saxelmZRvanelo didi kaSxlebis mSeneblobis Sedegad dazaralebuli ...

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saxelmZRvanelo didi kaSxlebis mSeneblobis Sedegad dazaralebuli ...

saxelmZRvanelodidi kaSxlebis mSeneblobisSedegaddazaralebuli TemebisaTviswyalisicocxlisTvis!Tbilisi2007


sarCeviSesavali .............................................................................................................................................................. 3Tavi 1: zogadi informacia kaSxlebis Sesaxeb .......................................................................... 5ra aris kaSxali;kaSxlebis daniSnuleba;vin iRebs sargebels da vis adgeba ziani kaSxlebis mSeneblobisgamo;rogor funqcionireben kaSxlebi;roca kaSxlebi kargad ar funqcionireben es iwvevs uaryofiTzemoqmedebas rogorc mosaxleobaze aseve mTavrobebzec;vin gadaixdis kaSxlebis aSenebis safasurs.Tavi 2: kaSxlebis mier gamowveuli zemoqmedebebi ............................................................... 7didi kaSxlebis zemoqmedeba adamianebsa da garemoze;iZulebiT gadaadgilebasTan dakavSirebuli realobebi;Tavi 3: saerTaSoriso moZraoba damangreveli zemoqmedebis mqonekaSxlebis winaaRmdeg ......................................................................................................... 11kaSxlebis winaaRmdeg mebrZolTa mier miRweuli warmatebebi;naklebi fuli didi kaSxlebisaTvis;warmatebebi... Tumca kaSxlebi kvlav uqmnian safrTxes garemos.Tavi 4: rogor unda vebrZoloT did kaSxlebs ..................................................................... 12kampaniis dagegmva;did kaSxlebTan brZolis efeqturi strategiebi;TevzWerasTan dakavSirebuli kvleva;mdinaris napirebze arsebuli baRebis kvleva;ra SeiZleba gakeTdes kaSxlis mSeneblobis TiToeul etapze;Tavi 5: didid kaSxlebis alternativebi ....................................................................................... 20eleqtroenergiis alternativa;axali energo wyaroebis mSenebloba;kaSxlebis wyaldidobebis marTvis alternativaboloTqma ............................................................................................................................................................... 223


SesavalimTel msoflioSi adamianebi ibrZvian didi kaSxlebis mSeneblobis winaaRmdeg. IsiniibrZvian sakuTari mdinareebisa da saarsebo garemos dacvisTvis, iTxoven im zianis kompensacias,romelic ukve aSenebulma kaSxlebma miayenaT. mosaxleobas gaaCnia ukeTesi alternativebienergiis da wylis moTxovnilebis dakmayofilebisaTvis. adamianebi ibrZvian raTa maTi xmebigaTvaliswinebul iqnas gadawyvetilebis miRebis procesSi.ukanaskneli oci wlis ganmavlobaSi saerTaSoriso moZraoba kaSxlebis winaaRmdeggafarTovda da Sesabamisad mravali warmatebac iqna miRweuli, kerZod, SeCerebul iqna zogierTikaSxlis mSenebloba, SeTavazebul da ganxorcielebul iqna alternatiuli winadadebebi - patarakaSxlebis mSeneblobisa da wylis konservaciis proeqtebi. moZraobis Sedegad mosaxleobisnawilma ukeTesi kompensacia miiRo, aseve ganxorcielda zogierTi Zveli kaSxlis demontaJi.Tumca miuxedavad amisa didi kaSxlebis mSenebloba kvlav safrTxes warmoadgmensmravali TemisTvis.mdinareTa saerTaSoriso qselma moamzada moqalaqeTa saxelmZRvanelokaSxlebiswinaaRmdeg” raTa gaeziarebina ukanaskneli oci wlis ganmavlobaSi dagrovili codna dagamocdileba. mdinareTa saerTaSoriso qseli warmoadgens organizacias romelic moxaruliadaxmareba aRmouCinos sxvadasxva Temebs da interesTa jgufebs kaSxlebis winaaRmdeg brZolaSi.moqalaqeTa saxelmZRvanelokaSxlebis winaaRmdeg” pirvel TavSi iZleva zogad informaciaskaSxlebze, romelic moicavs imas Tu rogor muSaobs igi da vin iRebs sargebels Tu zians maTimSeneblobis Sedegad; meore TavSi saubari exeba mosaxleobaze da bunebriv resursebze kaSxlebiszemoqmedebas; mesame TavSi aRwerilia kaSxlebis winaaRmdeg mimarTuli saerTaSoriso moZraobada miRweuli warmatebebi; xolo meoTxe TavSi aRwerilia Tu rogor da ra formebiT SeuZliaadgilobriv mosaxleobas kaSxlebis winaaRmdeg brZola da sakuTari uflebebis dacva; mexuTeTavi gvawvdis informacias energiis ukeTesi alternativebis Sesaxeb, romelic ukeTesadakmayofilebs xalxis moTxovnilebebs.4


kaSxlebis mSeneblobisa da muSaobis Sedegad miRebuli gadasaxadebis gziT. amasTan, vinaidankaSxlebis asaSeneblad kolosaluri Tanxebia saWiro, SesaZlebelia am Tanxebidan sargebelikorumpirebulma mTavrobis an kompaniis warmomadgenlebmac naxon.rac Seexeba zians, didi kaSxlebis mSeneblobiT yvelaze didi ziani adgilobrivmosaxleobasa da adgilobriv fermerebs adgebaT. kaSxlebis asaSeneblad saWiro gzebis da/anrezervuaris AasaSeneblad, milionobiT adamianma dakarga Tavisi sacxovrebeli garemo. amasTan,mdinaris qvedinebis gaswvriv mcxovrebma milionebiT adamianmac dakarga saarsebo wyaro daiZulebuli gaxda Seecvala tradiciuli cxovrebis wesi.mdgomareobas kidev ufro amZimebs is faqti, rom rogorc wesi pirdapiri zemoqmedebisqveS moqceuli mosaxleoba iSviaTad an saerTod ar monawileobs kaSxlebis mSeneblobisSesaxeb gadawyvetilebis miRebis procesSi. ufro metic, maT ar ician TavianTi uflebebi iseTisakiTxebis garSemo, rogoricaa informaciis xelmisawvdomoba, sazogadoebrivi ganxilvebi, axalimiwebis da kompensaciis moTxovnis da a.S. ma Tar ician rom ufleba aqvT uari ganacxadonkaSxlis mSeneblobaze. amasTan adgilobrivi mosaxleoba umravles SemTxvevaSi verc imeleqtroenergiidan an wylidan iRebs sargebels, romelic maT mezoblad arsebuli kaSxlisganmiiReba.rogor funqcionireben didi kaSxlebimarTalia, didi kaSxlebi garkveul sargebels iZlevian, magram xSiria SemTxvevebi rodesackaSxlebi ver gamoimuSaveben imden eleqtroenergias an ver rwyaven imden miwas, ramdenicTavdapirvelad iyo dagegmili. es ganpirobebulia kaSxlis mSeneblebis gadaWarbebuli gaTvlebTmdinareSi arsebuli gamosayenebeli wylis odenobis Sesaxeb.wyaldidobis marTvisTvis gankuTvnil kaSxlebs ZaluZT mcire datborvebis Tavidanacileba, Tumca ufro Zlieri wyaldidobis dros SesaZlebelia rezervuarma ver gauZlos didiodenobis wyals da gamoiwvios aramarto mravali adamianis saxl-karis datborva, aramedadamianTa msxverplic ki.kaSxlebi ar funqcionireben mudmivad.kaSxlebis sicocxlis xangZlivobadamokidebulia mraval faqtorze, maT SoriserT-erTi mniSvnelovani faqtori mdinareSiarsebuli natanis odenobaa. droTagviSveleTganmavlobaSi rezervuarebi am nataniT ivsebakaSxalmada kaSxlebic TandaTanobiT ufro naklebwyaliefeqturni xdebian. es procesi manamgamouSvagrZeldeba, sanam kaSxali saerTod ar Sewyvetsfunqcionirebas.6


oca kaSxlebi kargad ar funqcionireben es iwvevs uaryofiTzemoqmedebas rogorc mosaxleobaze aseve mTavrobebzeciakiretas kaSxals, argentinis yofili prezidentma, karlos menemma”korufciis monumenti”uwoda. kaSxlis danaxarjebi dagegmili 2,7 miliardi dolaridan gaizarda 11,5 miliarddolaramde, Tumca proeqti jer kidev ar aris dasrulebuli.argentinasa da paragvaiSi mdebare iakiretas kaSxali, dagegmilis mxolod 60%energias gamoimuSavebs. proeqtis aramomgebianobis gamo jgufs, romelic am kaSxals marTavs,miliardobiT dolaris vali aqvs da ar SeuZlia am valis gastumreba.xSirad mTavrobebi kaSxlebis asaSeneblad sesxuloben fuls im varaudiT, rom eskaSxlebi gazrdian Semosavlebs. Tu aSenebulma kaSxalma ver gamoimuSava dagegmilieleqtroenergiis moculoba, mTavrobebi sesxis dabrunebisTvis saWiro odenobis Tanxasac kiver miiReben, rac gamoiwvevs iseTi danaxarjebis Semcirebas, rogoricaa danaxarjebi ganaTlebasada jandacvaze, es ki Tavis mxriv uaryofiT zegavlenas moaxdens mraval adamianze.dabalSemosavlian qveynebSi kaSxlebis asaSeneblad ganxorcielebulma investiciebmaSesaZloa gamoiwvios ara siRaribis Semcireba, ra mizansac emsaxureboda am kaSxlis dafinanseba,aramed piriqiT siRaribis zrda, vinaidan warumatebel proeqtSi ganxorcielebuli investiciakidev ufro daamZimebs saxelmwifos vals saerTaSoriso safinanso institutebis mimarT,magaliTad msoflio bankis.vin gadaixdis kaSxlebis aSenebis safasursyovelwliurad saSualod 40 miliardi aSS dolari ixarjeba kaSxlebis asaSeneblad.radgan kaSxlebis mSenebloba Zviri jdeba, amitom mTavrobebs sWirdebaT sesxis aReba sxvadasxvasafinanso institutebidan. maT Soris kaSxlebis erT-erTi yvelaze mniSvnelovani damfinansebelimsoflio bankia. am banks mTeli msoflioSi daaxloebiT 60 miliardi dolari aqvsdaxarjuli 600 kaSxlis asaSeneblad. msoflio bankis garda arseboben sxva finansuriinstitutebic, iseTebi rogorebicaa evropis sainvesticio banki, aziis ganviTarebis banki,afrikis ganviTarebis banki. es institutebic msoflio bankis msgavsad iZlevian sesxebskaSxlis mSeneblobisTvis.rodesac msgavsi tipis bankebi nawilobriv afinanseben kaSxlis mSeneblobas,mTavrobebsuadvildebaT sesxis miReba komerciuli bankebidan. ganviTarebuli qveynebi, rogoricaa mag.germania da iaponia, aseve iZlevian kreditebsa da grantebs, kaSxlebis asaSeneblad.mas mere rac kaSxali aSendeba, imisda miuxedavad Tu ramdenad finansurad momgebianiaproeqti, mTavroba valdebulia, ukan daabrunos sesxi,Tavi 2: kaSxlebis mier gamowveuli zemoqmedebebimalisemelo didian tau, lesotoeli qalbatoni, Tavidanve winaaRmdegi iyo misiTemis miwaze didi kaSxlis mSeneblobisa. Tumca kaSxlis mSeneblebma daarwmunes igi, romramodenime adamianis gadasaxlebis xarjze uamravi adamiani ukeTesad icxovrebda, xolo misiTemi miiRebda Sesabamis kompensaciebs, sasmeli wyliT momaragebas, aSendeboda axali skolebida sacxovrebeli saxlebi.Tumca dapirebebi ar Sesrulebula. “ Cven ver miviReT sakmarisi kompensacia CvenimiwebisTvis, rac aramarto Cveni Svilebis aramed momavali Taobebis daRupvasac niSnavs,radgan maT aranairi saarsebo wyaro aRar eqnebaT,” ganacxada melisemelom.samwuxarod es istoria, asaxavs 40-dan 80 milionamde iZulebiT gadasaxlebuliadamianis beds. am adamianebis umetesoba dRes kidev ufro gaWirvebulia, vidre kaSxlebisaSenebamde, radganac dRes isini faqtobrivad saxl-karisa da sacxovrebeli garemos gareSearian darCenilebi.dResdReobiT didi kaSxlebis mSeneblobis Sedegad, wyliT aris dafaruli cxovelTaramdenime Zalzed mniSvnelovani sacxovrebeli areali da nayofieri saxnav-saTesi miwebi.7


datborvis Sedegad ganadgurda mdinareebSi saarsebo garemo. yovelive aman gamoiwvia Tevzebis,cxovelebisa Tu mcenareTa zogierTi saxeobebis gadaSeneba.didi kaSxlebis zemoqmedeba adamianebsa da garemozekaSxlebis zemoqmedeba damRupvelia adgilobriv mosaxleobaze. is ojaxebi romlebickaSxlis asaSenebeli adgilis maxloblad cxovroben, kargaven saxlebs, miwebs da saarsebowyaros. Gadasaxlebis Sedegad, Temebi xSirad aRar arian erTad dasaxlebulni, ris gamoc maTimdgomareoba kidev ufro mZimdeba.wylis uzarmazari rezervuarebi anadgureben cxovelTa da mcenareTa saarsebo garemos.tyeebi da Waobebi ifareba wyliT, rac yofs cxovelTa habitatebs da abrkolebs samigraciomarSutebze maT moZraobas.rezervuarebi qmnian janmrTelobis problemebs. iseTi daavadebebis SemTxvevaTa ricxvirogoricaa malaria da Sistomiasisi 2 , izrdeba, radgan rezervuarebi warmoadgenen koRoebisa dasxva daavadebis gadamtani mwerebis adgilsamyofels.wyali da eleqtroenergia kaSxlebidan miewodebaT maT, visac safasuris gadaxdis SesaZleblobaaqvT. kaSxlebis gamoyenebiT gamomuSavebuli eleqtroenergia, romelic im wyals iyenebs, romelsacadgilobrivi fermerebi da meTevzeebi moixmaren, miewodeba imaT visac gamomuSavebuli eleqtroenergiissafasuris gadaxda SeuZliaT.didi kaSxlebi anadgurebs Tevzsa da meTevzeobas. mdinaris zedadinebaSi Tevzis saxeobebisSemcireba gamowveulia kaSxlebis mier Tevzebis samigracio marSutis blokirebiT. Sedegadmcirdeba erTis mxriv Tevzis aRwarmoeba, xolo meores mxriv wydeba mdinaris qvedadinebaSiTevzis gadaadgileba. amasTan mdinaris qvedadinebaSi mniSvnelovnad icvleba dinebisa da wylisxarisxis, rac Tevzis saxeobebze gamanadgureblad moqmedebs. yovelive es ki uaryofiT zemoqmedebasaxdenze meTevzeobaze anu im xalxze, romelTa saarsebo wyaros TevzWera warmoadgens.didi kaSxlebiabinZurebs wyals.mdinaris qvedinebaSi ojaxebi, romlebic kaSxlebistyeebi da Waobebi ifareba wyliT,adgilas cxovroben, kargavenrac yofs cxovelTa habitatebskaSxlebis gamosaxls, miwas da saarsebo wyaros.da abrkolebs maT gadaadgilebas.arsebulma dabali gadasaxlebis Sedegad, xdebaTemis wevrebis gancalkeveba.xarisxis wyalma SeiZlebamosxleobasa dasaqonelSi daavadebebisgvrceleba gamoiwvios.didi kaSxlebiamcirebs mosavals. didikaSxlebis mSeneblobisasiZireba aramartosaukeTeso sasoflosameurneo savargulebi,aramed brkoldebamdinaris mier im natanismdinaris qvedinebaSiCamotana, rac asemniSvnelovania miwebismineraluri sasuqiTgamdidrebisTvis.Sedegad mcirdebamosavali. garda amisaarsebobs imisizrdeba daavadebebis gadamtanmwerTa da iseTi daavadebebisricxvi rogoricaa malaria daSistomiasisi,8


SesaZleblobac, romrezervuaridangamoSvebulma wyalmagadarecxosmdinaris napirebzearsebuli sasoflosa m e u r n e osavargulebi.Tevzis saxeobebis Semcireba gamowveuliakaSxlebis mier Tevzebis samigraciomarSutis blokirebiT, rac uaryofiTzemoqmedebas axdens xalxze, romelTasaarsebo wyaros TevzWera warmoadgens.kaSxali iyenebs im wyals, romelsacfermerebi da meTevzeebi moixmardnen,xolo eleqtroenergia miewodebaTmaT, visac gamomuSavebuli eleqtroenergiissafasuris gadaxda SeuZlia.i Z u l e b i TgadaadgilebasTandakavSirebulirealobebikaSxlebiserT-erTi yvelazedidi socialurididi kaSxlebiamcirebs mosavals.zemoqmedebarezervuaridanmosaxleobisgamoSvebuli wyalirecxavsi Z u l e b i T imdinaris napirebzegadasaxlebaa.arsebul sasoflorezervuarebi wyliT-faravs imsameurneo miwebs.teritoriebs, sadacxalxi cxovrobs,mdinaris qvedadinebaSimohyavs mosavali,kaSxlebis gamo arsebulmaTevzaobs da zrdisdabali xarisxis wyalmaSeiZleba daavadebebissaqonels. zogjer imgavrceleba gamoiwvios.adgilze, sadacrezervuari undaaSendes, cxovrobeniseTi ojaxebi,romlebic amadgilTan istoriulad arian dakavSirebulni mravali saukunis ganmavlobaSi. Tumca es faqtoriar uSliT xels mTavrobasa Tu kaSxlis mSeneblebs, am xalxis iZulebiT gadasaxlebaSi.iZulebiTi gadasaxleba iwvevs mosaxleobis kidev ufro gaRatakebas. maT eqmnebaT problemebisakvebisa da Semosavlis mopovebasTan dakavSirebiT. soflis mosaxleba SeiZleba gadaasaxlondid qalaqebSi, sadac maT mouwevT cxovrebis axal wesTan Segueba, ris gamoc SesaZlebeliadanaSaulTan da narkotikebTan dakavSirebiT SeeqmnaT axali problemebi.iZulebiTi gadaadgileba anadgurebs Temebsa da kulturebs. xSirad xdeba soflebisgayofa, rac ganapirobebs imas, rom megobrebi da naTesavebi erTmaneTTan axlos aRar cxovroben.xSirad kaSxlis mSeneblobis msxverplni aborigeni mosaxleoba da eTnikuri umciresobebixdebian. xSiria kulturis Zeglebisa da sasaflaoebis CaZirva, rac mosaxleobas mamapapiseulmiwebTan kavSirs sabolood ukargavs.laosSi houai ho kaSxlis mSeneblobas, nia heunis eTnikuri umciresobis gadasaxlebamohyva. „zogi adamiani fiqrobs rom isini daavdnenn gadasaxlebis Sedegad, radganac es aRararis Cveni miwa. es ufro gadasaxlebas hgavs sxva qveyanaSi. Cveni samSoblo, Cveni saxliganadgirebulia” –acxadeben isini.kaSxlebis mSeneblobis Sedegad, iZulebiTi gadasaxlebul mosaxleobaSi didia rogorcemociuri aseve fizikuri problemebi. izrdeba alkoholizmis, depresiis, ojaxuri Zaladobis,daavadebebisa da TviTmkvlelobaTa ricxvi.9


gadasaxlebasTan dakavSirebuli problemebigadasaxleba ewodeba process, roca kaSxlebis gamo dakarguli saxlebis nacvladmosaxleobas axali saxlebi urigdebaT. isini SeiZleba Seasaxlon an arsebul an sagangebod ammizniT aSenebul axal soflebSi.kaSxlis mSeneblebi xSirad pirdebian xalxs, rom maTi cxovreba gacilebiT ukeTesiiqneba gadasaxlebis Semdeg, radganac isini dasaqmdebian, miiReben axal did saxlebs, uzrunvelyofilniiqnebian eleqtroenergiiTa da wyliT. Tumca rogorc wesi es dapirebebi ar sruldeba. praqtikaSi,axali saxlebi gacilebiT ufro patara da cudad aSenebulia, vidre pirdebodnen. amasTanmosaxleobisTvis xSir SemTxvevaSi SeuZlebelia eleqtroenergiisa da wylis tarifis gadaxda.miRebuli miwebi ufro pataraa, Tan nakleb nayofieri. Sesabamisad, xSiria faqtebi, rodesacaxal miwaze ver mohyavT imdenive mosavali an ver Tevzaoben ise rogorc adre, Sesabamisadmcirdeba Semosavali da mZimdeba ojaxebis yofa-cxovreba.mravali adamiani ver iRebs Sesabamis kompensaciaskompensacia aris gadasaxlebis Semdeg miRebuli danakargis fuladi an sxva saxisanazRaureba.mravali adamiani ver Rebulobs kompensacias srulad an saerTod. es imitom xdeba, romxSir SemTxvevaSi mosaxleobas ar aqvs sakuTrebis mflobelobis damadasturebeli iuridiulidokumentacia, ris gamoc mTavrobas miaCnia, rom maT arc kompensaciis moTxovnis ufleba aqvT.uaryofiT zegavlenas ganicdis aseve mdinaris qvedadinebis gaswvrivmcxovrebi milionobiTadamianic.kaSxlebi im milionobiT adamianis saarsebo garemosac spobs, romlebic mdinaris qvedadinebisgaswvriv cxovroben.kaSxlebis gamo nadgurdeba meTevzeoba, radganac icvleba wylis dineba da kaSxlisarsebobis gamo brkoldeba mdinaris zedinebaSi Tevzebis moxvedra da Sesabamisad gamravlebisadgilamde misvla. ris gamoc mdinareSi Tevzis saxeobebi mcirdeba an saerTod qreba. Sedegadmosaxleoba kargavs Semosavlis mniSvnelovan wyaros.wylis dinebis cvlileba iwvevs mosavlis mniSvnelovan Semcirebasac. mdinares moaqvsmniSvnelovani natani, romelic aucilebelia niadagis gamdidrebisaTvis. kaSxlebi xels uSlianswored mdinaris am natans, rom moxvdnen mdinaris qvedadinebaSi. am nivTierebebis naklebobisgamo niadagSi mcirdeba miRebuli mosavlis raodenoba, Tu ar iqneba gamoyenebuli qimiurisasuqi niadagis gasamdidreblad. yovelive es ki isev mZime tvirTad awveba mosaxleobas.sufTa wylis naklebobakaSxlis gamo wyali SeiZleba dabinZurdes mdinaris qvedadinebaSi, ramac SesaZloagamoiwvios adamianebisa da cxovelebis daavadeba misi dalevis an masSi banaobis Sedegad.naklebi wyali rCeba mosaxleobisTvis sasoflo sameurneo miwebis irigaciisaTvisac.kaSxlis operatorebi zogjer rezervuarebidan wyals gaufrTxileblad uSveben, raciwvevs mdinareSi wylis donis uecar matebas. aman SesaZloa gamoiwvios aramarto mosaxleobiskuTvnili navebisa Tu saTevzao mowyobilebebis dakargva, aramed adamianTa daxrCobac ki.lesotoSi adgilobrivi mosaxleoba siRaribis winaaRmdeg ibrZvislesotoSi sanam katces kaSxali aSendeboda, adgilobrivi mosaxleobas mosavlis moyvanamTeli wlis ganmavlobaSi SeeZlo. maT mohyavdaT gogra, barda, lobio, kartofili da sxvabostneuli. maT vrcel mindvrebze imdeni mosavali modioda, rom sxvebsac Tavisuflad unawilebdnenxolme. Tumca gadasaxlebis Semdeg, dapirebebi kompensaciisa da axali saarsebo wyaros micemisSesaxeb dairRva.10


“sicocxle gadasaxlebul teritoriaze rTulia. Cven gviwevs brZola yvelafrisTvis,veluri bostneulis mopovebisTvisac ki. malikalikoSi sakvebi gvqonda mTeli wlis ganmavlobaSi,aq ki mTeli wlis ganmavlobaSi vSimSilobT,” aRniSna erT-erTma gadasaxlebulma.mosaxleoba lesotoSi dRemde ibrZvis samarTliani kompensaciisaTvis. maT daweressaCivrebi kaSxlis mSeneblebis winaaRmdeg, moawyves demonstraciebi. 2005 wlis bolos mTavrobisCinovnikebma maT piroba misces, rom yvela maTi moTxovna Sesrulebuli iqneboda, Tumca...Tu SeityveT, rom Tqveni sacxovrebeli adgilis maxloblad kaSxlis mSeneblobaadagegmili, mniSvnelovania, rom gaxsovdeT msgavsi istoriebi. kargad unda dafiqrdeT imaze, Turogor Seicvleba Tqveni da Tqveni ojaxis cxovreba, ra gavlenas iqoniebs kaSxlis aSenebaTqveni ojaxis Semosavalsa, Tu kulturaze.Tavi 3: saerTaSoriso moZraoba damangrevelizemoqmedebis mqone kaSxlebis winaaRmdegmsoflioSi milionobiT adamiani ibrZvis kaSxlebis mSeneblobis winaaRmdeg: meTevzeebipakistanSi, fermerebi tailandSi, adgilobrivi mosaxleoba gvatemalaSi, universitetis profesorebiiaponiaSi, adamianis uflebebis damcvelebi ugandaSi. isini ibrZvian mosaxleobis saarsebowyaros da bunebrivi resursebis dacvis mizniT. ibrZvian raTa xalxs hqondeT xmis ufleba imgadawyvetilebebis miRebis procesSi, romlebic gavlenas axdenen maT cxovrebaze.msgavsi midgoma gacilebiT ufro efeqturi maSin xdeba, roca adamianebi kaSxlebiswinaaRmdeg regionalur da saerTaSoriso aliansebs qmnian. DdRes msgavsi aliansebi arsebobslaTinur amerikaSi, aRmosavleT da samxreTaRmosavleT aziaSi, samxreT aziaSi, evropasa daafrikaSi kaSxlebis winaaRmdeg mebrZolTa qselebis saxiT. am qselebSi gaerTianebulni arianuaryofiTi zegavlenis qveS moqceuli mosaxleoba, saxalxo moZraobebi, arasamTavrobo organizaciebi,mkvlevarebi da sxva jgufebi. xalxi am jgufebs iyenebs, rogorc informaciis gaziarebis,kaSxlebis winaaRmdeg mimarTuli erToblivi moqmedebebisa da uflebebis dacvis saSualebas.kaSxlebis winaaRmdeg ori saerTaSoriso Sexvedra moewyo, raTa aqtivistebs gaeziarebinaTgamocdileba da SeemuSavebinaT didi kaSxlebis sawinaaRmdego strategiebi. pirveli Sexvedra1997 wels braziliaSi Sedga, sadac 20 qveynis warmomadgenli monawileobda, xolo meoreSexvedra gaimarTa 2003 wels tailandSi sadac 61 qveynis 300 monawile Sexvda erTmaneTs.didi kaSxlebis winaaRmdeg moZraoba ganagrZobs zrdasa da gaZlierebas.kaSxlebis winaaRmdeg mebrZolTa mier miRweuli warmatebebidRes gacilebiT naklebi kaSxali Sendeba - kaSxlebis mSeneblobis SeCerebis procesSisaerTaSoriso moZraobam garkveuli warmatebebs miaRwia. DdRevandeli monacemebiT, dRes gacilebiTnaklebi kaSxlebi Sendeba, vidre adre.Zveli kaSxlebis DdemontaJi - aSS-sa da evropaSi ukve dawyebulia im kaSxlebisdemontaJi, romelic mravali wlis win iyo aSenebuli. safrangeTSi ki ramodenime mcirekaSxlis demontaJis Semdeg mdinareebma aRidgines dinebis bunebrivi ritmi. oraguli kvlavdaiwyo Tavisuflad curva mdinaris zeda da qveda dinebaSi.dazaralebuli mosaxleobis uflebebi gaTvaliswinebulia - ganxorcielebulikampaniebis Sedegad mravalma adamianma miiRo ukeTesi kompensacia, gadawyvetilebis miRebisprocesSic sazogadoebis monawileobis Sedegad, mosaxleobam miiRo wyali da eleqtroenergia.didi kaSxlebis mSeneblobis Sedegad dazaralebuli mosaxleobisa da adamianis dagaremos uflebaTa damcvelTa mecadineobiT arsebobs saerTaSoriso saxelmZRvanelo wesebi,romelic savaldebuloa didi kaSxlebis mSeneblobisas. es saxelmZRvanelo principebi SeimuSavamsoflio kaSxlebis komisiam. komisiis gancxadebiT, arc erTi kaSxali ar SeiZleba aSendesdazaralebuli mosaxleobis Tanxmobis gareSe. mSeneblebma mosaxleobasTan unda dadon iuridiuli11


kontraqti kompensaciebis Sesaxeb. Tu kontraqti ar Sesruldeba, dazaralebul mosaxleobasunda hqondes saSualeba mSeneblebis winaaRmdeg aRZras sarCeli. marTalia, mraval saxelmwifosjer kidev ar uRiarebia es principebi erovnuli kanonmdeblobis doneze, magram dazaralebulimosaxleobisaTvis es principebi garkveuli instrumentia maTi uflebebis dasacavad.naklebi fuli didi kaSxlebisaTvis - didi kaSxlebis asaSeneblad didi finansebiasaWiro, ris gamoc laTinuri amerikis, afrikis da aziis qveynebis mTavrobebi iZulebulni arianisesxon fuli saerTaSoriso safinanso institutebisa da komerciuli bankebisgan. ociodewlis win es bankebi uproblemod iZleodnen fuls kaSxlebis asaSeneblad. dRes didi kaSxlebisagvinazRaureTzianiflewyali CveniarsobisawinaaRmdeg arsebuli Zlieriopoziciuri moZraobis Sedegad, isiniaseT proeqtebSi sul ufro da ufronakleb Tanxebs abandeben, racurTulebs mTavrobebs im amocanas, romaaSenon didi kaSxlebi.nu dagvimaxinjebTcxovrebaswarmatebebi.. .. .. Tumca kaSxlebi,kvlav uqmnian safrTxes garemosimis da miuxedavad, rom didikaSxlebis winaaRmdeg brZolaSimravali warmateba iqna miRweuli,bevri ram gasakeTebelia. msofliosmraval qveyanaSi mTavrobebi kvlavcdiloben damangreveli kaSxlebismSeneblobas. mravali adamiani kvlavsafrTxis winaSea dakargos sakuTarisaxli Tu miwa. amitomacaucilebelia:• gaZlierdes moZraoba kaSxlebis mSeneblobis winaaRmdeg;• erToblivi muSaoba, erTmaneTis mxardaWera da erTmaneTisgan imis swavla, Tu rogorunda iqnes daculi zemoqmedebis qveS myofi mosaxleobis uflebebi.rac ufro mZlavria kaSxlebis mimarT xalxis winaaRmdegoba, miT ufro urTuldebaTmTavrobebsa da kompaniebs kaSxlebis mSeneblobis dawyeba.Tavi 4: rogor unda vebrZoloT did kaSxlebskaSxlebis winaaRmdeg sabrZolvelad an sakuTari uflebebis dasacavad mravali ramisgakeTeba SeiZleba. Tavdapirvelad aucilebelia Segrovdes informacia kaSxlisa da im zemoqmedebebisSesaxeb, rac SeiZleba gamoiwvios am kaSxlis mSeneblobam adgilobriv mosaxleobaze. amisSemdeg unda Camoyalibdes ra mizans gsurT miaRwioT da identificirdes am miznis miRwevissaSualebebi. amis Semdeg ki ukve aucilebelia moqmedeba am miznebis misaRwevad. aRniSnulprocess xSirad kampanias uwodeben.Zalian mniSvnelovania, rom kampania daiwyos rac SeiZleba adreul etapze. kampaniisprocesSi SeiZleba ganxorcielebul iqnas iseTi mniSvnelovani qmedebebi, rogoricaa informaciismiReba da gavrceleba, xalxis Sekreba TemSi da TanamSromloba erovnul, regionul da saerTaSorisojgufebTan.zogierT qveynebSi kaSxlebis winaaRmdeg kampaniis organizaba saSiSia, rogorc amaqtivistebisTvis, aseve maTi ojaxis wevrebisTvisac. zogjer mTavrobis da kaSxlis mSeneblebisgegmebis gakritikeba garkveul safrTxeebTan aris dakavSirebuli. amitom mniSvnelovania, romyvela safrTxe gaTvaliswinebul iqnas kampaniis dagegmvis dros.12


kampaniis dagegmvainformaciis SegrovebaZalian mniSvnelovania imis gaazreba, Tu ra gavlena SeiZleba iqonios kaSxalma adgilobrivmosaxleobaze da garemoze. informaciis Sesagroveblad SesaZlebelia gamokiTxuli iqnas, rogorcadgilobrivi macxovreblebi, , aseve saTanado daxmarebis gaweva SeuZliaT arasamTavroboorganizaciebs, universitetis mkvlevarebsa Tu sxva jgufebsac. qvemoT moyvanilia kiTxvebi,romlebze fokusireba aucilebelia kampaniis dagegmvis procesSi:• romeli soflebi da miwebi moyveba kaSxlisa da rezervuaris mSeneblobis gamo zemoqmedebisqveS?• ramden adamians mouwevs gadasaxleba?• ramdeni adamiani dakargavs meTevzaobis SesaZleblobas da sasoflo-sameurneo savargulebs?• ra Rirebulebisaa is miwa, mosavali, saxlebi da/an Tevzis resursi, romlebsac dakargavsxalxi kaSxlis mSeneblobis Sedegad?• ra odenobis kompensacia an gadasaxlebis ra alternativa iqna SeTavazebulimosaxleobisTvis?• vin apirebs kaSxlis mSeneblobas? es aris mTavroba, kerZo kompania, Tu orive?• vin afinansebs kaSxlis mSeneblobas?ra aris Tqveni miznebi?kampaniis dagegmvis Semdegi nabiji es aris miznebisa da amocanebis gansazRvra ammiznebis misaRwevad. aqac aucilebelia fokusireba Semdeg kiTxvebze:• risi miRweva gsurT?• gindaT Tu ara mSeneblobis SeCereba?• gindaT Tu ara ukeTesi kompensacia?• gindaT Tu ara xmis ufleba kaSxlis Sesaxeb gadawyvetilebis miRebis procesSi?SeecadeT, rom Tqven miznebs iziarebdes adgilobrivi mosaxleobis TviToeuliwarmomadgeneli. es miznebi SesaZlebelia gadaaqcioT moTxovnebad Tqveni kampaniisTvis, magaliTad,“SeCerdes X kaSxlis mSenebloba” an “ufro meti kompensacia X mosaxleobas.”vin arian Tqveni mokavSireebi da oponentebi?mokavSireebis moZiebaa kampaniis erT-erTi yvelaze mniSvnelovani komponentia. kargadunda iqnas mofiqrebuli da SerCeuli vin iqneba saukeTeso mokavSire kampaniis dros. Tqveniwarmateba aseve damokidebulia imaze, Tu ra mxardaWera gaqvT Tqven adgilobriv mosaxleobaSi,zogadad sazogadoebasa Tu sxva jgufebSi.kargad unda ganisazRvros aseve is, Tu vin iqnebian Tqveni oponentebi, maTi Zlieri dasusti mxareebi da ra SeuZliaT maT, rom moimoqmedon Tqvens winaaRmdeg. oponentebi SeiZlebaiyvnen adgilobrivi mosaxleobis sxva wevrebic, aseve saxelmwifo Cinovnikebi, kaSxlis mSenebelikompaniebi da damfinanseblebi.13


vin aris Tqveni samizne jgufimofiiqreT vis SeuZlia mogceT is rasac iTxovT, vin wyvets kaSxlis mSeneblobasTandakavSirebul sakiTxebs.gadawyvetilebis mimRebni SeiZleba iyvnen mTavrobis warmomadgenlebi, an kaSxlismSenebeli kompaniebi an damfinanseblebi, magaliTad, msoflio banki. swored gadawyvetilebismimRebni warmoadgens samizne jgufebs.gasaTvaliswinebelia isic, Tu romel miznobriv jgufze ufro advilia zemoqmedebismoxdena. Tu mTavroba ar aris Zalian Ria, SesaZlebelia kaSxlis damfinanseblebze zewolismoxdena ufro advili da mizanSewonili iyos.ra strategiebi Seacvlevineben azrs Tqvens samizne jgufs?rogor unda daarwmunoT gadawyvetilebis mimRebni, rom azri Seicvalon da TqvensmoTxovnebs dauWiron mxari? iqneba Tu ara saprotesto aqciebi efeqturi? SesaZlebelia Tuara mas-mediis saSualebebis gamoyenebiT maTi azris Secvla? iqneba Tu ara sasamarTlos anparlamentis gadawyvetileba efeqturi?Cveuleriv, swored zemoTaRniSnuli moqmedebebis kombinacia aRwevs saukeTeso Sedegs.amasTanave Zalzed mniSvnelovania, rom moqmedebebi droSi iqnas gawerili da kampaniis TiToeulmonawiles gaTavisebuli hqondes Tavisi wili pasuxismgebloba TiToeul moqmedebaze.ra odenobis finansuri resursia saWiro kampaniis sawarmoeblad?yvela kampaniisTvis aucilebelia finansuri resursi. bevri jgufi damokidebuliaSemowirulobebze. dafinansebis sxva wyaroebi moicavs sxvadasxva fondebs, daxmarebis saagentoebsda sxva. ase rom Tu gesaWiroebaT dafinanseba, SeecadeT daekontaqtoT ufro did arasamTavroboorganizaciebs, romelnic SesaZloa, dagexmaron fulis moZiebaSi.did kaSxlebTan brZolis efeqturi strategiebizogierTi strategia SeiZleba iyos efeqturi kaSxlis mSeneblobis yvela etapze.qvemoT gTavazobT ramodenime ideas, romelic SegiZliaT kampaniisas gamoiyenoT.organizeba da mobilizeba -Tqveni kampaniis warmateba damokidebulia mravali adamianis erTianobaze. mTavrobebi da kaSxlismSeneblebi xSirad cdiloben Seqmnan konfliqturi situaciebi, im mosaxleobaSi, romlisteritoriazec gaTvaliswinebulia kaSxlis mSenebloba, amitom adreul etapzeve xalxis erTobagaurTulebs maT am amocanis Sesrulebas.xalxis gaerTianebis erT-erTi gza sakuTari organizaciis Seqmna an qselis SeqmnisgziT sxva organizaciasTan dakavSirebaa. amitom moinaxos Tqvens qveyanaSi kaSxlebTan sawinaaRmdegoorganizaciebi, moawyoT maTTan Sexvedrebi, raTa daigegmos kampania da ganxilul iqnas moqmedebebi.aucilebelia, aseve Seiqmnas aliansebi arasamTavrobo organizaciebTan, mkvlevarebTan, advokatebTanda eqspertebTan.demonstraciebis, gaficvebis, boikotebisa da blokadebis mowyoba aucilebelia imisTvis,rom yuradReba miiqcioT. aseTi qmedebebi gansakuTrebul warmatebebs maSin aRweven, Tu samiznesis institutebi warmoadgenen, romlebic kaSxlis mSeneblobasTan dakavSirebiT iRebengadawyvetilebas.informaciis gavrcelebabroSurebi, posterebi, angariSebi da sxva masalebi, romelic asaxavs kaSxalsa da miszemoqmedebas adgilobriv mosaxleobasa da garemoze, SeiZleba gavrceledes rogorc zemoqmedebis14


qveS moqceul mosaxleobaSi, aseve sazogadoebaSi, arasamTavrobo organizaciebSi qveynis masStabiTda samTavrobo uwyebebSi. es aris Tqveni moTxovnebis sajarod gacxadebis kargi gza.mediasTan muSaobamoaxdineT Tqveni moTxovnis farTod gavrceleba radios, gazeTebisa da televiziissaSualebiT. Ees dagexmarebaT mTavrobaze da kaSxlis mSeneblebze zegavlenis moxdenaSi.daurekeT im Jurnalistebsac, romelTac adre msgavs Temaze statiebi hqondaT dawerili damouyeviT Tqveni kampaniis Sesaxeb. moawyveT preskonferenciebi da iyaviT mudmiv kontaqtSiJurnalistebTan. TxoveT arasamTavrobo organizaciebsa Tu sxva jgufebs, raTa dagexmaronTqveni moTxovnis adresatebamde mitanis sxvadasxva gzebis moZiebaSi.mTavrobisa da damfinanseblebis lobirebaSexvdiT gadawyvetilebis mimRebT da mouyeviT Tqveni problemebis Sesaxeb. daarwmuneTrogorc adgilobrivi xelisuflebis warmomadgenlebi, aseve saxelmwifo Cinovnikebi da parlamentiswevrebi, raTa maT mxari dauWiron Tqvens moTxovnebs. Tu kaSxali dafinansebulia kerZobankebis an saerTaSoriso safinanso institutebis mier, maSin unda iTanamSromloT saerTaSorisoarasamTavrobo organizaciebTanac.iuridiuli qmedebebizogjer kaSxlebis mSeneblobis gaCerebisTvis an ukeTesi kompensaciis miRebisTvisacmomgebiani iuridiuli qmedebebi. ipoveT advokati da gamoikvlieT, aris Tu ara darRveulikaSxlis mSeneblebis mier raime kanoni.SesTavazeT alternativebiSeecadeT ipovnoT eqspertebi, romlebic mogexmarebian didi kaSxlis alternativebismoZiebaSi (dawvrilebiT ix.Tavi 5)brazilielebi pilaris kaSxlis winaaRmdeg1990-ian wlebSi ucxourma kompaniebma gadawyvites aeSenebinaT braziliis minas geraisStatSi mdinare pirangaze kaSxali. kaSxlis gamo gadasaxleba mouwevda 133 fermers daganadgurdeboda meTevzeobebi, xolo mdinaris qvedinebis gaswvriv mcxovrebi aTasobiT adamianiki dazaraldeboda mdinareSi wylis donis cvlilebis gamo.adgilobrivma macxovreblebma, arasamTavrobo organizaciebma, universitetis mkvlevarebmada saeklesio jgufebma Seqmnes aliansi pilaris kaSxlis winaaRmdeg. maT erToblivad daadginessakuTar yofa-cxovrebaze kaSxlis zemoqmedebebi. waikiTxes kompaniebis kvlevebi da aRmoaCinesmravali darRveva. es informacia maT gauziares saxelmwifo Cinovnikebs, romlebic aseve Sewuxebulniiyvnen garemoze kaSxlis zemoqmedebis gamo.arasamTavrobo organizaciebma da mkvlevarebma moamzades adgilobrivi mosaxleobakaSxalTan dakavSirebul sajaro ganxilvisaTvis. isini aseve daexmarnen fermerebs, raTa SeedarebinaTmiwasa da resursebTan dakavSirebuli monacemebi oficialur dokumentebSi warmodgenilmonacemebTan.adgilobrivi mosaxleoba kargad momzadebuli Sexvda sajaro ganxilvas. bavSvebma waikiTxesleqsebi mdinare pirangaze, xolo macxovreblebi SeiaraRebulni iyvnen niSnebiT “FORA”, (wadiTaqedan). Temis liderebma ki daafiqsires myari pozicia, romelic gamoxatavda maT SeSfoTebaskaSxlis mSeneblobasTan dakavSirebiT. adgilobrivi mosaxleobis zewolam, garemos dacviTidokumentebis gakritikebama da saxelmwifo CinovnikTa SeSfoTebam aiZula kompaniebi, romgaeuqmebinaT kaSxlis mSeneblobis proeqti.ramodenime wlis win, rodesac erT-erTma kompaniam kvlav gadawyvita axali kaSxlismSenebloba amave adgilze, xalxi kvlav Seikriba da uTxra maT “ara”. zustad 43 dRis Semdegkompaniam TviTon gadaifiqra mSeneblobis dawyeba.15


Tu saWiro gaxdeba adgilobrivi mosaxleoba mzad aris win aRudges aseTi mSeneblobisdawyebas momavalSic.rogor unda SeqmnaT sakuTari kvlevanabiji 1: moawyveT Sexvedrebi imaTTan, vinc gsurT, rom monawileobdes am kvlevaSi. dapatiJeTrac SeiZleba bevri xalxi zemoqmedebis qveS moqceuli soflebidan da esaubreT maT imaze,Tu risi gamokvleva gaqvT ganzraxuli;nabiji 2: gamokvlevis Sesasruleblad aucilebelia jgufebad dayofa. jgufebSi is xalxiunda SeiyvanoT, vinc im midamoebs kargad icnobs. magaliTad, meTevzeebma unda gaakeTonTevzTan dakavSirebuli kvleva.nabiji 3: unda gadawyvitoT kvlevis Casatareblad romeli meTodi gamoiyenoT. qvemoTmoyvanilia ramodenime idea amasTan dakavSirebiT:TevzWerasTan dakavSirebuli kvleva: mdinare unda daiyos zonebad. meTevzeebisjgufebma unda gainawilon es zonebi. TiToeuli TevzisdaWeris Semdeg unda iqnas Senaxuli daWerili Tevzissaxeobis nimuSi. Semdeg unda moewyos Sexvedra, raTa xalxmaisaubros am saxeobaze, migraciis Taviseburebebze, zomaze,wonaze. Tu fotoaparati gaqvT gadauReT suraTi TiToeulsaxeobas, romelic iqneba daWerili. Semdeg SeinaxeT esfoto bloknotSi da suraTis gaswvriv CawereT informaciaam Tevzis Sesaxeb;mdinaris napirebze arsebuli baRebis kvleva:dayaviT mdinare zonebad. TiToeul zonaSi gazomeT daaRricxeT arsebuli baRebi, dawereT vin aris ama Tu imbaRis mflobeli, ra mohyavs am baRSi, da rogor iyenebenaq moyvanil bostneuls. Tu bostneuls bazarSi yidian,maSin moiniSneT ra Tanxas iReben saSualod am bostneulisrealizaciidan.nabiji 4: SeinaxeT miRebuli informacia. kargad moifiqreT, Tu rogor moaxdinoT gadawyvetilebismimRebebze zegavlena aRniSnuli informaciis gamoyenebiT.tais soflebis mier ganxorcielebuli kvlevaramodenime wlis win, xalxi romelic cxovrobda tai-burmas sazRvarze gamavmdinare salvenze, ibrZoda TavianTi mTavrobebis gegmis winaRmdeg aeSenebinaT kaSxlebimdinaris gaswvriv. maT gadawyvites SeeqmnaT gamoekvliaT Tu rogor iyenebden isinimdinarisa da garemos resursebze da dokumenturad daedasturebinaT. Oori wlisganmavlobaSi 50 sofeli agrovebda monacemebs meTevzeobaze, mis tradiciul formebze,samkurnalo mcenareebze, sasoflo sameurneo monacemebs, da bunebriv wiaRiseulze.arasamTavrobo organizaciebi da moxaliseebi exmarebodnen mosaxleopbas monacemTaaRricxvaSi, da sabolood daweres angariSi, Tumca adgilobrivi mosaxleoba TviTongamodioda mkvlevarebis rolSi. Soflelebma moaxdines identificireba Tevzis, samkurnalo16


da sakvebi mcenareebis mravali saxeobis,romelTac isini mdinaris daxmarebiTmoipovebdnen.ra SeiZleba gakeTdes kaSxlis mSeneblobisTiToeul etapzeetapi 1: mSeneblobis dawyebis wina periodis faza.xangZlivoba 2-20 weliwadi an ufro meti;kaSxlis mSeneblobis dawyebamde kaSxlismSeneblebi mraval kvlevas axorcieleben, raTaSeamowmon SeiZleba, Tu ara aRniSnul adgilas kaSxlis mSenebloba. maT aseve ainteresebT, razegavlenebi SeiZleba hqondes am kaSxals. am kvlevebis umetesobas ucxouri kompaniebi asruleben.1. winaswari teqnikur-ekonomikuri kvleva (Pre-Feasibility Study). es kvleva asabuTebs im faqts,rom kaSxali SesaZlebelia aSendes. is gansazRvravs ramdenad Sesabamisia adgili didikaSxlis asaSeneblad, ramdeni eleqtroenergiis gamomuSavebaa dagegmili da kaSxlis savaraudoRirebulebas;2. teqnikur-ekonomikuri kvleva da detaluri gegma (Feasibility Study). es kvleva mxolod iminformacias Seicavs, rac aucilebelia kaSxlis asaSeneblad. is moicavs klimats, geologias,ramdeni wyalia mdinareSi da a.S. amitom Tu dainaxavT ucxo xalxs, romelic zomaven daTxrian miwas, maSin savaraudod isini akeTeben teqnikur-ekonomikur kvlevas;3. garemoze zemoqmedebis Sefaseba (gzS). gzS Seicavs informacias, romelic dakavSirebuliakaSxlis garemoze zemoqmedebebTan. is aseve moicavs am zemoqmedebebis Semsubuqebis RonisZiebebsac.gzS-Si xSirad naTqvamia, rom umravlesoba zemoqmedebebisa SesaZlebelia Semsubuqdes daamitom kaSxlis mSenebloba dasaSvebia;4. gansaxlebis gegma/socialuri ganviTarebis gegma. es kvleva moicavs im gegmebs, romelicdakavSirebulia im xalxis gadasaxlebasTan, romelnic rezervuaris savaraudo adgilzecxovroben. is aseve moicavs kompensaciebis Sesaxeb gegmebsac.am gegmebis Sesrulebis Semdeg, kaSxlis mSeneblebi xvdebian mTavrobas da bankebs da cdilobenmiiRon dafinanseba kaSxlis mSeneblobisTvis.rogor unda imoqmedo am etapze?kaSxlis proeqtze zewolis mosaxdenad es saukeTeso droa. Tu fiqrobT, rom kaSxaligaanadgurebs Tqvens sofels, maSin unda SeecadoT SeaCeroT es proeqti. moiZieT ra uflebebi gaqvTadgilobrivi kanonmdeblobiT. moiTxovoT mTavrobisagan sajaro ganxilvebis gamarTva, sadacSesaZlebloba geqnebaT debatebi gamarToT imasTan dakavSirebiT, Tu vin iRebs sargebels da vinzaraldeba kaSxlis mSeneblobiT. SeecadeT iuridiuli qmedebiTac SeaCeroT kaSxlis mSenebloba.iTanamSromleT eqspertebTan, raTa ukeTesi alternativebi an sakompensacio gegmebi iqnas SemuSavebulida gaxadeT es procesi sajaro.Tqveni kampania warmatebuli kidevac rom aRmoCndes da SeaCeros kaSxlis mSenebloba,mogvianebiT mTavroba SeiZleba kvlavac Seecados mis aSenebas, amitomac xangZlivvadiani brZolisTvisZlieri aliansebis Seqmna Zalian mniSvnelovaniakaSxalTan dakavSirebuli kvlevebis mimoxilvamoiTxoveT, rom mSeneblTa mier momzadebuli kvlevebi gaxdes sajaro. sTxoveT eqspertebsraTa maT Seiswavlon dokumentebi da gamoaqveyneT maT mier momzadebuli angariSi. am angariSSmaSesaZlebelia gamoavlinos is darRvevebi, rac saSualebas mogcemT, winaswar ganisazRvros, isproblemebi rac kaSxlis mSeneblobis gamo SeiZleba warmoiSvas.17


ganaxorcieleT Tqveni sakuTari kvlevebixSirad kaSxlebi Sendeba im kvlevebis gareSe, romlebic aRnusxavs ramdenadaa damokidebuliadgilobrivi mosaxleoba mdinareze da garemos resursebze. Sesabamisad kaSxlis aSenebis SemTxvevaSiadgilobrivi mosaxleobas ar gadaexdeba sruli kompensacia, vinaidan ar iarsebebs aranairi kvlevaTu realurad ra dakarga am xalxma. amitom aucilebelia, rom Tqvens mierve iqnas aRricxuliyovelive da iqnas gansazRvruli is, Tu rogor aris damokidebuli Tqveni sofeli garemos resursebze.(ix. CanarTi tais soflebis mier ganxorcielebuli kvleva).vin afinansebs kaSxalsgamoikvlieT vin afinansebs kaSxals. Tu damfinansebeli sxva qveyanaa, daukavSirdiT amqveynis arasamTavrobo organizaciebs da sTxoveT maT daxmareba. (ix. danarTi, arasamTavroboorganizaciaTa sia).iuridiulad gaformebuli SeTanxmebebis moTxovnaTu gadawyviteT, rom daTanxmdeT kaSxlis mSeneblobas, unda darwmundeT imaSi, rom xelsawerT SeTanxmebas, sadac srulad aris asaxuli yvela dapireba. darwmundiT, rom SeTanxmebis yvelapunqti gesmiT. ar moaweroT xeli imas, rasac ver gebulobT. mTavroba da kaSxlis mSeneblebiSeiZleba dagpirdnen, rom Tqven miiRebT axal saxlebs, ukeTes miwas, magram rogorc wesi aseTidapirebebi iSviaTad Seesabameba xolme simarTles.etapi 2: mSeneblobis faza - xangZlivoba: 5-15 weli.xSirad mSenebloba grZeldeba ufro didxans, vidre es Tavidan iyo navaraudevi. zogjer esgamowveulia teqnikuri siZneleebiT, zogjer ki korufciiT.didi kaSxlis mSenebloba Cveulebriv ase gamoiyureba:• mcire kaSxali (Coffer Dam): Sendeba mcire kaSxali, raTa Seicvalos mdinaris dinebismimarTuleba. es imitom keTdeba, rom ZiriTadi kaSxlis asaSenebeli adgili ar daifaroswyliT.• qvedadinebis mcire kaSxali (Downstream coffer dam): zogjer am kaSxals imitom aSeneben,rom Tavidan aicilon mdinaris wylis Semobruneba da dagroveba ZiriTadi kaSxlis asaSenebeladgilas.• derivaciis arxi (Diversion Channel): mdinare miedineba am arxSi sanam es kaSxali aSendeba.• ZiriTadi kaSxlis mSenebloba: ramodenime weli aris saWiro ZiriTadi kaSxlis asaSeneblad.• momavali rezervuari: mas Semdeg rac aSendeba ZiriTadi kaSxali, iwyeba rezervuaris Sevseba.zogjer mis Sevsebas erTi an meti weli sWirdeba.ras SegiZliaT miaRwioT am etapze:Tqveni kampania kvlav SeiZleba warmatebuli iyos miuxedavad mSeneblobis procesisa. TqvenSegiZliaT DSeaCeroT mSenebloba (saproteso aqciebis an iuridiuli qmedebebis Sedegad), moiTxovoYmeti kompensacia an gaxadoT proeqti ukeTesi.saprotesto qmedebebiam etapze SesaZlebelia moewyos ara Zaladobrivi aqciebi kaSxlis mSeneblobis SeCerebismoTxovniT. an Tvalyuri unda miadevnoT mSeneblobisa da gansaxlebis process da Tu kaSxlismSeneblebi an mTavroba ar akeTeben imas, rac unda gaekeTebinaT, maSin unda moawyoT saprotestogamosvlebi da moiTxovoT pirobebis Sesruleba.saerTaSoriso arasamTavrobo organizaciebTan TanamSromlobaTu kaSxali dafinansebulia saerTaSoriso safinanso institutis mier, maSin undaiTanamSromloT saerTaSoriso arasamTavrobo organizaciebTan, raTa problemebis SesaxebinformaciiT droulad uzrunvelyoT proeqtis damfinansebeli. zogjer damfinansebeli axdenszewolas kaSxlis mSeneblebze, Tu mSeneblobis an gansaxlebis procesi saTanadod ar mimdinareobs.Tu aRmoCndeba rom procesi seriozuli darRvevebiT mimdinareobs, damfinansebelma SeiZlebasaerTod Sewyvitos proeqtis dafinanseba, sanam kaSxlis mSeneblebi ar moimoqmedeben yovelivesprocesis saTanadod warmarTvisaTvis.18


energiaze moTxovnis SemcirebaimisaTvis rom energiaze moTxovna Semcirdes, mTavrobebs SeuZliaT mouwodon qalaqSimcxovreb mosaxleobas, qarxnebsa da sxva biznesis mflobelebs, rom maqsimalurad efeqturadmoixmaron energia. amisTvis mTavrobam SeiZleba SesTavazos kreditebi mosaxleobasa dawarmoebas energoefeqturi danadgarebis S, an dabegros ufro metad is kompaniebi, romlebicenergoarafeqtur danadgarebs iyeneben. msgavsi tipis qmedebebi gacilebiT iafi jdeba dagacilebiT ukeTes Sedegs iZleva garemosTvis, vidre gazrdili moTxovnis dakmayofilebismizniT axali energo-obieqtebisa da kaSxlebis mSenebloba.arsebuli kaSxlebisa da gadamcemi xazebis reabilitaciaenergo-obieqtebidan eleqtro energia qalaqebs, qarxnebsa Tu mosaxleobas gadamcemixazebis saSualebiT miewodeba. mraval qveyanaSi arsebuli gadamcemi xazebis dabalixarisxis gamo energiis danakargebi sakmaod didia, amitom aRniSnuligadamcemi xazebis reabilitaciis Sedegad SesaZlebelia am danakargebisSemcireba.aseve SesaZlebelia eleqtroenergiis miRebis gazrda arsebulikaSxlebisa da energo-obieqtebis reabilitaciis xarjzec.axali energo wyaroebis mSeneblobamcire hidroeleqtrosadgurimcire hidroeleqtrosadgurebi SeiZleba iyos rogorc miwis, qvis asev xis da miwaze damaTi simaRle rogorc wesi mxolod ramodenime metrs Seadgens. aseTi tipis hesebi xSiradrezervuaris gareSe funqcionireben, rac gamoricxavs mosaxleobis gadasaxlebas. mniSvnelovnadar icvleba arc mdinaris dineba. Zalian mcire hesebi xSirad kaSxlebs saerTod ki ar saWiroebenda imarTebian TviT adgilobrivi macxovreblebis mier, rogorc es CineTSi, indoeTsa da nepalSia.bioenergiabiomasa mraval qveyanaSi energiis Cveulebrivi wyaroa. biomasa miiReba mcenareebisa dacxovelebis narCenebisgan. biomasisgan miRebuli bunebrivi airiTSesaZlebelia Senobebis gaTbobac ki.. biomasis gamoyeneba ufrofarTo masStabiTac aris SesaZlebeli. magaliTad, iseT qveynebSisadac Saqris lerwami mohyavT, eleqtroenergiis miReba am lerwmisReroebisagan aris SesaZlebeli. eleqtroenergiis miReba xisnarCenebisa da brinjis CenCos gamoyenebiTac SeiZleba.mzis energiaeleqtroenergiis miReba SesaZlebelia moxdes saxlis saxuravebze dadgmuli mziselementebisgan. rac ufro didia mzis elementebi, miT meti energiis miRebaa SesaZlebeli.qaris energiaqaris energiis miReba gacilebiT naklebi zianis momtaniagaremosaTvis, vidre didi kaSxlebidan miRebuli energiisa. mravalevropul saxelmwifoSi, iseTebSi rogoricaa germania da espaneTi,qaris turbinebiT xdeba energiis mniSvnelovani nawilisgamomuSaveba.geoTermuli energiageoTermuli energia energiis sawarmoeblad dedamiwisSigniT arsebul siTbos iyenebs. miwis qveS arsebuli wylisa21


da orTqlis rezervuarebi am siTbos meSveobiT Tbeba. SesaZlebelia am energiis eleqtroenergiad gardaqmna. magaliTad,filipinebze da el salvadorSi geoTermuli resursebiT mTlianadgamomuSavebuli eleqtroenergiis 25% iwarmoeba.kaSxlebis wyaldidobebis marTvis alternativadid kaSxlebs xandaxan aSeneben wyaldidibebis marTvis mizniT. Mmiuxedavad amisa,didi wyaldidobis SemTxvevaSi msgavsma kaSxalma SeiZleba kidev ufro gaauaresos situacia.arsebobs wyaldidobebis da maTi damangreveli zemoqmedebis Tavidan acilebis mravali gza.es moicavs wyalSemkrebebis dacvasa da wyaldidobis gamafrTxilebeli sistemebs.wyalSemkrebebis aRdgena da dacvawyalSemkrebebis aRdgena da dacva warmoadgens wyaldidobebisgan Tavis dacvissaukeTeso saSualebas. dauzianebeli Waobebi da Walis tyeebi icavs mosaxleobasdatborvisagan. Waobebi i wyals rogorc Rrubeli ise isrutavs. amasTan xeebi anelebswylis dinebis siCqares, ris Sedegadac wyali ufro nela miedineba kalapotSi. xolorodesac wylis done ecema Waobebi nel nela uSveben ukan Sesrutul wyals. dResdReisobiT mravali Waobi, kalapoti da tye ganadgurebuli samrewvelo ganviTarebisSedegad, rac zrdis rogorc wyaldidobis riskebs agreTve maTgan miyenebul zarals.wyaldidobebis Tavidan acilebis mizniT saWiroa Waobebis, Walis tyeebisa da tyeebis dacva.wyaldidobisgamafrTxilebeli sistemebimTavrobebs SeuZliaT Cadon finansebi wyaldidobis gamafrTxilebeli sistemebSi,raTa mosaxleoba adreulad iyos gafrTxilebuli wyaldidobasTan dakavSirebiT, racSesaZleblobas mogvcems aviciloT Tavidan msxverpli da SevamciroT danakargebi. sistemebimoicavs rogorc gamafrTxilebel mowyobilobebs, agreTve sagangebo situaciaTa gegmebswyaldidobis SemTxvevaSi.boloTqmaimedia, rom es samoqmedo saxelmZRvanelo dagexmarebaT kaSxlebis winaaRmdeg brZolaSi.imedia, rom sxvaTa warmatebuli magaliTebi gaaZliereben warmatebis miRwevis imeds, vinaidanTqven Tqvens uflebebs da saarsebo garemos icavT da Tqven am brZolaSi ar xarT marto.rogorc 1997 wels arasamTavrobo organizaciebisa da kaSxlebis mier dazaralebulimosaxleobis forumze iTqva: “Cven varT Zlierni, gansxvavebulni magram erTiani da CvenibrZola samarTliani. Cven gavaCereT ramdenime damRupeli kaSxali da vaiZuleT kaSxlebismSeneblebi pativi scen Cvens uflebebs. Cven gavaCereT da gavaCerebT didi kaSxlebismSeneblobas momavalSic” (deklaracia , kuritiba, brazilia 14 marti, 1997).erTad Cven SevaCerebT kaSxlebis mSeneblobas da davicavT dazaralebulimosaxleobis uflebebs. erTad SevZlebT davakmayofiloT mosaxleobis energo da wylismoTxovnileba, garemosa da mosaxleobis uflebebis Seulaxavad.erTad Cven SegviZlia ukeTesi momavlis Seqmna!22


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