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marine CxituniZe marine CxituniZe magnituri velis topologiuri ...

marine CxituniZemagnituri velis topologiuri Taviseburebebidedamiwis magnitosferos dRis mxarissazRvris maxlobladწარმოდგენილია დოქტორის აკადემიური ხარისხისმოსაპოვებლადსაქართველოს ტექნიკური უნივერსიტეტითბილისი, 0175, საქართველო2008 წ.საავტორო უფლება © 2008 წელი, ჩხიტუნიძე მარინე, 2008w.i


საქართველოს ტექნიკური უნივერსიტეტიინფორმატიკისა და მართვის სისტემების ფაკულტეტიჩვენ, ქვემორე ხელისმომწერნი ვადასტურებთ, რომ გავეცანითჩხიტუნიძე მარინეს მიერ შესრულებულ სადისერტაციო ნაშრომსდასახელებით:“მაგნიმაგნიტურიველისტოპოლოგიურითავისებურებეავისებურებებიბიდედამიწის მაგნიტოსფეროს დღის მხარის საზღვრის მახლობლად“დავაძლევთ რეკომენდაციას საქარველოს ტექნიკური უნივერსიტეტისინფორმატიკისა და მართვის სისტემების ფაკულტეტის სადისერტაციოსაბჭოში მის განხილვას დოქტორის აკადემიური ხარისხის მოსაპოვებლად.თარიღიხელმძღვანელი:რეცენზენტი:რეცენზენტი:რეცენზენტი:2


საქართველოს ტექნიკური უნივერსიტეტი2008 წელიავტორი:ჩხიტუნიძე მარინედასახელება: “მაგნიტმაგნიტურიველის ტოპოლოგიური თავისებურებებიდედამიწის მაგნიტოსფეროს დღის მხარის საზღვრისმახლობლად“ფაკულტეტი : ინფორმატიკისა და მართვის სისტემების ფაკულტეტიხარისხი:დოქტორისხდომა ჩატარდა:თარიღიინდივიდუალური პიროვნებების ან ინსტიტუტების მიერზემომოყვანილი დასახელების დისერტაციის გაცნობის მიზნით მოთხოვნისშემთხვევაში მისი არაკომერციული მიზნებით კოპირებისა და გავრცელებისუფლება მინიჭებული აქვს საქართველოს ტექნიკურ უნივერსიტეტს.ავტორის ხელმოწერაავტორი ინარჩუნებს დანარჩენ საგამომცემლო უფლებებს და არცმთლიანი ნაშრომის და არც მისი ცალკეული კომპონენტების გადაბეჭდვა ანსხვა რაიმე მეთოდით რეპროდუქცია დაუშვებელია ავტორის წერილობითინებართვის გარეშე.ავტორი ირწმუნება, რომ ნაშრომში გამოყენებული საავტოროუფლებებით დაცული მასალებზე მიღებულია შესაბამისი ნებართვა (გარდაის მცირე ზომის ციტატებისა, რომლებიც მოითხოვენ მხოლოდ სპეციფიურმიმართებას ლიტერატურის ციტირებაში, როგორც ეს მიღებულიასამეცნიერო ნაშრომების შესრულებისას) და ყველა მათგანზე იღებსპასუხისმგებლობას.3


eziumemzis qaris plazmisa da dedamiwis magnituri velisurTierTqmedeba gansakuTrebiT aqtualuria, radganac warmoadgensbunebriv garemoSi mimdinare globalur energetikulprocess. mzis fotosferodan gamofrqveuli metad gaiSviaTebuliplazmuri nakadi, mzis qari, dedamiwis magnitosfero da misimTavari radiaciuli sartyeli, ionosfero, ayalibeben erTiansistemas, romlSic uwyvetad xdeba eleqtromagnituri energiisgadacema mzis qaridan dedamiwaze.sadisertacio naSromis mizani mdgomareobs dedamiwismagnitosferos dRis mxaris sazRvarze magnituri velis topologiuriTaviseburebebis SeswavlaSi da magnitohidrodinamikursasazRvro fenaSi magnituri velis induqciis araerTgvarovaniganawilebiT gamowveuli magnitogradientuli talRebis maxasiaTebelispeqtris SefasebaSi. mzis qaris plazmis dinamikasTandakavSirebuli konkretuli amocanebis ganxilvisas gamoyenebuliamagnitohidrodinamikuri (mhd) miaxloeba, xolo plazmiseleqtruli gamtareblobis cvlilebis efeqtebi Sefasebuliakinetikur miaxloebaSi, anomaluri winaRobis sagdeevis TeoriismixedviT.sadisertacio naSromSi agebulia ramdenime originalurimodeli, romelTa saSualebiTac SesaZlebelia TanamedrovericxviTi eqsperimentebis Teoriuli interpretacia. maTi SedegebiSeiZleba mniSvnelovani aRmoCndes TermobirTvuli sinTezislaboratoriuli modelirebis dros ganviTarebuli disipaciuriefeqtebis fizikuri arsis gagebisaTvis. pirveli Tavis pirvelparagrafSi zogadad ganxilulia magnituri hidrodinamikisgantolebaTa sistema. meore paragrafSi mocemulia am gantolebebisgamartivebuli formebi da maTi ganuzomel saxeze dayvanissqema, agreTve mhd dinebebis msgavsebis ZiriTadi ganuzomeliparametrebi. aqve mocemulia dedamiwis magnituri sasazRvrofenis, e.w. magnitopauzis, Teoria da misi Sesabamisi gantolebebi.I Tavis mesame paragrafSi mokled ganxilulia SvecismimdevrobiTi miaxloebis meTodi da Sefasebulia misi efeqturobasxvadasxva tipis sasazRvro fenebis amocanebisanalizuri amonaxsnebis miRebis TvalsazrisiT.meore Tavis pirveli paragrafi exeba mzis qaris magniturisiblantis problemas. mocemul substancias magnitosferosTanurTierTqmedebamde gaaCnia praqtikulad idealuri eleqtruligamtarebloba, magram, Tu am parametris sididis SesafasebladgamoviyenebT spitceris cnobil formulas, samarTliansabsoluturad ionizirebuli gazisaTvis, miviRebT, rom mzis qarisaplanetaTaSoriso sivrceSi ar warmoadgens idealurad gamtargaremos, rac niSnavs, rom mas gaaCnia garkveuli magniturisiblante. anomaluri winaRobis sagdeevis kinetikuri TeoriisTanaxmad, plazmis magnituri siblantis anomaluri zrdadakavSirebulia ionur-bgeriTi aramdgradobis aRZvrasTan.sadisertacio naSromSi Sedarebulia sagdeevis TeoriiT4


miRebuli mzis qaris plazmis anomaluri magnituri siblante,mdgari zonis irgvliv azimutaluri magnituri velis modelisgamoyenebiT miRebul mis sididesTan. aRmoCnda, rom magnitohidrodinamikuriwonasworobis piroba mdgari zonis sazRvarzemoiTxovs iseTive sididis magnitur siblantes, rogorsac iZlevasagdeevis Teoria. meore paragrafSi ganxilulia magniturisiblantis impulsuri cvlilebis efeqti arastacionarulmeridionalur magnitur sasazRvro fenSi, romelTanacgaigivebulia magnitopauza magnitosferos meridionalur kveTaSi.mesame Tavis pirvel paragrafSi mocemulia magnitosferoskritikul wertilSi anihilaciis Sedegad saplanetaTaSorisomagnituri velisa da geomagnituri velis sasazRvro ZalwirebisgadaerTebis movlenis modeli, agebuli algebruli mrudebisTeoriis gamoyenebiT. magnituri velis miRebuli topologiurisuraTis mixedviT, gansxvavebiT sxva cnobili modelebisagan,gadaerTebis efeqtis iniciaciisaTvis aucilebeli ar arismagnitosferos sazRvris erozia da, Sesabamisad, Sida magnitosferulistruqturebis SeSfoTeba. mesame Tavis meoreparagrafSi mocemulia magnitosferos winamdebare mdgari zoniszedapirze magnituri velis Zalwirebis xraxniseburi topologiurimodeli, romlis safuZvelia mdgari zonis wverosgaigiveba gansakuTrebul wertilTan. am modelis mixedviTSesaZlebelia saplanetaTaSoriso magnituri velis ZalwirisgaxleCa mdgari zonis wveroSi, saidanac gamomdinareobstopologiuri msgavseba wveros mqone magnitur zedapirsa dakritikuli wertilis mqone zedapiris laminaruli siTxiTgarsdenis dros Camoyalibebul hidrodinamikur stagnaciis zonasSoris. am Tavis mesame paragrafSi, mhd gantolebaTa sistemissafuZvelze, mcire SeSfoTebebis meTodiT, magnitosferoswinamdebare mdgari zonis modelis CarCoebSi, wrfiv miaxloebaSimiRebulia mzis qaris parametrebis SeSfoTebis Sedegadgenerirebuli mhd talRebis maxasiaTeblebi. Sedegebi miRebulia,rogorc idealurad gamtari, aseve disipaciuri plazmisaTvis,kumSvadobis faqtoris gaTvaliswinebiT, roca SeSfoTebavrceldeba mdgari zonis simetriis RerZis mimarTulebiT.mesame Tavis bolo, meoTxe paragrafSi ganxiluliamagnitosferos fokalur areSi rosbis tipis magnitogradientulitalRebis generaciis problema. pirvelad, aRniSnulitalRebis maxasiaTebeli parametrebi da sixSiruli speqtrimiRebulia am areSi magnituri velis rogorc wrfivi, asevearawrfivi ganawilebisaTvis.5


AbstractsInteraction of solar wind plasma and the Earth magnetic field is particularlyimportant, as it represents a global energy process taking plase in the naturalenvironment. Very low density plasma flow from the Sun’s photosphere, solar wind,Earth’s magnetosphere and its main radiation belt, ionosphere, form the system, wherecontinuous electromagnetic energy transmission from the solar wind to themagnetosphere takes place.The aim of the thesis work is to study the topological features of magneticfield on the dayside of the earth’s magnetosphere and to estimate the characteristicspectrum of magnetogradient waves cased by nonuniform distribution of magneticfield induction in the magnetohydrodynamic boundary layer. Magnetohydrodynamic(MHD) approximation is used for the specific problems related to the solar windplasma dynamics. The effects of the plasma electric conductivity changes is estimatedin kinetic approximation by Sagdeev‘s anomalous resistivity theory.A number of original models have been proposed in the thesis, which enabletheoretic interpretation of modern digital experiments. Results of the interpretationcan be essential for understanding physical nature of dissipative effects developingduring laboratory modeling of thermonuclear synthesis. In the first paragraph of thefirst chapter the system of magnetic hydrodynamic equations is discussed. In thesecond paragraph, simplified forms of the equations and transformation scheme ofthese equations to the non-dimensional form are presented. The main non-dimensionalsimilarity parameters of the MHD flow presented as well. There of the first chapterthe theory of Earth’s magnetic boundary layer, i.e. magnetopause, and correspondingto it equations are given. In the third paragraph of the first chapter the Shvetz’ssuccessive approximations method is shortly reviewed and its efficiency is estimatedfor analytical solutions of problems on various types of boundary layers.The first paragraph of the second chapter is related to the problem of magneticviscosity. This substance, before its interaction with the magnetosphere has practicallyideal electric conductivity. However, if for the estimation of the value of thisparameter we use Spitzer’s well- known formula, valid for the absolutely ionized gasthen the solar wind is not an ideal conductive environment. This means that solar windhas a certain magnetic viscosity. According to Sagdeev’s kinetic theory of anomalousresistivity the anomalous increase of magnetic viscosity of plasma is related to theexcitation of ion-acoustic instability. In the thesis work the anomalous magneticviscosity of the solar wind plasma derived from Sagdeev’s theory is compared to thevalue derived from the azimuthal magnetic field model around stagnation zone. Wefound that the boundary condition of magnetohydrodynamic balance requires samevalues of magnetic viscosity as it is given by Sagdeev’s theory. In the paragraph twothe effect of impulse change of magnetic viscosity in the non-stationary meridionalmagnetic boundary layer and identified as magnetopause in meridional section ofmagnetosphere is reviewed.In the first paragraph of third chapter, using the theory of algebraic curves,model of reconnection of interplanetary magnetic field force lines and the force linesof geomagnetic field due to annihilation at the critical point of magnetosphere ispresented. Unlike other known models, in this topological picture of magnetic field ofthe effect of interconnection initiation, the erosion of magnetic boundary andrespective disturbance of the intra magnetospheric structure is not required. In thesecond paragraph of the third chapter the screwlike topological model of the magneticfield force lines at the surface of stagnation zone is given. The basis of the model is6


the identification of the top of stagnation zone with the singular point. According tothis model the reconection of the interplanetary magnetic field force line at the tip ofstagnation zone is possible. Therefore the topological similarity takes place betweenthe magnetic surface with the top and the stagnation zone, which is formed during thelaminar flow around the surface with the critical point. In the third paragraph of thischapter, on the basis of MHD system of equations, by the method of smalldisturbances, in the frames of stagnation zone model of magnetosphere, thecharacteristics of the MHD waves generated by the disturbances of parameters of thesolar wind are derived in linear approximation. The results are obtained as for idealconductor as well for dissipative plasma, considering the factor of compressibilitywhen the disturbance is extended towards the axis of symmetry of stagnation zone. Inthe last, forth paragraph of the third chapter the problem of the generation of a Rossbytype magnetogradient waves in the focal area substetuded by stagnation zone ofmagnetosphere is discussed. For the first time, the characteristic parameters ofabovementioned waves and the frequency spectrum is derived in this area as for linearas well for nonlinear distributions of the magnetic field.The results are presented in the following conclusions:1. By modeling impulsive changes solar wind’s electric conductivity in time,using the Jigulev’s first order analytical equations, Parker’s kinematical modeland Shvetz’s succsessive approximations metod, parameters of the meridionalmagnetopause are defined; The effect of inertia of the magnetic boundary layeris presented; Similarly to the effect in the temperature boundary layer, itpromotes the stability of the parameters of magnetopause during the change ofthe electric conductivity of the plasma; The value of the velocity of theelectromagnetic drift along the magnetopause which is the validity criteria ofthe mono-liquid magnetic hydrodynamic equations in the vicinity ofmagnetosphere boundary is estimated.2. By means of algebraic curve theory, flat topology model of the change in theconfiguration of the boundary force line of geomagnetic field due toannihilation of magnetic filed in the critical point of magnetosphere isdeveloped; According to this model in the critical point there is a possibility offormation of a real algebric knot. In this case the reconnection scheme of theinterplanetary magnetic filed and geomagnetic field force lines and Shvetz’smodel of succsessive approximations becomes more simple because theerosion of magnetic boundary, usually connected to excitation of intramagnetosphericstructures, is not necessary.3. Based on the possibilities of multiple splitting of interplanetary magnetic fieldforce line at the singular point, the surface of magnetic boundary of stagnationzone of magnetosphere is developed; it was shown that this surface, in case ofthe synthesis with the model of concentrated magnetic loops aroundmagnetosphere, will be transformed to the screwlike magnetic surface with thevariable steps. The parameters of this transformation are determined by thelinear parameters of stagnation zone; It has been demonstrated that thetopological similarity between the force lines of frozen into the solar windplasma interplanetary magnetic field and the lines of the plasma current, which7


takes place when velocity vectors and the vectors of induction of magneticfield are parallel before interaction with the magnetosphere, can be preservedin stagnation zone of magnetosphere even if plasma has finite magnetic andregular viscosity.4. In stagnation zone of magnetosphere, as in the ideal conductive as well in theapproximation of mechanical and magnetic viscous compressible plasma, thegeneration of magnetohydrodynamic waves with the frequency spectrumequal to the cyclotron frequency spectrum of protons in magnetopause ispossible. It turned out, that besides the equatorial magnetopause, generation ofvery low frequency Rossby like magnetogradient waves is possible also in thefocal area of magnetosheath (stagnation zone); in the approximation ofstagnation zone model for the different models of linear and nonlineardistribution of magnetic field, the frequency spectrum of Rossby like waves,which completly covers the frequency range of regular geomagnetic (Pc1-Pc6)pulsations is derived.8


შინაარსიSesavali --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------11Tavi I. magnituri hidrodinamikis gantolebebi-------------------------141.1. mhd msgavsebis ganuzomeli parametrebi--------------------------------------141.2. dedamiwis magnituri sasazRvro fena (magnitopauza)---------------231.3. Svecis mimdevrobiTi miaxloebis meTodi-----------------------------------37Tavi II. dedamiwis magnituri sasazrvro fenis modelirebaplazmis eleqtruli gamtareblobis impulsuri cvlilebisgaTvaliswinebiT-------------------------------------------------------------------------------462.1. mzis qaris Mplazmis eleqtruli gamtareblobis buneba---------462.2. dedamiwis meridionaluri magnituri sasazRvro fenismodelireba mzis qaris eleqtruli gamtareblobis impulsuricvlilebisas---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------61Tavi III. magnitosferos mdgari zonis magnituri struqturatopologiuri formalizmis CarCoebSi damagnitogradientuli talRebibi------------------------------------------------------793.1. saplanetaTaSoriso magnituri velisa da geomagnituri velisZalwirebis gadaerTebis movlena algebruli mrudebistopologiuri formalizmis CarCoebSi ------------------------------------------793.2. mdgari zonis magnituri zedapiris topologia-----------------------903.3. plazmis siCqareTa velisa da magnituri velis topologiurimsgavsebis modeli magnitosferos winamdebare mdgar zonaSi-----1013.4. mdgari zona magnitosferos gardamaval areSi, helmholcisgantolebebis Tvisobrivi analizi da magnitogradientulitalRebis parametrebis Sefaseba-----------------------------------------------------110daskvna---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------125gamoyenebuli literature ----------------------------------------------------------1279


naxazebis nusxanax.1. dedamiwis magnitosfero---------------------------------------------------------28nax.2. eleqtronebis kritikuli siCqaris damokidebulebaTeT ptemperaturebis fardobaze-------------------------------------------54nax.3. magnituri sasazRvro fenis yofaqceva----------------------------------69nax.4. magnituri velis ganawileba--------------------------------------------------70nax.5. sasazRvro fenis yofaqveva-----------------------------------------------------75nax.6. 2) modeli, 3) modeli---------------------------------------------------------------77nax.7. 2) modeli, 3) modeli---------------------------------------------------------------77nax.8. magnitosferos dRis mxaris centraluri meridionalurikveTa------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------82nax.9. meore rigis algebruli mrudebis gansakuTrebuliwertilebi---------------------------------------------------------------------------------84nax.10. gadaerTebis aracxadi sqema---------------------------------------------------88nax.11. gadaerTebis cxadi sqema---------------------------------------------------------89nax.12. mdgari zonis sqema------------------------------------------------------------------91nax.13. mdgari zonis magnituri zedapiri-----------------------------------------9910


შესავალიkosmosuri energiiT magnitosferos momaragebis gareSeSeuZlebeli iqneboda am uzarmazari bunebrivi plazmurirezervuaris mravalferovan Sida struqrurebSi mimdinarefizikuri procesebis energetikuli uzrunvelyofa. aqedan gamomdinare,magnitosfero ver Seasrulebda mis mTavar funqcias,romelic mdgomareobs dedamiwaze organuli bunebis warmoqmnisaTvisaucilebeli garemo pirobebis uzrunvelyofasa dasasicocxlo procesebis dacvaSi mzisa da kosmosuri obieqtebismavne radiaciuli gamosxivebisagan. am procesis warmarTvisTvalsazrisiT gansakuTrebuli mniSvnelobis mqonea dedamiwismagnituri sasazRvro fena, anu mzis qarisa da geomagniturivelis uSualo kontaqtis are.P sadisertacio naSromSi miRebuli Sedegebi samarTlianiae.w. induqciur miaxloebaSi, anu roca reinoldsis magnituriricxvi Rem>> 1. aseTi situacia zustad Seefereba mzis qarisplazmas, rogorc magnitosferosTan urTierTqmedebamde, asevemagnitosferos winamdebare gardamaval areSi, romelic warmoadgenssivrces dartymiTi talRis frontsa da geomagnituri velissasazRvro Zalwirebs Soris.disertaciaSi gamoyenebulia Svecis mimdevrobiTi miaxloebismeTodis arastacionaruli modifikacia da Sefasebuliamisi efeqturoba sxvadasxva tipis sasazRvro fenebis amocanebisanalizuri amonaxsnebis miRebis TvalsazrisiT. miuxedavad imisa,rom Svecis mimdevrobiTi miaxloebis mwkrivi zogadad krebadi araris, aRmoCnda, rom zogierTi amocanebisTvis, kerZod, difuziistipis gantolebebisaTvis, is Zalian karg Sedegs iZleva ukve IImiaxloebaSi. am amoxsnebis zust amoxsnebTan Sedarebam aCvena,rom Svecis meTodis cdomileba mxolod 10%-s Seadgens, racsakmaod kargi Sedegia nebismieri miaxloebiTi analizurimeTodisaTvis.11


Msadisertacio naSromi exeba mzis qaris plazmis magniturisiblantis problemas. magnitosferosTan urTierTqmedebamde mzisqars gaaCnia praqtikulad idealuri eleqtruli gamtarebloba.magram, Tu am parametris sididis Sesafaseblad gamoviyenebTspitceris cnobil formulas, samarTlians absoluturadionizirebuli gazisaTvis, miviRebT, rom mzis qari saplanetaTa-Soriso sivceSi ar warmoadgens idealurad gamtar garemos. esniSnavs, rom plazmas gaaCnia garkveuli magnituri siblante.dartymiTi talRis frontis gavlis Semdeg mzis qariseleqtruli gamtarebloba mkveTrad ecema. Sesabamisad, naxtomiseburadizrdeba misi magnituri siblante. anomaluri winaRobissagdeevis kinetikuri Teoriis Tanaxmad, plazmis magniturisiblantis anomaluri zrda dakavSirebulia ionur-bgeriTiaramdgradobis aRZvrasTan. am tipis aramdgradobis ganviTarebisTvismagnitosferos sazRvris maxloblad arsebobsgansakuTrebiT xelSemwyobi pirobebi, romelTa Soris mTavariatemperaturuli anizotropia mzis qaris eleqtronul daprotonul komponentebs Soris, garkveuli sididis dreifissiCqaris pirobebSi. es kritriumebi Zalian kargad kmayofildebagardamavali aris fokalur nawilSi, e.w. Capliginis mdgarzonaSi.magnituri siblantis maxasiaTebeli sididis cvlilebisintervalis gansazRvra saSualebas iZleva martivad avagoT mzisqaris plazmis eleqtruli gamtareblobis droSi impulsuricvlilebebis modelebi, romlebic gamoyenebulia dedamiwismagnituri sasazRvro fenis parametrebis analizurad gansazRvrisaTvis.aseve originaluria magnitosferos winamdebare mdgarizonis zedapirze magnituri velis Zalwirebis xraxniseburitopologiuri modeli, romlis safuZvelia mdgari zonis wverosgaigiveba gansakuTrebul wertilTan.magnitosferos winamdebare mdgari zonis modelisCarCoebSi, wrfiv miaxloebaSi miRebulia mzis qaris parametrebisSeSfoTebis Sedegad generirebuli magnitohidrodinamikuri12


talRebis maxasiaTeblebi, rogorc idealurad gamtari, asevedisipaciuri plazmisaTvis, kumSvadobis faqtoris gaTvaliswinebiT,roca SeSfoTeba vrceldeba mdgari zonis simetriisRerZis mimarTulebiT. ganxilulia magnitosferos fokalurareSi rosbis tipis magnitogradientuli talRebis generaciisproblema. pirvelad, aRniSnuli talRebis maxasiaTebeliparametrebi da sixSiruli speqtri miRebulia magnituri velisrogorc wrfivi, aseve arawrfivi ganawilebisaTvis. naCvenebia, rommagnituri bunebis mqone rosbis tipis gradientuli talRebissixSiruli diapazoni faravs regularuli geomagnituri Pc1-Pc6pulsaciebis sixSirul diapazons.13


Tavi I. magnituri hidrodinamikis gantolebebi1.1 mhd msgavsebis ganuzomeli parametrebimagnituri hidrodinamika Seiswavlis eleqtrogamtarisiTxis moZraobas gareSe magnitur velSi. misTvis ZiriTadiasiTxis an gazis warmodgena uwyveti gamtari garemos saxiT,romelic eqvemdebareba makroskopuli eleqtrodinamikis kanonebs.aqedan gamomdinare, gaCndeba SesaZlebloba, raTa ganvixiloT imamocanaTaAkompleqsi, romelic Seiswavlis uwyveti garemosdinamikuri da eleqtromagnituri Tvisebebis urTierTkavSirs.eleqtromagnitur velze uwyveti eleqtrogamtari garemoszemoqmedebis gaTvaliswineba efuZneba induqciis movlenas,romelic gaTvaliswinebulia maqsvelis gantolebebSi [1].magnituri hidrodinamikis amocanebis didi nawilisamoxsnisas, astrofizikis amocanebis gamoklebiT, sadac mTavariarelativisturi efeqtebi, SeiZleba davuSvaT, rom uwyvetigaremos moZraobis siCqare sakmaod mcirea sinaTlis siCqaresTanSedarebiT. aseT garemoSi eleqtromagnituri velis aRwerisaTvisviyenebT maqsvelis gantolebaTa sistemas, romelic Cawerilianela moZravi garemos eleqtrodinamikis gantolebebis saxiT.imavdroulad, xdeba gantolebebis gamartiveba Semdegi daSvebebissafuZvelze:1. arastacionaruli movlenebis ganxilvisas wanacvlebisdeni ugulvebelyofilia;2. omis diferencialur kanonSi konveqtiuri (adveqciuri)moZraobis wevri ugulvebelyofilia.miaxloeba, rodesac mhd gantolebebSi ar aris gaTvaliswinebuliwanacvlebis deni, anu eleqtruli velis droiTi warmoebulimaqsvelis Sesabamis gantolebaSi, erTmaneTisagan mijnavskosmosur eleqtrodinamikasa da Teoriul radioastronomias.zogadi mosazrebebiT, romlebic warmoadgenen specialuri ganxilvissagans, sabuTdeba, rom Tu kosmosuri eleqtrodinamikisromelime problemis maTematikuri gadawyveta miRebulia wanacv-14


lebis denis gaTvaliswinebis gareSe, maSin analizuri amonaxsnisadeqvaturoba sawyis pirobebTan SeiZleba Semowmdes post-faqtum[2]. aseTi midgomis mTavari principi samarTliania maSin, rodesacSesaZlebelia analizuri amonaxsnis Semowmeba mdgradobaze. Tuamonaxsni exeba droSi nela cvlad movlenas, misi aramdgradobaniSnavs, rom aRiZvreba raRaca tipis maRalsixSiruli rxeva (anxmauri), romelic urTierTqmedebs amonaxsnis nela cvladnawilTan. es urTierTqmedeba yovel konkretul SemTxvevaSiSeswavlili unda iyos, rac niSnavs analizuri amonaxsnis postfaqtumgamokvlevas. am dros apriori CaTvlilia, rom procesiimdenad swrafi ar aris, raTa mxedvelobaSi misaRebi iyoswanacvlebis deni.amonaxsnis mdgradobis pirobebis gamokvleva wesiTgviCvenebs, Tu ramdenad samarTliani iyo sawyisi daSvebawanacvlebis denis ugulvebelyofasTan dakavSirebiT. magram,arsebobs iseTi movlenebic, romlebic ar SeiZleba CavTvaloTdroSi nela cvladad. magaliTad, aseTi movlenaa kosmosurgaremoSi warmoqmnili mhd dartymiTi talRa. amitom, dartymiTitalRebis TeoriaSi samarTliania mxolod iseTi kavSiri densada magnitur vels Soris, romelSic, gamtareblobis denTanerTad monawileobs agreTve wanacvlebis denic.moyvanili msjeloba sruliad sakmarisia magnitohidrodinamikurisasazRvro fenebis ganxilvisas, romlebSic wanacvlebisdeni, anu muxtebis polarizaciis efeqti, SeiZleba ugulvebelvyoT.aseTi daSveba samarTliania, magaliTad, magnitosferosdRis mxaris sazRvarze, sadac permanentulad arsebobsdroSi nela cvladi (plazmuri procesebis maxasiaTebeldroebTan SedarebiT), gansakuTrebuli mhd struqtura,magnitopauza [3]. am Tavis Semdeg paragrafebSi mocemuli iqnebaJiguliovis magnituri sasazRvro fenis arastacionaruligantolebebi, romelTaTvisac, pirobis Tanaxmad, hidrodinamikuriarastacionarulobis efeqti gacilebiT ufro didi droiTimasStabebis mqonea, vidre magnitur velSi protonebis larmoris15


unvis sixSire. sasazRvro fenis miaxloebis gamarTlebasTanerTad, aseTi daSveba agreTve mniSvnelovnad amartivebs omiskanons, radganac iZleva saSualebas SedarebiT martivadganvsazRvroT magnitur sasazRvro fenSi generirebuli eleqtruliveli da SevafasoT mniSvnelovani parametris, damuxtulinawilakebis eleqtromagnituri dreifis siCqaris, sidide.magnituri hidrodinamikis ZiriTadi daSvebis meore punqtiomis kanonSi konveqciuri wevris ugulvebelyofis SesaZleblobasexeba. masac, daSvebis pirveli punqtis msgavsad, sWirdebamisadageba konkretul amocanasTan. aSkaraa, rom konveqciurimoZraobis wevri omis diferencialur kanonSi mniSvnelovaniamaSin, rodesac gamtari garemos siCqare sakmaod didia. imSemTxvevaSi, Tu ki siCqare nulia an mcirea, garemos maxasiaTebelhidrodinamikur siCqaresTan SedarebiT, maSin SegviZlia davuSvaT,rom gvaqvs mxolod gamtareblobis denis Sesabamisi wevri, anuomis kanons aqvs iseTi saxe, rogoric metalur gamtarSi da aramagnitur velSi moZrav gamtar siTxeSi [1]. konkretulad,magnitosferos garsdenis amocanaSi SeiZleba CavTvaloT, romiseTi struqturuli are, romelisTvisac SesaZlebelia omiskanonSi konveqciuri wevris ugulvebelvyofa, aris magnitosferoskritikuli wertilis Semcveli fokaluri are. magram,konkretuli amocanisaTvis am Tezis samarTlianobas maincsWirdeba Sefaseba, Tu ki ar viyenebT magnitosferos winamdebaremdgari zonis models [3,4]. hidrodinamikuri moZraobisgantolebis nebismieri sxva analizuri amonaxsni an siCqareebiskinematikuri modeli fokalur areSi iZleva mzis qaris sasrulhidrodinamikur siCqares. amitom, meore piroba moiTxovs, romdadgindes im aris sivrculi zoma, romlisTvisac dasaSvebia omiskanonSi konveqciuri wevris ugulvebelyofa. aRvniSnavT, romsaWiro xazovani maxasiaTeblebis sidide damokidebulia ara mzisqaris plazmis Termodinamikur parametrebze da eleqtrogamtareblobaze,aramed magnitosferos garsdenis modelurmsxvilmasStabovan hidrodinamikur suraTze. Cveulebriv iTvleba,16


om uwyveti eleqtrogamtari garemo, mzis qari, erTgvarovania daizotropuli, xolo misi eleqtruli gamtarebloba gardamavalareSi, ionosferuli plazmisagan gansxvavebiT, ar arisdamokidebuli magnitur velze.wanacvlebis denis gareSe, omis diferencialur kanons aqvsSemdegi saxer rr( E + [ VB])j = σ , (1.1.1)sadac j -denis simkvrivea, σ -garemos eleqtrogamtarobiskoeficienti, E r -eleqtruli velis daZabuloba, B r -magniturivelis induqcia [5,6].amrigad, mzis qarisaTvis magnituri hidrodinamikisgantolebaTa sistemis `eleqtromagnituri” nawili Sedgeba (1.1.1)gantolebisa da maqsvelis gantolebebisagan (msgavsebis mhdganuzomeli parametrebis misaRebad mosaxerxebelia erTeulTasaerTaSoriso sistemis gamoyeneba)r rrotB = µ 0 j , (1.1.2)rr ∂BrotE = − ,∂t(1.1.3)divB r = 0 , (1.1.4)rdiv E =ρ eε 0, (1.1.5)sadac µ 0 da ε 0 - Sesabamisad aris magnituri da dieleqtrikulimudmivebi (absoluturi SeRwevadobebi),ρ e -eleqtruli muxtismoculobiTi simkvrive. saplanetaTaSoriso sivrcisaTvis, vakuumismsgavsad, fardobiTi µ =1 da ε = 1.mhd gantolebaTa `hidromagnituri” nawili agebuliaeleqtruli denis magnitur velTan urTierTqmedebis ZalisgaTvaliswinebiT, romelic eleqtro da magnitostatikuriZalebis ugulvebelyofis Semdeg garemos erTeulovani moculobisaTvistoliar r[ jB ]r 1fel = . (1.1.6)µ017


magnitur velSi ukumSvadi uwyveti eleqtrogamtarigaremos moZraobis (navie-stoqsis) gantolebas aqvs Semdegi saxe:r⎡∂Vr r⎤r r rρ ⎢ + ( Vgrad ) V ⎥ = −gradP+ η∆V+ fel+ F , (1.1.7)⎣ ∂t⎦V r -garemos moZraobis siCqare, η -siblantis dinamikuri koeficienti,F r -araeleqtruli warmoSobis Zalebi, romelTac momavalSiCavTvliT nulis tolad, ρ -garemos simkvrive, P -wneva.(1.1.7) gantolebas emateba uwyvetobis gantoleba ukumSvadisiTxisaTvisdivVr = 0 . (1.1.8)mhd gantolebaTa sruli sistemis misaRebad aucilebeliazemoT moyvanili gantolebebi SevavsoT garemos mdgomareobisgantolebiT da Termodinamikuri damokidebulebebiT gadataniskoeficientebisaTvis, agreTve siTbogamtarobis gantolebiT.Cveulebriv hidrodinamikaSi moZrav uwyvet garemoSi siTbosgamoyofis meqanizmia kinetikuri energiis disipacia siblantisarsebobis gamo. mhd SemTxvevaSi, siTbogadacemis gantolebaSiaucilebelia agreTve gaviTvaliswinoT joulis siTbo, romelicgamoiyofa drois erTeulSi erTeulovani moculobis gamtargaremoSi.magnitur velSi moZravi eleqtrogamtari ukumSvadisiTxisaTvis, T temperaturis mcire gradientis dros, roca SegviZliaugulvebelvyoT temperaturuli cvlilebebi, η siblantis,κ -siTbogamtarobisa dagantolebas eqneba Semdegi saxe:Cv-siTbotevadobis koeficientebisaTvis2⎛ ∂Tr ⎞jρC V ⎜ + VgradT ⎟ = κ∆T+ Φ + , (1.1.9)⎝ ∂t⎠σsadacη ⎛ ∂Vi∂Vk2 ⎟ ⎞Φ =⎜ + .⎝ ∂xk∂xi⎠siTbogadacemis gantoleba SegviZlia CavweroT temperaturagamtarobisgantolebis saxiT, risTvisac (1.1.9) gantolebis218


orive mxare unda gavyoTρCV-ze da SemoviRoT temperaturagamtarobiskoeficienti κ ( )2k = ρ C V . j σ wevri (1.1.9) gantolebaSiaris joulis siTbo, romelic gamoiyofa izotropul gamtargaremoSi erTeul moculobaSi drois erTeulSi.Tu gamoviyenebT (1.1.1), (1.1.2) da (1.1.3) gantolebebs dagamovricxavT j r da E r -s, miviRebT mhd gantolebaTa SemdegsistemasmoZraobis gantoleba:r∂Vr r 1r 1+ Vgrad V = − gradP + λ∆V+∂tρρµuwyvetobis gantoleba:r r( ) [ jB]0, (1.1.10)divVr = 0 , (1.1.11)temperaturagamtarobis gantoleba:omis kanoni:2∂Tr1 j+ VgradT = k∆T+ Φ + , (1.1.12)∂tρCρ σinduqciis gantoleba:r∂Brr= rot VB∂trr r[ VB] + rotBV C VrE = −, (1.1.13)µ 01σr[ ] + ∆Bµ 01σ. (1.1.14)maqsvelis gantolebebi:divB r = 0 , (1.1.15)rrρ = div VB , (1.1.16)eε 0[ ]r 1 rj = rotB , (1.1.17)µ0ηsadac λ = -siblantis kinematikuri koeficientia. (1.1.10-1.1.12)ρgantolebebSi gadatanis koeficientebi ar arian damokidebuliT -ze da ρ -ze.19


mhd gantolebaTaAsistema Seicavs sami tipis arawrfivr rrrwevrebs. ( Vgrad )V -arawrfiv wevrs emateba rot[ VB]-eleqtromagnituri1 µ rjBr. aqedan gamomdinare,induqcia da eleqtromagnituri Zala [ ]mhd gantolebaTaA sistemis zusti, TviTSeTanxmebuli analizuriamonaxsnis miReba SeuZlebelia [5,7].Cveulebriv hidrodinamikaSi arsebul ganuzomel parametrebTanerTad, magnitur hidrodinamikaSi Cndeba axali parametrebi,romelTac aqvT fizikuri azri mxolod gareSe magniturvelSi moZravi gamtari siTxisa an gazisaTvis. am parametrebis(msgavsebis ricxvebis) misaRebad saWiroa mhd gantolebebisAuganzomilebo formaze miyvana. pirvel rigSi aviRoT moZraobisgantoleba (1.1.10), romelSic j rSevcvaloT misi gamosaxulebiT(1.1) gantolebidan da am gantolebaSi Semavali yvela cvladisidide Semdegi saxiT gardavqmnaTr rv r r rV = V0 V ′ , P = P 0 P′, B = B0 B′, E = E0 E′, (1.1.18)r rsadac V 0 , P 0 , B 0 , E 0 arian ganzomilebiani sidideebi, V ′ , P′ , E′ ,rB′ - uganzomilebo sidideebi. sigrZis masStabisaTvis aviRoTmaxasiaTebeli sidide l , romelic damokidebulia amocanis konkretulpirobebze. martivi gardaqmnebis Sedegad, (1.1.18)-is gamoyenebiT,(1.1.10) gantolebidan miviRebT:rl ∂V′ r r Pλ r0+ ( V∇)V ′ = − gradP′+ ∆V′ +V t t′20 0 ∂ρVV l00. (1.1.19)σBE r r 2σBV r r r0 0l0 0l+ [ EB] + [ V ′ B′] B′]22ρVρV00advili SesamCnevia, rom (1.1.19) gantolebaSi aris hidrodinamikurimsgavsebis Semdegi ricxvebi (kriteriumebi):sh = l V 0 t 0 -struxalis ricxvi, romelic 1-is tolia, Tu t 0 = l V0;2( ρ )Eu = P 0 V 0 -eileris ricxvi;Re = lV 0 λ - reinoldsis ricxvi.(1.1.19) gantolebaSi bolo ori wevri warmovadginoTSemdegi saxiT:020


σBρE0 02V0l020B µ 0σlE0σlV0B0B0= ⋅ , = ⋅ µ22 0σlV0. (1.1.20)µ ρVB ρVµ ρV20002020B0cxadia, rom ,2µ ρVradgan020E0µ 0σl, 0σlV0B0µ -uganzomilebo sidideebia,[ E 0 ] =kgwm -3 a -1 , [ B 0 ] =kgwm -2 a -1 , [ σ ] =m -2 kg -1 wm 3 a 2 , [ ρ ] =kgm -3 , [ 0 ]V =mwm -1 .sidides, romelic axasiaTebs magnitur da dinamikur wnevebsSoris damokidebulebas, ewodeba alvenis ricxvi:S020B= . (1.1..21)µ ρV20uganzomilebo sidideseleqtruli ricxviE0µ 0σ l SegviZlia vuwodoT reinoldsisB0E0Re E = µ 0σl . (1.1.22)Baseve, SegviZlia SemoviRoT reinoldsis magnituri ricxvi0Re m = µ 0σV 0 l(1.1.23)da magnituri velis difuziis (magnituri siblante) koeficienti1λm = , romlis gamoyenebiT SesaZlebelia Re m ricxvis sxvaµ σ0saxiT warmodgenamiuxedavadRemV=0l. (1.1.24)λmRem-is da Re -s garegnuli msgavsebisa, maTifizikuri Sinaarsi gansxvavebulia: Re -gviCvenebs moZraobisgantolebaSi inerciis Zalasa da siblantis Zalebs Sorisdamokidebulebas, xoloRe m axasiaTebs magnitur velze gamtarigaremos zemoqmedebas. kerZod, moZraobisas damuxtuli siTxismier xdeba magnituri Zalwirebis wartaceba. roca Re >> 1, e.i.garemos eleqtrogamtaroba σ Zalian didia, adgili aqvs gamtarsiTxeSi (plazmaSi) magnituri velis `Cayinulobas”. es SemTxvevaZalian mniSvnelovania magnituri hidrodinamikis astrofizikurim21


damatebisaTvis da maRaltemperaturuli plazmis fizikisaTvis[8,9].rocaRe m


prandlis ricxvi damokidebulia garemos Termodinamikulparametrebze.ganvsazRvroT agreTve prandtlis magnituri ricxviPr= λλm =mRemRe, (1.1.29)romelic axasiaTebs meqanikuri energiis disipaciasa da eleqtromagniturienergiis disipacias Soris damokidebulebas.1.2 dedamiwis magnituri sasazRvro fena(magnitopauza)mzis qaris plazmis dinebis xasiaTi dartymiTi talRisfrontis gavlis Semdeg arsebiTad icvleba, misi parametrebisnaxtomiseburi cvlilebis gamo. kerZod, misi siCqaremagnitosferos Subla wertilis mimdebare areSi bgeramdelixdeba. magnitosferos mhd garsdenis specifikuri xasiaTisSedegad SesaZlebelia, rom mzis qaris gazodinamikuri energiagardamaval areSi imdenad Semcirdes, rom misi magniturienergiis Tanazomadi gaxdes. amitom, uSualod magnitosferossazRvris siaxloves, magnitopauzasTan mijriT, SeiZlebaCamoyalibdes magnituri jebiri, romlis intensivobisaTvis mzisqarSi Cayinuli saplanetaTaSoriso magnituri velis (smv)sidides mniSvneloba ara aqvs. gardamavali aris am nawilSiSeiZleba gansakuTrebiT gaZlierdes smv-s mastabilizirebeliroli, ris gamoc mzis qaris turbulenturi dineba laminarulidinebisaTvis damaxasiaTebel Tvisebebs SeiZens. gardamaval areSidinebis turbulenturi reJimis laminarulze cvlilebis mhdkriteriumebi gamoyenebuli iyo naSromSi [10], romelSic ganxiluliiyo smv-s, rogorc dinebis mastabilizirebeli faqtoris,efeqturobis sakiTxi. aqve moxda agreTve plazmuri garemos maxa-23


siaTebeli dinamikuri da kinematikuri siblantis koeficientebiscvlilebaTa SesaZlebeli diapazonis Sefaseba iseT miaxloebaSi,roca iTvleba, rom siblantes ganapirobebs protonulikomponentis mier plazmis sxvadasxva fenebs Soris gadataniliimpulsi. Tanaxmad Sefasebebisa, magnitosferos gardamaval areSidamuxtuli nawilakebis Tavisufali ganarbenis sigrZe protonebisgiroradiusis toli unda iyos. aseTi sidide ki uaxlovdebaplazmaSi msxvilmasStabovani turbulizaciis gamo warmoqmnilmezobel grigalebs Soris manZils. amitom, fizikuradgamarTlebulia daskvna, rom gardamaval areSi dinebisstruqturis laminarizaciis gamo, nawilakebis Tavisufaliganarbenis sigrZe ganisazRvreba mzis qaris plazmaSi arsebulmcirericxovan magnitur grigalebze protonebis gafantvisefeqtiT. am daskvnas mohyva umniSvnelovanesi Sedegi: magnitosferosgardamaval areSi aucileblad unda Seicvalos mzisqaris eleqtruli gamtareblobis xasiaTi. anomaluri winaRobissagdeevis Teoriis Seqmnamde gardamaval areSi mzis qariseleqtruli gamtareblobis sididis gansazRvrisaTvis yvelazeSesaferisad miCneuli iyo betCeloris Teoria, romelic kargadesadageba gaiSviaTebul plazmas da iTvaliswinebs im Sesworebebs,romlebic Seaqvs kulonur urTierTqmedebebSi gareSemagnitur vels.gardamavali aris im nawilSi, romelic uSualod ekvrismagnitosferos sazRvars, dedamiwis magnitur sasazRvro fenaSi,anu magnitopauzaze, SeiZleba ganviTardes mxolod am struqturisaTvisdamaxasiaTebeli fizikuri efeqtebi. maTi mizezia,plazmaSi disipaciuri meqanizmebis gaZlierebis garda, mzis qarismier magnitosferos garsdenis mhd Taviseburebebi. kerZod,gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania magnitopauzis maxasiaTebelixazovani parametrebis fardoba (sisqe sigrZesTan), romelic,nebismieri sasazRvro fenis msgavsad, erTze gacilebiT ufronaklebi sidide unda iyos, rac ganapirobebs magnitopauzaze24


magnituri velisa da dinebis fizikuri maxasiaTeblebismniSvnelovani sivrculi gradientebis arsebobas.eqsperimentaluri monacemebis Tanaxmad, magnitosferosdRis mxares magnitopauzis sisqe 100km-s rigisaa da praqtikuladar aRemateba 500km-s [11]. radganac magnitopauzaze moZrav plazmassasruli eleqtruli gamtarebloba gaaCnia, Cndeba garemosmagnituri siblantiT operirebis SesaZlebloba, ris gamoclogikurad sabuTdeba analogia magnitopauzasa da myaridamagnitebuli zedapiris kargad gamtari garemoTi garsdenisprocesSi warmoqmnil magnitur sasazRvro fenas Soris [12].erTaderTi principuli gansxvaveba, rogorc sCans, mdgomareobsimaSi, rom myari sxeulis magnituri sasazRvro fenis SidasazRvari emTxveva sxeulis zedapirs, romelic magnitosferoszedapirisagan gansxvavebiT, sivrceSi dafiqsirebulia da arganicdis sistematur SeSfoTebebs. naSromSi [13] dedamiwismagnituri velis sasazRvro fenis modelirebisaTvis pirveladiqna gamoyenebuli I da II gvaris brtyeli magnituri fenisgantolebebi, romlebic Seesabamebian magnitosferos or mTavar,meridionalur da ekvatorialur kveTebs.maTematikuri TvalsazrisiT, sasazRvro fenebi Cveulebrivwarmoiqmneba iseTi diferencialuri gantolebebis amoxsnisas,romelTac gaaCniaT mcire parametri yvelaze maRali rigiswarmoebulis Semcvel wevrTan. magaliTad: navie_stoqsisgantolebebSi es parametria kinematikuri siblantis koeficienti,magnituri induqciis gantolebaSi _ magnituri siblante,siTbogamtareblobis gantolebaSi – temperaturagamtareblobiskoeficienti. sasazRvro fenis amocanaTa amosaxsnelad ganviTardaspecialuri mZlavri maTematikuri aparati, romelic saTavesprandtlis blanti fenis Teoriidan iRebs da eyrdnobaasimptotikuri amoxsnebis gadakervis princips sasazRvro fenisada ZiriTadi garemos gamyof sazRvarze. prandtlis ideisTanaxmad, sasazRvro fenis gareT mcire parametri SeiZleba nulsgavutoloT, ris gamoc ZiriTad areSi samarTliania25


Semoklebuli gantolebaTa sistema, romlis amoxsnac gacilebiTmartivdeba. TviT sasazRvro fenaSi saWiroa gadasvla axalcvladebze da calkeuli wevrebis Sefaseba mcire parametrTanmyofi wevris mimarT. es xerxi, Tavis mxriv, kidev ufroamartivebs sasazRvro fenis Sesabamis gantolebaTa sistemas,romlis amoxsnac (Tuki aseTi arsebobs) unda TanxmobaSi iyosZiriTadi, SeuSfoTebeli dinebisaTvis miRebul amoxsnasTan. xSirSemTxvevaSi, aseTi sqema iZleva saSualebas warmatebiT amoixsnassasazRvro fenis amocana, ama Tu im zusti Tu miaxloebiTianalizuri meTodiT. cxadia, rom gamoTvliTi teqnikis Tanamedrovedone principulad dasaSvebs xdis agreTve sasazRvro fenisgantolebaTa sistemis efeqturi ricxviTi amoxsnebis miRebisSesaZleblobasac, Tumca, aqac saWiroa gamamartivebeli daSvebebi.kerZod, zogadi saxiT sasazRvro fenis Sesabamisi diferencialurigantolebebi imdenad rTulia, rom maTi pirdapiri ricxviTiamoxsna dakavSirebulia metad maRali simkvrivis sivrculi badisgamoyenebasTan, raTa sasazRvro fenaSi rac SeiZleba metisaTvleli wertili moxvdes.kosmosuri energiiT magnitosferos kvebis gareSe SeuZlebeliiqneboda mis SigniT mimdinare fizikuri procesebis energetikuliuzrunvelyofa da magnitosferos mTavari funqciis,rogorc dedamiwaze organuli bunebis warmomqmnelisa da sasicocxloprocesebis damcavi faris, efeqturi moqmedeba. mzisqari, dedamiwis magnitosfero da ionosfero ayalibeben erTiansistemas, romlis SigniTac mimdinareobs energiis uwyvetadgadacema mzis qaridan magnitosferosaken. am procesis warmarTvisaTvisgansakuTrebuli mniSvnelobis mqone area dedamiwismagnituri sasazRvro fena, romelsac axasiaTebs erTi specifika,dakavSirebuli smv-s arsebobasTan: miuxedavad imisa, rom mzisqaris mier transportirebuli magnituri velis energia gacilebiTufro mcirea mis kinetikur energiasTan SedarebiT, mas, zogSemTxvevaSi, mniSvnelovani koreqtivebi Seaqvs magnitosferosenergomomaragebis erTian suraTSi.26


magnitosferos zedapirs saSualod ecema 10 20 -10 22 ergi/wmenergetikuli simZlavris mqone korpuskularuli nakadi,romelic ZiriTadad mzis qaris nawilakebs warmoadgens. amasemateba kosmosidan mosuli eleqtromagnituri gamosxivebis energiisnakadi, romelic relativisturia da Sedgeba gama-qvantebisagan.jamSi magnitosferos mier miRebuli mTliani energiaramdenime rigiT aRemateba mzis qaris nawilakebis mier magnitosferosTvisgadacemul energias. garda amisa, mzis qarisnawilakebi warmoadgenen magnitosferos SigniT CaWerilidamuxtuli nawilakebis ZiriTad wyaros. rac gansakuTrebiTarsebiTia, rom ar yofiliyo mzis qari, dedamiwis magniturivelis dipoluri konfiguracia kosmosur sivrceSi usasrulodgavrceldeboda. Tu uxeS meqanikur Sedarebas moviSveliebT, mzisqaris zemoqmedeba dedamiwis magnitosferoze SeiZleba Semdegianalogiis saSualebiT warmovidginoT: vTqvaT, dedamiwis magnitosferowarmoadgens haerbuSts, romelSic CavWirxneT haeri.dedamiwaze buSti sasrulo zomisaa da mis zedapirze myardebaSida da gare wnevebis balansi, buStis zedapiruli daWimulobisZalis gaTvaliswinebiT. magnitosferos SemTxvevaSi wneva buStisgaredan asocirdeba mzis qaris gazodinamikur wnevasTan.warmovidginoT, rom gaberili buSti movaTavseT vakuumSi daCavTvaloT, rom gamoricxulia misi gaskdoma. maSin vakuumSi,romelic mxolod miaxloebiT Seefereba kosmosur sivrces,buSti, anu magnitosfero, usasrulobamde gaibereboda. magram,magnitosfero moTavsebulia ara vakuumSi, aramed metadgaiSviaTebul moZrav korpuskularul garemoSi, mzis qarSi. esabsoluturad ionizirebuli plazmuri substancia warmoadgenszegamtar garemos, romelsac Tan moaqvs CayinulisaplanetaTaSoriso (ufro zustad, mzis) magnituri veli.yovelive amis Sedegad dedamiwis magnitosferos dRisa da Ramismxareebi, romlebic formiT absoluturad identuri undayofiliyvnen, realurad warmoadgenen sxvadasxva formis sivrculmagnitur struqturebs. magnitosfero waagavs xoWos, romlis27


Tavic warmoadgens dRis mxares, anu Caketili magnituriZalwirebiT SemosazRvrul magnitur zedapirs, xolo xoWossxeulia magnitosferos Ramis mxare, anu rogorc mas sxvanairaduwodeben, kudi (nax.1).GgardamavaliareFmagnitopauza:fokaluri aremagnitopauzaplasmosferomzis qarinax.1.dRis mxareze SenarCunebulia SeWyletili dipolisaTvisdamaxasiaTebeli forma, maSin roca magnitosferos kudisSemomsazRvreli Zalwirebi mxolod cali mxridan ariandamagrebuli magnituri polusebis areSi da miemarTebianusasrulobisaken mzisgan sawinaaRmdego mimarTulebiT. Tumca,magnitosferos Ramis mxarezec arsebobs dipoluri magnituristruqtura, e.w. plazmosfero, romelic praqtikulad ar gansxvavdebadRis mxareze arsebuli analogiuri struqturisagan [14].magnitosferos kudis formirebaSi gansakuTrebul rolsTamaSoben eleqtromagnituri efeqtebi, romlebic damaxasiaTebeliaZalian maRali eleqtruli gamtareblobis mqone damagnitebuliplazmuri garemosaTvis. am faqts pirvelma miaqcia yurad-Reba danJim, romelmac Seqmna daxuruli da Ria magnitosferosmodelebi. pirvel mdgomareobaSi ar xdeba dedamiwis magnituri28


velis urTierTqmedeba mzis qarSi Cayinul saplanetaSorisomagnitur velTan, xolo meore modelSi aqsiomaturad daSvebuliaam velebis urTierTqmedeba, romlis Sedegadac xdebasaplanetaTaSoriso magnituri velis Zalwirebisa da dedamiwismagnituri velis Zalwirebis gadaerTeba. ar unda SegviyvanosSecdomaSi im faqtma, rom magnituri Zalwiri miekuTvneba fiqtiurfizikur kategoriaTa rigs. magnituri konfiguraciebis arsebobisSemTxvevaSi magnituri Zalwiri iZens realur fizikur Sinaarssda misi saSualebiT operireba sruliad gamarTlebulia.magnitosferos danJiseul modelSi bunebrivad Cndeba mzisqaridan magnitosferosaTvis plazmis korpuskularuli energiisgadamcemi arxebi, radganac zegamtar garemoSi plazmisnawilakebi mibmulia magnitur Zalwirebze. aqedan gamomdinare,Tu moxdeba smv-sa da dedamiwis magnituri velis ZalwirebisgadaerTeba, anu, formalurad, Zalwiris erTi bolo iqneba mzeze,xolo meore iqneba dedamiwaze, mzis qaris nawilakebs SeuZliaTSemoaRwion magnitosferos SigniT. ra aris saWiro ZalwirebisgadaerTebis efeqtis ganviTarebisaTvis? sruliad sakmarisia sadmemagnitosferos sazRvarze antiparaleluri mimarTulebebismqone smv-sa da dedamiwis magnituri velis kontaqti. Riamagnitosferos Teoriis Semdgomma gaRrmavebam moiTxova ZalwirebisgadaerTebis maqsimalurad savaraudo adgilebis gamoyofamagnitosferos sazRvarze da, rac arsebiTia, am adgilebSi mzisqaris plazmis zegamtari bunebis cvlileba sasrulis mimar-TulebiT. zegamtar garemoSi adgili aqvs magnituri velebisdrekadi ukugdebis efeqts, miuxedavad imisa, Tu rogor arianurTierTmimarTulni sxvadasxva wyaros Zalwirebi [15].davubrundeT Caketili magnitosferos models, romelicerTi SexedviT, praqtikulad gamoricxavs mzis qaris energiisgadacemas magnitosferos SigniT. marTlac, zegamtar mzis qarSismv-s ZalwirebTan miwepebuli mzis qaris nawilakebi magnitosferossazRvrisagan unda gahyvnen Sesabamis Zalwirs da gasrialdnenmagnitosferos zedapirze. aseT SemTxvevaSi magnito-29


sferos energetikuli momaragebis sakiTxi Riad rCeba, Tu ar iqnamoSveliebuli energiis gadacemis raime sxva meqanizmi, ZalwirebisgadaerTebis garda. aqsfordma da hainsma Camoayalibesmzis qarisa da dedamiwis magnituri velis kvaziblantiurTierTqmedebis Teoria, romelmac daZlia is winaaRmdegobebi,romlebic warmoiqmna danJis daxuruli magnitosferos modelSi.am Teoriis fizikuri arsi gamomdinareobs daSvebidan, rommagnitosferos sazRvarze mzis qarsa da dedamiwis magniturvels Soris xdeba iseTi tipis urTierTqmedeba, rogoricarsebobs myari sxeulis siTxiT an gaziT garsdenis dros. amprocesis xasiaTi gamovlinebas poulobs blanti urTierTqmedebiTgamowveul efeqtebSi, romelTa Sedegia garsdenadisxeulis Sinagani energiis cvlileba misTvis urTierTqmedebisaridan siTxis energiis gadacemis xarjze. aseTi TvalsaCinofizikuri hipoTezis miuxedavad im droisaTvis, roca Seiqmnaaqsford-hainsis modeli, mis mimarT kritikuli midgoma Camoyalibda.maSin bevrs warmoudgenlad eCveneboda, Tu ranairadSeiZleba gauCndes siblante iseT metad gaiSviaTebul garemos,rogoricaa mzis qaris plazma. marTlac, Zneli warmosadgeni iyo,rom garemoSi romelSic ori nawilakis dajaxebis maxasiaTebelimanZili erTi astronomiuli erTeulia, SesaZlebelia meqanikurisiblantis arseboba. magram, es winaaRmdegoba gaqreba imSemTxvevaSi, Tu mzis qars dedamiwis magnitosferos maxlobladSeecvleba eleqtruli gamtareblobis buneba zegamtaridansasrulisaken. pirvel rigSi, aseT SemTxvevaSi Cndeba mzisqaridan magnitosferoSi stacionaruli magnituri nakadisSeRwevis SesaZlebloba, romlis energia gacilebiT ufroaRemateba magnitosferos sazRvarze plazmisa da magniturivelis wminda blanti urTierTqmedebis energias. aRmoCnda, romeleqtruli gamtareblobis xasiaTis cvlilebas iTxovs agreTvedanJis Ria magnitosferos modelic, magram, unda davamatoT, romsasruli gamtareblobis mqone garemoSi, magnituri velisZalwirebis gadaerTebis SeasZleblobasTan erTad, arsebobs30


agreTve magnituri velis Zalwirebis anihilaciis TanabarZalovanialbaTobac. ukanaskneli efeqti aSkarad disipaciuribunebisaa da srul TanxmobaSia aqsford-hainsis modelTan.Semdgomma kvlevebma aCvena, rom damoukideblad ar arsebobsrogorc Zalwirebis anihiacia, aseve maTi gadaerTeba. orive esefeqti faqtiurad warmoadgens erTi da igive fizikuri procesisor mxares, romelTa ganviTarebac damokidebulia sxvadasxvawinmswrebi fizikuri faqtorebis lokalur dominantze [3,14].sad aris mzis qarisa da dedamiwis magnituri velisurTierTqmedebis is are, saidanac maqsimalurad albaTuriadedamiwis magnituri velis mzis qaris plazmis nakadis energiiTmomarageba? am kiTxvaze calsaxa pasuxi ukve didi xania arsebobs.es are warmoadgens sivrces dedamiwis magnitosferos winarsebuli dartymiTi talRis frontsa da magnitosferossazRvars Soris. sivrcis am nawils ewodeba gardamavali are, anuare, romlis SigniT mzis qaris plazmis dinebas bgeramdelixasiaTi aqvs da misi Termodinamikuli maxasiaTeblebi mkveTrcvlilebas ganicdian. formalurad, gardamavali are arsebobsmagnitosferos mTel sazRvarze, magram misi dRis mxaregansakuTrebulia, radganac swored aq xdeba mzis qaris mkveTridamuxruWeba da plazmis dinebis msxvilmaStabovani suraTisaraerTgvarovnebis gamokveTa, rac dakavSirebulia magnitosferoszedapirze kritikuli wertilis arsebobasTan. dedamiwis magnitosferosdRis mxareze, nebismieri gluvi zedapiris garsdenismsgavsad, aucileblad unda arsebobdes kritikuli wertili,romelSic mzis qaris hidrodinamikuri siCqare nulis tolia[3,13,14,16]. magnitosferos kritikuli wertilidan plazma moZraobsmisi sazRvris gaswvriv, fokaluri aridan periferiebisaken. esmoZraoba, Tu kvlav moviSveliebT analogias magnitosferosgarsdenasa da myari zedapiris gazodinamikur garsdenas Soris,unda mimdinareobdes ise, rom plazmis siCqare magnitosferossazRvaris gaswvriv unda izrdebodes nulidan (siCqaris sididekritikul wertilSi) iseT mniSvnelobamde, romelic magneto-31


sferosTan urTierTqmedebamde mzis qaris siCqaris sididisTanazomadi unda iyos. Tu analogias gavagrZelebT, undaganvixiloT agreTve magnitosferos sazRvarze dinamikuri damagnituri sasazRvro fenebis warmoqmnis SesaZleblobac.cnobilia, rom Tu garsdenadi sxeulis zedapirzesruldeba siTxis an gazis nawilakebis mikvris piroba,zedapirTan axlos aucileblad Camoyalibdeba blanti sasazRvrofena. am fenis ganivi xazovani masStabi ganisazRvreba garsdenadisxeulis zedapiris araerTgvarovnebis grZivi masStabiT, siTxisan gazis maxasiaTebeli siCqariT da meqanikuri siblantiskoeficientiT [17]. mzis qaris SemTxvevaSi, romelic warmoadgensgansakuTrebiT gaiSviaTebul, praqtikulad aradajaxebadplazmas, SeiZleba ugulvebelvyoT Cveulebrivi sasazRvro fenisefeqti da magnitosferos sazRvarze plazmis moZraobagavaigivoT idealuri gazis moZraobasTan. samagierod, radganacmzis qars dartymiTi talRis frontsa da magnitosferossazRvars Soris gardamaval areSi uCndeba magnituri siblante,fizikurad gamarTlebulia dedamiwis magnituri sasazRvro fenismcnebis Semotana. gasakviria, rom dedamiwis magnituri fenisgaigiveba magnitopauzasTan moxda ara magnitosferosTanamedrove Teoriis safuZvlebis Camoyalibebis Tanadroulad,aramed TiTqmis ori aTwleulis dagvianebiT. Tavidanmagnitopauza iTvleboda sivrcis im ared, romelSic xdebodadedamiwis magnituri velis ekranireba mzis qaris mier. aseTiformulireba logikurad gulisxmobs, rom Tu mzis qaris plazmaidealurad gamtari ar aris, magnitopauza unda iyos sasrulisisqis. aqedan gamomdinare, is marTlac unda warmoadgendesgardamaval fenas dedamiwis magnitur velsa da gardamaval areSimoZrav plazmas Soris. amitom idea, rom Jiguliovis magniturisasazRvro fenebis gantolebaTa sistema Sesaferisiamagnitopauzis maTematikuri modelirebisaTvis, gamoTqmulikrimskisa da romaSCenkos mier, sruliad samarTliania. sxvasaqmea, rom maT ver monaxes plazmis hidrodinamikuri dinebis32


iseTi modeli, romelic Sesaferisi iqneboda iseTi specifiuriwarmonaqmnisaTvis, rogoricaa magnitopauza [13].arsebobs brtyeli magnituri sasazRvro fenis ori tipi: Ida II gvaris, romelTa Soris gansxvaveba gamowveulia garsdenadzedapirze magnituri velis daZabulobisa da hidrodinamikurisiCqaris veqtorebis urTierTmimarTebaSi [12]. aSkaraa, romgansxvaveba magnitur sasazRvro fenebs Soris, romlebicsivrceSi erT struqturas warmoadgenen, maTematikuri xasiaTisaada mas ara aqvs gansakuTrebuli fizikuri safuZveli. amitommigvaCnia, rom im SemTxvevaSi, Tu SesaZlebeli iqneba magniturisasazRvro fenis gantolebebis koreqtuli amoxsna, magaliTad,cilindrul koordinatTa sistemaSi, ise rom ar iyosmaTematikuri sirTuleebis mosaxsnelad gakeTebuli daSvebebissaWiroeba, orive tipis sasazRvro fena gaerTiandeba erTsasazRvro fenaSi. aq faqtiurad vawydebiT sivrculi sasazRvrofenis problemas, romelic arsebobs Cveulebriv hidrodinamikaSida kidev ufro rTuldeba mhd SemTxvevaSi. aseTi SexedulebasaeWvos ar xdis brtyeli sasazRvro fenis farglebSi miRebulSedegebs, magram gulisxmobs, rom sivrculi sasazRvro fenissuraTi moicavs iseT damatebiT elementebs, romlebic saWiroebskoreqtul fizikur axsnas. magnitosferuli magnituri sasazRvrofenebis SemTxvevaSi es niSnavs, rom pirvel rigSi undagansazRvruli iyos sivrceSi ori gvaris sasazRvro fenebisgadakervis adgilebi. fizikuri warmodgenidan gamomdinare, aseTiadgilebis arseboba gardauvalia, xolo gadakervis operaciiskoreqtuloba damokidebulia im modelur daSvebebze, romlebicgamoyenebulia ama Tu im meTodiT brtyeli sasazRvro fenisgantolebebis amoxsnisas. realur situaciasTan amonaxsnisadeqvaturobas mniSvnelovanwilad gansazRvravs plazmis dinebismsxvilmaStabovani hidrodinamikuri moZraobis siCqaris veli,romelic magnitosferos garsdenis SemTxvevaSi, rogorc wesi, ariTvaliswinebs magnituri velis ukuqmedebas siCqareTa velze [3].33


ogorc ukve aRvniSneT, garkveuli topologiurigansxavavebis miuxedavad, orive tipis magnituri sasazRvro fenismTavari maxasiaTebelia maTSi disipaciuri efeqtis arseboba,romelsac, Cveulebrivi siblantis msgavsad, mhd SemTxvevaSiiwvevs magnituri siblante. rogorc naCvenebi iqneba II Tavispirvel paragrafSi, es parametri mzis qars yovelTvis gaaCnia,miuxedavad misi dabali simkvrivisa da mis miertransportirebuli smv-s mcire intensivobisa. amitom, smv-smastabilizirebeli gavlena mzis qaris moZraobaze SedarebiTsustia, ris gamoc, Tu mkacrad vimsjelebT, magnitosferos dRismxareze gardamavali aris zomis mqone mcire sivrculmasStabebSi plazma turbulentur garemos unda miekuTvnos.turbulentobis efeqti magnitosferosTan urTierTqmedebamdeSeiZleba ugulvebelyofili iyos da saplanetaTaSorisosivrceSi mzis qari CaiTvalos idealurad gamtar garemod.situacia icvleba magnitosferos gardamaval areSi, sadac,nebismieri ionizirebuli gazis msgavsad, mzis qarSi adgili aqvskoleqtiur urTierTqmedebebs da disipaciur procesebs. amitom,miuxedavad imisa, rom disipaciuri efeqti gardamaval areSiraodenobrivad arc Tu ise didia, mainc ar SeiZleba misiugulvebelyofa, gansxvavebiT saplanetaTaSoriso sivrcisagan.rogorc viciT, mzis qarSi SeiZleba arsebobdnenmniSvnelovani sivrculi zomebis mqone lokaluri araerTgvarovnebebi,magnituri Rrublebi, romelTac SeiZleba gaaCndeT,smv-sTan SedarebiT, sakmaod Zlieri spontanuri magniturivelebi. aseTi araerTgvarovnebebi, SedarebiT mcire sivrculimasStabebiT arseboben agreTve gardamaval areSic. isini aqtiurareebad arian miCneulni, maTSi mimdinare procesebis mniSvnelobisgamo. aseTia, magnitopauza, kritikuli wertilis Semcvelifokaluri are da polaruli kaspebi. gardamavali aris sxvanawilebs SeiZleba vuwodoT pasiuri areebi.amrigad, msgavsad mzis qarSi arsebuli araerTgvarovnebebisa,samarTliania magnitopauzasac ewodos aqtiuri are,34


magnitosferosTan SedarebiT, xolo nebismier sxva aqtiur warmonaqmns,sasazRvro fena [18].msgavsad sxva sasazRvro fenebisa, dedamiwis magniturisasazRvro fenac hyofs erTmaneTisagan or, arsebiTad gansxvavebuliparametrebis mqone, sivrcul struqturas: Zlieri magniturivelis (dedamiwis magnituri veli) lokalizaciis ares daswrafad moZrav dabali simkvrivis plazmas (mzis qari). kosmosuridakvirvebebis ganviTarebamde iTvleboda, rom plazmurgaremoSi warmoqmnili sasazRvro fenebi, turbulentobisa daaraerTgvarovani moZraobebis gamo, swrafad unda gamqraliyvnen,anu maT arsebobas unda hqonoda spontanuri xasiaTi. realuradki sawinaaRmdego aRmoCnda, radganac, rogorc wesi, kosmosurisasazRvro fenebi, gansakuTrebiT ki dedamiwis magnituri sasazRvrofena, myar struqturul warmonaqmnebs warmoadgenen, romel-Ta parametrebic garkveul stabilurobas iCenen mzis qarisparametrebis permanentuli cvlilebis mimarT. amaSi gansakuTrebulrols TamaSobs gardamavali are dedamiwis magniturvelsa da dartymiTi talRis fronts Soris, romelSic plazmisdinebis reJimi ganisazRvreba mzis qaris mhd da TermodinamikuriparametrebiT, agreTve masSi Cayinuli smv-s mimarTulebiTa daintensivobiT.magnituri sasazRvro fenis gantolebebi miiReba dinamikurisasazRvro fenis gantolebebis msgavsad. oRondac dinamikurisasazRvro fenis SemTxvevaSi msgavsebis ganuzomeli parametriaCveulebrivi reinoldsis ricxvi, xolo magnituri sasazRvrofenisaTvis _ magnituri reinoldsis ricxvi, romelic Cndebainduqciis gantolebaSi meore rigis sivrcul operatorTan(laplasianTan). magnituri sasazRvro fenis generaciis kriteriumiapiroba: Re >> 1.mmeore Tavis bolo paragrafSi warmodgenili iqnebaoriginaluri Sedegebi, romlebic miRebulia Svecis mimdevrobiTimiaxloebis meTodiT I gvaris magnituri sasazRvro fenisarastacionaruli `magnituri” gantolebis amoxsnis Sedegad.35


geomagnituri dipolis konfiguraciidan gamomdinare, pirveligvaris magnituri sasazRvro fena magnitosferos dRis mxareze,meridionaluri magnitopauzis garda, Seesabameba sasazRvrofenas polaruli kaspis nebismier kveTaSi. magnituri sasazRvrofenis “magnituri” gantolebis amosaxsnelad aucilebeliaamocanis Sesabamisidinamikuri suraTis gansazRvra, risTvisacgamoyenebuli iqneba parkeris cnobili kinematikuri modeli.oRondac, unda gaviTvaliswinoT, rom identuroba dabalganedovanmeridionalur magnitopauzasa da polaruli kaspissasazRvro fenas Soris Seexeba mxolod maTematikurgamosaxulebebs, ramdenadac gardamavali aris am nawilebSiplazmis dinebis struqtura principulad gansxvavebulia.saxe:I gvarixmagnituri sasazRvro fenis gantolebebis zogadi⎛∂2⎛2∂u∂u∂u1 ∂HH ⎞ ∂ ∂ ⎞⎜xy u 1 H+ u + v −⎟ = − ⎜ ⎟H x + H yλP +2∂ ∂ ∂ 4πρ ∂ ∂, (1.2.1)t x y ⎝ ∂x∂y⎠ y ρ x ⎝ 8π⎠⎛ ∂2⎛2∂v∂v∂v1 H y ∂H⎞ ∂ ∂ ⎞⎜x v 1 H+ u + v −⎟ = λ − ⎜ ⎟H x + H yP +2∂ ∂ ∂ 4πρ∂ ρ ∂, (1.2.2)t x y ⎝ ∂x∂y⎠ x y ⎝ 8π⎠∂H∂tx∂Hx+ u∂x∂Hx+ v∂y⎛− ⎜H⎝x∂u+ H∂xy∂Hy∂y2⎞ ∂ H⎟x= λ m , (1.2.3)2⎠ ∂x∂H∂t∂H∂xyx∂Hy+ u∂x∂Hy+∂y∂Hy+ v∂y⎛− ⎜ H⎝x∂v+ H∂xy2∂v⎞ ∂ H y⎟ = λ m , (1.2.4)2∂y⎠ ∂y= 0 , (1.2.5)sadac u ,H x da v ,H y siCqarisa da magnituri velis ganivi dagaswvrivi mdgenelebia, P -dinamiuri wneva, H28π-magnituri wneva.raTa ganvasxvavoT magnituri veli mzis qarSi da magnitopauzaze,ukanasknelisaTvis gamoyenebulia aRniSvna H r .(1.2.1)-(1.2.5) unda daematos uwyvetobis gantoleba. ukumSvadiplazmisaTvis gveqneba∂u∂v+ = 0 . (1.2.6)∂x∂y36


1.3 Svecis mimdevrobiTi miaxloebis meTodirogorc naCvenebi iyo am Tavis pirvel paragrafSi,magnituri sasazRvro fenis gantolebaTa sistema warmoadgensCveulebrivi sasazRvro fenis Sesabamisi maTematikuri aparatisganzogadoebas gareSe magnitur velSi moTavsebuli gamtarisiTxis an gazisaTvis (plazma). amitom, SeiZleba CavTvaloT, rommagnituri sasazRvro fenis SemTxvevaSi adgili aqvs CveulebrivisasazRvro fenis gantolebaTa sinTezs maqsvelis gantolebebTan,romlebic gansazRvraven gamtar garemoSi warmoqmnili eleqtromagnituriefeqtebis xasiaTs.nebismieri tipis Cveulebrivi Tu mhd sasazRvro fenismiaxloebaSi zusti analizuri amoxsnis miReba, martivi SemTxvevebisgarda, rTul maTematikur problemas warmoadgens.cnobilia aseTi zusti amoxsnebis mcire raodenoba, romlebicsamarTliania mxolod garkveuli gamamartivebeli pirobebisarsebobisas. magram, gamamartivebeli daSvebebi, rogorc wesi,zRudaven nebismieri garsdenis amocanis zogadobas. zustiamoxsnis mqone amocanaTa klasSi gansakuTrebulia blaziusisbrtyeli naxevrad usasrulo firfitis stacionaruli siTxisnakadiT garsdenis amocana, romlis amoxsnac miekuTvnebahidrodinamikis klasikur Sedegebs. am amoxsnas avtomodelurixasiaTi gaaCnia, e.i. emorCileba msgavsebis principebs, racniSnavs, rom masStaburi gardaqmniT maTematikuri Sedegebi aricvleba [19,20].sazogadod, avtomodelobis Tviseba damaxasiaTebelia mxolodzogierTi gamartivebuli hidrodinamikuri amocanisaTvis,rac nebismieri axali analizuri amonaxsnis faseulobasgansakuTrebiT zrdis. miuxedavad garkveuli analogiebisa,romlebic zogjer SeimCneva hidrodinamikur damagnitohidrodinamikur amocanas Soris, mhd SemTxvevaSiavtomodelobis principi xSirad irRveva. Tumca, rogorcaRmoCnda, avtomodelobis darRveva zogjer praqtikulad37


mosaxerxebelia. magaliTad, dedamiwis magnituri sasazRvro fenismodelirebis dros [3].amrigad, mhd sasazRvro fenebis gantolebebis zustiamoxsna gansakuTrebuli sirTulis problemaa, miuxedavad imisa,rom sxvadasxva procesebis maxasiaTebeli ganuzomeli parametrebisSemotana, rogorc wesi, mniSvnelovnad amartivebs sawyisgantolebebs. aseTi gziT SesaZlebelia samganzomilebianiamocanebis brtyel amocanebze dayvana. amis klasikuri magaliTiabrtyeli magnituri sasazRvro fenis gantolebebi, romelTasafuZvelia magnituri induqciisa da gamtari siTxis moZraobis(navie-stoqsis gantolebis mhd modifikacia) samganzomilebianigantolebebi. yovelmxriv koreqtuli, absoluturad dasabuTebulifizikuri analizis Sedegad Jiguliovma Seqmna I da IIgvaris brtyeli magnituri sasazRvro fenebis Teoria, romlisgantolebebi organzomilebiania. garda amisa, gamartiveba agreTveSeexo eleqtromagnitur efeqtebsac, romlebic viTardebagarsdenadi zedapiris maxloblad. aRmoCnda, rom II gvarismagnitur sasazRvro fenaSi gamtari garemos moZraoba emorCilebaCveulebriv, da ara magnitur hidrodinamikas. es niSnavs, rom amSemTxvevaSi adgili ara aqvs magnituri velis ukugavlenasdinebaze [12].sazogadod iTvleba, rom mhd sasazRvro fenebis gantolebebiSeiZleba amoixsnas analizurad, ricxviTi meTodebiT(grafikulad) da analogiebis meTodis saSualebiT. cxadia, rompirveli ori xerxi zogadad uSvebs sasazRvro fenis amocaniszusti amoxsnis SesaZleblobas, maSin, roca analogiebis meTodi,misi principidan gamomdinare, arasodes iZleva zust amoxsnas.magram, rogorc wesi, nebismieri meTodiT, analizurad, zusti,koreqtuli amonaxsnebis miReba SeuZlebelia, Zalian martiviSemTxvevebis garda. amave dros, bolo aTwleulebis ganmavlobaSigamoyenebiTi maTematikuri aparatis uwyveti ganviTareba dakompiuteruli teqnikis progresi principulad SesaZlebels xdisZalian didi sizustis ricxviTi amoxsnebis miRebas. magram,38


saWiroa aRiniSnos, rom nebismieri ricxviTi amonaxsni miiRebaalgebruli gantolebebis sistemidan, romelic, Tavis mxriv,warmoadgens diferencialuri gantolebebis gardaqmnis (dayvanis)Sedegs. Tu romeli meTodis gamoyeneba sjobs ama Tu imkonkretuli amocanis SemTxvevaSi, obieqturi kriteriumebisgarda, xSirad damokidebulia subieqtur Sexedulebebzec. Tumca,sakamaTo ar aris, rom Tu SesaZlebelia Tundac miaxloebiTi,koreqtuli analizuri amonaxsnis miReba, misi Rirebulebaaranaklebia, vidre igive amocanis zusti ricxviTi amoxsnisa.udavoa, rom mxolod analizuri amonaxsni iZleva fizikuriprocesis srulfasovani, yovelmxrivi Seswavlis saSualebas,sulac imitom, rom is eqvemdebareba asimptotikuri yofaqceviscxadad gansazRvris SesaZleblobas. rogorc magaliTi, hidrodinamikaSifarTod gamoyenebuli analizuri meTodisa, moviyvanTblaziusis meTods, romlis saSualebiTac miRebulia dinamikuri,siTburi da magnituri sasazRvro fenebis sxvadasxva, SedarebiTmartivi, stacionaruli da arastacionaruli amocanebis amoxsnebi[17,19,20].arsebobs agreTve ramdenime sxva, sakmaod efeqturimiaxloebiTi analizuri meTodi, mag: targis integraluri meTodi,karnmanis meTodi, polhauzenis meTodi da sxv. garda amisa,sakmaod farTod gamoiyeneba miaxloebiTi analizuri meTodebi,magaliTad, iseTi arastacionaruli amoxsnebis misaRebad, rocaSesaZlebelia kvazistacionaruli miaxloebis gamoyeneba. popularuliaagreTve mcire SeSfoTebebis meTodi, gansakuTrebiTplazmis talRuri moZraobebis Seswavlisas.Svecis mimdevrobiTi miaxloebis meTodi, romlis arastacionarulimodifikacia ekuTvnis dobriSmans, miekuTvneba diferencialurigantolebebis amoxsnis iteraciuli tipis meTodebisklass. am meTodis Rirsebaa, sxva msgavsi tipis meTodebTanSedarebiT, gansakuTrebuli simartive da, rac mTavaria, fizikurisicxade. mas gaaCnia naklovanebebic, romlebic dakavSirebulia39


meTodis arakoreqtulobasTan asimptotikaSi, roca iteraciulimwkrivis jami usasrulobisaken miiswrafis.sasazRvro fenis amocanebis amoxsnis miaxloebiT meTodebsSoris arseboben, rogorc analizuri aseve ricxviTi meTodebi,romelTac gansakuTrebuli ganviTareba hpoves gamoTvliTiteqnikis progresis kvaldakval. rogorc avRniSneT, orivemidgomas sasazRvro fenis maTematikuri problemisadmi gaaCniarogorc upiratesoba aseve naklic, romelTa SefasebaSicgadamwyveti mniSvneloba eniWeba konkretuli amocanis specifikasada mkvlevaris unars, efeqturad gamoiyenos ama Tu immeTodis SesaZleblobebi. am TvalsazrisiT gansakuTrebiT sasargebloaRmoCnda Svecis meTodi, romelic Tavdapirvelad gamoyenebuliiyo sxvadasxva fizikuri da geofizikuri amocanebismartivi analizuri gziT amoxsnisaTvis [21,22]. niSandoblivia, romam meTodis avtori gaxlavT ara maTematikosi, aramed Teoritikosi– geofizikosi, romlis mizansac warmoadgendasxvadasxva kerZo SemTxvevaSi miaxloebiTi amoxsnebis miRebaamocanis fizikuri arsis minimalurad SezRudvis pirobebSi.Tavisi SinaarsiT, Svecis meTodi iteraciuli xasiaTisaa, e.i.gulisxmobs amonaxsnis mwkrivis saxiT warmodgenas, romlisSesakrebebic ganisazRvreba Sesabamisi diferencialuri gantolebismiaxloebiTi amoxsnis safexurebiT. am meTodiT miRebulmaSedegebma aCvena SesaniSnavi Tanxvdena cnobil zust amoxsnebTan,maT Soris, blaziusis amocanis amoxsnasTan. amitom, imTaviTvegamoTqmuli iyo varaudi, rom mimdevrobiTi miaxloebis meTodiarc Tu mniSvnelovan damaxinjebas unda iZleodes agreTve imamocanebis amoxsnisas, romelTaA zusti amoxsnebi an ararsebobda, an principulad SeuZlebeli iyo maTi amoxsna. eshipoTeza moiTxovda Semowmebas, rasac mieZRvna gamoyenebiTimaTematikis specialistebis ramodenime naSromi [23,24]. aRmoCnda,rom zogad SemTxvevaSi mimdevrobiTi miaxloebis meTodiTmiRebuli amoxsnebis mwkrivi ganSladi yofila, rasac, TiTqos,unda SeezRuda am meTodis gamoyenebis are. magram, es faqti40


mniSvnelovania mxolod fundamentaluri TvalsazrisiT,radganac mimdevrobiTi miaxloebis meTodi imTaviTve gamiznuliiyo fizikis moTxovnilebebidan gamomdinare praqtikuliamocanebis amoxsnisaTvis, roca gadamwyvetia meTodisefeqturoba, da ara misi mniSvneloba fundamenturi kvlevebisganviTarebis procesis TvalsazrisiT. praqtikulad, mimdevrobiTimiaxloebis meTods unikaluri SesaZleblobebi aRmoaCnda, racdadasturda mTel rig naSromebSi, romlebSic warmatebiT iqnagadawyvetili dinamikuri da siTburi hidrodinamikuri sasazRvrofenebisa da difuziis sxvadasxva stacionaruli amocanebi. maTiamonaxsnebi, sxva zust an miaxloebiT analizur amoxsnebTanSedarebiT, gamoirCeodnen, maTematikur sisadavesTan erTd,gansakuTrebuli fizikuri informatiulobiTac. kerZod, SvecismeTodiT miRebuli amoxsnebi iZleodnen nebismieri sasazRvrofenis mTavari fizikuri parametrebis cxadi saxiT gansazRvrissaSualebas.mimdevrobiTi miaxloebis meTodiT miRebuli Sedegebispraqtikulma Rirebulebam dRis wesrigSi daayena misi arastaconarulamocanebze ganzogadoebis sakiTxi, romelic gadawyvitadobriSmanma. man, gamoiyena ra mimdevrobiTi miaxloebis idea daSvecis mier SemoTavazebuli meTodika, moaxdina am meTodisarastacionaruli modifikacia, romelic warmatebuli aRmoCndahidrodinamikuri sasazRvro fenebis zogierTi (dinamikuri tipis)amocanis amosaxsnelad [25].mimdevrobiTi miaxloebis meTodis koreqtulobis problemasada misi magnitohidrodinamikuri dinebis siCqareTa velisada magnituri induqciis sasazRvro fenis amocanebisaTvis gamoyenebissamarTlianobis dasabuTebas mieZRvna iotkovskisa dasxvaTa naSromi, romelSic Catarebulia miaxloebiTi analizuriamoxsnebis Sedareba zust avtomodelur amoxsnebTan da arsebulricxviT amoxsnebTan. fardobiTi analizi emyareba iseT amocanas,romlisTvisac winaswar mocemulia siCqareTa veli da magnituriinduqciis sasazRvro fena. kerZod, ganixileba marTkuTxa mhd41


arxSi stacinaruli laminaruli dinebis cnobili amocana,romlisTvisac arsebobs dinamiuri sasazRvro fenis zustianalizuri amonaxsni [26].arxis ganiv kveTaSi gadajvaredinebuli magnituri daeleqtruli velebis arsebobis dros dinebis topologiamoyvanilia qvemoT mocemul sqematur suraTze.B|BA-AEB|BRsqemaAA kedlebi –izolatoriebia, BB –eleqtrodebi. iTvleba,rom magnituri reinoldsis ricxvi Re


mudmivia. meore SemTxvevaSi sasazRvro fenis ganivad mudmiviaeleqtruli veli, xolo denis simkvrive cvladia.Sesabamisad,cvladia ponderomotoruli Zalebic. amitom, amocana arsebiTadgansxvavebulia sasazRvro fenebisaTvis arxis kedlebze,romlebic orientirebulni arian velis Zalwirebis paralelurad(`eleqtroduli” kedeli) da maT perpendikularulad(`izolirebuli” kedlebi). pirvel SemTxvevaSi deni miedinebakedlis marTobulad da denis simkvrive da pondermotoruliZalebi mudmivia sasazRvro fenis mTel sisqeSi. meoreSemTxvevaSi eleqtruli velis daZabuloba mudmivi rCeba, xolodenis simkvrive, da, aqedan gamomdinare, pondermotoruliZalebic, Seicvlebian sasazRvro fenis sisqis cvlis mixedviT.eleqtruli velis mudmivobis daSveba arsebiTia, radganwinaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi dinebas eqneba gansakuTrebulobebi,romlTa gaTvaliswineba SeuZlebelia Svecis miaxloebiTimeTodis farglebSi. es piroba ar warmoadgens gansakuTrebuladmkacr SezRudvas, radganac laboratoriul eqsperimentebSi (mhdgeneratorebSi an amaCqareblebSi) piroba E = const Zalianmartivad sruldeba.amrigad, zemoT aRwerili sworkuTxa konfiguraciis mqonearxis kedlebze sasazRvro fenis sisqis analizurigansazRvrisaTvis gamoyenebuli iyo Svecis miaxloebiTianalizuri meTodi. siCqaris sxvadasxva nulovani profilisaTvismiRebuli iyo sasazRvro fenis sisqis zogadi gamosaxulebebi damhd-arxis kedlebze tangencialuri Zabvebis (xaxunis) cvlilebaarxisgaswvriv, gare dinebaSi siCqarisa da magnituri velisinduqciis im ganawilebisaTvis, romelic mocemuli iyoerTganzomilebiani TeoriiT. SedarebiTma analizma aCvena, romcTomileba, romelic amoxsnebSi Sehqonda mimdevrobiTimiaxloebis meTods, zust ricxviT amoxsnasTan SedarebiT,sakmaod mcire iyo da praqtikulad ar aRemateboda 10%-s, racSvecis meTodis sakmaris efeqturobas adasturebs.43


garda amisa, am qvakuTxedur naSromSi gakeTda kidev erTiSedareba: mudmivi gamtareblobis dros, mhd Zalebis ar arsebobispirobebSi, Svecis meTodiT miRebuli iyo frTis formis mqonezedapiris garsdenis amocanis amoxsna kvadraturebSi. amamonaxsnis avtorma gamoiyena moZraobis gantoleba, oRondacsasazRvro fenaSi siTxis cvladi gamtareblobis dros. Tumca amamocanaSi Svecis meTodis sizuste ar ganxilula da misigamoyenebis are ar gansazRvrula. samagierod, am mhd amocanisSedegebis analizia safuZvelze iotkovskis jgufis naSromSimoyvanilia ricxviTi gamoTvlebi da Catarebulia sakmarisimaTematikuri simkacris msjeloba Svecis meTodis gamoyenebisaresTan dakavSirebiT [26].SemdgomSi, mimdevrobiTi miaxloebis meTodis arastacionarulimodifikacia gamoyenebuli iyo brtyel zedapirze sxvadasxvatipis (dinamikuri, siTburi, Tavisufali konveqciis) sasazRvrofenebis parametrebis gansazRvrisaTvis. aseve, magnitosferossoliseburi modelis CarCoebSi gansazRvruli plazmis dinebishidrodinamikuri suraTis saSualebiT amoxsnili iyo I da IIgvaris magnituri sasazRvro fenis arastacionaruli gantolebaTasistemis “magnituri” nawilebi, romlebic Seesabamebodnendedamiwis magnitosferos meridionalur da ekvatorul kveTebs[27]. miRebuli Sedegebi, faqtiurad pirvelad, warmoadgendadedamiwis magnituri sasazRvro fenis, magnitopauzis, iseTmaTematikur abstraqcias, romelic, cxadi, saxiT iZleoda sasazRvrofenis yvela ZiriTad parametrs: sisqes, agreTve fenisgaswvrivad da ganivad magnituri da eleqtruli velisdaZabulobebis ganawilebas. qvemoT moyvanilia dedamiwis ekvatorialurida meridionaluri magnituri sasazRvro fenebis sisqisganuzomeli analizuri gamosaxulebebi [3,27]⎛ξ ξdξ⎞δ oH ϕ hozexp a h zϕexp aRe∫mϕ ∫ ⎛2 6 −2−1=⎜3⎟ ⎜ −⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ∫0 3⎝ 0 ⎠0 ⎝ 0ξdξdξϕ ⎟ ⎟ ⎞, (1.3.1)⎠44


⎛ξ ξdξ⎞δ oH ϕ hozexp a h xϕexp aRe∫mϕ ∫ ⎛2 6 −1−1′ =⎜3⎟ ⎜ −⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ∫0 3⎝ 0 ⎠0 ⎝ 0ξdξdξϕ ⎟ ⎟ ⎞, (1.3.2)⎠sadac ϕ( ξ ,t)-plazmis dinebis siCqarea sasazRvro fenis zedapirisgaswvriv, h0 z ( ξ ,t), h x ( ξ ,t)0 _geomagnituri velis daZabulobis sididemagnitosferos sazRvarze ekvatorul da meridionalur kveTebSi,a -magnitosferos sazRvris forovnebis ganmsazRvreli parametri,ξ - ganuzomeli koordinata magnitosferos sazRvris gaswvriv.lakonurobisaTvis, moviyvanT mxolod ekvatorulimagnitopauzis Sesabamis magnituri velis daZabulobis ganawilebisanalizur gamosaxulebasH = h+ h0zW0h+δ0z∂∂0z0H( 1−η)lnδt0H+ Re⎛3η⎜⎝ 6m⎛2η η ⎞⎜ ⎟− + h2 2⎝ ⎠⎡∂h⎢⎢⎣∂t0z0z⎛2η⎜⎝ 2η ⎞− ⎟ + ϕh6⎠0z3∂ϕ⎛η⎜∂ξ⎝ 63η−6∂lnδ∂ξ0Hη ⎞⎤− ⎟⎥δ6⎠⎥⎦η ⎞− ⎟ + h3⎠20H⎛3η⎜⎝ 60z∂∂lnδt0H⎛3η⎜⎝ 6η ⎞− ⎟ +6⎠2 3η ⎞ ∂h0z⎛ηη− ⎟ ϕ ⎜6+∂ξ⎠ ⎝ 2 6η ⎞− ⎟ +6, (1.3.3)⎠sadac W 0 _magnitosferos sazRvarze plazmis siCqaris ganivikomponentaa, η -magnitopauzis ganivi ganuzomeli koordinata.magnitosferos soliseburi modelis farglebSi aRmoCnda,rom rogorc ekvatorul, aseve meridionalur magnitopauzaSimagnituri velis daZabulobis ganawileba praqtikulad avtomodelurixasiaTisaa. es faqti mniSvnelovania imdenad, ramdenadacamartivebs magnitur sasazRvro fenebSi generirebuli msxvilmasStabovanieleqtruli velis komponentebis gamoTvlas daganivi potencialTa sxvaobis sididis Sefasebas, risTvisacgamoyenebuli iyo omis kanonisa da maqsvelis gantolebiscnobili kombinacia.45


Tavi II. dedamiwis magnituri sasazRvro fenismodelireba plazmis eleqtruli gamtareblobisimpulsuri cvlilebis gaTvaliswinebiT2.1. mzis qaris Mplazmis eleqtruli gamtareblobisbunebamzis qarSi, romelic saplanetaTaSoriso sivrceSiaradisipaciur garemod iTvleba, kosmosuri samecnieroaparatebis monacemebiT, SesaZlebelia arsebobdes “disipaciurikunZulebi” magnituri Rrublebis saxiT. Teoriuli SefasebiT,3 −1magnituri Rrublis xvedriTi winaRoba ρ ≈ 2.7 ⋅ (10− ÷ 10 ) wm, rasac2Seesabameba xvedriTi eleqtruli gamtarebloba σ ≈ 3.7 ⋅ (1 ÷ 10 ) wm -1[28]. qvemoT naCvenebi iqneba, rom saplanetaTaSoriso sivrceSimzis qaris eleqtruli gamtareblobis aseTi maxasiaTebelimniSvnelobebi ramdenime rigiT ufro dabalia plazmiseleqtrul gamtareblobaze gardamaval areSi, magnitosferoswinamdebare dartymiTi talRis frontsa da mis sazRvars Soris.sivrcis am nawilSi iwyebs moqmedebas plazmis sasrulieleqtruli gamtareblobis ganviTarebisaTvis aucilebelikinetikuri da mhd meqanizmebi. am TvalsazrisiT, gansakuTrebuliamagnitosferos magnituri sasazRvro fena, magnitopauza, sadacaris maqsimalurad albaTuri anomaluri winaRobis efeqtiswarmoqmna. aRvniSnoT, rom magnituri Rrublis gamtareblobissimcire, erTgvarovani mzis qaris eleqtrul gamtareblobasTanSedarebiT, aisaxeba agreTve reinoldsis magnituri ricxvissidideze. es ganuzomeli parametri, wina paragrafis Tanaxmad,warmoadgens gamtari garemosaTvis induqciuri da arainduqciurimiaxloebis kriteriums. kerZod, magnitosferos garsdenisamocanas SeesabamebaRem>>1, e.i. am SemTxvevaSi samarTlianiainduqciuri miaxloeba, xolo mzis qarSi “CaZirul” magnitur46


RrubelSi induqciis efeqti SeiZleba ugulvebelvyoT, radganacam warmonaqmnisaTvis damaxasiaTebeliaRem


Termodinamikuri maxasiaTeblebis, Tvisobriv cvlilebebs.saplanetaTaSoriso sivrceSi mzis qaris plazma praqtikulademorCileba e.w. lorencis gazis Tvisebebs, romelic warmodgeniliaeleqtronebisa da protonebis kvazineitralur masad[28]. nebismier plazmas axasiaTebs eleqtronuli da ionurisiTburi siCqareebi, agreTve e.w. ionuri bgeris siCqare, romlissididesac gansazRvravs plazmis eleqtronuli komponentistemperatura. lorencis miaxloeba niSnavs, rom plazmaSiugulebelyofilia ionebis siTburi moZraoba, eleqtronebissiTbur moZraobasTan SedarebiT [5].mzis qaris skalaruli eleqtruli gamtareblobisa damagnituri siblantisaTvis, roca plazmaSi eleqtruli velebisustia, SeiZleba gamoviyenoT spitceris cnobili formulebi,samarTliani aradajaxebadi damagnitebuli plazmisaTvis [29]sadac8 −13 21,36 ⋅10( n ) Teσ = l Λ wm − 1 , (2.1.1)− 1 c 2(4πσ)= λ12 −= 1 05⋅10T3 2 lnΛsm 2 wm -1 , (2.1..2)m, e⎧ 3 15⎪16,3 + lnT− lnn,T < 4,2 ⋅10k2 2lnΛ ⎨, (2.1.3)⎪1522,8 + lnT− lnn,T > 4,2 ⋅10k⎩2T e - eleqtronuli maxasiaTebeli temperaturaa, Λ -debaissigrZis fardoba dajaxebis samizne parametrTan (e.w. kulonurilogariTmi). mzis qarisaTvis kulonuri logariTmis maqsimalurisididea l nΛ = 20 [28].(2.1.2) miRebulia dajaxebaTa Teoriis CarCoebSi dasamarTliania maSin, roca l nΛ >> 1. laboratoriuli plazmisaTvisl nΛ ≈ 10 , mzis gvirgvinisaTvis ≈ 20, magnitosferosaTvis ≈ 30 .amrigad,λ m ar SeiZleba didi sizustiT iyos gansazRvruli.plazmaSi susti eleqtruli velis piroba moiTxovs, romE < Ed,sadacEd-e.w. gaqceuli eleqtronebis eleqtruli velia(dreisleris veli)48


Ed−19nlnΛ= 3,02 ⋅10CGSE, (2.1.4)Tesadac λ d -debais radiusiacnobilia, rom parametri4 ⎛ Te⎞λd= 6,9 ⋅10⎜ ⎟ sm. (2.1.5)⎝ n ⎠l nΛSedarebiT mcired icvlebaplazmis simkvrivisa da temperaturis sakmaod farTo diapazonSicvlilebis dros. mzis qaris saSualo maxasiaTeblebiaT5≈ [2 ÷ 5] T , T ≈ (2⋅10K , n n = [ 5 ÷ 10]sm − 3e p p)e= p[30]. (indeqsi p Seesabamebaprotonebs, e-eleqtronebs), rasac saSualod Seesabameba5l nΛ = 5 ÷10 [8]. amrigad, Tu CavTvliT, rom T = [(2 ÷ 10) 10 ] K , mzis0⋅qaris eleqtruli gamtareblobis maxasiaTebeli sidide iqneba17σ ≈ [ 0.6 ÷ 13.6] ⋅10wm − 1. Sesabamisad, saplanetaTaSoriso sivrceSimzis qars unda axasiaTebdes magnituri siblante4[ 0 5 ÷ 12] ⋅10λ ≈ . sm 2 wm -1 .mspitceris modeli aRar aris samarTliani magnitosferoswinamdebare dartymiTi talRis frontis Semdeg, anu gardamavalareSi, sadac plazma iZens disipaciuri garemos Tvisebebs. Tumca,SeiZleba iTqvas, rom es modeli sakmaod sandod gvaZlevs mzisqaris plazmis magnituri siblantis im maqsimalur mniSvnelobas,romlisTvisac praqtikulad samarTliania saplanetaTaSorisomagnituri velis Cayinulobis piroba.amrigad, mzis qari warmoadgens metad dabali simkvrivissruliad ionizirebul plazmas, romlis eleqtruligamtareblobis mkveTri cvlileba, rasac adgili aqvs gardamavalareSi, SeiZleba gamowveuli iyos sxvadasxva tipis plazmuriaramdgradobebis gamomwvevi meqanizmebis CarTviT [31,32,33]. amaramdgradobebs Soris aris bunemanis, ionur-bgeriTi da ionurciklotronuliaramdgradobebi, romelTa ganviTarebis Sedegadacplazmas SeiZleba gauCndes impulsuri anomaluri winaRoba.zogadad, anomaluri winaRobis ganviTarebis fizikuri meqanizmissafuZvelia talRa-nawilakis tipis urTierTqmedeba, romelsac49


adgili aqvs, met-naklebi intensivobiT, nebismier plazmurgaremoSi.mikroaramdgradoba da anomaluri winaRobanaRoba.plazmasaxasiaTebs eleqtronuli da ionuri siTburi siCqareebi, agreTvee.w. ionuri bgeris siCqare, romlis sididesac gansazRvravsplazmis eleqtronuli komponentis temperatura. Tu plazmaSidreifis siCqareU d da denis simkvrive j gadaaWarbebs raRacakonkretul zRvrul sidides, romelic warmoadgens sxvadasxvaaramdgradobis zRurbls, maSin daiwyeba eleqtromagnituritalRebis generacia. am movlenis gamo adgili eqneba plazmisnawilakebis gafantvas talRebze, rac gaarTulebs eleqtrulidenis ganvladobas. amis Sedegad mkveTrad gaizrdeba ν ef -dajaxebaTa efeqturi sixSire, rac migviyvans anomalurad dabaleleqtrul gamtareblobasTan-σ ef , an, rac igivea, anomaluradmaRal winaRobasTan, romlis sidide ramdenime rigiTgadaaWarbebs am parametris klasikur mniSvnelobas [34].roca eleqtronebis da protonebis temperatura axlosaaerTmaneTTan ( T ≈ Tep), ionur-ciklotronul aramdgradobas gaaCniayvelaze ufro dabali zRurbli, romlis kriteriumia utolobaTpud≥ 15 vTp. (2.1.6)Tam pirobis dakmayofilebis SemTxvevaSi aRiZvrebaelqtrostatikuri ionur-ciklotronuli talRebi da moxdebaprotonebis gacxeleba. magram, aseTi ram gardamavali arisplazmaSi naklebad albaTuria, radganac (2.1.6) faqtiuradeqvivalenturia utolobis u ≥ 1 , 7( v v ), anu mzis qarisaTvised Te +fardobiTi dreifis siCqare Zalian didi unda iyos. rogorc esTpme-3 TavSi iqneba naCvenebi, gardamaval areSiu ≈ 10 sm.wm -1 ,d max77xolo tipiuri ≈ ( 3 ÷ 10) ⋅10v sm.wm -1 e.i. (2.1.6) SeiZlebaTpdakmayofildes mxolod gansakuTrebul pirobebSi, isiclokalurad.50


ionur-ciklotronuli aramdgradobis garda, SeiZleba sxvatipis aramdgradobebis ganxilvac. magaliTad, ionur-bgeriTis,romelic mTavaria anomaluri gamtareblobis sagdeevis TeoriaSi.garda amisa, gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania, romu d -s zRvrulimniSvneloba dabldeba, rac ufro mcirdeba fardobaTpTe, anuizrdeba temperaturuli asimetria plazmis komponentebs Soris.rocaT >> Tep, maSin dreifis siCqare aRemateba ionuribgeris siCqareskTeu d > C ps = , (2.1.7)mris Sedegadac aRiZvreba ionur-bgeriTi tipis aramdgradoba,romlisTvisac samarTliania sagdeevis cnobili formulaanomaluri winaRobisaTvis. avRniSnavT, rom am tipis aramdgradobisgamo eleqtruli gamtarebloba, plazmis gamtareblobisklasikur sididesTan SedarebiT, SeiZleba milionjer da metadacSemcirdes.panomaluri winaRoba gardamaval areSi, upiratesadmagnitopauzis maxloblad, SeiZleba ganviTardes ara mxolodromelime tipis aramdgradobis aRZvris gamo, aramed plazmaSistruqturuli araerTgvarovnebis warmoqmnis Sedegadac. kerZod,mzis qarSi SeiZleba gaCndnen ormagi eleqtrostatikuri fenebi[35,36], romelTa sisqec λ D -s rigisaa. zogadad, ormagi eleqtrulifenebi raRaciT hgvanan anodsa da kaTodze dagrovebulidaSorisSorebuli muxtebiT Seqmnil fenebs. potencialTasxvaoba fenis ganivadkTerigisaa da SeiZleba moqmedebdes,rogorc anomaluri winaRobis gamomwvevi ZiriTadi meqanizmi.arsebobs erTi mniSvnelovani niuansi: laboratoriuli ormagieleqtruli fenebisagan gansxvavebiT, sadac SesaZlebeliasakmaodZlieri eleqtruli velebis arseboba, astrofizikurgaremoSi, romelsac miekuTvneba magnitosferos gardamavali are,SeiZleba arsebobdnen mxolod susti ormagi eleqtruli fenebi,51


omlebic Cveulebriv warmoadgenen romelime tipis plazmuriaramdgradobis aRZvris Sedegad ganviTarebuli procesebismeorad produqts. ormagi eleqtruli fenis CamoyalibebisaTvisaucilebelia, rom gardamaval areSi dairRves mzis qarSi smv-sCayinulobis piroba. swored amis Semdeg wamoiqmneba romelimetipis plazmuri aramdgradobis ganviTarebisaTvis aucilebelipirobebi, moxdeba Sesabamisi talRebis generacia, mcire areebSidairRveva kvazineitraloba, warmoiqmneba ormagi eleqtrulifenebi da ganviTardeba anomaluri winaRobis efeqti.mzis qarSi anomaluri winaRobis ganviTarebis sqemaSemdegia: talRa-nawilakis urTierTqmedeba plazmaSi iwvevs sustturbulentobas, gansxvavebiT Zlieri turbulentobisagan, romelicdakavSirebulia nebismier uwyvet garemoSi aRZruli msxvilmasStabovanihidrodinamikuri grigaluri warmonaqmnebis arsebobasTan.amrigad, Tu plazaSi moxdeba bunemanis, ionur-ciklotronulian ionur-bgeriTi tipis aramdgradobebis aRZvra, isdaitvirTeba Sesabamisi sixSiruli speqtris mqone generirebulitalRebiT. es talRebi, moqmedeben ra eleqtronebTan, iwvevenionebis mimarT maTi moZraobis fardobiTi siCqaris cvlilebas,rac dauyovnebliv aisaxeba plazmis eleqtrul gamtareblobaze.aseTi efeqti gansakuTrebiT kargad vlindeba, Tu plazmaSi,talRuri fonis garda, arsebobs agreTve eleqtronebisamaCqarebeli eleqtruli velic, romelic aucilebelia, magali-Tad, bunemanis aramdgradobis aRZvrisaTvis. plazmaSi eleqtrulivelis arseboba iwvevs ionebis mimarT eleqtronebis fardobiTisiCqaris zrdas, rac faqtiurad niSnavs, rom izrdeba denisintensivoba. Tu plazmaSi denis sididem kritikul zRvars miaRwia,SesaZlebelia aramdgradobis zvaviseburi ganviTareba.Aamrigad, principuli mniSvneloba aqvs ionebis mimarTeleqtronebis fardobiTi siCqaris sidides. magram, fardobiTisiCqaris kritikuli mniSvneloba damokidebuli yofila aramarto garegan eleqtrul velze, aramed agreTve plazmistemperaturul anizotropiazec, anu eleqtronuli da protonuli52


temperaturebis fardobaze. cnobilia, rom temperaturulianizotropiis zrda amcirebs fardobiTi siCqaris kritikulmniSvnelobas… [32]. Tu plazmaSi kmayofildeba romelime tipisaramdgradobis Sesabamisi kriteriumebi, aRiZvreba eleqtromagniturirxevebi, romelTa ganviTarebis wrfiv etapze moxdebagaremos datvirTva susti turbulentobis gamomwvevi talRebiT.eleqtronebis urTierTqmedeba talRebTan iwvevs maT damuxru-Webas, rasac mohyveba aramdgradobis arawrfiv stadiaSi gadasvlada garemos disipaciuri Tvisebebis cvlileba. garkveuli droisSemdeg, sistema kvlav daubrundeba Tavis pirvandel mdgomareobas,romelic mas gaaCnda, sanam ar dakmayofilda aramdgradobisaRZvris kriteriumebi. aramdgradobis aRZvris procesi nebismierplazmur garemoSi SeiZleba SeuzRudavad ganmeordes, racniSnavs, rom garkveul pirobebSi plazmas SeiZleba gaaCndesdroSi impulsuri xasiaTis mqone anomaluri winaRoba. rogorcsmv-sa da dedamiwis magnituri velis Zalwirebis gadaerTebisprocesis eqsperimentaluri Sedegebis analizi aCvenebs, magnitosferosfokalur areSi da magnitopauzaze sistematurad aqvsadgili swored aseTi impulsuri xasiaTis movlenas. meorenairad,es niSnavs, rom magnitosferos sazRvris maxloblad plazmisfonuri winaRobis sidide SeiZleba spontanurad gaizardos mzisqaris disipaciuri parametrebis impulsuri cvlilebis gamo.rogorc avRniSneT, gardamaval areSi, sxva tipisaramdgradobebis kriteriumebTan SedarebiT, ufro adviliaionur-bgeriTi aramdgradobis kriteriumis dakmayofileba. marTlac,nax. 2-dan sCans, rom am aramdgradobis zRurbli yvelazeufro dabalia, gansakuTrebiT maSin, roca asimetria eleqtro-Tnul da protonul temperaturebs Soris maRalia _ e≥ 10 . am Tdros eleqtronebis fardobiTi siCqare ionebis mimarT naklebiaeleqtronebis siTburi moZraobis siCqareze.Aaq xazgasmiT undaaRvniSnoT, rom, es Termodinamikuri parametri, mzis qarisp53


uVdT110,120,010,1110T e T pnax.2. eleqtronebis kritikuli siCqaris damokidebulebaT e T p temperaturebis fardobaze, ionobgeruli (1) da ionurciklotronuli(2) aramdgradobisaTvisplazmis dabalenergiulobis miuxedavad, Cveulebriv maincaRemateba mzis qaris hidrodinamikur siCqares magnitosferosTanurTierTqmedebamde. es utoloba kidev ufro Zlierdeba magnitosferoskritikuli wertilis maxloblad, fokalur aresTangaigivebul mdgar zonaSi, sadac plazmis hidrodinamikurisiCqare minimum erTi rigiT ufro mcirea saplanetaTaSorisosivrceSi mzis qaris siCqareze. amitom, Tu CavTvliT, romeleqtronebis fardobiTi siCqare ionebis mimarT hidrodinamikurisiCqaris rigisaa, magnitosferos fokalur areSi anomaluriwinaRobis ganviTarebis aucilebeli piroba iqneba mniSvnelovanianizotropiis arseboba plazmis komponentebis temperaturebsSoris, Tanac eleqtronuli temperatura unda aRematebodesprotonuls, da ara piriqiT.amrigad, anomaluri winaRobis efeqtis ganviTarebisaTvisprincipuli mniSvneloba gaaCnia rogorc plazmuri temperaturebisabsolutur sidides, aseve eleqtronuli da protonulikomponentebis temperaturebis fardobas. qvemoT Cven kidevgamoviyenebT mzis qaris eleqtronuli da protonuli temperaturebismaxasiaTebel sidideebs magnitosferosTan urTierTqmedebamde.gardamaval areSi es sidideebi SeiZleba mniSvnelovnad54


Seicvalos, rac, cxadia, imoqmedebs mzis qarSi aramdgradobebisaRZvris pirobebze. kerZod, [37]–is Tanaxmad magnitosferosmaxloblad SesaZlebelia ionuri temperaturis gazrda, Tumcaufro albaTuria, rom es efeqti ganviTardes Zabriseburistruqturis mqone polarul kaspebSi, iq moZravi ionuri konebismaRalganedovani ionosferos damagnitebul garemosTan urTierTqmedebisgamo. rac Seexeba mzis qaris protonul temperaturas,ukanaskneli eqsperimentaluri monacemebiT magnitosferos maxlobladmaRalalbaTuria, rom am parametris cvlilebis diapazoniiyos [104 5÷ 10 ] K . miCneulia, rom protonuli temperaturapirdapir kavSirSia mzis qaris siCqaresTan, romelic magnitosferosmaxloblad SeiZleba mkveTrad Semcirdes [38]. amitom,radganac eleqtronuli temperatura ar aRmoCnda damokidebulimzis qaris siCqareze, magnitosferos Subla areSi faqtiuradyovelTvis eqneba adgili temperaturul anizotropias eleqtronulda protonul komponentebs Soris.ionur-bgeriTi aramdgradobiT gamowveuli anomaluriwinaRobis efeqti, anu, rac igivea, plazmis anomaluri magniturisiblante, SeiZleba Sefasdes cnobili formuliT [16,31]−22 −11 2pe e e p pλ = 10 c ( ω ) ( m T m T ) ⋅( u c ) , (2.1.8)mssadacπenm21 2ωpe= ( 4e e) - eleqtronuli plazmuri sixSirea, e -elementaruli muxti,medampeleqtronisa da protonis masa,u -eleqtronebis fardobiTi siCqare ionebis mimarT,bgeris siCqare.cs-ionurirogorc aRvniSneT, ionur-bgeriTi aramdgradobis ganviTarebiserT-erTi xelSemwyobi pirobaa asimetriis arseboba protonulda eleqtronul temperaturebs Soris, rac damaxasiaTebeliamzis qarisaTvis saplanetaTaSoriso sivrceSi. sagdeevis mixedviT,im SemTxvevaSi, roca T e ( T eme), e.i. eleqtronebisfardobiTi siCqare protonebis mimarT unda aRematebodes55


eleqtronebis siTbur siCqares.AaSkaraa, rom am SemTxvevaSi didimaragiT Sesruldeba piroba:1 2u cs> ( TempTpme) . sawinaaRmdegoSemTxvevaSi, anu roca eleqtronuli temperatura aRematebaprotonuls, dreifis siCqaris kritikuli sidide eleqtronebissiTbur siCqareze naklebia. aseT dros kmayofildeba zemoTmoyvanilpirobaze ufro rbili piroba:ucs⎛ m≈⎜⎝ mpe⎞⎟⎠14. msgavsi situaciamaqsimalurad esadageba mzis qars, rogorc magnitosferos-Tan urTierTqmedebamde, aseve gardamaval areSi.amrigad, visargebloT gardamaval areSi mzis qarisplazmis parametrebis tipiuri mniSvnelobebiT: n = 10 sm 3T = [ 1÷10] . rogorc aRvniSneT, eleqtronul da ionureT ptemperaturebs Soris asimetriis am intervalSiucs⎛ m=⎜⎝ mpe⎞⎟⎠12⎛ m÷⎜⎝ mpe⎞⎟⎠14. (2.1.8) formulidan miviRebT magniturisiblantis cvlilebis maxasiaTebel intervals14λm≈ [ 0.27 ÷ 0.54]⋅10sm 2 wm − 1. sainteresoa, rom magnituri siblantisaseTi sidide praqtikulad emTxveva mzis qaris SesaZlomeqanikuri (kinematikuri) siblantis im mniSvnelobas, romelicnavaraudevi iyo aqsford-xainsis magnitosferosa da mzis qariskvaziblanti urTierTqmedebis cnobili fenomenologiurimodeliT [39].mzis qaris mier dedamiwis magnitosferos garsdenisprocesSi disipaciuri efeqtis mniSvnelobas pirvelma yuradRebamiaqcia aqsfordma. kvaziblanti urTierTqmedebis TeoriisTanaxmad, magnitosferoSi mimdinare fizikuri procesebisstacionarul doneze warmarTvisa da Sidamagnitosferulistruqturebis energetikuli momaragebisaTvis aucilebelia, romgardamaval areSi mzis qars gaaCndes Cveulebrivi siblante,romlis kinematikuri koeficienti sakmarisia iyosλ ≈ ( 1÷5 ) ⋅1013sm 2 wm -1 . SemdgomSi igive avtori fenomenologiurie− ,56


msjelobis safuZvelze mivida daskvnamde, rom magnitosferosSubla areSi smv-sa da dedamiwis magnituri velis Zalwirebisstacionaruli gadaerTebisaTvis saWiroa mzis qars agreTvegaaCndes λ -s rigis magnituri siblante.kulonuri gafantvis TeoriaSi, anu, faqtiurad lorencismiaxloebaSi, plazmis meqanikuri siblantis sidide SeiZlebaSefasdes Semdegi formuliT2 −1= v p ⋅ r ⋅ n ⋅ωpsadac v p-ionebis siTburi siCqarea,λ , (2.1.9)⎛ mpTr = ⎜⎝ meT3p3e⎞⎟⎠12, n - eleqtronebisricxvi debais sferoSi.Uukanaskneli parametri saplanetaTa-Soriso sivrceSi sakmaod variabeluria, amitom marTlacSesaZlebelia, rom mzis qaris meqanikuri siblante magniturisiblantis Tanazomadi iyos.damagnitebuli sxeulis gamtari garemos mier garsdenisdros magnituri siblante faqtiurad meqanikuri siblantisfunqcias asrulebs. cnobilia, rom, mhd miaxloebaSigansakuTrebul rols TamaSobs prandtlis magnituri ricxvi,parametri, romelic mocemulia pirvel paragrafSi da warmoadgensmeqanikuri da magnituri siblanteebis koeficientebisfardobas. roca Pr m =1, damagnitebuli sxeulis zedapirzewarmoqmnili blanti da magnituri sasazRvro fenebi erTmaneTsemTxvevian [3]. sonerup-pristis kinematikuri modelis Tanaxmad, imSemTxvevaSi, roca Pr m >>1, SesaZlebelia magnituri velisdagroveba magnitosferos Subla wertilis winamdebare areSi,romlis sisqec mniSvnelovnad aRemateba magnitosferos SesaZloblanti sasazRvro fenis sisqes [40,41,42].Acxadia, rom amSemTxvevaSi samarTliania mzis qaris meqanikuri siblantis magniturisiblantiT efeqturi “Canacvleba”, rac aisaxeba gardamavalareSi plazmis dinebis struqturaze.dinebisstabilizaciasTan erTad, rasac iwvevs magniturisiblante da smv, gardamaval areSi plazmis dinebis msxvilmasS-57


tabovan hidrodinamikur suraTSi SesaZlebelia agreTve asimetriiswarmoqmnac, amperis Zalebis efeqtis gaZlierebis gamo. amasTan,arsebobs plazmis magnituri siblantis maxasiaTebeli sididisfenomenologiurad gansazRvris SesaZleblobac, Tu cnobiliahidrodinamikurad stabiluri, gansakuTrebuli struqturisa damniSvnelovani zomis mqone aris xazovani parametrebi. magniturisiblantis sididis Sefasebis aseTi varianti, dafuZnebuli mzisqaris dinebis struqturul Taviseburebaze magnitosferos gardamavalareSi, SeiZleba erTob sasargeblo aRmoCndes, radganaczemoT miRebuli ricxviTi Sedegebi dakavSirebulia kinetikurTeoriasTan, romlis CarCoebSic plazma ar warmoadgens uwyvetgaremos. kvlav unda dafiqsirdes, rom hidrodinamikuri miaxloebagacilebiT ufro uxeSia, vidre kinetikuri. Tumca, rigSemTxvevebSi, am ori miaxloebis gamoyenebiT miRebuli Sedegebiraodenobrivad mniSvnelovnad ar gansxvavdeba, rac qvemoT iqnebadadasturebuli.zemoTmoyvanili msjelobidan gamomdinare, samarTlianadmigvaCnia, rom mzis qaris magnituri siblantis fenomenologiuriSefasebisaTvis gamoviyenoT magnitosferos winamdebare mdgarizonis modeli [3]. kerZod, Cveni miznisaTvis sainteresoa SemdgomTavSi mocemuliMmdgari zonis “magnituri” analogi, romelicmiRebulia gansakuTrebul wertilSi smv-s magnituri Zalwirismravaljeradi gaxleCvis Sedegad. iTvleba, rom gansakuTrebuliwertili warmoadgens mdgari zonis wveros da keTdeba daSveba,rom magnitosferosTan urTierTqmedebamde smv-s veqtori mzisqaris siCqaris paraleluria (denis wiri emTxveva magniturivelis Zalwirs). gaxleCvis Sedegad yalibdeba ZalwirebiTSemosazRvruli sivrculi magnituri struqtura, romliszedapiris aproqsimacias, mdgari zonis msgavsad, warmoadgenskonusuri zedapiri. rogorc naCvenebi iyo, gaxleCili smv-sa damdgari zonis irgvliv modeluri toroidaluri velisurTierTqmedebis Sedegad yalibdeba xraxniseburi magnituristruqtura cvladi bijiT [43]. bijis zoma izrdeba mdgari zonis58


wverodan fuZisaken. Aamrigad, magnituri veli damokidebuliamdgari zonis kveTis radiusze, rac niSnavs, rom mdgari zonis→sazRvarze rot B ≠ 0 ( B → - magnituri velis induqcia).RebT, rommaqsvelis gantolebisa da omis kanonis kombinaciiT mivi-rot→→ →−1⎧ ⎫=−1⎨ +−14π c j 4πσc E c [ V B]⎬ . (2.1.10)⎩ ⎭→→B =magnitosferosTan urTierTqmedebamde mzis qarSi smv-s Cayinulobispiroba moiTxovs, rom eleqtruli veli E c− 1 [ V B ] , radganac,sawyisi pirobis Tanaxmad, denis simkvrive idealurad gam-→tar garemoSi j = 0 . es niSnavs, rom smv-s Zalwirebis konfiguraciamagnitosferosTan urTierTqmedebamde iseTia, rom yvelgan→rot B = 0 . magram, mdgari (stagnaciis) zonis areSi, modelis Tanaxmad,aRniSnuli piroba irRveva. amitom, Tu viciT→=→B→ →→ →Brot da [ V ]maxasiaTebeli sidideebi, SesaZlebelia magnituri siblantismaxasiaTebeli sididis Sefasebaa. Tu CavTvliT, rom mdgari→→≈−1mzonis sazRvarze E = 0 , maSin rot B λ [V B ] . stagnaciis zonishorizontaluri kveTis radiusis maxasiaTebeli sididea→ →8 9R ≈ [10 10 ] sm, magnituri velis intensivobis -0÷B0 ≈10 −4 gausi;mdgari zonis sazRvarze plazmis hidrodinamikuri siCqare, rocamzis qaris siCqaris maxasiaTebeli mniSvneloba7V ≈ 4 ⋅ smwm − 1 ,010tolia,5106V ≈ 2 ⋅ smwm − 1.AaseTi parametrebisaTvis miviRebT, rom15[ 0,25 ÷ 2 5] ⋅10λ ≈ , sm 2 wm − 1 , rac TanxmobaSia kinetikuri TeoriismfarglebSi miRebul SedegTan [29].dasasruls, aRvniSnavT, rom plazmis eleqtruli gamtareblobisspitceris modeli, ara marto Cveni azriT, aramed sxvaavtorebis SexedulebiTac [28], sakmaod sandod adgens mzis qarisplazmis eleqtruli gamtareblobis im zRvrul mniSvnelobas,59


omlisTvisac koreqtulia Cayinuli magnituri velis miaxloeba( λ = 0 )mr∂Brr= rot[ VB]. (2.1.11)∂trig SemTxvevebSi SeiZleba CavTvaloT, rom (2.1.11) gantolebasamarTliania ara marto magnitosferosTan urTierTqmedebamde,aramed gardamavali aris danarCen nawilSic, magnitopauzisa damdgari zonis garda, sadac aucileblad mxedvelobaSia misaRebimzis qaris eleqtruli gamtareblobis sasruli xasiaTi.gardamavali arisa da misi nawilis, magnitopauzisaTvis,romelic gaigivebulia magnitur sasazRvro fenasTan, anomaluriwinaRobis efeqti warmoadgens impulsur movlenas, romelicdiskretulad viTardeba stacionarul fonze. aSkaraa, romeleqtruli gamtareblobis (magnituri siblantis) impulsuricvlileba arastacionaruli xasiaTisaa da mas unda hqondesmaxasiaTebeli dro τ 0 . arsebobs am parametris miaxloebiTigansazRvris ori SesaZlebloba: 1) magnitosferos sazRvarze (anmagnitosferos kudSi) Zalwirebis impulsuri gadaerTebisSedegad ganviTarebuli subqariSxalis (elementarulimaRalganedovani magnituri qariSxali-yure) maxasiaTebeli droissaSualebiT; 2) anomaluri winaRobis aris farTis maxasiaTebelizomis magnitur siblantesTan fardobidan:2τ 0 = l λ . cnobilia,rom tipiuri subqariSxali mimdinareobs τ ≈ ( 600 1800)m0 ÷wm-isganmavlobaSi [11]. rac Seexeba meore variants, Tu moviSveliebTmagnitosferos winamdebare fokaluri aris xazovan masStabs,romelsac iZleva mdgari zonis modeli -9l = 10 sm, da magniturisiblantis maqsimalur maxasiaTebel sidides igive modelisfarglebSi-15λ ≈ 10 sm 2 wm -1 , miviRebT, rom τ 1000 wm. radganacm0 ≈orive variantiT gansazRvruli τ 0 -is sidideebi TanxmobaSia,anomaluri winaRobis ganiviTarebis maxasiaTebeli dro SeiZlebaiyos misi nebismieri mniSvneloba zemoT mocemuli intervalidan.60


2.2. dedamiwis meridionaluri magnituri sasazRvrofenis modelireba mzis qaris eleqtruligamtareblobis impulsuri cvlilebisasrogorc viciT, mzis qars dedamiwis magnitosferosTanurTierTqmedebamde idealuri eleqtruli gamtarebloba gaaCnia,rac niSnavs, rom saplanetaTaSoriso sivrceSi kmayofildeba e.w.magnituri velis Cayinulobis gantoleba. miCneulia, rommagnitosferos sazRvris siaxloves mzis qaris plazmis eleqtruligamtarebloba σ sasruli xdeba dartymiTi talRis frontisgavlis Semdeg, masSi disipaciuri efeqtebis ganviTarebis gamo.amis mizezi SeiZleba iyos dartymiTi talRis frontze plazmisTermodinamikuri maxasiaTeblebis naxtomiseburi cvlileba,gamowveuli damuxtul nawilakebs Soris dajaxebis manZilis(Tavisufali ganarbenis sigrZe) mkveTri SemcirebiT, rac xelsuwyobs plazmaSi susti turbulentobis efeqtis warmoqmnasromelime tipis plazmuri aramdgradobis, magaliTad: ionurbgeriTian ionur-ciklotronulis, ganviTarebisaTvis aucilebelikriteriumebis dakmayofilebis gamo [16]. plazmiseleqtruli gamtareblobis anomaluri cvlileba xels uwyobsmagnitosferos sazRvris erozias. dRis mxareze magnitopauziscentraluri nawili warmoadgens dedamiwis magnituri velisa dasmv-s Zalwirebis gadaerTebis yvelaze ufro savaraudo adgils[44,45].mzis qarisa da magnitosferos urTierTqmedebis mhdTeoriaSi magnituri velis Zalwirebis gadaerTebis efeqtiwarmoadgens umniSvnelovanes problemas, romlis Seswavlaslaboratoriuli plazmisaTvis da astrofizikaSi gansakuTrebulipraqtikuli Rirebuleba gaaCnia. magnitosferosTan mimar-TebaSi ansxvaveben ori tipis gadaerTebas: stacionarul daarastacionarul, anu impulsur gadaerTebas. ZiriTadi gansxvavebaam procesebs Soris, romelTac erTnairi buneba gaaCniaT61


da raodenobrivi SedegebiT ar gansxvavdebian magnituri velisZalwirebis anihilaciis movlenisagan, dakavSirebuliadamagnitebuli garemos eleqtruli gamtareblobis xasiaTTan.stacionaruli gadaerTebis procesisaTvis aucilebelia, romplazmis eleqtruli gamtarebloba drois sakmarisad didmonakveTSi konkretul zRurblur mniSvnelobaze dabali iyos,maSin, roca impulsur gadaerTebas SeiZleba adgili hqondesplazmis Tavdapirvelad zemaRali, oRondac sasruli sididiseleqtruli gamtareblobis SemTxvevaSi, romelic mcire droSiSeiZleba anomalurad mkveTrad Seicvalos [31]. magnitosferulpirobebSi impulsuri xasiaTis gadaerTebis albaToba ufromaRalia, vidre stacionarulis. magram, rodesac magnituriZalxazebis gadaerTebis problemas vixilavT, mxedvelobaSi undaiyos miRebuli rogorc pirveli, aseve meore tipis gadaerTebisganviTarebis SesaZlebloba, agreTve, maTze aranakleb albaTuri,Zalwirebis anihilaciis efeqti. sakiTxis aseTi dayeneba sakamaToar unda iyos, miT umetes, roca cnobilia, rom aRniSnulerTnairi bunebis movlenebs gansxvavebuli gamSvebi meqanizmebimarTaven [14].magnituri velis Zalwirebis impulsur, anu spontanur,gadaerTebas mravali specifikuri maxasiaTebeli gaaCnia.daviwyoT imiT, rom nebismieri gadaerTebis procesisiniciaciisaTvis aucilebelia deniani fenis arseboba.erTgvarovan mhd garemoSi, romelSic eleqtruli deni ar gadis,an vakuumSi, sadac eleqtruli muxtebis matareblebi ararseboben, magnituri velis Zalwirebis gadaerTebagamoricxulia. Tu raime mizeziT ganviTarebuli plazmuriSeSfoTebebi Secvlian deniani fenis struqturas, es gamoiwvevsam fenaSi magnituri velis topologiis cvlilebas, rac SeiZlebaxelSemwyobi mizezi gaxdes deniani fenis magnituri velisZalwirebsa da plazmis mier transportirebuli magnituri velisZalwirebis gadaerTebisaTvis. gadaerTebis an anihilaciis msgavsiTvisobrivi sqema samarTliania rogorc laboratoriuli, aseve62


kosmosuri plazmuri garemosaTvis, magaliTad, meridionalurmagnitopauzaze, romelic warmoadgens brtyeli deniani fenissakmaod koreqtul bunebriv analogs.amrigad, brtyeli deniani fena ukumSvad, sasrulieleqtruli gamtareblobis mqone plazmaSi SeiZleba gaigivebuliiyos magnitopauzasTan. ganvixiloT martivi modeli, romelicfizikurad cxads xdis am analogias.ukumSvad plazmaSi,romelsac σ gamtarebloba gaaCnia, drois sawyis momentSi→±→mocemulia erTkomponentiani magnituri veli B = lyB0, mogezuliusasrulo deniani fenis paralelurad. marTobuli mimarTulebiT,orive mxares ( X >< 0 ), magnituri velis intensivobiscvlileba drosa da sivrceSi SeiZleba aRiweros gamartivebulierTganzomilebiani difuziis gantolebiT [46]∂By∂t=22c ∂ B4πσ∂Xy2, (2.2.1)romlis amoxsnas aqvs saxe2 πσX0 ⎜π ⎝ c t⎛ ⎞( X ,t) = ± B erf ⎟⎠B y 2sadac erf (x)-e.w. cTomilebis integralia [47]., (2.2.2)sasazRvro fenis sisqe, (2.2..2)-is Tanaxmad, x = 0 sibrtyisorive mxares izrdeba drois zrdasTan erTadc t= , (2.2.3)πσX D2xolo magnituri velis difuziis siCqare ki mcirdeba122dXD1 ⎛ c ⎞VD = =⎜⎟ ⋅(2.2.4)dt 2 ⎝ πσt⎠aRsaniSnavia, rom magnituri velis difuziis aseTi sqemagamoricxavs deniani fenisadmi normalurad mimarTuli magniturivelisB X komponentis warmoqmnas, ris gamoc principuladSeuZlebelia Zalwirebis gadaerTeba. faqtiurad, es aris gareSemagnituri velisa da deniani fenis mier generirebuli velis63


urTierTanihilaciis amocana. anihilaciis SedegadgamoTavisuflebuli magnituri velis energia mTlianad gadadissiTburSi, ramac unda gamoiwvios plazmis moZraobis intensifikacia.garda amisa, rogorc (2.2.2)-dan sCans, formaluraddeniani fenis maxloblobaSi magnituri velis struqturiscvlileba mTel sivrces moicavs, Tumca es procesi realuradefeqturi mxolod deniani fenis mimdebare sasazRvro fenaSiunda iyos.msgavsi warmodgena, oRondac ukve denian fenaze plazmismodinebis efeqtis gaTvaliswinebiT, romelic SesabamisobaSiamagnitosferos mzis qariT garsdenis suraTTan, gamoyenebuli iyoramdenime naSromSi, romlebic eZRvneboda magnitopauzismaTematikur modelirebas. magram, am naSromebSi ganixilebodamxolod magnitosferos sazRvris dRis mxare, romelsac gaaCniakritikuli wertili da misi Semcveli fokaluri are. cxadia, rommagnitosferos garsdenis procesis saTanadod koreqtuladmodelirebisaTvis aucilebeli iyo kritikuli wertilis mqoneblagvi sxeulis garsdenisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli specifikurimomentebis gaTvaliswineba. magnitosferos garsdenis amocanisSesabamisi mhd gantolebaTa sistemis TviTSeTanxmebuli amocanisamoxsna SeuZlebelia. amitom, yvela naSromSi magniturisasazRvro fenis modelirebis dros gamoiyeneboda sayovelTaodmiRebuli meTodi, roca siCqareTa veli ganisazRvreba wmindagazodinamikur miaxloebaSi, an mocemulia romelime kinematikurimodeliT. AaseT SemTxvevaSi SesaZlebeli xdeba sasazRvro fenaSimagnituri velis ganawilebis topologiuri suraTis miRebaJiguliovis I da II gvaris brtyeli magnituri fenebisgantolebaTa sistemis amoxsnis saSualebiT [3,13].magnitosferos mTavari meridionaluri da ekvatorulikveTebi zustad Seesabameba Jigulevis gantolebebs. meridionalurikveTis SemTxvevaSi, romelic esadageba Jiguliovispirveli gvaris sasazRvro fenas, gvaqvs magnituri velis orikomponenta, xolo ekvatorul kveTaSi- magnituri velis erTi64


komponenta, romelic plazmis dinebis sibrtyis perpendikularulia.u da v plazmis siCqaris ganivi da gaswvrivi komponentebia.Cveni amocanidan gamomdinare, zogadad moviyvanoT meridionalurimagnitopauzis Sesabamisi gantolebaTa sistemismagnituri nawili∂H∂tx∂Hx+ u∂x∂Hx+ v∂y− ( Hx∂u+ H∂xy2H x2∂u∂) = λ m , (2.2.5)∂y∂y∂H∂ty∂Hy+ u∂x∂Hy+ v∂y− ( Hx∂v+ H∂xy2∂v∂ H y) = λ m , (2.2.6)2∂y∂xaq gamoyenebulia sworkuTxa koordinatTa sistema, romlis xRerZi mimarTulia magnitosferos kritikuli wertilidanmzisken, xolo y mogezulia dedamiwis magnituri velissasazRvro Zalwiris gaswvriv.im SemTxvevaSi, Tu dedamiwis magnitur vels ganvixilavTerTkomponentian miaxloebaSi, rac dasaSvebia magnitosferosdRis mxaris centralur nawilSi da polarul kaspebSi, amadgilebSi geomagnituri velis Zalwirebis mcire simrudis gamo,gveqneba mxolod erTi, (2.2.6) gantoleba. rogorc aRvniSneT,sasazRvro fenis miaxloebaSi magnitopauzis modelirebisaTvis,e.i. misi sisqisa da masSi magnituri da eleqtruli velebisganawilebis analizuri gamosaxulebebis misaRebad, aucilebeliasiCqareTa veils mocema, romelime konkretuli kinematikurimodeliT an gamartivebuli moZraobis gantolebis amonaxsnebiT.qvemoT mocemuli iqneba (2.2.6) gantolebis arastacionaruliAamonaxsnebiiseT pirobebSi, roca siCqareTa velistacionarulia, xolo droze damokidebuleba Semodis magniturisiblantis cvlilebis impulsuri xasiaTis gamo. aseTi efeqtiSeesabameba gardamaval areSi mzis qaris plazmis parametrebiscvlilebis eqsperimentalur monacemebs [28,42]. kerZod, dasaSvebiaplazmis eleqtruli gamtarebloba anu magnituri siblantemiviCnioT skalarul sidided, saplanetaTaSoriso sivrceSiplazmis araerTgvarovnebis didi xazovani masStabebisa da mzisqaris Termodinamikuri parametrebis izotropulobis gamo. amis65


gaTvaliswinebiT qvemoT gamoyenebuli iqneba magniturisiblantis droSi impulsuri cvlilebis aRmweri sami modeli001) λ = λ 1 β sin( πt/ )]; 2) λ = λ e , 3) λ = λ ( 1−e ), (2.2.7)m 0m[ + τ 0m0mt−τm0mt−τsadacλ0m- magnituri siblantis maxasiaTebeli mniSvnelobaa, τ 0 -magnituri siblantis impulsuri cvlilebis maxasiaTebeli dro,β -impulsuri gaZlierebis koeficienti. Aadvili SesamCnevia, rombolo ori modeli erTnairi fizikuri bunebisaa da gviCvenebsplazmis eleqtruli gamtareblobisidealurisaken da piriqiT.cvlilebas sasrulidanmagnitosferos kritikuli wertilis maxloblad ukumSvadiplazmis siCqareTa velis modelirebisaTvis mosaxerxebeliaparkeris cnobili kinematikuri modelis gamoyeneba [49]u = −α x, v = αy, (2.2.8)sadac α = V 0 l 0 , V0-plazmis maxasiaTebeli siCqarea gardamavalareSi, l 0 -magnitosferos sazRvris araerTgvarovnebis xazovanimasStabi.magnituri sasazRvro fenis gantolebis analizuri amoxsnisaTvisprincipuli mniSvneloba aqvs siCqareTa (2.2.8) modeliserT Tvisebas. cnobilia, rom stacionarul SemTxvevaSi, aseTsiCqareTa velSi, nebismieri meTodiT gansazRvruli rogorcdinamiuri, aseve magnituri sasazRvro fenis sisqe,mudmivia.amitom, arastacionarul SemTxvevaSi magnituri sasazRvro fenissisqe da masSi magnituri velis ganawileba damokidebuli iqnebamxolod droze da λ0m, α da τ 0 parametrebze. am specifikidangamomdinare, romelic magnitosferos garsdenis amocanasTanmimarTebaSi fizikurad sruliad koreqtulia,miuxedavad imisa,rom ganixileba arastacionaruli amocana, qvemoT gamoyenebuliiqneba Svecis meTodi, da ara misi dobriSmaniseulimodifikacia.66


1) modelisaTvis (2.2.6) gantoleba miiRebs saxes∂H∂ty∂Hy∂ H y− α x − αHy = λ0m[ 1+β sin( πt/ τ 0 )] . (2.2.9)2∂x∂x2miuxedavad imisa, rom amocana arastacionarulia,sasazRvro fenis sisqis mxolod droze damokidebulebis gamosakmarisia gamoviyenoT Svecis, da ara dobriSmanis, sqema, rommiviRoT magnitopauzis parametrebis analizuri gamosaxulebebi.amrigad, (2.2.9)-gantolebis amosaxsnelad mivyveT mimdevrobiTimiaxloebis meTods. amoxsnis sqema analogiuri iqneba magniturisiblantis danarCeni ori modelisaTvisac.CavTvaloT, rom dedamiwis dipoluri magnituri velimagnitosferos sazRvarze mudmivia da TandaTanobiT sustdebamagnituri sasazRvro fenis ganivad, e.i. Semogvaqvs magnitopauzissisqe δ . aqedan gamomdinare, (2.2.9) gantolebisaTvis gveqnebaSemdegi sasazRvro pirobebiH y = , roca x = 0 ; H = 0 , roca x = δ . (2.2.10)H 0ySvecis meTodis Tanaxmad (2.2.9) gantolebis amonaxsns veZebTjamis saxiT:H y H1 y+ H2 y= , sadac H 1 ywarmoadgens erTgvarovanigantolebis amonaxsns2∂ H1y= 0(2.2.11)2∂x(2.2.10) sasazRvro pirobebSi. aqedan miviRebT, rom = H ( 1 − x δ )H1 y 0 .magnituri velis meore miaxloeba ganisazRvreba (2.2.9)gantolebidan, romlis marcxena mxareSi gamoiyeneba H 1 ygamosaxuleba. x -iT orjeradi integrirebis Sedegad vRebulobTH 2 y, romelic akmayofilebs erTgvarovan sasazRvro pirobebs67


H 2 y = 0 , roca x = 0 ; H 2 y = 0 , roca x = δ . (2.2.12)rogorc aRvniSneT, parkeris modelSi hidrodinamikuri siCqareTavelis komponentebis xazovan koordinatebze wrfividamokidebulebis gamo, magnituri sasazRvro fenis sisqedamokidebuli iqneba mxolod droze. rac Seexeba sasazRvrofenaSi magnituri velis ganawilebas, mas aqvs Semdegi saxe:HHy0⎛ x ⎞= ⎜1−⎟ + λ⎝ δ ⎠−10m[ 1+ β sin( πt/ τ )]⎡⎛δ'× ⎢⎜2⎢⎣⎝ δ0−1×3⎞ ⎛3x δ'x x− ⎟ + α⎜−6 6 ⎠ ⎝ 3δ2x2, (2.2.13)δx⎞⎤+ ⎟⎥6 ⎠⎥⎦sadac Strixi aRniSnavs t -s mixedviT warmoebuls. SedarebisTvisdifuziur modelSi1 20 m )δ = ( 4λt , xolo magnituri velisdganawileba magnitopauzisaTvis warmodgenilia (2.2.2)-is msgavsiformuliTHHy0⎛ x≈ Erfc⎜⎝ δ d⎞⎟ , (2.2.14)⎠sadac Erfc - cdomilebis funqciis dazustebaa.magnituri sasazRvro fenis sisqis analizuri gamosaxuleba⎛ ∂Hy ⎞miiReba damatebiTi pirobis gamoyenebiT ⎜ ⎟= 0 , romlis⎝ ∂x⎠fizikuri arsi afiqsirebs, rom magnitopauzis zeda sazRvarzemaekranirebeli msxvilmasStabovani deni ar arsebobs.modeli 1)-is SemTxvevaSi plazmis magnituri siblantisimpulsuri cvlileba xdeba garkveuli maxasiaTebeli mniSvnelobismimarT, rac niSnavs, rom arsebobs magnituri sasazRvrofenis raRaca sawyisi stacionaruli sisqe δ 0 , romelic Seesabamebat = 0 sawyis moments. aqedan gamomdinrex=δ68


⎛ ∂H⎜⎝ ∂xy⎞⎟⎠x=δ1 −= 0 = + λ0δ1m( 1+β sin( πtτ ))0⎡⎛δ'⎢⎜2⎢⎣⎝ δes gantoleba zogadad miekuTvneba pirveli rigis cvladkoeficientebian araerTgvarovan gantolebaTa klass−12⎞ ⎛2x δ'x δ ⎞⎤− ⎟ + ⎜ ⎟α− x +⎥2 6 ⎠ ⎝ δ 6 ⎠⎥⎦romlis zogadi amonaxsnia( x) y Q( x)y ′ + p = ,[ dxQ exp( Pdx)+ C] exp( )∫ ∫ − ∫y = Pdx ,sadac C -ganuzomeli mudmiva isazRvreba sawyisi pirobidan [50].amrigad, gveqneba⎛ 6λδ = ⎜⎝ α0m⎞⎟⎠1 2⎡⎢1+⎢⎣α2α2+ πβ2τ201 2⎛ ⎛( ) ⎞⎤⎜t ⎞ π ⎛ t ⎞ π −αt⎟sin ⎜π⎟ − cos⎜π⎟ + e⎥ , (2.2.15)⎝ ⎝ τ0⎠ ατ0⎝ τ0⎠ ατ0⎠⎥⎦δ = - magnituri sasazRvro fenis sisqis sawyisi06λ0mαsadac ( ) 1 2mniSvnelobaa ( t = 0).8δ ⋅ 10 − sm2.521.510.5100 200 300 400 500t , wmnax.3. modeli 1), mhd sasazRvro fenisyofaqceva droSi69


H y / H01.41.21x= 0.1δ0.80.6x=0.5δ0.40.2x=0.9δ50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450t , wmnax.4. magnituri velis ganawilebasasazRvro fenis sisqis analizuri gansazRvris SemdegSegviZlia cxadi saxiT miviRoT ara mxolod magnituri velis,aramed agreTve sasazRvro fenaSi generirebuli msxvilmasStabovanieleqtruli velis ganawilebac. amisaTvis SegviZliagamoviyenoT maqsvelis gantolebar ∂HrotE = −1c ∂ty. (2.2.16)radganac vixilavT erTkomponentian magnitur vels,gveqneba eleqtruli velis erTi komponenta, mogezulimagnitosferos ekvatorul sibrtyeSi, DCF-zedapiruli magnetosferulidenis mimarTulebiTEzx1 ∂H= −c∫ ∂ t0ydx . (2.2.17)aRvniSnavT, rom difuziur miaxloebaSi, (2.2.1) gantolebisTanaxmad, SesaZlebelia (2.2.16) gantolebis marjvena nawilSigamoviyenoT magnituri velis ara droiTi, aramed koordinatismimarT meore warmoebuli.amrigad, (2.2.17)-dan (2.2.13)-is gamoyenebiT gveqneba70


( δ )2⎡⎛ 22cE⎞z δ ′ x 1−1′ ⎛ ′ ′[ ( )]⎢⎜δ ′′ x δ ′′ δ − 2 4= − + +−⎟δ 4 δλ00+ ⎜ −2m 1 β sin πt/ τx α x x32H 0 δ 2⎢⎣⎝ 12 24δ⎠ ⎝12δ12+ πβ λ− 2−1( τ ) cos( πtτ ) 1+ β sin( πtτ )0m0⎡⎛δ′ x× ⎢⎜⎢⎣⎝ 1220δ′ x−24δ( )42⎞ ⎛3x⎟ + α⎜⎠ ⎝ 60−24×x δ− − x12δ122⎞⎤⎟⎥.⎠⎥⎦(2.2.18)raodenobrivi SefasebebisTvis aucilebelia mzis qarisparametrebis tipiuri mniSvnelobebis gamoyeneba, magramgasaTvaliswinebelia, rom wynari da naklebad SeSfoTebulimagnitosferuli pirobebi mkveTrad gansxvavdeba sakmarisadSeSfoTebuli pirobebisagan. rodesac Seiqmna dedamiwismagnituri sasazRvro fenis Teoriis safuZvlebi, iTvleboda, rommzis qaris magnituri siblantis maxasiaTebeli mniSvnelobatoli iyoλ0 = 10m12sm 2 .wm -1 . garda amisa, gasaTvaliwinebeblia mzisqaris siCqarisa da araerTgvarovnebis sigrZiTi masStabi,romelic magnitosferos dRis mxareze SeiZleba meryeobdesdartymiTi talRis frontidan magnitosferos kritikulwertilamde manZilsa da magnitosferos sazRvris grZiv masStabs910Soris l = / 2 ⋅10÷ 10 / sm. Tu aqedan l -is minimalur zomasvixmarT, saWiro gaxdeba, rom mzis qaris maxasiaTebeli siCqareSeicvalos magnitosferos Subla areSi plazmis maxasiaTebelisiCqariT. axali eqsperimentaluri monacemebis Tanaxmad plazmissiCqare am areSi daaxloebiT orjer naklebia mzis qarissiCqareze magnitosferosTan urTierTqmedebamde [42]. amitom, Tuwynari da naklebad SeSfoTebuli magnitosferuli pirobebisaTvismagnitosferosTan urTierTqmedebamdeV0 = 4 ⋅10sm.wm -1 ,gardamavali aris sisqis xazovan masStabad gamoyenebisas, anu,rocal0 = 2 ⋅109sm, koreqtulia vixmaroT sidideV0 = 2 ⋅10sm.wm -1 .aseT SemTxvevaSi parametri α = l V = 0 01. magnituri siblantis0 0 .periodulad cvlad modelSi gamoyenebuli iyo swored zemoT77⎞⎤⎟⎥+⎠⎥⎦71


aRniSnuli mniSvnelobebi, xolo 2) da 3) modelebisaTvis iseTisidideebi, romlebic Seesabamebian araerTgvarovnebis wrfivimasStabis maqsimalur zomas da magnituri siblantis maxasiaTebelisididis zRvrul mniSvnelobas:14λ0m= 10 sm 2 .wm -1 .3 da 4-suraTebze naCvenebia δ da H y parametrebis droSiyofaqcevis xasiaTi (2.2.13) da (2.2.15) formulebis mixedviT SemdegisidideebisaTvis:12λ0 = 10 sm 2 .wm -1 ,m2β = 10 , τ 500 wm da α = 0. 01 ,0 =rasac, rogorc aRvniSneT, Seesabameba9l 0 = 2 ⋅10sm daV0 = 2 ⋅107sm.wm -1 . aRmoCnda, rom periodulad cvladi magniturisiblantisaTvis magnituri sasazRvro fenis sisqe ar icvlebadroSi sinqronulad magnitur siblantesTan erTad. erTiSexedviT, aseTi Sedegi moulodnelia, Tumca aSkaraa, rom isgamomdinareobs gareSe magnituri velis plazmis mxridanekranirebis efeqtis difuziuri bunebidan, romlisTvisacsakmarisia, rom plazmas hqondes sasruli eleqtruligamtarebloba, Tundac is anomalurad maRali iyos. amave dros,miuxedavad sasazRvro fenis sisqis inerciulobisa, magniturivelis ganawileba magnitur sasazRvro fenaSi drois mimarTarsebiTad ar icvleba, radganac inarCunebs praqtikuladavtomodelur xasiaTs drois sawyisi momentidan t ≈ 450 -wamamde.magram, maxasiaTebel drosTan τ 0 = 500 wm miaxloebisas H ymkveTrad izrdeba, rac, rogorc sCans, ganpirobebulia SvecismimdevrobiTi miaxloebis meTodis gamoyenebis aris SezRudulobiT.gavixsenoT, rom zog SemTxvevaSi iteraciuli mwkriviSvecis mixedviT ganSladia, ramac SeiZleba Tavi iCinos ukvemwkrivis pirvel wevrebSi [23,26]. Tumca, logikurad, undagavaanalizoT is variantic, roca magnituri sasazRvro fenisarastabilurobas SeiZleba hqondes fizikuri safuZveli, sulackritikuli wertilis maxloblad plazmis siCqareTa velisgansakuTrebuli xasiaTis gamo. vgulisxmobT, rom CveulebrivhidrodinamikaSi idealuri siTxis laminaruli dineba absolu-72


turad aramdgradia mcire SeSfoTebebis mimarT. CveulebrivisiTxis SemTxvevaSi dinebas mdgradobas aniWebs kinematikuri(meqanikuri) siblante, xolo mhd SemTxvevaSi kinematikurisiblantis msgavsi efeqti gaaCnia magnitur siblantes. cxadia,rom dinebis mdgradobis sazRvari damokidebulia siblantiskoeficientebis sidideze. aqedan gamomdinare, sruliadSesaZlebelia, rom, Tu siblantis efeqti sakmarisi ar aris,moxdes dinebis turbulizacia sasazRvro fenis SigniT. magniturisasazRvro fenis SemTxvevaSi turbulizacia exeba arasiCqaris ganawilebas sasazRvro fenSi, aramed magnitur vels dagamoixateba misi topologiuri suraTis aramdgradobaSi. Tu kimagnituri siblantis koeficientis sidide sakmarisi iqnebadinebis stabilizaciisaTvis, aramdgradobis CaxSoba moxdeba misiganviTarebis sawyis stadiaSi. sxva SemTxvevaSi aramdgradobisganviTareba daiwyeba iq, sadac siblantis gavlena dinebaze sakmarisiaRar iqneba. Tu aseT analizs moviSveliebT, perioduladcvladi siblantis gavlena dinebis mdgradobaze SeiZlebagansxvavebuli iyos, vidre droSi monotonurad cvladimagnituri siblantisa. amis mizezi SeiZleba iyos eleqtromagnituriinduqciis klasikuri efeqti. marTlac, magnitopauzazeplazmis eleqtruli gamtareblobis impulsuri cvlilebisasdrois gansazRvrul momentSi unda CairTos DCF-denisinduqciuri gaZlierebis meqanizmi, ris Sedegadac moxdebamagnituri sasazRvro fenis parametrebis TviTregulacia. cxadia,rom periodulad cvladi magnituri siblantis SemTxvevaSizedapirul maekranirebel dens gauCndeba aseve cvladiSesworeba, rac gamoiwvevs induqciuri efeqtis periodulobas imfazuri CamorCeniT, romelic damaxasiaTebeli unda iyosmagnitosferos magnituri sasazRvro fenisaTvis. am efeqtsgaaCnia sruli analogia siTbogamtarobis TeoriaSi. kerZod,cnobilia, rom roca siTbogamtarobis (an temperatureamtareblobis)koeficienti cvladia, siTbur sasazRvro fensdifuziur miaxloebaSi axasiaTebs inerciuloba. es efeqti73


kargad aris Seswavlili Teoriulad da farTod gamoiyenebateqnikaSi [51,52]. rac Seexeba mhd sasazRvro fens, inerciis efeqtimasSi jer kidev gamosakvlevia, rac sakmaod rTuli amocanaa, TugaviTvaliswinebT mhd SemTxvevaSi SesaZlo fizikuri efeqtebismravalferovnebas. amas ukavSirdeba agreTve realobasTanmaqsimalurad adeqvaturi magnituri siblantis koeficientismaTematikuri modelirebis problemac.igive gziT, (2.2.13) ganawilebis msgavsad, SvecismimdevrobiTi miaxloebis meTodiT, miviRebT magnituri siblantis2) da 3) modelebis Sesabamis magnituri velis Semdegganawilebebs2) H⎞⎜⎛ x1 − ⎟ + H⎝ δ ⎠=−1y H 00λ0mx3) H y = H 0 ( 1−) +δetτ⎡⎛ 3⎞ ⎛3 2δ ′ x δ ′ x x⎢⎜⎟ + ⎜− xα−2⎢⎣⎝ δ 6 6 ⎠ ⎝ 3δ20δ⎞⎤+ x⎟⎥2 ⎠⎥⎦(2.2.19)+ H0λ−10m⎛⎜( 1−e⎜⎝−τ−1t⎞ ⎡33 2⎟ δ′ x δ′ x x δ ⎤0) ⎢(− x ) + α(− + x )⎟⎥ . (2.2.20)2⎣ δ 6 6 3δ2 6⎠⎦magnituri sasazRvro fenis sisqe ganisazRvreba ukve cnobili⎛ ∂Hy ⎞pirobidan ⎜ ⎟= 0⎝ ∂x⎠x=δ2)⎡−1⎛t ⎤⎢⎛ ⎞− ⎞−1−αt +⎜−⎟⎥⎢⎜ −α t6 λ m e⎟ eτ0 α 1e , (2.2.21)⎜ ⎟⎥⎣⎝ ατ 0 ⎠ ⎝ ⎠⎦2 1=−δ0⎡−1⎛t⎞⎤⎢⎞−=−1−αt⎜ ⎟⎜ τ −αt6⎟. (2.2.22)2 1⎛3) ( − ) +⎢ ⎜ −⎟−⎜ ⎟⎥ ⎥ 0δ λ0mα1 e 1 e e⎝ ατ 0 ⎠ ⎝ ⎠⎦roca = 0⎣2) modelisaTvis magnituri sasazRvro fenis sawyisi sisqe,−1t , ( ) 1 2δ = λ m α . e.i. am SemTxvevaSi, 1) modelis0 60msgavsad, magnitur sasazRvro fenas apriori gaaCnia raRac sisqe.3) modelis SemTxvevaSi δ 0 = 0 , roca t = 0 . rogorc vxedavT, roca74


t → ∞ , 2) modeli iZleva δ → 0 , xolo 3) modeli- δ → δ 0 , romelic−1emTxveva 2) modelis sawyis sisqes ( ) 1 2δ = λ m α .0 62) da 3) variantebis ricxviTi analizisaTvis, gansxvavebiT1) modelisagan, gamoviyenoT saWiro parametrebis sxvamniSvnelobebi. am SemTxvevebSi fizikurad gamarTlebuliamagnitosferos dRis mxaris mTeli sazRvris maxasiaTebelisidideebis gamoyeneba. amrigad, formalurad 1) modelimisadagebulia magnitosferos Subla areze, sadac maqsimaluradiCens Tavs magnitosferos dedamiwis magnituri velis ganapiraZalwirebis perioduli deformaciebi [53], romelTac SeiZlebagavlena hqondeT magnitur siblanteze. nax.5-ze mocemulia magniturisasazRvro fenis sisqis droSi yofaqcevis xasiaTi mzisqaris parametrebis zeda mniSvnelobebis nakrebisaTvis, anu rocaτ 0 = 500 wm, 7V0 = 4 ⋅10sm/wm,l 0 = 1010sm,014λ0 = 10 sm 2 /wm. rogorcaRvniSneT, aseTi sidideebi damaxasiaTebelia wynari da naklebadSeSfoTebuli mzis qarisaTvis [3].mδ ,sm4 x 1083.5332.521.5120.500 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500t,snax.5. sasazRvro fenis yofaqceva droSimagnituri velis daZabulobis gansazRvris Semdeg magnitopauzazegenerirebuli msxvilmasStabovani eleqtruli velisganawileba, msgavsad (2.2.18)-sa, miiReba (2.2.17)-dan. magram, arsebobsagreTve sxva gzac, Tu omis kanonSi denis simkvrive75


ganisazRvreba maqsvelis im gantolebis daxmarebiT, romelicamyarebs kavSirs denis simkvrivesa da magnituri velis grigalsSorisr r[ V ⋅ ] ⎬ ⎫⎭r c r ⎧ r 1j = rotH = σ ⎨E+ H4π⎩ cSesabamisad miviRebT:2)2⎡⎛ 22cE( )( ) ⎞z δ ′ x 1⎛ ′ ′⎢⎜δ ′′ x δ ′′ δ − 2 δ ′ 4= − +−⎟δ 4 δλ00+ ⎜ −2m exp t / τx α x x32H 0 δ 2⎢⎣⎝ 12 24δ⎠ ⎝12δ121( τ ) exp( t τ )− 2(2.2.23)⎞⎤⎟⎥+⎠⎥⎦⎡⎛ 2 4⎞ ⎛3 4− δ ′ x δ ′ x x x δ ⎞⎤2+ λ ⎢⎜⎟ + ⎜⎟0m00−α− − x2⎥(2.2.24)⎢⎣⎝ 12 24δ⎠ ⎝ 6 12δ12 ⎠⎥⎦3)( δ )2⎡⎛ 22cE⎞z δ ′ x 1−1′ ⎛ ′ ′[ ( )]⎢⎜δ ′′ x δ ′′ δ − 2 4= − + − −−⎟δ 4 δλ00+ ⎜ −2m 1 exp t / τx α x x32H 0 δ 2⎢⎣⎝ 12 24δ⎠ ⎝12δ12+− 2−1( λ τ ) exp( − t τ ) 1−exp( − t τ )0m00⎡⎛δ′ x× ⎢⎜⎢⎣⎝ 12( )24δ′ x−24δ20−2×⎞ ⎛3x⎟ + α⎜⎠ ⎝ 64x δ− − x12δ122⎞⎤(2.2.25)⎟⎥⎠⎥⎦magnitur sasazRvro fenaSi eleqtromagnituri dreifismaxasiaTebeli siCqare, magnituri siblantis orive modelisaTvis,mzis qaris parametrebis ukve gamoyenebuli nakrebisaTvis, roca−4H 0 = 4 ⋅10gs (dedamiwis dipoluri magnituri velisgaormagebuli maxasiaTebeli mniSvneloba magnitosferoskritikuli wertilis maxloblad), icvleba diapazonSi5 6[ 10 ÷10 ]dV = sm.wm − 1 . aRsaniSnavia, rom aseTi sidideebi praqtikulademTxveva magnitosferos winamdebare mdgar zonaSi mzisqaris plazmis hidrodinamikuri siCqaris maxasiaTebel sidideebs[3]. miuxedavad imisa, rom omis kanonSi dro cxadi saxiT armonawileobs, masSi mainc SeiZleba gaviTvaliswinoT plazmiseleqtruli gamtareblobis droSi impulsuri cvlilebs xasiaTi,risTvisac sakmarisia gardavqmnaT formula (2.2.23) parkeris⎞⎤⎟⎥+⎠⎥⎦76


modelisa da magnituri siblantis droSi monotonuricvlilebis 2) da 3) modelebis gamoyenebiTV ,sm.w -1dEzλ ∂Hm y αx= + H y . (2.2.26)c ∂xc3 x 105 II210-1IIII-2-30 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1x δ,smnax.6. modeli 3) modeli 2)I -50wmII -450wm(2.2.25) da (2.2.26.) formulebi erTmaneTisagan gansxvavdeba, TumcaricxviTi Sefasebebi aCvenebs, rom yvela SemTxvevaSiEz-iscvlilebis intervali sakmaod viwroa. nax.6-ze mocemuliasasazRvro fenaSi eleqtruli veliT ganpirobebuli dreifissiCqaris cvlileba drois sxvadasxva momentisaTvis.,V , z2 x 10-7 10-2x δ = 0,5x δ = 0,x δ = 0,9-4-6-8x δ = 0,5x δ = 0,9x δ = 0,1E sm -1 modeli 3), modeli 2)-100 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500t,wmnax.7.77


nax.7. gviCvenebs magnituri sasazRvro fenis sxvadasxva donezeeleqtruli velis droSi cvlilebis xasiaTs. cxadia, rommsgavsi Sedegi miiReba mzis qaris eleqtruli gamtareblobisimpulsuri cvlilebis 1) modelis mixedviTac.amrigad, SeiZleba gakeTdes Semdegi daskvnebi:1. mzis qaris magnituri siblantis (eleqtruligamtareblobis) impulsuri cvlilebis samive modelisfarglebSi magnitosferos dRis mxareze magnitursasazRvro fenaSi (magnitopauza) generirebuli arastacionarulieleqtruli veli Tanabrad ganisazRvrebamagnituri velis cvlilebebiTa da plazmis adveqciiT;2. eleqtruli veli magnitur sasazRvro fenaSi icvlebasakmaod farTo intervalSi; magaliTad, 2) da 3)modelebisaTvis maxasiaTebeli sidideebia6 −7E z = / 10− ÷ 10/-1v.sm ; es Sedegebi azusteben raodenobrivinformacias, romelic adre iyo miRebuli magnitosferossoliseburi modelis gamoyenebiT [3].3. magnituri siblantis impulsuri cvlilebis yvelamodelSi plazmis eleqromagnituri dreifis siCqaremagnitopauzaze ar aRemateba mzis qaris siCqaresmagnitosferos winamdebare mdgar zonaSi; Tu mkacradvimsjelebT, magnitosferos kritikuli wertilismaxloblad 2) da 3) modelebisaTvis samarTliani ar ariserTsiTxiani magnituri hidrodinamikis miaxloeba.78


Tavi III. magnitosferos mdgari zonis magnituristruqtura topologiuri formalizmis CarCoebSida magnitogradientuli talRebi3.1. saplanetaTaSoriso magnituri velisa dageomagnituri velis Zalwirebis gadaerTebismovlena algebruli mrudebis topologiuriformalizmis CarCoebSiplazmur garemoSi sxvadasxva wyaroebis mier generirebulimagnituri velebis gadaerTebisaTvis aucileblad undadakmayofildes ori piroba: 1) garemos unda gaaCndes sasrulieleqtruli gamtarebloba, e.i. magniturad blanti unda iyos; 2)gadaerTebis iniciaciisaTvis aucilebelia Tanazomadi intensivobismqone, antiparalelurad mimarTuli magnituri velebisarseboba. orive es piroba sistematurad kmayofildeba magnetosferosgardamaval areSi, sadac mzis qaris plazma iZensdisipaciuri garemos Tvisebebs. garda amisa, saplanetaTaSorisomagnitur vels, romelic magnitopauzaze kontaqtSi Semodisgeomagnitur velTan, SeiZleba gaaCndes sakmarisad intensiurisamxreTis mdgeneli (B z


gadaerTebasTan TiTqmis erTdroulad, daaxlobiT 20-30 wuTisdagvianebiT, mosdevs gamoZaxili polarul areSi, plazmosferoSida ionosferoSi, romlis Sedegebic dedamiwazedaimzireba mravalferovani geomagnituri da eleqtromagniturimovlenebis saxiT. maT Soris gansakuTrebiT yovlismomcvelia,Tanmdevi efeqtebis TvalsazrisiT, globaluri geomagnituriqariSxlebi [11,14,18]. Tumca, gadaerTebis procesis SedegadSesaZlebelia agreTve iseTi viTarebis Camoyalibebac, rocamagnitosferos energetikuli mdgomareoba ar ganicdis gansakuTrebulSeSfoTebas. es niSnavs, rom sruliadac ar arissavaldebulo, rom gadaerTebam gamoiwvios magnitosferossazRvris erozia da misi energomomaragebis gansakuTrebiTmZlavri arxis gaxsna. aseT SemTxvevaSi SeiZleba adgili hqondesmxolod maRalganedovani subqariSxlebis serias (cugebs) daromelime konkretuli tipis geomagnituri pulsaciis generacias,an Sidamagnitosferuli metad dabali da ukiduresad dabalisixSiris eleqtromagnituri talRebis intensifikacias. ukanasknelimovlenebi globalur geomagnitur qariSxalTan SedarebiTgacilebiT ufro nakleb energias moiTxoven da dakavSirebulniarian magnitosferul-ionosferuli polaruli denTa sistemisgaZlierebasTan. SesaZlebelia agreTve magnitosferos, rogorcdabali sixSiris magnitomeqanikuri rxevebis rezonatoris,gaaqtiurebasTan da plazmosferoSi eleqtronul-ciklotronuliaramdgradobis aRZvrasTan. iTvleboda, rom yovelicalkeuli gadaerTebis aqtisaTvis unda arsebobuliyo smv-ssamxreTi mdgenelis zRurbluri mniSvneloba Bz


anu, Tu mzis qaris winaRoba yovelTvis anomalurad dabali romiyos, magnitosferos sazRvarze adgili eqneboda mxolodstacionarul gadaerTebas. oRondac, am dros gveqnebodapermanentulad SeSfoTebuli magnitosfero, anu ar iarsebebdawynari geomagnituri foni, ganpirobebuli kvaziblanti urTierTqmedebiTada susti stacionaruli gadaerTebiT, romelicuwyvetad mimdinareobs mzis qaris normaluri eleqtruligamtareblobis dros. SeiZleba vivaraudoT, rom normalurpirobebSi, e.i. wynari da naklebad SeSfoTebuli mzis qarisaTvis,susti stacionaruli gadaerTebis sawyis etapzemagnituri velis anihilaciis are imdenad SezRudulia, romgadaerTebis Sedegad miRebuli magnituri struqturis konfiguraciaxels ar uwyobs damuxtuli nawilakebis zvaviseburSemoWras magnitosferoSi, sawinaaRdegod imisa, rac axasiaTebsimpulsur gadaerTebas. am hipoTezis dasadastureblad qvemoTgamoyenebulia topologiuri formalizmi, romelSic gadaer-Tebis procesis geometriuli mxare SeiZleba sakmarisadmartivad aRiweros algebruli mrudebis Teoriis CarCoebSi.kerZod, Cvens amocanaSi gamoyenebulia rogorc magnitosferossasazRvro Zalwirebis, aseve smv-s Zalwirebis aproqsimaciaprincipSi nebismierad SerCeuli algebruli mrudebiT, romelTaklasi imdenad farToa, ramdenadac variabeluria magnitosferosdRis mxaris mTavari meridionaluri kveTis konfiguracia.SemovitanoT sworkuTxa sivrculi koordinatTa sistemasaTaviT wagrZelebuli brunvis elifsoidis centrSi, romelicgaigivebulia SeuSfoTebeli magnitosferos dRis mxaresTan.davamTxvioT xoz sibrtye magnitosferos centraluri meridionalurikveTis sibrtyes. RerZi x , romlis mimarTulebiTac ganlagebuliaelifsoidis erTerTi mcire RerZi, mimarTuliamzisken. dedamiwa da magnitosferos kritikuli wertiliganlagebulia am RerZis ukidures wertilebSi, xolo elifsoidiskveTis konturi emTxveva geomagnituri velis centralur81


sasazRvro Zalwirs (nax.8). sigrZis erTeulad miviRoT mcirenaxevarRerZebi x da y mimarTulebiT, romlebic erTmaneTis toladiTvleba. z -is mimarTulebiT mogezuli didi naxevarRerZissidide damokidebulia magnitosferos dRis mxaris SeWyletilobisxarisxze (mzis qaris wnevaze). aseTi elifsoidiaRiwereba gantolebiTmzexmagnitosferosSubla wertili(1,0,0)0zydedamiwa(-1,0,0)dipoluri modelidan, x da z -magnitosferos dRis mxaris maapnax.8.magnitosferos dRis mxaris centralurimeridionaluri kveTa2 2 2( x, y,z) x + y + az −1= ,A = 0(3.1.1)sadac a < 1-elifsoidis didi RerZis kvadratis Sebrunebulisididea.qvemoT moyvanili msjeloba Catarebulia magnitosferoskonturisaTvis F ( x 0,z), , romelic formalurad warmoadgensgeomagnituri velis veqtor-potencialis y komponentis Sesabamismruds. es niSnavs, rom geomagnituri velis daZabulobis(induqciis) veqtoris x da z komponentebi magnitosferos sazRvarzeunda ganisazRvros Semdegi gamosaxulebebidanH x∂F= −H0,∂zH z∂F= H 0 , (3.1.2)∂xsadac H0-geomagnituri velis daZabulobis maxasiaTebelimniSvnelobaa magnitosferos sazRvarze, romelic gamoiTvleba82


oqsimirebeli elifsoidis mcire naxevarRerZze normirebuliganuzomeli cvladebia.magnitosferos sazRvarze gadaerTebis process Cveulebrivwin uswrebs mzis qaris dinamiuri wnevis zrda. amitom,Sesabamisad unda Seicvalos magnitosferos dRis mxarissazRvris maaproqsimirebeli mrudebis analizuri saxe.bunebrivia CavTvaloT, rom axali mrudebi SeinarCunebenmsgavsebas elifsuri formis mqone Tavdapirvel mrudebTan.aSkaraa, romaxali mrudebis analizuri saxis arCevisasarsebobs garkveuli Tavisufleba, romelic fizikurad dakav-Sirebulia magnitosferos formis sistematur, garkveulwiladqaotiur, cvlilebebTan. modelis Semdgomi koreqtulobisaTvis,elifsTan msgavsebis Senaxvis garda, mniSvnelovania erTi damatebiTipirobis dakmayofileba, romelsac aucileblad undadaemorCilos centraluri wiri da, SesaZloa, masTan axloganlagebuli sxva wirebic∂F∂x∂F=∂z= 0, roca x = 1, z = 0 . (3.1.3)fizikuri TvalsazrisiT, (3.1.2) pirobis Tanaxmad, (3.1.3)niSnavs magnituri velis anihilacias magnitosferos SublawertilSi, rac aucileblad win unda uswrebdes dedamiwismagnituri velisa da geomagnituri velis gadaerTebis movlenas.topologiuri formalizmidan gamomdinare, SeiZleba CavTvaloT,rom, Tu postulirebulia wertilovani anihilacia, gadaerTebisSedegad adgili ar eqneba magnitosferos sazRvris erozias.realurad es niSnavs, rom anihilaciis are imdenad mcirezomisaa, rom magnitosferos sazRvaris masStaburi eroziagamoricxulia. aqedan gamodis, rom gadaerTebis SemdegCamoyalibebuli axali magnituri zedapiri met-naklebadstabiluria da iseTi Caketili konfiguraciis mqonea, rom arSeaqvs mniSvnelovani SeSfoTeba magnitosferos fokaluri arisstruqturaSi, e.i. gardamavali aris im nawilSi, romelSicmaqsimalurad albaTuria anomaluri winaRobis efeqtis83


ganviTareba. (3.1.3) pirobis dakmayofileba mxolod erT wertilSi(magnitosferos kritikul wertilSi) formalurad ar zRudavsamocanis zogadobas. marTlac, Tu am pirobas akmayofilebs,centraluri wiris garda, kritikuli wertilis maxlobeli sxvawirebis ojaxi, maSin anihilaciis (gadaerTebis) wertilismagivrad gveqneba gadaerTebis xazi, mogezuli y .-ismimarTulebiT. aRvniSnavT, rom msjelobisaTvis gansakuTrebulimniSvneloba ara aqvs, Tu rogor moxda magnituri velisanihilacia. principSi, es movlena SesaZlebelia moxdes aramxolod sakmarisad intensiuri smv-s samxreTi mdgenelisarsebobis pirobebSi, aramed magnitosferos winamdebareCapliginis mdgari zonis fuZeSi magnituri velisgansakuTrebuli topologiis gamoc. kerZod, mdgari zonissazRvarze koncentruli magnituri maryuJebis modeli uSvebsgeomagnituri velis anihilaciis SesaZleblobas magnitosferoskritikuli wertilis maxloeblobaSi [54].algebruli mrudebis Teoriidan cnobilia, rom wertili,romelSic sruldeba piroba (3.1.3), warmoadgens gansakuTrebulwertils, romlis tipi damokidebulia diskriminantis niSanze[55,56]2∂ F∆ =2∂x2∂ F2∂z2⎡ ∂ F ⎤− ⎢ ⎥⎣∂x∂z⎦2(3.1.4)zogad SemTxvevaSi meore rigis mruds SeiZleba gaaCndes samitipis gansakuTrebuli wertili: a) gansakuTrebuli wertili,romelSic mrudi Tavis Tavs kveTs, rac niSnavs, rom gvaqvsWeSmariti kvanZi ( ∆ < 0 ); b) wertili, romelSic mruds gaaCnianiskarti ( ∆ = 0 ); g) izolirebuli gansakuTrebuli wertili,romelic mruds ar ekuTvnis, e.i. warmosaxviTi (moCvenebiTi)kvanZi ( ∆ > 0 ). aSkaraa, rom Cvens modelSi gansakuTrebuliwertilebis maTematikurad SesaZlebeli variantebis realizaciadakavSirebulia fizikur realobasTan maTi adeqvturobisxarisxTan. aqedan gamomdinare, moviTxovoT, rom geomagnituri84


velis sasazRvro centralur Zalwirs gansakuTrebul wertilSi(kritikuli wertili) gaaCndes WeSmariti kvanZi.a) b) g)nax.9. meore rigis algebruli mrudebis gansakuTrebuliwertilebia) maryuJi; b )niskarti; g)warmosaxviTi (moCvenebiTi) kvanZi.elifsis msgavsi mrudebis mravalsaxeobidan SevarCioTiseTi sacdeli mrudi, romelic akmayofilebs pirobebs (3.1.1) da(3.1.3), Tanac warmoadgens SeuSfoTebeli magnitosferos dRismxaris centraluri meridionaluri kveTis sakmaod kargaproqsimacias. aseT pirobebs akmayofilebs, magaliTad, mrudi22F(x,z)= x − 2x− 2cosπ x + 0,7z−1= 0 . (3.1.5)algebruli mrudis gansakuTrebul wertilSi WeSmariti kvanZisarsebobis kriteriumia utoloba [55]∂F∆ =∂x∂F∂z2∂ F−2∂x< 0 , (3.1.6)romelsac marTlac akmayofilebs mrudi (3.1.5) wertilSi (1,0).amrigad, algebruli mrudebis formalizmidan gamodis,rom brtyel miaxloebaSi, kritikul wertilSi geomagniturivelis smv-Tan anihilaciis Sedegad SesaZlebelia miviRoTCaketili mrudi. Tu gadavalT sivrcul warmodgenaze, SegviZliavivaraudoT, rom magnitosferos fokalur areSi SesaZlebeliaiseTi magnituri zedapiris warmoqmna, romlis garkveul droSistacionarulad arseboba, TiTqos da, SeuZlebeli unda iyosmagnituri velis saboloo topologiur suraTSi smv-sZalwirebis cxadad CarTvis gareSe. sinamdvileSi, fokalur85


areSi, wynar da naklebad SeSfoTebul magnitosferulpirobebSi, magnitopauzaze adgili aqvs smv-sa da geomagniturivelis Zalwirebis permanentul Serwymas, oRondac, magnitosferulmasStabebTan SedarebiT, gacilebiT ufro mcirezomebis mqone areSi. swored aseTia stacionaruli gadaerTebissqema, romelsac garkveulwilad adasturebs Cvens miergamoyenebuli algebruli mrudebis modeli.dReisaTvis udavoa, rom magnituri velis ZalwirebisSerwymis orive meqanizmi, gadaerTeba da anihilacia, warmoadgenenerTi da igive fenomenis sxvadasxva waxnagebs, da aragansxvavebuli fizikuri bunebis mqone procesebs [42,57].amasTan dakavSirebiT gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania, romgadaerTebis procesi SeiZleba im SemTxvevaSic ganviTardes, Tuadgili ar aqvs, Tundac Zalian mcire masStabebSi, magniturivelis anahilacias. es niSnavs, rom gadaerTeba SeiZleba moxdesiseT wertilebSi, sadac magnituri veli yovelTvis sasrulisididis aris. aseTi saxis gadaerTebis energetikuli SedegiSeiZleba umniSvnelo iyos imdenad, rom ar gamoiwviosSidamagnitosferuli struqturebis SeSfoTeba an magnitosferossazRvarze magnituri velis bifurkacia (struqturis gadawyoba)[58].sxvadasxva sawyis pirobebSi ganviTarebuli gadaerTebisurTierT alternatiuli variantebis Sedegebs Sorisgansxvavebis aRmoCena marto plazmis energetikuli speqtris anmagnitosferuli denTa sistemis intensifikaciis saSualebiT,zogjer SeuZlebelia. aseTi situaciis klasikuri magaliTiamagnitopauza, romlis sazRvarze Zalwirebis gadaerTebis Tuanihilaciis Sedegad generirebuli eleqtruli velebismoqmedebis gamo xdeba plazmis nawilakebis aCqareba, anu icvlebamzis qaris nawilakebis energetikuli speqtri. Sedegs CvenvxedavT Sidamagnitosferuli struqturebis SeSfoTebaSi, rasacTan mosdevs mravalferovani geomagnituri da eleqtromagniturimovlenebi. magram, post-faqtum, gadaerTebam Tu anihilaciam86


gaxsna magnitosferos energomomaragebis damatebiTi arxi,viTarebis diagnostireba SeuZlebelia. principSi, bunebrivmagnitur warmonaqmnSi mimdinare procesebis dinamikis TvalsazrisiT,amis gansakuTrebuli aucilebloba ar arsebobs. sxvasaqmea laboratoriuli plazma, magaliTad, xelovnuri TermobirTvulisinTezis danadgarebSi. aq zemoTaRniSnuli sakiTxiprincipulobas iZens, ramdenadac arsebobs ori mTavariproblema: danadgarebSi plazmis Sekavebisa da siTburi energiismoxsnis. pirvelisaTvis principulia gadaerTebis efeqti, xolomeorisaTvis- magnituri velebis anihilacia.rogorc ukve aRniSnuli iyo, srulebiTac ar arissavaldebulo, rom gadaerTebam gamoiwvios magnitosferossazRvris erozia, rasac unda mohyves mzis qaridanmagnitosferosken mimarTuli axali energetikuli arxisamoqmedeba. rac Seexeba magnitosferos fokalur areSi Caketilimagnituri struqturis SesaZlo zomebs, algebruli mrudebisformalizmis farglebSi maTi dadgena SeuZlebelia. uxeSiSefasebebisaTvis albaT gamodgeba Capliginis mdgari zonismodeli, Tu davuSvebT, rom mdgar zonis zedapirze da misSigniT SeiZleba arsebobdnen gansxvavebuli magnituri struqturebi.aris kidev erTi fizikuri piroba, mzis qaris plazmismier geomagnituri velis ekranirebis efeqti, romelic agreTveSeiZleba gamoyenebuli iyos raodenobrivi SefasebebisaTvis. Tuam efeqts moviSveliebT, SeiZleba vivaraudoT, rom WeSmaritikvanZis zoma x -is mimarTulebiT magnitopauzis sisqis Tanazomadiunda iyos (nax.10). amitom, masSi CaWerili plazmis odenobasakmaod mcirea, xolo energetikuli speqtri- mzis qarisenergetikuli speqtris Sesabamisi, Tu ki ar moxda raimemizezis gamo am ukanasknelis cvlileba. amis mizezi SeiZlebaiyos mzis qaris wnevis mkveTri cvlileba, rasac Tu daematasamxreTis mimarTulebis smv, SeiZleba mohyves kritikuliwertilis maxloblad magnitosferos sazRvris gaxsna im sqemiT,rogoric mocemulia nax.11. -ze. gamodis, rom arsebobs impulsuri87


gadaerTebis meore, energetikuli TvalsazrisiT sakmaod sustivarianti, romlis relizaciis SemTxvevaSi SeiZleba sulac arhqondes adgili magnitosferos sazRvris masStabur erozias.aseT gadaerTebas wesiT ar unda mohyves iseTi energotevadiefeqti, rogoricaa globaluri geomagnituri qariSxali, Tumcamagnituri maryuJis SekumSvis Sedegad energizirebulmaeleqtronebma SeiZleba plazmosferoSi moxvedris SemTxvevaSigamoiwvion ciklotronuli aramdgradobs aRZvra SidamagnitosferulplazmaSi. am efeqtis Sedegi ionosferul doneebze dadedamiwis zedapirze metad dabali da ukiduresad dabalieleqtromagnituri gamosxivebis (mds da uds gamosxiveba) saxiTvlindeba, risTvisac aucilebelia plazmur speqtrSi 10-30kevenergiis eleqtronebis arseboba. naCvenebi iyo, rom aseTi ramSesaZlebelia mdgari zonis adiabaturi SekumSvis Sedegad, racagreTve magnituri maryuJis SekumSvasac niSnavs [59].1x1101zynax.10. gadaerTebis aracxadi sqema1-geomagnituri velis centraluri sasazRvro ZalwiriraTa algebruli mrudebis formalizmis CarCoebSitopologiurad koreqtuli iyos situacia, roca gadaerTebisSedegad magnitosferos sazRvarze ixsneba magnitosferosenergomomaragebis axali arxi, saWiroa kritikuli wertilismaxloblad anhilaciis sqemaSi cxadad CairTos smv-s Zalwirebi.amisaTvis sakmarisia postulirebuli iyos, rom kritikulwertilSi geomagnituri velis ZalwirTan SexebaSi myof smv-sZalwirs am wertilSi gaaCnia a) an b) tipis gansakuTrebuloba.88


adganac aq gadaerTebis movlenas mxolod TvisibrivadganxilavT, kvlav ZalaSi rCeba piroba geomagnituri veqtorpotencialisada smv-s Zalwirebis Sesabamisi algebrulimrudebis SerCevisas TavisuflebisTan da maTi analitikurisaxis mravalferovnebasTan dakavSirebiT. amis demonstraciaswarmoadgens naxevradkuburi parabolis erTerTi saxe, romliTacSeiZleba smv-s Zalwiris aproqsimaciasadac b < 1.3 2Φ = −bz + x − 2x+ 1 = 0(3.1.6)nax.11-ze mocemulia (1,0,0) wertilSi niskartis tipisgansakuTrebulobis mqone, (3.1.6) mrudis simravlidan erTi kerZosaxis mrudis ( b = 0. 05 ) (3.1.4) mrudTan gadakervis sqemax112 1 1 20 zynax.11. gadaerTebis cxadi sqema1. geomagnituri velis centraluri sasazRvroZalwiri;2. mzis qaris Zalwiri.rogorc sCans, Cvens mier SerCeuli (3.1.6) parabolis erT-erTiSto warmoadgens magnitosferos centralur areSi smv-sZalwiris damuxruWebisa da magnitur maryuJTan gadaerTebisgamo gawyvetis Sedegad misi nawilebis gardamavali arisperiferiebisaken Casrialebis (Cacurebis) efeqtis sakmaod karggeometriul aproqsimacias. es SemTxveva warmoadgens imsituaciis magaliTs, roca gadaerTeba xdeba iseT wertilSi,romelSic magnituri veli nulisagan gansxvavebulia. marTlac,89


nax.11.-dan sCans, rom gadaerTebis wertilSi gvaqvs ori niskarti.magnituri velis topologia iseTia, rom erTi niskartis wverSimagnituri veli anihilirebulia, xolo meore niskartSi,romelSic isrebi erTnairi mimarTulebisaa, magnituri veliZlierdeba.90


3.2 mdgari zonis magnituri zedapiris topologiagardamaval areSi mdgari zonis modelis Tanaxmadmagnitosferos kritikuli wertili icvleba sasruli zomebismqone plazmiT, romlis siCqare ugulvebelyofilia magnitosferosTanurTierTqmedebamde mzis qaris V 0 siCqaresTan SedarebiT.meorenairad, mdgari zona SeiZleba gavaigiveoT fokaluraresTan, romlis zomebi pirobiTia da damokidebulia hidrodinamikurigarsdenis amocanis specifikaze. Capliginis analizuriamonaxsnis upiratesoba, kritikuli wertilis problemasTandakavSirebuli sxva amocanebis amonaxsnebTan SedarebiT, sworedimaSia, rom misi saSualebiT isazRvreba mdgari zonis xazovanimaxasiaTeblebi, e.i. fuZis sigane da simaRle, agreTve mzis qarisplazmiszz→V0→B0→αgansakuTrebuli wertili→V1→V1stagnaciis zonakritikuli wertilimagnitosferos sazRvari→siCqare V 1 mis gverdiT zedapirze. naCvenebi iyo, rom magnitosferoswinamdebare mdgari zonis aproqsimacias warmoadgens0konusuri zedapiri, romlis gaSlis kuTxis zeda sazRvari 90 -ia.nax.12. mdgari zonis sqemaTu mkacrad vimsjelebT, magnitosferos garsdenis amocanaTavisi bunebiT magnitohidrodinamikuria. Tumca, sayovelTaodmiRebulia, rom pirvel miaxloebaSi magnetosferos garsdenaganxiluli iyos magnituri efeqtebis gareSe, e.i. gazodinamikurmiaxloebaSi. miuxedavad amisa, rodesac sakiTxi exeba91


magnitopauzas, an mdgari zonis mdgradobas mzis qarSigavrcelebuli SeSfoTebebis mimarT, aucilebelia ganvixiloTmisi magnituri struqtura. kerZod, am mizniT agebuli iyotoroidaluri modeli, romelic gulisxmobs koncentrulimagnituri maryuJebiT moqsovili struqturis arsebobas mdgarizonis zedapirze [54]. am modelis maTematikuri safuZveliadifundirebadi elementis droSi gavrcelebis gantoleba,romelic qvemoT mocemulia aqsialuri simetriis SemTxvevaSi,anu roca azimutaluri magnituri veli damokidebulia, droisgarda, mxolod radialur koordinataze,∂Bϕ∂t⎛2∂ B= λ ⎜m⎜ 2⎝∂rϕ2 ∂B+r ∂rϕ⎞⎟⎟⎠, (3.2.1)romlisTvisac arsebobs cnobili analizuri amonaxsni [60]Bϕ= 2RB0+ ∑ ∞ B0πr=n 1( −1)nnπr⎛ λ⎜mnsin exp−2R ⎝ Rromelic akmayofilebs sasazRvro pirobebsBB ϕ = 0 , roca t = 0 ,2π ⎞t ⎟, (3.2.2)⎠= B ( t ), roca r = 0 . (3.2.3)ϕ 0ϕ(3.2.1) amonaxsnidan miiReba magnituri velis sidide mdgarizonis simetriis RerZze, anu roca r → 0B⎛2λ n π ⎞ −n( − ) ⎜mexpt⎟ 2⎝ R ⎠= + ∑ ∞ 0ϕ B02B01.n=1am amocanaSi gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania is, rom (3.2.2)-isdroSi yofaqcevas mniSvnelovanwilad gansazRvravs uganzomileboparametri2T = λmtR , romelzedac damokidebuliamagnituri velis difuziis siCqare. mdgari zonis fuZeSi,romlis maqsimaluri radialuri xazovani zoma9R = 2 ⋅10difundirebadi elementis (magnituri velis) stacionarulism,92


ganawileba myardeba mas Semdeg, roca Sesruldeba piroba T ≥ 0, 4 .Tu gamoviyenebT gardamaval areSi plazmis magnituri siblantis14anomalur sidideebs (ix. 2.1) λ = [ 10 −10 ]15m34difuziis maxasiaTebeli dro t ≈ [ 1,6 ⋅10−1,6 ⋅ ]0 10sm 2 wm -1 , miviRebT, romwm. es Sedegiormagad sainteresoa, radganac, gansxvavebiT Zveli Sefasebebisagan,romlebic Seesabamebin mzis qaris ramdenime rigiT ufromaRal eleqtrul gamtareblobas, gamodis, rom SeSfoTebebisSedegad mdgari zonis struqturis stabilizacia SeiZlebaglobaluri magnitosferuli SeSfoTebebisaTvis damaxasiaTebeldroebTan SedarebiT mcire droSi moxdes [3]. meore, pirvelzeara nakleb mniSvnelovani Sedegia is, rom mdgar zonaSimagnituri velis difuziis dro Cvens mier 2.2 paragrafSigamoyenebuli plazmis eleqtruli gamtareblobis impulsuricvlilebis maxasiaTebeli drois Tanazomadia. aseTi daskvna,raTa ar moxdes fizikuri procesebis droSi mimdinareobismizez-Sedegobrivi kavSirebis darRveva, moiTxovs garkveulganmartebas. saqme imaSia, rom magnituri velis difuziismaxasiaTebeli drois Sefasebas win uswrebs magniturisiblantis sididis Sefaseba, romlic miRebulia plazmisanomaluri winaRobis sagdeevis Teoriis CarCoebSi. aseTSemTxvevaSi plazmuri da mhd procesebis maxasiaTebeli droebisdamTxvevas SeiZleba SemTxveviTi xasiaTi hqondes. magram,magnituri siblantis zRvruli sidide miRebuli iyo agreTvemdgari zonis Mmhd modelis saSualebiTac, Tanac mxolod erTi,pirobis (sazRvarze magnituri velis grigalis arseboba)dakmayofilebis moTxovniT. amitom, SeiZleba iTqvas, rommagnituri siblantis sidide gansazRvravs ara marto mdgarizonis sazRvris, aramed mTlianad misi struqturis mdgradobas.toroidaluri magnituri velis modelis winamorbedadSeiZleba miCneuli iyos damagnitebul konusur zedapirze gareSemagnituri velis gantotebis topologiuri modeli [61].miuxedavad am naSromis udavo mniSvnelobisa da, toroidaluri93


velis modelis msgavsad, sakmarisi fizikuri sicxadisa, arcerTi es modeli ar aris maTematikurad saTanadod koreqtuladganmtkicebuli im donemde, rom mTeli sisruliT, da, racmTavaria, aucilebeli sandoobiT aRweros smv-s efeqtissxvadasxva gamovlinebebi. aRvniSnavT, rom es ar aris marto ammodelebis nakli, radganac praqtikulad yvela magnitosferulmodelsa Tu Teorias, romelic exeba smv-s problemas, gaaCniaxarvezebi. am dros, swored saplanetaTaSoriso magnituri veliwarmoadgens im ZiriTad fizikur faqtors, romlis moqmedebisgareSe SeuZlebeli iqneba gardamaval areSi plazmis dinebisstruqturis regulacia, kerZod ki, mdgari zonis sazRvrisstabilizacia. aseTi daskvna gansakuTrebiT samarTliania mdgarizonis wverosa da maxlobeli zedapirisaTvis, romelzedac, misizomebis simciris gamo, mdgari zonis mTlian zedapirTanSedarebiT, gansakuTrebiT swrafad unda imoqmedos mzis qarSigavrcelebulma SeSfoTebebma. amrigad, bunebrivad dgeba wvetisformis mqone mdgari zonis wveroSi magnituri velisanalitikuri Taviseburebebisa da am warmosaxviTi hidrodinamikuristruqturis zedapirze misi yofaqcevis Seswavlisproblema.cnobilia, rom Tu nebismier magnitur zedapirs gaaCniawvero (wveti), maSin aseTi wertili SeiZleba mivakuTvnoTmaTematikurad gansakuTrebuli wertilebis kategorias, romlebiciyofian or jgufad: regularul da araregularulgansakuTrebul wertilebad [62]. zogadad, regularul gansakuTrebulwertilSi funqciis warmoebuli nulis tolia. Tumca, Tukonkretul magaliTs moviSveliebT, kerZod, Tu wveti ekuTvnisidealurad gamtar plazmur struqturas, romelic CaWeriliamagnituri velis mier, zemoT moyvanili pirobis dakmayofilebaaucilebeli aRar aris da gansakuTrebuli wertili araregularuligaxdeba. swored aseT wertilSia SesaZlebeli magniturivelis Zalwiris gaxleCa, msgavsad imisa, rogorc ixliCebalaminarul siTxeSi denis wiri [4]. Zalwirebis formalizmis94


CarCoebSi, maTematikurad koreqtulia, rom msgavsi yofaqcevahqondes smv-s swored im Zalwirs, romelic damiznebulia mdgarizonis wveroze. arsebobs erTaderTi aseTi Zalwiri, romelic,mezobeli Zalwirebisagan gansxvavebiT, ar srialdeba mdgarizonis gverdiT zedapirze. aqedan gamodis topologiurimsgavseba wvetis mqone magnitur zedapirsa da hidrodinamikurmdgar zonas Soris. orive es struqtura SeiZleba warmovidginoT,rogorc agebulni wvetidan (wverodan) gamosuliwarmomqmneli mrudebiT. oRondac, pirvel SemTxvevaSiwarmomqmnelis funqcia akisria wveroSi gaxleCil magniturivelis Zalwirs, xolo meore SemTxvevaSi warmomqmneladgvevlineba siTxis denis wiri. amitom, Capliginis organzomilebianianalizuri amoxsna aqsialuri simetriis SemTxvevaSiuproblemod SeiZleba iyos gamoyenebuli iseTi samganzomilebianikonfiguraciis misaRebad, romelic wvetis mqonemagnituri zedapiris msgavsi iqneba.aucilebelia, rom mdgari zonis wveroSi magnituri velisZalwiris mravaljeradi gaxleCis efeqtis analogia magaliTad,myari solis wveroSi idealuri siTxis denis wiris gaxleCisefeqtTan maTematikurad bolomde koreqtuli iyos. amis pirveli,formaluri pirobaa, rom wveroze damiznebuli iyos mdgarizonis simetriis RerZis paraleluri mimarTulebis mqone smv-sZalwiri. gavixsenoT, rom dartymiTi talRis frontze smv, mzisqaris parametrebis msgavsad, SesaZloa wyvetas ganicdides.kerZod, mhd wyvetebis sxvadasxva variantebs Soris yvelazeufro albaTuria e.w. brunviTi tangencialuri wyvetis ganviTareba.aseTi wyvetis dros dartymiTi talRis frontis marTobuli,e.i. mdgari zonis simetriis RerZis paraleluri, smv-smdgeneli ucvleli rCeba. aqedan gamodis, rom im SemTxvevaSi,roca magnitosferosTan urTierTqmedebamde smv mzis qarissiCqaris paraleluria, anu gvaqvs viTareba, romelic warmoadgensalfen-Candrasekxaris cnobili fundamenturi Teoriis95


sawyis pirobas, brunviTi mhd tangencialuri wyveta am pirobasar daarRvevs.mrudi magnituri zedapirebis gansakuTrebuli wertilebismaTematikuri TaviseburebebiT gamowveuli fizikuri specifikawarmoCinda TiTqmis naxevari saukunis win, marTvadiTermobirTvuli sinTezis reaqciis laboratoriul pirobebSimiRebasTan dakavSirebiT. es sakiTxi sakmarisi sisruliT arisgaSuqebuli plazmis Teoriis klasikur mravaltomeulSi [62],saidanac moviyvanT zogierT Sedegs, romlebic mniSvnelovaniaam TavSi ganxiluli amocanebis kuTxiT.Tavdapirvelad ganvixiloT regularuli gansakuTrebuliwertili, romelTanac gavaigiveoT nax.12.-ze mocemuli plazmuristruqturis 0 wertili. iTvleba, rom am wertilis maxlobladmagnituri veli aragrigaluria, e.i. eleqtruli deni ara gvaqvs.formalurad, aseTi situacia Seesabameba idealuri eleqtruligamtareblobis SemTxvevas. amitom, dasaSvebia magnituri velisskalaruli potencialis Semotana, romlis gaSlac, Turegularuli gansakuTrebuli wertilis Tvisebas gavixsenebT,iwyeba koordinatis mimarT kvadratuli wevrebiT. Tu ki yvelakoeficienti kvadratul wevrebTan nulis tolia, maSingansakuTrebul wertils gaaCnia pirvel SemTxvevasTanSedarebiT ufro rTuli struqtura. nax.12-ze mocemulimagnituri struqturisaTvis SesaZlebelia davuSvaT, rom plazmamis SigniT ara gvaqvs, anu sazRvarze kmayofildeba magnituri dagazodinamikuri wnevebis tolobis piroba. msgavsi suraTipirvel miaxloebaSi samarTliania dedamiwis magnitosferosaTvisac,romlis zedapirze wnevebis balansis Sedgenisasgardamavali aris mxridan ugulvebelyofen mzis qaris magniturwnevas, xolo magnitosferos mxridan- masSi CaWerili plazmisgazodinamikur wnevas. magram, aseT SemTxvevaSi gansakuTrebuliwertili, anu Cveni magnituri konfiguraciis wvero, regularuliveRar iqneba, radganac masSi magnituri velisdaZabuloba aRar SeiZleba nulis toli iyos. Tu davuSvebT96


azimutalur simetrias, SeiZleba brtyeli amocanis ganxilva,romelsac Seesabameba nax.12. radganac, daSvebis Tanaxmad,konfiguraciis SigniT magnituri veli ar gvaqvs, zedapirismsaxvelis maxloblad kmayofildeba magnituri velis grigalisar arsebobis piroba, e.i. SeiZleba kompleqsuri potencialisSemotana. radganac wveroSi xdeba Zalwiris gaxleCa, Tanac aqmagnituri veli nulis toli ar aris, kompleqsuri potencialismwkrivad gaSlaSi, magnituri velis regularuli nawilisaRmweri kompleqsuri koordinatis mimarT mTeli xarisxis mqonewevrebis garda, unda monawileobdes agreTve wiladuri wevric.kompleqsuri cvladis funqciaTa Teoriis Tanaxmad, am pirobisdakmayofilebis gareSe wvero ver iqneba magnituri velisgantolebis (gaxleCis) wertili. amrigad, aq mocemulitopologiuri amocanis mokle fizikuri anotacia ganmtkicebuliasaTanado maTematikuri aparatiT [62]. Sedegad,miRebulia magnituri zedapiris sazRvris gantoleba( − x) py = ± const(3.2.5)sadac p -magnituri konfiguraciis wveros maxloblad kompleqsuripotencialis gaSlaSi monawile erT-erTi wevris naxevradmTeli xarisxis maCvenebelia. am xarisxis maCveneblis pirvelimniSvneloba p =3/2, Tumca Teoria samarTliania nebismieri sxvanaxevrad mTeli ricxvisaTvisac. grafikulad, p -s zrdasTanerTad magnituri konfiguraciis wvero ufro da ufro maxviligaxdeba. aRvniSnavT, rom (3.2.5)-is msgavsi magnituri zedapirisgantoleba miiReba cilindrul koordinatTa sistemaSic3r = k z 2 , (3.2.6)sadac r -radiusia, z - simaRle.amrigad, Tu magnitur zedapirs gaaCnia raRaca tipissimetria, e.i. amocana damokidebulia or cvladze, aragrigalurimagnituri veli mis irgvliv plazmur sivrceSi SeiZlebaaRiwerebodes kompleqsuri potencialiT. amitom, SeiZlebavisargebloT im cnobili SedegiT, romlis mixedviTac magnituri97


zedapiris konfiguracias iZleva kompleqsuri potencialisveqtoruli nawili, romelic denis wiris msgavsia. am funqciissaxe damokidebulia magnituri zedapiris simetriis saxeze,romelic SeiZleba iyos Semdegi sami saxis: translaciuri(gadataniTi), aqsialuri an xraxniseburi. toroidaluri velisSemTxveva Seesabameba transilaciur simetrias, xolo gaxleCilimagnituri ZalwirebiT Seqmnili zedapirebi miiReba aqsialurisimetriis SemTxvevaSi. ase rom,Tu topologiuri formalizmidangamovalT, hidrodinamikuri mdgari zona imSemTxvevaSi daemTxveva magnitur zedapirs, Tu ki plazmis deniswirs gavaigivebT magnituri velis ZalwirTan. aseTi situaciasruliad realuria, radganac mzis qaris siCqarisa da smv-sparalelurobis pirobas bunebaSi Zalian xSirad aqvs adgili,xolo maTematikurad is warmoadgens, rogorc ukve aRvniSneT,alven-Candrasekxaris cnobili mhd talRuri Teoriis safuZvels.mdgari zonis wveroSi gaxleCili smv-sa da mis sazRvarzeCamoyalibebuli toroidaluri magnituri struqturis urTierTqmedebisSedegad unda Camoyalibdes xraxniseburi simetriismqone axali magnituri struqtura, romelsac formaluradSeesabameba Semdegi saxis veqtoruli potenciali (denis funqcia)ψ = A z + rA ϕ , sadac A z daA ϕ veqtor-potencialis komponentebia, r -mdgari zonis ganivi kveTis radiusi. iseve, rogorc aqsialurisimetriis SemTxvevaSi, xraxniseburi magnituri zedapiris formaganisazRvreba rAϕ-s analizuri saxiT. am zedapiris formaSeiZleba miviRoT (3.2.6) gamosaxulebidan, romelSic mudmivaunda ganisazRvros mdgari zonis xazovani parametrebissaSualebiT.Cveni amocanidan gamomdinare, z RerZi, romelsac Tanxvdebasmv-s Zalwiri gaxleCamde, mimarTulia mdgari zonis wveroSimoTavsebuli cilidruli koordinatTa sistemis saTavidanmzisaken. centralur Zalwirsa da gaxleCil Zalwirebs SoriskuTxis (gaSlis kuTxe) zRvruli mniSvnelobaαmaxSeiZleba98


CavTvaloT mdgari zonis maaproqsimirebeli konusisnaxevradgaSlis kuTxis tolad (nax.13). magnitosferos kritikulwertils Seesabameba z = −h0, sadac h0- mdgari zonis simaRlea,xolo r 0- fuZis radiusi..aSkaraa, rom konusuri zedapiriT aproqsimaciasamarTliania mdgari zonis fuZis paraleluri nebismierikveTisaTvis, oRondac, gaxleCili Zalwirebis topologiidangamomdinare, saTanado koreqtulobisaTvis, gaTvaliswinebuliunda iyos am konusis gaSlis α kuTxis cvlileba. aqedangamomdinareobs, rom magnituri zedapiris aproqsimaciasafexurebrivad unda moxdes, e.i. gaSlis kuTxe unda icvlebodesgarkveul intervalSi, romlis sazRvrebi martivad dgindeba.kerZod, magnituri zedapiris fuZes Seesabameba0α max = 45 ,radganac aq, Capliginis modelidan gamomdinare h 0 = r0[3,4]. am2pirobis gaTvaliswinebiT (3.2.5)-idan gveqneba k = h . garda amisa,nebismier sxva ganiv kveTaSi, Tu ki gaSlis kuTxis cvlilebas1−0gaviTvaliswinebT, samarTliania tolobar =z1 3h − 20ztgα= 2 . e.i.α = arctg⎛1−1−⎟ ⎞⎜h 0 z 2 .⎝ ⎠h 0z0α→B 0→Bϕ→B nrr 0r 0→B τnax.13. mdgari zonis magnituri zedapiriamrigad, mdgari zonis zedapiris sawyisi modeluritoroidaluri magnituri struqturis urTierTqmedebam smv-sTan,99


im SemTxvevaSi, Tu es ukanaskneli saplanetaTaSoriso sivrceSimzis qaris siCqaris paraleluria, unda gamoiwvios xraxniseburimagnituri zedapiris warmoqmna, e.i. magnitur vels unda gauCndesspiraloba. am Tvisebas axasiaTebs sakuTari parametri, xraxnisbiji, romelic unda ganisazRvros cnobili formulidan [62]rBL = 2π τ, (3.2.7)Bϕsadac L -xraxnis bijia,Bϕ-toroidaluri velis daZabuloba,romelic aqsialuri simetriis SemTxvevaSi SeiZleba mudmivadCavTvaloT [3],B =τB 0cosα-magnituri (mdgari zonis) zedapiristangencialuri magnituri veli, B 0 - smv-s maxasiaTebeli sidide,r = z tg α2 2 20 B Bn. aSkaraa, rom magnitur zedapirze sruldeba piroba:B = τ + , sadac B n = B 0 sinα-magnituri velis normalurimdgenelia (nax.13).SemovitanoT fardobaB0n = da visargebloT formuliTB ϕtgαsinα= , ris Semdeg (3.2.7) –idan gveqneba1( 1+tg ) 2 α 21−( h + ) 2L = 2πnz z 2 . (3.2.8)03rogorc ukanaskneli gamosaxulebidan sCans, mdgari zoniszedapirze magnituri velis Zalwiris xraxnis biji cvladiiqneba: is TandaTan gaizrdeba mdgari zonis wverodanmagnitosferis kritikuli wertilis, e.i. mdgari zonis fuZis,mimarTulebiT. es niSnavs, rom Tavdapirvelad toroidaluritopologiis mqone mdgari zonis magnituri zedapiri smv-sgavleniT maqsimalur cvlilebas ganicdis mdgari zonis fuZeSi,anu magnitosferos sazRvarze- Lmax= 2πnh0[43].100


3.3. plazmis siCqaris velisa da magnituri velistopologiuri msgavsebis modeli magnitosferoswinamdebare mdgar zonaSitopologiuri msgavseba mzis qaris denis wirebsa da smv-sZalwirebs Soris aSkaraa im SemTxvevaSi, roca magnitosferosTanr rurTierTqmedebamde V0 || H 0 . 3.2-Si ganxilulia swored esSemTxveva, romelic amave dros warmoadgens alven-Candrasekhariscnobili amoxsnis safuZvels, anu idealurad gamtar plazmaSialvenis talRebis generaciis pirobas [63,64]. topologiurimsgavseba dinebis siCqarisa da magnituri velis yofaqcevaSisamarTliania agreTve im SemTxvevaSic, Tu plazmas gaaCniaCveulebrivi an magnituri siblante. am mosazrebis samarTlianobaqvemoT naCvenebi iqneba mdgar zonaSi uZravi plazmis iseTiSeSfoTebebis magaliTze, romlis wyaro moTavsebulia mdgarizonis fuZeSi.ganvixiloT modeli, romlis Tanaxmad gvaqvs ZiriTadierTkomponentiani H r 0 , romlis SeSfoTebaa h r , xolo TavdapirveladuZravi ukumSvadi plazmis SeSfoTebis siCqarea V r . Tu gaviTvaliswinebTmoZaobisa da magnituri velis induqciis gantolebebSiSemavali wevrebis rigebs, gveqnebar∂V1 r 1 r r= − ∇P+ λ∆V+ [ roth ⋅ H 0 ], ∂tρ0 4πρ0(3.3.1)r∂hr r r= ( H 0 ∇) V + λm∆h.∂t(3.3.2)(3.3.1)-is bolo marjvena wevri davSaloT veqtoruli analiziscnobili formulis mixedviT. Tu gamoviyenebT magnituri velisuwyvetobis pirobas, gveqnebarr r∂V1 ⎪⎧h ⋅ H= − ∇⎨P+∂tρ ⎪⎩ 4π( ) ⎪⎫( rH ) rh Vr0 1+ ∇ + λ∆⎬⎪⎭0 4πρ00. (3.3.3)101


Tu (3.3.3)-is orive mxareze vimoqmedebT operatoriT div , miviRebTr r⎪⎧( h ⋅ H 0 ) ⎪⎫∆⎨P+ ⎬ = 0 . (3.3.4)⎪⎩ 4π⎪⎭(3.3.4) samarTliania, radganac gamosaxuleba figurul frCxilebSiakmayofilebs laplasis gantolebas, anu iseTi harmoniulir r( h ⋅ H )funqciaa, romelic usasrulobaSi P + 0=0 (SeSfoTebis4πmodelidan gamomdinare, am moTxovnis fizikuri samarTlianobaaSkaraa). magram, saSualos Sesaxeb gausis Teoremidan gamodis,rom zemoT moyvanili piroba samarTliania mTel sivrceSi.amrigad, Tu modelis fizikur safuZvels ganvixilavT, gamodis,rom plazmis SeSfoTebas iwvevs mdgari zonis sazRvarzemagnituri velis Zalwirebis deformacia.radganac vixilavT mudmivi sididis erTkomponentianZiriTad magnitur vels H 0 , gavukeToT aproqsimacia mdgar zonascilindrebiT. Tumca aseTi aproqsimacia sakmarisad uxeSia, amassaboloo Sedegze praqtikulad gavlena ar eqneba, radganacmdgari zona ar warmoadgens absolutur warmonaqmns. amitom,wina paragrafSi moyvanili amocanis msgavsad, aqac nebismierSemTxvevaSi SeiZleba gamoviyenoT aproqsimacia sxvadasxva fuZisfarTis mqone cilindrebis rigiT, romelTa raodenobacdamokidebuli aris mdgari zonis simaRleze. am cilindrebsSoris pirvelis farTi emTxveva mdgari zonis fuZes. amrigad(3.3.3) -is magivrad gveqnebar∂V1 r= H∂t4πρr( ∇) h + λ∆V0r. (3.3.5)CavTvaloT, rom SeSfoTebuli sidideebis amplitudebisdamokidebuleba x day koordinatze wrfivia, rac iZlevalaplasis operatoris gamartivebis saSualebas. gadavideTcilindrul koordinatebze da siCqare da magnituri velisr rSeSfoTeba warmovadginoT Semdegi saxiT: V = V 0 ( r) exp( −iωt+ k z z ) dar rh h r exp( −iωt+ k z . aseTi warmodgena niSnavs, rom vixilavT= 0( ) )z102


SeSfoTebas mdgari zonis RerZis mimarTulebiT, romelicmagnitosferos kritikuli wertilidan mzisken mimarTuliRerZis Tanxvdenilia (ω -sixSire, k z -talRuri ricxvi).gveqnebaamrigad,r r r2∂VH 0z∂h∂ V= + λ ,2∂t4πρ0∂z∂z(3.3.6)r r r2∂h∂V∂ h= H 0z+ λ m .2∂t∂z∂z(3.3.7)zgavawarmooT (3.3.6) z -iT da (3.3.7) t -Tir r r22 2∂ V H 0z∂ h ∂ ⎛ ∂V⎞= + λ ⎜ ⎟2 2∂z∂t∂z∂z,4πρ0⎝ ∂z⎠(3.3.8)r rr22⎛2∂ h ∂ V ∂ ∂ h ⎞= H + ⎜ ⎟2 0zλ m∂ ∂ ∂ ∂2t z t t.⎝ ∂z⎠(3.3.9)∂Vr Tu (3.3.7)-dan ganvsazRvravT -s da SevitanT (3.3.8)-Si gveqneba∂ zr rr r222⎛2∂ V H∂ ∂ ∂ ⎞0z∂ h λ h h= + ⎜⎟− λ22m 2∂ ∂ 4 ∂ ∂. (3.3.10)z t πρ0z H 0zz ⎝ ∂t∂z⎠(3.3.9)-is gamoyenebiT gamovricxoT (3.3.10)-is marcxena mxare, racmogvcems gantolebas magnituri velis SeSfoTebisaTvisr rr r2224∂ h 2 ∂ h ∂ ⎛ ∂h⎞ ∂ h= V ( )2 a + λ + λ ⎜ ⎟2m −2m 4∂t∂z∂ztλλ , (3.3.11)⎝ ∂ ⎠ ∂zsadacrV =2aH2oz4πρ0-alfenis siCqarea.analogiurad gveqnebar rr r2224∂ V 2 ∂ V ∂ ⎛ ∂V⎞ ∂ h= V ( )2 a + λ + λ ⎜ ⎟2m −2m 4∂t∂z∂ztλλ . (3.3.12)⎝ ∂ ⎠ ∂zCavataroT fizikuri analizi. davuSvaT, rom plazmas ar gaaCniaCveulebrivi siblante, romelic, disertaciaSi ganxiluliamocanebis specifikidan gamomdinare, warmoadgens gansakuTrebulimniSvnelobis mqone parametrs. SemTxveva, roca magniturisiblante nulis tolia, Seesabameba idealurad gamtar plazmas,103


omelsac gaaCnia Cveulebrivi siblante. magnitosferosTanmimarTebaSi aseTi modeli SeiZleba gansakuTrebiT samarTlianiiyos polarul kaspebSi moZravi plazmisaTvis, dabal simaRleebze,iq sadac aSkarad mJRavndeba blanti xaxunis efeqtisustad ionizirebul, sakmarisad mkvriv ionosferul garemosa damzis qars Soris.ganvixiloT gantolebaTa ori sistema, romlebSic aSkaraasruli identuroba magnituri velisa da siCqaris SeSfoTebebsSoris:1) λ = 0r2∂ h= V2∂t2ar2∂ V= V2∂t2arr22∂ h ∂ ⎛ ∂h⎞+ λ ⎜ ⎟2 m 2∂z∂z⎝ ∂t⎠rr22∂ V ∂ ⎛ ∂V⎞+ λ ⎜ ⎟m∂z∂z(3.3.13)22⎝ ∂t⎠2) λ = 0mr2∂ h= V2∂tr2∂ V= V2∂t2a2ar r2 2∂ h ∂ ⎛ ∂h⎞+ λ ⎜ ⎟∂z∂z(3.3.14)2 2⎝ ∂t⎠r r22∂ V ∂ ⎛ ∂V⎞+ λ ⎜ ⎟2 2∂z∂z⎝ ∂t⎠Tu ugulvebelvyofT talRur wevrebs, romelTa koeficientiaalfenis siCqaris kvadrati, gveqneba paraboluri tipisgantolebebir r r2∂h∂ h ∂V= λ m ;2∂t∂ z ∂tr r r2∂h∂ h ∂V= λ ,2∂t∂z∂tr2∂ V= λ m ; (3.3.15)∂2zr2∂ V= λ .2∂zTu plazma idealuria, anu ar gaaCnia eleqtruli damagnituri siblante ( λ λ = 0 ), maSin gveqneba talRurigantolebebi= m104


2∂ h= V2∂t2ar2∂ h,∂2zr2∂ V= V2∂tromelTa amoxsnebi kargad aris cnobili.2ar2∂ V, (3.3.16)∂2z(3.3.14) gantolebebis amoxsnis erT-erTi varianti iyenebsr rV V r exp( −iωt+ k z da= 0Cvens mier Semotanil warmodgenebs ( ) )r rh = h 0( r) exp( −iωt+ k z )z. radganac talRuri ricxvi kompleqsuria( k z =η + ik ), roca λ = 0 gveqneba Semdegi dispersiuli Tanafardobaanu22a2zm2zω = V k − iωλk , (3.3.17)kzω= . (3.3.18)2( V − iωλ) 1 2amTu CavTvliT, rom garemos gaaCnia mcire magnituri siblante,rac samarTliania mzis qaris plazmisaTvis, maSin SeiZleba (3.3.18)mwkrivad gaiSalos. amasTan erTad, gamoviyenoTnamdvil da warmosaxviT nawilebadkzk z -is warmodgena2ω ⎛ iωλ⎞m ω ω λ=mη + ik ≈ ⎜1⎟ i23V+ = +a 2V. (3.3.19)⎝ a ⎠ Va2Vaamrigad, magnituri velis SeSfoTebisaTvis gveqneba gamosaxulebar r ⎛2ω λh = h ( r )exp⎜0−⎝ 2Vam3z ⎞⎟exp⎠( i( k z − ωt))z, (3.3.20)romlis identuria gamosaxuleba plazmis siCqarisaTvis. Tugaremos gaaCnia mxolod Cveulebrivi siblante, saWiroa (3.3.20)-SimovaxdinoT cvlilebaλ → λm .CavataroT (3.3.19) da (3.3.20)-is Tvisobriv-raodenobrivianalizi. moTxovnis Tanaxmad, k z -is warmosaxviTi nawiliszkoeficientiωλ m2


n =20protoni/sm 3 , rasac Seesabameba12siblantis intervalisaTvis λ ≈ ( 10 ÷1014m)−2ω ≈ 5( 1÷) wm 10 106V ≈ 5⋅10 sm/wm, magnituriasm 2 wm -1 , miviRebT, rom− . gamodis, rom Cveni modeli samarTlianiageomagnituri pulsaciebis sixSiris mqone SeSfoTebebisaTvis,rac zrdis mis fizikur Rirebulebas, radganac Zalwirebisdeformacia rezonansis gziT bunebrivad ukavSirdeba magnetosferosdRis mxaris, rogorc erTiani sxeulis, sakuTar rxevebs[3].(3.3.20)-Si pirveli eqsponenta gansazRvravs SeSfoTebistalRis milevas, romelic damokidebulia plazmis maxasiaTeblebze,SeSfoTebis sixSireze da manZilze. milevis logariTmuldekrements, anu talRis amplitudis neperis ricxviT Semcirebas,Seesabameba manZiliz032V aω 2= . (3.3.21)λmanalogiurad, SeiZleba ganvixiloT SemTxveva, rocaλ ≠ 0 .λ m =0, xoloamrigad, zemoTganxiluli modelis farglebSi saxezea srulitopologiuri msgavseba mdgar zonaSi magnituri velisa daplazmis siCqaris SeSfoTebebis veqtorebs Soris.amrigad, mdgar zonaSi unda arsebobdnen sxvadasxva tipismhd talRebi. am virtualuri struqturis konfiguraciidangamomdinare, aRniSnuli talRebis speqtris ganxilva gansakuTrebiTmosaxerxebeli unda iyos konusur koordinatTa sistemaSi.Tumca, rogorc wesi, roca gamoiyeneba mrudwiruli koordinatebi,mhd amocanebSi warmoiqmneba maTematikuri sirTuleebi.amitom, vifarglebiT mxolod im mhd talRebiT, romlebicSeiZleba warmoiqmnan mdgari zonis simetriis RerZis mimarTulebiTgavrcelebuli mcire perioduli SeSfoTebebis gamo. AamSeSfoTebebis mizezs rogorc mTel gardamaval areSi, aseve misfokalur nawilSi wamoadgens mzis qarisa da smv-s parametrebiscvlileba. Tumca, kumSvad damagnitebul plazmaSi SeSfoTebebi106


SeiZleba gamowveuli iyos agreTve mdgari zonis SemomsazRvrelimagnituri zedapiris drekadi rxevebiT, romelTa gavrcelebadakavSirebulia plazmis kumSvadobasTan.kvlav CavTvaloT, rom mdgar zonaSi uZravi plazmismagnituri veli, simkvrive da wneva ganicdian mcire SeSfoTebebsr r rB = B 0+ b , ρ = ρ 0+ ρ′, P = P 0+ P′, V r = Vr ′(3.3.22)radgan moZraoba iTvleba izotropulad, wnevisaTvis gveqnebasadac c 0- bgeris siCqarea.⎛ ∂P⎞ 2P ′ = ⎜ ⎟ρ′= c 0ρ′, (3.3.23)⎝ ∂ρ⎠(3.3.22) da (3.3.23) CavsvaT sawyis mhd gantolebebSi, saidanacarawrfivi wevrebis ugulvebelyofiT miviRebTr2∂Vc01 r r= − ∇ρ′+ [ rotb ⋅ B0], (3.3.24)∂tρ 4πρr∂b=∂tr∂ρ′= −∂t0rr( B ∇) V B divV0−ρ 000r, (3.3.25)rdivV , (3.3.26)divbr = 0 . (3.3.27)SeSfoTebebi kvlav ganvixiloT marTkuTxa koordinatTasistemis z -RerZis gaswvriv, romlis saTave magnitosferoskritikuli wertilia. z RerZi mimarTulia mzisken, y -RerZi geomagniturivelis sasazRvro Zalwiris gaswvriv, x -RerZi magnitosferosekvatoruli sibrtyis sazRvarze. CavTvaloT, rom saplanetaTaSorisomagnituri veli mimarTulia z RerZis antiparalelurad.aqedan gamomdinare, jamuri magnituri veli toliar r rB = B0 yey− B0zez, sadac B 0 y , B 0 z -geomagnituri velisa da saplanetaTaSorisomagnituri velis sidideebia,e r y ,e r z -erTeulovaniortebi. ganvixiloT mdgari zonis fuZe da idealurad gamtarikumSvadi plazmis SemTxveva. (3.3.24)-(3.3.27) sistemis amonaxsni kvlav107


veZeboTi( k z z−ωt)ebrtyeli talRis saxiT. (3.3.25)-dan da (3.3.27)-dangamomdinareobs, rom b = 0. amitom, gveqnebaz∂bx∂tB0z∂Vx=4πρ ∂z, (3.3.28)∂bx∂t∂Vy ∂Vz= B0 z − B0y , (3.3.29)∂z∂z∂Vx∂t∂Vy∂tB0z∂bx=4πρ ∂zB ∂b0zy=4πρ ∂z, (3.3.30), (3.3.31)∂Vz∂t2c B y ∂b0 ∂ρ′ 0= −ρ ∂z4πρ∂z0y, (3.3.32)∂ρ′= −∂tρ 0∂V∂zz. (3.3.33)(3.3.28) da (3.3.30) gantolebebi arian damoukidebeli sxvagantolebebisagan. (3.3.28) gavawarmooT t -Ti da (3.3.30)-idan CavsvaT∂V x∂t, ris Sedegadac miviRebT gantolebas alfenis talRebisaTvissadac0∂2bx2∂t= V2az∂2bx2∂x, (3.3.34)B0zV az = -alfenis talRis siCqarea, romelic damoki-4πρdebulia saplanetaTaSoriso magnitur velze.es talRebi smv-s Zalwirebis gaswvriv orive mimarTulebiTvrceldebian Semdegi fazuri siCqariTCφω= = Vaz= Vasinθ, (3.3.35)kzsadac θ kuTxe aiTvleba y RerZidan,V a - alvenis siCqaris sidideajamuri magnituri velisTvis.(3.3.29)-gavawarmooT t -Ti, gamoviyenoT (3.3.31) da (3.3.32), risSemdeg gveqneba108


∂2by2∂t= V2a∂2by2∂z(3.3.28)-dan da (3.3.33)-dan gveqneba2∂ ρ′= c2∂t22 2 ∂ ρ′+ c0Cφ . (3.3.36)2∂z202by22∂ ρ′B0y ∂+2∂z4π∂z. (3.3.37)bolo ori gantolebis kombinacia gvaZlevs dispersiisgantolebas talRis fazuri siCqarisaTvis42 2 2 2 2( c + V ) C + c = 0Cϕ −. (3.3.38)0a ϕ 0V a zgamodis, rom am talRebSi plazmis merxev nawilakebzemoqmedebs rogorc geomagnituri veli, aseve saplanetaTaSorisomagnituri veli.(3.3.38) gantolebis amonaxsns aqvs Semdegi saxe [64]Cφ±=12⎡⎢⎣2 22 2 22( c + + ) 1± ( + − ) 1 ⎤0 V 2c0Vacosθc0Va2c0Vacosθ⎥⎦a , (3.3.39)sadac plius niSani aRniSnavs aCqarebul magnitobgeriT talRebs,xolo minusi-Senelebuls. es talRebi moZraoben orive mimarTulebiT.(3.3.39)-dan SegviZlia SevafasoT mhd talRebis speqtrimdgari zonis fuZis ( θ ≈ 0), e.i. magnitosferos kritikuli wertilis,maxloblad, sadac smv-is Zalwirebi praqtikulad armaxinjdebian. maxasiaTebel sidideebad SegviZlia gamoviyenoTmagnitopauzis parametrebis tipiuri mniSvnelobebi6( 3 ÷ 6) c0 V = 10 sm.wm 1= a−da−7k = 2π⋅10sm − 1 , rac Seesabamebazdedamiwis magnituri velis sasazRvro fenis (magnitopauzis) sisqe7δ ≈ 10 sm. Sedegad, miviRebT mhd talRebis sixSirisMmaxasiaTebel speqtrs- ≈ ( 2 8)ω wm − 1 , romelic faqtiurad0 ÷Seesabameba magnitosferos sazRvris maxloblad protonebisω wm − 1 [8].ciklotronul sixSires- ≈ ( 3 ÷ 5)p109


3.4. . mdgari zona magnitosferos gardamaval areSi,helmholcis gantolebebis Tvisobrivi analizi damagnitogradientuli talRebis parametrebis Sefasebamzis qaris plazmis msxvilmasStabovani dineba gardamavalareSi im droiTi masStabebisaTvis, romlebic mniSvnelovnadaRemateba dabalsixSiriani eleqtromagnituri rxevebis maxasiaTebelperiodebs, SeiZleba stacionarulad CavTvaloT.idealuri erTsiTxovani mhd gantolebebi mzis qarisaTvis Semdegisaxisaa2sadac P = P + H ( 8π )2wneva, ( H ( 8π )r rr r P′( H∇)H(V∇)V = −∇ +ρ 4πρ, (3.4.1)r r r r(V∇ )H = ( H∇)V , (3.4.2)′ -plazmis sruli wnevaa, P -gazodinamikuri-magnituri wneva).magnitosferosTan urTierTqmedebamde mzis qarisaTvisarsebobs uamravi ZiriTadi mdgomareoba, romlebic Seesabamebian(3.4.1)-(3.4.2) gantolebebis sxvadasxva stacionarul amonaxsnebs.magaliTad, roca P ′ = const , SeiZleba visargeblod alfen-Candrasekharis cnobili stacionaruli amoxsniT, romelic Cvenfaqtiurad ukve gamoviyeneT 3.2-Si mdgari zonis wveroSimagnituri Zalwiris gaxleCvis modelis winapirobadrr HV = . (3.4.3)4 πρTu mkacrad vimsjelebT, gardamaval areSi, saplanetaTa-Soriso sivrcisagan gansxvavebiT, erTsiTxovani miaxloeba mzisqarisaTvis samarTliani aRar aris. yovel SemTxvevaSi, Tu mTelgardamaval areSi ara, mdgar zonaSi (fokaluri are) mainc, sadackoreqtulia plazmis moZraoba ganxiluli iyos orsiTxovanmiaxloebaSi. es niSnavs, rom protonebisa da eleqtronebis110


moZraoba erTmaneTisagan damoukidebelia, Tumca aseTi gancxadebaabsoluturad samarTliani ar aris. rogorc wesi, iTvleba, romeleqtronebs, romlebsac protonebTan SedarebiT gacilebiTmcire masa gaaCniaT, inercia ara aqvT, amitom sakmaod maRalisizustiT SeiZleba iTqvas, rom protonebi moZraoben eleqtronulgarsSi ise, rom adgili ara aqvs meqanikur xaxuns plazmiskomponentebs Soris. Tu plazma idealurad gamtaria, maSinadgili ar eqneba agreTve magnitur xaxunsac da plazmaSi armoqmedebs disipaciis meqanizmebi [65].cnobilia, rom dartymiTi talRis frontis gavlis Semdegmzis qaris plazma muxruWdeba, rac erT-erT gamovlinebaspoulobs masSi magnituri siblantis efeqtis warmoqmnaSi. sxvasaintereso fizikur movlenebTan erTad, rogorc es naCvenebi iyoadre, am areSi adgili aqvs smv-s mzis qarSi Cayinulobis pirobistransformacias, rac niSnavs, rom unda ganvixiloT gansxvavebuliefeqtebi plazmis eleqtronul da protonul komponentebSi.swored orsiTxovan miaxloebaSia SesaZlebeli imefeqtis gamovlena, romelic Teoriulad TavdapirveladmiRebuli iyo sustad ionizirebuli ionosferuli plazmisaTvis[64,66].mzis qaris dinamikaze, gardamaval areSi ukanasknelieqsperimentaluri monacemebisa da ricxviTi modelirebisSedegebis mixedviT, gansakuTrebuli gavlena aqvs plazmiskumSvadobas [67]. magram, pirvel miaxloebaSi, plazmiskomponentebs Soris xaxunis msgavsad, es efeqtic SeiZlebaugulvebelvyoT da gamoviyenoT ganzogadoebuli omis kanoni,romelSic eleqtronebis siCqare V s e gansazRvrulia denissimkvrivis saSualebiTr r 1 r 1[ VH ] + [ jH ] − ∇Per 1 rE = −c encen. (3.4.4)sadac E r -eleqtruli velis daZabulobaa, c -sinaTlis siCqarea,r r rj = en(V −Ve)-denis simkvrive (V r -protonebis siCqare), Pe-111


eleqtronuli komponentis wneva, n -plazmis koncentracia, e -elementaruli muxti.(3.4.4)-s gamoyenebiT, romelic niSnavs, rom orsiTxovanmiaxloebaSi mzis qarSi yovelTvis warmoiqmneba holis efeqti(meore Sesakrebi (3.4.4)-is marjvena mxareSi), naCvenebia, romsamarTliania helmholcis ganzogadoebuli gantoleba [65,68].r r∂( Ω + Ωi) r r r= rot[ V ⋅ ( Ω + Ωi)],∂t(3.4.5)rsadac Ω i = eH ( Mc)protonis masa).-protonebis ciklotronuli sixSire, ( M -(3.4.5) gantolebidan gamodis, rom mzis qaris protonulkomponentaSi inaxeba axali veqtori Ωr + Ωr, anu, aq magnituriveli, eleqtruli komponentisagan gansxvavebiT, mxolodnawilobriv aris `Cayinuli”. marTlac, radganac denis simkvrivisr r rV = V + j en , Tu aviRebT rot -s (3.4.4) orivegamosaxulebidan ( )emxaridan da gamoviyenebT erT-erT maqsvelis gantolebas, gveqneba∂ Hr = rot[ VeH]∂t, (3.4.6)rac niSnavs magnituri velis srul Cayinulobas plazmiseleqtronul komponentaSi.amrigad, magnitosferos garsdenis mhd suraTis koreqtulimodelireba moiTxovs, rom mzis qarma gardamaval areSi SeiZinossasruli eleqtruli gamtareblobis mqone garemos Tvisebebi.aseT SemTxvevaSi Cayinuli saplanetaTaSoriso magnituri velisgavlena sustdeba da fokalur areSi plazmis msxvilmasStabovanidinebis topologia SeiZleba ganisazRvros kinematikur miaxloebaSi,romelime iseTi hidrodinamikuri modelis saSualebiT,romelic iTvaliswinebs magnitosferos kritikuli wertilismaxloblad mzis qaris damuxruWebis efeqts. aseTi tipisaa,magaliTad, sonerup-pristisa da gratonis cnobili kinematikurimodelebi [40,41,69].i112


mzis qaris Termodinamikuri parametrebis cvlilebasa damis damuxruWebas gardamaval areSi mosdevs sxvadasxva fizikuriefeqtebi, romelTa Sorisac erT-erTi saintereso movlenaa e.w.magnitogradientuli talRebis gaCena. am tipis magnitosferulitalRebis generaciis fizikuri meqanizmi dakavSirebiuliasiCqareTa velisa da magnituri velis araerTgvarovnebasTan,romelTa TvalnaTlivi warmodgena gansakuTrebiT moxerxebuladSeiZleba Capliginis mdgari zonis modelis daxmarebiT [3,4].kerZod, es modeli iZleva saSualebas gamoviyenoT dinebis mhdsuraTis SeSfoTebis martivi, magram moxerxebuli varianti, rocaZiriTad, SeuSfoTebel mdgomareobaSi, plazma magnitosferosfokalur areSi miCneulia uZravad.SemovitanoT marTkuTxa koordinatTa sistema saTaviTmagnitosferos kritikul (Subla) wertilSi. RerZi x mogezuliamagnitosferos centraluri ekvatorialuri kveTis sazRvrisgaswvriv, y -mzisken, z RerZi-geomagnituri velis sasazRvroZalwiris gaswvriv. magnitogradientuli talRebis generaciisaTvisaucilebelia, rom arsebobdes siCqarisa da magniturivelis grigalebi. magram, mTel gardamaval areSi am pirobisdakmayofileba, mzis qaris dinebis specifikis gamo, SeuZlebelia.samagierod, samarTliania Tavdapirvelad uZravi plazmisv y siCqaris SeSfoTebisa da erTkomponentiani magnituri velishzSeSfoTebis Semdegi modeli, romelic zustad esadageba mdgarzonas. am modeliT daSvebulia SeSfoTebis formis mqonevertikaluri gadaadgilebebis generacia da erTkomponentianimagnituri velis SeSfoTeba ZiriTadi velis mimarTulebiTrV = vy( x, t) e ysadac e y , ez-erTeulovani ortebia.re +, H = H 0z ( y ) z hz(x,t ) ze, (3.4.7)ionosferoSi, sadac samarTliania (3.4.7)-is msgavsi modeli,orsiTxovan miaxloebaSi, anu holis efeqtis moqmedebis113


pirobebSi, arsebobs sami tipis magnitogradientuli talRa: C + ,C − da mdgari magnitogradientuli talRebi [70]. msgavsi talRebiunda arsebobdnen agreTve gardamaval areSic. aq ar SevexebiTaRniSnuli talRebis miRebis teqnologiis detalebs damoviyvanT mxolod maTi siCqareebis saboloo gamosaxulebebs.swrafi magnitogradientuli talRebi:⎛2 ⎞⎜CHCHC = = − + + ′ ⎟ϕ C + C⎜H C p . (3.4.8)2 4 ⎟⎝⎠neli magnitogradientuli talRebi2CHCHC ϕ = C − = − + + CHC′p . (3.4.9)2 4mdgari magnitogradientuli talRebiCn= ±∂H1 0z4πMn∂y1kx(3.4.10)sadac C c ( en)( ∂H∂y)4π , C = − k 0H = 0z′ 2 p H x >β , e ( Mc)( ∂H∂y)β -H = 0zmagnituri velis araerTgvarovnebis parametri (e.w. rosbismagnituri parametri),amocanis araerTgvarovnebis masStabTan.k x= 2π λ -talRuri ricxvi, dakavSirebulieleqtromagnituri talRebi (3.4.8)-(3.4.10) warmoadgenenmagnitosferuli rezonatoris rxevis sakuTar modebs.erTsiTxovan miaxloebaSi, anu roca holis efeqti ar gvaqvs,gveqneba mxolod (3.4.10) talRa.amrigad, C + , C − daC n generaciisaTvis aucilebelia, romrotVr≠ ) da eleqtruliarsebobdes plazmis siCqaris grigali ( 0r rdeni ( j = crotH( 4π) ≠ 0 ). am talRebis speqtraluri maxasiaTeblebismisaRebad saWiroa araerTgvarovani magnituri velis modelirebada im maxasiaTebeli wrfivi masStabis dadgena, romelicgansazRvravs gardamavali aris im nawilis zomas, romlisTvisacsamarTliania orsiTxovani miaxloeba. swored am masStabs, ufro114


zustad, misi cvlilebis diapasons, iZleva mdgari zonis modeli,romlis maTematikur safuZvels warmoadgens Capliginis mieridealuri siTxis nakadis Teoriis farglebSi miRebuli erTifundamentaluri amonaxsni. Tavis droze Capliginma ganixilanaxevradsasrulo brtyeli firfitis idealuri ukumSvadi siTxisWavliT garsdenis organzomilebiani amocana [4]. aRmoCnda, rommas gaaCnia gansakuTrebuli Rirebulebis mqone fizikuriwanamZRvari. kerZod, Capliginis ideis Tanaxmad, kritikuliwertili brtyel firfitaze unda Seicvalos sasruli zomebismqone mdgari (stagnaciis) zoniT, romlis SigniT siTxis masaSeiZleba miviCnioT uZravad. aseTi daSveba fardobiTia da,garkveulwilad, virtualuri, radganac maTematikurad garsdenisnebismier amocanaSi SeiZleba arsebobdes mxolod wertilovaniuZravi masa. magram, fizikuri TvalsazrisiT siTxe SeiZlebauZravad miviCnioT garkveul sasrulo zomebSi, romlis masStabebidamokidebulia amocanis parametrebze da imaze, Tu ra sizustiT gvinda analizuri amonaxsnis miReba.amrigad, Tu gamoviyenebT Capliginis ideas, magnitosferoskritikuli wertili SeiZleba SevcvaloT mdgari zoniT, romelicwarmoadgens fokaluri aris aproqsimacias. miuxedavad imisa, romCapliginis amoxsna organzomilebiania, im SemTxvevaSi TudavuSvebT aqsialur simetrias, yovelgvari problemis gareSeSeiZleba misi sivrculi ganzogadoeba. iTvleba, rommagnitosferos winamdebare mdgari zonis SigniT plazmis siCqaregacilebiT mcirea saplanetaTaSoriso sivrceSi mzis qaris V 0siCqaresTan SedarebiT [3].mdgari zonis xazovani parametrebi Semdegi gamosaxulebebiTukavSirdeba gardamaval areSi dinebis maxasiaTeblebs damagnitosferos dRis mxaris sazRvris xazovan zomas115


a = 32 ⋅ Lqb = 64 ⋅ Lq−12−12⎡∞ 3 nn q⎢ ∑ ⋅2⎢ n=1 4n−11−q⎢∞ n−1( −1)⋅ n⎢4+ π + 64∑2⎢⎣n=1 4n−1⎡∞ n−1( −1)⋅ n⎢ ∑ 2⎢ n=1 4n−1⎢∞( −1)⎢4+ π + 64∑⎢⎣n=1 4n3n−12⋅ n−12n3q⋅1−q32nq⋅1−qn2n2nq⋅1−q2n2n⎤⎥⎥ , (3.4.11)⎥⎥⎥⎦⎤⎥⎥ ,⎥⎥⎥⎦sadac a -mdgari zonis simaRlea, b -misi sigane,L - brtyelzedapirTan gaigivebuli magnitosferos dRis mxaris sazRvrisxazovani zoma, q = ( V ) 21 V 0 , V1-plazmis siCqare mdgari zonissazRvarze.(3.4.11)-idan cxadad sCans, rom magnitosferos winamdebaremdgari zona ar warmoadgens absolutur warmonaqmns, racniSnavs, rom mis zomebs gansazRvravs cvladi parametri q .swored aqedan gamomdinareobs daSveba, rom mdgari zona winaswarmoTxovnili sizustiT Seesabameba uZravi plazmis garkveulsasrul moculobas. aSkaraaa, rom mdgari zonis zRvarswarmoadgens magnitosferos kritikuli wertili, romelsaciZleva zRvari q → 0 . (3.4.11)-is analizidan gamomdinareobs, romuxeS miaxloebaSi sivrceSi mdgari zona SeiZleba warmovidginoTrogorc α ≈ π / 2 gaSlis kuTxis mqone konusi. amitom,magnitosferos winamdebare gardamaval areSi faqtiurad gvaqvsmxolod erTi xazovani zoma, mdgari zonis simaRle a , romelicdaaxloebiT misi fuZis radiusis tolia. cxadia, rom mdgarizonis maqsimaluri simaRlea max gardamavali aris sisqis tolia.rac Seexeba minimalur simaRles, mas zRudavs hidrodinamikurimiaxloeba, anu pirobabrunvis radiusi gardamaval areSi).7a min > Rl( Rl≈ 10 sm - protonebis larmorisSevafasoT magnitosferos kritikuli wertilis (3.4.11)gamosaxulebebiT aproqsimaciis xarisxi. magaliTad, Tu magnito-116


sferosTan urTierTqmedebamde mzis qaris maxasiaTebeli siCqareaV0 = 4 ⋅10sm.w -1 ,7amax9≈ 2 ⋅10sm (gardamavali aris sisqe wynarimagnitosferosaTvis). roca10L = 2 ⋅10sm (magnitosferos dRismxaris sazRvris sigrZe), mdgari zonis sazRvarze gveqneba6V1 ≈ 2,7 ⋅10sm.w -1 , rac Seadgens V0-is ≈ 7%-s. im SemTxvevaSi, Tu8a ≈ 6 ⋅10 sm, mdgari zonis modelis sizuste izrdeba ≈ 1%-mde,radganacV1 ≈ 4 ⋅105sm.w -1 . amrigad, gamodis rom gardamaval areSi,kerZod mis fokalur nawilSi, yovelTvis iarsebebsmniSvnelovani sivrculi zomis mqone struqtura, romelSicplazmis siCqare, rogorc minimum, erTi rigiT naklebi iqneba mzisqaris siCqareze magnitosferosTan urTierTqmedebamde.magnitosferos garsdenis TeoriisaTvis am Sedegs principulimniSvneloba aqvs, radganac adasturebs gardamaval areSi moZravplazmaSi gansakuTrebuli hidrodinamikuri struqturisarsebobas. am struqturaSi (mdgar, anu stagnaciis zonaSi) mzisqaris damuxtuli nawilakebis dreifuli siCqare plazmismaxasiaTebeli hidrodinamikuri siCqaris Tanazomadia, racniSnavs, rom aq samarTliania orsiTxovani magniturihidrodinamikis gantolebebi [65].arsebobs magnitosferos dRis mxareze gardamaval areSiplazmis eleqtromagnituri dreifis siCqaris maxasiaTebelisididis Sefasebis ori varianti. pirveli varianti ufro rbilia(naklebad mkacri) meore variantTan SedarebiT da efuZnebaidealurad eleqtrogamtari mzis qaris eleqtrul vels−E ~ r = −c⎡VrH ~ r 1 ⎤0 ; meore, pirvelTan SedarebiT xisti, varianti iyenebs⎢⎣ ⎥⎦magnitosferos sazRvris maxloblad plazmis wonasworobisTermodinamikur pirobas. pirvel SemTxvevaSi iTvleba, rom mzisqaris eleqtruli veli saplanetaTaSoriso sivrcidanyovelgvari cvlilebis gareSe aRwevs gardamaval areSi, racfizikurad koreqtulia, rodesac eleqtruli veli dartymiTitalRis frontis tangencialuria (es piroba SeuSfoTebel mzis117


qarSi praqtikulad yovelTvis samarTliania). am SemTxvevaSieleqtromagnituri dreifis siCqare gardamaval areSi SeiZlebaSefasdes gamosaxulebidanV dV0H ~= − , (3.4.12)H0sadacH ~ -smv-s maxasiaTebeli mniSvnelobaa magnitosferosTanurTierTqmedebamde, H 0 -magnituri veli gardamaval areSi.meore SemTxveva Seesabameba mdgar zonas, amitom plazmismaxasiaTebeli xazovani zomaacnobil formulaSi [68]a parametri, romelic SedisV d0cKT= e, (3.4.13)eH a0sadac K -bolcmanis mudmivaa, T e -eleqtronebis temperatura.pirveli varianti gulisxmobs, rom gardamaval areSiirRveva smv-s mzis qarSi Cayinulobis piroba, ris gamocprotonebsa da eleqtronebs SeuZliaT sriali magnituri velismimarT. radganac, dartymiTi talRis frontis gavlis Semdegmagnituri velis intensivoba, umeteswilad, matulobs, gamodis,rom rbili variantis dros V d < V0, Tumca es siCqareebi maincTanazomadia, e.i. V d ≈710 sm.wm -1 . amitom, pirvel situaciaSiorsiTxovani mhd miaxloeba samarTliania faqtiurad mTelgardamaval areSi, misi periferiebis CaTvliT, sadac plazmissiCqare magnitosferosTan urTierTqmedebamde siCqaris Tanazomadixdeba.Vd 0-is sididis SefasebisaTvis gamoviyenoT mdgari zonissimaRlis zRvruli mniSvnelobebi:amin8= 10sm,amax9= 2 ⋅10agreTve eleqtronuli temperaturisa da smv-s intensivobissm,maxasiaTebeli sidideebi wynari mzis qaris SemTxvevaSi:5T e = 10 K0da−5H = 3⋅10gausi. Sedegad, miviRebT dreifis siCqaris0118


cvlilebis Semdeg intervals:45V ≈ ( 1 5 ⋅10÷ 3.3⋅10)d 0. sm.wm -1 . Tu amsidideebs SevadarebT V 1 -is mniSvnelobas, romelic Seesabamebaamin-s, SeiZleba davaskvnaT, rom, yovel SemTxvevaSimagnitosferos kritikuli wertilis maxloblad (anu minimalurizomebis mqone mdgar zonaSi mainc) aucilebelia orsiTxovanimagnituri hidrodinamikis miaxloebis gamoyeneba.magnitogradientuli talRebis parametrebis miaxloebiTiSefasebisaTvis aucilebelia gvqondes erTkomponentiani magniturivelis magnitosferos fokalur areSi cvlilebis romelimemodeli. aseTi modeli sakmarisia emorCilebodes sasazRvropirobebs, roca magnitosferos sazRvarze (qveda sasazRvropiroba) magnituri velis intensivoba geomagnituri velisintensivobis tolia, xolo zeda sazRvarze, romelic SeiZlebawarmoadgendes dartymiTi talRis fronts an sibrtyesmdgarizonis simaRleze, magnituri veli smv-s toli unda iyos. aseTpirobas akmayofilebs magnituri velis ganawilebis sxvadasxvavarianti, romelTa Sorisac umartivesia wrfivi tangencialuriwyveta0 zyH z ( y ) = ( H z1 − H z2)( 1−) + H z2. (3.4.14)asadac H z ( ) = H 1- magnituri velis mniSvnelobaa magnitosferossazRvarze, H z ( a ) = H z 2 -smv-s mniSvnelobaa mdgari zonis simaRleze.iTvleba, rom sruldeba utoloba H z1 > H z2. aqedan gamomdinare,aucileblad iarsebebs eleqtruli denisx -komponenta,romelic mogezulia DCF-msxvilmasStabovani zedapirulimagnitosferuli denis miamrTulebiTjxcc ∂Hz c ( H z1− H z2)= rot xH= − =. (3.4.15)4π4π∂y4πaamrigad, daculia sruli koreqtuloba magnitosferosgarsdenis zogad suraTTan mimarTebaSi, romlis Tanaxmadgeomagnituri velis ekranirebas axdens globaluri zedapiruli119


DCF-deni, gaigivebuli denian sibrtyesTan. Sesabamisad,ekranirebis aris, anu magnitopauzis, sisqe gaigivebuliaparametrTan.davubrundeT helmholcis fundamentalur gantolebas (3.4.5),romelic warmoaCens magnitogradientuli talRebis generaciisfizikur meqanizms. Cveni modelis mixedviT, magnituri velidakavSirebulia siCqaris grigalis z -mdgenelTanddt⎛ r e ⎞⎜rotzV+ H z(y ) ⎟ = 0 . (3.4.16)⎝ Mc ⎠(eleqtronebis inerciis gaTvaliswinebiT aseve SegviZlia warmovadginoT(3.4.6) gantolebac).(3.4.16) gantolebis erT-erT kerZo amonaxsns aqvs saxeerot z V + H z(y ) = A = const . (3.4.17)McmagnitopauzisTvis (3.4.17) gantoleba kargad Seswavlilia[3,65,66]. aq, iseve, rogorc gardamavali aris fokalur nawilSi,V rda H r -is araerTgvarovnebebi warmoiqmneba blanti plazmisdinebis TaviseburebebiT. Sedegad vRebulobT, rom magniturivelis araerTgvarovneba iwvevs siCqaris grigalisintensifikacias, iseve rogorc troposferoSi, sadac dedamiwisbrunvis kuTxuri siCqaris araerTgvarovnebis gamo xdebaplanetaruli masStabis mqonerosbis atmosferuli talRebisgeneracia [64]. amis Sedegia ciklonisa da anticiklonis tipismsxvilmasStabovani grigalebis generacia, romlebic uSualogavlenas axdenen dedamiwaze amindis formirebaze. gardamavalareSi, ionosferos msgavsad, moqmedebs troposferosTanSedarebiT gansxvavebuli fizikuri meqanizmi, dakavSirebulimagnituri velis araerTgvarovnebasTan. magram, miuxedavad amgansxvavebisa, arsebobs formaluri maTematikuri msgavseba,romelic gamoixateba rosbis tipis msxvilmasStabovanimagnitogradientuli talRebis generaciaSi, rac holis efeqtSieleqtronebisa da protonebis inerciis gaTvaliswinebis Sedegia.a120


SevafasoT magnitogradientuli talRebis speqtraluri dasivrculi maxasiaTeblebi gardamavali aris fokalur nawilSimagnituri velis wrfivi modelisaTvis (3.4.14).am mizniT Tavdapirvelad ganvsazRvroT Semdegi talRuriparametrebis maxasiaTebeli mniSvnelobebi1)CHc ∆H⋅πenaz−12= , 2) Cn= ( πMn)4∆Hz4 ⋅ , 3)k axe∆HC′ p = , (3.4.18)Mcakz2xxazovani masStabis zRvruli mniSvnelobisa ( a min da a max ) daSemdegiparametrebisaTvis:−4∆HH H = 2 ⋅10gausi (racz = z −1 z2Seesabameba geomagnituri dipolis SeuSfoTebel sididesmagnitosferos sazRvarze) da n = 20 prot.sm -3 . e.i. gvaqvsk1 = 2πda k x2 = 2πamin, romelTaTvisac C H , C n ,x a maxC′ p sidideebimniSvnelovnad gansxvavdeba igive talRuri parametrebissidideebisagan ionosferul garemoSiC H ≈ 2,5⋅10sm.w -1 ;14C ≈ 5⋅10sm.w -1 ;H25C n ≈ 1,6⋅10sm.w -1 ;166C n ≈ 1,6⋅10sm.w -1 ; (3.4.19)28C′ p ≈ 11 , ⋅10sm.w -1 ;1′ pC ≈ 5⋅10sm.w -1 .26Tu (3.4.19)-s CavsvavT (3.4.8)-(3.4.10)-Si, ganisazRvreba sakvlevitalRebis sixSiruli diapazoni magnitosferos sazRvarzemagnituri velis wrfivi ganawilebis modelis farglebSi:16C ( )+ ≈ 1,7 ⋅10sm.w -1 ;( 1)( 1)+ = C+k x1≈ 5⋅−3ω 10 w -1 ;( 1)( 1)= ω+T + 2π ≈ 1,2 ⋅10w;326C ( )+ ≈ 1,8⋅10sm.w -1 ;1ω 10 − w -1 ( 2 )( 2 ); T 2π ω ≈ 60 w;( 2 ) ( 2 )+ = C+k x2≈+= +16C ( )− ≈ 1,7 ⋅10sm.w -1 ;( 1)( 1)− = C−k x1−3( 1)( 1)= −ω ≈ 5⋅10w -1 ; T − 2πω ≈ 1,2 ⋅103w;(3.4.20)26C ( )− ≈ 1,3⋅10sm.w -1 ;( 2 )−( 2 )−x2−2( 2 )( 2 )− = −ω = C k ≈ 7,8⋅10w -1 ; T 2π ω ≈ 80 w;16C ( )n ≈ , sm.w-1 ;16⋅10( 1)( 1)n = Cnk x1−3ω ≈ 5⋅10w -1 ;T( 1)n( 1)n= 2π ω ≈ 1,2 ⋅10w;326C ( )n ≈ , sm.w-1 ;1 6 ⋅10( 2 ) ( 2 )n = Cnk x21ω ≈ 10 − w -1 ( 2 )( 2 ); T = 2π ω ≈ 63w;nn121


(3.4.20) miRebulia, roca magnituri veli magnitopauzaSi wrfivadicvleba, rac Seesabameba (3.4.14) ganawilebas. meore Tavidancnobilia, rom aseTi ganawileba Seesabameba mimdevrobiTimiaxloebis meTodiT gansazRvrul pirvel, ZiriTad wevrs, e .i.warmoadgens gamartivebuli magnituri velis induqciisgantolebis amonaxns. ufro maRali rigis mwkrivis saxis mqonesxva, arawrfivi, ganawilebebi aRar warmoadgenen induqciisgantolebis zust amonaxsns, Tumca arsebobs msgavsiganawilebebis gamoyenebis SesaZlebloba, CveulebrivhidrodinamikaSi cnobili sasazRvro fenSi siCqarisganawilebebis msgavsad [17,71,72,73]. magaliTad,3 y 1 ⎛ y ⎞H z = − ⎜ ⎟ ,2 δ 2 ⎝ δ ⎠333 ⎛ y ⎞ 1 ⎛ y ⎞ ⎛ y ⎞ π yH z = ⎜1− ⎟ − ⎜1− ⎟ , H z = sin⎜1 − ⎟ = cos , romlebic (3.4.14)-is2 ⎝ δ ⎠ 2 ⎝ δ ⎠ ⎝ δ ⎠ 2 δmsgavsad, akmayofileben sasazRvro pirobebs. kerZod,modelisaTvis gveqneba:y / δ =0.133 ⎛ y ⎞ 1 ⎛ y ⎞H z = ⎜1− ⎟ − ⎜1− ⎟(3.4.21)2 ⎝ δ ⎠ 2 ⎝ δ ⎠16C ( )+ ≈ 0,2 ⋅10sm.w -1 ;( 1)( 1)+ = C+k x1≈ 0,7 ⋅−3ω 10 w -1 ;( 1)( 1)= ω+T + 2π ≈ 8,9 ⋅10w;326C ( )+ ≈ 0,3⋅10sm.w -1 ;( 2 ) ( 2 )+ = C+k x2≈ 2 ⋅−2( 2 )( 2 )+ = +ω 10 w -1 ; T 2π ω ≈ 385 w;16C ( )− ≈ 0,2 ⋅10sm.w -1 ;( 1)( 1)− = C−k x1−4( 1)( 1)= −ω ≈ 7 ⋅10w -1 ; T − 2π ω ≈ 91 , ⋅10w;326C ( )− ≈ 0,1⋅10sm.w -1 ;( 2 )−( 2 )−x2−2( 2 )( 2 )− = −ω = C k ≈ 01 , ⋅10w -1 ; T 2π ω ≈ 529 w;16C ( )n ≈ , sm.w -1 ;0 2 ⋅10( 1)n( 1)nx1−3ω = C k ≈ 0,6 ⋅10w -1 ;T( 1)n( 1)n= 2π ω ≈ 9 ⋅10w;326C ( )n ≈ , sm.w -1 ;0 2 ⋅102ω ≈ 10 − w -1 ( 2 )( 2 ); T = 2π ω = 451w;( 2 ) ( 2 )n = Cnk x2nn122


y / δ =0.916C ( )+ ≈ 1,2 ⋅10sm.w -1 ;( 1)( 1)+ = C+k x1≈ 0,3⋅−3ω 10 w -1 ;( 1)( 1)= ω+T + 2π ≈ 1,7 ⋅10w;326C ( )+ ≈ 1,4 ⋅10sm.w -1 ;( 2 ) ( 2 )+ = C+k x2≈ 0,8⋅−1( 2 )( 2 )+ = +ω 10 w -1 ; T 2π ω ≈ 74 w;16C ( )− ≈ 1,1⋅10sm.w -1 ;( 1)( 1)− = C−k x1−3( 1)( 1)= −ω ≈ 3⋅10w -1 ; T − 2π ω ≈ 1,7 ⋅10w;326C ( )− ≈ 0,9 ⋅10sm.w -1 ;( 2 ) ( 2 )− = C−k x2−2( 2 )( 2 )− = −ω ≈ 6 ⋅10w -1 ; T 2π ω ≈ 101w;16C ( )n ≈ , sm.w -1 ;11⋅10( 1)( 1)n = Cnk x1−3ω ≈ 3⋅10w -1 ;T( 1)n( 1)n= 2π ω ≈ 1,7 ⋅10w;326C ( )n ≈ , sm.w -1 ;11⋅10( 2 )n( 2 )nx2−1( 2 )n( 2 )nω = C k ≈ 0,7 ⋅10w -1 ; T = 2π ω ≈ 86 w;y / δ =0.516C ( )+ ≈ 0,8⋅10sm.w -1 ;( 1)( 1)+ = C+k x1≈ 3⋅−3ω 10 w -1 ;( 1)( 1 )= ω+T + 2π ≈ 2,3⋅10w;3( 2 )+C ≈ 10 sm.w -1 ;6( 2 ) ( 2 )+ = C+k x2≈ 0,6 ⋅−1( 2 )( 2 )+ = +ω 10 w -1 ; T 2π ω ≈ 97 w;16C ( )− ≈ 0,8⋅10sm.w -1 ;( 1)( 1)− = C−k x1−3ω ≈ 3⋅10w -1 ;( 1)( 1 )= ω−T − 2π ≈ 2,3⋅10w;326C ( )− ≈ 0,7 ⋅10sm.w -1 ;( 2 ) ( 2 )− = C−k x2−2( 2 )( 2 )− = −ω ≈ 4 ⋅10w -1 ; T 2π ω ≈ 134w;16C ( )n sm.w -1 ;≈,8 ⋅10( 1)( 1)n = Cnk x1−3ω ≈ 3⋅10w -1 ;T( 1)n( 1 )n= 2π ω ≈ 2,8⋅10w;3( 2 )nC ≈ 8⋅10 sm.w -1 ;6( 2 )n( 2 )nx2−1( 2 )n( 2 )nω = C k ≈ 0,5 ⋅10w -1 ; T = 2π ω ≈ 114w;amrigad, miviReT magnituri velis arawrfivi ganawilebisSesabamisi talRuri diapazonebi, romlebic mniSvnelovnadafarToeben magnitogradientuli talRebis speqtrs magnitopauzaze,romelic srulad moicavs Pc1-6 regularuli geomagnituripulsaciebis diapazons [74].dinamo-velis maxasiaTebeli sidide h , anu magnituripulsaciebis amplituda, romelic Tan axlavs magnitogradientulitalRebis gavlas, SegviZlia SevafasoT maqsvelis gantole-123


is saSualebiT:r rrotH = 4π jc , romelSic denis simkvrive ganisazRvrebadreifis siCqariT:45V ≈ ( 1 5 ⋅10÷ 3.3⋅10)d 0h ≈ 2enVd 0a c . magaliTad, intervalisaTvis. sm.wm -1 , dinamo-velis intensivoba icvleba5intervalSi ( 0.1 5) ⋅10−÷ gausi, rac sakmarisi unda iyos amtalRebiT gamowveuli geomagnituri velis rxevebis dedamiwiszedapirze fiqsaciisaTvis [75].124


daskvna1. mzis qaris eleqtruli gamtareblobis droSi impulsuricvlilebis modelirebis gziT, parkeris kinematikurimodelis gamoyenebiT, Svecis mimdevrobiTi miaxloebismeTodis saSualebiT, miRebulia Jigulevis pirveli gvarismagnitur sasazRvro fenasTan gaigivebuli meridionalurimagnitopauzis parametrebis analizuri gamosaxulebebi;warmoCenilia magnituri sasazRvro fenis sisqis inerciisefeqti; temperaturul sasazRvro fenaSi cnobili efeqtismsgavsad, inercia xels unda uwyobdes magnitopauzisparametrebis stabilurobas plazmis eleqtruli gamtareblobiscvlilebisas; Sefasebulia magnitopauzis gaswvriveleqtromagnituri dreifis siCqaris sidide, romelicwarmoadgens magnitosferos sazRvris maxloblad erTsiTxovanimagnituri hidrodinamikis gantolebebis gamoyenebissamarTlianobis kriteriums.2. algebruli mrudebis Teoriis gamoyenebiT agebuliamagnitosferos kritikul wertilSi magnituri velis anihilaciisSedegad geomagnituri velis sasazRvro Zalwiriskonfiguraciis cvlilebis brtyeli topologiuri modeli,romlis Tanaxmad kritikul wertilSi albaTuria namdvilikvanZis Camoyalibeba. aseT SemTxvevaSi mniSvnelovnad martivdebasaplanetaTaSoriso magnituri velisa da geomagniturivelis gadaerTebis sqema, radganac aRar arisaucilebeli magnitosferos sazRvris erozia, romelsacCveulebriv ukavSirdeba Sidamagnitosferuli struqturebisZlieri SeSfoTeba.3. gansakuTrebul wertilSi saplanetaTaSoriso magniturivelis Zalwiris mravaljeradi gaxleCis SesaZleblobissafuZvelze agebulia magnitosferos winamdebare mdgarizonis magnituri zedapiri; naCvenebia, rom es zedapiri,magnitosferos irgvliv koncentruli magnituri maryuJebismodelTan sinTezis SemTxvevaSi, gardaiqmneba cvladi bijismqone xraxnisebur magnitur zedapirad, romlis parametrebiganisazRvreba mdgari zonis xazovani parametrebis saSualebiT;naCvenebia, rom topologiuri msgavseba mzis qarSiCayinuli saplanetaTaSoriso magnituri velis Zalwirebsada plazmis denis wirebs Soris, rasac adgili aqvsmagnitosferosTan urTierTqmedebamde siCqarisa da magniturivelis induqciis veqtorebis paralelurobis SemTxvevaSi,SeiZleba SenarCunebuli iyos magnitosferoswinamdebare mdgar zonaSi im SemTxvevaSic ki, Tu plazmasgaaCnia sasruli magnituri da Cveulebrivi siblante.125


4. magnitosferos winamdebare mdgar zonaSi, rogorcidealurad gamtari, aseve meqanikurad da magnituradblanti kumSvadi plazmis miaxloebaSi, SesaZlebeliamagnitopauzaze protonebis ciklotronuli sixSiris TanazomadisixSiruli speqtris mqone mhd talRebis generacia.aRmoCnda, rom ekvatorialuri magnitopauzis garda,eleqtromagnituri bunebis mqone, metad dabali sixSirisrosbis tipis magnitogradientuli talRebis generaciaSesaZlebelia agreTve gardamavali aris fokalur nawil-Sic; magnituri velis wrfivi da arawrfivi ganawilebissxvadasxva modelebisaTvis mdgari zonis modelismiaxloebaSi miRebulia rosbis tipis talRebis sixSirulispeqtri, romelic faravs regularuli geomagnituripulsaciebis (Pc1-Pc6) sixSirul diapazons .126


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