sursaTis uvneblobis saxelmZRvanelo rZis seqtorisTvis

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sursaTis uvneblobis saxelmZRvanelo rZis seqtorisTvis

sursaTis

uvneblobis

saxelmZRvanelo

rZis

seqtorisTvis

pirveli gamocema

Tbilisi 2011

1


Swiss Agency for Development

and Cooperation SDC

MercyCorps

winamdebare saxelmZRvanelo momzadda programa `sabazro aliansi siRaribis

winaaRmdeg (Market Alliances Against Poverty - Alliances) farglebSi, romelsac

Mercy Corps Georgia axorcielebs Sveicariis ganviTarebisa da TanamSromlobis

saagentos (Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation SDC) mxarda­

WeriT.

saxelmZRvanelos SemuSavebaSi monawileobdnen samuSao jgufis Semdegi wevrebi:

sakonsultacio kompania GDCI

ekaterine qimeriZe

Tamar labartyava

Sps `jorjian eko~

Tamaz maxaraSvili

soflis meurneobis ganviTarebis saerTaSoriso asociacia IAAD

amiran koCaliZe

asociacia kavkasiis genetika

giorgi xatiaSvili

samcxe-javaxeTis veterinarTa asociacia

marina CaxnaSvili

zurab SeSaberiZe

rZis produqtebis mwarmoebelTa asociacia `saqrZe~

kaxa koniaSvili

samuSao jgufs konsultaciebs uwevda GRM International-is

warmomadgeneli mati lampi.

© Mercy Corps Georgia, 2011

2


sarCevi

winasityvaoba ..............................................................................................................................................................................5

Tavi I. sursaTis uvneblobis marTvis sistemis zogadi mimoxilva.........................6

sursaTis uvnebloba da sursaTis xarisxi.......................................................................................6

sursaTis uvneblobis marTvis Tanamedrove koncefcia - fermidan

suframde midgoma.......................................................................................................................................................6

pirveladi warmoebis sanimuSo praqtika ............................................................................................9

warmoebis sanimuSo praqtika - higienis zogadi wesebi......................................................9

winaswari aucilebeli programebi ...........................................................................................................9

HACCP-is gegma/sistema........................................................................................................................................13

Tavi II. rZis ferma..................................................................................................................................................................20

saqonlis sadgomi da garemo...........................................................................................................................20

saqonlis janmrTelobis mdgomareoba ...................................................................................................23

wvelis higiena ................................................................................................................................................................24

saqonlis sakvebi da wyali................................................................................................................................25

standartuli samuSao instruqciebi rZis fermisTvis:........................................................26

rZis fermaSi gamosayenebeli Canawerebi: ............................................................................................26

Tavi III. rZis Semgrovebeli centri...................................................................................................................27

rZis Semgrovebeli centris adgili da infrastruqtura ...............................................27

saRi rZis Senaxva.........................................................................................................................................................28

rZis transportireba fermidan Semgrovebel centramde...................................................28

rZis miReba........................................................................................................................................................................29

standartuli samuSao instruqciebi rZis Semgrovebeli

centrisTvis.......................................................................................................................................................................30

rZis Semgrovebel centrSi gamosayenebeli Canawerebi:........................................................30

Tavi IV. rZis gadamamuSavebeli sawarmo ....................................................................................................30

IV.1. higienis zogadi wesebi (warmoebis sanimuSo praqtikis moTxovnebi)...........32

IV.2. winaswari aucilebeli programebi................................................................................................39

damatebiTi formebi gadamamuSavebeli sawarmosTvis: ...........................................................55

IV.3. - HACCP-is gegma.............................................................................................................................................56

produqtis aRwera .....................................................................................................................................................56

araJnis warmoebis blok-sqema.........................................................................................................................57

araJnis HACCP-is gegma.......................................................................................................................................58

Tavi V. - distribucia/realizacia..................................................................................................................65

mza produqciis transportireba ...............................................................................................................65

zogadi moTxovnebi sursaTis sacalo vaWrobis obieqtebisadmi...............................65

daufasoebeli rZis produqtebis realizaciis sanitaruli pirobebi ...............66

3


standartuli samuSao instruqciebi distribucia/realiza ciis

obieqtebisTvis...............................................................................................................................................................67

distribucia/realizaciisas gamosayenebeli Canawerebi:.....................................................67

danarTi 1 - sursaTis uvneblobasTan dakavSirebuli safrTxeebi..........................68

pirveladi warmoeba - veterinaruli RonisZiebebi .................................................................68

msxvilfexa rqosani saqonlis daavadebebi - infeqciuri daavadebebi..................71

intoqsikaciebi................................................................................................................................................................78

gadamamuSavebeli mrewveloba - safrTxeebi....................................................................................80

mikrobiologiuri safrTxeebi......................................................................................................................80

qimiuri safrTxeebi ..................................................................................................................................................89

fizikuri safrTxeebi..............................................................................................................................................89

danarTi 2 - formebi ..........................................................................................................................................................90

danarTi 3 - rZisa da rZis produqtebis fiziko-qimiuri da

mikrobiologiuri analizis meTodebi........................................................................................90

danarTi 4 - laboratoriuli xsnarebis momzadeba, Senaxvis pirobebi

da vadebi, reaqtivebis vargisianobis Semowmeba...........................................................90

danarTi 5 - sarecxi-sadezinfeqcio saSualebebi da maTi aqtiurobis

gansazRvra......................................................................................................................................................................90

danarTi 6 - sursaTis uvneblobasTan dakavSirebuli saqarTvelos

kanonmdebloba rZis seqtorisTvis...................................................................................................91

danarTi 7 - plakatebi .....................................................................................................................................................91

gamoyenebuli literatura..........................................................................................................................................92

4


winasityvaoba

rZesa da rZis produqtebs adamianis yoveldRiur racionSi mniSvnelovani adgili

uWiravs maTi kvebiTi Tvisebebisa da sargeblianobis gamo. amasTanave rZis

produqtebi maRali riskis produqtTa kategorias miekuTvneba, rac am produqtebis

uvneblobis uzrunvelyofisaTvis mwarmoeblebisgan did Zalisxmevas moiTxovs.

nebismieri sursaTis mwarmoebeli, maT Soris rZisa da rZis produqtebis, mcire

Tu msxvili, valdebulia momxmarebels miawodos uvnebeli sasursaTo produqti,

romelic adamianis janmrTelobaze uaryofiTad ar imoqmedebs.

winamdebare saxelmZRvanelo rZis seqtoris mcire da saSualo zomis monawileebisTvis

(SemdgomSi _ `biznesoperatorebi~) Seiqmna. biznesoperatorSi igulisxmeba:

fermeruli meurneoba, rZis Semgrovebeli centri, rZis gadamamuSavebeli sawarmo,

distributori da maRazia. misi mizania xeli Seuwyos sursaTis uvneblobis marTvis

sistemis danergvas am jaWvis TiToeul etapze yvelasTvis gasagebi da saTanado

praqtikuli rCevebis CamoyalibebiT, romelTa ganxorcielebac pirvel etapze

Sesasruleblad martivi da mcire finansebTan dakavSirebuli punqtebiT SeiZleba

daiwyos. aqedan gamomdinare saxelmZRvanelo gamiznulia rZis sasursaTo jaWvSi

monawile yvela zemoT moxseniebuli rgolisaTvis da Semdegi nawilebisgan Sedgeba:

(ix. suraTi 1) 1 .

saxelmZRvanelos

komponentebi

rZis

ferma

rZis

Semgrovebeli

centri

rZis

gadamamuSavebeli

sawarmo

distribucia/

realizacia

Tavi I

sursaTis uvneblobis

marTvis sistemis

zogadi mimoxilva





Tavi II

rZis ferma



Tavi III

rZis Semgrovebeli

centri




Tavi IV

rZis

gadamamuSavebeli

sawarmo





Tavi V

distribucia/

realizacia



suraTi 1. rZis sasursaTo jaWvis monawileebi da saxelmZRvanelos komponentebi

1

R - aRniSnavs saxelmZRvanelos im nawils, romelic pirdapir exeba konkretul rgols.

P- aRniSnavs im nawils, romlis Sesaxeb informacias unda flobdes sasursaTo jaWvis Sesabamisi rgoli.

5


sursaTis uvneblobis marTvis sistemis zogadi mimoxilva

Tavi I. sursaTis uvneblobis marTvis sistemis

zogadi mimoxilva

sursaTis uvnebloba da sursaTis xarisxi

sursaTis uvnebloba koncefciaa, romlis mixedviTac konkretuli sasursaTo

produqti misi miznobrivad momzadebis an/da moxmarebis SemTxvevaSi zians ar miayenebs

momxmarebels 1 . `uvnebeli sursaTi~ niSnavs, rom masSi potenciurad arsebuli

safrTxeebi im mecnierulad dasabuTebul zRvrul odenobebSia, rac uaryofiTad

ar imoqmedebs adamianis janmrTelobasa Tu mis sicocxleze. sursaTis xarisxi ki

ukve uvnebeli sursaTis im damatebiTi maxasiaTeblebis erTobliobaa, rac saboloo

momxmareblis ekonomikur interesebTan aris dakavSirebuli 2 . sursaTis xarisxobriv

parametrebSi produqtis iseTi maxasiaTeblebi igulisxmeba, rogorebicaa magali­

Tad, gemo, suni, konsistencia, SefuTvis wona, dizaini, sxv.

amrigad, xarisxi subieqturi mcnebaa, maSin roca uvnebloba obieqturi da mecnierul

safuZvlebze damyarebuli maxasiaTebelia. sxvadasxva momxmarebels SeiZleba

gansxvavebuli xarisxobrivi moTxovna gaaCndes produqtis erTidaimave saxeobis

mimarT, rac mis janmrTelobasa da sicocxles safrTxes ar Seuqmnis. uvneblobis

parametrebis darRveva ki uaryofiTad imoqmedebs adamianze da aqedan gamomdinare

is yvela SemTxvevaSi pirvel rigSi unda iyos uzrunvelyofili.

am saxelmZRvaneloSi aqcenti ZiriTadad rZis produqtebis uvneblobasTan dakav­

Sirebul sakiTxebze keTdeba, Tumca zogierT SemTxvevaSi xarisxobrivi parametrebic

aris moxseniebuli (mag., rZis miRebisas misi xarisxobrivi maCveneblebis Semowmeba),

vinaidan praqtikaSi xSirad warmoebuli produqtis uvneblobisa da xarisxis marTva

erToblivad xorcieldeba.

sursaTis uvneblobis marTvis Tanamedrove koncefcia - fermidan

suframde midgoma

sursaTis uvneblobis uzrunvelyofisaTvis gasuli saukunis 60-ian wlebSi aSS-

Si SemuSavda da SemdgomSi farTo saerTaSoriso aRiareba hpova riskebis Sefasebaze

damyarebulma e.w. HACCP 3 -is koncefciam, romelic dRes uvnebeli sasursaTo

produqtis warmoebis marTvis xerxs warmoadgens. saboloo produqtis inspeqtirebaze

dafuZnebuli kontrolis maSindeli sistema procesis marTvasa da problemebis

prevenciaze orientirebulma dRevandelma sistemam Caanacvla. misi mTavari upiratesoba

imaSi gamoixateba, rom procesis TiToeuli etapis kontroli SesaZleblobas

iZleva moxdes Seusabamo SemTxvevebis Tavidan acileba, aRmofxvra an maTi minimumamde

dayvana, rac SeiZleba adreul etapze, rac saboloo jamSi wundebuli an/

da potenciurad mavne produqciis Semcirebas da Sesabamisad sawarmoo xarjebis

dazogvas iwvevs.

1 saerTaSoriso standarti ISO 22000:2005

2 saqarTvelos kanoni sursaTis uvneblobis da xarisxis Sesaxeb

3 safrTxis analizisa da kritikuli sakontrolo wertilebis gegma/sistema

6


sursaTis uvneblobis marTvis sistemis zogadi mimoxilva

timoTi stiuartis foto

helen bradburis foto

7


sursaTis uvneblobis marTvis sistemis zogadi mimoxilva

sasursaTo jaWvis nebismieri monawile _ fermeri, Semgrovebeli centri, gadamamuSavebeli,

distributori Tu sacalo qselis obieqti srulyofilad unda flobdes

informacias gamoyenebuli nedleulis, warmoebuli produqtis, ganxorcielebuli

sawarmoo procesebis Taobaze, raTa zustad daadginos Tu ra etapze SeiZleba

sursaTis uvneblobasTan dakavSirebuli problema warmoiSvas da ra saxis SeiZleba

iyos igi. aqedan gamomdinare, Tu cnobili iqneba `ra~ problema SeiZleba warmoiSvas

da `sad~, SeiZleba misi Tavidan acilebisTvis saWiro zomebic daisaxos. zustad es

midgoma warmoadgens sursaTis uvneblobis marTvis Tanamedrove koncefciis safuZvels.

aseT SemTxvevaSi saboloo produqtis laboratoriuli testireba kontrolis

TvalsazrisiT azrs kargavs da mxolod danergili sistemis efeqturad funqcionirebis

gadamowmebis xerxs warmoadgens.

sursaTis uvneblobis marTvis sistemis danergviT biznesoperatori:

1. uzrunvelyofs uvnebeli sursaTis warmoebas;

2. dokumenturad adasturebs, rom momxmareblisTvis miwodebuli produqti

uvnebelia.

aRniSnuli sistema nedleulTan, produqtTan, momsaxure personalTan da sawarmoo

procesebTan dakavSirebuli im faqtorebis kontrols gulisxmobs, romlebmac

SeiZleba safrTxis qveS daayenon saboloo produqtis uvnebloba. sursaTTan

dakavSirebiT ki sami tipis safrTxes ganixilaven: biologiurs, qimiurs da fizikurs.

vinaidan isini sasursaTo jaWvis nebismier etapze SeiZleba warmoiSvas da

Sesabamisad gavlena iqonios saboloo produqtis uvneblobaze, amitom sursaTis

uvneblobisadmi integrirebuli midgoma mniSvnelovania da mas `fermidan suframde~

midgomas uwodeben.

sursaTis uvneblobis marTvis sistema ramdenime safexurisgan Sedgeba, rogorc

suraT 2-zea naCvenebi:

1. pirveladi warmoebis sanimuSo praqtika;

2. warmoebis sanimuSo praqtika _ higienis zogadi wesebi;

3. winaswari aucilebeli programebi;

4. HACCP – safrTxis analizisa da kritikuli sakontrolo wertilebis gegma/

sistema.

HACCP

winaswari

aucilebeli

programebi

warmoebis sanimuSo

praqtika_higienis

zogadi wesebi

pirveladi warmoebis sanimuSo

praqtika

suraTi 2. sursaTis uvneblobis

marTvis sistema

8


sursaTis uvneblobis marTvis sistemis zogadi mimoxilva

pirveladi warmoebis sanimuSo praqtika

efeqturi da srulyofili uvneblobis sistemis danergvis winapirobas, pirvel

rigSi, fermeruli meurneobis doneze pirveladi warmoebis sanimuSo praqtikis

moTxovnebis dakmayofileba warmoadgens, rom nedli sasoflo-sameurneo produqcia

uvneblobis parametrebs akmayofilebdes da gadamamuSavebeli sawarmosTvis SemdgomSi

saimedo nedleuls warmoadgendes. rZis seqtorTan dakavSirebuli sakiTxebi

fermeruli meurneobisa da rZis Semgrovebeli centris doneze ganxilulia II da III

TavebSi.

warmoebis sanimuSo praqtika _ higienis zogadi wesebi

gadamamuSavebeli sawarmos doneze aucilebelia sawarmos infrastruqturis

swori dagegmareba, misi mowesrigeba, saamqroebisa da saTavsebis ganlageba ise, rom

isini jvaredini dabinZurebis safrTxes saboloo produqtisTvis ar warmoadgendes.

detaluri rekomendaciebi am sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT mocemulia IV.1 TavSi.

winaswari aucilebeli programebi

winaswari aucilebeli programebi igive standartuli

samuSao instruqciebia, romelTa SemuSaveba

xdeba konkretuli warmoebisTvis misi

specifikisa da masSi arsebuli situaciis gaTvaliswinebiT.

am instruqciebSi detalurad aris

gawerili Tu vin, ras, rogor da rodis akeTebs.

dokumentirebuli intruqciebis aucilebloba

Semdegi faqtorebiTaa ganpirobebuli:

•y konkretuli qmedebis Sesrulebis xarisxi

yovelTvis erTidaigivea miuxedavad imisa,

Tu vin asrulebs am qmedebas;

•y winaswar aris gansazRvruli TiToeuli

gansaxorcielebeli operaciis etapi da

amavdroulad aris dagegmili is qmedebebi, romlebic unda Sesruldes procesebidan

gadaxris SemTxvevaSi;

•y mkafiod aris gawerili TiToeuli qmedebis SesrulebasTan da kontrolTan

dakavSirebuli pasuxismgeblobebi da Sesrulebis vadebi.

am instruqciebSi aRwerili qmedebebis mizania infrastruqturis mowesrigebis

Semdeg (warmoebis sanimuSo praqtikis moTxovnebis dakmayofilebis Semdeg) sanitaruli

garemos SenarCuneba, rom produqtis dabinZurebis albaToba minimumamde

iyos dayvanili.

zogadad, yvela SemuSavebuli winaswari aucilebeli programa sawarmoSi unda

arsebobdes dokumentirebuli saxiT da xelmisawvdomi iyos yvela im TanamSromlisTvis,

romelic mis ganxorcielebaSi monawileobs. winaswari aucilebeli programa

9


sursaTis uvneblobis marTvis sistemis zogadi mimoxilva

piqtogramebis (suraTebis) saxiTac SeiZleba iyos warmodgenili (ix. suraTi 3).

suraTi 3.

qvemoT CamoTvlilia is ZiriTadi winaswari aucilebeli programebi, romlebic,

rogorc wesi, kompaniaSi HACCP­is principebze damyarebuli sursaTis uvneblobis

sistemis aucilebel safuZvels warmoadgens. ZiriTadi winaswari aucilebeli programebi

Semdeg sakiTxebs moicavs, Tumca konkretuli sawarmodan gamomdinare, Sesa­

Zlebelia mizanSewonili iyos sxva winaswari aucilebeli programebis SemuSavebac.

P sawarmoo Senoba­nagebobebis perioduli daTvaliereba da Semowmeba. infrastruqturis

saTanado mdgomareobaSi SenarCunebis mizniT, dagegmili intervalebiT,

sawarmoo Senoba­nagebobebisa da mimdebare teritoriis daTvaliereba,

raTa moxdes SesaZlo Seusabamobebis dafiqsireba da saWiro

makoreqtirebeli qmedebebis dagegmva­ganxorcieleba.

P TanamSromlebis higienis da qcevis wesebi. sawarmoo procesSi dakavebuli personali

produqtis dabinZurebis erT­erT potenciur wyaros warmoadgens da

aqedan gamomdinare, mniSvnelovania, rom sawarmoSi higienasTan dakavSirebuli

wesebi SemuSavdes da personali iseve rogorc stumrebi am wesebs icavdnen.

P dasufTaveba da recxva/dezinfeqcia. dokumentirebuli saxiT SemuSavebul instruqciaSi

miTiTebuli unda iyos saamqroebis, saTavsebis, manqana­danadgarebis,

samuSao inventaris da a.S. recxva/dezinficirebis ganrigi da am qmedebebis

Sesrulebis detaluri etapebi.

P nedleulis kontroli. uvnebeli produqciis gamoSveba mniSvnelovnad aris

dakavSirebuli Sesabamisi uvneblobis parametrebis mqone nedleulTan, SesafuT

masalasTan da sxva damxmare saSualebebTan. amitom aRniSnuli procedura

10


sursaTis uvneblobis marTvis sistemis zogadi mimoxilva

unda moicavdes am masalebis maxasiaTeblebis werilobiT aRweras, momwodeblebis

SerCevisa da damtkicebis process, nedleulis periodul gadamowmebas

da misi miReba/uaryofis kriteriumebs.

P garemos monitoringi. sawarmoSi arsebuli sanitaruli mdgomareobis gadamowmebis

TvalsazrisiT mniSvnelovania garemos monitoringTan dakavSirebuli

qmedebebis dagegmva da ganxorcieleba, rac moicavs, magaliTad, produqtTan

SexebaSi myofi iseve rogorc SexebaSi armyofi zedapirebidan Camonarecxis

aRebas, haeris sisufTavis kontrols da sxva, vinaidan sursaTis dabinZureba

arahigienurma garemo pirobebmac SeiZleba moaxdinos.

P qimiuri nivTierebebis kontroli. sawarmoo procesSi sxvadasxva saxis qimiuri

nivTierebebis gamoyenebis gamo (teqnologiuri procesis, manqana­danadgarebis,

sanhigienuri saSualebebis) produqtis dabinZurebis Tavidan acilebis mizniT

aucilebelia arsebobdes wesebi qimiuri nivTierebebis SenaxvasTan da gamoyenebasTan

dakavSirebiT.

P alergenebis kontroli. zogierT momxmarebels konkretul produqtze alergiuli

reaqcia aqvs. aqedan gamomdinare qimiuri nivTierebebis kontrolis

msgavsad aucilebelia alergenis Semcveli produqtebis (rogorebicaa mag.,

rZis produqtebi, Txili, miwis Txili, kvercxi, Tevzi, soio, moluskebi da

a.S.) gancalkevebiT Senaxva da maTi kontroli gamoyenebisas, rom jvaredini

dabinZurebis Sedegad momxmarebels ziani ar miadges. alergenebiT produqtis

jvaredini dabinZurebis minimumamde Semcireba uzrunvelyofili unda iyos

sawarmoo procesebis dagegmarebis, xelmeored gadamuSavebis, recxva­dezinficirebis

qmedebebisas mkacri sakontrolo zomebis dawesebiT. produqtis

SemadgenlobaSi alergenis arsebobis SemTxvevaSi mwarmoebeli valdebulia

produqtis etiketze Sesabamisi miTiTeba gaakeTos, garda im SemTxvevebisa,

roca TviTon produqtis dasaxeleba alergenze migviTiTebs (mag., araJani,

xaWo _ cnobilia, rom rZisgan mzaddeba da Tan SemadgenlobaSi Sesabamisi

ingredientic miTiTebulia).

P mavneblebis kontroli. mavneblebis kontrolis efeqturi sistemis farglebSi

sawarmoo saamqroebsa da saTavsebSi mavneblebis SemoRwevis SesaZlebloba

maqsimalurad unda aRikveTos, vinaidan is produqtis jvaredini dabinZurebis

safuZveli SeiZleba gaxdes. aseve unda iyos gaTvaliswinebuli mavneblebTan

brZolis sxvadasxva meTodebis gamoyeneba (magaliTebi warmodgenilia me­4

suraTze).

suraTi 4. mavneblebTan brZolis saSualebebi

11


sursaTis uvneblobis marTvis sistemis zogadi mimoxilva

33

manqana-danadgarebis dizaini, ganlageba da momsaxureba. sawarmoo procesSi

gamoyenebuli danadgarebis dizaini unda Seesabamebodes im sanitarul moTxovnebs,

romlebic produqtis uvnebel pirobebSi warmoebas uzrunvelyofs.

amasTan dakavSirebiT gasaTvaliswinebelia masala, romlisganac damzadebulia

danadgari, teqnikuri da sanitaruli momsaxurebis rekomendebuli ganrigebi

da sxva. danadgarebis teqnikuri momsaxureba aucilebelia xorcieldebodes

dagegmilad da minimumamde iyos dayvanili gauTvaliswinebeli, avariuli

teqnikuri momsaxurebis qmedebebi.

33

gasazomi saSualebebis dakalibreba, damowmeba da Sedareba. sawarmoo proces­

Si gamoyenebuli gasazomi saSualebebis sizustis uzrunvelyofa mniSvnelovan

rols asrulebs uvneblobis parametrebTan produqtis Sesabamisobis miRwevaSi.

aqedan gamomdinare, aucilebelia moxdes maTi dakalibreba, damowmeba

an Sedareba msgavs xelsawyosTan.

33

minis kontroli. warmoebaSi minimumamde unda iyos dayvanili minis sagnebis

gamoyeneba, vinaidan gatexvis SemTxvevaSi isini produqtisTvis fizikur safrTxes

warmoadgens (ix. Tavi IV.1 _ higienis zogadi wesebi (warmoebis sanimuSo

praqtikis moTxovnebi)). Tu minis masalisgan damzadebuli sagnebis gamoyeneba

aucilebelia unda iqnes SemuSavebuli Sesabamisi damcavi meqanizmebi.

33

dasawyobeba. warmoebis dasawyobebis

instruqcia unda

moicavdes wesebs rogorc

nedleulis, aseve mza

produqtis da sxva damxmare

masalebis Senaxvis Sesaxeb,

raTa Tavidan iqnes acilebuli

jvaredini dabinZureba

maTi araswori Senaxvis

SemTxvevaSi an uvneblobis

parametrebis darRveva Seusabamo

temperaturuli reJimis

pirobebSi. dasawyobebis

sanimuSo praqtikis magaliTi

suraTi 5. dasawyobebis sanimuSo praqtika

ixileT me-5 suraTze.

33

momxmarebelTa pretenziebis marTva. kompaniaSi unda arsebobdes momxmareblisgan

Semosuli nebismieri saxis informaciis (saCivari, SekiTxva, rCeva

da a.S.) ganxilvis da saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi gaTvaliswinebis meqanizmi, rac

problemebze swraf reagirebas da maT droul aRmofxvras Seuwyobs xels.

33

TanamSromlebis treningi. danergili sistemis efeqturad ganxorcielebis erT-er­

Ti winapiroba personalis adekvaturi swavlebaa. TiToeul TanamSromels kargad

unda esmodes instruqciebis zedmiwevniT ganxorcielebis mniSvneloba sursaTis

uvneblobis uzrunvelyofis TvalsazrisiT. sawarmoSi SemuSavebuli unda iyos

TanamSromlebis treningis ganrigi, mag., samuSaoze ayvanisas, kvartalSi erTxel,

a.S.

12


sursaTis uvneblobis marTvis sistemis zogadi mimoxilva

33

mikvlevadoba da produqtis bazridan gamowveva. mikvlevadoba _ es aris SesaZlebloba

sawarmom miakvlios Tu romeli momwodeblisgan miRebuli romeli

partiis nedleuli iqna gamoyenebuli konkretuli partiis mza produqciis

sawarmoeblad da romel momxmarebels miawoda mza produqciis aRniSnuli

partia. ufro martivad rom vTqvaT, es aris informaciis mikvleva erTi

etapiT win da erTi etapiT ukan.

efeqturi mikvlevadobis sistemis arseboba sursaTis uvneblobis marTvis

sistemis aucilebeli komponentia, rom saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi bazridan

produqtis gamowveva uzrunvelyofili iyos. rac ufro efeqturia mikvlevadobis

sistema, miT ufro moklevadiani da naklebad danaxarjiania bazridan

produqtis gamowvevis procesi.

mikvlevadobis sistemis Seqmna sawarmoo procesSi warmoebuli CanawerebiT

xdeba da am sistemis efeqturobis gadamowmebisTvis biznesoperatorma minimum weliwadSi

erTxel bazridan produqtis gamowvevis imitacia unda ganaxorcielos.

standartuli samuSao instruqciis nimuSebi zogierTi winaswari aucilebeli

programisTvis mocemulia TavSi IV.2.

HACCP-is gegma/sistema 1

HACCP-is gegma 7 principisgan Sedgeba (suraTi 6)

da gulisxmobs yvela potenciuri safrTxis winaswar

da dgenas da maTi prevenciis, aRmofxvris an misaReb

donemde dayvanisTvis saWiro qmedebebis dagegmvas.

nebismier biznesoperato rs kargad unda hqondes

ga Tvicnobierebuli, pirvel ri g Si, warmoebis sanimuSo

praqtikis (anu higienis zogadi wesebis) moTxovnebis

dakmayofilebis da winaswari aucilebeli programebis

fu n q cionirebis mniSvneloba imisaTvis, rom kompaniaSi

HACCP-is principebze damyarebuli sursaTis

uvneblobis marTvis efeqturi sistema dainergos.

HACCP-is7principi

I. safrTxis analizis Catareba

II. kritikuli sakontrolo

wertilebis dadgena

III. kritikuli zRvrebis daweseba

IV. monitoringis procedurebis

daweseba

V. makoreqtirebeli qmedebebis

daweseba

VI. gadamowmebis qmedebebis daweseba

HACCP-is gegmis SemuSavebamde

gansaxorcielebeli qmedebebi

VII. Canawerebis warmoebis

procedurebis daweseba

suraTi 6.

sawarmos infrastruqturis mowesrigebis, standartuli samuSao instruqciebis

SemuSavebisa da ganxorcielebis Semdeg, SesaZlebelia uSualod HACCP-is gegmebze

muSaobis dawyeba. Tumca gegmebis SemuSavebas win unda uswrebdes ramdenime aucilebeli

qmedeba, rogorebicaa:

1. HACCP-is jgufis Seqmna _ HACCP-is gegmebis SemuSavebas sawarmos personalisgan

Seqmnili jgufi axorcielebs. jgufis wevrebi, rogorc wesi, sxvadasxva

mimarTulebis warmomadgenlebi arian, rom konkretul produqtTan da

1 HACCP-is gegma aris dokumenti, romelic SemuSavebulia HACCP-is 7 principis gaTvaliswinebiT, xolo

HACCP-is sistema aris am gegmis mixedviT gan xorcielebuli qmedebebis erToblioba.

13


etapze, konkretuli produqtidan da procesidan gamomdinare, yvela im potencisursaTis

uvneblobis marTvis sistemis zogadi mimoxilva

procesebTan dakavSirebiT teqnikuri codnisa da gamocdilebis gaziareba da

HACCP-is gegmebSi maTi gaTvaliswineba SeZlon. es SeiZleba iyos: teqnologi,

laboratoriis TanamSromeli, teqnikuri personali, saamqros ufrosi, sawyobis

gamge da a.S. jgufis wevrebis raodenobasTan dakavSirebiT SezRudvebi

ar arsebobs. mcire sawarmoebSi am jgufSi SeiZleba yvela TanamSromelic ki

iyos CarTuli, Tu maT garkveuli wvlilis Setana HACCP-is gegmis SedgenaSi

SeuZliaT.

2. sursaTisa da misi distribuciis meTodebis gansazRvra _ gulisxmobs HACCPis

jgufis mier konkretuli produqtis/produqtebis dadgenas, romlebzec

HACCP-is gegma unda Seiqmnas da maT aRweras, rac moicavs: produqtis Semadgenlobas,

mis mikrobiologiur, qimiur, fizikur parametrebs, gadamuSavebis

etapebs, gamoyenebul ingredientebs, SesafuT masalas, vargisianobis vadas,

gamoyenebis instruqcias, distribuciisas gasaTvaliswinebel faqtorebs satransporto

saSualebebTan dakavSirebiT, da a.S. (ix. Tavi IV.3 _ produqtis

aRwera).

3. miznobrivi gamoyenebisa da momxmareblebis gansazRvra _ momxmarebelTa im

kategoriebis dadgena, romlebic konkretul produqts moixmaren, raTa

HACCP-is gegmaSi am faqtoris asaxva efeqturad moxdes (mag., Tu produqts

imunitetdaqveiTebuli adamianebi, Cvili bavSvebi, moxucebi, diabetiT daavadebulebi

da a.S. moixmaren). (ix. Tavi IV.3 _ produqtis aRwera).

4. blok-sqemis SemuSaveba _ es procesi sqemis saxiT teqnologiuri procesis

etapebis Tanmimdevreul warmodgenas iTvaliswinebs, sadac aseve miTiTebuli

iqneba Tu romel etapze xdeba nedleulis miReba, misi damateba, romel etapze

warmoiSveba narCeni an gverdiTi produqti da a.S. (ix. Tavi IV.3 _ araJnis

warmoebis blok-sqema). blok-sqemas aseve SesaZlebelia Tan erTvodes procesis

detaluri aRwera.

5. blok-sqemis gadamowmeba _ blok-sqemis SemuSavebis Sem deg xdeba misi gadamowmeba

adgilze, raTa dadgindes Tu ramdenad Tanxvedria sqemaze gamosaxuli

etapebi realurad mimdinare procesebTan. Seusabamobis SemTxvevaSi bloksqemebi

gadaixedeba, Caswordeba da damtkicdeba. gadamowmebuli blok-sqemis

mixedviT ki HACCP-is jgufi SeZlebs HACCP-is gegmebis SemuSavebas.

HACCP–is gegma

rogorc zemoT iyo aRniSnuli HACCP-is gegma 7 principis gaTvaliswinebiT

xorcieldeba:

I principi

safrTxis analizis ganxorcieleba

safrTxis anali zi aris HACCP-is jgu fis mier produqtis warmoebis TiToeul

14


sursaTis uvneblobis marTvis sistemis zogadi mimoxilva

uri biologiuri, qimiuri da fizikuri safrTxis dadgenisa da Sefasebis procesi,

romelic mniSvnelovan risks warmoadgens momxmareblis janmrTelobisTvis.

safrTxis analizi ori etapisgan Sedgeba (suraTi 7):

(1) safrTxis dadgena. SemuSavebuli

blok-sqemebis

mixedviT warmoebuli

produqtis

specifikis,

gamoyenebuli nedleulisa

da SesafuTi masalis,

teqnologiuri procesebis,

arsebuli manqana-danadgarebis,

dasawyobebis

pirobebisa da yvela sxva

dakavSirebuli faqtorebis

gaTvaliswinebiT xorcieldeba

yvela potenciuri

safrTxis dadgena.

1. safrTxeebis

dadgena

safrTxis analizis

Catareba

safrTxiT gamowveuli

zegavlenis simwvavis

Sefaseba

(2) safrTxis Sefaseba. TiToeuli dadgenili safrTxis Sefaseba misi warmoSobis

albaTobisa da Sedegebis simwvavis gaTvaliswinebiT. HACCP-is gegmaSi unda iyos

moxseniebuli mxolod is safrTxeebi, romlebic warmoSobis maRali albaTobiTa

da gamowveuli Sedegebis simwvaviT xasiaTdebian. am etapze gasaTvaliswinebelia

is standartuli samuSao instruqciebi, romlebic danergilia sawarmoSi uvnebeli

produqtis warmoebisTvis aucilebeli sawarmoo pirobebis Sesaqmnelad.

safrTxis analizis ganxorcielebisas HACCP-is jgufi iyenebs Tanamedrove mecnierul

literaturas. srulyofili safrTxis analizis Catareba efeqturi HACCPis

sistemis SemuSavebis aucilebel pirobas warmoadgens.

2. safrTxeebis

Sefaseba

HACCP-is gegmaSi

safrTxis CarTvis

aucileblobis dadgena

suraTi 7. safrTxis analizi

safrTxis warmoSobis

albaTobis gansazRvra

II principi

kritikuli sakontrolo wertilebis dadgena

Catarebuli safrTxis analizis safuZvelze HACCP-is jgufi adgens kritikul

sakontrolo wertilebs. kritikuli sakontrolo wertili sawarmoo procesis is

etapia, romelzec sursaTis uvneblobasTan dakavSirebuli safrTxis Tavidan acilebis,

aRmofxvris an dasaSveb donemde Semcirebis SesaZlebloba arsebobs. sawarmoo

procesSi SeiZleba iyos ramdenime etapi, romelzec safrTxeebis kontrolis

ararseboba an darRveva potenciurad mavne produqtis warmoebas gamoiwvevs. zustad

aseT etaps ewodeba kritikuli sakontrolo wertili, romelic HACCP-is gegmaSi

unda iyos gaTvaliswinebuli.

kritikuli sakontrolo wertilis dadgena unda moxdes safrTxis analizis

Sedegebze dayrdnobiT da am miznisTvis rekomendebulia gadawyvetilebis xis meTodis

gamoyeneba (suraTi 8), romelic exmareba HACCP-is jgufs argumentirebulad

daadginos sawarmoo procesis Tu romeli etapi warmoadgens kritikul sakontrolo

wertils.

15


sursaTis uvneblobis marTvis sistemis zogadi mimoxilva

S1. arsebobs Tu ara am etapze warmoSobis didi albaTobisa da mniSvnelovani

simwvavis Sedegebis mqone safrTxe

ar aris kritikuli

diax

ara

sakontrolo wertili

S2. arsebobs Tu ara safrTxis sakontrolo zoma am etapze

etapis procesis an

diax

ara

produqtis modificireba

am etapze kontroli

mniSvnelovania Tu ara sursaTis

uvneblobis TvalsazrisiT

diax

ara

ar aris kritikuli

sakontrolo wertili

S3. aucilebelia Tu ara am etapze kontrolis daweseba safrTxis riskis Tavidan

acilebis, aRmofxvris an Semcirebis mizniT

diax

ar aris kritikuli

ara

dasasruli

sakontrolo wertili

kritikuli sakontrolo

wertili

dasasruli

suraTi 8. gadawyvetilebis xe

III principi

kritikuli zRvrebis daweseba

TiToeuli kritikuli sakontrolo wertilisTvis aucilebelia kritikuli

zRvris daweseba, rac aris biologiuri, qimiuri an fizikuri parametris mecnierulad

dasabuTebuli is maqsimaluri an/da minimaluri done, romlis kontroli unda

moxdes kritikuli sakontrolo wertilis etapze dadgenili safrTxis Tavidan

acilebis, aRmofxvris an misaReb donemde Semcirebis mizniT. kritikuli zRvris

erT­erTi saukeTeso magaliTia pasterizaciis temperaturisa da xangrZlivobis kombinacia.

sxvagvarad rom vTqvaT kritikuli zRvari mijnavs uvnebel produqts potenciurad

mavne produtisgan. misi darRvevis SemTxvevaSi produqti mavned iTvleba da

saTanado makoreqtirebeli qmedebebis gatareba aucilebelia (ix. principi V).

suraTi 9. gansxvaveba saoperacio zRvarsa da kritikul zRvars Soris

16


sursaTis uvneblobis marTvis sistemis zogadi mimoxilva

bevr kompaniaSi teqnologiuri procesi bevrad ufro mkacria (mag., 82°C _ ix. suraTi

9) vidre mecnierulad uvneblobisTvis dasabuTebuli kritikuli zRvari (mag.,

72°C _ ix. suraTi 9), rac erTis mxriv produqtis xarisxis uzrunvelyofis kuTxiT

keTdeba, xolo meores mxriv, xels uwyobs kritikuli zRvridan gadaxramde procesis

kontrols qveS dabrunebas, Tu es SesaZlebelia. sursaTis uvneblobis marTvis

sistemis farglebSi aqcenti mxolod kritikuli zRvridan gadaxris SemTxvevebze

keTdeba.

IV principi

monitoringis procedurebis daweseba

monitoringis qmedebebi sawarmoo procesis mimdinareobis procesSi vizualuri

dakvirvebis an/da gazomviTi qmedebebis dagegmili Tanmimdevrobaa, romelTa mizania

dadastureba imisa, rom dadgenili kritikuli sakontrolo wertilebi kontrols

eqvemdebareba. monitoringis qmedebebis Sedegebi dokumentirebuli unda iyos Sesabamis

CanawerebSi ganxorcielebuli qmedebebis dadasturebis an/da, aucileblobis

SemTxvevaSi, Sesabamisi makoreqtirebeli qmedebebis ganxorcielebis mizniT.

vinaidan kritikuli zRvrebidan gadaxrisas warmoebuli sursaTi mavned miiCneva,

monitoringis qmedebebis sworad dawesebas, maTi periodulobis optimalurad

dagegmvas da qmedebebis ganxorcielebaze pasuxismgeblobebis ganawilebas didi mniSvneloba

eniWeba. pasuxismgebel personals kargad unda esmodes aRniSnuli qmedebebis

ganxorcielebis detalebi, iseve rogorc monitoringis efeqturad Sesrulebis

da Canawerebis zustad warmoebis mniSvneloba.

arsebobs monitoringis mudmivi da wyvetili formebi: monitoringi mudmivia Tu

monitoringis qmedebis avtomatur reJimSi ganxorcielebis saSualebas danadgari

iZleva (mag., firfitovani pasterizatori pasterizaciis procesis monitorings avtomatur

uwyvet reJimSi axorcielebs da amis dasturad procesis mimdinareobis

amsaxveli grafiki ibeWdeba). im SemTxvevaSi, Tu monitoringis qmedebas TanamSromeli

axorcielebs (mag., rezervuarul pasterizatorSi pasterizaciis temperaturas TanamSromeli

akontrolebs TermometriT), saxeze gvaqvs monitoringis wyvetili forma,

romlis drosac aucilebelia qmedebebis periodulobis ise dagegmva, rom uzrunvelyofili

iyos kritikuli sakontrolo wertilebis efeqturi da saimedo kontroli.

monitoringis qmedebebis magaliTebia: vizualuri dakvirveba, sxvadasxva parametrebis

gazomva/kontroli (mag., temperatura, drois xangrZlivoba, pH, tenianoba,

da a.S.).

V principi

makoreqtirebeli qmedebebis daweseba

miuxedavad imisa, rom HACCP-is koncefcia prevenciazea mimarTuli, realur cxovrebaSi

SesaZlebelia sxvadasxva mizezebis gamo dagegmili procesebidan gadaxra

moxdes. gaTvaliswinebulia ra aseTi SemTxvevebis albaToba, HACCP-is erT-erT

17


sursaTis uvneblobis marTvis sistemis zogadi mimoxilva

princips makoreqtirebeli qmedebebis daweseba warmoadgens.

makoreqtirebeli qmedeba aris: (1) uSualod gadaxris momentSi gansaxorcielebeli

qmedeba, rom drois mcire monakveTSi moxdes problemis gamosworeba da Seusabamo

produqtma sawarmoo teritoria ar datovos; (2) gamomwvevi mizezis dadgenis

Sedegad dagegmili iseTi RonisZieba, romelic aRniSnuli problemis xelmeored

gameorebis SesaZleblobas gamoricxavs.

TiToeuli kritikuli sakontrolo wertilisTvis winaswar unda iyos dadgenili

SesaZlo makoreqtirebeli qmedebebi da gansazRvruli saTanado ufleba-movaleobebi.

makoreqtirebeli qmedebebi Semdeg komponentebs unda moicavdes:

•y Seusabamobis gamomwvevi mizezis dadgenas da aRmofxvras;

•y Seusabamo produqtis marTvas;

•y ganxorcielebuli makoreqtirebeli qmedebebis dokumentirebas Sesabamis CanawerebSi.

VI principi

gadamowmebis qmedebebis daweseba

gadamowmeba yvela is qmedebaa (garda monitoringis qmedebebisa), romelTa Sedegad

ganxorcielebuli HACCP-is sistemis qmediTunarianoba dasturdeba. gadamowmebis

Sedegad fasdeba, kompaniis HACCP-is sistema funqcionirebs Tu ara SemuSavebuli

HACCP-is gegmebis mixedviT.

gadamowmebis mniSvnelovani aspeqtia HACCP-is sistemis pirveladi validacia 1

misi SemuSavebisTanave, raTa dadgindes rom: 1) SemuSavebuli gegmebi teqnikurad

da mecnierulad qmediTunariania; 2) sursaTis uvneblobasTan dakavSirebuli yvela

SesaZlo safrTxe gegmaSi gaTvaliswinebulia; 3) im SemTxvevaSi Tu SemuSavebuli

HACCP-is gegmebi sworad aris ganxorcielebuli, yvela gansazRvruli safrTxe

kontrols eqvemdebareba. sistemis SemuSavebis procesSi validaciisTvis gamoyenebuli

masala kompaniaSi xelmisawvdomi unda iyos.

sistema ganaxlebas, gadamowmebas da periodul validacias eqvemdebareba: 1) minimum

weliwadSi erTxel da 2) sawarmoo procesSi ganxorcielebuli nebismieri cvlilebisas,

rac SeiZleba dakavSirebuli iyos teqnologiur procesTan, SesafuT

masalasTan, nedleulTan, manqana-danadgarebis cvlilebasTan da sxva.

gadamowmeba da validacia SeiZleba ganxorcieldes kompaniis personalis, mesame

mxaris eqspertebis da maregulirebeli organoebis mier. mniSvnelovania, rom gadamowmebasa/validaciaze

pasuxismgebel pirebs gaaCndeT aRniSnuli qmedebis kvalificiurad

SesrulebisaTvis saTanado teqnikuri kvalifikacia.

VII principi

Canawerebis warmoebis procedurebis daweseba

Canawerebis warmoeba uvneblobis marTvis sistemis ganuyofel nawils warmoadgens,

vinaidan mxolod maTi saSualebiT SeiZleba konkretuli ganxorcielebuli

qmedebis aRdgena da dadastureba, maT Soris auditisas Tu inspeqtirebisas. aseve

18

1 sistemis qmediTunarianobis mecnieruli dasabuTeba


sursaTis uvneblobis marTvis sistemis zogadi mimoxilva

saSualebas aZlevs kompanias moaxdinos tendenciebis analizi da saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi

dagegmos saTanado makoreqtirebeli qmedebebi.

uSualod HACCP-is sistemis farglebSi arsebuli dokumentacia unda moicavdes

Semdeg dokumentebs/Canawerebs:

1. HACCP-is jgufis Semadgenloba da Sesabamisi ufleba-movaleobebis ganawileba;

2.

3.

4.

marebelTa kategoriebi;

teqnologiuri procesebis amsaxveli gadamowmebuli blok-sqemebi;

safrTxis analizis dokumenti, rac agreTve unda moicavdes safrTxeebis

dadgenis da saTanado sakontrolo zomebis dawesebis dasabuTebas.

sursaTis aRwera, misi distribuciis pirobebi, miznobrivi gamoyeneba da momx­

5. HACCP-is gegmebis ZiriTadi cxrilebi.

HACCP-is gegmis farglebSi ganxorcielebuli safrTxis analizi da HACCP-is

gegmis ZiriTadi cxrili nimuSis saxiT warmodgenilia saxelmZRvanelos TavSi IV.3.

19


Zis ferma

Tavi II. rZis ferma

uvnebeli sasursaTo produqtis warmoeba nedleulidan, anu fermeruli meurneobidan,

iwyeba. fermaSi higienis wesebis dacva saqonlis janmrTelobis mdgomareobis

SenarCunebas, infeqciuri da invaziuri daavadebis gavrcelebis saSiSroebis

Semcirebas da Sesabamisad mowvelili rZis uvneblobas uzrunvelyofs. rZis fermaSi

pirveladi warmoebis sanimuSo praqtikis komponentebs rogorebicaa, saqonlis

sadgomi, cxovelTa janmrTelobis mdgomareoba, wvelis higiena, gamoyenebuli sakvebi

da wyali pirdapiri gavlena aqvs nedli rZis uvneblobisa Tu xarisxobriv parametrebze

(suraTi 10), rac Tavis mxriv am nedleulisgan damzadebul produqtebze

aisaxeba. aqedan gamomdinare qvemoT ganxilulia fermaSi gasaTvaliswinebeli is

ZiriTadi sakiTxebi, romlebic amgvari pirobebis Seqmnas xels Seuwyobs.

pirveladi warmoebis sanimuSo praqtikis

komponentebi rZis fermaSi

saqonlis

sadgomi da

garemo

cxovelTa

janmrTelobis

mdgomareoba

wvelis higiena

saqonlis

sakvebi da

wyali

cxovelTa

keTildReoba

suraTi 10. pirveladi warmoebis sanimuSo praqtikis komponentebi

*cxovelTa keTildReoba saxelmZRvaneloSi ganxiluli ar aris vinaidan am sakiTxs pirdapiri kav­

Siri sursaTis uvneblobasTan ara aqvs.

saqonlis sadgomi da garemo

fermisTvis adgilis SerCevisas gasaTvaliswinebeli faqtorebi:

•y adgili epizootiurad saimedo unda iyos da umjobesia Tu is mousavliani,

gabatonebuli qarebisagan daculi, SemaRlebuli da mziani iqneba;

•y niadagi wyalgaumtari da swori unda iyos. gruntis wylebi niadagis zedapiridan

2_2,5m siRrmeze unda iyos ganlagebuli;

•y ferma uzrunvelyofili unda iyos sakmarisi raodenobiT sasmeli wyliT;

•y saZovarze pirutyvis gasaden biliks samanqano da sarkinigzo gzebi ar unda

kveTdes;

•y fermis teritoriidan gamosuli haeri dasaxlebul punqtebs ar unda uerTdebodes.

fermis mowyobisas gasaTvaliswinebeli faqtorebi:

•y fermis teritoria aucileblad unda SemoiRobos, raTa Tavidan iyos acilebuli

teritoriaze ucxo pirutyvis Sesvla;

•y nagebobebi ise unda daigegmos, rom zamTris periodSi sadgomSi siTbos SenarCuneba

SesaZlebeli iyos;

•y sadgomis gaswvriv saseirno moedani ukeTesia moewyos samxreTis mxares. mudmivi

samoZrao kari ki sadgomSi qaris sawinaaRmdego mxares gakeTdes;

20


Zis ferma

•y

•y

•y

dauSvebelia cxovelTa simWidrove sadgomebSi. 50 da meti furis simZlavris

fermisaTvis saWiroa 200m 2 , razec ganTavsdeba saZroxe Tavisi ganyofilebebiT

da damxmare saTavsebiT;

pirutyvis sawolad xarisxiani masala unda iqnas gamoyenebuli obis, lpobisa

da fermentaciis produqtebis gareSe, romlis gamocvla dagegmili periodulobiT

ganxorcieldeba. masalad SeiZleba gamoyenebuli iyos marcvlovani

kulturebis narCeni, agreTve sufTa da mSrali naxerxi;

aucilebelia ferma uzrunvelyofili iyos pirveladi samedicino daxmarebis

saSualebebiT.

sadgomis mikroklimaturi pirobebi

saqonlis sadgomSi aucilebelia arsebobdes optimaluri mikroklimati, rac

uzrunvelyofs pirutyvis organizmSi nivTierebaTa normalur cvlas, uaryofiTad

ar imoqmedebs cxovelis janmrTelobaze, sarZeo produqtiulobaze da imunitetis

darRvevis Sedegad xels ar Seuwyobs paTogenuri mikroorganizmebis zrdisTvis

xelsayreli pirobebis Seqmnas. mikroklimatis cvlilebaze gavlenas axdens amindi,

weliwadis dro, Senobis konstruqcia, ventilacia, kanalizaciis sistema, haeris mimocvlis

done, haerSi mavne airebis done, ganaTeba da a.S.

amdenad sadgomSi mikroklimatTan dakavSirebiT rekomendebuli parametrebi Semdegia:

cxovelTa sadgomSi rekomendebuli mikroklimaturi pirobebi

klimaturi pirobebi:

• ytemperatura - 5_15 0

C;

•yfardobiTi tenianoba - 70_75%;

• yhaeris mimocvla _ 17m 3

;

•yhaeris moZraobis siCqare _ 0,5 m/wm.

mavne airebis koncentracia:

•ynaxSiroJangi _ ara umetes 0,15_0,3%;

•yamiaki _ ara umetes 0,02_0,025 mg/l;

•ymxuTavi airi _ ara umetes 0,005mg/l;

•ygogirdwyalbadi _ ara umetes 0,001 mg/l.

21


Zis ferma

aRniSnuli parametrebi dagegmili periodulobiT unda Semowmdes da gadaxrebis

SemTxvevaSi ganxorcieldes qmedebebi sasurveli mikroklimaturi pirobebis Sesaqmnelad

(mag., Senobis ganiaveba, ventilaciis sistemis damontaJeba da sxv.).

fermis infrastruqtura

33 fermis SesasvlelSi unda damontaJdes sadezinfeqcio barieri, romelsac gaivlis

fermaSi Semomavali nebismieri satransporto saSualeba Tu misabmeli,

ganurCevlad zonis epizooturi situaciisa. aRniSnuli barieri gaJRenTili

unda iyos saTanado sadezinfeqcio saSualebiT da misi mowyobis wesebi Semdegnairia:

Sesasvlelis mTel siganeze (sasurvelia sigrZe 4-5 m da siRme 20-30

sm) unda amoiTxaros miwa, romelic amoivseba naxerxiT da dasveldeba sadezinfeqcio

xsnariT (mag., wyalSi ganzavebuli qarxnuli warmoebis kreolini 1:10

SefardebiT). aseve rekomendebulia dezbarieris gakeTeba uSualod Senobis

SesasvlelSi;

33 fermis kedlebi, Weri da iataki iseTi masalisgan unda iyos damzadebuli, rom

dasufTavebis SesaZleblobas iZleodes;

33 rZis wvelis adgili mwerebisgan da sxva mavneblebisgan daculi unda iyos,

vinaidan isini baqteriebis gavrcelebis erT-erT mniSvnelovan wyaros warmoadgenen

(mag., erT buzs milionobiT daavadebis gamomwvevi baqteriis gadatana

SeuZlia). amdenad mavneblebis winaaRmdeg brZola fermerul meurneobaSi

mniSvnelovan rols asrulebs jansaRi rZis uvneblobaSi;

33 fanjris minaze rekomendebulia gadaikras damcavi firi, rom gatexvis SemTxvevaSi

ar daabinZuros rZe wvelis procesSi an ar daazianos saqoneli. mavneblebis

kontrolis mizniT fanjrebze unda damontaJdes mwerebisgan damcavi

badeebi;

33 karebze rekomendebulia damontaJdes TviTCamketi meqanizmi - zambara an e.w.

`Sveicari~, rac karis daketvas avtomaturad uzrunvelyofs, rom mavneblebis

SemoRwevis SesaZlebloba minimumamde iyos dayvanili;

33 ganaTeba SeiZleba iyos rogorc bunebrivi, aseve xelovnuri, magram unda iyos

sakmarisi. minis naTurebi rekomendebulia plastmasis garsacmiT daifaros,

rom maTi SesaZlo gatexvisas saqoneli ar daziandes an nedli rZe ar dabin­

Zurdes;

33 tualetebi unda iyos mudmivad sufTa mdgomareobaSi SenarCunebuli;

33 xelsabanebi aRWurvili unda iyos mudmivi gamdinare civi/cxeli wyliT, Txevadi

sapniT, xelebis sadezinfeqcio xsnariT (wvelis procesisTvis), erTjeradi

qaRaldis xelsaxocebiT, qaRaldis xelsaxocebisTvis gankuTvnili urniT,

frCxilebisTvis gankuTvnili jagrisiT (romlis dezinfeqcia yoveldRiurad

moxdeba);

33 TanamSromlebisTvis aucilebelia arsebobdes gasaxdelebi an sakidebi, sadac

quCis tansacmlis gamocvlas da sanitaruli tansacmlis Cacmas SeZleben;

33 aucilebelia arsebobdes rZis WurWlis da inventaris gasarecxi adgili da

maTi gasaSrobi Taroebi;

33 rZis fermaSi gamoyenebuli qimiuri saSualebebisTvis unda arsebobdes calke

22


Zis ferma

gamoyofili Sesanaxi saTavsi/karada.

momsaxure personalis higiena

fermaSi warmoebuli rZis uvneblobis uzrunvelyofisaTvis mniSvnelovania fermaSi

dasaqmebuli personalis janmrTelobis mdgomareoba, raTa Tavidan iqnas acilebuli

produqtis meoradi dasnebovneba.

dauSvebelia:

33 fermaSi muSaobdes infeqciuri daavadebebis matarebeli personali mwvelavis

CaTvliT;

33 Zroxis mowvela daubaneli da Wrilobebis mqone xelebiT;

33 saTanado spectansacmlis, Tavsaburavis da fexsacmlis gareSe muSaoba;

33 stumrebis SeSveba fermaSi spectansacmlis gareSe.

saqonlis janmrTelobis mdgomareoba

saqonlis warmomavlobasTan, misi janmrTelobis mdgomareobasa da gadaadgilebasTan,

xelovnur ganayofierebasTan dakavSirebuli informaciis dokumentireba

xels uwyobs fermers fermeruli meurneobis efeqturad warmarTvaSi, maT Soris

mikvlevadobis uzrunvelyofaSi. amisaTvis, pirvel rigSi, rZis fermaSi arsebuli

saqonlisTvis saidentifikacio nomrebis miniWeba da maTi pasportizacia unda moxdes

(suraTi 11). zemoT moxseniebul sakiTxebTan dakavSirebuli formebi warmodgenilia

danarT 2-Si.

veterinaruli RonisZiebebi detalurad ganxilulia danarT 1-Si sursaTis

uvneblobasTan dakavSirebuli safrTxeebi. pirveladi warmoeba-veterinaruli Ronis­

Ziebebi.

suraTi 11. saqonlis identifikacia

23


Zis ferma

wvelis higiena

swori wvela higienuri pirobebis mkacri dacviT mniSvnelovan rols TamaSobs

maRali Semadgenlobis, raodenobis da

uvneblobis saTanado parametrebis mqone

nedli rZis miRebaSi. araimficirebul cur­

Si arsebuli rZe steriluria. mis inficirebas

adgili wvelis dros an mas Semdeg aqvs.

nedli rZis inficirebis SesaZlo wyaroebi

mocemulia me-11 suraTze. imis gamo, rom

rZis dabinZurebis gamomwvevi bevri mizezi

wvelis procesTan aris dakavSirebuli

aucilebelia wvelis procesSi Semdegi wesebis

dacva:

mwvelavis

xelebi

curi da

curis TiTebi

sawmendi

naWeri

Zroxis

balani

nedli rZis

inficirebis

SesaZlo

wyaroebi

sawveli danadgari da

rZis WurWeli

suraTi 11. nedli rZis inficirebis

SesaZlo wyaroebi

meZuZuri xbos

nerwyvi

daavadebuli

pirutyvi

4. daasufTaveT wvelis adgili,

gaasufTaveT cxovelis

tani da CamobaneT dasvrili

nawilebi.

rZis wvelis wesebi

wvelis dawyebamde

1. wvelis win CaicviT sufTa

tansacmeli, daibaneT xelebi

da daimuSaveT dezinfeqtantiT.

2. daaTvaliereT cxovelebis

saerTo janmrTelobis mdgomareoba

da curis mdgomareoba.

5. miabiT kudi romelime kidurze.

CamobaneT saqonels curi

baqteriocidebis susti xsnariT

(koncentracia daicaviT

mwarmoeblis rekomendaciis

mixedviT). Tan CaatareT curis

masaJi, vina idan is zrdis rZis

raodenobas.

SeniSvna: (1) masaJi ukeTdeba curis naxevrebs,

meoTxedebs da curTiTebs. cerTiTebSi

xSirad adgili aqvs dvrilebis mikrobul

daWuWyianebas, amitom au cilebelia Ti­

Toeuli cu r TiTidan or-samjer moxdes

rZis gadmoRvra sarZeo WurWlis gareT. (2)

Tu xbo wovs rZes, Semdeg curi aucileblad

gaaSreT nerwyvisgan, radgan nerwyvi

milionobiT baqterias Seicavs.

3. gamoyaviT daavadebuli cxovelebi.

gaiTvaliswineT, rom

pirvel rigSi unda moiwvelos

ja nmrTeli da axalgazrda

Zroxebi.

SeniSvna: daavadebuli saqoneli janmrTeli

Zroxebis mowvelis procesis dasrulebis

Semdeg calke iwveleba. (1) faruli

mastitis SemTxvevaSi rZe SeiZleba

aduRdes da xborebis gamosakvebad iqnes

gamoyenebuli; xolo klinikuri mastitis

SemTxvevaSi daavadebuli meoTxedebi

calke iwveleba da iRvreba kanalizaciaSi;

(2) sisxliani rZis SemTxvevaSi unda gadaduRdes

da Semdeg sakanalizacio sistemaSi

gadaiRvaros. (3) cimbiris wylulis

SemTxvevaSi wveliTi operaciebis ganxorcieleba

ikrZaleba. Tuki SemTxveviT iqna

mowvelili aseT SemTxvevaSi rZe uvnebldeba

aduRebiT 2-3 saaTis ganmavlobaSi.

6. gaamSraleT curi. am

mizniT rekomendebulia axlad

gamoxarSuli, sufTa da mSrali

bambis naWris gamoyeneba.

SeniSvna: (1) TiToeuli ZroxisTvis calke

naWeri gamoiyeneba, rom Tavidan iqnas

acilebuli daavadebebis SesaZlo gavrceleba;

24


Zis ferma

7. wvela daiwyeT yoveli

kertidan rZis pirveli porciebis

calke, muqi feris

e.w. sakontrolo WurWelSi

CamowveliT, rom rZe kargad

Candes. rZes ar unda aReniSnebodes

aranairi gunda da

ar unda iyos uferuli. amgvari

SemTxveva miuTiTebs

curSi arsebul darRvevebze

da curis daavadebis gavrcelebis

Tavidan acilebis

mizniT aseTi Zroxa yvelaze

bolos unda moiwvelos.

SeniSvna: daavadebuli Zroxis rZe ar

unda Seerios janmrTeli Zroxebis

rZes. wvelis Semdgom sawveli WurWlis

recxva-damuSeveba unda moxdes gancalkevebulad,

raTa daavadebulma rZem

ar gamoiwvios daavadebis sxva pirutyvze

gavrceleba.

10. CamobaneT curi, rom ar

darCes rZis nawilakebi da

kargad gaamSraleT. curis

kertebi daamuSaveT baqteriociduli

xsnariT.

wvelis dros

8. wvelis procesSi gamoiyeneT

mxo lod sufTa da mSrali inventari,

maT Soris sawveli

aparatura.

wvelis Semdeg

11. rZis wvelisas gamoyenebuli

WurWeli maT Soris sawveli

aparatura daasufTaveT gamoyenebisTanave.

WurWeli da inventari

garecxeT jer civi, Semdeg

cxeli wyliT, gamoavleT

baqteriociduli xsnari da

gaaSreT specialur Taroebze.

9. wvelis procesi rac SeiZleba

swrafad daasruleT vinaidan:

- rZis xangrZlivi kontaqti

haerTan da misi zedmeti dabinZureba

Tavidan iqnes acilebuli;

- wvelis procesis gaxangr­

Zlivebisas furi amcirebs

an nawilobriv wyvets rZis

gamoyofas. curSi darCenili

rZe ki mastitebisa da anTebebis

warmoqmnis winapirobaa.

12. mowvelili rZe ve drodan hermetulad

daxurul, bidonebSi

gadatanisas gafiltreT, rom

moa SoroT meqanikuri dabinZurebis

garkveuli nawili.

SeinaxeT rZe bnel adgilas,

dabal temperaturaze, rom

swrafad gacivdes.

SeniSvna: mikroorganizmebis gamravlebisa

da gadamJavebis kontrolis mizniT rZe

unda inaxebodes maqsimum 2 saaTi 7_8°C

temperaturis pirobebSi.

saqonlis sakvebi da wyali

rZis fermaSi gamoyenebuli cxovelis sakvebi da wyali ar unda iyos dasnebovnebuli,

rom ar moxdes cxovelis daavadebis gziT adamianis janmrTelobisTvis zianis

miyeneba. sakiTxebi intoqsikaciasTan dakavSirebiT ganxilulia danarT 1-Si `pirveladi

warmoeba _ veterinaruli RonisZiebebi~. aqedan gamomdinare, aucilebeli

cxo velis sakvebis sando wyaros moZieba, iseve rogorc saimedo saZovris moZebna.

25


Zis ferma

gasaTvaliswinebelia aseve, rom maRali mikrobuli dasnebovnebis Tavidan asacileblad

wvelis dros ar moxdes sadgomSi sakvebis Setana, vinaidan es procesi xels

uwyobs mtvris warmoqmnas, Sesabamisad sporebisa da baqteriebis gamravlebas, rac

abinZurebs rZes.

mikvlevadobis uzrunvelsayofad rZis ferma/fermeri valdebulia inaxavdes informacias

gamoyenebuli cxovelis sakvebis Sesaxeb mwarmoeblebze monacemebis CaTvliT.

standartuli samuSao instruqciebi 1 rZis fermisTvis 2 .

33 dasufTaveba da recxva-dezinfeqcia (standartuli samuSao instruqcia #01);

33 piradi higiena da qcevis wesebi (standartuli samuSao instruqcia #02);

33 mavneblebis kontroli (standartuli samuSao instruqcia #03);

33 narCenebis marTva (standartuli samuSao instruqcia #04)

33 qimiuri nivTierebebis kontroli (standartuli samuSao instruqcia #05);

33 wylis kontroli (standartuli samuSao instruqcia #07);

33 pretenziebis marTva (standartuli samuSao instruqcia #08)

rZis fermaSi gamosayenebeli Canawerebi:

33 msxvilfexa saqonlis pasporti (danarTi 2.1);

33 veterinaruli moxseneba (danarTi 2.2);

33 informacia cxovelis gadaadgilebis Sesaxeb (danarTi 2.3);

33 xelovnuri ganayofierebis forma (danarTi 2.4);

33 rZis wvelis Jurnali (danarTi 2.5);

33 recxva-dezinfeqciis Jurnali (danarTi 2.9);

33 momsaxure personalis janmrTelobis mdgomareobis aRricxvis Jurnali (dan­

arTi 2.10);

33 darRvevebis zogadi Jurnali (danarTi 2.11);

33 treningis Jurnali (danarTi 2.12.);

33 mavneblebis kontrolis Jurnali (danarTi 2.13).

1 winamdebare saxelmZRvaneloSi mocemulia nimuSebi, romelTa adaptireba da gamoyeneba rZis fermis mier

SesaZlebelia.

2 ix. Tavi IV.2.

26


Zis Semgrovebeli centri

Tavi III. rZis Semgrovebeli centri

mcire fermeruli meurneobebis arsebobis pirobebSi fermeruli meurneobisa da

gadamamuSavebeli sawarmos damakavSirebel rgolad rZis Semgrovebeli centrebi

Camoyalibda. isini mcire fermerebidan rZis Segrovebas axorcieleben da Semdeg mas

gadamamuSavebel sawarmoebs awvdian. sasursaTo jaWvis sxva etapebis msgavsad sursaTis

uvneblobis principebis dacvas aqac didi mniSvneloba eniWeba.

rZis Semgrovebeli centris adgili da infrastruqtura

rZis Semgrovebeli centris adgilis SerCevisas gasaTvaliswinebeli faqtorebi:

33 garemo dabinZurebis faqtorebis ararseboba;

33 sufTa wylis uwyveti miwodebis SesaZlebloba;

33 eleqtroenergiis mudmivi wyaro;

33 kargi sadrenaJo sistemis arseboba;

33 manZili fermebsa da Semgrovebel centrs Soris, rom droulad moxdes rZis

transportireba.

rZis Semgrovebeli centris infrastruqtura

33 sanitaruli pirobebis uzrunvelsayofad mizanSewonilia, rom rZis Semgrovebeli

centris SenobaSi arsebobdes idealur SemTxvevaSi ori oTaxi:

(1) erTi oTaxi, sadac damontaJebuli iqneba rZis gamaciebeli avzi, mcire

laboratoria, niJara, laboratoriuli reaqtivebis Sesanaxi karada,

sakidi sanhigienuri tansacmlisTvis da a.S.

(2) meore oTaxi, sadac moxdeba bidonebis recxva, gaSroba da sanhigienuri

saSualebebis, xelTaTmanebis, filtrebis da sxva sawarmoo inventaris

Senaxva. aqve ganTavsdeba sakidi quCis tansacmlisTvis.

33 rZis Semgrovebeli centri aRWurvili unda

iyos gamaciebeli avziT (ix. suraTi 12),

romelsac SeeZleba rZis gacieba +30 o C-dan

4 o C-mde maqsimum 45 wuTis ganmavlobaSi.

33 informacia rZis Semgrovebeli centris

kedlebis, Weris, iatakis, fanjrebis, karebis,

saventilacio sistemis, ganaTebis, xelsabanebis,

manqana-danadgarebis, produqtTan

SexebaSi myofi zedapirebis, wyalmomaragebis,

kanalizaciis Sesaxeb ixileT IV.1 TavSi

- higienis zogadi moTxovnebi.

suraTi 12. rZis gamaciebeli avzi

33 momsaxure personalis higienisa da qcevis

wesebis, mavneblebis kontrolis, qimiuri nivTierebebis kontrolis, wylis

kontrolis, pretenziebis marTvis, manqana-danadgarebis momsaxurebis Sesaxeb

informacia gawerilia standartul samuSao instruqciebSi (Tavi IV.2).

27


Zis Semgrovebeli centri

saRi rZis Senaxva

rZe Tavis dadebiT TvisebebTan erTad sakmaod karg pirobebs warmoadgens mikroorganizmebis

gasamravleblad. rZeSi baqteriebis zrdis Semcirebis saSualeba

arsebobs rZis mowvelidan pirveli 2 saaTis ganmavlobaSi. amis Semdeg ki rZeSi arsebuli

baqteriebi gamravlebas iwyeben:

33

Tu rZe inaxeba +8-10 o

C-ze nakleb temperaturaze, misi Senaxva SeiZleba 24 saa­

Tis ganmavlobaSi. baqteriebs, romlebic mravldebian am pirobebSi ewodebaT

fsiqroTropuli (sicivis amtani). dabali temperaturis wyalobiT maTi gamravleba

neldeba da rZe ar icvleba, rac mniSvnelovania gadamuSavebisaTvis.

es mxolod im SemTxvevaSi xdeba, Tu rZe am temperaturaze ramdenime dRe ar

inaxeboda.

33

Tu rZis temperatura aRemateba +15+30 o

C-s baqteriuli aqtivoba izrdeba da baqteriebis

garkveuli saxeoba _ rZemJava baqteriebi iwyeben gamravlebas. rogorc

saxelwodeba miuTiTebs isini awarmoeben rZis mJavas da amgvarad amJaveben rZes.

rac ufro maRalia temperatura, miT ufro swrafad vrceldeba baqteriebi.

+30 o C-ze rZe gafuWdeba ramdenime saaTSi. gafuWebis siCqare damokidebulia

rZeSi arsebuli baqteriebis ricxvze, maT tipsa da temperaturaze.

saqonlis, rZis wvelisa da misi Senaxvis higienuri pirobebis dacvisas rZe­

Si baqteriebis SeRwevis albaToba dabalia. rZis xarisxze seriozuli gavlenis

mosaxdenad saWiroa milioni baqteria mililitrze. Tu rZe Seicavs Zalian cota baqterias

rZe an pasterizebuli iyo an Seicavs antibiotikebs. arc erTi da arc meore

ar aris sasurveli, vinaidan: (1) Tu rZe gacxelebuli iyo da baqteriebis umetesoba

mokluli, igi ufro mgrZnobiare iqneba xelaxla dabinZurebis mimarT, imis gamo,

rom normaluri flora zRudavs paTogenuri baqteriebis zrdas; (2) antibiotikebis

arseboba ki xels uSlis mawvnis/iogurtis warmoebas, iseve rogorc arasasurvelia

adamianis janmrTelobisTvis, radgan maTSi antibiotikebisadmi rezistentuloba

SeiZleba gamoiwvios.

amdenad aucilebelia mowvelili saRi rZis drouli transportireba Semgrovebel

centramde paTogenuri mikroorganizmebiT misi dabinZurebis minimumamde dayvanisTvis.

rZis transportireba fermidan Semgrovebel centramde

28

saRi rZis fermebidan Segrovebisas da Semgrovebel centramde misi transportirebisas

Semdegi sakiTxebi unda iqnes gaTvaliswinebuli:

33 satransporto/gadasazidi saSualeba gamoyenebuli unda iyos mxolod rZis

Segrovebis daniSnulebiT. sxva miznebiT misi gamoyenebisas, rZis Segrovebamde

unda moxdes misi safuZvliani recxva-dezinfeqcia.

1

33

Segrovebisas gamoyenebuli konteinerebi (bidonebi) da satransporto/gadasazidi

saSualebebi (ix. suraTi 13) mudmivad sufTa mdgomareobaSi unda iyos.

1 sasurvelia bidonebs hqondes farTo yeli da iyos hermetuli zRudaris gareSe, radgan rezina forovani

masalaa, misi kargad garecxva rTulia. mas SeiZleba gauCndes napralebi da gaxdes magari, Tumca vizualurad suf­

Tad gamoiyurebodes. reziniani bidonebis gamoyenebisas rezina dazianebisTanave unda Seicvalos.


Zis Semgrovebeli centri

suraTi 13. saRi rZis satransporto saSualeba

33 marSruti ise unda daigegmos, rom wvelis damTavrebidan 2 saaaTis ganmavlobaSi

rZe Semgrovebel centrSi iyos mitanili.

33 transportirebisas rZe ar unda ganicdides mniSvnelovan njRrevas, radganac

am dros SesaZlebelia rZis cximis burTulovani nawilakebis gaskdoma da

cximis swrafad damZaReba. amitom, rZis transportireba mizanSewonilia xorcieldebodes

SedarebiT mcire moculobis savse da ara didi zomis naxevrad

Sevsebuli konteinerebiT.

rZis Segrovebis procesi nimuSis saxiT warmodgenilia standartul samuSao instruqcia

#09-Si `rZis Segroveba da miReba~ (ix. Tavi IV.2).

rZis miReba

Semgrovebeli centrisTvis mowodebuli saRi rZis parametrebis kontrolis

TvalsazrisiT mniSvnelovania centrSi dawesebuli

iyos naturaluri rZis analizebis aucilebeli

sistema (danarTi 3). am analizebis Sedegebis

mixedviT xdeba, erTis mxriv, rZis kontroli

da meores mxriv, momwodebeli fermerebis saimedoobaze

statistikuri informaciis Segroveba.

gadawyvetileba rZis miReba/uaryofaze miiReba

uSualod rZis Segrovebisas an/da Semgrovebel

centrSi misi mitanisas (ix. standartuli samuSao

instruqcia #09 - `rZis Segroveba da miReba~).

aRniSnuli gadawyvetileba damokidebulia analizis

Sedegebze. Tu rZes reaqcia aqvs alkoholze,

aweuli aqvs mJavianoba da aseve damatebuli

aqvs wyali, amgvari rZe ar unda iqnas Segrovebuli

an/da miRebuli Semgrovebeli centris mier.

29


Zis Semgrovebeli centri

misaRebi xarisxis nedli rZis parametrebis magaliTebia:

testi misaRebi kriteriumi komentari

sensoruli testi

WuWyi

Termomdgradoba

TeTri, sasiamovno sunis

dabinZurebis gareSe

ar unda iWrebodes

ar unda iyos simJavis an sxva raime suni,

romelic miuTiTebs baqteriebis zrdaze.

rZe ar unda iyos dabinZurebuli buzebiT,

CaliT, talaxiT, da a.S.

rZe ar unda aiWras, rodesac alkoholis

testi Catardeba (ix. danarTi #2-1.6).

mJavianoba < 18°T

mJavianoba normalur rZeSi aris 14-18°T, sa­

Sualod 17°T. Tu mJavianoba ufro maRalia,

savaraudod baqteriebma mJava gamoimuSaves

(danarTi 2-1.3).

baqteriebis Semcveloba

somaturi ujredebis

raodenoba


Zis Semgrovebeli centri

33 darRvevebis zogadi Jurnali (danarTi 2.11);

33 treningis Jurnali (danarTi 2.12.);

33 mavneblebis kontrolis Jurnali (danarTi 2.13);

33 manqana-danadgarebis da gasazomi saSualebebis momsaxurebis gegma (danarTi

2.14);

33 manqana-danadgarebisa da gasazomi saSualebebis momsaxurebis Jurnali (danarTi

2.15).

* JurnalebSi unda dafiqsirdes ara mxolod misaRebi parametrebis mqone rZis Sedegebis analizebi,

aramed aseve im analizebis pasuxebic ris Sedegadac moxda konkretuli momwodeblis rZis uaryofa

Semgrovebeli centris mier.

31


Zis gadamamuSavebeli sawarmo

Tavi IV. rZis gadamamuSavebeli sawarmo

rZis produqtebis gadamuSavebisTvis didi mniSvneloba aqvs gamoyenebuli nedleulis

maxasiaTeblebs, magram aranaklebi mniSvneloba aqvs garemos, infrastruqturas,

romelSic am produqtebis warmoeba xdeba. imisaTvis, rom uvnebeli saboloo

produqti miewodos momxmarebels moTxovnebis erToblioba unda iqnas dakmayofilebuli

da isini ganxilulia am nawilSi.

IV.1. higienis zogadi wesebi (warmoebis sanimuSo praqtikis

moTxovnebi)

sawarmos infrastruqturis mowyobasTan dakavSirebuli wesebi cnobilia rogorc

higienis zogadi wesebi an warmoebis sanimuSo praqtikis moTxovnebi. maTi dacva

uzrunvelyofs warmoebis procesSi garemodan produqtis dabinZurebis albaTobis

minimumamde dayvanas da iTvaliswinebs qvemoT CamoTvlil sakiTxebs.

mimdebare teritoria

rZis gadamamuSavebeli sawarmosTvis adgilis SerCevisas gaTvaliswinebuli unda

iyos mimdebare teritoriaze potenciuri dabinZurebis wyaroebi, romlebmac seriozuli

safrTxe SeiZleba Seuqmnas sursaTis uvneblobas. mxolod amgvari wyaroebis

aRkveTis Semdeg (SeiZleba aseve ganixilebodes haeris dasufTaveba specialuri

filtrebis meSveobiT) aris SesaZlebeli sawarmosTvis konkretuli adgilis gamoyenebis

SesaZleblobis ganxilva.

sawarmomde misasvleli gza da mimdebare teritoria unda iyos moasfaltebuli

idealur SemTxvevaSi an xreSiT dafaruli, rom mtvris warmoqmnis SesaZlebloba da

wylis gubeebis arseboba minimumamde iyos dayvanili.

Senobis konstruqcia

Senoba unda iyos myari konstruqciis, karg mdgomareobaSi da gamZle masalisgan

aSenebuli. saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi Senobas unda hqondes Sesabamisi Tboizolacia,

raTa saamqroebi temperaturis mkveTri cvalebadobisgan daicvas. mSeneblobisas gaTvaliswinebuli

unda iyos, rom Senoba-nageboba:

33 ar uwyobdes xels damabinZureblebis warmoqmnas;

33 advili iyos misi dasufTaveba;

33 ar iZleodes mavneblebis SeRwevis SesaZleblobas (Riobebis, napralebis gareSe).

rZis gadamamuSavebeli sawarmos asaSeneblad gamoyenebuli nebismieri masala unda

iyos kvebis mrewvelobaSi gamosayeneblad nebadarTuli.

32


Zis gadamamuSavebeli sawarmo

saamqroebis ganlageba da procesis nakaduroba

Senobis daproeqtebisas pirvel rigSi gaTvaliswinebuli unda iyos procesis

nakaduroba - mimarTuleba, romlis mixedviTac moxdeba produqtis gadamuSaveba

nedleulis miRebidan saboloo produqtis miRebamde. procesis nakadurobaSi Tanam­

Sromlebis moZraobis mimarTulebebic igulisxmeba. procesis nakaduroba da Sesabamisad

saamqroebisa da saTavsebis mdebareoba ise unda daigegmos, rom nedleulisa da

mza produqtis gadakveTas adgili ar hqondes, raTa Tavidan iqnes acilebuli mav ne

faqtorebis nedleulidan mza produqtze gavrcelebis SesaZlebloba anu jvare dini

dabinZureba gamoiricxos.

procesis dagegmarebis miuRebeli, SedarebiT misaRebi da saukeTeso variantebi

naCvenebia suraTze 14.

cudi cudi ukeTesi saukeTeso saukeTeso

suraTi 14. procesis nakaduroba

kedeli

1

33

unda iyos gluvi, advilad gasawmendi,

wyalgaumtari, Sewovis unaris armqone,

aratoqsikuri masalisgan aSenebuli;

33 mopirkeTebamde aucileblad unda

gailesos;

33 gamosayeneblad nebadarTuli masalebi:

Ria feris keramikuli fila, plastikati

an/da recxvadi saRebavi (kedlis

mopirkeTebis magaliTi mocemulia

me-15 suraTze).

suraTi 15. kedlis mopirkeTebis

sanimuSo praqtika

Weri

33 unda iyos gluvi, advilad gasawmendi, araqtoqsikuri masalis;

33 ar unda iZleodes WuWyisa da kondensantis dagrovebis SesaZleblobas;

33 SeRebili Weris SemTxvevaSi saRebavis aqercvlis kvali ar unda SeimCneodes,

rac Semdeg potenciurad produqtis damabinZurebeli SeiZleba gaxdes;

33 gamosayeneblad nebadarTuli masalebi: Ria feris plastikati an/da recxvadi

saRebavi.

1 amotexili adgilebi da bzarebi rTulad dasasufTavebeli adgilebia da Sesabamisad mikroorganizmebis

gamravlebas uwyobs xels. aqedan gamomdinare maTi arseboba dauSvebelia.

33


Zis gadamamuSavebeli sawarmo

iataki

33 unda iyos gluvi, gamZle, advilad recxvadi, wyalgaumtari, Sewovis unaris

armqone, aratoqsikuri masalis;

33 rekomendebulia iyos momrgvalebuli kedelTan (suraTi 16). amgvari zedapiri

kuTxeebSi WuWyis dagrovebis SesaZleblobas amcirebs da aadvilebs dasuf­

Tavebis operaciebs;

33 unda iyos trapisken daqanebuli, iatakze wylis dagrovebis Tavidan acilebis

mizniT;

marTi

kuTxe

momrgvalebuli

kuTxe

xelsar uwyobs

efeqtur dasufTavebas

xels uwyobs

efeqtur dasufTavebas

suraTi 16.

33 trapi unda iyos daxuruli da ar unda hqondes Sreebi, vinaidan SreSi dagrovili

wyali mikroorganizmebis gamravlebis wyaroa da amasTanave rTulad

dasasufTavebeli;

33 gamosayeneblad rekomendebuli masala: `mozaika~ an rezinis safariani iataki.

filebis gamoyeneba ar aris mizanSewonili, vinaidan droTa ganmavlobaSi mas

napralebi uCndeba, rac dabinZurebis wyaros warmoqmnas uwyobs xels.

fanjrebi

33 mWidrod unda ixurebodes da Riobebi ar SeiniSnebodes;

33 fanjris minaze gadakruli unda iyos damcavi firi, rom gatexvis SemTxvevaSi

miniT produqtis dabinZureba gamoiricxos;

33 gaRebadi fanjris SemTxvevaSi fanjris orive mxare unda daifaros damcavi

firiT;

33 fanjris rafa mizanSewonilia iyos 90 gradusiT daxrili, rom: (1) mtvris

dagrovebis Tavidan acileba moxdes; (2) TanamSromlebma arasaWiro nivTebis

dasawyobeba fanjris rafaze ver SeZlon;

33 gaRebadi fanjrebis SemTxvevaSi mavneblebis kontrolis mizniT unda damon­

taJdes mwerebisgan damcavi badeebi;

33 gamosayeneblad nebadarTuli masala: metaloplastmasis fanjrebi da mina. mi­

zanSewonili ar aris xis fanjrebis gamoyeneba, vinaidan maTi dasufTaveba

efeqturad ver moxdeba.

34


Zis gadamamuSavebeli sawarmo

karebi

P mWidrod unda ixurebodes, Riobebi ar SeiniSnebodes da sinaTlis Suqi ar

P

P

Semodiodes;

yvela karebze aucilebelia damontaJdes TviTCamketi meqanizmi ­ zambara an e.w.

„Sveicari~, rac karis daketvas avtomaturad uzrunvelyofs, rom mavneblebis

SemoRwevis SesaZlebloba minimumamde iyos dayvanili;

idealur SemTxvevaSi karebs saxeluri ar unda hqondes. unda iRebodes avtomaturad

an SesaZlebeli unda iyos misi mxariT gaReba, rom TanamSromlebma

xeli karebis saxelurze Sexebis Sedegad ar daibinZuron.

saventilacio sistema

P sawarmo aRWurvili unda iyos sakmarisi bunebrivi da meqanikuri ventilaciiT,

romlis saSualebiTac SesaZlebeli iqneba garemodan produqtis dabinZurebis

SesaZleblobis Semcireba, oTaxis temperaturis kontroli, fardobiTi

tenianobis kontroli. aseve miscems SesaZleblobas Tavidan aicilos sicxis,

orTqlis, kondensantis, WuWyis dagroveba da xels uwyobs dabinZurebuli

haeris gareT gatanas;

P unda iyos organizebuli ise, rom haeri sufTa adgilebidan SedarebiT dabinZurebuli

adgilebisken miemarTebodes (suraTi 17). winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi

haeris nakadi

procesis nakaduroba

suraTi 17

P

P

moxdeba mza produqtisTvis gankuTvnil saamqroebSi arsebuli haeris dabin­

Zureba, rac Semdeg produqtis uvneblobaze imoqmedebs;

saventilacio sistemis gareTa milze mwerebisgan damcavi badeebi unda damontaJdes,

rom mavneblebis SemoRwevis SesaZlebloba ar arsebobdes;

saventilacio sistemis milebi regularulad unda dasufTavdes.

ganaTeba

P SeiZleba iyos rogorc bunebrivi (fanjrebis

meSveobiT) aseve xelovnuri (naTurebi)

ganaTeba, magram unda iyos sakmarisi;

P ar unda ucvlides fers produqts;

P minis naTurebi daculi unda iyos plastmasis

garsacmiT (ix. suraTi 18), rom na­

Turis gatexvis SemTxvevaSi namsxvrevebiT

produqtis dabinZureba Tavidan iqnes acilebuli.

suraTi 18. ganaTebis sanimuSo praqtika

35


Zis gadamamuSavebeli sawarmo

sanitaruli kvanZebi

tualetebi

33 unda arsebobdes cal-calke tualetebi sxvadasxva sqesisTvis (garda mcire

zomis sawarmoebisa);

33 unda iyos aRWurvili unitaziT da mudmivi wyliT;

33 unda iyos SenarCunebuli sufTa mdgomareobaSi.

akrZalvebi:

dauSvebelia tualetSi sanitaruli tansacmliT/fexsacmliT Sesvla.

„Turquli tualetis~ damontaJeba miuRebelia, vinaidan am dros fexsacmliT

gadamamuSavebel saamqroSi dabinZurebis Setanis albaToba arsebobs.

xelsabanebi

33 xelsabanebi aRWurvili unda iyos:







mudmivi gamdinare civi/cxeli wyliT;

Txevadi sapniT;

xelebis sadezinfeqcio xsnariT, saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi;

erTjeradi qaRaldis xelsaxocebiT;

qaRaldis xelsaxocebisTvis gankuTvnili urniT;

frCxilebisTvis gankuTvnili jagrisiT (romlis dezinfeqcia yovel­

dRiurad moxdeba).

33 xelsabanebTan gakruli unda iyos `xelebis dabanis procedura~, sadac deta­

lurad iqneba aRwerili xelebis dabanis etapebi;

33 xelsabanebi aucilebelia aseve damontaJdes saamqros SesasvlelTan, iseve

rogorc saamqroSi, rom iq dasaqmebul TanamSromlebs saamqros datovebis

gareSe SeeZloT xelis dabana.

akrZalvebi:

mikroorganizmebis gavrcelebis Tavidan acilebis mizniT dauSvebelia naWris

pirsaxocebis, haeris saSrobebis, sayofacxovrebo tipis sapnebis gamoyeneba.

gasaxdeli oTaxebi

33 iseT adgilas unda ganlagdes, rom TanamSromlebma saamqroebSi Sesvlamde

SeZlon sanitaruli tansacmlis Cacma;

33 gasaxdel oTaxebSi unda damontaJdes organyofilebiani karada TiToeuli

TanamSromlisTvis: erTi ganyofileba gankuTvnili iqneba sanitaruli tansacmlisTvis/fexsacmlisTvis,

xolo meore - quCis tansacmlisTvis/fexsacmlisTvis;

33 sanitaruli tansacmlis adgilebi aseve gaTvaliswinebuli unda iyos stumre­

bisTvis da menejmentisTvis.

36


Zis gadamamuSavebeli sawarmo

akrZalvebi:

dauSvebelia sanitaruli tansacmlis/fexsacmlis da quCis tansacmlis/fexsacmlis

Senaxva erTad, jvaredinuli dabinZurebis Tavidan acilebis mizniT.

sawyobebi da saTavsebi

33 sawyobebSi uzrunvelyofili unda iyos Sesabamisi temperaturuli reJimi

da damontaJebuli unda iyos Sesabamisi gasazomi saSualebebi (Termometri,

fsiqrometri da a.S.)

33 qimiuri nivTierebebis Sesanaxad (mag., sarecxi/sadezinfeqcio saSualebebi)

unda iqnes gamoyofili calke saTavso an karada, romlis Caketva SesaZlebeli

iqneba.

akrZalvebi:

dauSvebelia nedleulisa/damxmare masalebisa da mza produqtis Senaxva erT

sawyobSi.

manqana-danadgarebi

33 unda damontaJdes kedlidan,

iatakidan da erTmaneTisgan

sakmarisi manZilis moSorebiT,

rom srulfasovani recxva/

dezinfeqciis

iZleodes;

SesaZleblobas

33 unda iyos muSa mdgomareoba­

Si;

33 avzebis forma umjobesia iyos

daxrili, rogorc es naCvenebia

suraTi 19-ze, rom produqtis

narCenis dagrovebas xeli ar

Seuwyos.

33 rZis konteinerebi (bidonebi)

unda iyos advilad gamosayenebeli

da recxvadi, hqondeT

farTo yeli.

mizanSewonilia

bidonebi iyos hermetuli

rezinis zRudaris gareSe,

miuRebeli

varianti

arasakmarisi sivrce

dasufTavebisTvis

kuTxeebis arasakmarisi

daxra, rac narCenebis

dagrovebas uwyobs xels

suraTi 19. avzebi

radgan rezina forovani masalaa,

romlis kargad recxvadezinfeqcia

rTulia. amdenad misi saSualebiT SeiZleba damatebiT moxdes

rZis baqteriuli dabinZureba. rezinis zRudariani bidonebis gamoyenebisas

zRudaris gamocvla rezinis dazianebisTanave unda moxdes.

misaRebi

varianti

sakmarisi sivrce

dasufTavebisTvis

sakmarisi sivrce

dasufTavebisTvis

37


Zis gadamamuSavebeli sawarmo

produqtTan SexebaSi myofi zedapirebi

33 unda iyos gluvi, advilad gasawmendi/recxvadi, koroziisadmi mdgradi, ara­

toqsikuri masalisgan damzadebuli;

33 nebismieri zedapiri, maT Soris tumboebi, milebi, WurWeli, konteinerebi, in­

ventari da a.S. unda iyos damzadebuli kvebis mrewvelobaSi gamoyenebisTvis

nebadarTuli masaliT da maTi gamoyeneba sursaTis garda sxva miznebisTvis

unda aRikveTos;

33 nebadarTuli masalebi: uJangavi foladi, plastmasi, da a.S. yvela masalas

unda hqondes Sesabamisi damadasturebeli dokumenti, rom maTi gamoyeneba

kvebis produqtTan uSualo SexebaSi SesaZlebelia.

akrZalulia:

xis zedapirebis gamoyeneba, (Tumca arsebobs gamonaklisi SemTxvevebi zogierTi

saxeobis yvelis momwifebisTvis, rogorc es me-20 suraTzea naCvenebi):

(1) xis forovani struqtura SeuZlebels xdis recxva/dezinfeqciis efeqturad

ganxorcielebas; (2) xes droTa ganmavlobaSi nawilakebi scviva, rac

produqtis fizikuri dabinZurebis sagani SeiZleba gaxdes.

gatexili/dazianebuli saTlebis da inventaris gamoyeneba.

suraTi 20. yvelis mosamwifebeli xis Taroebi

wyalmomarageba da kanalizacia

33 sawarmoSi gamoyenebuli wyali aucilebelad unda iyos sasmeli da akmay­

ofilebdes saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobiT dadgenil normebs;

33 produqtTan SexebaSi gamoyenebuli yinuli, orTqli ar unda iyos dabinZure­

buli, rom safrTxe ar Seuqmnas sursaTis uvneblobas;

33 teqnikuri wylis gamoyeneba SesaZlebelia mxolod xanZarsawinaaRmdego mizne­

bisa da milebis gacieba/gacxeleba mizniT;

33 sakanalizacio sistema unda muSaobdes gamarTulad. aucilebelia ukusar­

qvelebis damontaJeba.

38


Zis gadamamuSavebeli sawarmo

narCenebis utilizacia

33 warmoebis procesSi dagrovili narCenebi CaSvebuli unda iqnas kanalizaciaSi

(mag., recxva/dezinfeqciis Sedegad gamoyenebuli wyali) an/da Segrovebuli

saamqroSi specialurad am miznisTvis gamoyofil bunkerSi;

33 saamqroSi arsebul bunkerebs unda hqondes Sesabamisi warwera gakeTebuli;

33 warmoebis procesis dasrulebis Semdeg sawarmoSi dagrovili narCenebi unda

ganTavsdes gareTa teritoriaze narCenebisTvis arsebul Tavdaxurul bunkerSi;

33 rogorc sawarmos SigniT aseve gareT arsebuli bunkerebi unda iyos mTeli

da unda iZleodes recxva/dezinfeqciis SesaZleblobas.

imis dasadgenad Tu ramdenad akmayofilebs rZis gadamamuSavebeli sawarmo higienis

zogadi wesebis moTxovnebs, sawarmos warmomadgenels SeuZlia TviTSefasebis

Catareba sursaTis/cxovelis sakvebis mwarmoebeli sawarmos/distributoris higienis

zogadi wesis (saqarTvelos mTavrobis 2010 wlis 25 ivnisis #173 dadgenilebis

danarTi #1) Sesabamisobis Sefasebis aqtis (danarTi #2.2) mixedviT.

IV.2. winaswari aucilebeli programebi

winaswari aucilebeli programebi xels uwyobs ukve mowyobili infrastruqturis

(ix. Tavi IV.1) SenarCunebas da movlas, rom produqtis meoradi dasnebovneba

ar moxdes momsaxure personalisgan, recxva-dezinfeqciis araefeqturi dagegmarebis

Sedegad, qimiuri nivTierebebis araswori dasawyobebisgan, manqana-danadgarebis arasaTanado

momsaxurebisgan da a.S. aRniSnuli programebi, rogorc wesi, kompaniebSi

warmodgenilia standartuli samuSao instruqciebis saxiT (ix. informacia I TavSi

`sursaTis uvneblobis marTvis sistemis zogadi mimoxilva~), romlebSic detalurad

aris gawerili gansaxorcielebeli qmedebebi, pasuxismgebeli pirebi, saqmianobis Sesrulebis

dagegmili perioduloba.

qvemoT mocemulia standartuli samuSao instruqciebi, romlebic SemuSavda

TvalsaCinoebisTvis da aqedan gamomdinare ar moicavs srulad winaswari aucilebeli

programebis farglebSi gasaTvaliswinebel yvela sakiTxs. standartuli samuSao

instruqciebis gamoyeneba SeiZleba ara mxolod gadamamuSavebeli sawarmoebis

mier, aramed rZis fermis,

rZis Semgrovebeli centris,

distributoris/

maRaziis mierac. konkretulma

biznesoperatorma

sursaTis uvneblobis mar­

Tvis sistemis SemuSavebisas

unda moaxdinos

standartuli samuSao

instruqciebis adaptacia

konkretuli garemoebebis

gaTvaliswinebiT.

39


Zis gadamamuSavebeli sawarmo

standartuli samuSao instruqcia #01

TariRi:

mizani:

dasufTaveba da recxva-dezinfeqcia

damtkicebulia [Tanamdeboba, xelmowera]:

winamdebare instruqcia warmoebuli produqtis dabinZurebis albaTobis minimumamde Semcirebis

mizans emsaxureba.

SeniSvna: dasufTavebis ganrigSi zogierTi etapi mocemulia nimuSis saxiT.

gavrcelebis areali:

instruqcia aRwers dasufTavebis wesebs Senoba/nagebobisTvis, saamqroebisTvis, manqanadanadgarebisTvis,

produqtTan SexebaSi myofi zedapirebisTvis (inventaris CaTvliT), damxmare

saTavsebisTvis, sawyobebisTvis, sanitaruli kvanZebisTvis, gasaxdelebisTvis, mimdebare

teritoriis dasufTavebisTvis.

ganxorcielebaze pasuxismgebeli piri:

aRniSnuli instruqciis Sesrulebaze pasuxismgebloba ekisreba [miuTiTeT Tanamdeboba].

ganxorcielebis etapebi/wesebi:

dasufTavebis ganrigi da etapebi

sawarmoo saamqroebis, sawyobebis, manqana-danadgarebis, samuSao zedapirebis da inventaris

recxva-dezinfeqcia xorcieldeba qvemoT moyvanili ganrigis mixedviT (cxrili 1).

cxrili #1: dasufTavebis ganrigi

dasufTavebis obieqti sixSire dasufTavebis etapebi

saamqroebi

sawyobebi

damxmare saTavsebi

manqana-danadgarebi

inventari da WurWeli 1

yoveli samuSao procesis

dasrulebis Semdeg

1. garecxeT Tbili wyliT

(35-40°C);

2. Semdeg gaxexeT jagrisiT

da Tbili wyliT (>+65°C),

romelic Seicavs sanhigienur

saSualebas;

3. garecxeT sanhigienuri sa­

Sualebis srul mocilebamde;

4. gaavleT sadezinfeqcio xsnarSi;

5. WurWeli gadmotrialebul

mdgomareobaSi gaaSreT

specialur Taroebze;

6. inventari gasaSrobad

CamokideT specialur sakidebze;

7. mSrali sarZeve WurWeli

SeinaxeT sufTa adgilas;

13

nimuSi

40


Zis gadamamuSavebeli sawarmo

rZis gamaciebeli avzi 14

yoveli samuSao procesis

dasrulebis Semdeg

1. gamaciebeli avzi SearTeT

rezinis miliT saqaC motorTan

da aseve saqaC motorze

wamoacviT meore

rezinis mili;

2. civi wyliT gamorecxeT

rZis gamaciebeli avzi;

3. daketeT avzis onkani da

avzSi moaTavseT 15 l. cxeli

wylisa da sanhigienuri

saSualebis nazavi;

4. jagrisiT kargad gaxexeT

av zis kedlebi da misi

xufi;

5. garecxeT avzi da xufi civi

wylis WavliT saguldagulod;

6. dacaleT avzi wylisgan;

7. daayovneT avzi Tavaxdil

mdgomareobaSi, rom kargad

gaSres.

fermerul meurneobaSi nakelis

gatana 215 dReSi orjer 1. wvelis dawyebamde gaitaneT

nakeli, rom garemo wvelis

procesSi sufTa iyos;

2. gaitaneT sxva tipis narCeni

nakelgamtani

saSualeba 316

satransporto

sanitaruli kvanZebi da gasaxdelebi

Sida da gare bunkerebi

sawarmos mimdebare teritoria

yoveldRiurad

TveSi erTxel

1. daasufTaveT meqanikurad

2. CautareT recxva-dezinfeqcia

dasufTavebisas gamoyenebuli qimiuri saSualebebi da inventari

recxva-dezinfeqciisTvis gamoiyeneba mxolod sawarmos mier damtkicebuli qimiuri

saSualebebi. CamonaTvalis SemuSaveba xdeba saxelmZRvanelos danarTi 4-is mixedviT.

TiToeuli sanhigienuri saSualebisTvis SemuSavebulia misi momzadebis instruqcia

da maTi ganzaveba/gamoyeneba xdeba am instruqciis Sesabamisad.

sarecxi-sadezinfeqcio saSualebis aqtiurobis gansazRvra xdeba winamdebare

saxelmZRvanelos danarTi 5-is mixedviT.

sxvadasxva tipis recxva-dezinfeqciisTvis gamoyenebuli inventari (tiloebi, sarecxi

Rrublebi, jagrisebi da a.S.) sasurvelia feriT gansxvavdebodes (mag., inventari

rZis avzisTvis da rZis bidonebis gasarecxi oTaxisTvis).

dasufTavebis qmedebebis ganxorcieleba da gadamowmeba

ganxorcielebuli qmedebebis dafiqsireba Sesabamisi pasuxismgebeli piris mier xdeba

`recxva-dezinfeqciis JurnalSi~ (danarTi 2.9).

dasufTavebis qmedebebis efeqturobis gadamowmebas axorcielebs `miuTiTeT pasuxismgebeli

piri~. dasufTavebis qmedebebis Sedegebis analizis safuZvelze xorcieldeba:

dasufTavebis sixSiris gazrda/Semcireba;

qimiuri saSualebebis Secvla;

TanamSromlebis treningi da sxva.

Canawerebi:

recxva-dezinfeqciis Jurnali (danarTi 2.9).

14

nimuSi

215

nimuSi

316

nimuSi

41


Zis gadamamuSavebeli sawarmo

standartuli samuSao instruqcia #02

TariRi:

mizani:

piradi higiena da qcevis wesebi

damtkicebulia [Tanamdeboba, xelmowera]:

am instruqciis mizania piradi higienisa da qcevis wesebis dacvis gziT produqtis dabinZurebis

albaTobis minimumamde Semcireba.

gavrcelebis areali:

instruqciaSi mocemuli wesebi exeba:

•y kompaniis yvela TanamSromels menejmentis warmomadgenlebis CaTvliT;

•y sawarmoSi mosul stumrebs.

ganxorcielebaze pasuxismgebeli piri:

higienisa da qcevis wesebis uzrunvelyofaze pasuxismgebloba ekisreba [miuTiTeT Tanamdeboba].

ganxorcielebis etapebi/wesebi:

momsaxure personalis janmrTelobis mdgomareoba

TanamSromlebi, romlebic iseTi daavadebebis matareblebi arian, riTic SesaZlebelia

sursaTis dasnebovneba, sawarmoo saamqroebSi ar daiSvebian. nebismierma aseTma adamianma

dauyonebliv unda acnobebs simptomebis/daavadebebis Sesaxeb am instruqciis Sesrulebaze

pasuxismgebel pirs, romelic aseT SemTxvevebs aRricxavs `momsaxure personalis janmrTelobis

mdgomareobis aRricxvis JurnalSi~ (danarTi 2.10).

daavadebebis CamonaTvali, romlis Sesaxebac unda moxdes Setyobineba Semdegia: epidemiuri

hepatiti, tuberkulozi, diarea, pirRebineba, maRali temperatura, yelis tkivili

da maRali temperatura, Wrilobebi, Cirqovani gamonadeni da a.S., dermatologiuri problemebi,

yuridan/Tvalidan/ cxviridan gamonadeni.

sawarmo axorcielebs momsaxure personalis kompleqsur samedicino Semowmebas Ser­

Ceul specializirebul samedicino dawesebulebaSi. janmrTelobis Semowmeba unda ganxorcieldes:

(1) TanamSromlebis samsaxurSi ayvanamde; (2) muSaobis periodSi sul mcire

weliwadSi erTxel mainc.

sawarmoSi aseve arsebobs pirveladi samedicino daxmarebis yuTi, romlis mudmiv ganaxlebas

da Sevsebas uzrunvelyofs instruqciaze pasuxismgebeli piri.

piradi higiena

sursaTTan uSualo SexebaSi myofi momsaxure personali icavs higienis wesebs, romlebic

dakavSirebulia CacmulobasTan, xelebis mdgomareobasTan da higienis sxva sakiTxebTan.

qveviT mocemuli wesebis dacva aseve savaldebuloa menejmentis warmomadgenlebisa

da stumrebisTvis.

Cacmuloba. sawarmoo saamqroebSi Sesuli nebismieri adamiani, miuxedavad imisa mas

pirdapiri Sexeba aqvs Tu ara sursaTTan, icavs CacmulobasTan dakavSirebul Semdeg

wesebs:

atarebs Sekrul xalaTs, romelsac sasurvelia ar hqondes jibeebi da Rilebi;

atarebs Tavsaburavs, romliTac srulad aris dafaruli Tma;

atarebs sanitarul fexsacmels da baxilebs stumrebis SemTxvevaSi;

atarebs pirbades, wver-ulvaSis tarebis SemTxvevaSi.

dauSvebelia:

sanitaruli tansacmlis gamocvla saamqroebSi. tansacmlis gamocvla unda moxdes

gasaxdelebSi;

sanitaruli tansacmliT da fexsacmliT sawarmoo Senobis gareT gasvla;

42


Zis gadamamuSavebeli sawarmo

tualetSi sanitaruli tansacmliT Sesvla;

WuWyiani sanitaruli tansacmliT muSaoba.

menejmenti uzrunvelyofs sawarmoSi saWiro raodenobis sanitaruli tansacmlis arsebobas,

iseve rogorc mis centralizebul recxvas.

xelebis mdgomareoba. xelebTan dakavSirebiT Semdegi wesebi moqmedebs:

frCxilebi aris ZirSi waWrili;

sufTa mdgomareobaSi;

Wrilobebis gareSe.

dauSvebelia:

xelovnuri frCxilebis gamoyeneba;

frCxilis laqis gamoyeneba;

WrilobebiT, gamonayariT da infeqciuri daavadebebis kvaliT (mxrebamde) muSaoba.

Wrilobis SemTxvevaSi, igi unda daifaros higienuri saxveviT da rezinis higienuri

saTiTuriT an erTjeradi xelTaTmaniT.

xelebis dabana. sawarmoo saamqroebSi xelebis dabanasTan dakavSirebiT Semdegi wesebis

dacva savaldebuloa:

xelebis dabana xdeba:

•y saamqroebSi yoveli Sesvlis win;

•y sursaTis warmoebasTan dakavSirebuli nebismieri saqmianobis dawyebis win;

•y tualetiT sargeblobis Semdeg;

•y sawarmoo procesis msvlelobisas Caxvelebis, daceminebis, cxvirsaxociT an

erTjeradi xelsaxociT sargeblobis Semdeg;

•y sawarmoo procesis msvlelobisas WuWyian nivTebTan an danadgarTan Sexebis

Semdeg.

xelebis dabanis TvalsaCino procedura ganTavsebulia yvela xelsabanTan;

xelebis dabanisas gamoiyeneba:

•y gamdinare Tbili/cxeli wyali;

•y Txevadi saponi an/da xelebis sadezinfeqcio xsnari;

•y erTjeradi qaRaldis xelsaxoci;

•y frTxilebisTvis gankuTvnili jagrisi.

piradi nivTebi. pirad nivTebSi igulismeba nebismieri is sagani, romelmac SeiZleba xeli

Seuwyos warmoebuli produqtis mikrobiologiur an/da fizikur dabinZurebas. mag., samkaulis

produqtSi moxvedris SemTxvevaSi moxdeba produqtis fizikuri dabinZureba; mobiluri

telefonis sawarmoSi gamoyenebis da Semdeg uSualod produqtis Sexebis Sedegad

produqtis mikrobiologiurad dasnebovnebis SesaZlebloba izrdeba.

aqedan gamomdinare, pirad nivTebTan dakavSirebiT SemuSavebulia akrZalvebis garkveuli

nusxa, romelic Semdegnairad gamoiyureba:

dauSvebelia:

piradi nivTebis Setana saamqroebSi. maTi Senaxva gasaxdelebSi (momsaxure personalis

SemTxvevaSi) an specialurad am miznisTvis gamoyofil adgilas (stumrebis

SemTxvevaSi) xdeba.

samkaulebis tareba (saaTi, beWedi, sayure, gulsabnevi da a.S.). gamonakliss SeiZleba

warmoadgendes mxolod tansacmliT dafaruli naTlobis jvari.

mobiluri telefonis sawarmoo saamqroebSi Setana da moxmareba.

sxva wesebi. garda zemoT moyvanili wesebisa sursaTis uvneblobis uzrunvelyofis mizniT

sawarmoo saamqroebSi sastikad ikrZaleba:

43


Zis gadamamuSavebeli sawarmo

moweva;

sakvebis an sasmelis Setana;

Wama an gamagrilebeli sasmelis daleva;

wamlis miReba;

saReWi rezinis ReWva.

aRniSnuli qmedebebis ganxorcieleba SesaZlebelia mxolod saamqroebis gareT, specialurad

am miznebisTvis gankuTvnil adgilas. sawarmoo saamqroebSi moqmedi akrZalvebi TvalsaCinod

aris gamokruli saamqroebis SesasvlelebTan da TviT saamqroebSi.

TanamSromlebis mier CacmulobasTan, xelebis mdgomareobasTan, piradi nivTebis tarebasTan

da a.S. arsebuli wesebis inspeqtirebas minimum kviraSi erTxel axorcielebs am

instruqciis Sesrulebaze pasuxismgebeli piri. darRvevebis aRricxva xdeba `darRvevebis

zogad JurnalSi~ (danarTi 2.11).

momsaxure personalis treningi da stumrebis instruqtaJi

am instruqciis ganxorcielebaze pasuxismgebeli piri uzrunvelyofs:

momsaxure personalisTvis, menejmentis CaTvliT, sawarmoSi arsebuli wesebis Sesaxeb

treningis Catarebas;

•y TanamSromlebis samsaxurSi ayvanamde;

•y wesebis darRvevis SemTxvevaSi individualurad

•y minimum 2 TveSi erTxel sawyis etapze, xolo wesebis darRvevevis klebadi tendenciis

SemTxvevaSi ufro naklebi sixSiriT, xolo mzardi tendenciis SemTxvevaSi

ufro xSirad.

stumrebisTvis sawarmoo saamqroebSi Sesvlamde instruqtaJis Catarebas moqmedi

wesebis Sesaxeb.

`treningis Jurnalis~ (danarTi 2.12) warmoebas, sadac asaxulia im momsaxure personalis

vinaoba, vinc treiningi gaiara.

Canawerebi:

momsaxure personalis janmrTelobis mdgomareobis aRricxvis Jurnali (danarTi

2.10);

darRvevebis zogadi Jurnali (danarTi 2.11);

treningis Jurnali (danarTi 2.12).

44


Zis gadamamuSavebeli sawarmo

standartuli samuSao instruqcia #03

TariRi:

mizani:

mavneblebis kontroli

damtkicebulia [Tanamdeboba, xelmowera]:

aRniSnuli instruqcia emsaxureba mavneblebis gziT produqciis meoradi dabinZurebis

Tavidan acilebas.

gavrcelebis areali:

instruqcia exeba sawarmos rogorc Sida, aseve gare perimetrze mavneblebTan dakavSirebuli

kontrolis meqanizmebs. mavneblebSi igulisxmeba rogorc mRrRnelebi, aseve mfrinavi/

mcocavi mwerebi da Citebi.

ganxorcielebaze pasuxismgebeli piri:

aRniSnuli instruqciis Sesrulebaze pasuxismgebloba ekisreba `miuTiTeT Tanamdeboba~.

ganxorcielebis etapebi/wesebi:

zogadi wesebi mavneblebis aqtiurobis Tavidan acilebasTan dakavSirebiT

mavneblebis programis efeqturi kontroli gulisxmobs kompaniaSi garkveuli akrZalvebis

dawesebas. kerZod, dauSvebelia:

sawarmoo teritoriaze da saamqroebSi Sinauri cxovelebis arseboba;

Riobebis arseboba Senobis nebismier nawilSi fanjrebisa da karebebis CaTvliT;

sawarmoo saamqroebSi, sawyobebsa da macivrebSi qimiuri nivTierebebis gamoyeneba

mavneblebTan sabrZolvelad;

nedleulis, mza produqtis, nebismieri nivTis Tu WurWlis dasawyobeba iatakze.

mavneblebis winaaRmdeg gamoiyeneba Semdegi saSualebebi:

mfrinavi mwerebi _ mwerebis eleqtronuli saWeri

•y ganlagebis adgili _ ara uSualod produqtis Tavze. gaiTvaliswineba aseve

mwarmoeblis mier pasportSi mocemuli rekomendaciebi xelsawyos gamoyenebasTan

dakavSirebiT.

mRrRnelebi _ xafangebi da saTagurebi

•y ganlagebis adgili _ kedelTan da karebTan axlos.

mcocavi mwerebi _ dezinseqciis qmedebebi.

•y Sesabamisi saamqro an sawyobi srulad icleba produqtisagan. specializirebuli

kompaniis mier dezinseqciis qmedebis damTavrebisTanave aucilebelia Sesabamisi

saamqros an sawyobis recxva-dezinfeqcia. mxolod amis Semdeg aris

SesaZlebeli saamqroSi/sawyobSi produqtis, nedleulis Tu damxmare masalis

Setana.

mavneblebis monitoringis qmedebebi:

SemuSavebulia sawarmos Senobis naxazi da masze datanilia mavneblebTan brZolis

sawinaaRmdego saSualebebis ganlagebis adgilebi;

pasuxismgebeli piri uzrunvelyofs mavneblebis kontrols SemuSavebuli gegmis

mixedviT (ix. cxrili 1 - `mavneblebis kontrolis gegma~) da miTiTebuli sixSiris

mixedviT gakeTebuli monitoringis Sedegebs afiqsirebs `mavneblebis kontrolis

JurnalSi~ (ix. danarTi 2.13).

45


Zis gadamamuSavebeli sawarmo

cxrili 1: mavneblebis kontrolis gegma

Semowmebis obieqti sixSire pasuxismgebeli piri

kedlebis perimetri

Senobis Riobebi

eleqtronuli saWeri

xafangebi

saTagurebi

JurnalSi dafiqsirebuli Sedegebis analizis safuZvelze ganisazRvreba mavneblebis

gansakuTrebuli aqtivobebis adgilebi aseTis arsebobis SemTxvevaSi da gamoiyeneba

ufro meti sakontrolo saSualebebi. Sesabamisi Sesworebebi Sedis Senobis naxazSi,

iseve rogorc Semowmebis periodulobaSi mavneblebis aqtivobidan gamomdinare.

Canawerebi:

`mavneblebis kontrolis Jurnali~ (danarTi 2.13 - ivseba mxolod mavneblis dafiqsirebis,

Senobis hermetulobis an/da badis mTlianobis darRvevis SemTxvevaSi).

46


Zis gadamamuSavebeli sawarmo

standartuli samuSao instruqcia #04

TariRi:

mizani:

narCenebis marTva

damtkicebulia [Tanamdeboba, xelmowera]:

am instruqciis mizania sawarmoo procesis mimdinareobisas warmoqmnili narCenis efeqturi

marTvis uzrunvelyofa garemosa da produqtis dabinZurebis minimumamde Semcirebis mizniT.

gavrcelebis areali:

instruqciaSi mocemuli wesebis dacva savaldebuloa sawarmos Sida da gare teritoriis

farglebSi.

ganxorcielebaze pasuxismgebeli piri:

aRniSnuli instruqciis Sesrulebaze pasuxismgebloba ekisreba [miuTiTeT Tanamdeboba].

ganxorcielebis etapebi/wesebi:

narCenebis utilizacia sawarmoo SenobaSi

warmoebis procesSi dagrovili narCenebis, rogoricaa magaliTad daRvrili produqcia,

gadmosuli Srati, recxva/dezinfeqciisTvis gamoyenebuli wyali da a.S., CaSveba

xdeba kanalizaciaSi;

sxva saxis narCenis Segroveba xdeba saamqroSi specialurad am miznisTvis gamoyofil

bunkerSi;

saamqroSi arsebuli yvela bunkeri aris mTeli, iZleva recxva/dezinfeqciis Sesa­

Zleblobas da aqvs warwera `narCeni~, rom misi gamoyeneba SecdomiT sxva miznebisTvis

ar moxdes;

warmoebis procesis dasrulebis Semdeg `saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi SeiZleba dReSi

orjer. sixSires adgens sawarmo~, saamqroebSi dagrovili narCenebis gatana xdeba

gareTa teritoriaze ganTavsebul bunkerSi pasuxismgebeli piris mier;

Sida bunkerebis dasufTavebasTan dakavSirebuli informacia ixileT dasufTavebisa

da recxva-dezinfeqciis instruqcia #01-Si.

narCenebis utilizacia sawarmos gareTa teritoriaze

gareTa teritoriaze arsebuli bunkerebi mTelia da mudmivad Tavdaxurul mdgomareobaSia.

narCenebis utilizacia gareTa teritoriidan xdeba minimum kviraSi orjer Sesabamis

samsaxurebTan SeTanxmebiT.

gareTa teritoriaze ganTavsebuli bunkerebis recxva/dezinfeqciis Sesaxeb informacia

ixileT dasufTavebisa da recxva-dezinfeqciis instruqcia #01-Si.

Tu gadamowmebis Sedegad dadginda, rom:

narCenebis gatana instruqciaSi miTiTebuli sixSiriT ar xdeba, maSin faqti fiqsirdeba

`darRvevebis zogad JurnalSi~ (danarTi #2.11) da konkretul qmedebaze

pasuxismgebeli piri uzrunvelyofs samuSaos dauyonebliv Sesrulebas;

Sida da gare teritoriaze mdebare bunkerebis recxva-dezinfeqcia efeqturad ar

xorcieldeba, maSin xdeba maTi xelaxali garecxva;

Tu Sesabamisi samsaxurebis mier gare teritoriidan narCenebis utilizacia ar

xdeba mimdinareobs maTTan molaparakeba an damatebiTi bunkerebis SeZena.

Canawerebi:

`darRvevebis zogadi Jurnali~ (danarTi #2.11)

47


Zis gadamamuSavebeli sawarmo

standartuli samuSao instruqcia #05

TariRi:

mizani:

qimiuri nivTierebebis kontroli

damtkicebulia [Tanamdeboba, xelmowera]:

am instruqciis mizania sawarmoSi arsebuli qimiuri nivTierebebis kontroli maTi etiketirebis,

sworad dasawyobebisa da gamoyenebis CaTvliT, raTa moxdes produqtis dabin­

Zurebis SesaZleblobebis minimumamde dayvana.

gavrcelebis areali:

instruqciaSi mocemuli wesebi exeba kompaniaSi gamoyenebul nebismier qimiur nivTierebas,

rogoric SeiZleba iyos:

produqtis warmoebisTvis gamoyenebuli saSualebebi;

recxva-dezinfeqciisTvis gamoyenebuli sanhigienuri saSualebebi;

manqana-danadgarebis teqnikuri momsaxurebisTvis gankuTvnili sapoxi masalebi;

mavneblebTan brZolisTvis gaTvaliswinebuli qimiuri saSualebebi.

ganxorcielebaze pasuxismgebeli piri:

aRniSnuli instruqciis Sesrulebaze pasuxismgebloba ekisreba [miuTiTeT Tanamdeboba].

ganxorcielebis etapebi/wesebi:

qimiuri saSualebebis etiketireba

sawarmoSi nebismieri mizniT arsebuli qimiuri saSualebebis etiketi im enazea

warmodgenili, romelic esmis momsaxure personals. amisaTvis sawarmo Txovs momwodebels

miawodos informacia sasurvel enaze an TviTon uzrunvelyofs Targmanis

gakeTebas. etiketi unda moicavdes Semdeg informacias: (1) dasaxeleba; (2) mwarmoebeli;

(3) gamoyenebis instruqcia; (4) vargisianobis vada;

Tu qimiuri saSualebebis Senaxva Tavdapirvel taraSi ar xdeba, arsebul taras

aucileblad aqvs miTiTebuli yvela is informacia, romelic sawyis SefuTvaze iyo

miTiTebuli;

yvela qimiur saSualebas, Tu es SesaZlebelia, Tan axlavs mwarmoeblis mier mowodebuli

`usafrTxoebis furceli~.

qimiuri saSualebebis dasawyobeba

qimiuri saSualebebi iseT Caketil karadaSi an saTavsoSi inaxeba, sadac ar aris

ganTavsebuli SesafuTi masala an sursaTi/cxovelis sakvebi;

uSualod warmoebuli produqtisTvis da araproduqtisTvis gankuTvnili qimiuri

saSualebebi cal-calke saTavsoSi inaxeba;

qimiuri saSualebebi xelmisawvdomia mxolod Semdegi pirebisTvis:

• y produqtisTvis gamoyenebuli nivTierebebi _ [miuTiTeT Tanamdeboba]

• y recxva-dezinfeqciisTvis gamoyenebuli qimiuri saSualebebi _ [miuTiTeT Tanamdeboba]

•y manqana-danadgarebis teqnikuri momsaxurebisTvis gamoyenebuli sapoxi masalebi

_ [miuTiTeT Tanamdeboba]

• y dezinseqciisTvis gamoyenebuli qimiuri saSualebebi _ [miuTiTeT Tanamdeboba]

qimiuri saSualebebi aucileblad inaxeba Tavdaxurul konteinerSi;

qimiuri saSualebebis carieli konteinerebis gamoyeneba SeiZleba mxolod msgavsi

nivTierebisTvis.

qimiuri saSualebebis gamoyeneba

nebismieri mizniT arsebuli qimiuri saSualebebis gamoyeneba xdeba mxolod mwarmoeblis

rekomendaciebis mixedviT.

48


Zis gadamamuSavebeli sawarmo

standartuli samuSao instruqcia #06

TariRi:

mizani:

manqana-danadgarebis momsaxureba

damtkicebulia [ Tanamdeboba, xelmowera]:

aRniSnuli instruqcia emsaxureba sawarmoSi arsebuli manqana-danadgarebis gamarTulad

muSaobis uzrunvelyofis mizans da aqedan gamomdinare aRwers teqnikuri momsaxurebis

dagegmva-ganxorcielebis da gasazomi saSualebebis dakalibreba/damowmeba/Sedarebis

qmedebebs.

gavrcelebis areali:

instruqcia exeba sawarmoSi gamoyenebul nebismier manqana-danadgars, maT Soris gasazom

saSualebebs.

ganxorcielebaze pasuxismgebeli piri:

aRniSnuli instruqciis Sesrulebaze pasuxismgebloba ekisreba [miuTiTeT Tanamdeboba].

ganxorcielebis etapebi/wesebi:

zogadi wesebi

pasuxismgebeli piri axorcielebs sawarmoSi arsebuli manqana-danadgarebisa da

gasazomi saSualebebis nusxis Sedgenas (ix. danarTi 2.14 _ manqana-danadgarebisa da

gasazomi saSualebebis momsaxurebis gegma);

TiToeul manqana-danadgarsa da gasazom saSualebas eniWeba saidentifikacio nomeri;

sawarmos mflobelobaSi arsebul yvela manqana-danadgarsa da gasazom saSualebas

aqvs mwarmoeblis mier mowodebuli pasporti. sxva SemTxvevaSi Sida pasportis SemuSavebas

uzrunvelyofs kompania;

Tu pasportis originali momsaxure personalisTvis gaurkvevel enazea, misi Targmani

xelmisawvdomia.

teqnikuri momsaxurebis, dakalibreba/damowmeba/Sedarebis qmedebebis dagegmva

wlis dasawyisSi pasuxismgebeli piri uzrunvelyofs manqana-danadgarebis momsaxurebis

gegmis da gasazomi saSualebebis dakalibreba/damowmeba/Sedarebis gegmis

SemuSavebas `manqana-danadgarebis da gasazomi saSualebebis momsaxurebis gegmis~

mixedviT (danarTi 2.14). gegmis Sedgena xdeba:

•y mwarmoeblis mier pasportSi mocemuli rekomendaciebis da

•y sawarmos warsuli gamocdilebis, wina wlebis ganmavlobaSi teqnikur momsaxurebasTan

dakavSirebuli Canawerebis safuZvelze.

teqnikuri momsaxurebis, dakalibreba/damowmeba/Sedarebis qmedebebis ganxorcieleba

pasuxismgebeli piri uzrunvelyofs manqana-danadgarebis momsaxurebis gegmis mixedviT

gaTvaliswinebuli qmedebebis ganxorcielebas da aRricxavs `manqana-danadgarebisa

da gasazomi saSualebebis momsaxurebis JurnalSi~ (danarTi 2.15);

iseTi teqnikuri momsaxurebis ganxorcielebis qmedebebi, romlebic avariuli xasiaTisaa

da gaTvaliswinebuli ar yofila gegmis Sedgenisas, aRiricxeba aseve manqanadanadgarebisa

da gasazomi saSualebebis momsaxurebis JurnalSi (danarTi 2.15).

gasazomi saSualebebis dakalibreba/damowmeba/Sedareba

dakalibreba/damowmebis/Sedarebis qmedebebis ganxorcieleba Semdegnairad xdeba:

•y dakalibrebas, amgvari SesaZleblobis SemTxvevaSi, axorcielebs kompaniis personali

mwarmoeblis mier pasportSi mocemuli rekomendaciebis mixedviT;

•y damowmebisTvis kompania mimarTavs Sesabamis akreditebul organos, romelic

uzrunvelyofs am qmedebis ganxorcielebas da gascems Sesabamis dokumentacias;

49


Zis gadamamuSavebeli sawarmo

•y Sedareba xdeba etalonTan sawarmoSi amgvari damowmebuli gasazomi saSualebis

arsebobis SemTxvevaSi.

manqana-danadgarebisa da gasazomi saSualebebis Canawerebis analizis safuZvelze

SeiZleba Semdegi qmedebebi ganxorcieldes:

•y dakalibreba/damowmeba/Sedarebis periodulobis Secvla (sixSiris gazrda/Semcireba);

•y manqana-danadgaris, misi nawilis an/da gasazomi saSualebis Canacvleba;

•y manqana-danadgaris, misi nawilis an/da gasazomi saSualebis axali momwodeblis

moZieba.

Canawerebi:

manqana-danadgarebisa da gasazomi saSualebebis pasportebi;

manqana-danadgarebis da gasazomi saSualebebis momsaxurebis gegma (danarTi 2.14);

manqana-danadgarebisa da gasazomi saSualebebis momsaxurebis Jurnali (danarTi

2.15).

50


Zis gadamamuSavebeli sawarmo

standartuli samuSao instruqcia #07

TariRi:

mizani:

wylis kontroli

damtkicebulia [Tanamdeboba, xelmowera]:

am instruqciis mizania sawarmoSi gamoyenebuli wylis uvneblobis uzrunvelyofa, produqtis

da produqtTan SexebaSi myofi zedapirebis dabinZurebis Tavidan acilebisTvis.

gavrcelebis areali:

instruqciaSi mocemuli wesebis dacva savaldebuloa produqtis warmoebisTvis, manqanadanadgarebis

da Senoba-nagebobis recxva-dezinfeqciisTvis, xelebis dabanisTvis gamoyenebuli

wylisTvis.

ganxorcielebaze pasuxismgebeli piri:

aRniSnuli instruqciis Sesrulebaze pasuxismgebloba ekisreba [miuTiTeT Tanamdeboba].

ganxorcielebis etapebi/wesebi:

sawarmoSi gamoyenebuli wyali aris sasmeli da akmayofilebs saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobiT

dadgenil normebs;

gamoyenebuli wylis mikrobiologiuri da qimiuri parametrebis dadgena xdeba Sesabamisi

gareSe laboratoriis mier;

wylis gamoyeneba xdeba, mxolod laboratoriis mier damakmayofilebeli Sedegebis

dadgenis SemTxvevaSi. winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi wyali ar gamoiyeneba manam, sanam ar

daigegmeba Sesabamisi zomebi misi gauvnebelyofisTvis;

wylis kontroli xorcieldeba:

•y mis gamoyenebamde;

•y warmoebis procesSi minimum weliwadSi erTxel mainc.

laboratoriis mier gacemuli yvela dokumenti kompaniaSi inaxeba.

laboratoriis mier wylis parametrebis aradamakmayofilebeli Sedegebis dadgenis SemTxvevaSi

xdeba wylis gauvnebelyofa (Tu es SesaZlebelia) an wylis alternatiuli wyaros

moZieba.

Canawerebi:

gareSe laboratoriis mier gacemuli gamocdis oqmebi;

darRvevebis zogadi Jurnali (danarTi 2.11).

51


Zis gadamamuSavebeli sawarmo

standartuli samuSao instruqcia #08

TariRi:

mizani:

pretenziebis marTva

damtkicebulia [Tanamdeboba, xelmowera]:

winamdebare instruqcia miznad isaxavs sawarmos mier gamoSvebuli produqciis mimarT

gamoTqmuli nebismieri pretenziis efeqturi marTvis uzrunvelyofas.

gavrcelebis areali:

pretenziad iTvleba momxmareblis nebismieri ukmayofileba, romlis Setyobineba kompaniisTvis

moxda:

zepirsityvierad - telefonis zariT an uSualo saubris Sedegad;

werilobiT - oficialuri fostis, eleqtronuli fostis Tu faqsiT informaciis

gadacemis gziT.

aRniSnuli instruqcia iTvaliswinebs rogorc sabiTumo ise sacalo momxmareblis mxridan

gamoTqmul nebismier ukmayofilebaze reagirebas.

ganxorcielebaze pasuxismgebeli piri:

aRniSnuli instruqciis Sesrulebaze pasuxismgebloba ekisreba [miuTiTeT Tanamdeboba].

ganxorcielebis etapebi/wesebi:

kompaniis produqtTan dakavSirebuli nebismieri pretenziis Sesaxeb informaciis

miwodeba xdeba [miuTiTeT pasuxismgebeli piri], romelic yvela amgvar ukmayofilebas

afiqsirebs `pretenziebis JurnalSi~ (danarTi 2.16);

[miuTiTeT pasuxismgebeli piri] uzrunvelyofs yvela ukmayofilebis Zireuli mizezis

dadgenas;

gamomwvevi mizezis identificirebis Semdeg xdeba pretenziis diferenciacia, rogorc

sursaTis uvneblobasTan dakavSirebuli da yvela sxva danarCeni;

gamomwvevi mizezebis aRmofxvris mizniT pasuxismgebeli piri kompaniis Sesabamis

TanamSromelTan erTad gegmavs makoreqtirebel qmedebas, romelic miznad isaxavs

msgavsi problemebis xelaxali warmoSobis Tavidan acilebas.

pretenziis gamomgzavn momxmarebels unda miewodos informacia:

•y pretenziis SemosvlisTanave, rom Setyobineba miRebulia da muSaoba am mimarTulebiT

dawyebulia;

•y problemis aRmofxvrisTanave, sadac miTiTebuli iqneba ganxorcielebuli saqmianobis

Sedegebi.

Semosuli pretenziebis sapasuxod ganxorcielebuli Sesworebebi da makoreqtire­


Canawerebi:

beli qmedebebi aseve fiqsirdeba `pretenziebis JurnalSi~ (danarTi 2. 16);

kvartalSi erTxel [miuTiTeT pasuxismgebeli piri] axorcielebs miRebuli pretenziebis

analizs da adgens gasaumjobesebeli sakiTxebis samoqmedo gegmas.

momxmareblebisgan miRebuli da momxmareblebisTvis gagzavnili werilobiTi Setyobinebebi.

pretenziebis Jurnali (danarTi 2.16).

52


Zis gadamamuSavebeli sawarmo

standartuli samuSao instruqcia #09

TariRi:

mizani:

rZis Segroveba da miReba

damtkicebulia [Tanamdeboba, xelmowera]:

winamdebare instruqcia aRwers rZis Segrovebisa da miRebis process da aseve warmoadgens

miTiTebebs Semgrovebeli centrisTvis momwodeblebis kontrolTan dakavSirebiT.

gavrcelebis areali:

aRniSnuli instruqcia gamoiyeneba Semgrovebeli centris mier fermebidan/fermerebidan

rZis Segrovebisas da miRebisas.

ganxorcielebaze pasuxismgebeli piri:

rZis Segrovebaze pasuxismgebloba ekisreba [miuTiTeT Tanamdeboba]. Semgrovebel centrSi

rZis miRebaze pasuxismgebloba ekisreba [miuTiTeT Tanamdeboba].

ganxorcielebis etapebi/wesebi:

I. rZis uvneblobisa da xarisxis parametrebis SeTanxmeba momwodeblebTan

rZis Semgrovebeli centri aformebs xelSekrulebas TiToeul momwodebelTan (ferma/

fermeri), sadac gansazRvrulia saRi rZis misaRebi parametrebi. finansuri angariSgebac

am moTxovnebis mixedviT xorcieldeba. garda amisa, Semgrovebeli centri minimum 2 TveSi

erTxel axorcielebs saqonlis janmrTelobis mdgomareobis Sesaxeb informaciis gamoTxovas

momwodeblisgan, iseve rogorc uzrunvelyofs momwodeblis saqonlis SerCeviT Semowmebas.

II. rZis Segrovebis procesi _ aRniSnul etapebs xelmZRvanelobs pasuxismgebeli piri da Sedegebis

aRricxvisTvis iyenebs `fermebidan rZis Segrovebis Jurnals~ (danarTi 2.6).

1. rZis Segroveba xdeba yoveldRiurad 7 saaTidan 9 saaTamde.

2. fermaze misvlis dros pasuxismgebeli piri JurnalSi aRniSnavs fermis/fermeris

dasaxelebas da fermaze misvlis dros.

3. Semdeg etapze xdeba rZis sensoruli/organoleptikuri testi. rZis suni Semowmeba

(tkbili, axali, Zveli, mJave), Semowmeba sisufTaveze (ar iyos WuWyi, Tiva, Tma,

bidonis fskerze naleqi).

4. pasuxismgebeli piri urevs rZes mosareviT 5-6-jer da amowmebs rZis Termomdgradobas

alkoholis testis meSveobiT:

- erTi kovzi rZe ereva 72%-ian alkohols patara konteinerze. Tu wriuli, nazi

Serxevis Sedegad warmoiqmneba flokulacia, maSin aRniSnuli rZe ar unda iqnes

Segrovebuli, Tumca Sedegi unda aRiricxos JurnalSi.

5. damakmayofilebeli rZe grovdeba da JurnalSi aRiniSneba Segrovebuli rZis

raodenoba da saqonlis saidentifikacio nomrebi.

6. pasuxismgebeli piri aRniSnavs fermis/fermeris datovebis dros.

7. JurnalSi aRiniSneba rZis Semgrovebel centrSi misvlis dro.

III.

rZis miRebis procesi _ aRniSnul etapebs xelmZRvanelobs pasuxismgebeli piri

da Sedegebis aRricxvisTvis iyenebs `rZis miRebis Jurnals~ (danarTi 2.7).

1. rZis Semgrovebel centrSi miRebisas JurnalSi fiqsirdeba rZis miRebis dro,

fermis dasaxeleba/fermeris saxeli, gvari da bidonebis nomrebi.

2. Semdeg etapze xdeba TiToeuli balonis gaxsna, misi organoleptikuri Semowmeba

da Sedegebis aRricxva.

3. 5-6-jer rZis morevis Semdeg pasuxismgebeli piri iRebs analizis WiqiT rZes (100

ml).

4. tardeba alkoholis testi da Sedegebi (rogorc dadebiTi aseve uaryofiTi)

aRiricxeba JurnalSi.

5. xdeba mJavianobis gansazRvra da Sedegebis (rogorc dadebiTi aseve uaryofiTi)

aRricxva.

53


Zis gadamamuSavebeli sawarmo

IV.

6. rZis analizi tardeba laqtoskanSi Tu rZis temperatura 20°C-ze naklebia. Sedegebi

(rogorc dadebiTi aseve uaryofiTi) aRiricxeba. Tu wyali damatebulia,

maSin amgvari rZis miReba ar xdeba.

7. damakmayofilebeli rZe ifiltreba meqanikuri minarevebisgan da isxmeba gamaciebel

avzSi. gasafiltrad gamoiyeneba bambis naWeri, sawuri an rZis specialuri

filtrebi.

Canawerebi:

rZis gacemis procesi _ aRniSnul etapebs xelmZRvanelobs pasuxismgebeli piri.

saRi rZis parametrebi winaswar aris SeTanxmebuli Sesabamis gadamamuSavebel

sawarmosTan. Semgrovebeli centris mier rZis gacemis SemTxveva fiqsirdeba `rZis

gacemis JurnalSi~ (danarTi 2.8).

fermebidan rZis Segrovebis Jurnali (danarTi 2.6);

rZis miRebis Jurnali (danarTi 2.7);

rZis gacemis Jurnali (danarTi 2.8).

54


Zis gadamamuSavebeli sawarmo

standartuli samuSao instruqcia #10

TariRi:

mizani:

mza produqciis temperaturuli reJimis kontroli

damtkicebulia [Tanamdeboba, xelmowera]:

am instruqciis mizania mza produqciis dacva mavne zemoqmedebisgan mza produqciis sawyobSi,

distribuciisas da sacalo vaWrobis obieqtebSi.

gavrcelebis areali:

winamdebare instruqcia gamoiyeneba gadamamuSavebeli sawarmoebis mier mza produqciis

sawyobSi produqciis kontrolisas, distributorebis mier produqciis transportirebisas,

sacalo vaWrobis obieqtebis mier produqciis Senaxvisas.

ganxorcielebaze pasuxismgebeli piri:

aRniSnuli instruqciis Sesrulebaze pasuxismgebloba ekisreba [miuTiTeT Tanamdeboba].

ganxorcielebis etapebi/wesebi:

mza produqciis Senaxvis temperatura Semdegnairad aris gansazRvruli:

produqciis dasaxeleba Senaxvis temperatura Senaxvis vada

araJani

xaWo

mawoni

yveli

pasuxismgebeli piri uzrunvelyofs gasazomi saSualebis sizustes manqana-danadgarebis

momsaxurebis standartuli samuSao instruqcia #06-is mixedviT;

dReSi erTxel pasuxismgebeli piri uzrunvelyofs temperaturis Semowmebas mza

produqciis macivarSi/satransporto saSualebaSi/sacalo vaWrobis macivarSi da

Sedegebs aRricxavs `temperaturuli reJimis formaSi~ (danarTi 2.17);

procesidan gadaxris SemTxvevebi fiqsirdeba darRvevebis zogad JurnalSi (danarTi

2.11) da xorcieldeba Sesabamisi makoreqtirebeli qmedebebi.

Canawerebi:

temperaturuli reJimis forma (danarTi 2.17).

damatebiTi formebi gadamamuSavebeli sawarmosTvis:

33 sawarmoSi rZis miRebis Jurnali (danarTi 2.18);

33 teqnologiuri procesis Jurnali (danarTi 2.19);

33 sawyobis Semosaval-gasavlis Jurnali (danarTi 2.20).;

33 produqtis aRweris forma (danarTi 2.21);

33

HACCP-is gegma. safrTxis analizis forma (danarTi 2.22);

33

HACCP-is gegma. ZiriTadi cxrilis forma (danarTi 2.23).

55


Zis gadamamuSavebeli sawarmo

IV.3. HACCP-is gegma 171

sursaTis uvneblobis marTvis sistemis SemuSavebis bolo etapze xdeba HACCP-is

gegmebis SemuSaveba. aRniSnul gegmebSi aqcenti keTdeba iseT safrTxeebze, romelTa

mogvareba higienis zogadi wesebis dacviTa da standartuli samuSao instruqciebis

ganxorcielebiT ver xerxdeba. nimuSis saxiT warmodgenilia HACCP-is gegmis safrTxis

analizi da ZiriTadi cxrili araJnis produqtis aRwerasTan da warmoebis

blok-sqemasTan erTad:

produqtis aRwera

produqti: araJani

produqtis aRweriloba

sqeli, erTgvarovani, garegnulad priala, TeTri

masa kremisferi elferiT. dasaSvebia zomierad

sqeli konsistencia.

sufTa, rZemJavuri, pasterizebuli produqtisaTvis

damaxasiaTebeli gamoxatuli gemoTi da

aromatiT, ucxo gemosa da sunis gareSe.

distribuciis meTodi

SefuTva: 200 gr da 400 gr-iani folgiT hermetulad

daxuruli polipropilenis Wiqebi.

distribucia xorcieldeba macivar-manqaniT araumetes

+6°C temperaturis pirobebSi.

Senaxvis pirobebi da vada: 0 - +2ºC

temperaturis pirobebSi 7 dRe.

mikrobiologiuri da qimiuri maCveneblebiT Seesabameba

`sanitaruli wesebi da normebi 2.3.2.000-

00~-Si miTiTebul moTxovnebs.

ar Seicavs ucxo sxeuls.

miznobrivi gamoyeneba

gamoiyeneba sakveb produqtad gadamuSavebis gareSe.

ingredientebis CamonaTvali

nedli pasterizirebuli rZe;

separirebiT miRebuli naRebi;

rZemJava baqteriebis sufTa kulturaze

damzadebuli dedo.

miznobrivi momxmarebeli

gamoyeneba SeuZlia nebismier adamians Cvili asakis

bavSvebis garda.

gadamuSavebis meTodebi

ix. araJnis warmoebis teqnologiuri procedura

damtkicebulia:

______________________________

TariRi:

17

am saxelmZRvaneloSi moyvanili HACCP–is gegma SemuSavebulia TvalsaCinoebisTvis da konkretulma kompaniam

sursaTis uvneblobis marTvis sistemis SemuSavebisas unda moaxdinos misi adaptacia konkretuli produqtis,

procesis, garemoebebis gaTvaliswinebiT.

56


Zis gadamamuSavebeli sawarmo

araJnis warmoebis blok-sqema

1. rZis miReba, daxarisxeba

2. gafiltvra

4. naRebis damateba,

normalizacia

3. separirebuli

naRebi

5. homogenizacia

6. naRebis pasterizacia

7. Cadedebis

temperaturamde gacieba

9. dedos Setana da

Sededeba

8. mSrali dedo

11. Sededebuli masis dareva,

gafiltvra da dafasoeba

10. SesafuTi masala

12. macivarSi Senaxva

damtkicebulia:

______________________________

TariRi:

57


Zis gadamamuSavebeli sawarmo

araJnis HACCP-is gegma

araJnis warmoebis procesis safrTxis analizi 181

1 8gamoyenebulia danarT 1-Si miTiTebuli informacia sursaTis uvneblobis safrTxeebTan dakavSirebiT.

58


Zis gadamamuSavebeli sawarmo

59


60

rZis gadamamuSavebeli sawarmo


Zis gadamamuSavebeli sawarmo

61


62

rZis gadamamuSavebeli sawarmo


Zis gadamamuSavebeli sawarmo

63


Zis gadamamuSavebeli sawarmo

araJnis HACCP-is gegmis ZiriTadi cxrili

kritikuli

sakontrolo

wertili

HACCP-is

gegmaSi

moxseniebuli

safrTxeebi

kritikuli

zRvrebi

TiToeuli

sakontrolo

zomisaTvis

monitoringis qmedebebi

ra rogor sixSire vin

Sesworeba /

makoreqtirebeli

qmedebebi

gadamowmebasTan

dakavSirebuli

qmedebebi

rZis

filtracia

rZis

pasterizacia

fizikuri

safrTxe:

ucxo sxeulebi

biologiuri

safrTxe:

mezofiluri

aerobuli da

fakultaturi

anaerobuli

mikrobebi;

salmonela

0.1 mm badis

zoma

≥74°C ≥20 wm

filtrebis

arseboba,

simTele da

zoma

pasterizaciis

temperatura

TviTCamweris

muSaobis

Semowmeba

(qaRaldis da

melnis

arseboba)

filtrebis

simTelis

Semowmeba

firfitovani

pasterizatoris

Tvis

TviTCamweris

meSveobiT

rezervuaruli

pasterizaciisas

Termometris

gazomviT

TviTCamweris

muSaobis

vizualuri

dadastureba

muSaobis yoveli

procesis dawyebis

win da damTavrebis

Semdeg

mudmivi

pasterizaciis

dawyebisas da

dasrulebisas

muSaobis yoveli

procesis dawyebis

win

operatori muSaobis dawyebis win

garRveuli filtris

dafiqsirebisas xdeba

filtris Secvla;

procesis dasrulebis

Semdeg garRveuli

filtris

dafiqsirebisas

aucilebelia

filtrebis Secvla da

rZis xelmeored

filtracia

operatori

operatori gaumarTaobis mizezidan

gamomdinare: qaRaldis

an kartrijis Secvla,

TviTCamweris SekeTeba.

xolo Tu SeuZlebelia

amis gakeTeba, maSin

pasterizaciis

maCveneblebis xeliT

Cawera

rZis gafiltvris Semdeg

rZis sisufTavis

gadamowmeba 10 dReSi

erTxel

xelmeore pasterizacia 1) pasterizaciis

efeqturobis sinji 10

dReSi erTxel

2) rezervuaruli

pasterizatoris

Termometris gadamowmeba

dReSi erTxel

pasterizaciis procesis

dawyebamde

3) firfitovani

pasterizatoris eleqtro

Termometris kalibracia

weliwadSi erTxel

4) mza produqciis

mikrobiologiuri

maCveneblebis gadamowmeba 5

dReSi erTxel

5) ukusarqvelis

gamarTulobis Semowmeba

yoveli samuSao procesis

dawyebis win

damtkicebulia: TariRi:

damtkicebulia:

TariRi: ______________

Canawerebi

1) danadgarebis momsaxurebis

Jurnali

2) rZis sisufTavis Semowmebis

Jurnali

1) pasterizaciis Jurnali;

TviTCamweris amonabeWdi.

2) rZis pasterizaciis

efeqturobis gansazRvris

Jurnali

3) mza produqciis

baqteriologiuri gamokvlevis

Jurnali

4) mzomi xelsawyoebis

gadamowmebis, Sedarebis da

kalibraciis Jurnali

5) manqana-danadgarebis

momsaxurebis Jurnali

64


distribucia/realizacia

Tavi V. distribucia/realizacia

sacalo vaWrobis qselSi (maRaziebi, restornebi, kafeebi, bazrebi) sasursaTo

produqtis Sesanaxad saTanado temperaturuli da sanitaruli pirobebis dacva

Zalzed mniSvnelovania, raTa uvnebel garemoSi warmoebuli produqti iseT mdgomareobaSi

miewodos saboloo momxmarebels, rom mis janmrTelobas safrTxe ar

daemuqros. amisaTvis sursaTis sacalo vaWrobis obieqtebi da maTi teqnikuri aR­

Wurviloba unda akmayofilebdes sursaTis miwodebis, Senaxvisa da realizaciis

sanitarul­higienur wesebsa da pirobebs.

mza produqciis transportireba

P

P

P

mwarmoeblis obieqtebidan transportirebisas aucilebelia sanitaruli pirobebis

dacva, raTa gamoiricxos maTi dabinZureba da gafuWeba;

rZis produqtebis transportireba

xorcieldeba izoTermuli

(gamacieblis gareSe) an gamaciebliani

sabarguliT aRWurvili

avtomobiliT (ix. suraTi 21).

transportirebisas temperatura

ar unda aRematebodes +6°C­s da

satransporto saSualeba aRWurvili

unda iyos TermometriT;

transportirebisas produqti

ise unda iyos SefuTuli, rom

suraTi 21. rZis produqtebis

gamoiricxos misi SesaZlo dabinZureba.

satransporto saSualeba

zogadi moTxovnebi sursaTis sacalo vaWrobis obieqtebisadmi

P

P

P

P

P

sursaTis sacalo vaWrobis obieqti unda iyos ganTavsebuli iseT adgileb­

Si, sadac centraluri an/da avtonomiuri wyalgayvanilobis da kanalizaciis

sistemebia;

saTavsebis kedlebisa da iatakis zedapirebis mosapirkeTeblad gamoiyeneba

tenisadmi, temperaturisadmi, recxvisa da dezinfeqciisadmi gamZle masala.

iataki unda iyos swori zedapiriT, dazianebebisa da napralebis gareSe;

sakanalizacio trapebi ganlagebuli unda iyos samuSao adgilebisa da gasasvlelebisgan

moSorebiT;

obieqti aRWurvili unda iyos xelsabaniT da Sesabamisi inventariT (ix. IV.1­

sanitaruli kvanZebi);

sasawyobo saTavsebi, iseve rogorc savaWro darbazebi arasasursaTo da sasursaTo

saqonlisTvis unda iyos gancalkevebuli. akrZalulia arasasursaTo

saqonlis dafasoeba sursaTis savaWro obieqtSi;

65


distribucia/realizacia

33 rZisa da rZis

produqtebiT vaWrobis

SemTxvevaSi obieqti

aucileblad unda

iyos aRWurvili Sesabamisi

samacivre danadgariT;

33 macivarSi rZisa da

rZis produqtebis gan­

Tavsebisas maTi Senaxva

ar unda moxdes specifiuri

sunis mqone

sursaTTan (vinaidan

rZis produqtebs adsorbciis

kargi unari

gaaCniaT), aseve nedl produqtTan, rogorebicaa magaliTad umi xorci, gayinuli

Tevzi, kvercxi da a.S. gansakuTrebiT maSin Tu produqti sarealizaciod

daufasoebeli saxiTaa warmodgenili;

33 sacalo vaWrobis qselisTvis miwodebuli produqti aucilebelia iyos etiketirebuli

da masze miTiTebuli unda iyos: sursaTis dasaxeleba, mwarmoeblis

rekvizitebi, damzadebis TariRi, Senaxvis vada, Semadgenloba, Senaxvis

pirobebi, standarti, romlis mixedviTac moxda produqtis warmoeba, kvebiTi

Rirebulebebi. rZis produqtebs aseve aucilebelia hqondes aRniSnva maTi

damzadeba moxda rZis fxvnilisgan Tu saRi rZisgan;

33 mwarmoeblis mier etiketze miTiTebuli Senaxvis pirobebis dacvis gareSe

ikrZaleba produqciis realizacia;

33 dauSvebelia produqtis realizacia Tu mas SefuTva dazianebuli aqvs. xdeba

misi gadadeba da mwarmoeblisTvis dabruneba;

33 aucilebelia yoveldRiurad Semowmdes produqtebis `Senaxvis vada~.

daufasoebeli rZis produqtebis realizaciis sanitaruli pirobebi

33 daufasoebeli rZisa da rZis produqtebis (araJani, mawoni, xaWo) sursa­

Tis realizacia unda moxdes specialurad gamoyofil, Sesabamisad aRWurvil,

daxurul, sufTa, ventilirebad saTavsoSi, romelic daculia mRrRnelebisa

da mwerebis SeRwevisgan;

33 daufasoebeli rZis produqtebis realizaciisas produqtis amosaRebad gamoyenebul

unda iqnas kvebis mrewvelobaSi gamosayeneblad nebadarTuli da advilad

recxvadi inventari. misi Catoveba produqtis taraSi moxmarebidan

moxmarebamde dauSvebelia.

66


distribucia/realizacia

standartuli samuSao instruqciebi 19 distribucia/realizaciis

obieqtebisTvis 202

33 dasufTaveba da recxva-dezinfeqcia (standartuli samuSao instruqcia #01);

33 piradi higiena da qcevis wesebi (standartuli samuSao instruqcia #02);

33 mavneblebis kontroli (standartuli samuSao instruqcia #03);

33 narCenebis marTva (standartuli samuSao instruqcia #04);

33 qimiuri nivTierebebis kontroli (standartuli samuSao instruqcia #05);

33 manqana-danadgarebis momsaxureba (standartuli samuSao instruqcia #06);

33 pretenziebis marTva (standartuli samuSao instruqcia #08);

33 mza produqciis temperaturuli reJimis kontroli (standartuli samuSao

instruqcia #10).

distribucia/realizaciisas gamosayenebeli Canawerebi:

33 recxva-dezinfeqciis Jurnali (danarTi 2.9);

33 momsaxure personalis janmrTelobis mdgomareobis aRricxvis Jurnali (dan­

arTi 2.10);

33 darRvevebis zogadi Jurnali (danarTi 2.11);

33 treningis Jurnali (danarTi 2.12.);

33 mavneblebis kontrolis Jurnali (danarTi 2.13);

33 manqana-danadgarebis da gasazomi saSualebebis momsaxurebis gegma (danarTi

2.14);

33 manqana-danadgarebisa da gasazomi saSualebebis momsaxurebis Jurnali (dan­

arTi 2.15);

33 temperaturuli reJimis forma (danarTi 2.17).

aseve SeiZleba SemuSavdes HACCP-is gegma distribuciis/realizaciis procesisTvis

IV.3 Tavis mixedviT.

19 winamdebare saxelmZRvaneloSi mocemulia mxolod nimuSebi. maTi adaptireba unda moxdes konkretuli

garemoebebis gaTvaliswinebiT.

20 ix. Tavi IV.2.

67


pirveladi warmoeba _ veterinaruli RonisZiebebi

danarTi 1 - sursaTis uvneblobasTan dakavSirebuli safrTxeebi

pirveladi warmoeba - veterinaruli RonisZiebebi

veterinaria iseTi samecniero da praqtikuli saqmianobaa, romelic cxovelebis

sneulebebis profilaqtikas da maT mkurnalobas emsaxureba. is ara mxolod cxovelebs

icavs daavadebebisagan, aramed adamianebsac, romlebic daavadebuli cxovelebidan

damzadebuli produqtebiT an aseT cxovelebTan uSualo SexebiT SeiZleba

daavadnen.

saxelmZRvanelos am nawilSi aRwerilia is daavadebebi, romlebsac gavlena aqvs

cxovelTa janmrTelobaze da maT produqtiulobaze, ramac saboloo jamSi safrTxe

SeiZleba Seuqmnas adamianTa janmrTelobas. aseTebia:

33

infeqciuri daavadebebi: cimbiris wyluli, Turquli, brucelozi, tuberkuliozi,

cofi, pasterolozi, emkari. dasaxelebuli daavadebebidan zogierTi,

rogorebicaa cimbiris wyluli, brucelozi, tuberkuliozi da cofi iseTi

gadamdebi daavadebebi, romlebic SeiZleba cxovelebidan adamianebze gadavides

da amis gamo maT aTropozoonebs uwodeben.

33

ginekologiuri daavadeba: mastiti

33 sxvadasxva gziT gamowveuli intoqsikaciebi

TiToeuli es daavadeba gansakuTrebuli da gansxvavebuli TaviseburebebiT xasiaTdeba,

romlebic detalurad aris ganxiluli saxelmZRvaneloSi da moicavs daavadebis:

33 zogad daxasiaTebas;

33 mis klinikur suraTs;

68


pirveladi warmoeba _ veterinaruli RonisZiebebi

33 diagnozis dasmis meTods;

33 profilaqtikur RonisZiebebs, romelTa darRvevis SemTxvevaSi infeqciuri

kerebis warmoqmnis saSiSroeba arsebobs;

33 imunitetis gamomuSavebis SesaZleblobas.

fermerebma kargad unda gaiTavison, rom mxolod janmrTel pirutyvs SeuZlia

uvnebeli da maRali xarisxis produqciis maqsimaluri raodenobis mocema. mewvel

organizmSi nebismieri fiziologiuri gadaxra: (1) amcirebs monawvelis raodenobas;

(2) gavlena aqvs da aisaxeba rZis Sedgenilobaze bevrad ufro adre, vidre es klinikuri

niSnebiT vlindeba; (3) moqmedebs rZis teqnologiur Tvisebebze.

cxovelTa daavadebebisa da maTi mkurnalobis mimdinareobisas rZis gamoyeneba

dauSvebelia, vinaidan is adamianis janmrTelobisTvis risks warmoadgens. daavadebis

tipidan gamomdinare mxolod zogierT SemTxvevaSi SeiZleba aseTi rZiT xbos

gamokveba misi saTanado Termuli damuSavebis (pasterizaciis) Semdeg. rZis gamouyeneblobis

xangrZlivoba aseve damokidebulia daavadebebis samkurnalod gamoyenebul

preparatebze, vinaidan TiToeul maTgans gaaCnia organizmSi Seyvanidan masSi darCenis

periodi. aqedan gamomdinare gamoyenebul preparatze miTiTebuli instruqciis

mkacri dacva aucilebelia.

saqarTveloSi momTabare mecxoveleobis praqtikis gaTvaliswinebiT profilaqtikuri

acrebis Catare-bas da cxovelTa sadiagnostiko gamokvlevebs didi mniSvneloba

eniWeba. daavadebuli pirutyvis gavlis Semdeg trasa arakeTilsaimedo kerad

iTvleba da aq gavlili pirutyvi daavadebis amTviseblad iTvleba.

amis gaTvaliswinebiT cxovelTa gadarekvis win aucilebelia fermerebma:

33 uzrunvelyon veterinari specialistebis mier: (1) cxovelTa mTliani suladobis

gamokvleva brucelozze da tuberkuliozze; (2) profilaqtikuri acrebis

Catareba cimbiris wylulze, Turqulze, pasterelozze, emkarze.

33 aiRon forma #1;

33 miiRos informacia veterinaruli ubnidan momTabare adgilis epizootiuri

mdgomareobis Sesaxeb;

33 acrebi Caatarebinon adgilze arsebul veterinariis specialistebs Tu vaqcinaciis

vada gadarekil pirutyvs am periodSi gaudis;

33 Seinaxon Canawerebi da dokumentebi Catarebuli veterinaruli RonisZiebebis

Sesaxeb.

am TavSi ganxiluli informacia veterinaruli RonisZiebebis Sesaxeb daexmareba

fermerebs:

33 Tavidan aicilon cxovelTa daavadebebi an/da droulad gamoavlinon isini;

33 ganasxvavon avadmyofi cxovelis rZe normaluri rZisgan da Sesabamisad ar

dauSvan msgavsi rZis sasursaTo qselSi moxvedra;

33 uzrunvelyon profilaqtikuri RonisZiebebis drouli gatareba;

33 Sesabamisi specialistebis daxmarebiT Cautaron cxovels efeqturi mkurnaloba.

yvela am qmedebebis fermeruli meurneobis doneze ganxorcieleba xels Seuwyobs

sasursaTo jaWvSi iseTi saRi rZis miwodebas, romelic sabolood qselSi arsebuli

gadamamuSavebuli rZis produqtebis uvneblobaze aisaxeba.

69


pirveladi warmoeba _ veterinaruli RonisZiebebi

cxrili 1 - infeqciuri daavadebebis moqmedebis areali da misi Semdgomi gamosavali

# daavadebis

dasaxeleba

ra saxis cxovelebi aavaddebian inkubaciuri periodis

xangrZlivoba

letaloba

(sikvdilianoba)

gamosavali:

gamojanmrTeleba

sikvdilianoba

1 cimbiris wyluli

m/f-pirutyvi 3-Tvidan. adamiani. 1_3 dRe 2_3 dReSi iSviaTad

6-8 dReSi kvdeba

mkurnalobas

eqvemdebareba

2 Turquli m/f-pirutyvi

adamiani-gansakuTrebiT ki bavSvebi

36 saaTidan - 7

dRemde

0,2%_0,5% 3_4 kviraSi inkurneba

3 tuberkuliozi adamiani. 45 dRemde daavadebuli pirutyvi

unda daiklas

mkurnalobas ar eqvemdebareba

4 brucelozi TiTqmis yvela saxis cxoveli.

adamiani

5 pasterelozi

(boRma, Roki)

m/f-pirutyvi 12-saaTidan

1_2 dRemde

2_4 kvira daavadebuli pirutyvi iZulebiT unda daiklas mkurnalobas

ar eqvemdebareba

70%_100%

2_3 dReSi kvdeba

mkurnaloba naklebad

efeqturia

6 emkari

(WriWina)

m/f-pirutyvi

3_Tvidan 4_wlamde

kameCi 1_2 wlis.

1-dRidan

iSviaTad

3_5 dRemde

70%_80%

6_24 saaTSi

kvdeba

yovelTvis ar

aris efeqturi

7 yvavili 8 dRe keTilsaimedo

formisas

2%_3%;

mZime

hemoragiuli formis dros

100%_iT

2_3 dReSi kvdeba

mkurnalobas eqvemdebareba

70


pirveladi warmoeba _ veterinaruli RonisZiebebi

msxvilfexa rqosani saqonlis daavadebebi _ infeqciuri daavadebebi

cimbiris wyluli (Anthrax)

zogadi daxasiaTeba. cimbiris wyluli mwvaved mimdinare infeqciuri daavadebaa.

misi aRmZvrelia Baccillus anthracis _ msxvili, umoZrao, gramdadebiTi, sporovani aerobuli

Cxiri, romelic cxovelis organizmSi kafsulas, xolo garemoSi moxvedrisas

sporas ikeTebs da amis gamo sadezinfeqcio saSualebebis mimarT Zlier mdgradobas

inarCunebs. daavadebuli cxovelebi bacilas garemoSi gamoyofen fekalTan, SardTan,

lorwovan garsTan da sisxlTan erTad didi raodenobiT. misi gavrcelebis yvelaze

didi faqtori cimbiris wyluliT daavadebuli mkvdari cxovelis leSi, romelic

didi raodenobiT bacilas Seicavs da romelSic is amasTanave didxans Zlebs. aqedan

gamomdinare Tu dacemuli pirutyvis mizezad eWvi cimbiris wylulzea mitanili

saWiroa mkacri sifrTxilis dacva leSTan mimarTebaSi da Semdegi RonisZiebebis

gatareba:

1. veterinariis specialistis informireba;

2. veterinaruli wesebis dacviT nimuSebis aReba da laboratoriaSi gagzavna;

3. leSis winaswar SerCeul adgilas, Rrmad gaWril ormoSi Cagdeba da dawva;

4. im teritoriis, sadac pirutyvi daeca, sadezinfeqcio xsnarebiT damuSaveba.

5. damarxuli pirutyvis adgilis Semokaveba da warweris cimbiris wyluli

gakeTeba. aseT adgilebSi pirutyvis Zoveba da cxovelis sakvebis damzadeba unda

gamoiricxos.

cxovelebis daavadebis wyaros ZiriTadad alimentaruli (piris) gza warmoadgens.

aRmZvreli cxovelis organizmSi xvdeba sakvebiT an wyliT, Cveulebriv dainficirebuli

saZovridan da wylidan. daavadebis gamovlena ZiriTadad xdeba sezonurad, sicxeebis

dros, roca cxovelebi saZovarze imyofebian da mSrali gamxmari balaxebiT ikvebebian.

mosalodnelia daavadebis gaCena zamTris periodSic, Tu cxo velebi dainficirebul

teritoriaze damzadebuli sakvebiT ikvebebian. daavadebis karbonkuluri forma SeiZleba

ganviTardes Tu aRmZvreli organizmSi moxvdeba kanidan (tyavidan).

klinikuri suraTi. daavadebis mimdinareobis formaze gavlenas axdens aRmZvrelis

inkubaciuri periodi, romelic Tavis mxriv damokidebulia: (1) cxovelis organizmis

gamZleobaze; (2) aRmZvrelis raodenobaze, da (3) imaze, Tu ra gziTaa igi

organizmSi moxvedrili.

inkubaciuri periodis xangrZlivoba Cveulebriv 1_3 dRea.

cimbiris wyluli Cveulebriv Semdegi formebiT mimdinareobs:

elviseburi formiT mwvave formiT qvemwvave formiT

msxvilfexa rqosan pirutyvSi

33 gaxSirebuli sunTqva da

iSviaTia, magram Tu mainc

moxda maSin saqonlisTvis damaxasiaTebelia:

33

pulsi

maRali temperatura 41-42 0

C-

mde

33 perioduli sunTqva da ga­ 33 sakvebis miRebis Sewyveta

Zlierebuli pulsi

33 wvelis Zlieri Semcireba an

33 lorwovani garsebis gaufer­ saerTod Sewyveta

uleba

33 dasusteba, sunTqvis gaZnele­

33 organizmis temperaturis ba

aweva 41_42 0 C-mde.

33 agoniaSi yofnisas aReniSneba

33 cxoveli ramdenime wuTSi an cxviridan da piris Rrudan

iSviaTad ramdenime saaTSi

kvdeba.

sisxliani lorwovani gamonadeni

33 ramdenime dReSi (2-3) pirutyvi

kvdeba.

33 mimdinareobs 6_8 dRe.

33 axasiaTebs iseTive klinikuri

niSnebi (rogorc

mwvave), oRondac SedarebiT

sustad gamoxatuli

33 mimdinareobs neli formiT

da nel-nela asustebs organizms.

bolo momentSi cxovelis

mdgomareoba Zlier

mZimdeba da kvdeba.

33 daavadebaze eWvis mitana

Tavidan Znelia, mxolod

sikvdilis Semdeg dgindeba

diagnozi, roca mowmdeba

limfuri jirkvlebi da

sisxlminarevi gamonadenebi.

71


pirveladi warmoeba _ veterinaruli RonisZiebebi

daavadebis mimdinareobis or ZiriTad formas gamoyofen: septicemiurs da karbonkulurs.

paTologiuri procesis lokalizaciis mixedviT gamoyofen daavadebis Semdeg

formebs: kanis, nawlavis, filtvis da anginozur (anginebis gamoxatviT) cimbiris

wyluls.

abortuli forma

karbonkuluri forma

nawlavuri

forma

33 ucabedad maRal 33 SeiZleba wavides mwvave da m i m d i n a r e o b i s 33

t e m p e r a t u r a z e qvemwvave formiT.

(ZiriTadad cxenebSi)

sicxis aweva (iwvevs 33 organizmis sxvadasxva nawiaborts)

dros, ker­

lebSi, ufro xSirad Tavis, Zod ki septicemiis

33 Cveulebriv mTavr­ gulmkerdis, beWis da muclis fonze aRiniSneba 33

deba gamojanmrTelebiTevi

areSi warmoiqmneba SesamCn­

nawlavis WinTvebi

mkvrivi cxeli Sesiebebi. da sisxliani faareSi

Semdeg Sesivebuli adgilebi

RaraTi.

civdeba da Sesiebis cen­

tralur adgilSi dawylulebuli

kanis qsovili ixsneba.

33 mTavrdeba gamonajanmrTelebiT

filtvebis

forma

a x a s i a T e b s

swrafi hemoragiuli

pnevmonia.

mTavrdeba gamojanmrTelebiT

diagnozis dasmis meTodi. gaTvaliswinebuli unda iqnas epizootologiuri monacemebi,

klinikuri monacemebi, leSis daTvalierebis Sedegebi, sezonuroba. sabolood

ki diagnozi unda dazustdes laboratoriulad.

profilaqtikuri RonisZiebebi

33 yovelwliurad droulad Catardes cimbiris wylulis sawinaaRmdego acrebi.

33 saSiSroebis SemTxvevaSi cimbiris wylulze acrebi tardeba weliwadSi orjer

yovel eqvs TveSi erTxel: gazafxulze da Semodgomaze.

33 mozardebs pirvelad crian sami Tvis asakSi, ganmeorebiT eqvsi Tvis asakSi,

sabolood ki crian SemodgomiT an gazafxulze. amis Semdeg ki crian zrdasrul

pirutyvs. SemodgomiT pirutyvebs crian siciveebis dadgomamde.

33 Tu acrisas pirutyvi daeca (mokvda) mis tanxorcs unda moveqceT iseve rogorc

daavadebuli cxovelisas.

33 acrili pirutyvis dakvla ar SeiZleba acridan minimum 14 dRe.

imuniteti. daavadebamoxdili pirutyvi Cveulebriv iZens imunitets erTi wlis

ganmavlobaSi. xelovnuri aqtiuri imunitetis Sesaqmnelad saWiroa vaqcinacia. acril

pirutyvebs imuniteti uyalibdebaT acridan 10-21 dRis Semdeg. pasiuri imunitetis

Sesaqmnelad gamoiyeneba cimbiris wylulis sawinaaRmdego Sratis samkurnalo doza,

romlis imuniteti grZeldeba 14 dRe.

Turquli

zogadi daxasiaTeba. Turquli cxovelebis mwvave, Zlier kontagiozuri daa-vadebaa.

mas iwvevs virusi, romliTac avaddeba rogorc msxvilfexa rqosani pirutyvi,

aseve adamiani. arsebobs Turqulis ramdenime tipi, A, O da C, romlebic Tavis mxriv

sxvadasxva variantis virusebs Seicaven. aqedan gamomdinare tipebisa da maTi variantebis

simravle siZneles qmnis xolme Turqulis vaqcinis momzadebisas.

72


pirveladi warmoeba _ veterinaruli RonisZiebebi

TurquliT daavadebuli cxovelis rZis gamoyeneba da Sesabamisad misi Sereva

saerTo monawvelSi dauSvebelia. am dros:

33

rZeSi cximis Semcveloba 70-75%- mde izrdeba;

33 rZe iZens arasasiamovno sunsa da gemos;

33 rZe kargavs baqteriocidul Tvisebas;

33 rZidan, mxolod misi aucilebeli pasterizaciis Semdeg, SeiZleba damzaddes

karaqi da xaWo;

33 monawvelis odenobis, rZis qimiuri Sedgenilobisa da fizikur-qimiuri Tvisebebis

normaSi dabruneba cxovelis gamojanmrTelebidan 20-25 dRis Semdeg

aRiniSneba.

klinikuri suraTi. daavadebis zogadi klinikuri maxasiaTeblebi Semdegnairia:

33 temperatura iwevs 40,5-41,5 gradusamde;

33 ziandeba piris Rrus lorwovani garsi, Cliqebi da curi;

33 saqoneli wonaSi iklebs, modunebulia da madas kargavs;

33 wveladoba mkveTrad mcirdeba, pirvel dReebSi 40%-iT da metiT;

33 virusis SeWris adgilze Cndeba pirveladi afTebi da Semdeg ki meoradi af­

Tebi piris Rrus, tuCebis, cxviris sarkis, Cliqebs Sua da curis adgilze.

afTebis gaCenasa da gaskdomasTan erTad saqonels ewyeba uxvi nerwyvdena,

sicxe neldeba da uWirs saWmlis miReba. afTebis gaskdomis adgilze gaCenili

eroziebi Ria wiTeli ferisaa. maTi zedapiruli defeqti SeiZleba gaRrmavdes

da wylulad gadaiqces. zogjer afTebi cxviris lorwovan garssa da Tvalis

koniuqtivaze Cndeba da piris Rrudan xaxaSi gadadis, rac aZnelebs sunTqvas

da xvelas iwvevs;

33 daadadebul cxovels gamoyofili lorwovani nerwyvi piris kuTxeebSi

ugrovdeba da Zafebad Camodis. piris gaRebisa da daxurvisas ismis tuCebis

gansakuTrebuli wlapuni, rac damaxasiaTeblad iTvleba;

33 normaruli mimdinareobisas, saTanado mkurnalobis Semdeg Turquli 1-2 kviraSi

mTavrdeba eroziebis sruli SexorcebiT da gamojanmrTelebiT;

33 SesaZlebelia dasruldes sikvdilianobiT, gansakuTrebiT mozardebis SemTxvevaSi.

inkubaciuri periodi: 2-7 dRe, xandaxan 11 dRe, xSir SemTxvevaSi ki 2-3 kvira.

profilaqtikuri RonisZiebebi

33 vaqcinacia weliwadSi orjer: adre gazafxulze da Semodgomaze;

33

gamoiyeneba Turqulis calkeuli tipis vaqcina: A tipi, O tipi, C tipi, A O

tipi, da kompleqsuri A O C tipi;

33 pirutyvebi icrebian sami Tvis asakidan.

imuniteti

33 daavadebamoxdili cxovelebi imunitets iZenen 2-3 wlis ganmavlobaSi;

33 vaqcinaciis SemTxvevaSi ki 2 kviridan 6 Tvis ganmavlobaSi.

73


pirveladi warmoeba _ veterinaruli RonisZiebebi

brucelozi

zogadi daxasiaTeba. brucelozi metad saSiS zooanTroponozur daavadebas miekuTvneba.

is cxovelebidan adamianze vrceldeba da mZime formebSi mimdinareobs

(saxsrebis Zlieri tkivili, aborti, uSviloba).

daavadebis aRmZvrels warmoadgenen e.w. ‘veragi brucelebi~, romlebic Zalian

mcire zomis mikrobebia, gamoiyofeba civsisxlianTa da mRrRnelebis organizmidan,

rac maT veragul Tvisebebze miuTiTebs. isini arsebobisaTvis brZolis procesSi

gansacvifrebeli sicocxlisunarianobiTa da garemoSi SemgueblobiT xasiaTdebian.

sakmaod didxans inarCuneben sicocxles cxoveluri warmoSobis produqtebSic, ker­

Zod: rZeSi 0-dan 273 dRemde; yvelSi 25 dRidan _ 1 wlamde; karaqSi 10-dan 142

dRemde; SemJavebul rZeSi 10-dan 30 dRemde da a.S.

brucelozis gamomwvevi mikroorganizmebis gavrcelebis ZiriTad wyaros warmoadgens

daavadebuli cxoveli, romelic paTogenur sawyiss gamoyofs garemoSi, sxvadasxva

fiziologiur da paTologiur gamonadenebTan erTad. epizootiuri saSiSroebis

TvalsazrisiT yvelaze metad yuradsaRebia nayofmogebuli cxoveli, agreTve

isini, romelTac hqondaT momyolis SeCereba, an mSobiarobis Semdgomi sxvadasxva

garTulebebi.

brucelebi ver avlenen rezistentulobas sadezinfeqcio saSualebebis mimarT.

mis sawinaaRmdegod dezinfeqciebis Casatareblad rekomendebulia: 2%iani aqtiuri

qloris Semcvleli qloriani kiri, 3%-iani soda_potasiumis (nacar tutis marili),

kaustificirebuli cxeli xsnari, axlad Camqrali kiris 20%_iani xsnari, formalini,

kreolini, neozinoni, fenoli da mravali sxva. brucelebi aseve mgrZnobiareni

arian maRali temperaturis mimarT, mag., mzis pirdapiri sxivebi maT 3_4 saaTSi

anadgurebs.

bruceloziani msxvilfexa rqosani pirutyvis daavadebi gamomwvevi brucelebi

nakleb paTogenurni arian da aqedan gamomdinare epidemiuri TvalsazrisiT gansakuTrebiT

saSiSroebas ar warmoadgenen.

klinikuri suraTi. cxovelis organizmSi moxvedrili brucelebis yvelaze ‘sayvareli~

adgilia make cxovelis saSvilosno, kerZod placenta, agreTve sarZeve

jirkvlebi. placentaSi moxvedrili mikrobebi xSir SemTxvevaSi (umTavresad pirvel

daxboianebisas) iwvevs aborts, an ibadeba arasisocxlisunariani nayofi. xbos normaluri

mogebis SemTxvevaSi axalSobili inficirdeba rZis meSveobiT. amdenad is

cxovelTa gamravlebisa da jogis aRwarmoebis pirdapiri Semaferxebeli faqtoria.

diagnostika. diagnozi ismeba mxolod laboratoriuli gamokvlevis safuZvelze.

amitom aucilebelia weliwadSi orjer brucelozze cxovelis gamokvleva.

profilaqtikuri RonisZiebebi. brucelozis likvidacia yovelgvari vaqcinis gamoyenebis

gareSe SeiZleba, Tu gavatarebT yvela aucilebel RonisZiebas, magaliTad:

33 cxovelTa adgilmonacvleoba, yidva-gayidva mxolod veterinaruli kontrolis

ganxorcielebiT;

33 saqonlis srulyofili gamokvlevis Catareba, raTa infeqciis gaavrcelebis

wyaros aRmofxvris mizniT unda SeizRudos bruceloziani cxovelis jogSi

arseboba.

74


pirveladi warmoeba _ veterinaruli RonisZiebebi

Tumca, aRniSnuli rekomendaciebis srulyofili Sesruleba rTulia am daavadebasTan

dakavSirebuli saxelmwifo programis ararsebobis gamo.

msoflio gamocdilebiT, brucelozTan brZolis yvelaze efeqtur saSualebad

dRevandel dRes iTvleba pirutyvis brucelozis sawinaaRmdego vaqcinacia, romelic

specifikur midgomas moiTxovs. aRsaniSnavia, rom aSS-sa da evropaSi bolo 10 wlis

ganmavlobaSi brucelozis problemis gadaWra moxerxda swored dagegmili vaqcinaciiT.

am sakiTxis mogvarebis erT-erTi mniSvnelovani winapirobaa kerZo veterinaruli

seqtoris ganviTareba.

tuberkuliozi

zogadi daxasiaTeba. tuberkulozi infeqciuri, qronikulad mimdinare daavadebaa.

misi gamomwvevia (Mycobacterium tuberculosis) Cxiri, romelic uZravia, sporebs ar

warmoSobs da ekuTvnis mJavagamZle baqteriebis jgufs. tuberkuliozis Cxiris sami

ZiriTadi tipi arsebobs: adamianis, msxvilfexa rqosani pirutyvebis da frinvelebis.

tuberkuliozis Cxiris yvela es tipi erTi aRmZvrelis nairsaxeobas warmoadgens,

romelic didi xnis manZilze parazitobis Sedegad egueba ama Tu im saxis cxovelis

da adamianis organizms da amasTan dakavSirebiT inarCunebs zogierT saerTo Tvisebas,

romelic yvela tipisaTvisaa damaxasiaTebeli.

sasoflo-sameurneo cxovelebidan yvelaze xSirad avaddeba msxvilfexa rqosani

pirutyvi. daavadebis dros sxvadasxva organoebSi warmoiqmneba e.w. `tuberkulebi~

da xaWosebrgadagvarebuli tuberkuliozuri kerebi. axalgazrda msxvilfexa rqosani

pirutyvi avaddeba rZis miRebiT. adamiani gansakuTrebiT mgrZnobiarea am daavadebis

mimarT. is avaddeba ZiriTadad sasunTqi gzebiT da sakvebi produqtebis meSveobiT

(ZiriTadad nedli rZis miRebiT). dadgenilia aseve, rom msxvilfexa rqosani

pirutyvi adamianis tuberkuliozis CxiriTac avaddeba, roca momvleli personali

msgavsi sneulebiT aris daavadebuli.

organizmis gareT tuberkuliozis Cxirebs sakmaod didi gamZleoba axasiaTebT,

mag., rZeSi 10 dRemde, karaqSi 10 Tvemde, yvelSi 200 dRemde. tuberkuliozis Cxiri

Zalian aramdgradia gaSrobis mimarT. mzis gafantuli Suqi, miT umetes pirdapiri

sxivebi, klaven mas,Tu igi araa daculi damcveli feniT.

mewveli pirutyvis tuberkulioziT daavadebisas:

33 mcirdeba monawveli;

33

7 - 14° T-mde mcirdeba mJavianoba;

33 dasawyisSi rZeSi cximianoba izrdeba, Semdeg ki klebulobs;

33 matulobs rZeSi cilis Semcveloba;

33 curis tuberkuliozis dros rZe Txeli, araerTgvarovani konsistenciis xdeba

da dahkravs mwvane-moyviTalo elferi; masSi gvxvdeba fantelebis msgavsi

Sesqelebebi.

klinikuri suraTi. tuberkuliozi miekuTvneba qronikulad mimdinare daavadeba­

Ta jgufs. daavadebuli cxoveli sakmaod didi xnis ganmavlobaSi garegnulad arafriT

ar gamoirCeva janmrTelisagan. ufro xSirad tuberkuliozi nela viTardeba.

arsebobs tuberkulozis Ria da daxuruli formebi. Ria formiT daavadebuli

75


pirveladi warmoeba _ veterinaruli RonisZiebebi

cxoveli gansakuTrebiT saSiSia infeqciis sawyisis garemoSi gamoyofisa da daavadebebis

gavrcelebis TvalsazrisiT. filtvebis tuberkuliozi Zalian xSirad, nawlavebis

curisa da saSvilosnos tuberkuliozi ki mudam Ria process warmoadgens

da Semdegi simptomebiT xasiaTdeba:

•y filtvebis tuberkuliozisas damaxasiaTebelia iSviaTi da amavdroulad

Zlieri da mokle, xvela procesis dasawyisSi. filtvebis Rrmad dazianebis

SemTxvevaSi ki susti, yru da mxuTavi xveleba. xveleba xSiria diliT,

moZraobis an wylis miRebis Semdeg.

•y curis tuberkuliozi, uwinares yovlisa, vlindeba curis zeda jirkvlebis

gadidebiT. mowvelis Semdeg umtkivneulo fokusebi Cndeba da tuberkuliozuri

kvanZebis gamo curi korZiandeba.

diagnostika. sadiagnostiko saSualebaa tuberkulini (baqteriuli preparati),

romelsac iyeneben tuberkuloziani cxovelTa diagnostikisaTvis. tuberkulini moqmedebs

mxolod tuberkuloziT daavadebul organizmze da dadebiTi reaqcia organizmSi

tuberkulozis arsebobas mowmobs.

profilaqtikuri RonisZiebebi. jerjerobiT tuberkuliozis sawinaaRmdego

specifikuri samkurnalo profilaqtikuri saSualeba Seqmnili ar aris da mis aRsakveTad

sanitarul-higienuri meTodebi gamoiyeneba, kerZod:

33 weliwadSi orjer pirutyvebis Semowmeba tuberkuliozze da daavadebuli

pirutyvebis droulad dakvla veterinarul-sanitaruli wesebis dacviT;

33 tuberkulinze reagirebis mqone Zroxebisagan miRebuli xboebi sistematurad

unda mowmdeboden pirvelad 20-30 dRis asakSi, meored rZiT kvebiT Sewyvetisas,

da mesamed ukanaskneli Semowmebidan 30-45 dRis Semdeg.

33 dadebiTad moriagire xboebi unda daiklan an gaasuqon saxorced gamoyenebis

mizniT. daavadebuli cxovelebis guli, RviZli, filtvebi, Tirkmlebi, faSvi,

e.i. mTliani SigTavsi unda daimarxos.

cofi

zogadi daxasiaTeba. cofi virusiT gamowveuli mwvave infeqciuri daavadebaa.

daavadeba mimdinareobs centraluri nervuli sistemis dazianebiT da virusi daavadebuli

organizmidan jansaR cxovelebsa da adamianebs umTavresad kbeniT gadaecemaT.

virusi organizmSi sisxlis gziT ar mravldeba, is nervuli sistemis meSveobiT

viTardeba da miiwevs centraluri nervuli sistemisken. iq ki Camoyalibdeba

negris sxeulis saxelwodebiT, romelic moTavsebulia nervul ujredTa plazmaSi.

negris sxeulakebi umTavresad im cxovelebSia, romlebic mokvdnen an mokluli iqnen

daavadebis ukanasknel stadiaSi.

klinikuri suraTi. cofis dros inkubaciuri periodi sxvadasxva xangrZlivobisaa

da damokidebulia miyenebuli Wrilobebis sidideze, adgilmdebareobaze, SeWrili

virusis raodenobaze, mis virulentobasa da organizmis rezistentulobaze. ramdenac

axlosaa infeqciis SeWris adgili centralur nervul sistemasTan, imdenad

mcirea inkubaciuri periodi. mozrdil cxovelebTan SedarebiT mozard cxovelebSi

inkubaciuri periodi xanmoklea.

76


pirveladi warmoeba _ veterinaruli RonisZiebebi

praqtikuli dakvirveba gviCvenebs, rom yvela dakbenili cxoveli ar aavadeba,

miuxedavad imisa rom Wrilobis mimyenebeli cxoveli namdvilad cofiani iyo. es imiT

aixsneba, rom dakbenisas WrilobaSi yovelTvis ar xvdeba dainficirebuli nerwyvi.

jer erTi, nerwyvi yovelTvis araa erTianad dainficirebuli, meore sisxldeniT

SesaZlebelia Wrilobis virusisagan ganTavisufleba, cofiani ZaRlebiT dakbenili

cxovelebidan saSualod avaddeba 30 %-i. daavadebis gamovlinebis formebis mixedviT

arCeven: Smagsa da wynar formebs.

cxovelebis cofis sami stadiaa. daavadeba iwyeba nakbeni adgilis qaviliT,

SewiTlebiT, SeSupebiT da nervebis boWkoebis gaswvriv yru tkiviliT; avadmyofs

aqvs aweuli temperatura, yabzoba, enaze nadebi, cudad sZinavs. 1_2 dRis Semdeg ewyeba

aRgznebis stadia.

diagnozis dasmis meTodi. cofze diagnozi ismeba klinikuri, mikroskopuli da

biologiuri gamokvlevebiT.

cofis sawinaaRmdego RonisZiebebi. cxoveli, romelsac aqvs cofis niSnebi unda

ganadgurdes. dainficirebul Senobas da sxva obieqtebs unda CautardeT dezinfeqciebi.

dasaxlebuli punqti sadac adgili hqonda cofiT cxovelTa daavadebas,

cxaddeba arakeTilsaimedod.

profilaqtikuri RonisZiebebi. cofze arakeTilsaimedo kerad gamocxadebul

teritoriaze arsebul msxvilfexa pirutyvs Cveulebrisamebr profilaqtikis mizniT

utardeba cofis sawinaaRmdego vaqcinacia.

ginekologiuri daavadebebi _ sarZeve jirkvlis anTeba (mastiti)

zogadi daxasiaTeba. msxvilfexa rqosani pirutyvis daavadebebs Soris yvelaze

gavrcelebulia mastitis _ curis erTi an meti meoTxedis anTeba.

mastitis daavadebis dros rZis danakargi sWarbobs yvela sxva erTad aRebuli daavadebiT

gamowveul zarals. rZis danakargi SeiZleba meryeobdes 10-45%-mde rogorc

daavadebis dros, aseve cxovelis gamojanmrTelobis Semdegac. produqtiulobis

sruli aRdgena xdeba Semdgom mSobiarobamde isic mxolod saTanado mkurnalobis

Catarebis SemTxvevaSi. winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi sarZeve meoTxedi SeiZleba saerTod

daixuros. xbos mier curidan rZis wovis SemTxveva amcirebs mastitis raodenobis

SemTxvevebs. cnobilia, rom meZuZuri xbo amcirebs mastitis gaCenis albaTobas, amitom

am mxriv rZis stimulirebis adgilobrivi meTodi Zalzed pozitiuria.

dadgenilia, rom xeliT wvelis dros mastitiT saSualod avaddeba mewveli

furebis 4,5 %, xolo manqanuri wvelis dros 10_20%. mastitis periodSi curSi vi­

Tardeba anTebiTi procesebi: siwiTle, simkvrive, Sededebuli rZe da sxva. daavadeba

furis mTeli mSobiarobis periodSi mimdinareobs da gvevlineba rogorc qronikuli

mastiti, romelsac Tan axlavs SemaerTebeli qsovilis Cazrda paTologiur

ubanSi. Sedegad Zneldeba wveladoba an dvrilis sarZeve arxis Sezrda_Seviwroeba.

mastitiT daavadebuli curi xeliT Sexebisas Zlier mtkivneulia.

mewveli pirutyvis mastitiT daavadebisas mcirdeba:

33 monawveli 22%-iT;

77


intoqsikaciisaTvis damaxasiaTebelia: (1) avadmyofobis uecari gaCena axali sakvepirveladi

warmoeba _ veterinaruli RonisZiebebi

33 rZeSi cximis Semcveloba 24%-mde;

33 rZeSi laqtozas Semcveloba;

33 rZeSi mSrali nivTierebebis Semcveloba;

33

rZis mJavianoba 8. . . 12°T-mde;

33 rZis cilebSi izrdeba cila globulinis Semcveloba;

33 rZis cilebSi kazeinis Semcveloba.

mastitis sawyisi periodis diagnostirebisaTvis saWiroa yoveldRiurad rZis

Semowmeba mastitze.

daavadebis warmoqmnas Semdegi mizezebi aqvs:

33 infeqciebi, intoqsikacia, tramvebi, saSvilosnosa da kuW-nawlavis daavadebebi,

magram daavadebebis gamomwvev mizezTa Soris cxovelis organizmis da

sarZeve jirkvlebis rezistentobis daqveiTeba, daavadebis aRmZvrelis saxe da

stresebi pirveladi mniSvnelobisaa;

33 furis sarZeve jirkvlis arasruli gamowvela, gansakuTrebiT axladmogebuli

furis wvelis periodSi;

33 meqanikuri tramvebi Tu curi dazianebulia araswori mowvelis Sedegad (roca

wvela ori TiTis gamoyenebiT xdeba ) da aqvs napralebi an raime sxva dazianebebi,

rZeSi sxeulis (somaturi) ujredebis ricxvi matulobs.

33 mewveli furis araswori gaSroba mag., Tu cxovels didi raodenobiT rZis

warmoqmnis periodSi gaaSroben;

33 arahigienuri sakvebi;

33 cxovelTa xangrZlivad Senaxva baguri kvebis pirobebSi, rac xels uwyobs

daavadebis zrdas zamTrisa da gazafxulis periodSi 2-3%-iT;

33 bunebriv_klimaturi pirobebi.

klinikuri suraTi. mwvave formis mastitis SemCneva advilia: curis nawili wi­

Teli, SeSupebuli da cxelia. unda daiwyos antibiotikebiT mkurnaloba, magram

infeqciis gankurnebis albaToba ar aris maRali. antibiotikis narCeni rZeSi didi

drois manZilze rCeba. aqedan gamomdinare am rZis gamoyeneba adamianebis mier ar

SeiZleba, radgan saSiSroeba antibiotikuri SeCvevadobis da alergiis ganviTarebisa

didia.

SeiZleba aseve iyos SemTxvevebi rodesac Zroxa daavadebulia qveklinikuri mastitiT.

am SemTxvevaSi curi funqcionirebs qveoftimalurad, magram amis SemCneva ar

aris advili.

diagnozis dasmis meTodi. rZeSi sxeulis ujredebis gazomviT SeiZleba aRmoCenili

iqnas klinikuri an qveklinikuri mastitebis arseboba kaliforniuli mastitis

testis (CMT) meSveobiT. misi gamoyeneba SeiZleba fermerSi Zroxis curis yvela

TiTisaTvis.

intoqsikaciebi

intoqsikacia, anu mowamvla, ganpirobebulia organizmSi Sxamiani nivTierebebis

moxvedriT da maTi zemoqmedebiT.

78


pirveladi warmoeba _ veterinaruli RonisZiebebi

bis SeWmis an saZovris gamocvlis Semdeg; (2) sxvadasxva saxeobis cxovelTa daavadebis

masobrioba ZiriTadad erTgvarovani klinikuri niSnebiT da paTanatomiuri

cvlilebebiT; (3) aragadamdebi xasiaTis avadmyofoba, radganac is swrafad wydeba,

Tu amoRebuli iqneba saeWvo sakvebi.

mowamvlebis klinikuri suraTi mJRavndeba centraluri nervuli sistemis, kuWnawlavebis

traqtis, gul-sisxlZarRvTa sistemis, filtvebis, kanis, RviZlisa da

Tirkmelis dazianebiT.

intoqsikacia aRiniSneba refleqsebis dakargviT, krunCxvebiT, Tavis aweviT, ganuwyvetlivi

moZraobiT, bRaviliT, kbilebis kraWuniT da sxv. zogjer viTardeba

daTrgunva, kanis mgrZnobelobis dakargva, mZinaroba, reaqciis uqonloba garegan

gaRizianebaze, wonasworobis, cxovelTa dacema miwaze, calkeuli organoebis nawilobrivi

an sruli dambla, make cxovelebSi aRiniSneba abortebis SemTxvevebi, madis

dakargva, coxnis Sewyveta, nerwyvdena, pirRebineba, pirisa da xaxis lorwovani

garsebis gawiTleba, ylapvis gaZneleba, wina kuWebis atoniiT da meteorizmiT.

etiologiuri faqtorebis mixedviT, intoqsikacia pirobiTad SeiZleba daiyos

Semdeg jgufebad:

33 mowamvla pesticidebiTa da sasuqebiT, romlebic memindvreobaSi gamoiyeneba;

33 mowamvla mariliTa da SardovanaTi;

33 mowamvla sakvebis teqnikuri gadamuSavebis produqtebiT;

33 intoqsikacia bambis koptoniT;

33 intoqsikacia Sxamiani balaxebiT.

zemoTxsenebuli intoqsikaciebis dros cxoveluri produqtebis uvnebloba didad

aris damokidebuli mowamvlis xarisxis tipze da aqedan gamomdinare aucilebelia

Sesabamisi profilaqtikuri RonisZiebebis gatareba.

intoqsikaciis winaaRmdeg profilaqtikuri RonisZiebebi

profilaqtikuri RonisZiebebis pirveli etapi diagnozis dasmaSi mdgomareobs,

romlis zusti gansazRvra xSirad Znelia, vinaidan daavadebis niSnebi da paTanatomiuri

gakveTis monacemebi gaurkvevelia. amitom toqsikologiuri analizis gagzavna

veterinarul-baqteriologiur laboratoriaSi aucilebelia.

intoqsikaciebTan brZolis ZiriTad da gadamwyvet zomebad iTvleba:

33 cxovelTa kvebis organizaciis gaumjobeseba;

33 zooteqnikosebisa da veterinariis specialistebis mier kontrolis ganxorcieleba

sakvebis xarisxze, maTi Senaxvisa da damzadebis pirobebze, saZovrebisa

da sarwyuleblebis mdgomareobaze;

33 Sxamqimikatebis Senaxvis Sesabamisi pirobebis uzrunvelyofa;

33 sakvebis Semowmeba gansakuTrebiT erTi sakvebidan meoreze gadasvlis dros;

33 cxovelebis gamosakvebad arakeTilxarisxovani, gafuWebuli, daobebuli sakvebis

gamoyenebis akrZalva;

33 rigi sakvebis specialur damuSavebas maTi toqsikurobis Semcirebis mizniT.

umravlesoba maTganis ganxorcieleba yvela fermerul meurneobaSia SesaZlebelia

da esenia dalboba, duReba, daorTqvla da tuteebiT damuSaveba.

79


gadamamuSavebeli mrewveloba _ safrTxeebi

gadamamuSavebeli mrewveloba - safrTxeebi

sursaTis uvneblobasTan dakavSirebiT ganixilaven sami saxis safrTxe: mikrobiologiuri,

qimiuri da fizikuri. aRniSnuli safrTxeebi rZeSi xvdebian:

- sadgomSi zoohigienuri parametrebis daucvelobisas;

- arasworiwvelisas;

- muSa-mosamsaxure personalis mier piradi da zogadi higienis normebis

darRvevisas;

- sawveli inventaris, rZis WurWlis, avzebis, manqana-danadgarebis recxvadezinficirebis,

Srobis da Senaxvis wesebis daucvelobisas;

- rZis araswori Senaxva-transportirebisas;

- vetsamkurnalo RonisZiebebis vadebis daucvelobisas.

ganvixiloT TiToeuli safrTxe ufro detalurad.

mikrobiologiuri safrTxeebi

paTogenuri mikroorganizmebi

rZeSi da rZis produqtebSi moxvedrilma paTogenurma mikrobebma adamianSi

SeiZleba gamoiwvios kvebiTi infeqciebi, moSxamvebi da intoqsikacia. kvebiTi infeqciebis

gamomwvev mikroorganizmebs ganekuTvneba: tuberkuliozis, brucelozis

da Turqulis gamomwvevi mikroorganizmebi. am mikroorganizmebis saerTo maxasiaTeblebi

mocemulia cxril 2-Si. damatebiTi detalebi aseve ganxilulia aRniSnuli

danarTis pirvel nawilSi _ veterinaruli RonisZiebebi

maxasiaTeblebi

ujredis forma

cxrili 2 _ kvebiTi infeqciebis gamomwvevTaTvis damaxasiaTebeli

morfologiuri, kulturaluri da fiziologiuri Tvisebebi

Mycobacterium

tuberculosis

Cxiri

Brucella

ovaluri da kokis

magvari

Turqulis virusi

ujredis zoma, mkm (0,2 ÷0,5)x(1,5÷5) (0,4 ÷0,6)x(0,5÷1,5) (10 ÷20)x10-3

SeRebva gramis meTodiT + _ ar keTdeba

ganviTarebis temperatura,

°C

optimaluri zRvruli

37-38

30-42

38

20-45

_

37

ar aris monacemi

JangbadTan mimarTeba aerobi mikroTerofili ar aris monacemi

avadmyofi cxovelis 1 ml

rZeSi Semcveloba

iRupebian pasterizaciis temperaturaze

75-76 °C 15-20 wm

dayovnebisas

sicocxlis unarianoba gamom­

Srali saxiT

wyalSi

niadagSi

sadezinfeqcio saSualebebis

mimarT

500x104 (20 – 200) x 103

ar aris monacemi

+ + +

2_7 Tve

6 Tve

7 Tve

ar aris monacemi

5 Tve

20_100 dRe

1_2 weli

ar aris monacemi

2_3 kvira

mdgradi ar aris monacemi aramdgradi NaOH-Tan

pH mimarT mJavamdgradi neitraluri are neitraluri are

mzis sxivis moqmedeba iRupeba 1,5_2 sT iRupeba 1 sT ar aris monacemi

80


gadamamuSavebeli mrewveloba _ safrTxeebi

tuberkuliozis gamomwvevi (Mycobacterium tuberculosis) _ adamianisTvis ufro

met safrTxes warmoadgens rZe im fermebidan, romlebSic fiqsirdeba daavadebis

gamoxatuli klinikuri niSnebi, gansakuTrebiT curis tuberkuliozis SemTxvevaSi.

aseTi cxovelebis rZiT sasursaTo produqtebis warmoeba ar daiSveba. im saqonlis

rZe, romelic dadebiTad reagirebs alergiul sinjze (tuberkuliozi da sxva), magram

ar aReniSneba daavadebis klinikuri niSnebi, SesaZlebelia gamoyenebul iqnes

sawarmoo procesSi winaswari pasterizaciis Semdgom.

brucelozis gamomwvevi (Brucella) _ rZe im furebidan, romlebsac aReniSnaT daavadebis

gamoxatuli klinikuri niSnebi, eqvemdebareba savaldebulo aduRebas 5

wuTis ganmavlobaSi rZis miRebis adgilze, xolo rZe cxovelebidan klinikuri gamovlinebis

gareSe, magram alergiul da serologiur sinjebze dadebiTad moreagire

eqvemdebareba pasterizacias adgilze. yvela SemTxvevaSi rZe brucelozze arakeTilsaimedo

fermebidan eqvemdebareba ganmeorebiT pasterizacias rZis gadamamuSavebel

sawarmoSi (gaTvaliswinebuli unda iyos gancalkevebuli mimRebis da xazis arseboba)

veterinaris nebarTvis safuZvelze.

Turqulis gamomwvevi _ daavadebuli cxovelis rZis gamoyeneba daSvebulia winaswari

Termuli damuSavebis Semdgom veterinaris zedamxedvelobis nebarTvis safuZvelze.

gansakuTrebiT saSiS infeqciebs, romlis drosac rZe eqvemdebareba adgilze

ganadgurebas veterinaris zedamxedvelobis TandaswrebiT Semdegi daavadebebi ganekuTvneba:

cimbiris wyluli, emfizematozuri karbunkuli, cofi, avTvisebiani SeSupeba,

infeqciuri siyviTle, rqosani pirutyvis Savi Wiri da sxva.

toqsikoinfeqciebis gamomwvevi mikroorganizmebi

toqsikoinfeqciebi SeiZleba gamoiwvios Sigela zonem, salmonelam, Bacillus cereus

da sxva zogierTma mikroorganizmma mag., listeria monocitegenezma. saerTo maxasia­

Teblebi moyvanilia cxril 3-Si.

cxrili 3 _ toqsikoinfeqciebis gamomwvevTaTvis damaxasiaTebeli

morfologiuri, kulturaluri da fiziologiuri Tvisebebi

maCvenebeli Sigela zone salmonela Bac. cereus

ujredis zoma, mkm (0,5÷0,8)x(2÷4) (0,5÷1,0)x(2÷4)

ujredis morfologia

Cxiri

Cxiri momrgvalebuli

boloTi

koloniis forma mrgvali, brtyeli lorwos talRa

(1,0÷1,2)x(3÷5)

msxvili Cxiri momrgvalebuli

boloTi

msxvili ganrTxmuli

TeTri odnav SeWrili

kideebiT

moZraoba _ + X

JangbadTan mimarTeba fakultaturi anaerobi aerobi aerobi

anviTarebis temperatura,

°C optimaluri

minimaluri

37-38

20

37

20

30

10-20

81


Sigela zone (Sh. sonnei) _ Sigelebi sxva warmomadgenlebisgan gansxvavebiT, romlebic

iwveven infeqciur daavadebas dizenterias, `zone~ sakvebi produqtebiT daavadebisas

iwvevs toqsikoinfeqcias, risTvisac saWiroa produqtSi dagrovdes didi

raodenobiT mikrobi (1 g produqtSi 106-ze meti). inkubaciuri periodi moklea _

24 saaTze naklebi. daavadeba iwyeba RebinebiT, mwvave gastroenteritisa da enterokolitis

TanxlebiT, aRiniSneba cxeleba, xandaxan bodva, gonebis dabindva, krunCxva.

sikvdilianoba iSviaTad fiqsirdeba, ufro xSirad bavSvebSi.

cdebiT dadasturda, rom rZis mrewvelobaSi sasmeli rZisTvis gamoyenebuli

pasterizaciis reJimi (75-76°C 15 -20 wm. dayovnebiT) sakmarisia Sigela zones gasanadgureblad,

mxolod koncentraciis 106-mde momatebisas saWiroa temperaturis gazrda

78°C-mde an eqspoziciis drois gaxangrZliveba 30 wm-mde.

pasterizebul rZeSi Cadedebamde (pH 6,7-6,8) Sigelas mikrobebis Seyvana iwvevs

mza produqtSi mikrobTa momatebas 4-5 jer, xolo Cadedebis Semdgom (pH 6,3-6,5)

Sigelas moxvedra ar iwvevs mza produqtSi mikrobTa raodenobis matebas saprofituli

mikrofloris ganviTarebis gamo. sawarmoo dedos winaswari dabinZureba

iwvevs mza produqtSi mikrobTa raodenobis asmag matebas, rac `zones~ dabal pH-ze

adaptaciiT aixsneba.

salmonela (Salmonella) _ ganekuTvneba Salmonella-s gvars, Echerichiae, Enterobacteriaceal-s

ojaxs. am gvars ganekuTvnebian mwvave infeqciuri daavadebebis muclis

tifis da paratifis A da B-s gamomwvevebi da uSualod salmonelozis gamomwvevi

mikrobi. daavadeba mimdinareobs gamoxatuli nawlavuri disfunqciiT da toqsikoziT.

salmonelas umetesi tipebi garkveul pirobebSi iwveven daavadebas rogorc adamianebSi

aseve cxovelebSi. daavadebis aRmocenebisas wamyvan rols asrulebs Semdegi

saxeobebi: S. typhimurium, S. cholera suis, S. paratyphi varjava.

salmonela ar gamoyofs egzotoqsins da daavadeba iwyeba organizmSi cocxali

mikroorganizmebis moxvedris Semdgom. sakvebTan erTad kuWnawlavis traqtSi moxvedris

Semdeg salmonela limfuri gziT aRwevs sisxlSi da iwvevs baqteriemias.

mikrobis daSlisas gamoiyofa endotoqsini, romelic gansazRvravs toqsikoinfeqciis

klinikur suraTs. inkubaciuri periodi meryeobs 12-dan 24 sT-mde, SeiZleba Semcirdes

4-8 sT-mde an gaizardos 2-3 dRemde.

salmonelas axasiaTebs dabali gamZleoba maRali temperaturisa da dabali pHis

mimarT, rac gvaZlevs saSualebas daskvnis, rom rZis produqtebis warmoebis

teqnologiuri reJimi, romelic iTvaliswinebs pasterizaciis parametrebis dacvas,

mza produqtis Rrma gaciebas an rZemJava procesis aqtiur mimdinareobas uaryofiT­

82

gadamamuSavebeli mrewveloba _ safrTxeebi

ganadgurebis temperatura

rZeSi, °C

laqtoza da saxarozis

duRili

pasterizaciis reJimi

75-76°C,

dayovneba 15-20 wm

pasterizaciis reJimi

75-76°C,

dayovneba 15-20 wm

120°C

neli _ ar aris monacemi

H2S warmoqmna _ + ar aris monacemi

optimaluri pH 7,2-7,4 7,2-7,4 7-9,5

zRvruli pH 5,0-8,0 5,0-8,0 4-12,5


gadamamuSavebeli mrewveloba _ safrTxeebi

ad moqmedebs salmonelaze iseve rogorc Sigela zoneze.

Bacillus cereus – ekuTvnis Bacillus-is gvars Bacillaceae-s ojaxs.

cereusis yvela Stami iwvevs rZis SexaWoebas, sakmarisad gamZlea sufris marilis

da Saqris mimarT. sporebi gamZlea maRali temperaturisadmi, SeuZliaT gauZlon

aramarto TermodamuSavebis Cveulebriv meTodebs, aramed rZis sterilizacias da

dakonservebas. cereusis mTavari Tvisebaa toqsinis sinTezi, romelic iwvevs mowamvlas.

rogorc wesi, mowamvlas iwvevs produqti, romelSic maRalia mikrobTa moTesvianoba

(106_107 erT g produqtSi), Tumca aseTi maRali moTesvianobiT produqti

yovelTvis ar aris daavadebis mizezi. cereusiT gamowveuli kvebiTi mowamvlis

paTogenezSi ZiriTadi mniSvneloba aqvs produqtSi lecitinis da sxva fosfolipiduri

naerTis da B. cereus-is didi raodenobiT arsebobas.

daavadeba xasiaTdeba SedarebiT mokle inkubaciuri periodiT (6-14 sT), gamonayofSi

B. cereus ar aris. klinikuri niSnebi: Rebineba, gulisreva, tkivili nawlavebSi

da faRaraTi. B. cereus mudmivad gamoiyofa nedli rZidan, magram ZiriTadad misi

Semcveloba ar aRemateba 1 ml-Si 102-103 raodenobas. pasterizaciis procesSi B.

cereus-s sporebi ar nadgurdeba, magram am mizniT temperaturis gazrda ar aris

rekomendebuli, radgan nadgurdeba safrofituli mikroflora da B. cereus iRebs

SesaZleblobas ufro aqtiurad gamravdes pasterizaciis Semdgom. rZeSi B. cereusis

gamravlebis damamuxruWebeli ZiriTadi pirobebia: mkacri sanitariuli reJimi,

pasterizaciis zomieri temperatura, rZis Senaxvis dabali temperatura (6-8 °C) da

rZemJava procesis aqtiuri warmarTva.

listeria monocitogenezi _ listeriozis gamomwvevi baqteriaa. daavadeba sa­

Sualo simZimisaa da gripis simptomebiT xasiaTdeba, maT Soris temperaturis aweviT

da kunTebis tkiviliT. zog SemTxvevaSi am simptomebs emateba kuW-nawlavTan dakav­

Sirebuli problemebi, magaliTad, pirRebineba da diarea. daavadeba gansakuTrebiT

saSiSia garkveuli kategoriis adamianebisTvis, rogoricaa xandazmulebi, axalSobilebi,

imunitetdaqveiTebuli pirebi da zogierT SemTxvevaSi janmrTelebic ki.

fexmZime qalebisTvis listeriozi xSirad abortis gamomwvevi mizezia.

imis gamo rom yvela saxis listeria da gansakuTrebiT listeria monocitogenezi

xSirad gvxvdeba niadagsa da wyalSi, SesaZlebelia sasoflo-sameurneo produqtebis

dabinZureba sxvadasxva gziT moxdes, mag., bostneuli SeiZleba listeriiT dasnebovdes

niadagidan an/da sasuqad gamoyenebuli nakelidan. cxoveli SeiZleba daavaddes

simptomebis gamovlenis gareSe da Sedegad miviRoT dasnebovnebuli rZe da

xorci. listeria gvxvdeba rogorc nedl produqtSi, mag., xorcsa da bostneulSi,

aseve gadamuSavebul produqtSi (mag., rbili saxeobis yvelSi, xorc-produqtebsa da

TevzeulSi), romlis dabinZureba ukve gadamuSavebis Semdeg moxda. saRi da arapasterizebuli

rZis produqtebi agreTve dasnebovnebis wyaros warmoadgens.

sursaTis uvneblobis TvalsazrisiT listeria mniSvnelovan safrTxes warmoadgens

imis gamo, rom mas sxva organizmebTan SedarebiT marilis maRali Semcvelobis,

nitritis da mJavianobis mimarT ukeTesi rezistentuloba axasiaTebs. miuxedavad

imisa, rom am organizmis ganviTarebisTvis saWiro optimalur temperaturas 30-

35 o C warmoadgens, igi dabali temperaturis pirobebSic (4-8 o C) mravldeba. 1 o C-zec

ki mimdinareobs am organizmis neli zrda. komerciuli daniSnulebis sayinuleebSi

83


gadamamuSavebeli mrewveloba _ safrTxeebi

arsebuli temperatura (-18 o C) aCerebs listeria monocitogenezis gamravlebis process,

Tumca ar aris gamoricxuli, rom igi srulad ar ganadgurdes. rZis pasterizaciisas

xdeba am organizmis ganadgureba. garda amisa, swori Termuli damuSavebiT

SesaZlebelia listeriis efeqturi kontroli. baqteriis gamravlebis adgilebs

warmoadgens napralebi zedapirebSi, gansakuTrebiT iseTi napralebi, sadac sakvebis

narCeni grovdeba, iseve rogorc dasufTavebisTvis miuwvdomeli adgilebi sawarmoo

saamqroebsa da danadgarebSi. es sakiTxi yuradRebamisaqcevia dasufTavebis procedurebis

dawesebisas. Termuli damuSavebis Semdeg jvaredinuli dabinZureba erTerTi

yvelaze gavrcelebuli mizezia imisa, Tu rogor xvdeba listeria sakvebad

mza produqtSi: sosisebsa da sxva xorc-produqtebSi, civad Sebolil Tevzsa da

yvelSi.

proteas jgufis baqteriebi _ am jgufis baqteriebi iSviaTad iwvevs toqsikoinfeqcias

rZis produqtebis gamoyenebisas, rac gamowveulia am organizmebis dabali

pH-sadmi momatebuli mgrZnobelobiT.

cxrili 4 _ kvebiTi moSxamvebis gamomwvevis produqtSi moxvedris da

produqti da gamomwvevis moxvedris

wyaro

nedli rZe

sasmeli rZe

rZemJava produqti

wyali, romelic ar Seesabameba standarts

mikrobebis maCveneblebiT

momsaxure personali

gamravlebis profilaqtikuri RonisZiebebi

RonisZiebis daxasiaTeba

•y pasterizacia;

•y nedli da pasterizebuli rZis sxvadasxva saTavsoSi gadamuSaveba

da Senaxva;

• y rZis gadamuSavebamde misi Senaxva ara umetes 8°C.

•y

•y

•y

•y

•y

pasterizatoris ukusarqvelis gamarTulobis Semowmeba

yoveli samuSaos dawyebis win;

TermoCamweris gamarTuli muSaobis uzrunvelyofa;

orTqlis miwodebis Sewyvetis SemTxvevaSi darCenili

rZis meoradi pasterizacia;

pasterizebuli rZis yvela partiis Semowmeba fosfatazis

sinjze;

Rrma gacieba pasterizaciis Semdgom da dabal temperaturaze

Senaxva.

•y Cadedebis temperaturamde gacxelebul rZeSi rZemJava

dedos dauyovnebliv Seyvana;

•y Sededebis procesis aqtiurad wayvana.

•y

•y

•y

•y

sawarmoo teritoriaze arsebul spec. rezervuarebSi

wylis qlorireba;

danadgarebis damduRvra gavlebis Semdeg da muSaobis

dawyebis win.

sawarmoo higienis wesebis dacva;

baqteriomatareblobis drouli gamovlena.

intoqsikaciis gamomwvevi mikroorganizmebi

enterotoqsigenuri stafilokoki _ gramdadebiTi stafilokoki ganekuTvneba

Staphylococcus gvars Micrococcaceae ojaxs.

84


gadamamuSavebeli mrewveloba _ safrTxeebi

cxrili 5 _ enterotoqsigenuri stafilokokis

morfologiuri, kulturaluri da fiziologiuri Tvisebebi

maCvenebeli

ujredis zoma, mkm 0,8-1,0

Cveneba

ujredis morfologia

ujredebis ganlagebis xasiaTi

koloniis forma

JangbadTan mimarTeba

temperatura, °C

optimaluri

minimaluri

maqsimaluri

swori formis koki

araswori formis mtevnebi

mrgvali, gamoburculi aragamWvirvale priala

da swori

aerobi da fakultaturi anaerobi

37

10-15

45

garemos optimaluri pH 7,2-7,4

rZis pH-is zRvruli maCvenebeli roca xdeba gamravleba

rZeSi ganviTareba Tu is Seicavs

NaCl

Saqars

4,8-5,5

7-12%

30-40%

stafilokokebi umoZraoa, sporebs ar warmoSoben, xandaxan ikeTeben kafsulas,

gamoimuSaveben katalazas, rac iwvevs glukozis duRils anaerobul pirobebSi da

warmoqmnian mJavas. es Tviseba ganasxvavebs maT mikrokokebisagan.

stafilokokebi kargad izrdebian Cveulebriv sakveb niadagze. agarze wamoqmnian

brwinvale gaumWirvale koloniebs, rogorc wesi pigmentirebuls (TeTri, kremis,

yviTeli-limonisferi, oqrosferi). am bolo Tvisebis gamo am mikrobebs uwodeben

oqrosfer stafilokokebs.

stafilokokebi gamoirCevian maRali mdgradobiT, isini mravldebian tenis dabali

Semcvelobisas (40%-mde), sufris marilis da Saqris maRali koncentraciisas, magram

mgrZnobiare arian mJave reaqciis garemosadmi. warmoebaSi miRebuli pasterizaciis

reJimis (75-76°C 15-20 wm dayovneba) dros stafilokoki rogorc wesi iRupeba. gamoirCeva

antibiotikebisadmi swrafi adaptaciiT, rac arTulebs mis winaaRmdeg br­

Zolas medicinaSi da veterinariaSi.

paTogenuri stafilokokebis diferencireba arapaTogenurisagan xdeba ramdenime

meTodiT, romelTagan yvelaze ufro produqtiulia plazmokoagulaciis meTodi.

es aris paTogenuri stafilokokis Tviseba moaxdinos bocveris sisxlis citraturi

plazmis Sededeba. amitom sanitarul-baqteriuli kvlevisas koakulaza dadebiTi

Stamebi iTvleba paTogenurad.

ZiriTad safrTxes warmoadgens ara stafilokoki, aramed mis mier gamoyofili

enteroqtoqsini, romelic iwvevs kvebiT intoqsikacias.

klinikuri suraTi metad damaxasiaTebelia: inkubaciuri periodi 30 wT-dan 6

sT-mde, ufro xSirad 2-3 sT. swrafad viTardeba mwvave gastroenteritis, tipiuri

simptomebia _ Rebineba, tkivili, faRaraTi. procesi erT dReSi mTavrdeba.

nedl rZeSi paTogenuri stafilokoki mudmivad aris. es aris curis normaluri

85


gadamamuSavebeli mrewveloba _ safrTxeebi

mikroflora, gansakuTrebiT matulobs mastitebis daavadebis periodSi.

Segrovil rZeSi dabinZureba SeiZleba iyos sakmaod maRali (ramdenime aTi aTasidan

milionamde 1 ml-Si). wyaro SeiZleba iyos mastitiT daavadebuli cxoveli da

baqteriamatarebeli adamiani, fermis da rZis sawarmos muSaki Cirqebadi daavadebiT,

dabinZurebuli haeri da danadgarebi.

rZeSi penicilinis da rZemJava baqteriebis sxva inhibitoris arsebobisas stafilokokebis

ganviTareba Zlierdeba. dabali temperatura ar aris saxarbielo

rogorc koagulaza dadebiTi stafilokokebisTvis, ise rZemJava baqteriebisTvis:

iwyeba, rogorc wesi, 10°C zeviT.

dadgenilia pasterizaciis reJimebi, romelic iwvevs St. Aureas-is daRupvas rZeSi

(temperatura °C/dayovneba, wm/ 60°C/(1080÷1330), 62°C/690, 65°C/ (58÷63), 70°C/ (12÷15),

72°C/ (10÷11), 75°C/ (5÷7), 78°C/ (3÷5), 80°C/ (3÷4).

rZe

cxrili 6 _ 1 ml rZeSi stafilokokis Semcveloba

baqteriebis raodenoba

nedli 10 3 _ 10 5

pasterizatoridan gamosvlisas

ar aRmoCnda 0,1 ml

pasterizebuli rZis Sesanax rezervuarSi 1-10

8°C Senaxvis Semdeg 1-10

Tu stafilokokiT inficirebul pasterizebul an sterilur rZes SevinaxavT maTi

ganviTarebisaTvis dadebiT temperaturaze (37°C) stafilokoki mravldeba intensiurad

da gamoimuSavebs enterotoqsins im raodenobiT, rom gamoiwvios daavadeba.

cxrili 7 _ rZeSi enterotoqsinebis dagroveba

rZe stafilokokis sawyisi

raodenoba 1 ml.

steriluri 10 6

pasterizebuli 10 6

5X10 3 10-12

10-12

enterotoqsinis dagrovebis

dro (sT)

5X10 3 4-6

ar aRmoCnda

sterilur da pasterizebul rZeSi nedl rZesTan SedarebiT stafilokokis uke­

Tesi zrda ganpirobebulia saprofituli antagonisturi mikrofloris ararsebobiT,

inhibitorebis daSliT da rZis Tvisebebis gaumjobesebiT. rZeSi saprofitebis

arseboba (cxrilis me-4 xazi) mkveTrad amuxruWebs stafilokokebis ganviTarebas da

enterotoqsinis gamoyofas.

rZemJava streptokokis yvela saxeoba (S. lactis, S, cremoris, S, lactis subsp. acetoinicus

da sxva) erTnairad antagonisturad moqmedebs stafilokokze. maTi ganviTareba

saerTod wydeba roca pH aRwevs 5,5-4,8.

sworad warmarTuli teqnologiuri procesebi mniSvnelovnad zRudavs produqt­

Si stafilokokis gamravlebas, gansakuTrebul safrTxes warmoadgens produqtis

warmoebis adreul stadiaze moxvedra, roca xdeba rZemJava procesis Seferxeba,

rZeSi antibiotikebis, mainhibirebeli nivTierebebis, baqteriofagebis arsebobis

86


gadamamuSavebeli mrewveloba _ safrTxeebi

gamo (gazafxuli, Semodgomis periodi). didi mniSvneloba aqvs nedli rZis xarisxs:

masSi dagrovili stafilokoki pasterizaciiT nadgureba, magram masSi rCeba toqsini,

romelic pasterizaciiT ar iSleba da SeiZleba gaxdes mowamvlis mizezi, Tumca

mza produqtSi stafilokoki SeiZleba ar aRmoCndes.

gansakuTrebiT saSiSia nedli rZiT damzadebuli axali yveli da xaWo. am dros

stafilokokis gamravleba SeiZleba moxdes rZis gadasamuSaveblad miRebisas, Cadedebis

temperaturamde SeTbobis da Cadebebis pirveli saaTebis periodSi. stafilokokiT

intoqsikaciis SemTxvevebis umetesoba aseT produqtze modis.

Sesqelebuli rZis warmoebisas stafilokoki SeiZleba gamravldes Sesqelebis

procesSi, zogierTi Stami mza produqtSic ki.

mSrali rZis SemTxvevaSi stafilokoki SeiZleba gamravldes gaSrobamde periodSi,

mza produqtSi isini ar mravldebian, magram aRdgenis Semdgom iqmneba maTi

gamravlebis xelSemwyobi pirobebi. amitom didi mniSvneloba aqvs nedleulis kontrols.

enteropaTogenuri nawlavis Cxiri _ gamomwvevi aris E.coli-s zogierTi serologiuri

tipis baqteriebi ZiriTadad isini, romelTac gaaCnia somaturi 0-antigeni. es

tipebi ganekuTvnebian enteropaTogenebs – O11:K58 (B 4

); O55:K59 (B 5

); O26:K60 (B 6

) da

sxva.

enteropaTogenuri nawlavis Cxiri iwvevs koli-baqteriebs. axalgazrda msxvilfexa

rqosan pirutyvSi, ZroxebSi iwvevs mastits, mwvave nawlavur infeqcias bavSveb­

Si. aRniSnuli baqteriebis gamoyofa xdeba janmrTel cxovelebSi da adamianebSic.

daavadebis ZiriTadi gamomwvevi mizezi aris endotoqsini, romelsac gamoimuSavebs

endopaTogenuri nawlavis Cxiri. damtkicebulia toqsinis Termomdgradoba.

cxrili 8 _ intoqsikaciis gamomwvevis produqtSi moxvedrisa da

gamravlebis profilaqtikuri RonisZiebebi

produqti an inficirebis wyaro

nedli rZe

RonisZiebaTa daxasiaTeba

•y mastitiani rZis Serevis Semcireba;

•y rZeSi antibiotikebis da sxva inhibitorebis moxvedris gamoricxva;

• y gadamuSavebamde rZis Senaxva araumetes 8°C.

sasmeli rZe •y pasterizaciis ukusarqvelis gamarTulobis Semowmeba yoveli

•y

muSaobis dawyebis win;

TermoCamweris gamarTuli muSaobis uzrunvelyofa;

•y orTqlis miwodebis Sewyvetis SemTvevaSi darCenili rZis meo­

•y

radi pasterizacia;

pasterizebuli rZis yvela partiis Semowmeba fosfatazis sin­

•y

jze;

Rrma gacieba pasterizaciis Semdgom da dabal temperaturaze

Senaxva.

rZemJava produqti

•y

•y

•y

•y

nedli rZiT produqciis damzadebis srulad gamoricxva;

axal pasterizebul rZeSi dedos dauyovnebliv Seyvana;

Sededebis procesis aqtiurad warmarTva;

baqteriofagis ganviTarebis profilaqtika.

87


masebiT rZis dabinZurebaze kvlevaSi maT fass amcirebs maTi Tviseba metnaklebad gamgadamamuSavebeli

mrewveloba _ safrTxeebi

Sededebuli da mSrali rZe

momsaxure personali

•y

•y

•y

•y

pasterizaciis Semdgom rZeSi mikrobebis moxvedris profilaqtika;

mTeli procesis ganmavlobaSi mikrobebis gamravlebis gamomricxavi

reJimis SenarCuneba.

sawarmoo higienis wesebis dacva;

Cirqbadi infeqciebis drouli gamovlena.

sanitarul-higienuri maCveneblebis mqone mikroorganizmebi

es baqteriebi gamoiyeneba rZisa da rZis produqtebis xarisxisa da uvneblobis

Sesafaseblad. am jgufs ganekuTvnebian: aerobuli da fakultatur anaerobuli

mezofiluri mikroorganizmebi (baqteriebis saerTo raodenoba), nawlavis Cxiris

jgufis mikrobebi, enterokoki, koagulazadadebiTi stafilokoki, proteas jgufis

baqteriebi, sulfitmareducirebeli anaerobuli sporawarmoqmneli mikroorganizmebi

(Cl. perfingens).

am baqteriebisaTvis SemuSavebulia saerTo sabaziso moTxovnebi, rom moxdes

obieqtis, adamianis an cxovelis gamonayofebiT savaraudo dabinZurebisa da Sesabamisad

paTogenuri mikroorganizmebiT moTesvianobis Sefaseba.

cxrili 9 - obieqtis, adamianis an cxovelis gamonayofebiT savaraudo

dabinZurebisa da Sesabamisad paTogenuri mikroorganizmebiT moTesvianobis

Sesafaseblad gamosayenebeli baqteriebis saerTo sabaziso moTxovnebi

# Tviseba

baqteriebis saer­

To raodenoba

nawlavis Cxiris

jgufis baqteriebi

enterokoki

St. aureus

proteas jgufis

baqteriebi

Cl. perfingens

1 garemoSi mudmivad didi raodenobiT gamoyofa - + + + ± +

2 garemoSi gamravlebis SezRuduli Tviseba - - ± - - ±

3 garemoSi cxovelmyofelobis didxans SenarCuneba

(paTogenebis analogiurad)

4 mdgradoba garegan zemoqmedebaze (maRali, paTogenuri

mikroorganizmebis analogiurad)

+ + - + + -

+ + - + + +

5 aRmoCenis simartive - + + + + +

6 Tvisebebis mudmivoba - - + + + +

7 damoukebloba sxva mikroorganizmebis Tanaarsebobisas

- - + - + -

8 gamosakvlev obieqtSi Tanabari ganawileba + + + + + +

9 garemoSi da patronis organizmSi ufro didi

raodenobiT arseboba vidre paTogenuri mikroorganizmebi

- + + + + +

88

am jgufebidan rZis gamokvlevisaTvis verc erTi akmayofilebs moTxovnebs. fekaluri


gadamamuSavebeli mrewveloba _ safrTxeebi

ravldnen rZeSi (ix. cxrilis punqti 2). maTi zrda SeiZleba daTrgunos an stimulireba

gaukeTos Casadedebeli dedos mikroorganizmebis arsebobam (ix. cxrilis punqti 7) da

amavdroulad isini gamoavlenen TvisebaTa cvalebadobas. amis garda ar dasturdeba

korelacia, mag., nawlavis Cxiris jgufis baqteriebis maCvenebelsa da rZis produqtSi

gamravlebuli Sigela zones, salmonellas an oqrosferi stafilokokis mier gamowveul

kvebiT moSxamvebs Soris. amitom dReisTvis es maCvenebeli gamoiyeneba ZiriTadad sawarmos

sanitaruli mdgomareobisa da sanitarul-higienuri da teqnologiuri reJimebis

dacvis Sesafaseblad. rac Seexeba axali fekaluri dabinZurebis Sefasebas, am jgufis

baqteriebi gamodgeba axlad mowvelili rZis kvlevis SemTxvevaSi.

qimiuri safrTxeebi

rZesa da rZis produqtebSi qimiur safrTxes warmoadgens:

- pesticidebis narCeni;

- mZime metalebi:

- mainhibirebeli nivTierebebi;

- antibiotikebi;

- aflatoqsini;

- radionuklidebi;

- sarecxi da sadezinfeqcio saSualebebis narCeni

saZovrebze pesticidebis gamoyenebis, cxovelis sakvebSi mZime metalebis Semcvelobis

da pesticidebis narCeni raodenobis mkacri kontroli warmoadgens aRniSnuli

qimiuri safrTxis rZis produqtSi moxvedris prevencias. rZis produqtebSi

alflatoqsinis moxvedris SesaZlebloba arsebobs mxolod arasaTanadod Senaxuli

cxovelis sakvebis gamoyenebisas.

rZesa da rZis produqtebeSi antibiotikebis moxvedris prevencia xorcieldeba

zooveterinaruli RonisZiebebis swori dagegmviTa da vadebis Sesrulebis dacviT.

rZeSi mainhibirebeli nivTierebebis aRmoCenis mizniT aucilebelia rZis Segrovebisas

am nivTierebebiT rZis falsifikaciaze mkacri laboratoriuli kontrolis

daweseba.

rZesa da rZis produqtebis Semnaxveli WurWlis, sawarmoo danadgarebis, inventaris,

satransporto saSualebebis da rezervuarebis swori recxva-dezinficirebis

wesebis zedmiwevniT dacva uzrunvelyofs produqtSi san-higienuri saSualebebis

moxvedris prevencias.

fizikuri safrTxeebi

fizikur safrTxes warmoadgens ucxo sxeuli, romelmac produqtSi moxvedrisas

SesaZlebelia ziani miayenos adamianis janmrTelobas, mag., qva, mina, metalis an

plastmasis fragmenti da sxva minarevebi.

aRniSnuli safrTxe rZeSi SeiZleba moxvdes mowvelis, Senaxvis, transportirebis

da gadamuSavebis etapebze. prevenciul RonisZiebas warmoadgens higienis zogadi

wesebis dacva, rZis filtracia Segrovebisa da gadamuSavebis etapebze.

89


danarTi 2 - formebi

danarTi 2.1 saqonlis pasporti

danarTi 2.2 veterinaruli moxseneba

danarTi 2.3 informacia cxovelis gadaadgilebis Sesaxeb

danarTi 2.4 xelovnuri ganayofiereba

danarTi 2.5 rZis wvelis Jurnali

danarTi 2.6 fermebidan rZis Segrovebis Jurnali

danarTi 2.7 Semgrovebel centrSi rZis miRebis Jurnali

danarTi 2.8 Semgrovebeli centridan rZis gacemis Jurnali

danarTi 2.9 recxva-dezinfeqciis Jurnali

danarTi 2.10 momsaxure personalis janmrTelobis mdgomareobis Jurnali

danarTi 2.11 darRvevebis zogadi Jurnali

danarTi 2.12 treningis Jurnali

danarTi 2.13 mavneblebis kontrolis Jurnali

danarTi 2.14 manqana-danadgarebisa da gasazomi saSualebebis momsaxurebis gegma

danarTi 2.15 manqana-danadgarebisa da gasazomi saSualebebis momsaxurebis Jurnali

danarTi 2.16 pretenziebis Jurnali

danarTi 2.17 temperaturuli reJimis forma

danarTi 2.18 sawarmoSi rZis miRebis Jurnali

danarTi 2.19 teqnologiuri procesis Jurnali

danarTi 2.20 sawyobis Semosaval-gasavlis Jurnali

danarTi 2.21 produqtis aRweris forma

danarTi 2.22 HACCP-is gegma. safrTxis analizis forma

danarTi 2.23 HACCP-is gegma. ZiriTadi cxrilis forma

formebi warmodgenilia eleqtronuli saxiT TandarTul diskze.

danarTi 3 - rZisa da rZis produqtebis fiziko-qimiuri da mikrobiologiuri

analizis meTodebi

warmodgenilia eleqtronuli saxiT TandarTul diskze.

danarTi 4 - laboratoriuli xsnarebis momzadeba, Senaxvis pirobebi

da vadebi, reaqtivebis vargisianobis Semowmeba

warmodgenilia eleqtronuli saxiT TandarTul diskze.

danarTi 5 - sarecxi-sadezinfeqcio saSualebebi da maTi aqtiurobis

gansazRvra

warmodgenilia eleqtronuli saxiT TandarTul diskze.

90


danarTi 6 _ sursaTis uvneblobasTan dakavSirebuli saqarTvelos

kanonmdebloba rZis seqtorisTvis

danarTi 6.1

saqarTvelos kanoni `saqarTvelos zogierT sakanonmdeblo aqtSi damatebebisa

da cvlilebebis Setanis Sesaxeb~ (kanonebi: `sursaTis uvneblobisa

da xarisxis Sesaxeb~; `veterinariis Sesaxeb~; `sasoflo-sameurneo karantinis

Sesaxeb~; `vazisa da Rvinis Sesaxeb~; `saqarTvelos administraciul

samarTaldarRvevaTa kodeqsi~; `samewarmeo saqmianobis kontrolis Sesaxeb~;

`okupirebuli teritoriebis Sesaxeb~)

17.12.2010

danarTi 6.2 saqarTvelos kanoni `sursaTis uvneblobisa da xarisxis Sesaxeb~ 27.12.2005

danarTi 6.3 saqarTvelos kanoni `momxmarebelTa uflebebis dacvis Sesaxeb~ 20.03.1996

danarTi 6.4 saqarTvelos kanoni `veterinariis Sesaxeb~ 14.06.1995

danarTi 6.5

danarTi 6.6

danarTi 6.7

danarTi 6.8

danarTi 6.9

danarTi 6.10

danarTi 6.11

danarTi 6.12

danarTi 6.13

danarTi 6.14

danarTi 6.15

danarTi 6.16

danarTi 6.17

danarTi 6.18

saqarTvelos mTavrobis dadgenileba #59 `sajaro samarTlis iuridiuli

piris _ sursaTis erovnuli saagentos mier momsaxurebis gawevis vadisa da

safasuris damtkicebis Sesaxeb~

saqarTvelos mTavrobis dadgenileba #282 `sursaTis/cxovelis sakvebis

mwarmoebeli sawarmos/distributoris higienis gamartivebuli wesis Sesaxeb~

saqarTvelos mTavrobis dadgenileba #176 `sursaTis/cxovelis sakvebis

ganadgurebis wesis damtkicebis Sesaxeb~

saqarTvelos mTavrobis dadgenileba #173 `sursaTis/cxovelis sakvebis

mwarmoebeli sawarmos/distributoris higienis zogadi wesisa da sursa­

Tis uvneblobis, veterinariisa da mcenareTa dacvis sferoebSi zedamxedvelobis,

monitoringisa da saxelmwifo kontrolis ganxorcielebis wesis

Sesaxeb~

saqarTvelos soflis meurneobis ministris brZaneba #2-231 `sursaTis

etiketirebisadmi damatebiTi moTxovnebis damtkicebis Sesaxeb~

saqarTvelos soflis meurneobis ministris brZaneba #2-165 `sacalo

vaWrobaSi daufasoebeli produqciis miwodebisa da realizaciis higienuri

pirobebisa da wesebis damtkicebis Sesaxeb~

saqarTvelos mTavrobis dadgenileba #111 `sursaTisa da sursaTTan dakavSirebuli

taris higienuri sertifikatis gacemis wesis damtkicebis Taobaze~

saqarTvelos soflis meurneobis ministris brZaneba #2-148 `sursaTis monitoringis,

zedamxedvelobisa da kontrolis procedurebis damtkicebis

Sesaxeb~

saqarTvelos soflis meurneobis ministris brZaneba #2-144 `sursaTis warmoebis

sferoSi mikvlevadobis, safrTxis analizisa da sakontrolo kritikuli

wertilebis dadgenis wesis damtkicebis Sesaxeb~

saqarTvelos soflis meurneobis ministris brZaneba #2-208 `saqarTvelos

teritoriaze cxovelTa, mecxoveleobis nedleulisa da produqtebis gadazidvisas

gamosayenebeli veterinaruli mowmobebis formebisa da maTi gacemis

wesis damtkicebis Sesaxeb~

saqarTvelos soflis meurneobis ministris brZaneba #2-206 `mecxoveleobis

nedleulisa da produqtebis, cxovelTa sakvebis (sawarmoo wesiT)

damamzadebeli, gadamamuSavebeli, Semnaxavi da sarealizacio obieqtebis

veterinarul-sanitariuli wesebis damtkicebis Sesaxeb~

saqarTvelos soflis meurneobis ministris brZaneba #2-190 `cxovelTa gadarekva-gadayvanis

(maT Soris sazafxulo da zamTris saZovrebze) veterinarul-sanitariuli

wesebis damtkicebis Sesaxeb~

saqarTvelos Sromis, janmrTelobis da socialuri dacvis ministris br­

Zaneba #303/n `gansakuTrebiT malfuWebadi produqtebis Senaxvis pirobebisa

da vadebis damtkicebis Sesaxeb~

saqarTvelos Sromis, janmrTelobis da socialuri dacvis ministris br­

Zaneba #301/n `sasursaTo nedleulisa da kvebis produqtebis xarisxisa da

usafrTxoebis sanitariuli wesebisa da normebis damtkicebis Sesaxeb~

danarTi 7 - plakatebi

TandarTulia amobeWdili saxiT

31.01.2011

10.09.2010

03.07.2010

25.06.2010

11.12.2009

19.12.2007

30.05.2007

07.08.2006

07.12.2006

07.09.2005

07.09.2005

17.08.2005

16.08.2001

16.08.2001

91


gamoyenebuli literatura

arzumaniani e., meZroxeoba, Tb., 1988.

banikovi l.a., koroleva n.s., semenixini v.f., rZis mrewvelobis mikrobiologiuri

safuZvlebi. moskovi, 1987. gv. 3-68.

barkalaia r., yuraSvili T., Zroxis moSenebis, kvebisa da movla Senaxvis zogierTi

sakiTxebi, Tb., 2009.

gogoli g., garemo da cxoveli. Tb., 1997.

koCaliZe a., sasoflo-sameurneo cxovelTa daavadebebi, maTi mkurnaloba da

profilaqtika, meore gamocema, Tb., 2008.

petrovski k.s., vanxaneneni v.d., kvebis higiena, moskovi, 1982, gv. 191-192

xatiaSvili g., rZis mwarmoebeli fermeris saxelmZRvanelo.

xatiaSvili g., gogoli g., maWaraSvili g., TorTlaZe l., sanaSene saqmianoba

sarZeo meZroxeobaSi, Tb., 2009.

xaWapuriZe e., koCaliZe a., sanaSene saqmianobisa da veterinaruli RonisZiebebis

organizacia saqarTvelos mTiani regionebis mesaqonleobaSi, Tb., 2004.

Scott V., Stevenson K., HACCP – A Systematic Approach to Food Safety, Food Products

Association, Fourth Edition, USA, 2006

92

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