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sarCevi/CONTENTS5qarTuli marTlmsajuleba saqmiswarmoebis eleqtronulqselSiADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE IN GEORGIA IN ELECTRONIC CASEMANAGEMENT SYSTEM15sulxan gamyreliZesasamarTlos saerTaSoriso kompetencia saerTaSoriso kerZosamarTalis procesSiINTERNATIONAL COMPETENCE IN INTERNATIONAL PRIVATE LAWSULKHAN GAMKRELIDZE28nana beriZebirTvuli gauvrceleblobis saerTaSoriso samarTlebriviregulirebaINTERNATIONAL LEGAL REGULATION OF NUCLEAR NONPROLIFERATIONNANA BERIDZE44TinaTin erqvaniamomxmarebelTa uflebebis dacvis evropuli standartebieleqtronuli vaWrobis sferoSi da qarTuli kanonmdeblobaEUROPEAN STANDARDS FOR THE PROTECTION OFCONSUMERS RIGHTS IN THE ELECTRONIC TRADE ANDRELEVANT GEORGIAN LEGISLATIONTINATIN ERKVANIA62daviT suxitaSvili, Tea suxitaSvilisaxelSekrulebo da deliqturi pasuxismgeblobis sarCelebiskonkurenciaCOMPARISON/COMPETITIVENESS OF CONTRACTUAL AND DELICTUALLIABILITY CLAIMSDAVID SUKHITASHVILI, THEA SUKHITASHVILI75qeTevan qoCaSvilimflobelobisa da sakuTrebis urTierTmimarTeba sakuTrebisdacvis WrilSiRELATIONSHIP BETWEEN OWNERSHIP AND PROPRIETY FROM PROPERTYPROTECTION PERSPECTIVEKETEVAN KOCHASHVILI3


qarTulimarTlmsajulebasaqmiswarmoebiseleqtronul qselSiqarTuli marTlmsajuleba axal, TanamedrovemeTodze gadavida _ saqmis eleqtronulwarmoebaze. axali sistema samarTalwarmoebisyvela dargs moicavs _ sisxlis, samoqalaqo daadministraciul samarTalwarmoebas. rogorc amprogramis samuSao jgufis xelmZRvaneli,rusTavis saqalaqo sasamarTlos Tavmjdomaremamuka axvlediani ambobs, eleqtronuliprograma saqarTvelos 15 did sasamarTloSi ukvemoqmedebs da wlis bolosaTvis srulidatvirTviT amuSavdeba. 2012 wlidan ki, qarTulimarTlmsajuleba saqmiswarmoebis eleqtronulqselSi mTlianad iqneba CarTuli.batono mamuka, rogor gaCnda eleqtronulimarTlmsajulebis SemoRebis idea da rodisdaiwyeT mis ganxorcielebaze muSaoba?_ sasamarTloSi saqmiswarmoebis eleqtronuli sistemamsoflios ganviTarebuli qveynebisaTvis siaxle namdviladar gaxlavT. es programa evropis bevr saxelmwifoSijer kidev, 1990-iani wlebidan dainerga da TiTqmis yvelaqveynis marTlmsajuleba cdilobs am sistemaze gadasvlas.rogorc eqspertebi amboben, yovelwliurad, am programebisSeqmnisaTvis 5 miliard dolarze meti ixarjeba.Tumca imis gamo, rom igi sakmaod rTuli Sesaqmneli daasamoqmedebelia, xSirad misi danergvis mcdeloba uSedegodsruldeba. TiToeuli aseTi programis Sesaqmneladda asamuSaveblad daaxloebiT aTi weliwadia saWiro.5


marTlmsajulebaN3dakanonimiuxedavad didi mondomebisa, sasamarTlossaqmiswarmoebis eleqtronulisistema amerikis SeerTebuli StatebissasamarTloebis mxolod 30 procentSiadanergili.saqarTveloSi marTlmsajulebissaqmianobis eleqtronul marTvazegadayvanis idea Tavis droze sworedamerikelebma mogvawodes. Tumca, programissirTulis gamo, donorma organizaciebmaisic gvirCies, sistemis praqtikuldanergvaze ar iocneboT, jerjerobiT,mis Teoriul damuSavebaze ifiqreTo.mokled, am programaze fiqridaaxloebiT, oTxi wlis winaT daviwyeT.sasamarTloSi Seiqmna samuSao jgufi,romelsac me vxelmZRvanelobdi. jgufismizani iyo sasamarTloSi Segveqmnasaqmiswarmoebis eleqtronuli programa.Tavdapirvelad, mxolod zogadiwarmodgena gvqonda, ra tipis programaunda gagvekeTebina. ori wlis ganmavlobaSimxolod samuSao gegma iqmneboda daixveweboda, rac urTulesi procesi iyo.didi daxmareba gagviwia msoflioSi ammimarTulebiT arsebulma gamocdilebam.gavecaniT ara mxolod im qveynebis praqtikas,sadac msgavsi tipis programebimuSaobs, im qveynebis gamocdilebasac,sadac Cavarda es proeqtebi. ucxouripraqtikis gaTvaliswinebiT gamovricxeTyvela uzustoba, aviReT yvela dadebiTimxare, Cveni gamocdileba da ideebidavumateT da dRes sasamarTloSisaqmiswarmoebis eleqtronuli sistemaukve danergilia Tbilisis, rusTavis,mcxeTis, goris, zugdidis, quTaisis,baTumis, foTis da a.S. sul 15-mdesasamarTloSi.rogorc aRvniSne, imisaTvis, rom sasamarTloSisaqmiswarmoebis eleqtronulisistema Segveqmna, ganviTarebuliqveynebis magaliTs gavecaniT, magramaSkara iyo, rom am sistemis kopirebasver movaxdendiT, radgan jer erTi, maTiproeqtebi wlebis winaT Seiqmna davinaidan, kompiuteruli teqnologiebiZalian swrafi tempiT viTardeba, essistemebi ukve moZvelebulia. da meorec,yvela qveyanas, maT Soris, saqarTvelosacgansxvavebuli sasamarTlo praqtikaaqvs, amitom eleqtronuli sistemisSeqmna, faqtobrivad, nulidan daviwyeT.aseT mcire droSi, aseTi sirTulisprogramis Seqmna warmoudgeneli iyo,magram Tamamad vityvi, rom Cvenmajgufma, romelic profesionalispecialistebiT iyo dakompleqtebuli,marTlac SeuZlebeli SesZlo.ufro konkretulad, rasgulisxmobs saqmiswarmoebiseleqtronuli programa?_ es programa gulisxmobs, rom sasamarTlosistemaSi qaRaldiT warmoeba aRariarsebebs da saqmis warmoeba TanamedrovemeTodiT _ eleqtronulad moxdeba.sasamarTloSi Sesuli nebismieri gancxadebaimTaviTve pirveladi registraciis6


JurnalSi xvdeboda, Semdeg igiveinformacia gadadioda saqmis kategoriisganmsazRvrel JurnalSi, Semdeg alfabeturJurnalSi, ivseboda saaRricxvostatistikuri baraTi, ris Semdegacinformacia xvdeboda mosamarTleTaTvisgadasacem JurnalSi. igive informaciainiSneboda TanaSemwis cnobarSi da kidevramdenime damatebiTi procedurisgavlis Semdeg, es gancxadeba aRwevdamosamarTlemde, romelsac aseve, uamravisakancelario, teqnikuri procedurisCatareba uwevda. mosamarTleebi teqnikurisakiTxebis mogvarebaze udides drosda energias xarjavdnen. garda amisa, amprocedurebs, umetes SemTxvevaSi Tanaxlda garkveuli gaugebrobebi, risgamoc, moqalaqe xSirad sakuTari gancxadebisbeds sasamarTlos sxvadasxvauwyebis TanamSromelTan arkvevda dauamrav dros da energias xarjavda.marTlmsajulebis saqmiswarmoebis kompiuterulsistemaze gadayvana erTnairadsasargebloa, rogorc mosamarTleebisaTvis,aseve procesSi monawile sxvapirebisaTvis da CveulebrivimoqalaqeebisaTvis.eleqtronul sistemaSi uamravi teqnikuriniuansia gaTvlili, TiToeul detalzesaubari axla Znelia, imdenad mravlismomcveliaigi. Tumca, sistemis mokledaxasiaTebiT advilad mixvdebiT, romsaqme namdvilad unikalur proeqtTangvaqvs, romelic procesSi monawileyvela wevrs, dawyebuli mosamarTlidan,rom araferi vTqvaT ganmcxadebelze damamuka axvlediani _ rusTavis saqalaqosasamarTlos Tavmjdomare.quTaisis akaki wereTlis saxelobis saxelmwifouniversitetis iuridiuli fakultetisdasrulebis Semdeg muSaobda quTaisis saolqosasamarTlos moqalaqeTa misaRebiskonsultantad.2000-2007 wlebSi muSaobda saqarTvelos uzenaessasamarTloSi sxvadasxva Tanamdebobebze:saerTo ganyofilebis s/s saqmeTa sasamarTlokolegiis kancelariis wamyvan specialistad,s/s saqmeTa sasamarTlo kolegiis samdivnosmTavar specialistad, s/s saqmeTa sasamarTlokolegiis samdivnos ufrosad daTavmjdomaris biuros ufrosad.2007 wlis maisSi Caabara mosamarTleobissakvalifikacio gamocda sisxlis samarTlisspecializaciiT.saqarTvelos iusticiis umaRlesi sabWos 2007wlis 2 agvistos #1/133-2007 gadawyvetilebiT,dainiSna gagris saqalaqo da gudauTis raionulisasamarTlos mosamarTled. saqarTvelosiusticiis umaRlesi sabWos 2007 wlis 2 agvistos#1/145-2007 gadawyvetilebiT, mivlinebuliqna rusTavis saqalaqo sasamarTloSi.saqarTvelos iusticiis umaRlesi sabWos 2007wlis 14 seqtembris #1/181-2007 gadawyvetilebiT,daekisra rusTavis saqalaqo sasamarTlosTavmjdomaris uflebamosilebis ganxorcieleba.7


marTlmsajulebaN3dakanonimis advokatze, Cveulebrivi sasamarTlosTanamSromliT damTavrebuli, saqmesyvelas minimumamde Seumsubuqebs.am programiT gansakuTrebiT SeumsubuqdebaSroma mosamarTles, is aRar iqnebadakavebuli teqnikuri sakiTxebismogvarebiT. sasamarTloSi Sesuli gancxadebebi`Semosuli fostis JurnalSi~moxvedrisTanave davis kategoriebismixedviT daxarisxdeba, ris SemdegacTanabari datvirTviT, avtomaturadgadanawildeba mosamarTleebze, racmosamarTlis grafaSi maSinve aRiniSneba.amis Semdeg mosamarTle kompiuterSiveiwyebs saqmeze muSaobas. sistemis erTerTyvelaze did miRwevad iTvleba, romsaqmiswarmoebis teqnikuri nawili, romelsacmosamarTlis Sromis 70-80 procentieTmoboda, programaSi Sablonuri formiTaris mocemuli da mosamarTles mxolodinteleqtualur nawilze, gadawyvetilebisdasabuTebaze uxdeba muSaoba. anu,mosamarTlis saqmianobidan teqnikurinawili amovarda da mosamarTles inteleqtualurimuSaobisTvis ufro meti drorCeba, rac warmatebiT aisaxeba mis miergamotanili gadawyvetilebebis xarisxze.garda amisa, sistema Tavad awesebs saqmisganxilvis vadebs, rac vadebis darRvevas,faqtobrivad, gamoricxavs. mosamarTlesSeuZlia gacemuli davalebebis kontrolicda imis naxvac, Tu rodis aqvsCaniSnuli sxva sasamarTlo sxdomebi.specialuri programa mosamarTles imasacatyobinebs, saqmeSi dasaxelebuli pirovnebaxom ar aris arasrulwlovani da rasanqciebis gamoyenebis ufleba aqvs mozardibraldebulis SemTxvevaSi. mas Semdeg,rac mosamarTle saqmes dasrulebuladgamoacxadebs, rac specialuri moniSvniTdasturdeba, am saqmeSi SeniSvnis SetanaSeuZlebeli xdeba, TviT mosamarTlismxridanac ki. saqme avtomaturad gadadisinfo.court.ge-ze da mas mxare ecnoba.mosamarTles nebismier dros, nebismieriadgilidan SeuZlia programaSi Sesvla dakonkretul saqmesTan dakavSirebiTinformaciis miReba.garda amisa, Seiqmna saZiebo sistema, racerTgvarovani praqtikisTvisaa mniSvnelovani.mosamarTles SesaZlebloba eqnebanebismier, misTvis saWiro saqmeze moiZiosarsebuli praqtika da gaecnos mas.nebismieri muxlis an sakvanZo sityvissistemaSi akrefiT, mosamarTles an sxvadainteresebul pirs SeuZlia naxos ama Tu imsaqmeze arsebuli sasamarTlo praqtika.saqmeze gamotanili gadawyvetilebagamoqveyndeba daStrixuli formiT. advokats,students, mecniers da sxva dainteresebulpirs saSualeba eqneba moiZiosmisTvis saintereso saqmeze gamotaniligadawyvetilebebi. es erTgvarovanipraqtikis ufro met ganviTarebasacgamoiwvevs da damwyebi mosamarTleebiskvalifikaciis zrdasac Seuwyobs xels.aRsaniSnavia, rom mosamarTlis saqmianobisxelSeuxeblobis mizniT, misi gverdimkacrad aris daculi, sxva mosamarTles,maT Soris sasamarTlos Tavmjdomaresac,ama Tu im saqmis naxva mxolod baraTis8


saxiT SeuZlia. sasamarTloSi saqmiswarmoebiseleqtronul sistemaSi ara martomosamarTleebis da saqmeSi monawilemxareebis interesebia gaTvaliswinebuli,aramed im xalxisac, vinc sasamarTlossaqmianobiT aris dainteresebuli. axalsistemaSi mniSvnelovani adgili ukaviaanalitikur nawils. kerZod, programaavtomaturad akeTebs sasamarTlossaqmianobis statistikas, rogorccifrebis saxiT, aseve, saqmeebiskategoriebis da TviT braldebulTaasakis da sqesis mixedviT.ai, es da kidev sxva uamravi samosamarTleosaqmianoba iwarmoeba eleqtronulsistemaSi, rac mosamarTlis drosa daenergias dazogavs. mosamarTleebs aRarmouwevT teqnikuri sakiTxebis mogvarebazezrunva, isini mxolod saqmeze gamosatangadawyvetilebaze iqnebian sruladorientirebulni, rac marTlmsajulebisxarisxs kidev ufro gazrdis.marTalia, xarisxianigadawyvetileba da swrafimarTlmsajuleba sasamarTlosmomxmareblebisaTvisumniSvnelovanesi faqtoria,magram sainteresoa, kidev rasiaxles sTavazobs es programamoqalaqeebs?_ rogorc giTxariT, zemoT aRniSnulisaJurnalo sistema saerTod uqmdeba.sasamarTloSi Sesuli gancxadebapirdapir registrirdeba programisspecialur grafaSi _ `Semosuli fostisJurnalSi,~ sadac avtomaturad iniSnebaSetanis TariRi, eZleva specialuri kodida a.S. paralelurad, saqme xvdebavebgverdze _ info.court.ge, rac niSnavs,rom imave dRidan moqalaqes SeuZlianebismier dros akrifos paroli dagaakontrolos sakuTari saqmis msvleloba.yvela moqmedeba, romelic saqmezeganxorcieldeba, vTqvaT, romel mosamar-Tles daewera igi, ra SeniSvna SeitanamosamarTlem, rogori ganaCeni an ganCinebagamoitana, avtomaturad aisaxeba vebgverdze.aqedan gamomdinare, moqalaqesaRar sWirdeba informaciis misaRebadsistematurad telefonze rekva ansasamarTloSi siaruli. aqamde Tu erTkonkretul saqmeze informaciis gacemamxolod mosamarTlis TanaSemwes SeeZlo,am sistemis danergvis Semdeg, moqalaqesTu kompiuteri ara aqvs, sasamarTlosnebismieri TanamSromeli moemsaxurebaoperatiulad, radgan eleqtronulsistemaSi ganTavsebuli informaciismoZieba yvela maTgans SeeZleba. yvelamoqmedeba iqneba sajaro da nebismiermoqalaqes SeeZleba mis saqmeze dauyovneblivmiiRos detaluri informacia.erTi sityviT, axali, gamWvirvalesistemis danergviT mosamarTleebsmaqsimalurad SeumsubuqdebaT Sroma,sasamarTloSi Semcirdeba dokumentebisgauTavebeli moZraoba da rac mTavaria,moqalaqeebs sagrZnoblad gauadvildebaTsasamarTlo sistemasTan urTierToba,rac marTlmsajulebis sistemisadmindobas kidev ufro gazrdis.9


marTlmsajulebaN3dakanonirogorc TqviT, es programa 15sasamarTloSi ukve muSaobs,sainteresoa, rogor amoqmedda ismagaliTad, rusTavis saqalaqosasamarTloSi?_ programam testireba rusTavis sasamarTloSiwarmatebiT gaiara. am etapzeprograma sruli datvirTviT ar muSaobs,radgan zogierTi detali jerjerobiTtestirebis reJimSia, mimdinareobsgarkveuli servisebis srulyofa. uaxloesmomavalSi saapelacio sasamarTloebida savaraudod, sxva uwyebebic CaerTvebianmasSi da wlis bolosaTvis is srulyofiladamoqmeddeba. gaisad ki, saqmiswarmoebis eleqtronul programaSisaqarTvelos sasamarTlo sistemamTlianad CaerTveba.daxvewili, rom masSi nebismieri servisisCarTva SeiZleba da es procesietapobrivad gagrZeldeba. programistebimuSaoben, rom saqmis dasrulebisSesaxeb informacia mxares SMS-iT aneleqtronuli fostiT Seatyobinon.SesaZlebeli gaxdeba sasamarTloSisarCelis distanciurad Semotana.programa mudmivad ixveweba da momavalSiigi kidev bevr novacias danergavs. Tumca,unda iTqvas, rom mTavari moTxovnaSesrulebulia _ kidev ufro swrafi,xarisxiani da gamWirvale sasamarTlosistemis asamoqmedeblad axali programaSeqmnilia da warmatebiT muSaobs.Tumca, es yvelaferi ar aris, axalisistema samomavlod kidev ufro metsiaxles iTvaliswinebs. garda imisa, romam sistemaSi qarTuli marTlmsajulebasrulad gaerTiandeba, 2012 wlidan massxva uwyebebic SeuerTdeba. kerZod,Sinagan saqmeTa saministro, imisaTvis, rommosamarTlem droulad miiRos informaciapiris nasamarTlobaze, sasjelaRsrulebis,probaciis da iuridiulidaxmarebis sakiTxTa saministro _braldebulis an patimris mdgomareobisgadasamowmeblad, samoqalaqo da sajaroreestrebi da a.S.momavali wlidan sasamarTlo Tavismomxmarebels Zalian bevr siaxlesSesTavazebs. programa iseT donezea10


ADMINISTRATION OFJUSTICE IN GEORGIA INELECTRONIC CASEMANAGEMENT SYSTEMGeorgian administration of justice operates with new modernmethods – electronic case management. New system includesall branches of administration of justice – criminal, civil adadministrative. As the head of working group on this program,Chairman of Rustavi City Court Mamuka Akhvledianisays, electronic program is already functioning in 15 big citiesand by the end of the year will be fully functional. Starting2012, Georgian Justice System will be fully operational inelectronic case management network.Dear Mamuka, please tell us about the background ofintroducing electronic case management system and when didyou start to work on it?– Electronic case management system in court is definitely not a noveltyfor the developed countries of the world. Similar programs wereimplemented in many European countries already in 1990 ies andjudiciaries of almost all countries try to move to this system. Accordingto the experts, annually more than 5 milliard dollars are spent to createsuch programs. However, due to the fact that it is quite difficult todesign and then implement the program, often these efforts are failing. Ittakes about 10 years to create and make this program operational.Despite huge efforts, electronic case management system is onlyimplemented in 30 percent of US courts.Idea of introducing electronic case management system in Georgia alsocomes from the US. However, due to the complicity of the program,11


marTlmsajulebaN3dakanonidonor organizations also advised to forget aboutpractical implantation of the program, but onlyconcentrate on theoretical part.Could you please tell us more preciselywhat does the electronic case managementsystem mean?In other words, we started to work on this programabout four years ago. American organization DPKhas provided financial support of the program.Working Group was established and I was chairingit. The aim of the group was to create electronic casemanagement program in Georgia.Initially, we only had a general idea what type ofprogram we wanted to design. During two years wewere busy drafting the action plan that was the mostdifficult part. We have benefited a lot from theexperience of other countries where the program issuccessfully being implemented and where it hasfailed. Using the international practice, we haveeliminated all ambiguities, applied all positiveexperiences, added our experience and ideas andnowadays electronic case management system isbeing implemented in Tbilisi, Rustavi, Mtskheta,Gori, Zugdidi, Kutaisi, Batumi, Poti and other cities.( 15 courts all together).As I have mentioned, we have studies experience ofdeveloped countries in order to create the electroniccase management system, but it was clear that wewould not be able to copy the system., as thoseprograms were created years ago and informationtechnologies develop very quickly, these systems arealready outdated. And also, all countries, includingGeorgia, has different, specific court practice, thuswe started to create the system from zero. In such ashort time, it was almost impossible to create such adifficult program, but I could say that our group, thatas composed of high professionals, could achievealmost impossible.– This program means that there will be no papersused in administration of justice that will happenfollowing the modern method – electronically.Any statement registered in the courts, wouldundertake registration in number of places and fordifferent reasons before it would reach the judge,who also had do more technical procedures. Judgewas using enormous time and energy for solvingtechnical problems. Besides, procedures were oftenfollowed with certain misunderstandings, andcitizens would have to clarify the status of theirstatement at different places with different employees– that required a lot of time and energy.Electronic case management system is equally usefulfor judges as well as the parties of the case andordinary citizens.Electronic case management system has a lot oftechnical details; it is now difficult to discuss all ofthem now. However, if we do a short characteristicof the program it will be easy to understand that thisis indeed unique program. This program will makelife easier for all parties and all individuals presentedin the parties, starting with judges, includingapplicant, his / her lawyer, court staff.This program will especially simplify the work of ajudge. He / she will no longer be busy doingtechnical work. Applications registered in the courts“upon registration in incoming correspondence” willbe sorted according to the subject of litigation andafter that will be equally distributed to the judges12


and will be immediately marked in the specialwindow for judges. After that, judge starts to workon the case in the computer. One of the mainachievements of the system is technical part of theprogram that used to take 70-80 percent of judges’time. Program provides samples and judge needs towork on intellectual part and reasoning of thedecision only. In other words the technical work hasbeen removed from the judges’ workload. This willdefinitely have a positive effect on the quality ofdecisions.Besides that, system itself assigns the deadline forcase processing that practically solves the problemof deadlines. Judge can control the given assignmentsand can check when are the court hearingsscheduled.Special program notifies a judge if there is a juvenileinvolved in the case and what type of sanctions is thejudge authorized to apply in juvenile cases. Judgeindicates in the system what the shortcomings in thecase are and parties will read it on the web and canquickly correct those. After the judge finishes thecase that is also confirmed with the special mark, itis impossible to make any notes or changes in thiscase, even from the judge. Case is automaticallycopied on info.court.ge and parties are also notifiedon this.Judge can access the program from any place andany time and can receive information on the specificcase.In addition, special search program was designed,that is important for the uniform practice. Judge willhave possibility to find the practice on similar casesand read it. Typing an Article or any key word, ajudge or any other interested person can find thecase law of the court. Decisions are publishedwithout the names of the individuals. Attorney,student, scholar and other interested person havepossibility to find decisions made on the interestingsubjects for them. This will support the process ofuniform practice and will definitely help new judgesto raise their qualification.It has to be noted that in order to provide fullprotection of judges’ work, their page is highlyprotected, other judges, including the chairman ofthe court, can only see the case in the form of a card.Electronic case management system is interestingand beneficial not only for the judges and the partiesbut also for the ordinary citizens who are interestedin the activities of the courts. Analytical module isalso very important in the new system. In particular,program automatically produces statistics of courtactivities, in the form of figures as well categories ofcases, age and sex of the defendants.This and many other judicial activities are processedin electronic system that saves time and energy of ajudge. They will concentrate on the substance of thedecision and this will obviously raise quality ofjustice system.It is true that high quality and speedyadministration of justice is extremelyimportant factor for court users, but it isinteresting what are the other noveltiesthat the program offers to the citizens?– As I mentioned, journal system will be completelyabolished. Application submitted to the court isautomatically registered in the special icon of the13


marTlmsajulebaN3dakanoniprogram, is assigned the date, is given special code,etc. and at the same time case appears on the webpage – info.court.ge. This means that citizen can atany time enter the password and control the stages ofthe case processing. All actions, made on the case, towhich judge the case was assigned, the commentsmade by a judge, what was the ruling or decision, isautomatically displayed on the web. Accordingly,citizen does not need to call or go to the court to getinformation regarding the case. Up to now, it wasonly judges’ assistants who could provide informationto the parties regarding the case, now if thecitizen does not have computer, court staff can assistthem. All actions will be public and any citizen willbe able to get detailed information on their case.In other words, introducing this transparent systemreduces the workload of the judges, will eliminatepaper work in the court and what is most important –it will be much easier for the citizens to communicatewith the courts and this will obviously increasethe trust towards courts.As you said, this program is alreadyoperating in 15 courts; it is interesting howis it working in Rustavi City Court?However, this is not all; new system offers muchmore novelties in the future. Starting 2012, otherinstitutions will be also switched to the system.Specifically, Ministry of Interior, in order to ensurethat judge receives information timely regarding thecriminal records, Ministry of Corrections and LegalAssistance – to check conditions of the defendant orprisoner, Civil and Public Registries, etc.Starting next year, Court will offer many novelties toits users. Program is so advanced that any kind ofservice may be added to it – this will be continuesprocess. Programists are working to make it possiblethat parties receive SMS or Email notification whenthe case is finished. It will be possible to file acomplaint in the court on distance. Attorney will beregistered and will be able to register claim electronically,participate in the trail from distance, etc.Program is in the process of permanent developmentand in the future it will offer even more novelties.However, we need to say that main requirement isfulfilled – in order to ensure even speedier, highquality and transparent judiciary – the new programis already operational.– Program testing was successfully finished inRustavi Court. At this stage, program is notoperating in full scale, because some of the detailsare still in testing mode. Some of the services arebeing finalized. Appellate Court and otherinstitutions will be also included in the programin the near future and by the end of the year it willbe fully functional. Next year, entire court systemwill switch to the electronic case managementsystem.14


sasamarTlossaerTaSorisokompetenciasaerTaSoriso kerZosamarTalis procesSisulxan gamyreliZesaqarTvelos universitetis samarTlis skolisdireqtoriXX saukunis miwuruls, msoflioSi mimdinare politikurmada samarTlebrivma cvlilebebma aRmosavleT evropaSiwarmoSobil axal damoukidebel saxelmwifoebSi ekonomikurigardaqmnebi moiTxova. saqarTvelos saxelmwifoebrividamoukideblobis mopovebis Semdeg dawyebuli samarTlebrivireforma kerZo samarTlis ganaxlebiT daiwyo.sazRvrebis gaxsnam da ucxouri kapitalis moZraobamaucilebeli gaxada reforma saerTaSoriso kerZo samarTlissferoSic. ramdenadac samarTlebrivi normebis koliziisasmaterialuri samarTlis gamoyeneba ar moxdeba Tuar gairkva, romeli qveynis sasamarTloa kompetenturi saqmiswarmoebaze, imdenad ufro saintereso da aqtualuriaam sakiTxis ufro dawvrilebiT ganxilva.mocemuli sakiTxis kvleva pirobiTad or nawilad davyaviT,kerZod: sasamarTlos saerTaSoriso kompetenciiszogadi mimoxilva da saqarTvelos sasamarTlos saerTa-Soriso kompetenciis calkeuli sakiTxebi.15


marTlmsajulebaN3dakanoni1. sasamarTlos saerTaSoriso kompetenciis cneba da saxeebisaqarTvelos sasamarTlos saerTaSoriso kompetenciis ukeT gagebisaTvis mizanSewoniladmigvaCnia zogadad ganvsazRvroT saerTaSoriso kompetenciis cneba da misisaxeebi.saerTaSoriso kompetenciaSi igulisxmeba Tu romeli qveynis sasamarTloa kompetenturihqondes saqme warmoebaSi da Semdgom miiRos Sesabamisi gadawyvetileba.sasamarTlos saerTaSoriso kompetencia unda ganvasxvaoT sasamarTlos gansjadobisagan.romanul-germanuli samarTlis sistemis qveynebSi am or cnebas ganasxvaveben.gansjadoba zogadad, awesrigebs aris Tu ara esa Tu is sakiTxi sasamarTlos gansjadida romeli sasamarTloa instanciurad Tu teritoriulad gansjadi, xolo sasamarTlossaerTaSoriso kompetencia arkvevs Tu romeli qveynis sasamarTloa kompetenturi awarmoossaqme da miiRos gadawyvetileba. rac Seexeba anglo-amerikuli samarTlis sistemisqveynebs, maTTan aseTi gamijvna (gansjadoba/kompetencia) ar arsebobs. am qveynebSi gamoiyenebatermini `iurisdiqcia~ (jurisdiction), romelic moicavs, rogorc gansjadobas, isesaerTaSoriso kompetencias.saerTaSoriso kompetenciis ukeT gagebisaTvis iuridiul literaturaSi arsebulisaerTaSoriso kompetenciis ZiriTadi saxeebi cal-calke ganvixiloT.a. gansakuTrebuli da gamomricxavi saerTaSoriso kompetenciagansakuTrebuli saerTaSoriso kompetencia saerTaSoriso kompetenciis erT-erTisaxea. igi gansxvavdeba Cveulebrivi saerTaSoriso kompetenciisagan imiT, rom sakiTxebi,romlebic ama Tu im qveynis sasamarTloebis gansakuTrebul kompetenciaSi Sedis, amqveynis gansakuTrebul midgomas moiTxovs.aRniSnuli kompetenciis Taviseburebaa, rom igi ar izRudeba saerTaSoriso kompetenciiszogadi principiT, romlis mixedviTac, sasamarTlos saerTaSoriso kompetenciadamokidebulia mopasuxis sacxovrebel adgilze, Cveulebriv adgilsamyofelze anmis rezidenciaze. maSasadame, gansakuTrebuli saerTaSoriso kompetencia iZleva SesaZleblobaskanoniT gansazRvrul SemTxvevaSi, konkretuli sasamarTlos saerTaSorisokompetencia ar iyos damokidebuli mopasuxis sacxovrebel adgilze, mis Cveulebrivadgilsamyofelze an rezidenciaze.rac Seexeba gamomricxav saerTaSoriso kompetencias, misi arsebobis SemTxvevaSi,`iricxeba~ im qveynis sasamarTlos saerTaSoriso kompetencia, sadac mopasuxes aqvssacxovrebeli adgili, Cveulebrivi adgilsamyofeli an rezidencia; aseve, `iricxeba~gansakuTrebuli saerTaSoriso kompetencia da, rac yvelaze mniSvnelovania, is maRladgas TviT iseTi qveynis sasamarTlos saerTaSoriso kompetenciaze, romelic mxareebismier aris arCeuli.16


gamomricxavi saerTaSoriso kompetencia adgilobrivi da gansakuTrebuli saerTa-Soriso kompetenciis imperatiuli formaa. mis mier mowesrigebuli sakiTxebi ganixilebaimperatiulad. is gamodevnis:sasamarTlos adgilobriv saerTaSoriso kompetencias;sasamarTlos gansakuTrebul saerTaSoriso kompetencias;sasamarTlos saerTaSoriso kompetenciis arCevas mxareebis mier, valdebulebisSesrulebis adgilis arCevas an saerTaSoriso kompetenciis uprotesto daSvebas.gamomricxavi saerTaSoriso kompetencia ar iTvaliswinebs mopasuxis sacxovrebeliadgilis an moqalaqeobis mixedviT sasamarTlos saerTaSoriso kompetencias. 1gansakuTrebuli da gamomricxavi saerTaSoriso kompetenciis SemTxvevebi kargadaris cnobili sazRvargareTis qveynebis saerTaSoriso kerZo samarTlis procesebisaTvis,magaliTad, Sveicariis, germaniis, rumineTisa da ungreTis kanonmdeblobebisaTvis.amasTan, aRniSnuli kompetenciebi kargad aris gamijnuli evropis kavSiris _briuselis 1968 da evropis Tavisufali savaWro asociaciis monawile qveynebis luganos1988 wlis analogiur konvenciaSi.b. pirdapiri da iribi saerTaSoriso kompetenciapirdapiria saerTaSoriso kompetencia, roca sasamarTlo iRebs gadawyvetilebas konkretulisaqmis mimarT Tavisi kompetenciis Taobaze. aqedan gamomdinare, amas meorenairadgadawyvetilebis kompetencias uwodeben. upirveles yovlisa, sasamarTlo arkvevskompetenciis sakiTxs, SemdgomSi ki, xdeba samarTlis gamoyenebiT (sakuTari an ucxoqveynis) konkretuli SemTxvevis ganxilva.iribia sasamarTlos kompetencia, rodesac is Tavad, uSualod ki ar iRebs gadawyvetilebaskonkretul saqmeze, aramed ucxo qveynis sasamarTlos mier miRebul gadawyvetilebascnobs da aRasrulebs.g. konkurirebadi saerTaSoriso kompetenciakonkretuli qveynis sasamarTlos kompetenciis sakiTxs wyvets am qveynis saerTaSorisokerZo samarTali. xSiria SemTxveva, roca sakiTxi (gansakuTrebiT, saojaxo samar-TalSi) exeba ramdenime qveyanas da TiToeuli qveynis samarTlis mixedviT, maTi sasamarTloebiarian kompetenturebi. amrigad, SeiZleba saxeze gvqondes ori an meti qveynissasamarTlos saerTaSoriso kompetencia. konkurirebadi saerTaSoriso kompetenciisasmosarCeles aqvs SesaZlebloba airCios misTvis xelsayreli sasamarTlo, romelic Tavismxriv, gulisxmobs xelsayreli materialuri samarTlis normebis gamoyenebas. SemTxvevas,rodesac arsebobs ara erTi qveynis sasamarTlo, romelsac SeuZlia konkretulsaqmesTan dakavSirebiT iyos kompetenturi, uwodeben pozitiuri kompetenciebis konf-17


marTlmsajulebaN3dakanoniliqts. arsebobs amis sapirispiro SemTxvevac, rodesac arc erTi qveynis sasamarTloar aris saerTaSorisod kompetenturi. aseT SemTxvevas negatiur kompetenciaTa konfliqtsuwodeben. maSasadame, praqtikaSi SeiZleba adgili hqondes rogorc pozitiur, isenegatiur kompetenciaTa konfliqts. ganvixiloT orive konfliqtis gadawyvetis gzebi.rogorc zemoT aRvniSneT, pozitiur kompetenciaTa konfliqti dakavSirebulia ramdenimeqveynis sasamarTlos saerTaSoriso kompetenciis arsebobasTan. aseT dros mosarCeleirCevs misTvis xelsayreli qveynis sasamarTlos. aRniSnul movlenas angloamerikulisamarTlis sistemis qveynebSi uwodeben Forum shopping (forumis, sasamarTlosarCevas). mosarCele irCevs misTvis xelsayrel sasamarTlos, romlis drosac Semdegpunqtebs eZleva mniSvneloba:_ procesis msvleloba;aq mniSvnelovania kerZosamarTlebrivi sarCelis SetanisaTvis sasamarTlo baJisodenoba. zogi qveynis samoqalaqo procesi awesebs baJis did odenobas, zogi ki,mcires._ saproceso vadebi;am SemTxvevaSic mosarCele yuradRebas aqcevs vadebs, romelic dadgeniliakonkretul qveynebSi da sadac ufro mokle vadaSi da mobilurad SeiZlebagadawydes sakiTxi, im qveynis sasamarTlos irCevs._ procesis xarjebi;aq yuradReba eqceva advokatis anazRaurebis sakiTxs, romelic aseve qveynidanqveynamde gansxvavebulia._ mosamarTleTa kvalifikacia, xarisxi;mosarCelem SeiZleba imasac miaqcios yuradReba, Tu ra kvalifikaciis iuristTakorpusi arsebobs konkretul qveyanaSi da aqedan gamomdinare, mosamarTlis xarisxismixedviT, miiRos gadawyvetileba, Tu sad Seitanos sarCeli._ mtkicebulebis dasaSveboba;SesaZloa rac erT qveyanaSi miRebulia mtkicebulebad, meore qveynis sasamarTloprocesisaTvis mtkicebulebas ar warmoadgendes. gamomdinare aqedan, mosarCelemunda gaakeTos arCevani iseT qveyanaze, sadac mis mier warmodgenili mtkicebulebebimxedvelobaSi iqneba miRebuli._ gamosayenebeli samarTali;gamosayenebeli samarTali mosarCelisaTvis yovelTvis ar SeiZleba momgebiani iyos.Tu, magaliTad, mosarCele CaTvlis, rom konkretuli qveynis koliziuri samar-Tali miscems SesaZleblobas gamoiyenos materialuri samarTlis norma, romlismixedviTac zianis anazRaurebis Tanxa mcirea, vidre es sxva qveyanaSi SeiZlebayofiliyo, maSin is gadaitans iseT qveyanaze Tavis yuradRebas, romlis samar-Talic misTvis am mxriv ufro momgebiani iqneba._ gadawyvetilebis aRsruleba;18


am SemTxvevaSi mxare upiratesobas aniWebs qveyanas, sadac sasamarTlo gadawyvetilebebisaRsruleba yvelaze efeqtianad moxdeba.garda Forum shoppig-is principisa, anglo-amerikuli samarTali icnobs kidev Forumnon conveniens-is moZRvrebas, romlis mixedviTac, erTi qveynis sasamarTlo, miuxedavadimisa, rom is kompetenturia ganixilos konkretuli saqme, Tu arsebobs imis SesaZlebloba,rom sxva qveyanaSi gaimarTos sasamarTlo procesi, ubralod ar ixilavs mas, acxadebsTavis Tavs arakompetenturad, Tumca, amas asabuTebs (magaliTad, mowmeebi, mtkicebulebebida a.S. SeiZleba ufro sxva qveyanasTan iyvnen dakavSirebulni) da miiCnevssxva qveynis sasamarTlos ufro Sesaferisad (more appropriate), ufro kompetenturad(more convenient). 2negatiur kompetenturobaTa konfliqtisas ki, arc erTi qveynis sasamarTlo kompetenturiar aris. aseT dros aucilebelia cnobili principis, sasamarTlosaTvis mimar-Tvis uflebis dacva (saqarTvelos konstituciis 42-e muxlis pirveli punqti; adamianisuflebaTa evropuli konvenciis me-6 muxli). swored amitom evropul samarTalSidainerga e.w. iZulebiTi kompetenciis cneba, romelic saqarTvelos saerTaSoriso kerZosamarTlis kanonis me-17 muxlSic aisaxa.2. mxareTa SeTanxmeba sasamarTlos saerTaSoriso kompetenciazemxareTa SeTanxmebiT iseTi qveynis sasamarTlos saerTaSoriso kompetenturobis dafuZnebas,romelic SeiZleba kanoniT arakompetenturi yofiliyo, garkveuli formiTjer kidev, romis kerZo samarTali icnobda. 3SeTanxmeba konkretuli sasamarTlos saerTaSoriso kompetenciaze ideba Sesabamisi xel-Sekrulebis farglebSi da is am xelSekrulebis ganuyofel nawils warmoadgens. ase, magaliTad,nasyidobis xelSekrulebaSi SeiZleba gakeTdes SeTanxmeba, rom am xelSekrulebidangamomdinare davis SemTxvevaSi, saqme warmoebaSi gadaeces baqos saqalaqo sasamarTlos.xelSekrulebaSi amavdroulad SeiZleba dafiqsirdes gamosayenebeli materialurisamarTalic, romelsac saerTo araferi aqvs sasamarTloebis saerTaSoriso kompetenciazeSeTanxmebasTan. SesaZlebelia sasamarTlo, romlis Taobazec SeTanxmeba moxda mxareTaSoris, ixilavdes konkretul davas (e.i. hqondes saerTaSoriso kompetencia), magram aseve,xelSekrulebis Tanaxmad iyenebdes sxva qveynis materialur samarTals.sasamarTlo saerTaSoriso kompetenciaze SeTanxmebis gamoxatulebis saSualebaswarmoadgens prorogacia da derogacia. prorogacia aris iseTi sasamarTlos kompetenciazeSeTanxmeba, romelic kanoniT kompetenturi ar aris. derogacia aris iseTisasamarTlos arakompetenturad gamocxadeba SeTanxmebiT, romelic kanoniT kompetenturia.derogacia prorogaciis Semadgeneli nawilia. mas xSirad negatiur prorogaciasacuwodeben. 419


marTlmsajulebaN3dakanoniaq sayuradReboa kidev ori momenti. pirveli _ saprocesosamarTlebrivi TvalsazrisiT,romelic Seexeba, saerTod, Tu ramdenad dasaSvebia SeTanxmeba saerTaSoriso kompetenciazeda materialursamarTlebrivi. materialursamarTlebrivi momenti gaTvaliswinebuliazogadad, ZiriTadi xelSekrulebis mimarT, romlis Semadgeneli nawilic,ra Tqma unda, aris SeTanxmeba sasamarTlos saerTaSoriso kompetenciaze.procesualuri faqtori, romelic rogorc ukve aRvniSneT, aris saerTaSoriso kompetenciazeSeTanxmebis dasaSveboba. is ganisazRvreba sasamarTlos adgilis samarTlis,lex fori-is mixedviT, xolo materialursamarTlebrivi faqtori _ ZiriTadi xelSekrulebisnamdviloba, rogorc misi ZalaSi yofnis wanamZRvari (mxareTa Tanxmoba, nebisnaklis ararseboba, mxareTa qmedunarianoba, xelSekrulebis ganmarteba da a.S.) SeiZlebaganxilul iqnas ucxo qveynis samarTlis _ lex causae-is mixedviT.3. sasamarTlos saerTaSoriso kompetenciis principisaqarTvelos saerTaSoriso kerZo samarTlis kanonis me-8 muxlis Tanaxmad, `saqarTvelossasamarTloebs aqvT saerTaSoriso kompetencia, Tu mopasuxes saqarTveloSi aqvssacxovrebeli adgili, rezidencia an Cveulebrivi adgilsamyofeli~. aq sayuradReboa,rom saerTaSoriso kompetenciis principi ar emyareba piris moqalaqeobas. jer kidev,me-19 saukuneSi wina planze wamoiwia domicialobis (sacxovrebeli adgili, Cveulebriviadgilsamyofeli) principma. `dRevandeli samarTlis mixedviT, sacxovrebeli adgiliunda gaxdes ZiriTadi gansazRvris safuZveli gansakuTrebuli teritoriuli samarTlisaTvis,romelsac ise daeqvemdebareba TiToeuli, rogorc pirovnul samarTals.~ 5evropaSi moqalaqeobis principidan ukandaxeva gamoiwvia im integraciulma procesebma,romelTan mimarTebaSic calsaxad moqalaqeobis principis safuZvelze agebulisamarTlebrivi urTierTobebi mxolod daamuxruWebda misi kulturuli, ekonomikurida politikuri erTianobis ideas.am suliskveTebiTaa Seqmnili saqarTvelos saerTaSoriso kerZo samarTlis kanonic.masSi, rogorc Cven amas qvemoT vnaxavT, iseve rogorc evropuli qveynebis SesabamiskanonebSi, gadamwyvetia adamianis sacxovrebeli adgili Tumca, moqalaqeobis principzesrulad mainc ar aris uari naTqvami.sacxovrebeli adgilis samarTlebrivi gansazRvreba sxvadasxva qveynebSi gansxvavebulia.mas aqvs koliziursamarTlebrivi da materialursamarTlebrivi datvirTvac.sacxovrebeli adgilis cneba jer kidev, romis samarTalSi iyo cnobili. romaelebierTmaneTisagan ganasxvavebdnen adamianis warmoSobis, warmomavlobis adgils (sadacpirovneba daibada) _ origio da adamianis sacxovrebel adgils _ domicilium. 6romauli samarTali erTmaneTisagan ansxvavebda sacxovrebeli adgilis or saxes:faqtobriv sacxovrebel adgilsa (domicilium voluntarium) da legalur, aucilebel sacxovrebeladgils (domicilium necessarium). es iyo ori saxe sacxovrebeli adgilisa, magramisini ar gamoricxavdnen sacxovrebeli adgilis erTian gagebas. 720


amis Semdeg germaniis erTianma samarTalma iseve, rogorc imperiis sasamarTlom,sacxovrebel adgilad aRiara pirovnebis cxovrebiseuli urTierTobebis centraluriadgili (Mittelpunkt der Lebenverhaeltnisse). moqmedi germanuli samarTali sacxovrebeliadgilis amgvar gagebas ar iziarebs. Tanamedrove gagebiT sacxovrebeli adgili arisiseTi adgili, sadac `adamianis cxovrebiseuli urTierTobebis ZiriTadi sayrdeni mdebareobs~.8 sainteresoa, ratom daiviwya germanulma samarTalma cneba „centraluri~(Mittelpunkt) da ratom mieca upiratesoba ZiriTad sayrdens Schwerpunkt-s? centralurisayrdenis magivrad `ZiriTadis~ upiratesoba germanul samarTalSi gamoiwvia iman, romsacxovrebeli adgili aris teritoriul-politikuri erTeuli, erTianoba. is ar undagavaigiveT binasTan da adgilsamyofelTan. sacxovrebeli adgili aris mcire politikurierTianoba, sadac adamians aqvs bina. 9 `centraluri dasayrdenis~ cneba Slis zRvarssacxovrebel adgilsa da adgilsamyofels Soris. garda amisa, cneba `centraluri~niSnavs, rom is erTaderTi unda iyos, roca Tanamedrove samoqalaqo samarTali aRiarebsramdenime sacxovrebeli adgilis arsebobis SesaZleblobas. aqedan gamomdinare, sacxovrebeliadgilis dafuZneba xdeba faqtobrivi mdgomareobis arsebobisa da pirovnebisnebis Tavisufali gamovlenis safuZvelze. amavdroulad, samoqalaqo samarTali icnobskanonismier sacxovrebel adgilsac (magaliTad, mcirewlovanis sacxovrebeli adgili,romelic ganisazRvreba mSoblebis sacxovrebeli adgilis mixedviT). 10aRsaniSnavia, rom koliziur samarTalSi sacxovrebeli adgilis mniSvneloba, romelmacTavis droze adamianis moqalaqeoba Secvala, aRar aris aseTi didi. misi adgili umeteswilad,adgilsamyofelma daikava. miuxedavad amisa, sacxovrebeli adgilis cneba dResac xvdeba aramarto mravali qveynis saerTaSoriso kerZo samarTalSi, aramed mTel rig saerTaSorisoSeTanxmebebSi, romlebic Semdegnairad SeiZleba ganimartos: sacxovrebel adgilad SeiZlebaCaiTvalos iseTi adgili, sadac adamians gamiznulad grZelvadiani cxovreba aqvs ganzraxuli.sacxovrebelma adgilma, rogorc zemoT aRvniSneT, moqalaqeobis adgili daikava. misiarseboba imiT aris dasabuTebuli, rom sacxovrebeli adgiliT fizikuri pirebi srulad arwydebian samSoblos, radgan xSir SemTxvevaSi, sacxovrebel adgilad mSobliuri saxelmwifosteritoria aRiqmeba (Tundac, pirovneba am saxelmwifos moqalaqe ar iyos). aRniSnuli cnebaar zRudavs adamians ukve dromoWmuli moqalaqeobis principiT, magram mTlianadac ar wyvetsmas erovnul-saxelmwifoebrivi fesvebidan.rac Seexeba saproceso samarTals (rogorc Sidasaxelmwifoebriv samoqalaqo process,ise saerTaSoriso kerZo samarTlis process), igi sacxovrebel adgils ar ganmartavsgansakuTrebulad. sacxovrebeli adgili mniSvnelovania piris sasamarTlo qvemdebareobisa(Sidasaxelmwifoebriv samoqalaqo procesSi) da sasamarTlos saerTaSorisokompetenciis dafuZnebis (saerTaSoriso kerZo samarTlis procesSi) TvalsazrisiT.procesis principi _ sarCelis aRZvra moqalaqis sacxovrebeli adgilis mixedviT, sasamar-TloSi ara marto sasamarTlo procesis warmoebisaTvis aris mosaxerxebeli da misaRebi,aramed Semdgom am sasamarTlos mier gamotanili gadawyvetilebis aRsrulebisaTvisac.21


marTlmsajulebaN3dakanoniCveulebrivi adgilsamyofeli ki, aris iseTi adgili, sadac adamians aqvs cxovrebiscentraluri dasayrdeni. 11 Cveulebriv adgilsamyofelis dafuZneba, zogierTi SexedulebisTanaxmad, garkveul adgilze, teritoriaze, 6-Tviani yofnidan aiTvleba. 12 miuxedavadamisa, am sakiTxze erTiani midgoma ar arsebobs. germaniis federaluri uzenaesisasamarTlos ganmartebiT Cveulebrivi adgilsamyofeli ganisazRvreba adamianis socialuriintegraciiT garkveul adgilze, romelic ojaxuri, swavlis, muSaobis an sxvamizeziT SeiZleba arsebobdes.Cveulebrivi adgilsamyofeli Sedgeba ori komponentisagan: faqtobrivad yofnisvadisagan da yofnis nebisagan (animus manendi). Cveulebrivi adgilsamyofelis pirvelikriteriumi faqtobrivad yofnis vada, aucilebelia misi samarTlebrivi bunebis Sesacnobad.sxvagvarad, Cveulebriv adgilsamyofels `faqtobriv sacxovrebel adgilsac~ uwodeben.meore kriteriumi, adamianis neba, Cveulebrivi adgilsamyofeli, gamoixateba misisubieqturi nebiT, rac SeiZleba araerTxel Seicvalos (adgilsamyofelis araerTgzisgamocvla), magram es cvlileba iwvevs samarTlebriv Sedegs _ ex nunc moqmedeba (laT. amwuTidan, rac samarTlebrivad niSnavs risame moqmedebis samarTlebrivi urTierTobisdasawyisidan aTvlas). Cveulebrivi adgilsamyofelis ex nunc moqmedeba gulisxmobsadamianis mier adgilsamyofelis mravaljer dafuZnebis SesaZleblobas, romlissamarTlebrivi statusic yoveli axali adgilsamyofelis dafuZnebidan aiTvleba.adamianis mier Cveulebrivi adgilsamyofelis arCeva nebelobiTi aqtia da samxedrosamsaxuri, mZevlad ayvana an patimroba aseTad ar SeiZleba CaiTvalos. zemoT CamoTvliliSemTxvevebi arc socialuri integraciis formas warmoadgens. paralelurad ramdenimeCveulebrivi adgilsamyofelis arseboba ki, dauSvebelia.amavdroulad, saerTaSoriso kerZo samarTali icnobs droebiT adgilsamyofelsac,risTvisac sakmarisia gansazRvrul adgilze fizikuri yofna. Tu iuridiul literaturaSimoxseniebulia mxolod `adgilsamyofeli~, es niSnavs, rom aq saubaria droebiTadgilsamyofelze. droebiT adgilsamyofels ar sWirdeba gansakuTrebuli vada an raimegansakuTrebuli drois mimdinareoba.iuridiul pirs ar gaaCnia sacxovrebeli adgili da arc Cveulebrivi adgilsamyofeli.es cnebebi fizikur pirTan aris dakavSirebuli. iuridiul pirs aqvs rezidencia.4. saqarTvelos sasamarTlos gansakuTrebuli saerTaSoriso kompetenciazemoT ganvixileT sasamarTlos gansakuTrebuli saerTaSoriso kompetenciis arsi.axla ganvixiloT ra SemTxvevaSia SesaZlebeli am kompetenciis gamoyeneba saqarTveloSi.gansakuTrebuli saerTaSoriso kompetenciis SemTxvevebi gansazRvrulia saqarTvelossaerTaSoriso kerZo samarTlis kanonis me-9 muxlSi. aRniSnuli muxlis `a~ punqtismixedviT, Tu arsebobs pozitiur kompetenciaTa konfliqti, arsebobs ramdenime mopasuxeda gamomdinare aqedan ramdenime qveynis sasamarTlos konkurirebadi saerTa-22


Soriso kompetencia. mopasuxeebidan Tu erT-erTs `sacxovrebeli adgili, rezidenciaan Cveulebrivi adgilsamyofeli saqarTveloSi aqvs,~ maSin saqarTvelos sasamarTlosgaaCnia gansakuTrebuli saerTaSoriso kompetencia.kanonis me-9 muxlis `b~ punqti sasamarTlos aniWebs gansakuTrebul saerTaSorisokompetencias Tu `xelSekrulebiT gansazRvruli valdebulebebis Sesrulebis adgilisaqarTveloa.~ am winadadebaSi mniSvnelovania `valdebulebis Sesrulebis adgilis~ cneba.valdebulebis Sesrulebis adgilis cneba arsebobs rogorc materialur samarTalSi,ise saproceso samarTalSi. valdebulebis Sesrulebis adgils jer kidev, romis samar-Tali icnobda. romis samarTlis mixedviT, valdebulebis Sesrulebis adgili iyo is adgili,sadac movales Sesabamisi qmedeba unda ganexorcielebina, xolo kreditors ki, isunda mieRo. 13 Tu valdebulebis Sesrulebis adgili gansazRvruli ar iyo, is adgili iyogadamwyveti, sadac kreditorisaTvis sasamarTloSi gasaCivreba da Semdgom amisa, aRsrulebaxelsayreli iqneboda. xSirad aseT adgilad movalis sacxovrebeli adgili gvevlineboda.kanonis me-9 muxlis `g~ punqtis mixedviT, sasamarTloebis kompetencia (gansakuTrebulisaerTaSoriso kompetencia) vrceldeba sarCelebze, romlebic `exeba marTlsawinaaRmdegoan masTan gaTanabrebuli qmedebiT miyenebul zians da aseTi qmedebis Cadenaan zianis miyeneba saqarTveloSi moxda.~kanonis me-9 muxlis `d~ punqti gvTavazobs sasamarTlos gansakuTrebul saerTaSorisokompetencias, Tu `dava exeba im sawarmos filials, romlis rezidencia saqarTveloSia.~cneba `sawarmos filiali~ unda gavigoT saqarTvelos `mewarmeTa Sesaxeb~ kanonisSesabamisad.kanonis me-9 muxlis `e~ punqtis mixedviT, saqarTvelos sasamarTloebis gansakuTrebulikompetencia vrceldeba mamobis dadgenis an alimentis gadaxdis saqmeze, Tu`bavSvis an alimentis mimRebis sacxovrebeli adgili an Cveulebrivi adgilsamyofelisaqarTveloSia.~ aq or momentze unda gavamaxviloT yuradReba. pirveli is, rom mamobisdadgenisa da alimentis miRebis sakiTxebi erT punqtSia gaerTianebuli. es bunebrivicaris, radgan alimentis miRebaze pretenzia SeiZleba warmoiSvas mxolod mas Semdeg,rac mamoba samarTlebrivad dadgenilia. meore mxriv, sainteresoa, rom mamobis dadgenisada alimentis miRebasTan dakavSirebuli sarCelebi SeiZleba aRiZras mosarCelissacxovrebeli adgilis an Cveulebrivi adgilsamyofelis mixedviT sasamarTloSi. bunebriviaalimentis mimRebisaTvis ufro advilia sarCeli aRZras Tavisi sacxovrebeliadgilis mixedviT sasamarTloSi, vidre ucxo qveyanaSi. mas Semdeg, rac saqarTvelossasamarTlo, aRniSnul sakiTxze gamoitans gadawyvetilebas, dRis wesrigSi aucilebladdadgeba misi cnobisa da aRsrulebis sakiTxi. gadawyvetilebas cnobs da aRasrulebs imqveynis Sesabamisi organo, romelsac mopasuxe miekuTvneba.kanonis me-9 muxlis bolo, `v~ punqtis mixedviT, saqarTvelos sasamarTloebs aqvTgansakuTrebuli saerTaSoriso kompetencia Tu `sarCelis sagania samemkvidreo ufle-23


marTlmsajulebaN3dakanonibis dadgena, samkvidro qonebis gayofa da mamkvidreblis gardacvalebisas sacxovrebeliadgili, Cveulebrivi adgilsamyofeli an samkvidro qoneba saqarTveloSi hqonda.~memkvidreobasTan dakavSirebul sarCelTan mimarTebaSi ori garemoeba aris saintereso.pirveli, es aris mamkvidreblis samarTlebrivi statusi (sacxovrebeli adgili/Cveulebrivi adgilsamyofeli) da meore, samkvidro qonebis statusi (misi mdebareobisadgili). XIX-XX saukuneebSi evropaSi, gansakuTrebiT germaniaSi, aRniSnul sakiTxze ariyo calsaxa midgoma. 14 amJamad, saproceso samarTalSi ukve arsebobs ori alternativa:sarCeli SeiZleba aRiZras rogorc mamkvidreblis sacxovrebeli adgilis/Cveulebrivadgilsamyofelis mixedviT, ise samkvidro qonebis mixedviT.5. saqarTvelos sasamarTlos gamomricxavi saerTaSoriso kompetenciazogadad, sasamarTlos gamomricxav saerTaSoriso kompetenciaze ukve gvqonda saubari.amas SeiZleba daumatoT is, rom saqarTvelos sasamarTlos gamomricxavi saerTaSorisokompetenciis safuZveli aris konkretuli saqmis arsebiTi siaxlove adgilobrivsasamarTlosTan. sakiTxTa CamonaTvali, romelic moicavs gamomricxavi saerTaSorisokompetenciis SemTxvevebs sabolood dadgenilia da misi rogorc Semcireba, ise gazrdamizanSeuwonlad miiCneva. 15 gamomricxav saerTaSoriso kompetencias Cven vxvdebiT luganosada briuselis evropul konvenciebSi, romlis inkorporaciasac warmoadgens saqarTvelossaerTaSoriso kerZo samarTlis kanonis me-10 muxli. rac Seexeba im sakiTxTaCamonaTvals, romelic Sedis gamomricxav saerTaSoriso kompetenciaSi aRsaniSnavia,rom isini ganekuTvnebian kerZo samarTlis sajarosamarTlebrivi mowesrigebis sakiTxebsda amitom maTi `gamoricxva~ sxva qveynis sasamarTlos saerTaSoriso kompetenciisaganmarTebulia.saqarTvelos saerTaSoriso kerZo samarTlis kanonSi zemoaRniSnuli kompetenciisterminologiasTan dakavSirebiT adgili aqvs xarvezs. kerZod, kanonis me-10 muxlsewodeba gansakuTrebuli saerTaSoriso kompetencia, maSin, rodesac Tavisi SinaarsiTmuxli moicavs gamomricxav saerTaSoriso kompetenciis SemTxvevbs.6. saqarTvelos sasamarTlos iZulebiTi saerTaSoriso kompetenciasasamarTlos iZulebiTi saerTaSoriso kompetencia yalibdeba negatiur kompetenciaTakonfliqtisas, rodesac arc erTi qveynis sasamarTlos kompetencia ar arsebobs,adamianis ufleba ki, aucilebel dacvas moiTxovs. negatiur kompetenciaTa konfliqtisasirRveva samarTlis principi, romelic gulisxmobs adamianis uflebas mimarTosda mosmenil iqnas sasamarTlos mier. piri SeiZleba aRmoCndes im problemis winaSe, romkonkretuli saqme erTdroulad ramdenime qveynis samarTals ukavSirdeba da arc erTi24


qveynis sasamarTlo ar Tvlis Tavs kompetenturad miiRos aRniSnuli saqme warmoebaSi.aseTi SemTxvevebis mowesrigebas gulisxmobs saqarTvelos saerTaSoriso kerZo samar-Tlis kanonis me-17 muxli: `Tu saqarTvelos kanonmdebloba saqmis warmoebis Sida kompetenciasar iTvaliswinebs da amave dros SeuZlebelia saqmis aRZvra ucxo qveyanaSi ansaqmis garemoebebidan gamomdinare, procesis iq warmoebas azri ara aqvs, kompetenturiasaqarTvelos im teritoriaze arsebuli sasamarTlo, sadac ucxo qveyanaSi mcxovrebsaqarTvelos moqalaqes hqonda saboloo sacxovrebeli adgili an Cveulebrivi adgilsamyofeli.~am muxlis gaTvaliswinebiT saqarTvelos sasamarTlos iZulebiTi kompetenciisdafuZneba unda akmayofilebdes Semdeg moTxovnebs:procesis Catareba sazRvargareT SeuZlebeli unda iyos;procesis Catarebas sazRvargareT azri ar unda hqondes;gansaxilvel saqmes mWidro kavSiri unda hqondes saqarTvelosTan (magaliTad,saqarTvelos moqalaqe mudmivad cxovrobs saqarTveloSi).mocemuli muxli subsidiarulad moqmedebs kanonis im muxlebTan mimarTebaSi, romlebicsxvagvarad gansazRvraven sasamarTlo kompetenciis sakiTxebs. 16aRsaniSnavia, rom iZulebiTi saerTaSoriso kompetenciis dafuZnebisas yuradRebaeqceva mis materialur-samarTlebriv pirobebs. iZulebiTi saerTaSoriso kompetenciisamoqmedeba unda moxdes mxolod maSin, roca uflebis saprocesosamarTlebrivi ugulvebelyofamaterialuri samarTlis uaryofas uTanabrdeba.7. mxareTa SeTanxmeba sasamarTlos saerTaSoriso kompetenciazesaqarTvelos sasamarTloebis saerTaSoriso kompetenciaze SeTanxmebas awesrigebssaerTaSoriso kerZo samarTlis kanonis me-18 muxli, romelsac dasavleTevropuli samarTliszegavlenis kvali emCneva. gansakuTrebiT aSkaraa italiisa da Sveicariis Sesabamisikanonebisa da luganosa da briuselis konvenciebis gavlena.imisaTvis, rom SeTanxmebiT dafuZndes sasamarTlos saerTaSoriso kompetencia, aucilebladdaculi unda iyos sami ZiriTadi piroba:1. SeTanxmeba nebadarTulia iseT arsebul an savaraudo moTxovnebTan dakavSirebiT,romlebic gamomdinareoben qonebrivsamarTlebrivi urTierTobebidan. qonebrivsamar-Tlebriv urTierTobaSi igulisxmeba samarTlebrivi urTierToba, romelic fulTan aniseT sakiTxebTan aris dakavSirebuli, rac sabolood, fuladi RirebulebiT izomeba. 17SeTanxmeba ucxo qveynis sasamarTlos saerTaSoriso kompetenciaze baTilia, Tu sakiTxiexeba saqarTvelos gamomricxav saerTaSoriso kompetencias (kanonis me-10 muxli) daudavo saqmeTa warmoebas (kanonis 11-16 muxlebi).2. samarTalurTierToba, zustad unda iyos gansazRvruli.25


marTlmsajulebaN3dakanoni3. zustad unda ganisazRvros sasamarTlo, romelsac daeqvemdebareba samarTalurTierToba.SeTanxmeba saerTaSoriso kompetenciaze saerTaSoriso kerZo samarTlis kanonis me-18muxlis pirveli punqtis `a~ da `b~ qvepunqtebis mixedviT, ideba werilobiTi formiT anrogorc es miRebulia saerTaSoriso savaWro urTierTobebSi. garda amisa, saqarTveloskanonmdebloba gvTavazobs saerTaSoriso kompetenciaze SeTanxebis gansakuTrebul formas(kanonis me 18 muxlis me-2 punqti). mocemul SemTxvevaSi mopasuxe protestis gareSe,dumiliT Tanxmdeba saqarTvelos sasamarTlos saerTaSoriso kompetenciaze, maSinac ki,rodesac es ukanaskneli kompetenturi ar aris. analogiur faqts uSvebs kanonis me-18muxlis me-3 punqtis bolo winadadeba, rodesac uprotesto daSvebiT, ucxo qveynissasamarTlos eniWeba saerTaSoriso kompetencia. es niSnavs, rom mxare, romelsacsacxovrebeli adgili, Cveulebrivi adgilsamyofeli an rezidencia saqarTveloSi aqvs,protestis gareSe Tanxmdeba sasamarTloze, romelic kompetenturi ar aris.SeniSvnebi:1G. Walter, Internationales zivilprozessrecht der Schweiz, Verlag Paul Haupt, bern,Stuttgart, Wien, 1995, S. 184.2G. Walter, S. 88.3am kompetenciis istoriul Camoyalibebaze dawvrilebiT ix.: s. gamyreliZe,saerTaSoriso kerZo samarTlis Sesavali, pirveli wigni, Tbilisi,2000, gv. 124-125.4Zoller, Zivilprozesordnung, Verlag Dr. Otto Schmidt KG, 1990, S. 30, 137-145; G.Walter, S. 103.5F.K. von Savigny, System des heutigen romischen Rechts, B. VIII, Berlin, 1849, S. 95.6Savigny, System B. VIII, S. 45-46.7Þ. Ãàìáàðîâ, Êóðñú ãðàæäàíñêîãî ïðàâà, òîìú I, ÷àñòü îáùàÿ, Ñ-Ïåòåðáóðãú,1911, ñòð. 5.8Palandt/Heldrich, Burgerliches Gesetzbuch, Verlag C.H. Beck, Muenchen, 1993, S. 10.9H. Kohler, BGB. Allgemeiner Teil, Verlag C. H. Beck, Muenchen, 1989, S. 66.10saqarTvelos samoqalaqo kodeqsis komentari, wigni pirveli, `samar-Tali~, 1999, gv. 82-90.11Firscching/von Hoffmann, Internationales Privatrecht, Auflage 4, C.H. Beck’scheverlagsbuchhandlung, Muenchen, 1995, S. 184.12Palandt/Heldrich, EGBGB 5, rZ. 11, S. 2189.13P. Jors, Geschichte und System des Romischen Privatrechts, Verlag von Julius Springer,Berlin, 1927, S. 125, 126.14G. Walker, Internationales privatrecht, Verlag der Oesterreichische Staatsdrueckerei,Wien, 1924, S. 788-800.15G. Walter, S. 183.16H. Honsell, N. Vogt, A. Schnyder (Hrsg.), Kommentar Zum Schweizerischen Privatrecht,Internationales privatrecht, verlag Helbing & Lichtenhan, Basel und Frankfurt am main,1995, S. 3.17G. Walter, S. 113.26


INTERNATIONALCOMPETENCE ININTERNATIONAL PRIVATELAWSULKHAN GAMKRELIDZELaw School Director of the Georgian UniversityArticle reviews one of the most important institute in the international privatelaw – competence of international court. Specific details of the abovementionedinstitute are compared with the Laws and European Conventionsof the Anglo Saxon and European countries. Specifically, internationalprivate laws of Germany, Switzerland and Italy and Conventions ofLugarno 1988 and Brussels 1968.Article also reviews difference between jurisdiction and international competence.Special, exclusive, direct and indirect, general cases of internationalcompetence; Reflection of the mentioned notions in laws of Georgiagoverning international private law, gaps in the legislation.It also reviews concepts of residence, location and ordinary place in relationwith the private international institutions, their historical developmentsand place in current law.27


marTlmsajulebaN3dakanonibirTvuligauvrceleblobissaerTaSorisosamarTlebriviregulirebanana beriZeiuristiSesavalidResdReobiT, masobrivi ganadgurebis iaraRi kacobriobiswinaaRmdeg mimarTuli erT-erTi yvelaze seriozulisafrTxea. cneba `masobrivi ganadgureba,~ rasakvirvelia,axali araa, Tumca, specifikuri iaraRebi, romelTac SeuZliaTzianis miyeneba farTo masStabiT _ axali, Tanamedrovefenomenia. 100 welze metia kacobrioba cdilobs ukanonodcnos ganurCeveli an gansakuTrebiT sastiki, mwamebluriefeqtis mqone iaraRi da omis meTodebi. haagismSvidobis pirvel konferenciaze, romelic 1899 wels gaimarTa,aRniSnul sakiTxebze mravali wesi da norma iqnamiRebuli. I msoflio omSi momwamlavi gazis farTod gamoyenebisSemdeg, 1925 wlis Jenevis oqmiT saxelmwifoebmaakrZales qimiuri da biologiuri iaraRebis gamoyeneba. 1 IImsoflio omis dasasruls, xirosimasa da nagasakis masobriviganadgurebis iaraRis gamoyenebiT afeTqebis Semdeg,msoflio ar iSurebs Zalisxmevas amgvari iaraRis raodenobiskontrolis, misi gauvrceleblobis, gamoyenebis akr-Zalvisa da aRmofxvris mizniT.gaeros wesdeba, romelic iaponiis am ori qalaqis dabobmvamdeeqvsi kviriT adre iqna xelmowerili, ar moicavs masobriviganadgurebis iaraRTan dakavSirebul muxlebs.28


Tumca, wesdebis me-11 muxliT generaluri asamblea uflebamosilia ganixilos`ganiaraRebasa da SeiaraRebis regulirebasTan dakavSirebuli principebi~ 2 da wevrsaxelmwifoebs an uSiSroebis sabWos, an orives, misces rekomendaciebi am principebTandakavSirebiT. gaeros wesdebis 26-e muxlis Tanaxmad, uSiSroebis sabWo uflebamosilia`SeimuSaos... gegmebi gaeros wevri saxelmwifosaTvis SeiaraRebis regulirebis sistemisCamoyalibebis mizniT.~ 3 miuxedavad imisa, rom gaeros uSiSroebis sabWos SeiaraRebisregulirebaze jer ar dauwyia muSaoba, masobrivi ganadgurebis iaraRis sakiTxebze ukvegarkveuli RonisZiebebi ganaxorciela. wlebis ganmavlobaSi gaeros generaluriasamblea aqtiurad muSaobda `ganiaraRebisa da SeiaraRebis regulirebis,~ maT Soris,masobrvi ganadgurebis iaraRis sakiTxebze. 1946 wlis 24 ianvars, gaeros generalurmaasambleam miiRo pirveli rezolucia, romliTac mouwoda yvela wevr saxelmwifos`erovnuli SeiaraRebidan aRmofxvran atomuri da yvela sxva iaraRi, romelic masobriviganadgurebis mizniT SeiZleba iqnas gamoyenebuli.~ 4 marTalia, msofliom am mizanssrulad ver miaRwia, magram am mimarTulebiT garkveuli progresia.masobrivi ganadgurebis iaraRiT gamowveuli safrTxis Tavidan acilebis mizniT, aucilebeliamaTi saTanado Seswavla da imis gageba, Tu ra motivi amoZravebT saxelmwifoebs,an arasaxelmwifo subieqtebs maTi SeZenisas. swori diagnozis gareSe, swori mkurnalobaSeuZlebelia. Tumca, safrTxis Sefaseba SeiZleba garTuldes. amis erT-erTimizezia masobrivi ganadgurebis iaraRis saidumlo programebi. gansakuTrebul sirTulesqmnis, nakleb SesaZlebeli, magram, sazareli Sedegis mqone iseTi safrTxis Sefaseba,rogoricaa teroristebis mier birTvuli iaraRis SeZena.arsebobs mosazreba, rom usafrTxoebis interesebi masobrivi ganadgurebis iaraRismopovebis mTavari motivia saxelmwifoTaTvis. zogierTi saxelmwifo masobrivi ganadgurebisiaraRs, gansakuTrebiT ki, birTvul iaraRs, ganixilavs, rogorc uzarmazar konvenciurZalTa upiratesobebis dabalansebis saSualebas. saxelmwifoebi aseve, masobriviganadgurebis iaraRs miiCneven uSiSroebis winaaRmdeg mimarTuli arsebuli an momavalisafrTxeebisagan Tavdacvis saSualebad. Tumca, usafrTxoeba araa erTaderTimotivi saxelmwifoTaTvis masobrivi ganadgurebis iaraRis mosapoveblad. saxelmwifomSesaZloa aseTi iaraRi SeiZinos imis rwmeniT, rom es gazrdis mis prestiJsa da mdgomareobas.Tumca, motivebis CamonaTvali grZelia, sabednierod, im saxelmwifoTa sia, romlebmacSeiZines aseTi iaraRi, adrindelTan SedarebiT mcirea. maSin ratom warmoadgensmasobrivi ganadgurebis iaraRi kvlav amgvar safrTxes? arsebobs ori riski, kerZod: 1.masobrivi ganadgurebis iaraRis gavrceleba an SeZena; 2. maTi mopoveba im saxelmwifoTamier, romlebic ar floben amgvar iaraRs, an arasaxelmwifo jgufebis mier.birTvuli iaraRi gamogonil iqna 60-ze meti wlis winaT. miuxedavad imisa, rom bir-Tvuli iaraRis SeqmnisaTvis aucilebeli teqnologia Zalian rTulia, birTvuli iara-Ris koncefcia farTodaa gavrcelebuli. cxra saxelmwifom (CineTi, safrangeTi, indoeTi,israeli, pakistani, ruseTi, samxreT afrika, didi britaneTi da aSS) da CrdiloeTkoream Seqmnes birTvuli iaraRebi. danarCen 40-ze met saxelmwifos agreTve, aqvs SesaZ-29


marTlmsajulebaN3dakanonilebloba Seqmnas birTvuli iaraRi, Tu maTi mTavrobebi isurveben da miiReben gadawyvetilebas,daxarjon dro, daabandon fuli da ar daiSuron politikuri Zalisxmeva ammiznis misaRwevad. saTanado droisa da resursebis mqone kargad organizebul erovnulorganizaciebsa da teroristul jgufebsac aseve, SeuZliaT Seqmnan birTvuli asafeTqebelimowyobiloba, im SemTxvevaSi Tu isini moipoveben saWiro birTvul masalebs.birTvuli iaraRi aris mowyobiloba asafeTqebeli energiiT, romlis umravlesoba,an yvela warmoiSoba atomTa gaxleCis, an maTi kombinaciisa da TermobirTvuli procesisSedegad. xirosimasa da nagasakSi gamoyenebuli atomuri bombebis Seqmna martivia, Tumca,isini kompleqsur TermobirTvul afeTqebebs iwveven. ufro Tanamedrove birTvul iaraRebSigamoiyeneba ori procesis kombinacia, romelsac ewodeba ganmeorebiTi imunizacia,raTa SeinarCunos maRali Sedegi mcire bombebSi. 5 ori mTavari elementi, romlebicaucilebelia birTvuli asafeTqebeli mowyobilobis Sesaqmnelad aris gamdidrebuliurani (Seicavs maRali procentulobis urans _ urani 235, an U-235, aseve, cnobiliarogorc metad gamdidrebuli urani (HEU)) da plutoniumi. plutoniumis warmoeba moiTxovsdid da aSkarad TvalSisacem mowyobilobebs, Sesabamisad, plutoniumis SemcvelobiTbirTvuli iaraRis farulad mopoveba Zalian rTulia, Tumca, SeuZlebeli ar aris.uranis gamdidrebisaTvis aucilebeli zogierTi teqnologiebi SesaZloa farulad iqnesgamoyenebuli, magram maTi aRmoCena aseve martivia, bevr SemTxvevaSi, iseTi teqnikurisaSualebebis gamoyenebiT, rogoricaa saTvalTvalo satelitebi.birTvuli iaraRis Sesaqmnelad aucilebeli masalebis raodenoba ganisazRvreba bir-Tvuli iaraRis dizainis, aseve, am masalebis odenobis mixedviT. atomuri energiis saer-TaSoriso saagentom (IAEA) gamoaqveyna birTvuli iaraRis Sesaqmnelad saWiro masalebisaucilebeli odenobis Sesaxeb cifrebi, rac cnobilia `aucilebeli odenobis~ saxelwodebiT.atomuri energiis saerTaSoriso saagentos mier gamoqveynebuli cifrebis Tanaxmad,aucilebeli odenoba esaa 25 kg gamdidrebuli urani da 8 kg plutoniumi. aSS-isklasificirebis wesebi uSveben, rom birTvuli iaraRi SeiZleba Seiqmnas iseTi mcire odenobiT,rogoricaa 4 kg plutoniumi. damoukidebeli eqspertebi acxadeben, rom 1 kilotonisbirTvuli asafeTqebeli mowyobiloba, martivi dizainiT, SeiZleba Seiqmnas 1 an 2 kilogramiplutoniumiT an daaxloebiT 8-dan 10 kilogramamde gamdidrebuli uraniT. 6birTvuli iaraRis gavrcelebis prevencia sakmaod rTulia, im faqtis gaTvaliswinebiT,rom dasaSvebia birTvuli iaraRis Sesaqmnelad gamoyenebadi masalebis gamoyenebamSvidobiani miznebisaTvis. samoqalaqo seqtorSi birTvuli masalebis fizikuri dacva,birTvuli iaraRis gavrcelebis prevenciis mniSvnelovani komponentia.I. birTvuli gauvrceleblobis reJimibirTvuli gauvrceleblobis reJimi yvelaze Zvelia da Camoyalibda `birTvuli iara-Rebis gauvrceleblobis Sesaxeb SeTanxmebis~ safuZvelze. is aseve, moicavs damatebiT30


SeTanxmebebs: inspeqtirebisa da Semowmebis meqanizmebs, sxvadasxva eqsport kontrolisada mimwodeblebis regulirebis RonisZiebebs, maT Soris, yvelaze mniSvnelovania atomurienergiis saerTaSoriso saagento (IAEA).1. `birTvuli iaraRebis gauvrceleblobis SeTanxmeba~ 7 mravalmxrivi saerTaSorisoxelSekrulebaa, romelic krZalavs birTvuli iaraRebis gavrcelebas da ayalibebsgauvrceleblobis saerTaSoriso normebs. igi xelmosawerad gaixsna 1968 wels da ZalaSiSevida 1970 wlis 5 marts. amJamad, SeTanxmebis wevri 189 saxelmwifoa. SeTanxmeba wevrsaxelmwifoebs hyofs birTvul da arabirTvul saxelmwifoebad. SeTanxmebis safuZvelze,birTvul saxelmwifoebad iTvlebian wevri qveynebi, romelTac moaxdines birTvulimowyobilobebis detonireba (afeTqeba) 1967 wlis 1 ianvramde. xuTi wevri qveyana aRiarebuliabirTvul saxelmwifod, esenia: amerikis SeerTebuli Statebi (pirveli detonaciamoaxdina 1945 wels), sabWoTa kavSiri (1949 weli), didi britaneTi (1952 weli), safrangeTi(1960 weli) da CineTi (1964 weli). 1992 wels, ruseTi gaxda sabWoTa kavSiris birTvulisaxelmwifos statusis uflebamonacvle. yvela danarCen wevr saxelmwifos SeTanxmebisTanaxmad, ewodeba arabirTvuli wevri saxelmwifo. arabirTvuli saxelmwifos statusismopovebis mizniT, ukrainam, yazaxeTma da belarusma Sewyvites TavianTi birTvuli iara-Rebis warmoebis programebi. gaeros uSiSroebis sabWos xuTi mudmivi wevri agreTvegauvrceleblobis SeTanxmebis wevri saxelmwifoebia. aSS-i, ruseTi da didi britaneTiSeTanxmebis depozitari qveynebia. CineTi da safrangeTi SeTanxmebas 1992 wlamde armiuerTdnen. bolo mierTeba SeTanxmebasTan moxda 2006 wlis 3 ivniss, rodesac montenegrooficialurad miuerTda gauvrceleblobis SeTanxmebas. saqarTvelo aRniSnuldokuments miuerTda 1994 wlis 7 marts. mxolod indoeTi, israeli da pakistani ar arianwevrebi da maT mier am SeTanxmebis xelmoweris Semdeg, es dokumenti SeiaraRebis kontrolisSeTanxmebebis istoriaSi gaxdeboda yvelaze sayovelTaod aRiarebuli saerTa-Soriso xelSekruleba. 8 CrdiloeT korea miuerTda SeTanxmebas, daarRvia da SeTanxmebidangamosvlis Sesaxeb gancxadeba 2003 wlis 10 ianvars gaakeTa, Semdgom ki, 2006 da2009 wlebSi, miwisqveSa birTvuli afeTqebebi ganaxorciela. Tumca, gaerom ar aRiaraCrdiloeT koreis SeTanxmebidan gasvla, vinaidan fxenianma ar Seasrula SeTanxmebisme-10 muxlis Tanaxmad, gamosvlamde sami TviT adre winaswari werilobiTi Setyobinebispiroba. arsebobs mosazreba, rom birTvul iaraRs SeTanxmebis oTxi arawevri qveyanaflobs _ indoeTma, pakistanma da CrdiloeT koream Riad gamoscades da ganacxades,rom isini floben birTvul iaraRs, xolo rac Seexeba israels, igi bundovan politikasatarebs Tavisi birTvuli iaraRis programebTan dakavSirebiT.gauvrceleblobis SeTanxmeba Sedgeba preambulisa da TerTmeti muxlisagan. SeTanxmebaszogjer moixseneben, rogorc `sami svetis~ sistemas, sadac moiazreba Semdeg sammimarTulebas Soris balansi: 1. gauvrcelebloba; 2. ganiaraReba; 3. birTvuli teqnologiebismSvidobiani miznebisaTvis gamoyeneba.gauvrcelebloba. birTvuli iaraRis xuTi wevri saxelmwifo SeTanxmda, rom ar gadascemen`birTvul iaraRebs an sxva birTvul asafeTqebel mowyobilobebs~ da `arcerT31


marTlmsajulebaN3dakanoniSemTxvevaSi ar daexmarebian, waaxaliseben an aiZuleben~ arabirTvul wevr saxelmwifoebsmoipovon an SeiZinon birTvuli iaraRebi (muxli I). 9 SeTanxmebis wevri arabirTvulisaxelmwifoebi ar `miiReben,~ `awarmoeben~ an `SeiZenen~ birTvul iaraRs, aseve, ar `moiZiebenan miiReben daxmarebas birTvuli iaraRis warmoebis mizniT~ (muxli I I ). 10 SeTanxmebiswevri arabirTvuli saxelmwifoebi aseve, Tanxmdebian miiRon atomuri energiissaerTaSoriso saagentos usafrTxoebis zomebi, rac gulisxmobs Semowmebas, rom isinimSvidobiani miznisaTvis gamoyenebul birTvul energias ar gamoiyeneben birTvuli iaraRisan sxva birTvuli asafeTqebeli mowyobilobebis Sesaqmnelad (muxli I I I ). 11 nebismiersaxelmwifoTa jgufs aqvs ufleba TavianT teritoriaze Seqmnan birTvuli iaraRisaganTavisufali zonebi.ganiaraReba. SeTanxmebis VI muxli 12 yvela wevr saxelmwifos akisrebs birTvuli dasayovelTao ganiaraRebis sakiTxebze garkveul bundovan valdebulebebs: ‘SeTanxmebiswevri yvela saxelmwifo iRebs valdebulebas, awarmoon keTili nebiT molaparakebebibirTvuli iaraRis Seqmnis droulad Sewyvetasa da birTvul ganiaraRebasTan dakavSirebulefeqtian RonisZiebebze da aseve, zogadad, SeTanxmebis da ganiaraRebis dasrulebisTaobaze.~ VI muxlis interpretaciiT yvela xelmomwer saxelmwifos, faqtobrivad,mtkiced ar moeTxoveba dados ganiaraRebis SeTanxmeba, maT moeTxovebaT mxolod awarmoon`molaparakeba keTili nebiT.~ saerTaSoriso sasamarTlom SeTanxmebis da birTvuliiaraRis gamoyenebis legalurobis Sesaxeb Tavis sarekomendacio mosazrebebSi,romelic gamoica 1996 wlis 8 ivliss, VI muxlTan dakavSirebiT, erTxmad daaskvna, rom`arsebobs valdebuleba daiwyon keTili nebiT da daasrulon molaparakebebi, birTvuliganiaraRebis Taobaze misi yvela aspeqtis gaTvaliswinebiT, mkacri da efeqtiani saer-TaSoriso kontrolis safuZvelze.~ 13mSvidobiani miznebisaTvis gamoyeneba. SeTanxmebis wevri yvela saxelmwifo Tanxmdeba,birTvuli energiis mSvidobiani miznebisaTvis gamoyenebasTan dakavSirebiT sruladgacvalon aRWurvilobis, masalebis, mecnierebisa da teqnologiis Sesaxeb informacia.SeTanxmebis wevrma arabirTvulma saxelmwifoebma unda miiRon da Seasrulonatomuri energiis saerTaSoriso saagentos usafrTxoebis RonisZiebebi, rogorc mSvidobianimiznebisaTvis birTvuli TanamSromlobis piroba. atomuri energiis saerTaSorisosaagento usafrTxoebis RonisZiebebs axorcielebs, raTa Seamowmos wevri saxelmwifoebi,rom isini namdvilad icaven aRebul valdebulebebs da ar gamoiyeneben TavianTbirTvul programebs birTvuli iaraRis Sesaqmnelad.rogorc aRiniSna, SeTanxmeba aRiarebs suverenul saxelmwifoTa uflebas gamoiyenonbirTvuli energia mSvidobiani miznebisaTvis, magram zRudavs maT, rom es ufleba SeiZlebaganxorcieldes `I da II muxlebis Sesabamisad.~ ramdenadac atomuri energiissadguris wylis reaqtorisaTvis aucilebelia gamdidrebuli urani, es gulisxmobs, romsaxelmwifoebma an TviTon unda gaamdidron urani, an SeiZinon is saerTaSoriso bazarze.atomuri energiis saerTaSoriso saagentos yofilma generalurma direqtorma mohamedelbaradeim uranis gamdidrebisa da gadamuSavebis SesaZleblobas birTvuli gauvrceleblobisreJimis `aqilevsis qusli~ uwoda. 1432


SeTanxmebis ZalaSi Sesvlidan, misi moqmedebis vada iyo 25 weli, periodulad gadaxedvispirobiT. SeTanxmebis gadaxedva xorcieldeba yovel xuT weliwadSi erTxel, raccnobilia SeTanxmebis wevr saxelmwifoTa gadaxedvis konferenciis saxeliT. gadaxedviskonferenciebis mizania, SeTanxmebis Sesrulebis Sedegebis gaanalizeba da misi ganxorcielebisaTvissaTanado RonisZiebebis gansazRvra. gauvrceleblobis SeTanxmebis gagrZelebisada gadaxedvis konferenciaze, romelic Catarda niu-iorkSi 1995 wlis aprilSi,mxareebi SeTanxmdnen SeTanxmebis moqmedebis upirobod ganusazRvreli vadiT gagrZelebaze.am konferenciis Sedegebi birTvuli gavrcelebis winaaRmdeg brZolis saerTaSorisoZalisxmevis mniSvnelovan warmatebad SeiZleba CaiTvalos.2000 wlis maisSi, SeTanxmebis gadaxedvis konferenciaze, monawileebma miiRes gansaxorcielebeliRonisZiebebis programa, romelic cnobilia `13 nabijis~ saxelwodebiT.ganiaraRebis valdebulebaTa saTanadod Sesrulebis mizniT, SeTanxmebis wevri saxelmwifoebiSeTanxmdnen 13 praqtikuli nabijis gadadgmaze. maT Soris, aRsaniSnavia: sayovelTaobirTvuli cdebis akrZalvis SeTanxmebis ZalaSi Sesvla; birTvuli cdebis moratoriumi;molaparakebis gamarTva atomuri masalebis ganadgurebis Sesaxeb SeTanxmebisTaobaze; birTvuli arsenalis ganadgureba: START II-is, START III-isa da antibalistikuriraketebis SeTanxmebis implementacia; sammxrivi iniciativis implementacia (aSS,ruseTis federacia da atomuri energiis saerTaSoriso saagento SeTanxmdnen, rom ganacxadebdnendamatebiT samxedro atomuri masalebis Sesaxeb); atomuri masalebis Sesaxebatomuri energiis saerTaSoriso saagentos informireba, maTi gamoyeneba mxolodmSvidobiani miznebisaTvis da a.S.morigi, 2005 wlis gadaxedvis konferencia warumatebeli iyo, misma Sedegebma kargadasaxes ganiaraRebisa da gauvrceleblobis sferoSi is dabrkolebebi da sirTuleebi,ris winaSec dgas saerTaSoriso Tanamegobroba.uaxlesi gadaxedvis konferencia gaimarTa 2010 wlis maisSi. am konferenciis daskvniTiaqti, romelic yvela wevri saxelmwifos mier iqna miRebuli, sxvadasxva sakiTxebTanerTad or mniSvnelovan regionul sakiTxze miuTiTebs. pirveli, moicavs 2012 wels konferenciismowvevas Temaze: Sua aRmosavleTSi masobrivi ganadgurebis iaraRisagan Tavisufalizonis Seqmna. meore _ is mouwodebs CrdiloeT koreas daubrundes SeTanxmebasda Sewyvitos Tavisi birTvuli iaraRebis programa. damatebiT, 2010 wlis gadaxedviskonferenciaze, wevri saxelmwifoebi SeTanxmdnen, rom ganamtkicebdnen gauvrceleblobisSeTanxmebis gadaxedvis procesebs. 152. atomuri energiis saerTaSoriso saagento. saagentos Stabbina venaSia da gaerosspecializebuli organizaciaa, romelic aerTianebs 151 wevr saxelmwifos. 16 igi daarsda1957 wels, jer kidev, im periodSi, roca birTvuli gauvrceleblobis SeTanxmebis Taobazemolaparakebebic ki, ar iyo dawyebuli. mas ormagi mTavari misia akisria: xeli SeuwyosbirTvuli energiis mSvidobiani miznebisaTvis gamoyenebas, Semowmebisa da adgilze inspeqtirebissistemis (erTianobaSi cnobilia usafrTxoebis zomebis saxelwodebiT) implementacias,raTa daadginos, rom birTvuli mowyobilobebi da masalebi ar gamoiyeneba33


marTlmsajulebaN3dakanonibirTvuli iaraRis Sesaqmnelad. atomuri energiis saerTaSoriso saagento ar aris policiuriorganizacia da ar uzrunvelyofs fizikur dacvas. mas SeuZlia inspeqtirebissistemis gamoyenebiT Tavidan aicilos saagentos kontrols daqvemdebarebuli birTvulimasalebis saxelmwifoebis mier birTvuli iaraRebis SeqmnisaTvis gamoyeneba. Sesabamisad,atomuri energiis saerTaSoriso saagentos mmarTvelTa sabWo (da SesaZloa,gaeros uSiSroebis sabWoc, romelsac bardeba angariSi usafrTxoebis zomebis ZiriTadidarRvevebis Sesaxeb) axorcielebs saTanado RonisZiebebs. 17 saxelmwifos SeuZlia ganacxadosda birTvuli masalebi gaaTavisuflos atomuri energiis saerTaSoriso saagentosinspeqtirebisagan viwro samxedro miznebisaTvis, rogoricaa, sazRvao birTvuli reaqtorebissawvaviT momarageba, rac atomuri energiis saerTaSoriso saagentos Semowmebissistemis sisusteze miuTiTebs. atomuri energiis saerTaSoriso saagento aseve, amowmebsbirTvuli saxelmwifoebis garkveul birTvul mowyobilobebsa da maTTan dakavSirebulbirTvul masalebs. ufro metic, atomuri energiis saerTaSoriso saagento monitoringsuwevs gauvrceleblobis SeTanxmebis arawevr saxelmwifoTa zogierT birTvul mowyobilobebsada maTTan dakavSirebul birTvul masalebs mxolod am saxelmwifoTa an maTmimwodebelTa moTxovnis SemTxvevaSi.3. damatebiTi oqmi. 18 1991 wlamde, gauvrceleblobis SeTanxmebis wevr arabirTvulsaxelmwifoebSi atomuri energiis saerTaSoriso saagento monitorings uwevda mxolodim birTvul mowyobilobebs, romlebzec acxadebda is saxelmwifo, sadac mimdinareobdainspeqtireba da ar eZebda aradeklarirebul SesaZlo birTvul danadgarebs, vinaidanwminda politikuri mandati wevri saxelmwifoebisagan ar gaaCnda. 1991 wlis sparseTisyuris omis Semdeg, arsebobda informacia, rom erayi saidumlod qmnida aradeklarirebulibirTvuli dawesebulebebis qsels, rogorc farTod gavrcelebuli birTvuliiaraRebis programis nawils. amis gamo atomuri energiis saerTaSoriso saagentos mmar-TvelTa sabWom 1991 wels dauSva manamade gamouyenebeli `specialuri inspeqtirebis~uflebamosileba, rac gulisxmobs, rom eWvis SemTxvevaSi, saagentos SeuZlia moiTxovosim aradeklarirebul dawesebulebebTan daSveba, romlebic saagentos azriT, SeiZlebaawarmoebdnen birTvul iaraRs. amis safuZvelze Camoyalibda atomuri energiis saer-TaSoriso saagentos usafrTxoebis zomebis Sesaxeb SeTanxmebis damatebiTi oqmi, romlismizani iyo saagentos usafrTxoebis zomebis ganmtkiceba da gafarToeba, raTa xeliSeeSala faruli birTvuli programebis ganviTarebisaTvis.4. atomuri energiis saerTaSoriso saagentos samoqmedo gegma. 2001 wlisseqtemberSi, aSS-Si teroristuli aqtis Semdeg, atomuri energiis saerTaSoriso saagentosmmarTvelTa sabWo, 2002 wlis martSi, SeTanxmda samoqmedo gegmaze, romlis mizaniabirTvuli da radiaciuli masalebis gamoyenebiT teroristuli aqtebis Cadenis winaaRmdegbrZolis sferoSi usafrTxoebisa da dacvis zomebis sayovelTaod ganmtkiceba.birTvuli terorizmis winaaRmdeg mimarTuli es samoqmedo gegma moicavs rva mimarTulebas,esenia: birTvuli masalebisa da mowyobilobebis fizikuri dacva; birTvuli daradiaciuli masalebis gamoyenebiT ukanono saqmianobis aRmoCena; saxelmwifoTa birT-34


vuli masalebis angariSgebisa da kontrolis sistemebis ganmtkiceba; radiaciuli wyaroebisusafrTxoeba; birTvul dawesebulebebSi dacvisa da usafrTxoebis Sefaseba; ukanonosaqmianobaze/sagangebo situaciebze reagirebis mzadyofna; birTvuli usafrTxoebissakiTxebze informaciis marTva.Tumca aRsaniSnavia, rom es usafrTxoebis zomebi ar aregulireben birTvuli reJimisfundamentur problemas: igive teqnologias, romelsac SeuZlia uranis naklebad gamdidrebareaqtoris kvebis wyarosaTvis, aseve, SeuZlia uranis metad gamdidreba,birTvul iaraRebSi gamosayeneblad. Sesabamisad, arsebobs riski, rom Tu qveyana aSenebsam mowyobilobebs _ rogorc es daSvebulia gauvrceleblobis SeTanxmebis me-4 muxliT– mas SeuZlia gamoiyenos birTvuli iaraRebis SeqmnisaTvis. yvelaze cud SemTxvevaSi,qveyana gamova gauvrceleblobis SeTanxmebidan, mas Semdeg rac gamoiyenebs SeTanxmebiTmisTvis miniWebul uflebas birTvuli masalebis SeZenaze.5. `atmosferoSi, kosmosur sivrcesa da wyalqveS birTvuli iaraRis cdebis akrZalvisSesaxeb xelSekruleba~ 19 da sayovelTao cdebis akrZalvis Sesaxeb xelSekruleba. 20atmosferoSi, kosmosur sivrcesa da wyalqveS birTvuli iaraRis cdebis akrZalvisSesaxeb xelSekruleba, romelic aseve, cnobilia nawilobrivi cdebis akrZalvis xelSekrulebis(PTBT) saxelwodebiT, krZalavs birTvuli iaraRis an nebismieri sxva birTvuliasafeTqeblebis gamoyenebiT yovelgvar sacdel afeTqebebs, garda miwisqveSa birTvuliafeTqebebis cdebisa. xelSekrulebis inicireba moxda mas Semdeg, rac 1950 wels, aSS-mada Semdgom 1961 wels, sabWoTa kavSirma birTvuli iaraRis gamocdis mizniT ganaxorcielesbirTvuli afeTqebebi, ramac gamoiwvia garemoSi radiaciis gavrceleba.1955 wlis maisSi, gaeros ganiaraRebis komisiam moiwvia aSS-is, didi britaneTis, kanadis,safrangeTisa da sabWoTa kavSiris warmomadgenlebi birTvuli iaraRebis cdebisakrZalvisa da molaparakebebis dawyebis mizniT. miuxedavad didi winaaRmdegobebisa,1963 wlis 5 agvistos, moskovSi, sabWoTa kavSirma, didma britaneTma da aSS-ma xelimoaweres atmosferoSi, kosmosur sivrcesa da wyalqveS birTvuli iaraRis cdebis akr-Zalvis Sesaxeb xelSekrulebas, romelic ZalaSi Sevida 1963 wlis 10 oqtombers, 21 masSemdeg, rac am samma saxelmwifom moaxdina misi ratifikacia. 2008 wlis ivlisis monacemebiT,123-ma saxelmwifom moaxdina misi ratifikacia an miuerTda xelSekrulebas,xolo 10-ma saxelmwifom xeli moawera, magram jer ar mouxdenia ratifikacia. 22gauvrceleblobis reJimis uaxlesi potenciuri elementi aris sayovelTao cdebisakrZalvis Sesaxeb xelSekruleba, romelic xelmosawerad gaixsna niu-iorkSi, 1996 wlis24 seqtembers. igi `atmosferoSi, kosmosur sivrcesa da wyalqveS birTvuli iaraRiscdebis akrZalvis Sesaxeb xelSekrulebisagan~ gansxvavebiT, krZalavs nebismieri saxisbirTvuli afeTqebebis cdebs da ayalibebs sakmaod mkacri Semowmebis normebs, maT Soris,seismologiur monitorings da darRvevebis aRmosaCenad adgilze inspeqtirebas.sayovelTao cdebis akrZalvis Sesaxeb xelSekrulebis Taobaze molaparakebebi gaimarTaganiaraRebis Sesaxeb Jenevis konferenciaze, sadac gadawyvetilebebi Cveulebriv,konsesusis gziT miiReba. 1996 wlis agvistoSi, indoeTma droebiT dabloka xelSekru-35


marTlmsajulebaN3dakanonilebis damtkiceba. indoeTis vetos gadasalaxad, avstraliam xelSekruleba warmoadginagaeros generalur asambleaSi, sadac gadawyvetileba miiReba ara konsesusiT, aramedumravlesobiT. gaeros generalurma asambleam, 1996 wels, sayovelTao cdebis akrZalvisSesaxeb xelSekruleba 158 xmiT samis winaaRmdeg miiRo (uaryofiTi xmebi misces butanma,indoeTma da libiam).1999 wlis oqtomberSi, aSS-is senatma uari ganacxada am SeTanxmebis ratifikaciaze,Tumca, aSS da yvela sxva monawile saxelmwifo ganagrZoben miRweuli SeTanxmebis safuZvelze,cdebis akrZalvis normebis nebayoflobiT dacvas. sayovelTao cdebis akrZalvisSesaxeb xelSekrulebis debulebebis Tanaxmad, SeTanxmebis ZalaSi SesvlisaTvis aucilebelia44 `birTvuli SesaZleblobebis mqone,~ anu romelic flobs birTvul energiasan birTvul kvleviT reaqtors, saxelmwifos mxridan ratifikacia. am saxelmwifoTagansamma _ indoeTma, CrdiloeT koream da pakistanma ar moaweres xeli xelSekrulebas,xolo 8 saxelmwifos, maT Soris, CineTs, israelsa da aSS-s jer ar mouxdeniaT misiratifikacia. mTlianobaSi, 182-ma saxelmwifom moawera xeli xelSekrulebas da 153-mamoaxdina ratifikacia. 236. mimwodebelTa kontrolis meqanizmebi. zangeris komiteti da birTvul mimwodebelTajgufi aris saxelmwifoTa ori araformaluri gaerTianeba, romlebic gauvrceleblobisreJimis mesame mniSvnelovani elementia. es ori gaerTianeba Sedgeba saxelmwifoebisagan,romlebic nebayoflobiT zRudaven im masalebisa da aRWurvilobiseqsports, romlebic SeiZleba gamoyenebul iqnas birTvuli iaraRis Sesaqmnelad.gauvrceleblobis SeTanxmebis ZalaSi Sesvlis Semdeg, umravlesoba dasavleTisa dapostsabWoTa blokis birTvuli masalebis mimwodebelma saxelmwifoebma daiwyes konsultaciaarabirTvul saxelmwifoebSi birTvuli masalebis eqsportTan dakavSirebulidebulebebisa da standartebis SemuSavebis Taobaze. 1974 wlis agvistoSi, saxelmwifoTajgufma, romelic cnobilia gauvrceleblobis SeTanxmebis eqsportis komitetis saxeliT(an zanger-komiteti, ase daerqva Sveicariis Tavmjdomareobis Semdeg), miiRo mTelirigi normebi. es normebi moicavs im saeqsporto masalebis sias, romelTa eqsportmacSeiZleba gamoiwvios atomuri energiis saerTaSoriso saagentos usafrTxoebis moTxovnebisdarRveva mimReb saxelmwifoSi.1974 wels, indoeTis mier birTvuli iaraRis gamocdis Semdeg, birTvuli masalebismimwodebel saxelmwifoTa jgufi, maT Soris, iyo safrangeTic, romelic im periodSiar iyo gauvrceleblobis SeTanxmebis wevri _ Seikribnen londonSi, raTa SemdgomSiSeemuSavebinaT eqsportis normebi. 1976 wlis ianvarSi, londonis am jgufma, romeliccnobili gaxda birTvul mimwodebelTa jgufis saxeliT, miiRo normebi, romlebic TiTqmisiseTive iyo, rogoric gauvrceleblobis SeTanxmebis eqsportiorTa komitetis,magram aseve, gaafarTova teqnologiebis gadazidvis sakiTxebi da moicavda SeTanxmebas,rom wevrebi `ganaxorcieleben TviTkontrols~ uranisa da plutoniumis gamdidrebisaTvissaWiro aRWurvilobasa da danadgarebze. 2004 wlis maisSi, birTvul mimwodebelTajgufma miiRo `yvelas dakavebis~ meqanizmi, romlis Tanaxmad, wevr saxelmwifoebs36


hqondaT ufleba, Tavidan aecilebinaT nebismieri eqsporti, romelzec isini eWvobdnen,rom SeiZleba gamoyenebuliyo birTvuli iaraRis programebisaTvis, maSinac ki, Tu esdablokili masalebi ar emTxveoda birTvul mimwodebelTa jgufis kontrolis sias. 247. birTvuli iaraRisagan Tavisufali zonebi. faqtobrivad, es zonebi gauvrceleblobisreJimis damatebaa, vinaidan is exeba specifikur regionul situaciebs. bir-Tvuli iaraRisagan Tavisufali zonebis mzardi mniSvnelobis Sesaxeb aRiniSna 1995 wlisgauvrceleblobis SeTanxmebis gagrZelebisa da gadaxedvis konferenciis daskvniT dokumentSi.birTvuli iaraRisagan Tavisufali zonebi Camoyalibda laTinur amerikaSi(tlatelokos SeTanxmeba, 1997 w.), wynari okeanis samxreT qveynebsa (1996 w.) da afrikaSi(1996 w.). 1997 wels ZalaSi Sevida, bankokis SeTanxmeba, romlis safuZvelzec SeiqmnasamxreT-aRmosavleT aziis birTvuli iaraRisagan Tavisufali zona, miuxedavad imisa,rom ver moxerxda 5 birTvuli saxelmwifos ratifikaciis oqmis miRweva. 2002 wels yazaxeTma,yirgizeTma, tajikeTma, TurqmeneTma da uzbekeTma daasrules molaparakeba centraluriaziis birTvuli iaraRisagan Tavisufali zonis daarsebis Sesaxeb xelSekrulebisTaobaze, 25 romelic ZalaSi Sevida 2009 wlis 21 marts. 268. gauvrceleblobis reJimis specialuri damatebiTi RonisZiebebi. 2001 wlisteroristuli aqtebis Semdeg, bevrma qveyanam gamoTqva survili ganaxorcielon koleqtiuriRonisZiebebi gavrcelebis winaaRmdeg. ori yvelaze mniSvnelovani mravalmxrivimiRweva aris gavrcelebis usafrTxoebis iniciativis Camoyalibeba da gaeros uSiSroebissabWos rezolucia #1540-is miReba.9. gavrcelebis usafrTxoebis iniciativa. aRniSnuli iniciativa nebayoflobiTigaerTianebaa da xelmZRvanelobs aSS. gaerTianebis mizania iaraRisa da teqnologiebisgadatanis xelis SeSla informaciis gacvlis meqanizmebis gaumjobesebisa da urTierTqmedebisgziT. gavrcelebis usafrTxoebis iniciativis saqmianoba moicavs monawilesaxelmwifoebSi erovnuli kanonmdeblobis daxvewas, romlis mixedviTac, saxelmwifodawesebulebebs eZlevaT SesaZlebloba zRviT gadatanili kontrolirebadi nivTebigaCxrikon da daakavon; aseve, informaciis gacvla da samarTaldamcav uwyebebs SorisTanamSromloba ukanono gadatanis Tavidan acilebis mizniT.gavrcelebis usafrTxoebis iniciativis ganxorcieleba daiwyo 2003 wlis maisSi, aSS-isTaosnobiT da mas miuerTda 98 saxelmwifo, maT Soris: avstralia, safrangeTi, germania,italia, iaponia, niderlandebi, poloneTi, portugalia, espaneTi, didi britaneTi, singapuri,axali zelandia da norvegia. damatebiT 73 qveyana, maT Soris, ruseTi aRniSnuliniciativas 27 miuerTda. gavrcelebis usafrTxoebis iniciativa aris aRsrulebis mniSvnelovanidamatebiTi saSualeba, Tumca, ar aqvs sistema, romliTac SeZlebs ganaxorcielosraime RonisZiebebi kanonierad droSis qveS myof gemze an safren aparatze, romlebsacsaerTaSoriso teritoriebis gadakveTiT gadaaqvT sxva qveyanaSi birTvuli,qimiuri an biologiuri nivTierebebi an teqnologiebi.10. gaeros uSiSroebis sabWos rezolucia 1540. 28 2004 wlis 28 aprils, gaerosuSiSroebis sabWom, gaeros wesdebis VII Tavis Sesabamisad, erTxmad miiRo rezolucia37


marTlmsajulebaN3dakanoni1540 da samarTlebrivad savaldebulo gaxada gaeros yvela wevri saxelmwifosaTvis. rezolucia1540 moiTxovs yvela saxelmwifosagan `Camoayalibon, ganaviTaron, ganixilonda uzrunvelon Sesabamisi efeqtiani erovnuli da saerTaSoriso gadazidvebis kontroli~da `sasazRvro kontroli,~ 29 raTa Tavidan iqnas acilebuli birTvuli, qimiuri dabiologiuri iaraRisa da maTi gadatanis saSualebebis gavrceleba. saxelmwifoebma undamiiRon birTvuli gavrcelebisaTvis gamoyenebuli masalebis `eqsportis kontrolis,tranzitis, transgadazidvebisa da reeqsportis Sesaxeb Sesabamisi kanonebi da normebi.~ 30garda amisa, Camoyalibda uSiSroebis sabWos komiteti, romlis funqciaa rezoluciisSesrulebis progresis monitoringi da wevri saxelmwifoebisagan or weliwadSi erTxel,implementaciis Sesaxeb moxsenebebis miReba. rezoluciis mTavari upiratesoba sxvamsgavsi sakiTxebis maregulirebeli xelSekrulebebisagan gansxvavebiT, rezoluciasavaldebuloa gaeros yvela wevri saxelmwifosaTvis, maT Soris, maTTvis, romlebicgauvrceleblobis SeTanxmebis wevrebi ar arian. rezolucia avaldebulebs wevr saxelmwifoebsganaxorcielon RonisZiebebi, raTa Tavidan aicilon birTvuli, qimiuri dabiologiuri iaraRebis gavrceleba da maTi gavrcelebis saSualebebi. `xanis~ 31 birTvuliSavi bazris qselis aRmoCenis Sedegad, es rezolucia avaldebulebs saxelmwifoebs,raTa maT SezRudon arasaxelmwifo subieqtebi.II. birTvuli gauvrceleblobis momavali gamowvevebirogorc aRiniSna, gauvrceleblobis SeTanxmeba dafuZnebulia SeTanxmebis sami mTavarimimarTulebis dabalansebaze: gauvrcelebloba, ganiaraReba da birTvuli teqnologiebissamoqalaqo miznebisaTvis gamoyeneba. SeTanxmebis am sami mTavari mimarTulebisbalansis miRweva rTulia maTi winaaRmdegobrivi xasiaTis gamo. Tu SeTanxmebiserT-erTi mimarTuleba ganmtkicebulia, mas negatiuri zemoqmedeba aqvs danarCen ormimarTulebaze. samoqalaqo miznebisaTvis gamoyenebis mimarTuleba safrTxes uqmnisganiaraRebisa da gauvrceleblobis mimarTulebebs. amitomac, gauvrceleblobis es`birTvuli samkuTxedi~ mudmivad saWiroebs dabalansebas da misi warmateba damokidebuliabirTvul sakiTxebTan dakavSirebiT SeTanxmebis yvela wevri saxelmwifosindividualuri interesebis Tanxvedraze.momavali mTavari gamowvevebi orgvaria. erTi gamowveulia SeTanxmebis sami mimarTulebisarsebuli disbalansiT, xolo meore _ gamomdinareobs sami specifikuri movlenidan,ramac SeiZleba gamoiwvios damatebiT birTvuli Tavsatexi, esenia: 1. SemdgomSi bir-Tvuli saxelmwifoebis zrda; 2. globaluri ganiaraRebis iniciativebis ganxorcielebisproblema; 3. birTvuli teqnologiebis gavrcelebis zrda energetikul produqciaSi.mTeli rigi movlenebi naTlad miuTiTeben gauvrceleblobis SeTanxmebis sisusteze_ mimdinare dava iranis mier birTvuli teqnologiebis SeZenis mcdelobaze; garda amisa,pakistani, indoeTi da israeli, rogorc de faqto birTvuli saxelmwifoebi, naTladmetyveleben SeTanxmebis uZlurebaze. birTvuli teqnologiebis kontrabandaSi `xanis~38


qselis saqmianobis gamomJRavneba naTlad metyvelebs arasaxelmwifo subieqtebis mierbirTvuli gavrcelebis mzard safrTxeze. agreTve, CrdiloeT koreis provokaciuliqmedebis Sedegad, SeTanxmebidan gamosvlis sakiTxs da mopovebuli teqnologiebis gamoyenebisuflebis saTanado Sedegebs gansakuTrebuli adgili uWiravs gauvrceleblobisSeTanxmebis dRis wesrigSi.cotaodeni simSvidis sababs iZleva usafrTxoebis mzardi ganviTarebadi garemo.Tumca, SeiZleba umarTavi gaxdes tendenciebi an moulodneli incidentebi, romelTacwinaswar ver ganWvret. teroristebis, saxelmwifos mier ganxorcielebul masobriv Jletasan birTvul katastrofas samoqalaqo daniSnulebis atomur sadgurebSi SeiZlebasazareli Sedegebi mohyves. am ukanasknelis naTeli magaliTebia Cernobilsa da iaponiaSiganviTarebuli movlenebi.yovelive zemoTqmulis gavlena gauvrceleblobis SeTanxmebis mimarTulebebzegansxvavebulia. erTi mxriv, usafrTxoebis miznebisaTvis gauvrceleblobam SeiZlebadidi mniSvneloba SeiZinos, Sedegad samoqalaqo miznebisaTvis teqnologiebis gadatanaSeizRudeba, rac niSnavs, rom arabirTvuli saxelmwifoebis ekonomikur da teqnologiurinteresebs naklebi prioriteti mieniWeba gauvrceleblobis SeTanxmebaSi. meoremxriv, ganiaraRebis sakiTxi eWvqveS dgeba, ramdenadac axali birTvuli saxelmwifoebigamodian asparezze. Tumca, aRsaniSnavia 2009 wels ganxorcielebuli birTvuli ganiara-Rebis axali iniciativebi. 2010 wlis 2-4 Tebervals, parizSi vizitis dros aSS-isa daruseTis prezidentebma da gaeros generalurma mdivanma mtkice mxardaWera gamoucxadesiniciativas, saxelwodebiT _ `globaluri nuli~ ("Global Zero"). 32 ufro metic, ruseTmada aSS-ma xeli moaweres axal (START) 33 SeTanxmebas praRaSi. ramdenadac es arisganviTarebis axali etapi da ivaraudeba, rom gagrZeldeba momavalSi. igi mniSvnelovanisignalia birTvuli gauvrceleblobisa da ganiaraRebis sferoSi.daskvnadasasrul, unda aRiniSnos, rom aucilebelia yvela saxelmwifo gaerTiandes da ardaiSuros Zalisxmeva birTvuli gauvrceleblobis reJimis meqanizmebis daxvewisa daarsebuli xarvezebis aRmofxvris mizniT, vinaidan erTi an ramdenime saxelmwifosZalisxmeva ar iqneba sakmarisi am globaluri safrTxis Tavidan acilebis sakiTxSi. Tumca,saxelmwifoebi ar unda SeizRudon mxolod birTvuli SeiaraRebis kontrolis saerTaSorisonormebis CarCoebiT, aramed birTvuli usafrTxoebis ganmtkicdebis mizniT,maT aseve, unda ganaviTaron da gaaRrmaon saerTaSoriso TanamSromloba. vinaidan,arsebobs mosazreba, rom birTvuli industria SesaZloa gafarTovdes, umjobesia, esmoxdes ufro meti transparantulobisa da TanamSromlobis farglebSi. garda amisa,atomuri energiis saerTaSoriso saagento unda gaZlierdes ara mxolod politikuriTvalsazrisiT, aramed agreTve, resursebiTac, raTa birTvuli gauvrceleblobis SeTanxmebaganmtkicdes da kvlav efeqtiani gaxdes.39


marTlmsajulebaN3dakanoniSeniSvneba:1http://www.un.org/disarmament/WMD/Bio/pdf/Status_Protocol.pdf2http://www.un.org/en/documents/charter/chapter4.shtml3http://www.un.org/en/documents/charter/chapter5.shtml4http://daccess-dds-ny.un.org/doc/RESOLUTION/GEN/NR0/032/52/IMG/NR003252.pdf?OpenElement5Deadly Arsenal, Nuclear Biological and Chemical Threats; Second addition revisedand expanded; Joseph Cirincione, Jon B. Wolfsthal, Miriam Rajkumar; p.6.6Deadly Arsenal, Nuclear Biological and Chemical Threats; Second addition revisedand expanded; Joseph Cirincione, Jon B. Wolfsthal, Miriam Rajkumar; p.47.7Semdeg teqstSi gamoyenebuli iqneba terminiT `gauvrceleblobis Se-Tanxmeba~ an `SeTanxmeba~.8United Nations Department for Disarmament Affairs, “Status of Multilateral ArmsRegulation and Disarmament Agreements: View by Country and Treaty”, available athttp://disarmament2.un.org/TreatyStatus.nsf Site.9ix.: http://www.un.org/en/conf/npt/2010/npttext.shtml10ix.: iqve.11ix.: iqve.12ix.: iqve.13“U.S. Compliance With Article VI of the NPT”. Acronym.org.uk. http://www.acronym.org.uk/docs/0502/doc13.htm. Retrieved 2010-11-25.14Daniel Dombey (19 February 2007). “Director General’s Interview on Iran and DPRK”.Financial Times. http://www.iaea.org/NewsCenter/Transcripts/2007/ft190207.html.Retrieved 2006-05-04.15Available at http://www.international.gc.ca/arms-armes/nuclear-nucleaire/npt-tnp.aspxSite.16IAEA, “IAEA by the Numbers” available at www.iaea.org/About/by_the_numbers.html17IAEA, IAEA Statute ,article XII, paragraph C, available at www.iaea.org/About/statute_text.html#A1.12.18http://www.iaea.org/Publications/Documents/Infcircs/1997/infcirc540c.pdf19xelSekrulebis teqsti ix. http://www.state.gov/t/isn/4797.htm20http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_parties_to_the_Comprehensive_Nuclear-Test-Ban_Treaty21http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Partial_Nuclear_Test_Ban_Treaty22http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_parties_to_the_Partial_Test_Ban_Treaty.23http://www.ctbto.org/fileadmin/content/treaty/treaty_text.pdf24Arms Control Association, “the Nuclear Suppliers Group at a Glance”, June 2004,available at www.armscontrol.org/factsheets/NSG.asp25Arms Control Association, “the Nuclear-weapon-free zones (NWFZ) at a Glance”, July2003, available at www.armscontrol.org/factsheets/nwfz.asp26http://disarmament.un.org/treatystatus.nsf/44e6eeabc9436b78852568770078d9c0/c851f154c73c8837852572f8005597f1?OpenDocument27ix.: Arms Control Association, “The Proliferation Security Initiative at a Glance”, availableat http://www.armscontrol.org/factsheets/PSI; aseve ix. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Proliferation_Security_Initiative.28ix.: http://daccess-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/N04/328/43/PDF/N0432843.pdf?OpenElement.40


29ix.: iqve.30ix.: iqve.31Dr. Abdul Qadeer Khan _ cnobilia pakistanis birTvuli kvlevis programisaTviscentrifugirebis meSveobiT metad gamdidrebuli uranis(HEU) Semqmnelad. 1976 wlis 31 ivliss, daaarsa `sainJinro kvleviTilaboratoria~, romlis mTavari amocana iyo uranis gamdidrebisdanadgarebis ganviTareba. 1981 wlis 1 maiss, aRniSnul laboratoriasgadaerqva saxeli da ewoda `a.q. xanis kvleviTi laboratoria~. 90-ianwlebSi dazvervam daadgina, rom `xani~ birTvul teqnologiebs hyiddasaxelmwifoebze da amis araerTi magaliTi moipoveboda, Sesabamisad,naTeli gaxda, rom `xani~ iyo birTvuli gavrcelebis saerTaSorisoqselis centrSi, 25 wlis ganmavlobaSi xelmZRvanelobda pakistanisbirTvul programas. dasavleTis, amerikisa da pakistanis mediasaSualebebSi mas moixsenieben “birTvuli iaraRis kvleviTi programismamad~. pakistanSi igi aRiarebulia gmirad. ix.: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abdul_Qadeer_Khan aseve, ix.: http://www.globalsecurity.org/wmd/world/pakistan/khan.htm32Global Zero _ es aris moZraoba, romelic Camoyalibda 2008 wlis dekemberSida aerTianebs 300-ze met politikur, samxedro, biznes da samoqalaqoseqtorebis liderebs da asi aTasobiT moqalaqes, romlebicmsoflio masStabiT birTvuli iaraRis aRmofxvris sakiTxebzemuSaoben. misi mTavari devizia msoflio birTvuli iaraRis gareSe.2010 wlis 2-4 Tebervals, parizSi, samitze aRniSnulma moZraobamwarmoadgina praqtikuli samoqmedo gegma, romelic mouwodebs aSS-sada ruseTs TavianTi sabrZolo arsenali Seamciron 1000-iT, xolo sxvasaxelmwifoebs, romlebic floben birTvul iaraRs, gayinon TavianTiarsenali da saerTaSoriso Tanamegobrobas, ganaxorcielos yvelaRonisZieba birTvuli iaraRebis gavrcelebis Tavidan acilebis mizniT.ix.: http://www.globalzero.org/en/about-campaign33START (strategiuli SeiaraRebis Semcirebis xelSekruleba) iyo ormxriviSeTanxmeba aSS-sa da ruseTs Soris strategiuli SeiaraRebisSezRudvisa da Semcirebis Sesaxeb, START I-is saxelwodebiT, romelsacxeli moewera 1991 wlis 31 ivliss da ZalaSi Sevida 1994 wels.2001 wlisaTvis am SeTanxmebis safuZvelze, yvela strategiuli birTvuliiaraRis 80% iqna aRmofxvrili. START I-is moqmedebis vada amoiwura2009 wlis 5 dekembers da 2010 wlis 8 aprils, praRaSi, xelimoewera axal xelSekrulebas aSS-sa da ruseTs Soris, romelic Zala-Si Sevida 2011 wlis 26 ianvars. ix.: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/START_I41


marTlmsajulebaN3dakanoniINTERNATIONAL LEGALREGULATION OFNUCLEARNONPROLIFERATIONNANA BERIDZELawyerWeapons of mass destruction is one of the most serious threats for thehumanity nowadays. To avoid the threat incurred by nuclear weapons athorough study of these weapons, as well as the motives of the states ornon-state subjects purchasing these weapons need to be undertaken. Propertreatment can be provided only in case of proper diagnosis, though threatassessment can be far more complicated. One of the reasons for this, isthe secret programs of the mass distraction weapons. Less probable, butmost threatening results may be incurred when the terrorists are purchasingnuclear weapons and this issue is especially difficult to study.The article reviews the available tools of the nuclear nonproliferationregime, including the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons;International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA),its additional protocol;as well as the special additional measures of nonproliferation regime,such as Proliferation Security Initiative (PSI)and UN SecurityCouncil Resolution 1540 and etc. The article provides detailed review ofthe Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, its gaps andfuture challenges. The Treaty on Non-Proliferation is based on 3 basicdirections: non-proliferation, disarmament and using nuclear technologiesfor civil purposes. It is difficult to achieve the balance between thesethree directions of the treaty because of their contradictory nature. If one42


of the directions of the treaty is strengthened, it has negative influence onthe two other directions.Considerably relieving is the fact, that increasingly safety developmentenvironment is being created. But tendencies or unexpected incidents thatcan not be foreseen in advance, may turn unmanageable. Mass extermination,or nuclear disaster in the atomic stations of civil purpose organizedby terrorists, may lead to terrible outcomes. Chernobili accident and therecent Japan events are the clear examples of these.Considering all the abovementioned, it is necessary for all the states tostand together and make their best efforts to further develop the nuclearnon-proliferation tools and eradicate existing gaps, since the efforts of onlyone or two states will not be enough to fight this global threat. Meanwhile,the states should not be restricted only with the frames of the internationalnorms of nuclear armament control, but they should strengthen the nuclearsafety and therefore develop and strengthen international cooperation.Considering the opinions, that nuclear industry may increase, it is better ifit happens more transparently and through more cooperation.43


marTlmsajulebaN3dakanonimomxmarebelTauflebebis dacvisevropuli standartebieleqtronuli vaWrobissferoSi da qarTulikanonmdeblobaTinaTin erqvaniaivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifouniversitetis iuridiuli fakultetis magistri,germanuli samarTlis magistri (LL.M, HHumboldt-Universityof Berlin), berlinis humboldtis universitetisiuridiuli fakultetis doqtorantiSesavali1997 wels, saqarTvelos samoqalaqo kodeqsis miRebiTSeiqmna umniSvnelovanesi samarTlebrivi safuZveli, qar-Tuli kerZosamarTlebrivi sivrcis ganviTarebis TvalsazrisiT.gardamavali ekonomikuri procesebis paralelurad,qveyanaSi Camoyalibda fundamenturi sakanonmdeblosistema, romlis srulyofis funqcia samarTlebrivi mecnierebisintensiuri ganviTarebis pirobebSi, kerZo samar-Tlis calkeuli sferoebis reglamentaciis saxiT, kvlaverovnul kanonmdeblobas unda Seesrulebina.evropuli kavSiris farglebSi mimdinare unifikaciisprocesebis fonze, samomxmareblo saxelSekrulebo samar-Tlis, rogorc kerZo samarTlis mniSvnelovani nawilissruli reglamentaciis aucileblobis gaTvaliswinebiT,44


statia moicavs uSualod eleqtronul garigebebTan dakavSirebuli momxmarebelTa uflebebisdacvis evropuli standartebisa da analogiuri qarTuli samarTlebrivi debulebebisnormatiuli funqciis analizs (statiis masStabebis gaTvaliswinebiT, analiziwarmodgenilia SekumSulad, kvlevis daskvniTi nawilis erTgvari Tezisebis saxiT),sistemuri, logikuri da SedarebiT-samarTlebrivi meTodebis safuZvelze.statiis mizani ar aris samomxmareblo saxelSekrulebo samarTlis sferoSi moqmediunificirebuli evropuli samarTlebrivi standartebisa da qarTuli kanonmdeblobisSesabamisi debulebebis Sedareba an msgavsebebisa da gansxvavebebis kvleva. statiismizania erTi da imave problemis gansxvavebuli samarTlebrivi regulaciebis normatiulifunqciis kvlevis safuZvelze, uSualod eleqtronul garigebebTan dakavSirebulisamomxmareblo saxelSekrulebo urTierTobis regulirebis meqanizmebis qarTuliversiis daxvewa, Sesabamisi naklovanebebis aRmoCena da moqmedi qarTuli kanonmdeblobissrulyofisaTvis novatoruli winadadebebis SeTavazeba. statiis miznebisSesabamisad, `momxmarebelTa uflebebis dacvis standartSi~ moiazreba imperatiulian dispoziciuri xasiaTis samarTlebrivi debuleba, romelic aRiqmeba rogorc savaldebulosamarTlebrivi minimumi da swored, am faqtoris gaTvaliswinebiT, unda SeicavdesmomxmarebelTa uflebebis dacvis Sesaxeb Sesabamisi kanonmdebloba. aRniSnulidangamomdinare, eleqtronul garigebebTan dakavSirebuli momxmarebelTa uflebebisdacvis TiToeuli evropuli standarti, imTaviTve, ar aRiqmeba rogorc ultima ratio da apriori universaluri formula Sesabamisi samarTlebrivi urTierTobis regulaciisTvalsazrisiT.ramdenadac ukanaskneli aTwleulis manZilze, evropuli qveynebis nacionalurikanonmdeblobebis harmonizaciis mizniT, kerZo samarTlis unifikaciis procesma evropulikavSiris farglebSi intensiuri xasiaTi miiRo. sainteresoa, aris Tu ara qarTulikanonmdebloba saTanadod sruli eleqtronuli vaWrobisa da samomxmareblo saxel-Sekrulebo samarTalSi moqmedi analogiur evropul samarTlebriv aqtebTan SedarebiT.gansakuTrebiT, qveynis samarTlebrivi cxovrebis im etapze, rodesac saqarTvelos parlamentismier miRebulia #828-Is dadgenileba (1997 wlis 2 seqtemberi), romlis mixedviT,`1998 wlis 1 seqtembridan saqarTvelos parlamentis mier miRebuli yvela kanonida sxva normatiuli aqti unda Seesabamebodes evropis kavSiris mier dadgenil standartebsada normebs.~ 1aRsaniSnavia, rom saqarTvelosa da evrokavSirs Soris ramdenime welia arsebobs e.w.`savaWro preferenciaTa ganzogadebuli sistema~, 2 romlis axali ‘‘GSP+” sqema gansakuTrebulsabaJo SeRavaTebs awesebs qarTveli mewarmeebisaTvis evropul bazarze. Tundacam mcire magaliTis gaTvaliswinebiT, ekonomikuri procesebis stabiluri ganvi-TarebisaTvis, sasurvelia saTanado yuradReba daeTmos kerZosamarTlebrivi kanonmdeblobisgadasinjvis sakiTxs, gansakuTrebiT, samomxmareblo saxelSekrulebo urTierTobebissferoSi.45


marTlmsajulebaN3dakanoniI. momxmarebelTa uflebebis dacvis samarTlebrivi instrumentebiunificirebul kerZo samarTalSi1970-iani wlebidan momxmarebelTa uflebebis dacva evropuli gaerTianebis mniSvnelovanprioritetad gardaiqmna. momxmarebelTa uflebebis dacvis Sesaxeb evropulisabWos 1975 wlis pirveli programa 3 Seicavda politikur safuZvlebs, momxmarebelTasocialuri dacvis uzrunvelsayofad, rac sabolood erTiani evropuli bazris farglebSiwevr saxelmwifoTa Sida kanonmdeblobebis harmonizaciiT unda ganxorcielebuliyo.programaSi samomxmareblo politikis sagnad xuTi ZiriTadi punqti dasaxelda:janmrTelobisa da usafrTxoebis dacvis ufleba, ekonomikuri interesebis dacvisufleba, zianis anazRaurebis ufleba, ganaTlebis ufleba da warmomadgenlobis ufleba(mosmenis ufleba). 4 Semdgomi politikuri iniciativa, saerTo evropuli bazris farglebSisamomxmareblo politikis ganviTarebasTan dakavSirebiT, realizdeba evropulikomisiis 1985 wlis SetyobinebiT, momxmarebelTa dacvis politikisaTvis axali impulsebisSesaxeb. 5 am etapze, evropuli sabWos 1975 wlis programis farglebSi, ZalaSi Sedisdireqtiva 84/450 `reklamis Sesaxeb~ da direqtiva 85/577 `momxmareblis dacvis Sesaxeb~araoficialur viTarebaSi dadebuli xelSekrulebis dros. 1987 wels, jer kidev, er-Tiani evropuli aqtebis (Einheitliche Europäische Akte) ZalaSi Sesvlamde 6 , miRebul iqna direqtiva87/102 `samomxmareblo kreditis Sesaxeb~. Semdgom wlebSi, Cndeba direqtiva90/314 `samgzavro paketis Sesaxeb~ da direqtiva 93/13 `samomxmareblo xelSekrulebebSiarasamarTliani terminebis Sesaxeb~.1993 wels, maastrixtis xelSekrulebis ZalaSi SesvliT, 7 evropuli ekonomikuri gaer-Tianebis sadamfuZneblo xelSekrulebaSi momxmarebelTa uflebebis dacvis aucileblobisSesaxeb uSualo miTiTebiT, 8 momxmarebelTa dacva gaerTianebis mniSvnelovanvaldebulebad iqca. 9 Semdgom wlebSi SemuSavda direqtiva 94/47 `vadiani TanasakuTrebisSesaxeb~ da direqtiva 97/5 `gadaricxvebis Sesaxeb~. momxmarebelTa dacvis mniSvnelovanatributad iqna miCneuli momxmarebelTaTvis uflebadamcavi instituciebis Seqmnisada Sesabamisi samarTlebrivi procesis regulirebis sakiTxi, rac mowesrigda 98/27 direqtiviT`momxmarebelTa interesebis dacvisaTvis sarCelebis Sesaxeb~. 1997 wels Zala-Si Sedis direqtiva 97/7 `Sor manZilze dadebuli xelSekrulebebis Sesaxeb~, xolo 2000wels, sagangebod eleqtronuli sivrcis regulaciisaTvis _ direqtiva 2000/31 `eleqtronulivaWrobis Sesaxeb~. finansuri momsaxurebebi moeqca Sor manZilze dadebulifinansuri momsaxurebis xelSekrulebebis Sesaxeb 2002/65 direqtivis regulirebis sferoSi.am etapze, evropuli kavSiris saqmianobis wesis Sesaxeb xelSekrulebis 169-e muxliSeicavs gansakuTrebul debulebebs momxmarebelTa uflebebis dacvis TvalsazrisiT(kavSiris wvlili, minimaluri standartebi). 10 momxmarebelTa dacvis Sesaxeb evropulikavSiris valdebulebebi agreTve, asaxulia ZiriTadi uflebebis Sesaxeb evropuli46


kavSiris qartiis 38-e muxlSi, 11 romlis farglebSi `evropuli kavSiris politika ganamtkicebsmomxmarebelTa dacvis maRal dones.”evropuli komisia sistematurad aqveynebs samomxmareblo politikis strategias,romelic kavSiris samomxmareblo politikasTan dakavSirebiT, ramdenimewlian gegmasmoicavs. 2007 wlis 13 marts, komisiam warmoadgina samomxmareblo politikis axali strategia,romelic Seicavs samomxmareblo politikis ZiriTad koncefcias 2007-2013 wlebisaTvis.12 axali strategiis mizania momxmarebelTa informirebulobisa da kompetenciisgaZliereba, evropul bazarze maTi usafrTxo da aqtiuri moZraobis uzrunvelsayofad.garda evropuli kavSiris Sesabamisi instituciebis samarTlebrivi aqtebisa, eleqtronulikomunikaciis saSualebebis ganviTarebis paralelurad, saerTaSoriso donezeSemuSavda araerTi iniciativa eleqtronuli vaWrobis samarTlebrivi reglamentaciisaTvis.am TvalsazrisiT, erT-erTi pirveli iyo saerTaSoriso savaWro samarTlis gaeroskomisia (UNCITRAL), romlis xangrZlivi muSaobis Sedegia modaluri kanoni `eleqtronulivaWrobis Sesaxeb~ (Model Law on Electronic Commerce1996-1998), 13 modaluri kanoni`eleqtronuli xelmowerebis Sesaxeb~ (Model Law on Electronic Signatures, 2001), 14 gaeroskonvencia `xelSekrulebis dadebisas eleqtronuli komunikaciis saSualebebis gamoyenebisSesaxeb~ (United Nations Convention on the Use of Electronic Communications in International Contracts,2005) 15 da a.S. rogorc aRiniSna, naSromi orientirebulia evropuli kavSiris farglebSiuSualod moqmed unificirebul samarTlebriv standartebze, Sesabamisad, ar SeicavsUNCITRAL-is modaluri kanonebis analizs da Semoifargleba mxolod eleqtronulivaWrobis sferoSi moqmedi evropuli kavSiris samomxmareblo saxelSekrulebo samarTlisada Sesabamisi qarTuli kanonmdeblobis mimoxilviT.aRsaniSnavia, rom franguli samomxmareblo saxelSekrulebo samarTlis kodeqsis –Code de la conommation 16 da italiuri samomxmareblo saxelSekrulebo samarTlis kodeqsis– Codice del consumo 17 magaliTze evropis farglebSi grZeldeba debatebi erTiani samomxmareblosamarTlis koncefciasTan dakavSirebiT. saxeldobr, kerZo samarTlis im unifikatoruliprocesebis paralelurad, romelsac miznad isaxavs `saerTaSoriso komerciulixelSekrulebis principebi~ (e.w. `unidroas~ principebi), 18 `evropuli saxelSekrulebosamarTlis principebi,” 19 erTiani evropuli samoqalaqo kodeqsis SemuSavebismizniT Seqmnili samecniero jgufi _ Study Group of a European Civil Code, 20 aseve, evropulisaxelSekrulebo samarTlis kodeqsis 2002 wlis franguli proeqti _ Code européen descontrats 21 da a.S.miuxedavad amisa, agreTve aRsaniSnavia, rom evropuli kavSiris farglebSi, unificirebulisamomxmareblo samarTali, klasikuri gagebiT, am etapze, ar arsebobs da mxolodCamoyalibebis fazaSia. samomxmareblo saxelSekrulebo samarTlis sferos maregulirebelidireqtivebiT nacionaluri kanonmdeblobebis harmonizaciis mcdelobismiuxedavad, evropuli kavSiris wevri qveynebis Sidakanonmdebloba am sferoSi ramdenadmekvlav gansxvavdeba erTmaneTisagan. 2247


marTlmsajulebaN3dakanonimomxmarebelTa uflebebis dacvis sferoSi evropuli direqtivebis ZiriTadi nawilia:23 direqtiva 84/450 `reklamis Sesaxeb~, direqtiva 85/577 `momxmareblis dacvis Sesaxeb~araoficialur viTarebaSi dadebuli xelSekrulebis dros, direqtiva 85/374 `defeqturproduqtebze pasuxismgeblobis Sesaxeb~, direqtiva 87/102 `samomxmareblokreditis Sesaxeb~, direqtiva 87/357 `produqtebis usafrTxoebis Sesaxeb~, direqtiva90/314 `samgzavro paketis Sesaxeb~, direqtiva 92/96 `sicocxlis dazRvevis Sesaxeb~,direqtiva 92/49 `zianis dazRvevis Sesaxeb~, direqtiva 2000/26 `avtotransportiTmiyenebuli zianis pasuxismgeblobis dazRvevis Sesaxeb~, direqtiva 93/13 `samomxmarebloxelSekrulebebSi arasamarTliani terminebis Sesaxeb~, direqtiva 93/22 `fasiani qa-Raldebis Sesaxeb~, direqtiva 94/47 `vadiani TanasakuTrebis Sesaxeb~, direqtiva 94/19`Senatanis dazRvevis Sesaxeb~, direqtiva 95/46 `piradi monacemebis dacvis Sesaxeb~,direqtiva 97/7 `Sor manZilze dadebuli xelSekrulebebis Sesaxeb~, direqtiva 97/5 `gadaricxvebisSesaxeb~, direqtiva 98/6 `fasebis miTiTebis Sesaxeb~, direqtiva 98/27 `sar-Celebis Sesaxeb~ momxmarebelTa interesebis dacvisaTvis, direqtiva 99/44 `samomxmareblosaqonlis nasyidobis xelSekrulebebis Sesaxeb~, direqtiva 99/93 `eleqtronulixelmowerebis gamoyenebis saerTo pirobebis Sesaxeb~, direqtiva 2000/31 `eleqtronulivaWrobis Sesaxeb~, direqtiva 2002/21 `eleqtronuli komunikaciis sistemisa da momsaxurebissaerTo samarTlebrivi pirobebis Sesaxeb~, direqtiva 2002/65 `Sor manZilze dadebulifinansuri momsaxurebis xelSekrulebebis Sesaxeb~, direqtiva 2002/58 `eleqtronulikomunikaciisas piradi monacemebis dacvis Sesaxeb~, direqtiva 2005/29 `arakeTilsindisierikomerciuli praqtikis Sesaxeb~.eleqtronuli vaWrobis sferoSi moqmed direqtivebs Soris, momxmarebelTa uflebebisdacvis TvalsazrisiT, mniSvnelovania, ZiriTadad, ori evropuli direqtiva: direqtiva97/7 `Sor manZilze dadebuli xelSekrulebebis Sesaxeb~ da direqtiva 2000/31`eleqtronuli vaWrobis Sesaxeb~. 24 eleqtronuli formiT dadebul samomxmarebloxelSekrulebebze vrceldeba, aseve, direqtiva 99/93 `eleqtronuli xelmowerebis gamoyenebissaerTo pirobebis Sesaxeb~, direqtiva 95/46 `piradi monacemebis dacvis Sesaxeb~,direqtiva 2002/58 `eleqtronuli komunikaciisas piradi monacemebis dacvis Sesaxeb~, 25direqtiva 93/13 `samomxmareblo xelSekrulebebSi arasamarTliani terminebis Sesaxeb~,direqtiva 2002/65 `Sor manZilze dadebuli finansuri momsaxurebis xelSekrulebebisSesaxeb~ da direqtiva 2005/29~ arakeTilsindisieri komerciuli praqtikis Sesaxeb~. 26II.eleqtronuli garigebebi, eleqtronuli komunikaciis saSualebebiteqnikuri, samarTlebrivi, Tu ekonomikuri TvalsazrisiT, interneti 27 mravali inovaciiswinapirobad iqca. zogadad, interneti definirdeba, rogorc kompiuteruli qselebisada mricxvelebis globaluri, urTierTdakavSirebuli sistema, 28 romlis farglebSickomunikaciisaTvis gamoiyeneba e.w. Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP). 2948


interneti aRiqmeba rogorc Ria eleqtronuli sistema, romelic gamoyenebadiayvelasaTvis, Sesabamisi teqnikuri moTxovnebis Sesrulebis SemTxvevaSi. 30 ar arsebobskonkretuli persona, dawesebuleba an jgufi, romelic akontrolebs internets, rogorcRia eleqtronuli sistemebis erTobliobas. internetze kontrolis SesaZlebloba dacalkeuli pirovnebebisa da instituciebis sakuTreba vrceldeba mxolod izolirebuleleqtronul programebze, romelebic Tavis mxriv, qmnian internetis Semadgenlobas. 31eleqtronuli komunikaciis sxva saSualebebia: 1. intraneti; 32 2. World Wide Web(WWW) 33 eletronuli sistema, romelic gamoiyeneba veb-gverdsa da mis momxmareblebsSoris komunikaciisaTvis. WWW-is meSveobiT SesaZlebelia filmebis, teqstebis, grafikuligamosaxulebebisa da musikaluri bgerebis moZraoba virtualur sivrceSi; 3. eleqtronulifosta (E-Mail); 4. Chatroom; 5. internet-telefonebi da e.w. video-konferenciebi,Chatroom-ebis ganviTarebuli forma; 6. internet-auqcionebi; 7. internet-bankingi(Internet-Banking). 34miuxedavad imisa, rom cneba `eleqtronuli garigeba~ iuridiul literaturaSi xSiradgamoiyeneba, 35 misi legaluri, erTmniSvnelovani kanonismieri definicia ar arsebobs.36 statiiT ganxilul `eleqtronul garigebebSi~ moiazreba xelSekrulebebi, romlebicideba eleqtronuli formiT, kerZod, eleqtronuli komunikaciis saSualebebisgamoyenebiT.UNCITRAL-is ganmartebebis Sesabamisad, eleqtronuli formiT (eleqtronuli komunikaciissaSualebebis gamoyenebiT) SeiZleba daidos Semdegi garigebebi: 37 miwodeba,faqtoringi, lizingi, savaWro warmomadgenloba, konsaltingi, nasyidoba, koncesiuriSeTanxmeba, dazRveva, sainvesticio kontaqtebi, sabanko xelSekrulebebi (CamonaTvaliar aris amomwuravi) da a.S.B2C-sferoSi 38 eleqtronuli garigebebi, arsobrivad, valdebulebis SesrulebisxasiaTis gaTvaliswinebiT, or jgufad iyofa:_ Offline-garigebebi. garigebebi, romlebic ideba internetiT, magram valdebulebisSesruleba xdeba Cveuli xerxiT, komunikaciis araeleqtronuli saSualebebis gamoyenebiT(mag., fosta);_ Online-garigebebi. garigebebi, romlebic ideba eleqtronuli formiT, internetiTda romelTa Sesruleba aseve, eleqtronuli formiT xdeba (mag., eleqtronuli programisSekveTa internetis meSveobiT, rodesac misi miwodeba xdeba veb-gverdidan eleqtronuliprogramis CamotvirTviT an informaciis miwodeba eleqtronuli formiT da a.S.).III.mosazrebebi momxmarebelTa uflebebis dacvis Sesaxeb qarTulikanonmdeblobis srulyofisaTvis (eleqtronuli vaWrobis sferoSi)1997 wels, saqarTvelos samoqalaqo kodeqsis miReba iyo upirvelesi da umniSvnelovanesinabiji ekonomikurad stabiluri da ganviTarebuli samarTlebrivi saxelmwifos49


marTlmsajulebaN3dakanoniCamoyalibebisaTvis. samomxmareblo samarTlis sferoSi moqmedi qarTuli sakanonmdeblomasalis mniSvnelovani nawili SemuSavebulia swored am periodSi (saqarTvelos kanoni`momxmarebelTa uflebebis dacvis Sesaxeb~, 1996 w., saqarTvelos kanoni `samomxmareblokooperaciis Sesaxeb~, 1997 w., saqarTvelos kanoni `reklamis Sesaxeb~, 1998 w.).eleqtronuli vaWrobisa da samomxmareblo sferos reglamentaciis momdevno mniSvnelovanietapi iwyeba 2005 wels _ ZalaSi Sedis saqarTvelos kanoni `sursaTis uvneblobisada xarisxis Sesaxeb~ da saqarTvelos kanoni `eleqtronuli komunikaciebis Sesaxeb~.sxvebTan SedarebiT, yvelaze srulyofilad SeiZleba CaiTvalos saqarTvelos 2008 wliskanoni `eleqtronuli xelmowerisa da eleqtronuli dokumentis Sesaxeb~.samomxmareblo samarTlis sferoSi moqmedi saqarTvelos kanonmdebloba 39 qmnis mxolodzogad samarTlebriv safuZvlebs, momxmarebelTa uflebebis dacvis kuTxiT. teqnologiuriprocesebis ganviTarebis fonze, aucilebelia Sesabamisi samarTlebrivimeqanizmebis momzadeba komerciuli urTierTobebis srulyofili reglamentaciisaTvis.zogadad, eleqtronuli vaWrobis sferos maregulirebel kanonmdeblobaSi, momxmarebelTauflebebis dacvis uzrunvelyofis TvalsazrisiT, mniSvnelovania sami sakiTxi:1. eleqtronuli vaWrobis samarTlebrivi regulacia;2. momxmarebelTa uflebebis dacvis sferos srulyofili reglamentacia;3. uSualod eleqtronuli vaWrobis sferoSi, eleqtronuli komunikaciis saSualebebiTdadebul samomxmareblo xelSekrulebebSi momxmarebelTa uflebebis dacvis meqanizmebisgaTvaliswineba da maTi sruli sakanonmdeblo reglamentacia.qarTuli samomxmareblo kanonmdebloba, eleqtronuli vaWrobis sferoSi undaSefasdes zemoaRniSnuli sami kriteriumis farglebSi.eleqtronuli vaWrobis sfero, moqmedi kanonmdeblobiT ar aris srulyofilad regulirebuli.am sferoSi moqmedebs mxolod ori kanoni: 2005 wlis saqarTvelos kanoni`eleqtronuli komunikaciebis Sesaxeb~ da 2008 wlis saqarTvelos kanoni `eleqtronulixelmowerisa da eleqtronuli dokumentis Sesaxeb~. eleqtronuli komunikaciebis SesaxebsaqarTvelos kanoni exeba uSualod eleqtronuli komunikaciebis sargeblobis samarTlebriviregulirebis meqanizmebs, rasac samarTlebrivi TvalsazrisiT, uSualodeleqtronuli vaWrobisa da amave sferoSi momxmarebelTa uflebebis dacvis sferoSi,gansakuTrebuli maregulirebeli funqcia ar gaaCnia. 2008 wlis saqarTvelos kanonieleqtronuli xelmowerisa da eleqtronuli dokumentis Sesaxeb gansazRvravs eleqtronulixelmowerebisa da xelSekrulebebis eleqtronuli formis aRiarebis samarTlebrivsafuZvlebs, rac mniSvnelovan pozitiur movlenad unda Sefasdes eleqtronulisivrcis samarTlebrivi regulaciis TvalsazrisiT. umTavresi, rac qarTuli kanonmdeblobiTreglamentirebuli ar aris, ukavSirdeba uSualod eleqtronuli formiTdadebuli rogorc samomxmareblo, aseve, arasamomxmareblo xelSekrulebebis regulirebismeqanizmebs.50


amasTan, mxolod moqmedi qarTuli samoqalaqo kodeqsis zogadi debulebebi da principebixelSekrulebis dadebisa da winasaxelSekrulebo etapze, calkeuli, eleqtronuliurTierTobis specifikuri sakiTxebis regulirebisaTvis ver qmnis adekvatur samarTlebrivsafuZvlebs. aRniSnul naklovanebaTa aRmofxvris mizniT, aucilebelia,upirvelesad, eleqtronuli vaWrobis Sesaxeb kanonis saxiT (romelic mTel rig qveynebSididi xania miRebulia da aRiqmeba, rogorc aucilebeli atributi eleqtronulisivrcis reglamentaciisaTvis) 40 eleqtronuli vaWrobis sferos zusti reglamentaciamisi specifikis gaTvaliswinebiT.rac Seexeba momxmarebelTa uflebebis dacvis sferos maregulirebel zogad kanonmdeblobas,momxmarebelTa uflebebis dacvis Sesaxeb saqarTvelos kanoni, am TvalsazrisiTar iTvaliswinebs ara Tu uSualod eleqtronuli komunikaciis saSualebebis gamoyenebiTdadebuli samomxmareblo xelSekrulebebis samarTlebrivi regulirebis meqanizmebs,aramed Seicavs xarvezebs zogadad, Cveulebrivi samomxmareblo xelSekrulebebisregulirebis TvalsazrisiTac (mag., ar Seicavs Tundac nebis gamovlenis gamoxmobisvadebis zust regulacias, am SemTxvevaSi warmoSobili damatebiTi xarjebis ganawilebasTandakavSirebuli problemebis mowesrigebis formebs da a.S.). Sesabamisad, aucilebeliamoqmedi qarTuli kanonmdeblobis am kuTxiT gadasinjva da daxvewa.momxmarebelTa uflebebis dacvis specifikuri standartebi uSualod eleqtronulikomunikaciebis gamoyenebiT dadebul samomxmareblo xelSekrulebebSi, qarTuli kanonmdeblobiTregulirebuli saerTod ar aris. aucilebelia am sferos dawvrilebiT Seswavlada legitimacia calke kanonis an/da Sesabamisi debulebebis momxmarebelTa uflebebisdacvis Sesaxeb zogad kanonSi integraciis saxiT. am TvalsazrisiT, arsebobs ramdenimealternativa, Tumca es sakanonmdeblo TvalsazrisiT, wminda teqnikuri sakiTxiada amis Sesaxeb qvemoT visaubrebT.zogadad, SeiZleba iTqvas, rom miT ufro ganviTarebulia samarTali, rac ufrosrulyofilia ideurad (rac ufro sworad aros SemCneuli problema da adekvaturiasakanonmdeblo regulireba, gamomdinare samarTlianobis principidan) daxvewili damoqnilia sakanonmdeblo teqnikis TvalsazrisiT. orive kriteriumi abstraqtulia dayovel konkretul SemTxvevaSi gansxvavebulad vlindeba. moqmedi qarTuli samomxmareblokanonmdeblobis miTiTebuli kriteriumebiT Sefasebisas, SeimCneva xarvezebi,samwuxarod, orive mimarTulebiT.samomxmareblo saxelSekrulebo samarTalSi moqmedi qarTuli kanonmdeblobis sizustisada moqmed samarTlebriv standartebTan SesabamisobaSi moyvanisaTvis, momavalSiaucilebelia Semdegi sakiTxebis dawvrilebiT regulireba:_ mniSvnelovania eleqtronuli formiT samomxmareblo xelSekrulebebis calkeulietapebis dawvrilebiTi samarTlebrivi reglamentacia. SesaZloa ganisazRvros gansxvavebuliwesebi komunikaciis calkeuli saSualebebiT xelSekrulebis dadebisas;_ eleqtronuli formiT nebis gamovlenis gadacemis, miRebis, eleqtronuli fostiTmiRebul reklamasTan dakavSirebuli sakiTxebi;51


marTlmsajulebaN3dakanoni_ eleqtronuli formiT dadebul da Sor manZilze dadebuli finansuri momsaxurebisxelSekrulebebis calkeuli etapebis samarTlebrivi reglamentacia;_ debulebebi nebis gamovlenis gamoTxovis uflebis vadebis, am SemTxvevaSi damatebiTixarjebis mewarmisadmi an momxmareblisadmi mikuTvnebis Sesaxeb;_ yidva-gayidvis agresiuli meTodebisagan momxmareblis damcavi meqanizmebis samar-Tlebrivi reglamentacia;_ momxmareblis winaswari nebarTvis daweseba komerciuli mizniT eleqtronulikomunikaciis saSualebebiT kontaqtisaTvis;_ mniSvnelovania calkeul SemTxvevebSi gaTvaliswinebul iqnes momxmarebelTauflebebis dacviTi meqanizmebis imperatiuli xasiaTi, romelic agreTve, gavrceldebamomxmareblebze;_ Suamavlis pasuxismgeblobis skiTxebi uSualod eleqtronuli formiT dadebulgarigebebSi;_ momxmarebelTa personaluri monacemebis dacvis sakiTxebi eleqtronul komunikaciebSi;_ momavalSi sasurvelia arsebobdes eleqtronuli formiT Sedgenili momxmarebelTamonacemTa bazis makontrolebeli organo, romelsac eqneba uSualo zemoqmedebis funqciaSesabamisi standartebis darRvevis SemTxvevaSi;_ arakeTlsindisieri da agresiuli komerciuli praqtikisagan momxmareblis dacvissaSualebebi, msgavs SemTxvevebze, samoqalaqo an administraciuli warmoebis meqanizmebisgavrcelebis formiT.eleqtronuli formiT xelSekrulebis dadebis winasaxelSekrulebo etapis regulirebisaTvis,unda ganisazRvros mewarmis sakanonmdeblo valdebulebebi CamoTvlilsakiTxebTan dakavSirebiT:_ mewarmis valdebuleba, miawodos momxmarebels saqonlis/momsaxurebis erTmniSvnelovanifasi da informacia, kerZod, Seicavs Tu ara miTiTebuli fasi damatebiT gadasaxadebsada momsaxurebis/saqonlis miwodebis sxva xarjebs;_ informacia SesaZlo dabegvris Sesaxeb;_ informacia nebis gamovlenis gamoxmobis, xelSekrulebis moSlis vadebis Sesaxeb;_ informacia registraciis monacemebis Sesaxeb, Tu momsaxurebis SemTavazebeliregistrirebulia savaWro an raime formis sajaro reestrSi;_ informacia zedamxedveli dawesebulebis vinaobis Sesaxeb;_ informacia miwodebis xarjebis Sesaxeb;_ informacia minimaluri vadis Sesaxeb, vadiani xelSekrulebebis SemTxvevaSi;_ informacia ofertis an fasis ZalaSi yofnis vadebis Sesaxeb;_ debulebebi SeukveTavi saqonlisa da arasasurveli Setyobinebebis Sesaxeb;_ eleqtronuli fostiT miRebul reklamebTan dakavSirebiT sasurvelia qarTulsamarTlebriv sivrceSi dainergos ‘‘Opt-in”-modeli anu SemTxveva, rodesac komerciuli52


informaciis (reklama) eleqtronuli formiT misawodeblad momxmareblis winaswarinebarTva mewarmisaTvis savaldebuloa._ veb-gverdze xelSekrulebis standartuli debulebebis ganTavsebis valdebuleba,misi CamotvirTvisa da xangrZlivad Senaxvis SesaZleblobis gaTvaliswinebiT;_ mewarmis valdebuleba, uzrunvelyos Sesabamisi eleqtronuli meqanizmebis arsebobadaSvebuli Secdomebis koreqtirebisaTvis, momxmarebelis mier veb-gverdze xel-Sekrulebis dadebis mizniT Sesabamisi formularis Sevsebisas;_ sasurvelia xelSekrulebis standartul pirobebTan dakavSirebiT, ssk-is SesabamisnawilSi an momxmarebelTa uflebebis dacvis Sesaxeb Sesabamis kanonSi ganisazRvrosdebuleba, romlis mixedviT, xelSekrulebis standartuli pirobebis zogadi wesebigavrceldeba xelSekrulebis standartul pirobebze, Tundac im SemTxvevaSi, rodesacisini gamiznulia erTjeradi gamoyenebisaTvis.eleqtronuli formiT xelSekrulebis dadebis etapis regulirebisas, mniSvnelovaniaeleqtronuli formiT xelSekrulebis dadebis momentis gansazRvra, eleqtronuliformiT gacemuli SekveTis miRebis eleqtronuli formiTve dadasturebis valdebulebisgaTvaliswinebiT.eleqtronuli formiT dadebul xelSekrulebebSi xelSekrulebis Sesrulebis etapisregulirebisaTvis, aucilebelia kanonmdeblobis doneze ganisazRvros:_ Tu ra vadaSi unda miewodos momxmarebels Sesabamisi saqoneli an ra vadaSi undaSesruldes momsaxureba, mxareTa Soris Sesabamisi SeTanxmebis ararsebobis SemTxvevaSi;_ momxmareblis mier saqonlisa Tu momsaxurebis sanacvlod gadaxdili Tanxis dabrunebisuzrunvelyofis sakiTxi, valdebulebis Seusruleblobis SemTxvevaSi;_ sakiTxi momsaxurebisa Tu saqonlis safasuris xelSekrulebis Sesrulebis dawyebamdean Sesrulebis Semdgom gadaxdasTan dakavSirebiT, mxareTa Soris Sesabamisi Se-Tanxmebis ararsebobisas;_ SeukveTavi saqonlis miwodebis/momsaxurebis gawevis akrZalva da Sesabamisi Sedegebi(damatebiTi xarjebis anazRaurebis valdebuleba), msgavsi saqonlis miwodebis/momsaxurebis gawevis SemTxvevaSi da a.S._ zogadi sagarantio vadebi uSualod eleqtronuli formiT dadebul samomxmarebloxelSekrulebebSi, romelsac SeiZleba hqondes dispoziciuri xasiaTi;_ naklis aRmoCenis vadebis Sesabamisad, mtkicebis tvirTis ganawilebis problemamomxmarebelsa da mewarmes Soris;aRsaniSnavia isic, rom dasaxvewia saerTaSoriso kerZo samarTlis Sesaxeb saqarTveloskanonis 38-e muxlis Semadgenloba, xolo amave muxlis 1-li nawili teqnikuradaris dasaxvewi. amasTan, sasurvelia, gafarTovdes SemTxvevebis wre, romlis farglebSickanoni gaiTvaliswinebs momxmareblis adgilsamyofeli qveynis samarTalze miTiTebas,samomxmareblo xelSekrulebebis dadebisas, mxareTa Soris Sesabamisi SeTanxmebisararsebobis SemTxvevaSi.53


marTlmsajulebaN3dakanoniramdenadac ukve aRiniSna, sakanonmdeblo teqnikis TvalsazrisiT, sruliad SesaZlebeliasamomxmareblo saxelSekrulebo-samarTlebrivi debulebebis rogorc moqmedcivilur kodifikaciebSi integracia, agreTve, calkeuli kanonebis an Tundacsamomxmareblo saxelSekrulebo samarTlis kodeqsis saxiT dawvrilebiT reglamentacia.41sainteresoa, romeli alternativaa mizanSewonili qarTuli realobis gaTvaliswinebiT.ramdenadac aRiniSna, uSualod eleqtronuli vaWrobis sferos regulirebisaTvis,araTu sasurveli, aramed arsebuli obieqturi realobidan gamomdinare, aucilebeliacalke kanonis SemuSaveba. aseve, aRiniSna, rom momxmarebelTa dacvis Sesaxeb 1996wlis saqarTvelos kanoni gadasinjvas saWiroebs ara mxolod uSualod eleqtronulgarigebebTan dakavSirebuli moxmarebelTa uflebebis dacviTi standartebis, aramedmomxmarebelTa dacvis zogadi standartebis simwiris gamoc (am TvalsazrisiT, sasurvelia,samomxmareblo xelSekrulebebis tipebis mixedviT, calkeuli specifikuri debulebebisSemuSaveba, xelSekrulebebis calkeuli etapebis mixedviT, momxmareblis uflebebisada mewarmis valdebulebebis sistematizebuli da detaluri reglamentacia daa.S.). Sesabamisad, problema kompleqsuri xasiaTisaa, kerZod, erTdroulad mosamzadebeliaramdenime sakanonmdeblo aqti, kerZod: `eleqtronuli vaWrobis Sesaxeb~ kanonproeqtis,aseve, saqarTvelos samoqalaqo kodeqsSi, `saerTaSoriso kerZo samarTlisSesaxeb~ saqarTvelos kanonSi da `momxmarebelTa uflebebis dacvis Sesaxeb~ saqarTveloskanonSi cvlilebebis Setanis Sesaxeb kanonproeqtebis saxiT an kanonproeqti `saerTaSorisokerZo samarTlis Sesaxeb~ saqarTvelos kanonSi cvlilebis da/an damatebisSetanis Sesaxeb da ori sakanonmdeblo aqti: `eleqtronuli vaWrobis Sesaxeb~ saqarTveloskanoni da samomxmareblo saxelSekrulebo samarTlis kodeqsi (an samomxmareblosamarTlis kodeqsi), romelSic (samomxmareblo samarTlis kodeqsSi) ganTavsdeba eleqtronulgarigebebTan dakavSirebuli momxmarebelTa uflebebis dacvis evropuli standartebisgadamuSavebuli versia.sakanonmdeblo teqnikis standartebis gaTvaliswinebiT, samomxmareblo saxelSekrulebosamarTlis kodeqsi samarTlebrivi regulaciis ufro daxvewili formaa da amTvalsazrisiT, misi miReba gansakuTrebiT sasurvelia. am SemTxvevaSi, moqmedi samarTlisnormebi moeqceva erTiani specialuri kodificirebuli sakanonmdeblo aqtis SemadgenlobaSida ar iqneba mimobneuli calkeul kanonebSi. samomxmareblo saxelSekrulebosamarTlis kodeqsis SemuSavebis SemTxvevaSi, unda moxdes samomxmareblo samarTlissafuZvliani gadamuSaveba _ samomxmareblo xelSekrulebebisaTvis saerTo zogadidebulebebis calke nawilad gamoyofa, xelSekrulebebis dadebis calkeuli etapebisdawvrilebiT regulireba da eleqtronuli formiT dadebul samomxmareblo xel-SekrulebebSi momxmarebelTa uflebebis dacvis meqanizmebis zusti reglamentacia.mniSvnelovan sakanonmdeblo nimuSad SeiZleba gaTvaliswinebul iqnes 1993 wlis franguliCode de la consommation an 2005 wels miRebuli italiuri Codice del consumo.54


daskvnaklasikuri gagebiT, moqmedi samomxmareblo samarTali, evropuli kavSiris masStabiT,am etapze, srulad unificirebuli ar aris. miuxedavad amisa, unda aRiniSnos, rom nacionalurkanonmdeblobaTa gansxvavebuli debulebebi moqmedi evropuli standartebisZiriTad nawilTan SesabamisobaSia, rac naklebad iTqmis qarTul samomxmareblo kanonmdeblobaze.sruli samarTlebrivi vakuumia eleqtronuli formiT dadebuli rogorcsamoxmareblo, agreTve arasamomxmareblo garigebebis regulirebis TvalsazrisiT. samarTlebrivvakuums qmnis eleqtronuli specifikis Sesabamisad, xelSekrulebis dadebisada Sesrulebis calkeuli etapebis samarTlebrivi reglamentaciis ararseboba.sakomunikacio teqnologiebis ganviTarebis paralelurad, gansakuTrebiT prioritetuliunda gaxdes eleqtronuli vaWrobis sferosa da amave farglebSi, momxmarebelTauflebebis dacvis samarTlebrivi standartebis Seswavla da legitimacia. am procesSimniSnelovani roli unda Seasrulos momxmarebelTa uflebebis dacvis evropuli standartebiszemoT ganxilulma sqemam, romlis reglamentacia mizanSewonilia maTi ZireuligadamuSavebis Sedegad, qarTul realobasTan swori adaptirebis mizniT.qarTul samomxmareblo saxelSekrulebo samarTlis kodeqsSi (an samomxmareblosamarTlis kodeqsSi) unda ganTavsdes momxmarebelTa uflebebis dacvis Sesaxeb saqarTveloskanonis Sesabamisi debulebebis gadamuSavebuli, sistematizebuli versia. amas-Tan, kodeqsi unda gancalkevdes zogad da gansakuTrebul nawilebad. zogadi nawiliunda Seicavdes samomxmareblo xelSekrulebebisaTvis saerTo zogad debulebebs (mag.,momxmareblis, mewarmis, samomxmareblo xelSekrulebis, samomxmareblo urTierTobiscnebebi), gansakuTrebuli nawili _ TiToeuli tipis samomxmareblo xelSekrulebisaTvisdamaxasiaTebeli Taviseburebebis samarTlebriv regulaciebs, xelSekrulebisdadebis calkeul etapebze momxmareblisa da mewarmis ufleba-movaleobebis zustireglamentaciis saxiT. gansakuTrebul nawilSi unda ganTavsdes eleqtronul garigebebSimomxmareblis uflebebis dacvis standartebis zemoT ganxiluli sqema, xelSekrulebisdadebis calkeuli etapebis mixedviT maTi detaluri gadamuSavebis Semdgom.dabolos, aRsaniSnavia, rom kerZosamarTlebrivi urTierTobisaTvis mxareTa Tanasworobisada kerZo avtonomiis fuZemdeblur principebze dayrdnobiT, xelSekrulebissusti mxaris (momxmarebeli, dasaqmebuli) uflebebis dacvis samarTlebrivi saSualebebissizuste da mravalferovneba xSirad, miiCneva Sesabamisi qveynis kerZo-samarTlebriviinstitutebis ganviTarebis xarisxis Sefasebis kriteriumad. aseve, aRsaniSnavia,rom am TvalsazrisiT, qarTul kanonmdeblobaSi arc katastrofuli, magram arc metismetadsaxarbielo mdgomareobaa. eleqtronuli formiT dadebuli samomxmareblo xel-Sekrulebebisa da zogadad, samomxmareblo saxelSekrulebo urTierTobebis regulirebismeqanizmebis qarTuli versiis Seqmna da ganviTareba, Tundac mxolod am faqtorisgaTvaliswinebiT, umniSvnelovanesi da aucilebelia.55


marTlmsajulebaN3dakanoniSeniSvnebi:1saqarTvelos parlamentis 1997 wlis 2 seqtembris #828-Is dadgenileba…`saqarTveloskanonmdeblobis evropis kavSiris kanonmdeblobasTanharmonizaciis Sesaxeb~; ix.: daviT kereseliZe, saqarTveloskanonmdeblobis evropuli kavSiris kanonmdeblobasTan harmonizaciiserovnuli programa, `qarTuli samarTlis mimoxilva~, tomi 5,#1, 2002, gv. 8 18.21968 wels, gaeros vaWrobisa da ganviTarebis konferenciam (UNCTAD)rekomendacia gauwia `satarifo preferenciebis ganzogadebuli sistemis~(GSP) Camoyalibebas, romlis mixedviTac, ganviTarebul industriulsaxelmwifoebs savaWro SeRavaTebi unda mieniWebinaT ganviTarebadiqveynebisaTvis. dReisaTvis, GSP-is SeRavaTebs Tavis savaWropartniorebs aniWeben: evrokavSiri, aSS, avstralia, kanada, iaponia,axali zelandia, Sveicaria, norvegia, bulgareTi, ruseTis federacia,belorusia da TurqeTi. am etapze saqarTvelo GSP-is beneficiarisstatusiT sargeblobs aSS-Tan, kanadasTan, SveicariasTan, iaponiasTan,TurqeTTan da evrokavSirTan. evrokavSiris GSP-is sistemisbeneficiaris statusiT saqarTvelo sargeblobs 1995 wlidan. evrokavSirissabWom miiRo gadawyvetileba, romlis mixedviTac, 2005 wlis1 ivlisidan amoqmedda evrokavSiris GSP sqemis mxolod damatebiTipreferenciebis e.w. ,,GSP+” sistema da igi sxva qveynebTan erTad saqarTvelozecgavrcelda. axali ,,GSP+” sqema qarTvel mewarmeebs aZlevssaSualebas qarTuli warmoSobis 7200-mde dasaxelebis produqti evrokavSirisbazarze 2005 wlis 1 ivlisidan Seitanon nulovani sabaJoganakveTiT. ix.: `saqarTvelosa da evrokavSiris savaWro preferenciaTaganzogadebuli sistema~(GSP), http://www.parliament.ge/index.php?lang_id=GEO&sec_id=491&info_id=113413evropuli sabWos 1975 wlis 14 aprilis gadawyvetileba momxmarebel-Ta dacvis politikis Sesaxeb evropuli ekonomikuri gaerTianebispirvel programasTan dakavSirebiT, #C 92/1, 25.4.1975.4Aye, Lutz, Verbraucherschutz im Internet nach französischem und deutschem Recht,2004, gv. 75.5evropuli komisiis 1985 wlis 23 ivlisis Setyobineba, momxmarebelTadacvis politikisaTvis axali impulsebis Sesaxeb (Mitteilung derKomission, Neuer Impuls für die Politik zum Schutz der Verbraucher vom 23.7.1985,KOM (85) 314 endg.)61986 wlis 28 Tebervlis erTiani evropuli aqtebiT (EinheitlicheEuropäische Akte) modificirda evropuli ekonomikuri gaerTianebissadamfuZneblo xelSekruleba. xelSekrulebas daemata me-100 a muxli(moqmedi evropuli ekonomikuri gaerTianebis sadamfuZneblo xel-Sekrulebis 95-e muxli), romliTac saerTo evropuli bazris harmonizaciisaTvismomxmarebelTa dacvas gansakuTrebuli mniSvnelobamieniWa.71993 wlis 1 noembris maastrixtis xelSekruleba (xeli moewera 1992wlis 7 Tebervals, ZalaSi Sevida 1993 wlis 1 noembers).8Treaty establishing the European Community (TEC), Article 153 (Vertrag zur Gründungder Europäischen Gemeinschaft (EGV), Art. 153 Abs. 1: „Zur Förderung der Interessen56


der Verbraucher und zur Gewährleistung eines hohen Verbraucherschutzniveaus leistetdie Gemeinschaft einen Beitrag zum Schutz der Gesundheit, der Sicherheit und derwirtschaftlichen Interessen der Verbraucher sowie zur Förderung ihres Rechtes aufInformation, Erziehung und Bildung von Vereinigungen zur Wahrung ihrer Interessen”).9Reich,Norbert, Europäisches Verbraucherrecht, 3. Auflage, Baden-Baden1996. gv. 40.10The Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, Article 169 (Ex-Article 153TEC): `1. momxmarebelTa interesebis dacvisa da momxmarebelTa dacvisgansakurebiT maRali donis uzrunvelsayofad kavSiri axorcielebsaqtivobebs momxmareblis janmrTelobis, usafrTxoebisa daekonomikuri interesebis dacvis mizniT. agreTve, xels uwyobs momxmareblebskuTvnili uflebebis realizaciis procesSi, rac Tavismxriv, ukavSirdeba momxmarebelTa mier informaciis miRebas, saku-Tari interesebis dasacavad gaerTianebebis Seqmna-ganviTarebas.2. kavSiri pirvel abzacSi miTiTebuli miznebis misaRwevad axorcielebs:a) RonisZiebebs, romelTac is saerTo evropuli bazris ganxorcielebisfarglebSi 114-e muxlis Sesabamisad gamoscems;b) RonisZiebebs, romlebic ukavSirdeba wevr saxelmwifoTa politikisxelSewyobas, Sevsebasa da kontrols.3. evropuli parlamenti da sabWo ekonomikuri da socialuri komitetismosmenis Semdeg, dadgenili sakanonmdeblo procesis Sesabamisad,axorcieleben meore abzacis `b~ punqtiT gaTvaliswinebul RonisZiebebs.4. mesame abzacis Sesabamisad miRebuli gadawyvetilebebi ar boWavencalkeul wevr saxelmwifoTa nebas, umkacresi dacviTi RonisZiebebiSeinarCunon an SezRudon. am saxis RonisZiebebi SesabamisobaSi undaiyos (evropuli kavSiris sadamfuZneblo) xelSekrulebebTan. am RonisZiebaTaSesaxeb egzavneba Setyobinebebi evropul komisias.”11Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union, ZalaSi Sevida 2009wlis 1 dekembers, evropuli kavSiris e. w. lisabonis xelSekrulebas-Tan (Treaty of Lisbon amending The Treaty on European Union and the Treatyestablishing the European Community, signed at Lisbon, 13 December 2007) erTad.12Verbraucherpolitische Strategie der EU (2007-2013), Mittteilung der Kommission anden Rat, des europäischen Parlament und den europäischen Wirtschafts- undSozialausschuss, Brüssel, den 13.3.2007, KOM(2007) 99 endg.13UNCITRAL Model Law on Electronic Commerce with Guide to Enactment (1996),with additional article 5 bis as adopted in 1998.14UNCITRAL Model Law on Electronic Signatures with Guide to Enactment, UnitedNations, New York, 2002.15United Nations Convention on the Use of Electronic Communications in InternationalContracts, 2005; ix.: veb-gverdi: http://www.uncitral.org/uncitral/en/uncitral_texts/electronic_commerce.html.16safrangeTis samomxmareblo saxelSekrulebo samarTlis kodeqsTandakavSirebiT, ix.: Calais-Auloy, Jean/Steunmetz, Frank, Droit de laconsommation, Edition Dalloz – Textes, iurisprudence, annotations, Paris 2000.17italiis samomxmareblo saxelSekrulebo samarTlis kodeqsTan dakavSirebiT,ix.: Pasquale Stanzione/Giovanni Sciancalepore, Commentario alcodice del consume: inquadramento sistematico a prassi applicative, Milano, 2006.57


evropaSi interneti am periodidan vrceldeba. 1995 wels, NSFN Seecadainterneti gamoyenebadi yofiliyo mxolod mecnieruli da arakomerciuli miznebisaTvis. 1995 wels, aSS-is mTavrobam Secvala miTi-Tebuli politika da gadawyvita internetis privatizacia. am droidaninterneti komerciuli saqmianobis mniSvnelovani atributi xdeba.28Klewitz, Lilian, Verbraucherschutz bei Rechtsgeschäften per Internet, Verlag Dr.Kovaè, Hamburg, 2006. gv. 27.29kompiuteruli programebi iyeneben e.w. protokolebis uamrav dasaxelebas.„protokoli” aris eleqtronuli programa, romelic eleqtronulimediis sistemisa da kompiuteruli programebis SemadgenlobisaraerTgvarovnebis miuxedavad, SesaZlebels xdis monacemebistransformacias eleqtronul sivrceSi. uSualod Transmission ControlProtocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) aris eleqtronuli programa, meqanizmi,romelic gadasacem failebsa da sxva saxis monacemebs anawilebs patarapaketebSi, romlebic, Tavis mxriv, individualuri internet-misamarTebissaSualebiT pouloben Sesabamis kompiuters da kvlav TCPismeSveobiT iReben pirvandel formas.30Bierekoven, Christiane, Der Vertragsschluss via Internet im internationalenWirtschaftsverkehr, Carl Heymanns Verlag KG; Köln, Berlin, Bonn, München 2001.gv. 2-19;31Uhlman, André Marc, Elektronische Verträge aus deutscher, europäischer und USamerkanischerSicht, Europäischer Verlag der Wissenschaften – Peter Lang GmbH,Frankfurt am Main 2003. gv. 11. aseve, ix. Davis, Lars, Contract Formation on theInternet – Shattering a few Myths, in: Edwards, Lilian & Waedle, Charlotte, Law andthe Internet – Regulating Cyberspace, Oxford 1997. gv. 100.32intraneti imijneba kerZo mwarmoeblebisa da e.w. servis-provaiderebis(Service-Provider) mier marTuli da finansirebuli qseluri kompiuterulisistemebisagan, romlebic Sesabamisi faruli kodis (Password)gareSe miuwvdomelia nebismieri mesame pirisaTvis, miuxedavadimisa, rom msgavsi qseluri kompiuteruli sistemis farglebSi, xelmisawvdomiainternetic. `intranetSi~ igulisxmeba kompiuteruliqseluri sistema, romelic funqcionirebs e.w. internet-protokolisgamoyenebiT _ IP (Internet-Protocol), Tumca naklebi moculobiT an saer-Tod ar aris dakavSirebuli internetTan. intranetSi arsebobs internetismxolod konkretul, SerCeul wyaroebTan dakavSirebisSesaZlebloba. misi upiratesoba, internetTan SedarebiT, aris is,rom `intraneti~ daculia gare-zemoqmedebisagan: xelmisawvdomiamxolod am sistemasTan qseluri kavSiris mqone momxmareblisaTvis.33garda internet-momsaxurebis cnobili da mniSvnelovani formebisa,rogoricaa WWW, el-fosta (E-Mail) da a.S. arsebobs internet-momsaxurebissxva formebic, kerZod: ,,File Transfer Protocol” (FTP), ,,Gopher”,,,Telnet”, ,,Newgroups” da sxv. romlebic winamdebare naSromisaTvis naklebadmniSvnelovania. am sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT, ix.: Bierekoven,Christiane, Der Vertragsschluss via Internet im internationalen Wirtschaftsverkehr,Carl Heymanns Verlag KG; Köln, Berlin, Bonn, München 2001, gv. 6-15, agreTve,Kuner, Christopher, Internet für Juristen, 2. Auflage, München 1999. gv. 35-37.34eleqtronuli komunikaciis saSualebebis gamoyenebiT momxmarebelsada banks Soris komerciuli urTierTobebis aRsaniSnavad gamoiyeneba59


marTlmsajulebaN3dakanonimravali termini: Home-Banking, Online-Banking, Tele-Banking, Direct-Banking,Electronic-Banking da a.S. Home-Banking _ igulisxmeba momxmarebelsa dabanks Soris komunikacia Sinidan gausvlelad, bankis satelefono aninternet-momsaxurebis sistemis gamoyenebiT; Online-Banking gulisxmobsmomxmarebelsa da banks Soris urTierTobas internetis saSualebiT;Tele-Banking _ momxmarebelsa da banks Soris urTierToba bankissatelefono momsaxurebis sistemis farglebSi; Internet-Banking _ momxmarebelsada banks Soris urTierToba internetis saSualebiT. Internet-Banking-is sinonimia _ Electronic-Banking. ix. Recknagel, Einar, Vertrag undHaftung beim Internet-Banking, Verlag C.H. Beck, München, 2005. gv. 3.35ix.: Nowak, Ulrich, Der elektronische Vertrag – Zustandekommen und Wirksamkeitunter Berücksichtigung des neuen ,,Formforschriftenanpassungsgesetzes”, in: MDR2001. gv. 841.36Uhlman, André Marc, Elektronische Verträge aus deutscher, europäischer und USamerkanischerSicht, Europäischer Verlag der Wissenschaften – Peter Lang GmbH,Frankfurt am Main 2003. gv. 35.37Tamar zambaxiZe, eleqtronuli vaWrobis samarTlebrivi reglamentaciissafuZvlebi (problemebi da perspeqtiva), `qarTuli samarTlismimoxilva~, tomi 8. 1-2, 2005. gv. 110.38urTierTobebi mewarmesa da momxmarebels Soris (Business to Consume,B2C). miuxedavad B2C-tranzaqciebis sixSirisa, ZviradRirebuli dateqnikurad rTuli Semadgenlobis nivTebis SeZena, ZiriTadad, kvlavCveuli formiT grZeldeba. suraTi SeiZleba axlo momavalSi SeicvalosmomxmarebelTaTvis eleqtronuli vaWrobis sferoSi usafrTxoebismeqanizmebis Semdgomi ganviTarebiT.39momxmarebelTa uflebebis dacvis sferoSi moqmedi ZiriTadi qarTulisakanonmdeblo aqtebia: saqarTvelos samoqalaqo kodeqsi (1997 w.),saqarTvelos kanoni momxmarebelTa uflebebis dacvis Sesaxeb (1996w.), saqarTvelos kanoni samomxmareblo kooperaciis Sesaxeb (1997 w.),saqarTvelos kanoni reklamis Sesaxeb (1998 w.) da saqarTvelos kanonisursaTis uvneblobisa da xarisxis Sesaxeb (2005 w.). eleqtronulikomunikaciebis sferoSi moqmedebs saqarTvelos kanoni eleqtronulikomunikaciebis Sesaxeb (2005 w.) da saqarTvelos kanoni eleqtronulixelmowerisa da eleqtronuli dokumentis Sesaxeb (2008 w.)40avstraliis kanoni eleqtronuli garigebebis Sesaxeb, miRebul iqna 1999wels, mTlianad ZalaSi Sevida 2001 wlis pirvel ivliss; aSS-is 2000wlis federaluri kanoni eleqtronuli xelmowerebis Sesaxeb saerTa-Soriso da Sidasaxelmwifoebriv savaWro urTierTobebSi; irlandiis2000 wlis kanoni eleqtronuli vaWrobis Sesaxeb; samxreT koreis 2001wlis kanoni eleqtronuli vaWrobis Sesaxeb; tailandis 2002 wliskanoni eleqtronuli garigebebisa da eleqtronuli xelmoweris Sesaxeb;2002 wels eleqtronuli garigebebis Sesaxeb sakanonmdeblo aqtebimiRebuli iqna TurqeTsa da pakistanSi; meqsikaSi 2000 wels eleqtronulivaWrobisa da eleqtronuli garigebebis Sesaxeb cvlilebebida damatebebi Sevida federalur samoqalaqo, federalur savaWroda federalur samoqalaqo saproceso kodeqsebSi; citirebulia: zambaxiZeTamar, eleqtronuli vaWrobis samarTlebrivi reglamentaciissafuZvlebi (problemebi da perspeqtiva), `qarTuli samarTlis mimoxilva~,tomi 8. N #1-2, 2005. gv. 108-138.41Klewitz, Lilian, Verbraucherschutz bei Rechtsgeschäften per Internet, Verlag Dr. Kovaè,Hamburg, 2006. gv. 331-332.60


EUROPEAN STANDARDSFOR THE PROTECTION OFCONSUMERS RIGHTS INTHE ELECTRONIC TRADEAND RELEVANTGEORGIAN LEGISLATIONTINATIN ERKVANIAMaster of Law, Iv. Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University, Master ofGerman law; Doctorant of law Department, LL.M, HHumboldt-University of BerlinThis article is the updated version of the final part of the Master Paperpresented at the Law Department of the Iv. Javakhishvili State Universityin 2009 (title of the master paper: “European Standards for the Protectionof Consumers Rights in Electronic Deals” 1 ). It presents a brief review ofthe European unified private law and relevant Georgian legislation concerningthe electronic trade, as well as the brief descriptions of the substantialparts of the study results.The Georgian Legislation concerning the consumer contractual law providesonly the general legal bases from the point of view of protection ofconsumers rights. The Georgian legislation does not regulate specific standardsof the protection of Consumers rights in the consumer contracts concludedimmediately through electronic communication means. Consideringthe undergoing development of technological processes, relevant legalmechanisms definitely need to be elaborated in order to regulate commercialrelationships. The article is dedicated to this problem.1The full version of the Papers has not be published yet. This is the first article reflectingthe results of the undertaken research.61


marTlmsajulebaN3dakanonisaxelSekrulebo dadeliqturipasuxismgeblobissarCelebiskonkurenciadaviT suxitaSvilisamarTlis doqtori, profesoriTea suxitaSviliivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifouniversitetis iuridiuli fakultetis doqtorantisamoqalaqo samarTlis mecnierebaSi pasuxismgeblobissaxeebad dayofa sxvadasxva kriteriumebiT xdeba. pasuxismgeblobiswarmoSobis safuZvlebis mixedviT ansxvavebensaxelSekrulebo da arasaxelSekrulebo (kanonismier) pasuxismgeblobas.samarTlis mecnierebaSi maTi urTierTdamokidebulebayovelTvis aqtualuri iyo da dResac aseTadrCeba. saqme is aris, rom praqtikaSi pasuxismgeblobis esori saxe xSirad kveTs erTmaneTs, rac sarCelis safuZvliskonkurencias iwvevs. erTi SexedviT iqmneba warmodgena,rom saxelSekrulebo da arasaxelSekrulebo pasuxismgeblobisurTierTgamijvna sirTules ar unda warmoadgendes.erT SemTxvevaSi, saxelSekrulebo pasuxismgeblobisdadgomas mxareTa Soris arsebuli saxelSekrulebo urTierTobada am xelSekrulebis Seusrulebloba an arajerovaniSesruleba udevs safuZvlad; meore SemTxvevaSi ki, mxareebisaxelSekrulebo urTierTobiT ar arian erTmaneT-Tan dakavSirebulni da amitom TiTqos yvelaferi naTeli62


unda iyos, magram faqtobrivad maTi urTierTdamokidebulebis sakiTxi ase martivadar wydeba.saxelSekrulebo da arasaxelSekrulebo pasuxismgeblobis warmoSobis safuZvlebimravalferovania. saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobis mixedviT saxelSekrulebo pasuxismgeblobada Sesabamisad, saxelSekrulebo urTierTobebi warmoiSoba da wesrigdeba saqarTvelossamoqalaqo kodeqsis valdebulebiTi samarTlis zogadi nawiliT (319-476-e muxlebi)da valdebulebiTi samarTlis kerZo nawiliT (477-952-e muxlebi). arasaxelSekrulebopasuxismgeblobis saxeebs miekuTvneba: saziaro uflebebi (953-968-e muxlebi),davalebis gareSe sxvisi saqmeebis Sesruleba (969-975-e muxlebi), usafuZvlo gamdidreba(976-991-e muxlebi), deliqturi valdebulebebi (me-18, 992-1016-e muxlebi). valdebulebiTisamarTlis zogadi nawilis zogadi debulebebi (316_318-e muxlebi) exeba rogorcsaxelSekrulebo, ise arasaxelSekrulebo urTierTobebs. kodeqsis 317-e muxlSi naTqvamia,rom `...valdebuleba warmoiSoba zianis miyenebis (deliqtis), usafuZvlo gamdidrebisan kanoniT gaTvaliswinebuli sxva safuZvlebidan.~ kanoniT gaTvaliswinebulisxva safuZvlebis, magaliTad, SeiZleba davasaxeloT sanivTo samarTlis iseTi institutebi,rogoricaa uzufruqti, giravnoba, ipoTeka da sxva, roca pasuxismgebloba kanonissafuZvelze dadgeba (uzufruqtuaris ufleba-movaleobebi _ 245-e muxli, giravnobisuflebaTa rigiToba _ 267-e muxli da sxva). xSiria, roca kanoniT gaTvaliswinebulSemTxvevebSi normebi, romlebic arasaxelSekrulebo urTierTobebs awesrigeben, xel-Sekrulebidan warmoSobil pasuxismgeblobazec vrceldeba. kerZod, saqarTvelos samoqalaqokodeqsis 527-e muxlma deliqturi pasuxismgeblobis momwesrigebel wesebs dauqvemdebaraCuqebis xelSekrulebidan warmoSobili urTierToba. masSi naTqvamia, rom`Tu mCuqebeli boroti ganzraxviT damalavs gaCuqebuli qonebis nakls, igi valdebulia,dasaCuqrebuls aunazRauros amiT miyenebuli ziani.~ aseTi normebi qarTul samoqalaqokodeqsSi mravladaa, magaliTad, 665-e, 769-e muxlebi da sxva. amitomac, pasuxismgeblobisam ori saxis sarCelebis safuZvlis konkurencia (kumulacia) specialistebisaqtiuri ganxilvis sagania. germaneli iuristi ian Sappi valdebulebiTi urTierTobidanwarmoSobili moTxovnebis (uflebis gancxadebis, sarCelis) safuZvlad miiCnevs: 1. saxelSekrulebovaldebulebebs 2. usafuZvlo gamdidrebas 3. deliqts 4. valdebulebisbraleulad Seusruleblobas. Tumca, rogorc igi aRniSnavs, dasaxelebuli valdebulebiTiurTierTobebi srulad ver moicavs yvela SesaZlo valdebulebiT sarCelebs.urTierTobebi, romlebic am oTx jgufSi ver pouloben gamovlenas, saerTo analogiissistemiT TavianT adgils dasaxelebuli klasifikaciis erT-erT jgufSi pouloben.magaliTad, davalebis gareSe sxvisi saqmeebis Sesrulebidan warmoSobili moTxovnebissamarTlebrivi safuZveli saxelSekrulebo valdebulebebiT iqneba uzrunvelyofili,mometebuli safrTxis wyaroTi miyenebuli zianisaTvis ki, deliqturi pasuxismgeblobadadgeba. 1 valdebulebiTi urTierTobebidan warmoSobili moTxovnebis safuZvlebisklasifikaciidan gansakuTrebul yuradRebas ipyrobs meoTxe rigis _ `valdebulebis63


marTlmsajulebaN3dakanonibraleulad Seusruleblobis~ avtoriseuli interpretacia. igi wers: gansakuTrebulimdgomareoba ukavia valdebulebis braleulad SeusruleblobisaTvis warmoSobil moTxovnebs.aseTi moTxovnebi saxelSekrulebo an kanonismieri valdebulebiTi urTierTobebidanwarmoiSobian maSin, roca adgili aqvs am urTierTobis valdebulebis braleuldarRvevas. amgvarad warmoSobili moTxovnebi ganxiluli unda iyos rogorc kanonidanwamoSobili. 2rogorc vxedavT, ian Sappi faqtobrivad gamoricxavs xelSekrulebis braleuladdarRvevis safuZvliT saxelSekrulebo pasuxismgeblobas. aRsaniSnavia, rom am sakiTxTandakavSirebiT sxvadasxva qveynis kanonmdeblobaSi da samecniero literaturaSierTiani mosazreba ar arsebobs.saxelSekrulebo da arasaxelSekrulebo pasuxismgeblobis bralis irgvliv mwvavediskusiaa gamarTuli frangul samoqalaqo samarTlis mecnierebaSic. cnobilia, romkontinenturi evropis samarTlis sistemaSi deliqturi pasuxismgeblobis gagebis sakanonmdeblowesiT damkvidreba pirvelad, frangulma samoqalaqo kodeqsma moaxdina. kodeqsis1382-e muxli deliqtze zogad warmodgenas iZleva, rac bevri qveynis samoqalaqokodeqsisaTvis dResac misaRebia. masSi naTqvamia, rom piris nebismieri moqmedeba,romelic sxva pirs miayenebs zians, avaldebulebs zianis mimyenebels, aanazRauros misibraliT gamowveuli ziani. XIX-XX saukunis frangi civilisti planoli (Semdgom misimimdevrebi) miiCnevda, rom yovelgvari braleuli moqmedebis Sedegad, samarTaldamr-Rvevi arRvevs misTvis ukve adre warmoSobil valdebulebas, radgan avtoris mtkicebiT,braleuli moqmedebis buneba yovelTvis erTgvarovania imis miuxedavad, am moqmedebiTirRveva xelSekrulebidan warmoSobili valdebuleba, kanoniT maTze dakisrebuli valdebulebaTu yoveli adamianis mier misi saqmianobis procesSi zogadi windaxedulebisgamoCenis valdebuleba. 3zemoT motanil teqstSi planolis mTavari debulebaa, rom rogorc saxelSekrulebo,ise deliqtis dros kreditorsa da movales Soris urTierToba braleuli moqmedebisganxorcielebamdea warmoSobili da Sesabamisad, samarTaldamrRvevi braleuli moqmedebiTarRvevs misTvis ukve manamde dadgenil valdebulebas. rasac ver daveTanxmebiT,radgan aseTi midgoma Slis zRvars saxelSekrulebo da deliqtur pasuxismgeblobasSoris. piriqiT, am ori saxis pasuxismgeblobis erT-erTi principuli Tavisebureba isaris, rom saxelSekrulebo pasuxismgeblobis mxareebs Soris urTierToba braleulimoqmedebis Cadenamdea warmoSobili da samarTaldamrRvevi am urTierTobidan warmo-Sobil valdebulebas arRvevs. rac Seexeba deliqtur pasuxismgeblobas, aq movalesada kreditors Soris urTierToba samarTaldamrRvevis braleuli moqmedebis SemdegwarmoiSoba.planolis Teoriam braleulobis erTgvarovnebis Sesaxeb mkacri kritika ganicadaTviT franguli samoqalaqo samarTlis mecnierebaSi. amasTan dakavSirebiT, cnobilifrangi iuristi J. morandieri werda: saxelSekrulebo pasuxismgebloba daekisreba mxo-64


lod movales, mis mier xelSekrulebiT nakisri valdebulebis braleulad Seusruleblobisan arajerovani Sesrulebis gamo, Tu ar arsebobs pasuxismgeblobisagan gaTavisuflebissafuZveli. yvela sxva braleuli moqmedeba, Tundac xelSekrulebasTan dakav-Sirebuli, warmoadgens deliqts. 4 amis sailustraciod mohyavs Semdegi magaliTebi:1. xelSekrulebis gareSe mesame piris braleuli moqmedeba. davuSvaT, rom oripiri SeTanxmda nivTis nasyidobis xelSekrulebaze. gamyidvelma daarRvia SeTanxmebada igive nivTi mihyida mesame pirs, romelmac icoda, rom es nivTi ukve gayiduli iyo. amSemTxvevaSi, gamyidvelis mimarT dadgeba saxelSekrulebo pasuxismgebloba, xolo mesamepiris mimarT _ deliqturi pasuxismgebloba.2. xelSekrulebis monawile piris braleuli deliqturi qmedeba mesame piris mimarT.satransporto kompaniis avtobusis avtoSemTxvevis Sedegad erT-erTi mgzavrigardaicvala. gardacvlilis memkvidreebs ufleba aqvT sarCeli aRZran satransportokompaniis winaaRmdeg, romelTa mimarTac saxelSekrulebo pasuxismgebloba dadgeba,radgan maT daarRvies saxelSekrulebo valdebuleba da ver uzrunvelyves mgzavrTagadayvanis usafrTxoeba; magram vinme sxvas, gardacvlilis ara memkvidres, SeuZliasafrangeTis samoqalaqo kodeqsis 1382-e muxlis safuZvelze aRZras sarCeli zianisanazRaurebis Taobaze, romelic man ganicada uSualod mgzavris gardacvalebis Sedegad.am SemTxvevaSi satransporto kompania pasuxs agebs deliqtis safuZvelze. 53. xelSekrulebis erTi mxaris mier meore mxaris sawinaaRmdegod ganxorcielebulideliqti. xelSekrulebis erTi mxaris mier meore mxaris sawinaaRmdegod ganxorcielebuliyovelgvari braleuli moqmedeba, Tuki am qmedebaSi ar vlindeba xelSekrulebidanwarmoSobili valdebulebis Seusrulebloba an arajerovani Sesruleba, ganixilebadeliqtad. aseTia magaliTad, braleuli moqmedeba ganxorcielebuli xelSekrulebisdadebis procesSi, rodesac sajarod gakeTebul ofertze oferenti, pirovnuliniSnis gamo, uars ambobs xelSekrulebis dadebaze masTan, vinc ofertis aqceptirebamoaxdina. 6J. morandieris zemoaRniSnuli magaliTebidan gamomdinare, misi pozicia SeiZlebaSemdegnairad CamovayaliboT, rom bralis xarisxis miuxedavad xelSekrulebis monawilemxareebs Soris valdebulebis SeusruleblobiT an arajerovani SesrulebiT gamowveulizianis anazRaurebisaTvis yovelTvis saxelSekrulebo pasuxismgebloba dadgeba,xolo Tu am xelSekrulebasTan raime formiT mesame piria dakavSirebuli, saqme gveqnebadeliqtur pasuxismgeblobasTan. aseTi interpretacia sruliad Seesabameba frangulisamoqalaqo kodeqsis 1382-e muxlis deliqtze zogad warmodgenas.safrangeTis samoqalaqo kodeqsis msgavsad, deliqtis zogadi xasiaTis definiciasemxrobodnen germaniis samoqalaqo kodeqsis Semqmnelebi, `Tumca ver gabedes gadamwyvetinabijis gadadgma zogad daTqmamde. maTi azriT, amgvari zogadi daTqma mxolodSeniRbavs arsebul sirTuleebs da gadaWris simZimes mosamarTleebs daakisrebs. es ki,ewinaaRmdegeba germaneli eris Sexedulebas mosamarTleebze. arsebobda SiSi, rom65


marTlmsajulebaN3dakanonigermanuli sasamarTlo praqtika kanoniT dawesebul mkacr CarCoebSi ar iqneboda moqceuli.misTvis mudmivad iqneba damaxasiaTebeli iseTi negatiuri movlenebi, rogoricaafranguli sasamarTloebis bevri gadawyvetileba.~ 7 bolos, rogorc germanul samecnieroliteraturaSia miCneuli 8 kanonmdebelma airCia deliqtis samwevriani konstruqcia.pirvel elementad miCneulia kodeqsis 823-e paragrafis pirveli abzacis Sinaarsi_ is vinc ganzrax Tu gaufrTxileblad marTlsawinaaRmdego qmedebiT mouspobs adamianssicocxles, vnebas miayenebs mis janmrTelobas, aRukveTavs Tavisuflebas, CamoarTmevssakuTrebas Tu sxva uflebas, valdebulia aanazRauros amiT miyenebuli ziani; meoreelementi gadmocemulia amave normis meore abzacSi, romlis mixedviTac, igive pasuxismgeblobadadgeba misTvis, vinc daarRvevs sxva piris kanoniT dacul pirad usafr-Txoebas. amgvar mdgomareobas ganekuTvneba kerZo, sajaro da pirvel yovlisa, sisxlissamarTlis yvela norma, romlebic Tavisi Sinaarsisa da miznis Sesabamisad, mowodebuliauzrunvelyos calkeuli piris an pirTa garkveuli jgufis da ara mTlianad mosaxleobisdacva. 9 deliqtis samwevriani konstruqciis meore elementis mniSvnelovani sakiTxiaTu ra faseulobis _ janmrTelobis, sicocxlis, qonebis Tu saerTo ekonomikuri sikeTisdacviskenaa mimarTuli igi. es sakiTxi yovel calkeul SemTxvevaSi gadawydeba imis mixedviT,Tu darRveuli konkretuli damcavi kanoni ra sikeTis dacviskenaa mimarTuli.magaliTad, Tu dairRva kanoni, romelic policielis sicocxlis dacviskenaa mimarTuli,deliqturi pasuxismgeblobis obieqtic swored es iqneba. xolo deliqtis samwevrianikonstruqciis mesame elementi gadmocemulia kodeqsis 826-e paragrafSi, mesame elementiexeba sxva pirisaTvis uzneo, ganzraxi moqmedebiT miyenebul zians.germanuli samoqalaqo kodeqsis avtorTa mcdeloba, rom `sasamarTlo praqtika kanoniTdawesebul mkacr CarCoebSi~ moeqciaT, amaod dasrulda. amasTan dakavSirebiT, konradcvaigerti da hain kotci or ZiriTad xarvezze miuTiTeben. upirvelesad es exebodapirovnebis uflebaTa dacvas; deliqturi pasuxismgeblobis samwevriani konstruqciismeore lakuna iyo gaufrTxileblobiT warmoqmnili wminda ekonomikuri zaralisaganarasakmarisi dacva. magaliTad, samSeneblo firmis eqskavatorma daaziana maRali Zabviskabeli da eleqtroenergiis miwodeba Seuwyda sxva sawarmos. msgavs SemTxvevebSi dgebasakiTxi: valdebulia Tu ara firma aanazRauros zarali germaniis samoqalaqo kodeqsis823-e paragrafis pirveli abzacis Tanaxmad? am sakiTxze pasuxisaTvis gadamwyvetia miyenebulizianis buneba. Tu amas mohyva sawarmos gaCereba, ramac warmoebuli produqciismxolod Semcireba gamoiwvia, dazaralebuli sawarmoo zianis anazRaurebas ver moiTxovs,radgan samSeneblo firmis braleulma moqmedebam mxolod ekonomikuri zaraligamoiwvia; magram Tu eleqtroenergiis Sewyvetam wiwilebis inkubaciaSi gamoyvanisprocesi daarRvia, saxezea `sakuTrebis dazianeba~, amitom samSeneblo firma valdebulia,aanazRauros ara mxolod gamouCekavi wiwilebis Rirebuleba, aramed sxva ekonomikurizaralic. 10 amrigad, germanuli sasamarTloebi mesame pirTa sarCelebs zianisanazRaurebis Sesaxeb mxolod maSin akmayofileben, Tu mosarCelis qonebis ganadgurebisan dazianebis gamo man Semdgomi materialuri zianic ganicada.66


sruliad gansxvavebul konstruqciasTan gvaqvs saqme inglisur samarTalSi. arsebobssaerTo wesi imis Sesaxeb, rom roca mopasuxis esa Tu is ufleba xelSekrulebiTaa daculi,dauSvebelia xelSekrulebis ignorireba da deliqtiT ufro farTo pasuxismgeblobisdakisreba. amasTan, ra Tqma unda, saWiroa gairkves, mopasuxe namdvilad aris Tuara xelSekrulebiT gaTavisuflebuli deliqturi pasuxismgeblobisagan. amis dasadgenadmosamarTleebi ganmartebis sxvadasxva wess mimarTaven.inglisur precedentul samarTalSi aseTi magaliTebi mravladaa. movitanT cnobiliingliseli iuristis v. ansoniseul ramdenime magaliTs, Tu rogor zemoqmedebs xel-Sekrulebis pirobebi deliqtur pasuxismgeblobaze.1.Tu arsebobs pirdapiri daTqma deliqturi pasuxismgeblobisagan mopasuxis gaTavisuflebisSesaxeb, rogorc wesi, daudevrobiT miyenebuli zianisaTvis, aseTi daTqmaunda Sesruldes. magaliTad, saqmeSi Rutter v. Palmer (1922) mosarCelem Tavisi avtomanqanasakomisio wesiT realizaciisaTvis datova mopasuxis avtofarexSi. mxareebma xel-SekrulebiT gaiTvaliswines, rom avtomanqanis samarTavad daiSvebodnen mxolod mopasuxisTanamSromlebi, klientis sruli pasuxismgeblobiT. mopasuxem misi TanamSromelimZRolis meSveobiT avtomanqana gaiyvana sacdel reisze, ra drosac avtoSemTxvevisSedegad klientis avtomanqana dazianda. imis gaTvaliswinebiT, rom daudevrobiTmiyenebuli zianisaTvis pasuxismgebloba xelSekrulebiT klients daekisra, misi sar-Celi deliqtiT miyenebuli zianis anazRaurebis Sesaxeb ar iqna gaziarebuli.2.sxva SemTxvevaSi SeiZleba, mopasuxis deliqturi pasuxismgeblobisagan gaTavisuflebisSesaxeb xelSekrulebaSi pirdapir arc iyos miTiTebuli, magram arsebobdeszogadi xasiaTis iseTi piroba, romlis ganmartebis safuZvelze daudevrobiT miyenebulizianisaTvis mopasuxe gaTavisufldes deliqturi pasuxismgeblobisagan. am SemTxvevebisaTvisinglisuri sasamarTloebi iyeneben lord grinis mier formulirebul wess(saqme Alders Lade v. Hendon Laundry, Ltd (1945)). mosarCelem cxvirsaxocebi samrecxaoSimiitana gasarecxad, magram cxvirsaxocebi mas aRar daubrunes. sasamarTloSi sarCelisaRZvris Semdeg mopasuxem sarCelis uarsayofad moiSvelia xelSekrulebiT gaTvaliswinebulipiroba, saidanac irkveva, rom `nivTis dakargviT an dazianebiT gamowveuliasanazRaurebeli maqsimaluri Tanxa ganisazRvreba recxvis Rirebulebis ocmagiodenobiT~. sasamarTlo procesze mosamarTlem gaiziara mopasuxis advokatis mosazrebada ar daakmayofila sarCeli. adokatis mosazreba mdgomareobs SemdegSi: a) sityvebinivTis `dakargva an dazianeba~ miekuTvneba imgvar dakargvasa da dazianebas, rac67


marTlmsajulebaN3dakanonigamowveulia daudevrobiT; b) is ar aris dakavSirebuli TeTreulis recxvasTan, anupirvelad valdebulebasTan, ramdenadac TeTreulis garecxva xelSekrulebis arsebiTipirobaa, ris SesrulebasTan dakavSirebiTac sakiTxi saTanado mzrunvelobis Sesaxebar dasmula; g) mocemul SemTxvevaSi TeTreulis dakargva-dazianebas SeiZleba Semxeblobahqondes mxolod damxmare valdebulebebTan; d) Sesabamisad, roca aRiZra sakiTxiTeTreulis dakargvis Sesaxeb, pasuxismgeblobis erTaderTi SesaZlo safuZvelia daudevrobada amitom am safuZvliT piroba pasuxismgeblobidan gaTavisuflebis Sesaxebunda gavrceldes mopasuxeze. sasamarTlos gadawyvetileba lordma grinma SemdegnairaddaasabuTa `Tu pasuxismgeblobis farglebs mxolod daudevroba warmoadgens, maSinpiroba, (Cven SemTxvevaSi TeTreulis dakargva-dazianebiT gamowveuli asanazRaurebelimaqsimaluri Tanxa ganisazRvreba recxvis Rirebulebis ocmagi odenobiT. avt. SeniSvna)ise unda iyos ganmartebuli, rom igi aris pasuxismgeblobis farglebSi mopasuxis gaTavisuflebispiroba.~3.mosarCelem gamqiravebel punqtSi daiqirava velosipedi. xelSekrulebaSi naTqvamiiyo, rom gaqiravebuli velosipediT sargeblobisas gamowveuli sxeulis dazianebisaTvisgamqiravebeli Tavisufldeba yovelgvari pasuxismgeblobisagan. mosarCeles naxevarimilic ar hqonda gavlili, rom velosipeds savarZeli mosZvra, mosarCele davardada miiRo sxeulis dazianeba. mosarCelem alternatiuli sarCeli aRZra _ xelSekrulebisdarRvevisa da daudevrobiT zianis miyenebis Taobaze. amjerad gaTvaliswinebuliiyo, rom garda daudevrobisa saqme gvaqvs pasuxismgeblobis sxva farglebTan – xel-Sekrulebis darRveviT gamowveul absolutur pasuxismgeblobasTan. Sesabamisad, saapelaciosasamarTlom sarCelis dakmayofilebisas miuTiTa, rom mocemul saqmesTandakavSirebiT pasuxismgeblobis farglebs warmoadgens sxva, daudevrobisagan gansxvavebulisafuZveli, anu xelSekrulebis darRveviT warmoSobili absoluturi pasuxismgebloba.11zemoaRniSnuli magaliTebis analizi gviCvenebs, rom Znelia gavakeToT zogadidaskvna, gamovimuSavoT erTiani kriteriumi inglisur samarTalSi xelSekrulebis arsebobispirobebSi deliqturi pasuxismgeblobidan gaTavisuflebis Taobaze. es CveulebrivimaxasiaTebelia precedentuli samarTlisaTvis. am labirinTebSi garkvevisaTvisswori gadawyvetilebebis miRebisaTvis saWiroa aTeuli da zogjer ufro meti sasamar-Tlo magaliTebis codna, rac Cven ar xelgvewifeba da arc Cveni kvlevis mizans Seadgens.sabWoTa kavSiris daSlis Semdeg, postsabWoTa respublikebis samoqalaqo kodeqsebma(ruseTis federaciis samoqalaqo kodeqsma, saqarTvelos samoqalaqo kodeqsma) gaiTvaliswinessafrangeTisa da germaniis dadebiTi gamocdilebebi da erTgvarad am qveynebissamoqalaqo kodeqsebis Sualeduri pozicia daikaves. ruseTis federaciis samoqalaqo68


kodeqsis 1064-e muxlSi deliqturi pasuxismgeblobis zogadi debulebebia gadmocemuli.masSi naTqvamia, rom pirovnebisaTvis, moqalaqisa da iuridiuli piris qonebisaTvismiyenebuli zarali eqvemdebareba sruli moculobiT anazRaurebas zaralis mimyeneblismier; magram ruseTis federaciis samoqalaqo kodeqsi, franguli samoqalaqo kodeqsisagangansxvavebiT, mxolod zogadi debulebebiT ar Semoifargleba. kodeqsi deliqturipasuxismgeblobis wesebs avrcelebs calkeuli saxelSekrulebo urTierTobebidanwarmoSobili zianis anazRaurebazec, magram amjerad, germanuli samoqalaqo kodeqsisagangansxvavebiT, amgvari SemTxvevebis amomwurav CamonaTvals ar akeTebs, riTackodeqsis avtorebma Tavidan aiciles is winaaRmdegobebi, razedac zemoT gvqonda saubarigermanul samoqalaqo kodeqsTan mimarTebaSi. samoqalaqo kodeqsi deliqturi pasuxismgeblobiswesebs avrcelebs im saxelSekrulebo urTierTobidan warmoSobilzianis anazRaurebebzec, romlebic Tavisi intensivobisa da xasiaTidan gamomdinare,saxelmwifos gansakuTrebuli zrunvis obieqti unda iyos. ruseTis federaciis samoqalaqokodeqsi upirvelesad, aseTad miiCnevs adamianis janmrTelobisa da sicocxlisaTvismiyenebul zians. dasaxelebul uflebaTa dasacavad deliqturi pasuxismgeblobiswesebis gasavrceleblad kodeqsi or gzas mimarTavs: erTi mxriv, sanimuSod CamoTvlis,magram ara amomwuravad, im saxelSekrulebo urTierTobidan warmoSobil valdebulebebs,romlis darRvevisaTvisac deliqturi pasuxismgebloba dadgeba. kerZod,saubaria rom gaCuqebuli nivTis nakliT dasaCuqrebulis sicocxlis, janmrTelobisada qonebisaTvis miyenebuli ziani gamCuqebelma unda aanazRauros kodeqsis 59-e TaviTgaTvaliswinebuli wesebiT, anu deliqtiT gamowveuli zianis anazRaurebis wesebiT,Tuki gaCuqebuli nivTis naklis Sesaxeb winaswar ar gaafrTxila dasaCuqrebuli (580-emux.); amgvari pasuxismgebloba daekisreba gadamzidvels (gadamyvans) mgzavris sicocxlisada janmrTelobisaTvis miyenebuli zianisaTvis (muxli 800). meore mxriv, kodeqsi1084-e muxlis saxiT adgens qcevis zogad wess, romlis mixedviTac saxelSekrulebovaldebulebis Sesrulebis procesSi moqalaqis janmrTelobisa da sicocxlisaTvismiyenebuli zianis anazRaureba unda moxdes kodeqsis 59-e TaviT dadgenili wesebiT,Tu xelSekrulebiT pasuxismgeblobis ufro maRali zoma (moculoba) ar aris gaTvaliswinebuli.es norma vrceldeba kerZo samarTlis yvela saxelSekrulebo urTierTobebze_ SromiT xelSekrulebebze, mindobilobebze, satransporto gadayvanis xelSekrulebebze,samedicino momsaxurebis Sesaxeb xelSekrulebebze da sxva, romelTa Seusruleblobisan arajerovani Sesrulebis Sedegad ziani miadgeba adamianis janmrTelobasada sicocxles. 12 xelSekrulebidan warmoSobili sxvagvari zianis anazRaurebisaTviski, saxelSekrulebo pasuxismgebloba dadgeba. vfiqrobT, deliqtis definiciisamgvari konstruqcia saxelSekrulebo da deliqturi pasuxismgeblobis sarCelebis konkurenciisnakleb SesaZleblobebs iZleva, rac Cveni azriT, dadebiTad unda Sefasdes.qarTuli samoqalaqo kodeqsis mier saxelSekrulebo da deliqturi pasuxismgeblobisurTierTdamokidebuleba franguli, germanuli da rusuli samoqalaqo kodeq-69


marTlmsajulebaN3dakanonisisagan gansxvavebulia, magram ara maT sapirispiro. saxelSekrulebo da deliqturipasuxismgeblobis zogadi daxasiaTebisas mecnier-iuristTa Soris principuli gansxvavebaar arsebobs. saerTo wesis mixedviT, dazaralebulisaTvis deliqtiT zianis miyenebagamowveulia piris mier, romelic manamde dazaralebulTan raime saxelSekrulebourTierTobaSi ar imyofeboda da rogorc wesi, aqtiuri, kanonsawinaaRmdego moqmedebiTarRvevs, aqtiuri moqmedebisagan Tavis Sekavebis valdebulebas, riTac zians ayenebsdazaralebulis absolutur uflebebs _ janmrTelobas, sicocxles, sakuTrebas. deliqturiurTierToba zianis miyenebis momentidan warmoiSoba da wesrigdeba kanoniTmkacrad gansazRvrul farglebSi.rac Seexeba saxelSekrulebo pasuxismgeblobas, is yovelTvis xelSekrulebiT gaTvaliswinebulivaldebulebebis Seusruleblobis an arajerovani Sesrulebis SedegadwarmoiSoba. amjerad, aramarTlzomieri moqmedeba rogorc wesi, pasiur moqmedebaSivlindeba da irRveva konkretuli valdebulebebi (sesxis dabruneba, samuSaos Sesrulebada sxva). saxelSekrulebo pasuxismgeblobis formebi (saSualebebi) _ zianis anazRaureba,pirgasamtexlos gadaxda da sxva, aseve, maTi moculoba xelSekrulebiT an xelSekrulebiTda kanoniT aris gansazRvruli. aseTia saxelSekrulebo da deliqturi pasuxismgeblobismecnier-iuristTa zogadi daxasiaTeba. 13 da mainc, xangrZlivi periodis diskusiismiuxedavad, samoqalaqo samarTalSi dRemde ar aris SemuSavebuli saxelSekruleboda deliqturi pasuxismgeblobis gamijvnis erTiani kriteriumi. amrigad, rogorcukve aRvniSneT, franguli samoqalaqo kodeqsi erTgulia im principis, rom rogorcsamarTlianad aRniSnavs J. morandieri, saxelSekrulebo pasuxismgebloba daekisrebamxolod movales kontrahentis sasargeblod xelSekrulebiT nakisri valdebulebisbraleulad SeusruleblobisaTvis, yvela sxva braleuli moqmedeba, Tundac xelSekrulebasTandakavSirebuli, warmoadgens deliqts. germanuli samoqalaqo kodeqsisTavisebureba imaSi mdgomareobs, rom masSi didi mcdelobaa, amomwuravad ganisazRvrosdeliqturi urTierTobebis wre. ruseTis federaciis samoqalaqo kodeqsi ZiriTadad,saxelSekrulebo da deliqturi pasuxismgeblobisaTvis dadgenil saerTo principebsaRiarebs. Tumca, calkeul SemTxvevebSi, saxelSekrulebo urTierTobidan warmoSobilizianis anazRaurebisaTvis moiTxovs, gamoyenebuli iyos deliqtisaTvis dadgenili wesebi.amasTan, amgvari gamonaklisebi ar aris amomwuravi (ruseTis federaciis samoqalaqokodeqsis 1084-e muxli).saxelSekrulebo da deliqturi pasuxismgeblobis warmoSobis safuZvlebis saerTowesisagan gamonakliss adgens qarTuli samoqalaqo kodeqsic. kerZod, mxedvelobaSi gvaqvs,roca kodeqsi deliqturi pasuxismgeblobis momwesrigebel normebs saxelSkrulebourTierTobidan warmoSobil pasuxismgeblobazec avrcelebs. erT SemTxvevaSi, kodeqsipirdapir miuTiTebs im saxelSekrulebo urTierTobebze, romlis mimarTac deliqturipasuxismgeblobis wesebi unda iyos gamoyenebuli. am dros sarCelTa konkurencias faqtobrivadadgili ara aqvs, radgan kodeqsis deliqturi valdebulebebis nawilSi70


imperatiulad aris dadgenili am xelSekrulebebidan warmoSobili zianis anazRaurebisdeliqturi pasuxismgeblobis Sesaxeb.saxelSekrulebo valdebulebebis Sesrulebis procesSi warmoSobil zians kodeqsideliqtur pasuxismgeblobad miiCnevs:1. 999-e muxli, romlis Tanaxmad, Tu mgzavrebis gadayvanisa da tvirTis gadazidvisprocesSi satransporto saSualebebis eqsploatacias mohyva adamianis sikvdili, dasaxiCrebaan janmrTelobis moSla, anda nivTis dazianeba, satransporto saSualebismflobeli valdebulia aanazRauros amiT gamowveuli ziani.2. deliqturi pasuxismgebloba dadgeba aseve, Tu samedicino dawesebulebaSi mkurnalobisaspiris janmrTelobasa da sicocxles ziani miadgeba. marTalia, 1007-e muxlSipirdapir ar aris miTiTeba, rom samedicino dawesebuleba am dros saxelSekrulebovaldebulebas asrulebs, amgvar garigebas arc valdebulebis kerZo nawili icnobs,magram kodeqsis 1007-e muxli udavod is SemTxvevaa, roca samedicino dawesebulebasaxelSekrulebo valdebulebas asrulebs. Tumca, es sakiTxi SeiZleba davasac iwvevdes,amitom saWirod migvaCnia ganvmartoT, rom samedicino momsaxurebis Sedegad moqalaqisjanmrTelobisa da sicocxlisaTvis zianis miyenebiT pasuxismgeblobis saxis sworikvalifikaciis dadgenis mizniT aucilebelia gavarkvioT, samedicino momsaxurebasaxelSekrulebo valdebulebis SesrulebasTan aris dakavSirebuli Tu ara. SeiZlebamoxdes ise, rom quCaSi mosiarule gaxdes SeuZlod, romelsac aseve, SemTxveviT gamvlelieqimi gauwevs samedicino daxmarebas, hipokrates ficis safuZvelze. aseTi samedicinodaxmareba saxelSekrulebo valdebulebis Sesrulebad ar CaiTvleba da saWiroSemTxvevaSi, aseTi qmedeba dakvalificirdeba samoqalaqo kodeqsis ara 1007-e, aramed992-e muxliT. magram rodesac avadmyofi specialur samkurnalo dawesebulebaSi midissamedicino momsaxurebis misaRebad, samedicino dawesebulebasTan aseTi urTierToba,rogorc garigebis konkludenturi forma, saxelSekrulebo urTierTobas warmoSobsimis miuxedavad, SemdgomSi werilobiT daideba Tu ara raime xelSekruleba.3. samoqalaqo kodeqsis 1009-e da 1014-e muxlebi uxarisxo produqtis mwarmoeblisaTvisiwvevs deliqtur pasuxismgeblobas Tu am produqtis moxmarebis Sedegad zianimiadga moqalaqis sicocxles, sxeuls anda janmrTelobas. am dros mniSvneloba ara aqvsuxarisxo produqtis mwarmoebeli dazaralebulTan imyofeboda Tu ara saxelSekrulebourTierTobaSi.rogorc ukve aRvniSneT, zemoT dasaxelebuli samive SemTxveva deliqtur pasuxismgeblobasiwvevs. Sesabamisad, miuxedavad imisa, rom pasuxismgebloba saxelSekrulebovaldebulebis SeusruleblobasTan aris dakavSirebuli, saxelSekrulebo da deliqturisarCelebis SejibrebiTobas (konkurencias) adgili ar rCeba. kanonis moTxovniTis calsaxad deliqturi unda iyos. amis miuxedavad, sasamarTlo xSirad araswor praqtikasadgas. kerZod, saqarTvelos uzenaesma sasamarTlom 2005 wlis 13 aprilis ganCinebiT(saqme #as 33-406-05) samedicino dawesebulebasa da pacients Soris samoqalaqo dava71


marTlmsajulebaN3dakanonijanmrTelobisaTvis zianis miyenebis Sesaxeb, samoqalaqo kodeqsis 394-e muxliT daakvalificiraim safuZvliT, rom maT Soris dadebuli iyo samoqalaqo xelSekruleba,rasac ver daveTanxmebiT. rogorc ukve aRvniSneT, pacientis samedicino dawesebulebaSigamocxadeba samedicino momsaxurebis miRebis mizniT, rogorc samoqalaqo garigebiskonkludenturi forma, orive mxarisaTvis saxelSekrulebo urTierTobas warmoSobs.samoqalaqo kodeqsis 1007-e muxli swored imas emsaxureba, rom samedicino dawesebulebasada pacients Soris arsebuli saxelSekrulebo urTierTobidan warmoSobili zianisanazRaurebis valdebulebaze deliqturi pasuxismgebloba gavrceldes. winaaRmdegSemTxvevaSi, kodeqsis 1007-e muxlis saWiroeba ar iarsebebda, radgan zogadad, deliqturipasuxismgeblobis mosawesrigeblad kodeqsis 992-e muxli unda iyos gamoyenebuli.amitomaa, rom 1007-e muxli gamonaklisia deliqtur valdebulebebSi.sxva SemTxvevaSi saxelSekrulebo da deliqturi sarCelebis konkurencias aqvs adgili.rodesac ama Tu im urTieTobaSi ikveTeba rogorc saxelSekrulebo, ise deliqturipasuxismgeblobis niSnebi da amis miuxedavad kodeqsi pirdapir ar ambobs, pasuxismgeblobisromeli saxe iyos gamoyenebuli _ saxeze gveqneba sarCelTa konkurencia. amgvarSemTxvevas warmoadgens Cuqebis xelSekrulebiT gaTvaliswinebuli mocemuloba imisSesaxeb, rom Tu mCuqebeli boroti ganzraxviT damalavs gaCuqebuli qonebis nakls,igi valdebulia dasaCuqrebuls aunazRauros amiT miyenebuli ziani (samoqalaqo kodeqsis527-e muxlis hipoTeza). aseTive Sinaarsis mocemulobas aqvs adgili mibarebis xel-SekrulebasTan dakavSirebiT 769-e muxlis hipoTezaSi da sxva. samoqalaqo kodeqsi 999-eda 1007-e muxlebis msgavsad, specialurad arsad miuTiTebs, rom magaliTad, 527-e muxlishipoTezis dadgomis SemTxvevaSi, gamoyenebuli iyos deliqtisaTvis gaTvaliswinebuliwesebi da mainc amis miuxedavad, am normis komentatorebi 14 calsaxad miiCneven,rom 527-e muxlis hipoTezis dadgoma iwvevs deliqtur pasuxismgeblobas.zemoaRniSnulTan dakavSirebiT, kidev erTxel gvinda aRvniSnoT, rom saxelSekrulebovaldebulebis Sesrulebis procesSi warmoSobili zianis anazRaurebisaTvis mopasuxesudavod deliqturi pasuxismgebloba daekisreba im SemTxvevaSi, roca es pirdapiraakanonSi miTiTebuli (999-e, 1007-e da 1009-e muxlebi), sxva SemTxvevaSi saqme gvaqvssarCelis konkurenciasTan. sarCelis konkurencia mosarCeles aZlevs uflebas, TavisiSexedulebisamebr aRZras sarCeli da moiTxovos mopasuxisaTvis saxelSekrulebo andeliqturi pasuxismgeblobis dakisreba. aseTi SemTxvevebisaTvis ruseTis samoqalaqokodeqsis 1084-e muxli pirdapir mianiSnebs dazaralebuls, rom Tuki xelSekrulebiTpasuximgeblobis ufro maRali zomaa gaTvaliswinebuli, moiTxovos saxelSekrulebopasuxismgebloba. vfiqrobT, aseTi principi sruliad misaRebia qarTuli samoqalaqokodeqsisTvisac.72


SeniSvnebi:1ßí Øàïï, Îñíîâû ãðàæäàíñêîãî ïðàâà Ãåðìàíèè, Ìîñêâà – 1996 ã., ñòð. 62-63.2ix.: iqve.3ix.: wignSi _ Ë.Æþëëèî äå ëà Ìîðàíäüåð, Ãðàæäàíñêîå ïðàâî Ôðàíöèè-2, ïåðåâîä ñ ôðàíöóçñêîãî äîêòîðà þðèäè÷åñêèõ íàóê Å.À. Ôëåéøèö,Ìîñêâà – 1960ã., ñòð.464-465.4ix.: iqve, gv. 466-467.5vfiqrobT, J. morandieris mier motanili es magaliTi saWiroebs damatebiTganmartebas. kerZod, unda vivaraudoT, rom es is SemTxvevaa,rodesac magaliTad, gardacvlil mgzavrs mesame pirisaTvis mihqondawamali, rac avtoSemTxvevis Sedegad ganadgurda da avadmyofis mdgomareobagauaresda, ramac damatebiTi xarjebis gaweva gamoiwvia.6ix.: iqve, gv. 467-468.7oqmi II. s. 571. ix.: konrad cvaigerti, hain kotci, SedarebiTi samar-Talmcodneobis Sesavali kerZo samarTlis sferoSi, tomi II, Tbilisi,2001, gv. 289.8ix.: iqve, gv. 289-294.9ix.: iqve, gv. 293.10 ix.: iqve, gv. 291-295, 317.11Â. Àíñîí, Äîãîâîðíîå ïðàâî, ïåðåâîä ñ àíãëèéñêîãî, ïîä îáùåé ðåäàêöèåéÎ.Í.Ñàäèêîâà, Ìîñêâà, 1984, ñòð. 120-121.12Êîììåíòàðèé ê ãðàæäàíñêîìó êîäåêñó Ðîññèéñêîé ôåäåðàöèè ÷àñòè âòîðîé,èçäàíèå òðåòüå, îòâåòñòâåííûé ðåäàêòîð Î.Í.Ñàäèêîâ, Ìîñêâà, 1999, ñòð. 692-693; Ãðàæäàíñêîå ïðàâî, ÷àñòü ïåðâàÿ, àâòîðñêèé êîëëåêòèâ, ïîä ðåäàêöèåéÀ.Ã.Êàëïèíà è À.È.Ìàñëÿåâà, Ìîñêâà, 1997, ñòð. 460.13Í. Ä. Åãîðîâ, â êíèãå – Ãðàæäàíñêîå ïðàâî, ÷àñòü 1, ïîä ðåäàêöèåé À. Ï. Ñåðãååâàè Þ. Ê. Òîëñòîãî, Ìîñêâà, 1998, ñòð. 556; Ì. Í. Ìàëåèíà, â êíèãå – Ãðàæäàíñêîåïðàâî, ÷àñòü ïåðâàÿ, ïîä ðåäàêöèåé À. Ã. Êàëïèíà è À. È. Ìàñëÿåâà, Ìîñêâà,1997, ñòð. 460; Â. Ò. Ñìèðíîâ, À. À. Ñîá÷àê, Îáùåå ó÷åíèå î äåëèêòíûõîáÿçàòåëüñòâàõ, Ëåíèíãðàä, 1983, ñòð. 100 è äð.14saqarTvelos samoqalaqo kodeqsis komentari, avtorTa koleqtivi,wigni meoTxe, tomi I, Tbilisi, 2001, gv. 73; saqarTvelos samoqalaqokodeqsis komentari, avtorTa koleqtivi, wigni meoTxe, tomi II, Tbilisi,2001, gv. 379.73


marTlmsajulebaN3dakanoniCOMPARISON/COMPETITIVENESS OFCONTRACTUAL ANDDELICTUAL LIABILITYCLAIMSDAVID SUKHITASHVILIDoctor of Law, ProfessorTHEA SUKHITASHVILIDoctorant of the Law Department, Iv. Javakhishvili TbilisiState UniversityComparison of forms of contractual and noncontractual (delictual) liabilitiesinvolve multiple meanings. This type of study initially aims to clarifythe scope of these types of liabilities, their contents and particularities ensuringthe avoidance of the competition of cliams; On the other hand, comparingcontractual and delictual liabilities has a practical goal. In otherwords, for the responsibilities originated from the contract, a defendantshall be imposed a contractual liability instead of a delictual liability.Special literature properly outlines the difference between contractual anddelictual liabilities. Their tight similarity can be explained by the fact, thatboth aim to reimburse the property and nonproperty damage incurred tothe victim by the offender. Therefore, competitiveness of the contractualand delictual liabilities is the result of the mentioned similarities. The presentedpaper aims to outline and demonstrate the criteria that would definitelyfacilitate the differentiation between contractual and delictual claims.According to the conclusions reflected in this paper, two types of competitionsof contractual and delictual liability claims are revealed: 1. Imperativenessof the delictual liability – when the reimbursement of the damagecaused as a result of the nonexecution, or insufficient execution of theagreement concluded between the claimant and the defendant shall be carriedout in accordance with the delictual liability rules based on the Articles999, 1007, 1009, 1014 of the Civil Code of Georgia. 2. Claimant hasthe right of choice and its up to him/her to file either contractual of delictualclaim. Similar alternatives are offered by the Articles 527, 769 of theCivil Code of Georgia and other similar norms.74


mflobelobisa dasakuTrebisurTierTmimarTebasakuTrebis dacvisWrilSiqeTevan qoCaSviliivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifouniversitetis iuridiuli fakultetis asistentprofesori1. sakuTrebis dacva _ saerTo evropulistandartijer kidev, safrangeTis 1789 wlis 26 agvistos adamianisada moqalaqis uflebaTa deklaraciiT, sakuTreba aris wmindada xelSeuxebeli ufleba, aravis ar SeiZleba is waer-Tvas, garda kanoniT dadgenili aucilebeli sazogadoebriviaucileblobisa da mxolod samarTliani da winaswarigadaxdis pirobiT. 1 TanamedroveobaSi adamianis uflebaTaevropuli sasamarTlos mier evropuli sajaro wesrigiskonstituciur aqtad aRiarebuli adamianis uflebaTa daZiriTad TavisuflebaTa dacvis konvenciasTan (4 noemberi,1950 w.) erTad miRebuli damatebiTi oqmis I muxlis Tanaxmad,yovel fizikur an iuridiul pirs aqvs Tavisi sakuTrebiTSeuferxebeli sargeblobis ufleba. mxolod sazogadoebrivisaWiroebisaTvis SeiZleba CamoerTvas vinmesTavisi sakuTreba kanoniT da saerTaSoriso samarTlis zogadiprincipebiT gaTvaliswinebul pirobebSi. 2 dResdReobiT,adamianis uflebaTa evropuli konvenciiT sakuTrebisdacva gaxda saerTo evropuli standarti, romliTac75


marTlmsajulebaN3dakanonievropelebs SeuZliaT iamayon, radgan is adamianTa did raodenobas evropaSi da misfarglebs gareT saimedo da gamocdil orientacias aZlevs, dafuZnebuls evropulkonsensusze. 3sakuTrebis uflebis arsi gulisxmobs, xelisuflebas surdes da daavaldebulos sxvebipativs scemdnen mesakuTris nebas, isargeblos Tavisi survilisamebr kuTvnili nivTiT. 4 amuflebis ZaliT mesakuTre eqskluziur uflebas acxadebs qonebaze da es ufleba arafizikuri Zalis an sazogadoebrivi adaTis, aramed kanonis mier dacvas saWiroebs. amdenad,TiTqmis SeuZlebelia iseTi sazogadoebis warmodgena, sadac scnoben da dauSveben kerZosakuTrebas, magram ar uzrunvelyofen kanoniT mis dacvas (ieremia bentami). 52. sakuTrebis sanivTosamarTlebrivi dacvis saSualebebis zogadidaxasiaTebasakuTrebis samoqalaqosamarTlebrivi dacvis qveS moiazreba samoqalaqo kanonmdeblobiTgaTvaliswinebuli saSualebebis erToblioba, romlebic gamoiyeneba sakuTrebisuflebis darRvevisas da mimarTulia mesakuTris qonebrivi interesebis aRdgenisa dadacvisaken. xolo sanivTosamarTlebrivi saSualebebi xasiaTdeba imiT, rom mimarTuliasakuTrebis, rogorc absoluturi uflebis dacvisaken nebismieri mesame piris winaaRmdeg,rac ar aris dakavSirebuli raime konkretul valdebulebasTan da miznad isaxavsaRdges mesakuTris kuTvnili uflebamosilebebi an aRikveTos maTi ganxorcielebiswinaaRmdegobebi. 6 roca sakuTrebis dacvazea saubari, aqac, iseve rogorc yvela Ziri-Tadi uflebis SemTxvevaSi, misi negatiuri mxare moiazreba _ yvelas valdebuleba, arxelyon Cemi sakuTreba, misi pozitiuri mdgomareobis mSvidad ganxorcielebis garantiaa.7 sanivTosamarTlebrivi dacvis saSualebebs miekuTvneba savindikacio da negatorulisarCelebi.digestis Tanaxmad, sarCeli sxva araferia, Tu ara piris ufleba sasamarTlos wesiTganaxorcielos kuTvnili moTxovna. msgavsi Sinaarsi hqonda sarCels revoluciamdelrusul doqtrinaSic. kerZod, sarCeli ganimarteboda rogorc erTi piris moTxovnameoris mimarT, dafuZnebuli uflebaze da sasamarTlos mier sisruleSi moyvanili. 8Tanamedrove saproceso samarTlebrivi doqtrina sarCels gansazRvravs, rogorcdainteresebuli piris mimarTvas sasamarTloSi darRveuli an sadavo uflebis dacvismoTxovniT, uflebis Sesaxeb davis gadawyvetis gziT. 9sanivTosamarTlebrivi sarCelebi icavs marTlzomier mflobels. aseTia mflobeloba,romelic samarTlebriv safuZvels eyrdnoba. marTlzomieria ara mxolod mesakuTris,aramed sxva sanivTo da valdebulebiTi uflebis mqone subieqtebis mierganxorcielebuli faqtobrivi batonoba normatiuli samarTlebrivi aqtebis moTxovnebisSesabamisad da mesakuTris nebaze dayrdnobiT. 1076


3. savindikacio sarCelis ganxorcielebis winapirobebi3.1 materialursamarTlebrivi garemoebebisavindikacio sarCeli (Vindicatio _ laT. Vimdicere _ gamocxadeba Zalis gamoyenebisSesaxeb) aris aramflobeli mesakuTris an sxva kanonieri mflobelis (vinc flobs xel-Sekrulebis an kanonis safuZvelze) sarCeli ukanono mflobelis winaaRmdeg individualuriniSniT gansazRvruli da naturiT arsebuli nivTis dabrunebis Taobaze. 11 magaliTad,germaniis sk-is 985-e paragrafis Tanaxmad, mesakuTres SeuZlia mflobelisagannivTis ukan dabrunebis moTxovna. 12 saqarTvelos uzenaesma sasamarTlom erT-erTsaqmesTan dakavSirebiT miuTiTa, rom savindikacio sarCelis dakmayofileba xdeba samiwinapirobiT: 1. arsebobdes nivTis mesakuTre 2. arsebobdes mflobeli 3. mflobels arunda hqondes nivTis flobis ufleba. 13 nivTis ganadgurebis, gadamuSavebis, moxmarebis,faqtobrivi mflobelis msgavsi nivTebidan misi gamoyofis SeuZleblobis an mesakuTris-Tvis sxva safuZvliT dabrunebis SeuZleblobisas, vindikaciis nacvlad xdeba valdebulebiTsamarTlebrivisarCelis (deliqturi an kondiqciuri) wardgena, 14 radgan nivTissubstanciis mospobisas wydeba sakuTreba da Sesabamisad, misi sanivTosamarTlebrividacvis sarCelze ufleba. marTalia, samoqalaqo ufleba da kanoniT daculi interesixSirad Tanxvedri samarTlebrivi kategoriebia, yovel uflebas safuZvlad garkveuliinteresi udevs, romlis dasakmayofileblad es ufleba eniWeba uflebamosils. amdenad,daculi interesi xSirad gaSualebulia uflebiT da uflebis dacva imavdroulad,kanoniT daculi interesis dacvaa. zemoxsenebul SemTxvevaSi, xorcieldeba mxolodnivTis yofili mesakuTris kanoniT uzrunvelyofili interesis _ aRidginos Tavisiqonebrivi mdgomareoba _ dacva, ramdenadac sakuTrebis ufleba aRar arsebobs. 15savindikacio sarCelis Sinaarss Seadgens ukanono mflobelisagan nivTis dabrunebamesakuTrisaTvis, anu moqmedeba, romlis ganxorcielebasac iTxovs mosarCele. sarCelissagania mosarCelis mier miTiTebuli ufleba, romelic eqvemdebareba sasamarTlodacvas, romlis ZaliTac piri flobda nivTs 16 , xolo sarCelis safuZvelia is iuridiulifaqtebi, romelsac mosarCele ukavSirebs Tavis moTxovnebs. kerZod, nivTis kanonierimflobelobidan gamosvlis garemoebebi, misi mopasuxesTan moxvedris pirobebi, sadavonivTis arseboba naturiT, mopasuxesa da mosarCeles Soris valdebulebiTi urTier-Tobis ararseboba sadavo nivTis Taobaze. am sarCelis wardgenisas mosarCelem undaamtkicos Tavisi ufleba gamoTxovil nivTze e.i. miuTiTos flobis samarTlebriv titulze.aseve, man unda amtkicos, rom mopasuxis mflobeloba ukanonoa da ara mxolodmiuTiTos mflobelobis dakargvaze. 17 savindikacio sarCeliT sargebloben sxva titulovanimflobelebic rogorc mesame pirTa, ise mesakuTris mimarT maTTvis qonebisukanonod CamorTmevisas. 1877


marTlmsajulebaN3dakanoni3.2 savindikacio moTxovna sasarCelo xandazmulobasTan kavSirSisarCelis wardgena xdeba sasarCelo xandazmulobis periodSi, anu samoqalaqo uflebisdacvis vadaSi, roca uflebadarRveuls SeuZlia moiTxovos uflebis iZulebiT ganxocielebaan uflebis dacva. 19 xandazmuloba aris drois periodi, romlis gasvlis Semdegdgeba garkveuli iuridiuli Sedegebi _ warmoSoba an wydeba samarTlebrivi urTierToba.20 xandazmulobis vada uflebis subieqts atyobinebs, Tu ra xnis ganmavlobaSiamisi darRveuli ufleba kompetenturi organos mxridan dacvaunariani. 21 piri, romelmacar waradgina dadgenil droSi sarCeli Tavisi uflebis dasacavad, kargavs uflebisdacvis SesaZleblobas. 22 sasamarTlos uari sarCelze niSnavs sarCelze uflebisdakargvas, anu sasamarTlos meSveobiT uflebis dacvis SesaZleblobis dakargvas. Tumca,sasamarTlo valdebulia miiRos saqme ganxilvisaTvis. 23 vindikaciis dros es niSnavssasamarTlos uars piris moTxovnis dakmayofilebaze, gadaeces mas sadavo nivTi. 24amdenad, xandazmulobis gasvliT wydeba sasamarTlos an sxva organos meSveobiTpiris moTxovnis iZulebiT ganxorcielebis SesaZlebloba, magram ara sasamarTlos ansxva organosaTvis mimarTvis ufleba, rac droiT SezRuduli ar aris. 25 xandazmulobisvada spobs uflebis iZulebiT ganxorcielebis SesaZleblobas materialuri da ara procesualuriTvalsazrisiT. 26 amasTan, erTi mosazrebiT sasarCelo xandazmulobis vadisgasvla wyvets mxolod uflebas sarCelze, anu misi iZulebiT ganxorcielebis SesaZleblobasda ara materialur uflebas. 27 sxva mosazrebiT vadis gasvla wyvets ara mxolodsarCelze uflebas, aramed materialur uflebasac. 284. negatoruli sarCelis arsinegatoruli sarCeli (actio negotoria) mimarTulia uflebis iseTi darRvevis winaaRmdeg,rac ar aris dakavSirebuli nivTis mflobelobis dakargvasTan, magram xelSemSlelianivTiT sargeblobisa da gankargvisaTvis. e.i. piri moklebulia am uflebamosilebaTaganxorcielebis SesaZleblobas, radgan sxva piri marTlsawinaaRmdego moqmedebiT xelsuSlis maT realizebas. 29 ukanono xelSeSlis aRkveTis moTxovnis wardgena SesaZlebeliaara mxolod arsebuli, aramed mosalodneli darRvevis aRsakveTad, Tu mosarCele SeZlebsdaamtkicos, rom arsebobs misi uflebis xelyofis realuri safrTxe. 30 misi safuZveliais garemoebebi, romlebic afuZneben mosarCelis uflebas qonebiT sargeblobisada gankargvisas, aseve amtkiceben, rom mesame pirTa moqmedeba abrkolebs am uflebisganxorcielebas. mosarCeles ar evaleba amtkicos mopasuxis moqmedebis an umoqmedobisaramarTlzomiereba, is ivaraudeba, vidre mopaxuxe ar daamtkicebs mis marTlzomierebas.negatoruli sarCeli SeiZleba wardgenil iqnes, vidre grZeldeba samarTaldarRvevada ar aris aRkveTili misi Sedegebi. Sesabamisad, negatoruli sarCeli ar78


eqvemdebareba xandazmulobas, Sesabamisad, ar aqvs mniSvneloba, Tu rodis daiwyosakuTrebis uflebis darRveva, mTavaria, uflebis xelSemSleli garemoeba SenarCunebuliqnes sarCelis wardgenisa da ganxilvis momentSi. am sarCeliT xdeba gangrZobadisamarTaldarRvevis aRkveTa, romelic sarCelis wardgenis momentSic grZeldeba. 31saqarTvelos uzenaesma sasamarTlom erT-erT saqmesTan dakavSirebiT sworad miu-TiTa, rom sakuTrebis sargeblobis xelSeSlis aRkveTis moTxovna pirs SeuZlia, vidrear Sewydeba am uflebis xelyofa. 32 negatoruli sarCeliT sargeblobs rogorc mesakuTre,ise nebismieri marTlzomieri mflobeli, xolo servitutis mflobels sanivTosarCelebidan mxolod negatorul sarCelze aqvs ufleba, mas SeuZlia moiTxovosrogorc servitutis miznebis ganxorcielebaSi xelSemSleli garemoebebis aRkveTa, iseim zianis anazRaureba, romelic miadga mflobelobis xelyofis gamo. 335. mopasuxis utitulo mflobeloba, rogorc vindikaciis ucilo piroba5.1. mflobelobis aramarTlzomiereba, rogorc normatiuli Sefasebasavindikacio sarCelis ganxorcielebis Sedegebi damokidebulia Tu ra saxis aramar-Tlzomieri mflobelia mopasuxe. ukanonoa mflobeloba, romelic ara Tu ar efuZnebatituls, samarTlebriv safuZvels, an es safuZveli naklis mqonea, aramed pirdapirewinaaRmdegeba kanons. 34mflobeloba ukanonod CaiTvleba, Tu mis warmoSobas safuZvlad iuridiuli faqtiar udevs. magaliTad, Tu piri TviTneburad, Zalis gamoyenebiT an nivTis moparvis gziTdaeufleba mas, mflobeloba iqneba ukanono, radgan is sakuTrebas an mflobelobiswarmoSobis kanonier safuZvels ar emyareba. amgvarad, ukanonoa xarveziani garigebiTwarmoSobili mflobelobac. ukanono mflobelia ara mxolod is, vinc TviTneburadmiiTvisa sxvisi qoneba, aramed isic, vinc nivTi moipova im pirisagan, romelic ar iyouflebamosili mis gankargvaze. amitom araa aucilebeli mflobelis moqmedeba iyosbraleuli, sakmarisia mflobeloba iyos obieqturad ukanono. 35kanonieri da ukanono mflobeloba obieqturi Sefasebis safuZvelze dgindeba imisdamixedviT, Tu ramdenad Seesabameba mflobeloba kanonis nebas, mis moTxovnas. marTlzomieriamflobeloba, romelic kanonier safuZvelzea warmoSobili, kanonieria mflobeli,romelic samarTlebriv safuZvelze axorcielbs nivTis mimarT faqtobriv batonobas.36 aseTia mesakuTris da yvela sxva titulovani mflobelis mflobeloba. 375.2 keTilsindisierebisa da marTlzomierebis cnebaTa urTierTmimarTebaaramarTlzomieri mflobeloba Tavis mxriv iyofa keTilsindisier da arakeTilsindisiermflobelobad. Tumca, arsebobs keTilsindisierebis farTo gageba, romelic79


marTlmsajulebaN3dakanonimoicavs marTlzomier mflobelobasac. am gagebiT, mesakuTris an sxva kanonieri mflobelismflobelobac keTilsindisieria. 38saqarTvelos sk-is 159-e muxlSi, sadac mocemulia keTilsindisieri mflobelis ganmarteba,areulia keTilsindisierebisa da marTlzomierebis cnebebi. arasworia debuleba,rom keTilsindisieria mflobeli, romelic nivTs marTlzomierad flobs, radgandauSvebelia marTlzomieri da keTilsindisieri mflobelis erTmaneTTan gaigiveba. 39civilistikaSi erTxmad aris aRiarebuli, rom keTilsindisierebisa da arakeTilsindisierebissakiTxi dgeba ukanono mflobelobis SemTxvevaSi, isini subieqturi cnebebia,xolo marTlzomiereba _ obieqturi, pirs aqvs an ar aqvs flobis safuZveli. 40 amasTan,isic SeiZleba iTqvas, rom am midgomiT kodeqsi ayalibebs keTilsindisierebis farTogagebas. maSasadame, marTlzomieri mflobelic keTilsindisieria, Tumca is arafersmatebs samarTlebrivi Sedegebis kuTxiT kanonier mflobels. uflebamosili piri ariTvleba keTilsindisieri mflobelis nairsaxeobad, is misi sapirispiroa. erTmaneTisgangansxvavdeba mflobeli, romelsac faqtobrivad aqvs mflobelobis ufleba (uflebamosili)da mflobeli, romelsac ara aqvs mflobelobis ufleba, magram saqmian urTier-TobebSi saWiro gulmodgine Semowmebisas SeiZleba uflebamosil pirad iqnes miCneuli,swored mas Seesabameba keTilsindisierebis cneba. 41 am dros saqme exeba SemTxvevebs,roca samarTlebrivi urTierToba arsebobs mflobelsa da sxva uflebamosils Soris,magram is ar aris namdvili, Tumca, misi baTiloba SeuZlebelia amocnobil iqnes gulmodgineSemowmebis Sedegad. 42 arsebobs mosazrebac, rom saqarTvelos sk-is 159-e muxlSimiTiTebuli `marTlzomiereba~ unda gaigebodes ara rogorc realurad, obieqturadmocemuli faqti, aramed mflobelis warmodgenaSi arsebuli marTlzomierebis faqti.Sesabamisad, normis SinaarsSi keTilsindisier mflobelad unda ganimartos piri, romelicmisi warmodgeniT nivTs flobs marTlzomierad (b. zoiZis mosazreba). 159-e muxlisxarvezi swordeba 187-e muxlis danawesiT (I nawilis me-2 winadadeba), romelic iZlevakeTilsindisierebis marTebul ganmartebas klasikuri gagebiT. cneba mocemulia negatiuriformulirebiT: keTilsindisierad ar CaiTvleba SemZeni, Tu man icoda an undascodnoda, rom gamsxvisebeli ar iyo mesakuTre.aRsaniSnavia, rom qarTul sasamarTlo praqtikaSi arsebobs araerTgvarovani midgomaam sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT. zogjer marTlzomierebisa da keTilsindisierebis cnebebigaigivebulia, zogan ki, ganmartebiT aris xarvezi aRmofxvrili. magaliTad, erTganuzenaesma sasamarTlom ganmarta, rom pirs ar gaaCnda qonebis flobis raime safuZveli,amdenad, is ver iqneboda nivTis keTilsindisieri mflobeli. 43 aseve, sxvagan sasamarTlokeTilsindisierebis cnebis analizisas daeyrdno 159-e muxls da miuTiTa, rom keTilsindisieradiTvleba mflobelobis marTlzomieri SemZeni. 44 calkeul SemTxvevaSi ki,sasamarTlom gamijna es cnebebi da aRniSna, rom piri aris ara keTilsindisieri, aramedmarTlzomieri mflobeli. 4580


5.3. keTilsindisiereba sinamdvilis subieqturi Sefasebis sivrceSiaramarTlzomieri mflobelobis keTilsindisierad da arakeTilsindisierad dayofiskriteriumia mflobelis subieqturi damokidebuleba mflobelobis SeZenis samarTlebrivisafuZvlisadmi. sanivTo samarTalSi moqmedebs keTilsindisierebis principisubieqturi gagebiT, keTilsindisiereba Zevs subieqturi Sefasebis sivrceSi, masSi vlindebamflobelis damokidebuleba sinamdvilisadmi, 46 rac pirovnebis mier misgan damoukidebelifaqtobrivi garemoebebis codna-arcodnasTan, aRqmasTan aris dakavSirebuli,gansxvavebiT valdebulebiT samarTalSi moqmedi keTilsindisierebis principis obieqturigagebisa, rac piris qcevis Sefasebas gulisxmobs urTierTobis xasiaTidan gamomdinare.47 eyrdnoba ra kontrahentis qcevis standarts, 48 keTilsindisierebis principiicavs mxareTa samarTlian molodins da maT Soris urTierTndobaze damyarebulTanamSromlobas. 49keTilsindisieria mflobeli, romelmac ar icoda da arc SeeZlo scodnoda Tavisifaqtobrivi batonobis ukanonobis Sesaxeb, 50 vinc mis mier nivTis SeZenas miiCnevs marTlzomierad.SeZenis samarTlebrivi safuZveli aris keTili rwmenis mtkicebuleba, isemsaxureba bona fides-is gamarTlebas, 51 amitom mflobelis Secdoma sapatiebelia. arazedapiruli warmodgena aniWebs mflobels keTilsindisierebis xarisxs, aramed saWiroamisi mflobeloba mopovebuli iyos windaxedulad, xolo is, vinc arasapatio SecdomisSedegad darwmundeba Tavis simarTleSi, ver CaiTvleba keTilsindisierad. mxolod gonivrulimolodinis gawbileba gamoiwvevs samarTlebriv Sedegebs. 52 keTilsindisierimflobeli ar unda iqnes ganxiluli sxvisi uflebis xelmyofad, radgan mis moqmedebaSiar aris brali. 53germaniis sk-Si keTilsindisierebis cneba mocemulia negatiuri formulirebiT:SemZeni ar aris keTilsindisieri, Tu man icis an uxeSi gaufrTxileblobis Sedegad aricis, rom nivTi gamsxvisebels ar ekuTvnis (932-e paragrafis II nawili). 54 uZrav nivTTanmimarTebiT SemZenis keTilsindisiereba ar arsebobs mxolod maSin, Tu SemZenma pozitiuradicis, rom nivTi ekuTvnis mesame pirs da ara gamsxvisebels. is vinc iZens miwisnakveTze sakuTrebis uflebas, misTvis saadgilmamulo wignSi Canaweri ganixileba sworad,garda im SemTxvevisa, roca arsebobs Sesagebeli am Canaweris namdvilobis Sesaxeban SemZenisaTvis cnobilia Canaweris uzustoba. 55rfsk-is 302-e muxlis mixedviT, mflobeli iTvleba keTilsindisierad, Tu nivTisSeZenisas man ar icoda da arc SeeZlo scodnoda, rom gamsxvisebeli ar iyo uflebamosilimis gasxvisebaze. 56 arakeTilsindisieria mflobeli, vinc icis an garemoebis ZaliTunda icodes, rom ara aqvs nivTis flobis ufleba, radgan ganaxorciela marTlsawinaaRmdegomoqmedeba an icis, rom nivTi SeiZina gasxvisebaze arauflebamosili pirisagan.57 holandiis sk-is mixedviT, piri ar miiCneva keTilsindisierad, Tu is flobda81


marTlmsajulebaN3dakanoniinformacias faqtis an uflebis Sesaxeb, romelTa mimarTac dadga misi keTilsindisierebissakiTxi. 58 arakeTilsindisierad miiCneva is, visTvisac cnobilia garemoebebi,romlebic saRad moazrovne pirs garigebis mimarT eWvs aRuZravda. 59 piris arakeTilsindisiermflobelad Sefasebisas eWvi unda iyos gonivruli e.i. unda arsebobdesimgvari faqtebi da informacia, rac obieqturad akavSirebs aramarTlzomier mflobelssamarTaldarRvevasTan. 60 mflobelis arakeTilsindisierad cnobisTvis ar aris sakmarisimartivi gaufrTxilebloba, is ar vnebs keTilsindisierebas, saWiroa ganzraxva anuxeSi gaufrTxilebloba. 61 rus civilistTa erTi nawili martiv gaufrTxileblobasarakeTilsindisierebis niSnad moiazrebs (Ïåòðàæèöêèé, Àìôèòåàòðîâ, Áåëîâ) xolo meorenawili aseT niSnad mxolod ganzraxvasa da uxeS gaufrTxileblobas miiCnevs (Òîëñòîé,Ðîâíèé, ×åðåïàõèí). 626. mesakuTrisa da aramarTlzomier mflobelTa urTierTmoTxovnebivindikaciisas6.1. nivTisa da nayofis dabrunebis valdebulebasavindikacio sarCeliT nivTis dabruneba yovelTvis xorcieldeba arakeTilsindisierimflobelisagan, miuxedavad nivTis kanonieri mflobelobidan gamosvlis gzisa(nebiT Tu nebis winaaRmdeg) da SeZenis xasiaTisa (sasyidliT Tu usasyidlod), xolokeTilsindisieri mflobelisagan nivTis gamoTxova swored aRniSnul garemoebazeadamokidebuli. mesakuTres SeuZlia keTilsindisieri mflobelisagan nivTis gamoTxova,Tu nivTi gavida misi mflobelobidan nebis winaaRmdeg (dakarga, mopares an sxva gziT)miuxedavad SeZenis xasiaTisa, xolo misi nebiT gasvlisas, mxolod maSin, Tu SeZena moxdausasyidlod (Cuqeba, memkvidreoba). 63franguli samarTlis mixedviT, Tu nivTi dakarguli an moparuli iqneba, mesakuTresSeuZlia nivTis gamoTxova nebismieri saxis ukanono mflobelisgan 3 wlis ganmavlobaSinivTis dakargvis an moparvis dRidan. Tu nivTi SemZenma SeiZina bazarze an auqcionze, anim pirisagan, vinc yidis analogiur nivTebs, mesakuTres SeuZlia nivTis dabruneba mxolodSemZenisaTvis im safasuris gadaxdis Semdeg, rac man SeZenisas gadaixada (2280-e muxli). 64nebismieri ukanono mflobeli valdebulia vindikaciisas daabrunos rogorc nivTi,ise miRebuli an braleulad miuRebeli nayofis Rirebuleba. amasTan, arakeTilsindisierimflobeli valdebulia daabrunos mTeli mflobelobis manZilze miRebuli, asevemoxmarebuli an braleulad miuRebeli nayofis Rirebuleba. xolo keTilsindisierimflobeli valdebulia nayofis dabrunebaze im momentidan, roca Seityo an unda Seetyomflobelobis ukanonobis Sesaxeb an miiRo uwyeba mesakuTris mier wardgenil sarCelze.is uflebamosilia isargeblos nayofiT, vidre uflebamosili piri ar gamoiyenebs Tavis82


uflebas vindikaciaze. keTilsindisier mflobels ekuTvnis is nayofi, rac man miiRo,vidre gaigebda Tavisi mflobelobis ukanonobis Sesaxeb, radgan darwmunebulia mismxareze sakuTrebis uflebis arsebobaSi. sakiTxis aseTi gadawyveta ganpirobebuliaimiT, rom nayofi, sameurneo sikeTe normaluri meurneobis TvalsazrisiT gaTvliliaTavisufali moxmarebisaTvis. misi keTilsindisieri mflobelisaTvis CamorTmeva gamoiwvevsmisi meurneobis darRvevas. es nayofi mcdari sameurneo gegmis gziT ukve Sevidamflobelis meurneobis SemadgenlobaSi da myisierad misi amoReba sazogadoebriviTvalsazrisiTac saziano iqneba. 65arakeTilsindisieri mflobeli pasuxs agebs mesakuTris winaSe nivTis dakargvis andazianebisaTvis ara mxolod bralis arsebobis, aseve nivTis SemTxveviT daRupvisa dadazianebis drosac. keTilsindisieri mflobeli misTvis sarCelis wardgenamde ar agebspasuxs nivTis dakargvis an dazianebisaTvis. 666.2. gaweuli xarjebis samarTlebrivi SefasebaaramarTlzomier mflobels Tavis mxriv, SeuZlia mosTxovos mesakuTres an sxvauflebamosil pirs nivTis Senaxvisa da gaumjobesebaze gaweuli xarjebis anazRaurebaim drodan, roca mesakuTres mieTvleba nivTidan Semosavali, winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSiadgili eqneba mesakuTris usafuZvlo gamdidrebas. aRniSnuli, upirveles yovlisa,keTilsindisieri mflobelis uflebaa, Tu xarjebi ar aris kompensirebuli nivTiT sargeblobiTda miRebuli nayofiT. rac Seexeba gaumjobesebas, anu iseT xarjebs, rac araris dakavSirebuli nivTis Senaxvis aucileblobasTan, magram aqvs safuZvliani, sasargebloxasiaTi, radgan nivTis moxmarebad Tvisebas amaRlebs, mis Rirebulebas zrdis,anazRaurdeba is, romlis Sedegadac gaizarda nivTis Rirebuleba da aRniSnuli mesakuTrisaTvisdabrunebisas isev saxezea. amasTan, anazRaurdeba mxolod is gaumjobeseba,romlis gamocalkevebac nivTisagan SeuZlebelia an SesaZloa, magram mas damoukideblad,mflobelisaTvis, ara aqvs mniSvneloba. gamoyofadi gaumjobeseba SeiZleba daitovosukanono mflobelma. 67germanuli sanivTo samarTali ganasxvavebs erTmaneTisagan savaldebulo xarjebs(Cveulebrivi da gansakuTrebuli xarjebi) da sxva xarjebs, romlebmac gamoiwvies nivTisRirebulebis gazrda mesakuTris sasargeblod. arakeTilsindisieri mflobeli uflebamosiliamoiTxovos mesakuTrisagan mxolod savaldebulo xarjebis anazRaureba davalebisgareSe sxvisi saqmeebis Sesrulebis wesebis mixedviT, Tu es xarjebi SeesabamebamesakuTris namdvil an savaraudo nebas, mis interesebs an mesakuTre gamdidrda maTxarjze. aucilebelia xarji, romelic gaweulia qonebis normalur mdgomareobaSi Senar-Cunebis mizniT (magaliTad, mimdinare remonti). keTilsindisier mflobels SeuZliamoiTxovos savaldebulo xarjebis anazRaureba, radgan nivTiT sargeblobidan miRebuliSemosavali ekuTvnis mflobels. 6883


marTlmsajulebaN3dakanonizemoxsenebulis garda, arsebobs e.w. fufunebaze gaweuli xarjebic, rac gulisxmobsmflobelis mier TviTneburad gaweul xarjebs, romlebic ukanono mflobels ar aunaz-Raurdeba Tu am gziT miRebuli nivTi gamoucalkevebadia. winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi mflobelsaqvs nivTis datovebis ufleba. 69savindikacio sarCelis safuZvelze keTilsindisieri SemZenisaTvis, romelmac nivTisasyidliT SeiZina, nivTis mflobelobis CamorTmeva, anu evikcia aris Sedegi gamyidvelismier nasyidobis xelSekrulebiT gaTvaliswinebuli valdebulebis darRvevisa _gadasces SemZens mesame pirTa uflebebisagan Tavisufali, anu uflebrivad unaklonivTi da amiT uzrunvelyos SemZenis mxridan nivTis mSvidi mflobeloba. 70gamyidveli movalea gadasces myidvels nayid nivTze sakuTrebis ufleba sruli moculobiTimisaTvis, rom myidvelma nayidi nivTis mimarT ganaxorcielos mesakuTris yvelauflebamosileba raime SezRudvis gareSe. uflebriv, anu iuridiul naklad iTvleba, Tumesame pirs SeuZlia myidvels ganucxados pretenzia nayid nivTze Tavisi uflebis gamo,anu gayiduli nivTi ekuTvnis ara gamyidvels, aramed mesame pirs. amitom mas SeuZliagamoiTxovos nivTi SemZenisagan, e.i. moaxdinos misi evikcia gamyidvelsa da myidvels Sorisdadebuli nasyidobis xelSekrulebis baTilad cnobis safuZvelze. sxvisi nivTis gamyidvelmaunda aunazRauros myidvels nivTis gamoTxovis Sedegad miyenebuli ziani. 71SemZens evaleba qonebaze mesame pirTa pretenziebis Sesaxeb acnobos gamyidvels damoiTxovos misi CarTva procesSi, winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi gamyidveli SeiZleba gaTavisufldespasuxismgeblobisagan, Tu daamtkicebs, rom misi monawileoba procesSi da mismier mtkicebulebebis wardgena xels SeuSlida nivTis mflobelobis CamorTmevas Sem-ZenisaTvis. 72 sxva SemTxvevaSi mflobels, romelic abrunebs vindicirebul nivTs, SeuZliagamyidvelisagan moiTxovos zianis anazRaureba. 737. vindikaciis SezRudvis wesi _ germanuli CveulebiTi samarTlis miRweva7.1. romauli aqsiomis uaryofasavindikacio sarCelis ganxorcieleba, is rom ukanono mflobels CamoerTmeva nivTi,ganpirobebulia jer kidev, romis samarTlidan momdinare principiT: aravis ar SeuZliasxvas gadasces imaze meti ufleba, vidre Tavad aqvs, 74 anu gamsxvisebels unda hqondessakuTrebis ufleba, winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi, is mas ver gadascems SemZens. Sesabamisad,SemZeni xdeba mesakuTre, Tu gamsxvisebeli iyo mesakuTre an mis mier nivTis gasxvisebisuflebiT aRWurvili piri. 75 aRniSnuli e.w. mkacri vindikaciis principisagan gansxvavebiT,Zvel germanul samarTalSi damkvidrda principi, romelic dRemde moqmedebskontinenturi evropis samoqalaqo samarTalSi da vindikaciis SezRudvis wesi ewodeba.am germanuli CveulebiTi samarTlis miRwevis 76 Tanaxmad, mesakuTris vindikaciis ufle-84


a izRudeba da SemZeni xdeba nivTis mesakuTre, Tu nivTi titulovani mflobelis xelidangadis nebiT (Txovebis, mibarebis, qiravnobis, ijaris, pirobadebuli sakuTrebisuflebiT da sxva safuZvliT) da Semdeg arauflebamosili piris mier sasyidliT xdebagasxviseba keTilsindisier SemZenze. 77 nivTis kanonieri mflobelobidan misi nebis winaaRmdeggamosvlis dros an usasyidlod SeZenisas kanoni mesakuTris mxarezea da keTilsindisieriSemZenis interesTan mimarTebiT mis interess aniWebs prioritets, radganmesakuTris neba ar monawileobs misi mflobelobis dakargvaSi, xolo usasyidlo SeZenisasSemZenisTvis nivTis CamorTmeviT is ar ganicdis qonebriv zians. mesakuTres, romelickargavs nivTs, adgeba dadebiTi ziani, xolo keTilsindisieri SemZeni, romelmacnivTi usasyidlod miiRo, mxolod sargebels kargavs. 78 aRniSnulisagan gansxvavebiT,vindikaciis SezRudvis wesis dros, kanoni upiratesobas keTilsindisier SemZens aniWebs.7.2. vindikaciis SezRudvis wesis moqmedebis farglebivindikaciis SezRudvis wesis moqmedeba dakavSirebulia mTel rig garemoebebTan: 1.SemZeni keTilsindisieria _ gulisxmobs gamsxviseblis keTilsindisierebas, rogorcmesakuTris statusTan mimarTebiT. 79 aRniSnuli moZrav nivTTan dakavSirebiT saWiroebsnivTis flobas gamsxviseblis mxridan, xolo uZravTan misi, rogorc mesakuTris dafiqsirebassajaro reestrSi; 2. nivTis gamsxvisebelsa da SemZens Soris dadebulia garigeba,romelic mimarTulia sakuTrebis uflebis gadacemisken; 3. garigeba sasyidliania; 4.SemZens faqtobrivad gadacemuli aqvs nivTi, romelic ar aris brunvidan amoRebuli anbrunvaSi SezRuduli; 5. nivTi gamosulia marTlzomieri mflobelis xelidan misi nebiT.80aRsaniSnavia, rom ruseTis federaciis samoqalaqo kodeqsis doqtrinisagan gansxvavebiT,romelic aRiarebs vindikaciis SezRudvis wess, mkafiod da naTlad ver asaxavsmas. kodeqsis is normebi, romlebic exeba sakuTrebis uflebis mopovebas an Sewyvetas,ar miuTiTeben keTilsindisieri SemZenis mier sakuTrebis uflebis mopovebaze da mesakuTrisuflebis Sewyvetaze, mesakuTris mflobelobidan misi nebiT gasuli nivTis sasyidliTSeZenisas keTilsindisieri SemZenis mier arauflebamosili pirisagan. 81 rac Seexebadoqtrinas, mecnierTa erTi nawili uTiTebs im nivTis ganusazRvrel samarTlebrivreJimze, romelic ar SeiZleba SemZenisagan iyos gamoTxovili, rameTu SemZenis mesakuTredaRiarebis gareSe misi mflobeloba moklebulia materialursamarTlebriv safuZvels.mis mier dadebuli garigebebi aseTive mflobelobas gadaitans momdevno Sem-Zenze da gagrZeldeba maTi ganusazRvreli samarTlebrivi mdgomareoba. 82 meore nawiliki, keTilsindisier SemZens adarebs romaul bonitarul mesakuTres, radgan mas aqvsmflobelobaze Zlieri, magram sakuTrebaze susti ufleba. 83vindikaciis SezRudvis wess aRiarebs ruseTis saarbitraJo sasamarTloc. mis praqtikaSidamkvidrda wesi, romlis Tanaxmad, mesakuTres uari unda eTqvas savindikacio85


marTlmsajulebaN3dakanonisarCelis dakmayofilebaze, Tu keTilsindisierma SemZenma gasxvisebaze arauflebamosilisaganSeiZina mesakuTris mflobelobidan nebiT gasuli nivTi. 84sadavoa sakiTxi, moqmedebs Tu ara vindikaciis SezRudvisas SeZeniTi xandazmulobae.w. myisieri xandazmulobis saxiT. unda aRiniSnos, rom damkvidrebuli SexedulebiTSeZeniTi xandazmuloba vadis gasvlis gareSe ar moiazreba.7.3. saqarTvelos samoqalaqo kodeqsis danawesi vindikaciis SezRudvis wesisSesaxeb (sinamdvile da rekomendaciebi)saqarTvelos sk-is 187-e muxlis ara sityvasityviTi, aramed gonivruli ganmartebisSedegad ikveTeba garemoeba, rom is moicavs vindikaciis SezRudvis wess. Tumca, normaxarvezulia da Sesworebas saWiroebs. Tu damoukideblad iqneba gaazrebuli am muxlisI nawilis pirveli winadadeba: SemZeni xdeba nivTis mesakuTre maSinac, roca gamsxvisebeliar iyo nivTis mesakuTre, magram SemZeni am faqtis mimarT keTilsindisieria, maSinnebismieri baTili gankargva gamsxviseblis arauflebamosilebis gamo, namdvili iqnebada keTilsindisieri SemZeni yovelTvis SeiZens sakuTrebas, anu vindikaciaze uflebaar iarsebebs. Tumca, arsebobs meore nawili, romlis funqciaa daakonkretos, Tu ragaremoebebis arsebobisas xdeba nivTis keTilsindisieri SemZeni mesakuTre da rodisar dadgeba es Sedegi. amasTan, 187-e muxlis I I nawilis formulireba arasworia, masSiuaryofilia keTilsindisierebis sanivTosamarTlebrivi arsi, rac gulisxmobs pirissubieqtur damokidebulebas nivTis SeZenis samarTlebrivi safuZvlisadmi, rac imavemuxlis I nawilis meore winadadebiT sworad aris gadmocemuli. kerZod, mcdar formulirebaSikeTilsindisierebis arseboba damokidebulia mesakuTris mflobelobidan niv-Tis gamosvlis wesze. kontinenturi evropis samoqalaqosamarTlebrivi doqtrinisa dapozitiuri samarTlis Tanaxmad, savindikacio sarCelis moqmedebis farglebis gaTvaliswinebiT,winamdebare muxlis I I nawili Semdegi saxiT unda Camoyalibdes: moZravinivTebis keTilsindisieri SemZeni ver gaxdeba mesakuTre, Tu mesakuTrem es nivTebi dakarga,mopares an misi nebis winaaRmdeg sxvagvarad gavida misi mflobelobidan an Sem-Zenma isini usasyidlod miiRo.aRsaniSnavia, rom saqarTvelos uzenaesma sasamarTlom winamdebare norma sworadganmarta da miuTiTa, rom Tu nivTi mesakuTris xelidan misi nebis gareSe gamovida,axali mflobeli valdebulia nivTi daubrunos mesakuTres. 85zemoxsenebuli muxli arsad ar miuTiTebs vindikacis SezRudvis wesis arsebobispirobebze, Tumca, aRniSnuli gansazRvrulia qarTul civilistur doqtrinaSi, kerZod,mesakuTris mflobelobidan misi nebiT nivTis gamosvla, nivTis SeZena keTilsindisierimflobelis mier, sasyidliT SeZena, magram aRniSnuli muxlis I I nawilis formulirebismiRma logikurad, swored es garemoebebi moiazreba. Sesabamisad, 187-e muxlis I nawilispirveli winadadeba SesaZloa ase Camoyalibdes: mesakuTris mflobelobidan misi nebiT86


gasuli nivTis gasxvisebisas, roca gamsxvisebeli ar iyo mesakuTre, nivTis sasyidliTSeZenisas SemZeni xdeba mesakuTre, Tu am faqtis mimarT is keTilsindisieria.saqarTvelos sk-is ama Tu im sadavo normis xelaxal Camoyalibebamde, sasurvelia,samarTalSemfardebelma gamoiyenos ganmartebis is meTodi, romelic yvelaze naTladda obieqturad xsnis rogorc normis arss, ise misi moqmedebis farglebs. man unda SeZlosgarkveva rogorc kanonSi Cadebuli kanonmdeblis, ise Tavad kanonis nebisa, romelicmisi gamoyenebis procesSi vlindeba. kanoni ar aris ucvleli faseuloba, is cocxaliorganizmia, romlis nebac sxvadasxva cxovrebiseuli SemTxvevebis mowesrigebis proces-Si vlindeba da ixveweba. amdenad, unda dadgindes ara marto kanonmdeblis azri, aramedis azric, risi pretenziac SeiZleba hqondes sadavo normas. 868. Teoriebi vindikaciis SezRudvis wesis Sesaxebvindikacis SezRudvis wesi Tavdapirvelad savaWro samarTalSi Camoyalibda, sadacbrunvis interesebma adreve moiTxova keTilsindisieri SemZenis interesebis dacva. civilisturdoqtrinaSi arsebobs ramdenime Teoria, romelic xsnis am wesis moqmedebas.8.1. `mesakuTris bralis~ Teoriawinamdebare Teoriis mixedviT, nivTis aramarTlzomier gasxvisebaSi Tavad mesakuTreabraleuli, radgan mas ekisreboda valdebuleba gulisxmierad SeerCia Tavisi kontrahenti,man xom Tavisi nebiT miando arasaimedo partniors nivTi, Sesabamisad, uaryofiTSedegebzec is unda iyos pasuxismgebeli. 87 sapirispiro mosazrebiT, mesakuTresyovelTvis ver daedeba brali uyuradRebobaSi, mesakuTre nivTis droebiT mflobelobaSigadacemis xelSekrulebis dadebisas SeiZleba ufro windaxedulad moqmedebdes,vidre sakuTriv nivTis SeZenisas. xolo varaudi mesakuTris bralis Sesaxeb, TavisiarsiT niSnavs mesakuTris samoqalaqosamarTlebrivi pasuxismgeblobis dawesebas TavisiTavis mimarT, rac dauSvebelia. 888.2. `moCvenebiTi uflebis~ Teoriaes Teoria emyareba uflebis garegnul xedvas, anu Tu nivTi imyofeba aramesakuTrisfaqtobriv mflobelobaSi, es qmnis mflobelis mesakuTred yofnis moCvenebiTobas. mesamepirebisaTvis is miiCneva mesakuTred, rameTu maTTvis uflebis xarvezi amoucnobia.saqonelbrunvis usafrTxoeba moiTxovs, rom arsebobdes ndoba garegnuli faqtobrivimdgomareobisadmi. garegnul sicxadeSi gamsxvisebelis mflobeloba igulisxmeba, amdenad,sakuTreba SeiZleba SeZenil iqnes aseve, im pirisagan, romelic qmnis uflebis87


marTlmsajulebaN3dakanoniarsebobis moCvenebiTobas. amasTan, arsebobs mosazreba, romelic afarToebs vindikaciisSezRudvis wesis gamoyenebis SemTxvevebs da miuTiTebs, rom sakuTrebis keTilsindisieriSeZena dasaSvebi unda iyos nebismieri saxis mflobelisagan, radgan uflebismoCvenebiToba SeiZleba arsebobdes naqurdali nivTis gamyidvelis mxarezec (Êîáàí À.) 898.3. `umciresi borotebis~ TeoriaaRniSnuli TeoriiT keTilsindisieri SemZenisa da mesakuTris interesTa koliziisdros, sakiTxi wydeba im piris sasargeblod, romelsac aqvs naklebi SesaZlebloba daicvassakuTari interesebi, Tu sakiTxi nivTis CamorTmevis Taobaze gadawydeba mis winaaRmdeg.kanonmdebeli uars eubneba ra mesakuTres vindikaciaze, iTvaliswinebs, rom mesakuTrem,rogorc wesi icis is piri, romelsac gadasca qoneba da aqvs SesaZleblobamoiTxovos misgan zianis anazRaureba (saxelSekrulebo, deliqturi Tu kondiqciurisarCeliT). am viTarebaSi, keTilsindisieri SemZenisaTvis nivTis CamorTmevisas, is gacilebiTrTul mdgomareobaSi aRmoCndeboda, radgan naklebad icis Tu visgan iyida nivTida naklebi SesaZlebloba aqvs moiTxovos misgan zianis anazRaureba nasyidobis xelSekrulebidangamomdinare. sxva mdgomareobaa mesakuTris mflobelobidan misi nebis winaaRmdegnivTis gamosvlisas. zianis anazRaurebis SesaZleblobis TvalsazrisiT, uke-Tes mdgomareobaSi keTilsindisieri SemZenia. mesakuTrisagan gansxvavebiT, romelsacam situaciaSi saerTod ar hyavs kontrahenti, mas aqvs warmodgena gamyidvelze. amitom,mesakuTres ubrundeba nivTi, xolo keTilsindisier mflobels SeuZlia mosTxovos gamsxvisebelszianis anazRaureba nasyidobis xelSekrulebiT gaTvaliswinebuli, uflebrivadunaklo nivTis gadacemis valdebulebis darRveviT gamowveuli evikciisaTvis.9. samoqalaqo brunvis usafrTxoeba, rogorc socialuri sikeTesakuTrebis uflebis pirispir9.1. vindikaciis SezRudvis wesi _ `savaWro sulis~ gamarjveba sanivTo samarTalzevindikacias SezRudvis wesma asaxva hpova germaniis sk-Si social-demokrati antonmengeris kritikis miuxedavad, romelic masSi xedavda sakuTrebis mudmiv, farTo masStabiseqspropriacias samoqalaqo brunvis Tavisuflebis uzrunvelsayofad, afasebdamas, rogorc savaWro sulis gamarjvebas sanivTo samarTalze. 90 vindikaciis SezRudviswesi moicavs saSiSroebas qonebis CamorTmevisa arabraleuli mesakuTrisaTvis da sapirispirod,iqmneba safuZveli sxva piris SemTxveviT gamdidrebisaTvis. erTi mxriv, martivdebafaseulobaTa brunva, magram xdeba sakuTrebis mniSvnelobis daknineba samoqalaqobrunvis usafrTxoebisaTvis. 91 sakuTrebis uflebis dacva da brunvis uzrun-88


velyofa urTierTsawinaaRmdego movlenebia, romelTagan xSirad TiToeuli miiRwevameoris xarjze.uflebis uzrunvelyofa gulisxmobs, rom piris nebis gareSe ar moxdes arsebuliqonebrivi samarTlebrivi urTierTobis Secla, xolo brunvis uzrunvelyofa ki, niSnavs,rom arsebuli qonebrivi urTierTobebis sasikeTo cvlilebebi ar Sewydes pirisaTvisucnobi garemoebebis wyalobiT (petraJicki). 92Tu savaWro samarTalSi keTilsindisieri SemZenis upiratesoba mesakuTresTan mimarTebiTkidev dasaSvebia, radgan mas saqme aqvs moxmarebad axal nivTebTan, romlebicjer kidev, ar iyvnen piris sargeblobaSi, samoqalaqo brunvaSi nivTebi arc Tu iSviaTadwarmoadgenen subieqturad faseuls da mesakuTrisaTvis misi gamoTxovis uflebis Sez-Rudva usamarTlobaa. aRniSnuli adamianis grZnobaTa xelyofaa fuladi interesebissasargeblod, 93 am wesis dros xdeba sakuTrebis uflebis usafuZvlod SeZenis legitimaciasamarTlebrivad iseT xarvezian faqtebze dayrdnobiT, rogoricaa baTili garigeba.94 vindikaciis SezRudvis wesi iyo germaneli kriminalistis bindingis kritikissaganic, radgan is ewinaaRmdegeba samarTlianobas, keTilsindisieri SemZenisaTvisupiratesobis miniWebiT mesakuTresTan SedarebiT, romelic aseve, keTilsindisieriSemZeni iyo da ufro adrindeli. 95keTilsindisieri SemZenis interesebis dacvas safuZvlad udevs ara imdenad samarTlianobisprincipi, aramed saqonelbrunvis interesi, misi gamyarebis aucilebloba. 96gaxSirebuli sasaqonlo urTierTobisas SemZens saTanado gulisxmierebis da windaxedulobisgamoCenis drosac SesaZloa ver daedgina gamyidvelis uflebamosileba gasayidnivTze. am wesis daSvebis gareSe SemZeni verasdros iqneboda darwmunebuli, rom gaxdamesakuTre da ar gamoCndeboda sxva piri, romelic imave nivTze daamtkicebda TavissakuTrebas da CamoarTmevda. vidre ukanono mflobeli ar moipovebs sakuTrebas, masar SeuZlia nivTis gasxviseba. amiT, nivTi xangrZlivi droiT brunvidan vardeba. sworedbrunvis interesebi aiZuleben nivTis dabrunebas brunvaSi ukanono mflobelisaTvissakuTrebis mikuTvnebiT. 979.2. mesakuTred yofnis prezumfcia _ keTilsindisieri SemZenis interesebisdacvis berketimoZravi nivTebis SemZenis mxridan gamsxviseblis mxareze sakuTrebis titulis arsebobisadmimindobil damokidebulebas afuZnebs winaresamarTlis pirobebSi Camoyalibebulida dRes pozitiuri samarTliT ganmtkicebuli mesakuTred yofnis prezumfcia:ivaraudeba, rom moZravi nivTis mflobeli misi mesakuTrea. mflobeloba ara martoTavdapirvelad Seiqmna sakuTrebis warmoSobis wyarod, aramed samoqalaqo brunvaSiwesisamebr, mflobeli nivTis mesakuTres warmoadgens. am samarTlebriv varauds amagrebsmoZrav nivTebze sakuTrebis warmoSobis wesi, rac gulisxmobs nivTis SemZenis89


marTlmsajulebaN3dakanonimflobelobaSi gadacemas. prezumfcia im SemTxvevebs asaxavs, roca brunvis monawile-TaTvis ucnobia mflobelobis ukan arsebuli ufleba. samarTlebrivi wesrigi moiTxovs,rom SemZeni daeyrdnos mflobelis keTilsindisierebas da is miiRos, rogorc nivTismesakuTre. SemZens Tu ara kontrahentis keTilsindisierebisadmi ndoba, sxva samarTlebrivigza misi mesakuTreobis Semowmebisa ar gaaCnia. brunvis monawileTa aseTi ur-TierTdamokidebuleba xels uwyobs brunvis simyaresa da simartives. am prezumfciisugulebelyofisas gamyidveli valdebuli iqneboda emtkicebina sakuTrebis uflebisarseboba nivTze, miuxedavad misi Rirebulebisa, 98 rac TavisTavad sirTules qmnis, radganmoZrav nivTze ufleba yovelTvis ar moiTxovs saTanado sabuTSi gaformebuli saxiTarsebobas.SemZenTa mxridan SeZenis samarTlebrivi titulis mimarT urwmunoebis aRZvra brunvaSiar aris samarTlis politikis mizani. 99 am wesis arsebobas xsnis samoqalaqo brunvisgamartivebis cda, SemZeni naklebad unda iyos datvirTuli gamsxviseblis titulis SemowmebiT,xolo mesakuTrem unda gamoavlinos maqsimaluri yuradReba sakuTari qonebisada kontrahentebis mimarT. 100 samarTals sWirdeba ufro moqnili, kompromisulikonstruqcia, vidre SeuzRudavi vindikaciaa. wminda doqtrinaluri idealebis dacvayovelTvis ar Seesabameba cxovrebiseul moTxovnebs. Tanamedrove kanonmdebloba abalansebssamoqalaqo samarTlis subieqtebis interesebs vindikaciis SezRudvis principisganmtkicebiT. 1019.3. gansakuTrebuli brunvaunarianobis nivTebi vindikaciis SezRudvis wesismoqmedebis arealSivindikaciis SezRudvis wesi moqmedebs aseve fulis, fasiani qaRaldebisa da sajarovaWrobis wesiT SeZenili nivTebis mimarT, miuxedavad keTilsindisieri SemZenis mierSeZenis xasiaTisa da mesakuTris mflobelobidan nivTis gasvlis wesisa. es nivTebigansakuTrebuli brunvaunarianobiT xasiaTdebian da amasTan, Znelia mesakuTrem praqtikuladmoaxdinos maTi individualizacia, amitom am nivTebis mimarT uzrunvelyofiliunda iqnes maRali ndoba brunvis monawileTa mxridan. 102 amasTan, sawarmdgenlofasiani qaRaldis dakargvisas, maT yovel mflobels SeuZlia mimarTos sasamarTlosdakarguli fasiani qaRaldis baTilad cnobisa da dakargulze uflebis aRdgenis Taobaze.aRniSnuli xels uSlis ra, im mesame pirebis uflebebis ganxorcielebas, romlebicfasiani qaRaldebis faqtobrivi mflobelebi arian, upirispirdeba sasaqonlo brunvisprincipebs. amitom, dasaSvebia vindikaciis SezRudva fasiani qaRaldis mflobelismimarT, Tu cnobilia sabuTis xelTmqone. 103 safrangeTis sk-iT daiSveba fulisa da fasianiqaRaldis dakargvis Semdeg publikaciis gamoqveyneba, rac gamoricxavs SemZeniskeTilsindisierebas. nivTis ukanono mflobelis daudgenlobisas, mesakuTres miecemaaxali fasiani qaRaldi. 10490


saqarTvelos sk-is 187-e muxlis I I nawilis meore winadadeba Seexeba vindikaciis Sez-Rudvis wess am obieqtebze, Tumca, mTliani normis xarvezulobis gamo, isic gaurkvevlobasbadebs. amitom, am muxlis wina nawilebis zemomiTiTebuli Sesworebul versiasTankonteqstSi winadadeba _ es SezRudvebi ar moqmedebs fulis, fasiani qaRaldebis an/daauqcionze gasxvisebuli nivTebis mimarT, unda ganimartos ise, rom arauflebamosilipiris mier am nivTebis gasxvisebisas, keTilsindisieri SemZeni SeiZens maTze sakuTrebas,miuxedavad maTi mesakuTris mflobelobidan nebis winaaRmdeg gamosvlisa an SeZenisusasyidlo xasiaTisa.aRsaniSnavia, rom Tu saqarTvelos sk-is miRebis droisTvis, qarTuli saaqcio samar-Tali germanuli samarTlis msgavsad, ori ZiriTadi saxis aqcias gamoyofda: sawarmdgenlosda saxelobiTs, romelic materializebuli formiT arsebobda. amasTan,warmomdgenis aqciebis mimarT gamoiyeneboda moZravi nivTebis samarTlebrivi reJimi.kerZod, maTze sakuTrebis SeZenis wesebi, rac gulisxmobs mxareTa SeTanxmebas (kauza)da gadacemas. 105 ‘mewarmeTa Sesaxeb kanonSi~ 1999 wels ganxorcielebuli cvlilebebisSemdeg, gauqmebul iqna warmomdgenis aqcia, rogorc aqciis damoukidebeli saxe. DdResmxolod erTi saxis, saxelobiT aqcias icnobs qarTuli saaqcio samarTali, romelicaramaterializebuli formiT gaicema. 106 Sesabamisad, aqcia aRar moiazreba 187-e muxlSimiTiTebuli fasiani qaRaldebis wreSi.rac Seexeba sajaro vaWrobis gziT SeZenil nivTebs, safrangeTSi, jer kidev, burJuaziulrevoluciamde, moqmedebda wesi, romlis Tanaxmad, nivTis bazarSi SemZens mesakuTrismier misTvis nivTis CamorTmevisas SeeZlo nivTSi gadaxdili Tanxa moeTxova. 107vindikaciis SezRudvis wesi im keTilsindisieri SemZenis sasargeblod, romelmacSeiZina sabrunavi dokumentebi, miuxedavad mesakuTris mflobelobidan maTi gamosvliswesisa, dadgenilia saerTo samarTalSic. 10810.registraciis monacemTa sisworisa da sandoobis prezumfcia SemZenisinteresTa uzrunvelsayofadvindikaciis SezRudvis wesi moZrav nivTebTan mimarTebiT moqmedebs, magram ramdenaddaculia uZravi nivTis keTilsindisieri SemZeni, romelmac nivTi gasxvisebaze arauflebamosilipirisagan SeiZina?im qveynebSi, sadac uZrav nivTze sakuTrebis ufleba Sesabamisi saxelmwifo registraciiTxorcieldeba (magaliTad, germania, SvedeTi, saqarTvelo, ruseTi), keTilsindisieriSemZenis dacvis funqcias, moZrav nivTebze gamsxviseblis mflobelobis faqtisnacvlad, reestris (registraciis) monacemebi asrulebs, romliTac fiqsirdeba gamsxvisebeli,rogorc mesakuTre. registraciis monacemTa mimarT moqmedi sajaroobis,utyuarobisa da sisworis prezumfciaze dayrdnobiT, brunvis nebismier monawiles91


marTlmsajulebaN3dakanoniSeuZlia miiRos informacia gansazRvruli uZravi nivTis Taobaze masTan dakavSirebulsamarTlebriv urTierTobaSi monawileobamde. amasTan, saxelmwifo registraciis yovelgvariCanaweri, Tundac realobis aramsaxveli, iTvleba marTebulad, vidre ar gasa-Civrdeba da ar Seicvleba dadgenili wesiT. 109 . maSasadame, uflebis garegnuli sicxade(registraciis monacemi) ivaraudeba, rom Seesabameba realurad arsebul uflebas. 110piri mxolod maSin SeiZleba daeyrdnos saregistracio Canaweris sandoobas, Tu ar icodamisi usworobis Sesaxeb. keTilsindisiereba unda arsebobdes registraciis momentisaTvis.111saqarTveloSic, sajaro reestri aris ara ubralod uflebis fiqsaciis, aramed amuflebis Seqmnis safuZveli, uflebis warmoSobis procesis damagvirgvinebeli stadia. 112is sando da mowesrigebuli samoqalaqo brunvis seriozuli garantiaa. saqarTvelossk-is 312-e muxliT gaTvaliswinebuli utyuarobisa da sisrulis prezumfcia sajaroreestris monacemTa mimarT, seriozuli gamovlinebaa samoqalaqo brunvaSi damkvidrebulindobisa da keTilsindisierebis principisa, esaa saxelmwifos seriozuli pasuxismgeblobabrunvis monawileTa mimarT. 113 im piris sasargeblod, romelic garigebissafuZvelze iZens romelime uflebas da es ufleba gamsxviseblis saxelze iyo registrirebulireestrSi, Canaweri iTvleba sworad, garda im SemTxvevisa, roca CanaweriswinaaRmdeg Setanili iyo saCivari, an SemZenma icoda, rom Canaweri iyo uzusto. 114 zemoxsenebuliprincipi gamoricxavs monacemTa arcodnas SemZenis mxridan, mis mier maTigauTvaliswinebloba gagebul unda iqnes, rogorc miutevebeli gaufrTxilebloba, racugulebelyofs mis keTilsindisierebas. 115 reestris monacemTa utyuarobisa da sisrulisprezumfcia SemZens uadvilebs uflebis kanonierebis mtkicebis process. monacemTausworoba da SemZenisaTvis am faqtis codna modave mxarem unda amtkicos. Tu mxaresadavod xdis SemZenis keTilsindisierebas, sasamarTlos ar SeuZlia Tavisi daskvnanivTis SeZenis kanonierebaze, daayrdnos mxolod sajaro reestris Canawers. sasamar-Tlo valdebulia Seamowmos Canaweris siswore da gamoikvlios ra icoda SemZenma misixarvezianobis Sesaxeb. am sakiTxis gamorkvevisas, sasamarTlom unda gaiTvaliswinosSemZenis SesaZleblobani reestris Canaweris codnasTan dakavSirebiT, anu unda gairkves,SemZens gonivruli windaxedulobis farglebSi SeeZlo da unda scodnoda Tu ara sadavofaqti, swored am garemoebis gamokvlevas unda efuZnebodes daskvna SeZenis namdvilobisada SemZenis dacvis mizanSewonilobis Taobaze. 116miuxedavad imisa, rom uZrav nivTze sakuTrebis warmoSobis saxelmwifo registraciissistemis arsebobisas nivTis aramarTlzomieri SeZena minimumamdea dayvanili, ar arisgamoricxuli uZrav nivTze SecdomiT ganxorcielebuli registracia. magaliTad, rusuldoqtrinaSi aris mosazreba, rom ruseTSi ar gamarTlda is imedebi, rasac amyarebdnenuZravi qonebis brunvis saregistracio sistemaze, razec metyvelebs saxelmwiforegistraciasTan dakavSirebuli davebis gazrdili raodenoba. 117 brunvis arasaimedoobasganapirobebs is faqti, rom uZravi nivTis SemZeni ar aris xSirad darwmunebuli,92


om mis mier dadebuli xelSekruleba uzrunvelyofs mis uflebas SeZenil nivTze.gamosavali moiZebna kanonmdeblis mier 2001 wels miRebuli kanonproeqtiT `uZravqonebaze uflebis da masTan dakavSirebuli garigebebis saxelmwifo registraciisSesaxeb~, romelic Semdeg kanonad iqca da icavs im keTilsindisieri SemZenis uflebas,romelmac sasyidliT SeiZina mesakuTris mflobelobidan nebiT gasuli nivTigasxvisebaze arauflebamosili, magram mesakuTred registrirebuli pirisagan.keTilsindisieri SemZeni SeZenisTanave xdeba mesakuTre, xolo dazaralebul yofilmesakuTres SeuZlia moiTxovos kompensacia saxelmwifos mier specialurad Seqmnilifondidan. 118 doqtrinaSi samarTlianad miiCneven problemis amgvar gadawyvetas: winamesakuTre metnaklebad braleulia, rom dauSva an SeinarCuna gansxvaveba uflebissicxadesa da realurad arsebul uflebas Soris.saqarTvelos samoqalaqo kodeqsi icavs uZravi nivTis keTilsindisier SemZens, romeliceyrdnoba sajaro reestris monacemebs. kerZod, 185-e muxli keTilsindisieriSemZenis interesebiT xelmZRvanelobs da mis sakuTrebas udavos xdis, Tundac gamsxvisebeliar iyos mesakuTre, magram SemZeni am faqtis mimarT keTilsindisieria, radganeyrdnoba sajaro reestris Canawers. SemZenis aseTi uflebrivi mdgomareoba ganpirobebuliasajaro reestris specifikuri daniSnulebiT samoqalaqo brunvis meqanizmSi. 119is dgas yofil mesakuTresa da SemZens Soris da Tu myidveli keTilsindisierad daeyrdnoam monacemebs, maTi mcdarobis SemTxvevaSic keTilsindisiereba imarjvebs sakuTrebaze.es midgoma amartivebs SemZenis tvirTs da zRudavs misi windaxedulobis zomebisdacvis areals, rac Tavis mxriv, samoqalaqo brunvis gamartivebas da stabilurobasemsaxureba. sisworisa da utyuarobis prezumfcia myidvels uqmnis imis garantias, rommonacemTa usworobisa da gamyidvelis aramarTlzomier mdgomareobaSi Cayenebis miuxedavad,myidvelis keTilsindisier ndobas reestris mimarT, sadavoobis SemTxvevaSi,upiratesi iuridiuli Zala eniWeba. 12093


marTlmsajulebaN3dakanoniSeniSvnebi:1ix.: Õðåñòîìàòèÿ ïî âñåîáùåé èñòîðèè ãîñóäàðñòâà è ïðàâà. Ò. 2. (ïîä.ðåä. ÁàòûðàÊ.È. è Ïîëèêàðïîâîé Å.Â.), Ì., 2003.2k. korkelia, evropuli standartebis integraciisken: adamianis uflebaTaevropuli konvencia da saqarTvelos gamocdileba, Tb., 2007, 114.3Áåðíñäîðôô Í., Îõðàíà ñîáñòâåííîñòè ïî ÅÊÏ× – ìåæäó effect utile, ñ îäíîéñòîðîíû, è margin of appreciation èëè judicial self – restraint ñ äðóãîé ñòîðîíû,«Þæíîêàâêàçñêèé þðèäè÷åñêèé æóðíàë», #1, 2010, 34.4Äþãè Ë., Îáùèå ïðåîáðàçîâàíèÿ ãðàæäàíñêîãî ïðàâà ñî âðåìåíè êîäåêñàÍàïîëåîíà (ïåð.ñ ôðàíö. Ñèâåðñ Ì. Ì., ïîä. ðåä. Ãîéõáàðãà À.Ã.). Ì., 1919, 13.5citirebulia: r. paipsi, sakuTreba da Tavisufleba, Tb., 2004.6Ãóåâ À.Í., Ãðàæäàíñêîå ïðàâî. Ò. 1, Ì., 2003, 241.7b. zoiZe, sakonstitucio kontroli da RirebulebaTa wesrigi saqar-TveloSi, Tb., 2007, 98.8Êàâåëèí Ê.Ä., Îñíîâíûå íà÷àëà ãðàæäàíñêîãî ñóäîóñòðîèñòâà è ãðàæäàíñêîãîñóäîïðîèçâîäñòâà â ïåðèîä âðåìåíè îò óëîæåíèÿ äî ó÷ðåæäåíèÿ î ãóáåðíèÿõ.Ì.,1844, miTiTebulia: Òðàøêîâà Í.M., Èñê êàê çàùèòà ïðàâ èñòöà â ãðàæäàíñêîìïðîöåññå, ê èñòîðèè âîïðîñà, æ. «Âåñòíèê Ìîñêîâñêîãî óíèâåðñèòåòà»,¹ 5, 2008, 92.9Äåõòåðåâà Ë.Ï., Ïèâóëüñêèé Â.Â., Øóãåâà Î.À., Ãðàæäàíñêèé ïðîöåññ. Ì.,2004, 53.10Øàãîâà Â.Â., Äîãîâîð êàê îñíîâàíèå âîçíèêíîâåíèÿ ïðàâ òèòóëüíûõ âëàäåëüöåâïî ðîññèéñêîìó ãðàæäàíñêîìó ïðàâó:  êíèãå: Íåêîòîðûå âîïðîñû äîãîâîðíîãîïðàâà Ðîññèè è çàðóáåæíûõ ñòðàí. Ì., 2003, 20.11Ñåðãååâ À.Ï., Òîëñòîé Þ.Ê., ( ðåä.) Ãðàæäàíñêîå ïðàâî, 1997, Ì., 444.12germaniis sk (2010 wlis 1 martis mdgomareobiT), mTargmneli da redaqtoriz. WeWelaSvili, Tb., 2010, 198.13susg, #3k-377-03, 27 ivnisi, 2003 w, saqarTvelos uzenaesi sasamarTlosgadawyvetilebani samoqalaqo, samewarmeo da gakotrebis saqmeebze,2003, #8. 2077.14ÑêâàðöîâÎ. Þ., Çàùèòà ïðàâà ñîáñòâåííîñòè è ñóäåáíî-àðáèòðàæíàÿïðàêòèêà. Ì., 1997, 10.15g. galdava, samoqalaqo uflebaTa dacvis formebi da saSualebebisaqarTvelos samoqalaqo kodeqsis mixedviT, Jurn. `samarTlis Jurnali~,#1, 2009, 119.16Äåõòåðåâà Ë.Ï., Ïèâóëüñêèé Â.Â., Øóãåâà Î.À., Ãðàæäàíñêèé ïðîöåññ. Ì., 2004,53.17Ãîìîëà À.Ì., Ãðàæäàíñêîå ïðàâî. Ì., 2003, 201.18Ñóõàíîâ Å.À., Ãðàæäàíñêîå ïðàâî. Ó÷åáíèê. 2-å. èçä., Ì., ÷. 1, 1998, 374.19Ñåðãååâ À.Ï., Òîëñòîé Þ.Ê. (ðåä), Ãðàæäàíñêîå ïðàâî. ÑÏÁ, ÷. 1, 1996, 259.20Øåðøåíåâè÷ Ã.Ô., Ó÷åáíèê ðóññêîãî ãðàæäàíñêîãî ïðàâà. Ò.1, 11-îå èçä., Ì.,1914, 133.21b. zoiZe, evropuli kerZo samarTlis recepcia saqarTveloSi, Tb.,2005, 118.22Áóòîâñêèé À.Ê., Äàâíîñòü âëàäåíèÿ. ÑÏÁ, 1911, 13.23Ôàðìàòîâ È., Ïîñëåäñòâèÿ èñòå÷åíèÿ ñðîêà èñêîâîé äàâíîñòè. Æ.«Õîçÿéñòâî è ïðàâî», ¹12, 2005, 72.24Ìîðãóíîâ Ñ.Â., Èñêîâàÿ äàâíîñòü â ïðàâèëàõ î âèíäèêàöèè. Æ. «Âåñòíèêâûñøåãî àðáèòðàæíîãî ñóäà Ðîññèñêîé Ôåäåðàöèè», ¹4, 2005, 136.94


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marTlmsajulebaN3dakanoni93×åðåïàõèí Á.Á., Þðèäè÷åñêàÿ ïðèðîäà è îáîñíîâàíèå ïðèîáðåòåíèÿ ïðàâàñîáñòâåííîñòè îò íåóïðàâîìî÷åííîãî îò÷óæäàòåëÿ, Ó÷åííûå çàïèñêè ñâåðäëîâñêîãîþðèäè÷åñêîãî èíñòèòóòà. T. ², 1947, 82.94Ñèìîëèí À.À., Îïðåäåëåíèå âëàäåíèÿ ïî íàøåìó ïðîåêòó è Ãåðìàíñêîìóóëîæåíèþ.  êíèãå: Âîçìåçäíîñòü, áåçâîçìåçäíîñòü, ñìåøàííûå äîãîâîðû è èíûåòåîðåòè÷åñêèå ïðîáëåìû ãðàæäàíñêîãî ïðàâà. Ì., 2005, 503.95citirebulia: n. ZnelaZe, qonebis ukanono mflobelobidan gamoTxovisada sakuTrebis uflebis dacvis samarTlebrivi problemebi, Jurn.`marTlmsajuleba~, #2, 2007, 87.96Ñêâîðöîâ Î.Þ., Âåùíûå èñêè â ñóäåáíî-àðáèòðàæíîé ïðàêòèêå. Ì.,1998, 59.97Ñêëîâñêèé Ê.È., Çàìå÷àíèÿ íà ïðîåêò çàêîíà î âîçíèêíîâåíèè ïðàâàñîáñòâåííîñòè ó äîáðîñîâåñòíîãî ïðèîáðåòàòåëÿ íåäâèæèìîñòè. Æ. «Âåñòíèêâûñøåãî àðáèòðàæíîãî ñóäà Ðîññèñêîé Ôåäåðàöèè», #2, 2003, 87.98b. zoiZe, qarTuli sanivTo samarTali, me-2 gamoc., Tb., 2003,67.99Pàõìèëîâè÷ Â.À., Î ïðàâå ñîáñòâåííîñòè íà âåùü îò÷óæäåííóþ íåóïðàâîìî÷åííûìëèöîì äîáðîñîâåñòíîìó ïðèîáðåòåëüþ (ê âîïðîñó î ïðèîáðåòåíèè ïðàâà îòíåóïðàâîìî÷åííîãî ëèöà).  êíèãå: Ïðîáëåìû ñîâðåìåííîãî ãðàæäàíñêîãî ïðàâà.ðåä. Ëèòîâêèí Â.Í., Ðàõìèëîâè÷ Â.À., Ì., 2000, 131.100Ñìèðíûõ À.Ã., Çàùèòà èíòåðåñîâ äîáðîñîâåñòíîãî ïðèîáðåòàòåëÿ. «ÆóðíàëÐîññèéñêîãî ïðàâà», ¹11, 2001, 93.101Áàãèðîâ À., Ïîíÿòèå è ãðàæäàíñêî-ïðàâîâîå çíà÷åíèå âëàäåíèÿ êàê ýëåìåíòàïðàâà ñîáñòâåííîñòè. «Þæíî-Êàâêàçñêèé þðèäè÷åñêèé æóðíàë», ¹1, 2010, 64.102Ñèìîëèí À.À., Îïðåäåëåíèå âëàäåíèÿ ïî íàøåìó ïðîåêòó è Ãåðìàíñêîìóóëîæåíèþ.  êíèãå: Âîçìåçäíîñòü, áåçâîçìåçäíîñòü, ñìåøàííûå äîãîâîðû è èíûåòåîðåòè÷åñêèå ïðîáëåìû ãðàæäàíñêîãî ïðàâà. 503.103z. ZlieriSvili, dakargul sawarmdgenlo fasian qaRaldsa da saorderofasian qaRaldze uflebis aRdgena (gamowveviTi warmoeba),Jurn. `samarTali~, 2000, #3, 28.104Ðîâíûé Â.Â., Ýâèêöèÿ. Ïðîáëåìà êîíêóðåíöèè èñêîâ è ïðàâà ñîáñòâåííîñòè,Æ. «Ïðàâîâåäåíèå», ¹5, 2000, 10.105i. burduli, qonebrivi urTierToba saaqcio sazogadoebaSi (qarTulida avstriuli samarTlis magaliTze), Tb., 2008, 179.106i. burduli, saaqcio samarTlis safuZvlebi (germanuli da qarTulisamarTlis magaliTze), t. I, Tb., 2010, 250.107Ñóõàíîâ Å.À., Ãðàæäàíñêîå ïðàâî. Ó÷åáíèê. 2-å. èçä., Ì., ÷. 1, 1998, 371.108Ðàåâè÷ Ñ.Ì., Ãðàæäàíñêîå ïðàâî áóðæóàçíî-êàïèòàëèñòè÷åñêîãî ìèðà â åãîèñòîðè÷åñêîì ðàçâèòèè. Ì., 1929, 50.109×óáàðîâ Â.Â., Âîïðîñû ãîñóäàðñòâåííîé ðåãèñòðàöèè ïðàâ íà íåäâèæèìîåèìóùåñòâî è ñäåëîê, ïðè ñ íèì  êíèãå: Ïðîáëåìû ñîâðåìåííîãî ãðàæäàíñêîãîïðàâà. Ðåä. Ëèòîâêèí Â.Í., Ðàõìèëîâè÷ Â.À., Ì., 2000, 154.110Ýðäåëåâñêèé À., Îá èñòðåáîâàíèè èìóùåñòâà ó äîáðîñîâåñòíîãî ïðèîáðåòàòåëÿ.Æ. «Õîçÿèñòâî è ïðàâî», ¹5, 2005, 10.111Êíèïåð Ð., Ïðèîáðåòåíèå è óòðàòà ïðàâà ñîáñòâåííîñòè ïî ÃÊ Òóðêìåíèñòàíà, Âêíèãå: Ïðàâî, Ýêîíîìèêà, Áëàãîñîñòîÿíèå, Àêòóàëüíûå âîïðîñû ïðàâîâîéðåôîðìû â Òóðêìåíèñòàíå, (Íóðûåâ ß., ×àíòóðèÿ Ë.,), Asgabat, 2010, 124.112susg #bs 502-431-k-04, 7 oqtomberi, 2004, saqarTvelos uzenaesi sasamarTlosgadawyvetilebani administraciuli da sxva kategoriis saqmeebze#1, 2005, 180.98


113b. zoiZe, evropuli kerZo samarTlis recepcia saqarTveloSi, Tb., 2005,261.114h. boelingi, l. Wanturia, samoqalaqo saqmeebze sasamarTlo gadawyvetilebaTamiRebis meTodika, gamoc. I I , Tb., 2004, 262.115Ñêëîâñêèé Ê.È., Ñîáñòâåííîñòü â ãðàæäàíñêîì ïðàâå, Ì., 1999,231.116susg #as 274-604-07, Tb., 11 dekemberi, 2007, saqarTvelos uzenaesisasamarTlos gadawyvetilebani samoqalaqo, samewarmeo da gakotrebissaqmeebze #1, 2007,105.117Ñêëîâñêèé Ê.È., Ïðèìåíåíèå íîðì î äîáðîé ñîâåñòè â ãðàæäàíñêîì ïðàâå Ðîññèè.Æ.. «Õîçÿèñòâî è ïðàâî», ¹9, 2002, 92.118×óáàðîâ Â.Â., Âîïðîñû ãîñóäàðñòâåííîé ðåãèñòðàöèè ïðàâ íà íåäâèæèìîåèìóùåñòâî è ñäåëîê, ïðè ñ íèì  êíèãå: Ïðîáëåìû ñîâðåìåííîãî ãðàæäàíñêîãîïðàâà. Ðåä. Ëèòîâêèí Â.Í., Ðàõìèëîâè÷ Â.À., Ì., 2000, 154. aRsaniSnavia, rompostsabWoTa qveynebis samoqalaqo kanonmdeblobac icnobs am prezumfcias.magaliTad, azerbaijanis sk ganamtkicebs ra uZrav qonebaze saxelmwiforeestris monacemTa namdvilobisa da sisrulis prezumfcias,SemZenis interesebis dacvis mizniT reestris Canawers, romelicekuTvnis registrirebul pirs, gamsxvisebels garigebis safuZvelze,miiCnevs namdvilad, Tuki reestris Canaweris Taobaze ar arsebobs Sesagebelian SemZenma icoda Canaweris uzustobis Sesaxeb. Ñóëòàíîâ Ì.,Ñîáñòâåííîñòü è âëàäåíèå -îïûò â Àçåðáàèäæàíå. «Þæíîêàâêàçñêèé þðèäè÷åñêèéæóðíàë», ¹1, 2010, 45.119susg #as 203-622-06, Tb., 24 ianvari, 2006, saqarTvelos uzenaesi sasamarTlosgadawyvetilebani samoqalaqo, samewarmeo da gakotrebissaqmeebze #1, 2007, 91.120susg #as 203-622-06, Tb., 24 ianvari, 2006, saqarTvelos uzenaesi sasamarTlosgadawyvetilebani samoqalaqo, samewarmeo da gakotrebissaqmeebze #1, 2007, 92.99


marTlmsajulebaN3dakanoniRELATIONSHIP BETWEENOWNERSHIP ANDPROPRIETY FROMPROPERTY PROTECTIONPERSPECTIVEKETEVAN KOCHASHVILIAssistant-Professor in the Private Law Issues,Department of Law, Iv. Javakhishvili Tbilisi State UniversityThe article refers to ownership and property – the fundamental istitutionsof civil law and their relationship from the point of view of one specificaspect – protection of property. It is true, that historically property belongsto the law of goods, but in the modern times, it is reviewed by private, aswell as public law institution. Its privacy is acknowledged by public lawacts (starting with the French Declaration of the Rights of Man and of theCitizen and strengthened by modern Convention for the Protection ofHuman Rights and Fundamental Freedoms), as well as by civil legislation.The article presents only the civil law, in particular law for goods(vindication and negator claims). The main focus of the article is the legalnature of the vindication claims – its concept, procedural and substantialpreconditions of its execution.Vindication clearly demonstrates the relationship between the proprietorwho has lost the ownership and the owner being non-proprietor. Defendant– non proper owner of this process may be either honest, or dishonest. Thecriteria for such a division is subjective and it lays in the space of assessmentof the reality. It reflects the person’s attitude towards the legal basement ofpurchase. The article analysis the relationship of the concepts of honestyand properness towards ownership, since the Civil Code of Georgia doesnot differentiate between these two terms. It contradicts the doctrine100


approach towards this issue and it is reviewed in the framework of thepractice observed by the Supreme Court of Georgia.The Article also reviews the requirements of the proprietor and the owneragainst each other, that is reflected in the obligation of the owner to returna good and a fruit and the proprietor is obliged to make legal assessment ofthe expenses taken by the owner. In addition, the article reviews the rulefor restriction of vindication as the rejection of Roman law that approvesof the principal of unrestricted vindication. Theories within the doctrinethat approve the vindication restriction rules as the existence of Germancase law. The article also outlines the protection of the interests of an honestpurchaser of not only the movable property, but also immovable propertyand it is based on the data of the Public Registry, presumption of theirproperness and authenticity that are allowed from the point of view of theinterest of turnover.101


marTlmsajulebaN3dakanonisisxlissamarTlebriviharmonizaciiskompetenciaevrokavSiris saqmianobiswesis SesaxebxelSekrulebis 83-emuxlis mixedviTbaCana jiSkarianisamarTlis magistri (LL.M München), miunxenisuniversitetis germanuli, evropuli dasaerTaSoriso sisxlis samarTlis, sisxlis samarTlisprocesisa da ekonomikuri sisxlis samarTlis kaTedrisdoqtoranti, fridrix naumanis saxelobis fondisstipendiatiSesavali2009 wlis 1 dekembers, ZalaSi Sevida lisabonis xelSekruleba,romelmac evrokavSiris farglebSi arsebulistruqtura garkveulwilad Secvala. lisabonis xelSekrulebaaris erTiani saxelwodeba im dokumentebisa, romlebsacevrokonstituciis proeqtis Cavardnis Semdgom moeweraxeli. 1 masSi Sedis Semdegi aqtebi: evrokavSiris SesaxebxelSekruleba, evrokavSiris saqmianobis wesis Sesaxeb xel-Sekruleba da adamianis ZiriTad uflebaTa evropuli qartia.maTi xelmoweris Sedegad evrogaerTianebas CaenacvlaevrokavSiri, rogorc samarTalmemkvidre. siaxleebi Seexosisxlis samarTlis mimarTulebasac. erT-erTi maTgania evrokavSirissaqmianobis wesis Sesaxeb xelSekrulebis 83-emuxli. misi meSveobiT evrokavSiri gaxda uflebamosili,wevri saxelmwifoebis sisxlissamarTlebriv sistemebze102


moaxdinos gavlena garkveuli daTqmebis meSveobiT. 2 aRniSnuli muxlis pirveli abzaciSemdegi saxiT aris Camoyalibebuli: evrokavSiris parlamentsa da sabWos SeuZliaT,dadgenili sakanonmdeblo proceduris Sesabamisad, direqtivebis meSveobiT daadginonminimaluri standartebi danaSaulebisa da sasjelebis Sesaxeb. gansakuTrebiT, im dana-Saulebis sferoebSi, romlebTanac erTian safuZvlebze brZola maTi simZimidan da Sedegebidangamomdinare aucilebelia da transnacionaluri xasiaTi aqvT. aseTi sferoebia:terorizmi, adamianebiT vaWroba _ gansakuTrebiT, qalebisa da bavSvebis eqsploatacia,narkotikebiT aralegaluri vaWroba, iaraRiT aralegaluri vaWroba, fulis gaTeTreba,korufcia, gadaxdis saSualebebis gayalbeba, kompiuteruli damnaSaveoba da organizebulidamnaSaveoba.83-e muxlis meSveobiT evrokavSirma SeiZina moqmedebis meti kompetencia, raTa moaxdinoscalkeuli saxelmwifoebis sisxlissamarTlebrivi sistemebis erTmaneTTan daaxloeba,harmonizacia. sisxlissamarTlebrivi harmonizacia zogadad, gansakuTrebul siaxlesar warmoadgens, radganac amas evrokavSiris farglebSi moqmedi Zveli xelSekrulebaciTvaliswinebda. Tumca, es xdeboda ara direqtivebis, aramed CarCo gadawyvetilebebismiRebis saSualebiT policiisa da iusticiis sferoSi urTierTTanamSromlobis farglebSi(evrok. Sesaxeb xelS. 29-e muxli, me-2 abz., 31-e muxli, pirveli abz. Zv. red.). 3adre moqmedi xelSekrulebis mixedviT, nebismier wevr saxelmwifos hqonda ufleba,wamoeyenebina CarCo-gadawyvetilebis gamocemis iniciativa, romlisTvisac SemdgomSiyvela wevri saxelmwifos Tanxmoba iyo saWiro. evrokavSiris parlamenti am procesSimxolod formalurad monawileobda. 4 es suraTi lisabonis xelSekrulebis miRebisSemdgom Seicvala. iniciativis wamosayeneblad erTi saxelmwifos nacvlad saWiroa wevrsaxelmwifoTa sul mcire erTi meoTxedi raodenoba (evrok. saqm. wesis Ses. xelS. 76-emux.) 5 , xolo am iniciativis safuZvelze samarTlebrivi aqtis gamosacemad, saWiroa arayvela wevri saxelmwifos Tanxmoba, aramed sakmarisia xmebis kvalificiuri raodenoba. 6evrokavSiris parlamentis uflebebic sakmaod gaZlierda. is direqtivis gamocemasTandakavSirebul gadawyvetilebas sabWosTan erTad iRebs. evroparlamenti adre mxolodinformaciis miRebis uflebiT Semoifargleboda. sakanonmdeblo procesSi parlamentisrolis msgavsma gaZlierebam evrokavSirs meti demokratiuli legitimacia SesZina. 7 sworedsusti demokratiuli legitimacia iyo mniSvnelovani kritikis safuZveli evrokavSirissisxlissamarTlebrivi kompetenciis mimarT, radganac evropuli aqtebis gamocemisdros parlamenti am procesSi SezRuduli monawileobis uflebiT sargeblobda.zogierTi kritikosi am realobas „autanelsa~ da „gubernatorul mmarTvelobas~adarebda, radganac dominant rols sabWo da ara evroparlamenti TamaSobda. 8konkretulad ra cvlilebebi gamoiwvia evrokavSiris saqmianobis wesis Sesaxeb xel-Sekrulebis 83-e muxlma da aris Tu ara es siaxle kidev erTi wingadadgmuli nabijievropuli integraciis mimarTulebiT?1. sisxlissamarTlebrivi miTiTebis gakeTebis originaluri kompetenciaevrokavSiris saqmianobis wesis Sesaxeb xelSekrulebis 83-e muxlis pirveli nawiliSeicavs iseT formulirebebs, romliTac ufro naTlad aris gasagebi evrokavSiris103


marTlmsajulebaN3dakanonisisxlissamarTlebrivi kompetencia, gansxvavavebiT, manamde moqmedi xelSekrulebebisagan.9 evrokavSiris Sesaxeb xelSekrulebis adrindel redaqciaSi saubari iyo narkotikebiTvaWrobaze, terorizmsa da organizebul danaSaulze. wevr saxelmwifoebs ekisrebodaTam sferoebSi garkveuli valdebulebebi CarCo-gadawyvetilebebis safuZvelze(mux. 31), Tumca, es CamonaTvali arasrul xasiaTs atarebda da normis teqstic bundovaniiyo. 10 Sesabamisad, advili ar iyo garkveva, Tu sad gadioda evrokavSiris sisxlissamarTlebrivikompetenciis zRvari. 11 83-e muxlSi gakeTebuli CamonaTvali, teqnikuradTu SevxedavT, ufro vrcelia, Tumca, es ar niSnavs, rom evrokavSiris kompetencia sisxlissamarTlis sferoSi erTbaSad gaizarda. mxolod is Seicvala, rom axali normiTufro gasagebi gaxda kompetenciis farglebi. evrokavSiris xelSekrulebis (Zv. red.)29-e da 31-e muxlebi isedac uSvebdnen sxvadasxva sferoebSi sisxlissamarTlebriv harmonizaciasda evrokavSiris mxridan Carevas. 12imisaTvis, rom evrokavSirma lisabonis xelSekrulebiT gaTvaliswinebuli uflebamosilebaganaxorcielos da sisxlissamarTlebrivi Sinaarsis direqtivebi gamosces,saWiroa Semdegi winapirobebi: saqme unda exebodes gansakuTrebiT mZime danaSauls, romliswinaaRmdeg erToblivad brZolis gansakuTrebuli saWiroeba dgas da is erTi qveynisfarglebs scdeba. 13 es winapirobebi Cadebulia evrokavSiris saqmianobis wesis SesaxebxelSekrulebis 83-e muxlis pirvel nawilSi. iqve CamoTvlilia is danaSaulebi, romlebicam kriteriumebs akmayofileben: terorizmi, adamianebiT vaWroba, korufcia da a.S. 14miuxedavad imisa, rom 83-e muxlis pirveli nawiliT evrokavSiris kompetenciis sakiTxibevrad ufro naTeli gaxda, masSi gaTvaliswinebuli danaSaulebis katalogis gafar-Toebis SesaZlebloba kritikulad fasdeba. kritikosebis mosazrebiT, iseTi terminebi,rogoricaa magaliTad, „...scdeba erTi qveynis farglebs...~ ar warmoadgenen seriozulbariers evropuli sisxlis samarTlis damatebiTi gafarToebis dasamuxruWeblad, racufro met SeWras gamoiwvevs wevri saxelmwifoebis sisxlissamarTlebriv sistemebSi. 15aqedan gamomdinare, 83-e muxli „eqspansiis potencialis~ matarebelia, radganac uSvebsdireqtivebis gamocemis SesaZleblobas im nebismieri danaSaulis mimarT, romelic Tundacrame kavSirSi iqneba arsebul katalogTan. 16 kritikosebi imasac amateben, rom sabWosmieca SesaZlebloba, sisxlis samarTlis yvela sferoSi Caerios. 17kritikis es argumentacia SesaZlebelia misaRebi iyos, magram mxolod im SemTxvevaSi,Tu 83-e muxlis pirvel abzacs mTeli muxlis konteqstidan amoviRebT da gancalkevebiTganvixilavT. 18 marTalia, pirveli abzaci CamonaTvalis gafarToebis SesaZleblobas uSvebs,Tumca, es meqanizmi Tavis mxriv, garkveul CarCoebSi aris moqceuli. SeuZlebeliaise moxdes, rom sabWo ubralod romelime direqtivis proeqts SeimuSavebs da yvelawevri saxelmwifo mis gamocemas daeTanxmeba. imisaTvis, rom direqtivis proeqtma gamocemisstadiamde miaRwios, saWiroa sxvadasxva instanciis gavla: xalxis mier arCeulievrokavSiris parlamentis _ romlis Tanxmobac aucilebelia, nacionaluri sakanonmdebloorganoebis _ romlebic aseve iReben monawileobas evrokavSiris sakanonmdebloprocesSi da garda amisa, sabWosi _ romelic dakompleqtebulia wevri saxelmwifoebismTavrobebis warmomadgenlebisagan. dabolos, rodesac direqtiva gamoicema, misi wevrisaxelmwifos Sida kanonmdeblobaSi implementaciis procesSi gadamwyvet rols adgi-104


lobrivi parlamenti asrulebs. 19 Tu yvela es barieri gadalaxuli iqna da iqmneba „safrTxe~,rom direqtivis proeqti umravlesobis mxardaWeriT gava, maSin calkeul saxelmwifosSeuZlia gamoiyenos 83-e muxlis mesame abzacSi Cadebuli e. w. saavario muxruWida es procesi SeaCeros.yovelive amis gaTvaliswinebiT, gamoTqmuli kritika usamarTloa. SeuZlebelia aseTisaxis xelSekrulebis muxlebisagan iseTive naTeli da detaluri regulaciebi moviTxovoT,rogorc es Sida kanonmdeblobis SemTxvevaSi xdeba. Tu 83-e muxlidan katalogisgafarToebis SesaZleblobas amoviRebdiT, maSin yoveli calkeuli SemTxvevisaTvis sa-Wiro gaxdeboda lisabonis xelSekrulebaSi damatebis Setana, rac praqtikulad rTuligansaxorcieleblia evropuli sakanonmdeblo procesis Taviseburebidan gamomdinare.amitomac umjobesia, Tavidanve daSvebul iqnas aucileblobis SemTxvevaSi, axal dana-Saulebzec direqtivis gamocemis SesaZlebloba, romelic amavdroulad, iseTi meqanizmebiTiqneba SezRuduli, rogoricaa Tundac `saavario muxruWi.~2. evrokavSiris damatebiTi kompetencia sisxlis samarTalSievrokavSiris saqmianobis wesis Sesaxeb xelSekrulebis 83-e muxlis meore nawili exebae.w. damatebiT kompetencias (igive aneqs-kompetencia), romelic mniSvnelovan siaxleswarmoadgens sisxlissamarTlebrivi harmonizaciis sferoSi. 20 am kompetenciis SinaarsiT,evrokavSirs eZleva sisxlissamarTlebrivi direqtivebis gamocemis SesaZleblobada danaSaulebisa da sasjelebis dadgena im sferobSic, sadac harmonizacia ukve ganxorcielda.Tumca, amisaTvis lisabonis xelSekrulebaSi Cadebulia Semdegi winapiroba:sisxlissamarTlebrivi direqtivebis gamocema dasaSvebia mxolod aucileblobisSemTxvevaSi, rodesac amis gareSe SeuZlebelia ukve harmonizebul sferoebSi evrokav-Siris politikis efeqtiani ganxorcieleba. saxelwodebac „damatebiTi~ swored aqedangamomdinareobs _ sisxlissamarTlebrivi meqanizmi irTveba damatebiT, ukve ganxorcielebuliRonisZiebebis araefeqtianobis gamo. es kompetencia adre evrogaerTianebissasamarTlos mierac iqna aRiarebuli, 21 Tumca arsebul xelSekrulebebSi ar iyogaTvaliswinebuli da amitomac, es aRiareba uflebamosilebis gadaWarbebad Sefasda. 22am sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT Tavis pirvel gadawyvetilebaSi evrogaerTianebis sasamarTlomdaadgina, rom gaerTinebas SeuZlia rogorc danaSaulis Semadgenlobebis, aseve,sasjelebis saxeebisa da moculobis dadgena. 23 Tumca, mogvianebiT, momdevno saqmezegadawyvetilebis miRebisas sasjelebTan dakavSirebuli kompetencia isev wevr saxelmwifoebsmiakuTvna. 24 lisabonis xelSekrulebaSi faqtobrivad gadmotanil iqna iskompetencia, rasac sasamarTlo pirvel gadawvetilebaSi asabuTebda da Sesabamisad,dReisaTvis evrokavSiri uflebamosilia rogorc Semadgenlobebis dadgenasTan, asevesanqciebTan mimarTebaSi. 2583-e muxlis meore nawiliT xelSekrulebis doneze evrokavSiris mxridan damatebiTisisxlissamarTlebrivi harmonizaciis uflebamosilebis sakiTxi gairkva, 26 Tumca, garkveuliSeniSvnebi mainc darCa. pirveli, is rom evrogaerTianebis farglebSi aqamde105


marTlmsajulebaN3dakanonibevri mimarTulebiT ganxorcielda harmonizacia da Sesabamisad, Teoriuli SesaZleblobaiqmneba, damatebiTi kompetenciis meSveobiT, evrokavSiri am sferoebSi sisxlissamarTlebrivikuTxiTac Caerios 27 da meore _ am kompetenciis gamoyeneba mxolod„aucileblobis” SemTxvevaSi saeWvoa, rom realur Semakavebel faqtorad iqces. 28zemoT naxsenebi safrTxeebis Tavidan acilebisaTvis saWiroa, rom yoveli sisxlissamarTlebrividireqtivis gamocemis dasabuTebuloba da aucilebloba evrokavSirissasamarTlom mkacrad gaakontrolos da gadaamowmos. 29 83-e muxlis meore nawilis ganmartebaunda moxdes mxolod da mxolod viwro gagebiT. 30 garda amisa, damatebiT damcavmeqanizmad gvevlineba „saavario muxruWi,” romliTac wevri saxelmwifoebis nacionalursisxlis samarTlis totaluri harmonizaciisagan dacva xdeba. yovelive amis gaTvaliswinebiT,zogadad, damatebiTi kompetenciis institutis SemoReba dadebiTad undaSefasdes. misi meSveobiT ufro ganxorcielebadi xdeba saerTo evropuli miznebis miRweva.is sakiTxi, ganaxorcielebs Tu ara momavalSi evrokavSiris sasamarTlo Tavis praqtikaSimkacr kontrols, ukve sxva Temaa. 31evrokavSiris kompetencias 83-e muxlis meore nawilis mixedviT, zRudavs ara mxolod„aucileblobis” winapiroba, aramed evropuli samarTlis iseTi mniSvnelovani principebi,rogorebicaa subsidiuroba da Tanazomiereba (evrokavSiris xelSekrulebis me-5muxl. abz. 1). subsidiurobis principi, evrokavSirs im sferoebSi, romelic mis eqskluziurkompetenciaSi ar Sedis, Carevis uflebas aZlevs mxolod maSin, rodesac saer-To-evropuli miznisaTvis srulyofilad miRweva calkeuli saxelmwifoebis donezeSeuZlebelia. 32 zustad swored amas Seesabameba damatebiT kompetenciaSi naxsenebi„aucileblobac.~ 33 wevri saxelmwifoebis sakanonmdeblo organoebs SeuZliaT mimarTonevrokavSiris parlaments, sabWosa da komisias dasabuTebuli poziciiT, rom gamosacemiama Tu im direqtivis proeqti ar Seesabameba subsidiurobis princips. 34 nacionaluriparlamentebis mxridan winaswari gafrTxilebis micemis es meqanizmi mniSvnelovaniinstrumentia saxelmwifoebsa da evrokavSirs Soris balansis dasacavad. 35 amas adasturebssubsidiurobisa da Tanazomierebis principebis gamoyenebis Sesaxeb oqmis me-8muxlis pirveli abzaci, romlis mixedviTac, wevri saxelmwifos mTavrobas parlamentisan misi romelime palatis saxeliT SeuZlia mimarTos sarCeliT evrokavSiris sasamar-Tlos romelime evropuli aqtis subsidiurobis principTan Seusabamobis gamo. 36subsidiurobis principisa da damatebiTi kompetenciis msgavsi urTierTmimarTebisCamoyalibeba evrokavSiris samarTlis SigniT mimdinare procesebis logikuri Sedegia.subsidiurobis SemoReba, evroparlamentma Tavidanve aRiara, rogorc evrokavSirisdinamikuri ganviTarebis garanti. is Tanabar Sansebs aZlevs orive mxares, rogorc evrokavSirs,aseve wevr saxelmwifoebs da arc erT maTgans ar SeuZlia, Sesabamisi dasabu-Tebis gareSe miiTvisos esa Tu is ufleba. 37evrokavSiris saqmianobis wesis Sesaxeb xelSekrulebis me-4 muxlis meore abzacSiCamoTvlilia is sferoebi, romlebzec kompetencia evrokavSirsa da wevr saxelmwifoebsSoris nawildeba, anu arc erTi maTgani ar sargeblobs maTi daregulirebis eqskluziuriuflebiT. es sferoebia: Sida bazari, energetika, transporti, momxmarebelTauflebebis dacva, transevropuli qselebi, Tavisuflebis, usafrTxoebisa da samarTlis106


erTiani sivrcis Seqmna da a.S. 38 ismis kiTxva, Tu romel sferoze SeiZleba gavrceldesdamatebiTi kompetencia? am kiTxvas rom gaeces pasuxi, upirvelesad, unda Semowmdes,scildeba Tu ara esa Tu is dasaregulirebeli sakiTxi erTi saxelmwifos farglebs?aris Tu ara sxvadasxva saxelmwifoebSi arsebuli gansxvavebuli midgomebis gamo erTianiregulacia aucilebeli? magaliTad, aviRoT transportis sfero: miuxedavad imisa, romam sferos mowesrigeba evrokavSiris doneze mniSvnelovania, ar aris aucilebeli amisgakeTeba, radganac es wevri saxelmwifoebis mxridanac aris briuselidan CaurevladSesaZlebeli, 39 magram Tu konkretul SemTxvevaSi satransporto sferoSi iseTi sakiTxebiagadasawyveti, rac saerToevropul masStabebSi ukeTesad moxdeba, maSin lisabonisxelSekruleba evrokavSiris mxridan sisxlissamarTlebrivi Carevis saSualebas iZleva.transportis usafrTxoebis gaumjobesebis mizniT msgavsi moqmedeba adre arsebulixelSekrulebiTac iyo SesaZlebeli. 40 amis magaliTia moqmedi direqtiva, romelic icavszRvebs xomaldebis mxridan dabinZurebisagan da amisaTvis adgens sanqciebs. 41 am direqtivispirvelive muxlSi dasaxulia saerTaSoriso standartebis dadgena evrogaer-Tianebis doneze, raTa dacul iqnen zRvebi dabinZurebisagan, mavne nivTierebebisagan.dacvis efeqtianad gansaxorcieleblad unda dadgindes pasuxismgebeli pirebis dasasjeladSesabamisi sanqciebi, maT Soris, sisxlissamarTlebrivis CaTvliT. es direqtivakargad uCvenebs, rom evrogaerTianeba Caeria ara romelime rigiTi satransportosakiTxis mosawesrigeblad, aramed ufro globaluri problemis, zRvebis dabinZurebisTavidan asacileblad, romelic calkeuli saxelmwifoebis doneze rTuli Sesasrulebelia.garkveulwilad gansxvavebuli suraTia garemos dacvasTan mimarTebaSi. garemos dabinZurebaTavisi bunebidan gamomdinare, Tavidanve internacionaluri xasiaTis matarebelimovlenaa. erT qveyanaSi momxdari dabinZureba negatiur gavlenas axdens mezobelsaxelmwifozec. 42 garemos dacvis aucileblobaze evrogaerTianebis sasamarTlomacmiuTiTa. misi mosazrebiT es aris gaerTianebis erT-erTi umTavresi mizani. 43 sasamar-Tlom xazi gausva imasac, rom sisxlis samarTali ZiriTadad, wevri saxelmwifoebis kompetenciaSirCeba da evrogaerTianeba masSi naklebad unda ereodes. Tumca, es ar gamoricxavs,rom garemos dacvis RonisZiebebis efeqtianad gasatareblad sisxlissamar-Tlebrivi saSualebebic iqnes gamoyenebuli. 44subsidiurobis principTan winaaRmdegobaSi ar modis aseve evropis finansuriinteresebis dacva evrokavSiris saqmianobis wesis Sesaxeb xelSekrulebis 325-e muxlismeoTxe nawilisa da 83-e muxlis meore nawilis mixedviT. 45 evrogaerTianebis SesaxebxelSekruleba (Zv.red.), kerZod, finansuri interesebis dasacavad 280-e muxlis meoTxenawili sisxlis samarTlis gamoyenebas ar cnobda. 46 finansuri interesebis dasacavadsisxlis samarTlis argamoyenebis es daTqma realurad am interesebs efeqtiani dacvisgareSe tovebda, amitomac evrokonstituciis proeqtidan _ 415-e muxli mesame abzaci_ es daTqma amoRebul iqna. 47 SemdgomSi konstituciis proeqtis es nawili gadataniliqna ucvlelad dRes moqmed evrokavSiris saqmianobis wesis Sesaxeb xelSekrulebis 325-e muxlis saxiT (romelic lisabonis xelSekrulebis Semadgeneli nawilia evrokavSirisSesaxeb xelSekrulebasTan erTad) da amiT adre arsebuli gaurkvevloba aRmoifxvra. 48107


marTlmsajulebaN3dakanonievrokavSiris mxridan sisxlissamarTlebrivi regulirebebis gamoyeneba TeoriuladSesaZlebelia soflis meurneobis sferoSic. agraruli seqtorisa da Tevzis mrewvelobismimarTulebiT kavSiri uflebamosilia ganaxorcielos da warmarTos saerTopolitika (evrok. saqm. wesis Ses. xelS. mux. 38). soflis meurneoba, Tevzis mrewvelobada agraruli produqciiT vaWroba evropuli Sida erTiani bazris mniSvnelovani nawilia.agrarul sferoSi wevrma saxelmwifoebma adridanve dauTmes TavianTi kompetenciaevrogaerTianebas. 49 evrokavSiri am mimarTulebiT didi odenobiT subsidiebsgascems, amitomac aucilebelia maTi efeqtiani samarTlebrivi dacva. 50 manipulaciebisTavidan asacileblad saWiroa ara mxolod prevenciuli, aramed represiuli, gansakuTrebiT,sisxlissamarTlebrivi RonisZiebebis gatareba. 51 evrokavSiris saqmianobiswesis Sesaxeb xelSekrulebis me-40 muxlis meore nawili uSvebs amis SesaZleblobas.kerZod, es muxli exeba evrokavSiris mxridan erTiani agraruli organizaciis ganxorcielebasda am miznis misaRwevad, gamoyenebul unda iqnas yvela `saWiro RonisZieba.~aqedan gamomdinare, am saWiro RonisZiebebSi sisxlissamarTlebrivi daTqmebic undamoviazroT, raTa moxdes im uzarmazari finansuri nakadebis TaRliTobebisagan dacva,romlebic soflis meurneobis dargSi moZraoben. 52garda zemoaRniSnuli specifikuri sferoebisa, lisabonis xelSekruleba sxva muxlebsacSeicavs, romlebic aseve, uSveben yvela wevri saxelmwifosaTvis savaldebulosaerTo sisxlissamarTlebrivi aqtebis gamocemas. evrokavSiris saqmianobis wesisSesaxeb xelSekrulebis 114-e da 115-e muxlebi adgenen, rom erTiani, funqcionirebadiSida bazris Sesaqmnelad evrokavSiris parlamentma da sabWom gamoscen direqtivebi.Tu romel dargs exeba es direqtiva, ara aqvs mniSvneloba. Sesabamisad, es muxlebi sisxlissamarTalzec vrceldeba. 53 Tumca, subsidiurobis princips amavdroulad yovel-Tvis unda mieqces yuradReba, radganac erTiani Sida bazris ganxorcieleba evrokav-Siris eqskluziur kompetenciaSi ar Sedis. 54 yoveli sisxlissamarTlebrivi Carevisaucilebloba am mimarTulebiT unda iqnes dasabuTebuli. am dros gadamwyveti mniSvnelobaaqvs imis garkvevas, SeuZliaT Tu ara wevr saxelmwifoebs bazris organizaciismaRali xarisxis damoukideblad miRweva Tu amisaTvis evrokavSiris mxridan aris CarevasaWiro. 55Tanazomierebis principi _ subsidiurobis principTan erTad wevri saxelmwifoebisaTvismniSvnelovani dacvis meqanizmia. Tu subsidiuroba imis garkvevas gulisxmobs,SeuZlia Tu ara evrokavSirs romelime sakiTxTan mimarTebaSi moqmedeba, Tanazomierebaukve am moqmedebis farglebis dadgenas gulisxmobs, anu ra siRrmiT aris SesaZlebeliwevri saxelmwifoebis samarTlebriv sistemaSi SeWra. 56 maSasadame, Tu subsidiurobisprincipi daculi iqneba da is sisxlissamarTlebriv harmonizacias gzas gauxsnis, maSinCairTveba damatebiT, meore meqanizmi Tanazomierebis principis saxiT, raTa evrokav-Siri imaze metad ar Caerios, rac aucilebelia xelSekrulebiT gansazRvruli miznismisaRwevad. 57 es principi Cadebulia evrokavSiris Sesaxeb xelSekrulebis me-5 muxlisme-4 abzacSi. germaniis sakonstitucio sasamarTlo mas, rogorc erT-erT fundamenturprincips, ise ganixilavs, romelic wevri saxelmwifoebis `nacionaluri identurobis~dacvis garantia. 58108


Tanazomierebis principidan gamomdinare, wevri saxelmwifoebis samarTlebriv sistemaSirac SeiZleba naklebi Careva unda moxdes. 59 Tavidan unda iqnes acilebuli iseTievropuli regulirebebi, romlebic nacionalur samarTalSi sistemur cvlilebas gamoiwveven.Tumca, Tu gadavxedavT aqamde arsebul praqtikas, Cans rom evropeli kanonmdebelimocemul princips zogjer saTanadod ar iTvaliswinebs. aviRoT magaliTad,CarCo-gadawyvetileba terorizmTan brZolis Sesaxeb, 60 sadac zogierTi teroristuliqmedebis CadenisaTvis evropelma kanonmdebelma sasjelis saxiT sul mcire, 15 wlisvadiT Tavisuflebis aRkveTa daadgina. fineli kanonmdebeli, iZulebuli gaxda, sakuTarinormebis evropulTan SesabamisobaSi mosayvanad, specialurad am teroristuliqmedebebisaTvis gamonaklisi daeSva da SemoeRo 15-wliani sasjeli (Tavisuflebis aRkveTa),miuxedavad imisa, rom fineTis kanonmdeblobaSi vadiani Tavisuflebis aRkveTisxangrZlivoba zogadad, 12 wels ar aRemateba. 61araTanazomier Carevas maSinac eqneba adgili, rodesac romelime erTi konkretulideliqtis mimarT iseTi maRali sasjelis zomis dadgena iqneba moTxovnili evrokavSirismxridan, rom sabolood, es romelime saxelmwifos sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsSi sxvadanaSaulebTan mimarTebaSi sistemur winaaRmdegobebs gamoiwvevs. magaliTad, TuerTbaSad gaizrdeba sasjeli erTi naklebad mZime danaSaulisaTvis, maSin SeiZleba SedegadmiviRoT is, rom sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsSi evropuli regulaciis gadatanisgamo, es danaSauli ufro mkacrad daisjeba, vidre manamde arsebuli misi kategoriissxva danaSaulebi. amitomac warmoiqmneba Seusabamoba nacionalur sanqciaTa sistemaSi.amis Tavidan asacileblad saWiro gaxdeba sxva danaSaulebis mimarTac sasjelebis Secvla,rac evrokavSiris mxridan aSkarad gadaWarbebuli da araTanazomieri Carevis Sedegiiqneba.yovelive zemoT aRniSnuls, damatebiT kompetenciasTan mimarTebaSi Tu gavaanalizebT,davinaxavT, rom evrokavSiris saqmianobis wesis Sesaxeb xelSekrulebis 83-e muxlismeore abzaci sulac ar warmoadgens safrTxes nacionaluri sisxlissamarTlebrivisistemebisaTvis. marTalia, is SedarebiT Ria formulirebebs Seicavs, magram lisabonisxelSekruleba amavdroulad sxvadasxva meqanizms iTvaliswinebs, raTa es muxli ar iqnestotaluri harmonizaciisaTvis gamoyenebuli (Tundac, igive subsidiurobisa da Tanazomierebisprincipebi). 62 aqedan gamomdinare, unda iTqvas, rom lisabonis xelSekrulebaSidamatebiTi kompetenciis Cadeba, romelic adre mxolod evrogaerTianebissasamarTlos praqtikaSi iyo aRiarebuli, win gadadgmuli nabijia.3. `saavario muxruWi~evrokavSiris saqmianobis wesis Sesaxeb xelSekrulebis 83-e muxlis pirveli da meorenawilebiT am organizaciisaTvis sisxlis samarTlis sferoSi sakmaod farTo sisxlissamarTlebrivikompetenciebis gadacemis paralelurad amave muxlis mesame nawilSigaTvaliswinebul iqna wevri saxelmwifoebis interesebis dacvisaTvis aucilebeli e.w.`saavario muxruWi,~ romelic mdgomareobs SemdegSi: 63109


marTlmsajulebaN3dakanoniTu sabWos erT-erTma wevrma CaTvla, rom 83-e muxlis pirveli da meore abzacidangamomdinare gamosacemi direqtivis proeqti SeiZleba misi Sidasaxelmwifoebrivi sisxlissamarTlebrivisistemis ZiriTad aspeqtebs Seexos, maSin mas SeuZlia gaakeTos ganacxadi,rom am sakiTxiT evropuli sabWo dakavdes. am SemTxvevaSi Cveulebrivi sakanonmdebloprocedura SeCerdeba. ganxilvis dasrulebis Semdeg, evropuli sabWo, TanxmobisSemTxvevaSi, direqtivis proeqts, proceduris SeCerebidan 4 Tvis ganmavlobaSi ubrunebssabWos. amiT sakanonmdeblo proceduris SeCereba dasruldeba.Tu Tanxmoba ver miiRweva, magram direqtivis arsebuli proeqtis safuZvelze sulmcire, evrokavSiris wevr cxra saxelmwifos surs gaZlierebuli TanamSromloba, maSinisini amis Sesaxeb acnobeben imave vadaSi evrokavSiris parlaments, sabWosa da komisias.aRniSnul SemTxvevaSi, evrokavSiris Sesaxeb xelSekrulebis me-20 muxlis meore abzacisada evrokavSiris saqmianobis wesis Sesaxeb xelSekrulebis 329-e muxlis pirveli abzacisSesabamisad, gaZlierebuli TanamSromlobis uflebamosileba CaiTvleba miniWebulad.83-e muxlis mesame nawiliT yvela saxelmwifom realurad vetos ufleba miiRo sakuTariinteresebis evropuli gavlenebisagan dasacavad. 64 gansakuTrebul mniSvnelobases instituti im fonze iZens, rodesac dReisaTvis gadawyvetilebis miRebisas kavSirisfarglebSi umravlesobis principi moqmedebs da rTulia sakuTari interesebis dacva.xolo aris Tu ara saavario muxruWis gamoyeneba yovelTvis SesaZlebeli, es ukve sxvasakiTxia. upirveles yovlisa, is gamoiyeneba mxolod gamonaklis SemTxvevebSi, rodesacsafrTxe eqmneba Sidasaxelmwifoebrivi sisxlissamarTlebrivi sistemis romelime Ziri-Tad aspeqts da is ar unda iqces sabWoSi nebismieri iniciativis damblokav saSualebad. 65is jer kidev, evrokonstituciis teqstis proeqtSi iqna gaTvaliswinebuli, rogorckompromisi umravlesobis principze gadasvlis gamo da romlis SemoRebasac ramdenimesaxelmwifo saerTod ar eTanxmeboda. 66 Tumca isic unda aRiniSnos, rom 83-e muxlismesame nawili aranair konkretul daTqmas ar akeTebs imasTan dakavSirebiT, Tu ra drosSeiZleba nacionaluri samarTlebrivi sistemis ZiriTadi aspeqtebi Selaxulad CaiTvalos.es TviTon saxelmwifos gadasawyvetia da mas yovelgvari detaluri dasabuTebisgareSe SeuZlia am safrTxeze ubralod miuTiTos da vetos ufleba gamoiyenos. Tu rapoziciaze dganan sabWoSi warmodgenili sxva saxelmwifoebi, amas ara aqvs mniSvneloba. 67evrokavSiris wevri saxelmwifoebisaTvis miniWebuli vetos ufleba, miuxedavad misigamoyenebis advili SesaZleblobisa, mainc ar niSnavs, rom direqtivis proeqti erTixelis mosmiT sabolod Cavardeba. Tavdapirvelad, wevri saxelmwifoebi ecdebian evrokavSirissabWoSi kompromisis miRwevas da Tu es ar gamovida, rCeba gaZlierebuli Tanam-Sromlobis gza. 68 gaZlierebuli TanamSromlobis meSveobiT SeuZliaT im saxelmwifoebs,romlebsac surT im direqtivis proeqtis miReba, romelsac erT-erTma sxva wevrma vetodaado, gamoscen es aqti, Tumca is mxolod maTTvis SeiZens savaldebulo Zalas. 69 amiTlisabonis xelSekruleba orive mxaris interesebs Tanabrad iTvaliswinebs.ra SeiZleba moviazroT `ZiriTad aspeqtebSi?~ am kiTxvaze pasuxis gasacemad Tavidanveunda gvaxsovdes, rom amis garkveva unda moxdes TiToeuli saxelmwifos gadmosaxedidangamomdinare, amitom winaswar srulyofilad SeuZlebelia Tqma, Tu konkretulSemTxvevaSi ra SeiZleba momavalSi CaiTvalos aseT aspeqtad. 70110


upirveles yovlisa, amaSi Sedian nacionalur konstituciebSi Cadebuli iseTi mniSvnelovaniprincipebi, rogoricaa: bralis, kanonis ukuqceviTi Zalis akrZalvis, Tanazomierebis,samarTlebrivi sikeTis dacvis, ultima ratio-s da sxva principebi. 71 es aspeqtebidamaxasiaTebelia ara mxolod erTi romelime konkretuli wevri saxelmwifossamarTlebrivi sistemisaTvis, aramed nacnobia sxvebisTvisac. am sakiTxze aris saubarievropuli kriminaluri politikis manifestSic. 72 manifestSi wamyvanma evropelmasisxlis samarTlis specialistebma Camoayalibes is principebi, romlebic momavalSisasurvelia rom iqnes gaTvaliswinebul rogorc nacionalur, aseve saerToevropuldoneze. maT unda Seasrulon saorientacio funqcia. 73 Tanazomierebis, subsidiurobis,kanonierebisa da koherentulobis principebi – es aris is ZiriTadi momentebi, romelTadarRvevis gamoc unda gamoiyenon evrokavSiris wevrma saxelmwifoebma saavario muxruWi.74 83-e muxlidan gamomdinare, uflebamosilebis ganxorcielebis dros evrokav-Siris Sesabamisma organoebma unda daasabuTon, rom maT mier gamosacemi esa Tu is aqtiam moTxovnebs Seesabameba. 75Tumca es manifesti exeba ara mxolod evropel kanonmdebels, aramed wevr saxelmwifoebsac.sasurvelia, rom momavalSi isini saavario muxruWs mxolod safuZvlianidasabuTebis Semdeg gamoiyeneben da ara politikuri vaWrobis sagnad. 76 kiTxvas, SeuZliaTu ara evrokavSiris sasamarTlos imis gadamowmeba, iyeneben Tu ara saxelmwifoebisaavario muxruWs borotad da amiT arRveven Tu ara lisabonis xelSekrulebaSi Cadebulloialurobis princips (evrok. Ses. xelS. mux. 4, abz. 3) _ uaryofiTi pasuxi unda gaeces,radganac msgavs SemTxvevaSi, saavario muxruWis instituti saerTod azrs dakargavs.misi umTavresi mizani nacionaluri samarTlebrivi identurobis SenarCunebaa da amisevrokavSiris sasamarTlos doneze gadamowmeba dauSvebelia. sxva wevr saxelmwifoebsisedac rCebaT imis SesaZlebloba, rom gaZlierebuli TanamSromlobis gziT SeinarCunondablokili direqtivis proeqti da Sesabamisad, erTi saxelmwifos mxridan vetos dadebaevrokavSiris saqmianobas sisxlis samarTlis mimarTulebiT safrTxes ar uqmnis. 77garda zemoT CamoTvlili principebisa, saxelmwifos SeuZlia vetos ufleba sxva imaspeqtebis dacvis safuZvliTac gamoiyenos, romlis daTmobac nacionaluri samarTlisTaviseburebidan gamomdinare, mas ar surs an ar SeuZlia. 78daskvnamiuxedavad arsebuli kritikisa da SeniSvnebisa, romlebsac SeiZleba nawilobrivdaveTanxmoT, mainc unda iTqvas, rom evrokavSiris uflebebis gaZliereba sisxlissamarTlebrividaTqmebis mimarTulebiT mniSvnelovani wingadadgmuli nabijia. 79 evrokavSirissaqmianobis wesis Sesaxeb xelSekrulebis 83-e muxli amis kargi nimuSia. misimeSveobiT SesaZlebeli xdeba kavSirsa da wevr saxelmwifoebs Soris kompetenciaTa ufromkafiod gamijvna, vidre es aqamde iyo.111


marTlmsajulebaN3dakanoniSeniSvnebi:1evropuli integraciis procesis Sesaxeb mokle istoriuli eqskursiix.: krebulSi turava, evropuli sisxlis samarTali, 2010, gv. 6-10.2Satzger, Int. und Europäisches Strafrecht, 4. Aufl. 2010, gv. 115; aseve, Hecker,Europäisches Strafrecht, 3. Aufl., 2010, gv. 266; zogadad, nacionalur sisxlissamarTalze gavlenebis Sesaxeb ix.: jiSkariani, samarTlis JurnaliNr. 1-2, 2010, gv. 254-271.3turava, evropuli sisxlis samarTali, 2010, gv. 109; Satzger, Int. undEuropäisches Strafrecht, 4. Aufl. 2010, gv. 115; Zimmermann, JURA 2009, gv. 846;Dannecker, Jura 2006, gv. 99; Streinz/Ohler/Herrmann, Der Vertrag von Lissabonzur Refrom der EU, 3. Aufl., gv. 163.4Vogel, GA 2003, gv. 321; Zimmermann, JURA 2009, gv. 844.5Zimmermann, JURA 2009, gv. 844; Satzger, Int. und Europäisches Strafrecht, 4.Aufl. 2010, gv. 116.6Streinz/Ohler/Herrmann, Der Vertrag von Lissabon zur Reform der EU, 3. Aufl., gv. 165.7Sieber, ZStW 2009, gv. 57; Danecker, JURA 2006, gv. 177.8ase afasebda magaliTad, Schünemann, GA 2004, gv. 200; Sdr. Vormbaum,Schütz der Rechtsgüter von EU-Staaten durch das deutsche Strafrecht, 2005, gv. 70.9Sdr. Heger, ZIS 2009, gv. 411.10Schünemann, GA 2004, gv. 196.11Schünemann, GA 204, gv. 196; Satzger, in Streinz (Hrsg.), EUV/EGV, 2003, 129;Heger, ZIS 2009, gv. 411.12Satzger, Int. und Europäisches Strafrecht, 4. Aufl., 2010, gv. 117; Satzger, in Streinz(Hrsg.), EUV/EGV, 2003, 129; Heger, ZIS 209, gv. 411.13Kubiciel, GA 2010, gv. 101; Zimmermann, JURA 2009, gv. 846.14Sdr. hegeri, krebulSi turava, evropuli sisxlis samarTali, 2010,gv. 151-153.15Weigend, ZStW 2004, gv. 283.16Kubiciel, GA 2010, gv. 101.17Weigend, ZStW 2004, gv. 283.18Satzger, Int. und Europäisches Strafrecht, 4. Aufl., 2010, gv. 118.19Sdr. Sieber, ZStW 2009, gv. 53.20hegeri, krebulSi turava, evropuli sisxlis samarTali, 2010, gv. 154;Satzger, in Hefedehl(Hrsg.), Empirische und dogmatische Fundamente, kriminalpolitischerImpetus, 2005, gv. 306.21EuGHE 2005, gv. 7879 (Kommission/Rat); EuGHE 2007, gv. 9097 (Kommission/Rat).22Satzger, Int. und Europäisches Strafrecht, 4. Aufl., 2010, gv. 120; Zöller, ZIS 2009,gv. 346; Zieschang, Festschrift für Tiedemann, 2008, gv. 1313.23EuGHE 2005, gv. 7879 (Kommission/Rat).24EuGHE 2007, gv. 9097 (Kommission/Rat); hegeri, krebulSi turava, evropulisisxlis samarTali, 2010, gv. 154.25Reiing/Reschke, wistra 2010, gv. 48; Frenz/Wübenhorst, wistra 2009, gv. 450.26Hecker, Europäisches Strafrecht, 3 Aufl., 2010, gv. 267.27Zimmerman, JURA 2009, gv. 847; Kubiciel, GA 2010, gv. 102.28Schünemann, in Schünemann (Hrsg.), Alternativentwurf Europäische Strafervorgung,2004, gv. 75; Satzger, in Hefendehl (Hrsg.), Empirische und dogmatische Fundamente,kriminalpolitischer Impetus, 2005, gv. 307; Satzger, Int. und Europäisches Strafrecht,4. Aufl., 2010, gv. 121.29Satzger, Int. und Europäisches Strafrecht, 4. Aufl., 2010, gv. 121.30Walter, ZStW 2005, gv. 928.31Satzger, Int. und Europäisches Strafrecht, 4. Aufl., 2010, gv. 121.32Sdr. jiSkariani, samarTlis Jurnali, 1-2, 2010, gv. 266-267.33Hecker, Europäisches Strafrecht, 3. Aufl., 2010, gv. 289.34Streinz/Ohler/Herrmann, Der Vertrag von Lissabon zur Reform der EU, 3. Aufl., gv. 73.35Walter, ZStW 2005, gv. 931.36Kreß, ZStW 2004, gv. 456.37Schweitzer/Fixon, JURA 1992, gv. 580.112


38Streinz/Ohler/Herrmann, Der Vertrag von Lissabon zur Reform der EU, 3. Aufl., gv. 107.39Hecker, Europäisches Strafrecht, 3. Aufl., 2010, gv. 291.40Satzger, Die Europäisierung des Strafrechts, 2001, gv. 413.41ABl. 2009, Nr. L 280, gv. 52.42Hecker, ZStW 2003, gv. 115; Knaut, Die Europäisierung des Umweltstrafrechts,2004, gv. 320.43EuGHE, 2005, gv. 7923 (Kommission/Rat).44EuGHE, 2005, gv. 7925 (Kommission/Rat).45Hecker, Europäisches Strafrecht, 3. Aufl., 2010, gv. 288.46dawvr. turava, evropuli sisxlis samarTali, 2010, gv. 91-95; Ambos,Internationales Strafrecht, 2. Aufl., 2008, gv. 417; Dannecker, JURA 2006, gv. 97;Schröder, Europäische Richtlinien und deutsches Strafrecht, 2002, gv. 145.47Ambos, Internationales Strafrecht, 2. Aufl., 2008, gv. 420.48Heger, ZIS 2009, gv. 416; turava, evropuli sisxlis samarTali, 2010, gv.95; damatebiT ix.: hegeri, krebulSi turava, evropuli sisxlis samar-Tali, 2010, 159-160.49Dannecker, in Eser/Huber (Hrsg.) Strafrechtsentwicklung in Europa, Bd. 4.3., 1995,gv. 146.50Tiedemann, NJW 1990, gv. 2226.51Dannecker, ZStW 1996, gv. 578.52Hecker, Europäisches Strafrecht, 3. Aufl., 2010, gv. 289.53Hecker, Europäisches Strafrecht, 3. Aufl., 2010, gv. 289.54Leible, in Streinz, EUV/EGV, 2003, gv. 1238.55Leible, in Streinz, EUV/EGV, 2003, gv. 1239.56Streinz, in Streinz, EUV/EGV, 2003, gv. 274.57Eisele, JZ 2001, gv. 1163; Hecker, Europäisches Strafrecht, 3. Aufl., 2010, gv. 293.58BVerfGE 89, gv. 212.59Eisele, JZ 2001, gv. 1163; Hecker, Europäisches Strafrecht, 3. Aufl., 2010, gv. 292.60Rahmenbeschluss 2008/919/JL, ABl. 2008, Nr. L 330, gv. 21.61evropuli kriminaluri politikis manifesti, krebulSi turava, evropulisisxlis samarTali, 2010, gv. 538; Manifest zur EuropäischenKriminalpolitik, ZIS 2009, gv. 706.62Sdr. evropuli kriminaluri politikis manifesti, krebulSi turava,evropuli sisxlis samarTali, 2010, gv. 527.63Sdr. hegeri, krebulSi turava, evropuli sisxlis samarTali, 2010,gv. 155-159.64Heger, ZIS 2009, gv. 413; Zimmermann, JURA 2009, gv. 848.65Heger, ZIS 2009, gv. 415.66Satzger, in: Hefendehl, Empirische und dogmatische Fundamente, kriminalpolitischerImpetus, 2005, gv. 308.67Hecker, Europäisches Strafrecht, 3. Aufl., 2010, gv. 295.68Sieber, ZStW 2009, gv. 56.69Zimmermann, JURA 2009, gv. 848.70Sdr. jiSkariani, krebulSi turava, evropuli sisxlis samarTali, 2010,gv. 191-192; aseve, jiSkariani, samarTlis Jurnali, Nr. 1-2 2010, gv. 267.71hegeri, krebulSi turava, evropuli sisxlis samarTali, 2010, gv. 157-158; Dannecker, JURA 2006, gv. 177; Heger, ZIS 2009, gv. 414.72Manifest zur Europäischen Kriminalpolitik, ZIS 2009, gv. 697.73Satzger, ZIS 2009, gv. 693; Satzger, Int. und Europäisches Strafrecht, 4. Aufl.,2010, gv. 124.74Sdr. zatcgeri, krebulSi turava, evropuli sisxlis samarTali, 2010,517-523.75Satzger, ZIS 2009, gv. 693.76Heger, ZIS 2009, gv. 414.77Sdr. Zimmermann, JURA 2009, gv. 848.78Zimmermann, JURA 2009, gv. 848.79Sdr. jiSkariani, krebulSi turava, evropuli sisxlis samarTali,2010, gv. 194.113


marTlmsajulebaN3dakanoniCOMPETENCE OF CRIMINALLAW HARMONIZATION INACCORDANCE WITH THEARTICLE 83 OF AGREEMENT ONTHE LIST OF EU DIRECTIVESBACHANA JISHKARIANILL.M Munich, PHD of Criminal Procedure and Economic CriminalLaw FacultyLisbon Agreement, that entered the legal force on December 1, 2009, isnowadays the main document acting in EU. This legal act was adoptedafter the failure of European Constitution, as a compromise. Severalamendments were implemented within the framework of Lisbon Agreement.For example, some competences had been spread differently between themember states and Union, compared to what it was before. Changesreflected criminal law area as well.Presented Article speaks about the List of European Union DirectivesArticle 83 of the Agreement, ( this agreement is part of Lisbon Agreement),that is the crucial article in regard with the criminal jurisdiction of EU. Forexample, based on that, it is possible to issue criminal law directives.Member states are further obliged to shift these requirements in locallegislation. Obviously, EU rights are not limited in this regard. Article 83specifies the areas, where it is possible to intervene through the directives.Article 83 not only allows for issuing of directives, but also importantmechanisms of criminal justice system protection. Member states can vetodirectives in case the specific directive creates threat to the key aspects ofnational criminal justice system.Certain critics was expressed regarding the mentioned novelties and certainaspects of Article 83 was evaluated as threat to national justice system,although as a summary it is worth mentioning that this is one more stepforward towards European integration and it deserves positive assessment.114


TanamonawileTasaxeebisklasifikaciisSesaxebgiorgi barabaZesamarTlis doqtori, asocirebuli profesorisagulisxmoa, rom TanamonawileTa saxeebis klasifikaciasarsebiTi mniSvneloba aqvs, rogorc TanamonawileTapasuxismgeblobis, aseve, sasjelis individualizaciis sakiTxismarTebuli gadawyvetisaTvis. danaSaulis CadenaSiori an ramdenime piris ganzrax erToblivi monawileobisas,moqmedebis xerxebi, romlis meSveobiTac esa Tu is Tanamonawilesisxlis samarTlis kanoniT dacul sazogadoebrivurTierTobas xelyofs, SeiZleba sruliad sxvadasxvagvariiyos. zogi SeiZleba uSualod Cadiodes danaSauls,xolo zogi monawileobas iRebdes winaswar mosamzadebelmoqmedebaSi da a.S. amdenad, saWiroa gairkves, Tu ra kategoriebadSeiZleba daiyos yvela is piri, romelic ganzraxerToblivad monawileobs danaSaulis CadenaSi. miuxedavadimisa, rom yvela isini monawileobas iReben erTiani dana-Saulebrivi Sedegis dadgomaSi, aseTi monawileobis xasiaTida xarisxi, piris roli danaSaulis CadenaSi, zegavlenisxasiaTi erTi Tanamonawilisa meoreze gansxvavebulia. aRniSnuli,Tavis mxriv, miuTiTebs, calkeuli Tanamonawilisgansxvavebuli socialuri saSiSroebis Sinaarsze.Tanamonawileobis Teoriis SeqmnasTan erTad, romelicpraqtikulad burJuaziuli periodis mecnierebas ukavSirdeba,daiwyo cdebi maTi saxeebad klasifikaciisa. sisxlissamarTlis mecnierebisaTvis es aucilebeli iyo, rogorc115


marTlmsajulebaN3dakanoniTanamonawileobis Teoriis kvlevisas, ise sakanonmdeblo teqnikisa da maTi pasuxismgeblobissakiTxis sworad gadaWris TvalsazrisiTac.xazgasasmelia, rom sisxlissamarTlebriv literaturaSi, TanamonawileTa klasifikaciisSesaxeb, istoriulad, sami Teoriuli mimarTuleba Camoyalibda: obieqturi, subieqturi,Sereuli. 1istoriulad, obieqturi Teoria yvelaze ufro Zveli warmoSobisaa da igi dakavSirebuliasisxlis samarTlis klasikuri skolis fuZemdeblis a. foierbaxis saxelTan.es koncefcia TanamonawileTa saxeebis gamijvnas safuZvlad udebda danaSaulebriviSedegis gamomwvevi erTiani moqmedebis garegan niSnebs. am Teoriis warmomadgenlebi(foierbaxi, citmani, glormani da sxv.) amtkicebdnen, rom amsrulebeli aris is, romlismoqmedebac warmoadgens movlenis sakmaris, aucilebel, upiratesobis mqone an mTavarmizezs. kerZod, foierbaxis msjelobiT, vinaidan dasjadoba da misi xarisxi ganisazRvrebaim zianis mixedviT, romelic adgeba samarTlebriv sikeTes. amdenad, danaSaulisSedegis gamomwvevi unda daisajos mkacrad damxmaresTan SedarebiT, radganac es ukanasknelimxolod exmareba mas. zianis mimyenebelSi igi gulisxmobda ara marto amsrulebels,aramed wamqezebelsac. misi azriT, amsrulebelia is, visi moqmedebac warmoadgenssakmaris mizezs danaSaulebrivi Sedegis warmoSobisaTvis. sulerTia, uSualodam piris moqmedebam gamoiwvia es Sedegi, Tu igi gaSualebuli iyo sxvisi moqmedebiT. 2aRsaniSnavia, rom SemdgomSi, mizezobrivi kavSiris sxvagvari gagebis kvalobaze,Tanamonawileobis foierbaxiseuli Teoria dawunebuli da uaryofili iqna. kerZod, masSemdeg, rac germanul sisxlissamarTlebriv doqtrinaSi ukugdebuli iqna Sedegis gamomwvevfaqtorTa sxvadasxvagvarovneba da gabatonebuli mdgomareoba ekvivalenturmaTeoriam moipova, romelmac Tavisi gamoxatuleba hpova daskvnaSi „Sedegis gamomwveviaucilebeli pirobebi tolfasovania.~ obieqturi Teoriis momxreTa erTi jgufi (r.hipeli, e. belingi, m. maieri, e. mecgeri da sxv.) Seecada miemarTa sxva _ kanonSi aRwerilidanaSaulis Semadgenlobisadmi TanamonawileTa mier Cadenili moqmedebebis damokidebulebisobieqturi kriteriumisaTvis.niSandoblivia, rom ukanaskneli mimarTulebis warmomadgenlebi, TanamonawileTaganmasxvavebel niSans Tavad sisxlis samarTlis kanonSi eZebdnen. anu, ufro zustad,kanonis dispoziciiT gaTvaliswinebuli Semadgenlobis sferoSi. maTi azriT, amsrulebeliasrulebs danaSaulis Semadgenlobis Sesabamis moqmedebas, damxmare ki, immoqmedebas, romelsac amsrulebeli mihyavs danaSaulis Cadenamde.cxadia, formalur-obieqturi Teoriis nakli aSkara iyo, vinaidan es Teoria TanamonawileTadayofas xedavda ara mizezobriobis xasiaTSi, aramed mxolod da mxolod maTimoqmedebis iuridiul mniSvnelobaSi. msgavsi dayofis kriteriumad iTvleboda Tavadfaqti am moqmedebis SesrulebaSi monawileobisa, romelic qmnida danaSaulis Semadgenlobisobieqtur mxares. maT mier SemoTavazebul TanamonawileTa klasifikaciisobieqtur kriteriums gamoclili hqonda is materialuri safuZveli, romelic dana-SaulSi Tanamonawileobisas Sedegis gamomwvev aucilebel pirobaTa araTanasworfasovnebaSigamoixateboda.116


TanamonawileTa klasifikaciis sakiTxSi arsebiTi naklovanebebi axasiaTebs subieqturTeoriasac. rogorc cnobilia, me-19 saukunis meore naxevarSi, germanelma kriminalistmam. burim SeimuSava mizezobriobis ekvivalenturi Teoria, anu pirobaTa TanasworfasovnebisTeoria, romlis Tanaxmadac, yvela piroba, romelmac mocemuli SedegiswarmoSobas Seuwyo xeli, Tanabari kauzaluri mniSvnelobisaa. es daskvna am TeoriismomxreTa azriT, Sedegis gauyofadobis ideas emyareba da Tu Sedegi gauyofadia, miuTiTebenisini, Cven ar SegviZlia vTqvaT, rom erTma pirobam Sedegis didi nawili gamoiwvia,meorem ki _ ufro mcire, an erTma pirobam metad Seuwyo xeli Sedegis dadgomas,meorem ki _ naklebad.mizezobrivi kavSiris amgvari gagebis kvalobaze germanelma kriminalistebma islogikuri daskvna gamoitanes, rom SeuZlebelia TanamonawileTa calkeul saxeTa diferenciaciaobieqturi niSnis mixedviT moxdes. 3marTlac, Tuki danaSaulebrivi Sedegis warmomSob pirobaTa Soris SeuZlebeliaraime obieqturi gansxvavebis povna, maSin, mizezobriv kavSirs ar SeiZleba arsebiTimniSvneloba hqondes sisxlissamarTlebrivi pasuxismgeblobisaTvis, maSin TanamonawileTaklasifikacia SeuZlebelia maT mier Cadenili moqmedebebis xasiaTs daefuZnos.swored is garemoeba, rom obieqtur sferoSi SeuZlebeli iyo ganmasxvavebeli niSnisgamoZebna, gaxda mizezi Tanamonawileobis subieqturi Teoriis warmoSobisa.subieqturi Teoriis warmomadgenlebi (kestlini, gelSneri, buri, bari da sxv.) TanamonawileTaganmasxvavebel safuZvels eZebdnen mxolod da mxolod qmedebis fsiqikurmxareSi, kerZod, danaSaulebrivi SedegiT dainteresebaSi. maTi azriT, amsrulebeliaris is, vinc moqmedebs amsruleblis nebiT da danaSauli surs „rogorc sakuTari.”Tanamonawile ki aris is, vinc Tanamonawileobis nebiT moqmedebs da surs xeli SeuwyosdanaSauls „rogorc sxvis sakuTrebas.”rogorc vxedavT, subieqturi Teoria, romelic pirobaTa Tanasworfasovnebis aRiarebiTda mizezobrivi kavSiris dakninebiT gamoirCeva, calkeuli saxis TanamonawileTagamijvnisas, mTlianad uaryofs obieqtur niSnebs da gamijvnis safuZvels subieqtursferoSi eZebs.cxadia, es Teoria meore ukiduresobaSi vardeba. kerZod, sakuTari da sxvisi dasjadiqmedebebis bundovani da gaurkveveli cnebebis SemotaniT is ver iZleva raime myar kriteriums,romliTac SesaZlebeli iqneba TanamonawileTa saxeebad dayofa. am TeoriisuaryofiTi mxare naTlad ikveTeba imaSic, rom igi pirobiTad ayenebs amsruleblisa dadamxmaris urTierTgamijvnis sakiTxs, Tumca, ar iZleva raime myar kriteriumsdanaSaulis wamqezeblis gamosayofad.wamqezebeli, romelic aris mTeli danaSaulis iniciatori da misi ideuri sulisCamdgmeli,mas yovelTvis surs mocemuli danaSaulis Cadena „rogorc sakuTari.” amitom,kriteriumi, romelic am Teoriis mixedviT danaSaulis amsrulebels gamijnavda, masSisruliad logikurad SeiZleba moTavsdes wamqezeblis figurac. igive SeiZleba iTqvasdanaSaulis organizatorzec. 4 aqedan, ki, erTaderTi daskvna gamomdinareobs, kerZod,subieqturi Teoria ver iZleva raime myar kriteriums, romliTac SeiZlebodes zRvaris117


marTlmsajulebaN3dakanonigavleba amsruleblobasa da Tanamonawileobas Soris. igi, faqtobrivad, danaSaulisamsruleblis da wamqezeblis figuras aigivebs erTmaneTTan da ar iZleva maTi gamijvnissaSualebas.garda amisa, am Teoriis naklovaneba naTlad vlindeba, aseve, specialuri subieqtiTkonstruirebuli an sakuTari xeliT Casaden deliqtebSi amsruleblisa da TanamonawilisurTierTgamijvnisas. am Teoriis Tanaxmad, samarTlianad SeniSnavs prof. T. were-Teli, sisxlis aRrevis subieqtad unda CaiTvalos is piri, vinc naTesaur urTierTobaSiar aris sisxlis aRrevis uSualo monawileebTan, Tu igi dainteresebulia am SedegiT,an kerZo piri, romelic xels Seuwyobs Tanamdebobrivi danaSaulis Cadenas, unda CaiTvalosmis amsruleblad, Tu mas hqonda „amsruleblis neba.” 5sakuTari xeliT Casaden deliqtebSic Tanamonawileobis subieqturi Teoriis ara-Tanmimdevrulobaze miuTiTebs prof. o. gamyreliZe, romelic SeniSnavs, rom „sakuTarixeliT Casadeni deliqtebis arsebiTi niSania is, rom subieqti Semadgenlobas uSualodTviTon axorcielebs _ TviTon garbis patimrobidan, piradad es gansazRvruli piritovebs nawils (dezertiroba) da sxva: magram subieqturi Teoriis mixedviT, yvelaferiTavdayira dgeba. 6warmodgenili analizi cxadyofs, rom Tanamonawileobis subieqturi Teoria praqtikulad,savsebiT gamousadegaria TanamonawileTa saxeebis gasamijnad. Tumca, miuxedavadamisa, faqtia, rom man farTo gavrceleba hpova germaniasa da SveicariaSi da jerovaniwinaaRmdegoba gauwia germanul sisxlissamarTlebriv doqtrinaSi amJamad gabatonebulTanamonawileTa klasifikaciis materialur-obieqtur Teorias, romelic Tavismxriv, cdilobs SeaTanxmos es Teoriebi „obieqturi” da „subieqturi” kriteriumebissafuZvelze.materialur-obieqtur, anu finalur-obieqtur Teorias safuZvlad udevs h. velcelismier Camoyalibebuli e.w. finaluri Sexeduleba moqmedebaze. imisaTvis, rom Cven-Tvis gasagebi gaxdes Tanamonawileobis e.w. materialur-obieqturi Teoriis arsi, saWiroamokled SevexoT h. velcelis mier Camoyalibebul finalur Sexedulebas moqmedebaze.finaluri Sexedulebis Tanaxmad, moqmedeba warmoadgens ara ubralo kauzalur, aramed„finalur~ cnebas. moqmedebis „finaluroba~, e.i. miznobrioba imas emyareba, romadamians Tavisi moqmedebis SesaZlebel SedegTa kauzaluri codnis safuZvelze, gansazRvrulimoculobiT SeuZlia gaiTvaliswinos Tavisi moqmedebis SesaZlebeli Sedegebi,dasaxos sxvadasxva miznebi da gegmazomierad warmarTos Tavisi saqmianoba am miznebismisaRwevad. Tavisi kauzaluri gaTvaliswinebis safuZvelze, pirovnebas SeuZliaise warmarTos Tavisi saqmianobis calkeuli aspeqtebi, rom garegani xdomileba dasaxulmizans daumorCilos. finaluri saqmianoba miznisaken Segnebulad warmarTuli moqmedebaa,maSin, rodesac wminda kauzaluri xdomileba aris ara miznisaken mimarTuli, aramedSemTxveviTi Sedegis raime mizezobrivi komponenti. amitom finaluroba, xatovnadrom vTqvaT, Tvalxilulia, xolo kauzaloba _ brmaa. Tu kauzaloba brma procesia, Tuigi mizezobrivi komponentebis SemTxveviTi damTxvevis Sedegia, finaluroba, piriqiT,brma kauzalobis Secnobili, gegmazomieri warmarTvaa. 7118


aseTia mokled arsi finaluri Teoriisa, romelic safuZvlad udevs Tanamonawileobismaterialur-obieqtur cnebas. rogorc SevniSneT, finalistebi upirispirdebianTanamonawileobis tradiciul-obieqtur da subieqtur Teoriebs da miiCneven, rom maTSeZles moenaxaT, mesame ufro swori gza Tanamonawileobis problemis gadasawyvetad.isini akritikeben subieqtur Teorias imitom, rom igi ver amarTlebs princips „ullumcrimen sine lege” da amsruleblis saxiT sjida im pirebs, romelTa moqmedeba Seesabamebodasisxlis samarTlis kanonSi aRwerili konkretuli danaSaulis Semadgenlobis niSnebs. 8magram, imavdroulad, arc formalur obieqtur Teorias eTanxmebian. Tu am TeoriismixedviT, amsruleblad SeiZleba CaiTvalos mxolod is, vinc danaSaulis SesrulebaSimiiRo monawileoba, finaluri Teoria am mxriv, kidev ufro Sors midis. kerZod, amsrulebliscneba, finaluri moqmedebis Sesabamisad, agebuli unda iqnas ara Semadgenlobis,aramed finaluri moqmedebis e.i. adamianis nebiT warmarTuli da gansazRvruli miznisgansaxorcieleblad Cadenili winaswar ganWvretili qmedebis safuZvelze. moqmedebisaseTi gagebis Sesabamisad, amsruleblad SeiZleba CaiTvalos ara marto is, vinc dana-Saulis Semadgenloba Seasrula, aramed isic, vinc garegnulad mxolod wminda fsiqikuraqts dasjerda (Segulianeba) da isic, vinc garegnulad mosamzadebeli an damxmare aqtiCaidina (danaSaulSi daxmareba). amsrulebeli mTavari, generaluri braleulia. „qmedebisbaton-patroni _ amtkicebs h. velceli, _ aris is, vinc mizandasaxulad axorcielebsqmedebas sakuTari nebelobiTi gadawyvetilebis safuZvelze.” 9rogorc vxedavT, materialur-obieqturi Teoria, TanamonawileTa gansxvavebisascdilobs Sereuli koncefcia ganaviTaros. maT mier moqmedebis finaluri cneba gamoyenebuliaTanamonawileTa gamijvnis sakiTxSi subieqturi elementebis Sesatanad, razecnaTlad miuTiTebs danaSaulSi Tanamonawilis nebis mimarTulebis prioritetuli mniSvneloba.xolo danaSaulis uSualo Sesrulebas, anu obieqtur kriteriums, SenarCunebuliaqvs mxolod pirobiTi saxe. am koncefciiT is, vinc mxolod aqezebs an xels uwyobssxva pirs danaSaulis CadenaSi, SeiZleba CaiTvalos danaSaulis amsruleblad, Tu mashqonda amsruleblis ganzraxva da Tu, igi finalurad ganagebda Tavis moqmedebas.aRniSnulidan gamomdinare, SeiZleba iTqvas, rom finalur-obieqturi Teoria TavisiarsiT metad daaxloebulia Tanamonawileobis tradiciul subieqtur TeoriasTan,vinaidan TanamonawileTa saxeebis diferenciaciis Taobaze maT mier SemoTavazebulqmedebaze batonobis kriteriumi da aseve, danaSaulSi Tanamonawilis nebis mimarTulebiskriteriumic, sabolood da arsebiTad, isev subieqtur sferos efuZneba, razecsavsebiT sworad SeniSnavs m. kovaliovi, „finaluri moqmedebis Teoria Tanamonawileobisinstitutis mimarT niSnavs Tanamonawileobis modernizebul da gadakeTebul subieqturTeorias, romelic finaluri moqmedebis uaRresad xelovnuri kategoriis wyalobiTsurT gaasaRon „materialur-obieqtur Teoriad.” 10sabWouri periodis sisxlissamarTlebriv literaturaSi, erTxmad aRiarebuli iyoazri, rom gansxvaveba amsrulebelsa da sxva TanamonawileTa Soris SeiZleba gakeTdesmxolod da mxolod obieqtur niSanze dafuZnebiT. 11 aseT safuZvlad ki, erTi mxriv,miCneuli iyo Cadenili qmedebis xasiaTi, misi damokidebulebiT, upirvelesad, sisxlis119


marTlmsajulebaN3dakanonisamarTlis kanonis kerZo nawilis muxlSi (muxlebSi) Camoyalibebuli danaSaulis niSnebisadmida amis safuZvelze, amsruleblis da sxva TanamonawileTa gamoyofa. xolomeore mxriv, erTian danaSaulebriv qmedebaSi TiToeuli monawilis mier ganxorcielebuliqmedebis xasiaTis Sesabamisad, organizatoris, wamqezeblis da damxmaris urTierTgamijvna.am periodidan moyolebuli, TanamonawileTa saxeebis diferenciacia mxolod mizezobrivikavSiris Sesaxeb dialeqtikuri materializmis swavlebis safuZvelze xdeboda.dialeqtikuri materializmi, _ werda T. wereTeli, _ aRiarebs gare samyaros obieqturikanonzomierebis da mizezis aqtiur, qmediT xasiaTs Sedegis mimarT da akeTebs daskvnasim faqtorebis araTanasworfasovnebaze, romlebic monawileobas iReben movlenis warmoSobaSi.radgan dialeqtikuri materializmis mixedviT, Sedegi mizezis gamovlinebaae.i. Sedegi mizeziT ganizomeba, cxadia, rac ufro qmediTia mizezi, miT ufro ZlieriawarmoSobili efeqti. aqedan ki, Tanmimdevrulad gamomdinareobs, rom Tu Sedegis warmoSobaSimonawileobas iRebda ramdenime faqtori, maSin TiToeuli maTganis roli ganisazRvrebaSedegis warmoSobaSi misi aqtiurobis xarisxis mixedviT. maSasadame, es roliSeuZlebelia absoluturad iseTive iyos, rogorc sxva faqtorTa roli. piriqiT,TiToeuli mizezi, romelic monawileobas iRebs Sedegis warmomSob faqtorTa saerTojaWvSi, yovelTvis individualur rols asrulebs da amitom absoluturad Tanasworfasovanifaqtorebi ar arseboben.... Sedegad, agrZelebs msjelobas avtori, _ dialeqtikurimaterializmi movlenis warmoSobaSi monawile faqtorTa Soris gamohyofsmTavar, gadamwyvet, pirvelxarisxovan faqtorebs, romelTac ganasxvavebs ara mTavari,ara gadamwyveti, meorexarisxovani faqtorebisagan. 12 aseT faqtorebad ki, sisxlis samar-Tlis mecnierebasa da kanonmdeblobaSi dasaxelebulia obieqturi niSani.„Tanamonawileoba _ aRniSnavs trainini, _ kombinirebuli TanamSromlobaa, sadacTiToeuls mikuTvnebuli aqvs gansazRvruli adgili, gansazRvruli funqcia, gansazRvruliroli. Sesabamisad, TanamonawileTa klasifikacia unda aigos am realuri TaviseburebebisadmiSefardebiT, is konkretuli funqciis gaTvaliswinebiT unda aigos. 13erTian danaSaulSi TanamonawileTa saxeebad dayofis obieqturi kriteriumis tradiciulxasiaTze miniSnebas vxvdebiT aseve, sxva mravali kriminalistis SemoqmedebaSic.kerZod, „danaSaulis amsrulebeli, wers m. kovaliovi, es, upirveles yovlisa, aris piri,romelic asrulebs kanoniT gaTvaliswinebuli danaSaulis Semadgenlobas, xolo Tanamonawileniis pirebia, romelTa moqmedeba ar warmoadgens Semadgenlobis Sesrulebas,ra intensiuric ar unda iyos Tavisi xasiaTiT es qmedeba.~ 14maSasadame, avtoris azriT, kanonSi aRwerili danaSaulis Semadgenlobis uSualodSesruleba is obieqturi niSania, romliTac amsrulebloba gansxvavdeba Tanamonawileobisagan.amsruleblis cnebis aseT gansazRvrebas Tanmimdevrulad icavdnen qarTuliuridiul literaturaSic. „amsruleblad _ werda T. wereTeli, _ iTvleba is piri,vinc uSualo monawileobas iRebs TviT danaSaulis SesrulebaSi. maSasadame, amsruleblismoqmedebas gadamwyveti, arsebiTi mniSvneloba aqvs danaSaulebrivi Sedegis ganxorcielebisaTvis.igi warmoadgens ZiriTad rgols mizezobrivi kavSiris jaWvSi, romelmac120


danaSaulebrivi Sedegi gamoiwvia. amsruleblis moqmedebaSi mocemulia danaSaulisSemadgenlobis uSualo ganxorcieleba. damxmared, avtoris azriT, _ iTvleba is piri,vinc uSualo monawileobas ar iRebda danaSaulis SesrulebaSi, aramed xels uwyobdamas an aadvilebda mis ganxorcielebas. 15obieqtur safuZvelze iyo agebuli aseve, TanamonawileTa klasifikacia sabWoTaperiodis sisxlis samarTlis kanonmdeblobaSic, rasac amtkicebda sisxlis samarTlissaxelmZRvanelo sawyisebis me-17 muxlis Sinaarsi. am ukanasknelis Tanaxmad, TanamonawileTasaxeebis gansxvaveba dafuZnebuli iyo mxolod da mxolod TanamonawileTa moqmedebisxasiaTze, vinaidan kanonmdebeli TanamonawileTa moqmedebis aRwerisas sargeblobdaiseTi zmnebiT, rogoricaa: „organizatorobda~, „iyoliebda~, „exmareboda~.xolo, rac Seexeba sasamarTlo praqtikas, TanamonawileTa calkeuli saxeebis gamijvnisas,kanonis moTxovnidan gamomdinare, isic obieqtur Teorias aRiarebda. 16anu, erTian danaSaulSi TanamonawileTa dayofis obieqturi kriteriumis tradiciulixasiaTi aRiarebulia rogorc postsabWour sisxlissamarTlebriv literaturaSi,ise kanonmdeblobaSic 17 da es samarTalmemkvidreoba dReisaTvis SenarCunebulia qar-Tul sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsSic. kerZod, nacionaluri sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsis22-e muxli danaSaulis amsruleblad Tvlis im pirs, „vinc uSualod Caidina danaSaulian sxvasTan (TanaamsruleblebTan) erTad uSualod monawileobda mis CadenaSi~. xolo,24-e muxli TanamonawileTa saxeebad gamoyofs organizators, wamqezebels da damxmares,romelTa tipobrivi daxasiaTebisaTvis kanonmdebeli iyenebs iseT zmnebs, rogoricaa _„xelmZRvanelobda~, „iyoliebda~ da „xels uwyobda~.udavoa, rom nacionalur sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsSi amJamad, arsebuli msgavsiklafisikacia (rogorc sasamarTlo praqtikis Seswavla cxadyofs), uTuod swor orientaciasukeTebs sasamarTlo organoebs moqmedebis xasiaTis Sefasebaze, danaSaulSicalkeuli Tanamonawileobis xarisxsa da rolze. amavdroulad, ramdenadac es klasifikaciaobieqtur kriteriumzea dafuZnebuli, igi iZleva saSualebas, kanonSi sakmaodzustad aRvweroT calkeuli Tanamonawilis moqmedebis niSnebi, rac Tavis mxriv, uzrunvelyofsTanamonawileTa pasuxismgeblobisas kanonierebis moTxovnilebis dacvasda Sesabamisad, TiToeuli Tanamonawilisadmi samarTliani sasjelis daniSvnas.121


marTlmsajulebaN3dakanoniSeniSvnebi:1dawvrilebiT am Teoriebis Sesaxeb ix.: À.Ô. Âåðíåð, Ó÷åáíèê óãîëîâíîãîïðàâà, Ò. 1, ÑÏÁ, 1865, ñ. 514-516; Ñ.Áóäçèíñêèé, Íà÷àëà óãîëîâíîãîïðàâà, Âàðøàâà, 1870, ñ. 217-219; Ã.Êîëîêîëîâ, Î ñîó÷àñòèå â ïðåñòóïëåíèè,Ì., 1881, ñ. 75-103; Í.Ñ. Òàãàíöåâ, Ðóññêîå óãîëîâíîå ïðàâî, ÷àñòü îáùàÿ,Ò. 1, Ï., 1902, ñ. 759-763; Ñ.Â. Ïîçíèøåâ, Íàóêà óãîëîâíîãî ïðàâà, ÷àñòüîáùàÿ, Ì., 1912, ñ. 379-381; Ò.Â. Öåðåòåëè, Ïðè÷èííàÿ ñâÿçü â óãîëîâíîìïðàâå, 2-îå èçä., Ì., 1963, ãë. II, §2; T. wereTeli, g. tyeSeliaZe,moZRvreba danaSaulze, „mecniereba~, 1969, gv. 208-221; T. wereTeli,Tanamonawileoba danaSaulSi, „mecniereba”, Tb., 1965, gv. 90-109; o.gamyreliZe, danaSaulis SualobiTi amsrulebloba da Tanaamsrulebloba,„mecniereba~, Tb., 1974, gv. 23 43; n. gvenetaZe, Tanamonawileobissaxeebad klasifikaciis istoriisaTvis, //Jurn. „samarTali~, 1996,#1-2, gv. 62-66; a. maxaraZe, TanamonawileTa gamijvnis zogadi aspeqtebi,// Jurn. „samarTali~, 2003, #1-2, gv. 63-69.2ix.: À. Ôåéåðáàõ, Óãîëîâíîå ïðàâî, Ñ. Ïåòåðáóðã, 1810, ñ. 42-43.3T. wereTeli, g. tyeSeliaZe, das. naS., gv. 214.4n. gvenetaZe, das naS., gv. 63.5T. wereTeli, das. naS., gv. 96.6o. gamyreliZe, das. naS., gv. 27.7h. velceli // T. wereTeli, g. tyeSeliaZe, das. naS., gv. 101.8m. kovaliovi, das. naS., nawili I, gv. 142.9h. velceli // T. wereTeli, das. naS., gv. 108.10m. kovaliovi, das. naS., nawili I, gv. 145; agreTve, Â.Ñ. Ïðîõîðîâ, Ñîó÷àñòèåñ ïðåñòóïëåíèè ïî ñîâåòñêîìó óãîëîâíîìó ïðàâó, Äèñ. í. ñ. ê. þð. íàóê, Ë.,1962, ñ. 181-182; T. wereTeli, das. naS., gv. 108; o. gamyreliZe, das. naS.,gv. 41 da sxv.11Ñîâåòñêîå óãîëîâíîå ïðàâî, ÷àñòü îáùàÿ, Ì., 1952, ñ. 208; Ì. Øàðãîðîäñêèé,Âîïðîñû îáùåé ÷àñòè óãîëîâíîãî ïðàâà, 1955, ñ. 149; T. wereTeli, das. naS.,gv. 66; o. gamyreliZe, das. naS., gv. 43-45 da sxv.12T. wereTeli, das. naS., gv. 110-111; am sakiTxze dawvrilebiT ix.: T.wereTlis naSromi, Ïðè÷èíÿÿ ñâÿçü óãîëîâíîì ïðàâå, Ì., 1963, Èçä. 2-îå.13À.Ò. Òðàèíèí, Ó÷åíèå î ñîó÷àñòèå, Ì., 1941, ñ. 38; ix: agreTve, Ï.È. Ãðèøàåâ,Ã.À. Êðèãåð, Ñîó÷àñòèå ïî ñîâåòñêîìó óãîëîâíîìó ïðàâó, Ì., 1959, ñ. 124; v.proxorovi, das. naS., gv. 187.14m. kovaliovi, das. naS., gv. 12-13; ix.: agreTve, Ì.À. Øíåéäåð, Ñîó÷àñòèåïðåñòóïëåíèè ïî ñîâåòñêîìó óãîëîâíîìó ïðàâó, Ì., 1958, ñ. 41; Êóðñ ñîâåòñêîãîóãîëîâíîãî ïðàâà, ÷àñòü îáùàÿ, Ò. 1, 1968, ñ. 610-611; Ô.Ã. Áóð÷àê, Ó÷åíèå îñîó÷àñòèè ïî ñîâåòñêîìó óãîëîâíîìó ïðàâó, Êèåâ, 1969, ñ. 135; misive, Ñîó÷àñòèå:ñîöèàëüíûå, êðèìèíîëîãè÷åñêèå è ïðîâîâûå ïðîáëåìû, Êèåâ, 1988, ñ. 134-137;À.Â. Óøàêîâ, Îòâåòñòâåííîñòü çà ãðóïîâûå ïðåñòóïëåíèÿ, Êàëèíèí, 1975, ñ. 21-29; Ï.Ô. Òåëüíîâ, Îòâåòñòâåííîñòü çà ñîó÷àñòèå â ïðåñòóïëåíèè, Ì., 1978, ñ.26 è äð.15T. wereTeli, das. naS., gv. 111-112, agreTve, o. gamyreliZe, das. naS., gv.43-46.16Ñáîðíèê ïîñòàíîâëåíèé Ïëåíóìà è îïðåäåëåíèå êîëåãèè Âåðõîâíîãî Ñóäà ÑîþçàÑÑÐ, Ì., 1943, ñ. 76.17Ñ.È. Àôèíîãåíîâ, Ñîó÷àñòèå â ïðåñòóïëåíèè: ïîíÿòèå, âèäû, ðåôîðìû, Äèñ. í.ñ. ë. Þð, íàóê, Ì., 1991, ñ. 9; Â.À. Ãðèãîðüåâ, Ñîó÷àñòèå â óãîëîâíîì ïðàâåÐîññèéñêîé Ôåäåðàöèè, ÓÔÀ, 1995, ñ. 30-31; Þ.À. Êðàñèêîâ, Ñîó÷àñòèå âïðåñòóïëåíèè, Ì., 1996, ñ. 22; a. maxaraZe, sisxlissamarTlebrivi pasuxismgeblobadanaSaulSi daxmarebisaTvis, Tb., 2006, gv. 156.122


CLASSIFICATION OFTHE TYPES OF COMPLICITYGIORGI BARABADZEDoctor of Law, Associated ProfessorAuthor reviews pecularaties of complicity classification and mentionesthat it is essential for responsibility of accomplice as well as for properdeciding the issue individual sentencing.Author reviews historic background of its 3 theoretical directions (objective,subjective, mixed) and concludes that objective theory considereddevision of accomplice in the legal sense of their conduct and not in thematter of reaons. Criteria for such devision was always considered a fact ofparticipation in this action, that would qualify for objective composition of acrime; this type of objective criteria classification was lacking material basis,that would be expressed in necessary conditions causing the participationin the crime.In the subjective theory aspect, author mentions that it is distinguished bydeclaration of equality of conditions and reducing the importance of reasons– when differentiating between specific types of accomplice, author completelyrejects objective signs and tries to find bases for differentiation insubjective area.Based on the analyzes of (final-objective) theory, author states that final notionof the conduct is used in order to introduce subjective element to theissue, this is proved by priority of accomplice will, as for the immediate perpetrationof a crime (in other words objective criterion) is just conditional.Criteria finally and essentially are still based on subjective sphere.Analyzing soviet, as well as modern legal minds, legislation and courtpractice, author concludes that in one crime, basing separation of accompliceson the objective criteria would definitely give proper orientation tothe courts – to evaluate the conduct, as well as to evaluate the quality androle of specific accomplices in the crime. At the same time, as far as thisclassification is based on the objective criteria, it allows to precisely describesigns of conduct of an individual accomplice, that will definitelyprovide for the full compliance of legislative requirements and accordingly,fair sentencing for each accomplice.123


marTlmsajulebaN3dakanonitermini `evTanazia~ warmoSobilia berZnuli sityvidanda niSnavs `karg sikvdils~. aqtiuri debatebi evTanaziisSesaxeb me-19 saukunidan daiwyo CrdiloeT amerikasa daevropaSi. amerikis SeerTebul StatebSi samoqalaqo omisSemdgom, advokatebma da eqimebis nawilma kvlav daayenasakiTxi evTanaziis mxardaWeris Sesaxeb.1977 wels, amerikaSi, kaliforniis StatSi miRebul iqnakanoni, romelic exeboda adamianis uflebas sikvdilze. aRniSnulikanonis mixedviT, ganukurnebeli seniT Sepyrobiladamians ufleba hqonda uari eTqva samedicino Carevebze,Tumca oficialurad evTanaziis SemTxveva StatSi ar dafiqsirebula.amis mizezi iyo im pirobis ararseboba, romlisgareSec evTanazia ar daiSveboda. kerZod, evTanaziisgansaxorcieleblad saWiro iyo fsiqiatrTa daskvna pacientisSeracxadobasTan dakavSirebiT. Tumca, amerikis SeerTebuliStatebis fsiqiatrTa asociacia krZalavda ase-Ti tipis daskvnebis gacemas.1998 wlidan evTanazia oregonis StatSic nebadarTulia.mTavari piroba evTanaziis ganxorcielebisa aris pacientismZime avadmyofoba, romelmac sikvdili unda gamoiwvios6 Tvis manZilze. amas garda, pacientma Tavisi neba werilobiTunda daadasturos da unda arsebobdes eqimTa daskvnamisi fsiqikuri mdogmareobis Sesaxeb. zemoaRniSnulipirobebis arsebobis SemTxvevaSi, evTanaziis ganxorcieleevTanazia_ danaSauliTu adamianis uflebasakuTari sicocxlisnebasTan dakavSirebiTani SengeliasamarTlis magistri124


is procedura sanqcirebulia aSS-is janmrTelobis dacvis departamentis mier. wamlissasikvdilo dozis gakeTeba ki, uSualod pacientis mier xdeba.1935 wels, inglisSi Camoyalibda sxvadasxva sazogadoeba, romelic mxars uWerdaagresiul evTanazias, Tumca, miuxedavad aqtiuri mxardaWerisa, evTanaziis sruladdakanoneba ver moxerxda.1937 wels, SveicariaSi evTanazia eqimebis daxmarebiT dakanonda. nebayoflobiTievTanaziis momxreebi mxars uWerdnen evTanazias avadmyofobis bolo stadiaSi myofipacientebisaTvis. iyvnen iseTebic, romlebic did interess iCendnen aranebayoflobiTievTanaziis mimarT. aseTi evTanazia unda Sexeboda fizikurad da gonebrivad CamorCeniladamianebs.SveicariaSi evTanaziis legalizacia gaxda imis mizezi, rom gaizarda am qveyanaSievTanaziis ganxorcielebis msurvelTa raodenoba. adamianebi, romlebsac evTanaziissurvili hqondaT Cadiodnen SveicariaSi, raTa sisruleSi moeyvanaT TavianTi survili,aRniSnulma ki, mniSvnelovnad gazarda im klinikebis Semosavali, romlebic evTanaziasaxorcielebdnen. amis gamo, evTanazia SveicariaSi biznesis keTebis saSualebad iqca.aqedan gamomdinare, Sveicariis federaluri sabWo gamovida evTanaziis maregulirebelikanonmdeblobis gamkacrebis iniciativiT. erT-erTi cvlilebis Tanaxmad, evTanaziisganmaxorcielebl pirs daekisreboda sisxlissamarTlebrivi pasuxismgebloba, Tu garkveulipirobebi ar iqneboda dakmayofilebuli. evTnaziis msurvel pirs damoukidebladunda gamoexata survili, amis Semdeg mas mosafiqreblad garkveuli dro eZleoda.mas aseve, unda warmoedgina ori damoukidebeli samedicino eqspertis daskvna janmr-Telobis mdgomareobis Sesaxeb, romelic daadasturebda, rom daavadebis gankurnebaSeuZlebeli iyo. 2011 wlis maisSi, SveicariaSi kerZod, ciurixSi Catarda referendumievTanaziis akrZalvasTan dakavSirebiT. referendumis Sedegad mosaxleobis 85%-ma mxaridauWira evTanaziis akrZalvas.meore msoflio omamde da omis Semdgom periodSi, nacistebma SeimuSaves programaaranebayoflobiTi evTanaziis Sesaxeb, romelic mkacrad iyo gasaidumloebuli. 1939wels, nacistebma koduri saxelwodebiT ActionT4 daxoces bevri arasrulfasovani adamiani(maT Soris, patarebi da mozrdilebi). germaniaSi da avstriaSi aseTi bavSvebi igzavnebodnensasikvdilo centrebSi. aseTi sasikvdilo centri arsebobda magaliTad,brandenburgSi, berlinis maxloblad.1940-1950 wlebSi evTanazias, gansakuTrebiT aranebayoflobiT evTanazias mxardaWeraar hqonda. romis kaTolikurma eklesiam gailaSqra evTanaziis winaaRmdeg, rogorc sicocxlissawinaaRmdego Zaladobaze. miuxedavad romis kaTolikuri eklesiis aseTi mosazrebisa,saqme gvqonda ormag standartebTan, radgan romis kaTolikuri eklesia mizan-Sewonilad miiCnevda iseTi adgilebis arsebobas, sadac SesaZlebeli iqneboda adamianissicocxlis gaxangrZlivebis Semokleba tkivilgamayuCeblebis meSveobiT. aqve aRsaniSnavia,rom mosamarTleebi loialurebi iyvnen nebayoflobiTi evTanaziis mimarT.1960 wlidan masobrivad daiwyo nebayoflobiTi evTanaziis momxreTa ricxvis zrda.evTanazia, SeiZleba ganvmartoT, rogorc moqmedeba, romelic iwvevs an nebas aZlevsadamians umtkivneulod mokvdes, raTa gaTavisufldes tanjvisagan. is aZlevs adamians125


marTlmsajulebaN3dakanoniSesaZleblobas `mSvidad da advilad mokvdes~, rodesac is umZimesi da ukurnebeli seniTaris daavadebuli da avadmyofobis ukanasknel stadiaze imyofeba. evTanazia maSin damxolod maSian aris sasargeblo, Tu is gamoiwvevs swraf da umtkivneulo sikvdils da Tues qmedeba mTlianobaSi avadmyofisaTvis (evTanaziis mimRebisaTvis) iqneba sasargeblo.evTanazia SeiZleba moxdes pacientis TanxmobiT (nebayoflobiTi evTanazia) an TanxmobisgareSe (iZulebiTi evTanazia). nebayoflobiTi evTanaziis dros, pacienti TavadgamoTqvams sikvdilis survils. iZulebiTi evTanaziis dros ki, pacienti uunaroa, rommiiRos gadawyvetileba da amas mis magivrad misi ndobiT aRWurvili pirebi akeTeben.ganasxvaveben evTanaziis or saxes: pasiurs da aqtiurs. pasiuria evTanazia, rodesacxdeba sicocxlis gamaxangrZlevebeli yovelgvari teqnikuri aparaturis gamorTva.aqtiuri evTanazia ki, gulisxmobs adamianis tanjvisagan daxsnis mizniT, misTvis (magaliTad,morfis) dozis iqamde gazrdas, vidre es doza misTvis momakvdinebeli ar iqneba.saxelmwifoTa umravlesobaSi, adamianis sicocxlis xelyofa danaSaulad aris miCneulimiuxedavad misi Tanxmobisa. aqedan gamomdinare, evTanazia bevr saxelmwifoSimkvlelobad aris aRiarebuli. Tumca, gansakuTrebuli pirobebis arsebobis gamo, rogoricaris adamianis ukurnebeli seniT daavadebis faqti, momakvdavi adamianis daJinebuliTxovna, mis mier gamoxatuli nebis namdviloba da Zlieri fizikuri tkivilebisagangaTavisuflebis mizani, es danaSaulebrivi qmedebis privilegirebul Semadgenlobadaris miCneuli da sasamarTlo sasjelis gansazRvrisas zemoT miTiTebul garemoebebsmiiCnevs pasuxismgeblobis Semamsubuqebel garemoebebad.aris qveynebi, sadac evTanazia Cveulebriv mkvlelobad aris miCneuli (magaliTad,safrangeTi, inglisi, ruseTi). qveynebis meore jgufi evTanaziisaTvis msubuq sasjelsawesebs (magaliTad, germania, avstria, Sveicaria), xolo aris qveynebi, romlebmac moaxdinesevTanaziis dekriminalizacia (magaliTad, peru, urugvai, holandia).niderlandebSi evTanazia kanonierad iqna aRiarebuli. `Txovnis safuZvelze sicocxlisSewyvetisa da TviTmkvlelobis xelSewyobis~ dadgenileba 2002 wlis pirvel aprilsSevida ZalaSi. am dadgenilebiT evTanazia garkveul SemTxvevebSi kanonierad aris miCneuli.amasTan, kanoni iTvaliswinebs, rom eWvqveS unda dadges im eqimis samarTlebrividevnis sakiTxi, romelmac evTanazia gamoiyena Semdeg SemTxvevebSi:pacientis tanjva autanelia da mdgomareobis gaumjobesebis perspeqtiva ar arsebobs;pacienti Tavad, garkveuli drois ganmavlobaSi, unda iTxovdes evTanazias (sxvaTazegavlenis an wamlebis zemoqmedebis gareSe);pacients sruli informacia unda hqondes Tavisi mdgomareobis, SesaZleblobebisada arCevanis Sesaxeb;saWiroa minimum, erT damoukidebel eqimTan konsultacia, romelic daamtkicebs,rom zemoT xsenebuli situacia realurad arsebobs;sikvdili unda moxdes medicinaSi miRebuli meTodiT. eqimis an pacientis mier daamasTan, unda eswrebodes eqimi;pacienti unda iyos sul mcire, Tormeti wlis (Tormetidan Teqvsmet wlamde pacientssWirdeba mSoblis Tanxmoba). 1126


Tu arsebobs evTanaziis zemoaRniSnuli pirobebi, regionis sazedamxedvelo komisiagansazRvravs sicocxlis Sewyvetis, Tu moTxovnili TviTmkvlelobis nebis darTva ramdenadsworad warimarTa. Sedegebis mixedviT an daixureba saqme eqimis mimarT, an TuzemoT CamoTvlil SemTxvevebs situacia ar Seesabameba, saqme gadaecema saxalxo prokurors.kanonmdebeli aseve, iTxovs, rom dadasturebuli iyos survilis gamomxatvelioficialuri dokumentis namdvilobac. amgvari oficialuri dokumenti SesaZlebeliagamoyenebul iqnes, maSin rodesac avadmyofi komaSia an maSin, rodesac avadmyofs damoukidebladsurvilis gamoxatva ar SeuZlia.evTanazia danaSulebriv qmedebad iTvleba, Tu is ewinaaRmdegeba kanoniT dadgenilpirobebs. gansakuTrebuli SemTxvevebis gamonaklisis garda, ar arsebobs kanoniT SezRudvissaWiroeba. kanonierad iTvleba iseTi samedicino gadawyvetilebebi, rogoric aris:Sewyvito an ar daiwyo samedicino TvalsazrisiT, uazro (fuWi) mkurnaloba;Sewyvito an ar daiwyo mkurnaloba pacientis moTxovnis safuZvelze;daaCqaro sikvdili, rom pacienti tanjvisagan ixsna.2003 wels, niderlandebSi oficialurad dafiqsirda evTanaziis 1626 SemTxveva, esiyo evTanaziis iseTi forma, rodesac pacients xeli Seuwyes survilis asrulebaSi.oficialurad aseve, dafiqsirda 148 fizikurad sikvdilis waqezebis SemTxveva. Ziri-Tadad, amgvari sikvdili gamowveuli iyo Zlieri (10 grami) barbiturate sawamlavis miRebiT.eqimi valdebulia pacientis evTanazias daeswros ori mizezis gamo:raTa darwmundes, rom sawamlavi SemTxveviT sxva adamianma ar miiRos. (anda ar moxdesTviTmkvleloba, an Tundac mkvleloba);raTa akontrolos procesi da SeZlos Seasrulos saWiro procedurebi.aRsaniSnavia, rom or SemTxvevaSi, eqimma miiRo sayveduri imis gamo, rom ar eswrebodaim moments, rodesac pacientma miiRo wamali. 2000 wels, 649 pacients, romelsac evTanaziasukeTebdnen CautardaT kvleva. aRmoCnda, rom pacientebis 14%-s hqondaT sxvadasxvasaxis garTulebebi, 32%-s im pacientebisa, romlebsac fizikurad daexmarnenTviTmkvlelobaSi hqondaT iseTi tipis garTulebebi, rom 18%-saTvis saWiroc gaxda,rom eqims aqtiuri evTanaziisaTvis miemarTa. am kvlevebma aCvena, rom evTanaziis 50%-is SemTxvevaSi, mkurnali eqimebi adgilze ar imyofebodnen.evTanaziis legalizacias didi mxardaWera aqvs holandielebisagan, romlebic sicocxlisxangrZliobiT xasiaTdebian. arsebobs sawinaaRmdego mosazreba, romelic upiratesobasaniWebs Semamsubuqebel mkurnalobas da moiTxoven evTanaziis procedurisarakanonierad cnobas. holandielebis mier Sedgenil iqna protokoli venismieri evTanaziisSesaxeb. venismieri evTanazia yvelaze swrafia, amitomac yvelaze metad aris rekomendebuli.germaniaSi evTanazia dasjad qmedebad aris miCneuli, Tumca, aRniSnuli qmedeba naklebadmZime danaSaulTa kategorias miekuTvneba. aqve aRsaniSnavia, rom sasjeli gaTvaliswinebuliamxolod aqtiuri evTanaziisTvis. pasiuri evTanazia germaniis kanonmdeblobiTdanaSaulad aRar aris miCneuli.safrangeTis kanonmdeblobiT evTanazia dasjadia, Tumca, 2005 wlidan aqtiuri debatebimimdinareobda evTanaziis legalizebasTan dakavSirebiT. evTanaziis momxreebma127


marTlmsajulebaN3dakanonievTanaziis legalizaciis kanonproeqtic ki, moamzades da qveynis umaRles sakanonmdebloorganoSi Seitanes, Tumca uSedegod, am kanonproeqtis miRebaze senatma uariganacxada.belgiaSi, evTanazia 2002 wlidan gaxda legalizebuli. 2005 wels, belgiis afTiaqebSigamoCnda 60 evrod Rirebuli kompleqtebi, sadac moTavsebuli iyo sawamlaviT savseerTjeradi nemsebi. aRniSnuli kompleqtis SeZena SesaZlebeli iyo mxolod eqimisSekveTiT.belgiis kanonmdeblobis mixedviT evTanaziis subieqti SeiZleba iyos mxolod is piri,visac Seusrulda 18 weli da romelsac ganukurnebeli daavadeba sWirs.meqsikaSi, zoomaRaziebSi iyideba wamali `pentobarbitali~, romelic Sinauri cxovelebisevTanaziisaTvis gamoiyeneba. aRniSnuli wamlis miReba adamianSic iwvevs umtkivneulosikvdils, wamlis miRebidan 1 saaTis ganmavlobaSi. `pentobarbitalis~ SesaZenadmeqsikaSi araerTi msurveli Cadis.ruseTSi evTanazia dasjadi qmedebaa da mZime danaSaulTa kategorias miekuTvneba.evTanazia ruseTis federaciis sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsis mixedviT, calke muxladar aris gamoyofili da mas moicavs rf ssk-is 105-e muxli, romelic iTvaliswinebs pasuxismgeblobasganzraxi mkvlelobisaTvis, sanqcia ki, am muxliT gaTvaliswinebuli danaSaulisCadenisaTvis warmoadgens Tavisuflebis aRkveTas vadiT 6-dan 15 wlamde. 2azerbaijanSic evTanazia sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsiT dasjad qmedebad aris miCneulida misi Camdeni piri isjeba gamasworebeli samuSaoTi an Tavisuflebis aRkveTisvadiT 3 wlamde an Tanamdebobis dakavebis an saqmianobis uflebis CamorTmeviT.rac Seexeba evTanazias saqarTveloSi, Cveni kanonmdeblobiT evTanazia dasjad qmedebaswarmoadgens. saqarTvelos sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsis 110-e muxlis Tanaxmad,`mkvleloba msxverplis daJinebuli TxovniT da misi namdvili nebis Sesabamisad, Cadenilimomakvdavis Zlieri fizikuri tkivilisagan gaTavisuflebis mizniT, isjeba TavisuflebisaRkveTiT vadiT oridan xuT wlamde.~ am danaSaulis obieqturi mxare gamoixatebamomakvdavi pacientis daJinebuli TxovniTa da misi namdvili nebis Sesabamisad,piris mier pacientis mkvlelobaSi. mkvlelobis mizani ki, am SemTxvevaSi aris pacientisZlieri tkivilebisagan gaTavisufleba. mizani aRniSnuli danaSaulis Semadgenlobisaucilebeli elementia. Tu braldebuli msxverplis TxovniT Cadis mkvlelobas ise, rommis mizans ar warmoadgens moklulis mZime tkivilebisagan da uSedego mkurnalobisagangaTavisufleba, aseT SemTxvevaSi, qmedebis sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsis 110-e muxliTdakvalificireba dauSvebelia. motivi aRniSnuli danaSaulisa aris sibralulis grZnoba,romelic damnaSaves msxverplis mimarT aqvs. aRniSnuli danaSauli materialuri Semadgenlobisaris da damTavrebulad iTvleba msxverplis TxovniT mkvlelobis momentidan.am danaSaulis subieqturi mxare gamoixateba pirdapir ganzraxvaSi. anu am SemTxvevaSi,pirs Segnebuli aqvs, rom sCadis mkvlelobas, Tumca, igi nakarnaxevia momakvdavipacientis daJinebuli TxovniT da aRniSnuli qmedebis mizania avadmyofis gaTavisuflebaZlieri fizikuri tkivilebisgan. am danaSaulis subieqti SeiZleba iyos rogorcdanaSaulis saerTo subieqti, aseve, specialuri subieqti magaliTad, mkurnali eqimi.128


mkvleloba msxverplis TxovniT danaSaulTa privilegirebul SemadgenlobaTa jgufsmiekuTvneba, vinaidan sakiTxi exeba ara marto mkvlelobas dazaralebulis TanxmobiT,aramed mZime momakvdavi adamianis daJinebul Txovnas misi fizikuri tanjvisagan gaTavisuflebisSesaxeb. aRsaniSnavia, rom es Txovna unda gamoxatavdes momakvdavis namdvilnebas. igi unda iyos iseT mdgomareobaSi, rom srulad SeeZlos kontroli gauwios dauxelmZRvanelos Tavis moqmedebas. Tu msxverpls amis SesaZlebloba ara aqvs, misTvissicocxlis mospoba ukve iqneba Cveulebrivi mkvleloba, cxadia, Tu ar arsebobs sxvadamamZimebeli garemoeba.saqarTvelos parlamentma 2000 wlis 5 maiss, miiRo kanoni `pacientis uflebebis Sesaxeb,~aRniSnuli kanonis 24-e muxlis Tanaxmad, `saqarTvelos moqalaqes ufleba aqvswinaswar werilobiT gamoxatos neba (Tanxmoba an uari) ugono mdgomareobaSi aRmoCenisasan gacnobierebuli gadawyvetilebis miRebis unaris dakargvisas misTvis sareanimacio,sicocxlis SemanarCunebeli an paliatiuri mkurnalobis an/da paliatiuri mzrunvelobisCatarebis Sesaxeb, Tu miTiTebuli garemoebebi gamowveulia: a) ukurnebelidaavadebis terminaluri stadiiT; b) daavadebiT, romelic aucileblad gamoiwvevs mZimeinvalidobas.~ anu am kanonis mixedviT, calkeul SemTxvevebSi, eqims aqvs ufleba, pacientisnamdvili nebis Sesabamisad, gamourTos mas sunTqvis aparati, Seuwyvitos uSedegomkurnaloba da ganaxorcielos sxva iseTi qmedeba, romelic sabolood, pacientis sikvdilsgamoiwvevs. aRniSnuli norma da saqarTvelos sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsis 110-emuxli Sinaarsobrivad ewinaaRmdegeba erTmaneTs. sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsi imperatiuladsjis mkvlelobas msxverplis TxovniT da mniSvnelobas ar aniWebs im garemoebebsra garemoebebis arsebobis drosac xdeba mkvlelobis Cadena. `pacientis uflebebis~Sesaxeb kanonis zemoT miTiTebuli norma ki, calkeuli pirobebis arsebobis SemTxvevaSi,uSvebs mkvlelobas msxverplis TxovniT. anu saxezea normatiul aqtebs Soris kolizia.normatiuli aqtebis Sesaxeb saqarTvelos kanonis me-7 muxlis me-8 punqtis mixedviTki, `Tanabari iuridiuli Zalis mqone normatiul aqtebs Soris winaaRmdegobis arsebobisSemTxvevaSi, upiratesoba eniWeba ufro gvian miRebul (gamocemul) normatiul aqts.~vinaidan Cvens SemTxvevaSi, ufro gvian aris miRebuli `pacientis uflebebis~ Sesaxebkanoni, imoqmedebs es ukanaskneli, Tumca, im pirobebis zusti dacviT, rac normaSiagawerili. kerZod, kanoni `pacientis uflebebis~ Sesaxeb SeiZleba gavrceldes:mxolod saqarTvelos moqalaqeze;pirze, romelic daavadebulia ganukurnebeli seniT;pirze, romelsac iseTi daavadeba sWirs, romelic gamoiwvevs mis invalidobas.daculi unda iyos nebis gamovlenis forma da gansazRvruli unda iyos nebis ganmaxorcielebelipirebi, kerZod:pirma neba saR gonebaze yofnis dros unda gamoxatos;nebis aRmasrulebeli SeiZleba iyos mxolod specialuri subieqti _ eqimi.yvela sxva qmedeba, romelic ar akmayofilebs zemoaRniSnul pirobebs da scildebakanonis am normis moqmedebis sferos kvalificirdeba sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsis 110-emuxliT.sainteresoa is argumentebi, romlebic mohyavT evTanaziis momxreebs da mowinaaRmdegeebsTavianTi Sexedulebebis dasasabuTeblad.129


marTlmsajulebaN3dakanonievTanaziis momxreebi Tvlian, rom arCevanis gakeTeba aris fundamenturi uflebaliberaluri demokratiisa da Tavisufali sabazro sistemis pirobebSi. tkivili datanjva, romelsac adamiani ganicdis avadmyofobis periodSi, Tundac tkivilis Semsubuqebisdros, SeiZleba miuRebeli iyos mxolod iseTi pirovnebisaTvis, romelsac esar gamoucdia. pacientebisaTvis, romlebsac aRar SeuZliaT damoukideblad cxovrebisgagrZeleba, Znelia emociuri tkivilis daZleva. miuxedavad Tanamedrove preparatebisarsebobisa, uimedo avadmyofisaTvis Znelia imis SegrZneba, rom tanjviT aRmoxdebasuli. evTanaziis momxreebi Tvlian, rom eqimebis energia da saavadmyofoebSi palatebigamoyenebul unda iqnes im pacientebisaTvis, romelTa sicocxlis gadarCenac SesaZlebelia.evTanaziis mowinaaRmdegeTa argumentebi SeiZleba gamoyenebul iqnas sazogadoebismier, rogorc erTgvari fsiqologiuri wnexi im adamianebze, romlebsac surTmimarTon evTanazias. aseTi fsiqologiuri zemoqmedebis Sedegia, rom adamianebi (pacientebi),romlebsac aRar surT sicocxlis gagrZeleba, mimarTaven iseT mtkivneul dasarisko proceduras, rogoric aris Tavis CamoxrCoba.evTanaziis momxreebs swamT, rom maTi upirvelesi movaleobaa SeinarCunon da gaixangrZlivonsakuTari da sxvebis sicocxle. magram garkveul SemTxvevebSi, maTi azriT,sicocxles azri ekargeba da bunebrivia, rom aseT viTarebaSi adamianebs unda hqondeTimedi, rom rodesac es dro dadgeba, SeeZlebaT mSvidad da Rirseulad mokvdnen. adamianmatanjva da tkivili mxolod im SemTxvevaSi unda aitanos Tu arsebobs Sansi saboloodgankurnebisa. sxva SemTxvevaSi, Tu ukurnebeli senis ukanasknel stadiasTan gvaqvssaqme tanjvis gaZleba yovlad uazroa. maTi azriT, cxovreba mxolod maSin aris RvTiswyaloba, rodesac mas aqvs adamianuri forma. tanjva-wamebis formiT sicocxlis Senar-Cuneba gaumarTlebelia da amasTan, uSedegod daxarjul did finansebTan aris dakav-Sirebuli.evTanaziis momxreebi urCeven im adamianebs, romlebic maTsaviT fiqroben, rom rodesacisini janmrTel mdgomareobaSi imyofebian, xeli moaweron `sicocxlis nebas,~sadac cxadad gamoxataven TavianT molodins, rom maTi sikvdilis ufleba maTi survilisamebriqneba daculi. aseTi adamianis ojaxis wevrebi, megobrebi, aseve, piradi mkurnalieqimi misi am survilis Sesaxeb informirebuli unda iyos da unda hqondes am dokumentisasli. Tu piradi eqimi uars ganacxadebs misi survilis Sesrulebaze, maSin sxva eqimiunda SeirCes.rac SeexebaT evTanaziis mowinaaRmdegeebs, isini Tvlian, rom evTanazia miuRebeliaeqimebisaTvis, radgan maT hipokrates fici aqvT dadebuli da maTi erT-erTi valdebulebaapacientisaTvis sicocxlis SenarCuneba.evTanaziis mowinaaRmdegeTa azriT, evTanazia aris mkvlelobis erT-erTi forma,xolo nebayoflobiTi evTanazia _ TviTmkvleloba. aseve, uaryofil iqna evTanazia Teologebismier. isini aRniSnaven, rom evTanazia es aris Zaladoba sicocxleze.sainteresoa sxvadasxva sarwmunoebis warmomadgenlebis pozicia evTanaziasaTanmimarTebaSi.romis kaTolikuri eklesiis pozicia evTanaziis Sesaxeb eyrdnoba kaTolizmis ramdenimemTavar kanons, romelic moicavs adamianis sicocxlis siwmindes, adamianis Rirsebas,130


adamianis ganuyrel uflebebs, sikvdilis garduvalobas da TanagrZnobis (mowyalebis)mniSvnelobas. eklesiis oficialuri pozicia aisaxa 1980 wels gamocemul deklaraciaSievTanaziis Sesaxeb. aRniSnul deklaraciaSi naTqvamia `...rodesac gardauvali sikvdilimoaxloebulia... nebadarTulia miRebul iqnas iseTi gadawyvetileba, romelic uaryofsmkurnalobas, romelic mxolod gamoiwvevs sarisko da mZime sicocxlis gaxangrZlivebas...~ 3deklaraciis mixedviT, eqimebi valdebulni arian samedicino TvalsazrisiT daxmarebisgarda, uzrunvelyon pacientebi `usazRvro sikeTiTa~ da `guliTadi mowyalebiT.~protestantuli eklesiis midgoma evTanaziisa da sikvdilis xelSewyobis Sesaxebsxvadasxvagvaria. 1970 wlidan, evangelisturi eklesia TanamSromlobs kaTolikur eklesiasTanim sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT, romelic gulisxmobs adamianis sicocxlis siwmindes.miuxedavad imisa, rom liberal-protestantebma uaryves evTanazia, am ukanasknelsmainc hqonda samoqalaqo sazogadoebis mxridan mxardaWera. maT ricxvSi gaerTiandaprotestantuli samRvdeloebis nawilic. isini samarTlebriv mxardaWeras ucxadebdnensikvdilis fizikurad xelSewyobas.ebraelTa Soris debatebi evTanaziis Sesaxeb 1970 wlidan daiwyo. ebraelTa nawiliewinaaRmdegeboda nebayoflobiT evTanazias da es winaaRmdegoba xSirad Zalian mkacrxasiaTsac atarebada, Tumca iyvnen iseTebic, romlebic garkveul mxardaWeras ucxadebdnenpasiur evTanazias.islamuri sarwmunoeba kategoriulad krZalavs yvela saxis TviTmkvlelobas dayvela im qmedebas, romelic exmareba sxvas Tavis mokvlaSi. muslimanebisaTvis akrZalulia,rom dagegmon, anda sakuTari nebis mixedviT winaswar gansazRvron sikvdilis dro.rac SeexebaT budistebs, maT Soris, evTanaziasTan dakavSirebiT sxvadasxva mosazrebebiarsebobs. budizmis mimdevarTa erTi nawili acxadebs, rom valdebulni arianTavi aaridon cocxali arsebis ganadgurebas. magaliTad, monastrul kanonTa krebulSinaTqvamia, `Tu romelime budisti beri mouspobs sicocxles adamians, anda Seuqebssikvdilis upiratesobas, anda msgavsad amisa waaqezebs adamians sikvdilisaken _ `Cemomegobaro ra azri aqvs uferul cxovrebas SenTvis, sikvdili xom mas bevrad ajobebs~,an am imediT ganzraxuli sxvadasxvagvarad daanaxebs sikvdilis sikarges, an waaqezebs,rom mokvdes,~ aseTi kaci TviTonve iqneba damarcxebuli. aseTi beri budisturi samonazvnosazogadoebidan gandevnili iqneba. 4 sikvdilis xelSewyobaSi igulisxmeba aramxolodqmedeba mimarTuli sicocxlis fizikurad xelyofisken, aramed sityvac, romelic`kargi sikvdilis~ survils gauCens momakvdav avadmyofs.rac Seexeba marTlmadidebluri eklesiis pozicias evTanaziasTan mimarTebaSi _yovelmxriv gmobs evTanazias. marTlmadidebeli eklesiis mosazrebiT, evTanazia ar arismdgomareobidan gamosavli, evTanazia adamians uspobs sinanulisa da cxonebis saSualebas.ufalma adamians uboZa sicocxle da Tavad ufalma unda gansazRvros misi xangrZlivoba.miuxedavad azrTa sxvadasxvaobisa, evTanazias aTasobiT adamiani mimarTavs. araerTmagamoCenilma adamianma daasrula evTanaziis gziT sicocxle.cnobilma avstrielma fsiqiatrma da fsiqologma zigmund froidma, romelic avTvisebianisimsivniT iyo daavadebuli, sTxova Tavis megobars da pirad eqims daxmareboda131


marTlmsajulebaN3dakanonimas evTanaziis ganxorcielebaSi, eqimma mas sammagi morfinis doza gaukeTa, ris Sedegadaczigmund froidi gardaicvala.gamoCenili belgieli poeti, mwerali da reJisori hugo klausi, romelic alchgeimerisdaavadebiT iyo Sepyrobili da gardaicvala evTanaziis gziT mis mierve SerCeuldRes.cnobili mezRvauri ramon sampedro, avtokatastrofis Sedegad igi 30 wlis ganmavlobaSiiyo paralizebuli. mezRvauri didi xnis ganmavlobaSi cdilobda evTanaziisuflebis mopovebas. sabolood sasamarTlom misca mas evTanaziis ganxorcielebis ufleba,igi gadayvanil iqna kamerebiT aRWurvil specialur oTaxSi, sadac man dalia sawamlavnareviwyali, ris Sedegadac gardaicvala. mezRvaurze da mis cxovrebaze SemdgomSifilmic ki iqna gadaRebuli.rogorc vxedavT, aris qveynebi, sadac evTanazia kanoniT aris daSvebuli, TumcaRaaseT qveynebSic ar arsebobs sazogadoebis erTsulovani damokidebuleba am movlenas-Tan mimarTebaSi. yovelTvis iarsebebs sazogadoeba, romelic evTanaziis winaaRmdegiiqneba.Cveni azriT, evTanazia yovlad gaumarTlebelia. marTalia, erTi mxriv, Znelia, adamiansaiZulo misi nebis sawinaaRmdegod sicocxle, magram meore mxriv, unda gvaxsovdes,rom avadmyofoba es sasjeli ar aris da didi moTmineba unda gamoviCinoT.literatura:1. avtorTa krebuli, sisxlis samarTalis kerZo nawili (wigni I), Tbilisi,2005;2. saqarTvelos sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsi;3. saqarTvelos konstitucia;4. saqarTvelos kanoni `pacientis uflebebis Sesaxeb~;5. saqarTvelos kanoni `normatiuli aqtebis Sesaxeb~;6. ruseTis federaciis sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsi;7. Nobel Prize Laureate Linus Pauling. The Humanist (American Humanist Association).1974 July/Audust;8. Philosopher Marvin Kohl. The Humanist. 1974 July/August;9. http: / / www. religion facts.com;10. http: / / www. bbc. co. uk;11. http: / / www. ortodox.ge ;SeniSvnebi:1Termination of Life on Request and Assisted Suicide Act.2Óãîëîâíûé Êîäåêñ Ðîññèéñêîé Ôåäåðàöèè.3The Deklaration on Euthanasia issued by the Sacred Congregation for the Doctrineof the Faith. .4The monastic code Patimokka.132


EUTHANASIA – CRIME ORRIGHT OF A PERSON INREGARD WITH HIS / HERWILL TO LIVEANI SHENGELIAMaster of LawEuthanasia, murder per the request of victim cases are quite a lot in themodern history and it is related with many problems. Euthanasia is a disputableissue not only from the moral point of view but also because of thedefinition of its contents.According to those who are in favor of euthanasia, this is the right of aperson to make a choice regarding his / her own will to live, as for thosewho oppose euthanasia, this is one of the forms of murder.Euthanasia in literature means “good death”. There are states, where euthanasiais legitimate and is not subject of punishment. There are efforts inmany states to recognize euthanasia as a lawful action. The grounds forthat, they believe is the fundamental right of a person to make a free choicebetween the “good death” and death with pain and hopeless procedures.Right to life is a uninfringeable right of a person and is protected by the law. Inother words, right of a person is protected by the state, although this right is notgranted by the state it is the original right, thus it is quite difficult to determinewhether the state should be in position to “force” a person to live. To live in thecircumstances that humiliates his / her dignity. In case it is not the state that grantsthe tight to life, is it authorized to make decision regarding the will to life? Ibelieve, each and every state should reflect its position in own legislation/According to our legislation, euthanasia is considered to be punishableand I believe this is correct. Georgia is an orthodox country and no one hasthe right to infringe the right granted by the God. There is no motivation orpurpose that could justify commitment of this crime. Thus, I believe euthanasiais a crime and it is similar to the ordinary murder.The presented article reviews approaches of different countries in regardwith euthanasia, as well as conditions when euthanasia is allowed. It alsooffers positions of representatives of various religion - is this “good death”or is this forceful life.133


marTlmsajulebaN3dakanonisasamarTlos megobariqarTul sisxlissamarTlis procesSi(AMICUS CURIAE)ia CxeiZesamarTlis doqtori, quTaisis ak. wereTlis saxelobissaxelmwifo universitetis asistent-profesorisisxlis saproceso samarTalSi ganxorcielebul uamravcvlilebaTa Soris erT-erTi mniSvnelovani novaciaa sasamarTlosmegobris institutis SemoReba.sasamarTlos megobris instituti laTinuri saxelwodebiTAmicus curiae, aris cnobili. jer kidev, Amicus curiaeromaul samarTalSi iRebs saTaves da berZnuli asegoria-s(kanonis winaSe Tanasworobis) doqtrinas efuZneba. IX saukunisdasawyisidan sasamarTlos megobris inkorporirebasinglisuri samarTali iwyebs. mogvianebiT, XIV saukunidanAmicus curiae farTod inergeba saerTo samarTlis sistemisbevr qveyanaSi. dResdReobiT, sasamarTlos megobris institutsiyenebs adamianis uflebaTa evropuli sasamarTloda marTlmsajulebis saerTaSoriso sasamarTloc. 1 marTlmsajulebissaerTaSoriso sasamarTlos wesdebis 34-emuxlis me-2 punqtSi naTqvamia, rom „Tavisi reglamentispirobebiT da mis Sesabamisad, sasamarTlos SeuZlia gamoiTxovossajaro saerTaSoriso organizaciebidan informacia,romelic mis gansaxilvel saqmes exeba da agreTve, iRebsaRniSnuli organizaciebis mier Tavisi sakuTari iniciativiTwarmodgenil amgvar informacias.~Amicus curiae-s doqtrinis Tanamedrove saxiT CamoyalibebaSididi roli Seasrula amerikis SeerTebulma Statebma.sasamarTlos megobris daskvna 1823 wels, pirvelad,134


amerikis uzenaesma sasamarTlom gamoiyena saqmeze Green v. Biddle. Tumca, saboloo saxeAmicus curiae-s koncefciam XX saukuneSi sasamarTlo precedentis gziT miiRo. sasamarTlosmegobars exeba aSS-is uzenaesi sasamarTlos mier dadgenili normativebis 29-e da37-e wesebi, romlebic aregulireben sasamarTlos megobris mier daskvnis wardgenisada misi gamoyenebis wessa da pirobebs.am wesebis Tanaxmad: sasamarTlos megobris mier sakuTari mosazrebis wardgenisaTvisaucilebelia man moipovos orive mxaris Tanxmoba. Tu erT-erTi mxare mainc ityvis uarssasamarTlos megobris mier daskvnis wardgenaze _ Amicus curiae-s SeuZlia nebarTvismisaRebad mimarTos sasamarTlos.Amicus curiae-s daskvna Semdegi TaviseburebebiT xasiaTdeba:1. Amicus curiae ar warmoadgens procesis monawiles;2. Amicus curiae aris pirovneba, romelsac surs daexmaros sasamarTlos;3. Amicus curiae ubralod rCevas aZlevs sasamarTlos;4. Amicus curiae SeiZleba iyos fizikuri piri an organizacia. 2sasamarTlos megobris daskvna yuradRebas unda amaxvilebdes mxareTa mier warmodgenilmasalebSi arsebul problemur sakiTxebze da maT argumentebs iuridiulad aanalizebda.aseve, mniSvnelovania Amicus curiae miuTiTebdes iseT garemoebebze, romelicaRniSnuli ar aris mxareTa mier warmodgenil masalebSi, magram mniSvnelovania sasamarTlosaTvisdasabuTebuli gadawyvetilebis misaRebad. aSS-Si sasamarTloebi yvelazexSirad sasamarTlos megobris mosazrebas mxedvelobaSi swored maSin iReben, rodesacis iseT faqtebze miuTiTebs, romlebzec saqmis ganxilvisas mxareebs ar umsjeliaT.swored, amitom aRniSnaven, rom Amicus curiae-s daskvna yvelaze efeqtianad maSin iTvleba,rodesac is sasamarTlos axali informaciis mopovebasa da analizSi exmareba. magali-Tad, aSS-Si, 1989 wels, ganixileboda saqme reproduqciuli janmrTelobis centriswinaaRmdeg ukanono abortTan dakavSirebiT. am saqmesTan mimarTebaSi mosamarTle stefanbreierma aRniSna, rom medicinis dargis warmomadgenelTa mier gakeTebulma daskvnammniSvnelovani roli Seasrula, iseTi teqnikuri samedicino sakiTxebis axsna-ganmartebaSi,romlebzec yuradReba mxareTa mier gamaxvilebuli ar yofila da ramac arsebiTigavlena iqonia sasamarTloze gadawyvetilebis miRebisas. 3aRsaniSnavia, rom Amicus curiae xSirad Tavis daskvnaSi uTiTebs im SesaZlo Sedegebze,romelic sasamarTlos ama Tu im saxis gadawyvetilebas mohyveba. mniSvnelovania sasamar-Tlos megobarma daasabuTos, Tu ra gavlenas iqoniebs sasamarTlos mier miRebuli gadawyvetilebasazogadoebaze da rogor ganawyobs samoqalaqo sazogadoebas yovelivees sasamarTlo xelisuflebisadmi. aqedan gamomdinare, aSS-Si miaCniaT, rom strategiulikuTxiT, samarTalwarmoebaSi sazogadoebis interesebis gaTvaliswinebis mizniT,sasamarTlos megobris monawileoba saqmis sasamarTlo ganxilvis etapze gansakuTrebiTmniSvnelovania. kerZod, aRniSnuli instituti warmoadgens sasamarTlos damoukideblobisada miukerZoeblobis kidev erT mtkicebulebas.garda zemoaRniSnulisa, Amicus curiae-s daskvnaSi SeiZleba mieTiTos informacia TavadsasamarTlos megobris pirovnebaze, Tu ratom dainteresda is konkretuli saqmiT daa.S. 4135


marTlmsajulebaN3dakanonisasamarTlos megobris daskvna gansakuTrebul rols im saqmeebSi asrulebs, romlebicadamianis uflebaTa evropuli konvenciiT aRiarebuli uflebebis darRvevis faqtebsexeba. adamianis uflebaTa evropul sasamarTloSi aRniSnul sakiTxebTan dakavSirebiTbevri magaliTi moiZebneba. maT Sorisaa: Incol v. Turkey, Goodwin v. UK; Prager andObershilk v. Austria da Radio Melody v. Austria.aSS-Si sasamarTlos megobris gavlena mosamarTleebze Zalian didia. sasamarTloTagadawyvetilebebi xSirad efuZneba Amicus curiae-s damrigeblur rCevebs. bevr saqmeSimosamarTles mTavar argumentad swored sasamarTlos megobris daskvnaSi miTiTebulifaqtebi gamouyenebia. sasamarTlos megobris daskvnas sasamarTloebi sul ufro xSiradiyeneben. 1970-1980 wlebSi, Amicus curiae-s daskvna gamoyenebul iqna saqmeTa 51,4%-Si.1995 wels, es ricxvi 95%-mde gaizarda. dResdReobiT aRniSnuli maCvenebeli rva erTeuliTaagazrdili. 5yovelive zemoaRniSnulidan sulac ar aris gasakviri, rom qarTvelma kanonmdebelmacgadawyvita am institutis damkvidreba qarTul samarTalwarmoebaSi.qarTul iurisprudenciaSi Amicus curiae pirvelad, sakonstitucio samarTalwarmoebaSidamkvidrda. saqarTvelos 2009 wlis 22 oqtombris kanoniT „sakonstituciosamarTalwarmoebis Sesaxeb~ kanons daemata I I I 1 Tavi „sasamarTlos megobris institutisakonstitucio samarTalwarmoebaSi~. kanonis me-14 1 muxlis Tanaxmad: nebismier fizikuran iuridiul pirs SeuZlia saqarTvelos sakonstitucio sasamarTlos reglamentiTdamtkicebuli formiT mimarTos sakonstitucio sasamarTlos konkretul saqmesTandakavSirebiT Tavisi werilobiTi mosazrebiT. sakonstitucio sasamarTlo ar aris valdebuli,mxedvelobaSi miiRos am muxlis pirvel punqtSi aRniSnuli werilobiTi mosazreba.sakonstitucio sasamarTlos ufleba aqvs, Tu igi saWirod miiCnevs, gamoiyenossasamarTlos megobris mier gamogzavnili mosazreba, romelic SesaZlebelia aseve, aisaxosgadawyvetilebis samotivacio nawilSi. im SemTxvevaSi, Tu sakonstitucio sasamar-Tlo sasamarTlos megobris werilobiT mosazrebas sakmaod mniSvnelovnad miiCnevs,mas ufleba aqvs, gamoiZaxos igi sasamarTlo sxdomaze damatebiTi SekiTxvebis dasmismizniT.sakonstitucio samarTalwarmoebaSi ukve gamoyenebul iqna sasamarTlo megobrisinstituti. 2010 wlis 28 ivniss, sakonstitucio sasamarTlom ganixila saqarTvelossaxalxo damcvelis konstituciuri sarCeli saqarTvelos parlamentis winaaRmdeg. davissagans warmoadgenda: `saqarTvelos sakonstitucio sasamarTlos Sesaxeb~ saqarTvelosorganuli kanonis 39-e muxlis pirveli punqtis `a~ qvepunqtis sityvebis `saqarTveloSimcxovreb~ da `saqarTvelos~ (romelic grZeldeba sityvebiT `iuridiul pirebs~)konstituciuroba saqarTvelos konstituciis 42-e muxlis pirvel punqtTan mimarTebiT.aRniSnul saqmeSi sasamarTlos megobris statusiT CaerTo saqarTvelos axalgazrdaiuristTa asociacia da sasamarTlos warudgina werilobiTi mosazreba. sasamarTlosmegobarma gaamyara mosarCelis pozicia, vinaidan man sadavo norma arakonstituciuradmiiCnia. danamdvilebiT SeuZlebelia imis Tqma, ramdenad damajerebeli aRmoCnda sasamarTlosaTvissasamarTlos megobris mosazreba, magram faqtia, rom sasamarTlos 2010wlis 28 ivnisis gadawyvetilebiT konstituciuri sarCeli dakmayofilda. 6136


ac Seexeba sisxlis saproceso samarTals. sasamarTlos megobris instituti gaiTvaliswinasaqarTvelos 2009 wlis 9 oqtombris sisxlis samarTlis saproceso kodeqsma,romlis 55-e muxlis Tanaxmadac: dainteresebul pirs, romelic ar aris mxare gansaxilvelsisxlis samarTlis saqmeSi, ufleba aqvs, saqmis arsebiT ganxilvamde, aranakleb 5dRiT adre, sasamarTlos warudginos sakuTari werilobiTi mosazreba am saqmesTan dakavSirebiT.werilobiTi mosazrebis wardgenis mizani unda iyos ara procesis romelimemonawilis mxardaWera, aramed igi unda daexmaros sasamarTlos, saTanadod Seafasosgansaxilveli sakiTxi. Tu sasamarTlo miiCnevs, rom werilobiTi mosazreba ar aris Sedgeniliam muxlis moTxovnaTa dacviT, igi mas ar ganixilavs. sasamarTlo ar aris valdebuligaiziaros werilobiT mosazrebaSi motanili argumentebi. werilobiTi mosazrebaar unda aRematebodes 30 gverds. igi Sedgenili unda iqnes sam aslad, romelTaganori gadaecema mxareebs, xolo erTi rCeba mosamarTlesTan. sasamarTlo uflebamosiliasakuTari iniciativiT an/da mxaris da werilobiTi mosazrebis avtoris winaswari TanxmobiTsaqmis arsebiT ganxilvaze gamoiZaxos werilobiTi mosazrebis avtori _ zepiriganmartebis misacemad.aseTia sasamarTlos megobris samarTlebrivi regulireba moqmedi sisxlis samarTlissaproceso kodeqsis Tanaxmad. bunebrivia Cndeba kiTxvebi: ra statusiT sargeblobssasamarTlos megobari sisxlis samarTlis procesSi da rogoria misi werilobiTi mosazrebisiuridiuli Zala.sakonstitucio samarTalwarmoebaSi sasamarTlos megobris institutis arsebobaufro misaRebia. aucilebelia aRiniSnos, rom sakonstitucio samarTalwarmoebisaganradikalurad gansxvavdeba sisxlis samarTalwarmoeba. konstituciuri sarCelis ganxilvasamarTlebrivi sakiTxebis analizs efuZneba. sisxlis samarTlis procesSi ki,gadawyvetileba danaSaulis gamoZiebis Sedegad mopovebuli mtkicebulebebis gamokvlevisada analizis safuZvelze unda iqnas miRebuli. SejibrebiTobis principis safuZvelzemtkicebulebebi mxareTa mier waredgineba sasamarTlos. mosamarTlem Tu naficmamsajulebma mxareTa mier sakuTari argumentebis warmodgenis safuZvelze unda miiRongadawyvetileba da es gadawyevtileba im mtkicebulebebs unda emyarebodes, romlebicutyuarad adastureben an uaryofen romelime faqtobriv garemoebas. Tumca, bundovaniasakiTxi, saerTod waredgineba Tu ara nafic msajulTa sasamarTlos sasamarTlos megobriswerilobiTi mosazreba da Tu waredgineba rogor zegavlenas iqoniebs is naficmsajulebze, xom ar gaxdebian isini subieqturebi?kidev ufro detalurad SevCerdeT sasamarTlos megobris statusze. is sisxlissamarTlis procesis monawilea. sisxlis samarTlis saproceso kodeqsi sasamarTlosmegobris samarTlebriv reglamentacias axdens TavSi „mowme da sisxlis samarTlis procesissxva monawileni.~ Tavisi funqciebiT Amicus curiae TiTqos eqsperts uaxlovdeba.magram, is ar aris arc eqsperti da arc specialisti. sisxlis samarTlis saprocesomecnierebaSi damkvidrebuli ganmartebis Tanaxmad, eqsperti aris specialuri codnismqone piri mecnierebis, xelobis an xelovnebis dargSi, romelic saqmeze atarebs gamokvlevaseqspertizas daqvemdebarebul sakiTxebTan dakavSirebiT. rac Seexeba specialists,sisxlis samarTlis procesSi specialisti, rogorc procesis monawile 1964137


marTlmsajulebaN3dakanoniwlidan Semodis. gansxvavebiT eqspertisagan specialisti ar axorcielebs saqmisaTvismniSvnelovani sakiTxis kvlevas, is ubralod exmareba mxareebsa da sasamarTlos mtkicebulebaTaaRmoCenaSi, damagrebasa da demonstrirebaSi. 7qarTul sisxlis samarTlis procesSi ganxorcielebuli cvlilebebi aRniSnul sakiTxsacSeexo da dRes ukve specilists, rogorc sisxlis samarTlis procesis damoukidebelsubieqts veRar vxvdebiT. eqspertisa da specialistis cnebebi axalma saprocesokodeqsma gaaerTiana eqspertis cnebaSi. am ukanasknelis mniSvneloba ki, gafarTovdada sisxlis samarTlis saproceso kodeqsis me-2 muxlis 21-e nawilis Tanaxmad, eqspertiaris specialuri codnis, Cvevebisa da gamocdilebisa mqone piri, romelic am kodeqsiTdadgenili wesiT, sisxlis samarTlis saqmeze saWiro gamokvlevis Casatareblad dadaskvnis Sesadgenad miwveulia mxaris an mxareTa SuamdgomlobiT sasamarTlos mier.garda amisa, eqsperti mxareebsa da sasamarTlos daxmarebas uwevs mtkicebulebaTaaRmoCenaSi, gamokvlevasa da demonstrirebaSi. rac Seexeba sasamarTlos megobars, isaraviTar gamokvlevas ar atarebs. marTalia, Amicus curiae exmareba sasamarTlos, magramara mtkicebulebaTa aRmoCenaSi, gamokvlevasa an demonstrirebaSi, aramed gansaxilvelisakiTxis saTanadod SefasebaSi. is ubralod werilobiT mosazrebas gamoTqvams da problemaces aris. ramdenad marTebulia sisxlis samarTalwarmoebaSi mosazrebebis gamoTqma,miT ufro am mosazrebam SesaZloa mniSvnelovani gavlena moaxdinos mosamarTlisazris formirebaze, es xom ar arRvevs mosamarTlis damoukideblobis da mis saqmianobaSiCaurevlobis princips? da kidev, ratom unda sWirdebodes mosamarTles samarTlebrivsakiTxebSi daxmareba? nuTu amdenad ar vendobiT maT. mosamarTle xom undaiyos pirovneba, romelsac maRali profesionalizmi da pirovnuli Rirebulebebi obieqturigadawyvetilebis miRebis saSualebas unda aZlevdes.kidev erTi, saqarTvelos sisxlis samarTlis saproceso kodeqsis me-13 muxli calsaxadacxadebs, rom „gamamtyunebeli ganaCeni unda efuZnebodes mxolod erTmaneTTanSeTanxmebul, aSkara da damajerebel mtkicebulebulebaTa erTobliobas~. rodesacmosamarTle sasamarTlos megobris mosazrebas iziarebs sainteresoa, rogor moxdebaganaCenis dasabuTeba? rogor unda daasabuTos mosamarTlem, ratom gaiziara sasamar-Tlos megobris mosazreba, maSin rodesac es ukanaskneli mtkicebuleba ar gaxlavT.Sesabamisad, verc verafers adasturebs da verc uaryofs. es aris ubralod mesame mxarisazri konkretul saqmesTan dakavSirebiT.marTalia, sisxlis samarTlis saproceso kodeqsi kategoriulad acxadebs, rom werilobiTimosazrebis wardgenis mizani unda iyos ara romelime monawilis mxardaWera,aramed igi unda daexmaros sasamarTlos saTanadod Seafasos gansaxilveli sakiTxi.magram, faqtia, rom samarTalwarmoebaSi ori _ dacvisa da braldebis mxarea da yovelgvarisubieqtivizmis gareSe, nebismier garemoebaze gamoTqmuli mosazreba sasargebloiqneba erTi an meore mxarisaTvis. aqedan gamomdinare, SesaZloa safrTxe Seeqmnas kideverT, mTavar princips _ mxareTa Tanasworobas.vfiqrobT, aRniSnuli problemebi aucileblad iCens Tavs sasamarTlos megobrisinstitutis sisxlis samarTlis procesSi gamoyenebisas. gansxvavebiT sakonstituciosamarTalwarmoebisagan, sisxlis samarTlis procesSi sasamarTlos megobris mosazrebiswardgenis precedenti jerjerobiT ar arsebobs.138


gamoyenebuli literatura:1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amicus_curiae;2. http://www.hrights.ru/text/b21/Chapter5%202.htm. Ýëüáðóñ Ìàìåäîâ. Amicuscurie êàê ñðåäñòâî ðåàëèçàöèè îáùåñòâåííûõ èíòåðåñîâ;3. Êîêîðåâ Ë. Ä., Ó÷àñòíèêè ïðàâîñóäèÿ ïî óãîëîâíîì äåëå, Âîðîíåæ, 1971;4. Ïåòðóõèí È. Ë., Çàêëþ÷åíèå ñïåöÿëüèñòîâ ñòàäèå êàññàöèîííîãî è íàäçîðíîãîïðîèçâîäñòâî//Ñîâåòñêàÿ þñòèöèÿ, 1962, ¹14;5. http://legalsutra.org/807/role-of-lawyers-as-amicus-curiae Amicus curiae - positionin USA.6. sasamarTlos megobari _ saqarTvelos axalgazrda iuristTa asociaciiswerilobiTi mosazreba #466 konstituciur sarCelze;7. saqarTvelos sakonstitucio sasamarTlos plenumis 2010 wlis 28 ivnisisgadawyvetileba.SeniSvnebi:1ix.: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amicus_curiae2ix.: http://www.hrights.ru/text/b21/Chapter5%202.htm3ix.: http://www.hrights.ru/text/b21/Chapter5%202.htm. Ýëüáðóñ Ìàìåäîâ.AMICUS CURIAE ÊÀÊ ÑÐÅÄÑÒÂÎ ÐÅÀËÈÇÀÖÈÈ ÎÁÙÅÑÒÂÅÍÍÛÕ ÈÍ-ÒÅÐÅÑÎÂ.4ix.: http://legalsutra.org/807/role-of-lawyers-as-amicus-curiae AMICUS CURIE –POSITION IN USA5ix.: http://www.hrights.ru/text/b21/Chapter5%202.htm. Ýëüáðóñ Ìàìåäîâ.AMICUS CURIAE ÊÀÊ ÑÐÅÄÑÒÂÎ ÐÅÀËÈÇÀÖÈÈ ÎÁÙÅÑÒÂÅÍÍÛÕ ÈÍÒÅ-ÐÅÑÎÂ.6ix.: „sasamarTlos megobris~ saqarTvelos axalgazrda iuristTa asociaciiswerilobiTi mosazreba #466 konstituciur sarCelze. saqar-Tvelos sakonstitucio sasamarTlos plenumis 2010 wlis 28 ivnisisgadawyvetileba.7ix.: Êîêîðåâ Ë. Ä., Ó÷àñòíèêè ïðàâîñóäèÿ ïî óãîëîâíîì äåëå, Âîðîíåæ, 1971,Ñ. 51; Ïåòðóõèí È. Ë., Çàêëþ÷åíèå ñïåöèÿëèñòîâ â ñòàäèè êàññàöèîííîãî èíàäçîðíîãî ïðîèçâîäñòâî//Ñîâåòñêàÿ þñòèöèÿ, 1962, ¹14, Ñ.12-14.139


marTlmsajulebaN3dakanoniAMICUS CURIAEIN GEORGIAN CRIMINALPROCEEDINGSIA CHKHEIDZEDoctor of Law, Kutaisi Ak. Tsereteli State UniversityAssistant ProfessorThe work “Amicus Curiae in Georgian Criminal Proceedings” is dedicatedto the novelty introduced in the Criminal Procedure Legislation, that allowsparty to be involved criminal proceedings and fix his / her position regardingthe subject of litigation. The concept is called Amicus Curiae. It has existedfor a long time already, in Georgian administration of justice is wasintroduced in 2009. This novelty was first introduced to the ConstitutionalCourt, in accordance with the law adopted on October 22, 2009, and laterin criminal procedures.The work also offers history of developments and establishment of AmicusCuriae. It also focuses on the problems that may be faced when applyingthis concept. Critical analyzes is very important for the successfulimplantation of this novelty.140


axali wignebigamovida saqarTvelos uzenaesi sasamarTlos mosamarTlisada samarTlis doqtoris Teimuraz Todrias naSromi `faqtobrivigaremoebebis mniSvnelobis gansazRvra sakasacio sasamarTloSi.~wignSi ganxiluli problemis warmoSoba ganpirobebulia qar-Tuli sakasacio sasamarTlos erT-erTi arsebiTi niSniT, vinaidansakasacio sasamarTlo amowmebs sakasacio wesiT gasaCivrebulisaapelacio sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebis (ganCinebis) mxolodsamarTlebriv mxares e.i. gadawyvetilebis kanonierebas, misiuridiul mxares.sakasacio sasamarTlo ar aris faqtebis damdgeni sasamarTlo,is ar ikvlevs axal faqtebsa da mtkicebulebebs. gamonaklissSeiZleba warmoadgendes procesualuri darRvevis Semcveli faqtebisada mtkicebulebebis Semowmeba. aqedan gamomdinare, ismiskiTxva: Tu sakasacio sasamarTlo ar aris faqtebis damdgeni sasamarTloda amowmebs gadawyvetilebis mxolod samarTlebriv mxares,ra Sexeba aqvs mas faqtebTan, anu ra mniSvneloba eniWeba faqtobrivgaremoebebs sakasacio sasamarTloSi.winamdebare naSromi warmoadgens zemoaRniSnul kiTxvaze pasuxisgacemis erTgvar cdas. avtori uTiTebs, rom SeuZlebeliagasaCivrebuli gadawyvetilebis (ganCinebis) samarTlebrivi mxarisSemowmeba faqtobrivi garemoebebis Semowmebis gareSe da sworedfaqtobrivi garemoebebis Semowmebis kriteriumebis gansaz-Rvra iwvevs garkveul interess. faqtobrivi garemoebebis mniSvnelobisgansazRvra sakasacio sasamarTloSi ukavSirdeba samarTalSefardebisgadasinjvasTan dakavSirebul Taviseburebebs.amdenad, aRniSnuli naSromiT, Teoriul doneze gamokvleuliiqna samarTlebrivi kriteriumebi, romlebic gansazRvraven sakasaciosasamarTlos damokidebulebas faqtobriv garemoebebTan.axlaxan gamoica saintereso wigni `saerTaSoris organizaciebissamarTali~, sadac ganxilulia Tanamedrove saerTaSorisoorganizaciebis samarTlis Teoriisa da praqtikis sxvadasxvasakiTxi _ saerTaSoriso organizaciebis samarTlis cnebisda arsis gansazRvris problemebi, wyaroebi, saerTaSoriso organizaciebissamarTlis regulirebis aspeqtebi da debulebebi.saxelmZRvaneloSi danarTis saxiT Setanilia gaerTianebuli erebisorganizaciis wesdeba, saerTaSoriso sasamarTlos statuti,evropis sabWos wesdeba da SeTanxmeba evrokavSirsa da saqarTvelosSoris partniorobisa da TanamSromlobis Sesaxeb. naSromigankuTvnilia saerTaSoriso samarTlis problemebiT dainteresebulmkiTxvelTa farTo wrisaTvis. wignis mizania, gaacnos dainteresebulpirebs saerTaSoriso organizaciebis samarTlis,rogorc specifikuri dargis Taviseburebani.wignis avtorebi arian samarTlis doqtorebi daviT geferiZeda avTandil xazalia.141


marTlmsajulebaN3dakanonisaqarTvelos mosamarTleTa asociaciaJUDGES ASSOCIATION OF GEORGIAtel-faqsi/Tel-Fax: (+995 32) 292 34 90saqarTvelos uzenaesi sasamarTloTHE SUPREME COURT OF GEORGIAtel-faqsi/Tel-Fax: (+995 32) 299 70 01142

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