polkovniki daviT maRlakeliZe erekle meoris samxedro xelovneba ...

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polkovniki daviT maRlakeliZe erekle meoris samxedro xelovneba ...

saqarTvelos SeiaraRebuli Zalebis gaerTianebuli

Stabis, wvrTnebisa da samxedro ganaTlebis

sardlobis Tavdacvis erovnuli akademia

polkovniki daviT maRlakeliZe

erekle meoris samxedro xelovneba

ivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis

istoriis doqtoris (Ph.D.) akademiuri xarisxis mosapoveblad

d i s e r t a c i a

samecniero xelmZRvanelebi: istoriis mecnierebaTa doqtori,

profesori elver kupataZe

istoriis mecnierebaTa doqtori,

profesori Tedo dundua

Tbilisi

2010

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S e s a v a l i

saqarTvelos mravalsaukunovani istoriis manZilze uxdeboda

sabrZolo moqmedebebis warmarTva TviTmyofadobis SenarCunebisaTvis.

mtris gamudmebul Tavdasxmebs ganapirobebda saqarTvelos

geopolitikuri mdgomareoba da mis irgvliv myofi saxelmwifoTa

strategia, rac miznad isaxavda saqarTveloze zewolas da amiT kavkasiis

regionis dauflebas (interesi gamowveuli iyo saerTaSoriso

mniSvnelobis ,,abreSumis didi gziT~ da saqarTvelos bunebrivgeografiuli

pirobebiT). aRniSnuli problema yovelTvis aqtualuri iyo

saqarTvelos mTeli istoriis manZilze da dResac pirvelxarisxovani

mniSvneloba eniWeba. es dausrulebeli politikuri procesebi Sesabamis

asaxvas poulobda samxedro dapirispirebebSi. aRniSnul brZolebSi

warmatebis mosapoveblad mniSvnelovani wvlili miuZRviT im mebrZolebs,

romlebic, TavianTi simamaciT, individualuri sabrZolo xelovnebis

ileTebis codniT da taqtikur moqmedebaTa elementebis gonivruli

gamoyenebiT, mravalricxovan mowinaaRmdegesTan imarjvebdnen. aseTi

magaliTebi mravladaa Semonaxuli istoriul wyaroebsa da

istoriografiaSi. ra Tqma unda, iyo damarcxebebic sxvadasxva mizezTa

gamo, magram qarTvelTa brZolas gadarCenisTvis sistematiuri xasiaTi

hqonda.

epoqebis mixedviT sazogadoebriv-ekonomikuri procesebis

ganviTarebis Sesabamisad viTardeboda sabrZolo iaraRisa da TavdacviTi

saSualebebis warmoeba, safortifikacio nagebobebis mSeneblobebi.

yovelivem zegavlena iqonia brZolebis warmarTvis formebsa da

meTodebze. aqedan gamomdinare, ufro daxvewili da srulyofili xdeboda

samxedro xelovneba, razec misi ganmarteba miuTiTebs: samxedro

xelovnebis istoria samxedro istoriis Semadgeneli nawilia. is ikvlevs

SeiaraRebuli brZolis warmoqmnisa da warmarTvis formebisa da xerxebis

ganviTarebas. igi ganazogadebs warsuli omebis gamocdilebas, gviCvenebs

samxedro xelovnebis ganviTarebis process da amJRavnebs mis

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kanonzomierebebs, riTac xels uwyobs Tanamedove samxedro Teoriis

ganviTarebas (155, 301).

imis gamo, rom qarTveli xalxi Tvisi arsebobis istoriis manZilze,

sxvadasxva juris dampyrobTa winaaRmdeg gamudmebiT brZolebs

awarmoebda da mSvidobianobis periodebi Zalze xanmokle iyo, amitom

Cveni samSoblos istoria faqtiurad ,,omebis istoriaa~, rogorc amas

samarTlianad aRniSnaven mecnier-istorikosebi.

qarTl-kaxeTis saxelovani mefis, erekle II-is samxedro xelovnebis

warmoCena, mravalsaukunovani samxedro xelovnebis istoriis Seswavlis

TvalsazrisiT, samxedro-patriotuli kuTxiT, aqtualuri da saintereso

sakiTxia.

erekle II, 15 wlis asakidan moyolebuli, sicocxlis bolomde

mravalricxovan mowinaaRmdeges ebrZoda. igi ara mxolod mamaci da

uSiSari meomari, aramed qarTl-kaxeTis samefos brwyinvale

mxedarTmTavari iyo.

erekle II-m qveynisaTvis saWiro da metad sasargeblo samxedro

reformebi ganaxorciela. mefis saxelTanaa dakavSirebuli mudmivi jaris

msgavsi SeiaraRebuli organizaciis, e.w. `morige jaris~ Seqmna,

sadroSoTa sistemis (imdroindeli samxedro olqebis. Tumca olqi

gacilebiT bevrad met farTobs moicavs vidre sadroSo iyo)

organizaciis srulyofa, zarbaznebis Camomsxmeli, Tof-iaraRis

damamzadebeli qarxnebis gaxsna, sazarbazne Wurvebisa da tyvia-wamlis

warmoeba, axali cixe-simagreebis mSenebloba, Zvelebis SekeTeba, samxedro

dazvervis sistemis organizeba, sayaraulo samsaxuris masStabebis

gafarToeba da srulyofa. agreTve mTeli rigi sxva sakiTxebis gadaWra,

romlebmac saboloo jamSi mniSvnelovnad Seuwyves xeli qarTl-kaxeTis

samefos Tavdacvisunarianobis ganmtkicebas da gareSe mtrebis masobrivi

Tavdasxmebis warmatebiT mogeriebasa da damarcxebas.

erekle II yovel Rones xmarobda, raTa saxelmwifoSi, daenerga is

siaxleebi da miRwevebi, rasac im droisaTvis adgili hqonda ruseTsa da

evropis sxva saxelmwifoebSi. amitom samxedro saqmis specialistebs,

rogorc ucxoelebs, ise qarTvelebs (romlebsac saTanado codna da

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gamocdileba gaaCndaT ruseTis jarSi samsaxurisa) TavisTan iwvevda da

xelsayrel pirobebs uqmnida muSaobisaTvis.

igi ara marto gamoCenili saxelmwifo moRvawe iyo, aramed Tavis

epoqis didi mxedarTmTavaric, romelic gaizarda qarTuli samxedro

xelovnebis tradiciebze. misi, rogorc brwyinvale sardlis,

CamoyalibebaSi garkveuli roli Seasrula samxedro laSqrobebSi

SeZenilma sabrZolo gamocdilebam, evropuli da aziuri qveynebis

samxedro xelovnebis gacnobam.

mefe ereklem sruliad samarTlianad daimkvidra saxeli iseTi

saxelovani mefeebisa da mxedarTmTavrebis gverdiT, rogoric iyvnen:

farnavazi, vaxtang gorgasali, daviT aRmaSenebeli, giorgi saakaZe da

sxvebi.

erekle II-m didi da mcire masStabis 100-ze meti brZola gadaixada,

romelTagan umravlesoba misi brwyinvale gamarjvebiT damTavrda. XVIII

saukunis II naxevarSi misi saxeli ganTqmuli iyo rogorc aRmosavleTSi,

ise dasavleTSi.

samxedro xelovnebis principebis gamoyenebiT erekle mefem mravali

brZola STambeWdavi gamarjvebiT daasrula. am brZolebis analizi

cxadyofs, rom igi brwyinvale samxedro taqtikosi iyo, romlis saxelTan

samarTlianadaa dakavSirebuli qarTuli samxedro xelovnebis

ganviTareba XVIII saukunis II naxevarSi.

miuxedavad mefe erekle II-is didi sabrZolo damsaxurebisa, dRemde

misi samxedro xelovnebis Sesaxeb erTiani mecnieruli gamokvleva ar

arsebobs, Tu mxedvelobaSi ar miviRebT zogierTi mkvlevaris naSromebs,

romlebSic erekle II-is sardlobiT Catarebuli esa Tu is brZola

umTavresad ganxilulia samxedro istoriis kuTxiT. kerZod,

al. gorgaZes, iv. SaiSmelaSvilsa da a. klimiaSvils srulyofilad ar

aqvT Seswavlili erekle II-is mier gatarebuli samxedro reformebi,

principebi da brZolebis taqtikuri formebi. Cvens istoriografiaSi am

naklis arseboba mniSvnelovnad zrdis winamdebare sakvlevi Temis

aqtualobas. sadoqtoro disertacia swored am naklis Sevsebis cdas

warmoadgens.

5


sadisertacio naSromis miznad davisaxeT, kompleqsurad Segveswavla

XVIII saukunis me-2 naxevarSi mefe erekle II-is samxedro-politikuri

moRvaweoba, gansakuTrebiT ki misi samxedro xelovneba, warmogveCina da

konkretulad gagveSuqebina Semdegi problemuri sakiTxebi:

1. erekle II-is samxedro-reformatoruli moRvaweoba (RonisZiebani

SeiaraRebis, sabrZolo masalebis sawarmoeblad da sainJinro-TavdacviTi

nagebobebis mosawyobad; SeiaraRebuli organizaciis (morige jaris)

Seqmna; samxedro dazvervisa da sayaraulo (saguSago) samsaxuris

organizeba);

2. erekle II-is umniSvnelovanesi brZolebi: yarabaRSi, yirbulaxSi,

mWadijvrisa da yvarlis cixeebTan, aspinZis brZola;

3. erekle mefis roli XVIII saukunis meore naxevris qarTuli

samxedro xelovnebis ganviTarebaSi, evropisa da aziis qveynebSi samxedro

strategiasa da taqtikaSi momxdari cvlilebebis fonze.

pirvelad Cvens sadisertacio naSromSi axleburad, Seswavlilia

erekle II-is samxedro moRvaweobis periodSi (1735 – 1795 ww.), mis mier

Setanili wvlili qarTul samxedro xelovnebaSi. gansakuTrebiT

yuradReba gamaxvilebulia am saxelovani mefis mier gamarjvebiT

damTavrebul mniSvnelovan brZolebze, maTi analizis safuZvelze

Seswavlili da warmoCenilia taqtikuri moqmedebebis Semadgeneli

elementebi, romelTa unariani gamoyenebiT brwyinvale gamarjvebebi iqna

mopovebuli. Seswavlili iqna im brZanebebisa da gankargulebebis

punqtebi, romlebic TavianTi SinaarsiT Tanamedrove sabrZolo

(sabrZolo brZanebebi, gankargulebebi, direqtivebi) dokumentebs

miesadageba.

sadisertacio naSromze muSaobisas kritikulad SeviswavleT

sakvlevi problemis irgvliv arsebuli masalebi, dokumentebi da

literatura. Cvens mier pirvelad iqna SemuSavebuli da mecnierulad

dasabuTebuli erekle II-is droindeli sadazvervo sistemis organizebis,

SeiaraRebuli Zalebis struqtura da sabrZolo moqmedebis sqemebi.

sadisertacio naSromSi siaxles warmoadgens brZolis procesis

maTematikuri modelirebis meTodebis gamoyeneba (lanCesteris

6


gantolebebi), romlis realizacia ganxorcielda kompiuterSi. misi

saSualebiT davadgineT uSualod brZolebSi monawile dapirispirebul

mxareTa raodenoba, danakargebi da sxva. Cven ar SeudgebiT maT analizs,

avRniSnavT mxolod imas, Tu ris saSualebas gvaZleven isini.

Tu or mowinaaRmdege mxares gaaCnia raime sabrZolo saSualebebi

(cecxlsasroli iaraRi an sxva SeiaraReba), brZolis mimdinareobisas

xdeba am erTeulebis raodenobrivi cvlilebebi _ realurad kleba.

gantolebebi gvaZleven saSualebas aRiweros Tu rogori kanonzomierebiT

xdeba am erTeulTa kleba.

vTqvaT erT mxares hyavs 100 erTeuli, meores 120, maTi kleba

SeiZleba xdebodes sxvadasxva kanonzomierebiT. magaliTad ase:

#

# mxareebis sabrZolo erTeulebis raodenoba sxvadasxva etapze

sawyis etapze T 1 droSi T 2 droSi T 3 droSi T 4 droSi T 5 droSi

1 100 99. 77 99. 54 99. 31 99. 09 98. 87

2 120 119 118 117 116. 01 115. 02

an sxva wesiT. am mimdevrobidan bevri daskvnis gakeTeba xerxdeba,

xolo TviT masze gavlenas axdens sxvadasxva garemoeba. yovelive amis

aRwera xdeba xsenebuli gantolebebiT. amiT SegviZlia viangariSoT

ramdeni erTeuli darCeba erT mxares, rodesac meore mxare (pirobiTad

susti) srulad ganadgurdeba an ganadgurdeba misi es Tu is nawili.

amrigad, Tu viciT mxareTa Zalebis raodenobebi da maTi Tvisebrivi

maxasiaTeblebi, am gantolebebis saSualebiT SegviZlia aRvadginoT

realobasTan maqsimalurad miaxloebuli suraTi mimdinare procesisa.

Tumca am dros warmoiqmneba bevri sirTule. aRvniSnavT zogierT maTgans,

romelic CvenTvis arsebiTia.

brZola rTuli procesia, romlis mimdinareobisas zemoaRniSnuli

,,garemoebani~ xSirad icvlebian. zogjer brZolis procesSi CaerTvebian

damatebiTi Zalebi, zogjer Seicvleba mebrZolTa brZolisunarianoba,

zogjer procesSi aRiniSneba garkveuli pauza, da a.S. es cvlilebebi

7


iwveven gantolebebSi Semavali e.w. parametrebis cvlilebebs, aRniSnuli

garemoebaTa gamo am gantolebebis erTiani amoxsna aRar xerxdeba. amitom

aseT SemTxvevaSi viqceviT Semdegnairad: mTel process davyofT

ramdenime etapad. TiToeuli etapis SigniT parametrebi ar icvlebian da

amitom advilia Sedegebis gaangariSeba, mag:Yyirbulaxis brZolis

raodenobrivi analizi, (danarTi #2, 163). Semdeg etapze miiReba axali

sawyisi pirobebi da kvlav movaxdenT gaTvlebis Catarebas, da a.S., magram

kvlav warmoiSoba axali siZneleebi. rogor Seicvlebian parametrebi?, Tu

brZolisas iqneba pauza, ramden xans gastans is? da sxva.

am SemTxvevaSi vsargeblobT kompiuteris SesaZleblobebiT da

gaTvlebs vatarebT sxvadasxva variantebiT. miRebul Sedegebs vadarebT

sakontrolo ricxvebs, romelsac cnobili istoriuli monacemebidan

viRebT. Tu damTxveva moxdeba, Cvens mier miRebuli varianti, romelmac

dadebiTi Sedegi mogvca, Semdgomi kvlevis safuZvlad daideba. rig

SemTxvevaSi erTi aseTi monacemic ki Zvirfas samsaxurs gviwevs.

samwuxarod, aris SemTxvevebi, rodesac absoluturad aranairi ricxvi ar

mogvepoveba. aseT SemTxvevaSi miRebuli Sedegebis analizi xdeba

eqspertuli Sefasebis meTodiT. saxelmZRvaneloSi ,,marTvelobiTi

gadawyvetilebis miRebis Teoria da praqtika~, eqspertuli Sefasebis

meTodi ganmartebulia Semdegnairad: ,,eqspertuli Sefasebis meTodi

gulisxmobs problemis eqspertuli analizis CatarebiT raodenobriv

Sefasebas da eqspertiziT miRebuli Sedegebis damuSavebas~ (166, 254).

aq Cven TviT es gantolebebi da miTumetes misi amoxsnebi Segnebulad

ar mogvyavs, gvindoda mxolod maTi arsi da SesaZleblobebi

warmogveCina.

bolos ki naCvenebia XVIII saukuneSi evropis, aziis da saqarTvelos

samxedro strategiisa da taqtikis SedarebiTi analizi. aseve erekle II-is

sabrZolo damsaxureba da mis mier Setanili mniSvnelovani wvlili

qarTuli samxedro xelovnebis ganviTarebaSi.

sadisertacio naSromi da masSi warmodgenili kvleva-Ziebis Sedegebi

SeiZleba gamoyenebul iqnes: d. aRmaSeneblis saxelobis Tavdacvis

erovnuli akademiis msmenelebTan, agreTve, Zalovani uwyebebis profilis

8


saswavleblebSi saqarTvelos omebisa da samxedro xelovnebis istoriis

swavlebisas, umaRlesi saswavleblebis humanitarul fakultetebze,

saqarTvelos istoriis kursis kiTxvisas; brZolis procesis maTematikuri

modelirebis nimuSi qmnis baziss am mimarTulebiT momavali kvlevebis

ganviTarebisaTvis.

naSromis qronologiuri CarCo, 1735-1795 wlebs, erekle II-is samxedro

cxovrebisa da moRvaweobis periods moicavs. qveda mijnad aviReT

erekles xelmZRvanelobiT Catarebuli pirveli brZola, xolo zeda

mijnad _ 1795 weli, radgan mefe _ sardali sicocxlis bolomde ibrZoda

da eweoda samxedro moRvaweobas.

naSromis meTodologiuri baza efuZneba istoriis obieqtur gagebas,

faqtebisa da movlenebisadmi midgomis kritikul-analitikuri meTods,

samxedro xelovnebis principebis kvlevas da aRiarebas.

ZiriTadi masalebi (sul 4 samecniero statia) gamoqveynebulia

Tavdacvis erovnuli akademiis referirebul samecniero JurnalSi

,,akademiis Sromebi", #2, #3.

moxsenebebi disertaciis TemasTan dakavSirebiT wakiTxulia

Tavdacvis erovnul akademiaSi, adiunqtebisa (aspirantebis) da samecniero

xarisxis maZieblebis samxedro-samecniero konferenciebze, sxvadasxva

saxelmwifoebriv mniSvnelovan TariRebTan dakavSirebiT.

naSromis struqtura gansazRvrulia sadisertacio kvlevis miznebiT

da amocanebiT. Sedgeba Sesavlis, literaturis mimoxilvis, sami Tavis, 10

paragrafis, daskvnis, sqemebis, danarTis, gamoyenebuli literaturis

CamonaTvalisa da Sinaarsisagan. saerTo moculoba Seadgens

kompiuteruli teqstis 177 nabeWd gverds, sadac mocemulia: teqsti – 151

gv, sadazvervo sistemis sqema - 1, SeiaraRebuli Zalebis struqtura - 1,

sabrZolo moqmedebebis warmarTvis sqema - 5, sabrZolo wyobebis sqema – 4

danarTi – 4 gv, damowmebuli wyaroebisa da literaturis nusxa – 10 gv,

Sinaarsi – 1gv.

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wyaroebisa da literaturis mimoxilva

wyaroebi _ erekle II Tavisi mravalmxrivi moRvaweobiT

popularuli da gamorCeuli moRvawea ara mxolod aRmosavleT

saqarTvelos _ qarTl-kaxeTis samefos, aramed mTel saqarTvelos

istoriaSi. erekle mefis moRvaweobis Sesaxeb uamravi wyaro arsebobs.

TavianTi xasiaTiT, SinaarsiTa da specifikurobiT es wyaroebi SeiZleba

ramdenime jgufad davyoT: pirvel jgufs qarTul enaze arsebuli

wyaroebi Seadgenen, meore jgufs – rusul enaze Sedgenili wyaroebi,

mesames jgufs dasavleT evropuli unda mivakuTvnoT, meoTxes – somxuri,

mexuTes _ Turquli da meeqvses iranul enebze arsebuli wyaroebi. ra

Tqma unda, wyaroebis aseTi klasifikacia pirobiTia.

pirvel jgufSi Semavali wyaroebidan, upirveles yovlisa,

aRsaniSnavia mefeebis Teimuraz II-isa da erekle II-is mier gamocemuli

brZanebebi, samefo darbazis dadgenilebebi, werilebi qveynis maRali

saero Tu sasuliero Tanamdebobis pirebTan, mimowerebi sazRvargareTis

saxelmwifoebis mefeebTan, elCebTan, sxvadasxva rangis pasuxismgebel

moxeleebTan. dasaxelebuli wyaroebi inaxeba saqarTvelos centralur

saxelmwifo arqivSi, xelnawerTa erovnul centrsa Dda Telavis

g. CubiniSvilis saxelobis saxelmwifo eTnografiul muzeumSi.

erekle II-is mefobis garkveuli periodi, vidre XVIII saukunis 50-iani

wlebis Suaxnebamde sainteresod aqvs aRwerili papuna orbelians Tavis

naSromSi - `ambavni qarTlisani~ (41), romelic Zvirfas cnobebs gvawvdis

aRniSnul periodSi erekle mefis mravalxrivi moRvaweobis Sesaxeb.

erekle mefis moRvaweobis erT-erT mniSvnelovani wyaroa oman

xerxeuliZis Txzuleba _ `mefoba irakli meorisa~ (47). Txzulebis

qronologiuri CarCoebia 1722-1787 wlebi. avtoris ZiriTad mizans

warmoadgens erekle II-is moRvaweobis Sefaseba, rac, Tavis mxriv,

uSualod aris dakavSirebuli aRniSnuli periodis qarTl-kaxeTis

samefos politikuri da socialuri istoriis gadmocemasTan.

dasaxelebuli pirvelwyaros erT-erT Rirsebad isic unda CaiTvalos,

rom o. xerxeuliZe mis mier aRwerili istoriuli movlenebis didi

nawilis TviTmxilveli da Tanamedrovea.

10


pirvelwyaroebidan sayuradReboa daviT, bagrat (27) da Teimuraz (29)

batoniSvilebis naSromebi, agreTve ioane batoniSvilis `kalmasoba~ (30)

da `sjuldeba~ (31), aseve vaxuSti bagrationis naSromebi (33-35).

erekle II-is moRvaweobis rusuli wyaroebi, romelTa mniSvnelovani

nawili qarTveli mkvlevarebis (v. maWaraZe, i. cincaZe, g. paiWaZe da sxvebi)

mieraa gamocemuli saTanado komentarebiT, umTavresad politikuri,

diplomatiuri da samxedro sakiTxebiT aris warmodgenili. maTgan

pirvel rigSi unda davasaxeloT a. cagarelis `sigelebis~ I da II tomi

(51), maTSi uamravi xasiaTis cnobebia motanili, romelTa kompleqsuri

Seswavla-gaanalizebis Semdeg erekle II-is mravalmxrivi moRvaweoba

ufro TvalsaCinod ikveTeba. Eerekle mefis samxedro-politikuri

moRvaweobis Sesaxeb mniSvnelovani masalebia daculi ruseTis

federaciis centralur saxelmwifo samxedro-istoriuli, sagareo

politikisa da saxelmwifo sabWos arqivebsa da fondebSi, romelTa

udidesi raodenoba aRniSnul problemebze momuSave mkvlevarebma, didi

xania, Semoitanes samecniero brunvaSi.

erekle II-is mier gatarebuli samxedro-administraciuli

RonisZiebebi, romlebmac xeli Seuwyo qarTl-kaxeTis samefos

Tavdacvisunarianobis amaRlebas, gadmocemulia i. doliZis naSromSi

,,qarTuli samarTlis Zeglebi~ (38).

kavkasiisa da kerZod, qarTl-kaxeTis axali istoriisaTvis masalebi

ramdenime wignad gamosca p. butkovma (49). pirvelwyarosOTvalsazrisiT,

interess iwvevs qarTveli mefeebis ruseTis xelmwifeebTan mimowera,

romelic rusul enazea gamocemuli (50).

qarTveli mefis - erekle II-is moRvaweobasa da warmatebebs didi

interesiT adevnebda Tvals ruseTis imperia, romlis dadasturebaa XVIII

s-is ruseT-saqarTvelos urTierTobis amsaxveli sabuTebi. gamoqveynebuli

cnobebi erekle II-is Sesaxeb gamocemuli aqvs profesor i. cincaZes (45).

dasavleT evropuli wyaroebidan yuradRebas ipyrobs germaneli

mecnierisa da mogzauris giuldenStedtis mier motanili metad

saintereso cnobebi XVIII saukunis qarTl-kaxeTis samefosa da, kerZod,

erekle II-is moRvaweobis Sesaxeb (36,37).

11


franguli wyaroebidan sainteresoa kapitan de grai de fuasa da

frangi komersantis peisonelis cnobebi, romlebic, germanuli masalebis

msgavsad Targmnilia qarTulad (39).

evropuli cnobebi erekle II-is Sesaxeb gamoaqveyna cnobilma

mecnierma, profesorma d. SveliZem, romelSic saTanado komentarebiT

mocemulia ZiriTadad ,,sankt-peterburgskie vedomostSi”

konstantinopolidan, smirnadan, veneciidan miRebuli cnobebi. amaTgan

Tavisi mniSvnelobiT yuradRebas ipyrobs Svedi oficris gustav

Fferdinand gillenramis mier Sekrebili informaciebi (132).

osmaluri wyaroebidan erekle mefis moRvaweobis Sesaswavlad

mniSvnelovania Turqulidan qarTul enaze Targmnili dokumentebi (44).

erekle II-is samxedro politikuri moRvaweobis Sesaxeb sayuradRebo

cnobebia somexi istorikosebis ioseb eminis, leosa da abraam erevancis

naSromebSi.

Cvens mier dasaxelebul sxvadasxva jgufSi klasificirebuli

wyaroebi, ra Tqma unda, erTmaneTisagan gansxvavdeba TavianTi sandoobiT,

SinaarsiT da moculobiT.

wyaroebs ganekuTvneba agreTve rusuli da evropis qveynebis presaSi

gamoqveynebuli werilebi erekle II-is moRvaweobaze, ama Tu im kuTxiT,

xalxuri Tqmulebebi da zepirsityvieri gadmocemebi.

istoriografia _ rogorc zemoT aRvniSneT, erekle II-is moRvaweoba

metad mravalmxrivia. saqarTvelos mravalsaukunovan istoriaSi daviT IV

aRmaSeneblisa da Tamar mefis Semdeg erT-erTi popularuli pirovnebaa.

amitom, bunebrivia, rom am saxelmwifo moRvawisa da saxelovani

mxedarTmTavris cxovrebas uamravi samecniero gamokvleva, narkvevi da

sxvadasxva xasiaTis naSromi mieZRvna. maTi saerTo raodenoba ramdenime

aseuls aRemateba. Cveni mizani ar aris maTi sruli analizi. Cvens mTavar

amocanas erekle mefis samxedro xelovnebis Seswavla warmoadgens.

aqedan gamomdinare, upiratesad im naSromebs daeTmoba yuradReba,

romelSic misi samxedro-reformatoruli moRvaweoba, samefos

Tavdacvisunarianobis ganmtkiceba, samxedro-diplomatiuri saqmianoba da,

rac mTavaria, mis mier Catarebuli brZolebi, samxedro strategia da

12


taqtikaa aRwerili.

marTalia, saqarTvelos istoria, uZvelesi droidan moyolebuli,

omebisa da ganuwyveteli brZolebis istoriaa, magram, samwuxarod, dRemde

ar Seqmnila srulyofili samxedro istoria, miTumetes, saqarTvelos

samxedro xelovnebis istoria. Tumca am TvalsazrisiT ramdenime

sayuradRebo naSromi mogvepoveba.

erekle II-is samxedro xelovnebas Seexo samxedro mecnierebis

doqtori general-leitenanti, akademikosi i. jorjaZe (148), Tumca mas

specialurad, dawvrilebiT ar Seuswavlia mefis mier gadaxdili

brZolebi. erekle mefis brZolebis SedarebiT vrceli analizi, misi

samxedro strategia da taqtika aRwerili aqvs a. gorgaZes (69), romelic

erekle II-s msoflios genialur mxedarTmTavarTa kuTxiT warmogvidgens

da xazgasmiT aRniSnavs mis wvlils qarTuli samxedro xelovnebis

ganviTarebaSi.

calkeuli brZolebis analizis safuZvelze erekle mefis samxedro

xelovnebis Sesaxeb sayuradRebo mosazrebebia gamoTqmuli general-maior

i. SaiSmelaSvilis naSromSi (130).

erekle II iyo Tavis drois didi sardali da samxedro moRvawe. misi

xelmZRvanelobiT Catarebuli ramdenime brZola samxedro xelovnebis

nimuSs warmoadgens. amitom bunebrivia, rom mkvlevarebma specialuri

naSromebi miuZRvnes erekle mefis mier gadaxdil mniSvnelovan brZolebs.

am mxriv gansakuTrebiT yuradRebis centrSi moeqca aspinZis brZola,

romelic Cvens mkvlevar-mecnierebs umTavresad samxedro istoriis

kuTxiT aqvT gaSuqebuli. aRsaniSnavia v. maWaraZis (98), g. qiqoZis (125),

z. WiWinaZis (140) da s. xositaSvilis (141) naSromebi. dasaxelebul

literaturaSi samxedro xelovnebis ramdenime faqtorzea saubari, Tumca

maT jerovani Sefasebebi ara aqvT micemuli. am SromebSi, maTi avtorebi

zogierT sakiTxSi ar eTanxmebian erTmaneTs, magram erTsulovnad usvamen

xazs erekle II-is maRal mxedarTmTavrul niWs, mis sabrZolo SemarTebas

da pirad mamacobas.

erekle II-is mier brwyinvale gamarjvebiT Catarebuli mWadijvris,

yvarlisa da aspinZis brZolebis mokle aRwera mocemulia avtorTa

13


koleqtivis mier gamocemul damxmare saxelmZRvaneloSi ,,samxedro

swavleba” (54).

aspinZis brZolas Zalze didi rezonansi hqonda ara marto erekle

mefis TanamedroveTa Soris, aramed momdevno epoqaSic. samxedro

TvalsazrisiT, am samxedro operacias ara mxolod istorikosebma

miapyres yuradReba, aramed mwerlebmac. mweralma da sazogado moRvawem

i. gogebaSvilma pirvelwyaroebisa da saTanado literaturis SeswavliT,

aspinZis brZolas naSromi miuZRvna (67), sadac saomar moqmedebaTa

dawyebis mizezebi, misi dinamika sainteresodaa gaSuqebuli. amave sakiTxs

exeba r. erisTavis naSromi (74).

aspinZis omis oras wlisaTvs mieZRvna samecniero sesia, romelic

i. javaxiSvilis sax. axalcixis mxareTmcodneobis muzeumisa da aspinZis

mSromelTa deputatebis raisabWos aRmaskomis TaosnobiT 1970 wlis 20

maiss Catarda aspinZaSi. am sesiis masalebi Tezisebis saxiT daibeWda

(56).

aspinZis omze, omSi monawile glexebisa da calkeuli pirebis

sabrZolo gmirobis Sesaxeb, werilebi daibeWda gaz. ,,iveriasa” da

,,droebaSi” (62, 63, 79, 107, 137).

aspinZis brZolis Sesaxeb sagazeTo da saJurnalo statiebi

gamoqveynda XIX _ XX saukuneebis qarTul presaSi (96, 99, 137, 144).

aspinZis cnobil brZolas mravali leqsi da folklori mieZRvna,

romelic Tavis droze presaSi gamoqveynda (95).

erekle mefis sardlobiT Catarebuli da gamarjvebiT damTavrebul

sxva brZolebze, rac ar unda gasakviri iyos, specialurad miZRvnili

erTiani naSromebi ar arsebobs. yvarlis cixisaTvis brZolas naSromi

miuZRvna T. petriaSvilma (110). masSi, pirvelwyaroebsa da samecniero

literaturaze dayrdnobiT, Tanmimdevruladaa aRwerili yvarlis

cnobili brZola, rac garkveulwilad avsebs Cvens istoriografiaSi

arsebul xarvezs. aRsaniSnavia, rom erekle II-is samxedro moRvaweobasa

da mis mier Catarebul brZolebs zogierTma avtorma specialuri naSromi

miuZRvna (69, 88, 89, 141).

erekle mefis nayofieri samxedro moRvaweobidan didad

14


sayuradReboa qarTuli artileriis Seqmnaze zrunva, rasac, praqtikuli

TvalsazrisiT, sakmaod didi mniSvneloba qonda

TavdacvisunarianobisaTvis. erekle meoris mefobis periodSi Tofzarbaznebisa

da sabrZolo masalebis warmoebis sakiTxs Tavis

disertaciaSi Seexo polkovniki m. gogitiZe (68).

aRmosavleT saqarTveloSi saartilerio warmoebis ganviTarebas

specialuri naSromi miuZRvna mkvlevarma a. klimiaSvilma (87). amave

sakiTxs saJurnalo statiebi miuZRvnes p. RvinaZem (128) da v. maWaraZem (99).

omebisa da brZolebis warmatebiT sawarmoeblad didi mniSvneloba

eniWeba safortifikacio nagebobebs da maT sistemebs. am TvalsazrisiT,

sainteresoa cnobili mecnieris p. zaqaraias naSromebi (75).

erekle mefe ara marto saxelmwifo moRvawe da brwyinvale sardali

iyo, aramed SesaniSnavi diplomatic. misi mefobis xanaSi qarTl-kaxeTis

samefodan ramdenime elCoba gaigzavna ruseTSi, rac specialurad

Seiswavla profesorma i. cincaZem (135,136).

XVIII saukunis ruseT-saqarTvelos (pirvel rigSi, qarTl-kaxeTis

samefos) urTierTobis problema GRrmad da safuZvlianad Seiswavla

profesorma valerian maWaraZem, romlis naSromebSi (100, 101, ) TiTqmis

yvela sakiTxi srulfasovnad, maRal mecnierul donezea Seswavlili.

XVIII saukunis periodis qarTl-kaxeTis samefos sagareo politikis

istoriis sakiTxebi ganxiluli aqvs profesorebs g. paiWaZes (109) da

i. tabaRuas (117).

ruseT-amierkavkasiis sagareo urTierTobis sakiTxebi ganxiluli aqvs

o. markovas (164).

erekle II-is samxedro-reformatoruli moRvaweoba, mis mier

Catarebuli mniSvnelovani brZolebi, saxelmwifo, politikuri da

diplomatiuri saqmianoba saTanadodaa gaSuqebuli saqarTvelos istoriis

narkvevebis IV tomSi (112). erekle mefis mravalmxrivi moRvaweobis

sakiTxebi aisaxa rogorc calkeul, ise avtorTa jgufebis mier

gamocemul saqarTvelos istoriis ganmazogadebel naSromebSi (57).

rogorc wina saukuneebSi, ise XVIII saukunis pirvel naxevarSi jaris

15


sabrZolo gawvrTnisa da misi gamZleobis SenarCunebisaTvis mniSvnelovan

rols asrulebda laSqar-nadiroba, romelmac mudmivi jaris

nairsaxeobis-morige jaris Seqmnis gamo Tavis ZiriTadi funqcia dakarga.

es sakiTxebi ganxilulia q. CxataraiSvilis naSromSi (132).

XVIII saukunis ruseT-saqarTvelos diplomatiuri urTierTobis

sakiTxebi ganxilulia e. tartaraSvilis naSromSi (119).

s. qvarianis wignSi (124) yuradReba umTavresad gadatanilia ruseTsaqarTvelos

urTierTobasa da misi mTavrobis politikaze

saqarTveloSi, aqcenti gakeTebulia 1783 wlis traqtatze, rusuli

marTva-gamgeobis damyarebasa da rusi Cinovnikebis TviTnebobaze.

16


Tavi I. erekle meoris samxedro - reformatoruli

moRvaweoba.

1.1. samxedro-administraciuli reformebi.

XVIII s-is 60-iani wlebis dasawyisSi politikuri krizisis daZlevis

Semdeg qarTl-kaxeTis samefos avtoriteti metad gazarda iranisa da

ruseTis oficialurma aRiarebam. saxelmwifoSi droebiTma wesrigma

gaafarTova vaWroba, xelosnoba da msubuqi mrewvelobac. ganaxlda

qarTul safortifikacio nagebobaTa mSenebloba (112).

Tumca, jer kidev aRniSnuli saukunis Sua wlebidan moyolebuli,

erekle mefe da mis garSemo myofi moRvaweebi kargad xedavdnen, rom

saqarTvelos feodaluri mmarTveloba CamorCenili iyo da axali drois

moTxovnebs ver akmayofilebda. amitom erekle II da misi momxreni

iZulebuli gaxdnen, ganexorcielebinaT rigi reformebi, romlebic

gamoasworebda saxelmwifos imdroindel savalalo mdgomareobas,

gardaqmnida samoxeleo marTvis aparats, ganamtkicebda mefis

xelisuflebas da ganaviTarebda ekonomikas.

Zveli mmarTvelobis gardaqmnisa da mefis xelisuflebis

gaZlierebisken mimarTul erT-erT mniSvnelovan RonisZiebas

warmoadgenda 1743 wels aragvisa da 1778 wels qsnis saerisTaoebis

gauqmeba, romelTa mosaxleoba uSualod mefis moxeles, mouravs

daeqvemdebara (112, 529). centraluri mmarTvelobis ganmtkicebis mizans

emsaxureboda aseve qarTl-kaxeTis ganapira mxareebis gamgeblobaSi

momxdari cvlilebebi. kerZod, 1755 wels ereklem `yazaxSi xanoba

gaauqma da es qveyana samouravod aqcia, xolo 1765 wlisaTvis borCalobaidarsac

mefis mouravebi ganagebdnen~ (83, 183). akademikos

n. berZeniSvilis gadmocemiT, zogierTi saTavados moSla, zogis

Semcireba, saglexo kanonebi, myreloba, saxelmwifo mmarTvelobis

dargobrivi danawileba (samxedro, sagareo saqmeTa, sasamarTlo,

mecnierebis ganviTareba) CamorCenil feodalur - Tavadur saxelmwifo

wyobas veRar egueboda da pirobebs amzadebda im politikuri

naxtomisaTvis, romelsac SeeZlo saqarTvelos saxelmwifoebrivi

17


arseboba gaqrobisagan gadaerCina (60, 137). zemoT CamoTvlili

reformebidan qarTl-kaxeTis saxelmwifos winaSe mwvaved idga mudmivi

jaris Seqmnis problema. samefo karze myofi qarTveli moRvaweebi kargad

xedavdnen, rom im drois saqarTveloSi aseTi jaris Seqmna SeuZlebeli

iyo, radgan mefes ar gaaCnda jaris saWiro amuniciiT momaragebis

saSualeba, arc Tavadebi miscemdnen mefes TavianT ymebs aseTi

laSqrisaTvis.

rogorc cnobilia, 1762 wlis 29 ivniss mefe erekle II-m mamis,

Teimuraz II-is ruseTSi gardacvalebis Semdeg Tavi qarTl-kaxeTis mefed

gamoacxada, ramac aRmosavleT saqarTvelos saerTo politikuri

interesebis qveS gaerTianeba ganapiroba. mas didi mniSvneloba hqonda

sagareo da saSinao politikis ukeTesad warmarTvisaTvis, sadac

mniSvnelovan rols mefis mier gatarebuli samxedro-administraciuli

RonisZiebebi gansazRvravda. am RonisZiebebze sruli warmodgena rom

viqonioT, mizanSewonilad migvaCnia, gavaanalizoT im periodSi arsebuli

sadroSoebisa da maTi sardlebis funqcia-movaleobani, rasac

garkveulwilad Tanamedrove pirobebSic ar daukargavs aqtualoba da

mniSvneloba.

sadroSo Taviseburi samxedro-teritoriuli erTeuli iyo, jer kidev

maSin, rodesac saqarTvelo erT mTlian feodalur monarqias

warmoadgenda. vaxuSti bagrationis cnobiT, saqarTvelo dayofili iqna

oTx sadroSod. Amis Sesaxeb igi ase gadmogvcems: `xolo wesTa amaTTa

iyo yoveli iveria anu giorgia oTx sadroSoT ganyofili, rameTu

winambrZolni iyunen Torelni, cixisjvarelni da axalcixelni, da

mimyolni maTni sruliad mesxni da klarjni, da somxiTisa, romelni

epyraT; xolo memarjvne mimsulel-mcemelni sruliad lixTiqiTi afxazjiqiTurT;

memarcxeneT mimsulel-mcemelni sruliad her-kaxni. xolo

mefisa da adamis mpyrobelni qarTvelni da romelni roqiT spani epyrnes

mefesa~ (35 , 22).

rogorc vxedavT, aseT dayofas safuZvlad edo Temobrovteritoriuli

da samxedro_strategiuli principebi. samxedro wyobis

aseT dayofas, feodaluri urTierTobis pirobebSi, saxelmwifos

18


TavdacvisaTvis uTuod didi mniSvneloba hqonda. sadroSo iqmneboda

teritoriuli principiT, rasac garkveuli upiratesoba gaaCnda.

teritoriis mosaxleni erTmaneTs icnobdnen, adgilmdebareobis reliefi

da buneba kargad hqondaT Seswavlili, cixe-simagreTa ganlageba ukeT

icodnen. garda amisa, maT naTesauri Tu megobruli urTierTobebi

akavSirebdaT. rac mTavaria, zemoT moyvanili yvela aspeqti ganapirobebda

saxelmwifos Tavdacvisa Tu sxva saWiro SemTxvevisaTvis jaris

saswrafod mobilizebas.

rodesac erTiani saqarTvelo samefo-samTavroebad daiSala,

saxelmwifoebrivi wyoba Zveli wesze darCa. samxedro organizaciac am

wesis Tavisebur mimsgavsebas warmoadgenda. zemoT aRvniSneT, rom

sadroSo samxedro teritoriuli erTeuli iyo, romelic sruliad

garkveuli principebis safuZvelze gamoiyofoda. qarTlis samefoSi

Sedioda 4 sadroSo: I - zemo qarTlis, sardali amilaxvari; II - muxranbatonis

sadroSo, sadac Sedioda samuxranbatono, qsnisa da aragvis

saerisTao; III - mewinave sadroSo, sardali orbeliani, romelSic

Sedioda qvemo qarTlSi mdebare somxiT sabaraTianos saTavadoebi;

IV - mefis sadroSo, sardlebi metwilad yofilan ciciSvilebi, sadac

Sedioda qarTlis nawili da mcxeTis eklesiis qvesadroSo (86, 179). es

principebi arc gvian feodalur saqarTveloSi Secvlila, mxolod

erekle II-is mefobis xanaSi, qarTl-kaxeTis samefos gaerTianebis Semdeg

nawilobriv Seicvala. rogorc istoriuli masalebidan irkveva, am

periodisaTvis arsebobda qvemo qarTlis (somxiT-sabaraTiano) _ mewinave,

zemo qarTlis _ memarjvene, kaxeTisa _ memarcxene da TviT mefis

sadroSo _ centraluri (samuxranbatono, qsnisa da aragvis saerisTavo).

somxiT-sabaraTiano qarTlis samefos samxreTiT mdebareobda,

romelic, samxedro TvalsazrisiT, TbilisSi samxreTidan Semosasvlel

gzebs ketavda. Tu es gzebi daketili ar iqneboda, maSin osmaleTsa da

sparseTs SeeZloT rogorc aRmosavleT, ise dasavleT saqarTvelos

SuagulSi SemoWriliyvnen, romlis magaliTebi mravladaa istoriaSi.

amitom zemoxsenebuli administraciuli erTeuli mewinave sadroSod

iwodeboda. mas ZiriTadad pirveli dartymebis miReba da mogerieba

19


uxdeboda. am sadroSos teritoriaze arsebuli cixe-simagreebis

sainJinro mowyoba da sabrZolo mzadyofnisaTvis momzadeba uTuod

sadroSos sardlis zedamxedvelobis funqciaSi Sedioda. MmarTalia, igi

am teritoriis mxolod moxele iyo da saTavados faqtiur mflobelad

Tavadi iTvleboda, magram sardals centraluri xelisuflebis mier

uflebamosileba hqonda miniWebuli da jaris mobilizaciaze,

momzadebaze pasuxs agebda (66, 390-391).

Tuki zemo qarTlis sadroSos ganvixilavT oTx sadroSoTa Soris,

is erT-erTi mTavari sadroSao iyo. igi or mTavar magistrals

meTvalyureobda: I _ samxreT-dasavleTidan borjomis xeobis, II _ lixTimereTidan

momavali gzebs. Tu davakvirdebiT, vnaxavT, rom varZia-TmogvixerTvisi-surami-gori-sxvilo

erT mTlian magistrals qmnida.

dasaxelebuli cixeebi garkveul samxedro strategiul simagreebs

warmoadgendnen. qarTvelebi cdilobdnen, mudam mzadyofnaSi hqonodaT es

simagreebi. roca qarTvelebi axalcixis mxares kargavdnen, kidev ufro

mwvaved dgeboda qarTlis cixe-simagreebis movla-Senaxvis sakiTxi. Aam

mxriv yuradRebas ipyrobs erekle mefis `anderZidan~ erTi detali:

`cixebisac ase dagviweria: qalaqis Tbilisis cixeebi, goris cixe,

suramis cixe, wirqolis cixe, boWormis cixe da gremis cixe, rom am

cixeebis nariyalis cixeebica aqvs da nariyalebi cotas kaciT Seinaxeba.

am Svid alagas nariyalebSi saerTod kacni unda eyenoso, ra erTic

moundesT mcvelad da sxva cixeebi da galavnebi, rom didroni arian,

qarTlSi, Tu kaxeTSi, isini cotas kaciT xom ar Seinaxeba, is saTemo

aris~ (40, 205).

mefe miTiTebebs aZlevda sadroSoTa sardlebs, raTa TavianTi Zalebi

ise gaenawilebinaT, rom sabrZolo amocanis Sesruleba mcire

danakargebiT yofiliyo SesaZlebeli. aRniSnuli dasturdeba Sesabamisi

samecniero naSromebis avtorTa mier sadroSoTa sardlebis uflebamovaleobebis

Sesaxeb motanili punqtebiTa da saqarTvelos centralur

saistorio arqivSi Seswavlili masalebidan. sadroSos ufrosi didi

xelisufali iyo da, laSqrobis garda, igi samoqalaqo da sisxlis

20


samarTlis saqmeebis mowesrigebaSic monawileobda. BbrZolis velze

gamoyvanili jaris nawils is Tavadi xelmZRvanelobda, romelic am

mebrZolTa uSualo batoni iyo. sabrZolo wyobaSi razmis adgili

sardlis mier iyo gansazRvruli Seqmnili viTarebisa da Sesasrulebeli

amocanebidan gamomdinare.

papuna orbelians aRwerili aqvs 1749 wlis erevnis brZola, sadac

erekle da Teimurazi erevnis xans exmarebodnen.Aaq mocemulia

sadroSoebis meTaurTa dasaxeleba teritoriis administraciuli dayofis

mixedviT, romelic metad mniSvnelovan rols TamaSobda jaris marTvaSi.

,,ganawyves jari qarTvelT da kaxT, oTxs droSad, mewinaved orbeliani,

revaz sardali sabaraTaSvilos jariT da TaTris qarTlis eliT, qisiyis

mouravi Tamaz qisiyis jariT. . .memarjvned amilaxori amirindo zemo

qarTlis jariT da vina memarjvene jari iyo kaxis batonisa da yazaxis

jarsac amaTTan ubrZanes misvla, memarcxvned muxranis batoni,

saxlTxucesi kostantine. . .mefe erekle xan erTs droSaze mibrZandis xan

meores droSaze, jarebs arigebdis, aZlierebdis. . .~(41, 421).

XVIII saukunis II naxevarSi, qarTlSi erekle II cdilobda

mmarTvelobis adgilobrivi organoebi samouraoebis erTian sistemaze

aego da amiT Seesustebina saTavadoebis roli qveynis marTva-gamgeobaSi.

amas, ra Tqma unda, kaxeTSi gatarebuli RonisZiebis gamocdilebis

gaTvaliswinebiT akeTebda (58, 226. 116, 402.). kaxeTi dayofil iqna oTx

samxedro teritoriul erTeulad _ sadroSod, magram sadroSoebis

sardloba kaxeTis mefem TavadTa gvars ki ar Caabara, rogorc es

qarTlSi moxada, aramed episkoposebs (58, 208). mogvianebiT kaxeTis

sadroSos gamgeblebad ZiriTadad mouravebi gvevlinebian. mag: bodbis

sadroSoze qiziyis mouravi agebda pasuxs, nekreselis sasardloSi _

eniselis mouravi, rusTavelis sasardloSi _ martyofis mouravi (92, 46).

mouravs pirvel rigSi evaleboda sistematiurad daecva wesrigi

mosaxleobaSi, mefis, feodalisa Tu eklesia-monastrebis mamulebis

movla-patronoba, sameurneo saqmis gaZRola. am kuTxiT is saxlTuxucess

emorCileboda (92, 42). mouravi adglobrivi administraciis moxele iyo.

21


samxedro xaziT mxolod sadroSos sardals eqvemdebareboda da

samxedro funqciebis Sesruleba hqonda dakisrebuli. igi pasuxs agebda

mis sagamgebloSi myofi mebrZolebis aRWurvaze, momzadebaze da

brZolaSi xelmZRvanelobaze (92, 46). A

papuna orbelianis mier aRweril Teimuraz II-sa da erekle II_is

brZolebSi, sadroSoebis sardlebad episkoposebi ki ara, mouravebi

gvevlinebian.Mmiuxedavad amisa, episkoposebs mTlianad mainc ar

daukargavT TavianTi samxedro funqciebi. iuridiulad isinic pasuxs

agebdnen mouravTan erTad mefis winaSe sadroSos gamgeblobaze da am

sadroSodan laSqris gamoyvanaze. am faqts adasturebs 1769 wlis erTerTi

sabuTi, sadac erekle meore nekresel episkoposs, eniselT

mouravsa da sxva moxeleebs akisrebs pasuxismgeblobas wesrigis dacvasa

da jaris gamoyvanaze (10, f. Ad-281). saistorio wyaroebi cxadyofdnen, rom

qarTl-kaxeTSi sadroSoebi warmoadgendnen ara marto sasardlo

erTeulebs, aramed erTgvar administraciul punqtebs saxelmwifoSi.

xalxis aRwera, rac miznad isaxavda molaSqreTa da saxelmwifo

gadasaxadebis gadamxdelTa siis dadgenas, warmoebda sadroSoebis

mixedviT (121, 13). saxelmwifos amgvar administraciul erTeulebad

dayofa aadvilebda xelmZRvanel pirTa mier xelqveiTTa marTvas,

sxvadasxva samoqalaqo RonisZiebebis Catarebas da, ra Tqma unda,

mebrZolTa mobilizacias saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi.

yvela sadroSos Tavisi niSani hqonda. es niSani iyo droSa

sxvadasxva simboloebiT. sulxan-saba orbelians misi mniSvneloba

Semdegnairad aqvs ganmartebuli: `mwyobrTa niSani, ferad-feradi, gundTa

da gundTa sacnobeli~ (108, 102). am cnobis safuZvelze SeiZleba vTqvaT,

rom sxvadasxva sadroSos sxvadasxva feris droSa da gamosaxulebebi

hqonda. Tu zemoT moyvanil magaliTs samxedro TvalsazrisiT

ganvixilavT, savaraudoa, rom droSa warmoadgenda ara marto sadroSos

aRmniSvnel simbolos, aramed mniSvnelovan rols TamaSobda jarebis

marTvisa da urTierTmoqmedebis ganxorcielebis saqmeSi rogorc

sasignalo saSualeba. mag: droSiT sxvadasxva moZraobis gakeTeba

22


SeiZleba niSani iyo raime moqmedebis dasawyisisa.

aRmosavleT saqarTvelos sadroSoebis SemadgenlobaSi Sedioda

saeklesio laSqari, romelic eqvemdebareboda sardals, xolo is Tavis

mxriv _ kaTalikoss. igi xels uwyobda imdroindeli laSqris

gaZlierebas. yuradRebas ipyrobs is faqtic, rom sveticxovlis eklesias

odiTganve hyolia Tavisi laSqari, romelic saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi

monawileobas Rebulobda sabrZolo moqmedebebSi. mis naTeli

dadasturebaa erekle mefis mier gamocemuli erT-erTi dokumenti. igi

brZanebis wignis saxiTaa Semonaxuli, sadac weria:M`radgan ZvelaT

netarxsenebulis Cvenis Camomavlobisagan sveticxovlis ymisa ase

ganweseba yofila, rom rac sveticxivlis yma qarTls, imereTs, kaxeTs,

saaTabagos, somxeTs Tu saca iyos, mis uwmindesobas kaTalikozs unda

axldes da Tavis ymiT Cvens droSaze brZandebodes. Cvenc ase

gangviwesebia, rac kaxeTSi sofeli, sveticxovlis yma aris, imaTi jari

mis uwmindesobas Cvens Zmas kaTalikozs antonis eaxlebodnen da Tavisi

jariT Cvens droSaze brZandebodes da Tu maTi uwmindesoba im jarSi ar

brZandebodes, romelic maTi sardali aris, maTi yma yovelive imas

ebaros, Cvens droSaze imyofebodnen da Cvenis brZanebiT yovelsave maTs

saqmes SoSia sardali arigebdes, sxvas xeli nuravisa aqvs~(1, 226).

zemoaRniSnulidan gamomdinare, qarTl-kaxeTis saeklesio laSqars

sardali hyolia, romelic mefisa da kaTalikosis brZanebis mixedviT

iniSneboda. 1766 wels erekle mefis mier gacemuli dokumentaciidan Cans,

rom gabriel sardlis nacvlad SoSia gedevaniSvili dauniSnavs (2, 226,

#420). a. klimiaSvili statiaSi ,,saeklesio laSqris sakiTxisaTvis

feodalur saqarTveloSi~, exeba XVIII saukunis meore naxevarSi qarTlkaxeTis

saeklesio laSqars da mis daniSnulebas (86, 109-112). garda imisa,

rom saeklesio laSqari mefis brZanebaze saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi

sabrZolo moqmedebebSi monawileobas Rebulobda, mas sxva funqciamovaleobebic

ekisra, romelSic Sedioda mcxeTis, misi mimdebare

teritoriebis, xidebis, cixe-koSkebis dacva. sardali, garda

zemoxsenebulisa, pasuxs agebda baJis aRebaze, qaravnebis mSvidobian

mimosvlaze, mcxeTis cixe-galavnebis SekeTebaze.Aamis naTel

23


dadasturebas warmoadgens erekle meoris mier SoSia gedevaniSvilisTvis

micemuli sabuTi: `Cveni brZaneba aris gedevaniSvilT sardalo SoSiav da

gogiav: merme radgan ZvelTagan mcxeTis xidzed kacis mdgomareoba da

Senaxva Tqveni yofila, axla Cvenc TqvenTvis gviboZebia amgvarad, rom

mcxeTis xidi da koSki kargad da rigianad SeanaxvinoT. Tqvenis

brZanebiT da Cvenis Zmis kaTalikosis brZanebiT wreulobiT aRdgomela

dagviyenebia, rac xidis ganweseba aris baJi, amisi sia da oqmic gviboZebia.

ragvaradac TqvenTvis oqmSi eweros da siaSi, imgvarad unda aiRoT xolme

baJi. sveticxovelzedac Semwe unda iyvneT da Sematebas ecadnoT~ (2. 226).

rogorc Cvens mier moyvanili sabuTebidan Cans, garda oTxi samxedro

administraciuli erTeulisa e.i. sadroSosi, qarTlSi iyo mcxeTis

eklesiis sasardlo erTeulic, romlis saTaveSi idga mefisa da

kaTalikosis mier daniSnuli sardali. Uunda aRiniSnos isic, rom, sxva

sadroSoebisagan gansxvavebiT, igi calkeul sadroSos ar Seadgenda,

radganac mcxeTis eklesias ymebi arsebuli samefos yvela kuTxeSi

hyavda. vinaidan saeklesio laSqris mebrZolebi sxvadasxva regionebSi

cxovrobdnen. isini, garda Tavisi funqcionaluri movaleobisa, sabrZolo

moqmedebebSic Rebulobdnen monawileobas, ZiriTadad, TavdacviT

brZolebSi.

1754-1755 wlebSi, nursal-begis damarcxebis Semdeg kvlav gagrZelda

lekTa mcire Semosevebi. Ddidi raodenobiT Tavmoyrili laSqris Senaxvas

mefeebi Teimurazi da erekle ver uzrunvelyofdnen, amitom lekTa mcire

Semosevebis aRkveTis mizniT maT Camoayalibes qarTl-kaxeTis aTaskaciani

laSqari (41, 461). es iyo pirveli mcdeloba daqiravebuli jaris Seqmnisa

(d. m.). dauniSnes jamagiri da asmeTaurebi (uzbaSebi): amilaxvrisSvili

nikoloz, amirejibi zaza, ciciSvili revaz da qarTlis sxva

TavadiSvilebi (43. 226). maTi funqcia nawilobriv Seesabameboda

dRevandeli swrafi reagirebis Zalebis daniSnulebas, e.i. Tu aRmosavleT

saqarTvelos mteri Semoeseoda, isini valdebulni iyvnen droulad

aRekveTaT mowinaaRmdegis moqmedebebi da SeeqmnaT xelsayreli pirobebi

mobilizebuli laSqris brZolaSi CabmisTvis.

miuxedavad zemoT Tqmulisa, XVIII saukunis 60-ian wlebSi da 70-iani

24


wlebis dasawyisSi, radgan saxelmwifo intensiur Semosevebs ganicdida

da zemoaRniSnuli laSqari ar kmaroda samefos dasacavad, erekle II

iZulebuli iyo, gaetarebina RonisZiebebi, romlebic uzrunvelyofda

qveynis dacvas mcire danakargebiT. EerT-erTi aseTi RonisZiebaTagani iyo

lekebis winaaRmdeg brZolis formebis SemuSaveba, romelsac mefem

warmatebiT gaarTva Tavi. amis damadasturebelia xelnawerTa erovnul

centrSi daculi istoriuli dokumenti (20, Hd. 13714), romelic aseve

mocemulia profesor i. doliZis redaqtorobiT gamocemul naSromSi

,,qarTuli samarTlis Zeglebi~ t. II. igi dayofilia punqtebad.

TiToeulSi axali-axali azria Cadebuli, romlebic direqtivebis

(brZanebebis) saxiTaa gadmocemuli:

1. ,,q. rodesac rom muxranidam yarauli movides, cxeniani jari

wamovidao, yvelani gafrTxildnen. Tu mxurvaleTSi Sevides lekis jari,

rogorc gaCenili aris, mdevari Seiyaros, Tavi da bolo moudrikon,

yaraulebi gagzavnon, Tavs daayenon, mdevars dauZaxon, mejvrisxevs

Seiyarnen; Tu Tavs dasxma amjobinon, gza Seukran, Tu win daxvedra

amjobinon win dauxvdnen, romelic amjobinon im gziT ecadnen mtris

pasuxis gacemasa da gayrasa~.

2. `q. Tu cxeniani lekis jari iyos, erTmaneTs nu moucdian, yvelani

sirbiliT gamoiqcnen; Tu qveiTi jari iyos, sofeli da sofeli erTad

Seiyarnen, damrgvaldnen da ise mividnen, sadac sarqardebma (sardlebma)

dauZaxon~.

3. `q. beloTidam mokidebuli sacxenisi, didi vanaTi, arbo, qordi,

dici da patara liaxvis gamoRmarTi, gverdis Ziri da vake goriT,

berSoeTamdis, rac amaT Sua soflebia, eseni erT samdevrod unda iyvnen

Sepirebulni~.

4. `q. Tu rom didis jaris ambavi movides da sarqardebma dauZaxon,

orsav mxaris mdevari unda saCqarod sirbiliT wamovidnen. cxeniani sul

WenebiT gamoiqcen da qveiTni sofel da sofel Seiyarnen, damrgvalden

da sadac sarqardebma amjobinon da dauZaxon iq micvivdnen~.

5. `q. Tu samaCablosaken gaCndes lekis jari, an didis liaxvis gaRma

sadme, am didis liaxvis mdevari da patara liaxvis gaRmarTi mdevari,

25


omelic mdevrad migviCenia, saCqarod gacvivdnen da, rogorc

sarqardebma amjobinon, ise Seebnen. Tu, rom kidev moundesT mdevari da

sarqardebma dauZaxon, gamoRma mxris mdevaric wavides da RvTiT pasuxi

gascen~.

6. `q. Tu qarelidam mdevari daiZaxon, maSinve q cxilvanis qveiT kaci

didis liaxvisa, patara liaxvisa gaRmarTi kaci da dirbis wylis

soflebi yvelani Seiyarnen da gacvivdnen cxeniani da qveiTi, nuravin

daakldeba~.

7. `q. vinc daakldes mdevars, ase gardahxdesT: Tu Tavadis Svili

daakldes, saWakod waarTvan SemZlebels xuTi minalTulni, Raribis sami

minalTulni~.

8. ,,q. Tu aznauriSvili daakldes saWakod waarTvan erTi saklavi,

erTi koka Rvino da oci joxi dahkran beWebSi~.

9. ` q. Tu SemZlebeli glexi kaci daakldes, amav aznauriSvilisaviT

gardahxdes da, Tu Raribi iyos, erTi koka Rvino waarTvan da ormoci

joxi dahkran~.

10. `q. Tu amilaxori da erisTavi zemo qarTlSi iyvnen, imaT unda

Seiyaron mdevari da ise imdevron~.

11. `q. Tu eseni ar iyvnen, yuralaRasma giorgim da mdivanbegma iasem

qmnan~.

12. `q. Tu arc eseni iyvnen, aRababam da an Salvam, beJan da omanma

qmnan da imdevron~.

13. `q. romelic erisTvisSvili da amilaxvrisSvili daeswros,

mdevroba gvibrZanebia, amaT Semoeyarnen da rogorc Aamjobinon, ise

moiyvanon, didad bejiTad iyvnen erisTvisSvilebi da amilaxvrisSvilebi

mdevrobisa, rom es mdevroba amaT aqvT~.

14. `q. es mdevroba rexulas wylidam mokidebuli alis wylamdis da

goridam, sadamdisac mohyvebodnen da qarelidam, sadamdisac mohyvebodnen

unda imdevron~.

15. `q. gaRma mxrisa garigebulia, oqmi gviboZebia da kargadac

mdevroben, madrielic varT da wyalobasac davmarTebT~.

16. `q. es icodeT TavadiSvilebmac, aznauriSvilebmac, glexmakacmac

26


amis ukeTes vercaras RmerTs aamebT, vercaras Cven gvaamebT da vercaras

qveyanas SematebT, rom qristes mterni Tqvenis colisa da Svilis

dasatyveveblad darbian, amaT pasuxi misceT da RvTis mowyalebiT

dahxocoT da sircxvileulni daabrunoT~.

es icodeT, romelic Cvengan saqmneli saqmea, patronymobisa, movlisa,

garjisa, wyalobisa da Cemis qveynisaTvis Tavis dadebisa, RvTiT ar

davzogavT.

Tqven ase ecadeniT da Cven kidev ufro Zliersa da mtkices

saqarTvelos Sewevnas vcdilobT~ (38, 426-428). mefis beWedze SuaSi weria

`erekle~, irgvliv ki ,,qnars micems daviTi mixmobs, mxneT, kaxeTis mefed

cxebuls~. aseTia es mniSvnelovani dokumenti, romelic SeiZleba

CaiTvalos imdroindel mefis mier gamocemul direqtivad (brZanebad). am

dokumentis erTi adgilidan Cans, msgavsi Sinaarsis instruqciebi

daugzavnia sxva sadroSoebSic. marTalia, aRniSnul sakiTxs _ morige

jaris Seqmnas, Cemze gacilebiT adre Seexo mkvlevari a. klimiaSvili _

,,zemo qarTlis mdevrobis ganweseba 1772 wlisa~ (89. 91-95), sadac

gaanalizebulia smdevroebis mniSvneloba, rac misi damsaxurebaa, magram

Cven SevecadeT, CamoTvlili punqtebi sakvlevi Temis

mizanSewonilobidan gamomdinare gagveSuqebina. irkveva, rom mefe ereklem

Tavisi samefo samxedro olqebad dahyo mowinaaRmdegeebTan

sabrZolvelad. TiToeuli samxedro olqi, Tavis mxriv, calkeul

samoqmedo ubnebad, samdevrod iqna danawilebuli. maT miTiTebuli

hqondaT Tu vis, sad, ra, rodis da ra mizniT unda gaekeTebina. Cans mefe

olqebad dayofis dros xelmZRvanelobda iseTi principiT, romelic

gamoricxavda lekTa moulodneli Tavdasxmebis ganxorcielebas

ZiriTadad strategiuli mimarTulebebidan. aRsaniSnavia, rom zemoT

CamoTvlil muxlebSi Cadebuli moqmedebis principi: ,,vin, sad, ra, rodis

da ra mizniT~, emTxveva qarTul jarSi dRes arsebuli oceulis, aseulis

meTauris sabrZolo brZanebis me-2 punqts, romelic qvedanayofis marTvis

procedurebs ganekuTvneba (94, 8).

Cvens mier Seswavlil masalebze dayrdnobiT da analizis

27


safuZvelze SemuSavebuli iqna sadazvervo informaciis gadacemisa da

Setyobinbis organizaciuli struqturis sqema (ix. sqema #1, 151). amitom

aseTi TanmimdevrobiT xorcieldeboda sadazvervo monacemebis gadacema,

romelsac ZvelTaganve iyenebdnen saqarTveloSi da erekle II-is

Tanmimdevruli RonisZiebebis Sedegad garkveulwilad srulyofili saxe

miiRo. mefes aseve eyoleboda agenturuli dazverva, romelsac elCebi,

vaWrebi da specialurad SerCeuli pirebi Seasrulebdnen, ris Sesaxebac

konkretuli informacia ar gagvaCnia. sqemaze ar gamovsaxeT, radgan

samxedro dazvervis sferos ar ganekuTvneba.MmiRebuli informaciis

damuSaveba da Setyobineba saTanado pirebs evalebodaT. isini erTmaneTs

Sikrikebis (yaraulis) saSualebiT an sxva dadgenili signaliT

acnobebdnen mowinaaRmdegis laSqris moaxloebas da moqmedebis

mimarTulebas, ris safuZvelzec SesaZlebeli xdeboda sabrZolo

moqmedebebisaTvis RonisZiebebis gansazRvra.

samxedro olqebSi Semavali soflebi, adgilmdebareobidan

gamomdinare, calkeul ubnebad anu, rogorc teqstSiaANnaTqvami,

samdevroebad nawildeboda. Ees SemTxveviTi sulac ar iyo, radgan lekTa

gamudmebulma Tavdasxmebma is gamoiwvia, rom ,,mTeli saqarTvelos xalxi

mdevrad gadaiqca: mefe, Tavadni, aznaurni da glexni sul mdevarSi iyvnen

unametnavesi dro, yovel cismare dResa da Ramesa amis meti ambavi aRara

iyo ra mTels saqarTveloSi, rom xan aq da xan iq daiZaxebdnen: mdevario!

sofels mteri daeca da mdevari mieSurebao; aqedan tyve waiyvanes da

mdevari daedevnao; aqa da aq mouklavT da mdevarsac mouswriao (kacisa,

dedakacisa da ymawvilis gakiTxva aRar iyo mtrisagan, visac ki

moaswrebdnen, zogs xocavdnen da zogs tyved waiyvandnen); axali

mdevridgan mosuli qarTveli xizans rom gverdiT wamouwveboda. . .am

dros daiZaxebdnen, mdevario; es daRlil-dawyvetili kaci gaognebuli

wamovardeboda da coli gatenils Tofsa xelSi aZlevda am sityvebiT:

kaco! ras gaognebulxar, kidev mdevars iZaxian, ha Tofi! . . . qarTveli

damSvidebiT etyoda: kidev mdevari, am erTs kviraSi 7-jer vyofilvar

mdevrad da esec merve iqnebao~ (145, 2-4). zemoT moyvanili magaliTebi

dasturia imisa, Tu ra pirobebSi uxdeboda cxovreba qarTvelebs.

28


Msamdevros meTaurebs mefisagan gansazRvruli hqondaT sabrZolo

moqmedebebis warmarTvis taqtika (ix. muxli 1), e.i. Seqmnili viTarebidan

gamomdinare, erTi samdevro mowinaaRmdeges saSualebas ar aZlevda win

wawevisa, xolo meore, garkveuli manevris Semdeg, mters ukandasaxev gzas

uWrida.AaseTi swrafi da gabeduli moqmedebebis Sedegad qarTvelebs

SeeZloT mowinaaRmdege alyaSi moeqciaT an sxvadasxva mxridan

ganxorcielebuli ieriSebis Sedegad gaenadgurebinaT.

erekle mefes kargad hqonda SemuSavebuli mowinaaRmdegeze

moulodnelad Tavdasxmis taqtika, romelic nawilobriv efuZneboda

sadazvervo da diversiul moqmedebebs. Aamis dasturs warmoadgens 1764

wlis 25 ivliss gagzavnili werili, sadac igi miuTiTebs: `dasaviwyars.

javaxiSvils mzeWabuks mravali mokiTxva moaxseneT: damarcxebuli lekebi

walkisaken wasulan. Sen axlav oTxi kargi beladi kaci yaraulad

gagzavne. isini daayaraulon. Cven am ors zedized qalaqs wavalT, Tu eg

kacni swores ambavs mogvitanen da qalaqs Segvatyobineben da iqiT mxares

im lekebs Segvyrian sadme, kacis Tavs Svid-Svid minalTuns TeTrs

uboZebT da Senc samsaxurSi CavagdebT: or rom Tavs dadges da orma

ambav mogvitanos da sadac movides ambav ar dagvakldes. Aamgvarad

daarige da gaafrTxile~ (21, Hd.2492).

paralelurad, XVIII saukunis 50-ian wlebSi mefem misi samflobelo

dayo sayaraulo ubnebad. am ubnebs unda gamoeyvana gansazRvruli

raodenobis yarauli, romelic mcire qvedanayofebiT 2-10 kacis

raodenobiT (89, 196) dgeboda misTvis gankuTvnil adgilebSida sapatrulo

samsaxurs asrulebdnen. kerZod, mdinaris fonebze, xeobebSi,

magistralur gzebze, cixe-simagreTa misasvlelebSi, gansakuTrebiT ki

iseT adgilebSi, sadac xelsayreli pirobebi iyo mowinaaRmdegis

moqmedebebisaTvis. rasakvirvelia, moyarauleTa gonivruli moqmedebebiT

SesaZlebeli iqneboda informaciebis mopoveba mowinaaRmdegis savaraudo

moqmedebebis Sesaxeb.

yaraulis arsebobas mniSvnelovani adgili eWira mosaxleobis

Setyobinebisa da droulad mobilizaciis saqmeSic. a. klimiaSvilis mier

29


moZiebul masalaSi sayarauloebi moxseniebulia qiziyisa da kaxeTis

aRmosavleT nawilSi. kerZod: yaraiaSi, bedenze, sxalnarSi, algeTze,

veris xevze, SiraqSi, kldekarze, skris xeobaSi da sxv. Mmoyarauleebi

ufrosis e. w. beladis miTiTebiT moqmedebdnen (89, 196).

XVIII saukunis 80-ian wlebSi, morige jaris funqciebi TandaTanobiT

yaraulze gadadis. ,,jer morigedan gamoyofdnen ramdenime molaSqres da

ganawesebdnen moyarauled, xolo Semdeg erekle mefes SemouRia morige

yaraulis saxeoba laSqrisa~ (89, 196). amas mowmobs ori dokumenti. Ees

dokumentebi warmoadgens javaxiSvilebisa da TarxniSvilebis mxaris

morige yaraulis nusxebs, romelTa mixedviT erekle mefis brZanebiT

yovelTviurad unda gamoeyvanaT yarauli (22, Hd. 1152, 14066).

a. klimiaSvilis mier Seswavlili masalebidan naTeli warmosadgenia

mefis mier gacemuli gankargulebebi morige jarisa da sayaraulo

samsaxuris warmarTvis Sesaxeb (88, 198-209), romelic garkveulwilad

xels uwyobda samefos Tavdacvisunarianobas.

aucilebelia, yuradReba gamaxvildes erekles miTiTebaze, igi

sardalTa Tu samdevroebis ufrosebis moqmedebebis sferos

kardinalurad ar zRudavda (ix. Mmuxli 1. gv. 24). maT SeeZloT

damoukideblad gamoeCinaT iniciativa, mieRoT gadawyvetileba

moxerxebuli taqtikuri xerxis gamoyenebisa, romelic mcire danakargebiT

uzrunvelyofda mowinaaRmdegis damarcxebas, Ee.i. maTi moqmedebebi

Sablonuri xasiaTisa ar iyo. M

miTiTebebi aseve iTvaliswinebda mowinaaRmdegis jaris gvareobas da

aRWurvilobas, ris Semdegac Sesabamis miTiTebebs aZlevda (ix. Mmuxli 2,

gv. 24). sxvadasxva muxlSi gaTvaliswinebulia disciplinaruli sasjeli,

samdevroTa xelmZRvanelobis sakiTxebi da CamoTvlili RonisZiebebis

mniSvneloba. EerTi sityviT, sadroSoTa da sardlis ufleba-movaleobani

metad datvirTuli iyo, sadac sardals yvelaze didi pasuxismgebloba

ekisreboda. Mmis movaleobaSi Sedioda: adgilze cixe-simagreebis dacvapatronoba,

sadroSoSi Semavali samxedro olqebisa da samdevroebis

organizacia, jaris mobilizacia da maTi urTierTmoqmedeba, misi

30


sadroSos mezoblad mdebare saxelmwifoTa ambebis codna da sxva.

erekle mefis mier SemuSavebuli brZaneba 16 muxlisagan Sedgeba, (gv.

24-25), romlebic, samxedro TvalsazrisiT, SeiZleba Semdeg

gankargulebebad da punqtebad daiyos:

pirveli, (1-6) samxedro olqebis (ubnebis) dazvervis, urTierTqmedebis

organizacia da sabrZolo moqmedebebis warmarTvis meTodebi.

meore, (7-8) dezertirTaTvis disciplinaruli sasjeli, romlis

sidide da forma socialuri kuTvnilebis principze iyo

damyarebuli.

mesame, (9-13) molaSqreTa xelmZRvanelobis sakiTxi da maTi

pasuxismgebloba.

meoTxe, (14-16) ganmartebulia gacemuli gankargulebebisa da

RonisZiebebis mniSvneloba qveynis dacvis saqmeSi uflisa da eris winaSe.

Tu dRevandeli Tvalsawieridan gadavxedavT, mefem 1772 wels

mterTan sabrZolvelad erTgvari instruqcia SeimuSava. sacxovrebeli

adgilebis dacvisa da gadasaxadTa gadaxdis uzrunvelsayofad, ,,mefes

moqmedi armiisaTvis SeuZlia gamoiyvanos ara umetes 5000 kacisa~ (36, 261).

es faqti mowmobs samxedro Zalis SesaZleblobas, romelic arsebul

viTarebaSi, SeiZleba iTqvas, damakmayofileblad asrulebda dakisrebul

movaleobas. mefem kargad icoda mis samefoSi Semavali adgilmdebareobis

damcavi da SemniRbveli pirobebi, Tavdasxmis mimarTulebebi,

mowinaaRmdegis moqmedebis taqtika, gawvrTniloba, misi susti da Zlieri

mxareebi, moralur-fsiqologiuri faqtorebi. Yyovelive es mefesa da

sadroSos sardals gadawyvetilebis sworad miRebis saSualebas aZlevda

sabrZolo moqmedebebis warmarTvis SemTxvevaSi, sadac meti wili

gamarjvebebisa qarTvelTa mxareze iyo.

raki qarTl-kaxeTis samefo erekle mefis meTaurobiT, erTi mxriT

ise gaZlierda, rom farTo saerTaSoriso politikis warmarTva daiwyo,

xolo, meore mxriT, sazRvrebi daculi ar iyo mtrebis, gansakuTrebiT,

lekTa Semosevebisagan, pirvel rigSi morige jaris Seqmnis sakiTxi

daisva. imdroindeli qarTuli jari Sedgeboda glexTa qveiTi da TavadaznaurTa

cxenosani razmebisagan. is ikribeboda saWiroebis mixedviT da

31


iSleboda, rogorc ki es saWiroeba gaivlida. yoveli mebrZoli

SeiaraRebuli unda gamosuliyo salaSqrod. mebrZoli SeiaraRebuli iyo

xmliT, xanjliT, SubiT, dambaCiT an TofiT. aRWurvilobaSi Sedioda

jaWvis perangi, sabarkuli, samklauri, CaCqani, fari da sxva.

mebatone am razmebis intendantic (momaragebeli) iyo da oficeric.

misi wona saomar operaciebSi, umetes SemTxvevaSi, damokidebuli iyo ara

mis samxedro niWsa da gamocdilebaze, aramed imaze Tu ramden yma

molaSqres xelmZRvanelobda. erekle mefe kargad grZnobda, rom aseTi

jariT is ver SeZlebda TviTneba feodalebis alagmvasa da gareSe

mtrebis gamklavebas. . .magram jaris reorganizacias didi fuli

sWirdeboda. ,,qarTl-kaxeTis Semosavali ki imdenad mcire iyo, rom Zlivs

yofnida marTva-gameobis mTavar xarjebs. amitom erekle mefe iZulebuli

iyo sesxad fuli eTxova ucxo saxelmwifoebisaTvis" (126, 57-58-59). erekle

mefis samxedro-reformatorul moRvaweobaSi gansakuTrebuli adgili

ukavia morige jaris Seqmnas. am sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT, qarTul

istoriografiaSi gansxvavebuli mosazrebebia gamoTqmuli. Cven misaRebad

migvaCnia mkvlevar a. klimiaSvilis mosazrebebi.

feodaluri laSqari, e.w. ,,saqveyno laSqari~ saqarTveloSi iyo

batonymuri jari, sadac yma laSqrobda batonis xelqveiT. feodaluri

ierarqia, damyarebuli miwis sakuTrebis uflebis ganawilebaze,

gadatanili iyo laSqarSic. laSqari Sedgeboda rogorc profesional

molaSqreTa, TavadaznaurTa da msaxurTagan, ise yma glexTaganac. am

ukanasknelTa ricxvobrivi Semadgenloba damokidebuli iyo imaze, Tu

rogori iyo gawveva: qudze kaci, komlze kaci, an SeweriT.

saqveyno laSqris garda, saqarTveloSi uZvelesi droidanve

mimarTavdnen ucxoeTidan daqiravebuli laSqris moyvanas. es tradicia

grZeldeboda XVIII saukuneSic. mebrZolebs qiraobdnen umTavresad

kavkasiis mTis mosaxleobidan~ (90, 1). laSqris Tavisebur wyobas

warmoadgenda mecixovne jari, romelsic, samxedro TvalsazrisiT,

aranaklebi mniSvnelobisa iyo (88, 179). mefes es jari gamohyavda

nawilobriv Tavis mamulidan da, nawilobriv, sabatono mamulebidan(85, 1).

32


feodalurma laSqarma mTlianad ver aRkveTa lekTa Tavdasxmebi.

mterma gaafarTova samoqmedo areali da qarTlSic TareSi daiwyo.

gadamWreli RonisZiebebis gatarebis Semdeg warmoiSva e.w. ,,morige

laSqari~, rac mudmivi jaris Tavisebur saxeobas warmoadgenda~ (90, 3),

man XVIII saukunis bolomde iarseba, Tumca am xnis manZilze mravali

cvlileba ganicada. zemoaRniSnuli laSqari, rogorc mudmivi jaris

saxeoba, aRmosavleT saqarTveloSi uaRresad sayuradRebo socialurpolitikuri

movlena iyo (90, 3). dasadgenia TviT morige laSqris

warmoqmnis TariRi da misi arsebobis xanrZlivoba. dRemde qarTul

istoriografiaSi miRebuli iyo mosazreba, rom ,,morige laSqari”

daarsda 1774 wlidan, rodesac daiwera morigis wesdeba, e. w. ,,ganaCeni

morigeobis laSqrisa~. gavaanalizeT a. klimiaSvilis mier Seswavlili

ramdenime dokumenti 1756-1773 wlebisa ,,morige laSqris” Sesaxeb,

romlebic adastureben, rom laSqris saxeoba saxelwodebiT ,,morige” 1774

welze adrindelia da XVIII saukunis 50-ian wlebSi iqna daarsebuli (90,

4). rac Seexeba morige laSqris arsebobis xangrZlivobas, dokumentebi

aseve ar adastureben qarTul istiriografiaSi damkvidrebul azrs, rom

igi Tavadebma gaauqmes. levan batoniSvilis gardacvalebis, 1781 wlis

Semdeg, arsebobs mravali dokumenti 1781-1800 wlebisa ,,morigis” Sesaxeb,

romlebic mowmoben, rom ,,morige laSqari” arsebobda l. batoniSvilis

sikvdilis Semdegac, ruseTTan SeerTebamde (88, 192).

Seswavlili dokumentebidan yvelaze adreuli 1756 welsaa Seqmnili,

Tumca amave dokumentSi moixsenieba wina wlis, e. i. 1755 wlis davTari

zemo qarTlis morigisa: ,,Cven. iasauli nikoloz uzbaSi, zurab

naxucriSvilo, wadiT da rac am siiT mudam saxleblaT monacvle

laSqars kaci Segviweria SarSandels davTarze, es asi cxenosani cxeniT

da qveiTi qveiTad uzbaSebs (asisTavi) miabareT. yvelas gamoarTviT

ukleblaT” (25, Qd.8723). ,,Tu cxeni an kaci aklia, visme Tqvenc

gardagaxdevineb da imaTac didaT gardavaxdevinebT. maisis oTxs dRes

gasuls unda SemogeyaroT erTis Tvis nuzliT~. aprilis i. qk-s umd (1756)

e. i. morige laSqari funqcionirebda 1755 wlidan (88, 182).

33


am ganapiroba morige laSqris Seqmna XVIII saukunis Sua

wlebisaTvis? ,,igi warmoadgenda mudmivi jaris Tavisebur saxes da,

rogorc cnobilia, SemoRebul iqna mTieli aborigenebis, e.w.

,,lekianobis” winaaRmdeg sabrZolvelad~ (88, 182). maT winaaRmdeg uZluri

aRmoCnda feodaluri laSqari, saWiro iyo mudmivad mzadmyofi, e.i.

regularuli jari, magram igi feodaluri wyobilebis bunebas ver

egueboda. Tavad-aznaurTa interesebSi ar Sedioda, rom maTi yma-glexebi

mudmivad mefis laSqarSi yofiliyvnen. es ewinaaRmdegeboda maT

ekonomikur da socialur-politikur interesebs, radgan xdebodnen

centralur xelisuflebaze damokidebuli. Seqmnil viTarebaSi

aRmosavleT saqarTvelos xelisufleba aRniSnul periodSi mainc

iZulebuli gaxda, SemoeRo regularuli laSqris Taviseburi saxeoba

,,moriges” saxiT, rac gulisxmobda mosaxleobis morigeobiT gawvevas

TiTo Tvis vadiT da am xnis ganmavlobaSi sayofi sursaTiT (38, 437),

(5, 226, #2857), (90, 3).

daRestneli tomebis Tavdasxmebma saqarTveloze, kerZod, kaxeTze

sistematiuri xasiaTi miiRo XVI saukunidan, magram XVIII saukunis

dasawyisamde lekebi kaxeTs ar gascilebian. qarTlSi isini pirvelad

1717 wels gamoCndnen (85, 8). amrigad aRmosavleT saqarTvelos masStabiT

,,lekianobas” adgili aqvs aRniSnuli wlidan. XVI saukunis bolomde

kaxeTi axerxebda lekebTan gamklavebas (103, 52-53-65). . . ,,XVIII saukuneSi,

Sah-abasis laSqrobaTa Semdeg, kaxeTSi daiwyo lekebis Camosaxleba.

gaCnda maTi ubatono Temebi: Wari da belaqani. es ubatono Temebi iqcnen

lekianobis kerad~ (103, 90).

1723-1744ww. aRmosavleT saqarTveloSi jer ,,osmalobis”, xolo Semdeg

,,yizilbaSobis” xana iyo da faqtiurad moiSala adgilobrivi

saxelmwifoebrioba (90, 9). maSasadame, am periodSi ,,morige” laSqari ver

Seiqmneboda.

Teimurazisa da erekles mmarTvelobis pirvel periodSi lekebis

TareSis aRsakveTad gadawyvites War-belaqnis dapyroba. rogorc

cnobilia, es cda marcxiT damTavrda. aji Calabis meTaurobiT Seqmnilma

mahmadianurma koaliciam 1751 wlis 15 Tebervals erekle-Teimurazis

34


laSqari daamarcxa da War-belaqnis dapyrobis saqme CaiSala. lekebma

gaaZlieres TareSi. saWiro iyo brZolis axali saSualebebis gamonaxva,

pirvel rigSi ki mudmivad mzadmyofi laSqris Seqmna. zogjer gamouval

viTarebaSi feodaluri saqarTvelo garkveuli safasuris gaRebis Semdeg

daqiravebuli jariT aZlierebda laSqars, romelic Semdgari iyo

umTavresad mTielebisagan. samefoebs ar gaaCnda imdeni materialuri

saxsrebi, rom daqiravebuli jari xangrZlivad Seenaxa.

aRmosavleT saqarTvelom yizilbaSobis xanaSi gaicno adgilobrivi

e. w. ,,noqari~. iv. javaxiSvili noqarze aRniSnavs: ,,noqaris saxiT,

monRolTagan sparsulSi SeTvisebuli es sityva XVII-XVIII saukunis

saqarTveloSiac Cndeba, jer viTarca eranis samxedro Zalis garkveuli

nawilis saxeli, SemdegSi viTarca savaWro dawesebulebis ufrosis,

vaWrisa da meduqnis, TanaSemwis gamomxatveli termini~(90, 10. 142, 32).

qarTuli ,,noqari” warmoadgenda adgilobrivi mosaxleobidan gamoyvanil

daqiravebul jars, romlis qiras ixdida TviT mosaxleoba.

akademikosi n. berZeniSvili aRniSnavs: ,,exla yizilbaSobisas~

qarTls uaresi dRe adga, vidre ,,osmalobisas~ iyo. . . exla mosaxleoba

movale iyo, sakuTari xarjiT gamoeyvana da Seenaxa jaris garkveuli

raodenoba (,,noqari”), xolo qarTlSi myofi yizilbaSTa jarisaTvis

,,sursaTi eZlia~ (85, 10. 56, 203).

sexnia CxeiZis gadmocemiT, nadir-Sahma qarTlis ,,noqris~ gamoyvana

daakisra 1736 wels: ,,amave ukd. . .dasdves qarTls samiaTas samasi Tumani

da xuTasi noqari col-SviliT qalaqsa unda damdgariyo kac-cxeniaraRiT

(90, 11. 133, 340). Semdeg nadir-Sahs araerTxel mouTxovia ,,noqari~

qarTl-kaxeTisaTvis (41, 348-374-416). yizilbaSobis Semdeg, rogorc Cans,

qarTl-kaxeTis xelisuflebam gadawyvita ,,noqari~ kvlav gamoeyvana da

gamoeyenebina adgilobrivi erovnuli interesebisaTvis.

p. butkovi ,,noqris~ SemoRebaze aRmosavleT saqarTveloSi aRniSnavs:

,,saqarTveloSi ar iyo mudmivi jari. saWiroebis mixedviT mas krebdnen da

uSvebdnen. TiToeuli meomari TviTon irCenda Tavs. jer kidev Teimuraz

nikolozis-Zem, erekles mSobelma, mTieli mtrebisagan saqarTvelos

sazRvrebis dasacavad, daaarsa milicia, noqris saxelwodebiT da

35


daadgina, rom saxazino (saxaso), saeklesio da memamuleTa mier

gamoyvanili yofiliyo kordoni ori aTasi cxenosani meomris raodenobiT

yovelwliurad. provianti da furaJi maT eZleodaT xazinidan, xolo

jamagirs aZlevdnen TavianTive soflebi, 30-40 maneTamde wliurad.

mefe iraklim gaauqma noqari da 1773 wels, avariis xanis damarcxebis

Semdeg, SemoiRo sxva laSqari morigis saxelwodebiT~ (49, 287-288).

p. orbelianis cnobiT, ,,noqari” SemoRebuli iqna ,,lekianobis”

winaaRmdeg sabrZolvelad 1755 wels: ,,radgan lekebma qarTlsa da

kaxeTze mtroba aRar daiSales, zamTar da zafxul Camodgis da

aoxrebdis umetes qarTlsa, maradis qarTlis jari Semoeyaris mefeTa

CvenTa, lekis jari Caudgis saxlebSi da aRara-vina hyvandaT mepasuxe amis

mizezisaTvis gamoarTves qarTlsa da kaxeTs aTasi kai vaJkaci, jamagiri

gauweses, uzbaSebi (asisTavi) ganaweses da daayenes qalaqsa Tbilissa,

saca visme gasWirebodaT amaT miaSvelebodnen qveynis jarebiT” (41, 461).

a. klimiaSvilis mier Seswavlili sabuTi gvamcnobs: ,,axlad dawesebuli

jari gansakuTrebiT lek-abragTa Semosasvlel adgilebSi Caayenes da

qveynis sanapiro adgilebis dacva miandves. ,,gaistumres es axali

ganwesebuli jari da daayenes baidarSi monapired, am jarebTa asisTavni

da ufrosni iyvnes amilaxvriSvili nikoloz, amirejibi zaza, ciciSvili

Teimuraz da TarxniSvili mamuka. agreTve sabaraTaSvilos uzbaSi,

romel-ars asis-Tavi ioTamisSvili revaz. . . ~ (90, 12-13).

arsebobs aTamde sabuTi ,,noqris” Sesaxeb (1738 wlidan 1772 wlamde).

am sabuTebidan Cans, rom ,,noqris” gayvana xdeboda mosaxleobidan da

mosaxleoba ixdida misTvis misacemel gadasaxads. mis sidideze 1760 wlis

mxolod erTi nusxaSia mocemuli, sadac jamagiris raodenoba erT

mebrZolze wliurad 25 maneTs udrida (15, f. S.ie-78).

amrigad, aRmosavleT saqarTvelos xelisuflebam ,,lekianobis”

winaaRmdeg gamoiyena ,,yizilbaSobis~ droidan SemoRebuli jaris saxeoba

,,noqari~, xolo Semdeg SemoiRo misi saxecvlileba ,,morige~. ,,morige~

1774 wlis ganCinebamde ,,noqrisagan~ gansxvavdeboda mxolod imiT, rom

gasamrjelos ar Rebulobda.

36


qveynis dasacavad 1773 wlis dasasruls ereklem darbazis sxdoma

moiwvia. msjeloba Seexeboda iseTi jaris Seqmnas, romelic lekTa

qurdul Tavdasxmebs aRkveTda da qarTvelobas mSvidobiani Sromis

saSualebas miscemda. sxdomis safuZvelze darbazma SeimuSava `ganCineba~

anu direqtiva (d. m.) ` morige laSqris~ daarsebis Sesaxeb (23, Hd.1536).

xuTdokumentiani `ganCinebis~ teqsti, romelic 1774 wlis 1 ianvriTaa

daTariRebuli, Sedgeba ocdaCvidmeti punqtisagan (38, 436-447). maTSi

miTiTebulia: Tu vis daevalos da rogor unda iqnes aRwerili

mosaxleoba, romelmac morige jarSi unda imsaxuros. Aaseve

dazustebulia, Tu sad, rogor, riT unda gamocxaddes mebrZoli.

gaTvaliswinebulia ,,morigeSi~ gamoZaxebis uzrunvelyofaze

pasuxismgebeli pirebi. AagreTve mocemulia dasjis meTodi ,,morigeSi`

dagvianebis da dezertirobis gamo. Mmag: ` . . . Tu CvenTan mzas ar iqneba

da Tavisis morigeobis Tvisa EerTi dRe gaiyvana, erTxel gavataroT

rusulad wkeplaSi;…. . . da ramdeni dRec daigvianos imdenjer

gavataroT. . .~. pirovnebis droul gamocxadebaze soflis moxele da

sofeli agebda pasuxs. Mmag: ` . . .……Tu damalva daiwyos aqa da iq tyeebSi

da soflebSi, amisTana kaci imave sofelma an ipovnos mogvces da an

eqauri jarima waerTos da is gaqceuli kaci romelisac dastisa ar iyos,

Cvenis brZanebiT is jarima im dastebs gaeyoT . . . Tu romelmac kacma

imisi gaparva icodes da ar gaamxila, es equsi Tumani imas gamoerTvas,

Tu ar SeeZlos saxli, kari, mamuli da deduli gaeyidos, jarimaSi

mieces da esec ganawesebisaebr Cvenis brZanebiT sxva sasardlo jars

gaeyos~ (23,Hd. 1536).

aRniSnulidanDACans, Tu rogor da ra kanoniT uzrunvelyofda mefe

dezertirobis faqtebis aRkveTas. brZanebaSi mefe kategoriulad

miuTiTebs samRvdelo, saTavado, aznaurTa da glexTa klasis

warmomadgenlebs, daicvan kanoni ise, rogorc sjuli moiTxovs, radgan

misi Secvla aravis ar SeuZlia. ganCinebis gragnils garedan dasmuli

aqvs beWedi, romelzec mefe erekles saxelia amotvifruli.

yvela brZolis SemZle mamakaci movale iyo, weliwadSi erTi TviT

laSqarSi emsaxura Tavisi xarjiTa da sakuTari iaraRiT. Aamitom mefem

37


glexoba sursaTis gadasaxadisagan gaanTavisufla. morige laSqarSi

xalxis ukleblad gamocxadebaze soflis mebatone da moxele iyvnen

pasuxismgebelni. garda Amisa, valdebulni iyvnen, morige laSqarSi

mimavali glexi moemaragebinaT, roca am ukanasknels sakuTari saSualeba

ar gaaCnda. morige laSqari calke erTeulebad iyofoda da TiToeuls

mefis mier daniSnuli meTauri xelmZRvanelobda, xolo mTavari ufrosi

laSqrisa iyo erekle mefis vaJi levan batoniSvili. Ddebuleba morige

jarSi samsaxuris Sesaxeb qarTl-kaxeTis samefoSi oficialurad 1774

wlis 4 ianvridan (83, 212) moqmedebda.

axali sajariso formirebebis Camoyalibebam dRis wesrigSi daayena

samxedro Sinaarsis wignebisa da wesdebebis gacnoba, gadaTargmna,

romelic samxedro ganaTlebas aamaRlebda. regularuli jaris Seqmnis

saWiroebisaTvis mefe ereklem gaioz reqtors ubrZana, eTargmna petre

didis samxedro tipikoni, anu wesdebis wigni. Targmanis Tavfurcelze

vkiTxulobT: . . .xolo qarTulsa zeda enasa iTargmna brZanebiTa misis

mefobisa simaRlis iraklis meorisaTa arqimandritisa da Telavis

seminariis reqtoris gaiozis mier ~ (71, 127). . . .

ivane SaiSmelaSvili aRniSnavs: ,,erekles dros qarTveli mxedrobis

taqtikuri xerxebis ganmartebisas SeuZlebelia raime garkveuli wesebisa

da kanonebis Camoyalibeba . . . saerTod aRiarebuli saxelmZRvanelos

msgavsi araferi arsebobda~ (130, 19). moyvanili citata simarTles ar

Seesabameba, radgan zemoT CamoTvlil punqtebSi (gv. 24-25) garkveviTaa

Camoyalibebuli, Tu romeli mxaris sadroSom, samdevrom da yaraulma

rogor imoqmedos. yovelives, dRevandelis msgavsad, saxmeleTo wesdebis

saxelmZRvanelos forma ar qonda, magram mefis mier gagzavnili

gankargulebebis an brZanebebis Sesabamisad moqmedebdnen sadroSoebi da

Sedegic saxeze iyo. amasve amtkicebs m. darCias naSromic gaioz reqtoris

Sesaxeb.

morige jaris Seqmnis Taobaze SesaniSnavad gadmogvcems daviT

bagrationi saqarTvelos samarTlisa da kanonTmcodneobis mimoxilvaSi.

saerTod unda aRiniSnos, rom samxedro sakiTxebze daviTs Tavis

`mimoxilvaSi~ sagangebo Tavi aqvs miZRvnili `Tavi IV. samxedro Zalebi~

38


(28, 233), muxlebSi 63-77 Camoyalibebulia debulebebi morige jarisa,

droebiTi laSqris, artileristebis, damxmare jarisa da samxedro

kantoris Sesaxeb.

morige jaris garda, mefe mudmivad zrunavda artileriis Senaxvasa

da dafinansebaze. saartilerio saqmis momsaxure personali:

mezarbazneebi (TofCebi-rigiTebi) da sxva specialistebi

ganTavisuflebuli iyvnen yvela gadasaxadisagan, morige jarSi

samsaxuridan. isini sakmaod did gasamjelos Rebulobdnen da

garkveulwilad privilegirebul mdgomareobas inarCunebdnen samefo

karze (87, 265-266-267). sagangebo sabWo aucileblobis SemTxvevaSi

ikribeboda mefis TandaswrebiT, sadac sabWos dadgenilebiT cxaddeboda

mefis brZanebuleba droebiTi laSqris Seqmnis Taobaze da mebrZolTa

raodenoba nawildeboda TiToeul kuTxeze. molaSqreTa Sekreba

erisTavebsa da mouravebs evalebodaT. maT mier Sekrebili razmebi

eqvemdebareboda saolqo samxedro generals. saolqo laSqris marTvaSi

generals exmarebodnen ramdenime oficeri amave provinciidan

(konkretulad generlebis gvarebi miTiTebuli ar aris, magram, SesaZloa,

sadroSoTa sardlebs gulisxmobdes). jaris Sekrebisas sabrZolo

eqspediciisa da mTavarsardlis daniSvna mefis ZalauflebiT

ganisazRvreboda. MmarSis ganxorcielebisas iniSneboda Sesvenebisa da

dasvenebis raionebi, avadmyofebsa da daWrilebs daxmarebas uwevdnen

mefis mkurnalebi. sabrZolo moqmedebebis damTavrebis Semdeg mebrZolebs

saxlSi uSvebdnen (28, 234-235).

aRsaniSnavia is faqti, rom morige jaris debulebaSi erekle II-s

gansazRvruli hqonda punqti viTarebisda Sesabamisad damxmare jaris

dabarebis Taobaze, romlebic mowveuli iqnebodnen mezobeli

provinciebdan. maTi Senaxva da anazRaureba damokidebuli iyo maT

meTaursa da mefes Soris dadebul xelSekrulebaze.MmaT

xelmZRvanelobda sakuTari meTauri, magram eqvemdebarebodnen mefis

sardals (28. 236). amasve mowmobs S. mesxias mier mokvleuli erT-erTi

dokumenti, sadac vkiTxulobT, rom `saqarTvelos Cveulebrivi jaris

gamoyvanis garda, mefe iraklim moiwvia jamagiris aRTqmiT noqraT da

39


236).

qarTl-kaxeTis samefos samoxeleo aparati da sxva didebulebi 1769-

TofCaT dasadgomni kacni. movidnen da ganwesdnen. imaT hqondaT ganweseba,

wlis ulufa da jamagiri~ (104, 42). SesaZlebelia, am droisaTvis mefis

xazina ise mdidari ar iyo, rom didi jamagiri exada daqiravebul

ucxoeli mebrZolebisaTvis, magram, gasaTvaliswinebelia is, rom

sabrZolo moqmedebebSi daxmarebis aRmoCenisaTvis mefe garkveul

gasamrjelos mainc SesTavazebda, raTa maT winaSe mdgari problemebi

moegvarebinaT.

samxedro reformebma, romelic Eerekle II-is TaosnobiT

ganxorcielda, samoxeleo aparatis gazrda gamoiwvia. samxedro

organizaciaSi didi roli daekisra laSqarniviss (sameurneo dargis

moxele samxedro uwyebaSi, SemoiRo erekle II-m (77, 444). mas laSqris

aRricxva-momarageba da jamagiris gacema evaleboda. qarTl-kaxeTis

samefoSi eqvsi laSqarnivisi iyo: oman xerxeuliZe, manuCar Tumanovi,

svimon gurgeniZe, aslan vaCnaZe, ivane qobulovi (artileriis polkovniki),

ioseb meliqovi. Eerekles reformebTanaa dakavSirebuli XVIII s-is meore

naxevarSi SemoRebuli Tanamdebobebi (saxeloebi): fonsadbaSi, rac

niSnavda xuTasisTavs, TofCibaSi - mezarbazneTa ufross. funqcionirebda

mudmivi sabWo, romelic mefis gareSe ar ikribeboda. mudmiv sabWosTan

(umaRlesi xelisufleba) daarsebuli iqna gansakuTrebuli dawesebuleba

`samxedro kantora~, romelic yovelgvar samxedro saqmes awesrigebda (28,

1771 wlebSi uSualod gaecnen rusTa regularuli jaris cxovrebas.

rusTa jaris gavlenam aSkarad iCina Tavi erekles mier SemoRebul

samxedro wodebebSi -KAkaprali, serJanti, unter-oficeri, oficeri,

artileriis kapitani, maiori, polkovniki, generali. QqarTl-kaxeTis

samefos laSqars specialuri momzadebis mqone pirebi wvrTnidnen

rusuli wesis mixedviT (112, 530). generali lazarevi cxenosan jarze

ambobda: ,,es jari saukeTesod gawvrTnili da momzadebulia, rom

SeiaraRebis mxriv Raribi ar iyos~ (69, 60-61).

zemoxsenebulidan kargad Cans, Tu raoden mondomebiT ekideboda mefe

morige jaris wvrTnasa da uzrunvelyofas, rac mis mier SemoRebuli

40


debulebis muxlebsa da sazRvargareTeli specialistebis mozidvaSi

gamoixateboda. Eerekle mefisa da misi politikis mxardamWer moxeleTa

mier Catarebuli RonisZiebebis Sedegad morige jarSi im droisaTvis

6000-mde mebrZoli msaxurobda. morige laSqris es raodenoba zamTris

pirobebSi naxevrdeboda sam-sam aTasamde, rac gamowveuli iyo zamTris

periodSi mowinaaRmdegis iSviaTi TavdasxmebiT. Ees gasagebicaa, radgan am

dros saomari kampaniebis Catareba momxvduri mxarisaTvis xSir

SemTxvevaSi wamgebiani iyo. AaRniSnulis damadasturebelia cnoba: ` eqvseqvsi

aTasi kaci morige qveviTi da cxenosani, kargis samxedros yovelis

saxmarebiT da TavianTis erTis Tvis nuzdliT dasdgebodes

ganmzadebulni mterTa zeda, sadaca ebrZanebodaT mefisagan, marjveTa

adgilTa. zamTriT eqvsTa TveTa sam-sami aTasi morige iyvis mzad (47, 92).

batoniSvilebi (mefis Svilebi) aqtiur monawileobas Rebulobdnen morige

jaris funqcionirebaSi da rigrigobiT gadiodnen samxedro samsaxurs (83,

213).

morige jari regularul samxedro Zalas warmoadgenda. aseTi Zalis

Seqmna, saWiro pirobebis uqonlobis gamo Wianurdeboda, magram misi

mniSvneloba aRmosavleT saqarTvelosTvis didi iyo. gansakuTrebiT

didi wvlili Seitana morige jaris saSualebiT lekTa Tavdasxmebis

aRkveTis saqmeSi levan batoniSvilma. is cnobili iyo simamaciT,

ganaTlebiT da goneba–gamWriaxobiT. mTeli qarTl-kaxeTi Sehxaroda

energiul batoniSvils. am faqts adasturebs o. xerxeuliZe: `odesaca

wliTi-wlad mefesa hyvandes morigeni mxedrobani, igini maradis

mdgomare iyvnes gamosavalTa adgilTa pirsa lekTa da sxvaTa mterTasa.

mravalgzis miiRes Zleva-Semosileba mterTa zeda mefis ZeTa –giorgim

da leonman xvedrTa TvisTa, morigeobasa Sina da qmnes saxelovanni

saqmeni~. . . (47, 93).

arsebuli mdgomareobiT saqarTvelos kidev erTxel gamouCnda

xelSemwyobi pirobebi, raTa Seeqmna erTiani Zlieri saxelmwifo,

romelic SeZlebda sakuTari Tavis dacvas da amis Semdgom ekonomikur

Tu kulturul aRorZinebas. Mmocemuli periodisaTvis erekle II da misi

saxelmwifo SedarebiT gaZlierebuli Canda. Mfaqtis naTeli

41


dadasturebaa mefis mdivanbegis mier aRwerili erTi momenti: 1780 wlis

agvistoSi erevnis xani usein-ali dasajes qveSevrdomebTan erTad, mefis

morCilebaSi iyvnen ganjisa da yarabaRis mmarTvelebic.Uukan

gamobrunebisas erekle II-s brZola mouxda qurTTa laSqarTan da

gamarjveba moipova (47, 93). ganjisa da yarabaRis xanebis garda, mefes

emorCilebodnen Tavrizis, xois, urumiis, maraRis xanebi, baiazeTis da

yarsis faSebi, gadmogvcems o. xerxeuliZe. Cveni azriT, es cnoba

zedmetad gazviadebulia da sinamdviles ar Seesabameba. sxvadasxva

masalebis analizidan cxadia erTi ram _ CamoTvlili saxanoebisa da

safaSoTa xelmZRvanelebi erekles ar emorCilebodnen. isini mxolod

Seqmnili politikuri viTarebis Sesabamisad angariSs uwevdnen qarTlkaxeTis

mefes, rac droebiT xasiaTs atarebda. o. xerxeuliZe

gadmogvcems: `esmodaT maradis simxne-qveloba misi da verc aravis

xedavdnen mopirispired mefisa ereklessa . . . (47, 94). es dasturia imisa,

Tu raoden hqonda saxeli ganTqmuli mefe ereklesa da aRmosavleT

saqarTvelos.

n. berZeniSvilis aRniSnavs, rom 1781 wlis Semdeg morigeTa ricxvma

TandaTan iklo da bolos sul gaqra (58, 222).

zemoxsenebuli azri srul WeSmaritebas ar Seesabameba, radgan

arsebobs sabuTebi, romlebic mowmoben aRmosavleT saqarTveloSi morige

jaris arsebobas XVIII saukunis bolomde. KkerZod, morige jari (laSqari)

levan batoniSvilis sikvdilis Semdegac ar moSlila. 1782-1784 wlebis

sabuTebSi asaxulia mefis brZanebebi, romlebic exeba morige laSqris

Sekrebas, morigeSi gausvlelobis gamo sasjelis moxdis Semdeg

patimrobidan ganTavisuflebas, gamoucxadeblobis gamo dasjas, sajaro

samsaxuris gavlis dasrulebisas morigdan ganTavisuflebas (83,

195).Eerekle II-s uxdeboda mkacri RonisZiebebis gatareba, raTa

mosaxleobis yvela socialuri fenidan wamoWrili winaaRmdegobebi

gadaelaxa da uzrunveleyo morige laSqris funqcionireba. Ggatarebuli

RonisZiebebi samefoSi arsebuli naklovanebebidan gamomdinare xSir

SemTxvevaSi mainc ver Sveloda saqmes da morige ramdenjerme daSlis

piras iyo misuli.

42


dokumenti gvamcnobs, rom mefe ver axerxebs morigis gamoyvanas

kaxeTis gaRma mxridan. nekreseli episkoposi agzavnis giorgi mRvdels

mefis wigniT morigis gawvevis Sesaxeb gremidan yvarlamde da avalebs,

moawerinos xeli yvelas ,,morigeSi~ samsaxurze (11, Ad.250). xolo

1790 wlis 5 ivlisis dokumenti gvatyobinebs, erekle mefis sayvedurs

aTasisTav beJan amilaxvrisSvilisadmi, rac mowmobs, rom morige jari

TiTqmis moSlilia (12, Ad.1360), amitom, 1791 wlis 14 maiss gamocemuli

brZanebis safuZvelze, mefe avaldebulebs yvelas ,,morigeSi~ xelaxali

gawvevis Sesaxeb (13, Qd.594).

zemoxsenebuli periodis Semdeg morige jari arsebobas

ganagrZobda ruseTTan SeerTebamde, ris mtkicebulebasac warmoadgens

Seswvlili dokumentebi:

a) 1792 wlis 13 noemberi, BbrZaneba erekle mefisa TuST mourav

durmiSxanisadmi, morigis gamoyvanisa da daklebulTa darbevis Sesaxeb.

dedani (17,HHd 2994).

b) 1793 wlis 20 agvisto brZaneba erekle mefisa vefxis cixis mourav

erasti ColoyaSvilisadmi morigis gamoyvanis Sesaxeb (18, Hd 576).

faqtia, rom erekle II-is gardacvalebis Semdegac samefo karidan

gaicemoda brZanebebi morigeSi gawvevisa da samsaxuridan daTxovnis

Sesaxeb. 1799 wlis 27 noembris (3, 226. 5692) da 1800 wlis 13 dekembris

(3, 226, 5692) sabuTebi. rogorc zemoT avRniSneT mocemuli dokumentebi

a. klimiaSvils aqvs Seswavlili.

gasaTvaliswinebelia is faqti, rom 90-iani wlebis morige jari

ramdenadme gansxvavdeboda wina periodis morigisagan. Uupirveles

yovlisa, unda aRiniSnos, rom morigeSi gawvevis nusxebi Sedgenilia ara

TiToeuli soflisaTvis cal-calke, aramed mTeli mxarisaTvis erTad

(13, Ad. 594). klimiaSvili aRniSnavs, yvelaze mniSvnelovan gansxvavebas,

rom mefe iZulebulia morige jarSi momsaxures jamagiri misces (14,

Ad.11052, 24, Hd.2894) e.i. morige jari iqca adgilobrivi mosaxleobisagan

daqiravebul jarad. morige jaris daSla zogierTi Tavadisa da maTi

mxardamWeri pirebis didi gamarjveba iyo mefis xelisuflebaze, ramac

43


aRmosavleT saqarTvelos Tavdacvisunarianobis politikis dasusteba

gamoiwvia. morige laSqarma, miuxedavad xanmokle arsebobisa, sakmaod

mniSvnelovani roli Seasrula qarTveli xalxis erovnuli

TviTmyofadobis SenarCunebis saqmeSi. arsebul masalebze dayrdnobiT

SevadgineT imdroindeli SeiaraRebuli Zalebis struqtura (ix. sqema #2,

152). mefe erekle II-m saRad da obieqturad Seafasa Tavisi samefos

feodaluri CamorCeniloba da amitom misi daZlevis mizniT

mizanmimarTulad ganaxorciela saxelmwifo-administraciuli da

samxedro reformebi.

amgvarad, zemoT aRniSnuli masalebis gaanalizebis safuZvelze

SeiZleba gakeTdes Semdegi daskvnebi:

1. mefis xelisuflebis gaZlierebisa da ganmtkicebis mizniT, man

gaauqma zogierTi Zlieri saerisTavo (qsnis, aragvis) da saxano

(baidaris), romlebic uSualod dauqvemdebara saxelmwifo mmarTvelobis

aparats. amasTan, gauqmebuli saxanos teritoria dahyo ufro wvril

administraciul erTeulebad _ samouravoebad, riTac mniSvnelovnad

gaaZliera centraluri mmarTveloba, Tumca, danarCeni saerisTavoebi,

mefis Sexedulebisamebr, Zvel tradiciul uflebebs inaCunebdnen.

2. cvlilebebi ganxorcielda sadroSoebis sistemaSi. axleburad

ganisazRvra sardlebisa da maT daqvemdebarebaSi myofi pirebis funqciamovaleobebi.

movaleobebis axleburad gansazRvram TiTqmis yvela

ierarqiaze xelqveiTTa marTvis sistema ufro moqnili gaxada.

aRniSnulma sakiTxebma xeli Seuwyo laSqris droulad mobilizaciasa

da Sekrebas. Tumca feodaluri jaris xasiaTi Zirfesvianad ar Secvlila.

3. mefis gankargulebiT, sadroSoebsa da samouravoebSi Seiqmna

samdevroebi, rac gamiznuli iyo mtris mcire jgufebis moulodneli

Tavdasxmebis aRsakveTad. isini mniSvnelovan rols asrulebdnen

sadazvervo sistemis funqcionirebaSic.

4. feodaluri jaris dromoWmulobisa da CamorCenilobis

aRmosafxvrelad TiTqmis warmatebiT ganaxorciela mudmivi jaris

nairsaxeobis _ ,,morige laSqris” Seqmna, rac etapobrivad ase gamoixata:

44


Tavdapirvelad _ ,,noqari”, XVIII saukunis 50-iani wlebis SuaxanebSi _

,,morige” jari. romelic 1774 wlidan ganaxlda.

5. samxedro reformis TvalsazrisiT, garkveul siaxles

warmoadgenda saeklesio jaris gamoyvanis ganaxleba, rac mcxeTis

sakaTalikosos samxedro begaris saxiT ekisreboda.

6. samxedro wesdebebis, darigebebisa da instruqciebis saxiT

iTargmna sxvadasxva wigni, rasac morige jaris gawvrTnasa da

funqcionirebaSi mniSvnelovani wvlili Sehqonda.

7. jarSi gasawvevi kontingentis sruli mobilizaciis mizniT, erekle

II-m mosaxleobis aRwera Caatara. amis safuZvelze sadroSoebs zustad

ganesazRvraT jarSi gasagzavni (gasawvevi) kontigentis raodenoba.

samxedro samsaxurisTvis Tavis aridebisa da mouravTa mier gasawvevi

pirebis damalvis, dafarvis Tavidan acilebis mizniT gamoica specialuri

brZanebebi yvela kategoriis xelmZRvanelisadmi.

8. laSqris organizaciul struqturad dayofam (aTaseuli,

xuTaseuli, aseuli da sxv.) da Sesabamisi danayofebis meTaurebis

daniSvnam jari ufro organizebuli, marTvadi da, rac mTavaria,

daniSnulebisamebr gamoyenebadi gaxada.

9. disciplinis regulireba imdroindeli wesdebebisa da

instruqciebis mixedviT xdeboda. marTvis gasaumjobeseblad Seiqmna e. w.

samxedro kancelaria. SemoRebul iqna rigi Tanamdebobebi: minbaSi –

aTasisTavi, fonsadbaSi - xuTasisTavi, uzbaSi – asisTavi, TofCibaSi -

mezarbazneTa ufrosi da sxva.

10. SemoRebul iqna samxedro wodebebi -KAkaprali, serJanti, unteroficeri,

oficeri, artileriis kapitani, maiori, polkovniki, generali.

Sesabamis Tanamdebobebze daniSvna uSualod mefis mier

xorcieldeboda. yovelive zemoT aRniSnuli aZlierebda imdroindeli

jaris brZolisunarianobas, rac pirvelxarisxovan RonisZiebebs

warmoadgenda lekTa gamudmebuli Tavdasxmebisa da mahmadianur

saxelmwifoTa Semosevebis aRsakveTad.

45


1.2. SeiaraRebisa da tyvia-wamlis warmoeba.

XVIII saukunis II naxevridan qarTl-kaxeTis samefo gaZlierda da

mrewvelobis ganviTareba TandaTan aRorZinebis gzaze dadga. amuSavda

sxvadasxva sawarmo. pirvel rigSi, aucilebelia SevexoT samTamadno

warmoebas, radgan igi SeiaraRebis SeqmnisaTvis mniSvnelovan rols

asrulebda. am saqmis ganviTarebisaTvis mefe ereklem moaxerxamadnis

berZeni ostatebis osmaleTidan gadmoyvana didi gasamjelos dapirebiT,

romlebmac 1774 wels axtalasa da alaverdSi spilenZisa da vercxlis

mopoveba-gamodnobis saqme ganaviTares (58, 223). aRmosavleT saqarTveloSi

samTamadno warmoebis ganviTarebam mniSvnelovani zegavlena moaxdina

samxedro mrewvelobis ganviTarebaze, romelic arsebuli periodisaTvis

prioritetuli iyo. SeiaraRebis ganviTareba zegavlenas axdenda samxedro

xelovnebis ganviTarebaze, igi mniSvnelovnad zrdida saxelmwifos

Tavdacvisunarianobas. samxedro warmoebis ganviTarebaSi igulisxmeba im

droisaTvis arsebuli zarbaznebis, zambulakebis (sparsuli didi Tofi

(48, 118), cixis Tofebis, xelyumbarebis, Tof-iaraRis da sxvaTa damzadeba.

,,TbilisSi arsebobda Tof-iaraRis damamzadebeli qarxana, sadac, sxva

samxedro saWurvelis garda, zarbaznebsac amzadebdnen. aq muSaobdnen

sxvadasxva specialobis xelosnebi - xuroebi, durglebi, zarbaznis

mburRavebi, mqlibavebi. isini xelfass fuliT iRebdnen~ (87, 265).K

a. koWlavaSvilis mier moZiebuli masalebidan Cans, rom 1744 wels,

rodesac qarTlis mefe Teimurazi TbilisSi Semovida da metexis xidze

fexi Sedga, zarbaznis Sedluxma yurTasmena dafarao, xolo qviSxeTSi,

erekles qorwilis Rames, kaxur mravalJamiers Turme suramis cixis

zarbaznebi aZlevdnen bans. Aamave versias mowmobs p. orbelianis ` ambavni

qarTlisani~ (43, 94). wignSi iseTi epizodebia moyvanili, sadac sabrZolo

moqmedebebis dros mefe Teimurazi da erekle II iyenebdnen zarbazans

ZiriTadad safortifikacio nagebobebis dasangrevad Tu cocxali Zalis

gasanadgureblad. ,,. . . baraTaSvilma . . . Tofxana waravlina kexvis

cixesa, dauwyes srola cixesa kexvisasa zarbazniTa da yumbariTa~ (41,

376).

46


ereklesaTvis kargad iyo cnobili omebSi artileriis mniSvneloba.

amitom Tavis erT-erT amocanad isaxavda saqarTveloSi samTo warmoebis

aRdgenas da amis safuZvelze artileriis Semdgom gaumjobesebas. Mmisi

iniciativiT, TbilisSi jer kidev 1749 wels aages saartilerio qarxana

(jabaxana), sadac cixis Tofebs, zambulakebs, Tof-iaraRsa da zarbaznebs

asxamdnen (83, 379). saqarTveloSi, saxelmwifos Tavdacvisunarianobis

saqmeSi kargad acnobierebdnen artileriis mniSvnelobas.Aam mizniT

erekle mefe gamudmebiT cdilobda, visganme zarbaznebis gakeTeba da

xmareba Seeswavla.

mefe ereklem isargebla saqarTveloSi general totlebenis

meTaurobiT jaris SemoyvaniT, romelsac monawileoba unda mieRo

osmaleTis winaaRmdeg dawyebul omSi da mas saartilerio saqmis

qarTveli specialistebis masTan gagzavna Txova.

totlebenis brZanebis safuZvelze, ,,1769 wlis noembridan 1770 wlis

Tebervlamde podpolkovniki s. ColoyaSvili, ruseTis mTavrobis

warmomadgenel anton Tarxan-mouravTan erTad tfilisSi imyofeboda.

erekles misTvis iaraRis sawyobebi uCvenebia da artileriis gamarTvis

saqmeSi daxmareba uTxovia. s. ColoyaSvils am sakiTxze Ppataki

gaugzavnia totlebenisTvis. Ees Ppataki sabediswero aRmoCnda misTvis. . .

totlebenma s. ColoyaSvili saswrafod mejvrisxevSi daibara. . . da

daapatimra . . . 1770 wlis 6 Tebervals graf CerniSovisTvis gagzavnil

moxsenebaSi totlebeni werda: ,,Cemi brZanebebis miuxedavad

s. ColoyaSvili kvlav tfilisSi rCeba da erekles zarbaznebis keTebasa

da lafetze gawyobas aswavliso, me saswrafo brZaneba gaugzavne

dabrunebuliyo, winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi davapatimreb da mozdokSi

gavgzavnio~ (67, 62-63). Seswavlili masalebidan naTlad Cans, rom

artileriis podpolkovnikma s. ColoyaSvilma da Tavadma Tarxan

mouravma mizanmimarTulad ikisres davalebis Sesruleba. isini erekle

mefes zarbaznebis mortirebis gakeTebasa da gamoyenebas aswavlidnen

(mesxia S., Tbilisis istoriuli warsuli, naw. I, 1990, 379).

ruseTis jaris ufrosma generalma totlebenma, Seityo ra am ambis

Sesaxeb, s. ColoyaSvilsa da Tarxan-mouravs satikad aukrZala,

47


qarTvelebisaTvis saartilerio saqme eswavlebinaT. rogorc Cans,

totlebenis amgvari brZaneba ukanonod miuCneviaT, radgan maT moqmedebas

saqarTvelosa da ruseTs Soris imdroindeli samxedro-politikuri

kavSiri amyarebda. Aamitom oriveni TbilisSi darCnen da TavianTi moRvaweoba

ganagrZes (82, 111-112). am garemoebam didad Seuwyo xeli

saqarTveloSi artileriis ganviTarebas. qarxana mdebareobda Zveli

Tbilisis gareubanSi-kojris Zveli gzis dasawyisis dRevandeli

k. leseliZis, S. dadianis, l. asaTianis quCis midamoebSi (93, 4). ucxoeli,

monastris winamZRvari ioseb delaporti, romelic TbilisSi imyofeboda

1768 wels, aRniSnavs zarbaznis warmoebis arsebobas am qalaqSi:

` . . . tfilisSi akeTeben zarbaznebs, yumbarebs, wamals~. . . (33, 75). 1771

wlis 15 oqtombers mefe erekle II-m miiRo akademikosi giuldenStedti.

mas, rogorc istoriuli wyaroebidan irkveva, scodnia samTamadno

warmoeba. Mmefe erekles misTvis saqarTveloSi darCena SeuTavazebia,

radgan sabadoTa damuSavebis specialisti sWirdeboda, magram stumarma

SemoTavazebul winadadebas Tavi aarida (36, 12).

giuldenStedtis gadmocemiT, 1772 wlis 18 Tebervals man

daaTvaliera Tofiswamlis qarxana. Mmisi aRweriT, iq gamoyenebuli

wamlis Semadgeneli nawilebis proporcia Semdegia: 13 - citra anu wili

gvarjila, 2 - wili gogirdi da 3 - wili naxSiri tirifisa an Txilisa.

aseT Semadgenlobas nayaven mTeli dRe kaklis xis sanaySi, romelsac

Signidan aqvs odnav konusiseburi forma, zeviT aris 10 duimis (25.4 sm.)

siganisa da 12 duimi (30.48 sm.) siRmisa, aqvs granitis konusuri filTaqva,

romliTac mTeli dRe nayaven. Ees filTaqva zeviT iweva RerZis

meSveobiT, romelic fexiT mohyavT moZraobaSi. Semdeg wamali ifxvneba

spilenZis rofSi da fskeri aqvs daCvretili (36, 15). es faqti kidev

erTxel amtkicebs samxedro warmoebis arsebobas saqarTveloSi mocemuli

periodisaTvis. erekles dros artileriis Sesaxeb cnobebs gvawvdis

istorikosi butkovi: ... droTa viTarebaSi zarbaznebis ricxvi gaizarda

15-mde paata andronikovis (andronikaSvili) xelSewyobiT, romelmac

codna saartilerio mecnierebaSi ruseTSi miiRo. Mman moawyo TbilisSi

Camosasxmeli saamqro, sadac gadaadno zarbaznebi da Camoasxa isini

48


evropuli kalibrebis mixedviT (49, 287). butkovs mxedvelobidan gamorCa

is, rom zarbaznebis Camosasxmeli qarxana paata andronikaSvilamde

arsebobda saqarTveloSi, razec qvemoT gveqneba saubari. Aaseve cnobas

gvawvdis polkovniki burnaSovi, romelic saqarTveloSi 1783-1787 wlebSi

imyofeboda: `qarTul artilerias atareben xarebiT . . . saSiSia maTi

mezobeli mtrebisaTvis. Eerekles aqvs 12 sakuTari zarbazani, Camosxmuli

tfilisSi~ (151, 7). es cnobebi WeSmariti dadasturebaa imisa, Tu ra

ganviTarebis stadiaSi imyofeboda maSindeli saqarTvelos artileria.

xelnawerTa erovnuli centris fondebSi daculia erT-erTi

xelnaweri S-167. igi Targmnilia qarTulad vaxtang VI-is brZanebiT,

mixeil elieviCis mier, 1725 wels. is ori didi nawilisagan Sedgeba:

pirvelia `sivakis mzomeloba anu planimetria~ da meore `saartilerio

wigni~. xelnaweris qveda ydis Sida mxareze mefe erekles brZanebiT

Tarxan–mouravs aseTi minaweri gaukeTebia: `RvTisagan amaRlebulman

mefeT-mefeman da TviT xelmwifeman mpyrobelman qarTlisa, kaxeTisa,

SamSadinisa, yazaxisa da borCalos meoreman patronma iraklim mibrZana

rusuls dasturze artileriis gakeTeba saqarTvelois kacs giorgi

Tarxans saxeliTa mxTisaTa, SewevniT patronisa CemisaTa gavakeTe gavawye

zarbaznebi, rom rusTac didad moswonT, qarTvelTa da kaxTac did

imedad uCansT, vinc warikixavdes, Sendobas mobrZandeT, R-Ti SegindobisT

Tqvens codvasa~ (16, S.167).

es faqti mowmobs, rom mefe erekle da giorgi Tarxan-mouravi am

saxelmZRvaneloTi sargeblobdnen. wignSi mocemulia cnobebi

saartilerio Wurvebis, xelyumbarebis, Tofiswamlisa da sxva iaraRis

damzadebis Sesaxeb. magaliTisaTvis: `sostavi xeliT sasrolis granatisa:

24 luti wminda marili, 10-is 1/2 luti gvarjila, 3 luti gogirdi,

½luti naxSiri. Ees sostavi erTmaneTSi kargad aurie da cota wyali zed

daaprkvie da mere is cinderi magra gastene~.

xelnawerSi gaTvaliswinebulia damzadebis procesSi usafrTxoebis

zomebis dacva, wamlebis da minarevebis raodenobrivi maCveneblebi,

romlisganac mzaddeboda Wurvebi da xelyumbarebi. naSromis didi

nawili eTmoba zarbaznebis Tematikas, sadac vrcladaa mocemuli

49


sxvadasxva tipis zarbaznis daniSnuleba, maTi gamoyenebis principebi da

cxrilebi srolisaTvis (16, 264). giorgi Tarxan-mouravis mier 1776 wels

mdivan laSqarnivisaTvis micemul baraTSi aRniSnulia ` ... me TofCibaSs

Tarxans giorgis dascems naibs gabriels samis Tvisa Cemi, Cemis naibisa

da Tofxanis sruliad amalisa samocdaTvrameti Tumani eqvsi minalTuni

da xuTi Sauri. Tqven laSqarnivisis manuCarisagan mogvebara baraTebi~

(19, Hd 3843). . .amrigad, 1776 wels ganaxlebuli saartilerio qarxnisa da

artileriis ufrosi is giorgi Tarxn-mouravi iyo, romelmac mefe

erekles zarbaznebi daumzada. igi am Tanamdebobaze, rogorc wyaroebidan

irkveva, 1780 wlamde moRvaweobda.

erekle mefes ar akmayofilebda zarbaznis adgilobrivi warmoeba da

Tbilisis saartilerio qarxnis uaxloesi teqnikis mixedviT gardaqmna

ganizraxa. XVIII saukunis meore naxevridan zarbaznebis warmoeba evropasa

da ruseTis armiebSi sagrZnoblad gaumjobesda. gluvluliani

zarbazani foladis daRarullulianiT Seicvala.

saqarTvelo samxedro kadrebis nakleblobas ganicdida XVIII

saukunis 60-ian wlebSi, erekle meorem saartilerio saqmis Sesaswavlad

ruseTs paata andronikaSvili miavlina. paatam ruseTis armiis

artileriis oficris wodeba miiRo. 70-iani wlebis pirvel naxevarSi

samSobloSi dabrunebuls saartilerio saqmis xelmZRvaneloba daevala.

igi saTaveSi Caudga saqarTvelos samxedro warmoebis gardaqmnas,

romelic erekle mefis TaosnobiT daiwyo (106, 33). es iyo pirveli

mcdeloba saqarTveloSi samxedro warmoebis evropul yaidaze

gadasvlisa, rac mniSvnelovnad Seuwyobda xels samxedro xelovnebis

Semadgeneli nawilis _ taqtikis ganviTarebas (d. m.). am faqts adasturebs

mdivanbegi o. xerxeuliZe. is gadmogvcems: `amasa Sina iwyoca mefeman

artileriisa, e. i. Tofxanisa, evropulsa gvarssa zeda gawyoba da diax

Cinebuli artileria gamarTa. aRezarda mefesa iraklis warsagebeliTa

TvisiTa TavadTa Zeni rosiasa Sina artileriisa swavliTa da maT Soris

gamovida pirveli xelovani Tavadi andronikaSvili paata da uxucesi

ganmgeoba artileriisa, anu felcixmeisteroba, romelsa TofCibaSad

50


uxmobdnen, misca mas da ganewyo yovelive moxeleni da msaxurni

cecxlsasroleTani evropulad~ (47, 92).

erekle II-is dros artileriaSi samsaxuri sapatiod iTvleboda.

gansakuTrebuli privilegiebiT sargeblobdnen artileriis ufrosi

(TofCibaSi) da misi moadgileebi (naibi), romelTa xelmZRvanelobiT

amzadebdnen qarxnis xelosnebi cecxlmfrqvevad saWurvels, kerZod,

zarbaznebsa da mis mowyobilobas. Pp. andronikaSvilma SesaniSnavad

gaarTva Tavi mefis mier micemul davalebas. rogorc sabuTidan irkveva,

saartilerio ganxriT momsaxure pirebi mxolod didi Sromisa da garjis

Semdeg Rebulobdnen maRal Tanamdebobas. 1780 wels p. andronikaSvilma

artileriis ufrosoba miiRo.Mmis ZiriTad amocanas Seadgenda

artileristebis momzadeba, maTi gawvrTna da movla-patronoba. amas

amtkicebs saqarTvelos centralur saistoro arqivSi Seswavlili sabuTi

`Cven qarTlisa da kaxeTis mefem iraklim giboZeT Sen, qisiyis mouravis

Svils paatas TofCibaSs. Aaqamdin TobCibaSoba gayofili iyo. axla

mTlaT da sakuTraT Sen dagadgineT da Sen giboZeT, rac TofCibaSebi

Tarxans giorgis ebarnen, isinic Sen unda miibaro da amaTs swavlazed

bejiTi unda iyo da sxvis Semoyvanasac ecade, rom TofCibaSi TofCeb

gaimravlo. SenTvis jamagirad weliwadSi ormoci Tumani madnidam

mogecema da jinSi ocis Tumnisa sabeWdavis ijaridam mogecema. Amas

yovelwliv Cveni moxeleni ukleblad mogcemen. amas garda, rac SenTvis

ulufa gamogvCenia, is sxva oqmiT mogecema~ (16, 268) (4, 226). erekle II

artileriaSi momsaxure nebismieri rangis pirovnebas garkveul

SeRavaTebs aZlevda, jamagirs uxdida da usamarTlobisganac icavda,

aseve damsaxurebis mixedviT wodebebs aniWebda. mas mowmoben saqarTvelos

centralur saistorio arqivSi daculi dokumentebi (6, 226. # 5124, 5125,

2616, 8719).

XVIII saukunis 70-ian-80-ian wlebSi artileria saqarTveloSi kidev

ufro gaumjobesda, ramac saxelmwifos Tavdacvisunarianobis saqmeSi

mniSvnelovani roli Sasrula: `mefe irakli Tavis samefos kualobazed

Zlieri iyo. imas hqonda ocdaoTxi gawyobili zarbaznebi Tavis

Camosasxmelis saxliTa, romelsaca siTkenac undoda, iqiT waiRebda im

51


zarbaznebs, magram ufrosi erTi sul adgilobriv ewyo da TviTon ki

qarTvelebiT mters sdevnida xan somxiTSi, xan qarTlSi da xan

kaxeTSi. . .im zarbaznebiT da im jariT, romlis mtersa SemouSvebda

saqarTveloSi? aramc Tu SemouSvebda, sxva qveynebsac SeiZenda~ (146, 8).

mefe gamudmebiT cdilobda saartilerio saqmis

srulyofas.AartileristTa kadrebis mosamzadeblad zogjer ucxoel

specialistebsac iwvevda. Mmis SviliSvils, daviT batoniSvils

saartilerio samxedro ganaTleba avstrieli ioseb iakobis Ze

getingisagan miuRia (111, 418). 1794 wels man ruseTSi gagzavna saqarTvelos

mkvidri stefane meliqovi saartilerio saqmis Sesaswavlad. amasTan

dakavSirebiT, mefe erekle Tavis elCs, garsevan WavWavaZes swerda:

`. . .somxiTis meliqovi stefan pavliCi ruseTs iyo, iq rusuli ena da

wigni iswavla da aq CvenTan movida da Cven isev mand ruseTs SenTan

gamovistumreT im mizezebisaTvis, rom … artileriis agebis saqme

iswavlos da am qveyanas gamoadges. Amaszed ram gulmodgineba ixmaro,

Sens mSobels qveyanas vals dasdeb da Cvens gulsac moimadleb. . .Tu

Sengan SeiZlebodes, drozed kapitnobis Cinis Sovnazed Seewio da

uSovno, ufro mxiarulebiT ecdeba swavlis miRebas da saqarTvelos

Sesamati saqme iqneba~ (7, 227). sabuTi gaanalizebulia a. klimiaSvilis

mier.

saWiro iyo saartilerio saqmis ganviTarebisaTvis feTqebadi

masalebis damzadeba. XVIII saukunis II naxevarSi Tofiswamals

garkveulwilad moqalaqe xelosnebi amzadebdnen da vaWrobdnen. mefe

ereklem Tofiswamlis, gvarjilis damzadeba da individualuri pirebis

mier damoukideblad gayidva akrZala. warmoebis ufleba man mxolod erT

pirs - TayuaSvils uboZa. mefis nebarTviT man 1770 wels Tofis wamlis

qarxana aaSena. Tofis wamlis damzadeba da gayidva mxolod am pirovnebas

miando (87, 272). TayuaSvilebisadmi erekles mier micemul nebarTvaSi

aRniSnulia: `Cveni brZaneba aris TayuaSvilo isaiaRav, merme did Wirobas,

qveynisa da Cveni samsaxurisaTvis da qalaqsa da xalxis mraval rigis

movlis samagieroT qalaqSi Tofis wamlis danayvis brZaneba mamaSens, Sen

da SvilTa SenTa giboZeT, Tqvens meti kaci veravin daanayvinebda da verc

52


gorjilasa da Tofis wamals gahyidda. . maSinve Tqvenc qarxana gamarTeviT

da asaqmebdiT, merme Tofxanasa da cixeebisaTvis Seni qarxana TxoebiT

CamogarTviT da samagieroT mamulis boZebas dagpirdiT~ (8, 229).

amrigad, gvarjilisa da Tofiswamlis damzadeba-vaWrobas erekle II

akontrolebda, romelic Semdgom xels Seuwyobda saxelmwifo

daniSnulebisaTvis feTqebadi masalebis maqsimalurad gamoyenebas.

interesmoklebuli ar unda iyos isic, Tu sad mdebareobda asafeTqebeli

masalebis qarxana, ramdenad uzrunvelyo erTma gvarma metad saWiro

davalebis Sesruleba da sad iyo ganlagebuli mniSvnelovani samxedro

obieqtebi. amaze miuTiTebs Semdegi dokumenti: `avlabris cixis gareT,

sadac amjobino, qarxana unda gagekeTebina; sadac gimjobesebia da

giSenebia, is adgili Cvenc moviwoneT ~. . . ocdaxuTi adli alagi gvTxove

Cven. inebeT da is alagi Sen da Sen Svilebs samkvidrod mamulad

giboZeT, duqnebi gaakeTe da wamalic iq gaayidvine~ (9, 229). es sakiTxi

gaaanaliza a. klimiaSvilma, rodesac saartilerio mSeneblobas Seexo.

rogorc vxedavT, Tofiswamlis qarxana avlabris teritoriaze

mdebareobda.

saxelmwifos moTxovna Tofiswamalsa da gvarjilaze imdenad

dakmayofilebuli yofila, rom mefes neba daurTavs TayuaSvilebisaTvis

damzadebuli wamlis individualurad gayidvaze. saartilerio

saWurvelisa da sxva sabrZolo masalebis sawyobi ki nariyalas cixeSi

iyo ganlagebuli (156, 48). es adgili SedarebiT ukeT uzrunvelyofda

samxedro produqciis obieqtebis movlasa da dacvas.

zemoT aRweril masalaSi, romelic saqarTveloSi saartilerio

saqmis ganviTarebas exeba, saubari iyo paata andronikaSvilis

ganswavlulobaze. Cvenis azriT, mas ganaTleba ruseTSi hqonda miRebuli,

saartilerio aRmSeneblobis saqmesac rusul yaidaze warmarTavda,

romelic nawilobriv evropulze iyo dafuZnebuli.Aam mosazrebis

ganmtkicebisaTvis moviyvanT magaliTs: wignSi `saartilerio SeiaraReba~,

nawili I, warmodgenilia rusuli artileriis ganviTarebis etapebi. masSi

moyvanilia monacemebi, saidanac naTlad Cans, rom 1757-1796 wlebSi

saartilerio qvemexebis kalibri meryeobs 76 mm-dan 245 mm-mde. paata

53


andronikaSvilis moRvaweobis periodSi 120 mm-dan 152 mm-de, srolis

manZili ki 20-22 gradusiani kuTxiT gasrolisas 1066 m-dan 2980 m-mde

ganisazRvreboda (165, 169). Sesabamisad, SesaZlebelia, paata

andronikaSvilis xelmZRvanelobiT damzadebuli zarbaznebi miaxloebiT

igive teqnikuri maxasiaTeblebisa yofiliyo.

naSromSi ,,saartilerio mSenebloba aRmosavleT saqarTveloSi XVIII

saukunis II naxevarSi~ mkvlevarma a. klimiaSvilma Seiswavla

artileriis ganviTareba. igi aRniSnavs mefe erekles ganswavlulobas

misi gamoyenebis saqmeSi. ,,. . .Tu isini gamovidnen da omi mouxdesT, Tqven

mindorzed Sebmas ecadeniT. kinklaobasa da imaTsaviT Tofebis

miSvelebasa da ise Sebmas daexseniT. . .qveiTi kaci iberim xansac bevri

eyoleba, cxenianic rom daaqveiToT da ise mixvideT, zarbaznebic win

miimZRvaroT da omi zarbaznebs daacadoT. . .ar auCqardeT, daacaloT,

isini Tqvenze moiyvanoT da Tqven imaTze ar mixvideT, ise sjobs, rom

isini Tqvenze mosvliT daRaloT da RvTiT Tqven im daRaluls erTianaT

SeebaT; isini aqeT-iqidam tanebas dagiwyeben, Tqven zarbaznis srolis

mets nuras iqmT, isini amaSi daiRalvian, masukan erTianad miaweviT. . .~

(87, 273-274). aRniSnulidan naTlad Cans, rom mefe erekle artileriis

miznobrivad gamoyenebasa da sabrZolo moqmedebis warmarTvis xerxze

miuTiTebda. masSi mocemulia mowinaaRmdegis SecdomaSi Seyvanis

RonisZieba - yvela mebrZolis daqveiTeba (rogorc yirbulaxis

brZolisas), mtris moqancva da axlos moSveba. zarbaznis uecari cecxli

ieriSis misatanad gamzadebul mowinaaRmdeges rom demoralizebuls

gaxdida, es faqtia. amitom brZolis dawyebiT etapze artileriis

gamoyeneba garkveulwilad xels uwyobda cocxali Zalis SenarCunebas,

misi sabrZolo suliskveTebis amaRlebas da mtris danakargebis gazrdas.

amrigad, rogorc masalebidan Cans, XVIII saukunis meore naxevarSi

aRmosavleT saqarTveloSi ganviTarebuli iyo artileriisa da

Tofiswamlis, xelyumbarebis warmoeba, romlis gazrdasa da

gaumjobesebas mefe erekle yovelmxriv cdilobda, radgan saxelmwifos

samxedro Zlierebas samxedro mrewvelobis ganviTareba gansazRvravda.

54


1.3. sainJinro – TavdacviTi nagebobebi

XVIII saukunis II naxevarSi erekle II-m mniSvnelovani RonisZiebebi

gaatara cixe-galavnebis, cixe-simagreebis asaSeneblad da

ganaxlebisaTvis, romlebic erTgvar safortifikacio nagebobebs

warmoadgendnen.Mmocemuli periodi daRestneli feodalebisa da

sxvadasxva saxanoebis winaaRmdeg qarTl-kaxeTisaTvis urTulesi brZolis

xana iyo. mowinaaRmdegis Tavdasxmebisagan dasacavad adreul periodSi

agebuli simagreebis raodenoba da konstruqcia mocemul periodSi

moTxovnebs nawilobriv akmayofilebda. amitomMmefe ereklem, Seqmnili

viTarebidan gamomdinare, arsebuli mdgomareoba cixe-simagreTa erTiani

sistemis SeqmniT gamoaswora. cixe-simagreTa centri iyo Telavi (75, 17).

p. zaqaraias naSromSi `kaxeTis safortifikacio nagebobani~

damajerebladaa aRwerili im cixe-simagreebis, cixe-darbazebisa da

galavnebis daxasiaTeba, romlebic mniSvnelovan rols asrulebdnen

mosaxleobis Tavdacvisunarianobis saqmeSi. GgansakuTrebiT aRsaniSnavia

wignSi mocemuli suraTi 1, sadac mocemulia cixe-simagreTa ganlagebis

sqema. isini dasaxlebul punqtebSi ZiriTadad strategiul

mimarTulebebze iyvnen ganlagebuli, sadac SesaZlebeli iyo mosaxleobis

swrafi Sexizvna da xangrZlivi drois ganmavlobaSi brZolis warmarTva.

XVIII saukunis 50-iani wlebidan TavdacviT nagebobaTa mSenebloba

qarTl-kaxeTSi swrafi tempiT grZeldeboda. amis mizezi mtrulad

ganwyobili mezoblebis intensiuri Semosevebi iyo. aRmosavleT

saqarTvelo cixeebiTa da galavnebiT daifara, sadac mosaxleoba mZime

dReebSi Tavs afarebda da warmatebiT igeriebda mtrebs. AaSenebdnen ara

marto axal simagreebs, aramed amagrebdnen da restavracias ukeTebdnen

Zvelebs (112, 626).

Cveni azriT, rogorc Seswavlili masalebidan irkveva, zemoaRniSnul

periodSi da Semdgom saxelmwifos Tavdacis ZiriTadi dasayrdeni cixesimagreebi,

cixe-galavnebi da koSkebi iyo, romlebic erTian TavdacviT

sistemas qmnidnen. am sistemis efeqtur moqmedebaze did gavlenas axdenda

sasignalo-Setyobinebis sistema. Tu igi organizebulad moqmedebda,

maSin mowinaaRmdegis mier moulodnelad Tavdasxmis SemTxvevaSi

55


saxelmwifos SigniT mobilizebuli xvdebodnen. cixe-simagreebisa da

galavnebis damakavSirebeli sayaraulo koSkebi iyo. maTi daniSnulebidan

gamomdinare, iseT adgilmdebareobaze ganalagebdnen, saidanac maTi

saSualebiT xdeboda umokles droSi signalis gadacema. signalis

adreul saxes koSkebis Tavze danTebuli koconi warmoadgenda.

SemdgomSi ki paralelurad cecxlsasroli iaraRi, droSebi da Sikrikebi

gamoiyeneboda. safortifikacio nagebobebi ZiriTadad strategiulad

mniSvnelovan adgilebze iyo ganlagebuli. isini garkveulwilad

ketavdnen sazRvrebze gadmosasvlel gzebs, xolo saxelmwifos SigniT _

gzajvaredinebs, centralur da mniSvnelovan magistralebs.

saqarTveloSi cixe-simagreebisa da galavnebis asagebad bunebrivi

pirobebi xelsayreli iyo, amitom maT vake adgilmdebareobaze iSviaTad

agebdnen. Tu ki simagreTa vakeze ageba aucileblobas warmoadgenda,

adgilTan SefardebiT mas Txrilebsac Semoavlebdnen, raTa mters

Tavisuflad ieriSis mitana ar SeZleboda.

safortifikacio nagebobebisa da mtris Tavdasxmisas qarTvelTa

moqmedebebis Sesaxeb cnobebs gvawvdis germaneli mkvlevari da

mogzauri giuldenStedti. is gadmogvcems: ` aq Canda mrgvali da

oTxkuTxedi moednebi, miwayrilebi, sadac mcxovrebni afareben Tavs da

pirutyvs, roca droze SeamCneven mZarcvelebs, mamacurad icaven Tavs.

mkacrad dadgenili wesis Tanaxmad, yoveli qiziyeli miiCqaris Tavisi

TofiT iqiT, saidanac esmis srolis xma am RonisZiebebis wyalobiT,

lekebi maT ufro iSviaTad esxmian Tavs~ (36, 27).

Semdeg mkvlevari aRwers im safortifikacio nagebobebis

moyvanilobasa da TviT mosaxleobis moqmedebas, romelTac esoden

mniSvnelovani roli Seasrules TviTgadarCenis saqmeSi:. . . ,,umetesad

yovel sofels aqvs erTi an ramdenime mrgvali koSkebi. Tavdasxmis dros

qveda sarTulze Tavs afareben qalebi da bavSvebi, zeda sarTulze ki

ikribebian SeiaraRebuli kacebi da esvrian yaCaRebs. Bbevr sofels aqvs

. . .kedliT garSemortymuli . . . oTxkuTxa moedani karebebiTa da

sasroli koSkebiT. aseT adgilebSi, romlebsac cixeebi hqviaT, an ar

56


cxovroben, an cxovroben cotani, Tavdasxmebis dros yvelani cdiloben,

am cixeebSi gadairCinon Tavi saqonliTa da qonebiT~ (36, 249-251).

TavdacviTi nagebobebis daniSnulebasa da gamZleobaze miuTiTebs

yvarlis cixeSi, alyaSi moqceuli qarTvelebis brZola, romelzec

Semdgom TavSi gveqneba saubari. Aaq sayuradReboa is faqti, rom ocdasami

dRis ganmavlobaSi (110, 12) alyaSemortymul cixeSi mowinaaRmdegem

qarTvelTa damarcxeba ver moaxerxa. sainteresoa mematianis erTi cnoba ...

sxva Rone rome movipovneTo da yvarlis cixe ganvaZlieroTo, Tu im

cixes (mteri-d. m.) aiRebda, gaRma mxari xelT darCebaT da raxan gaRma

mxars iSovnian, kaxeTis Sovnac gauadvildebaTo. Mmere dasustebuls

qarTls riTRa SevimagrebTo~ (43, 229). yvarlis ,,cixis kedlebis mTel

perimetrze koSkebis gareSe Tavisuflad SeeZlo erTdroulad emoqmeda

aTasamde msrolels. amas Tu mivumatebT Svidi koSkis saTofeebs,

miviRebT saTofeTa iseT raodenobas, romelic saSualebas gvaZlevs,

warmovidginoT Zlieri garnizoni.

yvarlis cixis meore galavanze da arxze gviyveba

,,kalmasobaSi~ misi mnaxveli ioane, sadac vkiTxulobT: ,,ioane warvida

cixisken da Tan gayva alaverdis saxlTuxucesi. ra cixesTan mivida

ioane, ixila meore sxva galavani Semortymuli da galavans gare arxi. . .

hkiTxa saxlTuxucess: es simagre vin gaakeTao? man uTxra: ioane

batoniSvilman, rom mefe iraklim aq ubrZana yofnao, odes omarxan

movidoda ocdaxuTi aTasis kaciT am yvarelzed, maSin es simagre

gagvikeTa batonis-Svilman SigniT galavanSi dedakacni da ymawvilni

daayena da burjebSi TofaCni da meTofeni da TviTon jariT da Cven aq

videqiT. da eserd magrad viyaviT, rom movidnen mtris jarni, bursas

verRa gascildnen, da orjel aq dagveswro Cvens gaWirvebis dRes, da

RmerTs garda iman dagvixsna im mterT tyveobisagan~ (75, 109-110).

rogorc safortifikacio nagebobebis istoriidan irkveva,

saTofurebis ganlageba da daxriloba imdagvarad yofila mowyobili,

romelic uzrunvelyofda axlo da Sor manZilze cecxlis efeqturad

warmarTvas. zemoaRniSnulidan gamomdinare, naTlad Cans, Tu ra didi

57


mniSvneloba hqonda qarTl_kaxeTisaTvis yvarlis cixes. Aam brZolis

dros qarTl-kaxeTi mTlianad mindobili yofila aRniSnul simagreze.

zogierTi istorikosis cnobiT cixis aReba saxelmwifosaTvis

karibWis Camoxsnis tolfasi iyo. sxvadasxva saxis simagreebSi, es iqneba

saxelmwifo daniSnulebis cixe, cixe-darbazi, Tu galavani, maTi

koSkebidan erTi yovelTvis gamoirCeoda. reliefis sirTulis

SemTxvevaSi sxvebze didi koSki maRal adgilze Sendeboda. iseT cixegalavnebSi,

romlebic vakeze iyo ganlagebuli, erT-erT koSks,

romlidanac garemo ufro moxerxebulad da Sors Canda, sxvebze maRals

agebdnen. aseTi koSkebidan xdeboda ara marto midamoebis dazverva,

aramed mtris gamoCenisas signalis micema, rac uzrunvelyofda

mosaxleobis mokle droSi mobilizebas.

aqve unda aRiniSnos, rom cixe-simagreebis, galavnebisa da koSkebis,

aseve sxva TavdacviTi mniSvnelobis nagebobebze pasuxismgebelni iyvnen im

teritoriis mouravebi da mflobelebi, romelTa daqvemdebarebaSic

safortifikacio nagebobebi Sedioda. erekle II-is mefobis periodSi

qarTlsa da kaxeTSi TiTqmis ar darCenila arc erTi mniSvnelovani xeoba

Tu magistrali, sadac cixe-simagreebi da TavdacviTi nagebobebi ar

aegoT. QqarTlSi aSenebul-ganaxlebul simagreTagan aRsaniSnavia

saSaburo - bazaleTis Crdilo aRmosavleTiT, satixari - patara liaxvis

Sua welSi, xaduriani-patara liaxvis xeobaSi, fca - frones marcxena

napirze, aradeTi-frones marjvena napirze, lamisyana-qsnis xeobaSi,

muxranis, kodis, qvemoWalis, MmWadijvris da sxv.

kaxeTSi erekles dros aSenda da ganaxlda cixeebi da cixe-galavnebi

_ Telavis cixe, vaxvaxiSvilis cixe, boWorma, siRnaRi, axmeta, ruispiri,

sabue, alaverdi, yvareli, lalisyuri, nafareuli, Silda, iyalTo da

sxva. aSenda koSkebi kardenaxSi, kisisxevSi, oJioSi, martyofsa da sxva

(57). CamoTvlilTagan aRsaniSnavia siRnaRis cixe-darbazi, romelic 1762

welsaa aSenebuli. igi ganlagebulia maRali mTis koncxze, rogorc

sartyeli. mas uWiravs 40 heqtaramde farTobi. garSemoweriloba 2500 m-

mdea. cixis galavnis kedelebSi 23 koSkia aSenebuli (75, 66), romlebic,

reliefidan gamomdinare, iseT adgilzea ganlagebuli, saidanac

58


SesaZlebeli iyo jvaredini cecxlis warmarTva da koSkebs Soris

mdebare kedlebisa da sivrcis dacva. iq sadac koSki ar dgas galavanSi

gakeTebulia saTofurebi. cixis kedlebi oriarusiani iyo. qveda iarusi

mebrZolTa gadaadgilebas uzrunvelyofda. cixe-darbazi irgvliv mdebare

soflebis TavSesafars warmoadgenda. CrdiloeTidan akontrolebda

alaznis vels, samxreT-aRmosavleTidan dedofliswyarosa da Siraqis

velis mimarTulebebs.

zemoT moyvanili magaliTebs xazgasmiT aRniSnavs o. xerxeuliZe,

romelic ambobs, rom . . . ,,aSendnen qarTl-kaxeTis 160-mde galavani da

burji~ (47, 74). yovelive aRniSnulidan gamomdinare naTlad Cans, rom

qarTvelTa TavdacvisaTvis, brZolisunarianobis asamaRleblad da

gansamtkiceblad safortifikacio naebobebs XVIII saukunis II naxevarSi

didi mniSvneloba qonda.

maSasadame, ganxiluli masalebi cxadyofen, rom: erekle II-m

axtalasa da alaverdSi spilenZisa da vercxlis madnis sabadoebis

amoRebiTa da gamodnobiT aaRorZina samTamadno warmoeba, ramac, Tavis

mxriv, pirvelad saqarTveloSi (da ara mxolod qarTl-kaxeTSi)

garkveulwilad safuZveli Cauyara samxedro mrewvelobis Seqmnas, ramac

mniSvnelovnad gazarda qveynis Tavdacvisunarianoba.

swored samxedro mrewvelobis SeqmniT gaxda SesaZlebeli

saartilerio saqmis ganviTareba. zarbaznebis, zambulakebis, Tofebis,

xelyumbarebisa da asafeTqebeli nivTierebebis warmoebiT aRiWurva

qarTl-kaxeTis samefos jari. man, Tavis mxriv, aamaRla misi

brZolisunarianoba. amave mizans emsaxureboda saartilerio da sxva

samxedro specialistebis mozidva qveyanaSi da erovnuli samxedro

kadrebis aRzrda-momzadeba, rusuli jaris msgavsad, samxedro wodebebis

SemoReba qarTul jarSi, wesdebebisa da sxva samxedro literaturis

gadmoTargmna rusulidan qarTulad, axlis Seqmna.

erekle II-is mefobis periodSi, misi samxedro-reformatoruli

moRvaweobis Sedegad, qarTuli jari Sedgeboda qveiTebis, cxenosnebisa

da artileristebisagan, romelTagan saukeTeso nawils cxenosani jari

Seadgenda.

59


qarTl-kaxeTis samefos Tavdacvisunarianobis ganmtkicebas isaxavda

miznad arsebuli cixeebisa da galavnebis masobrivi SekeTeba, axlebis

ageba da sainJinro-TavdacviTi daniSnulebiT maTi mowyoba. maTTvis

adgilebis SerCeva optimaluri gziT, ZiriTadad, samxedro TvalsazrisiT

xdeboda. aseve gaTvaliswinebuli iyo sasignalo sistemis mniSvneloba da

misi srulyofis saWiroeba, rasac saTanado yuradReba eqceoda.

60


Tavi II. erekle II-is umniSvnelovanesi brZolebi

2.1. yarabaRis brZola

XVIII saukunis 40-iani wlebidan qarTlisa da kaxeTis samefoebi

erTmaneTs mWidrod daukavSirdnen, rac ganapiroba qarTlis mefis

Teimuraz II-is da kaxeTis mefis erekle II-is SeTanxmebulma brZolam

aRmosavleT saqarTvelos gaZlierebisTvis.

1747 wels nadir-Sahis gardacvalebis Semdeg iranis saxelmwifo

TandaTan uZlurdeboda da igi Sinaganma anarqiam moicva. ispahanis (iranis

maSindeli dedaqalaqi) mmarTvelbis xSiri cvalebadobiT da sisustiT

sargeblobdnen didebulebi, romlebicAarbevdnen, atyvevebdnen da

awiokebdnen iranis provinciebs. erT-erTi aseTi pirovneba iyo yarabaRis

xani-fana jevanSireli, romelmac marjved gamoiyena arsebuli situacia

da yarabaRis mmarTveli gaxda (127, 66). Tavisi mdgomareobis ganmtkicebis

mizniT, 1750 wels fana-xanma daarRvia ganjis saxanos sazRvrebi da

ganjis cixes miadga (47, 49). amasTan dakavSirebiT p. orbeliani

mogviTxrobs: ,,aiSalnen fana-xan da ganjis xani Saverdi-xan, moindoma

fanam ganjis xanoba TavisTavis da adribeJanis sardlobasac cdilobda.

es Saverdi xan ar iyabula da fanam jari Semoiyara, TviTonac kai eli

hyvanda, javanSir da yarabaRSi Sig Cadga, jari ase Semoiyara, rom ganjis

qalaqis meti aRar darCa, gamogzavna ganjis xanma Tavisi Zma riza yuli

beg qarTlSi da Semoexvewa mefes Teimurazsa da Zesa missa mefes

erekles: ,,damixseniT am kacisagano, me da Cemi qveyana Tqveni mona

SeviqmnebiTo, jarsac jamagirs mivcemTo . . . batonebma Tavs Seidves da

jaris Tadarigi daiWires . . . ubrZanes mefeTa qarTlisa da kaxeTis

jarebs da daeSurnen miSvelebasa ganjasa~ (43, 164). e. i.Gganjis xanis

meSveobiT erekle II-s fana-xanis Semosevis ambavi Seatyobines. Semdeg

somexi episkoposi da meliqebic (vaWar-moqalaqeTa warmomadgenlebi)

mefesTan mividnen saTxovnelad: ,, qristiani xelmwife brZandebiT, Tqveni

qveSevrdomebi gagvxadeT, urjulos xelidan dagvixseniTo~ (43, 165).

ganjis saxano qarTl-kaxeTis mfarvelobaSi Sedioda. igi samxedro

mfarvelobis xarjebis asanazRaureblad xarks ixdida, aseTive

61


mdgomareobaSi iyo erevnis saxanoc. Ggadasaxdeli xarkis raodenoba

icvleboda saxanoTa finansuri SesaZleblobebis mixedviT, zogjer

wliurad ormoc aTas maneTs aRwevda da mniSvnelovan rols asrulebda

qarTl-kaxeTis saxelmwifo xazinaSi.

erekle II-m Seafasa arsebuli viTareba. im SemTxvevaSi, Tu fana-xani

ganjas aiRebda, Semdgom, savaraudoa, rom yazax-borCalos dapyrobasac

daapirebda, ris Sedegadac kaxeTis samefo safrTxis qveS aRmoCndeboda.

faqtiurad, buferul zonaze kontrols dakargavda. Aamitom ereklem da

Teimurazma fana-xanisa da misi laSqris sabolood ganadgureba

gadawyvites. qarTvelTa laSqarSi, qarTl-kaxelebis garda, TuS-fSavxevsurebic

Sediodnen, aseve imerlebi da Cerqezebi. gaigo ra,

mowinaaRmdegem ganjaSi gardauvali Setakebis Sesaxeb, fana-xanma RamiT

ganjis cixes alya moxsna da Tavisi jariT yarabaRSi gadavida. Dismis

kiTxva _ ratom daixia mowinaaRmdegem? AalbaT imitom, rom man kargad

icoda erekle mefis samxedro warmatebebis Sesaxeb. Aase, rom Tu fanaxani

ganjaSi qarTvelebTan brZolaSi Caebmeboda, igi damarcxdeboda.

saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi SesaZlo daxmarebas droze ver miiRebda,

amitomac amjobina, ukan daexia da Tavis samflobeloSi waremarTa

sabrZolo moqmedebebi, rac samxedro TvalsazrisiT did upiratesobas

mianiWebda.

1750 wlis Tebervlis TveSi qarTvelTa laSqari yarabaRSi SeiWra. ,,

. . . viTac ver SeZlebda pirdapir qarTvelTasa, aiyara maSin RamiT

ganjidam da wavida, Cavida Tavis elebSi, dauwyo ayra da magreba~ (42,

166). ganjis cixis garda, fana-xanis laSqarma meCeTebidan dawyebuli

TiTqmis yvela Senoba miwasTan gaaswora da gapartaxebuli saxano

miatova. man Tavisi elebi (Turqmanuli momTabare tomebi) md. araqsis

sanapirosaken gadaajgufa, xolo TviTon 6 000 mebrZoliT mTian adgilze

tyis piras gamagrda. Mmis SemadgenlobaSi Sediodnen javanSiris,

SamSadilis, barguSaTis da Sahisevanis mebrZolebi (42, 166).

mowinaaRmdegis jari, romelic tyian serebze iyo Casafrebuli, safridan

ar gamodioda, vinaidan taqtikurad momgebian situaciaSi imyofeboda da

gaSlil adgilze brZolaSi SeiZleba damarcxdebuliyo. fana-xans, ra

62


Tqma unda ecodineboda qarTl-kaxeTis jaris siZliere da amitom daikava

iseTi poziciebi, romelic upiratesobas mianiWebda bZolis

msvlelobisas.

savaraudoa, rom mefe erekles, dazvervam Seatyobina mowinaaRmdegis

poziciebis ganlagebis Sesaxeb. ,,ra gaviareT mcire ram alagi, movediT

erTsa kldovansa alagsa, movida Cveni yarauli, moaxsena mefes erekles:

,,aqaT jari dgas fanasio~(43, 167). mefem viTarebis Sesabamisad miiRo

gadawyvetileba: mewinave (avangardi – d. m.) sadroSoTi Seteva

ganexorcielebina mtris poziciebze, xolo mTavari Zala mefe Teimuraz

II-is meTaurobiT qveviT mindorSi datova, raTa xelsayrel momentSi

gamoeyenebina. BbrZolis msvleloba rom naTeli warmosadgeni gaxdes,

moviSveliebT mematianis aRweras, rac Sesabamisi daskvnebis gakeTebis

saSualebas mogvcems: ` wabrZanda mewinaves jariT…... tyiani mTa iyo, isini

(mowinaaRmdege) imazed warmomdgariyvnen, sanamdis avidodiT, rac jari

mogvdevda naxevari veRar amogvyva da abrZanda mefe erekle, mcire ram

kaci ayva, ase davaxlovdiT, rom Cveni da imaTi kaci erTmaneTs ecnen.

brZana mefe ereklem: ` vin aris erTguli Cemi da aqvs guli mamacobisao,

Jami es aris~. TiTonac, viTa lomi, egre miesiva da jari, vinc iq iyvnes,

vinRa dadgeboda ... Tavs viRa dazogavda. mere yizilbaSis jarze

qarTvelni da kaxni ase gamamacebuliyvnen, rom erTi Cveni kaci as

yizilbaSs ar daerideboda. MmiuZRva revaz orbeliani, sardali

baraTaSvilis jarisa da qisiyis mouravi Tamaz qisiyeli, TiTo Tofi

dascales da mere xmaldaxmal gaerivnes, pirvelze isinic kargad iyvnes,

rom almebi Cvens jarSi Semoitanes. Mmagram ra qarTvelni da kaxni

TavgamometebiT imaT jarSi Sig Secvivdnen, veRar dadgnen yizilbaSni da

gaiqcnen. ra Seityo fana-xanma, mefe erekle am mowinaves jarSi ureviao,

maSinve gaiqca~ (42, 168).BbrZolis mocemul etapze mefe ereklem Sikriki

gaugzavna mefe Teimuraz II-s da ZiriTadi Zalebis brZolaSi CarTva

sTxova. Setyobinebis Semdeg qarTvelebi qvemodan tyian zeganze avidnen

da panikaSi Cavardnil mowinaaRmdegeze ieriSi miitanes. gaqceuli

yarabaRelebis devna da maTi ganadgureba gvian Ramemde gagrZelda.

mefeebi fana-xanis mTavar sangarSi Sevidnen da iq datovebul Tof-iaraRs

63


daepatronen. QqarTvelTa laSqarma md. araqsamde miaRwia, misi gaRmagamoRma

mxareebi moarbia, mravali tyve da saqoneli wamoiyvana.

YyarabaRSi gamarjvebiT qarTl-kaxeTis samefos administraciulma

sazRvrebma aRmosavleTiT, md. Zegamze gadainacvla. AamiT ganjis saxanos

Semdgomi gaZlierebis pirobebi SeizRuda, xolo fana-xanis damarcxebiT

amierkavkasiaSi pirvelobisaTvis mebrZolTa rigebs erT-erTi saxano

gamoaklda (112, 616). Aamrigad, fana-xanTan yarabaRis brZolaSi gamarjveba

erekle mefis xelmZRvanelobiT mewinave sadroSos Zlierma frontalurma

dartymam ganapiroba. mtris sabrZolo wyoba dairRva.Mmiuxedavad imisa,

rom mTis ferdobebze Casangrebul mowinaaRmdeges adgilmdebareoba

kontrieriSze gadasvlis saSualebas aZlevda, arsebuli upiratesoba ver

gamoiyena. aseve xazgasasmelia is faqti, rom mowinaaRmdegis sardlis

gaqcevam uzrunvelyo mtris sabrZolo wyobaSi panikis gavrceleba da

mebrZolTa demoralizeba. QqarTvelTa laSqris ZiriTadi Zalebis mier

Setevis ganviTarebam da gaqceul mowinaaRmdegeze dadevnebisas

miyenebulma dartymebma misi sruli ganadgureba gamoiwvia. ra Tqma unda,

am brZolaSi mniSvnelovani roli iTamaSa mewinave (avangardi) sadroSoSi

myof mebrZolTa xelCarTuli brZolebis xelovnebam, romelic mematianes

teqstSi aqvs aRwerili. Aaseve mefis, rogorc mTavarsardlis piradama

magaliTma garRvevis ubanze moqmedebisas. xazgasasmelia isic, rom

qarTvelTa laSqari taqtikurad wamgebian situaciaSi imyofeboda, magram

Eerekle II-m rTul reliefze Setevis ganxorcielebis gadawyvetileba

miiRo. Ees ki amtkicebs mowinaaRmdegis Sesaxeb yovelmxriv saTanado

informaciis flobas, romelsac udidesi mniSvneloba eniWeba. mterze

gamarjvebam didi zegavlena moaxdina azerbaijanis teritoriaze myof

saxanoebze. warmatebulma moqmedebebma saerTo jamSi qarTl-kaxeTis

samxreT-aRmosavleTiT sazRvrebis gafarToeba ganapiroba, ramac xeli

Seuwyo aRmosavleT saqarTvelosadmi ganjis, yarabaRis da naxWevanis

saxanoebis vasalur damokidebulebas.

SevecadoT maTematikuri modelirebis meTodiT vipovoT ramden xans

gagrZelda brZola, aseve Cveni da mowinaaRmdegis danakargebi:

64


gaTvlebisTvis gamoviyeneT raodenobebi, Cveni 4000, mowinaaRmdegis

6000, romelic pirvelwyaroSia gadmocemuli [43, 165, 166].

brZila davyaviT sam etapad: I _ mewinave razmis moqmedebebi; II _

generaluri Setakeba; III _ mowinaaRmdegeze dadevneba.

kompiuteruli gaTvlebiT ganxiluli iyo variantebi. I etapze Cveni

mewinave razmis Semadgenloba ≈ 350 – 400, mowinaaRmdegis 600, 700, 800

mebrZoli. aq erT-erT faqtorad gaviTvaliswineT, is garemoeba, rodesac

mowinaaRmdege ukan daixevda 30 - 35%-is danakargebis SemTxvevaSi. sul

gamovida 12 varianti. variantebis eqspertuli Sefasebidan amovirCieT

Semdegi: mewinave Zalebis Setakeba gagrZelda ≈ 56 wuTi, Cvenma mxarem

dakarga ≈ 73, mowinaaRmdegem ≈ 284 mebrZoli, ris Sedegadac mtris mewinave

razmebi ukuiqcnen. am variantSi qarTveleTa mewinave razmis

Semadgenloba iyo 400, mowinaaRmdegis 800 da mtris mowinave Zalebis

danakargi 35%.

brZolis II etapze SetakebaSi monawileoba miiRo orive mxaris

ZiriTadma Zalebma. am droisTvis ZalTa Tanafardoba gaTvlebidan

gamomdinare, daWril-daxocilTa gamoklebiT, iqneboda Cveni ≈ 3 900,

mowinaaRmdegis ≈ 5700 kaci. brZola gagrZelda ≈ 47 wuTi. aRniSnuli

monacemebis gamoyenebiTa da gaTvlebiT danakargebi iqneboda Cveni ≈≈ 388,

mtris≈≈ 1737 mebrZoli.

brZolis III etapze mowinaaRmdegem dadevnebisas ganicada danakargebi.

sxva brZolebis analizidan gamomdinare viciT, rom dadevnebisas

uSualod brZolaze modis drois 2/3. aRniSnul brZolaSi mterze

dadevneba ≈ 4 saaTi gagrZelda [43, 169]. Cven SemTxvevaSi gamodis, rom 4 •

2/3 = 160 wuTs. e. i. dadevnebisas 160 wuTis ganmavlobaSi, miaxloebiT 5

jer moxdeboda dapirispirebul mxareTa Setakeba. aseT viTarebaSi,

(rodesac mteri demoralizebulia da qarTveli mebrZolis Tvisobrivi

maCvenebeli 1/3 ki ara 1/6) TiToeuli SebrZolebisas, gaTvlebiT miRebuli

danakargebi 30 wuTSi gamodis, Cveni ≈ 15, mtris ≈ 174. sul SetakebebSi

ganadgurdeboda Cveni≈ ≈ 75, mowinaaRmdegis ≈ 870 mebrZoli.

65


sabolood miviReT, rom brZolis samive etapze danakargebi yofila

Semdegi: Cveni ≈ 550, mowinaaRmdegis≈≈ 2791. sul sabrZolo moqmedebebi

warmarTula ≈ 6 saaTi da 30 wuTi. maT Soris uSualo brZola ≈ 4 saaTi

da 20 wuTi.

YyarabaRis teritoriaze Catarebuli brZola fana-xanis winaaRmdeg

warmoadgenda SeteviTi saxis sabrZolo operacias.MmasSi gamoyenebuli

iyo Semdegi saxis taqtikuri elementebi, rogoricaa:

_ umokles droSi taqtikuri marSis (msvlelobisas mowinaaRmdegis

Tavdasxmis saSiSroeba) ganxorcieleba;

_ mowinaaRmdegis Sefaseba;

_ avangardis moqmedebebi garRvevis monakveTze;

_ urTierTqmedebis organizeba;

_ ZiriTadi Zalebis brZolaSi drouli CarTva;

_ sruli ganadgurebis mizniT mowinaaRmdegeze dadevneba.

aRniSnuli taqtikuri elementebi samxedro xelovnebis im principebs

ganekuTvneba, rogoricaa ZalTa araTanabari ganawileba, mTavari da

damxmare dartymebis mimarTulebebis gansazRvra, rac aqtualuria

Tanamedrove sabrZolo operaciebis Catarebisas.

isic unda avRniSnoT, rom ereklem mowinaaRmdeges Tavs moaxvia

brZolis sakuTari gegma, aiZula igi, qarTvelebisTvis misaRebi sabrZolo

gegmis mixedviT emoqmedaT, ramac maT daakargvina iniciativa.

mowinaaRmdege, miuxedavad taqtikurad xelsayrel poziciebze yofnisa,

qarTvelTa laSqris avangardis Zlieri ieriSis gamo iZulebuli gaxda,

gaqceuliyo. aq kargad gamoikveTa erekles, rogorc mTavarsardlis

fsiqologiuri zegavlena. mtris ukan daxevisTanave man droulad CarTo

brZolaSi mTavari Zalebi, ganaviTara devna da ganxorcielebuli

manevriT gamanadgurebeli dartymebi miayena mas. am brZolaSi garkveuli

roli iTamaSa Cveni mebrZolebis fizikurma gamZleobm da

individualurma sabrZolo xelovnebam. ,,roca Zlieri da susti

erTnairad amJRavneben vaJkacobas niSnavs, rom moqmedebs adgilis kanoni,

amitom, unarian sardals TiTqos xelCakidebuli mihyavs Tavisi jari,

TiTqos erTi kaci iyos, niSnavs, rom Seqmna mdgomareoba, saidanac

66


gamosavali ar aris~ _ sun Zi (91, 62). ase moxda aRniSnuli brZolis

dawyebiT etapze, ramac viTareba qarTvelTa sasargeblod Secvala.

2.2. yirxbulaxis brZola

XVIII saukunis II naxevari erT-erT mniSvnelovan etapad iTvleba

aRmosavleT saqarTvelos istoriaSi. mas Semdeg, rac Teimuraz II-m iranSi

garkveuli dro dahyo, saqarTveloSi Camoitana Sahis sigeli imis Sesaxeb,

rom yazax-borCalo qarTl-kaxeTis samefos kuTvnileba iyo. amieridan

aRmosavleT saqarTvelos samxreT-aRmosavleT sazRvari md. aRstafis

xeoba gaxda (112). gafarTovda teritoriuli farglebi. QqarTl-kaxeTis

istoriaSi daiwyo ramdenadme axali periodi, rodesac saqarTvelo Zalze

rTul viTarebaSi ganagrZobda sabrZolo moqmedebebis warmoebas

mozRvavebuli mtris winaaRmdeg. es ganpirobebuli iyo saqarTvelos

samxedro-politikuri aRorZinebis gzaze dadgomiT.

zemoaRniSnul periodSi qarTvelTa damoukideblobis SenarCunebisa

da ganmtkicebisaTvis Tavdadebuli brZolis SesaniSnav nimuSad iTvleba

1751 wlis ivlisSi Catarebuli brZola azat-xan avRanTan. Ees brZola

mniSvnelovania samxedro xelovnebis TvalsazrisiTac.

iranSi nadir-Sahis sikvdilis Semdeg azat-xanma avRanTa da uzbekTa

jarebiT daimorCila Tavrizi, urmia da xoi (maSindeli iranis

teritoria). laSqriT gadmolaxa md. araqsi, daikava naxWevnis saxano,

moarbia somxeTis teritoriebi da erevnis cixes alya Semoartya.

strategiul mizans aRmosavleT amierkavkasiaSi gabatoneba warmoadgenda

(112, 621).

erekle mefem, Seityo ra yovelive momxdaris Sesaxeb, Sekriba

qarTl-kaxeTis, yazax-borCalos laSqari da soRanluRi-marneulis gziT

erevnisken gaemarTa. Teimuraz II-m brZolaSi wasvla moindoma, magram

TviT erekle II-isa da warCinebuli Tavadebis TxovniT TbilisSi darCa

(127, 99). es gamowveuli iyo Semdegi garemoebiT: 1751 wlis 15 Tebervals

aji CalabTan (Saqis xani) brZolaSi gancdili marcxis Semdeg, erekle II-m

da misma mxardamWerma Tavadebma kargad gaacnobieres, rom

orsardlianobas azat-xanTan brZolaSi SeiZleboda kidev ufro

67


savalalo Sedegi mohyoloda.Mmama da Svilis erTdrouli

saxelmwifoebrivi moRvaweoba aRniSnuli droisaTvis ase Tu ise mainc

aRmosavleT saqarTvelos stabilizacias unarCunebda. sabrZolo

operaciebis warmarTvisas ki, ra Tqma unda, erTi sardali sjobda,

romelic organizebul marTvas ganaxorcielebda. amiT aixsneboda, rom

Semdgom warmoebul sabrZolo moqmedebebSi Teimuraz II-m samxedro

asparezi erekle II-s dauTmo, rogorc gamocdil mxedarTmTavars.

qarTvelTa laSqris somxeTisken wasvla mowinaaRmdegis dazvervas

gaugebari ar darCenia. azat-xanis laSqarma erevnis cixes alya moxsna da

ukan daixia. Eerevnis mecixovne jari Zalian damSeuli aRmoCnda. TiTqmis

mTelo saxano daclili iyo muSaxelisagan. Tanac, mkis dro iyo: erekle

mefem Tavis mebrZolebs moamkevina, gaalewina puri da aTas-aTasi kodi

cixeSi Seatanina. erevanSi man ramdenime politikurad saeWvo warCinebuli

piri daatyvevebina da colSviliTurT TbilisSi gamozavna. Aamis Semdeg

man momaRlo adgilas daiWira poziciebi yirxbulaxSi, saidanac erTi

mxriT Tvalyurs adevnebda erevans, xolo meore mxriT marbieli razmebis

TavdasxmiT mters did zians ayenebda (43, 184). darbeuli erevnis cixe

kvlav qarTvelTa daqvemdebarebaSi gadavida, ramac xeli Seuwyo momavali

sabrZolo moqmedebebisaTvis dasayrdenis mopovebas.

azat-xanma, gaigo ra erekle mefis moqmedebebis Sesaxeb, mematianis

gadmocemiT: ,,aRborgda mxeci cofovani da ganizraxa saqme boroti,

yaTlani (mokvla) qarTvelTa da mooxreba qarTlisa, Semoiyara Tvrameti

aTasi kaci, Tofxana xelmwifuri... da egre didebiT wamovida mefe

erekleze, lamobda idumal dasxmasa, movida yirxbulaxs da sada mefe

erekle idga, mTaTa ze wamodga’’ (43, 185).

rac Seexeba meore mematianis, oman xerxeuliZis cnobas am brZolis

Sesaxeb, igi gadmogvcems, TiTqos brZola 1752 wlis ivlisSi momxdariyo

da mowinaaRmdeges 40 000 mebrZoli hyolodes. aseT azrs Cven ver

gaviziarebT, radgan papuna orbelianis gadmocema ufro sarwmunoa

damadasturebelia. igi TviTmxilvelia am brZolisa, xolo o. xerxeuliZe

ZiriTadad XVIII s-is 60-ian wlebs ufro dawvrilebiT aRwers, vidre

manamdels.

68


yirbulaxis adgilmdebareobis dadgena, sadac sabrZolo moqmedebebi

warimarTa, Cvens xelT arsebuli rukebis meSveobiT ver moxerxda.

vaxuSti bagrationi, XVIII s-is amierkavkasiis zogad rukaze ar

migviTiTebs aRniSnul adgilmdebareobas da arc 1886 wels dabeWdili

xuTversiani topografiuli rukis planSetebze ar aris miniSnebuli,

rogorc dasaxlebuli punqti. vfiqrobT, rom es iyo garkveuli adgilis

saxeli. brZolis adgilis monakveTi arc am saxelwodebiT ar aris

fiqsirebuli, magram, rogorc saxelwodebidan Cans Turqulad ,,qirq~ _

ormocia, ,,bulaq~ Turquli xalxuri eniT niSnavs wyaros (78, 353).

maSasadame brZolis adgilis dasaxeleba ,,ormociwyaro~, imas adasturebs,

rom am adgilebSi unda yofiliyo mravali wyaro. amitom, sabrZolo

moqmedebebi mTebiT Semofarglul adgilebs Soris arsebul reliefze

unda momxdariyo. dReisaTvis aseT adgils reliefis taqtikuri

klasifikaciis mixedviT saSualo mTians uwodeben. brZola erevnis

cixidan arc Tu didi manZilze mimdinareobda, rasac wyaro adasturebs.

samxedro TaTbirma, romelic erekle mefem moiwvia, ukan dabruneba

gadawyvita, magram mefe winaaRmdegi iyo. mematianis gadmocemiT, man

mimarTa TaTbiris monawileebs: `icodeT, me azat-xanis Seubmeli ar

davsdgebi. amaRam rom gaviqceT, xval gzazed mogvewvevian, da unamusod

sikvdils namusianad sikvdili sjobs. Eese yvelam uwyiT, rom yvelani

sikvdilis Svilni varT da Cvens gvarsa da saxels ori dRisTvis nu

movayinvebT~ (47, 51). rasakvirvelia, am sityvebis Semdeg qarTveli

sardlebi daTanxmdnen, radgan kargad icodnen erekle II-is brZolebis

Sesaxeb.

qarTvelTa laSqris saerTo raodenoba 3000-mde mebrZols Seadgenda.

maTgan xuTasamde saWurvelTmtvirTveli (mebrZolTa momsaxure,

momaragebeli da sxv. – d. m.) da avadmyofi iyo (47, 51). e. i. brZolaSi

2 500 mebrZoli Rebulobda monawileobas.

mefe erekle II-m gadawyvita brZola gaemarTa ricxobrivad eqvsjer

aRmatebul mowinaaRmdegesTan, rodesac mteri xelsayrel poziciebs

flobda, metad saSiSi iyo. rogorc Cans, mefe gadawyvetilebis miRebisas

mowinaaRmdegis samxedro Sefasebebidan gamomdinare xelmZRvanelobda.

69


winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi ubrZolvelad ukan gamobruneba mefis

avtoritetsa da qarTl-kaxeTis samefos imijze garkveul zegavlenas

moaxdenda.

brZolis dawyebis win erekle mefe loculobda. QqarTvelTa

sabrZolo wyoba Semdegnairi iyo: mowinave droSis qveS sabaraTaSvilosa

da qiziyelTa mebrZolebi erTad dadgnen, memarjvene da memarcxene

sadroSoebSi qarTlelebi da kaxelebi _ Sereulad. mahmadianTa razmebi

mefem memarcxene da memarjvene sadroSoSi gadanawila. nawili laSqrisa

ganalaga calke (safiqrebelia, igi rezervis movaleobas Seasrulebda -

d. m.), xolo erekle II idga marjvena da marcxena sadroSoebis Soris

safexuriT ukan. Mmematianis aRweriT: `kacisagan amas ara daegvareba rao~

(43, 186).

mowinaaRmdegis saerTo raodenoba 18 000 kacs Seadgenda, maTgan md.

gaknisis napirze ganlagebul azat-xanis banakSi 1500-mde banakis mcveli

da saWurvelTmtvirTveli darCa. Ee.i. brZolaSi monawileobda 16 500

mebrZoli. Ees mtkicdeba p. orbelianis gadmocemiT: `jaric aseTi hyvanda,

rom qarTvelTa jari maTi mexuTedi Zlivs iqneboda~(43, 185-186).

mowinaaRmdegis laSqari brZolis dawyebamde 6 nawilad yofila

dayofili. yvelaze mZafri ieriSi azat-xanma qarTvelTa memarcxene

frTaze moitana. Mmemarcxene sadroSo iZulebuli gaxda ukan daexia da

erT nasoflarSi gamagrebuliyo (43, 186).

azat-xani mowinave ZalebiT gars Semoertya danarCen sam sadroSos

da qarTvelTa laSqari mTlianad alyaSi moaqcia. arsebul situaciaSi

mefe ereklem Sikrikis meSveobiT spasalar orbelians ubrZana, mowinaveni

misi laSqrisaTvis SeerTebina. Semdeg ki gonebamaxviluri xerxi

gamoiyena. mefe Camoxta cxenidan, CamoqveiTeba ubrZana mTel mxedrobas da

win gauZRva laSqars. MmebrZolebi gafrTxilebulebi iyvnen, mefis niSnis

micemamde iaraRidan ar gaesrolaT. alag-alag dapirispirebul mxareTa

razmebi imdenad miuaxlovdnen erTmaneTs, rom maT Soris Subi

gaimarTeboda, gadmogvcems mematiane. azat-xanis razmebis meTaurebma

ifiqres, rom qarTvelebi maTTan mosalaparakeblad midiodnen. Ees imiTac

aixsneba, rom mefe daqveiTebul laSqars miuZRoda, ramac mteri

70


SecdomaSi Seiyvana. am faqtorma mowinaaRmdegis Zalebis Setevis SeCereba

ganapiroba. mtris rigebidan cxenmali mxedarTmTavari gamovarda,

romelic mefesTan Serkinebas apirebda. erekle II-m moulodnelad Tofi

gaisrola da avRanTa erT-erTi sardali Zirs Camoagdo. QqarTvelebma

saSineli Tofis srola atexes, xolo Semdeg cxenze amxedrebulebi

ieriSze gadavidnen da mowinaaRmdegis dajgufeba gaarRvies. Setevis

ganviTarebis Semdeg mtris razmebi panikam moicva. brZolis velidan

uwesrigod ukan daxeva da gaqceva daiwyo. `gadrka jari azat-xanisa,

sididisagan Zliv iZroda, mefe erekle viTa lomi dauSromeli, egre

ibrZoda TviTca da jarsac abrZolebda. ,,amowyvites avRanni ... oTxs

aRajze (28 km.) xocviT ukan miyvnen~ (43, 187).

gaqceul mowinaaRmdeges gzadagza xocavda qarTvelTa mdevari

razmebi. md. araqsis gamoRma sanapiro sruliad gaiwminda mtris

razmebisagan. azat-xanma darCenili mcveli razmebiT gaqceviT uSvela

Tavs. qarTvelebs xelSi CauvardaT Tof-zarbaznebi, zambulaki

(sparsuli didi Tofi), jabaxana (saomari masala), karvebi sursaTsanovagiT

da saWapano transporti mTlianad (43, 187). (ix. sqema #3, 153).

yirbulaxis brZolis aRweridan naTlad Cans imdroindeli qarTuli

jaris sabrZolo wyoba da saomari taqtikia. erekle II-is mier dawyobili

laSqari qarTuli tradiciuli samxedro wesis Sesabamisad iyo

ganlagebuli. jaris aseT sabrZolo wyobas saTanado saomari taqtika

sWirdeboda.

rogorc cnobilia, mowinaaRmdegesTan SedarebiT qarTvelebs jari

yovelTvis mcirericxovani hyavdaT. amitom isini Tavis taqtikas masiur

Setakebebze ver daamyarebdnen. garda amisa, qarTvelebs brZola metwilad

mTagorian da rTul adgilmdebareobaze uxdebodaT, sadac farTo masis

moZraoba da mwyobrSi moqmedeba SeuZlebeli iyo. Aamitom iZulebuli

iyvnen, hqonodaT iseTi sabrZolo wyoba, romelic ukeT uzrunvelyofda

manevrirebis siswrafes da xels Seuwyobda, gamklavebodnen nebismieri

mxridan moulodnelad Tavdasxmuli mowinaaRmdegis Semotevas.

warmodgenili brZolis taqtikuri moqmedebebis aRweridan

gamomdinare, naTlad Cans, rom erekle II, safiqrebelia, xSir SemTxvevaSi

71


sadroSoebis oTxnawiliani sabrZolo wyobiT iwyebda brZolas, rac

ZalTa drouli gadanawilebis SesaZleblobas iZleoda.Ees SegviZlia

warmovidginoT Semdegnairad: wina flangze mowinaaRmdegis Setakebis

mxridan dgeboda SedarebiT kargad gawvrTnili, msubuqad SeiaraRebuli

da brZolebSi gamocdili I sadroSo. safexuriT ukan marjvniv,

safexuriT ukan da marcxniv ganlagdebodnen II da III sadroSoebi, xolo

IV sadroSo dgeboda meore da mesame sadroSos Soris safexuriT ukan,

romelic mTavarsardlis gankargulebaSi iyo da saerTod maSveli jaris

rols asrulebda. ZiriTadad, logikidan gamomdinare, IV sadroSos

amocana ganisazRvreboda Seqmnili viTarebidan gamomdinare. KkerZod, II

da III sadroSos Sevseba danakargis SemTxvevaSi da sabrZolo

moqmedebebis ganviTareba saWiro mimarTulebiT. laSqris aseT

ganlagebaze miuTiTebs giorgi anCabaZe naSromSi ,,samxedro istoria~ (53,

52)

I mewinave

III memarcxene

II memarjvene

IV mefis

davakvirdeT laSqris wyobas. misi aseTi danawileba, sadac

TiToeuls SeeZlo Tavisuflad da damoukideblad moZraoba,

Sefardebuli iyo adgilmdebareobis TvisebebTan. mTagorian adgilebSi

aseTi sabrZolo wyoba sadroSoebis damoukidebeli moqmedebis

saSualebas iZleoda mowinaaRmdegisgan dafarvisa da manevris

ganxorcielebisTvis. aqedan gamomdinare, sadroSoebs SeeZloT nebismieri

72


mxridan mtris moulodneli Tavdasxmis SemTxvevaSi mzad yofiliyvnen

wriuli TavdacvisaTvis an ganeviTarebinaT Setevebi miTiTebuli

mimarTulebiT, aseve nebismier sadroSos Seesrulebina meore eSelonis

movaleoba. swored ase moxda aRweril brZolaSic. gasagebi xdeba,

ramdenad kargad iyo organizebuli da Sefardebuli aseTi wyoba

adgilobriv pirobebTan, aseve dazRveuli moulodneli SemTxvevebisagan,

magram aseTi sabrZolo wyobis upiratesoba marto amiT ar

ganisazRvreboda. laSqari ramdenime nawilad iyo dayofili, TiToeul

nawils gansakuTrebuli daniSnuleba hqonda, amitom sadroSoebis

ufrosebs didi iniciativis gamoCenis saSualeba eZleodaT, ra Tqma unda,

mTavarsardalTan SeTanxmebiT. Ees garemoeba mefes jaris mixmarebisa da

brZolis saerTo xelmZRvanelobis gaumjobesebul pirobas uqmnida. garda

amisa, Tu erT romelime sadroSos mowinaaRmdege Seutevda da ukan

daaxevinebda, es garemoeba sxva nawilebSi areulobas ar gamoiwvevda,

piriqiT, meTauris gadawyvetilebiT, darCenili sadroSoebs SeeZloT

ukuqceul TavianT sadroSos daxmarebodnen da dadevnebul

mowinaaRmdegisTvis flangidan an zurgidan mieyenebinaT dartyma.

gasaTvaliswinebelia isic, rom erekle II, garda brZolaSi monawile

sadroSoebisa, SesaZleblobis SemTxvevaSi gamoyofda rezervs, romlis

funqcia, SeiZleba iTqvas, dRevandeli rezervis analogiuri iyo, anu _

brZolis dawyebamde an misi mimdinareobis procesSi winaswar

gansazRvruli an uecrad wamoWrili amocanebis Sesruleba. rezervSi

ZiriTadad iniSneboda mxedroba, romelic ramdenime aseul cxenosans

Seadgenda, rac ganapirobebda mobilurobas da, Sesabamisad, manevris

farTod gamoyenebis SesaZleblobas. igi emorCileboda mTavarsardals.

mas SeeZlo sabrZolo moqmedebebis mimdinareobaSi rezervis gonivruli

gamoyenebiT gardatexa Seetana.

Cvens droSi, rodesac rezervs didi mniSvneloba eniWeba da misi

dazogva nebismieri meTauris movaleobad iTvleba, maSindel periodSi,

garda dakisrebuli movaleobisa, mTavarsardlis da laSqris sulieri

mdgomareobis asamaRlebel saSualebas warmoadgenda. mxolod taqtikuri

viTarebis, droisa da sivrcis gonivruli gamoyenebiT SeiZleba rezervis

73


moqmedeba meTaurma warmatebis garantad gamoiyenos. Tumca brZolaSi

CarTvis dro da adgili metad rTuli Sesafasebeli faqtoria.

miuxedavad amisa, misi mizanSewonili gamoyeneba brZolis Sedegze

mniSvnelovan zegavlenas axdens. aseTi amocanis gadasawyvetad mxolod

codna ar aris sakmarisi, am SemTxvevaSi did rols TamaSobs

gamocdileba da rezervis Semadgenloba. yovelive meTaurs

Sesasrulebeli savaraudo amocanis Sesabamisad unda hqondes

gaTvaliswinebuli. brZolaSi, rogorc warsuli brZolebidanaa cnobili,

moulodneli, swrafi da gabeduli moqmedeba xSirad ufro gadamwyvet

Sedegs iZleva. amitom, savaraudoa is, rom erekle II-m yirbulaxis

brZolaSi cxenosanTa rezervis Semadgenloba gamoiyena, rasac, ra Tqma

unda, arsebiTi mniSvneloba hqonda mowinaaRmdegeze zurgidan

moulodnel Tavdasxmasa da mis sabolood damarcxebas, ris Sesaxebac

mematianeni cnobebs ar gvawvdian.

mocemuli brZolis analizis dros yuradReba unda gamaxvildes

adgilmdebareobis reliefze, sadac brZola iqna Catarebuli. mematianis

gadmocemiT: `gadrka jari azat-xanisa, sididisgan Zliv iZroda~ (43, 187).

adgilmdebareobam mowinaaRmdegis manevrirebis SesaZlebloba SezRuda

brZolis mimdinareobis procesSi. am garemoeebas amtkicebs isic, rom man

ver SeZlo mravalricxovani Zalis efeqturad gamoyeneba. sun Zi

gadmoqvcems, rom ,, . . .mTavarsardlis goniereba mowinaaRmdegis kargad

Sfasebis, gamarjvebis organizebis, adgilis Tvisebebisa da manZilis

gaTvaliswinebis unarSi mdgomareobs. vinc brZolas awarmoebs, Tu

yovelive es icis, igi uTuod gaimarjvebs~ (93, 58).

yuradReba unda mieqces mefis, rogorc mxedarTmTavris pirovnul

Tvisebebs: pirvel rigSi, mebrZolebTan mWermetyvelurad warmoTqmul

sityvas, xelCarTuli orTabrZolis pirad magaliTs, mamacobasa da

gonivrul moqmedebebs. Semdgom uflisadmi rwmenas, rac samarTlian

brZolaSi warmatebis erT-erTi pirobaa; es momentebi kargad aris

gadmocemuli wyaroebSi ` maSin gardaxda mefe irakli, daemxo miwasa da

RmerTsa evedra, xolo ze ra aRsdga, gadmobrunda da uTxra mxedrobaTa:

,,Cemno Zmano da Svilno, Tqven Cemis gaZlierebisa da Cemisa gulisaTvis

74


ixocebiT da me RmerTTan Tqveni didi movale varo da dRes rac me

giTxraT, is damijereT da sisxlsa Tqvensa me vindobo~@(47, 51). ra Tqma

unda, am sityvebis Semdeg mebrZolTa moraluri ganwyoba garkveulwilad

amaRldeboda, rasac xels Seuwyobda TviT mefis Tavganwiruli brZola.

`mefe erekle, viTa lomi dauSromeli, egre ibrZoda TviTca da jarsac

abrZolebda~ (43, 187).

rac Seexeba laSqris erTpirovnul marTvas, erekle II warmatebiT

xelmZRvanelobda brZolas. `ubrZana mefem . . . amirspasalar revaz

orbelians TavisTan miaxloeba. Mmividnen mewinaveni da batonisa jars

SeuerTdnen. Camoxda batoni da brZana `vina xarT vaJkaci, es aris Jami

gulovnobisao, Tavi Cemi damidvia sakvdavad da me aqedam xmal mouqnelad

ar gavalo.~ zemoaRniSnulidan gamomdinare, naTlad Cans mTavarsardlis,

rogorc erTpirovnuli marTvelis moqmedeba alyaSi moqceuli

sadroSoebis marTvis centralizaciaSi, ramac ganapiroba samive

sadroSos erT muStad gaerTianeba da moralur-fsiqologiuri faqtoris

amaRleba. MmebrZolTa Tavganwirvis safuZveli aseve gaxda mefis piradi

magaliTi.

BbrZolaSi udidesi mniSvneloba eniWeba erekle mefis mier

gamoyenebul samxedro xriks, romelic sityvieri brZanebis saxiT gaica

`sanamdis me Tofi ar vesrolo, nurvin moindomebT Setevaso~. Aam xrikma,

romelic moulodnelobis faqtorad iqna gamoyenebuli, uzrunvelyo

mowinaaRmdegis centraluri dajgufebis sardlisa da irgvliv wina

rigebSi myofi mebrZolebis uecari ganadgureba. Aamis Semdgom garRvevis

monakveTze amxedrebul qarTvelTa laSqris solisebri sabrZolo wyobiT

mtris dajgufebaSi SeWram moaxdina ZiriTadi Zalebis gaxleCadanawevreba.

erekle II-is taqtikurma xrikma gamoiwvia mowinaaRmdegis

sabrZolo wyobaSi panika, marTvis moSla da demoralizebuli ZiriTadi

Zalebis araorganizebulad ukan daxeva. BbrZolis Semdeg etapze

ganxorcielebulma devnam, mowinaaRmdeges ar misca Zalebis

koncentraciis saSualeba, ramac ganapiroba misi saboloo ganadgureba.

ganvixiloT Yyirbulaxis brZolis raodenobrivi analizi, romlis

mizania, davadginoT miaxloebiTi sizustiT dapirispirebul mxareTa

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danakargebi, romelsac brZolis dinamikis maTematikuri meTodis

gamoyenebis Sedegad miviRebT.

brZolis raodenobrivi analizisaTvis monacemebi aRniSnuli

brZolis Sesaxeb metad mwiria. cnobilia mxolod, rom Cveni mxridan

masSi monawileobda 2500-mde mebrZoli, romelic xuT nawilad iyo

dayofili, daaxloebiT, Tanabrad. TiToeulSi 500-mde mebrZoli unda

yofiliyo. maTi ganlageba arsebuli wesis mixedviT Semdegnairi iyo:

pirveli nawili _ win, meore da mesame marjvnidan da marcxnidan _

safexuriT ukan, meoTxe _ ukan da erTic, ZiriTadi Zalebidan moSorebiT

_ rezervSi. mowinaaRmdeges brZolisTvis gamoyofili hyavda 16500-mde

mebrZoli, romelic brZolis dawyebamde 6 nawilad gayo.

mterma brZolis sawyis etapze erTi meeqvsediT Semoutia Cvens

marcxena flangze ganlagebul sadroSos. brZolis am etapze qarTvelebma

ganicades ziani, ukan daixies da erT-erT nasoflarSi gamagrdnen.

mowinaaRmdegem danarCen sadroSoebs, rezervis garda, alya Semoartya.

garemocvaSi Cveni Zalebis gadajgufebis Semdeg ganxorcielda alyis

garRveva, gaqceul mowinaaRmdegeze dadevneba da gamarjveba. sxva raime

raodenobrivi monacemebi ar arsebobs, Tu ar CavTvliT imas, rom devna

ganxorcielda 28 km-is manZilze.

garda amisa, SegviZlia, vivaraudoT: brZola ar mimdinareobda

gaSlil velze, amitom sxvadasxva mimarTulebiT dadevnebisas

mowinaaRmdeges ukana rigebSi e. i. ariergardSi, romelic periodulad

winaaRmdegobas uwevda Cvens dadevnebul mowinave razmebs ≈ 200-mde

mebrZoli eyoleboda.

Cven SevecadeT kompiuteris daxmarebiT zogierTi raodenobrivi

maxasiaTebeli aRgvedgina.

pirveli SebrZoleba, romelic gaimarTa Cvens marcxena flangze,

pirobiTad davarqvaT fragmentuli brZola, vinaidan mTeli brZolis erT

nawils warmoadgenda da mas davyofT sam fazad:

_ razmebis SetakebisTvis daaxloeba;

_ saduelo brZolis procesi;

_ ZalTa daSoriSoreba.

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gaTvlebis Sedegad saduelo brZolis procesi, sadac qarTvelebi ≈

500 mebrZoliT, xolo mowinaaRmdege daaxloebiT 2600 mebrZoliT

upirispirdebodnen erTmaneTs, daaxloebiT 14-18 wuTi gagrZelda.

danarCeni ori faza gagrZelda savaraudod 20-25 wuTi. sul procesi

mimdinareobda 35-45 wuTi. gaTvlebis SedegebiT, qarTvelTa danakargebi

iyo daaxloebiT 128 mebrZoli, am dros mtris danakargi 77 erTeulamde

iqneboda. 128 erTeuli daaxloebiT 1/4-ia Cveni aq myofi razmis (1/4 X

500=125).

qarTvelebma, danakargebis Semdeg, igrZnes ra marcxis moaxloeba,

ukan daixies _ nasoflarSi. Amis Semdeg mtris danarCenma Zalebma alyaSi

moaqcies Cveni sami sadroSo. AmowinaaRmdege mxareTa Zalebis

ganlagebidan, rogorc wyaroSia mocemuli vvaraudobT, alyis zomebi

daaxloebiT aseTi iyo: diametri 2km-mde, xolo garSemoweriloba _

Sesabamisad, daaxloebiT 6km-mde. es maCveneblebi savaraudod aris

dapirispirebul mxareTa Zalebis ganlagebisTvis saWiro teritoriis

geometriuli parametrebi.

rogorc Cans, aq mowinaaRmdegis sardlobam ver gamoiCina saTanado

mxedruli goniereba da daayovna moqmedebebis ganviTareba. amiT

isargebla erekle II-m da moulodneli ieriSiT alya gaarRvia (es

epizodi detalurad da damajerebladaa aRwerili). Sesabamisad,

garRvevis monakveTze mowinaaRmdegis rkalis mxolod nawilma moaswro

SebrZoleba. am SemTxvevaSi moulodnelobis faqtorma didi roli

iTamaSa. amasTan gaviTvaliswineT mowinaaRmdegeze Cveni mebrZolebis

ganzogadebuli Tvisobrivi maCveneblis upiratesoba (istoriuli

brZolebis eqspertuli SefasebiT aRebuli gvaqvs saSualo maCvenebeli

1 : 3, ris Sedegadac davaskveniT, rom ereklem gaarRvia mtris alyis

rkali da miayena garkveuli danakargi, magram rac mTavaria didi

moraluri ziani. mtris dajgufeba umarTav, araorganizebul masad

gadaiqca da ukuiqca. masve daemata Cveni marjvena flangis mier ieriSis

ganxorcieleba moalyeTa nawilebTan.

kompiuteris gaTvlebiT, erekles mier alyis garRvevisas mxareebs

hqondaT Semdegi danakargebi: Cveni ≈ 445 erTeuli, mowinaaRmdegis ≈ 1028

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erTeuli, xolo marjvena flangze brZolisas danakargebi iyo: Cveni ≈ 227,

mtris ≈ 514. Aamave dros gaaqtiurda Cvens marcxena flangze, pirvelad

ukandaxeuli sadroSoc da aq Cveni danakargebi iyo ≈ 62 erTeuli, xolo

mtris ≈ 168 erTeuls utoldeboda.

brZolis msvlelobisas didi roli iTamaSa aseve Cvenma rezervma,

romelmac mowinaaRmdeges ar misca saSualeba ereklesa da marjvena

flangze myofi dajgufebebisaTvis zurgidan mieyenebinaT dartymebi.

AaRniSnuls didi mniSvneloba hqonda garRvevis warmatebiT SesrulebaSi.

Ggarda amisa, man, ganicada ra Tavis mxriv danakargi ≈ 28 erTeuli, mters

miayena zarali ≈ 170 erTeuli. yovelive aRniSnulis Semdeg

mowinaaRmdegem Tavs gaqceviT uSvela.

xuTive SetakebaSi danakargebi orive mxridan aseTia:

1. pirveli Setakebisas, rodesac memarcxene sadroSom

nasoflarisaken brZoliT daixia da poziciuri brZola gamarTa,

danakargebia: Cveni _ 128, mtris _ 77;

2. mewinave da mefis sadroSos gaerTianebuli ZalebiT alyiis

garRvevisas, danakargebia: Cveni _ 455, mtris _ 1028;

3. memarjvene sadroSos alyidan gamosvlisas, danakargebia:

Cveni _ 228, mtris _ 515;

4. memarcxene sadroSos mier kontrieriSis dros danakargebia:

Cveni _ 62, mtris _ 168;

5. rezervis brZolisas, romelic Cveni sadroSoebis kontrieriSs

zurgidan faravda, danakargebia: Cveni _ 28, mtris _ 170.

gaTvlebi emyareboda lanCesteris kanonebs da Tvisobrivi

maCveneblis TanafardobaT aRebuli iyo 1/3, xolo moulodnelobis

faqtoris gaTvaliswineba xdeboda imiT, rom am maCvenebels viRebdiT

1.5-jer mets. TviT ricxvi 3, rogorc ukve avRniSneT miRebulia sxvadasxva

brZolis analiziT da is Zalze axlosaa qarTvelebis mier Catarebuli

brZolebis eqspertul SefasebebTan. mTlianobaSi brZola mimdinareobda

saSualod 3 saaTi, 13 sT. 30wT-mde. mxareebis danakargebi aseTia: Cveni ≈

900 erTeuli, mowinaaRmdegisa ≈ 1957 erTeuli.

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mterma didi danakargi ganicada (aseve kompiuteris gaTvlebiT)

dadevnebis dros. gaTvlebis algoriTmSi Cadebuli iyo Semdegi: yoveli

wamowevisa da SebrZolebis dros orive mxridan monawileobda orasorasi

mebrZoli. cxadia, aq mowinaaRmdegis ganzogadebuli Tvisobrivi

maCvenebeli sul mcire 2-jer Semcirda, Sesabamisad Tvisobriv

maCvenebelTa Tanafardoba 2-jer gaizarda qarTvelTa

sasargeblod.Aamgvarad, erTi Setakebis dros danakargebis gaTvlebi

gvaZlevs Semdeg maCvenebels: Cveni danakargebi ≈ 15 erTeuli,

mowinaaRmdegis ≈ 174 erTeuli. Cndeba kiTxva _ ramdeni Setakeba SeiZleba

yofiliyo?

rogorc cnobilia, devna xorcieldeboda 28 km-is manZilze.

Mmocemuli manZilis gavlas Setakebebis gareSe dasWirdeboda savaraudod

2 saaTi. sul devna grZeldeboda daaxloebiT 4-5 saaTi. gaTvlisTvis

aviReT drois maqsimumi. amrigad 2-3 saaTi daikava SebrZolebebma,

romelic dadevnebis marSrutebze ganxorcielda. am drois ganmavlobaSi

savaraudod 8-9 Setakeba Sedgeboda.

Tu gaviTvaliswinebT adgilmdebareobis faqtors, savaraudoa, rom

mowinaaRmdegis razmebis ukan daxeva kolonebSi mouwesrigebeli formiT

ganxorcieldeboda, rac ramdenime marSrutze moxdeboda. Cvens mier

daSvebulia dadevnebis savaraudo 2-3 marSruti. Sesabamisad, danakargebis

saerTo raodenoba iqneba:

Cveni: 8 X 15 X 3 = 360 mowinaaRmdegis: 8 X 174 X 3 = 4176

amrigad, Sedegebi miRebulia naxazze naCvenebi brZolis parametrebis

angariSis algoriTmiT (danarTi #1, 161).

sabolood, brZolebis msvlelobisas danakargebis saerTo raodenoba

miviReT: qarTvelebma dakarga ≈ 1260 mebrZoli, mowinaaRmdegem ≈ 6133

mebrZoli. magaliTisTvis saTanado gaTvlebis Casatarebeli programa

moyvanilia danarTSi #2 (162-164).

xazgasmiT unda aRiniSnos isic, rom yirbulaxis brZolaSi

mowinaaRmdegem ver gamoiyena verc eqvsmagi upiratesoba, verc qarTvelTa

mier daSvebuli taqtikuri Secdoma _ alyaSi moqceva, ramac

kardinalurad Secvala brZolis msvleloba. amaSi udavod gadamwyveti

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oli iTamaSa qarTvelTa sardlis _ erekle II-is sworad miRebulma

taqtikurma gadawyvetilebam da misi xelmZRvanelobiT qarTvelTa jaris

gansacvifrebelma moqmedebam. yovelive aRniSnulma saboloo jamSi

yirbulaxis brZolaSi qarTvelebs saarako gamarjveba moutana. es

brZola imiTac aris mniSvnelovani, rom msoflio samxedro xelovnebaSi

mas analogi Znelad moeZebneba.

yirbulaxis brZola metad mniSvnelovania agreTve samxedropolitikuri

TvalsazrisiT. Tu aRniSnul brZolaze qarTvelebi uars

ganacxadebdnen an damarcxdebodnen, qarTl-kaxeTis zegavlena

aRmosavleT amierkavkasiis saxanoebze (erevnis, naxWevanis, yarabaRis,

ganjis) dakarguli iqneboda. Sesabamisad, azat-xans mier zemoCamoTvlili

saxanoebis dapyroba mas avtoritets mouxveWda da samxedro potencialic

gaezrdeboda. Seqmnili viTareba ki kaxeTisa da qarTlis mimarTulebiT

sabrZolo moqmedebebis warmarTvis SesaZleblobas iZleoda, rac

mowinaaRmdegis mTavari miznis ganxorcielebaSi xels uwyobda.

zemoTqmulidan gamomdinare, aRmosavleT saqarTvelo strategiulad

wamgebian situaciaSi aRmoCndeboda. Eerekle II-is gadawyvetileba, mieRo

brZola ricxobrivad didi upiratesobis mqone mowinaaRmdegesTan am

garemoebamac ganapiroba.

brZolaSi mopovebulma gamarjvebam ganapiroba zemoaRniSnul

saxanoebze zegavlenis ganmtkiceba, qarTl-kaxeTis saSinao da sagareo

politikis simtkice, riTac saqarTvelos Tavdacvis unarianoba

mniSvnelovnad gaizarda. Aazat_xanis damarcxebis Semdeg qarTl_kaxeTis

politikuri gavlena sagrZnoblad gaizarda samxreT kavkasiaSi. amis

Semdeg erekles mTavar sazrunavs lekebis winaaRmdeg brZola

warmoadgenda. am warmatebam erekle II-s da saqarTvelos saxeli

gauTqva axlo aRmosavleTsa da evropaSi, razec ucxouri wyaroebic

miuTiTeben (112, 625. 129, 4,7,6]. amis Sesaxeb SemdgomSi gveqneba saubari.

samxedro kuTxiT aRniSnul brZolaSi gamoyenebul iqna taqtikur

moqmedebaTa Semdegi elementebi:

_ sabrZolo wyoba da brZolis Canafiqris swori gansazRvra;

_ adgilmdebareobis faqtorebis gonivruli gamoyeneba;

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_ mTavari dartymis mimarTulebis sworad SerCeva;

_ jaris sabrZolo suliskveTebis amaRleba;

_ mowinaaRmdegis dadevnebis organizeba;

_ brZolis msvlelobisas uwyveti urTierTqmedeba.

zemoaRniSnuli dResac aqtualuria nebismieri saxelmwifos

jarisaTvis, miTumetes, iseTi saxelmwifosaTvis, rogoric saqarTveloa.

brZolis Sedegi, niWieri mTavarsardlisa da qarTveli mebrZolebis

gonivruli moqmedebis magaliTia. yirbulaxSi gamarjveba dResac iwvevs

gaocebas da uaRresad sainteresoa. erekle II-m, samxedro TaTbirze

gamoTqmuli sxvadasxva mosazrebis miuxedavad, ukan ar daixia, aramed

moaxdina ZalTa gadajgufeba. ganalaga isini imdagvarad, rom SeZlo

eqvsjer Warbi Zalebis mqone mowinaaRmdegesTan dapirispireba. man

gaiTvaliswina moralur-fsiqologiuri faqtoris mniSvneloba. alyaSi

moxvedris miuxedavad, mTavarsardali amxnevebda mebrZolebs. mgznebared

warmoTqmuli sityviT, moulodnelobis faqtoris gamoyenebiT da piradi

brZolis magaliTiT aamaRla mebrZolTa ganwyoba, gaarRvia alya,

sruliad daabnia mowinaaRmdege da ganaxorciela dadevneba saboloo

gamarjvebis mopovebamde. TiTqmis wagebuli brZolis kardinalurad

Semobrunebam da misma warmatebam erekle II-is, rogorc sardlis

avtoriteti didad aamaRla. aRniSnuli brZola arastandartuli formis

sabrZolo operacia iyo. mefes amis Semdeg sxva brZolebi rom ar moego,

esec sakmarisi iqneboda misi, rogorc niWieri sardlisa da brwyinvale

taqtikosis dasaxasiaTeblad. yirxbulaxis brZolam gaamdidra da axali

furceli Cawera mravalsaukunovani da mdidari tradiciebis mqone

qarTuli samxedro xelovnebis istoriaSi.

2.3. brZola mWadijvarTan

1751 wels azat-xanis damarcxebis Semdeg qarTl-kaxeTis samefo

umTavresad daRestnis mxridan lekTa mcire da zogjer sakmaod

mravalricxovani, organizebuli Tavdasxmebis winaaRmdeg brZolas

ganagrZobda (112, 627). amis mizezi iyo, rogorc istoriuli wyaroebidan

irkveva, osmaleTisa da saqarTvelos aRmosavleTiT mdebare mahmadianuri

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saxanoebis mier xunZaxis batonis nursal-begis waqezeba qarTl-kaxeTis

samefoTa winaaRmdeg. dapirispirebuli mxare didad imedovnebda

osmaleTis mxardaWeras.

nursal-begma daRestneli begebis daxmarebiT avariel tomTa didi

nawili gaaerTiana da mezobeli provinciebis damorCilebas Seudga. sxvis

teritoriaze sabrZolo moqmedebebis warmarTva avarielTa Semosavlis

erT-erTi wyaro iyo. amitom 1754 wlis agvistoSi zemoaRniSnul mizezTa

gamo nursal-begi mravalricxovani laSqriT kaxeTs moadga. (58, 204).

kaxeTi da qarTli didi safrTxis winaSe aRmoCnda. Teimuraz II-m da

erekle II-m mSvidobiani mosaxleobis gafrTxileba da simagreebSi

gaxizvna moaswres.

avarielebma daarbies kaxeTis ramdenime sofeli (ruispiri, axmeta,

gagnakora) da Semdeg aragvis saerisTavoSi gaagrZeles mZarcveluri

moqmedebebi. aaoxres aragvis xeoba. DduSeTSi gadawves erisTavTa

sasaxle, wabilwes monasteri da mWadijvris cixes alya Semoartyes.

xunZaxis batoni cixis bolos WalaSi dabanakda, sadac Tavis mebrZolebs

gaakeTebina sangrebi.

alyaSi brZola dRedaRam grZeldeboda. mecixovneebma uamravi leki

daxoces.Mmuxran-batoni mWadijvris cixeSi gamagrebulebs tyvia-wamals

awvdida (43, 216). erekle II kaxeTis laSqriT da Teimuraz II qarTlis

laSqriT duSeTSi Sexvdnen erTmaneTs. Mmefe ereklem Sikrikebis

SetyobinebiT icoda, rom mowinaaRmdegis laSqari ricxobrivad bevrad

aRemateboda qarTvelTa laSqars, amitom saWiro gaxda CerqezeTidan

daqiravebul jars dalodebodnen. am xnis ganmavlobaSi mWadijvris cixe

mZime mdgomareobaSi aRmoCnda. mematianis gadmocemiT: ` mosdioda kaci

muxranis batons: ,,Tu ar mogveSvelebiTo, amis meti Rone aRara gvaqvso~

(43, 217). meti lodinic aRar SeiZleboda, damxmare jari ar modioda da

sakuTari ZalebiT brZolaSi Cabma gadawyvites.

1754 wlis 19 agvistos (112, 627) mefeebi wamovidnen duSeTidan,

gadmovidnen sofel Wilurtis mxares da mWadijvris cixes zemo mxridan

miadgnen. gaiges ra mecixovneebma maSveli Zalis mosvlis Sesaxeb

brZola kidev ufro gaaaqtiures. Mmefeebma jari gahyves, cal-calke

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daayenes kaxelTa da qarTlelTa laSqari. win qveiTebi waimZRvares,

romlebic Tof-zarbazniT iyvnen gaZlierebulni da mowinaaRmdegesTan

udanakargod miaxloebis mizniT xis morebiT (jarjiT) datvirTuli

urmebi gamoiyenes, romlebic qveiTobas win miuZRvoda (43, 217). orive

mxare saomar velze erTmaneTs miuaxlovda. QqveiTebma qveiTebze

moitanes ieriSi, cxenosnebma cxenosnebs Seuties. BbrZolis msvlelobis

aRsawerad moviSveliebT mematianis gadmocemas: ` Seiqmna omi ficxeli.. ra

gaWirda brZola, brZana batonma daqveiTeba jarisa, gardaxda TviT mefe

erekle cxenisgan da ubrZana gardaxdoma yovelTa. `es aris dRe

vaJkacobisao da siyvaruli rjulisao~. DdaiqveiTes qarTlelTa da kaxTa.

Seiqmna srola TofTa. mefe erekle xan iqiT da xandaxan aqa aZlirebda

jarsa. Seutives qarTlelTa da kaxTa gulsrulad, dauSines zamburakni

(didi Tofi, falkoneti) da zarbazanni~ (43, 218). rTul viTarebaSi

lekebis laSqris erTma nawilma ukan daixia da meore nawilze ieriSis

mitanis Semdeg ukandaxeuli mtris laSqari erTmaneTSi airia. `

daesivnen Sig, rom viTa kata, egre xocavdnen lekTa, TiTon mefem ereklem

Camokafa leki xmaldaxmal, mihyvnen xocviT aragvamdis, rom maTis

mZovriT aRavses tye da veli~ (43, 218). qarTvelebs mravali cxeni, iaraRi

da 500-mde tyve xeliT CauvardaT. Nnursal-begi gadarCenili ZalebiT

daRestnisaken gaiqca (ix. sqema #4, 154).

brZolaSi Tavi gamoiCines: konstantine muxran-batonma, mowinave

sadroSos sardalma revaz orbelianma, qsnis erisTavma daviTma, aragvis

erisTavma jimSerma, amilaxvarma amirindom, aleqsandre ciciSvilma da

sxvebma. es faqti imaze miuTiTebs, rom erekle II-s hyavda iseTi sardlebi,

romlebic organizebulad xelmZRvanelobdnen TavianT razmebs da, ra

Tqma unda, piradi magaliTis safuZvelze gmirulad abrZolebdnen

xelqveiTebs, ramac mniSvnelovani zegavlena iqonia brZolis warmatebaze.

ismis kiTxva: ram ganapiroba qarTvelTa gamarjveba, Tu ki

mowinaaRmdege ricxobrivad did upiratesobas flobda?

jer, unda gaviTvaliswinoT is, rom qarTvelebTan SedarebiT,

mowinaaRmdegis SeiraReba da brZolis taqtika dabal doneze idga,

radgan, rogorc wyaroebidan irkveva, maT ufro metad axasiaTebda

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mZarcveluri moqmedebebi, vidre farTomasStabiani brZolebi.

mowinaaRmdeges cecxlsasroli iaraRi mcire raodenobiT hqonda,

romelmac efeqturi gavlena ver moaxdina qarTul laSqarze.

aRniSnul brZolaSi mowinaaRmdegis raodenobrivi upiratesoba

gaabaTila erekle II-is mier saartilerio cecxlis efeqturma gamoyenebam.

am faqtors garkveulwilad xels uwyobda is, rom sacecxle saSualebaTa

gamoyeneba ganxorcielda iq, sadac mtris ZiriTadi Zalebi iyo

Tavmoyrili.

mxedvelobaSi unda viqonioT, rom nursal-begma da misma momxreebma

icodnen 1751 wels azat-xanTan mefe erekles gamarjvebis ambavi. amitom

qarTvelTa ieriSebis mitanas mtris Zalebze erekle II-is

xelmZRvanelobiT didi fsiqologiuri zegavlena hqonda. SeSinebuli

mewinave razmebis ukan daxevam, maT ZiriTad ZalebSi panika Seitana.

artileriisa da Tofebis mier miyenebulma didma zaralma SiSis faqtori

kidev ufro gazarda da mowinaaRmdegis danarCeni Zalebis gaqceva

ganapiroba.

qarTuli laSqris sabrZolo wyoba evropuli jaris msgavsi iyo,

romlis upiratesoba adglimdebareobidan gamomdinare ereklem kargad

icoda. Aam faqts isic adasturebs, rom brZolis aRweraSi qveiTebs

qveiTebze miutaniaT ieriSi, xolo cxenosnebs cxenosnebze. yuradReba

unda mieqces qarTvelTa Tavganwirul brZolas. cixe-simagreSi

mecixovneebis garda mSvidobiani mosaxleobac iyo Sexiznuli da maTi

bedi qarTvelTa gamarjvebaze iyo damokidebuli. erekle II-is

xelCarTuli brZolis piradma magaliTma da zemoxsenebuli

TavadiSvilebis Tavganwirvam mebrZolebs kargi magaliTi misca.

SeiZleba iTqvas, rom qarTlisa da kaxeTis mefeebis ZalTa

gaerTianebam, erekle mefis mier sworad miRebulma gadawyvetilebam,

urTierTqmedebam, dartymaTa mimarTulebebis sworad gansazRvram

mowinaaRmdegis damarcxeba ganapiroba.

mWadijvris brZolis maTematikuri analizisTvis pirvelwyaroSi

ricxvobrivi monacemebi Cveni da mowinaaRmdegis Zalebis raodenobaze ar

mogvepoveba. amitom gadavwyviteT yvarlis cixesTan momxdari brZolis

84


analizi gamogveyenebina, radgan mtris laSqris mxedarTmTavari da

brZolis organizatori erTi da igive pirovneba iyo. mematianis

gadmocemiT, nursal - begs yvarlis cixesTan brZolaSi 20 000-iani

koaliciuri laSqari hyolia. amitom savaraudoa, rom mters, mWadijvarSi

8 – 10 aTasamde mebrZoli eyoleboda. Tu gaviTvaliswinebT ereklesa da

Teimurazis im droindel SesaZleblobebs, SeiZleba vivaraudoT, rom maT

eyolebodaT 2 - 4 aTasamde mebrZoli. Cveni Zalebis simcires da mtris

simravles adasturebs papuna orbelianic, radgan mefeebi iZulebuli

gamxdaran Crdilo kavkasiidan moewviaT laSqari [43, 215].

gaTvlebisas gaviTvaliswineT mebrZolTa Tvisobrivi maxasiaTeblebi

(aRWurviloba, gawvrTniloba, fsiqologiuri ganwyoba, fizikuri

SesaZleblobebi). Sedgenili iqna kompiuteruli programa, romelmac

Caatara saTanado gaTvlebi. Cven movaxdineT zemoaRniSnuli parametrebis

varireba. mowinaaRmdegis ZalebisTvis gasinjuli iqna variantebi: 8000,

9000, 10 000, 11 000, 12 000. Cveni ZalebisTvis: 2500, 3000, 3500. Sefasebuli

iqna dro, Tu ramden xans mimdinareobda uSualod xelCarTuli brZola

da ganxilul iqna variantebi: 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5 saaTi. garda amisa, xelCarTuli

brZolis dawyebamde Tof-zarbazneniT ganadgurda mtris mebrZolTa

raRac raodenoba. Cven aviReT variantebi: 100, 200, 300. gaviTvaliswineT

cecxlsasroli iaraRis Tanafardoba da isic, rom brZolis dros Cveni

mecixovneebi (gaiges ra Cveni laSqris mosvla) gaaqtiurdnen da srola

gaaZlieres, ramac mtris brZolisunarianobaze imoqmeda.

kompiuteridan miRebuli variantebis analizis Sedegad, gakeTebuli

iqna Semdegi daskvnebi:

_ brZolaSi mowinaaRmdeges hyavda ≈ 8000, qarTvelebs ≈ 3500

mebrZoli;

_ uSualod generaluri brZola mimdinareobda ≈ 1 saaTi;

_ xelCarTul brZolamde ramdenime zarbazniTa da TofebiT

ganadgurda mtris ≈ 300 mebrZoli;

_ qarTvelebma daWril-daxocilTa saxiT brZolaSi dakarges ≈≈ 506

da mowinaaRmdegem ≈ 2715 mebrZoli.

85


erTi SeniSvnac unda gavakeToT: 2715 ganadgurebuli mebrZoli

8000-is daaxloebiT 34%-s Seadgens, ris Semdegac mtris gaqceva brZolis

velidan gasagebi unda iyos.

qarTvelebma brZolaSi maqsimalurad gamoiyenes TavianTi

SesaZleblobebi, mowinaaRmdegisa ki SezRudes. maT safuZvlianad

Seasustes mtris meTofeTa moqmedeba xis morebiT datvirTuli urmebiT.

zarbaznebisa da Tofebis efeqturi gamoyenebiT ara mxolod gaanadgures

mowinaaRmdegis garkveuli nawili, aramed panikac daTeses maTSi.

Cvens mier gamoyenebuli programiT ara mxolod garkveul

daskvnebamde mivediT, aramed uaryaviT ramdenime aseuli sxva varianti.

kompiuteruli modeli ar aris erTjeradi gamoyenebisTvis da nebismier

msurvels SeuZlia misi gasinjva Tavisi parametrebiT.

rogorc wina brZolebSi aqac didi iyo sabrZolo suliskveTeba –

isini mSobliur miwa-wyals icavdnen. mefe zrunavda cixis

damcvelebisaTvis droulad miewodebina iaraRi, sabrZolo masala da

sursaTi. am gziT cixis garnizonis SenarCuneba moxerxda. ramac Tavis

mxriv mowinaaRmdege aiZula yuradReba mxolod cixeze gadaetana da

ZiriTadi Zalebi iqve ganelagebina. ereklem jaris sabrZolo wyoba

brZolis mosalodneli ganviTarebis mixedviT aago. jaris sardlebs

sabrZolo amocanebi dausaxa. artileriis efeqturad gamoyenebam,

sardlis sabrZolo SemarTebis piradma magaliTma, sinqronizebulma

moqmedebebma, maRlobebidan SedarebiT vake adgilebisaken

mizanswrafulma Setevam uzrunvelyo mravalricxovan mterze qarTvelTa

gamarjveba.

2.4. brZola yvarlis cixesTan

qarTvelTa brZola nursal-begis winaaRmdeg mxolod mWadijvarSi ar

damTavrebula. erTi wlis Semdeg mahmadiani xanebis waqezebiT

dainteresebulma nursal-begma avarielTa didi nawili gaaerTiana, maT

SeurTdnen War-belaqneli, daRestneli lekebi da 1755 wels 20 000-iani

laSqriT kaxeTSi SemoiWra (112, 627). mas 1754 wlis 19 agvistos

mWadijvarTan gancdili marcxis gamosworeba da qarTvelTa damarcxebis

86


survilebi amoZravebda. Ggarda amisa, mowinaaRmdegis koaliciuri

laSqris amocanas warmoadgenda aRmosavleT saqarTvelos mooxreba da

dauZlureba.

qarTvelTaTvis nursal-begis gamolaSqreba moulodneli ar yofila.

mefe ereklem, Seityo ra mosalodneli Tavdasxmis Sesaxeb, Cavida

TelavSi, Sekriba kaxeTis laSqari, mSvidobiani mosaxleoba cixesimagreebSi

Sexizna. yovel cixeSi oTxi Tvis sakmari sursaT-sanovage

Seitana (43, 227). garda amisa, Teimuraz II-m qarTlis laSqari Sekriba da

ananuris teritoriaze dabanakda. mowinaaRmdegis ricxvobrivi simravlis

gamo, iase maCabeli da ramaz andronikaSvili CerqezeTSi gaagzavnes

damxmare laSqris gadmosayvanad. Cerqezebma mtris simravlis gamo

daxmarebaze uari ganacxades. qarTvelTa mxardasaWerad Tavadi girei oZi

wamvida mcire laSqriT. misi qaliSvili mefe erekles vaJze _ giorgize

iyo daniSnuli da mis sasimamrod iTvleboda. dasaxmareblad osTa da

yalmuxTa mebrZolebic gadmovidnen mcire razmiT(110, 9).

mowinaaRmdegis laSqars kakis sulTnisa da ganjis xanis razmebic

SeuerTdnen. nursal-begma mtris laSqris nawili qarTlisken gagzavna,

raTa qarTvelebs Zalebis koncentracia ar moxdinaT saWiro

mimarTulebiT. es taqtikuri xriki ganxorcielebis SemTxvevaSi marTlac

sasurvel Sedegs moitanda mtrisTvis. Teimuraz II-m, ise rogorc ereklem,

mosaxleoba cixe-simagreebSi daxizna. am droisaTvis erekle mefem

Teimuraz II-s Seatyobina gardauvali brZolis Sesaxeb da qarTlis mefe

Tavisi laSqriT kaxeTSi erekles SeuerTda. gaimarTa samxedro TaTbiri,

romelSic, mefeTa garda monawileobas Rebulobdnen: konstantine muxranbatoni,

revaz da amirindo amilaxvrebi, revaz baraTaSvili, Tamaz

andronikaSvili da papa beburiSvili-vaCnaZe. erekles winadadebiT

gadawyda:

_ gaemagrebinaT yvarlis cixe, yvela TvalsazrisiT, xangrZlivi

brZolis sawarmoeblad;

_ Teimuraz II TelavSi unda mdgariyo Tavisi laSqriT, mzadyofnaSi,

raTa mowinaaRmdege uecari Tavdasxmis SiSiT ar moesvenebinaT;

_ erekle II-s Telavidan Waris teritoriaze Tavisi laSqris

87


nawiliT demonstraciuli moqmedebebi unda ganexorcielebina raTa

mowinaaRmdegis yuradReba yvarlis cixidan sakuTar miwa-wyalze

gadaetana.

_ ezrunaT laSqris dakompleqtebaze.

mowinaaRmdege imdenad mravalricxovani aRmoCnda, rom sagarejos,

martyofis, muxranisa da sxva dasaxlebuli punqtebis mosaxleobas,

romelic mtris Tavdasxmas moeloda, ayra da cixe-simagreebSi Sesvla

mouwia. Amasve dasZens p. orbelianic: ` iyo yovelgan SiSi didi da cda

simagreTa cixeTa qveyanaTa qarTlisa da kaxeTisaTa~ (43, 228). es faqti

mowmobs imas, rom mowinaaRmdege didi upiratesobiT apirebda sabrZolo

moqmedebebis warmarTvas.

mTebidan daSvebulma mowinaaRmdegis laSqarma yvarlis cixes alya

Semoartya. BbrZola dRedaRam mimdinareobda. Mmecixovneni mamacurad

ibrZodnen. mowinaaRmdege brZolis dawyebis pirvel etapze cixesTan

ieriSis misatanad axlos ver midioda, mecixovneTa mier efeqturi

cecxlis warmoebis gamo. qarTvelebis sabrZolo masalebis xarji didi

iyo. vinaidan mterma cixis aReba ramdenime dReSi ver moaxerxa,

safiqrebelia, rom mefe erekle cixeSi myofT daxmarebas uwevda,

romelic mterma Tavidan ar icoda. am gzebis arsebobis Sesaxeb mematiane

arafers gveubneba, momarageebis sakiTxi ki metad mniSvnelovania

sabrZolo moqmedebebis warmarTvisas. mowinaaRmdegem mecixovneebze

cecxlis efeqturad warmarTvisaTvis xis koSkebi gamoiyena. mematiane

gvamcnobs: ` magram aseTi maRali safrebi Seukres garedam, rom Sig

cixeSi Tofs Caisrodnen. Seawuxes, Torem sxva rigad ara uWirdaT ra.

Mmudam dRe ugzavnidnen mefeni kacsa, tyvia-wamalsa, anu romeli ram

akldaT cixeSi da aZlierebdnen imediT myofTa cixisaTa~ (43, 229). aseve

gasaTvaliswinebelia, rom rodesac mowinaaRmdeges gauWirda cixis aReba,

man gaigo cixeSi Sesasvleli da gamosasvleli faruli gzebis arseboba.

ra Tqma unda, alya gaaZliera da gadamWreli zomebi miiReo saidumlo

gzebis gadasaketad. Mmtkicebulebad moviSveliebT magaliTs: `Sewuxdnen

friad myofni mas Sina umetes misTvis, rameTu mouWres wyali,

SemoakldaT tyvia-wamalica, romlisTvisac miscnes Tavni Tvisni

88


yuarelTa ganwirulebasa~ (47, 56). cixeSi am dros yofila vinme daviT

laraZe, romelic amxnevebda mecixovneebs, rac ki SeeZlo. Mman aRuTqva

cixeSi myof xalxs, mebrZolebs wylisa da tyvia-wamlis Sovna, Tundac

sicocxlis fasad. rodesac daRamda da wyvdiadma garemo moicva, igi

cixidan gamovida. farulad mivida wyalsacavTan, romelsac

mowinaaRmdegis Tormeti mcveli yaraulobda, daxoca xanjliT da cixeSi

wyali SeuSva. Semdeg daviT laraZe warsdga mefe erekles winaSe da

aRuwera cixeSi arsebuli mdgomareoba (47, 56). Cveni azriT, savaraudoa,

rom igi cixeSi myofi mebrZolebis erTi nawilis moqmedebebs

xelmZRvanelobda. radgan Seqmnilma situaciam meTauri iZulebuli gaxada

gmiruli nabiji gadaedga.

qarTvelebma mowinaRmdegesTan pirdapiri Sebma ver gabedes.Aamitom

moTaTbirebis Semdeg erekle II-m gonivruli taqtikuri xerxi gamoiyena,

rac mters iZulebuls gaxdida, alya moexsna. Mman didi saCuqari aRuTqva

maT, vinc garedan alyis garRvevasa da tyvia-wamlis SegzavnaSi

monawileobas miiRebda.Aam winadadebas daTanxmdnen aTamde aznauriSvili

da ramdenime glexi. eseni iyvnen: sabaraTaSvilodan _ revaz ioTamiSvili,

vaxtang gugunaSvili, tariel soloRaSvili, zemo qarTlidan _ ZaRlua

maCabeli, muxran batonis aznauriSvili, zedgeniZe, erasti namoraZe, erTi

xucesi, qsnis saerisTavodan ori kaci, kaxTa TavadiSvilebi _ papa

beburiSvili, solomon mdivniSvili, faremuz TayaSvili, beJan ratiSvili

(47, 239-230). mefem moxaliseTa razmSi mebrZolebis saWiro raodenoba ver

miiRo. Aamitom erekle II zemoTCamoTvlil mebrZolebTan da qarTlkaxeTis

cxenosani laSqris garkveuli nawilis TanxlebiT qiziySi Cavida,

xolo TelavSi mamamisi, Teimuraz II darCa. Sekriba mefe ereklem

qiziyelebi da War-belaqnis teritoriaze moqmedebis sabrZolo amocana

dausaxa. aseve dapirda did wyalobas: KkerZod, Tavadsa da aznaurs

Sesaferis Tanamdebobas da mamulebs, xolo glexs-batonymobisagan

ganTavisuflebas, or sakomlo miwas da fulad jildos, vinc yvarlis

cixeSi sabrZolo masalebs Seitanda (43, 230). mefem bodbeSi Sekriba

xalxi da auxsna, Tu ra mniSvneloba hqonda aRmosavleT

saqarTvelosTvis yvarlis cixis SenarCunebas, ra Sedegi mohyveboda mis

89


dakargvas, ra sirTulesTan iyo dakavSirebuli misi Canafiqris

Sesruleba. Semdeg mebrZolebs mimarTa: ,,jer RvTis siyvarulisTvis da

sarwmunoebisTvis, mere Tavis mefeTa da Cvenis qveynis erTgulebisaTvis,

vinc garjasa da Tavs ar dazogavs, vinc vaJkacia da Tavisi nebiT,

gaWirvebuli yvarlis cixis gadarCenaSi dagvexmareba, . . .Seva cixesa

yvarlisasa _ azatobas da sxva uSurvel wyalobas mivcemo” (110, 16).

saerTo jamSi 208 mebrZolma moiyara Tavi. maTgan 8 warCinebuli da 200

glexi: 103 qiziyidan, 97 qarTl-kaxeTidan (112, 557). bodbeSi, wminda ninos

saflavTan mebrZolebma fici dades. ioane bodmelma (jorjaZem) _

monastris moZRvarma paraklisi gadaixada da mebrZolebs gza dauloca.

ereklem isini tyvia-wamliT moamaraga, moqmedebis gegma gaacno da

cixisaken gagzavna. maT xelmZRvanelobda papa beburiSvili-vaCnaZe,

brZolebSi gamobrZmedili da erekles mier gamocdili pirovneba. razms

Tan axlda moZRvari iase maWavariani. es kidev erTxel amtkicebs imas,

rom sabrZolo moqmedebebis warmarTvisas, laSqars Tan axlda saeklesio

piri rwmenisa da sabrZolo suliskveTebis asamaRleblad. aRsaniSnavia

isic, rom qarTul laSqarSi myofi sasuliero pirebi (episkoposi,

mRvdeli da sxva) ara marto aziarebdnen meomrebs brZolis dawyebis win,

aramed TviTonac aqtiurad ibrZodnen.

razmma yvarlisken daiwyo gadaadgileba. veliscixe Cumad gaiares, md.

alazani foniT gadalaxes da sof. gavazSi SeCerdnen, sadac sabolood

razmSi gadanawilebul iqna amocanebi. aqedan gamomdinare, Seiqmna ori

jgufi:

a) pirvels evaleboda tyvia-wamliT da sursaT-sanovagiT gavsili

xurjinebis tareba da cixeSi Setana;

b) meores xurjinebis matarebeli jgufis usafrTxoebis

uzrunvelyofa.

im droisaTvis yvarlis cixes qvemo mxares sof. Ggavazis mxridan

idgnen Warelebi, kakis sulTani laSqriT, ganjis xani, zemo mxridan _

suxrai-xani da nursal-begi.

gvian RamiT razmma cixisken svla ganagrZo da Tavdasxma

gamTeniisas ganxorcielda. lekTa moyarauleebma gvian SeamCnies axlo

90


manZilze alyis gamrRvevi jgufis misvla. mowinaaRmdegem qarTvelTa

Tavdasxma ver moigeria. operacia dawyebiT etapze cecxlsasroli

iaraRis gamoyenebis gareSe warimarTa, raTa moalyeTa ZiriTad nawils ar

gaRviZeboda. Tavdasxmis meore etapze Tof-dambaCebis gamoyenebiT

moyarauleTa misaSveleblad mosuli lekTa jgufebis nawili

ganadgurda. SeSinebuli mteri, vinc sikvdils gadaurCa, visac SeeZlo,

daWrilebTan erTad brZolis velidan garboda. Sesabamisad

dasaxmareblad wamosuli mowinaaRmdege cecxlsasrol iaraRs efeqturad

ver iyenebda, raTa Tavisianebi ar gaenadgurebinaT. mebrZolebma

xmaldaxmal brZoliT alya gaarRvies, cixeSi Sevidnen da tyvia-wamali

miaSveles iq myofT. mecixovneni da cixeSi Sexiznuli mosaxleoba

sixaruliT Sexvda dasaxmareblad misul mebrZolebs. naSimSilebi

mecixovneebi sursaTis nacvlad sabrZolo masalebiT gavsil xurjinebs

miscvivdnen, galavnis sabrZolo bilikze avidnen da Zveleburad

ganagrZobdnen gamiznuli cecxlis warmarTvas. CiraRdnebi aanTes, zeimi

da sixarulis yiJina ismoda cixidan (110, 19), rasac arsebiTi mniSvneloba

hqonda mowinaaRmdegeze fsiqologiuri zemoqmedebisaTvis. mterma ukan

daxeva daiwyo.

amave dros mefe ereklem qiziyelTagan Semdgari cxenosani laSqari

Seusia War-belaqans asaoxreblad. es ambavi yvarlis cixis alyaze

mdgomma Warelebma Seityves da xunZaxis batons usayvedures: ` Cven aq

ubralod erTs cixeze viRalebiTo da Cvens saxlebs kaxi batoni

aoxrebso~ (58, 205). nursal-begma didi dapirebebiT SeaCera koaliciis

laSqari. `ager am cixes aviReb da kaxeTic xelT damrCebao da Tqvens

garjas gardavixdio~ (43, 231). maSin mefe ereklem ufro mozrdili

laSqari gagzavna Warisaken. yvarels mdgomi Warelebi ficxliv wavidnen

qarTvelebTan sabrZolvelad e. i. TavianT samSobloSi. qarTvelebi mefis

brZanebis Tanaxmad brZolas moeridnen, ukan gamobrundnen da qiziySi

ganlagdnen. Warelebs saqme gaurTuldaT, qarTvelTa laSqari maT

aoxrebiT emuqreboda (58, 206). erekle mefis mier gamoyenebulma

taqtikurma xrikma Sedegi gamoiRo. sabolood Warelebi cixes

gascildnen da TavianT mxareSi wavidnen, maT Tan gahyva koaliciis

91


laSqaric. DdaRestnelebs cixis aRebis imedi gadaewuraT. mowinaaRmdegem

igrZno ra moaxloebuli saSiSroeba, 28 seqtembers, didZali danakargis

fasad, iZulebuli gaxda cixisTvis alyis darCenili nawili moexsna da

Tavis samflobeloSi dabrunebuliyo (ix. sqema #5. 155).

aRniSnuli brZolis analiziT gamoikveTa iseTi taqtikuri

elementebi, romlebmac ganapirobes brZolaSi warmatebis mopoveba.

mematianis gadmocemiT, yvarlis cixe didi xnis ganmavlobaSi alyaSi

imyofeboda, Tumca sabrZolo moqmedebebi rodis daiwyo, konkretulad

wyaroebSi mocemuli ar aris. yvarlis cixe 23 dRe alyaSi yofila

moqceuli. sabrZolo moqmedebebi 28 seqtembers dasrulebula. maSasadame,

cixis alya 5 seqtembers unda dawyebuliyo. Tu am xnis manZilze

mowinaaRmdegem cixis aReba ver SeZlo, es imaze migvaniSnebs, rom

Tavdacva kargad yofila organizebuli. mas SeiZleba citadeli uwodoT.

cixe-simagre imgvarad iyo agebuli, rom iq myof xalxs SeZleboda mtris

Tavdasxmis SemTxvevaSi xangrZlivi winaaRmdegoba gaewia

mowinaaRmdegisaTvis. yvarlis cixeSi mecixovne laSqarTan erTad

gamagrebuli iyvnen Tavadebi - daviT vaCnaZe, bespaz da melqisadeq

WavWavaZeebi, TavianTi ojaxebiT, mxleblebiT da msaxurebiT. cixeSi

Sexiznuli iyo yvarlis, gavazis, eniselis, Wiauris da alaznis marcxena

napirze ganlagebuli sxva soflebis mosaxleobis didi nawili (110, 8).

Tavdacvis karg organizebas ganapirobebs rigi faqtorebisa,

romelzedac meTaurma unda gaamaxvilos gansakuTrebuli yuradReba.

mosaxleoba erekle II-is mier winaswar iqna cixe-simagreebSi daxiznuli

da sabrZolvelad momzadebuli. es faqti mowmobs im dros dazvervisa da

Setyobinebis sistemis karg funqcionirebas. tyvia-wamlis miwodeba

brZolis msvlelobisas adasturebs cixeSi Sesasvleli da gamosasvleli

faruli gzebis arsebobas, rac uzrunvelyofda cixis momaragebas.

mocemul brZolaSi yuradReba unda gamaxvildes kidev erT sakiTxze.

mefem garedan alyis gamrRvevi razmi moxaliseebisagan Camoayaliba. ismis

kiTxva: ratom? Cveni azriT, albaT imitom, rom dasaxuli amocanis

Sesasruleblad, romelsac aucileblad warmateba unda mohyoloda, mas

mebrZolebSi jer unda aemaRlebina TviTSegnebis done, ris Semdegadac

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momavalSi gasawevi riskis faqtors ufro efeqturs gaxdida. aseve

gasaTvaliswinebelia isic, rom orasi glexi, romelic momxvdurs

ebrZoda, batonymobisagan ganTavisuflebas swiravda Tavs. erekle II-m,

rogorc sarwmuno wyaroebidan irkveva, pirnaTlad Seasrula maTTvis

micemuli piroba. mefem gonivrulad gamoiyena manevri. igi Telavidan

pirdapir ieriSze ar gadasula. yvarlis cixes samxreT-aRmosavleTidan

mouara uecari dartyma ganaxorciela. moulodnelobis faqtori

gamoixata SemdegSi: Mman alyis garedan gamrRvevi razmi qveiTad gagzavna,

raTa mowinaaRmdeges axlo manZilze farulad miaxloebodnen, ramac

uecari ieriSis mitaniT dasaxuli amocanis mokle droSi Sesruleba

ganapiroba.

mowinaaRmdegis yuradRebis gadatanis mizniT, erekle II-m gamoiyena

demonstraciuli moqmedebebi. e.i. qvedanayofebis realuri saqmianoba

winaswar gansazRvruli cru moqmedebebiT. Ees ki taqtikuri SeniRbvis

erT-erT saxes warmoadgens, romelic War-belaqnis teritoriaze

qiziyidan wasuli cxenosani laSqris moqmedebebSi gamoixata. mefem

gamoiyena Mmanevris erT-erTi saxe _ Semovla, ris Sedegadac

ganxorcielda moulodneli dartyma, rogorc yvarlis cixeze, ise

mowinaaRmdegis teritoriaze. aseTma moqmedebam didi fsiqologiuri

zegavlena iqonia mowinaaRmdegeze. alyis gamrRvevi razmisa da cxenosani

laSqris moulodnelma Tavdasxmebma mtris ganlagebaSi panika gamoiwvia,

ramac mefes gadawyvetilebis sisruleSi moyvana gauadvila.

samxedro TeoriaSi, Tavdacvis erT-erTi mTavari principia, arasdros

gaCerde pasiur mdgomareobaSi. sangrebi da safortifikacio nagebobebi

ar gamoiyeneba mxolod imisaTvis, rom daimedebulad SegeZlos Tavdacva,

aramed imisaTvis, rom didi warmatebiT miitano ieriSi (cecxliT da

manevriT) mowinaaRmdegeze. zemoxsenebuli principi erekle mefis mier

sworad iqna gamoyenebuli, ramac yvarlis cixisaTvis brZolaSi

brwyinvale gamarjveba moutana mcire danakargis fasad. AaRniSnulma

faqtma erT-erTi strategiuli momarTulebis SenarCuneba ganapiroba.

SevecadoT maTematikuri modelirebis meTodiT vipovoT Semdegi:

1. uSualod alyis garRvevisas ramdenma mebrZolma miiRo

93


monawileoba SetakebaSi;

2. ramden xans gagrZelda epizoduri brZola;

3. ramdeni iyo Cveni da mowinaaRmdegis danakargebi alyis garRvevis

seqtorSi;

zemoaRniSnul sakiTxebze Semdegma ZiriTadma faqtorebma imoqmedes:

_ qarTvelTa razmebis mowinaaRmdegis teritoriaze 2-jer

ganxorcielebulma marbielma moqmedebebma, romelmac mtris koaliciis

daSla da TavianT samSobloSi wasvla ganapiroba;

_ SeCveva Seqmnil viTarebaze, romelic droSi gaiwela, ramac

saalyo brZolisas yuradRebis moduneeba gamoiwvia;

_ drois faqtori _ gariJraJi, rodesac mebrZolis fizikuri

SesaZleblobebi minimumamdea dasuli;

_ moqmedebaTa siswrafe;

_ moulodnelobis faqtori.

yvarlis cixis zomebi daaxloebiT 250 X 150 metria (p. zaqaraias,

Cvens mier gamoyenebul wignSi, romelic safortifikacio nagebobebs

exeba, mocemuli ar aqvs cixis zomebi). e.i. perimetri aris 800 metri. mas

garSemo ertya mtris laSqari. mebrZolebi uSualod kedels ar

ebjinebodnen, radganac isini mecixovneTa advili msxverplni

gaxdebodnen, arc Zalze Sors unda yofiliyvnen, radganac xis koSkebidan

cixis SigniT qarTvelebi unda gaenadgurebinaT. am mosazrebebidan

gamomdinare isini kedlidan daaxloebiT 65 metrze unda yofiliyvnen

daSorebuli, rac im droisTvis Tofebis efeqturi cecxlis manZils

warmoadgenda. amrigad, mowinaaRmdegis mebrZolTa ganlagebis perimetri

ara 800, aramed daaxloebiT 1100 metri iyo. sul moalye jari 16 000

mebrZoli iqneboda, radgan 4000-mde, moalyeTa zurgis dacvasa da

momaragebas daWirdeboda.

gaTvlebis Sedegad miviReT, rom aRniSnul perimetris erT metr

frontze 16 000 : 1100 15 mebrZols unda moexdina sabrZolo amocanis

Sesrulebis uzrunvelyofa. es proporcia aris is mdgomareoba sanam

moxdeba uSualo sabrZolo Setakeba. brZolis dro ki es monacemebi

cvalebadia Seqmnili viTarebidan gamomdinare. amasTanave

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gaTvaliswinebuli gvaqvs Ramis pirobebSi xilvadobis SezRudva da cixis

faruli momaragebis aRkveTis mizniT sabrZolo Zalis perimetrze

Tanabari ganawileba.

garRvevis mimarTulebaze realuri mdgomareobis SefasebisaTvis

aucilebelia cixis karibWis zomebis gaTvaliswineba (5 metri).

vRebulobT rom am ubanze daaxloebiT 75 mebrZoli iqneboda. am

viTarebaSi gasaTvaliswinebelia Semdegi faqtorebi _ Ramis pirobebi;

garemo pirobebze SeguebiT gamowveuli moduneba, Rame sayaraulo

samsaxuris Sesrulebis specifika, rac iTvaliswinebs piradi

Semadgenlobis 1/3 dasvenebas (Zils). amrigad, zemoaRniSnulidan

gamomdinare unda davuSvaT, rom cixis karibWesTan mowinaaRmdeges

savaraudod hyavda 50 mebrZoli. anu qarTvelebs pirveli Setakeba

mouxdebodaT 50 mebrZolTan. rogorc viciT qarTvelebs amocanis

SesrulebisaTvis sul hyavdaT 20 kaci.

exla ganvsazRvroT im pirTa raodenoba, romlebic am 208

mebrZolidan uzrunvelyofda amocanis Sesrulebas. radgan pirvel

wyaroSi ar aris mocemuli Cveni Zalebis danakargebi, maSin Cven,

logikidan gamomdinare, SegviZlia miviCnioT, rom es raodenoba

umniSvnelo iqneboda. cdomilebaTa TeoriaSi, rodesac saqme gvaqvs

gazomvebTan, umniSvneloT iTvleba 0-dan 5%-mde. aq saSualod aviReT

2.5%. anu CavTvaleT, rom umniSvnelo danakargi niSnavs _ maCvenebeli aris

2.5%-is maxloblad. ganvixiloT konkretuli variantebi:

_ Cveni Zalebi 80 erTeuli _ danakargebi 3.55%;

_ Cveni Zalebi 90 erTeuli _ danakargebi 2.65%;

_ Cveni Zalebi 100 erTeuli _ danakargebi 2.5%;

_ Cveni Zalebi 110 erTeuli _ danakargebi 1.8%;

_ Cveni Zalebi 120 erTeuli _ danakargebi 1.6%.

maSasadame Cvens mier 2.5% danakargTan yvelaze axlos aris is

SemTxveva, rodesac amocanis Sesrulebis uzrunvelsayofad gamoyofilia

100 mebrZoli (usafrTxoebis jgufi).

amrigad pirveli Setakebis dros (mas ufro Tavdasxma SeiZleba

ewodos), 100 kaci ebrZoda mowiaaRmdegis 50 mebrZols, romelTa

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mdgomareoba, rogorc ukve aRvniSneT modunebuli iyo. wina gaTvlebidan

miRebuli koeficientebidan gamomdinare 15-16 kacis ganadgurebas (50-is

mesamedi, ris Semdegac isisni arabrZolisunariani xdebian) Cveni 100

mebrZoli (usafrTxoebis jgufi) moaxerxebda daaxloebiT 10 wuTi

ganmavlobaSi, ris Semdegac tyvia-wamliT datvirTuli 100-ze meti

mebrZoli daiZra cixis karibWesaken, sadac gasavleli hqondaT 65 metri

(manZili alyidan cixis kedlamde) + mowinaamdegis ganlagebis siRrme am

seqtorSi (daaxloebiT 50 metri, sul 115 metri). logikidan gamomdinare

10 wuTi aris drois is monakveTi, rodesac mowinaaRmdeges eqneboda

resursi mosuliyo gons da moexdina Zalebis gadajgufeba. vinaidan

istoriuli wyaroebiT aRniSnuli faqti ar dasturdeba, amitom

qarTvelebma amocanis Sesrulebas moandomes naklebi dro. am etapze

drois simcire SesaZlebelia mxolod moulodnelobis faqtoris

xarisxis gazrdiT, rac eqspertuli Sefasebidan gamomdinareobs.

zemoaRniSnulidan gamomdinare da gaTvlebze dayrdnobiT am manZilis

gavlas qarTvelebi moandomebdnen saSualoT 7 wuTs.

kidev erTi epizodi qarTvelTa brZolisa, romelic kvlav gveubneba,

rogor efeqturad iyenebdnen qarTvelebi moulodnelobis faqtors da

siswrafes. am brZolaSi yuradRebas erTi garemoeba ipyrobs. es SeiZleba

iTqvas taqtikur doneze azrovnebis brwyinvale nimuSia. brZolis am

etapze mizani ar iyo mtris sruli ganadgureba. saWiro iyo alyis

garRveva da isic, mxolod mcire xniT. operaciis msvlelobisas kargad

Cans, rom mefes kargad hqonda gacnobierebuli aseTi moqmedebis Sedegi,

swored aman ganapiroba Canafiqris esoden warmatebuli ganxorcieleba

da misi umniSvnelo danakargebiT Catareba.

mocemul brZolaSi gamoyenebuli iyo iseTi taqtikuri elementebi,

rogoricaa: 1. jarebis drouli gadajgufeba saWiro mimarTulebiT; 2.

taqtikuri marSi; 3. wylis dabrkolebis gadalaxva; 4. reidi da Casafreba;

5. Seteva RamiT;

aseve damxmare operaciebis saxeebi: 6. dazverva; 7. taqtikuri SeniRbva;

8. zurgis (logistikuri) uzrunvelyofa.

amrigad, Tu ki samxedro Teoretikosis, sun Zis azrs gaviziarebT,

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Zolis umaRlesi kanonebi daiyvaneba arsebiTad elementarul Zvel

WeSmaritebaze. sabrZolo operaciebsa da brZolebSi ar unda akeTo is,

rac mowinaaRmdegisTvisaa cnobili, rasac is Sengan elodeba da

risTvisac momzadebulia. Ee. i. dartyma miayeno iq saidanac Aar gelodeba.

,,omSi umTavresia siswrafe xelT igdo, . . . Tavs daesxa iq, sadac igi ar

frTxilobs (90, 61). ase iyo ganxorcielebuli yvarlis cixisaTvis

brZolaSi, romelic qarTuli samxedro xelovnebis nimuSad iTvleba da

iq gamoyenebuli taqtikuri elementebi dResac aqtualuria Tanamedrove

sabrZolo moqmedebebisaTvis.

sabolood, yvarlis brZolis gamarjvebiT damTavreba ramdenime

faqtorma ganapiroba: mefe ereklem kargad icoda mowinaaRmdegis

sabrZolo (sacecxle, samanevro) SesaZleblobebi. nursal-begis

mosalodnel Tavdasxmas momzadebuli daxvda, rac gamoixateboda

mosaxleobis drouli gaxizvnisa da swrafi samobilizacio RonisZiebebis

gatarebaSi aisaxa. mWadijvris brZolis gamocdilebidan gamomdinare,

erekle II-m gaiTvaliswina yvarlis cixis strategiuli mniSvneloba. man

samxedro xerxis gamoyenebiT uzrunvelyo cixisa da misi garnizonis

brZolisunarianobis SenarCuneba. kerZod: cixis faruli momaragebiT,

alyis gamrRvevi jgufis kargi koordinaciiT, WarelTa mxareSi marbieli

razmebis gagzavniT, cxenosnebisagan Semdgari jgufebis SemovliTi

manevris CatarebiT, ori mimarTulebidan erTdrouli Setevis

ganxorcielebiT. aRniSnulma ganapiroba mravalricxovani mowinaaRmdegis

damarcxeba.

A2.5. aspinZis brZola

XVIII s-is 60-iani wlebis dasasruls feodaluri saqarTvelo erTian

saxelmwifos ar warmoadgenda. igi danawevrebuli iyo qarTl-kaxeTis,

imereTis samefod da ramdenime samTavrod. samxreT nawili ki osmaleTis

mier iyo dapyrobili, romelic axalcixis safaSos emorCileboda.

am droisaTvis ruseTi saerTaSoriso asparezze seriozul Zalad

gamoiyureboda da Tavisi sagareo politikis dRis wesrigSi amocanebi

dasaxa Savi zRvis sanapiroebis dapyrobasa da iq Tavisufali naosnobis

mopovebisa (112, 650).

97


useTs osmaleTTan omSi evropis saxelmwifoTa mxardaWeris imedi

ar hqonda da amitom, religiuri motiviT SeniRba Tavisi namdvili

miznebi da mowodebiT mimarTa kavkasiel da balkanel qristianebs, rom

igi ,,iZulebulia’’ ebrZolos TurqeTs ,,qristes sarwmunoebisaTvis’’ (112,

650). ruseTi kavkasiaSi axali frontis Seqmnas did mniSvnelobas

aniWebda, radgan osmaleTi iZulebuli gaxdeboda, jarebis mniSvnelovani

nawili moexsna saomar moqmedebaTa Teatridan yubani-yirimi-daRestnis

mimarTulebebze da kavkasiis frontze gadmoeyvana.

1769 wlis 21 maiss TbilisSiQqarTl-kaxeTis mefe erekle II da

imereTis mefe solomon I erTmaneTs Sexvdnen da erTobliv moqmedebaze

SeTaxmdnen (112, 651), romelic miznad isaxavda samcxe-javaxeTis

gaTavisuflebas. aseTi momenti ruseT-osmaleTis dapirispirebam moitana.

erekle II-s saqarTveloSi ruseTis jaris mcire saeqspedicio razmi,

romelic 1769 wels generali totlebenis gankargulebaSi iyo, ar miaCnda

sakmarisad am amocanis gadasaWrelad da yoveli gziT cdilobda

ruseTidan 5 aTasiani korpusis miRebas. aRsaniSnavia isic, rom am

umTavres amocanas ruseTTan diplomatiuri molaparakebebisas mefe

erekle calke ar gamoyofda.

magaliTad, 1769 wlis 4 seqtembers erekle n. panins werda: ,,es xuTi

anilki jari amad gvnebavs zamTramdis da amisaTvis mogaxsenebT da

gTxovT, rom radgan osmalT Zali Cvenis sazRvramdis ar moweula, Cven im

jaris SewevniT, romelnic rom araratis mTis garSemo, anu axalcixisa

da anu yarsisa garSemo qristiani arian, da isini osmalTa monebasa queSe

imyofebian, da kvalad romelnic Savi zRvis garemo Cven kerZo adgili

uWiravs, SesaZlebel ars, rom yovelive ZalTa RvTisaTa miuRoTo”

(98, 54). aq naTlad Cans, Tu romeli mimarTulebaa ereklesaTvis ufro

saintereso. igi saqristiano qveynebis ganTavisuflebis saerTo lozungsa

da am mimarTulebiT mtrisaTvis daswrebis saerTo gegmas sTavazobda

ruseTis xelisuflebas.

amrigad, axalcixeze laSqrobis gegma erekles mier iqna

wamoyenebuli jer kidev 1769 wlis agvisto-seqtemberSi, magram mefe mis

ganxorcielebaze Tavs ikavebda, sanam ruseTi damxmare jars ar

98


gamoagzavnida. mas gadawyvetili qonda esargebla ruseT-osmaleTis omiT,

rogorc xelsayreli viTarebiT, raTa ruseTis samxedro da

diplomatiuri daxmarebiT mtrisTvis xelidan gamoeglija ZvelisZveli

qarTuli miwa-wyali.

aqedan gamomdinare, aspinZis brZolis gamomwvevi mizezi 1768 wels

dawyebuli ruseT-osmaleTis omi iyo. erekle II da solomon I saerTo

mtris winaaRmdeg molaparakebis safuZvelze iwyebdnen sabrZolo

moqmedebebs ruseTis daxmarebiT (125, 49).

am amocanis wina planze wamoweva imiT iyo ganpirobebuli, rom Cveni

samSoblos samxreTiT, uZveles kulturul mxareSi axalcixis Turquli

safaSo arsebobda, romelic osmalTa agresiis bazas warmoadgenda. vidre

es placdarmi qarTlsa da imereTSi Semosasvlel gzebze batonobda da

mtris xelSi iyo, cxadia, saqarTvelos danarCeni raionebis usafrTxoeba

uzrunvelyofili ver iqneboda. amitom, erekle mefis strategiuli

Canafiqris ganxorcielebisaTvis ruseTTan samxedro kavSiris dadeba, Tu

logikas daveyrdnobiT im droisaTvis yvelaze uaxloesi da realuri

nabiji iyo. mis mier SemuSavebul samxedro moqmedebebis gegmas Semdegi

upiratesoba gaaCnda:

1. osmaleTs xelidan aclida moxerxebul samxedro strategiul

placdarms, romelic ukeT uzrunvelyofda saomar moqmedebaTa

warmatebiT gaSlas, vidre sxva romelime mimarTuleba.

2. SemuSavebuli gegma ukeT uzrunvelyofda mokavSire mxareTa

erTobliv moqmedebas, radgan mas orive qarTuli samefosaTvis garkveuli

mniSvneloba hqonda:

a) qarTl-kaxeTisaTvis _ axalcixis dakavebiT qarTls osmaleTis

Kaqtiuri Semotevis safrTxe exsneboda, ispoboda baza, saidanac mteri

saqarTvelos dapyrobas cdilobda.

b) imereTisTvis _ axalcixeze laSqroba imereTze Tavdasxmis bazas

moSlida, radgan dasavleT saqarTvelos saqmeebs osmaleTi axalcixis

faSas meSveobiT akontrolebda. axalcixis dakaveba imereTis cixesimagreebSi

myof Turq mecixovneebs daxmarebis wyaros gadauketavda,

rasac, bunebrivia, maTi danebeba mohyveboda.

99


zemoxsenebulidan gamomdinare, garkveuli molaparakebebis Semdeg,

ruseTis mTavrobam samxedro nawili gamogzavna saqarTveloSi 1200

kaciTa da 12 zarbazniT, general totlebenis meTaurobiT. vin iyo

totlebenis pirovneba? rogorc istoriuli masalebidan irkveva, igi

tomiT iyo saqsonieli germaneli, avantiuristi. is farulad Ralatobda

ruseTs evropaSi warmoebuli sabrZolo moqmedebebis dros. Mmas faruli

mimowera hqonda prusiis mefe fridrix II-Tan da samxedro saidumloebebs

acnobda. RalatSi mxilebuli dapatimrebul iqna 1763 wels. 1769 wels

ekaterine II-is SewyalebiT igi gaanTavisufles da saqarTveloSi

gamogzavnili eqspediciis ufrosad daniSnes (112, 655). MmowinaaRmdege

mxareTa dapirispirebaSi erekle II Svidi aTasi mebrZoliTa da 3

zarbazniT gamodioda (112, 653).

erekle mefis mier SeTavazebuli samxedro moqmedebebis gegma 1769

wlis Semodgomaze totlebens miuRia da rus-qarTvelTa jars am gegmiT

unda daewyo moqmedeba. surda Tu ara totlebens, igi mainc unda

daZruliyo ereklesTan erTad axalcixisaken, radgan misi adrindeli

gancxadebebi axalcixeze laSqrobebSi monawileobaze aSkara uaris Tqmis

uflebas ar aZlevda. 1770 wlis 14 aprils erekle mefe da totlebeni

rus-qarTvelTa jariT sadgerSi idgnen. totlebens mefisTvis winadadeba

miucia, qarTuli jaris nawili sadgeris cixeSi daetovebina, TviTonac

survili gamouTqvams 1 zarbaznisa da 60 jariskacis datovebaze, magram

erekle mefe amis winaaRmdeg wasula. ,,sadgeris cixeSi jari mTxova

dasagdeblad, _ werda erekle ratievs, _ Tavisis jarisac miTxra 60 kacs

da erT zarbazans davagdebo. dauSale, magram Cemi rCeva ar miiRo"(98, 59).

erekle qarTvelTa jariT md. Savi wylis (,,borjomka~) gayolebiT

awyurisaken daiZra. totlebens Tavisi razmis naxevari da 6 zarbazani

sadgerSi dautovebia da meore dRes umoklesi gziT (md. mtkvris xeobiT)

awyurisken wasula (98, 59).

,,mokavSire Zalebi 1770 wlis 17 aprils borjomis xeobis gavliT

mimaval gzaze sakiresTan SeerTda da SuadRisas awyuris cixes alya

nawilobriv Semoartyes~ (98, 59). ,,awyura cixis Semodgoma Cemi neba ar iyo

_ werda erekle golicins 1770 wlis 10 maiss, - imisaTvis rom radgan

100


mtris mamuls viyaviT, umjobesad es aRmoCnda: maTni qonebulni,

romelnic soflebiT sursaTi aqundaT, sul Cven mogvegrovebina da

Semdgomad misisa, ukueTu umjobes iqneboda, mivsuliyaviT axalcixezed~

(98, 60).

awyurisaTvis drois dakargva Secdoma iyo, radgan rus-qarTvelTa

jars saalyo qvemexebi ar hqondaT; xolo mcirekalibriani qvemexebis

daxmarebiT cixis ieriSiT aRebis cda, bunebrivia, uSedegod

damTavrdeboda. sanam garnizons sakvebi, wyali da garedan daxmarebis

imedi qonda, cixis aReba didi msxverplis gaRebasa da dros iTxovda.

awyuris cixis aRebis sxva saSualebac arsebobda _ mtris zurgSi Rrmad

SeWra, mecixovne jaris mowyveta mtris damxmare jarebisagan _ ai, ras

SeeZlo cixis garnizonis winaaRmdegobis gatexa. aseT pirobebSi cixis

alya mcire ZaliTac SeiZleboda ganxorcielebuliyo da garedan

daxmarebas moklebuli mowinaaRmdege winaaRmdegobas veRar gawevda.

erekles gegma gabeduli da swori iyo. Mmas undoda es cixe ukan

moetovebina, mtrisTvis mofiqrebis saSualeba ar mieca da dauyonebliv

misi mTavari strategiuli punqtisTvis _ axalcixisTvis daertya,

raTqmaunda, SesaZleblobis SemTxvevaSi. samxedro taqtikuri

TvalsazrisiT, awyuris cixis aReba arasworad iqna Catarebuli. rusTa

moqmedebidan Cans, rom 1770 wlis 17-18 aprils awyuris cixisTvis brZola

samxreT-aRmosavleTis mxridan mimdinareobda. mtkvris gaRma ar iyo

arcerTi kaci rus-qarTvelTa jarisa da axalcixidan momavali gza

gadauketavi iyo. radganac sruli garemocva ar moxerxda, mters

saSualeba hqonda, cixeSi Seegzavna dammxmare jari saWurvliTa da

sursaTiT. Tu totlebens cixis aReba namdvilad surda da es mas

SesaZleblad miaCnda, maSin mas cixeze alya mTlianad unda Semoertya.

erekle awyuris garemocvis winaaRmdegi iyo. amitom totlebenis

jiuti saqcielis gamo xeli aiRo sakuTar iniciativaze da iZulebuli

gaxda, saqme rusi sardlisTvis miendo. rogorc mefis werilebidan Cans,

totlebens piroba daudvia, rom cixes dauyonebliv aiRebda.

SesaZlebelia, mefem jer kidev ar icoda ruseTidan Camotanili

zarbaznebis sacecxle SesaZleblobebi da miendo kidec totlebenis

101


dapirebas. erekle wers, rom ,,totlebenma piroba dasdo jarSi, rom

mters dResve cixes wavarTmevo, da es ver SevityveT _ ver SeZlo Tu ar

inebao~. radganac cixeze misasvleli gza gadaketili ar iyo, axalcixis

faSas usargeblia da 18 aprils 2000 kaci Seugzavnia cixeSi (98, 62).

totlebeni ukan daxevis samzadiss Seudga, ramdenjerme awyuris cixes

zarbazani esrola da suramisaken gamobrunda (98, 59).

sami kviris Semdeg erekle II ruseTis vice-kancler golicins werda:

`me movel da Rrafs didad vevedre da Cemi Tavi viTa erTi misisa

komandis aficeri egreT kamandaSi vaZlive da mravals vevedre

gamobrunebas mterzed. . . im Cems vedrebazed ori zarbazani amoabruna da

erTs maRal gorazed aitanes, romelic didad Sorevda mterzed, muniTgan

4 - 5 zarbazani esrola da gabrunda, da aRmiTqva rom aqave axlo erTs

balaxian adgils Camovxdebio da am saxiT gamobrunda~ (98, 59).

totlebenis mier brZolis velis mitovebas qarTvelTa laSqarSi

uwesrigoba mohyolia, xolo mteri gamZvinvarebula. ,,es gamoparva

iaranalisa, _ werda erekle golicins, _ Cvenma jarma ra scna, didsa da

gamouTqmelsa drtvinvasa miecnes. da mterTa, ra ixiles da scnes, didad

ganixares simxne miiRes”. erekles mTeli simkacris gamoyenebiT

mouxerxebia qarTvelTa laSqarSi disciplinis aRdgena da cixidan ukan

dauxevia. gamxnevebuli mteri Setevaze gadmosula, magram qarTvelTa

kontrSeteviT damarcxebuli isev cixes Sefarebia (98, 62). amrigad,

samxedro taqtikuri TvalsazrisiT arasworad organizebulma alyam

marcxi ganicada.

saTanado literaturis gacnobiT irkveva, rom awyurTan totlebenis

Ralati sursaTis uqonlobiT ar SeiZleba aixsnas. saqarTvelos

centralur saistorio arqivSi daculi erekle mefis gankargulebebi

(1769-1770 wlebisa) naTlad adastureben, rom mefe did yuradRebas aqcevda

ruseTis jaris momaragebis saqmes da maTTvis sursaTis miyidva

organizebul xasiaTs atarebda. al. cagarelis mier gamoqveynebuli

dokumentebiT cnobilia, rom erekle usasyidlodac aZlevda ruseTis

jars sursaTs, amitom sursaTis naklebobis momizezeba totlebens

mxolod 19 aprils moagonda, raTa brZolis velis mitoveba

102


gaemarTlebina. 13 maiss amasve imeorebda lvovic, raTa ruseTis

mTavrobis TvalSi awyuridan dabruneba gaemarTlebina (98, 65-66). Ralati

aSkarad Canda. Amis dasamtkiceblad, garda zemoxsenebulisa, moviyvanT

or magaliTs, sadac moTxrobilia erekle mefesa da totlebens Soris

ukmayofilebis gamomwvevi mizezi da xazgasmulia is, rom arsebuli

droisTvis ruseTis mTavroba ormag TamaSs eweoda: `xolo STaagdes Suri

borotTa kacTa da uzidavdnen Rraf totlebens avsa sityvasa~. aseve

ruseTis elCis lvovis winadadeba erekle mefisadmi: `vinaiTgan Tqvensa

da Rraf totlebens Soris SfoTi rame ars STamovardnili, Tu rom

osmalT ar aeSlebi da erTs rasme samsaxurs ar daanaxveb imperatrica

xelmwife ekaterinas, uTuod Rrafi Segasmens da ar vargao. amis rCeviT

ganigula mefeman aSla~ (64).

pativmoyvare generals surda rus-qarTvelTa mTeli jari da TviT

mefe ereklec usityvod damorCileboda mis mier dasaxul mcdar gegmas

da brZanebebs. erekle ar iyo iseTi sardali, rom totlebenis survilebi

bolomde gaeTavisebina. bolos mefis principulma gadawyvetilebam,

gaelaSqra mterze, totlebeni aiZula, ukan gamohyoloda. mefisTvis isic

gasagebi gamxdara, Tu ratom uRalata totlebenma awyurTan. frangi

kapitani de grai de fua amis Sesaxeb wers: ukan dabrunebulma

totlebenma ,,iqidan (suramidan) ereklesTan me gamgzavna da damabara:

,,puri gamomelia da qarTlSi davbrundi mis saSovnelado. ereklem civad

mimiRo~. man sTqva: ,,me kargad vxedav im mizezs, risTvisac miRalata da

mimatova grafma. mas imedi aqvs, rom am omSi osmalebi bolos momiReben

. . .Tu Tqven CemTan darCebiT, Tqveni TvaliT dainaxavT, rogor

gaucruvdeba imedi generals. Semdeg amis Sesaxeb SegiZliaT moaxsenoT

mas~ (39).

. . . man (ereklem) Turq tyveTa dakiTxviT da adgilobrivi

qarTvelebis saSualebiT Seityo, rom axalcixis faSas ganzraxuli

hqonda, general totlebens fexdafex ukan dasdevneboda da borjomis

viwro xeobaSi mTlad gaenadgurebina. es ambavi da axalcixis faSas

ZalTa raodenoba mefe ereklesTvis ucnobebia sof. udis (adigenis r-ni)

adgilobriv mcxovrebs, vinme iakob gziriSvils (79). erekles mTavari

103


amocana iyo, axalcixeSi ganlagebuli faSas mTavari Zalebi Tavisken

miezida, raTa ruseTis jars borjomis xeoba daetovebina. ruseTis jaris

wasvliT imdenad gaTamamdnen awyuris mecixovneebi, rom osmaleTis

delibaSebTan (TavzexelaRebuli, kargad gawvrTnili vaJkacebi, meomrebi)

erTad qarTvelebs Tavs daesxnen. adgilobrivi mosaxleobis gadmocemiT

mterma pirveli TavdasxmisTanave 70 qarTveli moitaca, cixeSi Seiyvana da

daxoca (79).

gaTamamebuli delibaSebi awyuris gzaze Sejaxebian qarTvelebs ,, . . .

gzasa zeda SeemTxva mefesa mxedroba delibaSebisa, romelsac sZlo

mefeman” (141, 81). mefe ereklem laSqari sam ZiriTad nawilad ganalaga

awyuris midamoebSi, soflebis sayuneTi – tyemlanas teritoriaze. pirvel

nawils aleqsandre ciciSvili usardla da xididan marcxniv axlo

mdebare tyeSi Caasafra. ciciSvilma miiRo davaleba, rodis unda

Cabmuliyo brZolaSi da ra unda gaekeTebina. meore nawils mefem Tavisi

vaJi - giorgi Cauyena saTaveSi da xididan marjvniv sami versis (3200

metri _ sof. sayuneTis mxares) manZilze ganalaga. mesames TviT erekle

sardlobda. mefe win wauZRva Tavis razms, xididan oTxi versiT (4264

metri) ukan daixia da mowinaaRmdegis pirveli dartymis misaRebad

gaemzada. axalcixis, namir faSas mier gamogzavnili TurqTa kargad

SeiaraRebuli mxedroba awyuris cixis mxridan erT dros erekles

brZanebiT agebul xids moadga. mcire yoymanis Semdeg (savaraudod,

dazverva Catarda – d. m.) mtris jarma xidi gadaiara da md. mtkvris

marjvena mxares gadavida. rodesac maT Cveni Zalebi ver dainaxes, gza

gaagrZeles sof. tyemlanas mimarTulebiT da pirdapir erekles razmis

ganlagebas miadgnen. gaimarTa ficxeli brZola. orive mxare TavganwirviT

ibrZoda. am dros giorgi batoniSvili Tavisi razmiT Tavzardamcemi

yiJiniT CaerTo brZolaSi. moulodnel dartymas veRar gauZlo osmalTa

jarma. rodesac ciciSvilma dainaxa, rom TurqTa jari Sedrka da

ereklem mowinaaRmdege xidisaken ukuaqcia, gamovida safridan da Turqebs

ukan dasaxevi gza mouWra. mteri xids moawyda. xidi rom dakavebuli

daxvda gadacurvis imediT mtkvarSi gadaeSvnen (141, 82). adidebuli

mdinare vercerTma maTganma ver gadalaxa. (ix. sqema #6, 156). ereklem

104


dauZaxa de grai de fuas da uTxra: - ,,wadiT da moaxseneT Tqvens

generals, rac Tqveni TvaliT naxeT, uTxari mas, rom ar geRalata, erT

kviraSi aviRebdiT axalcixesTqo, me davbrundebi Tbiliss da Tqveni

generlis moqmedebis Sesaxeb yvelafers mis udidebulesobas imperators

Sevatyobinebo~ (137). ruseTis samefos warmomadgeneli saqarTveloSi

anton mouravovi, am brZolis monawile, Semdeg wers: ,,gamxnevebuli 500

cxenosan. . .gadavida Setevaze Turqebisa da lekebis winaaRmdeg,

romlebmac im wuTSive daiwyes ukan gaqceva. am brZolaSi erekles erTi

meomari moukles da sami dauWres~. mterma ki awyuris midamoebSi didZali

msxverpli gaiRo. nawili adidebulma mtkvris talRebma daaxrCo, nawili

ki qarTvelTa xmliT moisra. . .~ (141, 83).

awyuris midamoebSi brZolisas gansakuTrebiT usaxelebia Tavi

xevsurTa razms, romelic mefe erekles mcvelTa banakSi imyofeboda.

mefis Semdeg am brZolis legendarul gmirad asaxeleben sof. kolagis

mkvidrs _ luarsab oTaris Ze vaCnaZes, romelsac mravali brZolis

gmirad icnobdnen. am gadmocemis sinamdviles istoriuli dokumentic

adasturebs, kerZod, mefe giorgi XII-is wyalobis sigeli luarsab

vaCnaZisadmi, romelSic vkiTxulobT: ,,Seni siyrmiTagan mraval omebSi

saxelovnad garja, mokvla da tyveTa morTmeva, agreTve aspinZas, didad

rom gagviWirda, batons mamaCvens da Cvens win saxsovrad xelis gamoReba

TviT Cvenis TvaliT uyurebdiT, delibaSma pirdapir SubiT piris saxezed

mZimed dagWra, magram rogorc mamacobas Svenoda, ar umtyune da TofiT

Camoagde~ (141, 84).

miuxedavaT qarTvelebis aseTi gmiruli gamarjvebisa, mefe ereklem

zogierT mizezTa gamo q. axalcixeze ieriSis ganxorcieleba ver gabeda.

amrigad axalcixis aRebis gegma CaiSala. borjomis xeobiT TbilisSi

dabruneba saSiSi iyo. lek-osmalTa laSqari jer kidev sabolood

ganadgurebuli ar iyo da SesaZloa ukan gabrunebuli qarTvelebi

borjomis xeobis viwro gasasvlelebSi gaenadgurebinaT.

mefe ereklem awyurSive Seityo adgilobrivi (qarTveli)

mosaxleobisagan, kerZod ki niko beriZisagan (nikoloz beriZe

warmoSobiT javaxeTidan _ sof. koTeliadan, romelic megzurobas uwevda

105


qarTvelTa laSqars da TrialeTze gavliT qarTlisaken mihyavda isini),

rom axalcixis faSas brZanebiT awyuris cixis mosaSveleblad wamosulan

axalqalaqisa da xerTvisis mecixovne ianiCrebi (regularuli, kargad

gawvrTnili qveiTi jari (77, 308. 113, 163), romlebsac davalebuli hqondaT

aspinZis mimarTulebiT qarTvelebisaTvis gzebi SeekraT, nawili ki

awyuris mecixovneebs miSveleboda: ,,. . . cudi saqme moeloda qarTvel

jars. igi exla xafangSi momwyvdeuliviT iyo, amitom axalcixis faSa

gaTamamda da imedi hqonda erekle exla xelidan veRarsad wauvidoda da

ise Seananebda am Tavxed SemoWras osmaleTSi, rom mTel sicocxleSi ar

daiviwyebda. qarTvelTa mxedrobas mTlad ganadgurebas upirebda, xolo

TviT mefes tyved wayvanas~ (141, 89).

amrigad, lek-osmalTa jars ganzraxuli hqonda qarTvelebisTvis

aspinZis xeobaSi gzebi Seekra, erTi mxridan _ axalqalaq-xerTvisis

mecixovneebis daxvedriT, xolo meore mxridan _ awyur-axalcixis

jarebis SeteviT. mowinaaRmdege mefe erekles fexdafex dadevnebia. amis

Sesaxeb istorikosi oman xerxeuliZe wers: awyuris midamoebSi ,, . . .iqmna

brZola ficxeli, vidre sam saaTamde da lekni da osmalni ukudgnen

simagreTa da rusnic Semovidnen xeobaSi samSvidobos da amisa Semdgomad

mefe irakli aiyara masve dResa (19 aprili) da wamovida javaxeTis

mxrisaken mindorzed, gamovlo awyuridam 12 versi (12792 metri) da amas

Ramesa mun daivana gamoyvnen osmal-leknica~ (40, 491. 48, 80).

axalcixis faSas qarTvelTa moqmedeba mxedvelobidan ar gamorCenia.

1770 wlis 19 aprilsAaxalqalaqisa da xerTvisis cixeebidan 1500 mebrZoli

gamoiyvana, raTa gza gadaeWra erekle mefis laSqrisaTvis aspinZasTan

(125, 106). adgilobrivi mosaxleobis gadmocemiT, axalcixisa da xerTvisis

mecixovneebs awyurisaken wamosvlis dros saSinlad daurbeviaT gzis

piras mdebare qarTvelebis sofeli nijgori (aspinZis r-ni). am soflis

mosaxleoba axlomaxlo gamoqvabulebsa da xevebSi Sexiznula. soflis

Tavkacis dimitri londariZis xelmZRvanelobiT mamakacebi Sekrebilan da

mterTan samkvdro-sasicocxlo brZola gaumarTavT. axalqalaqisa da

xerTvisis mecixovneebs radgan nabrZanebi hqondaT qarTvelTa

laSqrisTvis aspinZasTan gzebi CaeketaT, sofel nijgors male

106


gascilebian, riTac soflis mosaxleobas safrTxe ascilebia (141, 90).

mefe erekles brwyinvale samxedro niWi sof. idumalasTanac

gamovlinda. man mters cxenosani razmi Seageba. mowinaaRmdege Sedrka.

mefem brZolaSi axali razmebi Caaba. qarTvelebi moxerxebuli maRlobi

adgilebidan utevdnen osmalebs. isini TavganwirviT ibrZodnen da ar

surdaT, brZolis veli qarTvelebisTvis daeTmoT, magram qarTvel

mebrZolTa axali Zalebis brZolaSi Cabmam Sedegi gamoiRo. mteri

erTmaneTSi airia da Tavs gaqceviT uSvela. mowinaaRmdegem brZolis

velze 500 meomari datova, danarCeni adidebulma mtkvarma daaxrCo.

qarTvelebs moukles 4 Tavadi da 10 rigiTi meomari, rac maTi

xelCarTuli sabrZolo xelovnebis maRal ostatobaze miuTiTebs.

ai, ras wers amis Sesaxeb am Setakebis TviTmxilveli anton

mouravovi 1770 wlis 30 aprils general totlebens: ,, . . . sofel

aspinZas, maT (qarTvelebs) SexvdaT xuTiaTasi cxenosani delibaSis,

levandis . . . sadac marcxniv (sof. idumalasa da oSoris) maRali

gorebia, romlebzedac zeviT misvla verafriT ver moxerxda da marjvniv

ki mtkvari iyo. gorebidan ki md. mtkvramde manZili iyo mxolod ori

kilometri, sadac irakli arCeuli cxenosnebiT Seejaxa maT. Tumca,

Turqebi Zalian icavdnen Tavs, magram bolos iZulebuli gaxdnen ukan

daexiaT, imaT (osmalebs) miwaze 500 mkvdari meomari darCaT, TviTon

iraklis ki moukles 4 Tavadi da 10 rigiTi meomari~ (51, I, 107).

idumalasTan DbrZola mTlad damTavrebuli ar iyo, roca erekles

acnobes, rom axalcixis faSas mier gamogzavnili samxedro korpusi

aspinZis mimarTulebiT gamoCnda da xidis gagavliT mtkvris marjvena

napirze gadmosvlas apirebso. lek-osmalTa laSqari axalcixis

garnizonidan aspinZis midamoebSi movida. uravlis xeobiT, soflebis:

WobareTis, zvelis, orgora saxudabelis- gaswvriv gavliT da aspinZis

xidze gadasvliT.

am droisaTvis mefes Tan hyavda sul 3000-mde meomari. MmaTSi iyvnen

borCaloeli TaTrebi. gansacdelSi myofi, samefos mowyvetili,

mowinaaRmdegis did Zalas unda dapirispireboda. AaseT viTarebaSi Tavi

iCina sardlis niWma. erekle mefem kargad icoda, rom xelsayreli

107


pozocia, moxerxebuli saomari adgili yvelaze metad iyo saWiro

ricxobrivad didi upiratesobis mqone mowinaaRmdegeze gamarjvebisaTvis.

amitom aseTi bunebrivi poziciis SerCevas Seudga dauyovnebliv. Mmefem

aspinZis maRlobebi amoirCia. ai, ras wers am adgilebis Sesaxeb XVIII-is

istorikosi da geografi vaxuSti bagrationi: ,,amas (svelis, anu

laSisxevis) zeiT erTvis mtkvars aspinZis xevi aRmosavleTidam, gamodis

kodianisas anu javaxeTis mTas. amis SesarTavTan aris xidi mtkvarsa

zeda. aspinZis Tavs da agaras bolos aris cixe kldesa zeda Seni, magari.

aspinZis zeiT, CrdiloeTiT ars mgelcixe. magari didSeni. amave xevzed

oTas, ars kldesa Sina gamokveTilni qvabni did-didni saxizrad” (33,

127).ESetakebis adgilebi mdebareobda dasaxlebul punqtebis idumalasa

da aspinZas Sua mtkvris marjvena napiras. Mmtkvarsa da simaRleebs

Soris 2 kilometramde sigrZis viwro vake-borcviani adgili iyo

darCenili. ,,ereklem es kldovani simaRleebi airCia saomari

moqmedebebisaTvis da iq Caasafra mebrZolebi~ (52, 18), romelnic sam

nawilad dahyo.EerT nawils TviTon xelmZRvanelobda, meores _ erekles

ufrosi vaJi giorgi, xolo mesames _ daviT orbeliani. qarTvelTa

sabrZolo ganlageba TavdacvaSi aseTi iyo: centralur dajgufebas

sardlobda TviT mefe, romelic Sua maRlobebze ganlagda, marjvena

frTas _ giorgi batoniSvili, romelsac mefisagan nabrZanebi hqonda,

Tavisi laSqriT Tavdapirvelad brZolaSi monawileoba ar mieRo, mas

Tavisi Zalebi gaWirvebis dros an ieriSis ganviTarebisaTvis unda

gamoeyenebina, rogorc rezervi, marcxena frTaze ki daviT orbeliani

imyofeboda zaal orbelianTan erTad.

qarTvel mebrZolebs poziciebi jer kidev bolomde ar hqondaT

dakavebuli aspinZis maRlobebze, rom TurqTa razmebma gadmosvla

daiwyes xidze, romelic mtkvarze iyo gadebuli. ereklem gangeb acala

mowinaaRmdeges xidze mebrZolTa gadmoyvana, raTa Tavisi taqtikuri

Canafiqri ganexorcielebina (viwrobebSi Zalebis manevrirebis SezRudva -

d. m.) mowinaaRmdegem mTlad aavso grZeli da viwro vake mtkvris marjvena

sanapiroze. daRamda,Mmcire nawili laSqrisa marcxena napirze dabanakda

da brZola Semdegi dRisaTvis gadaido.

108


mefe ereklem, gaiTvaliswina rom mters axali maSveli Zalebi

Seemateboda, amitom 19 aprils md. mtkvarze xidi ayara. mtkvris marcxena

mxares mtris laSqris nawili da mahmadiani mosaxleobiT dasaxlebuli

mravali sofeli (didi da patara varneTi, bnela, oskeria, awyvita, qunca,

rokeTi, orgora, saxudabeli, axaSeni da sxva) Seecdeboda, daxmareba

aRmoeCinaT axalcixis faSasaTvis qarTvelebis winaaRmdeg brZolaSi.

,,movida mefe irakli aspinZas da aspinZis xidis isrebi aayrevina da

mtkvarSi gadaayrevina~ (48, 80) brZolis wina Rames erekle II-m

mcirericxovani razmi gaagzavna xidis mwyobridan gamosayvanad,

romelSic aRabab erisTavi, svimon muxran-batonis Svili da xudia

borCaloeli monawileobdnen. jgufma moulodneli TavdasxmiT mcvelebi

gaanadgura da Seasrula mefis mier micemuli davaleba ise, rom

mowinaaRmdeges meore dRemde araferi Seutyvia (141, 102).

1770 wlis 20 aprils, . . . mowinaaRmdege ar aqtiurobda,

qarTvelebisgan moeloda Setevis dawyebas. mefe ereklem mtris

mosatyueblad samxedro xerxs mimarTa: daaxloebiT 100-mde mebrZoli

gagzavna mtris mmarTulebiT cxenebze xurjingadakidebuli, viTomda

,,sursaT-sanovagis~ mosatanad, raTa mteri SecdomaSi Seeyvana da

Casafrebis adgilidan wamoeSala. rogorc irkveva, qarTvelebma mefis

darigebisamebr, xmlebis qneviT, ukan-ukan daixies (141, 102). faqtia, rom

TiTqmis yvela mkvlevari aRniSnuli brZolisa, osmalebis mier Setevis

dawyebas amtkicebs, amitom s. xositaSvilis gadmocema marTebulia.

osmalebisa da lekebisagan Semdgarma jarma win waweva da dadevneba

daiwyo. TofiT srolis manZilze miaxloebisas erTbaSad srola daiwyo,

magram Camwkrivebul da safrebs amofarebul qarTvelebs mteri verafers

aklebda. ereklem axlo manZilze mouSva mowinaaRmdege, misi niSnis

Semdeg qarTvelTa Tofebma erTdroulad iquxes da moaxloebuli mtris

pirveli rigi mocelili balaxiviT daeca. aseTive bedi ewia meore da

mesame rigebsac. iarusebad ganlagebuli qarTvelebi setyvasaviT

esrodnen tyvias osmalebs, rogorc amas istoriuli literatura

gadmogvces. qarTvelebi sabrZolo upiratesobas flobdnen. maRlobebidan

gasrolili iaraRi mowinaaRmdeges meti sizustiT anadgurebda, rasac

109


xels uwyobda viwro adgilmdebareobiT gamowveuli mtris Zalebis

simWidrove da Tavisufali manevrirebis SezRuda.

mowinaaRmdegis ricxobrivma siWarbem Tavisi gaitana da qarTvelTa

centralur dajgufebas axali razmebiT Seutia. DdaviT orbelianma

gaaZliera marjvena frTidan cecxlis daSena. Eerekle II-m mebrZolebs

sityviT mimarTa: ` ... mxneno qarTvelno, es amisTana gaWirvebuli omi Cven

Tavzed pirveli ar aris. Kkargad gaarCieT, dainaxeT, ra sikvdilis lxini

aris dRes! viomoT sikvdilamdis, rom Cveni zurgi mterma ar naxos ...

mec aq TqvenSi vimyofebi, erekle ~ (63, 5). am grZnobiT warmoTqmulma

sityvebma mebrZolTa moraluri mdgomareoba gaaaTkeca im donemde, roca

Tavdadeba da samSoblosaTvis sikvdili, Tu SeiZleba iTqvas, netarebad

miaCnia adamians, miT umetes, umravlesobam icoda erekle mefis brZolis

ambavi. Q

qarTvelebma maRlobebidan ieriSi miitanes. mefis saocari mamacobiTa

da simarjviT aRtacebaSi mosuli cxenosani jari umowyalod Cexda

mowinaaRmdeges. mematianis gadmocemiT, ` ereklem gaswira Tavi Tvisi da

ekveTa ficxlad vidre sikvdilamde da iyvnen mefisa Tanamyofni qarTvelkaxni

mxned da umetes Svidni igi xevsurnio~. brZolis kulminaciur

momentSi mefe ereklem mowinaaRmdegis winamZRoli lekTa aTasisTavi

koxta beladi (malaCila) mokla. XIX s-Si sofel xizabavraSi mcxovrebi

dele pavliaSvili , romelsac i. alxaziSvilma gamokiTxa aspinZis

brZolis Sesaxeb, saidanac vgebulobT, rom ` mefe erekle erT serze,

sadac TaTrebis sasaflao yofila koxta belads Setakebia. wamsve koxtas

moqneuli xmali ascda mefes, radgan cxens mucelzed moeqca. xmalma su

waiRo unagiris aiar-yaSi (Tavi) ... moajda mefe cxens…... ereklem mouqnia

xmali da ise gauara xmalma ro lekma verc-ki gaigo ... gadasWra kaci ...

giauro ver momartyio, magram cota ro SeinZra tani Zirs Camovarda da

fexebi ki uzangSi darCa . . . ~ (52, 3).

raoden gadaWarbebuladac ar unda mogveCvenos dele pavliaSvilis

monaTxrobi (mxatvruli gaformeba), erekle mefis mier koxta beladis

mokvlas mravali istoriuli masala adasturebs. ra gasakviria, rom am

orTabrZolis mxilveli mowinaaRmdege SeSinda da maTi damarcxeba

110


SedarebiT gaadvilda. mefis msgavsad, mamacurad ibrZodnen qarTveli

mebrZolebic. osmal-lekTa laSqarma ukan daxeva daiwyo. AmaT mxolod

imis imedi amxnevebda, rom xidze gadavidodnen da Tavs gaqceviT mainc

uSvelidnen.

im garemoebam, rom ukuqceul mowinaaRmdeges xidi ayrili dauxvda da

erTaderTi ukandasaxevi gza moWrili iyo, maT rigebSi panika gamoiwvia.

igi moralurad daeca da brZolis unari dakarga. mtkvris marcxena

napirze darCenilma mcirericxovanma mowinaaRmdegem, xidis ganadgurebis

gamo, mdinaris marjvena mxares gadmosvla da mebrZolebze miSveleba ver

SeZlo. sabolood mowinaaRmdege qarTvelebisa da azvirTebuli mtkvris

msxverpli gaxda. (ix. sqema #7. 157). adgilmdebareobis rekognoscirebaSi

dagvexmra aspinZis mkvidri, istorikosi roberti beriZe.

qarTvelebma daatyveves 56 Turqi da 1 leki. xelT igdes mravali

droSa, cxeni da didZali iaraRi. Cveni mxridan danakargi ramdenime

aTeul daWril-daxocils Seadgenda. daWrilTa Soris moxseniebulia

aleqsandre ciciSvili da iase erisTavi.

mowinaaRmdegis ricxobrivi raodenoba istoriul masalebSi

sxvadasxvanairadaa mocemuli. n. berZeniSvilis gadmocemiT ≈ 4000,

o.xerxeuliZis ≈ 6000, g. qiqoZisa da v. maWaraZis ≈ 8000. miuxedavad imisa,

rom o. xerxeuliZე aRwerili periodis mematianea, sandoobis

TvalsazrisiT, v. maWaraZis mier moZiebuli dokumentebi ufro sarwmunoa.

tyved Cavardnili ramdenime meTauris CvenebiT, rvaaTasiani

korpusidan 4000-ze meti mebrZolis velze daRupula (98, 68), asobiT

mebrZoli wyaldidobiT azvirTebulma mtkvarma daaxrCo. DdaRupula

mowinaaRmdegis korpusis sardali; 12 sanjayis mflobeli; yulianis,

karcxlisa da olTisis faSebi. erekle II paninisadmi gagzavnil werilSi

moklulTa Soris asaxelebs _ TurqTagan: artanbegs, beqirbegs, gola

faSas, SavSeTis begs da sxva. lekTagan: aTasisTavs - malaCilas (koxta

beladi), usuf belads, haji mamed belads da sxva. daRupulad Tvlida

mefe yumuxis mTavris Svils, sulTnis mier winaswar Tbilisis faSad

daniSnuls, radgan am ukanasknelis cxeni mefes mihgvares (141, 115).

111


erekle II-sa da mis mebrZolebis gmirobis Sesaxeb mravali leqsia

dawerili solomon caiSvilis wignSi ,,erekle mefis gmiruli saxe

xalxur SemoqmedebaSi~ (134).

erekle mefem tyveTagan axalcixeli izmail-aRa, erzerumeli reJebaRa

da leki saxelad ata, ruseTis samefo karze gaagzavna (52, 3).

aRniSnuliT ruseTs daumtkica, rom Turme SesaZlebeli yofila erekle

II-is mier SeTavazebuli gegmis ganxorcieleba. totlebenis Ralatisa da

samefoSi Seqmnili viTarebis gamo brZola axalcixis aRebisTvis aRar

gagrZelebula.

aspinZis brZolaSi qarTvelebma mefe erekle II-is sardlobiT

daamarcxes mravalricxovani mowinaaRmdege. es brZola, samxedro

xelovnebis TvalsazrisiT, TavdacviTi sabrZolo operaciaa. rodesac

ereklem gaigo, rom mtris jari awyurisaken miemarTeboda, daaswro maT

gadmosvlas da TviTon gadavida aspinZaSi dasaxvedrad. am SemTxvevaSi

moqmedebis gegma aseTi iyo, daeswro mowinaaRmdegisTvis da sruliad

moulodnelad Tavs dasxmoda mas. Seafasa ra arsebuli viTareba,

osmalebs daaswro da aspinZis maRlobebi daikava. AaseTi moqmedeba misi

taqtikuri Canafiqria. sun Zi aRniSnulis Sesaxeb ambobda: ,,vinc pirveli

midis brZolaSi da mters elodeba, igi savsea ZalebiT, vinc Semdeg

daRlilia. vinc kargad ibrZvis, is marTavs mowinaaRmdeges da

saSualebas ar aZlevs, rom marTos Tavisi Tavi~ (101, 47), ase moxda am

brZolaSic. es imiTac aixsneba, rom mowinaaRmdegem ramdenejerme miitana

ieriSi maRlobebze, magram warmatebas ver miaRwia, radgan sainJinro

TvalsazrisiT gamagrebul qarTvel mebrZolebs sammagi upiratesoba

gaaCndaT:

I _ winaswar SerCeuli adgili Tavdacvis karg saSualebas iZleoda,

rac mcire danakargs gamoiwvevda;

II _ mowinaaRmdegis efeqturi dazianeba simaRlidan axlo manZilze.

III _ swrafi kontrieriSis ganxorcielebis SesaZlebloba, rac

warmatebiT iqna gamoyenebuli.

rogorc viciT, aranaklebi mniSvneloba aqvs mebrZolTa sabrZolo

SemarTebas, rac damokidebulia ideologiasa da rwmenaze. erekle mefem

112


ieriSis win sityviT mimarTa mebrZolebs da maTi ganwyoba aamaRla,

aspinZis xidis gafuWebiT gamarjvebis rwmena ganumtkica.

raki mowinaaRmdegem pirdapiri ieriSebiT veraferi gaawyo da

danakargs uSedegod ganicdida, savaraudoa, gadawyvita qarTvelTa

sabrZolo wyobisTvis zurgidan moevlo. Aam Canafiqris sisruleSi

mosayvanad xidis mimarTulebiT ukan daixia da reliefidan gamomdinare

viwro dablobze moaxdina Zalebis koncentracia. am dros gamomJRavnda

sardlis niWi, man mebrZolebi kontrieriSze gadaiyvana. osmal-lekni

daibnen, vinaidan aseT moqmedebas ar elodnen. koxta beladis sikvdilma

da xidis mwyobridan gamoyvanam mteri sasowarkveTilebaSi Caagdo da

moralurad daaZabuna, ramac mniSvnelovnad gazarda moulodnelobis

faqtori da qarTvelebs gamarjveba moutana.

aspinZis brZolis arsis srulad aRwerisaTvis saWiroa ganvixiloT

generalur brZolamde momxdari ori Setakeba, romlebic masTan kavSirSi

moiazrebian. sanam aspinZaSi mividoda erekle II, mas, awyuris midamoebSi,

sofel tyemlanasTan mouwia brZolebis Catareba.

axalcixis faSasTvis cnobili gaxda erekles gegmebi, (is axalqalaqi

_ walkis gziT TbilisSi dabrunebas cdilobda) amitom man axalcixis

garnizonidan gamoagzavna jari erekles Sesaxvedrad. mefem droze Seityo

am mosalodneli safrTxis Sesaxeb da moxerxebulad ganalaga Tavisi

jari sof. tyemlanas midamoebSi. am dros erekles 3 000-mde mebrZoli

hyavda, magram rogor ganawilda es Zalebi cnobili ar aris.

Cvens mier Catarebulma rekognoscirebam saSualeba mogvca

miaxloebiT dagvedgina, rom erekles razmSi iyo 1500, giorgis razmSi

1000, xolo ciciSvilis razmSi 500 mebrZoli. Tu ramdeni iyo osmalTa

jari cnobebi ar gagvaCnia. aseve ucnobia osmalTa danakargebi.

SevecadoT am suraTis raodenobriv aRdgenas. am brZolaSi erekles

daeRupa 1 da daeWra 3 mebrZoli. praqtikulad SeiZleba iTqvas rom man es

brZola udanakargod Caatara.

aseTi ram Teoriulad SesaZlebelia mxolod im SemTxvevaSi rodesac

erT-erTi mxare sargeblobs moulodnelobiT da brZolis procesi

praqtikulad manamde wydeba, sanam mxare, romlisTvisac Setakeba

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moulodneli aRmoCnda gons moegeboda. am SemTxvevaSi brZola zustad

aseTi scenariT warimarTa.

osmalebisTvis, miuxedavad imisa, rom isini qarTvelebTan saomrad

midiodnen, konkretulad im adgilze Sexvedra moulodneli aRmoCnda da

am faqtorma Tavisi Sedegi gamoiRo. garkveuli drois Semdeg, gons

mosuli mteri ukuiqca.

sainteresoa ramden xans SeiZleboda gagrZelebuliyo mowinaaRmdegis

gaurkvevel situaciaSi yofna? anu ramdeni dro dasWirdeboda

meTaurobas gons mogebuliyo da miecaT miTiTebebi qveSevrdomTaTvis?

miuxedavad imasa, Tu informaciis gadacemis ra saSualebebi iyo im dros

da Tanamedrove Teoriuli gaTvlebiTa da eqspertuli SefasebiT es

daaxloebiT aris 10 wuTamde, anu es is droa, ra droSic imuSava

moulodnelobis faqtorma sawyis etapze mTlianobaSi. aq Cven

vgulisxmobT erekle mefisa da giorgi batoniSvilis razmebis

moulodneli qmedebebis erTobliobas.

sainteresoa ramdeni SeeZlo qarTvelebs gaenadgurebinaT saSualod

brZolis procesSi?

sxvadasxva brZolebis analizidan mivdivarT im daskvnamde, rom im

drois qarTvelTa mebrZolebisTvis Sesabamisi koeficienti lanCesteris

gantolebebSi, Tu drois erTeulad miviRebT wuTs, aris 0,015

koeficienti. es is SemTxvevaa, rodesac dapirispirebuli mxare

winaaRmdegobas uwevs. Cvens SemTxvevaSi, rodesac mowinaaRmdege pasiuria,

es koeficienti izrdeba da is SeiZleba iyos saSualod orjer meti.

moulodnelobis faqtoriT ganpirobebuli procesis garda,

mimdinareobda devnac. aq mowinaaRmdege isev pasiur mdgomareobaSia da

amitom procesi midis igive kanonzomierebiT, rogorc moulodnelobisas,

magram erTi faqtoris gaTvaliswinebiT _ is droSi welvadia.

gavixsenoT, rom am SetakebaSi monawileobda ereklesa da giorgis

razmebi e.i. 2500 mebrZoli isini 10 wuTSi gaanadgurebdnen

2500 10 2 0,015=750 mebrZols, sadac 2500 aris erekle-giorgis mebrZolTa

raodenoba, 10 _ Setakebis xangrZlivoba, 2 0,015 _ mebrZolis koeficienti.

dadevnebisas gveqneba 2500 15 0,015=562, sadac 15 devnis droa, danarCeni

114


analogiurad. sul mters daeRupa 750+562=1312 mebrZoli. magram mTeli

jaris ra nawili unda yofiliyo es raodenoba? dReisaTvis samxedro

xelovnebaSi miRebulia rom qvedanayofi kargavs brZolisunarianobas

Tavisi Zalebis 35 %-is danakargis Semdeg. Tu CavTvliT, rom es 1312 iyo

osmalTa jaris 35%, maSin maT hyoliaT daaxloebiT 3750 mebrZoli.

aq SegviZlia angariSi gavuwioT rig garemoebebs. pirveli es arsi is,

rom icodnen ra visTan hqondaT saqme (erekles am dros ukve avtoriteti

hqonda moxveWili) maT SeeZloT gaqceuliyvnen ufro adre. aseT

SemTxvevaSi daRupulTa zemoTmoyvanili ricxvi (1312) yofiliyo mTeli

jaris 30%. meore faqtori isaa, rom osmalebi modiodnen swored erekles

winaaRmdeg sabrZolvelad da Sexvdnen swored mas. aqedan gamomdinare

maT SeeZloT male ar Semdrkaliyvnen da winaaRmdegoba gaewiaT didxans.

am SemxvevaSi ricxvi 1312 SeiZleba yofiliyo 40%.

zemoaRniSnuli procentuli maCveneblebi (30% da 40%) aris pirobiTi

zRvari, romlis CarCoSic movaxdineT gaTvlebi. am daSvebebidan

gamomdinare osmalTa jari yofila 3200-dan 4500-mde. Tu maT saSualos

aviRebT (3850), vuaxlovdebiT isev im ricxvs romelic pirvelad miviReT

3750.

es ricxvi sruliad misaRebi gaxdeba Tu gaviTvaliswinebT, rom ori

dRiT adre axalcixis faSam awyuris cixis gasamagreblad gamogzavna

2000 kaci. cxadia erekles sruli ganadgurebis mizniT mas SeeZlo

daaxloebiT orjer meti jari gamoegzavna.

mematianis gadmocemiT danarCeni (1312 daRupulis garda) mtkvarSi

daixrCo. Tu gaviTvaliswinebT rom es brZola moxda 19 aprils rodesac

mtkvari savaraudod, weliwadis droidan gamomdinare, maqsimalurad

iqneboda adidebuli, mematianis gadmocema damajereblad JRers.

am SesaniSnavad organizebuli brZolis dros ereklem Tavisi gza

TrialeTisaken ganagrZo. amis gamo mis Sesaxvedrad, axalcixis faSas

brZanebiT, axalqalaqis da xerTvisis cixeebidan gamoemarTa 1500 kaciani

osmalTa laSqari.

erekle maT Sexvda sofel idumalasTan. qarTvelebi ganlagdnen

Zalze moxerxebulad _ daikaves mniSvnelovani maRlobebi. ereklem mters

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jer mewinave cxenosani jari daaxvedra da rodesac mterma mTeli

yuradReba maTken gadaitana, man, SetakebaSi Tanmimdevrulad CarTo sxva

razmebi, rac mtrisTvis moulodneli aRmoCnda. igi Sedrka da gaiqca,

ereklem maT gza mouWra da gadarCenilebi mtkvarSi gadacvivdnen. mterma

brZolis velze dakarga 500 mebrZoli (Zalebis 1/3), ereklem es brZolac

praqtikulad, udanakargod Caatara (dakarga 14 mebrZoli).

mocemul 2 SetakebaSi mowinaaRmdegem moklulTa saxiT 1312+500=1812

mebrZoli da mtkvarSi damxvrCvalTa saxiT 2438+1000=3438 mebrZoli

dakarga. sul: 1812+3438=5250 kaci.

erekles Seusvenia. am dros aspinZis mxridan gamoCnda osmalTa

laSqari, romelic axalcixis garnizonidan iqna gamogzavnili. 20 aprils

gaimarTa generaluri brZola. zemoT ukve iTqva, rom erekles am

brZolaSi 3000 mebrZoli yavda. aspinZaSi dakarga ,,ramdenime aTeuli~. ra

Zalebi yavda mters? cnobebi sxvadasxvaa: 4, 6, 8 aTasi, an ramdeni dakarga

man, ucnobia. SevecadoT am monacemebis aRdgenas.

Cven bevri sxvadasxva brZolis analizisas, eqspertul monacemebze

dayrdnobiT vRebulobT rom qarTvelTa sabrZolo Tvisobrivi

maCvenebeli a (mebrZolis TvisebaTa erToblioba, romelic zegavlenas

axdens brZolis procesis mimdinareobaze da gamoisaxeba koeficientiT)

3.5-jer metia, vidre mtris _ b. e.i. c= a/ b= 3.5 imis gamo, rom am brZolaSi

qarTvelebs uaRresad moxerxebuli poziciebi ekavaT da mteri Zalze

mWidrod idga, anu dapirispirebul mxareTa urTierTganlagebis sawyisma

mdgomareobam es koeficienti _ a sul mcire orjer gazarda, mtris _ b

orjer Seamcira. amrigad maCvenebeli c, 4-jer unda gavzardoT. rac

Seexeba erekles danakargebs _ `ramdenime aTeuli~, miviRoT rogorc

sakontrolo maCvenebeli, mowinaaRmdegis ZalebSi, ganvixileT sxvadasxva

varianti. miviReT, iseve rogorc wina SemTxvevebSi da CavTvaloT, rom

mteri ukuiqca mas Semdeg, rac man dakarga Tavisi Zalebis 30%. aviRoT

magaliTad, rom mters yavda 10 000 mebrZoli. rogorc kompiuteruli

gaTvlebi gviCvenebs, imisaTvis rom mters daekarga 3000 (anu 10 000-is 30%),

erekles unda daekarga ara ramdenime aTeuli, aramed 693 erTeuli. am

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Sedegs gvaZlevs lanCesteris gantolebebis amoxsna, im koeficientiT,

romelic zemoT miviReT. amrigad, es varianti (rom, mters hyavda 10 000

mebrZoli) miuRebelia. ase iqna ukugdebuli uamravi sxva variantebic,

bolos am kriteriumebiT misaRebi aRmoCnda 3500 erTeuli. am SemTxvevaSi

erekle dakargavda 78 erTeuls (ramdenime aTeuli), mteri - 1078, rac

3500-is daaxloebiT 30%-ia. Tu CavTvliT rom xids gaRma darCa mTeli

Zalebis erTi meoTxedi, gamodis rom osmalebs hyoliaT daaxloebiT 5000

mebrZoli.

3500 is ricxvia, romelic sxva gaTvlebiTac miiReba. magaliTad

ramdeni kaci (cxenosani) daeteoda im farTobze, sadac mowinaaRmdege

ganlagda mtkvris marjvena mxares? (1500 200 m 2 ). ramden cxenosans

SeeZlo im xidze gavla im droSi, romelic maT qondaT amisaTvis?

amrigad aspinZis brZolis raodenobrivi mxare SeiZleba ase

warmovidginoT: erekles 3000 mebrZolis winaaRmdeg gamoemarTa osmalTa

5000-ani laSqari. aqedan xidze gadmovida 3500, danarCeni darCa mtkvris

marcxena napirze (`mcire nawili~, rogorc mematiane ambobs). am 3500-dan

ereklem brZolaSi gaanadgura daaxloebiT 1100, ris Semdegac mterma

daiwyo gaqceva. mas Semdeg rac mters xidi ayrili dauxvda, isini

mtkvarSi gadacvivdnen.

sami brZolis Sedegad osmalebma saerTo jamSi dakarges

5250+3500=8750 mebrZoli. erekles danakargi am dros 100-s ar aRemateba.

marTlac brwyinvale gamarjvebaa.

ereklem am warmatebas riT miaRwia?

Tu brZolis dinamikis aRweris Teorias mivmarTavT (154, 172-207),

ZalTa Tanafardobas ganapirobebs ori faqtori ricxovnoba

(raodenobiTi mxare) da Tvisobrivi mxare. Tvisobriv mxares Tavis mxriv

ganapirobeben bevri faqtorebi, moulodneloba, reliefi da sxva. pirvel

brZolaSi ereklem brwyinvaled gamoiyena moulodnelobis faqtori.

meore brZolaSi man aseve SesaniSnavad gamoiyena reliefi, xolo

kulminaciuri brZola iyo mxedarTmTavruli niWis ubadlo gamovlineba.

erTis mxriv man SesaniSnavad ganalaga Tavisi Zalebi, xolo

117


mowinaaRmdege Seityua iseT pirobebSi, sadac mas moqmedebis aRaraviTari

Sansi ar dautova. amiT man Tavisi jaris Tvisobrivi mxare gaaumjobesa,

xolo mowinaaRmdegis ukiduresad dabal niSnulze daiyvana. rac Seexeba

mowinaaRmdegis raodenobriv mxares (rogorc cnobilia mis winaaRmdeg

erTi saSualeba arsebobs _ mowinaaRmdege rogorme unda daanawevro) aq

man brwyinvale xerxi moifiqra, xidis dangreviT mters mouspo saSualeba

mtkvris marcxena mxares darCenili Zalebi saWiro dros CaerTo

brZolaSi.

qarTuli sabrZolo xelovnebis istoriSi aris amgvari magaliTebiT

da Tuki vinme odesme am magaliTebis klasifikacias Seecdeba, maTSi

erekles mier aspinZaSi gadaxdili brZolebi uaRresad TvalsaCino

adgils daikaveben.

Tu strategiis erT-erTi ZiriTadi debulebaa moqmedeba viTarebis

mixedviT, xolo am azrs taqtikis gonivruli gamoyeneba ganamtkicebs,

maSin, SeiZleba iTqvas, rom am brZolaSi erekle II-m savsebiT daicva es

debuleba, rac sardlis mier samxedro saqmis kargad codnaze

metyvelebs.Mman gonivrulad gamoiyena Tavdacvisa da kontrieriSis

Semadgeneli elementebi: adgilmdebareobis swori SerCeva da viTarebis

Sefaseba; mowinaaRmdegis SeCereba da danakargis miyeneba; kontrieriSze

drouli gadasvla; mowinaaRmdegis blokirebiT Seqmnili upiratesobis

ganviTareba; mowinaaRmdegis Zalebis ganadgureba.

mocemul brZolaSi aseve gamovlinda SeteviTi operaciis

maxasiaTeblebic: mTavari dartymis mimarTulebis sworad SerCeva;

moulodneli Tavdasxma da iniciativis xelSi Cagdeba; siswrafe,

mobiluroba da gambedaoba.

aspinZis brZolaSi gamoyenebul iqna iseTi taqtikuri elementebi,

romlebic dResac ar kargaven aqtualobasa da mniSvnelobas Tanamedrove

sabrZolo moqmedebebis sawarmoeblad. esenia:

_ sabrZolo moqmedebaTa warmarTva manevris gamoyenebiT;

_ adgilmdebareobis gonivruli SerCeva;

_ jarebis moxerxebuli ganlageba da urTierTqmedeba;

_ mowinaaRmdegis mier brZolis velze maSveli Zalebis miRebisa da

118


manevris Catarebis SesaZleblobis aRkveTa sadazvervo da diversiuli

moqmedebebis gziT;

_ kontrieriSis ganxorcieleba adgilis, droisa da miznis mixedviT.

mowinaaRmdegis Secdomis gonivrulma gamoyenebam, misi fsiqologiuri

garemos uaryofiTad Secvlam, romelic analizSia mocemuli, brZolis

velze mtris sruli ganadgureba ganapiroba.

qarTvelma xalxma didebis SaravandediT Semosa aspinZis gmirebi.

xolo am brZolis sardali _ mefe erekle II qarTveli xalxis erT-erT

sayvareli gmiri gaxda (101, 23). aspinZis brZolis samxedro operaciaSi

mTeli sisruliT gamovlinda samxedro xelovnebis umTavresi principebi:

_ ZalTa araTanabari ganawileba;

_ adgilmdebareobis efeqturi gamoyeneba;

_ Setevis mimarTilebis SerCeva,

_ moulodnelobis faqtorze dayrdnobiT mcire ZalebiT

mravalricxvovani mowinaaRmdegis ganadgureba.

amrigad, aspinZis brZoliT kidev erTi furceli Caiwera XVIII

saukunis saqarTvelos samxedro xelovnebis istoriaSi. brZolis

Seswavlisa da analizis safuZvelze unda gavakeToT Semdegi daskvnebi:

_ aspinZis brZola unda ganvixiloT erTi mTliani sabrZolo

operacia, romelic Sedgeboda awyuris, sayueTi-tyemlanas da aspinZis

brZolis daskvniTi etapisagan. aspinZis gadamwyvet Serkinebamde

gamarTulma brZolebma ara marto sagrZnobi danaklisi miayena

mowinaaRmdeges, aramed qarTvelebs didi fsiqologiuri upiratesoba

SesZina.

_ aspinZis velze xelsayrel poziciebze qarTvelTa jaris sworad

ganlagebam, kargad mofiqrebuli gegmiT brZolis warmarTvam, sardlebisa

da calkeuli razmebis meTaurTa mamacurma da unarianma moqmedebam, mefis

gmirobam, qarTvelTa gamarjveba ganapiroba.

119


Tavi III. erekle II-is samxedro strategia, taqtika da

principebi

3.1. XVIII s-is dasavleT evropis, aziisa da aRmosavleT saqarTvelos

samxedro strategiisa da taqtikis SedarebiTi analizi

disertaciis I da II TavSi SevexeT XVIII saukunis meore naxevarSi

erekle II-is mier gatarebul samxedro-administraciul reformebs da mis

mier gadaxdil umniSvnelovanes brZolebs, romlebic gamarjvebiT

damTavrda. sanam gavecnobodeT aRniSnul periodSi saqarTveloSi

arsebul samxedro xelovnebas, mizanSewonilad migvaCnia ganvixiloT

imdroindeli dasavleT evropis, ruseTis, aziis (osmaleTis, iranis,

avRaneTis) qveynebis samxedro strategia da taqtika, romelic saSualebas

mogvcems SevafasoT erekle II-is mxedarTmTavruli moRvaweoba.

XVIII s-Si mravalricxovani armiebis Seqmnam da gaumjobesebuli

iaraRiT aRWurvam didi gavlena moaxdina sabrZolo moqmedebebis

warmarTvis xasiaTze da samxedro xelovnebaze. omebSi mravalaTasiani

armiebis monawileobam mniSvnelovnad gazarda SeiaraRebuli brZolis

teritoriuli masStabi. Sesabamisad mxedarTmTavrebs SeeZloT sabrZolo

moqmedebebi erTdroulad ramdenime mimarTulebiT waremarTaT (53, 62).

jarebis gamoyenebis strategiuli SesaZleblobebis gazrdis

mniSvnelovani komponenti gaxda maTi zurgis (lojistikuri)

centralizebuli momarageba. zemoaRniSnuli dasavleT evropaSi gustav II

adolfma (1611-1632) SemoiRo. sabrZolo moqmedebebis raionSi igi qmnida

bazebs (sawyobebs), saidanac misi jari maragdeboda. aseTma momaragebam

mniSvnelovnad gazarda armiis brZolisunarianoba (53, 41).

zurgis momaragebis aseTi sistemis arsi iyo is, rom omis dawyebamde

da misi msvlelobisas sabrZolo moqmedebaTa asparezze cixe-simagreebsa

da sxva gamagrebul adgilebSi iqmneboda iaraRis, sabrZolo masalebis,

sursaTisa da furaJis saWiro raodenoba. Sesabamisad, mterialuri

kmayofis yvela saxe moqmed armias pirdapir miewodeboda, ramac gazarda

sabrZolo SesaZleblobebi: sacecxle siZliere, damrtymeli Zala da

120


moqmedebaTa tempi. mogvianebiT evropis sxvadasxva qveynebic gadavidnen

momaragebis aseT sistemaze.

aRsaniSnavia, rom momaragebis am sistemas naklovanebebic hqonda.

kerZod, armia damokidebuli aRmoCnda momaragebis sawyobebze, romelTa

dakargva SimSilisa da damarcxebis tolfasi iyo. Aamitom jarebi

momaragebis bazebs Sors ar scildebodnen, raTa isini mowinaaRmdeges ar

Cavardnoda xelSi. konkretuli teritoriis dapyrobis SemTxvevaSi

mxedarTmTavrebi ar Cqarobdnen warmatebis ganviTarebas, sanam armias ar

miuaxlovebdnen momaragebis sawyobebs. dauSveblad iTvleboda

momaragebis bazebidan Sors daaxloebiT 80-120 km-ze metad moSoreba

(53, 62).

cecxlsasroli iaraRis xarisxis gazrdam sabrZolo moqmedebebi

ufro sisxlismRvreli gaxada. amitom didi danakargebis SiSiT

cdilobdnen Tavi aeridebinaT generaluri brZolebisTvis da gamarjveba

moepovebinaT gonivrulad ganxorcielebuli ZalTa manevrirebiT.

mowinaaRmdegis flangebze da zurgSi misi momaragebis bazebisa da

komunikaciebis xelSi Cagdebis mizniT. iTvleboda, rom warmatebiT

Catarebuli manevriT SeiZleboda mtris ukugdeba da misi teritoriis

dapyroba. samxedro moqmedebebis mTavari mizani gaxda ara mowinaaRmdegis

armiis ganadgureba, aramed misi teritoriis mokle droSi dakaveba.

omebis warmoebis aseTma formam ,,manevruli~ strategiis saxelwodeba

miiRo.

zemoaRniSnul mizezTa gamo, saxelmwifoebma teritoriebis

SenarCunebisa da dacvis mizniT, sazRvrispira raionebSi, sakomunikacio

kvanZebsa da strategiul adgilebSi aSenebdnen Zlier cixe-simagreebs,

cixe-galavnebs, romlebSic mowyobili iyo saTofurebi da adgilebi

sagalavne artileriisTvis. Sig cocxali Zalis garda ganTavsebuli iyo

momaragebis sawyobebi xelSeuxebeli maragebiT. maT dacvas kargad

gawvrTnili da SeiaraRebuli garnizonebi axorcielebda. XVIII s-Si cixesimagreTa

mSeneblobisa da dacvis teqnikam wina periodebTan SedarebiT

ufro maRal dones miaRwia. yvela saxelmwifo cdilobda sazRvrispira

regionebSi rac SeiZleba meti cixe-simagre hqonoda, raTa mtris

121


Semotevis SesaZlo mimarTulebebi gadaeketa. Sesabamisad teritoriis

perimetrze cixe-simagreebsa da sayrden punqtebSi jarebi ganawilebuli

iyvnen mosalodneli safrTxis gaTvaliswinebiT. ZalTa aseTi Tavmoyris

sistemas da pasiuri omebis warmoebis formas ,,sakordono~ (sasazRvro)

strategia ewoda (154, 360).

aRniSnulidan gamomdinare mowinaaRmdeges eSinoda qveynis siRrmeSi

swrafi SeWra, raTa sazRvrispira raionebSi ganlagebul jaris nawilebs

zurgidan ar daertyaT da xelSi ar CaegdoT maTi momaragebis nawilebi

(ix. sqema #8, 158).

qveynis siRrmeSi Seteva rekomendebuli iyo mxolod sazRvrispira

cixe-simagreebisa da raionebis dauflebis Semdeg. amitom simagreTa

aSeneba da alyis dros xangrZlivi Tavdacva an piriqiT, im droisTvis

samxedro xelovnebis Semadgenel nawiliad iTvleboda.

petre I-is gardacvalebis (1725w) Semdeg zemoaRniSnuli strategiebis

momxreebi iyvnen ruseTis mmarTveli wreebis reaqcioneri

warmomadgenlebi (pavle I, arakCeevi, bironi da sxvebi). isini

miiswrafodnen rusul armiaSi SemoeRoT evropuli, gansakuTrebiT

prusiuli samxedro sistema. amis mizezi maTi eTnikuri warmomavloba da

ganaTleba iyo. rusuli armia, evropulis msgavsad, Sedgeboda qveiTebis,

cxenosnebis da saartilerio nawilebisagan, aseve samxedro sazRvao

flotidan. miuxedavad amisa, rig omebSi (CrdiloeTis omi 1700-1721, ruseTosmaleTis

1768-1774 da 1787-1791 wlebSi) p. a. rumiancevis, a. v. suvorovis

da sxvaTa mier Catarebul sabrZolo operaciebSi gamoikveTa ,,aqtiuri

moqmedebebis~ (Setevis) strategia, romelic miznad isaxavda

moswinaaRmdegis mTavari Zalebis ganadgurebas (159, 30), rac mkveTrad

gansxvavdeboda dasavleT evropis samxedro strategiidan.

Zireuli cvlilebebi dasavleT evropuli armiebis strategiaSi

Seitanes napoleon I bonapartes xelmZRvanelobiT Catarebulma omebma.

safrangeTSi Camoyalibebuli armiebis didi xniT Senaxvam saxelmwifoze

uaryofiTad imoqmeda ekonomikuri TvalsazrisiT. amitom frangma

generlebma jarebis ,,kordonuli~ ganlagebisa da manevrirebis nacvlad

airCies ZalTa Tavmoyra gadamwyvet mimarTulebaze. sabrZolo

122


moqmedebebis warmarTvis ZiriTadi meTodi gaxda Seteva, xolo manevri

gamoiyeneboda saWiro dajgufebebis Seqmnis mizniT, raTa mowinaaRmdege

erT-or generalur brZolaSi gaenadgurebinaT. aqedan gamomdinare,

brZolebi, romlebic XVIII s-is omebSi ganixileboda gamarjvebis

misaRwevad, saomari kompaniis mTavari Semadgeneli nawili gaxda. omis

warmoebis aseT xerxs ,,ganadgurebis~ strategia ewoda da srulyofili

saxe napoleon I-is samxedro moRvaweobis periodSi miiRo. droTa

ganmavlobaSi am strategiaze sxva qveynis armiebmac daiwyes gadasvla

(53, 64).

XVII s-Si iranis saxelmwifos mmarTveli Sahi _ abas I gaxda. man

gonivruli politikis Sedegad Seqmna centralizebuli saxelmwifo.

samxedro kuTxiT reformebis ganxorcilebam xeli Seuwyo axladSeqmnili

sajariso SenaerTebis potencialis gazrdas. oTxi SenaerTidan ori

ZiriTadad tyve mebrZolebidan iyo dakompleqtebuli, danarCeni

adgilobrivi mosaxleobidan, romelic araregularuli jaris saxiT

arsebobda (139, 15-17).

iranelTa jari Sedgeboda cxenosnebis gvardielTa korpusisagan

(moisarebi), momTabareTa cxenosani laSqrisagan, romelsac SenarCunebuli

hqonda tomobrivi organizacia da salaSqrod ojaxebiTa da jogebiT

gamodioda. jarSi nawilobriv Sedioda feodaluri laSqaric. Sahis

gadawyvetilebiT jaris reorganizacia alaverdi-xan undilaZes (im dros

iranis jarebis sardali) da inglisel samxedroebs, Zmebs anton da

robert Serlebs daavales (85, 352). Camoyalibda meTofeTa mudmivi jari

Tormeti aTasi mebrZoliT (SeiaraRebuli iyvnen muSketebiT) da Seiqmna

cxenosanTa gvardiuli korpusi aTi aTasi mebrZoliT. Camoayalibes

saartilerio parki da nawilebi (85, 353). ZiriTadad hqondaT msubuqi

zarbaznebi e. w. zambulakebi, romlebsac aqlemebze amagrebdnen (85, 411).

CamoTvlili SenaerTebi saxelmwifo xazinis kmayofaze imyofeboda. maT

jarSi yorCi-baSi iyo gvardiuli korpusis da yizilbasTa feodaluri

laSqris meTauri. yular-aRasi (Turq., azerb., ,,monaTa ufrosi~) cxenosan

gvardielTa korpusis meTauri iyo, TofangCi-aRasi ewodeboda meTofeTa

gvardiuli korpusis meTaurs. TofCi-baSi artileristebis ufross (85,

123


392). saxelmwifos sazRvrispira regionebSi samxedro da administraciul

RonisZiebebs beglarbegebi xelmZRvanelobdnen. saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi

camet sabeglarbegos daaxloebiT 52 aTasi mebrZoli gamohyavda (85, 393).

XVII s-Si iranSi arsebuli saxelmwifo marTvelobis struqtura da

samxedro organizacia XVIII saukuneSic gagrZelda. qveynis samxedro

saqmis ganviTarebaSi arsebiTi pozitiuri cvlilebebi ar momxdara (139,

18-19). 1736 wels iranis saxelmwifo mmarTveli nadir-Sahi gaxda (85, 426).

misi samxedro moRvaweoba mxolod iranis erTianobis aRdgeniTa da

dakarguli teritoriebis dabrunebiT ar Semofarglula. mas hqonda

SeteviTi samxedro strategia. dapyrobiTi da mZrcveluri moqmedebebis

mTavari mizani iyo samxedro nadavliT xazinis Sevseba. istorikosi

guliam xuseini gadmoqvcems: 1739 wlis ianvarSi, rodesac sparselebi

delisken (indoeTi) salaSqrod midiodnen, muhamed-Sahi didi jariT, 300

qvemexiT da 2000 spiloTi, gaemarTa nadir-Sahis Sesaxvedrad. Tebervlis

bolos delidan axlos, karnalTan moxda gadamwyveti brZola. nadir-

Sahma samxedro eSmakobiT ( aqlemebze mowyobil rkalebs cecxli moukida

da spiloebis sabrZolo wyobisken garbodnen _ d. m.) SeaSina spiloebi,

romlebic mobrundnen indoelTa jaris sapirispirod da sabrZolo wyoba

mraval adgilze gaarRvies, sadac sparselebi SeiWrnen . . . nadir-Sahi

20 marts delSi ubrZolvelad Sevida, gaZarcva qalaqi da 700 mln. rupis

Rirebulebis simdidre wamoiRo (152).

miuxedavad Sua aziaSi warmatebiT Caterebuli sabrZolo

moqmedebebisa da indoeTSi warmoebuli xangrZlivi laSqrobisa (155, 159),

man ver moaxerxa laSqris gardaqmna dasavleT evropis armiebis msgavsad.

Sah abas I-is mier gatarebuli samxedro reformebTan SedarebiT nadir

Sahma sworad ver warmarTa samxedro-reformatoruli moRvaweoba da

jari daSlispiramde miiyvana. Tumca dasustebuli irani 1779-1797 wlebSi

aRa mahmad-xanis marTvelobis periodSi umniSvnelod gaZlierda.

XVI saukunidan dawyebuli suleiman I-is dros osmaleTis imperiaSi

samxedro reformebi daiwyo da etapobrivad xorcieldeboda Semdegi

sulTnebis moRvaweobis periodSi. osmaleTis laSqari ori nawilisagan

Sedgeboda: feodaluri laSqari (130 aTasi), romelic omis SemTxvevaSi

124


ikribeboda; sulTnis kmayofaze myofi mudmivi jari da samxedro-sazRvao

floti 300-ze meti samxedro gemiT.

mudmiv jarSi Sedioda: ianiCarTa korpusi (muslimuri fanatizmiT,

kargad gawvrTnili qveiTi jari, 20 aTasi); TofCuebi (zarbaznis

Camomsxmelebi da msrolelebi. suleimanis 300 zarbazani hqoniaT,);

silahdarebi (regularuli cxenosani jaris nawilebi); jebejiebi

(meabjreebi _ samxedro aRWurvilobis Semqmnelebi da momarageblebi,

XVII ss. 78 aTasi) (113, 163-164).

samxedro reformebSi asaxva hpova 12 aTasiani axali jaris Seqmnam.

igi evropul wesze iyo gawvrTnili mowveuli samxedro instruqtorebis

mier. jaris dakompleqteba nebayoflobis safuZvelze xdeboda

gansazRvruli wesebis Sesabamisad.

selim III-is moRvaweobisas (1789-1807) daarsda samxedro-sainJinro

saswavlebeli, sadac mzaddeboda specialistebi armiasa da flotisTvis.

didi yuradReba mieqca artileriis reorganizacias. daiwyo zarbaznebis

Camosxma franguli da rusuli yalibis Sesabamisad. saartilerio

korpusi 800 mebrZols iTvlida (114, 120-121). zemoaRniSnulis miuxedavad,

rogorc iranis saxelmwifo, osmaleTi mniSvnelovnad Camouvardeboda

evropis samxedro Zalebs.

iranisa da osmaleTis garda mizanSewonilad migvaCnia ganvixiloT

XVIII saukunis avRaneTis samxedro Zalebis organizacia da misi

moqmedebebi, romelic ufro kargad warmoaCens aziis saxelmwifoTa

strategias.

avRaneTis armia Camoyalibda, aRmosavleT iranis, samxreT

TurqmeneTsa da Crdilo-dasavleT indoeTSi warmoebuli dapyrobiTi

laSqrobebis Sedegad. gansakuTrebiT gaZlierda axmad-Sahis moRvaweobis

dros. XVIII saukunis meore naxevarSi igi did upiratesobas flobda

mezobeli saxelmwifoebis armiebTan SedarebiT. avRanTa regularuli

jaris birTvs cxenosanTa gvardiuli korpusi Seadgenda. armiaSi

msaxurobdnen iranidan gadmosuli qarTvelebi, somxebi, tajikebi,

yalmuxebi da sxvadasxva qveynebidan nayidi monebi (158, 5).

125


Sahis gvardia iyo ZiriTadi Zala, romlis daxmarebiTac

xorcieldeboda armiis mizanmimarTuli da urTierTSeTanxmebuli

moqmedebebi. regularul armiaSi arsebobda aqlemebiT aRWurvili

specialuri razmi, romlis mebrZolebi exmarebodnen qveiTebs mdinaris

forsirebaSi. gvardiaSi Semaval nawilebs ,,dasta~ erqva da 12 aTas

cxenosnamde iTvlidnen. maT meTaurebs yularaRasebs uwodebdnen.

avRaneTis armiis meoTxeds daqiravebuli qveiTebi Seadgendnen, romlebic

muSketebiT (grZeli Tofi) iyvnen SeiaraRebuli (158, 6). samxedro

nawilebis garda funqcionirebda ramdenime aseuli mebrZolidan Semdgari

specialuri razmi _ Sahis dacva. Seqmnili iyo savele Jandarmeriis

nawilebi, romlebic sasazRvro samsaxurs asrulebdnen. brZolis dros

isini jarebis ukan ganlagdebodnen da ukuqceulebs klavdnen (158, 7).

armiaSi mniSvnelovani adgili eWira mZime da msubuq artilerias. mis

safuZvels Seadgenda zamburaki (msubuqi zarbazani). maTi gadatana

aqlemebiT xdeboda. zarbaznis garda aqlems gadahqonda 40 Wurvi (600-800

gr. birTvi). zamburaki damagrebuli iyo unagirze moZravi sadgariT.

ingliseli mzveravis, gulam sarvaris gadmocemiT, 1793-1801 wlebSi

avRanTa armiaSi 5800 zamburaki yofila (158, 8). savele artileria 40

qvemexidan Sedgeboda, sagalavne ≈ 600, romlebic mTel imperiaze iyo

ganawilebuli. 1751 wlidan gaCnda mZime saalyo qvemexebi, romlebic 3 kg.

birTvs isrodnen.

garda amisa, axmed-Sahis armiis SeiaraRebaSi hqondaT indoeTidan

Semotanili e.w. saraketo danadgarebi. maTi gadatana aqlemebiT an

urmebiT xdeboda. is warmoadgenda mZime mils, romlis diametri 7 sm.,

sigrZe 50 sm. iyo. igi 230 sm-is sigrZis rkinis an bambukis Zelakze

magrdeboda. raketa moqmedebaSi modioda fiTilis anTebiT da damizneba

xeliT xdeboda (savaraudoa feirvergis principze iyo mowyobili – d. m.).

raketis frenis siSore 1 km-s aRwevda. mas gamoiyenebdnen qveiTebisa da

cxenosnebis mWidro sabrZolo wyobis winaaRmdeg. ingliseli avtoris a.

dous gadmocemiT raketebi mowinaaRmdegeze ufro fsiqologiur

zemoqmedebas axdenda vidre danakargebs ayenebda maT (158, 9).

126


armiaSi moqmedi yvelaze mcire qvedanayofi 50 mebrZolidan Semdgari

oceuli iyo. ori oceuli qmnida aseuls, ramdenime aseuli batalions.

calkeuli samxedro nawilebi 3-5 aTasi mebrZolisgan Sedgeboda. omis

dros am nawilebidan 12-18 aTasiani korpusis formireba xdeboda.

amgvarad saerTo jamSi 60-70 aTasiani armia iqmneboda. armiis 30%-s

cxenosani regularuli nawilebi Seadgendnen, 70%-s araregularuli,

tomobriv-Temobrivi mosaxleoba. imis gamo, rom isini ZiriTadad

dakavebuli iyvnen miwaTmoqmedebiTa da mecxoveleobiT, ar SeeZloT

xangrZliv omebSi monawileoba. evropulidan gansxvavebiT cudad qondaT

organizebuli jarebis zurgidan momaragebis sakiTxebi (158, 25).

regularuli jari SeiaraRebuli iyo iranelTa msgavsad. cxenosnebs

hqondaT muSketi, mSvild-isari da xmali, savele Jandarmerias sabrZolo

najaxi, xmali da xanjali (158, 14). mudmivi jarisa da gvardiis ZiriTadi

nawilis dislokaciis adgili dedaqalaqSi iyo, calkeuli regularuli

nawilebi, romlebic araregularuli qvedanayofebiT Zlierdeboda,

provinciebis centrebSi ganlagdebodnen.

armiis mmarTvelobaSi did rols asrulebda samxedro kancelaria.

igi aregulirabda mebrZolTa raodenobas, ganagebda samxedro biujets

da samxedro maragebs. pasuxismgebeli iyo jaris yvela saxis

uzrunvelyofaze. kancelariis ufross laSqarnivisi erqva (158, 18).

funqcionirebda samxedro sasamarTlo. organizebuli iyo sagarnizonosayaraulo

samsaxuri. yarauli, romelsac gzebis, uReltexilebis,

samdinaro gadasasvlelebis dacvisTvis gamoyofdnen, gaTavisuflebuli

iyo saxelmwifo gadasaxadebidan (158, 23).

XVIII s-is bolos avRaneTSi 195 cixe-simagre arsebobda (158, 20), Tu

mxedvelobaSi ar miviRebT sxvadasxva saxiT gamagrebul mcire punqtebs.

cixe-galavani ZiriTadad oTkuTxedi an marTkuTxedi formis yofila,

romelTac irgvliv TixiT naSeni sqeli kedeli qonda Semovlebuli.

kedelSi gakeTebuli iyo saTofurebi da sabrZolo biliki. kedelSi

erTmaneTidan gansazRvrul manZiliT CaSenebuli iyo koSkebi, sadac

sagalavne artilerias ganalagebdnen. cixe-simagres saWiroebisamebr

Semovlebuli hqonda wyliT savse ganieri Txrili (158, 194).

127


avRaneTis armias mZarcveluri sabrZolo moqmedebebi axasiaTebda.

maTi xangrZlivoba, iSviaTi gamonaklisis garda, 3-4 Tve grZeldeboda

(158, 25) strategiis ZiriTadi mizani erT brZolaSi swrafi SetakebebiT

mowinaaRmdegis ZalTa gafantva da damarcxeba iyo. gamarjvebis mopovebis

SemTxvevaSi brZola wydeboda da mtris Zalebis sruli ganadgurebiT ar

mTavrdeboda (149, 23) rac didi Secdoma iyo.

evropisa da warmodgenili aziis saxelomwifoTa armiebis samxedro

organizaciis, strategiis Seswavlisa da disertaciis I TavSi

warmodgenili masalebis safuZvelze SeiZleba vTqvaT, rom XVIII s-Si

saqarTveloSi, kerZod, qarTl-kaxeTSi funqcionirebda feodaluri

morige jari, artileria, damxmare jari da samxedro kantora (28, 233),

romlis gardaqmna evropul yidaze iyo mimarTuli (saartilerio saqmis

ganviTareba, samxedro specialistebis momzadeba, gaumjobesebuli morige

jaris momzadeba da gawvrTna, samxedro wodebebis SemoReba, samxedro

literaturis Targmna). miuxedavad erekle II-s mier gatarebuli

sxvadasxva RonisZiebisa, geopolitikuri mdgomareobidan gamomdinare

samefos ar SeeZlo pirdapiri kavSiri hqoneboda evropasTan da

dawyebuli procesi mokle droSi ganeviTarebina. Tu davakvirdebiT

SeiaraRebuli Zalebis struqturas (gv. 152) vnaxavT, rom igi

raodenobrivi monacemebisa da sxva zogierTi detalis garda TiTqmis

analogiuria avRanuri jarisa.

qarTl-kaxeTis samefo jaris SeiaraReba xarisxobrivad da

ricxobrivad CamorCeboda evropuls, ZiriTadi mizezi saxelmwifo

mrewvelobis ganviTarebis dabali done, misi SezRuduli ekonomikuri

SesaZleblobebi da mezobeli muslimuri saxelmwifoebis Tavdasxmebi iyo.

Tu am mxriv, Cvens mier ganxilul aziis qveynebs SevadarebT, garkveuli

periodis (1750-1780) ganmavlobaSi saqarTvelos marTlac aRiqvamdnen

aziaSi Zlier saxelmwifod (47, 107. disertacia 134-136), razec metyvelebs

erekle II-is xelmZRvanelobiT Caratebuli sabrZolo moqmedebebi.

mefe erekles samxedro moRvaweobidan irkveva, rom igi saxelmwifoSi

arsebuli mdgomareobidan gamomdinare emxroboda ,,sasazRvro“ anu

128


,,sakordono~ strategias. ,,. . .Teimuraz nikolozis-Zem erekles mSobelma,

mTieli mtrebisagan saqarTvelos sazRvrebis dasacavad, daarsa milicia,

noqris saxelwodebiT da daadgina, rom saxazino (saxaso), saeklesio da

memamuleTa gamoyvanili yofiliyo kordoni 2000 cxenosani meomris

raodenobiT. . .~ (49, 287-288). Tumca xazgasmiT unda aRiniSnos, rom es

imdenad evropuli samxedro strategiis gavlena ar yofila, ramdenadac

ganpirobebuli iyo qveynis geograpiuli mdebareobiT, teritoriisa da

jaris simciriT. sakordono strategias emsaxureboda erekles mier

gatarebuli RonisZiebebi TavdacviTi nagebobebis (cixeebi, cixe-galavnebi,

koSkebi) ganaxlebisa da axlis aSenebisaTvis, maTi mowyoba alyis dros

xangrZlivi brZolebisTvis. magaliTad, brZolebi mWadijvrisa da yvarlis

cixeebTan, romelic ramdenime dRe mimdinareobda. faqtia, rom

mowinaaRmdegem sasurvel Sedegs ver miaRwia da didi danakargebis

Sedegad ukuiqca.

im SemTxvevaSi Tu mteri samefos teritoriis siRrmeSi SemoiWreboda,

morige jaris garda mowinaaRmdegesTan sabrZolvelad gamodioda

sazRvrispira regionebSi moqmedi qvedanayofebi, romlebic winaswar

miRebuli brZanebis Sesabamisad iqceodnen. aseTi daskvnis gakeTebis

safuZvels gvaZlevs disertaciis I Tavis, 1.2 paragrafSi mocemuli

erekle mefis mier gamocemuli direqtivis 1-6 punqtebi.

karl fon klauzevicis ganmartebiT Semtevi armia, rodesac iwyebs

marSis ganxorcielebas, igi sustdeba, radgan ukan tovebs Tavis cixesimagreebs,

momaragebis sawyobebs. rac ufro didia operaciis raioni,

sadac man unda gaiaros, miT ufro met Zalebs kargavs igi marSis

msvlelobis usafrTxoebis dasacavad da sxva RonisZiebebis

gasatareblad. am dros TavdacvaSi myofi armia arafriT ar sustdeba. igi

inarCunebs kavSirs cixe-simagreebTan, SeuZlia gamoiyenos iq myofi

Zalebi da axlosaa cocxali ZaliT Sevsebisa da momaragebis punqtebTan

(166. 295) ZiriTadad aseT strategias misdevda mefe erekle, rac samefoSi

arsebuli politikuri da ekonomikuri viTarebidan gamomdinareobda.

erekle II, garda ,,sakordono~ strategiisa, Sesabamis viTarebaSi

iyenebda ,,aqtiuri moqmedebebis~ (Setevis) strategias. amis

129


damadasturebelia brZola yarabaRSi, tulq-TafaSi, erevanSi, yirbulaxsa

da War-belaqanSi.

evropisa da aziis qveynebidan gansxvavebiT, qarTl-kaxeTis samefo

arsebuli resursebidan da viTarebidan gamomdinare ufro adre iyenebda

,,sakordono~ da ,,SeteviT~ sarategias.

XVIII s-is dasawyisSi evropuli qveynebis taqtikaSi mniSvnelovani

cvlilebebi moxda. cecxlsasroli iaraRis masobrivma gamoyenebam

sabrZolo wyobis danawevreba gamoiwvia, romelic Seicavda ara marto

qveiT da cxenosan nawilebs, aramed artileriasac.

cecxlsasroli iaraRis gaumjobesebasTan erTad Semcirda jarebis

wyobaSi mwkrivebis raodenoba, ramac sabrZolo wyobis siRrmis Semcireba

ganapiroba (53, 44).

bataliebis taqtika, romelic sabolood raindebis SetakebebiT

mTavrdeboda, xazovanma taqtikam Secvala. mis ZiriTad arss warmoadgenda

frontze gaSlili Zalebis Tanabari ganawileba (160, 39). pirvelad

xazovani taqtika gamoyenebul iqna holandieli mxedarTmTavris moric

oranelis mier 1600 wels niuportis brZolaSi (53, 44).

XVII s-is meore naxevarSi xazovan taqtikaze gadavidnen evropuli

armiebi. Tumca sabolood XVIII s-is dasawyisSi damkvidrda, rodesac

moxda Tofze xiStis damagreba (gaerTianda cecxlsasroli da civi

iaraRis sabrZolo SesaZleblobebi) da qveiTebi axali iaraRiT aRWurves.

aRniSnulma taqtikam ganviTarebis maRal etaps miaRwia XVIII s-is 70-ian

wlebSi, qaRaldis masriani vaznebisa da rkinis zumbis damzadebis Semdeg,

ramac SesaZlebeli gaxada Tofebis swrafsrolis gazrda (160, 39).

jariskacTa sistematiuri varjiSi iaraRis swrafad, erTdroulad

datenvasa da gasrolis aTvisebaSi mniSvnelovani iyo xazovani taqtikis

warmarTvisas (53, 68). XVIII s-is dasawyisidan moyolebuli cecxlsasroli

iaraRis efeqturad gamoyenebis mizniT jarebi brZolis sawarmoeblad

dgebodnen or xazSi, TiToeulSi 4-6 mwkrivi Sedioda. xazebs Soris

manZili 50-200 nabijamde iyo. Tu gasul saukuneebSi brZoli beds

xelCarTuli Setakeba wyvetda, am SemTxvevaSi dapirispirebuli mxareebi

gamarjvebis miRwevas Tof-zarbaznidan gaxsnili jgufuri cecxliT

130


cdilobdnen (160, 32). sabrZolo wyobaSi Sedioda qveiTebis, cxenosnebis

da artileriis samxdro nawilebi.

sabrZolo wyobis centrSi ganlagdeboda qveiTebi, flangebze

cxenosnebi eskadronebad (XVI s-is Suaxanidan das. evropis armiis

cxenosani polkis ZiriTadi qvedanayofi, 15-17 mwkrivisagan Semdgari

marTkuTxedis formis kolona (169, 608) 3 xazSi, polkebis artileria

batalionebis intervalebSi, savele artileria sardlis

gadawyvetilebiT, win an flangebze (ix. sqema #9, 159).

miuxedavad imisa, rom meore xazis mebrZolebs ar SeeZloT cecxli

gaxsna, isini mudam mzadyofnaSi iyvnen SeevsoT pirveli xazis

danakaregebi. jaris aseTi dawyoba SesaZleblobas iZleoda brZolaSi

erTdroulad gamoeyenebinaT meTofeTa umetesi raodenoba. xazovan

sabrZolo wyobaSi gamoricxuli iyo calkeuli nawilebis meTaurTa mier

gansxvavebuli moqmedebebisTvis iniciativis gamoCena, radgan, Sablonuri

moqmedebis rRvevas gamoiwvevda.

brZolis dawyebamde dapirispirebuli mxareebi erTmaneTis pirdapir

ganlagdebodnen da brZanebis miRebis Semdeg mwyobriT iwyebdnen nelnela

daaxloebas. mebrZolebi drodadro Cerdebodnen zaTqiT

srolisTvis da Tofefis xelaxla dasatenad, Semdeg sabrZolo xazebi

erTmaneTisken miiwevdnen. amave dros artileria pirdapiri damiznebiT

(rodesac Wurvis traeqtoria miznis simaRles ar aRemateba) karteCs

(findixi _ zarbaznis Wurvi Ria adgilze cocxali Zalis

gasanadgureblad, romlis momakvdinebel elementebs mravalricxovani

sferuli tyviebi warmoadgenda (168, 103), isroda. bolos, romelime mxare

cecxlis zemoqmedebas veRar uZlebda da ukuiqceoda, mopovebul

warmatebas cxenosani nawilebi agvirgvinebdnen (53, 45).

aRsaniSnavia, rom xazovan wyobas naklovanebebic hqonda. brZolis

dasawyebad da misi msvlelobisas qvedanayofebi da nawilebi

gadaadgildebodnen nela. gamoricxuli iyo manevris Catareba, raTa wyoba

ar daSliliyo. ar SeiZleboda Zalebis gamoyofa flangebidan

SetevisTvis an gadajgufeba mowinaaRmdegis ganlagebis yvelaze sust

adgilze ieriSis misatanad (160, 40). yovelives arsSi Cadebuli iyo, is

131


om cecxlis efeqturoba ar dakarguliyo. amitom brZolebs axasiaTebda

frontze Tanabrad ganawilebuli jarebis Setakeba. im SemTxvevaSi, Tu

sabrZolo momzadebis done miaxloebiT Tanabari iyo, imarjvebda is,

visac ricxobrivi upiratesoba gaaCnda da mowinaaRmdegis flangze

gaiWreboda.

gvianfeodalur xanaSi, samxedro saqmeSi, kerZod taqtikaSi, siaxles

warmoadgenda fridrix II-is mier iribi samxedro wyobis SemoReba (e. w.

iribi ieriSi, mowinaaRmdegis flangze maxvili kuTxiT (159, 32), sadac

gadamwyveti roli eniWeboda Tofebis zalpur cecxlsa da cxenosanTa

masiur gamoyenebas (154, 786), (ix. sqema #10, 160).

xazovanma taqtikam mniSvnelovnad Seamcira aqtiuri SeteviTi

moqmedebebis roli, vinaidan TavdacvaSi ufro advili iyo sabrZolo

wyobis SenarCuneba, ufro zustad damizneba da cecxlis siZlieris

uzrunvelyofa. aseT taqtikas XVIII s-is bolomde gamoiyenebdnen.

aziuri taqtika SegviZlia avRaneTis armiis magaliTze ganvixiloT,

sadac mocemulia marSis Sesrulebisa da sabrZolo wyobis elementebi.

avRaneTis jarebis erTi dRis savali manZili 25-30 km-s Seadgenda.

saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi SeeZloT didi marSis Sesrulebac, raSic xels

uwyobda Turqmanuli da uzbekuri jiSis cxenebi, romlebic gamZleobiTa

da siswrafiT xasiaTdebodnen. mag: 1762 wlis TebervalSi 2 dReSi 160 kmde

gaiares (158, 15). marSis dros ZiriTadi Zalebis win midioda cxenosani

avangardi, romelic armiis meoTxeds Seadgenda. igi agrovebda

informacias mowinaaRmdegeze, moZraobis marSrutze anadgurebdnen

yvelas, visac SeeZlo mtris gafrTxileba. mowinaaRmdegis mowinave

nawilebTan Sexvedrisas iwyebdnen brZolas armiis ZiriTadi Zalebis

brZolaSi CarTvamde. mTavari Zalebi zurgidan daculi iyo ariergardiT.

marSze Sesvenebis dros TiToeuli razmi wris formaze

ganlagdeboda. armiis didi xniT dasvenebisas razmebis ganlagebis

adgils irgvliv Rrma da ganier Txrils Semoavlebdnen. razmebis

xelmZRvanelebi erTmaneTs ukavSirdebodnen Sikrikebisa da dadgenili

signalebis (koconi, droSa, dasakravi instrumenti)saSualebiT. sabrZolo

dacvis Zalebis gamoyofiT organizebuli iyo usafrTxoeba.

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ZolisTvis armiis Zalebi iyofoda: centri, marjvena, marcxena

frTa da rezervi. sabrZolo wyobis SuaSi ganlagebuli iyo Sahis

sameTauro punqti da rogorc wesi mis win ewyoboda muSketerebis

korpusi, romlebic gaZlierebuli iyvnen savele artileriiT. (ix. sqema

#11, 161). gvardielebi ganlagdebodnen rezervSi Sahis miTiTebul

adgilas, romlebsac brZolis dros eqstremalur viTarebaSi iyenebdnen.

zamburakebiT SeiaraRebuli nawilebi savele artileriis win an ukan

dgebodnen, xaxdaxan mowinaaRmdegis SecdomaSi Seyvanis mizniT, taqtikur

eSmakobas mimarTavdnen da qveiTebis an cxenosnebis ukan ganalagebdnen.

maTi manevrirebis SesaZlebloba saSualebas iZleoda mowinaaRmdege

axlos moeSvaT, pirdapiri cecxliT da erTdrouli zaTqiT

mniSvnelovani danakargebi mieyenebinaT (158, 8).

evropisa da aziis saxelmwifoebTan SedarebiT qarTuli laSqris

taqtika mniSvnelovnad gaxsxvavdeboda. sxvaobas ganapirobebda reliefis

Taviseburebani, laSqris sabrZolo (sacecxle, samanevro) SesaZleblobebi

da ZalTa simcire. unda aRiniSnos, rom Tu evropeli mxedarTmTavrebi

sabrZolo xazebis ukan dgebodnen, maTgan gansxvavebiT mefe xSir

SemTxvevaSi, mewinave ZalebTan imyofeboda. amiT garkveul fsiqologiur

zemoqmedebas axdenda mowinaaRmdegeze, Cvens mebrZolebze da, rac

mTavaria iniciativis xelSi aRebiT Tavis Canafiqrs axorcielebda.

zemoaRniSnulidan gamomdinareMmefe erekle brZolebSi gamoiyenebda

oTxnawilian sabrZolo wyobas. igi Semdegnairi iyo: mewinave sadroSo,

romelic avangards Seadgenda, memarjvene da memarcxene sadroSoebi _

pirveli eSeloni, mefis sadroSo _ meore eSeloni an rezervi, Seqmnili

viTarebidan gamomdinare:

mewinave ---------------------- avangardi

sadroSo

memarcxene

sadroSo

mefis

sadroSo

memarjvene -------- I eSeloni

sadroSo

--------------------------- II eSeloni (rezervi)

133


mocemul ganlagebaSi sadroSoebi erTmaneTidan daSorebuli iyvnen,

iseT DmanZilze, sadac SesaZlebeli iqneboda vizualuri sasignalo

kavSiri an Sikrikebs SeZlebodaT sardlobisTvis mokle droSi

informaciis miwodeba, daaxloebiT 700-1200 metrze (SeiZleba metic

yofiliyo d. m.). brZolis dawyebamde, mocemul sabrZolo wyobaSi

artileriis, cxenosnebisa da qveiTebis ganlageba an gadanawileba

xdeboda mefis gadawyvetilebiT adgilmdebareobis, cecxlsasroli

saSualebebis SesaZleblobebis da mowinaaRmdegis Zalebis sabrZolo

wyobis gaTvaliswinebiT. frontsa da siRmeSi danawevrebuli aseTi wyoba

gamoirCeoda moqnilobiT da brZolis msvlelobisas manevris swrafad

ganxorcielebis saSualebas iZleoda. garda amisa, SesaZlebeli iyo

brZolis warumateblobis SemTxvevaSi nebismieri mxridan momxvdur

mowinaaRmdeges momzadebuli daxvedrodnen. mniSvnelovania is, rom

urTierTSeTanxmebuli qmedebiT ZalTa gadajgufebis safuZvelze,

SeeZloT alyis garRveva da sasurveli Sedegebis miRweva. Aamis

magaliTia brZola yirbulaxSi da yvarlis cixesTan. SeiZleba iTqvas,

rom qarTl-kaxeTis SeiaraRebuli Zalebi xSir SemTxvevaSi sabrZolo

SesaZleblobebiT mowinaaRmdeges sjobdnen. amitom sabrZolo epizodebi,

romlebsac istoriuli masalebi gadmogvcemen ZiriTadad qarTvelTa

gamarjvebiT sruldeboda. garda gamonaklisi ramdenime damarcxebisa,

romelic ZiriTadad gamowveuli iyo saqarTveloSi Sida areulobiT,

sagvareuloTa mier gavlenis sferoebis gadanawilebiT da mokavSireTa

mxridan RalatiT, zogjer mefis mier arasworad miRebuli politikuri

gadawyvetilebiT. AaseTi brZolebi iyo:

_ Saqis xanis aji-Calabis laSqarTan damarcxeba 1751 wlis

Tebervlisa da 1952 wlis aprilSi;

_ 1785 wlis omarxanTan (brZola arc gamarTula da erekle

gadasaxadis gadaxdas daTanxmda);

_ saqarTvelosTvis yvelaze mtkivneuli 1795 wlis 9-11 seqtembris

krwanisis brZola aRa-mahmad-xanTan. Tumca am brZolaSi mkafiod

gamovlinda manevruli Tavdacvis organizebuli warmarTva da taqtikur

moqmedebaTa elamentebi: mcire ZalebiT Tavdacvis organizeba, ZalTa

134


manevrireba, urTierTmoqmedeba, kontrieriSebi, maRali sabrZolo

suliskveTeba.

miuxedavad amisa, aRniSnul brZolebSi gancdili damarcxebebi

erekle mefis mxedarTmTavrul Rirsebas Crdils ver ayenebs, radgan mas,

garda disertaciaSi ganxiluli brZolebisa, warmatebiT aqvs mogebuli

mravali brZola. mematianeTa mier mefis Catarebuli brZolebis aRwera

epizoduria da saSualebas ar gvaZlevs maTi vrceli analizisa. amitom

mizansewonilad CavTvaleT am brZolebis CamoTvla, romelic warmodgenas

Seqmnis erekle II-is mxedarTmTavrul moRvaweobaze. daviT batoniSvili

gvamvnobs:

,,welsa 1745-s gamovida leki da moarbvia avWala da martyofi da

warvida. xolo mefe ganvida sayinulesaTana wyalsa tivebiTa . . . STavida

qiziys, Semoikriba mxedrobani kaxTani, . . . sZlo. . . moswyuvitna umetes

samasisa lekni cxeniTurT . . . (27, 3).

,,welsa 1751, maSin Zleva Semosili aRa-qiSi miiwiva ra saxlad

Tavisad, Sekriba mun mxedrobani Saqisa, Sirvanisa da lekTa da warmovida

welsave amas, amovlo ganja, Tana wamoiyvana xani ganjisa mxedrobiTa

TvisiTa, amovlo SimSadini da yazaxi da movida baidars . . . mefeman

Teimuraz, wargzavna Ze Tvisi irakli stefanwmindas da mouwoda

mxedrobasa CerqezTasa. Mmun mefeni ewvivnen SamSadinsa Sina, Tulqi-Tafad

wodebulsa adgilsa, ikeTnen mun, iZliva aRa-qiSi, romelsaca mihyvnen

kafiTa Sanqoramdin" (27, 6).

1755 wels . . . lekTani movidnen RarTis-karsa, wartyvnes qaravani

qarTlisa da mokles mun muxranis batoni kostantine mimavalTa maT

lekTa kaxeTs. . . mefeman iraklim Seukrna maT gzani da moswyvitna

sruliad. kvalad movidnen kekni da moaoxres jugaani. mefe Teimuraz da

mefe irakli imyofebodnen qiziys, da Seudgnen mefeni ukana, miewivnen

maxlobel danRisisa da moswyvitnes lekni. . .~ (27, 7).

mematianis – o. xerxeuliZis gadmocemidan vgebulobT

1757 wels mefe ereklem da Teimurazma zemo qarTlSi lekebi orsamgan

daamarcxes. mcire amaliT cxinvalSi dabrundnen. daRestnis

135


eladi ConCol-musa 4000 mebrZoliT Semoesia. radgan mefeebs laSqari

Tan ar axldaT. cixe - simagridan gasces pasuxi moxvdurs, ris Sedegadac

mowinaaRmdege imave Rames ukan gabrunda.

1759 wels kvlav gadmovida daRestnidan lekTa laSqari 8000

mebrZoliT koxta beladisa da ConCol-musas meTaurobiT. DdiliT adre

Tavs daesxnen lekis laSqars, koxta beladi gaiqca, mravali leki

gawyda. Aacnobes ConCol-musas momxdaris Sesaxeb. MmaSin igi Tavisi

laSqriT avnevs gascilda da dvanis simagreSi gamagrda. mouswres

mefeebma. damarcxeba gardauvali iyo. mtris laSqris meTauri darCenili

razmiT gaipara.

1760 wels qerim-xanis (iranis mmarTveli) werilisa da diplomatiuri

viTarebis mogvarebis Semdeg, erekle mefem azat-xans yazaxSi gadaaswro,

romelsac daRestanSi gadasvla surda. Seipyro azat-xani Tavisi

razmebiT. avRanTa beladi qerim-xans gaugzavna. aseTi moqmedebis gamo

iranis mmarTvelma erekle II-s erevani, azerbaijani da sxva saxanoebi

dauqvemdebara, romlebic Semdgom valdebulebisamebr xarks ixdidnen.

1760 wlis 4 ivniss lekebma javaxeTi moarbies da mravali qristiani

daatyveves. erekle II maT yaraiaze RamiT moulodnelad Tavs daesxa maT.

mravali gawyvita da qarTveloba gaaTavisufla.

1761 wels daRestnidan didi laSqari wamovida saqarTvelos

asaoxreblad. erekle mefem laSqris Segroveba ver moaswro. amitom

Tavisi amaliT mowinaaRmdeges suhyulianSi daemala, romelic

naTlismcemlis monastris axlos mdebareobda. mefem RamiT dazverva

Caatara. Seityo, rom lekis laSqari aTjer meti iyo, vidre misi amala.

gamobrunda da mebrZolebi iseT adgilebze Caasafra, sadac brZola

gauadvildebodaT. qarTvelebi Casafrebul adgilebSi mowinaaRmdegis

SemosvlisTanave moulodnelad Tavs daesxnen. bevri amowyvites,

mcireodenma Tavs gaqceviT uSvela.

1762 wels erekle mefem axmetaSi gadmosuli lekebi daamarcxa.

1763 wels samaCablos teritoriaze kexvSi gaimarjva.

1764 wels mravalwyaroSi lekTa razmebi gaanadgura.

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1765 wels lekTa laSqarma gori daarbia da tyveebi wamoiyvana.

erekle II samgoris mindorSi RamiT Tavs daesxa mowinaaRmdeges, isini

gaanadgura da tyveebi gaanTavisufla.

1767 wels lekTa laSqari imereTSi gadmovida, raWis soflebi

moarbia. 300 tyve da saqoneli wamoiyvanes. ereklem Sekriba laSqari da

ioris napirze Causafrda, Tan mzveravebi ganamwesa, raTa lekTa

moZraobisTvis Tvali edevnebina. movidnen lekebi, Seeba mefe laSqariT.

tyveebi da saqoneli gaanTavisufles. DdaRestnelTa laSqari ise

gawyvites, rom saxlSi ambis wamRebic aRar darCa.

1771 wels erekle II-m aiRo xerTvisi, aTabagis cixe-simagre. Aamave

wels ramdenjerme daamarcxa aRsiR-faSa.

1772 wels mefebma ereklem da solomonma axalqalaqi da misi

mimdebare teritoriebi moarbies. solomonis avadmyofobis gamo qalaqis

aReba ver moxerxda. imave wels ereklem ufliscixesTan daamarcxa

suleiman faSa. QqiziySi yofnisas ki Wareli lekebi.

1780 wels giorgi da levan batoniSvilebma mamis xelmZRvanelobiT

daamarcxes erevnis usein-ali xani.

dabolos, mematiane dasZens: `xolo eseviTarni gamarjvebani irakli

mefisagan uangariSoni arian da amad yovelnive ver movixseneT, aramed

igi aRvricxeT, romeli Rirsad xsovnisa iyo da sxvani mravalni wvrilni

gamarjvebebi davidumeT~ (47, 67).

CamoTvlili brZolebi kargi mtkicebulebaa erekle mefis mxedruli

moRvaweobisa. TiToeuli maTgani mokle aRweriTaa warmodgenili.

miuxedavad amisa, samxedro saqmis mcodneTaTvis Zneli gasagebi ar iqneba,

Tu ramdeni Sroma da energia dasWirdeboda mefes, rogorc sardals,

raTa mis mier Catarebuli operaciebi warmatebiT damTavrebuliyo.

sabrZolo moqmedebebSi mefe gonivrulad iyenebda taqtikis Semadgenel

elementebs, rogoricaa: Zalebis drouli Sekreba da marSis

ganxorcieleba, dazvervis organizeba, Casafrebebis, reidis mowyoba,

moulodnelobis faqtoris gamoyeneba da mowinaaRmdegis dRisiT da

RamiT mokle droSi ganadgureba SeteviTi moqmedebebis warmarTviT.

istoriuli masalebidan irkveva, rom 1780 wlis agvistosTvis erekle

137


mefes emorCilebodnen erevnis, naxWevanis, ganjis saxanoebi. Teimuraz

bagrationis gadmocemiT, mefe ise gaZlierda da gandidda, iranelebsac

ki eSinodaT misi. ` aqvndaT cnoba mefis ereklesi nadir-SahTan yofisa!

esmodaT maradis simxne-qveloba misi da verc aravis xedavdnen

mopirispired mefisa ereklessa da amisTvis didad fiqrobdnen da

yovelTvis molodeba hqondaT, iranisaken wamovao ~ (47).

3.2. erekle II-is samxedro moRvaweobis Sefaseba

saqarTvelos samxedro xelovnebis istoriaSi, erekle II-s,

TvalsaCino adgili ukavia qarTvel mxedarTmTavarTa gverdiT. erekles

pirveli sabrZolo naTloba, neiSenis velze moxda.

aleqsqndre jambakur orbeliani aRwers: ,,xolo welsa 1735 movidnen

lekni da qiziyi moarbives. . . ewia neiSnis velze. . .Sevida Sinagan jarsa

lekisasa da pirvelad aman mokla kaci . . . moswyvites umravlesni. . .~

(145). 1737 wlis Tebervlidan, erekle II nadir-Sahs Tan axlda indoeTSi

laSqrobebis dros da mraval SetakebaSi miiRo monawileoba. erekle II-m

gaiTqva saxeli, ris gamoc igi didi avtoritetiT sargeblobda. am faqts

adasturebs qalaq delSi erT-erT eklesiaze gakeTebuli warwera: ` am

eklesiaSi aravin Sedioda da arvis aZlevdnen Sesvlis uflebas, mxolod

kaxeTis Tavads-erekles~ (149, 196). Sahis simpatiis damsaxurebiT

1744 wels misi kaxeTis mefed gamocxadeba mohyva. Aaxalgazrda

ufliswulma garkveulwilad miiRo samxedro da nawilobriv

diplomatiuri gamocdileba. 1739 wlis dekembris TveSi igi samSobloSi

dabrunda. praqtikulad, saxelmwifoebrivi da samxedro moRvaweobis

dawyeba erekles axalgazrda asakSi mouwia. ucxo qveynebis teritoriaze

brZolebSi monawileobam praqtikulad xeli Seuwyo misi samxedro da

politikuri horizontis gafarToebas. gamefebis Semdeg, is Seecada

iranis periferiad qceuli qarTl-kaxeTis samefos msoflio politikis

asparezze gamoyvanas.

erekle mefes sabrZolo moqmedebebis Catareba uxdeboda

mravalricxovan mowinaaRmdegesTan. is awarmoebda TavdacviT da SeteviT

138


Zolebs. amis damadasturebelia papuna orbelianisa da oman

xerxeuliZis mier mowodebuli masalebi da sxva istoriuli cnobebi.

saxelmwifos ekonomikuri da geopolitikuri mdgomareobidan gamomdinare

mefe ZiriTadad mainc TavdacviT brZolebs warmarTavda, romlebic

kontrSetevebiT mTavrdeboda. k. klauzevici, naSromSi ,,omze~ ambobda:

,,taqtikaSi Tavdacvisa da Setevis Tanafardoba damokidebulia im

pirobebze, romelic brZolaSi gamarjvebas mogvitans. . .sami piroba,

romelic gadamwyvet upiratesobas gvaniWebs aros moulodneloba,

adgilmdebareoba da ieriSi sxvadasxva mimarTulebiT. . . Tu

adgilmdebareobis Tvisebebs SevexebiT, erTnairi dapirispirebuli

mxareebisTvis, igi xels uwyobs im mxares vinc kargad icnobs mas. ieriSi

sxvadasxva mimarTulebidan moicavs taqtikur Semovlebs, romelic

cecxlis efeqtis gasaormageblad xorcieldeba, aseve saWiroebis

SemTxvevaSi ukan dasaxevad~ (166. 290). Tu mxedvelobaSi miviRebT

gamarjvebis miRwevis zemoaRniSnul sam princips, maTgan pirveli da

mesame naklebad uwyobs xels Semtev mxares, xolo meore principi did

upiratesobas aniWebs TavdacvaSi myofs. sxvadasxva mxridan moulodneli

Tavdasxma TavdacvaSi myofs ufro SeuZlia vidre Semtevs, radgan mas

aqvs momxvdur mowinaaRmdegeze meti SesaZlebloba ganaxorcielos

moulodneli dartymebi. amitom, rogorc Cans mefe erekles moqmedebebi

umetes SemTxvevaSi am principebze iyo damyarebuli.

man moaxerxa gaetarebina rigi reformebisa, romlebic ukeT

uzrunvelyofda aRmosavleT saqarTvelos jaris mdgomareobis

gaumjobesebas. am SemTxvevaSi reformebis erT-erT mniSvnelovan nawils

Seadgenda samxedro mrewvelobis aRorZineba, rac gamoixata

SeiaraRebisTvis saWiro samTamadno mrewvelobis ganviTarebiT. swored

mis safuZvelze Seiqmna TbilisSi zarbaznebis Camosasxmeli qarxana,

mogvarda denTis warmoeba, Camoyalibda sadroSoebis organizebuli

struqtura TavianTi sardlebiT, samdevroebiT, yarauliT da sadazvervo

sistemiT, romlebic sqemazea mocemuli.

erekle II-s moRvaweobas saxeli hqonda ganTqmuli mTel samxreT

kavkasiasa da evropaSic ki. cnobilia sxvadasxva Sefasebebi ucxoelebisa

139


erekle II-is Sesaxeb. Mmas ramdenime aTwleulis manZilze Tvlidnen im

drois erT-erT uZlieres pirovnebad. parizSi 1754 wels gamoica wigni

erekle II-is Sesaxeb. masSi 151-155 gverdebze moTxrobilia ,,sparseTisa da

saqarTvelos mdgomareoba mimdinare 1753 wels~, romlis avtori frangi

komersanti peisonelia (118, 4). igi aRniSnavda mefis iSviaT sidarbaisles,

gonierebas, mxneobas da samarTlianobas, mis warmatebebs. Svedi oficeri

_ gustav Fferdinand gillenrami erT-erTi pirvelTagani yofila,

romelmac 1753 welSi mefe erekles mxedarTmTavruli moRvaweobis

Sesaxeb dawera (131, 6). germanelma mweralma gothold efraim lesingma

mefes piesa-komedia miuZRvna: ,,mina fon barnhelmi anu jariskacis

bedniereba~, romelic pirvelad q. hamburgis TeatrSi 1776 wels daidga.

lesingi maRal Sefasebas aZlevs erekles samxedro niWs da mis

gamarjvebebs (118, 7). gamoCenil mxedarTmTavars prusiis mefe fridrix II

uTqvams: `evropaSi me var pirveli, aziaSi _ erekleo~ (118, 6). aRniSnuli

iTqva Tu ara sxva sakiTxia, magram erekles mxedarTmTavrul moRvweobas

rom icnobdnen sxvadasxva sabuTebiTac mtkicdeba. somxuri nacionaluri

moZraobis erT-erTi moRvawe ioseb emini 1758 wels mefes londonidan

swerda: `Seni saxeli indoeTSi gavigone, magram mxolod inglisSi gavige

Seni gamarjvebis ambavi.~ Semdeg emins saWirod miuCnevia piradad exila

mefe. is metad saintereso cnobebs iZleva am Sexvedraze: ,,erekle mefe

momcro simaRlis mamakacia, mis Savgvreman saxes xan mwvane, xan yviTeli

elferi dahkravs; mas kargi aRnagoba aqvs, is Zlieria suliTac da

sxeuliTac. masTan saubari iseve sasiamovno da Wkuis saswavlebeli iyo,

rogorc ganswavlul inglisel jeltmenTan saubaria. moklebulia

yovelgvar ampartavnobas, Zaldatanebasa da qedmaRlobas, esoden

Cveulebrivs sxva azieli xelmwifisaTvis; is did gonebamaxvilobas

amJRavnebda da arasdros ar trabaxobda; misi xma iseTi melodiuri iyo,

rom angelozis xma gegonebodaT~ (126, 115). Tu ki qarTveli mematianeebis

daxasiaTebas davumatebT zemoT moyvanil cnobebs, naTeli warmosadgenia

erekle IIO-is pirovneba. zogierTi cnobebi mefis Sesaxeb SeiZleba

marTlac gadaWarbebulia, magram maTi obieqturad gageba kargad aqvs

140


gaanalizebuli profesor d. SveliZes naSromSi ,,evropuli cnobebi

erekle meoris Sesaxeb~ (131).

sabrZolo viTarebaSi mefis moqmedebis erT-erTi principi

mowinaaRmdegisTvis Tavdasxmis daswreba iyo. amitom, rogorc brZolis

dasawyisSi, ise mimdinareobisas aqtiurobas iCenda da umetes SemTxvevaSi

gamarjvebebsac aRwevda. gamarjveba ki, rogorc mogexsenebaT mraval

faqtorzea damokidebuli. erekle II-is simamacesa da samxedro

gamWriaxobaze miuTiTebs erTi aseTi magaliTi: goridan wamosuli mefe

oci cxenosniT saCqarod TbilisSi unda Camosuliyo. rodesac avWalas

dauaxlovdnen, ori sadroSos lekis laSqari tyidan gamovida da

muxanaTurad Tavdasxmas lamobda. mefes Tan axldnen Svili levani da

oTxi TavadiSvili: baraTaSvili, andronikaSvili, maCabeli, orbeliani,

romlebic mefis gadmocemiT Zlieri mebrZolebi yofilan. erekle II

SeCerebula da ukiTxavs maTTvis, ra vqnaTo. zogs ra uTqvams, zogs ra.

mefem mxleblebs Tofebidan wamali daaclevina da misive amaliT mters

Sua ganlagebaSi xmaldaxmal ekveTa. SetakebisTanave win myofi lekTa

razmi ganadgurda da danarCenebi ukuiqcnen. bevrma tyeSi gaqceviT

uSvela Tavs, zogi daxoces, zogic tyved wamoiyvanes . . .(146, 22).

am SemTxvevaSi aRsaniSnavia is faqti, rom erekle II ockaciani

cxenosani jgufiT minimum rvamagi upiratesobis mqone mowinaaRmdeges

SeebrZola da brwyinvale gamarjveba moipova. lekTa rvamagi upiratesoba

mtkicdeba imiT, rom Tu jambakur-orbelianis sityvebs davimowmebT: `ra

gldanisa mxares gavidnen, iq equsasi leki dainaxes avWalaze momavali

equsis bairaxiT (droSiT)~. aseve Tu lekebis laSqris Semadgenlobas

gavecnobiT, naTeli gaxdeba, rom erTi droSaSi savaraudod 80-100-mde

kaci iqneboda gaerTianebuli, e. i. miaxloebiT aseulamde. mowinaaRmdegis

taqtikidan gamomdinare, lekTa razmebi sxvadasxva mimarTulebiT

daiqsaqsebodnen. amitom mefis amalasTan SemTxveviT Sexvedrili

mowinaaRmdegis raodenoba, savaraudod, 120-160-mde kacs Seadgenda.

bunebrivia, ismis kiTxva: ratom gadawyvita mefem brZolaSi Cabma

didi upiratesobis mqone mowinaaRmdegesTan? Eerekle mefem lekebs

mravali marcxi agema adrindel brZolebSi. rac mTavaria, kargad hqonda

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Seswavlili mowinaaRmdegis moqmedebani, SeiaraReba da misi moralurfsiqologiuri

xasiaTi. amitom, yvelaferi es, xels uwyobda, rogorc

sardals, mieRo swori gadawyvetileba. eqstremalur situaciaSi

gadawyvetilebis sworad gansazRvra mTlianad uzrunvelyofs brZolis

warmatebas. moyvanili magaliTi mowmobs im garemoebasac, Tu ra doneze

hqondaT qarTvel mebrZolebs aTvisebuli individualuri xelCarTuli

orTabrZolebis teqnika, agreTve sxvadasxva sabrZolo iaraRis

gamoyenebis xelovneba. Mmefe, Seqmnil rTul viTarebaSi mudam unergavda

mebrZolebs gamarjvebis rwmenas. miRebuli gadawyvetileba meTaurma

xelqveiTebis sulSi unda Cados. yovelive amas erekle II Tavs kargad

arTmevda brZolis win laSqarTan mWermetyveluri sityviT mimarTvisas.

meTaurma brZolis dawyebamde miRebuli Canafiqri, rom realobad

aqcios, aucilebelia maTi damakavSirebeli elementis moZebna, romelsac

moqmedeba hqvia. moqmedebas swori mimarTuleba unda mieces da igi

Sablonur xasiaTs ar unda atarebdes. erekles mier warmoebul

brZolebSi swored erT-erTi ganmsazRvreli faqtori gamarjvebisa iyo

arastandartulad (taqtikaSi dadgenili, admkvidrebuli wesis

sapirispiro moqmedeba) sabrZolo moqmedebebis Catareba, rac xels

uwyobda Canafiqris realobad gadaqcevas. igi ara marto TviTon

swavlobda, aramed sadroSoebis sardlebsa da samdevroebis ufrosebs

aswavlida am xerxs, maT damoukideblad sxvadasxva taqtikuri xrikis

gamoyenebisaken mouwodebda. mefe mcire ZalebiTa da danakargebiT

axerxebda mravalricxovani mowinaaRmdegis damarcxebs. mokle droSi

Catarebuli brZolebiT gamarjvebas aRwevda da swored amaSi

mdgomareobs sardlis didi Rirseba. yovelive es gansakuTrebiT saWiro

iyo da aris iseTi patara qveynisaTvis, rogoric saqarTveloa.

erekle mefis erT-erT amocanas brZolaSi mowinaaRmdegis laSqris

meTaurTa ganadgureba warmoadgenda, ra Tqma unda Sesabamisi viTarebis

dros. DdRevandeli SefasebiT igi cdilobda marTvis sistemis moSlas,

romelzec mTlianad damokidebulia brZolis efeqturad warmarTva.

nawilobriv amitom iyo, rom man Tavad mokla aragvTan malaCi,

yirbulaxSi erT-erTi sardali da aspinZaSi-koxta beladi. A

142


arastandartuli tipis moqmedebad unda CaiTvalos yvarlis cixesTan

brZola, romlis msgavsi iSviaTia samxedro xelovnebis istoriaSi. mefem

Seafasa mowinaaRmdegisa da sakuTari Zalebis Tanafardoba. arsebuli

viTarebis safuZvelze miiRo gadawyvetileba. sadazvervo-diversiuli

moqmedebebis gamoyenebiT cixeSi tyvia-wamali Seagzavna. paralelurad

qiziyelTa cxenosani laSqari mowinaaRmdegis teritoriaze mSvidobiani

mosaxleobis dasarbevad gagzavna. aRniSnulma moqmedebam brZolaSi

warmateba ganapiroba.

rodesac pirovneba ecnoba erekle II-is mxedarTmTavrul cxovrebas,

SesaZlebelia, daebados SekiTxva: saidan Seiswavla man samxedro

xelovneba? mis sapasuxod SeiZleba vTqvaT, rom yvela saxelovanma

sardalma gamocdileba maT mier warmoebul brZolebSi miiRo, sanam

didebis mwvervals miaRwevdnen. igi sabrZolo moqmedebebs Sablonurad

ar warmarTavda, iSviaTi gamonaklisis garda. samxedro xelovnebis

principebs sxvadasxva saxiT iyenebda. moqmedebda Seqmnili viTarebis

Sesabamisad. igi xan TavdacvaSi moqmedebda da xan kontrieriSze

gadadioda. mowinaaRmdegis mogeriebiT brZolis warmarTvas mefe im

SemTxvevaSi mimarTavda, Tu ki amas mowinaaRmdegis mravalricxovnoba da

arsebuli mdgomareoba moiTxovda. mag: aspinZis brZolis dros laSqari

maRlobebze moaTavsa, pirvelad Seteva ar dauwyia, Seqmnil viTarebas

uwevda angariSs da amitom poziciur Tavdacvas mimarTa. man kargad

icoda, rom moxerxebuli saomari adgili metad saWiro iyo

gamarjvebisaTvis. roca mowinaaRmdege mravalricxovani iyo,

adgilmdebareobis SerCevas did mniSvnelobas aniWebda. aseTi saxis

sabrZolo operacias krwanisis brZolis drosac mimarTa da rom ara

Ralati, brZolis Canafiqrs warmateba xvdeboda wilad.

danarCeni moqmedebebi SeteviT xasiaTisa iyo.Amis mtkicebulebas

warmoadgens Cvens mier zemoT CamoTvlili brZolebi, rac ZiriTadad

lekTa moulodneli SemosevebiT iyo ganpirobebuli. es ukanasknelni Tavs

esxmodnen qarTl-kaxeTis soflebs, naZarcviTa da tyveebiT swrafad

brundebodnen ukan. Tuki tyeSi Seaswrebdnen qarTvelebs, maTTan brZola

uWirdaT, rac mefes kargad hqonda gaTvaliswinebuli. amitom samefos

143


teritoriaze maTTan SebrZoleba, informaciis miRebasa da mtris ukan

dasaxevi gzebis swrafad gadaketvaze da swrafad ganadgurebaze iyo

damokidebuli.

rodesac erekle mefis warmatebebze vsaubrobT, ar SeiZleba,

xazgasmiT ar avRniSnoT misi energia da nebisyofa. savaraudod

dasvenebisTvis oTxi-xuTi saaTi hyofnida, danarCen dros saxelmwifo

saqmeebs axmarda. Mmas xSirad sauzmis Sewyveta uxdeboda, raTa sxvadasxva

mxridan momxvduri lekebis moTareSe razmebi gaereka, romelnic

sadilobis dros diRomSi Cndebodnen, xolo vaxSmobis dros tabaxmelaSi

(127, 54).

misi mxedruli niWi imaSi gamovlinda, rom mas SeeZlo brZolis

dros araxelsayreli situaciidan gamosvla, mebrZolTa masis

gaerTianeba da maTi moqmedebebis mimarTva iqiT, saiTac Seqmnili

viTareba moiTxovda. xSir SemTxvevaSi brZolis win mefe mebrZolebs

gansakuTrebuli sityviT mimarTavda, romelic maTSi patriotizms

aRvivebda. Ees erT-erTi ZiriTadi elementia nebismieri rangis oficris

sabrZolo muSaobisa. safrangeTis marSali ferdinand foSi ambobda

`rwmena gamarjvebisadmi, ucilobeli pirobaa, romelic yvela jariskacis

movaleobaa. agreTve gonivruli gadawyvetileba, romelic meTaurma unda

Cados xelqveiTebis sulSi~ (122, 8). sardals unda SeeZlos

mWermetyveleba, sadac mxolod WeSmariteba aisaxeba. es ki yvelaferTan

erTad mas didad uwyobs xels mowinaaRmdegeze gamarjvebaSi, aseTi

faqtebi mravladaa samxedro xelovnebis istoriaSi .

erekle II-s, rogorc sardals, winaswar hqonda SemuSavebuli

savaraudo samxedro moqmedebebis gegma, romelsac viTarebis analizis

safuZvelze adgenda. amis damadasturebelia 1768 wels dawyebuli ruseTosmaleTis

omSi monawileobaze daTanxmeba. ereklem samxedro sabWos

saukeTeso sabrZolo moqmedebebis gegma warudgina. mefes, rom maSveli

jarebi mosvloda provinciebidan da ruseTs mxari daeWira, es gegmac

sisruleSi iqneboda moyvanili da osmalTa laSqari erTianad

ganadgurdeboda saqarTvelos miwaze.

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mefe xSirad iyenebda samxedro eSmakobas, rac niWieri sardlisTvisaa

damaxasiaTebeli. aseT xerxs lekebisa Tu sxva momxvduris winaaRmdeg

droulad iyenebda da SiSis zars scemda mowinaaRmdeges.

gansakuTrebiT samagaliToa yirxbulaxSi brZola azat-xanis

winaaRmdeg. am brZolaSi samxedro xerxianoba imaSi mdgomareobda, rom

daaqveiTa cxenosani jari da mters Tavisi uZlureba moaCvena.

daqveiTebuli mebrZolebi Zneli SesamCnevi iyvnen da mterTan miaxloeba

ufro gaadvilebuli iyo. Seqmnilma garemoebam mowinaaRmdege moaduna da

gaaTamama. xazgasasmelia, rom CamoqveiTebuli cecxlis warmarTva bevrad

ufro zustia vidre amxedrebulisa. amitom mefisa da mebrZolTa mier

cecxlis uecarma gaxsnam, Semdeg cxenosnebiT moulodnelad

ganxorcielebulma ieriSma alyis garRveva, marTvis moSla da mtris

damarcxeba ganapiroba.

ereklem kargad icoda mowinaaRmdegis susti da Zlieri mxareebi,

misi fsiqologia da amitomac metwilad imarjvebda. amas mowmobs

yvarlisa da aspinZis brZolebi. igi sakuTar Tavze iRebda moqmedebis

iniciativas da mowinaaRmdeges CaiTrevda brZolaSi misTvis xelsayrel

momentSi. miuxedavad imisa, rom qarTvelTa winaaRmdeg yovelTvis

mravalricxovani jarebi ibrZodnen, nawils mowinaaRmdegis jarisas

mayureblis mdgomareobaSi tovebda, im dros rodesac Tavisi

mcirericxovani laSqriT erTianad brZolaSi iyo Cabmuli. amas mowmobs

yvarlisa da aspinZis brZolebi.

erekle II sabrZolo moqmedebebis warmarTvisas iyenebda samxedro

xelovnebis principebs taqtikuri TvalsazrisiT, romlebic warsul

brZolebSi mravaljer nacadi iyo. samxedro xelovnebis principebi - es

aris ZiriTadi ideebis erToblioba an mniSvnelovani rekomendaciebi,

brZolis, operaciis, omis organizebisa da CatarebisaTvis (167, 158).

arsebuli principebi warmoadgenen myar safuZvels, raTa meTaurma miiRos

swori gadawyvetileba. aRniSnuli uzrunvelyofs brZolis warmatebiT

damTavrebas.

mefis mier warmoebul sabrZolo moqmedebebSi gamoyenebuli iyo

Semdegi saxis samxedro xelovnebis principebi:

145


- Zalebis Tavmoyra ZiriTadi dartymis mimarTulebaze;

- mowinaaRmdegis sust mxareze dartymis ganxorcieleba;

- specialur moqmedebebze dayrdnobiT moulodnelobis principis

gamoyeneba;

- marSisa da taqtikuri marSis mokle droSi ganxorcieleba,

mowinaaRmdegesTan xelsayreli mdgomareobis dasakaveblad;

- ZalTa maqsimaluri daZabva da ricxobrivi umciresobiT gamarjveba;

- adgilmdebareobis xasiaTis gaTvaliswinebiT mowinaaRmdegis

manevrirebis SezRudva;

- Zalebis araTanabari ganawileba;

- samxedro eSmakobiT dapirispirebuli Zalis SecdomaSi Seyvana.

aRniSnuli principebis codna didad uwyobs xels meTauris moqnil

azrovnebas da Seqmnil viTarebaSi swori gadawyvetilebis miRebas,

brZolis msvlelobisas gonivruli iniciativis warmoCenas, rac kargad

hqonda mefes gacnobierebuli.Aamitom Seqmnil rTul viTarebaSi maTi

gamoyenebiT sasurvel Sedegs aRwevda. Aamgvarad, samxedro xelovnebis

principebis Rirebuleba mniSvnelovanwilad damokidebulia maTi

gamoyenebis xelovnebaze. swored amaSi mdgomareobs samxedro saqmis

siZnele. winaswar gansazRvruli principi momavali sabrZolo moqmedebisa

mza rekomendaciis saxiT ar unda arsebobdes. winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi igi

Sablonur xasiaTs miiRebda. erekle II-is mxedruli Rirseba swored

imaSi gamoixateba, rom igi ZiriTadad arastandartuli tipis sabrZolo

operaciebis CatarebaSi iyenebda samxedro xelovnebis principebs.

qsenia sixaruliZis wignSi `qarTveli xalxis brZola

samSoblosaTvis erekle II - is xelmZRvanelobiT ~, mocemulia moZiebuli

masalebi e. TayaiSvilis, a. SaniZis, p. umikaSvilis, m. javaxiSvilis da

sxvaTa mier, romelic erekle II-isa da masTan mebrZoli gmirebis

moRvaweobas ukavSirdeba. MmaTi cnobebi damadasturebelia im faqtebisa,

rac mefisa da qarTveli xalxis samSoblosadmi uangaro samsaxurze

metyvelebs XVIII s-Si. esenia: ximikauri, loxauri, guguaSvili,

kotoraSvili, ivaneuri, gulaneli, jamSaiZe, wowkolauri, saRiraSvili,

maxaTaZe, TemuraSvili, janikauri; gmiri qalebi: Tamar vaSlovneli, Tina

146


wavkiseli, maia wyneTeli da mefis Svili levani, bolos, 300 aragveli da

mravali sxvani (105), romelTa Tavganwirulma brZolebma saqarTvelo

ixsna ucxoeli dampyroblebisagan da Semogvinaxa `mamuli, ena,

sarwmunoeba~, rac esoden aucilebelia CvenisTana qveynis arsebobisa da

ganviTarebisaTvis. erekle II 1798 wlis 24 ianvars

gardaicvala,DdakrZalulia sveticxovelSi.

pirovnebis sulieri da zneobrivi saxe ufro srulad mamulisa da

erisadmi mis damokidebulebaSi vlindeba. SeiZleba iTqvas, rom nebismieri

Cvenganis mier ganvlili gzac am interesebis sferos ar unda

scildebodes. samxedro TvalsazrisiT, winaparTa Rirseuli tradiciebis

gaTaviseba da SenarCuneba, SeZlebisdagvarad samxedro mosamsaxuris

keTilsindisier da gonivrul moRvaweobaSi unda aisaxos.

erekle II, Tu ki samxedro Teoretikosis, sun Zis sityvebs

moviSveliebT, `moqmedebda viTarebis Sesabamisad~(91). mas hqonda

sardlisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli erT-erTi niSanTviseba, intuicia, romelic

mis mier Catarebul brZolebSi aisaxeboda.

qarTvel mxedarTmTavarTa istoria mxolod arqivebsa da

biblioTekebSi ar unda iyos Semonaxuli.Aawmyo unda gaiJRinTos

warsuliT,Uanda gaaCndes ganvlilis sworad gaanalizebis unari. istoria

albaT maSin, moaxdens Cvenze da STamomavlobaze Sesabamis zegavlenas.

omis, brZolis mogeba erovnuli Zalisxmevis gansazRvris formulaSi

Semdegnairad gamoixateba: (ekonomika + samxedro Zala +

saxelmwifo strategia) × eris nebaze = gamarjvebas.

formulis TiToeuli elementis gonivrulad da xarisxianad

gamoyeneba saxelmwifos mier sabrZolo moqmedebebis warmatebiT

damTavrebas uzrunvelyofs.

sabolood, SeiZleba iTqvas, erekle II-s, rogorc mxedarTmTavars

sapatio adgili unda miekuTvnos qarTuli samxedro xelovnebis

istoriaSi.

147


d a s k v n a

amgvarad, disertaciaSi aRniSnuli masalebis gaanalizebis

safuZvelze SeiZleba gakeTdes Semdegi daskvnebi:

1. mefe erekle II-m obieqturad Seafasa Tavisi samefos feodaluri

CamorCeniloba, romlis daZlevis mizniT mizanmimarTulad ganaxorciela

saxelmwifo-administraciuli da samxedro reformebi;

2. mefis xelisuflebis gaZlierebisa da ganmtkicebisaTvis man gaauqma

zogierTi Zlieri saerisTavo da saxano, romlebic uSualod

dauqvemdebara saxelmwifo mmarTvelobis aparats. man teritoriebi dahyo

ufro wvril administraciul erTeulebad _ samouravoebad, riTac

mniSvnelovnad gaaZliera centraluri mmarTveloba;

3. gaatara samxedro reformebi. cvlilebebi ganxorcielda

sadroSoebis sistemaSi. axleburad ganisazRvra sardlebis da maT

daqvemdebarebaSi myofi pirebis funqcia-movaleobebi. movaleobebis

erTmaneTisagan gamijvnam TiTqmis yvela ierarqiul safexurze ufro

moqnili gaxada xelqveiTTa marTva, xeli Seuwyo laSqris droulad

mobilizaciasa da Sekrebas;

4. mefis gankargulebiT, sadroSoebsa da samouravoebSi Seiqmna

samdevroebi, moyarauleTa jgufebi. gaumjobesda yaraulis

funqcionireba, romelic mniSvnelovan rols asrulebda sadazvervo

sistemis funqcionirebaSi;

5. feodaluri jaris dromoWmulobisa da CamorCenilobis dasaZlevad

pirvelad warmatebiT ganaxorciela mudmivi jaris nairsaxeobis ,,morige

laSqris~ Seqmna, romelic etapobrivad ase ganxorcielda: Tavdapirvelad

_ ,,noqari~, XVIII saukunis 50-iani wlebis SuaxanebSi _ ,,morige” jari,

romlis ganaxlebac imave saukunis 70-iani wlebis dasawyisSi moxda;

6. samxedro reformis garkveul siaxles warmoadgenda saeklesio

jaris Tvisebrivad ganaxleba. jaris es saxeoba (saeklesio) Tavisi

sardliT mefis sadroSo erTeulTan erTad gamodioda;

148


7. wesdebebis, darigebebisa da instruqciebis saxiT iTargmna

sxvadasxva samxedro wigni, ramac didi roli Seasrula ,,morige jaris”

gawvrTnasa da funqcionirebaSi;

8. jarSi gasawvevi kontingentis sruli mobilizaciis mizniT Catarda

mosaxleobis aRwera. amis safuZvelze sadroSoebs zustad ganesazRvraT

jarSi gasagzavni (gasawvevi) kontingentis raodenoba. samxedro

samsaxurze Tavis aridebis, damalvis Tavidan acilebis mizniT gamoica

specialuri brZanebebi yvela kategoriis xelmZRvanelisadmi;

9. laSqris organizaciul struqturad dayofam (aTaseuli,

xuTaseuli, aseuli da sxv.) jari ufro mobiluri, marTvadi da, rac

mTavaria daniSnulebisamebr gamoyenebadi gaxada;

10. disciplinis ganmtkiceba imdroindeli (axlad Seqmnili)

wesdebebisa da instruqciebis mixedviT xdeboda. marTvisa da kontrolis

gasaumjobeseblad Seiqmna e.w. samxedro kancelaria;

11. jaris marTvisa da kontrolis xarisxis asamaRleblad SemoRebul

iqna rigi Tanamdebobebi: minbaSi – aTasisTavi, fonsadbaSi - xuTasisTavi,

uzbaSi – asisTavi, TofCibaSi - mezarbazneTa ufrosi da sxva. samxedro

wodebebi -KAkaprali, serJanti, unter-oficeri, oficeri, artileriis

kapitani, maiori, polkovniki;

12. erekle II-m axtalasa da alaverdSi spilenZisa da vercxlis

madnis sabadoebis damuSavebiT ganaviTara samTamadno warmoeba, ramac

Tavis mxriv, saqarTveloSi gaaumjobesa samxedro mrewveloba.

mniSvnelovnad gaizarda qveynis Tavdacvisunarianoba;

13. samxedro mrewvelobis Seqmnam xeli Seuwyo saartilerio saqmisa

da swavlebis ganviTarebas. zarbaznebis, zambulakebis, Tofebis,

xelyumbarebis warmoebiT SesaZlebeli gaxda qarTl-kaxeTis samefos

jaris aRiWurva. amaRlda misi brZolisunarianoba;

14. qveyanaSi ganxorcielda saartilerio da sxva samxedro

specialistebis mozidva da erovnuli samxedro kadrebis aRzrdamomzadeba.

wesdebebis, instruqciebis, agreTve Sesabamisi sxva

dokumentebis qarTulad Targmna da axlis Seqmna;

15. erekles mefobis periodSi, misi samxedro reformis Sedegad,

149


qarTuli jari Sedgeboda qveiTebis, cxenosnebisa da artileristebisagan,

romelTagan saukeTeso nawils cxenosani jari warmoadgenda;

16. qarTl-kaxeTis samefos Tavdacvisunarianobis ganmtkicebis mizniT

ganxorcielda cixeebisa da galavnebis masobrivi SekeTeba, axlebis ageba

da safortifikacio nagebobebis kompleqsurad Seqmna;

17. fana xanTan brZolisas ereklem mowinaaRmdeges Tavs moaxvia

brZolis sakuTari gegma, mas daakargvina iniciativa. mtris taqtikurad

xelsayrel poziciebze yofnis miuxedavad, qarTvelTa laSqris

avangardis uZlieresi ieriSis gamo mowinaaRmdege ukuiqca. gamoikveTa

erekles, rogorc mTavarsardlis fsiqologiuri faqtori. mtris ukan

daxevisTanave mefem droulad CarTo brZolaSi mTavari Zalebi.

gaanaviTara mopovebuli warmateba, ganaxorciela devna da Zlieri

ieriSebiT gamanadgurebeli dartymebi miayena mas. am brZolaSi

gamovlinda qarTvelTa fizikuri gamZleoba da xelCarTuli sabrZolo

xelovnebis maRali done;

18. yirbulaxSi brZolisas ereklem kargad gamoiyena mowinaaRmdegis

mier daSvebuli Secdoma. alyaSi moxvedris miuxedavad man droulad

moaxdina ZalTa gadajgufeba. garRvevis mimarTulebis sworad SerCevis,

moulodnelobis faqtorisa da rezervis efeqturad gamoyenebiT SeZlo

mtris eqvsjer aRmatebuli Zalebis damarcxeba;

19. alyaSemortymul mWadijvris cixeSi mefem kargad gaarTva Tavi

cixis momaragebis (logistikuri) uzrunvelyofis organizebas. am gziT

cixis garnizonma brZolisunarianoba SeinarCuna. cecxlsasroli iaraRis

efeqturad gamoyenebam, sabrZolo SemarTebam, SeTanxmebulma

(sinqronizebulma) moqmedebebma da mizanswrafulma Setevam uzrunvelyo

mravalricxovan mterze gamarjveba;

20. yvarlis cixesTan brZolisas mefe-sardalma gamoiyena:

samobilizacio RonisZiebebi, mWadijvris brZolis gamocdileba, alyis

gamrRvevi jgufis koordinacia, taqtikuri SeniRbvis RonisZiebebi.

mowinaaRmdegis sabrZolo momzadebis donis codnam, dartymebis

mimarTulebaTa sworad gansazRvram mravalricxovani koaliciuri

mowinaaRmdegis Zalebis damarcxeba ganapiroba;

150


21. erekle meoris mier ruseTis-osmaleTis 1768-1774 wlebis omSi

Cabma miznad isaxavda samcxe-javaxeTis osmalebisagan ganTavisuflebas.

mis mier SemuSavebuli samxedro-strategiuli gegmis ganxorcieleba,

SesaZlebeli iyo. aspinZis brZola ramdenime etapiani TavdacviTi saxis

sabrZolo operacia iyo, romelSic gamovlinda samxedro xelovnebis

ZiriTadi principebi;

22. erekle mefis mxedarTmTavrul RirsebaTa Soris unda aRiniSnos

Seqmnili garemoebis mixedviT swrafad da gonivrulad moqmedeba. igi

mimarTavda taqtikur moqmedebaTa arastandartulobas. brZolis sakuTar

gegmas Tavs axvevda mowinaaRmdeges, pasiur mdgomareobaSi ayenebda da

xelidan aclida iniciativis gamoyenebis SesaZleblobas;

23. ereklem, rogorc mTavarsardalma, SesaniSnavad icoda samxedro

xelovnebis ZiriTadi principebi: ZalTa araTanabari ganawileba,

adgilmdebareobis Tvisebebis gamoyeneba, dartymebis mTavari da damxmare

mimarTulebebis gansazRvra, brZolis uzrunvelyofis saxeebisa da

manevris farTo gamoyeneba, da, rac mTavaria maTSi moulodnelobis

faqtoris gaTvaliswineba;

24. mefis mier Catarebuli brZolebi cxadyofen, rom igi Tanabrad

Zlieri iyo rogorc TavdacviTi, ise SeteviTi brZolebis warmoebaSi.

taqtikuri moqmedebebis aseTi formebi mefe ereklem ganaviTara da

TiTqmis srulyofilebamde miiyvana. yovelive zemoaRniSnulidan

gamomdinare, erekle II-m Tavisi wvlili Seitana saqarTvelos samxedro

xelovnebis ganviTarebaSi;

25. samxedro-politikuri azrovnebiT, Catarebuli brZolebis

raodenobiT, xarisxiTa da masStabebiT erekle II iyo SesaniSnavi

sardali da brwyinvale taqtikosi.

151


s q e m a #1

erekle II-is droindeli sadazvervo informaciis

gadacemisa da Setyobinebis sqema (varianti)

samxedro

sabWo

qvemo

qarTli

zemo

qarTli

mefis

saeklesio

laSqari

kaxeTis

samdevro samdevro samdevro samdevro

dazverva

dazverva dazverva dazverva

samxedro organizaciis ierarqiuli ganlageba

mopovebuli informaciis miwodeba

S e t y o b i n e b a

SeniSvna:

mopovebuli

informaciis gavrcelebas

uzrunvelyofda misi pirveli

mompovebeli

152


s q e m a #2

XVIII s-is meore naxevarSi qarTl-kaxeTis SeiaraRebuli

Zalebis struqtura (varianti)

dazverva

samxedro sabWo

samxedro

kancelaria

dazverva morige jari sadroSoebi artileria saeklesio

jari

samxedro

mrewveloba

cxenosani

qveiTi

sagalavne

savele

dazverva

samdevro

warmoeba

cxenosani

qveiTi

sawyobebi

153


s q e m a #3

yirbulaxis brZola 1751 w. (varianti)

mxareTa savaraudo

sabrZolo wyoba

qarTvelebi

2 500

mowinaaRmdege

16 500

erevnis

cixe

rezervi

Eerekle II

nasoflari

pirobiTi niSnebi

mxareTa savaraudo

gadaadgileba

Ppoziciuri mdgomareoba

qarTvel sadroSoebis ganlageba

brZolis dawyebamde

mxareTa mTavari dartymis

mimarTuleba

qarTuli sadroSoTa

gaerTianeba

qarTvelTa laSqari alyaSi

mtris ukan daxeva

154


s q e m a #4

brZola mWadijvarTan 1754 w. (varianti)

axalgori

duSeTi

Teimuraz II

Wilurti

Teimuraz II

erekle II

ganlagebis

raioni

Sekrebis

raioni

pirobiTi

niSnebi

qarTvelTa laSqris

gadaadgileba

qveiTebi mezarbazneebTan

erTad

cxenosnebi

urmebi xis morebiT

bazaleTis

tba

qveiTebi

cxenosnebi

CamoqveiTebuli cxenosnebi

mxareTa ieriSebi

mWadijvris

cixe

Mmtris ukan daxeva

MSetevis ganviTareba

da mtris ganadgureba

nursal-begi

155


s q e m a #5

Silda

brZola yvarlis cixisaTvis 1755 w. (varianti)

surxavi - xani

nursal-begi

Telavi

kakis sulTani

yvarlis

cixe

.

Warelebi

Teimuraz II

erekle II

Sekrebis raioni # 1

mowinaaRmdegis ZalTa ganlageba

mowinaaRmdegis mier cixis

alyaSi moqceva da ieriSi

erekle meoris gadaadgilebis

marSruti

cxenosani laSqari

qveiTi razmi

cxenosani da qveiTi

razmebis moqmedebebi

mowinaaRmdegis mier alyis

moxsna da ukan daxeva

ganjis - xani

veliscixe

gavazi

vejini

208

qveiTi

qiziyi

Sekrebis raioni # 2

156


s q e m a #6

brZola awyuris midamoebSi 1770 w. (varianti)

A al.

ciciSvili

1262

1096

agara

awyuris

cixe

giorgiwminda

sayuneTi

giorgi

batoniSvili

tyemlana

1204

Eerekle II

wnisi

axalcixe

aspinZa

pirobiTi niSnebi

qarTuli laSqris gadaadgileba

qarTvelTa razmebis moqmedeba

qarTvelTa cxenosani laSqari

mowinaaRmdegis gadaadgileba

mowinaaRmdegis cxenosani laSqari

erekles Seteva

giorgi batoniSvilis ieriSi

mowinaaRmdegis ukan daxeva

qarTvelTa mier xidis gadaketva

al. ciciSvilis moqmedeba Casafrebidan

157


s q e m a #7

aspinZis brZola 1770 w. 20 aprili

Eerekle II II

varianti

osmalo--leki

qarTvelebi

8000 mebrZoli

3000 mebrZoli

axalcixe

aspinZis cixe

g. batoniSvili

d. d. orbeliani

idumala

pirobiTi niSnebi

aspinZa

mdgomareoba1770 w. 20.04

Turqebis ieriSi da ukan daxeva

qarTvelTa Seteva

dangreulixidi

mowinaaR. ganadgureba

jaris

darCenili

nawili

xizabavra

s q e m a #8

158


s a k o r d o n o s t r a t e g i a XVIII s-Si

varianti

pirobiTi niSnebi

saxel. sazRvari

cixe-garnizoni

mtris gasanadgurebeli

obieqti

sayrdeni punqti

dapirispirebul mxareTa

Setevis mimarTuleba

qveiTebi

cxenosnebi

mtris zurgis qvedanayofebis

nawilebi

mtris gadaadgileba

159


s q e m a #9

dasavleT

evropis jarebis sabrZolo wyoba

XVIII s-Si

varianti

M m o w i n a a R m d e g e

qveiTi

batalioni

50 – 200

nabiji

polkis

artileria

cxenosnebi

savele

artileria

qveiTebis xazi 4-6 mwkrivisagan Sedgeboda

cxenosnebis kolona 15-17 mwkrivisagan Sedgeboda

r e z e r v i

160


s q e m a #10

Pprusiis armiis iribi sabrZolo

wyoba XVIII s-Si

varianti

m o w i n a a R m d e g e

polkebisa da batalionebis

artileria

qveiTTa 20 batalioni

r e z e r v i

qveiTTa 10 batalioni

cxenosnebi

161


s q e m a #11

aziis jarebis sabrZolo wyoba XVIII s-Si

varianti

M m o w i n a a R m d e g e

muSketerebis

korpusi

zamburakebiani

razmebi

sameTauro

punqti

savele

artileria

cxenosnebi

r e z e r v i

G g v a r d i a

162


danarTi #1

sawyisi

informaciis

dafiqsireba

marcxena flangze brZolis Sedegis

angariSi

alyis garRveva

(danakargebis gaTvla)

brZola flangebze

rezervis brZola

dadevneba

danakargebi

sul

naxazi - brZolis parametrebis angariSis algoriTmi.

163


danarTi #2

Yyirbulaxis brZolis raodenobrivi analizi.

CLS

x0 = 2500

y0 = 2500

x = x0

y = y0

x1 = 500

x2 = 500

x3 = 500

x4 = 500

xt = 500

y1 = 2600

a0 = .005

k = 3.5

LPRINT "pirveli brdzola"

10 x2m = x2 - y1 * a0

y1m = y1 - x2 * k * a0

x2 = x2m

y1 = y1m

IF x2 > 500 * .75 THEN GOTO 10

LPRINT "pirveli setakebisas danakargebi chveni", 500 - x2, "mtris"; 2600 - y1

LPRINT "alkidan gamosvla"

v = (16500 - (2600 - y1)) / 8

u = x1 + x4

v0 = v

u0 = u

20 um = u - a0 * v

vm = v - a0 * 4.5 * u

u = um

v = vm

164


IF v > v0 * .5 THEN GOTO 20

LPRINT u, v

LPRINT "alkis danakargebia chveni", u0 - u, "mtris", v0 - v

LPRINT "brdzola marjvniv"

umm = 500

vmm = (16500 - (2600 - y1)) / 16

umm0 = umm

vmm0 = vmm

30

ummm = umm - vmm * a0

vmmm = vmm - umm * 4.5 * a0

umm = ummm

vmm = vmmm

IF vmm > vmm0 * .5 THEN GOTO 30

danmu = umm0 - umm

danmv = vmm0 - vmm

LPRINT "marjvniv danakargebi chveni", umm0 - umm, "mteri", vmm0 - vmm

LPRINT "brzola marcxniv"

uc = x2

vc = 2600 / 4

uc0 = uc

vc0 = vc

40

ucm = uc - vc * a0

vcm = vc - uc * a0 * 4.5

uc = ucm

vc = vcm

IF vc > vc0 * .75 THEN GOTO 40

dcch = uc0 - uc

dcm = vc0 - vc

LPRINT "marcxniv danakargebi chveni", dcch, "mteri", dcm

LPRINT "rezervis brdzola"

165


uz = 500

vz = 2600 / 4

uz0 = uz

vz0 = vz

50 uzm = uz - vz * a0

vzm = vz - uz * a0 * 7

uz = uzm

vz = vzm

IF vz > vz0 * .75 THEN GOTO 50

LPRINT "rezervis brzolisas chveni", uz0 - uz, "mtris", vz0 - vz

LPRINT "devna"

FOR ud = 100 TO 200 STEP 10

FOR vd = 100 TO ud STEP 10

ud0 = ud

vd0 = vd

60

udm = ud - a0 * vd

vdm = vd - a0 * 7 * ud

ud = udm

vd = vdm

LPRINT ud, vd

INPUT l

IF vd > vd0 * .9 THEN GOTO 60

LPRINT ud0 - ud, vd0 - vd

NEXT vd

INPUT l

NEXT ud

END

damowmebuli wyaroebi da literatura

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4. scsa, f. 226, sab. #1381,

5. scsa, f. 226, sab. #2857

6. scsa, f. 226, sab. # 5124, # 5125, # 2616, # 8719

7. scsa, f. 227, sab. #29

8. scsa, f. 229, sab. #15

9. scsa, f. 229, sab. #16

xelnawerTa erovnuli centri (xec)

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11. xec. f. Ad sab. # 250

12. xec. f. Ad sab. # 1360

13. xec. f. Ad sab. # 594

14. xec. f. Ad sab. # 11052

15. xec. f. S, sab. ie-78

16. xec. f. S, sab. # 167

17. xec. f. Hd sab. # 2994

18. xec. f. Hd sab. # 576

19. xec. f. d sab. # 3843

20. xec. f. sab. # 13714

21. xec. f. Hd sab. # 2492

22. xec. f. Hd sab. # 1152, 14066

23. xec. f. Hd sab. # 1536

24. xec. f. Hd sab. # 2894

25. xec. f. Qd sab. # 8723

26. xec. f. Qd sab. # 594

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176


S i n a a r s i

Sesavali-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 2

literaturis mimoxilva------------------------------------------------------------------------ 9

Tavi I. samxedro-reformatoruli moRvaweoba ------------------------------------ 16

1.1 samxedro-administraciuli reformebi ----------------------------------- 16

1.2 SeiaraRebisa da tyvia-wamlis warmoeba ---------------------------------- 45

1.3 sainJinro – TavdacviTi nagebobebi ----------------------------------------- 54

Tavi II. erekle II-is umniSvnelovanesi brZolebi ----------------------- 60

2.1. yarabaRis brZola ------------------------------------------------------------------------- 60

2.2. yirxbulaxis brZola --------------------------------------------------------------------- 66

2.3. brZola mWadijvarTan -------------------------------------------------------------------- 80

2.4. brZola yvarlis cixesTan ------------------------------------------------------------- 85

2.5. aspinZis brZola ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 96

Tavi III. erekle II-is samxedro strategia, taqtika da principebi --119

3.1. XVIII s-is meore naxevris dasavleT evropis, aziisa da

aRmosavleT saqarTvelos samxedro strategiisa da taqtikis

SedarebiTi analizi ----------------------------------------------------------------------- 119

3.2. erekle II-is samxedro moRvaweobis Sefaseba ------------------------- 137

daskvna ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 147

sqemebi ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 151

danarTebi ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 162

damowmebuli wyaroebi da literatura --------------------------------------- 166

177

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