saxelovnebo mecnierebaTa Ziebani #4 (37), 2008 ART SCIENCE ...

tafu.edu.ge

saxelovnebo mecnierebaTa Ziebani #4 (37), 2008 ART SCIENCE ...

SoTa rusTavelis Teatrisa da kinos

universiteti

Shota Rustaveli Theatre and Film

University

saxelovnebo mecnierebaTa Ziebani

#4 (37), 2008

ART SCIENCE STUDIES

#4 (37), 2008

gamomcemloba `kentavri~

Tbilisi _ 2008

1


UDC(uak) 7(051.2)

s-364

SoTa rusTavelis Teatrisa da kinos universiteti

saxelovnebo mecnierebaTa Ziebani #4 (37), 2008

saredaqcio sabWo

vasil kiknaZe

nato gengiuri

lela oCiauri

literaturuli

redaqtori

krebulisaTvis mowodebuli masala

uzrunvelyofili unda iyos

Sesabamisi samecniero aparatiT. Tan

unda axldes monacemebi avtoris

samecniero kvalifikaciis Sesaxeb

qarTul da inglisur enebze, agreTve

naSromis inglisurenovani reziume.

Teatrmcodneoba

Sinaarsi

maka vasaZe

robert sturuas saTeatro enis formirebis sakiTxisaTvis .....................10

qoreografia

nele hertlingi

baletisa da cekvis istoria droTa manZilze

cocxali xelovnebis formis istoriasa da awmyoze ......................................19

kultura da politika

stiv osteni

kulturis roli evropis gaerTianebis procesSi ...........................................37

mariam iaSvili

garekanis dizaini

levan dadiani

dakabadoneba

ekaterine

oqropiriZe

koreqtura

manana goSaZe

gamomcemlobis

xelmZRvaneli

maka vasaZe

krebulis stamburi gamocema

egzavneba sxvadasxva saerTaSoriso

kvleviT centrebs.

naSromebi mogvawodeT da

cnobebisaTvis mogvmarTeT:

0102, Tbilisi, daviT aRmaSeneblis

gamziri #40, SoTa rusTavelis

Teatrisa da kinos universiteti,

II korpusi.

tel/faqsi: +995 (32) 936 408

mob: +995 (95) 305 060

+995 (55) 218 292

E-mail: kentavri@tafu.edu.ge

Web: www.tafu.edu.ge

xelovnebisa da socialur mecnierebaTa

fakultetis samecniero konferenciis

masalebi

Teatrmcodneoba

Tamar bokuCava

Ramis, sizmrisa da komikuris sakiTxisaTvis Seqspiris

`zafxulis Ramis sizmarSi~ ............................................................................................43

merab gegia

religia da Teatri ............................................................................................................50

maia goSaZe

pandoras yuTis fskerze ...................................................................................................59

mixeil kalandariSvili

modernistuli eqsperimenti tiflisSi ....................................................................63

maia kiknaZe

Tojinebisa da Crdilebis warmodgenebi indoneziaSi .....................................69

guliko mamulaSvili

`Tazie~ sparsul samecniero literaturaSi ........................................................74

nino maWavariani

evgeni Svarci da misi `drakoni~ rusTavelis TeatrSi .........................86

2 3


gubaz megreliZe

uSangi CxeiZis ucnobi mogoneba

`kotes rusTavelis Teatridan wasvla~ .............................................................94

manana turiaSvili

aTasi saxis adamiani ..........................................................................................................101

Tamar quTaTelaZe

Teatris funqcia da faseulobebi ..................................................................................115

lamara RonRaZe

reJisori, dro, speqtakli .....................................................................................................124

giorgi cqitiSvili

„kaci viyav, adamiani...~ ...............................................................................................................135

guliko javaSvili

msaxiobis erTi roli .............................................................................................................143

kinomcodneoba

irina demetraZe

sublimirebuli rasizmi .........................................................................................................148

nana doliZe

arCevnebi da qarTuli satelevizio arxebis politika ................................155

lia kalandariSvili

qalis saxe samocdaaTiani wlebis inglisur kinoSi .........................................163

irina kuWuxiZe

kinematografis konturebi axali teqnologiebis epoqaSi ..........................173

maia levaniZe

qarTuli telesivrce da reklamis Tavisebureba ................................................181

manana lekboraSvili

media reprezentaciebi da maTi Seswavlis aqtualoba .....................................187

dinara maRlakeliZe

XX saukunis 90-iani wlebis kinoavangardi ........................................................192

nino mxeiZe

deskripcia Tu eqsplikacia ...........................................................................................200

eTer okujava

`ganaxlebis~ xana qarTul kinoSi ............................................................................205

lela oCiauri

socialisturi realizmidan postmodernizmamde ................................................211

oliko JRenti

`feqsebi~ da 20-iani wlebis QqarTuli kinoavangardi ..................................229

qeTevan trapaiZe

qarTvel reJisorTa mier ucxoeTSi gadaRebuli filmebi ...........................245

Teo xatiaSvili

`survilis miuwvdomeli obieqti~

lakaniseuli interpretaciebi luis bunuelis SemoqmedebaSi ..................254

qeTevan janeliZe

Semotanili produqcia da qarTuli sinamdvile `importuli animacia~

gmirebi, ideologia, morali ...........................................................................................261

xelovnebaTmcodneoba

irine abesaZe

firosmanologiis, rogorc axali saxelovnebaTmcodneo

mimarTulebis Camoyalibebis perspeqtivebi .............................................................267

nato gengiuri

arqiteqturis simbolika ..................................................................................................277

qeTevan kinwuraSvili

interteqstualuri TamaSi da `narativis intriga~ giorgi

aleqsi-mesxiSvilis scenografiul namuSevrebSi ...............................................284

kulturologia

revaz balanCivaZe

anTropologiuri pedagogika rogorc ganaTlebis mecniereba ................290

qeTevan elaSvili

erotizmis diapazoni qarTul sityvaSi ....................................................................300

rusudan mircxulava

gardasaxvis fsiqologiuri SesaZleblobis Sesaxeb ........................................305

mediologia

giorgi CarTolani

kultura televiziis sainformacio programebSi ..........................................313

saavtoro monacemebi ................................................................................................................322

4 5


THEATRE STUDIES

MAKA VASADZE

Formation Of Robert Sturua’s Theatrical Language

(Interpretation of Georgian Classical Literature a la Robert Sturua) .............324

CHOREOGRAPHY

NELE HERTLING

History Of Ballet And Dance

History And Present Of Dance As An Artform .............................................325

CULTURE AND POLITICS

STEVE AUSTEN AND KAROLINA NOWACKI

The Role Of Culture In The European Unification Process ..........................326

ART AND SOCIAL SCIENCE FACULTY

THEATRE STUDIES

TAMAR BOKUCHAVA

For The Aspects Of Night, Dream And Comic In Shakespeare’s

“A Midsummer Night’s Dream” ..................................................................328

MERAB GEGIA

Religion And Theatre ....................................................................................328

MAIA GOSHADZE

At The Bottom Of Pandora’s Box .................................................................329

MIKHAIL KALANDARISHVILI

The Modernistic Experiment In Tiflisi .........................................................329

MAIA KIKNADZE

Puppet And Shade Performances In Indonesia .............................................330

GULIKO MAMULASHVILI

“Th ‘Asies” In Persian Scientific Literature .................................................331

NINO MACHAVARIANI

Eugene Swartz’s “Dragon” In The

Rustaveli Theatre ..........................................................................................331

GUBAZ MEGRELIDZE

Ushangi Chkheidze’s Unknown Reminder ...................................................332

MANANA TURIASHVILI

Thousand Kinds Of People

Mikhael Chekhov ..........................................................................................333

TAMAR KUTATELADZE

Theatre’s Function And Its Valuable

(By example of the Kote Marjanishvili’s “Uriel Akosta” restore

by Sophiko Chiaureli) ...................................................................................334

LAMARA GONGADZE

Producer , Time, Per

(Lily Ioselyani ‘S First Play) .........................................................................335

GIORGI TSKITISHVILI

I Was A Human, Man... ..................................................................................335

GULIKO DJAVASHVILI

Actor’s One Role

(In Givi Berikashvili’s Play “Berikaoba” (Georgian Carnaval)

By M. Eliozishvili)...................................................................................... 336

FILM STUDIES

IRA DEMETRADZE

Sublimated Racism

(The Caucasus Ethos Myth In Post Soviet Cinematography) .......................337

NANA DOLIDZE

Elections And Georgian Tv Channels Politics .............................................338

LIA KALANDARISHVILI

The Women’s Face In English Film

Industry In 70 Years .......................................................................................338

IRINA KUTSUKHIDZE

The Outlines Of Cinematograph In The Period Of New Technologies .........339

MAIA LEVANIDZE

Georgian Tv Space And Advertising Peculiarities ......................................339

MANANA LEKBORASHVILI

media representations and studding activeness .............................................340

DIANA MAGLAKELIDZE

Image Liberation –North-European Modern

Cinema Avant-Garde 95 ................................................................................341

NINO MKHEIDZE

Description If Explication .............................................................................342

ETER OKUDJAVA

60 th Years – Period Of Cinematography Renovate .......................................342

6 7


LELA OCHIAURI

From Socialiste Realism To Post-Modernism ..............................................343

OLGIKO ZGENTI

Georgian Leading Film And “Fexsis” – Parallels And Intersection ..............344

KETEVAN TRAPAIDZE

Abroad Directed Movies Of Georgian Ditectors ..........................................344

TEO KHATIASHVILI

“Inaccessible Object Of The Will”

Lakan’s Interpretation In The Luis Bunueli ...................................................345

KETEVAN JANELIDZE

Animated Films ..........................................................................................345

Teatrmcodneoba

ART STUDIES

IRINE ABESADZE

The Prospects Of Founding The Phenomenology As New

Direction Of Art History ...............................................................................346

NATO GENGIURI,

Symbolism Of Architecture

(Christian Georgia) ......................................................................................347

KETEVAN KINTSURASHVILI

The Theatre Of Gogi Aleksi-Meskhishvili ...................................................348

CULTURE

REVAZ BALANCHIVADZE

Anthropological Pedagogic As The Science Of Education ...........................349

KETEVAN ELASHVILI

The Range Of Eroticism In Georgian Literature ........................................350

RUSUDAN MIRTSKULAVA

On Psychological Possibilities Of Transformation

And Stage Acting ..........................................................................................351

MEDIA STUDIES

GEORGE CHARTOLANI

Culture In Television Information Programs ..............................................352

8 9


maka vasaZe

robert sturuas saTeatro enis formirebis

sakiTxisaTvis

(qarTuli klasikis sturuaseuli interpretacia)

(gagrZeleba, dasawyisi ix. wina nomerSi)

robert sturuam, 1974 wels, qarTuli Teatris aRdgenis

125 wlisTavs miuZRvna aleqsandre sumbaTaSvil-iuJinis piesis

`Ralatis~ dadgma da misi ganxorcielebisas metad gabeduli

gza airCia. cnobilia, rom `Ralatis~ scenuri cxovreba sakmao

dros moicavs. Iigi mravaljer daudgamT qarTul TeatrebSi.

ar darCenila saqarTvelos arcerTi profesiuli, Tu moyvarulTa

dasi, rom ar esinja am nawarmoebis dadgma. Aamitom, sazogadoeba

didi interesiT eloda, Tu rogor saxes miiRebda piesa iseTi

reJisoris xelSi, rogoric sturuaa, vinaidan is principulad

uaryofda gatkepnili gzebiT siaruls, cdilobda viwro,

konkretuli epoqis farglebSi moqceuli movlenebi ganevrco

da erovnuli tipaJisTvis ufro farTo, zogadsakacobrio elferi

mieniWebina. robert sturuam amjeradac uari Tqva wlebis

ganmavlobaSi damkvidrebuli `Ralatis~ dadgmis tradiciaze

(iseve, rogorc `samaniSvilis dedinacvalis~ da `yvaryvares~

dadgmisas), piesa zedmiwevniT Seiswavla da Tanadroulobis

Tvalsazrisidan gamomdinare, gaacocxla warsulis patriotuli

epizodebi. `es ar gaxlavT speqtakli, romelSic reJisori

SeumCnevlad `mokvdeba aqtiorSi~. `Ralati~ reJisoruli

speqtaklia. upirveles yovlisa, mas aqvs Tavisi saTqmeli,

literaturuli saSualeba da ara mizani am saTqmelis

gamosaxatavad. es saTqmeli gaxlavT mZafri inteleqtualuri

damokidebuleba warsulis Tu awmyos mniSvnelovani movlenebis

mimarT. es sakuTari damokidebulebaa, romelic Cvenad unda

aqcios speqtaklis meSveobiT~. 1

reJisorma speqtakli Semzaravi simbolikiT daiwyo. darbazSi

ismoda sparsul sakravTa xmebi, avanscenaze Canda nergi, romelic

cxovrebis xis, anu maradiulobis simbolos gamoxatavda. scenis

siRrmidan modioda Sav samosSi gaxveuli qali da nergis qveS

emxoboda. Ees iyo saqarTvelos dedofali _ Tamari. saorkestro

ormodan scenaze nel-nela amoemarTeboda soleimani da miwaze

garTxmul Tamar dedofals medidurad gadaabijebda. misi

mosasxami gadaacocdeboda Tamaris sxeuls, sudaras gadaaclida

da saqarTvelos dedofali - zeinabad, soleimanis meuRled

gadaiqceoda mowiTalo ferebSi gadawyvetili samosiT. soleimani

ki, gzas agrZelebda da maRali kibiT adioda gabzaruli

wminda giorgis karedis win dadgmul taxtze. saerTod

speqtaklSi, ferTa simbolikas, mniSvnelovani dramturgiuli

funqcia mieniWa. magaliTad, Tuki dasawyisSi zeinabsa da oTarbegs

sisxlisferi samosi ecvaT, rogorc soleimanis msaxurebs,

speqtaklis dasrulebisas, sisxlisferi, mooqrosferoTi

icvleboda, rac albaT maT ganaxlebul sulier mdgomareobaze

mianiSnebda. `Ralts~ robert sturuam zogadsakacobrio masStabi

SesZina da globlaurad warmoaCina dampyroblisa da dapyrobilis

urTierTobani, maTi fsiqologia da cxovrebis cvalebadobis

gardauvaloba.

`samaniSvilis dedinacvalSi~ robert sturuam da Temur

CxeiZem erTmaneTs SeuTavses fsiqologiuri wvdomis, gardasaxvis

principebi _ brextiseuli `gansxvisebis efeqts~. am xerxis

gamoyenebiT, distancia msaxiobebsa da moTxrobis gmirebs Soris,

xan mcirdeboda da xan, kvlav izrdeboda. amgvari mignebiT,

zustad iqna daWerili da gadmocemuli daviT kldiaSvilis

moTxrobebis `suli~, romlis saSualebiTac msaxiobebi TavianTi

gmirebis cxovrebas kidec ganicdidnen da amave dros,

Semfaseblebadac gvevlinebodnen. reJisorebma da msaxiobebma

miaRwies xasaiTebisa da movlenebis arsis groteskul gadmocemas.

maTdami damokidebulebis warmoCenas. amas garda, meTodi, romelic

gamoiyenes reJisorebma, speqtaklis dasawyisidanve aZlevda maT

saSualebas Tavisuflad gadasuliyvnen moTxrobis realuri

situaciebidan pirobiTsa da stilizebul xerxebze. esec xazs

usvamda reJisorebis damokidebulebas ama Tu im movlenisadmi

_ gadasvlas ironiidan da iumoridan, naRvelisa da tragizmis

situaciebze. magaliTisTvis moviyvanT platonis wasvlis scenas

10 11


maka vasaZe

`sacole-dedinacvlis~ saZebnelad. moTxrobis mixedviT, gzis

naxevarze mets, platoni fexiT midis da `cxens~, am gasacodavebul

sulier arsebas ukan moaTrevs. es epizodi moTxrobaSi aRsavsea

iumoriTa da naRveliT. reJisorebma SemogvTavazes uCeulo

sanaxaoba: wnelisagan gakeTebuli raRac fitulis cxeni. igi

sabralod da sacodavad gamoiyureboda. erTi SexedviT SeiZleba

ver mimxvdariyavi, rom es cxenia. magram uceb, platonis _

giorgi gegeWkoris mier erTi maTraxis aqneva, cxenze mjdomis

moZraoba... da mayurebelis winaSe realuri sinamdvilis iluzia

iqmneboda. mayurebels sjeroda, rom platoni marTlac Tavis

daCaCanakebul cxens miaTrevda. aseve pirobiT xerxSi iyo

gadawyvetili platonisa da kiriles (ramaz CxikvaZe)

gamgzavrebis scena. giorgi gegeWkori da ramaz CxikvaZe iRebdnen

Cveulebriv skamebs, `gadaajdebodnen~, xelebs skamis zurgs

CasWidebdnen, cxenze mjdomi kaciviT moZraobdnen, xmiT cxenis

floqvebis xmas gamoscemdnen da mayureblis wianSe kvlav

iSleboda realuri da amave dros, iumoriT savse sanaxaoba.

anda, bekinasa da elenes tradiciuli wes-CveulebiT dadgmuli

qorwinebis scena, romelic reJisuram ironiis sagnad aqcia. am

scenis finali gadawyvetili iyo Zveli fotosuraTis pozaSi,

sadac ojaxis wevrebs kmayofilebiT aRsavse saxeebi aqvT.

marTlacda TiTqos, yvelaferi kargad damTavrda. platoni da

bekina kmayofilebi iyvnen TavianTi bediT. bekinam aisrula

colis SerTvis survili, platonma ki, uSvilo, ornaqmarevi

dedinacvali `iSovna~. mas aRar hqonda SiSi mamulze moziaris

dabadebisa, magram cxovreba umowyalo aRmoCnda. elene

dafexmZimda. bekina TiTqos damnaSavedac grZnobda Svilis winaSe

Tavs, magram amave dros, eamayeboda kidec, rom am asakSi colis

dafexmZimeba SesZlo da platonis winadadebas _ elenem muceli

moiSaloso, aRSfoTebulma upasuxa: `RvTis Casaxuli kaci

movkla?~

Semdgom, bavSvis dabadebis scenac pirobiTad iyo gadawyvetili.

speqtaklis yvela monawile scenaze imyofeboda, maT Soris -

elenec. ismoda Tofis gavardnis xma. aristo qvaSaviZe amcnobda

bekinas biWi SegeZinao. platonis natvra gogo mainc daibadoso,

ar asrulda. xalxi modioda bekinasTan da elenesTan mosalocad.

robert sturuas saTeatro enis formirebis sakiTxisaTvis

Tavis dabla daxriT xels arTmevdnen, TiTqos usityvo

solidarobas ucxadebdnen da imave dros, usamZimrebdnen kidec.

yvelafers agvirgvinebda TiTqmis tragikuli finali. giorgi

gegeWkori TandaTan `Sordeboda~ Tavis platons, da kvlav

wigns iRebda xelSi. igi samuzeumo eqsponatis ukanasknel

gverds furclavda da iwyebda kiTxvas Tavisi gmiris ara

gakicxvis, aramed TanagrZnobis intonaciiT. giorgi gegeWkori

auwyebda mayurebels, Tu ramdeni mwuxareba da usiamovneba xvda

wilad samaniSvilebis ojaxs. bavSvis gaCenam sixarulis nacvlad,

saxlSi ubedureba Semoitana. es aris adamianTa cxovrebis

tragikuli Seusabamoba. magram ram moitana aseTi Seusabamoba.

ra Tqma unda epoqam. epoqam, romelmac adamianSi adamianuri

suli mokla. es, marTlac satireli da sasaciloa. da, rusTavelis

Teatris speqtaklic xom tragi-komedia iyo. ai, ras wers am

speqtaklis Sesaxeb v. ivanovi: `Своеобразие спектакля в том,

что драматический сюжет омертвления человеческой души

воплащён в комической фабуле, в ряде острокомических жанровых

сцен, Герой “МАЧЕХИ” во власти эгоистической разобщённости,

но внешне они само внимание и предупредительность.” 2

speqtaklis sevdanarevi iumori, naRvliani kilo sicilTan

erTad, mayureblis gulistkivilsac iwvevda. iwvevda agreTve

TanagrZnobas im adamianebis mimarT, romlebic scenaze idgnen

da TiTqos Sengan (mayureblisgan) xsnas elodnen.

rogorc dasawyisSi aRvniSneT, robert sturuas reJisoriuli

azrovneba miiswrafis ATanamedrove brextiseuliATeatris

principebis Seqmnisaken qarTul nacionalur kulturasTan

sinTezSi. amis magalTia speqtakl `yvaryvares~ Seqmna. sityva

`Seqmna~ me SemTxveviT ar mixmaria, radganac `yvaryvare~ robert

sturuas usazRvro reJisoruli fantaziis nayofia. misma dadgmam

Zalian saintereso rezultati mogvca. saintereso Tundac

imitom, rom warmodgenam didi kamaTi gamoiwvia ara marto

Teatris kritikosTa Soris, aramedATeatris moyvaruli da

TeatrSi mosiarule mTeli sazogadoeba aalaparaka. zogni

mTlianad uaryofdnen polikarpe kakabaZis sturuaseul

interpretacias, zognic piriqiT, didad uWerdnen mxars.

12 13


maka vasaZe

mowinaaRmdegeni sxva mizezebTan erTad, robert sturuas

speqtakls uaryofdnen imis gamo, rom maTi azriT, ar SeiZleboda

globalur masStabebSi warmodgeniliyo polikarpe kakabaZis

wmindad qarTuli piesa. magram aq Cndeba erTi uneburi kiTxva:

Tu polikarpe kakabaZis nawarmoebTa problematika aseTi viwro

wriT, mxolod da mxolod `erovnuli niadagiT~ ifargleba,

maSin ratom aris igi klasikosi, msoflio masStabis dramaturgi?

magram saqme aq sxvagvaradaa. robert sturuas yvaryvaresaTvis

`qarTuli niadagi~ ar gamouclia, reJisorma ubralod polikarpe

kakabaZis siRrmeebSi arsebuli `yvaryvarizmis~ zogadsakacobrio

idea wina planze wamoswia da es idea speqtaklSi Taviseburi

formiT gadmogvca. Cems azrs imis Sesaxeb, rom robert sturuas

sareJisoro ena, xerxebi qarTul niadags eyrdnoba cnobili

rusi Jurnalistis mixeil Svidkois sityvebic adasturebs:

`CemTvis yvelaze mniSvnelovania is, rom sturua aris qarTveli

reJisori, romelic gamoxatavs Tavisi xalxis tkivils, vnebaTa

SeWirvebas, imeds. rasac ar unda dgamdes _ brextsa Tu Seqspirs,

romlebmac mas msoflio saxeli mouxveWes, sturua CemTvis

aris ilia WavWavaZisa da niko firosmanaSvilis, daviT

kldiaSvilisa da polikarpe kakabaZis Tanamemamule~. 3

rogorc zeviT aRvniSneT, `yvaryvareSi~ moxetiale dasi

iwyebda warmodgenis Cvenebas. prologis damTavrebis Semdeg,

qvemexebisa Tu tyviamfrqvevTa kakanis fonze, scenaze Semorboda

Tavzardacemuli brbo da miwas erTxmoda. maT Soris iyo

SeSinebuli, saxegafiTrebuli, jariskacis formaSi gamowyobili

ltolvili, romelic erTi Tvalis gadavlebis Semdgom, isev

ukan garboda, raTa mcire xnis Semdeg maT mesiis saxiT

gamocxadeboda. `gaTeTrebuli saxe gahqvavebia, niRbad hqcevia,

usicocxlo, vnebamiukarebelia. SemosvlisTanave sazeimo,

tragikuli toniT mimarTavs SiSisagan gondakargul xalxs:

`sul ase unda iwanwaloT, uTaurebo? Tqveni kacad gaxdoma ar

iqna da ar moxerxda!~ diax, es yvaryvares sityvebia, romliTac

(polikarpe kakabaZis piesaSi) igi mimarTavs Tavis sacodav

ATanasoflelebs _ yayutasa da quCaras. aqedan iwyeba yvaryvares

sakvirveli metamorfoza, da misi svla cxovrebis sxvadsxva

`rkalSi~, romelic Tavis TanmimdevrobiT macxovris cxovrebas

robert sturuas saTeatro enis formirebis sakiTxisaTvis

mogvagonebs, gardatexils groteskulad, Sebrunebulad, ironiuli

paradoqsalurobiT~. 4

me ki, Cems mier moyvanil nodar gurabaniZis citatas

davumatebdi, rom reJisoris mier yvaryvares warmoCena aseTi

saxiT, pirvelsave scenaSi xazs usvamda da amave dros, mayurebels

ATavidanve amcnobda yvaryvares araCveulebriv niWs situaciis

Sefasebisa. yvaryvarem igrZno, rom swored es momenti, rodesac

xalxs, masas Tavgza aqvs abneuli da goneba dakarguli, SeeZlo

gamoeyenebina Tavisi gandidebis mizniT. es, xom yvela im uniWo

adamianis Tvisebaa, romelsac ATavisTavad araferi Rirebulis

Seqmna ar ZaluZs, magram raRac niRabs moirgebs da ase

niRabamofarebuli warmoaCens Tavis Tavs. `rac Seexeba niRabs,

amaze ki vityvi _ Zveli berZnebi xSirad mimarTavdnen amgvar

Teatralur niRabs. miuxedavad imisa, rom amgvari niRabi msaxiobs

xels uSlis srulad gamoxatos personaJis sulieri moZraobani,

am speqtaklSi igi mainc mniSvnelovan komponentad mimaCnia _

yvaryvare ar gvevlineba Tavisi namdvili saxiT, mas udidesi

niRabi aqvs afarebuli cxovrebaSi, igi mudam SeniRbulia~ 5 _

igonebs ramaz CxikvaZe.

yvaryvarem `qristes~ niRabi aifara xalxis mosanusxad. ai,

rogor xsnis amas Tavad reJisori robert sturua: `me gavavle

paraleli qristes cxovrebasTan, radgan Tavisi droisaTvis

igi warmomidgeba keTilis, progresulis sawyisad. am paralelis

meoxeobiT vaCvene egreTwodebuli `antiqriste~, romelic Tavis

saqmianobas sikeTis saxeliT iwyebs - qadagebs imas, rac

xalxisaTvis saWiro da misaRebia~. 6

imisaTvis, rom es paraleli qristesa da antiqristes Soris

mayureblisaTvis ufro naTeli da gasagebi yofiliyo, robert

sturuam ramaz CxikvaZis _ yvaryvares pirvel gamoCenas `qristes~

saxiT musikalur fonad daudo qarTuli qoralis xmebi `Sobai,

Seni qristeo~. reJisoris es SesaniSnavi migneba, marTlac rom

savsebiT naTelia - qveyanaSi rwmenas urwmunoeba Secvlis,

adamianTa idealebs _ gaqroba, gadagvarebis saSiSroeba moelis.

reJisors speqtakli gadawyvetili hqonda rogorc

sakarnavalo farsi, xolo aseT JanrSi yovelgvari pirobiTobaa

dasaSvebi. amitomac sruliad gamarTlda ramaz CxikvaZis

14 15


maka vasaZe

yvaryvares saxis warmoCena tiranis globalur aspeqtebSi.

yvaryvare _ triumfatori, xakisfer kostiumSi gamowyobili

interventi generali, bonapartizmis Tvisebebis matarebeli.

rogorc davinaxeT, speqtaklis dasawyisSi yvaryvare

mxsneladaa Seracxuli, Tavgzaabneulma brbom `Tavkaci iSovna~.

sul araraobas erCivna yvaryvare yoloda winamZRolad.

ndobaaRWurvili yvaryvare xelSi iRebda gvirgvins da Tavze

idgamda. swored am detalSi vlindeboda yvaryvares gegmis

mizani _ gandideba. xalxi, `sazogadoeba~ jer ver xvdeboda Tu

ras sCadioda yvaryvare, magram rodesac mixvda, mainc masTan

darCa, mainc misi miznebis da `ideebis~ gamtarebeli da

aRmsrulebeli aRmoCnda.

robert sturua amxelda ara marto yvaryvares, aramed iseT

sazogadoebsac, romelic uSvebs da itans yvaryvares arsebobas.

albaT, swored amitom, reJisorma dagvanaxa yvaryvares

metamorfoza, misi niRbis sxvadasxvagvari imitaciebi. da es,

sxva reJisorul mignebebTan erTad, yvaryvares kostiumebis

cvalebadobaSi gamoxata. jariskacis ubralo formas cvlida

qristes wamosasxami, Semdeg SemTxveviT icvamda yayutasa da

quCaras mier gaZarculi Turqi jariskacis formas, romelic

Ziudoistis formas mogvagonebda. pirveli moqmedebis bolos,

qarTul CoxaSi warmogvidgeboda, Semdeg, momwvano samxedro

formiTa da rkinis muzaradiT _ generali interventi,

Zalauflebis zenitSi yofnis dros - `inteligenturad Cacmuli~,

xolo bolos, rodesac Seityobda mis mazraSi revoluciuri

armiis Semosvlis ambavs _ SiSvldeboda.

am kostiumebis cvalebadobisas, yovelTvis ucvleli rCeboda

erT-erTi detali _ ramaz CxikvaZis yvaryvare yovelTvis

fexSiSveli iyo. TiTqos reJisori da msaxiobi, am StrixiT,

xazs usvamdnen im garemoebas, rom yvaryvare Sinagani bunebiT

mudam nacrismqeqav mawanwalad darCeba. ai, ras ambobs am detalis

Sesaxeb TavadAmsaxiobi ramaz CxikvaZe: `es fexSiSveloba me,

rogorc msaxiobs, Sinaganad mexmareba ufro cxadad warmovidgino

mawanwala yvaryvares natura. yvaryvares frakic acvia, magram

me ar vkargav personaJis `bosiakur~ sawyiss. igi naZiralaa da

wmindanad, xalxisaTvis wamebul kacad gvaCvenebs Tavs.~ 7

robert sturuas saTeatro enis formirebis sakiTxisaTvis

uvcleli rCeboda agreTve misi saxis gayinuli gamometyveleba,

romlis miRma adamianis namdvili grZnobebis amokiTxva

SeuZlebeli iyo.

(gagrZeleba Semdeg nomerSi).

1. SoTa rusTavelis saxelobis Teatris muzeumis masalebidan,

g.xuxaSvili;

2. «Дружба народов» 1977 г. №6, В. Иванов «Человек в обществе мир в

человеке. Размышления о театре имени Руставели»;

3. SoTa rusTavelis saxelobis Teatris muzeumis masalebidan, m.Svidkoi;

4. Jurn. `Teatraluri moambe~ 1974 w. #7 n. gurabaniZe `yvaryvare~;

5. Jurn. `Teatraluri moambe~ 1974 w. #7 `dialogi yvaryvareze~;

6. Jurn. `Teatraluri moambe~ 1974 w. #7 `dialogi yvaryvareze~;

7. Jurn. `Teatraluri moambe~ 1974 w. #7 `dialogi yvaryvareze~.

16 17


qoreografia

baletisa da cekvis istoria droTa manZilze

cocxali xelovnebis formis istoriasa da

awmyoze

cekva aris xelovnebis erT-erTi uZvelesi forma. zogierT

religiaSi is samyaros Seqmnas uswrebs win. qristianul

tradiciaSi ki cekva didi xnis manZilze idevneboda.

cekvam, rogorc TviTmyofadma xelovnebis formam,

damsaxurebuli aRiareba mxolod dRes moipova da gauTanasworda

xelovnebis danarCen formebs. operaSi igi baletis formiT

vlindeba da erT-erT umniSvnelovanes komponents warmoadgens.

rogorc Tanamedrove cekva igi ZiriTadad `Tavisufal jgufebSi~

arsebobs da damokidebulia ama Tu im warmodgenis formatze.

asea Tu ise cekva, romelic SesaZloa yvelaze adamianuri

xelovnebis formaa mTeli istoriis manZilze, yvelaze mWidrod

iyo gadajaWvuli, SemosazRvruli, gamoyenebuli da gamoxatuli

sazogadoebriv da politikur cvlilebebSi. Tanamedrove cekvis

istoria germaniaSi amis naTeli magaliTia. swored amaze minda

visaubro mokled da Sevecado, naTeli gavxado es kavSiri

RirSesaniSnav SemoqmedTa magaliTze.

`yoveli adamiani mocekvavea”

rudolf fon labani 1920

am winadadebiT gamoxatavs labani meoce saukunis dasawyisSi

axal cnebasa da damokidebulebas sxeulisadmi. mecxramete

saukunis dasasruls industriis progresulma ganviTarebam da

axalma teqnologiebma masiurad Secvala samuSao pirobebi.

Zvel socialur struqturebs funqcia daekargaT, uamravi adamiani

iZulebuli gaxda qalaqSi gadmosuliyo sacxovreblad, ramac

Tan identurobis SegrZnebis dakargva da sisuste moitana.

cxovrebis wes-Cveulebebi boboqari kritikis qarcecxlSi moyva

– ocneba axal cxovrebaze, axal identurobaze. moxda

mosazrebebisa da Sexedulebebis gadafaseba. aseTia suraTi

uSualod pirveli msoflio omis win.

axalgazrda Taoba protests gamoTqvamda azrovnebisa da

cxovrebis simwiris, Cacmulobasa da moZraobaze dawesebuli

mkacri SezRudvebis winaaRmdeg. isini tradiciuli moqcevis

18 19


nele hertlingi

baletisa da cekvis istoria droTa manZilze

cocxali xelovnebis formis istoriasa da awmyoze

normebisgan gaTavisuflebas cdilobdnen. maT aRmoaCines – `buneba~.

romlis Sedegad warmoiSva axali mimdinareoba saxelad

`moxetiale Citi~. es iyo Tavisuflebis sruliad axali SegrZneba.

aqedan gamomdinare ganviTarda sxeulis Tavisuflebac. individma

sakuTari Tavi aRmoaCina. `personaluri gamoxatuleba~ iyo axali

devizi, romelic moicavda xelovnebis sxvadasxva formebs da

romelsac v. kandinski misdevda saxviT xelovnebaSi. zigmund

froidma safuZveli daudo fsiqoanalizs, xolo nicSes filosofia

axal religiad iqca. nicSem mocekvavisgan axali kerpi Seqmna:

`me mxolod erTaderTi RmerTi SemiZlia viwamo, is, romelic

cekvavs~. amiT igi mxars uWerda sxeulisa da moZraobis axal

kulturas da warmoSobil eqspresionistul cekvas.

erT-erTi sakvanZo termini gaxldaT `ritmi~. igi yofierebis

safuZvels gamoxatavda. cekvam da tanvarjiSma adamianisa da

bunebis dakarguli erTianobisaken mimavali gza gaxsna. Jak

dalkrozma, Sceicarielma kompozitorma da musikis pedagogma,

dabadebulma venaSi 1865 wels, ganaviTara ritmul-musikaluri

aRzrdis axali meTodi. imisaTvis rom sakuTari mowafeebisaTvis

musikis ukeTesi gageba eswavlebina, igi iyenebda sakuTar `ritmul

tanvarjiSs~. igi cdilobda, musikis dineba pirdapir sxeulis

moZraobaSi gadaetana. drezdenis Soriaxlos helerauSi volf

dornTan erTad man daarsa axali centri musikisa da ritmisaTvis.

aq man Tavi mouyara mowafeTa did raodenobas. misi drois

RirSesaniSnav warmomadgenlebTan erTad weliwadSi erTxel

igi awyobda festivals gasaocari dadgmebiT. mogvianebiT es

dadgmebi sakvanZo gaxda saerTaSoriso Teatris istoriaSi. am

skolam warmoSva uamravi iseTi mniSvnelovani mocekvave da

qoreografi rogorebic iyvnen: mari vigmani, hania holmsi da

miriam raubergi, mogvianebiT mari ramberti, romelic Semdgom

inglisuri Tanamedrove sabaleto dasis Tanadamaarsebeli gaxda.

meoce saukunis dasawyisSi Sveicariis monte veritaSi

warmoiSva pacifizmis, anarqizmis, antrofosofiisa da

fsiqoanalizis axali centri, sadac uamravi Semoqmedi, moazrovne,

medikosi da `mecnieri~ Seikriba TanacxovrebisaTvis. es

sazogadoeba aseve gaxda axali sacekvao mimdinareobis mimdevarTa

mizidulobis centric. rudolf fon labanma 1913 wels daarsa

moZraobis xelovnebis sazafxulo skola. mowafeTa Soris iyo

mari vigmanic. labani gaxda Tanamedrove germanuli cekvis

Semqmneli da mniSvnelovani Teoretikosi. cekva misTvis arsebobis

Semadgeneli nawili iyo – yvelaferi imisaTvis iyo Seqmnili,

rom momxdariyo `TviTgamoxatva~. labans swamda axali da

sufTa sazogadoebis daarsebis SesaZleblobisa cekvis meSveobiT.

labanis moZraobis TeoriaSi sxeuli mis irgvliv arsebuli

sivrcis centrad warmogvidgeba. igi interpretirebda cekvas,

rogorc xelovnebis damoukidebel formas, romelsac sakuTari

wesebi gaaCnia.

Tanamedrove cekvis novatorad 1877 wels amerikaSi

dabadebuli da 1899 wlidan evropaSi moRvawe aisidora dunkani

gvevlineba. man Tavidanve uaryo baleti da ganaviTara sakuTari

cekvis stili. 1904 wels berlinSi cekvis skola-internati

daarsa, romelic bavSvebs gansakuTrebul ganaTlebas aZlevda.

misTvis cekva qalis emansi paciasTan iyo kavSirSi. motivacias

efeqti ki ar warmoadgenda, aramed procesi, rogorc aseTi. igi

sakuTari xelovnebiT pirveli msoflio omamdeli Taobis

ganwyobas gamoxatavda, romelic im dros saxviT xelovnebaSi

arsebuli ideebisa da, kerZod, eqspresionizmis axlobeli iyo.

igi sakuTari profesiis yvela finansur aspeqts uaryofda.

turneebs, kontraqtebs da msgavs sakiTxebs aRiqvamda rogorc

sakuTari WeSmariti misiidan gadaxras. `Tanamedrove cekva~

dunkanma warmatebuli gaxada. igi miRebuli iqna, rogorc

xelovnebis nairsaxeoba. mas mravlad hyavda mimdevrebad qali

mocekvaveebi – maT Soris yvelaze gansakuTrebulni - debi

vizentalebi.

pirveli msoflio omis dasasrulma mZime droeba moitana.

es Tanabrad Seexo xelovnebasac. cekvas uxdeboda rTul

realobaSi arseboba. mravali Semoqmedi Seecada piradi grZnobebis

gamoxatvas da realobaze reagirebas. cekvas amisaTvis mravali

forma da saxelwodeba gaaCnda – gamomsaxvelobiTi cekva,

Tavisufali cekva, Tanamedrove mxatvruli cekva – yvelaferi

dasaSvebi iyo. drezdenma isev SeiZina mniSvneloba. aq mari

vigmanma `eqspresionistuli cekva~ SeimuSava. eqspresionistuli

cekva pirvelad damoukideblad Seiqmna, mcire oTaxebSi, magram

warmatebam am individualuri cekvis formas male Teatris

karebic gauRo. aq man baletis gverdiT daimkvidra adgili.

20 21


nele hertlingi

baletisa da cekvis istoria droTa manZilze

cocxali xelovnebis formis istoriasa da awmyoze

eqspresionistuli cekvis saTaveebTan idgnen rudolf fon

labani da mari vigmani. Tavisi pirveli germanuli turne mari

vigmanma 1919 wels Caatara. misi skola drezdenSi gadaiqca

germanuli eqspresionistuli cekvis centrad. aqedan moyolebuli

cekvas saTaveSi Caudgnen gret paluka, herald kroicbergi,

hania holmi da kidev mravali sxva.

1924 wels axalma ekonomikurma stabilurobam da wesrigma

Tavisi gavlena moaxdines xelovnebis dargebzec. safuZveli

Caeyara cnebas `axali obieqturoba~, ramac anarekli hpova

cekvaSic. axla saubari aRar iyo mxolod da mxolod individis

`gamoxatvaze~. mniSvneloba SeiZina teqnikurma SesaZleblobebma

da qoreografiulma principebma. amis sailustraciod gamodgeba

oskar Slemeri, romelmac jer kidev 1916 wels ganaviTara

sakuTari `triaduli baletis~ pirveli monaxazi da Semdgom

1925 wels igi bauhausSi warmoadgina. axali principi – formis,

ferisa da sivrcis damokidebuleba moZrav sxeulTan

daupirispirda mari vigmanis fsiqologiur gamoxatulebas.

SlemerisaTvis mTavari moZraoba sivrceSi gaxldaT.

Tanamedrove cekvis gavlena, zogadad, imdenad gaZlierda,

rom klasikurma baletmac ki ganicada saxecvlileba. mas

sWirdeboda axali gzebi, imisaTvis rom SezRuduli, moZvelebuli

rutinidan gaTavisuflebuliyo. eqspresionistuli cekva gaxda

tradiciuli baletisaTvis erTgvari katalizatori. mocekvaveebi

da qoreografebi, romlebic labanisa da vigmanis

skoladamTavrebulni iyvnen TeatrSi dafuZndnen. pirveli iyo

kurt iosi, romelic 1924 wlidan 1930 wlamde berlinis

operisa da baletis TeatrSi moRvaweobda. mas mohyva mravali

sxva, Tumca TiTqmis verc erTi dasi TeatrSi ver gaxda bolomde

`Tanamedrove~.

kurt ioss swamda formebisa da wesebis saWiroebis – misi

naSromebi misive drois interpretaciebia da maT araferi aqvT

saerTo fsiqologiur, individualur gamomsaxvelobasTan. misTvis

politikur gancxadebebsac ar hqonda didi mniSvneloba. misTvis

zogadad `adaminauris~ gamosaxva iyo mniSvnelovani. igi

safuZvlad labanis formalur enas iyenebda. misma dadgmam

`mwvane magida~ gaxada is da misi dasi msoflioSi cnobili. es

erTaderTi dadgmaa im droidan, romelic exlac xSirad idgmeba.

arsebobda politikurad angaJirebuli cekvac _ iseTi,

rogorsac qmnida magaliTad hans vaiti. man 1930 wels berlinSi

`wiTel mocekvaveTa~ dasi daarsa. igi wvrilburJuaziis

winaaRmdeg angaJirebul dass warmoadgenda, romelSic valeska

gerti gamodioda. igi iyo axali dinamiuri cekvis radikaluri

magaliTi; gamosaxavda yoveldRiur cxovrebiseul problemebs

da iyo pirveli mocekvave qali, romelic kabares stils

miuaxlovda.

politikuri suraTi dRiTidRe mZimdeboda. uamravi adamiani

darCa umuSevari. quCurma dapirispirebebma faSistebsa da

komunistebs Soris, arastabilurma politikurma sistemebma,

meryevma mTavrobam da antidemokratiulma tendenciebma kidev

ufro daamZimes saerTo foni. miuxedavad amisa, 1933 wlamde

cekva Tavisi gziT ganagrZobda ganviTarebas. mari vigmans, gret

palukas, valeska gertsa da sxvebs jer kidev hyavdaT TavianTi

mayurebeli. regularulma e. w. `mocekvaveTa kongresebma~

Caatares Tanamedrove cekvis warmomadgenelTaTvis pirveli

forumi. labanis skolam, romelic 1922 wlidan funqcionirebda

hamburgSi da sadac k. iosi da albreht kunsti swavlobdnen

safuZveli Cauyara muSaobas moZrav adamianTa gundebTan, romelic

xSirad wamyvani qoreografebis improvizaciaze iyo agebuli.

am formam didi gamoxmaureba hpova germaniaSi. moZravi jgufebi

warmoiqmna mraval adgilas. politikurma partiebma da

dajgufebebma gamoiyenes es mimdinareoba, rogorc gamoxatvis

Sesaferisi da gavleniani forma TavianTi RonisZiebebisa da

demonstraciebis gasaformeblad. am mimdinareobam Tavisi

gamoxatva 1936 wels berlinis olimpiadaze gamarTul masobriv

RonisZiebebSi hpova.

mraval qoreografsa Tu mocekvaves swamda, rom maTi xelovneba

sruliad apolitikuri iyo da momaval faSizmTan araferi

akavSirebda. magram cekva – rogorc yvela sxva xelovnebis

forma – ostaturad iqna gamoyenebuli mTavrobis mier. mravali

mocekvave, romelic Tavis namuSevars warmoadgenda ver xvdeboda

vis emsaxureboda. is vinc ar jdeboda mTavrobis mier dadgenil

standartebSi ganwiruli iyo izolaciisaTvis. sacekvao cxovreba

germaniaSi destruqturizebuli gaxda. berlinis 1936 wlis

olimpiadis Semdeg cekvis skolebs, qoreografebsa da dasebs

22 23


nele hertlingi

baletisa da cekvis istoria droTa manZilze

cocxali xelovnebis formis istoriasa da awmyoze

axali wesebi da struqturebi dauweses. mravali xelovani

iZulebuli gaxda emigraciaSi wasuliyo. Tumca, bevrs movlenebis

aseTi ganviTareba ar gauTvaliswinebia. isini gaerTiandnen

organizaciebsa da struqturebSi, romlebic maT mxars uWerdnen.

Tavidan vigmansa da labansac aseve gulubryvilod swamdaT

TavianTi damoukideblobis. Tumc 1937 wels labanma dakarga

yvela funqcia da moqmedebis Tavisufleba. mari vigmanma, romelsac

aseve swamda, rom germaniaSi moRvaweobis gagrZelebas SeZlebda

1935 wels dakarga yvelanairi finansuri mxardaWera. misma

rwmenam _ piradi da individualuri pasuxismgeblobisa _

SeuZlebeli gaxada faSistebTan muSaoba. mas jer kidev gaaCnda

sakuTari skola drezdenSi, sadac is axal solo dadgmebze

muSaobda da sul ufro da ufro axdenda sakuTar Tavze

koncentrirebas. Tumca 1942 wels man Tavi daaneba muSaobas

da skola datova. yvela TavTavianTi gziT wavida. herald

kroicbergi Tavis dadgmebs omis dasasrulamde warmoadgenda.

gret paluka Tavidan Zalzed dafasebuli iyo faSistebis mxridan,

Ta v i s i opti m i s turi s ti l i s a da di na m i u r i

sicocxlisunarioanobis gamo, magram 1936 wels isic gadaiqca

problemad – damoukidebeli, individualuri da Zalzed mWidrod

gadabmuli bauhausis warmomadgenlebTan. igi iZulebuli gaxda

skola daetovebina, magram mas mainc gamosdioda SemdgomSi

SemoqmedebiTi muSaoba.

`cekvaze muSaoba – es aris Tematuri masalis ganviTareba

musikasTan mimarTebaSi. amis Sedegad warmoiqnmneba ormagi

erTianoba – es CemTvis axali cekvaa~. klasikuri cekvis yvela

pirobiTobisagan Tavisufali paluka cdilobda emociuri

gamomsaxvelobisaTvis moZraobis xarisxis misadagebas. mas ar

surda yofiliyo graciozuli baletis mocekvave. mas surda

adamianuri emociebis gamoxatva. igi ar yveboda amiT konkretuli

adamianis istorias – is mxolod da mxolod grZnobebsa da

ganwyobilebebs gamoxatavda.

omis dasrulebisTanave palukam kvlav daiwyo drezdenSi

pedagogoba. pirvelad TviTdafinansebaze kerZo darbazebSi. 1949

wels palukas skola zaqsebis mTavrobam oficialurad aRiara

da Tavis mmarTvelobis qveS moaqcia. ormocdaaTian wlebSi

palukas protestis miuxedavad es skola sabWoTa kavSiris

magaliTze baletis skolad gadakeTda. man bolos da bolos

germaniis demokratiul respublikaSi im droisaTvis did

kompromiss miaRwia: klasikuri baleti da eqspresionistuli

cekva erTmaneTis gverdigverd iswavleboda. am skolis

moswavleTaTvis damaxasiaTebeli gaxda klasikuri baletis

zedmiwevniT siRrmiseuli codna iseve, rogorc maTi SemoqmedebiTi

unarebis ganviTareba aratradiciul cekvaSi. 1989 wlidan dRemde

skola sTavazobs Tavis mowafeebs Tanamedrove ganaTlebas. gret

paluka 1993 wels gardaicvala.

omis dasasrulTan da faSizmis damarcxebasTan erTad cekvas

axali xana daudga. faSistebis dafinansebis wyalobiT germanuli

eqspresionistuli cekva im droisaTvis cudi saxeliTa da

reputaciiT sargeblobda. mravali emigrirebuli Semoqmedi

daviwyebas mieca. axladgaxsnil saopero TeatrebSi mniSvnelovani

sabaleto dasebi cdilobdnen im Tanamedrove repertuaris

SemuSavebasa da warmodgenas, romelic faSistebis mier warsulSi

akrZaluli iyo. es repertuari moicavda stravinskis, bartoks,

verner egks, boris blaSers, volfgang fortners, h. v. hences da

a. S. berlinSi jer germaniis saxelmwifo operaSi, xolo Semdgom

germanul operaSi moRvaweoba daiwyo qoreografma tatiana

gsovskim. t. gsovksi aisidora dunkanis mowafe da heleraus

skoladamTavrebuli gaxldaT. 1924 wels igi ruseTidan

berlinSi gadasaxlda, rogorc emigranti da mis meuRlesTan

viqtorTan erTad 1928 wels, amave qalaqSi, sabaleto skola

daaarsa. igi muSaobda boris blaSerTan erTad. es TanamSromloba

axal dadgmebSi gadaizarda, romlebsac solo mocekvave herd

reinholmi RirSesaniSnav movlenebad aqcevda. t. gsovskim

angaJireba gaukeTa jer sruliad axalgazrda gerhard booners,

romelic mTeli weli operis sabaleto dasSi cekvavda, sanam

qoreografad daiwyebda moRvaweobas.

omis dasrulebisTanave pedagogoba mari vigmanmac daiwyo.

jer 1948 wels laifcgSi, xolo 1950 wlidan gardacvalebamde

studiaSi _ dasavleT berlinSi. vigmanma, romelic labanis

skoladamTavrebuli iyo didi xnis win uaryo tradicia, romlis

mixedviTac musikas Tan mosdevs moZraoba. man daiwyo musikis

gareSe cekva. Semdeg dasartyami instrumenti misi mTavri

partniori gaxda – siCumesTan mudmiv cvalebadobaSi. misi

24 25


nele hertlingi

baletisa da cekvis istoria droTa manZilze

cocxali xelovnebis formis istoriasa da awmyoze

karieris dasrulebis Semdeg, igi jgufur dadgmebs uwevda

qoreografias. aseTi gaxldaT karl orfis `karmina burana~.

misma 1957 wlis stravinskis `wminda gazafxulis” inscenirebam

germanul operaSi didi gamoxmaureba hpova. miuxedavad amisa,

mari vigmanmac ver SeZlo germanuli eqspresionistuli

cekvisaTvis didi mniSvnelobis miniWeba.

mari vigmanis `msxverplSewirvaSi~ mTavar rolSi berlinis

germanul operaSi, gamoCnda dora hoieri. igi iTvleba yvelaze

mniSvnelovan solo mocekvaved ocdaaTiani, samociani wlebis

germaniaSi. kritikosebi mis xelovnebas pikasosa da kandinskis

adareben. im martivi mizezis gamo, rom cekvis xelovneba ise ar

iyo yuradRebiT ganebivrebuli, rogorc saxviTi xelovneba, es

Sedareba sajarod TvalsaCino ar iyo. dora hoiermac sakuTari

SemoqmedebiTi gza tanvarjiSis skolidan daiwyo. 1930 wels

igi gret palukasTan Seecada muSaobas, magram am droisaTvis

igi ukve sakuTari dadgmebiT iyo dainteresebuli. `ratom

vcekvav? – imitom rom me Cemi sxeuliT, moZraobiT SemiZlia

raime gamovxato. moZraoba, rogorc saSualeba, rogorc masala

imisaTvis rom idea, procesi TvalsaCino gaxado~. igi yovelTvis

SemoqmedebiTi procesiT iyo dainteresebuli. amis Sedegad mas

mudmivad hqonda finansuri problemebi. Tumca is yovelTvis

poulobda gamosavals. zogjer igi mari vigmanis studiaSi an

mis dasSi muSaobda. misma mzardma popularobam mas uamravi

mowveva moutana mTeli msofliodan. miuxedavad amisa, samuSao

pirobebi misTvis germaniaSi katastrofuli gaxldaT.

omis dasrulebisTanave dora hoiersac imedi gauCnda, rom

drezdenSi gaagrZelebda moRvaweobas. mas swamda, rom SeZlebda

axali sazogadoebisa da axali cekvis Seqmnas emigraciidan

dabrunebul moRvaweebTan erTad. Tumca germaniis demokratiuli

respublikisaTvis igi zedmetad `personaluri~, Zalzed

individualuri aRmoCnda. amis Sedegad igi dasavleT germaniaSi

gadavida. aqac samuSao pirobebi iseTi SemoqmedisaTvis, rogorc

dora hoieri iyo araxelsayreli aRmoCnda: naklebi mayurebeli,

naklebi sivrce, mwiri interesi.

dora hoieri ibrZoda – werda, rom yvelas Tavisi movaleoba

Seesrulebina. mis movaleobas mari vigmanis xelovnebis

ganviTareba, cekvis xelovnebis mis fesvebTan daaxloeba

warmoadgenda. miuxedavad amisa yvelgan klasikuri baleti

mefobda. dora hoieri Tavis Tavs erTaderT radikalur

mocekvaved da qoreografad Tvlida. `Cems kolegebs me amis

gamo vZulvar~! `omis Semdgomi germaniis yvela mocekvavis

gverdiT dora hoieri warmogvidgeba yvelaze Zlier pirovnebad.

misi xelovneba Tanamedrovea – xelovnuri paTosisa da snobizmis

gareSe. igi sakuTari cekviT amtkicebs, rom cxovrebiseul formebs

sazRvrebi gaaCniaT, magram energias ara. dora hoieri aris

evropuli masStabis pirovneba da es sxva xelovnebis formebSi

Zalzed iSviaTad gvxvdeba~. miuxedavad amisa, miuxedavad

warmatebuli turneebisa argentinasa da braziliaSi misi mZime

da arastabiluri cxovreba naklebad Siecvala. dora hoieri

ambobs: `mayurebels surs bedniereba da sicili. Cemi cekva ki

mwuxarebas gamoxatavs. me ar var im mdgomareobaSi rom

`bedniereba~ vicekvo. ratom unda davaZalo adamianebs gaxdnen

Cemi mimdevrebi. me vwyvet muSaobas~. sakuTar dadgmebSi man mari

vigmans didi xnis win gauswro. energia da Tanamedroveoba masTan

mudmivad igrZnoba da es xdis mas ase Zliers. man sxeuli axal

formebad aqcia – sxeuli misTvis formirebis instrumentia.

1962 wels dora hoieri muSaobas iwyebs did ciklze

spinozas mixedviT, saxelad - `afeqtors humanos~. pativmoyvareoba,

qedmaRloba, sixarbe, siZulvili, siyvaruli. es misi erTaderTi

namuSevaria, romelic firze iqna gadatanili. SemdegSi igi

gavlenian namuSevrad iqca, romelic SemdgomSi Seiswavla da

gadaakeTa palukas mowafe anila sigertma da vigmanis mowafe

suzan liuhem.

sasowarkveTilma dora hoierma 1967 wels TviTmkvlelobiT

daasrula sicocxle.

suzan linke Tanamedrove cekvaSi omisSemdgomi periodis

Taobis erT-erTi umniSvnelovanesi figuraa. mis SemoqmedebiT

gzaze Tavisi kvali datova bavSvobaSi gadatanilma rTulma

avadmyofobam, romlis Sedegad mas smena da metyveleba

sagrZnoblad dauqveiTda. mis cnobierebas mZime daRi daasva

fsiqiatriul klinikaSi gatarebulma drom. maswavlebelTa da

megobarTa mxardaWeriT man gamosavali hpova moZraobasa da

cekvaSi. didi saxaruliT mivida igi berlinSi mdebare mari

vigmanis skolaSi. aq man moZraoba iswavla, romelic sxeuls

26 27


nele hertlingi

baletisa da cekvis istoria droTa manZilze

cocxali xelovnebis formis istoriasa da awmyoze

sivrcesTan akavSirebs da iswavla is, rom teqnikis miuxedavad

cekvaSi mTavari mainc is aris, rac mocekvavis Sinagani arsebidan

gamomdinareobs. es aris sxeulis, sulisa da gonebis erTianoba

– mcireoden moZraobaSic ki. swored es iswavla mari vigmanisgan

suzan linkem. 19 wlisam man dora hoieri ixila, romelic

misTvis momavalSi samagaliTo gaxda.

vigmanis skolaSi sami wlis swavlis mere, suzan linke

mixvda, rom misi teqnikuri SesaZleblobebi ar iyo sakmarisi

da igi esenSi folkvangSuleSi gadavida, sadac jer kidev

aswavlida kurt iosi Tavis qaliSvilTan ana markardTan erTad.

kurt iosma germania 1933 wels datova. mas ar surda

Tavisi ebraeli kolegebi mietovebina. igi samxreT inglisis

qalaq dartingtonSi gadavida, sadac man Tavisi yofili

maswavlebeli labani dapatiJa. man sigurd seedesTan erTad

folkvangSuleSi gamomuSavebuli koncefcia inglisSi Camoitana

da 1949 wlamde iq muSaobda. mis uamrav mowafeTa Soris arian

pina bauSi da rainhild hofmani. kurt iosi, romelic ormocdaaT

weliwadze meti qoreografad da pedagogad muSaobda germanuli

Tanamedrove cekvis umniSvnelovanes figurad iTvleba. cneba

`cekvis Teatri~ labanis SemuSavebulia. Tumc iosma es cneba

gadaasxvafera. samocdaaTian wlebSi ukan dabrunebulma emigrantma

Seqmna gza cekvis Teatris ganviTarebisaTvis. iosi iyo pirveli

qoreografTagani, romelic sakuTari dadgmebisaTvis socialur

da politikur Temebs irCevda. `cekva adamianuri yofis

gamomxatvelia, adamianis SemoqmedebiTi bunebis manifestaciaa~.

rodesac suzan linke folkvangSuleSi mivida, iq ukve

folkvangis sacekvao studias pina bauSi xelmZRvanelobda.

misgan Seiswavla linkem grZnobisa da formis koordinacia.

man aseve iswavla, rom yvelaze mniSvnelovani sizustea. aq

suzan linke Tavisi Sinagani samyarodan gamomdinare muSaobas

Seudga. man daiwyo iseTi piraduli Temebis damuSaveba, rogorebic

misTvis sakuTari avadmyofoba, dardi da SiSi gaxldaT. teqnikuri

ostatoba aucilebelia, magram igi TviTmizani ar unda gaxdes

– igi sulier da mentalur ganzomilebaSi unda gadavides.

suzan linkes qmnilebebi xangrZlivi samuSao procesis Sedegia.

misma solo programebma saqveynod popularuli gaxada, magram

igi aseve qmnida uamrav jgufur dadgmas. misTvis interesis

sagans qalis socialuri pozicia warmoadgenda. 1991 wlidan

suzanisaTvis, rogorc jgufuri dadgmebis qoreografisaTvis,

axali epoqa daiwyo. 1994-1997 wlebSi igi berlinis cekvis

Teatrs xelmZRvanelobda, qmnida erTobliv namuSevrebs mis

partnior ditrihTan erTad da muSaobda sxva dasebis magaliTad

niu iorkis, parizis operisa da niderlandebis cekvis Teatris

dasis qoreografad. 1997 wlidan man mTels msoflioSi

damoukideblad daiwyo muSaoba da pedagogoba.

1998 wels suzan linke muSaobda qoreografad folkvangSules

droindel kolega rainhild hofmanTan duetze `jvris Tavze~,

romelic hebelis TeatrSi daidga. es warmoadgens garkveul

qoreografiul dapirispirebas istoriasa da cekvis aqtiur

pozicias Soris – cekvis mkacr `mamamTavrebze~ labansa da

iosze. igi warmoaCens saerTo fesvebs, magram aseve Zireul

esTetikur gansxvavebebs. hofmani, rogorc struqturuli

sivrculi daZabuloba da saxiereba, xolo linke, rogorc zustad

modulirebuli energiis dineba.

suzan linkeze damatebiT unda iTqvas, rom man dora hoieris

`afeqtos humanos~-is premieridan 25 wlis Semdeg moaxdina am

qmnilebis gadakeTeba. es iyo qmnileba, romelmac masze didi

gavlena moaxdina. mas surda amiT dora hoieris, rogorc

Tanamedrove cekvis mniSvnelovani memkvidris gaxseneba. 1993

wels man analogiurad gaixsena iseTi mniSvnelovani germaneli

qoreografi, rogoric iyo gerhard booneri da misi qmnileba

`dialogi g. b. -sTan~.

magram modiT davubrundeT rainhild hofmans, romelic 1965

wels folkvangSuleSi kurt iosis mowafe gaxldaT. 1970

wels bremenSi igi gawevrianda ansamblSi mocekvave iohanis

saxeliT. rogorc folksvangSules sacekvao studiis

xelmZRvanelma (suzan linkesTan erTad) man 1974 wels daiwyo

sakuTari dadgmebis ganxorcieleba. 1978 wels igi bremenis

cekvis Teatris xelmZRvaneli (gerhard boemerTad erTad) gaxda.

paralelurad igi xelmZRvanelobda sakuTar dass. 1980 wels

suzan linke oTxi dadgmiT miipatiJes berlinis Teatralur

Sexvedraze. 1986 wels igi sakuTari ansambliT bohumis TeatrSi

samuSaod gaemgzavra – ise, rogorc mogvianebiT saSa valci da

tomas ostermaieri berlinis `SaubiuneSi~. 1996 wlidan igi

28 29


nele hertlingi

baletisa da cekvis istoria droTa manZilze

cocxali xelovnebis formis istoriasa da awmyoze

kvlav Tavisufali Semoqmedia, muSaobs rogorc qoreografi da

dgams ZiriTadad operebs.

rainhild hofmanma cekvidan gamomdinare ganaviTara sakuTari

stili. es stili folkvangSules tradiciidan momdinareobs

da upirispirdeba pina bauSisas, romelic Tavis qmnilebebSi

Zlier Teatralur elementebs rTavs. Tumc rainhild hofmanic

isev da isev solo qmnilebebs ubrundeba – rogorc poziciis

ganmsazRvrel wertils. mas didi aRiareba moutana 1977 wlis

dadgmam saxelad _ `solo taxtTan~. `me yovelTvis mindoda

Cemi grZnobebis cekviT gamoxatva. sxeulis enas verafriT

Caanacvleb.…sxeulis enas SeuZlia mudmivad ganviTardes

yoveldRiuri enidan~.

linke-hofmanis Taobas ekuTvnis gerhard booneric, romelic

radikalur gzas daadga da cekvisaTvis axali ganzomilebebi

gaxsna. booneric, romelmac 18 wlidan sakuTari SemoqmedebiTi

gza tanvarjiSis skolidan daiwyo, mari vigmanis mowafe gaxldaT.

paralelurad igi dakavebuli iyo sakuTari teqnikis srulyofiT.

1960 wels tatiana gsovskim mas jer frankfurtSi, xolo Semdeg

rogorc solo Semsrulebels berlinis germanul operaSi gauwia

rekomendacia. gsovski – ruseTis sabaleto skolis eqspresionisti

qoreografi miizida booneris inidividualurma gamomsaxvelobiTma

Zalam. booneri misi avangarduli Teatraluri dasis mniSvnelovani

wevri gaxda. Teatraluri dasi STagonebis wyarod literaturasa

da musikas iyenebda. 1971 wels kompozitor gerhard humelTan

erTad SemuSavebulma qmnilebam `beatrisas vnebani~ booneri

saqveynod cnobili gaxda. gasaocarma warmatebam Tan moitana

dadgmebi milanSi (laskala), marselSi, miunhenSi, diuseldorfSi,

darmStadSi da bremenSi. qoreografia iyenebda Tanamedrove

baletis umniSvnelovanes masalas iseve rogorc imdroindel

saWirboroto socialur da politikur Tematikas.

oskar Slemeris qmnilebis intensiuri Seswavlis Semdeg,

romelmac bauhausSi axali, gamomsaxvelobiTi cekvis sapirispiro

stili Seqmna, boonerma oskar Slemeris `triaduli baletis~

gadakeTebis grandiozuli proeqti wamoiwyo. igi daukavSirda

kompozitor ioahim hespers da mTeli qmnileba Caifiqra rogorc

yvelafer aqamde gakeTebulisa da gaazrebulis erToblioba.

`triaduli baleti~ aris seria kargad organizebuli, mraval-

ganzomilebiani, agebuli ~kostiumebze~, romlebic moZraobaSi

moyavT mocekvaveebs. proeqtis warmatebisa da gastrolebis

Semdeg, booneri kvlav dakavda Slemeris gamocdilebebiT

bauhausSi. pirvel rigSi es aisaxa mis solo warmodgenebSi

`momwifebuli cekva~ da `joxebiT cekva~. misi adreuli solo

cekvebi warmoadgens tradiciuli germanuli Teatraluri

struqturis winaaRmdeg galaSqrebas. es xels uSlida mas

Teatris farglebSi emuSava da sakuTari esTetika ganeviTarebina.

mas ramdenime weli mkacrad hqonda gadawyvetili jer

StutgartSi, Semdgom rainhild hofmanTan erTad, bremenSi

Tanamedrove cekvisaTvis rogorc xelovnebis formisaTvis

Tanabari aRiareba rom moetana, magram mzardi problemebis

gamo mas es ar gamouvida. amisaTvis jer Zalzed adre iyo.

sakuTari dasis Senaxva booners ar SeeZlo, amitomac igi

iZulebuli gaxda qoreografad emuSava.

amis Sedegad boonerma TandaTan daiwyo sazogadoebaSi

mocekvavis poziciisa da sakuTari ukve daberebuli sxeulisadmi

damokidebulebis axal yaidaze interpretacia. umniSvnelovanesi

qmnileba, romelic am interpretaciis Sedegad warmoiSva aris

sami xedva saxelad `oqros kveTa~. 1 da me-2-e mxatvrebTan

erTad TanamSromlobaSi da i. s. baxis (kargad temperirebul

klaviri) musikaze Seqmnili, xolo me-3-e imave mxatvrebTan da

kompozitor roland prenglesTan erTad Seqmnili JReradobis

moZraobaze reagirebis mcdeloba. `oqros kveTa~ booneris yvela

SemoqmedebiTi ideis erTobliobis Sedegia. arcerT germanel

qoreografs ise radikalurad ar gauazrebia sxeulis, rogorc

instrumentis, sivrcis da scenaze martod arsebobis koncefcia,

rogorc es gerhard boonerma gaiazra.

rogorc g. boonerma moaxdina Slemeris qmnilebebis gadakeTeba

da sxva kuTxiT dagvanaxa `gadakeTebis~ sakiTxi, aseve miudga

booneris axalgazrda kolega da megobari katalonieli

qoreografi da mocekvave CeSi booneris sikvdilis Semdeg mis

dadgmas `oqros kveTa~. man moaxdina qmnilebis 1 da me-2-e

nawilis gadakeTba da SeZlo farTo mayureblisaTvis am qmnilebis

TviTmyofadobis Cveneba.

verc gerhard boonerma da verc suzan linkem ver moikides

germanul TeatrSi fexi da ver monaxes myari, stabiluri adgili

30 31


nele hertlingi

baletisa da cekvis istoria droTa manZilze

cocxali xelovnebis formis istoriasa da awmyoze

TavianTi xelovnebis – cekvis xelovnebis ganviTarebisaTvis.

germanul Teatralur sistemaSi cekva isev baletis formiT

iyo warmodgenili da ar gaaCnda, rogorc damoukidebel

xelovnebis formas, aranairi kulturul-politikuri zurgi,

adekvaturi mayurebeli an sponsorebi. orive: boonerica da

linkec, iZulebulni iyvnen ZiriTadad solo dadgmebze

gaekeTebinaT aqcenti an mudmivad dadgmebis SesaZleblobebis

damTrgunvel da meryev ZebnaSi yofiliyvnen. xelovnebis akademia

im drois erT-erT xelze CamosaTvlel dawesebulebaTagani

gaxldaT, romelmac am axal xelovanT xeli gaumarTa.

sxvanairad gaxldaT pina bauSis saqme. man ganaTleba

folkvangSuleSi kurt iosTan miiRo. 1960 wels igi DAADis

stipendiiT gaemgzavra niu iorkSi cnobil juliardis

skolaSi, sadac xose limoni da enton tiudori aswavlidnen.

paralelurad igi sxvadasxva dasSi muSaobda, magaliTad,

metropoliten operis sabaleto dasSi. 1962 wels igi ukan

esenSi dabrunda, rogorc solisti axlad daarsebul baletSi.

1968 wels man Tavisi pirveli qmnileba dadga. 1969-1973

wlebSi igi folksvang studias xelmZRvanelobda, sadac misma

qmnilebebma swrafi aRiareba moutanes. 1972 wels SesTavazes

vupertalis saopero baletis xelmZRvaneloba, romelic man

erTi pirobiT miiRo - SesaZlebloba eqneboda folkvangSules

mocekvaveebi moeyvana. am sabaleto dasidan daibada vupertalis

cekvis Teatri, romelmac pina bauSi samomavlod cnobili gaxada.

man SeZlo, omisSemdgom germaniaSi SorsmWvreteli samxatvro

xelmZRvanelebis daxmarebiT Tanamedrove cekvisaTvis axali

sulis Caberva, misi axali SinaarsiT datvriTva da misTvis

dakarguli aRiarebis dabruneba.

miuxedavad amisa, pina bauSis radikaluri qmnilebebi

mayurebelSi jer Soks iwvevda; mis mier bartokis operis

`hercog blaubartis cixesimagris~ dadgmis dasasruls

mayurebelma aRelvebulma datova Teatri. es wlebis ganmavlobaSi

meordeboda. aTi weli dasWirda pina bauSs imisaTvis, rom

TeatrSi Tavisi gaetana. miuxedavad imisa, rom misi qmnilebebi

bevrs umadloda Tanamedrove cekvas, bauSma male ganaviTara

sakuTari stili – kolaJebi, suraTebi realurisa da irealuris

zRvarze – mravali paraleluri moqmedebebiTa da gameorebebiT.

misi qmnilebebi Sinagani logikis mixedviT arian agebulni da

ara erTi raime ambavis irgvliv. `igi ufro imiTaa dainteresebuli,

Tu ra amoZravebT adamianebs, vidre imiT, Tu rogor moZraoben

isini~. 1996 wlidan S.p.s. `pina bauSis cekvis Teatri~

damoukideblad funqcionirebs.

dResdReobiT pina bauSi iTvleba yvelaze RirSesaniSnav

cocxal qoreografad. aRuniSnavi ar unda darCes iohanes kresniki,

romelsac Zalzed gansakuTrebuli adgili ukavia. rogorc

mocekvavem, man jer berlinSi, xolo Semdeg 1960-68 wlebSi

kiolnSi, daiwyo qoreografoba. 1968-78 wlebSi igi jer bremenSi,

xolo 1979-88 wlebSi kurt hiubneris angaJirebiT haidelbergis

cekvis Teatris xelmZRvaneli xdeba. 1989 wlidan igi kvlav

bremenSia, sadac igi 1990 wels `ulrike mainhofs~ da 1992

wels `frida kalos~ dgams. 1994/95 wlebSi igi berlinis

folksbiuneSi muSaobs, xolo 2003/2004 wlebSi Tavis ansamblTan

erTad bonis TeatrSi miemgzavreba. mas Semdeg igi damoukideblad

muSaobs sxvadasxva adgilebSi.

kresniki dainteresebuli iyo samociani wlebis radikaluri

TamaSiT da aseTi ti pis Ria formebis sacekvao moedanze

gadmotaniT. igi pina bauSTan erTad 1967 wels warmoSobili

`cekvis Teatris~ uxucesi warmomadgenelia. igi `cekvis Teatrs~

Tavdapirvelad `qoreografiul Teatrs~ uwodebda. kresniki

Tavisi xelovnebiT mudmiv dapirispirebaSi iyo kapitalizmisa

da korumpirebuli socializmis ganviTarebasTan. misi `sxeulebi~

warmoadgenen politikuri da ekonomikuri sisastikis proeqciebs.

`me yovelTvis im adamianebis biografiebi ufro mainteresebda,

romlebic sazogadoebasTan dapirispirebaSi iyvnen... yoveli Cemi

saRamo, amave dros, premieracaa. yoveli biografia asaxavs im

politikur struqturas, romelSic am adamianebs ucxovriaT,

gatanjulan da gardacvlilan. me mainteresebs is Zala, romelic

am adamianebs gaaCndaT da am Zalis scenaze mayureblisaTvis

gardaqmna.~ kurt iosis Semdeg kresnikTan cekvam yvelaze Zlieri

politikuri sarCuli SeiZina. sxeuli mis SemoqmedebaSi

instrumentad iqca. aseT radikalizmSi kresniki SeiZleba iTqvas

erTaderTia germaniaSi. mis qmnilebebs am radikalizmis miuxedavad

TavianTi mniSvneloba ar daukargavT.

32 33


nle hertlingi

baletisa da cekvis istoria droTa manZilze

cocxali xelovnebis formis istoriasa da awmyoze

omis Semdgom germaniaSi, rogorc yvelgan aseve berlinSic

baleti saopero saxlebSi swrafad ganviTarda. pirvelad

saxelmwifo operasa da komikur operaSi Semdeg, tatiana gsovskis

germanul operaSi gadanacvlebiT axali era daiwyo. valter

felsenStainis komikur operaSi, romelsac misma realisturma

dadgmebma saerTaSoriso aRiareba moutana, SeeZlo tom Silings

Tavisi sakuTari sabaleto ena da esTetika ganeviTarebina. es iyo

aseve is adgili, sadac palukas yofilma mowafem anila ziigertma,

rogorc solo mocekvavem da qoreografma, misi Zalzed

individualuri da Seudarebeli sacekvao enisaTvis sivrce da

mayurebeli SeiZina. anila ziigertic germanuli Tanamedrove cekvis

tradiciis pirmSo gaxldaT. isic, rogorc solo Semsrulebeli,

dora hoieris zegavlenas ganicdida. suzan linkes msgavsad manac

moaxdina `afeqtos humanos~ sakuTar yaidaze gadakeTeba.

rTuli da mudam mocekvaveTa TviTeqspluataciaze

damyarebuli cekvis ganviTareba biZgs aZlevs axalgazrda jgufs,

amerikel Jaklin karlisa da diter haiTkampis TaosnobiT sxva

angaJirebul mocekvaveebTan erTad, berlinSi cekvis fabrika

daarson. Ria mxardaWeris gareSe, TviTdafinansebaze myof

fabrikaSi iqmneba axali dadgmebi da grovdeba didi gamocdileba.

cekvis fabrikam, romelic dResac arsebobs cekvis centrisa da

skolis saxeliT berlini TandaTanobiT mocekvaveTa da

qoreografTaTvis mTeli msofliodan mizidulobis wertilad

aqcia. Seiqmna mravali axali adgili, iniciativa, festivali,

saganmanaTeleblo SemoTavazeba.

samociani wlebis dasasrulidan mniSvnelovan rols TamaSobs

dasavleT berlinis xelovnebis akademia, romelic yovelwliuri

festivaliT P.M.T.T. berlinelebs saSualebas aZlevs gaecnon

Tanamedrove qoreografiisa da cekvis ganviTarebas –

gansakuTrebiT ki aSS-Si. 1988 wlidan es funqcia SeiTavsa

hebelis Teatrma festivaliT `cekva agvistoSi~. ase myardeboda

saerTaSoriso kontaqtebi da kavSirebi, rac berlinis sacekvao

asparezze sakuTar gavlenas axdenda. ase SeeZloT xelovanT

berlinSi fexis mokideba, xangrZlivad muSaoba da dasebis

daarseba. magaliTad, ase Camoyalibdnen rubalo, konstance makrosi,

tomas selemeni da mravali sxva, romlebic axla ukve arc erT

saerTaSoriso cekvis festivals ar akldebian.

maT Soris yvelaze cnobilia saSa valci. jer amsterdamSi,

Semdgom ki niu iorkSi swavlis Semdeg, igi Camovida ukan evropaSi

da 1993 wels berlinSi sakuTari dasi saxelad `saSa valci da

stumrebi~ daarsa. mis partniorTan, iohen sandigTan erTad, 1996

wlis Sua xanebSi man SeZlo, berlinSi dacarielebuli darbazebi

daekavebina da iq mokle xanSi mimzideveli, Tanamedrove, dinamiuri

programis Seqmna jer `travelonis trilogiiT~, romelic man

gastrolebze waiRo da Semdgom `kosmonavtebis xeivaniT~,

`cvailand 97-iT~ da mravali sxva dadgmiT, romlebzec moTxovna

dResac ar klebulobs.

rodesac 1999 wels iurgen SiThelma axalgazrda reJisori

tomas ostermaieri germanuli Teatridan `Saubiunes~ samxatvro

xelmZRvanelad miipatiJa saSa valcma igi daarwmuna imaSi, rom

samxatvro xelmZRvanelis movaleobani nawilobriv masac

dakisreboda. es iyo struqtura, romlis analogic rainhild

hofmanma bohumis TeatrSi ukve gamoscada – TamaSi da cekva,

rogorc Tanasworni, erTamneTis gverdigverd unda yofiliyo

warmodgenili. saSa valcisaTvis es gamowveva iyo. berlinis

mcire darbazebidan Saubiunes didi scenaze. man aq ramdenime

Zalzed warmatebuli dadgma ganaxorciela magaliTad `sxeuli~,

`S~, `aravin~ da a. S. es qmnilebebi bevrgan iqna naCvenebi, magram

cekvis msaxiobobasTan SeTavsebam aqac kraxi ganicada. Teatrisa

da cekvis samuSao pirobebi Zalzed gansxvavebulia da Teatri

mainc dominant elementad rCeba, romelic cekvas sakuTar wesebs

karnaxobs. valcma da sandigma am mdgomareobidan Tamami

gamosavali ipoves da maRali riskis miuxedavad, Zvel musikalur

ansamblTan erTad, ostbanhofze axal adgils saxelad

`radialsistema~ Cauyares safuZveli. maT Cven mxolod warmateba

SegviZlia vusurvoT.

amasobaSi cekvam da misma potencialma qveynis masStabiT

aRiareba moipova. axalma pirobebma, moTxovnebma da gansakuTrebiT

`germaniis cekvis gegmam~ dagvanaxa, rom cekvam, rogorc

damoukidebelma xelovnebis formam, bolos da bolos moi pova

damsaxurebuli aRiareba.

Targmani: Tamar lolua

34 35


kultura da politika

stiv osteni

kulturis roli evropis gaerTianebis

procesSi

`neba miboZeT gavimeoro: evropa ar aris damyarebuli mxolod

bazarze, igi aseve emyareba Rirebulebebsa da kulturas. neba

miboZeT erTi piradi SeniSvnac gavakeTo: RirebulebaTa ierarqiaSi,

kulturuli Rirebulebebi ekonomikurze maRla dgas. Tu

ekonomika Cveni cxovrebisaTvis saWiroebas warmoadgens, kultura

is elementia, romlisTvisac saerTod Rirs cxovreba.

evrokavSiri Tavisi istoriis im etapzea, rodesac misi

kulturuli ganzomileba aRar SeiZleba darCes yuradRebis

miRma.~

am sityvebiT mimarTa presasa da auditorias hose manuel

barozom, evrokomisiis prezidentma 2004 wlis dekemberSi

berlinis pirvel konferenciaze `evropis sulisTvis~.

mas Semdeg, evrokomisiam mravali iniciativis saSualebiT

popularizacia gaukeTa ideas, rom evropeloba, rogorc aseTi,

SeiZleba ganviTardes mxolod kulturuli qmedebis Sedegad.

es idea TavisTavad ar aris axali.

adreul wlebSi, moqalaqeobis sakiTxi, rogorc adamianis

uflebaTa danergvis produqti ori politikuri blokis, e. w.

dasavlurisa da socialisturi arenis (sabWoTa kavSiris

CaTvliT), TanamSromlobis avangardSi idga. es sabolood

gadaizarda helsinkis xelSekrulebebSi da safuZveli Cauyara

konferencias usafrTxoebasa da TanamSromlobaze evropaSi

(CSCE). es ganviTareba – cnobili dResdReobiT, rogorc helsinkis

procesi, Seferxda omis Semdgom periodSi. mis aRdgenas

garkveuli dro dasWirda: evropul usafrTxoebaze konferenciis

idea sabWoTa xelmZRvanelobam ormocdaaTian wlebSi wamoayena.

1960-ian wlebamde Crdilo atlantikuri bloki (NATO)

uars acxadebda Semdgom molaparakebebze. nato iTxovda iseTi

humanitaruli sakiTxebis wamoWras rogorebicaa magaliTad:

adamianebisa da informaciis Tavisufali dineba aRmosavleT

blokSi. im dros adamianis ufelebebi zogadad ar iyo

36 37


stiv osteni

kulturis roli evropis gaerTianebis procesSi

prioritetuli. maTi roli uSualod procesis mimdinareobasTan

erTad 1973 wlis Semdeg izrdeba.

lurj wignSi, romelic 1973 wlis ivlisis helsinkis

konsultaciebis daskvniT rekomendacias warmoadgens, miTiTebuli

iyo sami ZiriTadi sakiTxis: usafrTxoebis, ekonomikisa da

humanitarul e. w. `kalaTebSi~ organizeba.

helsinkis daskvniTi aqtis `kalaTebis~ Tanasworuflebianobam

kultura politikuri barierebis gadalaxvis saSualebad

warmoadgina. kulturas nel-nela mieca saSualeba Camosuliyo

ideologiuri platformidan da ufro praqtikuli mcneba

gamxdariyo. aman saSualeba misca mzard samoqalaqo moZraobas

ganemtkicebina samoqalaqo da adamianis uflebebi uSualod

politikur procesSi CareviT da misi aRmavali miRwevebis

mxardaWeriT.

xelovanebma da inteleqtualebma miiRes es daskvniTi aqti,

rogorc maTi samoqalaqo, adamianisa da kulturuli uflebebis

garantia da sazom erTeulad, am garantirebul uflebebTan

mimarTebaSi, TavianTi imdroindeli mdgomareoba aiRes. aqedan

gamomdinare Semdogomi procesi ganisazRvra swored am uflebebis

politikuri da moqalaqeobrivi ganmtkicebiT.

sul ufro didi mniSvneloba SeiZina orma aspeqtma: pirveli,

mtkice moqalaqeobrivi rwmenis saWiroeba da meore, kulturis

mniSvneloba mSvidobiani gaerTianebisaTvis, romelic ara marto

individebsa da qveynebs aaxloebs, aramed am daaxloebis gziT

yvelaze optimalur Sedegebs aRwevs.

1985 wels konferenciam usafrTxoebasa da TanamSromlobaze

evropaSi, budapeStSi kulturuli forumi Caatara, romelic

gansazRvruli iyo imisaTivs, rom swori mimarTulebebi mieca

mesame `kalaTis~ ZalisxmevisaTvis da gamoenaxa evropel xalxTa

Soris kontaqtebisa da gacvlis gasaumjobesebeli gzebi. es

forumi gaxda umniSvnelovanesi etapi kulturis mniSvnelobis

warmoCenisa politikur sferoSi.

oficialur forumze, germaniis federaciuli respublikis

delegaciis spikerma, giunter grasma warmoadgina sakuTari

mosazreba pan-evropuli kulturuli fondis daarsebisa raTa

`adamianTa gonebaSi arsebuli sazRvrebis gaxsna~ momxdariyo.

paralelurad, misi kolegebi adgilobriv ludxanaSi

araformaluri Sekrebis farglebSi, saxelad mweralTa

araformaluri simpoziumi, bWobdnen msgavs Temebze mowveul

inteleqtualebTan erTad. rasakvirvelia am or Sekrebas mohyva

ideaTa mravlismomtani gacvla. sabolood grasi iZulebuli

gaxda uari eTqva sakuTar SemoTavazebaze, romelic a.S.S.-sa da

rumineTis mier dadebulma vetom dabloka.

aman, yvela procesSi Cabmul xelovansa da politikoss

uCvena, rom ideaTa gacvla erTi saqmea, xolo praqtikuli da

novatoruli SemoTavazebebis danergva ki meore. miuxedavad

aseTi gamocdilebisa, xelovanebs ar SeuwyvetiaT swrafva TavianTi

miznebisaken. maT ubralod am procesidan politikosebi

gamoTiSes.

ase Caeyara safuZveli mosazrebas imis Sesaxeb, rom xelovanebs,

inteleqtualebsa da kulturis dawesebulebebs, politikuri

klasis Tanxmobis gareSec ki, SeuZliaT mravali ramis gakeTeba

samoqalaqo sazogadoebis gaZlierebisaTvis.

erT-erTi pirveli mcdeloba, am mosazrebis ganmtkicebisa,

iyo 1987 wels amsterdamSi gamarTuli evropel xelovanTa

forumi: `amsterdami, rogorc evropis kulturuli centri,

momaval ideaTa xorcSesxmisaTvis~ farglebSi.

giunter grasma miiRo miwveva mTeli evropidan mowveul

xelovanebTan da inteleqtualebTan erTad, raTa kidev erTxel,

ganexilaT misi budapeStis SeTavazeba, oRond amjerad

politikosebis gareSe. es movlena, SeiZleba CaiTvalos, rogorc

umniSvnelovanesi platforma msofliosaTvis kulturuli

samyaros xmis misawvdenad. am platformas daerqva `guliveri~.

igi warmoadgenda pirvel mcdelobas Camoyalibebuliyo evropuli,

arasamTavrobo, araformaluri da damoukidebeli samuSao jgufi,

rogorc platforma, individualur evropel xelovanTa da

inteleqtualTa Soris, evropuli kulturis samomavlo

sakiTxebze ideaTa gacvlisaTvis.

wlebis ganmavlobaSi, `guliveri~ uzarmazar kulturul

qselSi integrirebiT nel-nela gadaiqca saerTaSoriso

TanamSromlobis, gacvlisa da mobilobis progresul saSualebad.

es qseli erTmaneTs akavSirebs aramarto `guliveris~ wevrebs,

aramed akavSirebs maT amsterdamTan, rogorc `feliqs meritis

fondis~ mudmivi saqmianobis adgilTan (1988 wlidan).

38 39


stiv osteni

am arasamTavrobo organizaciam gauswro `gulivers~, romelic

nela Seerwya iseTi maStabebis fonds, romelsac dasawyisSi veravin

ver warmoidgenda: namdvil evropul samoqalaqo sazogadoebas.

uaxlesi mcdeloba helsinkis ideebis danergvisa aris

samoqalaqo iniciativa saxelad `evropis sulisaTvis~, romelmac

2004 wels daiwyo moRvaweoba. amjerad iniciatvia

politikosisagan, germaniis federaciuli respublikis yofili

prezidentis rihard fon vaiczekerisgan, wamovida.

`evropis sulisaTvis~ iniciatorebis gansazRvrebiT:

evropuli procesi, igive kulturuli procesia. moqalaqeobis

cneba unda iyos wamyvani. im mware realobidan gamomdinare, rom

evrokavSiri ver gaxda warmatebuli gaerTianebis procesSi

moqalaqeobisa da kulturis, rogorc ZiriTadi elementis

popularizaciiT, isini iRwvian (helsinkis daskvniTi aqtis

suliskveTebiT) daakavSiron aRmavali kulturuli

mimdinareobebi politikuri taqtikis ganmsazRvrel daRmaval

procesebTan.

`feliqs meritis fondis~ mxardaWeriTa da misi saxalxo

qselis daxmarebiT, `evropis sulisaTvis~ iniciativas saSualeba

mieca xma miewvdina evropelTa axalgazrda TaobebisaTvis.

mxolod ramdenime weliwadSi, inteleqtualebi, kulturis

muSakebi, mecnierebi, xelovanebi, moswavleebi da studentebi,

iseve, rogorc adgilobrivi da saerTaSoriso politikosebi

gaerTiandnen berlinis procesSi, imisaTvis rom stimuli miscen

momaval axalgazrda evropelebs TavianT xelSi aiRon Cveni

momavlis sadaveebi. amave dros isini propagandas uweven ideas,

romlis Tanaxmad, samoqalaqo sazogadoebam unda Camoayalibos

da zegavlena moaxdinos politikuri strategiis SemuSavebaze,

imisaTvis rom evropa wevr saxelmwifoTa kavSiridan gardaiqmnas

wevr saxelmwifoTa da moqalaqeTa kavSirad. evropis moqalaqeTa,

kulturul organizaciaTa da xelovanTa sakuTrebaSi gadacema

kvlav unda iqces wamyvan prioritetad.

amsterdami, 2008 wlis dekemberi.

xelovnebisa da socialur

mecnierebaTa fakultetis

samecniero konferenciis

saorganizacio jgufi:

masalebi

18 - 19 ivnisi 2008 weli

sruli profesorebi - levan xeTaguri, vasil kiknaZe,

nato gengiuri.

asocirebuli profesorebi - lamara RonRaZe, giorgi

CarTolani, nino mxeiZe, rusudan mircxulava

Targmani: Tamar lolua

40 41


Teatrmcodneoba

Tamar bokuCava,

asocirebuli profesori

Ramis, sizmrisa da komikuris sakiTxisaTvis

Seqspiris `zafxulis Ramis sizmarSi~

Seqspiris `zafxulis Ramis sizmarSi~, piesaSi, romelic

antikuri da Sua saukuneebis miTologiisa da literaturis

TemaTa da motivTa ucnaur sinTezs gvTavazobs, mTvarisa da

Ramis Tematikasa da simbolikas gadamwyveti mniSvneloba eniWeba.

originalSi piesas `Sua zafxulis sizmari hqvia~. nawarmoebis

saTauri mis ZiriTad teqstTan mimarTebaSi erTgvari gzamkvlevisa

da gasaRebis mniSvnelobas iZens. erTi SexedviT, saTauri

moqmedebis droze migvaniSnebs. Sua zafxuli zodiaqaluri

wris kirCxibis monakveTs Seesabameba. kirCxibis zodiaqos

mmarTveli planeta mTvarea. iTvleba, rom Seqspirs ocdaoTxi

ivnisis Rame hqonda mxedvelobaSi, romelic mraval qveyanaSi

saswaulTa Ramed iTvleba da ivanes Ramed iwodeba. MTumca,

nawarmoebis teqstis Tanaxmad, Tezevsisa da ipolitas saqorwilo

dResaswauli maisis dasawyisSi, kerZod, pirvel maiss ewyoba.

pirveli maisis dResaswauli dRis zeimi iyo da, Sesabamisad,

dRisiT imarTeboda. ratom dasWirda dramaturgs moqmdebis

ormagi drois Semotana? ra aris es _ Secdoma Tu uzustoba?

Tumca, vfiqrob, Seqspirma es ganzrax gaakeTa da amiT drois

cnebis orgvari gageba SemogvTavaza.

paul tilixi erTmaneTs drois or cnebas upirispirebs,

qronossa da qaiross. qronosi istoriuli, linearuli droa,

movlenaTa Tanmimdevrobis adgili. SeiZleba iTqvas, rom qronosi

neitraluri, TavisTavadi, distanciuri droa. sxvagvaria qairosi,

sazrisiani, mniSvnelobis matarebeli dro, xdomilebaTa momenti,

romelic Tavis TavSi viTarebis ganmsazRvrel, mis maregulirebel

Zalas Seicavs. swored aseTi dro udgebaT moqmedebis gmirebs,

dro, romelic kalendarul droze dominirebs da mas damatebiT

sazriss aniWebs. es magiuri droa, saswaulTa Rame. misi dadgoma

samyaros ZalTa farul kanonzomierebas eqvemdebareba. swored

amitom sWirdeba Seqspirs moqmedebasTan mTvaris simbolikis

dakavSireba, saxecvalebadi planetisa, romlis fazebi drois

42 43


Tamar bokuCava

msvlelobas gansakuTrebuli sazrisiT datvirTul mniSvnelobas

aniWebs da romelsac adamianTa miTologiur cnobierebaSi

mravalnairi mniSvneloba da rwmena-warmodgena ukavSirdeba.

mTvares iseTi cnebebi Seesabameba, rogorebicaa qali, wyali,

nayofiereba, sikvdili, Rame, aracnobieri fsiqika da a. S. amave

dros, is cikluri procesebis, ganaxlebisa da maradiuli

dabrunebis simboloa. mTvare, Tavisi SuqiT ar anaTebs, is mzis

naTels ireklavs. egvi ptelma qurumebma mnaTobi rwmenis

simbolod airCies, romelic mzis naTelis msgavsad, gamocxadebul

WeSmaritebebs ireklavs. rogorc msoflio zRva, mTvare mzis

gamanayofierebel principebsac Seicavs, romlebsac eTerSi ganfens.

mzesa da mTvares Soris arsebuli kavSiri piesaSi umniSnelovanes

rols TamaSobs da damatebiT, maT Soris erotikul sazrisebs

iZens. moqmedebis ormagi droc 1 maisis dRis dResaswaulisa

da ivanes Ramis zeimis alogikuri SeerTebiT am kavSiris

gamoxatulebad SeiZleba miviCnioT. arsebobs mosazreba, rom

piesa romeliRac didgvarovani wyvilis qorwinebas mieZRvna.

zogierTi mkvlevaris mosazrebiT es adamianebi poetTa mfarveli

qali lucia haringtoni da eduard raseli, bedfordis mesame

grafi unda yofiliyvnen, sxvaTa SexedulebiT ki mizezi uiliam

stenlis, graf derbis qorwineba iyo.

Tavad piesis CarCo-siuJeti Tezevsisa da i politas

saqorwilo samzadisia. patriarqatis formirebam mraval qveyanaSi

mzisa da mTvaris dualuri wyvilSi mamakacuri da qaluri

funqciebi gansazRvra. mze mamakacur sawyissa da refleqsias

daukavSira, mTvare _ warmosaxvas. mTvaris simbolikaSi misi

ambivalenturobis, cvalebadobis, mzesTan ukuproporciuli

kavSiris idea misi Sesatyvisi ricxviT - 2 gamoisaxeba, rac mis

ganusazRvrelobasa da cvalebad bunebas aRniSnavs. piesis

moqmedebaSi qronolgiur da miTologiur droebs Soris

arsebuli gansxvaveba, maisidan ivlisis RameSi ganxorcielebuli

naxtomi, piesis dasawyisSive Tezevsis molodiniT aris

ganpirobebuli. Tezevsi Zveli mTvaris milevisa da axali mTvaris

dadgomis molodinSia, radgan axal mTvareze ipolitasTan

iqorwinebs. swored qorwineba, rogorc mistikuri kavSiris

rituali, mzisa da mTvaris SeuRlebis momenti xdeba is Zala,

romelsac kalendaruli droidan Tvisobrivi xdomilebis droSi

gadavyavarT.Ddro movlenis TariRidan misi Sinagani mniSvnelobis

Ramis, sizmrisa da komikuris sakiTxisaTvis

Seqspiris `zafxulis Ramis sizmarSi~

niSnulad gardaiqmneba.Pqorwineba erTgvari zavia, kavSiri,

romelic or opoziciur mnaTobs Soris ideba.

Tezevsis teqstidan SevityobT, rom i polita man brZoliTa

da muqariT daimorCila, axla ki surs, rom yofili mtroba

mxiaruli qorwiliT daasrulos. ukve piesis dasawyisSive gvaqvs

mtroba-siyvarulis urTierTmonacvleobis Tema, romelic

mogvianebiT elenesa da demetriusis wyvilsa da SeyvarebulTa

Ramis Tavgadasavlebis peripetiebSi iCens Tavs. urTierTobebis

Tvisobrivi cvlileba, naxtomi, sikvdilis Temis siyvarulisa

da ganaxlebis motiviT Secvla kvlavac mTvaris gamaerTianebeli

simbolikis SuqSia gaxveuli. mTvare piesaSi 28-jer aris naxsenebi

da gmirTa yvela jgufs Tu piesis yvela movlenas

sxvadsxvagvarad ukavSirdeba. rogorc danawevrebuli da

orazrovani yofierebis paradoqsuli mTlianobis simbolo, mzis

naTebiT manaTobeli planeta, dRisa da Ramis gamaerTianebeli

mogzauri, is movlenaTa Semkvreli faqtoris rols TamaSobs.

mTvaris, rogorc momakvdavi da mkvdreTiT aRmdgomi planetis

Tema dionise-osirisis dramatul Tavgadasavalsac gvaxsenebs.

osirisi egviptur miTologiaSi mTvaris astrologiis simbolur

gansaxierebad gvevlineboda, misi sxeuli tifonma 14 nawilad

daanawevra, rac milevadi da mzardi mTvaris 14 saxls Seesabameba.

mTvaris ambivalenturi buneba, misi dabadebis, sikvdilisa da

Semdgomi Sobis fazebi tragedia-komediis ambivalenturi wyvilis

siRrmiseul erTianobasac ganasaxierebs.

Tezevsis mier piesis dasawyisSi miTiTebuli mTvaris

mdgomareoba Ramis mnaTobis mier ramdenime, kerZod mTvaris

sami fazis gavlas Seesabameba. milevadi mTvare Savi mTvaris

fazaSi unda gadavides da Semdeg xelaxla daibados.Ees monakveTi

mTvaris ciklSi yvelaze dramatulia da mTvaris gardacvalebas,

sulTa samyaroSi gadasvlasa da xelaxla dabadebas Seesatyviseba.

qorwilic swored axalmTvareobas aris daniSnuli, romelsac

ZvelTaganve miusadagebdnen xolme sxvadsxva ti pis sakulto

ritualebs da qmedebebs. axalmTvareobas mraval magiur Zalas

miawerdnen, maT Soris makurnebel Zalasac. uZvelesi droidan

mTvaris fazebi cxovrebis dinebis warmmarTvel fenomenad

miiCneoda. Zveli mTvare berZnul miTologiaSi hekatas kults

ukavSirdeboda. zogi versiis Tanaxmad, Zvel samyaroSi hekata

sammag RvTaebad iTvleboda, romelic qvesknelSi mefobda rogorc

hekata, dedamiwaze rogorc artemida, xolo zecaSi, rogoc mTvare.

44 45


Tamar bokuCava

Ramis, sizmrisa da komikuris sakiTxisaTvis

Seqspiris `zafxulis Ramis sizmarSi~

amdenad, rodesac Tezevsi Zvel mTvareze saubrobs, mas

qvesknelis mTvare - hekata yavs mxedvelobaSi, fermkrTali

stumari, jadoqrobis, misticizmis, sikvdilis gansaxiereba.

ipolita vercxlis mSvildiviT morkalul mTvares axsenebs,

romelmac maTi qorwilis Rame unda gaanaTos.Naxali mTvaris

vercxlis mSvildi amorZali i politas simbolodac SeiZleba

ganvixiloT, axali mTvare berZnul-romaul miTologiaSi

nadirobis qalwuli qalRmerTis artemida-dianas Seesabameba.

qristianul mistikaSi mariami axali mTvariT Ramis sibneleSi

naTlis Semtan qalur princips ganasaxirebs. berZnebTan mTvare,

artemidesTan erTad qorwinebisa da ojaxis mfarveli qalRmerTis,

heras simboloc iyo. i politas teqsti mTvaris am ori

hipostasis mimarT apelirebs. Ddianas civi mTvare SesaZloa,

mamis nebis winaaRmdeg amboxebuli elenas cxovrebis Tanamgzavric

gaxdes, romelsac daumorCileblobis SemTxvevaSi sikvdili an

monazvnis unayofo da sevdiani xvedri emuqreba.MmTvaris romelime

fazaSi samudamod darCena sicocxlis kanonis SeCerebisa da

sikvdilis tolfasad ganixileba.

Tezevsisa da ipolitas mTvareebis gamoCinebas Soris arsebul

xanmokle droSi samyaros udidesi saswaulia moqceuli. swored

mTvaris gardasaxvis moments Seesabameba Seyvarebulebis Ramis

tyeSi, sulTa saufloSi saxifaTo mogzaurobis periodi, saidanac

isini ganaxlebulni da gankurnebulni unda dabrundnen. Rameulma

mogzaurobam harmonia da dakarguli wonasworobis principi

unda aRadginos.

tyis simbolika Seqspiris piesebSi xSirad gvxvdeba, komediaSi

`rogorc mogewonebaT~ moqmedebis tyeSi gadatana

dramaturgisaTvis filosofiuri msoflgancdis gadmocemis

saSualeba xdeba. `zafxulis Ramis sizmarSi~ tye erT-erTi

centraluri mxatvruli saxea, simbolo, romelic Seqspirma

fantastikuri miTologiuri da folkloruli personaJebiT

daasaxla da aracnobieri fsiqikis numiozuroba mianiWa. Seqspiris

piesaTa Soris `zafxulis Ramis sizmari~ imiTac gamoirCeva,

rom misi siuJetis uSualo wyaro aRmoCenili ar aris. siuJetis

Canafiqri da moqmedebis kompozicia Tavad Seqspirs ekuTvnis.

dramaturgis fantazia moqmedebis samgvar esTetikas da oTxmag

siuJets _ Tezevsisa da i politas qorwils, aTeneli

Seyvarebulebis ambavs, oberonisa da titanias konfliqtsa da

Serigebas, qalaqeli xelosnebis mier piramosisa da Tisbes

dadgmis istorias _ erTiani feeriuli kompoziciis asagebad

iyenebs. Tezevsisa da ipolitas da oberonsa da titanias

Soris piesaSi gasnakuTrebuli kavSiria, es wyvilebi qalaqisa

da tyis samyaroebSi TiTqos erTmaneTs Seesabamebian, maT umaRlesi

Zalaufleba da siyvaruli aerTianebT. Tezevsi da ipolita

dRis samyaroSi mefoben, oberoni da titania _ Ramis. SeiZleba

iTqvas, rom feriebis dedofalisa da oberonis figurebi dRis

mbrZanebelTa Rameul manifestaciasac warmoadgenen.

arsebobs analogia tyes, rogorc swavlis simbolur adgilsa

da vnebaTa da instinqtTa labirinTs Soris, sadac adamiani

Tavis Tavs kargavs da gamosasvlelis naxvasTan erTad kvlavac

pulobs.Aase kargaven da pouloben Tavis identobas tyeSi

Seyvarebulebi, romlebsac tyis sulebi Tavgzas ubneven da

exmarebian. tye, rogorc TavSesafari da damcveli, dedobriv

arqetipsac ukavSirdeba. sizmrisa da Zilis Tema kidev ufro

aaxlovebs tyis simbolikas aracnobieri fsiqikis fenomenTan,

sadac adamianis gzismkvlevebi aracnobieris arqetipebi xdebian,

romlebic xSirad zRaprisa da miTologiis personaJebSi

saxierdebian. swored aseTebi arian am koleqtiur sizmarSi

oberoni da titania, animasa da animusis msgavsi figurebi,

sizmareuli tyis mbrZanebelni. Cinuri tradiciis Tanaxmad, tye

xuTi elementidan erT-erTi, aRmosavleTs, siyvarulsa da

mamakacuri energiis ianis gamoRviZebasa da aRmasvlas Seesbameba.

piesis teqstidan SevityobT, rom oberoni Soreuli indoeTidan

Camovida, misi samefo aRmosavleTSia. tradiciisamebr, evropa

aRmosavleTSi ganusazRvrelobis, iracionalurobis, misticizmis

mxarea. jer kidev berZnebTan, aRmosavleli medea hekatas qurumi

da jadoqaria. xolo iasonis mSobliur saberZneTSi goneba da

samarTali batonobs. aTenisa da tyis, kulturisa da bunebis,

dRisa da Ramis, dasavleTisa da aRmosavleTis, mzisa da mTvaris,

mamakacuri da qaluri sawyisis, antikuri miTologiisa da Sua

saukuneebis folkloruli samyaros saxeebis urTierTkavSiri

da `mistikuri qorwineba~ Seqspiris piesaSi samyaros dinamikuri

harmoniis fantastikur panoramas qmnis. mxolod am sinTezs

aqvs makurnebeli Zala, sizmarisa da cxadis, cnobierisa da

aracnobieris TanamSromlobiT miiRweva wonasworoba. swored

amiT aixsneba im totaluri siyvarulisa da erotizmis

46 47


Tamar bokuCava

Ramis, sizmrisa da komikuris sakiTxisaTvis

Seqspiris `zafxulis Ramis sizmarSi~

atmosfero, romelSic CaZirula cvalebadi mTavris SuqiT

ganaTebuli piesis moqmedeba. es piesa winaaRmdegobaTa Sexvedrisa

da dazavebis adgilia, TviT tyis sulebi Tavisi ormagi bunebiT,

romelic maT sityvebsa da moqmedebebSi gamosWvivis, aq komediis

saerTo ganwyobisTvis Sesaferisi Serbilebuli mxariT

warmogvidgebian. `unda viCqaroT, mbrZanebelo, Torem xom

xedav...…gamobrwinda aRmosavleTiT avroras macne~, _AafrTxilebs

paki oberons. razedac es ukanaskneli miugebs _ `Cven sul

sxvagvari sulebi varT. me, Cemda Tavad, ramdenjer ciskris

megobarTan miTamaSnia...~ tyis sulebis Sualeduri mdgomareoba

da ciskarTan moTamaSe oberoni swored Seqspiris saerTo

gadawyvetilebis farglebSi jdeba, rom sizmrisa da cxadis

samyaroTa TanamSromlobis gziT adamianis bunebaSi harmoniisa

da wonasworobis aRdgenis suraTi SemogvTavazos.

Sesabamisad, Tavad qorwilisaTvis samzadisis idea, rogorc

nawarmoebis moqmedebis saerTo qarga, misi faruli sazrisic

xdeba da zedapiruli siuJeturi wyobidan Sida struqturaSi

gadainacvlebs da stiqiaTa da winaaRmdegobaTa Sexvedra-dazavebis

sizmrad iqceva. sizmris TemiT Seqspiri Tavis romantikul

xilvas, iseve, rogorc danawevrebul, winaarmdegobebiT aRsavse

samyaroSi ganxorcielebuli siyvarulis arsebobis

SesaZleblobas kiTxvis niSnis qveS ayenebs, mxolod ivanes

Rames dasizmrebul sizmarSi Tu miiRweva sayovelTao siyvarulis

mdgomareoba. virisTava koWas saxeSi igi Tavisive ideis parodias

gvTavzobs da romantikul zRaparSi komikuri da vnebiani

monstris groteskuli xateba Semoaqvs. dramaturgi amiT ar

kmayofildeba da finalSi qalaqis xelosnebis mier `piramosisa

da Tisbes~ komikurad gaTamaSebul tragedias gvTavzobs. imisaTvis,

rom qalebis mgrZnobiare nervebi daindon, xelosnebi dadgmas

gulubryvilo da utrirebulad pirobiT farsad aqceven,

romelSic lomi nazad Rrialebs, prologi msmenls windawin

amSvidebs, raTa gmirTa tragikuli sikvdili gulTan axlos ar

miitanon, xolo mTvariani Ramis gansaxierebisaTvis mTvares

speqtaklis personaJad aqceven.Bbolos scenaze mxolod lomi

da mTvare rCebian. _ albaT imitom, _ SeniSnavs gamxiarulebuli

Tezevsi, _ rom danarCenebi damarxono. swored ase farsulad

mTavrdeba `zafxulis Ramis sizmarSi~ gaTamaSebuli mTvaris

misteria. Tezevsis xumrobaSi gacilebiT meti Sinaarsi devs,

vidre es erTi SexedviT moCans. romantikuli mTvariT dawyebuli

misteria farsuli mTvaris gamoCeniT sruldeba, xolo lomi _

mzis simbolo, mTvaresTan erTad SeyvarebulTa mesaflaved

gvevlineba.

qorwilis da ganaxlebuli mTvaris Tema masTan dakavSirebuli

metamorfozebiT, mdidari erotikuli simbolikiT, romelic piesis

teqstSi, gansakuTrebiT ki mis sizmareul da farsul nawilSi

pirdapiri Tu metaforuli gziT Semodis, `zafxulis Ramis

sizmars~ formalurad komediis falikur sakulto da xalxur

sawyisebTan anaTesavebs. dionises kults aq sinTeturi RvTaebis

_ mTvaris `kulti~ enacvleba, romelic, zrdisa da swrafi

saxecvalebis wyalobiT, zogierT kulturaSi nayofierebis

simbolod iqca. magaliTad, mesopotamiuri sini, mzis RmerT

SamaSis mama, mcenareuli samyaros RmerTi iyo. Tumca, ra Tqma

unda, SeqspirTan mTvare rTuli kulturul-filosfiuri

simboloa, romelic dramaturgs piesis musikalur nawarmoebTan

miaxlvebuli kompoziciis gamTlianebisa da urTulesi

esTetikuri Tu konceptualuri sinTezis ganxorcielebis

saSualebas aZlevs.

· Надя Жюльен, “Словарь Символов”, “Урал ЛТД”, 1999;

· Карл Густав Юнг, “Архетип и Символ”, Москва, “Ренессанс”, 1991;

· У. Шекспир, “Сон в летнюю ночь”;

· В. Гете, “Фауст”;

· А. Аникст, Шекспир, Ремесло Драматурга, Москва, 1974;

· G.S.Kirk, “Myth. Its meaning and functions in ancient and other cultures”,

Cambridge, At The University Press;

· А. Аникст, “Творчество Шекспира”, Москва, 1965;

· Пинский Л.Е., Шекспир, Основные начала драматургии, Москва, 1975.

· guram lebaniZe, `dasavleTi~, `ena da kultura~, 2000;

· Дидье Жюлиа, “Философский словарь”, Москва, “Международные

отношения”, 2000;

· Э.Е. Платонова, “Культурология”, Москва, “Академический проект”,

2003;

· Ю.Борев, “Эстетика”.

48 49


eligia da Teatri

merab gegia,

sruli profesori

Teatrisa da religiis urTierTmimarTeba uciloblad

saWiroebs imis ganmartebas, Tu ra igulisxmeba religiis cnebaSi

da ratom miviCnevT mas Teatris fundamentad.

religia ar aris statikuri fenomeni. mas aqvs Casaxvisa da

ganviTarebis Tavisi kanonzomierebani. religiaSi araviTar

SemTxvevaSi ar igulisxmeba esa Tu is sarwmunoeba, religiuri

dogmatebi an Sexedulebebi. magram amasTanave nebismier religias

aqvs Tavisi zogadi maxasiaTeblebi. igi warmoSobs erTianobis

gancdas, aduRabebs adamianebs, erebs, rasebs. TviT aTeizmis

pirobebSic ki igi kacobriobas evlineba humanizmis saxiT,

zogadsakacobrio idealebis SenarCunebiT, rac iSva swored

religiis wiaRSi. amitomaa, rom Teatris umTavres Sinaarss

qmnis religiuri miswrafebani, romelTa Soris gamorCeulia

gmiruli Tavganwirva, adamianuri Rirsebis grZnoba, siyvaruli,

saTnoeba. aRsaniSnavia, rom Teatri, rogorc msaxiobisa da

mayureblis Ria, uSualo urTierTobis asparezi, mudmivad

inarCunebs moZRvrisa da mrevlis urTierTmimarTebis statuss,

rameTu mayureblis reaqcia TavisTavad aris komentari scenaze

gaTamaSebuli movlenebis mimarT. arsad ise ar aisaxeba da

fiqsirdeba sazogadoebrivi cnobierebis gamovlinebani, rogorc

TeatrSi. marto scena ki ara, mTlianad Teatria sazogadoebrivi

cxovrebis sarke.

magram isic uTuod gasaTvaliswinebelia, rom Teatri araviTar

SemTxvevaSi ar aris didaqtikis, qadagebisa da Ria propagandis

tribuna. igi religiurobasTan erTad eyrdnoba TamaSs, am cnebis

pirdapiri gagebiT. igi qmnis mxatvrul realobas da es

mayurebels kargad aqvs Semecnebuli. ufro metic, sakmarisia,

Teatrma daTmos saTamaSo funqciebi, igi kargavs yovelgvar

mimzidvelobas da mosawyen sanaxaobad gadaiqceva.

rogorc cnobilia, Teatri warmoiSva totemizmis xanaSi

samonadireo ritualidan. totemi iyo pirveli RvTaeba, romelsac

adamianma miawera magiuri Tvisebebi da Tavis mfarvelad aRiara.

es iyo zoomorfizmis xana, roca bunebis yvela movlena

mimsgavsebuli iyo romelime cxovelis TvisebebTan. samonadireo

ritualSi ukve mocemuli iyo Teatris ZiriTadi komponentebi:

fabula da personaJi, moqmedebiT Txroba da gardasaxvis

elementebi. amave periodSi iSva niRabi, Teatris ucvleli

atributi. aRsaniSnavia, rom swored totemur ritualSi daixvewa

simRera da cekva, warmoiSva ritmi, rogorc moqmedebis

warmmarTveli elementi.

animizmis epoqam, anu, yovelive arsebulis gasulierebis

tendenciam warmoSva magiuri rituali. aman kidev ufro gaaRrmava

meditaciuri procesebi da safuZveli Cauyara Teatris erTerT

umTavres movlenas _ eqstazs. magiur ritualSive iSva

sityva, magram ara rogorc moqmedebis saSualeba, aramed rogorc

Selocvis ,,meqanizmi~. animizmis epoqaSive iSva miTebi, rac

momavalSi Teatris formirebis aucilebeli nawili gaxdeba.

yvelaze saTayvano miTosur personaJad iqca nayofierebis RvTaeba.

am RvTaebisadmi miZRvnilma ritualebma Teatrs Semata zeimis

elementi, ganaviTara personaJis cneba, TeatrSi Seitana

orgiastuli suliskveTeba. amave periodSi adamianis cnobiereba

xdeba antropomorfistuli, anu, bunebis movlenebs da miTosur

personaJebs eniWebaT adamianuri Tvisebebi. aqedan ukve erTi

nabijiRa rCeboda dramatuli situaciis warmoqmnamde da es

nabiji ganxorcielda jer miTosSi da Semdgom ukve TeatrSic.

ase warmoiSva jer Zvelegvipturi, Semdgom ki ZvelberZnuli

Teatri. magram TviT gaRmerTebul bunebis ZalebSi adamianma

aRmoaCina Ria da faruli dapirispirebani. dRes Rame cvlis,

zamTars _ zafxuli, mzes – mTvare, gvalvas – kokispiruli

wvimebi, sicocxles – sikvdili, sikvdils – axali sicocxlis

warmoSoba da es dapirispireba man ritualSi Seitana, riTac

Teatraluri xelovnebis umTavresi sayrdenis, konfliqtis

Camoyalibebas Seuwyo xeli.

adamianma nayofierebis RvTaebas mianiWa upiratesoba da es

savsebiT logikuri da gasagebi movlenaa. magram am ZiriTadi

ritualis gverdiT iSva magiuri ritualebic, romlebic Serisxvas

an Selocvas emsaxureboda. swored am magiur ritualebSi iSva

transmeditacia da eqstazi, swored aq Caeyara safuZveli

tragediul intonaciasac. sagulisxmoa, rom am sakralur

50 51


merab gegia

religia da Teatri

ritualebSi sityva gamoyenebuli iyo rogorc zebunebriv Zalebze

zemoqmedebis iaraRi.

totemizmSi mibaZvis gziT warmoiSva gardasaxvis elementebi.

magiurma ritualma imitacia aqcia abstraqtul gardasaxvad.

farTod iqna gamoyenebuli meditaciis da transmeditaciis

aRmZvreli saSualebebi, maT Soris – cecxli, msxverplSewirva,

bangi, Troba.

animisturma panTeizmma, Tavisi personificirebuli

mravalRmerTianobiT, simbolur-metaforuli xedviT, RvTaebaTa

Soris adamianuri urTierTobebis daSvebiT, niadagi Seumzada

miTebs da Sesabamisad, _ epossa da dramaturgias. aqedan erTi

nabijiRa rCeboda egvi pturi da berZnuli miTologiis

Camoyalibebamde, romlebmac daagvirgvines winamorbedi procesebi

da miTologia ideologiur sistemad aqcies. am sistemaSi adgili

daeZebna yvela did Tu patara movlenas mzisqveSeTSi da mis

farglebs gareTac.

miTologiuri siuJetebi TiTqos TavisiT iltvodnen

gaTamaSebisaken. bevr maTganSi tragediis an komediis gasaSlelad

ukve mocemuli iyo dramatuli muxti, zogjer, _ naRmic ki.

ager, adrasti, argosis mefe, amfiaraes mier gaZevebuli, brundeba

Tavis samefoSi da amfiaraeze Surs imiT iZiebs, rom swored

mas miaTxovebs Tavis idumalad mSvenier, magram verag da xarb

qaliSvils. amfiarae ver umklavdeba meuRlis intrigebs, ver

uZlebs Sinagan gaorebas da iRupeba. am fabulaze SesaZlebelia

aigos tragediac, komediac da tragikomediac.

ager, gasaTamaSeblad gamzadebuli oidiposis, antigones,

eleqtras da medeas tragikuli koliziebi. medea pirveli

adamiani-antigmiria dramaturgiis istoriaSi. SemTxveviTi rodia,

rom interesi mis mimarT epoqidan epoqas gadaecema da yvela

droSi cdiloben gaSifron es uaRresad saorWofo, qimerasaviT

idumali arseba.

magram sagulisxmo mainc is aris, rom saTeatro fabula,

ZiriTadad, ibadeba saojaxo urTierTobebis wiaRSi. aRsaniSnavia

isic, rom berZnebma jer miTebi gaaadamianes, mere ki adamianuri

urTierTobebi aqcies miTologemebad, riTac kidev erTi nabijiT

wawies win Teatraluri azrovneba.

yovelgvar safuZvels moklebulia is varaudi, rom

sinkretuli Teatridan verbalur, samayureblo Teatrze gadasvla

moxda naxtomiseburad. berZnuli miTebis analizi cxadyofs,

rom maTSi mocemuli antropocentristuli tendenciebi, uTuod

gamoiwvevda mizidulobas maTi profesiuli Sesrulebisaken.

ra Tqma unda, RmerTebis Sesaxeb sjobs wavikiTxoT, magram

adamianebi sjobs ganvasaxieroT. adamianis gansaxiereba ki, niWTan

erTad, saWiroebs Sesabamis ostatobas, ostatobis misaRwevad

ki aucilebelia scenuri Cvevebis gamomuSaveba.

aRsaniSnavia, rom intrigis muxti TiTqmis yvela xalxebis

miTologiaSia mocemuli. ase magaliTad, vedur da induistur

miTebSi figurireben dabal safexurze mdgomi qal-RvTaebani _

afsarebi, ulamazesi norCi qalwulebi, cekvis didostatebi,

romlebic saxloben caSi, mdinareebSi, mTebze. RmerTebis davalebiT

isini xiblaven da acduneben rogorc asurebs (dabal safexurze

mdgom RvTaeba-mamakacebs), ise im adamianebs, romlebmac Tavisi

asketuri amaRlebiT, SesaZloa moi povon RmerTebze ufro meti

Zlevamosileba. verc erTi asketi ver uZlebs afsarebis xibls

da efloba miwier codvilobaSi.

Teatrs sul sxva pirobebi Seeqmna monoTeisturi religiis

wiaRSi. imis gamo, rom monoTeizmi qadagebda asketizmsa da

TavdaWerilobas, Teatri Tavisi TamaSiTa da orgiastuli

suliskveTebiT, Seuferebeli aRmoCnda monoTeizmisaTvis.

miuxedavad amisa, SuasaukuneebSi iyo mcdeloba, rom TeatrisTvis

daebrunebiaT religiuri funqciebi. ase warmoiSva liturgikuli

drama, misteria, mirakli, moralite. religiis cneba pirvelyovlisa

gulisxmobs demiurgis, anu yovlisSemZle, kreatuli gareSe

Zalis arsebobas, adamianis sulis ukvdavebis rwmenas da sikeTis,

saTnoebis gansakuTrebul unars, winaaRmdegobis gareSe sZlios

borotebas. eklesiis mamebi sul male darwmundnen, rom Teatri

da TamaSi ganuyreli cnebebia da saeklesio drama gandevnil

iqna qristianuli taZrebidan. magram ,,jini~ ukve gamoSvebuli

iyo da misi ukan Cabruneba SeuZlebeli aRmoCnda. Teatrma jer

qalaqis moednebze gadainacvla, Semdgom ki misTvis gankuTvnil

specialur nagebobebSi, sadac igi imyofeba dRemde.

filosofiuri azris ganviTarebam warmoSva deizmad (laT.

deus _ RmerTi) wodebuli sruliad axali Sexeduleba samyarosa

da RmerTis Sesaxeb. formalur logikaSi antinomiuri (berZn.

antinomia – kanonis winaaRmdegobrivoba sakuTar TavTan)

52 53


merab gegia

religia da Teatri

debulebebis SemoWram (filosofiuri cneba, romelic gulisxmobs

urTirTsawinaaRmdego, urTierTgamomricxavi debulebis Sexamebas

an erTianobas) warmoSva axali mimarTeba religiasa da Teatrs

Soris. religiis sakiTxebma SeiZina diskursis ieri, rac yvelaze

mkafiod aisaxa ganmanaTleblobis epoqaSi. antinomizmi isedac

damaxasiaTebelia religiuri cnobierebisaTvis (wminda sameba

,,SeerTebis gareSe erTiania~ da ,,ganuyoflad ganiyofian~,

qristeSi mocemulia urTierTsawinaaRmdego – adamianuri da

RvTaebrivi sawyisi). antinomiis gansakuTrebuli simaxviliT

da ganviTarebiT gamoirCeva Zen-budizmi, sadac paradoqsuli,

alogikuri, antinomiuri formulebi, erTdrouli ,,ho da ara~

iqca cnobierebis verbalur-gonismier mzadebad ganviTarebisa

da sakuTari Tavis srulyofisaTvis. paradoqsul, alogikur da

absurdul formulebTan erTad, antinomiebma mniSvnelovani adgili

daikaves jer simbolizmis da avangardis, Semdgom ki mTlianad

modernistul xelovnebaSi.

ganmanaTlebloba, rogorc cnobilia, mimarTuli iyo

feodalur-absolutisturi wyobis winaaRmdeg. mis Camoyalibebaze

zegavlena iqonia sensualizmma, swavlebam adamianis Sesaxeb, lokis

deizmma, dekartes racionalizmma da meqanisturma fizikam,

niutonis meqanikam da deizmma, me-18 saukunis dasawyisis

antisqolasturma skeptikurma swavlebebma. ganmanaTleblobam

wamoayena burJuaziuli demokratiis, sazogadoebrivi progresis,

Tanasworobis, sazogadoebrivad sasargeblo Sromis, pirovnebis

Tavisufali ganviTarebis ideebi. maTi mTavari mizani iyo gonebis

meSveobiT umecrebis damarcxeba. am ideebma mkafio gamoxatuleba

poves filosofiaSi, mxatvrul literaturaSi, xelovnebaSi.

kacobriobis momavali maT esaxebodaT ,,gonierebis samefod~.

ingliseli ganmanaTleblebis interesma yoveldRiuri yofis

da Cveulebrivi adamianis mimarT moaxdina zegavlena mTel

evropul ganmanaTleblobaze. mdabiuri dramis warmoSoba

safrangeTsa (didro, m. sedeni) da germaniaSi (lesingi)

dakavSirebuli iyo am Janris inglisur formebTan (j. lilo, e.

muri). didi ganviTareba pova satirulma komediam (r. Seridani

– inglisSi, p. bomarSe – safrangeTSi, l. holbergi – daniaSi).

ganmanaTleblebma tragediaSi Seitanes tiraniasTan brZolis

motivebi (volteris ,,bruti~, 1731 da sxv). me-18 saukunis

bolos germaniaSi didi ganviTareba pova tragediis Janrma

(lesingis ,,emilia galoti~, 1772, goeTes ,,gioc fon berlixingeni~,

Sileris ,,yaCaRebi~, 1781). anu, religiuri faseulobebis

SenarCunebasTan erTad, Teatri xdeba antropocentristuli da

masSi personaJi da misi xasiaTi gansazRvravs moqmedebas da

ara gareSe, zebunebrivi Zalebi. amave periodSi yalibdeba e. w.

maradiuli saxeebis ,,sistema~, asparezi eTmoba sxvadasxva qveynis

Tu epoqis literaturaSi mravalgzis asaxul, zogadsakacobrio

mniSvnelobis literaturul da miTologiur personaJebs:

promeTes, kaens da abels, mefistofels da fausts, hamlets,

don Juans, don kixots, mejnuns (da sxv.). isini aRqmulni arian

rogorc droisa da sivrcis miRma myofi adamianuri

suliskveTebis simboluri gamosaxulebani. Semdgomi epoqebi

maradiul saxeebs usadagebs konkretul-istoriul viTarebas

da zogjer maTi daxasiaTebis sruliad axal versias gvTavazobs

(don kixoti gvevlineba xan komikur, xan satirul, xan ki

sanimuSo gmirad; don Juani – xan borotmoqmedad, xan buntarad;

hamleti – xan simarTlisTvis mebrZolad, xan ki – simSvidis

damrRvevelad, da a. S.). magram yvela epoqasa Tu viTarebaSi,

maTi miswrafebebi ganixileba sakacobrio idealebis poziciidan,

rac Tavisi arsiT, gvevlineba religiis erTgvar Canacvlebad.

igive iTqmis ezoTerikuli xedvis gamZafrebazec, rac

gansakuTrebiT damaxasiaTebeli iyo simbolizmisaTvis. misticizmi,

TviTCaRrmaveba, uSualo gancda, iracionalizmi, intuicia _ is

ZiriTadi sayrdenebia, rasac efuZneboda simbolistebis

Semoqmedeba. simbolizmisaTvis umTavresi iyo movlenebis wiaRSi

da adamianebis sulSi idumali, faruli Sreebis warmoCena,

ezoTerikuli Sinaarsis amokiTxva. aqedan gamomdinare, sityva

kargavs komunikaciur funqciebs da mistikur qveteqsts iZens.

arcTu iSviaTad, mas enacvleba mravlismTqmeli pauza an sityvaTa

iseTi ganlageba, sadac vlindeba ara viTarebis raoba, aramed

Tavad individis araamqveyniuri swrafvebi. simbolistebma poeziaSi

musika umTavres faseulobad gamoacxades. musikaSi maT

igulisxmes ritmis, metris da harmoniis principebTan erTad,

musikisTvis damaxasiaTebeli wminda formiseuli zemoqmedeba.

am princi pebis gaTvaliswinebiT warmoiSva simbolisturi

dramaturgiac (meterlinki, emil verharni, henrik ibseni).

54 55


merab gegia

religia da Teatri

simbolizmi TeatrSi sxva winamorbed mimdinareobebze

radikaluri gamodga. mTlianad uaryofil iqna realobis

dakonkretebis principi. malarme Teatrs mouwodebda gamoenaxa

damoukidebeli ,,sametyvelo ena~. aseT ,,enad~ mas esaxeboda

sityvis, musikis da feris sinTezi, romelsac mayurebelze unda

emoqmeda musikis msgavsad. simbolistebma uari Tqves personaJis

dakonkretebazec da ganyenebuli fabulis gmirad aqcies drois,

sivrcis, socialuri da eTnikuri niSnis miRma mdgomi adamianisimbolo.

simbolistebma reJisors da mxatvars mianiWes

avtonomiuri ufleba da isini dramaturgs gauTanabres.

gamomsaxveli saSualebebi _ mizanscena, ritmi, foni _ maT mier

gaazrebul iqna, rogorc Teatris iracionaluri fenomeni.

simbolistebi Seecadnen agreTve Suasaukuneebis Teatraluri

kulturis modernizebas da simbolisturi stilistikiT

aRadgines misteria, mirakli, bazrobis da sakarnavalo Teatris

zogierTi saxeobani. mizanscenebis saxviToba, pozebis

skulpturuloba, musika, ganaTeba emsaxureboda mistikuri

ganwyobilebis Seqmnas. mistika da religia ki, rogorc cnobilia,

ganuyreli cnebebia.

religiuri motivebi Zalze Taviseburad gaiazra modernizmma.

es arc aris gasakviri, radgan modernizmis fesvebi animizmSi

(bunebis da sagnebis gasuliereba) da magiur ritualebSia

ganTavsebuli. formis TvalsazrisiT misi uaxloesi winaparia

manierizmi (me-16 s.) da barokos xelovneba (me-16_18 ss.).

modernizmis filosofiur mamamTavrebad gvevlinebian:

fridrix nicSe (iracionalizmi), anri bergsoni (intuitivizmi

da cxovrebis filosofia), edmund huserli (fenomenologia).

yvela isini idealistebi arian, rac TavisTavad gulisxmobs

sulierebis primats materiaze. aqedan gamomdinare, aSkaraa, rom

modernizmis fesvebic religiaSia ganTavsebuli.

modernizmis religiuri poziciebi sabolood gaamyares

egzistencialistebma (martin haidegeri, karl iaspersi).

dasavlurma xelovnebam saxe Zireulad icvala. ganxorcielda

Taviseburi sinTezi romantizmisTvis niSneuli individualizmis,

naturalisturi reduqciis (gamartiveba), simbolisturi

ezoTerikis (idumaleba), avangardistuli eqsperimentalobis da

dekadansis grZnobaTa bunebis.

ganaxorciela ra mxatvruli revolucia, modernizmma swored

miRmier samyaroze orientaciiT sagrZnoblad xeli Seuwyo

literaturasa da xelovnebaSi axali gamomsaxveli saSualebebis

danergvas. cnobierebis nakadi, Sinagani monologi, asociatiuri

montaJi, mexsierebisa da wamieri gancdis gadakveTa, Txrobis

ganTavseba sxvadasxva droSi, fabulis da personaJis gaerTianeba

_ es yovelive qmnida sruliad axal mxatvrul realobas.

modernizmma literaturasa da xelovnebaSi aRadgina

miTosuri azrovneba da arqetipuli xasiaTebi, danerga zedrouli

da zenacionaluri xedva. es yvelaferi, ra Tqma unda, religiuri

cnobierebis mier iyo ,,naanderZevi~.

Teatralur xelovnebaSi modernizmma mTlianad zurgi aqcia

realobas da iqca pirobiTi, Ria Teatris apologetad. speqtaklis

formam SeiZina simboluri, alegoriuli, groteskuli, mistikuri

mniSvneloba. `ara Sinaarsi qmnis formas, aramed forma qmnis

Sinaarss~ _ aseTi iyo modernistebis devizi ara marto TeatrSi,

aramed literaturaSic da xelovnebis sxva dargebSic.

modernizmma axali formis gziT TeatrSi Semoitana axali

Sinaarsebi, Zireulad Secvala fabulis agebis, Temis damuSavebis

da personaJis daxasiaTebis xerxebi, rac mTeli srulyofilebiT

aisaxa jer eqspresionistul, Semdeg ki egzistencialur da

absurdis dramaSi.

SegviZlia, Tamamad ganvacxadoT, rom RmerTebis ki ara,

adamianebis gulisSemZvrelma istoriebma warmoSves samayureblo

Teatri da didxans, TiTqmis me-19 saukunis meore naxevramde,

isini tols ar udebdnen miTosur gmirebs da Tavad xdebodnen

miTosurebi. es procesi daasrula xelovnebis humanizaciam da

Cveulebrivi adamianis gakultebam. ase warmoiSva realizmi da

naturalizmi, Tavisi arsiT aTeisturi mimdinareobani, sadac

pasuxismgebloba yofierebis av-kargze daekisra ara RmerTebs,

mefeebs an gmirebs, aramed ubralo, Cveulebriv adamianebs. aseTi

midgoma Seicavda optimizmsac, radgan rogorc cnobilia,

pasuxismgeblobas, movaleobas axlavs uflebebic. uflebebis

qona ki ganuzomlad zrdida Cveulebrivi adamianis mniSvnelobas.

samwuxarod, igive ar iTqmis postmodernizmis Sesaxeb,

romelic gaigivebulia ..daRlil~, ,,entropiul~ (gaurkvevel)

epoqasTan, sadac mefobs esqatologiuri (rel. _ ,,samyaros

dasasruli~) ganwyobileba. mas axasiaTebs esTetikuri mutacia,

stilebis ekleqtikuri Sereva. avangardistul midrekilebas

56 57


merab gegia

siaxlisaken, aq erwymis miswrafeba, rom Tanamedrove xelovnebaSi

Setanil iqnas msoflio mxatvruli kulturis gamocdileba,

Tundac ironiuli citirebis gziT. modernistuli koncefcia

samyaros qaoturobis Sesaxeb, aq icvleba surviliT, rom es

samyaro gaazrebul iqnas gaTamaSebis poziciidan.

postmodernistuli esTetikis specifika iTvaliswinebs

klasikuri tradiciebis araklasikur gaazrebas. igi emijneba

klasikas, magram gaurbis masTan konfliqts da cdilobs moargos

igi axal Teoriul safuZvlebs. postmodernistuli esTetika

principulad antisistemuri, adogmaturi, konceptualuri sqemebis

gare mdgomi movlenaa. misi mTavari simboloa labirinTi. aqedan

momdinareobs orientacia asonansze, asimetriaze. amaRlebuls

cvlis sakvirveli, tragikuls – paradoqsuli. centralur

adgils iWers komikuri Tavis ironiul hi postasSi. mozaikur

postmodernistul xelovnebaSi ironia azris warmomTqmeli

principia. postmodernizmis meore Taviseburebaa xelovnebis

sruli gaxsniloba, orientacia Seucnobelze, gaurkvevelze. man

modernizmisgan isesxa mxatvruli da filosofiurfsiqologiuri

xedvis ZiriTadi postulatebi, romelTagan

umTavresia zedrouloba da zenacionaluroba. igi xazgasmiT

globaluri xelovnebaa. amasTanave, modernizmisgan gansxvavebiT,

postmodernizmi ar cdilobs Seqmnas esTetikuri doqtrinebi.

misi mizani martivia _ gaamTlianos msoflios xelovneba, waSalos

zRvari elitarul da masobriv kulturas Soris.

postmodernizmis Tanamedrove tendenciebi gvafiqrebinebs, rom

isic, ,,gzaabneuli Svilis~ msgavsad, apirebs dabrundes religiis

wiaRSi. postmodernizmi ukve cdilobs mecnieruli da

miTologiuri azrovnebis morigebasac. amiT aixsneba is faqti,

rom postmodernistul nawarmoebebSi mecnieruli daskvnebi ki

ar upirispirdeba ezoTerikas, aramed nayofierad TanamSromlobs

masTan.

amrigad, kvlavac ucvleli rCeba Teatris formula – religia

+ TamaSi.

msoflios religiebis istoria (m., gam. eksmo, 2007);

janeliZe d., qarTuli Teatris xalxuri sawyisebi;

msoflio xelovnebis istoria (m., gam. bmmao, 1998).

pandoras yuTis fskerze

maia goSaZe,

asocirebuli profesori

CvenSi amboben: imediT cocxlobso adamiani. igive moaruli

azri rusul yaidaze gansxvavebulad gamoiTqmis, – imedi

ukanaskneli kvdebao, _ amboben. sazogadod, imedi umeteswilad

mainc pozitiuri gancdis, sicocxlis im damamkvidrebeli da

moyvare sawyisis gamomxatvelad aRiqmeba, romlis danakargic

adamians misTvis pirquSi realobis pirispir unugeSod tovebs.

imavdroulad, imedis masazrdoebeli STagonebis wyaros,

yovelTvis axla da amJamad, arsebulis miRmismieri sfero

warmoadgens. imediT adamiani swored momavals Sehyurebs. imediT

mcxovrebi adamianic, garkveuli TvalsazrisiT, swored axla da

amJamad sicocxlis moZrav stiqiasTan sakuTari Zalisxmevis

gamovleniT Tanaziarebas, gulmowyale momavlis zurgis qaris

molodins anacvalebs.

swored molodinis inertulobaSi adamianis gamaxevebel

Zilispirulad Cagvesmis imedis goeTeseuli alegoriis

gamomxatveli sityvebi: „xval cxovreba TavisTavad zRaprad

gveqceva~. 1 yovelives TavisTavad momgvareblad miCneuli,

TviTmoqmedi wesrigisa Tu piruku, yovlismomcvelad aRqmuli

qaosis winaSe, yovelgvari Zalisxmevis gamovlenis amaoebis,

zedmetobis idea (Cexovis piesebis marTlac imediT mcxovreb

e. w. zedmet adamianTa cxovrebiseuli kredos gamomxatveli

leitmotivi) imedis alegoriis Tavisebur savizito baraTad

iqceva. sagulisxmoa, rom faustis gamafrTxilebeli goniereba

adamianis yvelaze ukeTur mtrebad imedsa da mis ganuyrel

Tanamgzavrad warmoCenil SiSs miiCnevs.

goniereba:

qveynis ori didi mteri

aris SiSi da imedi.

moerideT, am or mtarvals –

axlos nuRar gaikarebT. 2

Tuki „faustSi~ imedi da SiSi hadesiseul alqajTa

wyvilis iersaxes iZenen, aryofnis usasrulo sicarieleSi

58 59


maia goSaZe

pandoras yuTis fskerze

STanTqmul absurdis dramis gmirTa ganuyrel Tanamgzavrad

amjerad molodinTan dawyvilebuli imedi gvevlineba.

imedis macdunebeli orsaxovneba, misi pirmSvenieri fasadisa

da Sinagani siRrmiseuli arsis kontrastuli Seusabamoba,

pandoras Sesaxeb antikur miTSic vlindeba.

rogorc cnobilia, zevsma pandora promeTesTan megobrobisTvis

dasasjelad mouvlina kacobriobas. momajadoebeli silamazis,

graciozuli, tkbilxmiansurnelovani, Tvalwarmtaci samosiTa

da samkauliT damSvenebuli pandora Zvel berZnulad yovlad

Semkulis aRmniSvneli sakuTari saxelisve xorcSesxmad iqca.

Tavis mxriv, garegnuli brwyinvalebiT mzesaviT manaTobeli,

magram bunebiT mrude da yalbi qaliSvilis saxelma, marTalia,

yovlad Semkuli, magram ubedurebis momtani ZRvenis gamomxatveli

mniSvneloba SeiZina.

misi meuRlis, promeTes Zmis – epiTemes gafrTxilebis

miuxedavad, cnobismoyvare pandoram mainc gaxsna adamianuri

mankierebebiT, sneulebebiTa da ubedobebiT aRsavse yuTi da

qveynierebas aTasgvari Wir-varami mouvlina – gaTavisufleba

mxolod fskerze myofma imedma ver SesZlo, radgan pandoram

yuTis daxurva moaswro.

sagulisxmoa, rom antikur miTSi imedi swored ukeTurobebiT

a Rs av s e yu Ti s kuTv ni leb ad m oia zr eb a . mr a va li ,

aradiferencirebuli saxiT warmoCenil siaveTa Soris konkretul

iersaxes mxolod imedi iZens. mxolod imedi iqceva pandoras

yuTis Semadgenel „anonimur~ ubedobaTa masidan gamorCeul,

Tavis konkretulobaSi Secnobad „protagonistad~. imavdroulad,

dRis sinaTleze gamosul, SeuniRbavi pirdapirobiT amqveynad

movlenil ukeTurebaTagan gansxvavebiT, mxolod imedi darCa

wyvdiadiT moculi, uxilavad danaRmuli safrTxis msgavsad

Seucnobadi. tkbilxmianmaamebeli, magram imavdroulad, netar

inertulobis momgvreli imedi mimzidvel, magram macdur

nugeSismcemlad, yovlad Semkul, magram saSiS ZRvenad darCa. am

TvalsazrisiT, aRsaniSnavia aTasgvari Wir-varamiT aRsavse yuTis

gasaxsnelad movlenil pandorasa da yuTis „usaxo~ binadarTagan

Tavisi individualuri „iersaxiTac~ da xvedriTac gamorCeuli

imedis macduri arsis urTierTamreklavi msgavseba. yovlad

Semkuli, tkbilxmianmaamebeli, magram ubedurebis momtani pandora

„orsaxovani~ imedis Tavisebur personificirebul arqeti pad,

Taviseburad amreklav oreulad aRiqmeba.

gansakuTrebiT sagulisxmoa, rom zevsma pandora swored

promeTesTan, swored TviTrealizaciisken, mudmivi zrdisa da

ganviTarebisken mswrafi adamianis titanizmis gansaxierebad

qceul gmirTan dapirispirebis Sedegad mouvlina qveynierebas.

arsebiTad, adamianisve SemoqmedebiTi sawyisis, bunebis, aqtivobis

gamomxatveli promeTeseuli suliskveTebis dasaTrgunad, imediani

molodiniT mogvril sulier sizanteSi mimaZineblad mouvlina

kacobriobas.

amdenad, imedTan gamoTxoveba SesaZloa ara mxolod

sicocxlis uarmyofeli sasowarkveTis, aramed swored

sicocxlis „uimedod~ miRebis moSiSi mimarTebis daZlevis

mauwyebladac iqces, Tundac sasurvel, magram warsulis msgavsad,

yovelTvis uZrav momavalSi gaxevebisken swrafvis damZlevi

sulieri mowifulobis gamomxatvelad.

sakuTar TavSi imediT mcxovrebTan gamoTxovebac, SesaZloa,

realobasTan pirispir, momavalSi „gamqcevi~ nugeSis gareSe

Sexvedris, – sanugeSosa da sasurvelTan wilnayari iluziis

safars miRma arsebulis Secnobis SesaZleblobad vaqcioT.

amdenad, sicocxlis damamkvidrebeli „uimedoba~ yovelTvis

mxolod awmyoSi sicocxlis moZrav stiqiasTan sakuTari

„yofniseuli~ mdgomareobiT, sakuTari Sinagan-pirovnuli

resursebis realizebadi mdgomareobiT Tanaziarebis

SesaZleblobadac moiazreba.

imedis ukompromiso mamxilebeli alber kamiu, mudam

saxvaliod Zalisxmevis gamovlenis gadamdeb, momavlis moimede

sulier sizantes, sakuTari SesaZleblobebis mTeli sisavsiT

awmyoSi cxovrebis Sinagan aqtivobas upirispirebs, imediT

dabindul inertul mzeras ki uimedo „naTelmxilvelobas~.

Seqspiris „makbetSi~ swored axla da amJamad arsebobis

mTeli sisavsiT aRqma-gancdis SesaZleblobis (arsebiTad, sakuTari

Sinaganpirovnuli arsis TviTrealizebadi SesaZleblobis)

STanTqmel fantomad, swored imedian facifucSi momavlisken

swrafmavali mzera gvevlineba – mudam ararsebulSi, guSindelsa

Tu xvalindelSi gamqcevi sulieri umecreba iqceva.

„ase maradJams, sul mere da mere,

60 61


maia goSaZe

xvale xvales misdevs

(dedanSi: tomorrow and tomorrow and tomorrow)

da wvril nabijiT dRe dRis ukan miizlazneba,

vidre JamT brunva ukanasknel saaTs dahkravdes

guSindelTa dReT ugunurebs gza gaunaTes,

miwad gardamqcev sikvdilamde~. 3

arsebulidan ararsebulSi, warsulTan dawyvilebul momavalSi

gamqcevi imedis maradiul mZevlebad gvevlinebian kinomsaxiobTa

TeatrSi giorgi margvelaSvilis mier dadgmuli „alublis

baRis~ – im speqtakl paradigmis gmirebic, romlis finalSi

swored pandorasa da imedis urTierTamreklavi identurobis

motivi warmoCindeba. rodesac ranevskaia Tavisi dakarguli

mamulis amjerad ukve samudamod misatoveblad mieSureba, scenis

siRrmiv SuagulSi ganlagebul masiur skivrTan miaxlovebisas,

TiTqos erT adgilas Sezrdili xevdeba, Semdeg gasatanad

gamzadebul skivrs gaxsnis da ganvlilisa da gardasulis

Tanamdev Zvelmanebs Tanmimdevrulad amoyris. dacarielebul

skivrSi ki TiTqos brma, somnambuluri SeupovrobiT Tavadve

Cawveba da zed Tavsaxursac daimxobs. Zvelmanebisgan daclili

skivris fskerze, swored uwyvet moZraobaganviTarebaSi

gamovlenili sicocxlis stiqiisgan, zrdisa da fericvalebis

SesaZleblobis momcveli „yofniseuli~ realobisgan, warsulis

msgavsad yovelTvis uZrav momavalSi gamqcevi gmiri rCeba

samudamod miZinebuli, netar inertulobaSi gaxevebuli.

dasangrevad ganwiruli saxlidan ranevskaia swored im skivriT

gaaqvT, romlis fskerze sakuTari nebiTve aRmoCndeba misive

gamxsneli „pandora~ – mudam mizans acdenili isariviT, yovelTvis

swored axla da amJamad arsebuls „acdenili~. mudam warsulsa

da momavals Soris miusafari mgzavri.

1. iohan goeTe „fausti~, Tbilisi, 1987, gv. 321;

2. iqve;

3. uiliam Seqspiri, tragediebi, t. III, Tb., 1987, gv. 222;

4. Н. Кун. “Легенды и мифы древней Греций”;

5. Альберт Камю. Бунтующий человек. М., 1990.

mixeil kalandariSvili,

sruli profesori

modernistuli eqsperimenti tiflisSi

`me Zlier miyvars iisfer Tovlis qalwulebiviT xididan

fena...~ _ es striqoni axalgazrda galaktions ekuTvnis. saocrad

amaRelvebeli, saocrad mSvenieri... `TovlSi~ galaktioni

gvixatavs uimedo, sasowarkveTili grZnobis amaRlebul, poetur

suraTs: iisferi Tovlis qulebi xididan qalwulebiviT efinebian,

xolo `siyvarulis ase moTmena~ mwuxare TviTmkvlelobaSi

gadadis. es leqsi 1916 wliTaa daTariRebuli. aTi wliT adre

ki, 1906 wels, TbilisSi pirveli `iisferi Tovli~ gaCnda.

Tovli, romelic aseve uimedod Seyvarebuli fermkrTali qalis

TviTmkvlelobiT sruldeba. Tumca, es `Tovli~ poezia ar iyo,

es iyo vsevolod meierholdis skandaluri speqtakli.

meierholdi saqarTveloSi Camovida, raTa sabolood daesva

wertili naturalisturi TeatrisTvis. axali ideebis

ganxorcielebis SesaZlebloba sagrZnoblad gaizarda TbilisSi,

miT umetes, rom mis gankargulebaSi moeqca `axali dramis~

amxanagobis ukanaskneli teqnikuri miRwevebiT aRWurvili

rusuli Teatris scena. i. elagini ostatis muSaobis saerTo

mimarTulebis daxasiaTebisas gamoyofs, erTi mxriv, `moskovis

samxatvro Teatris gamocdil gzas~, romelmac ganapiroba

warmateba Tbilisis inteligentur publikasTan da, meore mxriv,

miuTiTebs ukve axal, `modernistuli dramaturgiis~ uCveulo

labirinTze, romlis bilikebi meierholdma pirvelad swored

aq gakvala.

TbilisSi moRvaweoba k. stanislavskis gamorCeulma mowafem

nacadi xerxiT daiwyo: igi virtuozis simsubuqiT acxobda

samxatvro Teatris speqtaklebis gamartivebul aslebs, yovel

dRe imeorebda da aRadgenda `cxovrebiseul suraTebs~, rogorc

reJisuris savarjiSoebs, cdilobda zemoqmedeba moexdina

Tbilisel mayurebelze, Seecvala misi Cveuli esTetikuri

kriteriumebi. gaocebuli kritika aRniSnavda: `msaxiobi mxolod

aucilebeli Cxiria im etlis borbalSi, romelsac reJisori

marTavs~. 1

62 63


mixeil kalandariSvili modernistuli eqsperimenti tiflisSi

i. elaginis Tanaxmad, yvelaferi kargad midioda iqamde, vidre

meierholdma s. pSibiSevskis 2 `Tovli~ ar dadga. igi werda:

`mayureblisaTvis nacnobi naturalisturi Teatris xerxebisagan

`Tovlis~ dadgmaSi araferi ar darCa. TviTon Tovlic ki ar

iyo TeTri... iyo ultraiisferi~. 3

`Tovlis~ dadgmamdec da merec publikis nawili da misi

interesebis gamomxatveli oficiozuri gazeTi `Кавказ~-i

ukmayofilebas gamoxatavda meierholdis modernistuli

repertuaris gamo. amas pirdapir asabuTebs speqtakl `Tovlze~

gamoqveynebuli recenzia: `Cvenma mayurebelma ver moaswro

`CaZiruli zaris~ 4 mere sulis moTqma, rom meierholdma axali

dartyma ganizraxa da mayurebels Tavze daayara pSibiSevskis

WuWyiani `Tovli~... scenuri Sarlatanobis nimuSi~. 5

yvelasTvis gaugebarma `Tovlma~, romelSic `egvi pturi

wyvdiadi sufevda~, aiZula meierholdi kulisebSi damalvoda

ganrisxebul mayurebels. Tumca sabolood speqtakli istoriuli

mniSvnelobis gamodga, mas ruseTSi uwodeben pirobiTi,

antinaturalisturi Teatris pirvel cdas.

Cven profesiaSi kritikul recenziebs meti mniSvnelba aqvs,

vidre saqebar diTirambebs: kritikosebis paTosi, Tavisi uaryofiTi

muxtiT, mets gveubneba meierholdis gaugebar eqsperimentze da

ufro gvafiqrebs uCveulo kanonzomierebis SemTxvevaze, romelsac

adgili hqonda maSin. vis SeuZlia imis Tqma, naxa, Tu ara

Teqvsmeti wlis galaktionma meierholdis `iisferi Tovli~,

Tumca misi araCveulebrivi metafora: `me Zlier miyvars iisfer

Tovlis qalwulebiviT xididan fena~ ucnaurad saxiers xdis

daviwyebul, gamqral spektakls, TiTqos gvenaxos igi... SesaZloa,

swored Teatraluri STabeWdilebis anarekli mogvevlina

mogvianebiT saocar leqsad, an iqneb geniosebi erTnairad

araCveulebrivad xedaven Cveulebriv movlenebs! aseTi ram xdeba

xolme, Tumca, ratomRac mgonia, rom galaktionma SemTxveviT ar

uwoda Tavis leqss `Tovli~, vfiqrob, rom igi swored

meierholdis `iisferi Tovlis~ konceptze migvaniSnebda,

mxatvrul saxeze, romelmac SesaZloa SeZra poeti da, Tavis

mxriv, aseTi leqsiT upasuxa. SeiZleba vTqvaT, rom: radgan

fSibiSevskic modernistia, SesaZloa, swored mimarTulebas

ekarnaxa msgavsi aRqma galaktionisTvis, magram fSibiSevskis

piesaSi Tovli TeTri iyo. sxva mxriv, orive `TovlSi~ erTi da

igive ram xdeba: aqac da iqac saubaria lamaz sikvdilze, anu,

cxovrebisagan daRlili adamianebis im ocnebaze, romelic

scildeba ukve simbolizmis esTetikas da dekadansis idealSi

gadadis..

1906 wels fSibiSevskis `Tovli~ misi gmirebis vnebaTa

daufaravi siSiSvle Sokis momgvreli gaxldaT da, cxadia, yvela

erTnairad ver aRiqvamda: moulodnelobisgan Seuracxyofili

Tbiliseli recenzenti saubrobda `WuWyian Tovlze~, romelic

mas Tavze Turme vsevolod meierholdma daayara. galaktionis

poeturi qmnileba Sors dgas amgvari SegrZnebebisgan: misi

zambaxisferi Tovli – sufTaa. iyo Tu ara realurad raime

kavSiri am or `Tovls~ Soris - varaudis Temaa. mxolod imis

Tqma SeiZleba, rom Cven qalaqSi XX saukunis dasawyisSi saswauli

moxda: gadaikveTa sami didi xelovanis gza: stanislav

fSibiSevskis, vsevolod meierholdis da sul axalgazrda

galaktion tabiZisa.

Teatri poezia ar aris. mas SedarebiT ufro uWirs bolomde

`gamouTqmelobis~ scenuri xorcSesxma, rac sruliad bunebrivia

misi mTavari Taviseburebis da bunebis gaTvaliswinebiT. magram

Teatrs gaaCnia sxva upiratesoba – Cveneba, saxieri gadmocema,

c oc xa li konta qti, i nter pr etir eb a, m ay ur eb li s

mojadoeba...…amitomac iZens gansakuTrebul mniSvnelobas

fSibiSevskis `Tovli~, romelic 1906 wlis gazafxulis sezonze,

TbilisSi bolo Camosvlisas, dadga meierholdma. Tumca, es

gansakuTrebuli SemTxveva iyo, rogorc wesi, mis dadgmebs udidesi

warmateba hqondaT. `haneles~ dadgmas presaSi reJisoruli

Semoqmedebis apoTeozs uwodeben. meore sezoni ki v. meierholdma

m. meterlinkis 6 `tentaJilis sikvdiliT~ daasrula. speqtakli

TamaSdeboda muqi mwvane tulis qsoviliT gadakrul CarCoSi,

fizgarmonze Sesrulebuli akompanimentis TanxlebiT: `artistebi

antraqtebze gamoZaxebisas ar gamodiodnen. mexuTe aqtis Semdeg

daiwyo grandiozuli ovacia... gamoiZaxes aranakleb ocjer~. 7

ase daemSvidoba maestros Tbilisi.

meierholdi ukmayofilo iyo msaxiobebiT da uCioda maT

TamaSs. Tbilisidan gagzavnil werilSi igi werda: `mSralad,

teqnikurad, magram ras izam? rodisRa gamoCndebian momavali

64 65


mixeil kalandariSvili modernistuli eqsperimenti tiflisSi

Teatris msaxiobebi~. 8 amgvari msaxiobebi masTan mxolod oci

wlis Semdeg mividnen, Tavisi xalisiani xelovnebiT gaielves

da wavidnen, sul male TviTonac SeeTvisnen `socialisturi

realizmis Teatris amRvreul, damdgar gubes~. 9

Tbilisuri sezonebi gardamtexi gaxda v. meierholdis

SemoqmedebisTvis: aq man xorci Seasxa Tamam ideebs da Canafiqrebs,

realurad warmoadgina axali reJisoruli gamomsaxvelobisa

da xerxebis mTeli speqtri. swored Tbilisurma eqsperimentebma

daudes dasabami msoflioSi saxelganTqmul `rusul pirobiT

Teatrs~; Tavis mxriv, qarTulma scenamac ganviTarebis uSualo

impulsi miiRo vsevolod meierholdis xelidan. ecnoboda

samxatvro Teatris axalTaxal aslebs, ufro metic, sruliad

axali, modernistuli repertuaris uSualo mowme gaxda.

meierholdma saqarTvelo datova madlieri mayureblis

samaxsovro saCuqriT – vercxlis firfitaze amotvifruli

sityvebiT: 10 `Tqven dagvamarcxeT, – swerda mas mravalricxovani

Tbiliseli mayurebeli, – Tqven SeZeliT dagemsxvriaT eWvis

yinuli, undoblobis yinuli, rodesac Tqven mogvevlineT, Cven

ar gicnobdiT... Tqven gyavdaT uamravi mteri, Tqven isini axlac

gyavT, magram isini imas ki ar uaryofen, Tu rogor TamaSobT,

aramed Tu ras... Tqven dagvimorCileT mwyobri ansamblis SeteviT,

axali repertuaris Seupovari ieriSiT... gamarjvebulebs ar

asamarTleben!~

rogorc Cans, gulisamaCuyebelma damSvidobebam ver moubruna

guli meierholds da man ver daiviwya yvela is wyena, rac ori

sezonis ganmavlobaSi SemoqmedebiTi wvis Sedegad Sexvda. es im

werilidanac Cans, romelic man Tbilisidan gamgzavrebis win

dawera: `me mombezrda, xalxs anbani vaswavlo, me poeti var da

ara skolis maswavlebeli... arc uxovi, arc fedotovi, da arc

miT umetes nemiroviC-danCenko... me esTeti var. mombezrda WuWyian

perangebSi da gaqonil SarvalSi siaruli... me minda, imdenad

kargad viyo Cacmuli, rom sulis mSvenieri swrafva sacvlis

elvarebas Seesabamebodes~. 11

TxuTmeti wlis Semdeg meierholdi komisris msgavsad

gimnasturasa da tyavis qurTukSi gamoewyo, miuxedavad imisa,

rom omi ukve karga xnis damTavrebuli iyo. Tumca amgvar

samosSi man didxans ver gaZlo: `stalinis meore xuTwledis

periodSi, rodesac yvelaze mediduri xelmZRvaneli amxanagebi

gamocxaddebodnen xolme kabinetebSi, TeatrebSi da restornebSi

gimnasturiT Semosilebi `beladis msgavsad~, maSin meierholdi

ukve saukeTeso mkeravTa kostumebs aniWebda upiratesobas,

inglisur halstuxebs, italiur qudebs, mkacr, aristokratul,

konservatiul stils~. 12

am Cacma-gadacmebis logikis axsna SeiZleba: rolis

gasaxsnelad msaxiobisTvis kostumi iseve mniSvnelovania, rogorc

qmedeba. meierholdi ki, suliT xorcamde artisti, stilis

ufaqizesi grZnobiT Tavisi principebis Sesatyvisad icvamda;

magram misi iersaxe yovelTvis konfliqturad gamoiyureboda

garemos fonze.

meierholdma datova Tbilisi da daikarga is realuri

SesaZlebloba, rom ara petrogradSi, aramed swored aq

aRsrulebuliyo cocxali marionetebis `modernistuli

Teatris~ Tamami mxatvruli idea, romelic msoflio reJisoruli

Semoqmedebis umaRles mwvervals warmoadgens. Tumca, SeiZleba

iTqvas, rom erTgvari estafeta gagrZelda _ saqarTvelos

kulturis, tradiciisa da gemovnebisTvis ucxo ar aris aseTi

xasiaTis Teatris sistema. es bevrad ufro gvian, magram mainc

aRsrulda da xorci Seisxa marjaniSvilis da axmetelis

modernistul eqsperimentebSi. axalma talRam axleburad aagora

XX saukunis udidesi Teatraluri idea, romlis dabadeba

Ggordon kregis saxels ukavSirdeba. 70-iani wlebidan dRemde

qarTuli Teatri kvlav am talRaze aRmoCndeba, isev am ideidan

aRmocendeba da gabrwyindeba speqtaklebiT, romlebic qarTuli

xelovnebis emblemad iqcnen: `yvaryvare~, `kavkasiuri carcis

wre~, `riCard mesame~, `mefe liri~ da sxva.

1. Кавказ, 1904, 28 сентября;

2. stanislav pSibiSevski (1868-1927) - poloneli mwerali da

dramaturgi. modernisti, dekadenti, TanamedroveTa yuradRebas iqcevda

antimeSCanuri, burJuaziul-anarqistuli meamboxe suliskveTebiT, mwvaved

asaxavda burJ. inteligenciis cnobierebis kriziss. sayrdens eZebda

nicSeseul `Zlieri pirovnebis kultSi~, erotizmSi, princi pSi,

66 67


`xelovneba xelovnebisaTvis~, piesebi `bednierebisaTvis~ (1899) da

`Tovli~ (1903), gamoirCeva stilis gamokveTili, ganzrax efeqtaciiT;

3. Jelagin J., Dark Genius, OPY, LTD. London, 1982, P.89;

4. SeniSvna: saubaria g.hauptmanis `CaZirul zarze~;

5. Кавказ, 1904, 4 октября;

6. moris meterlinki (1862-1049) - belgieli mwerali, dramaturgi,

filosofosi.. meterlinki qmnida zRaprul filosofiur piesebs.

misi adreuli dramatugiis wamyvani Temaa daucveli da brma adamianis

bedi gaugebar, daundobel samyaroSi. mis nawarmoebebs gamsWvalavs

idumali bedisweris dekandenturi koncepcia. gansakuTrebuli

popularobiT sargeblobdnen misi piesebi: `mona vana~, `brmebi~, `lurji

frinveli~, `tentaJilis sikvdili~, `da beatrisa~, `peleasi da

melisandra~ da sxva;

7. Jelagin J., Dark Genius, OPY, LTD. London, 1982, p.109;

8. iqve, gv. 106-107;

9. Jelagin J., Dark Genius, OPY, LTD. London, 1982, p. 106-107;

10. Тифллисский листок, 1905, 1 марта;

11. ix. iqve, elagini, gv. 106-107;

12. iqve, Jelagin, p. 106-107.

gamoyenebuli literatura:

i. Tuxareli, meierholdi saqarTveloSi, disertaciis avtoreferati,

Tb. 1978.

maia kiknaZe,

asocirebuli profesori

Tojinebisa da Crdilebis warmodgenebi

indoneziaSi

(vaiang kuliti)

Crdilebisa da Tojinuri Teatris saxeobebi, romelic termin

vaiangis 1 qveS gaerTianda erT-erTi Zveli da gavrcelebuli

sanaxaoba iyo indoneziaSi, gansakuTrebiT ki _ kunZul iavaze.

Tojinuri sanaxaoba vaiangi Tavis TavSi moicavda yvela

aspeqts sazogadoebrivi, ideologiuri Tu kulturuli

cxovrebisa da am TvalsazrisiT is `iavuri sinamdvilis oreuls~

warmoadgenda, romelSic mkafiod ikveTeboda indoneziuri

klasobrivi sazogadoebisTvis damaxasiaTebeli Tvisebebi:

winaparTa kulti, agraruli kulti da animisturi tradiciebi.

iavis, balis, maduras soflebSi saRamos 7 sT.-ze qoqosis

zeTiT gaJRenTil naTuras aanTebdnen da xis karkasze gadaWimul

TeTr tiloze _ ekranze, cnobili Tojinebis Teatris vaiangis

warmodgenebs marTavdnen, sadac orkestr gamelangis musikis

TanxlebiT xaris tyavisagan Sekerili Tojinebi mefeebis, gmirebis,

princesebisa da groteskuli urCxulebis saxeebs warmoadgendnen.

ekranze RvTaebebisa da miTiuri gmirebis gamoCena principSi

iyo winaparTa sulebis gamoZaxeba, romlis Cvenebebisas vaiang

kulitis (tyavis Tojina) warmodgenebi uzrunvelyofda da

romelic miznad isaxavda winaparTa mier STamomavlebis

dalocvasa da maTTvis keTildReobis motanas.

Senoba, sadac warmodgena imarTeboda, pirobiTad gayofili

iyo or nawilad. erT mxares qalebi da bavSvebi isxdnen, romlebic

Crdilebs uyurebdnen, meore mxares _ mamakacebi da isini

meTojinisa da Tojinis TamaSs adevnebdnen Tvalyurs. mayurebelTa

amgvari ganlageba migvaniSnebda, rom warmodgena erTdroulad

Crdilebisa da Tojinebis sanaxaoba iyo, raSic mdgomareobs

misi unikalurobac.

vaiang kulitis warmodgenebis ZiriTadi funqcia, romelic

saritualo, religiur-mistikuri niSan-TvisebebiT xasiaTdeba,

boroti sulebis Selocva, RvTaebebis gulis mogeba, miwis

68 69


maia kiknaZe

Tojinebisa da Crdilebis warmodgenebi indoneziaSi

ganayofiereba da kargi mosavlis aReba gaxldaT. agraruli

magiis Semcvel epizodebSi, rac, pirvel rigSi, brinjis mosavlis

aRebasTan iyo dakavSirebuli animisturi religiisaTvis

damaxasiaTebeli sagnis, am SemTxvevaSi, brinjis sulier arsebad

warmoCena da maTdami pativiscemis gamoxatva warmodgenis

ZiriTadi Tema gaxldaT. am dros sruldeboda warmodgena

`brinjis RvTaeba sri~, raTa kidev erTxel pativi miegoT brinjis

mindvrebisaTvis da ganedevnaT parazitebi, radgan iavelTa gagebiT

Tu rituali ar Sesruldeboda mosavalic ar iqneboda.

vaiangis warmodgenebis daniSnuleba da mizani kidev ufro

Rrma da mravalmxrivi iyo, rac mTlianad indonezieli xalxis

rwmenasa da Sexedulebaze iyo dafuZnebuli. vaiang-kulitis

lakonebis Casma aucilebeli iyo adamianis cxovrebis iseT

mniSvnelovan epizodebSi, rogoricaa dabadeba, iniciacia da

sikvdili. Tu romelime ojaxs surda misi vaJi lamazi

gamosuliyo, sasurveli iyo fexmZimobis me-7 Tves SeekveTaT

piesa `arjunas dabadeba~. xolo Tu adamians boroti sulebisagan

ganTavisufleba sWirdeboda, speqtakl `kolos dabadebas~

warmoadgendnen radgan mosaxleobis azriT, warmodgenas magiuri

Zala gaaCnda da is ara marto SemkveTisTvis (warmodgena

yovelTvis SekveTiT tardeboda), aramed damswre

sazogadoebisTvisac Zalze sasargeblo iyo da xSirad CaZinebul

mayurebelzec (speqtakli 9-10 saaTi grZeldeboda) dadebiT

gavlenas axdenda, radgan maT uaryofiTi energiisgan

aTavisuflebda.

rogorc vxedavT, warmodgena yovelTvis gansakuTrebuli

SemTxvevebis dros tardeboda da mas aranairi gasarTobi

datvirTva ar gaaCnda. dabadeba Tu gardacvaleba, fexmZimoba,

winadacveTa, avadmyofoba Tu sixaruli, omis dawyeba Tu damTavreba,

axali mmarTvelis mosvla Tu sxva mniSvnelovani movlenebi

adamianisa Tu qveynis cxovrebaSi Tojinebis monawileobis gareSe

ar Caivlida. aseTi Zala gaaCnda tyavis warmodgenebs, romelic

wminda sanaxaobad iTvleboda, xolo Tojina _ magiuri Zalis

matareblad, romelsac didi pativiscemiT epyroboda misi sulis

Camdgmeli meTojine _ dalangi, speqtaklis reJisori da Tojinis

matarebeli. yvelaze ganaTlebuli adamiani iavur sazogadoebaSi

(gansakuTrebiT sasaxlis karis dalangi, romlis koleqciaSi

600-mde Tojina inaxeboda), romelic Tavisi mniSvnelobiTa da

sazogadoebrivi mdgomareobiT qurumsac ki utoldeboda.

speqtaklis dawyebis win, roca locvas ityoda, Tojinebsa da

rekvizits bolSi gaaxvevda, ekranis win moikalaTebda da gonebis

koncentraciis meSveobiT gardacvlil sulebTan kontaqtis

damyarebas axerxebda. aseTi niWis wyalobiT qveynis mmarTvelebi

vaiangis meTojineebs, rogorc es qronikebSia aRniSnuli (1847-

77), saxelmwifos siZlieris garantad Tvlidnen da cdilobdnen

isini mudam TavianT garemocvaSi hyolodaT. me-19 s.-is 2 iavuri

Txzulebis erT-erTi personaJi (serat Centini) ki dalaings

RmerTis simbolod miiCnevda `dalaingi _ es RmerTia, romelmac

Seqmna yvelaferi da daadgina Cveni bedi, im dros, roca adamiani

dedis saSoSi Caisaxeba, misi cxovrebis istoria ukve

gaTamaSebulia da dasrulebulic. asea Tojinur warmodgenebSic

_ vis Tu ara dalangs SeuZlia Tojinebis moqmedebebisa da

moZraobebis xelmZRvaneloba _ es aris erTianoba Semoqmedisa

da qmnilebisa _ Cveni cxovrebis gza vaiangis piesaa.~

Tojinur warmodgenebs Tavisi tradiciuli repertuari

gaaCnda. piesebi, anu lakonebi, specialurad iTxzveboda da is

zepirsityvierebiT Taobidan Taobas gadaecemoda. amave dros

warmoadgendnen maTTvis ukve kargad nacnobi induri eposis

`ramaianasa~ da `mahabharatas~ siuJetebs, romelTa epizodebic

saukuneebis manZilze nel-nela adgilobriv zRaprebsa da

miTologiur motivebSi gaiTqvifa. ase Seiqmna iavuri

miTologiiTa da istoriiT STagonebuli nawarmoebebi: `ramaiana~

(IX), `arjunas qorwili~ (X).

vaiangis lakonebis ZiriTadi Tema adamianis daniSnuleba,

sakuTari Tavis Zieba da cxovrebis sazrisis Secnoba gaxldaT.

mTavari gmiris (vaJis) gamgzavreba ukvdavebis wlis an ucnobi

mamis mosaZebnad da am gzaze (ZiriTadad, uRran tyeSi) uamravi

dabrkolebebis gadalaxva, urCxullebTan da goliaTebTan brZola

araerTi lakonis siuJetSi iyo warmodgenili. erT-erTi iaveli

avtoris princi mankunegoro VII-is 3 mtkicebiT, survili gaigo,

vin aris mamaSeni, cxovrebis gagebis survilia, rac piesaSi

mxolod meditaciis samadis gziTaa SesaZlebeli. mamis saZebnelad

wasuli axalgazrda vaJi meditaciaSi varjiSobs. man unda

daTrgunos vnebebi da survilebi. adamianuri vnebebi da sisusteebi

70 71


maia kiknaZe

Tojinebisa da Crdilebis warmodgenebi indoneziaSi

ki lakonSi simbolurad urCxulebisa da goliaTebis saxiTaa

warmodgenili. goliaTebis damarcxeba ki sakuTar vnebebze

gamarjvebas niSnavda.

vaiangis warmodgenebSi kargad aisaxa indoneziuri

sazogadoebis ierarqiuli dayofac, rac moqmed pirTa sametyvelo

enaSic vlindeboda. mayureblisaTvis Znelad gasagebi RmerTebis

ena iyo, advilad gasagebi ki msaxurTa ena. qveynis ierarqiuli

mowyoba migvaniSnebda ama Tu im funqciaze, mis saWiroebebsa da

aucileblobaze indoneziur sazogadoebaSi. mag.: RvTis msaxurTa

funqcia ritualis mowyoba iyo, raindebs saxelmwifos dacva

evalebodaT, vaWrebs ki ekonomikis ganviTarebisTvis unda SeewyoT

xeli. ierarqiuli mowyobidan gamomdinareobda lakonis

moralur-eTikuri swavlebac, rac vaiangSi `moraluri

pluralizmis kodeqss~ (andersoni) efuZneboda. amdenad, adamianis,

rogorc garkveuli socialuri fenis warmomadgenlis moqmedeba,

vaiangis mixedviT, Tavisi kargi an cudi TvisebebiT ki ar

fasdeboda, aramed imiT, Tu rogori warmomadgeneli iyo Tavisi

rangisa (mag., kauravebs kicxavdnen imis gamo ki ara, rom isini

cudebi arian, aramed imis gamo, rom cudi raindebi arian).

vaiangis lakonebis mniSvnelovani nawili qveynis warsulis

Txrobasac eTmoboda da mas ganixilavdnen, rogorc erTian

uwyvet movlenas istoriuli procesebisa. vinaidan iavelTa

sulieri cxovreba vaiangTan iyo dakavSirebuli da is maTTvis

garkveul skolis funqciasac asrulebda, istoriis ardaviwyebas

winaparTa brZolebis, RmerTebis, pandavebis, madjahitebis

mmarTvelebisa da misi STamomavlebis CvenebiT cdilobda. am

TvalsazrisiT vaiangi saganmanaTleblo da SemecnebiTic iyo,

romelsac didi gavlenis moxdena SeeZlo axalgazrdobaze. mis

sulier aRzrdasa da xalxuri tradiciebis SenarCunebaze, vinaidan

masSi kargad ikveTeboda humanisturi msoflmxedveloba,

movaleobisadmi erTgulebis grZnoba, samarTlianobisaTvis brZola

da maRali idealebi.

vaiangis gmirebis istoria da Tojinis figuris moxatuloba

imdenad popularuli iyo mTel indoneziaSi, rom arqiteqturaSi

`vaiangis stilic~ ki damkvidrda. vaiangis personaJTa cxovrebis

amsaxveli epizodebi monumentur xelovnebaSi gamoiyeneboda da

araerTi arqiteqtoruli Sedevris kedlebze iyo gamosaxuli.

mag: vulkanuri warmoSobis plato diengze 4 ganlagebuli Sua

saukuneebis arqiteqturis saukeTeso nimuSebi momcro sakulto

nageboba Candebis yvelaze warmosadgeni Zeglebi Teatr vaiangis

gmirebis personaJebiTaa dasaxelebuli. (Candi puntadeva, Candi

arjuna, Candi bima) da sxva.

vaiangi erT-erTi mniSvnelovani movlena gaxldaT indoneziis

kulturis istoriaSi da is am kulturis simbolos

warmoadgenda. mravali saukuneebis manZilze vaiangi ayalibebda

iavelTa esTetikur gemovnebasa da msoflmxedvelobas, qmnida

kulturasa da icavda tradiciebs, romelsac Taobidan Taobas

gadascemda.

1. vaiangi _ ramdenime mniSvneloba aqvs

a) mas eZaxian Tojinebs gamoWrils xis an tyavisagan

b) warmodgenas niSnavs

g) adgilobrivi mcxovreblebi vaiangis mniSvnelobaSi suls,

aCrdils gulisxmobdnen;

2. С. С. Кузнецова – У истоков индонезийской культуры м. 1989

ст. 88;

3. И. И. Соломоник – Традиционный театр кукол востока м. 1983

ст. 105;

4.Г.Г. Баидиленко – Культура и идеология средиевековых

государств явы м. 1984 ст. 59.

72 73


guliko mamulaSvili,

wamyvani mecnierTanamSromeli

`Tazie~ sparsul samecniero literaturaSi

Zveli sparsuli Teatris nairsaxeobis, `Tazies~, Rrmad

mistikuri arsi, erovnuli fesvebi da sulieri, zneobrivmoraluri

Rirebulebebi gansakuTrebuli siRrmiT warmoCndeba

iraneli avtorebis specialur samecniero literaturaSi. iranel

specialistTa xedva kidev ufro naTels xdis `Tazies~ da

Sahsei-vahseis misteriul buneba-xasiaTs, mis kulturologiur

Rirebulebas mTeli Sua saukuneebis iranuli yofisTvis da,

imavdroulad, mis principul mniSvnelobas sazogadod sparsuli

Teatris CamoyalibebisaTvis; miT umetes, roca aseTi samecniero

kvlevebi amomwurav istoriul-literaturul wyaroebzea

dayrdnobili. Cven uprianad miviCnieT sparsulenovani samecniero

Sromebis monacemebi calke warmogvedgina, radgan maTSi

Tanmimdevrulad da kompleqsuradaa ganxiluli samsjelo

misteriis arseboba warmoSobis dRidan dRemde da Tavmoyrilia

yvela monacemi iranis vrceli teritoriis yvela kuTxidan.

qvemomoyvanili masala ramdenime aseTi Sromis ZiriTadi Sinaarsis

mokle mxatvrul gadmocemas asaxavs SigadaSig Cveni

komentarebiTurT.

`misteriis dadgma~ (Sabihgardani) an `misteriis Sesruleba~

(Sabahxani), igive `Tazie~, iyo warmodgena, warmoSobiT

dakavSirebuli islamis winaswarmetyvelis ojaxis dramatuli

movlenebisa da cxovrebis Sesaxeb arsebul gadmocemebTan.

gansakuTrebiT es Seexeba im faqtebs da tragediebs, rac imam

huseinsa da mis ojaxs daatyda Tavs moharamze, hijris 662

wels, romelic swrafad gavrcelda da moicva xalxuri

kulturis, zepirmetyvelebisa da dasTanebis (Tqmulebebis) yvela

mimdinareoba.

arabTa gabatoneba iranSi erovnul marcxad aRiqmeboda da

iranelebi imTaviTve cdilobdnen, Tavi daexsnaT am batonobisagan.

maT arab xalifebs daupirispires winaswarmetyvelis, muhamedis

memkvidreebis Sto, garkveuli jgufi Seqmnes safaris saxiT da

am gziT sando `sp. Sia~ seqta warmoiqmna, romelic moqmedebda

abasidebis mmarTvelobamde (XVI-XVII s.), vidre `Sia~, anu Siitoba,

Siizmi, ar gamocxadda oficialur religiad.

sefianTa saxelmwifos (1502-1722 ww.) politika Siizms

eyrdnoboda, romlis meSveobiTac iranma damoukidebloba moipova,

qveyana fexze dadga, gaZlierda. `Tazies~ warmoCena da ayvaveba

ki am politikuri da religiuri damoukideblobis erT-erTi

Semadgeneli nawili da Sedegi iyo. saSualo klasis ganviTareba,

vaWrebisa da wvril mewarmeTa, xelosanTa momagreba ganapirobebda

myar ekonomikur viTarebas, SedarebiT stabilurobasa da simSvides,

rac religiurad unda Semkobiliyo salocavi gund-dasebisa da

misteriuli saxiobebis arsebobiT. sefianTa dinastia, uwyobda

ra xels xelovnebis, literaturis, mwerlobis, poeziis

ganviTarebas, agebda didebul arqiteqturul nagebobebs, imgvar

sazogadoebriv garemos qmnida, saiqioze, imqveyniur cxovrebaze,

rom SeZlebuli moqalaqeni, memamuleni Tu didebulebi,

afinansebdnen religiuri misteriebis Semsrulebel dasebs. saero

xelovnebaSi (cekva, simRera, mxatvroba, poezia) moRvawe msaxiobebis

garda, sefianTa dedaqalaqSi isfahanSi umaRles mwvervals miaRwia

profesiuli misteriuli dasebis Camoyalibebis procesma. es

dasebi aisidan vaxSmamde awyobdnen msvlelobebs, rac XIX saukunis

Suawlebamde iyo SemorCenili. maT mier warmodgenili scenebi

Seicavdnen sanaxaobebs kacobriobis dasabamidan VIII Siiti imamis

saflavis monaxulebamde.

963 wels qristianuli welTaRricxviT, Tazie pirvelad

Catarebula baRdadSi mayzoldoulebuies wyalobiT.Mman brZaneba

gasca, bazari daketiliyo da Savebi (ZaZebi) CaecvaT.BbrZanebis

gamo ara, magram ufro Rrma xalxuri tradiciis gamoisobiT

Taziem TandaTan swored aseTi saxe miiRo: ZaZebi, Savebi da

bazris daketva. Svidi Semdgomi saukunis ganmavlobaSi Tazie

ixveweboda da TandaTan Teatraluri piesis, anu misteriis

(saxiobis), saxe miiRo. mogzaurTa wyaroebi mowmoben, rom mkerdSi

cema, jaWvebis rtymeva, moTqma-tirili, xmiT simRera-glova, almebis

tareba, Semdgom ki sagangebo samosis da garegnuli atributikis

gamoyeneba _ yovelive es ukve adridanve Tazies maxasiaTeblebad

gvevlineba.

Camoyalibda terminologiac. ase, mag.: misteriis mowyoba

aris Sabihsazi (`mibaZvis mowyoba~), msaxiobi _ Sabihbaz

74 75


guliko mamulaSvili

`Tazie~ sparsul samecniero literaturaSi

(mimbaZveli, moTamaSe) an Sabihxan (misteriis wamkiTxveli), Sabih

(misterikosi), bazigar (msaxiobi) da sxv.

rogorc Cans, sefianTa (1502-1722) dinastiis dros Taziem

gaiara Tavisi srulqmnisa da srulyofis saboloo etapi da

miaRwia mwvervals. am srulyofilebis Semdeg igi im saxiT

warmoCinda, rogoradac dResdReobiT vicnobT.

rogorc irkveva, piesa, Teatraluri warmodgena jer kidev

1634 wels qristianuli welTaRricxviT (Seesabameba mzis

kalendriT pijris 1012 wels) ar arsebobda. iyo mxolod

samgloviani rituali (qviTini, moTqma, xanjlis cema, datireba

aSuris dRes, panaSvidi da misT.). magram 1668 weli qristianuli

welTaRricxviT (mzis kalendriT, hijris 1046 weli) sefi IIis

Sahobisas, yofila movlena, romelsac tavernie misterias

uwodebs. metad sayuradReboa aseTi scenis aRwera: bavSvebi

daxocilebs TamaSobdnen da kuboebSi iwvnen gaunZrevlad

mZinareebiaviT. GmaT garSemo ki glova-datireba iyo

gamarTuli.Ees bavSvebi ganasaxierebdnen xalifasgan moklul

huseinis or mcirewlovan vaJs. es ukve msaxiobobaa da

Teatraluri scena, romelic diliT iwyeboda da (5 saaTi)

SuadRemde grZeldeboda. dasSi mxolod mamakacebi Sediodnen

da qalebis rolebs yrmebi, ymawvil-Wabukebi asrulebdnen. Tumca

gogonebi 9 wlamde daSvebulni iyvnen.

1738 wlisTvis (mzis kalendriT hijris 1166 wels)

u.franklini gvamcnobs TamaSobebis Sesaxeb, romelic ambebisa

da Tqmulebebis (dasTanebis) nawilebs eyrdnoboda.Ees iyo piesa,

saxioba (sp. nemaieS). dasSi sxvadasxva asakis msaxiobebi

monawileobdnen, iyo simboloebic (magaliTad, `faraTis wyali~,

`samoTxis wyali~); msaxiobebs ecvaT Sesabamisi Sesamoslebic,

quCebSic gamodiodnen huseinis neStis Tanmxlebebad, iyo ficxeli

omi da Cxubi, xalifa ijda Zvirfasad morTul-mokazmul cxenze,

xolo mis gverdiT idga is frangi elCi, romelic Siitad

moiqca da Sahidad, anu mowamed, wamebulad iqca.

Tazies erT-erTi yvelaze mimzidveli da Teatralurad

saintereso scena iyo yasimis qorwinebis ambavi, romelic

idgmeboda samgloviaro warmodgenaSi. yrma Wabuki yvela

Sesabamisi morTulobiT TamaSobs patarZlis _ hasanis

qaliSvilis fatimas, rols. yasimi (huseinis ufrosi vaJi) da

fatima Sewyvetili qorwilis dros eTxovebian erTmaneTs, unazes-

unatifesi gamoTxovebisas saqmro aZlevs sacoles samgloviaro

samoss, romelsac is mxrebze moigdebs da Semdeg ki ojaxis

Tanamgzavri qalebis garemocvaSi warmoTqvams satiral leqss

daRupul yasimze.

aRniSnuli sasiyvarulo sevdiani sceniT Tazies sistema

ukve aSkarad mZlavr ganacxads akeTebs namdvil Teatrze. zendebis

xelmwifobis dasasruls Taziem Tavi Teatris saxed warmoaCina.

xolo mogvianebiT, yajarTa epoqis dros (1795-1925), Tazie

samefo karis yuradRebas miipyrobs, da didebulTa da didvaWarTa

mfarvelobis qveS moeqca.

erTgvarad moduri gaxda Tazies mxardaWera, rac mxolod

saxiobis mfarveloba ki ara, saerTo saxalxo erovnuli

pativiscemis mizidva-mimxrobasac niSnavda. amiT Tazies momxreni

upirispirdebodnen Taziesadmi skeptikurad ganwyobilT. yajarTa

dinastiis dros Taziem Tavisi ganviTarebis mwvervals miaRwia.

igi imarTeboda TamaSxaneebSi, TaqieebSi (dasayrdeni), huseiniebSi

(huseinis saxli), droebiT Teatralur SenobebSi _

nemaieSxaneebSi.Aamdenad, gaCnda Teatraluri Senobebis mTeli

seria, sxvadasxva Sesabamisi saxelwodebebiT. am Senobebis qselma

mTeli irani moicva: dedaqalaqi Teirani, didi qalaqebi, pirvel

rigSi, isfahani, sadac ukve sefianTa dedaqalaqis Zveli tradiciebi

arsebobda, aseve provinciebis centrebi da ufro patara qalaqebi

da dabebic.

Taqies principi, dasajdom-dasayrdeni nageboba, rogorc

droebiTi Senoba, karvebidan iRebs saTaves, esaa ZvelTagan

gamoyolili tradicia da suliskveTeba karvebSi jdomisa,

karvebSi cxovrebisa.

`warmodgenis saxli~ _ nemaieSxane Sedgeboda karvisgan an

Zalian didi karvisgan (karvis saxli, fanCaturi), sp. Cador,

xeime. igi magrdeboda xis boZebiT da SesaZlebeli iyo misi

iolad akecva da gadadgma, gadatana.

Semdeg gaCnda mtkice, medgari qvis an xis Senobebi. isini

warmoSobiT da ideiT ukavSirdeba tradiciul zurxanebs, mrgvali

darbaziT, amfiTeatris tipis dasasxdomebiTa da centrSi

moqceuli sceniT.AaseTi medgari Taqies ZiriTadi

nawilebiaMmayureblebis aivnebi (yorfa) da maRali mrgvali

wriuli qva (saqu) SuaSi, qvemoT, ormoSi. saqu aris TamaSis

adgili, scena. erTi aseTi Taqies zusti istoria warmodgenilia

76 77


guliko mamulaSvili

`Tazie~ sparsul samecniero literaturaSi

(1799 wels, mzis kalendriT hijriT 1177), faThaliSahis mefobis

pirvel wlebSi. mas erqva `nouruzxanis Taqie~.

am epoqis uamravi evropeli TviTmxilveli iZleva aRniSnuli

tipis Teatralur SenobebSi nanaxi sxvadasxva speqtaklebis

sakmaod mxatvrul da emociur aRwerebs. isini aRniSnaven, rom

fanCaturiani Teatrebis garSemo Ria cis qveS uamravi xalxi

iyrida Tavs, saxuravebze, banebzec adiodnen. yvela monayolidan

Cans, rom Tazies warmodgenebi uzarmazari popularobiTa da

siyvaruliT sargeblobda. yvelaze mniSvnelovani ki isaa, rom

am droisTvis Tazie sayovelTao erovnul Teatrs warmoadgens:

rogorc iTqva, misi mayureblebi da mfarvelebi xalxis farTo

masebis garda vaWarTa da mewarmeTa klasi, umaRlesi aristokratia

da TviT samefo ojaxebi iyvnen.

Tavisi saboloo saxis Ziebisas Taziem bevri ram aiRo,

mTxrobelTa institutidan (sp. nayal) da _ wamkiTxvelTagan

(xeTab _ kiTxva, yuranis mkiTxveli, da sxv.). moambeni da

wamkiTxvelni XIX saukunis Tazies saxiobis erT-erT mTavar

Semsruleblebad iqcnen.

amdenad, Tazies Teatrma Tavisi ganviTarebis umaRles

safexurs miaRwia sefianTa epoqaSi isfahanSi da yajarTa epoqaSi

(1795-1925) TeiranSi.

nadirSah afSarma, piriqiT, am or epoqas Soris garkveuli

xniT daasusta da SeaCera Tazies ganviTareba, radgan ver iyo

misi, wminda Siituri aristokratiuli sanaxaobis

Tayvanismcemeli.

samagierod, nasreddinSahis dros yajarTa mfarvelobis qveS

Tazies, marTlac, erovnulma Teatrma Tavis kulminacias miaRwia.

igi gadaiqca mdidarTa da aristokratiis fufunebad,

imavdroulad Rirsebad, radgan Tazies dafinanseba da mxardaWera

didebulebs pativad eTvlebodaT. aseTi iyo sazogadoebrivi

ganwyoba, saerTo klimati, rasac uSualod Sahis Sexedulebebi

da damokidebulebebi umagrebda poziciebs.

warmodgenebi uSualod sasaxlis karzec imarTeboda da

yajarTa sagvareulos zogi warmomadgeneli Tavadac msaxiobobda.

Ddidebulebi ki am gzaze baZavdnen Sahs da mis ojaxs, xels

uwyobdnen Teatraluri Senobebis mdidrulad morTvas da

galamazebas. bevrgan aRwerili aris da Caxatulicaa Teiranis

mTavari Taqie, _ TaqiedoulaTi, romelic sparsuli erovnuli

Teatris centrad gvevlineba am droisTvis. isfahanSic da

TeiranSic arsebobda uzarmazari Taqieebi, romlebic aTasobiT

mayurebels itevda, qalebi mamakacebisgan gamoyofilad sxdebodnen.

aivnebi ramdenime sarTulad adioda, sadac didebulebs sakuTari,

aRmosavlur stilSi gamoWrili, yajarTa epoqis sparsuli

mxatvrobiTa da CuqurTmebiT morTuli loJebi gaaCndaT.Ggarda

amisa, iyo naklebad SeZlebulTaTvis qandarebi da gasasvlelebi,

sadac uamravi adamiani eteoda. specialur adgilebze aTasobiT

qali da bavSvi sxdeboda. TaqiedoulaTi yovelTvis gadaWedili

iyo aRtacebuli mayurebliT.Yyvela evropeli TviTmxilveli

aRfrTovanebiT aRgviwers im Teatralur viTarebas da ganwyobas,

rac sufevda imdroindel TaqiedoulaTSi Tu sxva TamaSxanebSi.

centraluri Teatrebi da, pirvel rigSi, TaqiedoulaTi

ukiduresad mdidruli dadgmebiT xasiaTdeboda, rac vimedovnebT

Tavad Sahis karis, aristoktatiisa da maRali wreebis

warmomadgenelTa xelSewyobiT da dafinansebiT xdeboda.

dekoraciebi, Cacmuloba, atributika, grimi, cocxali cxovelebis

(cxenebis, aqlemebis da sxv.) monawileoba, _ yovelive

grandiozuli iyo.

arsebobs cnobebi warmodgenebSi uamravi cxenisa da aqlemis

gamosvlis Sesaxeb, rac monumentur, waruSlel STabeWdilebas

tovebda. farTod iSleboda bataluri scenebic, iaraRis

JRaruniTa da SeZaxilebiT, cxenebis WixviniTa da yvela saTanado

aRWurvilobiT.

moqmedeba TamaSdeboda ormoSi, saquze da mis garSemo. saqu

Tavisi warmoSobiT Wasac ukavSirdeba, romelsac qvis sarqveli

aqvs, qveS ki didi raodenobiT civi wyali. Wis sarqvelze

jdoma SeiZleboda da mis garSemo qarvaslebSi xalxi ikribeboda

da erToboda. sazogadoebrivi cxovrebis es xalxuri elementi

TaqieSi saqus saxiT iCens Tavs: saqu – skami, dasajdomi.

msaxiobebs tansacmlis gamosacvleli oTaxebi hqondaT _

Tanamedrove kulisebi. aseve kulisebis saxiT mowyobili iyo

cxovelebis samyofeli adgili gamosvlamde da sxva damxmare

saSualebebi.

TaqiedoulaTi imdroindeli evropuli (dasavluri) Teatris

teqnikur xerxebs flobda da AaRWurvili iyo xmis, sinaTlisa

da sanaxaobis efeqtebiT. Hhaeridan eSveboda nivTebi, eSvebodnen

da dasrialebdnen angelozebi, sulebi, scenaze iqmneboda burusi,

78 79


guliko mamulaSvili

Rrubeli, naTeba cecxli da sxv. MmZlavri iyo xmovani efeqtebic.

msaxiobebisaTvis TamaSisas gansazRvruli iyo xmis tembri, Yyvela

rolisTvis damuSavebuli esa Tu is, laparakis stili, yvirili,

tirili, simRera, da a. S.

dasebSi mravalricxovani personali iyo. ganarCevdnen

scenarists, reJisors (Sabihgardan), reJisoris TanaSemwes,

musikalur dass, wamkiTxvelebs, momRerlebs, motiralebs, meomrebs,

cxovelebTan momuSaveebs da sxv. MmaTi gasamrjelo mTlianad

damfinanseblebze iyo damokidebuli da igi imxanad Zalian

didi iyo. amitomac, dedaqalaqis profesiuli dasebis wevrebi

SeZlebul adamianebad iqceodnen da pativiscemiTac

sargeblobdnen.

cnobilia, rom am epoqaSi iranis yovel kuTxeSi eZebdnen da

CamohyavdaT niWieri da garegnulad momxiblavi msaxiobebi,

rogorc Wabukebi, aseve asakovani adamianebic.

centraluri didi Taqieebis garda arsebobda provinciuli

patara Taqieebi da gadasatani fanCaturebi.MmaTi patronebic

da mesveurebic aqtiurad iRvwodnen Tavisi dasebis

gasaumjobeseblad da qiraobdnen, iwvevdnen msaxiobebs sxvadasxva

provinciebidan. samefo,Aaristokratiuli Tazies paralelurad,

arsebobas ganagrZobda xalxuri Taziec, romelic saukuneTa

siRrmidan im dromde arsebobda da kvebavda xalxis dabali

fenebis da farTo masebis sulier cxovrebas, magram imavdoulad

moSorebul da SedarebiT Rarib regionebSi arsebobas

ganagrZobdnen WeSmaritad saxalxo TamaSxanebic, romelic

yovelTvis da axlac ubralo xalxis SemowirulobebiT

cxovrobda da sulier sazrdos awvdida Tavis Semomwirvelebs.

aseTi xalxur tradiciebze damyarebuli Taziexanebi Tavisi

fesvebiT Tazies misteriis saTaveebs ukavSirdebodnen.MmaTi

Rirseba ki imaSia, rom isini farTo masebis uangaro da gulwrfel

siyvaruls emyarebodnen da kvebavdnen im siyvaruls. msaxiobebs

xSirad qiraobdnen sezonurad, _ roca samiwaTmoqmedo samuSaoebi

soflad amoiwureboda. zogs ki visac Zalian, moewoneboda

msaxioboba, xangrZlivad rCeboda.

qali kvlavindeburad ar gamodioda scenaze, magram arsebobda

`qalTa Tazieebi~, romelic Sinaurul wreSi qalbatonebis

garemocvaSi idgmeboda moyvarulTa mier. am mimdinareobis

`Tazie~ sparsul samecniero literaturaSi

damfuZnebeli da ganmaviTarebeli samefo ojaxi da aristokratia

iyo. yajarTa sagvareulos qalbatonebi amzadebdnen da Sinaur

wreSi gaiTamaSebdnen xolme scenebs, romlis monawileni mxolod

qalebi iyvnen. yvelaze arsebiTi ki Teatris istoriisTvis isaa,

rom am periodis Taziewarmodgenebi, romelic TaqiedoulaTSi

idgmeboda, struqturulad, Sinaarsobrivad da scenaTa

SemadgenlobiT swraf cvlilebebs ganicdida. mas emateboda

axal-axali scenebi, zogi Zveli, zogic axlad SeTxzuli. zog

maTgans glovasTan uSualo kavSiri arc hqonda, xdeboda

improvozireba. aRwerilia, magaliTad, aseTi scena: mecxramete

saukunis evropeli mogzauri qali, Tanamedrove tansacmliT,

aqlemze an cxenze mjdari, moxvdeba qarbalas velze. mas axlavs

adgilobrivi gamyolebi, Rames karavSi atarebs. sizmrad ieso

qriste moevlineba, romelic uyveba qarbalas tragediis ambavs.

es monayoli tradiciul TaziesQwarmoadgens. qalze monaTxrobi

iseT STabeWdilebas moaxdens, rom rwmeniT ganimsWvaleba da

Siizmze moiqceva. aseT TxzulebebSi naTlad ikveTeba yajarTa

epoqis suliskveTeba: evropasTan, dasavleTisaken swrafva, evropul

civilizaciasTan ziareba da Serwyma. imavdroulad aSkaraa

religiaTa daaxloebis ideac: iesos monawileoba da TanagrZnoba

Siiti Sahidebisadmi (mowameebisadmi), saerTo sakacobrio

Rirebulebebis da saerTo sulieri faseulobebis warmoCena.

TeatrSi warmodgenili es ideebi yovelmxriv momgebiani iyo

yajarTa epoqis TaqieebisTvis, miT ufro, rom maT mayureblebSi

mravlad iyvnen iranSi Camosuli dasavleli mogzaurebi,

diplomatebi, mecnierebi, saqmiani xalxi da oficialuri pirebi.

yajarTa droindeli dadgmebis ganviTareba bolos iseT

mimarTulebasac iZenda, rom, glovis garda, sxvagvar piesebsac

warmoadgendnen, xdeboda improvizireba. zogjer igrZnoboda,

rom, tragediisa da glovis garda, xalxs garTobac unda. imave

TaziexanebSi paralelurad Semovida komediebi, xalxuri

komediebi) sxvadasxva gasarTobi da TavSesaqcevi Janris piesebi.

saboloo jamSi SeiZleba davaskvnaT, rom TaqieebSi Teatri

imxanad bunebrivad viTardeboda, sazogadoebis moTxovnebis

Sesatyvisad.

Tavad Tazies wyaroebi misi dadgmis mravalgvari variantis

SesaZleblobas iZleva, Tanac imgvarad, rom interpolaciuri

scenebis wyalobiT SesaZloa, sakuTriv tragedia aRar moeqces

80 81


guliko mamulaSvili

centraluri yuradRebis qveS. swored amgvar mimarTulebebs

vxedavT gasuli saukunis (igulisxmeba XIX saukune. g. m.)

mogviano xanis dedaqalaqis TaqieTa moRvaweobaSi.

Tazies wyaroebi Tavdapirvelad dasTanebi (Tqmulebebi,

gadmocemebi, ambebi) iyo, Semdgom ki daiwyes maTi Cawera da

bolos _ piesebis wera. Aam kuTxiT yajarTa epoqisTvis cnobili

saxelebic arsebobs: jer Taziexanebi (wamkiTxvelebi), Semdgom

piesebis avtorebi, wasakiTxi Tu xmiT samRerali leqsebis damweri

poetebi, scenaristebi da gadamwerebi, agreTve wamyvanebi da

reJisorebi. did TaqieebSi diriJorebic iyvnen, romlebic

musikalur dass niSans aZlevdnen, rodis daiwyon da daasrulon

Tavisi gamosvlebi.EerT-erTi elementi iyo agreTve winaTqma

(piesis Sesavali), romelic TaqiedoulaTis pirobebSi

Tavisuflad gamoiyeneboda.Mmas sxvadasxva variantiT specialuri

mTqmeli asrulebda. Sesavali SeiZleba mTeli scenis saxiTac

warmoCeniliyo.

mogvepoveba Cawerili piesebis xelnaweri nimuSebic, leqsebis

xelnawerebi da maTi variantebi.

dasavluri kulturis mZlavri nakadis SemoWrasTan da

gacxovelebuli kontaqtebis, Sedegad Taziesadmi interesi

TandaTan sustdeboda da igi brZanebiT ki ara, kvlav bunebrivad

ukusvliTi dinamikiT ixevda ukan, vidre maRali profesiuli

Teatraluri scenidan ar Camovida da arsebiTad kvlav Tavis

tradiciul poziciebs ar daubrunda. am saxiT igi dRemde

arsebobs da uWiravs faqtobrivad Tavisi sawyisi istoriuli

adgili da mdgomareoba. rogorc Cans, am adgils da statuss

mas veraferi da veravin waarTmevs.

dasanani mxolod isaa, rom garkveul periodSi erovnuli

saxiobis ganviTarebis nacvlad, iranSi bevri meorexarisxovani

dasavluri piesebis TargmaniTa da arc Tu RirsSesaniSnavi

dadgmebiT iyo dakavebuli, rac xels uSlida WeSmariti

xelovnebis ganviTarebas,AamasTanave, daingra da ar SemogvrCa

didebuli Taqieebi, _ es originaluri Teatraluri Senobebi.

zogierTi komentari da mosazreba sparsulenovani

wyaroebisTvis:*

`Tazie~ sparsul samecniero literaturaSi

1. amgvarad, ganxiluli wyaroebidan da specialuri

literaturidan irkveva, rom iranSi xalxuri Teatri _ saxioba,

islamis droidan Tu visaubrebT da uZveles epoqas aRar

SevexebiT _ adreuli Suasakuneebidanve iwyeba, anu, islamis

epoqis saTaveebidanve momdinareobs. centraluri adgili amaSi

`Tazies~ ukavia, romelic Tavdapirvelad mxolod samgloviaroreligiuri

misteria iyo, Semdeg ki TandaTan ise ganviTarda,

rom damatebiTi axali Senakadebi SeiZina da gviani Suasaukuneebis

bolosTvis (sefianTa dros) da XIX saukuneSi, agreTve XX

saukunis dasawyisamde, grandiozuli Teatraluri sanaxaobis

donemde avida, rac ukve profesiuli Teatris xasiaTs atarebda.

2. wyaroebis avtorebi revoluciamdeli iranis epoqas

ganekuTvnebian, amdenad maTi daskvnebic ukve warsuls ekuTvnis.

avtoris sinanuli Tazies daqveiTebadacemisa da degradaciis

gamo dRes aRar aris safuZvliani, radgan misteriuli msvlelobis

saxiT kvlav aRorZinebulia, Tumca ar arsebobs im profesiuli

saxiTa da masStabiT, rac yajarTa epoqis TaqieebSi imarTeboda.

Cven mainc vfiqrobT, rom Tazies udidesi tradiciebi Tanamedrove

sparsul Teatrsac erTgvarad kvebaven.DdRevandeli sparsuli

Teatri aerTianebs Tavis TavSi erovnulsa da dasavlurs, da

manamde arnaxul ganviTarebas miaRwia. es aRaraa is ususuri

`dasavleTis mimbaZveloba~, razedac wuxs zemoaRniSnuli iraneli

avtori. Taziem ver SeinarCuna profesiuli Teatris poziciebi,

magram aseTad rCeboda Tavisi istoriis TiTqmis ori saukunis

manZilze, ori yvelaze saxelganTqmuli da Zlevamosili samefo

dinastiis epoqebSi. xolo xalxuri misteriis saxiT igi ukve

saukuneebis manZilze ar Tmobs poziciebs da, Cveni azriT, zogadad

Teatraluri, saxioburi azrovnebis ganviTarebisTvis nayofier

masalas Seicavs. A

3. `Tazie~ udidesi sulieri Rirebulebebis matarebeli da

Semcveli kulturuli monapovari iyo. igi araoden religiuri

(Siituri mimdinareobis) SinaarsiT iyo datvirTuli, aramed

politikuri (irani arabTa eqspansiis winaaRmdeg) SeniRbuli

82 83


guliko mamulaSvili

`Tazie~ sparsul samecniero literaturaSi

arsiTac. man Rrmad erovnuli mniSvneloba SeiZina: iranuli

Segnebis TviTgamorkveva arabizaciisa da islamizaciis Semdgom,

nawilobriv ki, _ dabruneba Zveli iranis fesvebTan, sasaniduri

sawyisebis Zieba personaJebis warmoSobis genealogiur

labirinTebSi, da bolos, _ Rrmad erovnuli Teatraluri

kulturis Seqmna yovelive amis gamoisobiTa da Sedegad.

4. XIX saukuneSi iranma, zogadad aRmosavleTma mZlavrad

gaiwia Tavisi mravalgvari interesebiT dasavleTisken, Zveli

iranuli kulturidan da xalxuri eposidan aRmocenebuli

misteria, romelSic Tavis mxriv ZvelTagan jer ebrauli, Semdeg

qristianuli da bolos arabuli elementebic iyo SeTvisebuli,

Cvens dromde erTi-ori saukuniT adre TiTqmis Tu nawilobriv

evropuli piesis saxiT idgmeboda da mas erTdroulad

aRmosavleTic uWvretda da dasavleTic.

5. xalxis wiaRSi warmoSobili es saxioba, dabal da farTo

fenebSi naloliavebi da gafrTxilebuli, siyvaruliT motanili

gvian Suasaukuneebamde, sefianTa epoqidan dawyebuli, da Semdgom

nadirSahis gamovliT, yajarebis friad ganaTlebul da

ganswavlul epoqaSi, aristokratiul da elitarul sanaxaobadac

gadaiqca da arnaxul masStabebs miaRwia. imavdroulad, orive

SemTxvevaSi igi Zalzed popularuli iyo. ramdenime aTasi

mayureblisTvis aSenebuli uzarmazari da grandiozuli Teatrebi

XVII-XIX saukuneebSi ivseboda Turme!

6. `Tazies~ istoria gviCvenebs, rom SuasaukuneebSi iranSi

moRvaweobda namdvili profesiuli moxetiale Teatri, swored

iseTive, Tavisi wminda Teatraluri niSnebiT, rogoric evropaSi

iyo.

7. `Taziem~ TandaTanobiT SeiZina, ZiriTadi misteriebis garda,

sxva speqtaklebis nusxac da aq, miT umetes, gadaiqca ara marto

misteriul Teatrad, ara marto misteria-saxiobad, aramed Teatrad

am sityvis dasavluri gagebiTac.

8. `Tazie~ Teatris Semdegi niSnebis matarebelia: arsebuli

dramaturgia (piesa), teqstebi _ jer zepiri, Semdeg ki saxiobis

werilobiTi nusxebi; aseve kiTxva, laparaki, musika, leqsi, simRera,

moqmedeba, moZraoba da sxva; profesionali msaxiobebi,

profesionali reJisorebi, damdgmelebi, maTi TanaSemweebi,

musikaluri dasebi; scena, Teatris Senoba, Teatraluri Senobis

specialuri mowyobiloba; scenografia, scenuri atributebi,

kostumebi, niRbebi, grimi, cocxali cxovelebis monawileoba(!);

Semdgom cocxali cxovelebis gamoyvana evropisa da ruseTis

scenebze XX saukunis did modernistul novatorobad iyo

miCneuli da axlac aseTad aRiqmeba, _ dResac es modernul

eqstravagantobad miiCneva, iranisTvis ki es imTaviTve bunebrivi

saxioburi xerxi yofila; da rac mTavaria: mayurebeli aTasobiT

hyoliaT! hyavdaT agreTve mecenatebi, mfarvelebi.

amdenad, aSkaraa: saqme gvaqvs xalxuri tradiciis wiaRidan

amozrdil namdvil profesiul saxiobasTan _ TeatrTan.

9. `Taziem~ mTel msoflios uCvena, rom iranma ver da ar

daiviwya qerbalas ambavi (tragedia). aseTi mZlavri erovnuli

mexsiereba gamovlinda da aisaxa saxiobaSi, xolo saxiobam,

Tavis mxriv, didad gansazRvra sulierebis xarisxi da xelovnebisa

da kulturis, Teatraluri skolebisa da saxiobis ganviTareba.

`Tazie~ unikaluri, fenomenologiuri movlena aris msoflio

Teatrisa da kulturis istoriaSi.

* wyaroebis warmodgenili mokle varianti qrestomaTiuli masalis

saxiT da detaluri analiziT srulad calke gamoqveyndeba.

beizan bahrami. iranis erovnuli Teatris istoria. Teirani. 1956

(sparsul enaze);

abul-yasem jenaTi aTani. iranuli Teatraluri warmodgenebis

safuZvlebi. Teirani. 1956 (sparsul enaze);

azarnuS azarTaSi. iranis xelovneba. Teirani. gam. senehri. 1976

(sparsul enaze);

abul-yasem anjavi Sirazi. iranis xalxuri Teatri. Teirani. gam.

amirqabiri. 1973 (sparsul enaze);

84 85


nino maWavariani,

wamyvani mecnier-TanamSromeli

evgeni Svarci da misi `drakoni~ rusTavelis

TeatrSi

`me miyvars Cexovi. miyvars cotaa. me ar mjera, rom adamianebi,

romelTac is ar uyvarT, namdvili adamianebi arian. rodesac

Cem Tvalwin gamoxataven aRfrTovanebas CexoviT, iseT siamovnebas

vgrZnob, TiTqos saubari CemTvis pirovnulad axlobel adamians

exebodes da am siyvarulSi ukanasknel adgilze ar dgas imis

gacnobiereba, rom Cexovis maneriT wera CemTvis warmoudgenelia.

misi niWi organulia, bunebrivi, mxolod misTvis damaxasiaTebeli.

CemSi ki is saswaulis SegrZnebas badebs. rogor SeeZlo ase

wera?

romantikosebi, mezRapreebi da misTanani ki CemSi saswaulis

SegrZnebas ar badeben. meCveneba, rom ase wera iolia. me TviTonac

ase vwer... nuTu Cemze gavlenas is mwerlebi axdenen, romlebic

naklebad momwons? Tu aq saqme gvaqvs organul (rogorc,

magaliTad, xma), Tandayolil midrekilebasTan literaturis am

saxeobisadmi?..

Cems pirvel piesas `undervuds~ gulwrfelad, realistur

nawarmoebad vTvlidi. gancvifrebiTa da kmayofilebiT gavige,

rom Turme zRapris axali saxeoba Semiqmnia. es me Zalian

momewona. vfiqrob, SemdgomSi me ufro gacnobierebulad, vidre

adre, vcdilobdi, Cemi piesebi damsgavsebodnen zRaprebs~. 1 evgeni

Svarci yvelasaTvis gasagebi da erTi SexedviT, martivi

literaturuli formiT movida dramaturgiaSi da mainc SeZlo

Tavisi politikuri da pirovnuli mrwamsis mxatvruli

srulyofilebiT gamoTqma. SeZlo gamoecxadebina is erTgvari

Teatraluri manifestebis _ piesa-zRaprebis saxiT. `Искусство

вносит правильность, без формы не передашь ничего, а все

страшнее тем и страшнее, что оно бесформенно. Никто не избежит

искушения тут сделать трогательнее, там характернее, там

многозначительнее... Уж лучше сказки писать. Правдоподобием

не связан а правды - больше~. 2

da marTlac, is faqti, rom pirobiTobiTa da TeatralobiT

zRaprebi TeatrisaTvis misaRebi mxatvruli formaa, Tavis droze

karlo gocimac daamtkica, magram maT kidev erTi sikeTis motana

SeuZliaT _ isini ise qadageben simarTles, rom Tanamedrove

realiebis zust konstatacias ar iTxoven. ase iwereba `Crdili~,

`SiSveli mefe~, `drakoni~...

Tavis dRiurebSi Svarcma zRaprebis weris survili 1942

wlis 17 aprils gamoTqva, anu, maSin, rodesac is ukve aRiarebuli

dramaturgi iyo. ori wlis Semdeg ki Tavis antifaSistur

piesas `drakons~ wers. `Написал я тут пьесу... Зон и Большой

Драматический собираются ее ставить. Даже репетируют. До чего

же отчаянные бывают люди на свете~. 3 es sityvebic naTlad

gviCvenebs, Tu rogori TavmdablobiT gamoirCeva es dramaturgi,

romelic sicocxleSive aRiares niWier dramaturgad, magram

misi namdvili fasi mogvianebiT gaiges _ maSin, rodesac misi

piesebi didi warmatebiT daidga sazRvargareT. mwerlis megobari

v. kaverini 1965 wels, anu, misi gardacvalebidan Svidi wlis

Semdeg, aRniSnavda ra, Tu rogor uWirda literaturis am

usayvarles Janrs (zRapars – n. m.), romelic sabWoTa

msoflmxedvelobam arasaWirod, mavned da socialurad saSiSadac

ki CaTvala bavSvebisaTvis, ase mimarTavda mwerals: Ты знаешь,

а ведь я только теперь, перечитывая твои пьесы, понял, что тебе

удалось. 4

eWvs gareSea, rom zRaprebs poeturi aRqmis unariT

dajildovebuli adamianebi weren da mezRapreebis es qmnilebebi

poeziis mxatvrul donezea Sesrulebuli (anderseni, Zmebi

grimebi). Tavisi dRiurebis sruliad ubralo, yofiT CanawerebSic

ki Svarci gansakuTrebulia. is teqsts ar riTmavs, magram mis

striqonebSi yofis poeziis aRqmis unari gamosWvivis: `Как-то

меня поразило, что все птицы моего детства умерли...~ _ wers

igi dRiurebSi 1950 wlis 24 dekembers. wignis saTauradac

`Живу беспокойно~ SearCia da asec iyo mTeli misi cxovrebis

manZilze.

evgeni Svarci peterburgSi 1921 wels Cavida rostovis

TeatrTan erTad da SeuerTda am qalaqis literaturul kampanias.

im dros axalgazrdoba erTmaneTs raRac iSviaTi komunikabelobiT

86 87


nino maWavariani

_ Sinagani grZnobiT _ ecnoboda da uaxlovdeboda da Svarcic

Seeria maT, rogorc samxreTeli _ Crdiloelebs, rogorc msaxiobi

_ mwerlebs. megobari mwerlebi sul fiqrobdnen, rom igi

daiwyebda weras, radgan es axalgazrda, temperamentiani msaxiobi,

nerviuli, moZravi, feTqebadi, yvelafers iWerda Tvisi Wkviani

cocxali TvalebiT da sityvaSi svamda. myisierad xvdeboda

yovel dafarul azrs Tu grZnobas.

20-ian wlebSi evgeni Svarcs hqonda gonebamaxvilobiT

gamorCeuli improvizaciebi, romelTac is Tavis megobrebTan _

zoSCenkosTan da luncevTan erTad dgamda xelovnebis saxlis

romelime darbazSi. am `kapustnikebze~ ikribebodnen mwerlebi,

mxatvrebi, musikosebi, xelovnebis moyvaruli axalgazrdoba. aq

yalibdeboda momavali mwerlis ganumeorebeli satiruli niWi,

romelic mogvianebiT mis dramaturgiaSi gamobrwyinda.

1925 wels gamovida evgeni Svarcis pirveli wigni `Zveli

balalaikis naambobi~. ase daibada is, rogorc mwerali. man

Seqmna brwyinvale nawarmoebebi bavSvebisaTvis leqsad Tu prozad,

magram misi SesaZleblobebis mcodne megobrebi Tvlidnen, rom

mas niWis erTi meoTxedic ki ar hqonda gamovlenili da is

jer kidev izrdeboda SemoqmedebiTi TvalsazrisiT. isini ar

cdebodnen.

Svarcma SeZlo yofis poeziisa da poeziis yofiTobis Serwyma

originaluri Teatraluri formiT. misi zRaprebi is Wkviani

zRaprebia, romlebic umRerian sikeTes, magram amavdroulad,

politikuri da satiruli simaxviliT gviCveneben borotebas,

romelic yovelTvis arsebobs Cvens garSemo da yvela epoqaSi

mTavar rolSia. gviCveneben sikeTis umweobas, romelic marTlac

rom zRapriseuli paradoqsulobiT imarjvebs xolme borotebaze,

radgan adamianTa umravlesoba mainc Sinaganad sikeTis mxarezea,

Tumc aseve umravlesoba arasodes ibrZvis mis dasamkvidreblad.

sazogadoeba erTeuli gmirebis, Zlieri borotebisa da misi

pasiuri da arapersonificirebuli qveSevrdomebisagan Sedgeba.

es aris misi zogadi modeli da rogor hgavs igi `Crdilisa~

Tu `drakonis~ zRaparTa personaJebsa da samyaros...

Svarci 1944 wels `drakons~ aSkara antifaSisturi

ganwyobilebiT qmnis, Tumc diqtatoris Temas is arcTu

evgeni Svarci da misi `drakoni~ rusTavelis TeatrSi

calmxrivad moiazrebs. am zRapris siuJeti ar iTxovda drakonis

realuri saxiT Cvenebis aucileblobas. boroteba xom saxes

yoveli epoqis Sesabamisad icvlis da mxolod imitom parpaSebs

amqveyanaze, rom brbos masTan brZolis unari, axlis, ukeTesisa

da miT ufro, sikeTis damkvidrebis unari ar Seswevs. es mxolod

im srulfasovan sazogadoebas xelewifeba, romelic Tavad qmnis

moralur kodeqss da emorCileba mas.

`SeibraleT erTmaneTi da maSin bednierebi iqnebiT. es aris

yvelaze didi simarTle, rac ki arsebobs am qveyanaze~ _ es

sityvebi am piesis mTavar gmirs, lancelots ekuTvnis.

`drakoni~ rusTavelis akademiurma Teatrma `yvaryvares~

dadgmidan ori wlis da `kavkasiuri carcis wris~ dadgmidan

erTi wlis Semdeg SesTavaza mayurebels. es iyo 1976 weli. man

organulad da pirdapiri gziT gaagrZela zemoxsenebul

warmodgenaTa mTavari saTqmeli. masac iseve, rogorc `kavkasiurs~

axasiaTebda gamokveTili Teatraloba da pirobiToba, romelSic

ara mxolod dramaturgiulad, aramed vizualuradac ikiTxeboda

reJisoris azri Svarcis piesis irgvliv. borotebasTan brZolis

da sikeTis gamarjvebis garda, rac erTgvarad anaTesavebda piesas

`carcis wresTan~, man win wamoswia uzenaesi xelisuflis _

diqtatoris Tema, romelic ~yvaryvareSi~ JRerda.

am speqtaklze ar arsebobs arc erTi recenzia, arc

TeatrmcodneTa da arc literatorTa mier dawerili. mxolod

mogvianebiT, sxva warmodgenaze msjelobisas b-ni niko yiasaSvili

ityvis mis Sesaxeb, rom robert sturuas an `yvaryvare~ unda

daedga, an `drakoni~ am nawarmoebTa zeamocanebis identurobis

gamo da radganac `yvaryvare~ ukve dadgmulic iyo da

aRiarebulic, meoris dadgmas Temis gameorebis sababiT uadgilod

miiCnevda. jer erTi, am Temas robert sturuam iseTi saetapo

mniSvnelobis speqtaklebi miuZRvna, rogorebic iyo Seqspiris

`riCard mesame~ da `mefe liri~, romlebSic reJisori swored

gvirgvinis, anu diqtaturis, problemas aJRerebda da am gziT

iwvevda asociaciebs Tanamedrove qarTuli yofis irgvliv.

aRsaniSnavia, rom arc erT recenzents ar mosvlia azrad, misTvis

am warmodgenaTa zeamocanebis identurobaSi daedo brali da

erT-erTi maTganis zedmetoba am gziT daesabuTebina. ra Tqma

88 89


nino maWavariani

unda, aq saqme sxva movlenas exeboda. is pirvelive Cvenebaze

akrZala maSindelma xelisuflebam da presam gasagebi mizezebis

gamo ver SeZlo misi dacva. zogma ki, rogorc vxedavT, mTavrobis

poziciis dasabuTebac ki SeZlo.

ra periodSi daidga `drakoni~ qarTul scenaze? amas yvelaze

ukeT daaxasiaTebda piesis pirveli suraTis zRapruli personaJis

_ katis replika: `cxovreba gvaswavlis, roca Tbilad xar da

Tanac rbilad (Targmani r. sturuasa da l. fofxaZis), jobia

Tvlemde da Cumad iyo. dumilSia mTeli sibrZne, Zvirfaso~.

dRes am dros e. w. uZraobis periods veZaxiT. piesa zRaparia,

magram es zRaprad moTxrobili ambavi Tavisi scenuri

metaforebiTa da mxatvruli simbolikiT tipurad asaxavs

totalitaruli saxelmwifos cxovrebis models, romelsac

ise, rogorc arc erTi sxva politikuri wyobis saxelmwifos,

sWirdeba zRapruli gmiri, romelic daamarcxebs diqtators.

speqtaklSi Sarlemani, anu misi saxiT xalxi, moCvenebiTad

mainc kmayofilia da Seguebuli drakonis arsebobas da aramc

Tu Sarlemani, aramed drakonis momavali msxverpli _ mSvenieri

elzac moxiblulia perspeqtiviT, rom misi gardacvalebis dRes

xalxi funTuSebs `sabralo gogonas~ daarqmevs da SuadReze

miirTmevs. ufro metic. xalxi sikTesac ki xedavs drakonSi,

romelmac epidemia mospo qalaqSi cecxliT, romelsac afrqvevs,

tba aaduRa. qalaqelebi ixsna boSebisagan _ im Tavisufali

bunebis xalxisagan, romelTac SeeZloT gadamdebad emoqmedaT

da gaexsenebinaT maTTvis Tavisuflebis bedniereba da silamaze.

miuxedavad imisa, rom drakoni Zroxebis jogebsa da cxvris

farebs anadgurebda da qaliSvilebsac iTxovda desertad,

burgomistris azriT, zRapruli gmiri qalaqisTvis mainc zedmeti

da arasaWiro iyo. `Cveni qalaqis saamayo Svilebi movidnen da

muxlmodrekiT gevedrebian, waeTrioT aqedan~, _ mimarTavda is

lancelots. rom ityvian, asociaciebi naTeli iyo. Svarcis

mizani beladis saxis SeuniRbavi Cveneba iyo, magram ara im

beladisa, romelic 70-iani wlebis miwurulis qarTul scenaze

gamoCnda.

mocemuli periodis erT-erT interviuSi robert sturua

aRniSnavda felinis Sesaxeb, rom geniosi Tavisufalia. mas ar

evgeni Svarci da misi `drakoni~ rusTavelis TeatrSi

erideba iyos gulaxdili. sturuas am mosazrebas kidev ufro

amyarebda kritikos k. rudnickis gakvirveba, Tu rogori

TavisuflebiT eqceoda reJisori lenins (Satrovis `lurja

cxenebi wiTel balaxze~, sadac man leninis sami personaJi

SesTavaza mayurebels) da Tundac stanislavskis legendarul

saxelebs. sturuas TiTqmis yvela speqtakls, romelsac is

samSobloSi an mis gareT dgams, atyvia reJisoris, rogorc

Tavisufali pirovnebis, SemoqmedebiTi silaRis kvali. m. ulianovi

m. Satrovis `brestis zavis~ Sesaxeb werda: `Tundac samarcxvinod

CavflavebuliyaviT, mainc Rirda. Cven Tavi xelovanebad vigrZeniT,

vigemeT riskis mSveniereba. sturuam iseT muSaobaSi CagviTria,

rogorzec sul cota xniT adre verc ki viocnebebdiT~, magram

es riski mainc sxva iyo. Tuki `yvaryvareseuli~ diqtatorebidan

arc erTi aRar iyo cocxali, `drakonis~ SemTxvevaSi saqme

uaresad iyo. visac unaxavs speqtakli, albaT, axsovs, Tu rogor

hgavda msaxiobi guram saRaraZe aw gansvenebul leonid ilias

Ze breJnevs, romelic, sxvaTa Soris, maSin gansvenebuli ar gaxldaT

da es iyo mTavari. ulvaSebi, saxis moTeTro feri, Tmis

varcxniloba, siarulis miseuli manera da datkepnili, marTalia

qarTuli, magram iSviaTi sizustiT SerCeuli intonaciebiT

metyveleba pirdapir asociaciebs badebda. am faqtma TiTqmis

Sokuri reaqcia gamoiwvia garkveuli tipis mayurebelTa Soris.

drakoni-g.saRaraZe sulac ar iyo is zRapruli urCxuli,

romelic spobs adamianebs an sadilad miirTmevs. is evropulad

Cacmuli Suaxnis mamakaci gaxldaT, romelic sakmaod logikurad

azrovnebda da miT ufro, moqmedebda. magram diqtatori

diqtatoria da amitom drakonisTvis misarTmev gogonas

wamoZaxilSi `raRa am drakonis dros davibadeo,~ iSviaTi

mentalobis grZnoba isadgurebda yovel CvenganSi. Cven yvelas

maSin sxva droSi cxovreba gvenatreboda da ar vicodiT, rom

namdvil Tavisuflebamde arsebobs Turme raRac gardamavali

droc, romelic jer Svarcma da Semdgom sturuam `drakonis~

safinalo sceniT dagvanaxes ase aSkarad da daufaravad _

gmiris mier drakonis damarcxebas Tan mohyva patara pauza,

radgan lanceloti daiWra da goneba dakarga. es dro gaxda

sakmarisi imisaTvis, rom qalaqis burgomistrs, anu mTavrobas,

90 91


nino maWavariani

xelSi aeRo Zalaufleba. piesaSi amas burgomistri xalxisadmi

mimarTviT axerxebs. sturuas speqtaklSi ki es azri saxierad

ganxorcielda. wiTel-yviTel bafTebSebmuli burgomistri,

romelic oriod wuTis win buCqebSi imaleboda da Wkuas uxmobda:

modi CemTano, anu giJs TamaSobda (an iyo kidec), brZolis

velze movida. man daWrili raindisa da elzas gverdiT dagdebul

urCxulis ski ptras mokra Tvali, aiRo xelSi es joxi, ris

Semdgomac moxda saswauli: scenaze Semosuli qalaqis mosaxleoba,

romelic yvelafris daTvalierebas da ambis gagebas cdilobda,

sul erT wamSi or mwkrivad ganlagda da ukan gahyva burgomistrs,

rogorc yoCs _ cxvris fara. burgomistris mier Zalauflebis

mopovebis scena iyo reJisoris namdvili gamarjveba da Svarcis

am nawarmoebis mxatvruli srulyofilebiT gaazreba.

maSasadame, guSindelma giJma, romlis mier qalaqis marTva

pirobiTi iyo da urCxuls emorCileboda, dRes qveynis marTva

daiwyo. drakoni, romelic ara adamianis, aramed misi sulis

nafleTebad qcevas natrobda misi samudamo damonebis mizniT,

Secvala giJma (`drakonis mZleveli Tavisufali prezidenti

mobrZandeba~), romelmac monoba ki ar aRmofxvra xalxSi, aramed

piriqiT, drakonis diqtatura gaagrZela. asociaciebma awmyos

gadaaWarba da momavlis winaswarmetyveleba daiwyo. es faqti

araerTxel SeumCneviaT reJisoris SemoqmedebaSi da dauweriaT

kidec mis Sesaxeb. amis magaliTad Tundac `mefe liris~ safinalo

scenebic sakmarisiaa.

`Tavisufleba gaCuqeT, Tqven ki ra CaidineT~ _ am sityvebiT

mimarTavda xalxs lanceloti (msax. k. kavsaZe) romelic

sikvdils saswaulebrivad gadarCenili brundeboda qalaqSi.

`elza, drakoni ar momkvdara, isev adamianad iqca, mTel qalaqs

moedo da Tqvens sulSi Casaxlda, magram Cven amas movuvliT,

yvela TqvenganSi movklav drakons!~

brZola grZeldeba. is ar damTavrebula, radgan monobas

SeCveulma Tavisuflebis fasi ar icis. lancelotis mizani da

misi rwmena, bednierebi viqnebiT, radgan miyvarxarTo, ufro imedian

momavals gamoxatavda, vidre awmyos SesaZlo realizacias.

rogorc ukve aRvniSneT, `drakoni~ moxsnes repertuaridan,

Tumca sturuas ukmayofileba mainc ar emCneoda, radgan speqtakli

evgeni Svarci da misi `drakoni~ rusTavelis TeatrSi

Sedga da man Tqva Tavisi saTqmeli ara mxolod mxatvruli

srulyofilebiT, aramed im politikuri TavisuflebiTac, romlis

saSualeba mas pirovnulma gambedaobam da evgeni Svarcis

SesaniSnavma nawarmoebma misca.

1. Евгений Шварц, Живу беспокойно... советский писатель, 1990

(1948г);

2. iqve;

3. iqve;

4. М.Слониьслий, собр.соч.т.4 стр.513;

gamoyenebuli literatura:

· В. Каверин, избранные произведения, «художественная

литература», 1977, т.2, стр. 651;

gaz.: `Tbilisi~. 1987.16.11. r. sturua. saWirboroto da

maradiuli reJisoris xelovnebaSi (k. rudnickis interviu).

92 93


gubaz megreliZe,

wamyvani mecnierTanamSromeli

uSangi CxeiZis ucnobi mogoneba

`kotes rusTavelis Teatridan wasvla~

uSangi CxeiZis dRemde gamouqveynebeli mogoneba mravalmxrivaa

saintereso. masSi asaxulia rusTavelis TeatrSi arsebuli

faruli, Tu aSkara dapirispirebebi, ramac mogvianebiT kote

marjaniSvilis Teatridan wasvla ganapiroba.

mogonebaSi mocemulia rusTavelis Teatris 1924-26 wlebis

SemoqmedebiTi analizi, agreTve k. marjaniSvilsa da s. axmetels

Soris Tavidan kargi urTierTobis TandaTanobiTi daZabva da

ukiduresad gamwvaveba, Tu ra viTarebebma ganapirobes

konfliqturi situaciis Seqmna, raSic gvarebis dausaxeleblad

msaxiobTa garkveul jgufsac moixseniebs: `marjaniSvilis

gajavrebis erTaderTi namdvili mizezi is iyo, rom mis

warmodgenaSi axmeteli metad gaTavxedda da TandaTanobiT mas

Teatrs aclida _ ase arwmunebda mas, zogierTi

keTilismsurveli~.

samagierod, konkretul pirebs Tavis mogonebaSi akaki xorava

asaxelebs, riTac uS. CxeiZis mogonebis es faqti dasturdeba

da srulyofili saxiT warmogvidgeba.Bbatoni akaki wers:

`durujSi~ imTaviTve ori jgufi Seiqmna _ erTi, ase vTqvaT,

aristokratia, `kulturul~ msaxiob-moRvaweebSi miRebuli xalxi,

ukve saxelmoxveWili: v. anjafariZe, g. daviTaSvili, e. donauri,

b. gamrekeli da sxvani.…pirveli jgufis mier axmetelis

damuSavebam umaRles wertils miaRwia. isini cdilobdnen,

rogorme kotes guli acrueboda sandroze...~ aqve aRvniSnav,

rom ak. xoravas mogoneba kotes Teatridan wasvlis Taobaze,

Zalian hgavs uS. CxeiZis Sexedulebebs da erTobliobaSi srulad

warmosaxaven TeatrSi Seqmnil mZime viTarebas.

uS. CxeiZe gabedulad asaxelebs im mizezebs, ramac dasi k.

marjaniSvilis winaaRmdeg ganawyo da axmetelis mxares

gadavida.Aaseve Tamamad aris mocemuli k. marjaniSvilis mier

da S v eb u l i S e c domeb i da da s i s m oTxov n eb i s

gauTvaliswinebloba.Eesenia: kotes avadmyofoba, misi baTumSi

Casvla da dasTan lanZRva-muqariT saubari, dasis Semcirebis

mcdeloba, korporaciasa da marjaniSvils Soris konfliqtis

gaRrmaveba. uS. CxeiZe pirdapir wers, rom maswavlebels Tavisi

aRzrdilebi daupirispirdnen da brZola gaumarTes: `marTalia,

marjaniSvili sardlis uflebebiT iyo aRWurvili, magram raRaa

igi sardali, romelsac jari aujanydeba. jari ki korporacia

da mTeli axalgazrdoba iyo.~ uS. CxeiZes awuxebs ra konfliqtis

arsSi Cawvdoma, gulwrfelad wers: `am sakiTxs axla, sruliad

obieqturad minda mivudge, ramdenadac SevZleb vcado simarTlis

garkveva, radgan marjaniSvilis rusTavelis Teatridan wasvlis

namdvili mizezi jerac gamourkvevelia, an arada damaxinjebuli~.

uSangi CxeiZe mokled ixsenebs 1924 wels momxdar konfliqts,

ramac Teatridan s. axmetelis xanmokle wasvla ganapiroba.Ees

incidenti asaxulia korporacia `durujis~ 1924 wlis 31

ianvris #9 oqmSi. saqme exeba gazeT `komunistis~ publikacias

`axalgazrda msaxiobebis manifesti~, 1 romelic mimarTuli iyo

korporaciis winaaRmdeg. viTarebis gasarkvevad korporaciasTan

SeuTanxmeblad s. axmeteli, v. jiqia, pl. koriSeli da ak. vasaZe

redaqciaSi mividnen, rasac incidenti mohyva.Aamitom isini

disci plinis darRvevisTvis korporaciidan garicxes. 2

Tebervals k. marjaniSvili incidentis monawileebTan erTad

redaqciaSi mivida da bodiSi moixada.

amis Sesaxeb `durujis~ 3 Tebervlis #10 oqmSi aRniSnulia:

`redaqcia `komunistTan~ momxdari molaparakebis Semdeg, sadac

gairkva, rom araviTari mZime, zneobrivi danaSauli ar CaudeniaT

Cvens oTx amxanags _ axmetels, jiqias, koriSels da vasaZes, _

korporacia winadadebas aZlevs maT daubrundnen Cvens wres...~

amrigad, es garicxva simboluri xasiaTis iyo da uS. CxeiZe

cdeba, rodesac ambobs _ axmeteli Teatridan wasulic ki iyoo.

am mogonebidan is viTarebac kargad Cans, rom or did

xelovans Soris urTierTobis daZabva mxolod `lamaras~ dadgmam

ar ganapiroba, rasac win uZRvoda marjanisvilsa da `durujs~

Soris konfliqturi viTarebis Seqmna.

mniSvnelovania is faqtic, Tu rodis naxa marjaniSvilma

pirvelad speqtakli `lamara~, vinaidan amis Sesaxeb arsebobs

Tamar wulukiZis, mixeil yvarelaSvilis, akaki vasaZisa da dodo

anTaZis winaaRmdegobrivi mogonebebi.

94 95


gubaz

megreliZe

uS. CxeiZis TqmiT, marjaniSvilma speqtakli Teatris

gastrolebidan dabrunebis Semdeg, fexburTelTa gund `durujis~

materialuri daxmarebisTvis gamarTul saSefo RonisZiebaze

naxa.Aaseve mniSvnelovania cnoba, Tu ra garemoebebma SeuSales

xeli baTumsa da zestafonSi speqtaklis Cvenebas, ramac

marjaniSvilis eWvebi dasis mimarT ufro gaaRrmava. sxvaTa

Soris, arcerTi moRvawis mogonebebSi ar ixsenieba `lamaras~

Cvenebis TariRi, romelic gaz. `komunistis~ 2 cnobiT 13 ivliss

gaimarTa.

Tamar wulukiZe wers, rom marjaniSvilma `lamara~

specialurad misTvis gamarTul daxurul speqtaklze naxa:

`konstantine aleqsandres Zem speqtakli `lamara~ naxa mxolod

dasis sagastrolo mogzaurobidan dabrunebis Semdeg. misTvis

rusTavelis Teatris scenaze daxuruli speqtakli specialerad

gaimarTa. rogorc axla, ise vxedav mas benuaris me-12 loJaSi,

ojaxuri sinklitis garemocvaSi lele vaCnaZis meTaurobiT.

cnobilia, rom konstantine aleqsandres Ze ukmayofilo darCa

Tanadamdgmelis namuSevriT da misTvis Cveuli maneriT amis

damalva saWirod ar CaTvala. 3

sinamdviles ar Seesabameba mixeil yvarelaSvilis mogoneba,

TiTqos `lamaras~ premieraze miiyvanes avadmyofi marjaniSvili:

`TviTon axmetelma etliT, eqimebis daxmarebiT moiyvana

kote.Aaxmeteli mxarSi Seudga da ase aiyvana loJaSi.Kkote

Tvalcremliani uyurebda speqtakls. speqtaklis Semdeg xalxis

gasagonad marjaniSvilma ganacxada, rom aseTi speqtaklis dadgma

Cemi ocnebaao~. 4

arc, dodo anTaZis mogonebaa uzustobisgan daculi, sadac

wers: `saavadmyofodan gamosulma marjaniSvilma miaSura Teatrs

da Tavidan bolomde uyura speqtakl `lamaras~.Bbunebrivia,

rom es mas ar moewona, Zalze TavSekavebulad, magram mainc

agrZnobina axmetels Tavis ukmayofileba, rogorc Teatris

xelmZRvanelma~. 5

uS. CxeiZe, T. wulukiZe da d. anTaZe mxolod im garemoebaSi

arian erTsulovanni, rom marjaniSvilma loJa ukmayofilom

datova.

uS. CxeiZe ar aris marTali, rodesac wers, TiTqosda, axmetelma

`lamaras~ dadgma usamarTlod miisakuTra: `piesis

uSangi CxeiZis ucnobi mogoneba

`kotes rusTavelis Teatridan wasvla~

dasasruleblad axmetelmac, didi Sroma Caatara, magram es

araviTar uflebas ar aZlevda, rom dadgma sakuTrad mas

mieTvisebina, rasac SemdgomSi hqonda adgili, rodesac

marjaniSvili Teatridan wavida.~Aam SemTxvevaSi uS. CxeiZe ver

asxvavebs 1926 wlis marjaniSvil-axmetelis dadgmas 1930 wels

axmetelis mier dadgmul sruliad damoukidebeli

speqtaklisgan.Oorive warmodgena erTmaneTisgan radikalurad

gansxvavdeboda da yovlad dauSvebelia axmetels mimTvisebeli

ewodos.Aamaze metyvelebs orive speqtaklze arsebuli recenziebi,

Teatralur moRvaweTa memuarebi da araerTi samecniero

gamokvleva.

s. axmeteli `lamaras~ miTvisebas arc cdilobda, vinaidan

speqtakli marjaniSvilis Teatridan wasvlis Semdeg moixsna.

moskovSi gastrolebis Semajamebel ganxilvaze 1933 wlis 25

ivniss s. axmeteli pirdapir acxadebda: `...Cven garkveviT davinaxeT,

rom gza, romelic naCvenebi iyo Teatris xelmZRvanelobis mier,

marjaniSvilis mier _ es is gza aRar iyo, romelic Cven

gvWirdeboda... da daiwyo... patiosani principuli brZola~.Aaqedan

gamomdinare, axmetels Tavisi gansxvavebuli mxatvruli xedva

hqonda da marjaniSviliseuli stili misTvis miuRebeli iyo.

unda aRiniSnos, rom uS. CxeiZe iseT detalebs ixsenebs, rac

sxvaTa mogonebebSi ar gvxvdeba da ukeT warmoaCens pirad

urTierTobaTa sirTuleebsa Tu intrigebs, romlebic Teatralur

cxovrebaze zegavlenas axdendnen.Aam urTierTobebis gamwvaveba

Teatris dasavleT saqarTvelosa da kaxeTSi gastrolebmac

ganapiroba, romelic 1926 wlis 22 aprilidan 29 ivnisamde

mimdinareobda. uS. CxeiZe s. axmetelisa da v. anjafariZis

konfliqtze miuTiTebs. d. anTaZe am incidents saerTod ar

ixseniebs da mxolod Teatris Sida konfliqtis gamwvavebaze

zogadad saubrobs.

uS. CxeiZe am gastrolebze v. anjafariZis aryofnas operaciis

gakeTebiTa da axmetel-anjafariZis konfliqturi

damokidebulebiT xsnis. gamojanmrTelebis Semdeg igi kotes

nebarTviT `hamletSi~ ofelias rolis Sesasruleblad quTaisSi

Cavida.Aam faqts Teatrmcodne naTela uruSaZe ase xsnis: `maSin

is fexmZimed iyo da Tavs SeuZlod grZnobda, magram amis Sesaxeb,

etyoba, aravisTvis uTqvams~. 6 am incidents ak. vasaZec aRniSnavs,

96 97


gubaz

megreliZe

uSangi CxeiZis ucnobi mogoneba

`kotes rusTavelis Teatridan wasvla~

mxolod v. anjafariZis gvaris dausaxeleblad mas uaryofiT

konteqstSi ixseniebs: `zogierT amxanags mxolod quTaissa da

baTumSi moundaT monawileobis miReba~-o. 7 Tamar wulukiZe

(dasaxelebuli wigni, gv. 162) ki wers, rom korporaciis

ukompromiso gadawyvetilebiT axmetelma da sagastrolo

komisiam v. anjafariZes ofelias rolis Sesrulebaze uari

uTxra.

sxvadasxva mogonebaSi gansxvavebulad aris aRwerili k.

marjaniSvilis baTumSi Casvla. uS. CxeiZis mogonebiT, kotes

sadgurze mxolod oriode kaci Sexvda. T. wulukiZis 8 azriT,

kotes Sesaxvedrad sadgurze mTeli dasi movida. Dd. anTaZis 9

cnobiT, kote moulodnelad dasma baTumSi samxedro eklesiis

kibeebze suraTis gadaRebisas dainaxa.Aak. vasaZe 10 ki kotesTan

Sexvedras pirdapir TeatrSiMmosvlidan aRwers, Tumca yvela

maTi maswavleblis gajavrebul da oficialur saubars erTxmad

aRiarebs.

uS. CxeiZe, rodesac saubrobs k. marjaniSvilisa da i.

gedevaniSvilis mier TeatrSi Catarebul Semcirebaze,

mxedvelobaSi aqvs xelovnebis saqmeTa mTavari sabWos prezidiumis

1926 wlis 17 ivlisis #666 brZaneba.Aam reorganizaciiT

marjaniSvili `durujis~ winaaRmdegobis saboloo gatexvasa

da sakuTari poziciebis ganmtkicebas cdilobda, Tumca

sawinaaRmdego Sedegi miiRo.

uS. CxeiZe naTlad warmoaCens k. marjaniSvilsa da `durujs~

Soris arsebuli brZolis mizezebs. igi daufaravad saubrobs

ukompromiso dapirispirebasa da arsebul intrigebze. ixsenebs

im viTarebasac, rodesac k. marjaniSvili TiToeul msaxiobs

masTan muSaobas sTavazobda.

es epizodi agreTve aRwerili aqvT Tavis mogonebebSi akaki

vasaZes (gv. 225-227), Tamar wulukiZes (gv. 164), xolo dodo

anTaZe am moments saerTod ar asaxelebs. gansxvaveba mxolod

imaSia, rom akaki vasaZe am Sexvedras k. marjaniSvilis binaSi

aRwers, T. wulukiZe Teatris direqtoris kabinetSi, xolo uS.

CxeiZe ki saubris adgils ar akonkretebs.

uSangi CxeiZe aRwers korporantebis Sexvedras k.

marjaniSvilTan sofel rionSi, sadac `samaniSvilis

dedinacvalis~ gadaRebebi mimdinareobda. igi igonebs, rom

Tbilisidan korporaciis imJamindeli mamasaxlisi kukuri

patariZe zestafonSi Cavida, saidanacUuSangisa da dodo

anTaZesTan erTad sofel rionSi wavidnen. sainteresoa, rom

uSangi CxeiZe Sexvedris iniciatorad kukuri patariZes asaxelebs,

dodo anTaZe (gv. 344) ki am iniciativas sakuTar Tavze iRebs:

`me damevala Cavsuliyavi zestafonSi, sadac imyofeboda uSangi

CxeiZe, iqedan ki wavsuliyaviT quTaisSi kukuri patariZesTan

da samiveni unda gavmgzavrebuliyaviT rionSi~. Tanac d. anTaZe

marSrutsac gansxvavebulad aRwers.Aakaki vasaZe ki upiratesobas

arcerT maTgans ar aniWebs: `dodo anTaZes, uSangi CxeiZesa da

kukuri patariZes gadaewyvitaT Cveni da batoni kotes naxva~

(gv. 229). sxva mxriv samive avtoris mogoneba marjaniSvilTan

Sexvedris Sesaxeb realurad asaxavs Seqmnil viTarebas da

erTmaneTs avsebs.

aucileblad unda aRiniSnos, rom uS. CxeiZis, ak. xoravas, ak.

vasaZis da d. anTaZis mogonebebSi erTiani azri ikveTeba k.

marjaniSvilis xasiaTis sificxis, dasze ganawyenebis, Teatridan

wasvlis Sesaxeb, raSic mniSvnelovan rols obieqtur garemoebaTa

garda, TamaSobda moaruli Worebi, marjaniSvilisa Tu axmetelis

mxridan enis mimtanebi. aRsaniSnavia isic, rom uS. CxeiZe zog

epizodSi daufaravad adanaSaulebs k. marjaniSvilis garemocvasa

da ojaxis wevrebs, rogorc konfliqtis wamqezeblebs.Aamave

azrs iziarebs akaki xoravac, rodesac wers: `TandaTan ise

gaaRvives kotes eWvebi sandros mimarT, rom imanac sandroze

guli aicrua.~ uSangic imaves ambobs: `mas ase TandaTanobiT

aZulebdnen axmetels~.Oorive msaxiobi k. marjaniSvilis ojaxis

Sesaxeb msgavs poziciaze dgas _ uS. CxeiZe wers: `misi axloblebi

aramc Tu ar ifaravdnen aseTi Secdomebisgan, aramed isedac

ficxsa da eWvian adamians sawinaaRmdego qmedebaSi uwyobdnen

xels.Mmisi ojaxi gadagvarebuli qalebisgan Sedgeboda, romelTac

arc uyvardaT da arc ainteresebdaT rogorc Teatri, ise saerTod

qarTuli kultura. maT mxolod patara, wvrilmani, yoveldRiuri

adamianuri interesebi amoZravebdaT da aseTi xalxi kargs

arafers gaagonebda da verc raime goniers urCevda.~Aakaki

xorava ki ase afasebs: `Seiswavles ra kotes sisuste, donauris

ojaxi TiTqmis yoveldRe marTavda qeifebs kotesTvis... mudam

dRe iyo damuSaveba korporaciisa misi daSlis mizniT.Aaxmetelis

damuSaveba, TiTqos mtrisa marjaniSvilis.~

98 99


gubaz

megreliZe

sainteresoa, rom uS. CxeiZis am mogonebis fragmenti Sesulia

s. axmetelis krebulis pirvel tomSi (sTs, 1978), sadac aRniSnulia,

rom dedani dakargulad iTvleba. sinamdvileSi dedani daculia

saq. Teatris, musikis, kinosa da qoreografiis sax. muzeumis

fondSi (f. 1, saqme #570, x-16888, saqaRalde #9).

vfiqrobT, rom am mogonebis gamoqveyneba zog pirs ar awyobda,

vinaidan uS. CxeiZe daufaravad saubrobs k. marjaniSvilis

garSemo Seqmnil viTarebebze, mis pirovnul naklsa, Tu Rirsebebze,

korporacia `durujis~ poziciebze. Cans, rom uS. CxeiZe garkveul

sakiTxebSi k. marjaniSvils ar eTanxmeba da xSirad

gamarTlebulia s. axmetelis gadawyvetilebebi.Ees mogoneba im

garemoebasac cxadyofs, rom kotes rusTavelis Teatridan

wasvlaSi is msaxiobebi monawileobdnen, romlebmac TavianTi

maswavlebeli aiZules erTad Seqmnili Teatridanac wasuliyo,

magram Seqmnes legenda _ TiTqosda sicocxlis bolomde mis

erTgul mowafeebad darCnen.

1. gazeTi `komunisti~, 1924, 31. 01, #25;

2. gazeTi `komunisti~, 1926, #158;

3. T. wulukiZe, mxolod erTi sicocxle, rus. enaze. `xelovneba~,

1983, gv.166;

4. e. daviTaia, arjaniSvilisa da axetelis erToblivi dadgmebi~, gam.

`xelovneba~, 1981, gv. 130;

5. d. anTaZe, `dReebi axlo warsulisa~, gam. `xelovneba~,1962, wigni

pirveli, gv.316;

6. n. uruSaZe, `meore sicocxle~, gam. `xelovneba~, 1987, gv.110;

7. ak. vasaZe, `mogonebebi, fiqrebi~, gam. sTs, 1977, gv. 221;

8. dasaxelebuli wigni, gv. 162;

9. dasaxelebuli wigni, gv. 333;

10. dasaxelebuli wigni, gv. 222.

gamoyenebuli literatura:

d. anTaZe, `dReebi axlo warsulisa~, gam. `xelovneba~,1962, wigni

pirveli;

n. uruSaZe `meore sicocxle~, gam. `xelovneba~, 1987;

ak. vasaZe `mogonebebi, fiqrebi~, gam. sTs, 1977;

e. daviTaia arjaniSvilisa da axetelis erToblivi dadgmebi~, gam.

`xelovneba~, 1981.

aTasi saxis adamiani

(mixeil Cexovi)

manana turiaSvili,

asistent-profesori

m. Cexovi werda: `ratom ambobs poeti, rom apoloni misgan

wminda msxverpls iTxovs? ratom msxverpls? imitom, rom miece

STagonebas da STagonebis gziT mayurebels, drois suls, epoqas

da a. S. _ es niSnavs msxverplis Sewirvas.~

roca moskovis samxatvro TeatrSi (mxatSi) stanislavskim

m. Cexovs `mousmina~, nemiroviC-danCenkos uTxra: `anton pavles

Zis ZmisSvili _ geniosia.~ 1912 wels m. Cexovi mxatis filialis

ganyofilebaSi Caricxes, TanamSromlad. 1913 wels samxatvro

Teatris dasSia. mxatis msaxiobebi k. s. stanislavskis sistemis

gadasamowmebel eqsperimentebze ar Tanxmdebodnen da Seiqmna

mxat-is pirveli studia (1913). studiis xelmZRvaneli iyo l.

a sulerJicki, sistemis mixedviT mecadineobebs xelmZRvanelobda

k. s. stanislavski, e. b. vaxtangovi. im periodSi m. Cexovi

korespondents eubneboda: `Cven varT stanislavskis religiis

mimdevrebi~.

pirvel studiaSi man ramdenime roli iTamaSa: kobusi _ g.

heiermansis `imedis~ daRupva~ (1913, l. a. sulerJicki). Cexovi

am rolSi siberis xatebas qmnida. male Seasrula fribes

roli g. hauptmanis `samyaros dResaswaulSi~ (1913, reJ. e.

vaxtangovi) _ sadac ikveTeboda misi TamaSis msubuqi manera da

samsaxiobo ferebis swrafi cvalebadoba.

1914 wels kalebis saxe Seqmna C. dikensis `WriWina Rumelze~

(dadges l. a. sulerJickim da b. m. suSkeviCma), am saxes n.

benuam: `namdvili mxatvruli saswauli~ uwoda. n. efrosis

azriT, m. Cexovi samxatvro Teatris saukeTeso artistul xazs

gaagrZelebs.

p. markovi werda: `mas pirvel planze Seucvlelad gamoaqvs

erTi Tviseba, adidebs garkveul sazRvramde da mere mas

uqvemdebarebs yvelafers~ 1 . am periodSi is gmiris

individualurobis warmoCenaze muSaobda.

100 101


manana turiaSvili

aTasi saxis adamiani

bergeris `warRvnaSi~ _ frezeri (1915, reJ. l. sulerJicki,

Ce. vaxtangovi) mdabali sulis, xarbi da sacodavi adamiani

gemis daRupvis saSiSroebisas ametyveldeboda da moulodnel

kontrastul Tvisebebs amJRavnebda: adamianurs, asxivebda sulier

silamazes, ubraloebas. saSiSroebis Cavlis Semdeg frezeri

kvlav Zvelebur stiqias ubrundeboda. rogorc n. efrosi

aRniSnavda, `warRvnaSi~ m. Cexovi iyo scenis namdvili ostati.

am rolma mas gaugonari warmateba moutana.

1917 wels mxatis I studiaSi dadgmul Seqspiris `meTormete

RameSi~ (reJ. k. s. stanislavski) m. Cexovma malvolios roli

Saesrula. warmodgenaSi groteskul malvolios speqtaklSi

xuTi gamosvla hqonda da intonaciebis mravalferovnebiT

umaRlesi dramatulidan sacirko-bufonadamde misuli mimikiT

da saxasiaTo JestebiT homerul sicils iwvevda. komikuri

feierverkis Semdeg malvolios bolo sityvebi: `me Tqven

mawyenineT, grafinia, sastikad mawyenineT~ gaismoda, rogorc

qviTini da mouxerxebel, ucnaur adamianSi, uceb xedavdiT saocr

siRrmes, sulierebas, adamianurobas.

mxat-1 msaxiobTa erTi jgufi samsaxiobo teqnikaSi

fsiqologiur detalizaciamde midioda, meore ganzogadoebul

saxeebs eZebda. Cexovi am periodSi mkveTrad arc erTi jgufisaken

ar ixreboda.

m. Cexovi didxans itanjeboda imis gamo, rom sistematiuri

muSaoba ar SeeZlo. dasawyisSi codnas Zalian swrafad iTvisebda,

vnebianad, magram zedapirulad... Tu adre afasebda uSualobas,

talanturobas, Semdeg aSinebda es `talanturoba~, radgan

Seupovari, daJinebuli Sromis gareSe is stiqia iyo, riTac

scenur kulturas ver SeiZenda...

Tu msaxiobi formisa da stilis sakiTxebs ar icnobs, m.

Cexovis azriT, isini Zvel, dromoWmul formebs iyeneben an

saerTod ar iyeneben formebs. amitom scenidan `yrian um

(Semousvlel) masalas vnebebisa da afeqtebis saxiT _ rasac

eZaxian temperaments. msaxiobi TandaTanobiT swavlobs

diletantizmis siyvaruls da iRebs mas rogorc Tavisuflebas.

magram rogori damRupvelia es `Tavisufleba!~ mas mihyavs

TavaSvebulobamde, aRviraxsnilobamde ara mxolod scenaze, aramed

cxovrebaSic.~ 2

misi pirveli rolebis qeba-didebis miuxedavad sircxvili

tanjavda _ scenaze Tavisi Tavi ar moswonda da ar eTanxmeboda

maSindel Teatrs _ gulisxmobda daaxloebiT 20-iani welebis

bolos. dakarga TviTdajerebuloba mayurebelTan da Semoqmedebis

Sinagani impulsi, scenaze gamosvlisas yvelafers iviwyebda,

stiqiur grZnobas eZleoda, romelic ar asvenebda misi cxovrebis

gviandel periodSic. scenaze mxatvruli mTlianobis SegrZneba

dakarga. scenazec da cxovrebaSic meqanikurad moqmedebda. Tu

uceb Sin wasvla moundeboda, rols swrafad amTavrebda da

SeeZlo Sua speqtaklis mitoveba. warmodgenis dros sicili

autydeboda xolme da farda ixureboda maSinac, roca darbazSi

stanislavski ijda.

1917 wlis dekembers `warRvnis~ msvlelobisas antraqtSi

_ fanjridan xalxis brbo dainaxa da daumTavrebeli

speqtaklidan gaiqca. TiTqmis mTeli weli saxlidan ar gamosula.

oqtombris revoluciis dReebSi ukve Zalian avadmyofi, gulis

SeteviT itanjeboda. Teatri saerTod gadaaviwyda. 1918 wlis

1 ianvridan Teatrma avadmyofobis gamo naxevari wliT

SvebulebaSi gauSva. stanislavskim eqimebic gaugzavna. erTxel

erTma megobarma b. s. smiSliaevma uTxra, gaexsna sakuTari

Teatraluri skola da amiT mudmivi Semosavali eqneboda.

`Cexovis studia~ Seiqmna 1918 wels, mecadineobebi mis binaSi

mimdinareobda da iarseba 1922 wlamde. oTx weliwadSi is

gamojanmrTelda da misi suli moicva mTlianobis SegrZnebam.

mowafeebi m. Cexovis gakveTilebis paralelurad mecadineobdnen

stanislavskisTan da vaxtangovTan. nicSe, Sopengaueri, Spengleri,

kanti, bergsoni. axalgazrda studielebi kiTxulobdnen am

literaturas da Semdeg m. CexovTan erTad msjelobdnen. am

periodSi iwyebs savarjiSoebs `burTebiT~, romelsac mere

`hamletis~ dadgmisas gamoiyenebs.

stanislavski ambobda: `rac ufro Zlieria msaxiobi, miT

ufro metad interesdeba Tavisi xelovnebis teqnikiT.~ 3

`Cexovis studiaSi~ mimdinareobda Ziebebi etiudis,

improvizaciebis sferoSi. m. Cexovis azriT, etiuds dasawyisi

da dasasruli unda hqondes, unda gadawydes mocemuli siuJetis

stili da Janri. mere mTavaria `marcvlis~ Taviseburebis povna

da Semdeg siuJetis SezRudvisagan ganTavisuflebuli, TemiT

102 103


manana turiaSvili

aTasi saxis adamiani

gamdidrebuli _ iwyebda improvizacias. m. Cexovi ambobda, rom

ase muSaobda ara mxolod etiudze, aramed yovel rolze. msaxiobi

imdenad unda daeuflos teqnikis Sinagan da garegan xerxebs,

rom misi sulis axali unareb-Cvevebi unda gaxdes. mxolod

gamudmebuli improvizaciebis gziT SeiZleba amis miRweva... misi

moswavle m. knebeli werda: `Cexovi gamudmebiT laparakobda, Tu

msaxiobi SeiTvisebs im Semoqmedis fsiqologias, romelic

improvizirebs, is Tavis TavSi ipovis mxatvars. amitom msaxiobi,

pirvel rigSi, unda aRizardos rogorc mxatvar-improvizatori.~ 4

m. Cexovi Tvlida, rom iumori adamians xelovnebis SeicnobaSi

exmareba da Semoqmedebis muSaobaSi Seaqvs simsubuqe. Sesrulebis

simsubuqe CexovisTvis arsebiTi iyo _ misi azriT, iumori

yovelTvis gamoarCevs xelovnebis WeSmarit qmnilebas. iumori

mxatvars obieqturobis unars aniWebs, rac aucilebelia... m.

Cexovis azriT, msaxiobs, romelsac iumori ara aqvs, kargi msaxiobi

ver iqneba. igi Tvlida, rom iumoris swavla SesaZlebelia da

Teatralur skolebSi unda iyos klasi, sadac iumoris

gakveTilebs Caatareben.

forma da stili _ kulturuli msaxiobi da ukulturo

adamiani SeuTavsebelia. misi azriT, codnis SeZena msaxiobisaTvis

aucilebelia. oRond codnaSi gulisxmobda ara mSral,

inteleqtualur codnas, aramed WeSmarit, cocxal codnas.

talanti, cocxali codnis gareSe ver ganviTardeba. codnis

gareSe stilisa da formis SegrZnebas Semoqmedi ver daeufleba.

`msaxiobi-mxatvari gaigebs, rom stili yvelaze Zvirfasi ramaa,

romelic Seaqvs Tavis nawarmoebSi, risTvisac bolos da bolos

Rirs Seqmna.~ 5

metyveleba _ xmis dayeneba, diqcia, deklamacia, plastika

da im dros moduri akrobatika `Cexovis studiaSi~ ZiriTadad

ar iswavleboda, maT meorexarisxovani roli hqondaT. m. Cexovs

gasaocari damokidebuleba hqonda sityvasTan. uyvarda anbanis

yvela aso. misi azriT, yvela asos Tavisi garemo, Tvisebebi da

feri hqonda. misi azriT, msaxiobi Cveulebrisamebr mecadineobas

artikulaciT iwyebs, es bolos unda iswavlebodes. veraviTari

garegnuli xerxebi ver aswavlis msaxiobs mxatvrulad da

gamomsaxvelobiT laparaks, Tu is manamde ar SeaRwevs TiToeuli

sityvis, calkeuli marcvlis Rrma da mdidar SinaarsSi da Tu

is ver gaigebs da ver SeigrZnobs asos rogorc bgeris cocxal

suls. `metyveleba, cocxali metyveleba _ sityvis sferoSi

uapelacio maswavlebelia.~

mecadineobebze warmoiSveboda simarTlis SegrZnebis sakiTxi.

amasTan dakavSirebiT Cndeboda Tema masaxiobis fantaziaze da

droebiT studiis muSaoba fantaziis niSniT mimdinareobda. ase

gaCnda zRapris Tema. m. Cexovi Tvlida, rom zRapari, rogorc

mxatvruli nawarmoebis forma, niWieri axalgazrdebis

ganviTarebisTvis mniSvnelovania, damwyeb msaxiobSi aRagznebs

SemoqmedebiT fantazias. mxatvris cnobierebas is aamaRlebs

naturalizmze. zRapari araCveulebrivad xlarTavs erTmaneTSi

tragizms da iumors, anviTarebs mxatvruli stilis SegrZnebas,

iTxovs mkafio da zust formebs da ar dauSvebs Sinagan, mxatvrul

sicrues, romelic scenaze ase msubuqad SeRwevadia.

studiaSi muSaobis ramdenime wlis ganmavlobaSi m. Cexovis

mtanjveli azrebi, dardebi gaqra da 1920 wels m. Cexovi

mxatis pirvel studiaSi dabrunda. 1921 wels gadatvirTulobis

gamo `Cexovis studiis~ xelmZRvanelobaze uari Tqva. studiam

arseboba Sewyvita 1922 wels.

1921 wels samxatvro TeatrSi man xlestakovi iTamaSa n.

gogolis `revizorSi~. man Seqmna niRabi, komediuri groteskis

planSi, TiTqmis farsuli, rac adreul namuSevrebSi ar

SeiniSneboda. xlestakovSi bolomde aviTarebda simsubuqis

cnebas. fizikuri uwonadobas sxeuliT xatavda. sakmarisi iyo

suli SegeberaT, rom xlestakovi gaqreboda, rogorc mtvris

nawili. amas emateboda improvizaciuli feierverki. Cexovis

iprovizaciis dros scenaze teqsts arasdros cvlida da arc

dadgenil mizanscenebs.... misi improvizaciebi qaosuri ar iyo

da mxolod sxvebs uxmobdnen Sesaqmnelad.

1921 wels Cexovma xlestakovSi srulyo atmosferos cneba.

atmosfero _ yvelanairi mxatvruli warmodgenis gulia Tu

`msaxiobi eZleva ama Tu im atmosferos, es masSi aucileblad

gamoiwvevs aqtiuri qmedebisken swrafvas. sanam rolSi ar miaRwev

`atmosferos~ absolutur realur SegrZnebas, CaTvale, rom

rolis arsisTvis jer ar migignia. atmosfero aRviZebs

warmosaxvas, nebisyofas da grZnobas.~ ixsenebs misi moswavle

m. knebeli wignSi `mTeli cxovreba.~

104 105


manana turiaSvili

cxovrebis bolo wlebSi sxvadasxva Teoriul mosazrebebebTan

erTad anviTarebs am azrs da askvnis, rom scenaze atmosferoTa

Widili da erT-erTi maTganis gardauvali gamarjveba mxatvrul

gamomsaxvelobis Zlieri saSuaelebaa _ werda m. Cexovi

`msaxiobis teqnikis Sesaxeb~.

presaSi ambobdnen, m. Cexovis gansakuTrebul, Zalauflebriv

momxibvlelobaze, romlis winaSec fermkrTaldebodnen

`revizoris~ iseTi monawileebi, rogorebic iyvnen samxatvro

Teatris wamyvani msaxiobebi: leonidovi, moskvini, gribunini,

lilina.

a. strindbergis `erik XIV~ (1921) mxat-1 studiis speqtakli,

saetapo mniSvnelobis iyo. aq daiwyo e. vaxtangovma samsaxiobo

teqnikaSi axali formebisa da gamomsaxvelobiTi xerxebisa

Zieba. `erTxel da samudamod mayurebels unda CamovaSoroT

WuWrutanidan dazverva, TvalTvali. mayurebelma yovelTvis

Tavi unda igrZnos TeatrSi da ara Zia vaniasTan. unda moxvide

TeatrSi da ara voinickisTan. saWiroa, rom Teatri Teatri

iyos.~ 6

m. Cexovi saxes aRiqvamda erT mTlianobad, swored amitom

SeeZlo repeticia bolo scenidan daewyo _ misi azriT,

mxatvruli saxis Seqmnaze gavlenas ar moaxdens. m. Cexovis

azriT, msaxiobi scenis sivrceSi moZraobisas Tavisi sxeuliT

unda `xatavdes~ figurebs, xazebs da roca msaxiobi Tavis

gamomxatvelobas debs mimikaSi amiT sxeulis gamomsaxvelobas

klavs. `ratom ar undaT (msaxiobebs _ m. t.) mTeli sxeuliT

farTo, lamazi da gamomxatveli Jesti? aq damnaSavea msaxiobis

Cveva mimirebsa. is iswrafvis, Tavis gamomxatveloba jer mimikaSi

Cados, amiT ki sxeulis gamomsaxvelobas klavs. mimikis dros

sxeuli irindeba da qvavdeba. sxeulis Jesti gadadis saxis

JestSi, xdeba patara da xandaxan sacodavi. imas aRar vambob,

rom msaxiobis saxes mayurebelTa darbazi ubralod ver dainaxavs

da amasTan is arasodes iqneba iseTi gamomxatveli, rogorc

sxeuli.~ 7

m. Cexovis azriT, scenaze maqsimalurad metyveli mxolod

msaxiobis Tvalebia, magram Tvalebi metyveli xdeba maSin, roca

msaxiobis sxeuli absoluturad Tavisufalia da scenur

aTasi saxis adamiani

sivrceSi xatavs Tavis formebsa da xazebs. Tu sxeuli cocxalia,

maSin Tvalebi aucileblad aivseba azriT da xdeba gamomxatveli.

m. Cexovi scenaze muSaobisas Zlier grZnobebsa da energias

bolo momentisTvis, kuliminaciisTvis da a. S. ar iyenebda.

`erik XIV~-Si pirvelive Semosvlidan mTeli datvirTviT

muSaobda, mis pirvel gamosvlas ki mexis dartymas adarebdnen.

erikis Jestebi iyo mokle, daZabuli. marmarilos TeTri saxe

da Savi Tma. Tvalebi gayinuli, TiTqos ar moZraobdnen. misi

gasaocari martooba Semzaravi iyo. `cocxlebisa~ da `mkvdrebis~

niRbebis kontrastuli dapirispireba da am mxatvrul saxeebSi

reJisorisa da msaxiobebis subieqturi damokidebuleba

imaleboda. Semdeg Cexovi azrs Seicvlis da ityvis, rom Tavis

mxatvrul saxeebs uyurebs obieqturad. eriki am or sazogadoebas

Soris sxlteboda _ xan aqeT da xan iqiT.

1916 wels sulerJicki gardaicvala. 1921 wels studiis

gadasarCenad mxatTan SeerTebis sakiTxi dadga. 1922 wlis 29

maiss e. vaxtangovi gardaicvala. 1922 wlis seqtemberSi Cexovma

moiTxova studiis xelmZRvaneloba da 24 seqtembers gaxda

misi direqtori. 1924 welis 5 ivniss pirvelma studiam miiRo

nezlobinis yofili Teatri, sverdlovis moedanze da nemiroviCdanCenkos

winadadebiT daarqves mxat 2. studiis patara

mayurebelTa darbazi, romelic 175 kacze iyo gaTvaliswinebuli,

Seicvala darbaziT, romelic 1350 kacs itevda.

m. Cexovi sastikad uaryofda naturalizms, romelic, misi

azriT xelovneba ar iyo, radgan mxatvari naturalistur

`xelovnebis nawarmoebSi~ Tavisas ver Cadebs, misi amocana

SezRudulia, misi unari vlindeba `naturis~ met-naklebad zusti

aslis gaakeTebSi. im dros moskovisa da peterburgis scenebze

gamoCnda agitaciuri piesebi da propagandistuli xasiaTis

nawarmoebebi (revoluciis pirveli epoqis produqti).

naturalizmi, `ubraloeba, rogorc cxovrebaSi~, fotografiuli

zustiT mimdinare movlenebis gadmocema, maTi xorcSesxmis

erTaderTi SesaZlo `stili~ iyo.~ gaCndnen axali `Tanamedrove~

dramaturgebi, romelTa nawarmoebebiT savse iyo klubebisa da

qarxnis scenebi da isini cdilobdnen mxat-2 studiaSic

SemoRwevas.

106 107


manana turiaSvili

aTasi saxis adamiani

m. knebeli wers: misi azriT, `materializmi~ rogorc sawyisi,

xelovnebis mteria, is ki ara da rogorc kacobriobis

pirovnebisac... Cexovi Camoscildeba `materialurobas~, rogorc

`sulieris~ damangrevels~ 8

am viTarebaSi m. Cexovma studiis mxatvruli cxovrebis

SenarCunebisaTvis Tavis Tavze aiRo marTva da Tavi `diqtatorad~

gamoacxada, ramac bevris mtroba gamoiwvia. m. Cexovma Teatris

marTvisTvis oTxi kacisagan Semdgari sando piri airCia, romelTac

dasi pativs scemda. m. Cexovis `Zalauflebis xelSi Cagdebis~

sami-oTxi dRis Semdeg narkomprosma mis diqtatorobas sanqcia

daado.

1924 wels m. Cexovma `hamletis~ dadgma daiwyo. am

speqtaklis repeticiebze m. Cexovi axali samsaxiobo teqnikis

SemuSaveba daiwyo, romelic Sesatyvis savarjiSoebs eyrdnoboda.

`hamletis~ repeticiebi uxmaurod mimdinareobda da idumalebiT

iyo moculi. teqstis warmoTqvamde msaxiobebi moZraobiT

midionen. es iyo savarjiSoebi `burTebi~. `repeticiis periodSi,

`raTa teqsti enis kunTze ar damjdariyo~ (stanislavskis

gamoTqmaa) msaxiobebi sityvebs ar iyenebdnen da burTebis

gadagdeb-gadmogdebisas, yovel moZraobaSi debdnen garkveuli

nebisyobis gzavnils. ase eziarebodnen urTierTobis bunebas,

ritmebis sxvadasxvaobas.

xlestakovidan hamletamde intervali ori weliwadia. m.

Cexovi Ziebebma `axal sarepeticios teqnikasTan~ miiyvana. swored

`hamletze~ acxadebs m. Cexovi: `rom msaxiobi saxes qmnis

fantaziaSi da Semdeg cdilobs mis rogorc garegnul, ise

Sinagan imitacias. `mxatvruli saxis imitacias~. imitacias

hamletSi bolomde ver miaRwia.

es is welia _ 1924, roca a. belis gavleniT gaicno

rudolf Steineri da mas Sexvda. 1913 wels man daafuZna

antroposofiuri sazogadoeba. Steineris TeoriaSi m. Cexovs

Secnobis intuiciuri SesaZleblobebi ainteresebda.

`hamletis~ repeticiebis paralelurad mezobel

sarepeticioSi a. d. diki muSaobda n. s. leskovis nawarmoebze

Seqmnil `rwyilze` (1925). `hamletis~ garSemo sxvadasxvanairi

xmebi dadioda. ambobdnen, rom Cexovi dakavebulia raRac mistikiT.

`roca orive speqtakli gamovida, presisa da mayureblis

Sexedulebebi mkveTrad gaiyo. isini, vinc usityvod iRebda

`rwyils~, ar iRebda `hamlets~. aman Teatris SigniT da mis

garSemo gamiwvia arajansaRi atmosfero.~ 9

a. d. diki werda Tavis wignSi: `Повесть о театральной юности~:

`studiam ar icis, ra gzas daadges, is ver grZnobs drois

pulsacias... studiaSi m. a. Cexovis xelmZRvanelobiT mistikurantroposofiuli

mimarTulebaa da koleqtivis ufro met wevrs

isrutavs... pirvelive dRidan me mkveTrad gavemijne Cexoviseuli

jgufis Ziebebis Cemi `miwierobis~ gamo. me bavSvobidan ver

vitandi yovelgvar `jandabas~, maT Soris _ filosofias...

magram mxolod me ar meCveneboda, rom mefe SiSvelia...

xelmZRvaneloba direqciis xelSi iyo, Cexovis xelSi _

inteligenturi moskovis sayvareli adamianis...~ _ 1927 wels

Jur. `Новый зрител~-is # 13,+ РСФСР-s pirveli saxalxo

komisari (1917-29), a v. lunaCarski hamletze da ableuxovze

wers: `Театру МХАТ-2-му совершенно необходимо отделаться от

пристрастия к сюжетам туманным, к созданию настроений жутких,

тревожных и неясных~, Semdeg agrZelebs: `Suq-Crdilebis bundovan

simbolikaSi hamleti aSkarad abstraqtuli, istorizmisgan

daSorebulia, is orientirdeboda mxolod aradroul moralur

kategoriebze sikeTisa da borotebis maradiul brZolaze.~

hamletis scenas aCrdilTan mistikurs uwodebdnen. Rrublebidan

mTvaris Suqi ipareboda da mxolod hamletis saxes da xelebs

anaTebda. Tavad m. Cexovi ambobda mamis aCrdilis sityvebsac da

hamletis teqstsac. scenis miRma musikalur fonze gongisa da

dolis mkveTri dartymebi gaismoda, romelic aCrdilis fexis

xmas mianiSnebda. `scenis miRma mamakacebis gundis xmebi aCrdilis

sityvebs warmosTqvamden, xolo hamleti ki am sityvebs imeorebda,

TiTqos, xelaxla iazrebda. m. Cexovma `hamletSi~ TiTqmis

mTlianad uaryo Jesti da mizanscenebis dinamika: im mxolod

usmenda, akvirdeboda da fiqrobda. arnaxuli Zalebis mokreba

gonebas unaTebda. 1928 wels m. Cexovi a. b. lunaCarskisadmi

sapasuxo werilSi wers: `rogorc mxatvari me arasdros uarvyof

imas. rom Tu scenaze gamoCndeba `hamletis suli~, es ise unda

gaakeTo, rom iyos STabeWdileba `sulis~ da ara gadacmuli

msaxiobisa, es mistika araa, aramed mxatvruli gemovneba~. 10

108 109


manana turiaSvili

aTasi saxis adamiani

a. b. lunaCarski `rwyilis~ da misi reJisoris _ a. d.

dikis2Ddidi megobari iyo. dikis TqmiT, man gulwrfelad miuloca

da premieraze saidumlo fraza uTxra: `ai, speqtakli, romelic

niCabze dadebs mTel konstruqtivizms~ (А. Д. Дикий `Повесть

о театральной юности~), lunaCarski _ profesionali

revolucioneri. РСФСР-is pirveli saxalxo komisari (1917-

29), 1917 wlidan kulturis sferoSi leninuri politikis

aqtiuri gamtarebeli.LМХАТ-2-is msaxiobi serafima birmani,

romelic TamaSobda e. vaxtangovis `erik IV~ da a. dikis

`rwyilSi~, wers: `gulwrfelad rom vTqva, CexovTan metoqeobda

misi yvela megobari, isini SesaniSnavad acnobierebdnen, rom

Cexovi niWierebiT maTze maRla dgas. me vfiqrob, swored amitom

ebrZoda diki Cexovs da ara imitom, rom maTi politikuri da

ideuri swrafvebi gansxvavebuli iyo~.

hamletis sikvdili mayurebelSi kaTarziss iwvevda, Tumc

perspeqtiva wydeboda, radgan fortinbrasis scena amoRebuli

iyo _ ris gamoc lunaCarskis sayveduri gamoiwvia. m. Cexovis

gadawyvetiT wydeba sicocxle sikeTisa da adamianurobisa, radgan

es qveyana sapyrobilea. `hamleti~ m. Cexovma dadga (reJ: smiSlaevi,

tatarinovi, Cebani) 1924 wels da amgvari koncefciiT

iwinaswarmetyvela, Tu ra moeloda Tavis qveyanas momavalSi.

1925 wels m. Cexovma iTamaSa ableuxovi andrei belis

`peterburgSi~. es iyo maTi megobrobis periodi. mecadineobdnen

ritmis, moZraobis da sityvis sferoSi, swavlobdnen poetikas

da literaturis Teorias. Cexovi da beli, rogorc m. knebeli

ixsenebs mecadinebdnen `evriTmiis~ SeswavlaSi. knebelis azriT,

swored a. belis gavleniT, ritmi gaxda erT-erTi mTavari

problema, romelsac m. Cexovi amuSavebda. isini anbanis yoveli

asos plastikur gamoxatulebas eZiebdnen, swavlobdnen Jestebis

`gramatikas~, gadadiodnen ra asodan marcvalze da Semdeg _

frazaze, winadadebaze. isini JestebiT `kiTxulobdnen~ puSkinis

leqsebs, Seqspiris sonetebs, `faustidan~ qoros nawilebs.

Cexovi asoTa `plastikur~ enas srulyofilebamde flobda.

xandaxan is ucnob teqsts nela akiTxebda da TiTqmis

sinqronulad moZraobda, plastikaSi Sifravda sityvaTa bgerebs.

mas nawarmoebis saerTo xasiaTis gadmocema sxeulis moZraobiT

SeeZlo, Tan ise, rom misi atrmosfero da fsiqologiuri

feradovnebac gamoexata.

ableuxovi (a. belis `peterburgi~, 1925 weli _ mxat-2), es

speqtakli gamoirCeoda ritmebis iSviaTi mravalgvarobiT, magram

warmodgenis centri da mTavari mxatvruli Zala iyo senatori

ableuxovi _ m. Cexovi. `socialuri Tvalis axela.~ wignSi

`msaxiobis teqnikis Sesaxeb~ gamoTqvams azrs, rom msaxiobisTvis

aucilebelia `socialuri grZnoba~. ableuxovi miagavda Ramuras,

mas didi Zalaufleba hqonda _ ableuxovs Tavis sastik xelebSi

eWira `cecxlmokidebuli imperia~ da monarqis miniWebul

Zalauflebis sxvisTvis micemas ar apirebda. masSi iyo Zalac

da avbediTi mbrZanebluroba, SiSi da Svilisadmi saTuTi grZnoba,

magram yovelive amaSi iyo ganwiruloba, istoriuli ganwiruloba,

da dasasrulis moaxloeba.

m. Cexovis bolo namuSevari ruseTSi muromskia. (suxovokobilinis

`saqme~, 1927 weli _ mxat-2). igi gulRia, keTili

da gaxsnilia sisastikis, borotebis da veragobis samyaroSi.

amis yureba ki mayurebels saSineli tkivilis gareSe ar SeeZlo.

es saxe imitaciis principiT aago. `muromskis saxes fantaziaSi

vWvretdi da repeticiebze mis imitacias vaxdendi... me ar

vTamaSobdi, Cveulebrisamebr rogorc vakeTebT xolme msaxiobebi,

aramed vakeTebdi saxis imitacias, romelic Cems warmosaxvaSi

Cem magivrad TamaSobda. am mcdelobiT scenaze muromskis

gamosvlisas garkveul xarisxSi misgan ganze vdgavar, TiTqos

vuTvalTvaleb, (Tvalyurs vadevneb mas), mis TamaSs, mis cxovrebas

da es gverdidan dgoma me saSualebas maZlevs mivuaxlovde im

mdgomareobas, romlis drosac mxatvari wmends da

akeTilSobilebs Tavis saxeebs da masSi ar Seaqvs Tavisi

arasaWiro, piradi adamianuri xasiaTis Tvisebebi.~ 11

`bunebisagan momadlebuli warmosaxvis saocari ZaliT, mas

SeeZlo `imitacia~ ara mxolod gmiris garegnuli saqcielis,

aramed SeeRwia xasiaTis Sinagan arsebiT nawilSi. `Cexoviseuli~

imitacia _ garegnulis dacinva ki ar iyo, aramed gza Sinaganis

wvdomisa da saSualeba ganviTarebisTvis da warmosaxvis

varjiSi~. 12

Semdeg ufro daxvews formulirebas: samsaxiobo xelovnebis

specifika mdgomareobs imaSi, rom masala, romliTac sargeblobs

msaxiobi, is Tavadaa. Cexovi mivida daskvnamde, rom SemoqmedebiTi

individualuroba rogorRac gancalkevebulia or `meze~, `or

110 111


manana turiaSvili

aTasi saxis adamiani

cnobierze~. `dabali mes~ TandaTanobiT aviwrovebs `maRali

me~ da rom `maRali me~ badebs mesame `me~-s, `mesame cnobiers~,

romelic Seqmnil rols axasiaTebs.

marTalia Tu ara Cexovi? stanislavskis azriT, ar aris

marTali! m. Cexovis werili berlinidan, 1928 wels n. a.

podgornisadmi (mxatis msaxiobi, mxati-2 studiis erT-erTi

damfuZnebeli). `Cven sistemebs erTmaneTs vadarebdiT da movnaxeT

rogorc bevri saerTo, aseve bevri daumTxvevlobac~... `kostia

rom daTanxmdes Tavisi sistemis zogierT cvlilebaze, Cven

SevZlebdiT erTad muSaobas da ufro mets gavakeTebdiT, vidre

calk-calke.~ 13

`...Cemi meTodiT msaxiobi samuSaos dawyebidan mis

dasrulebamde Seqmnili saxisadmi obieqturia. k. s.-s rogorc

meCveneba bevri momentia, roca msaxiobiAZalas atans pirad

nebas da sakuTari Tavidan pirad grZnobebs gamowuravs _ es

rTulia, mtanjveli, ulamazo da arasiRrmiseuli. magaliTad,

Cveneuli saxis Wvretas da Semdeg gamomdinare mis imitacias,

k. s.-Tan Seesatyviseba SemoTavazebuli viTarebebis Wvreta, magram

saxis nacvlad dgeba Tavad ganmWvreti, romlis amocanaa gasces

pasuxi kiTxvas: `Tu rogor moiqceoda Cemi gmiri (am SemTxvevaSi

me) mocemul SemoTavazebul viTarebebSi? es punqti cvlis

msaxiobis mTel fsiqologias da rogorc meCveneba, uneburad

sakuTar Rarib sulSi qeqvas aiZulebs. yoveli adamianis suli

mdidari araa im saxeebTan SedarebiT, romelsac xandaxan

fantastikuri samyaro gvigzavnis xolme... msaxiobi stanislavskis

sistemis mixedviT iwyebs fizikuri amocaniT, amasTan asrulebs

Tavis Tavidan gamomdinare: dadgas magida, gaadgilos skami, aanTos

asanTi da a. S. da es yvelaferi _ simarTlis grZnobis

arsagznebad. Cemi swavlebiT msaxiobs simarTlis SegrZneba ukve

saxeSi aqvs Cadebuli da masTanaa Serwymuli. Cems msaxiobs

SeuZlia ganaviTaros Tavisi simarTlis grZnoba saxlSi _ es

misi saqmea, magram amiT repeticiis dawyeba ar SeiZleba. ratom?

imitom, rom `dadgiT magida~ _ es pirdapiri gzaa sazareli

naturalisturi ganwyobilebisaken da yuradRebis mipyroba Sens

araSemoqmedebiT pirovnebaze.~ 14

1928 wels `mxat 2~-s sagastrolod germaniaSi iwveven, m.

Cexovma SuamdgomlobisTvis `Главискусство~-s da a. v.

lunaCarskis mimarTa. es gastrolebi ar Sedga. `mxat 2~-Si

konfliqtia da m. Cexovis Teatridan wasvla unda, radgan

dasis zogierTi nawilis mxatvruli miznebi mis amocanebs

xelovnebaSi ar Seesabameboda. `Главискусство~-s sazRvargareT

erTwlian Svebulebas sTxovs (germanuli enisa da `evriTmiis~

Sesaswavlad) _ romelsac akmayofileben. imave wels berlinidan

a. lunaCarskis sTxovda Teatrs da msaxiobebs, raTa Tavis

dakvirvebebi da aRmoCenebi speqtaklebSi ganexorcielebina. a.

lunaCarskim ar upasuxa.

im dros `misticizmisa~ da `simbolizmis~ wodeba

saxarbielo ar gaxldaT. albaT, rudolf SteinerTan Sexvedrasac

ar patiobdnen. Steineri xom Sepyrobili iyo gadaeqcia

abstraqtuli idealisturi Teoriebi cocxal rwmenaSi, mgznebare

swrafvaSi, romelic mowodebuli iyo adamianSi gaeRviZebina

umaRlesi sulieri Zalebi.TeatrSi msaxiobad darCena, Cveulebriv,

rolebis saTamaSod, mas ar SeeZlo, radgan ukve didi xania

amowura calkeuli rolebiT gatacebis stadia. `me SesaZloa

gamitacos da SemoqmedebisTvis Semagulianos mxolod da mxolod

Teatris ideam, axali Teatraluri xelovnebis ideam~ 15 _ werda

m. Cexovi.

im periodSi sabWoTa Teatrs sTxovdnen sarepertuaro

politikas, sadac soc. mSenebloba da `axali adamianebi~ unda

asaxuliyvnen. es yovelive ewinaaRmdegeboda TeatrSi m. Cexovis

mxatvrul azrovnebas da `Tavisufali Semoqmedebis~ Ziebis

mizniT man datova samSoblo, sadac cenzura aRar Seawuxebda.

1928 wlidan sicocxlis bolomde mixeil Cexovi sazRvargareT

muSaobda.

1. p. a. markovi, Teatris Sesaxeb, t. I. 1974, gv. 395;

2. Михаил Чехов, литературное наследие, `Путь актера~,

моск..,искусство, 1986. ст. 67;

3. К.С. Саниславский, Моя жизнь в искусстве, 1983, стр. 415;

4. m. knebeli `mTeli cxovreba.~ mosk. gv. 210. 1967;

5. Михаил Чехов, литературное наследие, `Путь актера~, моск,

искусство, 1986. ст. 68;

112 113


manana turiaSvili

6. abobda e. vaxtangovi Ï. А. Марков, О театре т.1, 1974, стр. 395

7. Михаил Чехов, литературное наследие, `Путь актера~, моск,

искусство, 1986. ст. 82;

8. m. knebeli, mixeil Cexovi, literaturuli memkvidreoba,

gamomc. xelovneba, 1986. gv. 34;

9. m. knebeli, mixeil Cexovi, literaturuli memkvidreoba, gamomc.

xelovneba, 1986. gv.19;

10. В, А, Громов, Михаил Чехов. 1970, стр. 333;

11. Михаил Чехов, литературное наследие, `Путь актера~, Моск,

искусство, т. 1.1986. ст. 129;

12. m. knebeli, mixeil Cexovi, literaturuli memkvidreoba, gamomc.

xelovneba, 1986. gv. 38;

13. Михаил Чехов, литературное наследие, `Путь актера~, Моск,

искусство, 1986. ст. 352;

14. Михаил Чехов, литературное наследие, Моск, искусство, 1986.

ст. 352-353;

15. Коллективу МХАТ 2-го Михаил Чехов, литературное наследие,

Моск. искусство, т. 1. 1986. ст. 350.

gamoyenebuli literatura:

v. a. gromovi, `mixeil Cexovi~, mosk. 1970;

p. a. markovi, Teatraluri kritikosis dRiuri, kreb. `Teatris

Sesaxeb~ mosk. 1-2-tomi, 1974;

p. a. markovi, Teatraluri portretebi, kreb. `Teatris Sesaxeb~

t. 2, mosk. 1974;

p. a. markovi, Teatris simarTle, statiebi, mosk. 1965;

s. g. birmani, msaxiobis gza, mosk. 1959;

n. efrosi, WriWina Rumelze, mxatis studia, peter. 1918;

a. diki, moTxroba Teatralur siWabukeze, mosk. 1957;

a. morovi, erTi cxovrebis istoria, Jur. `moskva~, 1970 # 9

n. pankova, mixeil Cexovi, Jur. `sabWoTa xelovneba~ # 7, 1970

m. knebeli, mTeli cxovreba, mosk. 1967;

k. s. stanislavski, Cemi cxovreba xelovnebaSi, mosk. 1983;

mixeil Cexovi, literaturuli memkvidreoba, 2 tomeuli, mosk.

gamomc iskustvo, 1989.

Tamar quTaTelaZe,

wamyvani mecnierTanamSromeli

Teatris funqcia da faseulobebi

(s. Wiaurelis mier aRdgenili k. marjaniSvilis speqtaklis

`uriel akostas~ mixedviT)

qarTuli Teatris reformatoris, meore saxelmwifo

Teatris damfuZneblis kote marjaniSviliseuli SemoqmedebiTi

Sedevris `uriel akostas’’ kongenialuri restavrirebisaken

mimarTuli mcdelobebi 1962, 1993, 2007 wlebSi mravalmxriv

saintereso movlenaa. rogorc irkveva, qarTuli Teatris

moRvaweebSi ar qreba nostalgia qarTuli Teatraluri modernis

am warmatebul dadgmaSi gacxadebuli, jer kidev Seucnobeli

Teatraluri faseulobebisadmi. `uriel akostasadmi’’

marjaniSvilelTa daucxromeli interesi SesaZloa warmoadgens

protests Tanamedrove Teatraluri procesebisadmi da

gaucnobierebel ltolvas misi reformebisken. Tu

gaviTvaliswinebT im faqtsac, rom Teatraluri modernis

saukeTeso warmomadgenlebis (k. marjaniSvilis, s. axmetelis,

v.meierholdis, e. vaxtangovis, a. Tairovis da a. S.) SemoqmedebiTi

moRvaweoba xelovnurad Sewyda da Tavad modernuli xelovnebis

ZiriTadi tendencia kvlavac ganagrZobs farul arsebobasa da

ganviTarebas. amdenad, vfiqrob, yuradRebas imsaxurebs

marjaniSvilelTa mier araerTgzis warmarTuli mcdeloba

STawvdes qarTuli Teatraluri modernis am saxelovani

warmomadgenlis miRwevebs, romelmac qarTuli sazogadoebis

araerT Taobaze moaxdina hipnozuri zemoqmedeba. Tavad es

faqti ki, rogorc cnobilia modernuli xelovnebis ZiriTad

mizans warmoadgenda. mas maradisobaSi unda Seenaxa ganaxlebuli

uZvelesi da myari faseulobebis primati, sazogadoebis azrovneba

waremarTa am faseulobaTa wvdomisa da dacvisaken, xolo momdevno

TaobebisTvis axali SemoqmedebiTi impulsebi mieniWebina. amjerd,

marjaniSviliseuli `uriel akostas~-80 wlis saiubileo

TariRTan dakavSirebiT vixileT s. Wiaurelis mier aRdgenili

114 115


Tamar quTaTelaZe

speqtakli. socialur-politikuri da kulturulogiuri garemo,

romlis wiaRSic iSva es ori warmodgena, radikalurad

gansxvavdeba erTmaneTisgan, Sesabamisad bunebrivia, rom

gansxvavebuli miviReT Sedegic. sofiko Wiaurelis aRdgenil

speqtaklSi gacxadda marjaniSviliseuli dadgmis vizualuri

partitura, romelic uxvad iyo gajerebuli yofiTi msaxiobis

intonaciebiTa da plastikuri naxaziT, rasac kategoriulad

gamoricxavda adreuli modernuli periodis Teatris esTetika,

romlis gaTvaliswinebiTac Seiqmna `uriel akostas~marjaniSviliseuli

warmodgena. Tumca, aRsaniSnavia isic, rom

s. Wiaurelis mier Seqmnili speqtaklis vizualuri

partituridanac naTlad warmoCinda marjaniSvilis mier Seqmnili

Teatraluri esTetikis, samsaxiobo skolisa da Tavad speqtaklis

funqcia da faseulobebi, misi adgili Tanadrouli Teatraluri

procesebis konteqsSi.

rogorc cnobilia, XX saukunis 20-iani wlebis miwuruli,

rodesac iqmneba marjaniSvilis aRniSnuli speqtakli modernuli

xelovnebis klasikuri periodia, naxevarsaukuneze xangrZlivi

SemoqmedebiTi miRwevebis Sedegi da novatorul tendenciaTa

Jami. TeatrSi kvlav aRdga Teatralizaciis procesi, msaxiobebis

momajadovebeli intonaciebi, natifi Jestebi da pozebi.

reJisorebi rolebs, saopero partiebis msgavsad, xmebis mixedviT

anawilebdnen, sadac msaxiobis xma jados Zalas iZenda. es

mistikur-poeturi Teatri mtrulad ganewyo cxovrebiseuli

prozisadmi da daupirispirda yofiTi Teatris ganpoeturebul

esTetikas. wignSi `kote marjaniSvilis eqvsi speqtakli~ 1 Tamar

vaxvaxiSvili adasturebs, rom kote marjaniSvili rolebs

msaxiobis temperamentis, xmis tembrisa da diapazonis mixedviT

anawilebda, xolo masobriv scenebSi msaxiobebis xmebis kontrasti

qmnida simfoniebs.

modernuli periodis Teatraluri esTetikis fuZemdebelTa

Sesabamisad, romlebTanac k. marjaniSvils SemoqmedebiTi

megobrobac akavSirebda (mag.: g. kregi, m. reinhardti, a. sanini

da sxv.), marjaniSvilic eswrafoda sinTezuri Teatris esTetikis

formirebas. misi mizani iyo speqtaklSi erTian mxatvrul

mTlianobaSi harmonizirebuliyo dramis, tragediis, operis,

Teatris funqcia da faseulobebi

baletis, pantomimis, politikuri satiris elementebi. yuradReba

koncentrirebulia axali ti pis e.w. msaxiob-marionetis anu

zemsaxiobis aRzrdaze, romelsac xelewifeboda sxeulisa da

xmis virtuozuli marTva. aRsaniSnavia isic, rom gamorCeuli

funqcia eniWeboda saorkestro musikasac, romlisTvisac reJisori

arCevda saukeTeso musikosebs. marjaniSviliseul `uriel

akostaSi~ garkveulwilad warimarTa antikuri Teatris

texnikisa da msaxiobis xelovnebis reanimaciac, msaxiobis xmisa

da saxis mkafiod aRsaqmelad speqtakli mimdinareobda

prosceniumze, plastika daeqvemdebara musikalur ritms,

msaxiobisgan moiTxoves skulpturuli gamomsaxvelobiTi Jestebi.

msaxiobTa pozebi periodulad iyineboda srul uZraobaSi da

qmnida bareliefebs mayureblisadmi profiliT. partituris

zedmiwevniTi codna Semsrulebels aniWebda Sinagan simSvidesa

da Tavisuflebas.

rogorc cnobilia, 1930 wlis gastrolebze marjaniSvilis

Teatri moskovma (es iyo Teatris pirveli gasvla respublikis

sazRvrebs gareT) aRmoCenad aRiara, speqtakls uaRresad

nacionaluri da epoqis Tanaxmieri miRweva, xolo uSangi CxeiZes

didi tragikosi msaxiobi uwoda. Tumca k. marjaniSvilis

sikvdilis Semdeg `uriel akosta~ formalistur dadgmad

gamoacxades, rogorc irkveva, misi uCveulod meamboxuri

revoluciuri paTosis gamo.

`uriel akostas~ petre ocxeliseuli dekoracia XX saukunis

dasawyisis sxvadasxva mxatvruli mimdinareobisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli

elementebis narevs warmoadgenda, konstruqtivizmiTa da

eqspresionizmiT dawyebuli, surealizmiT dasrulebuli. scenuri

garemo: kibeebi, svetebi, arqiteqturis pirveladi elementebi

prioritets msaxiobis sxeulis gamomsaxvelobasa da

plastiurobas uqmnida. personaJebis qmedebis, Jestikulaciisa

da metyvelebis stils gansazRvravda. igi monumenturi da

haerovani, myari da elastiuri formebis sinTeziT aRibeWda.

speqtaklis dekoraciul garemos iseve, rogorc prioritetul

Sav sivrces an yviTeli da ruxi ferebis kombinacias musikalurfilosofiuri

Sinaarsic eniWeboda.

116 117


Tamar quTaTelaZe

`uriel-akostas~ marjaniSviliseuli premiera gaimarTa

quTaisSi 1928 wlis dekemberSi. speqtaklma gaagrZela da

ganaviTara qarTuli Teatraluri tradiciebi da ganicada 1906

wlis l. mesxiSviliseuli Sedevris gavlenac. u. CxeiZis

urielsac axasiaTebda l. mesxiSviliseuli scenuri gmirisaTvis

damaxasiaTebeli gmiruli ieri, romantikuli paTosi, zeaweuli

Teatraluroba iseve, rogorc u. CxeiZes, l. mesxiSvilsac Tavisi

momajadovebeli baritoniTa da cecxlovani temperamentiT

mayurebeli egzeltaciamde mihyavda. v. garikis 2 TqmiT, elinuri

silamazis msaxiobi monologebSi namdvil musikalur simfonias

qmnida. tragikosi msaxiob-poeti TiTqos mReroda, ise aJRerebda

Tavis jadosnur xmas da mayurebels ajadoebda Tavisi

mravalmniSvnelovani intonaciebiT, msaxiob-tribunis Tvalebic

iseve cimcimebdnen scenidan, rogorc u. CxeiZis Sinagani cecxliT

ganaTebuli sxiviani Tvalebi. simon Ciqovanis 3 TqmiT,

u.CxeiZiseuli saSemsruleblo xelovneba gamoirCeoda gancdis

siRrmiT, daxvewili intonaciiT, xolo misi maRali tembris

Zlieri da mJReri xma zariviT rekavda scenidan. rogorc

irkveva, marjaniSvilis speqtaklis centrSi kvlav amaRlebuli,

sinamdvilis gardaqmnisa da Semecnebis JiniT anTebuli,

cecxlovani temperamentis romantikuli gmiri idga, xolo

qarTuli Teatris istoriisaTvis yvelaze organuli da

sicocxlisunariani, romantikuli saSemsruleblo xerxebi

modernuli Teatris esTetikis damfuZneblebisTvisac yvelaze

optimaluri iyo (mag. a. apia). marjaniSviliseuli `uriel

akosta~ warmoadgenda iniciacias (gandobas), romelic mayurebels

ganacdevinebda TviTziarebis Zalas. saCino formebs miRma faruli

azri idga. speqtakli sazogadoebas ganumartavda totalitaruli

reJimis mmarTvelTa kanonebis logikas, yofierebis filosofiasa

da adamianuri cxovrebis azrs. igi amZafrebda pasuxismgeblis

rols da sazogadoebis gafxizlebas eswrafoda, xolo 1920-

iani wlebi, rogorc cnobilia heroikuli modernis periodia.

Sesabamisad, k. marjaniSvili qmnida filosofiur tragedias,

mayurebels sTavazobda dramaturgiseuli nawarmoebis sakuTar

xedvas, anu koncefciur speqtakls, romelsac unda Seecvala

realoba. T. vaxvaxiSvilis TqmiT 4 , k. marjaniSvilis `uriel

Teatris funqcia da faseulobebi

akosta~ heroikuli da optimisturi tragedia iyo. am principiT

viTardeboda mkveTrad Teatralizebuli moqmedeba, sadac

gadamwyveti mniSvneloba eniWeboda plastikasa da sityvas.

msaxiobis xma bunebrivad unda gadasuliyo metyvelebidan mRerad

deklamaciaSi, sasceno moZraoba sacekvao plastikasa da JestSi.

speqtakli uaxlovdeboda antikur wminda xelovnebas, sadac

dro ar arsebobda.

modernuli periodis xelovnebaSi cxovrebis mimbaZvelobiTi

xelovneba Seicvala poeturi dialogiT. radgan, damkvidrebuli

azris Tanaxmad, mxolod poetebs xelewifebodaT samyaros Secnoba,

xolo poeziis mwvervalad tragedia da musika gacxadda, romelic

samyaros nebis obieqtivacias warmoadgenda. kvlav aRorZinda

musikidan dabadebuli tragedia, Sesrulebis paTosi da jadosnuri

xelovneba. musikaSi gacxadebuli samyaro warmoaCenda yvelaze

idumal sawyiss, sadac samyaro musikis, musika samyaros xati

iyo. xolo aramusikaluri, evripides mier damkvidrebuli teqstis

gagebis tendencia, kvlav Seicvala musikidan dabadebuli

tragediis esTetikuri msmenelis aRorZinebiT.

rogorc ukve aRvniSne, Tanamedroveni msaxiobis metyvelebas

zaris rekvas adarebdnen. garkveulwilad msaxiobis xma

warmoadgenda kidec musikalur instruments. poeturi

metyvelebis melodia teqstis Sinaarsisa da ganwyobis mixedviT

iyo moZebnili. musika sametyvelo enis kolorits gansazRvravda

da, piriqiT, poeturi metyveleba JRerda rogorc musika, romelic

erwymoda melodias.

marjaniSviliseuli speqtaklis musika ZiriTadad Seiqmna

fleitisa da simebian sakravTa meSveobiT. franguli ganaTlebis

kompozitori T. vaxvaxiSvili qarTuli musikaluri tradiciebis

gaazrebiTa da franguli sisadaviT qmnida evropuli mignebebis

Tanaxmier musikas. rogorc cnobilia, swored safrangeTs

(bodlers) ukavSideboda aRniSnuli periodis heroikuli

modernisTvis damaxasiaTebeli individualuri xelovnebiseuli

formebis prioritetis dafuZneba. marjaniSviliseul speqtaklSi

msaxiobis individualuri monacemebis, mis mier mignebuli

gamomsaxvelobiTi xerxebis gaTvaliswinebiT iqmneboda da

icvleboda musika da piriqiT. musika gansazRvravda msaxiobis

118 119


Tamar quTaTelaZe

poeturi metyvelebis ZiriTad aqcentebs, sasceno moZraobisa

da speqtaklis mTel tempo-ritms. amrigad, cocxali orkestris,

musikalur-poeturi sityvisa da msaxiobis moZraobis harmoniul

sinTezSi iqmneboda musikalur-simfoniuri warmodgenis

garkveuli Janri, samTa erTianobis kanoni, anu e. w. magiuri

samkuTxedis triada. am erTianobis ganviTarebisa da am kanonis

srulyofili gacnobierebis safuZvelze warmoiqmneboda uZvelesi

xelovnebiseuli formisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli nawarmoebi. aq

msaxiobis sxeulic musikisa da plastikis, musika-sityvisa da

plastikis gamomsaxveli iyo, xolo ritmi organizebul sawyiss

warmoadgenda. amrigad, musikaluri melodiis ritmis, msaxiobis

moZraobis ritmis, metyvelebis ritmis da a.S. yvela am

mravalferovan ritmTa harmoniuli Tanaarsebobis safuZvelze

iqmneboda xelovnebis nawarmoebis hipnozuri zemoqmedebis

winapiroba. erTmaneTs avsebdnen verikos-ivdiTis haerovani da

uSangis-urielis qariSxliseburi graciozulobiT Seqmnili

maneruli scenuri saxeebi. maTi yoveli sityva, moZraoba da

Jesti maTematikurad gaTvlili iyo. personaJis sulieri

mdgomareoba JestSi gardaiqmneboda. aq apoloni individis

tanjvaze, silamaze cxovrebiseul gancdaze zeimobda. Tanamedrove

TeatrSi SemoiWra ZvelberZnuli TeatrisaTvis prioritetuli

apolonur-dionisuri xelovnebis gadakveTa, anu harmonia da

qaosi. SesamCnevi gaxda xelovnebis, rogorc TamaSisaken swrafvis

tendencia. modernul periodSi prioritetuli metaforuli

xelovneba ganerida yovelive realurs da Semusra adamianuri

aspeqti. scenaze damkvidrda adamiani-simbolo. marjaniSviliseul

speqtaklSi urielic da ivdiTic swored aseT simbolizirebul

saxeebs warmoadgendnen. orive maTgani sicocxlisa da adamianuri

arsebobis, misi funqciisa da faseulobebis ganmsazRvrel

metaforul saxeebad iqcnen, sadac sicocxlis arseba swrafvaa,

ltolvaa, raimes nebaa, cvla-ganaxlebis simboloa. igi

siyvarulicaa da Tavisuflebis dauokebeli wadilic, amitomac

iyo scenaze wyvilTa vneba-uvnebo, mistiuri da Seucnobeli.

k.marjaniSvilis koncefciiT, urieli da ivdiTi orsxeuliani

sxeulis Suaze gakveTili, realisturi koncefciis TviTkmari

individualoba iyo. aq xorcieli sawyisi dakninebulia da

Teatris funqcia da faseulobebi

esTetikur koncefcias emorCileba. Sesabamisad, scenazea ara

xorcieli arseba, aramed idealisti, romelic unda mokvdes

imisTvis, rom ukeTesi da umetesi, ufro Zlieri iSvas. xolo

mis damdablebas, ara marto Semmusravi da uarmyofeli mnSvneloba

aqvs, aramed dadebiTi. igi amaRorZinebeli da ambivalenturia.

uSangi CxeiZis uriels msubuqad mohqonda mZime, Savi

wamosasxami, tiranuli reJimis pirobebSi, misive xvedris simbolo.

urielisve Sav samosze TeTri tilos sayelo, iseve rogorc

ivdiTis qaTqaTa, TeTri samosi, natifad aqandakebda msaxiobTa

keTilSobilur profils, maT kexian, aRmosavlur cxvirs.

k.marjaniSvili mkacri sizustiT mihyveboda damkvidrebul

modernul tendencias aristokratuli xelovnebis formirebis

Taobaze. Sesabamisad, k. marjaniSviliseuli arCevani qarTuli

gvaris or rCeul warmomadgenelze am mxrivac iyo motivirebuli.

modernuli tendenciis Sesabamisad, k. marjaniSvilis

Teatraluri esTetikac gamoirCeva mkveTri ferebiT. speqtaklis

ganaTebaSi erTmaneTs enacvleboda sisxlisferi da

TvalismomWreli oqrosferi, avismomaswavebel musikas zeimuroba

da silaRe. saSemsruleblo xelovnebaSi prioritetuli iyo

saopero, sabaleto da dramatuli Teatris msaxiobTa

gamomsaxvelobiTi xerxebi. speqtaklSi CarTuli pantomimuri

scenebi amZafrebda arsebuli reJimis sisastikis saxier Cvenebas.

meamboxe urielisadmi mimarTuli wyevlis yoveli frazis

dasrulebisas de santosi (al. imedaSvili, g. CuguaSvili)

kibis TiTo safexurze eSveboda. qedmoxrili ivdiTi (v.

anjafariZe, n. murvaniZe) uneblied ixevda urielisgan. es pasaJi

mkafiod asaxavda damkvidrebuli morCilebis momajadoebel Zalas.

mrevli iseTi simwvaviT reagirebda wyevlis yoveli frazis

dasasruls, TiTqos maTraxi dahkreso. tkivilisa Tu Tavdacvis

instiqtiT welSi moxrilebsa da TavzexelebSemoWdobilebs

gminvisa da muqarismagvari bgerebi aRmoxdebodaT xolme. es

pantomimuri scena sisxlisfrad iyo ganaTebuli, orkestric

avismomaswavebel musikas ukravda. mRelvareba piks aRwevda da

samarisebul siCumes hkveTda ivdiTis mtkice amboxi. rabinTa

jgufi mrisxane saxeebiT tovebdnen wyvils. sisxlisfer sinaTles

kvlav TvalismomWreli oqrosferi enacvleboda, JRerda

120 121


Tamar quTaTelaZe

`gamarjvebulTa laitmotivi~. amayi, bednieri da momRimari ivdiTi

urielisken xelebgawvdili kibis zeda baqnidan iwyebda sabaleto

msaxiobis graciozulobiT Seqmnil saxelganTqmul monologarias:

`axla Cemi xar, Cemo uriel!~... u. CxeiZis urieli muxls

idrekda mamaci qalis winaSe da Tavadac ivdiTisaken

xelebgawvdili neli nabijiT iwyebda svlas grZel kibeze.

aRsaniSnavia isic, rom speqtaklis kostumebi moyvarulma

mkeravma, profesiiT operis momReralma ganaxorciela. Tavad

reJisoris TanaSemwe al. gvelesians ki diriJoroba daekisra.

igi warmodgenis reJisoruli partiturisa da TiToeuli

Semsruleblis individualurobis gaTvaliswinebiT marTavda

orkestrs

marjaniSvilis mier modernulad iqna gaazrebuli

ZvelberZnuli qoros funqciac. ZaZiT mosili adamianebis jgufi

SiSiT aTrTolebuli moZraobda scenaze. maTi haerSi molivlive

xelis mtevnebi Tu mravaltanjuli mzera, warmoaCenda urielis

samarTliani amboxis Tanamoazre da sakuTari umweobiT

sasowarkveTili sazogadoebis ganwyobas. usamarTlo realobasTan

uSedego brZolis Semdeg, adamianuri Rirsebis xelmyof reJimTan

amboxis erTaderT alternatiul saSualebad misgan ganridebaRa

rCeboda. T. vaxvaxiSvilis 5 cnobiT, TviTmkvlelobis scenaSi v.

anjafariZis scenuri gmiri welgamarTuli, didebuli da mSvidi

ieriT pirqve emxoboda petre ocxeliseul egzotikur

savarZelSi. Tavs iklavda urielic. wamieri pauzis Semdeg ki

scenas sazeimo musika da TvalismomWreli mzis sxivebi avsebda.

rogorc cnobilia, dionisuri xelovanisaTvis sikvdili

maradiuli ganaxlebaa. igi ambivalenturia, uaryofs da amkvidrebs.

amitomac iyo marjaniSviliseuli speqtaklis finali uCveulod

zeimuri, xolo zeimoba (yovelgvari) mix. baxtinis ganmartebiT,

kulturis pirveladi formaa, dakavSirebuli adamianuri

cxovrebis krizisuli gardatexis - sikvdilisa da aRorZinebis,

cvlisa da ganaxlebis momentebTan. aq gmiri kvdeba, ibadeba da

axldeba. swored am ambivalentobaSia misi zeimuroba. mas

akvdineben da Tesaven kidec, raTa iSvas ukeTesi da ufro

Zlieri.

amrigad, k. marjaniSvilis `uriel akostas~ saxiT qarTuli

Teatris istoriaSi Seiqmna maRali tragedia, romelic gaamxelda

Teatris funqcia da faseulobebi

Tanadroul sinamdvileSi warmoqmnil umTavres problemas -

brZolas sicocxlisTvis, gadarCenisTvis, realobidan gaqcevaamaRlebisTvis.

speqtaklis yvela komponenti mimarTul iqna

swored am ZiriTadi ideis warmosaCenad. am mxriv s. Wiaurelis

mier aRdgenili dadgma distancirda rogorc modernuli, ise

Tanamedrove periodis social-politikuri garemosgan, moarul

saTeatro esTetikasTan da saSemsruleblo skolasTan.

1. T vaxvaxiSvili, kote marjaniSvilis eqvsi speqtakli, Tbilisi,

1968;

2. v. gariki, Teatri, Tbilisi, 1958;

3. v. anjafariZe ,,uSangi CxeiZe’’, Tbilisi, 1979, gv-29;

4. T vaxvaxiSvili, kote marjaniSvilis eqvsi speqtakli, Tbilisi,

1968 w;

5. ix. zemoT dasaxelebuli wigni.

122 123


lamara RonRaZe,

asocirebuli profesori

reJisori, dro, speqtakli

(lili ioselianis pirveli speqtakli)

lili ioseliani gamorCeuli adamiani, pirovneba, reJisori

da pedagogia. es gamorCeuloba yovelTvis imdenad TvalSisacemi

iyo, rom TiTqos, mis Semoqmedebasac ki uwevda metoqeobas! –

rasac, albaT, yvelaze metad misi saxelis gansakuTrebuli

legendiTmosileba ganapirobebda. es legendaruli areali xSirad

imasac sarwmunos xdida, rom, vTqvaT, misi ganuxorcielebeli

Canafiqric ki, gacilebiT mniSvnelovani iyo, vidre sxva reJisoris

warmatebuli speqtakli. Tumca gamorCeuloba lili ioselianisTvis

RvTis saCuqarze ufro umZimesi jvari iyo yovelTvis. jvari,

romelic sxvebze metis atanasa da gausaZlisis gaZlebas moiTxovda

misgan. misi gamorCeuloba Tavdapirvelad mis iseT sisustesa da

daucvelobaSi gamoixata, romelic TandaTanobiT, liliseuli

daTmeniTa da nebiT, sakuTar siZliered aqcia.

pirveli Seudrekeli neba ki maSin gamoamJRavna, roca

reJisoroba, esoden `mamakacuri saqme~ airCia profesiad da

veRaravin aTqmevina uari masze. mSoblebis aqtiur

winaaRmdegobasac sZlia da mravalTa skepticizmsac – am

sifrifana qalma artistebis marTvis Zala da gamZleoba saidan

unda ipovos sakuTar TavSio?! – gamZleobasac miakvlia da

gabedulebasac – erT mSvenier dRes uyoymanod miatova Tbilisis

saxelmwifo universitetis filologiuri fakultetis

germanuli enis ganyofileba da moskovSi, Teatraluri

institutis sareJisoro fakultetze Casabareblad gaemgzavra.

Caabara kidec! – misi utexoba ki ufro metad gaxdeba sacnauri,

Tu davsZen, rom es 1941 wels xdeboda!...

marTalia, swavlis dawyebidan sul raRac sami Tvis Semdeg,

mamam – konstantine ioselianma _ CaakiTxa da acremlebuli

saxlSi wamoabrZana, magram es daTmoba ki ara, mtkiced arCeuli

gzis gagrZeleba iyo. gzisa, romelmac 1939 w. aRdgenil

saqarTvelos saxelmwifo Teatralur institutSi moRvawe

didostatebTan miiyvana.

reJisuras maSin axalgazrda, SemdgomSi msofliloSi

saxelganTqmuli reJisori, giorgi tovstonogovi aswavlida.

msaxiobis ostatobas, imxanad TbilisSi evakuirebuli samxatvro

Teatris msaxiobi, olRa iakubovskaia. Tavis am did

maswavleblebTan eziara igi stanislavskis qmediTi analizis

meTods. maTTan daeufla msaxiobTan muSaobis im gansakuTrebul

xerxebsa da saSualebebs, mogvianebiT lilis skolis saxeliT

rom gaxda cnobili.

sainteresoa qarTuli Teatrmcodneobis erT-erTi gamorCeuli

avtoritetis, naTela uruSaZis mosazrebac, misi msaxioburi

niWierebis Sesaxeb – `lili ioselianis aqtiorul niWierebaSi

eWvis Setana SeuZlebeli iyo. amitom, rodesac g. tovstonogovi

anawilebda rolebs, samsaxiobo fakultetis meoTxe kursis

sadiplomo warmodgenisaTvis pristlis piesaSi `dro da konveis

ojaxi~, medea CaxavasTan erTad lilic daniSna kerolis rolze.

rodesac lili pirvelad gamocxadda repeticiaze... g.

tovstonogovma maSinve samuSaod gaixmo. uceb Seaxsena mocemuli

viTarebani... swrafad Caeba lili mxiarulebis ritmsa da

ganwyobilebaSi... parteridan moisma g. tovstonogovis: `yoCaR~.

arc Tu ise advili iyo misgan am sityvis gagoneba~. 1

lili ioselianisTvisac arasodes araferi yofila advili.

arc yofaSi, arc SemoqmedebaSi. Tavis mtkivneulad sust

janmrTelobasTan erTad yofas gausaZlisad umZimebda misia,

romelic TiTqmis bavSvobidan ergo. `pigmalionis qmnadobis~

am misias ki igi maSin Seudga, rodesac Tavisi gzasacdenili Zma

jaba jer sasikvdilo ganaCenisagan ixsna, Semdeg ki Taviseburi

utexi daJinebiT Seudga misi pirovnebis im miTosuri suraTxatis

srulqmna-damkvidrebas, aseTi TavdaviwyebiT rom aRazeva me-20

saukunis miwurulis weraatanil qarTvelTa aRgznebulma

gonebam!... samarTlianoba moiTxovs iTqvas, rom lili ioseliani

am qmnadobaSic iseTive did simaRleebs Sewvda, rogorc

Tea t r a l u r xe l ov neb a S i , r ogo r c Tea tr a l u r

pedagogikaSi.@`lili ioseliani qarTuli reJisuris didostatia.

misi pedagogiuri monacemebi unikaluria. lili ioseliani

skolaa~. sxvaTa qebisas friad TavSekavebuli mixeil

TumaniSvilis am sityvebis Semdeg SemiZlia, ufro Tamamad

124 125


lamara RonRaZe

gavimeoro dasawyisSi naTqvami _ lili ioseliani gamorCeulia

imiT rom lili ioseliania!

Tumca, im gardasul, ukve saukunis miRmier 1952 wels, rodesac

igi marjaniSvilis TeatrSi mivida, yvelaze TvalSi sacemi, rac

mis gamorCeulobas ganapirobebda, albaT, jer mxolod misi

umweo da dasacavad momxmobi garegnoba iyo. anu g. tovstonogovis

frTian Sedarebas Tu movixmob _ `mudam naxevrad qalisa da

naxevrad gogonas STabeWdilebis momxdeni garegnoba~.

marjaniSvilis TeatrSi lili ioseliani damdgmel reJisorad

miiRes. mTavari reJisori vaxtang tabliaSvili iyo. gacilebiT

zusti iqneba Tu vityvi _ sakadro nusxis Sesabamisi Tanamdeboba

vaxtang tabliaSvils ekava meTqi! – radgan namdvili mTavrebi

da Zalian mTavrebic scenaze idgnen.

da mere vin idgnen?! _ lado asaTianis ar iyos, sxvebi

rom ara, veriko anjafariZe kmaroda. magram sxvebic iyvnen da

Tanac isini, romlebic TviT marjaniSvilsac ki manamde itanden

(verikosTan erTad), sanam misi mxardWeriT TavianT Tavisuflebas

alaRebdnen. sanam kmaroda axmetelTan gajibrebis Jini da

marjaniSvilis geniiT Seqmnili ukvdavi speqtaklebis xibli,

saxel-didebas rom uxveWda maT. sanam iyo maTiT da mxolod

maTiT aRtacebuli marjaniSvilis sxivmfinari Tvalebi! sakmarisi

iyo, am TvalebSi maTiT aRtacebis garda, damoukidebeli nebis,

Tundac umniSvnelo Crdilic ki gaciagebuliyo, am misgan

xeldasxmulma artistebma TavianTi ganaCeni ise Rrmad

dautriales gulSi did maswavlebels, rom, axmetelisgan

gansxvavebiT, sistemis represiuli manqanis gamoyeneba aRar

dasWirvebiaT, ise gauCerda igi!...

amdenad, ar iyo gasakviri, rom swored isini, oci-ocdaaTianiormociani

wlebis codo-brals naziarebi da represiebs

TavdaRweuli artistebi moiazrebdnen Tavs 50-iani wlebis

qarTuli Teatris liderebadac. realuradac isini qmnidnen im

periodis Cveni Teatris ganumeorebel saxes. amitomac iyo, rom

isini arc mmarTvels eZebdnen da arc gzis maCvenebels. reJisors

speqtakli unda daedga, maTTvis sasurveli da maT didebaze

morgebuli... am TvalsazrisiT verc lili ioseliani iqneboda

gamonaklisi. daostatebis rogori skolac ar unda hqoneboda

reJisori, dro, speqtakli

gavlili, Tavis damkvidrebis garda, albaT im dros, arc ioselians

eqneboda metis pretenzia, miT ufro, rom xmauriani meamboxeoba

da wingaWrilis Tavdaviwyeba, arc Semdeg yofila misi stili.

igi ufro Cumad ukmayaofilo adamiani gaxldaT. ukmayofilo

ki marTlac yovelTvis iyo. Tanac yvelaTi da yvelafriT!

magram Tavis romelime speqtaklSi es arc arasdros ganucxadebia.

mTeli misi epataJi da janyi misi Zma jaba iyo! speqtaklebSi ki

igi, SeiZleba iTqvas, ufro TavisTvis buzRunebda. iqneb fiqrSi

apirebda kidec yvelasTvis yvelaferi pirSi miexala da erTi

kargad moeoxebina guli, magram?! rac marTalia marTalia, mis

pirovnebaSi amis ganzraxulobis xazgasma yovelTvis ikiTxeboda,

da albaT, yvelaze `xmamaRali~ masSi swored ganzraxuloba da

kidev moridebulobis gamokveTilad gamomwvevi demonstrireba

gaxldaT.

Tumca, saeWvoa, amas maSin vinmeze raime efeqti moexdina.

lili ioselianis, dRes ukve yvelasTvis ase nacnobi

uflebawarTmeulobis gamomwvevi xazgasma, angariSgasawev Zalas

mere da mere SeiZens, Torem maSin marjaniSvilis TeatrSi

damxdurTaTvis es axalgazrda reJisoris arsebobis bunebrivi

forma iyo.

zraxvebi da imedebi, yvela damwyebis msgavsad, rasakvirvelia,

masac diadi eqneboda, magram iluziebisadmi gansakuTrebulad

Tavmicemuli rom ar yofila, amas misi, ase vTqvaT, yovlad

udavidarabo da uwyinari arCevanic cxadhyofs.

pirveli piesa, romelic ioselianma marjaniSvilis TeatrSi

dadga, imdroisaTvis sakmaod gaxmaurebuli saxelis mqone poetisa

da dramaturgis viqtor gabeskirias piesa `gazafxulis dila~

iyo, anu, is nawarmoebi, romelic zedmiwevniT Seesabameboda

sabWouri wyobis ideologiur kliSes da omaxianad exmianeboda

sistemis TviTkritikuli paTosis imxanad aSlil saRerRels

_ `sabWoTa kavSiris komunisturi partiis 1946 wlis 26

agvistos istoriulma dadgenilebam `dramatuli Teatrebis~

repertuarisa da misi gaumjobesebaTa RonisZiebaTa Sesaxeb~.

dramaturgebsa da Teatris muSakebs amocanad dausaxa Seqmnan

mkafio da mxatvrulad srulfasovani nawarmoebebi sabWoTa

sazogadoebis cxovrebis Sesaxeb, sabWoTa adamianis Sesaxeb.

126 127


lamara RonRaZe

reJisori, dro, speqtakli

roca am amocanis TvalsazrisiT vudgebiT viqtor gabeskirias

piesas `gazafxulis dila~, aseT daskvnamde mivdivarT, igi uTuod

did daxmarebas gauwevs mayurebelSi mowinave, sabWoTa

ideologiisa da moralis danergvis saqmes, ufro metad

gaamaxvilebs Cvens yuradRebas im naklovanebebze, rac jer kidev

mTlianad ar aris aRmofxvrili yofidan~. 2

v. gabeskirias piesis mixedviT, `yofidan jer kidev

aRmoufxvreli naklovaneba~ e. w. saerTo-saxalxo sakuTrebidan

metis miTvisebisa da metis dauflebis survili gaxldaT.

mayurebelSi mowinave sabWoTa ideologiisa da moralis

danergvisaTvis SemarTuli dramamturgi didi mowadinebiT

cdilobda, Tavisi gmirebis magaliTiT daegmo da gaekicxa is

adamianebi, ukeT cxovrebis `yovlad mankieri~ midrekilebebis

gamo `xalxis qonebas~ rom iparavdnen!

sazogadoebis mTavari xorcmeti, rogorc maSin uwodebdnen,

piesaSi Saqris qarxnis direqtori longinozia, momxveWeli da

cxovrebis komunisturi princi pis damrRvevi. sazogadoebis

meorexarisxovan wylulad, piesis avtors, misi moadgile titiko

miaCnia, romelic Tavisdasamarcxvinod didi gemos CatanebiT

ilokavs im TiTebs, xalxis kuTvnil Taflian kasrSi rom aqvs

Cayofili?!

dramatuli konfliqti swored am uwesoebisa da Tavdadebuli

komunistis, qarxnis DinJiner Salvas urTierTdapirispirebazea

agebuli. piesis avtoris ideologiuri gulmodgineba rom

SeumCeveli ar darCenila, amas imdroindeli presa Zalze naTlad

adasturebs: _ `viqtor gabeskiriam Tavis piesaSi erTmaneTs mkveTrad

daupirispira, erTi mxriv, gadagvarebuli, egoisti longinozi da

titiko, romelTa sazogadoebrivi da saxelmwifoebrivi interesi

arafrad ar miaCniaT, yvelafers mxolod piradi keTildReobis

TvalsazrisiT uyureben, Tanamdebobas borotad iyeneben da

saxelmwifo qonebas aniaveben; meore mxriv _ patiosani, uaRresad

keTilSobili, mtkice, brZolaSi Seupovari, xalxisa da

saxelmwifosTvis Tavdadebuli komunisti _ inJineri Salva,

romelic xalxis siyvaruliTa da pativiscemiT sargeblobs~. 3

konfliqtis ganviTareba da kvanZis gaxsna qarxanaSi

Tbilisidan Camosuli revizorebis Semowmebis fonze xdeba.

konkretuli situacia aseTia _ Saqris qarxanas revizia

estumreba. direqtor longinozs yvelaferi rigze ver aaqvs.

revizorebs SeuZliaT mis mier moparulis, arc Tu kargad

dafarul, kvals miagnon. Tanac icis rom, maT am saqmeSi didi

siamovnebiT daexmareba mtkice komunisti Salva. maSasadame, Salvas

Camocilebaa saWiro! da longinozi abriyvebs, ase vTqvaT,

gulubryvilo da gamoucdel mZRols eliozs da Caagonebs

moparos sabuTebi Salvas. amiT braleuloba masze gadainacvlebs,

longinozi ki gamoZvreba.

mZRoli marTlac iparavs sabuTebs, radgan TavdaviwyebiT

uyvars da eWvianobs lilize, romelsac Tavis mxriv patiosani

komunisti Salva uyvars. longinozis fandi gaWris _ dakarguli

sabuTebis kvals gamodevnebuli revizorebi Salvas miadgebian.

Salvas daWeris safrTxe daemuqreba, magram am dros siyvarulis

diadi Zala imZlavrebs. patiosani eliozi mixvdeba, rom, rac ar

unda moxdes, lilis mainc Salva eyvareba. bedsSerigebuli da

sindisis qenjna aRZruli eliozi SalvasTan miva, yvelaferSi

gamoutydeba da moparul sabuTebs ukan daubrunebs.

samarTali zeimobs.

finali Salvas oTaxSi TamaSdeba. oTaxSi Salva da lili

arian.

`Salva _ lamazi dila Tendeba. (moismis simRera) _ zambaxsac

gaRviZeboda da Tavs uxrida niavsa... bavSvobaSi dauweria da

mainc ramdeni Zala aqvs... aq vrCebi, erTad viqnebiT, erTad

vimuSavebT. iseTi dila gaTenda, rogoric Sen daxate, Cveni

qveyana, Cveni cxovrebac mas hgavs, Cvenc yvelani misi sispetakis,

misi sidiadis Sesaferisni unda viyoT~.

aseTi paTosiT egebeboda v. gabeskirias patiosani komunisti

Salva, gazafxulis dilas, romelic mayurebels, rasakvirvelia,

ise unda mieRo, rogorc komunistebis mier dapirebuli is

nanatri dila, romelic gaciskrovnebul dRed da netari

cxovrebis dasawyisad unda qceuliyo!...

dramaturgis an reJisoris mimarT raimes SeniSvnamde, vfiqrob,

kargi iqneba, Tu gavixsenebT piesis dawerisa da dadgmis dros.

speqtaklis premiera Sedga 1952 wlis 19 noembers. es aris

dro, rodesac sabWoTa sistema garegnulad mainc Tavisi zeobis

mwvervalze imyofeba. lamis ukidegano qveyana SepyobiliviT

128 129


lamara RonRaZe

reJisori, dro, speqtakli

Sescicinebs `vards gaefurCqna kokoris~ kremlSi davanebul

avtors da yvelafridan ise Cans, TiTqos gulwrfelad xarobs

naTeli `gazafxulis dilis~ ideiT!... amJamad SeiZleba vTqvaT:

Tavs aCvenebdao, magram am moCvenebiTobaSi iseTi ganwiruli

mowadineba igrZnoboda, rom simarTlemde TiTqmis aRarc araferi

aklda!.. is mowadineba, gabeskirias damtkbar-dasaTnoebuli

gmirisagan gansxvavebuli realuri Salvebis daundobeli

sisastikiT rom caxcaxebda!...

dRes vin gaamtyunebs im patara, sifrifana gogonas, romelic

verc TeatrSi daxvedril msaxiobTa moZalebul diqtatsa da

rutinas Seeba da verc wyobis represiul manqanas. anda mas

maSin saidan unda scodnoda rom sul male iq, kremlSi,

dasasrulis dasawyisis mauwyebeli zari Camohkravda?!

man ubralod is gza airCia, romelsac yvela miuyveboda da

sistemis winaaRmdeg uperspeqttivo janys, speqtaklSi Salvasa

da lilis siyvarulis lirikuli xazis win wamoweva da

longinozis msgavs `cud warmonaqmnebze~ ukmayofileba amjobina.

reJisoris kompromisuli ganwyoba rolebis ganawilebidanac

Cans. `gadagvarebulsa da saxelmwifo qonebis gamniavebel

longinozs~ vaso goZiaSvili TamaSobda, xolo masze aranakleb

`mavne elements~ titikos _ akaki kvantaliani. komediuri da

saxasiaTo rolebis Semsrulebeli am ori gamoCenili ostatis

arCevani, vfiqrob, mravlismetyvelad cxadhyofs axalgazrda

reJisoris damokidebulebas dasagmobi, sazogadoebisagan

uarsayofad ganwiruli personaJebisadmi. swored maTi, am ori

didi artistis saSemsruleblo palitraSi uxvad moZalebul

komediur ferebs unda gaemasxrebina, gaekicxa d,a ase vTqvaT,

satiris geenisaTvis gadaeca `idealuri sazogadoebis~ mSenebelTa

Semarcxvenelni.

imdroindeli presa gvimowmebs, rom v. goZiaSvilsa da

ak.kvantalians brwyinvaled SeusrulebiaT es diadi misia! _

`v. goZiaSvilis longinozi swored gagebuli da mxatvrulad

dasrulebuli xasiaTia – msaxiobi Rrmad Cawvda uaryofiTi

gmiris bunebas, mkveTrad gamoavlina misi konkretuli Tvisebebi,

qcevis Taviseburebani... man mSvenivrad monaxa rolis Sesatyvisi

scenuri ferebi da longinozi uaryofiTi tipis ganzogadebul

saxed aqcia~...

`iSviaTi warmateba xvda speqtaklSi ak. kvantalians. aq

erTxel kidev mTeli ZaliT gamoCnda msaxiobis aqtioruli

ostatoba da xalasi niWi. ak. kvantalianma ostaturad gaaSiSvla

da gakicxa saxelmwifo qonebis gamniavebeli, uqnara adamianis

tipi. msaxiobs metad marjved aqvs monaxuli Jestebi, moZraobis

manera. metyvelebis mkveTri Tavisebureba. misi yoveli gamosvla

scenaze, ubralo gavla Tu sityvis warmoTqma mayurebelSi

gulwrfel sicils iwvevs... maSinac, roca titiko gamomJRavnebuli

da moxsnilia, msaxiobi misdami sibralulis grZnobas ki ar

aRZravs, Seubraleblad dascinis da bolomde anadgurebs mas~. 4

winaswarganzraxuli ganwyobis Seqmnis gamiznulobis

deficiti arc sxva rolebis SerCevisas Cans. iseTi ganwyobisa,

roca ginda, esa Tu is gmiri danaxvisTanave moewonos, ufro

metic, danaxvisTanave Seuyvardes mayurebels. personaJi, romliTac

darbazi, ase vTqvaT, programis wakiTxvisTanave unda moxibluliyo,

piesaSi, `diad stalinur epoqaSi aRzrdili da gamowrTobili

tipiuri gmiri~ Salva gaxldaT. reJisors am rolze, marTlac

rom gamorCeuli xibliT dajildoebuli ostati, pier kobaxiZe

hyavda daniSnuli. cxovrebiseuli, Tu scenuri mimzidveloba,

arc mis axalgazrda dubliors, ediSer maRalaSvils aklda.

Tumca, obieqturoba moiTxovs iTqvas, rom reJisoris

gulmodginebas, rac SeiZleba saukeTeso scenuri gansxeuleba

moeZebna Salvas saxisaTvis, albaT, isic ganapirobebda, rom

cdilobda am gziT mainc gaexada damajerebeli piesiseuli

Salvas sakmaod sqematuri saxe.

reJisoris mowadineba aqac Sedegiani aRmoCnda _ `pier

kobaxiZe Salvas saxes ise gvixatavs, rom mayurebeli masSi

xedavs da grZnobs mowinave sabWoTa adamians, amitomac sjera misi

simarTlisa... TavdaWerili, mtkice, pirdapiri, principuli komunistia

pier kobaxiZis Salva. igi ver urigdeba longinozisa da misi

wris uxamsobas, maqinaciebs, saxelmwifo qonebis datacebas, ulmoblad

amxels maT borotmoqmedebas, saaSkaraoze gamoaqvs igi~.

calkeuli Semsruleblebis msgavs Sefasebebs dRes is

mniSvnelobac aqvs, rom isini msaxiobTa TamaSis maRali xarisxis

Sesaxebac gvamcnoben da speqtakllis ideologiuri paTosis

wakiTxvis saSualebasac gvaZleven. paTosisa, romelic sabWoTa

adamianisaTvis ukadrisi da mankieri midrekilebebis dagmobaSi

unda gamoxatuliyo.

130 131


lamara RonRaZe

reJisori, dro, speqtakli

Tumca piesaSi da cxadia, speqtaklSic, ar SeiZleboda Tavi

ar eCina im Sinagan winaaRmdegobebs e. w. socialisturi realizmis

principebze Seqmnili nawarmoebebisTvis rom iyo damaxasiaTebeli

_ roca iwereboda erTi da ikiTxeboda meore. roca mxatvruli

simarTlis siRrmiseuli logika usxlteboda Tavsmoxveul

xelovnurobas da imas warmoaCenda, rac sinamdvileSi xdeboda.

amas verc Cveni sakvlevi speqtaklis avtorebi acden. viqtor

gabeskirias piesaSi, misi arc Tu faseuli mxatvruli Rirebulebis

miuxedavad, mainc Canda, rom rac ar unda ilaparakos partiam

Tanabari cxovrebis wessa da saerTo saxalxo sakuTrebis Sesaxeb,

Saqari mainc Saqris qarxnis direqtoris ufro iqneba, vidre im

muSis, qarxanaSi SaqriT savse tomrebs rom ezideba... anu,

Tavisdauneburad, magram mainc Canda, komunizmis am mSenebelTa

wiaRSi rogor ibadeboda da Zalas ikrebda mqonebelTa axali

fena, ase ubodiSod rom uTxrida Zirs Tanabari cxovrebis

TavisTavad mSvenier ideas.

cxadia, is, rac am sakmaod sust piesaSi gacxadda, lili

ioselianis daxvewili, maRalprofesiuli ostatobiT dadgmul

speqtaklSic ver damalavda Tavs. da Sesabamisad, albaT, swored

es gaxldaT akrZalulTan Sexebis is siTamame, moqalaqeobriv

gabedulebad rom CaeTvala mis Semqmnels.

Tavad reJisori Tvlis rom `im dros, roca simarTlis Tqma

akrZaluli iyo, Cven raRac wamoviwripineT!.. amis miuxedavad

speqtaklma manc gaiJRera. Teatris istoriaSic iTamaSa garkveuli

roli. yvelaze mniSvnelovani ki is aris, rom me maswavla rom

_ reJisoris bednierebaa gaugos avtors! Cawvdes mis saTqmels!

me gancdis reJisori var! reJisori, romelic ganicdis avtors!

gancdas ki maSin vaRwev, roca vxvdebi ris Tqma undoda avtors,

roca mis suls vwvdebi!~

diax, albaT, mnaxvelTa mexsierebaSi, swored imitomac darCa

es speqtakli, rogorc erT-erTi dauviwyari STabeWdileba, rom

lili ioselianma SeZlo avtoris sulsac Cawvdomoda da

msaxiobebic axali xerxebiTa da saSualebebiT aemetyvelebina.

giga lorTqifaniZe _ `speqtakli brwyinvale gamovida. masSi

organulad iyo Serwymuli reJisoris realisturi, fsiqologiuri,

magram amasTan erTad amaRlebuli, lirikuli samyaro... SesaniSnavi

saxeebi Seiqmna, sruliad moulodneli saRebavebiT aJRerdnen _

elene yifSiZe, vaxtang ninua, SaSo gomelauri da sxvebi~.

elene yifSiZe _ `lilis repeticiebi saocreba iyo. yvelani

monusxulebi viyaviT. _ `repeticiebi sakmarisi ar aris imisaTvis,

rom sxva adamianad iqce, dRis ganmavlobaSi, rasac ar unda

akeTebde, rolze fiqri ar unda gtovebdes~, _ gvaswavlida

lili. maxsovs, repeticiaze mimavalni troleibusSi avediT da

me TiTqmis viyvire _ `ori!~ _ uceb lilim xeli wamatana da

wamCurCula: `ase ara, ase ara, lili rogor aiRebda bileTs?!.~

mivxvdi, rom me lena aRar var!... davwvrildi, avituze da Zlivs

wamoviluRluRe _ Tu SeiZleba, qalbatono, ori bileTi~. SevediT

TeatrSi. moriges Zlivs gasagonad, gaubedavad mivesalme. qurTuks

rom vkidebdi, morigem aRelvebulma mkiTxa _ avad xom ar

xaro?!. lilim Cem magivrad upasuxa: ara, Zalian kargad aris,

swored ise, rogorc unda iyoso da kmayofilma gaiRima~...

elene yifSiZe, im dros Tavadac axalgazrda msaxiobi, qarxnis

buRalteriaSi momuSave gogonas _ lilis, TamaSobda. mxiaruls,

magram morcxvsa da moridebuls, umweobamde moridebuls,

romelsac TavdaviwyebiT uyvarda Salva. erTi SexedviT, SeiZleba

moulodneli mogeCvenos reJisoris gadawyvetileba aseTi

grZnobaTa bunebis gmiris gansaxiereba miendo ukiduresad mkveTri,

gabeduli, SeiZleba iTqvas, kvimati saxasiaTo Strixebisken

midrekili msaxiobisaTvis. magram arss Tu CavwvdebiT, mivxvdebiT,

rom es moulodneloba ki ara, reJisoris xelweris im

damaxasiaTebel niSanTagania, romelmac misi gzis dasawyisSive

iCina Tavi. rac imaSi mdgomareobs, rom misTvis msaxiobis

fsiqofizikuri samyaro, mxolod `saSeni masala~ ki ara, rolis

axleburi interpretaciis saSualebaa.

am TvalsazrisiT, vfiqrob, yvelaze tipuri magaliTi, mis

mier mogvianebiT dadgmuli d. kldiaSvilis `darispanis gasaWiri~

da ulamazesi medea jafariZis arCevania karoJnas Semsruleblad!...

_ arCevani, romelic ara mxolod moulodneli, bevrisTvis, albaT

Sokis momgvrelic ki iyo. Tumca m. jafariZis karoJnamac da

saerTod, l. ioeselianis mTelma Semoqmedebam cxadyo, rom msgavs

gadawyvetilebas zedapiruli efeqtebis moyvareoba ki ara,

siRrmiseul wiaRsvlebze orientirebuli Semoqmedis xedva

ganapirobebda. amitomac iqca mayureblisaTvis, rogorc

132 133


lamara RonRaZe

m.jafariZec gvimowmebs, `gazafxulis dila~ dauviwyar

speqtaklad. amitomac iyo, rom scenidan, reJisoris mier Seqmnili

wminda da marTali atmosferos wyalobiT, ara raRac komunisturzepaTosuri

miraJi, aramed Cveulebrivi, adamianuri, namdvili

gazafxulis surneli ifrqveoda. im dilisa, Tu im gazafxulisa,

ori mSvenieri axalgazrdis: elene yifSiZis lilisa da pier

kobaxiZisa, Tu ediSer maRalaSvilis - Salvas siyvarulisTvis

rom damdgariyo.

axalgazrda reJisoris niWiereba da Tavisi saqmis Rrma

codna msgavs scenebSi, rasakvirvelia, Warbad iCenda Tavs. iseT

scenebSi sadac ideologiuri rifebis SiSs aridebuls mSvidad

SeeZlo gasaqani mieca Tavisi SesaZleblobebisaTvis. mTeli

misi Semoqmedeba ki imis dasturia, rom iq, sadac saqme wminda

Semoqmedebas exeba, lili ioseliani Seudarebelia.

vfiqrob, rogorc saTesle marcvalSi moiazreba is mcenare,

romelic misgan unda amoizardos, rogorc jer kidev norCi

nergisagan imzireba is mZlavri xe, drosa da qariSxlebs rom

unda gauZlos, ise moCans, am speqtaklSi, is l. ioseliani,

romlis Sesaxebac Tamamad SeiZleba iTqvas: _ igi swored imiT

aris gamorCeuli, rom lili ioseliania!...

1. d. xvTisiaSvili, lili ioseliani (krebuli), Tb., 2002, gv. 24;

2. gazeTi `komunisti~, # 806, 1952;

3. iqve;

4. iqve.

gamoyenebuli literatura:

lili ioselianis Sesaxeb marjaniSvilis Teatris muzeumSi daculi

masalebi.

„kaci viyav, adamiani...~

giorgi cqitiSvili,

asocirebuli profesori

„liri _ Sen an vin iyav? an ra iyav?

edgari _ kaci viyav, adamiani, gulzviadi,

Wkva amayi...~

uiliam Seqspiri _ `mefe liri~ 1

adamianTa sacxovrisi rom idealuri araa, es yvelasaTvis

kargad cnobili WeSmaritebaa. kacobrioba dasabamidan ibrZoda

mis gasaumjobeseblad. garkveul etapze, TiTqos, odnav

warmatebasac aRwevda, magram srulyofilebamde maSinac ise

Sors iyo, rogorc dRes... da, rac mTavaria, samwuxarod,

mravalsaukunovani istoriis yovel monakveTSi, ganviTarebis

yvela safexurze, erTsa da imave Secdomas uSvebda... TiTqos,

misi mexsiereba gangeb iviwyebda warsuls, wlebis manZilze

dagrovebul gamocdilebas, Wkuis saswavlebel gakveTilebs...

arada, miuxedavad drois borblis ulmobeli, swrafi brunvisa,

yvela drosa Tu epoqaSi, yvelaferi ciklurad, jiutad

meordeboda... uzenaesis, qveynis gamriges ironiuli nebiT, kvlav

da kvlav xdeboda is, rac araerTxel momxdara... Tumc, Cven

yovelTvis mainc brmad, umecrad vimeorebdiT erTsa da imave

Secdomas... mudam windauxedavni, ara SorsmWvretelni, gulmaviwyni

viyaviT... amitomac, vimkidiT imas, rasac vTesdiT...

kacobriobis istoria savsea mZafri qartexilebiT, sastiki

gardaqmnebiTa, Tu ngrevis momtani kataklizmebiT... did

socialur-politikur Zvrebs, romlebic, ra Tqma unda, xalxis

sakeTildReod, cxovrebis, Tundac materialuri pirobebis

gaumjobesebisaTvis xdeba (yovel SemTxvevaSi, lozungebi da

dapirebebi, mudam am Sinaarsisaa), xSirad, ufro swori iqneba,

yovelTvis, Tan axlavs tyupiscaliviT msgavsi procesebi... amis

dasturad Soreul saukuneTa qronikebis qeqva ar dagvWirdeba...

erT saukuneze odnav naklebi xnis win ruseTSi e. w. didi

oqtombris socialisturi revolucia moxda...

134 135


giorgi cqitiSvili

axali qveynis, saxelmwifo-politikuri sistemis mSeneblebma,

romelTa deklarirebul mizans, xalxisaTvis naTeli momavlis

mopoveba warmoadgenda, sakmaod mtkivneuli reformebis gatareba

daiwyes... maT aqamde arsebulis Zirfesvianad Secvla ganizraxes...

energiulad, Seupovrad Seudgnen kidec saqmes... maTi Canafiqris

Tanaxmad, savsebiT unda Secvliliyo yvelaferi... es exeboda,

rogorc saxelmwifo mowyobas, ise Tavad adamians...

marTlmadidebluri rwmena aTeizmiT Caanacvles; kerZo sakuTreba

koleqtiuriT; manamde arsebul kulturas burJuaziuli uwodes

da mis nacvlad proletarulis Seqmnas mihyves xeli... rac

yvelaze mTavaria, axladgamomcxvarma ideologebma Tavad adamianis,

maTTvis sasurvel qmnilebad gardaqmna ganizraxes...

viRac damorCilda am process... Seegua... dayabulda azrovnebis

rwmenis, cxovrebis wesis, mentalitetis, erovnuli

TviTmyofadobis daTmobas, mis axliT Canacvlebas... aseTebi cotani

rodi iyvnen... isini ricxobriv umravlesobas warmoadgendnen...

ai, vinc sakuTar konstitucias, Tavis Tavs, principebs ar

uRalata, ar damorCilda sxvis nebas, umciresobaSi aRmoCnda...

amitom, isini xalxis anu masis mtrebadac iolad gamocxaddnen...

isini zedmet adamianebad iqcnen... ufro iRblianebma, emigracias

miaSures... umetesi maTgani ki represiebs emsxverpla... aseTebs

absurduli braldebebi waeyenaT... maT ZiriTadad samSoblos

RalatSi dasdes brali...

albaT, sityva gamigrZelda, radgan Cemi naSromis mizani

sulac araa istoriis kvleva, gardasul dReTa mogonebebis

kvlav win wamoweva... ubralod, e. w. zedmeti adamianebis, uxeSad

rom vTqvaT _ yofilTa Tema, yovelTvis aqtualur da maradiul

problemad mimaCnia... amitom, ar unda daviviwyoT istoriuli

magaliTebi, mexsiereba ar unda mivaZinoT... Torem, rac TiTqmis

saukunis win moxda, didi albaTobiT dResac SesaZlebelia

ganmeordes...

Cem mier zemoaRniSnul problemas, xelovnebis araerTi

nawarmoebi mieZRvna. gamonaklisi, bunebrivia, verc qarTuli Teatri

iqneboda... am Temis mizani ramdenime magaliTis warmoCenaa, radgan

formatiT mcire naSromSi SeuZlebelia srulad, yovlismomcvelad

gaaanalizo, mimoixilo e. w. yofilTa pirovnuli tragedia, maTi

kaci viyav, adamiani...~

sulieri drama da is, Tu ra saxiT, ra xerxebiT warmoCnda

yovelive es qarTul scenaze... amitom vecdebi lakonuri,

konkretuli viyo... Tqvens yuradRebas SevaCereb XX saukunis

80-iani wlebis pirvel naxevarSi dadgmul or speqtaklze...

ufro swored, or warmodgenaSi naCveneb yofil adamianebze...

naxevradCabnelebul, iisfrad mkrTalad ganaTebul scenaze,

mayureblis Tvali jer kidev mkafiod ver aRiqvamda dekoraciis

konturebs... Cven Tvalwin erTdroulad Zveli, warsulSi didi

tradiciebis, saxelovani istoriis mqone ojaxis sacxovrisi,

samxedro kreiseris gembani da zRvispira qalaqis, navsayudlis

siaxloves mdebare quCac iyo warmodgenili... mTel scenur

garemoSi (mxatvari _ mixeil WavWavaZe), dominantis rols

fotoebi asrulebdnen... isini TiTqmis yvelgan ekida... TiTqos,

warCinebuli ojaxis winaparTa, mTeli maTi genealogiis

eqspozicia moewyo uxilav xels... raRac darbaisluri, sevdiani,

mowiwebaSereuli ganwyobileba isadgurebda mayurebelTa

darbazSi... yovelive amas ki samxedro kreiseris qvemexidan

yurTasmenis damxSobi gasrolis Soreuli eqo myis spobda...

TandaTan, Semodgomis foTolcvenasaviT Zirs cviodnen

fotosuraTebi... scenas odnav emateboda momwvano Suqi da

mxolod axla aRmovaCendiT, rom zogierTi foto pirdapir

gemis anZaze ekida CamoxrCobiliviT... aCaCul-daCaCuli, naxevrad

mezRvauris samosiT mosili mefarne (vladimer meqvabiSvili),

swrafad wamokrefda Zirs Camocvenil suraTebs da udierad

yrida sanagve yuTSi...

amgvari eqspozicia hqonda reJisor Salva gawerelias mier

mozardmayurebelTa qarTul TeatrSi dadgmul boris lavrenevis

`rRvevas~...

es piesa XX saukunis 20-an wlebSi axali qveynis mSenebelTa

ideologiis Tanxmieri iyo. Zvelis ulmobeli ngreva, rRveva,

ganadgureba... mefis flotis aristokrat, brwyinvale

warmomavlobis, TavadTa adgilis ubralo mezRvaurTa mier

dakaveba... yofilTa axali saxeebiT Canacvleba... ai, is

problematika, romlis gamoc `rRveva~ imJamindel sabWoTa

kavSirSi TiTqmis yvela respublikis uamrav scenaze daidga...

136 137


giorgi cqitiSvili

1928 wels es piesa rusTavelis TeatrSi sandro axmetelma

didi warmatebiT dadga...

XX saukunis 80-iani wlebis dasawyisSi ki Salva gawereliam

sruliad axleburad gaiazra lamis sabWoTa Teatris

qrestomaTiad qceuli piesa... mozardmayurebelTa Teatris

warmodgenaSi veRar SexvdebodiT revoluciur heroikas... axali,

gamarjvebuli klasis aRzevebas aristokratTa anu yofilTa,

amitom gasanadgureblad uciloblad ganwirulTa mimarT...

Sav mundirebSi, gaqaTqaTebul TeTr perangebSi lazaTianad

gamowyobil, daxvewili manerebis, brwyinvale warmomavlobisa

Tu Cinebuli ganaTlebis mqone mefis armiis flotis oficrebs,

romelTa Soris gamoirCeodnen bersenevi (nodar cercvaZe) da

fon Stube (goCa cxvariaSvili), qvesknelidan movardnili bneli

ZalasaviT walekavda mezRvaurTa Tavxedurad agresiuli brbo...

wamis win, oficrebis mier iZulebiT datovebul asparezs,

ficarnags, TavaSvebuli, naxevradmTvrali, Sav, nacrisfer samosSi

ulazaTod Camjdari, naxevradveluri, bogano brbo stveniT,

xmamaRali SeZaxiliT ikavebda da isakuTrebda... TavianTi beladis,

artiom godunis (oTar baRaTuria) wamxedurobiT,

Zalauflebamopovebuli mezRvaurebi raRac amazrzen, naxevradvelur,

mouTokavi, aulagmavi pirvelyofili instinqtebiT aRsavse rokvas

asrulebdnen... es gaxldaT gemis yvelaze bneli, binZuri

kuTxe_kunWulebidan dRis sinaTleze amosulTa, triumidan

amomZvral-amobobRebulTa, gamarjvebulTa rokva... dRes, es samyaro

maT xelT iyo, Tu fexqveS morCilad garTxmuliyo...

bersenevTan stumrad mosuli goduni (o. baRaTuria),

xazgasmulad Tavxedurad, ganzrax gamomwvevad iqceoda...

mzesumziras mourideblad aknatunebda ojaxis ufrosTan, mis

qaliSvilebTan Tu fon StubesTan Sexvedrisas... o. baRaTurias

scenur gmirs, gamoCenisTanave, xmis amoRebamde, mxolod sakuTari

mentalitetiT mZafrad TvalSisacemi disonansi Semohqonda

bersenevis rafinirebul ojaxur garemoSi... igi, Tavisi arsiT,

mkveTrad gansxvavdeboda iq myofTagan... grZnobda ra amas, o.

baRaTurias goduni, xazgasmulad Tavisuflad, TavaSvebulad

iqceoda... urcxvad, mourideblad earSiyeboda tatianas... TiTqos

surda yvelas egrZno, rom swored igia dRes am qveynis batonkaci

viyav, adamiani...~

patroni... rogorc macxovari ambobs: `magram bevrni pirvelni

ukanasknelni iqnebian, xolo ukanasknelni _ pirvelni~... 2

leopold fon Stubes ara mxolod coli an samsaxuri,

aramed sicocxlis uflebac waarTves, radgan is yofilTa

rigebidanaa da axladmosulT igi araferSi WirdebaT... mefis

armiis flotis naoficralis dasja reJisors Semdegnairad

hqonda SeTxzuli... daxvretis win, mezRvaurebi mundirs gaxdian

Stubes... JRerda rusuli saeklesio sagalobeli da goCa

cxvariaSvilis fermkrTali, gamxdari, TeTrperangiani scenuri

gmiri, macxovris msgavsad golgoTas gzas adgeboda... Salva

gawerelia am sakmaod Tamami, saxieri mizansceniT, TiTqos, pirdapir

mimarTavda mayurebelTa darbazs... saTqmeli naTlad ikveTeboda

_ leopold fon Stube mowameobrivad aResrula, asparezi ki

mis jalaT artiom godunsa da mis xrovas darCa... Zalauneburad

ibadeboda asociacia mixeil bulgakovis piesebTan: `turbinTa

dReebi~, `srbola~...

sasceno Cacmulobisagan TiTqmis mTlianad gaSiSvlebuli

scena ipyrobda Cvens mzeras... aguris kedlebi, teqnikuri

aRWurvilobis detalebi daufaravad gadaSliliyo mayurebelTa

darbazis Tvalwin... SuagulSi, bedaurebSeubmeli Savi etli

bediswerasaviT avismauwyeblad garinduliyo... mis zeviT, mTel

scenas uzarmazari WaRiviT ekida hi perbolizirebuli

parametrebisa, Tu moculobis boRCa (mxatvrebi: aleqsandre

slovinski, oleg qoCakiZe, iuri CikvaiZe)... rogorc simbolo,

boSebiviT marad gzadagza mowanwale, moxetiale bogano xalxis

cxovrebis wesisa... am uzarmazari boRCidan gamoCrili iyo

ramdenime detali: gitara, mezRvauris zoliani maisuriT Semosi

li manekeni... iseTi SegrZneba geuflebodaT, TiTqos damokles

maxviliviT avismomaswaveblad dakiduli fuTa, viRacas

saxeldaxelod Seekra morigi mgzavrobis win...

yvav-yoranTa avismauwyebeli yrantalis fonze ganaTebis susti

sxivi ubedauro etlis siaxloves daCoqil TeTrCoxian mefis

armiis oficris brWyviala epoletebian, mkerdze jvris ordenian

ujuS emxas (oTar meRvineTuxucesi) gamohyofda... kote

marjaniSvilis saxelobis Teatris scenaze leo qiaCelis `haki

aZbas~ damdgmeli reJisori Temur CxeiZe, TiTqos speqtaklis

138 139


giorgi cqitiSvili

prologSive xazgasmiT mianiSnebda mayurebels am scenuri gmiris

gardauvali daRupvisaken... marTlac, ramdenad mtkivneulic ar

unda iyos, logikuria, rom leopold fon Stubesa da ujuS

emxas msgavsi adamianebi Tavisi drois, epoqis zedmet bargad

qceulan... isini imJamindel realobaSi aravis sWirdeba... piriqiT,

upirobod sZulT... maT keTrovanTa msgavsad sdevnian iqamde,

sanam qancgawyvetilT saboloo ganaCens ar gamoutanen...

Temur CxeiZis `haki aZba~ Salva gawerelias `rRvevas~ maleve

mohyva... am or warmodgenas erTmaneTisgan drois mcire monakveTi

aSorebs... erTi SexedviT, sxvadasxva avtoris absoluturad

gansxvavebuli nawarmoebebia, magram... orma qarTvelma reJisorma,

TiTqmis erTdroulad suliT monaTesave scenuri gmirebi, maTi

dramatuli bedi warudgina mayurebels...

da kvlav revoluciuri ideebiT ganmsWvaluli, rusuli

samxedro kreiseri... amjerad `Smidti~... isev gembanze gamofenil

TavaSvebul mezRvaurTa xrova, romelmac veluri JiniTa Tu

mouridebeli, xmamaRali yiJiniT, yviriliT, stveniT, lamisaa

walekos qalaqi soxumi...

avanscenis marjvena kuTxeSi xmauriT iReba triumis liTonis

sarqveli... stvenis xmaze iqidan mezRvauris quds viRac mTeli

ZaliT amoagdebs qalaq soxumis mmarTvelobis sagangebod

Sekrebili, nirwamxdari, SiSiT erTmaneTs akruli delegaciis

fexebTan... triumidan, viT qvesknelidan sanaxevrod gamoCndeba

saxenaiarevi kaci _ kuzma kilga (irakli uCaneiSvili)... kreiser

`Smidtis~ kapitani...

bedaurSeubmeli Savi etlis saxiT Cven Tvalwin gacxadebuli

bediswera urTierTSeyris ujuS emxasa da mezRvaur vaska

xritaniuks (mixeil maRalaSvili)... gasrolis xmas, romelmac

TeTrCoxiani oficris Rirseba, Tavmoyvareoba daicva, magram

qalaqis simSvide ki gangmira, raRac wamiT win uswrebs kvlav

yvav-yoranTa avbediTi Cxavili...

mTeli qalaqi fexze dgas... SiSma mteri Tu moyvare erTad

Seyara... yvela sakuTari Tavisa da qonebis gadarCenaze zrunavs...

sisxliT naTesavnic zvarakiviT imeteben ujuS emxas...

isic xvdeba, rom yvelasagan ganwirulia... TavSekavebiT, sakuTar

TavSi Cakluli gancdiT emSvidobeba dedas... saxegaqvavebuli,

kaci viyav, adamiani...~

amayad SemarTuli dgas Souhari (Tamar sxirtlaZe)... o.

meRvineTuxucesis scenuri gmiri, mowiwebiT iCoqebs dedis winaSe...

kocniT odnav exeba mis xels... TiTqos, ar surs mezRvauris

sisxlSi gasvrili, codviani xeli Seaxos mSobels...

ganiaraRebuli, saxarebiT xelSi amayad, dinjad, mSvidad,

sakuTari nebiT adis samsxverploze... Tavad Cabardeba samxedro

kreiseris ekipaJs... mezRvaurTa Sav-nacrisfrad Semosil figurebs

Soris TeTraxaluxiani ujuS emxa wmindans Camohgavs... zneobrivad,

moralurad, adamianurad igi aSkarad aRemateba Tavis

mowinaaRmdegeebs... o. meRvineTuxucesis gmirs Rirseba gaaCnia,

amayia, vaJkaci, uSiSari... sakuTar Tavs ar Ralatobs... Tu garemoeba

moiTxovs, Tavisi nebiT golgoTaze asvlac xelewifeba...

irakli uCaneiSvilis kuzma kilgasaTvis ujuS emxa mxolod

klasobrivi mteri rodia... bolSevikuri kreiseris kapitnisaTvis

mefis armiis oficeri mTeli arsiT miuRebelia... mas aRizianebs

emxas cxovrebis wesi, princi pebi, Sexedulebebi... rogorc

`rRvevaSi~, aqac ujuSis msgavsi pirovneba ganwirulia... asparezi

kuzma kilgasa da mis mezRvaurTa xrovas ekuTvnis...

gamarjvebulni asamarTleben damarcxebulT...

im triumis Wrilidan, saidanac adre kreiser `Smidtis~

kapitani gamoecxada mayurebels, axla ujuS emxas figura moCans

sanaxevrod... saxarebis fragments warmosTqvams mSvidad,

auRelveblad, moaxloebuli aRsasrulis winaSe qeduxreli...

sakuTari bedisweris ganaCens, xvedrs damorCilebul-Seguebuli...

xelT locvani upyria... veeba proJeqtoris mZlavri, kaSkaSa,

TvalismomWreli sxivi zemodan naTlis svetiviT daadgeba

ujuSs... locvani scenaze ecema... emxas figura triumSi

uCinardeba... i. uCaneiSvilis kuzma kilga xmauriT xuravs triumis

liTonis sarqvels... xelebs kmayofilebiT moifSvnets da im

adgils fexqveS gaTelavs, sadac wamis win, mefis armiis oficris

landi gauCinarda...

amaoeba amaoebaTa... amqveynad yovelive warmavalia... dro da

istoria, rogorc erTaderTi piruTvneli, mousyidveli msajuli,

Tavad ukeT gansjis mtyuansa da marTals... yvelas sakadris

adgils miuCens... RirseulT aamaRlebs, uRirsT sircxvilisa

da samudamo miviwyebis, SeCvenebis sanagveze moisvris... bedi

140 141


giorgi cqitiSvili

mdevari yvela Cvengans wamogveweva gansazRvrul Jams... magram,

miuxedavad istoriuli mexsierebis arsebobisa, Cven, adamianebi,

samwuxarod, momavalSi kvlav davuSvebT erTsa da imave

sabediswero Secdomas...

guliko javaSvili,

mTavari mecnierTanamSromeli

msaxiobis erTi roli

(g. berikaSvili speqtaklSi `berikoni~)

1. uiliam Seqspiri _ tragediebi, wigni meore, `mefe liri~,

inglisuridan gadmoRebuli ivane maCablisa da ilia WavWavaZis

mier, III moqmedeba, IV suraTi, gverdi 102, gamomcemloba `sabWoTa

saqarTvelo~, Tbilisi, 1987 weli;

2. axali aRTqma da fsalmunebi, maTes saxareba, 19, 30, gverdi 42,

bibliis Targmnis instituti, stokholmi, 1991 weli.

m. elioziSvilis piesa `berikoni~ marjaniSvilis TeatrSi

1977 wels reJisorma l. mircxulavam dadga (mxatvrebi: sameuli

_ o. qoCakiZe, al. slovinski, i. CikvaiZe; komp. v. azaraSvili;

qoreografi g. odikaZe). speqtakli upirvelesad sainteresoa

imiT, rom es iyo xalxuri Teatris _ berikaobis _ scenaze

ganxorcielebis pirveli cda. miuxedavad imisa, rom amis mcdeloba

ara erTxel yofila. jer kidev k. marjaniSvili da s. axmeteli

xalxur saxiobaSi _ berikaobasa da yeenobaSi _ uaRresad

Teatralur da orginalur erovnul sawyisebs xedavdnen, romelTa

Seswavla da gamoyeneba aucileblad miaCndaT Teatris Semdgomi

ganviTarebisaTvis. marjaniSvilis azriT, aucilebeli iyo im

sawyisebis Zieba, romliTac viTardeboda qarTuli Teatraluri

sanaxaoba XIX s.-mde, anu mis evropizaciamde. mas miaCnda, rom

saWiroa orginaluri gzebis Zieba, radgan amiT ufro Rirebuli

iqneba qarTuli kulturis roli kacobriobis saerTo

monapovarSi. TviTon ara erTxel gamoiyena sanaxaobiTi elementebi

Tavis speqtaklebSi (z. antonovis `mzis dabneleba saqarTveloSi~,

`arsenas leqsi~ _ xalxuri). marjaniSvili imdenad iyo am

ideiT dainteresebuli, rom dramaturg i. mWedliSvils piesa

daukveTa cnobili berikis ioana-buianas Sesaxeb. piesa daiwera,

mosamzadebeli samuSaoebi Catarda, l. gudiaSvilma Seqmna

brwyinvale eskizebi, ganawilda rolebi, magram samwuxarod didma

reJisorma Tavis Canafiqris ganxorcieleba ver moaswro.

al. axmetelma erovnuli Teatris Seqmnis sakuTari

Tvalsazrisi swored xalxur sawyisebze dayrdnobiT SeimuSava.

igi yovelTvis aRniSnavda, rom erovnuli, karnavaluri sanaxaoba

unda iyos Tanamedrove Teatraluri formis sawyisi. orive

maTgans upirvelesad xalxuri sanaxaobis forma, orginaluri

gamomsaxvelobiTi saSualebani izidavda.

SemdgomSic Zveli xalxuri sanaxaobis elementebi ara erTma

reJisorma gamoiyena Teatrsa Tu kinoSi (l. goTuas `mefe

142 143


guliko javaSvili

msaxiobis erTi roli

erekle~ _ reJ. v. yuSitaSvili, da `samsaxeoba raindisa~ _

reJ. g. laRiZe, p. kakabaZis `kaxaberis xmali~ _ reJ. g.

lorTqifaniZe, j. ioselianis `eTeriani~ _ reJ. m. kuWuxiZe da

sxv.), magram es iyo speqtaklis gadawyvetis xerxi, `berikoni~

ki uSualod berikebis cxovrebas asaxavda, xelovanis bedze, mis

daniSnulebaze mogviTxrobda.

m. elioziSvilma Seqmna xalxur sawyisebze agebuli

sadResaswaulo saxilveli, romlis Janric ase gansazRvra _

`saxioba~, rac imas niSnavda, rom qarTul dramatul Semoqmedebas

sakuTari Zirebi da sawyisebi gaaCnia. piesisa da speqtaklis

mTavari Rirseba berikaobis imitacia ki ara, aramed Tanamedrove

dramaturgiuli azrovnebiTa da mxatvruli saxierebiT

warmosaxuli cxovreba gaxldaT. speqtaklSi erovnuli, xalxuri

da zogadsakacobrio problemebi iyo wamoWrili. Tavberikas

tragikomikur bedukuRmarTobaSi saerTod xelovanis bedi

moiazreboda.

speqtaklSi xalxuri Teatris tradiciebi organulad

erwymoda Tanamedroveobas. es iyo fiqri warsulze

dRevandelobis Tvalsawieridan. avtorebisaTvis mTavari iyo

am formiT warmoeCina maradiuli Rirebulebani _ simarTle,

patiosneba, moyvasis siyvaruli, movaleobis grZnoba samSoblosa

da adamianebis winaSe.

reJisorma l. mircxulavam speqtakls Taviseburi gadawyveta

mounaxa _ es iyo Teatri TeatrSi, rac msaxiobebisagan TamaSis

garkveul wess moiTxovda. isini warmogvidgendnen niRbebs,

romelTac garkveuli simbolika gaaCndaT _ Tavberika, taxberika,

virberika, mRvdeli, Tavadi... yoveli maTgani sikeTesa Tu borotebas,

cbierebasa Tu patiosnebas ganasaxierebdnen. TiToeuli msaxiobi

or da sam saxes TamaSobda da berikas niRabSi Camjdari, xalxuri

sanaxaobis ZiriTad arss warmoaCenda. warmodgena, SeiZleba iTqvas,

orplastiani iyo: erTi _ berikuli garemos cxovrebiseuli

sinamdvilis asaxva, meore ki _ TviT berikuli sanaxaobis

gaTamaSeba.

warmodgena morRveuli, damwvari taZris ezoSi TamaSdeba.

freskebi fergadasulia, angelozebs Tavebi aRar SerCeniaT,

kedlebs aSkarad etyoba natyviarebi. iqve uremi iyo migdebuli,

romelic xan Tavadis sasaxle da xan dilegi, xan kubo da xan

akvani, xan sazidari da xan berikaT samRerali gaxldaT.

Tavberika lales rols givi berikaSvili asrulebda, mis

satrfo ianos _ sofiko Wiaureli. swored lale da iano

iyvnen speqtaklSi patiosnebis, gonierebis, samSoblosa da xalxis

erTgulebis, xelovnebis ukvdavebis simboloebi.

orive msaxiobi gvaocebda xalxuri sanaxaobisaTvis

damaxasiaTebeli pirobiTobisa da Tanamedrove artistizmis

SerwymiT. sicocxlis damamkvidrebeli xalisiT, elvare ritmiT

TamaSdeboda yoveli monakveTi. gansakuTrebiT brwyinvale iyo

maTi ostatoba e.w. Svilobanas scenaSi, `rodesac s. Wiaurelis

iano da g. berikaSvilis lale jarasaviT datrialdebian da

mravalSvilianobiT, Zeobis gabmuli dResaswauliT mayurebelTa

darbazs axareben. es scena Tavisi ucnauri moulodnelobiT,

STamagonebeli ZaliT, maimedebeli sixalisiT avtoris, reJisoris

da msaxiobebis, mTeli Teatris namdvili gamarjveba _

dResaswaulebrivi warmodgenis Seqmnisaken winwadgmuli nabijia~

_ werda d. janeliZe.

berikaSvilis lale upirvelesad xelovani iyo _ berika,

romelic ibrZoda simarTlisaTvis, radgan simarTle ase sWirdeba

xalxs. lalem icis, rom nar-ekliT aris simarTlis gza mofenili,

magram es misi gzaa, misi arCevania. igi mzadaa gauZlos yvela

gansacdels, RimiliT xvdeba sikvdilsac ki, radgan igi ukvdavia,

igi xalxia, sibrZnea, siyvarulia, romelic arasodes moispoba.

lales klaven da igi kvlav aRorZindeba, akvnidan axali lale

wamodgeba. saxeze keTili Rimili dasTamaSebs, magram gamoxedva

kvlav mkacri da jiuti aqvs, arc is uRalatebs Tavberikas

mZime xvedrs.

lale brZenia, rogorc xalxi, samarTliania, rogorc xalxi,

radgan Tavadaa xalxis RviZli Svili.

givi berikaSvili ostaturad warmogvidgenda sxvadasxva

niRabs. is enakvimatic aris da laRic, jiutic da nazi

Seyvarebulic, mebrZolic da ojaxis alersiani mamac. igi Zlieri

muxasaviTaa, romelsac fesvebi mSobel miwaSi, xalxis tradiciaSi,

mis mravalsaukunovan kulturaSi Cazrdia. msaxiobs bunebiT

aqvs boZebuli `xalxuroba~, igi yovelTvis bunebrivia,

TavisTavadia, miwieria da amaSia swored misi lales warmatebis

144 145


guliko javaSvili

mizezi. pirvelyofili cxovelmyofeloba, mkveTri garegani

monaxazi, daxvewili plastika, gadamdebi sixalise da azris

simZafre anaTesavebs lales Zvel berikebTan. iqmneboda

STabeWdileba, rom msaxiobi Tavis winaparTa ambavs mogviTxrobda.

maT saqmes agrZelebda.

givi berikaSvili saocrad marTali, TviTmyofadi iyo am

rolSi. is misi roli gaxldaT, romelSic mkafiod warmoCinda

misi aqtioruli individualoba. Rrma azri da laRi iumori,

pirdapiroba da momxiblavi eSmakoba, miznisken swrafvis

Seupovroba da Cveulebrivi adamianuri sisuste organulad

iyo lales saxeSi Sesisxlxorcebuli.

berikaSvili-pirovneba naTlad Canda lales rolSi. aq

mkveTrad ikiTxeboda msaxiobis damokidebuleba gmirisadmi,

Tanamedrove msaxiobis damokidebuleba xelovnisadmi, romelmac

aTasi gansacdeli da Wir-varami gamoiara da mainc saTuTad

Semoinaxa siwminde da patiosneba. swored es pozicia xdida

ase sainteresos Tavberika lales saxes.

`berikonma~ didi warmateba moutana Teatrs da es warmateba

mniSvnelovanwilad swored givi berikaSvilis lalem da sofiko

Wiaurelis ianom ganapirobes. `am speqtaklSi ori brwyinvale

aqtioruli gamarjvebaa. is, rasac akeTebs g. berikaSvili, Rrma

msaxioburi Sesrulebis nimuSia usaSvelod rTul piesaSi. aq

yvelaferi Tavberikazea damokidebuli. igi didi filosofiuri

Sinaarsis matarebelia. unaklod, SesaniSnavad asrulebs am

amocanas msaxiobi da es xelovnebis maRali klasis donea, rac

saqarTvelos sazRvrebs scildeba~, _ werda moskovis

gastrolebis Semdeg presa (`Teatraluri moambe~, #5, 1978, gv.

60).

speqtakli `berikoni~ da Tavberika lale _ g. berikaSvilis

SesrulebiT uTuod RirsSesaniSnavi movlenaa qarTul TeatrSi

swored erovnuli, xalxuri sanaxaobrivi formis Tanamedrove

gaazrebiT.

kinomcodneoba

`Teatraluri moambe~, #5, 1978, gv. 60.

146 147


irina demetraZe,

xelovnebaTmcodneobis doqtori,

asocirebuli profesori

sublimirebuli rasizmi

Cems mier SerCeuli filmebis _ `12~ (nikita mixalkovi),

`aleqsandra~ (aleqsandre sokurovi), “rusuli samkuTxedi”

(aleko cabaZe) kavkasiis eTnomiTis problemis garSemo

gaerTianeba, erTi SexedviT, zedapiruli xasiaTisaa da ZiriTadad

Tematuri diskursis (CeCneTis omi) xarjze xdeba SesaZlebeli.

CemTvis sainteresoa is, Tu ra socio-ideologiuri faqtorebi

axdens gavlenas am reJisorebze da maT filmebze, rac, Tavis

mxriv, Janrul transformaciasa da mxatvruli sivrcis

struqturirebis Taviseburebebs ganapirobebs.

Cemi azriT, nikita mixalkovi da aleko cabaZe ver ascdnen

(anda ganzrax ver acdnen) `aqtualuri Temis~ sworxazovan,

tendenciur da ideologiurad angaJirebul, mizanmimarTul

interpretirebas. imavdroulad, es ori filmi ori antagonisturi

ideologiuri modelis reprezentaciis nimuSia. Jan-liuk godari

ambobda, rom sakoncetracio banakze filmis gadaReba uzneobaa,

vinaidan am movlenis pirdapiri asaxva imTaviTve spekulatiuria.

da Tuki am movlenas Seexe, maSin es komedia unda iyos.

aleqsandre sokurovis filmi uSualod groznoSia

gadaRebuli. reJisori qronikalur-dokumenturi stilis

mimikriasac axdens. firi specialur `sepiis~ teqnikaSia

damuSavebuli, rac gamosaxulebas siZvelisa da mzisgan

gaxunebuli fotos efeqts aZlevs. es xerxi sokurovis

reJisoruli xelwerisTvis damaxasiaTebelia (Tanac misi

SemoqmedebiTi biografiiTacaa ganpirobebuli. igi Tavidan swored

samecniero-popularul da dokumentur kinoSi muSaobda) da

am SemTxvevaSi, faqturis specifikidan gamomdinarec,

gamarTlebulia. misTvis arc stilisturi ekleqtizmia ucxo

_ iqneba es bernard Sousa Tu platonovis ekranizaciebi, anda

istoriuli beladebisadmi miZRvnili filmebi, sadac qronikaluri

manera mkveTrad pirobiT, absurdis an siurealistur xerxebTanaa

Serwymuli. am SemTxvevaSi saopero, epikuri stilis elementebia

gamoyenebuli, magram epikuri struqtura yovelgvar xelovnur

paTossa da paTetikasaa moklebuli. es xazi galina viSnevskaias

figurasTan da mis gmirTanaa dakavSirebuli. es sakulto figura

miTs Tavis TavSi moiazrebs _ igi sabWouri istoriis mTel

epoqas aerTianebs da rusi qalis arqetipul saxesTanac

asocirdeba (saopero repertuaridan gamomdinare). es ganapirobebs

gmirisa da zogadad filmis miTo-epikur Sres. filmis

originaluri musikac (kompozitori a. sigle), erTi mxriv,

samamulo omis cnobili melodiebis maneraSia stilizebuli,

da amave dros alfred Snitkes Semoqmedebiskenac ixreba.

mTavari mainc is prizmaa, ris miRmac aleqsandre sokurovi

uyurebs movlenebs. galina viSnevskaias gmiri groznoSi Cadis

SviliSvilis, rusi oficris mosanaxuleblad. aq gatarebuli

ramdenime dRe mniSvnelovan zegavlenas axdens mis identurobaze.

Tavad omi, ase vTqvaT, kadrs miRma rCeba. reJisori yuradRebas

amaxvilebs Cveulebriv YyofiT realiebze, rigiTi jariskacebisa

da bazarSi movaWre Suaxnis CeCeni qalbatonebis yoveldRiur

cxovrebaze, maT Cveul yofaze am araordinarul, eqstremalur

garemoSi. sainteresodaa gadaRebuli TviTon grozno _

Seulamazebeli sinamdvile, dangreul-gapartaxebuli urbanistuli

sivrce, rac amave dros, grandiozuli saopero dekoraciis

asociacias iwvevs. am adamianebis `Cveul~ yofaSi, swored es

uCveulo `dekoraciebi~ iWreba disonansurad da maTi sulieri

Tu fsiqikuri tramvebis gamoxatulebad iqceva.

sainteresoa kidev erTi detali. CeCeni qali ambobs, rom es

rusis jariskacebi, jer sul pirtitvela biWebi arian, magram

ukve kacuri suni asdiT. viSnevSkaias gmiric SviliSvilis

moralur-fsiqologiur degradacias sunTan identificirebiT

axdens. aq erTgvari taqtiluri SegrZnebebi Semodis _ am biWebis

sxeulze da zogadad garesamyaroSi omis suni isadgurebs. erTerTi

CeCeni ymawvili viSnevskaias gmirs sTxovs: dagvanebeT Tavi,

gagviSviT, ise, TiTqos mis uflebamosilebaSi eWvic ar epareba.

sainteresoa dedis (siuJeturad is mTavari gmiris bebiaa,

magram avtorebis interpretaciiT igi eris `dedis~ krebiTi

saxea), am SemTxvevaSi Tavad avtoris da, imedia, rusi inteligenciis

mcire nawilis pozicia. Zala araa fizikur ZalmomreobaSi,

148 149


irina demetraZe

Zala gonierebaSia da rodesac goniereba ar arsebobs, zeobs

Zalmomreoba. ase rom, esaa ara eris nebiT, aramed misi ugunurebis

gamoisobiT gamowveuli tragedia. albaT, aq kacobriobis

ugunurebac igulisxmeba, vinaidan eTnokonfliqtebi am erTi

cxeli wertiliT ar amoiwureba.

samwuxarod, gmiric uSualo empiriuli gamocdilebiT iRebs

yovelive imas, rac aq dasadgurebula. adamianur TanagrZnobasa

da mxardaWeras iRebs ubralo CeCeni qalbatonebisgan. filmSi

aqcentirebulia am adamianebis Rirseba, rac, Cemi azriT, XIX

saukunis rusul literaturul trdiciasTanaa mimarTebaSi

(`haji murati~).

sokurovisTvis ucxo da miuRebeli araa e.w. `gansxvavebulobis~

problema.DEdeda SviliSvilis kvaldakval tankSic miZvreba da

avtomatsac iRebs xelSi – swored am bronirebuli manqanis

SigniT moqceuli akvirdeba igi sinamdviles, saidanac samyaro

specifikuri rakursiT aRiqmeba. kino, xelovneba sokurovisTvisac

realobis specifikuri Wvretis saSualebaa da misTvis organulia

ara egreT wodebuli registrirebis meTodi, aramed

sinamdvilisadmi dialeqtikuri damokidebuleba, ara konkretuli

faqti, movlena, aramed ganzogadeba, epizacia, yofierebis Sris

wamoweva.

nikita mixalkovis `12~ sidni liumetis `12 ganrisxebuli

mamakacis~ motivebzea agebuli. Tavad avtori sakuTar films

rimeiqad ar miiCnevs, rac, principSi, misaRebicaa _ liumetis

filmi `dramaa~, xolo mixalkovma `fsiqologiuri Trileri~

gadaiRo. liumetTan filmis daaxloebiT 365 scena operator

boris kaufmanis mier sxvadasxva rakursiTaa gadaRebuli. aqedan

gamomdinare, kameruli istoria saocrad kinematografiul

xorcSesxmas poulobs, miuxedavad imisa, rom es reJisoris

kinodebiutia. samsaxiobo namuSevrebic Teatralurobis efeqts

ar axdens.

marTalia, nikita mixalkovTan saintereso samsaxiobo

ansamblia Sekrebili da ramdenime maTgani (s. makovecki, s.garmaSi)

saintereso saxes qmnis _ kinos magia, rogorc aseTi, ar arsebobs.

am filmebze aisaxa epoqisa Tu zogadad rusul-amerikuli

kulturisa da socialuri sivrcis Taviseburebani. da am

sublimirebuli rasizmi

garemoebiT ganpirobebuli gansxvavebuli ideologiuri mimarTeba.

bibliuri aluziebic, imTaviTve Cadebuli rejinald rouzis

nawarmoebSi, mixalkovis redaqciaSi sagrZnob `revizias~

eqvemdebareba. Tuki sidni liumetis filmSi socialuri

diskursia aqtualuri _ anu socialuri warmomavloba, ar

igivdeba damnaSaveobasTan da filmi mimarTulia swored amgvari

socialuri diskriminaciis winaaRmdeg, nikita mixalkovTan

qsenofobia, nacionalisturi ideologiaa aqcentirebuli. misi,

`marTlmadideblobiT~ gamyarebuli didaqtikur-mentoruli

pozicia obol CeCen ymawvilSi, obol ers moiazrebs. amave

dros, avtori `Tanamedrove rusuli realobis enciklopediis

Seqmnazec acxadebs pretenzias.~ mixalkovis leqsikonSi

`marTlmadideblobac~ egreT wodebul `derJavul~ interesebTan

asocirdeba. xolo Tavad mTavari msajulis, demiurgisa da

`RmerTkacis~ rolsac ki asrulebs.

liumetTan axali droebis 12 mociquli ymawvils Seiwyalebs.

mixalkovis ganaCeni gansxvavebulia. vinaidan `cixeSi is ufro

did xans icocxlebs~. Tavdapirvelad, daoblebuli CeCeni

ymawvili (anu eri) `mamobils~ rusi oficris saxiT poulobs,

xolo Semdeg `mamis rols~ kvlav rusi, magram ara oficeri,

aramed demiurgi-RmerTkaci nikita mixalkovis gmiri kisrulobs.

`oboli CeCeni eri~ rusi `mamobilis~ gareSe `ganwirulia~ da

ruseTis imperiis SemadgenlobaSi ufro did xans icocxlebs,

vidre damoukideblad. mixalkovis H~humanuroba~ marTlac

usazRvroa.

avtori fokusirebas kidev erT aforizmamde dayvanil pasaJze

axdens: rusi yviris: _ movklav, CeCeni _ dums, xolo mere modis

iaraRiT da uswordeba mas. da kidev, is, rac slavianofilebis

cnobierebaSi kavkasiis arqetips, ufro swored, stereotips

ukavSirdeba. erT-erTi msajuli, e. w. `Curka~ (sxvaTa Soris,

qarTveli), warmatebuli qirurgia, magram am iarliys ver ascda.

ai, ukve 3-4 aTwleulis ganmavlobaSi es stereotipi aqtualuria

socialur realobaSi. termini `sublimirebuli rasizmi~ swored

am movlenas gulisxmobs. momwifda erTgvari ararefleqsirebuli

situacia, anu koleqtiur aracnobiersa da leqsikaSi damkvidrdda

iseTi sityvebi rogoricaa `Curka~, `Savukanaliani~ da ase Semdeg,

150 151


irina demetraZe

rac kavkasieli xalxis krebiT saxelad iqca. da kidev

nacionaloba igivdeboda garkveul socialur kuTvnilebasTanac

_ mwvanilis an mixakebis gamyidvelTan. bolo dros, rac

qsenofobia da patriotizmi, ukve ara aracnobieris, aramed

oficialuri saxelmwifo ideologiis doneze gaigivebuli

Sinaarsis matarebeli cnebebia – mwvanilis gamyidveli

teroristma Caanacvla. rusul da qarTul sivrceSi patriotizmi,

erovnuli idea, umTavresad, omTan, sisxlisRvrasTan igivdeba.

saWiroa mtris xati – rusis an qarTvelis, afxazis an osis

saxiT, raTa saxelmwifoebrivi Tu socio-kulturuli

identifikaciis meqanizmi amoqmeddes. omi da qsenofobia

arajansaRi fobiebisa da kompleqsebis kompensirebis saukeTeso

saSualebad iqca. xolo frustrirebuli masis, ararealizebuli

da socialurad umweo fenis cnobierebis manipulirebisas

zeefeqturi saSualeba gaxda. anu erTgvari opiumia sakuTari

arasrulfasovnebis kompleqsis CasaxSobad.

da marTlac, raSia saqme, ra mentalobis matarebelia es

xalxi, Tundac CeCnebi? rogoria sxvadasxva erebis

anTropologiuri da konfesionaluri orientirebi? ra udevs

safuZvlad islamur eqstremizmsa Tu rusul imperiul

Sovinizms? mTavari, albaT, mainc isaa, rom eqstremizmi ar iyos

gaigivebuli nacionalobasTan da `mtris xati~ ar iyos eris

socio-kulturuli identurobis ganmapirobebeli aucilebeli

faqtori.

aleko cabaZis `rusuli samkuTxedi~ kriminaluri dramis,

deteqtivisa da Trileris Janrul elementebs aerTianebs.

poliJanruli struqtura dramaturgiulad saTanadod araa

gamyarebuli. siuJetis dinamikuri ganviTareba xSirad avtorebis

gadametebul ambiciebs ewireba. CemTvis saintereso, mainc is

stereotipebi da axali arqetipebia, rac Tanamedrove sociopolitikur

koniunqturas esadageba.

mTavari gmiri axali drois Serlok holmsi, don kixoti da

supermenia erTdroulad. is mTeli arsebiT erTveba `CeCnuri

kvanZis~ gaxlarTul qselSi: seriuli mkvlelobebi, iaraRiTa

da tyveebiT vaWroba, anu yvela is movlena, rac am konfliqtis

Tanmdevi iyo. sainteresoa, aseve gmiris eTnikuri warmoSoba –

sublimirebuli rasizmi

igi rusia, bebia qarTveli hyavda, xolo habitusiT ebraels

waagavs. anu `arsiT~ da `garegnuladac~ internacionaluri

hibridia.

meore gmiri, rusuli enis yofili maswavlebeli groznodan

fexmZime colis daRupvisTanave islams iRebs da boevikebs

uerTdeba. magram `samarTals~ iqac ver poulobs... erTaderTi

nivTi, rac dabombili skolidan gamoitana da Tan daatarebs,

dostoevskis `eSmaknia~. avtorebis es Sablonuri, sworxazovani

aluzia imis maniSnebelia, rom dostoevskis geniiT ganWvretili

movlenebi dResac aqtualuria. sakuTari `inteleqtiT~ mTavari

gmiric gvaocebs _ igi erT–erT `opers~ azazelos amsgavsebs.

mokled, svidrigailovisa da volandis prototipebi Tanamedrove

rusul realobaSic daiarebian...

am Triler-deteqtiur-kriminaluri filmis kidev erTi

siuJeturi xazi konstanrine xabenskis gmirs ukavSirdeba.

uaxlesi rusuli kinos seqs-simbolo aleko cabaZesTan

aseqsualuria. albaT, reJisors gmiris `rTul~ fsiqo-sulier

tramvebze surda mayureblis yuradRebis fokusireba. igi omis

invalidia, am sityvis sruli mniSvnelobiT, ufro msxverpli,

vidre jalaTi an sulac orive erTad. epizodi, sadac CeCneTisa

da avRaneTis sulierad da fizikurad xeibari veteranebis

Rreobaa naCvenebi – yvelaze amazrzeni da araesTeturia filmSi.

esaa mayurebelze mimarTuli pirdapiri zewola, agresia,

mxatvruli spekulacia. Tanac am epizods `saTqmelis mxatvruli

ganzogadebis~ ambiciac aqvs. esaa araa mxolod CeCneTis omi,

aramed masSi afxazeTi, avRaneTi da sxva cxeli wertilebic

moiazreba.

finalSi yvela gmiri Tu antigmiri iRupeba, mTavari personaJis

garda. ufro metic, morwmuneTa Tu urwmunoTa, mterTa Tu

moyvareTa sisxliT SeRebili (pirdapiri da gadataniTi

mniSvnelobiT) igebs, rom misi megobari gogonas saSoSi axali

sicocxle Caisaxa. da Cvenc SvebiT amovisunTqavT, vinaidan

SesaZloa, es axali genetikuri hibridi postsabWouri sivrcis

xsnis `garantic~ iyos...

verc aleko cabaZe ascda sworxazovnebasa da didaqtikurmentorul

tons, magram mixalkovisgan gansxvavebiT, misi pozicia

152 153


irina demetraZe

bevrad `humanuri~ da `politkoreqtulia~. mokled, mixalkovis

`poCvenikuri~ filosofia cabaZesTan postmodernul

dekonstruqcias ganicdis. me ki am situacias nasesxeb termins

`Sizofreniul diskurss~ davarqmevdi (postsabWouri

sivrcisTvis damaxasiaTebeli socio-politikuri atmosfero

maqvs mxedvelobaSi). am qaosidn, albaT, odesRac wesrigi daibadeba,

Tu, ra Tqma unda, amisi keTili neba iqneba, manamde ki sisxls

sisxliT CamovibanT da amiT sakuTar `patriotul~ egos

davikmayofilebT.

lela oCiauri, rusuli samkuTxedi, saxelovnebo mecnierebaTa

Ziebani, #3(32);

aleqsandr sokurovi rCeba mxolod kultura, iskustvo kino #7,

2002;

m. iampolski qairosi da istoria sokurovTan. kinovedCeskie

zapiski. www.kinozapiski.ru/article/182.

nana doliZe,

xelovnebaTmcodneobis doqtori,

mecnier TanamSromeli

arCevnebi da qarTuli satelevizio arxebis

politika

(2008 wlis saparlamento arCevnebis Sesaxeb)

televizia yvelaze masobrivi da informaciis miRebis yvelaze

popularuli saSualebaa. amasTan mZlavri politikuri

zemoqmedebis instrumenti, rasac obieqturi teqnikuri xerxebic

emateba. teqstis, musikisa da moZravi gamosaxulebis fenomens

yuradRebis mobilizebis, gafantvis an gadarTvis, emociebis marTvis,

sazogadoebrivi azrisa da ganwyobis formirebaSi mniSvnelovani

roli akisria da arc is aris SemTxveviTi, rom masobrivi

komunikaciis saSualebebs meoTxe xelisuflebad naTlaven.

televiziiT mowodebuli informacia yovelTvis ufro

damajerebelia auditoriisaTvis, vidre Teoriuli an

ideologiuri xasiaTis argumentebi.

saqarTveloSi warmoebuli satelevizio saarCevno politika

gansakuTrebuli TaviseburebebiT gamoirCeoda, romelic

postsabWouri qveynisTvis damaxasiaTebeli, warsulidan

aRorZinebuli tradiciisa da importirebuli axladSeZenili

maRalprofesiuli teqnologiebis sinTezs warmoadgens. sabWouri

tradicia, upirvelesad, satelevizio sivrcis marTvis meTodebis,

saarCevno Sedegebis daTvlisa da dadgomis gacxadebaSi, xolo

importirebuli, yvela im danarCeni satelevizio teqnologiis

gamoyenebaSi gamovlinda, romelic aqtiurad iyo CarTuli

winasaarCevno procesebSi. nebismieri Zalaufleba im resursebis

sistemaa, romlis saSualebiTac saerTo mizani miiRweva. saarCevno

kampania, Sesabamisad, sxva araferia, Tu ara am resursebis

SenarCuneba an gadanawileba, an kidev dapyroba, rogorc,

materialuri, aseve Zalovani, inteleqtualuri, adamianuri da

rac mTavaria sainformacio resursebis.

saxelisuflo struqturebs kolosaluri sainformacio

resursebis mobilizeba SeuZliaT da maTi saSualebiT arCevnebSi

154 155


nana doliZe

arCevnebi da qarTuli satelevizio arxebis politika

yovelTvis mimarTaven im teqnologiebs, rac maT momgebian

poziciaSi Caayenebs. mayureblis cnobierebis dacva

propagandistuli teqnologiebisgan sakmaod rTulia.

winasaarCevnod rusul internet-saitebze specialuri

proeqtic ki gaCnda `interneti teleekranis winaaRmdeg~, 1

romelic mkiTxvelisTvis, swored im sqemebis gaxsna-gaSifrvas

isaxavda miznad, romelsac rogorc adgilobrivi, aseve ucxoeli

piarteqnologebi manipulirebisaTvis iyeneben. Tumca, nebismieri

amgvari, calkeuli proeqti am problemas ver gadadawyvets,

vinaidan tyuili yovelTvis iwyeba iq, sadac wesebis axsnas

iwyeben. amasTan, manipulirebis xarisxi pirdapir kavSirSia

auditoriis garkveul jgufebad daxarisxebis sakiTxTan. aq,

SeiZleba gamovyoT ganaTleba, asaki, profesia, sqesi da a. S.

SesaZlebelia, YTu ara, adamianebis garkveuli jgufi

gansazRvruli saxiT moqmedebisaTvis ganawyo anu daaprogramo

maTi qceva? amisTvis upirvelesi da aucilebeli principi

satelevizio sivrcis mowyobis gansakuTrebuli meTodis SerCevaa.

winasaarCevno vnebebis dasacxromad `idealuri~ garemoa,

rodesac politikuri istebliSmenti cdilobs demokratiis

Zireuli principebis sityvis Tavisuflebisa da informaciis

Tavisufali gavrcelebis dacvas. Tumca, qarTul satelevizio

sivrceSi calkeuli televiziebis roli iqamde davida, rasac

Tavis droze sabWoTa propaganda asrulebda. nebismieri mcdeloba

ki, oficialuri sainformacio politikisagan gansxvavebuli

politika ewarmoebinaT, mkacrad daisaja. amis magaliTia

telekompania `maestro~-saTvis licenziis modificirebaze uaris

Tqma. mauwyeblobis SezRuduli formisa da teqnikuri

saSualebebis simwiris miuxedavad, qarTul satelevizio sivrceSi

`maestro~ Seecada movlenebi komentaris gareSe eCvenebina.

amasTan, Toq Sou `Jurnalisti~, romelic analitikuri tipis

gadacema iyo, eTeridan moixsna (rasac boikotis uprecedento

forma mohyva _ klasikuri musikiT respondentebis saubris

gadafarva).

dRes ukve naTelia, rom arCevnebSi warmateba ara imdenad

imazea damokidebuli, Tu ramdenad damajerebelia an gamarTulia

ama Tu im politikuri Zalis ideologiuri programa, aramed

imaze, Tu ramdenad kargad aris organizebuli sainformacio

saSualebebSi saarCevno Sou, romlis Semadgeneli nawili xdeba

satelevizio axali ambebis politika, politikuri Toq Sous

saxesxvaobebi da satelevizio politikuri reklamis industria.

mayurebeli televiziisgan garTobas elodeba da amitomac

movlenebis SerCeva martivi, ubralo struqturiT xdeba, anu

iseTis, romlis centrSic konfliqtia. politikac ekranidan ubralo,

iol saqmed aRiqmeba, romlis warmoebac TvalisdaxamxamebaSia

SesaZlebeli. amgvari iluzoruli midgomisTvis ki `idealuri~

garemoa aucilebeli, romelsac qarTulma satelevizio sivrcem

`warmatebiT~ gaarTva Tavi _ adresati mayurebeli izolirebuli

unda iyos gare gavlenisgan. idealuri iqneboda totalitaruli

zemoqmedebis modeli _ anu alternatiuli arakontrolirebadi

wyaroebis sruli ararseboba. 2 Tumca, am wesis dacva dRevandel

sainformacio garemoSi SeuZlebelia internetisa da beWduri

mediis wyalobiT, romelsac Tavisuflebis xarisxis gacilebiT

maRali niSnuli aqvs, vidre televizias. amitom, aucilebeli

gaxda mayureblisTvis damoukideblobis iluziis Seqmna

mravalarxianobis, mravalferovnebis, Sesabamisad, Tavisufali arCevnis

SesaZleblobis, mxolod garegnuli niSnebis damkvidrebiT.

realurad ki, mTeli es sistema wamyvan ideologias eqvemdebareba,

xolo informaciis mowodebis erTaderT, radikalurad

opoziciuri wyaros arseboba, rogoric telekompania `kavkasiaa~,

mauwyeblobis SezRuduli SesaZleblobebiT, am fonze

,,demokratiuli xmauris~ elfers iZens.

amave mizans emsaxureboda winasaarCevnod `rusTavi 2-is~

arxze Seqmnili ori Toq Sou `upasuxe xalxs~ da `samkuTxedi~,

sadac Tavisufali diskusiis garegnul formas mkacrad

gansazRvruli, parametrebSi moqceuli politikuri pozicia

iyo amofarebuli, sadac gauTavebeli SekiTxva da moulodneli

informaciis gaJRereba, rac Toq SousTvis tradiciuladaa

damaxasiaTebeli, SeuZlebeli iyo. politikuri Toq Sou yvelaze

reitingul telegadacemaTa rigs ganekuTvneba, masSi politikuri

reklamis ganTavsebis Rirebulebac maRalia, Sesabamisad, fasiani

reklama `rusTavi 2~-is arxze, mxolod xelisuflebas hqonda.

saqarTvelos satelevizio bazarze politikuri reklamis amgvari

fasic (mag.: `praimtaimSi~ 30 wm.-iani reklama 16000 dolari

156 157


nana doliZe

arCevnebi da qarTuli satelevizio arxebis politika

Rirda) blokirebis iribi meTodia, fasebi reitings mieba, reitingi

ki propagandistul iaraRad iqca.

Tu rogor Suqdeboda winasaarCevno kampania satelevizio

arxebiT, monitoringis erT-erTi umartivesi meTodi _ rodesac

iTvleba ama Tu im subieqtisaTvis daTmobili drois jamuri

raodenoba, naTlad miuTiTebs disbalansze. mag.: arCevnebis bolo

kviras, `nacionalur moZraobas~ 3 saaTi, mTel opoziciur speqtrs

ki ori saaTi daeTmo. Tumca, monitoringis es meTodi

arasrulyofilia da srulad ver asaxavs im obieqtur realobas,

romlis demonstrirebac sruli sisavsiT, Tundac 20 maisis 3

saaTiani `kurieris~ gamoSvebaSi Sedga. 12 siuJeti, rac 40

wuTamde dros moicavda `nacionaluri moZraobis~ saqmianobas

mieZRvna, 3 ki, _ opoziciisas, romlis saerTo dro 4 wuTs ar

aRemateboda. is, rom politikuri partiebi araTanabar pirobebSi

iyvnen Cayenebulni, arc politikuri liderebi Suqdeboda

erTgvarovnad, TvalSisacemi realoba iyo. Tumca, esec

winasaarCevno mizanmimarTuli strategiis mxolod Semadgeneli

nawilia. axali ambebis samsaxuri, reklama _ rogorc fasiani,

aseve ufaso, rogorc politikuri, aseve socialuri,

arapolitikuri gadacemebis saarCevno subieqtebis interesebSi

gamoyeneba, mag.: `Wadrakis dafa~, `videopatruli~, `pulsi~, `mzis

dartyma~, opoziciuri arxebis simwirem da maT mierve arasworad

SerCeulma sareklamo taqtikam, romelic ZiriTadad negativze

iyo agebuli, satelevizio bazris monopoliis pirobebSi, saarCevno

teqnologiebidan satelevizio manipulirebis meTodebi ufro

efeqturi gaxada da praqtikulad momgebian poziciaSi Caayena.

TvalSisacemia, rom Cveni sazogadoebrivi cxovrebidan

gandevnilia ideebis Sepirispirebis saSualebiT politikuri

arCevnis gakeTebis SesaZlebloba. satelevizio sivrce aRmoCnda

is adgili, sadac winasaarCevno programa, problemebis dasma, Tu

maTi gadawyvetis alternatiuli gzebis dasaxva Seicvala

calkeuli politikosebis imijTa konkurenciiT, romelic aseve

sareklamo biznesis principiT igeba.

rodesac 1960 wels jon kenedim saarCevno kampaniisTvis

mTeli sareklamo saagento daiqirava, wamyvani formula iyo _

`Tu Sen ar miReb me aseTs, rogoric var, maSin gavxdebi iseTi,

rogoric ginda, rom daminaxo~. 3 es formula gaxda lozungis _

`saqme laparakis nacvlad~ faruli laitmotivi. amomrCeveli

unda darwmunebuliyo imaSi, rom xedavda imas, risi danaxvac

surda, miiRebda imas, risi miRebac surda.

politikurma figuram, partiam an winasaarCevno gaerTianebam

unda moipovos xalxis interesebis gamomxatvelis tituli. am

titulis mosapoveblad aucilebelia kandidatisa Tu partiis

kritikis praqtikuli SeuZlebloba, kandidatis pozitiuri imiji

da sainformacio resursebi. saxelisuflebo partiam am

SemTxvevaSic momgebiani satelevizio strategia SeimuSava, rodesac

maJoritari kandidatebis sareklamo kampania moculobiT bevrad

aRemateboda partiis sareklamo kampanias. politikosisTvis

prioritetulia ekranze gamoCenis faqti da `saxis~ mayureblis

cnobierebaSi CabeWdva, rac maTi ekranze Cvenebis sixSiris

pirdapirproporciulia. amitom ufaso politikur sareklamo

rgolebs daemata fasiani sareklamo rgolebic, romelzec

rTulad ikiTxeboda an saerTod ar figurirebda partiis

saxelwodeba. wina planze wamoiwia saarCevno nomerma _ 5,

romelTanac warmatebuli mSeneblebis, bankirebis, meRvineebisa

Tu eqimebis `pozitiuri saxe-simboloebi~ dakavSirda.

cnobierebaSi xdeboda _ nomeri xuTis, 50 dRis, 50 Tvis, 5

nabiji socialuri stabilurobisken, 5 nabiji dasaqmebisaken, 5

nabiji mosaxleobis dasasaqmeblad _ `Camagreba~. erT-erTi

kandidatis saarCevno Stabis satelefono nomeric ki xuTi

xuTianisagan Sedgeboda. analogiuri meTodi, nawilobriv

`respublikuri partiis~ sareklamo rgolSic gamoiyenes: ,,30

kanonproeqti pirvelive 30 dReSi~, romelic `respublikuri

partiis~ 30 wlis iubileze gacxadda, Tumca, am Setyobinebis

`Casamagreblad~ arc mowodebis sixSire, anu materialuri

resursi da arc `idealuri garemo~, romelic pirvel SemTxvevaSi

arsebobda _ maT ar gaaCndaT.

winasaarCevnod gacemuli dapirebebi mani pulirebis

mniSvnelovani xerxia. Sinaarsobrivi erTferovnebis miuxedavad,

romelic kandidatebis Tu mTlianad partiis sareklamo

rgolebSi ikiTxeboda, yoveli maTgani mimarTuli iyo amomrCevlis

yofiTi problemebis mogvarebisken, xolo sakiTxi, Tu ramdenad

iyo SesaZlebeli am dapirebebis Sesruleba, dRis wesrigidan

ixsneboda, vinaidan axali ambebis nebismier SetyobinebaSi formula:

158 159


nana doliZe

problema-momentaluri gadawyveta - efeqturad muSaobda. amgvari

iyo skverebis, moednebis, samarSruto xazebis gaxsnis,

sadarbazoebis SeRebvisa da sazeimo gaxsnis ceremoniebi. mwvave

socialuri problemebidan yuradRebis gadatanam da `ubralo

adamianis~ anu `Cvenianebis~ ampluaSi TamaSma, Cvenive yofiTi

problemebis mosagvareblad, arsebuli sinamdvile xelovnurad

Seqmnili satelevizio realobiT Caanacvla.

sazogadoebis cnobierebiT manipulireba teqnologiad iqca

da Cvens sinamdvileSic gaCndnen profesionalebi, romlebic

misi ganxorcielebis meTodebs srulad an nawilobriv floben.

maTi mTavari mizani adamianebze zemoqmedeba da maTi qcevis

marTvaa, 4 ganxorcielebis taqtika _ faruli, faqti _ yovelTvis

SefuTulia da ise mowodebuli, vinaidan misi gamJRavnebis

SemTxvevaSi aqcia CaSlilad iTvleba. amgvari iyo xurCaSi

momxdari incidentis satelevizio versia, romelmac arCevnebis

dRes bevri kiTxva Riad datova. magaliTad: megruli teqsti,

romelic Semdgom sainformacio gamoSvebaSi aRar figurirebda

(`didi madloba, rom momkaliT~). saRamos, axali ambebis

gamoSvebebidan siuJeti saerTod iyo amoRebuli. Tumca, am

SemTxvevaSi mniSvnelovani ara Sinaarsis namdviloba, aramed

auditoriis fsiqologiuri mobilizebis efeqti iyo, rasac

saarCevno ubnebze xelisuflebis mxardamWerTa ricxvis mateba

mohyva, rogorc mosalodnel safrTxeze adeqvaturi zomebis

mimRebis garantze.

Tanamedrove etapze Cven vuyurebT imis Canacvlebas, rasac

politika hqvia, simboluri politikiT. rodesac politikuri

procesebi ara racionaluri kriteriumebiT, aramed maTi

sanaxaobrivi mimzidvelobiT fasdeba. Setyobinebaze fsiqologiuri

operaciis ganxorcielebiT, informaciaze kontrolis dawesebiT,

dezinformaciis, faqtebis gadafarvis, SerCevis, sainformacio

racionis gansazRvriT, arasaWiro informaciis miCumaTebiT da

sinamdvilis obieqturi suraTis sanacvlod virtualuri

realobis SeqmniT, Cveni satelevizio sivrce demokratiuli

xmauris principebs iyenebs, xolo im Setyobinebas, romlis

gaJonvasac Tavs ver daaRwevs, mravalricxovani informaciis

dinebaSi, SeumCnevel poziciaze gadaisvris. amgvari iyo

opoziciuri partiebis mier mowyobili aqciebisadmi

arCevnebi da qarTuli satelevizio arxebis politika

damokidebuleba, rodesac, ukeTes SemTxvevaSi, `axali ambebis~

struqturaSi maTi Setyobineba mexuTe, meeqvse adgilze

inacvlebda.

2008 wlis saparlamento arCevnebis obieqturad gaSuqebis

mizniT urTierTgagebis memorandumsac moewera xeli, romelic,

Tavis mxriv, gulisxmobda satelevizio arxebis politikuri

Zalebisgan Tavisuflebas da neitralobas. Tumca gvaviwydeba,

rom isini saqmian sawarmoebs warmoadgenen, romlebic Semosavals

sakuTari droisa da striqonis gayidviT iReben, es ki niSnavs,

rom maTi mousyidveloba mxolod miTia. erTaderTi arxi

sazogadoebrivi mauwyebelia, romlis funqcionirebac sareklamo

Semosavalze ar aris mibmuli, Tumca, sakmarisia axali ambebis

politikas mivadevnoT Tvali, rom savalalo obieqtur suraTad

saxelisuflebo komerciuli arxebis `axali ambebis~

SetyobinebaTa ara mxolod politikuri orientirebi, Sinaarsic

da rigiTobac ki identuria.

aris Tu ara sazogadoebrivi mauwyebeli sazogadoebis

samsaxurSi? akmayofilebs Tu ara is im moTxovnebs, romelsac

sazogadoeba uyenebs? am kiTxvaze pasuxi erTmniSvnelovania _

uaryofiTi (rac calke ganxilvis Temaa). imis erT-erTi naTeli

magaliTi, rom mauwyebeli `Rirseulad~ agrZelebs sabWourtotalitarul

tradicias da is, rom mas sazogadoebis samsaxurSi

moRvaweobis aranairi `survili~ ar gaaCnia, 26 maiss

gaerTianebuli opoziciis mier gamarTul saprotesto aqciisadmi

damokidebulebaSic gamJRavnda. saprotesto aqciis translireba

pirdapir eTerSi mxolod telekompania `kavkasiaze~

ganxorcielda. miuxedavad imisa, rom `moambis~ yovel gamoSvebaSi

CarTuli iyo mitingis amsaxveli reportaJi, sazogadoebis

ukmayofileba da protesti faqtis gaumniSvnelovnebam gamoiwvia.

iseve, rogorc damoukideblobis dRisadmi miZRvnili aRlumi,

mitingic 26 maisis dRis mniSvnelovani niusi unda yofiliyo.

sazogadoebrivi mauwyeblis pirdapiri eTeri ki jgufi `molokos~

mier gamarTul koncerts daeTmo, am faqtis logikuri gagrZeleba

ki sazogadoebis protesti iyo, romelic 27 maiss

`sazogadoebrivi mauwyeblis~ Senobis win gamarTul aqciaSi

gamoixata.

160 161


nana doliZe

im pirobebSi, rodesac mravalmilioniani sazogadoeba,

ekonomikuri da teqnologiuri bazrebi, saxelmwifosa da

ekonomikis mWidro kavSiri obieqturi realobaa, masobrivi

komunikaciebis saSualebebiT sazogadoebis azris kontroli

da marTva aranaklebmniSvnelovani faqtoria. 5 magram politikis

trankvilizatorad gadaqceva mxolod garkveuli droiT axdens

sazogadoebis loialobas xelisuflebis mimarT. Tu problema

realurad ar wydeba, situacia adre, Tu gvian mainc Semotrialdeba

socio-ekonomikur krizisad da maSin, komunikaciis saSualebaTa

Zlevamosilebis miuxedavad, obieqtur realobasa da virtualur

realobas Soris arsebuli napralis Sevseba SeuZlebelia, rac

metad amoqmedebulia simboluri politikis meqanizmebi, miT

ufro mZafria adamianebisaTvis mware sinamdvilesTan Sejaxeba.

da bolos, amerikis arasamTavrobo organizaciam `Tavisufalma

saxlma~ 2007 wlis angariSi saparlamento arCevnebamde ramdenime

TviT adre gamoaqveyna, sadac mediis Tavisuflebis mxriv

saqarTvelo 128-e adgilzea da aqcenti mediagaremos

politizebaze, prosamTavrobo arxebze xelisuflebis pozitiur

imijze, damoukidebeli satelevizio ambebis gavrcelebisa da

gamoxatvis Tavisuflebis SezRudvaze, mediamflobelebis Sesaxeb

informaciis gaumWvirvalebaze miuTiTebdnen. situacia arsebiTad

ar Secvlila, garda imisa, rom saparlamento arCevnebmac,

mediaTavisuflebis TvalsazrisiT, CamonaTvals ramdenime

gamuqebuli Strixi Semata, ramac sabolood Seqmna, swored is

`idealuri garemo~, romelmac sruli gamarjveba garantirebulad

gadasca sainformacio resursebis erTmniSvnelovnad

makontrolebel Zalas.

1. www.patriotica.ru/actual/vahitov_5methods.html

2. Р. Харрис. `Психология массовых коммуникаций~, Еврознак, 2001, с. 128;

3. www.pr-sp.ru/main/publications/public12.html;

4. Шиллер Г. Манипуляторы сознанием. - М.: `Мысль~, 1980. с. 204;

5. Кара-Мурза Власть манипуляции С.Г. 2007 г. с. 83;

20.05.-05.06.2008 wlis perioduli presa (`rezonansi~, `alia~),

internet resursi. www.media.ge.

lia kalandariSvili,

xelovnebaTmcodneobis doqtori,

wamyvani mecnierTanamSromeli

qalis saxe samocdaaTiani wlebis inglisur

kinoSi

70-ian wlebis inglisur kinoSi postmodernistuli epoqis

gavleniT xdeba mraval tradiciul ideaTa Tu saxeTa

fundamenturi gadafaseba. am process ukavSireba jozef louzis

filmi `romantikuli ingliseli qalic~, msgavsi azrovnebisTvis

da m a xa s i a Teb el i i r oni i T, i nter ku l turuli Tu

interteqstualuri sivrciT, asociaciebiT, aluziebiT, sarkeebiT,

labirinTebiT, motiv-fragmentebad daSlili da kolaJurad

ganfenili siuJetiT.

filmis Tema, TavisTavad, bevrismomcvelia. igi eZRvneba

literaturaSi da xelovnebaSi kargad damuSavebul romantikul

qalis saxe-xats. es, erTi SexedviT, msubuqi, `romanuli~ elferis

mqone Tema aerTianebs kulturul, nacionalur, socialur,

fsiqologiur, esTetikur, SemoqmedebiT da kidev mraval aspeqts,

romelic gansazRvravs da garkveuli saxiT warmoadgens

nawarmoebSi mTlianad drois suraTs, cvlilebebs da mis gavlenas

adamianze, qalze, romelic samyaros romantikulad, poetis TvaliT

uWvrets, eswrafvis damoukideblobas, izidavs idumali, sasworze

agdebs mravali qalisTvis saocnebo keTildReobas, raTa Tavisi

cxovrebiT icxovros da romelsac survili aqvs `ifrinos~,

Tundac TviTmfrinaviT...

idea sarkiseburad irekleba siuJetSi: mxolod filmis

avtorebi ki ar muSaoben am Temaze, aramed personaJebic 1 : personaJi,

mwerali luis fildingi muSaobs scenarze, romlis gmiri

Tanamedrove ingliseli romantikuli qalia, magram misTvis es

Tema bundovani da xelovnuria. nacnobi, irgvliv arsebuli

qalebi am niSniT ar gamoirCevian, piriqiT, sabeWd manqanasTan

SemoqmedebiTi aRmafrenisTvis gamzadebul mwerals mudam

`ufrTxoben muzas~ sarecxi manqanebis raxraxiT, mtversasrutebis

bzuiliT, yoveldRiuri xmauriani, uintereso da wvrilmani

162 163


lia kalandariSvili

`yofiTobiT~. problema mis winaSe mTeli simZafriT dgeba: vin

aris, rogoria Tanamedrove ingliseli qali, rogorc Rirebuleba,

rogoria axali idealis masStabebi? riTi gansxvavdeba igi

wina Taobebisgan an Tundac sakuTari Tanamedrove Tavisufali

ucxoeli qalbatonebisgan? iqneb romantikuli qalis ideali

frangi mirandaa? damoukidebeli, saocrad mSvenieri,

srulyofileba! ufro metic, inteleqtualuri – garegnobiT

xom natali delonia da amasTan, sorbonis filosofiis

profesoric, meti raRa unda iyos!

restornis wveulebis scenaSi, SemTvrali luis fildingi

ukve imeddakarguli, ironiulad mimarTavs mirandas, axali drois

romantikul ideals: `rogoria masStabi calkeuli adamianisa

im samyaroSi, romelSic Cven vcxovrobT, miTumetes aseT

adgilebSi?...~ Semdeg es ironia ufro damcinavi xdeba, roca

laparaki grZeldeba papebis droindel fasebze da dRevandelze...

is Rirebulebebi, romlebsac adamianebi saukuneebis ganmavlobaSi

mieCvivnen, tradiciebad daadgines da `cxovreba dailages~,

Tanamedroveobas `ver iyidis~, ukve miuRebelia. Tumca, drois

cvlilebebTan erTad, franguli idealic Zalian gansxvavdeba

inglisurisgan, rogori srulyofilic ar unda iyos igi.

`sorbonaSi es sxvavgvarad xdeba~ _ ambobs miranda, romelic,

yvelaferTan erTad, arc baden-badenSia namyofi, im sivrceSi,

sadac luisis azriT, romantikul arseba ibadeba.

mweral luis fildingis SemoqmedebiTi `wvis~ istoria

asociaciebsa da aluziebs iwvevs XVIII saukunis mweral henri

fildingis SemoqmedebasTan, mis epoqasTan, stilTan, mis mier

asaxul qalTa tipebTan. aq xazgasmulia drois niSani, luisi

romanebs, tragediebs da dRiurebs ki ar Txzavs, rogorc misi

saxelovani mogvare, aramed scenars wers megobari reJisoris,

hermanis, filmisTvis, romelic, rogorc hermani ambobs, aris

`fsiqologiuri moTxroba axali yaidis qalze~. magram garemo,

tipaJebi, yofa, stili da yvelaferi, rasTan fardobiTobaSic

unda gamJRavndes saxe-xatis Tavisebureba, mwerlisTvis ukve

araerTel gatkepnili, stereotipebis gzaa, `yvelaferi saSinlad

mosawyeni, pretenziuli da usicocxlo~. Tumca, grZnobs, rom

aseTi SeboWilobis mizezi TviTonaa da aRiarebs: `mesakuTres

qalis saxe samocdaaTiani wlebis inglisur kinoSi

Tavisi sakuTrebis simZime awuxebs: saxli, Zvirfaseuloba, coli...~

aseve, romantikuli azrebisgan `icavs~: tradiciebi, sakuTari

SezRuduli Sexedulebebi, ojaxuri simyudrove da meuRlis

yuradReba _ yvelaferi, risi xelidan gaSvebac ar surs, rac

mis keTildReobas safrTxes uqmnis. misTvis romantikuli qali

misi meojaxe colia, romelsac saxlidan gasvlis SiSi aqvs,

rom mis aryofnaSi raime ubeduri SemTxveva ar moxdes.

luis fildings `Tavisufali qali~ mxolod diskomforts

ki ar uqmnis, mxolod ki ar `Rlis~, misi arsebobac ki

anerviulebs. igi gaafTrebuli esxmis Tavs `Tavisufal~ izabels,

miuTiTebs, rom qmris sacvlebis recxva misTvis swored

zedgamoWrili saqmea! magram xvdeba, rom scenarSi, yofiT

problemebSi gabmuli colis adgili, samwuxarod, ar aris.

elizabeti romantikas gaurbis, `ver grZnobs, rom amis ufleba

aqvs!~. arc luiss emeteba igi romantikuli TavgadasavlebisTvis,

Tumca ubiZgebs da elodeba, ra moxdeba! iwyeba siuJetis jiuti

Zieba, romelic luisis mier winaswar gamzadebul, sasurvel

finals moergeba. magram luis fildings misi, realobas acdenili,

Tumca myarad fesvgadgmuli Sexedulebebi xels uSlian, erTi

mxriv, sinamdvilis da meore mxriv, ideis danaxvaSi: dasaxati

qalis saxe mainc sakuTari colisas emTxveva da mwerali qmari

saSinel eWvianobas iwyebs. saxe wydeba realobas da gaucxoebul,

gazviadebul uaryofiT niSnebs iZens. misi Txzuleba TandaTan

gardaiqmneba ambad `yalb, umadur qalze, romelic wesier,

brwyinvale kacs hyavs colad, Tumca amis danaxvis unari ar

gaaCnia, romelic, erTxelac, miemgzavreba sakuTari Tavis mosaZebnad,

poulobs kidec, magram Camova misi keTilSobili qmari da

saxlSi mihyavs. maSin ki xvdeba igi, Tu ra araCveulebrivi kaci

hyolia gverdiT~. swored movlenaTa amgvari ganviTarebiTvis

ibrZvis gaorebuli luisi.

filmSi fantazias TiTqos msgavsi, magram arsobrivad

gansxvavebuli realoba cvlis. teqstebi erTmaneTSi ireva,

erTimeoreSi irekleba da ironiul sivrces ayalibebs: es xom

is mweralia, romelmac personaJi ver daimorCila, gausxlta

xelidan iseve, rogorc sakuTari coli. es tolstois ambavs

hgavs, romelsac ana kareninas moulodnelma qcevam Tavzari

164 165


lia kalandariSvili

qalis saxe samocdaaTiani wlebis inglisur kinoSi

dasca. Tumca, luis fildings Tavisi SeTxzuli finali ar

Seucvlia. mxolod misi JReradoba, misi arsi Seicvala TavisTavad

konteqstebis sarkeebSi.

kadri, romelSic elizabeti pirvelad Cndeba, ar aris ubralod

istoriis dasawyisi. rasakvirvelia, siuJeti aqedan iwyeba. igi

miemgzavreba baden-badenSi, magram es mxolod Txrobis erTi

Srea. mayurebeli aRiqvams saxe-koncepts, xedavs qals, romelic

martodmarto gaunZrevlad zis, fiqrebSia wasuli. erTi mxriv,

elizabeti matarebliT mogzaurobs, es garkveviT aris naCvenebi,

meore mxriv, igi, gamWvirvale, rogorc msubuqi eTeri, rogorc

molandeba micuravs matareblis miRma ulamazes, zRaprul

sivrceSi. ase mas vagonis sarkmeli ireklavs. igi ufro iq

aris, swored im sivrceSi, vidre matarebelSi. es metaforaa,

ulamazesi, poeturi kinometafora romelic filmis saxelwodebas

ganmartavs. swored amitom adevs am kadrebs titrebi, anu SesaZloa,

es amgvarad aRsaqmeli saxe uSualod mxolod saxelwodebas

ganmartavdes. meore mxriv, sadRac gamgzavreba, miTumetes, amgvarad

ganzogadebuli, rodesac ar ici mgzavrobis arc mizezi da arc

mgzavrze gaqvs jerjerobiT raime konkretuli informacia,

tradiciulad migvamrTavs im azrisken, rom igi mogzaurobs

Tavis samyaroSi, sakuTari sulis ucnob sirceebSi, swored am

azrs adastureben reJisori hermani da mwerali luis fildingi

saubarSi, rom maTi personaJi qali miemgzavreba sadRac sxvagan,

safrangeTSi, germaniaSi... (ara aqvs mniSvneloba sad!) raTa Seicnos

sakuTari Tavi. am daukonkretebel detals, imas, rom `mniSvneloba

rom ara aqvs~ konkretul kulturul, Tu geografiul adgils,

filmSi interkulturuli, asociaciebis Tavisufali, gaSlili

sivrce Semoaqvs, asparezi kulturaTa mimarTebebisaTvis.

mayurebeli erTi aluziidan meoreze gadadis, sarkidan _

sarkeze, asociaciidan _ asociaciaze. adgili rCeba avtorTa

TviTironiisaTvisac. rodesac mwerlisa da reJisoris

daukonkretebel, bundovan detalebze msjelobas vismenT, vxvdebiT,

Tu ra gauTvaliswinebel viTarebaSi Cacvivdnen aseTi zerele

damokidebulebis gamo maTi personaJebi: gvaxsendeba ukve Cavlili

kadri, vagonis scena, sadac personaJ kerolainTan gaigivebuli

realuri elizabeti uecrad iRviZebs da kiTxulobs: sad varTo?,

razec igi ormag pasuxs iRebs: safrangeTSi, _ Tavazianad

atyobinebs, albaT, safrangeTis mxares mjdomi mgzavri, xolo,

savaraudod, germaniis mxares mjdomi dabejiTebiT pasuxobs,

rom germaniaSi.

anu qali, romelic mogzaurobs realurad, mogzaurobs

irealuradac, rogorc daumuSavebeli personaJi, jer kidev

ganuviTarebeli idea, mwerlisa da reJisoris `mSrali~ samuSao

gegmis masala. es personaJi arsebobas iwyebs zustad filmis

dasawyisSi da TandaTan ufro da ufro Rrmad uerTdeba da

erwymis fildingis colis elizabetis saxes. msgavsebas

reJisoric (hermani) poulobs. Tumca, am faqts fildingi wyobidan

gamohyavs da gaRizianebuli, kategoriulad uaryofs maT Soris

raime msgavsebas. mamakacTa saubari, imis kategoriuli mtkiceba,

rom coli mxolod ojaxis saqmeebiT aris dainteresebuli da

saxlidan gasvla saerTod ar unda - damatebiT migvaniSnebs

isev henri fildingis Semoqmedebaze: konkretulad, am SemTxvevaSi,

gvaxsendeba `migdebuli werilebi, anu colis saxlSi dakavebis

axali saSualeba~, sadac, `rqebisgan~ Tavis dasazRvevad, ingliseli

qmrebi yvela Rones xmaroben, colebis saxlebSi Casaketad.

rodesac erT-erTi personaJi, softli, Civis colis Wkuaze,

rogorc ubedurebaze; meore, bediT kmayofili uizdomi, gamudmebiT

madlobas swiravs RmerTs, rom misi coli aseTi ar aris.

`madloba RmerTs, Wkua qalisTvis udidesi borotebaa~. saukuneebs

TiTqos arc gauvlia!

meTvramete saukunis fildingi xatavs qalTa Tu mamakacTa

tipebs, inglisur tradiciebs, realurad arsebul situaciasa

da ocnebebs, rac jozef louzis filmSi isev da isev kiTxvis

niSnis qveS dgas: gaurkvevelia, aris marTlac sasurveli

`sakuTari cxovrebiT cxovreba~, Tu, piriqiT, es aris ocneba

imaze, rac araviTar SemTxvevaSi, sinamdvileSi aravis unda!

amgvarad, rogorc eqspoziciaSia, filmis gmiri: qali-idea,

coli da personaJi, realuri da fsiqologiuri, Tanamedrove

da tradiciuli, miemgzavreba baden-badenSi da paralelurad,

mogzaurobs sakuTari sulis siRrmeebSi. coli midis, raTa

daubrundes sakuTar Tavs, personaJi - kulturas. intuiturad

igi imeorebs dabrunebis simbolur gzas `dakargul samoTxis

baRSi~ da erTgvarad, asociacias qmnis jon miltonis

SemoqmedebasTan, inglisuri literaturis tradiciebTan. am

166 167


lia kalandariSvili

qalis saxe samocdaaTiani wlebis inglisur kinoSi

motivs filmSi gamorCeuli adgili ukavia. es aris `romantikuli

ingliseli qalis~ gamWoli motivi, romelsac louzi filmSi

araerTxel, sxvadasxva mimarTebiT citirebs: es iqneba inglisuri

`zamTris baRis~ pavilioni, sadac realoba, fantazia da simboluri

mTlian gamoxatvas iRebs, Tu meuRleTa Sexvedris scena sakuTari

saxlis win, ezoSi - mxolod yofiTi realoba ironiul

konteqstSi, sadac elizabeti _ `eva~ iZulebuli xdeba SiSvelma

datovos `samoTxe~, xolo luisi _ `adami~, namdvili inglisuri,

zogjer zedmetad damTrgunveli tradiciebis `msxverplia~.

aqedan gamomdinare, louzi elizabetis saxes kidev erTi

SriT aRrmavebs _ qalis arsobrivi, arqeti puli ganzomilebiT,

rogorc SiSveli idea – qali zogadad, rogorc aseTi. louzis

azriT, Tanamedrove qalma-evam dakarga Tavisi arsi, igi ZiebaSia,

konkretulad ki, cdilobs `aRadginos~, ipovos Tavisi `samoTxis

baRi~. gmirebs filmSi aseT adgilad baden-badeni egulebaT. es

metad ironiulad JRers, radgan realurad arsebuli badenbadeni

mxolod geografiuli adgili ar aris. igi TavisTavad

moicavs garkveul asociaciaTa ares: zRapruli kurorti cnobili

gamajansaRebeli wylebiT, mdidar, xandazmul da mosawyen

aristokratTa samyofeli, genialur mweralTa nawarmoebebis

sivrce... saocnebo adgili, magram gaaCnia, visTvis! am adgilis

mTavari Rirseba xom samkurnalo wylebi da procedurebia,

TavisTavad, sakmaod araromantikuli.

gmiris iq gamgzavrebis ucnaur axirebaze mwerali da

reJisori sakmaod dabneulebi saubroben. filmSi xSirad meordeba

kiTxva: ra unda mas aseT dros baden-badenSi? elizabeti xom

janmrTeli, axalgazrda qalia. ori ingliseli inteleqtualis,

erTi SexedviT, seriozul tonalobaSi, yovelgvar gadametebas

moklebuli dialogi _ erTi mxriv, momavali romanis Tu filmis

personaJze da, meore mxriv, mwerlis colis zrdilobiani mokiTxva

_ kalamburis masala xdeba, romelic filmis simbolur Sres

uerTdeba: `ra unda badSi?~ – ukvirs hermans. sinonimebis

sityvaTa TamaSi sxvadasxva ironiul JReradobaSi izrdeba.

erTi mxriv, es aris `cudi~, meore mxriv _ `abazana~, `sawoli~,

`magram~... aseT araerTmniSvnelovanebas luisi moTminebidan

gamohyavs. `ara, is badSi ki ara, baden-badenSia!~, _ xmas uwevs

igi. mas, rogorc avtors, ar moswons megobari reJisoris miniSneba

gaumarTlebel detalze, ufro metad ki, colis gamo, romelic,

vin icis, marTlac romelime `badSia~... `aaa, baden-badenSi! albaT,

wylis procedurebze?!

isev abazanis mniSvneloba! swored abazanaSi CaZinebas

imizezebs elizabeti, roca eWvianobiT gaRizianebuli qmari

urekavs. `warmodgena ara maqvs! xom ici elizabetis xasiaTi,

raRaca rom wamouvlis~. es sasacilo dialogi sxvadasxva

asociacias iwvevs. maT Soris, ikiTxeba aluzia herman fildingis

`lisabonSi mogzaurobis dRiurze~. visac axsovs mwvaved

satiruli, Tu simwriT dawerili dRiuri, sityva `badis~

gagonebaze, im epoqis saSineli, gawvalebuli mogzaurobis suraTebi

warmoudgeba, rodesac, yovelmxriv, yvelaorganodaavadebul

mweral-mosamarTles, romelsac ganzraxuli aqvs saxelganTqmul

balneologiur kurortze gamgzavreba, rom `iqneb samkurnalo

wyalma mainc argos~, mZarcvelebisgan da yaCaRebisgan inglisis

gaTavisuflebis gegmis ganxorcieleba ise gaugrZelda da Tan,

ise cota gadauxades, rom saocnebo `badSi~ veRar CaaRwia da

lisabonSi gamtanjvel mogzaurobas Seudga. badenSi gamgzavrebis

idea, rogorc ganuxorcielebeli ocneba! da misi ganxorcieleba

ki jozef louzis filmis personaJs, luis fildingis cols,

elizabets gadauloca.

rogorc aRvniSneT, nebismier gaJRerebul sityvas, ekranze

warmodgenil sruliad uniSvnelo detalsac ki Tan mohyveba

miniSnebebis, asociaciebis, aluziebis uzarmazari sivrce, romelic

erTmaneTTan ironiul damokidebulebebs qmnis. filmi

daxlarTul-daqselilia, mTlianad labirinTis formaSia

gadawyvetili. aris es semantikuri mxare, Tu vizualuri. aq

Zalian nacnob sivrces, sakuTar saxlsac ki, uamravi gasasvleli

aqvs, realuri Tu uamrav sarkeSi areklili, gamravlebuli da

sxvadasxva mxares mimarTuli irealuri, rTuli labirinTis

gasasvlelebi. am sivrceSi gmirebs sruliad moulodneli

rakursebidan vxedavT. isini gamodian sarkis CarCoebidan da

gadadian realur sivrceSi, an piriqiT, sadRac sarkeebSi ikargebian.

iSviaTad, rom sakuTari oreulis gareSe gamoCnden, romlebic

maT Tvals adevneben an zurgs aqceven, toveben, isev modian...

louzisTan sarke kadris kompoziciis centria. reJisori

swored am sarkeebis anareklSi warmogvidgens personaJTa

168 169


lia kalandariSvili

qalis saxe samocdaaTiani wlebis inglisur kinoSi

portretebs, gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovan fsiqologiur Tu sxva

yvelaze sayuradRebo momentebs, xSirad mTel kadrs, romelsac

iseTive sruli saoperatoro palitriT iRebs, rogorc realur

sivrces. kamera TiTqos Tavisuflad moZraobs sarkis miRma

arsebul usasrulo gafarToebul samyaroSi da aucileblad

giCndeba asociacia kidev erT did ingliselze: TiTqos araviTari

winaaRmdegoba ar arsebobs, Cveulebrivad Sedixar da gamodixar

luis kerolis jadosnur, sarkis miRma, sxva, axal SesaZleblobaTa

samyaroSi. zogjer sarkis CarCoSi moqceuli scena citataa,

hiperrealoba, romelsac ormagi azrobrivi datvirTvaa aqvs da

kadrs konceptualurad kravs. magaliTad, elizabeti `brundeba

saxlSi~ (saxlSi dabrunebis motivi, iseve, rogorc `samoTxis

baRSi~, filmSi gamudmebiT figurirebs). uwyveti kadris gadaRebis

wertilia meore sarTulze kibisTavi, saidanac moCans, erTi

mxriv, ezos xedi sarkmlidan, da meore mxriv, kibis ujredi,

romlis mopirdapire mxares, kedelze sarkea da romelSic

holis sivrcis fragmenti irekleba.

kamera daxrilia da zemodan pirvel sarTuls akvirdeba.

Tavidan sarkmlidan moCans, rogor Cerdeba manqana da elizabeti

saxls rogor uaxlovdeba. kamera mas horizontalurad mihyveba.

kadri, rogorc vTqviT, uwyvetia da elizabeti pirdapir sarkeSi

Sedis, rogorc saxlSi. misi gaucxoebuli moZraoba, simartove

didi carieli saxlis CarCoian sarkeSi gansakuTrebiT saxierad

ikiTxeba. amasTan, aSkaraa aluzia godaris qalTa saxeebTan

(`cxovreba sakuTari cxovrebiT~, `SeSlili piero~), sadac godari

ana karinas gansakuTrebiT TavisTavSi wasulad, dabneulad da

bedsmindobil martosulad warmoadgens maSin, rodesac gmiri

Sinaganad sruliad carielia da ar icis, Semdeg ra moxdeba.

aseTi mdgomareobidan gamosasvlelad elizabeti pirdapir sarkis

zedapirisken miemarTeba saxiT mayureblisken, aRmasvliT da

Cven vxedavT, rogor gadmodis igi sarkidan, anu sarkis

gamosaxuleba rogor uerTdeba realurs.

filmSi TiTqos realizebulia miSel fukos Tvalsazrisi

labirinTze, rogorc metamorfozaze, romlis SuagulSi myofi

minotavri – transformaciis ganxorcielebas warmoadgens.

fildingis momavali scenaris personaJebi, iseve, rogorc Tavad

avtori, daexetebian aseT usasrulo labirinTSi sakuTar

oreulebTan erTad da iqidan gamosasvlels daeZeben, Tumca es

arc ise iolia, radgan irgvliv mxolod labiriTia. labirinTi,

romelic pirvelive kadrebidan matareblis sivrceSi Semodis

da romelic ufro TvalsaCino xdeba, rodesac baden-badenSi

Casuli elizabeti Zvelebur uniformaSi gamowyobili msaxuris

etlSi jdeba da sastumrosken miemgazvreba.

saocrad mSvenieri sivrce, romliTac romantikuli qali

tkbeba, namdvili labirinTis suraTSi izrdeba daxveuli,

dagrZelebuli bilikebiT; aq TiTqos droc deformirebulia,

radgan mas fexiT mimavali Tomasi samjer dauxvdeba win, daaswrebs

gzaSi sxvadasxva bilikze da bolos, sastumros holSic xvdeba.

igi yvelgan Cndeba, yvelgan aris, radgan es is `minotavria~,

romelmac unda gamoiwvios elizabetSi transformacia. germaneli

poeti, Jigolo, avanturisti, menamcece, damxmare, mdivani,

narkotikebis gadamtani da a. S., germanuli literaturis

tradiciuli, eleganturi demoni... mas mravali idumali saxe

aqvs, magram maTgan mTavari isaa, rom misTvis araviTari

winaaRmdegoba ar arsebobs: rogorc luisi ambobs, seriozuli

winaaRmdegoba arasdros Sexvedria. akeTebs imas, rac surs da

nebismier momentSi Tavisufalia.

Tomasi, es saocrad mimzidveli macduri, filmSi sazRvris

Slagbaumis TemasTan erTad Cndeba, jadosnuri samyaros

sazRvarTan, sadac igi damRupvel Trobisa da tkbobis sagnebs

farulad aparebs. narkotikebi matareblis tualetSi, parkSi

aqvs damaluli. kompozitori (hartli) mas disonansuri, mdore

da gabmuli simebiani JReradobiT axasiaTebs. labirinTebis

xveulebSi igi swrafad ikvlevs gzas, nebismier daketil kars

uceremoniod, mourideblad aRebs. misi socialuri mdgomareoba

aristokrati da SeZlebuli ingliselisTvis niSnavs, `aravin~-s

Tumca es aris `aravin, iv sen loranis kostumSi~. am rols

louzTan helmut bergeri SemTxveviT ar asrulebs. mas filmSi

ara mxolod germanuli kulturis sivrce Semoaqvs, aramed _

viskontis filmebSi mis mier naTamaSebi saxeebis aspeqtic.

`RmerTebis daRupva~, `ludvigi~ da, rasakvirvelia, `ojaxuri

portreti interierSi~. louzi am kavSirs gansakuTrebiT usvams

xazs, es is sarkea, romelic Tomasis saxes ganzomilebas matebs.

170 171


lia kalandariSvili

fildingi, elizabeti da Tomasi bolos da bolos Sejerdebian

`romantikuli istoriis~ finalze. `samoTxis baRis~ patara

samyaro ezos SuagulSi, gamWvirvale oranJereaSi imeorebs

`codvad dacemas~ da cdunebas ayolili elizabeti TomasTan

erTad tovebs `samoTxes~. es poetis versiaa, filmis finalis

dawera ki, scenaristis saqmea! luisi akiTxavs elizabets da

isini, miuxedavad imisa, rom igi ambobs `aras!~, mainc erTad

arian. Tumca, ukanaskneli kadri - `dabruneba Sin~, xmauriT

asaxvs yvela im transformacias, rac labirinTis gzam moitana:

luisi da elizabeti sxedan manqanaSi da sibneleSi uyureben

sakuTar saxls – sakuTar Sinagan samyaros, sruliad gaucxoebuls,

ucnob deformirebul saxeebs, usmenen mouridebel sicils,

avxorcul drostarebas, romelic maT saxlSi Sesvlis survils

akargvinebs. oranJereac isev ise anaTebs, rogorc im sabediswro

`gandevnis~ Rames! Tumca, vin icis, rogori finalis imedi

SeiZleboda gvqonoda! es, ubralod, realobaa, Tu irealoba...

70-iani wlebis kinoTxrobaSi amas saerTod ara aqvs mniSvneloba.

henri fildingi. farsi, `migdebuli werilebi anu colis saxlSi

dakavebis axali saSualeba~, moskovi `iskustvo~, 1980 (rusul enaze);

miniSneba J. l. godaris filmze `sakuTari cxovrebiT cxovreba~.

h.fildingi. rCeuli Txzulebani, `lisabonSi mogzaurobis dRiuri~,

moskovi, `xudoJestv. lit-ra~, 1989 w. (rusul enaze);

miSel fuko, `sityvebi da sagnebi: humanitarul mecnierebaTa

arqeologia~. spb., 1994 w. (rusul enaze).

gamoyenebuli literatura:

1

SeniSvna: am sarkeSi uSualod ikiTxeba louzis

TviTiroinia.

irina kuWuxiZe,

xelovnebaTmcodneobis doqtori

sruli profesori

kinematografis konturebi axali

teqnologiebis epoqaSi

gasuli saukunis 40-ian wlebSi andre bazeni Tavis SesaniSnav

statiaSi `totaluri kinos miTi~ werda: `kino idealisturi

fenomenia. misi idea savsebiT mza saxiT arsebobda adamianis

gonebaSi _ rogorc platoniseul caze... winamorbedebis

warmosaxvebi kinematografiul ideas aigivebdnen realobis

totalur da erTmTlian reproducirebasTan... advili SesamCnevia,

rom kinos gamogonebis yvela ZiriTadi etapi ganvlili iyo

manamde, vidre teqnikuri pirobebi Seiqmneboda. amis Semdeg bazeni

dasZens: `kino TiTqmis arafriTaa davalebuli mecnieruli

gamokvlevebisgan.~ 1 Tuki pirveli Teza sakamaTo ar aris da

ukve sayovelTaod aRiarebulia, maSin mecnierul-teqnikuri

ganviTarebis da SesaZleblobebis mimarT erTgvari skepticizmi,

cota ar iyos, ucnaurad JRers. sainteresoa, ra Sefasebas

miscemda dRevandeli teqnologiebis epoqas kinos fotografiuli

bunebis da realobisadmi ndobis apologeti? cxadia, es

ritorikuli SekiTxvaa da masze pasuxs arc veliT, Tumca

erTis Tqma ki danamdvilebiT SeiZleba: uniWieresi da

kinematografSi uzomod Seyvarebuli mkvlevari mimdinare

araerTmniSvnelovan procesebis zust da saintereso analizs

SemogvTavazebda. me ki Sevecdebi am movlenis zogierT aspeqtze

Cemi mokrZalebuli mosazrebebi gagacnoT.

kinematografis gamogonebis momentidan teqnika da

kinoSemoqmedeba ganuyofeli aRmoCnda. es kavSiri TiTqos or

mimarTulebas Seicavs: ayenebs ra Tavis winaSe mxatvrul amocanebs,

kinoxelovneba, Tu SeiZleba ase iTqvas, `SekveTas aZlevs~ teqnikur

azrs, da piriqiT _ winmswrebi teqnikuri azri kinoenis

ganviTarebis inspirirebas axdens. `kinoteqnika da kinoxelovnebis

gamomsaxveli saSualebebi~ _ es Tema ama Tu im formiT yovelTvis

172 173


irina kuWuxiZe

idga dRis wesrigSi, xolo calkeul periodebSi gansakuTrebul

aqtualobasa da simwvaves iZenda. dRes uTuod amgvar

situaciasTan gvaqvs saqme: kinoteqnikaSi ramdenime aTwleulis

win dawyebuli eleqtronuli teqnologiis CarTva XX saukunis

bolo aTwleulSi mTlianad cifrul teqnikaze gadasvliT

dagvirgvinda da am, rogorc mas uwodeben, teqnologiurma

revoluciam xelovnebaTmcodneobaSi `digitaluri kinos~ da

fotorealizmis stilis cnebebi daamkvidra. ismis kiTxva: raSia

ZiriTadi gansxvaveba (ara marto teqnikuri, aramed, albaT,

esTetikuric) tradiciul, fotografiulad registrirebul

kinogamomsaxvelobasa da digitalur saxovnebas Soris? am

ukanasknels yovelive isic xelewifeba, rac klasikur

kinematografs, anu ekranze sinamdvilis kvlavwarmoqmna, realobis

firze dafiqsireba. magram amasTanave is qmnis realurisa da

xelovnuris anu sxvagvarad _ sinTezirebulis erTmaneTTan

organulad Serwymul realobas. da mesame: qmnis sruliad axal,

obieqturad ararsebul virtualur realobas.

cnobili bulgareli mkvlevari boJedar manovi Tvlis, rom

es fenomeni ara imdenad teqnikuri da Tundac esTetikuri

xasiaTisaa, aramed ufro filosofiuri mniSvnelobis problemad

warmoCindeba, exeba ra obieqturi realobis damorCilebas Tu

mis meorad kvlavwarmoqmnas raRac subieqtur realobad, romelic

damokidebulia ara marto Semqmnelis saavtoro nebaze, aramed

mniSvnelovanwilad agreTve kompiuteruli programirebis

SesaZleblobebze. digitaluri teqnologiis gamoCenam da

ganviTarebam kidev ufro maRal xarisxSi moaxdina aqtualizireba

sakiTxis audiovizualuri saxe-xatis obieqturi bunebis Sesaxeb,

rac fotografiis wyalobiT absoluturi utyuarobiT

xorcieldeboda. mkvlevari askvnis, rom Tuki klasikuri

kinematografiuli Teoriis kategoriebs gamoviyenebT, procesi

moZraobs Semdegnairi paraboliT _ bazenis fotografiulobidan

gaivlis `danagvianebas~ sxvadasxvagvari teqnikuri subieqturavtoriseuli

SeWrebiT, axal sinTezur (Tu sinTetikur)

fotografiulobis digitalur saxe-xatisken. 2

araerTi gamocdili kinematografisti Civis da amtkicebs,

rom ekranze videogamosaxuleba (Tundac digitaluri)

kinematografis konturebi axali teqnologiebis epoqaSi

naklovanad gamoiyureba, vinaidan is moklebulia tradiciuli

kinogamosaxulebis magiur siRrmesa da Zalas. Znelia uarhyo,

rom gansxvaveba marTlac arsebobs, Tumca axali teqnologiis

mimdevrebi amboben, rom gamosaxuleba ubralod sxvagvari da

ara naklovania. am kamaTSi CarTva umaduri saqmea, erTi ram ki

aSkaraa: digitaluri gamosaxuleba xasiaTdeba raRac ucnauri

realizmiT, rac ufro civ da mwvave SegrZnebebs iwvevs klasikur

filmTan SedarebiT, romelic, marTlac, magiis garkveul wils

flobs. Tumca, ar unda dagvaviwydes aRqmis wminda fsiqologiuri

momenti _ SeCvevis faqtori da Tu davukvirdebiT, sakiTxis es

aspeqti ukve Zalas ikrebs da aSkarad saxezea. isic cnobilia,

rom araerTi gamoCenili reJisori ubralod loialobas ki ar

iCens axali teqnologiis mimarT, aramed Tavadac mimarTavs mas

da Sehyavs Tavisi Semoqmedebis orbitaSi. bevrs gadaReba firze,

teqnikuri montaJi ukve anaqronizmadac eCveneba, eleqtronuli

montaJis gamocdilebiT uWirs firTan muSaoba, Riziandeba, roca

gadaRebuls maSinve ver naxulobs... igive xdeba TviT fiqsaciis

procesTan mimarTebaSi: magaliTad videoze gadaReba bevrad

ufro mosaxerxebelia, kamerebi msubuqi, zomiT patara, cal xelSi

daWera rom SeiZleba. aqedan gamomdinare, kinoenis Seqmnis

TvalsazrisiTac meti Tavisuflebaa: ar xar damokidebuli mZime

aparaturaze, ganaTebasa da firis xarisxze. xolo gamosaxulebis

cifruli damuSaveba specefeqtebisTvis ganusazRvrel

SesaZleblobas iZleva. video da cifruli teqnologiis gareSe

ver warmoiSveboda iseTi kinomimarTuleba, rogoric iyo `dogma~.

misi erT-erTi TvalsaCino warmomadgeneli Tomas vinterbergi

Tavis gaxmaurebul, kanSi premirebul filmTan `dResaswauli~

dakavSirebiT aRniSnavda im upiratesobebs, rasac Semoqmeds

digitaluri kamera aniWebs _ es aris simsubuqe, sivrceSi

Seuferxebeli da advili moZraoba-gadaadgileba, rogorc ityvian,

msaxiobisTvis kudSi devna, Ria cis qveS damatebiTi atributebis

gareSe gadaRebis SesaZlebloba da gansakuTrebiT bunebriv

xmaurian garemoSi nebismieri dialogis Cawera. yovelive es,

rogorc viciT, `dogmis~ manifestis ZiriTadi punqtebia da am

mimarTulebis farglebSi gadaRebuli filmebis esTetikisa da

stilis maxasiaTeblebs warmoadgens.

174 175


irina kuWuxiZe

avtorebi, romlebic digitalur teqnologiaSi gatacebiT

muSaoben Tvlian, rom cifruli teqnikiT Seqmnili filmebi

sulac ar uaryofen kinogamosaxulebis tradiciulad aRiarebul

erT-erT specifikur niSans _ utyuarobas, ubralod Taviseburad

axdenen am utyuarobis realizacias da es aramc Tu

winaaRmdegobaSi Sedis bazeniseuli Teoriis Zireul

postulatTan, anu `realobisadmi ndobasTan~, aramed axal

xarisxSi ahyavs es ndoba, oRond ukve digitaluri realobisadmi.

Cems mier ukve naxsenebi boJedar manovi SeniSnavs, rom amaSi

simarTlis marcvali devs, vinaidan maSinac ki, roca digitaluri

teqnologiis daxmarebiT iqmneba axali, xelovnuri virtualuri

sinamdvile, romelic obieqtur samyaroSi ar arsebobs, avtorebi

eZeben da iswrafvian utyuarobis idealisken, romelic axal

xedvas obieqtur sinamdvilesTan daaaxlovebda. amasTan

dakavSirebiT sainteresoa Tu rogor ixseneben kompiuteruli

damuSavebis specialistebi muSaobis process stiven spilbergis

filmze `iuruli periodis parki~. es filmi, gadaRebuli 1992

wels, cifruli teqnologiis aTvisebis da axali stilis _

e.w. fotorealizmis Camoyalibebis procesSi Semobrunebis

punqtad, Tu etapad aris miCneuli. manamde kompiuteruli teqnikis

gamoyeneba kinoSi ZiriTadad rTuli specefeqtebis SeqmniT da

fantastikuri triukebis damuSavebiT ifargleboda. swored

`iuruli periodis parki~ iyo pirveli, romelmac erT mTlianobad

organulad Serwya realuri da xelovnuri, sinTezirebuli

elementebi da fotorealizmi anu axali tipis utyuaroba

axal xarisxSi aiyvana. axla ki ai, ras ixsenebs kompiuteruli

damuSavebis specialisti tom uiliamsi, romelic spilbergis

filmis Semdeg muSaobda robert zemekisis `forest gampze~,

`niRabze~ da kidev araerT sxva filmze. ra gziT iqmneboda

realurisa da xelovnuris WeSmariti sinTezi? rogor unda

ganlagebuliyvnen da Serwymodnen naturul `dekoraciebs~

dinozavrebi da sxva sinTezirebuli obieqtebi? `CvenTvis

gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovani iyo, rom `emuSava~ dinozavrebis

ara marto zedapirs, garegnobas, aramed Sinagan bunebas. Cven

kompiuterze vaxdendiT dinozavrebis kanisa da moZraobis

rekonstruirebas,kameriT viRebdiT ra sxvadasxva cxovelebs

kinematografis konturebi axali teqnologiebis epoqaSi

zooparkSi, vakvirdebodiT da vswavlobdiT cxovelTa moZraobis

Taviseburebebs, konsultaciebisTvis mivmarTavdiT

arqeozoologebs _ da yvelaferi es imisTvis, raTa udidesi

realizmisTvis migveRwia. ~3

me ramdenimejer vaxsene Tu rogor gaiolda eleqtronuli

teqnikiT ekranze specefeqtebis Seqmna. misi areali marTlac

saocrad gafarTovda. axalma teqnikam Secvala ra tradiciuli

kombinirebuli kinogadaRebebi, SesaZlebeli gaxada yvelaze

daujerebeli efeqtebis miRweva: wyaldidobebi, xanZrebi,

miwisZvrebi, afeTqebebi, sxva planetebi...Yyovelive es da kidev

bevri sxva ram araerTxel gvixilavs `holivudis~ produqciaSi.

sainteresoa agreTve sxva ti pis efeqtebi: e. w. `kompouzingis~

xerxiT miiRweva obieqtebis erTmaneTSi uwyveti gadasvlis

xilvadoba yovelgvari `nakerebis~ gareSe; organzomilebiani

obieqtis samganzomilebianSi gadayvana; obieqtebis

dematerializaciis Seqmna, maTi konturis gaoreba,

gaumWvirvalobis dakargva da sxva mravali manipulaciis

warmoudgeneli Sedegi. sakmarisia gavixsenoT vaCovskebis

gaxmaurebuli `matrica~, sadac sakmaodaa Tavmoyrili CamoTvlili

efeqtebi, da naTeli xdeba, rom tradiciuli kinoteqnikiT maTi

meaTedis miRwevac SeuZlebeli iqneboda. farTod gamoiyeneba

cifruli teqnikis SesaZlebloba nebismieri interieris Tu

eqsterieris warmosaxvisTvis. es gansakuTrebiT aiolebs

istoriul filmebze muSaobas, rodesac ZviradRirebuli

dekoraciebis ageba aRar xdeba saWiro. magaliTisTvis ikmarebs

Tundac ridli skotis `gladiatorSi~ cifrulad Seqmnili

kolizeumi.

digitaluri kinos mimarT interesi gasuli saukunis 90-

iani wlebidan moyolebuli sul ufro izrdeba. aris festivalebi,

sadac is erT-erT prioritetad aris miCneuli. aseTia, vTqvaT,

roterdamis kinofestivali. aq yovelTvis warmodgenilia sakmao

raodenobis namuSevrebi, romlebic ara marto gadaRebulia

cifrul safuZvelze, aramed maTi demonstrirebac `dividi~

proeqciis saSualebiT xdeba. ufro metic, umaRles kategoriad

aRiarebuli veneciis festivalis farglebSi araerTxel moewyo

specialuri ganxilvebi Tu bienalebi, romlebic `digitaluri

176 177


irina kuWuxiZe

kinos~ problemebs mieZRvna da masSi gamoCenili xelovanebi,

avtoritetuli Teoretikosebi iRebdnen monawileobas: vim

vendersi, jilo pontekorvo, kSiStof zanusi, umberto eko da

sxvebi. yvela maTgani Tanxmdeba, rom azrs moklebulia msjeloba

da miT ufro kamaTi imis Taobaze axali teqnologiebis danergva

kinoSi kargia Tu cudi. es ukve momxdari faqtia, axla ki

mTavaria rogor da risTvis gamoiyeneben kinoxelovanebi axal

SesaZleblobebs. vim vendersi, romelic Tavad didi interesiT

Caeflo digitalur xelovnebaSi, jer kidev 10 wlis win Tavis

Tavsac da sxvebsac TiTqos afrTxilebda: “dRevandel kinos

Cven mivyavarT yvelaze fantastikur mogzaurobaSi, sadac advilia

daikargo. amitom Zalze mniSvnelovania sakuTar cnobierebaze

kontrolis SenarCuneba, TavisTavadad darCena `pirveli xelis~

realobaSi, romelic mainc yvelaze metad momxiblavi da

amaforiaqebelia.~ 4 kSiStof zanusi ver uarhyofs, rom XX1

saukuneSi kino uTuod sxva _ eleqtronul formaSi iarsebebs,

magram TiTqos gvafrTxilebs, roca ambobs: `...rogori teqnikac

unda gamoiyenebodes, CvenTvis yovelTvis saintereso iqneba

monaTxrobi sxva adamianebis cxovrebaze. am monaTxrobis gareSe,

teqnikuri saSualebebis SuamavlobiT sxva adamianebis gacnobis

gareSe, Cven cxovreba ar SegviZlia.~ 5 sakmaod skeptikurad

ganwyobilma umberto ekom axal teqnologiebs `simulaciuri~

uwoda. ai, ra Tqva cnobilma moazrovnem: “rac Seexeba kinoSi

axali `simulaciuri~ teqnologiebis danergvis Sedegebs, rogorc

Cans, Cven SevejaxebiT situacias, analogiurs imisa, rac masobrivi

informaciis saSualebebTan, gazeTebsa da televiziasTan

mimrTebaSi SeiniSneba.~ 6 WeSmaritad, axali tipis kinematografma

farTo gasaqani misca `meorad~ saxeebs, erTgvarad axali sunTqva

Sehmata da Caewera postmodernistuli simulakrebisa da

simulaciebis zogad konteqstSi. rac Seexeba analogias masobrivi

informaciis saSualebebTan, aq umberto ekos, rogorg Cans, maTdami

da, maSasadame, momavali kinosadmic ndobis faqtorSi aSkarad

eJvi Seaqvs.

dasasruls minda gamovyo ramdenime tendencia, romelic

cifruli kinos ganviTarebasTan erTad gamoikveTa da, SeiZleba

iTqvas zedapirze devs. pirveli teqnologizmiT zRvardaudebeli

kinematografis konturebi axali teqnologiebis epoqaSi

gatacebaa, rodesac filmi meti araferia, Tu ara teqnikasTan

TamaSi. aseTi tendencia gansakuTrebiT TvalSisacemi iyo axali

teqnologiiT damkvidrebuli Janris _ e. w. videoartis filmebSi.

Tumca, am JanrSi ukve dagrovda WeSmaritad mxatvruli miRwevebic.

sakmarisia movixsenioT poloneli reJisoris ribCinskis

SesaniSnavi namuSevrebi. meore mimarTuleba garkveuli Janrebis

gaaqtiurebasTan aris dakavSirebuli: saocar masStabebs aRwevs

fantastikuri Janris modifikaciebi. erTi mxriv, sxvadasxva

tipis kosmosuri odiseebi: teqnologiurad unaklod gamarTuli

`varskvlavuri omebi~, `armagedonebi~ da sxva mravali...

fantastikur-saTavgadasavlo filmebis mTeli seria, maT Soris,

dabali, saSualo da maRali donis SesrulebiT, vTqvaT,

gaxmaurebuli `beWdebis mbrZanebeli.~ amave JanrSi mesame ganxra

- es aris fantastikuri Trileri an e. w. `hororebi~. aqac

arCevani Zalze farToa, magram moviyvan Tundac erT magaliTs:

`ucxoebis~ mTel cikls.

mkvidrdeba `virtualuri kinoTeatris~ cneba, icvleba

nawarmoebTan komunikaciis forma, mxedvelobaSi maqvs mayureblis

specifikuri ukukavSiri ekranTan. sxvagvarad rom vTqvaT _

interaqtiuloba, rac sazogadod damaxasiaTebelia komunikaciis

digitaluri saSualebebisTvis. garkveuli tipis filmebSi

mayurebels ganusazRvrelad SeuZlia Caerios filmis nebismier

elementSi da Tavidan gauSvas qselSi. aseTi komunikacia

mxatvrul nawarmoebsa da, uxeSad rom vTqva, momxmarebels Soris

Zalze sakamaToa. albaT, ufro _ miuRebeli, vinaidan ikiTxeba

Semoqmedsa da xelovnebaze masebis Zaladobis ufro pirdapiri

da Tavxeduri gamovlena. sityva `ufro~ imitom vixmare, rom

xelovnebis da sazogadod kulturis sivrcis did farTobs,

samwuxarod, isedac masebis `dakveTa~ aregulirebs. es yovelive

rom ganvazogadoT, SeiZleba davaskvnaT: kinoSi dRes masobrivi

produqciis masStabis arnaxuli zrdaa, rogorc Cveulebrivi

formatis filmebis, ise gansakuTrebiT teleserialebis saxiT.

Znelia imis mtkiceba, rom amJamad kinematografSi TvalnaTlivi

krizisuli situacia uSualod teqnologiur siaxleebiTaa

ganpirobebuli, magram es krizisi (rasac bolo prestiJuli

kinofestivalebic adasturebs) Tu erTgvarad gardamavali

178 179


irina kuWuxiZe

periodi jer-jerobiT aZnelebs kinos momavlis konturebis

danaxvas. da bolos, kinos erTsaukunovani istoriis manZilze

teqnikuri siaxleni WeSmarit xelovanebs enobrivi Ziebebisken

ubiZgebdnen, esTetikuri problemebis daZlevis Tu

konceftualuri siRrmeebis vizualizaciis instrumentebi

xdebodnen. imedi viqonioT, rom axali teqnologiac upiratesad

namdvili xelovnebis samsaxurSi Cadgeba.

Mmaia levaniZe,

xelovnebaTmcodneobis doqtori,

wamyvani mecnierTanamSromeli

qarTuli telesivrce da reklamis

Tavisebureba

1. Андре Базен. Что такое кино? М., 1972, ст.48-50;

2. Киноведческие записки,№24,19994/95. ст.198;

3. Киноведческие записки,№22;

4 Киноведческие записки,№24,19994/95. ст. 200;

5. www.kinozapiski.ru

`sifilisi gonebriv daavadebaTa ricxvs miekuTvneba, televizia

ki Tanamedrove adamianis SemecnebaSi mimdinare ngrevis mizezia.

Tomas mani romanSi `doqtori fausti~ aRniSnavda, rom sifilisi

sazRauria adamianis genialobisTvis. dRes televiziis fenomens

imave Tvisebebs miaweren: esaa me-19 saukunis kulturis

aRorZinebisa da ayvavebis sazRauri. sifiliss moaqvs sigiJe

da gancda. sabolood ki sikvdili, sawyissa da sasruls Soris

CvenSi raRac saSineleba xdeba...~ 1 suzan zontagis mier

SemoTavazebuli es uCveulo Sedareba, vfiqrob, mkveTrad

gamoxatavs televiziis unars, zegavlena moaxdinos adamianis

Sinagan samyaroze, misi cxovrebis stilsa da msoflmxedvelobaze;

mis unikalur unars, Seqmnas simulaciuri realoba yvelaze

damajerebeli, realisturi niSnebiTa da elementebiT.

simulaciuri realobis Seqmnis procesSi mniSvnelovani

adgili reklamas ukavia. Tu sainformacio saSualebebi

yoveldRiurad ayalibeben garkveul ideologias (sadac ikveTeba

politikuri aqcentebi, movlenaTa Sefasebis qvakuTxedi), reklama,

misgan gansxvavebiT, ZiriTadad mimarTulia zogadi Rirebulebebis,

cxovrebis wesis yofaSi damkvidrebisken. miuxedavad imisa, rom

reklamis ZiriTadi funqcia ama Tu im sagnis realizebaa, qarTul

telesivrceSi, Warbad SemoTavazebuli dasavluri reklamis

xarjze, xSirad xdeba garkveuli cvlilebebis Setana, rogorc

mentalobaSi, ise arsebul tradiciebSi. xSirad, sareklamo

rgolebis lakirebuli, idealizebuli, romantikuli samyaro

mibaZvis sagani xdeba da pirdapir asaxvas hpovebs sazogadoebis

garkveul nawilis cxovrebaSi.

satelevizio rekalama moicavs gamosaxulebas, xmas, moZraobas,

fers da swored amitom, auditoriaze is ufro mkveTr da

Zlier zegavlenas axdens, vidre sxva masobrivi saSualebebi.

180 181


maia levaniZe

qarTuli telesivrce da reklamis Tavisebureba

reklama televiziaSi mayureblisTvis gansakuTrebiT saintereso

im SemTxvevaSi xdeba, Tu kompiuteruli grafikis gamoyenebiTaa

Seqmnili. telereklamis meSveobiT xdeba ufro meti

samomxmareblo sagnis gayidva, vidre, nebismieri sxva tipis

sareklamo gancxadebiT. satelevizio sareklamo rgolebi

SeiZleba iyos dokumenturi, mxatvruli, animaciuri. maT

mayureblebze didi fsiqologiuri zegavlenis moxdena SeuZlia.

SeiZleba iTqvas, rom sareklamo blokebs uaryofiTi Tvisebic

aqvT, magaliTad, maRali Rirebuleba da Cvenebis sixSire, rac

mayurebelSi xSirad garkveul gaRizianebas iwvevs.

telereklamaSi, fsiqologiuri TvalsazrisiT, mniSvnelovania

dinamikuroba da bunebrioba. sareklamo rgolis dinamikuri

ritmis dakargva iwvevs imas, rom reklama dune Dda naklebad

saintereso xdeba. arsebobs sentimentaluri reklamebi,

romlebSic dasavluri reklamebi qarTul niadagze pirdapir

gadmodis. reklamis damzadebisas, mniSvnelovania saerTo stilis

da ganwyobis Seqmna. zegavlenis TvalsazrisiT, sareklamo

gzavnili SesaZloa iyos racionaluri da emociuri.

racionaluri (sagnobrivi) reklama myidvels konkretul

informacias awvdis. is sagnis realizebis procesSi damajerebel

argumentebs iyenebs. emociuri (asociaciuri) reklama garkveul

mogonebebs aRZravs, iZleva saazrovno impulsebs, mimarTulia

grZnobaTa samyarosadmi, emociebisa da qvecnobierisadmi da

zemoqmedebs ideis da warmosaxvis saSualebiT. reklamebis

umetesoba am ori komponentis nakrebia, magram es tipebi arseboben

damoukidebladac.

gamosaxvis mixedviT reklama or ti pad iyofa: `msubuqi~

da `myari~. aseTi tipis reklama xSirad uaryofiTi stimulirebis

gamosawvevadaa gamiznuli da xanmokle periodisTvisaa

gankuTvnili. aseTi tipis nimuSebi yuradRebas ipyrobs myvirala,

Sinagan efeqtze gaTvlili gancxadebebiT. `msubuqi~ reklama

qmnis garkveul areals, atmosferos, zogad ganwyobas. ufro

xSirad esaa emociuri reklama, romelic iyenes simbolikas,

siRrmiseul motivebs. miznebis mixedviT, reklama SesaZlebelia

iyos: `imij-reklama~, stimulisa da stabilurobis momcemi reklama,

Sida safirmo reklama, SedarebiTi, informaciuli da sxva.

`imij-reklama~ mimarTulia saxis, imijis Sesaqmnelad, masSi

SesaZlebelia aRiniSnos stabiluroba, erTguleba, gaweuli

samuSaos efeqturoba, keTilganwyoba klientebisadmi.

sareklamo b lokebis Sesaqmnelad aucilebelia

gaTvaliswinebuli iqnas Semdegi komponentebi:

1. saintereso, advilad dasamaxsovrebeli vizualuri mxare;

2. mkafio da martivi vizualuri mxare;

3. sareklamo rgolisadmi mayureblis yuradReba unda iyos

mipyrobili pirveli ori wuTis ganmavlobaSi, sxva SemTxvevaSi,

interesi ecema;

4. sareklamo rgoli ise unda iyos awyobili, rom maSinve

miipyros mayureblis interesi;

5. misi Sinaarsi unda aigos ara mxolod reklamirebuli sagnis

garSemo, aramed potenciuri momxmareblis moTxovnaTa

gaTvaliswinebiT;

6. sareklamo rgolSi gamoyenebuli yoveli fraza unda muSaobdes

qmediTunarianad da efeqturad.

arsebobs sxvadasxva tipis sareklamo rgolebi, maT Soris:

komerciuli reklama, socialuri reklama (mimarTulia

saqvelmoqmedo da sxva sazogadoebrivi saqmianobis

popularizaciisken. aseve gaTvaliswinebulia saxelmwifo

interesebi), politikuri reklama (maT Soris, saarCevno).

satelevizio reklama moicavs virtualur reklamas, morbenal

striqons, telegancxadebas. misi erT-erTi ZiriTadi Rirseba

maRali emociuri damajereblobaa. misi meSveobiT, mayurebels

ramdenime wuTSi, sruliad damajereblad eqmneba garkveul

damokidebuleba sagnis mimarT. reklamebs Soris telereklama

yvelaze emociuri da sanaxaobrivi saxea. M

gansxvavebuli Rirebulebebis miuxedavad, telereklamas aqvs

rigi seriozuli SezRudvebic: 1. gayidvisa da damzadebis didi

Rirebuleba; 2. mravaljeradad CvenebaDda sxva.

saqarTveloSi samrewvelo sareklamo rgolebis umetesoba

dasavleTisa da ruseTis televiziebis produqcias warmoadgens.

xSiradreklamirebul saganTan erTad xdeba sxva, ucxo qveynis

cxovrebis, urTierTobis stilis gafetiSeba. mayurebelis

cnobierebaSi, romelic, faqtobrivad, gaucnobiereblad iRebs

sareklamo rgoliT miwodebul informacias, atmosfero

182 183


maia levaniZe

qarTuli telesivrce da reklamis Tavisebureba

etapobrivad, nel-nela jdeba; meore mxriv, aratipuri garemos

SeTvisebisas ar xdeba identificireba arsebul personaJebTan

da samyarosTan.

saarCevno kampaniis periodSi saqarTveloSi mniSvnelovani roli

mieniWa politikur reklamas, romelic pirobiTad SesaZloa daiyos

or _ `poziciis~ (mmarTveli partiis) da `opoziciis~ blokad.

`poziciis~ sareklamo rgolebi ZiriTadad mimarTuli iyo

`momxmareblisTvis~ konkretuli mesijebis gagzavnisken. wina

xedze wamoweuli iyo cnebebi: rwmena, profesionalizmi, moqmedeba.

rac konkretdeboda sloganebiT: `me gTavazob yovelive amas,

raTa Sen miiRo keTildReoba da stabiluroba.~ nacionaluri

moZraobis sareklamo rgolebSi ZiriTadi aqcenti gadatanili

iyo ara am moZraobis, partiis zogadi saxis Seqmnaze, rac

arsebul situaciaSi wamgebiani pozicia SesaZloa yofiliyo,

aramed konkretul pirovnebebze, romlebsac realurad SeswevdaT

Zala da unari SeecvalaT arsebuli realoba. saxelisuflo

sareklamo rgolebi amomrCevels sTavazobda konkretul saxeebs,

romlebic TiToeul adamians konkretuli problemebis gadaWras

pirdeboda. anu Seiqmna mesiji: `konkretuli deputati piradad

SenTvis~.Pamis paralelurad, aqcenti keTdeboda iseT mniSvnelovan

Rorebulebebze, rogoricaa rwmena, ojaxuri tradiciebi,

patriotizmi. Yyovelive es myardeboda konkretuli kandidatis

warsuliTa da awmyoTi. Eekranze Cndebodnen masaSi `gaTqvefili~

warmatebuli adamianebi, romlebic mayurebelSi asocirdebodnen

materialur keTildReobasTan, stabilurobasTan. zogadad,

`poziciis~ sakmaod vrceli formatis politikuri reklama,

romelic mcire satelevizio siuJetebs warmoadgenda, mimarTuli

iyo arsebuli mdgomareobis ganaxlebis, problemis gadaWris,

mogvarebisken., ramac met-naklebad pozitiuri roli iTamaSa

damkveTis sasargeblod. sareklamo bloki `opoziciuri~

blokisgan gansxvavebiT, agebuli iyo konkretul gamosaxulebaze,

realuri garemoTi da adamianebiT, mizanmimarTuli mesijebiT.

`opoziciuri~ bloki, faqtobrivad, Tavs aridebda

konkretizacias. isini ZiriTadad aqcents saxelisuflo

partiebis im Secdomebze amaxvilebda, romlebsac xelisufleba

Tavad aRiarebda da mayurebels gamosavalsac Tavadve sTavazobda.

`opoziciuri~ blokis saarCevno klipebSi gamomsaxvelobiTi

struqtura agebuli iyo zogad `simbolur frazebze~, garemosa

da ganwyobaze. xSirad xdeboda kadris esTetizeba. mniSvnelovani

xeboda musikaluri laitmotivebi, romlebic klipSi xSirad

gansazRvravda ritmis raobas, mis Taviseburebas. swored amitom,

politikurma reklmam, am SemTxvevaSi, zogadad musikaluri klipis

forma miiRo, rac mayurebelSi TavisTavad garTobasTan

igivdeboda. anu is Znelad aRiqmeboda problemur, mniSvnelovan

mesijad. magaliTad SeiZleba moviyvanoT `ucnobis~ sareklamo

klipi: `Seni xma mWirdeba, Zmao!~

`opoziciuri~ bloki or ZiriTad mesijze aigo:

1. `saqarTvelo saakaSvilis gareSe~ anu moxda dapirispireba

erT konkretul pirTan da mtris saxis Seqmna, rac, faqtobrivad,

Tavidanve ganwiruli aRmoCnda. vinaidan, saarCevno procesSi

wina planze wamoweuli iyo mixeil saakaSvilis persona.

`saqarTvelo saakaSvilis gareSe~ ukve moZvelebuli mesiji

aRmoCnda, ramac ver moaxdina partiisa da konkretuli pirebis

identifikacia. mesiji mesijad darCa. `opoziciurma~ blokma

`pozicias~ konkretuli Rirebulebebi ver daupirispira,

konkretul Temebze agebuli antireklama, rogorc es `vardebis

revoluciis~ dros moaxerxa opoziciurma speqtrma. maSin maT

aqcenti gaakeTes ara mxolod SevardnaZeze, aramed, zogadad,

qveynis mZime socio-politikur mdgomareobaze. sareklamo

rgolebiT mouwodebdnen, uari eTqvaT _ qveynis `varadnaze~

zogadad, da amave dros, `Se-vardna-Zeze~, rogorc vardnis erTerT

mizezze.

2. `gaverTiandeT~. sareklamo bloki orientirebuli iyo

konkretuli partiebis irgvliv xalxis gaerTianebisken, magram,

vinaidan ZiriTadi mesiji iyo gaerTianeba prezidentis winaaRmdeg,

moxda mayureblis, potenciuri amomrCevlis yuradRebis erTgvari

`gabneva~, rodesac agresia, kritika isev konkretuli adamianisa

da partiis winaaRmdeg warimarTa, politikurma reklamam isev

`poziciis~ sasargeblod imuSava. amdenad, SeiZleba iTqvas, rom

saparlamento arCevnebis periodSi `opoziciis~ sareklamo

blokSi ar iyo gamoyenebuli politikuri reklamis

SesaZleblobebis mTeli speqtri, rasac `poziciis~ sareklamo

blokze ver ityvi.

184 185


maia levaniZe

arsebul realobaSi aqtualuri xdeba Jan bodriaris frazebi:

`Cven vcxovrobT simulaciur samyaroSi, sadac niSan-simboloebi

(telegamosaxuleba, kompiuteruli TamaSebi, eleqtronuli fuli)

ukeT funqcionirebs, vidre realuri~... `axlandeli foto,

kino da telesaxeebi samyaros arsebobas gulaxdilobiTa da

damajerebeli uSualobiT gvimtkiceben. Cven daufiqreblad

gvjera maTi realobis, WeSmaritebis, magram vcdebiT~... `swored

maSin, roca saxe yvelaze realisturad, yvelaze WeSmarit

sinamdviled gveCveneba, swored maSin avlenen ufro metad avlenen

sakuTar satanur arss...~ 2

1. `televizia me-XX saukunis kulturuli aRzevebis sazRauri~-gaz.

kultura 2005, #2, gv.4;

2. J. bodriari, saxeTa boroti demoni, `iskustvo kino~ 1992, #10,

gv.64-70.

manana lekboraSvili,

xelovnebaTmcodneobis doqtori,

asocirebuli profesori

media reprezentaciebi da maTi Seswavlis

aqtualoba

qarTul metyvelebaSi da werilobiT teqstebSi sul ufro

xSirad gvxvdeba sityva `reprezentacia~ da es ar aris

SemTxveveiTi _ dReisTvis reprezentacia erT-erTi yvelaze

aqtiurad diskusirebadi Temaa ara mxolod akademiur kvlevaSi,

aramed ufro farTod, kulturul garemoSi.

mxolod sityvis moqmedi gansazRvrebebi SeiZleba erTgvari

dabneulobis mizezi gaxdes. inglisuri enis oqsfordis

universitetis leqsikoni reprezentacias, upirveles yovlisa,

gansazRvravs rogorc `arsebobas~, `yofnas~ („presence”) an

`gamovlenas~, `garegnul saxes~ („appearance”). aqedan gamomdinare,

termini ixmareba sxvadasxva sferoSi da konteqstSi da SeiZleba

sxvadasxva mniSvneloba hqondes.

reprezentacia SeiZleba ganixilebodes rogorc procesi,

movlena, rodesac xdeba erTi obieqtis meoriT Canacvleba. is

miRebulia axali istorikosebis mier, romlebic am mniSvnelobas

garkveuli sazogadoebis da garkveuli drois periodis

simboluri konstruqtirebis aRsaniSnavad iyeneben.

amave mniSvnelobiT ixmareba is politikaSic. aq fokusi

gadainacvlebs politikur reprezentaciaze, roca erTi persona

an jgufi Caanacvlebs vinmes an rames, am SemTxvevaSi _ ufro

did warmomadgenlobiT jgufs. amgvari reprezentacia ZiriTadia

demokratiuli sazogadoebebis funqcionirebaSi. magaliTad,

parlamenti swored warmomadgenlobiTi organoa da idealSi

unda axdendes mosaxleobis jgufebis sruli speqtris

reprezentirebas, konkretul moqalaqesa da saxelmwifos Soris

interaqtiobis funqcias asrulebdes.

meore gansazRvreba gulisxmobs, rom `reprezentacia~ aris

teqstebis unari, gamoiyenos samyaros damaxasiaTebeli niSnebi

da warmoudginos igi mayurebels, ara mxolod rogorc ubralod

186 187


manana lekboraSvili

media reprezentaciebi da maTi Seswavlis aqtualoba

anarekli (reflection), aramed ufro rogorc konstruqcia. amgvar

reprezentacias adgili SeiZleba hqondes rogorc metyvelebaSi

an werilobiT teqstSi, aseve fotografiaSi Tu kinematografSi.

vinaidan amjerad Cveni interesis sagania mediareprezentacia,

reprezentaciis swored es meore mniSvneloba gvainteresebs.

termini gulisxmobs `realobis~ sxvadasxva aspeqtis (adamianebis,

sagnebis, movlenebis, kulturuli identurobis da sxva

abstraqturi cnebebis) konstruirebas nebismier mediaSi.

albaT, SeiZleboda movridebodiT qarTuli enis kidev erTi ucxo

terminiT damZimebas da Cagvenacvlebina is Cveuli sityviT `warmodgena~.

magram arsebobs erTi arsebiTi niuansi, romelic iZulebuls gvxdis,

vixmaroT swored es termini da ara romelime sxva.

reprezentacia, rogorc termini, Seicavs gagebas, rom

nebismieri xati, nebismieri teqsti ar asaxavs realobas

miukerZoeblad, asprocentiani sizustiT, aramed ufro

warmogvidgens `realobis variaciebs~, romlebic ganpirobebulia

kulturiTa da adamianebis Cveuli azrebiTa da qmedebebiT.

Tavis mxriv, igive gzis gavliT mas aqvs unari gavlena moaxdinos

kulturis da sazogadoebis damokidebulebebis, Rirebulebebis,

aRqmis da qcevis formirebaze. 1 amrigad, iqmneba wre, romlis

sawyisi wertilis povna da, miT umetes, Tavis daRweva, TiTqmis

SeuZlebeli xdeba, radgan yvelani am wreSi vtrialebT da

aravis xelewifeba masze amaRleba. Cven vqmniT reprezentaciebs,

reprezentaciebi gvqmnian Cven.

realoba yovelTvis reprezentirebulia – is, rasac Cven

ganvixilavT rogorc `pirdapir~ gancdas, yovelTvis

`gaSualebulia~ aRqmis kodebiT da reprezentacia yovelTvis

dakavSirebulia “realobis konstruirebasTan”.

nebismieri teqsti, rac unda `realisturad~ gveCvenebodes

is, upiratesad `konstruirebuli reprezentaciebia~, vidre ukve

arsebuli realobis pirdapiri `anarekli~, Canaweri Tu aslia.

Tumca, Cven amas xSirad verc vacnobierebT, radgan reprezentaciebi,

romlebsac gamudmebuli xmareba kargad nacnobs xdis, aRiqmeba

rogorc `bunebrivi~ da aragaSualebuli. 2

am TvalsazrisiT, `realobas yovelTvis hyavs avtori~D(deniel

Candleri). 3 Tu realistebi fokusirdebian reprezentaciebis

`mimarTebaze~ `obieqtur~ realobasTan (rac aisaxeba terminebSi

`simarTle~, `Sesabamisoba~, `sizuste~,’`damaxinjeba~),

konstruqtivistebi fokusirdebian sakiTxze, visi realobaa

warmodgenili da visi – uaryofili, vinaidan, nebismieri

reprezentacia gardauvalad arCeviTia: is wina xedze wamowevs

garkveul xedvas, sakiTxs, problemas da ugulebelyofs, aCumaTebs

(nebiT Tu uneblieT) – sxvas. amis metad TvalsaCino magaliTad

SeiZleba moviyvanoT TbilisSi gaxsnili `sabWoTa okupaciis

muzeumi~. Tumca, am SemTxvevaSi, yvelasTvis naTelia, rom es

eqspozicia arc isaxavs miznad sabWoTa realobis srulad

mocvas, rom aq win wamoweulia realobis mxolod erTi mxare,

dRevandeli politikuri diskursis Sesabamisad. magram xedvis

kuTxe, teqstis arCeviToba ase mkafiod gacxadebuli yovelTvis,

da ufro xSirad, ar aris.

magaliTad, muzeumebi, romlebic kolonizirebul kulturebs

warmoadgenen, `orientalizmis~ diskursis terminebSi asaxaven

dasavlur ideologiur pozicias, romelic ganixilavs SuaaRmosavlur,

muslimur kulturas rogorc egzotikurs,

idumalebiT moculs, mouxelTebels da potenciurad saxifaTos.

da es diskursi dasavleli damTvarielebelisTvis sulac ar

aris gacxadebuli, ramdenadac ukve Cveulia da amdenad, bunebrivic.

am TvalsazrisiT, gansakuTrebiT niSandoblivia Tanamedrove

eleqtronuli mediasaSualebebis miswrafeba, moaqcion Tavisi

`moRvaweoba~ tradiciuli `realobis asaxvis~ diskursSi.

mediasaSualebebis tradiciuli kvleva aseve ganixilavs

mediaproduqtebs, rogorc garkveuli realobis an movlenis

`cru~ da `damaxinjebul interpretacias~. es cneba gulisxmobs,

rom arsebobs `WeSmariti~ an `ucvleli~ azri, romelic

asocirdeba gare `realobasTan~ da romelsac mediateqsti unda

Seudardes; maSin, rodesac mediareprezentaciebis Tanamedrove

mkvlevarTaTvis Tavad gare, `realobis~ mniSvnelobaa

konstruirebulia mediis mier.

mediateqstebi ar aris realobis ubralod garegnuli

warmodgenis gza. isini Tavad qmnian realobis mniSvnelobebs.

is procesic, rac dRes qarTul eleqtronul mediasivrceSi

mimdinareobs, sxva araferia, Tu ara brZola realobis

mniSvnelobebisaTvis.

mediareprezentaciebi ayalibeben pirovnebis mier

cxovrebiseuli movlenebis aRqmas – maT Sexedulebebs sqesze,

188 189


manana lekboraSvili

klasze, rasaze, maT warmodgenebs qalaquri, gareubnebis, TuU

soflis cxovrebis wesze da sxva; maT mrwamss, cxovrebiseul,

politikur, Tu kulturul Rirebulebebs da a.S. es Sexedulebebi,

ufro xSirad, zogadia da azrovnebaSi stereotipad yalibdeba. 4

magaliTad, rom msaxiobebi qarafSutebi arian, rom yvela fineli

– alkoholikia, qarTvelebi – niWierebi, magram zarmacebi.

amrigad, Cven vwvdebiT realobas mxolod reprezentaciebis

gavliT: teqstebis, metyvelebis, xatebis meSveobiT – ar arsebobs

aragaSualebuli daSveba realobasTan. maSinac ki, roca Cven

`sakuTari TvalebiT~ vuyurebT garemo sinamdviles,

garkveulwilda vxedavT mxolod imas da mxolod ise, rogorc

viciT, rom `unda~ davinaxoT. magram is, rom Cven SegviZlia

realobis xedva mxolod reprezentaciebis gavliT, ar niSnavs,

rom realobas saerTod ver vxedavT... realoba yovelTvis ufro

farTo da ufro rTulia, vidre reprezentaciis nebismier

sistemas SeuZlia Caswvdes mas. kacobrioba yovelTvis

acnobierebda, rom es asea – reprezentacia verasdros ver

`moicavs~ srul realobas, amitomacaa, rom kacobriobis istoria,

am miznis misaRwevad, amden sxvadasxva da cvalebad gzas badebs.

mTlianobaSi, kacobrioba amas acnobierebda, magram saWiroa,

calkeulma individmac gaacnobieros. es erTaderTi gzaa, raTa

win aRvudgeT masebiT manipulirebis kidev erTi iaraRis kidev

ufro gaZlierebas; mxolod Semdgom gaZlierebas, vinaidan is

ukve arsebobs da sakmaod nayofieradac gamoiyeneba.

am mosazrebebidan gamomdinare, dasavleTSi, kolejebSi Tu

universitetebSi farTodaa danergili mediareprezentaciebis

saswavlo kursebi. albaT urigo ar iqneba, Tu am gamocdilebas

Cvens ganaTlebis sistemaSic davnergavT.

imis nacvlad, rom mediareprezentaciebi SeviswavloT, rogorc

`realobis~ ubralo anarekli, Cven unda vaswavloT axalgazrdebs,

rogor emsaxureba mediareprezentaciebi realobis `xelaxla

warmodgenas~ („re-present“) anu, faqtobrivad, axali realobis Seqmnas.

Cven unda vaswavloT axalgazrdebs im specifikuri gzebis

identificireba, romliTac mediareprezentaciebi gamosaxulebas,

xmas da musikas, interteqstualobas, enas da realobis

konstruirebis teqnikas iyeneben. Semdegi safexuria, gamovumuSavoT

media reprezentaciebi da maTi Seswavlis aqtualoba

axalgazrdebs Cveva, gamoiyenon mediareprezentaciebis es

specifikuri aspeqtebi mediateqstebis analizisas.

Seswavla exmareba auditorias, daikavos kritikuli pozicia,

gzebis amocnobis swavlisas, romlis meSveobiTac media aSualebs

realobas, gansazRvravs samyaros aRqmis mimarTulebas. kritikuli

konteqstis Seqmna exmareba individs gamoarkvios reprezentaciis

safuZvelSi arsebuli RirebulebiTi Sefasebebi, daikavos maT

mimarT aseve kritikuli pozicia – iRebs is am Rirebulebebs

Tu uaryofs.

es daexmareba, axalgazrdas, gaerkves ara marto mis irgvliv

arsebuli kulturuli modelebis mravalferovnebaSi, aramed

am mravalferovnebaSi adgilis povnas, TviTidenturobis

gamomuSavebas gauadvilebs. es ki, saboloo jamSi, socialur

praqtikasac gansazRvravs.

magaliTad, e. w. `realuri~ satelevizio Souebi

telekompaniis miznebisda Sesabamisad gansazRvraven, televiziaSi

qcevis ra formas Tvlian sasurvelad SerCevis, montaJis,

gamosaxulebis meSveobiT. rogorc wesi, es garegnuli efeqtebiT

da socialuri epataJiT gamorCeuli, sensaciisken, skandalisken

gadaxrili formebia. amis Sedegad ki auditoriamac SeiZleba

CaTvalos, rom programis monawileTa saqcieli jdeba `normaSi~

– normaluria im pirobebSi, rogorSic televizia axdens

`realobis~ reprezentirebas.

dRes, rodesac informaciis moZalebisgan Tavdacva erT-erT

yvelaze aqtualur problemad iqca da, SeiZleba iTqvas, TiTqmis

sasicocxlo aucilebloba gaxda, reprezentaciebis Seswavla

individis Tavdacvis erT-erT qmediT iaraRad SeiZleba ganvixiloT.

zogi axerxebs Sinagani resursebis xarjze (ganaTleba, zogadi

kultura, refleqsiisken midrekileba) es iaraRi Tavad

`aRmoaCinos~ da moqmedebaSi moiyvanos, magram misi, masobriv

iaraRad qcevisTvis, aucilebelia Zalisxmeva garedan.

1. B. Moon Literary terms: a Practical Glossary, Cottesloe, 2001;

2. Stuart Hall Cultural Representations and Signifying Practice, London, 1997;

3. Daniel Chandler. Semiotics for beginners - http://www.aber.ac.uk/

media/Documents/S4B/semiotic.html;

4. Philip Rayner Peter Wall Stephen Kruger Media Studies London, 2001, p.63-65.

190 191


dinara maRlakeliZe,

xelovnebaTmcodneobis doqtori,

mecnier-TanamSromeli

XX saukunis 90-iani wlebis kinoavangardi

cifruli teqnologiebis ganviTarebam da am teqnologiiT

gamowveulma kinematografis demokratizaciis procesma XX

saukunis 90-iani wlebis Crdiloevropul kinematografSi axali

kinomimdinareobis dogma 95 Camoyalibeba ganapiroba.

1995 wlis 13 marts danielma kinoreJisorebma: lars fon

trirma, tomas vinterbergma, soren krag-iakobsenma da kristian

levringma Seqmnes manifesti saxelwodebiT: dogma 95. 1

ramdenime dRis Semdeg maT parizis kinoTeatr odeonSi

kinematografis 100 wlisTavisadmi miZRvnil konferenciaze

mewamul wiTel qaRaldze dabeWdili manifestis teqsti sazeimo

viTarebaSi gaacnes kolegebs.

kopenhagenel kinematografistTa provokaciuli da

ironianarevi _ erTi mxriv, teqnikuri, cifruli sensaciebis,

holivudis kinoindustriis da, mere mxriv, evropuli saavtoro

kinos, rogorc individualuri gemovnebis gamomxatveli

kinematografis winaamRdeg mimarTuli manifesti, kinematografist

kolegaTa mier Tavdapirvelad Tanamedrove kinos krizisisadmi

mimarTul ironiul komentarad iqna aRqmuli.

magaliTad, klod Sabroli manifestis avtorTa misamarTiT

ironiulad ambobda, rom isini male wverosnebis gamoCenasac ki

akrZalaven filmebSi. 2

dogma 95 _ manifestis avtorTa mixedviT _ kinematografis

gadarCenis aqcias warmoadgens. 3

maTi formulirebiT Tanamedrove teqnologiurma procesebma

kinematografi axali, avangarduli kinomimdinareobis Seqmnis

aucileblobis winaSe daayena.

fon tririsa da vintenbergis ganmartebiT: dogma 95

kinematografis iluziebidan, krizisidan gamoyvanis mcdelobasa

da TavSekavebulobis aqciias warmoadgens. manifestis avtorebi

Tvlian, rom teqnikuri demokratizaciis epoqis kinematografi

aRar unda iyos individualuri, rom igi sabolood unda

gaTavisufldes saavtoro kinos iluziebisagan.

dogma 95 kinematografiuli saZmos reJosorTa mier

dawesebuli TavSekavebulobis normebis mixedviT:

filmebis gadaReba mxolod filmis siuJetisaTvis saWiro

gadasaReb moedanze unda moxdes;

xma gamosaxulebasTan erTad unda iqmnebodes, ar SeiZleba

filmis gadaRebis Semdgom gaxmovaneba;

musika filmSi ar unda iqnas gamoyenebuli, SeiZleba mxolod

im musikis gamoyeneba, romelic uSualod gadasaReb moedanze

Seiqmneba;

nebadarTulia mxolod xelis kameris gamoyeneba;

ar SeiZleba xelovnuri ganaTebis gamoyeneba;

filmi aucileblad unda iyos feradi;

akrZalulia filtris gamoyeneba;

aseve akrZalulia iaraRisa da Zaladobis Cveneba filmSi,

mkvlelobis scenebi;

dauSvebelia geografiuli da droiTi gaucxoebis efeqtebis

gamoyeneba;

miuRebelia Janruli kinematografi;

dasaSvebia mxolod akademiuri 35 mm. formati.

danieli kinoreJisorebis winaamRdeg mimarTuli

TavSekavebulobis manifesti - Mainstrram – kino, _ romelic

filmis Seqmnis process garkveul wesebsa da SezRudvebs

uqvemdebarebs, miuxedavad manifestis provokaciuli, ironianarevi

suliskveTebisa, kinos istoriis didi avangardistebis, sergei

eizenStainisa Tu lev kuleSovis eqspresiulobas exmianeba da

am niSniT kinematografis axali vizualuri enis Seqmnis

mcdelobas warmoadgens. 4

dogma 95 saZmos reJisorebis mier Seqmnili manifestiT,

saZmos wevrebi, kinos istoriaSi manamde arsebuli avangarduli

moZraobebis msgavsad, kinoSi arsebuli krizisis dasaZlevad,

sakuTar esTetikur strategias aviTareben.

isini TavianT kritikas, erTi mxriv, holivuduri

kinoindustriis, rogorc iluziebis kinematografis, xolo, meore

192 193


dinara maRlakeliZe

mxriv, evropuli saavtoro kinos, rogorc individualuri

gemovnebis gamomxatveli kinos winaamRdeg mimarTaven.

am TvalsazrisiT dogma 95 SesaZlebelia, swored meore

msoflio omis Sedgomi kinos istoriiis cnobili avangarduli

mimdinareobebis _ italiuri neorealizmis, franguli axali

talRisa Tu amerikuli Direkt Cinema-s diskurSi iqnas

ganxiluli.

msgavsad zemoT dasaxelebuli avangarduli mimarTulebebis

warmomadgenlebisa, dogma 95 manifestis avtorebic uars amboben

konvenciuri kinos esTetikaze da kinematografis ganaxlebis

sakuTar strategias gvTavazoben. strategias, romelic maTi

formulirebiT kinematografis iluziebisagan gaTavisuflebaSi

unda gamoixatos.

dogma 95 -is mier dawesebuli e. w. kinematografiuli

purizmi, Tavis Sekaveba, uaris Tqma aprobirebul kinematografiul

SesaZleblobebze, manifestis avtorTa azriT, kinos zedapiruli

aqcionizmisagan ganTavisuflebis aucilebeli winapiroba unda

gaxdes.

dogma 95-is avtorTa TvalsazrisiT, cifruli teqnologiebis

epoqis kinematografSi namdvil emociebs iluziebi cvlian.

holividur iluziur kinematografs saZmos wevrebi, upirvel

yovlisa, dogma filmebis TvalSisacemi autenturobiT

upirispirdebian, riTac isini neorializmisa da Direkt Cinema-s,

Tu jon kasavetasis anti-holivodur tradicias exmianebian.

saZmos wevrebis mier dawesebuli norma #7, romelic filmSi

geografiuli da droiTi gaucxoebis efeqtebis gamoyenebas

krZalavs, axlosaa im esTetikur mrwamsTan, romlebic

kinamatografs Tavis droze neorialisturi mimdinareobis

warmomadgenlebma wamouyenes: filmma awmyo unda asaxos.

dRevandeloba, dRevandeloba, ai, ra sWirdeba kinos (Cezare

Zavatini, fiqrebi kinoze, 1972). 5

Direkt Cinema-s reJisorTa msgavsad, romlTa filmebSi xelis

kamera konceptualur datvirTvas atarebda, dogmas saZmos

reJisorTa filmebSic mousvenari, moqanave xelis kamera

gansakuTrebul esTetikur, stilistur datvirTvas iZens da

filmis dramaturgiis Semadgeneli nawili xdeba.

XX saukunis 90-iani wlebis kinoavangardi

dog m a 9 5 -i s avtorTa formulireb iT: kamer am

SeZlebisdagvarad obieqturad unda asaxos sinamdvile. 6

dogma 95 esTetikuri strategia _ pretenzia autenturobaze,

xelis kameris gamoyeneba, originalur, filmis siuJetisaTvis

saWiro gadasaReb moednebze muSaoba, xmis gadaRebis procesSi

sinqronizireba, uaris Tqma xelovnur ganaTebaze _ garkveuli

paralelebis gavlebis saSualebas iZleva mimdinareobis, kinos

istoriis winamorbed avangardul mimdinareobebTan mimarTebaSi.

niSandoblivia is faqtic, dogma 95-is saZmos wevrebis

filmebSi kameris moZraoba dramaturgiuli Txrobis funqcias

iZens da mayureblis iluziisagan gaTavisuflebas, realobis

asaxvas emsaxureba.

kamer a ZiriTa dad msaxi obis gamometyvelebazea

koncentrirebuli. msaxiobTa TamaSs, maT gamometyvelebas, maT

mier emociebis zustad gadmocemas dogma 95 reJisorTa filmur

TxrobaSi gansakuTrebuli adgili eniWeba. amasTan msaxiobis

TamaSis manera dogma filmebSi spontanuri da Tavisufalia.

SeiZleba iTqvas, rom mimdinareobis reJisorebi swored am

stilisturi Taviseburebis gamo amboben uars dekoraciebisa

da rekvizitebis gamoyenebaze TavianT filmebSi, radgan maT

filmebSi mTavari aqcenti swored kameris mier dafiqsirebul

msaxiobis TamaSze keTdeba.

aseve gansakuTrebuli yuradReba dogma 95-is filmebSi

filmis montaJs eTmoba. filmebis montaJi umetesad uCveulo,

arakonvenciuria da momxdaris dramatizirebisa da dinamizirebis

funqcias emsaxureba.

arakonvenciuri da eqsperinementulia dogma filmebis

Tematikac: ojaxi da individebi masTan mimarTebaSi, ojaxi da

tabu, danaSauli da seqsi, sasiyvarulo istoriebi, fsiqikuri

anomaliebi.

dogma 95-is saZmos filmebSi aqcenti Tanemedroveobaze

keTdeba, isini mayurebels Tanamedrove burJuaziuli ojaxis,

burJuaziuli yofis tabuizirebul, maSokirebel saidumloebebze

mouTxroben, yvebian adamianTa eqsistencialur problemebze,

siyvarulis maZiebeli Cveulebrivi adamianebis istoriebze.

194 195


dinara maRlakeliZe

XX saukunis 90-iani wlebis kinoavangardi

Ainsteam-Kino-ze uaris TqmiT, dogma 95 saZmos reJisorTa

filmebi, miuxedavad maTi kritikuli damokidebulebisa

individualur, saavtoro kinematografTan, swored evropuli

saavtoro kinos realistur tradiciebs agrZeleben im azriT,

rom maT filmebSi reJisoris gemovneba mTlianad filmebis

dramaturgiul sxeuls, dramaturgiul Txrobas, gmirTa xasiaTebsa

da situaciebis realobas eqvemdebareba.

manifestis avtorebi ara marto kinematografis istoriis

cnobili avangarduli kinomimdinareobebis zegavlenas amJRavneben,

aramed iseTi Teoretikosebisasac, rogorebic arian: zigfrid

krakaueri, andre bazini da bertold brexti.

mag.: zigfrid krakaueris realuri cxovrebis dinebis 7

kinematografiul asaxvas isini did yuradRebas uTmoben.

gacnobierebulad amboben uars Tanamedrove kinos teqnikur

SesaZleblobebze da filmur TxrobaSi aqcents detalebze

akeTeben, im mizniT, rom mayurebelSi maqsimaluri realobis,

autenturobis SegrZneba gamoiwvion.

amasTanave Zalze mniSvnelovania is garemoebac, rom danieli

reJisorebis dogma 95-is sertifikatiT Seqmnili filmebi cxadad

avlenen daniuri, kerZod ki kopenhagenuri, kinoskolis tradiciebs.

lars fon triri da tomas vinterbergi kopenhagenis kinoskolaSi

mogens rukovis studentebi iyvnen, misi kinematografiuli

xelweris zegavlena danieli reJisorebis dogma filmebze

aSkarad TvalSisacemia.

dogma 95-is manifestis avtorebma, mimdinareoba ramdenjerme

gamoacxades mkvdrad. 2002 wels maT gauqmebulad cnes dogma

95-is samdivnoc. miuxedavad amisa, manifestis avtorTa mier

dadgenili esTetikuri normebis mixedviT Tanamedrove msoflio

kinoSi ocdaTxuTmeti (35) oficialuri da as samocze (160)

meti araoficialuri dogma filmia Seqmnili.

manifestis arsebobis 10 wlis Tavze, 2005 wels, dogma 95-

is samdivnom kidev erTi gamosamSvidobebeli dogma manifesti

gamoaqveyna, romlis mixedviTac mimdinareobis serTifikati

misawvdomi gaxda nebismieri msurvelisaTvis.

dogma 95 manifestis avtorebma: lars fon trirma, tomas

vinterbergma, soren krag-iakobsenma da kristian levringma maT

mier dadgenili normebis mixedviT mxolod TiTo filmi Seqmnes.

tomas vintenbergma _ Festen (Dogma # 1) 1998 wels, lars

fon trirma Idioterne (Dogma #2) 1998 wels, soren kragiakobsenma

Mifunes Sidste Sang (Dogma # 3) 1998 wels da

kristiam levringma The King is Alive (Dogma # 4) - 2000 wels.

1999 wels Seiqmna frangi msaxiobis Jan-mark baris sadebiuto

filmi Lovers (Dogma # 5) da amerikeli harmoni korinis Julien

Donkey-Boy (Dogma # 6).

dogma 95-is saZmos reJisorTa filmebis vizualuri ena

reklamis, videoxelovnebisa da politikuri plakatis esTetikur

praqtikas efuZneba.

saZmos reJisorTa TvalsazrisiT, Tanamedrove teqnologiebma

kinematografis multimediuroba axal ganzomilebaSi Seiyvana

da misi demokratizaciis process Seuwyo xeli, Tanamedrove

teqnologiebis pirobebi nebismier msurvels aZlevs filmis

gadaRebis SesaZleblobas.

kinematografi tradiciulad yvelaze Zvirad Rirebuli

mediumia, dogma 95-is saZmos wevrebi SezRuduli teqnikuri

SesaZleblobis pirobebSic inarCuneben optimizms da

kinematografis gadarCenis axlebur, sakuTar strategias

imuSaveben, romelSic mTavari aqcenti kinematografistis

kreatiulobaze keTdeba.

dogma 95-is serTificirebuli filmebi ar xasiaTdebian

erTiani stiliT, TematikiTa da vizualuri esTetikiT. reJisorebi

xSirad arRveven manifestiT dawesebuli TavSekavebulobis

normebs.

mimdinareobis reJisorTagan mxolod erTeulebi qmnian

filmebs manifestis normaTa mixedviT: maT Soris _ espaneli

xuan pinzasi, danielebi lone Serfigi, nataSa artusi da

suzane biri da amerikeli laif tildeni.

Tumca, Cveni azriT, dogma 95-is xelweriT Seqmnili yvela

filmis saerTo maxasiaTeblad mainc am filmebis naratiuli

autenturoba unda CaiTvalos.

dogma 95-is reJisorTa ironiuli manifesti reJisorTagan

filmis gadaRebis tradiciuli, aprobirebuli meTodebisagan

TavSekavebas moiTxovs. Tumca, Tavis mxriv, igi Tavad awesebs

garkveuli TamaSis wesebs, romelTa darRveva mTlianad am Tu

im kinematografistis gemovnebaze, kreatiulobasa da

temperamentzea damokidebuli.

196 197


dinara maRlakeliZe

miuxedavad mimdinareobis aSkara ironianarevi, provokaciuli

xasiaTisa, dogma 95-ma Tanamedrove msoflio kinematografis

vizualur da naratiul enaze seriozuli zegavlena moaxdina.

dogma filmebis minimalistur esTetikisTan siaxloves

amJRavnebs cnobili fineli reJisoris aki kaurismakis 1999

wels tragikul sasiyvarulo istoriaze Seqmnili filmi, Juha.

aseve cxadia dogma filmebis esTetikuri strategiis

zegavlena florideli studentebis 1999 wels gadaRebul

filmze Blair Witch Projeckt. 8 mm. video da 16 mm. kameriT

gadaRebulma filmma profesionali msaxiobebis gareSe kinos

samyarosaTvis sruliad ucnob axalgazrda damwyeb reJisorebs

uzarmazari warmateba da 200 milioniani finansuri mogeba

moutana.

filmi kinoskolis sami studentis mistikur mogzaurobaze

mogviTxrobs merilandis tyeSi, sadac isini merilandeli

jadoqris ambis gadasaRebad gaemgzavrnen, Tumca iqidan dabruneba

veRar moaxerxes. filmis avtorebi amtkiceben, rom maTi filmi

swored dakarguli studentebis mier gadaRebuli autenturi

masaliTaa Seqmnili.

90-iani wlebis dasasruls manifests msoflios sxvadasxva

qveynis ocze meti reJisori oficialurad SeuerTda

kinoreJisorebi amerikis SeerTebuli Statebidan, holandiidan,

argentinidan, safrangeTidan, italiidan, Sveicariidan, iaponiidan,

koreadan, espaneTidan.

Tanamedrove kinos iseTi gavleniani reJisorebic ki,

rogorebic, joel Sumaxeri da stiven soderbergi arian, Riad

acxadeben sakuTar filmebze dogma 95-is zegavlenas.

ufro metic, stiven soderbergi Tavis films Treffi ormoc

milionian dogma films uwodebs, xolo saavtoro kinos cnobili

kinoreJisori, germaneli vim vendersi dogma 96-is Sesaxeb

ambobs, rom es mimdinareoba XX saukunis dasasrulis evropuli

kinos istoriis yvelaze ufro mniSvnelovan movlenas

warmoadgens.

XX saukunis 90-iani wlebis kinoavangardi

3. Dogma 95 –Manifest - Online : www. dogma 95. dk;

4. Andres Sudmann – Dogma 95 . Interviews, Hannover 2001, S.

151- 185;

5. Cesare Zavattini – Einige Gedanken zum Film In: Theorie zum

Film, Frankfurt a. M. 1972, S. 202- 220;

6. Dogma 95 –Manifest, Kopenhagen, 13 March, 1995;

7. Siegfried Krakauer, Theorie des Films, Frankfurt a. M. 1964.

gamoyenebuli literatura:P

Andre Bazin, Was ist Kino?Bausteine zum Theorie des Films, Koeln

1975;

Monika Beyerle, Authentisierungsstrategien im Dokumentarfilm, Das

amerikanische Direkt Cinema, Frankfurt a.M. 1997;

Carmine Chiellino, der neorialistische Film, Text und Kritik 1979;

Thomas Elsaesser, Cinema Futures, Convergence, Divergence,

Differenz, Amsterdam 1998;

Dogma 95 – Manifest www. dogma 95.com;

Film Dienst 2005 www.film-dienst.de;

Siegfried Krakauer, Theorie des Films, Frankfurt a. M. 1964;

Georg Seessler, Aufbruch in der Sackgasse, die Daenischen Dogma-

Filme, in : Die Zeit, Nr. 28, 1999;

Andrias Sudmann, Dogma 95, Hannover 2001;

Andrew Tudor, Filmtheorien, Frankfurt a. M. 1977;

Cesare Zawattani, Einige Gedanken zum Film, Theorie des Kino,

Frankfurt a. M. 1972;

Peter Zander, Zeugen der Anklage, Berliner-Morgenpost 07. 01. 1999.

1. Dogma 95 – Manifest, Copenhagen 13. Match 1995;

2. Chaude Chabrol – Online Interview from Peter Zander 1999 ;

198 199


Nnino mxeiZe,

xelovnebaTmcodneobis doqtori,

asocirebuli profesori

deskri pcia Tu eqsplikacia

`deskripcia-aRwerisa da eqsplikacia-axsnis mecnierul

amocanaTa gamTlianebiT fsiqologias, marTlac, unikaluri

roli ekisreba kulturologiur kvlevaTa speqtrSi. xelovnebis

Teoriisagan gansxvavebiT, fsiqologia mimarTulia ara mxolod

sakvlevi fenomenis aRwerisken, misi stilisturi, mecnieruli,

struqturuli Tu istoriuli maxasiaTeblebis Seswavlisken,

aramed aseve fsiqo-socialuri (zogadkulturuli, istoriuli

Tu eTnikuri) determinantebis (mizezebis, motivebis, stimulebis

da impulsebis) kvleviskenac. Ffsiqologiis amocanas Seadgens

ara mxolod aRweriTi _ rogor?Aaramed aseve axsniTi _ ratom?

problemebis gaazreba da mizez-Sedegobrivi mimarTebis moZieba.~ 1

dameTanxmebiT, rom garkveulwilad igive funqcia

kinematografsac SeTvisebuli aqvs. qarTuli kino bolo oci

welia, umetes SemTxvevaSi, mxolod aRwers, magram, samwuxarod,

jerjerobiT ver xsnis Tanamedrove sazogadoebaSi mimdinare

procesebs.

gasuli saukunis 90-ian wlebSi bevrma qarTvelma datova

samSoblo. zogi nebiT, zogic ki iZulebiT moxvda emigraciaSi.

ra daxvdaT dito cincaZis `xelmocaruli mkvlelebis,~ gela

babluanis `13~-is, levan Rlontis `xaxvis cremlebis~ da daviT

kandelakis `erika erT oTaxSi~ filmebis gmirebs?

`xelmocaruli mkvlelebis~ personaJebs Soris erT-erTi

qarTvelia, igi araprofesionalma laSa baqraZem ganasaxiera.

SemTxveviTi araa, rom reJisori am problemiT dainteresda da

mTavari gmiris rolis Sesruleba ucxoeTSi, kerZod, germaniaSi,

didi xnis ganmavlobaSi mcxovreb adamians miando. U

uwin qarTveli emigrantebi TiTze CamosaTvlelebi iyvnen

da maT saxelebs TiTqmis yvela icnobda, maTze mowiwebiT da

siyvaruliT saubrobdnen. isini xom emigraciaSi revolucias

gaeqcnen. dro Seicvala, mravali ram moxda da bevrma qarTvelma,

sxvebis msgavsad, adgilis Zebna dasavleTSi daiwyo.

dito cincaZis filmSi germaniis erT-erT patara qalaqSi

msoflios sxvadasxva kuTxis emigrantebi Sekrebilan. Ddito

cincaZe kargad grZnobs garemos, situacias, emigrirebuli

adamianebis guneba-ganwyobas. serbi branko, qarTveli merabi,

iugoslaveli gogona, vietnameli meZavi da misi senegaleli

megobari siyvarulSi eZeben megobrobas, xolo megobrobaSi _

siyvaruls. advilad pouloben erTmaneTs, radgan ucxo samyaroSi

Tavis marto gatana Znelia.

branko da merabi daqiravebuli, iaffasiani mkvlelebi arian.

maqsimalurad cdiloben gaWimon mkvlelobis procedura, aTasgvar

mizezs igoneben, rom dakveTa sisruleSi ar moiyvanon.

gauTaveblad svamen. smis dros merabs samSoblos nostalgiac

eZaleba.

yvela Taviseburad cdilobs maTTvis ucxo samyaroSi adgilis

damkvidrebas, umeteswilad, es meZaveobiT an SekveTili

mkvlelobiT xdeba, mxolod senegalelia mowadinebuli,

avstraliaSi `tkbili cxovreba~ sakuTari filtvis gayidviT

moiwyos.

filmis atmosfero mZimea da damTrgunveli, adamianebi _

miusafarni. maT ukan dasaxevi gzac moWrili aqvT. merabsac

samSobloSi yofnas aq, am gaurkvevel situaciaSi, yofna urCevnia,

Tumca es misi nebayoflobiTi arCevani ar aris. igi samSobloSi

Seqmnil garemoebebs gamoeqca. saqarTvelo daqucmacda, mravali

Wir-varami gamoiara, bevri faseuloba Tavidan gadafasda. aq,

emigraciaSi, maTi cxovreba gausaZlisia, isini mitovebuli arian,

magram es maTi arCevania.

filmis gmirebma `zRvars~ gadaabijes, emigraciis Sesaxeb

kanonis me-15 paragrafis mixedviT, aralegalurad myofT

ganaTlebisa da samsaxurSi miRebaze uars eubnebian. swored

amitom, aralegalurad, isini mxolod meZaveobisTvis, daqiravebuli

mkvlelobisTvis arian ganwirulni.

gela babluans filmSi `13~ CvenTvis ucnob garemoSi

SevyavarT da modunebis, moSvebis uflebas ar gvaZlevs. moqmedebis

adgili: safrangeTi - qarTvelebis mudmivi emigraciis saocnebo

qveyana; ferebi: ruxi da Sav-TeTri; ambavi: Semzaravi.

filmis gmiri SemTxveviT sxvisi TamaSis monawile gaxdeba.

iRbliani nomeri cametia, TamaSis wesi _ daundobeli. aq

200 201


nino mxeiZe

deskripcia Tu eqsplikacia

moxvedrils ukan daxevis, gaqcevis Sansi ara gaqvs. cameti

moTamaSe da mxolod erTi gamarjvebuli. cocxal adamianebze

fsonebs Camodian, es arc doRia da arc cekvis maraToni (rogorc

filmSi `qancgawyvetil cxenebs xom xocaven?~), es `rusuli

ruletkaa~. moTamaSeebi _ narkomanebi, loTebi, emigrantebi _

ganwiruli adamianebi.

Tavidan filmis gmirs gaqceva unda, magram iZulebulia

TamaSis wesebs daemorCilos da saSineli maraToni bolomde

ganvlos. gamarjvebis Sansi ki nel-nela klebulobs. erTi

tyvia, ori, sami, oTxi gasrola da ori mokluli adamiani...

jildo didi mogebaa. moTamaSeebs Soris erTi ucnauri wyvilia.

ori Zma. erT-erTi iRupeba, mas swored filmis gmiri klavs.

erTi dRe da mTeli cxovreba. am TamaSSi gamarjvebuli mxolod

mepatronea. moTamaSe ganwirulia.

filmis dasawyisSi erTxel jojoxeTgamovlili moTamaSe

kvlav iq dabrunebas `kaifSi~ gaparvas amjobinebs. TiTqos

yvelaferi kargad ewyoba, gmiri Tavs aRwevs jojoxeTs.

policielebsac dauZvreba, fulis gagzavnasac axerxebs.

ukanasknelad mSobliur, qarTul enaze Zmasac daelaparakeba da

Sinisaken mimaval rTul gzas daadgeba. mas sadgurSi moklulis

Zma aedevneba, ara imitom, rom Suri iZios (man xom Zma sasikvdilod

Tavad gaswira), aramed mogebulisTvis fulis wasarTmevad. is

matarebelSi klavs filmis gmirs da misi xelCanTiT garbis.

ruxi peizaJi da gayinuli mzera, erTi TamaSis, cxovrebis

tragikuli dasasruli. axlo xedebi, uCveulo rakursebi,

ritmuli moZraoba. dramatuli, emociuri, plastikuri

kinematografi. gela babluani cdilobs Cawvdes xilulis da

uxilavis arsSi, kino xom ver itans sworxazovnebas, cxovrebasTan

naturalistur miaxlovebas. babluani saocari daundoblobiT

aCvenebs adamians sakuTar gadagvarebas da Tavzars scems mas.

SeuZlebelia, Tvali moaSoro ekrans, erTi wamiT modunde.

yovelgvari garegani efeqtebis gareSe reJisori axerxebs

mayureblis `dabmas~ da gancdiliT SeZrwunebuls kvlav

kinodarbazSi mibruneba gindeba.

dito cincaZis da gela babluanis filmebis gmirebi

gaucxoebul samyaroSi sakuTari Tavis gadarCenaze ar fiqroben.

apaTiis, uimedobis mdgomareobidan ver gamodian. isini araferze

daoben, aravis TanaugrZnoben, indeferentulebi arian. maT Soris

verc siyvaruls, verc siZulvils ver vxedavT, mZafri emociebi

maTTvis ucxoa. maT warTmeuli aqvT inciativa da moqmedebis unari.

filmis gzaacdenili, gaucxoebuli, gadagvarebuli gmirebi

Sinapatimrobidan Tavisuflebisken miiswrafvian, magram kvlav

SinapatimrobaSi brundebian. maTTvis saocnebo samyaro tragikuli

aRsasrulis adgilad iqceva. isini SeTxzul samyaroSi cxovroben

SeTxzuli samyaro ki STambeWdavi imitomaa, rom realurs Zalzed hgavs.

daviT kandelakis filmis `amerika erT oTaxSi~ gmiri koka

gegeWkori ki realuri pirovnebaa, masze Seqmnili dokumenturi

filmi sastik realobaSi gvabrunebs.

koka gegeWkorisTvis saocnebo, Tavisuflebis, demokratiis

qveyana, romelic TbilisSi misTvis radio `amerikis xmasTan~

asocirdeboda, niu-orkSi moxvedrisTanave, kvlav erT oTaxSi

moqceul samyarod iqca, oRond amjerad es oTaxi realuri

sakania. Tavisuflebisaken swrafva, uxeS realobas, daundobel

kanons, biurokratias, usamarTlobas Seejaxa da samSoblodan

gaqceuli adamiani samudamo patimrobis marwuxebSi moeqca.

rogorc filmidan vigebT, koka gegeWkori saqarTveloSi

Seqmnil situacias gaeqca, man airida `mxedrionis~ rigebSi

yofniT gamowveuli represiebi da daWera, SeiZleba iTqvas,

fizikur ganadgurebasac gadaurCa da amerikaSi Casuli

gaugebrobis msxverpli gaxda.

patimars sinanuli, monaniebis saocari grZnoba aqvs. warsulis

gaxsenebisas Tavis mimarT daundobelia, maqsimalurad gaxsnili

da gulaxdili. warmosaxviTi samudamo Tavisufleba mas samudamo

patimrobad eqca. Sekruli wris garRveva Znelia.

mxatvruli da dokumenturi filmebis gmirebi ganwiruli

arian, uimedoba maTi cxovrebis megzuria. moCvenebiTi Tavisufleba

filmis gmirebisaTvis `monobaze~ uaresi aRmoCnda. reJisorebi

deskripciasTan erTad movlenebis arsSi Cawvdomasac cdiloben,

mayurebels fiqrisa da gansjisaken mouwodeben.

levan Rlontis dokumentur filmSi `xaxvis cremlebi~,

Cvens Tvalwin realuri adamianis, musikosis cxovreba iSleba.

filmis gmiris cxovreba TiTqos erTferovania, momabezrebeli,

magram amave dros _ savse SemoqmedebiTi impulsiT. igi musikosia.

misi dRe saaTobrivad gawerili. sakuTari TavisTvis cota

202 203


nino mxeiZe

dro rCeba, magram saqarTveloSi umusikod, usaqmod yofnas

germaniaSi yoveldRiur rutinul yofaSi CaZirva jobia.

xaxvis WriT gamowveuli cremlebi, ra Tqma unda, samSoblodan

Sors gadaxvewili adamianis xvedria.

`nostalgia”, `msxverplSewirva~ andrei tarkovskis mier

emigraciaSi gadaRebuli filmebis saTaurebia. fuZesa da fesvebs

iZulebiT mowyvetili adamianebi, Tavisufal samyaroSi, warsuli

mogonebebis tyveobaSi rCebian. maTi yofa gausaZlisia, adaptacia

rTuli, momavali ki, bundovani.

1. r. mircxulava, xelovnebis fsiqologia, gamomc. `kentavri~, 2007, gv.7

gamoyenebuli literatura:

r. mircxulava, xelovnebis fsiqologia, gamomc. `kentavri~, 2007

mocemul filmebze ixileT 2006-2007 ww.-Si periodul presaSi

(`rezonansi~, `24 saaTi~, `cxeli Sokoladi~) gamoqveynebuli l.

oCiauris, n. kakabaZis, s. kikaliSvilis recenziebi.

eTer okujava,

xelovnebaTmcodneobis doqtori,

sruli profesori

`ganaxlebis~ xana qarTul kinoSi

XX saukunis 60-iani wlebi politikur, socialur da

kulturul sferoSi cvlilebebis aTwleulia. cnobilia, rom

am, e.w. `daTbobis~, periodSi axalgazrda Taobis qarTvelma

kinematografistebma (maTze odnav ufrosi Tengiz abulaZis

TaosnobiT) Tavisi esTetikuri Sexedulebebi ase Camoayalibes:

uari eTqvas sinamdvilis yalb asaxvas, vaCvenoT mxolod

simarTle da adamianis utyuari, WeSmariti saxe.

mogexsenebaT, 50-iani wlebis saqarTvelos SemoqmedebiT

cxovrebaSi arsebul, e. w. `lakirebis~ periodsa da

ukonfliqtobis Teoriis moTxovnebis, fonze es gadawyvetileba

socialisturi realizmis winaaRmdeg gamosvlas niSnavda, TviT

fa q ti a r a m xolod S emoqmedeb i Ti , a r a m e d u kv e

msoflmxedvelobiTi da politikuri aqti gaxldaT. bunebrivia,

rom ideur-Tematur ganaxlebas gamomsaxveli saSualebebis

inovaciebic mohyva, e. i. Sedga ideur-esTetikuri `ganaxleba~.

sityva _ ganaxleba, romelic konkretulad, gasuli saukunis

60-iani wlebis xsenebuli SemoqmedebiTi interesebis,

gamomxatveli iyo, SemdgomSi, am periodis kinoprocesis Sefasebis

gamomxatvel terminad damkvidrda.

aRsaniSnavia, rom ganaxlebisaken ltolva ara mxolod qarTul

kinoSia, aramed zogadad msoflio kinoxelovnebaSi, zogadad

kulturul sivrceSi da amis dasturia araerTi araordinaruli

moazrovnis individualuri xelweriT gamorCeuli Semoqmedeba.

maT Soris, Jan-pol sartris, romelsac SvedeTis akademiam 1964

wels nobelis premia mianiWa da romlis misaRebadac, rogorc

viciT, igi ar wasula. sartrma uari martivad axsna: nebismier

premirebas igi adamianis burJuaziuli elitisadmi mikuTvnebad

miiCnevda, es ki ewinaaRmdegeboda mis warmodgenebs adamianis

individualuri nebis, arCevnis Tavisuflebis gagebis Sesaxeb.

204 205


eTer okujava

`ganaxlebis~ xana

qarTul kinoSi

am garemoebas isic daemata, rom parizSi momxdari movlenebis

Semdeg (vgulisxmob 1968 wels studentTa amboxebas, romelmac

sartris cxovrebaze ganumeorebeli kvali datova; studentebis

mitingebis fonze 63 wlis filosofosma ifiqra, rom dadga

`burJuaziis diqtaturis~ damarcxebis dro, magram amboxebulebma

xelisuflebis winaaRmdeg veraferi gaawyes _ de golis mTavrobam

wesrigi droulad `aRadgina~). 1 sartrma maRal idealebze xeli

sabolood Caiqnia.

misi gancda arafriT gansxvavdeba dasavleTevropel

kinoxelovanTa sulieri mdgomareobisgan. metic, ukve 1960-

1966 wlebSi maT sakuTari ganwyoba mxatvrul nawarmoebebSi

gamoTqves. amis ramdenime magaliTia: bresonis `sikvdilmisjili

gaiqca~ (1956), romelic imave wels, kanis festivalze saukeTeso

reJisurisTvis dajildovda, mogvianebiT ki franguli

kinoakademiis premia miiRo; miqelanjelo antonionis trilogia

`Tavgadasavali~ (1960), `Rame~ (1961), `dabneleba~ (1962);

bergmanis `dumili~ (1962)). am filmebis magaliTze Cans, rom

adamianis fsiqogancdis mimarT interesma filmis gmirebi sakuTar

samyaroSi imdenad Caketa, rom kritikosebma saubari daiwyes

`dedramatizaciaze~, `gaucxoebaze~... antonionis `gaucxoebis

trilogiam~ win wamoswia, Tanamedrove sinamdvilidan amokiTxuli,

adamianebs Soris urTierTobebis dakargvis Tema,

arakomunikabelobis problema. xolo kidev ufro adre bresonis

filmebidan naTlad gacxadda xelovanis mier movlenis

siRrmiseuli xedvis da SemoqmedebiTi stilis asketizmis erToba,

kinogamomxatveli saSualebebis simarTlisadmi maqsimaluri

damorCileba, e. w. `wminda kinos~ erTguleba, rac sinamdvileSi

amokiTxuli adamianis pirovnul simyareSi eWvs, nihilizmsa da

uimedobas naTlad warmoaCenda. amave periodis filmebis

safuZvelze, xazgasmiT aRvniSnav, kidev erT da, Cemi azriT,

gansakuTrebiT RirsSesaniSnav movlenas. kerZod: naTelia, rom

60-iani wlebis kinoxelovnebaSi iwyeba inteleqtualuri

problemebis analizi da am mxriv is msoflio analitikuri

samyaros avangardSia. SeiZleba iTqvas, rom kinoSi es procesebi

ufro adre iwyeba, vidre maT kvlevis miznad (zemoT moxmobil

xelovanT davumatebdi iseT reJisorebs, rogorcaa: felini, godari,

viskonti, pazolini, bertoluCi, Zmebi tavianebi da sxv.)

filosofia daisaxavda.

rac Seexeba aRmosavleT evropas, iq 60-ian wlebSi

kinoxelovanebi kidev ufro metad sulieri tragizmis (SeiZleba

iTqvas, ufro amboxis _ ssr kavSiris politikuri zewolis

fonze) pirobebSi arseboben da qmnian Sesabamisi ganwyobis

xelovnebas. eqsperimentul maneraSi muSaoben poloneli

kinoreJisorebi: anjei vaida, anjei munki, eJi kavaleroviCi da

sxvebi. ungreTSi ki 1956 wlis ajanyebis CaxSobis Semdeg

gansakuTrebiT mkafio aRmoCnda mikloS ianCos Semoqmedeba,

romelic qmnis filmebs Zaladobaze, SemoqmedebiTad iazrebs

istoriisa da Zalauflebis problemebs (filmebi: `uimedod~

(1965), `wiTeli da TeTri~ (1967), `siCume da yvirili~ (1968)).

`daTbobis~ periodma Sva roman polanskis, kSiStof zanusis,

irJi mencelis, vera xitilovas da miloS formanis Semoqmedeba.

magram, sainteresoa, rom SemoqmedebiTi `dabadebis~ Semdeg

samSobloSi, arc erTi maTgani ar darCenila. maTgan zogi

britaneTSi, umetesoba ki, aSS-Si gadaixizna.

rogorc dasawyisSi aRvniSne, rodesac Cven dasavleTsa da

60-ian wlebze vsaubrobT, viTvaliswinebT, rom esaa politikur,

socialur da kulturul sferoSi cvlilebebis aTwleuli.

cxadia, yvela qveyanaSi am gardaqmnebs Tavisi konkretuli

motivacia hqonda, magram, farTo gagebiT da msoflSegrZnebiT,

yvelaferi erTad im didmniSvnelovani procesis nawilia, ramac

adamianis mier samyaros axleburi aRqma gamoiwvia. kerZod,

erT-erTi ZiriTadi muxti iyo `okultizmis~ afeTqeba (mirCa

eliades terminologiiT), anu, ezoTeruli revolucia.

marTalia, okultizmis namdvili afeTqeba ocdaaTi wlis

win moxda (mxedvelobaSi maqvs iungis Sromebi), magram saqme

isaa, rom Tu XX saukunis 20-30-iani wlebSi xsenebuli moZraoba

inteleqtualuri SemoqmedebiTi elitis safiqrali iyo, 60-ian

wlebSi am ideebma masebi gaitaca da namdvil revoluciad

mogvevlina, amasTan, masStabi gafarTovda. SegaxsenebT konkretul

da cnobil faqtebs: 30-ian wlebSi iungma icoda sami ezoTeriuli

seqta: ori - germaniaSi da erTi – safrangeTSi. 70-ian wlebSi

mirCa eliade wers ukve aseulobiT wresa da seqtaze. amave

periodSi, iseT mkacri reJimis saxelmwifoSic ki, rogoric

espaneTia (vgulisxmob frankos reJims), viTareba icvleba.

206 207


eTer okujava

`ganaxlebis~ xana

qarTul kinoSi

sul cota xnis win iq akrZaluli iyo socialur da

seqsualur realiebze filmebis gadaReba da Cveneba. 1959 wels

ki franko erTgvar `daTbobis~ periods iwyebs. espaneTis

kinobazari aSS-is da evropis kinosTvis ixsneba.

saerTo daskvnis saxiT SeiZleba iTqvas, rom mxatvruli Ziebebis

mxriv 60-iani wlebi evropis kulturul sivrceSi gardaqmnebis

wlebia, ramac SemoqmedebiT xedvis sawyisad struqturalizmi

da semiotika dasaxa, xolo 70-ian wlebSi gagrZelebuli es

SemoqmedebiTi procesi poststruqturalizmis da

postmodernizmis esTetikur mimdinareobebSi gadavida. aRniSnuli

mimdinareobebis Tu gamomxatvelobis meTodologiis nebismier

monakveTSi evropuli kino WeSmariti esTetizmis wiaRSia.

amrigad, mas Semdeg, rac `daTbobis~ wlebma TvalnaTliv daanaxa

evropas da agreTve ssr kavSirs xelovani adamianis SemoqmedebiTi

TvalTaxedvis swrafi gafarToeba da is sabWoTa ideologiisTvis

aSkara saSiSroebad warmosaxa, Sedegma ar daayovna: pirveli _

Tavisuflebis pirvelive gaelveba evropaSic da ssr kavSirSic

CixSi moeqca, es moxda 1967 wlis varSavis xelSekreulebidan

erTi wlis vadaSi; xolo, 1970 wlisTvis yovelgvari Tavisufali

`egzersisebi~ ukve dasrulebuli iyo. meore _ swored am droidan

gaZlierda emigraciis procesi. rogorc ukve vTqvi, cnobili

evropeli reJisorebi emigraciaSi wavidnen.

vidre saqarTveloSi ganviTarebul movlenebs Sevexebode,

mokled vityvi, Tu ras sTavazobs sinamdvile am dros aSS-Si

gadaxvewil xelovan adamianebs. cxadia, pirvel rigSi esaa

SemoqmedebiTi Tavisufleba, razec Riad wers formani emigraciis

pirvelsave wlebSi (ix. Sesabamisi periodis formanis interviuebi).

istoriam daamtkica, rom amerikelebi XX saukunis dasawyisSi

qveynis umTavres Rirebulebad xelovnebasa da kulturaze win

politikas da politikur sistemas miiCnevdnen. amgvari

damokidebulebis mizezi is iyo, rom SeerTebul StatebSi

popularuli kultura, kerZod ki, kino, ufro garTobis sagnad

aRiqmeboda, vidre qveynis sagareo politikis marTvis

instrumentad, ise, rogorc es ssrk-Si iyo.

gasuli da mimdinare procesebis Sefasebisas 1958 wels

cnobili Jurnalisti piter groti werda kidec: `amerika aris

ganviTarebuli sareklamo industriis qveyana, magram, roca saqme

exeba umniSvnelovanes sareklamo kampanias – sakuTari Tavis

Cvenebas, cxovrebis demokratiuli saxis reklamas _ Cven

komunistebs SesamCnevad CamovrCebiT.~ 2

aqedan gamomdinare, amerikeli mkvlevrebi dResac Tvlian, rom

aSS-is kulturuli eqsporti 60-iani wlebis bolos erTgvarad

pasuxic ki iyo sabWoTa ideologiaze da, rom am moZraobis

centraluri elementia politikuri motivebi, romelTa safuZvelSi

Cadebuli iyo kulturis, rogorc totalitarizmis damangreveli

ZiriTadi iaraRis, sakiTxebi. faqtia, rom 60-iani wlebis

dasasrulidan moyolebuli evropaSi ukve igrZnoba erTgvari

SeSfoTeba amerikuli kulturis kardinaluri cvlilebebis gamo,

rac aSS-is xelovnebis evropaSi eqspansiaSi gamoixata.

rac Seexeba amave periodis qarTul kinos, sabWoTa da

evropuli kulturuli yofis aqcentebis amgvari ganlagebis

fonze kinoprocesis ganaxleba dakvirvebis axal kuTxes xsnis

da ara mxolod im mxriv, rom erovnul kinematografSi moxda

axali Taobebis mosvla. aqve vityvi, rom saintereso debiutebi

iyo 70-ian wlebSic. am dros gaicno qarTvelma kinomayurebelma

kinooperatori da Semdgom kinoreJisori aleqsandre rexviaSvili

da telefilmelTa sakmaod Tamamad moazrovne da mkveTri

mxatvruli koncefciis Taoba, maT Soris _ soso CxaiZe, irakli

kvirikaZe da sxv., romlebmac Tavisi SemoqmedebiT mxatvrulesTetikuri

sinamdvilis axali Sreebi gaxsnes. magram mTavari

60-ian wlebSi isaa, rom sabWoTa adamians, ase vTqvaT, gzebi

`gaexsna dasavleTisken, rac sabWoTa sinamdvileSi, rogorc

cnobilia, politikuri viTarebidan gamomdinare, SezRuduli

hqonda. Tumca, isic unda iTqvas, rom es procesi uceb ar

Semdgara; am wlebSic (vimeoreb, gasuli saukunis 60-ian wlebSi)

qveynis SigniT informaciuli SimSili garkveulwilad grZeldeba.

samagierod, kinos ganusazRvreli mniSvnelobis gamo, kinematografis

sawarmoo biujeti qveyanaSi Zalze didia. aqedan gamomdinare,

mravalricxovania (yvela sxva istoriul periodTan SedarebiT)

kinodebiuti, maT Soris, umetesi wili moklemetraJiani filmebis,

romlebsac kinoindustriis xelmZRvaneloba ufro damwyeb

kinematografistebs ukveTavda (ara imdenad xelovnebaze fiqriT,

ramdenadac wliuri kinoerTeulebis gegmis Sesavsebad), xolo

208 209


eTer okujava

axalgazrdebi axali TemebiT, siuJetebiT iyvnen gatacebuli da

asaxavdnen kidec ekranze.

swored am dros giorgi Sengelaias `alaverdobam~

yumbarasaviT aafeTqa sazogadoebis obivateluri simyudrove.

Sengelaias gmirs evropuli da amerikuli kulturisagan

gansxvavebuli, Tavisi Sinagani interesis ideologiuri da

analitikuri, konkretuli safuZveli hqonda, magram mrwamsiT

zemoxsenebuli moZraobis sivrceSi trialebda, es iyo arCevnis,

adamianis nebelobis gancda.

amrigad, 60-ian wlebSi kinoprocesis ganaxleba qarTul

kinoSi SeiZleba msoflio civilizaciis sivrcis Semadgenlad

ganvixiloT, romelic samyaros mentaluri ganaxlebis

kanonzomieri ciklis nawilia.

evropisa da aSS-is kulturuli warsulis, Tumca arc ise

Soreuli warsulis, gaxseneba saWiroa. vfiqrob, SemoTavazebuli

eqskursi analizis safuZvels iZleva, kerZod, demokratiis

pirobebSi kinoxelovnebis arsebobis formebis Sesamecneblad

da, sazogadod, misi arsebobis aucileblobisTvis. Cveni qveyana,

dRes ise, rogorc arasdros, grZnobs am process da masTan

dakavSirebuli Temebi, raoden mtkivneulic unda iyos, Cven,

xelovnebis mkvlevarebma, unda wamovWraT.

1. sxvaTa Soris, unda iTqvas, rom sartris e.w. demokratiul mosazrebebi

komunistebs ukavSirdeboda da studentTa amboxSi isini sabolood

simxdaleSi daadanaSaula, magram am sakiTxis, winamdebare Sromis

TemasTan konteqstSi, ganxilva amjerad saWirod ar mimaCnia;

2. g. i. filimonovi, `kulturis faqtori aSS-is sagareo politikaSi~,

2003, internetresursi.

gamoyenebuli literatura:

mirCa eliade, `okultizmi, jadoqroba da modebi kulturaSi~,

(Mircea Eliade, Occultism, witch craft and cultural fashions), 2002,

internetresursi.

lela oCiauri,

xelovnebaTmcodneobis doqtori,

sruli profesori

socialisturi realizmidan

postmodernizmamde

miuxedavad imisa, rom dRes yovel meore sityvad Tu terminad,

rodesac saubari Tanamedrove xelovnebas exeba (iqneba es Teatri,

literatura Tu kinematografi), postmodernizms viyenebT, misi

mniSvneloba bolomde gacnobierebuli da gansazRvruli araa.

Cven ase Tu ise viciT, ras niSnavs, vTqvaT, kritikuli realizmi,

avangardi, modernizmi Tu surrealizmi (Tumca, zogjer vcdebiT

xolme am mimdinareobebis srulfasovan gansazRvraSi), garkveuli

mizezebidan gamomdinare, Zalian kargad gvesmis, ra aris

socialisturi realizmi da, saerTod, naklebad verkveviT, ras

niSnavs postmodernizmi da am Temas bevr pirobiT cnebasTan

`naZaladevad~ vaigivebT.

farTo gagebiT, postmodernizmi – esaa kulturis ganviTarebis

saerTo mdgomareoba, misi erT-erTi etapi, romelmac modernizmi

Secvala da mis alternativad iqca. modernizmi xelovnebas or

nawilad hyofs. esaa, erTi mxriv – elitaruli kultura da,

meore mxriv – masobrivi. erTi mxriv _ maRali xelovneba,

meore mxriv _ yvelasTvis gasagebi da xelmisawvdomi produqcia,

romelic gansazRvrulia imwamier, masobriv moTxovnaze, radgan

pasuxobs sazogadoebis Cvevebsa da molodins. erTi mxriv _

mxatvruli avangardi, romelic Slis arsebul esTetikur

faseulobebs, qmnis axal formebs, qmnis maradiul qmnilebebs;

meore mxriv _ amzeurebs ukve arsebul, ukve gamocdil esTetikur

Stampebs, romlebic tradiciuli xelovnebidan an avangardidan

miRebul gamocdilebas adaptirebas ukeTebs, aiaffasurebs~.

eropuli Tu amerikuli kritika postmodernizmis Sesaxeb

upirispirdeba xelovnebis amgvar axsnas, gaSifvras, dayofas da

aerTianebs yvelafers, rogorc aramarto arsebuls, amave dros,

sazogadoebaze zemoqmedebis saSualebas, rogorc kanonzomierebas,

TavisTavad moqmeds da im mizezebs, romlebic mas badebs.

210 211


lela oCiauri

postmodernistuli xelovneba esaa xelovneba, romelic

faseulobaTa gadafasebis saSualebas iZleva da saamiso pirobebs

qmnis imdenad, ramdenadac, is ukve TavisTavadaa Cadebuli

mimdinareobis arsSi. isaa Cadebuli Tavad mis cnobierebaSi da

mis mierve Seqmnil sistemaSi fxizeli da kritikuli TvaliT.

amisTvis saWiro gaxda zogierTi gamtkicebuli da aRiarebuli

Sexedulebis gadaxedva. xmarebaSi Semovida stereotipebis mimarT

pativiscemiT gamsWvaluli xedva da maTi Taviseburi gamoyeneba.

stereotipi, romelsac rogorc `Stamps~, `kliSes~ aRiareben,

postmodernizmis SemTxvevaSi, sxva datvirTvas iZens, ufro sworad,

sxva mniSvnelobas da Sesabamisad, terminic sxva mniSvnelobiT

ixmareba. arsebobs saxeebis, xatebis Seqmnis saukuneebis

ganmavlobaSi Camoyalibebuli da Semonaxuli xerxebi da modelebi,

romlebic fass dRemde ar kargaven.

magaliTad, tradiciuli Janruli modelebi. maTi mniSvneloba

ar ganisazRvreba `maRali~ Tu `dabali~ xelovnebis sferos

kuTvnilebiT, aramed mxolod im kriteriumebiT, riTac fasdeba

ama Tu im JanrSi Seqmnili namuSevrebis Rirebuleba. aq droulia

gavixsenoT, rom `ar arsebobs kargi da cudi Janrebi, mosawyenis

garda~ da isic, Tu ramdenadaa maTi Rirebuleba damokidebuli

maTive arsebobis xangrZlivobaze kacobriobis kulturis

istoriaSi. maTi mniSvneloba SeiZleba ganisazRvros imis

mixedviT, ramdenad Rrmadaa isini cnobierebis arqaul siRrmeebSi

Caleqili, ramdenad didia maTi gamomsaxvelobiTi potenciali.

modernistuli kritika Zalian martivi sqemis mixedviT

ewyoboda _ es iyo xelovneba, romelic raRac axals ayalibebda,

uars ambobda yvela stereotipze. amdenad, xelovnebis aseTi

nawarmoebi ukve TavisTavad gulisxmobs maRal xelovnebas,

novatoruls, arakomerciuls, xolo stereotipze damyarebuli

xelovneba, Tundac amitom ukve ganwirulia misi uaryofisTvis,

vinaidan (Tu Janrul stereoripebze SevaCerebT yuradRebas)

komerciul, samayureblo (kinematografiul, Teatralur Tu

literaturul) kategorias ganekuTvneba, rac TavisTavad ukve

niSnavs minus niSniT `ganviTarebas~.

postmodernizmis pirveli niSnebis arseboba kinematografSi

60-iani wlebidan SeimCneva, mas Semdeg, rac daiwyo JanrebTan

socialisturi realizmidan postmodernizmamde

dabrunebis tendencia, ufro sworad, maTi gamravleba da aRreva.

dRes is harmoniuli hibridi, romelsac im periodSi jer kidev

ar hqonda sabolood gansazRvruli saxe, ukve normad iqca.

ra aris Semoqmedeba? am kiTxvas modernizmi sxvanairad,

postmodernizmi ki sxvanairad pasuxobs.

`Semoqmedeba _ es aris stereotipebis gacnobierebuli

arCevani~, _ ambobs xelovnebis Teoretikosi, rac niSnavs, rom

Semoqmedi sakuTar Tavs garkveuli koncefciis, saavtoro uflebis

arCevnis nebas aZlevs, romelic moiTxovs stereoti pebis

gansakuTrebul, gansazRvrul arCevans da maT SeerTebas Sesabamis

CanafiqrTan SefardebiT. amave dros, aRsaniSnavia isic, rom

stereotipi jer kidev ar niSnavs mxolod Janruli modelebiT,

aramed garkveuli stilisturi figurebiT, frTosani siuJeturi

motivebiTa da svlebiT, qmedebis gamocdili svlebiT azrovnebas

da a. S., rac avtoris (sazogadoebis) mexsierebaSi arsebuli

codnis Tavmoyras da Tavisebur asaxvas hpovebs.

ra Tqma unda, rodesac stereotipebzea saubari, erTi

romelime sqemis gamoyeneba saamisod gansakuTrebuls verafers

Seqmnis da adamianze misi mxatvruli zemoqmedebis Zalac

minimaluri iqneba, magram Tu reJisori airCevs stereotipebis

mTel sistemas, maTi variantebis erTianobas, maSin saqme ufro

rTulad da, Sesabamisad, Sedegic ufro mniSvnelovani iqneba.

aseve, stereotipebis xelovnuri, ekleqturi erTianoba ar

niSnavs, rom es avtors sasurveli Sedegis miRwevis saSualebas

miscems. aseTi midgoma an rCeba sqemad, an imdenad martiv saxes

iZens, rom yvelaze gauTviTcnobierebuli mayureblisTvisac Tu

mkiTxvelisTvisac naTeli xdeba, Tu ra warmonaqmTan aqvs saqme.

xelovnebis nawarmoebi, ra Janris, Tu mimdinareobisac unda

iyos is, Semadgeneli nawilebis gamTlianebas unda emsaxurebodes.

`sadidan moyolebuli beketamde literaturaSi damkvidrebulma

dumilis motivebma, ramdenadac isini sakuTar Tavsac da

erTmaneTsac upirispirdebodnen, enis, kulturisa da cnobierebis

mTeli sirTule gamoxates. es zebunebrivi musika

postmodernizmis gamocdilebasa da SegrZnebas gvaziarebs. Tumca,

imaves ver vityviT mis cnebasa da definiciaze. SesaZloa,

koncefciis definiciisken svla garkveuli kiTxvebis dasmiT

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socialisturi realizmidan postmodernizmamde

ganvaxorcieloT~ – wers ihab hasani., - `daviwyeb yvelaze

aSkara SekiTxviT~ _ agrZelebs igi msjelobas _ `misaRebia Tu

ara iseTi fenomeni zogadad dasavlur sazogadoebaSi an,

konkretulad, literaturaSi, romelic modernizmisgan

gamocalkevebasa da saxeldebas moiTxovs? Tu asea, rogor

moergeba mas droebiTi rubrika `postmodernizmi~? am SemTxvevaSi

SegviZlia Tu ara (Tundac droebiT), am fenomenis farglebSi

iseTi qronologiuri da tipologiuri sqemis konstruireba,

romel ic s rul ad moi cavda m is tendencieb sa da

kontrmimarTulebebs, misTvis damaxasiaTebel mxatvrul,

epistomologiur da socialur xasiaTs? anda rogor ukavSirdeba

es fenomeni iseT mniSvnelovan movlenebs, rogoricaa, saukunis

Semotrialeba _ avangardi, anda, 20-iani wlebis maRali

modernizmi?~ 1 Zalian xSirad, postmodernizmis safarqveS (iseve,

rogorc avangardis) imaleba, iniRbeba is, rasac xelovnebasTan

saerTo araferi aqvs da aqvs pirdapiri kavSiri mimbaZvelobasTan

da moduri tendenciebisTvis xarkis gaRebasTan. postmodernizmi,

albaT, rogorc arc erTi sxva mimdinareoba, kavSirSia saerTo

kulturologiur realobasTan da amave dros, cxovrebis

realobasTan.

xelovnebis mizani – mimarTos adamians momavalSi _ ukana

xedze iwevs postmodernistuli xelovnebis mTavar mizanTan _

iqonios kavSiri Tanamedrove adamianTan da masTan dialogSi

Sevides dRes da ara, vTqvaT, xval, SedarebiT. Tumca, ra Tqma

unda, es ar niSnavs, rom postmodernuli filmebi aRar iarsebeben

xval, 10, 20 Tu 30 wlis Semdeg. Tu imasac gaviTvaliswinebT,

rom xelovanis erT-erT mizans Tu funqcias warmoadgens asaxos

(ama Tu im formiT) is dro, romelSic is cxovrobs, maSin

SeiZleba iTqvas, rom postmodernizmi yvelaze `namdvili~

xelovnebaa, raRac TvalsazrisiT, moduri koniunqturac, moduri

spekulaciac. Tanamedrove mayureblis gemovnebisa da

TvalTaxedvis mixedviT nawarmoebis Sefaseba _ postmodernizmis

erT-erTi mTavari pirobaa.

postmodernizmma erTgvari ironiiT Sexeda da TiTqos boloc

mouRo romantikul pozicias im reJisorTa mimarT, romlebic

erTeulebisTvis qmnidnen. Zalian xSirad, mayurebeli Tu

kritikosebi postmodernistebs sayvedurobdnen, rom isini Zalian

xSirad meordebian, xSirad sakuTarive citirebas axdenen.

citireba da TviTcitireba mxatvrisTvis bunebrivi procesia.

Zalian xSirad, Zalian bevri Semoqmedi iyenebs sakuTar sistemebs,

niSanTa, xerxTa Tu simboloTa sistemebs, maT kombinaciebs, maT

stereotipebs.

vinaidan kinematografi axali xelovnebaa, mas ar hqonda

gamocdilebis, stereotipebis, informaciis dagrovebis iseTi

SesaZlebloba, rogorc xelovnebis sxva dargebs, magram, rogorc

Cans, bolos es dro movida. kinematografma ukve imdeni daagrova,

rom Tavs uflebas aZlevs imuSaos sakuTari sistemebis,

stereotipebis, niSnebis gamoyenebiT. maTi interpretaciis gziT.

es stereoti pebi Rrmad unda iyos Serwymuli ZiriTad xazTan,

siuJetis ganviTarebasa Tu saerTo sxeulTan mis Sida

struqturaSi, rodesac maT damoukidebeli saxe aqvs, rodesac

isini zedapirze devs, maSin esaa an mibaZva, an parodia an isev da

isev Stampi, radgan maTi gaazreba da gaanalizeba ar xdeba.

socialisturi relizmis epoqaSi kinematografSi arsebuli

stereotipebi iseTive zemoqmedebas axdenda (Tu ufro metadac

ara) im mayurebelze, romelic uSualod iyo procesebis monawile,

romelic uyurebda da emorCileboda im simarTles, romelsac

ekranidan sTavazobdnen. Tanagancdis momenti, saiTac kinematografi

mayurebels mouwodebs, yvela drosa da yvela mimdinareobis

Jams, sazogadoebis mier aRiqmeba ise, rogorc mas sTavazobdnen,

oRond erTi gamonaklisiT, miuxedavad imisa _ aris Tu ara is

simarTle, radgan stereoti pebi, iqneboda es movlenaTa

ganviTarebisa Tu personaJSi ganxorcielebuli _ pasuxobs

moTxovnebs, rasac mayurebeli elis filmidan.

drois distancia bevri axali aRmoCenis saSualebas iZleva,

anu xelaxla gadaxedvis saSualebas, rogorc asaxuli movlenebis,

aseve maTi mxatvruli Rirebulebis mxriv. albaT, isic

gasaTvaliswinebelia, rom xelovnebis sazRvrebi myari da

SezRuduli araa da esTetikuri Rirebulebebis damkvidreba

axali sazogadoebrivi interesebisa Tu drois faqtoris, drois

moTxovnis aucileblobidan gamomdinareobs.

xelovnebaSi `maRalisa~ da `dabalis~ Sefaseba garkveulad

`SefardebiTia~, maradiuli, saerTo faseulobebis arsebobis

miuxedavad. postmodernuli kinos mTavari principia _ kino

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socialisturi realizmidan postmodernizmamde

unda arsebobdes `aq~ da `axla~. is muSaobs dRes. is aRqmul

unda iqnas maSin, rodesac Seiqmna, radgan ukeT moqmedebs

mayurebelze. rac Seexeba mis aRqmas, analizs, albaT, mTavari,

rac, aseT SemTxvevaSi, unda iqnas gamoyenebuli, swored im

stereotipebisgan gaTavisuflebaa, rac xels uSlis ama Tu im

nawarmoebis aRqmas piradi gamocdilebidan, individualuri

midgomebidan gamomdinare.

nebismieri fibula _ esaa erTgvari Zaladoba realobaze,

esaa mxatvris SeWra cxovrebaSi. aq xdeba adamianis cxovrebis

_ misi xangrZlivobis miuxedavad _ SemWidroeba mxatvruli

nawarmoebis msvlelobis droSi.Yyvelaferi nebadarTulia.

mTavaria, rogor eqceva ``nebadarTuloba~ sistemaSi, romelsac

reJisori Tu sxva xelovani awyobs da ramdenad ereva igi am

sistemis msvlelobaSi, romlis sazRvrebi gacilebiT farToa,

vidre ``Cveulebrivi~ xelovnebis nawarmoebis sazRvrebi. imdenad,

ramdenadac am CarCoebSi eteva yvela is fiqri, mosazreba Tu

migneba, Tundac yvelaze banaluri, rac xangrZlivi drois

ganmavlobaSi dagrovda sazogadoebis gamocdilebasa da

cnobierebaSi.

aka morCilaZe romanSi `gadafrena madaTovze da ukan~

`tradiciul~ postmodernul sqemas aSkarad da Tavisuflad

iyenebs. am xerxs igi rogorc sametyvelo enas, ise mimarTavs

da aqcevs sistemad, romelic `gamdidrebulia~ deteqturi

siuJetiT, romelic bevri Cveulebrivi Srisgan Sedgeba. igi,

meore romanSi `agvistos pasiansi~ am sqemas kidev ufro metad

aSiSvlebs anu umartives da metad banalur siuJets, uSualod

dayrdnobils drois niSnebze, rTul Sinagan struqturad aqcevs

da marTlac pasiansiviT Slis ambavs, im pasiansiviT, romelic

rTulad ewyoba, magram saboloo jamSi mainc gaiSleba - agvisto

iqneba es (anu konkretuli dro, rodesac moqmedeba xdeba),

adgili (sadac viTardeba es moqmedeba) Tu paraleluri, irealuri

samyaro _ ganyenebuli Tvali, romelic retrospeqtiulad

aRiqvams movlenebs, ra Tqma unda, mwerlis aqtiuri CareviT.

mTavari mainc droa, romelic arsebobs da ara Cvengan

damoukideblad, aramed CvenTan erTad. dro, romelic mudam

axdenda sazogadoebis formirebas, gamoxatavda mis suls,

cxovrebis wess, safuZvels uqmnida xelovans fiqrisTvis,

azrovnebisTvis da Semdeg masTan WidilSi adamianebTan misasvleli

gzebis da mxatvruli formebis Camoyalibebis gezs sTavazobda.

veZebT Tu ara Cven im dros, romelic davkargeT? am kiTxvas

xSirad svamen postmodernizmis epoqaSi da masze pasuxs eZeben.

dRes aSkaraa _ Tanamedrove xelovneba aramarto ascda dros,

aramed TiTqos saerTod daiviwya misi arseboba da im droSi

gadavida, rodesac maradiuli araferia da rodesac sinamdvile

ararsebuliT ifareba. sadRac droTa sazRvarze gaWedili

qarTveli kinematografistebi, romlebmac orientirebi, pirvel

rigSi, sakuTar TavSi dakarges, ararsebuls eZeben da swored

amitomaa, umetes SemTxvevaSi, maTi Semoqmedeba azrs, siRrmesa

da raRac mniSvnelovans moklebuli, konteqstidan amoRebuli.

e. w. `perestroikis~ pirvel wlebSi, rodesac tabu aexsna

akrZaluls da maSindel sabWoTa kavSirSi daiwyo im

literaturis, filmebis da a.S. masalis gamomzeureba, romlebic

wlebis ganmavlobaSi cenzuris gamo dafarul-Caketili, Taroze

Semodebuli iyo, aRmoCnda, rom qarTuli xelovneba am procesebs

ver gamoexmaura da iSviaTi gamonaklisis garda, qveyanaSi ar

aRmoCnda reJisori, romelic komunisturi ideologiis

`msxverpli~ iyo da akrZaluli qmnilebis saaSkaraoze gamotana

axla mainc SeeZlo, iseve, rogorc, vTqvaT, kira muratovas, aleqsei

germans an andron konCalovskis Tu sxvebs. iyo erTi-ori

leqsi, iyo grigol robaqiZe da qarTveli emigrantebis, noe

Jordanias mTavrobisa Tu qaquca ColoyaSvilis SeficulTa

mogoneba-Canawerebi.

evgeni zamiatini blokisadmi miZRvnil CanawerebSi wers:

`sami weli Semdgom Cven Caketili viyaviT foladis WurvSi _

sibneleSi, siviwroveSi, stveniT mivqrodiT, vin icis, saiT... am,

winasasikvdilo wuTeb-wlebSi raRacis keTeba iyo saWiro. unda

mogewyo cxovreba mqrolav WurvSi.~

wlebis ganmavlobaSi qarTuli kinematografi aseT WurvSi

moqceuls hgavda, romelic sadRac mihqris, magram ar aqvs

zemoqmedebis, mimarTulebis Secvlis unari. xelovneba mxolod

maSinaa marTali, rodesac masSi arsebobs realobiT mogvrili

da gacnobierebuli realoba, is mxolod maSin ganixileba, rogorc

sakmarisad saimedo. masSi, rogorc wesi, Cadebulia sibrZnis

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lela oCiauri

rwmena _ realuri drois rwmena-xedva (SigniT da ara garedan

aRqmuli). amitom gare faqtebis gacnobiereba xdeba rwmenis

saxe, is ki Semowmebas ar eqvemdebareba da ar saWiroebs. Semowmeba

ki iwyeba maSin, rodesac mqrolav WurvSi msxdomebs gveCveneba,

rom vmoZraobT, magram es moZraoba sxva araferia, Tu ara

daxSul sivrceSi gamomwyvdeuli adamianebis farTxali, ara

Tavis dasaRwevad, aramed iq, SigniT myudrod da moxerxebulad

mosaTavseblad.

mxatvruli Semecneba individualuri SemoqmedebiTi

gamovlinebis sferoa da mas, wesiT, ar unda SeeZlos garemosTan,

sazogadoebasTan (mis mier dawesebul xelovnur kanonebTan)

konfliqtSi Seusvleloba. es misi aucilebeli sulieri

moTxovnileba unda iyos, radgan sinamdvile gacilebiT rTulia,

vidre, erTi SexedviT, warmodgeba. am labirinTSi gzis gakvalva

ki, yvelas ar SeuZlia.

socialisturi realizmis boboqroba-aRzevebis Jams

xelovneba swored imitom ar iyo xelovneba, rom xelovani

iZulebuli iyo tyuili eTqva, cru ideas cru forma mosdevda

da erTi tyuili sicrueTa mTel jaWvs iwvevda. andrei siniavski

wers: `ukanaskneli wlebis movlenebma Cveni xelovneba

naxevaromebisa da naxevarsimarTlis gzas Seuyena...~

sxvadasxva `sofl-xedva~ (zurab kakabaZis terminia) anu

samyaros sxvadasxva suraTis aRqma ara mxolod sxvadasxva

xalxebs axasiaTebs, aramed erTsa da imave xalxs sxvadasxva

dros _ icvleba yoveli eris ZiriTadi ideali da aqedan, misi

suraTis cvlileba enis Sesabamis cvlilebas moiTxovs da

apirobebs. oRond cvlileba SedarebiT nela da SeumCnevlad

xdeba _ enobrivi niSnebi inerciis ZaliT garegnuladac igiveni

rCebian da imave wesiT moixmarebian, rac Cqmalavs im garemoebas,

rom ZalaSi aRaraa Zveli ideali, samyaros Zveli suraTi da

samyaros Sesabamisi wesrigi.

gardamaval periodSi, rodesac Zala daukargavs tradiciul

ideals, samyaros tradiciul suraTs da cxovrebis Sesabamis

wesrigs, ise rom, axali jer ar Cans adamianis cxovreba, misi

yofna samyaroSi arsebiTad ferxdeba da samyaro misTvis

principulad ucxo xdeba; xolo am Seferxebas da samyaros am

socialisturi realizmidan postmodernizmamde

ucxoobas, sxva faqtorebTan erTad, ramdenadme faravs da

SeumCnevels xdis agreTve enis tradiciuli, Cveuli wesiT

moxmareba, radgan es ukanaskneli cxovrebis tradiciul wesrigs

Seesabameba.

xSirad aseT dros iqmneba STabeWdileba, viTom cxovreba

isev im wesiTa da rigiT, arsebiTad isev Seuferxeblad miedineba.

mwerali naTlad xedavs da mwvaved ganicdis tradiciuli

wesrigis rRvevas, samyaros arsebiT mouwesrigeblobas da

ucxoobas da amgvar pirobebSi, enis tradiciuli moxmarebis

principul siyalbesa da Seusabamobas. igi `am naTelxilvisa~

da mwvave gancdis dawoliT, sagangebod arRvevs xolme enis

tradiciul normebs, cxovrebis wesis Sesabamisad da naTelhyofs

WeSmaritebas am ukanasknelis Taobaze.

60-ian wlebSi xelovnebaSiOmomxdari gadatrialebis

avtorebma, xelovan-meamboxeTa jgufma zustad icoda Tavisi

daniSnulebis Sesaxeb da miznebic gansazRvruli hqonda. maT

uTanasworo brZola moiges. moiges imitom, rom hqondaT rwmenac,

mizanic, esmodaT, rom samyaros suraTis cvalebadoba enis Sesabamis

cvalebadobas moiTxovs da ganapirobebs; icodnen, rom Zveli

idealebi ZalaSi aRar iyo. maT Zala daukarges Zvel idealebs

da daamyares axali cxovrebis Sesabamisi wesrigi. maT axali

idealebi moitanes, axali idealebis AZiebasa da maTze dakvirvebas

Seudgnen. maT gaamarTles im droSi arseboba, romelSic

cxovrobdnen da araTu fexdafex mihyvnen, aramed win gauswres

dros. `aseT SemTxvevaSi bunebrivi iyo, rom moxdeboda is

raRac, rac isev da isev adamianma gamoigona da es gamonagoni

SefarviT, pirobiTi, idumali niSnebiT, ucnauri `ieroglifebiT~

Sealamaza da dro, romelic yvelafris mmarTvelia, ubralod,

mospo, gaaqro, radgan is, ubralod, aRar dasWirda.

wina periodebisgan (anu sabWoTa ideologiiT nakarnaxevi

30-40-50-iani wlebidan) gansxvavebiT, rodesac istoria iwereboda

asaxuli sinamdvilis yvela arsebul kiTxvaze mza pasuxiT,

rodesac realuri siuJeti ukve winaswar gansazRvrul daskvnebsa

da reziumeebTan iyo SeTanxmebuli, rodesac saWiro iyo ara

mxolod didi tyuili, aramed axali miTologia, rodesac gaCnda

axali, revoluciuri xelovneba, ramac yvelasa da yvelafers

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lela oCiauri

Tavisi saTanado adgili miuCina. 50-iani wlebis meore naxevridan

es monoliTi, Tixis fexebze mdgomi goliaTi uecrad daingra.

dRes, rodesac samyaroSi kvlav axali idealebi damkvidrda,

rodesac yvelaferi TiTqos xiluli da xelmisawvdomia, ucbad

amoCnda, rom xilulsa da xelmisawvdoms miRma uxilavi da

xelSeuxebeli devs.

axali legendaruli sinamdvilis (meorenairad, socialisturi

realizmi) Seqmnisas saWiro iyo axali moqmedi gmirebis Seqmna,

romlebic analogs Zvel, ukve Camoyalibebul, saukuneebgamovlil

saxeebSi povebdnen da gaCndnen _ winaswarmetyveli

revolucionerebi, maTi mociqulebi, raindi mxedarTmTavrebi, maTi

saWurvelmtvirTavebi, maTi mtrebi da monebi, uwmindurebi, axali

xalxi, axali morali, axali demonebi, axali gmirebi da uecrad

(ra Tqma unda, ara erTbaSad) es yvelaferi gaqra.

erTgvar miTologiur `Cvenad~ qceuli Semoqmedi kvlav

`me~-s niSnian personad iqca da man daiwyo, miTologiuri samyaros

personaJTa msgavsad - adamianebTan Sinagani Tvisebebis amotana,

yvelafris ganumeoreblis, gansakuTrebulis Zieba, is, rac axlos

iyo gamomxatvel bunebasTan, is rac axlos iyo sakuTar TavTan,

im eris sworupovar TvisebebTan, romelsac igi warmoadgenda

da aq ukve, didi xania, aRar iyo nihilizmis, cxovrebis uaryofis

dro, jer komunizmis aCrdilma da Semdeg evropaSi (swored,

50-ianis miwurulsa da 60-ianis dasawyisSi) dawyebulma

moZraobam, axleburad Sefasebulma samyarom, axalma imedebma,

axalma talRam, qarTvel xelovanTa da kinematografistTa

rigebSic, SeiZleba pirdapiri ara, magram uxilavi pasionaluri

kavSirebi daamyara.

samyaro TiTqos didi xnis Zilisgan gamoerkva da gamofxizlda,

sizmarSi nanaxi gakveTili cxadad aqcia, sizmari realobaSi

gadmoitana, ufro sworad, realobas sizmris, zRapris, igavis,

legendis (imis mixedviT, vis ra esizmra) forma mianiWa da

galaktioniviT Tamamad ganacxada: `Cven vxedavT sizmrebs ara

Tqveneburs~. am sizmrebs odnav tkbili surneli dahkravda,

oRond isini ar iyo jadosnuri sizmrebi, agebuli ocnebebsa

Tu iluziebze, isini Zalian realuri da myarsafuZvliani sizmrebi

iyo, romelTa arsebobac winaparTa gamocdilebam, maTma namRerma,

socialisturi realizmidan postmodernizmamde

nacekvma, maTma naTqvamma leqsebma Tu SeTxzulma legendebma _

erovnulma tradiciam ganapiroba. miTologiuri samyaros

personaJTa ganumeoreblobam, aq Semoqmedebis individualobis

ganumeoreblobis saxe miiRo, Zveli sistemebi dairRva, axlebi

amoqmedda, istoriuli realoba, romelSic maT cxovreba

uxdebodaT, axali ganzomilebebiT Seicvala.

Tanamedrove kvleva sul ufro da ufro ixreba im

Tvalsazrisisken, rom miTosi Seicavs dafarul sazriss,

fantastikuri saxeebisa da warmodgenebis miRma arsebuls. am

sazrisis wvdomasa da gamovlenas isaxavs miznad Tanamedrove

mecnieruli analizi, magram amave dros xazgasmiT aRiniSneba,

rom ramdenadac goneba ver moicavs adamianis kulturuli

arsebobis yvela formas, miTosis struqtura ver daxasiaTdeba,

rogorc nacionaluri.

mxatvruli realoba amCnevs Tavisi arsebobis pirobebs, rac

sruliad ar SeuZlia miTs; Tavis pirobebs amCnevs folkloruli

Semecneba; zRaparma icis, rom gamogonilia, miTs eWvi arafris

aqvs, iseve, rogorc adamians, romelic miTis SigniT imyofeba,

religiur adamians sWirdeba rwmena, raTa miiRos zebunebrivi,

saswauli, miTur samyaros kacs es ar sWirdeba. is yovelgvar

saswauls iRebs, rogorc savsebiT bunebriv movlenas.

adamians, romelsac gadatanili aqvs sabWoTa `miTologiis~

wlebi da romelmac SesaniSnavad iswavla Tavisi fiqrebisa Tu

survilebis SeniRbva, axali sistemebis Seqmna SeuZlia, mas aqvs

amis rwmena da amdenad, Tavisuflad epyroba garemomcvel samyaros

- es odiTganve qarTveli kacis bunebaa.

istoria da xelovneba erTaneTis ganuyreli Tanamgzavrebi

arian, amdenad, xelovnebis dayofa, gancalkeveba – faqtobrivi

istoriuli movlenebis amsaxvel da Tanamedrove adamianis Sesaxeb

Seqmnil nawarmoebebad, mcdari iqneboda. miT umetes, rom

damokidebuleba xelovnebis qmnilebis mimarT, rodesac mas wlebis

intervalis Semdeg uyureb, TavisTavad gulisxmobs istorizmis

moments. es distancia Rrmavdeba maSin, rodesac warsulis

gaanalizebis Jami dgeba, Tumca, TavisTavad, Tanadroulobac ukve im

epoqis drois gamomxatvelia, rodesac esa Tu is nawarmoebi iqmneba.

220 221


lela oCiauri

socialisturi realizmidan postmodernizmamde

amdenad, albaT, unda iTqvas, rom ar arsebobs filmebi

`Tanamedrove~ da `istoriuli~, aramed arsebobs filmebi,

romlebic adamianis Sesaxeb, misi Sinagani samyarosa da garemosTan,

sazogadoebasTan damokidebulebaze mogviTxrobs, an warsulSi,

an awmyoSi. dro ucvlelia da swored esaa 60-70-iani wlebis

qarTuli kinos mTavari Tviseba - yvelaferi, rac masSi xdeba,

erTi mxriv, Janris axali kanonebis damkvidrebis saSualebaa,

meore mxriv, mxolod da mxolod Tanamedrove problemebis

amsaxvelia, moqmedebis drois gadatanis, saTqmelis, viTarebis

gantevebis miuxedavad.

meoce saukunis 60-70-iani wlebi, SeiZleba iTqvas, rom

qarTuli kinematografis yvelaze saintereso da gamorCeuli

periodia da, Sesabamisad, Tavis droze, _ yvelaze ukeT da

Rrmad Seswavlili. gamomdinare iqidan, rom xelovans sabWoTa

kavSiris respublikebSi, moRvaweoba sabWoTa cenzuris pirobebSi

uxdeboda, igi iZulebuli iyo an damorCileboda gabatonebul

ideologias, an epova is gzebi, anu is mxatvruli formebi,

romelTa meSveobiTac igi Tavis namdvil saTqmels ityoda.

maTi namuSevrebis Taviseburebac, am garemoebebma ganapiroba.

drois cvalebadobasTan erTad, bunebrivad icvleba

damokidebuleba mxatvruli nawarmoebis mimarT, Sefasebis

sazomebic cvlilebas ganicdis, rac misi aRqmis Taviseburebebs

gansazRvravs. saintereso swored isaa, Tu rogor xedavs xelovani

(reJisori, mwerali, mxatvari) dros, saidan sadamde isazRvreba

is SemoqmedebaSi _ aris es konkretuli wlebi, epoqa, dRe,

ricxvi, Tu moicavs iseT periods, romelic miTurad - odesRac

arsebulad, an ukiduresad ganzogadebulad warmosdgeba? ra

iyo da Seicvala Tu ara xelovanis mier samyaros filosofiuri

Wvretis kriteriumebi, ra iqceva xolme kulturis mTavar

maxasiaTebel niSnad, drois msvlelobasTan erTad?

zurab kakabaZe `filosofiur saubrebSi~ aRniSnavs: `cxovrebis

istoriad gageba damatebiT naTels hfens xelovnebis

kritikulobas, sinamdvilisadmi mis kritikul mimarTebas -

sinamdvile am gagebiT, yovelTvis Zvelisa da axal ideal Soris

brZola da, maSasadame, Zveli, dromoWmuli idealisa da Sesabamisi

tendenciebis mxriv ganxiluli, uaryofasa da kritikas imsaxurebs.

cxovrebis istoriad gageba naTels hfens agreTve xelovnebis

Sinaarsisa da formebis cvalebadobis faqts. xelovneba, rogorc

cnobilia, cxovrebas gamosaxavs, amitomac misi Taviseburebis

gagebisTvis xSirad cxovrebis Taviseburebis gaTvaliswineba

gvWirdeba. amasTan, cxovreba istoriaa, rac imas moaswavebs, rom

misi gezi da mimarTuleba, misi warmmarTveli yoveli ideali

mxolod droebiTia, rom igi odesme amowuravs Tavis

SesaZleblobebs, anu, rogorc ityvian xolme, Tavis dros mosWams

da axal gezsa da mimarTulebas, axal ideals dauTmobs adgils.~

cxadia, socialisturi realizmis ideologiidan

gaTavisuflebul xelovans (socialisturi realizmis eqo kidev

didxans ismoda yofili sabWoTa respublikebis kulturebSi,

imdenad rTuli iyo misi zegavlenisgan azrovnebis gamijvna)

Sansi mieca, xelovneba Tavisi WeSmariti arsisTvis daebrunebina

- cxovrebiseuli simarTlis asaxvisa da axali mxatvruli

formebiT ametyvelebisken. rameTu xelovnebis yovel axal

safexurze gadasvla yovelTvis gamomsaxveli xerxebis ganaxlebas,

saxecvlilebas moiTxovs, radgan saTqmelTan erTad formac

icvleba, miT ufro, rom es saTqmeli amboxebis xasiaTisaa da

cxovrebis gardaqmniskenaaa mimarTuli.

`xalxis winaSe gadaSlili sulieri da fizikuri Tavisufleba

uxilavi bedisweris daqvemdebarebaSi aRmoCnda. samyaroSi sakuTari

Tavis ufro srulad realizebis SesaZlebloba (harmoniis niSani?)

saerTo disharmonianSi gazavda. xolo bunebriv swrafvas

darRveuli realobis mowesrigebisken globalur kraxamde,

sikvdilis srul zeimurobamde, apokalifsamde mivyavarT... da

srulebiT araa savaldebulo ca miwas daemxos, Tu miwa Sinaganad

TviTnadgurdeba... magram cxovreba grZeldeba. paradoqsis mTeli

didebuleba ufskrulis piras iyineba.~ 2

rodesac saubaria sxva qveynebis gamocdilebis, kulturis

zegavlenaze, ar unda daviviwyoT, rom qarTuli kultura

karCaketili arasodes yofila da mudam Tavisuflad (ufro

xSirad, iZulebiT) iRebda sxva qveynebis kulturis Senakadebs.

magram saqmec isaa, rom umeteswilad, xdeboda organuli SeTavseba,

gamTlianeba, `sruladi qveynis~ gaTaviseba da samyaros ukidegano

sivrcesTan ziareba. magram es mxolod maSinaa SesaZlebeli,

rodesac eri (xelovani) momwifebulia, Camoyalibebulia, siaxlis,

222 223


lela oCiauri

`informaciis~ misaRebad. amave dros, rogori gaxsnilic unda

iyos Cveni suli SexvedrisTvis, man, upirveles yovlisa, sakuTari

Tavis gazrdaze, sakuTari sulierebis gadarCenaze unda izrunos.

Tu es generaluri gadarCena ar moxda, ar moxdeba axali

xelovnebis dabadebac, romelic Tan hgavs da Tanac ar hgavs

imas, rac samyaroSi xdeba. aseT SemTxveaSi, imis gaazrebac

gagviWirdeba, Tu sad vdgavarT Cven am samyaroSi, ra adgili

gvikavia da ra adgilis dakaveba gvsurs.

ra Tqma unda, sabWoTa sistemam, ideologiam adamianis yofas,

mis cnobierebas mniSvnelovani kvali daaCnia, Semoqmedi am

ideologiis kanonebs daemorCila da Tavadve gamoigona

fsevdoromantizmi da ideaTa fsevdoamaRlebuloba, cxovreba,

romelic arcTu mSvenieri iyo, idealur garsSi Semosa da

mSvenierad warmogvidgina.

iyo dro, rodesac Teoriuli manifestebi win uswrebda,

faqtobrivad, yvela kinematografiul Tu saxelovnebo novacias.

ukve sakmarisi xani gavida mas Semdeg, rac Semoqmedi Ziebebs

winaswari deklarirebis gareSe axorcielebs.

`kinematografis bunebis gamokvleva, pirvel rigSi, TviT

sazogadoebrivi procesebis _ materialur da sulier _

msvlelobaze dayrdnobas niSnavs.~ 3

nebismieri mimdinareoba Tu xelovnebis nebismieri aqti

arsebobs droSi da maT arsebobas konkretuli mizezebi apirobebs.

ucxo mimdinareobaTa araorganuli zegavlena qarTulma

xelovnebam adrec, marTlia, iSviaT SemTxvevebSi, magram mainc

ganicada, Tumca es zegavlena isev da isev zedapirze darCa,

epataJurobis gamovlinebad, Tanac ar ganviTarebula.

bunebrivia, saTqmelis gabundovneba, garTuleba srulebiT

ar niSnavs mis Rirsebas, raSic Cveni Tanamedrove xelovanebi

xSirad scodaven. harmonia arssa da formas, gamoxatvis gzebsa

da Semoqmedis Sinagan samyaros Soris, bundovanebas gamoricxavs

da naTels xdis, gamokveTs azrovnebis nebismier mxares. cxadia,

Tuki aseTi ram saerTod arsebobs.

cxadia, bundovanSi mravalazrovneba ar igulisxmeba.

bundovanSi igulisxmeba is, rodesac nawarmoebSi azri saerTod

araa da Tu aris, marTlac sjobs, saerTod ar iyos. saTqmelis

socialisturi realizmidan postmodernizmamde

(cxadia, sakuTari da ara wesad, modurad, sayovelTaod

aRiarebulad miCneulis, rodesac cnobilia, rom arsebobs

`sargeblis momtani~ Temebi, magram maTi mniSvneloba ar viciT!)

arqona, qmnis autaneli sicarielis SegrZnebas. rodesac saTqmeli

ara gaqvs, cxadia, arc is ici, rogor Tqva. rodesac ici, misi

gamoTqmis, gamoxatvis formebs bunebrivad eZeb. zogjer poulob.

Cveni drois niSani - saTqmelis arqona, misi ararsebobaa.

xelovnebaSi maradiul problemebTan erTad yovelTvis

arsebobs konkretuli droisTvis, erisTvis, Tundac TaobisTvis

maxasiaTebeli niSnebi da mTavari maTi `sworad~ gamoyenebaa da

ara maTiT `Jonglireba~ Tavmowoneba da amdenad, uSedegoba.

`Teoriuli azri dramaturgiis, kompoziciis, siuJetis awyobis,

ekranis `enis~ Taobaze kamaTis, kamaTis kinogamosaxulebis `saxisa~

da `niSnis~, `mniSvnelobisa~ da `azris~ Sesaxeb iswrafis

aRmoaCinos gansazRvruli filosofiuri princi pebi da

formaluri xerxebis miRma cxovrebasa da xelovnebaze

filosofiuri Sexedulebebi gamoavlinos~. 4

namdvil xelovans drois SegrZneba sWirdeba. arseboba droSi,

Semdeg misi ganfena, gaSla, sxva droebTan, epoqebTan, sxva

istoriebTan (Tundac Sinagani) dakavSireba. da swored imitom,

rom gavigoT, ra SeemTxva Tanamedrove adamians, ratom dakarga

man bunebis simSvenieriT tkbobisa da sicocxlis siyvaruliT

sixarulis unari, ratom dakarga man adamianis siyvarulis

grZnoba da Semwynareblobas, qarTveli kacis erT-erTi gamorCeul

Tvisebas, rkinis farda miafara, unda kargad davukvirdeT, Tu, ra

iyo mTavari motivi, mTavari mamoZravebeli Zala, ramac qarTuli

poeturi, filosofiuri Tu metaformuli kinos arseboba

gansazRvra. kinematorgafis bunebis gamokvleva pirvel yovlisa,

TviT sazogadoebriv procesebze - materialursa da sulierze

dayrdnobas niSnavs.

`CemTvis kino zneobrivi saqmianobaa da ara profesiuli.

CemTvis aucilebelia, SevinarCuno Sexeduleba xelovnebaze,

rogorc raRac gansakuTrebul, seriozul sapasuxismgeblo

movlenaze, rac iseT cnebebSi ar eqceva, rogoricaa: Tema, Janri,

forma da a. S. xelovneba mxolod misTvis ki ar arsebobs, rom

224 225


lela oCiauri

socialisturi realizmidan postmodernizmamde

sinamdviles asaxavs, igi adamians cxorebis winaSe unda

aiaraRebdes, aniWebdes Zalas winaaRmdegoba gauwios cxovrebas...

xelovneba Cven rwmenas gvaniWebs da gvavsebs sakuTari

Rirsebis SegrZnebiT. mas adamianis, sazogadoebis sisxlSi Sehyavs

winaaRmdegobis gawevis unaris, ardanebebis erTgvari reaqtivi.

adamians sWirdeba sinaTle. xelovneba mas sinaTles, momavlis

rwmenas, perspeqtivas aZlevs.

geniosi CemTvis perspeqtivasTan, sinaTlesTanaa dakavSirebuli.

adamiani dramatul, tragikul situciebSi unda gamoscado da

sixarulSi simSvide, simyudrove da imedi mianiWo.~ 5

rodesac Cven vsaubrobT filosofiis tradiciuli

sazRvrebidan gasvlaze, mxedvelobaSi gvaqvs Cveni drois sulieri

ganviTarebis erTi Tavisebureba - filosofiisa da xelovnebis

daaxloeba. es procesi SeimCneva, rogorc filosofiis mxridan

xelovnebis mimarTulebiT, aseve, filosofiis mimarTulebiT

xelovnebis mxridan da bunebrivi xdeba, xelovnebis specifikuri

xasiaTis SeZena sazogadoebrivi pirobebidan gamomdinare.

saubaria aramxolod xelovnebis erTgvar inteleqtualizaciaze,

aramxolod xelovnebis nawarmoebis Sinaarsis filosofiuri

problematikiT gavsebaze, an formis garTulebaze (rom ara

vTqvaT, gabundovnebaze) da arc filosofiuri koncefciebis

martiv ilustraciaze mxatvruli xerxebiT. saubria rTul

dialeqtikur procesze, romelic arss, sazogadoebrivi

cnobierebis formebis specifikas exeba, saubria sazogadoebrivi

azris Rrma kanonozomierebebis ganviTarebaze, romlis Zirebi

Tavad cnobierebis ganviTarebis formebSia, rac mravalsaxeobrivi

bunebrivi da socialuri sinamdvilis mTel sistemaSi aisaxeba.

cxadia, mxatvruli Semoqmedeba, sociologiisa da

filosofiisgan gansxvavebiT, Cven winaSe adamianuri arsebobis

uSualo mravalsaxeobas gadmoscems. mxatvruli analizi imave

istorizmSi CaRrmavebs gziT midis, drois kvlevis gziT.

xelovneba moicavs aramxolod drois intervalebs, aramed Tavad

drois dinamizms, warsulis, awmyosa da momavlis dialeqtikas,

obieqturi da `subieqturi~ drois dialeqtikas. yvela es

tendencia SeiZleba miviCnioT, rogorc sinamdvilis masalidan

maqsimalurad ganzogadebuli arsis moZiebisken swrafva. arsi

TiTqos mkveTrad SiSvldeba, mxatvruli sinamdvilis istoriuli

buneba pirdapir gadmoicema. Semdeg ki, dafaruli arsidan

gamomdinare, xdeba movlenis, axali xedvis rekonstruireba.

Zalian xSirad mxatvruli sinamdvile bevrad ufro

damajerebelia, vidre, _ Tavad realoba. aseT SemTxvevaSi, Cven

winaSea realuri da umaRles xarisxSi ayvanili sulieri

ganviTarebis procesi.

`kinematografis mimarT filosofiuri midgoma Tavis TavSi

moicavs yovel SemTxvevaSi, or urTierTdakavSirebul aspeqts

_ istoriul-gnoseologiursa da kulturul-sociologiurs.

...aseT Teorias didi mniSvneloba aqvs TviT umniSvnelovanesi

filosofiuri (da istoriul-filosofiuri) problematikisTvis:

sinamdvilis praqtikul-Teoriul aTvisebaSi saxeobriobisa da

gagebis, vizualurobisa da verbalobis, intuiciisa da logikis

sakiTxebSi. ramdenadac ekranis gamomsaxveli (audiovizualuri)

SesaZleblobebi aaxloebs mas TviT sinamdvilis aRqmasTan,

ekranuli saxe saWiroa ganxilul iqnas gnoseologiurad.~ 6

kinos filosofiaSi igulisxmeba kinomcodneobis is done,

romelzec xdeba ekranuli xelovnebis meTodologiuri,

Teoretikul-SemecnebiTi da sociologiuri (iseve, rogorc

sociologiur-fsiqologiuri) problemebis kvleva; keTdeba

ekranuli saxis sinTetikuri xasiaTis analizi, misi kavSiri

azrovnebasa da mis formebTan, xdeba ekranuli `realobis~

kvleva obieqtur realobasTan kavSirSi da Tavad ekranuli

saxis `arsi~ `sociumis~ sferoSi, misi funqciuri roli arsebuli

socialuri sistemis saerTo kulturaSi.

80-iani wlebis miwuruls, guram asaTiani werda: `Cveni dro

globaluri procesebis droa. araferi `adgilobrivi~ aRar

arsebobs – arc omebi, arc saxelmwifo gadatrialebebi, aRarc

socialuri Zvrebi. sityva `lokalurma~ dakarga absoluturi

mniSvneloba.~ 7

mas Semdeg dro kvlav gavida, globaluri procesebi

globalur procesebad darCa (SeiZleba, kidev ufro aqtiuri

da masStaburic ki gaxda), Cvens qveyanaSi ki, saxelmwifo

gadatrialebac moxda, Sida omebic, teritoriuli mTlianobis

darRvevac da socialuri Zvrebic. yvelaferi moxda da

saintereso swored isaa, ramdenad aisaxa esw yvelaferi xelovanze

da xelovnebaze. Secvala Tu ara raime Secvlilma drom,

226 227


lela oCiauri

ganviTarebulma procesebma, airCia Tu ara xelovanma raime

axali gza, forma drosa da drois mimarT sakuTari

damokidebulebis gamosaxatad?!

90-ian wlebSi Seqmnili qarTuli filmebis umetesobis

`aqtualoba~ Cveni Seryeuli faseulobebis fonze, arsebuli

mdgomareobis sakmaod Zlier suraTs xatavs da am procesSi

Tanabrad moqmedebs, rogorc xarisxi, aseve maTi garegnuli

gamovlineba ara Sinaarsobrivad, ara mxatvruli amocanebis

dayeneba-gadaWris mxriv, aramed movlenaTa mimarT damokidebulebis

TvalsazrisiT.

Tumca, gasaTvaliswinebelia sxva mosazrebebic xelovnebis

bunebis, Tvisebriobis Sesaxeb. rogorc volteri ambobda: `droa,

moveSvaT cxovrebaze filosofiur msjelobas da saqme vakeToT.~

`nurvin ifiqrebs, marTla gulubryviloni viyveT an

simuxTlisa da veragobisa ara gvesmodes ra. ramdenic gnebavT,

amaze meti ra gvinaxavs, magram bunebam da Semdeg qristes

mcnebam Semwynareblobas Rrmad gaudga fesvi Cvens sulier

samkvidrebelSi.~ 8

es Tvisebebi qarTvelma kacma da Sesabamisad, qarTulma

kulturam me-20 saukunis 90-iani wlebs dasawyisamde SeinarCuna,

maTi gaqrobis kvali xelovnebasac daetyo, es moxda maSin,

rodesac rkinis godolTa nacvlad, xis demonebis mefoba

damkvidrda da Cveni samkvidreblidan samudamod amoZirkva

erovnuli xasiaTis iseTi Tviseba, rogoric Semwynareblobaa.

Zveli gmirebis nacvlad axali gmirebi movidnen da axali

miTebis SeTxvzis droc damyarda.

1.Hhasani i., `artifaqti~, 0, 2008, gv. 59-68, Tb., fondi `artkavkasusi~;

2. Spagini a. `kide~, `iskustvo kino~, 2, m.,N1991 w., gv. 22-34, (rusul

enaze);

3. veicmani e., `kinos filosofiis narkvevebi~, moskovi, `iskustvo~,

1978 w., gv. 4, (r.e.);

4. iqve, gv. 5;

5. tarkovski a. dRiuris Canawerebi, piradi arqividan (r.e.);

6. veicmani e. `kinos filosofiis narkvevebi~, m. `iskustvo~, 1978 w., gv. (r.e.);

7. asaTiani g. `saukunis poetebi~, Tb., `merani~, 1991 w., gv. 574;

8. iqve, gv. 567.

Ooliko JRenti,

xelovnebaTmcodneobis doqtori,

wamyvani mecnierTanamSromeli

Q`feqsebi~

da A20-iani wlebis QqarTuli kinoavangardi

1905 wlis revoluciis Semdeg ruseTSi gansakuTrebiT

izrdeba interesi masobrivi kulturis mimarT _ kino xdeba

maskulturis fenomeni, maRali xelovneba aRar ganixileba

elitarul kategoriad.Kklasikur xelovnebas daupirispirda

Tanamedroveobis dinamikuri ritmebi _ cirki, balagani, miuzikholi...

xelovnebaSi uxeSad dairRva esTetikis normebi da

kanonebi _ fovistebma da eqspresionistebma fundamenturad

gadaafases naxatis ferTan mimarTebis sakiTxi. TviTdamkvidrebas

eswrafvis `usagno~ abstraqcionizmi Tu agresiuli, nihilisturi

futurizmi. XX saukunis 10-ian wlebSi ruseTi iqca avangarduli

xelovnebis epicentrad.

`mesame kulturad~ wodebuli avangardi gansakuTrebiT aitaca

SemoqmedebiTma inteligenciam _ literatorebis, mxatvrebis,

poetebis nawarmoebebi orientirebuli iyo balaganuri tipis

warmodgenebze da sacirko sanaxaobebze.

rusuli futurizmis erT-erTi fuZemdebeli, poeti vladimer

maiakovski acxadebda: `Teatrma daiviwya, rom is aris sanaxaoba,

Teatrs unda daubrundes sanaxaoba!~ cirki gauTanabrda namdvil

xelovnebas da gadaiqca masobrivi moqmedebis mTavar atributad;

saxalxo-revoluciuri Teatridan quCebsa da moedanze SeiWra

pantomimisa da feierverkis elementebi.

20-ian wlebs miekuTvneba lunaCarskis statia, saxelwodebiT:

`cirkis ganaxlebis amocana~, sadac sacirko xelovneba

misteriebis da xalxuri dResaswaulebis doneze ganixileboda.

cnobilia, rom kote marjaniSvilis mier 20-ian wlebSi, Ria

cis qveS dadgmuli masobrivi sanaxaobebi revoluciis Temas

da sacirko-balaganur tradiciebs ukavSirdeboda (mag., msoflio

komunis dRisadmi miZRvnili Teatraluri misteriebi).

XX saukunis dasawyisSi saxiobiTi Teatris tradiciebi

organulad SeeTvisa axalgazrda qarTul kinos _ cnobili

228 229


oliko

JRenti

`feqsebi~ da 20-iani

wlebis qarTuli kinoavangardi

reJisoris, msaxiobis, publicistisa da sazogado moRvawis

valerian gunias iniciativiT, misi uSualo organizebiT, 1909

wels daidga da kinofirze aRibeWda qarTuli saxiobiTi Teatris

warmodgena `berikaoba-yeenoba~ (scen. avtori Salva dadiani,

reJ.Aaleqsandre wuwunava). cirki da balagani xalxuri Teatris

ganuyofel komponentebs warmoadgenda. balaganuri warmodgenebi,

Tavis mxriv, ukavSirdeba cirkis uZveles fesvebs, xalxur primitivs

da arqaul kulturas.Aase gacocxlda kinoSi qarTuli saxiobiTi

Teatris unikaluri nimuSi _ `berikaoba–yeenoba~ (filmi

dakargulad iTvleba). berikaoba-yeenobis balaganur-bufonaduri

sanaxaoba bunebrivad gadavida kinematografSi, romlis Sedegad

moxda kinos, Teatris, cirkis saintereso sinTezi, miTumetes, rom

balagani, klounada, Tojinuri dadgmebi miekuTvneboda yvelaze

revoluciur Janrs da zustad pasuxobda drois suliskveTebas

– am SemTxvevaSi, postrevoluciur da antimarqsistul ganwyobas

saqarTveloSi, rac sazogadoebaSi sufevda.

aqedan gamomdinare, `berikaoba-yeenoba~ SeiZleba ganvixiloT

rusuli avangarduli xelovnebis formirebis procesTan (1907-

1914) mimarTebaSi.

guuniasa da wuwunavas filmSi CarTuli iyo xalxuri da

sportuli TamaSobebi, romlebic masobriv sacirko sanaxaobebad

aRiqmeboda. filmis epizodebs Seadgenda qarTuli alaia, jiriTi,

doRi, lelo, ferxuli, cekva, Widaoba.

cirkisa da bufonadis elementebi Zlierdeba da mxatvrulesTetikur

datvirTvas iZens wuwunavas Semdgom filmebSi: `xanuma~

(1924), `vin aris damnaSave?~ (1925), `janyi guriaSi~ (1929).

`berikaoba-yeenobas~ siuJeti agebuli iyo anekdotebsa da

saxumaro nomrebze (sketCebi, reprizebi, Tojinuri nomrebi),

xolo mTavar rolze miwveuli iyo cirkis msaxiobi – xumara lado

gviSiani, romelic xSirad mimarTavda filmSi eqscentrikul

triukebs.Mmizanscenebis gadaReba metwilad mis sazrianobasa da

gonebamaxvilobaze iyo damokidebuli, amasTanave, `daSvebuli~ iyo

improvizacia da mayureblis uSualo CarTva gadasaReb moedanze.

garkveuli paralelebis moZieba SeiZleba gunias mier

daarsebul saxumaro-iumoristul Jurnal `niSadursa~ (1907-

1908) da film `berikaoba-yeenobas~ Soris. 1 saarqivo

fotomasalis mixedviT, `berikaoba-yeenobis~ mTavari gmiri berika-

masxara /msax.Llado gviSiani/GJurnal `niSaduris~ erT-erTi nomris

garekanze gamosaxul masxara-jambazs hgavda. orive personaJi

atarebda Txis mokauWebul rqebs da wagrZelebul wvers.

`berikaoba-yeenoba~ politikuri SarJis da revoluciuri

satiris elementebs mravlad Seicavda.Ggunias mier gamocemul

Jurnal `niSadurSi~ periodulad ibeWdeboda kritikuli

werilebi, feletonebi, SarJebi `masxarasa~ da `mcinaras~

fsevdonimebiT,A JurnalSi aseve mravlad iyo satiruliumoristuli

novelebi, parodiebi, anekdotebi socializmisa

da marqsizmis liderebze, socializmis propagandasa da

lozungebze, TviT `marqsizmis mociqulebsa~ da bolSevizmis

ideologebze. `niSaduri~ Seicavda komiqsebs, seriul SarJebs,

rac kinematografis winamorbed Janrad moiazreba. Jurnalis

analogiurad, `berikaoba-yeenoba~ Sedgeboda anekdotebisgan da

saxumaro sketCebisgan. filmSi Sesuli iyo bazrobis scenebi

da balaganuri esTetikiT Seqmnili epizodebi. lado gviSianis

saarqivo Canawerebis mixedviT, filmSi mravlad iyo

folkloruli teqstebi, xalxuri leqsebi, andazebi. gviSiani

jambazis formaSi gamodioda da oCofexebze Semdgari xalxs

masobriv sacirko warmodgenaze dasaswrebad iwvevda.

saxiobiTi Teatris specifika (moqmedebis gadatana Ria cis

qveS) zustad miesadaga kinos balaganur xasiaTs – gadaRebebma

da seansebma saqarTvelos sxvadasxva kuTxe moicva da

grandiozul dResaswaulad iqca. Ffilmma xalxSi masobrivi

interesi gamoiwvia.

cnobilia, rom berikaoba-yeenobis tradiciebs marjaniSvilma

mimarTa filmSi `qariSxlis win~ (1924), romlis scenaris

avtori iyo Salva dadiani (masve ekuTvnoda `berikaoba_yeenobas~

scenari).Mmiuxedavad imisa, rom sabWoTa kritikam uaryofiTad

Seafasa marjaniSvilis pirveli filmi, gamoCenilma sazogado

moRvawem ioseb imedaSvilma igi qarTuli kinos Sedevrad aRiara

da aRniSna: `am filmiT safuZveli Caeyara `kinos gaxalxosnebagaerovnulobas~.

amgvarad, revoluciuri Janris es nawarmoebi mkafiod

mianiSnebda, rom kote marjaniSvili Temebsa da ideebs xalxuri

Teatris `wiaRidan~ iRebda, Tumca, didi reJisoris daintereseba

xalxuri Teatris tradiciebiT gacilebiT adre daiwyo...

XX saukunis 10-ian wlebSi marjaniSvili daJinebiT

eswrafvoda Teatri-dResaswaulis, Teatri-moqmedebis Seqmnas.

230 231


oliko

JRenti

`feqsebi~ da 20-iani

wlebis qarTuli kinoavangardi

intensiurad eZiebda axal gamomsaxvelobiT formebs,

amitomac,MruseTis `mxatSi~ miwveuli reJisoris yuradReba

SeCerda norvegieli mwerlisa da dramaturgis knut hamsunis

cnobil piesaze `cxovrebis brWyalebi~ (1910).

qarTvelma reJisorma `mxatis~ TeatrisTvis moulodneli

da uCveulo gadawyvetileba miiRo: hamsunis piesisgan Seeqmna

`naTeli da mziuri` speqtakli, sikvdil-sicocxlis misteria.

marjaniSvilis avangarduli eqsperimentebi miznad isaxavda

sruliad axali da originaluri mxatvrul-esTetikuri

principebis dafuZnebas moskovis samxatvro TeatrSi da im

mayureblis provocirebas, romelic miCveuli iyo Teatris

akademiur stils, realistur Tu naturalistur formebs,

dekoraciebis mosawyen, yofiT, `damtveril~ garemos. mayurebeli

meqanikurad emorCileboda Cexoviseuli speqtaklebis

fsiqologiur ganwyobas. hamsunis piesis mxatvrul gaazrebaSi

marjaniSvils isev xalxuri Teatris tradiciebi daexmara _

man speqtaklSi Seitana eqscentrikis, estradis, operetis,

miuziklholis anu `dabali Janris~ xelovnebis elementebi.

amgvarad, qarTuli `berikaoba-yeenobis~ da xalxuri Teatris

tradiciebs naziarebma marjaniSvilma moaxdina `mxatis~ Teatris

revoluciuri gardaqmna, misi sruli `re-Teatralizacia~ _

`cxovrebis brWyalebSi~ iqca Teatris namdvil dResaswaulad~.

rusulma kritikam aRiara, rom `mxatis~ repertuarSi im

periodisTvis ar moipoveboda meore aseTi maJoruli, xalasi

speqtakli...~ 2 samwuxarod, marjaniSvilis esTetikuri koncefcia

kategoriulad miuRebeli aRmoCnda Teatris xelmZRvanelobisTvis

(nemiroviCi da stanislavski). aseve miuRebeli aRmoCnda speqtaklis

avangarduli, gamomwvevi forma da is eqsperimentebi, rac

upirvelesad Seexo scenis dekoratiul mxares _ ganaTebas, feris

struqturas, agreTve msaxiobis TamaSs da musikas.

mogvianebiT, marjaniSvili igonebda, Tu rogor moaxdina am

speqtaklma misi sruli metamorfoza _ masSi iyivla qarTulma

sisxlma, temperamentma, rac `ver Cakla susxianma ruseTma~: `...me

vgrZnobdi, rogor iRviZebda sulSi Cemi samSoblos mze, rogori

siSmagiT amoZravda Cems ZarRvebSi sisxli, qarTuli sisxli~. 3

cnobilia, rom `mxatis~ scenaze dadgmul `cxovrebis

brWyalebs~ marjaniSvili radikalurad ganasxvavebda ruseTis

scenebze mis mierve dadgmuli sxva speqtaklebisgan da mas

Tavis `pirvel qarTul warmodgenad~ miiCnevda, miuxedavad imisa,

rom scenaze rusi artistebi rusul enaze TamaSobdnen.Aaqedan

gamomdinare, marjaniSvilis `cxovrebis brWyalebi~ unda

ganvixiloT, rogorc revoluciuri (avangarduli) formisa

daAJanris qarTuli speqtakli rusuli Teatris scenaze.

marjaniSvilma uxeSad da gamomwvevad daarRvia samxatvro

Teatris `sulieri ganwyoba~.Aam eqsperimentis Semdeg scenidan

`ganidevna~ butaforuli sagnebi, scena gaTavisuflda mZime

rekvizitisgan, moxda oTaxis realuri garemos sruli

dekonstruireba. feradovan gamas qmnida proJeqtoriT ganaTebuli

qsovilebi da fardebi (fovizmi), sagnis nacvlad scenaze

`gaTamaSda,~ `gacocxlda~ nivTi (erT-erT mizanscenaSi sufris

TiToeul detalsa Tu atributze marjaniSvilma piradad izruna),

romelmac uCveulo gamomsaxvelobiToba da dinamizmi SeiZina.

Suqis zemoqmedebis Sedegad sagnebi gardaiqmnen nivTebad

(dadaizmi). ganaTebis zemoqmedebiT scenaze amoZravda naTeli,

mziuri, feradovani laqebi (fovizmi). marjaniSvilis mxatvrulma

eqsperimentebma revoluciuri gardaqmna moaxdina aramxolod

`mxatis~ TeatrSi, aramed mxatvrul dizainSi (tanisamosi, dekori,

aveji im periodis modad iqca), xolo mogvianebiT, rus

kinoavangardTa wreebSi (feqsebi). 4

1913 wels marjaniSvilma datova `mxati~ da Camoayaliba

`Tavisufali Teatri,~ sadac gagrZelda misi eqsperimentebi

sinTezuri Teatris sferoSi. marjaniSvilisMmsaxiobebi

swavlobdnen ritmikas, plastikas, cekvas. mogvianebiT, imave meTods

iyenebdnen rusuli avangarduli dajgufebis `feqsebis~ studiaSi.

Tumca, Tavis droze msaxiobTan muSaobis novatorulma meTodma

mwvave skandali gamoiwvia rusul samxatvro TeatrSi:

marjaniSvili msaxiobisgan iTxovda, rom mas uxeSad daerRvia

sityvis `bunebrioba~, emetyvela maqsimalad mkveTrad, xatovnad,

gamomsaxveli JestiT.Mstanislavskis sistemaze `gawvrTnili~

msaxiobebisTvis miuRebeli aRmoCnda marjaniSvilis novatoruli

amocanebi, amitomac isini Teatris xelmZRvanelobasTan

aprotestebdnen marjaniSvilis muSaobas.

speqtakl `cxovrebis brWyalebSi~ damkvidrda is esTetikuri

principebi, romlebsac mogvianebiT ase aitaceben `feqsebis~

mesveurni _ rusuli kinoavangardis pionerebi: iutkeviCi,

232 233


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JRenti

`feqsebi~ da 20-iani

wlebis qarTuli kinoavangardi

kozincevi, traubergi, romlebic Tavs `marjanovis mowafeebad~

da mimdevrebad aRiarebdnen.

jer kidev kievSi muSaobis dros marjaniSvilma sruliad

axalgazrda iutkeviCs da kozincevs SesTavaza piesa `maskotis~

dadgmis gaformeba.

Zveli, naivuri opereta revoluciur pamfletad gadaiqca.

es speqtakli rusuli Teatris istoriaSi damkvidrda, xolo

marjaniSvilTan TanamSromloba saukeTeso skola aRmoCnda

axalgazrda reJisorebisTvis.

1920 wlidan kozincevi reJisorad muSaobda marjaniSvilis

komikuri operis studiaSi, romelmac am dros, meore reJisorad

leonid traubergi aiyvana.MqarTveli reJisoris uSualo

xelmZRvanelobiT, komikuri operis sardafSi daidga piesa

`jentlmeni jini da uxamsi boTli~. eqscentrikul Teatrs

xalxuri Semoqmedeba kvebavda (speqtaklSi moxda aRmosavluri

zRapris motivebis eqscentrikuli gaTamaSeba).Bbalaganuri

groteski gansakuTrebiT warmoCinda bazris scenebSi – xalxur

iumorsa da sasaubro leqsikaSi. swored marjaniSvilis TeatrSi

Sexvdnen da erTmaneTs dauaxlovdnen kozincevi da traubergi.

maT, Semoqmedebis devizad, daisaxes eqscentrika normidan,

centridan gadaxveva. marjaniSvilis uSualo daxmarebiTa da

xelmZRvanelobiT grigol kozincevma (SemdgomSi cnobilma

kinoreJisorma) kaplerTan da iutkeviCTan erTad Camoayaliba

eqsperimentuli Teatri `arlekini~, Semdeg ki Tojinebis Teatri.

marjaniSvilma Tavad gaacno kozincevi iutkeviCs. mogvianebiT,

isini erTad Camoayalibeben e. w. takimasxarebis Teatrs. samive

gaiTamaSebs TviTSemoqmedi Teatris balaganur dadgmas `zRapars

mRvdlis Sesaxeb da muSaze~ – (mRvdeli, muSa, bazari).KmarjaniSvilma

piradad dauTmo scena `arlekinis~ Teatrs. kozincevma

petrogradis quCaSi dadga folkorul-bufonaduri zRapari

`mefe maqsimiliane~, xolo 1921 wels leonid traubergTan

erTad Seqmna `eqscentrikuli Teatris manifesti~.

1922 wels Camoyalibda Teatraluri saxelosno

`eqscentrikuli msaxiobis fabrika~, romlis manifestad iqca

gogolis piesa `qorwineba~. unda aRiniSnos, rom am piesis

dadgma kozincevs piradad marjaniSvilma SesTavaza. kozincevi

igonebda: ~kostumebsa da grimebSi iyo bufanoduri gadaWarbeba.

yvelaferSi xdeboda raRac balaganuri~. 5

gaCnda klounaduri grimis elementebi: maWanklis grZeli

cxviri (cnobismoyvare personaJi cxvirs yofs yvelaferSi),

detalma maqsimaluri gamomsaxvelobiToba SeiZina: maWanklis

qolga, CanTa, cxeni (xis joxi).

1924 wlidan rusi avangardistebis eqsperimentebma kinoSi

gadainacvla. ase Seiqmna kinosaxelosno `feqsebi, `romlis

manifestad iqca filmi `Sineli~.

1933 wels, `maqsimes ymawvilobis~ gadaRebis Semdeg kozincevma

ganacxada, rom misi samsaxiobo da reJisoruli muSaoba

efuZneboda xalxur xelovnebas – folkors anu `dabali

Janrebis~ tradiciebs. 6

20-iani wlebis yvelaze skandaluri avangardistuli

dajgufeba `feqsebi~ kategoriulad uaryofda `maRal Janrebs~

da prioritets aniWebda `dabal Janrebs~: komedias, eqscentrikas,

balaganur sanaxaobas. 7 marjaniSvili konsultaciebs uwevda

`feqsebis~ aqtiur wevrebs: traubergsa da kozincevs, exmareboda

maT eqscentrikuli warmodgenebis realizebaSi. damwyebi

`avangardistebi~ xSirad sTxovdnen daxmarebas da rCevebs

marjaniSvils, xolo, rodesac maT gauWirdaT piesa `vladimer

maiakovskis~ dadgma, marjaniSvilma Tavis Segirdebs urCia, rom

dadgmis sirTulis gamo, ukeTesi iyo SeeTxzaT `raime klounada~. 8

aRsaniSnavia, rom speqtakli `balaganuri warmodgena oTxi

masxarasaTvis~ kozincevma Tavis maswavlebels – didostat

marjaniSvils miuZRvna da es sanaxaoba bufonadur elementebs,

folklorul teqstebs mravlad Seicavda.Kkonzincevi am piesas

uwodebda blaganurs (Tumca, marjaniSvilma SesTavaza, rom dadgma

yofiliyo klounaduri an sacirko), cirkisgan gansxavebiT,

kozincevi `balaganurs~ – cirkTan SedarebiT, ufro `dabal

Janrs~ miakuTvnebda.Bbalagani ukavSirdeboda bazrebs, saxalxo

dResaswaulebs, folklorul teqstebs.Bkozincevis balaganuri

warmodgena Seicavda reprizas, sadac ori TeTri jambazi atyuebda

mesames – wiTurs..

`feqsebis~ `memarcxene~ wevrebi (traubergi, kozincevi,

iutkeviCi) Tavs sicocxlis bolomde marjaniSvilis mowafeebad

miiCnevdnen. marjaniSvilis xelmZRvanelobiT da rekomendaciebiT,

isini dgamdnen eqscentrikul speqtaklebs, misive rCeviT,

speqtaklebSi SehqondaT xalxuri Semoqmedebisa da masobrivi

234 235


oliko

JRenti

`feqsebi~ da 20-iani

wlebis qarTuli kinoavangardi

dResaswaulebis, balaganuri, sacirko sanaxaobis elementebi,

folkloruli teqstebi. marjaniSvilis rCeviT, jer kidev

damwyebi da ucnobi reJisorebi mimarTavdnen xalxuri Teatris

tradiciebs, folklors, zRapars. mis damsaxurebad unda

CaiTvalos, rom axalgazrda avangardistebis speqtaklebSi scenaze

damontaJebuli iyo kinosaproqcio aparati (es meTodi

marjaniSvilma mogvianebiT Tavis speqtaklebSi: `hopla, Cven

vcxovrobT~, `rogor?~, gamoiyena, Tumca manamdec, analogiur

kinematografiul xerxs speqtaklSi `cremlebi~ mimarTa). kievSi,

marjaniSvilis speqtaklis `fuente ove-xunas~ Weris panoze muSaobisas,

kozincevi mTeli cxovreba amayobda `Tavisi arakvalificiuri muSaobiT~,

roca cxvris wyaros Tavze `cisferi ca~ moxata. 9

traubergi erT-erT interviuSi acxadebda: `marjanovi iyo

SesaniSnavi adamiani, es unda iTqvas, imitom, rom yoveli adamiani

unda amayobdes Tavisi maswavleblebiT.~ 10

`feqsebis~ filmebSi msaxiobTa TamaSisKstili klounaduri

iyo. isini ZiriTadad asaxierebdnen masxarebs, jambazebs. gasakviri

ar aris, rom marjaniSvilis mier saqarTveloSi gadaRebul

filmebSi mkafiod gamoikveTa is niSnebi, rac axasiaTebda

`feqsebis~ kinoskolas: siuJetis gaTamaSeba klasikuri

repertuaridan, kinocitatebi `feqsebis~ favoriti amerikuli

komediebidan (Caplini), qorwinebis Temis figurireba da a. S.

film `Sinels~ (1926), tinianovi uwodebda `mwerlis

nawarmoebebis motivebze Seqmnil Tavisufal improvizacias~:

~avtorebisTvis mTavari iyo ara siuJeti, aramed gogolis prozis

stili da suliskveTeba – mwerlis mistikuri da eqscentrikuli

samyaros kinematografiuli asaxva. `feqsebis~ pirveli filmi

`Sineli~ Cafiqrebuli iyo, ara rogorc `klasikis ilustracia,~

aramed rogorc `fantazia gogolis maneraSi~, rom `SinelSi~

axleburad gaSuqda `klasikosebis~ sakiTxi kinoSi~ 11 (analogiuri

Sedareba miesadageba Sengelaias films `elisos~ – avt.).

nikoloz Sengelaias da tretiakovis SemoqmedebiTi tandemis

mizani ar iyo yazbegis novelis meqanikuri ekranizacia,

kategoriulad iyo uaryofili mTis egzotika da siyvarulis

romantika, samagierod, wina xedze gamotanili iyo yazbegis

peronaJTa sabrZolo, gmiruli paTosi – maTi miswrafeba

Tavisuflebisken da mterTan Seurigeblobis, daumorCileblobis

koncefcia. `feqsebis~ msgavsad,K20-iani wlebis qarTul kinoSi

klasikuri literaturis mimarT siyvaruli gamoixata

kldiaSvilis, yazbegis, aragvispirelis moTxrobebis ekranizaciiT

dainteresebaSi. iseve, rogorc marjaniSvilis filmSi

`samaniSvilis dedinacvali~ (1926), qorwinebisa da sacolis

Ziebis Tema figurirebda `feqsebis~ cnobil speqtaklSi

`qorwineba~ (1922), romelic marjaniSvilis piradi rCeviT

daidga da `feqsebis~ esTetikis manifestad iqca (analogiuri

Tema figurirebs wuwunavas film `xanumaSi~). cnobili rusi

istorikosi da filologi iuri tinianovis ganmartebiT,

`qorwinebaSi~ iyo cirki, estrada,Ppolitikuri teqstebi, `magram

TiTqmis ar iyo gogoli~. 12 kinokomediaSi `samaniSvilis

dedinacvali~ adgili aqvs kldiaSviliseuli teqstis

futuristul, Tavisufal wakiTxvas. marjaniSvilma mimarTa

`dabali~ Janrebis sinTezs _ bufonadis, xalxuri Teatris da

eqscentrikis Serwymas.

filmis Seqmnis winapirobad unda miviCnioT 1925 wels

marjaniSvilis werilebi, romlebic erovnuli tradiciebis

gadasarCenad iyo mimarTuli. `Zveli cxovrebis~ revoluciuri

ngrevisa da warsulis uaryofis alternativad marjaniSvilma

sazogadoebas mouwoda Zveli kulturis (xalxuri, folkloruli

tradiciebis) gadarCenasa da am gziT qarTuli `yofa-Cvevebis~

firze asaxvisaken: `Cveni kinosuraTebis pirveli amocana unda

iyos Zveli yofa-cxovrebis adaTebis da zne-Cveulebebis

aRbeWdva....~ 13 , _ werda marjaniSvili.

faruli gangaSi da sabediswero winaTgrZnoba gansakuTrebiT

gamoarCevda mis erT-erT werils: `ispoba Zveli tipebi, icvleba

zne-Cveulebani, iqmneba axali cxovreba, xolo Zveli male

daviwyebas miecema.... sanam jer kidev ar moxda yvelafris

ni vel i r eb a da S Ta nTq m a zoga der ov nu l toneb S i

(internacionalizmSi _ avt.) Cven unda aRvbeWdoT Cveni

samSoblos yvela kuTxis cxovreba, egzom kolorituli da

egzom nairferovani. ramdeni aseTi Zveli, ubadlo legenda,

zRapari da moTxroba gvaqvs, rom msgavsi sxva xalxebs ara

aqvT...~, _ werda qarTveli reJisori.

erovnuli dramaturgiis krizisisgan gamosavals marjaniSvili

xalxuri Teatris da satiruli komediis tradiciebTan mWidro

236 237


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kavSirSi xedavda. magaliTebad asaxelebda saeklesio dResaswaulebs,

ferxuls, mayrobisa da berikaobis tradiciebs. 14 (1924)

marjaniSvilis filmi `samaniSvilis dedinacvali~ e.w.

kinoapologetTa futuristuli Teoriebis gamoZaxilad iqca.

`poeti misaRebia, rogorc scenari~, _ acxadebdnen qarTveli

futuristebi, 15 isini uaryofdnen tradiciul literaturul

siuJetsa da sufTa Janrebs: `siuJeti rac ufro idioturia,

miT ukeTesi~, _ acxadebdnen futuristebi da upiratesobas

aniWebdnen sacirko sanaxaobas, usityvo eqspresias. F

platonis mier dedinacvlis anu sapatarZlos Zieba

avantiurul Tavgadasavals emsgavseba da moicavs ramdenime

sacirko nomers. magaliTad, gavixsenoT moxuci bekinas arSiyi

soflis qalebTan, sadedinacvlos `xmauriani~ motaceba, maSvloba,

qorwili, imeruli maspinZloba da a. S.

marjaniSvilma, mxatvar mixeil WiaurelTan erTad, ekranze

warmoaCina literaturul personaJTa groteskul-SarJuli

tipebi, mimarTa tradiciuli kostumis eqscentrikul, klounadur

stils: bekina samaniSvilis utrirebuli formis grZeli Tmawveri,

Coxis uzarmazari Wiqebi da personaJTa zedmetad masiuri,

didi boxoxebi (hiperbolis xerxi).

filmis personaJebi groteskisa da karikaturis obieqtebad

iqcnen: aznaur platonis kexiani cxviri (antikuri profilis

SarJi), vazis lerwisgan Sekruli gvirgvini dionises kultis

parodirebas axdenda. Rimilismomgvrelia scena, roca stumris

gamoCeniT damfrTxali qaTmebi aforiaqebulebi darbian ezoSi,

am dros maspinZlebi jargvalSi imalebian, rom rogorme Tavidan

airidon maspinZlobis movaleoba.

sadedinacvlos motaceba Capliniseuli komizmiT gaTamaSda

(qarTveli futuristebi da `feqsebi~ aidealebdnen Caplinis

virtuozul plastikas): moxuci sapatarZlos motacebis motivi

sadedinacvlos umziTvobaa _ Ramis sibneleSi cxenze

amxedrebuli mayrioni zedmetad `gairjeba~ da nabadSi gaxveul,

sakmaod mZimewonian moxuc sapatarZlos, dabneulobisgan miwaze

`daanarcxebs~. filmSi saxumaro triukebis mTeli kaskadia:

mayrionis moCvenebiTi ayal-mayali, Tofis gasrola soflis

gasagonad an maWanklobis scenebi, sadedinacvlos keklucoba

moyvrebis winaSe da misi ferumariliT SeRebva, an kidev, oTaxSi

`feqsebi~ da 20-iani

wlebis qarTuli kinoavangardi

Caketili bekinas foriaqi da nerviuli wriali, roca `satrfos~

naxvis surviliT gulanTebuli moxuci cnobismoyvareobiT

gaixedavs karis WuWrutanaSi, magram moulodnelad kari gaiReba

da Tavmomwone sasiZo SubliT `Seejaxeba~ kars... yvela es

epizodi uxeSad arRvevda kldiaSvilis literaturul teqsts

da saxaliso, bufonadur nomrebs warmoadgenda filmSi.

donkixotiseuli SemarTebiT jaglag cxenze amayad amxedrebuli

platonis `mogzauroba~ da eqscentrikuli Tavgadasavlebi

ZiriTadad naturaze _ Ria cis qveS warimarTeboda. (servantesis

klasikuri romanis citireba).Mmoqmedebis gadatana Ria cis

qveS, aseve damaxasiaTebelia `berikaoba-yeenobis~ dResaswaulisTvis.

msgavsi meTodis gamoyeneba surdaT marjaniSvilsa da maiakovskis,

rodesac, 1924 wels, poema `misteria bufis~ Tbilisis

funikuliorze dadgma ganizraxes. `misteria bufs~ maiakovski

uwodebda `cirks~, piesis moqmedebas `samyaros miniaturas cirkis

kedlebSi~, xolo personaJebs _ cirkis msaxiobebs. Sesabamisad,

maiakovskis piesa sacirko nomrebisgan Sedgeboda.

marjaniSvilisa da kinoavangardis saintereso urTierTkavSirze

mianiSnebs futuristuli `TavxedobiT~ gamorCeuli epizodi

`samaniSvilis dedinacvalSi~: filmis erT-erT gmirSi (msaxuri

malaqia) mayurebeli advilad aRmoaCens msgavsebas maiakovskisTan:

goliaTuri aRnagobis, tlanqi malaqia futuristi poetis

parodias warmoadgenda (megobruli kinoSarJi). cnobilia, rom

maiakovskis bavSvoba da yrmoba imereTs ukavSirdeba, amitomac

didi poetis es biografiuli detali filmis avtorebma tipur

imerul garemoSi komikurad `gaaamaSes~.

marjaniSvili aseve iziarebda qarTuli futurizmis

`postulatebs~, amitomac miiwvia man filmis scenaris

Tanaavtorad axalgazrda futuristi poeti nikoloz Sengelaia.

saxumaro triukebi da eqscentrika gamoarCevs `samaniSvilis

dedinacvalis~ TiToeul epizods.

qarTul futuristul JurnalSi H2SO4 muSaobis

gamocdileba Sengelaias kinoSi SemoqmedebiTi TviTrealizmis

saSualebas aZlevs da soflis arqauli garemo, xalxuri

folklori, imeruli yofis detalebi Tu adaT-wesebi filmSi

balaganur-bufonadur sanaxaobas qmnida: aznaurTa ierSelaxuli

odebi, morRveuli WiSkari, `Tavmomwoned awowili~ saqaTme _

personaJebTan erTad sacirko klounadaSi erTvebodnen.

238 239


oliko

JRenti

`feqsebi~ da 20-iani

wlebis qarTuli kinoavangardi

`feqsebis~ cnobili filmi `oqtombrelTa Tavgadasavlebi~

(1924), tinianovis ganmartebiT, warmoadgenda triukebis `grovas~,

romelsac ase `daacxrnen~ kinoze `damSeuli~ reJisorebi.

`triukebis da eqscentrikuli kaskadebis arealad iqca

peterburgis arqiteqturuli sivrce – taZris gumbaTebi,

saxuravebi, kolonebi, sakarnavalo atmosfero. filmSi `eSmakis

borbali~ (1926), feqsebma gamoavlines kinos SemoqmedebiTi arsi

– rac maT yvelaze metad axasiaTebT _ Janruli Tavisufleba. 16

qalaqma Zlieri gavlena moaxdina 20-ian wlebis peterburis

kinoskolis formirebaSi. qalaquri kulturis Tema gamoikveTa

wuwunavas `xanumaSi~ da gagrZelda mixeil Wiaurelis `sabaSi~.

wuwunavas film `xanumaSi~ (1924) msaxiobebTan erTad

moqmedebaSi CaerTo Zveli Tbilisi _ specifikuri

arqiteqturuli da kolorituli garemo. avanscenad iqca

(aivniani da baniani saxlebi, viwro, aRmarTiani, mokirwyluli

quCebi) iseve, rogorc `feqsebis~ fantaziis wyarod _ qalaqi

– peterburgi, romelsac jer kidev axsovda `wiTeli terori~,

`samxedro komunizmi~. `xanumaSi~ gacocxlda mSfoTvare da

fantasmagoriuli Zveli Tbilisis bohema, romelic komunizmis

`axal industriul epoqaSi~ ganadgurebis da daRupvis zRvarze

aRmoCnda. cnobilia, romKkino, rogorc qalaquri kulturis

nawili, Tavdapirvelad balaganur garTobas warmoadgenda.

cnobili kinematografistebis filmebSi qalaqi mTavari moqmedi

personaJia: gavixsenoTFfric langis berlini, felinis romi,

triufos parizi Tu niu iorki gansgsterul kinoqronikebSi...

film `xanumaSi~ gacocxlda e. w. moZravi Teatris, berikaobayeenobis

tradiciebi (moqmedebis gadatana Ria cis qveS, Tbilisis

quCebSi, gaCnda intriga, moxda mayureblis dayofa or mopaeqre

jgufad, iyo personaJTa gaqceva, devna, gadacma, grimi, niRbebis

morgeba da a. S.)A`feqsebis~ gaxmaurebuli speqtaklis

`qorwinebis~ Sesaxeb sareklamo afiSa iuwyeboda, rom es iyo

triukebisgan Semdgari samaqtiani piesa da didi mwerlis

`eleqtrofikacia~.. speqtakli Seicavda operetas, melodramas,

farss, cirks, varietes, amerikul cekvebs, iseve rogorc

marjaniSvilis `samaniSvilis dedinacvalSi~ (1926), wuwunavas

`xanumaSic~ (1926) dominirebda maSvlobisa da qorwilis Tema.

`feqsebis~ msgavsad, qarTul eqscentrikul komediebs gamoarCevda

klasikisadmi siyvaruli, axasiaTebda maRali xelovnebis uaryofa

da `dabali Janrebis~ (bufonada, cirki) aRiareba, agreTve,U

klounaduri elementebi. wuwunavam kinematografiulad gaiazra

qalaquri folklori, ferwerulad gaacocxla `dabali~

qalaquri kulturis (kintoebi, yaraCoRelebi) wiaRi. filmSi

warmoCinda Capliniseuli eqscentrika, reprizebi, saxumaro nomrebi,

gansakuTrebiT unda aRiniSnos kintoebis originaluri dueti

(dito- m. Wiaureli, mito-i. trapaiZe), romelic klounadis da

sacirko warmodgenis saukeTeso nimuSad unda miviCnioT.

aRsaniSnavia, rom filmi `xanuma~ kinoeqscentrikis enaze

afiSirebas uwevda im saprogramo Tezisebs, romlebic axmetelma

1923 wels wamoayena da amiT daupirispirda e. w. meSCanuri

anu moZvelebuli Teatris tradiciebs: `Zlieria qarTveli xalxi

Teatralobis potenciiT..... msaxiobi unda iyos celqi, giJmaJi,

rogorc qarTveli bavSvi...~. 17

filmze miwveuli Taetrisa da kinos msaxiobebi – Zveli da

axali Taoba, swored amgvar sificxes, temperaments, `bavSvur

sicelqes~, `giJmaJur~ TamaSs da Teatralobas avlendnen:

lxinismoyvaruli qarTveli Tavadi fantiaSvilis (l. kavsaZe)

qeifisa da muSti-krivis scena orTaWalis baRebSi, kintoebis

saxumaro reprizebi, qarTveli Tavadis `glova~ da mis mier

gamarTuli mama-papiseuli far-xmalis `panaSvidis rituali~

golovinis prospeqtze, beberi maWanklebis (elisabed

CerqeziSvilis da taso abaSiZis genialuri dueti) kinklaoba

da gacxarebuli Cxubi Tbilisis quCebSi, romelic namdvil

muSti-krivSi gadaizrdeba, an xumara kintoebis da turfa qalebis

udardeli lxini da cekva-TamaSi orTaWalis baRebSi, patarZlis

formaSi gadacmuli, «koWli da maxinji» xanumas (elisabed

CerqeziSvili) mier sasiZos `sapativcemulod~ gamarTuli

improvizebuli warmodgena, romelic namdvil cirkad iqca da a. S.

`xanumas~ cnobili epizodi, TeTri baldaxinis scena, sadac

qarTveli Tavadi panaSvids uxdis sakuTar samxedro

aRWurvilobas, Tavisi eqscentrikuli gadawyvetiT da nivTis

(Zveli, tradiciuli far-xmlis, muzaradis) dadaisturi

gaTamaSebiT, mogvagonebs kinoavangardis cnobil Sedevrs _ rene

kleris films `antraqts~ (dasaflavebis rituali).

240 241


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JRenti

`feqsebi~ da 20-iani

wlebis qarTuli kinoavangardi

`xanuma~ Seicavs politikur teqstebsac, rac qalaquri

folkloris wiaRSi bunebrivad gaTamaSda (politikuri satira,

rogorc sacirko-balaganuri xelovnebis nawili), mag., Tbiliseli

kintos (m. Wiaureli) da marqsisti politpatimris `damegobreba~

orTaWalis cixis sakanSi.

futuristebi upiratesobas aniWebdnen `qarTul primitivs~

_ xalxur warmodgenebs, saxiobiT Teatrs: `qarTul primitivs

saTanadod aqvs: jiriTi, xanjlebis TamaSi, sazandari, Sairoba~. 18

es iyo is principebi, romlebsac 1924 wels daefuZna irakli

gamrekelis da nikoloz Sengelaias qarTuli cirkis proeqti

saxelwodebiT `xedeira~.

proeqtis mixedviT (vizualurad warmaodgenda paraleluri

xazebisa da wris konstruqcias), cirki warmoadgenda sanaxaobas

da iyo `masiuri koleqtivis~ organizatori. cirkis konstruqcia

xalxuri Semoqmedebis tradiciebs eyrdnoboda da Tavisi

mxatvruli koncefciiT uaxlovdeboda wuwunavas films `vin

aris damnaSave?~. kerZod, amerikuli `bufalo bilis cirkis~

epizodebs. al. wuwunavam cirki gamoiyena, rogorc siuJeturi

da bufonaduri elementi, aseve, rogorc dramaturgiuli intriga

_ filmis sakvanZo momentebi cirkis irgvliv viTardeba. (nino

nakaSiZis amave saxelwodebis piesaSi amerikuli cirkis epizodebi

saerTod ar iyo). grandiozuli Sou-warmodgenis monawileebi

gaxdnen gansxvavebuli eTnosis, kulturisa da civilizaciis

adamianebi: amerikeli qovboebi, indieli aborigenebi, romaeli

meomrebi, afrikeli tomebi da a. S.

sacirko xelovnebam ekranze gamoavlina personaJTa mxedruli

niWi da cecxlovani, mgznebare temperamenti, laRi iumori, ubadlo

plastika da ritmi.Gguruli mojiriTeebis `mxedrulma nomrebma~

ganapiroba filmis eqscentrika da ritmuli mTlianoba (Tumca,

cenzuram filmis montaJi reJisoris unebarTvod Secvala, ramac

daarRvia ritmuli mTlianoba). ficxi da `xmauriani~ gurulebi

advilad axerxeben `betonis~ qalaqis – niu-iorkis Tanamedrove

ritmebTan adaptirebas _ msubuqad, moxdenilad cekvaven

foqstrots, laRoben, oxunjoben, moqnili, sxarti ileTebiT

erTvebian cecxlovani jazis ritmebSi.

Tavis droze marjaniSvilis `cxovrebis brWyalebSi~ iyo

iseTive epataJuri, da publikisTvis Sokismomgvreli speqtakli,

rogoric `feqsebis~ pirveli filmebi.Oswored marjaniSvilis

speqtakl `cxovrebis brWyalebiT~ (1911) dafiqsirda

mniSvnelovani etapi rusuli avangardis istoriaSi _ mxatvruli

eqsperimentebi gagrZelda 1932 wlamde _ am wels aRadgines

da ukanasknelad daidga hamsunis piesa `mxatis~ scenaze,

stanislavskim ki imTaviTve aRiara `revoluciamdeli Teatris

Secdomebi~, 19 rac upirvelesad gamoixateboda `gamomsaxveli

xerxebis TvalSisacemi efeqtebis miuReblobaSi~, sabolood ki,

es dadgma saerTod `miuRebeli~ aRmoCnda rusuli Teatris

repertuarisTvis (Tumca, 20-ian wlebSi marjaniSvilis es

legendaruli speqtakli, isev stanislavskis mier iqna

reabilitirebuli da mravaljer daidga). `cxovrebis

brWyalebiT~, faqtobrivad, dasrulda avangardis mSfoTvare epoqa

_Ddasrulda SemoqmedebiTi Ziebebis, Tavisuflebis, `xulignobis~,

individualizmis, avantiuruli eqsperimentebis etapi, riTac

ase gamoirCeoda XX saukunis 10-20-iani wlebi. 30-ian wlebSi

gabatonda beladis kulti, Camoyalibda totalitaruli sistema.

ispoba yovelgvari mxatvruli mimdinareoba da individualurobis

gamovlineba xelovnebaSi.

1. es sakiTxi vrclad aris ganxiluli statiis avtoris

sadisertacio naSromSi `erovnuli da socialuri sakiTxi qarTul

kinoSi – 20-iani wlebis kinoprocesTan mimarTebaSi~, Teatrisa da

kinos universiteti, 2006;

2. eTer guguSvili, kote marjaniSvili, Tb. 1972, gv. 156;

3. kote marjaniSvili, krebuli, xelovneba, 1961.Ggv. 77;

4. marjaniSvilis am speqtaklis Sesaxeb avtorma specialuri moxseneba

waikiTxa tromsos (norvegia) universitetis literaturis

saerTaSoriso konferenciaze 2007 wels. moxseneba statiis saxiT

Sevida krebulSi: Knut Hamsun and Georgian Modernism - Konstantine

MArjanishvili’s staging of In the Grip of Life in The Moscow Art Theatre

(1911), Hamsun I Tromso IV - Rapport fra den 4. Internasjonale Hamsunkonferanse,

2007, HAmsun-Selskapet 2008, Norwey;

242 243


oliko

JRenti

5. Юткевич С. И. Начало // Ваш Григорий Козинцев. t.I. gv. 52;

6. iqve, gv.74;

7. Молдавский Д. М. С Маяковским в театре и кино, М. , 1975;

8.

Юткевич С. И. Начало // Ваш Григорий Козинцев, Txzulebebi, tomi I.,Ggv. 39;

9. Каплер А. Я. О Грише, друге молодости… // Ваш Григорий Козинцев. С. 12;

10. Яков Бутовский Григорий Козинцев и Золотой век довоенного

«Ленфильма». , “КИНОВЕДЧЕСКИЕ ЗАПИСКИ”, # 70, 2005;

11. Тынянов Ю.Н. Поэтика. История литературы, Кино, М., 1977, gv.

346-348;

12. Тынянов Ю.Н. Поэтика. История литературы, Кино, М., 1977, gv.

346-348;

13. k. marjaniSvili, Pro Domo Sua, Jurn. `xelovneba~, 1925, #4;

14. kote marjaniSvili, krebuli, `xelovneba~, 1961, gv.401.;

15. Jurn. H2SO4, 1924, #1, gv. 16;

16. Тынянов Ю.Н. Поэтика. История литературы. Кино. - М., 1977, –

gv. 346-348;

17. v. kiknaZe, `aris Tu ara qarTuli Teatri qarTuli?”, aleqsandre

axmeteli, sandro, dokumentebi da narkvevebi sam tomad, t. 1, saqarTvelos

Taetraluri sazogadoeba, gv. Ggv. 49-50;

18. nikoloz Sengelaia, `qarTuli cirki~, Jurn. H2SO4, 1924 , #1;

19. eTer guguSvili, kote marjaniSvili, Tb. 1972, gv. 157-158;

gamoyenebuli literatura:

guguSvili e., kote marjaniSvili, Tb. 1972;

kiknaZe v., `aris Tu ara qarTuli Teatri qarTuli?~, aleqsandre

axmeteli, sandro, dokumentebi da narkvevebi sam tomad, t. 1, saqarTvelos

Taetraluri sazogadoeba;

marjaniSvili k., krebuli, `xelovneba~, 1961;

marjaniSvili k., Pro Domo Sua, Jurn. `xelovneba~, 1925, #4;

Sengelaia n., `qarTuli cirki~, J. H2SO4, 1924, #1.; Jurnali `H2SO4”,

1924, # 1;

Тынянов Ю.Н. Поэтика. История литературы, Кино, М., 1977;

Юткевич С. И. Начало //Ваш Григорий Козинцев, Txzulebebi, tomi I;

Каплер А. Я. О Грише, друге молодости… // Ваш Григорий Козинцев;

БУТОВСКИЙ Я. Григорий Козинцев и Золотой век довоенного

«Ленфильма»., “КИНОВЕДЧЕСКИЕ ЗАПИСКИ” # 70, 2005.

qeTevan trapaiZe,

xelovnebaTmcodneobis doqtori,

wamyvani mecnierTanamSromeli

qarTvel reJisorTa mier ucxoeTSi

gadaRebuli filmebi

(uaxlesi periodi)

qarTul sinamdvileSi arsebuli araerTgvarovani emociuri

foni axal Sefasebas Txoulobs. teritoriulad patara qveynis

kulturuli potencia mudmiv gadasinjvas saWiroebs. qarTuli

sazogadoebis cnobierebaSi nebismieri siaxlis damkvidreba Zalze

advilad xdeba, Tumca, rodesac amiT Tavs viwonebT, siaxlis

arsis gamorkvevis aucileblobas viviwyebT.

adamianis Tavisuflebis maradiuli Tema kacobriobam mWidrod

daukavSira pirovnuli Rirsebis, Sinagani damoukideblobis,

TavisTavadobis ideas (aseve maradiuls). Tu qarTuli sinamdvilis

am niSniT davinteresdebiT, vnaxavT, rom Tavisuflebaze fiqrisas

da, rac mTavaria, gansjisas, iSviaTad Tu gamoikveTeba pirovnuli

damoukideblobis motivi. arCevnis Tavisufleba `erTniSna~ cneba

araa. is adamianis cxovrebis yvelaze intimuri detalebis

sazogadoebisagan, tradiciuli ojaxisagan gamijvniT iwyeba da

kulturuli, materialuri interesebis sruli suverenitetis

uflebiT sargeblobs. kargad davakvirdeT: qarTuli sazogadoeba

Tavisi jgufuri arsebobis interesebs didi aqtivobiT icavs,

Tumca araviTar survils ar amJRavnebs iazrovnos pirovnebis

moTxovnaTa masStabebSi.

qarTuli kinematografi aTwleulebis ganmavlobaSi axerxebda

aesaxa es Tematuri dinebebi, ekranze. am vrcel speqtrSi ar

moviazreb etapebs, rodesac kinoSi esa Tu is Taoba sakuTari

saTqmelis metaforul, adekvatur Sesatyviss poulobda. Cven

sinamdvilisadmi damokidebulebis erTi, konkretuli aspeqti

gvainteresebs: rodis moxdeba Tanamedrove qarTveli adamianis

cnobierebaSi, Sedegad ki, xelovnebaSi pirovnebis Tavisuflebis

Zireuli gaazreba.

albaT, sakiTxis amgvari formulireba kategoriuladGJRers,

magram Tanamedrove qarTuli `sajarooba~ imsaxurebs misTvis

damaxasiaTebeli snobizmis da primitivizmis safuZvlian kritikas.

244 245


qeTevan trapaiZe

qarTvel reJisorTa mier ucxoeTSi gadaRebuli filmebi

informaciuli Tu intuitiuri gamocdilebis miuxedavad,

Cveni Tanamemamule Tavisuflebis arsis gasacnobiereblad ara

sakuTar Tavs, aramed sazogadoebriv sivrces mimarTavs, Tan

imgvarad, rom arc ki aRviZebs sakuTar TavSi bunebrivi protestis

impulss, arc ki cdilobs, gamijnos pirovnuli, vTqvaT, sruliad

intimuri interesi imisgan, rasac mas `gverdiT mdgomi~ sTavazobs.

igive tendencia airekleba tele da kinoxelovnebaSic.

aRniSnuli problema araa erTaderTi Tumca, Cemi azriT, aranakleb

mniSvnelovania, vidre xelovnebis sayovelTaod ybadaRebuli

finansuri arastabiluroba. dRevandel saqarTveloSi Semoqmedi

cdilobs yvelaferi, rac misTvis saintereso gmirs exeba,

nihilizmis zogad inercias daumorCilos. xSirad arc ufiqrdeba

gmiris pirovnuli niSan-Tvisebebis waSlis mizezebs. ra aris es,

Tu ara gmirSi miZinebuli damoukideblobis resursis anarekli?

TiTqos uCveulod JRers, magram individis mier sakuTari

Tavis Zieba (kvlav maradiuli problema), gansakuTrebiT

araerTgvarovnad da amave dros, sazogadoebasTan konfliqtis

sruli gaazrebiT igrZnoba im qarTvel kinematografistTa

filmebSi, vinc saqarTveloSi ar cxovrobs, magram aq cxovrebis

periodSi kargad gaecno am sinamdviles da arc amJamad grZnobs

mas sxvaze naklebad.

Temur da gela babluanebi, aleko cabaZe, dito cincaZe _

TiToeuli maTgani sxvadasxva konceptualur, saxviT-formiseul

kinonawarmoebs qmnis. CvenTvis saintereso TemasTan kavSirSi

ki aSkarad davinaxavT gmirisa da pirovnuli damoukideblobis

xedvis mkveTrad gamoxatul pozicias, survils _ gmiris

individualizmidan gamomdinare, mayurebelma sazogadoebrivsocialuri

problemebis gaazreba daiwyos da ara, piriqiT.

swored gmiri, adamiani gaxdes maZiebeli, sakuTari survilebis

`sapatio damcveli~ da ara, piriqiT. Tavad gmirma gadawyvitos,

emsaxuros sazogadoebas, Tu ara.

am reJisorebis bolodroindel namuSevrebSi: `memkvidreoba~

(Temur da gela babluanebi), `13~ (gela babluanis sareJisoro

debiuti), `dapireba~ (dito cincaZe), `rusuli samkuTxedi~

(aleko cabaZe) ara mxolod gmiris, aramed im samyaros sruliad

damoukidebel gaazrebas vawydebiT, sadac adamianebma

sazogadoebriv azrs, isev da isev, protesti unda gamoucxadon.

ratom icvleba swrafad da efeqturad pozitiuri

mimarTulebiT adamianis mier sakuTari uflebebis aRqmis kuTxe

im SemTxvevaSi, rodesac kinematografisti gansxvavebul samoqmedo

sivrces exeba?... Tundac es Sexeba periodul xasiaTs atarebdes.

Tu zedapirul analizs movaxdenT, erT-erT mizezad SeiZleba

Tanamedrove qarTuli xelovnebisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli Tematuri

infantilizmi dasaxeldes, imisgan damoukideblad, ramdenad

aqtiuria am mxriv sivrce, romelic Semoqmedma konkretul

droiT monakveTSi airCia (an iZulebuli gaxda aerCia).

es, erTgvar gulubryvilo, mozardisaTvis damaxasiaTebel

Taviseburebasac waagavs. igi `moTvalTvalis~ kompleqsisagan

mxolod maSin Tavisufldeba, rodesac darwmunebulia, rom

garkveuli drois ganmavlobaSi sakuTar survilebsaa mindobili.

sruliad axalgazrda, kinematografist gela babluanis

sadebiuto filmi `13~, Sorsaa dasavluri fsevdosinamdvilis

im niSnebisgan, romelsac, samwuxarod, xSirad vxvdebiT saswavlosadebiuto

filmebSi (ara mxolod qarTulSi).

axalgazrda gmiri naxevradmistikur samyaroSi asketuri,

banaluri da arakomfortuli yofidan xvdeba, mistikur TamaSis

wesebsac ecnoba. Tumca, mTavari dramatuli faqtori isaa, rom

ara mxolod ecnoba, aramed mis fatalur wreSic Caebmeba.

sikvdilTan da yofis momakvdinebel erTferovnebasTan TamaSi

fsiqo-emociuri jaWvis logikiT gviTrevs.

rogorc xSirad xdeba sadebiuto da mcirebiujetian filmebSi,

amjeradac mTavar rols araprofesionali msaxiobi (giorgi

babluani) asrulebs. Semsruleblis funqcia, Temaze improvizacia

swored profesionali kinomsaxiobis mTavar unar-CvevebSi

moiazreba, magram kinom Tavisi arsebobis ganmavlobaSi daakonkreta

araprofesionali msaxiobis, rogorc SesaZlebeli da

gamarTlebuli mxatvruli movlenis daniSnuleba. es praqtika

Zalze frTxil damokidebulebas, mkveTr konceptualur amocanas

moiTxovs avtorisagan. gela babluanis mxatvruli amocana, misi

muSaobis stili advilad da sakmaod sainteresod iTvisebs am

gamocdilebas, rac debiutSive gamoikveTa.

filmSi `13~, naTeli dramaturgiuli koncefciis garda,

formasa da Canafiqrs Soris axalgazrda avtoris wminda

intuiciur harmoniul Tanxvedras vgrZnobT. gmiri fatalistis

246 247


qeTevan trapaiZe

qarTvel reJisorTa mier ucxoeTSi gadaRebuli filmebi

Tvisebebsac amJRavnebs. misi maradiuli, Sinagani, Tundac utyvi

borgva, Tanamedroveobis tyve axalgazrda kacis gancdis

organuli nawilia. rogor xdeba misi diskomfortis arsis

gaxsna, an ratom aris mTavari gmiri ase SemaSfoTeblad mSvidi?

iqneb es, gela babluanis mier danaxuli tyveobis axali, CvenTvis

nacnobi, magram gaucnobierebeli wesia?

filmis personaJebi erTmaneTs sikvdilTan TamaSis wesebs

sTavazoben. firi Sav-TeTria, rac kidev ufro amZafrebs yofis

simartivis SegrZnebas.

ubraloeba qcevaSi, saqcielis motivaciis mistificireba _

yovelive es TviTmiznis STabeWdilebas ar tovebs. rogorc

Cans, axalgazrda avtori pirovnebis cnobierebis Tavisuflebis

problemisa da martoobis Temis sruliad damoukidebel

interpretacias gvTavazobs. saqarTveloSi droebiT Camosuli

gela babluani erT-erT, metad sityvaZunw interviuSi ambobda,

rom am upretenzio mcdelobaSi (igulisxmeba filmi `13~),

ufro metad Temis TviTganviTarebis process grZnobda, vidre

gamiznul da aqtiur, mosalodnel qmedebebs. vfiqrob, es sakmaod