,<br />

as a result of comparison with the norms, the Article concludes that the<br />

norms in Georgian legislations regulated the above mentioned issues in compliance<br />

with the Convention.<br />

Besides that, the Article is focused on the methods of fighting against<br />

organized crime <strong>and</strong> the commitments of the member states in this regard.<br />

At the end, it is concluded that the UN Convention against Transnational<br />

Organized Crime is one of he most important international act while fighting<br />

against this crime, <strong>and</strong> envisages effective provisions to ensure mutual<br />

cooperation between the states at the international level.<br />

100


saerTaSoriso sisxlis samarTliT dadgenili danaSaulebis<br />

maxasiaTebeli erT-erTi mTavari niSania makrokrikriminaluri<br />

miznobrivi dajgufebis<br />

- JOINT CRIMINAL<br />

ENTERPRISE doqtrinis<br />

Seqmnisa da gamoyenebis<br />

aucilebloba<br />

saerTaSoriso sisxlis<br />

samarTalSi<br />

giorgi dgebuaZe<br />

saqarTvelos universitetis doqtoranti<br />

saerTaSoriso sisxlis samarTliT gaTvaliswinebuli<br />

danaSaulebis Cadena xasiaTdeba adamianTa didi jgufis,<br />

saerTo mizniT gamsWvaluli gaerTianebebis TanamoqmedebiT,<br />

sadac pasuxismgebeli piris gansazRvra SedarebiT<br />

rTulia, vidre nacionalur samarTlebriv sistemaSi. aRniSnuli<br />

individualuri pasuxismgeblobis sakiTxs ufro<br />

metad bundovans da Znelad dasadgens xdis. am Temis irgvliv<br />

sainteresoa yofili iugoslaviis sisxlis samarTlis<br />

saerTaSoriso tribunalis saapelacio palatis mier SemuSavebuli<br />

kriminaluri miznobrivi dajgufebis doqtrina,<br />

1 kerZod, Tu ram ganapiroba misi Seqmnisa da gamoyenebis<br />

aucilebloba.<br />

1. Sesavali<br />

101


marTlmsajuleba<br />

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kanoni<br />

minaluri garemo. braldebuli pirebi praqtikulad, yvela SemTxvevaSi moqmedeben<br />

erTiani gegmiTa da ganzraxviT, amoZravebT saerTo mizani, organizebuli formiT iyeneben<br />

Zalismier meTodebs msxverplis winaaRmdeg. magaliTisaTvis gavixsenoT holokosti,<br />

iugoslaviis (srebrenica), ru<strong>and</strong>is SemTxvevebi, sadac uamravi adamiani gaxda<br />

ramdenime dReSi ganxorcielebuli Zaladobis msxverpli. adgili hqonda masStaburi<br />

xasiaTis danaSaulebs, sadac mtkicebulebebis moZieba, Tu vin Caidina ukanono qmedeba<br />

Tu aqti, faqtobrivad SeuZlebeli iyo.<br />

zemoT aRniSnulidan gamomdinare, saerTaSoriso sisxlis samarTali iTvaliswinebs<br />

individualur da koleqtiur Seracxvis formas. pirveli saxezea, rodesac mcire teritoriul<br />

monakveTze Cadenilia ukanono qmedeba, sadac konkretuli damnaSavis dadgena<br />

da mtkicebulebebis mopoveba SesaZlebelia, romlebic pirdapir kavSirSia braldebulis<br />

braleulobasTan. meores ki, adgili aqvs sistemuri, did geografiul regionze<br />

gavrcelebuli danaSaulebis dros. garda amisa, SegviZlia visaubroT aseve SemTxvevebze,<br />

romlebic exeba rogorc individualur, ise koleqtiur Seracxvis formas. isini<br />

saerTaSoriso sisxlis samarTalSi gamoiyeneba ara erTdroulad, aramed erTmaneTis<br />

monacvleobiT. aris ormagi perspeqtiva. Tu naTeli gaxda, konkretulad vis mier aris<br />

Cadenili danaSauli, gamoiyeneba individualuri Seracxvis modeli, Tu ara, maSin _<br />

koleqtiuri 2 .<br />

saerTaSoriso sisxlis samarTlSi konkretuli qmedebis kvalifikaciis procesSi gaTvaliswinebul<br />

unda iqnes individis wvlili danaSaulis CadenaSi, Sedegis dadgomaSi.<br />

sruli pasuxismgebloba, upirveles yovlisa, daekisreba imas, vinc iyo gadawyvetilebis<br />

mimRebi dajgufebis, gaerTianebis, organizaciis farglebSi.<br />

zemoT aRniSnuli sakiTxis irgvliv, did yuradRebas ipyrobs yofili iugoslaviis<br />

tribunalis saapelacio palatis mier precedentul samarTalze dayrdnobiT Seqmnili<br />

doqtrina, kriminaluri miznobrivi dajgufeba _ Joint Criminal Enterprise (JCE). is ufro<br />

da ufro gamoiyeneba saerTaSoriso sisxlis samarTlSi, rogorc `jadosnuri iaraRi~<br />

saerTaSoriso danaSaulebTan sabrZolvelad 3 da xSirad, bralmdeblebisaTvis `sayvarel<br />

cnebadac~ moiazreba. 4<br />

2. kriminaluri miznobrivi dajgufebis doqtrina<br />

kriminaluri miznobrivi dajgufebis doqtrina siaxles warmoadgens rogorc saerTa-<br />

Soriso, aseve, nacionalur samarTlebriv sistemaSi. is aris mniSvnelovani iaraRi im<br />

pirebis gasasamarTleblad, romlebmac danaSauli Caidines Tanaamsruleblobisa da<br />

saerTo miznis principebze dayrdnobiT. is emsaxureba mizans, rom individis mier Cadenili<br />

ukanono qmedeba, an misi jgufur danaSaulSi monawileobis Sedegi miaweros `gaer-<br />

Tianebis~ farglebs. kriminaluri miznobrivi dajgufebis doqtrina SegviZlia ganvmartoT,<br />

rogorc danaSaulSi monawilis mxridan pirdapiri, an iribi Tanxmoba, romelic<br />

mimarTulia kriminaluri aqtis aRsrulebisaken, an daumTavrebeli danaSaulebrivi miznis<br />

sisruleSi moyvanisaken.<br />

102


kriminaluri miznobrivi dajgufebis doqtrinis gamoyeneba yovelTvis iyo kamaTis<br />

sagani. braldeba umetesad mas iyenebda, rodesac ar iyo sakmarisi mtkicebuleba pirovnebis<br />

gasasamarTleblad. aseve, diskusiis obieqti iyo misi gaurkveveli definiciac.<br />

mas xSirad uwodeben pasuxismgeblobis `uvargis Teorias~ da `nadirs~, romelic eZebs<br />

msxverpls. 5 yofili iugoslaviis mosamarTle fer-johan lindholmi werda, rom JCE<br />

iyo arasasargeblo tribunalis saqmianobisaTvis. 6 miuxedavad amisa, doqtrina gamoiyeneboda<br />

da ganagrZobs kidevac arsebobas saerTaSoriso sisxlis samarTlis farglebSi.<br />

JCE-is saSualebiT bralmdebels SeuZlia, sisxlissamarTlebrivi pasuxismgebloba<br />

daakisros adamianTa farTo wres. dajgufebis gegmasTan mimarTebaSi ar aris aucilebeli,<br />

rom is iyos danaSaulis Cadenamde momzadebuli. 7 is SeiZleba formirebuli iqnes,<br />

aseve, danaSaulis Cadenis procesSi. yvela SemTxvevaSi, doqtrinis farglebSi Tanaamsrulebloba<br />

arsebobs, rodesac erTi amsruleblis qmedeba Seesabameba sxva amsruleblis<br />

mizans da yvela moqmedebs erTdroulad erTi da igive adgilas xangrZlivi drois<br />

ganmavlobaSi. 8 mniSvnelovania, rom gegma, mizani, Tavisi SinaarsiT iyos aramarTlzomieri,<br />

iTvaliswinebdes danaSaulis Cadenas. 9<br />

kriminaluri miznobrivi dajgufebis doqtrina Seqmnil iqna braldebis mxarisaTvis,<br />

maRali Tanamdebobis pirebis, serbi politikosi da samxedro Cinovnikebis samarTalSi<br />

micemis mizniT, 10 romlebic farul organizebasa da marTvas uwevdnen danaSaulebs, romlebsac<br />

adgili hqonda yofili iugoslaviis teritoriaze. 11 yvelaze cnobili da gamor-<br />

Ceuli pirovneba, vinc iugoslaviis tribunalma gaasamarTla, iyo slobodan miloSeviCi.<br />

sabraldebo aqtSi is iyo cnobili damnaSaved kriminalur miznobriv dajgufebaSi monawileobisaTvis<br />

bosniaSi, xorvatiasa da kosovoSi ganxorcielebuli qmedebebisaTvis. 12<br />

maRali Tanamdebobis pirebis gasamarTleba doqtrinis meSveobiT ufro intensiur xasiaTs<br />

atarebda, vidre sxva pirebisa. aRsaniSnavia, rom tribunalze braldebis mxare<br />

doqtrinas umetesad iyenebda, rodesac braldebulebs Segnebuli monawileoba da Semxebloba<br />

hqondaT danaSaulTan.<br />

saerTo mizani, es aris JCE-is doqtrinis elementi da mas warmoadgens, rogorc<br />

jgufuri pasuxismgeblobis Teorias. 13 dajgufebis wevrebis makavSirebeli rgoli aris<br />

maTi erTiani ganzraxva, miaRwion saerTo mizans. is Cadenil unda iyos erToblivad an<br />

urTierTSeTanxmebiT. 14 JCE SeiZleba Sedgebodes, aseve patara, subsidiuri qvegaerTianebebisagan.<br />

15 es SeiZleba moxdes, Tu is farTo xasiaTis matarebelia. magaliTad, genocidis<br />

danaSaulis SemTxvevaSi.<br />

3. kriminaluri miznobrivi dajgufebis doqtrinis Seqmnis aucilebloba<br />

JCE, rogorc saerTo sisxlissamarTlebrivi pasuxismgeblobis sistemuri Seracxvis<br />

forma, damkvidrda yofili iugoslaviis saapelacio palatis mier tadiCis saqmeze, sadac<br />

ganisazRvra kidevac pirvelad, doqtrinis gamoyenebis aucilebloba. 16<br />

yofili iugoslaviis tribunalis saapelacio palata eZebda Teoriul komponents,<br />

romelic gamoyenebuli iqneboda jgufuri danaSaulebis mimarT, romelic daexmareboda<br />

103


marTlmsajuleba<br />

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sasamarTlos mZime winaRobebis gadalaxvaSi, mtkicebulebebis mopovebis saqmeSi, romelic,<br />

umeteswilad, Znelad mosaZiebeli an rTulad dasanaxi iqneboda. magaliTad,<br />

individebis Semxebloba da kavSiri saerTaSoriso danaSaulSi. JCE-is sqemis Tanaxmad,<br />

dajgufebis erT-erTi wevris mier Cadenili qmedeba sxva wevrs danaSaulad Seefardeba,<br />

Tu es iyo kriminaluri gegmis gonivruli winaswarganWvretadi Sedegi. 17<br />

yofili iugoslaviis tribunalamde, kriminaluri miznobrivi dajgufebis doqtrinas<br />

adgili hqonda saerTaSoriso tribunalebSi, rogoricaa niurnbergi da tokio. 18 aRniSnuli<br />

gamoiyeneboda individebis dasasjelad, romlebsac brali miuZRodaT dajgufebebis<br />

mier Cadenil genocidis, omisa da adamianurobis winaaRmdeg mimarTul danaSaulebSi.<br />

im dros, rodesac adamianebi pasuxismgebelni iyvnen danaSaulis dagegmvasa da<br />

aRsrulebaSi, faqtobrivad SeuZlebeli iyo sxva saSualebiT sisxlissamarTlebriv pasuxisgebaSi<br />

maTi micema, gamomdinare im mtkicebulebebis mopovebis sirTulidan, romlebic<br />

konkretul danaSaulSi maT pirdapir monawileobaze miuTiTebda.<br />

4. kriminaluri miznobrivi dajgufebis doqtrinis gamoyenebis aucilebloba<br />

dusko tadiCi iyo im SeiaraRebuli dajgufebis wevri, romelic Sevida prijedoris<br />

(Prijedor) regionis sofel jaskiSi (Jaskici), ganacalkeva mamakacebi qalebisa da bavSvebisagan<br />

da umowyalod scema isini. soflidan dajgufebis gasvlis Semdgom, xuTi mokluli<br />

mamakaci iqna napovni. 19<br />

yofili iugoslaviis tribunalis sasamarTlo procesze ramdenime mowmem amoicno<br />

dusko tadiCi, rogorc erT-erTi SeiaraRebuli piri, romelic Sevida dasaxlebaSi,<br />

magram arc erTs ar SeeZlo Tqma, rom mas raime kavSiri hqonda mkvlelobasTan. ar iyo<br />

araviTari mtkicebuleba, vin ganaxorciela danaSaulebrivi qmedeba, kerZod, mkvleloba,<br />

vin esrola TavSi oTx maTgans. sasamarTlo palatam ar gamoricxa faqti, rom qmedebebi,<br />

romelsac adgili hqonda dasaxlebaSi, ganxorcielebuli yofiliyo im pirebis mier,<br />

romlebic Sevidnen sofelSi, magram braldebuli ver iqneboda pasuxismgebeli aseTi<br />

qmedebebisaTvis. 20 gaTvaliswinebul iqna is garemoebac, rom zustad im dRes, mezobel<br />

sofel sivCSi (Sivci) Sevida didi SeiaraRebuli serbuli dajgufeba da iq eTnikur<br />

wmendas axorcielebda. faqti, rom ar yofila msxverpli sofel sivCSi, iZleoda varaudis<br />

saSualebas, rom mkvleloba ar iyo ori soflis eTnikuri wmendis ganxorcielebis<br />

gegmis nawili, romelSic braldebulma miiRo monawileoba. 21<br />

braldebis mxarem gaasaCivra sasamarTlo palatis gadawyvetileba, vinaidan darwmunebuli<br />

iyo, rom tadiCi monawileobda jaskiSi ganxorcielebul TavdasxmebSi, romlis<br />

mizani iyo prijedoris regionis gawmenda araserbi mosaxleobisagan arahumanuri da<br />

ZaladobiTi aqtebiT. mkvleloba braldebulisaTvis iyo warmosadgeni, winaswargaTvaliswinebadi<br />

movlena, romelic braldebis azriT, mas gacnobierebuli unda hqonoda.<br />

sabolood, tadiCi unda yofiliyo cnobili damnaSaved yofili iugoslaviis tribunalis<br />

statutis me-7(1) muxliT, miuxedavad imisa, Tu vin mokla xuTi mamakaci. 22<br />

104


dacvis mxare ar eTanxmeboda braldebis mosazrebas da ambobda, rom unda damtkicebuliyo,<br />

moicavda Tu ara Tavis TavSi Tavdasxmis gegma, romelSic tadiCi savaraudod<br />

monawileobda, mkvlelobas da CaTreul iqna Tu ara is masSi mkvlelobis gegmiT. 23<br />

mas Semdeg, rac aRmoCnda, rom SeiaraRebulma dajgufebam, romelSic iyo braldebuli,<br />

mokla 5 mamakaci jaskiSi, saapelacio palatam dasva sakiTxi _ SeiZleboda Tu ara<br />

saerTaSoriso sisxlis samarTlis mixedviT, piri damnaSaved yofiliyo cnobili, miuxedavad<br />

imisa, rom ar moipoveboda araviTari mtkicebuleba, rom man mokla erT-erTi<br />

mainc. 24<br />

yofili iugoslaviis tribunalis saapelacio palata, tadiCis saqmis kvalifikaciis<br />

procesSi dadga Teoriuli komponentis Seqmnis aucileblobis winaSe, raTa saerTaSoriso<br />

sisxlissamarTlebriv pasuxismgeblobaSi mieca jgufur danaSaulSi braldebuli<br />

pirebi. amiT is gaaiolebda im pirTa dasjas, romlebsac brali miuZRodaT danaSaulebSi,<br />

romlebSic isini monawileobas Rebulobdnen aramarto pirdapiri monawileobis formiT.<br />

tribunalis wesdeba ar gansazRvravs kriminalur miznobriv dajgufebas, rogorc<br />

pasuxismgeblobis SesaZleblobas, Sesabamisad konkretul muxlSi. is iqna moZiebuli<br />

ukve dafuZnebul saerTaSoriso CveulebiT samarTalSi meore msoflio omis precedentuli<br />

samarTlis analizis Sedegad. 25 aseve, Seswavlil iqna rigi qveynebis nacionaluri<br />

kanonmdebloba, magram ver iqna moZiebuli Tanmimdevruli, gamarTlebuli praqtika.<br />

saapelacio palatam dasZina, rom saerTo gegmis doqtrina, rogorc Tanaamsruleblobis<br />

pasuxisgeblobis forma, mkafiod iyo Camoyalibebuli saerTaSoriso CveulebiT samar-<br />

TalSi da misi gamoyeneba tribunalis wesdebis farglebSi SesaZlebeli iyo. 26<br />

yofili iugoslaviis saerTaSoriso tribunali doqtrinas sxvadasxva terminebiT<br />

moixseniebda. magaliTad, saerTo gaerTianeba, saerTo mizani da a.S. mogvianebiT, precedentulma<br />

samarTalma gansazRvra, rom yvela es termini pasuxobda pasuxismgeblobis<br />

erT saerTo formas, romelic unda yofiliyo moxsenebuli, rogorc kriminaluri<br />

miznobrivi dajgufeba (Joint Criminal Enterprise). 27<br />

tadiCis pasuxismgebloba dafuZnebuli iyo swored kriminaluri miznobrivi dajgufebis<br />

doqtrinaze. mas aqvs sami kategoria. samive exeba danaSaulis Casadenad saerTo<br />

mizniT gamsWvalul adamianTa dajgufebas, romelic garkveuli TaviseburebebiT xasiaTdeba.<br />

gaaCnia ra, samive kategorias saerTo obieqturi mxaris niSnebi, yvelas gansxvavebuli<br />

subieqturi mxaris forma aqvs. 28<br />

pirveli kategoria, romelsac ZiriTad JCE-s uwodeben, xasiaTdeba SemTxveviT, rodesac<br />

yvela braldebuli monawileobs saerTo gegmis farglebSi da amoZravebs erTi da<br />

igive saerTo ganzraxva. aq yvela monawile aris pasuxismgebeli jgufis mier Cadenili<br />

danaSaulisaTvis, ganurCevlad maTi monawileobis xarisxisa. 29 imisaTvis, rom qmedebis<br />

kvalifikacia moxdes pirveli kategoriiT, unda dadgindes dajgufebis erT-erT aspeqtSi<br />

mainc, braldebulis mxridan monawileobis survili da danaSaulebrivi ganzraxva,<br />

gaziarebuli sxva jgufis wevrebTan erTad. 30<br />

meore kategorias, sistemur JCE-s, adgili aqvs, rodesac saxezea `sistemuri sisastike,<br />

Zaladoba~, upirveles yovlisa, rogoricaa sakoncentracio banaki. 31 kriminaluri<br />

105


marTlmsajuleba<br />

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miznobrivi dajgufebis meore kategoriiT pasuxismgeblobisaTvis unda damtkicdes<br />

organizebuli represiuli sistemis arseboba, braldebulebis mxridan masSi aqtiuri<br />

monawileoba, misi bunebis codna da SemdgomSi monawileobis ganzraxva. 32<br />

mesame kategoria, gavrcobili JCE, es aris SemTxveva, sadac saerTo gegmis farglebSi<br />

adamianTa jgufi sCadis qmedebas, romelic araa gaTvaliswinebuli gegmiT. 33 mesame kategoriis<br />

dros braldebis mxridan unda damtkicdes, winaswarganWvretadi iyo Tu ara,<br />

rom danaSauli Cadenili iqneboda jgufis erT-erTi wevris mier da braldebulma icoda<br />

ra, rom aseTi danaSauli SesaZlebeli iyo momxdariyo gaerTianebis farglebSi, nebayoflobiT<br />

`aiRo riski Tavis Tavze.~ 34<br />

saapelacio palatam tadiCis saqmeze miiCnia, rom mesame kategoria iyo yvelaze axlos<br />

braldebulis mier gamoxatul qmedebebTan. jgufs hqonda araserbi mosaxleobis gawmendis<br />

saerTo mizani. mkvleloba ar iyo maT gegmaSi mocemuli, magram moiazreboda,<br />

rom araserbebi iqnebodnen mokluli qmedebaTa sisruleSi moyvanis procesSi. palatam<br />

gamoiZia, rom tadiCma icoda aRniSnulis SesaZleblobis Sesaxeb da man nebayoflobiT<br />

`aiRo riski Tavis Tavze.~ 35<br />

gavrcobilma JCE-m Camoayaliba doqtrinis pasuxismgeblobis subieqturi da obieqturi<br />

kriteriumebis axali saxe, romlis saSualebiTac, arsebuli mtkicebulebis done<br />

damakmayofilebeli gaxada. yofili iugoslaviis tribunalis saapelacio palatam daadgina,<br />

rom sasamarTlo palatam dauSva Secdoma, 36 braldebuli iyo serbuli warmomavlobis<br />

SeiaraRebuli dajgufebis wevri, romelmac miznad daisaxa Zalismieri formiT<br />

soflis gawmenda mamakacebisagan. mkvleloba iyo warmosadgeni, winaswargaTvaliswinebadi<br />

movlena, romelic, braldebis azriT, unda yofiliyo gacnobierebadi. braldebuli<br />

gasamarTlebul iqna omisa da adamianurobis winaaRmdeg mimarTuli araerTi danaSaulisaTvis.<br />

mravali braldebidan, romelic mas wayenebuli hqonda, erT-erTi iyo xuTi mamakacis<br />

mkvleloba sofel jaskiSi. 37<br />

5. daskvna<br />

miuxedavad mravali problemisa, romelic arsebobs individualuri pasuxismgeblobis<br />

sferoSi, aSkaraa warmatebebi, romelic droTa ganmavlobaSi iqna miRweuli saer-<br />

TaSoriso sisxlis samarTlis ganviTarebis procesSi.<br />

yofili iugoslaviis saapelacio palata tadiCis saqmeze, kriminaluri miznobrivi<br />

dajgufebis doqtrinis Camoyalibebis dros daeyrdno niurnbergis sasamarTlo praqtikas,<br />

iuridiuli normebis simwiris gamo. ar arsebobda Camoyalibebuli dispozicia,<br />

romelic saSualebas miscemda braldebis mxares gamoeyenebina igi qmedebis kvalifikaciis<br />

procesSi. Tu braldebis mxare, zemoT aRniSnul doqtrinaze dayrdnobiT, daamtkicebda,<br />

rom braldebulebi imyofebodnen danaSaulis Cadenis procesSi, miuxedavad maTi<br />

monawileobis xarisxisa, daawesebda sisxlissamarTlebriv pasuxismgeblobas maTze.<br />

kriminaluri miznobrivi dajgufebis doqtrinam braldebis aqtebi ufro ioli gaxada.<br />

is saSualebas aZlevs braldebas masSi Seitanos ufro meti braldebebi, vidre sxva<br />

106


formis pasuxismgeblobebi, vinaidan mesame kategorias aqvs subieqturi mxaris ufro<br />

dabali moTxovnilebebi, rom piri micemul iqnes samarTalSi. mesame kategoria mxolod<br />

iTxovs, rom umaRlesi Tanamdebobis pirisagan moxdes nebismieri qmedebis Cadena, romelic<br />

SeiZleba Sors iyos dajgufebis saerTo gegmisagan. gavrcobili JCE-iT braldebam<br />

unda daadginos, rom braldebuls hqonda codna im varaudis Sesaxeb, romelmac gamoiwvia<br />

damatebiTi danaSauli, anu qmedeba, romelic iyo winaswargaTvaliswinebadi. is, rom<br />

kriminalur miznobriv dajgufebas aqvs ufro dabali subieqturi mxaris niSnebi, vidre<br />

pasuxismgeblobis sxva saxes, xdis mas ufro Zlier iaraRad braldebis mxarisaTvis.<br />

nebismieri axali Teoriuli komponenti, doqtrina, romelic daexmareba marTlmsajulebas<br />

problemuri sakiTxebis gadalaxvaSi, ra Tqma unda, misaRebi unda iyos saerTa-<br />

Soriso sisxlis samarTlis dogmatikisaTvis. magaliTad, Tu meTauris pasuxismgebloba<br />

srulad Tavs ver arTmevda Tavis daniSnulebas, JCE-is mesame kategoriiT, ukve SesaZlebeli<br />

gaxda pasuxismgeblobis sxvagvarad dakisreba. saerTaSoriso danaSaulebi xasiaTdeba<br />

ra, adamianTa TanamoqmedebiT, marTlac, am procesSi, rodesac maTi konkretul<br />

qmedebebTan pirdapiri Semxeblobis dadgena SeuZlebelia, kriminaluri miznobrivi dajgufebis<br />

doqtrina sakiTxis regulirebis Sesabamisi safuZvelia. is qmnis prevencias<br />

momavalSi im danaSaulTa aRsakveTad, romelic SeiZleba Cadenil iqnes kacobriobis<br />

mimarT. globalizaciis sakiTxi, komunikaciis saSualebebis ganviTareba, saerTaSoriso<br />

sisxlis samarTliT gaTvaliswinebul danaSaulebSi mizezobrivi kavSiris dadgenas qmedebasa<br />

da Sedegs Soris ufro da ufro Znelad dasadgens xdis. kriminaluri miznobrivi<br />

dajgufeba, gansakuTrebiT ki, doqtirinis mesame kategoria, subieqturi mxaris<br />

minimaluri moTxovniT idealuri variantia aRniSnuli sakiTxis dasaregulireblad,<br />

aseve, maRali Tanamdebobis pirebis gasasamarTleblad, romlebic arapirdapiri formiT<br />

marTaven `organizacias~.<br />

miuxedavad imisa, rom kriminaluri miznobrivi dajgufebis doqtrinis mimarT arsebobs<br />

garkveuli uaryofiTi damokidebuleba, man saTanado adgili daimkvidra saerTa-<br />

Soriso sisxlis samarTlis iurisprudenciaSi.<br />

107


marTlmsajuleba<br />

N1<br />

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kanoni<br />

SeniSvnebi:<br />

1<br />

ix.: Joint Criminal Enterprise terminTan mimarTebaSi; merab turava,<br />

sisxlis samarTlis zogadi nawilis mimoxilva, me-8 gamocema, 2010,<br />

gv. 281; aseve, aRniSnuli wignis me-7 gamocema, 2008, gv. 234.<br />

2<br />

ix.: Kai Ambos, Internationales Strafrecht, 2 Auflage, 2008, gv. 151-152.<br />

3<br />

ix.: Kai Ambos, Joint Criminal Enterprise <strong>and</strong> Comm<strong>and</strong> Responsibility,<br />

<strong>Journal</strong> of International Criminal <strong>Justice</strong>, 2007, www.oxfordjournals.org.<br />

4<br />

ix.: Antonio Cassese, The Proper Limits of Individual Criminal Responsibility<br />

Under the Doctrine of Joint Criminal Enterprise, <strong>Journal</strong> of International<br />

Criminal <strong>Justice</strong>, 2007, www.oxfordjournals.org.<br />

5<br />

ix.: Ciara Damgaard, Individual Criminal Responsibility for Core International<br />

Crime, 2008, gv. 128.<br />

6<br />

ix.: iqve.<br />

7<br />

ix.: Kriangsak Kittichaisaree, International Criminal <strong>Law</strong>, 2002, gv. 238;<br />

aseve, Gerhard Werle, Principles of International Criminal <strong>Law</strong>, Second<br />

Edition, 2009, gv. 173; Prosecutor v Vasiljevic (saqme IT-98-32-A) saapelacio<br />

palatis 2004 wlis 25 Tebervlis gadawyvetileba, par. 100.<br />

8<br />

ix.: Otto Triffterer, Commentary on the Rome Statute of the International<br />

Criminal Court, Second Edition, 2008, gv. 749-751.<br />

9<br />

ix.: William A. Shabas, The Un International Criminal Tribunal-The former<br />

Yugoslavia, Rw<strong>and</strong>a <strong>and</strong> Sierra Leone, 2006, gv. 309-314.<br />

10<br />

ix.: Allison Marston Danner <strong>and</strong> Jenny S. Martinez, Guilty Associations:<br />

Joint Criminal Enterprise, Comm<strong>and</strong> Responsibility, <strong>and</strong> the Development<br />

of International Criminal <strong>Law</strong>, 2004, www.ssrn.com.<br />

11<br />

ix.: Elies van Sliedregt, JCE as a Pathaway to Convicting Individuals for<br />

Genocide, <strong>Journal</strong> of International Criminal <strong>Justice</strong>, 2007, www.oxfordjournals.org.<br />

12<br />

ix.: Prosecutor v Milosevic (saqme IT-02-54).<br />

13<br />

ix.: Kai Ambos, Joint Criminal Enterprise <strong>and</strong> Comm<strong>and</strong> Responsibility,<br />

<strong>Journal</strong> of International Criminal <strong>Justice</strong>, 2007, www.oxfordjournals.org.<br />

14<br />

ix.: Prosecutor v Krajisnik (saqme IT-00-39-T) sasamarTlo palatis 2006<br />

wlis 27 seqtembris gadawyvetileba, par. 884.<br />

15<br />

ix.: Prosecutor v Kvocka et all. (saqme IT-98-30/1) sasamarTlo palatis<br />

2001 wlis 2 noembris gadawyvetileba, par. 307.<br />

16<br />

ix.: Prosecutor v Tadic (saqme IT-94-1-A) saapelacio palatis 1999 wlis<br />

15 ivlisis gadawyvetileba, par. 172.<br />

17<br />

ix.: William A. Schabas, An Introduction to the International Criminal<br />

Court, Third Edition, 2009, gv. 215-216.<br />

18<br />

ix.: Allison Marston Danner <strong>and</strong> Jenny S. Martinez, Guilty Associations:<br />

Joint Criminal Enterprise, Comm<strong>and</strong> Responsibility, <strong>and</strong> the Development<br />

of International Criminal <strong>Law</strong>, 2004, www.ssrn.com.<br />

19<br />

ix.: iqve, par. 178.<br />

20<br />

ix.: Prosecutor v Tadic (saqme IT-94-1-T) sasamarTlo palatis 1999 wlis<br />

7 maisis gadawyvetileba, par. 373.<br />

21<br />

ix.: iqve, par. 373.<br />

22<br />

ix.: Prosecutor v Tadic (saqme IT-94-1-A) saapelacio palatis 1999 wlis<br />

15 ivlisis gadawyvetileba, par. 175.<br />

23<br />

ix.: iqve, par. 176, 177.<br />

24<br />

ix.: iqve, par. 185.<br />

25<br />

ix.: Allison Marston Danner <strong>and</strong> Jenny S. Martinez, Guilty Associations:<br />

Joint Criminal Enterprise, Comm<strong>and</strong> Responsibility, <strong>and</strong> the Development<br />

of International Criminal <strong>Law</strong>, 2004, www.ssrn.com.<br />

108


26<br />

ix.: Prosecutor v Tadic (saqme IT-94-1-A) saapelacio palatis 1999 wlis<br />

15 ivlisis gadawyvetileba, par. 220.<br />

27<br />

ix.: Prosecutor v Brdjanin (saqme IT-99-36) sasamarTlo palatis 2001<br />

wlis 26 ivnisis gadawyvetileba, par. 26.<br />

28<br />

ix.: Robert Cryer, Hakan Friman, Darryl Robinson, Elizabeth Wilmshurst,<br />

An Introduction to International Criminal <strong>Law</strong> <strong>and</strong> Procedure, 2007, gv.<br />

305-310.<br />

29<br />

ix.: Antonio Cassese - International Criminal <strong>Law</strong>, Second Edition, 2008, gv.<br />

191.<br />

30<br />

ix.: Prosecutor v Simic, Tadic <strong>and</strong> Zaric (saqme IT-95-9) 2003 wlis 17<br />

oqtombris gadawyvetileba, par. 157; aseve, Prosecutor v Stakic (saqme<br />

IT-97-24-T) 2003 wlis 31 ivlisis gadawyvetileba, par. 436; aRniSnul<br />

saqmeebSi monawileebs amoZravebT saerTo ganzraxva miznis gansaxorcieleblad.<br />

31<br />

ix.: Prosecutor v Tadic (saqme IT-94-1-A) saapelacio palatis 1999 wlis<br />

15 ivlisis gadawyvetileba, par. 202.<br />

32<br />

ix.: iqve, par. 203; ix. aseve, Prosecutor v Krnojelac (saqme IT-97-25-A)<br />

saapelacio palatis 2003 wlis 17 seqtembris gadawyvetileba, par. 96.<br />

33<br />

ix.: Prosecutor v Tadic (saqme IT-94-1-A) saapelacio palatis 1999 wlis<br />

15 ivlisis gadawyvetileba, par. 204.<br />

34<br />

ix.: iqve, par. 220, 228; ix. aseve, sam kategoriasTan dakavSirebiT Jennifer<br />

Trahan, Genocide, War Crimes, Crimes Against Humanity - A Topical<br />

of the Case <strong>Law</strong> of International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia,<br />

Human Rights Watch Organization, 2006, gv. 417-427; Prosecutor v<br />

Vasiljevic (saqme IT-98-32) saapelacio palatis 2004 wlis 25 Tebervlis<br />

gadawyvetileba, par. 101.<br />

35<br />

ix.: Prosecutor v Tadic (saqme IT-94-1-A) saapelacio palatis 1999 wlis<br />

15 ivlisis gadawyvetileba, par. 231-232.<br />

36<br />

ix.: iqve, par 233.<br />

37<br />

ix.: tadiCis sxva braldebebTan dakavSirebiT konkretulad Prosecutor<br />

v Tadic (saqme IT-94-1).<br />

109


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NEED FOR CREATION<br />

AND USAGE OF<br />

THE JOINT CRIMINAL<br />

ENTERPRISE DOCTRINE<br />

IN THE INTERNATIONAL<br />

CRIMINAL LAW<br />

GEORGE DGEBUADZE<br />

Doctoral C<strong>and</strong>idate, The University of Georgia<br />

The following article is dedicated to the issue of personal liability in International<br />

Criminal <strong>Law</strong>, in other words the doctrine of Joint Criminal Enterprise.<br />

According to the International Criminal law joint crime involves coperpetration<br />

by a large group of people with common goal, where compared<br />

to the national law system, it is more difficult to identify the responsible<br />

persons. This makes the issue of personal liability even more vague <strong>and</strong> difficult<br />

to determine. One of the tools for solving this legal issue is the doctrine<br />

of the Joint Criminal Enterprise developed by the Appeals Chamber of<br />

the International Criminal Tribunal of the former Yugoslavia. This doctrine<br />

enables to apply criminal liability to a large group of people.<br />

The article reviews the Dusko Tadic’s Case. During the qualification of the<br />

mentioned case, the Appeals Chamber of International Criminal Tribunal<br />

for the Former Yugoslavia used the doctrine of Joint Criminal Enterprise<br />

for the first time <strong>and</strong> formulated 3 categories of it: 1. I category – basically<br />

referred as JCE – deals with the situation when all the defendants are acting<br />

in the framework of the common plan <strong>and</strong> according to the common goal;<br />

2) II Category – systemic JCE – is characterized with “systemic cruelty, violence”,<br />

primarily a phenomena such as a concentration camp. 3), III category<br />

– extended/advanced JCE – when the group of people in the framework of<br />

the common goal are committing an act not envisaged ender the plan.<br />

Though there is some negative attitude towards the doctrine of JCE, it<br />

has still found relevant place in the common international criminal law.<br />

110


Tanamonawileobisas, sisxlis samarTlis pasuxismgeblobis<br />

sirTules warmoadgens, rom danaSauli ramdenime<br />

piris erToblivi moqmedebiT xorcieldeba. erToblivi<br />

moqmedeba momdinareobs organizatoris, wamqezeblis da<br />

damxmaris, aseve, amsruleblis moqmedebidan. TanamonawileobiT<br />

Cadenili danaSauli, ramdenime piris Zalisxmevis<br />

nayofs warmoadgens, romelic danaSaulis amsruleblis<br />

moqmedebaSi da amis safuZvelze, saerTo danaSaulebriv SedegSi<br />

gaerTi<strong>and</strong>eba. Tanamonawileebs pasuxismgebloba er-<br />

Tiani danaSaulisaTvis daekisrebaT. Tumca, es ar niSnavs,<br />

rom yvela Tanamonawiles erTi zomis erTgvarovani sasjeli<br />

unda Seefardos. Tanamonawileobisas unda ganxorcieldes<br />

sasjelis individualizacia. samarTlianadaa aRniSnuli<br />

iuridiul literaturaSi, rom araindividualizebul<br />

sasjels ar SeuZlia warmatebiT ganaxorcielos<br />

Tavisi funqciuri daniSnuleba. Tu sasjeli ar aris individualizebuli,<br />

is usamarTloa. usamarTlo sasjeli ar<br />

iwvevs sazogadoebaSi da msjavrdebulSi im reaqcias, romelic<br />

aucilebelia zogadi da specialuri prevenciis amocanaTa<br />

gadawyvetisaTvis. 1<br />

TanamonawileobiT Cadenil danaSaulSi sasjelis individualizacia<br />

mniSvnelovnadaa damokidebuli im kriterisasjelis<br />

daniSvnis<br />

sakiTxisaTvis<br />

TanamonawileobiT<br />

Cadenil danaSaulSi<br />

adam maxaraZe<br />

rusTavelis saxelmwifo universitetis sruli profesori<br />

111


marTlmsajuleba<br />

N1<br />

da<br />

kanoni<br />

umTa Tu midgomaTa Sinaarsze, romelic sasamarTlom kanonmdeblis miTiTebiT unda<br />

gaiTvaliswinos. sxvadasxva qveynebis sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsTa gaTvaliswinebiT,<br />

aRniSnuli problemis gadawyvetis ramdenime mimarTuleba SeiniSneba.<br />

pirvel maTgans unda mivakuTnoT is qveynebi, sadac danaSaulis Tanamonawilis saxis<br />

mixedviT dadgenilia sasjelis Semcireba. amis naTeli magaliTia germaniis sisxlis<br />

samarTlis kodeqsi, romlis 26-e paragrafis mixedviT danaSaulis wamqezebeli amsruleblis<br />

msgavsad isjeba, magram damxmaresaTvis (par. 27) sasjeli Semcirebulia par. 49,<br />

I abzacis mixedviT. masSi dadgenilia sasjelis Semsubuqebis Semdegi wesebi:<br />

1. Tavisuflebis uvado aRkveTa icvleba vadiani Tavisuflebis aRkveTiT aranakleb<br />

sami wliT.<br />

2. danaSaulisaTvis gansazRvruli vadiani Tavisuflebis aRkveTisas gaTvaliswinebuli<br />

sasjelis maqsimaluri vada mcirdeba sam meoTxedamde. igive wesi moqmedebs fuladi<br />

jarimis drosac.<br />

3. minimaluri vada sasjelisa Tavisuflebis aRkveTis saxiT mcirdeba: im SemTxvevaSi,<br />

Tu minimaluri vada aTidan an xuTi wlidan aris gansazRvruli ori wliT; Tu minimaluri<br />

vada samidan an ori wlidan aris _ eqvsi TviT; Tu minimaluri vada aris erTi<br />

wlidan _ sami TviT; sxva SemTxvevebSi ki, kanoniT dadgenili minimaluri vadiT. 2<br />

zogierTi saxelmwifos sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsebi damxmaris mimarT aweseben zogadad,<br />

sasjelis fakultatiuri Semcirebis SesaZleblobas. ase, magaliTad, Sveicariis<br />

1938 wlis sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsis 25-e muxli adgens, rom `is vinc ganzrax Seuwyobs<br />

xels sxvas danaSaulis CadenaSi an gadacdomaSi SeiZleba daisajos msubuqad~. sasjelis<br />

fakultatiur Semcirebas aseve, iTvaliswinebs daniis 1933 wlis sisxlis samarTlis<br />

kodeqsic (23-e mux.) da sxv.<br />

calkeuli qveynis sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsebi ar gansazRvraven sasjelis savaldebulo<br />

an fakultatiur Semcirebas, aramed saerTo saxelmZRvanelo sawyisebis saxiT<br />

aweseben Tanabar pasuxismgeblobas yvela TanamonawilisaTvis. am gziT midis, magaliTad,<br />

safrangeTis 1992 wlis sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsi, romlis 121-6 muxlSi naTqvamia, rom<br />

erToblivi danaSaulebrivi qmedebis Tanamonawile iseve daisjeba, rogorc danaSaulis<br />

amsrulebeli. 3 analogiur pozicias icavs iaponiis 1907 wlis sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsic,<br />

romlis 63-e muxli adgens, rom damxmares sasjeli unda Seumsubuqdes amsruleblis<br />

sasjelis Sesabamisad. 4<br />

sagulisxmoa is faqti, rom iaponiisa da safrangeTis sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsebi<br />

TanamonawileTa dasjis SesaZleblobas zRudaven mcire mniSvnelobis mqone danaSaulebrivi<br />

qmedebis dros. ase magaliTad, iaponiis sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsis 64-e muxlis<br />

Tanaxmad, iseTi danaSaulis damxmare an wamqezebeli, romelic sasjelis saxiT patimrobas<br />

an mcire fulad jarimas iwvevs, mxolod im SemTxvevaSi daisjeba, Tu amis Sesaxeb<br />

specialuradaa miTiTebuli kanonSi. safrangeTis sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsis mixedviT,<br />

danaSaulebrivi qmedebebi Tavisi simZimis mixedviT sam nawilad iyofa: danaSaulad,<br />

gadacdomad da darRvevad, magram Tanamonawileoba mxolod danaSaulSi da gadacdomaSia<br />

(111-1; 121-6 da 121-7 mm.) dasjadi.<br />

112


iaponiisa da safrangeTis kanonmdeblobis msgavsad, saqarTvelos moqmedi sisxlis<br />

samarTlis kodeqsi ar zRudavs im ganzrax danaSaulTa wres, romlisTvisac SesaZlebelia<br />

sisxlis samarTlis pasuxismgebloba TanamonawileobisaTvis. Tumca, es ar niSnavs,<br />

rom Cveni kanonmdeblobiT Tanamonawileebs pasuxismgebloba yvela mcire mniSvnelobis<br />

mqone nebismieri qmedebisaTvis daekisrebaT. Tanamonawileobis institutis aseTi gageba<br />

winaaRmdegobrivi da usafuZvlo iqneboda. Tanamonawileobis institutis debulebebi<br />

sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsis sxva normebTan erTianobaSi unda gaviazroT. es konkretuli<br />

SemTxveva me-7 muxlis I I nawilTan organul kavSirSi unda warmovidginoT. masSi naTqvamia,<br />

rom qmedeba SesaZlebelia kodeqsiT gaTvaliswinebul niSnebs Seicavdes Tumca,<br />

mcire mniSvnelobis gamo aucilebeli ar iyos misi Camdenis sisxlis samarTlis pasuxisgebaSi<br />

micema. maSasadame, Tanamonawileebi ssk-is me-7 muxlis I I nawilis safuZvelze,<br />

SesaZlebelia gaTavisufldnen sisxlis samarTlis pasuxismgeblobisagan an kidev, romelime<br />

Tanamonawiles, magaliTad, msubuqi danaSaulis Cadenis SemTxvevaSi, danaSaulSi<br />

monawileobis mcire xarisxis gamo ar daekisros pasuxismgebloba. 5<br />

moqmedi sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsi ar iTvaliswinebs Tanamonawilis romelime saxis<br />

mimarT sasjelis savaldebulo an fakultatiur Semcirebas. igi istoriuli warsulis<br />

msgavsad, potenciurad yvela TanamonawilisaTvis sasjelis Tanabar farglebs awesebs.<br />

amitom erTi SexedviT, iqmneba STabeWdileba, TiTqosda moqmedi kanonmdeblobisaTvis<br />

ar aris aucilebeli TanamonawileTa saxeebad dayofa. Tumca, amgvari daskvna ar Seesabameba<br />

moqmedi sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsis zogad principebsa da dadgenilebebs TanamonawileebisaTvis<br />

sasjelis daniSvnis Taobaze.<br />

sasamarTlom TanamonawileobiT Cadenil danaSaulSi sasjelis individualizaciis<br />

principis dacvis mizniT unda ixelmZRvanelos, rogorc sasjelis daniSvnis zogad sawyisebSi<br />

gansazRvruli debulebebiT (53-e mux.) aseve, im specialuri kriteriumebiT,<br />

romelic danaSaulSi TanamonawileobisaTvis da danaSaulSi amsruleblobisaTvis aris<br />

dadgenili (57-e mux.). magaliTad, sasjelis daniSvnis zogad sawyisebSi miTiTebuli<br />

debuleba, rom `sasamarTlo damnaSaves samarTlian sasjels dauniSnavs am kodeqsis<br />

kerZo nawilis Sesabamisi muxliT dadgenil farglebSi da amave kodeqsis zogadi nawilis<br />

debulebaTa gaTvaliswinebiT~ Tanabrad vrceldeba, rogorc erTpirovnuli, aseve, Tanamonawileobis<br />

gamovlenili danaSaulis mimarTac. erTpirovnulad Cadenili danaSaulis<br />

msgavsad, TanamonawileobiT Cadenili danaSaulis drosac, sasamarTlos ar SeuZlia<br />

damnaSaves sasjelis zomad dauniSnos Cadenili danaSaulisaTvis gansazRvruli<br />

sanqciis minimalur zRvarze naklebi da maqsimalurze meti.<br />

garda amisa, kanonmdebeli amave normaSi gansazRvravs, rom sasamarTlom sasjelis<br />

daniSvnisas unda ixelmZRvanelos am kodeqsis zogadi nawilis debulebaTa gaTvaliswinebiT.<br />

es miTiTeba sakmaod farTo da tevadi cnebaa. masSi igulisxmeba rogorc zogadi,<br />

aseve is specialuri normebi, romlebic konkretul viTarebaSi dakavSirebulni arian<br />

sasjelis daniSvnasTan da zegavlenas axdenen am procesze. magaliTad, moqmedi kodeqsi<br />

iTvaliswinebs sasjelis daniSvnis wesebs daumTavrebeli danaSaulisaTvis (56-e mux.)<br />

da danaSaulSi Tanamonawileobisa Tu TanaamsruleblobisaTvis (57-e mux.). im<br />

113


marTlmsajuleba<br />

N1<br />

da<br />

kanoni<br />

SemTxvevaSi, Tu TanamonawileobiT ganxorcieldeba danaSaulis mcdeloba, sasamarTlom<br />

sasjelis daniSvnisas mxedvelobaSi unda miiRos ara marto 57-e, aramed 56-e muxlSi<br />

gansazRvruli debulebebic, cxadia, im danaSaulTan erTad, romlis ganxorcielebasac<br />

Tanamonawileebi cdilobdnen.<br />

53-e muxlis meore nawiliT, kanonmdebeli adgens iseT SemTxvevebs, rodesac SeiZleba<br />

dainiSnos kodeqsis kerZo nawilis Sesabamisi muxliT gaTvaliswinebulze ufro mkacri<br />

an ufro msubuqi sasjeli. ufro mkacri sasjeli SeiZleba dainiSnos danaSaulTa da<br />

ganaCenTa erTobliobiT (59-e mux.), xolo ufro msubuqi 55-e muxlis safuZvelze. ker-<br />

Zod, maSin Tu mxareebs Soris dadebulia saproceso SeTanxmeba, sasamarTlos eZleva<br />

ufleba daniSnos kodeqsis Sesabamisi muxliT dawesebuli zomis umdables zRvarze naklebi<br />

sasjeli an sxva ufro msubuqi saxis sasjeli. es debulebebi sasamarTlom mxedvelobaSi<br />

unda miiRos TanamonawileobiT Cadenili danaSaulis drosac. Tu, magaliTad,<br />

sasamarTlo daadgens, rom gansakuTrebiT mZime danaSaulis Tanamonawilem, romelsac<br />

misjili hqonda 15 wliT Tavisuflebis aRkveTa, sasjelis moxdamde, man kvlav Caidina<br />

TanamonawileobiT (an erTpirovnulad) araerTi mZime an gansakuTrebiT mZime danaSauli,<br />

aseT pirobebSi sasamarTlos aqvs ufleba, ganaCenTa erTobliobiT (59-e mux.), sasjelis<br />

Sekrebis gziT, danaSaulSi monawile pirs, saboloo sasjelad mTlianobaSi Seufardos<br />

ormoc wlamde Tavisuflebis aRkveTa. maSasadame, sasjelis daniSvnis zogad sawyisebSi<br />

miTiTebas, rom sasamarTlom sasjelis gansazRvrisas unda ixelmZRvanelos zogad<br />

nawilSi gansazRvruli debulebebiT, `jaWvur reaqciaSi mohyavs~ zogad nawilSi gansaz-<br />

Rvruli is normebi, romlebic dakavSirebuli arian sasjelis daniSvnasTan an zegavlenas<br />

axdenen am procesze.<br />

amasTan, am normebidan zogierTi maTgani specialuri xasiaTisaa da maT sasjelis<br />

daniSvnis dros sasamarTlo mxolod konkretuli sisxlis samarTlis saqmeTa ganxilvisas<br />

iyenebs, xolo zogierT maTgans zogadi xasiaTi aqvs da isini sasamarTlos mier,<br />

Cadenili danaSaulisaTvis sasjelis daniSvnisas, mxedvelobaSi miiReba nebismieri<br />

kategoriis sisxlis samarTlis saqmeze. magaliTad, 56-e muxliT sasamarTlom unda<br />

ixelmZRvanelos mxolod daumTavrebeli danaSaulisaTvis sasjelis daniSvnisas. magram<br />

53-e muxlis me-3 nawiliT gansazRvruli debuleba, pasuxismgeblobis Semamsubuqebeli<br />

da damamZimebel garemoebebis Sesaxeb, kerZod, miTiTeba danaSaulis motivze da mizanze,<br />

qmedebaSi gamovlenil marTlsawinaaRmdego nebaze, movaleobaTa darRvevis xasiaTze,<br />

damnaSavis warsul cxovrebaze Tu a.S. sasamarTlom mxedvelobaSi unda miiRos nebismieri<br />

saxiTa Tu formiT gamovlenili danaSaulis SemTxvevaSi sasjelis daniSvnisas,<br />

iqneba es damTavrebuli Tu daumTavrebeli an kidev erTpirovnuli Tu TanamonawileobiT<br />

Cadenili danaSauli da sxv.<br />

kanonmdeblis moTxovna sasjelis daniSvnis dros pasuxismgeblobis Semamsubuqebeli<br />

da damamZimebeli garemoebebis, agreTve, damnaSavis pirovnebis gaTvaliswinebis Taobaze,<br />

warmoadgens sasjelis individualizaciis principis realurad ganxorcielebas.<br />

erTpirovnulad Cadenili danaSaulis dros sasamarTlos SesaZlebloba aqvs da amasTan,<br />

valdebulic aris garegnulad Tundac erTnairi, ori sxvadasxva danaSaulis Cadenis<br />

SemTxvevaSi, konkretuli garemoebebis dadgenis gziT, muxlis sanqciis farglebSi da-<br />

114


niSnos mkacri an naklebad mkacri sasjeli <strong>and</strong>a ufro msubuqi sasjelis saxe Tu zoma,<br />

anu ganaxorcielos sasjelis realuri individualizacia. 6<br />

kanonmdeblis moTxovna sasjelis daniSvnis dros Semamsubuqebeli da damamZimebeli<br />

garemoebebis gaTvaliswinebis Sesaxeb, cxadia, TanamonawileobiT Cadenil danaSaulsac<br />

Seexeba, Tumca, am ukanasknels garkveuli specifikac axasiaTebs. kerZod, erTpirovnulad<br />

Cadenili danaSaulis dros, nebismieri saxis Semamsubuqebeli da damamZimebeli<br />

garemoeba, am erTi pirisaTvis aris damaxasiaTebeli da Sesabamisad, saqmis yvela konkretuli<br />

garemoebebis dadgena da maTi gaTvaliswineba sasamarTlos mier, sasjelis<br />

daniSvnis dros, am erTi piris mimarT xdeba. Tanamonawileobisas ki, es sakiTxi ramdenadme<br />

gansxvavebulad da SedarebiT rTulad wydeba.<br />

Tanamonawileobis SemTxvevaSi, Semamsubuqebeli da damamZimebeli garemoebebis diferencirebuli<br />

Sefaseba unda ganxorcieldes. es garemoebebi unda daiyos or nawilad:<br />

personalur da arapersonalur garemoebebad. personaluri niSani, romelic danaSaulSi<br />

monawile romelime piris mxares aris mocemuli, igi sasamarTlom sasjelis individualizaciis<br />

dros mxedvelobaSi mxolod im piris mimarT unda miiRos visac igi uSualod<br />

axasiaTebs. igive unda iTqvas bralis niSanzec, romelic zrdis an amcirebs bralis<br />

xarisxs. arapersonaluri garemoeba ki, romelic amsruleblis mier ganxorcielebul<br />

marTlsawinaaRmdego qmedebas axasiaTebs, man sasjelis gansazRvrisas zegavlena unda<br />

iqonios ara marto amsrulebelze, aramed danaSaulSi monawile sxva pirebzec. cxadia,<br />

Tu maT Secnobili hqondaT es garemoebebi. 7 magaliTad, danaSaulis amsruleblis uaryofiTma<br />

an dadebiTma warsulma cxovrebam an misma piradma Tu ekonomikurma pirobebma,<br />

asakma, orsulobam Tu sxva personaluri xasiaTis garemoebebma ar unda gaamkacron an<br />

Seamsubuqon sxva TanamonawileTa sasjeli. magram arapersonalurma garemoebebma, rogorebicaa,<br />

magaliTad, danaSaulis Cadena gansakuTrebuli sisastikiT, danaSauliT mZime<br />

Sedegebis gamowveva, danaSaulis Cadena sayovelTaod saSiSi saSualebebiT da a.S.<br />

msgavsi xasiaTis obieqturi niSnebi sasamarTlom sasjelis individualizaciis dros<br />

unda gaiTvaliswinos, rogorc amsruleblis mimarT, aseve, danaSaulis TanamonawileTa<br />

mimarTac, Tu maT Secnobili hqondaT es niSnebi. Tanamonawileobisas sajelis daniSvnis<br />

Semamsubuqebeli da damamZimebeli garemoebebis zegavlenis amgvar specifikaze, sxvaTa<br />

Soris pirdapir miuTiTebs moqmedi sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsis 57-e muxli, romelic<br />

danaSaulSi TanamonawileobisaTvis sasjelis daniSvnis specialur kriteriumebs gansazRvravs.<br />

aRniSnuli muxlis meore nawilSi naTqvamia, rom `Semamsubuqebeli an damam-<br />

Zimebeli garemoeba, romelic erT-erTi Tanamonawilis an amsruleblis pirovnebas Seexeba,<br />

mxedvelobaSi miiReba mxolod am TanamonawilisaTvis an amsruleblisaTvis sasjelis<br />

daniSvnis dros~. maSasadame, personaluri niSani, romelic axasiaTebs romelime<br />

Tanamonawiles, ar SeiZleba pasuxismgeblobaSi Seeracxos sxva Tanamonawileebs.<br />

zemoT aRniSnulidan gamomdinare, SeiZleba gavakeToT daskvna, rom TanamonawileobiT<br />

Cadenil danaSaulSi sasjelis individualizaciis principis dacvisaTvis 53-e<br />

muxlis mesame nawiliT da 57-e muxlis meore nawiliT gansazRvruli debulebebi erTian,<br />

ganuyofel nawils warmoadgenen. pirveli maTgani Tu sasamarTlos sasjelis individualizaciis<br />

zogad principze miuTiTebs, romlis gamoyenebac nebismieri saxiTa Tu<br />

115


marTlmsajuleba<br />

N1<br />

da<br />

kanoni<br />

formiT Cadenili danaSaulisaTvis aris aucilebeli, meore, ukve akonkretebs im specifikas,<br />

romelic am normis gamoyenebis dros TanamonawileobiT Cadenil danaSauls axasiaTebs.<br />

TanamonawileobiT Cadenili danaSaulis dros danaSaulSi monawile pirebis<br />

mimarT sasjelis daniSvnisas sasamarTlom unda ganxorcielos am debulebaTa sinTezuri<br />

gamoyeneba.<br />

danaSaulSi Tanamonawileobisas sasjelis individualizaciisaTvis specialuri mniSvneloba<br />

aqvs ara marto, zemoT ganxilul 57-e muxlis meore nawiliT gansazRvrul<br />

debulebas sxvadasxva niSnebis Seracxvis Taobaze, aramed amave muxlis pirvel nawiliT<br />

dadgenil debulebas danaSaulSi monawileobis xasiaTze da xarisxze, kerZod: `danaSaulSi<br />

TanamonawileobisaTvis da amsruleblobisaTvis sasjelis daniSvnis dros mxedvelobaSi<br />

miiReba piris faqtobrivi monawileobis xasiaTi da xarisxi, am monawileobis<br />

mniSvneloba danaSaulis miznis misaRwevad, misi gavlena gamowveuli an SesaZlebeli<br />

zianis xasiaTze da xarisxze.~<br />

monawileobis xasiaTi da xarisxi mWidrod dakavSirebuli da urTierTganpirobebuli<br />

cnebebia, Tumca, araerTgvarovani. monawileobis xasiaTi Tvisebrivi maxasiaTebelia da<br />

masSi Tanamonawilis mier Sesrulebuli roli _ misi funqciis Taviseburebebi igulisxmeba<br />

erTobliv danaSaulebriv qmedebaSi. monawileobis xarisxi raodenobrivi maCvenebelia<br />

da igi piris aqtiurobis zomas, misi monawileobis intensiurobasa da efeqturobas<br />

asaxavs, rogorc danaSaulis momzadebaSi, aseve danaSaulebrivi Sedegis miRwevaSi.<br />

danaSaulSi monawileobis xarisxi, samarTlianad aRiniSneba iuridiul literaturaSi,<br />

rom arsebiTi zomiT ganisazRvreba moqmedebis im xasiaTiT, romelsac esa Tu is piri<br />

asrulebs danaSaulis CadenaSi. 8 am TvalsazrisiT, danaSaulis organizatoris intensiuroba<br />

da maSasadame, misi monawileobis xarisxi ufro maRalia vidre, magaliTad, dana-<br />

Saulis damxmaris, romelic mxolod xels uwyobs danaSaulis Cadenas, aiolebs mis ganxorcielebas.<br />

amitom, Tu sxva pirobebi Tanabaria _ organizatori, rogorc wesi, ufro<br />

mkacrad unda daisajos, vidre damxmare.<br />

amasTan, monawileobis xarisxi asaxavs ara mxolod im moqmedebebis intensiurobas,<br />

romlebic danaSaulSi monawileobis xasiaTiT gansxvavdebian, aramed intensiurobas<br />

calkeuli Tanamonawileebis moqmedebebis, romlebic erToblivad Cadenil danaSaulSi<br />

erTi da igive xasiaTis funqciebs asruleben. aviRoT, magaliTad, SemTxveva, sadac<br />

mkvlelobis damxmaris roli gamoixata mxolod imaSi, rom man urCia amsrulebels, Tu<br />

sad da rodis ukeTesia msxverplisaTvis Casafreba da SemTxveva, sadac damxmaris moqmedeba<br />

garda aRniSnuli xelSewyobisa gamoixata mkvlelobis Casadenad iaraRis micemaSi,<br />

dabrkolebaTa acilebaSi, winaswar SepirebaSi, rom miscemda amsrulebels TavSesafars<br />

da a.S. orive SemTxvevaSi moqmedebebis xasiaTi erTgvarovania. Sesrulebuli moqmedebebi<br />

funqciuri TvalsazrisiT, damxmaris moqmedebis sferos miekuTvneba, Tumca, sxvadasxvagvaria<br />

maTi danaSaulSi monawileobis xarisxi. amasTan, damxmaris intensiuroba, anu<br />

misi monawileobis xarisxi, rac ar unda didi iyos, is ar SeiZleba organizatorad<br />

gadaiqces. amisaTvis ukve aucilebelia aseTma pirma Secvalos moqmedebis xasiaTi. man<br />

organizeba unda gaukeTos an uxelmZRvanelos TanamonawileTa moqmedebebs.<br />

116


maSasadame, danaSaulSi monawileobis xarisxiT erTmaneTisagan SeiZleba gansxvavdebodnen,<br />

ara mxolod is Tanamonawileebi, romlebic sxvadasxva saxelis mqone _ amsruleblis,<br />

organizatoris, wamqezeblis da damxmaris funqciebs asruleben, aramed<br />

isinic, romlebic erTi da igive saxelis mqone funqciebs asruleben. iseve, rogorc<br />

Tanaamsruleblobis dros SeiZleba TiToeuli amsruleblis monawileobis xarisxi<br />

gansxvavdebodes, zustad aseve, SeiZleba gansxvavebuli iyos erTmaneTisagan monawileobis<br />

xarisxi im damxmareebis, an wamqezeblebis, romlebic xels uwyoben an aqezeben<br />

erTi da igive danaSaulis Casadenad.<br />

rogorc ukve vTqviT, danaSaulSi monawileobis xasiaTi da xarisxi mWidrod dakav-<br />

Sirebuli cnebebia da monawileobis xarisxi arsebiTi zomiT ganisazRvreba danaSaulSi<br />

monawileobis xasiaTiT. am mxriv, danaSaulis organizatoris moqmedebas amsruleblis<br />

msgavsad, xSirad ganmsazRvreli mniSvneloba eniWeba danaSaulebrivi qmedebis ganxorcielebaSi<br />

da Sedegis miRwevaSi. erTobliv qmedebaSi danaSaulis organizators<br />

dominirebuli funqcia ukavia. praqtikis Seswavla cxadyofs, rom ‘organizatori, rac<br />

ufro gamWriaxi, Ronieri da mizanswrafulia, miT ufro efeqturia TanamonawileobiT<br />

Cadenili danaSaulis dros miRweuli Sedegi. zogadad, organizators sxva TanamonawileebTan<br />

SedarebiT da gansakuTrebiT damxmaris figurasTan SedarebiT, danaSaulSi<br />

monawileobis gaTvaliswinebiT, prevalirebuli mniSvneloba unda mivaniWoT. amitom,<br />

amsruleblis msgavsad, marTalia organizatori uSualod (ar klavs, ar Zarcvavs da a. S.)<br />

ar sCadis danaSauls, magram igi amsruleblis Tanabrad, rig SemTxvevebSi ki, masze mkacradac<br />

SeiZleba daisajos.<br />

wamqezeblis moqmedebis xasiaTidan gamomdinare, sakmaod maRalia misi monawileobis<br />

xarisxi. wamqezebeli danaSaulis ganxorcielebis iniciatori da misi ideuri sulisCamdgmelia.<br />

Sesabamisad, misi monawileobis xarisxic ufro mniSvnelovania, vidre damxmarisa.<br />

danaSaulis wamqezeblis sasjelic sxva Tanabari pirobebis arsebobisas SesaZlebelia<br />

gauTanabrdes amsruleblis sasjels.<br />

yvelaze nakleb rols danaSaulis CadenaSi, rogorc wesi, damxmare asrulebs, igi<br />

wamqezeblis msgavsad, ar aris danaSaulis sulisCamdgmeli, aramed mxolod xels uwyobs<br />

mis ganxorcielebas, uiolebs Tanamzraxvelebs dasaxuli miznis miRwevas. amitom, sworad<br />

unda CaiTvalos iuridiul literaturaSi erTob myarad gabatonebuli pozicia,<br />

rom im SemTxvevebSi, rodesac sxva garemoebebi, romlebic zegavlenas axdenen sasjelis<br />

gansazRvraze _ Tanabaria da sasjelis zomis sxvaoba danaSaulSi Sesrulebuli xasiaTiT<br />

da xarisxiT unda ganisazRvros. am SemTxvevaSi, danaSaulis damxmares naklebad mkacri<br />

sasjeli unda daeniSnos, vidre danarCen Tanamonawileebs. 9<br />

aRniSnul Tvalsazriss, arsebiTad adasturebs sasamarTlo praqtikis Seswavlac.<br />

Cvens mier ganzrax mkvlelobis sisxlis samarTlis saqmeTa SerCeviTi Seswavlisas, magaliTad,<br />

im SemTxvevebSi, rodesac damxmaris moqmedebis kvalifikacia amsruleblis moqmedebis<br />

kvalifikacias emTxveva da amasTan, pasuxismgeblobis Semamsubuqebeli da damamZimebeli<br />

garemoebebi mocemuli amsruleblis da damxmaris mxares metnaklebad<br />

Tanabaria, amsrulebelisaTvis daniSnulis sasjelis saxe vadiani Tavisuflebis aRkveTa<br />

saSualod 3-4 wliT aRemateba damxmaris sasjelis zomas.<br />

117


marTlmsajuleba<br />

N1<br />

da<br />

kanoni<br />

danaSaulis damxmaris mimarT SedarebiT mkacri sasjelis daniSvna gamarTlebulad<br />

SeiZleba CaiTvalos maSin, rodesac damxmare Tavisi piradi TvisebebiT ufro mkacr<br />

sasjels imsaxurebs, vTqvaT, aris warsulSi araerTjer nasamarTlevi, an rodesac amsruleblis<br />

mxares mocemulia imdenad mniSvnelovani Semamsubuqebeli garemoeba, romelic<br />

sasamarTlos sasjelis daniSvnis dros aiZulebs ZiriTadi yuradReba gadaitanos<br />

ara TviT moqmedebis xasiaTze, aramed damnaSavis pirovnebaze. Tu davuSvaT, danaSaulis<br />

amsrulebeli aris arasrulwlovani, romelic ufrosi damxmaris garkveuli zegavlenis<br />

qveS moeqca, aseT pirobebSi SesaZlebelia sasamarTlom SedarebiT msubuqi sasjeli<br />

dauniSnos arasrulwlovan amsrulebels. magram, Tu danaSaulSi daxmarebis dros amsruleblis<br />

mxareze mocemulia iseTi piradi Semamsubuqebeli garemoeba, romelic Tavisi<br />

arsiT principul zegavlenas ver axdens sasjelis zomis gansazRvraze, magaliTad, rogorebicaa<br />

dadebiTi daxasiaTebis arseboba, garkveuli waxaliseba, kmayofaze yofna da<br />

a.S. aseT garemoebaTa arsebobisas, vinaidan amsrulebeli uSualod Cadis danaSauls da<br />

maSasadame, misi moqmedeba ufro qmediT pirobas warmoadgens danaSaulis Casadenad,<br />

samarTlianobis principi moiTxovs, rom aseT SemTxvevaSi amsrulebels ufro mkacri<br />

sasjeli daeniSnos, vidre damxmares.<br />

amasTan, aqve unda aRiniSnos, rom aseTi wesi ar SeiZleba dogmad vaqcioT. vinaidan,<br />

iSviaTad, Tumca mainc, damxmaris danaSaulSi faqtobrivi xelSewyoba da misi monawileobis<br />

intensiurobis xarisxi zogjer imdenad mniSvnelovania, rom igi danaSaulis<br />

miznis miRwevis gzaze ar CamorCeba danaSaulis amsruleblis Tu sxva TanamonawileTa<br />

moqmedebebis xarisxs. aseTi viTareba gansakuTrebiT maSin SeiniSneba, rodesac damxmaris<br />

moqmedeba droisa da adgilis mixedviT amsruleblis moqmedebas emTxveva da misi xel-<br />

Sewyoba erT-erT umniSvnelovanes pirobas warmoadgens danaSaulis Casadenad. amgvar<br />

SemTxvevebSi, sasamarTlo zogjer mniSvnelovnad uaxloebs erTmaneTs amsruleblis<br />

da damxmaris sasjelis zomas, xolo zogjer, kidevac aTanabrebs maT.<br />

pirveli maTganis dasadastureblad SesaZlebelia mivuTiToT saqarTvelos uzenaesi<br />

sasamarTlos mier ganxiluli saqme s. kvaracxelias, j. saxokias, m. saxokias da sxvaTa<br />

mimarT. sadac damxmareebma j. saxokiam, m. saxokiam da sxva pirebma, romlebic urikaze<br />

moTavsebul msxverpls gars Semoertynen, adgilze misul policiis muSakebs, msxverplis<br />

daxsnas rom cdilobdnen, gauwies medgari winaaRmdegoba. amiT, amsrulebel s.<br />

kvaracxelias aaciles dabrkoleba, am ukanasknels misces saSualeba danis gamoyenebiT<br />

Caedina mkvleloba. sasamarTlom amsrulebels 12 wliT Tavisuflebis aRkveTa dauniSna,<br />

xolo damxmareebs _ 10-10 wliT.<br />

rac Seexeba amsruleblis da damxmaris sasjelis gaTanabrebis sakiTxs, es garemoeba<br />

iSviaTad, Tumca, mainc SeiniSneba sakuTari xeliT Casaden deliqtebSi, sadac damxmare<br />

Tavisi faqtobrivi monawileobis mixedviT, arsebiT rols asrulebs danaSaulis CadenaSi.<br />

Cvens mier 7 wlis winaT Seswavlili iqna baTumis saqalaqo sasamarTloSi da<br />

aWaris avtonomiuri respublikis umaRles sasamarTloSi sazRvris ukanonod gadakve-<br />

TaSi xelSewyobis aRmoCenis 12 faqti. ZiriTadad, maTi Sinaarsi Semdegi saxis iyo: danaSaulis<br />

amsrulebeli, romelsac ar hqonda pasporti, winaswar uTanxmdeboda sarfis<br />

sabaJo sakontrolo gamSvebi punqtisaken momavali avtobusis mZRols, rom mas, gark-<br />

118


veuli Tanxis safasurad, daemala misi marTvis qveS myofi avtobusis salonSi an winaswar<br />

mowyobil saidumlo saTavsoSi da am gziT ukanonod gadaeyvana saxelmwifos sazRvarze.<br />

amgvari Sinaarsis 12 sisxlis samarTlis saqmidan sasamarTlom sam SemTxvevaSi, amsrulebelsac<br />

da damxmare-mZRolsac Seufarda or-ori wliT Tavisuflebis aRkveTa, xolo<br />

erT SemTxvevaSi _ erTi wliT da eqvsi TviT. amasTan, sasamarTlom erT-erTi saqmis<br />

ganxilvisas damxmaresTan mimarTebaSi xazi gausva im garemoebas, rom `misi moqmedeba<br />

aris erT-erTi efeqturi piroba, romelic danaSaulis CadenaSi monawileobis xarisxiT<br />

ar CamorCeba amsruleblis moqmedebas~ 10 maSasadame, sasamarTlom gaiTvaliswina amsruleblis<br />

da damxmaris danaSaulSi monawileobis SefardebiTi xarisxi, aseve, damxmaris<br />

xelSewyobis faqtobrivi mniSvneloba danaSaulis Casadenad, damxmaresac sasjelis igive<br />

zoma dauniSna, rac danaSaulis amsrulebels.<br />

amrigad, daskvna, rom damxmares ufro naklebad mkacri sasjeli unda daeniSnos vidre<br />

sxva Tanamonawileebs, aseTi daskvna ar SeiZleba yovelTvis gakeTdes mxolod formalurad<br />

danaSaulSi Sesrulebuli moqmedebis xasiaTis gaTvaliswinebis safuZvelze. moqmedi<br />

kanonmdeblobis dadgenileba, romelic ar avaldebulebs sasamarTlos yvela Tanamonawiles<br />

erTnairi sasjelis zoma dauniSnos an dauniSnos erT Tanamonawiles ufro<br />

mkacri, vidre meores, maT mier Sesrulebuli moqmedebis xasiaTze damokidebulebaSi,<br />

principSi sworad unda CaiTvalos. vinaidan igi sasamarTlos aZlevs SesaZleblobas<br />

calkeul SemTxvevebSi, Tavi daaRwios formalur midgomas TanamonawileTa moqmedebebis<br />

SefasebaSi da mTeli moculobiT gaiTvaliswinos sasjelis daniSvnisas misi faqtobrivi<br />

roli mocemuli danaSaulis CadenaSi, realuri mniSvneloba moqmedebisa sxva<br />

TanamonawileTa moqmedebebisaTvis da danaSaulebrivi Sedegis miRwevisaTvis.<br />

amasTan, ar unda daviviwyoT, rom sasamarTlo TanamonawileTa dasjisas saboloo<br />

daskvnas ara mxolod danaSaulSi faqtobrivi monawileobis xasiaTisa da xarisxis safuZvelze<br />

akeTebs, aramed Semamsubuqebeli da damamZimebeli garemoebebis safuZvelzec,<br />

romelic ara marto Cadenil marTlsawinaaRmdego qmedebas Seexeba, aramed danaSaulSi<br />

monawile pirebsac. am kriteriumTa gamoyenebam cxadia, maqsimalurad unda uzrunvelyos<br />

sasjelis individualizaciis principis ganxorcieleba.<br />

TanamonawileTa mimarT sasjelis daniSvnis kriteriumebze msjelobisas aqve unda<br />

SevCerdeT sakmao mniSvnelobis mqone erT saintereso faqtze, romelic sisxlis samar-<br />

Tlis kodeqsis kerZo nawilSi ganxorcielebuli cvlilebebis tendencias Seexeba. ker-<br />

Zod, es ukavSirdeba konkretuli danaSaulebisaTvis sanqciiT gansazRvruli sasjelebis<br />

zomis Seviwroebas, anu sasjelis minimaluri zomis maRla awevas da maqsimaluris dabla<br />

dawevas. aseTi midgoma, sadac xSir SemTxvevebSi, sasjelis minimalur da maqsimalur<br />

zRvars Soris aris gansxvaveba ori wliT Tavisuflebis aRkveTa, arc Tu iSviaTad, xels<br />

uSlis sasjelis individualizaciis principis gatarebas. nimuSisaTvis aviRoT moqmedi<br />

ssk-is 137 muxlis (gaupatiureba) pirveli nawili, romelic sasjelis zomad iTvaliswinebs<br />

4 dan 6-wlamde Tavisuflebis aRkveTas. sasamarTlom sasjelis individualizaciis<br />

principis ganxorcielebisas Semamsubuqebeli da damamZimebeli garemoebebis gaTvaliswinebiT<br />

amsrulebels, vTqvaT, Seufarda 5 weli. magram ibadeba kiTxva: ramdeni<br />

weli unda Seufardos sasamarTlom damxmares? romlis xelSewyobac gamoixata mxolod<br />

119


marTlmsajuleba<br />

N1<br />

da<br />

kanoni<br />

rCevis micemaSi, Tu rogor mietyuebina SerCeuli msxverpli Tavis binaSi. amasTan, warmovidginoT,<br />

rom damxmaris mxareze aris araerTi Semamsubuqebeli da arc erTi damam-<br />

Zimebeli garemoeba. aseT SemTxvevaSi, sasamarTlos SeuZlia sasjelis minimalur vadad<br />

ganusazRvros 4 wliT Tavisuflebis aRkveTa. sasjelis aseTi daniSvna, vfiqrobT, rom<br />

ar iqneba samarTliani. Cveulebriv pirobebSi, roca Tanabaria amsruleblis da damxmaris<br />

mxareze arsebuli piradi Semamsubuqebeli da damamZimebeli garemoebebi, Sesrulebuli<br />

rolis gaTvaliswinebiT, mocemuli sasjelis zomaSi gansxvaveba unda iyos minimum<br />

erTi wlis vadiT. aqedan gamomdinare, sasamarTlos ar eZleva SesaZlebloba gaiTvaliswinos<br />

sxva piradi Semamsubuqebeli garemoebebi da amis mixedviT, realurad ganaxorcielos<br />

sasjelis individualizacia.<br />

aRniSnulidan gamomdinare, vfiqrobT, sasurveli iqneboda sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsis<br />

zogadi nawilis 57-e muxlSi, sadac TanamonawileobisaTvis sasjelis daniSvnis specialuri<br />

kriteriumebia dadgenili, mesame nawilSi Camoyalibebuliyo norma, romelic<br />

sasamarTlos miscemda SesaZleblobas msgavs SemTxvevebSi, damxmarisaTvis ufro naklebi<br />

sasjeli Seefardebina. es norma SeiZleba aseTi saxiT Camoyalibdes: `sisxlis samar-<br />

Tlis kodeqsis kerZo nawiliT Tavisuflebis aRkveTis saxiT gansazRvruli sasjelis<br />

minimaluri zRvari, damxmaresTan mimarTebaSi SeiZleba Semcirdes ori wlis vadiT,<br />

magram aranakleb sisxlis samarTlis zogadi nawiliT sasjelis mocemuli saxisaTvis<br />

gansazRvruli minimaluri zRvarisa.~ vfiqrobT, aseTi miTiTeba xels Seuwyobs sasamar-<br />

Tlos ganaxorcielos sasjelis realuri individualizacia, rogorc faqtobrivad<br />

ganxorcielebuli obieqturi rolis mixedviT aseve, personaluri Semamsubuqebeli Tu<br />

damamZimebeli garemoebis gaTvaliswinebiT.<br />

120


SeniSvnebi:<br />

1<br />

Ï. È. Ãðèøàåâ, Ã. À. Êðèãåð, Ñîó÷àñòèå ïî ñîâåòñêîìó óãîëîâíîìó ïðàâó,<br />

Ì., 1959, ñò. 184; Â. Ñ. Ïðîõîðîâ, Ñîó÷àñòèå â ïðåñòóïëåíèè ïî ñîâåòñêîìó<br />

óãîëîâíîìó ïðàâó, Äèñ. íà ñîèñêàíèå ó÷åíîé ñòåïåíè ê. þ. í. Ë., 1962,<br />

ñò. 292.<br />

2<br />

Óãîëîâíîå çàêîíîäàòåëüñòâî çàðóáåæíûõ ñòðàí, (Àøëèè, ÑøÀ, Ôðàíöèè,<br />

Ãåðìàíèè, ÿïîíèè) Ïîä ðåä. È Ä. Êîçà÷êèíà, Ì., 1999, ñò. 258.<br />

3<br />

iqve, gv. 197.<br />

4<br />

iqve, gv. 344.<br />

5<br />

aRniSnuli sakiTxebis garSemo sworad msjeloben p. telnovi, p. gri-<br />

Saevi, g. krigeri. ix.: Ï. Ô. Òåëüíîâ, Îòâåòñòâåííîñòü çà ñîó÷àñòèå â<br />

ïðåñòóïëåíèè, Ì., 1978, ñò.58; Ï. È. Ãðèøàåâ, Ã. À. Êðèãåð, Ñîó÷àñòèå<br />

ïî ñîâåòñêîìó óãîëîâíîìó ïðàâó, Ì., 1959, ñò. 170-171.<br />

6<br />

ix.: z. goTua, sisxlis samarTali, sasjeli, leqciebis kursi, Tb., 2001,<br />

gv. 36-53.<br />

7<br />

am sakiTxze vrclad ixileT, a. maxaraZe, sisxlis samarTlis pasuxismgebloba<br />

danaSaulSi daxmarebisaTvis, Tb., 2006, gv. 229-252; o. gamyreliZe,<br />

danaSaulis SualobiTi amsrulebloba da Tanaamsrulebloba,<br />

Tb., 1974, gv. 165-171.<br />

8<br />

Ï. È. Ãðèøàåâ, Ã. À. Êðèãåð, Ñîó÷àñòèå ïî ñîâåòñêîìó óãîëîâíîìó ïðàâó,<br />

Ì., 1959, ñò. 189; Â. Ñ. Ïðîõîðîâ, Ñîó÷àñòèå â ïðåñòóïëåíèè ïî ñîâåòñêîìó<br />

óãîëîâíîìó ïðàâó, Äèñåðòàöèÿ íà ñîèñêàíèå ó÷åíîé ñòåïåíè ê. þ. Í. Ë.,<br />

1962, ñò. 312; Ó. Ñ. Äæåêåáàåâ, Ë. Ì. Âàéåáåðã, Ð. Ï. Ñóäàíîâà, Ñîó÷àñòèå<br />

â ïðåñòóïëåíèè, Àëìà-Àòà, 1981, ñò. 115-1 1á è äð.<br />

9<br />

T. wereTeli, Tanamonawileoba danaSaulSi, Tb., 1965, gv. 229-231; sisxlis<br />

samarTlis zogadi nawili, red. g. tyeSeliaZe, g. naWyebia, Tb.,<br />

2004, gv. 304; Ì, È, Êîâàëåâ, Ñîó÷àñòèå â ïðåñòóïëåíèè, ÷àñòü âòîðàÿ,<br />

Ñâåðäëîâñê, 1962, ñò. 153-154 è äð.<br />

10<br />

aWaris avtonomiuri respublikis uzenaesi sasamarTlos arqivi, 1998,<br />

saqme #1-13.<br />

121


marTlmsajuleba<br />

N1<br />

da<br />

kanoni<br />

THE PUNISHMENT<br />

INDIVIDUALIZATION<br />

MATTER IN COMMITTING<br />

CRIME WITH ACCEESSARY<br />

ADAM MAKHARADZE<br />

Full Professor of Rustaveli State University<br />

The article deals with analyses of accessarial punishment individualization<br />

matter of executor, organizer, instigator, <strong>and</strong> helpmate in accessarial crime.<br />

The author reviews penal legislation of different countries, which anticipating<br />

accessory sometimes establish reduction of compulsory or facultative<br />

punishment. On the other h<strong>and</strong>, independently from accessarial nature establish<br />

equal punishment based on common initial directions.<br />

The article also deals with general or special criterions based on current<br />

Georgian Criminal Code, which impact punishment individualization of accessory.<br />

The author discusses factual participation nature <strong>and</strong> quality, personal<br />

or non-personal signs existed on accessary’s side, that influence on other<br />

accessary’s responsibility <strong>and</strong> on defining individualization process.<br />

122


fulis gaTeTreba<br />

ofSoruli zonebis<br />

gamoyenebis gziT<br />

nino osaZe<br />

hamburgis universitetis samarTlis magistri,<br />

Teusu-s samarTlis fakultetis doqtoranti<br />

ofSoruli centrebis zogadi mimoxilva<br />

bankebi an sxva finansuri institutebi, romlebic axorcieleben<br />

ofSorul operaciebs, gaTavisuflebulebi arian<br />

im farTo speqtris regulaciebisagan, romelic Tan sdevs<br />

qveynis SigniT arsebul finansur institutebs. ofSoruli<br />

bankebis mier ganxorcielebuli tranzaqciebi, rogorc wesi,<br />

Tavisufalia gadasaxadebisagan, amavdroulad, ofSoruli<br />

bankebi Tavidan icileben yovelgvar dadgenil moTxovnebs,<br />

romlebic kapitalis finansur brunvas Tu uZravi qonebis<br />

flobas axlavs. aseve, xSirad, magram ara yovelTvis,<br />

Tavisufldebian maregulirebeli organoebis mier kapitalze<br />

dawesebuli kontrolisa da likvidaciisagan.<br />

arsebobs mosazreba, rom ofSorul centrebs pirvelad<br />

safuZveli Caeyara maSin, rodesac aSS-sgan SeSinebulma sab-<br />

WoTa kavSirma, rom ar gayinuliyo misi qoneba, daiwyo britanul<br />

bankebSi Tavisi anabrebis dab<strong>and</strong>eba dolaris valutaSi,<br />

ris Sedegadac grZelvadiani anabrebis (ucxour valutaSi)<br />

Senaxvis winapiroba `civi omi~ gaxda. omis Sedegad<br />

is bankebi, romlebsac hqondaT sabWoTa kavSiris mier mi-<br />

Rebuli anabrebi, ar gaTavisufldnen gadasaxadebisa da<br />

fulis tranzaqciasTan dakavSirebuli moTxovnebebisagan.<br />

123


marTlmsajuleba<br />

N1<br />

da<br />

kanoni<br />

aqedan gamomdinare, SegviZlia vivaraudoT, rom ofSoruli bankebis istorias did<br />

britaneTSi daedo safuZveli. 1<br />

aRsaniSnavia is faqtoric, rom ofSoruli bankebis aRzevebis xana daiwyo 1970-1980<br />

wlebSi. 1960 wels, aSS-ma mis bankebze kapitalis kontroli daawesa, maSin roca umetesi<br />

bankebi arRvevdnen maTTvis dadgenil wesebs da axdendnen sxvadasxva safinanso sistemidan<br />

izolirebas. amave wels investorebis mosazidad bankebma daiwyes grZelvadiani<br />

anabrebis gacema, ramac xeli Seuwyo pirdapir konkurencias kerZo korporaciebsa da<br />

xelisuflebas Soris. 1970 wels, dasavleTis umravlesma bankebma sesxis gacema sxvadasxva<br />

suverenul saxelmwifoebze daiwyes, romlebic saWiroebdnen sesxebs sazRvargareT,<br />

rac TavisTavad, am ukanasknelTa aqtiur monawileobas gulisxmobda ofSorul<br />

centrebSi. 2<br />

dRev<strong>and</strong>el periodSi dawesebulma sxvadasxva moTxovnebma Tu kanonebma, ofSorul<br />

centrebze nawilobriv iqonia zegavlena. kanonmdeblobisa Tu sxva maregulirebeli<br />

organos moTxovnebis Tanaxmad, maT unda SeinarCunon TavianTi mniSvneloba, magram unda<br />

gaxdnen gamWvirvaleni, raTa aRmoifxvras yovelgvari sabanko maqinaciebi. Tumca, aqve<br />

aRsaniSnavia, rom amgvari centrebis Camoyalibebas mxolod kriminaluri safuZveli ar<br />

udevs, magaliTad, ekonomikurad dasustebuli e.w. Raribi qveynebi aRniSnul finansur<br />

centrebs ayalibeben, raTa moizidon investorebi qveynis ekonomikuri mdgomareobis<br />

gasaumjobeseblad.<br />

interesmoklebuli ar iqneba yuradReba SevaCeroT, Tu ratom xdeba kriminaluri<br />

samyaros mier danaSaulebrivi gziT mopovebuli fulis udidesi nawilis ofSorul<br />

centrebSi dab<strong>and</strong>eba misi gaTeTrebis mizniT, kerZod:<br />

ofSoruli centrebi klients sTavazobs e.w. „Tavisufleba, momsaxureba da SesaZleblobas~<br />

(freedom, service <strong>and</strong> opportunity). TavisuflebaSi igulisxmeba gadasaxadebisagan<br />

Tavisufleba; Tavisufleba sarezervo aqtivebis Tanafardobis moTxovnisagan;<br />

Tavisufleba informaciis gamoaSkaravebisagan; momsaxureba gulisxmobs<br />

klientis personalur da korporatiul momsaxureobas; ofSoruli kapitalis<br />

menejmentsa da globalur meurveoba-mzrunvelobas.<br />

individualuri mewarmeebi Tu transnacionaluri korporaciebi ofSorul zonebs<br />

iyeneben, rogorc TavianTi konfidencialobisa da biznes garemoSi konkurentunarianobis<br />

SesanarCuneblad.<br />

ofSorul centrebs aqvT „moZravi angariSi~. xSir SemTxvevaSi kriminalebi angariSs<br />

erT iurisdiqciaSi myof bankSi xsnian, magram sabanko operacias sxva iurisdiqciaSi<br />

axorcieleben. kerZod ki, erTi iurisdiqciis bankSi angariSis gaxsnis<br />

SemTxvevaSi, xdeba meore bankis gafrTxileba, raTa am ukanasknelma transferi<br />

ganaxorcielos sxva iurisdiqciis bankSi. aRsaniSnavia, rom aRniSnuli „moZravi<br />

angariSi~ samarTaldamcavebs did problemas uqmnis e.w. Savi fulis konfiskaciisas.<br />

umetesi ofSoruli centrebi pirdapir kavSirSi imyofebian kazinoebTan. kerZod<br />

ki, aRniSnuli kavSiris meSveobiT, fulis gaTeTreba xdeba Semdegi sqemiT: fulis<br />

124


gaTeTrebis mesveurebi gasaTeTrebeli fuliT yiduloben saTamaSo Cipebs da<br />

TamaSoben kazinoSi. Semdgom abruneben Cipebs da iReben qviTars, riTic midian<br />

romelime bankSi mogebuli Tanxis gasanaRdeblad. aRniSnuli procesis dros,<br />

aravin interesdeba Tu saidan gaCnda gasaTeTrebeli fuli, romelic sabolood,<br />

mogebul Tanxad ubrundebaT.<br />

ofSorul centrebs mWidro kavSiri aqvT e.w. xelSemwyob agentebTan romlebic<br />

Suamavloben klientebTan. xelSemwyobi agentebis SeTavazeba iTvaliswinebs finansur<br />

konsultaciebs/rCevebs da klientis darwmunebas finansuri centriT sargeblobis<br />

upiratesobaSi.<br />

arsebobs uamravi e.w. iatakqveSa sabanko sistema (Underground banking system), romelic<br />

Tavis mxriv, kompleqsuri ofSoruli zonaa. aseTi tipis bankebia Cinuri „Chip system”<br />

an „Chop system”, pakistanur-induri „Hundi system” igive „Hawalah system”. aRniSnuli<br />

sistemebiT klientis kapitalis tranzaqcia xdeba telefonis, faqsis an eleqtronuli<br />

fostis saSualebiT. iseTi saxis simdidre, rogoricaa oqro da Zvirfasi qvebi erTi<br />

qveynidan meore qveyanaSi gadadis yovelgvari savaldebulo finansuri dokumentaciis<br />

gareSe. iqidan gamomdinare, rom e.w. iatakqveSa sabanko sistema finansur tranzaqcias<br />

axorcielebs saerTaSoriso qselis (Network) meSveobiT, samarTaldamcavi organoebi<br />

ver uweven kontrols aRniSnul process, rac Tavis mxriv, aadvilebs kriminalebis mier<br />

fulis gaTeTrebis SesaZleblobas. 3<br />

gadaxdis axali meTodebis ofSoruli uzrunvelyofa<br />

potenciuri risk-faqtori, romelic SeiZleba saerTo iyos gadaxdis axali meTodebis<br />

yvela saxisaTvis, aris iurisdiqcia. zog SemTxvevaSi, gadaxdis axali meTodebis Semqmnelebi<br />

an momsaxurebis mimwodeblebi SeiZleba imyofebodnen ofSorul finansur centrSi,<br />

sadac rogorc aRvniSneT, kanonebisa da normatiuli aqtebis naklebad saimedo<br />

sistemebia. amasTan, procesebi, romlebic gadaxdis axal meTodebTanaa dakavSirebuli,<br />

xSirad ramdenime iseT iurisdiqcias gaivlis, romelTa gavleniTac ufro kompleqsuri<br />

produqti iqmneba. ramdenime iurisdiqciis monawileoba qmnis tranzaqciebis dafarvas,<br />

romelic Tavis mxriv, arTulebs gadaxdis axali meTodebis zedamxedvelobis efeqtianobas<br />

samarTaldamcavi organoebis mxridan. rodesac gadaxdis axali meTodebi internetiT<br />

vrceldeba, iurisdiqciasTan dakavSirebuli problemebi matulobs. kerZod, Tu<br />

romel iurisdiqciebs miekuTvnebian momsaxurebis provaiderebi, sad arian isini Car-<br />

Tulebi, xelisuflebis romeli organoebi ageben pasuxs maT kontrolze da fulis ga-<br />

TeTrebasa da terorizmis dafinansebasTan brZolis romeli reJimi gamoiyeneba maT<br />

winaaRmdeg. am SemTxvevaSi, nebismieri im iurisdiqciisaTvis, sadac rigiTi klientebisaTvis<br />

gadaxdis axali meTodebis gamoyeneba daSvebulia, gansakuTrebiT rTuli xdeba<br />

aRniSnul ukanono qmedebebSi Careva da maTi SeCereba. problemis naTlad warmoCenisaTvis,<br />

warmogidgenT gadaxdis axali meTodebis sqemas.<br />

125


marTlmsajuleba<br />

N1<br />

da<br />

kanoni<br />

a) gadaxdis axali meTodebis riskebi fulis gaTeTrebisas 4<br />

gadaxdis meTodi<br />

potenciuri<br />

risk-faqtorebi<br />

mimdinare da potenciuri<br />

riskebis Semamcireblebi<br />

winaswari gadaxdis baraTebi:<br />

Ria sistema<br />

(Prepaid cards: open-system)<br />

baraTis anonimuri<br />

mflobeli;<br />

anonimuri dafinanseba<br />

(Semodineba) da Tanxebis<br />

anonimuri gatana (gadineba);<br />

sabaraTe Tanxis maRali<br />

limiti da/an<br />

aralimitirebuli baraTebis<br />

raodenoba, romelic kerZo<br />

pirs SeuZlia SeiZinos;<br />

naRdi fulis gatana yvela<br />

bankomatidan;<br />

ofSorulma emitentebma<br />

yvela iurisdiqciaSi<br />

SesaZloa kanonebi ar<br />

daicvan.<br />

baraTis mflobelis<br />

identifikacia;<br />

dafinansebis SezRudvis<br />

variantebi;<br />

baraTis Sevsebis limiti da/<br />

an baraTebis raodenoba,<br />

romelic kerZo pirs<br />

SeuZlia SeiZinos;<br />

erTi tranzaqciis<br />

Rirebuleba;<br />

naRdi fulis sazRvargareT<br />

aRebis SezRudva;<br />

tranzaqciebis monitoringi<br />

da saeWvo aqtivobebis Sesaxeb<br />

angariSebis warmodgena;<br />

baraTis/angariSis dablokva;<br />

arasasurveli movaWreebis<br />

qselisa da bankomatebis<br />

mimwodeblebis/qselis<br />

SezRudva<br />

winaswari gadaxdis baraTebi:<br />

daxuruli sistema<br />

(Prepaid cards: closed-system)<br />

baraTis anonimuri<br />

mflobeli;<br />

anonimuri dafinanseba;<br />

sabaraTe Tanxis maRali<br />

limiti;<br />

naRdi fulis masis<br />

Canacvleba;<br />

aralimitirebuli baraTebis<br />

raodenoba, romelic kerZo<br />

pirs SeuZlia SeiZinos.<br />

baraTis mflobelis<br />

identifikacia;<br />

baraTis Sevsebis limiti da/<br />

an baraTebis raodenoba,<br />

romelic kerZo pirs<br />

SeuZlia SeiZinos;<br />

dafinansebis SezRudvis<br />

variantebi;<br />

tranzaqciebis monitoringi<br />

da saeWvo aqtivobebis Sesaxeb<br />

angariSebis warmodgena;<br />

pirdapir bankomatidan naRdi<br />

fuli moxsnis SezRudva;<br />

baraTis/angariSis dablokva.<br />

eleqtronuli safule<br />

(Electronic Purse)<br />

baraTis anonimuri mflobeli<br />

anonimuri dafinanseba da<br />

Tanxebis anonimurad miReba<br />

sabaraTe Tanxis maRali limiti<br />

tranzaqciis Sesaxeb<br />

Canawerebis ararseboba<br />

baraTis mflobelis<br />

identifikacia;<br />

baraTidan baraTze<br />

gadaricxvis SesaZleblobis<br />

ararseboba;<br />

daxarjuli/Senaxuli fulis<br />

raodenobis SezRudva;<br />

126


sazRvargareT<br />

funqcionirebis SezRudva;<br />

dafinansebis SezRudvis<br />

variantebi;<br />

tranzaqciebis monitoringi<br />

da saeWvo aqtivobebis Sesaxeb<br />

angariSebis warmodgena;<br />

baraTis/angariSis dablokva;<br />

mobiluriT gadaxdebi<br />

(Mobile payments)<br />

anonimuri angariSebi;<br />

anonimuri dafinanseba da<br />

Tanxebis anonimurad miReba;<br />

maRali an ararsebuli<br />

angariSis dafinansebis<br />

SezRudva.<br />

angariSis mflobelebis<br />

identifikacia telefonebis,<br />

rogorc sabanko an sakredito<br />

baraTis angariSTan damakav-<br />

Sirebeli mowyobilobis,<br />

gamoyenebisas an satelefono<br />

kompaniis mier telefonis<br />

mflobelis identifikacia;<br />

sazRvargareT<br />

funqcionirebis SezRudva<br />

angariSis an tranzaqciis<br />

Tanxis SezRudva;<br />

dafinansebis SezRudvis<br />

variantebi;<br />

tranzaqciebis monitoringi<br />

da saeWvo aqtivobebis Sesaxeb<br />

angariSebis warmodgena;<br />

baraTis/angariSis dablokva;<br />

qselis gamoyenebis SezRudva.<br />

Zvirfasi liTonebi<br />

(Precious metals)<br />

anonimuri angariSebi;<br />

anonimuri dafinanseba da<br />

Tanxebis anonimurad miReba;<br />

ofSoruli momsaxurebis<br />

provaiderebma sxva<br />

iurisdiqciebSi SeiZleba<br />

kanonebi ar daicvan.<br />

angariSis mflobelis<br />

identifikacia;<br />

gadamxdelisa da mimRebis<br />

mier tranzaqciis Sesaxeb<br />

Canawerebis Senaxva;<br />

tranzaqciebis monitoringi<br />

da saeWvo aqtivobebis Sesaxeb<br />

angariSebis warmodgena;<br />

baraTis/angariSis dablokva;<br />

momsaxurebis miRebis SezRudva.<br />

internetiT gadaxdis<br />

sistemebi<br />

(Internet payment system)<br />

anonimuri angariSebi;<br />

anonimuri dafinanseba da<br />

Tanxebis anonimurad miReba<br />

(bankomatiT);<br />

maRali an ararsebuli<br />

angariSis dafinansebis<br />

SezRudva;<br />

angariSis mflobelis<br />

identifikacia;<br />

gadamxdelisa da mimRebis<br />

mier tranzaqciis Sesaxeb<br />

Canawerebis Senaxva;<br />

tranzaqciebis monitoringi<br />

da saeWvo aqtivobebis Sesaxeb<br />

angariSebis warmodgena;<br />

127


marTlmsajuleba<br />

N1<br />

da<br />

kanoni<br />

ofSoruli momsaxurebis<br />

provaiderebma sxva<br />

iurisdiqciebSi SeiZleba<br />

kanonebi ar daicvan.<br />

dafinansebis SezRudvis<br />

variantebi;<br />

baraTis/angariSis<br />

dablokva;<br />

momsaxurebis miRebis<br />

SezRudva.<br />

xelisuflebis organoebs Soris saerTaSoriso TanamSromloba SesaZloa mniSvnelovani<br />

instrumenti aRmoCndes am situaciebis gadawyvetisaTvis, gansakuTrebiT iq, sadac<br />

informaciis gacvlis efeqturi da qmediTi sistemebi arsebobs. amasTan dakavSirebiT,<br />

germaniis mier 2003 wlis bolos berlinSi Catarebul ASEM-is simpoziumze SemoTavazebuli<br />

iqna `adreuli gafrTxilebisa da informaciis gaziarebis sistema.~ 5<br />

adreuli gafrTxilebisa da informaciis gaziarebis sistema<br />

ofSoruli centrebisa da gadaxdis servisebis emitentebi, romlebic e.w. xelSemwyobi<br />

agentebis an internetis saSualebiT moqmedeben, yovelTvis rodi icaven kanons im qveynebSi,<br />

sadac TavianTi biznesis ganviTareba surT. 2003 wlis oqtomberSi, berlinSi Catarebul<br />

ASEM-is simpoziumze germaniam warmoadgina `adreuli gafrTxilebisa da informaciis<br />

gaziarebis sistema~ fulis gadaricxvis alternatiuli sistemebisa da iatakqveSa<br />

sabanko saqmianobis konteqstSi, iurisdiqciebs Soris koordinaciisa da informaciis<br />

gacvlis gasaaqtiureblad. ASEM-is 6 eqspertebi `SeTanxmdnen, rom ASEM-is yovel qveyanaSi<br />

samarTaldamcavi an sazedamxedvelo organosagan, anu finansuri dazvervis samsaxurisagan<br />

(FIU) koordinaciis gaaqtiurebis mizniT, sakontaqto punqti SeeqmnaT, rac<br />

moicavs informaciis gacvlas da, SeZlebisdagvarad, erToblivi RonisZiebebis gatarebas<br />

Sesabamis adgilobriv da ucxouri xelisuflebis organoebs Soris ukanono saqmianobis<br />

an borotmoqmedebis Cadenis Tavidan asacileblad. ASEM-is qveynebis eqspertebi<br />

aseve, SeTanxmdnen, rom adreuli gafrTxilebis aseTi sistema xels Seuwyobs ukanono<br />

saerTaSoriso tranzaqciebis CaSlas erTdroulad yvela dazaralebul qveyanaSi da<br />

saSualebas miscems samarTaldamcav da sazedamxedvelo organoebs TavianTi iurisdiqciis<br />

farglebSi aucilebeli koordinirebuli muSaoba ganaxorcielon. eqspertebi miesalmnen<br />

sxva qveynebis am procesSi monawileobas.~ 7<br />

adreuli gafrTxilebisa da informaciis gaziarebis sistema mogvianebiT moiwona<br />

FATF-is ramdenime wevrma, romlebic am sistemas SeuerTdnen. maTTvis es sistema gansaxilvelad<br />

warmoadgines FATF-is seminarze terorizmis dafinansebis Sesaxeb parizSi,<br />

2004 wlis TebervalSi. 8<br />

aRsaniSnavia, rom adreuli gafrTxilebis sistema Tavdapirvelad gamiznuli iyo<br />

iatakqveSa sabanko saqmianobasTan sabrZolvelad, Tumca mas aseve SeuZlia Zalze efeqtiani<br />

instrumenti gaxdes gadaxdis axali sistemebis borotad gamoyenebis winaaRmdeg<br />

brZolaSi.<br />

128


gadaxdis aRniSnul axal meTodebs, gansakuTrebiT ki, maTTvis, vinc internets<br />

iyenebs, TavisTavad Zalian hgavs iatakqveSa sabanko qselebs. gadaxdis axali meTodebi<br />

SeiZleba gamoyenebuli iqnas Tanxebis gadasaricxad mTeli msoflios masStabiT. ase,<br />

rom adreuli gafrTxilebis sistema Zalian sasargeblo da efeqtiani instrumentia ara<br />

marto koordinirebuli muSaobisaTvis, aramed gadaxdis aseTi axali sistemebis borotad<br />

gamoyenebis Tavidan asacileblad.<br />

gamoyenebuli literatura:<br />

1. fulis gadaricxvis alternatiuli servisebisa da iatakqveSa sabanko<br />

saqmianobis Sesaxeb berlinis simpoziumis saboloo daskvnebi, 2003<br />

wlis 30-31 oqtomberi, IV paragrafi;<br />

2. FATF-GAFI Financial Action Task Force, money laundering <strong>and</strong> terrorist<br />

financing vulnerabilities of commercial websites <strong>and</strong> internet payment systems,<br />

2008;<br />

3. FATF-GAFI Financial Action Task Force, Report on New Payment Methods<br />

2006;<br />

4. Global Financial Crime Terrorism, Money Laundering <strong>and</strong> Offshore Centres,<br />

Donato Maci<strong>and</strong>aro 2004;<br />

5. Financial havens, banking secrecy <strong>and</strong> money-laundering Double issue 34<br />

<strong>and</strong> 35 of the crime prevention <strong>and</strong> criminal justice newsletter Issue 8 of the<br />

UNDCP technique series UNITED NATIONS, New York 1998.<br />

SeniSvnebi:<br />

1<br />

Financial havens, banking secrecy <strong>and</strong> money-laundering Double issue 34 <strong>and</strong><br />

35 of the crime prevention <strong>and</strong> criminal justice newsletter Issue 8 of the UNDCP<br />

technique series UNITED NATIONS, New York 1998.<br />

2<br />

Financial havens, banking secrecy <strong>and</strong> money-laundering Double issue 34 <strong>and</strong><br />

35 of the crime prevention <strong>and</strong> criminal justice newsletter Issue 8 of the UNDCP<br />

technique series UNITED NATIONS, New York 1998.<br />

3<br />

Global Financial Crime Terrorism, Money Laundering <strong>and</strong> Offshore Centres,<br />

Donato Maci<strong>and</strong>aro 2004.<br />

4<br />

FATF-GAFI Finacial Action Task Force, Report on New Payment Methods<br />

2006.<br />

5<br />

FATF-GAFI Financial Action Task Force, Report on New Payment Methods<br />

2006.<br />

6<br />

abreviatura ASEM iSifreba, rogorc azia-evropis Sexvedra (Asia-<br />

Europe Meeting), araformaluri forumi evropul da aziur iurisdiqciebs<br />

Soris dialogisaTvis. damatebiTi informacia ASEM-is da misi<br />

wevrebis Sesaxeb ixileT, saitze www.aseminfoboard.org<br />

7<br />

fulis gadaricxvis alternatiuli servisebisa da iatakqveSa sabanko<br />

saqmianobis Sesaxeb berlinis simpoziumis saboloo daskvnebi, 2003<br />

wlis 30-31 oqtomberi, IV paragrafi.<br />

8<br />

FATF-GAFI Financial Action Task Force, money laundering <strong>and</strong> terrorist<br />

financing vulnerabilities of commercial websites <strong>and</strong> internet payment systems,<br />

2008.<br />

129


marTlmsajuleba<br />

N1<br />

da<br />

kanoni<br />

MONEY LAUNDERING<br />

THROUGH OFFSHORE<br />

ZONES<br />

NINO OSADZE<br />

Master of <strong>Law</strong> of the Hamburg University<br />

Doctoral C<strong>and</strong>idate of the <strong>Law</strong> Department, TEUSU<br />

The article outlines an acute problem such as offshore financial centers<br />

that are extremely popular worldwide. They are used for illegal money<br />

laundering <strong>and</strong> large amount of capital investing, which on their side represent<br />

to be the international economic crime.<br />

It should be noted, that these types of centers are used not only in big<br />

industrial states, but in the ones with developing market economy, where<br />

cash flow, short-term loans, or currency exchange rates are unsteady. Offshore<br />

centers encourage the state capital to become less transparent, which naturally<br />

results in exploitation of the ownership system <strong>and</strong> make different jurisdictions<br />

contradictory to each other. Offshore zones, that are also frequently referred<br />

as offshore banks, envisage keeping assets in the framework of one legal<br />

jurisdiction, but at the same time these assets are circulated using the other<br />

jurisdictions as well.<br />

130


axali wignebi<br />

gamomcemloba `meridianma~ gamosca samarTlis doqtoris,<br />

levan darbaiZis monografia `aleqs<strong>and</strong>re amilaxvris<br />

samarTlebrivi Sexedulebebi~, romlis samecniero redaqtoria<br />

iuridiul mecnierebaTa doqtori, profesori, iakob<br />

futkaraZe.<br />

naSromi kompleqsuri gamokvlevis Sedegad Seiqmna. monografiis<br />

Teoriul, meTodologiur da wyaroTmcodneobis<br />

mTavar baziss warmoadgens zogad-samecniero meTodebi.<br />

mecnieruli kvlevisas gamoyenebul iqna SedarebiTsamarTlebrivi,<br />

logikuri da istoriuli meTodebi.<br />

wigni qarTuli samarTlis istoriis im ZiriTadi sakiTxebis<br />

mecnieruli analizis Sedegia, romelTac Tanamedrove<br />

sakonstitucio, administraciuli Tu sisxlis samar-<br />

Tlis saWirboroto problemebis gadasaWrelad mniSvnelovani<br />

roli eniWeba. monografiuli naSromis kvlevis Ziri-<br />

Tadi mizania aleqs<strong>and</strong>re amilaxvris samarTlebriv SexedulebaTa<br />

aqtualurobis mecnierulad dasabuTeba da imis<br />

warmoCena, Tu rogor hqonda mas Camoyalibebuli Tavisi<br />

mosazrebani sazogadoebisa da saxelmwifos mowyobis samarTlebrivi<br />

safuZvlebis, saxelmwifo xelisuflebis `sazogadoebrivi<br />

xelSekrulebis~ Sedegad Camoyalibebis, samefo<br />

xelisuflebis bunebisa da samarTlebrivi farglebis,<br />

mefis arCevis, xelisuflebis danawilebis, sazogadoebis<br />

sxvadasxva socialuri fenis uflebaTa dacvis, saxelmwifosa<br />

da eklesiis urTierTdamokidebulebis, religiuri<br />

konfesiebis warmomadgenelTa uflebebis dacvis, sakanonmdeblo<br />

da sisxlis samarTlis sakiTxebis, samarTliani<br />

sasamarTlos Seqmnis aucileblobis, sasjelis umaRlesi<br />

zomis _ sikvdiliT dasjis, adamianis bunebiTi uflebebis<br />

da kanonis winaSe Tanasworobis Sesaxeb.<br />

131


marTlmsajuleba<br />

N1<br />

da<br />

kanoni<br />

saqarTvelos mosamarTleTa asociacia<br />

JUDGES ASSOCIATION OF GEORGIA<br />

tel-faqsi/Tel-Fax: (+995 32) 92 34 90<br />

saqarTvelos uzenaesi sasamarTlo<br />

THE SUPREME COURT OF GEORGIA<br />

tel-faqsi/Tel-Fax: (+995 32) 99 70 01<br />

132

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