nino talaxaZe samoqalaqo Tavdacva da usafrTxoeba

eqe.ge

nino talaxaZe samoqalaqo Tavdacva da usafrTxoeba

nino talaxaZe

samoqalaqo

Tavdacva da

usafrTxoeba

(usafrTxoeba sagangebo viTarebebSi)

VIII klasi

moswavlis wigni

grifi mieniWa 2012 wels saqarTvelos ganaTlebisa da mecnierebis saministros

s.s.i.p. ganaTlebis xarisxis ganviTarebis erovnuli centris mier

(brZaneba #375, 18. 05. 2012w.)

gamomcemloba `sidi~

Tbilisi, 2012

usafrTxoeba sagangebo viTarebaSi

1


UAC

nino talaxaZe

samoqalaqo Tavdacva da usafrTxoeba

(usafrTxoeba sagangebo viTarebaSi) VIII klasisaTvis

moswavlis wigni `samoqalaqo Tavdacva da usafrTxoeba (usafrTxoeba sagangebo

viTarebaSi)~ gankuTvnilia me-8 klasis moswavleebisaTvis. igi warmoadgens samoqalaqo

Tavdacvisa da usafrTxoebis swavlebis meore safexurs.

cxovrebaSi yovelTvis arsebobs sxvadasxva safrTxe, romelsac SesaZloa ubeduri

SemTxveva mohyves. gadarCenis mTavari piroba is aris, rom yvelaze mkacr pirobebSic ki,

adamians SeuZlia da valdebulia SeinarCunos janmrTeloba da sicocxle. amisaTvis saWiroa

garkveuli codna da praqtikuli unarebi. es codna da unarebi ara marto Seufasebel

daxmarebas gauwevs mas xifaTebTan brZolaSi, aramed sakuTari Zalis da wamoWril

siZneleebTan gamklavebis rwmenasac mianiWebs, radgan ecodineba, ra rogor gaakeTos.

moulodnelobasTan Sexvedris fsiqologiuri mzadyofna zrdis adamianis simtkices _ ar

daibnes saWiro dros, swrafad da droulad Seafasos eqstremaluri situacia, ganasxvavos

realuri safrTxe moCvenebiTi safrTxisagan. icodes rogor moiqces, Tu tyeSi gza aebna;

rogor moiqces xanZris dros, miwisZvris, grigalis da sxva sagangebo situaciebis dros.

saxelmZRvanelo moicavs 4 Tavs da 12 gakveTils. masSi gamoyenebulia swavlebis

Tanamedrove meTodebi: dikusia, msjeloba, codnis Semowmebis sxvadasxva formebi,

moswavleebis Semoqmedeba. masalis aTvisebis gasamartiveblad wigni Sedgenilia Semdegi

rubrikebis gamoyenebiT:

usafrTxo qcevis wesebi

gaxsovdes!

imsjeleT!

es sainteresoa!

kiTxvebi

saqarTvelos Sesaxeb

internet-resursi

kalendari

RirsSesaniSnavi TariRi

saqarTvelos

kanoni . . .

saqarTvelos kanoni

ubis wignaki

redaqtori: giorgi gabrielaSvili

dizaineri: giorgi xarebava

© gamomcemloba `sidi~, 2012

tel.: 790 26 51 52; el-fosta: ceedgeo@yahoo.com

ISBN

2

samoqalaqo Tavdacva da usafrTxoeba


sarCevi

Tavi I: sagangebo situaciebi da maTi klasifikacia

1. sagangebo situaciebis arsi da saxeobebi...................................................... 5

Tavi II: bunebrivi saxis sagangebo situaciebi

2-3. geofizikuri saxis sagangebo situaciebi..................................................... 14

4. geologiuri saxis sagangebo situaciebi...................................................... 25

5. meteorologiuri saxis sagangebo situaciebi............................................ 30

6. hidrologiuri saxis sagangebo situaciebi................................................. 39

Tavi III: teqnogenuri da ekologiuri saxis sagangebo situaciebi

7. teqnogenuri saxis sagangebo situaciebi...................................................... 43

8. ekologiuri saxis sagangebo situaciebi...................................................... 53

Tavi IV: piradi usafrTxoebis sadarajoze

9. topografia da navigacia................................................................................... 64

10. bunebasTan pirispir ........................................................................................... 76

11. pirveladi samedicino daxmareba..................................................................... 82

12. proeqti: gaeros sxdoma...................................................................................... 87

ganmartebiTi leqsikoni............................................................................................ 89

usafrTxoeba sagangebo viTarebaSi

3


4

samoqalaqo Tavdacva da usafrTxoeba


4.

geologiuri

saxis

sagangebo situaciebi

zvavi

zvavi – mTis ferdobze moZravi

Tovlis masa. did grovad wamosuli

CamorRveuli miwa an Tovli.

zvavsaSiSi periodi –periodi, roca

mosalodnelia zvavis gaaqtiureba.

zvavi stiqiuri, xSirad katastrofuli movlenaa. zvavi Cveulebriv TovliT

dafaruli mTis kalTebidan eSveba da adamianis sicocxlisa da saqmianobisaTvis

safrTxes warmoadgens. mas damangreveli Zala aqvs. zvavi safrTxes uqmnis

dasaxlebebs, samewarmeo obieqtebs, gzebsa da sxva sakomunikacio infrastruqturas.

zvavis CamowolisTvis xelsayreli piroba iqmneba Tu: Tovlis safari 20sm-s aRemateba,

mTis ferdobis daxriloba 15-30 gradusia da teritoriaze tye ar aris. zvavis

moZraobis siCqarea 20-100m/wm. zvavis moqmedeba ZiriTadad zamTris TveebSi da

gazafxulzea mosalodneli, radgan swored am dros yalibdeba zvavis CamowolisTvis

saWiro sisqis Tovlis safari.

rogo

rogor aviridoT / SevamciroT zvavis Camowolis Sedegad

arsebuli safrTxe?

zvavisagan usafrTxoebis dacvis saukeTeso saSualebaa Sesabamisi nagebobebis

aSeneba, zvavsaSiSi adgilebis aRmniSvneli signalebis gamoyeneba. zvavSi moyolili

adamianis sikvdilis mizezia mogudva. zvavis dros sunTqva SeuZlebelia, radgan

Tovli ketavs sasunTq gzebs, Tovlis namqeri ki filtvebSi aRwevs. adamiani zvavSi

ara marto igudeba, aramed iyineba, iRebs tramvebs, motexilobas.

usafrTxo qcevis wesebi

zvavis dros

nu miecemiT panikas!

zvavis dros

1. nu gariskavT imoZraoT mTaSi did-

Tovlianobis dros, 30 gradusze

metad daxrili mTis ferdobze;

2. gadalaxeT mTebi SeZlebisdagvarad

maRal simaRleze, imoZraveT

usafrTxoeba sagangebo viTarebaSi

dilaobiT Zalian didi sifrTxiliT;

3. Tan iqonieT eleqtronuli samZebro

mowyobilobebi;

4. Tvali adevneT sainformacio gamoSvebebSi

zvavsaSiSi adgilebis

Sesaxeb informacias.

25


zvavis Semdeg

1. amoZraveT xel-fexi ise, TiTqos

curavT. es dagexmarebaT zedapirze

darCeT;

2. daicaviT cxviri da piri, rom ar

gaigudoT. SeecadeT gainTavsufloT

are cxvirisa da piris, mkerdis

midamoebSi;

3. dazogeT Zalebi, rom Jangbadi

swrafad ar daxarjoT;

4. moerieT Zilis survils.

zvavi erT-erTi yvelaze Cveuli movlenaa saqarTvelos mTiani

regionebisTvis. zvavsaSiSi periodi grZeldeba eqvsidan rva Tvemde.

Tumca yvelaze saSiSad ianvar-martis Tveebi iTvleba. swored am dros

aRiricxeba zvavebis 70%. xSiria maRalmTiani dasaxlebuli punqtebis

praqtikulad sruli mowyveta saqarTvelos danarCeni teritoriisagan.

Cveni qveynis teritoriis 50%-ze meti moqceulia zvavsaSiS zonaSi,

rac did safrTxes uqmnis sxvadasxva sakomunikacio nagebobebs da 100-ze

met dasaxlebul punqts. bolo 10 weliwadSi am movlenisgan qveynisTvis

miyenebulma zaralma 40 mln. lars gadaaWarba. daiRupa 15 adamiani. sul

qveyanaSi fiqsirdeba 5 aTasi zvavsaSiSi kera, romelTagan 1100-ze meti

emuqreba saavtomobilo magistralebs, dasaxlebul punqtebsa da sxva

sakomunikacio nagebobebs. zvavsaSiSroebis yvelaze maRali riskiT guriaaWaris

mTianeTi gamoirCeva.

saqarTveloSi SedarebiT maRali zvavsaSiSroebiT gamoirCeva kavkasionis

dasavleTi da centraluri monakveTebi da aWaris maRal mTianeTi.

Tovlis zvavebis gansakuTrebuli aqtivoba aRiniSneba 1970 wlidan.

wyaro: garemos dacvisa da bunebrivi resursebis saministros ssip garemos dacvis

erovnuli saagentos informacia

saqarTvelos teritoriaze zvavsaSiSroebis ganawileba

26

samoqalaqo Tavdacva da usafrTxoeba


gansakuTrebiT aqtualuri iyo da

aris zvavebi svaneTSi. am mxareSi IV

saukunidan agebdnen svanur koSkebs,

romlebic zvavs kuTxiT upirispirdebodnen.

Sedegad zvavi koSkebs

ver angrevda da mTeli sofeli mSvidobianad

gamoizamTrebda xolme.

mewyeri

mewyeri _ daxrilobis mimarTulebiT, simZimis

Zalis zemoqmedebiT niadagis an qanis mowyveta an

mosxletiT gadaadgileba.

mewyeris mizezia qanebis wonasworobis darRveva, rasac iwvevs ferdobis Ziris

gamorecxva; gamofitvis da gadametebuli tenianobis gamo qanebis simtkicis

Sesusteba; seismuri biZgebi; adamianis sameurneo saqmianoba adgilis geologiuri

pirobebis gauTvaliswineblad da sxva.

mewyerTan brZolis efeqturi saSualebaa mTis kalTebis gatyianeba, sainJinro

nagebobebiT gamagreba da sxva. mewyeri ufro xSirad viTardeba iq, sadac rbili,

advilad Sladi qanebi, anu iseTi qanebia, riTac ZiriTadad agebulia saqarTvelos

mTaTaSorisi bari.

mewyeris dawyebis niSnebia:

• miwis zedapirze bzarebisa da napralebis gaCena;

• mewyersaSiS ferdobebze wylis gaJonva.

usafrTxo qcevis wesebi

mewyeris, Rvarcofis dros

nu miecemiT panikas!

mewyeramde

1. moipoveT informacia mewyeris SesaZlo

warmoqmnis Sesaxeb.

2. dauSvebelia damewyril teritoriaze

pirutyvis Zoveba da miwis

damuSaveba;

usafrTxoeba sagangebo viTarebaSi

27


3. wyalgadamyvani arxebiT damewyril

ubnebs unda aaciloT gruntisa da

atmosferuli naleqebis Sedegad

nawreti wylebi;

4. mewyeris niSnebis gaCenisas SeatyobineT

samaSvelo samsaxurs.

mewyeris dros

1. gadaketeT bunebrivi airis mili da

gamorTeT eleqtroxelsawyoebi,

wyalsadenis qseli;

2. moemzadeT dauyoneblivi evakuaciisaTvis

winaswar SemuSavebuli

gegmis Tanaxmad;

3. evakuaciis dros Tan waiReT sabuTebi,

Zvirfaseuloba, tansacmeli da

produqtebi;

4. saswrafod moaxdineT usafrTxo

adgilas gadasvla.

mewyeris Semdeg

1. SeamowmeT Senobis mdgradoba,

eleqtroobis, bunebrivi airis da

wyalmomaragebis qselebis gamar-

Tuloba.

saqarTveloSi mewyrul-gravitaciuli movlenebi ganviTarebulia

TiTqmis yvela landSaftur-geomorfologiur zonaSi, erTmaneTisagan

gansxvavebul geologiur garemoSi – zRvispireTidan dawyebuli maRalm-

TianeTiT damTavrebuli. saSiSroebis riskis zonaSi moqceulia qveynis

teritoriis 1.5 mln. ha. mewyeruli movlenebis ganviTarebis maRali intensivoba

axasiaTebs civ-gomboris qedis CrdiloeT ferdobebs, dasavleT

saqarTvelos gorak-borcvian landSaftTa umravlesobasa da mesxeTs.

TrialeTis qedis CrdiloeT ferdobs. mewyerebi praqtikulad ar

aRiniSneba kolxeTis dablobze, alaznis velsa da Sida qarTlis vakeze.

wyaro: garemos dacvisa da bunebrivi resursebis saministros ssip garemos dacvis

erovnuli saagentos informacia.

saqarTvelos teritoriis daraionebis ruka

mewyerebiT dazianebisa da saSiSroebis riskis mixedviT

28

samoqalaqo Tavdacva da usafrTxoeba


Rvarcofi (seli)

Rvarcofi – maRali koncentraciis wyal gruntovani

nakadis moZraoba mdinaris an xramis kalapotSi, risi

gamovlinebac ganpirobebulia reliefis Zlieri

danawevrebiT, ferdobebisa da kalapotebis Zlieri

daxrilobiT, eroziuli procesebis intensiuri ganviTarebiT,

Tovlis intensiuri dnobiT, bunebrivi an

xelovnuri kaSxlebis wyalsatevebidan gadmoxeTqili

wylebiT da Zlieri Tavsxma wvimebiT.

Rvarcofi SeiZleba gagrZeldes aTiode wuTidan ramdenime saaTamde. Rvarcofs

didi ubedureba moaqvs: iRupebian adamianebi da cxovelebi, ingreva sacxovrebeli

saxlebi, sainJinro da sagzao nagebobebi, nadgurdeba sasoflo-sameurneo

savargulebi, nadgurdeba dasaxlebuli punqtebi, safrTxe emuqreba saavtomobilo

da sarkinigzo moZraobas, ixergeba midamo. Rvarcofis nakadi zogjer aTeulobiT

kilometri sigrZis da 15 metri siRrmisaa, siCqare ki _ 2-10 m/wm.

Rvarcofis ZiriTadi mizezia gadauRebeli wvimebi mTebSi, Tovlis da yinulis

intesiuri dnoba, tyis Cexva da mcenareTa ganadgureba mTis kalTebze.

rogor aviridoT an SevamciroT Rvarcofis Sedegad

arsebuli safrTxe?

Rvarcofis Tavidan arideba SesaZlebelia:

• kaSxalebisa da jebirebis agebiT;

• xeebis dargvis gziT;

• ferdobebze niadagis gamagrebiT.

gaxsovdes!

mewyerisa da Rvarcofisagan dacvis saukeTeso saSualebaa saimedo TavSesafarSi

mocda. Rvarcofis SesaZlo moqmedebis zonaSi, uari unda TqvaT sacxovrebeli saxlis

aSenebaze. xolo im SemTxvevaSi, Tu saxli ukve aRniSnul zonaSia, saWiroa miiRoT

zomebi fundamentisa da kedlebis gasamagreblad, miwayrilebis, SemovliTi saniaRvre

arxebis asagebad, ferdobebis nargavebiT an sayrdeni kedlebiT gasamagreblad,

sakomunikacio xazebis damatebiTi dacviTi RonisZiebebis gasatareblad.

Rvarcofuli movlenebi saqarTveloSi dafiqsirebulia 3000-mde

eroziul wyalsadinarSi. Rvarcofebis riskis arealSi moqceulia qveynis

teritoriis 2 mln. ha. Rvarcofebis yvelaze maRali intensivobiTa da

saSiSroebis riskiT gamoirCeva kavkasionis areali, civ-gomborisa da

saguramo-ialnos qedebi da aWara-TrialeTis mTaTa sistema.

wyaro: Sss sagangebo situaciebis marTvis departamenti.

http://www.police.ge/uploads/sagangebostatistik/emd_rec_01_big.jpg

usafrTxoeba sagangebo viTarebaSi

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