II maionebeli gamosxiveba (radiacia) - momxmarebeli.ge

momxmarebeli.ge

II maionebeli gamosxiveba (radiacia) - momxmarebeli.ge

II maionebeli gamosxiveba (radiacia)

reziume

saqarTvelos teritoriaze arsebobs maionebeli gamosxivebis

rogorc bunebrivi, ise teqnogenuri wyaroebi.

garemoSi maionebeli gamosxivebis foni normis farglebSia.

Cernobilis avariis Sedegad qveynis teritoriis radioaqtiuri

nuklidebiT dabinZurebis kvali mkafiod daikvirveba rig adgilebSi,

Tumca adamianTa da garemos janmrTelobisaTvis uSualo saSiSroebas

aRar warmoadgens.

maionebeli gamosxivebis teqnogenuri wyaroebi regulirdeba

saqarTvelos Sesabamisi kanonmdeblobiT. amJamad saqarTveloSi

maionebeli gamosxivebis wyaroebi ar iwarmoeba. gamoyenebaSi myofi

wyaroebis mcire nawili darCenilia sabWoTa droidan, xolo ekonomikis

seqtorebis saWiroebisaTvis xorcieldeba importi. saqarTvelos gaaCnia

birTvuli da radioaqtiuri masalebis gadaadgilebis kontrolisaTvis

saWiro infrastruqtura da aRWurviloba maTi aralegaluri

gadazidvebis (illicit trafficking) aRsakveTad.

yuradRebis sagnad rCeba sabWoTa kavSiris daSlis Semdeg

darCenili ukontrolo radioaqtiuri wyaroebis moZieba-gauvnebelyofa.

mniSvnelovania radiaciuli narCenebis marTvis mowesrigebuli sistemis

arseboba, rac ganapirobebs mosaxleobis dacvas maTi mavne zegavlenisgan.

Sesavali

yoveldRiur qarTul salaparako enaSi damkvidrebuli termini

`radioaqtiuri gamosxiveba~ an, mokled, `radiacia~ arazustia;

saqarTvelos kanonmdebloba iyenebs termins `maionebeli gamosxiveba~.

saqarTvelos kanonSi `birTvuli da radiaciuli usafrTxoebis Sesaxeb~

(1999) `maionebeli gamosxiveba~ Semdegnairadaa ganmartebuli: gamosxiveba,

romelic miiReba birTvuli gardaqmnebisas an nivTierebaSi damuxtuli

nawilakebis damuxruWebisas da romlis zemoqmedebis Sedegad fizikur an

biologiur sxeulSi warmoiqmneba sxvadasxva niSnis ionebi~.

maionebel gamosxivebas maRali energia aqvs. mas SeuZlia atomidan

eleqtronebis amogdeba an qimiuri kavSiris gawyveta da eleqtrulad

damuxtuli ionebis warmoqmna. maionebeli gamosxivebis nimuSebia

rentgenisa da gama-sxivebi. ufro naklebi energiis gamosxiveba ionebs ver

warmoqmnis da mas aramaionebeli gamosxiveba ewodeba. aramaionebeli

gamosxivebis nimuSebia radiotalRebi, mikrotalRebi, xiluli sinaTle.

maionebeli gamosxivebis maRali doza cocxali organizmebisaTvis

saSiSia _ intensiur ionizacias mosdevs cocxali qsovilebis dazianeba

da funqciis dakargva, rac SeiZleba dasruldes organoTa unarebis

daqveiTebiT, genetikuri cvlilebebiT, zogjer _ sikvdiliT. amitom

SemuSavebulia radiaciuli usafrTxoebis normebi, romelTa dacva

uzrunvelyofs SesaZlo zianis Tavidan acilebas.


unebrivi sacxovrebeli garemo moicavs gamosxivebis e.w. `bunebriv

wyaroebs~, amitom adamiani bunebrivad yovelwliurad iRebs garkveul

dasxivebas. garda amisa, maionebeli gamosxiveba mraval seqtorSi

gamoiyeneba (energetika, medicina, warmoeba, mecniereba, Tavdacva da a.S.)

da zog teqnologiur procesSi (an avariisas) misi simZlavre Zalian

maRalia. es aris gamosxivebis `teqnogenuri wyaroebi~.

maionebeli gamosxivebis bunebrivi wyaroebi

maionebeli gamosxivebis bunebriv wyaroebs ganekuTvnebian dedamiwis

qerqSi bunebrivad gabneuli izotopebi (urani-235, urani-238, Toriumi-232,

kaliumi-40 da sxva), romlebic mzis sistemis formirebis droidan arian

SemorCenili. am izotopebs didi naxevraddaSlis periodi aqvT da maTi

bunebrivi daSla xangrZlivi procesia. daSlisas isini gamoyofen sxva

nivTierebis izotopebs, romlebic, Tavis mxriv, SeiZleba radiaqtiuri

iyvnen _ amaTgan gansakuTrebiT aRsaniSnavia radoni-222. garda amisa,

maionebeli gamosxivebis bunebriv wyaroebs (mag., naxSirbadi-14) kosmosuri

sxivebic warmoqmnian, Tumca SedarebiT naklebi raodenobiT.

2000 wels safrangeTis atomuri energiis uSiSroebis komisariatisa

da birTvuli da radiaciuli usafrTxoebis samsaxuris specialistebma

atomuri energiis saerTaSoriso saagentos (aess) egidiT saqarTvelos

teritoriis ramdenime monakveTze radiaciis aerogamatestireba Caatares.

gazomvebi Catarda lanCxuTis, ozurgeTis, abaSis, martvilis, senakis,

xobis, Cxorowyus, walenjixis, zugdidis, xonis, vanis, zestafonis,

xaragaulis raionebSi da q. foTSi. bunebrivi radioaqtiuri nuklidebiT

gansakuTrebiT dabinZurebuli teritoriebi ar dafiqsirebula.

maionebeli gamosxivebis bunebrivi wyaroebis niadagebSi Semcveloba

mosalodnel farglebSi meryeobs. gamovlinda SedarebiT gazrdili

koncentraciis `laqebic~, rac aseve bunebrivi fenomenia da ar Seicavs

raime risks janmrTelobisaTvis.

arsebobs teritoriebi, sadac niadagis bunebrivi Tvisebebis gamo

maionebeli gamosxivebis bunebrivi foni mciredaa gazrdili, Tumca

dasaSvebi normis farglebSia, mag., xonsa da martvils Soris arsebul

Cegolas mTaze. aq, mTis wiaRSi, uranis arasawarmoo mniSvnelobis madanis

arsebobis gamo SeiniSneba uran-238-is xvedriTi aqtivobis (1 kg niadagze

mosuli izotopis aqtivoba) momatebuli mniSvneloba. am mizeziTaa

gamowveuli am mTis zedapirze bunebrivi radiaciuli fonis zrda _ igi

am midamoebSi 25-28 mikrorentgens aRwevs saaTSi, rodesac mis irgvliv

teritoriaze foni 8-10 mkr/sT-is tolia (60 mkr/sT-mde foni normalurad

iTvleba).

2


nax. 1. bunebrivi uran-238-is niadagSi koncentraciis tipuri suraTi (q. xonis

maxloblad). xvedriTi aqtivobis monacemebi gamaaerogadaRebis Sedegebis mixedviT, 2000

w.

maionebeli gamosxivebis anTropogenuli wyaroebi

adamianis qmedebaTa Sedegad mravali radioaqtiuri izotopi

iwarmoeba an pirdapiri saWiroebisaTvis, an rogorc teqnologiuri

ciklis Tanaproduqti (tritiumi, iodi-129, iodi-131, ceziumi-137,

stronciumi-90, teqneciumi-99, plutoniumi-239 da a.S.). zogi maTgani

bunebrivi saxiT garemoSi praqtikulad ar arsebobs. garda amisa,

adamianebi iyeneben maionebeli gamosxivebis iseT generatorebsac,

romlebic ar Seicaven radioaqtiur wyaroebs (mag., rentgenis aparatebi).

anTropogenuli wyaroebisagan da generatorebisagan momdinare

maionebeli gamosxiveba ukontrolobis SemTxvevaSi seriozul risks

warmoadgens adamianisa da garemosaTvis.

1986 wlis Cernobilis avariis gamo dasavleT saqarTvelos

teritoriaze gaCnda teqnogenuri radionuklidebiT _ cezium-137 da

stroncium-90 _ dabinZurebuli adgilebi. normalur pirobebSi niadagi am

izotopebs praqtikulad ar Seicavs. magaliTad, Tu cezium-137-is

xvedriTi aqtivoba 1000 bk/kg-ze maRalia, niadagi oficialurad iRebs

dabinZurebulis statuss. am mxriv 2000 wlis eqspediciam SedarebiT

maRali mniSvneloba daafiqsira ramdenime dalaqavebul adgilas: foTTan

(sadac radionukliduri dabinZurebis xvedriTi aqtivoba dabinZurebis

zRvarze 30-jer metia), daba jvarSi (25-jer), senakSi (17-jer), quTaisis

aeroportSi, sofel gelaTSi (10-jer), samtrediaSi (5-jer) da a.S. unda

aRiniSnos, rom es gazrdili koncentraciebi TavisTavad sakmaod

umniSvnelo sidides warmoadgens da ar aisaxeba radiaciul fonze.

gamosxivebis dozis simZlavre yvela SemTxvevaSi normis farglebSia.

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nax. 2. Cernobilis kvali: cezium-137-is niadagSi koncentraciis suraTi (q. senakis

maxloblad). xvedriTi aqtivobis monacemebi gamaaerogadaRebis Sedegebis mixedviT, 2000

w.

radiaciuli monitoringi saqarTveloSi da misi Sedegebi

garemos dacvisa da bunebrivi resursebis saministros garemos

dacvis saagento awarmoebs qveyanaSi bunebrivi radiaciuli fonis

monitorings. foni yvelgan normis farglebSia (ix. cxrili):

ცხრილი 1. haerSi gama-gamosxivebis eqspoziciuri dozis saSualo wliuri simZlavrე

2005-2009 ww. (mikrorentgen/saaTi).

haerSi gama-gamosxivebis dozis simZlavre,

mikrorentgeni/saaTi (saSualo wliuri)

2005 2006 2007 2008 2009

adgili/weli

axalqalaqi 13 14 13 14 14

axalcixe 13 14 16 17 17

baTumi 13 14 14 13 13

gori 13 14 14 14 14

fasanauri 11 11 12 12 12

dedofliswyaro 11 11 11 10 10

Tbilisi 13 13 13 13 14

Telavi 11 11 11 12 12

faravani 15 16 16 15 16

saCxere 12 13 11 11 12

foTi 9 12 12 12 12

quTaisi 13 12 12 12 12

walka 12 13 13 14 15

zestafoni 10 11 11 12 12

lagodexi - 12 12 12 10

amJamad saqarTveloSi maionebeli gamosxivebis wyaroebi ar

iwarmoeba. gamoyenebaSi myofi wyaroebis mcire nawili darCenilia

sabWoTa droidan. ekonomikis seqtorebis saWiroebisaTvis xorcieldeba

importi. zog SemTxvevaSi xdeba gamoyenebuli wyaroebis dabruneba

ucxoeli mwarmoeblisaTvis. maionebeli gamosxivebis wyaroebis eqsport-

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importi regulirdeba garemos dacvisa da bunebrivi resursebis

saministros mier Sesabamisi nebarTvis gacemiT. birTvuli da radiaciuli

usafrTxoebis samsaxuri flobs srul monacemebs radioaqtiuri

tvirTebis eqsportis, importis, tranzitisa da qveynis SigniT

transportirebis Sesaxeb.

2010 wlis ianvrisTvis saqarTveloSi registrirebuli iyo

radiaciuli saqmianobiT dakavebuli 640 organizacia. aRricxuli iyo

maionebeli gamosxivebis 1145 generatori, 1537 e.w. `daxuruli 1 ~ (sealed) da

762 “Ria” (unsealed) wyaro, romelTa aqtivoba milikiuridan 35 000 kiurimde

icvleba. amaTgan 826 wyaro amoRebulia xmarebidan da inaxeba specialur

centralizebul droebiT SesanaxSi saxelmwifo meTvalyureobis qveS. Ria

wyaroebi, rogorc wesi, mcire aqtivobisaa da samecniero miznebisaTvis

gamoiyeneba.

gamoyenebaSi myof wyaroebTan mopyroba da maTi Senaxva specialur

wesebs eqvemdebareba. gamousadegar wyaroebs eZlevaT radioaqtiuri

narCenis statusi da Senaxuli unda iqnen droebiT SesanaxSi. birTvuli

xleCadi masalebi mkacri kotrolis qveS inaxebian da garemos dacvisa da

bunebrici resursebis saministros saTanado samsaxuri atarebs maT

periodul monitorings. 2007 wels eqspluataciaSi Sevida radioaqtiuri

narCenebis droebiTi Sesanaxi, ramac am etapisaTvis gadaWra Senaxvis

usafrTxoebis problema. Tumca am narCenebis grZelvadiani politika jer

kidev SemuSavebis procesSia.

saqarTveloSi arsebuli erTaderTi samecniero-kvleviTi birTvuli

reaqtori muSaobda gasuli saukunis 60-iani wlebidan 90-ian wlebamde.

amJamad igi daxurulia da atomuri energiis saerTaSoriso saagentos

daxmarebiT praqtikulad dekomisirebulia. aseve daxurulia

radioaqtiuri narCenebis samarxi Tbilisis aRmosavleTiT, romelic

funqcionirebda sabWoTa periodSi. gazomvebis Tanaxmad, radiaciuli

foni normaSia orive obieqtis teritoriaze.

ZiriTadi gamowvevebi

kvlav grZeldeba sabWoTa droidan SemorCenili ukontrolo da

eqspluataciis gareSe darCenili radioaqtiuri wyaroebis moZieba,

gauvnebelyofa da uxifaTo Senaxvis adgilze ganTavseba. maTi

umravlesoba an daikarga, an gadayares yofili sabWoTa armiis

(mogvianebiT rusuli) bazebidan da sxva dawesebulebebidan sabWoTa

kavSiris daSlis wina da uSualod Semdgom periodSi. sul 300-mde aseTi

wyaroa napovni. 2007-2009 wlebis ganmavlobaSi moiZies da gaauvnebelyves

45 ukontrolo radioaqtiuri wyaro. am mimarTulebiT muSaoba

momavalSic gagrZeldeba.

birTvuli da radioaqtiuri nivTierebebis ukanono gamoyenebis an

tranzitis aRkveTisa da prevenciisaTvis 2008-2009 wlebSi dasrulda

saqarTvelos sasazRvro-gamtari punqtebis aRWurva portaluri

deteqtorebiT. dResdReobiT mTeli legaluri tvirTnakadi kontroldeba

birTvuli da radiaciuli usafrTxoebis TvalsazrisiT.

1 daxuruli wyaro – radioaqtiuri wyaro, romelic ganusazRvreli vadiTaa

moTavsebuli kafsulaSi an Sereuli araradioaqtiur masalasTan ise, rom radioaqtiuri

masalis SemTxveviT gaJonva an gamocalkeveba Tavidan iqnes acilebuli.

5


qveyanaSi arsebobs garkveuli SesaZleblobebi radiologiuri

precedentebis (avariebis) SemTxvevaSi swrafi reagirebisTvis. Tumca

aucilebelia maTi Semdgomi gaZliereba;

igegmeba mosaxleobis dasxivebis monitoringis elementebis

SemoReba prioritetuli mimarTulebebiT. am mxriv jerjerobiT mxolod

calkeuli iniciativebi xorcieldeba, ZiriTadad samedicino sferos

farglebSi. axlo momavalSi unda gaZlierdes am prioritetze muSaoba

partnioruli SesaZleblobebis gamoyenebiT.

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