Tavi 13. mineraluri resursebi - momxmarebeli.ge

momxmarebeli.ge

Tavi 13. mineraluri resursebi - momxmarebeli.ge

Tavi 13. mineraluri resursebi

reziume

saqarTvelo mdidaria mineraluri resursebiT. Tumca maTi

mopoveba, saTanado regulirebisa da kontrolis gareSe garemosTvis

didi zianis momtani SeiZleba iyos. gansakuTrebiT es exeba liTonebis

mopovebas. am obieqtebze aucilebelia ara marto garemosdacviTi

kontrolis gamkacreba, aramed garemos sareabilitacio RonisZiebebis

Catareba. gansakuTrebiT WiaTuraSi, kazreTSi, luxumze, sadac garemos

dabinZureba wlebis ganmavlobaSi mimdinareobda.

1. Sesavali

mineraluri resursebi qveynis ekonomikis sayrdenia. aqve aRsaniSnavia,

rom samTo-mopovebas erT-erTi wamyvani adgili uWiravs garemoze mavne

zemoqmedebis SesaZleblobis TvalsazrisiT da amdenad, saTanado

garemosdacviTi regulirebis gareSe mineraluri resursebis mopoveba

SeiZleba didi zianis momtani iyos misTvis.

normatiuli baza. saqarTveloSi yvela saxis mineraluri resursi

saxelmwifos sakuTrebas warmoadgens. maT damuSavebas specialuri

nebarTva – sasargeblo wiaRiseulis mopovebis licenzia esaWiroeba,

romelsac saxelmwifo auqcionis wesiT, mineraluri resursis saxisa da

masze moTxovnis gaTvaliswinebiT sxvadasxva vadiT gascems.

licenziasTan erTad wiaRiT mosargeble droebiT sargeblobaSi iRebs

miwis farTs _ miwis minakuTvnis saxiT, romelic aucilebelia resursis

mopovebasTan dakavSirebuli saqmianobisaTvis. wiaRiseulis mopovebis

dasrulebis Semdeg igi valdebulia ganaxorcielos am teritoriis

rekultivacia da ise daubrunos saxelmwifos.

mineraluri resursebis mopovebis periodSi licenzianti valdebulia

daicvas garemos dacvis saTanado wesebi. isini dReisaTvis dadgenilia

mxolod sasargeblo wiaRiseulis mopovebisas atmosferuli haeris

dacvisTvis.

2. arsebuli mdgomareoba

mineraluri resursebis maragi

saqarTvelos geologiur Taviseburebas gansazRvravs misi mdebareoba

evraziul da afro-arabul filaTa Sesayarze. teritoria

araerTgvarovania Tavisi agebulebiTa da geologiuri ganviTarebis

istoriiT (ruka 1.), rac ganapirobebs wiaRiseuli sabadoebis

mravalferovnebas. geologiuri procesebis intensivoba, maTi

ganviTarebis areali da masStabi gansazRvravs sabadoebis sididesa da,

xSir SemTxvevaSi, maT xarisxs. mineraluri resursebis didi sabadoebi

saqarTveloSi aRmoCenili ar aris. aq mineraluri resursebi ZiriTadad

saSualo da mcire zomis sabadoebsa da gamovlinebebSia ganawilebuli.

ruka 1. saqarTvelos geologiuri ruka


mineraluri resursebis sabadoebis Seswavlis safuZvelze xdeba am

sabadoebSi arsebuli resursis maragis Sefaseba _ daTvla/gadaTvla.

yvela saxis mineraluri resursis maragis daTvlisaTvis mopovebuli

geologiuri informaciis Semowmeba da maragebis damtkiceba xdeba

saqarTvelos garemos dacvisa da bunebrivi resursebis saministrosTan

arsebul sasargeblo wiaRiseulis maragebis saxelmwifo uwyebaTaSoris

komisiaze. komisiis daskvna mineraluri resursis maragis saxelmwifo

balansze ayvanis erTaderTi safuZvelia. monacemebi damtkicebuli

maragis Sesaxeb gadaecema wiaRis Sesaxeb informaciis erTian saxelmwifo

fonds (saqarTvelos garemos dacvisa da bunebrivi resursebis

saministros ssip „garemos erovnul saagentos~) maragebis mineralurresursul

fondSi aRsaricxavad.

amdenad, mineralur-resursuli fondi warmoadgens qveynis

teritoriasa da mis ekonomikur zonaSi ganTavsebul im sabadoTa da

maRaroTa erTobliobas, romelTaTvisac damtkicebulia saxelmwifo

balansze ayvanili maragebi. es fondi aris resursuli bazis nawili,

romlic Tavisi ekonomikuri da samrewvelo maCveneblebiT SeiZleba

CaerTos sabazro urTierTobebSi.

dRevandeli mdgomareobiT saqarTvelos myari mineraluri

resursebis fondi moicavs 552 sabados. maTgan mopovebisa da

gadamuSavebis procesSi garemosaTvis potenciurad meti zianis miyeneba

SeuZliaT LliTonebs, xolo myari mineraluri resursebis sxva saxeebi

SedarebiT inertulia (cxr. 1; diagr. 1)

cxrili 1. mineraluri resursebis fondSi ricxuli sabadoebi

# mineraluri

resursis saxeoba

raodenoba ganzomile

ba

maragi

damtkicebuli

1 liTonebi (Savi,

52 aTasi t 419965,00

feradi,

keTilSobili,

iSviaTi)

myari sawvavi

resursebi

2 naxSiri 3 aTasi t 373 934,00

3 torfi 5 aTasi t 47 644,00

mosapirkeTebeli

qvebi

107

4 gabro aTasi m 3 7 224,00

5 gabro-dioriti aTasi m 3 5 972,00

6 sieniti aTasi m 3 660,00

7 graniti aTasi m 3 5400,00

8 tufobreqCia aTasi m 3 14 938,00

9 daciti aTasi m 3 2 289,00

10 teSeniti aTasi m 3 6 165,00

11 diabazi aTasi m 3 10 741,00

12 bazalti aTasi m 3 45 051,60

13 doleriti aTasi m 3 19 579,00

14 marmarilo aTasi m 3 4 259,00


15 marmarilosebri

kirqva aTasi m 3 78 026,00

qimiuri

mrewvelobis

nedleuli 44

16 bariti aTasi t 4 731,00

mJavagamZle

andeziti aTasi t 12 717,00

17 mirabiliti aTasi m 3 1493,00

18 bentoniti aTasi t 6 418,00

19 mineraluri

pigmenti aTasi t 437,00

20 talki aTasi t 2 774,00

21 kalciti aTasi t 27 211,00

22 diatomiti aTasi m 3 7 995,00

samSeneblo

masalebi 312

23 RorRi aTasi m 3 459 221,00

24 qviSa-xreSi aTasi m 3 658 487,00

25 saagure Tixebi aTasi m 3 135 207,00

26 carci aTasi m 3 3 962,00

27 sakire kirqvebi aTasi t 292 173,00

28 TabaSiri aTasi t 20 342,00

29 sacemente Tixebi aTasi m 3 64 070,00

30 sacemente kirqvebi aTasi t 392 014,00

31 gaji aTasi m 3 14 917,00

32 saxuravi fiqlebi aTasi m 3 11 796,00

33 msubuqi

Semavseblebi

aTasi m 3 220 323,00

34 sakedle qvebi aTasi m 3 4 898,00

35 kvarcis qviSa aTasi m 3 168 804,00

36 perliti aTasi m 3 13 500,00

damxmare nedleuli 10

metalurgiisaTvis

37 dolomiti aTasi t 44 904,00

38 cecxlgamZle Tixa aTasi m 3 91 636,00

39 sayalibe qviSa aTasi m 3 2 300,00

40 spongoliTi aTasi m 3 19 57,008

41 safluse kirqva aTasi t 1 700,00

samrewvelo

masalebis

maragebi

42 Camosasxmelo

bazalti 2 aTasi m 3 9 892,00

43 loTografiuli qva 1 aTasi m 3 120,00

44 sanakeTo qvebi 3 t 919,80

nedleuli soflis 9

meurneobisaTvis

45 torfi aTasi t 41 880,00

46 ceoliTi aTasi t 30 381,00


47 Tixiani TabaSiri aTasi t 3 460,00

nedleuli

9

keramikis

warmoebisaTvis

48 keramikuli Tixa aTasi m 3 2 504,00

49 traqiti aTasi m 3 945,00

50 Tixiani TabaSiri aTasi t 2 232,00

Savi liTonebi. saqarTvelo ar ganekuTvneba msoflios rkinis Semcvel

ZiriTad auzebs. miuxedavad amisa, rkinis prognozuli resursebi da rkinis 4

ZiriTadi sabado (foladauris, Zamis, tyibuli-Saoris da sufsa-natanebis)

sakmaod mniSvnelovania (diagr. 1, ruka 2). tradiciul sabadoebTan erTad

saqarTveloSi gvaqvs mdidari zRviuri magnetit-titanomagnetituri

qviSrobebi, romlebic mniSvnelovan dagrovebebs qmnian md. sufsisa da md.

natanebis deltebSi. dReisaTvis rkinis sabadoebi ar muSavdeba, magram maTi

Seswavla grZeldeba da damuSavebis procesis dawyeba uaxloesi momavlis

saqmea.

ruka 2. liTonebis gavrceleba saqarTveloSi.

vercxli

rkina

vercxliswyali

bismuti

alumini

manganumi

spilenZi

TuTia

tyvia

surma

dariSxani

kadmiumi

teluri

seleni

indiumi

oqro

kobalti

volframi

diagrama 1. liTonebisa da iSviaTi elementebis maragebi

saqarTveloSi.


me-19 saukunis bolodan 1 saqarTveloSi daiwyo manganumis mopoveba da

is iTvleba msoflios erT-erT ZiriTad manganummatarebel provinciad

(cxr. 2; ruka 2.).

cxrili 2. manganumis sabadoebi, maTi maragebi da mopoveba

raioni sabado maragi

aTasi t

muSavdeba Tu

ara

WiaTuris WiaTura 201921 muSavdeba

r-ni

Terjolis CxariajameTi

5000 muSavdeba

r-ni

zestafonis yvirilis 15460 ar muSavdeba

r-ni depresia

(ubani

rodinauli)

onis r-ni Sqmeri 1576 droebiT ar

muSavdeba

ruka 3. keTilSobili, feradi da msubuqi liTonuri mineraluri

resursebis gavrceleba saqarTveloSi.

iSviaTi liTonebi da elementebi. saqarTvelos iSviaTi liTonebi

Tavmoyrilia kavkasionis mTavari qedis dariSxanis, vercxliswylis,

volframisa da molibdenis mcire sabadoebze.

oqro-dariSxanis, dariSxanisa da oqro-stibiumis sabadoebs

saerTaSoriso mniSvneloba aqvT. maT Soris aRsaniSnavia luxumis oqrodariSxanis

stratiformuli sabado. garemos dabinZurebis TvalsazrisiT

es sabado gansakuTrebiT saSiSia. misi gaumarTavi mopovebisa da

gadamuSavebisas adamianebisa da cocxali organizmebis sicocxles

safrTxe emuqreba (cx. 3; ruka 3). garda amisa, dabinZurebuli niadagisa da

wylis sruli reabilitacia praqtikulad SeuZlebelia.

cxrili 3: dariSxani da misi Tanmxlebi liTonebi

raioni sabado ganzomileba maragi muSavdeba Tu

ara

amrolauris luxumi aTasi t. 8,7 aRar muSavdeba

r-ni

0,9

lentexis r- cana aTasi t. 30,225

ni

19,987

aRar muSavdeba

lentexis r- Woroxi aTasi t.

ni

1,85/2,63 ar muSavdeba

qimiuri, agroqimiuri, keramikuli, naxevradZvirfasi da sanakeTobo

qvebis, inertuli, metalurgiuli da samSeneblo masalebis resursebis

mopoveba-gadamuSaveba nakleb zians ayenebs garemos da swori

eqspluataciis pirobebSi safrTxes ar uqmnis adamianebis sicocxles,

Tumca warmoadgens garemos damabinZurebels.

1 roca didi qarTveli poetis akaki wereTlis ZalisxmeviT aRmoaCines WiaTuris

manganumis sabado.


uka 4. araliTonuri mineraluri resursebis gavrceleba saqarTveloSi.

saqarTveloSi gansakuTrebuli mniSvnelobis mqone sabadoTa rigs

ganekuTvneba: liTonTa sabadoebidan – WiaTuris manganumisa da

madneulis (bolnisis madniani raionis) sabadoebi. amave rangisad

SeiZleba CaiTvalos aramadniani sabadoebidan ceoliTSemcveli (Zegvi,

TeZami, axalcixedasxva) sabadoebi da samSeneblo-mosapirkeTebeli

masalebi.

mineraluri resursebis mopovebis zemoqmedeba garemoze

qveynis ekonomikuri ganviTarebisaTvis aucilebelia mineraluri

resursebis mopoveba da damuSaveba-gadamuSaveba, Tumca am procesebs Tan

axlavs garemoze mniSvnelovani zemoqmedeba _ miwis safaris dazianeba da

TviTmyofadi landSaftebisa da ekosistemebis moSla; wylisa da haeris

dabinZureba. gansakuTrebiT aRsaniSnavia garemoze zemoqmedeba

mineraluri resursebis Ria karieruli wesiT mopovebisas. am dros

adgili aqvs mimdebare teritoriebis dabinZurebas nayari masalebiT,

niadagebis mospobas an dazianebas. samwuxarod, saqarTveloSi momuSave

samTo-geologiuri kompaniebi xSirad iyeneben moZvelebul da gaumarTav

teqnologiebs, riTac mniSvnelovan zians ayeneben garemos.

saqarTveloSi amJamad moqmedi samTo-mompovebeli sawarmoebidan

garemos erT-erTi Zlieri damabinZurebelia manganumis mopoveba.

dReisaTvis gacemuli licenziis pirobebis mixedviT, WiaTuris

manganumis sabadodan 2008-2011 ww. unda moipovon 1600000 t. liToni,

momdevno wlebSi _ 400 000 t., minimaluri mopoveba _ 200 000 t. CxariajameTis

sabadoze licenzia gacemulia 27 wlis vadiT, jamuri mopovebaa

20 000 t.

marganecis mopovebas Tan axlavs md. yvirilas dabinZureba. mopovebis

adgilidan dawyebuli mdinaris qvemo weli da misi momijnave miwebi

mTlianad dabinZurebulia. seriozuli saSiSroeba emuqreba mdinareSi

mobinadre cocxal organizmebsa da miwisqveSa wylebs, romlebic

xSiradaa zedapirul wylebTan kontaqtSi.

garemosTvis didi zianis momtania, agreTve, bolnisis jgufis

polimetaluri sabadoebis madnebis mopovebasTan dakavSirebuli

saqmianoba. madneulis eqspluataciaSi myofi oqro-spilenZ-baritpolimetaluri

sabados kompleqsuri damuSaveba (bolnisis r-ni)

gacemulia 20 wlis vadiT. aq madnis mopoveba Ria karieruli wesiT xdeba.

karierze ki burRva-afeTqebiTi samuSaoebi warmoebs, rac haeris

dabinZurebas iwvevs. amas emateba karieris terasebze satvirTo manqanebis

aqtiuri moZraoba da yovelives Sedegad mniSvnelovani xdeba haerSi mavne

emisiebi. dabinZurebuli haeridan mavne nivTierebebis gadatana da daleqva

emisiis centridan did manZilze xdeba, gansakuTrebiT _ wvrili, wminda

fraqciebis. es, Tavis mxriv, iwvevs niadagisa da Semdeg gruntis wylebis

dabinZurebas.

mopovebiTi samuSaoebis garda, garemoze mniSvnelovan gavlenas

axdens nedleulis gadamuSavebasTan dakavSirebuli procesebi. kerZod,

teqnogenuri wylebis gawmendis xarisxi da maTi CaSveba, rac aisaxa md.

kazreTulas mdgomareobaze da kudsacavebi, romelTa mimdebare


teritoriebze miwa mniSvnelovnadaa dabinZurebuli da gamousadegari

meurneobisaTvis.

mniSvnelovan safrTxes Seicavs sabadoebi da maRaroebi, romlebzec

droebiT SeCerebulia sasargeblo wiaRiseulis mopovebis samuSaoebi.

aseTi obieqtebi dakonservebulia, magram rCeba didi albaToba imisa, rom

maTgan moxdes garemos damabinZurebeli nivTierebebis gatana, magaliTad,

miwisqveSa wylebiT. es garemoeba gansakuTrebul SeSfoTebas iwvevs maSin,

roca saqme exeba vercxliswyals, dariSxansa da sxva Zlier momwamlavi

nivTierebebis gatanas sabados an samTo gamonamuSevris konservaciis

adgilidan. luxumis sabadoze dariSxanis mopovebis licenzia gacemulia

25 wlis vadiT, dariSxanis jamuri mopoveba, licenziis pirobebis

Sesabamisad, 9534 tonaa. dReisaTvis luxumisa da canas dariSxanis

sabadoebze samuSaoebi droebiT SeCerebulia (cxr. 3).

yoveli sabados `sicocxlis mosalodneli xangrZlivoba~

ganisazRvreba misi maragis odenobiTa da sasargeblo wiaRiseulis

mopovebis licenziis gacemisas gansazRvruli wiaRiseulis yovelwliuri

mopovebis raodenobis pirobiT. garda amisa, mniSvnelovania Tavad

sasargeblo wiaRiseulis mopovebis licenziis moqmedebis vadebi wiaRiT

sargeblobis saxeebis mixedviT (saqarTveloSi sasargeblo wiaRiseulis

mopovebis licenziebi gacemulia 2-5 w-dan 20-25 w-is vadiT da meti) da

TviT resursis saxeoba. kerZod, liTonebis, myari sawvavi resursebis

Seswavlasa da mopovebas gacilebiT meti dro sWirdeba, vidre

samSeneblo masalebisaTvis saWiro nedleuls. Sesabamisad, dro da

masStabebi, romlis farglebSic mineraluri resursebis mopovebis

Sedegad garemos ziani adgeba, gansxvavebulia. aseve gansxvavebulia dro,

romelic dasWirdeba gabinZurebuli garemos srul reabilitacias (im

SemTxvevebSi, Tu es SesaZlebeli iqneba).

3. ZiriTadi gamowvevebi

mineraluri resursebis mopovebasTan dakavSirebuli garemoze

zemoqmedebis ZiriTadi problemebia haeris, wylisa da miwis dabinZureba

da mewyerebis gaaqtiureba. dReisaTvis aseTi zemoqmedebis kontrolis da

minimalizaciis meqanizmi garemos dacvis inspeqciis saqmianobaa, romelic

axorcielebs saxelmwifo kontrols garemos dacvis sferoSi. masve

evaleba garemos dabinZurebis faqtebis gamovlena da aRkveTa, aseve _

sasargeblo wiaRiseulis mopovebis licenziebis pirobebis Sesrulebis

kontroli. sasargeblo wiaRiseulis mopovebis samuSaoebis specifikidan

gamomdinare, aucilebelia samTo-geologiuri saqmianobiT gamowveuli

garemos dabinZurebaze kontroli. aq gasaTvaliswinebelia is garemoeba,

rom myari mineraluri resursis TiToeul saxes aqvs mopovebisa da

gadamuSavebis misTvis damaxasiaTebeli Tavisebureba da garemosdacviTi

problemebic gansxvavebulia TiToeuli maTganisaTvis.

arsebuli mdgomareobidan gamomdinare, mineraluri resursebis

mopovebiT gamowveuli garemosdacviTi problemebis Seswavlisa da

SemcirebisTvis aucilebelia dawesdes samTo-mopovebiT saqmianobaTa

garemosdacviTi monitoringi. is ar unda Semoifarglebodes mxolod

regulirebis obieqtis (konkretuli samTo minakuTvnis farTobis) da misi

calkeuli nawilis, magaliTad, samTo-mopovebiTi warmoebis axlos

arsebuli mdinaris sisufTavis kontroliT, aramed mdinareebis

Senakadebis, miwisa (rogorc zedapirze, ise 20-40sm. siRrmeze da


saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi metze) da haeris sisufTave unda mowmdebodes

obieqtis sakontrolo wertilebis gareTac.

garda samTo-geologiur saqmianobis monitoringis dawesebisa,

aucilebelia sareabilitacio samuSaoebis Catareba im obieqtebze,

romlebzec niadagis, haerisa da miwisqveSa wylebis dabinZurebis faqtebia

dafiqsirebuli, maT Soris _ WiaTuraSi, kazreTSi, luxumze.

aucilebelia garemoze zemoqmedebis riskebis Sefasebis angariSi

keTdebodes im obieqtebze, romlebic jer kidev Seswavlis stadiazea da

sadac mopovebiTi samuSaoebi ar dawyebula. es saSualebas mogvcems

sabados aTvisebamde ganvsazRvroT garemoze SesaZlo zemoqmedeba da

winaswar davsaxoT prevenciuli RonisZiebebi. am tipis riskebis Sefaseba

mniSvnelovania ara marto qveynis kontinentur nawilSi mimdinare

mopovebiT samuSaoebTan dakavSirebiT, aramed Savi zRvis Selfze

mineraluri resursebis Seswavla-mopovebiT samuSaoebTan mimarTebaSic.

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