saxelovnebo mecnierebaTa Ziebani #1 (38), 2009 ART SCIENCE ...

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saxelovnebo mecnierebaTa Ziebani #1 (38), 2009 ART SCIENCE ...

UDC(uak) 7(051.2)s-364saqarTvelos SoTa rusTavelis Teatrisa da kinos saxelmwifouniversitetisaxelovnebo mecnierebaTa Ziebani #1 (38), 2009saredaqcio sabWoguliko javaSvilinana doliZenino sanadiraZeliteraturuliredaqtorimariam iaSviligarekanis dizainerilevan dadianidamkabadonebeliekaterineoqropiriZekoreqtorimanana goSaZegamomcemlobisxelmZRvanelimaka vasaZekrebulisaTvis mowodebuli masalauzrunvelyofili unda iyosSesabamisi samecniero aparatiT. Tanunda axldes monacemebi avtorissamecniero kvalifikaciis SesaxebqarTul da inglisur enebze,agreTve naSromis inglisurenovanireziume.krebulis stamburi gamocemaegzavneba sxvadasxva saerTaSorisokvleviT centrebs.naSromebi mogvawodeT dacnobebisaTvis mogvmarTeT:0102, Tbilisi, daviT aRmaSeneblisgamziri #40, SoTa rusTavelisTeatrisa da kinos universiteti,II korpusi.tel/faqsi: +995 (32) 936 408mob: +995 (95) 305 060+995 (55) 218 292E-mail: kentavri@tafu.edu.geWeb: www.tafu.edu.geSinaarsiT e a t r m c o d n e o b amaia goSaZezeciuri fskeris mkvidri ............................................................................10maka vasaZerobert sturuas saTeatro enis formirebissakiTxisaTvis ......................................................................................................15maia kiknaZetaiuri da qmeruli nangi .............................................................22marika mamacaSvilieqsperimentatori bruki ..................................................................................28lamara RonRaZemsaxiobis aRzrdis problemismogvarebis gzebi Zvel saqarTveloSi ...........................................................32laSa CxartiSvilimsaxiobisa da reJisoris sinTezis safuZvlissakiTxisTvis XX saukunis 40-ian wlebSi .............................................47levan xeTagurimesame realoba ...............................................................................................................54k i n o m c o d n e o b aoliko JRentirusuli kinovesternis `namdvili kavkasielebi~ ............................62m e d i o l o g i aTea mJavanaZesaqarTvelos radio, rogorc saxelmwifos marTvisinstrumenti (1957-1990) .....................................................................................72TinaTin WabukianimontaJis struqturuli Semadgenloba .....................................................882 3


k u l t u r i s m e n e j m e n t iiuri mRebriSvilirogor unda daisaxos mizani .......................................................................98universitetis samagistro programa`Z v e l i q a r T u l is a T e a t r o x e l o v n e b i sa n T r o p o l o g i a ~nino darsaliamicvalebulis kulti qarTul sanaxaobiTxelovnebaSi ...................................................................................................................108sofiko xaCiZesaferxulo cekvebis arsi da daniSnuleba .............................................115`T a n a m e d r o v e m e n e j m e n t ik u l t u r a s a d a x e l o v n e b a S i ~elene babakiSvilisponsoroba, rogorc PR-is instrumenti ...............................................123marina balanCivaZemarketingi menejeris saqmianobaSi .................................................................127ia gabunia,lika yufaraZekinofestival `sesilis~ menejmentis zogierTisakiTxi ........................................................................................................................132sofio komlaZeorganizaciis marketinguli kvleva da misi marTvasagamomcemlo saqmianobaSi ............................................................................136natalia murjiknelipirovnebisa da jgufis marTva koleqtivSi ............................................142Tamar firosmanaSvilibiblioTekebis fasiani momsaxurebis ganviTareba ............................145caca jorjiaSvilituristuli firmis PR ...............................................................................150nino yuraSviliorganizaciis sareklamo saqmianoba,misi organizeba da srulyofa ..........................................................................154nino SarmiaSviliSromis motivaciis marTvis gaumjobesebaturistul kompaniaSi .............................................................................................159mariam CxeiZekulturisa da xelovnebis sferoSi kanonmdeblobisanalizi, efeqturoba da naklovanebebi ........................................................163mariam WumburiZepersonalis miRebisa da SerCevis princi pebiorganizaciaSi ...........................................................................................................168nino xuciSviliinternet-teqnologiebis gamoyeneba marketingulsaqmianobaSi .............................................................................................................1734 5


Teatrmcodneoba8 9


zeciuri fskeris mkvidrimaia goSaZeТогда я понял, почемуОна во время снегопада,Снежинками пронзая тьму,Заглядывала в дом из сада. 1adamianis pirovnebad qcevis, misi cnobierebis zrdisa dagafarToebis gza ama Tu im saxiT yovelTvis gareganidanSinaganze mimarTebis gadatanis, siRrmiseulis, arsobrivis,farulis wvdomisken swrafvis gamomxatvelia _ nacnobisa daCveulis damcveli myudroebidan ucxosa da ucnobismiusafrobaSi mogzaurobis maradiuli odiseis warmomCenni.albaT, amitomac goeTeseul `faustSi~ kolbaSi moqceulsada srulad dabadebis msurvel embrion homunkulusnaTelmxilvelebi (berZnuli miTologiidan cnobil brZenkacTasameba) usafrTxo zedapiris mitovebasa da okeanis fskerzegadasaxlebas urCeven. WeSmaritebis naTlisken (romlissimbolodac uxsovari droidan moyolebuli mzis metaforamoiazreba iseve, rogorc sicocxlis daudgromeli stiqiisgamomxatvelad wylis stiqia) gasvlis SesaZleblobas Sinaganisacxovrisis SecvlaSi xedaven.Pprotevsi:`mzis cxovelmyofel naTel sxivTaTvismkvdari qmedeba fuWia, uqmixmeleTze yofna ar rgebs sicocxles,udReurobas amkvidrebs mxolod,gxdis mowuwune araraobad,maS, gadasaxldiT wylis stiqiaSi,okeaneSi daideT bina.~ 2embrionul mdgomareobaSi `gaWedil~ homunkulus, okeanisfskeris mkvidrni xmeleTidan wylis moZrav stiqiaSigadasaxlebas urCeven, uZravidan – moZravSi, gareganidan –SinaganSi, zedapirulidan – siRrmiseulSi, xilulidan –uxilavSi, nacnobidan – ucnobSi `CayvinTvisken~ mouxmobenarsebiTad, sicocxlis Sinagan wyarosTan ziarebiT, garedanganpirobebulobis ZaliTa da inerciiT arsebobis daxSuliwris garRvevisken mouwodeben.aRsaniSnavia, rom okeanis fskeris mkvidris rCevebi Tumowodebebi simbolur niSan-xatTa, metaforaTa, alegoriulminiSnebaTa saxiT gamoiTqmis. yovelTvis amouwuravi siRrmiseulimravalsazrisianobiT damuxtuli simboluri niSan-xati ukveTavisTavadaa yovelive sworxazovnis, erTmniSvnelovnis,zedapirulis, calmxrivis, calsaxad gacxadebulis, mzamzareuladmowodebul-axsnilisa Tu erTxel da samudamod dadgenilgagebulisuarmyofeli, marad axlis mSobadi SemoqmedebiTistiqiis gamomxatveli.zeciuri fskeris mkvidris Sesmena, upirvelesad, sworedSecnobas, wvdomas, CaRrmavebas _ gareganidan Sinaganze,zedapirulidan siRrmiseulze, cxadidan farulze,erTmniSvnelovnidan mravalsazrisianze mimarTebis gadatanasmoiTxovs.homerosis `odiseaSi~ (romlis erT-erT personaJad kvlavokeanis fskeris mkvidri protevsi gvevlineba) naTelmxilveli`mzamzareulad~ aravis umxels simarTles. rCevis miReba misganara ubralod msurvels, aramed simarTlis gasagebaddauRalavad da Seupovrad mebrZols ZaluZs mxolod. okeanidanxmeleTze drodadro amosul misans miZinebisas dadarajebulimenelaosi Seipyrobs. aTasgvari saxecvlilebis miuxedavad,sxvadasxva mtaceblad, urCxulad, cecxlad da wyladgardaqcevis miuxedavad, protevsi verafriT gausxlteba xelidanSeupovar, uSiSarsa da sxart menelaos. mxolod metoqisRirsebebSi darwmunebisas ibrunebs protevsi Tavis namdvil,pirvandel saxes da menelaos sasurvel simarTles amcnobs.RmerTebic da misnebic ara mxolod qaragmebiT, miniSnebebiT,alegoriebiT, mxatvruli metaforebiTa da simboloebiT amxelenTavianT saTqmels, aramed mudmivad saxecvlilni evlinebianhomerosiseul gmirebs.sibrZnis qal-RmerTi aTina-paladec Tavisi rCeuli gmirebiswinaSe sxvadasxva saxiT _ maTTvis nacnob Tu ucnob adamianis10 11


maia goSaZezeciuri fskeris mkvidrianda frinvelis saxiT, `wardgeba~, ufro swored ki gaielvebs.WeSmaritebis naTelis am gaelvebis aRqma-gancdis, misi `daWeris~,misi cnobisa da mis winaSe `SeCerebis~ unari, arsebiTad, yofiTirealobisa da cnobierebis sazRvrebidan gasvlis, cxovrebisada azrovnebis Cveul nakadidan `amovardnis~ unari homerosiseulgmirTa rCeulobis utyuar dasturad iqceva. odisevsis TqmiT,yvelaze goniersac ki uWirs misi mfarveli RmerTebisa damaT mier qaragmebiT naTqvamis gageba _ arsebiTad ki, gareganisinamdvilis macduri mravalsaxovnebis miRma movlenebis faruli,siRrmiseuli arsis wvdoma.RvTaebrivTan Sexvedrisa da misi cnobis mzaobas avlensodisevsis Rirseuli vaJiSvili da memkvidre telemaqe. telemaqeerTaderTia, vinc mis saxlSi gamarTul wveulebaze mosulTaSoris taviis mbrZanebel mendesSi qalRmerT aTinas Seicnobs.swored sxvebisTvis miuwvdomlis wvdomis unariT gamorCeulmaspinZels gaumxels aTena-palada Tavis saTqmels, Semdgom kifrinvelad qceuli myisierad gauCinardeba. sibrZnis qalRmerTissityvebi uryev rwmenas Caunergaven RvTaebrivis Sesmenis niWiTgamorCeul telemaqes. `mTeli arsebiT SeigrZno idumalTanSexvedris mniSvneloba _ RmerTis cnobisas TrTolvam Seipyro~. 3RvTaebrivTan Sinagani Sexvedris mistikuri wamimoulodnelad gaielvebs mokvdavis winaSe da mxolod yofniseulsifxizleSi mdgomisTvisaa SesaZlebeli misi SegrZneba da masTanziareba.aTasgvarad gardasaxuli protevsis msgavsad mudam maiassafariT Semosili sinamdvile arasodes gvevlineba pirdapiri,zedapirze `motivtive~ TvalsaCinoebiT, arasodes gveZlevalangarze morTmeuli ZRvnis _ amomwuravi pasuxebis,`mzamzareuli~ rCevebis, miznebis, sazrisebis, axsna-ganmartebebis,mowodebebisa Tu cxovrebis warmmarTvel gezTa saxiT.sinamdvilis WeSmariti, siRrmiseuli arsi Secnobisken mudmivswrafvas, mudmiv Sinagan aqtivobas, garedan gapirobebulobisCvevisa da inerciis ZaliT azrovnebis daZlevas, merabmamardaSvils Tu davesesxebiT, azrovnebis sizarmacis daZlevasmoiTxovs.zRvasaviT cvalebadi, sxvadasxva feris da ier-saxis mimRebida am garegan metamorfozebSi TiTqmis mouxelTebeli protevsisalegoriuli saxe xiluli sinamdvilis uxilavi arsis wvdomis,masTan `Sexebisa~ da masTan ziarebis sirTules warmoaCens.nebismieri Semosilobis miRma RmerTebis mcnob, gareganismiRma Sinaganis, farulis, arsobrivis mwvdom homerosis gmirTamsgavsad, Seqspiris pirmSo daniis ufliswulsac ar surszedapirze motivtive TvalsaCinoebas dasjerdes, sworedxilulis sadarajoze mdgari cixe-simagris sapatio memkvidrediqces. `sulac ar msurs is, rac Cans mxolod~ 4 , _ ambobsamjerad aCrdilis saxiT warmoCenil, ara amasofliseuli xmisSemsmeneli hamleti.merab mamardaSvilis TqmiT, sicocxle (cxadia, ara vitaluriTvalsazrisiT) swored arsiseulis wvdomaSi vlindeba, imiswvdomaSi, Tu ra xdeba, ras grZnob an ra gsurs sinamdvileSi.`dakargulia is dro, rodesac SegeZlo cocxali yofiliyavi,magram aryofna amjobine. mogeca niSani, Sen ki xelidan gauSvi,xelidan gauSvi imiT, rom ar SeCerdi da ar imuSave,STabeWdilebis im SuqSi, pirdapir sulSi rom girtyamselvasaviT. unda SegeZlos Senken momarTuli sityvis wakiTxva.TviTrealizaciis sfero swored cnoba-arcnobis sferoa.SesaZloa Sexvde RmerTs da ver icno masSi RmerTi, SexvdeSenTvis kuTvnil grZnobasa Tu STabeWdilebas, magram gverdiauaro~. 5nacnobisa Tu ucnobis, RmerTebisa Tu misnebis, aCrdilebisaTu frinvelebis _ arsebiTad ki ama Tu im saxiT warmoCenilizeciuri fskeris mkvidris Sesmena, sinamdvilis zedapiris zantadmijaWvul mzeris uZraobidan, movlenebis siRrmiseuli arsiswvdomisken moZraobis dawyebis _ empiriul Zvel kacSi (okeanisfskerze CaZiruli ganZiviT) CaZiruli TviTobisken savaligzis Ziebis gamomxatvelia.Sinagani `sinamdvilis~ idumali gzavnilis cnoba-arcnobismotivi sxvadasxva variaciiT meordeba vladimer nabokovis _ambebis SemTxzveli mwerlobis moZule da marsel prustismsgavsad, marTlac, `arsismieri~ STabeWdilebis SuqSi momuSavemwerlis SemoqmedebaSi.sakuTari Seucnobeli grZnoba miusafari mgzavriviT amaod`ukakunebs~ Carazul saxliviT Seusmenel nabokoviseul gmirs(moTxrobidan `gazafxuli fialtaSi~).12 13


maia goSaZemudam SemTxveviTobis wyalobiT Semxvedri da aseve`SemTxveviTad~ aRqmuli sayvarlis saxe drodadro gaielvebdaxolme `misi cxovrebis velze, ZiriTadi teqstis xelSeuxeblad- misi arsebis CrdiloeT, naTel polisze gamJRavnebuli ojaxuri_ marTalia, idiliis, magram ratomRac yovelTvis mis miRmamcuravi idiliuri peizaJis xelSeuxeblad~. 6 maTi bednierebisxangrZliv SesvenebebSi qalis saxe abezari ganmeorebadobiTubrundeboda cxadsa Tu sizmarSi - xan romelime wignisfurclidan Tavs daukravda, xan romelime sakidze amocnobiliqurqiT Tavs axsenebda anda akviatebuli musikaluri melodiisaTu sizmriseuli zmanebis talRaze wamierad SemoWrili isevuCinardeboda. TiTqos, drodadro ukan mouxedavad gverdiTCauqrolebda, sulSi ki gaurkveveli wuxilis bundovannakvalevs tovebda raRac gaurkvevelze, magram imavdrouladfuWad daxarjulze sinanulis saxiT. TiTqos raRac ucnobigaurkveveli CurCuliviT imis faseulobas amcnobda, romlisSemTxveviTi namcecebiT kmayofils, swored umTavresi xelidanusxlteboda. Zalze gvian mixvda, Tu ratom iyo maTi SemTxveviTiSexvedrebis adgilad qceul zRvispira qalaqSi aseTiganumeorebeli, wvimiT danamuli iis aromatiT gajerebulihaeri, ratom livlivebda ase jadosnurad zRva fialtaSi daratom cimcimebdnen aseTi gamomwvevi sikaSkaSiT varskvlavebifialtis Tavze.Sinagani xmis Sesmena Tu ver Sesmena - SenTvis kuTvniliazris, grZnobisa Tu STabeWdilebis cnoba-arcnoba, sworedgaredan ganusazRvrel-ganupirobebeli TviTobiT yofna-aryofnismaradiuli dilemis gamomxatvelia mudam - sakuTar TavTanSemdgari an Seumdgari Sexvedris gamomxatveli.1. Пастернак Б., После перерыва, собрание сочинений, т. II, 1969, с. 106.2. iohan volfgan goeTe, fausti, Tb., 1996, gv. 437.3. homerosi, odisea, Tb., 1986, gv. 19.4. Shakespeare William, Four great tragedies, Hamlet, New-ork, 1982, p. 43 .5. Мамардашвили М., Психологическая топология пути, Санкт-Петербург,1997, с. 62.6.Набоков В., Весна в Фиальте, Собрание сочинений, т. IV, Москва, 1990, с. 306.maka vasaZerobert sturuas saTeatro enisformirebis sakiTxisaTvis(qarTuli klasikis sturuaseuli interpretacia,1968 _ 1975 wlebi)(gagrZeleba, dasawyisi ix.:Jur. `saxelovnebo mecnierebaTa Ziebani~,#3 (36), 2008; #4 (37), 2008).robert sturuam yvaryvares mkrebelobiTi saxiswarmosaCenad, principulad mimarTa ekleqtizmsa da aplikaciurmeTodebs. speqtaklSi erTmaneTis gverdiT arsebobdnen daerTmaneTs erwymodnen fotoilustraciebi, amonaWrebigazeTebidan, dekoracia, musika: xalxuri, jazi, klasika dasxva. swored am principiT iyo gamarTlebuli scenis CasmaspeqtaklSi, brextis piesidan `arturo uis kariera~. zogadidanreJisorma konkretuli magaliTi aCvena. amasTanave bertoldbrextis piesa dawerilia, rogorc tragikuli farsi da amiTacSeerwya igi `yvaryvares~. ai, ras wers am scenis CamatebisSesaxeb literaturis kritikosi g. gaCeCilaZe: `aq aucilebeliaerTi momentis sagangebo gaTvaliswineba. iseve, rogorc yvaryvare,uic karnavaluri `gmiria~, am SemTxvevaSi mis istoriul`kostiums~, romelSic hitleri igulisxmeba, aqvs ukiduresadpirobiTi mniSvneloba. saqme isaa, rom p. kakabaZis komediisganzogadebis sibrtyeSi, yvaryvares adgilas igulisxmebaistoriis nebismieri karnavaluri mefe... brextis mierkonkretuli adresatis miniSnebas hqonda TviT germanulisazogadoebis mimarT meti publicisturi simaxvilismniSvneloba~. 1SemTxveviTi ar iyo is faqti, rom reJisorma speqtaklissxva rekvizitTan erTad scenaze globusi gamoitana. am globusssimboluri daniSnuleba mieniWa. reJisori kidev erTxel usvamdaxazs misi gmiris masStaburobas. amas garda mayurebelsmianiSnebda imaze, rom yvaryvare msoflios yvela kuTxeSi14 15


maka vasaZerobert sturuas saTeatro enis formirebis sakiTxisaTvisSeiZleba gaCndes, Tu amas dauSvebs da xels Seuwyobssazogadoeba.is faqti, rom yvaryvarem xalxis meSveobiT miaRwia gandidebiszenits, kidev erTxel mtkicdeboda `SeTqmulebis~ sceniT.mtkicdeboda is faqtic, rom yvaryvares arseboba ubralodawyobs im xalxs, radganac am SemTxvevaSi maTac, `ubralomokvdavT~, SeeZloT TavianT gandidebaze ocneba da am ocnebisrealurad ganxorcieleba. `SeTqmuleba, o, SeTqmuleba!~ _amcnobda mayurebels speqtaklis wamyvani. yvaryvares winaaRmdegSeTqmulebaa. ufro swored, iwyeboda brZola ZalauflebismopovebisaTvis yvaryvaresa da mowafeTa Soris. TamaSdeboda`qveynis mamisa da mis `mowafeTa~ Soris `ideuri~ ganxeTqileba~. 2yvaryvares kimano ecva. ragbisa da Ziudos ileTebis gamoyenebiTmimdinareobda es scena. erT mxares yvaryvare idga, meoremxares – mowinaaRmdegeTa mTeli jgufi. isini TavebiT awvebodnenerTmaneTs. es Serkineba mTavrdeboda imiT, rom yvaryvare erTinaxtomiT yvelas aswrebda `savarZelSi~ Cajdomas. xolosavarZeli ki Zalauflebis simbolos warmoadgenda. yvaryvaresmowinaaRmdegeni marcxdebodnen, magram Cemi azriT, am scenaSiyvelaze saintereso momenti Semdegi iyo: ramaz CxikvaZe –yvaryvare – eTiSeboda moqmedebis msvlelobas, `simarTlisaTvis~mebrZol `meamboxeTa~ zedaxoras da mayurebels mimarTavdacinikuri toniT: simarTlis ambavi aseTia!sabolood, speqtaklSi yvaryvare `mxilebul iqna~. rodesacmas niRabs Camoxsnidnen da gaaSiSvlebdnen, igi Tavisi gandidebissaboloo xriks mimarTavda – yvaryvares gmiruli sikvdilisurda. magram mas, es bolo imedic ucruvdeboda. `golgoTisgzaze~ mimavals bolSeviki sevastis sityvebi eweoda: TavidaanebeT, niRabi Camoxsnili aqvs, Cven veRaras gvavnebs daicxovros Tavisi namdvili saxiT. nacarqeqias saxeliT iarosqveyanaze.yvaryvares ar undoda jvarcmidan Camosvla, ebRauWebodamas, magram... jvarcmidan Camoxsnidnen, sanagve yuTSicgadauZaxebdnen da speqtakli `parad aleTi~ mTavrdeboda.magram speqtaklis finalis pirveladi varianti ufroesadageboda da amarTlebda mis mTlian reJisorul struqturas.yvaryvare kvlav aRdgeboda sanagve yuTidan da brundebodascenaze. `Cven speqtakls sul sxvagvari finali hqonda. radganqristed movlenili antiqristes saxe mudmiv modernizebasganicdis, logikuri da bunebrivi iqneboda misi aRdgomis scenac.Cven es scena gvqonda kidec speqtaklSi. raSi mdgomareobdaam scenis arsi? uaryofili, gandevnili yvaryvare xelaxlaevlineboda xalxs. amiT mindoda, kidev erTxel gamesva xaziimisaTvis, Tu raoden fxizlad unda iyvnen adamianebi.~ 3Cemi azriT, sruliad gaumarTlebeli iyo amgvari finalisSecvla.speqtaklSi, piesis aseTi cvlilebebis miuxedavad, robertsturuas polikarpe kakabaZis dramaturgiis ZiriTadi arsi ardaurRvevia, vinaidan TviT polikarpe kakabaZeATavisi SemoqmedebismanZilze yovelTvis amxilebda sazogadoebrivi cxovrebismankier mxareebs da es SeimCneva ara marto `yvaryvare TuTaberSi~,aramed mis mier daweril sxva komediebSic: `kolmeurnisqorwineba~, `kaxabris xmali~, `cxovrebis jara~ da sxva. amkomediebis gmirebi didi ostatobiT xmaroben sxvadasxva niRabs.reJisorma swored es erT-erTi mTavari Tema wamoswia winaplanze kakabaZis Semoqmedebidan. gaaerTiana isini erT saxeSida Seqmna mTliani, krebiTi, globaluri masStabebis Tema`yvaryvarizmisa~, swored amaSia reJisoris mTavari da dididamsaxureba.rogorc dasawyisSi aRvniSne, robert sturuam `Ralatis~Taviseburi interpretaciac SemogvTavaza. Cemi azriT –Tanadrouli da progresuli. dResdReobiT ratomRac miaCniaT,rom robert sturuas es speqtakli ar gamouvida. magram,rodesac me gavecani masze daweril recenziebs, raTa aRmedginaspeqtakli, mivxvdi, rom es azri ar unda yofiliyo marTali.reJisorma piesis sruliad axleburi koncefcia mogvca daSeiZleba am Tamamma nabijmac gamoiwvia sturuaseuli dadgmis`armowoneba~. magram konkretulad ras warmoadgenda piesiswakiTxvis es axleburi varianti? Sevecdebi am kiTxvaze pasuxisgacemas. pirvel rigSi, unda aRiniSnos, rom speqtaklSi aRararsebobdnen mkveTrad gayofili keTili da boroti saxeebi.reJisori ecada aexsna TiToeuli personaJis qmedebis xasiaTi,misi arsi. soleimani aRar warmoadgenda mxolod borot16 17


maka vasaZerobert sturuas saTeatro enis formirebis sakiTxisaTvisdampyrobels, isic raRaciT tragikuli adamiani iyo, vinaidanTviTonacATavisze zemdgomis mona gaxldaT. soleimanssruliadac ar surda saqarTvelos dapyroba, mas es daavales.soleimans sparseTSi yofna urCevnia. erTi suli aqvs, rodisdatovebs saqarTvelos da dabrundeba Tavis samSobloSi. arcmisi cxovrebaa saxarbielo, radgan isic ar aris SinaganadATavisufali.reJisorma piesidan mTlianad amoiRo daTosa da gaianesmijnurobis scenebi, radgan Tavisi koncefciis warmosaCenades siuJeturi xazi ar esaWiroeboda. xolo ruqaias da giorgis(igive erekles) sasiyvarulo scenebi imdenad iyo datovebuli,ramdenadac maT siuJeturi kvanZis Sekvrisa da Semdgom gaxsnisfunqcia ekisrebodaT. Secvlili iyo agreTve giorgis sikvdilisscena. igi reJisorma soleimanis jalaTebis xeliT mokla daamiT misi saxe daCrdila, rogorc gonebaClungi da ususuriarsebisa. sul sxvagvarad iyo warmoCenili oTar-begis saxe,romelsac e. manjgalaZe ganasaxierebda. oTar-begi gamoyvaniliiyo rogorc medrove, romelsac SeuZlia yovel dros miesadagosda kmayofili iyos. ra Cveni saqme ariso omi _ Cven, qarTvelebi,omisaTvis ki ara sicil-xarxarisTvis varT gaCenilebio, _ambobs oTar-begi. amgvari msoflmxedvelobiT cxovrobsigi.Aamitom ra gasakviria, rom robert sturuam oTar-begisaseTi xasiaTi dagvixata? gana, cotani arian dResdReobiTamgvari qarTvelebi, romelTac araferi da aravinawuxebTATavisTavis garda. sabolood, speqtaklSi zeinabisa(z. kverenCxilaZe) da saba beris (g. saRaraZe) meSveobiToTar-begi Seignebs Tavis Secdomas da SemobrundbasaqarTvelosken. robert sturuam imisaTvis, rom ufro naTladdaenaxvebina mayureblisaTvis misi dacemisa da Semobrunebisprocesi, yara-iusufis Ralatis scena bolo moqmedebidanpirvelSi gadmoitana da oTar-begis Tanamzraxvelad aqcia.speqtaklSi oTar-begis pirovnebis erTgvari metamorfoza iyonaCvenebi. piesasTan SedarebiT, metad iyo datvirTuli sababerissaxe guram saRaraZis SesrulebiT. igi zeinabTan erTadsaTaveSi edga samSoblos daxsnisTvis brZolas. sainteresodCanda misi saubari soleimanTan, rodesac ganumartavda, romdampyrobelic damonebulia, raki man sxvas daado borkili.gogi gegeWkoris anania erT-erTi im rolTagania, romelic TiTqmisucvlelad iqna gadmotanili piesidan speqtaklSi. g. gegeWkoriTamaSobda patiosan, vaJkac, patriot glexs, romelic TavganwirviTibrZvis Tavisi mamulisa da xalxis keTildReobisTvis. ananiasTavisi RviZli Svilis gawirvac ki SeuZlia am saqmisaTvis. zinakverenCxilaZe misTvis Cveuli dramtuli maneriT axorcielebdazeinabis _ATamar dedoflis _ saxes. mis TamaSSi Serwymuliiyo temperamenti daATavSekavebuloba. Zalian kargad gamosdiodamsaxiobs SvilTan Sexvedris scena, dialogi oTar-begTan dasikvdilis finaluri scena. ai, ras wers oTar-begTan dialogisSesaxeb kritikosi m. kostava: `oTar-begTan dialogis scenasasaubro intonaciisa da reCitativis sazRvarze mihyavdamsaxiobs, rasac moiTxovs ambis uCveuloba da Tavad faqti,rom saubrobs dedofali da ara ubralo mokvdavi. saubrissiTbom unda SeZras dacemuli adamiani, sindisis cecxladunda STaegznos skepsisiT daserili adamianis guls, magramzedmetma mgrZnobelobam rodi unda Seasustos sityvis Zala,movaleobis mTeli simkacriT mimaniSnebeli~. 4reJisoruli TvalsazrisiT, speqtakli mTlianobaSi pirobiTformaSi iqna gadawyvetili. aseve pirobiTi iyo speqtaklisgaformebac. msaxiobTa qmedeba Serwymulad aRiqmeboda ferTasimbolikasTan da dekoraciul simboloebTan, risidamamtkicebelic speqtaklis finali gaxldaT: rodesacdamarcxebuli soleimani nel-nela qreboda scenidan, kibezewiTel mosasxams tovebda. aseT simbolikas mravalgvari axsnaSeiZleba movuZebnoT. magram, Cemi azriT, wiTeli mosasxamisdatoveba imis mimaniSnebeli iyo, rom soleimanma, anu mterma,ki datova saqarTvelo, magram sisxlisRvra aq kvlavacgagrZeldeba, qarTvelebi axla erTmaneTis `Wamas~ moundebian,radganac soleimanis wasvlis Semdeg maT ar darCaT ZlieriwinamZRoli erisa, Zlieri mefe.rogorc davinaxeT, am speqtaklSic klasikuri memkvidreobisaxleburi wakiTxva moxda.`Temebis, motivebisa da problemebis siaxliT kacobriobasveRaravin acvifrebs dRes. sworad amitomaa sainteresoSemoqmedis axali TvalTaxedva, is axali kuTxe, is rakursi,18 19


maka vasaZerobert sturuas saTeatro enis formirebis sakiTxisaTvissaidanac cnobili ATemebisa da problemebis axali mniSvnelobaixsneba.~ 5robert sturua xSirad mimarTavs klasikas da es savsebiTgasagebia. klasika xom imitomac aris klasika, rom mudam cocxalia,mudam Tanamedrovea. igi mudam iZleva axali SemoqmedebiTigzebis, axali interpretaciis saSualebas.ATanamedroveobaWeSmariti xelovanisa ar niSnavs, rom mis Seqmnil mxatvrulnawarmoebebSi aisaxos mxolod da mxolod dRevandeli dRe,dRevandeli dro. rogorc brexti ambobda: Tanadroul problemebsdRevandel cxovrebaSi ufro Znelad davinaxavT, vidre maSin,rodesac maT gavitanT Cveni qveynisa da Cveni drois farglebsgareT.robert sturuasaTvis, rogorc adamianis, reJisorisa daSemoqmedisaTvis, erT-erTi mniSvnelovani problemaa brZolayovelgvari borotebis (socialuri, moraluri, zneobrivi dasxva) winaaRmdeg _ `garkveva imisa, Tu rogor itans adamianiCagvras, monobas, monobas fulisas, nivTisas, meore adamianisas.ra xdeba masSi, ratom eCveva kaci amas da ar ibrZvis gamostacossuli am mwuxarebas~, 6 _ rogorc Tavad reJisori ambobs.robert sturuas speqtaklebSi forma da problemayovelTvis harmoniulad aris Serwymuli erTmaneTTan.erTaderTi speqtakli, romelic ar warmoadgens formisa daproblemis, formisa da koncefciis harmoniul erTianobas,`xanumaa~, magram rogorc ukve aRvniSneT, miswrafeba brextisTeatris esTetikisaken `Canasaxovan mdgomareobaSi~ sworedam speqtaklSi gamoCnda, xolo saboloo, Camoyalibebuli saxiTTavi iCina speqtakl `yvaryvareSi~. robert sturua erT-erTinterviuSi ityvis: CemTvis TeatrSi mTavaria sazeimoganwyobilebis Seqmna. swored aseTi sazeimo ganwyobilebisapoTeozi iyo speqtakli `xanuma~.robert sturua _ reJisori, TiTqmis yvela Tavis speqtaklSimimarTavs grotesks. xolo groteski da gulgrilobaerTmaneTTan SeuTavsebeli cnebebia. rogorc kritikosi g.orjonikiZe ambobs: «Он поражен «вирусом беспокойства», трезвойпереоценкой ценностей, когда глубина вторжения в акт и чувстводистанций между автором и материалом обусловливает полнуюнеожиданностей игру: пульсацию иронии и взрывы лирическойэкспрессии, богатство спектров психологического и одновременноошеломляющую объективность символов, казалось быпорождённых необузданной фантазией.» 7Tu `samaniSvilis dedinacvalSi~ r. sturua adamianTaurTierTobis rTul sulier da socialur procesebs ikvlevdada warmoaCenda, `RalatSi~ da Semdgom ufro mZafrad`yvaryvareSi~ politikuri Teatris principebi Cndeba, racSemdgom `kavkasiur carcis wreSi~, `riCardSi~ da sxvaspeqtaklebSi viTardeba. es speqtaklebi TavianTi arsiT ebrZvianyovelgvar usamarTlobas. reJisori ar erideba situaciebisgaRrmavebas da gamwvavebas, raTa ukeT warmoaCinos keTili. amgziT afxizlebs igi Cvens gonebas da aqtiurad gangvawyobssamarTlianobis dasacavad.1. Jurn. `ciskari~: g. gaCeCilaZe `yvaryvares metamorfozebi~, 1974, #7.2. ix. iqve.3. Jurn. `Teatraluri moambe~: `dialogi yvaryvareze~, 1974, #4.4. Jurn. `sabWoTa xelovneba: m. kostava, `Ralati~ S. rusTavelissaxelobis saxelmwifo akademiuri Teatris scenaze~, 1975, #4.5. Jurn. `TeatrmcodenobiTi Ziebani~: d. mumlaZe, `yvaryvare~, 1978-79,t. VIII_IX.6. gaz. `axalgazrda komunisti~: `Teatri, Cemi siyvaruli~, 1979, #7. 05.7. «Советская музыка»: Орджоникидзе. Г., «Становление», 1976. №10.20 21


taiuri da qmeruli nangimaia kiknaZeTeatraluri formebis aRmoceneba da CamoyalibebaindoCineTis qveynebSi dakavSirebuli iyo religiurmsoflmxedvelobasTan, saritualo praqtikasa da kulturultradiciebTan. angkoris imperiisa (IX-XIV) da 16-17 ss.-istais saxelmwifoebis arsebobis periodSi sasaxlis karzegamarTul sakulto ceremonialSi meTojineebisa damocekvaveebis gamosvla ritualis Semadgeneli nawili gaxldaT.sacekvao pantomimuri da brtyeli tyavis Tojinebis sanaxaobisJanruli sxvadasxvaobis miuxedavad, maT saerTo musikalur,deklamaciuri Tanxleba da erTgvarovani repertuari hqondaT.Tu Tavdapirvelad Teatralur warmodgenebSi iseTi teqstebigamoiyeneboda, romelic ar iyo scenisaTvis gankuTvnili, magrampoulobda scenur interpretacias, mogvianebiT me-17 saukuneSispecialurad TeatrisaTvis `niangi~ da `kxoni~ (niRbianipantomimuri sanaxaoba) iwereboda da iqmneboda poemebi Zveliinduri eposis `ramaianas~ motivebis mixedviT, romelicwarmoadgenda im periodis indoCineTis (birma, kampuCia, tailandi)Teatralur xelovnebaSi gavrcelebuli ori ZiriTadi saxeobis– brtyeli tyavis Tojinebis (Crdilebis) Teatrisa da sacekvaopantomimuri sanaxaobis repertuaris ZiriTad Temebs. indoCineTiswamyvan Teatralur xelovnebaSi scenuri moqmedebadakavSirebuli iyo, pirvel rigSi, sityvasTan, deklamaciasTan(wamRerebiT), romelsac warmodgenaSi `teqstis mkiTxveli~,deklamatori kiTxulobda. aseTi saSemsruleblo praqtika,sadac warmodgenas komentatori hyavda da is iyo ambismTxrobeli, xolo msaxiobi (mocekvave, meTojine) usityvoSemsrulebeli damaxasiaTebeli iyo upirvelesad Tojinurisanaxaobebis taiuri nangisa da qmeruli nangis `sbeak Txom~isTvis.tailanduri termini `nangi iai~ 1 taiuri sityvaa. sbeak daTxom – qmeruli. `nangi~ da `sbeak~ niSnavs tyavs. `iai~ da`Txom~ _ dids gadataniTi mniSvnelobiT nangebs eZaxiantyavisagan gamoWril Teatralur suraTebs, amitom terminebiiTargmneba, rogorc didi tyavis pano (tailandSi da kampuCiaSisityva `nangiSi~ igulisxmeba dasaxeleba siluetebis Teatrissxva formebisa). vinaidan sityva nangi taiuri warmoSobisaada saxelwodeba SenarCunebulia qmeris siluetebis TeatrisdasaxelebaSi, am saxeobis taiur warmoSobaze miuTiTebs. Tumcanangis warmodgenebis safuZveli Zv. induri siluetebis TeatrSiunda veZeboT, magram udidesi roli mis ganviTarebaSiadgilobrivma nacionalurma tradiciam da kulturam iTamaSa.tais saxelmwifoSi, utyuari faqtebi nangis arsebobis Sesaxebmoxseniebulia 1458 wlis siamis sasaxlis karis kanonebisSesaxeb arsebul dokumentebSi 2 .nangi, romlis arsebobac ukavSirdeboda sasaxlis karzegamarTul ritualebs, tradicias inarCunebda da agrZelebdatais mefeTa mmarTvelobis rama I (1782-1809), rama II (1809-1824) da rama III (1824-1851) periodSic 3 .kxonisa da lakon nais 4 sanaxaobebTan erTad nangiviTardeboda sasaxlis karzec da amave dros – misgandamoukideblad. misi gamarTva damokidebuli iyo SemkveTissurvilsa da mizanze. iqneboda es saxelmwifo, religiuri Tusaojaxo dResaswauli, jaris dalocva, qorwineba, dabadeba,kremacia an sxva raime mniSvnelovani movlena tyavis TojinebismonawileobiT aRiniSneboda. warmodgenas specialuri Senobaar gaaCnda da is yovelTvis Ria cis qveS tardeboda mefisbaRSi, glexis ojaxSi an taZarTan axlos (kremaciis dros),sadac didi TeTri tilosagan gadaWimuli ekrani magrdeboda.ekrani, romelic gansxvavdeboda aziuri Crdilebis TeatrisaganTavisi zomiT (sigrZe 15 m., sigane 4-5 m.), ukana mxridandanTebuli koconis saSualebiT naTdeboda. mis win kimamakacebisagan Semdgari orkestri da qalebis gundiganlagdeboda. meTojineebis raodenoba, romelic amave drosmocekvaveebic iyvnen, 12-15 kacamde aRwevda. monawileTa aseTisimravle damaxasiaTebeli iyo qmeruli CrdilebiswarmodgenisaTvis, romelic tyavis suraTebis damzadebiT,repertuariT, speqtaklis mowyobis organizebiT msgavsia taiurinangisa. mxolod tyavis damuSavebis wesiT gansxvavdebianerTmaneTisagan, Tumca orive SemTxvevaSi tyavi gaumWvirvalexdeboda, Savad iRebeboda, prialdeboda da ixateboda. figurebi22 23


maia kiknaZetaiuri da qmeruli nangikoconis Suqze Sav TeTrad gamoiyureboda. feri mxolodwminda portretebis Seqmnisas gamoiyeneboda. viSnu lurjadiRebeboda, Siva – oqrosfrad da magiuri rituali, romelictyavis suraTebis damzadebisas tardeboda, upirvelesadgandegilis, Sivas, viSnus portretebis moxatvas ukavSirdeboda.danarCeni figurebisagan gansxvavebiT isini gansakuTrebulimasaliT iqmneboda, Siva da viSnu – daTvis an vefxvis tyavisagan,gandegili ki – make furisagan. damzadebul panoebs gancalkevebiTdebdnen sakurTxevelze, pativs miagebdnen, ZRvens miarTmevdnenda locvas kiTxulobdnen. mxolod am proceduris damTavrebisSemdeg iwyebdnen sxva figurebis gamoWras.figurebisadmi pativiscemis gamoxatva msaxiobebisTvisacsavaldebulo iyo, amitom ekranis win iCoqebdnen da patiJebdnenmTavar figurebs: Sivas, viSnus da gandegils, romlebic amavedros nangis mfarvelebic iyvnen da romlebsac undauzrunveleyoT kargi speqtaklis Catareba. amisaTvis samimeTojine wminda suraTebs cekviT Semoatarebda ekrans, xoloSemdeg masze ganaTavsebda. am dros dasi umReroda portretebs,adidebda viSnusa da Sivas, aqebda gandegilis keTilSobilebas.sTxovda RmerTebsa da sulebs, daeloca dasi da mayurebeli.amiT ceremoniali mTavrdeboda. qmerul nangSi gandegiliritualis saSualebiT uxmobda personaJTa sulebs msaxiobTasxeulSi da panoSi Casaxlebuliyvnen, amitom msaxiobsa dasuraTs Soris gavla ar SeiZleboda, radgan suli datovebdadroebiT sacxovrebels. amave dros gandegili icavda immsaxiobebs ubedurebisagan, romelTa gansaxierebuli personaJebicdramaSi ixocebodnen, vinaidan `gacocxlebul sulebs~ SeeZloT,ziani mieyenebinaT moTamaSisTvis, rituali tardebodaubedurebis Tavidan asacileblad. aseTi rwmena damaxasiaTebeliiyo im qveynebisTvis, sadac suli CrdilTan iyo gaigivebuli,rac sazogadoebaSi garkveul SiSs iwvevda Crdilebisfigurebisadmi. mag., kunZul iavaze sjerodaT, rom, Tu aCvenebdnenpandavebisa da kauravebis brZolebs, saxli, sadac warmodgenagaimarTeboda, daiwveboda an raime ubedureba daatydeboda.amitom mizanSewonilad miiCneoda sikvdilis scenebis epizodebigamoetovebinaT an Tu aCvenebdnen, mxolod specialuradCatarebuli ritualis Semdeg. e. w. `boroti sulebis~gamaneitralebel rituals vxvdebiT zogierTi panos (Siva,ravana) gamoWris – Seqmnis drosac, radgan maT sulebsostatisaTvis zianis miyeneba SeeZloT.warmodgena yovelTvis musikis TanxlebiT iwyeboda, rodesacmTxrobeli ityoda sityvas: `amjerad~ amiT niSans aZlevdaorkestrs, rom dakvra daewyoT. amis Semdeg meTojineebi iwyebdnengamosvlas. yovel msaxiobs Tavisi qoreografiuli monaxazihqonda. gansxvavebiT indoneziuri, Turquli an sparsuliTojinebisagan, sadac Cacmuloba, tanis agebuleba, garegnobaavlenda personaJis individualobas, aq es Tviseba ZiriTadadcekvaSi vlindeboda, amitom cekva mkacrad gansazRvrulimonaxaziT sruldeboda. es damokidebuli iyo imaze, Tu rapano eWira xelSi mocekvave msaxiobs. sacekvao nabijiSeesatyviseboda personaJis ti ps. Tu princesa seirnobda,meTojine moZraobda patara nabijebiT, TiTqmis exeboda muxliTiataks, Tu ravanas pano eWira, msaxiobi moZraobda xtunviT da a. S.rogorc dasawyisSi aRvniSne, nangis warmodgenebis ZiriTadisiuJetebi dafuZnebuli iyo induri eposis `ramaianas~ mixedviTSeqmnil motivebze, romelmac udidesi gavlena iqonia indoCinurkulturaze, literaturasa da xelovnebaze. laosis, birmis,qmerisa da taiur literaturaSi ramas TqmulebiT Seqmnilmanawarmoebebma (ramkeri-qmeruli, ramakiana-taiuri) upirvelesadpantomimur da Tojinur sanaxaobebSi pova asaxva. yvelazeZveli varianti (VII) `ramaianas~ teqstisa warmodgeniliaqmerulenovan literaturaSi, xolo XI saukunis angkoristaZarze gamosaxuli reliefi `ramaianas~ 5 nawyvetebisa zustadaagadatanili tyavis panoze da Crdilebis Teatris warmodgenaSiaCarTuli. ramasadmi miZRvnil taiur Teatralur poemebSi (sitastani, sitas gauCinareba, xanZari lankaze da sxva), romlebiciwereboda siamis sasaxlis karis poetebis mier, ramassasiyvarulo da saTavgadasavlo istorias mogviTxrobs. Tavadramas roli ki Semcirebulia da pasiur personaJad gvevlineba.misi mTavari Tvisebebi: gambedaoba, erTguleba, qmediTunarianoba,iniciativebi gadatanil iqna maimuni-xanumanis figuraze, romelicsaomari saqmis codniTa da mamacobiT gamoirCeoda. ravanaserTguli ramas mtrebis: rakSasebis da Tavad ravanas personaJebiaqtiurobas inarCuneben, xolo sita (sida) iSviaTad Cndeba24 25


maia kiknaZeekranze. ramas Zma lakSmani ki kvlav induri gmirisaTvisdamaxasiaTebeli erTguli Zmis idealuri TvisebebiT xasiaTdeba.tailandur nangSi aseve Cndeba induri poemisaTvis ucxopersonaJi ravanas tyve beniakai, romelic Crdilebis TeatrSidaibada.`ramanas~ siuJetebis popularoba imdenad didi iyo,gansakuTrebiT autias periodSi, rom (XIV s.-is Sua wlebiXVII s.-mde) taiuri `ramakiana~ ganixileboda, rogorcnacionaluri kulturis sakuTreba da rogorc `ramaiana~indoeTSi `ramakianac~ wminda teqstad miiCneoda. amitom misisiuJetebis damuSaveba sasaxlis karze gaxda privilegia samefoojaxis wevrebisa da aikrZala misi Sesruleba sasaxlis karisgareT (Tavad mefe rama II-m Seqmna ramdenime scena `ramakianadan~lakoni naisTvis, romelic mxolod sasaxlis karzesruldeboda).nangis warmodgenebSi gansakuTrebuli yuradReba eqceodamaimunTa gamosvlas. mocekvaveebi warmoadgendnen Savi da TeTrimaimunis brZolebs, romelTa panoebic scenaze or msaxiobscal-calke Semohqonda. Semdeg gamodioda mesame msaxiobi,romelsac xelSi orive maimunis xelCarTuli brZolisamsaxveli pano eWira (tiloze ori bambukis joxze magrdeboda).aseve calke tilozea gamosaxuli TeTri maimunis gamarjveba.mTxroblisgan mayurebeli Seityobda gamarjvebuli maimunismier damarcxebuli maimunis gakoWvis ambavs, romelic SemdeggandegilTan mihyavda. gandegili daarwmunebda mas, rom gamoeCinadidsulovneba da gaeTavisuflebina Savi maimuni. gandegilisTxovna sruldeboda. damarcxebuli madlobas uxdida gandegilsda scenas tovebda. siCumes musika arRvevda. Semdeg epizodSiravanas Spionebi gamodiodnen da yvebodnen. Tu ra xdebodaramas banakSi. SpionTa gamosvla taiur nangSi aucilebeliniSani iyo erTi epizodidan meoreze gadasasvlelad. panozeCndeboda omis scena, romlis Sesaxebac mTxrobeli winaswaramcnobda mayurebels. nangSi, piesis Sinaarsis gadmocema winuswrebda moqmedebas. mTeli warmodgena am principze iyoagebuli, anu, yoveli moqmedeba orjer aiwereboda, jer sityvierigadmocema, Semdeg Cveneba-ilustracia. es aris nangis mxatvrulitaiuri da qmeruli nangiena, misi gamosaxvis formebi, rac saerToa qmeruli da taiuriwarmodgenisaTvis. aseve mxolod nangisaTvis damaxasiaTebeliniSnebia: tyavis figurebis Cveneba ekranis ukan da ekranis win,romlis drosac msaxiobs da panos mayurebeli erTdrouladxedavs. panoze gamosaxuli figurebi ki yovelTvis dinamikaSia.tailanduri da qmeruli nangis msaxiobebi meTojineebic arianda mocekvaveebic, amdenad, nangSi, sxva Tojinuri TeatrisgangansxvavebiT, gansakuTrebuli yuradReba qoreografias eqceva(zogjer warmodgenebSi profesionali mocekvaveebimonawileoben), samagierod, Sesustebulia ferTa gamoyeneba damis simboluri datvirTva.taiuri da qmeruli tyavis suraTebi yvelaze didiamsoflios siluetebis Teatris istoriaSi.1. Соломоник И. Н., Традиционный театр кукол востока. М., 1983, с. 46.2. iqve, gv. 47.3. Корнев В., Литература Таиланда, М., 1971.4. lakon nai, taiuri klasikuri dramis erT-erTi saxeoba. masSimxolod qalebi monawileobdnen. warmodgenaSi teqsts deklamatorikiTxulobda. TamaSdeboda epizodebi `ramakianadan~.5. Марунова И. Б., Древный театр Клмеров. М., 1980, с. 36.26 27


eqsperimentatori brukimarika mamacaSviliarian reJisorebi _ mkvlevrebi, isini mudmivad cdilobengaerkvnen, gamoiZion is kavSirebi da urTierTobebi, romlebicTeatrsa da cxovrebas, msaxiobsa da mayurebels, mayurebelsada Teatrs Soris arseboben. es urTierTkavSirebi mudmivadmoiTxoven ganaxlebas, cxovrebis axali ritmis ayolas. isinieWvqveS ayeneben arsebuls, ukve ganvlils da tradiciulSisul axal-axal Sreebs pouloben. maT ricxvs miekuTvnebapiter bruki, ingliseli warmoSobiT da msoflio moqalaqemsoflmxedvelobiT. bruki, romelsac Teatris `veSapad~, `lomad~moixsenieben, erT-erTia maT Soris, vinc Teatrs dideba moutana.es ucnauri persona gansxvavebuli kulturebis moyvarulia.vfiqrob, is XX saukunis yvelaze didi eqsperimentatoria.brukma xangrZlivi moRvaweobis manZilze Teatris istoriisyvela etapi gaiara, yvela Sre gaSifra.piter brukis erT-erTi axireba afrikaSi gamgzavreba daiqaur mcxovreblebTan erTad speqtaklis dadgma gaxldaT.gansxvavebuli auditoriis Zebna reJisorisTvis kidev erTieqsperimenti iyo: SeZlebs Tu ara, `marsianelebs~ `alublisbaRi~ ise warmoudginos, rom maTSi emocia aRZras. Tu speqtakliSedga `... male unda warmoiSvas yvelaze mniSvnelovani ram:moTxrobili ambavis azrisa da adamianis sxeulis sinTezi.reJisori unda grZnobdes saubris rogori ritmi, rogorisaxeebia misaRebi swored am konkretuli auditoriisaTvis~. 1reJisoris samxreT afrikuli avantiura gacocxlebulmicvalebulze _ sabuTebis gadacemis scena, masTan erTadsulisac _ es aris kontaminaciis, daavadebis magia. ai, pirvelianimizmi primitiuli rwmenisa, romelmac moulodneli asaxvapova imigraciuli politikis biurokratiul formalobaSi,roca pasporti ukve sulis identuricaa. 2 `Sizwe Banzi estmort~ (`sizve banzi mokvda~) speqtakli reCitativi, speqtaklimonologi _ es lirikuli, Zalian piraduli, Zalian intimuriteqstia, speqtakli ki am teqstis ironiuli gamovlineba.Ppiesisavtorebi samxreT afrikelebi arian, msaxiobebi _ habib dembele(Abib Dembele) da vomba konga (Womba Konga) _ malidan dakongodan arian (TviTon bruki ganmartavs, rom inglisurenovaniafrikelebi ar gamodgebian am saqmisaTvis, vinaidan britanulmaimperiam meTodurad moaxdina ucxo kulturebis asimilaciamaTTan. xolo frankofonebi yvelas aZlevdnen Tavisuflebas_ swored imas, rac Teatrs ase sWirdeba). swored amitommsaxiobebi gaoceben sakuTari organulobiT _ eseni arianzangebi TavisiATavisufali, ukompleqso, cota SenelebuliJestebiTa da mimoxvriT.gardasaxva micvalebul donorad, TiTqos, sxva samyaroSigadasvlas, sxvis cxovrebaSi moxvedras hgavs _ eswarmodgenilia, rogorc kargi anekdoti, xumroba. dgeba XXIsaukune da `hamletidan~ moyolebuli (speqtakli `vin arismand~, 2000 w.) bruki kamerul speqtaklebis dadgmas iwyebs.misi Ziebebi erT mosaxvevs, erTaderT xatebas, erTaderT ideasukavSirdeba. is minimalisti xdeba. Tu gaviTvaliswinebT imas,rom bruki erT-erTia im mcirericxovan xelovanTa Soris,vinc cdilobs TeatrSi gadalaxos verbaluri mravalsityvebianitirania da saRi azri, misi eTnografiuli miswrafebebi savsebiTgasagebia (TviT bruki werda, rom TeatrSi mas, pirvel rigSi,sxeulis Tavgadasavali ainteresebs).piesis RerZi Zveli da tradiciuli Temaa. sulis gayidva,gind 30 vercxlad gind sicocxlis fasad, ra mniSvnelobaaqvs. medals ori mxare aqvs... gamarTleba yvelas moepoveba.am SemTxvevaSi sizve Tavis cxovrebas moCvenebas uyofs. espiesa 1972 wels TeTrkanianma mweralma thol fugardma daSavkanianma msaxiobebma John anim da Winston Ntshonam daweres.es aris moZravi TeatrisTvis dawerili piesa.Aes Teatraluriforma saSualebas iZleva, siciliT da moZraobiT ganmuxtos istkivili da damcireba, romlebsac zangebi TeTrebisgan saukuneebismanZilze iRebdnen.sizve banzi erT-erTi im mravalTagania, visac afrikuliaparteidi devnida. samuSaos uflebis gareSe darCena misTvismSobliur qalaqSi dabrunebis riskTanaa dakavSirebuli. daai, erT dResac is gzaze mkvdars gadauvlis, romlis jibeSicpasporti devs. Tavidan sizve orWofobs, magram bolos maincgadawyvets, sxvis tyavSi SeZvres. sizve roberti xdeba. manicis, ras tovebs, magram ar icis, ra elis.28 29


lamara RonRaZemsaxiobis aRzrdis problemismogvarebis gzebi Zvel saqarTveloSiadamianebi, romlebic saxeobriv qmedebas eweodnen, imazegacilebiT adre gaCndnen, vidre maT wvrTna-daostatebaze fiqrsSeudgebodnen. isini saweso ritualebidan da erTmaneTisgasamxiarulebeli mibaZva-garTobis sanaxaobebidan modian.Tavdapirvelad im niWierebiT, RmerTisgan rom hqondaT boZebuli.maT daostatebaze fiqri individis, rogorc damoukidebladmoqmedi piris gaCenasTan erTad Cndeba. sayovelTao-saxalxomasiurobidan individualuri Semsruleblis gamocalkevebises procesi gansakuTrebiT TvalsaCinoa berZnul TeatrSi.msaxiobis iseve, rogorc tragediisa Tu komediis warmoSobadionisesadmi miZRvnil dResaswaulebs ukavSirdeba.Zveli welaRricxvis VII-VI ss. saberZneTi. dionise _venaxisa da Rvinis kulturis damnergavi RvTaebaa, berZenRmerTTa Soris yvelaze axalgazrda da yvelaze popularuli.mas siamovnebac moaqvs da baraqac. amitomac adideben didiTavdaviwyebiT berZnebi. soflad Tu qalaqad grandiozuldResaswaulebs umarTaven yovelwliurad. mis sadidebeldiTirambebs mReris yvela. gamorCeulebze jer-jerobiT niWimianiSnebs. masiur-stiqiurobidan garkveuli sistemurobiskensvlis moTxovnilebas dro aCens. Cndeba pirveli poeti a r i o n iromelmac improvizaciuli sawyisi winaswar gansazRvrulCarCoebSi moaqcia, diTirambis magivrad sagundo simRerebisTxzvas mihyo xeli. SemdegSi, dionises magivrad, realuradarsebul gmirTa gandideba da gmirTa Tavgadasavlis Txrobacdaiwyes da mis Tavs gadamxdari epizodebis warmosaxvac.RvTaebis sadidebeli simReridan konkretuli gmirisTavgadasavlis Txrobaze da calkeuli epizodebis warmosaxvazegadasvlam bunebrivad warmoSva moTxovnileba adamianisa, romelicsadidebel gmirs ganasaxierebda. rogorc gvamcnoben, aseTganmasaxiereblad pirvelad, 534 wels, dionises dResaswaulzepoeti Tespide mogvevlina. meore tragikosi poeti esqilec,romelmac oramde gazarda msaxiobis ricxvi, Tavadve TamaSobdamTavar moqmed gmirebs. SeiZleba iTqvas, rom msaxiobisdamoukidebel profesiad qcevis procesi sofoklesTan mTavrdeba.mis mier gamoyvanil sam msaxiobSi protagonisti _ mTavarimoqmedi gmiris Semsrulebeli, ukve profesionali msaxiobia.poeti tragikosebi ki msaxiobTa wvrTna-daostatebas hkideben xels.Teatraluri ganaTlebis pirveli profesiuli saswavlebeliCv. w.-mde I saukuneSi romSi Seiqmna. misi damaarsebelia cnobiliromaeli komikosi msaxiobi da imxanad didad aRiarebuliTeatraluri pedagogi kvintus galus rosciusi (130-62 ww.).saswavlebelmac swored ase `rosciusis skolis~ saxeliTmoaRwia Cvenamde. deklamaciis xelovneba mas TviTciceronisaTvis uswavlebia, romelic Turme didad afasebdamis xelovnebas. didi romaeli poet horaciusis (65-8 ww.)mowmobiT, rosciuss sascenosa da oratoruli xelovnebisSesaxeb traqtati, anu saxelmZRvaneloc, Seuqmnia.aRmosavleTis qveynebidan Teatraluri saswavleblebisarseboba yvelaze adre, VIII saukunidan, CineTSia dafiqsirebuli.aRorZinebis epoqam antikuri Teatrebis gamocdilebamsaxiobis aRzrdis TvalsazrisiTac aaRorZina. msaxiobebisaRzrdas TeatrebSi dramaturgebi da ukve cnobili dagamocdili msaxiobebi uZRvebodnen.evropuli qveynebis Teatraluri pedagogikis ganviTarebaSi,didi wvlili aqvT saskolo TeatrebSi momuSave pedagogebs.Teatraluri pedagogikis ganviTareba ki gansakuTrebiT sagrZnobiaklasicizmis periodSi, rac didad iyo ganpirobebuli imiT,rom misi esTetika mtkiced gansazRvrul kanonebs emorCileboda.Teatraluri saswavleblebis ganskuTrebuli siuxviTgamoirCeva XIX s.-is dasawyisis evropa da ruseTi. aq axaliTeatrebis warmoSoba-ganviTareba dRis wesrigSi TavisTavadayenebs saTeatro xelovnebis swavlebis profesiuli kerebisraodenobrivi da xarisxobrivi zrdis moTxovnilebas.XIX saukunis meore naxevarSi reJisoris, rogorcdamoukidebeli profesiis, gaCenisas bevri ram Secvala saTeatroganaTlebis TvalsazrisiTac. msaxiobTa aRzrda-daostatebissaqme dramaturgebidan da msaxiobebidan reJisorebma gadaibares.amas isini warmatebiT axorcielebdnen, rogorc TeatralursaswavleblebSi, ise TeatrSi repeticiebze.32 33


lamara RonRaZemsaxiobis aRzrdis problemismogvarebis gzebi Zvel saqarTveloSisaqarTveloSic Teatraluri ganaTlebis profesiuli kerisdaarseba swored reJisorebis saxelTanaa dakavSirebuli. manamde,anu XX saukunis dasawyisamde, SeiZleba vilaparakoT msaxiobisaRzrdis problemis gadawyvetis sxvadasxva gzasa dasaSualebaze.msaxiobis xelovnebis aRmniSvneli Zveli qarTuli terminebia:`maxiobeli~ da `msaxiobeli~. trifon ruxaZis cnobiT,`maxiobeli~ iSviaTad, magram mainc mxolod uZveles qarTulZeglebSia moxseniebuli. sayovelTao xmarebaSi ZiriTadad ufro`msaxiobelia~ SemorCenili. amasTan, yofilan, rogorc `saRmrTosaxiobelni~, anu saeklesio, ise `msaxiobelni soflisani~, anusaero msaxiobni. xolo, Tavad `saxioba Zveli mwerlebis rwmeniT,iyo `xelovnebai~, romelsac `xelovanT moZRvari hyavda~. (1_29).es cnoba gansakuTrebiT Zvirfasia CvenTvis, radgan gvimowmebs,rom iyvnen isinic, vinc msaxiobobas `swavlobda, inaxavda daamdidrebda~ da isinic, vinc aswavlida, wvrTnida, aostatebda.am mimarTulebiT warmarTuli kvleva-Zieba ki imasacadasturebs, rom qarTuli TeatrSi, msaxiobTa aRzrdissxvadasxva forma arsebobda. iyvnen TviTnaswavlebic, arsebobdamsaxiobTa ojaxuri aRzrdis tradiciac, ostatebic wvrTnidnenda iyvnen `Teatronsa Sina aRzrdilnic~.kacobriobis mTeli istoria, albaT, TavisTavad arisTvi Ts ru ly ofis , Tv iTaR zrdis u wy veti p rocesi ,pirvelyofilebidan umaRlesi civilizaciisken swrafvaSi rompoulobs gamoxatulebas. am gzaze kacobriobis aRmzrdelmaswavlebeliiyo misive gamocdileba da is codna, ukeTesiarsebobisaTvis brZolaSi rom ugrovdeboda. TviTswavlebagulisxmobs garkveuli saqmianobis mimarT gansakuTrebulinteress, danaxulisa da gagonilis gaTavisebis survilsa damuSaobis procesSi dagrovili codna-gamocdilebisgamdidrebisaTvis Tavdauzogav zrunvas. Tu ramdenad nayofieriiyo swavlebis es forma, isic adasturebs, rom mudmivi qarTuliTeatric swored TviTnaswavlma adamianebma aRadgines. am TeatrissulisCamdgmelTa saukeTeso skola praqtika, TviTdakvirvebazedamyarebuli daskvnebi da TviTwvrTna iyo.uZveles qarTul TeatrSi msaxiobTa ojaxebSi aRzrdisgzac arsebobda. safiqrebelia, rom es iyo yvelaze efeqturigza, radgan momavali msaxiobis bavSvoba misi mSoblebisa damaT TanamoRvaweTa saqmianobiT gansazRvrul atmosferoSimimdinareobda da specialur wvrTnasTan erTad maTiyoveldRiuri saqmianobis yurebiTac iZenda codnis garkveulmarags. momavali msaxiobis garSemo bunebrivad iyo Seqmniligaremo, sadac yvelaferi dakavSirebuli iyo mSoblebissaqmianobasTan, awvdida informacias mis Sesaxeb da avsebdamis codnas.rasakvirvelia, maswavleblebi, romlebic Tavadve iyvnensaukeTeso Semsruleblebi, ojaxis wevrebis garda sxvebsaczrdidnen. berikaoba-yeenobis monawileTa ricxvi xSirad asamdeaRwevda, maSasadame, misi organizatorebi ojaxis, Tundacmravalricxovani, magram mainc gansazRvruli raodenobis imedadver iqnebodnen. savaraudoa, rom ostatebi ara marto erT,sxvadasxva sofelSic eZebdnen, agrovebdnen da wvrTnidnen amsaqmisaTvis gamosadeg, niWier axalgazrdebs. `moZRvari yrmasayovliTa saxiobiTa da musikiTa aswavebda; swrafl swavlobda,mciresa xanSi ostats gardaemata: mgosnobisa da saxiobisaoinebi sxvadasxva rigi gardaaWarba~... (1_79).ufro metic, Zveli qarTuli Teatris mkvlevar dimitrijaneliZes miaCnia, rom, `XVII_XVIII saukuneebSi saxiobisSemsrulebelTa swavlebis saqmiT daintereseba imdenad didiiyo, rom mis mogvarebas saxelmwifoebrivi mniSvneloba eZleoda...mefis sasaxlis karis sanaRaroSi dadasturebuli gvaqvsamqruli wesiT _ ostatebTan Segirdebis mimagrebiT _memusikeTa swavla-momzadeba~ (2_183).imas, rom qarTvelebs imTaviTve Segnebuli hqondaTTeatraluri xelovnebis swavlebis saWiroeba da rom ZvelsaqarTveloSi mefe-didebulTa karze imyofeboda ostati anmoZRvari, romelsac yrmebis gawvrTna evaleboda am mimarTulebiT,daviT reqtoric gvimowmebs Tavis poema-xotbaSi `cxovrebaleon batoniSvilisa~ _ `irakli mefis am Rirseul da saxelovanmemkvidres muSaiToba-asparezobis xelovneba swavliT,gamocdilebiT da xSiri varjiSobiT hqonda SeZenilio~ (1_84).rac Seexeba `Teatronsa Sina aRzrdilT~, rasakvirvelia,TeatrSi vinme rom aRezardaT, pirvel rigSi, Teatri undaarsebuliyo. sityvas `Teatroni~ sulxan-saba orbeliani ase34 35


lamara RonRaZemsaxiobis aRzrdis problemismogvarebis gzebi Zvel saqarTveloSiganmartavs _ `Tiatro (ucx.) saxedveli. ese arszRudeSemovlebuli, Sua adgili samRerel-sarokavi da garemosmWureteli sadgomi, sadac stanjvidian mowameTa~. xolo, racSeexeba Tavad sityvas `Teatroni~, trifon ruxaZis mowmobiT,`qarTul wyaroebSi pirvelad VI saukuneSi abibos nekreselisada Sio mRvimelis `wameba-cxovrebis~ momTxrob ZeglebSi~gvxvdeba.saqarTveloSi msaxiobis aRzrdis uZvelesi kera rom Teatriciyo, gvafiqrebinebs, rom Teatris arseboba saqarTveloSi antikurepoqaSivea dadasturebuli. prokopi kesarielis (VI s.istorikosi) mixedviT, `kolxeTis qalaqi afsaru... (amJamindelisarfi. l. R.), Zvelad mravalricxovani yofila. mas garSemouvlida mravali kedeli da Semkuli iyo TeatriTa daipodromiT da mas mravali sxva ramec hqonda, rac Cveulebrivqalaqis sididis momaswavebelia. amJamad iqidan sxva araferiadarCenili, garda naSenobaTa saZirkvelisa~ (3_32).Cveni Teatris mkvlevrebi uZveles saqarTveloSi Teatrisarsebobis faqts kolxeTis ganTqmul akademiasac ukavSireben,sadac ritorikis xelovnebas euflebodnen da filosofiasswavlobdnen qarTveli da ucxoeli axalgazrdebi. `mowmobaimis Sesaxeb, Tu rogor maRal dones aRwevs kolxTa wvrTnaxelovnebaSi, rogor imarjvebdnen isini elinur dReobebze,aris agreTve arapirdapiri dadastureba kolxeTSi Teatralurixelovnebis ganviTarebisa... gimnasionebsa da umaRles skolebSi,saswavlo mizniT, warmodgenebi imarTeboda... kanonebis Seswavlamimdinareobda Teatralur tansacmelSi. skolis damTavrebulTagamoSvebisas imarTeboda speqtaklebi~... (4_140, 141).d. janeliZes mikvleuli aqvs agreTve Zalze sainteresocnoba imis Sesaxeb rom `giorgi mTawmindelis `did qvnaqsarSi~aqtior porfiris Sesaxeb naTqvamia: aRzrdili iyo TeatronTaSina mgosnobasaTa da sxvaTa memRereTa kicxevasa da basrobasada ese viTarTa amaT gancxromaTa da mimosobaTa Sina uaRresiyo yovelTa sworTa~ (4_140, 141).dRes ukve damtkicebulia isic, rom `daviT aRmaSeneblisada Tamaris dros naWarmagevSi arsebobda `saTamaSo saxli~.Tamaris pirveli istorikosi gadmogvcems: 1161 wels daapiresdakarguli anisis ukan dabruneba, `xolo cna ese mefemanmefeTaman naWarmagevsa saxlsa saTamaSosa Sina~ (1_74). Tuiyo Senoba, maSasadame, iyvnen moTamaSenic da is adamianebic,vinc maT am saqmisaTvis wvrTnida da aostatebda. qarTvelipoetebica da mefe-poetebic msaxiobobas iseT saqmed miiCnevdnen,romelsac wvrTna da daxelovneba unda. rusTaveli pirdapiraTqmevinebs fridons:`Cemsa simcrosa aRmzrdelnisamuSaiTod mzrdidian,maswavlnes maTni saqmeni,maxltunebdian, mwvrTidian...~amasTan miCneulia, rom qarTvel msaxiobTa aRzrdis saqmeSigarkveul funqcias is kavSirurTierTobebic asrulebdnen,romelic saqarTvelosa da sxva qveynebs Soris arsebobda.kulturaTa gacvlis, urTierTgamdidrebis procesi yvelasferoze Tu vrceldeboda, rasakvirvelia, igi Teatralurxelovnebazec gavrceldeboda. korneli kekeliZes mikvleuliaqvs cnoba saqarTveloSi egvi ptidan akrobat-muSaiTTaCamosvlis Sesaxeb. amas garda `arCilis dros (XVII s.)saqarTveloSi sagastrolod Camosula viRac indoeli jambazi.yvelas moswonebia misi TamaSi.arCili ambobs:`inatres bevrman vaJebman: `neta, vin es maswavlao!misi sificxe, simale, ise Tamamad wavlao~.magram is Savi ar dadga, aravis ar aswavlao,da mizezi es Tqva: `mwadian sul xelmwifebis davlao~ (1_70).am TvalsazrisiT Zalze sainteresoa naTela uruSaZismosazreba imis Sesaxeb, rom `jer kidev XIII saukunidanmoedineboda evropidan Cvenken ara marto kaTolikurisarwmunoebis ideebi, aramed evropuli kulturis sioc. esideebi CamohqondaT, rogorc kaTolike misionerebs, ise imqarTvelebs, romelTac swavla romis kolegiebSi hqondaTmiRebuli. xuT saukunes grZeldeboda es procesi, gansakuTrebiTmomZlavrda igi XVIII saukuneSi~.sazRvargareT mogzaurobdnen qarTvelebic. magaliTad, 1459wels nikoloz Tbilelsa da qasadan yarCexans umogzauriaTungreTSi, germaniasa, italiasa da safrangeTSi. safrangeTSidaswrebian ludoviko XI gamefebis ceremonials. `mogzaurebma:36 37


lamara RonRaZemsaxiobis aRzrdis problemismogvarebis gzebi Zvel saqarTveloSiiona gedevaniSvilma, gabriel ratiSvilma, nikoloz onikaSvilma,giorgi onikaSvilma, giorgi avaliSvilma, grigol batoniSvilmada gaioz reqtorma dagvitoves cnobebi imis Sesaxeb, Turogori STabeWdileba moaxdines maTzed ucxourma Teatralurmasanaxaobebma~ (1 _64).sainteresoa, rom swored qarTuli profesiuli TeatriserT-erT fuZemdebel gaioz reqtors uTargmnia rusulidan1776 wels frangi mogzauris karl ludovis, anu, `baron-depolicasmimosvla~. am wignis meSveobiT qarTvel mkiTxvelssaSualeba eZleoda, sakmaod saintereso cnobebs gascnobodaromis, neapolis, lionis, marselis, genuis, bavariis, venis, londonisada sxva qalaqebis Teatrebis Sesaxeb. garkveuli informaciamieRo iqauri `akteris moqmedebasa~ Tu komediis Sesrulebisxelovnebaze.saqarTveloSi profesiuli Teatris daarsebasa (1791-1795ww.) da misTvis kadrebis aRzrdis saqmeSi gadamwyveti roliiTamaSes saskolo-saeklesio Teatrebma, romelic, Tavis mxriv,jer Tbilisisa da Semdeg Telavis sasuliero seminariebisbazaze arsebobdnen.saskolo-saeklesio Teatrebi evropaSi XV s. gaCnda, ruseTSi– XVII s. saqarTveloSi – XVIII s. saskolo Teatrebisasuliero saswavleblebSi laTinuri enis swavlebisgaadvilebis mizniT iqmnebodnen. aRsazrdelebi warmoadgendnenlaTinur enaze daweril saskolo dramebs. amave enaze daweriliteqstebiT xdeboda deklamaciis xelovnebis swavlebac. amiTeklesia erTgvarad Tavis samsaxurSi ayenebda imas, rac SeiZlebacdunebad qceuliyo. safiqrebelia, rom am xerxs miT ufrodidi xalisiT gamoiyenebdnen qarTveli saeklesio moRvaweni.amis mtkicebis safuZvels maZlevs is garemoebac, rom maSin,rodesac X_XII saukunidan moyolebuli saqarTveloSiTeatralur sanaxaobaTa winaaRmdeg mimarTuli gansakuTrebulikritikuli simZafriT gamorCeuli mravali Targmnili ZegliCndeba, arc erT originalur qarTul ZeglSi Teatris winaaRmdegmimarTuli uxerxuli gamonaTqvamis kvalic ki arsad Cans.is, rom qarTuli eklesia ara Tu loialurad ganwyobili,profesiuli Teatris daarsebisaTvis aqtiurad mebrZolic iyo,is, rom samefo karica da eklesiis ganswavluli nawilicaserigad iyo dainteresebuli Teatris SeqmniTa da msaxiobTawvrTna-aRzrdiT, SemTxveviTi ar iyo. qarTuli Teatrimosvenebasa da nebivrobaSi ar Sobila, raTa mxolod salaRobodda dros gasatareblad arsebuliyo. mas yovelTvis didisocialuri da erovnuli funqcia hqonda dakisrebuli dayoveli qarTveli, mefe iqneboda is Tu eklesiis winamZRoli,meomari Tu artisti, mamulisaTvis msaxurebis mowamebrivimisiis valiT iyo daRdasmuli. amitomaa, rom erekle II sasaxliskaris Teatris daarsebas samefo karis aristokratiasTan erTadsaeklesio moRvaweebic edgnen saTaveSi, Tavad anton IkaTalikosis winamZRolobiT. anton I (1720 _1788), eriskacobaSiTeimuraz bagrations, SviliSvils erekle mefisa, exmarebodnenmisi mowafeebi dosiTeoz CerqeziSvil-nekreseli, Tbilisisseminariis pirveli reqtori, filosofosi filipe yaiTmazaSvilida mRvdeli ioseb amiriZe, romelsac `qeSiS-dardimands~, anu`xumara mRvdels~, eZaxdnen.calke unda movixsenioT seminariis reqtorebi: daviTaleqsi-mesxiSvili (1745-1824), mecnieri, mwignobari, pedagogi.mas agreTve moixsenieben, rogorc `xumara komiks, masxarafilosofoss~, `cukia _ masxaras~, romelic piesebsac Targmnida,Tavadac siamovnebiT TamaSobda da seminariel axalgazrdebsacwvrTnida. maT mier wakiTxuli leqsebisa da warmodginilispeqtaklebis repertuari dRemdea moRweuli. da gaiozreqtori, mkvlevarTa azriT, baraTaSvil-TayaiSvili(1746_1821), agreTve mecnieri, literatori, mTargmneli,pedagogi, diplomati. damTavrebuli hqonda moskovis slavurberZnul-laTinuriakademia. mis mier Seqmnil Telavis seminariiswesdebaSi pirdapir iyo miTiTebuli, rom `seminaristebs nebaeZleodaT, kviraSi erTxel daswrebodnen `komedias an sxvaraime saCino TamaSobaTa~ (1_111).safiqrebelia, rom Tbilisisa (1755_1795 ww.) da Telavis(1782-1801 ww.) seminariebi erTgvarad agrZelebdnen imtradiciebs, kolxeTis akademiaSi rom Caeyara safuZveli. amseminariebSic iseve, rogorc kolxeTis akademiaSi, erT-erTiZiriTadi sagani ritorikis xelovneba iyo. eWvi ar aris, romanton I kaTalikosi, romlis mier Sedgenili programiTacikiTxeboda seminariebSi `ritoroba~, anu sityvierebis Teoria,38 39


lamara RonRaZemsaxiobis aRzrdis problemismogvarebis gzebi Zvel saqarTveloSimisi Sedgenis dros im codnasTan erTad, Tanadrouli rusuliTu evropuli sasceno xelovnebis Sesaxeb rom gaaCnda, uTuodgaiTvaliswinebda qarTuli kulturis mdidar gamocdilebasada uZveles tradiciebs.anton I kaTalikosis SemweobiT seminariebSi xSirad ewyobodadeklamaciebi da disputebi. seminarielebs agreTve SeeZloT`dakrua muzikurisa iaraRisa~, `Seqceva patiosnebiTa TamaSobiTa~da... `orgzis weliwadsa Sina anu umetes qmna romlisamemoqmedebisa, baasisa, komediisa da ritorulis gamocdilebisa~(1_82).rac Seexeba saTeatro xelovnebaSi Tanadrouli msofliosmiRwevebs, mkvlevrebi Tvlian, rom XVIII saukunis qarTvelimwerlebi, pirvel rigSi, Targmnidnen yvelafer imas, racaRiarebuli iyo `rosiasa da evropiasa Sina~ (1_147), romqarTuli profesiuli Teatris Semqmnelebi `...cdilobdnen mxariaebaT evropuli da rusuli Teatrebis SemoqmedebiTimiswrafebebisaTvis _ daenergaT klasicizmi, im drois wamyvaniSemoqmedebiTi meTodi~ (6_19). naTela uruSaZe am saqmeSigansakuTrebulad mniSvnelovnad miiCnevs giorgi avaliSvilisada daviT ColoyaSvilis wvlils.giorgi avaliSvili (1769-1850) gaxldaT mwerali,dramaturgi da politikur moRvawe, mogzauri. moskovSiganswavluli. mravali wlis ganmavlobaSi iyo qarTl-kaxeTissamefos warmomadgeneli ruseTSi, xolo qarTulikulturisaTvis gaweul mis ganusazRvrel Rvawlze isgaremoebac miuTiTebs, rom 1791_1795 ww. arsebul pirvelqarTul profesiul Teatrs istorikosebi moixsenieben, rogorcavaliSvilis Teatrs. Teatrze fiqri da qarTvelisazogadoebisTvis sxvagan arsebuli Teatrebis Sesaxeb cnobebismiwodeba mas erekle meoris sasaxlis karze arsebuliprofesiuli Teatris daxurvis Semdegac ar Seuwyvetia. Tavis1819_1820 wlebis mogzaurobis CanawerebSi igi qarTvelmkiTxvels mouTxrobda sazRvargareT nanaxi i podromisTeatrebis Sesaxeb.daviT ColoyaSvili (1735-1810) iyo erekle II mdivanbegi,poeti, dramaturgi, mTargmneli. ganaTleba masac ruseTSi hqondamiRebuli. kargad icnobda berZnul miTologias.qarTuli Teatris erT-erT mkvlevar trifon ruxaZes,mravali mikvleuli sabuTi imis mtkicebis safuZvels aZlevs,rom `iraklis dros CvenSi kargad icnobdnen franguliklasicisturi `Stilis~ kanonebs~ (1_146). da, maSasadame,iyenebdnen kidec msaxiobis xelovnebis Sesaxeb arsebul imliteraturas, romelic im droisTvis arsebobda romelimeevropulsa Tu rusul enaze.is, rom qarTuli profesiuli Teatris daarseba sworedklasicizms daemTxva, im drois moRvaweT mniSvnelovnaduadvilebda msaxiobis aRzrdis problemis gadawyvetis amocanas.msgavs literaturaSi xom TiTqmis zedmiwevniT iyo miTiTebuli,Tu ra da rogor unda Seesrulebina msaxiobs, rogori mimoxvraTu sxvadasxva grZnobis gamoxatvisTvis xmis rogori modulaciaiyo saWiro. magaliTad, `siyvaruli moiTxovs naz, vnebian xmas;siZulvili _ mkacrsa da mkveTrs; bedniereba _ msubuqs,mRelvares; mrisxaneba _ momTxovn, swraf, daunawevrebelmetyvelebas; gakvirveba _ SeZrul, moCurCule, Zlivs gasagons;daCivleba _ myvirala, Wirveul, tanjul xmas~ da a. S. (f.lange `gansja scenur TamaSze~, 1727).klasicizmi laTinuri warmoSobis sityvaa da sanimuSosniSnavs. nimuSi da etaloni am mimarTulebis damnergvelTaTvisantikuri qmnilebebi iyo. qarTuli Teatris damaarsebelTaTviski Tavad Teatri unda yofiliyo. amasTanave, klasicizmis erTerTifundamenturi moTxovna gonebas ebatona grZnobaze dagrZnoba movaleobas damorCileboda, rom pirad interess arunda daejabna sazogadoebrivi, zedmiwevniT exmianeboda imzneobriv idealebs, romelsac Teatrs usaxavdnen misi SemqmneliqarTveli moRvaweni.dRes Zneli ar aris imis varaudi, rom dasclodaT, rogorgadawyvetdnen qarTuli Teatris moRvaweni msaxiobis aRzrdisproblemas, magram ar dascaldaT. qarTulma Teatrma 1795wels krwanisis velze daasrula Tavisi arseboba. pirveliqarTuli profesiuli Teatris msaxiobTa dasis moqalaqeobrivSegnebasa, zneobriv simaRlesa da samSoblosaTvis Tavdadebazeki mogviTxrobs Teimuraz batoniSvili: `kvalad mcxovrebTagantfilisisaTa gamorCeul iqmnes kacni mamacni da marjveni,romelTaca aRirCies winamZRvarad Tvisad kacni vinme msaxiobi40 41


lamara RonRaZemsaxiobis aRzrdis problemismogvarebis gzebi Zvel saqarTveloSi(romelsac sazandrad uxmoben). ese iyo erTi warCinebulTamesakraveTa da msaxiobTagan mefisaTa, musiki da komedianti.da ese iyo ufrosi msaxiobTa da cnobili iyo samefosasaxlsa Sina. es iyo gvareulobiTa da sarwmunoebiTaca qarTveli,romelsac saxelad debden maCabelad. ese miuZRva gundsa mastfiliselTasa mterTa mimarT. da epyra xelTa misTa barbiTi,e. i. daira, da ukravda mas zeda Sadiansa, e. i. xmasa mas,romelsaca lxinsa Sina daukvren Jamsa Sina umetessixarulisasa, vinaidan xmai ese ganamxiarulebs msmenelTa.xolo mebrZolni ese iyvnes mkvircxlni da mimarTes qveiTTaamaT da brZodes mterTa ficxelad da SeerTda gundica esegundsa mas fSav-xevsurTa, aragvelTa da qiziyelTasa. dahyves maT ataka mterTa mimarT da miiwivnes vidreve droSebamdeaRa-mahmad-xanisa, da mistacnes droSani raodenime mxedrobaTa aRamahmad-xanisa,da mravalni sparsTaganni moswyitnes winaSe missa.ixila ra aRa-mahmad-xanma simxne ese viTari qarTvelTaxedrobisa, gankvirda friad da ityoda: `siyrmiTagan CemiTvidre aqamomde damiyofies brZolasa Sina da arasodes mixilavsme winaaRmdegni viTar ese kacni Cemda momarT hyofen brZolasa~.maCabelas gundi Seewirnes sayvarelsa mamulsa Tvissa...saxelovnad dasTxivnes sisxlni Tvisni~... (1_111,112). pirveliqarTuli profesiuli Teatris daxurvasTan erTad mTavrdebaqarTuli profesiuli Teatrisa da masTan erTad msaxiobisaRzrdis problemis gadawyvetis gzebis Ziebis erTi etapi.XIX saukunis dasawyisSi ruseTi didi xniT daeuflasaqarTvelos. qarTuli samefos gauqmebidan, naxevari saukunemainc gaivlis, vidre ruseTis imperiis mmarTvel wreebSimomwifdeba azri, rom `...maT batonobas erTgvari kulturulizemoqmedebac unda xleboda, rasac politikuri damorCilebiskompensacia unda gaewia~ (5_236), Tumca saqarTvelos sazRvrebsmiRma arsebuli Teatrebisadmi interesi ar ganelebula. aziisada evropis rigi Teatrebis Sesaxeb saubrobs iona gedevaniSvili1805_1810 wlebSi daweril Tavis wignSi: `mimosvla anumogzauroba~...grigol ioanes Ze batoniSvili 1815 wels evropaSimogzaurobis Tavis STabeWdilebebSi, mniSvnelovan adgils uTmobsnanaxi Teatrebis Sesaxeb Txrobas. amas garda `1800-ian wlebisruseTSi, kerZod ki voroneJ moskovSi, mowyobil sanaxaobebsgabriel ratiSvili da nikoloz onikaSvili aRweren~ (1_66).rac CvenTvis yvelaze sayuradReboa, gabriel ratiSvili aqvedawvrilebiT mimoixilavs im periodis ruseTSi momuSaveqarTveli msaxiobebisa da jambazebis xelovnebas. vfiqrob,msgavsi publikaciebi Taviseburad amzadebda da saxavda rogorcprofesiuli Teatris aRdgenis, ise msaxiobis aRzrdis problemisgadawyvetis Semdgom perspeqtivas.msaxiobis aRzrdis problemis mogvarebis axali gzebisZieba qarTuli profesiuli Teatris morig etapsa da didiqarTveli komediografis, giorgi erisTavis, saxelTan arisdakavSirebuli.XIX s. 40-iani wlebis Sua xanebSi saqarTveloSimovlinebulma axalma mefisnacvalma mixeil voroncovma daiwyora Teatris aRdgenisaTvis zrunva, misi organizacia daxelmZRvaneloba daavala im dros ukve cnobil dramaturgs,`qarTvel molierad~ wodebul giorgi erisTavs.giorgi erisTavi (1813_1864) gaxldaT dramaturgi, poeti,mTargmneli, 1850 wels qarTuli profesiuli TeatrisaRmdgeneli, xelmZRvaneli, reJisori, msaxiobi da, rac mTavaria,msaxiobTa aRmzrdeli da maswavlebeli. ganaTleba miRebulihqonda Tbilisis keTilSobilTa saswavlebelsa da moskovSi,kerZo pansionSi. 1832 wels dapatimrebul iqna `mamulisgamoxsnis SeTqmaSi~ monawileobis gamo. 1834-1842 wlebSigadasaxlebuli iyo poloneTSi. msaxurobda iqaur qveiTdiviziaSi. poloneTSi yofnisas mas saSualeba hqonda, kargadSeeswavla polonuri ena, literatura, Teatri.msaxiobTa aRzrdis mimarTulebiT mis warmatebul praqtikazemiuTiTebs is gamoxmaurebebi, romelic mis mier dadgmulpirvelive speqtakl `gayras~ mohyva _ `piesis Sinaarsi dasaqmis viTarebis wvrilmanebi maTTvisac ki gasagebi xdeba,vinc qarTuli erTi sityvac ar ician. amas isini gaigebengansacvifrebelis mimikisa, bunebrivi TamaSisa da diqciissaSualebiT. erTi sityviT, `gayra~ ise iyo gaTamaSebuli, rogorcSeeZloT SeesrulebiaT mxolod yvelaze ufro gamocdil,yvelaze ufro niWier msaxiobebs~ (7_#5).42 43


lamara RonRaZemsaxiobis aRzrdis problemismogvarebis gzebi Zvel saqarTveloSipirvel warmodgenas mohyva meore _ 1850 wlis 3 maiss g.erisTavma `maneJis TeatrSi~ kvlav scenismoyvareebTan erTadwarmoadgina Tavisi meore komedia `dava~. radgan moqmed pirTaraodenoba am komediaSi gacilebiT metia, winandel moTamaSeebssxvebic daematnen da ukve TiTqmis ocamde SemsrulebliswvrTna mouxdeboda erisTavs. am or warmodgenas Sorisarsebuli Sualedi ki, TiTqmis xuTi Tve, miuTiTebs imaze, Turamdenad seriozulad ekideboda igi msaxiobebis momzadebissaqmes.g. erisTavs Teatris aRdgenisas, momxreTa garda,mowinaaRmdegeebic hyavda. maT Soris yvelaze aqtiur-agresiulebiiyvnen: platon ioseliani da revaz erisTavi. Teatri `meZavkuroobasgaamravlebso~, _ amtkicebdnen. giorgi erisTavisaraCveulebriv taqtianobas, adamianebTan kontaqtis damyarebisgansakuTrebul niWierebasa da pedagogiur-aRmzrdelobiTalRoianobaze miuTiTebs is faqti, rom meore warmodgenaSiorive maTgani monawileobda!.. saerTod, am or speqtaklSigiorgi erisTavis uaxloesi naTesavebi da nacnob-megobrebiTamaSobdnen, gansxvavebiT Semdgomi wlebisagan.saqarTveloSi msaxiobis aRzrdis istoriisaTvis ZalzemniSvnelovania giorgi erisTavis moRvaweobis swored isSemdgomi periodi, roca man Tavisi Teatris momavali msaxiobebigorsa da mis Semogaren soflebSi Seagrova da maT swavlebasSeudga. dokumenturi masala, Tu ra principiT arCevda maT,ar gvaqvs. ZiriTadi kriteriumi, albaT, maTi niWiereba dasaqmis siyvaruli iyo. amasTan, mas kargad esmoda, rom arcdro iyo da arc saSualeba imisa, jer kadrebi aRezardaT damxolod amis Semdeg Sesdgomodnen praqtikul saqmianobas. eserTdroulad unda momxdariyo. `giorgi erisTavma msaxiobebiwaiyvana Tavis sofel xidisTavSi da iq dauwyo wvrTna daSeudga speqtaklebis samzadiss. is axalgazrda msaxiobebsacnobda sasceno xelovnebis mniSvnelobas, paralelurad gadiodarepeticiebs. aseTi muSaoba gagrZelda Semodgomis damlevamde,TiTqmis 5-6 Tvis ganmavlobaSi. g. erisTavma dasi TbilisSiCamoiyvana, daabinava da ganagrZo muSaoba. amrigad, pirveliqarTuli saTeatro studia g. erisTavma moawyo Tavis sofelxidisTavSi~ (8_76, 77).amasve adasturebs erisTavis Teatris mematiane, misivespeqtaklebis piruTvneli Teatraluri kritikosi mixeilbirTvelis Ze TumaniSvili: `Tavadi erisTavi, romelic, uwinaresyovlisa, poetia... kidev bevrs gvpirdeba da eWvs ar iwvevs,rom Seasrulebs. msaxiob vaJebis: jafariZis, dvanaZis, korZaiasada msaxiob qalis tatiSvilis saxiT mas hyavs uaRresadmoxdenili Semsrulebelni sceniuri xelovnebisa. xolo msaxiobantonovis saxiT ki _ niWieri da gulmodgine dramaturgi.yvela iseni erisTavis mier aris aRzrdili. eWvi ar aris, romigi maT kidev metad gawvrTnis, uCvenebs maT Secdomebs damisi gamosworebis saSualebas~ (9_90).Semodgomaze xidisTavidan msaxiobebTan erTad TbilisSigadmosul g. erisTavs sezoni maSinve ar gauxsnia. garkveulidrois ganmavlobaSi kvlav gulmodgined muSaobdaaxalgazrdebTan da `darwmunda ra imaSi, rom isini ukvegacnobili arian scenis umTavres pirobebs, SeZlo scenazemaTi gamoSveba. es iyo gabeduli da yoCaRuri nabiji, racmaSinve sakmao warmatebiT dagvirgvinda~... (9_10).g. erisTavi rogorc xidisTavSi, ise TbilisSi msaxiobebsZiriTadad sakuTar saxlSi amecadinebda, repeticiebic iqvehqondaT. bevr maTgans ki acxovrebda kidec. amiT, etyoba, aramarto Teatrze gulis acruebisgan, yovelgvari arasasurveligavlenisagan icavda maT. `g. erisTavi TeatrSi muSaobis dawyebismsurvelT da TviT msaxiobebs Zlier Tavazianad epyroboda.yovelnair zomebs Rebulobda, dasSi yofiliyo disciplina,msaxiobebi amaRlebuliyvnen zneobrivad... scenaze ar Separuliyogaryvnileba da msaxiobebs hqonodaT iseTi Sexeduleba, romTeatri aris umaRlesi kulturuli dawesebuleba, romelicemsaxureba adamianTa zneobis ganspetakebas da gonebriv amaRlebas~...giorgi erisTavis Teatraluri eTikis Sesaxeb werilobiTidokumenti ar dautovebia, arc misi repeticiebisa Tu saubrebisCanawerebi mogvepoveba. Teatraluri eTikis Taviseul principebsigi Tavisi Teatris yoveldRiur cxovrebaSi nergavda. ammxriv fasdaudebelia misi erT-erTi wamyvani msaxiobis, giorgidvanaZis, leqsad dawerili avtobiografia `siymawvilidan Cemicxovreba~. masSi kargad Cans, rogori mkacri da daundobeli44 45


lamara RonRaZeiyo imaT mimarT, vinc daapirebda zneobrivi normebis farglebsgascdenoda.giorgi erisTavi realizmis damamkvidrebelia qarTulliteraturasa da TeatrSi. igia qarTul scenaze kritikuladgaazrebuli cxovrebiseulad marTali xelovnebis damnergavi,rogorc dramaturgi, reJisori da, rac mTavaria, msaxiobTaaRmzrdeli. misi Teatris faseuloba imiTac ganisazRvreba,rom misi da misi msaxiobebis mier Tanadroul yoveldRiurobaSiarsebuli mankierebebis Cveneba-gamasxaraveba sicilTan erTadsagangaSo, tragikuli perspeqtivis eqosac gamoscemda.giorgi erisTavis Teatris arseboba, misi winamorbedismsgavsad, xanmokle gamodga. sul eqvsi weli _ 1850-dan 1856wlamde arsebobda. profesiuli Teatris arsebobis SewyvetasTanerTad, rasakvirvelia, droebiT, magram mainc Sewyda msaxiobisaRzrdis problemis gadaWris gzebis Ziebac.1. tr. ruxaZe, `Zveli qarTuli Teatri da dramaturgia~, Tb., 1949.2. dimitri janeliZe, saxioba, Tb., 1980.3. dimitri janeliZe, qarTuli Teatris xalxuri sawyisebi, Tb., 1948.4. dimitri janeliZe, qarTuli Teatris istoria, Tb., 1965.5. Salva nucubiZe, kritikuli narkvevebi, Tb., 1966.6, naTela uruSaZe, qarTuli Teatris ambavi, Tb., 1982.7. gaz., `kavkazi~, 1850, #5.8. sergi gersamia, giorgi erisTavis Teatri, Tb., 1950.9. d. gamezardaSvili, giorgi erisTavi, 1949, gv. 90.laSa CxartiSvilimsaxiobisa da reJisoris sinTezissafuZvlis sakiTxisTvis XX saukunis40-ian wlebSi(Seqspiris `mefe liris~ magaliTze)XX saukunis 30-iani wlebis bolos droebiT SewydaqarTuli reJisuris universalizmis xana. TeatrSi liderikvlav msaxiobi gaxda, romelic tradiciulad cdilobdaecada Tavisi Zalebi reJisuraSi. `me-19 saukunis didimsaxiobebisagan (v. abaSiZe, l. mesxiSvili, k. yifiani, k. mesxida sxvebi) gansxvavebiT axal Taobis msaxiobebi (a. vasaZe,a. xorava, u. CxeiZe, v. anjafariZe) ufro Rrmad iyvnengarkveulni reJisuris arsSi. isini aRizardnen marjaniSvilisda axmetelis universaluri da sinTeturi Teatrisprinci pebze, amitom gasagebia maTi cduneba, reJisorisprofesiac SeeTvisebinaT~ (1; gv. 47), magram `tradiciaTarestavracia~ sruliad axal politikur da socialurgaremoSi mimdinareobda. am Taobis msaxiobTa lideri akakivasaZe iyo. msaxiobTa Semdgomi Taobebi daavadda e. w. `vasaZiskompleqsiT~, raSic igulisxmeboda msaxiobTaAmiswrafebareJisorobisaken. msaxiobTagan es `saqme~ yvelaze ukeT a.vasaZes gamosdioda.XX saukunis 30-iani wlebis bolos da 40-iani wlebisdasawyisSi kidev ufro gaZlierda cenzura TeatrSi. TeatrismoRvaweebs, Sesabamisad, gamoumuSavdaT TviTcenzuris mZlavrimeqanizmis grZnoba, romelic mudam TavisTavad muSaobda. aseTrTul, umZimesi ideologiuri wnexis da 1937 wlis represiebiTgamowveuli SiSis pirobebSi uwevdaT moRvaweoba `sabWoTaTeatris muSakebs~, ramac `garkveuli safuZveli Cauyarastabilur scenur formebs, welSi `gamarTa ideurad~, moipovamTavrobis ndoba da mxardaWera, yvelaferi moeqca aqtiorulimonosistemis farglebSi~ (1; gv.84). konceftualuri qarTulisaTeatro reJisura XX saukunis 40-ian wlebSi krizissganicdida, es gamowveuli iyo ara mxolod reJisorTa farTo,globaluri azrovnebis simwiriT, aramed politikur-ideuri46 47


laSa CxartiSvilimsaxiobisa da reJisoris sinTezissafuZvlis sakiTxisTvis XX saukunis 40-ian wlebSiwnexiTac, amitomac iyo, rom lideris pozicia TeatrSi XIXsaukunis qarTuli Teatris msgavsad msaxiobebma CaigdesxelSi. Sedegad, idgmeboda e. w. `aqtioruli speqtaklebi~,romelmac didi wvlili Seitanes qarTuli samsaxiobo skolisdaxvewasa da gaZlierebaSi, mxatvruli donis amaRlebaSi.XX saukunis 40-ian wlebSi qarTuli Teatrissarepertuaro politikas sabWoTa kavSiris mTavrobagansazRvravda. qarTul TeatrSi dasadgmeli piesisTvis mwvaneSuqi moskovs unda aenTo. iq unda gadawyvetiliyo, radaidgmeboda nebismier, yvelaze miyruebul sabWoTa TeatrSicki, did scenebze aprobirebul piesebs axorcielebda regionisTeatrebi. mTavroba Teatrs miuTiTebda, yuradReba mieqciaaxali adamianis problemebisTvis, rac Tanamedrove daklasikuri dramaturgiis urTierTSerwymis an monacvleobisprincipze dayrdnobiT unda ganxorcielebuliyo. ufro metic,`mTavlits~ klasificirebuli hqonda konkretuli piesebi,romlebic unda dadgmuliyo qarTul sabWoTa scenebze daisinic, romlis dadgmac ar SeiZleboda. Seqspiris `mefeliri~ mesame variantSi moxvda, roca misi dadgma arcakrZaluli iyo da arc sasurveli. aman gaxada SesaZlebeli,rom qarTuli sabWoTa Teatris scenaze `mefe liri~ sabWoTaxelisuflebis damyarebis 20 wlis Tavze, 1941 wels,ganxorcielebuliyo. sabWoTa xelisuflebis damyarebis Semdeg`liris~ axali dadgma quTaisis Teatrma ganaxorciela dodoanTaZis reJisuriT, liris rols warmatebiT asrulebdaaleqsandre imedaSvili. quTaisis TeatrSi dadgmuli `mefeliris~ magaliTze naTlad Cans, rom XX saukunis 40-ianwlebSi reJisorTa lideris pozicias TeatrSi fesvebiSeryeuli aqvs. kvarcxlbekze am periodis TeatrSi kvlavmsaxiobi dgas. xSiria SemTxveva, roca Tavad msaxiobiaxorcielebs speqtakls. am mxriv gamorCeuli adgili uWiravsak. vasaZes, romlis reJisoruli memkvidreoba calke SeswavlisTemaa. misi reJisura CvenTvis sainteresoa imdenad, ramdenadacmas 1948 wels ekuTvnis `mefe liris~ ganxorcielebarusTavelis Teatris scenaze.akaki vasaZem Tavi mouyara SesaniSnav Zalebs. mxatvradmoiwvia sergo qobulaZe, speqtaklisaTvis musika daweresaleqsadre maWavarianma da andria balanCivaZem. rolebi kiase gaanawila: liri – ak. xorava, glosteri – g. daviTaSvili,masxara – e. afxaiZe, gonerola – T. WavWavaZe, regana – n.lafaCi, kordelia – a. ToiZe, edgari – n. CxeiZe, edmundi –g. saRaraZe. `ZalTa aseTi ganawilebiT speqtaklis warmatebaTiTqosda garantirebuli iyo da mainc igi qarTuli sascenoSeqspirianaSi darCa, rogorc umniSvnelo epizodi, Tumcaara SemTxveviTi~ (2; gv. 59). akaki xoravas ukve Sesrulebulihqonda otelo, romelmac sayovelTaod gauTqva saxelimsaxiobs mTel sabWoTa kavSirSi. igi kargad icnobdaSeqspiris gmirebis samyaros, mis bunebas, xasiaTs, imatmosferos, raSic Seqspiris gmirebs uxdebaT cxovreba damoqmedeba. xorava ukve mesamed Seecada liris saxis scenurganxorcielebas, arcerT mcdelobas sasurveli Sedegi argamouRia. `xoravam bevri sixaruli ganacdevina mayurebels,magram zogjer sinanulis grZnobac mohgvara. roca Tavisbrwyinvale scenur saxeTa galereis kari advilad gauRouferul scenur rolebs, – wers oTar egaZe, – mefe lirisroliT xorava scenuri gardasaxvis sasurvel da mosalodnelsimaRlemde ver avida. mxolod erTi weli gaZlo xoravasrolma rusTavelis Teatris scenaze da Semdeg, rogorc ampiesis erT-erTi gmiri ambobda: suli dalia da saukunodganisvena~ (3; gv.19).ucnauri isaa, rom speqtaklis avtorebma: vasaZem daxoravam Tavidanve icodnen, rom maTi mcdeloba kraxisaTvisiyo ganwiruli. ak. vasaZe pirdapir ambobs: `vicodi, romCavardeboda speqtakli, xoravas Cemi ar sjeroda _ me misi.Cans, arcerTi viyaviT swori~ (4; gv.400). mixeil TumaniSviliigonebs: `maxsovs, xorava `liris~ repeticiaze rogoriukmayofilo iyo dadgmiT, rogor itanjeboda premieris dRes,rogor SemogvCioda Cven, jer kidev studentebs: am speqtaklSiyvelaferi mcdariao. didi bavSviviT imuqreboda, yvelafersmivatoveb, fexs davkrav da lirs mcire TeatrSi (ratomRac!)viTamaSebo, iq mimiwvieso, maxsovs rogor ar undoda gagiJebisscenaSi TamaSi. es misi marcxi iyo~ (5; gv.37). amis miuxedavad,faqtia, rom man nemiroviC-danCenkos SesTavaza TbilisSi`mefe liris~ dadgma, sadac lirs Tavad Seasrulebda, razedacmaestrosagan aseTi pasuxi miiRo: `o, ara! bneli piesaa, ar48 49


laSa CxartiSvilimsaxiobisa da reJisoris sinTezissafuZvlis sakiTxisTvis XX saukunis 40-ian wlebSimiyvars! sistemis bralia! sistemis~. am sityvebiTstanislavskis sistemas gadahkra nemiroviCma. xoravas TqmiT,samxatvro Teatris gandgomas Seqspirisagan nemiroviCisistemis TaviseburebiT xsnida~ (6; gv.127).a. xoravas kargad esmoda, rom `SeqspirTan~ megobrobasaamayocaa, sasiamovnoc da saSiSic. Tu swored ver amoikiTxemisi azrebi, misi filosofia, nawarmoebis gamWoli moqmedeba,sastikad dagamarcxebs, axlos ar migiSvebs, masxrad gagxdis~(7; gv.211). xorava liris rolSi damarcxebas Zalianganicdida. ak. dvaliSvili igonebs: `scenidan gamosulmaxoravam xeli Camavlo, vigrZeni, rom mTeli sxeuliccaxcaxebda, dabneuli vcdilobdi fardis ukan mis gayvanas,is ki zluquniT meubneoda: ra davuSave am xalxs, ratom arvuyvarvar?~ (8; gv.73).rogorc Cans, dausrulebeli SemoqmedebiTi Widilimimdinareobda `liris~ repeticiebze xoravasa da vasaZesSoris. a. dvaliSvilis TqmiT, `reJisori ak. vasaZe cdilobdaa. xoravas mier gansaxorcielebeli mefe liri yofiliyocxovrebiT daRlili, sulierad gatexili, jiuti, Tavneba,axirebuli moxuci, romelic sibralulsa da cremlsgamoiwvevda mayurebelSi. msaxiobi a. xorava ki zviad, Tavnebada yovlisSemZle mefe lirs qmnida. scenaze dapirispirebareJisorsa da msaxiobs Soris ufro gaRrmavda da erTmSvenier dRes naTeli gaxda, rom reJisori vasaZe danebdamsaxiob xoravas Canafiqrs~ (8; gv.72).speqtaklis warumateblobas hqonda araerTi obieqturimizezi: 1). klasikis ganxorcielebisas, sabWoTa sistemismkacri pirobebidan gamomdinare, aravis gaxsenebia is udavoWeSmariteba, rom misi realizacia scenaze Tanadroulimxatvruli saSualebebis gareSe SeuZlebelia. 2). vasaZexoravas`mefe liri~ ar moergo rusTavelis Teatris Janrulstilisturfons. gmirul-romantikul planSi gadawyvetilispeqtakli qmnida cru paTetikas. `scenidan adamianuri siTboar modioda, xSirad mSrali, ritorikuli, magram paTetikuradamaRlebuli xmebi ismoda~, _ igonebs vasil kiknaZe (1;gv.191). 3). xoravas warmatebas liris rolSi xels uSlidavasaZis, rogorc reJisoris mier SeTavazebuli amocana,mxatvruli saxis xasiaTis marcvali. xoravasaTvis liridaupyrobel mwvervalad darCa.ak. vasaZem gazeTSi `literatura da xelovneba~ (1949-#1) gamoaqveyna werili, romelSic cdilobda ganemartasazogadoebisaTvis speqtaklis marcxis mizezebi: `TavisiuaRresad ideur-filosofiuri azris gamo `mefe liri~dasadgmelad erT-erTi yvelaze Zneli da rTuli piesaa.Seqspiris tragediis ambebi da saxeebi yovelTvis konkretulepoqasTan aris dakavSirebuli. am movlenebisa da saxeebisgaxsna istoriu li sinamdvilisaga n mowyvetilad,sazogadoebrivi ganviTarebis kanonisagan gamoTiSulad,reJisorisa da Semsrulebels Semoiyvans abstraqciamdeda daZvelebuli tradiciebiT dakanonebul sqematurobamde~.mogonebis wignSi ki, romelic 30 wlis Semdeg dawera vasaZem,u fr o a konkr eteb s s p eq ta kl i s m a r c xi s m i z ezs :`TviTdajerebulobis sibrmave damemarTa 1948 wels, arcmarjaniSvilis da axmetelis marcxi, arc nemiroviC-danCenkosdaeWveba da rCevebi ar gaviTvaliswine. TiTqos sakuTarTavs veqiSpebodi, ise daviwye `lirze~ muSaoba, darwmunebuliviyavi, lirs akaki kargad iTamaSebda, mec nacadi xerxebiTSevuwyobdi xels, magram ar gamxsenebia, rom Zveli meTodebiTda xerxebiT Tanamedorve speqtakls ver davdgamdiT~ (4; gv.400).vasaZe-xoravas speqtakli Seiqmna `pirovnebis kultis~periodSi, roca omis Semdgomi qaosi, totaluri SiSi dayalbi paTetikuroba, gabatonebulia realur yofaSi. aqedangamomdinare, SesaZloa, reJisori vasaZe wavida kompromisebze,aqcenti gadaitana liris sxva mxareebze. `liris tragediisazri davinaxe mis ara ganyenebul idealizmSi, ara misdonkixotisebur romantizmSi, aramed Seqspiris genialuriniWis im tendenciaSi, romelTac igi amkvidrebda Tavisidrois humanistur idealebs, vidre liri Tavisi sasaxliskedlebs gareT mimdinare cxovrebis mefuri ski ptrissimaRlidan dahyurebda, igi sastiki xdeboda TavisSexedulebebSi adamianebze da mis daniSnulebaze. `mefeliri~ me mesmis, rogorc tragedia titanuri brZolisa datanjvisa, namdvili adamianis dabadebisaTvis, im WeSmaritebisTandaTanobiT SecnobisaTvis, rom ar SeiZleba idealebis50 51


laSa CxartiSvilimsaxiobisa da reJisoris sinTezissafuZvlis sakiTxisTvis XX saukunis 40-ian wlebSimxolod rwmeniT gardaqmnas qveyana. saWiroa brZola damoqmedeba~ (4, gv. 401). vasaZe cdilobda, ganviTarebaSidaexata liris saxe, sxva saSualebebs aZlevda igi xoravas,msaxiobi ki, reJisoris TqmiT, sul sxva mxares eqaCeboda.speqtaklis Cavardnis miuxedavad, Teatrmcodneebigamoyofen ramdenime epizods, sadac xorava Tavis simaRlezeidga. `saintereso iyo scena Weqa-quxilis dros, aq xoravasTiToeuli sityva Tavad warmoadgenda wvimas, grigals, qars.xoravas lirs esmoda Tavisi ubedureba da motexili,davrdomili SehRaRadebda zecas~ (9; gv. 43). miuxedavadramdenime saintereso epizodisa, speqtakli mTlianobaSi aridga maRalmxatvrul doneze, mas gansakuTrebuli sityvaar uTqvams arc Teatris, arc xoravas SemoqmedebaSi. `scenazeidga usaSvelod didi `saopero dekoraciebi~, _ igonebsTeatrmcodne n. SalutaSvili, – `romlebic pirdapir nTqavdnenmsaxiobebs. xorava TeTr samosSi, grZeli TeTri wveriT,RmerTis ieRovas gamosaxulebas magonebda. am dadgmaSiyvelaferi yalbi iyo, yalb oCofexebze Semdgari. rodesackulisebSi SevixedeT, xorava cremlebs ver malavda. lirsigi aRar mibrunebia~ (10; gv. 97). yvelaferi es undagaviazroT epoqis da misi moTxovnebis SesabamisobasTankonteqstSi. imdenad didi iyo politikuri wnexis gavlena,rom TviT iseTi didi moazrovneebi xelovnebaSi, rogorebiciyvnen: xorava, vasaZe, qobulaZe, maWavariani da sxvebi, veraxerxebdnen alternatiuli xedvis ara Tu damkvidrebassaTeatro xelovnebaSi, aramed Ziebebsac ki. amitomac iyomTeli speqtakli hiporbolizirebuli. 40-iani wlebis `mefeliri~ rusTavelis TeatrSi mTlianad gamoxatvda im periodisTeatrs da TeatrTan dakavSirebul sxva xelovnebas(saTeatro mxatvroba da saTeatro musika). cnobilia, rom,roca vasaZem s. qobulaZes SesTavaza speqtaklis gaformeba,mas TiTqmis mzad hqonda ilustraciebi Seqspiris `mefelirisaTvis~, igi damoukideblad 10 wlis ganmavlobaSim u S a ob d a . s . q o b u l a Zi s es k i z e b S i p e r s o na J eb ihi perbolizirebulia, TiTqmis yvela scena `amaRlebulisganwyobilebas gadmogvcems, saocrad monumenturia.imavdroulad, s. qobulaZem Seqmna Zalze realisturi, TiTqmisnaturalizmamde dasuli dekoraciebi. oTar egaZis TqmiT,`scenaze cixis galavnebi ki ara, TiTqos moRrubluli cacki granitidan aris gamokveTili. glosteris sasaxle luvrswaagavda. am speqtaklSi ugulebelyofili iyo siRrmisa daperspeqtivis kanoni, ratom aris, rom avanscenaze daSvebuliametad moTenTili maneriT Sesrulebuli tyis panoramaglosteris xizanTan Sexvedris scenaSi~ (3; gv. 92).faqtia, rom speqtakls aklda Sinagani aqtioruli siTboda sWarbobda yalbi paTetika. aSkara iyo isic, rom vasaZis`mefe liri~ dadgmuli iyo moZvelebuli TeatralurimeTodebiTa da formebiT, romelic Tanagancdas parterSiukve aRar iwvevda. Teatraluri formebi saswrafo ganaxlebassaWiroebda. TeatrSi Seiqmna krizisis foni da saWiro iyosaswrafod Seqmnili situaciis gamosworebisaTvis brZolisdawyeba. cxadia, monumenturi speqtaklebi ufro sqematuriiyo, vidre realobasTan miaxloebuli nawarmoebi. meoremxriv, formalizmis dawamebis SiSiT iTrgunebodamravalsaxovan formaTa Ziebis survili, Tumca es droebiTiprocesi iyo. TeatrSi ganaxlebis siom XX saukunis 50-iani wlebidan daubera da igi uSualodaa dakavSirebulistalinis gardacvalebasTan da xruSCovis xelisuflebissaTaveSi mosvlasTan. daiwyo Teatraluri Ziebebis axali,Seuqcevadi procesi. ganaxlebis talRam xelovnebis yvelasferoSi SeaRwia da daiwyo sruliad axali epoqa sabWoTaxelovnebaSi, romelsac axali Taoba qmnis.1. v. kiknaZe, qarTuli dramatuli Teatris istoria, t. 2, Tb., 2001.2. p. uruSaZe, ,,mefe liri~ qarTul scenaze, werili I, Jurnali,,Teatraluri moambe~, Tb., 1988, #4.3. oT. egaZe, TeatrSi da Teatrs miRma, Tb., 1969.4. ak. vasaZe, mogonebebi, fiqrebi, t. 2, Tb,. 1983.5. m. TumaniSvili, reJisori Teatridan wavida, Tb., 1989.6. v. kiknaZe, didi da gasaocari talanti, krebuli ,,xorava 100~, Tb., 1997.7. ak. xorava, Cemi Seqspiruli rolebi, qarTuli Seqspiriana, t. 3, Tb., 1973.8. ak. dvaliSvili, Sexvedrebi akaki xoravasTan, Jurnali ,,Teatrida cxovreba~, #1. Tb., 2005.9. d. cekvava, a. xoravas Semoqmedeba 40-50-ian wlebSi (sadi plomoSroma), Tb., 1980.10. n. SalutaSvili. xorava, rogorsac me vicnobdi, krebuli ,,xorava 100~, Tb., 1997.52 53


mesame realobalevan xeTagurisaukuneebis ganmavlobaSi seriozuli mcdelobebi imisa, romgagverkvia sad viyaviT warumateblad mTavrdeboda.filosofosTa Taobebi, miuxedavad skolebisa da mimarTulebebisdasaxelebaTa simravlisa, antikurobaSi dasmul SekiTxvebsver gacdnen da verc axali ver SemogvTavazes.droisa da istoriis labirinTebSi moZraobisas axali kariar gagviRia _ erTidaimave movlenebisadmi saxelTa miniWebaSivejibrebodiT erTmaneTs.sul ufro da ufro vSordebodiT sakralursa da ezoTeruls.sul ufro ukeT da ukeT cxovrobda kacobriobis didi nawili.sul ufro da ufro Raribdeboda Cveni suliereba.mokled da konkretulad, Cven XXI saukuneSi varT, _ siyvarulisreligiaze dafuZnebuli welTaRricxvisa, romelSiac erTmaneTissiyvarulis deficitma sulier gamyinvarebamde, magram globalurdaTbobamde migviyvana.sicocxle _ sikvdilisamoTxe _ jojoxeTiTumca religias mesame samyaroc Semohqonda gansawmendeli,rogorc mesame ganzomileba.kalderoni gvekiTxeboda: sad aris WeSmariti realoba, sadvarsebobT Cven sinamdvileSi _ iq, rasac Cven cxovrebas vuwodebTTu iq, rasac Cven sizmars veZaxiT.sad aris Cveni namdvili arsi?erTi SexedviT martivad Tu SevxedavT am sakiTxs vityviT:fizikurad Cven varsebobT e. w. realur cxovrebaSi, xoloCveni cnobiereba SiSvldeba e. w. warmosaxviT sizmrebis samyaroSi_ aseve realurSi Cveni cnobierebisaTvis.sad aris adamiani, is rac is aris sinamdvileSi? anu iseTi,roca aRasrulebs antikurobidan moyolebul Segonebas _`Seican Tavi Seni~ anda `iyavi is rac xar~aq, Tu iq?egreT wodebul cxovrebaSi, Tu sizmarSi?fsiqologebi albaT ityvian, rom iq _ sizmrebSi.samyaros ganviTarebaaxali ganzomilebaCven vcxovrobT da varsebobT, magram sad da romelganzomilebaSi?es panu ri aRor Zinebis gv irgvinosanma kalderonmamravalsaukunovani Tavsatexi ase gamoxata _ cxovrebasizmaria?!calsaxaa is garemoeba, rom mravalsaukunovani warmodgena orsamyaros Soris arsebobda, or-or ganzomilebas gvTavazobda.cxovreba _ sizmariinteraqtiuloba _ ...xelovnebis mibaZva _ cnobierebis nakadisadmipostmodernizmidan _ kvlav neo inteleqtualizmamdeerTma Cemma nacnobma amaswinaT miTxra: `ukve mTavrdebaStainerisa da masTan dakavSirebuli postmodernis epoqao~ ...da mravali neoizmebis epoqa _ maS ra iwyeba axla?post post?54 55


levan xeTaguri90-ian wlebSi espaneli Teatrmcodne xose angeli gomesibarselonidan farTod iyenebda da popularizacias uwevda`post Teatris~ Teorias.igi werda statiebsa da wignebs posthamletis, postdonJuanisanu e. w. postTeatris Sesaxeb axali Teatris molodinisimediT.xelovnebis Seswavla _ xelovnebis filosofosobaSi gadasvla;Tanamedrove xelovneba _ mcodneebi ukve arian kulturisanTropologebi.interaqtiulobidan _ multimediur gamosaxvamde...Cveni aRqmis procesia interaqtiuli, rac ganapirobebs CveniTviTgamoxatvis dros interaqtiulobis dacvas _ amis saSualebaki mxolod multimediuri saSualebebiTaa SesaZlebeli.Cveni arseboba erTdroulad ramodenime realobaSia – maTSoris yvelaze mniSvnelovani _ es kiber realobaa _ romelicmoiTxovs _ Tanamedrove teqnologiebis gamoyenebas, rogorcTviTgamoxatvis saSualebas.mesame realobaxdeba kiber ena – cifrebiT arsebuli samyaros Tanamedroveteqnologiebi._ kibersamyaroSi Cven varsebobT drosa da sazRvrebs miRma,enasa da realobas miRma, praqtikulad zedroul da zerealurganzomilebaSi.rogoria am drois xelovneba, ra aris misi gamoxatvissaSualebebi _ Teatri _ performansi xdeba xelovnebaTasinTezis, adamianis naazrevis misi kiberzmanebaTa gamoxatviserTaderTi saSualeba. ise rogorc arasdros dRes xelovnebasinTezuria._ TviTgamoxatvis procesi _ usazRvro, Rrma da dausrulebeli;_ Cven aRara varT ambebis samyaroSi;_ Cven varT SeCerebuli wamisa da wamebis usasrulod qcevissamyaroSi;_ Cven aRara varT dasrulebuli nawarmoebebis epoqaSi, CvenvarT sivrceSi gawelili moZraobis, sityvis, bgeris, da a. S.usasrulo samyaroSi da kosmosSi gagzavnili gzavnilebisepoqaSi._ Cven erTdroulad vusmenT, vuyurebT, vfiqrobT, vwerT davkiTxulobT _ kibersamyaroSi erTdroulad vurTierTobTramdenime adamianTan, SeiZleba aTeulTanac ki ise, rom maT esar ician, Cven viniRbebiT kibersamyaroSi SeTxzuli biografiebiT,nasesxebi individualobebiTa da saxeebiT.(pirdapiri mniSvnelobiT _ Tuki antikuriTeatridan moyolebuli Cveni sakuTari survilebissublimirebas scenaze moTamaSe msaxiobisa da gmirissaSualebiT vaxdendiT _ axla es procesi uSualodCvens xelSia _ kiber realobam mogvca saSualebakiber sivrceSi viqceT imaT, rac gvinda da gavxdeTkiber materialuri da ara warmosaxviTi mxolod);Cven vyidulobT axal sicocxles (meore sicocxlis _ meorerealobis internetsivrce) da amitomac Cveni gamoxatvis enatradiciuli azrovneba da formebi kvdeba ise, rogorcarasdros;TaobaTa omi sastikia, rogorc arasdros;_ samyaros daSla dawyebuli babilonSi _ aRdgenis gzazeakibersamyaroSi;Cven vxvdebiT kibersamyaros moqalaqeebi;viciT Tu ara teqnika, axali teqnologiebi _ miuxedavadamisa Cveni gamoxatvis saSualeba mxolod teqnikaa;Cven SeiZleba bolo aTwleuls viTvliT qaRaldze dabeWdiliwignebisa _ ekologiis dacvasTan erTad _ qaRaldis magivrad56 57


levan xeTaguriyvela wigni _ kibersamyaroSi gardaicvleba da cifruliformiT daibadeba;Cven male davibadebiT da gardavicvlebiT kibersamyaroSi _Cveni arseboba kosmosSi gadadis;_ Cveni arseboba xdeba usasrulo;rogori SeiZleba iyos Teatri axla?Teatri _ interaqtiuli.Teatri erTdroulad mosaubre yvela enaze, yvelasTan sazRvrebisgareSe, mosaubre yvelasaTvis gasageb enaze _ bgerebiT, xmauriT,feriT, moZraobiT, musikiT, sinaTliTa da CrdiliT;gamosaxulebiT, proeqciiT da translaciiT, erTdrouladramdenime mimarTulebiT, erTdroulad mTels sivrceSi.sivrce aRar aris mxolod saTeatro, sivrce gascda Teatriskedlebs, igi gaxda usazRvro.maRal teqnologiebTan erTad Teatri xdeba ufro saidumloda ufro mistiuri, is ise rogorc arasdros yvelaze axlosaasulis gasaSiSvleblad,gonebis saCveneblad...Tuki adre Teatri cxovrebas aCvenebda da masSi adamianebs,axla igi imas aCvenebs, Tu ra xdeba adamianebSi cxovrebisdros.igi aSiSvlebs gonebaSi mimdinare cnobierebis nakads,usasrulobaSi gadasul azrovnebas, asociaciebis rigs dayvelafers rac gonebaSi xdeba,sizmrebis gamoxatva gaxda SesaZlebeli, fiqris Cveneba gaxdarealuri _ Teatrs SeuZlia ukve aCvenos ras vfiqrobT, rasvakeTebT da risi gakeTeba gvsurs.mesame realobaamis saSualebas iZleva multimediuri Teatri, Tanamedroveteqnologiebi.scenaze sinaTliT daRvrili ferTa laqebi, Teatris yvelakuTxe gadaqceulia proeqciis adgilad _ yvelgan midisCvens gonebaSi mimdinare procesis, xatebebis proeqcia _ daCven vaRwevT adamianis sulSi mimdinare procesebSi _ aramonaTxrobiT, aramed uSualo cqeriT, saidumlo labirinTebSiSeRweviT.Teatri arasodes ar yofila ase axlos _ saidumlo samyarosgamoxatvasTan _ Teatri xdeba globaluri da amavedrosZalian intimuri _ speqtakli emsgavseba meditaciisa damagnetizmis seanss.Teatri emsgavseba mistikuri samyaros vizualur proeqcias.Teatri iwyebs yoveldRiuri ritualebis Seqmnas _ Teatriloculobs samyarosTvis, adamianis gonebis gaSiSvlebissaSualebiT.sinaTle, musika, feri, xmauri xdeba adamianis sxeulis siSiSvlisSemosvis saSualeba.adamiani dRes laparakobs sakuTari SiSveli sxeuliT da arasityvebiT.AdRes ise rogorc arasdros Teatrs erTiani ena Wirdeba daes ena xdeba adamiani _ msaxiobi, rogorc sazomi samyaroSiazris gadacemis erTeulisa, Rirebuleba, romlis maRlac araferiaRar dgas.Tanamedrove maRali ganviTarebis civilizaciis Rirebuleba,civilizaciis xelovnebis nimuSad Tavad adamiani iqca dayvelaferi, rasTanac adamians aqvs Sexeba, SeiZleba, aseve iqcesxelovnebis nimuSad.58 59


levan xeTaguriadamiani, rogorc Tavisuflebis sazomi, adamiani, rogorcmSvenierebis nimuSi, adamiani, rogorc bunebisa da samyarosTviTgamoxatvis saSualeba.kinomcodneobamsoflio kulturaSi _ RmerTi absolutia, romelSic erTiandebareligiebi saxelebis miuxedavad, eTnosebi eTnikurobismiuxedavad _ dRes RmerTi absolutia – RmerTia xelovnebada xelovnebis qmnadoba, procesi da Sedegi.dRes realobebi erTmaneTTan mimarTebiT fardobiTia.dro aTvlis sistemidan erT did usasrulo sibrtyeSiinacvlebs, sadac aRar aris dasawyisi da dasasruli, wamebida wuTebi aris mxolod usasruloba, cifruli usasruloba._ absoluti nuli da erTiT meti, umartivesi WeSmariteba;_ piTagoradan dRemde erTi naxtomi aRmoCnda;_ samyaro cifrebSia moqceuli;_ samyaros safuZveli absoluturi harmonia nulia dayvelaferi icvleba da iqmneba martivi erTianis damatebiT;_ samyaro mxolod nuli da erTiania.nuli, rogorc usasrulo samyaro da erTi, rogorc yoveliindividi masSi.2008-200960 61


oliko JRentirusuli kinovesternis `namdvilikavkasielebi~(lermontovis ekranizaciis ideur-esTetikuri aspeqtebiqarTul kinoSi)XX saukunis 10-ian wlebSi gazeT `kavkazSi~ daibeWdamixeil lermontovis dabadebidan 100 wlisTavisadmi miZRvnilifilosofiuri eskizi `lermontovis niRabi~.Aam statiis avtoriiyo gamoCenili qarTveli mwerali da moazrovne grigolrobaqiZe.gr. robaqiZis ganmartebiT, lermontovis niRbis arsi, Tavadpirovnebis gaorebaSi da demonizmSi mdgomareobs, romlermontovis gaoreba gamaognebelia yvelasTvis: `daundoblobisda mzakvrobis demons, Tan erTvis maTgan yvelaze saSineliampartavnebis demoni... sammagi demoniT Sepyrobili lermontoviiRupeba... gadaWriT vamtkiceb, rom lermontovis `saidumlo~mis `niRabSi~ imaleba~, _ SeniSnavda statiis avtori da Imsoflio omis globaluri, qaoturi movlenebis fonzenicSeanuri Tvalsazrisidan gamomdinare gvTavazobs `niRbis~koncefcias: `niRbiani adamiani malavs ra sakuTar Tavs, amasTanaveeswrafvis sxvad qcevas, gardasaxvas sxva `med~, _ werdarobaqiZe da dasZenda, rom kacobriobis istoria `cru gaorebis~mauwyebelia: `lermontovi gadaeSva samyaroSi da aRmoCndasamyaros istoriis miRma... fatalizmi xdeba lermontovisstiqiis ganuyreli elementi da aqedanaa misi uSiSaroba~. 1robaqiZiseuli SefasebiT, lermontovma, rogorc istoriulmapirma, xorci ver Seisxa (ver gansxeulda), amitomac igiistoriis miRma darCa, ver iqca maradisobis ganmWvretelad(vizionerad).Dmisma dasabamiseulma sulma ver moiZia istoriuli`sxeuli~, ver pova gansxeuleba (ganxorcieleba). sulieriwinaaRmdegobebiT `damZimebulma~ mweralma Seqmna demonurida romantikuli gmiri _ peCorini, romelsac yvelganganxeTqileba Seaqvs da ngrevaSi ikmayofilebs am daundoblobisJins. turgenevi lermontovis Sesaxeb werda: `lermontovisgaregnobaSi iyo raRac tragikuli da SemaZrwunebeli, pirquSida avis momaswavebeli Zala~.20-ian wlebSi gabolSevikebuli ruseTidan devnilireJisorebi qarTul kinematografSi agrZeleben moRvaweobas.isini xSirad mimarTavdnen qarTuli klasikuri literaturisekranizaciebs. MmaT Soris gamoirCeoda ivane perestianis `samisicicxle~ (g. wereTlis `pirveli nabijis~ mixedviT), `tarielmklavaZis mkvlelobis saqme~ (e. ninoSvilis `Cveni qveynisraindis~ mixedviT) da sxv. kinoreJisorma vladimer barskimyazbegis roman `moZRvris~ (1922) gadaRebis Semdeg, lermontoviscnobili romanis `Cveni drois raindis~ ekranizaciaganaxorciela _ 1926-1927 wlebSi seriuli TanmimdevrobiTreJisorma gadaiRo `Tavadis asuli meri~, `bela~, `maqsimmaqsimiCi~ (lermontovis romani moicavs sxvadasxva novelebs,romlebic erT ciklad erTiandeba).vladimer barskim daamTavra moskovis saimperatoroteqnikuri saswavlebeli. 1892 wlidan moRvaweobda ruseTisTeatrebSi, rogorc reJisori da msaxiobi. bolSevikurirevoluciis Semdeg saqarTvelos bevrma rusma xelovanma _literatorebma, poetebma, mxatvrebma da reJisorebma SeafaresTavi, maT Soris iyo vladimer barskic. igi 1917-1921 wlebSijer Tbilisis saxalxo saxlSi, Semdeg, 1921-1928 wlebSi,`saxkinmrewvSi~ muSaobda reJisorad. 1928 wlidan moRvaweobda`TurqmenfilmSi~, `uzbekkinoSi~, `sovkinoSi~.Mmas gansakuTrebuliRvawli miuZRvoda Turqmenuli da uzbekuri kinematografisCamoyalibebaSi. 1925 wels barskim iTamaSa erT-erTi mTavariroli (golikovi) sergei eizenSteinis cnobil film `javSnosanpotiomkinSi~.barskis ekranizaciebSi, lermontovis gmirebi kavkasiisegzotikur garemoSi moqmedeben, mTavari gmiris _ peCorinis _tragizmi da fatalizmi kavkasiis pirvelqmnil wiaRsukavSirdeba. robaqiZis ganmartebiT, lermontovisTvis yvelaze`sabediswero~ da yvelaze `mZime,~ _ es aris misi usazRvrogaoreba: sikeTesa da borotebas, sinaTlesa da sibneles Soris.es ki gamoxatavs im `orWoful~ angelozTa suliermdgomareobas, romlebic pirvandel samyaroSi RmerTisa da62 63


oliko JRentidemonis WidilSi arc erT Zalas ar miemxrnen.EempiriulsinamdvileSiFfatalizmiT Sepyrobili lermontovi mxolodwarsulis maradisobas Wvretda, igi uZalo iyo ganeWvritamomavali maradisoba (Будущая вечность).Aamitomac, misTvisrTuli da SeuZlebeli aRmoCnda daeZlia gaorebis sicrue(ложь раздвоения): `Cven mudmivad vcdilobT gadavlaxoTsakuTari Tavi, viqceT sxvad, Cven veswrafviT srulqmnilebasda sikeTes, Cven gvinda viqceT `sxvad~ _ werda robaqiZe.lermontovis gaorebis tragedia mTeli siZlieriT `RmerTebisada kacobriobis samSobloSi~, misterialuri kulturis (foneSenbaxi) wiaRSi _ kavkasiaSi gancxadda.romanis `Cveni drois raindis~ winasityvaobaSi, lermontovimkiTxvels ganumartavs, Tu ramdenad realuria peCorinispersonaJi, saerTod, vin aris peCorini?Dda iqve ganmartavs,rom peCorini misi Taobis krebiTi gmiria, `romlis xasiaTSiaris simarTle da araferi ar aris gamogonili~. reJisoribarski zustad misdevs lermontoviseul SefasebaTa sqemasda kinematografiuli xerxebiT mogviTxrobs, Tu ratom mieltvisaseTi raindul-romantikuli aRtkinebiT lermontovis gmiriSoreul da warmtac kavkasias?peCorinis literaturuli gmiri aristokratiuli klasispirmSoa, romelsac daufaravi ironia da cinizmi amoZravebsamave maRali socialuri klasis mimarT.Bbarskis kinogmiripeCorinic (msax. n. prozorovski) Taviseburi autsaideria,romelic ver egueba maRali sazogadoebis moralur dogmebsda farisevlur eTikas, amitomac `moirgebs~ cinizmisa daegoizmis niRabs. sazogadoebisgan gandgomili, `mudmivi gaorebis~msxverpli peCorini, mudam damarcxebuli da xelmocaruligamodis _ sociumTan konfliqti misi marcxisa da daRupvismizezi xdeba.lermontoviseuli `niRbis~ filosofiuri arsi kavkasiispirvelqmnil bunebaSi ixsneba _ RmerTebisa da miTebissamyaroSi.Kkavkasia odiTganve moiazreboda RmerTebisa dakacobriobis samSoblod. didma germanelma mecnieranTropologmafridrix bliumenbaxma (1752-1840), pirvelmauwoda TeTr rasas `kavkasiuri~. sakmarisia gavixsenoT hegelisrusuli kinovesternis `namdvili kavkasielebi~cnobili filosofiuri postulati (kavkasia kacobriobis akvani):`fizionomia umTavresad ganasxvavebs kavkasiur, eTiopur damonRolur rasebs. ... suli Tavis TavTan absolitur mTlianobasmxolod kavkasiur rasaSi aRwevs, mxolod aq upirispirdebasuli bunebrivi mdgomareobis pirobebs, mxolod aq aRwevssuli srul damoukideblobas, TviTgansazRvras daTviTganviTarebas da amiT, msoflio istorias anxorcielebs...~Tuki hegelis am Sefasebebs gaviziarebT, kidev ufro gasagebixdeba lermontovis pirovnuli tragizmi. robaqiZis sityvebsTu davesesxebiT, samyaros stiqiaSi CaZirulma lermontovissulma ver hpova mTlianoba, ver miaRwia damoukideblobas,TviTgansazRvras...XIX saukuneSi kavkasia ramdenime gamoCenili evropelimecnierisa da filosofosis saazrovno sivrceSi moeqca,Mmagramgansxvavebuli iyo rusi mwerlebisa da poetebis sulieriganWvreta, isini naklebad eyrdnobodnen kavkasiis Sesaxebarsebul miTologiur-mecnierul teqstebs _ isini mxolodkolonialur-orientalisturi poziciidan, da eTnografiul,egzotikur planSi Wvretdnen veluri samyaros mSvenierebas.imperiuli propagandis manaqana aviTarebda azrs, romlis mixedviT,civilizacia da progresi am velur samyaroSi ruseTis imperiamSemoitana – amas kidev erTxel mowmobs barskis mier gadaRebullermontovis ekranizaciebSi daxvewilad afiSirebuli rusuliklasicisturi stilis arqiteqtura, XIX saukunis rusulisazogadoebis evropizirebuli yofa, Sesabamisad, ikveTeba ruseTissocialur-politikuri prioriteti adgilobriv-velurmTielebTan mimarTebaSi. kavkasiuri eTno-kulturiskinematografiul gaazrebaSi barski lermontovisl i te r a turuli na r kv e v eb i Ta da teq s t eb i TxelmZRvanelobda.MmagaliTad,Lliteraturul narkvevSi`kavkasieli~, lermontovi mkiTxvels sTavazobs `namdvili~ da`aranamdvili~ kavkasielis fsiqotips. kavkasiis motrfialemwerali detalurad aRwers, Tu rogor ganicdis rusi samxedromoxele transformirebas kavkasiaSi da am transformirebisSedegad yalibdeba `namdvil kavkasielis~ ti pi, romelicsocialurad adaptirebuli xdeba ucxo da velur garemosTan:64 65


oliko JRentirusuli kinovesternis `namdvili kavkasielebi~`kavkasieli aris naxevrad rusi, naxevrad azieli arseba~, igisamxedro swavlebas gadis kadetTa korpusSi da Cinebulioficeri xdeba; igi kiTxulobs literaturul Txzulebebskavkasiaze da kavkasiis mimarT interesi mas TandaTan uRvivdeba.igiDdRedaRam atarebs xanjals da ar ixsnis manam, sanamiaraRi ar mobezrdeba. is qorwindeba kazak qalze da amiTbednieria; Semdeg midis samxedro eqspediciaSi, ocnebobs mTielTaSepyrobaze, mas ezmaneba saSineli brZolebi, sisxlis mdinareebida generlis epoletebi.Mmas ezmaneba rainduli gmirobebi, Semdegki TandaTan eufleba mowyeniloba, Cin-medlebis miuxedavad,pirquSi da sityvaZunwi xdeba, mas axali vneba ipyrobs, sworedam dros iqceva is `namdvil kavkasielad~ _ umegobrdebamSvidobian Cerqezebs da xSirad stumrobs aulebs mTebSi.Umasitacebs ubralo da veluri cxovreba, izidavs mTielTa poeturigadmocemebi da Tqmulebebi, TandaTan eufleba nostalgiamSobliur saxlze da daubrundeba kidec saxls, rogorcpensioneri; aranamdvili kavkasieli ki _ es qarTveli kavkasielia,romelsac uyvars kaxuri Rvino da farTe abreSumis Sarvlebi,ruseTSi brundeba `CiniT da wiTeli cxviriT.~ 2 Laqedangamomdinare, SeiZleba davaskvnaT, rom lermontoviseuli gmirebiatareben `namdvili kavkasielis~ niRabs – peCorinis moqmedebazustad imeorebs lermontovis mier zemoT aRwerili personaJisqmedebas, magram robaqiZiseuli `niRbis~ filosofia am qmedebistragikul dasasrulze mianiSnebs.Kkavkasia poeturi STagonebiswyaroa romanis avtorisTvis, magram imave kavkasiasTan mimarTebaSimJRavndeba lermontovis mkafiod formulirebuli kolonialurida orientalisturi Sexedulebebi _ mwerali mainc didiruseTis imperiis Svilia, romlisTvisac kavkasia darCa ucxoda Seucnobel samyarod, Sesabamisad verDESedga komunikacia`velur~, `agresiul~ da `aracivilizirebul~ samyarosTan, ismainc ver iqca namdvil kavkasielad, misma pirovnebam xorciver Seisxa, aqedan momdinareobs gmiris melanqolia da Sinaganitanjva _ romantikuli sivrceebis dapyrobis Jini. amitomac,yvelgan, sadac ki lermontovis gmiri peCorini Cndeba – masngreva da da ganxeTqileba Seaqvs, sabolood ki euli, martosulirCeba, da mudmivad daeZebs sikvdils. sruliad gansxvavebulisulieri mimarTeba aqvT XIX-XX saukunis evropel mwerlebskavkasiasTan _ maT ar tanjavT da ar amZimebT lermontoviseuliRrma melanqolia, radgan kavkasiaSi isini pouloben dakargul`poetur samSoblos~, harmoniul TanafardobaSi arian bunebasTan,euflebaT saocari survili, rom aq gaidgan `fesvebi~, `RmerTebisada goliaTebis samyaroSi~ (knut hamsuni), evropeli mwerlebiacnobiereben pirvandeli samyaros RvTaebriv Zalmosilebas,isini kavakiuri fenomenis, kulturuli wiaRis Tanaziarni arian,aRiareben kavkasieli xalxis mterTan (ruseTis imperiasTan)daumorCileblobis faqts, afaseben mSvidobisa daTavisuflebismoyvare kavkasielTa xasiaTs, Tvisebebs. romanis`Cveni drois gmiris~ SesavalSiLlermontovs surs daarwmunosmkiTxveli, rom peCorinic `tragikul da romantikulborotmoqmedTa~ kategorias ganekuTvneba.Mmas hyavs reluriprototipebi rusul sinamdvileSi.Kaq miT ufro sacnaurixdeba robaqiZiseuli niRbis koncefcia.Aamgvarad, kavkasieliseTno-socialuri ti pis kinematografiul gaazrebaSi ruskinematografistebs isev lermontoviseuli orientalisturkolonialuriSexedulebebi da siuJeturi sqemebi daexmaraT.filmSi `Tavadis asuli meri~ rusi oficris cxovrebaspeCorinis piradiDdRiurebis mixedviT vecnobiT, amdenad, epizodebi,dokumenturi faqtis, qronikis mniSvnelobas iZens. aq pedanturisizustiTaa aRwerili rusi samxedro elitisa Tuaristokratiis samoqmedo garemo – revoluciamdeli rusuliRia baraTebis esTetikis gavleniT filmSi gadaRebuli kavkasiiswarmtaci peizaJebi, feSenebeluri mineraluri wylebiskurortebi da rafinirebuli gemovnebis salonebi. mxatvruladgacocxlda ruseTis kolonialuri cxovrebis amsaxvelicalkeuli epizodebi, romlebic fsevdo romatizmissuliskveTebiTaa gaJRenTili. lermontoviseul ekranizaciebSimkafiod ikveTeboda ideologiuri waxnagebi _ kinematografiafiqsirebda imperiuli ruseTis Zlevamosilebis amsaxvelistoriul-kulturul realiebs, Sesabamisad, xazgasmuladwarmoCndeboda ruseTis imperiis prioritetuli roli dasamxedro-politikuri upiratesoba velur da daumorCilebelkavkasiaze. amgvari iyo ekranze ruseTis kolonialuri warsulis`restavrirebis~ faruli mizani. 20-iani wlebis barskis mier66 67


oliko JRentirusuli kinovesternis `namdvili kavkasielebi~lermontovis ekranizaciebSi orientalizmi aRmosavlurfatalizms ukavSirdeba.Aam fatalizmis msxverpli xdebapeCorinis gmiric.niSandoblivia, rom lermontovis ekranizaciebi imaveideologiur funqcias asrulebda, rasac _ vesternis miTiamerikis istoriaSi. sabWoTa ruseTic ki Zaladobaze da terorzedamyarebuli politikuri reJimis pirobebSi `carizmis~ epoqisideologiuri da esTetikuri konstruqciebiT xelmZRvanelobda,amitomac, lermontovis ekranizaciebSi srulebiT ver naxavdiTdadebiTi, Rirseuli TvisebebiT Semkuli kavkasielis fsiqotips.spontanurad, isic Sor planze, gamoCenili Cerqezebi veluri,primitiuli tomis xalxs ufro warmoadgenen, romlebic veluriindielebis msgavsad Tavs esxmian rusi aristokratiis korteJebs,mZime CemodnebiT datvirTul samgzavro etlebs. maT danaxvazerus banovanebs SiSisgan guli uwuxdebaT, magram mamaci rusioficrebi – `Cveni drois gmirebi~ _ uSiSrad anadgurebenmTiel teroristebs.lermontovis moTxroba `Tavadis asuli meris~ epilogSi,kavkasiidan ruseTSi mimavali peCorini gzaze gaxrwnili cxenisleSs waawydeba, romlisTvisac `velur~ mTielebs unagiriaurTmeviaT. cxenis leSze ori yvavia Semoskupuli, racsimbolurad raindis sikvdils ganasaxierebda. moTxrobisgangansxvavebiT, filmis eqspoziciaSi _ arwivi da yvavianaCvenebi.Aamgvarad, raindis (cxeni) da sikvdilis (yvavi)simboloebs filmSi daemata rusuli imperiuli Zlevamosilebissimbolo – arwivi, romelic umxedrod darCenil leSs kortnis(sikvdilis metafora).Bbarskis filmSi mravlad aris masStaburi scenebi, rocaruseTis aristokratiis diliJansebi erT mwkrivad, Seupovradmiikvlevs riskiT da xifaTebiT aRsavse gzas kavkasiis alpurzonaSi. diliJansi amerikuli vesternis erT-erTi mTavarikinoatributia, romelic saTavgadasavlo-avantiuruli JanrisfilmebSi xSirad gamoCndeba da gmirebTan erTad `monawileobs~mZafr, sisxlian batalur scenebSi. gavixsenoT, rogor esxmianTavs veluri indielebi `mSvidobisa da Tavisuflebismoyvare~,`civilizebul~ amerikelebs veluri dasavleTis wiaRSi, isiniTavad provocireben samxedro moqmedebebs;GgoliaT mTebs Soris`momwyvdeuli~, rusi aristokratiis safosto da samgzavrodiliJansebsac, aucileblad Tavs pirveli daesxmissisxlismsmeli mTielTa tomi, magram ukanonobas isev ruseTissamxedro garnizonebi aRkvevs.KgaunaTlebel, uvic kavkasielebSikanoni da wesrigi isev rusuli imperiuli sistemis pirobebSiiaraRiTa da ZaladobiT unda damyardes.vesternis Janruli elementebiT gajerebul lermontoviseul`kinoserialSi,~ mTielTa adgilobrivi tipaJebi, ZiriTadad`veluri~ da socialurad dabeCavebuli adamianebi _ yaCaRTagundia an SedarebiT mSvidobiani, `morCili~ aborigenebi:movaWreebi, meduqneebi anu uwyinari xalxi. namdvili kavkasielisfsiqotipi – keTilSobili, mamaci, rainduli Tvisebebi sruliadignorirebulia ekranidan da mxolod fragmentulad Cndeba,isic Sor planze da aSkarad gamoxatuli agresiuli qmedebebiT.barskis filmebSi kavkasiis aborigen mosaxleobas ZiriTadadmoxucebi da bavSvebi warmoadgenen, romlebic maTxovrebs ufrohgvanan dakonkil samoselSi, samagierod, tradiciuli kavkasielistips rusul literaturasa da kinoSi Caenacvla `namdvilkavkasielad~ (fsevdokavkasieli) wodebuli rusi samxedromoxele.kavkasiis mimarT rusi kinematografistebis damokidebulebaSarJul da groteskul formas iZenda rusul sabWoTakinematografSi. `namdvili kavkasielis~ SarJi tradiciad,stereotipul sqemad dakanonda da imdenad myari aRmoCnda,rom rusuli kinematografi 20-ian wlebSi Casaxuli kinoideologiuri sqemebisgan dRemde ver gaTavisuflda. amissafuZvlebi ki swored rusul klasikur literaturaSiasaZiebeli, Mmag., Tuki ekranze kavkasielis tipi gamoCnda, isaucileblad unda cekvavdes lekurs, Jongliorobdes yanwebiT,svamdes kaxur Rvinos da rus banovanTa gulis dapyrobaslamobdes.lermontovis moTxrobis mixedviT gadaRebuli filmi `maqsimmaqsimiCi,~ melodramatuli Janris klasikur nimuSs warmoadgens,magram masSi plastikurad ikveTeba e. w. `namdvili kavkasielis~fenomeni.filmis Sinaarsis mixedviT, Cerqezis qals (msax. belabeleckaia) TavdaviwyebiT Seuyvardeba tyve rusi oficeri68 69


oliko JRenti(msax. v. obolenski). igi civi da gulgrilia im qalis mimarT,romelic veluri tomis Svilia da sruliad ar flobs rusulsazogadoebaSi aRzrdili qalbatonebis daxvewil etikets.mTieli qali siyvarulisgan itanjeba, rusi oficris fiqri daocneba ki mSobliur saxlsa da rus aristokrat satrfosdastrialebs; datyvevebuli oficeri usazRvro nostalgiiTitanjeba veluri mTielebis aulSi. sayvareli adamianis tanjvasCerqezi qali veRar gauZlebs da humanur saqciels sCadis _is tyveobidan daixsnis oficers, Tavad ki TviTmkvlelobiTdaasrulebs sicocxles. sainteresoa, melodramatuli sqema,romelic lermontovis kinoekranizaciebSi ucvlelad meordeba:rusi oficrisTvis kavkasieli qali-macduri, fataluri arsebaa_ qali vampi, romlis tyveobaSi mxolod droebiT aRmoCndebada amasTanave, misTvis xdeba garTobis, TavSeqcevis `sagani~.maSin, roca rus oficrebs Rrma melanqolia euflebaT dasikvdils daeZeben, am dros Kfatalur da sensualur kavkasielqalebs usazRvro Tavganwirva SeuZliaT. rusi da mTieliqal-vaJis urTierTobaSi msxverpli aucileblad mTieli qaliunda gaxdes.Aamgvarad, ruseTis samxedro elitiswarmomadgenlebi verasodes poveben pirad bednierebas kavkasiisempiriul sinmadvileSi, aRmosavluri fatalizmis samyaroSiisini uSiSrad da gamomwvevad daeZeben sikvdils (`bela~, `maqsimmaqsimiCi~).robaqiZiseuli niRbis filosofia kidev erTxel Segvaxsenebslermontovis gmirebis tragizmsa da fatalizms: daundoblobisda sibnelis demons, romelsac Tan erTvoda ampartavnebisdemoni, ganwirulia dasaRupavad, sammagi demoniT Sepyrobilipoeti da samxedro moxele lermontovic daiRupa, magram arabrZolis velze aramed `morig~ duelSi...mediologia1. Робакидзе Г., «Маска Лермонтова», газета «Кавказ», 1914,№217,«кавказец». М., Ю.2. Лермонтов М, Избранные сочинения, «Художественная литература»,М., с.764.70 71


Tea mJavanaZesaqarTvelos radio, rogorcsaxelmwifos marTvis instrumenti(1957-1990)nebismieri sazogadoebrivi movlenis axsna da gaazrebaSeuZlebelia im istoriuli winamZRvrebis gareSe, ramac misidRevandeli saxe ganapiroba. saqarTvelos radio Camoyalibdada mravali aTeuli wlis manZilze aramarto saxelmwifoideologias emsaxureboda, aramed amave dros mxarSi edgaqarTuli kulturisa da xelovnebis ganviTarebas, TumcasaqarTvelos radio, rogorc saxelmwifos marTvis instrumenti,Tavidanve gamoikveTa.1953 wels radiomauwyeblobis kulturis saministrosdaqvemdebarebaSi moqcevam didi kamaTi gamoiwvia da amis SesaxebsakavSiro presaSic ki gaimarTa msjeloba. es CaiTvala radios,rogorc saxelmwifo institutis, statusis daqveiTebad, misirogorc sazogadoebis ideologiuri marTvis erT-erTi mZlavrisaSualebis Seufaseblobad, rac savsebiT daadastura ramdenimewlis praqtikamac. totalitarul saxelmwifos, cxadia, verdaakmayofilebda propagandis instrumentis informaciis ubralomimwodeblad da `kulturtregerad~ gadaqceva. amitom, ssrkministrTa sabWos 1957 wlis 16 maisis dadgenilebiT, radioda televizia (romelic am dros ukve swrafad iwyebda aRmasvlasda veRar darCeboda radios struqturaSi) gamovida kulturissaministros daqvemdebarebidan da saxelmwifoSi Tavisi sakuTaristatusi aRidgina _ Seiqmna ssrk ministrTa sabWosTan arsebuliradiomauwyeblobisa da televiziis saxelmwifo komiteti. eskomiteti aRmasrulebel xelisuflebas ganekuTvneboda, misiTavmjdomare mTavrobis wevrad iTvleboda da SediodaministrTa kabinetis SemadgenlobaSi.radio-televiziis saxelmwifoebrivi mniSvnelobis kideverTi aRiareba iyo ssrk umaRlesi sabWos prezidiumis 1970wlis 12 ivlisis dadgenileba, romlis Tanaxmadac ministrTasabWosTan arsebuli radio-televiziis komiteti gardaiqmnaministrTa sabWos televiziisa da radiomauwyeblobissaxelmwifo komitetad. am erTi sityvis _ `arsebulis~ _saxelwodebidan amogdeba niSnavda, rom eleqtronuli mediaoficialurad erTveboda saxelmwifo marTvis sistemaSi: igixelisuflebasTan `arsebuli~ raRac struqtura ki aRar iyo,aramed _ am xelisuflebis nawili, Sesabamisi uflebebiTa damovaleobebiT. Jurnalistebi ubralod `partiis damxmareebi~(Подручные партии) ki aRar iyvnen, rogorc alersiT uwodamaT nikita xruSCovma 1959 wels axladSeqmnili ssrkJurnalistTa kavSiris pirvel yrilobaze, aramed am partiisnebis aRmasrulebeli struqturis warmomadgenlebi. rac Seexebakomitetis saxelwodebaSi `televiziis~ win gadmotanas, esubralod warmoadgenda televiziis upiratesobis dadasturebasradiosTan SedarebiT, rac am periodisTvis ukve aravis eWvsaRar iwvevda.rogorc Cans, esec ar miiCnies sakmarisad da 1977 wlisbolosTvis sabWoTa teleradiomauwyebloba ministrTa sabWosacCamoscilda da gaformda damoukidebel uwyebad _ ewodassrk televiziisa da radiomauwyeblobis saxelmwifo komiteti(ssrk-is saxteleradio). yvela es reforma, ra Tqma unda,gatarda saqarTveloSic.aseTi cvlilebebi, albaT, savsebiT logikuri iyo, radganvis gamgeblobaSic ar unda yofiliyo formalurad sabWoTateleradiomauwyebloba, mas iseve, rogorc mTel sabWoTainformaciul-propagandistul sistemas, uSualodxelmZRvanelobda da akontrolebda komunisturi partia(centraluri da adgilobrivi partiuli organoebi) da iyenebdamas sazogadoebis marTvis erT-erT instrumentad. masobrivii nfo r m a c i i s s a S u a l eb eb i ( m a T S or i s , c xa di a ,radiomauwyeblobac) komunisturi ideologiis, komunisturiaRzrdis sistemis Semadgeneli nawili iyo, risi meSveobiTacpartia da xelisufleba mizanmimarTulad moqmedebdasazogadoebis cxovrebis yvela sferoze. amdenad,radiomauwyeblobis miznebi da amocanebi ganisazRvrebodakomunisturi ideologiis miznebiTa da amocanebiT _ sxvadasxvaformiT xeli Seewyo komunisturi sazogadoebriviurTierTobebis CamoyalibebisaTvis, axali adamianisformirebisaTvis, ideologiurad uzrunvelyo skkp programis72 73


Tea mJavanaZesaqarTvelos radio, rogorc saxelmwifos marTvis instrumenticxovrebaSi gatareba, komunizmis materialur-teqnikuri bazisSeqmna, aqtiurad ebrZola burJuaziuli ideologiis, adamianiscnobierebaSi `warsulis gadmonaSTebis~ winaaRmdeg.saqarTvelos radiomauwyebloba 50-iani wlebis bolosteqnikur-organizaciuli da profesiuli TvalsazrisiT ukvesabolood aris Camoyalibebuli _ gaaCnia mZlavri materialurteqnikuribaza da mTel respublikaze eweva mauwyeblobas.didi xania garkveulia misi sazogadoebrivi funqciebi,aTvisebulia radios gamosaxviTi specifika da publicisturiJanrebis saeTero modifikaciebi, dadgenilia organizaciulistruqtura. amasTan, igi sakavSiro-respublikuri daqvemdebarebisuwyebaa da erTdroulad ganicdis rogorc mauwyeblobis erTianicentralizebuli sistemis, ise adgilobrivi xelisuflebisorganoebis zegavlenas, saxelmwifo informaciuli struqturisyovelgvar cvlilebas. zemoT aRniSnuli reformebis Semdeg,1978 wels, igi sabolood Camoyalibda rogorc saqarTvelosssr televiziisa da radiomauwyeblobis saxelmwifo komiteti_ saqarTvelos saxteleradio (es saxelwodeba SemorCa massabWoTa xelisuflebis dasrulebamde). 50-iani da 60-ianiwlebis mijnaze cvlileba moxda teleradiokomitetisxelmZRvanelobaSic _ 1961 wlis seqtembridan komitetisTavmjdomaris postze anton kelenjeriZe Secvala karlogardafxaZem, ufro adre ki, 1958 wlis ianvridan, Tavmjdomarismoadgile radios dargSi gaxda petre SamaTava (man Secvalaa. farulava, romelic gaTavisuflda sxva samuSaoze gadasvlisgamo). pirveli 1976 wlis martamde xelmZRvanelobda komitets,meore ki _ 1984 wlis ivlisamde, meoTxed saukuneze metxanskurirebda saqarTvelos radios. amave periodSi Tavmjdomarismoadgileebad (finansur da materialur-teqnikur nawilSi)muSaobdnen jer rafiel li parteliani da Semdgom oTarkakabaZe.1957-1984 wlebi metad saintereso periodia saqarTvelosradios istoriaSi. jer erTi, es aris saqarTveloSi (da, saerTod,sabWoTa kavSirSi) radiomauwyeblobis ganviTarebis axali etapi,romelic ukavSirdeba televiziis damkvidrebas, radios saeTeromonopoliis gauqmebasa da konkurenciis pirobebSi mauwyeblobisaxali formebis Ziebas. marTalia, telemauwyeblobis sayovelTaodgavrcelebas iseTi radikaluri gavlena ar mouxdeniasaqarTvelos radioze, rogorc sazRvargareT, sadac cnobilimravalprofiliani universaluri radiosadgurebic kispecializaciis gzas daadgnen da formatul programirebazegadavidnen, magram man uTuod iqonia zemoqmedeba ciklebisa darubrikebis mowesrigebaze, mauwyeblobis ZiriTad mimarTulebaTadazustebaze, funqciebis gamokveTasa da pirdapiri eTerisupiratesobaTa aqtiur gamoyenebaze.meore, es periodi gamoirCeva mniSvnelovani istoriulixasiaTis socialur-politikuri movlenebiT: 50-iani wlebisbolosa da 60-iani wlebis pirveli naxevris voluntarizmssabWoTa kavSirSi didi xniT cvlis e. w. uZraobis epoqa,xolo Cvens respublikaSi 70-iani wlebis dasawyisSi sulsxva procesebi iwyebs ganviTarebas. oTxi wlis manZilze,1972-1976 wlebSi, skkp centralurma komitetma sami dadgenilebamiiRo saqarTvelos Sesaxeb: `partiis Tbilisis saqalaqokomitetis organizatoruli da politikuri muSaobis Sesaxeb~(1972), `saqarTvelos ssr saxalxo meurneobis SemdgomiganviTarebis RonisZiebaTa Sesaxeb~ (1974) da `saqarTvelospartiuli organizaciis Sesaxeb~ (1976). 1972 welssaqarTvelos komunisturi partiis centraluri komitetispirveli mdivani (qveynis pirveli piri) vasil mJavanaZe Secvalaeduard SevardnaZem, rasac mohyva mTeli xelmZRvaneli partiulida sabWoTa kadrebis Secvla ara mxolod respublikis, aramedraionebis donezec. cota mogvianebiT sakadro cvlilebebimoxda teleradiokomitetSic: 1976 wlis martSi karlogardafxaZe gadayvanili iqna socialuri uzrunvelyofisministrad da komitetis Tavmjdomared dainiSna guram enuqiZe,xolo 1979 wels saqarTvelos kp centraluri komitetismdivnad (ideologiis dargSi) misi gadayvanis Semdeg igi Secvalanugzar fofxaZem, romelmac 1986 wlis ivnisamde imuSava.xelisuflebis totalur cvlas saqarTveloSi Tan mohyvaaxali kursi _ TiTqosda, daundobeli brZola qveyanaSiarsebuli negatiuri procesebisa: korufciis, proteqcionizmis,ukanonobis, narkomaniis da a. S. winaaRmdeg. centralurxelisuflebas es `naklovanebani~ adgilobriv problemebadmiaCnda da maTze saubari sakavSiro eTerSi miRebuli ar iyo.74 75


Tea mJavanaZesaqarTvelos radio, rogorc saxelmwifos marTvis instrumentira Tqma unda, erT patara respublikaSi SeuZlebeli iyo imuaryofiTi Tvisebebis aRmofxvra, rac mTel sabWoTa sistemasaxasiaTebda (saqarTvelos partiul elitas, marTlac, romhqonoda aseTi mizani) da am brZolas arc SeiZleboda raimearsebiTi Sedegi mohyoloda. miuxedavad amisa, 70-iani wlebismeore naxevarsa da 80-iani wlebis pirvel naxevarSi, jerkidev e. w. gardaqmnis dawyebamde, saqarTvelos radiosa dateleviziaSi damuSavda sajaroobis bevri iseTi forma dadaisva bevri iseTi mwvave problema, romlebic centralureTerSi mxolod 1987 wlidan gamoCnda. pirvel rigSi,mxedvelobaSi gvaqvs auditoriasTan kavSirisa dasazogadoebrivi azris organizebis sxvadasxva forma, agreTveaSkara saubari `akrZalul~ Temebze _ danaSaulobaTa zrdaze,narkomaniaze, prostituciaze da a. S. (sakmarisia iTqvas, rommTavlitis adgilobrivma warmomadgenelma sakavSirostruqturaSi uCivla komitetis xelmZRvanelobas am TemebzeeTerSi gadacemebis gaSvebis gamo).saqarTvelos radio (igi Tavis struqturaSi moicavdaafxazeTis, aWarisa da samxreT oseTis radiokomitetebsac,agreTve quTaisis saqalaqo radios), romelic erTdrouladmimarTavda uzarmazar auditorias, sayovelTao agitatorisada propagandis rols asrulebda _ saxelmwifo marTvisorganoebidan msmenelebs gadascemda informacias, ganumartavdamocemul etapze partiis politikas, propagandas uwevda sabWoTaxelisuflebis wlebSi momxdar ekonomikur da kulturulgardaqmnebs, xels uwyobda masebis socialur da politikuraqtivizacias. amasTan, radiomauwyeblobis roli mxolodsazogadoebis informirebiTa da propagandiT rodiamoiwureboda. auditoriasTan kavSiris sxvadasxva formazedayrdnobiT igi kontrols uwevda partiuli da saxelmwifodireqtivebis cxovrebaSi gatarebas, sawarmoo-ekonomikuri dasocialuri problemebis gadawyvetas. marTvis sxvadasxvasistemaze aqtiuri zemoqmedebiT radio Tavad Camoyalibdasaxelmwifoebrivi marTvis aucilebel organod.saxelmwifoebrivi funqciebiT iyo ganpirobebulixelisuflebis mudmivi zrunva radiomauwyeblobis materialurteqnikuriganviTarebisaTvis. 1959 wels mwyobrSi Cadga axaliradiosadgurebi soxumsa da baTumSi; imave xanebSi amoqmeddasamxreT oseTis olqis radiokvanZic. 1966 wels saqarTvelosteleradiokomitetma miiRo specialurad misTvis agebuli daaxali aparaturiT aRWurvili Senoba (teleradiocentri)yofili leninis, amJamad kostavas quCaze, saidanac dRemdeeweva mauwyeblobas. amasTan isic unda aRiniSnos, rom yvelaferies perspeqtivaze ar iyo gaTvlili da ukve 70-iani wlebismeore naxevarSi sagrZnobi gaxda radiomauwyeblobis (aseveteleviziis) teqnikuri CamorCeniloba. xmis Camweri studiebismoZvelebul teqnikaze, saTanado mikrofonebis mudmivukmarisobaze, ungruli warmoebis mZime da mouxerxebelportatul magnitofonebze, firis meqanikur montaJze da a. S.rom araferi vTqvaT, gadamcemi radiosadgurebis simZlavriTCveni respublika bolo adgilze iyo sabWoTa kavSirSi dasaqarTvelos radios xma qveynis bevr regionSi arc ismoda(TandaTan nadgurdeboda odesRac mTel respublikaSiorganizebuli sadenebiani mauwyeblobac _ igi nawilobrivmxolod did qalaqebSi SemorCa). 1978 wels dadga sakiTxiaxali radiosadguris aSenebis Sesaxeb, magram, samwuxarod,ver ganxorcielda (finansebi ver gamoiZebna).60-iani wlebis dasawyisSi saqarTvelos radioSifunqcionirebda 4 mTavari redaqcia: 1. informaciis mTavariredaqcia, romelic calke gamoiyo 1959 wels. 1968 wels amredaqcias ewoda `informaciisa da erovnul enebze gadacemaTamTavari redaqcia~, radgan mis struqturaSi `ukanasknelicnobebisa~ da sportul gadacemaTa redaqciebis garda SediodaagreTve somxur gadacemaTa da azerbaijanul gadacemaTaredaqciebi, agreTve reklamebisa da gancxadebebis redaqcia daadgilobrivi gadacemebis redaqcia; 2. sazogadoebrivpolitikurigadacemebis mTavari redaqcia, romelsac 1957wels jer kidev Zveli saxelwodeba _ politikuriradiomauwyeblobis mTavari redaqcia _ erqva; 3. sabavSvo daaxalgazrduli gadacemebis mTavari redaqcia, romelsac Tavidanaxalgazrdobis, sabavSvo da sportul gadacemaTa mTavariredaqcia erqva, radgan sportul programebsac amzadebda (gardaamisa, 60-iani wlebis pirvel naxevarSi amzadebda agreTve76 77


Tea mJavanaZesaqarTvelos radio, rogorc saxelmwifos marTvis instrumentirusulenovan yovelkvireul gadacemas `sabWoTa armiismeomrebisaTvis~); 4. mxatvrul gadacemaTa mTavari redaqcia.1965 wlis TebervalSi Seiqmna radios programebisa dagamoSvebis mTavari redaqcia, romelsac 1971 wlis ivlisidanprogramebis direqcia ewoda. programebis mTavari redaqcia(direqcia) moicavda sam qvedanayofs: programebis redaqcias,gamomSveb redaqcias da diqtorTa jgufs.60-iani wlebis bolos calke Camoyalibda rusul gadacemaTamTavari redaqcia. igi moicavda rusuli respublikuri cnobebisredaqcias, sabWoTa armiis meomrebisaTvis gadacemebis redaqciasda gacvliTi gadacemebis redaqcias, romelic rusul enazeamzadebda gadacemebs mokavSire sabWoTa respublikebisaTvisda aseve gacvlis wesiT Rebulobda maT gadacemebs saqarTvelosradioeTerisTvis.1973 wels sazogadoebriv-politikuri gadacemebis mTavariredaqcia daiyo propagandisa da saxalxo meurneobis mTavarredaqciebad. propagandis mTavar redaqciaSi darCa marqsistulleninuriTeoriis propagandisa da partiuli cxovrebisredaqcia da sabWoTa mSeneblobis, samarTlisa da moralisredaqcia. mis daqvemdebarebaSi gadavida agreTve somxuri daazerbaijanuli gadacemebis redaqciebi (pirveli maTganiyoveldRiurad iuwyeboda erTi saaTis, meore ki _ naxevarisaaTis moculobiT). 80-ian wlebSi maT daemata qurTuligadacemebis redaqcia, 90-ian wlebSi ki _ berZnuli gadacemebisa.orive kviraSi erTxel mauwyeblobda 15 wuTis moculobiT.saxalxo meurneobis mTavar redaqciaSi Sevidnen: mrewvelobis,mSeneblobisa da transportis redaqcia, soflis meurneobisredaqcia da mecnierebis da teqnikis (mogvianebiT _ mecnierebisada teqnikuri progresis) redaqcia. aseve cal-calke CamoyalibdasabavSvo da axalgazrduli gadacemebis mTavari redaqciebi.samocian wlebs ukavSirdeba saqarTvelos sagareoradiomauwyeblobis aRmocenebac. jer kidev 50-iani wlebisbolos radiokomitetSi Camoyalibda e. w. respublikaTSorisigadacemebis redaqcia, romelic gadacemebs ucvlida mokavSirerespublikebis radiokomitetebs da 60-iani wlebidan asecewoda _ `gacvliTi gadacemebis redaqcia~. amave redaqciaSimzaddeboda yovelkvireuli erTsaaTiani programa `ucxoeTSimcxovrebi TanamemamuleebisaTvis~ (ZiriTadad, TurqeTSi dairanSi mcxovrebi qarTvelebisaTvis), romelic moskovisradiosadguridan gadaicemoda. 1963 wels gacvliT redaqciasgamoeyo `specialuri gadacemebis redaqcia~ (anu, ucxoeTzemauwyeblobis redaqcia).samociani wlebis bolos Seiqmna sazRvargareTis qveynebzemauwyeblobis mTavari redaqcia, romelic mogvianebiTtelemauwyeblobasac moicavda. igi aerTianebda qarTul enazegadacemaTa redaqcias da e. w. specialur gadacemaTa redaqcias.pirveli ganagrZobda programis momzadebas ucxoeTSi mcxovrebiTanamemamuleebisaTvis _ acnobda maT saqarTvelos ekonomikis,mecnierebis, kulturisa da xelovnebis mdgomareobas, miswarmatebebs msoflio arenaze, radioeTerSi axvedrebdagamoCenil qarTvel mwerlebs, msaxiobebs, kompozitorebs da a.S., farTo propagandas uwevda qarTul literaturas, Teatrsada musikas. programis perioduloba TandaTan izrdeboda _1968 wlidan igi kviraSi orjer gadaicemoda, 1975 wlidan ki_ jer samjer, xolo Semdeg oTxjer (Tanac imave dRes samjermeordeboda). yoveli gadacema iwyeboda sainformacio gamoSvebiT`axali ambebi samSoblodan _ saqarTvelodan~. garda amisa,Tematur siuJetebTan erTad ewyoboda qarTul-Turquli daqarTul-sparsuli enebis gakveTilebi, romlebsac atarebdneniv. javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifouniversitetis profesorebi: nodar janaSia da jemSidgiunaSvili. es gakveTilebi ucxoeTSi mcxovreb CvensTanamemamuleebs exmareboda qarTuli enis codnis gaRrmavebaSi.rac Seexeba specialur gadacemaTa redaqcias (rogorczemoT iTqva, es saxeli erqva Tavidan ucxoeTze mauwyeblobisredaqcias), igi Seiqmna 1968 wels saqarTvelos kp centralurikomitetisa da ministrTa sabWos dadgenilebiT da daevalaaSS-is radiosadgur `amerikis xmis~ qarTulenovani gadacemebisaudiofirze Cawera, gaSifvra da manqanaze dabeWdva. dabeWdiliteqstis egzemplarebi gasacnobad egzavneboda saq. kpcentraluri komitetis biuros wevrebs, umaRlesi sabWosprezidiumisa da ministrTa sabWos xelmZRvanelebs, saxelmwifouSiSroebis komitets, aseve `saqinforms~, `sakdesis~ saqarTvelosganyofilebas, centraluri respublikuri gazeTebis redaqtorebs,78 79


Tea mJavanaZesaqarTvelos radio, rogorc saxelmwifos marTvis instrumentiadgilze urigdebodaT teleradiomauwyeblobis Tavmjdomaresada mis moadgileebs. aqve unda iTqvas, rom msgavsi redaqciebisxva mokavSire respublikebis teleradiokomitetebSic iyoSeqmnili. es ganpirobebuli iyo mwvave ideologiuridapirispirebiT socialistur da kapitalistur sistemebs Soris,romelmac `civi omis~ saxelwodeba miiRo da gansakuTrebiTaqtiurad mimdinareobda radioeTerSi (aSS-is prezidentmaronald reiganma Tavis droze mas `radioomic~ ki uwoda).xelisuflebas sWirdeboda zusti informacia, Tu rasgadmoscemdnen, ras eubnebodnen saqarTvelos mosaxleobasantisabWouri radiosadgurebi, pirvel rigSi – `amerikis xma~,rom Semdeg amis gaTvaliswinebiT ganxorcielebuliyo saTanadodgamiznuli kontrpropaganda (gaugebaria mxolod, ratom arSeiswavleboda aseve radiosadgur `Tavisuflebis~qarTulenovani mauwyebloba, romelic Tavisi antisabWoTaxasiaTiT Tu ar aRemateboda, arafriT Camouvardeboda `amerikisxmas~).`amerikis xmis~ qarTulenovan gadacemas, ase vTqvaT,`iWerdnen~ da redaqcias specialuri xaziT awvdidnensarTiWalis radiosadguridan, saidanac amave dros xdebodamisi CaxSobac, roca saubari iyo gansakuTrebiT arasasurvelpolitikur sakiTxebze, qarTveli xalxis mimarT Cadenil mravalborotebaze, masobrivi msmenelisaTvis ucnob faqtebsa dadetalebze. ase rom, yvela informacia wesierad im xalxsacki ar miewodebda, visac misi mosmena da gaSifvra evaleboda.es mdgomareoba e. w. gardaqmnis epoqamde, 1987 wlamde,grZeldeboda (ucxouri radiosadgurebis CaxSoba ssrkministrTa sabWos dadgenilebiT daiwyo 1949 wlidan da am`saqmiT~ dakavebuli iyo 1660 radiosadguri, romelTa saerTosimZlavre aRemateboda erTad aRebuli sabWoTa saSinao dasagareo radiosadgurebis simZlavres).ase gamoiyureboda saqarTvelos radios organizaciulistruqtura 1960-70-ian wlebSi.60-iani wlebidan garkveuli cvlileba ganicadamauwyeblobis struqturam. jer kidev 1956 wels SeiqmnasaqarTvelos radios meore programa, romelic moicavdamxatvrul-musikalur gadacemebs da eTerSi yoveldRiuradgadioda 2 saaTis xangrZlivobiT _ 21 saaTidan 23 saaTamde.mi si warmoSoba ganpirobebu li i yo s aqar Tvel osradiomauwyeblobis kulturul-saganmanaTleblo funqciisgaZlierebiT da gansakuTrebiT ki _ radios unikaluriSesaZleblobebiT musikaluri xelovnebis gavrcelebasa dapropagandaSi. 1965 wlis Tebervlidan II programas `Tbilisi_ 288~ ewoda (igi 288 m. sigrZis talRebiT gadaicemoda) dajer naxevari, Semdeg ki erTi saaTiT gaizarda. Sesabamisad, masdaemata `ukanaskneli cnobebis~ ori xuTwuTiani gamoSveba dasaganmanaTleblo xasiaTis ciklebi: `didebi da patarebi~,`meridianebi da paralelebi~, `msoflios garSemo~ da sxv.radioeTerSi musikis mzardi popularobiT unda aixsnasyoveldRiuri specialuri musikaluri programis momzadebaultramokle talRebze. saqarTvelos radiomauwyeblobaSi 1958wlidan ori radiosadguri muSaobda ultramokle talRebze,magram isini, grZeli, saSualo da mokletalRovaniradiosadgurebis msgavsad, pirvel programas gadascemdnen daamis gamo msmenelic naklebi hyavdaT (miT umetes, rom amperiodSi saqarTveloSi stabilurad muSaobda sadenebianiradiomauwyebloba, e. w. xazis radio).saqarTveloSi musikaluri radiomauwyeblobis ganviTarebisSemdgomi safexuri iyo stereofonuri mauwyeblobis dawyeba.70-iani wlebidan calkeuli musikaluri gadacemebi,radiodadgmebi da sxv. ukve stereofonurad iwereboda dagarkveuli fondic grovdeboda. 1975 wlis noembridan kieTerSi gavida damoukidebeli stereofonuri programa, romelicdiliT da saRamoTi gadaicemoda ultramokle talRebze (saerTojamSi 4-6 saaTis moculobiT). 1976-1990 wlebSi es programaultramokletalRovan `mxatvrul-musikalur programasa~ daradiosadgur `Tbilisi _ 288~-sTan erTad (romelsac 1983wlidan radiosadguri `mTawminda~ ewoda) SeadgendasaqarTvelos radios saerTo meore programas.programa ZiriTadad unificirebulia rogorc Tematikis,ise auditoriis mixedviT. miuxedavad amisa, 60-iani wlebisdasawyisSi jer kidev gvxvdeba iseTi zogadi rubrikebi,rogoricaa: `gadacema sazogadoebriv-politikur Temaze~,`gadacema mrewvelobis Temaze~ da a. S. xSiria calkeuli,80 81


Tea mJavanaZesaqarTvelos radio, rogorc saxelmwifos marTvis instrumentierTjeradi gadacemebi, rac miuTiTebs, rom yvela redaqciasrodi aqvs gaazrebuli da dasistemebuli Tavisi mauwyebloba.amas garkveulwilad ganapirobebs mimdinare socialurpolitikurmovlenebze `operatiuli reagirebis~ aucileblobac_ TiTqmis yoveli dadgenileba Tu gadawyvetileba, romelicama Tu im partiul-saxelmwifoebriv RonisZiebas exeba, moiTxovsaxali radio da teleciklebis SemoRebas, aRniSnuli RonisZiebisfarTod gaSuqebas. arcTu iSviaTad, movlenas rom operatiulad`gamoexmauron~, redaqciebi ukve arsebul cikls an rubrikasaxal rubrikaSi aTavseben da axali saxelwodebiT gadascemen(magaliTad, `skkp XXVI yrilobis gadawyetilebani _ cxovrebaSi~,ciklidan _ `sasursaTo programa moqmedebaSi~, saubari _`qarTuli puris aRorZinebisaTvis~ _ 1983.13.04). aseTi`misadageba~ aucilebelia Tundac imitom, rom, rogorc wesi,saq. kp centralur komitetSi sistematurad igzavneba gasacnobadradioredaqciebis wliuri, kvartaluri da Tviuri gegmebi daaravis ar unda Seeparos eWvi, rom saqarTvelos radio ariTvaliswinebs partiisa da xelisuflebis moTxovnebs.programis swor dabalansebas, mauwyeblobis optimaluristruqturis Camoyalibebas aZnelebs agreTve sakavSiro radiosgadacemebis savaldebulo CarTva respublikur programaSi.garda imisa, rom saqarTvelos radioSi sistematuradmzaddeboda publicisturi, mxatvruli da sabavSvo gadacemebirusul enaze (gansakuTrebiT 1960-1970 wlebSi), moskovidantranslirebuli gadacemebis moculobam 1990 wlis bolosTvis7 saaTs miaRwia: respublikur radioprogramaSi erTvebodasakavSiro `ukanaskneli cnobebis~ 5-6 gamoSveba, `milionTaleninuri universiteti~, `pionerskaia zorka~, `Celovek i zakon~,`zemlia i liudi~, `vremia, sobitia, liudi~, `radiostancia`iunost~ da mravali sxva. aRarafers vityviT leninis, oqtombrisrevoluciis Tu didi samamulo omis saiubileo TariRebze,sayrilobo gadacemebze da a. S.saerTod, SeiZleba iTqvas, rom saqarTvelos radios pirveliprograma (meore programa, rogorc vnaxeT, gansxvavebuli,specializebuli xasiaTisaa) warmoadgenda publicisturi,mxatvruli da saganmanaTleblo informaciis Semcvel mwyobr,mizanmimarTul sistemas, romelsac zustad gansazRvrulisazogadoebrivi funqciebis Sesruleba evaleboda. sabWoTasaqarTvelos radio mTeli Tavisi arsebobis manZilze saerTosakavSiroteleradiomauwyeblobis ganuyofel nawils Seadgendada, cxadia, damoukidebeli samauwyeblo politika ar gaaCnda.misi politika emyareboda marqsistul-leninur SexedulebebsJurnalistikis rolsa da adgilze saxelmwifos politikurstruqturaSi, ganisazRvreboda partiuli gadawyvetilebebiTada dadgenilebebiT, romlebic saerTo iyo yvela sabWoTasainformacio saSualebisaTvis, uSualod eqvemdebarebodapartiuli organoebis kontrolsa da miTiTebebs.ra Tqma unda, aTeuli wlebis manZilze mauwyeblobisstruqtura ar SeiZleboda ucvleli darCeniliyo _ socialurpolitikuriprocesebis Sesabamisad icvleboda Tematika,ixveweboda Janrebi da formebi, ufro srulad gamoiyenebodaradios specifikuri SesaZleblobani. magram ucvleli rCebodaZalismieri programirebis principi. radioprograma gamoxatavdakomunikatoris _ saqarTvelos radios, rogorc saxelmwifoinformaciuli organos _ Tvalsazrissa da interesebs. radioSinaTqvami sityva aRiqmeboda oficiozis azris gamomxatvelad,xelisuflebis naTqvam sityvad. nebismieri gadacemis xarisxiganisazRvreboda ara auditoriis interesebisa damoTxovnilebebis, masze zemoqmedebis efeqtianobis mixedviT,aramed upirvelesad teqstis `ideurobiT~ _ arsebulideologiur dogmebTan SesabamisobiT.amgvar publicistikas msmeneli TiTqos arc sWirdeboda,igi ZiriTadad zemdgomi organoebis moTxovnaTa dakmayofilebazeiyo gaTvaliswinebuli. Zneli warmosadgenia, rom masobrivimsmeneli hyoloda `pravdis~ mowinave statias, `milionTaleninur universitets~, `mecnieruli komunizmis safuZvlebs~,`socialisturi Sejibrebis dRiurs~, `partiul cxovrebas~da mraval sxva msgavs gadacemas, romlebic aTeuli wlebismanZilze mudmivad iyo saqarTvelos radios programaSi. sabWoTaradiopropaganda Tavisi sworxazovnebis gamo ar SeiZlebodaefeqtiani yofiliyo. igi mxolod garduvalobis STabeWdilebasqmnida (iseve, rogorc sayovelTao savaldebulo politikuriswavleba) da totalurobisa da monopoliurobis xarjze Tu82 83


Tea mJavanaZesaqarTvelos radio, rogorc saxelmwifos marTvis instrumentiaxerxebda raime zemoqmedebas sazogadoebrivi azrisformirebaze. radiopropagandis es ZiriTadi niSan-Tvisebagamoixata sazogadoebaSi damkvidrebuli stereotipiT _ `raradiosaviT laparakob~, aisaxa xelovnebis nawarmoebebSi(sakmarisia gavixsenoT kinofilmebi: `giorgobisTve~, `laqa~,`aRdgoma~, sadac daZabul, dramatul situaciebSiradioreproduqtori meqanikurad dudunebs miRweulwarmatebebsa da partiis mier dasaxul axal amocanebze).amave dros, erTgvar paradoqsad warmogvidgeba is mdgomareoba,rom yvela partiuli dadgenileba masobrivi informaciissaSualebaTa Sesaxeb moiTxovs auditoriis Seswavlas dasazogadoebis sxvadasxva jgufis interesebisa damoTxovnilebebis gaTvaliswinebas. 60-ian wlebSi metadpopularulia radiomsmenelTa daswrebuli Tu dauswrebelikonferenciebi (80-ian wlebSi igi Seicvala radio-televiziisdReebiT _ sxvadasxva regionSi redaqciebis gasvliT). didimniSvneloba eniWeba radiomsmenelebis fostas, romelic xSiradgadacemis xarisxianobis ZiriTad kriteriumad aris miCneuli(Tumca werilebis umravlesoba musikalur dakveTebs Seexeba,anda iSviaTad saCivars warmoadgens). aqedan gamomdinare,werilebi upiratesad gamoiyeneba musikalur ciklebSi(`koncerti radiomsmenelTa TxovniT~, `saRamo mSvidobisa~,`studenturi diskoTeka~ da a. S.) da kritikul gadacemebSi(`redaqciaSi werili movida~, `roca redaqciaSi werili modis~da sxv.).SedarebiT gvian daiwyo teleradiokomitetSi sazogadoebriviazris SeswavlisTvis sociologiuri meTodebis gamoyeneba.mxolod 1978 wlis bolos Camoyalibda Sesabamisiorganizaciuli struqtura _ sociologiuri kvlevisa damecnieruli programirebis mTavari redaqcia (samecnierocentri). marTalia, ramdenime wliT adre komitetSi orkacianisamecniero-meToduri ganyofilebac arsebobda, magram masseriozul gamokvlevebze xeli ar miuwvdeboda. samecnierocentrs ki, sadac sakmao Zalebma moiyara Tavi, evaleboda`tele da radioauditoriis sistematuri da gegmazomieriSeswavla, misi interesebis, moTxovnilebebis, erovnuli dafsiqologiuri Taviseburebebis gamokvleva da programirebismecnieruli rekomendaciebis SemuSaveba~, centri ZiriTadadteleviziis problemebiT iyo dakavebuli da radioauditoriaslokalurad swavlobda regionebSi radioteleviziis dReebismowyobisas.yovelive zemoTqmuli saqarTvelos radios funqcionirebisprincipebisa da meTodebis Sesaxeb upiratesad publicisturmauwyeblobas Seexeba. kulturul-saganmanaTleblo mauwyebloba_ literaturis, xelovnebis, mecnierebis propaganda _ raTqma unda, aseve eqvemdebareboda xelisuflebis kontrols.magram Tu gaviTvaliswinebT, rom TviTon kultura erovnulifenomenia (Tumca iTvleboda, rom sabWoTa erebis kulturamxolod formiT iyo erovnuli SinaarsiT ki _ socialisturi),misi gavrceleba xels uwyobda erovnuli cnobierebisCamoyalibebas, radiomsmenelebis patriotul aRzrdas. TamamadSeiZleba iTqvas, rom mTeli Tavisi arsebobis manZilzesaqarTvelos radiom udidesi roli Seasrula erovnulikulturis da c v a s a da ga nv i Ta r eb a S i , q a r Tv el iradiomsmenelebisaTvis sxvadasxva eris kulturis (ZiriTadad,musikaluri da literaturuli nawarmoebebis) gacnobaSi,zogadsakacobrio humanisturi Rirebulebebis gavrcelebasada damkvidrebaSi.radios ganviTarebis axal etapze naTlad gamoCnda, rommisi specifika ucvleli ar aris. eTerSi zepiri saubrispirdapirma gadacemam da dokumenturi magnituri CanawerisfarTod gamoyenebam sabolood Camoacila radiopublicistikasagazeTo Jurnalistikis gavlenas. televiziis damkvidrebamki aiZula radio isev specifikis gaRrmavebaze ezruna, racgamoixata rogorc axali formebis ZiebiT, ise, ufro metad,auditoriis sxvadasxva jgufis Sesabamisad gadacemebisdiferenciaciiTa da funqciebis dakonkretebiT.televiziasTan konkurenciam mauwyeblobis maqsimalurdiferenciaciasTan erTad gamoiwvia kidev erTi mniSvnelovaniSedegi _ funqciebis gadanawileba maT Soris, rac aseve mkveTradgamoCnda sazRvargareTis mauwyeblobaSi: radio daspecialdaaxali ambebisa da musikis gadacemaSi. `axali ambebi plusmusika~ ucxoeTis radiosadgurebis umravlesobis erT-erTZiriTad principad iqca.84 85


Tea mJavanaZe2004 wlis dekembridan saqarTvelos saxelmwifo radioteleviziasoficialurad mieniWa sazogadoebrivi mauwyeblisstatusi. amiT damTavrda saqarTvelos radios, rogorcsaxelmwifo radiomauwyeblobis, TiTqmis oTxmocwlianiistoriac. saqarTvelos radiom gamoiara axali, komunisturiideologiis damkvidrebisa da politikuri represiebis periodebi,msoflio omi, mravalnairi sazogadoebrivi reformebi, saxelmwifogadatrialebebi, gamoicvala sami xelisufleba. yvelaferi es,ra Tqma unda, Tavis gamoxatulebas poulobda eTerSi, aisaxebodaradios yoveldRiur saqmianobaSi. arqivebSi daculiradiogadacemaTa teqstebi Tu sxva dokumentebi, audiofondSiSenaxuli Canawerebi udides masalas iZleva rogorc sakuTrivradios, ise mTlianad epoqis istoriazec, warmoaCens ara martoqarTuli radioJurnalistikis ganviTarebis etapebs, aramedqveyanaSi mimdinare movlenebsa da procesebsac. sworedJurnalistikis amgvari ganuyofeli kavSiri qveynis cxovrebasTangansazRvravs saqarTvelos radios istoriis SeswavlismniSvnelobasac da gvexmareba im warsulis gaazrebaSi, romlispirdapiri memkvidre Cveni dRevandelobaa.aTeuli wlebis manZilze Seqmnili stereotipebiT partiaiyo yvela gamarjvebis organizatori, mTeli sazogadoebisinteresebis gamomxatveli, misi keTildReobisaTvis mebrZoli(ti puri rubrika _ `partiis gegmebi xalxis gegmebia~).mikrofoni sistematurad eTmoboda yvela rangis partiulxelmZRvanelebs _ pirveladi organizaciis partbiurosmdivnidan dawyebuli _ respublikuri masStabis funqcioneramde.partiuli xelisuflebisagan gansxvavebiT sabWoTa organoebissaqmianoba iSviaTad aisaxeboda eTerSi. rogorc aRvniSneT,mxolod arCevnebiswina periodSi gamoCndeboda xolme cikli`deputatobis kandidatebi~, TviTon struqturebis muSaoba kiyuradRebis gareSe rCeboda.yovel calkeul periodSi konkretuli socialurpolitikurisituaciis Sesabamisad icvleboda saqarTvelosradios amocanebi, magram ar icvleboda misi arsi. radiossazogadoebrivi daniSnuleba ganisazRvreboda im socialurifunqciebiT, im roliTa da adgiliT, romelic mas ganekuTvnebodasaqarTvelos radio, rogorc saxelmwifos marTvis instrumentiarsebuli sazogadoebis politikur struqturaSi. sabWoTapiriodSi igi rogorc masobrivi informaciisa da propagandissaSualeba, Tavis mxriv, ufro didi sistemis _ komunisturiideologiis, komunisturi aRzrdis sistemis erT-erTiSemadgeneli nawili iyo, emyareboda mkacrad gansazRvrulprincipebsa da meTodebs da xelisuflebis qmediT instrumentswarmoadgenda sazogadoebis marTvis sferoSi.saqarTvelos radioSi mimdinare istoriuli procesebierTmniSvnelovnad ver Sefasdeba. ori mimarTuleba _politikuri da kulturuli _ gansazRvravda mis saqmianobasmTeli misi arsebobis manZilze da Tumca orive erTmaneTTanmWidrod iyo dakavSirebuli, TiToeulma Tavisi kvali datovaqveynis sulier cxovrebaSi. ra Tqma unda, dRevandeligadasaxedidan bevri ram sul sxvanairad Cans. isicgasaTvaliswinebelia, rom globaluri televiziis, internetisada multimediis ganviTarebis epoqaSi radio veRarasodesdaikavebs im adgils, romelic mas Tundac oriode aTwleuliswin ekava. magram sazogadoebis masobriv-informaciuliurTierTobis ganviTarebis istoriaSi man Tavisi roli Seasrulada es roli yovelgvari miCqmalvisa da gazviadebis gareSeunda iqnes gaazrebuli.86 87


TinaTin WabukianimontaJis struqturuli SemadgenlobaTavi meoremontaJi, rogorc mxatvruli asaxvis saSualeba(drois organizacia)(gagrZeleba, dasawyisiix.: `saxelovnebo mecnierebaTa Ziebani~,#4 (33), 2007; # 1 (34), 2008; #2 (35), 2008).montaJi saekrano xelovnebaSi gansakuTrebulad rTulisistemaa. erTi mxriv, esaa mxatvruli azrovnebis forma, meoremxriv ki, montaJi asrulebs wminda funqciur daniSnulebas,igi teqnikuri saSualebaa. wina publikaciebSi Cven ukvevisaubreT, konkretulad ra datvirTva aqvs montaJur azrovnebas,kadris agebisas da kadrSi sivrcis organizaciis dros. naSromisam nawilSi ki visaubrebT iseT mniSvnelovan sakiTxze, rogoricaa,saekrano drois organizacia, romelic, rasakvirvelia, ZiriTadadmontaJis saSualebiT iqmneba. amasTan dakavSirebiT sainteresoavl. dalis mosazreba; igi ganmartebiT leqsikonSi wers: `dro_ es aris yofierebis xangrZlivoba, arsebobis Tanmimdevroba,wlisa da dRis esa Tu is xani, Jami. dro aris saukuneebi,epoqis periodebi, dRe-Ramis monacvleoba da, rac mTavaria,dro aris movlenis gansazRvruli momenti, rodesac raRac aniwyeba, an sulac mTavrdeba.~ 1vfiqrob, drois aseTi daxasiaTeba yuradsaRebia da Tukargad CavukvirdebiT, SegviZlia davesesxoT vl. dalis dakargad gamoviyenoT saekrano drois organizaciisas. studentebsSevaxseneb, rom saekrano dro moiTxovs `uwyveti drois~ Seqmnas,rasakvirvelia, arsebobs xerxebi, romliTac SeiZlebavixelmZRvaneloT: drois SekumSva, droze gadaxtoma, droisgaxangrZliveba, drois qronologiurad Tu logikurad dalageba,drois SeCereba stop-kadriT da a. S. Tumca es yvelaferipirobiTia da ar aris dogma, radganac Semoqmedi Tavis arCevanSiTavisufalia. is Tavad irCevs xerxebs an sulac qmnis axal,individualur saekrano drois mdinarebas.genialuri rusi reJisoris, a. tarkovskis, mosazrebiT, kinosgamogonebiT adamianma miiRo `realuri drois~ matrica. igiwerda: `kinoxelovnebis upirvelesi funqciaa drois aRbeWdva,magram Cndeba kiTxva, Tu rogor xdeba ekranze drois aRbeWdva?me vfiqrob, Tuki kino, dros warmoadgens faqtebis meSveobiT,faqtebi ki, cxadia, mocemulia pirdapir, uSualod dakvirvebisgziT... aqedan gamomdinare, kinematografis sawyisi, rasakvirvelia,dakvirvebaa da idealur kinematografad me mimaCnia qronika...~ 2cxovrebaSi dro yovelTvis moZraobs, SeuZlebelia droismdinareba Seicvalos, Tumca xelovnebaSi, iseve rogorc adamianiscxovrebaSi, SesaZlebelia drois yvelanairi gadanacvleba.adamians azriT SeuZlia gadainacvlos warsulSi, ufro metic,mas SeuZlia warmoidginos da fiqrebiT momavalSi imogzauros.amis magaliTad gamodgeba uamravi Tanamedrove filmi.dResdReobiT gansakuTrebiT popularulia amerikuliteleseriali `dakargulebi~, sadac moqmedi gmirebisaTvisaxlandeli, warsuli da momavali dro erTmaneTSiagadaxlarTuli, Tanac maT Soris iseTi mizez-SedegobrivikavSirebia, rom mayurebels sruli SegrZneba aqvs, rom samivedro paralelurad, erTdroulad arsebobs da TiTqos es asecunda iyos da amaSi araferia ucnauri... am serialSi mcdelobaa,ekranze aRibeWdos adamianis azris moZraoba. kamerebi iseTisiswrafiT, dinamikurad moZraobs, rom TiTqos eqvemdebarebaTiToeuli personaJis azris moZraobas, romlebic realuricxovrebidan warsulsa Tu momavalSi mogzauroben. siuJetebisaseTi konstruqciiT ageba swored montaJis saSualebiTmimdinareobs...saekrano xelovnebaSi dro yovelTvis transformirebulia,gamonaklisi mxolod satelevizio formatebia, konkretuladki, translaciebi da pirdapiri CarTvebi, magram amaze cotamogvianebiT visaubrebT. axla ki isev saekrano drosdavubrundeT. rasakvirvelia, rasac kameriT vafiqsirebT epizodSi,masSi mimdinare moqmedeba Tu xedebi realur sivrcesa dadroSi viTardeba, magram montaJis dros bunebrivi droisdineba irRveva, radganac xdeba sxvadasxva sivrcobrivimonakveTebis SeerTeba im TanmimdevrobiT, rac saWiroa siuJetis88 89


TinaTin WabukianimontaJis struqturuli SemadgenlobaagebisaTvis. aqedan gamomdinare, TiToeuli xedi, romelicaRbeWdilia firze, realobis nawilia, magram rakursuligadaRebiT, sxvadasxva obieqtis gamoyenebiT, zogjer sulacmontaJisas, samontaJo pultze xdeba gamosaxulebismoculobisa da kadrebis masStabebis Secvla, gamosaxulebisgamravleba, feris Secvla da a. S.ase iqmneba axali ekranuli sivrce, romelSic viTardebaambavi (eqspozicia, kvanZis Sekvra, kulminacia, kvanZis gaxsna,finali), xdeba personaJebis Widili, brZola, xasiaTebis Zerwva.sabolood ki iqmneba iluzia, rom ekranul droSi mimdinareambavi uwyvetad viTardeba. imisaTvis, rom es iluzia Sedges,saWiroa drois organizacia, misi warmarTva Sesabamisi ideisada Canafiqris realizaciisTvis. amisaTvis ki, pirvel rigSi,unda moiZebnos Sesabamisi gadawyveta, Seiqmnas ekranuli qsovilisstruqtura. cnobili reJisori da pedagogi m. rabigeri wers:`upirvelesad, Tqven unda gadawyvitoT, rogori TanmimdevrobiTunda aCvenoT mizezebi da Sedegebi, gansazRvroT, ra arisumjobesi _ aCvenoT namdvilad mimdinare moqmedebebis svla,Tu bunebrivi drois dineba SecvaloT~. 3amis magaliTad gamodgeba isev teleseriali `dakargulebi~,sadac es xerxi efeqturad aris gamoyenebuli; rodesac filmisgmirebi eqstremalur situaciebSi xvdebian, maSin maTcnobierebaSi elvis siswrafiT amotivtivdeba is gamousworebeliSecdomebi, romelic maT Caidines... anu, ekranis enaze romvTqvaT, kamera dinamikurad mihyveba personaJis azris moZraobasda gadainacvlebs warsulSi, drois im monakveTSi, sadacmJRavndeba danaSauli da is xazgasmiT fiqsirdeba. Semdeg kiisev vbrundebiT gmiris cxovrebaSi, sadac is samarTlianadisjeba warsulSi Cadenili codvis gamo.teleseriali isea agebuli, rom awmyo da mogonebebis CarTva(warsuli) da is, rac unda moxdes (momavali), gamTlianebulia.aseT SemTxvevaSi amboben, rom filmSi dro aqronologiuradaris agebuli. im SemTxvevaSic ki, rodesac filmSi droqronologiurad mimdinareobs, sinamdvileSi dro Secvlilia,anu, movlenebi Tanmimdevrulad ki aris dalagebuli, magramise, rom movlenebidan aRebulia arsebiTi, mniSvnelovani momentebi,sxva danarCeni ki gamotovebulia. magaliTad, r. CxeiZis filmSi`jariskacis mama~ qronologiurad aris naCvenebi meore msoflioomi, romlis fonzec viTardeba maxaraSvilebis istoria, magrammsoflio omi xuTi weliwadi mimdinareobda, xolo am filmisxangrZlivoba mxolod saaTnaxevaria.rogorc cnobilia, ekranuli drois organizacia mayureblisyuradRebis warmarTviT mimdinareobs, romlis safuZvelic arissiuJetis logikurad ageba; ZiriTadad swored es faqtoriqmnis ekranze cxovrebis uwyvetobis iluzias... filmSi movlenagacilebiT mokle droSi xdeba, vidre sinamdvileSi. aqedangamomdinare, SegviZlia davaskvnaT, rom filmi, romelic agebuliaqronologiurad, sadac daculia movlenebis Tanmimdevroba,sinamdvileSi zedmiwevniT qronologiuri sulac ar aris, e. i.,SeiZleba iTqvas, rom is pirobiTad qronologiuria; magramaris iseTi SemTxvevebi, rodesac realurad mimdinare dro dasaekrano dro erTmaneTs emTxveva. es televiziis ZiriTadi,specifikuri Tvisebaa. pirdapiri translaciebi: fexburTismatCebi, koncertebi, aRlumebi, olimpiadebi, mitingebi, Toq-Souebi...amgvari gadacemebis dros mayurebels uCndeba TviTdaswrebisSegrZneba. mas hgonia, rom is Tavadac aqtiurad monawileobsmovlenebSi. sinamdvileSi ki mayureblis cnobiereba satelevizioeTeris meSveobiT Tavisdauneburad, zewolis qveS eqceva.magaliTisTvis momyavs TbilisSi 2007 wlis 7 noembersgamarTuli saprotesto aqciis daSlis translacia. mogexsenebaT,Teatraluri universiteti rusTavelis prospeqtze mdebareobs,amdenad, studentebis umravlesoba am Setakebis monawile anTviTmxilveli aRmoCnda; am movlenas ori telekompania pirdapireTerSi gadascemda, Tumca, sxvadasxvanairad. telekompania`imedis~ versia: saerTo xediT kamera afiqsirebda mTavrobissasaxles mTlianad, danarCeni kamerebiT ki gviCvenebdnen yvelazesakvanZo momentebs: wylis Wavli, siciveSi gawuwuli xalxi...waqceuli moxuci, romelsac Tavze gadauares, axalgazrda,romelsac `dubinkiT~ urtyamdnen, gaqceuli biWebi, romlebsacxelketebiT SeiaraRebulebi misdevdnen... Semdeg kadrSimTavrobis spec-razmia, SavebSi Cacmuli, xelketebiT SeiaraRebuliniRbianebi xalxisken miiweven. ismis saSineli xma (xelketebisritmuli dartymebi)...90 91


TinaTin Wabukianiam televersiaSi aSkarad gamoCnda ori dapirispirebuliZala: SeiaraRebuli specrazmelebi da umweo adamianebi.aqcentebi keTdeboda Zalmomreobaze, naCvenebi iyo adamianebzefizikuri da moraluri zewola, unda vaRiaroT, rom am kadrebmaZlieri fsiqologiuri dartyma miayena mayurebels.sazogadoebaSi aSkarad imata mTavrobis mimarT undoblobamda agresiam.aqve ganvixilav sazogadoebrivi mauwyeblis mier gadacemul`mitingis daSlis~ televersias, sadac naCvenebi iyo Semdegikadrebi: saerTo xedi; Setakeba xalxsa da specrazmelebsSoris; interviu mosaxleobasTan _ umetesoba TanamemamuleebssimSvidisken mouwodebs... Semdeg kadrSi xalxi, ukvesaxeSecvlili, brbod gadaqceuli sastikad uswordeba `wesrigisdamcvels~. dRemde maxsovs sazareli kadrebi: xalxma qvebidauSina specrazmels, romelic daeca... mas fexebiT Sesdgnen...axlo xediT fiqsirdeba TavgaCexili, dasisxlianebuliaxalgazrda... momdevno kadrSi opoziciis lideri pirdapiracxadebs, rom vinc maTTan ar dgas, is samSoblos moRalatedunda Seiracxos! kadrSi isev xalxia _ wylis Wavlisgangawuwuli da gazisgan gabruebuli, kadrs gareT ki Jurnalistiskomentari ismis: vin aiRebs momxdarze pasuxismgeblobas?situacia umarTavia... yvelaferi xom ar meordeba? qveyanasafrTxis winaSea...rasakvirvelia, mayureblis cnobierebidan TandaTanamotivtivdeba samoqalaqo omis kadrebi, yvelaferi xom zustadaq, am adgilas, datrialda 1992 wels. umravlesoba Tavadmonawileobda samoqalaqo omSi, misi Sedegebi yvelam iwvnia...qalaqis ngreva, uSuqoba, ugzooba, SimSili, inflacia... mayurebelsTviTgadarCenis instinqti hkarnaxobs: rac ginda iyos, oRondomi ar ganmeordes! stabiluroba unda SevinarCunoT!stabiluroba! am SemTxvevaSi telekompaniam agresia`windauxedavi~ opozicionerebisaken mimarTa.zemoaRniSnuli ori magaliTis analizze dayrdnobiTstudentebma Tavad gaavles paralelebi da mividnen imdaskvnamde, rom realurad mimdinare `mitingis darbeva~, rogorcki dafiqsirda teleekranis CarCoSi, mouxedavad pirdapirimontaJis struqturuli SemadgenlobareportaJisa, subieqturi gaxda. swored amitom aris satelevizioproduqcia sazogadoebriv cnobierebaze zemoqmedebis mZlavriiaraRi, romelic SesaZlebelia gamoiyeno rogorc dadebiTad,aseve uaryofiTad. genialuri reJisori a. tarkovski TaviserT-erT interviuSi werda: `Cemi amocanaa Sevqmna individualuridrois nakadi, gadmovce kadrSi Cemi SegrZnebebi, moZraoba dacxovrebis rbola... da kidev, rogorc ki drois monakveTskameris meSveobiT gamovyofT saerTo drois mdinarebidan, droindividualuri xdeba...~ 4rogorc zemoT aRvniSneT, drois transformaciaSesaZlebelia sxvadasxva xerxis saSualebiT. cnobilia, rommovlena, romelic realobaSi ramdenime Tve grZeldeba, ekranzegadatanisas Seicvalos da ramdenime wamSi an wuTSimimdinareobdes. magaliTad, atmis xe sanam nayofs gamoiRebs,yvavilobidan _ damwifebamde, sakmaod xangrZliv, eqvsTvianprocess gaivlis. Tumca ekranze igive procesi (kvirtis gaSla,ayvaveba, nayofis gamoReba, damwifeba, foTlebis gayviTleba,Wknoba da foTolcvena), SesaZlebelia sul ramdenime wuTigagrZeldes. drois aseT Secvlas saekrano xelovnebaSi `drozegadaxtoma~ ewodeba. aseT SemTxvevaSi drois tranformaciamontaJuri gadasvlebiT mimdinareobs. magaliTad, kadrSi axloxedze iSleba atmis kvirti, Semdeg kadrSi ki naCvenebia saerToxedi _ soflis peizaJi, kadrs gareT ismis axaldabadebuliCvilis xma, momdevno kadrSi saerTo xedze ayvavebuli atmis xea,mas Caenacvleba axlo xedze Cvilis gaRimebuli saxe da a. S.umravles SemTxvevaSi `droze gadaxtomisas~ sivrciskoordinatebi icvleba. arsebobs drois transformaciis meorexerxi, romelsac `drois SekumSva~ ewodeba. aseT SemTxvevaSi,realobaSi mimdinare movlena, romelic cxovrebaSi saaTebi,kvirebi, Tveebi grZeldeba, ekranze wamebsa Tu wuTebSimimdinareobs. magaliTad, morbenali, realur cxovrebaSiSejibrze 100 m. distancias 10 wamSi gairbens, Cven ki esfaqti ekranze SegviZlia 5 wamSi vaCvenoT, e. w. caitraferissaSualebiT, Tanac ise, rom misi moZraobis arc erTi faza argamovtovoT.92 93


TinaTin WabukianimontaJis struqturuli Semadgenlobatelexelovnebis mkvlevari k. inasariZe Tavis wignSi`telemetyveleba~ wers: `caitraferis meSveobiT iqmnebaarabunebrivi, Cqari moZraoba. aseTi moZraobis SeqmnisTvis saWiroaerT wamSi gadaRebul iqnas `normalurze~, e. i. 24 kadrze,naklebi, vTqvaT, 10-iT naklebi kadri... caitraferi iqmnebamaSin, roca kadrTa raodenoba ekranze gaSuqebisas ufrometia, vidre gadaRebisas~. 5 `drois SekumSva~ (caitraferiT ansamontaJo pultis meSveobiT) saSualebas iZleva SeinarCunorealuri drois uwyvetoba aCqarebis xarjze da aCvenomoZraobis yvela faza. magaliTad, mTvaris amosvla Rrublebidanan misi gauCinareba caze... metroSi matareblebisa da mgzavrebisswrafi moZraoba, quCaSi manqanebis dineba pikis saaTis drosda a. S. es xerxi gansakuTrebiT xSirad gamoiyeneba samecniero,sportul, zRaprul da fantastikur filmebSi.arsebobs drois Secvlis kidev erTi xerxi, romelsacSeiZleba vuwodoT `drois gaxangrZliveba~. am dros realuridro ufro gawelilia, amis miRweva SeiZleba rogorc samontaJopultze, aseve aCqarebuli gadaRebiT (caitlupes xerxiT),rodesac kadrebis sixSire icvleba wamSi 24-25 kadriT(rapidiT). aseT SemTxvevaSi mayurebels SeuZlia, moqmed gmirTasaxeze dainaxos tyviis moZraobis traeqtoria da SinaganimRelvarebis gamomxatveli iseTi niuansebi, romelsacCveulebrivad TvaliT ver dainaxav (mzeris gaelveba, Tvalzemomdgari cremli, mrisxaneba da a. S.).aqve SevaCereb yuradRebas saekrano drois organizaciiserT-erT xerxze, e. w. `stop-kadrze~. Tanamedrove sateleviziosamontaJo pultze SesaZlebelia, rom ukve gadaRebul masalaSigamovyoT da wamiereba stop-kadriT davafiqsiroT. magaliTad,Cven gadaRebuli gvaqvs saerTo xedze mitingi. samontaJopultze Cven SegviZlia mivuaxlovdeT da aqcenti gavakeToTerT-erT moqalaqeze, romelsac spec-razmeli xelkets urtyams...am xerxiT SesaZlebelia warvmarToT mayureblis yuradReba,movaxdinoT misi mzeris koncentracia da gavaZlieroT`Zaladobis~ faqtiT gamowveuli emocia... stop-kadriteleviziaSi xSir SemTxvevaSi gamoiyeneba, rogorc sasveniniSani, `wertili~ samontaJo frazis, epizodis an gadacemisdasrulebisas.aqve minda aRvniSno kidev erTi xerxi _ e. w. droissimboluri gadalaxva. misi meSveobiT xdeba ori xedisiseTi montaJuri SeerTeba, rodesac pirvel kadrSi droiserTi monakveTia, momdevnoSi ki _ meore. magaliTad, pirvelkadrSi adamianis xelia naCvenebi, romelic batis frTiT werilswers, meore kadrSi ki viRacis xeli kompiuterSi wers werils.am SemTxvevaSi aseTi formiT gadailaxeba saukuneebi. aseTivewarmatebiT SesaZlebelia gadailaxos weliwadis cvalebadoba.magaliTad, jer naCvenebi iqneba ayvavebuli buneba, Semdeg ki _Tovliani landSafti. am xerxis gamoyenebisas mTavaria moiZebnoszusti simbolo, romelic mocemul konstruqciaSi organuladiqneba Serwymuli.xelovnebaTmcodne z. krakaueri Tavis wignSi: `fizikurirealobis reabilitacia~ wers: `kinoenis Tvisebebi namdvilademTxveva fotografias, kinos iseve, rogorc fotografiasSeuZlia aRbeWdos da gaxsnas fizikuri realoba, Tumca kinoena,garkveulwilad, fotografiis Semdgomi etapia da masSi oritendencia iCens Tavs _ realizmi da formebis Seqmna~. 6 albaT,aseTi amocanis winaSe idga a. tarkovski, rodesac Tavis film`andrei rubliovze~ muSaobisas werda: `moqmedeba mimdinareobsmeTxuTmete saukuneSi, mtanjvelad Zneli aRmoCnda warmoidgino,rogori garemo, atmosfero an yofa iyo im saukuneSi... momixdadavyrdnobodi yvelanair wyaroebs: arqiteqturas,zepirsityvierebas, Zeglebs, xatweras, magram yvelazemniSvnelovani amocana meTxuTmete saukunis realurad aRdgenaiyo... anu, Cven is samyaro iseTad unda warmogvedgina, rommayurebels `samuzeumo eqsponatebis SegrZneba~ ar hqonoda~. 7cnobilia, rom reJisorma `andrei rubliovSi~ es problemabrwyinvaled gadaWra. filmi istoriulia, Tumca samuzeumoeqsponats ar warmoadgens da rogorc WeSmariti xelovnebisnimuSi, yvela drois mayureblisTvisaa gankuTvnili.naSromis am nawilSi Cven SevexeT TiTqmis yvela xerxs,romelic SesaZlebelia, rom gamoiyeno saekrano droistranformaciisTvis; esenia: droze gadaxtoma, drois SekumSva,drois gaxangrZliveba, drois simboluri gadalaxva, wamierebisSeCereba _ stop-kadri da a. S. TiToeuli maTgani, umravles94 95


TinaTin WabukianiSemTxvevaSi, montaJis an samontaJo pultis manipulaciebiTmiiRweva. Tanamedrove samontaJo kompiuteruli pulti uamravsaSualebas flobs. reJisorma aucileblad unda Seiswavlosaxali teqnologiebi, romlebic dRiTidRe ixveweba da viTardeba;Tumca maTi Seswavlis Semdeg Semoqmeds SeuZlia, uari Tqvasyvela maTganze da eZebos Tavisi individualuri SemoqmedebiTigza.kulturis menejmenti(gagrZeleba iqneba)1. Горюнова Н. Л., “Художественно-выразительные средства екрана”, частьII., Москва, 2000, с. 19.2. Журнал: “Искусства кино”, 1967, № 4, Москва, с. 70.3. Рабигер М., “Монтаж. Режиссура Документального кино”, Москва,1998, с. 21.4. Кракауер З., “Реабилитация физической реалности”, Москва, 1991, с.229.5. k. inasariZe, `telemetyveleba~, miunheni, 2000, gv. 76.6. Кракауер З., “Реабилитация физической реалности”, Москва, 1991, с. 71.7. Туровская М., “7, или фильми Андреа Тарковского”, Москва, 1991, с. 71 .96 97


iuri mRebriSvilirogor unda daisaxos mizanisamuSaos SesrulebisaTvis miznis dasaxva ZalianmniSvnelovania, radgan is azrians xdis TanamSromlis damenejeris cxovrebas, saSualebas aZlevs maT, gaiazron mimdinareoperaciebi, saqme, funqciebi, gansazRvron saqmianobis efeqturobada SesaZleblobas iZleva, safuZveli i povon SemdgomisrulyofisaTvis.blanSars da jonsons wignSi `erTwuTiani menejeri~ mohyavTproblemuri TanamSromlis magaliTi, romelic samuSaos SemdegTamaSobda boulings iseTi maqsimaluri daZabulobiT (fizikurida fsiqologiuri), romelsac is verafriT aRwevda samuSaoadgilze. ufro metic, misi cxovreba am wuTebSi azriani damSvenieri xdeboda. ratom ar SeuZlia am TanamSromels asedaixarjos samsaxurSi? albaT, imitom rom is ver xedavskegls (mizans), romelic unda gaitanos. SesaZlebelia, kegliaravin ar dadga (misma xelmZRvanelma) an SeiZleba, keglifardis miRma devs (misi xelmZRvanelis gulCaTxrobiloba)?yvela ki ar isvris burTs, roca ver xedavs kegls (mizans),mxolod Zalian cota TamaSobs brmad im imediT, romxelmZRvanlis mowonebas daimsaxurebs.am statiaSi Cven ganvixilavT miznis dasaxvis teqnikas –SMART-s, anu, miznis `gonivrulad~ Camoyalibebas.es teqnika aris sayovelTaod miRebuli saerTaSorisomenejmentis klasika da nebismieri menejeris aucilebeli Cveva.SeiZleba iTqvas, rom miznis dasaxvis teqnika – SMART-ia u c i l eb el i p r ofes i ona l u r i m oTxo v na a y v el axelmZRvanlisTvis da aseve im TanamSromlebisTvis, romlebsacundaT gaxdnen xelmZRvanelebi.SMART-i (akronimi, Targmani inglisuridan – Wkviani, Wkua,goneba) es _ miznebisa da amocanebis dasaxvis standartia,romelic Seicavs miznis xuT mniSvnelovan maxasiaTebels.S Specific/ konkretuloba, specifikurobaM Measurable/ ganzomilebadobaA Achievable/ miRwevadobaR Relevant/ relevanturobaT Time bound/ drois vadebi1. S - konkretulobakonkretuloba – miznis pirveli moTxovnaa, romelic mizniskonkretulobas gulisxmobs (mis specifikurobas). specifikurmizans ufro meti saSualeba aqvs, Sesrulebul iqnas, vidrezogadad (bundovnad) dasaxul mizans.specifikuri miznis dasaxvisas aucilebelia, ramdenimekiTxvas gaeces pasuxi:1. vin: vin aris Cabmuli?2. ra: ris gakeTeba minda?3. sad: adgilmdebareobis gansazRvra.4. rodis: drois vadebis dadgena.5. pirobebi: moTxovnebis da SezRudvebis gansazRvra.6. ratom: miznis miRwevis Semdeg kuTvnili gansakuTrebulimizezebi, benefitebi.mocemuli parametri moiTxovs, rom mizani iyos konkretuli,naTeli da orazrovani formulirebis gareSe. mizani undamoicavdes naTel informacias, raTa TanamSromelma garkveviTgaigos, rac mas moeTxoveba. specifikur miznebSi `wyali~ arunda iyos. aseTi miznebis interpretacias erTnairad axdensrogorc xelmZRvaneli, aseve TanamSromeli. swored amitomaris rekomendirebuli pasuxi gaeces kiTxvebs: ra? sad? rodis?ratom? da a. S.specifikuri mizani unda ganisazRvros aranakleb 5-10 daaraumetes 250 sityviT (teqstis 1 gverdi maqsimumia).98 99


iuri mRebriSvilimagaliTad, araspecifikuri mizani ase JRers: `viswavlimanqanis tarebas~, xolo specifikuri _ `viswavli manqanistarebas uaxloes or TveSi~.aq mizani mokled aris Camoyalibebuli. SesaZlebelia misiufro detalurad Camoyalibebac, sadac aisaxeba ara martoSedegi, aramed miznis ganxorcielebis gzebi.ase rom, Cven vsaubrobT detalurad dakonkretebul mizanze,imitom rom vgegmavT marTvas ara mxolod konkretulirezultatis mixedviT, aramed mis misaRwevad, TanamSromlebTanvaTanxmebT gzebs da saSualebebs. xandaxan SegviZlia davisaxoTara marto saboloo mizani, aramed Sualeduri SedegebicmovxazoT.2. M - ganzomilebadobaganzomilebadoba – miznis miRwevis donis gansazRvrisSesaZlebloba – erT-erTi sakvanZo moTxovnaa amocanis dasaxvisdros, rodesac gadavdivarT miznebis marTvis standartze(MBO – Management by Objectives). progresis gansazRvrisTvissaWiroa dadgindes konkretuli kriteriumebi. Tqven arSegiZliaT marToT is, risi gazomvac SeuZlebelia. yvelaferi,rac ganzomilebadia SeiZleba miRweul iqnas. progresis SefasebaTqven ar gaZlevT saSualebas, gzidan gadauxvioT, Tqven aRwevTdrois dadgenil vadebs, axdenT resursebis optimizacias,koordinirebas uwevT prioritetebs da iTvaliswinebT garemocvisdinamikas.praqtika gviCvenebs, rom ganzomilebadobis kriteriumigacilebiT rTulia SMART-is teqnikaSi.roca vsaubrobT misaRwevi miznis (amocanis) donisganzomilebadobaze, es niSnavs, rom Cven unda warmovidginoTara mxolod is mdgomareoba, romelsac unda mivaRwioT, aramedsawyisi mdgomareobac.anu, imisTvis, rom davisaxoT mocemuli amocanis gegmiurim aC v eneb el i da da r wm u neb ul eb i v iy oT p r oc esi sganzomilebadobaSi da Sedegis miRwevaSi, Cven, rogorc wesi,unda viqonioT mocemuli kriteriumis Sesabamisad wina periodisstatistikuri monacemebi.aseve Cven yovelTvis unda gvqondes amocanis Sesrulebisdonis gakontrolebis SesaZlebloba. sxva SemTxvevaSi amocanaazrs kargavs.3. A - miRwevadobarogor unda daisaxos mizanimenejeri amocanis dasaxvis dros darwmunebuli unda iyos,rom is miRwevadia da saocrebis, iRblis imedi ar unda hqondes.Tu menejerma gadawyvita amocanis dasaxva TanamSromlisaTvis,ese igi, mas aqvs gonivruli, logikuri da obieqturi safuZveli,romelic adasturebs, menejeris azriT, amocanis miRwevadobas.organizacia miznobriv marTvaze gadasvlisas adre Tugvian xvdeba, rom aucilebelia obieqturi procedurebis dadagegmarebis meTodebis danergva, rac xelmZRvanelobis mierdasaxuli miznebis miRwevadobis dasabuTebis saSualebas iZleva.meore aspeqti miznis miRwevadobisa imaSi mdgomareobs,rom miznis dasaxvis dros menejerma unda Camoayalibos iseTimiznebi, romlebic avtomaturad miuRwevelia.anu, Tu TanamSromeli ar gamoiCens damatebiT Zalisxmevas,gamoiyenebs tradiciul instrumentebs, meTodebs, teqnologiebsda SeZlebs miaRwios mizans damatebiTi Zalisxmevis gareSe,es niSnavs, rom mizani iyo arasworad dasaxuli (Semcirebuli).mizani unda iyos rTuli, magram miRwevadi da iwvevdesTanamSromels `brZolaSi~.aseTi miznebi TanamSromlebs profesiuli, finansuri,TviTrealizaciis da a. S. zrdis SesaZleblobas aZleven. misi100 101


iuri mRebriSvilisamuSao ar iqneba rutinuli da gaxdeba ufro daZabuli,magram saintereso.mesame aspeqti miznis miRwevadobisa imaSi mdgomareobs,rom es mizani unda iqnas mitanili TanamSromlamde. samwuxarod,mTel msoflioSi TanamSromlebis didma nawilma ar icisTavisi samuSaos zusti mizani, Tumca SeiZleba bevrisTvis iswerilobiTi formiTac arsebobdes.da bolos, meoTxe aspeqti mdgomareobs imaSi, romTanamSromelTan misaRwevi miznis ara marto fizikuri SeTanxmebaunda arsebobdes, aramed TanamSromlisTvis fsiqologiuradmisaRebi unda iyos miznis miRwevadoba.amitom, `brZolaSi~ gamomwvevi miznis obieqturi dasabuTebisgarda, unda dainergos TanamSromlebis mier miznis ganxilvisda miRebis procedura.sanam TanamSromeli fsiqologiurad ar aris Tanaxma, esmiznebi misTvis ucxoa. is ekuTvnis mxolod menejers, romelmacisini Camoayaliba.adamianebs ar uyvarT sxvisi miznebis da ideebisganxorcieleba.4. R - relevanturobarelevanturoba – meoTxe moTxovna sworad dasaxuli miznisaaris misi relevanturoba. ZiriTadad saubaria imaze, rom ararsebobs TanamSromlis mier arkontrolirebadi faqtorebi,romlebic zegavlenas axdenen dasaxul mizanze (an maTizegavlena umniSvneloa, an advilad gadasalaxavi).magaliTad, wignebis gavrceleba damokidebulia ara martosavaWro obieqtis muSaobaze, aramed aseve sawyobSi saqonlisarsebobaze, sareklamo biujetis arsebobaze da konkurentebisqmedebaze.rogor unda daisaxos mizanianu, mocemul amocanaSi (mizanSi) arsebobs TanamSromlismier uamravi sustad kontrolirebadi faqtori, romlebiczemoqmedebas axdenen miznis miRwevaze.sinamdvileSi, rom gaiTvaliswino miznis dasaxvisas oriurTierTsawinaaRmdego tendencia, es sakmaod rTuli problemaa:erTi mxriv, organizaciis survili gaanawilos rezultatebzepasuxismgebloba ganyofilebebsa da TanamSromlebs Soris da,meore mxriv, gamoyos swored is faqtorebi da amocanebi,romlis miRwevac damokidebulia, pirvel rigSi, TamamSromlebismuSaobaze.xandaxan TanamSromels sWirdeba damatebiTi axsna dasaxulimiznis relevanturobaze.magaliTad, TanamSromlis amocanaa wignebis gasaRebis gazrdamomxmareblis mudmivi raodenobis SemTxvevaSi.dasaSvebia, rom zogierTi TanamSromeli ver mixvdeba, romsaWiroa gayidvebis sixSiris an/da moculobis gazrda arsebulimomxmareblisTvis.am SemTxvevaSi umjobesia amocanis dazusteba: gaizardosgayidvebis moculoba 100000 laridan 200000 laramdesavaWro garigebis saSualo Rirebulebis xarjis gazrdiT1000 laridan 2000 laramde.aseTi formulirebiT amocana ufro konkretuli da gasagebigaxdeba SemsruleblisaTvis, radgan is miuTiTebs im saSualebaze,romlis gamoyenebiTac TanamSromels SeuZlia gazardosgayidvebis moculoba.Tu zogadad amocana aris gayidvebis moculobis gaormageba,maSin gasagebia, rom es gaormageba SeiZleba miRweul iqnasmomxmareblis, TamnamSromlebis, sareklamo xarjebis, asistentebisda a. S. raodenobis zrdis xarjze.102 103


iuri mRebriSviliufro konkretulad amocana ase iqneba; gaormagdes savaWrogarigebis saSualo Rirebuleba. amis gasaxorcielebladTanamSromels damoukideblad SeuZlia SearCios xerxebi ansaSualebebi: Caataros arsebuli momxmareblis daxarisxeba,gadavides kompleqsur kontraqtebze, Seiswavlos didi savaWrogarigebis teqnologiebi da sxva.mniSvnelovania, rom TamnamSromelma miiRos dasaxuli miznisrelevanturoba da gaacnobieros, rom misi ganxorcieleba,upirveles yovlisa, damokidebulia mis Zalisxmevaze.5. T - drois vadebidrois vadebi – es aris bolo moTxovna miznis dasaxvisas.samuSaos TiToeul etapze saboloo da Sualeduri vadebiaucileblad unda mieniSnos moxsenebebSi, protokolebSi,krebebze, TaTbirebze, sadac miTiTebuli iqneba miRebuligadawyvetilebebi da masze pasuxismgebeli pirebi.miznis dasaxvisas yvelaze tradiciuli gadawyvetilebaexeba amocanis drois Semadgenels – Sesrulebis saboloovadis miTiTeba.Tanamedrove pirobebSi menejmenti iZulebulia iyos ufrometad dinamikuri: iqmneba axali teqnologiebi da produqtebi,izrdeba saerTaSoriso da adgilobrivi konkurencia.organizacias naklebad aqvs saSualeba, ganaxorcielosxangrZlivi dagegmareba. moklevadian dagegmarebaze gadasvlaSesaZleblobas iZleva, ukeTesad gaakontrolos samuSaosSesrulebis Sedegebi da efeqturoba, ufro moqnili iyosxelmZRvanelobaSi.miznis dasaxvis teqnikis SMART-is gamoyeneba SesaZlebelsxdis, mkafiod Camoyalibdes miznebi da moiZebnos efeqturigzebi maT misaRwevad.Lrogor unda daisaxos mizanixandaxan saWiroa damatebiTi drois gaTvaliswineba, rodesacarsebobs sxvadasxva TanamSromlis mier Sesrulebuli amocanebiskveTa.magaliTad, TanamSromlebma Tavisi mosazreba biujetze undawarudginon ganyofilebis xelmZRvanels 20 ricxvamde, romelmacunda waradginos biujeti 25 ricxvamde, radgan organizaciisxelmZRvanelma unda daamtkicos biujeti 30-Si.xarisxis totaluri amaRlebisaTvis da qmedebebisSeTanxmebisaTvis aucilebelia gamoiyos sakvanZo amocanebisSualeduri etapebi da gakontroldes mocemuli davalebisSesrulebis msvleloba.· Мексон, Альберт, Хедоури, «Основы менеджмента», 2007.· Бланшар К., Спенсер С., «Одноминутный менеджер», 2001.104 105


universitetissamagistro programa`Z v e l i q a r T u l is a T e a t r o x e l o v n e b i sa n T r o p o l o g i a~naSromebi ibeWdeba programis xelmZRvanelisrekomendaciiT.statiebis stili daculiaprogramis xelmZRvaneli _ lamara RonRaZe106 107


micvalebulis kulti qarTulsanaxaobiT xelovnebaSinino darsaliasaqarTveloSi qristianobis gavrcelebas win uZRvoda grZeliperiodi, romelic warmarTobis saxeliT aris cnobili.warmarTuli dro poliTeisturi azrovnebiT xasiaTdeboda,TiToeuli RmerTis sadideblad iqmneboda mravali sakultorituali da wes-Cveulebebi. uZvelesi ritualebi imdroindelixalxis yofa-cxovrebas ukavSirdeboda, ZiriTadad es iyonadirobasTan, ganayofierebasTan, bunebis movlenebTan damicvalebulTan dakavSirebuli sakulto ritualebi.swored am ritualebsa da wes-CveulebebSi Caeyara safuZveliTeatralur sanaxaobebs, romelTa Soris Tavisi TeatralobiTada gamomsaxvelobiTi elementebis simravliT gamoirCevamicvalebulis kultTan dakavSirebuli wes-Cveulebebi.micvalebulis kults saTanado adgili uWiravs, rogorcsazogadoebrivi ganviTarebis dabal safexurze mdgom, asevemsoflios civilizebul xalxTa yofaSi. `igi rTuli religiurikompleqsTagania, romelSic cnobierebis uZvelesi formebiskvalia SemorCenili. micvalebulis kulti moicavs yvela imsaweso moqmedebas, romlebic sruldebian gardacvlilisdatirebis, dakrZalvis da glovis dros~. 1saqarTvelos TiTqmis yvela kuTxeSi gavrcelebuli iyomicvalebulis kulti da masTan dakavSirebuli wes-Cveulebebi.maT Soris gansakuTrebiT aRsaniSnavia fSav-xevsurTawarmarTuli rwmena-warmodgenebi da ritualebi, romelTatradiciebi bolo dromde mtkiced hqondaT SemorCenilixevsurebs. micvalebulis kultTan dakavSirebul xevsurulritualebSi da wes-CveulebebSi uxvad gvxvdeba TeatralurisanaxaobisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli elementebi. am mxrivgansakuTrebul figuras warmoadgens mesulTane.xevsurebs Rrmad swamdaT, rom saiqiosa da gardacvlilsulebs didi mniSvneloba eniWeboda cocxalTaTvis. maTirwmeniT `suleTSi~ wydeboda `samzeos~ bed-iRbali da amitomacgardacvlilma sulebma winaswar icodnen yvelaferi. saiqioSimyofi sulebis Sesaxeb xalxi igebda specialuri pirisagan,romelsac mesulTane erqva. mesulTanes movaleobas Seadgendasulsa da cocxal adamianebs Soris Suamavloba, mesulTanegardacvlilis sulSi Sedioda da mas elaparakeboda,gardacvlili mesulTanes saSualebiT atyobinebda ambebsWirisufals da saWiro rCeva-darigebasac iZleoda. mesulTaneaucileblad qali unda yofiliyo. Zvel droSi mesulTaneoba,rogorc Cans, profesiadac ki iTvleboda. amas migvaniSnebs is,rom mesulTaned 18-20 wlis asakSi xdebodnen xolme. mesulTanegansakuTrebuli TvisebebiT gamoirCeoda, igi iyo gabeduli,Wkviani, mWvrmetyveli, sityvamoswrebuli. `sulaToba~Wirisuflis TandaswrebiT xdeboda. mesulTane daiwyebdamTqnarebas, caxcaxs, xelebs da Tavs iqnevda, Semdeg xelebsmuxlisTavebze Semoixvevda da micvalebulis xmiT daiwyebdalaparaks.mesulTanes saqmianoba sasceno xelovnebisaTvisdamaxasiaTebel mraval elements moicavs. magaliTad, igiSesaZlebelia moviazroT Tanamedrove msaxiobis winaprad.mesulTane msaxiobis msgavsad gardaisaxeboda sxva adamianadda im adamianis grZnobebsa da gancdebs gadmoscemda. mesulTanesgardacvlili adamianis survilebi da azrebi unda gaeTavisebinada moergo iseve, rogorc msaxiobs _ Tavisi personaJisa.msaxiobisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli Tvisebebidan mesulTanesaTvisagreTve aR saniSna via mib aZvis unari. mesulTanesgardacvlilisaTvis unda miebaZa da misi xmiT elaparaka. esyovelive rom bunebrivad Seesrulebina, mesulTane iseve, rogorcmsaxiobi, aucileblad unda yofiliyo dakvirvebuli, moqnili,plastikuri, winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi Wirisufali misSesaZleblobebSi eWvs Seitanda da aRaravin daujerebda.rogorc vxedavT, mesulTanes saqmianoba Zlier axlos dgasmsaxiobis profesiasTan. axla vnaxoT, micvalebulisdamtirebeli ramdenad iyo dakavSirebuli sanaxaobiTxelovnebasTan.rodesac adamiani gardaicvleboda, mis dasatirebladiwvevdnen specialur pirebs – xmiT motiralebs. es wesiZveli droidan yofila gavrcelebuli saqarveloSi. amaze108 109


nino darsaliamicvalebulis kulti qarTul sanaxaobiT xelovnebaSivaxuSti batoniSvilis cnoba migviTiTebs: `imRerdian mwuxarisaxmiTa tyebisa Jamsa ara Wirisufalni, aramed sxvani mun myofni~. 2xmiT motiralni mxolod qalebi iyvnen, isini xalxSi didipativiscemiT sargeblobdnen. gamoirCeodnen emociurobiT,fantaziis unariT, enawylianobiT. damtirebeli qalebimicvalebuls mgrZnobiare sityvebiT, gulisamaCuyeblad tirodnen,tirilis dros micvalebuls saqebari sityvebiT amkobdnen damisi cxovrebidan gansakuTrebul epizodebs yvebodnen. xmiTmotiralis mier gardacvlilis datirebis teqsts `xmiTnatirali~ erqva. saukeTeso `xmiT natiralebi~ xalxSivrceldeboda da Taobidan Taobas gadaecemoda.Teatraluri TvalsazrisisaTvis datirebis wesi metadmniSvnelovania. dimitri janeliZe damtireblebs `glovismgosnebad~ moixseniebs, xolo `kalmasobis avtori ioanebatoniSvili `saglovelTa xmas~ dramatul poezias akuTvnebsda tragediis mniSvnelobiT xmarobs~. 2damtirebelTa saqmianoba, marTlac, bevrad ukavSirdebasasceno xelovnebas. moqmedebis adgili damtireblisaTvissasceno moedans warmoadgenda, xolo damswre xalxi daWirisufalni – mayureblebs. damtirebels garkveuliwarmodgena unda moewyo, romlis siuJetic gardacvliliadamianis cxovrebis istoria iyo. damtirebels msaxiobis msgavsadxalxSi zemoqmedeba unda moexdina da Tanagancda gamoewvia,iseve, rogorc msaxiobisaTvis, misTvisac didi mniSvnelobaeqneboda sasiamovno xmas da xmis maRal tembrs. mesulTaneTu mxolod Wirisuflis TandaswrebiT sulTanobda, damtirebelsmTeli soflis gasagonad unda etira.motiralisaTvis msaxiobis msgavsad damaxasiaTebeli iyogardasaxvis unari, romlis meSveobiTac igi advilad axerxebda,mgloviare adamianad gadaqceuliyo da didi mwuxareba gamoexataiseT dros, rodesac, SeiZleba, sulac araferi hqonda sawuxari.aRsaniSnavia agreTve improvizaciis mniSvnelobadamtirebelTa saqmianobaSi. gardacvlili adamianis daxasiaTebisdros maT xSirad uwevdaT improvizaciis xerxis gamoyeneba,damtireblebs eqnebodaT garkveuli monaxazi gardacvliliscxovrebis Sesaxeb, romelic Tavisi fantaziiT da improvizaciissaSualebiT unda gaemdidrebinaT. am TvisebiT isini berikaobisSemsrulebel msaxiobebs mogvagoneben. motiralisTvis, iseverogorc msaxiobisaTvis, specialuri kostiumebi arsebobda.maT Savi feris samgloviaro samosi ecvaT da Tmebi gaSlilihqondaT. motiralisaTvis didi mniSvneloba eniWeboda sxeulisplastikurobas da moqnilobas, radganac igi swored Tavisifsiqo-fizikuri aparatiT gamoxatavda mgloviare adamians,`motirali orsave xels gaSlil Tmaze Camoisvams dawarmoadgens mgloviare qals, romelic saSineli mwuxarebisaganTavze Tmas iglejs~. 3rogorc vxedavT, damtirebels metad rTuli misiaekisreboda. mas sanaxaobis vizualur mxarezec unda ezrunada monawileobac Tavadve unda mieRo. aqedan gamomdinare,damtirebeli reJisoris movaleobis funqciebsac asrulebda.damtireblis mier mowyobil sanaxaobaSi, radganac mxoloderTi adamiani monawileobda, igi SesaZlebelia miviCnioT erTimsaxiobis Teatris uZveles formad, xolo TviTon damtirebeli,SesaZloa, movisazroT tragikosi msaxiobis winaprad.datirebis wesi gansakuTrebiT bolo dromde iyo SemorCenilisamegreloSi. 4 rodesac vinme gardaicvleboda misi naTesavebiSoreuli soflebidan didi msvlelobiT miemarTebodnentirilSi. qalebs Savi samosi ecvaT da xelSi didi kelaptarieWiraT, romelic Savi naWrebiT iyo morTuli. isini gzadagzamsvlelobis dros tirils da kivils iwyebdnen, ukan mohyvebodaTsakuTari gundi `mozareTa~, romlebic qalebis kivils `zaris~galobiT bans aZlevdnen, `zari~ samgloviaro marSs, sagalobelshqvia da ubedurebas niSnavs.es samgloviaro msvleloba SesaZloa davukavSiroT uZvelesmisteriebs, romlebic egvi ptesa da saberZneTSi imarTeboda.uZvelesi misteriebic swored quCa-quCa msvlelobiT ewyobodaCiraRdnebis Suqze. rogorc samgloviaro procesiis monawileni,ise misteriis Semsrulebelnic gansakuTrebul kostiumebSiiyvnen gamowyobilni da mRerodnen specialur sagaloblebs.magaliTad, saberZneTSi dionises pativsacemad specialursadideblebs _ `diTirambebs~ _ aRavlendnen. aRsaniSnavia,rom tragediis Janric Zvel saberZneTSi swored `diTirambebis~simReris dros Caisaxa.110 111


nino darsaliamicvalebulis kulti qarTul sanaxaobiT xelovnebaSirogorc vxedavT, marTlac, bevri saerToa damtirebelTamsvlelobasa da uZveles misteriebs Soris. gamosaxvis formebiTiTqmis igivea, mxolod SinaarsSia cvlileba.micvalebulis kultSi Teatraluri elementebis ZiebisaTvis`narevebis~ arsebobas didi mniSvneloba eniWeba. fSav-xevsureTSimicvalebuli uwmindurad iTvleboda da yvelaferi, rac masmiekareboda aseve uwminduri iyo. swored amitomac arsebobdnenspecialuri pirebi, romelTac micvalebulis movla da RamisTeva evalebodaT, maT narevebi erqvaT. narevebi mamakacebi iyvnen,ZiriTadad _ 15 kacis SemadgenlobiT.Teatraluri gamomsaxvelobis TvalsazrisiT narevebTandakavSirebiT erTi metad saintereso informacia gvxvdeba.xevsureTsa da imereTSi micvalebulTan Ramis Tevis drosnarevebi `wola-dgomas~ warmoadgendnen, rac colqmruliurTierTobis simultacia iyo. es Cveuleba micvalebulisadmipativiscemis gamoxatulebad iyo miCneuli.am ritualSi aRsaniSnavia, Tu rogor swydeba samgloviarorituali Tavis tradiciul fesvebs da rogor Semodis masSigasarTob-sanaxaobrivi elementebi. sqesobrivi aqtisganmasaxierebeli scenebis Cveneba narevebis mier TavisTavadukve sanaxaobaa, romelsac, albaT, mayurebelic eyoleboda iqmyofi danarCeni narevebis saxiT. radganac narevebi mamakacebiiyvnen, erT-erTs aucileblad qalis rolis Sesruleba mouwevda,Teatris istoriaSic xom mravlad gvxvdeba iseTi periodebi,rodesac qalebis rols mamakacebi asrulebdnen. rac Seexebasqesobrivi aqtis ganmasaxierebeli scenebis Cvenebas, Teatrisistoria am mxrivac metad mdidaria. uZveles qarTul misteriebSiswored sqesobriv aqts da col-qmrul urTierTobebswarmoadgendnen. amgvari scenebis arseboba berikaoba-yeenobaSicaRiniSneba. berZnuli Teatric xom ganayofierebis RvTaebadionises dResaswaulebze Caisaxa, romlis monawilenic sqesobrivaqts da uwmawur scenebs warmoadgendnen.micvalebulis kultSi amgvari scenebis arseboba, albaT,imdroindeli xalxis rwmena-warmodgenebiT iyo ganpirobebuli,xevsurebs Rrmad swamdaT, rom gardacvlili saiqioSic iseveganagrZobs cxovrebas, rogorc dedamiwaze. sqesobrivi aqtisganmasaxierebeli scenebis CvenebiT xalxi, albaT, ganayofierebissaqmeSi gzas ulocavda da warmatebebs usurvebda micvalebuls.micvalebulis kultTan dakavSirebul ritualebs SorisaRsaniSnavia erTi metad saintereso wes-Cveuleba, romelicqarTuli xalxuri sanaxaobiTi warmodgenebis sferodan bevrmniSvnelovan masalas Seicavs.xevsureTSi micvalebulis wlisTavze Wirisufali diddoRs marTavda, romelSiac soflis mTeli mosaxleoba iRebdamonawileobas. doRi micvalebulisadmi pativiscemad iTvlebodada misi mizani iyo micvalebulis sulisaTvis siamovnebisminiWeba da gamxiaruleba. doRi aucileblad gazafxulzeunda gamarTuliyo, radganac cxenebs zamTarSi fexiusrialebdaT da meti marcxi iyo mosalodneli. doRisaTviscxenebs gansakuTrebiT amzadebdnen, Zua fafars uwnavdnen daferad-feradi ZafebiT rTavdnen, rac ufro meti cxeni iRebdamonawileobas, miT ufro sasaxelo iyo doRi. Sejibrebis drosWirisufals romel sofelSic naTesavebi hyavda, mxedrebi yvelasunda swveodnen. misul mxedrebs yvela ojaxSi maspinZeligaSlil sufras axvedrebda da micvalebulis Sesandobarsdaalevinebda. Tu mxedrebi Sors iyvnen wasasvleli, meoredRes brundebodnen ukan, Tu ara da im saRamosve modiodnen.vinc pirveli dabrundeboda, gamarjvebuladac is CaiTvleboda.msvlelobis dros mxedrebi erTmaneTis gasamxiaruleblad dagasarTobad mokle leqsebs da kiafebs ambobdnen. gamarjvebulssaukeTeso saCuqari ergeboda, Tumca usaCuqrod arc danarCenebirCebodnen. Wirisufali jildod awesebda Zroxas, fuls, dekeuls,Zvirfas xaliCebs da fardagebs. doRis bolos Wirisufalimonawileebs sufraze miiwvevda da micvalebulisaTvis dalocvilsasmel-saWmeliT gaumaspinZldeboda.micvalebulis doRi garkveul siaxloves amJRavnebs ZvelqarTul xalxur sanaxaobasTan, berikaoba-yeenobasTan. pirvelrigSi, davasaxelebT im faqts, rom orive sanaxaoba saerTosasofloiyo da oriveSi soflis mosaxleoba iRebdamonawileobas. agreTve orive sanaxaoba gazafxulobiTimarTeboda da orivesaTvis damaxasiaTebeli iyo sofel-sofeldavla, ojaxebSi Sesvla da gamaspinZleba. rogorc berikaobisSemsrulebelni, aseve doRSi monawile cxenebi, specialurad112 113


nino darsaliamorTul-mokazmulni iyvnen, orive sanaxaoba ramdenime dRegrZeldeboda. doRis mxedrebi, berikaobis msaxiobebis msgavsad,msvlelobis dros erTobodnen da mxiarulobdnen. rogorcerTi, aseve meore sanaxaoba saerTo sufriT da saCuqrebisdarigebiT sruldeboda. gamonaklisad SeiZleba is CaiTvalos,rom berikaobaSi adamianebi monawileobdnen, doRSi ki cxenebshqondaT mTavari roli. Tumca Tuki gavixsenebT, rom berikaobaSicadgili hqonda cxenis niRbis gansaxierebas, gasakviric aRaraferiiqneba. ioane batoniSvili `cxenkacobis~ TamaSs ase agviwers:`xeebs gaikraven tanze. CiTebs gadaifareben, cxeniviT Tavsada kisers xisgan gaikeTeben da Semoaxvevdnen rasme da hkidebenwvril zanzalaks da esreT iTamaSebdnen mravalni da ucxodxmarobdnen fexTa da msgavsad cxenTa mjdomTaebr ixilveboden~. 5berikaobaSi cxenis niRbis gansaxierebas, rogorc Cans, dasabamiam sanaxaobidan unda miscemoda. advili warmosadgenia, ramdenadsaxaliso da gasarTobi iqneboda es wes-Cveuleba, romelsac,albaT, ar moakldeboda sicili, mxiaruleba da mayurebelTaovaciebi.amrigad, micvalebulis kultTan dakavSirebul ritualebSida wes-CveulebebSi uxvad gvxvdeba Teatraluri sanaxaobisaTvisdamaxasiaTebeli elementebi, romlebic safuZvlianad moiTxovsSeswavlas da gamokvlevas.1. dali giorgaZe, dakrZalvisa da glovis wesebi saqarTveloSi, Tbilisi,1987, gv. 6.2. dali giorgaZe, dakrZalvisa da glovis wesebi saqarTveloSi, Tbilisi,1987, gv. 37.3. dimitri janeliZe, qarTuli Teatris istoria, Tbilisi, 1983, gv. 153.4. Tedo saxokia, micvalebulis kulti samegreloSi, mse. t III., Tbilisi,1940, gv. 170.5. dimitri janeliZe, qarTuli Teatris istoria, Tbilisi, 1983, gv. 26.saferxulo cekvebis arsi dadaniSnulebasofiko xaCiZeqoreografiuli xelovnebis sawyisi uZveles warsulSia.jer kidev pirvelyofil adamianTa yofa-cxovrebaSi cekvisxelovnebas, rogorc adamianTa aucilebel cxovrebiseulkomponents, gansakuTrebuli adgili uWiravs. fiqroben, romcekvis xelovneba warmoiSva nadirobasTan, rogorc Sromispirvelad formasTan kavSirSi, velurobis saSualo safexurze.jer kidev pirvelyofil adamianTa xelovnebis SeswavlamgviCvena, rom `sazogadoebrivi adamiani nivTebsa da movlenebsuyurebs utilitaruli mniSvnelobiT, xolo Semdeg gadadismaTdami damokidebulebaSi esTetikur Tvalsazrisze.~nadirobasTan dakavSirebiT Seqmnili cekvebi Tavdapirveladgamoricxavda esTetikuri siamovnebis faqtors da, rogorcnadirobis xelSemwyobi saSualeba, mxolod sargeblobisTvalsazrisiT arsebobda. nadiroba ZiriTadad Sromis koleqtiurprocess warmoadgenda; monadirul cekvaSi mravalricxovaniSemsrulebeli monawileobda. igi ferxulis saxiT sruldebodada, savaraudod, Tavidanve wriuli forma hqonda.Mmis wriulformas ki ganapirobebda nadirobis dros jer wreSi moqcevada Semdeg maTze Tavdasxma.pirvelyofili sazogadoebis ganviTarebis sxvadasxvasafexurze Sroma ganawilebuli iyo mamakacsa da qals Soris.Sromis aRniSnulma ganawilebam ki safuZveli Cauyara mamakacTada qalTa cekvebis cal-calke Seqmnas.SeiZleba iTqvas, rom ferxuli cekvis erT-erTi yvelazegavrcelebuli formaa saqarTveloSi da Tavisi warmoSobiTcekvis yvelaze adrindel saxes warmoadgens. saferxulo wyobis,e. i. momReral-mocekvave gundis, uZvelesi saxelwodebasaqarTveloSi `mrgvali~ yofila. savaraudoa, rom essaxelwodeba warmoiSva imasTan dakavSirebiT, rom ferxuliaucileblad agebuli iyo wriuli principiT.Mmonawileniwinaswar ganlagdebodnen wreze da ase moZraobdnen simRerasTanerTad xan erTi, xan meore mimarTulebiT.114 115


sofiko xaCiZesaferxulo cekvebis arsi da daniSnulebamwkrivebSi rkalgvarad gadawyvetili ferxulebi ki`ferxisebrad~ iwodebodnen.aRsaniSnavia is faqti, rom svanuri ferxulebis yvelazeadrindel fexis moZraobaTa naerTs, e. i. saferxulo fexs,`murgval WixSi~, anu mrgvali fexi, ewodeboda. unda vifiqroT,rom `mrgvali fexi~ axasiaTebda im ferxulebs, romlebicwris saxiT sruldeboda, wriuli forma hqondaT da jerkidev `murgvalis~ saxelwodebiT arsebobdnen.ferxulis gavrcelebaze Zvel saqarTveloSi metyvelebsmravali istoriuli masala. maT Soris aRsaniSnavia a. kuftinisxelmZRvanelobiT saqarTvelos teritoriaze (TrialeTSi)Catarebuli arqeologiuri eqspediciis Sedegad napovnivercxlis Tasi (igi ipovna eqspediciis wevrma (ivaSCenkom).Tasze gamosaxulia 23 arsebis msvleloba samsxverplos garSemo,romelic Tavisi wyobiT moZrav ferxuls warmoadgens. aRniSnulTass (uSakovi, amiranaSvili) miakuTvneben Zv. welTaRricxvismeore aTaswleulis Sua xanas.prof. SoTa amiranaSvilma yuradReba miaqcia rionSi, kavkavSi,xevsureTsa da daRestanSi nanax iTifalur qandakebebs dadaaskvna, rom es figurebi, xelebisa da fexebis moZraobismxriv ferxulSi monawileTa gamosaxuleba unda iyos.Zveli welTaRricxvis meore saukuneSi saqarTveloSisruliad originaluri saferxulo wyobis sacekvao sanaxaobarom arsebobda, adasturebs berZeni istorikosis, qsenofontes,Canaweri. igi ase aRwers uZveles qarTul salaSqro sanaxaobas:`meomari mosinikebi aseulebad daewyvnen da dadgnen erTimeorispirdapir, rogorc qoroebi. Semdeg erTi maTgani iwyebda, xolodanarCeni mReriT ritmulad miabijebda~. 1ferxuli Tavisi formisa da Sinaaris mixedviTsxvadasxvagvaria. formis mixedviT asrebobs wriuli, wre wreSiCasmuli, or da sam sarTuliani, ferxuli wris SigniT moTamaSiT,ferxulebi mwkrivebis saxiT, romlebic, rogorc zemoT aRvniSneT,ferxisad iwodebodnen da sxv.Sinaaris mixedviT lili gvaramaZe Tavis wignSi `qarTulixalxuri qoreografia~ ferxulebs yofs sam jgufad:patriotuli, samxedro, anu sabrZolo, da sayofacxovreboSinaarsis ferxulebi.saferxulo repertuariT dReisaTvis yvelaze ufro mdidariasaqarTvelos mTiani kuTxe svaneTi. svaneTma dRemde SemoinaxaiseTi uZvelesi ferxulebi, romlebic qristes dabadebamdeaSeqmnili da warmarTul xanas miekuTvnebian, aseTebia: `lile~,`didebaTa~, `laJvaSi~, `adrekelia~, `dala koJas xelRvaJale~,`sanadiro~, `lemCili~, `bail beTqili~ da sxv.svanuri ferxulebis Seswavlam moiTxova, nawilobrivSegvecvala l. gvaramaZis mier ferxulis Sinaarsis mixedviTdadgenili klasifikacia da patriotuli, sabrZolo dasayofacxovbrebo ferxulebidan calke gamogveyo monadiruli,religiur-ritualuri da laSqruli ferxulebi. aqedangamomdinare, svanuri ferxulebi Sinaarsis mixedviT SeiZlebaase davajgufoT: monadiruli, religiur-ritualuri, sabrZoloda meomrul-laSqruli, patriotuli da sayofacxovreboferxulebi.saqarTveloSi iseve, rogorc sxva xalxebis cxovrebaSi,Zvelad nadirobas sapatio adgili eWira. 1938 wels arqeologv. kuftinis xelmZRvanelobiT TrialeTis gaTxrebis Sedegadnapovn vercxlis sarwyulze warmodgenilia nadirobis rTuliscena. misi azriT, aRniSnuli Zegli miekuTvneba meoreaTaswleulis Sua wlebs Cvens welTaRricxvamde.totemuri cekvebi warmoadgenen monadiruli cekvebisTavisebur ganviTarebas, mis gagrZelebas. totemiT da totemuricekvebiT ganisazRvreboda ara mxolod adamianis cxovelTannaTesauri kavSiri, aramed adamianTa Soris naTesauri kavSirisgarkvevac totemuri cekvis saSualebiT xdeboda. mix. CiqovaniTrialeTis vercxlis Tasze gamoxatul procesias, totemuricxovelis atributebiT da wris SigniTa personaJiT, nadirobisqalRmerT dalis pativsacemad Seqmnil saferxulo wyobisritualad miiCnevs. igi aRniSnavs, rom `wris SigniTa personaJidali unda iyoso~. ferxulSi `dala koJas xelRvaJale~,moTxrobilia, Tu rogor gaitaces mglebma dalis axalSobiliSvili. 2 xolo ferxulSi `bail beTqili~ gadmocemulia ambaviimis Sesaxeb, Tu rogor dasaja nadirobis qalRmerTma dalimRalatisaTvis svaneTSi saxelganTqmuli monadire beTqili.116 117


sofiko xaCiZesaferxulo cekvebis arsi da daniSnulebasaqarTveloSi totemuri xasiaTis cekvebis arseboba mxoloddalisadmi miZRvnili ferxulebiT ar amoiwureba. CvenSi metadgavrcelebulia uZvelesi Teatraluri sanaxaoba `berikaoba~,romelsac, ZiriTadad, cekva-TamaSis saxe gaaCnia, undawarmoSobiliyo totemuri cekvebis safuZvelze da misgagrZelebas unda warmoadgendes. berikaoba Tavisi xangrZliviarsebobisa da ganviTarebis manZilze Camoyalibda niRbebissaimprovizacio Teatrad.uZvelesi qarTuli xalxuri eposis RirSesaniSnav dasayuradRebo Zegls warmoadgens Tqmuleba xalxiskeTildReobisa da boroti Zalebis winaaRmdeg mebrZoli gmiris– amiranis, Sesaxeb. mecnierTa azriT, amiranis Tqmulebis svanurivarianti unda CaiTvalos erT-erT ZiriTad variantad. iv.javaxiSvili aRniSnavs, rom: `svanur TqmulebaSi ukeT arisSemonaxuli moTxrobis uZvelesi xasiaTi~. 3amiranis Tqmulebas uZvelesi safuZveli gaaCnia. xalxurigadmocemiT, amirani warmarTuli drois qalRvTaebis da ubralomonadiris Svilia. zogierT SemTxvevaSi mzis Sviladacgvevlineba.Ees ki saSualebas gvaZlevs gamovTqvaT azri imisSesaxeb, rom amirani da mis pativsacemad Seqmnili ferxuli,Tavisi warmoSobiT, Zvel qristianobamdel periods miekuTvneba.Tqmulebidan aRsaniSnavia is faqti, rom amiranis dabadebasTanerTad nadirobis qalRmerTi iRupeba.mix. Ciqovanis azriT, `amirani dedis memkvidreobas agrZelebsideuradac da piradi TvisebebiTac.~ 4 Cveni azriT, sworedmemkvidreobaa safuZveli imisa, rom amiranis ferxuls svaneTSi`sanadiros~ uwodeben. nadirobis qalRmerTma dalim Tavismemkvidred amirani datova, romelsac, rogorc kacTRvTaebas,nadirobis funqciebi daevala. aRniSnuli ki unda daedossafuZvlad svaneTSi arsebul amiranis ferxulis saxelwodebas– `sanadiro~.Mmkvlevrebis azriT, amirani warmodgenilia, rogorcdalis Svili, erT SemTxvevaSi, da mzis Svili, meore SemTxvevaSi.rogorc aRvniSneT, amirani dalis Svilia da maT ferxulebsSoris msgavsebac ar unda iyos CvenTvis moulodneli.monadiruli da totemuri cekvebis ganviTarebis Semdgometaps unda warmoadgendes religiur-ritualuri cekvebi.rogorc ukve aRvniSneT, pirvelyofili adamiani jogidangamoyofda erT-erTs, SedarebiT Zliers da am jogs `patronad~aRiarebda. qarTul tomTa warmarTuli sarwmunoeba mTvaresmTavar RvTaebad Tvlida. mTvaris kulti imdenad Zlieri iyo,rom misi Tayvaniscemis dros, Tavdapirvelad, adamianismsxverplad Sewirva yofila miRebuli. Semdeg es wesi amoikveTada adamianis nacvlad pirutyvs swiravdnen RvTaebas.miuxedavad imisa, rom qristianoba Taviseburad ebrZodawarmarTuli sarwmunoebis naSTs, bevr SemTxvevaSi igiwarmarTuli sarwmunoebis wes-CveulebaTa gavlenis qveSxvdeboda. qarTveli tomebi mTvaris gverdiT didi pativiTixsenieben mzes. xalxuri gadmocemiT, ferxuli, romelic wrewreSiCasmuli ori wris saxiT gvxvdeba, gamoxatavs mzisa damTvaris moZraobas.mzis kulti SeiZleba ufro mogvianebiT warmoiSva, vidremTvarisa.ferxuli `lile~ erT-erTi uZvelesi ferxulTagania,romelic Seqmnilia mzis pativsacemad. masSi aqeben mzes daadideben RmerTs.pirvelyofil adamianTa cxovrebaSi oms ekonomikuriarsebobisaTvis Taviseburi mniSvneloba eniWeboda. maTTvis omiigive nadiroba iyo. saqarTveloSi meomrul-sabrZolo Sinaarsiscekvebidan aRsaniSnavia: `xorumi~ da `ferxulebi~, romelicsarTulebis principiTaa gadawyvetili. `xorumi~ uZvelesisaferxulo wyobis sabrZolo Sinaarsis cekvaa, romelSicmterTan SebrZolebis mTeli suraTi usityvod, sxeulisplastikuri moZraobiT, ritmiT, JestiT da mimikiTaa gadmocemuli.berZeni istorikosis, qsenofontes, cnobiT, romelic ekuTvnisZveli welTaRricxvis me-4 saukunes, laSqrobis win qarTvelTawinapari `meomari pirdapir, rogorc qoroebi... Semdeg erTimaTgani iwyebda, xolo yvela danarCeni mReriT ritmuladmiabijebda~. 5 amave istorikosis cnobiT, mterze gamarjvebulmamosinikebma `moklulT Tavebi dasWres da Tavisi mtrebisa daberZnebis dasanaxavad aRmarTes, Tan cekvavdnen da mRerodnen,romeliRac Tavisebur hangze~. qsenofontes es cnoba metyvelebsimaze, rom qarTvelTa tomebs jer kidev qristianul eramdegaaCndaT sabrZolo Sinaarsis saferxulo wyobis sanaxaoba.118 119


sofiko xaCiZesaferxulo cekvebis arsi da daniSnulebapatriotuli Sinaarsis ferxulebSi l. gvaramaZe ganixilavsim xasiaTis ferxulebs, romlebSic aisaxa xalxis farTomasebis miswrafebebi an feodalebis winaaRmdeg klasobrivibrZola, romelic ar cxreboda saukuneebis ganmavlobaSi daxSirad glexTa ajanyebebiT mTavrdeboda. patriotuli Sinaarsisferxulebs SeiZleba mivakuTvnoT svanuri ferxulebi `Ceyaramsa~da `rostom Wabuki~.ferxuli `Ceyaramsa~ Seqmnilia sofel uSgulSi,Tavisuflebismoyvare svanTa mier moZalade batonis, TavadfuTa dadeSqelianis mokvlasTan dakavSirebiT. cnobili ferxuli`rostom Wabuki~, rogorc misi teqstidan da xalxuriTqmulebidan Cans, gadmogvcems axalgazrda rostomis gmirulbrZolas imdroindeli gabatonebuli klasis, mefisTviTmpyrobelobis winaaRmdeg, risTvisac mefis mTavroba massdevnida. daCagruli mSromeli xalxis interesebi rostomWabukma, arsena oZelaSvilis msgavsad, socialuri usamarTlobiswinaaRmdeg iaraRiT xelSi, brZoliT gamoxata.Uunda aRvniSnoT,rom aq rostom Wabuki Tavisi saqmianobiT SedarebiT Tanamedroveetapze gvxvdeba.Mmisi arseboba XIX saukunes ar gadaSordeba.`rostom Wabukis~ kulti svaneTSi ufro adrindelia da misisaTaveebic uZvelesi monadiruli ferxulebis jgufSi undaveZioT.sayofacxovrebo ferxulebi sruldeboda saero da saeklesiodResaswaulebze dReobebisa da lxinis dros. es ferxulebiatareben sxvadasxva Sinaarss. sayofacxovrebo ferxulebisjgufs miekuTvneba iseTi svanuri saferxulo wyobis cekvebi,rogoricaa: `biba~, `Sinavrogili~, `ramaida~ da sxv.Zveli qarTuli dramatuli sanaxaobani saferxulowyobisaa.Hhangisa da teqstis mTqmeli umTavresad ferxuliiyo da amitomac mas Tavdapirvelad upiratesi mniSvnelobahqonda.ferxulis wriseburi forma uZvelesi unda iyos. igiwarmoadgens samsxverplos garSemo sarwmuneobrivi cekvasimRerisformis gadmonaSTs.TrialeTis yorRnebis gadaTxriT aRmoCenili vercxlissasmisis gamoxatuleba, qsenofontes cnoba, mcxeTissveticxovlis taZris freska da vaxuSti batoniSvilis miergamoTqmuli azri adasturebs, rom saferxulo wyobas qarTvelixalxi uZvelesi droidan icnobda da igi TavdapirveladdakavSirebuli iyo sakulto ceremonialTan.1. d. janeliZe, qarTuli Teatris xalxuri sawyisebi, Tbilisi,1948, gv. 30-32.2. mix. Ciqovani, mijaWvuli amirani, sax. universitetis gamomc.,Tbilisi, 1947, gv. 62-63.3. iv. javaxiSvili, qarTveli eris istoria, t. I, Tbilisi, gv. 158.4. mix. Ciqovani, mijaWvuli amirani, Tbilisi, 1947, gv. 95.5. ix.: l. gvaramaZe, qarTuli xalxuri qoreografia, Tbilisi,1957.120 121


sponsoroba, rogorc PR-isinstrumentielene babakiSvili`T a n a m e d r o v e m e n e j m e n t ik u l t u r a s a d ax e l o v n e b a S i~naSromebi ibeWdeba programis xelmZRvanelisrekomendaciiT.statiebis stili daculiaprogramis xelmZRvaneli _ iuri mRebriSviliorganizaciis dawinaurebis erT-erTi saSualebaa PR (ing.public relations _ sazogadoebrivi urTierTobebi). es arismmarTvelobiTi funqcia, romelic afasebs sazogadoebriv azrsda misi interesebidan gamomdinare, ayalibebs calkeuli pirebis,organizaciebis politikas, gegmavs da axorcielebs ama Tu imsamoqmedo programas sazogadoebis mxridan gagebis da aRiarebismizniT. PR biznesSi _ es aris sazogadoebrivi azrisCamoyalibeba produqtze, kompaniaze, am ukanasknelis reputaciisSeqmna da misi marTva. PR-ma unda uzrunvelyos efeqturidialogi organizaciasa da mis mTlian auditorias Soris.dawinaurebas ori ZiriTadi funqcia aqvs: 1). Setyobinebisgadacema da 2). moaxdino cvlileba momxmarebelSi. aseTisaxiT kompanias SeuZlia, produqtis Sesaxeb informaciamiawodos momxmarebels, aseve Secvalos am ukanasknelis poziciauaryofiTidan dadebiTisaken. PR-is warmoeba moicavs mTelirigi RonisZiebis erTobliobas, romelTagan erT-erTiasponsoroba. termini `sponsoroba~ niSnavs sponsorsa damovlenas Soris dakavSirebas. dResdReobiT sponsoroba ewodebanebismieri movlenis, proeqtis, saqmianobis dafinansebas erTipiris an organizaciis mier. sponsori naRdi angariSiT angadaxdis sxva formiT akeTebs Senatans, ris sanacvlodaciRebs aRniSnuli movlenis, saagentos an sakuTrebis komerciulipotencialis eqspluataciis saSualebas. aRniSnuli RonisZiebaaris dawinaurebis strategiuli gegmis nawili.sponsoroba ar aris SemTxveviTi saqmianoba. igi efuZnebasagangebod Camoyalibebul, gaazrebul gegmasa da strategias.es aris strategiulad dagegmili Zalisxmeva marketingSi,emsaxureba kompaniis bazarze ukeTesad warmoCenasa da misigayidvebis zrdas im qmedebiT, rac sargebels moutansarakomerciul organizaciebsac. orive dainteresebuli mxareaRniSnul gegmas erToblivad unda qmnides, vinaidan sponsorobagulisxmobs TanamSromlobas. ra formis mxardaWerac ar unda122 123


elene babakiSvilisponsoroba, rogorc PR-is instrumentiiyos sponsoris mxridan (aramiznobrivi fuladi saSualeba,garkveuli programis finansuri mxardaWera, Sesatani naturiT(iribi mxardaWera) an publikis gaTviTcnobiereba), amansaSualeba unda misces mxatvrul saagentos, warmatebiTSeasrulos Tavisi misia. samagierod, kompania imaRlebs imijsda zrdis gayidvebs. warmatebuli korporaciuli sponsorobadamokidebulia sworad SerCeul partniorze, romelsac gaaCniamsgavsi interesi da mizani.kompaniisaTvis sasponsoro SeTanxmebis faseulobadamokidebulia monawileebisa da damswreebis raodenobaze,kompaniis logoti pis sareklamo ganlagebaze, masobrivisainformacio saSualebebiT gaSuqebaze, imijsa da movleniskomerciul potencialze, vinaidan sponsorisaTvis movlena anorganizacia upirvelesad niSnavs dawinaurebis iaraRs.dasponsorebuli organizaciisaTvis sponsori TiTqmis klientia,romelic Cadebuli fulis sanacvlod eZebs garkveul sargebels.sponsorobiT miRebuli sargeblis ori tipi arsebobs: 1).avtomaturi sargebeli, romelic ar moiTxovs sponsorisgandamatebiT Zalisxmevas xelSekrulebis dadebis Semdeg. amasmiekuTvneba sponsoris moxsenieba beWdviT masalebSi, presaSian RonisZiebis Catarebis adgilze. 2). sargebeli, romelicsponsorobiT grZeldeba sponsori iyenebs mis mier dafinansebulproeqts, dawesebulebas, RonisZiebas sakuTari gasaRebis bazrisgafarToebaSi.dResdReobiT avtomaturi sargebeli iSviaTad gamoiyeneba,is ar amarTlebs sponsorobaze daxarjul fuls da dros.warmatebuli sponsoroba mxatvrul movlenas an sakuTrebasiyenebs, rogorc Temas sareklamod da PR-is instruments.marketingis xelmZRvaneli ufro iolad daafinansebs reklamas,vidre sponsorobas. sponsorisTvis movlena an organizaciaupirvelesad niSnavs winsvlis iaraRs da sazogadoebiskeTilganwyobis mopovebas.1990 wels v. fiSerma da r. broem moaxdines im sargeblisklasifikacia, romelsac eZeben sponsorebi mTeli msofliosmasStabiT. esenia:1. gaumjobesebuli adgilobrivi kavSiri;2. korporaciuli imijis dawinaureba;3. brendis cnobadobis gazrda da misi imijis gaZliereba;4. masobriv sainformacio saSualebebSi gamoCena;5. grZelvadiani gayidvebis uzrunvelyofa;6. momsaxure personalis mdgomareoba;7. umTavresi principi _ myidvelis siamovneba da PR-isgaumjobeseba, es aris mudmivi saqmianoba, Semdgari sxvadasxvaTanmimdevruli aqciebisgan, romelic gaerTianebuliagrZelvadiani programebiT da emsaxureba erT mizans _ moipovossazogadoebis aRiareba, mxardaWera.Tanamedrove samyaroSi masobrivi sainformacio saSualebebisgadatvirTvam aiZula kompaniebi, moeZebnaT momxmareblamdemisvlis alternatiuli gzebi, erT-erTi maTgania sponsoroba.igi, reklamasTan SedarebiT, yvelaze mzardi Suamavalia bazarze.xarjebi sponsorobisaTvis bolo 16 wlis manZilze (amerikismasStabiT) gaizarda 61.3%-iT maSin, roca reklamis xarjigaizarda mxolod 10.3%-iT. sponsorTa Tanxis yvelaze didiwili modis sportze, auditoriis simravlidan gamomdinare.organizaciebis survili daukavSirdnen TavianT auditorias,dadebiT gavlenas axdens sponsorobis yvela ti pze.PR-is xelovnebadaa miCneuli momxmarebels Seuqmnaswarmodgena, rom firma uSvebs da yidis produqts mxolodmyidvelis interesebidan gamomdinare da ara mogebis miRebismizniT. socialur saqmianobaSi sponsorobiT dabandebulimogebis mcire nawili am azris gamyarebas emsaxureba.sazogadoeba Zalian dadebiTad afasebs amgvar Jests da gavlenasaxdens imaze, Tu sad yidulobs momxmarebeli nawarms. amerikelimosaxleobis 83% acxadebs, rom aqvT dadebiTi warmodgena imkompaniaze, romelic exmareba maTTvis mniSvnelovan saqmes daasocirdeba keTil saqmeebTan. sponsorobis liderebi akeTebenaseT interpretacias _ sponsoroba sWirdeba im brendebs,romlebic miiswrafian, myari kavSirebi daamyaron momxmarebelTanda sazogadoebasTan, rac aris PR-is ZiriTadi amocana.sazogadoebrivad da politikurad aqtiuri momxmarebeli anmomxmarebelTa jgufi gansakuTrebiT miiRebs im kompaniebs,romlebic mxars uWeren sazogadoebriv iniciativebs. kompaniebissaqmianobis stabiluroba, anu, grZelvadiani TanamSromloba124 125


elene babakiSvilidasponsorebul kompaniebTan, aseve ufro dadebiTad fasdeba,vidre sponsoris moklevadiani TanamSromloba.zemoT Tqmulidan gamomdinare, ar unda SegveqmnasSTabeWdileba, TiTqos, sponsoroba aris gulkeTiloba. es arissaqmiani garigeba, rac avaldebulebs SemoqmedebiT organizaciebsmaTi saxelis daweras SesasvlelSi, RonisZiebis Catarebisadgilas sponsoris baneris ganTavsebas da RonisZiebismsvlelobis dros am ukanasknelis araerTxel moxseniebas.kulturis menejerisaTvis mTavari misi organizaciisreputaciaa, man unda daadginos, xom ar iCrdileba an mTavarSixom ar icvleba maTi misia da organizaciis buneba komerciulkompaniasTan kavSiris SemTxvevaSi. menejerebs marTebTsifrTxile, rom ar daukavSirdnen sponsors, romelic iqnebamaTi Semowirulobis Semomtani piris konkurenti. aseve undagamoiricxos kompaniis iseTi produqti, romelic konfliqtSiSeva SemoqmedebiTi organizaciis misiasTan. mag.: Tambaqosmwarmoebeli kompania ar unda asponsorebdes sportulgamajansaRebelcentrs.nebismieri gaugebrobis Tavidan acilebis mizniT aucilebeliasponsorsa da SemoqmedebiT organizacias Soris moxdeswerilobiTi SeTanxmeba.Tanamedrove msoflioSi mTavrobebi ufro da ufro amcirebenkulturuli organizaciebis finansur Tanadgomas.korporatiuli sponsorebi ki SemoqmedebiTi organizaciisSemosavlis ZiriTad resursad rCeba.ix.: fransua kolberi, `marketingi kulturaSi~. 2003.www. pr_chance. kiev. uawww. wikipedia. commarina balanCivaZemarketingi menejeris saqmianobaSimarketingi aris menejmentis erT-erTi funqcia, menejerissaqmianobaSi _ biznesis warmarTvis saSualeba, romelic,ZiriTadad, dainteresebulia im sakiTxebiT, rac xdebaorganizaciis gareT. marketingis saqmianoba dakavSirebuliaorganizaciuli sistemis sazRvrebs gareT mimdinare movlenebTan,am saqmianobas awarmoeben yvela saxis menejerebi da aramxolod marketingis specialistebi. ,,marketingi arissocialuri da menejeruli procesi, romlis Sedegadac individebida jgufebi moi poveben, rac esaWiroebaT da rac surTproduqciis faseulebebis SeqmniT, SeTavazebiT da gacvliT~(f. kotleri, g. amstrongi. marketingis safuZvlebi, 2007) _es ganmarteba aZlierebs marketingis arss, rogorc socialurda ekonomikur gacvlas.gansakuTrebiT bolo wlebSi marketingis ganviTarebaSiglobaluri mimarTuleba gaxda momsaxurebis bazari.Mmarketingismenejeri kulturuli momsaxurebis sistemaSi iseve moqmedebs,rogorc momsaxurebis sistemis sxva dargebSi. ra Tqma unda,kulturis, rogorc sferos, specifikis gaTvaliswinebiT,turizmis infrastruqturis ganviTarebaSi uaRresad didimniSvneloba eniWeba kulturuli momsaxurebis sistemis umaRlessafexurze ayvanas. kulturuli turizmis ganviTarebisaTvisumniSvnelovanes faqtors qveynis kulturuli memkvidreobisdacva da misi SenarCuneba warmoadens.marketingi aris turistuli firmebis, kompaniebis saqmianobismarTvisa da organizaciis sistema, romelic yovelmxriviTvaliswinebs turizmis bazarze momxdar procesebs.turistuli marketingi aris dasvenebis motiviT (SemecnebiTiaspeqti, dasveneba, garToba, mkurnaloba, sportuli Sejibrebada a. S.) gamowveuli adamianebis moTxovnilebebisdakmayofilebisken mimarTuli meTodebi da am moTxovnaTaracionalurad dakmayofilebis unaris mqone turistulibiuroebis, kooperativebis, asociaciebis organizacia. turistulimomsaxureba mniSvnelovnad gansxvavdeba materialuri126 127


marina balanCivaZemarketingi menejeris saqmianobaSiproduqtis warmoebis dargebisagan. turizmis produqtsmomsaxureba warmoadgens, romlis moxmareba mxolod misiwarmoebis adgilas da warmoebis momentSi SeiZleba. bazarzesaqonlis nacvlad gadis turi, romelSic garantirebuliamomsaxureba, rac TavisTavad mniSvnelovnad gansxvavdebamomsaxurebis sxva sferoebisgan.msoflios kulturuli memkvidreobis sistemaSi SeiZlebagamoiyos ori mimarTuleba, romelic dakavSirebulia turistulmoRvaweobasTan, esaa:1. muSaoba turizmis myari ganviTarebis programis CarCoebSi.2. msoflio kulturuli memkvidreobis komitetisa daregionebis warmomadgenelTa mimdinare muSaoba.turistuli marketingis Tavisebureba imaSi mdgomareobs,rom bazari mudmiv dinamikur cvlilebebs ganicdis, amasTan,turistul momsaxurebaze moTxovna icvleba ara martosezonurobis, bunebrivi pirobebis, moTxovna-miwodebiszemoqmedebiT, aramed axali fasebis SemoRebiT, qveyanaSisocialuri da ekonomikuri mdgomareobis, arsebuli konkurenciiszemoqmedebis mixedviTac. aqedan gamomdimare, turizmis marketingiuwyvet process warmoadgens. msoflio turistuliorganizaciis rekomendaciiT misi sami mTavari funqciagamoiyeneba:turistuli momsaxurebis momxmareblebTan kontraqtebisformireba, anu, mogzaurobis adgilis SerCevaSi potenciurimomxmareblis darwmuneba; axali saxis momsaxurebis xelis Sewyobis mizniT,axalSemoRebuli wesebis mixedviT, kontraqtebis ganviTarebada srulyofa;momsaxurebis Sedegebis kontroli.turizmis marketingi mniSvnelovnad gansxvavdeba warmoebissxva dargebis marketingebisagan. es ganpirobebulia imiT, romturizmi momsaxurebis sferos miekuTvneba, momsaxurebis sferosmarketingi calke mimarTulebaa. am sakiTxebs mieZRvna mravalimecnieris naSromi, romelTa Soris aRsaniSnavia f. kotlerisgamokvlevebi.turistuli marketingi da misi Taviseburebani Tavisgavlenas axdens menejeris saqmianobaze.turizmis marketingis marTvis gegmis arseboba _ es arisbazuri informacia, romelze dayrdnobiTac manejeri gamudmebiTakontrolebs mimdinare cvlilebebs.marketingis menejmentisaTvis turizmis mniSvneloba TandaTanizrdeba, romelic Seicavs rogorc SesaZleblobebs, asevesafrTxes. misi mizania gamoiyenos turizmi, rogorc dadebiTifaqtori msoflios memkvidreobis obieqtebis SenarCunebaSida Searbilos mosalodneli safrTxeebi.marketingis menejmenti qmnis turizmis moTxovnebis farTospeqtrs, riTac ganapirobebs mosaxleobis ganviTarebisSesaZleblobas, Tu es momsaxureba dakavSirebulia daculteritoriebTan, apirobebs miwis alternatiul gamoyenebas.turizmi qmnis obieqtis marTvis da Senaxvis pirobebs. mismoRvaweobaSi Sedis agreTve adgilobrivi mosaxleobis Sesvlaturizmis moRvaweobaSi. magaliTad, gidebis momzadeba da mciresawarmoebis Seqmna, aseve momsaxurebis sferos ganviTareba.kulturuli obieqtebis marketingi aucilebelia, radganadgilobriv masaxleobas sTavazobs Semosavlebis alternatiulwyaros. turistuli marketingis menejeri awarmoebssazogadoebaSi kulturuli memkvidreobis mniSvnelobiswarmoCinebas da adgilobriv mosaxleobaSi eweva TviTSegnebisada siamayis gancdis gamyarebas mosaxleobis ganaTlebiT.turizmi gamoiyeneba kulturuli memkvidreobis obieqtebisdacvisa da SenaxvisaTvis saWiro Semosavlebis misaRebad.kulturuli turizmis roli umniSvnelovanesiamemkvidreobis dacva-SenaxvisaTvis, SesaZlebels xdis sxvadasxvaZalisxmevis koordinacias da exmareba obieqtebisxelmZRvanelebs, gaumklavdnen warmoSobil problemebsmarketingis menejmentis xelSewyobiT SesaZlebeliadaxmarebis mozidva, adgilobrivi operatorebis politikisSecvla, damTvaliereblebis motivacia Sewirulobis Sesatanad.damTvaliereblebis mxardaWeris gasaZliereblad saWiroa, rommaT miewodoT sruli informacia Zeglis mdgomareobisa damis dasacavad saWiro Semdgomi RonisZiebebis Sesaxeb, TvalsaCinogaxdes miRwevebis warmoCineba Zeglis dacvis mizniT.128 129


marina balanCivaZemarketingi menejeris saqmianobaSixarisxiani da konkurentunariani turistuli marketingismuSaoba dakavSirebulia kulturuli memkvidreobis da WeSmaritixelovnebis nimuSebis dacvasTan. kulturul memkvidreobaSiSedis ara marto Zeglebi, aramed festivalebi, muzeumebi,xelovnebis SemoqmedebiTi dargebi, kulturuli movlenebi,kustaruli mrewvelobis nakeTobebi, erovnuli kulinaria.marketingi menejmentis saqmianobaSi, kulturilimemkvidreobis dacvis garda, ayenebs sxva mniSvnelovaninteresebsac: nacionaluri da adgilobrivi TviTSegnebisamaRlebas, kulturaTa Soris dialogi sxvadasxva kulturaTagansxvavebulobis pirobebSi, `adamianebisaTvis, erTad cxovrebisxelovnebis swavleba.~ Segneba, rom kulturaTa Soris gansxvavebasimdidrea, romelic SeiZleba gaunawilo sxva xalxebs.turizmi – es aris sxvadasxva xalxs Soris dialogispirobebis Seqmnis saSualeba. turizmis ganviTarebiTdainteresebuli mravali kompania sul ufro metad rwmundeba,Tu ra dadebiTi roli SeiZleba iTamaSos turizmma adamianebisurTierTobaSi.turistuli marketingis menejmentis rolia warmoaCinosyvela qveynis kulturuli mravalferovneba da ammravalferovnebis mniSvneloba.yovelive zemoT Tqmuli gansazRvravs turistulimarketingis menejeris rolis did mniSvnelobas, warmarTavsra sazogadoebis interesebs kulturuli mravalferovnebisada kulturuli memkvidreobis dasacavad.turizmze moTxovna-miwodeba ganuxrelad izrdeba, amitomkulturuli turizmi unda ganviTardes rogorc warmoebis,moxmarebis, aseve socialur sferoSi. turists ainteresebsara marto RirsSesaniSnaobebi, aramed yoveldRiuroba, qveynissocial-politikuri mdgomareoba. turisti xvdeba adgilobrivmosaxleobas, surs Seicnos maTi cxovrebis wesi, adgilebi,sadac axalgazrdoba isvenebs, erToba da a. S. turistulimarketingis menejers aucilebelia axsovdes, rom dRevandelituristebi kargad arian informirebulebi. amas isini Tanamedroveteqnologiebis gamoyenebiT aRweven. maT surT ara martogarToba, aramed surT SeiZinon codna. kulturul turizmsaRar unda hqondes ,,mosawyeni~ dasvenebis reputacia.turizmis ganviTareba unda moxdes: dargTaSorisi daglobaluri midgomiT, sazogadoebis da kerZo seqtorebTanTanamSromlobiT, arasamTavrobo organizaciebis, mecnierebis,moqalaqeebisa da adgilobrivi mosaxleobis erTianiZalisxmeviT.dialogis, kulturuli mravalferovnebis da mSvidobisaTvissaWiroa kulturuli turizmis warmatebuli ganviTareba. esmet-naklebad damokidebulia turistuli marketingismenejmentis mcdelobaze, aseve turistebis pasiuri,momxmarebluri damokidebuleba unda Seicvalos ufro metadpasuxismgeblur qcevaze imis gaazrebiT, rom isini arian imteritoriebis memkvidreobis da cxovrebis wesis damcvelebida rom es aris ara marto adgilobriv macxovrebelTa, aramedmTeli danarCeni kacobriobis sakuTreba axlac da momavalSic.saqarTvelos turistuli potenciali turizmis mdgradiekonomikuri zrdis idealuri safuZvelia. Tanamedrove etapzesaqarTveloSo turistebis arsebuli raodenoba mispotencialTan SedarebiT kvlavac mcirea da menejeris mTavarimizania daiwyos maTi zrdisaTvis, arsebuli pirobebis,saSualebebis, Sida da gare faqtorebis gaTvaliswinebiTmecnierulad dasabuTebuli, gaazrebuli da gaangariSebulisamoqmedo programis Sedgena.Aamrigad, kulturulidawesebulebis muSaobis arss Seadgens ideebi, niWiereba daSemoqmedebiTi niWi, ekonomikuroba, warmadoba da rentabeluroba,amis gaTvaliswinebiT organizaciis menejmentSi bevrad ufromniSvnelovania marketingi menejeris saqmianobaSi, sawarmooprocesis marTvaSi marketingi vlindeba gansakuTrebuladproduqciis warmoebis SedegebiT, Seqmnili unda iqnesorganizaciuli da ekonomikuri pirobebi, marketingi xomadamianTa saxea. saqarTveloSi turizmis ganviTareba saxelmwifomarTvis erT-erT prioritetad aris gamokeveTili.1. m. birJakovi, turizmis Teoria, Tbilisi, 2008.2. f. kotleri, j. boueni, j. meikenzi, marketingi, stumarTmoyvareoba,turizmi, t. I, Tbilisi, 2007.3. j. a. qouli, menejmenti, Teoria da praqtika, Tbilisi, 2002.4. s. yamarauli, marketingi, Tbilisi, 2002.130 131


Kia gabunialika yufaraZekinofestival `sesilis~ menejmentiszogierTi sakiTxi2001 wlis 26 marts klub `sardafSi~ Catarda saqarTveloSiaxalgazrduli pirveli filmebis festivali _ `Cven movdivarT~,romlis organizebas xelmZRvanelobda reJisori daTo janeliZe.2004 wels aRniSnuli kinofestivali mixeil TumaniSvilissaxelobis kinomsaxiobTa TeatrSi Catarda.2005 wlidan axalgazrduli filmebis festivali `sesili~saerTaSoriso gaxda. `sesili sardafidan amovida~ da didikinoTeatrebis ekranebi daipyro.2005-2008 wlebSi festivals maspinZlobda kinoTeatrebi:`amirani~, `rusTaveli~, `qolga~ da kinos saxli.festivalis oTxi mTavari prizi `sesili~ gadaicema SemdegnominaciebSi: saukeTeso mxatvruli filmi; saukeTeso dokumenturi filmi; saukeTeso animaciuri filmi; saukeTeso eqsperimentuli filmi.festivalis specialuri diplomebi: saukeTeso xmis reJisura; saukeTeso montaJi; debiuti; originaluri musika; mamakacis saukeTeso rolis Sesruleba; qalis saukeTeso rolis Sesruleba; saukeTeso mxatvroba; saukeTeso scenari; saukeTeso operatoruli namuSevari.kinofestival `sesilis~ misiaa axali talantebis aRmoCena,maTi popularizacia, ucxouri kinosiaxleebis qarTvelimayureblisaTvis gacnoba, axali kinotradiciebisa daurTierTobebis ganviTareba.kinofestivalis mizania gamoavlinos niWieri axalgazrdobada misces maT winsvlis SesaZlebloba profesiuli daostatebisgzaze.kinofestivalis Catarebis drois sxvadasxva periodSi misisponsorebi da partniorebi iyvnen: saqarTvelos kinematografiiserovnuli centri, `respublika poloneTis saelCosaqarTveloSi~, “Republique Francaise”, `Zveli Tbilisi~, “liegenZum Festpreis”, `Caina Tauni~, `noa noa~, `jeoseli~, `Telianiveli~, `airlines~ da sxva.kinofestivalma SedarebiT maRali dafinanseba miiRo 2005wels, Semdgom wlebSi dafinanseba mcire iyo da 2006 welsSeadgenda 6000 lars, 2007 wels _ 5000 lars, 2008 w. _5000 lars. organizatorebis enTuziazmi rom ara, aseTi mciresaxsrebiT kinofestivalis Catareba SeuZlebeli iqneboda.dafinansebis problema araswori menejmentis Sedegia.kinofestival `sesilis~ ZiriTadi problemebis da maTigadaWris gzebis gamosavlenad Catarebul iqna marketingulikvleva. kvleva moicavda bazris maxasiaTebelTa gansazRvras,bazris potencialis gazomvas, produqciis gavrcelebis analizs,konkurentTa produqciis gamokvlevas, bazarze arsebuliproduqciis gamokvlevas.kinofestival `sesilis~ upiratesoba, saqarTveloSi arsebulsxva festivalebTan SedarebiT, mdgomareobs imaSi, rom is areZebs komerciul sargebels. kinoCvenebebsa da sxvadasxvaTanmxleb RonisZiebaze daswreba da maT Sesaxeb sainformaciokatalogebi ufasoa da yvelasTvis xelmisawvdomi.mcire saxsrebis gamo ver xerxdeba kinofestival `sesilis~organizeba maRal doneze, rac gamoixateba fuladi premiebisararsebobiT, kvalificiuri Jiuris mowvevis SeuZleblobiT,vinaidan maTi mowveva dakavSirebulia transportirebis,ganTavsebisa, kvebis da sxva xarjebTan.zemoT aRniSnuli problemis gadaWrisaTvis aucilebeliameti finansuri saxsrebis moZieba, rac iseTi arakomerciuliRonisZiebisaTvis, rogoric kinofestivali `sesilia~, upiratesad132 133


ia gabunia, lika yufaraZesponsorTa mozidviT unda moxdes. amisaTvis kinofestivalismenejmentma unda SeimuSaos konkretuli strategia, raTadaanaxos potenciur sponsors proeqtis mniSvneloba,gansakuTrebuloba da sponsoris wvlili kinofestivalisganxorcielebaSi.sponsoroba aris strategiulad dagegmili ZalisxmevamarketingSi, rac emsaxureba gayidvebis zrdas kompaniaSi anmis ukeTes warmoCenas bazarze iseTi qmedebiT, rac moutanssargebels aseve festivals.arcerTi aseTi Zalisxmeva ar unda xdebodes sagangebodagebuli da gaazrebuli gegmis gareSe. kulturis menejersada kompaniis menejers Soris TanamSromlobisas kulturismenejers unda axsovdes, rom kompania axdens strategiuldafinansebas, raTa aamaRlos Tavisi imiji an gayidvebi. magaliTad:kinofestivals SeuZlia romelime GSM_operators SesTavazos,kinoCvenebebis msvlelobisas daawesos prizi `mayureblissimpaTiis~ saxelwodebiT, rac gamoixateba xmis micemiT smsebissaSualebiT. es meTodi msoflioSi da Cvens qveyanaSiaprobirebulia.sponsorTan ganacxadis Setanamde kulturaSi momuSavemarketologebma unda gansazRvron festivalis biujeti, gaecnonim kompaniis wliur angariSs, romelsac unda mimarTon, daadginonvin iRebs gadawyvetilebas sponsorobaze, gaiTvaliswinon maTimoTxovnebi, daarwmunon masponsorebeli kompania, romfestivalTan TanamSromloba maT daexmareba ukeT da bevradmeti gayidon produqciac da momsaxurebac da Tan moutanssargebels qarTul kinematografias. warmatebul ganacxadSiunda dazustdes, ra sargebels miiRebs sponsori, unda moxdesTanasponsorebis siis wardgena, rac minimumamde daiyvanssponsoris risks.orive mxare unda grZnobdes imas, rom maTi fuli tyuiladar daixarjeba, amisaTvis kinofestivalis menejerma SeiZlebaSesTavazos werilobiTi kontraqti, romelic moicavs: festivalisa da sponsoris miznebs; produqcias da momsaxurebas, romelsac warmoadgensorive mxare;kinofestival `sesilis~ menejmentis zogierTi sakiTxi TanamSromlobis vadebs; SemoqmedebiT specifikas; angariSsworebis formas; informacias Semosavlebisa da maTi gadanawilebis,xarjebis Sesaxeb.imisaTvis, rom kompania wamovides sponsorobaze, undaSevTavazoT misTvis maqsimalurad momgebiani winadadeba.sponsors unda mivawodoT rac SeiZleba meti informacia, romman SeZlos Sefaseba, ramdenad gamarTlebulia misi investicia.dafinansebis problemis gadaWris safuZvels warmoadgenssworad gatarebuli menejmenti, rac gamoixateba sponsorisadmiwinaswar dagegmili gaazrebuli gegmis wardgenaSi, sponsorisdarwmunebaSi, rom sanam festivali-sponsoris moRvaweobaeTikuri da kanonieria da sanam festivali ar daarRvevsxelSekrulebis pirobebs, maTi partnioroba orive mxarisaTvisiqneba sasargeblo. sponsoroba gulisxmobs TanamSromlobas.ra formac ar unda hqondes mxardaWeras, is unda iyos raRac,rac daexmareba festivals, warmatebiT Seasrulos Tavisi misia.TanamSromlobis xangrZlivi warmateba moiTxovs gulmodgineSromas, raTa yvela monawilis moTxovnebi dakmayofildes.fransua kolberi da sxva _ `marketinguli kvleva~; 2003 www.festivalsesily.gefestival `sesilis~ katalogebi.134 135


sofiokomlaZeorganizaciis marketinguli kvleva damisi marTva sagamomcemlo saqmianobaSiwigni codnisa da gavrcelebis yvelaze xelmisawvdomi damisi Senaxvis saukeTeso saSualebaa. marketingis TeoriaSi isinteleqtualur produqtad miiCneva da, Sesabamisad, Taviseburmidgomas saWiroebs.Sua saukuneebSi germanelma gamomgonebelma iohanguTenbergma (1440 w.) Tavis mierve mowyobil stambaSicalkeulad Camosxmuli advilad dnobadi liTonis literebisgansabeWdi forma aawyo da specialur dazgaze `saxareba~ dabeWda.ase daibada pirveli beWduri sityva...guTenbergis kolega qarTveli `gamomcemlebi~ am primitiulsabeWd dazgas oTxi saukuniT gvian, vaxtang VI-is mefobisperiodSi, eziarnen. pirveli fiqsirebuli (dastambuli) wignisaqarTveloSic `saxareba~ gaxldaT, mas mohyva `vefxistyaosani~,`aiaTi~ da a. S. aqedan moyolebuli qarTuli sagamomcemlosaqmianoba sakmaod sainteresod mimdinareobda. XIX saukunisdasawyisSi man qarTuli enis gadarCenaSi udidesi wvliliSeitana. Cemi TaobisTvis ucnob sabWoTa periodSi wignisbeWdvis e. w. ayvavebis xana iyo. iTargmneboda, ibeWdeboda daistambeboda saintereso mxatvruli, teqnikuri Tu SemecnebiTiliteratura. am dros gamocemul TiToeul wigns bolofurcelze sakmaod saintereso informacia aqvs darTuli:tiraJi, fasi, furclis, ydis zomebi, awyoba dakabadonebis TariRebida sxva wvrilmani detalebi. Cems biblioTekaSi am sainteresobolo furclebis meSveobiT aRmovaCine, rom 1970-80 wlebSimxatvruli, sakmaod sqeltaniani literatura 25000-50000-iani (gamonaklis SemTxvevebSi 80000-iani) tiraJiT gamoicemoda,gamoicemoda aseTi RirebulebiT: 2 man., 65 kap.; 4 man., 70 kap.;5 man. da a. S. momdevno aTwlian periodSi tiraJi daaxloebiT10000 erTeuliT Semcirda, fasi ki 10-15 erTeuliT gaizarda.2000 wlis Semdeg gamocemul wignebze gaqra is saintereso`bolo furceli~ (riTic Cemi statistika Sevadgine), samagierod,momxmarebels daamaxsovrda, ramdenad didi Tanxa gadaixadada tiraJis simciris gamo ramdeni eZeba esa Tu is wigni.gamomcemlobebs, garda wignis gamocemisa, bevri sxvaproduqtis gamoSveba uxdeba: plakatebi, Jurnal-gazeTebi,sareklamo furclebi da a. S. maTgan yvelaze mniSvnelovanimainc wignia. mas nebismieri sazogadoebis kulturuliganviTarebis ZiriTad ganmapirobebel saSualebad miiCneven.msoflios bevr qveyanaSi wignma prioritetuli adgili miiRoda, Sesabamisad, gacilebiT gaizarda beWdviTi saqmianobis xarisxi,mkiTxvelTa raodenoba.statistikis departamentis kvleviTi monacemebis mixedviT,saqarTveloSi 2005 wlisaTvis (samwuxarod, Semdegi wlebismonacemebi ar arsebobs) 300 000 egzemplari wigni da broSuragamovida; garda amisa 2005 wels gamoica 88 sxvadasxvadasaxelebis 17 900 000 erTeuli gazeTi, 1 100 000 caliJurnali da perioduli gamocema, 400 000 tiraJiT kierTjeradi sxva gamocemebi. elementarul ariTmetikas TumoviSveliebT, mivxvdebiT, rom 2005 wels sul 19 400 000cali Jurnal-gazeTi gamosula, wigni ki mxolod 300 000. amperiodSi gamocemuli wignebis tiraJi daaxloebiT 1000-2000-ia. anu, 2005 wels saqarTveloSi gamoica 150-300 sxvadasxvasaxeobis wigni. sainteresoa is faqtic, rom am ukanasknelcifrSi absoluturad yvela ti pis: saskolo, samecniero,mxatvruli, samedicino, teqnikuri, Targmnili da saTargmnisaxelmZRvanelo Sedis. dameTanxmebiT, rom es Zalian samwuxaromaCvenebelia.gamomcemlebi statiis sawinaaRmdegod, albaT, im faqtsmoiSvelieben, rom saqarTveloSi mkiTxvelis ricxvi sagrZnobladdaeca, albaT, im statistikasac moiSvelieben, romlis mixedviTacerT biblioTekaze ricxovnobiT saSualod 762 mkiTxvelimodis. Tumca me sulac ar vTvli, rom es ricxvi Cveniramdenime milioniani erisTvis mcirea. qveyanaSi 2056 biblioTekaa(esec 2005 wlis monacemebiT) da maT Soris yvelaze did,sajaro biblioTekaSi dRemde ar miuRiaT 2007 wels naTargmni136 137


sofiokomlaZeorganizaciis marketinguli kvlevada misi marTva sagamomcemlo saqmianobaSisxvadasxva avtoris ramdenime saxelmZRvanelo. aqedangamomdinare, am ti pis biblioTekebis magaliTze wignismomxmareblis raodenobis dadgena ararealuria. xolo Tugamomcemlebi mainc CaTvlian, rom mkiTxveli aRar hyavs wigns,es isev TavianT araswor menejments, produqtis uxarisxobasda im sasacilo wliuri raodenobis gamocemas unda daabralon,rac oficialurad aris statistikaSi aRwerili.saerTaSoriso statistikis mixedviT, wignis gamocemagavrcelebisTvalsazrisiT, inglisi, CineTi da germanialideroben. Tavs ar SegawyenT lideri qveynebis statistikurimaCveneblebis gacnobiT, am statiaSi mxolod rusuligamomcemlobis maCveneblebs ganvixilav mcire doziT. Cvensmezobel qveyanaSi yovelwliurad 70 000 dasaxelebis wignigamoicema (2002 wlis monacemebiT) da es ricxvi TandaTanobiTufro izrdeba. iq sagamomcemlo saqme sakmaod momgebianbiznesadaa aRiarebuli da am dinamikur, cocxal procesSibevri da didi investiciebi ideba. mxatvruli literaturisgamocema-gavrceleba ki metad perspeqtiulad miiCneva. ruseTSi800007000060000500004000030000200001000001992-19931993-19941994-19951995-19961996-19971997-19981998-19991999-20002000-20012001-2002ara mxolod didi olqebi, yvela patara dasaxlebac ki arisadgilobriv sagamomcemlo saqmianobaSi CarTuli.adamians dabadebisTanave Tan axlavs garkveulifsiqologiuri Tu fiziologiuri moTxovnilebebi. esmoTxovnilebebi misi ama Tu im saxis qmedebebis motivswarmoadgens. Tu menejmentis sagani am motivirebulimomxmareblis moTxovnilebebis dakmayofilebaa, marketingi qmnis,bazarze gaaqvs, fuTavs da yidis produqts. adamiansfsiqologiur-fiziologiur moTxovnilebebTan erTad, bunebrivia,kulturuli moTxovnilebac uCndeba. xSir SemTxevvaSi man aricis, Tu riT daikmayofilos es moTxovnileba. amas yvelazemetad dainteresebulobis Teoria miesadageba. Sesabamisad,momxmareblis daintereseba erT-erTi upirvelesi sazrunaviaproduqtis SemqmnelisTvis an sulac realizatorisTvis.qarTuli sazogadoebis kulturuli, ufro konkretuladki, wignis mimarT moTxovnileba, am produqtis ufro metipopularizaciiT, stimulirebiT, reklamiT dakmayofildeba, esyvelaze ukeT gamomcemlobebs xelewifebaT. marketingulisaqmianoba orientirebulia produqtze, am SemTxvevaSi kisagagmomcemlo saxlebs sakmaod kargad aqvT saqme: isini uSvebeniseT produqts, wigns, romelsac, bazris garkveuli segmentiukve dakavebuli aqvs. maT (vgulisxmob gamomcemlobebs),faqtobrivad, ar uwevT axali produqciis warmoeba (Tu arCavTvliT mastimulirebel, PR-kampaniisTvis saWiro specifikurnivTebs, iqneba es safirmo saniSne, kalmistari Tu raime sxvasamaxsovro) da amiT marketinguli dagegmarebis erT-erTiumniSvnelovanesi nabiji gadadgmulia, amiT misia gansazRvrulia,xelmZRvanelobam mxolod saSiSroebebis gaTvaliswinebaze,strategiebis SemuSavebze, momxmareblis raodenobisa da Tavadwarmoebis gazrdisTvisRa unda izrunos.Tumca, yvelaferi ase advili ar aris. organizaciismarketinguli saqmianobis marTva marketingis ganxorcielebiT,ufro konkretulad ki samoqmedo programis gaweriT undadaiwyos (Tu, ra Tqma unda, misia ukve gansazRvrulia). marTvisprocesi _ es arsi programebis analizi, dagegmva, realizaciada Sesrulebis kontroli, romlebic miwodebulia organizaciismiznebis misaRwevad _ miznobriv myidvelebTan xelsayreliurTierTobebis Seqmnis, SenarCunebisa da gafarToebisaTvis.marketingis marTva xorcieldeba firmis mmarTvelobiTisaqmianobis erTiani koncefciis sazRvrebSi. marTva warmoadgenssaxelmZRvanelo debulebaTa erTobliobas, amasTan erTadxasiaTdeba miznebis, funqciebis erTiani sistemiT.sagamomcemlo saqmianobas erTi marketingulad sainteresoTavisebureba gaaCnia. marTalia, is ar axdens bazarze rame138 139


sofiokomlaZeorganizaciis marketinguli kvlevada misi marTva sagamomcemlo saqmianobaSidiversifikaciis msgavss, igi stabilurad uSvebs mxolod erTproduqts _ wigns (am SemTxvevaSi orientiri aRebuli maqvswignze, rogorc gamomcemlobis erT-erT mniSvnelovanproduqtze), saintereso momenti ki isaa, rom amgvar organizacias,produqtis specifikidan gamomdinare, sistematiurad uwevssxvadasxva saxeobis wignis gamocema, anu, gamomcemloba,magaliTad, wlis dasawyisSi Tu sabavSvo feradi ilustraciebiTgafor meb ul wigns ga mouS v eb s, S emdegi gam oc em aSinaarsobrivadac da momxmareblis TvalsazrisiT pirvelisgangansxvavebuli unda iyos. es faqti organizacias, uxeSad romvTqvaT, aiZulebs ataros mudmivi marketinguli kvlevebi (esim SemTxvevaSi, Tu organizacia mogebazea orientirebuli),mudmivi meTvalyureobis qveS hyavdes momxmarebeli, gaakeTosmoTxovnis prognozireba, moaxdinos savaWro agentebis,eqspertebis, kritikosebis azris gaTvaliswineba da, rac mTavaria,Tvali adevnos msoflios masStabiT momxdar literaturuls i a xl eeb s . u c xour l i t er a turas a dasaxelmZRvaneloebzeDdRevandel saqarTeloSi yvelaze metimoTxovnilebaa. mTargmnelobiTi funqciis Sematebagamomcemlobas ufro did organizaciad aqcevs, Sesabamisad,mis biujetsac ufro metad gazrdis da mas finansebis mozidvismizniT aRar dasWirdeba iseTi saqmianobebis Sesruleba, rogoricmaisurebsa da sayofacxovrebo nivTebze warwerebis gakeTebaa(rac gamomcemlobisTvis, vfiqrob, rom damamcirebelia).wignis bazari, rogorc specifikuri produqtis momxmarebeli,Tvisobrivad gansxvavdeba sxva produqtebis klienturisgan.Tu Tavad produqts vaniWebT `inteleqtualur~ saxels,Sesabamisad, misi myidveli SegviZlia CavTvaloT inteleqtualurmomxmareblad. wignis gavrceleba iTxovs saWiro da adekvaturmidgomas. misi warmosaxva unda moxdes mTeli TavisimasStaburobiTa da mniSvnelobiT, uamravi sakanonmdeblo,ekonomikuri da Tavad organizaciis Sida faqtorebisgaTvaliswinebiT, yvela savaraudo saSiSroebisa da sariskoSemTxvevebis gamoricxviT. wigni ar aris Cveulebrivi produqti.is, faqtobrivad, arakomerciuli produqtia. Tumca, organizaciis(gamomcemlobis) sworma menejmentma misi gavrcelebamomgebianobisa da warmatebulobisken unda warmarTos.am yvelafris gaTvaliswinebiT, sagamomcemlo organizaciebiver vityvi rom 2008 wlisTvis, magram sakmaod swrafi tempiTgazrdian im samarcxvino ricxobriv maCvenebels, statistikisdepartaments rom aqvs dafiqsirebuli da Cven, momxmareblebs,dagvikmayofilebs mokrZalebul kulturul moTxovnilebas.• milena dragiCeviC-SeSiCi, branimir stoikoviCi, `kultura, menejmenti,animacia, marketingi~, Tbilisi, 2007.• www.alleng.ru• www.polbbu.ru• www.referat.ru• www.statistics.ge140 141


Pnatalia murjiknelipirovnebisa da jgufis marTvakoleqtivSitreningi da ganviTareba:treningis saWiroebis gansazRvra,treningis organizacia,karieruli dagegmareba da ganviTareba.adamianuri resursi yvelaze kritikuli resursia, romelicmniSvnelovnad gansazRvravs nebismieri organizaciisefeqturobas.martivi ar aris saerTo miznis misaRwevad mravali adamianisZalisxmevis koordinacia da warmarTva. am miznis efeqturadganxorcielebisaTvis aucilebelia menejmentisa da personalismarTvis (adamianuri resursis menejmentis) ZiriTadi principebissafuZvliani codna.rogorc cnobilia, menejmentis ZiriTadi amocanamomsaxurebis da produqtis warmoebis maqsimaluri efeqturobisuzrunvelyofaa. am amocanis Sesruleba ki SeuZlebeliaadamianuri resursis dagegmva-ganviTarebis, optimaluristrategiis SemuSavebis gareSe.adamianuri resursis marTva moicavs mTel rig funqciasada saqmianobas, romelic xels uwyobs da gansazRvravsorganizaciis TanamSromelTa efeqturobas.adamianuri resursis dagegmvis sistemebi moicavs personalisayvana-daqiravebis, Statebis Camoyalibebis, treningisa daganviTarebis, kompensaciis urTierTdakavSirebul process.adamianuri resursis menejeris saqmianoba moicavs Semdegaspeqtebs:dagegmva:adamianuri resusris strategiis SemuSaveba,kadrebis dakompleqtebis doneebis monitoringi,organizaciis dagegmva.kadrebis dakompleqteba:profesional/teqnikur muSakTa daqiraveba,xelmZRvanelTa daqiraveba,saStato gadaadgilebebi, transferi.muSaoba da kompensacia:samuSaos Sesrulebis Sefaseba,kompensacia,daxmareba,produqtulobis gaumjobeseba.kadrebis marTvis mizania organizaciaSi momuSaveTanamSromelTa saqmianobis efeqturobis ganmsazRvrelipirobebis dadgena. kadrebis marTvis mimarTulebebis SedegebsSoris mniSvnelovani rgolia pirovneba da SromiTi saqmianoba,romelsac is axorcielebs. individebi erTmaneTisgangansxvavdebian unarebiTa da SesaZleblobebiT, romlebicganapirobeben samuSaos efeqtur Sesrulebasa da samsaxurSiregularul daswrebas. garda amisa, maT gansxvavebulimotivaciebi aqvT am aqtiobebis (Sesruleba, daswreba)gansaxorcieleblad. personalis SesaZleblobebi da motivaciaunda emTxveodes samuSaos moTxovnebsa da mis mier SeTavazebuljildoebs.pirovnebisa da samuSaos analizi _ aucilebeliaindividis, misi SesaZleblobebis da motivaciis efeqturiTanxvedrisaTvis samuSaos moTxovnebTan da jildoebTan. kerZod:a). unda ganisazRvros pirovnebis SesaZleblobebi da motivaciasxvadasxva amocanasTan dakavSirebiT. b). samuSao undagaanalizdes TanamSromlisaTvis aucilebeli motivebis dadgenismizniT. g). aucilebelia ganisazRvros samuSaosTandakavSirebuli jildoebi da maTi gamoyenebis mimarTulebebi.cxadia, rom adamianuri resursis marTvaSi personalisSromiTi motivaciebis, SromiTi Rirebulebebisa daindividualuri Taviseburebebis gaTvaliswineba optimalurisakadro politikis SemuSavebis winapirobaa, rac warmoudgeneliafsiqologiis Zireuli principebis codnis gareSe.142 143


natalia murjiknelipraqtikam ara erTxel daasabuTa personalis marTvaSifsiqologiuri codnis gamoyenebis aucilebloba. miuxedavadimisa, rom adamianuri resursis menejmenti mecnierebisinterdisciplinaruli dargia, fsiqologiur codnas masSigadamwyveti mniSvneloba aqvs.imisaTvis, rom naTeli gavxadoT fsiqologiuri faqtorebisroli personalis marTvaSi, ganvixiloT personalis marTvisramdenime funqcia da maTi mimarTeba fsiqologiur problemebTan.profesiuli jgufis proeqtireba _ profesiulijgufebi unda dakompleqtdes jgufis wevrTa fsiqologiuriTavsebadobis gaTvaliswinebiT. xSiria SemTxvevebi, rodesackvalificiur personals kargi samuSao pirobebi da maRalianazRaureba aqvs, Sromisnayofiereba ki dabalia. xSiriaurTierTpretenziebi da konfliqturi situaciebi. personalismarTvis praqtika gviCvenebs, rom xelmZRvanelebi mxolod mZafrikonfliqturi situaciebis an raime incidentis SemTxvevaSiaqceven yuradRebas profesiul jgufebSi personalisfsiqologiur Tavsebadobas.disci plina _ organizaciis tradiciuli formebiefeqturi ar aris imis gamo, rom isini ar iTvaliswinebenpersonalis motivaciebsa da Rirebulebebs. ukanasknel wlebSiyuradReba eqceva e. w. pozitiuri disciplinis danergvas,romelSic maqsimaluradaa gaTvaliswinebuli adamianis faqtori.dR es dR eobiT er T- er T i Zi r i T a di p r ob l emaxelmZRvanelisaTvis swored personalis motivaciis sakiTxebia.samwuxarod, xelmZRvanelTa umravlesobas ar ainteresebspersonalis individualizmi da maTgan moiTxovs mxolodkonkretuli amocanebis Sesrulebas. rogorc zemoT aRvniSneT,xSiria iseTi SemTxvevebi, rodesac, miuxedavad kargi samuSaopirobebisa da maRali anazRaurebisa, Sromis nayofiereba dabalia,radgan jgufSi xSiria urTierT pretenziebi da konfliqturisituaciebi. am problemis gadasaWrelad, pirvel rigSi,aucilebelia fsiqologiis Zireuli principebis codna.adamianuri resursebis menejmenti, redaqtori ia kutalaZe, Tbilisi,1999, gamoica S.p.s. `aradanis~ mier, gv. 8-40.menejmentis safuZvlebi, avtorebi: Tbilisis ekonomikur urTierTobaTasaxelmwifo universitetis profesori miron tuRuSi, docenti nairayirimliSvili, Tbilisi, 2003, gv. 221-234.Tamar firosmanaSvilibiblioTekebis fasiani momsaxurebisganviTarebasaqarTvelo ZvelTaganve ganaTlebas dawafebuli qveyanaiyo, rac, cxadia, qveynis ganviTarebisa da Zlierebis safuZvelia.uZvelesi droidan wignisa da sabiblioTeko saqmis ganviTarebisdone qveynis kulturis maCveneblad iTvleboda. laTinurisityva `kultura~ (cultura), rac ganaTlebas, sazogadoebrivida gonebrivi ganviTarebis dones niSnavs, mudam Tanmdevi iyosaqarTvelosi.Tanamedrove axalgazrdebis sazogadoebrivi cnobierebisCamoyalibeba, maTi ideuri aRzrda moiTxovs garkveul codnas,rasac wignma, beWdurma produqciam da virtualurma samyaromunda Seuwyos xeli biblioTekebis saSualebiT.dRes Cveni biblioTekebi unda iqces Tanamedrove kulturulsaganmanaTleblocentrebad, rac yvela ganviTarebuli qveynissaiformacio infrastruqturis umniSvnelovanesi nawilia.biblioTekebSi TandaTan viTardeba Tanamedrove teqnologiebida amitom maT unda SeeqmnaT saTanado pirobebi.biblioTeka socialur-kulturuli daniSnulebis mqonedawesebulebaa, romlis erT-erTi umTavresi damaxasiaTebeliniSania informaciis sxvadasxva formis floba. biblioTekismTavari daniSnulebaa, rom es informacia xelmisawvdomi iyosmomxmareblisTvis. informaciis operatiuli miwodeba moiTxovsefeqtur menejments.saukuneobrivi swrafva imisken, rom codna yvelasaTvisxelmisawvdomi gaxdes, ufaso sajaro biblioTekebis Seqmnis`moZraobas~ udevs safuZvlad. biblioTekebis umravlesobarTuli problemis winaSe dgas. maT unda SeZlon, Tavi gaarTvanrealobas SezRuduli dafinansebiT da amasTanave auxsnansazogadoebas is, Tu ra didi mniSvneloba aqvs sajarobiblioTekebis arsebobas.menejmenti dReisaTvis Camoyalibda damoukidebeliprofesiuli saqmianobis formad, romelic mimarTulia sabazro144 145


Tamar firosmanaSviliekonomikis pirobebSi momuSave organizaciisaTvis dasaxuliekonomikuri amocanebis gadasawyvetad menejmentisTvisdamaxasiaTebeli meTodebisa da princi pebis gamoyenebissaSualebiT. biblioTekis menejerma obieqturad angariSi undagauwios sabazro ekonomikis moTxovnilebebs da pirobebs,winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi igi ver miaRwevs sasurvel efeqts.dRes saqarTveloSi yvelaze misaRebi sabiblioTeko muSaobaSiaris arakomerciuli marketingi, romelic ar iswrafisaucilebeli finansuri mogebisaken.Mmarketinguli midgomaiTxovs, rom biblioTekebs mieceT meti materialur-finansuridaxmareba fondebis ganaxlebisa da sacnobo aparatisSevsebisaTvis.marketingi _ es, upirveles yovlisa, gulisxmobs biblioTekismmarTvelobas orientirebuls momxmarebelze. sabiblioTekomomsaxureba ise unda iyos organizebuli, rom maqsimaluradakmayofilebdes momxmareblis moTxovnebs.wina wlebis rTulma politikurma da ekonomikurmamdgomareobam Taviseburi zegavlena iqonia biblioTekebze damaT dafinansebaze. Tumca, aRsaniSnavia is faqtic, rom ambolo dros im wlebTan SedarebiT gaumjobesda biblioTekebismdgomareoba, magram problemebi problemebad darCa.saqarTvelos parlamentis i. WavWavaZis saxelobis erovnulibiblioTeka finansdeba centraluri biujetidan da 2008 welSiSeadgens 5.309.000 lars. wina wlebTan SedarebiT es TanxasagrZnoblad aris momatebuli, vinaidan 2006 da 2007 wlebSiigi finansdeboda 3.908.300 lariT, xolo ufro adre 2002-2003 wlebSi _ 971.800 lariT. magram dRes es momatebuliTanxa mainc ar aris sakmarisi, vinaidan am TanxaSi SedisbiblioTekis rogorc komunaluri gadasaxadebi, ise saofisexarjebi, saxelfaso fondi, muSa-momsaxureTa Sromis anazRaureba,Jurnal-gazeTebisa da, rac mTavaria, wignebis Sesyidva.aRsaniSnavia, rom 2007 wlidan am biblioTekam registraciaufaso gaxada da mas damatebiTi Semosavali ar gaaCnia.Mmanwels daiwyo erT-erTi korpusis aRdgena-ganaxleba. sxvakorpusebi, romlebic am biblioTekas gaaCnia, aris Zveli,gasaaxlebeli SenobebiT da inventariT.MmaT ar yofniT darbazebibiblioTekebis fasiani momsaxurebis ganviTarebarogorc samkiTxvelosTvis, ise kompiuterebisaTvis imitom, rommkiTxvelebi zogjer erT magidasTanac ki ver etevian dakompiuterebTanac cocxali rigia. rogorc Cans, mkiTxvelismomateba ganapiroba iman, rom registracia ufasoa. 2006 wels,rodesac registracia fasiani iyo, mkiTxveli 15.000 aRwevda,xolo 2007 wlidan 2008 wlis ivnisisTvis daregistrirebuliaris 24.852 mkiTxveli.biblioTekis mdgomareobas bevrad gaaadvilebda is faqti,rom arsebobdes kanoni savaldebulo calebze.Ees kanonproeqtiSetanili ki aris parlamentSi, magram dasamtkicebelia, amitomzogierTi gamomcemloba Tavs valdebulad ar Tvlis, miawodosTundac erTi egzemplari, rac biblioTekis fondze cudzegavlenas axdens, vinaidan SesaZloa, saWiro da sainteresogamocema biblioTekisTvis dakarguli aRmoCndes. dResdReobiTmisi fondi mdidrdeba SemowirulobiT, grantebis moZiebiT,saCuqrebis saxiT avtorebisgan.SedarebiT sxva mdgomareobaa s.s.i.p. Tbilisis mTavarbiblioTekaSi, mas afinansebs Tbilisis meria da 2008 welsaris 1.400.000 lari. am biblioTekis daqvemdebarebaSi imyofeba48 filiali rogorc Tbilisis, ise misi SemogarenisbiblioTekebi. Tavisi dafinansebiT am biblioTekam moaxerxarogorc misi centraluri, ise ramdenime filialis: #7, 9, 10,15, 16 da 42 biblioTekis rogorc Senobebis, ise inventariTganaxleba da pirobebis gaumjobeseba. rac Seexeba kompiuterebs,isini mis arc erT biblioTekaSi ar emsaxureba mkiTxvels. aqaRsaniSnavia is, rom TviTon centraluri `mTavari biblioTeka~,romelSic aris saabonento, darbazis, ucxo enebis da sabavSvoganyofilebebi, registracia fasiania: weliwadSi 2 lari.mkiTxvelTa registracia fasiania agreTve a. wereTlisa da n.gelovanis sax.Aaxalgazrdul biblioTekebSic. `mTavarbiblioTekaSi~ moqmedi bufeti mkiTxvelebs civi wyaros wyliT,CaiT, yaviT da cxeli SokoladiT ufasod umaspinZldeba, xolonamcxvrebi da buterbrodebi xelmisawvdom fasebSia(preiskuranti winaswar SekveTiTaa). biblioTekis fondikompleqtdeba pirdapir gamomcemlobebidan, agreTve wignebsisini iReben avtorebisgan saCuqris saxiT.Eam biblioTekis146 147


Tamar firosmanaSvilisxva misamarTze gadasvlam cotaTi Seaferxa mkiTxvelTaraodenoba.erovnul samecniero biblioTekas SedarebiT mciredafinanseba aqvs.Mmisi Tanxa Seadgens 357.000 lars dafinansdeba ganaTlebisa da mecnierebis saministros mier.aRsaniSnavia isic, rom am biblioTekas SeuerTda samecnieroteqnikuri, samedicino da `imelis~ biblioTekebi. samecnieroerovnul biblioTekaSi inventari moZvelebulia da misiganaxlebisTvis saWiroa garkveuli Tanxebi. wignsacavSi armuSaobs saventilacio danadgarebi da Wirs wignisTvis saWirotemperaturisa da tenianobis dacva, ris gamoc SesaZloadaziandes wignebi. mkiTxvelTa donem iklo imitom, rombiblioTekasTan misasvleli gzebi mouxerxebelia. agreTvekompiuterebis raodenobac ara sakmarisia. mkiTxvelebsemsaxureba mxolod oTxi kompiuteri.Ees biblioTeka ZiriTadadkompleqtdeba samecniero kvleviTi institutebidanxelSekrulebebiT, agreTve grantebis saxiT da saelCoebisdaxmarebiT.biblioTekebma unda izrunon Tanxebis mozidvaze(fandrezingi) – sajaro biblioTekebis momsaxurebisda fi na ns eb i s a l ter na ti u l i wyaro, r i s Tv i s a csaWiroaMmolaparakebebis warmoeba biznesmenebTan da sxvaorganizaciebTan (mecenatTa instituti). ucxoeTSi zogierTibiblioTeka gvTavazobs sxvadasxva saxis momsaxurebas:sazogadoebisaTvis fasian kompiuterul da biznes momsaxurebas;Ria saswavlo centrebs da internetiT (faqsiT)momsaxurebas.Kkargi iqneboda, rom es sistema danergiliyoCvens biblioTekebSic.damatebiTi fasiani momsaxureba unda gavigoT, rogorcsabazro ekonomikis pirobebSi biblioTekebis mizanmimarTulisaqmianoba. biblioTekebi SeZlebisdagvarad unda mimarTavdnenbiznes elementebs, rom momxmarebelTa Tanamedrove da gazrdilimoTxovnebi daakmayofilon.safaso politikis gadamuSavebis dros xdeba moTxovnebisanalizi. am analizis safuZvelze SeiZleba davadginoTbiblioTekebis fasiani momsaxurebis ganviTarebaTiToeuli biblioTekisaTvis misaRebi momsaxurebis fasebi, e.i. TviTRirebuleba.biblioTekebma sazogadoebas unda daumtkicon, rom isiniara mxolod sasargeblo, aramed aucilebeli socialuriinstitutebia, romlebic TavianTi saganmanaTleblo, saiformacioTu aRmzrdelobiTi funqciebiT mniSvnelovan rols asrulebenqveynis inteleqtualur da kulturul cxovrebaSi. maT undaimuSaon ise, rom upasuxon XXI saukunis mkiTxvelis socialur,kulturul, samecniero, sagamnanaTleblo Tu profesiulmoTxovnilebebs.@Jurnali `saqarTvelos biblioTeka~, 2001, #2(3), sabiblioTekomarketingi. Tea iosava.Jurnali `saqarTvelos biblioTeka~, 2004, #4. , sabiblioTeko menejmenti,misi arsi da amocanebi, mzia togoniZe.Jurnali `saqarTvelos biblioTeka~, 2003, #3., biblioTekis marTvisTanamedrove koncefcia.Jurnali `saqarTvelos biblioTeka~, 2001, #1(2), biblioTekis marTva,rogor gavigoT misi arsi, gulnara sturua.Jurnali `saqarTvelos biblioTeka~, 2002, #2., Tanxebis mozidva ...trevo naiti, madlen aalto.saqarTvelos parlamentis i. WavWavaZis sax. erovnuli biblioTekismonacemebi. ssip Tbilisis mTavari biblioTekis monacemebi.erovnuli samecniero biblioTekis monacemebi.148 149


turistuli firmis PRcaca jorjiaSvilinebismier qveyanaSi turistul kompaniebs unda esmodeT, rasiZneleebTan eqnebaT saqme, Tu maTi moRvaweoba, ragind pozitiuriar unda iyos igi, ar iqneba gagebuli da droulad miRebulisazogadoebisTvis. rac metia sazogadoebis mimReblobisaTvisdaxarjuli `sakomunikacio xarjebi~, miT metia misi ndobismopovebis molodini. es ki myari garantiaa nebismieri turistulikompaniisaTvis imisa, rom misi saqmianoba da funqcionirebamizanmimarTulad da warmatebiT warimarTeba.turizmis sferoSi Cvens qveyanas mdidari tradiciebi aqvs.Tamamad SegviZlia vTqvaT, rom turizmi saqarTvelos ekonomikuriganviTarebisTvis erT-erTi perspeqtiuli mimarTulebaa. dResaviTnaTelia, rom misi ganviTareba nel-nela qmnis konkurentulgaremos, xolo am sferoSi turistuli firmebis warmatebaSeuZlebeli iqneba PR-is aqtiurad gamoyenebis gareSe, rogorcmomxmarebelTa mozidvis, dakmayofilebis da SenarCunebissaSualeba.PR-i (sazogadoebasTan urTierToba) _ komunikaciisinstrumentia, romlis mizania: organizaciasa da sazogadoebas Soris warmatebuliurTierTobis damyareba.organizaciis, produqciis Tu momsaxurebis imijis Seqmnada masze zrunva. ramdenadac cnobilia, informaciis asimetria bazrisCavardnis (Market failure) erT-erTi mizezia, xolo PR-isfunqciaa sazogadoebisaTvis WeSmariti informaciis miwodebada masTan mudmivi kontaqtis SenarCuneba.dRes saqarTveloSi turistuli firmebisaTvis PR-issaqmianoba naklebad aqtualuria. ramdenime msxvili kompaniisgamokiTxvis Sedegad, magaliTad, rogoricaa: N–TOUR-i,LEVONTRAVEL-i, ARGOTOUR-i, CAUCASUS TRAVEl-i,ALIONI TOUR-i da sxva. aRmoCnda, rom maT saerTod arhyavT PR-is menejerebi, xolo maT saqmianobas sxvadasxvaspecialisti, mag.: marketingis menejerebi iTavseben. zemoTCamoTvlili kompaniebidan Cven mier dasmul kiTxvaze: ratomar hyavT maT PR-is menejeri, raoden gasakviric ar unda iyos,pasuxma Semdegnairad gaiJRera: `kompaniisaTvis es ubraloddid saWiroebas ar warmoadgens~. Tu mocemul sakiTxs amgvaradmivudgebiT, firmis ara Tu winsvla, aramed, saerTod, misiarseboba momavalSi eWvqveS dadgeba, radgan sazogadoebasTanurTierTobis menejeris movaleobas, mudmivad izrunos misikompaniis prestiJul imijze da reputaciaze, sxva menejerinamdvilad ver Seasrulebs; Sedegad, droTa ganmavlobaSi firmisarsebuli imiji da wlebis manZilze mopovebuli reputaciasazogadoebis TvalSi nel-nela Seilaxeba, rac arsebuli dapotenciuri@momxmareblis dakargvas gamoiwvevs, es ki kompaniissabolood ganadgurebas niSnavs.axali turistuli saagentoebis masobrivi aRmoceneba,TavisTavad qveynis ekonomikuri ganviTarebis maCvenebelia. Tumca,ZiriTadi prioriteti am saagentoebis mdgradi, grZelvadianiwarmateba unda gaxdes, rac nebismieri kompaniisaTvis, rogorcukve aRvniSneT, kargi PR-is gareSe SeuZlebeli iqneba.da mainc: ra rols asrulebs PR -i turistuli firmebissaqmianobaSi?!PR-i aris ama Tu im saagentos Sansi, gaxdes cnobilisazogadoebisTvis.misi meSveobiT izrdeba ndoba kompaniisadmi, rac xelsuwyobs momsaxurebis gayidvas.efeqturi urTierToba sazogadoebasTan xom mxolod PRisprerogativaa.da, rac mTavaria, PR-i organizaciis imijia.imiji _ es aris xelovnurad Seqmnili Sexeduleba, romelicsazogadoebaSi kompaniis mimarT keTilganwyobilebas qmnis. imijimdgradi da naklebad moZravia. TiToeulma turistulma kompaniamunda izrunos iseTi dadebiTi imijis Seqmnaze, romelicxangrZlivi drois ganmavlobaSi moemsaxureba. turistulma150 151


caca jorjiaSvilituristuli firmis PRsaagentom, romlis mizanic grZelvadiani warmatebaa, PR-isumTavres amocanad momxmarebelTa ndobis mopoveba dagamarTleba unda daisaxos. momxmarebelTa ndobis mosapovebladerT-erTi yvelaze martivi gza maTi mdgradi kmayofilebismiRwevaa.turistuli saagentos Sefasebis ZiriTadi parametri udavodmomsaxurebis xarisxia; momsaxurebis xarisxi, iseve, rogorcmisi mravalferovneba, momxmarebelTa moTxovnebs undaSeesabamebodes da fasis adekvaturi unda iyos.arseboben iseTi turistuli saagentoebi, romlebic, mxolodelitaruli imijidan gamomdinare, TavianT momsaxurebas maRalfass adeben raime upiratesobis gareSe. Sedegad ki, Tanxisgadaxdisas momxmarebeli ukmayofiloa, radgan Tavsmotyuebulad grZnobs.miRweuli warmatebis SesanarCuneblad (mopovebul ndobasSenarCuneba sWirdeba) aucilebelia axali SesaZleblobebismudmivi Zieba, arsebul da potenciur momxmareblebTanurTierToba; r ac mxolod efeqtu ri PR-iT arisganxorcielebadi. realisturi molodinis Seqmna dadebiTadmoqmedebs momxmareblis kmayofilebaze. kmayofili momxmarebelisxva adamianebsac uziarebs Tavis Sexedulebas, risi meSveobiTacfirmis imiji da cnobadoba TavisTavad mtkicdeba sazogadoebaSi.imedi gvaqvs, rom saqarTveloSi arsebuli turistulisaagentoebi yuradRebas dauTmoben PR-is mimarTulebas daxedvas da agreTve momsaxurebis dones, romelic rogorcucxoeli turistebisTvis iqneba misaRebi da xelmisawvdomi,aseve adgilobrivi mosaxleobisTvisac.sayuradReboa informaciuli teqnologiebis, kerZodinternetis, ganviTarebis roli am industriaSi. saqarTveloSiinternetis moxmarebis sixSire iseve, rogorc dafarvis zona,mniSvnelovnad izrdeba; turistuli firmebi ki am zrdasfexdafex ver mihyvebian. miuxedavad imisa, rom saagentoTasakmaod did nawils dResdReobiT sakuTari veb gverdi aqvs,isini xSirad naklebad informaciuli, Zneli sapovneli angaumarTavia. aRniSnuli problemac udaod mosagvarebelia.dro midis da konkurenciac mZafrdeba; aucilebeli xdebagaumjobesebis gzebis Zieba.dReisaTvis turistul bazarze bumia. is turistuli firmebi,romlebic momxmareblebs TavianTi kompaniis cnobadobiT (PublicAwareness) da maRali xarisxiT ver uzrunvelyofen,konkurentul brZolaSi damarcxdebian. gamosavali ki TiToeulisaagentosTvis PR-is strategiis SemuSaveba da misiganxorcielebaa.PR (sazogadoebasTan urTierToba), Tbilisi, 2007, elisabed xaxutaSvili,lia kapanaZe.PR (sazogadoebasTan urTierToba), Tbilisi, 2007, vaJa SubiTiZe,mixeil boWoriZe.turizmi: marina metreveli. Tbilisi 2003.Harlow, R. F., Buildinga Rublic, Ralations, in Herbst, R. E. a. a. O. 1988.krizisuli situaciebi da PR (sazogadoebasTan urTierToba), Tbilisi,2003, revaz surgulaZe.http://dictionary.reference.comhttp://www.vatc.org/pr/imagelibrary.asp152 153


nino yuraSviliorganizaciis sareklamo saqmianoba,misi organizeba da srulyofareklama warmodgeba laTinuri sityva reclamare-sagan, racwamoyvirebas niSnavs, warmoadgens sxvadasxva saxis RonisZiebebsraime nivTis, sanaxaobis Tu momsaxurebis gasacnobad.reklamas didi istoria aqvs, misi fesvebi momdinareobsjer kidev antikuri periodidan, rodesac oficialuradarsebobda e. w. macneebis Tanamdeboba, romelTa mizanic iyoyoveldRiuri informaciis miwodeba xalxis farTo masebisaTvis.dRes msoflios ganviTarebul qveynebSi reklama miRebuliarogorc xelovnebisa da mecnierebis nazavi, xolo marketingulixarjebi investiciad ganixileba. ociode wlis win saqarTveloSicotam Tu icoda marketingis Sesaxeb. dReisTvis darwmunebiTSegviZlia vivaraudoT, rom uaxloes momavalSi reklamisefeqtianoba iseTive standartuli cneba gaxdeba CvenTvis,rogorc es sxva qveynebSia miRebuli da misi gamoyenebissaWiroeba eWvs ar gamoiwvevs.amerikas saukuneze meti dasWirda marketingis amJamindeldonemde misayvanad, saqarTveloSi ki menejerTa Soris reklamisSesaxeb ori urTierTgamomricxavi Sexedulebaa damkvidrebuli.erTni satelevizio reklamis magaliTze miiCneven, rom reklamafuWad gadayrili fulia da arafris momtania kompaniisTvis.maTi azriT, satelevizio reklamas isedac mcirericxovaniauditoria hyavs, xolo reklamis gavlenis qveS moqceulimayureblis raodenoba kidev ufro mcirea. am azrismxardamWerebs argumentad meoce saukunis 30-ian wlebSidamkvidrebuli Sexeduleba mohyavT, romlis Tanaxmadac, kargiproduqti gzas damoukidebladac warmatebiT gaikvalavs.Aamazrs adasturebs aseve universaluri maRaziebis pirveli qselisdamfuZnebeli – amerikeli uil rojersi, romelic ambobs:kompaniebs reklamaze gaweuli xarjebi Tavad reklamirebuliproduqtis gaumjobesebisTvis rom daexarjaT, reklama saWirosaerTod aRar iqneboda. meoreTa azriT, efeqtiani reklamawarmatebis aucilebeli winapirobaa – xalxma unda icodes,ras warmoadgens kompania da ras sTavazobs momxmarebels.amgvari midgomis mxardamWerTa TvalsazrisiT, produqtisa damomsaxurebis reklamireba aucilebelia da kompanias ar undadaenanos am saqmisTvis saWiro xarjis gaweva.sareklamo kampaniis efeqturobis gansasazRvrad tardebaxarisxiani da mravalricxovani gamokvlevebi. mkvlevrebis mierdadgenilia, rom yvelaze kargad muSaobs iseTi reklama, romelicauditoriis mowonebas imsaxurebs. amitom efeqturi sareklamokampaniis gansasazRvrad ismeba Semdegi SekiTxvebi: ,,mogwonTTu ara saqonlis reklama? ramdenad mogewonaT? sainteresoaTu ara saqonlis reklama?~ aqedan gamomdinare, reklamisefeqtianobis Sefasebis Zireuli nawili momxmarebelTa qcevissrulyofilad aRqma da gacnobierebaa. Tu ar flobT sakmarisinformacias momxmarebelTa qcevis Sesaxeb, SeiZleba didiriskis winaSe aRmoCndeT. reklamis Seqmnamde danamdvilebiTunda icodeT, vin aris Tqveni momxmarebeli; informaciismisaRebad mediis ra wyaroebs iyenebs yvelaze xSirad daratom; rogoria misi cxovrebis stili, ra stimulebze reagirebsda riTi SeiZleba misi yuradRebis mipyroba, ra motivebiamoZravebs produqtis yidvisas. karg reklamad iTvleba arais, romelic gansakuTrebuli SemoqmedebiTi SinaarsiT, kadrebissilamaziTa da kreatiulobiT gamoirCeva, aramed is, romelicmiznobriv auditorias ukeTesad daamaxsovrebs kompaniisproduqts an momsaxurebas da gayidis mas. swored es arismTavari midgoma, romliTac dRes xelmZRvaneloben rogorcwamyvani sareklamo saagentoebi, aseve reklamis damkveTebi.dReisaTvis reklama xorcieldeba Semdegi arxebiT:teleeTeriT _ bazris 60%; bilbordebiT quCaSi da sxvadasxvasanaxaobaze _ 8%; beWdviTi mediis saSualebiT _ 12%;internetis saSualebiT _ 18%; sxva saSualebiT _ 2%. dResyvelaze reitinguli telereklamaa. satelevizio reklamasaxasiaTebs prestiJuloba (sxva masobrivi informaciissaSualebebTan SedarebiT), is adamianTa yuradRebis mipyrobisfarTo saSualebaa.dR ev a ndel i q a r Tuli s a r ekl a m o i ndus tr i agamococxlebulia da Tamamad SegviZlia vTqvaT, rom dRessaqarTveloSi sareklamo biznesis bumia.Ees reklamebis154 155


nino yuraSviliorganizaciis sareklamo saqmianoba, misi organizeba da srulyofaraodenobiTa da maTze gaweuli xarjebis swrafi zrdiT aixsneba.reklamis bazris zrdasTan erTad, reklamis damzadebis xarisxicumjobesdeba. sareklamo kompaniebi ZviradRirebul aparaturasiZenen, raTa ufro mimzidveli da srulyofili reklama Seqmnan.samwuxarod, zogierTi qarTuli reklama, miuxedavad maRalimxatvruli donisa, ama Tu im mizezis gamo produqts maincver yidis, maSasadame, ver asrulebs ZiriTad misias _ daamkvidrosproduqtis an momsaxurebis adgili auditoriis gonebaSi.Tumca iseTi kompaniebic mimarTac, romlebmac zustad gamoicnessakuTari bazris moTxovna, aimaRles keTilganwyoba warmatebulisareklamo kompaniis warmoebis gziT da, Sesabamisad,konkurentuli upiratesobac moipoves, ibadeba kiTxva: SeeZloTTu ara am kompaniebs imave warmatebisTvis naklebi ZalisxmeviTada danaxarjebiT mieRwiaT?Aamis garkvevas esa Tu is kompaniadamoukideblad, albaT, verc SeZlebs – saWiroa damatebiTiinformaciis mopoveba mizanmimarTuli, kvalifikaciuri kvlevissafuZvelze.Aamgvari kvlevebi reklamis efeqtianobis kvlevissaxeliT aris cnobili. reklamis efeqtianobis kvleviT Tavidanve,reklamis Seqmnamde, unda vizrunoT, raTa minimumamde davidesaraefeqtiani reklamis gaSvebis riski. reklamis gaSvebis Semdegki unda SevamowmoT, ramdenad gaamarTla reklamaSi Cadebulmainvesticiam. reklamis efeqtianobis kvleva SeiZleba Caataroskompaniis struqturaSi momuSave saTanado danayofma an garedanmowveulma kvleviTma kompaniam.Mmagram aucilebelia, romkvlevebis Sedegebis analizis procesSi aqtiurad CaerTonreklamis damkveTi, damamzadebeli da sxva obieqturaddainteresebuli mxareebi. msoflios maCvenebliT kvleviskompaniebisa da maT mier Catarebuli kvlevebis raodenobadRiTi dRe izrdeba, Tumca kvlevebis Catarebisa da maTigamoyenebis kultura CvenSi jer-jerobiT kvlav Canasaxovandonezea. Sedegad, kvlevebs iseT mniSvnelobas ar aniWeben,rogorsac imsaxurebs grZelvadiani warmatebis misaRwevad.piter drakeri aRniSnavda, rom stabiluri warmatebisamosavali faqtorebi mxolod sworad gamarTuli marketingulisaqmianoba da inovaciebis danergvaa, yvelaferi danarCeni kidamxmare danaxarjebis sferos ganekuTvneba. aseve ambobda: arRirs reklamaSi imaze meti gadaixadoT, vidre saSualod amreklamiT ganpirobebuli mogebaa.Kkompania reklamissrulyofisaTvis sakmaod did Tanxebs, dros da energias xarjavssasurveli scenaris SerCevasa da media-gegmis Sedgenaze, TumcaTu aRmoCnda, rom es mcdeloba fuWi iyo da reklamam argaamarTla, saWiroa drouli reagireba da am reklamaze uarisTqma, am dros kompania zaraldeba, Tumca SeiZleba CavTvaloT,rom kompanias SedarebiT gaumarTla, radgan droulad aRmoaCinaSecdoma da misi aRmofxvrac SeZlo. arsebobs iseTi magaliTebic,rodesac kompania ver acnobierebs Tavisi reklamiswarumateblobas da didi xnis ganmavlobaSi ganagrZobs misgaSvebaze xarjis gawevas. isec xdeba, rom sareklamo rgolimiznobrivi auditoriis gaRizianebas iwvevs, ris Sedegadacwarmatebis misaRwevad gaweuli xarji, sinamdvileSi, kompaniampiriqiT gamoiyena, Tan, rac yvelaze damRupvelia, grZelvadianidroiT, anu, ver SeZlo drouli reagireba.xSirad erTi da igive reklama or an met mizans emsaxureba.magaliTad, gayidvis moculobis zrdaze mimarTuli reklamaxSirad kompaniis cnobadobasac zrdis.Aaseve logikuria, rom,Tu produqti uvargisia, momxmarebeli mas xelmeored ariyidis. maSasadame, yvela sareklamo Cavardna ar SeiZlebamxolod araefeqtian reklamas dabraldes. warumateblobismizezi rig SemTxvevaSi Tavad produqtidan momdinareobs, Tavadproduqtia warumatebeli. warmatebuli produqti aramartofunqciurad gamarTlebuli da xarisxiania, aramed mTavaria,produqti aqtualuri iyos. is adamianis raime problemasunda wyvetdes, masSi damatebiT fsiqologiuri an ekonomikurisargebelic unda iyos Cadebuli. am pirobebis SesrulebarTulia, radgan momxmareblis kargad Seswavlas moiTxovs.aqedan gamomdinare, isev da isev winaswar kvlevebis CatarebisaucileblobaSi vrwmundebiT. arc is daviviwyoT, rom ZviradRirebuli reklama yvela produqts ar sWirdeba. amgvarireklama kompanias da mis produqts elitur iers uqmnis. Tuproduqti am imijs ar Seesabameba, misi yidvisas momxmarebelsSeusabamobis gancda eqmneba – mas Camouyalibda molodini,romelic ar gamarTlda.reklama axdens Tavisufali mewarmeobis materialuri,socialuri da kulturuli SesaZleblobebis populizirebas,156 157


nino yuraSviliastimulirebs Sromis nayofierebis zrdas rogorc menejerebs,aseve rigiT muSakebs Sorisac, igi qmnis momxmareblisaTvismimzidvel da sasurvel suraTs, xels uwyobs cxovrebis donisamaRlebas.Tanamedrove sabazro urTierTobaTa pirobebSi reklamaaRar asrulebs moTxovnis ubralo formirebis funqcias, manwarmatebiT SeiTavsa marTvis funqciac, rac kidev erTi Zlieriargumentia imis dasadastureblad, rom reklama warmoadgensmarketingis sistemis Semadgenel nawils.marketinguli danaxarjebis investiciad aRqma malesaqarTveloSic realobad iqceva. rac ufro mZafrdebakonkurentuli garemo, rac ufro Zneldeba ama Tu im dargSiliderobis mopoveba da SenarCuneba, miT ufro aucilebeliayoveli gaweuli xarji mizanmimarTulad da momgebianad iyosgamoyenebuli.1. www.advtime.ru2. www.bestreferat.ru3. www.arflasher.com4. www.PR-GUIDE.ge5. www.bs-magazine.com6. Jurnali ,,biznesi”, #1, marti, 2007, gv. 60-65.7. Маиаковский В. В., Статья «Агитация и реклама», соб. соч.,т. 12, М., 1959, стр. 57-58.Sromis motivaciis marTvisgaumjobesebaturistul kompaniaSinino SarmiaSvilisaqarTveloSi bolo wlebis ganmavlobaSi mravalituristuli kompania Seiqmna, romlebic sxvadasxva servisssTavazoben momxmarebels. turistuli kompaniebi gvTavazobenrogorc turistebis Semoyvanas (in coming), aseve gayvanas (outgoing).turizmis ganviTarebis ZiriTadi da ganmsazRvrelideterminanti aris turistuli produqciis xarisxi damimzidveloba. turizmis dargis ganviTarebisaTvis sakmarisiar aris turistuli potencialis arseboba. mTavari dagadamwyvetia, rom turistuli potenciali iqces turistulproduqtad.nebismieri turistuli kompania, profilis miuxedavad, adgensganviTarebis strategiul gegmas. turistuli kompaniis mizaniunda iyos momsaxurebis maRali xarisxi, winaswar gansazRvrulida dagegmili RonisZiebebi, SedarebiT dabali fasebi da turebisfarTo arCevani.turistuli kompaniis warmatebuli muSaobis erT-erTimTavari ganmsazRvrelia kadrebis SerCeva da maTi Semdgomigadamzadeba.turoperatori erT-erTi ZiriTadi figuraa turistulikompaniis sqmianobaSi. mas moeTxoveba iyos profesionali. e. i.,unda gaaCndes Sesabamisi momzadeba da profesionalizmi.turoperatoris daxelovnebaSi mniSvnelovania misi codnarogorc zogadi, ise viwro specialobebis mixedviT.profesia – turoperatori iTvaliswinebs im garkveulipraqtikuli unar-Cvevebis dauflebas, romlebic daexmarebianmas, SearCios, ganazogados, advilad miitanos momxmareblamdesaWiro masala da specifikuri codna.turoperatoris profesiis prestiJi mdgomareobssazogadoebis mier aRniSnuli profesiis pativiscemaSi. profesiis158 159


nino SarmiaSviliprestiJuloba ganpirobebulia am profesiis originalurobiT,mimzidvelobiT, unikalurobiT da inteleqtualuri saqmianobisTaviseburebebiT.profesionalad Camoyalibebis saqmeSi didi mniSvnelobaeniWeba mizanmimarTul swavlebasa da wvrTnas. turoperatorebisSesabamisi Teoriuli swavlebisa da praqtikis Sedegaduyalibdeba specialuri unar-Cvevebi.nebismieri tur-operatiuli kompania, profilis miuxedavad,adgens strategiul gegmas, romelSic aisaxeba kompaniis adgilituristul bazarze, misi miznebi da amocanebi, gomomdinarefirmis simZlavridan.imisaTvis, rom turistulma kompaniam miaRwios moRvaweobismTavar mizans _ xangrZlivi droiT garantirebuli mogebismiRebas, turistulma kompaniam unda gansazRvros sakuTarimisia, miznebi da amocanebi. misi strategiuli gegmis komponentebiSeiZleba iyos: momxmareblis moTxovnebis dadgena da misigaTvaliswinebiT sakuTari turistuli produqtis koreqtireba,turistuli kompaniis erT-erTi rTuli amocanaa turistTamoTxovnis dadgena, rac bazris marketinguli Seswavlis Sedegadxdeba.turistuli kompaniis menejmentis mniSvnelovani sakiTxiakadrebis momzadeba da gadamzadeba. mcire zomis turistulkompaniaSi kadrebs amzadeben ise, rom maT SeeZloT erTmaneTisSecvla, anu, erTi TanamSromlis funqciebis meoreTanamSromlisaTvis SeTavseba.turistuli kompaniis saqmianobisaTvis mniSvnelovaniamomsaxurebis xarisxis kontroli, turistis kmayofileba kimiiRweva turizmis sworad organizebisa da SesrulebisSemTxvevaSi, roca turistuli kompaniis TiToeuli TanamSromeliTavis movaleobas zustad da keTilsindisierad asrulebs.turistuli kompania momxmarebels sTavazobs erT mTlianpakets, romelic moicavs Semdeg kategoriebs: ganTavseba(sastumro), kveba, transporti, saeqskursio momsaxureba,gasarTobi, sportuli, sakurorto da sayofacxovrebomomsaxureba. bunebrivia, nebismieri turistuli paketismomzadebisas, kompaniis menejerma da turoperatorma icis, TuSromis motivaciis marTvis gaumjobeseba turistul kompaniaSiras sTavazoben momxmarebels. amas uzrunvelyofen infoturebi,sadac sxvadasxva kompaniebis turoperatorebi ecnobian winaswarSedgenili programis mixedviT im sastumroebsa da turistulmarSrutebs, romlebic momavalSi unda SesTavazon sakuTarklients. aqedan gamomdinare, infoturi SeiZleba CaiTvalosSromis motivaciis erT-erT mxared turistuli kompaniissaqmianobaSi.xelmZRvanelisaTvis saWiroa biznes-gegma, raTa naTladganisazRvros turistuli kompaniis saqmianobis masStabebi,miznebi, amocanebi da Sedegebi. biznes-gegma sWirdebaT kompaniisTanamSromlebsac, raTa icodnen kompaniis perspeqtivebi daTavianTi konkretuli amocanebi. biznes-gegmas adgenenxelmZRvanelebi, romlebmac SeiZleba garedan moiwvionspecialist-konsultantebi.turistuli kompaniis biznes-gegmaSi unda mkafiod Candeskompaniis mier arCeuli strategia, turproduqtis fasi daturis daniSnuleba, xarisxi da saimedooba, xelmisawvdomobada servisi. xelmZRvanelis mier biznes-gegmaSi Cadebuli undaiyos sabazro strategiis formac: a). intensiuri, b). eqstensiuri.aseve turproduqtis wardgenis sistemac.marketingul komunikaciebs gansakuTrebuli adgili ukaviaTturistuli kompaniis saqmianobaSi. finansur-ekonomikurisaqmianobis erT-erTi maCvenebelia gayidvebis stimulireba dasazogadoebasTan urTierTobebi. kompaniis TanamSromels uSualokontaqti unda hqondes turproduqtis myidvelTan.piradi gayidvebi farTodaa gavrcelebuli turizmSi.gamyidvlis rolSi gamodis kompaniis yvela TanaSromeli.klientebTan kontaqti myardeba sxvadasxva komunikaciiT.TanamSromlebma unda moi povon momxmareblis ndoba dakvalificiuri konsultacia gauwion momxmarebels.turistuli kompaniis produqtis realizaciis programa,anu gayidvebis gegma, muSavdeba saerTo miznebisa da kompaniisstrategiis arCevis Semdeg. gayidvebis gegma safuZveli xdebawliuri Semosavlebis, danaxarjebisa da safinanso gegmisSesafaseblad.160 161


nino SarmiaSvilituristul kompaniaSi SromiTi anazRaurebis menejmentiunda iTvaliswinebdes TanamSromelTa mzard xelfassturistuli kompaniis warmatebuli saqmianobis Sesabamisad.es ki SesaZlebelia miRweuli iqnas maSin, roca TiToeulirealizebuli turistuli paketidan turoperators daericxosmimdinare xelfasTan erTad garkveuli procentuli anazRaureba.aseTi midgoma xels Seuwyobs turistul kompaniaSi SromiTimotivaciis gaumjobesebas.turistuli kompaniis TanamSromelTa SromiTi motivaciisgasaumjobeseblad xelmZRvanelma TanamSromeli weliwadSierTxel unda daasaCuqros ufaso avia bileTiT an mTlianiturpaketiT.kompaniis mier dasaxuli amocanebis gadawyveta imazecaris damokidebuli, rom xelmZRvanelobam ramdenad miaRwiaurTierTgagebas personalTan, ramdenad Zlieria TanamSromelTamotivacia, rogori fsiqologiuri klimati sufevs koleqtivSi.xSirad aseT SemTxvevebSi gamoiyeneba: Sromis materialuristimulireba, privilegiebis sistema, samsaxurSi dawinaureba,profesiuli ostatobis konkursebi da a. S.amrigad, turistuli kompaniis warmatebuli saqmianobismTavari nawilia TanamSromelTa kvalificiuri da srulfasovanimuSaoba. maRali xarisxis turistuli produqtis Seqmna, racSromiTi motivaciis gaumjobesebiT miiRweva turistulkompaniaSi.mariam CxeiZekulturisa da xelovnebis sferoSikanonmdeblobis analizi, efeqturoba danaklovanebebisazogadoebis kulturuli donis ZiriTad maCvenebladyovelTvis iTvleboda is, Tu saxelmwifo ramdenad didyuradRebas aqcevs kulturasa da xelovnebas.saxelmwifoSi demokratiis, ekonomikisa da kulturismSenebloba pirdapir ukavSirdeba sazogadoebis inteleqtualurpotencials. meore mxriv, qveyanaSi kulturisa da xelovnebisganviTarebis dinamikuroba bevrad aris damokidebuli imaze,Tu ramdenad sworad uzrunvelyofs saxelmwifo SesabamisipirobebiTa da saSualebebiT am sferos stimulirebas. es kisakanonmdeblo organoebisagan, pirvel rigSi, kulturisa daxelovnebis dargebis ganviTarebisaTvis mizanmimarTulisamarTlebrivi bazis Seqmnas moiTxovs.kulturaSi, am sityvis farTo gagebiT, aisaxeba xalxisSemoqmedebiT miRwevaTa erToblioba. es aris dedamiwazecxovrebis ganviTarebis mimdinare procesebSi, axali produqtebisSeqmnaSi adamianebis mier Setanili iseTi wvlili, rogorsacbuneba TavisTavad arc Seqmnida da arc arasodes daamkvidrebda.kulturuli faseulobis Seqmna da damkvidreba SeuZlia mxolodadamians da es aris zogadsakacobrio miRwevaTa rigSi calkeulieris TviTmyofadobis gamoxatuleba.Sinaarsobrivad kultura moicavs farTo sferos, masSierTiandeba: cxovrebis wesi, tradicia, Cveuleba, ena, damwerloba,zepirsityviereba, Cacmuloba, saxl-kari, yofa, aRzrdis wesebi,ekonomika, samxedro saqme, saxelmwifoebriv-politikuri mowyoba,marTva, mecniereba, teqnika, xelovneba da yvela sxva sfero,raSic adamianis obieqturi buneba SeiZleba gamovlindes.rodesac saqme exeba kulturis qmediTunarianobasa da misganviTarebaze zrunvas, unda vigulisxmoT adamianisa da erisSinagani samyaro, am samyaros asaxvisaTvis mowodebuliarastandartuli pirovnebis buneba da axlis gamoxatvisaTvismimarTuli SemoqmedebiTi procesi. siaxlisaken aseTi daJinebuli162 163


mariam CxeiZekulturisa da xelovnebis sferoSikanonmdeblobis analizi, efeqturoba da naklovanebebiltolva kargad aisaxeba WeSmariti xelovnebis nimuSisSefasebisa da moxmarebis procesSi. amdenad, kultura armTavrdeba iq, sadac fiqsirdeba, is mudmivad viTardeba damoqmedebs.xelovneba, iseve rogorc kultura, arabunebrivi, ueWveladadamianuri fenomenia. amave dros, xelovnis mier Seqmnilinawarmi emijneba kulturis sferoSi Seqmnil iseT faseulobebs,rogoric aris: mecniereba, xelosnoba, teqnika da sxva. TumcaRa,am dargebis umaRles miRwevebSi yovelTvis aSkarad moCansxelovnebis uSreti Zala. ganasxvaveben xelovnebis sxvadasxvadargebs: arqiteqturas, plastikas, mxatvrobas, poezias, musikas,dramatuli xelovnebis dargebs, cekvas. rogorc goeTe brZanebda:xelovnebis umaRlesi nimuSi warmoadgens adamian-Semomqmedismier warmoqmnil iseTi xarisxis produqts, rogorsac qmnisTviTon buneba, magram amis sanacvlod WeSmariti xelovnebasrulad STanTqavs TviTon xelovans.iseve rogorc xelovneba, mTlianobaSi kulturacaRmzrdelobiTi funqciis matarebelia. eris TviTmyofadobisSenarCunebasa da ganviTarebis saqmeSi swored kulturas eniWebaudidesi mniSvneloba. kanonmdebels unda esmodes, rom xalxiskulturasTan Tanaziarebis xarisxi, eris kulturisadmikuTvnilebis maCvenebelia.kulturis sferosTan dakavSirebuli kanonmdeblobisanalizisas mniSvnelovnad migvaCnia, erTmaneTisagan gavmijnoTkultura da civilizacia, radgan kultura aris erisa dapirovnebis TviTformirebis da TviTdadginebis gamomxatveliSedegi, xolo civilizaciaSi ar aisaxeba eris TviTmyofadoba,is mxolod cxovrebis keTilmowyobasTan dakavSirebul miRwevaTaerTobliobis gamomxatvelia.mimdinare globalizaciis procesSi icvleba kulturisada xelovnebisadmi arsebuli sabaziso moTxovna. garda garemosesTetikurad mowyobisa, mniSvnelovani xdeba ucxo kulturebisgacnobis, maTTan dasaaxlovebeli gzebis Zieba; erovnulikulturis elementebis identifikaciis, sxva kulturebTanTanaziarobis aRiareba.xelovneba, tradiciuli gagebiT, politika da biznesi _Znelad Tavsebadi cnebebia. isini adamianis moTxovnilebaTa dasuli er faseulebaTa radikal urad ga nsxvavebul,urTierTsapirispiro polusebs warmoadgenen. dRes WeSmaritixelovnebis nimuSis Seqmna da Senaxva pirdapir ukavSirdebapolitikas, ekonomikasa da bizness. Cvens sinamdvileSi TavsiCens xelovnebis komercializaciisa da komerciuli xelovnebiscnebebi. kultura da xelovneba Zvirfas liTonebTan, navTobTan,gazTan, uZrav qonebasTan erTad sainvesticio bazrismniSvnelovani segmenti xdeba.kulturis komercializaciis Sedegad gaCnda xelovnebiscalkeuli nimuSebisadmi suggestiuri (laT. Suggestion _STagoneba, miniSneba) damokidebuleba. kulturulifaseulobebisadmi aseTi midgoma, erTi mxriv, warmoaCens, faseulsxdis da inaxavs dRemde farTo masebisaTvis naklebad cnobilxelovnebis nimuSebs, xolo, meore mxriv, zrdis TaRliTobisada kontrabandistuli saqmianobis gaaqtiurebis saSiSroebas.calke ganxilvis sagans da specialur saxelmwifoebrivsakanonmdeblo midgomas saWiroebs erovnuli aramaterialurikultura. Tu kulturisa da xelovnebis calkeul dargSipolitikisa da biznesis SemoWram garkveuli TvalsazrisiTdadebiTi elementebic Semoitana, sruliad sapirispiro undaiTqvas aramaterialuri kulturuli memkvidreobis Sesaxeb.msoflioSi mimdinare globalizaciisa da teqnikuriprogresis swrafi tempi, migraciuli procesebi da masTandakavSirebuli garemoebebi mniSvnelovan safrTxes uqmniannebismieri xalxis tradiciul kulturul memkvidreobas. aseTpirobebSi kidev ufro rTul mdgomareobaSia aramaterialurikulturis sfero. saukuneTa manZilze Camoyalibebul wes-Cveulebebs, ritualebs, folklors, xalxuri xelovnebissxvadasxva dargs saxecvlileba an zogierT SemTxvevaSi sruligaqroba emuqreba.analizis Sedegad irkveva, rom saqarTvelos sakanonmdeblosivrceSi kulturis sferoSi moqmedi kanonebisa dakanonqvemdebare aqtebis nawili, romlebic 90-iani wlebis meorenaxevarSia miRebuli („kulturis Sesaxeb~, „sabiblioTeko saqmisSesaxeb~, „saavtoro da momijnave uflebebis Sesaxeb~),moZvelebulia, morgebulia im periods, rodesac iwereboda da,164 165


mariam CxeiZekulturisa da xelovnebis sferoSikanonmdeblobis analizi, efeqturoba da naklovanebebiSesabamisad, CamorCeba sazogadoebrivi institutebis ganviTarebisdRevandel tempebs.SedarebiT srulyofilia da Tanadroulad viTardebasaqarTvelos kanonebi „Teatris Sesaxeb~, „kulturulimemkvidreobis dacvis Sesaxeb~, `kulturuli faseulobaTasaqarTvelodan gatanisa da saqarTveloSi Semotanis Sesaxeb~,„muzeumis Sesaxeb~, magram es kanonebi mTlianobaSi mainc verasaxavs kulturisa da xelovnebis winaSe sadReisod arsebuliproblemebis did nawils, eris kulturasTan Tanaziarebisxarisxs, erovnuli kulturis qmediTunarianobas, TanamedrovepirobebSi kulturul faseulobaTa Seqmnisa da damkvidrebisTaviseburebebs, zogadsakacobrio miRwevaTa rigSi calkeulieris TviTmyofadobis gamoxatvis da am saqmeSi pirovnebisa dakulturis Tanaziarobis tendenciebs;kanonmdeblobaSi ar aisaxeba Tanamedroveobis is Tavisebureba,romlis drosac mniSvnelovani xdeba ucxo kulturebisgacnobis, maTTan dasaaxlovebeli gzebis Zieba; erovnulikulturis elementebis identifikaciis da sxva kulturebTanTanaziarobis aRiareba.moZvelebuli sakanonmdeblo aqtebi ver daaregulirebenxelovnebis, biznesisa da politikis erT WrilSi ganxilvisada TanamSromlobis procesSi wamoWril problemebs.saimedo perspeqtivaze miuTiTebs realobisa da msofliosganviTarebis tendenciebis analizis safuZvelze iuneskos mier2003 wlis 17 oqtombris 32-e sesiaze miRebuli saerTaSorisokonvencia „aramaterialuri kulturuli memkvidreobis dacvisSesaxeb~, romelic iTvaliswinebs aramaterialuri kulturulimemkvidreobis Seswavlis, dacvisa da popularizaciis mizniTsaerTaSoriso da erovnuli organoebis Seqmnas. amasTan, konvenciamis wevr qveynebs avaldebulebs aramaterialuri kulturulimemkvidreobis aRricxvis, identifikaciisa da sxva donis dacvismeqanizmebis SemuSavebasa da Camoyalibebas, Tanxebis saxelmwifoda saerTaSoriso (maT Soris iunesko) organizaciebidanmoZiebasa da mozidvas.2007 wlis miwuruls saqarTvelo miuerTda iuneskosaRniSnul konvencias. mierTebis formalur mxares safuZvladdaedo „kulturuli memkvidreobis~ kanonSi sul ramdenimeabzacis Cawera – maT Soris zogadi ganmarteba a. k. m.-isSesaxeb da saqarTvelos kulturis, ZeglTa dacvisa da sportissaministros saxiT pasuxismgebeli saxelmwifo organosgansazRvra.aRniSnuli miznebis miRweva SesaZlebelia kvlevis SemdegimeTodologiis gamoyenebiT:kulturis sferoSi moqmedi zogierTi saerTaSorisosakanonmdeblo aqtis (maT Soris: `safrangeTis kulturulimemkvidreobis kodeqsi~, ruseTis federaciis kanoni `saavtorouflebebis Sesaxeb~, `aramaterialuri kulturuli memkvidreobissaerTaSoriso konvencia~, `aramaterialuri kulturulimemkvidreobis kanoni~ – somxeTi da sxv.) mimoxilva;winamdebare naSromis mizania:1. gansazRvros qarTuli kanonmdeblobis qmediTunarianobaaRmasrulebel doneze, kulturuli moRvaweobis produqtis(xelovnebis nimuSis) gamoyenebis TvalsazrisiT;2. warmoaCinos qarTuli kulturuli memkvidreobis msoflioprocesSi CarTulobis sakanonmdeblo safuZvlebi;3. Camoayalibos sarekomendacio winadadebebi kulturisdargSi sakanonmdeblo procesebis srulyofisaTvis. kulturis sferoSi arsebuli qarTuli sakanonmdebloaqtebis (`kulturuli memkvidreobis Sesaxeb~, `saavtoro damomijnave uflebebis Sesaxeb~, `Teatrebis Sesaxeb~, `muzeumisSesaxeb~ da sxv.) Seswavla; saqarTveloSi kulturis sferoSi moqmedi ZiriTadikanonebis realuri moqmedebis arealis mimoxilva-analizi.kvlevis obieqts warmoadgens sakanonmdeblo aqtebi,xelovnebis dawesebulebebis (muzeumi, biblioTeka, materialurikulturis Zeglebi, aramaterialuri kulturuli memkvidreobissfero) saqmianoba. kvlevis sagania kulturisa da xelovnebissaboloo produqtis saxelmwifo dacvis meqanizmebi (maT Sorisaramaterialuri kulturuli memkvidreobis) konkretulimagaliTebze dayrdnobiT.166 167


mariam WumburiZepersonalis miRebisa da SerCevisprinci pebi organizaciaSikacobriobis evoluciis udides miRwevas saxelmwifos Seqmnada masSi saxelmwofoebrivi institutebis Camoyanlibebawarmoadgens. romlebiTac igi axorcielebs sazogadoebis marTvassxvadasxva mimarTulebiT.Tavis mxriv, organizacia saxelmwifoSi gansazRvruli tipiswarmonaqmnia, romelSic gaerTianebuli adamianTa jgufiapirobebs misi amocanebis gadawyvetas, samuSaos mimdinareobas,warmatebul Sedegebs, e. i., nebismieri organizaciis warmatebasadamianebis unar-Cvevebi, codna da motivacia ganapirobebs.yovel organizacias konkretuli misia akisria, romelicmis strategias gansazRvravs. xelmZRvanelobis gasaadvilebladda strategiis warmatebiT ganxorcielebis mizniT organizaciasSemadgeneli struqtura gaaCnia. yovel maTganSi dakavebuliadamianTa jgufi winaswar gansazRvrul sistematizebulfunqcias asrulebs, amitom yovel ubanze adamianuri resursebismoZieba da SerCeva metad sapasuxismgeblo saqmea da drosmoiTxovs.SerCeva SeiZleba ganixilos rogorc Sesatyvisi kandidatebisarCeva, ise Seusabamo kandidatebis uaryofa an am orive procesiskombinacia. amrigad, SerCeva aris yvela kandidatidan yvelazesaWiro pirovnebaTa amorCeva. am procesSi mTeli rigiproceduris Sedegad grovdeba kandidatebis Sesaxebrelevanturi informacia, romlebiTac fasdeba maTi Sesatyvisobadasakavebel TanamdebobasTan. meore mxriv, SerCeva warmoadgenskandidatTa Sefasebis process mravali xerxiT da arCevnisgakeTebas, romelsac mosdevs samsaxuris SeTavazeba.upirveles yovlisa, orgnizacia acxadebs vakanisiebs,amasTanave naTlad ayalibebs moTxovnebs, romlebsac undaakmayofilebdes SesarCevi kadri ama Tu im konkretuliTanamdebobis dasakaveblad (codna, unarebi, midgoma, romelicesaWiroeba individs), raTa dasakavebeli TanamdebobisaTvisgansazRvruli movaleobebi efeqturad Sesruldes. rogorcaRvniSneT, kandidatis Semowmebis mravali xerxi arsebobs, maTSoris: testebi, SekiTxvebi: rogor moiqceva igi am TanamdebobisaTvis Sesabamissxvadasxva situaciaSi? Semowmdes misi codna. Semowmebisas gamosacdelpirovnebas mieces faqtobrivi unarebis demonstrirebissaSualeba. gaTvaliswinebuli unda iyos, Tu rogor moergebaSesarCevi pirovneba ukve arsebul samuSao gunds. ra siaxles,damokidebulebas, midgomas Semoitans gundSi. unda darwmundeT, rom SesarCevi kandidati sruladakmayofilebs organizaciis mier gamocxadebuli vakansiismoTxovnebs, radgan nawilobriv Sesaferisi kandidati mxoloddamatebiT problemebs Seqmnis organizaciaSi samomavlod.adamianebis sworad SerCeva erTgvari gamowvevaaorganizaciisaTvis da Tu organizacia moaxerxebs maRalidonis TanamSromelTa SerCevas, es misi warmatebis sawindariiqneba.ar arsebobs SerCevis procesis standarti, romelicimoqmedebda yvela organizaciaSi, yvela vakansiisaTvis. SerCevisprocesi rTuldeba dasakavebeli Tanamdebobis donisa damniSvnelobis mixedviT.personalis SerCevas teqnikurad uswrebs personalis miReba,romelic moicavs adamianuri resursis ZiriTad wyaros, samuSaoZalis identificirebas da mis stimulirebas, raTa mimarTosorganizaciebs samuSao adgilis misaRebad. personalis miRebisasorganizaciis mizania rac SeiZleba didi raodenobiTkandidatebis mozidva, romelTagan SerCevis Sedegad SesaZloa,arc erTi adamiani ar SeirCes.sxva mxriv, SerCeva aris samsaxurSi miRebuli adamianebidansaukeTesoTa amorCevis procesi, romelsac gansazRvravskonkretuli faqtorebi da pirobebi. maTSi igulisxmebaSesarCevi personalis ti pi, drois faqtori, kandidatebis168 169


mariam WumburiZeraodenoba da a. S. organizaciis SerCevis politika gansazRvravsSerCevis procesis xerxebsa da saSualebebs.CamoTvlili sakiTxebis miuxedavad SerCevis universaluriprincipi ar arsebobs. mosalodnelia raime saxis problemiswarmoqmna Secdomis daSveba da sxv.magaliTad, gasaubreba emsaxureba sam mizans, esenia:informaciis mopoveba SesarCevi kandidatis warsulze,ganaTlebasa da treningebze, muSaobis gamocdilebasa da misinteresebze;SesarCevi kandidatisaTvis informaciis miwodeba samuSaosspecifikasa da adamianuri resursebis politikaze konkretulorganizaciaSi; megobruli urTierTobis damyareba damsaqmebelsa dakandidats Soris, raTa kandidatis motivireba moxdesorganizaciSi misi muSaobisTvis.Tumca es piroba irRveva da, praqtikulad, interviuemsaxureba mxolod pirvel mizans.problemebi SesaZlebelia iyos sxvadasxvagvari, magramSesaZlebelia maTi moqnili xerxebiT gadalaxva. cnobilia,rom personalis SerCevisas problemas warmoadgens saWiromimarTulebiT kvalificiuri specialistebis nakleboba, saTanadogamocdilebis uqonloba da individuumis mier ufro maRalixelfasis moTxovna, vidre organizaciisTvis aris misaRebi.testirebis Sedegad SeiZleba, samsaxurSi miiRon kandidati,romelic am etapze ar pasuxobs organizaciis moTxovnebs,magram gaaCnia TanamdebobisaTvis saWiro zrdisa da ganviTarebispotenciali. amis SesaniSnavi saSualebaa SerCeuli personalisuzrunvelyofa treningebiT, romelic daexmareba mas dasakavebeliTanamdebobis moTxovnilebebis ganxorcielebaSi.zemoT moyvanili personalis SerCevis kriteriumebisayovelTaodaa danergili msoflios civilizebul qveynebSi.arc Tu ise didi xania, rac imave principebiT cdilobensaqarTveloSi personalis SerCevis Tanamedrove standartebTanmiaxloebas, magram, rogorc yvela siaxle, zog SemTxvevaSi igiamarTlebs, zog SemTxvevaSi ki dazRveuli ar aris Secdomebisgan,personalis miRebisa da SerCevis principebi organizaciaSirogoricaa: calkeul SemTxvevebSi subieqturoba, calkeulSemTxvevebSi piradi interesebi da sxva.kadrebis SerCevis problemebs rogorc sxvagan,saqarTveloSic warmoadgerns kvalificiuri specialistebisnakleboba, gamocdilebis uqonloba, oRond Cven SemTxvevaSipirovnebis mier maRali xelfasis moTxovnis nacvlad, ukvegansazRvruli dabali anazRaureba da asakobrivi zRvari,romelic zRudavs arsebul profesionalTa dasaqmebas.konkretulad axalgazrdebisaTvis problemas warmoadgenssaitebze ganTavsebul vakansiaTa moTxovnebic, sadac mTavaripirobaa aranakleb sami wlis gamocdileba, maSin, rodesacxSir SemTxvevaSi Tavad es organizaciebi ar zrunavenkvalificiuri kadrebis aRzrdaze.rac Seexeba kulturis sferos igi, Tavisi specifikidangamomdinare, mravalferovan SesaZleblobas iZleva kadrebisSerCevis organizebisas. vinaidan Teatri Sedgeba TeatrisxelmZRvanelobis, dasisa da administraciul-teqnikuripersonalisagan, Tanamdebobaze daniSvna an gaTavisufleba,xelSekrulebis dadeba xdeba Teatris mmarTvelis samxatvroxelmZRvanelTan SeTanxmebiT. saxelmwifos mier subsidirebulTeatrebSi samxatvro xelmZRvaneli iniSneba kulturissaministros mier, mmarTveli _ kulturis saministros mieran Teatris samxatvro xelmZRvanelis survilis gaTvaliswinebiT.ufro mravalferovania damdgmel reJisorTa SerCevis gzebi:piradi kontaqtebi, seleqcia (TeatrebSi siaruli, speqtaklebisSefaseba da sxv.). sakadro konkursis SemTxvevaSi reJisorebmaproeqtebi unda waradginon moTxovnaTa Sesabamisad dasaukeTesoni moipoveben TeatrTan TanamSromlobis uflebas.rac Seexeba msaxiobebs, Tu Teatrebi konkurss acxadebengarkveuli asakis gmiris rolis Semsrulebel msaxiobze,satelevizio Sou-programebi mayurebelTa farTo auditoriissamsjavroze wyveten am problemas. gavixsenoT rusTavelisTeatris mier gamocxadebuli vakansiisTvis brZola amave Teatrismcire scenaze proeqtSi `dasi~ an amJamad mimdinare`varskvlavebis akademia~. Tumca zogjer TeatrebSi iseve,rogorc sxva organizaciebSi kadrebis Sevseba qasTingis170 171


mariam WumburiZegareSec xdeba. aseT SemTxvevaSi garkveulwilad irRveva misaRebikandidatebis Tanabar pirobebSi Cayenebis principi.daskvnis saxiT ki vityvi, rom Tuki organizacia SeZlebspersonalis obieqtur Sevsebas iseTi kandidatebiT, romlebicmiiswrafian warmatebisken, aqvT riskze wasvlis unari, arianSors mWvretelni da gunduri principebis damcvelni, aseTiTanamSromlebiT dakompleqtebuli ogranizacia SeZlebs didiamocanebis gadaWras da yvela dasaxuli miznis warmatebiTmiRwevas. amitomac aris dRes aqtualuri personalis miRebisada SerCevis princi pebis codna da dacva nebismieriorgnizaciisTvis.• R. Shilingi, Venance: A student pursuing MBA (Corporate Management),Mzumbe University. Selection Process as Human Resource Function.• Armstrong M. (2006), A Handbook of Human Resource Management.Practice (10th Edition ed.), London: Kogan Page Limited.•Dessler G. (2005), Human Resource Management (10th edition ed.), NewJersey: Pearson Prentice Hall.nino xuciSviliinternet-teqnologiebis gamoyenebamarketingul saqmianobaSiinterneti – msoflio globaluri qseli, nebismierisaqmianobis ganuyofeli nawilia. internet-teqnologiebisaqtiuri ganviTareba uflebas gvaZlevs ganvixiloT interneti,rogorc nebismieri saqmis warmoebis ganviTarebisa da srulyofismZlavri saSualeba. amas xels uwyobs momxmarebelTaSeuwyveteli swrafi zrda; internet auditoria TandaTanizrdeba da moiTvlis milionobiT momxmarebels, sxvadasxvaasakobrivi jgufis da interesis warmomadgenlebs.internets bevri dadebiTi Tviseba aqvs informaciis miRebisada gacemis TvalsazrisiT: moxerxebulia, swrafia,konfidencialuria, nakleb xarjebTanaa dakavSirebuli, msofliosnebismieri wertilidan informaciis miRebis saSualebas iZlevada a. S. rac mTavaria, XXI saukuneSi Cven ar gvaqvs imisufleba, rom ar gamoviyenoT interneti da misi mravaliteqnologia praqtikul saqmianobaSi.dRes naklebad savaraudoa arsebobdes romelime organizaciaan kompania, romelic ar iyenebs internet-teqnologiebs. aqedangamomdinare, Seicvala mmarTvelobiTi midgoma marketingSic.axalma midgomam ki marketingul saqmianobaSi SeiZleba moutanoskompanias ufro meti mogeba.aseve didi upiratesobebi aqvT marketingis menejerebs;pirvel rigSi, reklama, romelic bevrad nakleb xarjebTanaadakavSirebuli, vidre masmediaSi ganTavsebuli, momxmarebelTanurTierTobaSi SeuZliaT gaanalizon momxmareblisgan miRebuliinformacia, gaacnon maT axali produqti da a. S.kompaniebi, Tavis mxriv, yuradRebas ixveWen da afarToebenbazars da auditorias, internet-teqnologiebis meSveobiT kicdiloben axali momsaxurebebis danergvas.kompiuterebis SeqmnasTan erTad Seiqmna mravalisainformacio kompiuteruli bazebi. interneti ZiriTadi gzaa,romelic gvaZlevs saSualebas martivad da swrafad informaciismopovebisa da misi Semdgomi gamoyenebisa.172 173


nino xuciSviliinternet-teqnologiebis gamoyeneba marketingul saqmianobaSiradgan marketingis ZiriTadi mizani mainc produqtis winwaweva da gayidvaa, amisaTvis gverds ver avuvliT erT-erTwarmatebul gzas, reklamas, internetSi. aseve momxmareblisda maTi moTxovnis Seswavla-analizisaTvis saWiroa Catardesmarketinguli kvlevebi internetis meSveobiT. zemoT CamoTvlilisaSualebebi da gzebi namdvilad xels Seuwyobs marketingulisaqmianobis ganxorcilebaSi.marketingis miznebi kulturaSi orientirebulia, pirvelrigSi, bazris moZiebaze da Semdeg auditoriis Seswavlaze dagazrdaze, produqtis popularizaciaze. kulturis sferosmomxmarebels aqvs saSualeba, swrafad, konfidencialurad,saxlidan gausvlelad miiRos informacia kompaniis da misiproduqciis Sesaxeb. SeiZinos bileTebi, xelovnebis nimuSebi.internet-teqnologiebi ki ayalibebs axal, aqtualur da, xSirSemTxvevaSi, martiv gzebs marketinguli saqmianobisaTvis.mniSvnelovania kompaniis web-gverdi, romelic mis saxeswarmoadgens da misi saSualebiT SegviZlia marketingulisaqmianobisaTvis aucilebeli informacia miviRoT. web-gverdisgamoyenebiT marketingis menejerebs SeuZliaT: auditoriasTan mizanmimarTuli saqmianoba; auditoriis daintereseba; detaluri infromaciis gadacema; aqtualuri da operatiuli infromaciiT uzrunvelyofa; interaqtiuli urTierToba da ukukavSiri; pirdapiri gayidvebi; statistikis warmoeba da analizi; kvlevebisa da gamokiTxvebis warmoeba.web-gverdi maqsimalurad efeqturi unda iyos, misivizualuri gaformeba mniSvnelovania. dizaini amave dros martivida gasagebi unda iyos, momxmarebelma Seucdomlad da adviladunda moipovos misTvis saWiro informacia.dRevandel dRes internetSi didi raodenobis informaciaawarmodgenili, maT Soris: romelime organizaciaze sxvadasxvaanalitikuri da finansuri informacia, politikis da ekonomikissiaxleni da uamravi sxva. organizaciaTa umravlesobas,miuxedavad mimarTulebebisa, aqvs Tavisi warmomadgenlobainternetSi (web -gverdi), sadac kompaniis moRvaweobis,SeTavazebebis, moTxovnilebebis Sesaxeb informaciaawarmodgenili. aqedan gamomdinare, internetiT warmoebulikvleva saukeTeso gzas warmoadgens. sxva kvlevebisgangansxvavebiT aseTi saxiT Catarebuli kvleva saSualebas iZleva,sasurveli informacia sakmaod operatiulad da didimoculobiT SeiTvisos organizaciam. es aseve aucilebeliakompaniis saqmis warmoebis strategiis ganviTarebisaTvis, bazriscvlilebebze swrafi reagirebisa da sareklamo saqmianobiswarmoebisaTvis.interneti – marketingis mxolod erT-erTi iaraRia, anu,kidev erTi marketinguli arxi organizaciis saerTomarketingul kompleqsSi. internetis momxmarebelTa raodenobaukve zogadad masobrivi informaciis saSualebebs (masmediis),auditorias utoldeba, amitom aucilebelia ganvsazRvroTmarketinguli strategiis ganviTarebisas, aris Tu ara internetismomxmarebeli Cveni mTliani auditoriis garkveuli nawilida ramdenad advilia momxmarebelTa internetis meSveobiTmozidva. interneti Zalian did gavlenas axdens msoflioSiinformaciis gavrcelebaze. rogorc socialuri movlena –interneti globaluri sakomunikacio saSualebaa, romelicuzrunvelyofs teqsturi, grafikuli, aduio Tu videoinformaciis gacvlas da xelmisawvdomobas. _ onlain servisebiteritoriuli Tu nacionaluri sazRvrebis gareSe, _ es ariskvlevis efeqturi instrumenti, romelic xels uwyobs vaWrobisda biznesis auditoriasTan urTierTobas. internetisganviTarebasTan erTad swrafad icvleba mmarTvelobiTi midgomabiznessa da marketingSi, romelic misi erT-erTi nawilia.m. dragiSeviC-SeSiCi, branimir stoikoviCi, `kultura, menejmenti, animacia,marketingi~, Tbilisi, 2007.s. razmaZe, `internetis Tanamedrove teqnologiebi~, Tbilisi, 2003.g. armstrongi, a. kotleri, `marketingis safuZvlebi~, 2005.www.wikibooks.org174 175


avtorTa Sesaxebmarine (maka) vasaZe _ Teatrmcodne,daamTavra Tbilisis Teatraluri institutis Teatrmcodneobisfakulteti.xelmZRvanelobs saqarTvelos SoTa rusTavelis Taetrisa da kinossaxelmwifo universitetis sauniversiteto gamomcemloba `kentavrs~.aris amave universitetis gazeT `durujis~ redaqtori, agreTvedamaarsebeli da redaqtori gazeTisa `kultura~.moRvaweobs saerTaSoriso kulturis fond `kavkasiaSi~ menejerad,aris kulturis saerTaSoriso bazrobis (2003. 2005, 2007) erT-erTikoordinatori. aris ramdenime wignis redaqtori; sistematiuradaqveynebs statiebs, werilebs, recenziebs Tanamedrove Teatralurprocesebsa da problemebze JurnalebSi: `sabWoTa xelovneba~, `Teatralurimoambe~, `Teatri da cxovreba”, gazeTebSi: `kultura”, `duruji”.tel: +995 (95) 30 50 60el. fosta: vasilisa_63@yahoo.commaia goSaZe _ xelovnebaTmcodnebis doqtori,saqarTvelos SoTa rusTavelis Teatrisa da kinos saxelmwifouniversitetis asocirebuli profesori.daamTavra amave universitetis Teatrmcodneobis fakulteti.sxvadasxva dros gamoqveynebuli aqvs publikaciebi amerikuli, antikurida renesansis dramaturgiis Sesaxeb.amJamad muSaobs Temaze: `variaciebi miTosur motivebze~.tel: +995 (32) 99 65 64maia kiknaZe _ xelovnebaTmcodneobis doqtori,saqarTvelos SoTa rusTavelis Teatris da kinos saxelmwifouniversitis asocirebuli profesori.daamTavra amave universitetis Teatrmcodneobis fakulteti.1992 wlidan muSaobs amave universitetSi da uZRveba seminars TeatriskritikaSi. kiTxulobs leqciebs qarTul Teatrze. sadisertacioTema: `eqspresionizmi qarTul TeatrSi~.amJamad muSaobs marionetebis Teatris istoriaze.gamoqveynebuli aqvs ormocdaaTze meti naSromi Jurnal-gazeTebSi.tel: +995 (99) 72 95 21marika mamacaSvili _ Teatrmcodne,daamTavra SoTa rusTavelis Teatrisa da kinos institutiTeatrmcodnis specialobiT. ibeWdeboda JurnalebSi: `xelovneba~ da`Teatraluri moambe~. amJamad muSaobs specialistad gamomcemloba`kentavrSi~. ikvlevs piter brukis Semoqmedebas.tel: +995 (77) 41 00 11; +995 (32) 22 21 11el-fosta: marika_nikola@yahoo.comlamara RonRaZe _ xelovnebaTmcodneobis doqtori,damTavrebuli aqvs saqarTvelos SoTa rusTavelis saxelobis saxelmwifoTeatraluri institutis Teatrmcodneobis fakulteti.aris saqrTvelos SoTa rusTavelis Teatrisa da kinos saxelmwifouniversitetis asocirebuli profesori, mwerali. 6 wignisa da mravalisaJurnalo da sagazeTo publikaciis avtori. miRebuli aqvs saqarTveloserovnuli samecniero fondis orwliani granti. amJamad muSaobsZveli qarTuli Teatris anTropologiis sakiTxebze. am mimarTulebiTgamoqveynebuli aqvs Targmani JurnalSi `Teatri da cxovreba~.tel: +995 (32) 98 94 81laSa CxartiSvili _ Teatrmcodne,saqarTvelos SoTa rusTavelis Teatrisa da kinos saxelmwifouniversitetis doqtoranti, amave universitetis Teatris samecnieroseqtoris mecnier-TanamSromeli, Teatrmcodne. daamTavra saqarTvelosSoTa rusTavelis saxelobis Teatrisa da kinos saxelmwifouniversitetis Teatrmcodneobis fakulteti. muSaobs Teatris istoriasada kritikaSi. aris 5 wignis: `baTumis operisa da baletis Teatrisistoria:, `baTumis tikinebis Teatri”, `kritikuli etiudebi”, `baTumisTojinebisa da moxard mayurebelta Teatris istoriis sakiTxebi~,`iusuf kobalaZe~, 10-mde samecniero naSromis da 200-mde recenziisavtori, aris 2004 wlis saukeTeso studenti-Teatrmcodne, 2005wlis saukeTeso Teatraluri recenziis avtori, 2006 wels moipovaprezidentis granti da stipendia, moRvaweobs SoTa rusTavelissaxelmwifo universitetis xelovnebis fakultetze Teatris istoriismaswavleblad. ikvlevs `mefe liris~ scenuri interpretaciis problemebsrobert sturuas, piter brukisa da jorjo streleris SemoqmedebaSi.tel.: +995 (77) 90 40 41el. fosta: amtanilasha@yahoo.com176 177


levan xeTageuri - misi specialobaa Teatrmcodneoba da kulturismenejmenti. levan xeTaguri aris kulturis fond kavkasiis prezidenti.igi aris SoTa rusTavelis Teatrisa da kinos universitetis reqtorismoadgile da profesori. igi aris sxvadasxva saerTaSoriso akademiuri,mrCevelTa da samecniero sabWos wevri. 1995 wlidan aris qselguliveris wevri. 2008 wlidan aris evropis kulturis parlamentiswevri da strategiuli jgufi “ASoE”-is wevri.1990 wlidan igi aris aseulobiT adgilobrivi Tu saerTaSorisoproeqtis iniciatori, menejeri, prodiuseri da monawile.1997 wlidan aris saqarTvelos erovnuli centris generaluri mdivanida saqarTveloSi evropuli Tatris kvelviTi institutis direqtori.aris FIRT-is wevri. 1981 welidan aris 80-ze meti naSromis/redaqtorida mTargmneli/ Jurnalebsa da gazeTebSi (qarTuli, inglisuri,azerbaijanuli, slovakuri da a.S.). avtoria ramdenime wignisa. 2000wels igi dajildovda Svedi mwerlebis gildiis mier.1991 wlidan aris sxvadasxva kulturis programebis: seminarebis,konferenciebisa da festivalebis organizatori. 1996 wlidan igimiwveviT kiTxulobs leqciebs.tel: +995 (32) 98 30 75el-fosta: lkhetaguri@dsl.geTea mJavanaZe _ filosofiis mecnierebaTa doqtori,iv. javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetissocialur da politikur mecnierebaTa fakultetis saswavlo procesismarTvis samsaxuris ufrosi specialisti.gamoqveynebuli aqvs cxra samecniero naSromiJurnalistikaTmcodneobaSi.tel: +995 (32) 36 67 77; +995 (55) 43 81 07el. Ffosta: tatia @ tsu. geTinaTin Wabukiani _ reJisori,saqrTvelos SoTa rusTavelis Teatrisa da kinos saxelmwifouniversitetis asocirebuli profesori.sxvadasxva dros muSaobda saqarTvelos televiziaSi (I arxi) _ jersatelevizio TeatrSi, Semdeg musikalur redaqciaSi, rogorc damdgmelaseve sabavSvo programebis mTavar reJisorad.misi sadisertacio Temaa: `sabavSvo telemauwyeblobis sazogadoebrividaniSnuleba da esTetikuri Taviseburebani~ (qarTuli teleproeqtebismixedviT).amJamad muSaobs Temaze: `montaJis struqturuli Semadgenloba~.tel: +995 (99) 94 47 00oliko JRenti _ xelovnebaTmcodneobis doqtori,saqarTvelos SoTa rusTavelis Teatrisa da kinos saxelmwifouniversitetis samecniero kvleviTi centris wamyvani mecnier-TanamSromeli. baTumis SoTa rusTavelis saxelmwifo universitetismiwveuli profesori. paralelurad muSaobs dokumentur kinoSi.aris avtori da reJisori dokumenturi film-esses `knut hamsuniskavkasiuri misteriebi~ (2005).kvlevis sfero: erovnul-socialuri sakiTxi 10-20-iani wlebis qarTulkinoprocesTan mimarTebaSi, qarTuli kinoavangardi. miTi da narativiamerikul kinoSi, modernizmis sakiTxisaTvis qarTul kinosa daliteraturaSi.tel: +995 (99) 27 18 15el.fosta: olga-zhgenti@mail.ruiuri mRebriSvili _ filosofiis mecnierebaTa doqtori,saqarTvelos SoTa rusTavelis Teatrisa da kinos saxelmwifouniversitetis profesori, doqtori. mihyavs samagistro kursi:`Tanamedrove menejmenti kulturasa da xelovnebaSi~.ganxorcielebuli aqvs mravali proeqti xelovnebis sferoSi.periodulad mowveviT atarebs treining programebs menejmentSisaqarTveloSi da sazRvargareT.tel.: +995 (32) 93 64 08el. fosta.: ibccp@caucasusfoundation.ge178 179


THEATRE STUDIESMaia Goshadze“DWELLER OF EARTHLY SURFACE”SummeryThe article “Dweller of earthly surface” examines the problem of man’stransformation, growth and expansion of his consciousness in context ofputting an emphasis on the inner instead of the outer and striving towards theperception of the essential, hidden depths.In the works of different time periods – whether in Homer’s “Odyssey”, Goethe’s“Faust” or V. Nabokov’s prose the motive of hero overcoming everydayobstacles is depicted in the article as expression of empirical man’s search (asa sunken treasure lying on the ocean’s surface) towards his inner self.The article tries to analyze the way the different writers depict in their worksthe motive of capturing the invisible depths of the visible reality, coming “intouch” with it and getting to actually perceive it.The mystical moment of inner meeting with the divine unexpectedly sparklesin front of the mortal man and only the one who is awake will be able to feeland perceive it.Perception or misperception of one’s inner voice– admission or denial ofone’s own opinion, emotion or impression is the expression of the eternaldilemma of to be or not to be – expression of the existing or missing meetingwith oneself.ABOUT AUTHORGraduated from Shota Rustaveli Theatre and Film University, faculty of artcriticism. Since 1986 until now has been working as a lecturer of European andAmerican dramatic art. She is the author of dissertation “The dramatic art ofTennessee Williams” (1990). From 1994 until 2002, worked in Georgian TV-Radio Corporation as an editor in the department of the Arts. She is an authorof a theatre program and scientific publications on American, Antique andRenaissance drama. From 1990 acquired master’s degree in arts. Fluent inGeorgian, Russian, English. Currently works at the problem of interpretationof mythological themes.Tel: + 995 (32) 99 65 64Maka VasadzeFORMATION OF ROBERT STURUA’S THEATRICAL LANGUAGE(Interpretation of Georgian Classical Literature a la Robert Sturua)SummaryIn this part of the article I am continuing to discuss Robert Sturua’s plays:`Betrayal’ (1974) by Sumbatashvil-Iuzhin, `Step-mother of Samanishvili’ (1969)by Kldiashvili (with Chkheidze) and `Kvarkvare Tutaberi’ (1974) by Kakabadze.Robert Sturua’s Georgian classical plays set in the Rustaveli theatre have hadrelative success. Nevertheless, they have become the subject of activediscussions among the society. Probably reason for this was a completelynew approach by the director.When setting `Betrayal’ the director refuses to accept all other older traditionsof staging this play, as he had done it in the cases of `Step-mother ofSamanishvili’ and `Kvarkvare Tutaberi’. On the contrary he tries to widen theevents of a concrete epoch and make this national character more universal.If in `Step- mother of Samanishvili’ Sturua investigates and shows the spiritualand social processes of human relationaship, in `Betrayal’ and `KvarkvareTutaberi’ he establieshes principles of political theatre. These priciples laterdevelop in `Caucasian Chalk Circle’, `Richard’ and other plays.The concept ofthese plays is a struggle against injustice.With the aim to show better themeaning of the virtue, director is not avoiding to deepen and tense situations.In this way he is able to awake our minds and set us to defend justice.ABOUT AUTHORMarine (Maka) Vasadze –theater criticHas graduated from the faculty of theater art at the Tbilisi Theatrical Institute.Head of Shota Rustaveli Theater and Film University publishing house“Kentavri”. Editor of another newspaper of the same institution “Duruji” anda founder and editor of a newspaper “Kultura”.Holds a position of a manager at the International Culture Fund “Kavkasia”, isone of the coordinators of the International Cultural Fare (2003, 2005, 2007). Isthe editor of several books; systematically publishes articles and reviews onthe processes and problems of contemporary theater:Magazines: “Soviet Art”, “Theatrical News”, “Theater and Life”.Newspapers: “Kultura”, “Duruji”.Tel: +995 (95) 30 50 60E-mail: vasilisa@yahoo.com180 181


Maia KiknadzeMarika MamatsashviliTHAILAND AND KHMERE NANGSummaryIn the Introduction part “Thailand and Khmere Nang” is narrated about Nangorigin and spreading in Indonesia. The terms Khmere and Thailand Nangmeans, leather picture and in figurative meaning theatrical pictures cut fromleather. In the work is given great consideration to specifications of arrangingthe performance, where the biggest screen (length 15 m., width 4-5) in theworld is used at its cultic religious part. There is distinguished a particularparticipation of three main personages: Shiva, Gandegili and Vishnu in theperformance. Also it is underlined the function and meaning of music, puppetmaker – dancer and a “text reader” or a reciter. The special consideration isgiven to “Nang” repertoire, where the peoms made on Indian epos “Ramiyana”motives; Thai “Ramakian” and Khmer “Ramker” were represented.As a conclusion, it is discussed Khmer and Thai Nang similarity (repertoire, arule of arranging of performance) and differences; techniques of leatherprocessing and its role in puppet theater history.ABOUT AUTHORGraduated from Shota Rustaveli Theatre and Film University with major intheatre studies in the year of 1989.From 1992 works at the same University and guides the seminar of theatrecriticism. Lectures on Georgian theatre history.Dissertation thesis: “Expressionism in Georgian theatre”.Is an Assistant Professor.Currently works on the puppet theatre history.Published 50 works in newspaper-magazines.Tel: +995 (99) 72 95 21BROOK AS INNOVATORSummaryThere are directors – researchers, they are constantly in search ofdetermination and investigation of those links and relations, that exist betweentheatre and life, actors and the audience, spectators and theatre. These linksand relations are in constant need of renewal, constant need for update.One of Brook’s obsessions was to go to Africa and stage a performancewith native people. Finding a different audience was an additional experimentfor the director: Will he be able to present “The Cherry Orchard” to the“Marsians” so that the performance has an emotional impact on them?The director of “Mahabharata”, “Marat Sade”, “King Lear” makes anemphasis on the problems of ordinary people. Africa – vulcano of ideas,continent of story tellers with its indigenous nature and primeval instincts isthe world, where from large scale down to the detailed you come to a veryprimitive, but real emotion. This is the reason for Brook going back to thebasic theatre elements: actor, voice, movement, empty stage. “If life gave birthto the theatre, then it is life itself which is questioned”, - Brook wrote. Insearch for this kind of life, “real” life did he discover Africa. Accumulator ofhis research, Africa became his field of interest from 1970. He was one of thefirst Europeans, who traveled there with his novelties and became obsessedwith the African, traditional. It was in Africa, where he diverged from theephemerical and isolated and with the help of the indigenous, primeval culturefound the most important – human being, with little joy and pain, huge passionsand good.ABOUT AUTHORGraduated from Shota Rustaveli Theatre and Film University with major intheatre studies in the year of 1989. She has published in the magazines“Khelovneba” and “Teatraluri Moambe”. Now she is working as a specialistin the publishing house “KENTAVRI”. She is a resercher of Peter Brookscreative works.Tel: +995 (77) 41 00 11; +995 (32) 22 21 11;E-mail: marika_nikola@yahoo.com182 183


Lamara GongadzeSOLUTIONS TO THE PROBLEM OF ACTOR’S DEVELOPMENTSummaryWhen we speak about Georgian theatre, the problem of education of actoris the main subject we must discuss, because professional school of theatreeducation was established only in the beginning of 20 th century. ThisEmptiness was filled with the ways of becoming skilful, applied by Georgianpublic and theatre figures. These attempts were different at the variousstages of developing of Georgian theatre. In presented work these attemptsare described starting from ancient Georgian theatre and ending withGeorge Eristavi Theatre termination.ABOUT AUTHORPh.D. in Art Criticism.Graduated from Shota Rustaveli Theatre and Film University with honors.She is associated professor of Shota Rustaveli University of Theatre andCinema; Author of 6 books and many publications for journals and newspapers.She gained 2 year grant from Georgian National Scientific Fund. She Works atsubjects of Anthropology of Ancient Georgian Theatre.Tel: +995 (32) 98 94 81Lasha ChkhartishviliON THE ISSUE OF THE BASIS OF ACTOR’S AND DIRECTOR’SSYNTHESIS IN TEH 40S OF THE TWENTIETH CENTURY(ON BASIS OF W. SHAKESPEAR’S “KING LEAR”)SummaryThe work of Lasha Chkhartishvili examines the processes of the GeorgianTheatre of the thirties and fourties of the twentieth century and particularlysynthesis of actor and director on basis of W. Shakespear’s “King Lear”.The author minds, that from the fourties starts the era of universalism inGeorgian theatre. The actor, who traditionally made efforts in direction takesthe lead role in theatre once again. In contrast to the great actors of thenineteenth century (V. Abashidze, L. Meskhishvili, K. Kipiani, K. Meskhi andothers) actors of new generation were much more keen in the essence ofdirecting. But “restoration of tranditions” was taking place in a completelynew political and social environment. The leader of the actors of this generationwas Akaki Vasadze. Further generations of actors became ill with the so called“Vasadze complex”, which was understood as actor’s strive for directing. A.Vasadze was the best among actors who strove for directing.Lasha Chkhartishvili examines staging of “King Lear” by A. Vasadze, whereAkaki Khorava depicted Lear. The author thinks, that the staging was a failureand gives his versions behind it.ABOUT AUTHORDoctorate student of Shota Rustaveli Theatre and Film University. Scholar ofthe same University’s sector of theatre studies, theatre historian. Graduatedfrom Shota Rustaveli Theatre and Film University, Faculty of Theatre Studies.Works in theatre history and criticism. Is the author of 5 books: “History ofBatumi Opera and Ballet Theatre”, “Tikinebi Theatre of Batumi”, “CriticalSketches”, “Issues of Batumi Puppet and Children’s Theatre”, “IusupKobaladze”. Is the author of about 10 scientific works and 200 reviews. Is thebest student theatre historian of the year 2004. Is the best author of theatrereview in the year of 2005. In the year 2006 he got President’s grant andscholarship. Currently works as a teacher of theatre history in Shota RustaveliTheatre and Film University, Faculty of the Arts. Works on the problems of“King Lear’s” scenic interpretations in the work of Robert Sturua, Peter Brookeand Gorgio Streler.Tel.: + 995 (77) 90 40 41E-mail: amtanilasha@yahoo.comLevan KhetaguriTHIRD REALITYSummaryThis article is more close to assay or to theatrical Manifest. Where, authortries to express his reflections about the FUTURE THEATRE.Through the centuries we try to response – where we ARE?Now we are XXI century – accounting time from the origin of religion of love- the century where we freeze with luck of love but are in Global Warming time.We are live and exist, but where in which measurement.184 185


Statement by Spanish Renaissance play writer Calderon was – Life is dream?!We keep for a long time the double measurements:Life – dreamBorn – deathParadise – hellCalderon was asking where is true reality, where we exist in real – there whatwe call life, or there what we call dreamWhere is our real existence?NEW MEASUREMENTSInteractivity…From postmodernism to neo intellectualismIts time of post post …Art research is art philosophy – Contemporary art – study academics arecultural anthropologists.From Interactivity to multimedia expressionOur perception is interactive, which causing our self-expression as interactiveand only form of it is multimediaWe exist simultaneously in several realities. More important among them isCyber Reality.We start leaving in Cyber World. We masked in cyber world, create new namesand biographies, individualities and faces.In cyber reality we exist without time and boarders, in practice, in overtime,over real measurementsTheatre turns to performance, as synthetic art of humans thought and cyberdreams – self expression without frontiers- we aren’t in the news world- we are in the world of freeze seconds- there are in the space of non stop movement, word, sound etc in thenewer ending world, at the time of space of sending massagesTraditional ways of thinking are diedCollapsed world of Babylon – starting restoring in Cyber Space.We became citizens of cyber world.Our expression now is only through technologiesWe are in last few decades of the printing book’s time, soon all books will DIEin cyber world, but will born with new image – cyber imagesHow will look theatre now?Theatre as – INTERACTIVETheatre speaking simultaneously in all languages same time, without boarders,understandable for everybody – with sounds, noise, color, movement, music,light and shadow; with projection and translation, in different direction in onetime in whole space.Acting space not only in the theatre, space leave theatre buildings, he becamewithout frontiersWith high technologies theatre became more mistrial and mystic, he becameclosest to naked the soulIts naked mental stream thought, associations, everything what happened inthe brainExpression of dreams and showing of thoughts is real – theater now couldshow what we think, what we doing, and what we wish to do.Everything cold does now multimedia theatre.Theater became global and same time very intimate. Performance now looksas meditation and séance of magnetism.Theatre created daily rituals – theatre pray for the universe, through neckingthe human’s brain.Today art is human tooHuman measure for freedomWe are the time predicted by Pythagoras – everything in numbers, everythingis digitalThe god is absolute186 187


Absolute is Zero and plus One, simple truthAll world is digitalThe base of the Universe is Absolute Harmony – Zero and everything changedand created with simple action – to add OneUniverse is only Zero and OneZero as never ending Universe and One as any individual in it.ABOUT AUTHORDr. Levan KhetaguriHis background is Theatre Study and cultural management. Levan Khetaguriis a president of Stichting Caucasus Foundation /The Netherlands/. He isvice-rector and professor of Shota Rustaveli Georgian State University ofTheatre and Film. Member of different international institutions, advisers andscientific boards. Since 1995 member of Gulliver network. Since 2008 memberof European Cultural Parliament and member of ASoE Strategic group.As practitioner since 1990 he run several hundreds of local and internationalprojects as initiator, manager, producer or participant.Since 1997 Secretary General of ITI Georgian National Center and Director ofthe European Theatre Research Institute in Georgia. Member of FIRT. Since1981 author of over 80 publications /editor and translator/ in the magazinesand newspapers (Georgian, English, Azerbaijanian, Slovak etc). Author ofseveral book. In 2000 was awarded by Swedish Writers Guild.Since 1991 organizer of various cultural programs: seminars, conferences,festivals. Since 1996 as invited professor he reads lectures and takes part indifferent international conferences and symposiums, special courses.Tel: +995 (E-mail:CINEMA STUDIESOlga Zhgenti“AUTHENTIC CAUCASIANS” OF THE RUSSIAN WESTERNMOVIESConceptual And Aesthetical Aspects Of Lermontov’s Screening InGeorgian FilmSummaryIn the article the author goes over the genre structure and mytho-socialaspects of Lermontov’s screenings in Georgian film. In the twenties the moviesby Vladimir Barsky “Mary the Princess”, “Bella”, “Maksim Maksimich” wereall gathered under one famous filmnovel called “A Hero of Our Time”. Theesthetics of the mentioned film cycle was greatly determined by the conceptof “authentic Caucasians” by the famous Russian writer and poet MikheilLermontov. This concept is clearly represented in many of his works. Accordingto this concept, film director Barsky who emigrated from Russia to Georgia in20-yes created a screen hero which was a mixture of romantic, demonicPechorin-antihero and a fatal, caucasian woman-vampire. Parallel to the movie’soriental motives Lermontov’s colonial viewpoint started to emerge, whichitself corresponded with the propagand that the Russian Empire led againstCaucasus. As a result of colonial ideology there emerged a westerninterpretation of Caucasian topic in film, which caused a formation ofmythologems and stereoptypes in Russian films about wild and terroristCaucasians.Lermontov’s personal drama was well analyzed by Georgian writer andphilosopher Grigol Robakidze in his sociological sketch “The mask ofLermontov”. Robakidze from Nietzshe’s viewpoint explained the secret behindLermontov’s “mask”, which he depicted fataly and tragically in the heart ofCaucasus – home of the Gods and humankind.ABOUT AUTHORLeading science-worker of Shota Rustaveli Theatre and Film University’sscientific research center, art historian, Doctor of Philosophy.In 2005 she wrote her dissertation on the topic “National and social issue inGeorgian film in relation to a film process of the twenties”.188 189


From 200 she is a guest teacher of Batumi University.She works on the issues of Georgian and American film history. Researchfield: Georgian Film Modernism of the twenties and mythological-narrativestructure of American film.O. Zhgenti is the author of 25 research-reweus about the film historyand art. Zhgenti’s critical articles and reweus about her are published ina local and foreign press and journals / Norwegian, German, Spanish,Azerbaijan/She is she author and director of documentaries “Knut Hamsun’sCaucasian mysteries” (2005) and “John Steinbeck’s Georgian Journal”(2009)Tel.: +995 (99) 27 18 15E-mail: olga-zhgenti@mail.ruMEDIA STUDIESTea MzhavanadzeGEORGIAN RADIO AS THE INSTRUMENT OF STATE GOVERNINGSummaryExplanation and analyze of any public phenomena can’t be interpreted withouthistorical priors what has stimulated to-day’s face. After formulating Georgianradio it served not only state ideology but also helped Georgian culture andart to develop during years. Although Georgian radio as the instrument ofstate control was marked at the beginning.In each separate period, corresponding concrete social and political situationwere changed problems of Georgian radio, but essence was not changed.Destination of public radio was determined by that social function, role andplace what it had in political structure of existent society. In the Soviet period,radio as means of mass information and propaganda was the part of biggercommunist ideology based on stern principles and methods. It was activeinstrument for the government in the sphere of society governing.Current historical processes can’t be simply estimated in Georgian radio. Twodirections-political and cultural determined its activity during all period ofexistence, though each of them left it’s own trace in spiritual life of the country.Today, certainly a lot of things are differently seen. It must be also mentioned,that in the epoch of development global TV, internet and multimedia radiowon’t be able to occupy the place what it had if even twenty years ago. Butin the history of society mass-informational relations played its role and thisrole must be comprehended without exaggeration and conceal.ABOUT AUTHORPh.D. DoctorThe head specialist of educational process control service at the faculty ofSocial and Political Sciences in Tbilisi State University named after IvaneJavakhishvili9 published works in JournalismTel: + 995 (32) 36 67 77; +995 (55) 43 81 07E mail: tatia @ tsu. Ge190 191


Tinatin ChabukianiSTRUCTURAL BODY OF EDITINGChapter twoEDITING AS MEANS OF FICTIONAL DEPICTION(Organization of time)SummeryFamous directors and theoreticians agree, that the main function of film liesin reflection of time, thus in the screen art the “organization of time” has amajor role. For the illusion of continuity to be created on screen,“organization of time” by means of editing becomes one of the mainconditions. Time is always transformed on screen with the exception oftelevision formats: live reportage and direct broadcasting. First of all, aconstruction should be created, director should decide the succession of astory, chronologically or not and the means of time transformation to beused: shortening of time, prolonging of time, time skipping and etc. In thispart of my work, I tried to formulate successively the way I should teach thestudents organization of “on screen time”. Methodology is based on theexperience of famous film directors and theoreticians.ABOUT AUTHORDirector, researcher. An associate Professor of Shota Rustaveli Theatre andFilm UniversityShe has graduated from Shota Rustaveli Theatre and Film University’sDrama Directing Faculty.From 1980 to 1989 worked on Georgian Broadcasting Company (Channel 1)– first in television theatre, then in music editorial board as an artisticdirector; from 1989 to 2004 worked as an artistic director of child programs.Her dissertation thesis is: “Civil designation of child broadcast and itsaesthetical characteristics” (according to Georgian TV projects)Currently she works on a topic: “Structural Consistency of Editing”Tel: +995 (99) 94 47 00CULTURE MANAGEMENTIuri MgebrishviliGOAL SETTINGSummeryThe article examines the issue of setting goals. It is impossible to move forwardwithout having a goal. It helps analyze management of current operations,cases, functions. Usage of SMART technique is a professional requirementfor any type of manager when it comes to setting goals.SMART technique uses five characteristics for setting goals:CertaintyMeasurabilityAttainabilityRelativityTime framesA certain specific goal has more chances to be fulfilled, than a generally(vaguely) set goal.Measurability of reaching a goal means measurability of a process. Here it isimportant to foresee not only a condition, which has to be reach but thestarting point as well. When it comes to a joint management, objectiveprocedures and methods of management should be implemented. Thus theywill help to establish attainability of set goals. When a goal is set right, it ishard to achieve. For it to be achieved, a manager should work hard. Thismakes the work even more interesting and creative.Relativity – is absence of factors, which influence the set goal but are out ofthe worker’s control. It is of great importance, that the worker accepts relativityof a set task and realizes that its attainability is directly connected with hiseffort.The final requirement for setting a task is making the time frame clear. This isof great importance particularly when it comes to different managers workingover a set of subsequent tasks.ABOUT AUTHORPh.D. Professor of Shota Rustaveli Theatre and Film University, Ph.D. Heleads a master’s course in “Contemporary Management in Culture andArts”. He is an author of many art projects. Periodically as a guest lecturerhe does management training programs in Georgia and abroad.Tel: +995 (32) 93 64 08E-mail: ibccp@caucasusfoundation.ge192 193


“ANTHROPOLOGY OF ANCIENT GEORGIANTHEATRE ART”Program Leader - Lamara Gongadze.Nino DarsaliaTHE CULT OF THE DEAD IN GEORGIAN PERFORMANCE ARTSummaryIn this work is discussed the ancient traditions connected to dead cult, thereare a lot of theatrical elements in it. Especially we can see it in soul taker’s job,whose duty was being the middle element between the soul and the body ofthe livings. The soul taker got in to dead soul and talked to it. The soul taker,just as an actor could appear as another person and show his fillings. He hadto perform the dead’s thoughts just as the actors do. Soul taker could performas an actor. He had to act as a dead man did, and talk with his voice.In the cult of the dead important is also the job of “crying person”. Thesecrying women retooled the dead’s life with sincere words. The crying personhad to look after their appearance too. So they were the directions and theactors at the same tome.There is also one important thing, a horse racing, that reveals close relationswith old Georgian seen — “ Berikaoba” and “Kheenoba”.For the first we can say that both performances were for everybody.It was common for both performances to walk from village to village and askfore food.Both performances needed masks, both lasted for few days.So we can say that in cold for dead, there are a lot of theatrical performances.Sopo KhachidzeTHE IDEA BEHIND STEP DANCE AND ITS DESIGNATIONSummaryThe article deals with the origin of Georgian Folk dance, the art history ofGeorgian Folk dance takes place from the primitive period of world historywhen dance was just only the part of hunting process and it did not play anyaesthetic role in the lives of the people of that period.Georgia’s choreographic past is very rich of “Perkhuli” style dances whichexpress the infinite strength of character of the Georgian people, history andspirit of ancient Georgians.There still remain the dances that are full of pagan spirit: “Lile”, “Adrekelia”,“Dala Khojas Khelgvajale”and etc.Georgian dances represent a live history book expressing the centuries ofGeorgian art, culture and tradition (hunting, wars, religion). The article alsocovers the foreign authors’ works.194 195


“CONTEMPORARY MANAGEMENT IN CULTURE ANDARTS”Program Leader - Iuri Mgebrishvili.Elene BabakishviliSPONSORSHIP AS AN INSTRUMENT OF PRSummaryIn Georgia cultural organizations basically resort to private sector for financialsupport Attraction of sponsors is one of significant troubles for each culturalevent. Essence of business relationship is to establish mutual relationshipsas a result of which benefit both noncommercial, cultural organization andsponsor. Generally sponsorship brings profit to noncommercial organizationsame time strengthening image of a corporate partner and facilitating progressin production and sales. Overloading of mass media forced companies to findan alternative way such as sponsorship. This is a very effective manner toadvertise and make headway. In contrast to advertising it enables the sponsorcompany to improve the public relations, to create positive image andreputation of society. Positive image affects public relationship and inspiresrespect, worm emotions and arises desire in consumer to cooperate with asponsor company. Nowadays influenced companies more aggressively applysponsorship being the best advertisement of their activity and effectiveinstrument of making PR.Marina BalanchivadzeMARKETING IN MANAGER ACTIVITIESSummaryTourism marketing in manager activities is business coordination tool.Organizing tourist offices, cooperatives and associations which reasonablymeet requirements and methods directed to satisfaction of people requirementscaused by the reason of having a rest (cognitive aspect, rest, entertainment,medical treatment, sport competitions, recreation and etc.).Marketing manager in the system of cultural service activates in a manner likeother service systems. The tourism service significantly differs from fieldsconnected with production of material merchandize, instead of goods thetours appear in the market. The peculiarity of marketing lies in permanentdynamic changes of the market.Tourism importance is gradually increasing for marketing management. Its aimis to apply tourism as a positive factor for retention of units of the worldheritage and for eradication of envisaged threats.Marketing management creates wide spectrum of tourism requirementswhereupon it conditions opportunities of the population development. Itscreative activities focus to involve the local population in tourism activities.For example, guides training and creation of small enterprises and developmentof service system as well.The role of tourism marketing management lies in exposure of cultural diversityfeature of the country and this diversity heft.Tourism development should proceed with inter-field and global approach,cooperation with society and the private sector.Marketing and culture manager in the field of culture has been defined.Peculiarities of management in the field of culture have been cleared up.Ia GabuniaLika Kuparadze“SESILY” FILM FESTIVAL, SOME MANAGEMENT ISSUESSummaryYouth film festival “Sesily” was founded on March 26, 2001 by Georgian filmdirector Dato Janelidze.The mission of the film festival is to reveal new talents, popularize them,acquaint Georgian spectators with new films of foreign film industry anddevelop new traditions and relations in this field.One of the advantages of the film festival “Sesily” is that it is noncommercial,i.e. spectators can attend it and its other satellite (associate) events free ofcharge as well as to get catalogues.It is essential to raise funds in order to hold the film festival at a high level.This can be achieved by attracting sponsors.Festival managers should elaborate specific strategy to show potentialsponsors the importance, features of the project and their input in theimplementation of the festival.196 197


Sofio KomladzeMARKETING RESEARCH OF ORGANIZATION AND ITSMANAGEMENT IN THE SPHERE OF PUBLISHINGSummaryBook market is specific and different from other products by customers. If wename the product `’intellectual’’ we can name customers of this product asintellectual customers. Spreading of this product requests needful andadequate method of approach. Its presentation must be extensive due toeconomic, legislative and domestic factors, with exclusion all danger and riskoccasion. The book is not ordinary product. it is noncommercial product.Publisher’s good management must make product winning and successful.Statistic of Georgian publishing is disturbing. In our country very small quantityof books is published annually.Natalia MurjikneliMANAGING TEAMS AND INDIVIDUALSSummaryHuman resources are most critical resources to organization whichdetermines effectiveness of any organization. Managing people to achieveorganization goals it is difficult task.Goal of managing human resources is to determine all factors by whichemployee’s effectiveness is measured. All individuals differ from each otherby tasks and abilities, which determines the work and duties they are fulfillingas well as regular attendance at work. In addition they have different motivationto manage their activities.In all organization It’s necessary that abilities of employees properly do theirjob should coincide with requirements of job and awards proposed.In real world the motivation is challenge that today’s managers has.Unfortunately majority of manager are not interesting individual characteristicsemployees and they require just fulfill concrete task. Is very often whenqualified employees have good work conditions and high salary but his jobeffectiveness is quite low. Is an also very often case with conflicts andmisunderstand between managers and employees.Tamari PirosmanashviliDEVELOPMENT OF LIBRARY’S PAID SERVICESummaryResearch of alternative recourse for library service financing is very importantin modern terms. Today libraries need more and more material-financing helpof funds renewal for purpose of fill up of inquiry apparatus and renewal of oldinventory.Library service must be organized for maximally satisfy of consumer requests.Add paying service in market economic conditions is expedient activity oflibrary. Libraries have satisfy consumer’s modern and enlarged requests.Libraries have show to the society that they are not only useful institutes,they are necessary social institutes which have very important functions ineducational, information and teaching sphere and have important role incountry intellectual and cultural life.Tsatsa JorjiashviliPR IN TOUR AGENCYSummaryIn any country tourism companies should realize that without PR (PublicRelations) management it would be impossible to succeed in a long-run becauseit is the sphere which provides agency with clients and maintains them.Nowadays tourism companies in Georgia lack of PR activity, actually it is a bigproblem.As we know PR is the image of an organization; so each tourism companyshould create such positive image which will last for a long time.The high level of service affects positively on the clients. Satisfied customersshare their feelings with other people by means of this the image and awarenessof the firm is strengthened in society.So, we hope that tourism companies in Georgia will pay attention to thesepoints and the level of their service too.As for the companies which cannot provide their clients with a good serviceand positive image they will lose in a competition.The only way out for every agency is to form the strategy of PR managementand fulfil it.198 199


Nino KurashviliORGANIZATION’S ADVERTISEMENT ACTIVITY, ITS MANAGEMENTAND IMPROVEMENTSummaryNowadays in the world advertisement is known as the mix of the culture andthe science and the marketing charges as investment. The good advertisementnot is the one which is distinguished with its originality content, with beautyof the personnel, and creativity, but the one which will make particularspectators to memorize easily and better company’s products and cervicesand sell it. Before making the advertising, you must know on the present,who is your consumer. The advertising ought to solve any problem of aperson and beside there must be psychological or economical incomes. Thisis the leading approach of advertising agencies and the advertisers.Nino SharmiashviliMANAGEMENT OF LABOR MOTIVATION DEVELOPMENTSummaryThere are many touristic companies in Georgia, main factors of theirsuccess is the right way of staff hiring and the right forms ofrelationships. And satisfying costumer interests are achieved whenindividual employee is performing his job clearly and honesty.It is necessary Business Plan for the CEO to adopt mission and thegoals of the touristic company.There are Infotours, where touristic operators are contradicted to the routsof their future consumers. Success of various job places is depended onprofessional Human recourses and high level knowledge of staff.As well it’s depended on transparent relationships between. Managementand the employees.Mariam ChkeidzeANALYSIS OF LEGISLATION IN THE SPHERE OF CULTURE ANDARTS: EFFECTIVENESS AND SHORTCOMINGSSummaryThe main indicator of cultural level of a society has always been the degree ofattention the state devotes to culture and arts. The following paper discussesprimary characteristics of culture and arts and attempts to demonstrateproblems in relation to contemporary trends of the development of a society.The paper lists those primary and secondary legislative acts in Georgia thatare targeted towards solving these problems and also demonstrates the relationof these legislative acts to international legislation.Mariam ChumburidzePRINCIPALS OF SELECTION AND RECRUITMENT OF STAFF IN THEORGANIZATIONSummaryThe article discusses interrelations between the state and organizations, themission and the strategy of the organizations when selecting human resources.The definition of principle role of correct, individual selection of staff forcreating unanimous team in the organization is given. Taking into considerationthe factor of harmonic coexistence of the cooperators for high level of leadingthe process of their management. That will guarantee the successfulfunctioning of the organization as the part of the structure of the State. Thereare problems raised which follow the process and the reasons are given whichraised them offering alternative modes for eliminating these problems, despitethe fact that there are not generally accepted standards of selection processthere are general criterions given in the article and the results are describedthat will follow taking them into consideration as the success of theorganization. As it is very important nowadays to know and defend principlesof selection and recruitment for every organization.200 201


Nino KhutsishviliAPPLYING INTERNET-TECHNOLOGIES IN MARKETINGSummaryInternet, the world global net, is a useful tool to develop any kind of business.The advantages are: easily reachable, fast, confidential, and cheap. It isobligatory to use it in practical work in the 21 st century. It gives us opportunityto find information easily and quickly.The aims of marketing in culture is oriented on, first of all, identifying a market,then studying it, and finally, growing the market and making a product popular.The most important duty of the marketing manager, first of all, is theadvertisement in internet which is less expensive, plus, it helps to present anew product.Nowadays, in internet, there is much information on different organizations,analytical, financial, and economic, etc. The results of a marketing survey,conducted through internet, show that the organizations find desiredinformation quite fast. Thus, the organization’s website, and its visual designare crucial; the design should be simple and understandable and the mostimportant – easily perceptible by the consumer.The internet is a global communication tool for providing the exchange oftextual, graphical, audio/video information. It is an effective survey tool. Thedevelopment of the internet altered management approach in business andmarketing.202 203

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