qarTuli ena da literatura V klasis saxelmZRvanelo

eqe.ge

qarTuli ena da literatura V klasis saxelmZRvanelo

qarTuli ena da

literatura

V klasis saxelmZRvanelo

avtor-Semdgenlebi:

vaxtang rodonaia

nino nakudaSvili

avTandil arabuli

marine xuciSvili

2011

1


qarTuli ena da literatura

V klasis saxelmZRvanelo

avtor-Semdgenlebi:

redaqtorebi:

mxatvari:

kompiuteruli

uzrunvelyofa

vaxtang rodonaia

nino nakudaSvili

avTandil arabuli

marine xuciSvili

maia jaliaSvili

fati firuaSvili

mariam jandieri

qeTevan gogava

Y

ydis garekanze gamoyenebulia esma onianis ferweruli namuSevari.


Sinaarsi

I Tavi.

gogonebi da biWebi

eTeri _ revaz inaniSvilis ....................................................... 11

nisli zmorebiT adga miwidan _ SoTa niSnianiZis ......... 15

ukuRma daWedili _ revaz inaniSvilis ............................... 18

fexqveS gaTela Semodgomam

xeWeWurebi _ SoTa niSnianiZis ............................................... 22

miranduxti _ revaz inaniSvilis ........................................... 26

uTauri biWis Tavgadasavali _ otia ioselianis ........... 37

kargi var _ xalxuri .................................................................. 44

saqmeze weli gwydebao _ xalxuri ...................................... 45

ganelebuli koconi _ givi buTxuzis ................................. 47

kacad maSin xar saqebi _ ilia WavWavaZis ........................... 52

SromiT da simamaciT _ xalxuri .......................................... 53

enis samyaroSi

sityva da Jesti GCvens cxovrebaSi ....................................... 16

sityva ............................................................................................... 23

sityvis mniSvneloba ................................................................. 35

sityva sxvadasxva mniSvnelobiT ......................................... 45

sinonimebi ...................................................................................... 53

II Tavi. deda, mSobliuri garemo

iavnanam ra hqmna?! _ iakob gogebaSvilis .......................... 57

iavnana _ xalxuri ....................................................................... 86

GCveni qarTuli _ sityvaqarguli _ ioseb noneSvilis . 87

GCemi Tavgadasavali _ akaki wereTlis ................................ 88

deda _ aleko Sengeliasi ........................................................ 116

dedas _ giorgi leoniZis ....................................................... 117

enis samyaroSi

sinonimebis SerCGeva ................................................................... 71

sinonimTa Serwyma ...................................................................... 75

antonimebi ..................................................................................... 79

sityvaTa warmoqmna .................................................................. 106

rTuli sityvebis marTlwera .............................................. 114

III Tavi. saxelovani winaprebi

vaxtang mefe _ xalxuri ......................................................... 121

vaxtang mefe _ SoTa niSnianiZis .......................................... 122

3


Tamaris droSa gaSales _ grigol orbelianis ............. 123

nikoloz gostaSabiSvili _ ilia WavWavaZis ................. 126

mtris Zleva _ ilia WavWavaZis ............................................. 132

aseTi dari Tu iyo maSin _ ana kalandaZis ....................... 134

Tbilisi _ oTar WilaZis ........................................................ 137

krwanisis yayaCGoebi _ lado asaTianis ............................. 138

sizmari _ akaki wereTlis ...................................................... 140

cxovreba mefeT-mefe daviTisi _ ucnobi avtoris ...... 143

vaJkacsa guli rkinisa _ xalxuri ..................................... 144

kidevac daizrdebian _ xalxuri ........................................ 145

enis samyaroSi

winadadeba ................................................................................... 125

winadadebis intonacia da sasveni niSnebi .................... 133

winadadebis wevrebi ................................................................ 136

martivi da rTuli winadadeba ............................................ 141

winadadebis swori warmoTqma da sasveni niSnebi ...... 146

IV Tavi. SoTa da saba

vefxistyaosani _ SoTa rusTavelis

ambavi rostevan arabTa mefisa ........................................... 149

sibrZne-sicruisa _ sulxan-saba orbelianis

igav-arakebi: usamarTlo Sirvan Sahi .............................. 156

mefe da avsityva ........................................................................ 159

ormoSi GCagdebuli mefe ......................................................... 161

eniT dakodili ........................................................................... 164

utkbesi da umwaresi ................................................................ 165

enis samyaroSi

sityvaTa klasebi ...................................................................... 153

roca sityva formas icvlis ................................................ 154

arsebiTi saxeli ........................................................................ 158

arsebiTi saxelis jgufebi ................................................... 160

bruneba .......................................................................................... 162

saxelis mravlobiTi ricxvi

V Tavi. ra xdeba zRaparSi?

zRapari gerisa da dedinacvlisa _ xalxuri ................ 169

sabralo dedabrisasa _ xalxuri ....................................... 180

pepela _ guram petriaSvilis ............................................... 184

4


enis samyaroSi

Tandebuli da maTi daniSnuleba ....................................... 178

zedsarTavi saxeli ................................................................... 179

zedsarTavi saxelis bruneba arsebiTTan erTad ........ 180

ricxviTi saxeli ....................................................................... 188

rigobiTi ricxviTi saxeli .................................................. 189

VI Tavi. adamiani da buneba

aragvs _ nikoloz baraTaSvilis .......................................... 193

gazafxul iyo maSina _ xalxuri ......................................... 195

Svlis nukris naambobi _ vaJa-fSavelasi ........................ 196

TuTa _ ana kalandaZis ............................................................. 214

muxa _ revaz inaniSvilis ........................................................ 215

celi kivis _ galaktion tabiZis ......................................... 218

qari hqris _ galaktion tabiZis .......................................... 221

gazafxuli _ ilia WavWavaZis ................................................ 223

gazafxuli _ vaJa-fSavelasi ................................................ 224

enis samyaroSi

nacvalsaxeli ............................................................................. 195

GCvenebiTi nacvalsaxeli ........................................................ 198

kuTvnilebiTi nacvalsaxeli .............................................. 202

zmna ................................................................................................. 206

moqmedeba da moqmedi pirebi ............................................... 209

pirebis Sewyoba zmnasTan ...................................................... 213

zmnis cvla pirebis mixedviT .............................................. 218

zmna da moqmedebis dro ......................................................... 222

zmniswini ...................................................................................... 225

VII Tavi. pirispir

gaRmivlebi _ goderZi Coxelis ........................................... 229

bibliuri istoria _ iakob gogebaSvilis mixedviT ...... 236

enis samyaroSi

kuTvnilebis gamoxatva zmnis formebiT ........................ 241

mravlobiTSi fuZemonacvle zmnebi ................................. 246

5


g i l o c a v T !

Sen ukve mexuTeklaseli xar da xelSi axali saxelmZ Rvanelo

giWiravs. aq uamravi saintereso ram gelis: wa i kiTxav

moTxrobebsa da leqsebs Seni Tanatolebis, gmiri winaprebis,

adamianis umcrosi megobrebis _ cxovelebisa da frinvelebis

_ Sesaxeb; iswavli, rogor dawero moTxroba, rogor

gadmosce vrceli teqsti mokled da rogor Caasworo

Seni naweri; gaigeb, ra aris Tema, dedaazri, sakvanZo sityvebi

da, rac mTavaria, iswavli, ra unda gaakeTo imisaTvis,

rom ukeT gaigo, rasac kiTxulob, anu iswavli kiTxvis

strategiebs.

maS ase, daviwyoT!

kiTxvis strategiebi

strategia moqmedebis gegmaa, romelic unda gamoiyeno

kiTxvis dawyebamde, kiTxvis dros da kiTxvis damTavrebis

Semdeg.

kiTxvis dawyebamde

• gadaaTvaliere teqsti, waikiTxe saTauri, avtoris

gvari da saxeli, daakvirdi ilustraciebs;

• scade gamoicno, ris Sesaxeb iqneba masSi saubari;

• gaixsene, ra ici msgavsi teqstebis, mocemuli Temis an

avtoris Sesaxeb;

• gansazRvre kiTxvis mizani (ra mizniT kiTxulob teqsts:

ubralod gainteresebs, misi mokle Sinaarsi

unda gadmosce, raRacis gageba gsurs, raRac unda

iswavlo teqstidan da sxv.).

kiTxvis dros

ifiqre imaze, ra aris teqstSi SenTvis gasagebi da ra _

gaugebari. gamoiyene gagebis strategiebi, kerZod:

6


• Seajame wakiTxuli. dro da dro SeCerdi da dafiqrdi,

ra iTqva an ra moxda mniSvnelovani teqstis mocemul

monakveTSi;

dasvi kiTxvebi. dausvi kiTxvebi sakuTar Tavs wakiTxulis

Sesaxeb da scade maTze pasuxis gacema;

• Seamowme gageba. Tu ver gaige, rasac kiTxulob, xelaxla

gadaikiTxe teqstis bundovani monakveTi an

gaagrZele kiTxva, iqneb Semdgomma Txrobam mohfinos

naTeli SenTvis gaugebar adgils.

kiTxvis damTavrebis Semdeg

imsjele TanaklaselebTan wakiTxulis Sesaxeb. ganmarte,

romeli strategiebi gamoiyene da ratom?

7


waikiTxeT revaz inaniSvilis moTxrobis saTauri,

daak vir diT ilustracias (gv. 12). rogor fiqrobT,

ras mog viTxrobs mwe rali am nawarmoebSi?

axla waikiTxeT moTxrobis teqsti da SeecadeT

su ra Tebis saxiT warmoidginoT is, rasac mwerali

gi am bobT.

revaz inaniSvili

eTeri

am soflidan yvelani wavidnen, zogni qalaqSi, zognic aqve

ax los, baris soflebSi. marTalia, aTiode saxli jer isev

sa xuravmTeli dgas, magram sami saxlis mets yvelas mZime boqlomi

adevs, mxolod sami saxlidan amodis xolme dila-saRamos

kvamli, im sami saxlidanac orSi wlebisagan aCrdilebad

qce uli dedabrebi cxovroben, gamovlen da mwuxared daexatebian

derefnis kedelze, xan warbebTan udevT akankalebuli

xeli, xan yuris ukan; gamudmebiT viRacas elian, exmaurebian

yovel patara Cqams:

_ biWo, gogo! xom aravina xarT mand?

daberebulan maTi baRis xeebic _ niavi aqanavebs WianaWam

qer qebs, balaxebSi yria wiTeli vaSlebi, daCamiCebuli 1 Savi

WanWuri. dampala, Cafexvila 2 Robis latnebi, 3 Zurwa 4 da nari 5

mosdebia bilikebs. ezoSi dadis martoobiT gadayruebuli

ZaRli, sami Tu oTxi qaTami, erTi ZurwaSexorxlili Txa, xeeb

ze modian TiTqosda dakarguli Citbatonebi. 6

mxolod mesame saxls etyoba kacis xeli. jer isev nedli

rcxilis wneliT aris SemoRobili maRali saCexe, 7 Sig cxvrebi

bRavian, moTreulia xerxiT moWrili ori veeba wifeli, beberi

pantis Zirze mikrulia axaldakluli Txis rqebi, baRi

gadaCiCqnilia bariT, _ es-esaa odnav svelSi amouRiaT karto­

1 daCamiCGebuli _ CamiCad qceuli, damWknari.

2 GCafexvili _ Zveli da Cangreuli.

3 latani _ wvrili da grZeli Zeli.

4 Zurwa _ balaxi, ikeTebs yviTel da mwvane yvavilebs.

5 nari _ eklovani balaxi.

6 GCitbatona _ Wreli mgalobeli Citi.

7 saGCexe _ SeRobili sadgomi cxvris (pirutyvis).

11


fili. saxlisken midis fexiT gazekili 1 biliki, dabali kibis

ZirSi, safxekTan, datovebulia fexis talaxi. dadian batebi,

indaurebi.

saxlSi cxovroben: mama, deda da aTi wlis gogo eTeri. mama

tyismcvelia, deda dabla, meZroxeobis fermaSi 2 muSa obs,

eTeri meoTxe klasSi swavlobs. rogorc yvela qarTveli gogo,

isic morcxvia da ufrosebTan yovelTvis Tavdaxrili

dgas. am dros misi cisferi Tvalebi xan erT mxares eZeben ga ­

saqcevs, xan meore mxares. kargad damrgvalebuli loyebi wiTlad

aqvs SeSaSruli, 3 kidev ufro wiTel xelebs zurgs ukan

malavs.

eTeri rom adgeba, deda ukve fermaSia wasuli. SiSveli

fe xebiT aiTrevs rezinis Ceqmebs, gaivl-gamoivlis, daxedavs

indaurebs da batebs, CaiWvriteba saCexeSic _ batkani

xom ar moigo romelime cxvarma. derefnis boZze dakidebul

pirsabanze daibans xel-pirs, SeimSralebs, Caicvams, gamoewyoba

saskoled, Caiyris cxel rZeSi purs, Tan Wams, Tan

qvabze miyudebul wignSi iyureba. morCeba Wamas, CanTaSi

1 gazekili _ gatkepnili.

2 ferma _ saqonlis sadgomi da mosavleli Senoba.

3 SeSaSruli _ Sebrawuli.

12


Caawyobs wignebs, puris natexs, vaSlebs, Caicvams wiTel mokle

palto sac, moixvevs mosaxvevs, aikidebs CanTas da wava

sko laSi.

skolac dablaa, meore sofelSi. gakveTilebi aT saaTze

ewyebaT! sanam iq Cava, tyea, Tav-Tavqve Camavali, SewiTlebuli,

foTlebSeTxelebuli. midis, dilis cincxal haerSi

TiT qos cxviriT miikvlevs gzas, miabuqebs Camoxvavebul

aTa si feris foTlebs, waswvdeba wiTlad aRudRudebul 1

ku nels, 2 pawawa xmaurzedac ki krTeba, dadidebuli TvalebiT

iyureba aqeT-iqiT. xandaxan mirbis kidec, miifexveba, 3

miafaxfaxebs CanTas. vinc ki Sexvdeba, yvela gaRimebuli

egebeba, _ midi xar, eTer-qalo, skolaSio? eTeri mxolod

Tavs uqnevs da ufro bejiTad miadgams nabijebs.

sofelSi Casuls zogjer Tu daemgzavreba romelime

mos wavle, umetesad marto midis. Cava xevSi. iq, did lodebs

Soris, moCqrialebs lurji mTis wyali, im wyals orjer

amohkravs xels, Sesvams cotas da mere cisken mipyrobili

TvalebiT daiwyebs aRmarTze asvlas.

aRmarTi arc ki aqvs aTavebuli, gamoCndeba skolac _ da ­

bali, qarTulkramitiani, grZeli, SeTeTrebuli Senoba. sof ­

luri derefnis boZze kidia TiTbris 4 mozrdili zari, zed

aweria: `wmindao giorgi Semwe meyav me uRirssa winaSe RmrTisa~.

ezoSi dgas lamazad asuli cacxvi, iqve _ muxis boZebSi

gayrili savarjiSo RerZi, cacxvis qveS _ grZeli ficris

skami.

eTeri gulmodgined iwmends fexebs safxekad dagdebul

did guTnis saxnisze. mere derefanSi Sedis. derefnis kedelze

Camwkrivebulia TeTr materiaze 5 yavisferi saRebaviT

daxa tuli, gadaxunebuli, gadacrecili suraTebi _

akaki wereTeli (safeTqelTan mitanili lamazi xeliT), va­

Ja-fSavela, daniel WonqaZe, egnate ninoSvili, Sio aragvispireli

da ekaterine gabaSvili.

eTeri moridebiT gaivlis am suraTebis qveS da dainteresebuli

SeaRebs klasis kars. SigniT jer aravin aris, dgas

mxolod xuTi carieli merxi (jgufSi cxrani arian), erTic

Tunuqis 6 daJanguli Rumeli.

1 aRudRudebuli _ aferadebuli.

2 kuneli _ ekliani buCqi, isxams Sav nayofs.

3 miifexveba _ borZikiT midis.

4 TiTberi _ TeTri feris liToni.

5 materia _ qsovili.

6 Tunuqi _ rkinis furceli.

13


eTeri rom CanTas moixsnis, maSin SemoaRebs kars didTava,

dafeTebuli biWi.

_ toye! _ salamiviT Seagebebs eTeri.

biWi arafers ambobs, iRimeba.

klasis kedelze dabeWdili suraTi kidia. xea ayvavebuli,

xis iqiT traqtori xnavs, naxnavs gundad dastrialeben

frin velebi. qveS miwerili aqvs `gazafxuli~.

skolis iqiT moCans Zveli, dangreuli eklesia. nangrevis

wverSi afuyuli, 1 dardiani ruxi mtredi zis.

eTeri wigns gadaSlis da tuCebis cmacuniT amoikiTxavs:

`CineTSi, rogorc iciT, Cinelebi cxovroben, imperatoric

Cineli hyavT...~

tuCebi Ria rCeba, saxeze siamovnebis Suqi efineba.

mamamisi zemoT, did tyeebSi daabotebs da xeebs yaraulobs

_ unebarTvod aravin moWras.

wavikiTxoT, davfiqrdeT, visaubroT:

1. gamarTlda Tu ara Tqveni molodini? ra gviambo mweralma?

2. sad cxovrobs moTxrobis mTavari gmiri? ra iTqva am

soflis Sesaxeb moTxrobis pirvelive winadadebaSi?

3. mwerali yuradRebas adamianis sacxovrisze gvimaxvilebs.

ra niSniT gamoirCa aTiod saxli, imaTgan _ sami, im

samidan _ ori?

4. vin Cndeba pirvelad sofelSi? vis an ras elian, Tqveni

azriT, dedabrebi?

5. gadmoeciT, rogor ixateba xeebi, maTi nayofi, Robe, bilikebi,

cxovelebi, frinvelebi _ risi kvali daCnevia

yovelive amas?

6. `mxolod mesame saxls etyoba kacis xeli~, _ gveubneba mwerali.

sxvagan bilikebs Zurwa da nari mosdebia, am saxls

ki `adamianis fexiT gazekili~ biliki miudis. danarCeni

gan masxvavebeli detalebi iqneb Tqven daZebnoT.

7. ra aRmoCnda patara eTeris mTavari pirovnuli Tviseba?

eTerze saubrisas mis ra garegnul niSnebzea yu radReba

gamaxvilebuli?

8. eTeris garegnoba sul ramdenime sityviT daixata. samagierod

ra aRwera mweralma zedmiwevniTi sizustiT?

ra mizans isaxavs es aRwera?

1 afuyuli _ aq: mxrebaweuli, abuzuli.

14


9. skola meore sofelSia. iq misvlamde gogonam didi gza

unda gaiaros. dawvrilebiT aRwereT eTeris gza saxlidan

skolamde.

10. skolis kedelze qarTveli mwerlebis portretebi gauk

ravT. romeli detalebi iqcevs yuradRebas maT aRweraSi?

rogor daukavSirda es portretebi moTxrobis

mTavar gmirs?

11. rogor fiqrobT, ratom iRimeba eTeri wignis kiTxvis

dros?

12. Tqveni azriT, moTxrobaSi mTavari gmiris cxovrebis

erTi, gamorCeuli dRea aRwerili, Tu sxva dReebis msgavsi

dRe?

damatebiTi amocanebi

SegiZlia warmoidgino?

gagiWirdaT mwerlis mier `daxatuli~ suraTebis warmodgena?

aRwereT, romeli `suraTi~ warmogidgaT Tvalwin

yvelaze cxadad am nawarmoebis kiTxvis dros. iyo nawarmoebSi

iseTi adgili, romelic ver gaigeT an ver warmoidgineT?

gaxsovdeT: kargi mkiTxveli is aris, visac wakiTxulis

TvalnaTliv warmodgena SeuZlia.

savarjiSo: waikiTxeT qvemoT moyvanili leqsi da upasuxeT

kiTxvebs:

SoTa niSnianiZe

* * *

nisli zmorebiT adga miwidan

mooqrovili da movercxlili,

sarze mamalma xma Caiwminda _

mze gadaylapa Toxlo kvercxiviT.

risi suraTia aRwerili am leqsSi? (gaixseneT, rodis yivis

mamali);

rogor gesmiT: `nisli zmorebiT adga miwidan~? rogor

warmogidgeniaT nislis `miwidan adgoma~?

rogor fiqrobT, marTla gadaylapa mamalma mze? rogor

unda gavigoT poetis es sityvebi?

ras daarqmevdiT am usaTauro leqss?

15


mTavari azri da detalebi

gavixsenoT, rogor iwyeba moTxrobis is abzaci, romelSic

eTeris saxlia aRwerili: `mxolod mesame saxls etyoba kacis

xeli~,_ gveubneba avtori. Semdeg ki am winadadebaSi gamoTqmuli

azris damadasturebeli detalebia CamoTvlili:

`jer isev nedli rcxilis wneliT aris SemoRobili maRali

saCexe~.., `moTreulia xerxiT moWrili ori veeba wifeli~ da

sxv. SeiZleba iTqvas, rom am abzacis mTavari azri mis pirvel

winadadebaSia gamoTqmuli, abzacis danarCeni nawili ki am azris

gavrcobas, mis TvalsaCinod warmosaxvas emsaxureba.

daimaxsovreT

mTavar azrs abzacis (an teqstis) mTavar saTqmels uwodeben.

detalebi ki is mcire nawilebia, romlebic erTian

azrs, erTian suraTs qmnian.

weriTi savarjiSo:

a) amoiwereT moTxrobis pirveli abzacidan mTavari

azris gamomxatveli winadadeba;

b) gaagrZeleT da daasruleT abzaci, romlis mTavari

azric Semdegi winadadebiT aris gamoxatuli: `eTeri

diliT adre dgeba...~

enis samyaroSi

viswavloT sainformacio teqstis wakiTxva da gadmocema.

sityva da Jesti GCvens cxovrebaSi

moTxrobis mixedviT, eTeri morcxvi da uTqmeli gogonaa.

igi TavdaxriT dgas xolme ufrosebis win; xolo rodesac

ekiTxebian, _ midixar, eTer-qalo, skolaSio? _ eTeri

mxolod Tavs uqnevs.

riT gansxvavdeba es kiTxva da pasuxi erTmaneTisagan?

imiT, rom kiTxva sityvebiT aris gamoxatuli, pasuxi ki _

garkveuli moZraobiT (Tavis daqneviT).

gagebinebis mizniT gamoyenebul aseT moZraobebs Jestebi

ewodeba. Jesti Tavis daqneva niSnavs: `ho, diax~; Tavis

gaqneva _ `ara~; Tavis gadaqneva _ `ukmayofileba, dananeba~,

xelis awe va _ `salami~...

Jestebis garda, adamianebi TavianT grZnobebs xSirad

sa xis nakvTebis moZraobiTac gamoxataven, magaliTad, uk­

16


mayofilebis niSnad Subls SeiWmuxnian. saxis nakvTebis

aseT moZraobas mimika hqvia.

radganac Jest-mimika adamianis cxovrebaSi garkveul

ad gils iWerda, is droTa ganmavlobaSi xatovan gamonaTq

vamebs dasdebia safuZvlad:

Sublis Sekvra _ wyroma, gabrazeba;

warbis aweva _ gaoceba;

cxviris abzueba _ dawuneba;

piris daReba _ gakvirveba.

daimaxsovreT

sazogadoebaSi Jest-mimikis gamoyeneba mosawoni ar

aris; mas yvelanairad unda aaridoT Tavi.

ra grZnobas gamoxatavs gamoTqma `Tavi daxara~?

ra aris Jesti?

ra aris mimika?

rogor fiqrobT, rodis da ra mizniT iyenebs adamiani

Jest-mimikas?

savarjiSo 1: moZebneT winadadebebSi Jest-mimikis gamomxatveli

xatovani gamonaTqvamebi da axseniT, ras niSnavs

isini:

umcrosma ufro warbi Seikra da risxvam elvsaviT gaurbina

saxeze.

ra aqvs dasaRonebeli, rom cxviri CamouSvas?

Tayvani sca sworupovars, mis win muxli moiyara.

RmerTi ukeTes gazafxuls Segvaswrebs da yvelas Subli

gagvexsneba.

savarjiSo 2: moZebneT Jestebis gamomxatveli gamonaTqvamebi

da scadeT sityvebis meSveobiT gadmosceT isini:

magram sulyvelgan me xels miqnevda Cemi patara patar­

Zeuli.

ukmayofilo maswavlebelma warbebi SeiWmuxna.

mebaRem RobesTan mdgom biWebs TiTi dauqnia.

_ ahu! _ Caiqnia xeli ucnobma.

aqeT ucecxlo Tafli TiTs gviqnevda: _ modiT, piri CaitkbaruneTo!

Cven ki TiTiT yels vuwevdiT da ise vexvewebodiT: _ nu

gagvrekav, ar gveZinebao!

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