bavSvis - Unicef

unicef.ge

bavSvis - Unicef

avSvis uflebebi da

Jurnalisturi praqtika -

uflebebze dafuZnebuli midgoma

bavSvis

uflebebis

dacva

uflebebi

da Jurnalisturi

praqtika -

uflebebze

dafuZnebuli

presis Tavisufleba

bavSvTa parlamentebi

midgoma

ras unda moicavdes kodeqsi


avSvis uflebebi da

Jurnalisturi praqtika -

uflebebze dafuZnebuli midgoma

2011 weli


saswavlo kursi momzadda centraluri da aRmosavleT evropisa da damoukidebel

saxelmwifoTa Tanamegobrobis gaeros bavSvTa fondis (iunisefi) regionuli

ofisis dakveTiT dublinis teqnologiuri institutis media skolis mier.

© `iunisefi~ - dublinis teqnologiis instituti, 2007 w.

© qarTuli Targmani da gamocema, gaeros bavSvTa fondis saqarTvelos

warmomadgenloba, 2011 w.

saxelmZRvanelos qarTuli variantis SemuSavebasa da adaptaciaSi monawileobdnen:

daviT paiWaZe, ilias saxelobis universiteti; marine vaSaymaZe, Tbilisis

saxelmwifo universiteti; maia miqaSaviZe, Jurnalistikisa da media menejmentis

kavkasiuri skola; naTia kalaZe, saqarTvelos universiteti; maia qurcikiZe,

gaeros bavSvTa fondi.

masalebis mowodebisaTvis madlobas vuxdiT eqspertebs: Tamar korZaias, marine

kvaWaZes, Teona kuWavasa da nato zazaSvils.


sarCevi

bavSvis uflebebi da Jurnalisturi praqtika –

uflebebze dafuZnebuli midgoma ............................................................................6

winasityvaoba ...........................................................................................................6

nawili pirveli: `gaicaniT bavSvis uflebebi~ ......................................................8

1. adamianis uflebaTa cnebis warmodgena ..........................................................8

adamianis uflebebi da bunebiTi uflebebi ........................................................8

adamianis uflebaTa sayovelTao deklaracia ..................................................10

uflebebis dacva...................................................................................................11

2. bavSvis uflebebi ................................................................................................14

bavSvis uflebaTa konvencia ...............................................................................15

bavSvis uflebaTa komiteti ................................................................................17

saqarTvelos kanonmdebloba da bavSvTa uflebebi .......................................18

gamoxatvis Tavisufleba da bavSvis uflebebis

dacva qarTul kanonmdeblobaSi ........................................................................28

3. bavSvis uflebebi da media ...............................................................................30

`oslos gamowveva~ ................................................................................................30

mediis gavlena axalgazrdebze ...........................................................................31

bavSvebis asaxva mediaSi .......................................................................................32

mediis mier bavSvebis eqspluatacia ..................................................................33

bavSvebis monawileoba mediaSi ............................................................................34

mediis mxridan bavSvze zemoqmedebis fsiqologiuri aspeqtebi ...................35

4. winaaRmdegobebi bavSvTa uflebebis ganxorcielebis gzaze ...................39

adamianis uflebaTa dacva ..................................................................................39

bavSvis uflebaTa dacva ......................................................................................40

problemebi bavSvTa uflebebis realizebaSi ...................................................42

bavSvTa uflebebTan dakavSirebul problemebze reagireba .........................43

5. mediis mier bavSvebis asaxva, bavSvis uflebebi da profesiuli

pasuxismgebloba ..................................................................................................46

bavSvebis warmodgena masobrivi informaciis saSualebebSi ..........................46

stereotipebi mediaSi ..........................................................................................48

bavSvTa uflebebis darRveva ..............................................................................49

bavSvTa dacva ........................................................................................................49

media axali TaobisTvis .......................................................................................51

profesiuli pasuxismgebloba .............................................................................51

Sida regulireba...................................................................................................52

bavSvTa sakiTxebis gaSuqebisas mediis eTikisa da JurnalistTa

profesiuli standartebis dacvis Sesaxeb saqarTveloSi .............................55


6. informaciis gavrcelebis saukeTeso praqtika bavSvebis

Sexedulebebis gaTvaliswinebiT .....................................................................57

`msoflio bavSvebisaTvis~ ...................................................................................57

bavSvebTan dakavSirebuli erovnuli samoqmedo gegmebi ...............................58

bavSvebis monawileoba ..........................................................................................59

monawileobiT miRebuli sargebloba ................................................................60

perspeqtivebi bavSvebisTvis: magaliTebi ..........................................................61

bavSvTa parlamentebi ...........................................................................................62

monawileobisTvis arsebuli barierebi .............................................................64

Tavi 2: bavSvis uflebebi da profesiuli Jurnalisturi praqtika ...............66

1. qcevis kodeqsebi da saredaqcio saxelmZRvanelo principebi .................66

Jurnalistikis kodeqsebis ganviTareba ............................................................66

presis Tavisufleba .............................................................................................68

ras unda moicavdes kodeqsi .............................................................................70

mediis angariSvaldebulebis sistemebi ............................................................71

saerTaSoriso kodeqsebi .....................................................................................72

bavSvebTan dakavSirebuli qcevis kodeqsi ........................................................73

JurnalistTa saerTaSoriso federaciis saxelmZRvanelo principebi

bavSvebTan dakavSirebuli sakiTxebis gaSuqebisTvis ......................................74

bavSvis uflebaTa sainformacio qseli: eTikuri saxelmZRvanelo

principebi bavSvebTan dakavSirebuli sakiTxebis gaSuqebisaTvis ................76

mediis angariSvaldebulebis sistemebi saqarTveloSi ...................................77

danarTebi .................................................................................................................81

`bi-bi-si~-s saredaqcio principebi bavSvebis

gaSuqebasTan dakavSirebiT ..................................................................................81

Jurnalistebis statusi da Jurnalisturi eTika: JurnalistTa

saerTaSoriso federaciis principebi ..............................................................84

JurnalistTa saerTaSoriso federaciis deklaracia

Jurnalisturi qcevis principebis Sesaxeb .......................................................88

saqarTvelos Jurnalisturi eTikis qartia ................................................... 89

2. bavSvTa dacvis strategiebi ............................................................................91

bavSvTa dacva ........................................................................................................91

bavSvTa dacva organizaciebSi ............................................................................94

mediis bavSvTa dacvis strategiebi ...................................................................95

3. kanonTan konfliqtSi myofi bavSvebi ...........................................................97

konkretuli magaliTis ganxilva: TviTneburi dakavebis sakiTxebze

momuSave jgufi .....................................................................................................99

sisxlis samarTlis pasuxismgeblobis asaki ...................................................103

media da kanonTan konfliqtSi myofi bavSvebi: vinaobis dacva ..................105

konkretuli magaliTi (1): didi britaneTi: meri beli ................................105


konkretuli magaliTi (2): didi britaneTi: jeims balgeris mkvlelebi ....106

ZiriTadi saerTaSoriso dokumentebi arasrulwlovanTa

marTlmsajulebis sferoSi .......................................................................... 107

arasruwlovanTa marTlsamjulebis ZiriTadi

saerTaSoriso principebi ............................................................................... 108

arasrulwlovanTa marTlmsajulebis sistema saqarTveloSi ..................... 112

4. siuJetebisa da wyaroebis moZieba ................................................................121

Jurnalistis roli .............................................................................................121

bavSvis uflebaTa dacvis Sesaxeb masalebis

momzadebisaTvis saWiro unar-Cvevebi .............................................................123

`iunisefis~ saxelmZRvanelo miTiTebebi bavSvebTan dakavSirebuli

sakiTxebis gaSuqebisaTvis .................................................................................124

gaeros konvenciasTan dakavSirebiT kiTxvebis dasma ...................................125

statiebisa da siuJetebis wyaroebi .................................................................126

ZiriTadi terminebi wyaroebTan urTierTobisas ..........................................130

5. bavSvebisagan intervius aReba .......................................................................131

fotoebSi bavSvebis gamoyeneba .........................................................................134

`iunisefis~ saxelmZRvanelo principebi bavSvebisagan

intervius aRebasTan dakavSirebiT ..................................................................135

intervius Semdeg... ...........................................................................................136

“gadavarCinoT bavSvebi”-s saxelmZRvanelo principebi bavSvebisgan

intervius aRebasTan dakavSirebiT ..................................................................136

6. bavSvebi SeiaraRebuli konfliqtebis dros ..............................................138

media da bavSvebi SeiaraRebuli konfliqtis dros ......................................142

7. sityvis Tavisufleba bavSvebs da bavSvebze orientirebuli media .....146

bavSvebis monawileoba mediaSi ..........................................................................148

bavSvebTan erTad da bavSvebisTvis momzadebuli mediaprogramebis

dadebiTi mxareebi ..............................................................................................149

globaluri konteqsti.......................................................................................151

mediaSi bavSvebis mizanmimarTuli monawileobis winaSe arsebuli

sirTuleebi da winaaRmdegobebi ......................................................................152

8. saukeTeso Jurnalisturi praqtika bavSvebTan dakavSirebiT ...............155

saukeTeso praqtikis magaliTebi .....................................................................156


6

bavSvis uflebebi da Jurnalisturi praqtika –

uflebebze dafuZnebuli midgoma

winasityvaoba

mivesalmebiT JursnalistebisTvis bavSvis uflebebis Sesaxeb saxelmZRvanelos

mkiTxvels.

saxelmZRvanelos mizania mogawodoT is ZiriTadi ideebi da informacia,

romlebic dagexmarebaT axali ambebis pasuxismgeblobiT, bavSvTa uflebebis

dacviTa da maT mimarT pativiscemiT gaSuqebaSi.

saxelmZRvaneloSi gamoyenebuli midgoma

organizacia `adamianis uflebaTa ganaTlebis asociacia~ (HREA) gvTavazobs

saswavlo piramidas, romelic Sedgeba adamianis uflebaTa sferoSi ganaTlebis sami

ZiriTadi modelisagan. qveda aris `faseulobebisa da informirebulobis modeli~,

Sua - „angariSvaldebulebis modeli~, xolo zeda - `transformaciuli modeli~.

modeli 1 - faseulobebi da informirebuloba

faseulobebisa da informirebulobis modelSi adamianis uflebaTa sferoSi

ganaTlebis ZiriTadi amocanaa adamianis uflebebTan dakavSirebuli

sabaziso codnis gadacema. am modelis mizania, `xeli Seewyos iseTi

msoflios mSeneblobas, sadac pativiscemiT ekidebian adamianis uflebebs.

es miiRweva im miznebis gaTviTcnobierebiTa da erTgulebiT, romlebic

Camoyalibebulia `adamianis uflebaTa sayovelTao deklaraciasa~ da sxva

ZiriTad dokumentebSi~ (`adamianis uflebaTa sferoSi ganaTlebis axali

modelebi~, felisa tibitsi, `ganaTlebis saerTaSoriso mimoxilva~ - adamianis

uflebaTa sferoSi ganaTlebisadmi miZRvnili specialuri gamocema, 2002).

faseulobebisa da informirebulobis modelis magaliTebia sazogadoebaSi

codnis gavrcelebis kampaniebi, axalgazrduli programebi da saskolo da

sauniversiteto saganmanaTleblo programebi.

modeli 2 – angariSvaldebuleba

mosalodnelia, rom am modelis dawyebisas monawileebs ukve hqondeT warmodgena

adamianis uflebebTan dakavSirebul sakiTxebze. isic mosalodnelia, rom isini

uSualod Tu arapirdapiri gziT monawileobdnen adamianis uflebebis dacvaSi.

es modeli yuradRebas amaxvilebs adamianis uflebebis dacvisa da lobirebis

unarebis ganviTarebasa da adamianis uflebaTa samarTlis ufro Rrmad gagebis

xelSewyobaze. angariSvaldebulebis modelis magaliTebia treningebi adamianis

uflebebis sferoSi moRvawe aqtivistebis an im adamianebisaTvis, visac evaleba

adamianis uflebaTa Selaxvis SemTxvevebis dokumenturi saxiT dafiqsireba.

modeli 3 – transformaciuli

es modeli miznad isaxavs, daexmaros adamianis uflebaTa darRvevis faqtebis


avSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis

7

mowmeebs da msxverplebs. adamianis uflebaTa sferoSi ganaTlebis es forma

SeiZleba gamodges, rogorc calkeuli adamianebis, ise mTlianad TemebisTvis.

transformaciuli modelis mizania, misces monawileebs SesaZlebloba, daicvan

sakuTari Tavi da sakuTari Temebi adamianis uflebaTa darRvevisagan. am modelis

magaliTebia ltolvilTa banakSi ganxorcielebuli programebi da jgufuri

daxmarebis programebi ojaxSi Zaladobis msxverplTaTvis.

vinaidan modulis amocanaa treningSi monawile JurnalistebisaTvis iseTi

informaciis miwodeba, romelic maT sWirdebaT bavSvTa uflebebTan dakavSirebuli

axali ambebis pasuxismgeblobiT gaSuqebis unaris ganviTarebisTvis, gamoviyenebT

faseulobebisa da informirebulobis models – konkretuli aqcentiT

bavSvis uflebebze. modulis mizania ara adamianis uflebebis sferoSi moRvawe

aqtivistebis Camoyalibeba, aramed bavSvebTan da maT uflebebTan dakavSirebuli

Temebis pasuxismgeblobiT gaSuqebis unaris ganviTareba.

am modulis gavlis Semdeg Tqven SeZlebT gaigoT, ras warmoadgens bavSvTa

uflebebi, gansakuTrebiT gaeros bavSvis uflebaTa konvenciis konteqstSi.

Tqven aseve SeZlebT kritikulad SeafasoT bavSvebTan dakavSirebuli axali

ambebis gaSuqeba adamianis uflebebis, anu `uflebebze damyarebuli~,

perspeqtividan, gaecnobiT saxelmZRvanelo principebsa da kodeqsebs

bavSvebTan dakavSirebuli axali ambebis gaSuqebis Sesaxeb da SeZlebT

gamoTqvaT profesiuli mosazreba sakuTari praqtikis Sesaxeb uflebebze

damyarebuli perspeqtividan. rac yvelaze mTavaria, SeZlebT gamoiyenoT

is, rac iswavleT, Tqvens samomavlo karieraSi rogorc Jurnalistebma da

reportiorebma da samarTlianad, zustad da bavSvebis uflebaTa principebis

gaTvaliswinebiT moamzadoT siuJetebi, statiebi da reportaJebi.

modulis struqtura

modulSi Sedis ori ZiriTadi nawili:

nawili pirveli, `gaicaniT bavSvis uflebebi~, iZleva zogad informacias

imasTan dakavSirebiT, Tu ratomaa esoden mniSvnelovani uflebebis gageba da

gaTviTcnobiereba. garda amisa, am nawilSi ganxilulia saTanado praqtikis

magaliTebi da, agreTve, is problemebi da gamowvevebi, romlebic wamoiWreba

bavSvebTan dakavSirebuli axali ambebis gaSuqebisas.

nawili meore, `bavSvis uflebebi da profesiuli Jurnalisturi praqtika~,

profesiul Jurnalistur praqtikas ganixilavs bavSvis uflebebis

perspeqtividan da gvacnobs im strategiebsa da konteqstebs, romlebSic unda

davfiqrdeT imaze, Tu rogor gavaumjobesoT Cveni Jurnalisturi saqmianoba.

am naSromSi warmodgenil masalasTan erTad unda gaecnoT mravalferovan

damxmare literaturas da rekomendaciebs samomavlo sakiTxavebTan

dakavSirebiT. imedi gvaqvs, rom modulSi naswavli dagexmarebaT axali

ambebis yvelanairi formiT gaSuqebaSi, gansakuTrebiT ki im SemTxvevebSi,

roca siuJetis centraluri figura bavSvia.


8

nawili pirveli: `gaicaniT bavSvis uflebebi~

1. adamianis uflebaTa cnebis warmodgena

ZiriTadi saswavlo Temebi





ras warmoadgens adamianis uflebebi

ra gansxvavebaa bunebriv uflebebsa da adamianis uflebebs Soris

adamianis uflebaTa sayovelTao deklaracia

adamianis uflebebis dacva

adamianis uflebebi da bunebiTi uflebebi

adamianis uflebebi gulisxmobs adamianis ganuyofel, sayovelTao uflebebs,

miuxedavad adgilmdebareobis Tu sxva iseTi faqtorebisa, rogorebicaa eTnikuri

warmomavloba, religia, erovneba Tu sqesi.

adamianis uflebebi is ZiriTadi standartebia, romelTa gareSe adamianebi ver

icxovreben Rirseulad.

adamianis uflebebi yvela adamians Tanasworad, sayovelTaod da samudamod ekuTvnis.

adamianis uflebebi xelSeuxebelia: adamians ver CamoerTmeva es uflebebi iseve,

rogorc is, rom igi yovelTvis adamianad darCeba.

adamianis uflebebi ganuyofelia: adamians ver CamoerTmeva ufleba imis gamo,

rom is `naklebad mniSvnelovania~ an `ar aris arsebiTi~.

adamianis uflebebi urTierTdamokidebulia: adamianis yvela ufleba

urTierTSemavsebeli sistemis nawilia. magaliTad, Tqvens SesaZleblobasTan,

monawileoba miiRoT Tqveni xelisuflebis muSaobaSi, uSualo kavSirSia

Tqveni ufleba, gamoxatoT sakuTari Tavi, miiRoT ganaTleba da upirvelesi

aucileblobis sagnebic ki.

adamianis uflebebis idea aRmocenda bunebiTi uflebebis filosofiuri

koncefciidan; zogi ar aRiarebs gansxvavebebs uflebaTa am or kategorias

Soris da orives erT ramed aRiqvams, xolo sxvebi am or termins sxvadasxva

mniSvnelobas aniWeben da is Tvisebebi, rac tradiciulad bunebiT uflebebs

ukavSirdeba, ar asocirdeba adamianis uflebebTan.


avSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis

9

ras warmoadgens bunebiTi uflebebi

bunebiTi uflebebi sayovelTao uflebebia, romlebic yvela adamians ekuTvnis

da ar aris damokidebuli adamianis qcevasa Tu Sexedulebebze. adamiani sazogadoebis

wevri xdeba garkveuli ZiriTadi uflebebiT da arc erT mTavrobas

ar SeuZlia CamoarTvas mas es uflebebi.

bunebiTi uflebebis yvelaze adreuli asaxva moipoveba indur vedebSi, agamebsa da

upaniSadebSi – teqstebSi, romlebic sami aTas welze meti xnis win daiwera. mas

Semdeg bunebiTi uflebebi mniSvnelovani cnebaa im wignebSi, romlebic safuZvlad

udevs msoflios ZiriTad religiebs. bibliac, Torac da yuranic qadageben

yvela adamianis Tanasworobis, Rirsebisa da pasuxismgeblobis mniSvnelobas.

bunebiTi uflebebis erT-erTi Teoria Camoyalibda ganmanaTleblobis periodis

bunebiTi kanonidan mefeTa wminda uflebebis sawinaaRmdegod da iZleoda

liberalizmis moralur dasabuTebas.

individualizmis ideis gaZlierebasTan erTad, gansakuTrebiT me-17 saukuneSi,

bunebriTi kanonebidan gamomdinare doqtrinebi Seicvala da xazgasmiT

aRiniSna is faqti, rom individebs, vinaidan isini adamianebi arian, aqvT uflebebi,

romlebic ar unda daarRvios romelime sxva adamianma an sazogadoebam.

am doqtrinis, albaT, saukeTeso formulireba jon lokis (1632-1704) naSromebSia

mocemuli. misi azriT, adamiani Tavisi bunebiT aris racionaluri da

kargi da rom mas politikur sazogadoebaSi Semoaqvs igive uflebebi, romlebic

cnobili iyo sazogadoebisTvis ufro adreul safexurebze. am uflebaTagan

gansakuTrebiT aRsaniSnavia aRmsareblobis Tavisufleba, sakuTari qveynis

mTavrobaSi xmis ufleba da qonebis ufleba.

bunebiTi uflebis Sinaarsi SeiZleba daupirispirdes iuridiul uflebas: bunebiTia

ufleba, rodesac is arsebobs maSinac ki, roca ar aris miRebuli

mTavrobis an mTlianad sazogadoebis mier, xolo iuridiuli ufleba warmoadgens

iseT uflebas, romelic dadgenilia mTavrobis an sazogadoebis mier

maTi wevrebis sasargeblod.

damatebiTi literatura:

Peter Jones: Rights, Oxford: Palgrave Macmillan, 1994.

Jeremy Waldron, ed: Theories of Rights, (Oxford Readings in Philosophy), Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1984.

adamianis uflebebis arseboba, moqmedeba da Sinaarsi dResac debatebis sagania

filosofiasa da politikur mecnierebaSi. samarTlebrivi TvalsazrisiT

adamianis uflebebi saerTaSoriso samarTalsa da SeTanxmebebSi, aseve bevri

qveynis Sidasaxelmwifoebriv kanonmdeblobaSia gansazRvruli. magram

bevrisaTvis uflebebis doqtrina scdeba kanons da warmoadgens fundamentur

moralur baziss Tanamedrove socialuri wesrigis regulirebisaTvis. aseTi

adamianebisaTvis es demokratiuli idealebia.


10

Cven yvelas gvWirdeba uflebebi da gvaqvs kidec isini. es uflebebi uzrunvelyofs

Cvens arsebobas da ganviTarebas da xels uwyobs Cvens dacvas fizikuri Tu

fsiqologiuri Seuracxyofisa da Zaladobisagan. uflebebi gulisxmobs imasac,

rom gvqondes SesaZlebloba, monawileoba miviRoT im sakiTxebSi, romlebic

Cven gvexeba. uflebebi uzrunvelyofs, rom yvela adamians Tanasworad da

samarTlianad moeqcnen. adamianis uflebebis damkvidrebis xelSewyoba da

propagandireba niSnavs imis moTxovnas, rom yvela pativiscemiT moeqces da

daicvas yvela adamianis Rirseba. magram uflebebs Tan pasuxismgeblobac

axlavs: yovelma Cvenganma pativi unda sces sxva adamianebis uflebebs da marto

sxvebisgan ar unda moiTxovos Tavisi uflebebis pativiscema.

adamianis uflebaTa sayovelTao deklaracia

1945 wels msofliom Zlivs daaRwia Tavi meore msoflio oms, romelic pirvels

30 wliTac ki ar gvaSorebda. am omis dros umciresobaTa jgufebisa da samxedro

tyveebis mimarT Cadenilma sazarelma sisastikeebma ubiZga msoflios qveynebis

liderebs, CamoeyalibebinaT gaerTianebuli erebis organizacia mSvidobis,

keTildReobisa da adamianis uflebebis dasacavad.

1948 wlis 10 dekembers gaerTianebuli erebis organizaciis generalurma

asambleam miiRo da gamoaqveyna adamianis uflebaTa sayovelTao deklaracia.

deklaraciaSi aRiarebuli iqna `Tandayolili Rirseba~ da `Tanaswori da

ganuyofeli uflebebi~ adamianTa ojaxis yvela wevrisaTvis. masSi naTqvamia, rom

`adamianis uflebaTa ugulebelyofam da abuCad agdebam gamoiwvia barbarosuli

aqtebi ... da rom iseTi msoflios Seqmna, romelSic adamianebs eqnebaT sityvisa

da rwmenis Tavisufleba da romelSic isini icxovreben SiSisa da gaWirvebis

gareSe, gamocxadebulia adamianebis maRal miswrafebad~.

deklaracia Sedgeba 30 muxlisagan, romlebSic gamoxatulia gaeros Sexeduleba

yvela adamianisTvis garantirebul uflebebze. adamianis uflebaTa komisiis

(romelmac moamzada deklaraciis teqsti) wevrma, elinor ruzveltma, ganacxada:

`es ar aris xelSekruleba ... [momavalSi] igi SeiZleba gaxdes saerTaSoriso

„didi qartia“ (Magna Carta…) 1995 wlis 5 oqtombers warmoTqmul sityvaSi papma

ioane pavle II-m adamianis uflebaTa sayovelTao deklaracias uwoda `adamianis

sindisis erT-erTi yvelaze maRali gamoxatuleba TanamedroveobaSi.~

Tumca gaeroSi amerikis SeerTebuli Statebis elCma, jin kirkpatrikma,

deklaracias `santa-klausisaTvis miwerili werili~ uwoda. misi TqmiT,

`arc buneba, arc gamocdileba da arc albaToba ar acocxlebs `uflebebis~

am CamonaTvals, im uflebebisa, romlebic ar cnobs SezRudvebs, garda maTi

avtorebis gonebiT da madiT dawesebulisa~ (konferenciis dokumenti: `adamianis

uflebaTa sicocxlisunariani politikis Camoyalibeba~, 1981).

yvelaze mniSvnelovan muxlebs Sorisaa:


muxli 1: `yvela adamiani ibadeba Tavisufali da Tanaswori Tavisi

RirsebiTa da uflebebiT.~


avSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis

11






muxli 3: sicocxlis, Tavisuflebisa da piradi xelSeuxeblobis ufleba.

muxli 5: wamebis an sastiki, araadamianuri Tu Rirsebis Semlaxveli

mopyrobisa Tu dasjis akrZalva.

muxli 18: azris, sindisisa da religiis Tavisufleba.

muxli 19: azrisa da gamoxatvis Tavisufleba.

muxli 26: ganaTlebis ufleba.

adamianis uflebaTa sayovelTao deklaraciis miRebis Semdeg gaeros generalurma

asambleam yvela wevr qveyanas mouwoda, gamoeqveynebinaT deklaraciis teqsti da

`ganepirobebinaT misi gavrceleba, wakiTxva da axsna skolebsa da sxva saswavlo

dawesebulebebSi, ganurCevlad qveynebisa Tu teritoriebis politikuri

statusisa~.

ginesis `rekordebis wignSi~ adamianis uflebaTa sayovelTao deklaracia

aRwerilia rogorc `dokumenti, romelic msoflioSi yvelaze met enaze

iTargmna~. misi Targmani moipoveba 321 enasa da dialeqtze (2004 wlisaTvis).

deklaraciis miRebas mohyva rigi mniSvnelovani SeTanxmebebisa, romlebic miznad

isaxavda adamianis uflebebis damkvidrebas da dacvas. 1966 wels gaero-m miiRo

samoqalaqo da politikur uflebaTa saerTaSoriso paqti da ekonomikur,

socialur da kulturul uflebaTa saerTaSoriso paqti. am paqtebma maTi

xelmomweri yvela saxelmwifosTvis savaldebulod aqcia adamianis uflebaTa

sayovelTao deklaraciaSi Camoyalibebuli uflebebis dacva. adamianis uflebebis

ganviTarebaSi sxva mniSvnelovani nabijebi iyo Jenevis konvenciebi omis dros

dasacavi wesebis Sesaxeb da konvencia rasobrivi diskriminaciis yvela formis

aRmofxvris Sesaxeb.

unda gvaxsovdes, rom adamianis uflebebi jer kidev viTardeba. magaliTad,

am bolo wlebSi garemos damcvelebi mogviwodebdnen adamianis uflebebis

gafarToebas da maT ricxvSi sufTa da usafrTxo wylis misawvdomobaze adamianis

sayovelTao uflebisa da garemosTan dakavSirebuli sxva uflebebis CarTvas.

uflebebis dacva

me-20 saukunis ganmavlobaSi mravalma jgufma da moZraobam moaxerxa mniSvnelovani

socialuri cvlilebebis miRweva adamianis uflebebis gansamtkiceblad.

dasavleT evropasa da CrdiloeT amerikaSi profkavSirebma SemoiRes kanonebi,

romlebic mSromelebs aZlevs gaficvis, minimaluri samuSao pirobebis dadgenis

da bavSvTa Sromis akrZalvis an regulirebis uflebebs. qalTa uflebebis

moZraobam mraval qals moupova arCevnebSi monawileobis ufleba. erovnulganmaTavisuflebelma

moZraobebma bevr qveyanaSi daamxo kolonialuri Zalebi.

aqedan yvelaze gavlenian Zalas warmoadgenda mahaTma gandi, romelmac indoeTi

gaaTavisufla britaneTis batonobisagan. rasobrivi Cagvris qveS myof adamianTa

da religiur umciresobaTa moZraobebma warmatebas miaRwies msoflios mraval


12

qveyanaSi. maT Soris iyo moZraoba samoqalaqo uflebebisTvis da, SedarebiT

axlaxan, e.w. `identurobisa da politikis~ moZraobebi, romlebic ibrZodnen

qalTa da umciresobaTa uflebebisTvis aSS-Si.

adamianis uflebaTa sayovelTao deklaraciis mixedviT adamianis ZiriTadi

uflebebi irRveva maSin, rodesac:




rasobrivi, sarwmunoebrivi Tu sxva jgufis wevrebs arTmeven uflebas,

aRiarebuli iyos `individad~ (me-2 da me-6 muxlebi);

mamakacebs da qalebs ar epyrobian Tanasworad (me-2 muxli);

gansxvavebuli rasobrivi Tu religiuri jgufis wevrebs ar epyrobian

Tanasworad (me-2 muxli);

safrTxe eqmneba adamianis sicocxlis, Tavisuflebisa da piradi

xelSeuxeblobis uflebas (me-3 muxli);






adamiani gayidulia monad an imyofeba ymobaSi (me-4 muxli);

uflebebis darRvevis msxverplT uars eubnebian samarTlebrivi dacvis

efeqtian saSualebaze (me-8 muxli);

adamianis mimarT sasjelis aRsruleba xdeba TviTneburad, saTanado da

samarTliani sasamarTlo procesis Cautareblad (me-11 muxli);

saxelmwifos warmomadgenlebi TviTneburad erevian adamianis pirad da

ojaxur cxovrebaSi (me-12 muxli);

moqalaqeebs ekrZalebaT sakuTari qveynis datoveba an Tavis qveyanaSi

dabruneba (me-13 muxli);

adamians uars eubnebian sityvis an religiis Tavisuflebaze

(me-18 da me-19 muxlebi);



adamians uars eubnebian profkavSirSi gaerTianebis uflebaze (23-e muxli);

adamians uars eubnebian ganaTlebis miRebis uflebaze (26-e muxli).

adamianis uflebaTa sayovelTao deklaracia da mis mier aRwerili msoflios

xedva daedo safuZvlad iseTi organizaciebis Camoyalibebas, rogorebicaa

“amnesti interneiSenal~ da `hiuman raiTs uoC~, romlebic iRvwian adamianis

uflebebis dacvisTvis da atareben farTo kampaniebs maTi darRvevis winaaRmdeg.

isini amzadeben yovelwliur angariSebs TiToeul qveyanaSi adamianis `uflebebis

mxriv arsebuli mdgomareobis Sesaxeb.

`amnesti interneiSenalis~ monacemebiT, Zalze cota qveyanaa iseTi, sadac ar xdeba

adamianis uflebebis seriozuli darRveva. am organizaciis 2007 wlis `adamianis

uflebebis Sesaxeb angariSis~ mixedviT, dokumenturad aris dadasturebuli, rom

57 qveyanaSi arseboben politikuri, e.w. `sindisis patimrebi,~ da 102 qveyanaSi

aRiniSna policiis, samxedro Tu usafrTxoebis samsaxurebis personalis mxridan

wamebisa Tu sastikad mopyrobis SemTxvevebi.


avSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis

13

zogs sjera, rom adamianis uflebebis darRveva ufro xSiria diqtatorul

saxelmwifoebSi, vidre demokratiulSi, vinaidan sityvisa da presis Tavisuflebis

wyalobiT SesaZlebelia saxelmwifos mier Cadenili darRvevebis gamoaSkaraveba.

magram adamianis uflebebi demokratiul qveynebSic irRveva. magaliTad,

makfersonis angariSSi aRniSnulia, rom britaneTis policia instituciurad

rasistul damokidebulebas amJRavnebda Savkaniani axalgazrdis, stiven lorensis

sikvdilis SemTxvevaSi, xolo `amnesti interneiSenalma~ Tavis angariSebSi aSSs mier

marTul guantanamos yuris banaks uwoda `skandaluri, adamianis uflebebis mxriv~.

daaxloebiT 90 qveyanaSi daarsda adamianis uflebaTa erovnuli institutebi am

qveynebSi adamianis uflebebis dacvis, xelSewyobisa Tu monitoringis mizniT.

Sefaseba

imsjeleT adamianis uflebaTa cnebaze SerCeuli, Tanamedroveobis amsaxveli

Temis konteqstSi.

damatebiTi literatura

adamianis uflebaTa resurs-centri:

http://www1.umn.edu/humanrts/edumat/background.shtm

adamianis uflebaTa erovnuli institutebis forumi: http://www.nhri.net/

`amnesti interneiSenal~: http://www.amnesty.org/

`amnesti interneiSenalis~ 2006 wlis qveynebis angariSi:

http://web.amnesty.org/report2006/index-eng

`hiuman raiTs uoC~: http://www.hrw.org/

adamianis uflebaTa umaRlesi komisris ofisi: http://www.ohchr.org


14

2. bavSvis uflebebi

ZiriTadi saswavlo Temebi





ratom aris aucilebeli bavSvis uflebebis gamoyofa

gaeros bavSvis uflebaTa konvencia

bavSvis uflebaTa komiteti

saqarTvelos kanonmdebloba da bavSvTa uflebebi

`bavSvTa uflebebi~ aris adamianis uflebebi bavSvebisa da 18 wlamde

adamianebisaTvis. im faqtis aRiarebis safuZvelze, rom bavSvoba Cveni cxovrebis

gansakuTrebuli periodia, bavSvebisa da axalgazrdebisaTvis uflebebis calke

wyeba Camoyalibda. bavSvoba aris is dro, rodesac Cven aqtiurad vizrdebiT

da vswavlobT, rodesac gvWirdeba sxva adamianebi, romlebic mogvivlian da

usafrTxoebas mogvcemen, rodesac Cven unda gvqondes SesaZlebloba, udardelad

vicxovroT.

1989 wels gaeroSi mividnen saerTo SeTanxmebamde, rom bavSvebs sWirdebaT

sakuTari konvencia. bavSvebisa da axalgazrdebisaTvis Camoyalibebul

uflebaTa am calke wyebas gaerTianebuli erebis organizaciis bavSvis

uflebaTa konvencia hqvia. konvenciaSi naTqvamia, rom 18 wlamde adamianebs aqvT

masSi gaTvaliswinebuli yvela ufleba, miuxedavad maTi rasis, religiis Tu

SesaZleblobebisa, ganurCevlad imisa, Tu ras fiqroben an amboben isini da ra

tipis ojaxidan arian.

ra saWiroa bavSvTa uflebebis gamoyofa calke konvenciis saxiT

bavSvebi individebi arian: isini arc mSoblebis sakuTrebas warmoadgenen, arc

saxelmwifosi da arc raime Camouyalibebeli arsebebi arian; maT adamianTa

ojaxis Tanasworuflebiani wevrebis statusi aqvT.

bavSvebi iwyeben cxovrebas, rogorc absoluturad damokidebeli arsebebi: isini

mTlianad mSoblebis imedze arian kvebisa Tu aRzrdis TvalsazrisiT: es maT

sWirdebaT imisaTvis, rom gaizardon da damoukidebelni gaxdnen. saukeTeso

SemTxvevaSi aseT zrunvas bavSvi unda iRebdes misi ojaxis ufrosi wevrebisagan,

magram, roca uSualo mzrunvelebs ar SeuZliaT bavSvis saWirobebis

dakmayofileba, ukve sazogadoebam unda izrunos amis gamosworebaze.

bavSvebi gansakuTrebiT daucvelni arian Seuracxyofisa da eqspluataciisgan:

bavSvebi fizikurad ufro daucvelebi arian, vidre zrdasruli adamianebi.

garda amisa, isini emociuradac gacilebiT mgrZnobiareni arian uaryofiTi

STabeWdilebebis mimarT. fizikurma da fsiqikurma zewolam SeiZleba samudamo

daRi daasvas bavSvs. msoflios mraval kuTxeSi bavSvebi ganicdian mZime

eqspluatacias, rogorc muSebi an rogorc jariskacebi.


avSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis

15

mTavrobis moqmedeba an umoqmedoba ufro Zlier zemoqmedebas axdens bavSvebze,

vidre sazogadoebis romelime sxva jgufze: samTavrobo politikis TiTqmis

yvela sfero (magaliTad, ganaTleba Tu janmrTelobis dacva) garkveul

zemoqmedebas axdens bavSvebze. windauxedavi politikuri gadawyvetilebebi,

romlebic ar iTvaliswinebs bavSvebis problemebs, Zalze avnebs mTeli

sazogadoebis momavals.

bavSvebis azrs iSviaTad aqceven yuradRebas da iSviaTad iTvaliswineben

politikur procesebSi: bavSvebi, Cveulebriv, ar iReben monawileobas arCevnebsa

Tu politikur procesebSi. Tu ar movismenT maT azrebs – rogorc isini maT

saxlSi, skolaSi an TavianT megobrebTan gamoxataven – verasodes gavigebT

im mniSvnelovan sakiTxebs, romlebic moqmedebs bavSvebis cxovrebaze axla an

imoqmedebs momavalSi.

mraval cvlilebas sazogadoebaSi bavSvebisTvis araproporciuli da xSirad

uaryofiTi Sedegebi moaqvs: ojaxis Semadgenlobis Secvla, globalizacia,

samuSao pirobebis cvlileba da socialuri SeRavaTebis Semcireba bevr qveyanaSi

seriozul zegavlenas axdens bavSvebis cxovrebaze. amgvari cvlilebebis

Sedegebi SeiZleba gansakuTrebiT damangreveli aRmoCndes SeiaraRebuli

konfliqtebis da sxva sagangebo situaciebis SemTxvevebSi.

bavSvis jansaR ganviTarebas gadamwyveti mniSvneloba aqvs sazogadoebis

momavlisTvis: vinaidan maTi zrdis procesi jer ar dasrulebula, bavSvebi

gansakuTrebiT daucvelni arian (gacilebiT metad, vidre ufrosebi)

cxovrebis iseTi cudi pirobebis mimarT, rogoricaa siRaribe, janmrTelobis

araadekvaturi dacva, cudi kveba, sufTa wylis xelmiuwvdomeloba, cudi

sacxovrebeli pirobebi da garemos dabinZureba. sxvadasxva avadmyofobis,

cudi kvebisa da siRaribis Sedegebi safrTxes uqmnis bavSvebis da, aqedan

gamomdinare, im sazogadoebis momavals, romelSic isini cxovroben.

saxelmwifoebs Zalian Zvirad ujdebaT uyuradReboba bavSvebis mimarT:

socialuri kvlevebi gviCvenebs, rom bavSvobaSi miRebuli gamocdileba

moqmedebs adamianis Semdgom ganviTarebaze, bavSvebis ganviTarebis msvleloba

ki gansazRvravs im wvlils, romelsac isini Seitanen qveynis momaval cxovrebaSi.

bavSvis uflebaTa konvencia

1989 wlis 20 noembers gaerTianebuli erebis organizaciam daamtkica bavSvis

uflebaTa konvencia. dRes is saerTaSoriso SeTanxmebaa, romelsac qveynebi xels

aweren da rodesac mis ratificirebas moaxdenen, maT iuridiulad moeTxovebaT

konvenciis Sesruleba. es pirveli savalebulod Sesasrulebeli saerTaSoriso

instrumentia, romelSic Sedis adamianis uflebebis mTeli speqtri. misi

ratificireba msoflios yvela qveyanam moaxdina, garda somalis da amerikis

SeerTebuli Statebisa. somalim ratificireba imitom ver moaxerxa, rom mas ar

hyavs aRiarebuli mTavroba, xolo aSS-m konvenciis xelmoweriT gvaCvena Tavisi

ganzraxva, moexdina misi ratificreba, magram jer es ar gaukeTebia.


16

konvenciis safuZvelze bavSvebs aqvT ufleba, dakmayofildes maTi ZiriTadi

saWiroebebi: arseboba, dacva, janmrTelobis dacva, sakvebisa da wylis

misawvdomoba. maT aseve aqvT ufleba, hqondeT sakuTari potencialis srulad

ganviTarebis SesaZlebloba: es aris ganaTleba, TamaSi, sporti, sakuTari

Sexedulebebis gamoxatvis Tavisufleba da monawileoba im gadawyvetilebebis

miRebaSi, romlebic maT exeba.

konvenciaSi sagangebodaa naTqvami, rom yvela bavSvs erTi da igive

uflebebi aqvs da rom yvela ufleba urTierTdakavSirebuli da Tanaswori

mniSvnelobisaa. konvencia exeba aseve bavSvebis pasuxismgeblobas _ pativi

scen sxva adamianebis, gansakuTrebiT maTi mSoblebis, uflebebs.

gaeros bavSvis uflebaTa konvenciaSi 54 muxlia, romelTagan TiToeulSi

gansazRvrulia gansxvavebuli ufleba. es uflebebi iyofa oTx jgufad: arseboba,

dacva, ganviTareba da monawileoba.

arsebobasTan dakavSirebuli uflebebi aRiarebs bavSvis sicocxlis uflebas da

uflebas, dakmayofilebul iqnes arsebobisTvis aucilebeli saWiroebebi. es

aris kveba, sacxovrebeli, cxovrebis adekvaturi done da janmrTelobis dacvis

misawvdomoba.

ganviTarebasTan dakavSirebuli uflebebi gansazRvravs imas, rac bavSvs sWirdeba

misi potencialis srulad ganviTarebisTvis. es aris ganaTleba, dasveneba da

Tavisufali dro, kulturuli saqmianoba, informaciis misawvdomoba da azris,

sindisisa da religiuri rwmenis Tavisufleba.

dacvasTan dakavSirebuli uflebebi moiTxovs, rom bavSvebi dacul iqnen

yovelgvari formis Seuracxyofis, ugulebelyofisa da eqspluataciisagan. es

uflebebi exeba iseT sakiTxebs, rogorebicaa ltolvili bavSvebis sagangebo

dacva, dacvis saSualebebi momuSave bavSvebisaTvis da im bavSvebis dacva da

reabilitacia, romlebmac ganicades raime formis Zaladoba an eqspluatacia.

monawileobasTan dakavSirebuli uflebebi aRiarebs, rom yvela bavSvs unda

mieces SesaZlebloba, aqtiuri roli Seasrulos Tavis Temsa da sazogadoebaSi.

es uflebebi moicavs Sexedulebis gamoxatvis Tavisuflebas da uflebas,

saTanado yuradReba daeTmos bavSvis Sexedulebebs im sakiTxebSi, romlebic

mis cxovrebaze axdens zemoqmedebas. bavSvis unarebis ganviTarebasTan erTad

unda gaizardos bavSvisTvis SesaZlebloba, monawileoba miiRos sazogadoebis

cxovrebaSi, raTa moemzados pasuxismgeblobiT aRsavse zrdasruli

cxovrebisaTvis.

konvenciis 41 ZiriTadi muxlidan oTxs gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba eniWeba,

vinaidan isini arsebiTia konvenciaSi gaTvaliswinebuli yvela uflebis

xorcSesxmisaTvis. qvemoT CamoTvlilia es muxlebi, romlebic konvenciis

`saerTo principebad~ aris cnobili:


me-2 muxli: uzrunvelyofil unda iqnes konvenciaSi gaTvaliswinebuli yvela

ufleba TiToeuli bavSvisTvis, nebismieri saxis diskriminaciis gareSe.


avSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis

17




me-3 muxli: bavSvis mimarT nebismier qmedebaTa ganxorcielebisas upirvelesi

yuradReba unda daeTmos bavSvis inter esebis dacvis ukeT uzrunvelyofas.

me-6 muxli: yovel bavSvs aqvs sicocxlis, gadarCenisa da ganviTarebis

ufleba.

me-12 muxli: bavSvis Sexedulebebs saTanado yuradReba unda daeTmos yvela

im sakiTxSi, romlebic mis cxovrebaze axdens zemoqmedebas.

am bolo wlebSi Seiqmna bavSvis uflebaTa konvenciis ori fakultatiuri oqmi:



fakultatiuri oqmi bavSvebiT vaWrobis, bavSvTa prostituciisa da bavSvTa

pornografiis Sesaxeb, romelic miRebul iqna 2000 wlis 25 maiss, da

fakultatiuri oqmi SeiaraRebul konfliqtebSi bavSvebis monawileobis

Sesaxeb, romelic miRebuli iqna 2000 wlis 25 maiss.

konvenciaSi gamoxatulia bavSvisa da bavSvobis cnebis axali xedva. bavSvebi

arc TavianTi mSoblebis sakuTreba arian da arc qvelmoqmedebis ususuri

obieqtebi. isini adamianebi arian, romlebsac sakuTari uflebebi aqvT.

konvencia gvTavazobs xedvas bavSvisa, rogorc Zlieri, kompetenturi adamianis,

ojaxisa da sazogadoebis wevrisa, romelsac aqvs misi asakisa da simwifis

Sesabamisi uflebebi da pasuxismgeblobebi. bavSvTa uflebebis am saxiT

aRiarebiT konvencia mTlianad bavSvze axdens koncentrirebas.

bavSvis uflebaTa komiteti

im saxelmwifoTa mTavrobebma, romlebmac moaxdines konvenciis ratificireba,

regularulad unda warudginon angariSi bavSvis uflebaTa komitets –

eqspertebisgan Semdgar organos, romelic awarmoebs saxelmwifoTa mier

konvenciis Sesrulebis monitorings. am angariSebSi asaxulia qveyanaSi bavSvTa

uflebebis mxriv arsebuli mdgomareoba da miTiTebulia is zomebi, romlebsac

saxelmwifo axorcielebs am uflebebis xorcSesasxmelad. saxelmwifoTa

angariSebis ganxilvisas bavSvis uflebaTa komiteti mouwodebs qveynebis

xelisuflebaTa yvela dones, isargeblon konvenciiT, rogorc saxelmZRvanelo

principiT politikis SemuSavebasa da mis aRsrulebaSi. vinaidan adamianis

uflebebis dacva Tavisi xasiaTiT usasrulo procesia, yovelTvis arsebobs

raRac iseTi, rasac gaumjobeseba sWirdeba.

bavSvTa uflebebis damcveli organos Seqmna da kiTxva, Tu ras niSnavs realurad

bavSvTa uflebebi da rogor SeiZleba maTi saukeTeso gziT xorcSesxma, dRemde

diskusiebis sagania. bavSvTa uflebebis ganxorcielebis xelSewyoba nawilobriv

emyareba imis aRiarebas, rom bavSvebis daucvelobisa da, Sesabamisad, maTi

sagangebo dacvis saWiroebis gaTviTcnobiereba ar uSlis xels imas, rom bavSvebi

iCagrebodnen maT garSemo ufrosebis samyaroSi miRebuli gadawyvetilebebis

Sedegad. bavSvebis mZime mdgomareobis mimarT TanagrZnoba xSirad iwvevs imas, rom


18

bavSvebs aRiqvamen koleqtiurad da epyrobian rogorc qvelmoqmedebis obieqtebs

da ara rogorc individuumebs, romelTac sakuTari unarebi, SesaZleblobebi,

saWiroebebi da uflebebi aqvT.

amis Sedegad bavSvebTan dakavSirebuli sakiTxebi xSirad arapolitikurad miiCneva

da verc gvardeba. bavSvTa uflebebis ZiriTadi principi is aris, rom sazogadoeba

valdebulia, daakmayofilos bavSvis ZiriTadi saWiroebebi da uzrunvelyos

daxmareba misi pirovnebis, niWisa da SesaZleblobebis ganviTarebisaTvis.

bavSvis uflebaTa konvenciis Seqmna asaxavs zogad wess, rom, rac ufro

maRalia uflebebis gaTviTcnobierebis done, miT metia maTi garantirebis

SesaZlebloba. bavSvis uflebaTa konvenciis wyalobiT bavSvebis uflebebi

mkafiod, Tanmimdevrulad da yovlismomcveli saxiT aris Camoyalibebuli.

bavSvTa uflebebis am saxiT gansazRvra maTi pativiscemisa da Sesrulebis

winapirobaa.

Sefaseba

gaeros bavSvis uflebaTa komitetisaTvis Tqveni qveynis mier wardgenil erovnul

angariSebze da komitetis mier am angariSebis ganxilvaze dayrdnobiT imsjeleT

imaze, Tu ra meqanizmi arsebobs Tqvens qveyanaSi bavSvis uflebaTa konvenciis

Sesrulebis monitoringisaTvis da ra gavlenas axdens is.

damatebiTi literatura da resursebi

`iunisefi~: bavSvis uflebaTa konvencia:

http://www.unicef.org/crc/index_index.html

bavSvis uflebaTa komiteti:

http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/crc/index.htm

`bavSvis uflebaTa sainformacio qseli~ (CRIN) - bavSvis uflebaTa konvencia:

http://www.crin.com/resources/treaties/CRC.aspcatName=International+Treaties&flag=legal&ID=6

`bavSvis uflebaTa aliansi~ _ bavSvis uflebaTa konvencia:

http://www.childrensrights.ie/convention.php

saqarTvelos kanonmdebloba da bavSvTa uflebebi

bavSvis uflebebi garantirebulia, rogorc saerTaSorisosamarTlebrivi aqtebiT

(bavSvis uflebaTa deklaracia, bavSvis uflebaTa konvencia, gaerTianebuli

erebis organizaciis TavisuflebaaRkveTil arasrulwlovanebTan mopyrobis

wesebi (`pekinis wesebi~), gaerTianebuli erebis organizaciis arasrulwlovanTa

Soris damnaSaveobis profilaqtikis saxelmZRvanelo principebi (er-riadis

wesebi); haagis konvencia bavSvis saerTaSoriso gatacebis samoqalaqo aspeqtebis

Sesaxeb da sxva), aseve erovnuli kanonmdeblobiT. saerTaSoriso xelSekrulebebi

(konvenciebi, damatebiTi oqmebi, paqtebi da sxva saerTaSoriso xelSekrulebebi),

romlebic saqarTvelos mier iqna ratificirebuli, saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobis

Semadgenel nawils warmoadgenen.


avSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis

19

saqarTvelo bavSvis uflebaTa konvencias SeuerTda 1994 wels. konvenciis

moTxovnaTa Tanaxmad saqarTvelo axorcielebs bavSvis uflebaTa konvenciiT

gaTvaliswinebul debulebebs erovnul kanonmdeblobaSi. bavSvis uflebaTa

konvencia warmoadgens saerTaSoriso xelSekrulebas da saqarTvelos

sakanonmdeblo sistemis Semadgenel nawilad iTvleba. konvencia gamoiyeneba

saqarTveloSi, rogorc uSualod moqmedi kanoni da saqarTvelos normatiul

aqts warmoadgens. ufro metic, saqarTvelos konstituciis Tanaxmad,

saqarTvelos saerTaSoriso xelSekrulebas an SeTanxmebas, Tu igi ar

ewinaaRmdegeba saqarTvelos konstitucias da konstituciur SeTanxmebas,

aqvs upiratesi iuridiuli Zala Sidasaxelmwifoebrivi normatiuli aqtebis

mimarT. es ki imas niSnavs, rom bavSvis uflebaTa konvencias upiratesi Zala

aqvs saqarTvelos sxva kanonebis mimarT da is SeiZleba gamoyenebul iqnes

uSualod.

bavSvs (arasrulwlovans) iseTive uflebebi da Tavisuflebebi aqvs,

rogorc srulwlovan adamians, zogierTi gamonaklisis garda (magaliTad.

saarCevno ufleba). adamianis uflebebi, maT Soris bavSvis uflebaTa dacva,

garantirebulia saqarTvelos konstituciis II TaviT. yvela ufleba, romelTa

dacvac garantirebulia konstituciis meore TaviT, Seexeba bavSvis uflebaTa

dacvas. konstituciiT daculia bavSvis sicocxlis ufleba, piradi cxovrebis

xelSeuxeblobis ufleba, sityvis Tavisufleba, Sekrebebis ufleba, sityvis,

azris, sindisis, aRmsareblobisa da rwmenis Tavisufleba, ganviTarebis ufleba,

samarTliani sasamarTlos ufleba udanaSaulobis prezumfcia, ukanono

dakavebisagan, wamebisagan dacvis ufleba da sxva.

saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobiT arasrulwlovania piri, romelsac ar miuRwevia

18 wlis asakisaTvis. samoqalaqo kodeqsis Tanaxmad (1997) arasrulwlovani piri

aris uflebaunariani da 7 wlis asakidan CaiTvleba SezRudul qmedunarianad.

saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobiT srul qmedunarianad adamiani iTvleba 18 wlis

asakidan, anu piri, romelic Tavisi nebiTa da moqmedebiT srulad axorcielebs

Tavis sakuTar uflebebsa da movaleobebs.

uflebaunarianoba pirs eniWeba dabadebis momentidan gardacvalebis momentamde.

gamonakliss warmoadgens memkvidreobis ufleba, romelic pirs warmoeSoba

Casaxvis momentidan da am uflebis realizacia damokidebulia bavSvis dabadebaze.

saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobiT srul qmedunarianad adamiani iTvleba 18 wlis

asakidan.

uflebaunarianoba - fizikuri piris unari, hqondes samoqalaqo uflebebi da

movaleobebi, warmoiSoba dabadebis momentidan.

qmedunarianoba - fizikuri piris unari, Tavisi nebiTa da moqmedebiT sruli

moculobiT SeiZinos da ganaxorcielos samoqalaqo uflebebi da movaleobebi

(qmedunarianoba), warmoiSoba srulwlovanebis miRwevisTanave.


20

7 wlidan bavSvi SezRudul qmedunarianad aris aRiarebuli, rac imas niSnavs,

rom mas ar SeuZlia sruli moculobiT SeiZinos da ganaxorcielos samoqalaqo

uflebebi da movaleobebi. magaliTad, dados garigeba. 7 wlamde asakis

bavSvi mcirewlovania da qmeduunaro. mis uflebebs axorcielebs meurve an

mzrunveli.

meurveoba - meurveoba wesdeba bavSvze, romelsac ar miuRwevia Svidi wlis

asakisaTvis an pirze, romelic sasamarTlos mier aRiarebulia qmeduunarod

suliT avadmyofobis an Wkuasustobis gamo. mzrunveloba - mzrunveloba

wesdeba arasrulwlovanze Svidi wlis asakidan Tvramet wlamde. mzrunveloba

wesdeba agreTve srulwlovan qmedunarian pirze misi TxovniT, Tu mas Tavisi

janmrTelobis mdgomareobis gamo ar SeuZlia damoukideblad ganaxorcielos

Tavisi uflebebi da Seasrulos Tavisi movaleobani.

saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobiT meurveobisa da mzrunvelobis organos

warmoadgens saqarTvelos Sromis, janmrTelobisa da socialuri dacvis

saministro an/da mis sistemaSi Semavali uflebamosili dawesebuleba

(organizacia), agreTve maTi teritoriuli organoebi.

saqarTvelos samoqalaqo kodeqsi (1997) iTvaliswinebs or garemoebas, romlis

drosac, gansazRvruli pirobebis arsebobisas, piri CaiTvleba emansipirebulad

da utoldeba srulwlovan, srul qmedunarian pirs: 1. 16 wlis asaks miRweuli

piris qorwineba; 2. kanonieri warmomadgenlis mier 16 wlis asaks miRweuli

pirisaTvis sawarmos damoukideblad gaZRolis uflebis miniWeba. saqarTvelos

kanonmdeblobiT saqorwino asakad gansazRvrulia Tvrameti weli. saqarTvelos

kanonmdebloba qorwinebisas uSvebs gamonakliss. gamonaklis SemTxvevebSi

Teqvsmeti wlis asakidan daqorwineba daiSveba mSoblebis an sxva kanonieri

warmomadgenlebis winaswari werilobiTi TanxmobiT. Tanxmobaze mSoblebis

an sxva kanonieri warmomadgenlebis uaris SemTxvevaSi pativsadebi mizezebis

arsebobisas dasaqorwinebel pirTa gancxadebis safuZvelze daqorwinebis

nebarTva SeuZlia gasces sasamarTlom.

samoqalaqo samarTlis kodeqsisa da `moqalaqeobis Sesaxeb~ saqarTvelos kanonis

Tanaxmad bavSvi dabadebisTanave iZens gvars, saxels da moqalaqeobas.

saqarTvelos kanoni `moqalaqeobis Sesaxeb~ (1993) gansazRvravs bavSvis

moqalaqeobis sakiTxs. bavSvi, romlis orive mSobeli misi dabadebis

momentisaTvis saqarTvelos moqalaqea, saqarTvelos moqalaqed iTvleba

dabadebis adgilis miuxedavad. 14-dan 18 wlamde bavSvis moqalaqeobis Secvla

SeiZleba mxolod misi TanxmobiT.

bavSvis uflebaTa konvenciis me-9 muxlis Tanaxmad yvela bavSvi unda

izrdebodes ojaxSi da ar daSordes Tavis mSoblebs maTi survilis

sawinaaRmdegod. es moTxovna Tavis asaxvas povebs saqarTvelos samoqalaqo

kodeqsSi, romlis Tanaxmad `bavSvs aqvs ufleba, cxovrobdes da izrdebodes


avSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis

21

ojaxSi~. Svilebis aRzrdis yvela sakiTxs mSoblebi urTierTSeTanxmebiT

wyveten. mSobelTa SeuTanxmeblobis SemTxvevaSi sadavo sakiTxs wyvets

sasamarTlo mSoblebis da arasrulwlovnis monawileobiT.

bavSvis uflebebi daculia mSoblebis ganqorwinebis SemTxvevaSic. Tu

ganqorwinebis gamo an sxva mizeziT bavSvis mSoblebi cal-calke cxovroben,

maT SeTanxmebazea damokidebuli, Tu visTan icxovrebs arasrulwlovani

Svili. meuRleTa Soris davis SemTxvevaSi am sakiTxs wyvets sasamarTlo

bavSvis interesebis gaTvaliswinebiT. sasamarTloSi bavSvis uflebebs icavs

meurveobisa da mzrunvelobis organos mier daniSnuli bavSvis warmomadgeneli,

romelic saqmis sasamarTloSi ganxilvis dros bavSvis interesebs warmoadgens.

kanonmdeblobiT daculia bavSvis qonebrivi uflebebic. saWiroebis

SemTxvevaSi, bavSvis qonebriv uflebebis dacvas axorcielebs qonebis meurve.

im SemTxvevaSi, rodesac mSobels, romelic sistematurad aridebs Tavs mSoblis

movaleobis Sesrulebas da arajerovnad iyenebs mSoblis uflebebs – bavSvs

uxeSad eqceva, masze uaryofiT gavlenas axdens Tavisi amoraluri saqcieliT, an

qronikuli alkoholiki an narkomania, sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebiT SeiZleba

CamoerTvas mSoblis yvela ufleba da movaleoba. es SeiZleba moxdes, rogorc

meurveobisa da mzrunvelobis organos iniciativiT, ise 14 wlis asaks miRweuli

bavSvis moTxovniT.

arasrulwlovans aqvs dacvis ufleba mSobelTa (sxva kanonier warmomadgenelTa)

mxridan uflebamosilebis borotad gamoyenebis winaaRmdeg. arasrulwlovnis

uflebebisa da kanonieri interesebis darRvevisas, maT Soris, mSobelTa

(erT-erTi mSoblis) mier bavSvis aRzrdasTan, ganaTlebasTan dakavSirebuli

movaleobebis Seusruleblobis an arasaTanadod Sesrulebisas, an mSoblis

uflebis borotad gamoyenebis SemTxvevaSi, arasrulwlovans ufleba aqvs,

damoukideblad mimarTos meurveobisa da mzrunvelobis organoebs, 14 wlis

asakidan ki – sasamarTlos.

samoqalaqo samarTlis saproceso kodeqsiT, samoqalaqo saqmeebze davebis

ganxilvisas daculia arasrulwlovanTa uflebebi. 7-dan 18 wlamde

arasrulwlovanTa uflebebsa da kanoniT dacul interesebs sasamarTloSi

icaven maTi mSoblebi, mSvileblebi an mzrunvelebi. amasTanave, sasamarTlo

valdebulia, aseT saqmeebSi Caabas TviT arasrulwlovnebic. Tu

arasrulwlovans kanoniT miniWebuli aqvs ufleba, TviTon, damoukideblad

gankargos Tavisi qoneba, dados wvrilmani sayofacxovrebo garigebebi da

a. S., mas ufleba aqvs sasamarTloSi piradad daicvas Tavisi uflebebi da

kanoniT gaTvaliswinebuli interesebi, iyos mosarCele, mopasuxe an mesame

piri. sasamarTlos SeuZlia, arasrulwlovanis SuamdgomlobiT an Tavisi

iniciativiT, saqmeSi Caabas misi kanonieri warmomadgenelic.

saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobiT gaTvaliswinebul SemTxvevaSi arasrulwlovans

14 wlis asakidan ufleba aqvs, mimarTos sasamarTlos Tavisi uflebebisa da

kanonieri interesebis dasacavad. am SemTxvevaSi sasamarTlo niSnavs saproceso


22

warmomadgenels da ganixilavs saqmes. arasrulwlovan mosarCeles ufleba

aqvs, ar daeTanxmos Tavis saproceso warmomadgenels da TviTon daicvas

sakuTari Tavi. sasamarTlo valdebulia aseT saqmeebze Caabas meurveobisa da

mzrunvelobis organoebi. samoqalaqo davebis ganxilvisas, 14 wlis asakamde

mowmis dakiTxvisas, xolo sasamarTlos SexedulebiT 14-dan 18 wlis asakamde

mowmis dakiTxvis drosac, SeiZleba mowveul iqnes pedagogi, aucileblobis

SemTxvevaSi SeiZleba moiwvion agreTve mSoblebi, mSvileblebi, meurveebi an

mzrunvelebi.

mosarCele - samoqalaqo procesSi fizikuri an iuridiuli piri, romelic

mimarTavs sasamarTlos, arbitraJs an samediatoro sasamarTlos mopasuxis

mier darRveuli Tu sadavod qceuli uflebis an kanonieri interesebis

dasacavad. mopasuxe - samoqalaqo procesis an sameurneo davis erT-erTi

mxare. mopasuxes pasuxs sTxovs sasamarTlo an arbitraJi mosarCelis im

gancxadebis mixedviT, rom mopasuxem daarRvia an sadavo gaxada mosarCelis

ufleba.

bavSvis konvenciis me-20 muxlis Tanaxmad, im SemTxvevebSic ki, rodesac

bavSvs ar hyavs mSoblebi, is saxelmwifos dacvis qveS imyofeba. amave

debulebas iziarebs saqarTvelos kanonmdebloba. kerZod, Tu napovnia

bavSvi, romlis vinaoba, mSoblebis vinaoba da maTi adgilsamyofeli ucnobia,

saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobiT, meurveobisa da mzrunvelobis organo

valdebulia ganaxorcielos yvela qmedeba bavSvisa da misi mSoblebis

vinaobis dadgenisaTvis. Tu bavSvis da misi mSoblebis vinaoba saqarTvelos

kanonmdeblobis Sesabamisad ver dgindeba, meurveobisa da mzrunvelobis

organo valdebulia, miiRos zomebi bavSvis mosavlelad da mimarTos

sasamarTlos bavSvis mitovebulad aRiarebisaTvis.

saqarTvelos kanonmdebloba icavs bavSvis interesebs gaSvilebisas. 10 wels

miRweuli bavSvis gaSvileba misi Tanxmobi gareSe ar daiSveba. kanoni mkacrad

icavs Svilad ayvanis konfidencialobis dacvis uflebas. sisxlis samarTlis

kodeqsis Tanaxmad, dasjadia Svilad ayvanis saidumloebis gamJRavneba; piradi

an ojaxuri saidumlos xelyofa.

saqarTvelos kanoni `Svilad ayvanis da mindobis Sesaxeb~ (2010) erTmaneTisagan

ganasxvavebs mindobasa da gaSvilebas.

mindobiT aRzrda (Svilobilad ayvana) – Svilobilad mindoba gulisxmobs

saxelmwifosa da mimReb ojaxs Soris ormxrivi xelSekrulebis safuZvelze

bavSvis aRsazrdelad ganTavsebas winaswar Seswavlil da SerCeul ojaxSi. am

periodis manZilze biologiur ojaxs aqvs SesaZlebloba, iqonios mudmivi

kontaqti bavSvTan, maTi ararsebobisas ki bavSvi 18 wlis asakidan Tavisufalia

da ar aris damokidebuli mimReb ojaxze


avSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis

23

Svilad ayvana – termini _ bavSvis Svilad ayvana niSnavs sasamarTlos

gadawyvetilebiT bavSvis samudamod gadacemas ojaxisaTvis. Svilad ayvana

samudamod cvlis bavSvis statuss. igi xdeba mSvilebeli mSoblebis gvaris

matarebeli da maTi qonebis memkvidre. aseT SemTxvevaSi, biologiur ojaxTan

yvela saxis kavSiri wydeba. gasaSvilebeli bavSvi – 18 wlamde asakis piri,

romelic am kanoniT dadgenili wesiT aRricxulia gasaSvilebel bavSvTa da

mSvilebelTa erTian reestrSi da akmayofilebs kanoniT dadgenil moTxovnebs

(18 wlamde piri; romlis mSoblebi sasamarTlom aRiara ugzo-ukvlod

dakargulad an gardacvlilad; mitovebuli bavSvi; oboli bavSvi; mSoblebis

TanxmobiT gaSvilebuli piri; bavSvi, romlis mSoblebsac CamoerTva mSoblis

ufleba) g) napovni bavSvi – 18 wlamde asakis piri, romlis aRmoCenis momentSi

da am momentidan 6 kviris vadaSi ver dadginda misi an/da mSoblis (mSoblebis)

vinaoba, mis mitovebul bavSvad aRiarebamde; d) mitovebuli bavSvi – 18 wlamde

asakis piri, romlis aRmoCenis momentSi da am momentidan 6 kviris vadaSi ver

dadginda misi an/da mSoblis (mSoblebis) vinaoba da romelic saqarTvelos

kanonmdeblobiT dadgenili wesiT aRiarebul iqna mitovebulad. mindobiT

aRsazrdelad gadacemuli bavSvi - mSoblebs CamoerTvaT an SeuCerdaT mSoblis

uflebebi da movaleobebi da bavSvi unda ganTavsdes Tavisi ojaxis gareT. Tu

mSoblis ufleba, gadawyvitos, visTan icxovros misma Svilma, SezRudulia da

bavSvi unda ganTavsdes Tavisi ojaxis gareT; Tu bavSvis datoveba meurvesTan

an mzrunvelTan misgan damoukidebeli mizezebiT bavSvisTvis sazianoa; Tu

Svilis CamorTmeva xdeba mSoblis uflebebisa da movaleobebis CamorTmevis

an SezRudvis gareSe.

amave kanoniT, bavSvi, Tu man miaRwia 10 wels an 10 welze meti asakisaa, ar

eTanxmeba Svilad ayvanas (gaSvilebaze) an mindobiT aRzrdas, ar SeiZleba iqnes

gaSvilebuli, aseve akrZalulia 10 wlis an 10 welze meti asakis bavSvis gaSvileba

misi Tanxmobis gareSe. dauSvebelia da-Zmis, debis an/da Zmebis daSoreba, garda im

SemTxvevisa, rodesac es Seesabameba maT interesebs. mSvileblisa da gasaSvilebeli

bavSvis (Tu igi 10 wlisaa an 10 welze metisaa) moTxovniT sasamarTlo sxdoma

SeiZleba iyos Ria, xolo informacia - sajaro. Tu naSvilebi 10 wlisaa an 10

welze metisaa, Svilad ayvanis Sesaxeb sasamarTlo gadawyvetilebis gauqmeba

dasaSvebia mxolod naSvilebis TanxmobiT.

gaSvilebisas an mindobisas SesaZleblobis farglebSi uzrunvelyofili unda

iqnes bavSvis axlo eTnikur, religiur da kulturul garemoSi aRzrdis

SesaZlebloba.

bavSvis janmrTelobis dacvis ufleba da am sferoSi misi nebis pativiscema aisaxa

saqarTvelos sxvadasxva sakanonmdeblo aqtebSi: saqarTvelos kanoni janmrTelobis

dacvis Sesaxeb; pacientis uflebaTa Sesaxeb; organoTa gadanergvis Sesaxeb da sxva.

arasrulwlovan pacientTa uflebebi yvelaze kargad vlindeba saqarTvelos

kanonSi `pacientTa uflebebis Sesaxeb~ (2000), romelic arasrulwlovan

pacientebs iseTsave uflebebs aniWebs, rogorc srulwlovans, garda im

specifikuri SemTxvevebisa, rodesac Tavisi asakis gamo, pacienti mometebul


24

yuradRebas saWiroebs. magaliTad, informirebuli Tanxmobis micema raime

samedicino manipulaciisas.

kanonmdebeli did yuradRebas uTmobs arasrulwlovnis janmrTelobis Sesaxeb

informaciis dacvas. mSoblebs an kanonier warmomadgenlebs arasrulwlovanis

janmrTelobis Sesaxeb informacia ar miewodeba, Tu informaciis miwodebis

winaaRmdegia TviT qmedunariani arasrulwlovani pacienti, aseve 14-dan 18

wlamde asakis arasrulwlovani pacienti, romelic samedicino momsaxurebis

gamwevis SexedulebiT sworad afasebs sakuTari janmrTelobis mdgomareobas

da romelmac eqims mimarTa sqesobrivad gadamdebi daavadebis an narkomaniis

mkurnalobis, kontracefciis araqirurgiuli meTodebis Sesaxeb konsultaciis

miRebis an orsulobis xelovnurad Sewyvetis mizniT. 14-dan 18 wlamde

asakis arasrulwlovan pacients, romelic samedicino momsaxurebis gamwevis

SexedulebiT sworad afasebs sakuTari janmrTelobis mdgomareobas, ufleba

aqvs ganacxados informirebuli Tanxmoba samedicino momsaxurebaze, Tu man

samedicino momsaxurebis gamwevs mimarTa sqesobrivad gadamdebi daavadebis an

narkomaniis mkurnalobis, kontracefciis araqirurgiuli meTodebis Sesaxeb

konsultaciis miRebis an orsulobis xelovnurad Sewyvetis mizniT.

saqarTvelos kanoni `fsiqiatriuli daxmarebis Sesaxeb~ (2006) gansazRvravs

iseT SemTxvevebs, rodesac arasrulwlovani uars ambobs mkurnalobaze.

arasrulwlovans gaaCnia mkurnalobaze uaris Tqmis ufleba, Tu aqvs unari,

miiRos gacnobierebuli gadawyvetileba.

bavSvis uflebebis dacva garantirebulia saqarTvelos kanoniT `zogadi

ganaTlebis Sesaxeb~ (2005). kanonis Tanaxmad, moswavles aqvs ufleba: Tanabar

pirobebSi, diskriminaciis gareSe, dadgenili wesiT, saskolo dros an skolis

teritoriaze isargeblos am TaviT daculi da skolis mier aRiarebuli yvela

uflebiTa da TavisuflebiT, agreTve skolis yvela resursiT; saxelmwifo icavs

moswavlis da mSoblis saganmanaTleblo arCevanis Tavisuflebas. moswavle

daculi unda iyos arasaTanado mopyrobis, uyuradRebobisa da Seuracxyofisagan;

sakuTari uflebebisa da Tavisuflebebis Sesaxeb codnis ufleba.

moswavleebs aqvT ufleba, flobdnen informacias TavianTi uflebebisa

da Tavisuflebebis, agreTve maTi SezRudvis safuZvlebis Sesaxeb. skola

valdebulia, yovel axal moswavles gaacnos misi uflebebi da Tavisuflebebi;

uflebebisa da Tavisuflebebis SezRudvisas moswavles gonivrul vadaSi

ganumartos SezRudvis safuZveli, moswavles ki aqvs ufleba, piradad an

arCeuli warmomadgenlis meSveobiT monawileoba miiRos skolis marTvaSi,

miiRos skolaSi arsebuli nebismieri informacia, garda piradi saidumloebis

Semcveli informaciisa; moiTxovos da miiRos skolis mier masTan dakavSirebuli

sakiTxis gadawyvetileba, moiTxovos misi azris mosmena da monawileoba miiRos

ganxilvaSi uSualod an warmomadgenlis meSveobiT.

`bavSvTa da axalgazrduli kavSirebis saxelmwifoebrivi mxardaWeris Sesaxeb“

(1999) saqarTvelos kanoniT daculia bavSvebis mier Seqmnil sxvadasxva saxis


avSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis

25

organizaciebi _ bavSvTa kavSirebi. bavSvTa kavSiri aris saqarTvelos samoqalaqo

kodeqsiT gansazRvruli wesiT Seqmnili arasamewarmeo (arakomerciuli)

iuridiuli piri, romlis sadamfuZneblo dokumentaciiT gansazRvruli

saqmianobis mizania bavSvTa uflebebisa da Tavisuflebebis dacvis, maTi niWisa

da unaris ganviTarebisa da sazogadoebaSi damkvidrebisaTvis xelis Sewyoba.

bavSvTa kavSirSi gawevrianebisa da sadamfuZneblo dokumentaciiT gansazRvrul

saqmianobaSi monawileobis ufleba aqvs nebismier pirs 7 wlis asakidan, Tavisi

kanonieri warmomadgenlis TanxmobiT.

saqarTvelos kanoniT `reklamis Sesaxeb~ (1998) daculia arasrulwlovnis

uflebebi. kerZod, reklamis warmoebis, ganTavsebisa da gavrcelebis

dros arasrulwlovanTa gulubryvilobisa da gamoucdelobis borotad

gamoyenebisagan maTi dacvis mizniT akrZalulia: a) arasrulwlovanTa

STagoneba _ daarwmunon mSoblebi an sxva pirebi reklamirebuli saqonlis

SeZenaSi; b) arasrulwlovanTa yuradRebis mipyroba imaze, rom reklamirebuli

saqonlis floba upiratesobas aniWebs maT sxva arasrulwlovanTa mimarT,

xolo misi uqonloba iwvevs sawinaaRmdego efeqts; g) reklamaSi iseTi teqstis,

audio- da videoinformaciis moTavseba, romlebic aCvenebs arasrulwlovnebs

saSiS adgilas da saSiS viTarebaSi; d) arasrulwlovanTaTvis saqonlis

gamosayeneblad saWiro Cvevebis aucilebeli donis gauTvaliswinebloba.

amasTan, Tu saqonlis gamoyenebis Sedegebi naCvenebi an aRwerilia,

reklama unda iZleodes informacias imis Sesaxeb, risi miRwevac realurad

SesaZlebelia im asakobrivi jgufis arasrulwlovanTaTvis, romlisTvisac

gankuTvnilia es saqoneli; e) arasrulwlovanTaTvis saqonlis Rirebulebaze

(fasze) ararealuri (damaxinjebuli) warmodgenis Seqmna, kerZod, sityvebis

`mxolod~, `sul raRac~ da maT msgavsTa gamoyenebiT, agreTve pirdapiri an

iribi miTiTebiT imaze, rom reklamirebuli saqoneli xelmisawvdomia yvela

ojaxis biujetisaTvis.

saqarTvelos kanoni `mavne zegavlenisagan arasrulwlovanTa dacvis Sesaxeb~

(2001) gulisxmobs dacvas im mavne zegavlenisagan, romelic dakavSirebulia

alkoholuri sasmelebis da Tambaqos momxmareba-gasaRebasTan, azartul

TamaSobebSi monawileobasTan, iseT filmebis CvenebasTan, nabeWdi produqciis

moxmareba-gasaRebasTan, romelmac SeiZleba ziani miayenos arasrulwlovnis

fsiqikur an/da fizikur janmrTelobas, mis moralur da socialur ganviTarebas.

analogiur akrZalvas Seicavs saqarTvelos kanoni `mauwyeblobis Sesaxeb~

(2004), romlis mixediTac ikrZaleba bavSvTa da mozardTa fizikur, gonebriv

da zneobriv ganviTarebaze mavne zegavlenis momxdeni programebis im dros

ganTavseba, roca maT mier am programebis naxvis an mosmenis didi albaToba

arsebobs.

arasrulwlovanTa SromiTi uflebebis dacvis garantiebi Camoyalibebulia

saqarTvelos Sromis kodeqsSi (2006). saqarTvelos kanonmdebloba zogadad

iTvaliswinebs Sromis saerTaSoriso organizaciisa (ILO) da sxva saerTaSoriso

organizaciebis rezoluciebsa da standartebs.


26

saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobiT samuSaoze miRebis minimaluri asakia

16 weli. saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobiT ar aris akrZaluli 16 wlamde

arasrulwlovanis dasaqmeba, magram kanonmdebeli miuTiTebs im pirobebze,

romelic unda iqnes gaTvaliswinebuli arasrulwlovanis dasaqmebisas:

kanonieri warmomadgenlis an mzrunvelobis/meurveobis organos Tanxmoba;

rodesac … SromiTi urTierTobebi ar ewinaaRmdegeba arasrulwlovanis

interesebs; zians ar ayenebs mis zneobriv, fizikur da gonebriv ganviTarebas;

ar uzRudavs mas savaldebulo dawyebiTi da sabazo ganaTlebis miRebis

uflebas da SesaZleblobas. 14 wlamde asakis arasrulwlovanTan SesaZlebelia

SromiTi xelSekrulebis dadeba, magram mxolod sportul, xelovnebasTan

dakavSirebul da kulturis sferoSi saqmianobaze, aseve sareklamo samuSaos

Sesasruleblad.

akrZalulia arasrulwlovanTan SromiTi xelSekrulebis dadeba saTamaSo

biznesTan, Ramis gasarTob dawesebulebebTan, erotikuli da pornografiuli

produqciis, farmacevtuli da toqsikuri nivTierebebis damzadebasTan,

gadazidvasTan da realizaciasTan dakavSirebuli samuSaoebis Sesasruleblad.

arasrulwlovanis kanonier warmomadgenels an mzrunvelobis/meurveobis

organos ufleba aqvT moiTxovon arasrulwlovanTan SromiTi xelSekrulebis

moSla, Tu muSaobis gagrZeleba zians miayenebs arasrulwlovnis sicocxles,

janmrTelobas an sxva, mniSvnelovan interesebs.

Sromis kodeqsiT akrZalulia arasrulwlovanTan SromiTi xelSekrulebis

dadeba mZime, mavne da saSiSpirobebiani samuSaoebis Sesasruleblad. SromiTi

kodeqsi zRudavs arasrulwlovnis 22 saaTidan 6 saaTamde dasaqmebas.

bavSvis uflebebis dacvis meqnizmebi Cadebulia saqarTvelos kanonSi `ojaxSi

Zaladobis aRkveTis, ojaxSi Zaladobis msxverlTa dacvisa da daxmarebis

Sesaxeb~ (2006).

ojaxSi Zaladoba gulisxmobs ojaxis erTi wevris mier meoris konstituciuri

uflebebisa da Tavisuflebebis darRvevas fizikuri, fsiqologiuri,

ekonomikuri, seqsualuri ZaladobiT an iZulebiT.

kanonis Tanaxmad, bavSvis mimarT fizikuri Zaladobis kvalis arsebobisas

kanoniT dadgenili wesiT unda moxdes bavSvis misi mSoblebisagan gancalkeveba.

sasamarTlos saboloo gadawyvetilebis miRebamde droebiTi RonisZiebis saxiT

damcavi orderis safuZvelze xdeba bavSvis gancalkeveba moZalade mSoblisagan.

sasamarTlo gansazRvravs moZalade mSoblis mier bavSvis monaxulebis vadebs. am

drosac kanoni mkacrad icavs bavSvis usafrTxoebas. mSobels bavSvis monaxulebis

ufleba SeiZleba mieces mxolod im SemTxvevaSi, roca mis mimarT daculi iqneba

usafrTxoebis yvela zoma, romelic SeiZleba moicavdes bavSvis monaxulebis

adgils, dros, periodulobas, xangrZlivobas da pirs, romelic pasuxismgebelia

bavSvis usafrTxoebis moTxovnebis dacvaze. Tu bavSvis mimarT usafrTxoebis

zomebi daculi ar aris, moZalade mSoblis mier bavSvis monaxulebis ufleba

izRudeba.


avSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis

27

2010 wlis martidan funqcionirebs “bavSvTa dacvis mimarTvianobis procedurebi”,

romelic sami saministros – Sromis, janmrTelobisa da socialuri dacvis

saministro, Sinagan saqmeTa saministro da ganaTlebisa da mecnierebis

saministro – koordinaciis meqanizms warmoadgens da miznad isaxavs bavSvis

mimarT Zaladobis faqtebis adreul etapze gamovlenasa da maTze reagirebas.

ojaxSi Zaladobis faqtze operatiuli reagirebisaTvis uflebamosili organos

mier msxverplis dacvisa da moZaladis garkveuli moqmedebebis SezRudvis

uzrunvelsayofad, droebiTi RonisZiebis saxiT, SesaZlebelia, gamoices

Semakavebeli an damcavi orderi.

damcavi orderi aris pirveli instanciis sasamarTlos (mosamarTlis) mier

administraciuli samarTalwarmoebis wesiT gamocemuli aqti, romliTac

ganisazRvreba ojaxSi Zaladobis SemTxvevaSi Zaladobis msxverplis

dacvis droebiTi RonisZiebebi, garda im SemTxvevisa, rodesac arsebobs

sisxlissamarTlebrivi devnis aRZvris safuZveli da pirs aRkveTis RonisZiebis

saxiT Sefardebuli aqvs patimroba. moZaladis mier damcavi orderiT

gaTvaliswinebuli moTxovnebis Seusrulebloba iwvevs sisxlissamarTlebriv

pasuxismgeblobas.

Semakavebeli orderi aris policiis uflebamosili TanamSromlis mier

gamocemuli aqti, romliTac ganisazRvreba ojaxSi Zaladobis SemTxvevaSi

Zaladobis msxverplis dacvis droebiTi RonisZiebebi da romelic gamocemidan

24 saaTis ganmavlobaSi dasamtkiceblad waredgineba sasamarTlos.

bavSvis uflebaTa konvenciis 32-e muxli krZalavs bavSvis monuri Sromis

gamoyenebas. analogiuri akrZalva mocemulia `transnacionaluri organizebuli

danaSaulis winaaRmdeg~ gaeros konvenciisa da misi damatebiTi oqmi `adamianebis,

gansakuTrebiT qalebisa da bavSvebis, trefikingis Tavidan acilebis, aRkveTisa

da dasjis Sesaxeb~, romlis monawilec 2006 wlidan saqarTveloc gaxda.

trefikingi (adamianiT vaWroba) - adamianis yidva an gayidva, an mis mimarT sxva

ukanono garigebis ganxorcieleba, agreTve muqariT, ZaladobiT an iZulebis sxva

formiT, motacebiT, SantaJiT, TaRliTobiT, motyuebiT, umweo mdgomareobis

an Zalauflebis borotad gamoyenebiT, sazRauris anda sargeblis micemis an

miRebis gziT im piris Tanxmobis misaRwevad, romelsac sxva pirze zegavlenis

moxdena SeuZlia, adamianis gadabireba, gadayvana, gadamalva, daqiraveba,

transportireba, gadacema, Sefareba anda miReba eqspluataciis mizniT.

arasrulwlovniT vaWroba (trefikingi) - arasrulwlovnis yidva an gayidva, an

mis mimarT sxva ukanono garigebis ganxorcieleba, agreTve misi gadabireba,

gadayvana, gadamalva, daqiraveba, transportireba, gadacema, Sefareba anda

miReba eqspluataciis mizniT.

trefikingis msxverpl bavSvTa uflebebis dacva xorcieldeba transnacionaluri

organizebuli danaSaulis winaaRmdeg gaeros konvenciis oqmiT adamianebis,


28

gansakuTrebiT qalebisa da bavSvebis, trefikingis Tavidan acilebis, aRkveTisa

da dasjis, agreTve `adamianebiT vaWrobis (trefikingis) winaaRmdeg brZolis

Sesaxeb~ evropis sabWos konvenciiT gaTvaliswinebuli bavSvis uflebaTa dacvis

meqanizmebiT da saerTaSoriso organizaciebis mier miRebuli saxelmZRvanelo

miTiTebebiT. am dokumentebis safuZvelze. saqarTvelos sisxlis samarTlis

kodeqsSi gaTvaliswinebulia specialuri muxlebi – adamianiT vaWroba

(trefikingi); arasrulwlovniT vaWroba (trefikingi); adamianis vaWrobis

(trefikingis) msxverlis (dazaralebulis) momsaxurebiT sargebloba.

saqarTveloSi moqmedebs specialuri kanoni `adamianiT vaWrobis (trefikingis)

winaaRmdeg brZolis Sesaxeb” (2006), romliTac daculia bavSvis uflebebi.

saqarTvelos kanonmdebloba yuradRebas uTmobs kanonTan konfliqtSi myofi

mozardisadmi efeqtur, samarTlian da humanur damokidebulebas da cdilobs,

erovnul kanonmdeblobaSi daamkvidros saerTaSoriso standartebi am sferoSi.

adaministraciul samarTaldarRvevaTa kodeqsiT administraciuli

pasuxismgebloba ekisrebaT administraciuli samarTaldarRvevis Cadenis

momentisaTvis Teqvsmeti wlis asaks miRweul pirebs. magaliTad, metropoliteniT

sargeblobis wesebis darRveva; wvrilmani xulignoba an xulignoba, Cadenili

ToTxmetidan Teqvsmet wlamde mozardis mier, wvrilmani qurdoba da sxva.

administraciuli patimroba ar SeiZleba SeefardoT Tvrameti wlis asaks

miuRwevel pirebs.

saqarTvelos sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsi uxvad Seicavs arasrulwlovanTa

uflebebis dacviT normebs. arasrulwlovanTa marTlmsajulebis saqarTveloSi

arsebuli sistemis Sesaxeb dawvrilebiT ixileT me-2 TavSi.

gamoxatvis Tavisufleba da bavSvis uflebebis dacva qarTul

kanonmdeblobaSi

saqarTvelos konstituciis 24-e muxli aRiarebs informaciisa da ideebis

daubrkoleblad gavrcelebisa da miRebis uflebas, Tumca SezRudvis erTerT

kriteriumad adgens sxva pirTa uflebebisa da Tavisuflebebis dacvas.

Sesabamisad, gamoxatvis Tavisufleba SeiZleba SeizRudos im SemTxvevaSi, Tu is

laxavs bavSvis konstituciiT dacul sxva uflebebs da winaaRmdegobaSi modis

bavSvis konstituciiT dacul interesebTan.

imTaviTve unda aRiniSnos, rom saqarTvelos kanonmdebloba gansxvavebul wesebs

udgens samauwyeblo (tele- da radiomauwyebloba) mediasa da presas. samauwyeblo

medias gacilebiT meti regulacia da valdebulebebi aqvs, misi zemoqmedebis

SesaZleblobebidan gamomdinare. 1

bavSvTa uflebebis dacvas mediaSi iTvaliswinebda kanoni `mavne zegavlenisagan

arasrulwlovanTa dacvis Sesaxeb~. 2004 wlis 23 dekembris cvlilebebis Tanaxmad

1 ra Tqma unda, regulaciebi marto gavlenis SesaZlebelobebidan ar aris ganpirobebuli. mnSvnelovania

amowurvadi resursebiT sargblobac, Tumca gansaxilvel SemTxvevaSi mniSvnelovania swored es sakiTxi, ris

gamoc moxda masze aqcentireba.


avSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis

29

aRniSnuli funqcia srulad gadavida komunikaciebis erovnuli komisiis

regulirebis sferoSi da mas daevala `mauwyebelTa qcevis kodeqsis miReba~,

romliTac dadgindeboda bavSvTa sakiTxebis gaSuqebisaTvis savaldebulo

wesebi. swored is faqti, rom arasrulwlovanTa interesebis dacva mediaSi

gaTvaliswinebulia mxolod da mxolod `mauwyebelTa qcevis kodeqsSi~,

ganapirobebs mis savaldebuloobas mauwyeblebis da ara presis mimarT.

presis mimarT vrceldeba is zogadi kriteriumebi da moTxovnebi, rac dadgenilia

konstituciiTa da kanoniT `sityvisa da gamoxatvis Tavisuflebis Sesaxeb~.

magaliTad, yalbi faqtebis, Seuracxmyofeli masalebis gavrcelebiT, sxva

pirovnuli uflebebis darRvevis SemTxvevaSi dainteresebul pirs SesaZlebloba

aqvs, dava awarmoos sasamarTloSi media saSualebis winaaRmdeg. aRniSnuli imas

gulisxmobs, rom presas SeuZlia imoqmedos sakuTari eTikuri standartebis

Sesabamisad, winaswar kanoniT dadgenili wesebis gareSe, xolo dainteresebul

pirs 2 aqvs post-faqtum reagirebis ufleba.

gansxvavebul mdgomareobaSia samauwyeblo media. Jurnalistebis mier

arasrulwlovanTa sakiTxebis gaSuqebisaTvis savaldebulo wesebs adgens

saqarTvelos komunikaciebis erovnuli komisiis 2009 wlis 12 martis dadgenilebiT

damtkicebuli `mauwyebelTa qcevis kodeqsis~ me-11 Tavi. qcevis kodeqsi adgens

im winaswar kriteriumebs, rac savaldebulod unda gaiTvaliswinos mauwyebelma.

magaliTad, sabavSvo gadacemebis gaSveba gansazRvrul dros, savaraudo

auditoriis winaswar gansazRvra.

arasrulwlovnebze mavne zegavlenis Tavidan acilebis mizniT filmebze

gamoiyeneba Sesabamisi specialuri SemzRudavi niSani. gansakuTrebulad

SezRudulia uxamsi da Zaladobis amsaxveli masalebis gaSveba eTerSi im dros,

rodesac, savaraudod, didia arasrulwlovanTa auditoria. aseve akrZalulia

maTTvis gankuTvnil gadacemebSi Seuracxmyofeli leqsikis gamoyeneba.

arasrulwlovanTa interesebis dacvis TavlsazrisiT gansakuTrebuli

mniSvneloba akisria sazogadoebriv mauwyebels, romelic `mauwyeblobis Sesaxeb~

kanonis 3 Tanaxmad valdebulia, programebSi asaxos asakobrivi mravalferovneba

da, aseve, bavSvTa da mozardTa interesebis Sesabamisi proporciiT ganaTavsos

sabavSvo programebi.

sazogadoebrivi mauwyeblis sameurveo sabWos mier datkicebul 2010 wlis

samoqmedo gegmaSi gansakuTrebulad aris gamoyofili bavSvTa interesebis

gaTvaliswineba. sazogadoebrivi mauwyeblis erT-erTi prioritetia `sabavSvo

da axalgazrduli programebi yvela asakobrivi (skolamdeli, umcrosi saskolo,

ufrosi saskolo, studentebi) jgufisaTvis~. 4

2 am SemTxvevaSi igulisxmeba bavSvi da misi kanonieri warmomadgeneli.

3 ix. saqarTvelos kanoni `mauwyeblobis Sesaxeb~ muxli 16.

4 www.gpb.ge


30

3. bavSvis uflebebi da media

ZiriTadi saswavlo Temebi

mediis gavlena axalgazrdebze

bavSvebis asaxva mediaSi

mediis mier bavSvebis eqspluatacia

bavSvebis monawileoba mediaSi

mediis mxridan bavSvze zemoqmedebis fsiqologiuri aspeqtebi

`oslos gamowveva~

1999 wlis noemberSi mediaproeqtebSi Cabmuli axalgazrdebi, mediis

profesionalebi da bavSvis uflebaTa eqspertebi Seikribnen norvegiis dedaqalaq

osloSi, raTa ganexilaT, Tu ra rolis Sesruleba SeuZlia medias bavSvis

uflebebis ganviTarebaSi msoflio masStabiT. msjeloba moicavda xuT Temas:

bavSvis ufleba, xeli miuwvdebodes mediaze, maT Soris axal mediaze;

bavSvis ufleba, miiRos codna da Seiqmnas warmodgena mediasTan

dakavSirebiT;

bavSvis ufleba, monawileoba miiRos mediaSi;

bavSvis ufleba, daculi iyos mediiT miyenebuli zianisgan da ekranze

arsebuli Zaladobisgan;

mediis roli bavSvis uflebebis dacvasa da xelSewyobaSi.

am ganxilvebis safuZvelze gaCnda `oslos gamowveva~, romelic aRiarebda, rom

`bavSvebsa da medias Soris urTierToba aris kari bavSvebis da maTi uflebebis

did da mravalsaxovan samyaroSi – ganaTlebis, gamoxatvis Tavisuflebis,

TamaSis, identobis, janmrTelobis, Rirsebis da sakuTari Tavis pativiscemis,

dacvis samyaroSi – da rom media garkveul rols TamaSobs bavSvis uflebebis

yvela aspeqtSi, bavSvis cxovrebis yovel elementSi~.

`oslos gamowveva~ moqmedebisken mowodebaa. igi yvelas miswvda, vinc bavSvebisa

da mediis rTuli urTierTobis kvleviT, ganviTarebiT da monitoringiT aris

dakavebuli da monawileobs amaSi: mTavrobebi, organizaciebi da kerZo pirebi,

romlebic bavSvebis sakiTxebze muSaoben, mediis profesionalebi yvela doneze

da yvela media saSualebaSi, kerZo seqtori, maT Soris mediis mflobelebi,

bavSvebi da axalgazrdebi, mSoblebi, maswavleblebi da mkvlevrebi (`iunisefis~

vebgverdi www.unicef.org/magic am mowodebaze gamoxmaurebaa – aq mocemulia

mTeli msoflios bavSvebis mier bavSvebisTvis da bavSvebis monawileobiT

Seqmnili mediaproeqtebi, sxva bmulebTan da informaciasTan erTad).

gaeros bavSvis uflebaTa konvenciis ramdenime ZiriTadi muxli exeba mediisa da

bavSvebis sakiTxebs. bavSvis uflebaTa komitetma sami ZiriTadi sakiTxi gamoyo

gansaxilvelad:


avSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis

31




mediis saSualebebiT bavSvis warmoCenis gaumjobeseba;

bavSvebis waxaliseba, rom aqtiurad miiRon mediaSi monawileoba;

bavSvebis dacva mediis mavne zemoqmedebisgan.

konvenciis me-17 muxli ganmartavs mediis mniSvnelovan rols informaciis

gavrcelebaSi da ganusazRvravs monawile saxelmwifoebs konkretul amocanebs,

rac farTo gagebiT xels uwyobs bavSvis keTildReobas. igulisxmeba, rom

saxelmwifoebi `aRiareben masobrivi informaciis saSualebaTa mniSvnelovan

rols~ da `uzrunvelyofen bavSvisaTvis sxvadasxva erovnuli da saerTaSoriso

wyaroebiT gavrcelebuli informaciisa da masalebis xelmisawvdomobas,

gansakuTrebiT iseTi informaciis da masalebisa, romlebic mimarTulia bavSvis

socialuri, sulieri da moraluri keTildReobisaken, agreTve jansaRi fizikuri

da fsiqikuri ganviTarebis xelSewyobisaken.~

konvenciis me-12 muxli aRiarebs bavSvis uflebas, gamoxatos Tavisi Sexedulebebi

nebismier sakiTxze, romelic mas exeba. me-13 muxli amkvidrebs gamoxatvis

Tavisuflebas: `es ufleba moicavs Tavisuflebas, miuxedavad sazRvrebisa,

moiZios, miiRos an gaavrcelos nebismieri saxis informacia an mosazrebebi

zepirad, werilobiT an beWdviTi formiT, xelovnebis saxiT an nebismieri sxva

saSualebiT sakuTari arCevanisamebr.~

es muxlebi emsaxureba ara marto kargad informirebuli moqalaqis Camoyalibebas,

aramed imasac, rom axalgazrdebis xma ufro xSirad ismodes masobrivi

informaciis saSualebebiT. igi iZleva mkafio gzavnils, rom bavSvebi unda iyvnen

saainformacio revoluciis rogorc monawileebi, ise beneficiarebi.

ukanaskneli ori aTwleulis ganmavlobaSi, kerZod, masobrivi informaciis axali

saSualebebisa da internetis gavrcelebis Semdeg, bavSvebisa da axalgazrdebis

mediis sakiTxma globaluri mniSvneloba SeiZina. zogierTma dainteresebulma

mxarem daiwyo bavSvis uflebebis realizeba mediis saSualebiT – magaliTad,

imis uzrunvelyofiT, rom axalgazrduli auditoriisTvis xelmisawvdomi iyos

maRalxarisxovani Sinaarsis media, gaismodes axalgazrdebis xma da bavSvebis

Sesaxeb sakiTxebi eTikurad Suqdebodes.

mediis gavlena axalgazrdebze

mravali kvlevaa Catarebuli bavSvebze mediis _ maT Soris mediaSi Zaladobis

asaxvis _ zemoqmedebis Sesaxeb. rogorc zogierTi eqsperti, magaliTad, miCiganis

universitetis profesori l. rouel hiusmani (2000) amtkicebs, 50-wliani

dakvirveba cxadyofs, rom `Zaladoba mediaSi zrdis bavSvebis agresiulobas da

es wlebis Semdeg iCens Tavs, rodesac isini zrdasrul asaks aRweven.~ Tumca

sxvebi, maT Soris jonaTan fridmani torontos universitetidan, amtkiceben,

rom `samecniero monacemebi ar adasturebs, rom Zaladobis naxva Zaladobas

warmoSobs an mis mimarT ugrZnobs xdis adamians.~

mediis gavrceleba da globalizacia Tanamedrove axalgazrduli kulturis

erT-erTi ganmsazRvreli faqtoria. bevr qveyanaSi axalgazrdebs gacilebiT


32

metad miuwvdebaT xeli multimediis saSualebebze, vidre adre – es aris

tradiciuli, satelituri da sakabelo televiziis arxebi; radiosadgurebi;

gazeTebi da Jurnalebi; interneti, kompiuteri da videoTamaSebi. dRes ucxouri

programebi da media bevrad ufro xelmisawvdomia. msoflios bevr qveyanaSi

naklebia oficialuri cenzura da kontroli. informaciis, eleqtronuli

fostis da fotoebis gacvla msoflioSi dRes ufro swrafad da Tavisuflad

xdeba, vidre odesme. amitom ganxiluli unda iqnes, rogorc bavSvebis mediaSi

monawileobis, ise mavne zegavlenisagan maTi dacvis sakiTxebi.

bavSvebis asaxva mediaSi

mediis mier bavSvebis asaxva did gavlenas axdens bavSvebisa da bavSvobis mimarT

damokidebulebaze da mniSvnelovnad moqmedebs bavSvebis mimarT mozrdilTa

qcevaze. mediis saSualebiT mowodebuli aRwera misabaZ magaliTad iqceva

axalgazrdebisTvis da zemoqmedebas axdens maT poziciasa da molodinze. is,

Tu rogor xdeba bavSvebis warmodgena mediis mier, an sulac maTi ignorireba,

gavlenas axdens bavSvebTan dakavSirebiT miRebul gadawyvetilebebze da

sazogadoebis danarCeni nawilis damokidebulebaze maT mimarT. media xSirad

bavSvebs ise aRwers, rogorc pasiur, utyv `msxverplebs.~

bavSvebisa da axalgazrdebisaTvis SesaZleblobis micemiT, Tavad ilaparakon

TavianT imedebze, SiSebsa Tu miRwevebze, aseve maT cxovrebaze ufrosebis qcevis

zemoqmedebaze, mediis profesionalebs SeuZliaT Seaxsenon sazogadoebas, rom

bavSvebi iseve imsaxureben pativiscemas, rogorc yvela adamiani.

Jurnalistebis saerTaSoriso federaciis informaciiT, mediis mier bavSvebis

asaxva amkvidrebs mTel rig miTebs:

ganviTarebadi qveynebis ojaxebi, Rataki bavSvebi, agreTve omisa da

sxvadasxva ubedurebis msxverplebi kargaven individualobas da humanurobas.

maT xSirad aCveneben rogorc umweo tanjulebs, romlebsac ar SeuZliaT

moqmedeba, fiqri an laparaki;

bavSvebis problemebis gaSuqebisas arsebobs tendencia, rom fokusireba

moxdes sensaciur ambebze, xolo mravalricxovani problemebi, romlebic

bavSvis uflebaTa konvenciaSia gansazRvruli, uyuradRebod rCeba;

xSirad mediaSi erTjeradi reportaJebia bavSvebis Sesaxeb, rasac ar mohyveba

analizi da Semdgomi moqmedeba;

konfidencialurobas bavSvebTan dakavSirebiT yovelTvis ar uweven angariSs;

axal ambebSi bavSvebs xSirad stereotipulad warmoaCenen, magaliTad:

`afrikeli moSimSile bavSvebi~ da `upasuxismgeblo Tineijerebi.~

dominirebs ambebi bavSvebis mimarT Zaladobaze, arasrulwlovanTa

damnaSaveobaze, quCis bavSvebze, maSin, rodesac bavSvis uflebebTan

dakavSirebuli sxva problemebi, rogoricaa TamaSis, dasvenebisa da sportis

ufleba, ar aris miCneuli axali ambebisTvis saintereso siuJetad. amis

Sedegad iqmneba daubalansebeli STabeWdileba, rom bavSvebi an `msxverplebi~


avSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis

33

arian, an saxifaTo `SfoTisTavebi.~

1998 wels britanuli organizacia `Cildrenz eqspresi~ romelic saSualebas

aZlevs bavSvebs da axalgazrdebs, monawileoba miiRon mediis saqmianobaSi, Tavad

weron da redaqtireba gaukeTon reportaJebs, monitorings uwevda erovnuli

gazeTebis Sinaarss erTi kviris ganmavlobaSi. mkvlevrebma `Svidi momakvdinebeli

stereotipi~ aRmoaCines. sixSiris mixedviT esenia:

`msxverpli bavSvebi~: 31,5%

`sayvareli bavSvebi~ (gaumarTlebeli, mizanTan Seusabamo foto/

gamosaxuleba): 26,7%

`patara eSmakebi~ (bavSvebis `demonizeba~/anu maTTvis aTasnairi codvis

miwera): 10,8%

`bavSvebi SesaniSnavebi arian~ (gansakuTrebuli bavSvebi): 9,7%

`bavSvebi, rogorc aqsesuarebi~ (anu mSoblebis sakuTreba): 8,4%

`dRevandeli bavSvebi~ (mozrdilebis nostalgia warsulis mimarT): 7,5%

`patara angelozebi~ (visac cudis gakeTeba ar SeuZlia): 5,4%

stereotipebisken midrekilebas mowmobs kvleva, romelic organizacia `MORI~-m

(bazrisa da sazogadoebrivi azris saerTaSoriso kvleva - Market and Opinion

Research International) Caatara 2004 wels britanuli JurnalisTvis `Young People

Now~ (`dRevandeli axalgazrdoba~). masSi naTqvamia: [axalgazrdebis] es jgufebi

xedaven presaSi damkvidrebul negatiur stereotips da grZnoben, rom es

moqmedebs maT yoveldRiur cxovrebaze, imaze, Tu rogor eqcevian maT ufrosebi,

rodesac sajaro TavSeyris adgilebSi arian megobrebTan erTad. amasTan,

isini Tvlian, rom Jurnalistebi naCqarevad ikaveben moraluri upiratesobis

pozicias, rodesac axalgazrdebis qcevas afaseben~. isini amas farisevlur pozad

aRiqvamen, radgan Tvlian, rom Jurnalistebs axasiaTebT gazviadeba imisaTvis,

rom ukeTesad gayidon gazeTebi da fuli iSovon: `nebismier rames miagneben da

moipoveben, Tu dasaweri SemoakldebaT. sul ar adardebT, vinmes reputacias Tu

Crdili miadgeba.~ es `MORI~-s adrindel (2003) gamokvlevas exmaureba, romelic

cxadyofs, rom 11-18 wlis 914 axalgazrdidan orma mesamedma (64%) ganacxada,

rom ar endoba Jurnalistebs.

ase rom, marTalia, media mniSvnelovan rols TamaSobs bavSvTa uflebebis Sesaxeb

sazogadoebis informirebulobis amaRlebaSi, magram, amave dros, is SeiZleba

saeWvo partnioric aRmoCndes.

mediis mier bavSvebis eqspluatacia

erTi mxriv, sainformacio media aSuqebs Zaladobis msxverplebs an mogviTxrobs

ambebs moZaladeebis Sesaxeb reportaJebis, fotoebis, dokumenturi filmebisa da

sxva saSualebebiT. meore mxriv, igi Tavad SeiZleba gaxdes eqspluatatori, rodesac

axal ambebSi an reklamaSi bavSvebis seqsualurad provokaciul saxeebs qmnis.

mediis profesionalebi kargad arian momzadebulni saimisod, rom bavSvis

uflebebi stabilurad SeinarCunon sainformacio formatSi, am uflebebis


34

dasacavad seriozuli Zalisxmeva gamoiyenon da moiTxovon bavSvis uflebebis

dacva imaTgan, vinc amas ar akeTebs. magram komerciulma mosazrebebma SeiZleba

aiZulos media, rom Tavidan airidos es pasuxismgebloba. interesTa uxerxuli

wonasworoba prevalirebs iq, sadac eTikuri standartebi SeiZleba msxverplad

Seewiros komerciul moTxovnebs.

bavSvebis monawileoba mediaSi

axalgazrdebis mediaSi monawileobis magaliTebi adasturebs maT interess

gare samyaros mimarT, gansakuTrebiT, Tu maT Sansi eZlevaT, rom TavianTi

Tavi gamoxaton im sakiTxebTan dakavSirebiT, romlebic maT exeba. interesTa

jgufebis da mediis organizaciebis mzardi raodenoba uamrav SesaZleblobas

qmnis axalgazrdebisaTvis, rom mediaSi miiRon monawileoba.

mediaproeqtebis magaliTebi

warmatebuli mediaproeqtebisa da programebis magaliTebi bavSvebisa da

axalgazrdebisTvis da maTi monawileobiT:

`ANDI~ – bavSvis uflebaTa braziliuri axali ambebis saagento monitorings

uwevs mediis mier bavSvebisa da axalgazrdobis gaSuqebas, treningebs utarebs

da muSaobs JurnalistebTan, romlebic weren bavSvebisa da axalgazrdebis

sakiTxebze. `ANDI“-s ZalisxmeviT mniSvnelovnad gaizarda da gaumjobesda

bavSvebisa da axalgazrdebis sakiTxebis gaSuqeba braziliur mediaSi. es modeli

axla laTinuri amerikis rva qveyanaSi inergeba.

`TROC“ - albaneTis axalgazrda reportiorebi. aTeulobiT axalgazrda 13-

dan 18 wlamde qveynis yvela kuTxidan gadis trenings am yovelkvireuli

teleJurnalis saSualebiT. studentebi swavloben video axali ambebis

warmoebis yvela aspeqts da pasuxismgebelni arian programebis dagegmvasa da

gamoSvebaze ufrosebis mciredi daxmarebiT. es programa Zalze popularulia

axalgazrda mayureblebs Soris albaneTsa da mezobel qveynebSi. isini afaseben

`TROC“-s rogorc pirvel satelevizio Sous, romelic saTanadod aSuqebs

socialur problemebs mTeli qveynis masStabiT.

`mukTo xobor~ (Mukto Khobor) – (Tavisufali axali ambebi) – es aris

yovelkvireuli axali ambebis 25-wuTiani gamoSveba da mimdinare ambebis

programa bangladeSSi, romelsac 11-dan 17 wlamde bavSvebi da axalgazrdebi

qmnian. is yuradRebas amaxvilebs bavSvebsa da maT uflebebTan dakavSirebul

sakiTxebze. igi uzrunvelyofs forums axalgazrdebisTvis, rom maT SeZlon

TavianTi Sexedulebebis gamoxatva, uviTarebs axalgazrda Jurnalistebs

specialur unar-Cvevebs, STaagonebs axalgazrda mayureblebs, romlebic

xedaven TavianTi Tanatolebis warmatebul muSaobas mediaSi da uCvenebs,

rom axalgazrdebs SeuZliaT, mniSvnelovani wvlili Seitanon arsebul

problemebTan brZolaSi.


avSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis

35

afrikis bavSvTa da mauwyeblobis fondi (`CBFA“). es fondi 1995 wels

Seiqmna. misi mizani iyo, xeli Seewyo bavSvebisa da mauwyeblobis Sesaxeb

afrikis wesdebis ganxorcielebisTvis, agreTve miepyro mauwyeblebisa da

prodiuserebis yuradReba maRalxarisxovani sabavSvo televiziis Seqmnis

aucileblobisken. `CBFA“-s miznobriv jgufSi Sedian 9-dan 16 wlamde

axalgazrdebi, mediis profesionalebi da mauwyeblebi. fondi marTavs

seminarebs, kinoCvenebebsa da Sexvedrebs, romelTa ganxilvis sagani

afrikeli bavSvebis problemebi da uflebebia.

egviptis video da Temis ocnebebis proeqti avrcelebs ganviTarebis da

mosaxleobis saqmianobis centr `axali horizontebis~ programis codnasa

da gamocdilebas da aZlierebs axalgazrda qalebisa da gogonebis xmas

egviptur sazogadoebaSi. qalTa jgufebi sxvadasxva egvipturi Temidan

euflebian video da saprodiusero unar-Cvevebs da swavloben problemur an

delikatur sakiTxebze muSaobas. jgufis wevrebi cnobadi xdebian, rogorc

spikerebi da liderebi da xels uwyoben stereotipebis damsxvrevas. am

jgufebis mier Seqmnili videomasalebi xSirad aRZravs diskusiebs da xels

uwyobs problemis mogvarebis adgilobrivi gzebis Ziebas TiToeul TemSi.

mediaSi monawileoba SesaniSnav Sedegebs aZlevs axalgazrdebs, rac Sejamebulia

`iuneskos~ sainformacio samsaxuris 2001 wlis yovelwliur gamocemaSi

`mosazrebebi bavSvebisa da mediis Sesaxeb.~ es Sedegebia:

siamayis, siZlierisa da sakuTari Tavis pativiscemis grZnobis

gaZliereba, rodesac axalgazrdebi grZnoben, rom maTi xma yuradRebis

Rirsi gaxda, isini sazogadoebis nawils warmoadgenen, maT gauges sxvebs

da sakuTar kulturas;

maTi yoveldRiuri ocnebebis da sakuTari adgilobrivi, socialuri da

eTnikuri kulturisa da sinamdvilis asaxva mediaSi;

unar-Cvevebisa da cnobismoyvareobis gaZliereba da mediis sakiTxebSi

kompetenturobis amaRleba (magaliTad, mediis kritikuli gaazreba);

audio-vizualuri mediis warmoebaSi monawileobis meSveobiT socialuri

samarTlianobis gazrdili SegrZneba im axalgazrdebSi, romlebic

kargad ar swavloben tradiciul, beWdviT masalebze dafuZnebul

skolebSi;

meti interesi da monawileoba sazogadoebriv cxovrebaSi, sakuTari

pirobebiT, rac, Tavis mxriv, gadaizrdeba moqmedebaSi, romelic miznad

daisaxavs mediasa da TemebSi axalgazrdebis problemebis ganxilvis

gaumjobesebas.

mediis mxridan bavSvze zemoqmedebis fsiqologiuri aspeqtebi

bavSvebi da mozardebi masmediis yuradRebis centrSi, rogorc wesi, raime

negatiuri, dramatuli movlenebisa da incidentebis Sedegad xvdebian: omi,


36

SimSili, bunebrivi katastrofebi, mkvleloba da Zaladoba – ai is konteqsti,

romlis mTavari gmirebi xSirad bavSvebi arian. Sesabamisad, iqmneba STabeWdileba

bavSvebze, rogorc msxverplsa an moZaladeze. mozardebTan dakavSirebuli

problemuri situaciebis gaSuqeba gavlenas axdens, rogorc Tavad incidentSi

CarTul mozardze, aseve masmediis mravalaTasian auditoriaze, gansakuTrebiT

ki bavSvebze.

Jurnalistebs xSirad aqvT saqme ama Tu im xarisxis matravmirebel movlenasa

da dazaralebul, travmirebul adamianTan. masmedia, romlis movaleobaa

gaaSuqos es incidentebi, mniSvnelovan rols TamaSobs (zogjer negatiurs)

Zaladobis, incidentebis, travmirebulobis xarisxis gansazRvraSi.

informaciis Segrovebis dros, dazaralebulis interviurebis procesSi

Jurnalisti cdilobs aRweros rac SeiZleba `mZime~ da `saSineli~ istoria,

moagrovos e.w. `sensaciuri masala~. es amZimebs matravmirebeli incidentis

xarisxs, aiZulebs dazaralebuls, kidev erTxel ganicados is tkivili,

damcireba, SiSi da Seuracxyofa, romelic mas Tavs gadaxda. Jurnalisti

ar aris fsiqoTerapevti da, bunebrivia, is ver gauadvilebs dazaralebuls

mdgomareobas _ is Tavisda uneburad tovebs respondents pirispir sakuTar

gancdebTan.

masmediis matravmirebeli zegavlenis kidev erTi aspeqtia is, Tu rogor

interpretacias aZlevs Jurnalisti matravmirebel (Zaladobis) incidents.

aris SemTxvevebi, rodesac xdeba movlenis dramatizeba, kidev ufro damZimeba.

Jurnalisti aseve cdilobs, moiZios mizezebi da ipovos damnaSaveebi, xdeba

warsulze fiqsireba, iqmneba gamouvalobis STabeWdileba, ramac mkiTxvel

auditoriaSi SeiZleba gamoiwvios ususurobis gancda, SiSisa da SfoTvis

momateba, agresiuli impulsebis gaaqtiureba, rac sabolood sazogadoebaSi

arasasurveli fsiqoemociuri fonis Seqmnas uwyobs xels.

rac Seexeba masmediis gavlenas bavSvebisa da mozardebis fsiqikur janmrTelobaze,

winamdebare saxelmZRvaneloSi weria: `bavSvis uflebaTa sainformacio

qseli: eTikuri saxelmZRvanelo principebi bavSvebTan dakavSirebuli sakiTxebis

gaSuqebisaTvis:

nu miayenebT raime zians bavSvs; moerideT iseT kiTxvebs an komentarebs,

romlebic SeiZleba sadavo aRmoCndes kulturuli TvalsazrisiT da romlebic

bavSvs Seuqmnis safrTxes, daucvels gaxdis Seuracxyofisgan an gaaRviZebs masSi

tkivilsa da wuxils, gamowveuls travmuli movlenebiT”

zianSi, `tkivilsa da wuxilSi” igulisxmeba bavSvis fsiqoemociuri mdgomareoba

da qvemoT moyvanil magaliTebSi kargad Cans, ramdenad seriozuli SeiZleba

gaxdes es `ziani~.

SemTxveva 1

arasrulwlovanma k.g.-m, quCaSi urTierTSelaparakebis dros, civi iaraRiT

msubuqi Wriloba miayena moqalaqe r.d.-s. incidentis Semdeg is mSobelTan


avSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis

37

erTad gamocxadda policiaSi, sadac daakaves. amis Semdgom mozardi Tveebis

ganmavlobaSi masmediis yuradRebis centrSi aRmoCnda, ZiriTadad SemTxvevis

gaSuqebisas xdeboda faqtis dramatizeba, Sefaseba, ojaxisa da mozardis

dadanaSauleba. nawili sazogadoebisa iziarebda aseT damokidebulebas, nawili

cdilobda, mozardi `gmirad~ warmoeCina da mis dauyonebliv ganTavisuflebas

iTxovda. yuradRebis centrSi yofna, sazogadoebrivi damokidebulebis aseTi

polarizeba zemoqmedebs mozardis jer kidev Camouyalibebel fsiqikaze. orive

pozicia momxdari faqtis Seusabamoa. moyvanil magaliTSi moxda mozardze

orazrovani `iarliyis~ – msxverplisa da moZaladis – mikvra. msgavsi viTareba

zemoqmedebs mozardis fsiqoemociur mdgomareobaze, vinaidan orive pozicia

araadekvaturia, xels uSlis mozards, gaacnobieros sakuTari pasuxismgebloba

da Camouyalibdes kongruentuli, Sesatyvisi damokidebuleba momxdari

incidentis mimarT. amgvari aJiotaJi, zewola arTulebs mozardTa adaptaciis

isedac rTul process arasrulwlovanTa aRmzrdelobiT dawesebulebaSi. aq

moyvanil SemTxvevaSi mozard k.-s aReniSneboda Zilis problemebi, Ramis koSmarebi,

brazis Semotevebi, autoagresia _ suicidis ramdenime mcdeloba.

SemTxveva 2

arasrulwlovani gogona n.k. seqsualuri Zaladobis msxverpli gaxda. es

SemTxveva gaSuqda erT-erTi gazeTis furclebze, sadac moZaladis saxeli da

gvari anonimuri iyo, xolo gogonas Sesaxeb gazeTi srul informacias gvawvdida.

Sedegad momxdaris Sesaxeb gaiges mezoblebma, skolam da gogona Temis mxridan

zewolis msxverpli gaxda, masTan urTierToba Sewyvites megobrebma (ZiriTadad

mSoblebis moTxovniT), mezoblebma. gogonam jer uari Tqva skolaSi siarulze,

mere gareT gamosvla Sewyvita, Semdeg sakuTari oTaxidan ar gamodioda,

Camouyalibda depresiuli simptomatika, Zlieri braleulobis gancda, dabali

TviTSefaseba, uimedoba, uperspeqtivoba da a.S. aqve unda aRiniSnos, rom es

gogona erovnebiT rusi iyo da es faqtoric (Cvens sazogadoebaSi gavrcelebuli

stigma) mis winaaRmdeg gamoiyenes. gogonasTan fsiqologiuri muSaobis Semdeg

misi mdgomareoba gaumjobesda, Tumca ojaxma mainc miiRo gadawyvetileba

daetovebinaT saqarTvelo da sacxovreblad sxva qveyanaSi gadasuliyvnen, rasac

am incidentamde ar apirebdnen.

orive SemTxveva naTlad gviCvenebs, rom amgvar situaciaSi irRveva ara marto

mozardis uflebebi, aramed ziandeba misi fsiqikuri janmrTelobac, rom mediis

amgvarma muSaobam SeiZleba negatiuri gavlena moaxdinos bavSvisa Tu mozardis

cxovrebaze. mediis mier bavSvebsa da mozardebTan dakavSirebuli movlenebis

asaxva gansazRvravs sazogadoebis pozicias maT mimarT, damokidebulebasa

da qcevas, gavlenas axdens saxelmwifo instituciebis mxridan mozardebTan

dakavSirebiT miRebul gadawyvetilebebze.


38

Sefaseba

SearCieT mediis informacia bavSvebis Sesaxeb da ganixileT bavSvis uflebaTa

konteqstSi.

damatebiTi literatura da resursebi

`msoflios bavSvebi, axalgazrdebi da media: tendenciebisa da problemebis mimoxilva~, siuzen

gigli, `iunisefis~ masobrivi informaciis saSualebebis kompleqsis kvleviTi instituti, 2004

wlis aprili: http://www.intermedia.org/

bavSvebis, axalgazrdebisa da mediis Semswavleli centri:

http://www.childrenyouthandmediacentre.co.uk/

`bavSvTa uflebebi da media – wyaro JurnalistebisTvis~:

http://www.unicef.org/southafrica/SAF publications soulbuddiez.pdf

`iunisefi~ - vebgverdi Magic: http://www.unicef.org/magic/briefi ng/about.html

`iunisefi~ - axalgazrdebis xma: http://www.unicef.org/voy. am gverdebze axalgazrdebi TavianTi

sityvebiT gamoxataven azrebs mediis Sesaxeb sakuTar qveynebSi.

`iuneskos~ bavSvebis, axalgazrdebisa da mediis saerTaSoriso sainformacio samsaxuri:

http://www.nordicom.gu.se/clearinghouse.php. informaciis kargi wyaroa msoflios bavSvebTan,

axalgazrdebTan da mediasTan dakavSirebuli konkretuli proeqtebis da sakiTxebis Sesaxeb.

sainformacio samsaxuri miznad isaxavs, aamaRlos bavSvebis, axalgazrdebisa da mediis Sesaxeb

informirebulobisa da codnis done, safuZvels qmnis saTanado politikis formulirebisTvis,

xels uwyobs konstruqciul sazogadoebriv debatebs, aZlierebs bavSvebisa da axalgazrdebis

gaTviTcnobierebas da kompetenturobas mediis sakiTxebSi.

bavSvis uflebaTa sainformacio qseli: media

http://www.crin.com/themes/ViewTheme.aspid=12

mediaSi asaxuli Zaladobis gavlena axalgazrdobaze (Psychological Science, marti 2004)

http://www.psychologicalscience.org/pdf/pspi/pspi43.pdf

`saxelmwifo jandacvis midgoma mediis Zaladobrivi Sinaarsis zemoqmedebis Sesaxeb kvlevis

Sedegebis mimarT~: The Lancet, tomi 356, gamocema 9460 (2005 wlis Tebervali, gv. 702-710)

l. rouel hiusmani (2000) `kolumbiis olqis kvleva~, miCiganis universiteti: http://www.rcgd.isr.

umich.edu/aggr/Projects/CCLS/description.html


avSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis

39

4. winaaRmdegobebi bavSvTa uflebebis ganxorcielebis gzaze

ZiriTadi Sesaswavli Temebi





adamianis uflebaTa dacva

bavSvTa uflebebis mxardaWera

problemebi bavSvTa uflebebis realizebaSi

bavSvTa uflebebTan dakavSirebul problemebze reagireba

adamianis uflebaTa dacva

arsebobs adamianis uflebaTa ganxorcielebis meqanizmebi saerTaSoriso,

regionul da saxelmwifo doneze. saxelmwifo doneze politikosebs da

kanonmdeblebs SeswevT Zala, rom TavianTi konstituciebis meSveobiT

uzrunvelyon bavSvTa uflebebis damkvidrebis xelSewyoba. zogadad,

konstitucia karnaxobs im wesebs, romlebic `uwesebs movaleobebs, uflebebs

da funqciebs sxvadasxva samTavrobo instituts~. adamianis uflebaTa

ganxorcielebis yvelaze efeqtiani xelSewyoba aRniSnul wesebs maSin

SeuZlia, rodesac isini konkretuli terminebiT gansazRvravs am uflebebs da

rodesac mTavrobaSi xdeba uflebamosilebis ganawileba.

bavSvis uflebaTa konvenciis TiTqmis sayovelTao ratificireba asaxavs im

valdebulebas, rac globalurad arsebobs bavSvis uflebebis principebTan

dakavSirebiT. konvenciis ratificirebiT sxvadasxva qveynis mTavrobebi acxadeben

TavianTi ganzraxvis Sesaxeb, rom es valdebuleba praqtikulad ganaxorcielon.

wevri qveynebi valdebuli arian, Seasworon da Seqmnan kanonebi da politika,

raTa srulfasovnad ganaxorcielon konvencia; maT unda gaiTvaliswinon, rom

yvela qmedeba unda ganxorcieldes bavSvis interesebidan gamomdinare.

konvenciis me-4 muxli iTvaliswinebs, rom monawile saxelmwifoebi `Rebuloben

yvela aucilebel sa kanonmdeblo, administraciul da sxvagvar zomas winamdebare

konvenciiT aRiarebul uflebaTa gansaxorciele blad~, xolo 42-e muxlis

Tanaxmad saxelmwifoebi `iReben valdebulebas, saTanado da qmediTi saSualebebis

gamoyenebiT farTo informacia miawodon rogorc mozrdilebs, aseve bavSvebs

konvenciis principebisa da debulebebis Taobaze~.

qveynis konstitucia yovelTvis ar uzrunvelyofs absolutur dacvas bavSvis

uflebaTa darRvevis winaaRmdeg. aseT SemTxvevaSi moqalaqeebs SeuZliaT

koleqtiurad mosTxovon mTavrobas, ganmartos Tavisi moqmedebebi da angariSi

Caabaros amasTan dakavSirebiT. samoqalaqo sazogadoeba maSin warmoiqmneba,

rodesac moqalaqeebi organizebulad sTxoven pasuxs xelisuflebas.

organizebuli samoqalaqo sazogadoeba gulisxmobs arasamTavrobo


40

organizaciebs, arakomerciul organizaciebs, saqvelmoqmedo da sazogadoebriv

dawesebulebebs.

qveynebis umravlesobaSi es organizaciebi wamyvan rols asruleben, rogorc

bavSvTa damoukidebeli damcvelebi an bavSvTa specifikuri jgufebis damcvelebi.

maTi roli aRiarebulia bavSvis uflebaTa konvenciaSi da bavSvis uflebaTa

komitetis mier. konvenciis ratificirebis da propagandis Sedegi iyo is, rom

gaizarda bavSvis uflebaTa damcveli arasamTavrobo organizaciebis raodenoba

da gavlena; bevr evropul qveyanaSi Camoyalibda arasamTavrobo organizaciaTa

koaliciebi, romlebic bavSvTa uflebebze muSaoben.

gaerTianebuli erebis organizacia samoqalaqo sazogadoebas aRiqvams rogorc

mSvidobisa da uflebaTa dacvis aucilebel elements mTel msoflioSi. gaeros

yofilma generalurma mdivanma kofi ananma ganacxada:

`erT dros gaero mxolod sxvadasxva qveynebis xelisuflebebTan

TanamSromlobda. dRes Cven viciT, rom mSvidoba da keTildReoba ver miiRweva

mTavrobebTan, saerTaSoriso organizaciebTan, bizneswreebsa da samoqalaqo

sazogadoebasTan partnioruli urTierTobis gareSe. dRevandel msoflioSi

Cven erTmaneTze varT damokidebuli~.

bavSvis uflebaTa dacvis institutebis ganviTareba eqceva gaeros ufro

farTomasStabiani gegmis farglebSi, romelic saxelmwifo institutebis Seqmnas

iTvaliswinebs zogadad adamianis uflebaTa xelSewyobisa da dacvisaTvis. zog

qveyanaSi bavSvTa damoukidebeli dawesebulebebi funqcionireben, rogorc

adamianis uflebaTa saxelmwifo institutebis nawili. sxvagan calke institutebi

Seiqmna bavSvis uflebaTa xelSewyobisa da dacvisaTvis.

qveynebSi, sadac zogadad adamianis uflebaTa dacvis kulturis ganviTarebisken

miiswrafian, dasawyisisTvis gonivruli iqneboda bavSvis uflebebze

orientirebuli dawesebulebis Seqmna, imis gaTvaliswinebiT, rom bavSvebze da

maT ganviTarebaze zrunva umniSvnelovanesia aRniSnuli kulturis Sesaqmnelad.

bavSvTa sakiTxebze momuSave es damoukidebeli dawesebulebebi arasamTavrobo

dawesebulebebisagan imiT gamoirCevian, rom maTi uflebebi da movaleobebi

kanoniTaa gaTvaliswinebuli. arasamTavrobo organizaciebi gadamwyvet rols

asruleben adamianis uflebaTa xorcSesxmis xelSewyobis saqmeSi da Cveulebriv

sakmaod damoukidebeli arian. magram cal-calke Tu erToblivad maT SeiZleba ar

aRmoaCndeT sakmao Zala, rom realurad Secvalon xelisuflebis prioritetebi.

bavSvis uflebaTa dacva

rodesac qveyana axdens adamianis uflebaTa instrumentis ratificirebas,

rogoricaa bavSvis uflebaTa konvencia, mas an pirdapir Seaqvs konvenciis

debulebebi Sidasaxelmwifoebriv kanonmdeblobaSi, an sxvagvarad kisrulobs


avSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis

41

adamianis uflebaTa dacvis valdebulebis Sesrulebas. `xSirad is faqti, rom

arsebobs kanoni zogierTi uflebis dasacavad, sakmarisi ar aris, Tu es kanoni

ar iTvaliswinebs yvela iuridiul uflebamosilebas da instituts am uflebaTa

efeqtiani ganxorcielebisTvis...~ (saxelmZRvanelo adamianis uflebaTa

centridan).

bavSvis uflebaTa konvenciis dacvas monitorings uwevs gaeros bavSvis

uflebaTa komiteti, romelic erovnul angariSebs iRebs sxvadasxva qveynebis

mTavrobebisgan da paralelur angariSebs – arasamTavrobo organizaciebisgan.

aRniSnuli komiteti dabejiTebiT sTxovs mTavrobis yvela rgols, gamoiyenon

konvencia, rogorc saxelmZRvanelo kanonebis Seqmnisa da ganxorcielebis dros,

raTa uzrunvelyon:




specialuri yovlismomcveli dRis wesrigis SemuSaveba bavSvebisaTvis;

mudmivmoqmedi organoebis an meqanizmebis Seqmna, raTa xeli Seewyos

xelisuflebis yvela seqtoris aqtivobis koordinacias, monitoringsa da

Sefasebas;

kanonmdeblobis sruli Sesabamisoba konvenciasTan;

bavSvebTan dakavSirebuli sakiTxebis gaTvaliswineba politikis

SemuSavebis procesebSi, mTavrobis doneze bavSvze zemoqmedebis

Sefasebebis SemoRebis gziT;




biujetis adekvaturi analizis Catareba imis gansazRvrisaTvis, Tu

saxelmwifo saxsrebis ra nawili ixarjeba bavSvebisaTvis da am resursebis

efeqtiani gamoyeneba;

sakmarisi monacemebis Segroveba da gamoyeneba maT iurisdiqciaSi yvela

bavSvis mdgomareobis gasaumjobeseblad;

konvenciis Sesaxeb informirebulobis donis amaRleba da informaciis

gavrceleba saTanado treningebis Catarebis gziT maTTvis, vinc am saqmiTaa

dakavebuli, qmnis saxelmwifo politikas bavSvebisTvis, muSaobs maTTan an

maTTvis;

samoqalaqo sazogadoebis CarTuloba – Tavad bavSvebis CaTvliT –

bavSvis uflebaTa ganxorcielebaSi da maT Sesaxeb informirebulobis

amaRlebaSi;


damoukidebeli sajaro uwyebebis – ombudsmenebis, komisiebisa da sxva

institutebis _ Seqmna, romlebic xels Seuwyoben bavSvTa uflebebis

ganxorcielebas.

aRsaniSnavia, rom globaluri masStabiT bavSvis uflebaTa mimarT pativiscema

advili misaRwevi ar aris. marTalia, gaero, erovnuli konstituciebi da

samoqalaqo sazogadoeba garkveul rols TamaSoben bavSvis uflebaTa darRvevis

Tavidan acilebaSi, magram darRvevebi kvlav gvxvdeba.


42

garda amisa, qveynis ekonomikuri keTildReoba ar warmoadgens imis garantias,

rom bavSvis uflebebi kargad iqneba daculi. dasavleTis qveynebSi arsebuli

mravalferovani da ganviTarebuli momsaxureba yovelTvis ar warmoadgenda

imis sawindars, rom yvela bavSvs bednieri bavSvoba hqonoda. bevri siRatakeSi

an metismetad xalxmraval da Seuferebel garemoSi cxovrobs. bevris uflebebs

laxaven an ugulebelyofen da daxmarebis mowodeba metismetad nelia imisaTvis,

rom reagireba moaxdinos maT gaWirvebaze. bevri bavSvis ganviTarebis potenciali

Seferxebulia ganaTlebis miRebis mwiri SesaZleblobiT, TamaSisTvis gankuTvnili

da gamajansaRebeli obieqtebis naklebobiT.

problemebi bavSvTa uflebebis realizebaSi

TiToeul sazogadoebaSi aris tradiciebi da jgufebi, romlebic winaaRmdegobas

uweven bavSvis uflebaTa dacvas. zogjer sazogadoebaSi mimdinare farTo

cvlilebebi safrTxis winaSe ayenebs maT uflebebs. rogor xdeba, rom mTavroba

ver amarTlebs bavSvebis imeds an ver asrulebs bavSvis uflebaTa konvencias

xSirad amis mizezi is aris, rom bavSvebs ar eniWebaT gansakuTrebuli prioriteti.

politikuri liderebi, politikosebi da xelisuflebis warmomadgenlebi

ver axdenen imis demonstrirebas, rom esmiT bavSvTa mdgomareoba an

rom maTi uflebebis ganxorcielebis valdebulebas kisruloben. magaliTad,

bavSvebi xSirad ar arian gaTvaliswinebuli mTavrobis mier strategiis

SemuSavebaSi.

mniSvnelovan sferos warmoadgens bavSvebis pasuxismgeblobiT aRsavse

monawileobis xelSewyoba. sxvadasxva qveynis mTavrobebi unda iTvaliswinebdnen

da seriozulad aRiqvamdnen bavSvebis Sexedulebebs politikis Sesaxeb. magram

yovelTvis ar arsebobs oficialuri arxebi bavSvebTan sakonsultaciod.

kanonmdebloba unda asaxavdes konvenciis moTxovnas imis Taobaze,

rom bavSvebs ufleba aqvT, gamoTqvan TavianTi Sexedulebebi nebismier sakiTxze,

romelic maT exeba da maT Sexedulebebs saTanado yuradReba unda daeTmos.

xSirad saxelmwifo departamentebs Soris arasakmarisi koordinaciaa bavSvebTan

dakavSirebul strategiasTan mimarTebiT. bavSvebTan dakavSirebuli strategia

efeqtianad unda ganxorcieldes adgilobriv doneze da kanonmdebloba

mTlianad unda gadaisinjos, raTa uzrunvelyofil iqnes misi ganuxreli

Sesabamisoba konvenciasTan da bavSvis uflebebis xelSewyoba.

zogjer warumateblobis mizezi is aris, rom bavSvis uflebaTa dacvisken

mimarTuli SezRuduli resursebi efeqtianad ar gamoiyeneba. aseT

SemTxvevaSi didi yuradRebiT unda ganxorcieldes bavSvebis momsaxurebis

biujetebis marTva, rogorc adgilobriv, aseve erovnul doneebze. garda amisa,

unda moxdes zemoqmedebis Sefaseba xelisuflebis doneze.

SesaZloa, problemebi iyos bavSvis uflebaTa Sesaxeb informaciis gavrcelebaSi.

TiToeul qveyanas unda hqondes bavSvis uflebaTa Sesaxeb informaciis,

rogorc bavSvebSi, aseve ufrosebSi, gavrcelebis mravalmxrivi gegma.


avSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis

43

kvleva unda Catardes imis Sesafaseblad, Tu rogor ician gaeros bavSvis

uflebaTa konvencia imaT, vinc bavSvebTan da zogadad sazogadoebasTan

muSaobs.

Tumca bavSvis uflebaTa dacva mxolod mTavrobas ki ar unda exebodes,

aramed sazogadoebis yovel wevrsac. konvenciaSi formulirebuli normebi da

principebi mxolod maSin SeiZleba iqces realobad, rodesac maT yvela pativs

scems – ojaxebi, skolebi da sxva institutebi, romlebic bavSvis momsaxurebas

uzrunvelyofen sazogadoebaSi da administrirebis yvela doneze.

bavSvebi ganxiluli unda iqnen, rogorc adamianebi da ara, rogorc `momavali

adamianebi.~ isini Camoyalibebuli adamianebi arian, romlebsac TavianTi

uflebebi aqvT. droTa ganmavlobaSi isini Seicvlebian da ganviTardebian,

magram sazogadoebis mier bavSvobis Sefaseba Sesabamis uflebebs unda

efuZnebodes da is ar unda ganixilebodes, rogorc zrdasrulobisken

mimarTuli nabiji. am princips mniSvneloba aqvs specialuri programebisa da

samsaxurebisTvis; is yuradRebas amaxvilebs bavSvebTan muSaobaze principiT:

`dRes da aq~.

Tumca bavSvebTan dakavSirebuli problemebis mimarT politikis reagireba xSirad

ar iTvaliswinebs imas, Tu ramdenad saswrafodaa mosagvarebeli problemebi da

ramdenad xanmokle da didi zemoqmedebis mqonea bavSvoba. bavSvobis xana ar

aris gaCerebuli, sanam momdevno strategiis SemuSaveba xdeba. gaeros bavSvis

uflebaTa konvenciis damtkicebidan ori aTeuli wlis ganmavlobaSi bavSvebis,

sul mcire, ori Taoba gamovida bavSvobis xanidan.

reagireba bavSvTa uflebebTan dakavSirebul problemebze

gaeros bavSvis uflebaTa konvenciis ratificirebis Semdeg saxelmwifoebs

moeTxovebaT, uzrunvelyon TavianTi kanonmdeblobis, politikisa da praqtikis

konvenciis principebTan da normebTan SesabamisobaSi moyvana. sadac saWiroa,

unda moxdes kanonis reformireba, magaliTad, bavSvebis Zaladobisgan dasacavad

ojaxSi da saswavlo dawesebulebebSi. bavSvis uflebaTa komiteti iZleva,

agreTve, rekomendacias, rom mTavrobam Seqmnas damoukidebeli meqanizmebi

imisaTvis, rom garantirebuli iyos konvenciis monitoringi da ganxilva bavSvis

uflebaTa komisrebisa Tu ombudsmenebis saSualebiT.

qveynebis mier konvenciis ganxorcielebis kvaldakval sul ufro izrdeba

damoukidebeli samsaxurebis ricxvi. aRniSnuli samsaxurebi ZiriTadad

mTavrobis an parlamentis mier iqmneba, magram maTi mTavari damaxasiaTebeli

Tvisebaa damoukidebloba da imis unari, rom Tavad izrunon bavSvTa dacvaze. am

institutebis daarsebiT mTavrobebi keTil nebas gamoxataven bavSvebis mimarT

da imis demonstrirebas axdenen, rom seriozulad ganixilaven konvenciiT

nakisr valdebulebebs da surT, angariSvaldebuli iyvnen damoukidebeli

samsaxurebis mimarT imasTan dakavSirebiT, Tu rogor eqcevian bavSvebs.


44

mTavrobebs moeTxovebaT, gaaanalizon bavSvebisTvis gamoyofili biujetebis

moculoba, raTa uzrunvelyofili iyos axalgazrda moaqalaqeebSi

ganxorcielebuli investiciis proporciuloba maT raodenobasa da

saWiroebebTan. xSirad mTavrobebi aerTianeben socialur xarjebs, riTac

niRbaven bavSvTa keTildReobisa da adamianis uflebaTa xelSewyobisaTvis

asignebuli resursebis SedarebiT simwires.

qveynebs moeTxovebaT konvenciis principebis da normebis gacnoba sazogadoebis

yvela wevrisTvis, maT Soris bavSvebisTvis. mTavrobebi valdebulni arian,

aamaRlon bavSvebis, rogorc uflebebis mqone adamianebis, socialuri

gaTviTcnobierebulobis done. maT unda uzrunvelyon, rom profesionalebi,

romlebic bavSvebTan muSaoben, maT Soris jandacvis da sasjelaRsrulebis

dawesebulebebSi, informirebulni iyvnen imis Sesaxeb, Tu rogor gamoiyenon

konvencia yoveldRiur praqtikaSi.

konvenciis ratificirebam da propagandirebam gamoiwvia bavSvis uflebebze

momuSave arasamTavrobo organizaciebis raodenobisa da gavlenis swrafi zrda;

bevr evropul qveyanaSi Seiqmna arasamTavrobo organizaciebis koaliciebi,

romlebic bavSvTa uflebebze muSaoben. aseTia, magaliTad, bavSvis uflebaTa

sainformaciao qseli (CRIN). es koaliciebi wamyvan rols asruleben,

rogorc bavSvis uflebaTa damoukidebeli damcvelebi. adamianis uflebaTa

centris gancxadebiT, `adamianis uflebaTa saerTaSoriso standartebis

ganxorcielebis damatebiTi xelSewyoba modis dainteresebuli sazogadoebisa

da arasamTavrobo organizaciebisgan, romlebic sagangebo rols asruleben

adamianis uflebaTa sayovelTao kulturis ganviTarebaSi~. da kidev:

`arasamTavrobo organizaciebs Tavisi bunebiT axasiaTebs gamoxatvis

Tavisufleba, moqnili moqmedeba da moZraobis Tavisufleba, rac garkveul

viTarebaSi maT saSualebas aZlevs, gadaWran amocanebi, romlebic mTavrobebs

da samTavrobo organizaciebs ar SeuZliaT an ar surT rom gadaWran~.

masobrivi informaciis saSualebebis profesionalebsac ekisrebaT

pasuxismgebloba, rogorc samoqalaqo sazogadoebis nawils. Jurnalistebs

SeuZliaT gamoavlinon bavSvis uflebaTa darRvevis SemTxvevebi da aamaRlon

aRniSnuli uflebebis Sesaxeb gaTviTcnobierebis done, amasTan, isini

did gavlenas axdenen imaze, Tu rogor aRiqvams sazogadoeba bavSvebs.

Jurnalistebs gaazrebuli unda hqondeT, Tu ra Sedegi moaqvs maT muSaobas;

mediis profesionalebi ayalibeben sazogadoebriv azrs da gavlenas axdenen mis

qcevaze.

mediis es Zlieri pozicia imas niSnavs, rom mas sWirdeba Sida regulireba imis

uzrunvelsayofad, rom sworad warmoadgendes bavSvis uflebebs da pativs

scemdes maT.


avSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis

45

Sefaseba

daasaxeleT, romeli jgufebi icaven bavSvebs Tqvens qveyanaSi. efuZnebian Tu

ara isini bavSvis uflebebs gaTvaliswinebulia Tu ara maT muSaobaSi bavSvis

xma

damatebiTi literatura da resursebi

`ENOC~-is SemuSavebuli treningis saxelmZRvanelo. bavSvis uflebaTa ombudsmenebis evropuli

qselis (ENOC) mier Sedgenili es saxelmZRvanelo gaTvaliswinebulia maTTvis, vinc apirebs,

Seqmnas kanoniT gansazRvruli damoukidebeli samsaxurebi bavSvis uflebaTa dacvis mizniT –

bavSvis uflebaTa ombudsmenebi da komisrebi:

http://www.ombudsnet.org/docs/informationdtrainingpack.pdf

`socialuri muSaoba da bavSvis uflebebi~: profesionaluri treningis saxelmZRvanelo gaeros

konvenciasTan dakavSirebiT, socialur muSakTa saerTaSoriso federacia, 2002.

`bavSvebis mdgomareoba msoflioSi~, 2010, `iunisefi~: http://www.unicef.org/rightsite/sowc/

`adamianis uflebaTa nacionaluri institutebi~, adamianis uflebaTa centri, profesiuli

treningis seriebi #4, adamianis uflebaTa centri, Jeneva, 1995, paragrafi 15.

http://www.unicef.org/magic/users/resources.html

http://www.unicef.org/georgia/rights_8343.html


46

5. mediis mier bavSvebis asaxva, bavSvis uflebebi da profesiuli

pasuxismgebloba

ZiriTadi Sesaswavli Temebi






bavSvebis asaxva mediaSi;

stereotipebis Seqmna mediis mier;

bavSvis uflebaTa darRveva;

bavSvTa dacva;

kvleva bavSvTa sakiTxebis gaSuqebisas mediis eTikisa da JurnalistTa

profesiuli standartebis dacvis Sesaxeb saqarTveloSi.

aRiarebulia, rom mediis profesionalebs mniSvnelovani rolis Sesruleba

SeuZliaT bavSvis uflebaTa garSemo sazogadoebis mobilizebaSi. isini ZiriTadad

reportaJebs akeTeben sxvebis araswor saqcielsa da Secdomebze, magram amave

dros katalizatoris rols asruleben. maT, rogorc sazogadoebis interesebisa

da demokratiis sadarajoze mdgom adamianebs, mniSvnelovani roli ekisrebaT

bavSvebis warmoCenis, maTi uflebebis da perspeqtivebis gaujobesebis kuTxiTac.

bavSvebis warmodgena masobrivi informaciis saSualebebSi

marTalia, masobrivi informaciis saSualebebs mZlavri pozicia aqvT, magram

isini yovelTvis ar asruleben bavSvis uflebaTa mokavSiris rols. Cven ukve

ganvixileT, rom axalgazrdebs ar moswonT is, Tu rogor asaxaven maT mediaSi.

Catarebuli kvlevebic aCvenebs, rom garkveuli msgavsebaa imaSi, Tu rogor

asaxaven bavSvebs sxvadasxva mediaSi msoflio masStabiT.

2003 wlis noemberSi `mediauaizma~ (MediaWise) britanuli plakatebis sami

kompania da bulvaruli gazeTi `sandi” (Sunday) Seiswavla. miRebuli Sedegebi

mZime suraTs qmnis. 32 masalidan mxolod ori iyo pozitiuri. sam statiaSi

icavdnen mSoblebis uflebaTa dominirebas bavSvis uflebebze.

stereotipis Seqmnis tendencia gamovlenilia did britaneTSi Catarebul

ramdenime kvlevaSi. 2004 wels `MORI~-s mier JurnalisTvis `iang pipl nau~

(Young People Now) Catarebulma kvlevam aCvena, rom axalgazrdebs sul ufro

metad warmoaCenen rogorc `problemebs~. maT Sesaxeb didi britaneTis

saerTo-erovnul da adgilobriv gazeTebSi 2004 wlis erTi kviris

ganmavlobaSi gamoqveynebul statiebSi 71% negatiuri iyo, 14% pozitiuri

da mxolod 15% _ neitraluri. danaSaulis da Zaladobis Sesaxeb statiebis

48%-Si axalgazrdebi warmodgenili iyvnen, rogorc kanondamrRvevebi. 70%

biWebisa iyvnen borotmoqmedebi, xolo 32% _ msxverpli. gogonebSi 10% iyo

kanondamrRvevi, xolo 91% _ msxverpli. mediaSi gaSuqebis sawinaaRmdegod

oficialuri statistika aCvenebs, rom biWebi ufro metad xdebian Zaladobrivi

danaSaulis msxverpli, vidre gogonebi.


avSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis

47

sxva kvlevebma aCvena, rom bavSvebis stereotipuli warmodgena saerTaSoriso

fenomenia. `glokal iuTis~ (Glocal Youth) mier Catarebulma kvlevam, romelic

medias adanaSaulebs uyuradRebobaSi axalgazrdebis samoqalaqo saqmianobis

mimarT, msgavsi tendenciebi aRmoaCina evropis wamyvan mediaSi: `axalgazrdebs

Cveulebriv ganixilaven rogorc problemebis, samarTaldarRvevebis, saSiSi

gareubnebis, narkotikebisa da boboqari Sekrebebis simbolos, gansakuTrebiT,

Tu saqme axalgazrda emigrantebs exeba. maTi aseTi imiji gvxvdeba gansakuTrebiT

iseT (rogorc beWdviT, aseve audio-vizualur) dokumentur filmebsa Tu

JurnalebSi, sadac urbanuli kulturaa asaxuli~.

2003 wels mediamonitoringis proeqtma Seiswavla bavSvebis asaxva da bavSvis

uflebebi samxreT afrikis sainformacio mediaSi. proeqts ramdenime safexuri

hqonda, maT Soris erToblivi seminarebi bavSvebis monawileobiT, samTviani

monitoringis periodi da specializebuli treningi Jurnalistebisa da masobrivi

informaciis saSualebaTa praqtikosebis monawileobiT. aRiniSna yvela

sakiTxi, romlebic bavSvebs exeboda da dafiqsirda saTanado informacia Temis,

wyaroebis, warmodgenis da sxva problemebis miTiTebiT, romlebic bavSvis

uflebebs ganixilavda. bavSvebi monawileobdnen paralelur proeqtSi, sadac

isini ori kviris manZilze axdendnen maT mierve SerCeuli sainformacio mediis

monitorings.

kvlevis Sedegad gakeTda Semdegi ZiriTadi daskvnebi:

1. bavSvebi sainformacio mediaSi naklebad arian warmodgenili.

rogorc ufrosebis mier Catarebuli monitoringis Sedegad gairkva, bavSvebi

sainformacio gamoSvebebis mxolod 6%-Si figurireben, xolo bavSvebis mier

Catarebuli monitoringis Tanaxmad, maT mier ganxiluli siuJetebis mxolod

26%-Si Seexnen bavSvebis Temas.

2. bavSvebi ZiriTadad warmodgenili arian msxverplis saxiT.

ufrosebis mier Catarebuli monitoringis Tanaxmad, siuJetebis 25%-Si

bavSvebi msxverplis saxiT arian gamoyvanili. mTlianobaSi bavSvebi ufro

xSirad uaryofiTad arian gamoyvanili da maTi rolebi SezRudulia. bavSvebis

monitoringma daadastura es tendenciebi. rogorc isini aRniSnavdnen, mediam

unda scados, ufro pozitiur rolebSi warmoadginos bavSvebi.

3. bavSvebi ZiriTadad negatiur siuJetebSi arian warmodgenili.

rogorc ufrosebis, aseve bavSvebis mier Catarebuli monitoringis Sedegad

gairkva, rom sainformacio siuJetebi, sadac bavSvebi figurireben, ZiriTadad

negatiuri Sinaarsisa iyo. ufrosebis mier Catarebuli monitoringis mixedviT,

yoveli meore statia, sadac bavSvi figurirebs, negatiuri Sinaarsisaa da

exeba danaSauls, Zaladobas, uflebebis Selaxvas an sxvadasxva ubedurebas.

4. biWebi da gogonebi Tanabrad arian warmodgenili, magram kvlav stereotipuli saxiT.

am aSkara Tanasworobis miuxedavad, Semdgomma analizma aCvena genderuli

stereotipebis damkvidreba bavSvebis warmodgenisas. gogonebi ufro

xSirad iyvnen gamoyvanili bavSvebze Zaladobis istoriebSi, xolo biWebi –


48

sportTan dakavSirebul istoriebSi. es aZlierebs mediasaSualebebSi qalebis

_ msxverplis, xolo mamakacebis – Zlierebis saxiT warmodgenas.

1998 wels saqvelmoqmedo organizacia “gadavarCinoT bavSvebma“ Caatara

kvleva bavSvebis damokidebulebis Sesaxeb imis mimarT, Tu rogor arian isini

warmodgenili beWdviT da samauwyeblo mediaSi. aRmoCnda, rom bavSvebma zustad

ician, ra ar moswonT yvelaze metad mediaSi:

bavSvebis mier seriozulad gakeTebuli komentarebis gamoyeneba

ufrosebis gasacineblad;

mimzidveli bavSvebis gamoyeneba yuradRebis misapyrobad;

mZime situaciaSi mcxovrebi bavSvebis fotoebis gamoyeneba da maTi

mdgomareobis aRwera emociis aRZvris mizniT, miT umetes, rom amiT

araferi keTdeba arc bavSvebis mier sakuTari Tavis pativiscemisTvis

da arc auditoriis mxridan maTi pativiscemisTvis;

qedmaRluri laparaki bavSvebTan;

bavSvebis magivrad didebis laparaki, maSin, rodesac bavSvebma gacilebiT

meti ician am sakiTxis Sesaxeb;

bavSvebis iZuleba, cirkis cxovelebiviT moiqcnen;

ufrosebi warmoaCenen bavSvebis ucodinrobas;

is, rom ufrosebi Tavisi sityvebiT alaparakeben bavSvebs an axdenen

maTi naTqvamis interpretirebas;

bavSvebis warmodgena pasiurebad, rodesac isini ar arian pasiurebi;

yvela axalgazrdis moqceva erT problemur jgufSi _ saxelwodebiT

`axalgazrdoba~.

stereotipebi mediaSi

pirobiTad bavSvebs ganixilaven rogorc sazogadoebis qvejgufs, romelic

daculi unda iyos. bavSvebis mimarT arsebuli safrTxe Zlier emociur

gamoxmaurebas povebs, rac SeiZleba mkiTxvelebisa da auditoriis dasapyrobad

iqnes gamoyenebuli. bavSvebis Sesaxeb siuJetebi da maTi gamosaxuleba iseve

SeiZleba iqnes Sefasebuli Tavisi marketinguli potencialiT, rogorc

socialuri mniSvnelobiT. amis Sedegad bavSvebi xSirad gamoyvanili arian

mediaSi, rogorc msxverpli an rogorc ufrosebis sayvareli danamati.

amgvari Sexeduleba bavSvebze, SesaZloa, asaxavdes bavSvobis sayovelTao aRqmas

umankoobis xanad. bavSvebis momxibvleloba ufrosebSi aRZravs dacvis survils,

nostalgias da upiratesobis SegrZnebas. Tu isini tkivils an ubedurebas

ganicdian, ufrosebi Tavs valdebulad Tvlian, TanagrZnoba da zneobrivi

aRSfoTeba gamoxaton. Tumca amis Sedegad bavSvebi iZenen statuss, romelic

sadRac moqalaqeobis qvemoT imyofeba.

bavSvebis gamosaxva msxverplis an ufrosebis sayvareli danamatis saxiT

SezRudul da yalb warmodgenas qmnis maT Sesaxeb. mediis warmomadgenlebma

SeiZleba ganacxadon, rom aseTi winaswarganwyoba modis im faqtidan, rom


avSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis

49

sainformacio gamoSvebebi yuradRebis centrSi aqceven uCveulos. magram amiT

xdeba ignorireba mediis aranakleb mniSvnelovani funqciisa _ warmoadgendes

sazogadoebis sarkes, raTa xalxma ukeTesad gaigos, Tu ra xdeba mis garSemo.

mediis muSakebma sxvebze ukeTesad ician, rom xSirad faqtebze ufro meti

zegavlenis moxdena maT aRqmas SeuZlia. axalgazrdebis aRqmis damaxinjebiT

media daTvur samsaxurs uwevs rogorc bavSvebs, aseve mTel sazogadoebas. amiT

SeiZleba maTi uflebebic dairRves.

bavSvTa uflebebis darRveva

ramdenime gza arsebobs, riTac bavSvis uflebebi SeiZleba dairRves maTi

araswori warmodgeniT da stereotipuli CvenebiT mediaSi. adamianis uflebaTa da

ZiriTad TavisuflebaTa evropuli konvenciis me-8 muxli mouwodebs ojaxisa da

piradi cxovrebis uflebis pativiscemisken, xolo me-14 muxli – diskriminaciis

akrZalvisken.

gaeros bavSvis uflebaTa konvenciis Tanaxmad, bavSvis uflebebi moicavs:

me-12 muxli: bavSvis uflebas, Tavisuflad gamoTqvas Tavisi Sexedulebebi

nebismier sakiTxze, romelic mas exeba;

me-13 muxli: bavSvis ufleba, Tavisuflad gamoTqvas Tavisi azri, SesaZloa,

erTgvarad Seiz Rudos, magram es SezRudva kanoniT gaTvaliswinebuli

da aucilebeli unda iyos `saxelmwifo uSiSroebis an sazogadoebrivi

wesrigis ... an mosaxleobis janmrTelobis an zneobis dacvisaTvis~;

me-16 muxli: `piradi da ojaxuri cxovrebis, sacxovrebeli binis

xelSeuxeblobis an korespondenciis saidumloebis... Rirsebisa da

reputaciis~ dacvas Carevis an xelyofisagan;

me-17 muxli: mediis mniSvnelobis aRiarebas da masalebis gavrcelebas

`bavSvis socialuri da kulturuli keTildReobisTvis~ da `im saxis

informaciisa da masalebisagan bavSvis dacvis saTanado principebis

SemuSavebis waxalisebas, romelic sazianoa bavSvis keTildReobisaTvis.~

es muxlebi garkveviT ayalibebs bavSvis uflebebs, romlebic SeiZleba dairRves

mediis upasuxismgeblo moqmedebiT, kerZod, gaeros bavSvis uflebaTa konvenciis

me-17 muxlis Tanaxmad, media pasuxismgebelia bavSvis keTildReobis xelSewyobaze.

bavSvis uflebaTa darRveva gulisxmobs maTTan dakavSirebuli sakiTxebis

ugulisyurod gaSuqebas da damaxinjebas an maTi Sexedulebebis ugulebelyofas.

bavSvTa dacva

miuxedavad imisa, rom cota vinme Tu moiZebneba, vinc damoukidebel mediaSi

saxelmwifos Carevas miesalmeba, bavSvTa uflebebma moiTxova garkveul

sferoebSi Careva. magaliTad, gaerTianebuli samefos kanonmdebloba krZalavs

sasamarTlo saqmeebSi CarTuli axalgazrdebis identificirebas bavSvebisa da

axalgazrdebis 1933 wlis aqtis 39-e TavSi. es kanoni aRiarebs, rom axalgazrda

samarTaldamrRvevi imsaxurebs, rom gamosworebis Sansi mieces mediis


50

yuradRebisa da sajaro stigmatizaciis gareSe. Tumca zogierT SemTxvevaSi

amgvari dacvac ar aRmoCnda sakmarisi; mediam Secvala bavSvebis pirdapiri

identifikacia samarTaldamrRvevebisTvis iarliyebis stereotipuli mikvriT.

miuxedavad iseTi organizaciebis Zalisxmevisa, rogoricaa saerTaSoriso

federacia, romelmac sakuTari iniciativa wamoiwyo 1998 wels da miznad

isaxavda bavSvebTan dakavSirebuli sakiTxebis gaSuqebis dros pasuxismgeblobis

waxalisebas, bavSvebis am tipis stereotipebiT gaSuqebis tendencia yvela

kontinentze TvalsaCinoa.

aRsaniSnavia, rom bavSvebisadmi miZRvnili sakiTxebis gaSuqeba iSviaTad

figurirebs Jurnalistur treningebSi, radgan mTlianobaSi Jurnalistebi

ufrosebisadmi miZRvnili da maTive samyaroSi arsebuli iseTi TemebiT

arian dakavebuli, romlebic zrdasruli adamianebis auditoriisaTvis aris

gankuTvnili. iSviaTad SegxvdebaT siuJeti imis Sesaxeb, Tu ra gavlena SeiZleba

moaxdinos axalma socialurma an fiskalurma politikam bavSvebze, Tu is ar exeba,

magaliTad, bavSvebisTvis dawesebul SeRavaTebs an maT ganaTlebas. iSviaTia,

agreTve, gazeTi, romelic cdilobs, gamoaqveynos axalgazrdebis komentarebi

mimdinare problemebis Sesaxeb.

Sesabamisad, bavSvebi seriozulad ar ganixilebian mediis profesionalebis mier,

radgan maTi ZiriTadi samiznea zrdasruli adamianebis bazari. sirTule isaa,

rom bavSvebi arian mediis im ZiriTadi produqtebis momxmareblebi, romlebic

konkretulad maTTvis ar aris Seqmnili. axali ambebi miCneulia iseT ramed, rac,

uwinares yovlisa, zrdasruli adamianebisTvis da maT Sesaxebaa.

damatebiTi safrTxea is, rom zrdasruli adamianebisTvis gankuTvnil bazarze

bavSvebs xeli miuwvdebaT potenciurad mavne masalaze, maT Soris Zaladobis,

seqsis da bavSvebis `seqsualuri~ saxeebis amsaxvel masalaze. komunikaciebis

axali formebis ganviTareba, rogoricaa interneti, garkveul SeSfoTebas iwvevs,

radgan Zalian umniSvneloa an saerTod ar arsebobs kontroli internetSi

ganTavsebul informaciaze.

sanam grZeldeba kamaTi imis Taobaze, Tu ra pirdapir gavlenas axdens amgvari

masala bavSvebis qcevaze, mediis mwarmoeblebis umniSvnelovanesi amocana unda

iyos imis uzrunvelyofa, rom garkveuli tipis masalis (iseTi vizualuri

informaciis CaTvliT, romelic dasaSvebad miiCnevs an popularizacias uwevs

Zaladobas an Seusabamo seqsualur aqtivobas) advilad xelmisawvdomobam mavne

zegavlena ar moaxdinos bavSvebze an safrTxe ar Seuqmnas maT.

yuradReba unda mieqces, agreTve, bavSvebSi mediis Sesaxeb codnis gavrcelebas.

aseve mniSvnelovania, rom bavSvebi afasebdnen mediis rols samoqalaqo

sazogadoebaSi da SeeZloT, kritikulad Sexedon amas, raTa Jurnalistebi

iTvaliswinebdnen bavSvebis saWiroebebs, problemebs da uflebebs.

iunisefis azriT, is faqti, rom ver moxerxda Tanamedrove mediis kritikis

swavleba, `udidesi xelidan gaSvebuli SesaZleblobaa ganaTlebaSi~. britaneli

parlamentari tesa joueli ambobs, rom mediis swavleba, mediis efeqtian

regulirebasTan erTad, saukeTeso gzaa imisaTvis, rom bavSvebs gauadvilo

urTierToba mediaSi warmodgenil samyarosTan.


avSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis

51

media axali TaobisTvis

miuxedavad imisa, rom bolo wlebSi media gafarTovda, axali aTaswleulis

dasawyisSi iunisefis aRmasrulebeli direqtoris mier internetSi Catarebulma

`CeTma~ 17 qveynis mediis 70-mde axalgazrda aqtivistTan, gamoavlina erTsulovani

gzavnili _ media ar upasuxebs axalgazrdebis problemebs.

mediam xelaxla unda gaiazros bavSvebisa da axalgazrdebis Tematikis

gaSuqeba _ ise, rom stereotipuloba da, aqedan gamomdinare, Sedegebi

gamoiricxos _ da xeli Seuwyos mediis Sesaxeb codnis gafarToebas. izrdeba

axali Taoba, romelic daTrgunulia mZime axali ambebiT da maTi damaxinjebiT;

raki axali teqnologiebi TiTis erTi dakvriT aris maTTvis xelmisawvdomi,

isini sakuTar medias qmnian onlain reJimSi da gverds uvlian misi warmoebis

tradiciul meTodebs.

ukve vnaxeT, rogor Seiqmna onlain sazogadoebebi da samauwyeblo arxebi Bebo,

Youtube da MySpace. 2007 wels aSS-is yofilma vice-prezidentma al gorma axali

sakabelo televizia gaxsna axalgazrdebisTvis Current TV, romlis Sinaarsi

mTlianad axalgazrda mayureblebis mier iqmneba. b-n goris TqmiT, axalgazrda

mayurebels saSualeba eZleva, `Caebas dialogSi demokratiis Sesaxeb~ da Seqmnas

sakuTari satelevizio programebi. misive TqmiT, am koncefciis safuZvelze

`SeiZleba moxdes Tavad satelevizio mediis gardaqmna~, radgan mayurebels

eZleva SesaZlebloba, xma miawvdinos mas.

masmediiT ukmayofilo axalgazrdebi gverds uvlian tradiciul medias da

sakuTar dRis wesrigs aweseben. aman SeiZleba mniSvnelovani zegavlena iqonios

masmediis da tradiciuli (komerciuli) popkulturis momavalze.

profesiuli pasuxismgebloba

Jurnalistebis winaaRmdegobas iwvevs, rodesac vinme karnaxobs, Tu rogor

unda imuSaon. maT aRaSfoTebs zewola da skeptikurad ganawyobs Zlevamosili

elitis zraxvebi. bevrma Jurnalistma sicocxle da Tavisufleba Seswira iseTi

danaSaulebis gamomJRavnebas, romlebic SeiZleboda miCqmaluliyo presis

Tavisuflebis SezRudvis SemTxvevaSi.

mediis profesionalebs TavianT movaleobad miaCniaT, pasuxi mosTxovon

imaT, vinc samoqalaqo sazogadoebaze axdens zewolas. isini ufrTxildebian

sakuTar damoukideblobas. maTi yvelaze mniSvnelovani roli samoqalaqo

sazogadoebaSi imaSi gamoixateba, rom samoqalaqo interesebis sadarajoze

idgnen da popularizacia gauwion debatebs, codnis, informirebulobis

amaRlebas da saxelmwifos mier iseTi problemebis aRiarebas, romlebsac

gadamwyveti mniSvneloba aqvT demokratiis damkvidrebis da adamianis

uflebebis pativiscemisTvis. Jurnalistebis mier am rolis Sesrulebis

unari maSin qveiTdeba, rodesac isini angarebaze dafuZnebuli interesebis

gamtareblebi xdebian.


52

Sida regulireba

Jurnalistebi xels aweren qcevis kodeqss, romelic maTi profesiuli kavSiris,

profesiuli asociaciis an damqiraveblis mier aris gamocemuli. Tumca

praqtikulad Jurnalistebis umravlesobas bundovani warmodgena aqvs am

kodeqsis detalebze da eyrdnoba Jurnalistikis principebis zogad gagebas.

magram bavSvebs zusti protokolebi sWirdebaT, rodesac saqme maTi uflebebis

dacvas exeba.

Jurnalisturi saqmianoba, romelic bavSvis sicocxles da keTildReobas

exeba, yovelTvis unda iTvaliswinebdes bavSvis perspeqtivas. Jurnalistebi

da mediaorganizaciebi eTikuri qcevis umaRlesi standartebis dacvas unda

eswrafodnen, rodesac bavSvebTan dakavSirebul Temebs aSuqeben.

gaerTianebul samefoSi komunikaciebis ofisis da `bi-bi-sis~ saxelmZRvanelo

principebi udides mniSvnelobas aniWebs bavSvis uflebaTa dacvas, iseve, rogorc

amas akeTebs britaneTis sagazeTo industriis saproceso kodeqsi, romelsac

presasTan dakavSirebuli pretenziebis ganmxilveli komisia akontrolebs. isini

acnobiereben, rom mediis profesionalebis movaleobaa, zrunavdnen, rom mediaSi

damkvidrebulma praqtikam ar Selaxos bavSvis uflebebi.

JurnalistTa saerTaSoriso federaciis saxelmZRvanelo principebi.

JurnalistTa saerTaSoriso federaciam bavSvis uflebebi Seitana profesiuli

eTikis kodeqsSi da axorcielebs programebs gaTviTcnobierebulobis

donis asamaRleblad. is xels uwyobs saukeTeso saerTaSoriso praqtikis

urTierTgacvlas sxvadasxva kavSirs Soris, upirispirdeba Jurnalistebsa da

mediaze komerciul zewolas `sensaciuri axali ambebis~ moTxovniT da saSualebas

aZlevs bavSvebs, rom maTi problemebi danaxuli da gagonili iyos.

JurnalistTa saerTaSoriso federaciis saxelmZRvanelo principebi, `bavSvis

uflebebi da media: bavSvis probelemebisadmi miZRvnili sakiTxebis ganxilvis

saxelmZRvanelo miTiTebebi da principebi~, 70 qveynis Jurnalisturma

organizaciebma daamtkices Jurnalizmisa da bavSvis uflebebisadmi miZRvnil

pirvel saerTaSoriso sakonsultacio konferenciaze, romelic braziliis qalaq

resifeSi Catarda 1998 wlis 2 maiss. es saxelmZRvanelo miTiTebebi bavSvebs

daexmareba imis danaxvaSi, rom Jurnalistebi maT problemebsa da Sexedulebebs

seriozulad uyureben. am dokumentSi naTqvamia:

`yvela Jurnalisti da mediis profesionali muSaki valdebulia,

SeinarCunos umaRlesi eTikuri da profesiuli standartebi da dargis

farglebSi popularizacia gauwios bavSvis uflebaTa saerTaSoriso

konvenciisa da damoukidebeli JurnalistikisTvis misi mniSvnelobis

Sesaxeb informaciis farTod gavrcelebas.~

JurnalistTa saerTaSoriso federaciis saxelmZRvanelo miTiTebebis Tanaxmad:

mediaorganizaciebi bavSvis uflebaTa darRvevas, bavSvis usafrTxoebis,


avSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis

53

piradi cxovrebis, ganaTlebis da socialuri uzrunvelyofis sakiTxebs

da eqspluataciis yvela formas gamoZiebisa da sajaro msjelobis sagnad

unda miiCnevdnen.

bavSvebs piradi cxovrebis absoluturi ufleba aqvT, im gamonaklisebis garda,

romlebic garkveviT aris miTiTebuli saxelmZRvanelo principebSi.

Jurnalisturi saqmianoba, romelic bavSvebis cxovrebasa da keTildReobas

exeba, yovelTvis unda warimarTos maTi daucvelobis gaTvaliswinebiT.

Jurnalistebma da masobrivi informaciis saSualebebma yvelaferi unda gaakeTon

imisaTvis, rom ar gadauxvion umaRles eTikur standartebsa da normebs bavSvTa

problemebis gaSuqebisas. kerZod:

1. bavSvebis sakiTxebis gaSuqebisas maT Zalisxmeva ar unda daiSuron

sizustisa da koreqtulobis dasacavad;

2. unda moeridon iseTi fotoebisa da informaciis gamoqveynebas

bavSvebisaTvis gankuTvnil mediasivrceSi, romelic saziano iqneba maTTvis;

3. moeridon publikaciebisaTvis popularobis mopovebis mizniT bavSvebTan

dakavSirebuli problemebis sensaciur da stereotipul gaSuqebas;

4. bavSvebTan dakavSirebuli nebismieri masalis gamoqveynebisas

saguldagulod awon-dawonon SesaZlo Sedegebi da minimumamde daiyvanon

zianis faqtori;

5. Tu amas sazogadoebrivi interesi ar moiTxovs, daicvan bavSvis vinaoba da

ar gamoaqveynon misi fotoebi;

6. rodesac es SesaZlebelia, miscen bavSvebs masmediis saSualebiT TavianTi

azrebis gamoxatvis SesaZlebloba yovelgvari zewolis gareSe;

7. uzrunvelyon bavSvis mier mowodebuli informaciis damoukidebeli

Semowmeba da gansakuTrebuli yuradReba miaqcion imas, rom am informaciis

Semowmebisas informator bavSvs safrTxe ar Seeqmnas;

8. moeridon bavSvebis seqsualur formaSi gadaRebuli fotoebis

gamoqveynebas;

9. gamoiyenon bavSvebis fotoebis mopovebis samarTliani, Ria da pirdapiri

meTodebi da, rodesac es SesaZlebelia, moipovon isini bavSvebis, maTze

pasuxismgebeli piris an meurvis TanxmobiT;

10. Seamowmon im organizaciebis uflebamosileba, romlebic bavSvebis saxeliT

laparakoben an warmoadgenen bavSvTa interesebs;

11. bavSvis cxovrebis pirobebis amsaxveli siuJetisaTvis mopovebuli masalis

safasuri ar gadauxadon arc bavSvs da arc bavSvis mSoblebsa Tu meurveebs,

Tu es namdvilad bavSvis interesebSi ar Sedis.


54

Jurnalistebma kritikulad unda Seiswavlon warmodgenili reportaJebi da

mTavrobebis mier gamoTqmuli pretenziebi gaeros bavSvis uflebaTa konvenciis

ganxorcielebasTan dakavSirebiT.

mediam ar unda ganixilos da gaaSuqos bavSvebis problemebi, mxolod rogorc

momxdari faqtebi, aramed `gamudmebiT unda werdes im procesebis Sesaxeb,

romlebsac mivyavarT an migviyvanen msgavs faqtebTan~.

saxelmZRvanelo JurnalistebisTvis

`media uaizma~ da `iunisefma~ gamosces saxelmZRvanelo Jurnalis te bisTvis,

saxelwodebiT `media da bavSvis uflebebi~, romlebic bavSvebs warmoadgenen

mediaSi, (2005). es saxelmZRvanelo mediis muSakebis da sxvebis dasaxmareblad

daiwera. igi miznad isaxavs, isini, vinc am sferoSi saqmianobs, daafiqros

imaze, Tu ra gavlenas moaxdens gaeros bavSvis uflebaTa konvencia

bavSvebis warmoCenaze mediaSi da mediis mier. moqmedi Jurnalistebis

praqtikul gamocdilebaze dayrdnobiT saxelmZRvanelo eswrafvis, biZgi

misces pasuxismgeblobis amaRlebas bavSvebis sakiTxebis, agreTve bavSvebis

cxovrebaze ufrosebis qcevisa da gadawyvetilebebis gavlenis gaSuqebisas. es

saxelmZRvanelo mouwodebs mediis muSakebs, saukeTeso gza moZebnon bavSvis

uflebaTa dasacavad da daexmaron maT masobriv mediaSi garkveuli rolis

SesrulebaSi.

bavSvebisa da axalgazrdebis sakiTxebis gaSuqebas Tavisi problemebi aqvs. bavSvis

uflebaTa sainformacio qselma Seqmna `bavSvebisgan intervius aRebis eTikuri

saxelmZRvanelo principebi~, xolo `iunisefma~ SemuSava sakuTari, `bavSvebTan

dakavSirebuli sakiTxebis eTikurad gaSuqebis principebi~.

saqme is aris, rom media ara mxolod samarTlianad, patiosnad da zustad unda

aSuqebdes bavSvobis problemebs, aramed adgils tovebdes Tavad bavSvebis

gansxvavebuli, kolorituli da SemoqmedebiTi azrebis gamosaxatavad. axali

ambebi iqneba es, mimdinare movlenebi Tu SemoqmedebiTi da saSemsruleblo

xelovnebis rTuli samyaro, mediis yvela muSaki da organizacia pasuxismgebelni

arian, cnon bavSvis uflebebi da asaxon isini TavianT SemoqmedebaSi.

es ki iseT mniSvnelovan sakiTxs ukavSirdeba, rogoricaa mediis muSakebis

treningi. amJamad yuradReba gadatanilia treningis monawileebisTvis iseTi

unar-Cvevebis Camoyalibebaze, rom maT SeZlon mudmivad cvalebad samuSao

garemosTan Segueba, rodesac mTavaria moqniloba.

treningebis dros bavSvebisTvis fotoebis gadaRebas da maT videokameriT

gadaRebas imdenive yuradReba unda daeTmos, ramdenic teqnikur kvalifikacias,

radgan vizualuri gamosaxulebis mopovebisTvis gamoyenebuli meTodebi,

gamosaxulebis konstruirebis gzebi da demonstrirebis formebi SeiZleba

gansakuTrebiT problemuri aRmoCndes.


avSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis

55

imisaTvis, rom mediis muSakebi ufro aqtiurad Caeban bavSvis uflebaTa dacvaSi,

saWiroa SemuSavdes saxelmZRvanelo treningis, sainformacio masalebis da mediis

dargebs Soris saerTaSoriso TanamSromlobis Sesaxeb, raTa uzrunvelyofil

iqnes bavSvobasTan dakavSirebuli sakiTxebis gaSuqeba da bavSvis uflebebis

mimarT yuradReba da zrunva.

bavSvis problemebis da uflebebis ukeT gageba maT mier, vinc umaRles eSelonebSia,

iseve mniSvnelovania, rogorc imis uzrunvelyofa, rom Jurnalistebma da

programebis Semqmnelebma ndobaze dafuZnebuli urTierToba daamyaron sxva

profesionalebTan, romlebic bavSvebTan muSaoben (maswavleblebi, socialuri

muSakebi da sxv.).

bavSvTa sakiTxebis gaSuqebisas mediis eTikisa da JurnalistTa

profesiuli standartebis dacvis Sesaxeb saqarTveloSi

2008 wels gaeros bavSvTa fondis egidiT Catarda kvleva saxelwodebiT `bavSvTa

sakiTxebis gaSuqeba da media eTika saqarTveloSi – situaciuri analizi~. es

kvleva mimoixilavs saqarTveloSi arsebuli media eTikis kodeqsebsa da mediis

TviT-regulirebis meqanizmebs bavSvTa uflebebis dacvis TvalsazrisiT

da asaxavs qarTuli mediis samTviani monitoringis Sedegebs imis Taobaze,

Tu ramdenad icavs media bavSvTa uflebebs bavSvTa sakiTxebis gaSuqebisas.

kvlevis Tanaxmad, qarTul mediaSi ar arsebobs erTiani profesiuli standartebi

bavSvTa sakiTxebis gaSuqebasTan dakavSirebiT, romlebsac Jurnalistebi da

menejerebi erTnairad scemdnen pativs. mxolod ramdenime mediasaSualebas

aqvs Tavisi kodeqsi, romlis aRiareba da dacva ver qmnis saTanado aminds.

qarTul mediaSi Warbobs stereotipuli midgoma bavSvebis mimarT, rac sakmaod

rTuli Sedegebis momtania. bavSvTa sakiTxebs Jurnalistebi ganzogadebuli

formulebiT aSuqeben.

qarTul mediaSi xSiria imgvari statiebi, sadac ar aris mkafiod gamijnuli

faqti da komentari, figurirebs dauzustebeli da gadaumowmebeli

informacia. bavSvebze saubrisas Jurnalistebi ar eridebian ganzogadebas,

rac TavisTavad xels uwyobs stereotipebs. garda amisa, naklebad xdeba

problemis detaluri gaanalizeba da informaciis gaSuqeba ramdenime wyaros

safuZvelze.

xSiria faqtebi, rodesac xdeba kanonTan konfliqtSi myofi an Zaladobis

msxverpli bavSvebis Sesaxeb informaciis sensaciuri kuTxiT gaSuqeba da am

bavSvebis identificireba. quCis bavSveis mimarT ki xSirad ismis diskriminaciuli

da stereotipuli gamoTqmebi.

kvlevis Sedegad SemuSavda konkretuli rekomendaciebi, romelTa Sorisac

didi adgili uWiravs JurnalistebisTvis bavSvTa sakiTxebis gaSuqebis saswavlo

kursis SemoRebasa da treningebis organizebas.


56

Sefaseba

bavSvis uflebaTa sainformacio qselis eTikuri saxelmZRvanelo principebis

ganxilva da ZiriTadi momentebis identificireba sakuTar praqtikaSi

gamoyenebisTvis. ra informacias awvdis saxelmZRvanelo dRevandel praqtikas

damatebiTi literatura da resursebi

`ciliswameba, sentimentaloba Tu siCume ras eguebian axalgazrdebi mediaSi~.

maik jemfsoni, “MediaWise Trust”, 2003

`bavSvebi da media: globaluri problema~

maik jemfsoni, “MediaWise Trust”, 2003

`uTanasworoba da axalgazrdebis warmoCena stereotipulad~

doqtori moris devlini, NUI Maynooth, 2006

http://www.unicef.org/magic/users/resources.html

`bavSvis uflebebi da media: bavSvebTan dakavSirebuli sakiTxebis gaSuqebis saxelmZRvanelo

miTiTebebi da principebi~, JurnalistTa saerTaSoriso federacia, 1998:

http://www.ifj.org/default.aspindex=192&Language=EN

`bavSvebisgan intervius aRebis saxelmZRvanelo miTiTebebis kompilacia~, bavSvis uflebaTa

sainformacio qseli (CRIN) 2005:

http://www.crin.org/resources/infoDetail.aspID=5572

`glokal iuT~: www.glocalyouth.net

`gadavarCinoT bavSvebi~: http://www.savethechildren.org.uk/scuk/jsp/newhome.jspflash=true

`karent tivi~ (Current TV): http://uk.current.com/

mediis monitoringis proeqti: http://www.mediamonitoring.org.za

`iunisefi~: `bavSvebis Sesaxeb sakiTxebis gaSuqebis eTikuri principebi~:

http://www.unicef.org/media tools guidlines.html

`bavSvebisgan intervius aReba: saxelmZRvanelo Jurnalistebisa da sxvebisTvis~

“Save the Children”, 1998

`media da bavSvis uflebebi~, `mediauaiz~, 2005:

http://www.mediawise.org.uk/files/uploaded/The%20Media%20and%20Children%20Rights%202005.pdf

`bavSvisgan intervius aRebis eTikuri saxelmZRvanelo principebi~, bavSvis uflebaTa

sainformacio qseli:

http://www.crin.com/resources/infoDetail.aspID=5572&flag=report

kvleva `bavSvTa sakiTxebis gaSuqeba da media eTika saqarTveloSi – situaciuri analizi~ -

http://www.unicef.org/georgia/resources_6521.html


avSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis

57

6. informaciis gavrcelebis saukeTeso praqtika bavSvebis

Sexedulebebis gaTvaliswinebiT

ZiriTadi Sesaswavli Temebi

`msoflio bavSvebisaTvis~

erovnuli samoqmedo gegmebi bavSvebisaTvis

bavSvebis monawileoba

saukeTeso praqtikis principebi

bavSvTa Tvalsazrisis gageba: magaliTebi

gaeros mier 2002 wlis maisSi Catarebul bavSvebTan dakavSirebul sagangebo

sesias udidesi mniSvneloba hqonda bavSvebisa da, zogadad, adamianebis

ganviTarebisTvis. es iyo generaluri asambleis pirveli sagangebo sesia,

romelic mieZRvna bavSvebs da romelzec isini mowveulni iqnen oficialur

delegatebad. sesiaze Tavi moiyares 69 qveynis liderebma; 190-ma erovnulma

delegatma; arasamTavrobo organizaciebis 1 700-ze metma warmomadgenelma;

mSvidobis dargSi nobelis premiis xuTma laureatma; sxvadasxva biznesis,

religiis, xelovnebis mimdinareobis, samecniero da samoqalaqo sazogadoebis

uamravma warmomadgenelma da, pirvelad gaeros arsebobis istoriaSi, 600-ze

metma bavSvma, rogorc delegatma da aqtiurma monawilem.

`msoflio bavSvebisaTvis~

2002 wels gamarTul sagangebo sesiaze, istoriaSi pirvelad, axalgazrdebma

uSualod mimarTes generalur asambleas da SesTavazes TavianTi mosazrebebi da

SemoqmedebiTi gadawyvetilebebi. bavSvebis monawileobam gamoacocxla Sexvedra

da gaaCina meti mizanmimarTulebisa da pasuxismgeblobis grZnoba. msoflios

qveynebis liderebma gaaTviTcnobieres, rom, imisaTvis, rom Secvalon msoflio

bavSvebisaTvis, maT msoflios Secvla bavSvebTan erTad mouwevT.

am axalgazrdebis enTuziazmiT da xedviT STagonebulma generalurma asambleam

miaRwia SeTanxmebas dokumentTan `msoflio bavSvebisaTvis~ dakavSirebiT – es

aris detaluri gegma, romelic exeba jansaRi cxovrebis, ZiriTadi ganaTlebis

uzrunvelyofas, aiv/Sids-is damarcxebas da bavSvebis dacvas Seuracxyofis,

eqspluataciisa da Zaladobisagan.

`iunisefis~ yofili aRmasrulebeli direqtoris, kerol belamis, TqmiT,

`gaeros arc erT sxdomaze ar yofila mowveuli amdeni bavSvi da axalgazrda

oficialuri delegatis saxiT... swored maTi monawileoba aqcevs sagangebod

sagangebo sesias~.

`msoflio bavSvebisaTvis~ adgens miznebs, romelTa Sesrulebis safuZvelze

gaizomeba progresi 2015 wlisTvis gaeros aTaswleulis ganviTarebis miznebis

miRwevaSi. igi aseve adgens miznebs konkretulad bavSvebisTvis:


58

`bavSvebs, maT Soris mozardebs, unda hqondeT TavianTi uflebebis

gamoyenebis saSualeba imisaTvis, rom Tavisuflad gamoxaton TavianTi azrebi,

Camoayalibon sakuTari Tavis pativiscemis grZnoba, SeiZinon codna da

unarebi, romlebic dakavSirebuli iqneba konfliqtebis gadaWrasTan,

gadawyvetilebis miRebasa da urTierTobasTan, rac maT cxovrebaSi gamoadgebaT.

aucilebelia bavSvebis, maT Soris mozardebis, azrebis Tavisuflad

gamoxatvis uflebis pativiscema da xelSewyoba, aseve aucilebelia maTi

Sexedulebebis gaTvaliswineba bavSvebTan dakavSirebul yvela sakiTxSi _

maT azrebs unda mieniWos Sesabamisi mniSvneloba maTi asakis da simwifis

mixedviT. aucilebelia bavSvebis energiulobis da SemoqmedebiTobis

xelSewyoba ise, rom maT SeZlon aqtiuri monawileobis miReba maTi garemocvis,

Temebisa da im msoflios cxovrebaSi, romelic maT memkvidreobiT unda miiRon.~

es sityvebi da bavSvebis aqtiuri monawileoba generalur asambleaSi asaxavs bavSvis

uflebaTa konvenciis me-12 muxlSi mocemul ideebs – bavSvis Sexedulebis da

azris Tavisuflad gamoxatvis uflebas. yovel bavSvs, romelsac aqvs sakuTari

azris formulirebis unari, aqvs am azrebis Tavisuflad gamoxatvis ufleba

yvela im sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT, romelic uSualod moqmedebs mis cxovrebaze.

bavSvebTan dakavSirebuli erovnuli samoqmedo gegmebi

gaeros bavSvebTan dakavSirebuli sagangebo sesiis erT-erT sxdomaze ganixiles

saxelmwifo strategiaSi bavSvebis CarTvis sakiTxi. prioritetuli reagirebisaTvis

daadgines bavSvebis winaSe arsebuli oTxi ZiriTadi sakiTxi: janmrTeloba,

ganaTleba, dacva Zaladobisgan, Seuracxyofisa da eqspluataciisgan da aiv/Sids-i.

globaluri samoqmedo gegmis ganxorcielebis mizniT msoflios mTavrobebi

SeTanxmdnen, moemzadebinaT bavSvebTan dakavSirebuli erovnuli samoqmedo

gegmebi 2003 wlis bolosTvis. es samoqmedo gegmebi ganmartavs, rogor imuSavebs

TiToeuli mTavroba globaluri samoqmedo gegmis miznebis da amocanebis

SesrulebisTvis sakuTar qveynebSi.

sagangebo sesiam yvelas daanaxva, Tu ra wvlilis Setana SeuZliaT bavSvebsa

da mozardebs maTze moqmedi sakiTxebis gadawyvetaSi da ra didi mniSvneloba

aqvs gadawyvetilebis mimRebebisTvis bavSvebTan konsultirebas da maT mosmenas.

mTeli msoflios bavSvebSi didi gamococxleba SeimCneoda sesiis Semdgom

procesebSi maTi CarTvis gamo. bavSvebma da mozardebma mkafiod gamoxates,

rom maT surdaT, mizanmimarTulad yofiliyvnen CarTuli qveynis erovnuli

samoqmedo gegmebis CamoyalibebaSi, ganxorcielebasa da monitoringSi.

organizaciam `gadavarCinoT bavSvebi~ 14 qveynis 4 500 bavSvs hkiTxa, Tu ratom

undaT am procesSi monawileoba. qvemoT CamoTvlilia maT mier dasaxelebuli

mTavari mizezebi:

isini Tavad warmoadgenen aRniSnuli gegmebis uSualo mizans da yvelaze

mniSvnelovan dainteresebul pirebs;


avSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis

59

maT yvelaze kargad ician bavSvebis mdgomareoba da, aqedan gamomdinare,

SeuZliaT daexmaron mTavrobebs bavSvebis problemebis ukeT gagebaSi;

yvela bavSvi ar aris erTnairi, mTavrobebma unda icodnen bavSvebis sxvadasxva

jgufebis azrebi;

maT aqvT ufleba, Tavisuflad gamoTqvan TavianTi Sexedulebebi nebismier

sakiTxze, romelic maT exeba (gaeros bavSvis uflebaTa konvenciis me-12 muxli);

bavSvebs da mozardebs SeuZliaT (da aqvT amis survili) garkveuli rolis

Sesruleba gegmis ganxorcielebaSi;

maTi monawileobis Sedegad samoqmedo gegma ufro efeqtiani da qmedunariani

gaxdeba;

gegma xels uwyobs demokratiis mSeneblobas da warmoSobs bavSvebSi

pasuxismgeblobas sakuTari sicocxlis, Temebis da sazogadoebis mimarT;

maT didi wvlilis Setana SeuZliaT procesSi.

globalur samoqmedo gegmasTan dakavSirebiT mTavrobebi SeTanxmdnen

Semdegze: `Cven pativi unda vceT [bavSvebis da mozardebis] uflebas,

Tavisuflad gamoxaton TavianTi Sexedulebebi da azri da monawileoba

miiRon maTTan dakavSirebul yvela sakiTxSi maTi asakis da simwifis

mixedviT. vinaidan erovnuli samoqmedo gegmebi iqmneba bavSvebis cxovrebis

gaumjobesebis da maTi uflebebis ganxorcielebis realobad qcevis

mizniT, amitom didi mniSvneloba eniWeba Tavad bavSvebis da mozardebis

monawileobas am gegmebis SemuSavebaSi. bavSvebi mTavari dainteresebuli

pirebi arian da aucilebelia maTi mosmena imisaTvis, rom daisaxos swori

miznebi da maTi miRwevis saukeTeso gzebi~.

bavSvebis monawileoba

gaeros generaluri asambleis 2002 wels gamarTulma sesiam da saxelmwifo doneze

erovnuli samoqmedo gegmebis Camoyalibebis procesma daanaxva sazogadoebas, Tu

ra enTuziazmiT Sexvdnen bavSvebi monawileobas maTTan dakavSirebuli sakiTxebis

gadawyvetaSi. maTi monawileobis Sedegad bavSvebSi izrdeba Tanamonawileobisa

da bavSvebis cxovrebasTan dakavSirebul sakiTxebze momuSave organizaciebis

mxridan dafasebis grZnoba.

monawileoba ar aris martivi; mas sWirdeba liderebi erovnul, adgilobriv

da saorganizacio doneebze. kerZod, saWiroa Zlieri lideri organizaciebSi

bavSvebis da axalgazrdebis realuri da aqtiuri monawileobis SesaZleblobis

inicirebisa da gafarToebisaTvis.

organizaciebis mzadyofnasa da bavSvebisa da axalgazrdebis CarTvis survilze

mravali faqtori moqmedebs, maT Soris, kulturuli faseulobebi, resursebis

sakiTxebi, ufrosebis azri bavSvTa Sexedulebebis mniSvnelobis Sesaxeb,

organizaciaSi arsebuli SesaZleblobebi da TviT bavSvebisa da axalgazrdebis

mzadyofna monawileobisTvis.

bavSvebs da axalgazrdebs monawileobisTvis sWirdebaT informacia, unarebi da


60

sakuTari Tavis rwmena. monawileobisaTvis aucilebeli am unarebis Camoyalibeba

ojaxSi iwyeba. ojaxebs SeuZliaT bavSvebs yoveldRiur cxovrebaSi mianiWon amis

saSualeba maTTvis arCevanis SeTavazebis, maTi moqmedebebis da gadawyvetilebebis

Sedegebis ganmartebis da maTi azrebis pativiscemis kulturis Camoyalibebis gziT.

ojaxis Semdeg yvelaze didi mniSvneloba eniWeba skolaSi arsebul garemos

da kulturas, romlis xelSewyobiTac bavSvebs SeuZliaT SeiZinon aqtiuri

monawileobis da moqalaqeobis Cvevebi, unarebi da pasuxismgebloba.

vinaidan bavSvebis umravlesoba udides dros atarebs saswavlo

dawesebulebebSi, aRniSnuli dawesebulebebi aqtiurad unda TanamSromlobdnen

bavSvebTan.

skolebSi specialuri treningi unda gaiaron maswavleblebma da skolis

TanamSromlebma, romlis daxmarebiTac isini SeZleben saskolo sabWoebis muSaobis

da bavSvebis monawileobis xelSewyobas. skolebs ekisreba gansakuTrebuli

pasuxismgebloba ganaTlebis procesSi ormxrivi komunikaciis xelSewyobaSi,

sadac aqtiuri monawileebi bavSvebi arian.

Temis doneze adgilobriv xelisuflebas SeuZlia bavSvebisa da

axalgazrdebisaTvis konsultaciebis gamarTva, romelTa safuZvelze

bavSvebi SeZleben sakuTari adgilobrivi sabWos arCevas, romelic, Tavis

mxriv, SeZlebs monawileobas da integrirebas ufrosebis saqmianobaSi.

sazogadoebaSi teqnologiebis sul ufro mzardi rolidan gamomdinare

yalibdeba meqanizmebi, romlebic moicavs internetis gamoyenebas, xolo

mobilur telefonebs kidev ufro metad SeuZlia monawileobis xelSewyoba.

internetis msoflio qseli sul ufro farTovdeba da qmnis msoflios

xalxebis forums, sadac bavSvebs da axalgazrdebs SeuZliaT sakuTari

Sexedulebebisa da gamocdilebis gaziareba sxvebisTvis da Tavisi wvlilis

Setana saxelmwifo politikis ganviTarebaSi saxelmwifo da adgilobriv

doneebze.

monawileobiT miRebuli sargebloba

gadawyvetilebaTa miRebaSi monawileobas pirdapiri sargebloba moaqvs

bavSvebisa da axalgazrdebisaTvis. isini iZenen iseT unarebs, rogoric

aris gunduri muSaoba, molaparakebis warmoeba, problemebis mogvareba

da zemoqmedeba. isini swavloben, rogor yalibdeba politika da rogor

muSaoben organizaciebi. isini swavloben muSaobas ufrosebTan, rogorc

partniorebTan, da swored aseTi monawileoba zrdis maTSi sakuTari Tavis

rwmenas da sakuTari Tavis pativiscemas.

monawileobis SesaZleblobas praqtikuli sargeblobis motana SeuZlia

marginalizebuli bavSvebisa da axalgazrdebisaTvis, romlebic ganicdian an

gariyulni arian sazogadoebisgan, Tavisi Temis kulturuli, ekonomikuri Tu

politikuri cxovrebidan.


avSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis

61

bavSvebs da axalgazrdebs TavianTi unikaluri perspeqtivebis da gamocdilebis

SemoTavazeba SeuZliaT iseT sakiTxebze, romlebic gavlenas axdens maT

cxovrebaze. Tu movusmenT bavSvebis azrs imis Sesaxeb, Tu rogor unda Seiqmnas,

wardges, Sefasdes, Semowmdes da gaumjobesdes politika da momsaxurebebi,

uzrunvelyofili iqneba am politikis Tu momsaxurebis Sesabamisoba maT

saWiroebebTan da daukmayofilebeli saWiroebebis aRiareba.

roca bavSvebi da axalgazrdebi monawileoben saxelmwifo politikis

CamoyalibebaSi, isini ufrosebis mier miRebuli gadawyvetilebebis pasiuri

mimRebebidan iqcevian `uflebamosil~ pirebad, romlebsac ZaluZT sakuTari da

sazogadoebis cxovrebis Secvla. `mopovebuli informaciisa da warmomadgenelTa

Sexedulebebis miRebis garda, TviT procesi wevrebs aZlevs sakiTxebis ganxilvis

da momzadebis saSualebas da, aseve, mosalodnels xdis maT monawileobas

cvlilebebis ganxorcielebaSi da ganamtkicebs maTSi sakuTari Tavisadmi,

rogorc moqalaqisadmi, rwmenas~ (`usmineT axalgazrda xmebs~, maqolei da

bratmani, `bavSvTa uflebebis aliansi~, 2002).

perspeqtivebi bavSvebisTvis: magaliTebi

bavSvTa ombudsmeni

evropis mTelma rigma qveynebma SemoiRes bavSvTa ombudsmenis Tanamdeboba, maT

Soris avstriam, belgiam, xorvatiam, daniam, fineTma, islandiam, irlandiam,

norvegiam, SvedeTma da espaneTma.

konkretuli magaliTi: irlandia

irlandiaSi bavSvTa ombudsmenis daniSvnis procesSi bavSvebisa da axalgazrdebis

monawileobis marTva bavSvTa saxelmwifo ofisma ikisra, romelmac irlandiur

procesebSi CarTo sxva qveynebis gamocdileba da rekomendaciebi. 64-ma

axalgazrdam 9-dan 17 wlamde monawileoba miiRo ombudsmenis SerCevis da

masTan gasaubrebis procesSi. maT aseve miiRes monawileoba axalgazrdebis

sakonsultacio komisiis SeqmnaSi, romlis samuSaoa bavSvTa ombudsmenisTvis

konsultaciis miwodeba im sakiTxebTan dakavSirebiT, romlebsac zegavlenis

moxdena SeuZlia Tanamedrove axalgazrda irlandielebze. ofisTan regularul

Sexvedrebze isini atyobineben ombudsmens maTTvis mniSvnelovan sakiTxebs da

uyvebian, Tu rogor isurvebdnen maT mogvarebas.

ombudsmenis ofisi yuradRebas aqcevs iseTi struqturebis Camoyalibebas da

gaumjobesebas, romlebic bavSvebs da axalgazrdebs miscems monawileobis

saSualebas (rogoricaa Dail na nOg – axalgazrdebis parlamenti da Comhairle na nOg

– axalgazrdebis sabWo). igi aseve axorcielebs monawileobasTan dakavSirebul

proeqtebs saxelmwifo organoebTan, xelisuflebis departamentebTan da

arasamTavrobo organizaciebTan TanamSromlobiT.

bolo sami wlis ganmavlobaSi monawileobasTan dakavSirebiT ganxorcielebuli

proeqtebi iyo sakmaod farTo da moicavda TanamSromlobas mraval dainteresebul


62

mxaresTan. samuSaos magaliTebia:





konsultaciebi axalgazrdebTan im sakiTxebTan dakavSirebiT, romlebic

gaTvaliswinebuli unda iqnes seqsualuri aqtivobis asakis gansazRvrisas;

muSaoba irlandiis samauwyeblo komisiasTan bavSvebisa da axalgazrdebis

CarTvis sakiTxebze im saxelmwifo procesebSi, romlebic exeba bavSvebis

sakiTxebs sareklamo kodeqsSi;

`axalgazrdobis xmebis” Seqmna: saxelmZRvanelo principebi imisa, Tu

rogor unda moxdes bavSvebis da axalgazrdebis CarTva muSaobaSi,

irlandiis axalgazrdobis saxelmwifo sabWosTan da bavSvTa uflebebis

aliansTan TanamSromlobis safuZvelze;

bavSvebis da axalgazrdebis CarTva janmrTelobis dacvis momsaxurebaTa

dagegmvaSi.

bavSvTa parlamentebi

axalgazrdebis parlamentebi arsebobs msoflios sxvadasxva kuTxeSi, rac

uzrunvelyofs axalgazrdebis monawileobas momavlis SenebaSi.

`oqsfam interneiSenalis~ (Oxfam International) axalgazrduli parlamenti

warmoadgens `Oxfam International~-is iniciativas. `Oxfam International~-is

axalgazrduli parlamenti mobilizebas uwevs axalgazrda liderebsa

da aqtivistebs pozitiuri da mdgradi cvlilebebis Setanis sakiTxebSi

TanamSromlobisTvis. igi axerxebs amas axalgazrdobis iniciativebis

mxardaWeriT, SesaZleblobaTa ganviTarebis programebis daxmarebiT

da axalgazrdebis TanadgomiT maTi da maTi Temebis uflebebisa da

Tavisuflebebis dacvaSi. `oqsfam interneiSenalis~ axalgazrduli

parlamenti mxars uWers axalgazrdebs, rogorc liderebs, cvlilebebis

Semotanis mizniT dadebiTi, mdgradi, inovaciuri da Temze orientirebuli

iniciativebis ganxorcielebaSi.

konkretuli magaliTi: axalgazrduli sabWo, safrangeTi

axalgazrduli sabWoebi safrangeTSi 1970-iani wlebidan muSaobs. amJamad

maTi raodenoba ramdenime aseuls aRwevs. maTi funqciaa bavSvebisa da

axalgazrdebis problemebis Setyobineba adgilobrivi TemebisTvis. 1991 wels

daarsda bavSvebisa da axalgazrdebis saqalaqo sabWoebis erovnuli asociacia.

mis pirvel Sexvedras 700 axalgazrda da 400 zrdasruli daeswro; Semdgom

Sexvedrebs eswrebodnen ministrebi.


avSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis

63

axalgazrduli sabWoebis miRwevebi mniSvnelovania – sqeitbordis

ferdobebis ageba, moednebis mowyoba SezRuduli SesaZleblobebis mqone

bavSvebisTvis, multfilmebis videoTeka, gaumjobesebuli satransporto

saSualebebi, socialuri RonisZiebebi, qalaqis rukebis Seqmna brailis

sistemiT, videofirebis gadaReba, sadac asaxulia bavSvebisa da axalgazrdebis

problemebi maT mSobliur qalaqebSi.

axalgazrduli sabWoebis raodenoba da maTi arsebobis xangrZlivoba

gviCvenebs, Tu ra seriozulad ganixileba amgvari organoebi safrangeTSi. maTi

efeqtianobis mniSvnelovan elements warmoadgens politikuri valdebulebebi

maT mimarT rogorc saxelmwifo, aseve adgilobriv doneebze. isini seriozulad

ganixileba rogorc adgilobriv sazogadoebaSi axalgazrdebis mniSvnelovani

rolis Sesrulebis efeqtiani saSualeba.

axalgazrdebis evropuli forumi warmoadgens saerTaSoriso organizacias,

romelic Camoyalibda axalgazrduli erovnuli sabWoebisa da axalgazrdebis

saerTaSoriso arasamTavrobo organizaciebis mier evropis yvela kuTxis

axalgazrdebis interesebis gamoxatvis mizniT. forumi stimuls aZlevs

axalgazrdebs monawileobisTvis evropisa da im sazogadoebebis mowyobaSi,

sadac isini cxovroben. igi warmoadgens axalgazrdebis organizaciebs

saerTaSoriso dawesebulebebSi – umTavresad evrokavSirSi, evrosabWosa

da gaeroSi. maTi saSualebiT imarTeba informaciis nakadi axalgazrdebsa da

gadawyvetilebebis mimRebTa Soris.

forumSi gaerTianebulia 93 wevri axalgazrduli erovnuli sabWoebidan

da axalgazrdebis saerTaSoriso arasamTavrobo organizaciebidan. forumi

aerTianebs aTobiT milion axalgazrdas evropis yvela qveynidan.

axalgazrdebis parlamenti warmoadgens gaerTianebuli samefos iniciativas,

romelic Seiqmna axalgazrdebis dasaxmareblad maTTvis saintereso

yvela sakiTxze xmis uflebis mopovebaSi. organizacia Seiqmna birminhemSi

forumis saxiT, sadac axalgazrdebs SeeZloT Sexvedra erTmaneTTan

sxvadasxva sakiTxis gansaxilvelad da iseTi politikis Camosayalibeblad,

romelic qalaqs axalgazrdebisTvis ukeTes adgilad gadaaqcevda. amJamad

axalgazrdebis parlamenti regionis sabaziso organizaciaa, igi aseve

axorcielebs saxelmwifo da saerTaSoriso RonisZiebebs da akavSirebs

erTmaneTTan axalgazrdebs.


64

konkretuli magaliTi: bavSvTa parlamenti sloveniaSi

sloveniaSi 1990 wels saparlamento demokratiis SemoRebasTan erTad Seiqmna

bavSvTa parlamenti. yovel wels bavSvebs skolaSi eZlevaT raime erTi Tema da

misi siRrmiseulad Seswavlis saSualeba. 13-15 wlis 100-ze met axalgazrdas Tavis

skolebSi irCeven sloveniis parlamentSi Seswavlili sakiTxebis gansaxilvelad

SexvedrisTvis. Sexvedris bolosTvis isini irCeven Temas momavali wlisTvis.

pirveli wlis sakiTxs warmoadgenda `usafrTxo da jansaRi garemo~.

bavSvTa parlamentis meore SexvedrisTvis suraTi Zirfesvianad Seicvala.

sloveniaSi, xorvatiasa da bosniaSi omi daiwyo. axalgazrdebi parlaments

iyenebdnen momavalTan dakavSirebiT sakuTari azrebis gamosaxatavad da

xmamaRla acxadebdnen TavianT SeniSvnebs politikosebis mimarT, romlebmac

ver SeZles qmediTi mTavrobis Seqmna. isini gamoxatavdnen risxvas, SiSsa da

Ralatis SegrZnebas omTan dakavSirebiT, daucvelobis grZnobas, skolaSi

siarulis SeuZleblobas. politikosebi iZulebuli iyvnen, maTTvis moesminaT.

maT parlamentSi sabolood warmoadgines angariSi samuSaos mimdinareobis

Sesaxeb, romelSic mocemuli iyo wina parlamentis mier gakeTebuli

rekomendaciebi.

marTalia, angariSi mxolod ramdenime konkretulad Sesrulebul sakiTxs

moicavda, magram igi uCvenebda bavSvebs, rom maTi azrebi seriozulad

ganixileba. parlamentis mesame sxdoma fokusirebuli iyo bavSvebisTvis

megobruli garemos mqone skolis Seqmnaze. wina wlebisgan gansxvavebiT,

yuradReba gamaxvilebuli iyo gaumjobesebaze da ara kritikaze.

arsebiTi mniSvnelobis mqone faqtori, romelsac unda eCvenebina, rom

parlamenti ar iyo ubralod simboluri Jesti, iyo is, rom politikosebma

uCvenes yvelas, rom maT surdaT bavSvebis mosmena, maTi winadadebebisa da

maT mier wamoWrili sakiTxebis gaTvaliswineba da praqtikulad moqmedeba,

rodesac ki es SesaZlebeli iqneboda. garda amisa, procesma yvelas daanaxva,

rom bavSvebs SeuZliaT sakuTar TavSi demokratiuli pasuxismgeblobis

grZnobis Camoyalibeba.

monawileobisTvis arsebuli barierebi

miuxedavad kargi magaliTebisa, bavSvebis da axalgazrdebis xmebis mniSvnelobis

gaTviTcnobiereba da maTTan praqtikuli muSaoba jer kidev Canasaxis stadiaSia.

saxelmwifo politikasTan dakavSirebuli konsultaciebi bavSvebTan da

axalgazrdebTan kvlavac axal da bolomde gaurkvevel koncefciad rCeba. jer

kidev bevria gasakeTebeli imisaTvis, rom bavSvebisa da axalgazrdebis xmebi

struqturulad CairTos samoqalaqo sazogadoebis gadawyvetilebebSi.

gadawyvetilebebis miRebaSi monawileobis miRebisas axalgazrdebis mxardaWera

ufrosebisTvis rTuli da sapasuxismgeblo amocanaa, Tumca jer kidev cota


avSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis

65

maTgani Tu gadis Sesabamis trenings. ufrosebis (maT Soris mSoblebis) uaryofiTi

damokidebuleba axalgazrdebis monawileobis mimarT bariers qmnis.

miuxedavad imisa, rom axalgazrdebi sul ufro metad ebmebian monawileobaze

dafuZnebul proeqtebSi, Sefasebis Sedegebi gviCvenebs, rom maTi gavlena

saxelmwifo gadawyvetilebebis miRebaze jer kidev mcirea, Tumca es maCvenebeli

gansxvavdeba konteqstebis da sxvadasxva tipis organizaciebis mixedviT.

kidev karga xani gava, vidre bavSvebis mosmenis kultura maTTan dakavSirebuli

sakiTxebis da Sesabamisi gadawyvetilebebis miRebis nawili gaxdeba. imisaTvis,

rom daculi iyos bavSvebis ufleba, moisminon maTi azri, ufrosebma jerovani

yuradReba unda miaqcion da gaiTvaliswinon maTi Sexedulebebi.

Sefaseba

ganixileT Tqvens qveyanaSi bavSvebTan dakavSirebuli erovnuli samoqmedo

gegmis statusi da mis SemuSavebaSi bavSvebisa da axalgazrdebis monawileoba.

damatebiTi literatura da resursebi

bavSvebTan Sexvedris oficialuri angariSi: bavSvebis sakiTxebze momuSave ombudsmenebis

evropuli qseli, 17/11/2003:

http://www.ombudsmet.org/Organisations/vieworg.aspid=2872&fromEnoc=e

gaeros bavSvebTan dakavSirebul sagangebo sesiaze bavSvebis monawileobis Sedegad miRebuli 12

gakveTili, `Save the Children~, 2004:

http://www.savethechildren.ca/whatwedo/rights/12lessons stc.pdf

irlandiis obmudsmenis ofisi, 2005-2006 wlis wliuri angariSi

http://www.oco.ie/whatsNew/annual reports.aspx

msoflio moZraoba bavSvebisTvis:

http://www.gmfc.org/index.php/gmc6/homepage

bavSvebis CarTva bavSvebTan dakavSirebuli erovnuli samoqmedo gegmis CamoyalibebaSi: saerTo

miTiTebebi mTavrobebisTvis; 2002, `Save the Children~: www.crin.org/resources/infoDetail.aspID=3145

`SeiZleba saocrebis gazomva: saxelmwifo gadawyvetilebebis miRebaSi axalgazrdebis

monawileobis Sefaseba da kvleva~; perpetua qirbi, karnegis axalgazrdaTa iniciativa:

http://cypi.carnegieuktrust.org.uk/files/2643 MeasuretheMagic 001.pdf


66

Tavi 2: bavSvis uflebebi da profesiuli Jurnalisturi

praqtika

1. qcevis kodeqsebi da saredaqcio saxelmZRvanelo principebi

ZiriTadi Sesaswavli Temebi

ra saWiroa qcevis kodeqsebi

kodeqsebi detaluri da normatiuli unda iyos Tu zogad principebs

moicavdes

qcevis kodeqsebi da movaleoba

qcevis kodeqsebi da presis Tavisufleba

pasuxismgeblobis da Tavisuflebis Sedareba

qcevis kodeqsebi im wesebis krebulebia, romlebiTac imarTeba qceva da

saredaqcio gadawyvetilebebis miReba. msoflios sxvadasxva qveyanaSi

Camoyalibebuli Jurnalisturi qcevis kodeqsebi exmianeba profesionali

Jurnalistebis winaSe wamoWril sirTuleebs. es principebi JurnalistebisTvis

ufro farTod cnobilia profesiuli eTikis kodeqsis, qcevis kodeqsis

an Jurnalistikis kanonebis saxeliT. ZiriTad kodeqsebs, Cveulebriv,

adgenen JurnalistTa profesiuli asociaciebi da, agreTve, individualuri

sagamomcemlo, samauwyeblo da internet-axali ambebis organizaciebi.

Tumca kodeqsebSi SeiniSneba garkveuli gansxvaveba. ZiriTadad, maTSi

mocemulia iseTi saerTo elementebi, rogorebicaa WeSmaritebis principebi,

sizuste, obieqturoba, miukerZoebloba, samarTlianoba, pasuxismgeblobis

grZnoba sazogadoebis winaSe faseuli informaciis mopovebisTvis gamoyenebuli

sainformacio wyaroebis anonimurobis dacvasa da amgvari informaciis

sazogadoebisTvis Setyobinebaze.

mravali sxva eTikuri sistemis msgavsad, Jurnalisturi eTika moicavs

`zianis SezRudvis~ princips. es xSirad niSnavs iseTi detalebis dafarvas

sazogadoebisgan, rogorebicaa bavSvebis vinaoba, gaupatiurebis msxverplTa

vinaoba, informacia, romelsac ar gaaCnia raime mniSvnelovani kavSiri

konkretul ambavTan (romlis gamJRavnebas, magaliTad, SeuZlia vinmesTvis zianis

miyeneba) da, aseve, TviTmkvlelobis dros gamoyenebuli meTodebi.

Jurnalistikis kodeqsebis ganviTareba

Jurnalistikis aRiarebuli principebis mizania sazogadoebisTvis umaRlesi

xarisxis ambebis miwodeba, informaciis gavrcelebis misiis ganxorcieleba

saxelmwifo interesTa momsaxurebis mizniT. Tu ras niSnavs `saxelmwifo

interesi~, dRemde debatebis sagania. igi SeiZleba exebodes `saerTo~ an

`zogad~ keTildReobas.

gaerTianebuli samefos da irlandiis JurnalistTa erovnulma kavSirma


avSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis

67

Camoayaliba Tavisi Tvalsazrisi `saxelmwifo interesebis~ mniSvnelobasTan

dakavSirebiT:

seriozuli danaSaulis an samarTaldarRvevis aRmoCena an gamoaSkaraveba;

sazogadoebis janmrTelobisa da usafrTxoebis dacva;

romelime individis an organizaciis raime gancxadebis saSualebiT

sazogadoebis SecdomaSi Seyvanis Tavidan acileba;

saxelmwifo organoebis mier saxelmwifo saxsrebis aradaniSnulebisamebr

gamoyenebis an korufciis sxva formebis gamomJRavneba;

xelisuflebisa da zegavlenis mqone jgufebs Soris interesTa potenciuri

konfliqtis gamoaSkaraveba;

korporaciuli angarebis gamovlena;

farisevluri qcevis gamomJRavneba maRali Tanamdebobis pirebis mxridan.

zogadad Tu vimsjelebT, Jurnalisturi kodeqsebi warmoiqmna Jurnalistebis

Zvel eTikur Secdomebze dakvirvebis da maTze reagirebis safuZvelze. dRes

dasaqmebis zogierTi piroba savaldebulod acxadebs amgvari kodeqsebis dacvas,

rogorc TanamSromlebis, aseve StatgareSe JurnalistebisTvis; Jurnalistebi

SeiZleba daiTxovon samuSao adgilebidan eTikuri kodeqsis darRvevis gamo.

Jurnalistebi Zalian xSirad aRmoaCenen xolme, rom, Tu ar surT samsaxuris

dakargva, sakuTari eTikuri Sexedulebis sawinaaRmdegod mouwevT moqmedeba.

msoflioSi qcevis pirveli kodeqsi 1936 wels gamosca gaerTianebuli samefos da

irlandiis JurnalistTa erovnulma kavSirma, rogorc damqiravebelma organom.

kodeqsebis formulireba xSirad warmoadgenda Jurnalistebis gamoxmaurebas

sakiTxebze, romlebic dakavSirebuli iyo mediasaSualebaTa sakuTrebasTan da

sakuTrebis koncentraciasTan.

Jurnalisturi eTikis kodeqsebi Seqmnilia gzis gasakvlevad sxvadasxva iseT

sirTuleebSi, rogorebicaa interesTa konfliqti an Jurnalistebis daxmareba

eTikur dilemebTan dakavSirebiT. kodeqsebi Jurnalistebs aZlevs sistemas

TviTmonitoringisa da sakuTari saqcielis cvlilebisTvis. profesiuli

standartebis dacva aseve zrdis axali ambebis saagentoebis reputacias da

ndobas maT mimarT, rac, Tavis mxriv, zrdis maTi mkiTxvelebisa Tu auditoriis

moculobas. axali ambebis im organizaciebSi, romlebmac miiRes Jurnalisturi

eTikis zogadi standartebi da cdiloben maT dacvas, SeiZleba sxvadasxva iyo

maTi muSaobis da aRniSnuli standartebis dacvis xarisxi. miuxedavad amisa,

axali ambebis saagentos sam upirveles aqtivs warmoadgens profesionalizmi,

sandooba da angariSvaldebuleba sazogadoebis winaSe. organizacia maRal

reputacias moipovebs da inarCunebs, nawilobriv, eTikuri standartebis mudmivi

dacviT, rac zegavlenas axdens mis mdgomareobaze sazogadoebaSi da dargSi.

yvelaze maRali reputaciis mqone inglisurenovan gamocemebsa da mauwyeblobebs

Sorisaa: britaneTis samauwyeblo korporacia (BBC), kanadis samauwyeblo

korporacia (CBC), gazeTi `gardiani~ (Guardian) (romelsac hyavs mkiTxvelTa

warmomadgeneli); aSS-Si `uoSington posti~ (Washington Post), `niu iork taimsi~


68

(New York Times)”, `uol strit jorneli~ (Wall Street Journal), axali ambebis sakabelo

arxi (CNN), erovnuli sazogadoebrivi radio (NPR) da saxelmwifo mauwyeblobis

samsaxuri (PBS). zemoT CamoTvlili organizaciebis umetesobas aqvs sakuTari

saredaqcio saxelmZRvanelo principebi.

presis Tavisufleba

kodeqsebi SemuSavebuli aqvT im qveynebis axali ambebis organizaciebs, sadac

presas miniWebuli aqvs Tavisufleba. zogierT qveyanaSi erTze meti kodeqsi

arsebobs. Cveulebriv, gazeTebsa da mauwyeblobebs gansxvavebuli kodeqsebi aqvT

da isini gansxvavebul iuridiul bazas asaxavs. mauwyeblobaTa Jurnalistebi

ufro regulirebul garemoSi muSaoben.

ganviTarebul qveynebSi presis Tavisufleba gulisxmobs, rom yvela adamians

aqvs sakuTari azris werilobiT an misTvis sasurveli sxva formiT gamoxatvis

ufleba. adamianis uflebaTa sayovelTao deklaraciaSi naTqvamia:

`yvelas aqvs azrisa da gamoxatvis Tavisufleba. es Tavisufleba moicavs

adamianis uflebas, hqondes sakuTari azri da daubrkoleblad moiZios, miiRos

da gaavrcelos informacia da mosazrebebi yovelgari saSualebiT, miuxedavad

sazRvrebisa~.

arasamTavrobo organizaciebma Seamowmes presis Tavisuflebis done

msoflioSi. organizaciam `reportiorebi sazRvrebs gareSe~, romlis saqmianoba

adamianis uflebaTa sayovelTao deklaraciis zemoxsenebul muxls eyrdnoba,

Camoayaliba msoflio presis Tavisuflebis indeqsi, romlis gamoyenebiTac igi

iTvlis romelime qveyanaSi mokluli, JurnalistTa rigebidan garicxuli an

Seuracxyofili Jurnalistebis raodenobas, saxelmwifo monopoliis arsebobas

televiziasa Tu radioSi da cenzuris an TviTcenzuris dones mediaSi. igi aseve

afasebs mediis saerTo damoukideblobas da im sirTuleebs, romlebic SeiZleba

warmoiSvas ucxoeli Jurnalistebis winaSe. organizaciis `reportiorebi

sazRvrebs gareSe~ informaciiT, msoflios mosaxleobis mesamedze meti

cxovrobs iseT qveynebSi, sadac presa ar aris Tavisufali (qveynebis

klasificireba mocemulia internetSi misamarTze http://www.rsf.org/). im sxva

organizaciebs Soris, romlebic monitorings uweven presis Tavisuflebas, aris

JurnalistTa saerTaSoriso federacia.

presis damoukideblobis cneba mWidrod ukavSirdeba presis Tavisuflebis

cnebas. imisaTvis, rom mediam kargad imuSaos demokratiis pirobebSi, aucilebelia

misi Tavisufleba rogorc politikuri, aseve ekonomikuri zewolisagan.

Jurnalisturi standartebis da eTikis Temas aSS-Si yvelaze xmamaRla ganixilavs

profesional JurnalistTa sazogadoeba. misi eTikis kodeqsis preambulaSi

naTqvamia:

`...sazogadoebis ganaTleba win uZRvis samarTlianobas da demokratiis


avSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis

69

safuZvels warmoadgens. Jurnalistis movaleobaa aRniSnulisken

swrafva simarTlis gziT da movlenebisa da sakiTxebis samarTliani da

yovlismomcveli gaSuqeba. mediis nebismieri formis da sferos samarTliani

Jurnalistebi cdiloben, umwikvlod da gulwrfelad emsaxuron

sazogadoebas. Jurnalistisadmi ndobis safuZvels profesiuli wesiereba

da Tanmimdevruloba warmoadgens.~

es exmaureba amerikis konstitucias, sadac sityvis Tavisufleba daculia

kanoniT, xolo cnobili pirveli Sesworeba acxadebs, rom `kongresi ar miiRebs

raime imgvar kanons, romelic SezRudavs sityvis an presis Tavisuflebas...~

axali respublikis mier gamocxadebul arc erT doqtrinas ar gamouwvevia

aseTi didi gamoxmaureba msoflioSi, rogorc azris Tavisuflad gamoxatvis

deklaracias. Tumca sxvadasxva saxelmwifos SeiZleba sakuTari mizezi hqondes

Jurnalistebis qcevis SezRudvisTvis _ magaliTad, JurnalistebisTvis

samuSao licenziis gacemisTvis mxolod im SemTxvevaSi, Tu isini mTavrobis

survilebis mixedviT moqmedeben. amgvari damokidebuleba miuRebeli unda iyos

JurnalistisTvis, romelic afasebs sakuTar damoukideblobas da sakuTar Tavs

ganixilavs rogorc sazogadoebis Tvalebs da yurebs da ara rogorc marionets

elitis xelSi.

mTavrobebs xSirad `mediis araswori moqmedeba~ mohyavT mizezad imisTvis, rom

gaamarTlon maTTvis dawesebuli SezRudvebi. ai, ratom aris mniSvnelovani

JurnalistikisTvis TviTregulireba iseTi sistemiT, romelic iqneba gamWvirvale

da zogadad miRebuli mediis sferoSi.

mediis regulireba sul ufro mniSvnelovani xdeba, Tumca aseve xSiria

sruliad sawinaaRmdego azrebic. zogierTi gamonaklisiT, winaaRmdegobis

koncentrireba xdeba ara im standartebze, romlebiskenac unda miiswrafodes

media demokratiul garemoSi, aramed TviTregulirebis da kanonmdeblobis

safuZvelze regulirebis urTierTsawinaaRmdego mxareebze.

magaliTad, gaerTianebuli samefos presis sabWos qcevis kodeqsi gansazRvravs

Jurnalistebisa da redaqtorebisaTvis mTel rig standartebs, maT Soris

sizustes, piradi cxovrebis pativiscemis zogierT formas, dacvas bavSvebisa

da daucveli pirebisTvis, magram ara _ samarTlianobas an miukerZoeblobas.

Tumca es kodeqsi ar aris kanonis ZaliT savaldebulo. presis sabWom

Seadgina igi sakanonmdeblo regulirebis Sesaferxeblad garkveuli xarisxis

TviTregulirebis dawesebiT. qcevis kodeqss zurgs umagrebs saCivrebis

procedura da ara Jurnalistebisa da redaqtorebis qcevis yoveldRiuri

disciplina. misi ganmtkicebis reJimi seleqciuri da retrospeqtiulia: presis

saCivrebis komisia, romelic Sedgeba gazeTis redaqtorebisa da araprofesionali

wevrebisgan, Seiswavlis saCivarebs kodeqsis darRvevasTan dakavSirebiT da

gamoaqvs saTanado gadawyvetilebebi.

kodeqsebi, romlebic Seqmnilia Jurnalisturi organizaciebis, profkavSirebis,


70

presis sabWoebis an `bi-bi-si~-s msgavsi organizaciebis mier da uzrunvelyofs

saxelmZRvanelo principebs da xelmZRvanelobas, SeiZleba SevadaroT iseT

kodeqsebs, romlebic iZleva miTiTebebs da asrulebs maregulirebeli wesebis

funqcias, rogorebicaa presis sabWoebis kodeqsebi skandinaviis qveynebSi.

arsebobs winaaRmdegoba im adamianebs Soris, romlebic yvela tipis kodeqsebs

presis Tavisuflebis SezRudvad miiCneven da romlebic kodeqsebSi xedaven

daxmarebas pasuxismgeblobiT aRsavse JurnalistikisaTvis. es ukanaskneli

Sexeduleba, ZiriTadad, axasiaTebs evropul tradicias, xolo pirveli ufro

amerikeli JurnalistebisTvis aris damaxasiaTebeli, romelTa tradicia

gamomdinareobs aSS-is konstituciis zemoT moyvanili pirveli Sesworebidan.

ras unda moicavdes kodeqsi

miuxedavad imisa, zedmetad dawvrilebiTia Tu ara miTiTebebis Semcveli

kodeqsi, igi SeiZleba moicavdes sityvis Tavisuflebas da Jurnalistur

gamoZiebas. magram kodeqsi, iqneba es mxolod misi monaxazi Tu dawvrilebiTi

teqsti, SeiZleba imden saSualebas Seicavdes interpretaciisTvis, rom TiTqmis

SeuZlebeli gaxdes misi amoqmedeba.

efeqtianobisTvis kodeqsSi mocemuli unda iyos ZiriTadi principebi, romelTa

safuZvelzec surT Jurnalistebs sakuTari Sromisa Tu qcevis Sefaseba.

magaliTad, marTalia, Jurnalistebs aqvT sakuTari azris gamoTqmis ufleba,

maTi mxridan Tanamdebobis borotad gamoyenebaa maTi piradi Sexedulebebis

warmoCena da iseTi informaciis ugulebelyofa, romelsac isini ar eTanxmebian.

axali ambebis komentireba da analizi kanonieri da sasurveli saSualebaa,

romlis daxmarebiTac xdeba azrebis gaziareba, Tumca gansxvaveba unda gakeTdes

axal ambebsa da informacias da komentarsa Tu analizs Soris.

regulirebis nebismieri forma uzrunvelyofs angariSvaldebulebis sistemas.

am sistemis arsebiTi damaxasiaTebeli Tviseba is aris, rom `wesebi~ zegavlenas

axdens praqtikul muSaobaze – an Sesabamisobis garantirebiT, an darRvevebis

swrafad aRdgenis uzrunvelyofiT.

mediis TviTregulireba angariSvaldebulebis gansakuTrebuli formaa, vinaidan

misi mizania sazogadoebis darwmuneba imaSi, rom SeiZleba mediis sferos

profesionalebis ndoba, rom isini daicaven sazogadoebis uflebas _ hqondes

Tavisufali da damoukidebeli media.

sawyis wertilad TviT praqtokosebi unda mogvevlinon. adamianebis umetesoba

dasTanxmdeba Semdegi sakiTxebis kodeqsSi Setanas:



mediis Tavisuflebis principebis, sazogadoebis uflebis, xeli miuwvdebodes

informaciaze da Jurnalistebi uflebis, imoqmedon sakuTari sindisis

mixedviT, dacva;

sizuste da uzustobebis gasworeba;


avSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis

71







faqtebisa da komentarebis gansxvaveba;

piradi cxovrebis pativiscema, gansakuTrebiT janmrTelobis arasaxarbielo

mdgomareobisas da uaxloesi adamianis dakargvis dros;

bavSvebis, danaSaulis msxverplis an sxva daucveli jgufebis dacva;

informaciis wyaroebis dacva;

zianis miyenebis da diskriminaciis Tavidan acileba;

waqezebis da interesTa konfliqtis Tavidan acileba.

yovelTvis iarsebebs wesebidan gamonaklisi. marTalia, sizuste mediis yvela

profesionalisTvis xelSeuxebel siwmindes unda warmoadgendes, aseve saWiroa

miTiTebebis Camoyalibeba iseTi SemTxvevebisTvis, roca ufro metma sargeblobam

(sazogadoebis uflebam, icodes) _ rasac zogjer `sazogadoebis upirvelesi

interesis sagans~ uwodeben _ SeiZleba gaamarTlos kodeqsidan gadaxveva.

gaerTianebul samefoSi, magaliTad, azris gamoxatvis ufleba TavisTavad

ganixileba `saxelmwifo interesis~ konteqstSi. rogorc sagazeTo industria

(presis saCivarTa komisia), aseve gaerTianebuli samefosa da irlandiis

JurnalistTa erovnuli kavSiri moiTxovs `gamonaklis~ garemoebebs kodeqsis

iseTi darRvevebis dasasabuTeblad, roca saqme exeba bavSvebs, magram aseve

aRiarebs, rom gadaxra maTi (msgavsi, magram gansxvavebuli) kodeqsebidan SeiZleba

dasabuTdes, Tu misi motivia:

danaSaulis an seriozuli administraciuli samarTaldarRvevis aRmoCena an

gamoaSkaraveba;

sazogadoebrivi janmrTelobis da usafrTxoebis dacva;

sazogadoebis dacva romelime individis Tu organizaciis araswori

gancxadebis an qmedebisgan.

efeqtianobis misaRwevad aucileblad unda arsebobdes kodeqsis Sesrulebis

zedamxedvelobis saSualeba _ Jurnalisturi organizaciebisa Tu iseTi

arasaxelmwifo organos mier, romelsac endoba rogorc media, aseve sazogadoeba

– da romlis daxmarebiT darRvevebis SemTxvevebSi SesaZlebeli iqneba garkveuli

formiT situaciis gamosworeba an kompensaciis miReba.

Jan klod bertrani (ix. qvemoT) gvirCevs, rom xarisxis kontroli SeiZleba

Caataros dainteresebul pirTa samma jgufma – mflobelebma, profesionalebma

da momxmareblebma – cal-calke an erTad sxvadasxva kombinaciaSi, da amisaTvis

gamoiyenon `mediis angariSvaldebulebis sistemebi“.

mediis angariSvaldebulebis sistemebi

mediis angariSvaldebulebis sistemebi is saSualebebia, romlebic

uzrunvelyofs mediis socialur pasuxismgeblobas da mediisa da

Jurnalistebis mxridan profesionalTa mier dadgenili eTnikuri wesebis

pativiscemas. mediis angariSvaldebulebis yvela sistemis mizania axal


72

ambebze momuSave mediis gaumjobeseba, Tumca aRniSnuli sistemebi Zalian

mravalferovania. es SeiZleba iyvnen:








individebi (magaliTad, ombudsmeni an mkiTxvelTa warmomadgenlebi);

adamianebis jgufebi (magaliTad, Sinaarsis Semfasebeli komisiebi);

regularuli Sexvedrebi (magaliTad, presis adgilobrivi sabWoebi);

individualuri dokumentebi (magaliTad, eTikuri kodeqsebi);

mcire media (magaliTad, Jurnalisturi ganxilvebi);

sagangebo operaciebi (magaliTad, eTikuri auditi);

xangrZlivi procesi (magaliTad, sauniversiteto ganaTleba an siRrmiseuli

kvleva).

mediis angariSvaldebulebis sistemebi ramdenime mizans isaxavs. es miznebia:





kritika, mediis gamosworebis yvelaze martivi da yvelaze popularuli

meTodi;

monitoringi, amJamad aucilebeli, radgan gamodis uamravi mediaproduqti,

Tumca maTi sicocxlis xangrZlivoba moklea;

mediis xelmisawvdomoba - yvelas unda SeeZlos yvela saxis mediiT sargebloba

da mosaxleobis yvela jgufs unda SeeZlos informaciis gavrceleba

mediasaSualebebiT;

treningi, mediis problemaTa umetesobis grZelvadiani gadaWra: rogorc

profesionalTa ganaTleba, ise moqalaqeebis aRqmis unaris gazrda.

mediis angariSvaldebulebis zogierTi sistema warmoiSva Tavad mediaSi (amis

magaliTia mediasaSualebebSi araswori informaciisTvis bodiSis moxda), sxvebi

gaCnda sistemis gareT (magaliTad, Jurnalisturi ganxilva), xolo zogierTi

efuZneba TanamSromlobas mediasa da sazogadoebas Soris (magaliTad, presis

sabWoebi).

Secdomebis aRiareba yovelTvis Znelia, gansakuTrebiT iseT sferoSi, romlis

funqciaa sando informaciis miwodeba sazogadoebisTvis im movlenebisa da

sakiTxebis Sesaxeb, romlebic zemoqmedebas axdens mis cxovrebaze. magram

Secdomis aRiareba saqveynod da uzrunvelyofa imisa, rom amgvari Secdomebi

aRar gameordes, yvelaze efeqtiani gzaa mediasa da sazogadoebas Soris ndobis

ganmtkicebisTvis.

saerTaSoriso kodeqsebi

msoflios TiTqmis yvela qveynis mier bavSvis uflebaTa konvenciis ratificireba

miuTiTebs imaze, rom adamianis da bavSvis uflebebi sayovelTao da ganuyofel


avSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis

73

uflebebad ganixileba. da mainc, aris Tu ara raime sayovelTao standartebi,

romlebsac unda icavdes Jurnalisti dRevandlamde ar Seqmnila JurnalistTa

qcevis sayovelTao kodeqsi. arsebobs mravali regionuli da saxelmwifo

kodeqsi, saerTaSoriso korporaciebs Camoyalibebuli aqvT Tavisi sakuTari

miTiTebebi (Tumca adamianis uflebaTa evropul sasamarTlos Seqmnili aqvs

presis TavisuflebasTan dakavSirebuli wesebi).

werilobiTi formiT Camoyalibebuli kodeqsebi da praqtikuli standartebi

gansxvavdeba sxvadasxva qveyanasa da organizaciaSi, Tumca ZiriTadad mainc

xSiria maT Soris Tanxvedra.

eTikis kodeqsi zrdis eTikuri sakiTxebis aRqmis da maTze msjelobis unars,

ganamtkicebs daxmarebas individis mimarT moraluri TvalsazrisiT da xels

uwyobs organizaciis identurobis grZnobis Camoyalibebas.

JurnalistTa saerTaSoriso federaciis azriT, Jurnalisturi samuSaos

safuZvels warmoadgens sityvis da informaciis Tavisufleba. igi mouwodebs

saredaqcio damoukideblobisa da mediis TviTregulirebisken da xels uwyobs

debatebs JurnalistikaSi eTikasTan dakavSirebiT. igi aseve propagandas

uwevs profesiul standartebs, rogoricaa deklaracia Jurnalistebis qcevis

principebis Sesaxeb. federaciam specialuri saxelmZRvanelo miTiTebebi

Camoayaliba bavSvebTan dakavSirebul sakiTxebze muSaobisTvis. Jurnalisturi

saqmianoba, romelic exeba bavSvebis cxovrebasa Tu keTildReobas, yovelTvis

unda ganxorcieldes bavSvebis daucvelobis donis gaTvaliswinebiT.

JurnalistTa saerTaSoriso federaciis kodeqsi Zalian mniSvnelovania, vinaidan

igi mravali saxelmwifos kodeqsebs daedo safuZvlad.

bavSvebTan dakavSirebuli qcevis kodeqsi

JurnalistTa saerTaSoriso federacias miaCnia, rom yvela Jurnalistis da

mediis profesionalis valia ara mxolod umaRlesi eTikuri da profesiuli

standartebis dacva, aramed bavSvis uflebaTa konvenciis Sesaxeb informaciis

rac SeiZleba farTod gavrceleba.

JurnalistTa saerTaSoriso federaciis azriT, mediaorganizaciebi bavSvis

uflebaTa darRvevis da bavSvis usafrTxoebasTan, pirad cxovrebasTan,

uSiSroebasTan, ganaTlebasTan, janmrTelobis dacvasa da socialur

uzrunvelyofasTan, aseve eqspluataciis yvela formasTan dakavSirebul

sakiTxebs unda ganixilavdnen, rogorc gamoZiebisa da sazogadoebrivi

msjelobis sagans.

garda amisa, media ar unda ganixilavdes da acnobdes sazogadoebas bavSvebis

Sesaxeb siuJetebs mxolod rogorc calkeul ambebs. igi mudmivad unda

saubrobdes im procesebze, romlebsac mivyavarT an SeuZlia Cveni miyvana amgvar

SemTxvevebamde.


74

JurnalistTa saerTaSoriso federaciis bavSvebTan dakavSirebuli

sakiTxebis gaSuqebis saxelmZRvanelo principebi

Jurnalistebma da masobrivi informaciis saSualebebma yvelaferi unda

gaakeTon imisaTvis, rom ar gadauxvion umaRles eTikur standartebsa da

normebs bavSvTa problemebis gaSuqebisas. kerZod:

1. bavSvebis sakiTxebis gaSuqebisas maT Zalisxmeva ar unda daiSuron

sizustisa da koreqtulobis dasacavad;

2. unda moeridon iseTi fotoebisa da informaciis gamoqveynebas

bavSvebisaTvis gankuTvnil mediasivrceSi, romelic saziano iqneba

maTTvis;

3. moeridon publikaciebis gapopularebis mizniT bavSvebTan dakavSirebuli

problemebis sensaciur da stereotipul gaSuqebas;

4. bavSvebTan dakavSirebuli nebismieri masalis gamoqveynebisas

saguldagulod awon-dawonon SesaZlo Sedegebi da minimumamde daiyvanon

zianis faqtori;

5. Tu amas sazogadoebrivi interesi ar moiTxovs, daicvan bavSvis vinaoba

da ar gamoaqveynon misi fotoebi;

6. rodesac es SesaZlebelia, miscen bavSvebs masmediis saSualebiT TavianTi

azrebis gamoxatvis SesaZlebloba yovelgvari zewolis gareSe;

7. uzrunvelyon bavSvis mier mowodebuli informaciis damoukidebeli

Semowmeba da gansakuTrebuli yuradReba miaqcion imas, rom am

informaciis Semowmebisas informator bavSvs safrTxe ar Seeqmnas;

8. moeridon bavSvebis seqsualur formaSi gadaRebuli fotoebis

gamoqveynebas;

9. gamoiyenon bavSvebis fotoebis mopovebis samarTliani, Ria da pirdapiri

meTodebi da, rodesac es SesaZlebelia, moipovon isini bavSvebis, maTze

pasuxismgebeli piris an meurvis TanxmobiT;

10. Seamowmon im organizaciebis uflebamosileba, romlebic bavSvebis

saxeliT laparakoben an warmoadgenen bavSvTa interesebs;

11. bavSvis cxovrebis pirobebis amsaxveli siuJetisaTvis mopovebuli

masalis safasuri ar gadauxadon arc bavSvs da arc bavSvis mSoblebsa

Tu meurveebs, Tu es namdvilad bavSvis interesebSi ar Sedis.

mediis organizaciebi Tavad qmnian saxelmZRvanelo miTiTebebs, romlebic

exeba maT muSaobas bavSvebTan dakavSirebul sakiTxebze. `bi-bi-sis~ saredaqcio

saxelmZRvanelo principebi, romlebic aqamde cnobili iyo saxeliT `prodiuseris

saxelmZRvanelo principebi~, adgens im standartebs, romlebsac `bi-bi-si~ icavs


avSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis

75

yvela Tavis gadacemaSi televiziiT, radioTi Tu internetSi. es principebi

yvela im adamianisTvisaa, romlebic qmnian eTerSi gasaSveb gadacemebs. isini

exmareba Jurnalistebs rTuli sakiTxebis gadaWraSi. aRniSnuli principebi

Seicavs sagangebo nawilebs bavSvebTan dakavSirebiT.

`bi-bi-si~-s saxelmZRvanelo principebSi naTqvamia, rom korporacia cdilobs,

daicvas im bavSvebisa da axalgazrdebis keTildReoba, romlebic monawileoben

da Cndebian maT gadacemebSi, cdiloben, agreTve, daicvan bavSvebis ufleba, maTi

xma gaigonon msoflios yvela kuTxeSi, sadac ki mauwyeblobs `bi-bi-si~.

`bi-bi-si~-s saxelmZRvanelo principebi mniSvnelovania ara mxolod imitom,

rom gamoxatavs `bi-bi-si~-s, rogorc maRali xarisxis axali da mimdinare

ambebis momwodeblis pozicias, aramed imitomac, rom `bi-bi-si~ aqtiur

monawileobas iRebs Jurnalistebis treningSi msoflios mraval qveyanaSi. misi

saxelmZRvanelo principebi Targmnilia ara erT enaze da JurnalistebisTvis

eTikis araoficialuri kodeqsis saxe miiRo.

`bi-bi-si~-s saxelmZRvanelo principebis miznebisTvis, bavSvebs ganekuTvnebian

adamianebi 15 wlamde, xolo 15, 16 da 17 wlis adamianebi ukve axalgazrdebi

arian. Tumca es ar aris iuridiuli gansazRvra da gansxvavdeba gaeros bavSvis

uflebaTa konvenciaSi mocemulisgan, romlis mixedviTac bavSvad iTvleba

adamiani 18 wlamde. es asakobrivi gansxvaveba SeiZleba bavSvis uflebebis

damcvelebsa da romelime Jurnalists Soris davis safuZveli gaxdes. garda

amisa, es erT-erTi im sakiTxTagania, romlebic axali ambebis konteqstSi unda

iqnes ganxiluli.

`bi-bi-si~-s saxelmZRvanelo principebSi naTqvamia:

`bavSvebi da axalgazrdebi Zalian mniSvnelovani arian `bi-bi-si~-sTvis. Cveni

mizania, mivawodoT maT mravalmxrivi, SemecnebiTi, gasarTobi da saintereso

Sinaarsis mqone gadacemebi, raTa davexmaroT, ukeT gaicnon msoflio, sadac

cxovroben. isini mravali sxvadasxva gziT urTierTqmedeben CvenTan –

rogorc Jurnalistebi, msaxiobebi da wamyvanebi, urTierTqmedeben aseve Cveni

internetis da interaqtiuli samsaxurebis meSveobiT.

`yovelTvis advili ar aris balansis dacva Cveni gadacemebis monawile bavSvebis,

maTi mSoblebisa Tu auditoriis urTierTsawinaaRmdego interesebs Soris. Cven

mudmivad unda vicavdeT im bavSvebisa da axalgazrdebis keTildReobasa da

usafrTxoebas, romlebsac Tavisi wvlili SeaqvT Cvens gadacemebSi, sadac ar

unda vimyofebodeT, rac gulisxmobs maT uflebasac, ilaparakon Tavisuflad

da monawileoba miiRon sxvadasxva movlenaSi.~

zogierTma organizaciam, romelTa muSaoba mimarTulia bavSvebisken,

Camoayaliba Sesabamisi saxelmZRvanelo principebi mediisTvis. magaliTad,

`iunisefi~ gvTavazobs saxelmZRvanelo principebs, romlebic, misi azriT,

daxmarebas gauwevs medias, iseTi sifrTxiliTa da delikaturobiT gaaSuqos

bavSvebTan dakavSirebuli sakiTxebi, rogorc es maT asaks Seesabameba. aRniSnuli


76

saxelmZRvanelo principebi mimarTulia eTikurobis saukeTeso ganzraxvebis

dacvisken – emsaxuro sazogadoebis interesebs ise, rom ramenairad ar

SeizRudos bavSvebis uflebebi. es principebia:

1. aucilebelia TiToeuli bavSvis Rirsebisa da uflebebis pativiscema

yvelanair pirobebSi.

2. bavSvebisgan intervius aRebisas da maTze masalebis momzadebisas

gansakuTrebuli yuradReba unda daeTmos TiToeuli bavSvis uflebas

konfidencialurobaze, maTi azris mosmenaze, maT Sesaxeb gadawyvetilebebis

miRebaSi monawileobaze da zianis miyenebisa da SurisZiebisgan, maT Soris

zianis miyenebisa da SurisZiebis SesaZleblobisgan dacvaze.

3. TiToeuli bavSvis WeSmariti interesebis dacvas unda mieniWos upirvelesi

mniSvneloba nebismier sxva sakiTxTan SedarebiT, maT Soris bavSvebTan

dakavSirebuli sakiTxebis lobirebisa da bavSvis uflebaTa xelSewyobasTan

SedarebiT.

4. bavSvis WeSmariti interesebis gansazRvrisas gansakuTrebuli yuradReba

unda mieqces bavSvis uflebas, mxedvelobaSi iqnes miRebuli misi

Sexeduleba misi asakisa da simwifis gaTvaliswinebiT.

5. bavSvis situaciasTan yvelaze axlos mdgom da mis sakiTxebSi kargad

garkveul adamianebTan unda Catardes konsultaciebi nebismieri

reportaJis politikur, socialur Tu kulturul Sedegze.

6. arasodes unda gamoqveyndes raime iseTi ambavi an foto, romelmac

SeiZleba riskis qveS moaqcios bavSvi, misi da-Zma an Tanatolebi, maSinac

ki, roca maTi vinaoba Secvlilia, daukonkretebelia an sulac ar aris

moxseniebuli.

saxelmZRvanelo principebi JurnalistebisTvis, romlebic maT unda gamoiyenon

bavSvebisgan intervius aRebisas, bavSvis uflebaTa sainformacio qselmac

Camoayaliba.

bavSvis uflebaTa sainformacio qseli: eTikuri saxelmZRvanelo

principebi bavSvebTan dakavSirebuli sakiTxebis gaSuqebisaTvis



arasodes gamoaqveynoT raime iseTi siuJeti an foto, romelmac SeiZleba

riskis qveS moaqcios bavSvi, misi da-Zma an Tanatolebi, maSinac ki, roca

maTi vinaoba Secvlilia, daukonkretebelia an sulac ar aris moxseniebuli;

nu miayenebT raime zians bavSvs; moerideT iseT kiTxvebs an komentarebs,

romlebic SeiZleba sadavo aRmoCndes kulturuli TvalsazrisiT da

romlebic bavSvs Seuqmnis safrTxes, daucvels gaxdis Seuracxyofisgan an

gaaRviZebs masSi tkivils da wuxils, gamowveuls travmuli movlenebiT;


avSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis

77





interviusTvis bavSvis SerCevisas nu mimarTavT diskriminacias sqesis, rasis,

asakis, rwmenis, mdgomareobis, ganaTlebis an fizikuri SesaZleblobebis

niSniT;

moerideT stereotipebis gamoyenebas da sensaciur prezentacias im

Jurnalisturi masalis popularizebis mizniT, romelic bavSvebs exeba;

moerideT inscenirebas: ar sTxovoT bavSvs im ambebis moyola an gansaxiereba,

romlebic piradad mis cxovrebaSi ar momxdara;

darwmundiT, rom bavSvma da misma meurvem ician, rom esaubrebian

korespondents. auxseniT intervius mizani da Tanamimdevroba;

intervius aRebis, videoCanaweris gakeTebisa da fotogadaRebebis

SemTxvevaSi miiReT nebarTva bavSvisa da misi meurvisgan. roca es

SesaZlebelia, nebarTva unda iyos werilobiTi. nebarTva imisTvisaa saWiro,

rom uzrunvelyoT bavSvis da misi meurvis interviuSi Zaldautaneblad

monawileoba. isini unda aTviTcnobierebdnen, rom im siuJetis moqmedi

pirebi arian, romelic SeiZleba gaSuqdes adgilobrivad da globalurad;




SezRudeT korespondentebisa da fotografebis raodenoba. ecadeT, rom

intervius msvlelobisas bavSvebi komfortulad grZnobdnen Tavs da ar

ganicdidnen zewolas;

yovelTvis zustad gadmoeciT bavSvis Sesaxeb siuJetis an fotos konteqsti;

yovelTvis SecvaleT vinaoba da dafareT grafikuli gamosaxuleba im

bavSvisa, romelic aris

a) seqsualuri Zaladobis an eqspluataciis msxverpli;

b) damnaSave fizikur an seqsualur ZaladobaSi;

g) aiv matarebeli an cxovrobs Sids-iT daavadebul adamianebTan, Tu

amis uflebas ar mogcemT bavSvi, misi mSobeli an meurve;

d) danaSaulSi eWvmitanili an msjavrdebuli.



sxva bavSvebTan an/da ufrosebTan (sasurvelia orivesTan) gasaubrebis

gziT darwmundiT bavSvis monaTxrobis sizusteSi;

Tu eWvobT, rom bavSvs safrTxe emuqreba, moyeviT bavSvebTan dakavSirebuli

zogadi situaciis Sesaxeb da ara konkretuli bavSvisa, ramdenad

sensaciuric unda iyos ambavi.

mediis angariSvaldebulebis sistemebi saqarTveloSi

saqarTveloSi mediis angariSvaldebulebis sistemebi uaxles warsulSi

Camoyalibda. moqmedi sistema iyofa or kategoriad, savaldebulod Sesasrulebel

qcevis wesebad, romlis ukanac dgas saxelmwifoebrivi instituti, saqarTvelos

konumikaciebis erovnuli komisiis saxiT, da JurnalistTa nebayoflobiTi

gaerTianeba – qartia.


78

garda amisa, saqarTveloSi moqmedi mediasaSualebebi amkvidreben sakuTar

eTikur standartebs, romlis Sesruleba iq dasaqmebuli Jurnalistis Sromis

xelSekrulebis ganuyofeli nawili xdeba. magaliTad, sazogadoebrivi

mauwyeblisa da gazeT “baTumelebis” eTikis kodeqsebi.

`mauwyebelTa qcevis kodeqsiT~ arasrulwlovanTa gaSuqebis standartebi

mimovixileT pirveli nawilis meore TavSi `adamianis uflebebi saqarTvelos

kanonmdeblobaSi~. 5

rac Seexeba Jurnalistebis eTikis qartias, is miiRes da daamtkics im pirebma,

romlebic dasaqmebuli arian mediaSi. 2009 wlis 4 dekembers 138 Jurnalistma

moawera xeli eTikur standartebs, riTac nebayoflobiT aRiara am principebisadmi

erTguleba da maTi dacvis valdebuleba.

rogor muSaobs angariSvaldebulebis sistemebi

angariSvaldebulebis sistemis efeqturobas mniSvnelovnad ganapirobebs ori

faqtori:

1. moqalaqeTa aqtiuroba;

2. TviTregulirebis sistemis uflebamosilebis farglebi.

moqalaqeTa aqtiuroba vlindeba TviTregulirebis Sesabamis organoSi 6

gancxadebebis an saCivrebis wardgeniT. mniSvnelovania, rom umetes SemTxvevaSi

TviTregulirebis organo ixilavs iseTi saxis darRvevebs, romlebic Tavisi

SinaarsiT sasamarTlos gansaxilveli ar aris. dava sasamarTlo ganxilvis

sagani SeiZleba gaxdes mxolod im SemTxvevaSi, Tu Juranlistma daarRvia

konkretuli piris uflebebi da Tavisuflebebi. magaliTad, `mauwyeblobis

Sesaxeb~ saqarTvelos kanonis me-14 muxlis Tanaxmad TviTregulirebis

farglebSi Cadenili darRvevis SemTxvevaSi dainteresebul pirs ufleba

aqvs idavos mxolod am sistemis farglebSi. es gulisxmobs imas, rom sadavo

sakiTxis (an Tundac TviTregulirebis farglebSi miRebuli gadawyvetilebis)

gasaCivreba SeuZlebelia komunikaciebis erovnul komisiaSi an sasamarTloSi.

mocemuli wesidan arsebobs mxolod ori gamonaklisi. dava mauwyebelTa

TviTregulirebis sistemas SesaZlebelia gascdes, Tu mauwyebelma daarRvia

procedura, anu saCivris ganxilvis wesebi. agreTve, uxamsi masalis gavrcelebiT

dairRva saqarTvelos konstituciiT daculi sxva romelime ufleba. magaliTad,

piris pativi da Rirseba.

mauwyebelTa TviTregulirebis farglebSi momxdar darRvevasTan dakavSirebiT

mniSvnelovani precedentia saqarTvelos komunikaciebis erovnuli komisiis 2010

wlis 15 martis gadawyvetileba `teleimedis~ mier mauwyebelTa qcevis wesebis

darRvevasTan dakavSirebiT.

5 ix. zemoT

6 aq igulisxmeba komisiebi, saapelacio sabWoebi, qartiis sabWo da a.S. yvela is organo, romelic ixilavs

mediaeTikis wesebis darRvevis sakiTxebs. mniSvnelovania, rom yovel maTgans aqvs dadgenili wesebi,

romlebic gansazRvravs maT uflebamosilebas da romelTa dacviTac unda imoqmedon.


avSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis

79

rac Seexeba, JurnalistTa eTikis qartiis sicocxlisunarianobasa da misi

pasuxismgeblobis xarisxs, masac mniSvnelovnad gansazRvravs qartiis sabWo,

romelsac evaleba qartiis principebis darRvevasTan dakavSirebuli saCivrebis

ganxilva da gadawyvetilebis miReba. `teleimedis~ mier Cadenil darRvevasTan

dakavSirebiT sabWomac Seqmna saintereso precendenti 2010 wlis 25 marts.

aRniSnuli gadawyvetileba mniSvnelovania im TvalsazrisiT, rom qartiis sabWo,

komunikaciebis erovnuli komisiisgan gansxvavebiT, msjelobs ara mauwyeblis

mier Cadenil darRvevaze, aramed konkretuli Jurnalistis mier eTikuri

normebis dacvis sakiTxze. 7

angariSvaldebulebis sistemebis umTavresi funqciaa masalis Seqmnis procesSi

eTikuri standartebis Sesruleba. es uzrunvelyofs sazogadoebisaTvis sando,

zusti da drouli informaciis miwodebas. garda amisa, Jurnalistebsa da

mediasaSualebebs aZlevs darRvevebis minimumde dayvanis SesaZleblobas.

damatebiTi literatura

saqarTvelos kanoni `mauwyeblobis Sesaxeb~;

saqarTvelos komunikaciebis erovnuli komisiis 2009 wlis 12 martis dadgenilebiT

damtkicebuli `mauwyebelTa qcevis kodeqsi~.

saqarTvelos sakonstitucio sasamarTlos 2009 wlis 10 noembris

N 1/3/421,422 gadawyetileba saqmeze: `saqarTvelos moqalaqeebi – giorgi yifiani da

avTandil ungiaZe saqarTvelos parlamentis winaaRdeg~.

www.gpb.ge

www.mediasabcho.blogspot.com

www.gncc.ge

Sefaseba

am nawilis dasawyisSi CamoTvlilia ramdenime ZiriTadi Sesaswavli Tema.

SegiZliaT upasuxoT qvemoT mocemul kiTxvebs moqmedebis standartebi,

kanonebis msgavsad, moraluri normebis kodificirebis mcdelobaa. xandaxan

moraluri da eTikuri normebi erTmaneTs ewinaaRmdegeba. igive xdeba kanonebis

SemTxvevaSic. SegiZliaT moiyvanoT magaliTi, roca Tavisufali sityvisa da

presis Tavisuflebis ufleba ewinaaRmdegeba bavSvis uflebebs romeli iqneboda

prioritetuli

7 saqme exeboda 2010 wlis 13 marts telekompania `imedis~ mier `modelirebuli qronikis~ eTerSi

gaSvebas, romelic warmoadgenda inscenirebas, Tumca kadrs ar axlda warwera inscenirebis Taobaze. am

gadawyvetilebis gacnoba SesaZlebelia qartiis blogze www.mediasabcho.blogspot.com


80

damatebiTi literatura da resursebi

`qcevis kodeqsebi~, maik jemfsoni, “ze presuaiz trasti” (The PressWise Trust):

http://www.mediawise.org.uk/display_page.phpid=792

`iunisefi~: `bavSvebTan dakavSirebuli Temebis eTikuri gziT gaSuqebis principebi~:

http://www.presswise.org.uk/display page.phpid=594

profesional JurnalistTa sazogadoeba; eTikis kodeqsi:

http://www.spj.org/ethiccode.asp

`vin aris pasuxismgebeli kontrolze~ _ saxelmZRvanelo globaluri mediis pirobebSi azris

Tavisuflad gamoxatvis uflebisTvis Seqmnili safrTxeebis Temaze mrgvali magidis garSemo

diskusiisTvis, JurnalistTa saerTaSoriso federacia, 2005.

`bavSvTa uflebebi da media~: JurnalistTa saerTaSoriso federaciis saxelmZRvanelo miTiTebebi

da principebi bavSvebTan dakavSirebuli sakiTxebis gaSuqebisas:

http://www.ifj.org/default.aspindex=192&language=EN

JurnalistTa saerTaSoriso federacia: http://www.ifj.org/

`Jurnalistebis eTika~, riCard qibli, London: Routledge, 2001.

`mediis eTika da angariSvaldebulebis sistemebi~, klod-Jan bertrani, tranzeqSen pabliSerzi

(Transaction Publishers), 2000.

`globaluri Jurnalistika: ZiriTadi sakiTxebi da mediasistemebi~. arnold de biri da jon si.

merili, Allyn & Bacon, 2003.


avSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis

81

danarTebi

`bi-bi-si~-s saredaqcio principebi bavSvebis gaSuqebasTan

dakavSirebiT

programaze muSaobis, misi eTerSi gaSvebis an internetSi ganTavsebis dros unda

uzrunvelvyoT, rom daculi iyos 18 wlamde adamianebis, gansakuTrebiT ki 15

wlamde asakis bavSvebis Rirseba, aseve maTi fizikuri da emociuri keTildReoba,

miuxedavad maTi an maTi mSoblebis, meurveebis an mSoblebis magieri sxva pirebis

Tanxmobisa.

unda uzrunvelvyoT, rom bavSvebisa da axalgazrdebis programebSi CarTvam ar

gamoiwvios maTi aRelveba an daTrgunva. maTi CarTva saredaqcio TvalsazrisiT

unda iyos sruliad gamarTlebuli da saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi maT daxmareba

unda gaewios.

Cven unda davabalansoT Cveni pasuxismgebloba _ davicvaT bavSvebi da

axalgazrdebi Seuferebeli Tanxmobis micemisgan da, amave dros, SevunarCunoT

azris Tavisuflad gamoxatvisa da informaciis Tavisuflad miRebis ufleba.

bavSvebi da Tanxmoba

bavSvebis da 18 wlamde axalgazrdebisgan intervius asaRebad unda movipovoT

Tanxmoba maTi mSoblebis, kanonieri meurveebis an mSoblebis magieri pirebisgan.

rac ufro mcirewlovani da daucvelia bavSvi da rac ufro delikaturia misi

istoria, miT ufro aucilebeli xdeba Tanxmoba. kerZod, Tanxmobis gareSe

dauSvebelia, vTxovoT bavSvebs, gviambon TavianTi Sexedulebebi iseT sakiTxebze,

romlebic scildeba maT SesaZleblobas, gagvcen saTanado pasuxi.

programis Sinaarsze pasuxismgebelma adamianma, romelic Tavis produqciaSi

apirebs bavSvebisa da axalgazrdebis CarTvas:

• unda uzrunvelyos, rom bavSvs da, saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi, mis mSobels/

meurves an 18 wlis an ufrosi asakis adamians, vinc misi mSoblis magivrobas

asrulebs, esmodes programis Sinaarsi da gacnobierebulad SeeZlos

Tanxmobis micema;

• unda moipovos Tanxmoba bavSvis an axalgazrdisgan, xolo uaris SemTxvevaSi

pativi sces mis gadawyvetilebas. imis gadawyvetisas, SeuZlia Tu ara

bavSvs interviuze Tanxmobis micema, mxedvelobaSi unda iqnes miRebuli

misi ganviTarebis done, asaki da informaciis gaTviTcnobierebis unari.

• programaSi bavSvis monawileobasTan an TanamSromlobasTan dakavSirebiT,

Cveulebriv, unda moipovos mSoblis/meurvis/mSoblis magieri sxva

adamianis Tanxmoba, garda im SemTxvevebisa, roca bavSvi monawileobs

gadacemaSi iseT araproblemur sakiTxebze, rogoricaa, vTqvaT, jibis

fuli an sayvareli momRerali.


82

• roca mSobeli uars ambobs Tanxmobis gacemaze, unda mimarTos maRali

rangis redaqtors an, damoukidebeli telekompaniis SemTxvevaSi, mTavar

redaqtors an gamoSvebis redaqtors, romlebmac problemis gadasaWrelad

unda gamoiyenon saredaqcio politika. nebismieri gadawyvetileba mSoblis

Tanxmobis gareSe bavSvis an axalgazrdis monawileobis gagrZelebasTan

dakavSirebiT mxolod maSin aris dasaSvebi, Tu es SemTxveva sazogadoebrivi

interesis sagania, an Tu irRveva bavSvis an axalgazrdis ufleba,

Tavisuflad gamoxatos da gamoTqvas sakuTari azri.

• unda uzrunvelyos, rom bavSvs ganemartos misi monawileobis nebismieri

savaraudo Sedegebi, magaliTad, masze zewolis SesaZlebloba.

• finansurad ar unda daainteresos bavSvi an misi mSobeli/meurve Tanxmobis

miRebis mizniT. xarjebis anazRaureba dasaSvebia mxolod maSin, Tu isini

dasabuTebuli da kanonieria.

• bavSvebis gadaRebisas skolis SenobaSi an saswavlo periodSi unda

aiRos nebarTva ufrosi maswavleblisgan. kanonis mixedviT, saswavlo

mecadineobebis saaTebSi nebismieri gadaRebis nebarTvas gascemen

ganaTlebis adgilobrivi uflebamosili organoebi.

Tu bavSvs piradi informaciis mowodebas internetis meSveobiT vTxovT, unda

movifiqroT, mSoblis mxridan, ra saxis Tanxmoba iqneba Sesaferisi.

nebismieri SemoTavazeba, romelic exeba bavSvis piradi cxovrebis Sesaxeb

informaciis mesame mxarisTvis Tanxmobis gareSe gadacemas, magaliTad, im SemTxvevaSi,

Tu veWvobT, rom bavSvze Zaladoba ganxorcielda, unda ecnobos redaqciis

maRali Tanamdebobis pirs, xolo damoukidebel telekompaniaSi _ gamoSvebis

redaqtors, romelic aRniSnul sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT konsultacias

gaivlis saredaqcio politikis zedamxedvelTan da programis iuridiul

konsultantTan.

bavSvis satelefono interviuze mowvevis SemTxvevaSi unda vTxovoT mas,

darekvamde aiRos nebarTva mSoblisgan an saubris safasuris gadamxdeli

pirisgan. gamonaklis SemTxvevaSi, roca satelefono saubari grZeldeba erT

wuTze met xans, Setyobineba unda daiwyos imiT, rom bavSvs ecnobos, rom saWiroa

Tanxmobis miReba. bavSvebTan dakavSirebul yvela samsaxurSi unda gamoiyenebodes

satelefono saubrebis gawyveta, xolo bavSvebis momsaxurebasTan dakavSirebuli

satelefono zarebis Rirebuleba, Cveulebriv, ar unda aRematebodes werilis

moweris xarjebs.

bavSvebisa da axalgazrdebis monawileoba

unda gaviTvaliswinoT yvelanairi zemoqmedeba da SesaZlo Sedegi, romelic

SeiZleba mohyves bavSvis monawileobas raime masalaSi, iqneba es mzadebis

procesi Tu masalis gamoqveynebis Semdgomi periodi. es exeba yvela SemTxvevas,

miuxedavad imisa, miRebulia Tu ara mSoblis Tanxmoba.


avSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis

83

bavSvebs xSirad uxariaT programebSi monawileoba. Tumca imis gamo, rom ara

aqvT sakmarisad ganviTarebuli gansjis unari, ver xvdebian, Tu ra gavlena

SeiZleba iqonios maT cxovrebaze maTi istoriis gamoqveynebam. bavSvebis

asocialuri qmedebebis gaSuqebisas, saukeTeso midgomis gamosaZebnad da

stresis minimumamde dasayvanad, unda gaviTvaliswinoT eqspertTa azri.

gansakuTrebiT iseTi qmedebebis gaSuqebisas, rogorebicaa narkotikuli

nivTierebebis moxmareba, Zaladoba, kvebasTan dakavSirebuli darRvevebi da

fizikuri Tu fsiqologiuri zewola.

xSirad mizanSewonilia, rom mtkivneuli sakiTxis ganxilvisas bavSvs axldes mesame

piri _ naTesavi, ojaxis megobari an maswavlebeli. es niSnavs, rom bavSvTan iqneba

adamiani, romelsac is icnobs da romelic daexmareba misi interesebis dacvaSi.

unda uzrunvelvyoT, rom bavSvebs da axalgazrdebs hqondeT TavianTi saTqmelis

gamoxatvis saSualeba, magram imaSic unda davrwmundeT, rom maTi naTqvami simarTles

Seesabameba, rom isini ar cdiloben movlenis gazviadebas, vinmes saameblad araswori

informaciis mowodebas an Woris faqtad gasaRebas. uyuradRebod ar unda darCes

sisxlis samarTlis danaSauli an antisocialuri qceva.

anonimuroba

rTuli eTikuri sakiTxi wamoiWreba, rodesac unda gadavwyvitoT, asocialuri

an kriminaluri qcevis SemTxvevaSi ra aris bavSvis interesSi: misi vinaobis

gamJRavneba Tu anonimurobis dacva. rogorc wesi, aseTi qcevis asaxvisas ar

unda gavamJRavnoT bavSvis vinaoba movlenis ilustrirebis mizniT, garda im

SemTxvevebisa, roca bavSvis vinaobis gamJRavnebas safuZvlad udevs mkafio

saredaqcio dasabuTeba. aseT dros, Tu darwmunebuli ara xarT, rogor moiqceT,

yovelTvis mimarTeT redaqciis maRali Tanamdebobis pirs an, damoukidebel

telekompaniaSi, gamoSvebis redaqtors.

asocialuri qcevis SemTxvevaSi bavSvis identificirebasTan dakavSirebuli

yvela sakiTxi SeTanxmebuli unda iyos programis iuridiul konsultantTan.

im bavSvis CarTva programaSi, gadaReba da vinaobis gamJRavneba, romlis

mSoblebic CarTulni arian asocialur da kriminalur saqmianobaSi, SesaZlebelia

mxolod maSin, Tu amiT bavSvis keTildReobas safrTxe ar daemuqreba da Tu es

dasabuTebulia saredaqcio politikiT. amas gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba aqvs,

rodesac bavSvebs SeiZleba raime safrTxe emuqrebodeT, magaliTad, rodesac

bavSvi loT mSoblebTan cxovrobs an rodesac mas aiZuleben, Seasrulos

narkokurieris roli.

bavSvebis dacva internetSi

Cveni mizania, uzrunvelvyoT, rom uaxlesi teqnologiiT sargeblobisas bavSvebi

da axalgazrdebi acnobierebdnen SesaZlo riskebs da icodnen, rogor Seamciron

es riskebi. bavSvTa dacva internetSi `bi-bi-si~-s, mSoblis/meurvis da bavSvis

erToblivi pasuxismgeblobaa.


84

bavSvisTvis Seuferebelia internet-sivrce, sadac ucxo pirebs SeuZliaT

informaciis gacvla-gamocvla, Tu ar aris xelmisawvdomi cifruli

identifikaciis saimedo meTodi. es saWiroa imisaTvis, rom SeuZlebelia

internetis momxmarebeli bavSvis dacva. nebismieri sapirispiro SeTavazeba unda

ecnobos axali mediisa da teqnologiis direqtors.

sifrTxile gvmarTebs imasTan dakavSirebiT, Tu ra raodenobis personalur

informacias SevagrovebT, SevinaxavT da gamovaqveynebT `bi-bi-si~-s vebgverdze

bavSvebze. informaciis didi moculobiT gamoqveynebam SeiZleba safrTxe

Seuqmnas bavSvs.

bavSvebi, internetSi ganTavsebuli masalebis Sinaarsi da bmulebi

unda uzrunvelvyoT, rom is vebgverdebi, romlebsac savaraudod bevri bavSvi

da axalgazrda estumreba, maTi asakisTvis Sesabamisi Sinaarsis matarebeli iyos.

kerZod:

• `bi-bi-sis~ sawyis vebgverdze ganTavsebuli nebismieri informacia misaRebi

unda iyos farTo sazogadoebisTvis, aseve bavSvebisa da axalgazrdebisTvis.

`bi-bi-sis~ sawyisi vebgverdidan erTi dawkapunebiT SeuZlebeli unda

iyos iseTi Sinaarsis gverdze gadasvla, romelic miuRebelia farTo

sazogadoebisTvis;

• samauwyeblo vebgverdze, romelic izidavs bavSvebsa da mozardebs, ar

unda iyos miTiTebuli iseTi samauwyeblo bmuli, romlis radio- an

teleprograma moicavs bavSvebisTvis Seuferebel Sinarss.

• sawyis vebgverdze pirdapir gaSvebuli satelevizio kadrebi misaRebi unda

iyos ojaxuri auditoriisTvis;

• Cven unda vamowmebdeT mesame mxareebis internetgverdebs da imas, Tu sad

SeiZleba iqidan gadasvla;

• bavSvebis auditoriisTvis ar unda ganvaTavsoT iseTi `CeTis~ bmuli,

romelsac ar hyavs moderatori.

• Cven moderatorobas vuwevT bavSvebisTvis mimzidvel vebgverdebs,

sadac informacia momxmareblebis mieraa gamoqveynebuli, da, aseve,

internetsivrceebs, sadac momxmareblebs sTavazoben suraTis gamogzavnas

misi gamoqveynebis mizniT.

Jurnalistebis statusi da Jurnalisturi eTika: JurnalistTa

saerTaSoriso federaciis principebi

1. zogadi principebi

1.1 JurnalistTa saerTaSoriso federacias, romelic warmoadgens 450 000-ze met

Jurnalists 100-ze meti qveynidan, miaCnia, rom Tavisufal da damoukidebel


avSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis

85

profkavSirebSi organizebuli profesionali Jurnalistebi gadamwyvet

rols TamaSoben demokratiuli mediakulturis ganviTarebaSi.

1.2 JurnalistTa saerTaSoriso federaciis rwmeniT, demokratiis ganviTareba

damokidebulia azris gamoxatvis Tavisuflebis da sazogadoebrivi

samarTlis sazRvrebis gafarToebaze. demokratiis ganviTarebas gansazRvravs

demokratiul sazogadoebaSi mediis gansakuTrebuli rolis gacnobiereba.

1.3 JurnalistTa saerTaSoriso federacias miaCnia, rom mediam pativi unda sces

presis Tavisuflebis profesiul, eTikur principebs, rasTanac pirdapir

kavSirSia azris gamoxatvis Tavisufleba.

JurnalistTa saerTaSoriso federacia presis Tavisuflebas Semdegnairad

gansazRvravs:

`es aris SezRudvebisgan gaTavisufleba, rac aucilebelia imisaTvis, rom

Jurnalistebs, redaqtorebs, gamomcemlebsa da mauwyeblobebs mieceT

SesaZlebloba, gazardon sazogadoebrivi interesi faqtebis gamoqveynebis,

gaSuqebisa Tu gavrcelebis meSveobiT, ris gareSec demokratiul eleqtorats

ar SeuZlia pasuxismgeblobiT aRsavse gadawyvetilebebis miReba.~

JurnalistTa saerTaSoriso federaciis azriT, am Tavisuflebis gamoxatva

mxolod iq aris SesaZlebeli,

a) sadac arsebobs Tavisufali, pluralisturi media, romelic gamoxatavs

sxvadasxva azrs;

b) sadac arsebobs informaciis Tavisufali nakadi, rac SesaZlebels xdis

informaciis demokratiul gacvla-gamocvlas sazogadoebis nebismier

fenebs Soris, geografiuli sazRvrebis, eTnikuri warmomavlobis,

faseulobebisa Tu enis miuxedavad;

g) sadac moqalaqeebis mier informaciis Tavisuflad miRebis ufleba

kanoniT aris daculi;

d) sadac pativs scemen Jurnalistebis profesiul statuss da maT

damoukidebel rols.

1.4 JurnalistTa saerTaSoriso federacias miaCnia, rom axali ambebisa da

informaciisadmi, rogorc moxmarebis sagnisadmi, damokidebuleba ar unda

uSlides xels Jurnalistis movaleobas, miawodos auditorias informacia

da rom media unda imarTebodes sajaroobis da gamWirvalobis umaRlesi

standartebiT.

1.5 JurnalistTa saerTaSoriso federacias miaCnia, rom sajaro da kerZo

mauwyeblobis Tanaarseboba icavs Tavisuflebas, pluralizms da programebis

mravalferovnebas sazogadoebis yvela fenis sasargeblod.


86

1.6 JurnalistTa saerTaSoriso federacia adasturebs, rom Jurnalisturi

eTikis dacva da maRali standartebis uzrunvelyofa mediis profesionalebis

pasuxismgeblobaa.

1.7 JurnalistTa saerTaSoriso federaciis Rrma rwmeniT, kanoni ar unda

ereodes im sakiTxebSi, romlebic Jurnalistebis uSualo pasuxismgeblobas

warmoadgens, kerZod, informaciis momzadebaSi, SerCevasa da gadacemaSi.

2. profesiis miReba

2.1 profesiis miReba Tavisufali unda iyos. momavali Jurnalistis profesiuli

done rac SeiZleba maRali unda iyos.

2.2 staJiorma Jurnalistma unda gaiaros saTanado treningi gamomcemlebisa da

Jurnalistebis profkavSirebTan SeTanxmebuli pirobebis Sesabamisad.

2.3 Tanamdebobaze unda dainiSnon mxolod kvalificiuri Jurnalistebi,

anu adamianebi, romlebsac aqvT minimaluri profesiuli kvalifikacia,

dadasturebuli Jurnalistebis profkavSiris da mediis organizaciebis

mier. amgvari Jurnalistebi kvalificiurad koleqtiuri xelSekrulebebiT

unda iqnen aRiarebulni. damqiraveblebi aRiareben, rom im sazogadoebis

asaxva, romelsac emsaxurebian, zogadad mediis, kerZod ki damqiraveblis

movaleobaa.

3. sindisi

3.1 Jurnalistebs unda hqondeT maTi sindisis Sesabamisad moqmedebis ufleba.

damqiraveblis politikuri, filosofiuri an religiuri msoflmxedvelobis

fundamenturi cvlilebis SemTxvevaSi Jurnalists unda hqondes ufleba,

gaufrTxileblad Sewyvitos kontraqti da miiRos iseTive kompensacia,

ramdensac damqiravebeli gadauxdida kontraqtis Tavisi iniciativiT

gawyvetis SemTxvevaSi.

3.2 damqiravebelma an damqiraveblis saxeliT moqmedma romelime pirma ar

unda miuTiTos arc erT Jurnalists iseTi qmedebis Cadena, romelic,

Jurnalistis azriT, xelyofs mis profesiul eTikas, romelic gansazRvrulia

Jurnalistebis mier miRebul eTikis kodeqsSi, an arRvevs JurnalistTa

saerTaSoriso federaciis mier damtkicebul Jurnalisturi qcevis

principebis kodeqss. arc erTi Jurnalisti ar unda daisajos sakuTari

sindisis Tanaxmad moqmedebis uflebis dacvis gamo.

4. saredaqcio damoukidebloba

4.1 masobrivi informaciis yvela saSualebaSi daculi unda iyos saredaqcio

damoukideblobis saerTo minimaluri standartebi.


avSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis

87

4.2 aRniSnuli minimaluri standartebi unda asaxavdes:


im faqts, rom redaqciis TanamSromlebi warmoadgenen redaqciebisa da

mauwyeblobebis moralur da inteleqtualur kapitals;

saredaqcio sabWos uflebas, masTan SeTanxmdes gadawyvetilebebi,

romlebic gavlenas axdens:

o ufrosi redaqtoris daniSvnasa da ganTavisuflebaze;

o saredaqcio politikisa da gazeTis/mauwyeblobis Sinaarsis

gansazRvraze;

o sakadro politikaze;

o saredaqcio departamentSi Jurnalistebs Soris davalebebis

ganawileba/cvlilebaze;






saredaqcio sabWos uflebas, gamoTqvas Tavisi mosazreba saredaqcio

politikasTan dakavSirebuli saCivrebis Sesaxeb;

Jurnalistis uflebas, uari Tqvas davalebaze, Tu es davaleba daarRvevs

Jurnalistis profesiul eTikas, romelic Camoyalibebulia qcevis

kodeqsSi;

saredaqcio kolegiis uflebas, airidos mesame mxareTa menejmentis

mxridan saredaqcio SinaarsSi Carevis SesaZlebloba;

evropis Jurnalistebis uflebas, miiRon Tanabari anazRaureba da iyvnen

Tanasworni karieruli zrdis TvalsazrisiT;

saCivrebis SemTxvevaSi saredaqcio sabWo, ufrosi redaqtori da menejmenti

atareben molaparakebas, romelSic, arsebuli Sromis/presis kanonis

gaTvaliswinebiT, SeiZleba monawileobdnen JurnalistTa asociaciebisa

da profkavSirebis warmomadgenlebi.

5. TviTregulireba da Jurnalisturi eTika

5.1 JurnalistTa saerTaSoriso federacias miaCnia, rom eTikis an qcevis

kodeqsebi unda Seiqmnas Tavad Jurnalistebis mier.

5.2 JurnalistTa saerTaSoriso federaciis mier 1954 wels Camoyalibebuli

qcevis pirveli kodeqsi gvacnobs eTikis principebs, romlebic miRebulia

evropis yvela saxelmwifos Jurnalistur organizaciaTa warmomadgenlebis

mier. Sesabamisad, JurnalistTa saerTaSoriso federaciis qcevis kodeqsi

iZleva baziss Jurnalistebisa da gamomcemlebis mier eTikuri sakiTxebis

saerTo gagebisaTvis (rac nebayoflobiT xasiaTs atarebs). JurnalistTa

saerTaSoriso federacias miaCnia, rom am sferoSi saxelmwifoTa mTavrobebi

ver Seasruleben aqtiur rols.


88

JurnalistTa saerTaSoriso federaciis deklaracia Jurnalisturi

qcevis principebis Sesaxeb

winamdebare saerTaSoriso deklaracia gamocxadebulia profesiuli saqmianobis

standartad JurnalistebisTvis, romlebic movlenebis aRweris mizniT agroveben,

gadascemen, komentars ukeTeben da avrceleben axal ambebsa da informacias.

1. Jurnalistis upirvelesi movaleobaa, pativi sces simarTles da

sazogadoebis uflebas, icodes simarTle;

2. aRniSnuli movaleobis Sesrulebisas, informaciis patiosani gziT

Segrovebisa da gamoqveynebis procesSi, Jurnalistma yovelTvis unda daicvas

Tavisuflebis principi da samarTliani komentarisa da kritikis ufleba;

3. Jurnalistma movlenebis Sesaxeb unda ganacxados mxolod im faqtebze

dayrdnobiT, romelTa warmoSobis wyaro misTvis cnobilia. man ar unda

dafaros an gaayalbos dokumentebi;

4. informaciis, fotoebisa da dokumentebis Segrovebisas Jurnalistma

mxolod samarTliani meTodebi unda gamoiyenos;

5. Tu Jurnalistma aRmoaCina, rom gamoqveynebuli informacia arasworia,

rasac zianis motana SeuZlia, man unda mimarTos yvela SesaZlo

gamosasworebel zomas;

6. konfidencialurad mopovebuli informaciis SemTxvevaSi Jurnalistma

unda daicvas informaciis wyaros anonimuroba;

7. Jurnalists gaTviTcnobierebuli unda hqondes mediis mier diskriminaciis

gaRvivebis saSiSroeba. man yvelaferi unda gaakeTos imisaTvis, rom xeli

ar Seuwyos diskriminacias rasis, sqesis, seqsualuri orientaciis, enis,

religiis, politikuri xedvis, erovnuli da socialuri warmoSobis niSniT;

8. Jurnalistma seriozul profesiul danaSaulad unda miiCnios:



plagiati;

informaciis Segnebulad damaxinjebulad gadmocema;

Worebi, reputaciis Selaxva, diskreditacia, usafuZlo

dadanaSauleba;

nebismieri saxis qrTamis miReba informaciis damalvis an

gamoqveynebis mizniT;

9. Jurnalistebma, romlebic Rirsni arian, erqvaT Jurnalistis saxeli,

zemoT CamoTvlili principebis Sesruleba Tavis valdebulebad unda

CaTvalon. TiToeuli qveynis zogadi kanonmdeblobis farglebSi

Jurnalistebi profesiul sakiTxebSi unda aRiarebdnen mxolod

kolegebis avtoritets da ar unda uSvebdnen mTavrobebis an sxva

pirebis mxridan raime saxis Carevas.


avSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis

89

miRebulia JurnalistTa saerTaSoriso federaciis 1954 wlis msoflio

kongresze. Sesworebulia 1986 wlis msoflio kongresze.

saqarTvelos Jurnalisturi eTikis qartia

preambula

sityvisa da gamoxatvis Tavisufleba adamianis erT–erTi ZiriTadi uflebaa.

Jurnalistis nebismieri profesiuli ufleba-movaleoba gamomdinareobs

sazogadoebis uflebidan, iyos informirebuli movlenebisa da Tvalsazrisebis

Sesaxeb.

qartia efuZneba evropis sabWos „adamianis ZiriTad uflebaTa da TavisuflebaTa

evropuli konvenciis” me–10 muxlsa da „Jurnalistebis saerTaSoriso federaciis“

mier aRiarebul „Jurnalistebis qcevis principebis deklaracias“. es principebi

profesiuli qcevis standartad damkvidrda im JurnalitebisTvis, romlebic

moipoveben, gadascemen da avrceleben informaciasa da komentarebs mimdinare

movlenebze.

saqarTvelos mediis warmomadgenlebi vcnobT da vaRiarebT qvemoT CamoTvlili

principebis dacvis valdebulebas da am valdebulebasTan dakavSirebul

pasuxismgeblobas. saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobis farglebSi, profesiul sakiTxebs

mxolod Cvenive kolegebis uflebamosilebad ganvixilavT da gamovricxavT

xelisuflebis an sxva Zalis nebismieri saxiT Carevas am uflebamosilebebis

ganxorcielebaSi.

1. Jurnalistma pativi unda sces simarTles da sazogadebis uflebas –

miiRos zusti informacia.

2. dauSvebelia Jurnalistis iZuleba, profesiuli saqmianobisas moiqces an

azri gamoxatos sakuTari sindisis winaaRmdeg.

3. Jurnalistma unda gadasces informacia mxolod im faqtebze dayrdnobiT,

romelTa wyaro dadasturebulia. Jurnalistma ar unda miCqmalos

mniSvnelovani faqtebi, ar unda gaayalbos dokumentebi da informacia.

4. informaciis, fotoebis an dokumentebis mopovebisas Jurnalistma mxolod

keTilsindisieri da samarTliani meTodebi unda gamoiyenos.

5. media valdebulia, Seasworos gamoqveynebuli arsebiTad arazusti

informacia, romelsac SecdomaSi Sehyavs sazogadoeba.


90

6. Jurnalistis moraluri pasuxismgeblobaa, ar gaamJRavnos

konfidencialurad mopovebuli informaciis wyaro.

7. Jurnalists unda esmodes mediis mier diskriminaciis waxalisebis safrTxe;

amitom yvelaferi unda iRonos nebismieri piris diskriminaciis Tavidan

asacileblad rasis, sqesis, seqsualuri orientaciis, enis, religiis,

politikuri da sxva Sexedulebebis, erovnuli an socialuri warmoSobis

safuZvelze an raime sxva niSniT.

8. Jurnalisti valdebulia, daicvas bavSvis uflebebi; profesiuli

saqmianobisas upiratesi mniSvneloba mianiWos bavSvis interesebs, ar

moamzados da ar gamoaqveynos bavSvebis Sesaxeb iseTi statiebi an

reportaJebi, romlebic saziano iqneba maTTvis. Jurnalistma ar unda

CamoarTvas interviu da ar unda gadauRos foto 16 welze naklebi asakis

mozards mSoblis an meurvis Tanxmobis gareSe im sakiTxebze, romlebic

misi an sxva romelime mozardis keTildReobas exeba.

9. saredaqcio masalebi mkveTrad unda gaimijnos marketinguli, sareklamo

da sponsoris mier dafinansebuli masalebisagan.

10. Jurnalistma pativi unda sces adamianis pirad cxovrebas da ar SeiWras

pirad cxovrebaSi, Tu ar arsebobs gansakuTrebuli sazogadoebrivi

interesi.

11. Jurnalistma umZimes profesiul danaSaulad unda miiCnios Semdegi

qmedebebi:

• faqtis ganzrax damaxinjeba;

• nebismieri saxis qrTamis, saCuqris an sxva sargeblis miReba

profesiul saqmianobaze gavlenis moxdenis sanacvlod;

• plagiati.

miRebulia 2009 wels


avSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis

91

2. bavSvTa dacvis strategiebi

ZiriTadi saswavlo Temebi

bavSvTa dacvis strategiebi. ras warmoadgens es strategiebi da ra Sexeba

aqvs maT JurnalistebTan

bavSvTa dacvis strategiebis SemuSaveba

bavSvTa dacvis strategiebis gaziareba

bavSvTa dacvis strategiebi da presis Tavisufleba

Jurnalistebi, romlebic am sferoSi muSaoben, unda icnobdnen bavSvTa dacvis

strategiebs, unda SeeZloT maTTan dakavSirebiT kritikuli recenziebis

momzadeba, unda uzrunvelyon kritikuli mosazrebebis gamoqveyneba da

monitoringi unda gauwion organizaciebsa da mTavrobas, raTa darwmundnen

strategiebis SesrulebaSi.

rogorc CvenTvis ukve cnobilia, gaeros bavSvis uflebaTa konvenciaSi bavSvTa

dacvasTan dakavSirebuli yvelaze mniSvnelovani muxlebia:


me-19 muxli, romelic iTvaliswinebs, rom bavSvebs ufleba aqvT, daculi

iyvnen bavSvze mzrunveli piris mxridan yvelanairi formis fizikuri

Tu sulieri Zaladobisagan, Seuracxyofisa Tu uflebis borotad

gamoyenebisagan, mzrunvelobis moklebisa Tu daudevari mopyrobisagan,

uxeSi moqcevisa Tu eqspluataciisagan, maT Soris seqsualuri

Zaladobisagan;

me-12 muxli, romelic iTvaliswinebs sakuTari Sexedulebebis

Camoyalibebis unaris mqone bavSvis uflebas, Tavisuflad gamoTqvas

Tavisi Sexedulebebi nebismier sakiTxze, romelic mas exeba, da bavSvis

SexedulebebisTvis saTanado yuradRebis daTmobas misi asakisa da simwifis

Sesabamisad;


dasasrul, me-3 muxli, romelic iTvaliswinebs, rom, roca organizaciebi

bavSvebTan dakavSirebul gadawyvetilebebs iReben, upirvelesi yuradReba

unda daeTmos bavSvis interesebis dacvis ukeT uzrunvelyofas.

bavSvTa dacva

bavSvTa dacva gulisxmobs bavSvebis dacvas rogorc ganzrax, aseve winaswari

ganzraxvis gareSe miyenebuli zianisagan. es gansakuTrebiT exeba organizaciebis

_ da aRniSnul organizaciebTan dakavSirebuli pirebis _ movaleobas maTi

mzrunvelobis qveS myofi bavSvebis mimarT. yvela organizaciis pasuxismgeblobaa,

yvelaferi gaakeTos imisaTvis, rom daicvas bavSvebi, romlebTanac urTierToba

aqvs, miuxedavad imisa, bavSvs zians organizaciis SigniT ayeneben Tu mis farglebs

gareT.


92

yvelaze martivi formiT bavSvTa dacva gulisxmobs dacvas yvela bavSvis

uflebisa, ar miayenon ziani. es ufleba avsebs sxva uflebebs, romlebic

uzrunvelyofs, rom bavSvebma miiRon yvelaferi, rac maTi arsebobis,

ganviTarebisa da keTildReobisaTvis aris saWiro.

bavSvis dacva mTel rig mniSvnelovan da gansxvavebul sakiTxebs moicavs. bevri

iseTi sakiTxi, rogoricaa bavSvTa prostitucia, ekonomikur faqtorebTan

aris mWidrod dakavSirebuli. sxva sakiTxebi, magaliTad, ojaxSi an skolaSi

Zaladoba, ufro metad siRaribesTan, socialur faseulobebTan, normebTan

da tradiciebTan aris dakavSirebuli. xSirad saqme kriminalur qmedebebsac

exeba, magaliTad, bavSvebiT trefikingis dros. bavSvTa dacvasTan dakavSirebul

sxvadasxva aspeqts teqnologiuri progresic ki wamoWris. amaze bavSvTa

pornografiis qselis gafarToeba metyvelebs.

gaerTianebuli samefos organizacia `Caildhoup~ (ChildHope) aRwers bavSvebSi

Zaladobis/Seuracxyofis oTx tips:

TviTdazianeba: magaliTad, sakuTari Tavis ganzrax daWra an sakuTari TavisTvis

zianis miyeneba; Tavis mokvlis mcdeloba an Tavis mokvla.

Tanatolebis Seuracxyofa: magaliTad, daSineba (`bulingi~); fizikuri da

seqsualuri Zaladoba; jgufuri Zaladoba.

Zaladoba ufrosebis mxridan: magaliTad, ojaxSi Zaladoba (fizikuri,

fsiqologiuri, seqsualuri); fizikuri dasja skolebSi da organizaciebSi;

seqsualuri Zaladoba da eqspluatacia.

socialuri Zaladoba: socialuri, politikuri, ekonomikuri da kulturuli

garemo, romelic aqtiurad an Sefarulad uwyobs xels Zaladobas bavSvebis mimarT,

magaliTad, politikuri kampaniebi, romlebic xels uwyobs quCis bavSvebisgan

quCebis `gawmendas~; religiebi da kulturebi, romlebic xels uwyoben bavSvebis

fizikur da damamcirebel dasjas, rogorc bavSvis aRzrdis miRebul praqtikas;

masobrivi informaciis saSualebebis mier Zaladobis faqtebis farTo gaSuqeba;

im kulturebis midgomebi, romlebic qadagebs ideebs, rom qalebi da bavSvebi

mamakacebis/mSoblebis `sakuTrebas~ warmoadgenen da ara adamianebs, romlebsac

sxvebis Tanaswori uflebebi aqvT.

bavSvebis winaaRmdeg mimarTuli Zaladoba SeiZleba ganaxorcielon adamianebma

rogorc dawesebulebebSi (magaliTad, maswavleblebma, socialurma muSakebma,

mSoblebma, Tanatolebma, sponsorebma, moxaliseebma), ise dawesebulebebis

gareT (magaliTad, mSoblebma, policiam, gareSe maswavleblebma, maRaziebis

mepatroneebma, bandebma TemSi/sazogadoebaSi).

imis garda, rom dacvaze bavSvis uflebis darRveva adamianis uflebis

darRvevaa, igi bavSvis arsebobisa da ganviTarebisTvis farTod gavrcelebul

da bolomde gauTviTcnobierebel bariers warmoadgens. da piriqiT, roca bavSvis


avSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis

93

uflebebi kargad aris daculi, izrdeba imis Sansi, rom bavSvi fizikurad da

fsiqikurad janmrTel, Tavdajerebul da Rirseul pirovnebad Camoyalibdes

da naklebad savaraudoa, rom man sxvebis, maT Soris sakuTari Svilebis, mimarT

Caidinos Zaladoba an eqspluatacia gauwios vinmes.

bavSvis dacva msoflios yvela qveyanaSi aqtualuri sakiTxia:

30-ze met qveyanaSi 300 000-ze meti jariskaci bavSvi, zogierTi maTgani

8 wlis, ganicdis eqspluatacias SeiaraRebul konfliqtebSi. monacemebis

Tanaxmad, 1990 wlidan moyolebuli, uSualod SeiaraRebuli konfliqtebis

Sedegad or milionze meti bavSvi daiRupa (es sakiTxi ufro detalurad

Semdgom mecadineobazea warmodgenili);

erT milionze meti bavSvi msoflio masStabiT sapatimroebSia moTavsebuli

kanonTan konfliqtis gamo. marto centralur da aRmosavleT evropaSi

TiTqmis 1,5 milioni bavSvi imyofeba saxelmwifos mzrunvelobis qveS;

13 milionze meti bavSvi msoflio masStabiT daoblebulia aiv/Sids-is

Sedegad;

daaxloebiT 250 milioni bavSvia CarTuli bavSvTa SromaSi, xolo 180

milioni bavSvi saxifaTo situaciebSi an pirobebSi muSaobs;

yovelwliurad 1,2 milioni bavSvi xdeba trefikingis msxverpli;

1995 wlis monacemebiT yovelwliurad erTi milioni bavSvi emateba

komerciuli seqsis mravalmiliardian bizness (umetesad gogonebi, magram

bevri biWic). amJamad es cifri SeiZleba ufro maRali iyos;

15 welze umcrosi asakis 40 milioni bavSvi ganicdis Zaladobas da

ugulebelyofas. isini janmrTelobis dacvas da socialur dacvas

saWiroeben.

roca bavSvebi daculi ar arian, es qveynis ganviTarebas uSlis xels da did

samomavlo danaxarjebsa da uaryofiT Sedegebs iwvevs adamianis mTeli cxovrebis

manZilze. vidre bavSvebi Zaladobas, Seuracxyofas da eqspluatacias ganicdian,

msoflio ver Seasrulebs bavSvebis winaSe nakisr valdebulebas; is aseve ver

ganaxorcielebs Tavis swrafvas ganviTarebisaken, rac iseT dokumentebSia

Camoyalibebuli, rogoricaa `aTaswleulis programa~ da misi `aTaswleulis

ganviTarebis miznebi~, ver Seasrulebs verc bavSvis uflebaTa konvenciiT

gaTvaliswinebul saxelmwifoTa valdebulebebs.

bavSvebze unda vrceldebodes adamianis yvela ufleba da, Sesabamisad, maT dacvas

unda axorcielebdes adamianis uflebaTa dacvis yvela meqanizmi saerTaSoriso

da regionul doneebze. es aseve exeba gaeros an adamianis uflebaTa regionul

organoebs (rogoricaa adamianis da xalxebis uflebaTa afrikis komisia) da

qveynebsac, sadac bavSvis ufleba dacvaze unda uzrunvelyon adamianis uflebaTa

dacvis iseTma meqanizmebma, rogoricaa konstituciuri sasamarTloebi.

mTavrobebs SeuZliaT uzrunvelyon, rom ZiriTadi wesebi Sevides kanonmdeblobaSi

da miiRon da danergon ufro yovlismomcveli da detaluri saxelmZRvanelo

miTiTebebi, romelTa Sesrulebas Sesabamisi profesiuli asociaciebi da

organoebi gauweven monitorings.


94

bavSvis uflebaTa ZiriTadi saerTaSoriso meqanizmia bavSvis uflebaTa

komiteti, romlis ZiriTadi funqciaa konvenciis monawile yvela saxelmwifos

mier periodulad warmosadgeni angariSebis ganxilva. es angariSebi unda

Seicavdes informacias kanonmdeblobis da sxva zomebis Sesaxeb, romlebic

saxelmwifom konvenciaSi aRiarebuli uflebebis xorcSesxmis mizniT

gaatara, maT Soris aRniSnuli uflebebis dacvisa da miRweuli warmatebebis

Sesaxeb.

bavSvis uflebaTa konvenciis Tanaxmad, saxelmwifoebi valdebulni arian, daicvan

yvela bavSvi da akisriaT angariSvaldebuleba nebismier warumateblobaze.

magram samarTlebriv standartsa da mis ganxorcielebas Soris didi Seusabamoba

rCeba. es is sferoa, romelSic Jurnalistebs SeuZliaT Careva da kiTxvebis

dasma saxelmwifoTa angariSvaldebulebasTan dakavSirebiT.

bavSvis dacvis Zireuli mizania is, rom yvela im adamianma, romlis movaleobasac

bavSvebis dacva warmoadgens, aRiaros es movaleoba da SeZlos misi cxovrebaSi

gatareba. Jurnalistebma unda dasvan kiTxvebi im adamianebis Sesaxeb, romlebsac

davalebuli aqvT bavSvebis dacva. aqvT Tu ara maT saTanado momzadeba

Semowmebulia, ramdenad sandoni arian

eTikuri da samarTlebrivi imperativebis gaTvaliswinebiT bavSvTa dacva

sazogadoebis yovel doneze yoveli adamianis saqmea. bavSvTa dacvis valdebuleba

ekisreba saxelmwifoebs, mosamarTleebs, policias, maswavleblebs, eqimebs,

socialur muSakebs, jandacvis muSakebs, mSoblebs da medias. es movaleobebi

SeiZleba aisaxos samarTlebriv standartebSi, romlebsac saxelmwifo

praqtikulad ganaxorcielebs. isini aseve SeiZleba aisaxos mTavrobis mier

gakeTebul sxvadasxva arCevanSi, resursebis gamoyenebis CaTvliT. isini sul ufro

met asaxvas poveben maregulirebel normebSi da mediis organizaciebisaTvis

gankuTvnil saxelmZRvanelo miTiTebebSi.

bavSvTa dacva organizaciebSi

bavSvTa dacva yvela im adamianis saqmea, vinc axalgazrdebTan muSaobs. is

miznad isaxavs yvela bavSvis da axalgazrdis keTildReobisa da usafrTxoebis

uzrunvelyofas. bavSvTa dacvis strategiebi xels uwyobs bavSvebisaTvis

usafrTxo organizaciebis Seqmnas, agreTve rTul situaciebTan dakavSirebuli

samarTlebrivi bazis Camoyalibebas. isini aseve xels uwyobs iseTi kulturis

damkvidrebas, romelSic gaTvaliswinebulia bavSvTa saWiroebebi, raTa

organizaciebma sakuTari saqmianoba bavSvis uflebaTa dacvis perspetividan

dainaxon.

`kargad Camoyalibebuli strategia gixelmZRvanelebT rTuli situaciebis

gadaWraSi. krizisis dros SeiZleba ufro Zneli iyos naTlad azrovneba. Tu

saimedo strategia geqnebaT, SeZlebT informaciaze dayrdnobiT imoqmedoT

da Tavidan aiciloT braldebebi mikerZoebul damokidebulebaSi romelime

monawilis sasargeblod an sawinaaRmdegod.~ (ECPAT avstralia).


avSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis

95

bevr organizacias bavSvTa dacvis sakuTari strategia aqvs, romelSic aRniSnul

sferoSi maTi saqmianoba da procedurebia aRwerili. bavSvTa samsaxurebs

ramdenime qveyanaSi gamocemuli aqvT saxelmZRvanelo miTiTebebi da es samsaxurebi

mouwodeben organizaciebs, romlebsac bavSvebTan da axalgazrdebTan kontaqti

aqvT, SeimuSaon bavSvTa dacvis strategia.

organizacia `Caild houpma~ (gaerTianebuli samefo) moamzada paketi bavSvTa dacvis

strategiebisa da procedurebis SemuSavebaSi organizaciebis dasaxmareblad.

am paketSi mocemulia bavSvTa dacvis ZiriTadi principebi da is etapebi,

romlebic saWiroa bavSvTa dacvis strategiebis SemuSavebis, ganxorcielebisa

da SefasebisaTvis. masSi CamoTvlilia eqvsi nabiji `bavSvebisaTvis usafrTxo

organizaciis~ Sesaqmnelad:

1. bavSvTa dacvisa da bavSvebze Zaladobis koncefciebis Seswavla;

2. imis gaanalizeba, Tu ratom sWirdeba organizacias bavSvTa dacvis

strategiebi da procedurebi;

3. bavSvTa dacvis strategiebisa da procedurebis efeqtiani SemuSavebisa da

ganxorcielebisaTvis saWiro saorganizacio principebis ganxilva;

4. rogor unda SemuSavdes politika da procedurebi organizaciaSi;

5. maT Soris maTi ganxorcielebis saxelmZRvanelo miTiTebebi;

6. rogor unda gadailaxos organizaciebis winaSe warmoqmnili dabrkolebebi

da problemebi da maTi gadaWris SesaZlo gzebis ganxilva.

mediis bavSvTa dacvis strategiebi

medias SeuZlia, mniSvnelovani roli Seasrulos bavSvTa dacvis saqmeSi. pirvel

rigSi, mediis organizaciebs SeuZliaT ganaxorcielon bavSvTa dacvis strategiebi,

raTa miiRon zomebi sakuTari TanmSromlebis iseTi qcevis winaaRmdeg, romelsac

SeuZlia, safrTxe Seuqmnas bavSvis uflebebs. magaliTad, `bi-bi-si~ moiTxovs,

rom TanamSromlebma bavSvebTan da axalgazrdebTan mimarTebaSi daicvan misi

`bavSvTa dacvis politika~:

`18 wlamde asakis yvela axalgazrdis keTildReobas CvenTvis gadamwyveti

mniSvneloba aqvs. es niSnavs, rom maTi interesebi da usafrTxoeba nebismier

saredaqcio moTxovnaze ufro prioritetuli unda iyos. yvela bavSvs da

axalgazrdas, maTi asakis, SezRuduli unaris, sqesis, rasobrivi Tu eTnikuri

warmomavlobis, religiuri mrwamsis da seqsualuri orientaciis miuxedavad,

ufleba aqvs, rom isini daculi iyvnen zianisa da Zaladobisagan~.

`Tu Cveni saqmianobis procesSi gagviCndeba eWvi, rom bavSvs SeiZleba raime riski

daemuqros, an Tu axalgazrda gvafrTxilebs, rom yuradReba mivaqcioT bavSvis

keTildReobis sakiTxs (`bi-bi-sis~ TanamSromlebis winaaRmdeg braldebebis


96

CaTvliT), aRniSnuli situaciis Sesaxeb dauyovnebliv unda ecnobos

ganyofilebis menejers, romelic bavSvTa dacvis politikazea pasuxismgebeli.~

axali ambebis saagentoebSi arsebul bavSvTa dacvis strategiaTa umetesobaSi

mocemuli iqneba saxelmZRvanelo miTiTebebi, romlebic exeba bavSvebis vinaobis

gamJRavnebas, axalgazrdebis piradi cxovrebis xelSeuxeblobis pativiscemas

da mzrunvelobis qveS myofi bavSvebis saxelebis gamoyenebis akrZalvas. es

saxelmZRvanelo miTiTebebi uzrunvelyofs, rom procedurebi saTanadod iqnes

gamoyenebuli bavSvebisa da axalgazrdebis keTildReobis dasacavad. bavSvebTan

momuSave zogierTma arasamTavrobo organizaciam gamouSva saxelmZRvanelo

miTiTebebi JurnalistebisaTvis, romlebic bavSvebTan muSaoben da sakuTari

strategiebi aqvT, magaliTad, bavSvebis fotoebis gamoyenebis Sesaxeb.

gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania, rom mediam daxmareba gauwios sazogadoebrivi

azris mobilizebas bavSvTa dacvaSi monawileobasTan da im adamianebis

gamomzeurebasTan dakavSirebiT, romlebic raime formiT (Zaladobis formiT

Tu ubralod Sesabamisi sistemebis naklebobis gamo) safrTxes warmoadgenen

bavSvebisaTvis. mediam mTavrobas angariSi unda mohkiTxos, Tu is ver moaxerxebs

sakuTari bavSvebis dacvas.

Sefaseba

ramdenad mniSvnelovania JurnalistebisaTvis bavSvTa dacvis strategiebis

codna moiZieT magaliTebi axali ambebidan, sadac mTavari Tema bavSvTa dacvaa.

ramdenad informirebulia Jurnalisti bavSvTa dacvis strategiebis Sesaxeb

rogor gaaumjobesebdiT am statias

damatebiTi literatura da resursebi

`Caild houpi~ (gaerTianebuli samefo), bavSvTa dacvis politikis meqanizmebis paketi:

http://www.childhope.org.uk/toolkit.php

`bavSvTa dacva~, saxelmZRvanelo parlamentarebisaTvis, centraluri da aRmosavleT evropisa

da damoukidebel saxelmwifoTa Tanamegobrobis `iunisefis~ regionuli ofisi, 2004


avSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis

97

3. kanonTan konfliqtSi myofi bavSvebi

ZiriTadi saswavlo Temebi






im bavSvebis sakiTxebis gaSuqeba, romelTa saqme sasamarTloSia;

patimrobaSi myof bavSvebTan Sesvlis ufleba;

ra kanoni arsebobs, romelic bavSvebis sasamarTlo procesebs da patimrobis

sakiTxebs exeba

patimrobaSi myofi bavSvebis uflebaTa codna.

arasrulwlovanTa marTlmsajulebis sistema saqarTveloSi

termini `kanonTan konfliqtSi myofi bavSvebi~ exeba 18 wlamde nebismier pirs.

kanonTan konfliqtSi myofi bavSvebis umetesobas Cadenili aqvs naklebad mZime

danaSauli, an iseTi wvrilmani samarTaldarRveva, rogoricaa mawanwaloba, skolis

umizezod gacdena, maTxovroba an alkoholis gadaWarbebiT moxmareba. zogierTi

maTgani cnobilia, rogorc `statusuri samarTaldarRveva~ da ar iTvleba

sisxlis samarTlis danaSaulad, Tu is zrdasruli adamianis mier aris Cadenili.

realurad, amgvari danaSauli naklebad sainteresoa JurnalistebisaTvis, Tu

maT raime gansakuTrebuli interesi ara aqvT, rodesac, magaliTad, bavSvi

gamoCenili adamianis naTesavia. aseT SemTxvevebSi umniSvnelo kanondarRvevebs

ufro metad sensaciuri gamocemebi aSuqeben.

xSirad kanonTan konfliqtSi myof bavSvebs aRar epyrobian rogorc bavSvebs.

amis sanacvlod iTvleba xolme, rom maT mier Cadenili kanondarRveva arTmevs

maT bavSvTa uflebas dacvaze da maT zustad ise epyrobian, rogorc zrdasrul

damnaSaveebs an, uares SemTxvevaSi, sargebloben maTi daucvelobiT.

monacemebi patimrobaSi myofi bavSvebis Sesaxeb mwiria, magram `iunisefis~

Sefasebebis Tanaxmad, kanonTan konfliqtSi yofnis gamo erT milionze meti

bavSvi imyofeba patimrobaSi. bevr qveyanaSi ukve mosmenilia sisxlis samarTlis

sistemaSi moxvedrili bavSvebis saqmeebi da SesaZlebelia maT Sesaxeb oficialuri

cnobebis mopoveba, ase rom, informaciis naklebobas gasamarTlebeli sabuTi

ara aqvs.

patimrobaSi myofi bavSvebis mimarT Zaladobrivi mopyroba farTod gavrcelebuli

da seriozuli problemaa. bavSvis uflebaTa komitetis 37-e Sexvedraze gamoiTqva

SeSfoTeba sxvadasxva qveyenis, maT Soris braziliis, marTlmsajulebis sistemaSi

moxvedrili bavSvebis mimarT arsebul procedurebTan da bavSvebis dacvasTan

dakavSirebiT; aRiniSna, agreTve, angariSebi dakavebis adgilebSi wamebisa da

gausamarTleblad mkvlelobis faqtebis Sesaxeb.

patimrobaSi yofnis periodSi, sasamarTlo procesamdec da mis Semdegac,

bavSvebi Zaladobis riskis winaSe dganan. es SeiZleba iyos fizikuri da


98

seqsualuri Zaladoba ufrosi asakis patimrebis, badragis, policielebisa Tu

sxva arasrulwlovani patimrebis mxridan, romlebsac xSirad Tavad sistemis

TanamSromlebi aqezeben an zog SemTxvevaSi ubiZgeben kidec. zogjer Tavad

gamasworebeli reJimia gadametebulad sastiki, moicavs gaurkveveli xniT

dakavebas, bavSvebis izolaciaSi an ufrosi asakis patimrebTan erTad gadaWedil

da antisanitariul pirobebSi xangrZlivi periodis manZilze yofnas. zog qveyanaSi

arasrulwlovani patimrebis mimarT jer kidev iyeneben sikvdiliT dasjas.

saerTaSoriso samarTali krZalavs sikvdiliT dasjas 18 wlamde axalgazrdebis

mier Cadenili danaSaulisaTvis, magram, amis miuxedavad, zogierTi qveyana

agrZelebs damnaSave bavSvebis sikvdiliT dasjas.

2005 wlis aprilSi, gaeros generaluri mdivnis bavSvebis mimarT Zaladobis

sakiTxebisadmi miZRvnili kvlevis farglebSi konsultaciebis saxiT gaimarTa

saerTaSoriso eqspertTa jgufis Sexvedra. aRniSnulma jgufma Camoayaliba is

ZiriTadi faqtorebi, romlebic marTlmsajulebis sistemaSi bavSvebis mimarT

Zaladobas uwyobs xels. es faqtorebia:

samarTaldamcavi organoebis TanamSromelTa, dawesebulebaTa da im

personalis dausjeloba da angariSvaldebulebis nakleboba, romelic

pasuxismgebelia bavSvis mimarT Zaladobaze;

aRmkveTi RonisZiebis saxiT patimrobis gadaWarbebiT gamoyeneba,

gansakuTrebiT winaswari dakavebis dros, maT Soris arasamarTaldamrRvevebis

mimarT;







oficialuri marTlmsajulebis sistemis sazogadoebrivi alternativebisa

da sapatimro sistemis alternativebis, maT Soris zrunvisa da dacvis

sistemebis nakleboba;

arasrulwlovanTa marTlmsajulebis saTanado sistemebis nakleboba, maT

Soris Sesabamisi dawesebulebebis nakleboba da bavSvebis ufrosi asakis

patimrebisagan izolirebulad moTavsebis SeuZlebloba;

dawesebulebebze gareSe kontrolis nakleboba, maT Soris efeqtiani

damoukidebeli saCivrebisa da sagamoZiebo procedurebis, damoukidebeli

monitoringisa da arasamTavrobo organizaciebis mxridan sapatimroebSi

Sesvlis uflebis nakleboba;

sazogadoebaSi Zaladobis `daSveba~, rasac mivyavarT Zaladobis mimarT

tolerantul damokidebulebamde yvela doneze: ojaxSi, skolasa da TemSi;

samarTaldamcavi organoebisa da arasrulwlovanTa marTlmsajulebis

sistemis TanamSromelTa treningebis nakleboba;

`borotmoqmedebis mimarT sastiki damokidebulebis~ strategiebi, quCis

bavSvebisa da socialurad da ekonomikurad diskriminirebuli sxva

bavSvebis mimarT mediis uaryofiTi damokidebuleba da maTi damamcirebeli

imijis Seqmna.


avSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis

99

konkretuli magaliTis ganxilva: ukanono dakavebis sakiTxebze

momuSave jgufi

ukanono dakavebis sakiTxebze momuSave jgufi warmoadgens gaeros mandatis mqone

adamianis uflebaTa eqspertebis damoukidebel organos. igi iZiebs ukanono

dakavebis SemTxvevebs, romlebmac SeiZleba daarRvios adamianis uflebaTa

saerTaSoriso samarTali. es organo 1991 wels daarsda adamianis uflebaTa

yofili komisiis mier da amJamad gaeros adamianis uflebaTa sabWos kontrolis

qveS imyofeba.

sxvadasxva wyarodan, maT Soris arasamTavrobo organizaciebisgan,

mTavrobaTaSorisi saagentoebisa da msxverplTa ojaxebisagan miRebuli

informaciis dadasturebis Semdeg samuSao jgufi mTavrobebs ugzavnis

gadaudebel moTxovnebs, daadginon dakavebulis adgilsamyofeli da pirobebi.

samuSao jgufs SeuZlia Caataros sagamoZiebo gasvliTi vizitebic im qveynebSi,

romlebmac gaugrZeles jgufs mowveva. samuSao jgufSi Sedian adamianis

uflebaTa eqspertebi, romlebic SerCeuli arian samarTlebriv sakiTxebSi maTi

gamocdilebis da miukerZoeblobis gamo.

jgufis azriT, bevri bavSvi dakavebuli imis gamoa, rom isini marto arian:

`zogjer bavSvebi dakavebis adgilebSi imitom ki ara xvdebian, rom danaSauli

aqvT Cadenili, aramed imis gamo, rom ar hyavT ojaxi, romelic maTze izrunebda.

isini arian oblebi, romlebic moTavsebulni arian cixis magvar `dacul dakavebis

adgilebSi~.

kanadaSi, TurqeTsa da norvegiaSi, adamianis uflebaTa komisiis informaciiT,

am mxriv kargi mdgomareobaa. kanadaSi mkvlevarma verc erTi bavSvi ver naxa

dakavebis adgilebSi. TurqeTSi moqmedebs axali programa, Tumca is srulad

ar aris amoqmedebuli, romelic uzrunvelyofs specialurad momzadebul

policiis muSakebs da prokurorebs bavSvebTan samuSaod. iq aseve arsebobs

bavSvTa dakavebis specialuri centrebi da bavSvebi ufrosebisagn yovelTvis

izolirebulni arian.

mTavrobebs akisriaT mkafiod Camoyalibebuli pasuxismgebloba, daicvan

dakavebuli bavSvebi Zaladobisa da zianisagan. magram sazogadoebam da

Jurnalistebma unda dasvan kiTxva, saerTod unda iyvnen Tu ara bavSvebi

dakavebulni. dakaveba ukiduresi saSualeba unda iyos, magram bevr SemTxvevaSi

aseTi formiT reagirebas axdenen bavSvebis an mozardebis mxridan antisocialur

an mavneblur saqcielze. TiTqos, Tu maT Tvals moaSoreben an maTze fiqrs

Sewyveten, sasurvel mizans miaRweven.

`hiuman raiTz uoCs~ 1995 wlidan arasrulwlovanTa marTlmsajulebis Sesaxeb

17 angariSi aqvs gamoqveynebuli da igi mniSvnelovan sazogadoebriv propagandas

eweva. organizacias dokumenturad aqvs dafiqsirebuli is sistematuri

darRvevebi, romlebic bavSvis iuridiuli warmomadgenlobis an saqmis samarTliani

sasamarTlo mosmenis uzrunvelyofas exeba braziliaSi, bulgareTSi, gvatemalaSi,


100

indoeTSi, iamaikaSi, keniaSi, pakistanSi, ruseTsa da amerikis SeerTebul StatebSi.

gansakuTrebul SeSfoTebas iwvevs sasamarTloebis mier gamotanili iseTi

ganaCenebi, romlebic arRvevs saerTaSoriso princips, rom Tavisuflebis aRkveTa

unda iyos ukiduresi zoma, rac SeiZleba xanmokle da ar unda warmoadgendes

wamebas an sastik, araadamianur Tu damamcirebel mopyrobas.

bavSvis uflebaTa konvenciis miRebis da TiTqmis sayovelTao ratificirebis

Semdeg bevrma qveyanam Seitana cvlilebebi sakuTari qveynis arasrulwlovanTa

marTlmsajulebasTan dakavSirebul kanonebSi, raTa uzrunveleyo konvenciasa

da sxva saerTaSoriso dokumentebSi Camoyalibebuli bavSvTa uflebebi. sxva

qveynebi ganixilaven reformebs, magram kanoni jer miRebuli ara aqvT. da

kidev bevri qveyanaa, romelmac unda miiRos zomebi imisaTvis, rom sakuTari

kanonmdebloba konvenciasTan SesabamisobaSi moiyvanos.

im qveynebSi, sadac am sakiTxs yuradReba eqceva, sakanonmdeblo reformebi

warmoadgens pirvel pozitiur nabijebs bavSvis uflebebis aRiarebis

TvalsazrisiT. amis miuxedavad, Seusabamoba kanonsa da praqtikas Soris mainc

xSirad didia. bevr bavSvs uars eubnebian saTanado sasamarTlo procesze,

autanel pirobebSi amyofeben, isini badragis da policiis xelSi sastik

Zaladobas ganicdian, zogierTi maTgani ki sikvdiliTac isjeba.

saerTaSoriso samarTlis Tanaxmad, bavSvebs aqvT ufleba, ar daeqvemdebaron

wamebas, sastik mopyrobas, TviTneburad an ukanonod dapatimrebas. maTi saqmeebi

samarTlianad da miukerZoeblad unda iqnes ganxiluli. Tu bavSvebs apatimreben,

es unda iyos ukiduresi zoma da rac SeiZleba xanmokle periodiT. bavSvebs

aqvT ufleba, sapatimroSi ufrosebisgan gancalkevebiT iyvnen moTavsebulni,

hqondeT sakuTari ojaxebis naxvis ufleba da miiRon iuridiuli daxmareba.

magram aTasobiT bavSvi ver iRebs am uflebas. zogierT qveyanaSi daucveli

jgufebi, rogorebic arian quCis bavSvebi, kriminalebad arian gamocxadebulni

da maT mzrunvelobis nacvlad sapatimroebSi amwyvdeven.

xSirad bavSvebs uars eubnebian iuridiul daxmarebaze an mSoblebTan

urTierTobaze, aTavseben saknebSi ufrosi asakis damnaSaveebTan erTad, maT

ara aqvT saTanado kveba da sanitariuli saTavsoebi, zogjer ki maT saknebSi

izolirebulad amyofeben. sapatimroSi moxvedris Semdeg isini uCinarebi

xdebian da advil nadavlad iqcevian im adamianebis (policielebisa da cixis

zedamxedvelebis) xelSi, romlebsac maTi usafrTxoeba aqvT Cabarebuli. bevr

adgilebSi arasrulwlovanTa mimarT sastiki mopyroba, maTze seqsualuri

Zaladoba da maTi wamebac ki farTod aris gavrcelebuli.

gasuli ramdenime wlis ganmavlobaSi pakistanSi miiRes kanonmdebloba, romelic

kanonTan konfliqtSi myofi bavSvebis mdgomareobis gaumjobesebas exeba. magram

praqtikulad bevri bavSvisaTvis didi araferi Secvlila. pakistanSi Svidi wlis

bavSvs SeiZleba wauyenon braldeba danaSaulis CadenaSi. `rac ufro daucveli

xar, ufro naklebad savaraudoa, rom samarTali ipovo. bavSvebs xmis ufleba ara

aqvT, amitom isini aravis enaRvleba.~


avSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis

101

keniaSi Raribi da dangreuli ojaxebidan gamosuli bavSvebis mzardi raodenoba

qalaqSi daexeteba, Rameebs Ria cis qveS atarebs, webos isunTqavs da qurdobs

imisaTvis, rom iarsebos. quCis bavSvebs policia da qalaqis xelisufleba iWeren

da Semdeg maT marTlmsajulebis sistema STanTqavs.

aSS-Si _ erT-erTSi im ori qveynidan, romlebmac ar moaxdines gaeros bavSvis

uflebaTa konvenciis ratificireba – arasrulwlovanTa marTlmsajulebis

sistema gasuli ramdenime aTwleulis ganmavlobaSi seriozulad gauaresda.

sazogadoebrivma protestma mozardebis Zaladobriv danaSaulebTan

dakavSirebiT 1980-1990 wlebSi qveynis masStabiT zewola moaxdina

politikosebze, gaemkacrebinaT zomebi danaSaulis winaaRmdeg. ormocma Statma

miiRo kanonmdebloba, romelic iTvaliswinebs arasrulwlovanTa gasamarTlebas

zrdasruli adamianebis msgavsad da kidev ufro mkacri reJimis momxrea.

norma xdeba bavSvebis dasja da ara reabilitacia. sul ufro xSirad usjian

arasrulwlovanebs uvado patimrobas da maTze arc pirobiT vadamde

ganTavisufleba vrceldeba.

bavSvebis cixeSi moTavseba alternatiuli meTodebis gamonaxvis nacvlad axdens

maT stigmatizacias da mTeli cxovrebis manZilze damnaSavis saxels akerebs,

arTmevs maT samuSaos an stipendiis miRebis SesaZleblobas da im adamianebis

garemocvaSi agdebs, visac ufro seriozuli danaSauli aqvs Cadenili. es aseve

zrdis bavSvebis mier kanonis xelaxla darRvevis albaTobas.

arsebobs Tu ara patimrobis raime alternativa arsebobs, acxadebs `iunisefi~

da ramdenime rekomendacias gvTavazobs:






nu daapatimrebT im bavSvebs, romlebic mxolod arsebobisaTvis sCadian

danaSauls;

aarideT sisxlis samarTalwarmoebis sistemas bavSvebi, romlebmac msubuqi

danaSauli Caidines;

patimrobis Sefardeba mxolod ukidures zomad gamoiyeneT;

ar moaTavsoT dapatimrebuli bavSvebi ufrosebTan erTad saknebSi;

mTavrobebma unda Caataron situaciis zedmiwevniTi monitoringi, sul

mcire, maT unda hqondeT monacemebi imis Sesaxeb, Tu ramdeni bavSvia

cixeSi da ramdeni xania, rac iq aris.


102

`hiuman raiTz uoCis~ rekomendaciebi

`hiuman raiTz uoCi~ rekomendacias iZleva, rom yvela qveyanam miiRos, sul

mcire, Semdegi zomebi kanonTan konfliqtSi myof bavSvTa uflebebis dasacavad

(es rekomendaciebi saintereso sadiskusio Temebia):

1) yvela saxelmwifom unda uzrunvelyos, rom kanonTan konfliqtSi myof

bavSvebs patimroba SeefardoT mxolod ukiduresi zomis saxiT da rac

SeiZleba mokle xniT. bavSvebi arasodes unda daapatimron im qmedebebis

gamo, romlebic danaSaulad ar CaiTvleba, Tu zrdasruli adamianebis mier

aris Cadenili.

2) dakavebis da patimrobis pirobebi unda Seesabamebodes saerTaSoriso

standartebs. bavSvebi arasodes unda movaTavsoT sapatimroebSi

zrdasrulebTan erTad. maT unda daerToT neba, regularuli da xSiri

kontaqti hqondeT sakuTari ojaxis wevrebTan, iuridiul warmomadgenlebTan

da sxva pirebTan gare samyarodan; maTTvis xelmisawvdomi unda iyos

ganaTleba, jandacva da fsiqikuri janmrTelobis dacva, unda hqondeT

sakmarisi sakvebi da sanitariuli pirobebi.

3) im qveynebma, sadac arsebobs bavSvebis sikvdiliT dasja an uvado sasjeli,

dauyovnebliv unda Sewyviton amgvari praqtika da sakuTar kanonmdeblobaSi

Seitanon Sesabamisi Sesworebebi.

kiTxvebi JurnalistebisaTvis

• dakavebis rogori wesi arsebobs sasamarTlo sistemaSi moxvedrili

bavSvebisaTvis

• arian Tu ara dakavebuli iseTi bavSvebi, romlebic ar arian danaSaulis

CadenaSi damnaSaveebad cnobili

• arian Tu ara dakavebulTa Soris ltolvilebi da politikuri TavSesafris

maZieblebi

kanonTan konfliqtSi myofi bavSvebis mdgomareobas gaeros bavSvis uflebaTa

konvenciis ori muxli exeba: 37-e muxli wamebis da Tavisuflebis aRkveTis Sesaxeb

da me-40 muxli arasrulwlovanTa saqmeebis warmoebis Sesaxeb.

37-e muxlSi naTqvamia, rom arc erTi bavSvi ar unda iyos wamebis, sastiki,

araadamianuri Tu Rirsebis Semlaxveli mopyrobis an sasjelis msxverpli.

18 wlamde asakis pirTa mier Cadenil danaSaulebs ar SeiZleba Seefardos

arc sikvdiliT dasja, arc mudmivi patimroba, romelic ar iTvaliswinebs

ganTavisufleb is SesaZleblobas; yoveli Tavisufle baaRkveTili bavSvi unda

gancalkevdes ufrosebisagan, Tu ar miiCneva, rom bavSvis WeSmariti interesebisaTvis

amis gakeTeba ar aris saWiro; dakavebul bavSvs unda hqondes


avSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis

103

ufleba, kavSiri iqonios Tavis ojaxTan. yovel TavisuflebaaRkveTil bavSvs

unda hqondes ufleba, dauyovnebliv miiRos samarTlebrivi da sxva Sesabamisi

daxmareba.

me-40 muxlSi naTqvamia, rom kanonTan konfliqtSi myof bavSvs iseTi mopyrobis

ufleba aqvs, romelic xels uwyobs misi Rirsebisa da sakuTari mniSvnelobis

grZnobis ganviTarebas, iTvaliswinebs bavSvis asaks da mis reintegracias

sazogadoebaSi. bavSvs aqvs ZiriTadi garantiebis miRebis ufleba, aseve ufleba,

dauyovnebliv miiRos samarTlebrivi da sxva Sesabamisi daxmareba. rodesac

SesaZlebelia, sasamarTlo procesi da dakaveba Tavidan unda iqnes acilebuli.

bavSvis uflebaTa komitetma Tavis mecxre sxdomaze, romelic 1995 wlis maisSi

gaimarTa, Caatara zogadi ganxilva arasrulwlovanTa saqmeebis administrirebis

Temaze. komitetis rekomendacia iyo, rom saxelmwifoebma daamkvidron `bavSvze

orientirebuli sistema, romelic bavSvs ZiriTadi uflebebisa da Tavisuflebebis

mqone adamianad aRiarebs, aseve aRiarebs imas, rom bavSvTan dakavSirebuli

yvela qmedeba, upirveles yovlisa, bavSvis WeSmariti interesebisaken unda iyos

mimarTuli.~

imis miuxedavad, rom am bolo dros bavSvis uflebaTa organizaciebis yuradReba

gamaxvilebulia bavSvebis mier maTTan dakavSirebuli gadawyvetilebebis mimarT

sakuTari azrebis gamoxatvis mniSvnelobaze, kanonTan konfliqtSi myof bavSvebs

iSviaTad usmenen. es ewinaaRmdegeba gaeros bavSvis uflebaTa konvenciis

me-12 muxls, romelic iTvaliswinebs bavSvis uflebas, mousminon. bavSvis

uflebaTa komitetma konvenciis me-12 muxlis ganmartebisas ganacxada, rom es

muxli moiTxovs bavSvebisaTvis saCivrebis procedurebis uzrunvelyofas da

yuradReba gaamaxvila saCivrebis procedurebis gansakuTrebul saWiroebaze

TavisuflebaaRkveTili bavSvebisaTvis.

arasrulwlovanTa saqmeebis administrirebis Temaze komitetis zogadi ganxilvis

Sesaxeb angariSSi aRniSnulia, rom arasrulwlovanTa marTlmsajulebis

sistemaSi moxvedril bavSvebs `xSirad ... uars eubnebodnen uflebaze, waredginaT

saCivrebi, roca es bavSvebi maTi ZiriTadi uflebebis darRvevis, maT Soris

cudi mopyrobis da seqsualuri Zaladobis ... msxverplni xdebodnen~.

sisxlis samarTlis pasuxismgeblobis asaki

bavSvis uflebaTa konvencia mouwodebs yvela saxelmwifos, daaweson minimaluri

asaki, `romlis miRwevamdec, rogorc iTvleba, bavSvebs ara aqvT sisxlis samarTlis

kanonmdeblobis darRvevis unari~. magram konvencia ar awesebs konkretul asaks

da es asaki sxvadasxva qveyanaSi mniSvnelovnad gansxvavdeba.

saerTaSoriso standartebi, rogoricaa pekinis wesebi arasrulwlovanTa

marTlmsajulebis Sesaxeb, rekomendacias uwevs, sisxlis samarTlis

pasuxismgeblobis asaki daefuZnos emociur, gonebriv da inteleqtualur

simwifes da rom es asaki Zalian dabali ar unda iyos.


104

bavSvis uflebaTa komiteti, romelic saxelmwifoebis mier konvenciis Sesrulebis

monitorings awarmoebs, iZleva rekomendacias, rom aRniSnuli asakis dadgenisas

saWiroa bavSvis WeSmariti interesebis gaTvaliswineba.

aSS-Si sisxlis samarTlis pasuxismgeblobis asaki dadgenilia saxelmwifo

kanoniT. mxolod 13 Stats aqvs dadgenili iseTi minimaluri asaki, romelic

6-dan 12 wlamde meryeobs. Statebis umravlesoba eyrdnoba zogad kanons, romlis

Tanaxmad igulisxmeba, rom 7-dan 14 wlamde asakis bavSvebi ver itvirTaven

pasuxismgeblobas, magram maT SeiZleba daekisroT pasuxismgebloba.

iaponiaSi 20 wlamde asakis damnaSaveebs sisxlis samarTlis sasamarTlo sistemis

nacvlad ojaxur sasamarTloSi asamarTleben. skandinaviis yvela qveyanaSi

sisxlis samarTlis pasuxismgeblobis asakad 15 welia miCneuli, xolo 18 wlamde

asakis axalgazrdebi eqvemdebarebian marTlmsajulebis iseT sistemas, romelic

ufro metad socialuri momsaxurebisken aris mimarTuli, xolo dapatimreba

ukiduresi zomaa. 1997 wlis aprilSi SvedeTSi mxolod 15 arasrulwlovani

ixdida sasjels cixeSi.

CineTSi 14-dan 18 wlamde asakis bavSvebisaTvis arasrulwlovanTa

marTlmsajulebis sistema moqmedebs da bavSvebs gansakuTrebiT mZime

danaSaulisTvis SeiZleba samudamo patimroba miusajon.

laTinuri amerikis umetes qveynebSi mimdinareobs reformebi arasrulwlovanTa

marTlmsajulebasTan dakavSirebul kanonmdeblobaSi. amis Sedegad sisxlis

samarTlis pasuxismgeblobis asaki braziliaSi, kolumbiasa da peruSi 18 wlamde

gaizarda, 12-dan 18 wlamde bavSvebis pasuxismgeblobas ki arasrulwlovanTa

marTlmsajulebis sistema gansazRvravs.

evropis umetes qveynebSi sisxlis samarTlis pasuxismgeblobis asakad 13-16

welia miCneuli, xolo irlandiaSi _ 12 weli.

didi gansxvavebebi sisxlis samarTlis pasuxismgeblobis asakis dadgenaSi

saerTaSoriso konsensusis naklebobaze metyvelebs. im qveynebis raodenoba,

sadac sisxlis samarTlis pasuxismgeblobisaTvis dabali asakia dadgenili,

miuTiTebs imaze, rom arasrulwlovanTa marTlmsajulebis bevri sistema

saTanadod ar iTvaliswinebs bavSvis WeSmarit interesebs.

sisxlis samarTlis pasuxismgeblobis asaki mxolod erTi cvladi maCvenebelia,

romelic gavlenas axdens imaze, Tu rogor epyrobian marTlmsajulebis

sistemebi arasrulwlovanebs. sxva cvladebia: arsebobs Tu ara calke

kanoni arasrulwlovanebisTvis, romelic bavSvis uflebebzea dafuZnebuli;

axalgazrdebze sadamsjelo sanqciebi vrceldeba Tu mxolod socialuri da

saganmanaTleblo zomebi arsebobs; da arsebobs Tu ara qveyanaSi damoukidebeli

sasamarTlo sistemebi da sapyrobileebi axalgazrdebisTvis. arasrulwlovanTa

marTlmsajulebis sistemam unda uzrunvelyos samarTlebrivi dacva da


avSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis

105

mopyrobis miukerZoebeli standarti. amgvari sistemis ararsebobis pirobebSi

axalgazrdebis mimarT gamoyenebuli iqneba zrdasruli adamianebisaTvis

gankuTvnili sisxlis samarTlis marTlmsajuleba an isini moxvdebian `damcav~

samzrunvelo dawesebulebaSi, sadac maT aranairi samarTlebrivi dacva ar

eqnebaT da SeiZleba Seejaxon TviTnebur da sastik mopyrobas.

media da kanonTan konfliqtSi myofi bavSvebi: vinaobis dacva

britaneTSi arasrulwlovanTa marTlmsajulebisa da sisxlis samarTlis aqti

(1999 w.) danaSaulis kvalifikacias aniWebs saqmes, romlis gamoZiebasac iwyebs

policia da romelic exeba raime iseTi masalis gamoqveynebas, rac gamoiwvevs

18 wlamde im axalgazrdis identificirebas, romelsac bralad danaSaulis

Cadena edeba. es piroba SeiZleba moixsnas, Tu Jurnalisti SeZlebs sasamarTlos

darwmunebas, rom amgvari detalebis gamoqveyneba sazogadoebis interesebSia.

aRniSnuli SezRudvebi uqmdeba, roca msjavrdebuli 18 wlis asaks aRwevs.

`bi-bi-sis ~ saredaqcio miTiTebebi bavSvebis identifikaciis Sesaxeb

rTuli eTikuri sakiTxi wamoiWreba, rodesac unda gadavwyvitoT, asocialuri

an kriminaluri qcevis SemTxvevaSi ra aris bavSvis interesSi: misi vinaobis

gamJRavneba Tu anonimurobis dacva.

rogorc wesi, aseTi qcevis asaxvisas ar unda gavamJRavnoT bavSvis vinaoba

movlenis gaSuqebis mizniT, garda im SemTxvevebisa, roca bavSvis vinaobis

gamJRavnebas safuZvlad udevs mkafio saredaqcio dasabuTeba. im bavSvis

CarTva programaSi, gadaReba da vinaobis gamJRavneba, romlis mSoblebic

CarTulni arian asocialur da kriminalur saqmianobaSi, SesaZlebelia

mxolod maSin, Tu amiT bavSvis keTildReobas safrTxe ar daemuqreba da Tu

es dasabuTebulia saredaqcio politikiT. amas gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba

aqvs, rodesac bavSvebs raime safrTxe SeiZleba emuqrebodeT, magaliTad,

rodesac bavSvi loT mSoblebTan cxovrobs an rodesac mas aiZuleben,

Seasrulos narkotikebis kurieris roli.

konkretuli magaliTi (1): didi britaneTi: meri beli

meri beli ori biWis - martin braunis (oTxi wlis) da braian houvis (sami wlis)

mkvlelobaSi damnaSaved 1968 wlis dekemberSi cnes. meri belma bavSvebi `mxolod

siamovnebis da mkvlelobiT gamowveuli aRgznebis gamo~ daaxrCo.

mkvlelobebis Cadenis dros beli 10 wlis iyo. damnaSaved cnobis Semdeg mas

did yuradRebas uTmobda britanuli presa da germanuli Jurnali `Sterni~.

misi deda mis ambebs presas mihyidda xolme da xSirad korespondentebs aZlevda

nawerebs, romlebic, misi TqmiT, meris ekuTvnoda. Tavad beli isev moxvda

gazeTebis pirvel gverdebze, roca 1979 wlis seqtemberSi gaiqca `mur kortis~

(Moor Court) Ria tipis cixidan.


106

beli 1980 wels gaaTavisufles cixidan da anonimurobas Sehpirdnen, raTa

Tavis qaliSvilTan erTad (romelic 1984 wels daibada) axali cxovreba daewyo

(gamogonili saxeliT). qaliSvilma araferi icoda dedis warsulis Sesaxeb,

magram belis adgilsamyofeli reportiorebma aRmoaCines da deda-Svils saxlis

datoveba mouxda. maT Tavze loginis TeTreuli Semoixvies da ise gaiparnen.

qaliSvilis anonimuroba Tavdapirvelad, vidre is 18 wlis ar gaxda, daculi

iyo. Tumca 2003 wlis 21 maiss belma moigo saqme umaRles sasamarTloSi mTeli

cxovrebis manZilze sakuTari da Tavisi qaliSvilis anonimurobis dacvasTan

dakavSirebiT.

konkretuli magaliTi (2): didi britaneTi: jeims balgeris mkvlelebi

jeims (`jemi~) balgeri iyo ori wlis bavSvi, romelic orma 10 wlis biWma moitaca

da mokla mersisaidSi, inglisSi. eseni iyvnen jon vineiblsi da robert Tompsoni.

ori bavSvis mier mcirewlovani bavSvis mkvlelobam sazogadoebaSi Soki, risxva

da mwuxareba gamoiwvia, gansakuTrebiT liverpulSi. mosamarTlem, romelsac

sasamarTlo procesi mihyavda, brZaneba gasca, rom es ori biWi `mravali, mravali

wliT~ moeTavsebinaT sapatimroSi.

sasamarTlo procesidan sul cota xnis Semdeg lordma teilorma gosfortidan,

lordma – mTavarma mosamarTlem, gamosca brZaneba, rom biWebs, sul mcire, 10

weli unda gaetarebinaT cixeSi. isini cixidan mxolod 2003 wels gamovidodnen.

magram masobrivma presam da sazogadoebis garkveulma nawilma CaTvales, rom

ganaCeni Zalze rbili iyo da gazeT `sanis~ redaqtorebma maSindel Sinagan

saqmeTa ministrs, maikl houvards, gadasces 300 000 xelmoweriani peticia,

romelSic biWebisaTvis cixeSi darCenis vadis gaxangrZlivebas moiTxovdnen. 1995

wels orive biWis patimrobis minimaluri vada 15 wlamde gaizarda. am ganaCenis

Tanaxmad maT cixidan 2008 wlamde ar gamouSvebdnen. am droisaTvis isini 26

wlis iqnebodnen.

1999 wels vineiblsis da Tompsonis advokatebma mimarTes adamianis uflebaTa

evropul sasamarTlos imis niadagze, rom `biWebis sasamarTlo saqmis garCeva

ar iyo miukerZoebeli, vinaidan isini metad axalgazrdebi iyven imisaTvis,

rom sasamarTlo saqmisaTvis Tvali miedevnebinaT da gaegoT srulwlovanTa

sasamarTlos qmedebebi. advokatebi aseve acxadebdnen, rom hovardis

Carevam atmosfero ufro damuxta, ramac samarTliani sasamarTlo garCeva

SeuZlebeli gaxada. aRniSnulma sasamarTlom saqme biWebis sasargeblod

gadawyvita.

`manCester ivning niusma~ (Manchester Evening News) debatebis provocireba moaxdina

im daxuruli tipis dawesebulebebis dasaxelebiT, sadac es ori biWi imyofeboda

da amiT daarRvia presis sajaroobis Sesaxeb sasamarTlos amkrZalavi miTiTeba,

romelic 2001 wlis dasawyisSi ganaxlda. imave wlis dekemberSi gazeTi damnaSaved

cnes sasamarTlos Seuracxyofis gamo, 30 000 girvanqa sterlingiT daajarimes

da 120 000 girvanqa sterlingis odenobis xarjebis dafarva daakisres.


avSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis

107

ZiriTadi saerTaSoriso dokumentebi arasrulwlovanTa

marTlmsajulebis sferoSi

arasrulwlovanTa marTlmsajulebis sistemaze saubrisas, aucilebelia

mimovixiloT am sferoSi arsebuli ZiriTadi saerTaSoriso dokumentebi,

romlebSic mocemulia kanonTan konfliqtSi myof bavSvebTan dakavSirebuli

fuZemdebluri principebi.

ZiriTad dokuments warmoadgens gaerTianebuli erebis organizaciis 1989 w. bavSvis

uflebebaTa konvencia (saqarTvelo miuerTda 1994 wels). kanonTan konfliqtSi

myofi bavSvebis zogierT Zireul damcav zomas Seicavs adamianis uflebaTa da

ZiriTad TavisuflebaTa dacvis evropuli konvencia 1950 w. (ratificirebulia

1999 wels) samoqalaqo da politikuri uflebebis saerTaSoriso paqtSic (1966

w.) aseve asaxulia arasrulwlovanTa mimarT marTlmsajulebis ganxorcielebis

Zireuli standartebi (saqarTvelo miuerTda 1994 wels).

aRniSnuli konvenciebis garda, arsebobs mTeli rigi sarekomendacio xasiaTis

dokumentebisa, kerZod:






gaerTianebuli erebis saxelmZRvanelo principebi arasrulwlovanTa

Soris danaSaulis Tavidan acilebis Sesaxeb (1990 w. cnobilia, rogorc

riadis saxelmZRvanelo principebi), romelic gansazRvravs im socialur

politikas, rac danaSaulis Cadenis riskis qveS myof mozardTa dasacavad

unda iqnes gatarebuli.

arasrulwlovanTa marTlmsajulebis administrirebis gaeros minimaluri

standartebi da wesebi (1985 w. cnobilia, rogorc pekinuri wesebi). es

wesebi gansazRvravs mozardTa mimarT marTlmsajulebis ganxorcielebis

minimalur standartebs.

gaerTianebuli erebis wesebi TavisuflebaaRkveTil arasrulwlovanTa

dacvisaTvis (1990, JDL). aRniSnuli warmoadgens TavisuflebaaRkveTil

mozardebTan mopyrobis wesebs.

gaerTianebuli erebis saxelmZRvanelo principebi marTlmsajulebis

sistemaSi bavSvebis mimarT gansaxorcielebeli RonisZiebebis Sesaxeb

(1997) (venis debulebebi).

gaerTianebuli erebis minimaluri standartuli wesebi arasapatimro

zomebis Sesaxeb (1990 w. cnobilia, rogorc tokios wesebi).

gaeros bavSvis uflebebis komitetma 2007 wels SeimuSava zogadi komentari #10

marTlmsajulebis sistemaSi bavSvis uflebebis Sesaxeb, romelic detalurad

ganmartavs sistemis arss da masTan dakavSirebul sakiTxebs.

rogorc aRvniSneT, upirvelesi mniSvneloba eniWeba bavSvis uflebaTa

konvencias, romlis 37-e da me-40 muxlebSi detaluradaa gawerili kanonTan


108

konfliqtSi myof bavSvebTan dakavSirebuli sakiTxebi. rac Seexeba zemoT

mocemul sarekomendacio xasiaTis dokumentebs, marTalia, maT xelmowerili

xelSekrulebebisagan gansxvavebiT, qveynisaTvis ar gaaCnia savaldebulo Zala,

Tumca isini gamoxatavs saerTaSoriso sazogadoebis xedvas imis Sesaxeb, Tu

rogor unda imuSaos arasrulwlovanTa marTlmsajulebis sistemam. maTSi

mocemuli principebi gaeros bavSvis uflebaTa komitetis da adamianis uflebaTa

evropuli sasamarTlos mier aRiarebulia arasrulwlovanTa marTlsamajulebis

sistemisaTvis Sesaferis standartebad.

arasruwlovanTa marTlsamjulebis ZiriTadi saerTaSoriso

principebi

marTalia, kanonTan konfliqtSi myof bavSvebze ZiriTadad konvenciis 37-e da

me-40 muxlebSi asaxuli standartebi vrceldeba, Tumca arsebobs principebi,

romlebic aranakleb mniSvnelovania da Tanabrad gamoiyeneba marTlmsajulebis

sistemaSi moxvedrili bavSvebis mimarT. es pricipebia:

1. bavSvis interesebis dacvis ukeT uzrunvelyofa

gaeros bavSvis uflebaTa konvenciis me-3 muxlis mixedviT:

`bavSvis mimarT nebismier qmedebaTa ganxorcielebisas, miuxedavad imisa,

Tu vin aris maTi ganmaxorcielebeli, saxelmwifo Tu kerZo dawesebulebebi,

romlebic muSaoben socialuri uzrunvelyofis sakiTxebze, sasamarTloebi,

administraciuli Tu sakanonmdeblo organoebi, upirvelesi yuradReba eTmoba

bavSvis interesebis dacvis ukeT uzrunvelyofas~.

komitetis zogadi komentaris mixedviT, marTlmsajulebis sistemaSi moxvedrili

bavSvis interesis dacva swored mis reabilitaciasa da reintegracias gulismobs.

konvenciis me-40 muxlis pirveli nawili exmianeba me-3 muxlSi mocemul princips

da aRniSnavs, rom `monawile saxelmwifoebi cnoben yoveli bavSvis uflebas,

romelmac, rogorc miiCneven, daarRvia sisxlis samarTlis kanoni, bralad

edeba misi darRveva an aRiarebulia mis damrRvevad, rom misdami mopyroba

xels uwyobdes misi Rirsebisa da sakuTari mniSvnelobis grZnobis ganviTarebas,

ganumtkicebdes mas adamianis uflebaTa da sxvaTa Tavisuflebebisadmi

pativiscemas, iTvaliswinebdes bavSvis asaks da misi reintegraciis, sazogadoebaSi

mis mier sasargeblo rolis SesrulebisaTvis xelSewyobis sasurvelobas.

2. sicocxlis, gadarCenisa da ganviTarebis ufleba

gaeros bavSvTa uflebebis konvenciis me-6 muxlis mixedviT:

«saxelmwifo organoebi aRiareben, rom yovel bavSvs aqvs sicocxlis xelSeuvali

ufleba».

sicocxlis ufleba daculia adamianis uflebaTa da ZiriTad TavisuflebaTa

dacvis evropuli konvenciiTa da sxva mravali saerTaSoriso dokumentiT.

3. ufleba mosmenaze - umniSvnelovanesi uflebaa da mocemulia konvenciis me-12

muxlSi:


avSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis

109

monawile saxelmwifoebi uzrunvelyofen sakuTari Sexedulebebis Camoyalibebis

unaris mqone bavSvis uflebas, Tavisuflad gamoTqvas Tavisi Sexedulebebi

nebismier sakiTxze, romelic mas exeba. amasTan, bavSvis Sexedulebebs saTanado

yuradReba eTmoba misi asakisa da simwifis Sesabamisad.

am mizniT bavSvs, kerZod, eZleva SesaZlebloba, mousminon mas sasamarTlo Tu

administraciuli wesiT nebismieri saqmis ganxilvisas, romelic bavSvs exeba,

rogorc uSualod, aseve warmomadgenlis an Sesabamisi organos meSveobiT,

erovnuli kanonmdeblobis procesualuri normebiT gaTvaliswinebuli wesiT».

4. mniSvnelovania Tansaworuflebianobisa da diskriminaciisagan dacvis ufleba,

romelic asaxulia konvenciis me-2 muxlSi:

`monawile saxelmwifoebi pativs scemen da uzrunvelyofen maTi iurisdiqciis

farglebSi myofi TiToeuli bavSvis yvela uflebas, romelic winamdebare

konvenciiTaa gaTvaliswinebuli, nebismieri saxis diskriminaciis gareSe, rasis,

kanis feris, sqesis, enis, religiis, politikuri Tu sxva mrwamsis, erovnuli,

eTnikuri Tu socialuri warmoSobis, qonebrivi mdgomareobis, bavSvis, misi

mSoblebisa da kanonieri meurveebis janmrTelobisa da dabadebis mdgomareobis

an sxva ram viTarebis ganurCevlad~.

es principi aseve ganmtkicebulia adamianis uflebaTa da ZiriTad TavisuflebaTa

dacvis evropuli konvenciiTa (muxli 14) da saerTaSoriso paqtiT samoqalaqo

da politikur uflebaTa Sesaxeb (muxli 26).

mokled SevexoT uSualod arasrulwlovanTa marTlmsajulebasTan dakavSirebul

ZiriTad principebs, romlebic, rogorc aRvniSneT, konvenciis 37-e da me-40

muxlebSia asaxuli. es principebia:








ufleba, iTvlebode udanaSaulod, anu udanaSaulobis prezumfcia (m.40.2

(b)(i))

ufleba wayenebuli braldebis Sesaxeb informaciis dauyovnebliv miRebaze

40(2)(b)(ii)

ufleba braleulobis dayovnebis gareSe dadgenaze 40(2)(b)(iii)

saqmis ganxilva kompetenturi, damoukidebeli da miukerZoebeli organos

an sasamarTlos mier 40.2(b)(iii)

iuridiuli daxmarebis an sxva Sesabamisi konsultaciis miRebis ufleba

(muxli 40.2(b)(ii))

mSoblebisa da kanonieri warmomadgenlebis mxardaWera procesSi 40.2(b(iii)

bavSvis dacva Cvenebis micemis an danaSaulis aRiarebis mizniT Zaldatanebis

moxdenisagan me-40.2(b)( iv)

umniSvnelovanesi principia Tavisuflebis aRkveTis, rogorc ukiduresi zomis,

gamoyeneba, romelic asaxulia 37-e (b) muxlSi. kerZod, `arc erT bavSvs ar


110

unda aRekveTos Tavisufleba ukanonod an TviTneburad. bavSvis dapatimreba,

dakaveba an cixeSi moTavseba xorcieldeba kanonis Tanaxmad da ganixileba,

rogorc mxolod ukiduresi zoma, rac SeiZleba naklebi periodis ganmavlobaSi~.

TavisuflebaaRkveTili bavSvi ufrosebisagan gancalkevebiT unda ganTavsdes.

aseve didi yuradReba eTmoba bavSvisaTvis keTilganwyobili garemos Seqmnas.

pekinuri wesebis me-14 muxlSi aRniSnulia: `sasamarTlo ganxilva unda upasuxebdes

arasrulwlovanis interesebs da ganxorcieldes gagebis atmosferoSi, rac

saSualebas miscems arasrulwlovans, miiRos masSi monawileoba da Tavisuflad

gamoTqvas Tavisi Tvalsazrisi“. rogorc vxedavT, aRniSnuli pirdapir kavSirSia

sasamarTlo procesSi aqtiur monawileobasTan, rac, aseve, Zalian mniSvnelovania

arasrulwlovanTa saqmeebis ganxilvisas.

piradi cxovrebis dacvis uzrunvelyofa saerTaSoriso standartebis mixedviT

piradi cxovrebis dacvis uzrunvelyofa umniSvnelovanesi sakiTxia,

gansakuTrebiT maSin, roca saqme kanonTan konfliqtSi myof bavSvs exeba.

es principi ganmtkicebulia, rogorc bavSvis uflebaTa konvenciiT, aseve

sxva mniSvnelovani dokumentebiT. konvenciis me-16 muxlis mixedviT `arc

erTi bavSvi ar SeiZleba iyos piradi da ojaxuri cxovrebis, sacxovrebeli

binis xelSeuxeblobis an korespodenciis saidumlobis uflebaTa mis

mier ganxorcielebaSi TviTneburi an ukanono Carevis, an misi Rirsebisa

da reputaciis ukanono xelyofis obieqti~ konvenciis me 40(2)(b)(vii) muxli

uzrunvelyofs bavSvis piradi cxovrebis srul pativiscemas saqmis ganxilvis

yvela etapze.

gaeros bavSvis uflebaTa komitetis ganmartebis mixedviT `saqmis mimdinareobis

nebismieri etapi~ gulisxmobs yovel etaps samarTaldamcavebTan pirveli

kontaqtidan moyolebuli (mag., informaciis moTxovna da identifikacia)

saqmis saboloo dasrulebamde – kompetenturi uflebamosili organos

mier gadawyvetilebis gamotanamde, an zedamxedvelobis qveS gamoSvebamde, an

dapatimrebamde da Tavisuflebis aRkveTamde. misi mizania, Tavidan aviciloT

aramizanSewonili sajaroobiT an stigmatizaciis procesiT gamowveuli ziani.

dauSvebelia gamoqveyndes nebismieri informacia, riTac SeiZleba moxdes bavSvis

amocnoba, radganac es iwvevs stigmatizacias da, SesaZloa, ziani miadges mis

SesaZleblobas, miiRos ganaTleba, samuSao, hqondes saxli an daemuqros mis

usafrTxoebas. sajaro organoebs mxolod gamonaklis SemTxvevebSi aqvT ufleba,

gaavrcelon presrelizi, romelic Seexeba mxolod mozardis mier Cadenil

danaSauls. maT unda miiRon saWiro zomebi, raTa am presrelizis saSualebiT ar

moxdes bavSvis amocnoba.

komiteti iZleva rekomendacias, rom saxelmwifo organoebma danergon wesi,

romlis Tanaxmadac sasamarTlo da sxva mosmenebi kanonTan konfliqtSi myofi

bavSvis saqmis Sesaxeb daxurul kars miRma Catardeba. am wesidan gamonaklisis

daSveba Zalze SezRuduli unda iyos da mkveTrad unda Camoyalibdes kanonSi.

sasamarTlo darbazSi ganaCeni imgvarad unda warmoiTqvas, rom ar gamJRavndes


avSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis

111

bavSvis pirovneba. piradi cxovrebis xelSeuxeblobis ufleba (muxli 16)

moiTxovs saqmeSi CarTuli yvela profesionalisagan, romelic sasamarTlos

mier dadgenil zomis gatarebaSi monawileobs, an sxva kompetenturi pirisagan,

daicvan informacia, ramac SeiZleba bavSvis amocnoba SesaZlebeli gaxados.

piradi cxovrebis xelSeuxebloba niSnavs imasac, rom arasrulwlovnis saqmis

masalebi mkacrad konfidencialuri da xelmiuwvdomeli unda iyos mesame

pirebisaTvis, im pirebis garda, romlebic uSualod monawileoben gamoZiebaSi,

ganaCenis gamotanasa da mis aRsrulebaSi.

piradi cxovrebis dacvis moTxovnas Seicavs e.w. pekinuri wesebi, romlis me-8

wesis mixedviT:

8.1 yvela etapze daculi unda iqnes arasrulwlovanis ufleba pirad cxovrebaze

raTa Tavidan iqnes acilebuli arasaTanado sajaroobiT an reputaciis

SelaxviT gamowveuli ziani.

8.2 zogadad ar unda gamoqveyndes informacia, romelic xels Seuwyobs

arasrulwlovanis vinaobis dadgenas. me-8 muxlis komentarSi aRniSnulia, rom

axalgazrdebi gansakuTrebiT eqvemdebarebian stigmatizacias. reputaciis

Selaxvis Sesaxeb kriminologiurma kvlevam daadastura, rom arasrul wlovnis

mudmiv identifikacias samarTaldamrRvevebad da damnaSaveebad mos devs

sxvadasxva saxis damRupveli Sedegebi. swored amitom me-8 wesi xazgasmiT

aRniSnavs arasrulwlovanis dacvis aucileblobas saqmesTan dakavSirebiT

masobrivi informaciis saSualebebSi informaciis (mag., eWvmitanilis,

braldebulis, msjavrdebulis saxelebi) vinaobis Sedegebisagan.

amave dokumentis 21-e wesis mixedviT `21.1 arasrulwlovan samarTaldamrRvevTa

dosie unda inaxebodes sruliad saidumlod da daxuruli unda iyos mesame

mxarisaTvis. masalebis xelmisawvdomoba unda Semoifarglos im pirebiT,

romelTac pirdapir exeba saqmeze gadawyvetilebis miReba an sxva saTanadod

uflebamosili pirebiT.

21.2 arasrulwlovani samarTaldamrRvevebis Sesaxeb arsebuli masalebi ar

gamoiyeneba srulwlovanTa saqmeebis, an Tavad am samarTaldamRvevebTan

dakavSirebuli saqmeebis ganxilvisas.~

gaeros wesebi TavisuflebaaRkveTil arasrulwlovanTa dasacavad aseve xazs

usvams sasjelaRsrulebis dawesebulebaSi arasrulwlovnis Sesaxeb arsebuli

Canawerebis konfidencialurobas. am dokumentis me-19 wesSi aRniSnulia, rom

`angariSebi, samarTlebrivi da samedicino Canawerebisa da disciplinuri

samarTalwarmoebis Canawerebis CaTvliT, aseve, dokumentebi mopyrobis formis,

Sinaarsisa da detalebis Sesaxeb moTavsebuli unda iqnes konfidencialur

individualur failad, romelic iqneba mudmivad ganaxlebuli da xelmisawvdomi

mxolod amaze uflebamosili pirebisaTvis, klasificirebuli imgvarad, rom

iolad iqnes aRqmuli... arasrulwlovanTa gaTavisuflebis Semdeg Canawerebi

unda dailuqos da garkveuli drois Semdeg unda ganadgurdes~.


112

arasrulwlovanTa marTlmsajulebis sistema saqarTveloSi

saqarTvelos mTavrobis, iunisefis, evrokavSirisa da sxva partniori

saerTaSoriso da adgilobriv organizaciebis erToblivi ZalisxmeviT

mimdinareobs arasrulwlovanTa marTlmsajulebis sistemis reforma. 2009 wels

ganaxlda sisxlis samarTlis kanonmdeblobis reformis startegia, romlis

erT-erTi ZiriTadi mimarTuleba arasrulwlovanTa marTlmsajulebaa.

arasrulwlovanTa marTlmsajulebis sistemis reformis ZiriTadi

mimarTulebebia:

1. prevencia

2. samarTliani sasamarTlos uflebis uzrunvelyofa

3. intervencia (alternatiuli sqemebi, alternatiuli sanqciebi,

Tavisuflebis aRkveTa)

4. reintegracia

5. kvalificiuri muSaxeli

6. monacemTa Segroveba, Sefaseba da kvleva

sisxlis samarTlis pasuxismgeblobis minimaluri asaki saqarTveloSi

sanam uSualod arasrulwlovanTa saqmis warmoebasTan dakavSirebul

sakiTxebze gadavidodeT, ramdenime sityviT unda SevexoT sisxlis samarTlis

pasuxismgeblobis minimalur asaks saqarTveloSi. minimaluri asakobrivi

zRvari iyo 14 weli yvela saxis danaSaulisaTvis iqamde, vidre 2007 wels

sisxlis samarTlis kanonmdeblobaSi Sevidoda cvlilebebi da es zRvari 12

wlamde daiweoda. unda aRiniSnos, rom pasuxismgeblobis asakis daweva yvela

kategoriis danaSaulze ar vrceldeboda. kerZod, es exeboda mxolod 7 saxis

danaSauls (ganzrax mkvleloba, ganzrax mkvleloba damamZimebel garemoebebSi,

sxeulis ganzrax mZime dazianeba, Zarcva Cadenili damamZimebel garemoebebSi,

yaCaRoba, gaupatiureba da 21 wlis asaks miuRweveli an nasamarTlobis mqone

an/da narkotikebis moxmarebisaTvis administraciul sasjeldadebuli piris

mier civi iaraRis tareba). cvlilebebi ZalaSi 2008 wlis 1 ivliss Sevida.

kanonis mixedviT 12-14 wlis arasrulwlovanTaTvis specialuri dawesebulebis

aSenebamde, maT sasjelis saxiT mxolod jarima unda SefardebodaT. rogorc

cnobilia, msgavsi dawesebulebis modificireba ar ganxorcielda da,

Sesabamisad, saqarTvelos sasamarTloebi msgavsi kategoriis

arasrulwlovanebisaTvis sasjelis Sefardebisas mxolod jarimiT unda

Semofargluliyvnen. uzenaesi sasamarTlos monacemebiT, 2008 - 2009 wlebSi,

msjavri daedo xuT 12-14 wlis arasrulwlovans. aqedan ori gaasamarTles

2008 wels.

unda aRiniSnos, rom am iniciativas sakmaod mkacri reaqcia mohyva saerTaSoriso

da adgilobrivi organizaciebis mxridan. gaeros bavSvis uflebaTa komitetma

dabejiTebiT mouwoda saqarTvelos mTavrobas, dauyovnebliv aRedgina 14 weli,

rogorc sisxlis samarTlis pasuxismgeblobis minimaluri asaki.


avSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis

113

yovelive zemoaRniSnulis gaTvaliswinebiT, arasrulwlovanTa marTlmsajulebis

sistemis reformis farglebSi kvlav aiwia pasuxismgeblobis zRvari da 14

wels daubrunda. sisxlis samarTlis kanonmdeblobaSi 2010 wels Sevida

cvlilebebi am sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT. unda aRiniSnos, rom sisxlis samarTlis

pasuxismgeblobis asakis sayovelTaod dadgenili zRvari ar arsebobs, Tumca

komiteti mouwodebs saxelmwifoebs, rom is rac SeiZleba maRali iyos.

saqarTvelos kanonmdebloba marTlmsajulebis sistemaSi moxvedril

arasrulwlovanTa Sesaxeb 8

ZiriTadi kanonia saqarTvelos konstitucia, romlis meore TavSi asaxuli

adamianis uflebebi da ZiriTadi Tavisuflebebi Tanabrad vrceldeba

arasrulwlovanebzec.

rac Seexeba sxva, ZiriTad, kanonebs, esenia:

• saqarvelos sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsi (1999w)

• saqarTvelos sisxlis samarTlis saproceso kodeqsi (2009w) 9

• saqarTvelos kanoni patimrobis Sesaxeb (2010w) 10

• saqarTvelos kanoni arasapatimro sasjelTa aRsrulebis wesisa da probaciis

Sesaxeb (2007 w)

arasrulwlovanTa saqmeebis gamoZiebisas gasaTvaliswinebeli procesualuri sakiTxebi

(saqarTvelos sisxlis samarTlis saproceso kodeqsi)

rogorc zemoTmocemuli muxlebidan Cans, kanoni procesis mwarmoebels

avalebs Seiswavlos arasrulwlovnis pirovneba da misTvis damaxasiaTebeli

Taviseburebebi.

unda aRiniSnos, rom sisxlis samarTlis saproceso kodeqsis mixedviT,

arasrulwlovanTa saqmeSi damcvelis monawileoba savaldebuloa (muxli 45;

321). arasrulwlovani braldebulis mSobels, kanonier warmomadgenels an

axlo naTesavs, aseve pedagogs ufleba aqvT, daeswron sasamarTlo sxdomas

an saproceso moqmedebas, romelSic arasrulwlovani monawileobs. Tu

sasamarTlo an prokurori miiCnevs, rom es arasrulwlovani braldebulis

interesebs emsaxureba, mas SeuZlia savaldebulo wesiT uzrunvelyos mSoblis,

kanonieri warmomadgenlis an axlo naTesavis, aseve pedagogis monawileoba.

arasrulwlovnis interesebis dacvis mizniT sasamarTlos an prokurors

SeuZlia aukrZalos arasrulwlovani braldebulis mSobels, kanonier

warmomadgenels an axlo naTesavs, aseve pedagogs sasamarTlo sxdomaze daswreba

an saproceso moqmedebaSi monawileoba (muxli 317. 2.3). sasamarTlo sxdoma,

romelsac arasrulwlovani braldebuli eswreba, daxurulad tardeba (muxli

8 konkretul SemTxvevaSi Cvens mizans ar warmoadgens saqaTvelos knonmdeblobis analizi saerTaSoriso

standartebTan Sesabamisobis dasadgenad. dokumentSi zogadad aris aRwerili is Taviseburebebi, rac

kanonmdeblobis mier arasrulwlovnebTan mimarTebaSia gaTvaliswinebuli. Kkonkretuli dokumentis mizans

aseve ar warmoadgens arasrulwlovnebTan mimarTebaSi kanonmdeblobiT gaTvaliswinebuli yvela detaluri

sakiTxis mimoxilva

9 2009 wels, saqarTvelos parlamentma miiRo sisxlis samarTlis axali saproceso kodeqsi, romelic

amoqmedda 2010 wlis 1 oqtombers

10 2010 wels, saqarTvelos parlamentma miiRo patimrobis kodeqsi, romelic aseve, amoqmedda 2010 wlis 1

oqtombers


114

317.1) arasrulwlovans procesis yvela stadiaze epyrobian gansakuTrebuli

yuradRebiT. mxedvelobaSi unda iqnes miRebuli misi asaki da resocializaciis

gansakuTrebuli sazogadoebrivi interesi, aseve misi xelaxali aRzrdisaTvis

xelis Sewyobis aucilebloba. arasrulwlovnis mimarT sisxlis samarTlis

procesis ganmavlobaSi savaldebuloa arasrulwlovnis uflebaTa saerTaSoriso

garantiebis sruli dacva (muxli 316).

dakaveba, aRkveTis RonisZiebebis gamoyeneba arasrulwlovnis mimarT

Tu arsebobs sisxlis samarTlis saproceso kodeqsSi mocemuli dakavebis

safuZveli, damkavebeli moxele valdebulia dakavebuls gasagebi formiT

Seatyobinos es, ganumartos, ra danaSaulis CadenaSia is braldebuli da acnobos,

rom mas aqvs ufleba advokatze, dumilisa da kiTxvebze pasuxis gacemisagan

Tavis Sekavebis ufleba, ufleba, ar daibralos danaSauli, da rom yvelaferi,

rasac igi ityvis, SesaZlebelia mis winaaRmdeg iqnes gamoyenebuli sasamarTloSi.

dauSvebeli mtkicebulebaa is gancxadeba, romelic dakavebulma am nawiliT

gaTvaliswinebuli ganmartebis miRebamde gaakeTa. damkavebelma moxelem

dakavebuli dauyovnebliv unda miiyvanos policiis uaxloes dawesebulebaSi an

sxva samarTaldamcav organoSi. dakavebis adgilas miyvanisTanave dakavebuli

janmrTelobis zogadi mdgomareobis dasadgenad, misi moTxovnis SemTxvevaSi,

unda Semowmdes eqimis mier da unda Sedges saTanado cnoba. dakavebis vada ar

unda aRematebodes 72 saaTs. dakavebis vada iTvleba braldebulis patimrobis

vadaSi (muxli 174).

rogorc vxedavT, am kuTxiT ar arsebobs raime saxis specifikuri moTxovnebi

arasrulwlovnebTan dakavSirebiT da maTi dakavebis sakiTxi zogadi normebiT

regulirdeba.

moqmedi saproceso kanonmdeblobis mixedviT aRkveTis RonisZieba gamoiyeneba im

mizniT, rom braldebulma Tavi ar aaridos sasamarTloSi gamocxadebas, aRikveTos

misi Semdgomi danaSaulebrivi saqmianoba, uzrunvelyofil iqnes ganaCenis

aRsruleba. braldebuls patimroba an sxva aRkveTis RonisZieba ar SeiZleba

Seefardos, Tu am nawiliT gaTvaliswinebuli miznebis miRweva SesaZlebelia sxva,

naklebad mkacri aRkveTis RonisZiebis gamoyenebiT (muxli 198.1).

arasrulwlovnis mimarT SesaZloa, gamoyenebul iqnes Semdegi saxis aRkveTis

RonisZiebebi:

1. girao;

2. arasrulwlovani braldebulis meTvalyureobaSi gadacema;

3. piradi Tavdeboba;

4. SeTanxmeba gausvlelobisa da saTanado qcevis Sesaxeb;

5. patimroba;

girao – girao aris fuladi Tanxa an uZravi qoneba. fuladi Tanxa saqarTvelos

iusticiis saministros mmarTvelobis sferoSi Semavali sajaro samarTlis

iuridiuli piris – aRsrulebis erovnuli biuros sadepozito angariSze Seaqvs

braldebuls an misi saxeliT an mis sasargeblod sxva pirs sasamarTlosaTvis


avSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis

115

micemuli werilobiTi valdebulebiT braldebulis saTanado qcevisa da

gamomZiebelTan, prokurorTan, sasamarTloSi droulad gamocxadebis

uzrunvelyofis Taobaze (muxli 200).

piradi Tavdebobisas sando pirebi kisruloben werilobiT valdebulebas,

rom isini uzrunvelyofen braldebulis saTanado qcevas da gamomZiebelTan,

prokurorTan, sasamarTloSi gamocxadebas (muxli 203)

arasrulwlovani braldebulis meTvalyureobaSi gadacema – mSoblis,

meurvis, mzrunvelis an specialuri sabavSvo dawesebulebis administraciis

meTvalyureobaSi arasrulwlovnis gadacemis mizania, aRniSnul pirTagan erTerTma

an administraciam ikisros arasrulwlovani braldebulis gamomZiebelTan,

prokurorTan, sasamarTloSi gamocxadebisa da saTanado qcevis werilobiTi

valdebuleba (muxli 201).

sainteresoa is faqti, rom Tu piradi Tavdebobis and arasrulwlovnis

meTvalyureobaSi gadacemis gamoyenebisas braldebuli aRkveTis gamoyenebis

pirobas daarRvevs, maSin Tavmdebs an pirs, romelic axorcielebda

meTvalyureobas arasrulwlovanze, SesaZloa sasamarTlos mier daekisroT

fuladi jarima (muxli 203.6; 201.5)

SeTanxmeba gausvlelobisa da saTanado qcevis Sesaxeb SeiZleba gamoyenebul

iqnes mxolod im danaSaulis saqmeze, romelic sasjelis saxiT ar iTvaliswinebs

Tavisuflebis aRkveTas 1 welze meti vadiT (muxli 202).

patimroba – patimroba, rogorc aRkveTis RonisZieba, gamoiyeneba mxolod maSin,

Tu es erTaderTi saSualebaa, raTa Tavidan iqnes acilebuli:

a) braldebulis mimalva da mis mier marTlmsajulebis ganxorcielebisaTvis

xelis SeSla;

b) braldebulis mier mtkicebulebaTa mopovebisaTvis xelis SeSla;

g) braldebulis mier axali danaSaulis Cadena.

braldebulis patimrobis saerTo vada ar unda aRematebodes 9 Tves. (muxli 205)

arasrulwlovani braldebuli, romelsac aRkveTis RonisZiebad SerCeuli

aqvs patimroba, unda moTavsdes srulwlovani braldebulebisagan

(msjavrdebulebisagan) da arasrulwlovani msjavrdebulebisagan gancalkevebiT

(muxli 323).

arasrulwlovanTa sisxlissamarTlebrivi pasuxismgebloba da masTan

dakavSirebuli Taviseburebebi(saqarTvelos sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsi)

arasrulwlovanTa sisxlissamarTlebriv pasuxismgeblobasTan dakavSirebuli

sakiTxebi mocemulia sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsis XVI TavSi. magram sanam uSualod

pasuxismgeblobis saxeebze gadavidodeT, oriod sityviT SevexoT danaSaulis

kategoriebs. sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsis mixedviT arsebobs danaSaulis sami

kategoria:


116




naklebad mZime danaSauli;

mZime danaSauli;

gansakuTrebiT mZime danaSauli.

naklebad mZimea iseTi danaSauli, romlis CadenisaTvis gaTvaliswinebuli

maqsimaluri sasjeli ar aRemateba xuTi wliT Tavisuflebis aRkveTas;

mZimea iseTi danaSauli, romlis CadenisaTvis am kodeqsiT gaTvaliswinebuli

maqsimaluri sasjeli ar aRemateba aTi wliT Tavisuflebis aRkveTas;

gansakuTrebiT mZimea iseTi danaSauli, romlis CadenisaTvis am kodeqsiT

gaTvaliswinebulia sasjelis saxiT Tavisuflebis aRkveTa aT welze meti vadiT

an uvado Tavisuflebis aRkveTa.

aqve unda aRiniSnos, rom saqarTvelos kanonmdebloba arasrulwlovanTaTvis

sasjelis saxiT ar iTvaliswinebs uvado Tavisuflebis aRkveTas.

rac Seexeba sasjelis saxeebs, sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsis mixedviT

arasrulwlovans SeiZleba Seefardos:

jarima;

saqmianobis uflebis CamorTmeva;

sazogadoebisaTvis sasargeblo Sroma;

gamasworebeli samuSao;

Tavisuflebis SezRudva;

vadiani Tavisuflebis aRkveTa. (muxli 82)

jarimis SemTxvevaSi, Tu msjavrdebuli arasrulwlovani da gadaxdisuunaroa,

sasamarTlo misTvis dakisrebuli jarimis gadaxdas akisrebs mSobels, meurves

an mzrunvels (muxli 42.5 1 ).

rac Seexeba vadian Tavisuflebis aRkveTas, sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsis

88-e muxlis mixdeviT, ToTxmetidan Teqvsmet wlamde arasrulwlovnisaTvis

daniSnuli Tavisuflebis aRkveTis vada ar unda aRematebodes aT wels. xolo

Teqvsmetidan Tvramet wlamde arasrulwlovnisaTvis daniSnuli Tavisuflebis

aRkveTis vada ar unda aRematebodes TxuTmet wels.

sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsi iTvaliswinebs pirobiTi msjavris gamoyenebas

arasrulwlovnis mimarT, Tu msjavrdebuls ganaCenis gamotanis momentisaTvis ar

Sesrulebia Tvrameti weli da man pirvelad Caidina danaSauli, Tu mas Cadenili

ara aqvs gansakuTrebiT mZime danaSauli (muxli 63.5). pirobiTi msjavris dros,

Tu arsebobs saamiso safuZveli, sasamarTlos SeuZlia daakisros msjavrdebuls

gansazRvruli movaleobis Sesruleba, magaliTad, probaciis biuros nebarTvis

gareSe ar Seicvalos mudmivi binadrobis adgili, ar daamyaros urTierToba

imasTan, vinc SeiZleba igi Caabas antisazogadoebriv saqmianobaSi, ar moinaxulos

gansazRvruli adgili, materialurad daexmaros ojaxs da sxva movaleoba

romelic xels Seuwyobs mis gamosworebas (muxli 65). uzenaesi sasamarTlos

monacemebis mixedviT, alternatiul sasjelTagan yvelaze farTod swored

pirobiTi msjavris gamoyeneba xdeba.


avSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis

117

sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsi iTvaliswinebs sasjelis moxdisagan pirobiT vadamde

gaTavisuflebas. zrdasrulebisagan gansxvavebiT, arasrulwlovnebisaTvis

dadgenilia SedarebiT Semcirebuli vadebi. kerZod, kodeqsis mixedviT

sazogadoebisaTvis sasargeblo SromiT an gamasworebeli samuSaoTi

msjavrdebuli arasrulwlovani sasamarTlom, xolo Tavisuflebis aRkveTiT

msjavrdebuli arasrulwlovani –saqarTvelos sasjelaRsrulebis, probaciisa da

iuridiuli daxmarebis sakiTxTa saministros adgilobrivma sabWom

SeiZleba pirobiT vadamde gaaTavisuflos sasjelis moxdisagan, Tu man

faqtobrivad moixada:

a) naklebad mZime danaSaulisaTvis mosaxdeli sasjelis vadis aranakleb erTi

mesamedi;

b) mZime danaSaulisaTvis mosaxdeli sasjelis vadis aranakleb naxevari;

g) gansakuTrebiT mZime danaSaulisaTvis mosaxdeli sasjelis vadis aranakleb

ori mesamedi.

pirobiT vadamde gaTavisuflebuli msjavrdebulis yofaqcevis kontrols

axorcielebs saamisod uflebamosili probaciis samsaxuri rogorc aRiniSna,

Tavisuflebis aRkveTiT msjavrdebuli arasrulwlovnis pirobiT vadamde

gaTavisuflebis sakiTxis gadawyveta saqarTvelos sasjelaRsrulebis,

probaciisa da iuridiuli daxmarebis sakiTxTa saministros adgilobrivi sabWos

kompetenciaSi Sedis. arasrulwlovanTa saqmeebs ganixilavs arasrulwlovanTa

saqmeebis ganmxilveli adgilobrivi sabWo. adgilobrivi sabWo aseve

uflebamosilia, kanoniT ganszazRvrul SemTxvevebSi ganixilos da gadawyvitos

msjavrdebulisaTvis sasjelis mouxdeli nawilis ufro msubuqi sasjeliT

Secvlis sakiTxi.

sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsi adgens nasamarTlobis gaqarwylebis Semcirebul

vadebs im pirebisaTvis, romelmac danaSauli 18 wels miRwevamde, ese igi,

arasrulwlovnobis periodSi Caidina.

arasrulwlovnis sisxlis samarTlis pasuxismgeblobisagan gaTavisufleba

saqarTvelos sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsi iTvaliswinebs arasrulwlovnis

sisxlis samarTlis pasuxismgeblobisagan gaTavisuflebas iZulebiTi

xasiaTis aRmzrdelobiTi RonisZiebebis gamoyenebiT. arasrulwlovani,

romelmac pirvelad Caidina naklebad mZime danaSauli, sasamarTlom SeiZleba

gaaTavisuflos sisxlissamarTlebrivi pasuxismgeblobisagan, Tu miiCnevs, rom

misi gamosworeba mizanSewonilia aRmzrdelobiTi zemoqmedebis iZulebiTi

RonisZiebis gamoyenebiT (muxli 90).

aRmzrdelobiTi zemoqmedebis iZulebiTi RonisZiebebia: gafrTxileba;

sazedamxedvelod gadacema; zianis anazRaurebis movaleobis dakisreba;

qcevis SezRudva; specialur aRmzrdelobiT an samkurnalo aRmzrdelobiT

dawesebulebaSi moTavseba. Cvens xelT arsebuli infrmaciiT, zemoT

dasaxelebuli RonisZiebebis gamoyeneba faqtobrivad ar xdeba sxvadasxva

mizezis gamo.


118

saqarTvelos sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsi aseve iTvaliswinebs arasrulwlovnis

sisxlis samarTlis pasuxismgeblobisagan gaTavisuflebas dazaralebulTan

Serigebis gamo (muxli 89 1 ). aRniSnuli RonisZiebac, Cvens xelT arsebuli

informaciiT, naklebad gamoiyeneba.

ganrideba da mediacia

sainteresoa ganridebisa da mediaciis instituti, romlTac xdeba

arasrulwlovnis marTlmsajulebis sistemisagan da formaluri

procedurebisagan ganrideba. kerZod, axali sisxlis samarTlis saproceso

kodeqsis mixedviT, Tu arsebobs dasabuTebuli varaudi, rom pirma Caidina

naklebad mZime an mZime danaSauli da danaSaulis Cadenis momentisaTvis mas ar

Sesrulebia 18 weli, prokurori uflebamosilia dasabuTebuli dadgenilebiT

miiRos gadawyvetileba sisxlissamarTlebrivi devnis ardawyebis an ukve

dawyebuli sisxlissamarTlebrivi devnis Sewyvetis Sesaxeb. am SemTxvevaSi

prokurori uflebamosilia arasrulwlovanTan gaaformos xelSekruleba

ganridebis an mediaciis Sesaxeb, romlis pirobebi ganisazRvreba saqarTvelos

iusticiis ministris brZanebiT. am xelSekrulebis moqmedebis maqsimaluri vadaa

1 weli. Tu arasrulwlovani arajerovnad asrulebs masTan gaformebuli

ganridebis an mediaciis Sesaxeb xelSekrulebiT dakisrebul valdebulebas,

prokurori uflebamosilia axali dadgenilebiT daiwyos an ganaaxlos sisxlis

samarTlebrivi devna (sisxlis samarTlis saproceso kodeqsi muxli 105).

ganridebis sqemaSi moxvedril arasrulwlovanTan muSaobs sxvadasxva

profesionali (prokurori, socialuri muSaki, zog SemTxvevaSi mediatori),

rac xels uwyobs ganridebis miznebis miRwevas. SesaZloa, procesSi monawileoba

miiRos dazaralebulmac. arsebobs mTeli rigi sakiTxebisa, rac mxedvelobaSia

misaRebi ganridebis sqemis ganxorcielebisaTvis. uaxloes momavalSi dagegmilia

ganridebis sxva formebis danergvac.

patimrobaSi myofi da TavisuflebaaRkveTili arasrulwlovnebi

(patimrobis kodeqsi)

TavisuflebaaRkveTil arasrulwlovnebTan dakavSirebuli sakiTxebi mocemulia

patimrobis kodeqsSi. arsebobs ori tipis dawesebuleba, sadac arasrulwlovnebi

SeiZleba ganTavsdnen: patimrobis dawesebuleba, sadac ganTavsebuli arian

winaswar patimrobaSi myofi, braldebuli arasrulwlovnebi da Tavisuflebis

aRkveTis dawesebuleba, sadac Tavisuflebis aRkveTiT msjavrdebuli

arasrulwlovnebi Tavsdebian. braldebuli arasrulwlovnebi saqarTvelos

teritoriaze arsebul ramodenime dawesebulebaSi arian moTavsebulni.

msjavrdebuli arasrulwlovnebisaTvis arsebobs specialuri dawesebuleba,

romelic gaTanabrebulia naxevrad Ria tipis dawesebulebasTan.

braldebul da msjavrdebul arasrulwlovnebs garantirebuli aqvT

saqarTvelos konstituciiT, saqarTvelos saerTaSoriso xelSekrulebebiTa

da saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobiT aRiarebuli uflebebi da Tavisuflebebi.

isini uzrunvelyofilni unda iyvnen sxvadasxva uflebiT, maT Soris zogadi

da profesiuli ganaTlebis miRebis, sportul, kulturul, aRmzrdelobiT


avSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis

119

da religiur RonisZiebebSi monawileobis, ufaso iuridiuli daxmarebis,

informaciis miRebis, gare samyarosTan komunikaciis da sxva mniSvnelovani

uflebebiT. msjavrdebuls damatebiT gaaCnia sareabilitacio programebiT

sargeblobisa da dawesebulebis gareT xanmokle gasvlis ufleba (patimrobis

kodeqsi muxli 14).

kanonis mixedviT TiToeul arasrulwlovan msjavrdebulze sacxovrebeli

farTis norma ar unda iyos 3,5 metrze naklebi. aseve arasrulwlovnebs, sxva

braldebulebTan/msjavrdebulebTan SedarebiT unda hqondeT gaumjobesebuli

sacxovrebeli pirobebi (muxli 15).

rogorc zemoT aRvniSneT, msjavrdebuli arasrulwlovnebi, anu msjavrdebulebi,

romelTac dawesebulebaSi Sesaxlebis momentisaTvis ar Sesrulebia 18 weli,

moTavsebulni arian arasrulwlovanTa specialur dawesebulebaSi, sadac isini

imyofebian srulwlovanebis asaks miRwevamde. Tumca arsebobs gamonaklisic,

kerZod, patimrobis kodeqsis 68–e muxlis mixedviT, resocializaciis,

zogadi ganaTlebisa da profesiuli momzadebis miRebis mizniT 18 wels

miRweuli arasrulwlovani msjavrdebuli SesaZlebelia piradi gancxadebiT,

dawesebulebis direqtoris gadawyvetilebiT, sasjelis mosaxdelad darCes

imave dawesebulebaSi, sadac is ixdida sasjels srulwlovanebis miRwevamde,

ara umetes 20 wlis miRwevisa. srulwlovanebas miRweul msjavrdebulze,

romelic sasjelis mosaxdelad datovebul iqna arasrulwlovanTa specialur

dawesebulebaSi, vrceldeba arasrulwlovani msjavrdebulisaTvis dadgenili

sasjelis moxdis pirobebi, kvebisa da sayofacxovrebo normebi.

kanonis mixedviT arasrulwlovan msjavrdebuls ufleba aqvs:

1 Tvis ganmavlobaSi hqondes 4 xanmokle paemani, rac gulisxmobs kanoniT

gansazRvrul pirebTan Sexvedras, romelmac SeiZleba gastanos 1dan 2

saaTamde;

1 wlis ganmavlobaSi hqondes 3 xangrZlivi paemani, xolo waxalisebis formiT

– weliwadSi 1 damatebiTi xangrZlivi paemani. xangrZlivi paemani gulisxmobs

am kodeqsiT gansazRvrul pirebTan erTad cxovrebas Tavisuflebis aRkveTis

dawesebulebis teritoriaze, amisaTvis specialurad gamoyofil oTaxSi,

msjavrdebulis an Sesabamisi pirebis xarjiT, administraciis warmomadgenlis

dauswreblad. xangrZlivi paemani grZeldeba araumetes 24 saaTisa.

yovelTviurad, arasrulwlovanTa specialuri dawesebulebis teritoriaze

arsebul maRaziaSi kvebis produqtebisa da pirveladi moxmarebis sagnebis

SeZenisaTvis gamoiyenos mis pirad angariSze arsebuli Tanxa gansazRvruli

limitis farglebSi;

1 Tvis ganmavlobaSi sakuTari xarjiT hqondes 5 satelefono saubari,

TiToeuli – ara umetes 15 wuTisa;

iqonios da isargeblos piradi televizoriTa da radiomimRebiT, garda Ramis

saaTebisa.

arasrulwlovan msjavrdebulebs ufleba aqvT, weliwadSi samjer isargeblon

Tavisuflebis aRkveTis dawesebulebis gareT xanmokle gasvlis uflebiT.


120

xanmokle gasvlis xangrZlivoba ar unda aRematebodes 5 dRes, romelSic Sedis

msjavrdebulis daniSnulebis adgilamde mgzavrobis droc. arasrulwlovan

msjavrdebuls Tavisuflebis aRkveTis dawesebulebis gareT xanmokle gasvlis

ufleba eZleva mas Semdeg, rac man faqtobrivad moixada:

a) naklebad mZime danaSaulisaTvis mosaxdeli sasjelis – Tavisuflebis

aRkveTis vadis aranakleb erTi mesamedi;

b) mZime danaSaulisaTvis mosaxdeli sasjelis – Tavisuflebis aRkveTis

vadis aranakleb naxevari;

g) gansakuTrebiT mZime danaSaulisaTvis mosaxdeli sasjelis –

Tavisuflebis aRkveTis vadis aranakleb ori mesamedi.

msjavrdebulis resocializaciisa da damoukidebeli cxovrebisaTvis

momzadebisaTvis xorcieldeba erTiani saswavlo-aRmzrdelobiTi procesis

organizeba, romlis mizania, msjavrdebuls Camouyalibdes zogadi unar-Cvevebi,

miiRos zogadi an profesiuli ganaTleba. kanonis moTxovnis Sesabamisad,

arasrulwlovanTa specialur dawesebulebaSi swavlebis procesi unda

Seesabamebodes qveyanaSi arsebul ganaTlebis standartebs.

saqarTvelos penitencialur sistemaSi, arasrulwlovan msjavrdebulebTan

mimarTebiT dainerga sasjelis individualuri dagegmvis midgoma,

romelic gulisxmobs TiToeuli msjavrdebuli arasrulwlovnis Sefasebas

multidisciplinaruli jgufis mier da sasjelis dagegmvas arasrulwlovanTa

saWiroebidan gamomdinare. dawesebulebaSi momuSave socialuri muSakebi da

fsiqologebi exmarebian arasrulwlovans sasjelis moxdis individualuri

gegmis farglebSi dasaxuli miznebis miRwevaSi.

damatebiTi literatura da resursebi

bavSvis uflebaTa sainformacio qseli - saerTaSoriso normebisa da standartebis saxelmZRvanelo

miTiTebebi arasrulwlovanTa marTlmsajulebisaTvis 10/08/2006 (meaTe sxdomis angariSi,

oqtomberi/noemberi 1995, CRC/C/46, punqti 220): http://www.crin.org/resources/infodetail.aspid=9711

`Save the Children UK~, `arasrulwlovanTa marTlmsajuleba: axali ideebi kanonTan konfliqtSi

myof bavSvebTan muSaobisTvis~:

http://www.crin.org/resources/infodetail.aspid= 11042

gaero: `mouTxrobeli istoria kanonTan konfliqtSi myofi bavSvebis Sesaxeb~:

http://www.un.org/events/tenstories 2006/story.aspstoryID = 2800

bavSvis uflebaTa sainformacio qseli (CRIN) – Tema: kanonTan konfliqtSi myofi bavSvebi:

http://www.crin.org/themes/ViewTheme.aspid = 16

`bi-bi-si nius~ - `sasamarTlo uflebebi jemi balgeris mkvlelebisaTvis~:

http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/295752.stm

http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/567578.stm

`bavSvebi da danaSauli: iaponiasa da amerikis SeerTebul StatebSi axalgazrdebis sakiTxebis

gaSuqebis SedarebiTi Seswavla~, tom brislini da iasuhiro inoue. Journal of Mass Media Ethics, 2007

22(1), gv. 3-17


avSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis

121

4. siuJetebisa da wyaroebis moZieba

siuJetebis ageba bavSvis uflebaTa konvenciis konteqstSi

ZiriTadi saswavlo Temebi






ra aris wyaro

SeiZleba, rom bavSvi iyos wyaro

wyaroebis mniSvneloba JurnalistebisaTvis;

anonimuri wyaroebi;

saidan vgebulobT ambebs

Jurnalistis roli

ar aris aucilebeli, rom Jurnalisti gaeros bavSvis uflebaTa konvenciis

propagandisti iyos. Tu adamianebis umetesoba icavs bavSvebs da maTTvis

yovelive saukeTeso surT, JurnalistebisaTvis es sazogadoebriv interesebze

dafuZnebuli movaleobaa da bavSvebis dacviT isini sakuTari profesiuli

eTikis principebs asruleben. Jurnalisti itovebs uflebas, mimarTos kritikas,

rodesac es saWiroa da uzrunvelyofs imas, rom yvelas azri moisminos.

jer kidev 1920-ian wlebSi, saidanac Tanamedrove Jurnalistika iRebs saTaves,

mwerali uolter lipmani da amerikeli filosofosi jon diui kamaTobdnen

Jurnalistikis rolze demokratiaSi. maTi gansxvavebuli azrebi Jurnalistikis

rolze sazogadoebasa da saxelmwifoSi dRevandeli debatebisTvisac aqtualuria.

lipmans sjeroda, rom Jurnalistikis roli gulisxmobda Suamavlobas

sazogadoebasa da politikur gadawyvetilebaTa mimReb elitas Soris.

Jurnalisti gadaiqca Suamavlad. roca elita laparakobda, Jurnalistebi

usmendnen da iwerdnen informacias, Semdeg `filtravdnen~ mas da sazogadoebas

gadascemdnen moxmarebisaTvis. lipmanis argumentacia is iyo, rom sazogadoeba ar

aris mzad, Tavi gaarTvas Tanamedrove sazogadoebaSi warmoqmnili informaciis

mzard da kompleqsur nakads da amitom saWiroa Suamavali, romelic axal ambebs

masebisaTvis gadasacemad filtrSi gaatarebs.

amis sapirispirod, diuis sjeroda, rom sazogadoebas araTu elitis mier

wamoWrili sakiTxebis da gacemuli pasuxebis gageba SeuZlia, aramed rom

swored sazogadoebrivma forumma unda miiRos gadawyvetilebebi diskusiisa da

debatebis Semdeg.

sakiTxebis detalurad Seswavlis Semdeg zedapirze saukeTeso azrebi

amotivtivdeba xolme. diuis miaCnda, rom Jurnalistebma sazogadoebas marto

informacia ki ar unda miawodon, aramed angariSi unda Caabaron konkretuli

sakiTxebis Sesaxeb da ar Semoifarglon mxolod informaciis gadacemiT. diuis

azriT, Jurnalistebma unda miiRon informacia da Semdeg awon-dawonon, Tu ra

Sedegebs moutans sazogadoebas elitis mier gatarebuli politika.


122

Tu lipmanis Jurnalisturi filosofia saxelmwifos meTaurebisaTvis iyo

ufro metad misaRebi, diuis midgoma ukeTesi saSualeba iyo imis gasagebad,

Tu ramden Jurnalists hqonda gaazrebuli sakuTari roli sazogadoebaSi da,

Tavis mxriv, ramdeni adamiani elodeboda Jurnalistebis mxridan moqmedebas.

magaliTad, amerikelebi SeiZleba akritikebdnen Jurnalistebis mxridan

zog SemTxvevaSi uflebamosilebis gadametebas, magram isini Jurnalistebs

mTavrobis, biznesis warmomadgenlebis da sxva subieqtebis makontroleblad

miiCneven, rac sazogadoebas saSualebas aZlevs, informaciaze dayrdnobiT

miiRos gadawyvetilebebi gansaxilvel sakiTxebTan dakavSirebiT.

rogorc ukve aRvniSneT, media sazogadoebis interesebs unda emsaxurebodes.

farTod aris gavrcelebuli azri, rom Jurnalistebis movaleobaa, sazogadoebis

im warmomadgenlebsa da organoebs daakisron angariSvaldebuleba, romelTa

saqmianobac socialur da politikur cxovrebaze axdens gavlenas. swored es

aris siuJetebis masalebis umetesi nawilis wyaro. bavSvTa uflebebisa da gaeros

bavSvis uflebaTa konvenciis konteqstSi aman SeiZleba axali perspeqtividan

dagvanaxvos axali ambebi.

magaliTad, bavSvze Zaladobis Sesaxeb statiaSi ZiriTadi siuJeturi xazi mxolod

Zaladoba ki ar unda iyos, aramed saxelmwifos pasuxismgebloba bavSvTa da maTi

uflebebis mimarT da, agreTve, bavSvebis dacva, rac maT gaeros konvenciiT aqvT

nakisri. msoflios TiTqmis yvela qveyanam moaxdina konvenciis rafiticireba

da Jurnalistebis movaleobaa, mohkiTxon mTavrobebs konvenciis xelmoweriT

dadasturebuli valdebulebebis Sesruleba.

kiTxvebi JurnalistebisaTvis




rogor asrulebs Tqveni qveynis mTavroba bavSvis uflebaTa konvencias

Seasrula Tu ara Tqvenma mTavrobam konvenciis moTxovna, rom masSi

gansazRvruli principebi da debulebebi sajarod iyos gamoqveynebuli

CamorCeba Tu ara qveyana bavSvis uflebaTa komitetSi angariSebis

wardgenis grafiks Catarda Tu ara sajaro konsultacia

aris Tu ara redaqtorebis da maRali rangis Jurnalistebis movaleoba

bavSvebTan dakavSirebuli sakiTxebis Setana dRis wesrigSi sazogadoeba

Jurnalistebsa da wamyvan redaqtorebs meTvalyureebad miiCnevs _ isini

iReben gadawyvetilebas imis Sesaxeb, Tu romeli siuJetebi da ra dros unda

SeirCes gamosaqveyneblad an mauwyeblobisaTvis. magram onlain Jurnalistikis

gaCenasTan erTad da im faqtis gaTvaliswinebiT, rom bevri qseluri

blogeri SeiZleba garkveulwilad Jurnalistad CaiTvalos, es tradiciuli

roli icvleba. `Jurnalistikis elementebis~ avtori, bil kovaCi, acxadebs:

`Cveni Sexeduleba Jurnalistebis Sesaxeb, rom isini meTvalyureebi arian,


avSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis

123

moZvelebulia. internetma yvela zRvari moxsna~. amJamad redaqtori ufro met

yuradRebas arazusti informaciis gacxrilvas da axali ambebis konteqstSi

da perspeqtivaSi Casmas uTmobs.

magram mkiTxvels warmodgena ara aqvs, Tu ramdenad realuri an uzustoa

uSualod internetidan miRebuli informacia. Tu Jurnalistika axali ambebis

da informaciis gamoqveynebis kanonieri damcvelia, aseve, Tu is gansazRvravs,

ra unda iyos an ar unda iyos gamoqveynebuli, maSin misi movaleoba da uflebaa,

daicvas da SeinarCunos es pozicia. mis movaleobaSi aseve Sedis bavSvis uflebaTa

sakiTxebis Setana axali ambebis dRis wesrigSi.

bavSvis uflebaTa dacvis Sesaxeb masalebis momzadebisaTvis saWiro

unar-Cvevebi

adamianis uflebebi yovelTvis iqneba Jurnalistikis ZiriTadi komponenti,

magram mediis bevri mesveuri an informirebuli ar aris, an saerTod ar gaaCnia

sakmarisi codna adamianis uflebaTa sakiTxebTan dakavSirebiT. adamianis da

bavSvis uflebaTa sakiTxebSi ganaTleba pirveli nabijia Jurnalistebis mier

uflebebis dacvis sakiTxebze masalebis momzadebis gzaze.

Jurnalistebs, romlebisTvisac nacnobia bavSvis uflebebTan dakavSirebuli

sakiTxebi, xelT upyriaT saTanado instrumentebi makontroleblis rolis

Sesasruleblad. isini SeiZleba sazogadoebis `Tvali da yuri~ gaxdnen da

uzrunvelyon, rom adamianebma, gansakuTrebiT im adamianebma, romlebsac

mniSvnelovani roli akisria sazogadoebriv cxovrebaSi, saTanadod da patiosnad

imoqmedon.

sityvis Zalam da misma arasworma gamoyenebam SeiZleba aseve zegavlena moaxdinos

adamianis uflebaTa darRvevis Sesaxeb momzadebul siuJetebze. mediis mier

danaSaulis, ojaxuri Zaladobis, brbos mier Zaladobis da politikuri Zaladobis

sxva formebis Sesaxeb momzadebul reportaJebSi gamoyenebulma enam adamianis

uflebaTa darRvevebi daamkvidra. mediis mier informaciis wyaros sityvebis

(rogoricaa, magaliTad, teroristi) citirebam SesaZloa (SeiZleba yovelgvari

cudi ganzravis gareSe) garkveuli adamianebisa da Temebis demonizeba moaxdinon.

bavSvebi trefikingis msxverplni gaxdnen Tu isini ukanonod gaiyvanes qveynidan

adamianebs Soris azrTa sxvadasxvaobaa Tu isini Cxuboben

xom ar aRweren bavSvebs Semdegi sityvebiT: `patara~, `pawawina~ xom ar laxavs

es maT Rirsebas

es mxolod ramdenime magaliTia im problemebisa, romlebsac awydebian

Jurnalistebi enasTan dakavSirebiT. bavSvebTan dakavSirebuli siuJetebis

momzadeba Jurnalistebisagan gansakuTrebul gamocdilebasac moiTxovs;

magaliTad, siuJeti bavSvebis trefikingis Sesaxeb saWiroebs Jurnalisturi

gamoZiebis warmoebis karg unars. sagamoZiebo reportaJis momzadeba


124

gulisxmobs sakiTxis detalur, Rrma Seswavlas sakmaod xangrZlivi periodis

ganmavlobaSi. amgvari tipis siuJetis momzadebis arsi mdgomareobs sakiTxis

detalur SeswavlaSi da masTan dakavSirebuli adamianebisgan sistematuri

interviuebis aRebaSi imisaTvis, rom saqme Seivsos da SesaZlebeli iyos zogadi

logikuri daskvnebis gakeTeba. amgvari siuJetebi, rodesac saqme udidesi

mniSvnelobis sazogadoebriv interesebs exeba, xSirad informaciis mosaZieblad

kanonmdeblobaSi Cawvdomas saWiroebs.

gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania, Tu rogor vekidebiT gansaxilvel Temas ara

mxolod maSin, rodesac saqme gvaqvs bavSvebTan, romlebic uSualo wyaros

warmoadgenen, aramed im TvalsazrisiTac, Tu rogori midgoma gvaqvs am sakiTxebTan

dakavSirebiT. `iunisefma~ gamouSva mediaSi bavSvebTan dakavSirebuli sakiTxebis

gaSuqebis saxelmZRvanelo principebi, romlebSic mocemulia sasargeblo rCevebi

bavSvebis Sesaxeb siuJetebis momzadebisTvis da sadiskusio Temebi.

rogorc wesi, Jurnalistebi yvela statiasa Tu siuJetSi, maT Soris iseTebSic,

romlebic bavSvis uflebebs exeba, deben ZiriTad faseulobebs, rogorebicaa:

zegavlena, drouloba, sinamdvilesTan siaxlove, konfliqti, aqtualuroba,

siaxle da Sesabamisoba. am faseulobebis gareSe, ragind kargi unda eCvenebodeT

masala Jurnalistebsa Tu bavSvis uflebaTa propagandistebs, igi auditorias

ver daainteresebs.

`iunisefis~ saxelmZRvanelo miTiTebebi bavSvebTan dakavSirebuli

sakiTxebis gaSuqebisaTvis

1. ufro metad nuRar moaxdenT bavSvis stigmatizacias; Tavi aarideT

kategorizaciebs an siuJetis iseT aRweras, ramac SeiZleba gamoiwvios

bavSvisaTvis samagieros gadaxda – damatebiTi fizikuri an fsiqologiuri zianis

miyeneba, damcireba, diskriminacia, an adgilobrivi sazogadoebis mier gariyva.

2. yovelTvis gadmoeciT bavSvis ambavi an misi saxe Sesabamis konteqstSi.

3. yovelTvis SecvaleT bavSvis saxeli da dafareT misi garegnoba, Tu bavSvi

aris:

a. seqsualuri Zaladobis msxverpli;

b. fizikuri an seqsualuri Zaladobis Camdeni;

g. aiv-dadebiTi an SidsiT daavadebuli, garda im SemTxvevebisa, Tu bavSvi,

mSobeli an masze pasuxismgebeli piri ar ganacxadebs Tanxmobas sruliad

Segnebulad;

d. eWvmitanili an msjavrdebuli;

e. saomar moqmedebebSi CarTuli bavSvi iaraRiT xelSi.

4. bavSvisaTvis zianis miyenebis an samagieros gadaxdis riskis an potenciuri

riskis SemTxvevaSi SecvaleT bavSvis saxeli da SeniRbeT misi garegnuli saxe,

Tu bavSvi:

a. iyo meomari, amJamad ar aqvs iaraRi, magram SeiZleba arsebobdes riski;

b. eZebs TavSesafars, aris ltolvili an iZulebiT gadaadgilebuli piri.


avSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis

125

5. zogjer SeiZleba bavSvis vinaobis gamxela – misi saxelis, an amosacnobi

niSnebis miTiTeba, - Tuki es bavSvis saukeTeso interesebSia. magram mainc

frTxilad unda iyoT da daicvaT is mavne zemoqmedebisagan, stigmisa an

sapasuxo qmedebebisagan.

aseTi SemTxvevebis magaliTebia:

a. rodesac TviTon bavSvis iniciativiT xdeba JurnalistTan kontaqti,

radgan bavSvis surs gamoiyenos azris Tavisuflad gamoxatvis ufleba.

b. rodesac bavSvi monawileobs socialuri mobilizaciis an sxva raime

kampaniaSi da mas unda, rom misi vinaoba iyos gamJRavnebuli;

g. rodesac bavSvi CarTulia fsiqo-socialur programaSi da miaCnia, rom misi

saxelisa da vinaobis Tqma aucilebelia janmrTeli ganviTarebisaTvis;

6. gadaamowmeT imis siswore, ris Tqmasac apirebs bavSvi sxva bavSvebTan an

ufrosTan; sasurvelia orivesTan.

7. Tu eWvobT, rom bavSvs SeiZleba emuqrebodes safrTxe, yuradReba gaamaxvileT

zogad situaciaze, problemaze da ara am konkretul bavSvze, imisda miuxedavad,

Tu raoden mniSvnelovan informacias Seicavs misi ambavi.

gaeros konvenciasTan dakavSirebiT kiTxvebis dasma

Jurnalistebis saqmianoba saSualebas aZlevs maT, mosTxovon saxelmwifos

moqmedeba saerTaSoriso valdebulebebis Sesasruleblad. SegiZliaT, Tqven

Tavad wamoiwyoT kampaniebi imisaTvis, rom gaaumjobesoT sazogadoebisa da

politikosebisTvis konvenciis Sesaxeb informaciis miwodeba uwyobs Tu ara

xels Tqveni statiebi Tu siuJetebi bavSvTa uflebebis sakiTxebSi sazogadoebis

codnis gaRrmavebas da SeuZlia Tu ara, rom zegavlena moaxdinos bavSvis

uflebebis xelSewyobis da dacvis saqmeSi Tqveni mTavrobis strategiis rolze

mniSvnelovania, rom Jurnalistebs SeeZloT, Tavisuflad gaakritikon gaeros

bavSvis uflebaTa konvencia da masTan dakavSirebiT kiTxvebi dasvan. zogierT

Jurnalists SeiZleba problema Seuqmnas bavSvis uflebaTa konvenciaSi mocemulma

ganmartebam, rom bavSvoba 18 wlis asakSi mTavrdeba, Tu es gulisxmobs, rom

ar SeiZleba 16 an 17 wlis zogierTi adamianisagan intervius aReba an maTTvis

kiTxvebis dasma sajarod. es aris sfero, romelic SeiZleba ganxilvis sagani

gaxdes.

esaubreT eqspertebs, bavSvis uflebaTa aqtivistebs da uSualod bavSvebs

Tqvens qveyanaSi bavSvebis winaSe arsebuli problemebis Sesaxeb. SeecadeT Tu

ara adgilobrivi da centraluri xelisuflebisagan ganmartebebis miRebas

bavSvebisaTvis momsaxurebis uzrunvelyofaSi da maTi uflebebis dacvaSi

arsebuli naklovanebebis Taobaze

migiciaT Tu ara bavSvebisTvis SesaZlebloba, rom maT xmas xelisuflebamde

da samoqalaqo sazogadoebamde mieRwia SegimowmebiaT Tu ara arasamTavrobo


126

organizaciebis saCivrebi da migipyriaT Tu ara yuradReba maT warmatebebisa da

naklovanebebisaTvis

konvencia maregulirebeli wesia Tu moraluri saxelmZRvanelo vinaidan is

kanoni ki ar aris, aramed dokumentia, romlis ratificirebac saxelmwifoebma

nebayoflobiT moaxdines, arsebobs Tu ara is moraluri norma, romlis

Sesrulebis mixedviTac SeiZleba qveyanaze msjeloba

statiebisa da siuJetebis wyaroebi

informaciis wyaros JurnalistebisaTvis gadamwyveti mniSvneloba aqvs.

informaciis wyaro iZleva arsebiT informacias sagazeTo statiebis,

radioprogramebisa da satelevizio gadacemebisaTvis. isini SeiZleba daiyos or

kategoriad – pirvelad da meorad wyaroebad:

pirveladi wyaroebi

kontaqtebi

uStato TanamSromlebi

regularuli satelefono zarebi

gavleniani jgufebi

meoradi wyaroebi

werilebi redaqtorTan

gancxadebebi

presrelizebi

mediis sxva sainformacio

saSualebebi

sasamarTloebi/tribunalebi

adgilobrivi mTavroba

sazogadoebrivi saqmeebi

preskonferenciebi

presis saagentoebi

axali ambebis organizaciebi (`roiteri~, ITN)

adgilobrivi xelisufleba

centraluri xelisufleba

xSirad Jurnalistebi informacias pirveladi wyaroebidan interviuebis

saSualebiT iReben. Tu pirvelad wyaros bavSvebi warmoadgenen, Jurnalistebma

unda icodnen bavSvebisTvis intervius CamorTmevasTan dakavSirebuli da am

dros gasaTvaliswinebeli sakiTxebi. am Temas Semdeg TavSi ganvixilavT, magram

sayovelTaodaa aRiarebuli, rom axalgazrdebis piradi cxovreba ufro metad

unda iyos daculi, vidre ufrosi asakis adamianebisa.

wyaroebi mniSvnelovani sakiTxia JurnalistikaSi. zogierTi mecnieruli naSromi

mowmobs, rom Jurnalistebis mier gamoyenebuli wyaroebis diapazoni sakmaod

pataraa da istebliSmentis interesebs emsaxureba. aseve arsebobs anonimuri

wyaroebis sakiTxic; Jurnalistebis tradiciuli poziciaa, rom maT arasodes

SeuZliaT daasaxelon wyaro, romelsac anonimurobis garantia misces. es sakiTxi

imdenad mniSvnelovania, rom zogierTma qveyanam kanonic ki miiRo, romlis

Tanaxmadac Jurnalistebs SeuZliaT amgvari anonimuroba daicvan maSinac ki,

roca aRniSnul informacias sasamarTlo moiTxovs. roca Jurnalistebs wyaros

dasaxelebas sTxoven, maTi tradiciuli pasuxia, rom vinaobis dasaxeleba, ragind

mniSvnelovani mizezic unda arsebobdes, Jurnalistikis reputacias Selaxavs da


avSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis

127

Jurnalists aRaravin endoba.

vrceldeba Tu ara es wesi im adamianebze, vinc bavSvze Zaladobis faqts aRiarebs

bevr Jurnalists am sakiTxze sruliad myari Sexeduleba aqvs da isini amboben,

rom arasodes, aranair garemoebebSi ar unda gamJRavndes anonimuri wyaro.

Jurnalistebis ufro mcire raodenoba acxadebs, rom es sakiTxi damatebiT

diskusias saWiroebs (ix. maikl folis `absolutizmi da konfidencialuroba~,

`eTikal speis~ (Ethical Space), tomi 1, # 2, 2004 w.).

sad SeiZleba moviZioT konkretuli informacia bavSvebisa da maTi uflebebis

Sesaxeb gTavazobT ramdenime wyaros:

qveyanaSi arsebuli wyaroebi







jandacvis adgilobrivi organoebi

socialuri uzrunvelyofis sistemebi

skolebi

saojaxo samarTlis sasamarTloebi

maswavlebelTa organizaciebi

mSobelTa organizaciebi

bavSvTa uflebebis damcveli organizaciebi




bavSvTa ombudsmeni

bavSvis uflebaTa nacionaluri koaliciebi:

http://www.crin.org/NGOGroupforCRC/ViewOrgsByC.asptypeID=7

bavSvebis, axalgazrdebisa da mediis sakiTxebis Semswavleli centri:

www.childrenyouthandmediacentre.co.uk

`Caild houp~: http://www.childhope.org.uk

`Cildrenz eqspres~: www.childrens-express.org./

`CailduoC interneiSenal~: www.childwatch.uio.no/

studentebma unda CamoTvalon maT qveyanaSi arsebuli nacionaluri wyaroebi da

bavSvTa uflebebis damcveli organizaciebi.

saerTaSoriso organizaciebi

`iunisefi~: www.unicef.org

`iunisefis~ kvleviTi centri `inoCenti~ bavSvTa uflebebis Sesaxeb:

www.unicef-icdc.org

gaeros adamianis uflebaTa umaRlesi komisari: http://ohchr.org

bavSvis uflebaTa sainformacio qseli: www.crin.org

aliansi `gadavarCinoT bavSvebi~: http://savethechildren.net

`plen interneiSenal~: www.plan-international.org

`hiuman raiTs uoC~: http://www.hrw.org

`emnisti interneiSenal~: http://www.amnesty.org

`difens for Cildren interneiSenal~ (Defence for Children International):

http://childhouse.uio.no/childrens rights/dci what.html


128


`mediaaqtivoba da kargi ideebi bavSvebis mier, bavSvebisaTvis da maTTan

erTad~ (MAGIC):

http://www.unicef.org/magic/index.html

bavSvis uflebaTa komiteti




bavSvis uflebaTa komiteti: http://www.ohchr.org/english/bodies/crc/index.htm

gaeros bavSvis uflebaTa komitetis sxdomaze TiToeuli qveynis mier

warmodgenili angariSebi:

http://www.ohchr.info/english/bodies/crc/sessions.htm an

http://www.unohchr.ch/tbs/doc.nsf

alternatiuli angariSebi – arasamTavrobo organizaciebis alternatiuli

angariSebis moZieba SeiZleba qveynis, sxdomis da organizaciis kombinaciiT:

http://www.crin.org/NGOGroupforCRC/search.asp

bavSvTa uflebebze momuSave da media organizaciebi saqarTveloSi

gaeros bavSvTa fondis saqarTvelos warmomadgenloba: www.unicef.org/georgia

britanuli arasamTavrobo organizacia _ yvela bavSvi : www.everychild.org.uk

arasamTavrobo organizacia – bavSvi da garemo : www.childandenvironment.org.ge

saerTaSoriso organizacia – gadavarCinoT bavSvebi: www.savethechildren.org

uold viJeni : www.wvi.org

arasamTavrobo organizacia – saqarTvelos bavSvebi : www.cog.ge

gaeros asociacia: www.una.org

axalgazrda iuristTa asociacia: www.gyla.ge

saxalxo damcvelis ofisis bavSvis uflebaTa centri: www.ombudsman.ge

saqarTvelos regionuli mediis asociacia: www.grma.ge

saqarTvelos regionuli mauwyebelTa asociacia: http://www.garb.ge/

mSvidobis, demokratiisa da ganviTarebis kavkasiuri instituti

(kavkasiuri instituti): www.cipdd.ge

asociacia “studia re”: www.studiore.org.ge/

adamianis uflebaTa sainformacio da sakonsultacio centri: www.humanrights.ge

mediis veb-portali: www.media.ge

interniusi saqarTvelo: www.internews.ge

Jurnalistikisa da mediamenejmentis kavkasiuri skola: www.gipa.ge

omisa da mSvidobis instituti: www.iwpr.net

Tbilisis saxelmwifo universiteti: www.tsu.edu.ge


avSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis

129

ilias saxelmwifo universiteti: www.iliauni.edu.ge

saqarTvelos universiteti: www.ug.edu.ge

sakontaqto wignaki: Jurnalistebma sakontaqto wignakis warmoeba karieris

dasawyisSi unda daiwyon (roca jer kidev swavloben Jurnalistikas). saxelebi da

gvarebi, misamarTebi, telefonis nomrebi da eleqtronuli fostis misamarTebi

saimedod unda iyos Senaxuli. reportiorebi, romelTa specializacia bavSvebis

sakiTxebis Seswavla an masTan dakavSirebuli iseTi sferoa, rogorebicaa

ganaTleba an jandacva, regularulad unda urekavdnen TavianT sakontaqto

pirebs, raTa saqmis kursSi iyvnen, Tu ra xdeba am sferoSi.

axali ambebis wyaroebi SeiZleba iyos sxva sainformacio gamoSvebebic. siuJetSi

bavSvebis Sesaxeb ar aris aucilebeli naxsenebi iyos bavSvTa uflebebi, magram

saWiroa Tvalyuris devneba, Tu rogor aris daculi es uflebebi. JurnalebSi

dabeWdili samecniero statiebi, romlebic mcire tiraJiT gamodis, gvTavazoben

uaxlesi kvlevebis Sedegebs, rac SeiZleba aseve mdidari wyaro iyos statiebisa

Tu siuJetebisaTvis.

dasviT kiTxvebi: ratom ixsneba axali skola ratom ixureba Zveli skola

gaTvaliswinebulia Tu ara axal ganaSenianebaSi Sesabamisi Senobebi bavSvebisaTvis,

rogoricaa dawesebuleba skolamdeli asakis bavSvebisaTvis, sportuli moednebi,

skolebi rogori pirobebia bavSvebisaTvis adgilobriv saavadmyofoebSi

adgilobriv policias gavlili aqvs Tu ara specialuri treningi axalgazrdebTan

urTierTobis sakiTxebSi ra tipis treningi aqvs gavlili

damatebiTi literatura da resursebi

`media uaiz trast~ (Media Wise Trust) da `iunisefi~: `bavSvTa uflebebi da media~, 1999 http://www.

mediawise.org.uk/display page.phpid =125

JurnalistebisaTvis gankuTvnili rigi saxelmZRvaneloebisa, rogoricaa devid rendalis

`universaluri Jurnalisti~ (The Universal Journalist) an riCard kiblis `sagazeTo

saxelmZRvanelo~(The Newspaper Handbook), romlebic informaciis wyaroebs exeba.

maikl folis `absolutizmi da konfidencialuroba~, Ethical Space, Vol 1 No 2, 2004:

www.ethicalspace.org


130

ZiriTadi terminebi wyaroebTan urTierTobisas

bevri Jurnalisturi Jargoni enaSi filmebidan da romanebidan Semovida.

Tumca xSirad ar arsebobs erTi azri sityvebis mniSvnelobasTan dakavSirebiT.

amitom mniSvnelovania, rom, roca informaciis wyaros esaubrebiT an intervius

iRebT, auxsnaT, Tu ras gulisxmobT. aseve unda icodeT, rom zogi ufro

kompetenturia mediis sakiTxebSi. iseve, rogorc yvela sxva sferoSi, saRi

azri aqac saukeTeso gzamkvlevia. gaxsovdeT, rom bavSvTa uflebebis Sesaxeb

wera sakmaod delikaturi ram aris.

gamosaqveyneblad gankuTvnili da konfidencialuri informacia

adamianebs, romlebic CarTuli arian bavSvis uflebaTa dacvaSi, eqnebaT bavSvebis

mimarT cudi mopyrobis an Zaladobis faqtebis gamomJRavnebis survili. am

sferos delikaturi xasiaTis gaTvaliswinebiT, Jurnalistebma aucileblad

unda icodnen, Tu rogor unda elaparakon adamianebs konfidencialurad

da ras niSnavs es. roca romelime anonimur wyaros esaubrebiT, yovelTvis

auxseniT, ras gulisxmobT konfidencialurobaSi.

moyvanili citatebi

es swored is aris, rac Jurnalistebis umetesobas unda da sWirdeba: zustad

moaxdinos imis citireba, Tu ra Tqva adamianma. es Jurnalistur masalas met

kompetenturobas da sarwmunoobas SesZens. idealur SemTxvevaSi dasaxelebuli

unda iyos citatis avtori.

gamosaqveyneblad gankuTvnili informacia

roca Jurnalisti informaciis oficialur wyaros esaubreba, mis mier

gamoTqmuli SeniSvnebi avtomaturad iwereba, anu SesaZlebelia am adamianis

citireba da misi vinaobis gamJRavneba.

konfidencialuri informacia

ar SeiZleba konfidencialurad gandobili informaciis citireba, is mxolod

damxmare informacias warmoadgens. metad mniSvnelovania, rom adamianma,

romelsac esaubrebiT, Tavidanve gaigos, rom konfidencialurobasTan

dakavSirebuli nebismieri SeTanxmeba daculi iqneba. Zalian xSirad nu

daTanxmdebiT konfidencialurobis dacvaze. Tqveni statia aradamajerebeli

iqneba da cinikosebs SeiZleba eWvi gauCndeT, rom nawili informaciisa SeTxzulia.

miwodebuli informacia unda tovebdes STabeWdilebas: `gasagebia, rom...~. zog

SemTxvevaSi konfidencialuri informaciiT SeiaraRebulma SeiZleba moaxerxoT

saTanado kiTxvebis dasma sxva adamianisTvis da oficialuri versia miiRoT.


avSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis

131

informaciis wyaros vinaobis gaumJRavnebloba

viRacas SeiZleba surdes raime gancxadebis gakeTeba, magram ar surdes, rom es

informacia mis saxels daukavSiron (aseT dros SeiZleba iTqvas: `mrewvelobis

dargis Sesaxeb informaciis wyaroebi~, `... daaxloebuli wyaroebi~, `seriozuli

wyaroebi~ da a.S.). adamians SeiZleba undodes komentaris gakeTeba mrewvelobis

sferoze, magram ar undodes, rom sazogadoebam naxos, Tu ra komentars

akeTebs konkurentebze. zog qveyanaSi mTavrobis presmdivani yovelTvis

vinaobis gaumJRavneblobis principiT muSaobs. ecadeT, daarwmunoT adamianebi,

dagrTon neba, rom maTi vinaoba axsenoT informaciasTan dakavSirebiT, radgan

amis Sedegad masala ukeTesi da ufro damajerebeli gamova.

komentaris gareSe

ecadeT, daarwmunoT adamianebi, romlebic acxadeben `komentaris gareSe~,

rom aman SeiZleba ubiZgos sazogadoebas, sakuTari azri Seiqmnas sakiTxze da

sakuTari daskvnebi gamoitanos.

5. intervius aReba bavSvebisagan

bavSvebi, rogorc informaciis wyaro da Tanxmobis miReba

ZiriTadi saswavlo Temebi

rogor unda aiRoT interviu bavSvebisagan

bavSvisgan intervius aReba mxolod bavSvze pasuxismgebeli ufrosi

adamianis daswrebiT SeiZleba

rodis SeiZleba bavSvisagan intervius aReba mSoblis an meurvis

dauswreblad

saWiroebs Tu ara bavSvisgan intervius aReba im unar-Cvevebisgan gansxvavebul

unarebs, romlebic zrdasrulisgan intervius aRebas sWirdeba

bavSvebi iSviaTad xvdebian axali ambebis yuradRebis centrSi, vidre maT raime

mniSvnelovani an saSineli ambavi ar SeemTxvevaT. miCneulia, rom axali ambebi

pirvel rigSi ufrosebzea da ufrosebisaTvis aris gankuTvnili.

gamoCenili adamianebis bavSvis dabadeba, gulaxdili aRiareba bavSvebze

seqsualuri Zaladobis an ltolvilTa banakebSi bavSvebis sikvdilis Sesaxeb _ es

yvelaferi SeiZleba sensaciuri axali ambebi gaxdes, Tumca ZiriTadi yuradReba

ufrosebis pasuxebzea gadatanili da ara bavSvis Sexedulebebze.

rogorc bavSvebis, ise axalgazrdebis ukmayofileba imaSi mdgomareobs,

rom maT aravin usmens. Tumca maT bevri aqvT ufrosebisTvis saTqmeli.

bavSvebsa da ufrosebs saerTo fizikuri da socialuri garemo aqvT da


132

bavSvebze Taviseburad axdens zemoqmedebas danaSaulis Tu ekonomikuri da

sakanonmdeblo cvlilebebi.

roca bavSvebis sakiTxebs mediaSi aSuqeben, rogorc wesi, maT streotipulad

warmoaCenen da maT mimarT mfarvelur damokidebulebas amJRavneben.

Jurnalistebis specializacia bavSvebisagan saintereso siuJetebisa

da Sexedulebebis SegrovebaSi erT-erTi saSualebaa, romliTac mediis

organizaciebi SeZleben balansis damyarebas. situaciis gamosworebas

xels Seuwyobda axalgazrda reportiorTa qselebis Seqmnac, vinaidan

axalgazrdebs maT garSemo mimdinare movlenebis Sesaxeb saRi azris mowodeba

SeuZliaT.

imis gageba, Tu rogor xedaven axalgazrdebi maT garSemo arsebul samyaros

da sazogadoebisaTvis maTi xedvis gadacema erT-erTi yvelaze mniSvnelovani

amocanaa, romelic Jurnalistebis winaSe dgas. amis miuxedavad, maT iSviaTad

utardebaT treningebi imaSi, Tu rogor unda moiqcnen mediaSi bavSvebis

aRwerisas. Jurnalistebis pasuxismgeblobaa, miukerZoeblad warmoaCinon

bavSvebi, imgvarad, rom informaciis Segrovebis da gamoqveynebis dros maT

aranairi ziani ar miayenon.

Jurnalistebis movaleobebis dabalanseba im mizniT, rom maT simarTle Tqvan

da Tan bavSvebi daicvan, bevr rTul da eTikur sakiTxTan aris dakavSirebuli.

saWiroa Tu ara korespondentebis Careva iseTi bavSvebis cxovrebaSi, romlebsac

safrTxe emuqrebaT unda CamoarTvan Tu ara Jurnalistebma interviuebi im

bavSvebs, romlebsac travma aqvT gadatanili ra garemoebebis dros aris

misaRebi bavSvis vinaobis gamJRavneba an damalva

sayovelTaodaa aRiarebuli, rom axalgazrdebis piradi cxovreba zrdasrul

adamianebTan SedarebiT ufro met dacvas saWiroebs. Tumca bevr qveyanaSi ar

arsebobs kanoni, romelic krZalavs im bavSvebis vinaobis, naTqvamis an fotoebis

gamoqveynebas, romlebic intervius sajarod CamorTmevaze Tanxmobas acxadeben.

oficialuri azris gamoTqmis dros yvelaze mniSvnelovania bavSvis interesebis

dacva. Jurnalistebma miznad unda daisaxon, rom bavSvs minimaluri ziani

miayenon rogorc intervius aRebis momentSi, ise misi gamoqveynebiT gamowveuli

SedegebiT.

bavSvebis da axalgazrdebis keTildReobis dacva ar unda ewinaaRmdegebodes

jansaR Jurnalistur praqtikas. yvela Jurnalistma unda dausvas sakuTar Tavs

ramdenime ZiriTadi kiTxva:



moxda Tu ara mcirewlovani bavSvebisagan intervius aReba ufrosebis

TanxmobiT arsebobs raime samarTlebrivi baza, romlis mixedviTac unda

moxdes bavSvebisagan intervius aReba

interviu bavSvis mimarT megobrul atmosferoSi Catarda sakmao dro Tu


avSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis

133

daeTmo da Sesaferisi garemo Tu iyo


gaTvaliswinebuli iyo Tu ara bavSvis mier gakeTebuli komentarebis,

rogorc moklevadiani, ise grZelvadiani mosalodneli Sedegebi da

ganumartes Tu ara es Sedegebi bavSvs

miRebul iqna Tu ara zomebi bavSvis dacvis uzrunvelsayofad

Jurnalisturi masalis gamoqveynebis Semdeg da arsebobs Tu ara damxmare

sistemebi, romlebic xels uwyobs sxva bavSvebis kontaqts gamomcemelTan


auxsnes Tu ara bavSvebs, ra bedi elis maT mier miwodebul informacias da

SeuZliaT Tu ara gaecnon masalas dasrulebuli saxiT

pirdapir eTerSi axali ambebis gaSuqebis SemoRebasTan erTad, arsebiTi

mniSvneloba aqvs imas, rom TanamSromlebma, romlebsac mkacri vadebis pirobebSi

uwevT saqmianoba, icodnen axalgazrdebTan muSaobis martivi wesebi. `si-enenma

~ SeimuSava eqvsi faqtorisagan Sedgenili sia, romelic gaTvaliswinebuli

unda iyos im dros, rodesac iReben gadawyvetilebas sensaciuri masalisaTvis

bavSvebisagan intervius aRebis mizanSewonilebaze. es faqtorebia:






asaki da simwife;

Zaladobis xarisxi;

bavSvis kavSiri romelime msxverplTan;

mSoblis nebarTvis arseboba;

masala firzea gadaRebuli Tu pirdapiri eTeriT gadaicema.

`bi-bi-sis~ aseve mkacri saxelmZRvanelo principebi aqvs bavSvebTan muSaobisaTvis:

ixileT `bi-bi-sis~ saredaqcio principebi bavSvebTan dakavSirebiT.

xSirad bavSvebi ufrosebsa da xelisuflebis warmomadgenlebs eubnebian imas,

rac hgoniaT, rom undaT uTxran, magram es yovelTvis is ar aris, risi Tqmac

maT sinamdvileSi surT. gamokvlevebi gviCvenebs, rom bavSvebi ufro zust

informacias maSin iZlevian, roca micemuli aqvT dro imisaTvis, rom Tavisuflad

ilaparakon sakuTar ambebze, vidre maSin, roca maT pirdapir kiTxvebs usvamen.

mizanSewonilia, rom intervius dros Soriaxlos bavSvebisaTvis nacnobi

ufrosebi imyofebodnen, magram yvelaze zusti informaciis miReba maSin

SeiZleba, roca bavSvebi Tanatolebis garemocvaSi arian. amis miuxedavad,

Cveulebriv mniSvnelovania, rom, Tu SesaZlebelia, miRebuli iqnes Sesabamisi

ufrosi adamianis (mSoblis an mzrunvelis) Tanxmoba.

marTalia, unda arsebobdes zogadi wesi Sesabamisi zrdasruli adamianisagan

nebarTvis mopovebasa da imis uzrunvelyofaze, rom intervius Tema ar amoagdebs

bavSvs kalapotidan, magram arsebobs Temebi, romlebTan dakavSirebiTac bavSvebis

Sexedulebebis gamokiTxva ar iqneba problemuri. magaliTad, siuJets kvebis da imis

Sesaxeb, Tu ras Wamen bavSvebi, SeiZleba axldes bavSvebTan gasaubreba, rodesac

bavSvebi moyvebian, ris Wama uyvarT an ramden fuls aZleven jibis fulad.


134

fotoebSi bavSvebis gamoyeneba

mediis mier warmodgenili yvelaze SemZvreli tragediis, konfliqtis, bunebrivi

katastrofis an imedis gamomsaxveli zogierTi foto an gamosaxuleba bavSvebs

exeba. magaliTad, dabombvis damangreveli Zala mudmivad asocirebuli iqneba

cxra wlis fan Ti kim fukTan, romelic SiSveli garbis vietnamis gzaze.

aRniSnulma fotom 1972 wels nik ats `msoflio presis fotos~ jildo moutana.

sainteresoa, gamoqveyndeboda Tu ara amgvari foto dRevandel dRes da, Tu

ara, ratom am fotos gamoqveynebis mizani bavSvis yuradRebis centrSi moqceva

iyo Tu is ufro farTo mizans _ vietnamis omis asaxvas _ emsaxureboda, ramac

mis gamoqveynebas Seuwyo xeli

aRniSnuli fotos naxva SesaZlebelia misamarTze:

http://www.worldpressphoto.org/index.phpoption=com_photogallery&task=view&id=177&Itemid

=115&bandwidth=high

amgvari fotoebis an gamosaxulebis gardauvali aspeqtia, rom bavSvebi

identificirebuli arian; isini realuri saxelebis da istoriebis mqone adamianebi

arian. Tumca bavSvebis identificireba Tundac maTi saxelebis miuTiTeblad

SeiZleba sabediswero gaxdes. dasavleTis erT-erT gazeTSi jariskaci bavSvis

Cveneba imiT dasrulda, rom aTasobiT miliT daSorebul, omiT ganadgurebul

erT-erT afrikul qveyanaSi es bavSvi mokles. imaT, vinc bavSvebs eqspluatacias

uwevs, ar surT, rom maT sisastikes mowmeebi hyavdes. kosovos krizisis periodSi

balkaneTis redaqtorebma uari Tqves im bavSvebis fotoebis gamoqveynebaze,

romlebic gaasaxles, vinaidan icodnen samxedro danaSaulis sasamarTlo

procesebze potenciuri mowmeebis identificirebis riskebis Sesaxeb. amgvari

TavSekaveba ar SeiniSneboda dasavleTis qveynebis mediis sxva saSualebebSi,

romlebmac naxes, rom aseTi fotoebis Zalam SeiZleba gaeros da nato-s mxridan

intervencia gamoiwvios.

omis, danaSaulis da bunebrivi katastrofebis dros gadaRebuli bavSvebis

fotoebisa da gamosaxulebebis gamoyeneba seriozul dafiqrebas saWiroebs.

fotoJurnalistebs gamouTqvamT pretenzia, rom maT mier gadaRebul fotoebs

aramiznobrivad da konteqstidan amoglejilad iyeneben. humanitaruli

daxmarebis muSakebi ukmayofilebas gamoTqvamdnen gadamRebi jgufebis

mier ltolvilTa banakebSi sasowarkveTili bavSvebis gadaRebis gamo. es

reportiorebi ver acnobierebdnen, rom bavSvebis aSkara SiSi da travmireba

SeiZleba gamowveuli yofiliyo ucxoel JurnalistebTan moulodneli SexebiT.

arasamTavrobo organizaciebma, romlebic xSirad gamoTqvamen ukmayofilebas

mediis mier bavSvTa uflebebis darRvevis gamo, SeiZleba Tavad gamoiyenon

bavSvis foto an gamosaxuleba Tanxebis mosazidad. ra aris bavSvis fotoze

ufro qmediTi, rac maT muSaobas warmoaCens


avSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis

135

bavSvis foto an gamosaxuleba

bavSvebis fotoebs xSirad iyeneben omis an katastrofebis aRsawerad amgvari

fotoebis emociuri xasiaTis gamo.

`msoflio presis fotos~ konkursis gamarjvebulTa fotoebi SegiZliaT

ixiloT Semdeg internetgverdze: http://www.worldpressphoto.org/ da dafiqrdeT

bavSvis fotoebis gamoyenebaze.

ra garemoebebSi (Tu odesme) aris axali ambebis Rirebuleba ufro mniSvnelovani,

vidre bavSvis interesebi ra meTodebia misaRebi bavSvis fotos an gamosaxulebis

Seqmnisas, gansakuTrebiT iseTi ambebis sailustraciod, rodesac bavSvis vinaobis

gamJRavnebasTan SeiZleba gansakuTrebuli riskebi iyos dakavSirebuli

iunisefma bavSvebisagan intervius asaRebad Semdegi saxelmZRvanelo principebi

SeimuSava:

iunisefis saxelmZRvanelo principebi bavSvebisagan intervius

aRebasTan dakavSirebiT

1. ziani ar miayenoT arc erT bavSvs. Tavi aarideT iseTi kiTxvebis dasmas, an

iseTi damokidebulebis an mosazrebebis gamoxatvas, romlebsac aqvT gansjis

xasiaTi, ar iTvaliswineben bavSvis kulturul faseulobebs da safrTxes

uqmnian an amcireben bavSvs, an romlebic iwveven travmis Sedegad gamowveuli

tkivilis da uaryofiTi emociis xelaxal gancdas.

2. interviusaTvis bavSvis SerCevisas nu moaxdenT mis dirkiminacias sqesis, rasis,

asakis, religiis, statusis, ganaTlebis an fizikuri SesaZleblobebis mixedviT.

3. ar aris saWiro inscenireba. ar TxovoT bavSvs iseTi ambis moyola an moqmedebis

ganxorcieleba, romelic ar aris kavSirSi mis sakuTar istoriasTan.

4. aucilebelia, rom bavSvma an masze pasuxismgebelma pirma/meurvem icodnen,

rom esaubrebian Jurnalists. auxseniT intervius mizani da sad da rogor

iqneba is gamoyenebuli.

5. aucilebelia bavSvis an misi meurvis/masze pasuxismgebeli piris Tanxmoba

nebismieri intervius, video firze an, SesaZleblobis SemTxvevaSi, dokumenturi

fotosuraTebis gadaRebisaTvis. Tu SesaZlebelia da marTebuli, Tanxmoba

unda iyos werilobiTi xasiaTis. Tanxmoba bavSvisagan an masze pasuxismgebeli

pirisagan unda iyos miRebuli yovelgvari iZulebis gareSe da maT unda icodnen,

rom isini iqnebian im istoriis Semadgeneli nawili, romelic gavrceldeba

adgilobrivi an farTo masStabiT. amis uzrunvelyofa, Cveulebriv, maSin

aris SesaZlebeli, rodesac Tanxmobis miReba xdeba bavSvis mSobliur enaze

da gadawyvetileba miRebulia im ufrosTan konsultaciis Sedegad, romelsac

bavSvi endoba.


136

6. miaqcieT yuradReba, sad da rogor xdeba bavSvisgan intervius aReba. SezRudeT

fotografebis da im adamianebis raodenoba, romlebic mas dausvamen kiTxvebs.

uzrunvelyaviT, rom bavSvebi Tavs ar grZnobdnen uxerxulad da SeZlon

sakuTari ambis moyola garegani zewolis gareSe, maT Soris Jurnalistis

mxridan. filmis, video an radio interviuebis dros gaiTvaliswineT video Tu

audio saSualebebis gavlena bavSvis cxovrebasa da istoriaze. uzrunvelyaviT,

rom bavSvs ar daemuqros safrTxe an masze uaryofiTad ar aisaxos misi saxlis,

mezoblebis an saerTod, sacxovrebeli garemos Cvenebis gamo.

intervius Semdeg...






madloba gadauxadeT bavSvs imisaTvis, rom dro gamonaxa da gagesaubraT.

hkiTxeT, xom ara aqvs raime SekiTxva.

ifiqreT bavSvisTvis kompensaciis gadaxdaze, vinaidan man Tqven dro

dagiTmoTY(gansakuTrebiT momuSave an quCis bavSvebisTvis), magram

gaxsovdeT, rom es aris drois kompensacia da ara gadaxda interviusTvis.

monayoli ambisaTvis Tanxis gadaxdam SeiZleba damaxinjebuli saxe miiRos,

radgan xSirad adamianebi Jurnalistebs awvdian informacias, romelic,

maTi azriT, Jurnalistebs sWirdebaT, gansakuTrebiT, Tu maT miaCniaT,

rom aRniSnuli informacia sensaciuria da met fuls moitans.

kidev erTxel ganumarteT bavSvs, risTvis iqneba gamoyenebuli statia da

SeuTanxmdiT, rom gaugzavniT statias.

hkiTxeT, xom ar surs raimes amoReba an sakuTari saxelis Tu sxva detalebis

Secvla.

organizacia `gadavarCinoT bavSvebis~ bavSvebisgan intervius aRebis

saxelmZRvanelo principebi

momzadeba

gaerkvieT sakuTar damokidebulebaSi bavSvebis mimarT. nu gamoamJRavnebT

mfarvelur damokidebulebas maT mimarT, nurc imas aCvenebT, rom maTze meti

iciT. maT adgilas warmoidgineT Tavi da pativiscemiT moepyariT.

detalurad ganumarteT, ras akeTebT da ratom gsurT maTTan saubari. aCveneT

sxva bavSvebisgan aRebuli interviuebis magaliTebi. ganumarteT, risTvis

gamoiyenebT masalas da aiReT maTgan nebarTva mis gamoqveynebaze. gulaxdili

iyaviT imasTan dakavSirebiT, rasac akeTebT, nu daaimedebT (magaliTad, fuliT,

samuSaoTi, samedicino momsaxurebiT).

Tu Tarjimani gWirdebaT, amoarCieT iseTi adamiani, romelsac advilad SeuZlia

bavSvTan kontaqtis damyareba, ar SeaSinebs mas da intervius mizani misTvis

gasagebi iqneba. uTxariT Tarjimans, rom man yvelaferi Targmnos, gadmosces


avSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis

137

bavSvis sityvebi da ara mxolod mokle Sinaarsi.

gamoiyeneT diqtofoni (Tu stenografia kargad ar gexerxebaT). sxva SemTxvevaSi

bavSvis ena da is, ris gamoxatvac mas unda, SeiZleba daikargos.

moZebneT Sesaferisi wynari adgili (SenobaSi an gareT), sadac bavSvi komfortulad

da Tavisuflad igrZnobs Tavs. mieciT mas adgilis SerCevis saSualeba.

uzrunvelyaviT, rom intervius, Tarjimnis garda, ufrosebi ar daeswron _

garda proeqtis TanamSromlis, maswavleblis an sxva ufrosisa, romelsac bavSvi

icnobs da endoba.

SeiZleba mizanSewonili iyos bavSvebis patara jgufTan (2-5 bavSvi) intervius

Catareba _ bavSvebi erTmaneTs mxars dauWeren da azrebs gauziareben. magram

moifiqreT, rogor gaarCioT, romeli bavSvi ras ambobs.

SeecadeT, SeqmnaT uSualo garemo. isaubreT, iTamaSeT, moasmenineT magnitofonze

Cawerili sakuTari xmebi. gauSinaurdiT – magaliTad, iatakze maTTan erTad

dajeqiT.

moitaneT rame piradi nivTi, magaliTad, fotoebi, rac bavSvebs SeboWilobas

mouxsnis an diskusiaSi Caabams.

interviu

mieciT bavSvs saSualeba, Tavad airCios saubris tempi da ise giamboT sakuTari

ambavi.

frTxilad moekideT iarliyebis gamoyenebas (magaliTad, rogoricaa `meZavi bozi~

da ara `komerciuli seqsis muSaki~), romlebic bavSvisTvis ar aris Sesaferisi.

Tavidan advili kiTxvebi dausviT – magaliTad, hkiTxeT saxeli, asaki, sad

cxovrobs. mimarTeT saxeliT.

dausviT Ria kiTxvebi. erideT Zalian bevr daxurul kiTxvas, romelzec bavSvma

`diax~ an `ara~ unda gipasuxoT.

TqvenTvis sasurveli informaciis miRebamde SeiZleba mogixdeT kiTxvebis

sxvadasxva gziT dasma. sasurvelia, frTxilad, daJinebiT isaubroT Temaze da

gamoiwvioT bavSvi, ifiqros Tqven mier dasmul kiTxvebze.

gaiTvaliswineT is garemoeba, rom bavSvi Tavs SeiZleba uxerxulad grZnobdes

da nu aiZulebT, misTvis mtkivneul sakiTxebze isaubros. mzad iyaviT,

daasruloT interviu an gadaxvideT naklebad mtkivneul Temaze, Tu SeatyobT,

rom bavSvi daiZaba.


138

damatebiTi literatura da resursebi

kanadis `media euearnes netuorkma~ (Media Awareness Network) SeimuSava `mediainstrumentebis

nakrebi axalgazrdebisaTvis~, romelSic aris axalgazrdebisaTvis gankuTvnili Tavi `Tqveni

uflebebis codna~ da mocemulia rCeva, Tu rogor unda moiqcnen axalgazrdebi presis

warmomadgenlebTan intervius dros:

http://www.media-awareness.ca/english/index.cfm

aSS-is pointeris institutma sakuTar internetgevrdze ganaTavsa saxelmZRvanelo principebi.

aRniSnuli internetgverdi ufaso momsaxurebas uwevs yvela dainteresebul pirs imasTan

dakavSirebiT, Tu rogor imuSaon axalgazrdebTan: http://www.poynter.org/

`gadavarCinoT bavSvebi UK“-m gamoaqveyna bukleti saxelwodebiT `bavSvebisagan intervius

aReba. saxelmZRvanelo Jurnalistebisa da sxvebisaTvis~, romelic gvTavazobs praqtikul

miTiTebebs imis Sesaxeb, Tu rogor unda aviRoT interviu bavSvebisagan. es bukleti msoflio

masStabiT bavSvebs Soris Catarebuli kvlevaa. igi sasargebloa beWdviTi mediis, radio- da

teleJurnalistebis, axali ambebis studiebisa da mediis sxva saSualebebisaTvis:

www.savethechildren.org.uk

6. bavSvebi SeiaraRebuli konfliqtebis dros

ZiriTadi saswavlo Temebi





jariskaci bavSvebis istoriebi

konteqsti, omi, samoqalaqo areuloba, samoqalaqo sazogadoebis kolafsi

jariskaci bavSvebis Temis sensaciuroba

unar-Cvevebis sxva ambebTan mimarTebiT gamoyeneba

jariskaci bavSvebis sakiTxi mTavar Temad iqca mediaSi. istoriebi jariskaci

bavSvebis Sesaxeb wamoWrian seriozul da rTul sakiTxebs ara mxolod

bavSvTa uflebebis TvalsazrisiT, aramed eTikuri kuTxiTac, rac ukavSirdeba

mauwyeblobas omisa da samoqalaqo konfliqtis dros.

sakiTxebi orientirebulia sensaciurobaze. marTebulia Tu ara konfliqtis

zonebSi myofi bavSvebis iseTi fotoebis Cveneba, romlebic ar iqneboda

naCvenebi arakonfliqtur teritoriebze iwvevs Tu ara 11 wlis bavSvis foto,

romelsac samxedro forma acvia da TiTqmis Tavisxela `kalaSnikovi~ uWiravs,

seriozul SekiTxvebs, Tu mxolod ydis karg gamosaxulebas iZleva aris Tu ara

Jurnalistebis samsaxurebrivi movaleoba, rom gaaSuqon jariskaci bavSvebic

da sazogadoebaSi maTi reintagraciis mcdelobebic


avSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis

139

jariskaci bavSvebi _ es dausrulebeli Temaa. iseve, rogorc sxva xangrZlivi

Temebis SemTxvevaSi, mediis daRlam SeiZleba simZafre moaklos Temas. magram

Jurnalisti valdebulia, sxvadasxva kuTxiT Sexedos problemas, magaliTad imas,

Tu rogor xdeba am bavSvebis reintegracia, da moZebnos sazogadoebis winaSe am

Temis aqtualurobis SenarCunebis gzebi.

2000 wels gaerTianebuli erebis organizaciam miiRo bavSvis uflebaTa konvenciis

fakultatiuri oqmi SeiaraRebul konfliqtSi bavSvebis monawileobis Sesaxeb.

oqmiT akrZalulia 18 wlamde asakis bavSvebis iZulebiTi gawveva an maTi

gamoyeneba saomari moqmedebebis dros. dRemde is ratificirebulia 110-ze meti

qveynis mier.

daaxloebiT 300 000 gogonasa da biWis samxedro gawveva da gamoyeneba SeiaraRebul

konfliqtebSi msoflios sxvadasxva kuTxeSi amJamad sayovelTaod aRiarebulia

bavSvTa uflebebis darRvevad, rac mkacr saerTaSoriso reagirebas moiTxovs.

SeiaraRebuli konfliqti mraval aspeqtSi aiZulebs bavSvebs, gamotovon TavianTi

bavSvoba. jariskacebad gawveuli bavSvebi ver iReben saTanado ganaTlebas da

dacvas da xSirad maTTvis miuwvdomelia ZiriTadi jandacvis momsaxurebac.

msgavs danakargebs ganicdian iZulebiT gadaadgilebuli da TavianT ojaxebs

daSorebuli bavSvebic. konfliqti zrdis bavSvTa mimarT Zaladobis, maTi

Seuracxyofisa da eqspluataciis risks. seqsualuri Zaladoba xSirad gamoiyeneba

rogorc brZolis iaraRi.

is bavSvebic ki, vinc sakuTar ojaxebSi, sakuTar saxlebSi rCeba, SeiZleba dadgnen

skolidan gaSvebis riskis winaSe, darCnen jandacvis momsaxurebisa da dacvis

gareSe fizikuri infrastruqturis ganadgurebis, jandacvisa da ganaTlebis

sistemebze zewolis, aseve mzardi piradi daucvelobis gamo, rac gamowveulia

konfliqtiT an misi narCenebiT – rogoricaa naRmebi da aufeTqebeli sabrZolo

masala.

msoflios 20-ze met qveyanaSi bavSvebi omis uSualo monawileebi arian. xSirad

saSineli Zaladobis msxverplni, 200 000-dan 300 000-mde bavSvi msaxurobs

jarSi rogorc ajanyebulTa rigebSi, ise samTavrobo ZalTa mxares mimdinare

SeiaraRebul konfliqtebSi. es axalgazrda mebrZolebi monawileoben

Tanamedrove saomari moqmedebebis yvela aspeqtSi. maT xelT upyriaT `AK-47~

da `M-16~, dganan frontis wina xazze, msaxuroben rogorc ganmnaRmvelebi,

monawileoben TviTmkvlelobis misiebSi, ezidebian maragebs da moqmedeben

rogorc jaSuSebi an mzveravebi.

magaliTad, komunisturi partiis mier nepalSi 10-wliani samoqalaqo omis dros

jarSi ayvanili iyo aTasobiT bavSvi. bavSvebi msaxurobdnen frontis wina xazze,

gadiodnen swavlebas iaraRis xmarebaSi da arsebiTi mniSvnelobis samxedro

da logistikur daxmarebas uwevdnen maoistebs. 2006 wels mTavrobasTan

yovlismomcveli samSvidobo xelSekrulebis xelmoweris Semdegac ki maoistebma

ganagrZes bavSvebis gawveva da uari Tqves TavianTi rigebidan maT gaSvebaze.


140

burundiSi mimdinare 13-wliani samoqalaqo omis dros konfliqtis yvela mxare

iyenebda bavSvebs, rogorc mebrZolebs da, zogadad, damxmareebs. 3 000-ze meti

bavSvi demobilizebul iqna, magram meamboxeTa erT-erTi razmi saxelwodebiT

`erovnuli ganmaTavisuflebeli Zalebi~ kvlav ganagrZobs bavSvebis gamoyenebas

mebrZolebad da sxvadasxva davalebis Sesasruleblad. amasTan, aTobiT bavSvi,

vinc am dajgufebaSi msaxurobda an brali edeba masTan kavSirSi, saxelmwifo

patimrobaSi imyofeba daxmarebis gareSe.

bavSvebi, rogorc wesi, morCili jariskacebi arian, radgan isini fizikurad

daucvelebi arian da maTi damcireba advilia. bevri maTgani motacebulia an

iZulebiT aris gawveuli da xSirad brZanebebis Sesruleba sikvdilis muqaris

qveS uwevs. zogierTi maTgani SeiaraRebul dajgufebebs sasowarkveTilebis gamo

uerTdeba. vinaidan konfliqtis dros xdeba sazogadoebis rRveva – rodesac

bavSvebi veRar dadian skolebSi, iZulebulni xdebian, datovon saxlebi da

daSordnen TavianTi ojaxebis wevrebs – bevri bavSvi SeiaraRebul jgufebs uyurebs,

rogorc gadarCenis saukeTeso Sanss. sxvebi cdiloben, Tavi daaRwion siRaribes

an SeuerTdnen samxedro Zalebs, raTa Suri iZion ojaxis mokluli wevrebis gamo.

saerTaSoriso samarTlis gaZliereba da gaeros uSiSroebis sabWos mier bavSvebis

samxedro gawvevis problemis aRiareba mniSvelovani miRwevebia. magram am

iniciativebs Tan unda sdevdes praqtikuli zomebi, romlebic miscems bavSvebs,

maT ojaxebsa da sazogadoebas jarSi gawvevis stabilur alternativebs,

romlebic gamiznuli iqneba bavSvebis ganTavisuflebisa da demobilizaciisken

da xels Seuwyobs sazogadoebaSi maT reintegracias.

gadaudebel prioritets warmoadgens 18 wlamde asakis yvela piris samxedro

Zalebidan demobilizacia. bavSvebis monawileoba aRniSnuli unda iyos yvela

samSvidobo SeTanxmebaSi, raTa efeqtianad daigegmos maTi reintegraciis

programebi.

reintegraciis procesi exmareba bavSvebs cxovrebaSi axali fundamentis

CamoyalibebaSi. ojaxsa da sazogadoebasTan kavSiris ganaxleba mniSvnelovania

yofili jariskaci bavSvebisTvis, romlebic TavianTi ojaxebisgan moSorebiT

gaizardnen da moklebulni iyvnen fizikuri, emociuri da inteleqtualuri

ganviTarebis normalur SesaZleblobebs. yofili mcirewlovani mebrZolebisTvis

ganaTlebisa da dasaqmebis SesaZleblobebis Seqmna xels uwyobs maT, rom Tavidan

airidon samxedro danayofebSi xelaxali gawevrianeba da, amave dros, zrdis

maTi ojaxebis ekonomikur usafrTxoebas.

yofili jariskaci bavSvisTvis ganaTleba ufro metia, vidre mxolod gza

dasaqmebisaken. ganaTlebis saSualebiT misi cxovreba normalur kalapots

ubrundeba da is SeZlebs Camoyalibdnen pirovnebad, romelic gansxvavebulia

jariskacisgan. amasTan dakavSirebuli siZnele is aris, rom yofili mebrZolebi

SesaZloa bevrad CamorCnen swavlas da SeiZleba Cairicxon dabal klasebSi

gacilebiT ufro mcirewlovan bavSvebTan erTad. SeiZleba saWiro gaxdes

specialuri zomebis miReba, rogoric aris specialuri klasebis Camoyalibeba


avSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis

141

yofili jariskaci bavSvebisaTvis, romelTa reintegracia SemdgomSi SesaZlebeli

iqneba Cveulebriv skolebSi.

SemuSavebulia garkveuli zomebi, raTa minimumamde iqnes dayvanili an Tavidan

acilebuli bavSvebis jariskacebad gamoyeneba. magaliTad, adgilobriv

mosaxleobas meti informacia unda miewodos erovnuli da saerTaSoriso

kanonmdeblobis Sesaxeb, romelic aregulirebs samxedro gawvevis asakobriv

zRvars. arasamTavrobo organizaciebs, religiur jgufebs da, zogadad,

samoqalaqo sazogadoebas, SeuZliaT, mniSvnelovani roli Seasrulon zneobrivi

CarCoebis dadgenaSi, romlebic miuReblad aRiarebs bavSvebis monawileobas

SeiaraRebul konfliqtebSi. peruSi iZulebiT gawvevis mcdelobebi Semcirda iq,

sadac samociqulo eklesiebma dagmes aseTi qmedeba. el-salvadorSi, gvatemalasa

da paragvaiSi eTnikurma jgufebma da jariskaci bavSvebis dedebma Camoayalibes

organizaciebi, romlebic zewolas axdenen xelisuflebaze, raTa gaaTavisuflon

arasrulwlovani jariskacebi.

kidev erTi mniSvnelovani prevenciuli zoma aris ltolvilTa an iZulebiT

gadanacvlebul pirTa banakebSi mitovebuli bavSvebis aqtiuri da adreuli

aRricxva da gamovlena. devnilTa banakebis konfliqturi zonebidan Sor manZilze

ganTavsebas aseve SeuZlia Seamciros Sansi imisa, rom bavSvebs gadaibireben an

ZaliT gaawevrianeben mebrZolTa rigebSi.

gaeros bavSvis uflebaTa konvencia am sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT moicavs ramdenime

muxls, kerZod, 38-e muxls SeiaraRebuli konfliqtis Sesaxeb da 39-e muxls

SeiaraRebuli konfliqtebis msxverpli bavSvebis sareabilitacio mkurnalobis

Sesaxeb. garda amisa, 2002 wlis 12 Tebervals ZalaSi Sevida fakultatiuri oqmi

SeiaraRebul konfliqtebSi bavSvebis monawileobis Sesaxeb. oqmi moiTxovs,

rom xelmomwerma saxelmwifoebma uzrunvelyon, rom 18 wlamde asakis bavSvebi

ar iyvnen savaldebulo wesiT gawveulni maT SeiaraRebul ZalebSi. is aseve

mouwodebs xelmomwer saxelmwifoebs, miiRon yvela SesaZlebeli zoma imisaTvis,

rom maTi SeiaraRebuli Zalebis 18 wlamde asakis wevrebma ar miiRon monawileoba

samxedro moqmedebebSi.

fakultatiuri oqmis interpretacia yovelTvis unda moxdes mTlianobaSi,

Tavdapirveli SeTanxmebis WrilSi, am SemTxvevaSi ki diskriminaciis akrZalvis,

bavSvis WeSmariti interesebisa da bavSvis monawileobis principebis

gaTvaliswinebiT.

gasuli aTwleulis manZilze ori milioni bavSvi iqna mokluli SeiaraRebuli

konfliqtebis dros. uTvalav SemTxvevaSi SeiaraRebuli konfliqtis

zegavlena bavSvebis cxovrebaze SeumCneveli rCeba. bavSvebi SeiZleba gairiyon

sazogadoebisgan, moxvdnen specialur dawesebulebebSi, quCaSi an gaxdnen

prostituciis msxverplni. is bavSvebi, vinc dakarga mSoblebi, xSirad ganicdian

damcirebas, uaryofas da diskriminacias, rasac isini uTqmelad itanen, xolo

maTi TviTSefaseba ngrevas ganicdis.


142

media da bavSvebi SeiaraRebuli konfliqtis dros

jariskaci bavSvebis monawileoba konfliqtebSi mTels msoflioSi warmoadgens

ara marto humanitarul kriziss, aramed media sensaciasac. televiziiTa da

presiT gadaicema gamosaxulebebi 11 wlis bavSvebisa, romlebic ewevian sigaras

da aRWurvilni arian iaraRiT, xolo oficialuri Setyobinebebi gaerodan da

adamianis uflebebis damcveli oragnizaciebis mmarTveli organodan amxelen

SemaSfoTebel detalebs imisa, rasac Cveulebriv aRweren, rogorc `mzard

fenomens~. jariskaci bavSvebi amJamad figurireben filmebSi, rogoricaa

`sisxliani almasi~, aseve deiv egersis romanSi, xolo bred pitma Seqmna

dokumenturi filmi maTi gaWirvebis Sesaxeb. 2007 wels `starbaqsma~ wignis klubi

gaxsna yofili kileri biWis pirvel pirSi monaTxrobi ambiT. magram moaqvs Tu

ara am istoriebs sargebloba

mediis roli sazogadoebis mier sagangebo situaciebis ukeT gaTviTcnobierebaSi

Zalze mniSvnelovania qmediTi sapasuxo zomebis organizebisa da bavSvebis

sicocxlis gadarCenis mizniT. Tumca axali ambebis wamyvan saagento `roiteris~

cnobiT, msoflios udidesi `daviwyebuli katastrofebis~ mTavar dartymas

bavSvebi iRebdnen, maTma gaWirvebam ki mxolod odnav gaielva saerTaSiriso

axal ambebSi.

`roiteris~ `alert netma~ Caatara humanitaruli eqspertebisa da Jurnalistebis

gamokiTxva, romelic gansazRvravs planetis yvelaze saxifaTo adgilebs

bavSvebisaTvis. is ukeTebda analizs globalur mediareportaJebs inglisur

enaze im pirveli 10 cxeli wertilidan, romlebic dasaxelebuli iyo

respondentebis mier, da mcire kavSiri ipova tanjva-wamebis masStabebsa da

Sesabamisi sagazeTo svetebis sisqes Soris. nacvlad amisa, rogorc Cans, mediis

yuradRebas dasavleTis ZalebisaTvis am adgilebis geopolitikuri mniSvneloba

iqcevda. mediis yuradRebis centrSi umTavresad erayi, palestinis teritoriebi

da avRaneTi iyvnen. nuTu Jurnalists ara aqvs valdebuleba bavSvebis winaSe sxva

konfliqtur wertilebSi

rogorc Jurnalists, Tqven gekisrebaT pasuxismgebloba im bavSvebis mimarT,

romelTa Sesaxebac amzadebT reportaJs. Tqvens mier gamoqveynebul masalas

gaecnobian adamianebi, romelTac SeiZleba ar hqondeT gamocdili bavSvebis

mier gadatanili saSineli movlenebi. Tqveni Tema SeiZleba gaxdes ucxo pirTa

sibralulis, TanagrZnobis an Tundac didsulovnebis sagani. magram ra bedi

ewevaT im bavSvebs, visTanac Jurnalists aqvs urTierToba

magaliTad, devnilTa banakebi ufrosebisTvisac ki SeiZleba SiSis momgvreli

da saxifaTo adgili iyos, rom araferi vTqvaT bavSvebze, gansakuTrebiT,

rodesac isini mSobliuri garemodan Sors imyofebian. humanitaruli daxmarebis

muSakebi gamoTqvamen pretenzias, rom ucxouri mediis Carevam SeiZleba

gaaZlieros bavSvebis travma, aseve SeiZleba cru molodini Causaxos imaT, visac

garkveulwilad mainc esmis mediis roli.


avSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis

143

amis sapirispirod, Jurnalisturi eTikis saqvelmoqmedo organizacia `mediauaiz

trastma~ (MediaWise Trust) Seqmna saxelmZRvanelo principebi JurnalistebisTvis,

romlebic intervius arTmeven bavSvebs omisa da bunebrivi katastrofebis dros,

raTa Tavidan iqnes acilebuli maTTvis uneblieT zianis miyeneba, rodesac

pirveladi ganzraxva aris `istoriis ageba~.

`mediauaiz trast~: saxelmZRvanelo principebi reportiorebisTvis, romlebic

intervius iReben bavSvebisgan omisa da bunebrivi katastrofebis dros

1. pirvel adgilze daayeneT bavSvis WeSmariti interesebi. Tqvens

reportaJebs SeiZleba moulodneli Sedegebi mohyves da amitom ifiqreT

Tqvens motivaciaze, imaze, Tu rogor iqneba warmodgenili ambavi

da ra zemoqmedeba SeiZleba iqonios aman bavSvze. erT-erTi mTavari

sakiTxia maTi individualuroba. magaliTad, (yofili) jariskaci bavSvi,

romelic medias esaubreba, SeiZleba mkvlelobis msxverpli gaxdes, Tu

misi zedamxedveli gaigebs, rom is gadascems informacias, romelmac

SeiZleba Crdili miayenos ufrosebs. analogiurad, danaSaulebrivi

qmedebebis mowme bavSvebi SeiZleba daisajon, devnilTa banakebSic ki.

2. moipoveT nebarTvebi, rodesac da sadac SesaZlebelia. Tu bavSvebi

pasuxismgebeli ufrosebis meTvalyureobis qveS imyofebian, maTTan

saubris dawyebamde gaigeT maTi mdgomareobis Sesaxeb. yovlad

miuRebelia intervius CamorTmeva mZimed travmirebuli bavSvebisTvis,

xolo rac ufro daTrgunulia bavSvi, miT ufro mniSvnelovania

misi dakiTxva misTvis nacnobi ufrosis TandaswrebiT. yovelTvis

SeamowmeT, misaRebia Tu ara maTi sruli identifikacia (saxelis an

fotos gamoqveyneba).

3. dafiqrdiT sruli identifikaciis dadebiT da uaryofiT mxareebze. bavSvis

pirovnuli identurobis aRiareba mis mimarT pativiscemisa da misgan

ndobis mopovebis mniSvnelovani elementia, magram am monacemebis bolomde

sajarod gaxmaureba SeiZleba miuRebeli iyos. SeiZleba bavSvs araferi

hqondes sawinaaRmdego, magram rogorc pasuxismgebel ufross, Tqven

mogeTxovebaT, gaiTvaliswinoT SesaZlo Sedegebi. maSinac ki, rodesac

intervius iRebT bavSvebisgan, romelTac dakarges kavSiri TavianT

ojaxebTan, gamoiCineT windaxeduloba maTi sruli piradi monacemebis

gamJRavnebasTan dakavSirebiT. moZebneT saTanado gzebi, rom SeatyobinoT

namdvil naTesavs, magram sifrTxiliT moekideT sruli identifikaciis

gamJRavnebas im SemTxvevaSi, Tu damatebiTi riskis qveS ayenebT bavSvebs.

dRes mediis yvela forma globaluria – ase rom, Tqveni istoria

SeiZleba naxon adamianebma, romelTa ganzraxva, daekontaqton bavSvebs,

SeiZleba saeWvo iyos. Tu eWvi gawuxebT, miiReT rCeva bavSvisTvis nacnobi

ufrosebisgan. marTla aucilebelia Tu ara es suraTi


144

4. yovelTvis mieciT bavSvs axsna-ganmarteba. SeecadeT, uzrunvelyoT, rom

bavSvma icodes, ras akeTebT. Tqven ver iqnebiT darwmunebuli imaSi,

megobrad gTvliT is Tu mtrad, amitom daiwyeT imis ganmartebiT, Tu vin

xarT Tqven, ratom gindaT masTan saubari da ras gaakeTebT mopovebuli

informaciiT, aseve, savaraudod, vin iqneba Tqveni auditoria. uCveneT

Tqveni piradobis damadasturebeli sabuTi da auxseniT, rogor muSaobs

Tqveni aRWurviloba.

5. mieciT bavSvs dro. SeiZleba Tqvens dRis wesrigSi vadebi SezRudulia,

magram es arafers niSnavs travmirebuli bavSvebisTvis. rodesac es

SesaZlebelia, mieciT saSualeba, kargad gagicnon, Tundac ramdenime

dRis manZilze. Tqven unda SeZloT, rom misceT maT dro; Tu es ar

SegiZliaT, kidev erTxel dafiqrdiT maTTan kontaqtis damyarebaze. isini

ar arian iq TqvenTvis; isini Tqven giyureben rogorc ufross, romelic

Cavida iq maT sanaxavad. maTi keTildReoba da sacxovrebeli pirobebi

ufro mniSvnelovania, vidre maTi `istoria~ da mosalodnelia, rom isini

ufro advilad gaixsnebian mas Semdeg, rac SeeCvevian Tqvens iq yofnas.

yvelaze mniSvnelovania, rom realurad moisminoT maTi naTqvami da ara

ubralod daiWiroT `frazebi, romelTa citirebac SeiZleba~. karg droSic

ki zog bavSvs ar moswons, rodesac mas garkveuli jgufis an `tipis~

warmomadgenlad warmoaCenen. SesaZlebelia, Tqven SeZloT ganzogadeba

ramdenime bavSvTan gasaubrebis Semdeg, magram SeecadeT, gaacnobieroT

maTi individualuri gamocdileba, nacvlad imisa, rom eZioT krizisSi

myofi bavSvebis `gamomsaxvelobiTi~ tipaJi da istoriebi.

6. SeamowmeT informacia, rodesac ki aris amis saSualeba. bavSvebi SeiZleba

gasaocari da mimzidveli mowmeebi aRmoCndnen, magram maTi gamoucdeloba

da mwiri leqsikoni SeiZleba gaugebrobis sababi gaxdes. SeiZleba maT

Zalian moindomon, rom gasiamovnon da mogiyvnen imas, ris gagonebac Tqven

gindaT, da ara imas, rac TviTon ician. travmirebuli bavSvis mier moyolil

istoriebSi misi grZnobebi da SiSebi SeiZleba realurTan SedarebiT

gazviadebulad iyos aRwerili. nu daeyrdnobiT bavSvs, rogorc `myar

mowmes~, sanam ar SeamowmebT faqtebs sxva mowmeebTan an im adamianebTan,

visac meti informacia aqvs bavSvis ambis Sesaxeb.

7. ar gamoiwvioT cru molodini. travmirebul bavSvs SeiZleba gauCndes

mcdari molodini an SiSi, rodesac ucxo adamiani gansakuTrebul

interess iCens mis mimarT. arasdros SeecadoT qrTamiT an pirferobiT

maT dayoliebas da arasdros misceT cru dapirebebi, ramdenadac ar unda

gindodeT maT mimarT TanagrZnobisa da simpaTiis gamomJRavneba. bavSvebi

krizisul situaciebSi kidev didxans rCebian, mas Semdeg, rac media

dakargavs interess maTi ambebis mimarT, xolo Seusrulebeli dapirebebi

kidev ufro met zians ayenebs maT ndobas adamianebis mimarT. calkeuli

bavSvebis an ojaxebis gamorCevam maTTan gansakuTrebuli urTierTobiT

SeiZleba warmoSvas problemebi Tqveni wasvlis Semdeg.


avSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis

145

Tu daxmareba gsurT, SeuTanxmdiT kolegebs garkveuli gzebis Sesaxeb, rom

gauziaroT Tqveni resursebi didi moculobis jgufebs – SesaZlebelia,

saimedo adgilobrivi saagentos saSualebiT.

8. daamyareT kavSirebi. Tu Tqven unda gadmosceT bavSvis istoria, rodesac

es SesaZlebeli iqneba, SeecadeT, uzrunvelyoT am bavSvTan xelaxali

dakavSirebis SesaZlebloba, magaliTad, konkretuli adamianis saSualebiT

humanitaruli daxmarebis saagentoSi. es mniSvnelovania ara mxolod

Semdgomi kontrolis mizniT, aramed im SemTxvevisTvisac, Tu Tqveni istoria

gamoiwvevs sapasuxo gamoxmaurebas, romelic SeiZleba mniSvnelovani iyos

bavSvisTvis (magaliTad, qveynis gareT mcxovrebi naTesavebisgan).

9. iyaviT dadebiTze orientirebuli. nu SegeSindebaT, Riad isaubroT

miwisZvraze/Setakebaze/mgzavrobaze, romelic gadaitanes bavSvebma, magram

SeecadeT, Zalian Rrmad ar CaeZioT piradul sakiTxebSi. isini mixvdebian,

Tu Tqven cdilobT, Tavi aaridoT Temas. airCieT imedismomcemi istoriebi

da ara iseTebi, romlebic sasowarkveTilebaSi agdebs – istoriebi piradi

gamZleobisa da gmirobis Sesaxeb. yvelaze cud viTarebaSic ki SeiZleba

iyos sixarulisa da sicilis momentebi, romlebic xazs usvams Cvens

erTian adamianur bunebas. bavSvebs aqvT swrafi sulieri reabilitaciis

araCveulebrivi unari da ubralod dadebiTi ambebis moyola SeiZleba

nugeSad iqces, rodesac irgvliv yovelive muq ferebSi Cans.

10. mieciT bavSvs saSualeba, ufro meti ilaparakos, vidre imoqmedos. bavSvebi

yvelaze kargad `muSaoben~ TavianT TanatolebTan erTad, amitom maTTan

kavSiris damyarebis erT-erTi saukeTeso gzaa jgufuri muSaoba. hkiTxeT,

SegiZliaT Tu ara daeswroT an SeuerTdeT maT TamaSebs. mieciT saSualeba,

agixsnan TamaSis principi, xolo mas Semdeg, rac interess gamoiCenT, maT

SeiZleba xmaurianad moiTxovon erTmaneTis Sesaxeb moyola. Tu isini

miwaze sxedan, Tqvenc SeuerTdiT. Tu isini Tqveni Camweri mowyobilobebiT

dainteresdnen, mieciT ufleba, rom mosinjon – Seexon da gamoiyenon

kidevac. yvelaze mniSvnelovania, rom Tqven gekisrebaT pasuxismgebloba _

ar gamoiwvioT maTi xelaxali travmireba. rodesac isini mohyvebian Tavis

istoriebs, nu CaeZiebiT detalebs, Tu gamoxataven, rom es ar surT. rogorc

ar unda gWirdebodeT es angariSisTvis, mieciT Tavisufleba, nacvlad imisa,

rom emociuri damcireba gamoiwvioT. gaSordiT, rodesac dainaxavT, rom

bavSvi Caiketa, moiwyina an zedmetad aJitirebulia da darwmundiT, rom

pasuxismgebeli ufrosi saqmis kursSia momxdarTan dakavSirebiT.


146

damatebiTi literatura da resursebi

`hiuman raits uoC~: www.hrw.org

`uorCaild~: www.warchild.org.uk

`uoClist~: http://www.watchlist.org/

koalicia jariskaci bavSvebis gamoyenebis sawinaaRmdegod: http://www.child-soldiers.org/

`iunisefi~ – bavSvebi SeiaraRebul konfliqtSi:

http://www.unicef.org/emerg/index_chilsoldiers.html

gaeros generaluri mdivnis specialuri warmomadgenlis ofisi bavSvebisa da SeiaraRebuli

konfliqtebisaTvis: http://www.un.org/children/conflict/english/home6.html

T.j. rideli, `omi rCeba ucvlel realobad CrdiloeT ugandelebis cxovrebaSi~:

www.law.utoronto.ca/documents/ihrp/report05_Riddell.doc

alertnet: rCevebis furceli – `rogor gavakeToT reportaJi krizisSi myof bavSvebze~

http://www.alertnet.org/thefacts/reliefresources/115254539757.htm

alertnet: `bavSvebi itanjebian mediis mzeris miRma~ - kvleva

http://www.alertnet.org/thefacts/reliefresources/115254878772.htm

7. sityvis Tavisufleba bavSvebs da bavSvebze orientirebuli

media

ZiriTadi saswavlo Temebi

bavSvebisTvis mediis xelmisawvdomobis uzrunvelyofa

rogor uzrunvelvyoT bavSvis ufleba, gamoTqvas sakuTari mosazreba

mediaSi

sabavSvo media

gaumjobesebuli teqnologiebisa da uaxlesi progresis meSveobiT mediis

gamoyeneba gasul aTwleulSi sagrZnoblad gaizarda, vinaidan is aZlevs adamianebs

ukeTes SesaZleblobas, miiRon informacia da aimaRlon codna. aseTi winsvla

aZlevs bavSvebsa da axalgazrdebs mediasa da, aqedan gamomdinare, zogadad

sazogadoebriv cxovrebaSi ufro metad CarTvis saSualebas, informirebis,

mxardaWerisa da TavianT Tanatolebsa da aseve ufrosebze zegavlenis moxdenis

TvalsazrisiT. miuxedavad winsvlis aseTi SesaZleblobebisa, mediis garkveuli

saSualebebi eqspluatacias uweven bavSvebs da bavSvebisa da maTi mdgomareobis

Sesaxeb stereotipul cnobebs gadmoscemen.

bavSvebis monawileobiT medias SeuZlia axali perspeqtivebis SeTavazeba. seriozuli

argumentebi arsebobs imisaTvis, rom gaizardos bavSvebis monawileoba mediaSi.


avSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis

147

bavSvebisa da mediis urTierTobis mniSvneloba aRiarebulia bavSvis uflebaTa

konvenciis Semdegi muxlebiT:




me-12 muxli, romelic gansazRvravs wevri saxelmwifoebis rols _

uzrunvelyon bavSvebis ufleba, Tavisuflad gamoTqvan TavianTi azri

yvela im sakiTxze, romelic maT Seexeba, da rom maTi azri mxedvelobaSi

iqnes miRebuli;

me-13 muxli, romelic gansazRvravs bavSvis uflebas mediaSi sityvis

Tavisuflebaze, misi arCevanis mixedviT;

me-17 muxli, romelic acxadebs, rom wevri saxelmwifoebi pasuxismgebelni

arian, uzrunvelyon bavSvebisaTvis informaciis misawvdomoba sxvadasxva

erovnuli Tu saerTaSoriso sainformacio wyaroebidan. masmediisaTvis

es niSnavs bavSvisTvis sasargeblo socialuri da kulturuli saxis

informaciis gamoqveynebas.

medias didi potenciali aqvs, rom realobad aqcios bavSvis uflebaTa konvenciis

principebi da standartebi, mas SeuZlia realurad daicvas da ganaxorcielos

bavSvTa uflebebi saTanado informaciis miRebasa da sityvis Tavisuflebaze,

aamaRlos konvenciisa da misi Sinaarsis Sesaxeb informirebulobis done da

centraluri rolis Seasrulos misi ganxorcielebis monitoringSi.

da mainc, miuxedavad imisa, rom msoflios mosaxleobis erTi mesamedi 18 wlamde

asakisaa, bavSvebis azri da mdgomareoba iSviaTad aisaxeba mediaSi koreqtulad.

rogorc gamokvlevam (mediis kvlevis proeqti 2004) aCvena, bavSvebi, Cveulebriv,

seriozulad Semcirebuli raodenobiT arian warmodgenilni mediaSi. rogorc

erT-erTma bavSvma aRniSna mediamonitoringis RonisZiebis dros: `axali ambebis

dros Tavi gamotovebulad vigrZeni. TiTqos bavSvebi ar arsebobdnen“.

rodesac bavSvebis istoriebi xvdeba mTavari Temebis saTaurebSi, rogorc wesi,

es ar aris maTi cxovrebisTvis aqtualur sakiTxebze, Temebi moicavs mxolod

dramatul da eqstremalur SemTxvevebs. realurad, mediis mier bavSvebis

gaSuqebis didi wili negatiuria.

ras fiqroben bavSvebi, rodesac maT eZlevaT saSualeba, monawileoba miiRon

mediaSi bavSvTa uflebebis damcvelma arasamTavrobo organizacia `plen

interneiSenalma“ dausva SekiTxva patara Jurnalistebis jgufs, Tu ratom aris

maTi monawileoba mediaSi mniSvnelovani. maT aseTi pasuxebi gasces:




es aZlevs maT SesaZleblobas, gaecnon TavianT uflebebsa da movaleobebs

da uzrunvelyofs maT saTanadod warmodgenas;

es aZlevs maT saSualebas, isargeblon monawileobisa da azris Tavisuflad

gamoxatvis TavianTi uflebebiT da uzrunvelyofs maTi prioritetebisa

da problemebis saTanadod gaSuqebas;

es aZlevs maT xmis uflebas, romliTac isini gaacnoben mSoblebs,

sazogadoebasa da mTavrobas TavianT uflebebs da mosTxoven maT dacvas;


148



es aerTianebs bavSvebs da warmoadgens saSualebas, romliTac maT SeuZliaT,

TavianT Tanatolebs mouTxron maT cxovrebaSi momxdari movlenebis

Sesaxeb;

es exmareba bavSvebs, Seexon delikatur sakiTxebs SiSisa da dasjis gareSe,

eZion daxmareba da iswavlon prevenciuli strategiebi (magaliTad, rogor

daicvan Tavi uflebaTa iseTi darRvevisagan, rogoricaa trefikingi).

bavSvebis mediaSi monawileobis xelSewyobis gamocdilebam aCvena, rom bavSvebs

SeuZliaT mediasaSualebis daarseba, bavSvis uflebebTan dakavSirebuli

sa kiTxebis gamokvleva, gamosavali gzebis Zieba da sakuTari uflebebis damcvelis

rolSi gamosvla. TandaTanobiT ufrosebi iwyeben damokidebulebis Secvlas

mediaSi bavSvebis monawileobis mimarT da bavSvebis Sefasebas sazogadoebis

cvlilebis xelSemwyob agentebad. bavSvebis mier msoflio masStabiT

ganxorcielebuli warmatebuli mediaproeqtebis magaliTebi gviCvenebs, Tu

rogor SeiZleba bavSvTa monawileobis uflebis xorcSesxma mizanmimarTulad.

bavSvebis monawileoba mediaSi

bavSvebisa da axalgazrdebis mediis industriaSi CarTvis mTavari xelis

SemSleli faqtori aris is, rom isini SeiZleba potenciurad saxifaTo

samuSao garemoSi aRmoCndnen. Tu es aris saqmiani adgili, sadac bevri xalxi,

moZraoba da aRWurvilobaa, es maT gansakuTrebul safrTxeebs Seuqmnis.

bunebrivma cnobismoyvareobam da im faqtma, rom aseTi adgilebi ar aris

gankuTvnili zrdasruli adamianis saSualoze dabali simaRlis adamianebisTvis,

SeiZleba riskis qveS daayenos bavSvebi.

samuSao reJimi maRali aqtivobis mediis dawesebulebebSi ar aris bavSvisadmi

keTilganwyobili; is, rac Rirebuli gamocdileba unda iyos, zedmiwevniTi

momzadebis gareSe SeiZleba damabneveli da saxifaTo gaxdes yvela mxarisaTvis.

xSirad ufrosebs eSiniaT, rom bavSvebma ar daazianon Zvirad Rirebuli an

mgZnobiare aparatura da mowyobilobebi.

zogierTi aucilebeli usafrTxoebis zoma did xarjebTanaa dakavSirebuli,

magram bavSvebis mimarT arsebuli safrTxeebis umravlesoba ufrosebisTvisac

safrTxes warmoadgens. samuSao adgilis usafrTxoebis uzrunvelyofa

bavSvebisaTvis damatebiTi garantia iqneba imisa, rom is ufrosebisTvisac

usafrTxoa.

winaswari dagegmva Zalze mniSvnelovania nebismier samuSao adgilze

bavSvebis usafrTxo saqmianobis uzrunvelsayofad. bevr mediainiciativaSi

SemuSavebulia Sida saxelmZRvanelo principebi (wesebi), magram xSirad

aseTi sakiTxebis mogvareba sagangebo reJimSi xdeba. saukeTeso praqtikul

meTodebTan dakavSirebuli gamocdilebis gaziarebis SemTxvevaSi SesaZlebeli

iqneba industriis normebis Camoyalibeba, danergva da gakontroleba. qvemoT

mocemulia ramdenime rekomendacia:


avSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis

149





dauTmeT garkveuli dro bavSvebis momzadebas arasamuSao adgilze.

rodesac bavSvebi adgilze arian, gaacaniT maT, Tu ra potenciuri

riskebi arsebobs da vis unda mimarTon daxmarebisTvis. darwmundiT, rom

maTTvis xelmisawvdomia sufTa sveli wertilebi, saTanado zomis oTaxi

dasasveneblad da gamagrilebeli sasmelebis miRebis saSualeba.

yvelaze mniSvnelovania, rom maT nebismier dros SeeZloT mimarTon

daxmarebisTvis an rCevisTvis ufrosi asakis sul mcire erT adamians,

romelsac icnoben.

is adamianebi, romlebic pasuxismgebelni arian bavSvebis monawileobaze,

unda gaecnon jandacvisa da usafrTxoebis maregulirebel wesebs,

rodesac maT bavSvebis mimarT iyeneben. maT unda uzrunvelyon, rom

bavSvebsa da maT mzrunvelebs miewodoT martivi, gasagebi ganmartebebi

samuSao adgilze usafrTxoebis normebis Sesaxeb da SemuSavebuli unda

iqnes kontrolis martivi, bavSvebisTvis gasagebi meqanizmebi – magaliTad,

avariuli situaciis dros evakuaciis savarjiSoSi maTi monawileobis

uzrunvelyofiT.

isini, vinc adgilze muSaobs, informirebulni unda iyvnen, rom

garkveul adgilebSi da garkveul dros SeiZleba iyvnen bavSvebi da unda

mieceT saSualeba, imsjelon aqedan gamomdinare Sedegebze maTTvis da

bavSvebisaTvis.


im adamianebma, vinc uSualod bavSvebTan muSaobs, unda imoqmedon

detalurad ganxiluli da SeTanxmebuli saxelmZRvanelo principebis

mixedviT.

dasawyisisTvis sasurvelia, rom bavSvebs mieceT saSualeba, imsjelon an Tavisi

SeniSvnebi gamoTqvan maTTan dakavSirebul sakiTxebze; maT SeuZliaT, magaliTad,

naxon sabavSvo filmebi an wignebi ufrosebisTvis gankuTvnil presaSi da mediis

sxva saSualebebSi.

bavSvebTan erTad da bavSvebisTvis momzadebuli mediaprogramebis

dadebiTi mxareebi

mediaproeqtebis Sefasebebi cxadyofs, rom mediaSi bavSvebis monawileobas

uamravi sasargeblo Sedegi moaqvs:

gaumjobesebuli mediaproduqti: mediis profesionalebis sabavSvo mediaSi

CarTulobis Sedegad iqmneba ara mxolod meti sabavSvo media, aramed amiT

SeiZleba Seiqmnas ukeTesi xarisxis media bavSvebisTvis da bavSvebTan erTad:

dasavleT afrikis 100-mde radiosadgurma monawileoba miiRo proeqtSi `me

bavSvi var, magram mec maqvs Cemi uflebebi!~ (romelic acnobs mSoblebs,

bavSvebs da xelisuflebas maT funqciebsa da movaleobebs gaeros bavSvis

uflebaTa konvenciasTan mimarTebiT). Sedegad msmenelebis daJinebuli


150

moTxovnis safuZvelze gaizarda sabavSvo programebis raodenoba, gaumjobesda

programebis xarisxi da procesSi ufro meti bavSvi CaerTo. aseve amaRlda

informirebulobis done da codna bavSvebis uflebebis da qveyanaSi bavSvebis

mdgomareobis Sesaxeb.

cvlilebis moxdena: mediaSi bavSvebis monawileobas SeuZlia, gavlena moaxdinos

politikis Semqnelebze samTavrobo doneze:

indoeTSi ganxorcielebul proeqtSi `bavSvebs raRac aqvT saTqmeli~

axalgazrdebi qmnian mxatvrul da animaciur filmebs im sakiTxebis speqtrze,

romlebic zemoqmedebas axdens maT cxovrebaze. erT-erTma filmma `gutkaze~

(Tambaqos, betelis Txilis da limonis saxeobis, laimis nazavi) damokidebulebis

Sesaxeb moswavleebi imdenad STaagona, rom maT Seadgines peticia maT skolebTan

axlomdebare maRaziebSi misi gayidvis akrZalvis moTxovniT. moswavleebma

TavianTi moTxovna warudgines raionul xelmZRvanelobas, romelmac, Tavis

mxriv, akrZala gutkis moxmareba raionis yvela skolaSi da wamoiwyo masobrivi

sainformacio kampania moswavleebTan TanamSromlobiT.

bavSvebis ganviTareba: bavSvebis monawileobas mediaSi wvlili Seaqvs maT

zogad ganviTarebaSi. teqnikuri da profesiuli unarebis SeswavlasTan erTad

(rogoricaa aRWurvilobis gamoyeneba da scenaris teqstis wakiTxva da

interpretacia) isini iZenen sasicocxlo unar-Cvevebs, romlebic aZlevs maT

ganviTarebis da sakuTari azris ufro efeqtianad gamoTqmis SesaZleblobas

problemebis gadaWris, komunikaciis, TviTgamoxatvisa da molaparakebis

warmoebis unarebis gamomuSavebiT.

mediaSi monawileoba exmareba bavSvebs, gaecnon mediis funqcionirebas

da informaciis moZraobas da warmoebas da met SesaZleblobebs aZlevs,

miiRon saTanado informacia da gaTviTcnobierebuli gadawyvetilebebi.

mediaprogramebis monitoringsa da SefasebaSi monawileobiT isini iZenen

Rirebul ganaTlebas mediis sferoSi da SesaZlebloba aqvT, gaxdnen mediis

yvela saxeobis kritikuli momxmareblebi.

mediisTvis garkveuli komerciuli interesi arsebobs bavSvebis mozidvaSi, rac

imaSi gamoixateba, rom amiT yalibdeba momavali mediamomxmarebeli. bevri gazeTi

axorcielebda axalgazrdebisTvis gamiznul proeqtebs, magram cota maTgani Tu

izidavda bavSvebs, anda amas mxolod periferiebSi akeTebda.

sabavSvo mediaSi saqmianobiT bavSvebs SeuZliaT urTierToba daamyaron da

iswavlon sxva biWebisa da gogonebisgan, gaiCinon axali megobrebi da iswavlon

TavianTi Tanatolebis TanagrZnoba, rac aucilebeli unaria politikuri

cnobierebisa da socialuri Segnebis ganviTarebisTvis. amasTanave, mediis

daxmarebiT azris gamoxatvam SeiZleba xeli Seuwyos bavSvebis fsiqosocialur

reabilitacias da normalur kalapotSi Cadgomas mtkivneuli gamocdilebis

Semdeg da Causaxos maT imedi.


avSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis

151

Sri-lankaSi aziis axalgazrdulma televiziam xeli Seuwyo bavSvebis jgufis

monawileobas dokumentur filmSi, romelmac misca maT saSualeba, gamoexataT

TavianTi grZnobebi 2004 wels indoeTis okeaneSi cunamis Taobaze. filmi, romelic

Tavidan bolomde bavSvebis gakeTebulia, asaxavs am tragediis Sedegebs da imas,

Tu rogor Secvala am movlenam maTi cxovreba. niSaki (16 wlis) ambobs, rom

maT undodaT, aqcenti gaekeTebinaT imaze, Tu rogori simamaciT umklavdebian

bavSvebi cxovrebiseul siZneleebs.

aqtiuri moqalaqeoba: mediaproeqtebis yvela etapze axalgazrdebis CarTulobas

SeuZlia ganaviTaros maTi, rogorc aqtiuri moqalaqeebisa da damcvelebis,

potenciali. bavSvebs SeuZliaT, imis kargi macneebi iyvnen, Tu ra gavlenas

axdens uflebebis darRveva maT cxovrebaze, xolo mediaSi monawileobas SeuZlia

misces maT SesaZlebloba, Tavad moiTxovon cvlileba. gamocdileba exmareba

maT, efeqtianad gamoxaton TavianTi saTqmeli sxva forumebzec.

mediaSi monawileobis Sedegad bavSvebi Tavs dafasebulad grZnoben da sakuTari

Tavis rwmena ematebaT. es aris sakuTari niWis aRmoCenisa da ufrosebisa da

Tanatolebisgan aRiarebis Sedegi. sazogadoebisaTvis sargeblobis motanis

grZnobasac SeuZlia waaxalisos bavSvebi, aqtiurad iRvawon sxva sferoebSic da

Tavis Tavze aiRon axali funqciebi da valdebulebebi.

globaluri konteqsti

bavSvebisa da mediis Temaze gamarTul ramdenime globalur Sexvedraze

aRiarebul iqna am sferoSi bavSvebis monawileobis mniSvneloba. es Sexvedrebia:




bavSvis uflebaTa komitetis mier gamarTuli zogadi diskusiis dRe

Temaze `bavSvi da media~ (Sveicaria, 1995): `medias mniSvnelovani roli aqvs

bavSvebisTvis TviTgamoxatvis SesaZleblobebis micemis TvalsazrisiT.

konvenciis erT-erTi principi imaSi mdgomareobs, rom bavSvis azri unda

moisminon da gaiTvaliswinon... bavSvebs unda SeeZloT ara mxolod

sainformacio masalebis SeTviseba, aramed Tavad unda miiRon monawileoba

mediaSi~.

`oslos gamowveva~ (norvegia, 1999): `gamowveva bavSvebisa da axalgazrdebis

mimarT aris is, rom moZebnon gzebi mediaSi da mediis ganviTarebaSi

sakuTari aqtiuri monawileobis xelSewyobisaTvis; gamowveva mSoblebis,

maswavleblebisa da mkvlevrebisadmi aris bavSvTa uflebebis aRiareba da

dacva, rom maTTvis xelmisawvdomi iyos media, miiRon masSi monawileoba da

gamoiyenon is winsvlis berketad~.

me-4 msoflio samiti Temaze `media bavSvebisa da mozardebisaTvis~ (brazilia,

2004), sadac ufrosebis mxridan gakeTda winadadeba, rom `xeli unda Seewyos

mediaproduqcias bavSvebisa da mozardebis monawileobiT~, xolo bavSvebis

mxridan gamoiTqva azri, rom `bavSvebsa da mozardebs garantirebuli unda

hqondeT adgili mediaproduqtebis warmoebasa da mauwyeblobaSi~.


152

axalgazrduli mediis ganviTarebis forumi (mali, 2006): eswreboda 400

delegati 60 qveynidan msoflio masStabiT, maT Soris iseTi qveynebidan,

rogoricaa albaneTi, benini, burkina faso, kameruni, ekvadori, el-salvadori,

eTiopia, gana, gvinea, gvinea-bisau, haiti.

me-5 msoflio samiti Temaze `media bavSvebisaTvis~ (iohanesburgi, 2007): 1 000-

ze meti adamiani 90-mde qveynidan, maT Soris, sul mcire 300 adgilobrivi da

ucxoeli bavSvi, Seikriba konferenciaze; gaimarTa interaqtiuli seminarebi,

debatebi da diskusiebi, raTa gansazRvruliyo gzebi bavSvebisTvis mediaSi

xmis uflebis misacemad. konferencia Seexo mediaSi bavSvTa warmomadgenlobis

sakiTxs da imas, Tu zogadad ra wvlili Seitana mediam sazogadoebis mier

bavSvebis aRqmaSi. samitze aseve ganxiluli iqna bavSvebis mier sakuTari

Tavisa da problemebis warmoCenaSi monawileobis xelSewyobis variantebi da

saSualebebi. debatebis centraluri Tema iyo _ rogor SeiZleba CaerTon

bavSvebi sakuTari Tavisa da problemebis warmoCenisa da gadacemebis Seqmnis

procesSi.

mediaSi bavSvebis monawileobasTan dakavSirebuli sirTuleebi da

winaaRmdegobebi

bavSvis uflebaTa komitetma erTxel ganacxada, rom `bavSvoba ar aris cxovrebis

mosacdeli oTaxi~. miuxedavad imisa, rom msoflios mosaxleobis TiTqmis erT

mesameds 18 wlamde axalgazrdebi Seadgenen, media iSviaTad warmoaCens am

jgufis Sexedulebebsa Tu realur yofas. zogadad, rogorc CrdiloeT, ise

samxreT naxevarsferoSi media SezRudul SesaZleblobebs aZlevs bavSvebs, rom

maT isargeblon monawileobisa da maTTan dakavSirebul sakiTxebze sakuTari

azris gamoTqmis TavianTi uflebebiT.

araadekvaturi aqcenti keTdeboda mediis yvela doneze, maT Soris

mediamonitoringis sferoSi, bavSvebis mizanmimarTuli monawileobis

saWiroebasTan dakavSirebiT. maT monawileobas jer ar miupyria is

prioritetuli yuradReba, romelsac imsaxurebs. da rCeba rigi zogadi

sirTuleebisa, romlebic unda gadailaxos, imisaTvis, rom xeli Seewyos

mediaSi bavSvebis monawileobas.

socialuri damokidebulebebi da winaaRmdegoba bavSvebis monawileobis mimarT

media ufro xSirad kontroldeba ufrosebis mier, romelTac yovelTvis ar surT,

rom daTmon TavianTi Zalaufleba da miscen bavSvebs ufleba, maT gansazRvron

dRis wesrigi. meore mxriv, Tavad mSoblebs xSirad ar esmiT bavSvebis wvlilis

mniSvneloba; rogorc wesi, isini fiqroben, rom mediaproeqtebi bevr dros

moiTxovs da skolaSi bavSvebis demotivacias uwyobs xels. magram arsebobs imis

damadasturebeli faqtebi, rom bavSvebis swavlis done xSirad umjobesdeba aseT

proeqtebSi maTi monawileobis Sedegad.

SeiZleba garkveuli winaaRmdegoba arsebobdes mSoblebSi, rom TavianT Svilebs

miscen bavSvTa uflebebis Seswavlis neba. bevr qveyanaSi xSirad aRiqmeba, rom


avSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis

153

uflebebi winaaRmdegobaSia tradiciebTan, romelTac bavSvebi ar ayeneben

eWvqveS. mniSvnelovania, rom aseT damokidebulebebze reagireba moxdes

informaciis miwodebisa da mediaseqtorisa da mSoblebis sensitiurobis

gazrdis gziT.

eTikisa da dacvis sakiTxebi

mediaSi bavSvebis CarTulobis gazrdis mcdelobisas Cven aseve unda uzrunvelvyoT

maTi dacva mediisgan. magaliTad, im bavSvebis gamoCena mediaSi, romlebmac

Seuracxyofa an Zaladoba ganicades, xSirad SeiZleba maTi xelaxali damcirebis

wyaro gaxdes, vinaidan potenciurad SesaZlebelia, bavSvs devna dauwyon, Tu misi

vinaoba gaxmaurda. iseve rogorc ufrosi asakis Jurnalistebma, Jurnalistma

bavSvebmac SeiZleba zogjer ver SeZlon sxva bavSvebis dacva, visTan erTadac

muSaoben.

komercializacia, Zaladoba, seqsualuri zewola, genderuli stereotipebi da

sxva mavne zegavlenebi zRudaven bavSvebis SesaZleblobebs, rom maT monawileoba

miiRon mediaSi. msoflios mraval kuTxeSi Souebisa da programebis (magaliTad,

satelevizio) umravlesoba ar asaxavs bavSvebisa da axalgazrdebis realur

cxovrebas. mavne zegavlenebisa da uaryofiTi gamosaxulebebisgan bavSvebis

dasacavad maT srulfasovani roli unda Seasrulon iseTi mediis Seqmnis

procesSi, romelic gadmoscems dadebiT informacias da sanaxaobas, sadac

asaxulia maTi cxovreba da ar irRveva maTi uflebebi.

investiciebisa da resursebis simcire

uaRresad mniSvnelovania, rom mediasaSualebis gamoSvebisas bavSvebs gamoeyoT

saTanado resursebi, raTa uzrunvelyofili iyos misawvdomoba da xarisxi.

mTel msoflioSi sabavSvo media `konkurencias~ uwevs sxva mediaproduqtebs;

imisaTvis, rom is seriozulad aRiqvan da maT xma miawvdinon maqsimalurad

farTo auditorias, produqtic iseTive maRali xarisxisa unda iyos. mediis

profesionalebis daxmarebis gareSe bavSvebi damoukideblad ver SeZleben aseTi

maRali xarisxis miRwevas.

unar-Cvevebis ganviTarebis aucilebloba

bavSvebma, iseve, rogorc ufrosebis umravlesobam, yovelTvis ar ician, rom

ufleba aqvT, Tavisuflad gamoxaton TavianTi azri. isini xSirad morcxvebi

arian da uWirT azris gamoxatva, rodesac ar arian miCveulni amis gakeTebas.

mediatreningis gareSe bavSvebs SeiZleba SeeSindeT xmamaRla azris gamoTqmisa

im SemTxvevaSi, Tu araswor gzavnils awodeben an ar SeuZliaT sityvebiT

gamoTqvan TavianTi azrebi da grZnobebi. wera-kiTxvis armcodne, SezRuduli

SesaZleblobebis mqone bavSvebs da sxva socialurad izolirebul jgufebs

zogjer esaWiroebaT specialistis daxmareba, rom SeZlon srulfasovnad

monawileoba.

media aris erT-erTi saSualeba, riTac yvelaze daucvelebs SeuZliaT, xma


154

aRimaRlon. rodesac mediaprogramebi pativs scemen bavSvis uflebaTa konvenciis

standartebsa da principebs, maT SeuZliaT Secvalon ufrosebis damokidebuleba

bavSvebis mimarT dadebiTi misabaZi magaliTebis CvenebiT; maT SeuZliaT sajarod

wamoWran iseTi sakiTxebi, rogoricaa Zaladoba, romelTa Sesaxebac Cveulebriv

Znelia msjeloba da gaakritikon ufrosebis saqcieli.

bavSvebis mediaSi monawileoba damokidebulia imaze, rom maT mieceT saSualeba,

ilaparakon, magram amave dros hyavdeT saTanado auditoria, romelic maT

mousmens. im qveynebSi, sadac teqnologia saSualebas aZlevs bavSvebs, gamoiCinon

iniciativa, magaliTad, sakuTari vebgverdebis SeqmniT, amocanas warmoadgens is,

rom ar moxdes bavSvebis xmebisa da problemebis gadafarva uxvi informaciis

masaSi. sazogadoeba unda icnobdes bavSvebis Sexedulebebs, xolo mediam unda

Seqmnas sivrce bavSvebisaTvis.

damatebiTi literatura da resursebi

`plen interneiSenal~: http://www.plan-international.org/

`laparaki, monawileoba da gadawyvitilebebis miReba – bavSvis ufleba, rom mousminon~, `Plan

International~, 2006 w.

`bavSvebi, axalgazrdebi da media mTel msoflioSi: tendenciebisa da problemebis mimoxilva~,

`intermedia~ (2004 w.)

`bavSvebi mediaSi~, `plen sviden~ (2006 w.)

gaeros bavSvis uflebaTa komiteti (1996 w.), `bavSvi da media~.


avSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis

155

8. saukeTeso Jurnalisturi praqtika bavSvebTan dakavSirebiT

`me jer kidev mwams, rom, Tu Seni mizani msoflios Secvlaa, Jurnalistika

yvelaze pirdapiri da swrafi moqmedebis iaraRia~ – tom stopardi

ZiriTadi saswavlo Temebi

bavSvebis Sesaxeb axali ambebis gaSuqebis saukeTeso praqtika

sabavSvo mediis monitoringi da Sefaseba: presa, radio, televizia

gaeros bavSvis uflebaTa konvenciis 10 wlisTavze gamocemuli `oslos gamowveva~

mouwodebda mediasaSualebaTa mflobelebsa da muSakebs, maswavleblebs,

politikosebs da Tavad bavSvebs, gamoeZebnaT axali gzebi imisaTvis, rom masmedia

gamxdariyo mTel msoflioSi bavSvebis cxovrebaze dadebiTi zegavlenis wyaro.

gamowveva kerZo seqtoris, maT Soris mediasaSualebaTa mflobelebis mimarT

aseTi iyo:

axali mediaproduqtebisa da teqnologiebis Seqmnisas gaiTvaliswinon bavSvTa

uflebebi sxvadasxva momsaxurebis xelmisawvdomobaze, monawileobaze,

mediaganaTlebis miRebasa da saziano Sinaarsisgan dacvaze;

komerciuli da finansuri warmatebis Ziebisas upirveles prioritetad

daisaxon bavSvis WeSmariti interesebi, raTa bavSvebi aRizardon globalur

sazogadoebaSi, romelSic yvela adamiani daculi, pativcemuli da Tavisufalia.

rogorc ukve aRvniSneT, bevri Jurnalisti skeptikurad aris ganwyobili

bavSvTa saWiroebebisaTvis (da uflebebisaTvis) esoden didi yuradRebis

daTmobasTan dakavSirebiT. britaneTSi, magaliTad, yovel kviras ekonomikuri

Jurnali `pres gazet~ (Press Gazette) aqveynebs istoriebs im iuridiuli

sirTuleebis Sesaxeb, romlebic ukavSirdeba 18 wlamde pirebis monawileobiT

sasamarTlo saqmeebis gaSuqebis mimarT arsebul SezRudvebs. miuxedavad

imisa, rom gaeros bavSvis uflebaTa konvenciis gaTvaliswinebiT kanonSi

Sevida cvlileba, romelic gansazRvravs, rom kanonTan konfliqtSi myof

bavSvebs ufleba aqvT, moixadon sasjeli sazogadoebrivi yuradRebis gareSe,

zogierTi amas afasebs, rogorc presis Tavisuflebis SezRudvas, Tu medias

ar SeuZlia damnaSaveebis dasaxeleba.

Tumca bevri Jurnalisti iRebs Tavisi samuSaos orientirad bavSvTa interesebs.

Cven SegviZlia davasaxeloT mTel msoflioSi maTi erToblivi muSaobis

magaliTebi. `Jurnalistebi bavSvebisa da qalebis uflebebis Sesaxeb~ makedoniaSi,

romelic Camoyalibda 2003 wels, awyobs bavSvTa uflebebis dacvis kampaniebs

mediaprezentaciebis, biuletenebisa da filmebis saSualebiT. saerTaSoriso

klubi – `Jurnalistebi bavSvTa uflebebisaTvis~ – Camoayalibes meTiu makkvamma

ganis Jurnalistikis institutidan da frenk asare-donkohma ganis

radiosadguridan `Cois ef em” (Choice FM).


156

sabavSvo axali ambebis braziliuri saagento ANDI ajildoebs bavSvebis megobar

Jurnalistebs, raTa stimuli misces maT, rom Seiswavlon da gaaSuqon bavSvebTan

dakavSirebuli Temebi. saagentoSi aRmoaCines, rom aseTma waxalisebam bavSvebi

maTTvis ufro misawvdomi gaxada – maT Soris cixeebSic.

fondi “Prix Jeunesse Foundation” aseve cdilobs, gaaumjobesos sabavSvo

telegadacemebis xarisxi mTel msoflioSi qveynebs Soris informaciis

urTierTgacvliTa da komunikaciis xelSewyobiT. fondi mxars uWers ideas, rom

televizia ufro mimzidveli unda iyos samizne auditoriisTvis da saSualeba

misces bavSvebs, dainaxon, moisminon da gamoxaton sakuTari azri da warmoaCinon

TavianTi kultura, amavdroulad, xeli Seuwyos cnobierebis amaRlebas da sxva

kulturebis dafasebas. fondis jildo sayovelTaod aRiarebulia, rogorc

yvelaze prestiJuli satelevizio prizi sabavSvo mauwyeblobaSi msoflios

masStabiT.

2003 wels JurnalistTa saerTaSoriso federaciam da samxreT afrikis

JurnalistTa asociaciam Caatares ordRiani seminari keiptaunSi mediaSi bavSvTa

uflebebis Sesaxeb. diskusiebi fokusirebuli iyo Jurnalistebis socialur

pasuxismgeblobaze da gansakuTrebul sifrTxileze, romelic aucilebelia

bavSvebTan dakavSirebuli Temebis gaSuqebisas. monawileebma xazi gausves

im faqts, rom bavSvebi ar arian zrdasruli adamianebi da amitom sWirdebaT

gansakuTrebuli daxmareba da dacva. magram umetes SemTxvevebSi adgili aqvs

mediis mxridan bavSvebis mniSvnelovnad ugulebelyofas. Sexvedris Sedegad

gamoica publikacia saxelwodebiT `swori mimarTulebis micema bavSvebisTvis

– saerTaSoriso saxelmZRvanelo normebi Jurnalistebisa da mediis

profesionalebisaTvis~.

sxva organizaciebic gascemen jildos bavSvebze orientirebuli

JurnalistikisaTvis. 2002 wels `haitim~ da panos institutma vaSingtonSi

daaarses erovnuli Jurnalistikis prizi bavSvTa uflebebis Sesaxeb gakeTebuli

saukeTeso reportaJisTvis. iniciativis Sedegad ara mxolod gaizarda bavSvebisa

da maTi uflebebis Sesaxeb momzadebuli maRali xarisxis reportaJebis warmoeba,

aramed man stimuli misca mediasaSualebaTa mflobelebsa da Jurnalistebs, rom

meti yuradReba daeTmoT bavSvebisaTvis.

saukeTeso praqtikis magaliTebi

gazeTebi

gazeTebi ganaTlebis sferoSi

msoflio sagazeTo asociacia (World Association of Newspapers (WAN) globaluri

organizaciaa, romelic warmoadgens 18 000 gazeTs, 71 nacionalur sagazeTo

asociacias, sagazeTo aRmasrulebel organoebs 100 qveyanaSi, axali ambebis 13

saagentos da cxra regionul da msoflio masStabis presjgufs. mTel msoflioSi

miRebul gamocdilebaze dayrdnobiT man gamosca 30 ideisgan Semdgari paketi

axalgazrda mkiTxvelebis mosazidad. asociaciam gamoacxada proeqtebis


avSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis

157

`gazeTebi ganaTlebis sferoSi~ xuTwliani programa, romelic finansdeboda

1,74 milioni aSS dolariT umsxviles norvegiul kompania `norske skogis~ mier,

romelic sagazeTo qaRaldis msoflioSi meore umsxvilesi mwarmoebeli da

Jurnalis qaRaldis mesame umsxvilesi mwarmoebelia.

proeqti `gazeTebi ganaTlebis sferoSi~ mizania, rom beWdviTi publikaciebis

Seqmna gaxdes mTel msoflioSi yoveldRiuri saskolo cxovrebis bunebrivi

nawili. axali programa koncentrirebuli iqneba balkaneTisa da aziis qveynebze

da SeimuSavebs saswavlo masalebs maswavleblebisaTvis adgilobriv enebze.

idea isaa, rom sagazeTo publikaciebi gamoyenebuli iyos wignierebis donis

amaRlebis, zogadi codnis gafarToebis, analitikuri unarebis ganviTarebisa

da sityvis Tavisuflebis, tolerantulobisa da demokratiuli faseulobebis

popularizebisaTvis.

evro-arabuli samezoblo: moswavleTa Jurnalebi arabeTis qveynebsa da evropaSi

`iuneskos~ iniciativiT daiwyo proeqti `evro-arabuli mezobloba: moswavleebi

aSeneben xidebs~ islamur samyarosTan dialogis programis farglebSi. proeqti

daiwyo 2003 wlis dekemberSi. germaniaSi gamarTuli seminaris dros ganaTlebis

saministroebis, sajaro organizaciebis, gamomcemlobebisa da skolebis

eqspertebma daniidan, egviptidan, germaniidan, iordaniidan, libanidan, libiidan,

palestinidan, kataridan, sudanidan, siriidan, tunisidan da ukrainidan

safuZveli daudes Zlieri, stabiluri saskolo Jurnalebis qselis Seqmnas.

proeqtis mizania evro-arabuli dialogis stimulireba axalgazrdebs Soris

saskolo Jurnalebis TanamSromlobis meSveobiT. dialogi evropisa da

arabeTis qveynebis moqalaqeebs Soris mSvidobiani Tanacxovrebis winapirobaa

mravali sxvadasxva kulturisa da religiisagan Semdgar sazogadoebaSi.

evropisa da arabeTis saxelmwifoebis axalgazrdebs Soris gamocdilebis

gaziareba ukiduresad mniSvnelovania imisaTvis, rom, rac SeiZleba male

moxdes stereotipebis msxvreva da gaRrmavdes urTierTgageba. am

proeqtSi monawileobis miReba Tavisuflad SeuZlia yvela tipis

skolas da nebismieri asakis axalgazrdebs, romlebic dainteresebulni

arian Jurnalisturi TanamSromlobiT.

kuleanis centri bavSvTa uflebebisTvis

kuleanis centri bavSvTa uflebebisTvis mvanzaSi (tanzania) mediasa da

Jurnalistikas seriozul mokavSireebad ganixilavs. axalgazrdebi Seadgenen

mvanzis 800 000-iani mosaxleobis naxevars. maT Soris bevria quCis bavSvebi. mas

Semdeg, rac 1992 wels centri daarsda, quCis bavSvebma daiwyes TavianTi azrebis

gamoqveyneba kedlis gazeTebSi, romlebsac mTel qalaqSi akravdnen. dRes

plakati-Jurnali `mambo leo~ (Mambo Leo) yvela skolis kedlebze qveyndeba.

kuleanam mimarTa regionuli gazeTebis gamomcemlebs Semdegi mowodebiT: `es

Tqveni Svilebi arian: ris gakeTebas apirebT am situaciis gamosasworeblad~


158

Tavdapirvelad quCis bavSvebis Sesaxeb reportaJebi sensaciuri iyo. mas Semdeg,

rac media ufro Tavdajerebuli gaxda, man daiwyo gamomwvevi mizezebis Zieba da

pirvel rigSi im pirobebis gamokvleva, ramac aiZula soflad mcxovrebi bavSvebi

gasuliyvnen quCaSi. adgilobrivma radiosadgurebma gamoyves 15-wuTiani saeTero

dro quCis bavSvebisaTvis da daaweses prizebi konkursSi gamarjvebulebisTvis.

regularuli statiebi gamoCnda inglisurad da suahilize gamocemul gazeTebSi.

centri TanamSromlobda tanzaniis qalTa mediaasociaciasTan bavSvTa mimarT

Zaladobis ukeT gaSuqebisaTvis.

radio

SedarebiT iafi, advilad xelmisawvdomi da mobiluri, radio yvelaze mdgradi

da qmediTi mediasaSualeba aRmoCnda yvelaze arakeTilmosurne socialur

pirobebSic ki. afrikaSi aTasobiT radiosadguria, didi da patara, sadac

is yvelaze mniSvnelovan sakomunikacio sistemad rCeba. axalgazrdebma

ostaturad SeZles radioteqnologiebis TavianTi miznebisTvis morgeba, isini

radiotalRebs `piratuli radios~ meSveobiT euflebodnen, xSirad imisaTvis,

rom maT musikalur gemovnebas miscemoda masobrivi moTxovnis dakmayofilebis

saSualeba. maT SemoqmedebiT energias SeuZlia Zlieri zegavlena moaxdinos

ZiriTadi mimarTulebebis mauwyeblebze.

`me bavSvi var, magram mec maqvs Cemi uflebebi~

`me bavSvi var, magram mec maqvs Cemi uflebebi!~ – aris radiogadacema,

romelsac qmnian bavSvebi. igi dasavleT afrikis teritoriaze gadaicema. is

pirvelad gavida eTerSi 1998 wels da atyobinebda mSoblebs, bavSvebs da

xelisuflebas maTi pasuxismgeblobis Sesaxeb, rom pativi unda scen bavSvTa

uflebebs. proeqtis mizania bavSvis uflebaTa konvenciis propagandireba

radiotalRebis meSveobiT.

radioproeqti gadaicema burkina fasoSi, gvineaSi, togoSi, maliSi, senegalSi,

gvinea-bisausa da beninSi. 10-mde radiosadguri TiToeul qveyanaSi (romelTa

Sorisaa sazogadoebrivi, kerZo, soflisa da Temis radiosadgurebi) eTerSi uSvebs

ama Tu im qveynis unikaluri kulturis Sesabamisad adaptirebul programas.

istoriebi mogviTxrobs bavSvebis uflebaze, iaron skolaSi, isargeblon

sufTa wyliT, gaizardon janmrTelebi da daculni iyvnen eqspluataciisgan.

istoriebSi CarTulia uamravi komediuri msaxiobi da bavSvi (daaxloebiT 600

bavSvi da axalgazrda 6-dan 18 wlamde). bavSvebis monawileoba proeqtis umTavres

nawils warmoadgens. isini monawileoben uSualod gadacemis Seqmnis procesSi,

interviuebsa da debatebSi, radiokonkursebSi, gzavnian leqsebs, werilebsa da

naxatebs.

proeqti `me bavSvi var, magram mec maqvs Cemi uflebebi!~ scildeba radiokampaniis

farglebs. Teatrisa da skolis RonisZiebebi proeqtis Semadgeneli nawilia.

saagitacio proeqti bevrad aWarbebs mis dagegmil uSualo amocanebs da

Tavdapirvel sazRvrebs. Sous Seqmnasa da mauwyeblobaSi CarTulia asobiT bavSvi,


avSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis

159

xolo mis farglebSi gamarTul konkursebsa da sajaro CawerebSi monawileoba

kidev mraval aTas bavSvs miuRia.

ambebis Txroba da saganmanaTleblo drama qmediTi da popularuli saSualebebi

aRmoCnda bavSvTa uflebebis Sesaxeb informirebulobis donis asamaRleblad.

bavSvebs SeuZliaT, pirdapir TavianT cxovrebas daukavSiron istoriebi.

gzavnilebi gambedaobas aZlevs bavSvebs, moiTxovon daxmareba ufrosebisgan da

moZebnon TavianTi problemebis gadaWris gzebi. isini iZenen codnas, romelsac

gadascemen TavianT ojaxebsa da megobrebs, rodesac uyvebian gagonilis Sesaxeb.

rodesac bavSvebi usmenen, rogor saubroben sxvebi radioSi, es stimuls aZlevs

maT, rom Tavadac miiRon monawileoba an ipovon sxva gza, rom maTi xmebi gaigonon.

msoflio radioforumi

msoflio radioforumi eZRvneba maRali xarisxis mauwyeblobis xelSewyobas

bavSvebisaTvis da maT mier. 2001 wlis martSi saberZneTSi, salonikSi, gamarTul

mesame msoflio samitze `media bavSvebisaTvis~ daarsebuli forumis mizania,

radios meSveobiT daicvas bavSvTa uflebebi da maT sazogadoebaSi mcxovrebi

bavSvebisa da axalgazrdebis statusi. masSi Sedis proeqtebi da kerZo kompaniebi

yvela kontinentidan, gansakuTrebiT ki afrikidan.

televizia

savaraudod, televizias mTel msoflioSi 15 wlamde asakis daaxloebiT 1.8

miliardi mayurebeli hyavs. maTgan 190 milioni cxovrobs umdidres regionebSi,

xolo 1,6 miliardi _ ganviTarebad samyaroSi. TiTqmis 142 satelituri da

sakabelo satelevizio arxi gamiznulia 15 wlamde adamianebisaTvis xuT

kontinentze. am arxebidan 88 evropaSia.

sazogadoebriv mauwyeblebs mTel msoflioSi akisriaT valdebuleba, Seqmnan

programebi bavSvebisaTvis, romlebic iqneba SemecnebiTi, gasarTobi da

saganmanaTleblo, Tumca programebis xarisxi da raodenoba mniSvnelovnad

gansxvavdeba.

britanuli programebi axalgazrdebisTvis

britaneTSi `bi-bi-si~-s erT-erTi yvelaze cnobili sabavSvo satelevizio programa

`blu piter~ (Blue Peter) Tavis 50 wlis iubiles 2008 wlis oqtomberSi aRniSnavs.

mas Jurnalis formati aqvs da gadaicema bavSvebis skolidan dabrunebidan cota

xnis Semdeg. wlebis ganmavlobaSi mis programebze did gavlenas axdenda Tavad

bavSvebis mier gamoTqmuli azrebi. is gadascems `gaakeTe Sen TviTon~ seriis

xelobis Semswavlel programebs, aRniSnavs bavSvebis warmatebas sxvadasxva

sferoSi, atarebs konkursebs da organizebas uwevs erovnul peticiebs bavSvebis

dasaxmareblad, romlebic SedarebiT gaWirvebulad cxovroben britaneTSi da

mis sazRvrebs gareT.


160

programis axalgazrda wamyvanebi monawileoben saintereso gasarTob

RonisZiebebSi (wyalqveSa curva/yvinTva, paraSutiT xtoma, TxilamurebiT

sriali da a.S.). es RonisZiebebi awvdis bavSvebs warmodgenas im aqtivobebis

Sesaxeb, romelSic maT SeiZleba moundeT monawileoba, rodesac gaizrdebian.

yovelwliurad gadamRebi jgufi estumreba xolme msoflios sxvadasxva kuTxes,

raTa gaaSuqos bavSvebisTvis sxva bavSvebis yofa-cxovrebis detalebi.

`bi-bi-si~-ze aseve gadaicema regularuli sainformacio-analitikuri gadacema

saxelwodebiT `Cildrenz niusraund~ (Children’s Newsround), romelic martivad

da pirdapir gadmoscems dRis mTavar ambebs, maT Soris iseT mZime Temebze,

rogorebicaa bavSvTa mimarT Zaladoba, SimSili da bunebrivi katastrofebi,

gadmoscems, agreTve, bavSvebisTvis gansakuTrebiT saintereso specialur

reportaJebs, romlebic SeiZleba ar gavides ufrosebisTvis gankuTvnil

cnobebSi. imdenad, ramdenadac ZiriTadi samauwyeblo programebi gankuTvnilia

ufrosebisTvis, isini ar aris popularuli bavSvebSi. sakuTari versiis arsebobiT

bavSvebs saSualeba eZlevaT, imsjelon mimdinare sakiTxebze ufrosebTan da

amave dros daculi iyvnen im samwuxaro komentarebisgan, romlebic xSirad Tan

axlavs ufrosebis versias.

britaneTis erT-erTma komerciulma mauwyebelma, me-4 arxma, moigo prizi

TineijerebisTvis Seqmnili gadacemisaTvis `Wise Up~ (`dabrZendi~), romelSic

bavSvebi motivirebulni arian, rom Seadginon programa. gadacemis Temebisa

da mowveuli gamomsvlelebis moZieba xdeba mayureblebs Soris da skolebSi

vizitebis meSveobiT. mowveuli momxseneblebi Seadgenen gadacemis erT nawils,

rodesac isini ikvleven maT cxovrebaSi wamoWril problemas. isini iReben

profesionalur rCevas da daxmarebas ZiriTadad axalgazrdebisgan Semdgari

gundisagan. gadacemis stili energiuli da axalgazrdulia swrafad moZravi,

xelis kameriT gadaRebuli kadrebiT, magram is yuradRebiT aris damontaJebuli

da gamoSvebuli im saxelmZRvanelo normebis gaTvaliswinebiT, romlebic

gansazRvrulia oficialuri maregulireblebis mier.

`mukto xobor~ (Tavisufali ambebi)

bangladeSSi `mukto xobor~ aris yovelkvireuli 25-wuTiani mozardTa

sainformacio gadacema, romelSic aqcenti keTdeba bavSvebze da bavSvTa

uflebebTan dakavSirebul sakiTxebze. gadacemis miznebia:

1. bavSvebisTvis Tavisufali sivrcis Seqmna mediaSi; forumis Seqmna

axalgazrdebisTvis, raTa gamoxaton TavianTi azri maT garSemo arsebul

sakiTxebze da movlenebze, sadac maT mousmenen bavSvebi da ufrosebi yvela

socialuri fenidan;

2. axalgazrda JurnalistebisTvis uflebamosilebis miniWeba maTi saswavlo

momzadebiT specialur unarebSi; bevri axalgazrda mayureblisTvis

uflebebisa da stimulis micema. axalgazrdebi STagonebas iReben gadacemidan,

romelic kargi magaliTia imisa, Tu rogor qmediTad SeuZliaT imuSaon,

rodesac SesaZlebloba eZlevaT. gadacema aseve exmareba mozardebs, aimaRlon


avSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis

161

TviTdajerebuloba da TviTSefaseba;

3. damatebiTi wonis miniWeba bavSvTa Sexedulebebisa da xmebisaTvis imis

damtkicebiT, rom maTac SeuZliaT ideebisa da gadawyvetilebebis SeTavazeba;

im tradiciuli warmodgenis Secvla, rom bavSvebma mxolod unda mousminon

da bevri ar ilaparakon;

4. am gadacemis safuZvelze mediaSi bavSvTa monawileobisaTvis Tanabari

SesaZleblobebis modelis damkvidreba.

saboloo produqti aris sayovelTaod popularuli gadacema, romelic

orientirebulia bavSvTa uflebebze.

bavSvebisadmi keTilganwyobili SerCevis procesi programaSi monawileobisaTvis

uzrunvelyofs, rom moculi iyos sazogadoebis yvela seqtori. kandidaturebis

mowodebisaTvis ukavSirdebian ara mxolod skolebs, aramed organizaciebs,

romlebic muSaoben bavSvebTan, romlebic ver iReben ganaTlebas. gadamReb

jgufSi Sedian SedarebiT privilegirebuli bavSvebi, dasaqmebuli bavSvebi da

iseTebi, romelTac SeiZleba elementaruli ganaTlebac ki ar hqondeT.

programis msvlelobisas bevri ram xdeba mis auditoriaSi. iyo dro, rodesac

SeiniSneboda daZabuloba da uxerxuloba erTad momuSave sxvadasxva warmoSobis

bavSvebs Soris, magram maT daZlies es da SesaniSnavi saqmiani urTierTobebi

daamyares. programa zustad asaxavs bangladeSis sazogadoebas da, rogorc

aseTi, mimzidvelia mravalgvari auditoriisaTvis, riTac warmatebas aRwevs.

bavSvTa mediacentri, yirgizeTi

bavSvTa media centri muSaobs audio-vizualur da beWdviT mediaSi da misi

samuSao sruldeba eqskluziurad bavSvebisa da axalgazrdebis mier. proeqtis

mizania bavSvebis TviTgamoxatvisTvis saTanado pirobebis Seqmna. centris wevrebi

swavloben yirgizeTSi bavSvebisa da axalgazrdebis winaSe arsebul problemebs

da akeTeben TavianTi dakvirvebebis Sefasebebs. isini avrceleben informaciasac

bavSvTa uflebebis Sesaxeb gaeros bavSvis uflebaTa konvenciis Sesabamisad.

mediacentris wevrebi muSaoben bevr Temaze, romlebic asaxavs axalgazrdebis

problemebs, maT Soris bavSvTa dacvis, genderul da aiv/Sids-Tan dakavSirebul

sakiTxebs. centri uSvebs videoklipebsa da beWdviTi mediis statiebs usaxlkaro

bavSvebis, SidsiT daavadebuli adamianebis da qalTa uflebebis darRvevis

faqtebis Sesaxeb. proeqtis yvelaze Zlieri mxare aris is faqti, rom mis

mediaproduqtebSi gamoxatuli poziciebi axalgazrdebis WeSmariti xmebia.

`andi~

sabavSvo axali ambebis saagento `andi~ (ANDI) braziliaSi Camoyalibda

Jurnalistebis mier, romelTac awuxebdaT quCis bavSvebis bedi. Tavdapirvelad


162

isini koncentrirebuli iyvnen saskolo dawesebulebebis Seqmnaze, vinaidan

ganaTleba miaCndaT siRaribis daZlevis gzad, gansakuTrebiT diqtaturis

pirobebSi.

Semdeg maT daiwyes mediis monitoringi da SeniSnes, rom bavSvebis Sesaxeb

gadmocemuli informaciis udidesi nawili negatiuri iyo. maT gamoaqveynes

sareitingo cxrilebi, sadac aCvenebdnen, Tu romeli gamocemebi iyo yvelaze

Seuracxmyofelebi da mouwodebdnen ufro pozitiuri damokidebulebisaken.

TandaTanobiT masalebis tendencia Seicvala da gamomcemlebma daiwyes Sejibreba,

rom ukeTesi pozicia daekavebinaT reitingSi.

`andim~ daawesa erovnuli standarti saukeTeso Jurnalisturi naSromisTvis

bavSvebsa da axalgazrdebTan dakavSirebul sakiTxebze. amisaTvis saagento:







gansazRvravs da sTavazobs konkretul Temebs da awvdis maTze informacias

Jurnalistebs;

avrcelebs bavSvebisa da axalgazrdebis Sesaxeb mTavar ambebs, romlebic

qveyndeba qveyanaSi;

akeTebs raodenobriv da Tvisebriv analizs braziliur presaSi Jurnalistebis

mxridan bavSvebisa da axalgazrdebisadmi gamoxatuli damokidebulebis

Sesaxeb;

avrcelebs informacias sirTuleebisa da warmatebuli gamocdilebis Sesaxeb;

aRiarebs profesionalebs, romelTa saqmianoba socialurad pasuxismgebeli

Jurnalistikis magaliTia;

trenings utarebs komunikaciis sferos axalgazrda profesionalebsa da

studentebs.

2000 wlis martSi Seiqmna `andis qseli~, romelic dRes braziliis sxvadasxva

Statis eqvsi sakomunikacio saagentosgan Sedgeba.

`erTwuTiani iuniori~ (“One Minute Junior”)

`erTwuTiani iuniori~ aris konkursi bavSvebisa da axalgazrdebisTvis, rom Seqmnan

sakuTari erTwuTiani videoklipebi da gamoxaton sakuTari Tavi mediis saSualebiT.

`OneMinutesJr~ _ es aris axali kategoria erTwuTiani filmebis festivalSi,

romelic imarTeba yovel noembers sandbergis institutis organizebiT qalaq

amsterdamSi. is ar aris gamiznuli, rom warmoaCinos profesiuli kinoxelovneba.

amis nacvlad, is stimuls aZlevs axalgazrdebs, Caataron eqsperimentebi da

isargeblon im SesaZleblobebiT, romlebsac es Janri sTavazobs da moipovon

aRiareba kreatiulobisa da interesebisaTvis.


avSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis

163

konkursSi TavianTi proeqtebis warsadgenad miwveulni arian 12-dan 20 wlamde

asakis axalgazrdebi evropidan da centraluri aziidan. yovelwliurad proeqtis

partniorebi irCeven sakonkurso Temebs an sakiTxebs axalgazrdebTan mWidro

TanamSromlobiT.

festivalis dros imarTeba yvelaze SemoqmedebiTi filmebis nakrebis Cveneba

da jildoebi gadaecemaT yvelaze gamorCeul Semsruleblebs. sponsori

organizaciebis (evropis kulturuli fondi, sandbergis instituti da gaeros

bavSvTa fondi) warmomadgenlebisa da sami axalgazrdisgan Semdgari Jiuri

akeTebs arCevans.

yvela is, vinc monawileobs konkursSi, Rebulobs monawilis sertifikats.

gamarjvebulebs gadascemen studentebis mier Seqmnil prizebs sandbergis

institutidan da mcire finansur jildos. aqcenti keTdeba ara gamarjvebaze,

aramed kreatiuli produqtis Seqmnaze, romelic stimuls miscems axalgazrdebs.

yovel wels festivals aqvs TamaSismagvari elementi, romelic did diskusiebs

warmoSobs auditoriaSi.

axalgazrdebis mier axali cifruli mediis spontanurad da araordinarulad

gamoyenebis unari adasturebs, rom maT didi wvlilis Setana SeuZliaT

sazogadoebriv procesebSi. aucilebelia amis aRiareba da xelSewyoba da

axalgazrdebisTvis ufro farTo tribunis micema, raTa maTma eqsperimentulma

Semoqmedebam nayofi gamoiRos.

axalgazrdebis mier axali cifruli mediis spontanurad da araordinarulad

gamoyenebis unari adasturebs, rom maT didi wvlilis Setana SeuZliaT

sazogadoebriv procesebSi. aucilebelia amis aRiareba da xelSewyoba da

axalgazrdebisTvis ufro farTo tribunis micema, raTa maTma eqsperimentulma

Semoqmedebam nayofi gamoiRos.

Cveni eqspresi – saqarTvelo

proeqti „Cveni eqspresi“ - axalgazrduli yovelkvireuli telegadacemaa (20-

25 wuTi), romelic 2005 wlidan mzaddeba 15-21 wlamde axalgazrdebis mier.

“interniusi” proeqtSi monawile axalgazrdebs aZlevs Jurnalistur codnas

da profesiul unarebs. isini sxvadasxva Teoriuli da praqtikuli treningebis

ganmavlobaSi swavloben scenaris da teqstis weras, gadaRebebis dagegmvas,

muSaobas kamerasTan, montaJis safuZvlebs. „interniusis“ prodiuserebi

periodulad awvdian maT informacias teqnologiuri da stilisturi siaxleebis

Sesaxebac.

„Cveni eqspresi“ saSualebas aZlevs axalgazrdebs, isaubron im sakiTxebis

Sesaxeb, romlebic gavlenas axdens piradad maTi, megobrebisa Tu Tanatolebis

yoveldRiur cxovrebaze, aseve, gaaSuqon Temebi, romlebic centraluri arxebis

eTeriT ar gadaicema. axalgazrdebi TavianTi interesebisamebr, profesionali

operatorebisa da memontaJeebis daxmarebiT, iReben ara mxolod siuJetebs,


164

aramed saavtoro filmebsa da Canaxatebsac.

axalgazrdebis mier axalgazrdebisTvis Seqmnili videokontenti jer

sazogadoebriv televiziaze, Semdeg ki telekompania „imedis“ eTeriT gadioda.

programis naxva aseve SesaZlebelia Semdeg veb-misamarTze http://blog.teentv.ge;

damatebiTi literatura da resursebi

msoflio sagazeTo asociacia: http://www.wan-press.info/

msoflio radioforumi: http://www.worldradioforum.org

sazogadoebriv mauwyebelTa msoflio asociacia: http://www.amarc.org/

`presuaizisa~ (PressWise) da `media eqSn interneiSenalis~ (Media Action International) mier

identificirebuli bevri sxva saintereso mediaaqtivoba da kargi ideebi bavSvebis mier,

bavSvebisTvis da maTTan erTad (MAGIC) gadaicema specialur vebgverdze, romelic aseve Seicavs

qcevis kodeqss bavSvebTan erTad muSaobisa da maTze statiebis dawerisaTvis. aq aseve mocemulia

bevri sasargeblo bmuli da informacia im mravalricxovani oficialuri deklaraciebis Sesaxeb,

romlebsac gamoscemen mauwyeblebi da sxva mediasaagentoebi da romlebSic xazgasmulia, rom

mediawarmoebaSi prioritetuli unda iyos bavSvis WeSmariti interesebi: www.unicef.org/magic

`ANDI~: http://www.andi.org.br

`presgazet~: http://www.pressgazette.co.uk

`Prix Jeunesse International~: www.prixjeunesse.de

`bavSvebi da media – globaluri problema~, maik jemfsoni, “The PressWise Trust”.


Not for sale

More magazines by this user
Similar magazines