xe-tyis damzadeba nebarTvis/licenziis gareSe

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xe-tyis damzadeba nebarTvis/licenziis gareSe

Sesavali2005 wlis Tebervlidan asociacia mwvane alternativa evrokavSirisfinansuri mxardaWeriT (evropuli iniciativa demokratiisaTvis daadamianis uflebebisaTvis) axorcielebs proeqts - “adgilobriviSesaZleblobebis ganviTareba saqarTveloSi xe-tyis aralegaluri WrisaRkveTisaTvis”.proeqti miznad isaxavs adgilobrivi dainteresebuli mxareebisSesaZleblobebis gazrdas satyeo seqtorSi korufciisa da aralegaluriqmedebebis aRmosafxvrelad, satyeo seqtorSi gadawyvetilebis miRebisprocesSi sazogadoebis monawileobisa da gamWirvalobis zrdisa da tyisresursebiT mdgradi sargeblobis principebis danergvis xelSewyobas.zemoaRniSnuli miznebis misaRwevad, proeqtis farglebSiganxorcielda mTeli rigi aqtivobebi satyeo seqtorSi arsebuliaralegaluri qmedebebisa da maTi uaryofiTi socialuri da ekonomikuriSedegebis Sesaxeb sazogadoebis cnobierebis amaRlebisa da satyeo seqtorSiaralegaluri qmedebebis monitoringisaTvis sazogadoebis mobilizaciisa daSesaZleblobebis ganviTarebisaTvis; ganxorcileda arsebulikanonmdeblobis efeqturobis Sefaseba seqtorSi korufciisa da xe-tyisaralegaluri Wris aRsakveTad da gadawyvetilebis miRebis procesSisazogadoebis monawileobisa da procesze zemoqmedebisaTvis; asevexorcieldeboda da amJamadac mimdinareobs satyeo seqtorSi mimdinareprocesebis monitoringi kanondarRvevebisa da maTi xelSemwyobigaremoebebis aRmoCenisa da gaxmaurebisaTvis, msgavsi SemTxvevebismomavalSi Tavidan aridebis mizniT. winamdebare publikaciaSi asaxulia swored kanondarRvevaTa 1 istipiuri SemTxvevebi, romelic gamovlinda proeqtis mimdinareobisas; aseveangariSSi aRwerilia is garemoebebi, romlebic, Cvenis azriT, xels uwyobssatyeo seqtorSi korufciis maRali donis arsebobas da ukanono qmedebebs.vimedovnebT, rom Sesabamisi saxelmwifo uwyebebi miiReben zomebs angariSSiwarmodgenili kanondarRvevebis aRsakveTad da sakanonmdeblo koliziebisaRmosafxvrelad.angariSis I TavSi ixilavT satyeo seqtorSi korufciisa da ukanonoqmedebebis saxeebisa da maTi xelSemwyobi faqtorebis mimoxilvas.II TavSi saubaria saqarTvelos satyeo seqtorSi gadawyvetilebismiRebis procesSi sazogadoebis monawileobis uzrunvelyofisa da procesisgamWirvalobis problemebze – kanonmdeblobis aRsrulebis da Tavadkanonmdeblobis naklovanebebze.III TavSi ixilavT informacias, Tu ratom ver iqca dRemde garemosdacvis inspeqcia xe-tyis ukanono Wris winaRmdeg brZolis efeqtur iaraRadda emuqreba Tu ara korufcia am struqturas.IV TavSi aRwerilia sabaJo-gamSveb punqtebze korufciuli garigebebisSesaZleblobebi xe-tyis masalis eqsportirebisas.V TavSi SesaZlebloba geqnebaT gaecnoT Jurnalisturi gamoZiebisSedegebs q. Tbilisis SeSiT momaragebasTan dakavSirebiT; agreTve amaveTavSi aRwerilia is sakanonmdeblo qaosi da normatiuli aqtebis1 mocemul angariSSi saqarTvelos kanonmdebloba ganxilulia 2006 wlis 1 ivlisismdgomareobiT.3


cvlilebebis kaskadi, romelic mohyva mTavrobis gauazrebel qmedebasadgilobrivi mosaxleobis SeSiT uzrunvelyofasTan dakavSirebiT.VI Tavi eZRvneba "wiTeli nusxisa da wiTeli wignis Sesaxeb"saqarTvelos kanonis moTxovnebis ugulebelyofis faqts imereTiswablnarebis gamajansaRebeli RonisZiebis gatarebisas.VII TavSi warmodenilia informacia xe-tyis ukanono WrebismasStabebis Sesaxeb kolxeTis erovnuli parkis teritoriaze.VIII TavSi ixilavT informacias satyeo seqtoris maregulirebeliuwyebebis TanamSromlebiT dakompleqtebis naklovanebebze.IX TavSi aRwerilia sakanonmdeblo koliziebi, romlebmac SesaZloanayofieri niadagi Seqmnan korufciisaTvis. aseve am TavSi saubaria satyeodargSi mimdinare procesebis gamWvirvaleobis problemebze.4


I Tavi. korufcia satyeo seqtorSi da masTan brZolis qarTuli meTodebi“Cven erTad unda avaRorZinoT Cveni qveyana, avaSenoT Cveni da Cveniwinaprebis ocnebis saqarTvelo. saqarTvelo Zlieri iyo, rodesac iyoerTiani. Cven unda gaverTiandeT imisaTvis, rom gavZlierdeT, undaavaSenoT adamianis uflebebis dacvaze da kanonis uzenaesobaze dafuZnebuliZlieri demokratia, Cven unda amovZirkvoT korufcia. CemTvis yovelikorumpirebuli adamiani, dRevandel etapze, erovnuli interesebismoRalatea. Cven amovZirkvavT korufcias da SevcvliT sistemas, romelmackorufciis mankieri wre warmoqmna.”saqarTvelos prezidentis mixeil saakaSvilis mier warmoTqmulisityva inauguraciis dRes, 25 ianvari, 2004.nebismier qveyanaSi korufcia warmoadgens mTavar safrTxes kanonisuzenaesobisaTvis, demokratiisaTvis da adamianis uflebebisaTvis,samarTlianobisaTvis da socialuri TanasworobisaTvis, aferxebsekonomikur ganviTarebas, safrTxes uqmnis sabazro ekonomikis swor dasamarTlian funqcionirebas. samwuxarod, saqarTvelo im qveyanaTagania,romelTaTvis korufcia erT-erT umniSvnelovanes barierad rCebademokratiuli saxelmwifos mSeneblobis gzaze.erT-erTi korumpirebuli dargi Cvens qveyanaSi yovelTvis iyosatyeo seqtori da am dargis korumpirebuloba ara marto CvenisaxelmwifoebriobisTvis warmoadgenda zogad safrTxes, aramed yovelTviskonkretul saSiSroebas uqmnida garemos da momavali Taobebis interesebs.Cveni qveynis uaxlesma istoriam gviCvena, rom korufciasTan martodeklarirebuli brZola aranair Sedegs ar iZleva. aRniSnuls TiTqosdRevandeli xelisuflebac iziarebs da aRiarebs, rom ”mmarTvelobisdemokratiuli sistemis Camoyalibeba SeuZlebelia saxelmwifo seqtorSikorufciis Semcirebis gareSe, rasac mniSvnelovnad Seuwyobs xelsxelisuflebis gamWvirvaleobisa da angariSvaldebulebis gazrda daSesabamisi socialuri garantiebis mqone, Zlieri sajaro samsaxurisCamoyalibeba” 2 . samwuxarod, realoba tradiciulad gansxvavdeba sxvadasxvadokumentebSi xatovnad aRwerili gegmebisagan da korufciasTan brZolasaqarTveloSi gaigivebulia mxolod represiul zomebTan (mag.korumpirebuli Cinovnikebis samsaxuridan daTxovna da/an pasuxisgebaSimicema) da saxelmwifo uwyebebis dausrulebel struqturul cvlilebebTan,romelTac araferi aqvT saerTo “xelisuflebis gamWvirvaleobisa daangariSvaldebulebis gazrdasTan”. korufciis winaaRmdeg warmatebuli brZolisaTvis pirvel rigSiaucilebelia problemis warmoSobis mizezebis zusti identifikacia da maTiaRmofxvra.satyeo dargSi korufciis gamomwvevi ramdenime mniSvnelovani mizezisgamoyofa SeiZleba:• mZime socialuri foni;2 saqarTvelos erovnuli usafrTxoebis koncefcia5


• arasrulyofili, rTuli, winaaRmdegobrivi kanonmdebloba, romlismoTxovnaTa Sesrulebis uzrunvelyofa xSirad SeuZlebelia;• dargis araswori dagegmva da marTva;• dargis damokidebuloba saxelmwifo biujetze da, amavroulad, misimwiri dafinanseba;• dabali samarTlebrivi da garemosdacviTi cnobiereba;• tyiTsargeblobis adgilobrivi tradiciebisa da specifikisgauTvaliswinebloba;• arasakmarisi gamWvirvaloba;• politikuri nebis nakleboba seqtorSi korufciis aRmosafxvrelad;• gaumarTavi instituciuri mowyoba, romelic ver uzrunvelyofsinteresTa konfliqtis gamoricxvas; da• kanonis aRsrulebis dabali done.bolo ori wlis ganmavlobaSi mimdinare reforma met-naklebad SeexozemoT aRniSnul problemebs, magram ganxorcielebuli cvlilebebi rigSemTxvevebSi araadekvaturi da araefeqturi iyo.cvlilebebis Sedegad, TiTqos garkveuli mimarTulebebiT gamartivdakanonmdebloba da marTvis sistema, Tumca samarTlebrivi reformebisganxorcielebisas sistemuri midgomis ararsebobis gamo, erTis mxrivgamartivebas, sxva mimarTulebebiT kanonmdeblobis kidev ufro garTulebamohyva. marTalia, garkveul wilad gaumjobesda satyeo dargis dafinansebada am dargSi dasaqmebul pirTa anazRaureba, magram rig SemTxvevebSi esxdeboda Statebis Semcirebis, kvalificiuri TanamSromlebisgaTavisuflebisa da maTi arakompetenturi kadrebiT Canacvlebis xarjze,ramac SesaZloa sxva saxis garTulebebi gamoiwvios. gauaresda mdgomareobagamWvirvaleobisa da gadawyvetilebis procesSi sazogadoebis monawileobisuzrunvelyofis TvalsazrisiT. kvlav ar xdeba tradiciulityiTsargeblobis meTodebis srulyofili gaTvaliswineba dasamarTlebrivad daregulireba; kanonmdebloba savsea winaaRmdegobebiT(koliziebiT); arasakmarisi yuradReba eqceva sazogadoebis samarTlebrivida garemosdacviTi cnobierebis amaRlebas; aralegalur WrebTan brZola“piar”-ze gaTvlili sadamsjelo operaciebiT Semoifargleba. satyeo seqtorSi gavrcelebuli ukanono qmedebebis problemaaqtualuria rogorc ganviTarebad, aseve mTel rig ganviTarebul qveynebSida moicavs mTlian jaWvs – dawyebuli xe-tyis WriTa da transportirebiT dadasrulebuli misi samrewvelo gadamuSavebiTa da vaWrobiT.zogadad, satyeo seqtorSi gavrclebuli ukanono qmedebebimravalgvaria da SesaZloa moicavdes Semdeg qmedebebs:• xe-tyis damzadeba dacul teritoriebs akrZalul zonebSi;• xe-tyis damzadeba nebarTvis/licenziis gareSe;• xe-tyis damzadeba yalbi, an vadagasuli licenziiT;• xeebis ganzrax dazianeba, raTa SemdgomSi SesaZlebeli iyos maTi moWrislegalizeba;• kanoniT daculi saxeobebis Wra;• xe-tyis damzadeba akrZalul teritoriebze, rogoricaa daxriliferdobebi, mdinaris napiri da wyalSemkrebebi;• xe-tyis damzadeba gamoyofili tyekafebis farglebSi (koncesiebSi), magramkanonis darRveviT – daSvebulze ufro metis Wra, dauniSvavi xeebis Wra,Wris wesebis daucveloba;6


• moWrili xe-tyis odenobis Sesaxeb arazusti informaciis gancxadeba, sxvateritoriaze unebarTvod moWrili xe-tyis dasafarad;• Wris nebarTvis mopoveba qrTamis meSveobiT;• tyeSi xanZris xelovnurad gaCena SemdgomSi xe-tyis, an tyis farTobebiskomerciuli miznebiT gamosayeneblad;• xe-tyis transportireba nebarTvis gareSe;• ukanonod mopovebuli xe-tyis transportireba;• xe-tyis kontrabanda;• xe-tyis transportirebisaTvis saWiro dokumentaciis gayalbeba da/anxelaxla gamoyeneba;• saerTaSoriso kanonmdeblobiT akZaluli saxeobebis importi daeqsporti;• erovnuli akrZalvebis darRveviT xe-tyis importi da eqsporti;• eqsportirebuli masalis naklebi moculobisa da Rirebulebis gacxadeba;• Sesyidvaze an momsaxureobaze arsebul sabazro fasebze maRali fasebisgacxadeba;• bazarze gasayidi masalis Sesaxeb araswori informaciis gavrceleba -naklebi xarisxi, fasi, raodenoba da saxeobebis araswori klasifikacia;• gadamamuSavebeli sawarmos muSaoba saTanado nebarTvebis gareSe gareSe;• kanonmdeblobis garemosdacviTi, socialuri da SromiTi moTxovnebisugulebelyofa;• aralegalurad mopovebuli xe-tyis gadamuSaveba. rac Seexeba korufcias, igi SeiZleba gavrcelebuli iyos mTelssistemaSi, dawyebuli nebarTvebis gacemidan, damTavrebulikanonSemoqmedebamde.arsebobs uamravi mosazreba imis Sesaxeb, Tu ras warmoadgenskorufcia. ramdenime cnobili ganmartebis Tanaxmad, korufcia aris“saxelmwifo moxeleebis mier saxelmwifo sakuTrebis gayidva sakuTarisargebelis mosaxveWad” 3 , an “saxelmwifo seqtorSi mmarTvelebis(politikosebis, an sajaro moxeleebis) qceva, romliTac isiniaramarTlzomierad da kanondaRveviT mdidrdebian, an amdidreben maTTandaaxlovebul pirebs maTTvis miniWebuli Zalauflebis aradaniSnulebisamebrgamoyenebis gziT” 4 ; msoflio bankis ganmatebiT, ki korufciaaris “saxelmwifo Tanamdebobis borotad gamoyeneba piradisargeblisTvis” 5 .“sajaro samsaxurSi interesTa SeuTavseblobisa da korufciisSesaxeb” saqarTvelos kanonis mixedviT, “korufcia sajaro samsaxurSi” arisTanamdebobis piris mier Tanamdebobis an masTan dakavSirebuliSesaZleblobis gamoyeneba kanoniT akrZaluli qonebrivi an sxva sikeTismiRebis mizniT, agreTve misTvis am sikeTis gadacema an mis miRebasa dadakanonebaSi xelis Sewyoba. "korufciuli samarTaldarRveva" aris qmedeba,romelic Seicavs korufciis niSnebs da romlisTvisac kanoniTgaTvaliswinebulia disciplinuri, administraciuli ansisxlissamarTlebrivi pasuxismgebloba. "interesTa SeuTavsebloba sajaro3 Schleifer, A and R.W. Vishney, 1993.4 Transparency International, 1996.5msoflio banki, 1997.7


samsaxurSi" aris Tanamdebobis piris qonebrivi an sxva piradi interesebisdapirispireba saxelmwifo samsaxuris interesebTan” 6 .korufciaze samoqalaqo samarTlis konvenciis 7 mixedviT, „korufcia“niSnavs pirdapir an arapirdapir, qraTmis an sxva arasaTanadoupiratesobis an misi dapirispirebis moTxovnas, SeTavazebas, micemas anmiRebas, rac xels uSlis qrTamis, arasaTanado upiratesobis an misidapirebis mimRebis mier, misi movaleobis an gansazRvruli qcevis saTanadoSesrulebas.”nebismieri tipis xelisuflebaSi SesaZloa gavrcelebuli iyospolitikuri korufcia. korufciis formebi gansxvavebulia, magram maTSoris yvelaze metad gavrcelebulia mfarveloba, meqrTameoba, gamoZalva,ZalauflebiT vaWroba (sasurveli sargeblis sanacvlod “saWiro”gadawyvetilebis miReba), TaRliToba, saxelmwifo Tanxebisgaflangva/miTviseba, Tanamdebobebze nacnobobiT daniSvna da nepotizmi.aRiarebulia, rom “qveyanaSi korufciis xelSemwyobi pirobebia:• mTavrobis araswori struqtura Zalauflebis koncentracia im gadawyvetilebis mimReb pirTa Soris,romelnic praqtikulad ar arian xalxTan angariSvaldebulni,gansakuTrebiT ki maT Soris, vinc samxedro Zalebs akontrolebs; demokratiis ararseboba an disfunqcia, e.w. araliberaluridemokratia; angariSvaldebulebis nakleboba.• informaciis deficiti mTavrobis gamWirvalobis nakleboba; sityvis Tavisuflebis, an presis Tavisuflebis ugulebelyofa; susti sabuRaltro praqtika, drouli finansuri menejmentisnaklebobis CaTvliT;• SesaZleblobebi da stimuli sazogadoebrivi kapitalis didi investiciebi; saxelmwifo moxeleebis mwiri dafinanseba;• socialuri pirobebi sakuTari interesebis mqone daxuruli jgufebi, e.w. “Cveni biWebisqselebi”; gaunaTlebeli, gulgrili, an apaTiuri xalxis masa, politikuriarCevanis araadeqvaturi unariT; sazogadoeba, sadac piradi keTilsindisiereba naklebad fasobs vidresxva maxasiaTeblebi (konrastisaTvis: sazogadoebebSi, rogoric iyoXVIII, XIX saukuneebis inglisi, XX saukunis iaponia da omis Semdgomigermania, sadac sazogadoebam aCvena TiTqmis fanatikuridamokidebuleba “Rirsebisa” da keTilsndisierebis mimarT, korufciisSemTxvevebi Zalian iSviaTad SeimCneoda).• kanonis deficiti kanonis uzenaesobis sisuste; susti iuristebi.• arasrulyofili saarCevno procesebi6 saqarTvelos kanoni “sajaro samsaxurSi interesTa SeuTavseblobisa da korufciis Sesaxeb” muxli3. 1997 wlis 17 oqtomberi, #982 – Is.7 korufciaze samoqalaqo samarTlis konvencia #174, strasburgi 4.XI. 1999, ratificirebuliasaqarTvelos parlamentis 24.04.2003 wlis # 2109 - II s dadgenilebiT.8


ZviradRirebuli saarCevno kampaniebi, romelTa danaxarjebiaRemateba politikuri dafinansebis normalur wyarobs; adeqvaturi kontrolis ar arseboba meqrTameobisa da“kampaniebisaTvis Sewirulobebis” aRsakveTad.” 8 msoflios sul ufro meti qveyana acnobierebs da aRiarebsaralegaluri Wrebisa da satyeo seqtorSi korufciis arsebobis problemas,rasac mowmobs bolo dros am problemasTan sabrZolvelad wamowyebuliuamravi saerTaSoriso, Tu erovnuli iniciativa. 2001 wlidan dRemde ukvesami regionaluri ministrTa konferencia mieZRvna satyeo seqtorSikanonaRsrulebisa da mmarTvelobis problemebs. 2005 wels sanktpeterburgSi,aRniSnuli Temisadmi miZRvnil ministrTa mesamekonferenciaze, msoflios ormocdaxuTma qveyanam (saqarTvelos CaTvliT)xeli moawera “evropisa da CrdiloeT aziis satyeo seqtorSikanonaRsrulebisa da mmarTvelobis” (ENA FLEG) deklaracias.deklaraciaze xelmomwerma qveynebma aiRes politikuri valdebuleba, yveladainteresebul mxaresTan SeTanxmebiT, SeimuSaon da ganaxorcielonerovnuli gegma seqtoris marTvis gasaumjobeseblad, aralegaluri Wrebisada vaWrobis aRsakveTad. aseve, mTelma rigma donorma organizaciebmagamoTqves deklaraciis miznebis misaRwevad xelmomweri qveynebisaTvisdaxmarebis aRmoCenis survili.unda aRiniSnos, rom formalurad, saqarTvelos mier deklaraciazexelmoweris faqti mniSvnelovani win gadadgmuli nabijia, radganaRniSnuliT saqarTvelos mTavrobam daafiqsira satyeo seqtorSimarTvelobis gaumjobesebisa da korufciasTan brZolis politikuri neba;magram samwuxarod, am deklaraciiT (iseve rogorc sxva mravalisaerTaSoriso SeTanxmebiT, konvenciiTa Tu xelSekrulebiT) aRebulivaldebulebebi mxolod qaRaldze rCeba. aRniSnuls mowmobs mxolod isfaqtebic ki, rom dRemde aRniSnuli iniciativis farglebSi arganxorcielebula arc erTi qmedeba (Tu ar CavTvliT saerTaSorisoSexvedrebze daswrebas); ar Seqmnila arc erTi dokumenti; Tavaddeklaraciaze xelmoweris faqtic ki ar aris dafiqsirebuli garemosdacvisa da bunebrivi resursebis saministros arc internet-gverdze da arcwliur angariSSi, rac niSnavs, rom isini ver acnobiereben am dokumentismniSvnelobas.II Tavi. sazogadoebis monawileoba gadawyvetilebis miRebis procesSi“adamians ufleba aqvs miiRos sruli, obieqturi da drouli informacia misisamuSao da sacxovrebeli garemos mdgomareobis Sesaxeb”“saqarTvelos konstitucia”, 37-e muxlis me-5 punqtisazogadod aRiarebuli faqtia, rom mniSvnelovani gadawyvetilebebismiRebis procesis gamWvirvalobis uzrunvelyofis da sazogadoebrivikontrolis gareSe, korufciasTan brZolas perspeqtiva ar gaaCnia.saqarTveloSi garemosdacviTi informaciis gamWvirvaloba dasazogadoebis gadawyvetilebis miRebis procesSi monawileobis ufleba8 “Political corruption” From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, http://en.wikipedia.org9


uzrunvelyofilia rogorc erovnuli kanondeblobiT 9 , aseve saerTaSorisokonvenciiT ”garemosdacviT sakiTxebTan dakavSirebuli informaciisxelmisawvdomobis, gadawyvetilebebis miRebis procesSi sazogadoebismonawileobisa da am sferoSi marTlmsajulebis sakiTxebzexelmisawvdomobis Sesaxeb”, e.w. orhusis konvenciiT 10 .orhusis konvenciis Tanaxmad, saqarTvelos nakisri aqvs valdebuleba,rom: “miiRebs aucilebel sakanonmdeblo, maregulirebel da sxva zomebs,agreTve RonisZiebebs, maT Soris, romlebic uzrunvelyofen winamdebarekonvenciis informaciis xelmisawvdomobis, sazogadoebis monawileobis damarTlmsajulebis sakiTxebze xelmisawvdomobis debulebebs SoriserTmaneTTan SesabamisobaSi moyvanas, agreTve ganaxorcielebs marTebulRonisZiebebs am debulebebis ganxorcielebisaTvis mkafio sajaro daTanamimdevruli struqturis Sesaqmnelad.” am valdebulebis Sesrulebisnacvlad gakeTda sapirispiro. nebarTvebis sferoSi miRebulisakanonmdeblo cvlilebebis Sedegad, nacvlad SesabamisobaSi moyvanisa,saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobis debulebebi ufro daSorda orhusiskonvenciis moTxovnebs. sazogadoebis monawileobasTan dakavSirebulidebulebebis ganxorcielebisaTvis martivi, mkafio da Tanmimdevrulistruqturis Seqmnis nacvlad, es struqtura imdenad garTulda da gaugebarigaxda, rom realurad sazogadoebis monawileobis sakiTxi saerTod kiTxvisniSnis qveS dadga. yovelive es ki nacvlad garemosdacviTi mdgomareobis,gamWvirvaleobis da demokratiis xarisxis amaRlebisa, mniSvnelovnadSeuwyobs xels korufciis ganviTarebas am sferoSi. Seqmnili situaciis praqtikul magaliTad gamodgeba satyeo seqtorSimimdinare reforma. sazogadoebis warmomadgenlebi TiTqmis srulinformaciul vakuumSi imyofebian sajaro uwyebebis mxridan satyeoseqtoris reformasTan dakavSirebul konkretul gegmebTan mimarTebaSi.arada, satyeo seqtorTan dakavSirebuli gegmebisa da proeqtebis, iseve,rogorc politikis SemuSavebis procesSi sazogadoebis warmomadgenlebssrulyofili monawileobis ufleba aqvT orhusis konvenciis Sesabamisad. ismciredi informacia, romelic sazogadoebis warmomadgenelTaTvisxelmisawvdomia, sakmaod winaaRmdegobriv STabeWdilebas tovebs.magaliTad, ”saqarTvelos garemos dacvisa da bunebrivi resursebissaministros poziciaSi saxelmwifo tyeebis marTvisa da resursebiTsargeblobis reformirebasTan dakavSirebiT” Camoyalibebul satyeomarTvis principebs Tu gadavxedavT, aRmoCndeba, rom saqarTvelos garemosdacvisa da bunebrivi resursebis saministros sxva garemoebebTan erTadkargad aqvs gaazrebuli, is rom:9 “saqarTvelos konstitucia” 25.08.1995 w.; saqarTvelos kanoni “garemos dacvis Sesaxeb”(1996 wlis 10 dekemberi #519-Is), “garemosdacviTi nebarTvis Sesaxeb” (1996 wlis 15oqtomberi #424-Is) da “saxelmwifo ekologiuri eqspertizis Sesaxeb” (1996 wlis 18oqtomberi #426-Is), aseve “saqarTvelos tyis kodeqsi” (1999 wlis 22 ivnisi #2124-IIs),“saqarTvelos zogad administraciul kodeqsi” (1999 wlis 25 ivnisis #2181II kanoni) da sxvagaremosdacviTi normatiul aqtebi.10orhusis konvencia xelmowerilia ministrTa meoTxe konferenciaze “garemoevropisaTvis” orhusi, dania 23-25 ivnisi 1998 w.-s da ratificirebulia saqarTvelosparlamentis mier 2000 wlis 11 Tebervlis #135IIs dadgenilebiT. es konvencia ZalaSiSevida 2001 wlis 30 oqtombridan. orhusis konvencia adgens konkretuli saxis uflebebsa damovaleobebs da is oficialurad gamoqveynebulia saqarTvelos “parlamentis uwyebanSi”#001 2005 wlis 01 Tebervals.10


a) tyeebiT sargebloba sxvadasxva daniSnulebiT unda moxdes mxolodgamonaklis SemTxvevaSi, rodesac amas moiTxovs Zlieri erovnuliinteresebi;b) unda uzrunvelyofil iqnas adgilobrivi Temebis monawileobatyiTsargeblobasTan dakavSirebuli gadawyvetilebebis miRebaSi;g) unda moxdes erovnuli kanonmdeblobis harmonizeba saerTaSorisoxelSekrulebebis safuZvelze nakisr valdebulebebTan;d) aucilebelia dainteresebuli organizaciebisa da arasamTavroboorganizaciebis CarTva satyeo politikisa da kanonmdeblobis SemuSavebisprocesSi;e) aucilebelia informaciis sajaroobis uzrunvelyofa;amavdroulad, imave dokumentis SemuSavebisas saministromgadawyvetilebis miRebis procesSi sazogadoebis monawileobisa dainformaciis sajaroobis cnebebis ucnauri gageba gamoavlina. masSiaRniSnulia, “garemos dacvisa da bunebrivi resursebis saministros mierganxilul iqna saxelmwifo tyis fondis momavali marTvis ramdenimevarianti. gadawyvetileba imis Sesaxeb Tu romeli varianti ufroSesaferisia, miRebul iqna saqarTvelos pirobebis gaTvaliswinebiT”. anu,faqtiurad saqarTvelos tyeebis bedis Sesaxeb umniSvnelovanesigadawyvetilebis miReba saministrom “itvirTa”, xolo sazogadoebisaTvisaRniSnuli “marTvis ramodenime variantic” ki ar gamxdara xelmisawvdomi,rom araferi vTqvaT gadawyvetilebis miRebaSi monawileobaze.rac Seexeba Tavad reformis koncefciis dokuments, romelsac ewodeba”saqarTvelos garemos dacvisa da bunebrivi resursebis saministrospozicia saxelmwifo tyeebis marTvisa da resursebiT sargeblobisreformirebasTan dakavSirebiT”, misi "sajaro ganxilvis" procesi bevriTar gansxvavdeboda zemoT aRwerilisagan: saministrom dokumentis “samuSaoversia” 2006 wlis 16 ianvars gaavrcela sazogadoebisagan komentarebisa daSeniSvnebis misaRebad da araerTi kritikuli SeniSvnac miiRoarasamTavrobo organizaciebisagan (bunebis dacvis msoflio fondiskavkasiis saprogramo ofisi _ WWF Caucasus, kavkasiis garemosdacviTiarasamTavrobo organizaciebis qseli CENN, saxeobaTa konservaciis centriNACRES, saqarTvelos mwvaneTa moZraoba, saqarTvelos metyeveTasazogadoeba, mwvane altenativa da sxv.); dokumentis komentirebisaTvisdaTmobili vadis 11 Semdeg, saministros, marTalia arcerTi SeniSvna argauziarebia da arc ganxilva mouwyvia, magram kidev “imuSava” dokumentze da2006 wlis 4 aprils igi ucvleli saxiT ganaTavsa saministros internetgverdzekanonproeqtebis siaSi. amis gasamarTleblad ki saministrosoficialurma warmomadgenelma mas mediis warmomadgenelTan saubarSiganacxada, rom arc erTi SeniSvna am dokumentTan dakavSirebiTsaministroSi ar Sesula. samwuxarod, unda aRiniSnos, rom am dargSi mimdinare samarTlebrivireformis Sedegebi, aSkarad araadekvaturia saqarTvelos garemos dacvisada bunebrivi resursebis saministros mier deklarirebul principebTanmimarTebaSi.11 SeniSvnebisa da komentarebis wardgenis bolo vada 2006 wlis 10 marti iyo.11


mas Semdeg, rac “licenziebisa da nebarTvebis Sesaxeb” saqarTveloskanoniT 12 , garemosdacviTi nebarTva saerTod amoRebul iqna nebarTvebissiidan, garemosdacviTi nebarTvebis miRebis procesSi sazogadoebismonawileobisaTvis da informaciis xelmisawvdomobisaTvis saqarTvelosgaremosdacviTi kanonmdeblobiT dadgenili mTeli rigi procedurebiufunqciod darCa (miuxedavad imisa, rom isini oficialurad aravisgauuqmebia).aRniSnuli kanonis mixedviT, tyiTsargeblobis licenziebi(tyiTsargeblobis generaluri licenzia: a) xe-tyis damzadebis specialurilicenzia da b) samonadireo meurneobis specialuri licenzia) gaicema“saqarTvelos zogadi administraciuli kodeqsiT” gaTvaliswinebulisajaro administraciuli warmoebis wesiT, rac marTalia garkveulwiladSekvecili saxiT, magram mainc iTvaliswinebs gadawyvetilebebis miRebisprocesSi monawileobaze sazogadoebis warmomadgenelTa uflebebisrealizebis meqanizmebs.”licenziebisa da nebarTvebis Sesaxeb” saqarTvelos kanoniT,sargeblobis licenziis mflobels SeuZlia dayos, ijariT gasces ansaerTod gaasxvisos licenzia. samwuxarod, am etapze gadawyvetilebismiRebis procesSi monawileobis mxriv sazogadoebis warmomadgenlebsaraviTari uflebebi aRar gaaCniaT.Tu sargeblobis licenziis konkretuli resursiT sargebloba da amsargeblobisaTvis dadgenili salicenzio pirobebi da moTxovnebi TavisiarsiT moicavs sxva licenziiT, an nebarTviT gaTvaliswinebulsaqmianobas/qmedebas da Sesabamis damatebiT pirobebs, aRniSnuli resursiTsargeblobisaTvis saerTod aRar aris aucilebeli am licenziis, annebarTvis mopoveba. e.i. aRar aris aucilebeli axali gadawyvetilebismiReba, rac bunebrivia gamoricxavs sazogadoebis warmomadgenelTamonawileobas gadawyvetilebis miRebis procesSi. yovelive aRniSnuli,samwuxarod, ganapirobebs gamWvirvaleobis dabal xarisxs licenzirebisgarkveul etapebze. tyiTsargeblobis licenzirebasTan SedarebiT gacilebiT mZimemdgomareobaa garemoze zemoqmedebis nebarTvebis gacemis procesSisazogadoebis monawileobasTan dakavSirebiT. ”licenziebisa da nebarTvebisSesaxeb” saqarTvelos kanoni adgens, rom garemoze zemoqmedebis nebarTvaunda gaices saqarTvelos zogadi administraciuli kodeqsiT gansazRvrulimartivi administraciuli warmoebis wesiT. es wesi, ki sazogadoebismonawileobas gadawyvetilebebis miRebis procesSi faqtiurad simbolursda administraciul organoze damokidebuls xdis. yovelive esmniSvnelovnad zRudavs sazogadoebis warmomadgenelTa uflebebsgadawyvetilebebis miRebis procesSi monawileobaze. rogorc sargeblobis licenzia, ise garemoze zemoqmedebisnebarTva, “licenziebisa da nebarTvebis Sesaxeb” saqarTvelos kanonismixedviT, obieqts ukavSirdeba, e.i. pirdapir kavSirSia Cvens konkretulsacxovrebel da samuSao garemosTan, romlis Sesaxeb sruli, obieqturi dadrouli informaciis miRebis ufleba ”saqarTvelos konstituciiT” arisgarantirebuli. Sesabamisad, mizanSeuwonelia “licenziebisa da nebarTvebis12 “licenziebisa da nebarTvebis Sesaxeb” saqarTvelos kanoni, 2005 wlis 24 ivnisi, #1775-rs.12


Sesaxeb” saqarTvelos kanonis mixedviT dadgenili wesiT gadawyvetilebismiReba ise, rom ar moxdes sazogadoebis drouli da adekvaturiinformireba da ar mieces sazogadoebis warmomadgenlebs saSualebamonawileoba miiRon gadawyvetilebis miRebis procesSi im farglebSi,romelic maTTvis dadgenilia saqarTvelos konstituciiT, orhusiskonvenciiT da moqmedi kanonmdeblobiT.dauSvebelia informaciis xelmisawvdomobaze da gadawyvetilebebismiRebis procesSi monawileobaze saqarTvelos konstituciiT da orhusiskonvenciiT garantirebuli uflebebis SezRudva kanonis safuZvelze. orhusis konvenciis me-6 muxlis mixedviT, saqarTvelos nakisri aqvsvaldebuleba, uzrunvelyos sazogadoebis monawileoba konkretulsaqmianobebTan dakavSirebiT gadawyvetilebebis miRebis procesSi.konvenciis es muxli adgens sakmaod farTo uflebebs sazogadoebismonawileobisaTvis. orhusis konvenciis me-6 muxlis pirveli paragrafis “a)”punqtis mixedviT, saqarTvelo, rogorc konvenciis mxare valdebuliagamoiyenos me-6 muxlis debulebebi konvenciis danarT I-Si CamoTvlilsaqmianobebTan mimarTebaSi nebarTvis mizanSewonilobis sakiTxisgadawyvetisas. orhusis konvenciis me-6 muxlis pirveli paragrafis “b)”punqtis mixedviT, saqarTvelos, rogorc konvenciis mxares valdebulebaaqvs aRebuli, rom “sakuTari erovnuli kanonmdeblobis CarCoebSi agreTvegamoiyenebs winamdebare Tavis debulebebs im SemoTavazebul saqmianobebSi,romlebic ar aris CamoTvlili I danarTSi, Tumca SeuZliaT mniSvnelovanizegavlena moaxdinon garemoze.”aRsaniSnavia, rom orhusis konvenciis I danarTi saqmianobebis sakmaodvrcel CamonaTvals adgens da bevri maTgani samwuxarod ar arisgaTvaliswinebuli arc “licenziebisa da nebarTvebis Sesaxeb” saqarTveloskanoniT da arc mis safuZvelze miRebuli saqarTvelos mTavrobisdadgenilebiT 13 “garemoze zemoqmedebis nebarTvis gacemis wesisa dapirobebis Sesaxeb debulebis damtkicebis Taobaze”. es exeba satyeoseqtorTan dakavSirebul garkveul saqmianobebsac. magaliTad,“garemosdacviTi nebarTvis Sesaxeb” saqarTvelos kanonis 14 mixedviT, Ikategoriis garemosdacviT nebarTvas (da ara garemoze zemoqmedebisnebarTvas) saWiroebs satyeo seqtorTan dakavSirebuli Semdegi samisaqmianoba:1. xe-tyis gadammuSavebeli, qaRaldis, tyavisa da safeiqro mrewvelobamerqan-burbuSelovani da merqan-boWkovani filebis warmoeba;2. tyeTmowyobis proeqtebi (satyeo da samonadireo meurneobebisorganizaciisa da gaZRolis perspeqtiuli gegmebis proeqtebis CaTvliT);3. saqarTvelos teritoriaze arsebuli wylebis, tyis, miwis, wiaRis da sxvabunebrivi resursebis dacvisa da gamoyenebis gegmebi da proeqtebi;es samive saqmianoba gaTvaliswinebulia orhusis konvenciis IdanarTiT da am samive saqmianobaze vrceldeba orhusis konvenciis me-6muxlis pirveli paragrafis “a)” punqti.“licenziebisa da nebarTvebis Sesaxeb” saqarTvelos kanoni ki,romelsac pretenzia aqvs, rom licenzirebisa da nebarTvebis dargSimoqmedi mTavari kanonia, amas aRar iTvaliswinebs.13 2005 wlis 1 seqtembris #15414 1996 wlis 15 oqtomberi #424-Is13


“garemosdacviTi nebarTvis Sesaxeb” saqarTvelos kanonis mixedviT Ikategorias aris mikuTvnebuli satyeo seqtorTan dakavSirebuli iseTisaqmianobebi, rogoricaa:• tyeTmowyobis proeqtebi (satyeo da samonadireo meurneobebisorganizaciisa da gaZRolis perspeqtiuli gegmebis proeqtebis CaTvliT); da• saqarTvelos teritoriaze arsebuli wylebis, tyis, miwis, wiaRis dasxva bunebrivi resursebis dacvisa da gamoyenebis gegmebi da proeqtebi;msgavsi gegmebisa da proeqtebisaTvis, “licenziebisa da nebarTvebisSesaxeb” saqarTvelos kanoniT araTu sazogadoebis monawileoba, aramedlicenziisa da/an nebarTvis aucileblobac ki aRar aris gaTvaliswinebuli.“licenziebisa da nebarTvebis Sesaxeb” saqarTvelos kanoni faqtiuradgamoricxavs sazogadoebis monawileobas am procesSi, rac winaaRmdegobaSimodis orhusis konvenciis moTxovnebTan, romelTa mixedviTac saqarTvelovaldebulia miiRos Sesabamisi praqtikuli da/an sxva zomebi imisaTvis, raTasazogadoebam gamWvirvale da samarTlian CarCoebSi miiRos monawileobagaremosTan dakavSirebuli gegmebis da programebis SemuSavebaSi.imis gamo, rom “licenziebisa da nebarTvebis Sesaxeb” saqarTveloskanonis mier ar aris gaTvaliswinebuli orhusis konvenciis moTxovnebi,faqtiurad ufunqciod darCa saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobaSi manamdearsebuli is debulebebi, romlebic am sakiTxebs aregulirebdnen. es exebaara marto “garemosdacviTi nebarTvis Sesaxeb” saqarTvelos kanons, aramed“saqarTvelos tyis kodeqssac”.“saqarTvelos tyis kodeqsis" 15 mixedviT, mosaxleobasa dasazogadoebrivi gaerTianebebis warmomadgenlebs ufleba aqvT monawileobamiiRon saxelmwifo tyis fondis marTvis dagegmvis yvela RonisZiebaSinebismier etapze.ufleba arsebobs, magram samwuxarod ukve gaugebaria, Tu rodis darogor unda moxdes am uflebis gamoyeneba. faqtia, rom licenziebisa danebarTvebis sferoSi ganxorcielebuli samarTlebrivi reformis Sedegadkanonmdebloba da procedurebi garTulda. erTi kanoni adgens mTeli rigisaqmianobebisTvis nebarTvis aucileblobas, meore kanoni amas gamoricxavs,erTi kanoni adgens sazogadoebis monawileobis procedurebsgadawyvetilebebis miRebis procesSi, meore kanoni ki amas ewinaaRmdegeba.aRniSnul situaciaSi sazogadoeba dabneulia da gaugebrobaSi imyofeba. aramarto nebarTvis miRebis msurveli pirebi da sazogadoebiswarmomadgenlebi, aramed TviT sajaro moxeleebic Znelad erkvevianSecvlil da garTulebul sakanonmdeblo moTxovnebSi.III Tavi. garemos dacvis inspeqcia - korufciis axali wyaro, Tu uniWo"piaris" daTvuri samsaxuri?garemos dacvisaTvis da satyeo reformis warmatebiTgansaxorcielebisaTvis saWiroa, rogorc sazogadoebrivi, ise saxelmwifokontrolis efeqturi meqanizmebi. sxavagvarad garemosdacviTikanonmdeblobis moTxovnebis Sesrulebis uzrunvelyofa SeuZlebelia.15 35-e muxlis pirveli nawilis ”b” punqti14


am TvalsazrisiT, zogadad, dadebiT movlenad unda CaiTvalos“garemos dacvis saxelmwifo kontrolis Sesaxeb” saqarTvelos kanonis 16miReba.“garemos dacvis saxelmwifo kontrolis Sesaxeb” saqarTvelos kanonimowodebulia gazardos garemos dacvaze saxelmwifo kontroli, romlisganxorcielebac unda moaxdinos garemos dacvis inspeqciam (gdi). rogorcpraqtikam gviCvena, marto kanonis miReba TavisTavad sakmarisi ar arissituaciis ukeTesobisken Sesacvlelad. garda kanonis miRebisa, kidevsaWiroa, rom igi srulyofilad amoqmeddes. amasTan dakavSirebiT,samwuxarod unda aRiniSnos, rom dRemde ar aris gamocemuli garemosdacvisa da bunebrivi resursebis ministris mier “garemos dacvissaxelmwifo kontrolis Sesaxeb” kanoniT 17 gaTvaliswinebuli mTeli riginormatiuli aqtebi, miuxedavad imisa, rom isini kanonis amoqmedebidan samiTvis vadaSi unda gamocemuliyo. es normatiuli aqtebia:“a) garemosaTvis miyenebuli zianis gaangariSebis meTodika;b) garemosdacviTi kanonmdeblobis moTxovnaTa Sesrulebis SemowmebisSesaxeb aqtis forma;g) saxelmwifo inspeqtirebisa da masTan dakavSirebuli saqmis warmoebisinstruqciebi;d) garemosdacviTi Semowmebis procesSi laboratoriuli gazomvebisa daanalizebis Catarebis nixrebi;e) inspeqciis SeiaraRebaSi arsebuli samsaxurebriv-saStato cecxlsasroliiaraRis da sabrZolo masalis nusxa.”am normatiuli aqtebis ararseboba xelisSemSleli faqtoria rogorc“garemos dacvis saxelmwifo kontrolis Sesaxeb” saqarTvelos kanonisrealuri amoqmedebisTvis, ise garemosdacviTi inspeqciis efeqturisaqmianobisTvis. es, Tavis mxriv, SeiZleba safrTxes qmnides am sferoSikorufciis ganviTarebis TvalsazrisiT.gdi-s meSveobiT xe-tyis aralegaluri Wris winaaRmdeg brZolaSesaZlebelia. samwuxarod, jerjerobiT es meqanizmic friad susti aRmoCnda,ramdenadac gdi ar akontrolebs mdgomareobas qveynis mTel teritoriaze,is axdens reagirebas calkeul faqtebze, an awyobs gegmiur Semowmebebs.garkveulwilad, gdi-s TanamSromlebi ”mexanZreebis” funqcias asruleben.kontrols isic arTulebs, rom ”licenziebisa da nebarTvebis Sesaxeb”kanonma erTob SezRuda inspeqcia. kerZod, aRniSnuli kanonis Tanaxmad, gdiweliwadSi erTxel an TviTon waradgens angariSs, an sxva SemTxvevaSi,ministrma unda gamosces individualuri-samarTlebrivi aqti ama Tu immewarmis SerCeviTi Semowmebis mizniT. cxadia, rom aseTi situacia ver qmnisim makontrolebel ”bades”, romelsac SeeZleba qveynis masStabiTareguliros Wrebi da damdgari zianis sruli an obieqturi suraTiwarmoadginos. saxezea mxolod fragmentuli, Semowmebuli satyeomeurneobis an cxeli xaziT Semosuli informaciis gadamowmebis SedegadmiRebuli lokaluri suraTi. mTlianad qveynis, an Tundac romelimeregionis Sesaxeb aseTi informacia ar arsebobs. aq SeiZleba mxolodvaraudis gakeTeba. ra Tqma unda, licenziantis mxridan adgili eqnebadarRvevebs aralegaluri (zedmeti an WraSi mouniSnavi) Wrebis da Wris16 2005 wlis 23 ivnisis #1767-rs17 “garemos dacvis saxelmwifo kontrolis Sesaxeb” saqarTvelos kanonis 22-e muxlis me-2nawili15


wesebis sxva darRvevebis saxiT (mag. saukeTeso xeebis moWra, daavadebuli daxmeli xeebis datoveba, gauwmendaoba da a.S.).praqtikulad aRar xdeba Wrgavlili ubnebis kontroli. Tu adremetyeve mihyveboda tyekafze piradi moxmarebis mizniT tyiT mosargebles dayuradRebas aqcevda, rom mouniSnavi xe ar moWriliyo, axla amgvari rampraqtikulad aRar xdeba. Tu xdeba tyiT mosargebleTa Semowmeba, mxolodtyis gamosasvlelebTan arsebul xergilebze. bevr satyeo meurneobebSiakrZales xergilebi, vinaidan miiCnies, rom aq xdeboda korufciuligarigebebi. samagierod, tyeSi gasvlebsa da reidebs, ukanono qmedebebisgamovlenis mizniT, atarebs gdi. es iyo analogia im reformisa, romelicganxorcielda Sinagan saqmeTa saministroSi, roca gauqmda sagzao policia,gauqmda postebi trasebze da aikrZala reidebSi manqanebis gaCereba, xoloes funqcia daekisra patruls. gdi-isTvis dasaxuli amocana gacilebiT Znelida praqtiulad Seusrulebelia. tyeSi ukanono Wris aRmoCena moiTxovsuzarmazar adamianur resursebs, saTanado codnasa da gamocdilebasTnerTad, rac, samwuxarod, jer am struqturas ar gaaCnia. satyeo meurneobebismuSakebic tyis dacvis maTze kanoniT dakisrebul funqcias SeusrulebladmiiCneven, radgan tyis dacvis muSaks abaria aTasobiT heqtari tye, xoloxelfasi mcirea. aseTi situacia, roca ukanono qmedeba erTma saxelmwifouwyebam SeiZleba gadaabralos meores, xolo orivem ”obieqtur” pirobebs(mwiri SesaZleblobebi, xalxis simcire da a.S.), qmnis karg SesaZleblobebskorufciuli garigebebsaTvis. marTlac, satyeo meurneobis departametissistemis muSakebi kerZo saubrebSi korufciul garigebebSi brals sdebengdi-is (”tyeSi reidebs Tavad atareben da fuls arTmeven xalxs, iq vin rasdainaxavs. xergilebze amdeni fuli ar keTdeboda, mainc ucxo Tvals SeeZlodanaxva” 18 ). xazi unda gavusvaT erT metad mwvave problemas – ukanonodmopovebuli bunebrivi resursis CamorTmevisa da realizaciis proceduras.igi imdenad dauxvewavi da mouxerxebelia, rom problemas uqmnis gdi-sa dasatyeo meurneobis TanamSromlebs da ubiZgebs korufciisaken. am wesebismixedviT, isini ar iqnebian dainteresebuli, rom daafiqsiron ukanono xetye,romelic maTTvis Tavis tkivilad iqceva – CamorTmeuli unda aRweron,waiRon (amisTvis transporti da sawvavi ar gaaCniaT da, rogorc wesi,damrRvevis an sxva kerZo mewarmis xarjze xdeba), daasawyobon (arcSesabamisi saTavsoebi aqvT amisTvis da isev damrRvevis, an sxva kerZomewarmis xarjze axerxeben), valdebuli arian sasamarTlosgadawyvetilebamde Seinaxon, rogorc nivTmtkiceba da izrunon, rom xarisxiar gauaresdes, Torem saTanado fasad aRar gaiyideba.....Tumca, Tu saerTod ar gamoavlenen darRvevebs, esec ar iqneba kargimaTTvis, radgan cud muSaobaSi da danaSaulis dafarvaSi SeiZleba dasdonbrali. amitom, arsebuli situacia saSualebas iZleva SerCeviT iqnas”aRmoCnili” ukanonod mopoveli xe-tye da am ukanonobis Camdeni. amukanasknelma icis, rom wesi daarRvia, amitom Tu eqneba yofili sagzaopoliciis msgavsi SeTavazeba - ”gagiformo, Tu aqve gadaixdi”, cxadia raarCevansac gaakeTebs.18 asociacia mwvane alternativas proeqtis - “adgilobrivi SesaZleblobebis ganviTarebasaqarTveloSi xe-tyis aralegaluri Wris aRkveTisaTvis”, farglebSi Catarebuli samiznejgufebis gamokiTxvis Sedegebi. proeqtis xorcieldeba evrokavSiris finansurimxardaWeriT.16


gdi-s muSaobis kidev erTi aspeqti badebs kiTxvebs – es aris saxerxisawarmoebis daxurva/daluqva. mas mediis saSualebiT xSirad vxedavTreportaJebs, romelSic asaxulia, rogor aRmoaCina gdi-m raWis Tu svaneTismiuval mTebSi, kodoris xeobaSic ki, ukanonod da darRvevebiT momuSavesaxerxi sawarmoebi da daluqa isini. amis Semxedvare rigiT moqalaqeebSiaraerTgvarovan reaqcias iwvevs is faqtebi, rom, magaliTad, borjomSi daadigenSi trasis gayolebaze da dasaxlebuli punqtebis centrSi mTelisimZlavriTa da TvalsaCino darRevebiT muSaoben saxerxebi – naxerxiTa danarCenebiT abinZureben niadagsa da wyals. aseve araerTxel davafiqsireTsiuJetis gasvlidan mesame-meoTxes dRes, rom saxerxi, romelictelekamerebis win ”dailuqa”, sruli datvirTviT muSaobda. aseTi faqtebiTavisTavad badebs azrs SerCeviTi samarTlisa da SesaZlo korufciuligarigebebis Sesaxeb. erT-erT Sexvdraze 19 Cven gavaJRereT es Tema dawarmovadgineT ramdenime saxerxis fotosuraTi onis raionidan, romelicwina kviraSi eTerSi gasuli siuJetis mixedviT daluquli unda yofiliyo.gdi-s warmomadgenelma gangvimarta, rom isini daluqvas ar axdenen,ramdenadac sakanonmdelo baza amis saSualebas ar iZleva. marTalia,”garemos dacvis saxelmwifo kontrolis Sesaxeb” kanoniT maT TiTqos amisufleba miniWebuli aqvT, magram procedurebi ar aris gawerili. xolosatelevizio siuJetebis aseTi saxiT gasvla mas mediis saSualebebsdabralda. SesaZloa, es marTlac mxolod garemos dacvis saministros”piaris” xarvezebi iyos. Zalze samwuxaroa, rom aseTi muSaoba daTvursamsaxurs uwevs gdi-s reputacias. asea Tu ise, raionebSi gdi-s korufciuli kavSirebisa da satelefonosamarTlis Sesaxeb pirad saubarSi yvela laparakobs, magram Riad amisTqmas eridebian. saaSkaraoze es sakiTxi mxolod adigenis raionisgamgebelma aleqsandre suxiaSvilma gamoitana. samcxe-javaxeTis regionSigamomaval gazeT'"samxreTis karibWeSi" dabeWdil statiaSi gamgebeli bralssdebs gdi-s korufciaSi. igive gaimeora suxiaSilma gazeT "axal versiaSi".citatebi gazeTidan 20 : "adigenis satyeo meurneoba da garemos dacvisinspeqcia korufciuli danaSaulebrivi jgufia, romlebic erTmaneTSiSesaniSnavad arian aTqvefilebi. maTTan yvelaferi fulzea gadasuli. erTadakontroleben, saidan ra gamodis da Tanxas jibeSi ideben", - acxadebsraionis gamgebeli aleqsandre suxiaSvili". "adigenis satyeo meurneobasbiujetSi erTi TeTri ar Semoaqvs. masala WiaTurisa da saCxerismimarTulebiT Zveli bileTebiT gadis. kuburi metri or larad iyideba,romlis daxerxvis Semdeg SesaniSnavi masala gamodis. erevansa da baqoSikuburi metri xuTas dolarad iyideba". "satyeo meurneoba ganuviTarebelixalxiTa da araspecialistebiTaa dakompleqtebuli, romlebsac marto fulida korufciuli garigebebi ainteresebT".gazeTis statiaSi gamgebeli suxiaSvili Riad ambobs imas, rasacadgilobrivi macxovreblebi da satyeo seqtoris muSakebi amboben: rom gdiakontrolebs xe-tyis bizness, acilebs ukanonod mopovebuli xe-tyiT19 2005 wlis 23 dekembers asociacia mwvane alternativas proeqtis - “adgilobriviSesaZleblobebis ganviTareba saqarTveloSi xe-tyis aralegaluri Wris aRkveTisaTvis”,farglebSi organizebuli seminari, masalebi ixileT: www.foresteo.net20 samxreTis karibWe, 02.08.2006, ”aleqsandre suxiaSvili – masaliT datvirTul manqanebsgedebi Tu mtredebi acileben”, statia moamzada gulo koxoZem, adigeni.17


datvirTul manqanebs da sxv. "axalcixeSi agroveben adigenidan gasul 15, 20kuburi metri masaliT datvirTul manqanebs, Semdeg Caujdebian gedebi (aseeZaxian xalxSi gdi-s TanamSromlebs-red.), Tu mtredebi da acileben".gamgeblis braldebas samasale xe-tyis or larad gayidvis Sesaxebsatyeos direqtori gavaSeli pasuxobs, rom mosaxleobas 5-10 wlis winaTtyeSi datovebuli narCenebi gaaqvs, razec kanonmdeblobiT or larze metisgadaxdevinebis ufleba ar aqvs. Cven saeWvod migvaCnia, ramdenad SeiZleba 10wlis winaT datovebuli narCeni Tundac saSeSed gamodges. Tumca, regionSityeebSi tyiT mosargebleebis mier Wris wesebis darRvevis gamo uamravinarCeni xe-tye yria (valdebuli arian gawmindon narCenebisgan, radgan xelsuSlis tyis ganaxlebas da ganapirobebs daavadebebis gavrcelebas). satyeomeurneobisa da gdi-s warmomadgenlebi piriqiT sdeben brals raionisgamgebels xe-tyis biznesisadmi pirad dainteresebaSi. msgavsi faqtebiSesawmoblad Znelia da moiTxovs Sesabamisi uflebamosilebis mqoneorganoebis muSaobas. rogorc adgilobrivi macxovreblebi anonimurigamokiTxvisas aRniSnaven, wina wlebSi xe-tyis masalis gadazidvisaTvissaWiro iyo gamgeblis specialuri werili. "saqarTvelos tyis kodeqsi"aseTi dokumentis saWiroebas ar cnobs. magram problema is aris, romrogorc vnaxeT, dRes arsebulma normatiulma bazam SesaZloa ubiZgossajaro moxeles Caidinos samoxeleo danaSauli. saxelmwifo samsaxurisageba ise, rom misi udanaSaulod muSaoba damyarebuli iyos mxolodadamianebis pirad patiosnebaze da ara gamarTul instituciur mowyobasa dasakanonmdeblo bazaze, yovelTvis ganwiruli iqneba warumateblobisaTvis.IV Tavi. korufciuli garigebebis SesaZleblobebi xe-tyis masaliseqsportirebisas2005 wlis bolos da 2006 wlis dasawyisSi cvlilebi SevidasaqarTvelos kanonmdeblobaSi avtosatransporto saSualebebis sagabaritoparametrebTan dakavSirebiT. kerZod, axali wesebis mixedviT, TiToeulRerZze datvirTva ar unda aRematebodes 10 tonas, an/da qarxnuli wesiTdaSvebul wonas, an/da saerTo wona 44 tonas. winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi,tvirTis mflobels soliduri jarima elodeba - TiToeul zedmet tonaze 1000 lari. sabaJo samsaxuri valdebulia Seamowmos manqanis wona dadarRvevis SemTxvevaSi gamoiZaxos sapatrulo policia, romelic Seadgensadministraciuli samarTaldarRvevis aqts da damnaSaves daakisrebssaxdels. darRvevis SemTxvevaSi satransporto saSualebis mflobelmasakuTari xarjiT unda moaxdinos tvirTis koreqtireba: dacalossatransporto saSualeba da moqmedi wesebis dacviT Tavidan datvirTos.satvirTo manqanebis wona ZiriTadad sabaJoze fiqsirdeba, Tumca,Semowmeba sapatrulo policiasac SeuZlia.saqarTvelodan ZiriTadi merqniani saeqsporto saxeobaa wifeli,aseve garkveuli wilad gadis wiwvovnebi - umetesad naZvi da fiWvi. rogorcwesi, saqarTvelos trasebze mZime avtotransportiT ZiriTadad axladmoWrili xe-tye gadaaqvT, iSviaTad naxevrad gamomSrali. mxolod wifeli,Tu is gadis sazRvarze, gadaaqvT kargad gamomSral mdgomareobaSi.specialuri satyeo literaturaSi gamoTvlilia 1 kuburi metri merqniswona kilogramebSi (cdomileba meryeobs 10%-is farglebSi).18


merqnis 1 m 3 wona kilogramebSisaxeoba mSrali naxevradmSrali axalmoWriliwifeli 630-710 770 968naZvi 350-600 500-600 794fiWvi 310-710 550-560 863soWi 370-600 470 827saSualod trailerze deben 25-30 m 3 daxerxil xe-tyes. CvenSi,ZiriTadad, xe-tyis gadasazidad gamoiyeneba "kamazis" firmis bortianisatvirTo manqanebi. "kamazis" mxolod or models SeuZlia waiRos 25 m 3wifelis masala, ise, rom daculi iyos kanonmdeblobis moTxovnebi. TudarRveva (wonis gadaWarbeba) dafiqsirdeba, garda pirdapiri jarimisa, esxe-tyis mflobelisTvis sxva damatebiT danaxarjebsac gamoiwvevs (xelaxalidatvirTva, damatebiTi satransporto xarjebi). traileris naxevraddatvirTva aseve wamgebiania.Cveni informaciiT, sabaJoze xdeba xe-tyis naklebi moculobisgaformeba. SesaZloa hqondeT xe-tyis mopovebis sabuTi ufro metraodenobaze, magram sabaJoze dafiqsirdes ufro naklebi. magaliTad, xetyiskanonierebisa da warmoSobis dokumentebSi dafiqsirebulia 35 m 3wifeli. es raodenoba woniT aris 22 750 kg. satvirTo manqanas (mag. "kamaz53229") ufleba aqvs gadaitanos mxolod 16 700 kg. Sesabamisad, imisaTvis, romacilebul iqnes jarimebi da sxva danaxarjebi, unda gaformdes araumetes 25m 3 -isa. sabuTebis (satyeo meurneobis mier gacemuli xe-tyis kanonierebisa dawarmoSobis dokumentebi) mixedviT, mas kidev aqvs "darCenili" kanoniradmopovebuli 10 m 3 merqani. es " sxvaoba", SesaZloa Seivsos ukanonodmopovebuli xe-tyis xarjze, romelic gacilebiT iafia, vidre yalbisabuTebi 21 . anu "gaTeTreba" ufro advili xdeba, vinaidan mniSvnelobanisabuTebis didi nawili ukve aqvs tvirTis mflobels.savaraudod, korufciaSi sabaJos garda SesaZloa iyos CarTulisapatrulo policia, finansuri policia da mesazRvreebi. Tu darRvevasaqarTvelos teritoriaze dafiqsirda, damnaSaves administraciulisasjeli elodeba, magram Tu darRveva somxeTis an TurqeTis mxaresdafiqsirda, es ukve kontrabandaa da seriozuli sisxlis samarTlisdanaSaulia. amitom, xe-tyis eqsports eweva mewarmeTa mxolod is nawili,romelTac es gza "gakafuli da aTvisebuli” aqvT. Cveni informaciiT,somxeTis mxares kontrabanduli tvirTebis usafrTxod gadatanas vinmemanukiani agvarebs. Tu xe-tye masTan midis, problemebi moxsnili gaqvs - aseamboben mewarmeebi.Cveni azriT, arsebuli mdgomareobis gamosworebisaTvis aucilebeliasabaJos da satyeo departamentis mier gacemuli dokumentebis Sedareba damudmivi monitoringi; aseve mezobeli qveynebis sabaJoebidan monacemebisaReba da Sedareba.21 borjomis da adigenis raionSi somxeTidan Camosuli saqmosnebi mzad arian xe-tyis yalbsabuTebSi gadaixadon 120-140 dolari 1 kubur metrSi.19


V Tavi. ukanono qmedebebis SesaZleblobebi mosaxleobis SeSiTuzrunvelyofisaszamTarSi gaTbobisaTvis SeSas iyenebs Tbilisis mosaxleobismniSvnelovani nawili. rogorc momxmareblebi da SeSis gamyidvelebiamboben, am saxis saTbobi daaxloebiT 100 laris ekonomias iZleva gazTan,gansakuTrebiT ki denis saSualebiT gaTbobasTan SedarebiT. aqve undagaviTvaliswinoT, rom Tanxis es raodenoba oficialuri saarsebo minimumistolia, xolo minimaluri pensia aris 38 lari. oficialuri statistikiTSromisunariani mosaxleobis 14% umuSevaria 22 ; mosaxleobis 50% arisRaribi, xolo 17,4% - ukiduresad gaWirvebuli 23 .zamTarSi qalaq Tbilisis gaziTa da deniT momarageba mniSvnelovaniSeferxebebiT xdeba. aqedan gamomdinare, SeZlebuli ojaxebic ki iZulebulnixdebian bazarze SeZenili SeSiT gaitanon civi zamTari, an yoveliSemTxvevisTvis SeiZinon garkveuli maragi. garda amisa, mcire purissacxobebis nawilic SeSaze muSaobs.Tbiliss SeSiT amaragebs ramdenime adgilas mowyobili specialuribazrobebi. erT-erTi maTgani mdebareobs gldanSi. Cvens mier inicirebuliiqna Jurnalisturi gamoZieba, romelic gazeT “axali versiis” 24Jurnalistebma ganaxorcieles.gldanis SeSis bazari cxvariWamiidan da TianeTidan maragdeba. 2005-2006 wlebis zamTris sezonSi 1 kuburi metri daWrili wiflis SeSis SeZena 35larad SeiZleboda, rcxilis – 50 larad. arcTu iSviaTad iyideba muxisSeSac.movaWreTa umetesobas ar gaaCnda aranairi sabuTi, romelicadasturebs merqnis warmoSobis kanonierebas. zogierTi maTgani ambobda,rom isini mxolod gadamyidvelbi arian da sabuTebi amitom ar gaaCniaT,xolo nawili ki arc malavda, rom saSeSe merqani ukanonod hqondamopovebuli. nawils gaaCnda nebarTvebi (tyis saWreli bileTebi), Tumca maTmier mopovebuli merqanic ar SeiZleba CagveTvala kanonieradmopovebulad. moWrili merqani aranairad ar Seesabameboda sanitarul, anspecialur Wrebs, vinaidan SeSa mzaddeboda saukeTeso, jansaRi xeebisagan.rac mTavaria, rogorc wesi, es xeebi moipoveba gamoyofili tyekafisa damoniSvnis gareSe. gamoZiebis dros, TianeTis raionis sofel JebotasTanaxlos mdebare tyesTan bazrobis movaWreebma 3 saaTis ganmavlobaSidaazades 2 satvirTo manqana wiflis SeSa WraSi mouniSnavi xeebisagan dadaubrkoleblad Camoitanes TbilisSi. imdenad, ramdenadac mopovebis drosar xdeba kontroli, anu Wris wesebis darRvevis dafiqsireba ar xdebadarRvevis adgilas - tyeSi, merqnis ukanono warmoSobis dadgena Zneliatrasaze, an Tundac bazarSic ki, Tu mflobels kanoniebisa da warmoSobisdamadasturebebli dokumentebi gaaCnia.gldanis SeSis bazarze SesaZlebelia erTbaSad didi partiis SekveTac- 1 an 2 manqana ”zili” erTi Ramis ganmavlobaSi SeiZleba dagimzadon, racgasuli zamTris sezonis fasebiT saSualod 900 lari Rirda. aqveSesaZlebelia samasale morebis SekveTac, rac gacilebiT Zvirad fasobs.22 saqarTvelos Sromis, janmrTelobisa da socialuri dacvis ministris gancxadeba23 msoflio bankis qveynis daxmarebis strategia, 200524 ix. gazeTi "axali versia" #394, 2005 w., 31 oqtomberi - 7 noemberi, “erTi Rame tyis ukanonomxerxavebTan.20


aRsaniSnavia, rom am droisaTvis axali kanonmdeblobiT merqnisdamzdebaze licenzia gaicemoda auqcionis wesiT, xolo SeSisdamzadebisaTvis saWiro dokumenti jer ar arsebobda. is SeSisdamamzadeblebi, romlebic miiCnevdnen, rom amas kanonierad akeTebdnen,ambobdnen, rom licenziebSi 300 lari aqvT gadaxdili da arcsamarTaldamcavebis da arc gdi-s ar eSiniaT. vis gadauxades dasaxelebuliTanxa, CvenTis gaugebari darCa. gamoikveTa saSeSe merqnis ukanono Wrebis Semdegi mizezebi:1. kanonis aRsrulebis dabali done. praqtikulad ar xdeba Wragavliliubnebis kontroli, tyeebis mdgomareobis Seswavla da ukanono Wrebisgamovlena. satyeo meurneobebi, romlebic pasuxismgebeli arian aRniSnulze,ver, an ar axorcielben amas. Cvenis azriT, ZiriTadi ganmapirobebelifaqtori aris interesTa konfliqti satyeo meurneobebis doneze – maTfunqciaSi Sedis konkretul, erTsa da imave teritoriaze gascen WrisnebarTva da gamoavlinon darRvevebi. Tumca, satyeo seqtorSi dasaqmebuliadamianebis umetesoba ukanono Wrebisa da tyeebis savalalo mdgomareobismizezad asaxeleben mwir sabiujeto dafinansebas, Statebis simcires,arasakmaris xelfass da a.S. yvela es CamoTvlili faqtori - subieqturic daobieqturic – SeiZleba daviyvanoT erT ZiriTad mizezze: saqarTvelossatyeo seqtoris instituciuri mowyoba da marTvis modeli uvargisia,radganac:• ver uzrunvelyofs interesTa konfliqtis acilebas: satyeo meurneobebi,romlebic satyeo departamentis adgilobrivi organoebi arian, anuformalurad saxelmwifo (sajaro) organoebi, praqtikulad rCebiansameurneo erTeulebad. es TavisTavd qmnis korufciul garemos;• satyeo seqtori damokidebulia mwir sabiujeto dafinansebaze,tyeTsargeblobidan Semosuli Tanxebi ki ar xmardeba tyis dacvas,aRwarmoebas da aRdgenas. es samuSaoebi praqtiulad qveyanaSi aRarmimdinareobs.2. kanonis aRsrulebis meore saxelmwifo intstrumenti – gdi – araRmoCnda jerjerobiT efeqturi. Seqmnil situaciaSi, roca or uwyebas –satyeo meurneobasa da gdi-s SeuZliaT urTierTs gadaabralon gafuWebulisaqme, qmnis saukeTeso niadags ukanonobisa da korufciisaTvis.3. axali kanonmdebloba, romelmac bolo dros ufro rTuli dagaugebari gaxada tyiTsargeblobis uflebis mopovebis procedurebi.aRniSnulze publikaciis sxva nawilSi visaubrebT ufro dawvrilebiT. aq kimxolod 2005 wlis zafxulidan saSeSe merqnis gacemisaTvis saWironormatiuli bazis mouwesrigeblobas SevexebiT. saqarTvelos kanonis "licenziebisa da nebarTvebis Sesaxeb" Seqmnisasmis avtorebs saerTod daaviwydaT, rom saqarTveloSi xe-tyes adgilobrivimosaxleobac iyenebs piradi miznebisaTvis da am mizniT udidesi raodenobisresursis aTviseba xdeba.kanonis teqstidan gaugebaria, rogor unda moxdes piradi moxmarebismizniT SeSis mopoveba soflis macxovreblebis mier: glexma auqcionze undaSeiZinos ojaxis gasaTbobad SeSis mosapovebeli xe-tyis damzadebisspecialuri licenzia, Tu stiqiur dinebazea miSvebuli es saqme. garemosdacvisa da bunebrivi resursebis saministros xelmZRvaneloba ambobda, romSeSiT mosaxleobis uzrunvelyofas licenziis pirobebiT daakisreben xe-tyis21


damzadebis specialuri licenziis mflobels, xolo im SemTxvevaSi, Tu vermoxdeba garkveuli tyekafebis gacema generaluri an specialuri licenziiisgayidviT, adgilobrivi satyeo meurneobebi gascemen mosaxleebze bileTebs(saministros ar gaaCnda azri im SemTxvevisTvis, Tu ar gamoCndebodakomerciuli organizacia, romelic dainteresdeboda konkretul raionSilicenziis auqcionis wesiT SeZeniT - rac moxda kidec 2005 wels).Cven mivuTiTebdiT, rom amgvari ram SeuZlebeli iyo Semdegi mizezebisgamo: kanonis me-4 muxli krZalavs, garda am kanonSi arsebulisa, sxvalicenziisa da nebarTvis SemoRebas, aseve administraciuli organos mieriseTi valdebulebebis SemoRebas, romelic raime saqmianobazeSinaarsobrivad salicenzio an sanebarTvo reJimis dawesebas an gulisxmobs,an gulisxmobs raime saxiT administraciuli organos Tanxmobisaucileblobas. sayuradReboa, rom am SemTxvevaSi administraciul organoskvlav ekisreba sameurneo funqciebi. ufro zustad, administraciuliorganos (saministro, departamenti) sameurneo erTeuls (satyeo meurneoba)evaleba sanebarTvo mowmobis (bileTis) gacema, amave sameurneo erTeulsevaleba mosaWreli resursis Sefaseba da SerCeva, Semowmebis Catareba dadarRvevis aRmoCenisas dajarimeba da sxv. imis fonze, rom araerTxel iyonaTqvami saqarTvelos mTavrobis mier satyeo seqtoris reformisa da amsferoSi korufciis aRmofxvris aucileblobis Sesaxeb, msgavsi regulaciebisSemoReba, Tundac droebiT, aSkarad ukan gadadgmuli nabiji iyo.saministros imTaviTve mivuTiTeT 25 arsebul sakanonmdebloxvrelebze, aseve im siZneleebze, romelic axlda am sakanonmdeblocvlilebebs. iqve vuTiTebdiT, rom korufciis donis daweva sanebarTvodokumentebis saxeobebis gauqmebiT xelovnuri iqneboda, xolotyiTsargeblobis SemTxvevaSi aseTi meTodiT korufciis donis daweva araris pirdapirproporciuli tyis mdgomareobis gaumjobesebisa.xelisuflebis zogierTi warmomadgenlis ganmartebiT 26 , SeSiTmosaxleobis momarageba ar aris am kanonis regulirebis sagani, Tumca, amasver daveTanxmebiT Semdegis gamo: kanonSi aRniSnulia, rom “es kanoniaregulirebs iseT organizebul saqmianobas an qmedebas, romelic exebapirTa ganusazrvrel wres, moicavs gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovan saxelmwifoan sazogadoebriv interesebs an dakavSirebulia saxelmwifo resursebiTsargeblobasTan. kanoniT dadgenil SemTxvevaSi am kanonis moqmedebaSeiZleba gavrceldes agreTve araorganizebul saqmianobaze an qmedebaze".mosaxleobis SeSiT momarageba ki namdvilad aris saxelmwifo dasazogadoebrivi interesi da xe-tye namdvilad aris saxelmwifo resursi.Znelia daeTanxmo, rom es saqmianoba im mizeziT ar SeiZleba iyos am kanonisregulirebis sagani, rom igi exeba mxolod organizebul saqmianobas.gaugebaria, ra parametriT aris miCneuli mag. mdinaridan xreSis amoRebaorganizebul, xolo xe-tyis mopoveba SeSis miRebis mizniT - romliTacsargeblobs mosaxleobis naxevarze meti qveyanaSi - araorganizebulsaqmianobad; ra parametriT aris licenziebisa da nebarTvebisdepartamentis gacemuli nebarTva saqmianobis organizeba da saxelmwifo25asociacia mwvane alternativas werilebi garemos dacvisa da bunebrivi resursebisministrs #04/03-33, 16.06.2005; #15-02/39, 15.07.2005.26 saxelmwifo ministris moadgile vaxtang leJavas mier, 2005 wlis 10 noembers kavkasiisgaremosdacviTi arasamTavrobo organizaciebis qselis mier organizebul Sexvedraze.Sexvedra eZRvneboda garemos dacvis sferoSi gadawyvetilebis miRebis procesSisazogadoebis monawileobis uzrunvelyofis problemas.22


saqveuwyebo dawesebuleba satyeo meurneobis departamentis mier tyissaWreli bileTebisa da xe-tyis warmoSobisa da kanonierebisdamadasturebeli dokumentebis gacema - ara?! Tu saxelmwifo ar gaukeTebsorganizebas, arc erTi saqmianoba ar iqneba organizebuli. Cven migvaCnia,rom es aris kanonis lafsusi da gamosworebas saWiroebs, vinaidan droTaganmavlobaSi aseTi menejmenti mankier mxareebs SeiZens. Tu aqamde tyeSiukanono qmedebebisa da korufciis SeniRbva ZiriTadad xdeboda sxvadasxvasaxelwodebis Wris meSveobiT, umeteswilad sanitaruliT, momavalSiSesaZlebelia es roli “SeSis mopovebam” Seasrulos.Cveni varaudi SeSis gacemis procedurisas warmoSobili siZneleebisada "sakanonmdeblo xvrelebis" Sesaxeb dadasturda aRniSnuli kanonidangamomdinare normatiuli aqtebis miRebis periodSi. iqidan, Tu ra dinamikiTicvleba normatiuli aqtebi, naTlad gamoCnda saministrosaraTanamimdevruloba, raime gegmis arqona da zogadad sakiTxis arcodna.kanoni “licenziebisa da nebarTvebis Sesaxeb” miRebul iqna 2005 wlis15 ivliss. 2005 wlis 18 ivliss gamoica ministris brZaneba (#197)tyiTsargeblobis licenziis gacemisa da xelSekrulebis dadebis mizniTtenderisa da auqcionis Catarebis wesis Sesaxeb”. bevr punqtSi igiewinaaRmdegeba kanonis principebs.kanonis ZalaSi Sesvlis Semdeg: 2005 wlis 11 agvistos gamovidamTavrobis dadgenileba (#132) “tyiTsargeblobis licenziebis gacemisawesisa da pirobebis Sesaxeb debulebis damtkicebis Taobaze”; 21 seqtembersiZulebuli gaxdnen masSi SeetanaT cvlilebebi (mTavrobis # 161dadgenileba), radgan mosaxleobisaTvis SeSis damzadebas raime kanonierisarCuli hqonoda; 22 seqtembers gamoica ministris axali brZaneba “xe-tyiskanonierebisa da warmoSobis damadasturebeli dokumentebis gacemis wesisdamtkicebis Sesaxeb (#380)”; 23 seqtembers Sevida kidev erTi cvlilebadadgenilebaSi “tyiT sargeblobis licenziebis gacemis wesisa da pirobebisSesaxeb debulebis damtkicebis Taobaze (#132)”; xolo 29 seqtembersministris axali brZanebiT Sevida cvlileba 22 seqtembris brZanebaSi; 3noembers gamoica mTavrobis dadgenileba #200, riTac kidev erTxelgakeTda SeSis gacemasTan dakaSirebuli Sesworeba mTavrobis imave 11agvistos # 132 dadgenilebaSi; ganisazRvra, rom xe-tyes adgilobrivimosaxleobis piradi moxmarebisaTvis gascemdnen TavianTi kompetenciisfarglebSi satyeo meurneobis departamentisa da daculi teritoriebisdepartamentis Sesabamisi administraciebi martivi administraciuliwarmoebis wesiT. es organoebi gascemen saSeSe merqnis kanonierebisdamadasturebel dokuments. am dadgenilebis mixedviT, dokumentis formaunda damtkicebuliyo ministris brZanebiT.aqve sagulisxmoa, rom mTavrobis azriT, adgilobrivi mosaxleoba,piradi moxmarebisaTvis, xe-tyes marto SeSad moixmars (adgilobriviorganoebi gascemen mxolod saSeSe merqnis kanonierebis damadasturebeldokuments, samasale merqanze ufleba ar aqvT). Tu sofelSi mcxovrebadamians sWirdeba saxlis aSeneba-SekeTeba, saqaTmisa da naliis aSeneba, ezosSemoRobva - man aTiode kubometi samasale merqnis moWris ufleba anauqcionze unda moipovos, an eliavas bazrobaze SeiZinos daxerxili masala.cxadia, arc erTs da arc meores praqtikulad adgili ar eqneba.adgilobrivma mosaxlem an unda moiparos xe-tye - anu ukanonod moWras, ankorufciul garigebaSi Sevides satyeo meurneobis administraciasTan, rom23


man samasale merqani gaaformos, rogorc saSeSe, an Tvali daxuWos ukanonoWraze, an gaaformos, rogorc mcire darRveva.rac Seexeba SeSis mopovebis kanonier gzebs: saSeSe merqniskanonierebis damadasturebeli dokumentis forma ministris brZanebiTdamtkicda 2005 wlis 20 dekembers 27 . Tavad am formebis dabeWdvasa daadministraciebSi darigebas kidev garkveuli dro dasWirda. anu 2005-2006wlebis zamTris sezonze SeSis damzadebis kanonieri safuZveli ararsebobda. roca is SemuSavda da damtkicda, am dros SeSa ukve TiTqmisyvelas momaragebuli hqonda da erTeulebma Tu isargebles axali wesebiT(Tumca ar arsebobs garantia, rom isini kvlav ar Seicvleba). es is ana-banaa,romlis codnac gadawyvetilebis mimRebebs aucileblad moeTxovebaT.yovelive zemoT aRniSnulidan gamomdinare SeiZleba davaskvnaT, romtyis ekosistemebis stiqiuri ganadgurebis, ukanono nebarTvebis gacemisa dadabal doneze korufciuli qmedebebisaTvis moxerxebuli safuZveli SeqmnaaseTma sakanonmdeblo qaosma.VI Tavi. kanonis uzenaesobis deklarirebuli principi kvlav qaRaldzerCebaimereTis regionSi wablnarebis mdgomareoba friad aradamakmayofilebelia.aq aRiniSneba wablnarebis xmoba sxvadasxva xarisxiTada intensivobiT. wablnarebis xmobis mTavari mizezia wablis qerqis kibo.msoflio bankis tyis ganviTarebis proeqtis farglebSi Catarebuli kvlevismixedviT, calkeul adgilebSi saRi xeebis raodenoba 16 procents araRemateba. am kvlevis daskvnaSi vkiTxulobT: "imereTis regionisgamokvleuli satyeo meurneobebis wablnarebSi fitosanitariulimdgomareoba wablis kibos (Cryphonectria parasitica) gavrcelebisa da xmobisorive tipis intensivobis mixedviT aseTi mdgomareobaa xuTive satyeomeurneobis saSualo maCveneblebidan gamomdinare: pirobiTad saRia xeebis –43,87%; xmobadia – 40,53%; gamxmaria – 15,60%, e.i. xmobadi da gamxmari xeebissaerTo raodenobaa – 56,13%, rac imas gviCvenebs, rom am regioniswablnarebis mdgomareoba friad aradamakmayofilebelia da saswrafodmoiTxovs farTo masStabis gamajansaRebeli RonisZiebebisganxorcielebas" 28 .imereTis wablnarebis gamajansaRebeli RonisZiebis gatarebasafuZvlad daedo saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobis darRvevis qvemoT moyvanilSemTxvevas. 2005 wlis 29 ivnisis #29 mTavrobis sxdomaze moismines garemosdacvisa da bunebrivi resursebis ministris batoni g. papuaSvilis moxseneba"saxelmwifo tyis fondis teritoriaze wablis qerqis kiboTi daavadebuliwablnari koromebis mdgomareobisa da maTi gajansaRebis gzebis Sesaxeb".27garemos dacvisa da bunebrivi resursebis ministris brZaneba #566'"saSeSe merqniskanonierebis damadasturebeli dokumentis formisa da gacemis wesis Sesaxeb"28 saboloo angariSi proeqtisaTvis “imereTis regionSi tyeebis daavadebaTa Tanamedrovemdgomareobis Seswavla da maT sawinaaRmdegod brZolis integrirebuli meTodisSemuSaveba” (wablnarebis fitosanitariuli mdgomareoba, mavne organizmebi, xmobisetiologia da aRdgena-gajansaRebis RonisZiebani), kavSiri “metyeveTa sazogadoeba”,Tbilisi, 2004 wlis ianvari.24


anu wablis koromebis gaCexva ise gadawyda da konkursi ise gamocxadda, romar iyo ekosistemis saWiroeba wesierad Sefasebuli da gansazRvruli, Tu amproblemis mogvarebas rogori saxis Wra sWirdeba: ganaTebiTi, gawmendiTi,gamoxSirviTi, gavliTi, sanitaruli Tu sarekonstruqcio. SegaxsenebT, rom2005 wlis 22 ivlisis #200 brZanebiT ministri avalebda saministrossistemaSi Semaval struqturul erTeulebs CaetarebinaT sanitaruliWrebisaTvis mosamzadebeli samuSaoebi. saqarTvelos “wiTeli wignis”Sesaxeb kanonis muxli 22 31 .-Si sityvasityviT naTqvamia: "gadaSenebis safrTxiswinaSe myofi gareuli cxovelebisa da veluri mcenareebis an maTi nawilebismopoveba (bunebrivi garemodan amoReba) dasaSvebia mxolod saqarTveloskanonmdeblobiT dadgenil gansakuTrebul SemTxvevebSi - maTi gadarCenis,gankurnebis da aRdgenis mizniT, agreTve samecniero miznebisaTvis".komerciuli organizaciis mier sanitaruli Wrebis Catarebanamdvilad ver jdeba am muxliT gansazRvrul SemTxvevebSi, vinaidan kanonis23-e muxli zust ganmartebebs da amomwurav CamonaTvals iZleva ras niSnavswina muxlSi moxseniebuli es "gansakuTrebuli SemTxvevebi":“1. gadaSenebis safrTxis winaSe myofi veluri mcenareebis an maTi nawilebismopoveba (bunebrivi garemodan amoReba) dasaSvebia mxolod SemdeggansakuTrebul SemTxvevebSi:a) aRsadgenad da bunebriv pirobebSi gasamravleblad (gasaSeneblad);b) dendrologiuri da botanikuri baRebsa da parkebSi gasaSeneblad;g) sameurneo mizniT, xelovnur pirobebSi gasaSeneblad;d) samecniero miznebisaTvis.2. gadaSenebis safrTxis winaSe myofi veluri mcenareebis an maTi nawilebismopoveba (bunebrivi garemodan amoReba) sameurneo mizniT, xelovnurpirobebSi gasaSeneblad dasaSvebia mxolod im SemTxvevaSi, Tu velurimcenare gaSenebulia xelovnurad. “bunebrivia, brZanebis gamocemisas saministros bolobde unda CaekiTxakanoni, aseve yurad eRo arasamTavrobo organizaciebisa da saqarTvelosmecnierebaTa akademiis gafrTxileba kanonis darRvevis Sesaxeb. Tumcakanonze zeviT am SemTvevaSi dadga mTavrobis sxdomis saoqmo Canaweri.cxadia, rom adgili hqonda kanonis pirdapir darRvevas, romelicdaiwyo mTavrobis gankargulebiTa da miTiTebiT, gagrZelda ministrisbrZanebiT da dasrulda departamentis doneze Wris sanebarTvodokumentaciis gacemiT. kanonis darRvevas adastureben akademiis komisiiswevrebi, xolo saministros TanamSromlebma ki yovelives “mcire darRveva”uwodes. kanonis moqmedebis aseTi gamonaklisis gakeTeba metad saxifaToa,miT umetes, Tu mxedvelobaSi miviRebT dedaqalaqSi arsebul mSeneblobebistempsa da SesaZlo moTxovnis warmoSobas aqamde akrZalul nedleulze 32 .cxadia, rom miviRebT Seuqcevad uaryofiT process, romlis gamosworebaSeuZlebeli iqneba. saministros warmomadgenelTa informaciiT, degegmiliaeqsperimentis Catareba mxolod zestafonis raionSi. Tumca, aranairi31 “wiTeli wignis” Sesaxeb kanonis muxli 22. gadaSenebis safrTxis winaSe myofi gareulicxovelebisa da veluri mcenareebis mopovebis (bunebrivi garemodan amoRebis)gansakuTrebuli SemTxvevebi.32sakuTari samSeneblo kompaniis interesebis ukanono lobirebisaTvis 2006 welsparlamenti daatovebines deputat valeri gelaSvils. darwmunebuli varT, rom is ar arisxelisuflebis ukanaskneli warmomadgeneli, visac komerciuli interesi aqvs samSeneblobiznesSi.27


dac qerqis kibos reaqcia da gamovlineba sxvadasxva adgilebSi sxvadasxvagvaria".satyeo-sameurneo samuSaoebis Catarebisas aucilebelia, romdaavadebuli wablis qerqi daiwvas adgilze. daavadebuli xeebis gadatanagamoiwvevs daavadebis gamomwvevi sokos gavrcelebas. SesaZloa martoqerqis dawvac ar aRmoCndes sakmarisi. ukanono Wrebis arsebuli donisgaTvaliswinebiT, wablis Wraze amgvari kanondaRvevebisa da mikerZoebispirobebSi, am Zvirfas mcenares uaxloes momavalSi didi safrTxedaemuqreba.meores mxriv, es faqti sagangaSoa im TvalsazrisiT, rom aRniSnulikanondarRveva, swored batoni papuaSvilis ministrobis drosganxorcielda, romelic garemos dacvisa da bunebrivi resursebis ministrisTanmdebobaze daniSvnamde iusticiis ministris posts ikavebda, xolo amJamadsakonstitucio sasamarTlos Tavmjdomarea.VII Tavi. xe-tyis ukanono Wra kolxeTis erovnuli parkSikolxeTis erovnuli parki tyis Wris masStabebiT pirvel adgilzeasaqarTveloSi da SesaZloa, mTels samxreT kavkasiaSi. aq vxvdebiT kolxuritipis dablobis tyeebs, sadac gabatonebuli merqnuli saxeobaa muryani.bevrisTvis es aris uzarmazari daWaobebuli farTobebi, romelicaraZvirfasi merqnis momcemi xe-mcenaris - muryniTaa dafaruli.sinamdvileSi ki kolxeTis erovnul parki moicavs kolxeTis dablobisunikalur refugiums.2000 wels gadaRebul aerofotoebze naTlad Cans kolxeTis erovnuliparkis teritoriaze ganxorcielebuli pirwminda Wrebi. unda iTqvas, romWris wesebis mixedviT, dablobis murynarebSi daSvebulia mTavarisargeblobis Wrebis erTerTi saxe - pirwminda Wrebi. am dros garkveulsworkuTxa farTobebze (mag. 100m X 100m) pirwmindad iWreba murynis koromi.bunebrivad daaxloebiT 15 weliwadSi es adgili kvlav ifareba imave zomisxeebiT. sameurneo TvalsazrisiT, TiTqos aseTi gamoyeneba dasaSvebi dagamarTlebulicaa, magram mis Sedegad viRebT Zlier degradirebulekosistemas, xeebis erTobliobas da ara tyes. garemos dacvisTvalsazrisiT, Wris aseTi wesebi gamoyenebuli unda iyos mxolodxelovnur plantaciebSi. CvenTan moqmedi kanonmdebloba (Wris wesebi) kiuSvebs aseT Wrebs, magram isini akrZalulia daculi teritoriebisfarglebSi 34 .Cveni gamoklevis Tanaxmad, kolxeTis erovnul parkSi ukanono Wrebisakmaod didi masStabiT xorcieldeba. amavdroulad, e.w. kanonieri Wrebicukanonoa, anu xorcieldeba Wris wesebis mniSvnelovani darRvevebiT.departamentis mier mowodebuli informaciiT, saSeSe merqnis gacemaxdeboda specialuri WrebiT. kanonmdeblobis mixedviT, specialuri Wrebi ardaiSveba (ar SeiZleba daigegmos) nakrZalSi da erovnuli parkis mkacridacvis zonaSi. 2005 wlis bolomde kolxeTis erovnul parkSi zonirebakanonmdeblobiT ar yofila daSvebuli. Sesabamisad, specialuri WrebiTtyekafebis aTviseba ar unda ganxorcieebuliyo erovnul parkisteritoriaze. Wragavlil ubnebze SeiZleba vnaxoT araerTi darRveva. 34 dacul teritoriaze ar SeiZleba ganxorcieldes arc erTi saxis mTavari sargeblobisWra.29


gaZlierebuliyo saministros iuridiuli mxare. saministros oficialuriveb-gverdis mixedviT, iuridiul departamentSi arc erTi axali iuristi armiuRiaT, mxolod sammarTvelos daarqves departamenti da mis ufrosadiusticiis saministrodan wamosul kadrebs niSnaven; xolo sakanonmdebloreformaSi miRweul “warmatebaze” SegiZliaT am angariSis sxva TavebSiixiloT informacia. aseve ixileT proeqtis farglebSi momzadebulipublikacia "saqarTvelos satyeo seqtoris maregulirebelikanonmdeblobis analizi da rekomendaciebi".kidev erTi detali imasTan dakavSirebiT, marTla kargad muSaonen,Tu ara ministris premirebuli favoritebi. arasamTavrobo organizaciebsZiriTadad urTierToba unda qondeT sajaro urTierTobaze pasuxismgebelpirTan. amisaTvis saministroSi arsebobs sazogadoebasa da masmediasTanurTierTobis samsaxuri. bolo weliwadnaxevris ganmavlobaSiarasamTavrobo organizaciaebTan sul ramodenime Sexvedra Sedga (pirveliSexvedra Sedga arasamTavrobo organizaciebis daJinebuli moTxoniTbatoni papuaSvilis ministrad daniSvnidan xuTi Tvis Semdeg, “axali”ministris arasamTavrobo organizaciebTan gacnobis mizniT). rac Seexebasajaro informaciis gacemas, ar yofila arc erTi SemTxveva, rom Cvens miermoTxovnili sajaro informacia mosuliyo droulad da srulad,administraciuli kanonmdeblobis dacviT. premirebul TanamSromelTaSoris ki, rogorc wesi, xvdeba sazogadoebasa da masmediasTan urTierTobissamsaxuris ufrosi, vis mierac ase xSirad irRveva administraciulikanonmdebloba.IX Tavi. korufciis xelSemwyobi potenciuri safrTxe - koliziebikanonmdeblobaSi 37korufciis axali wyaroebis warmoqmnis TvalsazrisiTgansakuTrebul safrTxes warmoadgens sakanonmdeblo koliziebi (anuwinaaRmdegobebi).reformebis gatarebis motiviT bolo periodSi miRebulinormatiuli aqtebidan erT-erTi mniSvnelovani normatiuli aqti, romelicsatyeo seqtorsac Seexo, aris “licenziebisa da nebarTvebis Sesaxeb”saqarTvelos 2005 wlis 24 ivnisis #1775-rs kanoni.licenzirebisa da nebarTvebis gacemis procesis maregulirebelikanonmdebloba saqarTveloSi marTlac saWiroebda daxvewas, gamartivebasda srulyofas, magram ara iseTi saxiT, rogorc ”licenzirebisa danebarTvebis Sesaxeb” kanoniT moxda. gatarebulma sakanonmdeblocvlilebebma ufro rTuli da gaugebari gaxada procedurebi. gaugebariprocedurebi da winaaRmdegobrivi kanonmdebloba xSirad mizezianebarTvebis (Tu licenziebis) gacemis procesSi ama Tu im kanonismoTxovnaTa darRvevisa, rac Tavis mxriv am nebarTvis (Tu licenziis)baTilobis safuZveli SeiZleba gaxdes. es, ki erTnairad sazianoa rogorcsaxelmwifosTvis, ise investorisTvis. rTuli da winaaRmdegobrivikanonmdebloba veranairad ver Seuwyobs xels idealuri sainvesticiogaremos Seqmnas verc satyeo seqtorSi da verc zogadad qveyanaSi.37 gamoyenebulia: "saqartvelos satyeo seqtoris maregulirebeli kanonmdeblobis analizida rekomendaciebi", 2006, red. i. maWaraSvili, asociacia mwvane alternativa, gv.84.33


pirvel rigSi unda aRiniSnos, rom ”licenzirebisa da nebarTvebisSesaxeb” kanoni miRebuli iyo manamde arsebuli ”samewarmeo saqmianobislicenziisa da nebarTvis gacemis safuZvlebis Sesaxeb” kanonis 38 SecvlismizniT. es ukanaskneli mxolod nawilobriv vrceldeboda garemos dacvisada bunebrivi resursebiT sargeblobis, maT Soris tyiT sargeblobissferoze. garemos dacvisa da bunebrivi resursebiT sargeblobis, maTSoris tyiT sargeblobis sferosTan dakavSirebuli yvela danarCenisakiTxi regulirdeboda sxva konkretuli kanonebiT. magaliTad,tyiTsargeblobis sanebarTvo dokumentebis (tyiTsargeblobis licenzia,xelSekruleba da bileTi) gacemis wess adgenda “saqarTvelos tyiskodeqsi”."winamorbedisagan" gansxvavebiT, ”licenzirebisa da nebarTvebisSesaxeb” saqarTvelos kanonSi garemos dacvisa da bunebrivi resursebiTsargeblobis sferosTvis msgavsi gamonaklisebi aRar arsebobs. faqtiurad,am axali kanonis mier regulirebadi sfero gacilebiT didia. Sesabamisad,axali kanonis ZalaSi SesvlasTan dakavSirebiT, Zvelis ZaladakarguladgamocxadebasTan erTad unda Sesuliyo Sesabamisi cvlilebebi yvela imnormatiul aqtSi, romlebic Zaladakargulad gamocxadebul kanonTanerTad, aregulirebdnen licenziebisa da nebarTvebis sferos.sakanonmdeblo cvlilebebis ganxorcielebis aucilebloba”licenzirebisa da nebarTvebis Sesaxeb” kanonis avtorebs kargad hqondaTgacnobierebuli. es dasturdeba amave kanonis teqstiTac: kanonis 41-emuxlis Tanaxmad, 2005 wlis 15 noembramde (anu kanonis amoqmedebidan 4Tveze nakleb vadaSi) saqarTvelos parlamentisTvis wardgenili undayofiliyo am kanonis miRebasTan dakavSirebuli sakanonmdeblo aqtebisproeqtebi. rogorc drom uCvena, arc oTx TveSi da arc erT weliwadSi,dagegmili sakanonmdeblo cvlilebebi ar ganxorcielda. Sesabamisad,”licenzirebisa da nebarTvebis Sesaxeb” saqarTvelos kanonis miRebisfaqtis Sefasebisas Tamamad SeiZleba gakeTdes daskvna, rom es nabijigadaidga naCqarevad da moumzadeblad. am gaumarTlebeli aCqarebisSedegad, nacvlad samarTlebrivi bazis gamartivebisa, Seiqmna axaliwinaaRmdegobebi normatiul aqtebs Soris, rac Tavis mxriv xelsayrelgaremos qmnis korufciis ganviTarebisTvis da xels uSlis kanonmdeblobismoTxovnebis saTanado Sesrulebas.licenzirebisa da nebarTvebis dargSi arsebuli bundovani dagaugebari procedurebi ara marto sazogadoebis warmomadgenelTa dasaxelmwifos interesebSi ar Sedis, aramed mewarmeTaTvisac erT-erTmniSvnelovan problemas warmoadgens. Tu ar arsebobs martivi, zusti dagasagebi procedura, dadgenili da garantirebuli aseve martivi dagasagebi kanonmdeblobis safuZvelze, yovelTvis didia imis albaToba, romlicenziisa Tu nebarTvis maZiebeli mewarme korufciis msxverpli gaxdeba. licenzirebisa da nebarTvebis sferos maregulirebeli axali kanoniise iqna miRebuli, rom aravis Seucvlia Zveli kanonebi: “garemos dacvisSesaxeb” 39 , “garemosdacviTi nebarTvis Sesaxeb” 40 da “saxelmwifo38 2002 wlis 14 maisis #1426-rs39 1996 wlis 10 dekemberi #519-Is40 1996 wlis 15 oqtomberi #424-Is34


ekologiuri eqspertizis Sesaxeb” 41 . am mxriv ar Secvlila arc sxvanormatiuli aqtebi, romlebic SexebaSia garemosdacviT nebarTvebTan.miuxedavad amisa, TviT garemosdacviTi nebarTva realurad gauqmebulia,radgan “licenziebisa da nebarTvebis Sesaxeb” saqarTvelos kanoni mas arscnobs. es kanoni calsaxad adgens 42 , rom is licenzirebadi saqmianobisa dasanebarTvo qmedebis sferoebis licenziisa da nebarTvis saxeebisamomwurav CamonaTvals gansazRvravs da dauSvebelia sxva sakanonmdebloan kanonqvemdebare aqtiT licenziisa da nebarTvebis SemoReba am kanoniTgauTvaliswinebel saqmianobasa da qmedebaze. “licenziebisa da nebarTvebisSesaxeb” saqarTvelos kanoni saerTod ar iTvaliswinebs ”garemosdacviTnebarTvas” 43 , rogorc sanebarTvo dokuments. am konkretul SemTxvevaSiaxali kanoni mis Canacvlebas ZiriTadad axdens erTis mxriv sargeblobislicenziebiT (esenia tyiTsargeblobis generaluri licenzia: a) xe-tyisdamzadebis specialuri licenzia da b) samonadireo meurneobis specialurilicenzia), romelic gaicema saqmianobis ganxorcielebisTvis da meoresmxriv, ”garemoze zemoqmedebis nebarTviT” da ”nadirobis nebarTviT”(romlebic gaicema qmedebis ganxorcielebisTvis). sxva nebismieri kanoni,romelic iTvaliswinebs ”garemosdacviTi nebarTvis” mopovebis saWiroebas,winaaRmdegobaSi modis “licenziebisa da nebarTvebis Sesaxeb” saqarTveloskanonTan da Tu ar moxda am winaaRmdegobis (anu koliziis) daregulireba,maSin bunebrivia iqneba gaugebrobis da gansxvavebuli interpretaciebisSesaZlebloba. aman ki, Tavis mxriv, SesaZloa axali stimuli misceskorufciis ganviTarebas am dargSi. “garemosdacviTi nebarTvis Sesaxeb” saqarTvelos 1996 wlis 15oqtombris #424-Is kanonis me-4 muxlis mixedviT, ”garemosdacviTnebarTvas” (da ara ”garemoze zemoqmedebis nebarTvas”) saWiroebs satyeoseqtorTan dakavSirebuli I kategoriis Semdegi saqmianoba:• xe-tyis gadammuSavebeli, qaRaldis, tyavisa da safeiqro mrewvelobamerqan-burbuSelovani da merqan-boWkovani filebis warmoeba;• tyeTmowyobis proeqtebi (satyeo da samonadireo meurneobebisorganizaciisa da gaZRolis perspeqtiuli gegmebis proeqtebis CaTvliT);• saqarTvelos teritoriaze arsebuli wylebis, tyis, miwis, wiaRis da sxvabunebrivi resursebis dacvisa da gamoyenebis gegmebi da proeqtebi;“saqarTvelos sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsis” 306 muxlis mixedviT,sisxlis samarTlis danaSauls warmoadgens pirveli kategoriissaqmianobis ganxorcieleba ”garemosdacviTi nebarTvis” (da ara "garemozezemoqmedebis" an sxva nebarTvis) gareSe. anu, erTis mxriv, Tu pirma daijerais, rom man unda aiRos mxolod is nebarTvebi da licenziebi, romlebic“licenziebisa da nebarTvebis Sesaxeb” saqarTvelos kanonis mixedviT arisgaTvaliswinebuli da ise awarmoa pirveli kategoriis saqmianobazemoTaRniSnul sferoSi, maSin man SeiZleba Caidinos saqarTvelos sisxlissamarTlis kodeqsiT gaTvaliswinebuli danaSauli. meores mxriv, Tu Ikategoriis saqmianobis ganxorcieleba garemosdacviTi nebarTvis gareSemkacrad isjeboda sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsiT (rac bunebrivia kanonis41 1996 wlis 18 oqtomberi #426-Is42 ixileT me-4 muxlis me-1 punqti43romelic “garemosdacviTi nebarTvis Sesaxeb” (1996 wlis 15 oqtomberi #424-Is)saqarTvelos kanonis safuZvelze gaicemoda saqmianobis ganxorcielebisTvis35


dacvasa da Sesrulebas uwyobda xels), garemoze zemoqmedebis SesaxebnebarTvis, an sargeblobis licenziis gareSe saqmianobaze igive simkacre arvrceldeba, rac saSualebas aZlevs kanonis damrRvevebs Tavi aaridonmkacr pasuxismgeblobas. zustad igive situaciaa administraciulipasuxismgeblobis mxriv. magaliTad: saqarTvelos “administraciulsamarTaldarRvevaTa kodeqsis" 79-e muxlSi gansazRvruliaadministraciuli pasuxismgebloba garemosdacviTi nebarTvis gacemisproceduris darRvevisaTvis; igive kodeqsis 79-e pirvel prima muxlSigansazRvrulia pasuxismgebloba pirveli, meore da mesame kategoriissaqmianobis warmoebisaTvis garemosdacviTi nebarTvebis gareSe da a.S.arcerTi muxli “administraciul samarTaldarRvevaTa kodeqsSi” ariTvaliswinebs pasuxismgeblobas ”garemoze zemoqmedebis nebarTvisgareSeraime qmedebis ganxorcielebisaTvis. “saqarTvelos tyis kodeqsis” 55-e muxlis mixedviT, tyiTsargeblobissanebarTvo dokumentebs warmoadgens tyiTsargeblobis licenzia,xelSekruleba da bileTi. ufro konkretulad 44 , tyiTsargeblobis saxeebismixedviT, saxelmwifo tyis fondis teritoriaze tyiTsargeblobisgansaxorcieleblad aucilebelia Semdegi dokumentebi:1. xe-tyis damzadebisaTvis - xelSekruleba an bileTi;2. plantaciuri meurneobis warmoebisaTvis – xelSekruleba;3. tyis merqniani mcenareebis produqtebisa da xis meorexarisxovanimasalebis damzadebisaTvis - licenzia an bileTi;4. aramerqnuli resursebiT sargeblobisaTvis - xelSekruleba an bileTi;5. sasoflo-sameurneo mizniT saxelmwifo tyis fondis im miwebiTsargeblobisaTvis, romlebic ar ganekuTvneba saxelmwifo tyis fondissasoflo-sameurneo daniSnulebis miwebis kategorias - xelSekruleba anbileTi;6. specialuri mizniT sargeblobisaTvis – xelSekruleba;7. samecniero kvleviTi da saswavlo mizniT sargeblobisaTvis –xelSekruleba;8. sakurorto, rekreaciuli, sportuli da sxva kulturulgamajansaRebelimizniT sargeblobisaTvis – xelSekruleba;9. samonadireo meurneobis mowyobisaTvis - xelSekruleba.“licenziebisa da nebarTvebis Sesaxeb” saqarTvelos kanonismixedviT, arc bileTi da arc xelSekruleba sanebarTvo dokumentaciasaRar warmoadgens da ufro metic, saerTod dauSvebelia sxvasakanonmdeblo an kanonqvemdebare aqtiT licenziisa da nebarTvis SemoReba“am kanoniT gauTvaliswinebel saqmianobasa da qmedebaze”. es formulirebaZalian bundovani da orazrovania. Tu licenziisa da nebarTvis SemoRebasxva kanoniT an kanonqvemdebare aqtiT ar SeiZleba “licenziebisa danebarTvebis Sesaxeb” kanoniT gauTvaliswinebel saqmianobaze, niSnavs Tuara es, rom am kanoniT gaTvaliswinebul saqmianobaze sxva kanoniTSeiZleba licenziisa da nebarTvis SemoReba?! am formulirebebidanSesaZloa davaskvnaT, rom “licenziebisa da nebarTvebis Sesaxeb” kanoniTdaSvebul saqmianobaze (magaliTad, xe-tyis mopoveba) sxva kanoniT(magaliTad "tyis kodeqsiT") SeiZleba SemoRebul iqnas sxva sanebarTvodokumentis aucilebloba (magaliTad bileTi an xelSekruleba). Tumca,44 “saqarTvelos tyis kodeqsi”-s 56-e muxli36


Cveni azriT, amgvaris SemoReba mTavrobis dadgenilebiT ar eqceva amkanonis CarCoebSic ki.amis dasadgenad jer saWiroa gairkves saerTod, ras niSnavs “amkanoniT gauTvaliswinebel saqmianoba da qmedeba”. saqme imaSia, rommarTalia “licenziebisa da nebarTvebis Sesaxeb” kanoni iZlevalicenziebisa da nebarTvebis saxeebis CamonaTvals, magram samwuxarod, isar adgens im konkretuli saqmianobebisa da qmedebebis CamonaTvals,romlebic eqvemdebareba licenzirebas an nebarTviT daregulirebas.saqmianobasa da qmedebebTan mimarTebaSi “licenziebisa da nebarTvebisSesaxeb” kanonis pirvelive muxlis pirveli nawili ubralod zogadadgansazRvravs, rom “es kanoni aregulirebs iseT organizebul saqmianobasada qmedebas, romelic exeba pirTa ganusazRvrel wres, xasiaTdeba adamianissicocxlisaTvis an janmrTelobisaTvis mometebuli safrTxiT, moicavsgansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovan saxelmwifo an sazogadoebriv interesebs andakavSirebulia saxelmwifo resursebiT sargeblobasTan. kanoniTdadgenil SemTxvevaSi am kanonis moqmedeba SeiZleba gavrceldes agreTvearaorganizebul saqmianobaze an qmedebaze”. igive muxlis meore nawilismixedviT, “licenziebisa da nebarTvebis Sesaxeb” saqarTvelos kanonismoqmedeba ar vrceldeba amave kanoniT gansazRvrul saqmianobaze daqmedebaze, Tu mas axorcielebs saministro an mis gamgeblobaSi arsebulisaqveuwyebo dawesebuleba. “licenziebisa da nebarTvebis Sesaxeb” kanonispirveli muxlis pirvel nawilSi mocemuli zogadi ganmarteba sakmaodbundovania saimisod, rom zustad moxdes am kanoniT regulirebasdaqvemdebarebuli ama Tu im konkretuli saqmianobis da qmedebisidentificireba.am konkretul SemTxvevaSi, magaliTad, xe-tyis damzadeba SeiZlebamiCneul iqnas “licenziebisa da nebarTvebis Sesaxeb” saqarTvelos kanonismixedviT gaTvaliswinebul saqmianobad, romlisTvisac amave kanonis me-7muxlis me-4 nawilis mixedviT, gaTvaliswinebulia am saqmianobisTvis xetyisdamzadebis specialuri licenziis (an generaluri licenziis) aReba.igive xe-tyis damzadebisaTvis “saqarTvelos tyis kodeqsis" 56-e muxlipirveli nawilis mixedviT, sanebarTvo dokumentebad miCneuliaxelSekruleba an bileTi. e.i. “licenziebisa da nebarTvebis Sesaxeb”saqarTvelos kanonis mixedviT gaTvaliswinebul saqmianobisTvis sxvakanoniT SemoRebulia damatebiTi sanebarTvo dokumentebi, romlebic araris “licenziebisa da nebarTvebis Sesaxeb” saqarTvelos kanoniTdadgenil licenziebisa da nebarTvebis CamonaTvalSi. miuxedavad“licenziebisa da nebarTvebis Sesaxeb” saqarTvelos kanonis me-4 muxlisorazrovani formulirebisa, faqtiurad SeiZleba iTqvas, rom“saqarTvelos tyis kodeqsis" 53-e (pirveli nawili), 55-e da 56-e muxlebismoTxovnebi winaaRmdegobaSi modis “licenziebisa da nebarTvebis Sesaxeb”saqarTvelos kanonis pirveli da me-4 muxlebiT dadgenil debulebebTan.Tu “licenziebisa da nebarTvebis Sesaxeb” saqarTvelos kanons miviCnevTupiratesi Zalis mqoned (da es asecaa ”normatiuli aqtebis Sesaxeb”saqarTvelos kanonis mixedviT, radgan es kanoni ufro gvian arismiRebuli), maSin arc bileTi da arc xelSekruleba ar SeiZleba miviCnioTam dargSi sanebarTvo dokumentebad. Sesabamisad aRmoCndeba, romtyeTsargeblobis mTel rig mimarTulebebze (magaliTad plantaciurimeurneobis warmoebisaTvis) licenzia an nebarTva an saerTod ar arissaWiro, an am saqmianobisaTvis unda aRebul iyos tyiTsargeblobis37


generaluri licenzia. Tu tyiTsargeblobis licenzia garkveulisaqmianobebisaTvis aRar aris saWiro, maSin ratom aris mikuTvnebuli essaqmianobebi tyiTsargeblobis kategorias “saqarTvelos tyis kodeqsis"56-e muxlis mixedviT da ratom aris am saqmianobebis warmoeba akrZaluli“saqarTvelos tyis kodeqsis” 53-e muxliT Sesabamisi tyiTsargeblobislicenziis, xelSekrulebisa da bileTis gareSe. es kolizia aseve korufciispotenciur safrTxes warmoadgens. “saqarTvelos tyis kodeqsis” me-80 muxliT gaTvalsiwinebulia kideverTi nebarTva, romelsac “licenziebisa da nebarTvebis Sesaxeb”saqarTvelos kanoni ar scnobs. es aris "tyis fondis sasoflo-sameurneomiwebiT sargeblobis nebarTva". am nebarTvis gacema wesrigdeboda“saqarTvelos tyis kodeqsiT”, “saxelmwifo sakuTrebaSi arsebulisasoflo-sameurneo miwis ijariT gacemis wesis Sesaxeb” saqarTveloskanoniT 45 da saqarTvelos prezidentis brZanebulebiT 46 . arc erT aRniSnulnormatiul aqtSi “licenziebisa da nebarTvebis Sesaxeb” saqarTveloskanonis miRebis Semdeg cvlileba ar Sesula. Sesabamisad, es koliziadRemde arsebobs da xelsayrel niadags qmnis am sferoSi korufciisarsebobis TvalsazrisiT. “licenziebisa da nebarTvebis Sesaxeb” saqarTvelos kanonis miRebisSemdeg ar Sesula cvlilebebi arc “saxelmwifo ekologiuri eqspertizisSesaxeb” (1996) kanonSi da arc saqarTvelos garemos dacvisa da bunebriviresursebis ministris 2003 wlis 14 agvistos #85 brZanebiT damtkicebul”saxelmwifo ekologiuri eqspertizis Catarebis wesis Sesaxeb” debulebaSi.Sesabamisad, es normatiuli aqtebi dRemde ”garemosdacviTi nebarTvis”gacemasTan dakavSirebul sakiTxebs aregulireben, rac gamosworebassaWiroebs.“licenziebisa da nebarTvebis Sesaxeb” kanonSi saerTod araferianaTqvami saxelmwifo ekologiuri eqspertizis saWiroebis Sesaxeb.samagierod, “garemoze zemoqmedebis nebarTvis gacemis wesisa da pirobebisSesaxeb debulebis damtkicebis Taobaze” saqarTvelos mTavrobis 2005 wlis1 seqtembris #154 dadgenilebis me-5 muxlis me-2 nawiliT dadgenilia, rommaZieblis mier wardgenili dokumentaciis saxelmwifo ekologiurieqspertizis ganxorcielebis safuZvelze Sedgenili daskvna, nebarTvisgacemis erT-erTi safuZvelia. e.i. es debuleba savaldebulodiTvaliswinebs saxelmwifo ekologiuri eqspertizis daskvnis arsebobas,garemoze zemoqmedebis nebarTvis gacemisas. miuxedavad amisa, Tu ar moxda“saxelmwifo ekologiuri eqspertizis Sesaxeb” kanonSi da ”saxelmwifoekologiuri eqspertizis Catarebis wesis Sesaxeb” debulebaSi Sesabamisicvlilebebis Setana, gaugebari iqneba, Tu rogor moxerxdeba amnormatiuli aqtebis safuZvelze dadgenili proceduris gamoyeneba ara”garemosdacviT nebarTvasTan” aramed ”garemoze zemoqmedebisnebarTvasTan” mimarTebaSi. aseTi gaugebrobebi da Seusabamobebi, gardaimisa, rom ubralod arTulebs da Znelad gasagebs xdis procedurebs,amavdroulad SeiZleba korufciis gamomwvevi mizezic gaxdes.45 1996 wlis 20 martis #165-IIs46 1998 wlis 2 agvistos #44638


ac Seexeba licenziis gacemas, arc “licenziebisa da nebarTvebisSesaxeb” kanoniT da arc “tyiT sargeblobis licenziis gacemis wesisa dapirobebis Sesaxeb debulebis damtkicebis Taobaze” saqarTvelos mTavrobis2005 wlis 11 agvistos #132 dadgenilebiT, saxelmwifo ekologiurieqspertizis Catareba licenziis gacemisas gaTvaliswinebuli ar aris. aseTimidgoma sargeblobis licenziasTan mimarTebaSi arasworia. mxedvelobaSimisaRebia is garemoeba, rom sargeblobis licenzia specifikuri licenziaa,radgan sxva licenziebisagan gansxvavebiT ukavSirdeba obieqts. garda amisa,“licenziebisa da nebarTvebis Sesaxeb” saqarTvelos kanonis 47 mixedviT,rodesac sargeblobis licenzia moicavs sxva licenziiT an nebarTviTgaTvaliswinebul saqmianobas/qmedebas da Sesabamis damatebiT pirobebs,aRniSnuli resursiT sargeblobisaTvis saerTod aRar aris aucilebeli amlicenziis an nebarTvis mopoveba. anu, aseT viTarebaSi adviladSesaZlebelia aRmoCndes, rom licenziis mflobelma ganaxorcielosnebarTvas daqvemdebarebuli saqmianoba saxelmwifo ekologiurieqspertizis daskvnis ararsebobis pirobebSi. satyeo seqtorTan dakavSirebuli kanonmdebloba isedac didkoliziebs Seicavda, xolo calkeuli formulirebebi nayofier niadagsqmnidnen uanono qmedebebisa da korufciisaTvis. am mxriv gansakuTrebiTscodavda "tyis kodeqsi". Tumca es arc aris gasakviri, Tu gavixsenebT, raviTarebaSi da naCqarevad iyo igi miRebuli, ra Zalebi ejibrebodnenerTmaneTs ama Tu im sakiTxis lobirebaSi.ganvixiloT zogierTi TvalsaCino magaliTi:muxli 35. punqti 3. saxelmwifo tyis fondis marTvis uflebis mqoneorganoebis mier tyiTsargeblobis Sesaxeb gadawyvetilebis miRebamde,Sesabamisi regionebis mixedviT, unda gamoqveyndes saxelmwifo tyis fondismarTvasTan dakavSirebuli Semdegi informacia:a) tyeTmowyobis Sesaxeb;b) saxelmwifo tyis fondis kategoriebad dayofis Sesaxeb;g) saxelmwifo tyis fondis teritoriebisaTvis dacvis reJimis mikuTvnebisSesaxeb;d) saxelmwifo tyis fondis 5 da meti wliT sargeblobisaTvis gadacemisSesaxeb.aq ra Tqma unda moiazreba xe-tyis damzadebis mizniT sargeblobac.amasTan dasazustebelia, Tu romeli kategoriis miwebis gadacemazeasaubari, radgan zogadi Canaweri "saxelmwifo tyis fondis gadacema"arafers niSnavs da iwvevs gaugebrobas. informacia unda gamoqveyndesavtomaturad, rac cxadia, rom ar sruldeba. amdenad, mosaxleobisa dasazogadoebrivi gaerTianebebis warmomadgenlebis es ufleba verxorcieldeba da, Sesabamisad, isini ver iReben informacias aralegaluriWrebis gakontrolebis an sxvagvari zemoqmedebis ganxorcielebis mizniT.muxli 53. punqti 3-is mixedviT, satyeo meurneobis da daculiteritoriebis, departamentebis teritoriuli organoebi saxelmwifo tyis47 “licenziebisa da nebarTvebis Sesaxeb” saqarTvelos 2005 wlis 24 ivnisis #1775-rs kanonisme-18 muxlis me-6 nawili39


fondis movlis, dacvis, aRdgenisa da gaSenebis samuSaoebs axorcielebenarasamewareo mizniT, anu TviTon axorcieleben arasamewarmeo (?) Wrebs(movliTi Wrebis "saxeliT") da sad miaqvT es tye, kodeqsSi araferi weria.muxli 54. punqti 3. - kodeqsSi arsad ar aris miTiTebuli ragansxvavebaa "kompleqsur" da "ramodenime saxiT erTdrouladtyiTsargeblobas" Soris. amdenad, es Canaweric aralegaluri Wrebisprovocirebas emsaxureba.muxli 57. punqti 7. "adgilobrivi mosaxleobis socialurimoTxovnilebebis dakmayofilebis aucileblobidan gamomdinare,saqarTvelos garemos dacvisa da bunebrivi resursebis saministrosgadawyvetilebiT, mTavari sargeblobis Wra SeiZleba ganxorcieldestyiTsargeblobis bileTiT" - absoluturad bundovani da zogadi Canaweriada warmoadgenda aralegaluri Wrebis erT-erT mTavar wyaros. TugavixsenebT licenziebisa da nebarTvebis Sesaxeb kanonis bundovanformulirebas, es muxli kvlav Seicavs ukanono qmedebebis "kanonierad"ganxorcielebis safrTxes.muxli 72.1. satyeo meurneobis saxelmwifo departamenti, tyeTmowyobis masalebissafuZvelze, misi teritoriuli organoebis samoqmedo teritoriebismixedviT, grZelvadiani tyiTsargeblobis mizniT adgens mTavarisargeblobis WrebiT xe-tyis damzadebis yovelwliur SesaZlo optimalurodenobas (Semdgom - saangariSo tyekafi).2. saangariSo tyekafs adgens da garemosa da bunebrivi resursebis dacvissaministrosTan SeTanxmebiT amtkicebs satyeo meurneobis saxelmwifodepartamenti.3. saangariSo tyekafis gazrda an Semcireba daiSveba garemosa da bunebriviresursebis dacvis saministrosTan SeTanxmebiT tyeTmowyobis masalebis,tyeebis dacvis reJimis, kategoriebis da sxva iseTi pirobebis Secvlisas,romlebic gavlenas axdens tyeebis mdgomareobaze da Sesabamisad -tyeTmowyobis masalebze – sayuradReboa Canaweri "romlebic gavlenasaxdenen".gaugebaria, Tu vis mier xdeba imis dadgena da gadawyveta, moaxdensTu ara gavlenas tyeebis mdgomareobaze saangariSo tyekafis gazrda anSemcireba, sanam waradgenen SesaTanxmeblad. davuSvaT, satyeodepartamentis mier, romelmac miiCnia, rom ar axdens uaryofiT gavlenasda sakiTxi waradgina SesaTanxmlebad. maSin ra xdeba? rogor gaigosgaremos dacvis samsaxurma am cvlilebebis Sesaxeb? aqve unda gavixsenoT,rom praqtikaSi movliTi Wrebis saxelwodebiT xorcieldeba xe-tyis didinawilis damzadeba, vinaidan formalurad ufro advilia dasabuTeba imisa,rom movliTi Wrebi tyeebze ar axdens uaryofiT gavlenas. es sakiTximosawesrigebelia, ramdenadac saministros "gverdis avliT" tyekafebisfarTobebis cvlileba pirdapir kavSirSia aralegalur WrebTan, Tu imasacgaviTvaliswinebT, rom amisaTvis aRar tardeba saxelmwifo ekologiurieqspertiza, garemoze zemoqmedebis Sefaseba da aRar gaicemagaremosdacviTi nebarTvebi.muxli 82. (saxelmwifo tyis fondiT specialuri mizniT sargeblobisuflebis gacema) punqti 1. vfiqrobT, rom arafris momcemi da40


"deklaraciuli" Canaweria. specialuri mizniT sargeblobas marTalia arcnobs "licenziebisa da nebarTvis" axali kanoni, magram arc aravisgauuqmebia tyis kodeqsis es nawili. aseTi saxis tyiTsargeblobisaTvis ukvegacemulia tyiT dafaruli mniSvnelovani farTobebi, sadac TavisTavadcxadia, rom teritoriis "gasasufTaveblad" mimdinareobs xe-tyisarakontrolirebadi, stiqiuri gaCexva. garda amisa, is formebi dameTodebi, romlebic gamoricxaven aseT Sedegebs, Tavidanve unda iyosgansazRvruli tyiTsargeblobis dokumentaciiT, rac, rogorc wesi, arfiqsirdeba.muxli 82. punqti 3. - gamoyenebuli resursis da dazianebuli resursiserT konteqstSi gamoyeneba aramarTebulia, radgan specialuri mizniTsargeblobis SemTxvevaSi resursis (mag: wiaRis) mopoveba gadamwyveti daganmsazRvreli saqmianobaa, maSin roca dazianebuli resursis (tyis)anazRaurebis momenti am muxlisTvis meorexarisxovani Canaweria.muxli 92. „tyiTsargeblobisa da tyis resursebis gamoyenebasTandakavSirebuli gadasaxadebisa da mosakreblebisgan gaTavisufleba1. tyiTsargebloba ufasoa:d) tyis dacvis muSakTa mier tyis resursebis arasamewarmeo mizniT, piradimeurneobisaTvis moxmarebisas." absoluturad abstraqtuli Canaweria, dagaugebaria "piradulSi" ra moiazreba, an ra raodenobas gulisxmobs.arakontrolirebadi, aralegaluri Wrebisa da Tanamdebobrivimdgomareobis sakuTari sargeblisaTvis gamoyenebisaTvis aqac nayofieriniadagi arsebobs.muxli 93. xe-tyis kanonierad damzadebis damadasturebeli dokumenti1. saxelmwifo tyis fondis teritoriaze am kodeqsis moTxovnaTa dacviTdamzadebuli xe-tyis tyidan transportirebisTvis TiToeul satransportosaSualebaze gaicema xe-tyis kanonierad damzadebis damadasturebelidokumenti.2. xe-tyis kanonierad damzadebis damadasturebeli dokumenti gaicemaSesabamisad satyeo meurneobis an daculi teritoriebis, nakrZalebisa dasamonadireo meurneobis saxelmwifo departamentis teritoriuli organos,xolo adgilobrivi tyis fondis teritoriaze xe-tyis damzadebisSemTxvevaSi _ adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobisa da mmarTvelobisorganoebis Sesabamisi samsaxuris uflebamosili tyis dacvis muSakis mierda aris xe-tyis sakuTrebis damadasturebeli erTaderTi da sakmarisidokumenti.3. akrZalulia xe-tyis kanonierad damzadebis damadasturebeli dokumentisgareSe xe-tyis pirveladi gadamuSaveba da xe-tyisa da pirveladigadamuSavebis produqtebis transportireba da realizacia. xe-tyiskanonierad damzadebis damadasturebeli dokumenti moTxovnis SemTxvevaSiwaredgineba saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobiT uflebamosil pirs.4. xe-tyis kanonierad damzadebis damadasturebeli dokumentis forma dagacemis wesi ganisazRvreba debulebiT ”xe-tyis kanonierad damzadebisdamadasturebeli dokumentisa da misi gacemis wesis Sesaxeb", romelsacSeimuSavebs da Sinagan saqmeTa saministrosTan SeTanxmebiT amtkicebssatyeo meurneobis saxelmwifo departamenti.41


am muxlSi aRniSnuli debulebis safuZvelze gamocemulia garemosdacvis ministris 2005 wlis 22 seqtembris brZaneba „xe-tyis kanonierebisada warmoSobis damadasturebeli dokumentebis gacemis wesis damtkicebisSesaxeb“, romelic mraval pasuxgaucemel kiTxvas badebs. magaliTad:muxli 4. „dokumentis gamcemi organoebis uflebamosileba1. dokumentebis gamcemi organo uflebamosilia:a. gasces dokumentebi am debulebiT gansazRvruli wesiT;b. daadginos Sesabamisoba faqtobrivad damzadebul xe-tyesa an/da xe-tyispirveladi gadamuSavebis produqciasa da dokumentiT gansazRvrulraodenobas Soris;“rogor daadgens faqtobrivad damzadebul xe-tyesa an/da xe-tyispirveladi gadamuSavebis produqciasa da dokumentiT gansazRvrulraodenobas Soris Sesabamisobas uflebamosili piri, im SemTxvevaSi, Tugasulia garkveuli periodi, es qoneba gadayidulia ramdenjerme damewarmes surs misi sazRvargareT gatana? gaugebaria da manipulaciisa dakorufciuli garigebebis saSualebas iZleva, rac teqnikuri TvalsazrisiTsulac ar aris Zneli.muxli 9. warmoSobisa da kanonierebis dokumentis moqmedebisSewyveta (gauqmeba)2. warmoSobis dokumentis moqmedeba wydeba:a) licenziantis mier warmoSobis dokumentSi dafiqsirebuli xe-tyis sruliodenobis sakuTrebis nebismieri formiT sxva pirebze gadacemisTanave“.aseT SemTxvevaSi ra unda waradginos sxva pirma, vTqvaTeqsportiorma sabaJoze? vis mimarTos an saidan moitanos es dokumenti,romelic warsadgenad aucilebelia?imave muxlSi:„3. kanonierebis dokumentis moqmedeba wydeba:a) kanonierebis dokumentis mflobelis mier dokumentSi dafiqsirebuli xetyissruli odenobis sakuTrebis nebismieri formiT sxva pirebzegadacemisTanave." aqac igive kiTxva Cndeba.4. kanonierebisa da warmoSobis dokumentSi dafiqsirebuli xe-tyisarasruli odenobis eqsportisas an arasruli odenobis sxva pirzesakuTrebis nebismieri formiT gadacemisas darCenili xe-tyisodenobisaTvis, dokumentis moqmedebis vada ZalaSia, ris TaobazecdokumentSi keTdeba Sesabamisi aRniSvna.gansxvavebuli procedurebia me-12 muxlSi, kerZod: „muxli 12. xe-tyisda/an xe-tyis pirveladi gadamuSavebis produqciis eqsporti.im SemTxvevaSi Tu dokumentis mflobels ganzraxuli aqvs xe-tyisda/an xe-tyis pirveladi gadamuSavebis produqciis eqsportireba, esukanaskneli werilobiTi gancxadebiT mimarTavs dokumentis gacemaze amdebulebis me-2 muxlis me-3 da me-4 punqtebiT uflebamosil organos, risTaobazec dokumentis gacemaze uflebamosili organo akeTebs Canawers(~eqsportisaTvis”) dokumentis formaSi, rasac adasturebs xelmoweriT dabeWdis dartymiT“.rogorc vnaxeT, winamdebare debuleba metad gaugebaria dagamarTvas saWiroebs.tyis kodeqsis 106-e muxlis 1-eli punqtis mixedviT, ganaTebiT Wras,TavianT samoqmedo teritoriebze, tyiTsargeblobis dokumentis gareSeaxorcieleben satyeo meurneobis da daculi teritoriebis, nakrZalebisa42


da samonadireo meurneobis saxelmwifo departamentebis teritoriuliorganoebi da adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobisa da mmarTvelobisorganoebis Sesabamisi samsaxurebi. sad miaqvT moWrili tye - kodeqsSiarRar Cans. saxlSi? Sav bazarze yidian? amis garda, es idea misaRebi romciyos, unda mieTiTos, rom es Wrebi xorcieldeba tyeTmowyobis proeqtiTgansazRvruli ubnebis mixedviT. anu, yvela SemTxvevaSi, tyis Wris aseTiubnebi tyeTmowyobis masalebSi winaswar unda iyos dadgenili da ammasalebs gavlili unda hqondes SeTanxmemebis yvela is procedura, racdadgenilia sxva saxis Wrebis dros.106-e muxlis me-2 punqtis mixedviT, gawmendiTi, gamoxSirviTi dasarekonstruqcio Wrebi xorcieldeba tyiTmosargeblis miertyiTsargeblobis bileTis safuZvelze, xolo tyiTmosargeblisararsebobis SemTxvevaSi – Sesabamisad satyeo meurneobis da daculiteritoriebis, nakrZalebisa da samonadireo meurneobis saxelmwifodepartamentebis teritoriuli organoebis da adgilobriviTviTmmarTvelobisa da mmarTvelobis organoebis saTanado samsaxurebismier am muxlis me-4 nawilis gaTvaliswinebiT Wrebis Catarebis Semdeg sadmiaqvT moWrili tye - kodeqsSi aseve aRar Cans (?!)muxli 106. punqti 3. gavliTi da sanitariuli Wrebi xorcieldebatyiTmosargeblis mier tyiTsargeblobis dokumentis safuZvelze - movliTiWris danarCen saxeebs ar sWirdeba dokumentacia? Tu bileTi ara, maSin ra?licenzia? ar aris miTiTebuli.iqve. punqti 4. dacul teritoriebze, ”daculi teritoriebis sistemisSesaxeb~ saqarTvelos kanoniT gaTvaliswinebul SemTxvevebSi,xorcieldeba mxolod sanitariuli Wra, xolo gansazRvruliekosistemisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli biomravalferovnebis mdgradobisaTvissafrTxis arsebobis SemTxvevaSi _ ganaTebiTi, gawmendiTi da gamoxSirviTiWrebi - miTiTebuli mdgradobis safrTxes vin adgens? ra meqanizmebiT? arCans.muxli 108-Si garemos dacvis inspeqcia naxsenebi ar aris. magram igiaRniSnulia administraciul samarTaldarRvevaTa kodeqsSi, aseve ”garemosdacvis saxelmwifo kontrolis Sesaxeb” kanonSi rogorc makontrolebelida zedamxedveli. aRniSnuli funqcionaluri qaosi da dublireba asustebsaralegalur WrebTan koordinirebul qmedebebs da gasatarebelRonisZiebaTa efeqturobas. SeiZleba iTqvas, rom xels uwyobs aralegalurWrebs, ramdenadac funqciebis dublireba, pasuxismgeblobis dadgenas uSlisxels, moqmedebas iwyebs ”gadabralebis politika”, rac SeuZlebels xdispasuxismgebeli piris dadgenas.muxli 114 - sityva "an" aris Zalzed arakoreqtuli Canaweri, radganukanonod mopovebuli resursis amoRebas da zianis anazRaurebas Sorisalternativa ar arsebobs da orive qmedeba aucileblad undaganxorciledes, yovelgvari alternativebis gareSe. "saqarTvelos tyis kodeqsSi” mocemulia tyis Wris wesebissafuZvlebi. Wra regulirdeba am kanoniT, aseve sxva normatiuli aqtebiT,43


omlebic ZalaSi Sesulia an saqarTvelos prezidentis brZanebulebiT, ansatyeo meurneobis departamentis Tavmjdomaris brZanebiT (tyiskodeqsidan gamomdinare debulebebi). am wesebis dacva savaldebuloa yvelauwyebisaTvis, romelTa gamgeblobaSic arsebobs tyeebi, agreTve fizikurida iuridiuli pirebisaTvis, romlebic ewevian tyeSi nebismieri WrissaxeobiT merqnis damzadebas.saqarTvelos tyis kodeqsi iTvaliswinebs ZiriTadad sami saxis Wriswess: mTavari sargeblobis, movliT da specialur Wrebs. Tavis mxriv esWrebic iyofa uamrav sxvadasxva saxed. tyis Wris saxeebad diferencirebaxdeba merqnian saxeobaTa biologiuri da ekologiuri Taviseburebebis,tyis tipebis, tyis bunebrivi ganaxlebis mdgomareobis, eroziis winaaRmdegniadagis mdgradobis, ferdobTa eqspoziciisa da daqanebis simkveTrisSesabamisad.saintereso faqtia, rom xe-tyis damzadebis licenzirebisas jer kideviyeneben saqarTvelos prezidentis 1996 wlis 24 ivlisis # 479brZanebulebas “saqarTvelos tyeebSi zezeuri xis gacemis wesis Sesaxeb”.mravali iuristis azriT, aRniSnuli brZanebulebis gamoyenebassamarTlebrivi safuZveli ara aqvs, ramdenadac mas iuridiuli Zala argaaCnia da dReisaTvis misi gamoyeneba, martivad rom vTqvaT danaSaulia.aRniSnuli dokumenti yvelaze xandazmuli moqmedi aqti da albaTkorufciis mTavari wyaroa.amasTan, ramdenadac "saqarTvelos tyis kodeqsi" ufro gviangamocemuli, statusiT kanonis rangis aqtia da aqvs upiratesi iuridiuliZala sxva aqtebTan mimarTebaSi (miT umetes, masze adre gamocemulbrZanebulebaze), es brZanebuleba gasauqmebelia teqnikuri mosazrebiTmainc da SesamuSavebelia ”xe-tyis zezeurad gacemis wesis Sesaxeb~brZanebuleba, rogorc gaTvaliswinebulia (romelic jer ar SemuSavebula)"tyis kodeqsiT".Tavad am normatiuli aqtis teqsti ki Seicavs iseT debulebebs,romlebic bevr "xvrels" tovebs ukanono qmedebebisaTvis. mag. "xe-tyisdamzadebis vada wesdeba tyekafis aTvisebis wlis 1 ianvridan 31dekembramde, xolo misi gamozidvis vada-Semdegi wlis 1 ivnisamde". vingaaCerebs tyeSi moWril xe-tyes naxevari weli? is xom dakargavskomerciul Rirebulebas, martivad rom iTqvas, gafuWdeba. cxadia amnaxevari wlis ganmavlobaSic, anu gamozidvisaTvis nebadarTul periodSiceqneba adgili ukanono Wrebs, xolo maT dasafarad ki - korufciulgarigebebs. kidev erTi fraza am brZanebulebidan: "xe-tyis damamzadeblebs,romlebsac mTlianad aiTvises fondi, ufleba aqvT 1 oqtombridan momavaliwlis tyekafis fondis angariSSi avansad miiRon mosaWreli masis 30procentmde".mTavari sargeblobis, movliT da specialur Wrebis wesebidakanonebulia Semdegi normatiuli aqtebiT: saqarTvelos prezidentisbrZanebuleba 10.01.2000. # 6. “saqarTvelos tyeebSi mTavari sargeblobisWris wesis Sesaxeb debulebis damtkicebisa da tyeebis dacvis, aRdgenaganaxlebismTel rig RonisZiebaTa Sesaxeb”; satyeo meurneobis saxelmwifodepartamentis Tavmjdomaris brZaneba 07.12.1999 .# 10/61 movliTi Wris wesisSesaxeb; 13.09.2000 .# 10/61 specialuri Wrisa da misi ganxorcilebis wesisSesaxeb.am aqtebis iuridiuli teqnika (muxlebis, punqtebis numeracia) arSeesabameba “normatiuli aqtebis Sesaxeb” kanonis moTxovnebs; isini44


aRsaqmelad Zalian rTulia, radgan ar arsebobs erTiani damowesrigebuli struqtura. aqcenti gakeTebulia imaze, Tu ras emsaxurebaWra da sad ra Wrebi SeiZleba Catardes (?!). isini zogadia da ufromecnieruli naSromis mcdelobas waagavs, vidre im dokuments, sadac tyeebisyvela saxeobebis, jgufebis, tipebis, kategoriebis da sxva niSnebismixedviT gawerili unda iyos Wrebis saxeobebidan romeli saxe gamoiyenebaama Tu im tyeSi (ara marto xis saxeobebis mixedviT). es normatiuli aqtebiiuridiuli TvalsazrisiT sustia da ufro metyeve-specialistebis Teoriulcodnas saWiroebs.Tavad am normatiuli aqtebis teqstebi da debulebebiwinaaRmdegobrivia da Seusabamobebs Seicavs, maT Soris "saqarTvelos tyiskodeqsTanac." aris bevri iseTi momenti, romelic an ukanonobas akanonebs,an xels uwyobs ukanono qmedebis, maT Soris korufciuli garigebebisganxorcielebas.moviyvanT ramdenime magaliTs:mTavari sargeblobis Wrebis akrZalvis misaTiTeblad brZanebulebisme-3 punqtSi aris CamonaTvali “tyis Semdegi kategoriebisa”, romelSicTavad tyis kategoriebis garda Seyvanilia niadagdacviTi dawyalmaregulirebeli kategoriis tyis (romelsac dacvis saerTo reJimiaqvs) sxvadasxva ubnebi da zogierTi gaurkvevli statusis miwebi, mag:saxelmwifo dacviTi tyis zoli (?!). aqve gaugebaria erTi ram, tyis kodeqsis41-e da 42-e muxlebis mixedviT, niadagdacviTi da wyalmaregulirebelikategoriis tyis sxvadasxva ubnebs dacvis gansakuTrebuli reJimimiekuTvnebaT prezidentis mier. am fonze sainteresoa debulebis me-3punqtSi satyeo deparatmentis maSindelma xelmZRvanelobam ra uflebiT“CamoTvala” es “tyis kategoriebi”, maSin, roca am CamonaTvalis 80%-Si manfaqtiurad Seiyvana “niadagdacviTi da wyalmaregulirebeli kategoriistyis dacvis gansakuTrebuli reJimis sxvadasxva ubnebi” risi kompetenciacar hqonda.tyis kodeqsi 35 gradusze meti daqanebis ferdobze krZalavs tyisWras. movliTi Wris wesis Sesaxeb debulebis me-17 muxlSi ki miTiTebulia,rom 35 gradusze met daqanebis ferdobze daiSveba ganaTebiTi Wra, Tuarsebobs “gansakuTrebuli aucilebloba”. vin gansazRvravs amaucileblobas, an ra saxis aucilebeli SemTxvevebia – arsad weria.gamoyenebulia terminebi, romelTa samarTlebrivi statusi gaugebaria,magaliTad: “gzis dacviTi ubani”, `saxelmwifo tyis dacviTi zoli”, “sustiintensivobis (?!) movliTi Wrebi”, “movliTi Wris parametrebi”, “movliTiWris normativebi” (?!), “mTis tyeebi”.debulebis specialuri Wrisa da misi ganxorcilebis wesis ASesaxebme-7 muxlSi miTiTebulia, specWrebis ganxorcielebis wesi. sadacvkiTxulobT, rom specWrebis zogierTi saxe tardeba tyis mcveliszedamxedvelobiT da pasuxismgeblobiT(?!) e. i. araviTari sanebarTvodokumentacia am Wrebs ar sWirdeba!debulebis me-9 muxli exeba speWrebiT miRebul resursis gadasaxadsda miTiTebulia, rom gadasaxadebis (fasi, Rirebuleba) gadaxdaregulirdeba “saxelmwifo tyis fondis merqnuli resursis gacemis Sesaxeb”wesis Sesabamisad. es aris ormagad arakoreqtuli Canaweri: 1. gadasaxadebissakiTxis daregulireba am debulebis kompetenciebs scildeba; 2. am sakiTxis(gadasaxadebis) regulirebis kompetencia aqvs ara “wess”, aramed mxolodsagadasaxado kanonmdeblobas.45


danarTi I. informacia kolxeTis erovnuli parkis teritoriaze ukanonoWrebisa da saSeSe merqnis mopovebisaTvis gamoyofili tyekafebis Sesaxeb47


danarTi II. ambrolauris satyeo meurneobis direqtoris, baton i.giorgobianis, #14, 25.04.06 werili – gamogzavnili pasuxi asociacia mwvanealternativas werilis pasuxad48


danarTi III. satyeo seqtoris instituciuri wyobisa da maregulirebelikanondeblobis mimoxilvasaqarTvelos tyeebis udidesi nawili dReisaTvis aris saqarTvelos garemosdacvisa da bunebrvi resursebis saministros gamgeblobaSi. maT Soris: satyeomeurneobis departamentis gamgeblobaSia saqarTvelos tyeebis - 82% daculiteritoriebis departamentis gamgeblobaSi - 8%. tyeebis mcire nawili - 2% ekuTvnisv. gulisaSvilis saxelobis satyeo instituts, xolo adgilobrivi mmarTvelobisada TviTmmarTvelobis organoebs – 8% (yofili e.w. sakolmeurneo tyeebi).2005 wels ganxorcielebuli konstituciuri da sakanonmdeblo cvlilebebisSedegad moxda monaTesave samTavrobo uwyebebis gaerTianeba da nawili uwyebebisgauqmeba. likvidiebul iqna saqarTvelos garemosa da bunebrivi resursebis dacvissaministro. mis nacvlad da samarTalmemkvidred Seiqmna saqarTvelos garemosdacvisa da bunebrivi resursebis saministro. satyeo sferosTan dakavSirebulisaxelmwifo departamentebi - satyeo meurneobis sameurneo departamenti danakrZalebis, daculi teritoriebisa da samonadireo meurneobebis saxelmwifodepartamentebi reorganizebul iqnen da Sevidnen saministros SemadgenlobaSisaxelmwifo saqveuwyebo dawesebulebebis formiT. amave saministroSi Camoyalibdagaremos dacvis inspeqcia.satyeo sferosTan dakavSirebuli samTavrobo dawesebulebebis uflebamovaleobebiasea Camoyalibebuli:saqarTvelos garemos dacvisa da bunebrivi resursebis saministro arissaqarTvelos aRmasulebeli xelisuflebis samTavrobo dawesebuleba, romelicuzrunvelyofs saxelmwifo mmarTvelobas garemos dacvisa da bunebrivi resursebisracionalurad gamoyenebis, agreTve mosaxleobis ekologiuri usafrTxoebissferoSi.saministros hyavs teritoriuli organoebi, romlebic Sesabamisadministraciul-teritoriul erTeulSi Tavisi amocanebis ganxorcielebisaswarmoadgenen saministros.saqarTvelos garemos dacvisa da bunebrivi resursebis saministrossaxelmwifo saqveuwyebo dawesebuleba satyeo meurneobis departamenti – arisaRmasrulebeli xelisuflebis dawesebuleba, romlis meSveobiTac garemos dacvisada bunebrivi resursebis ministri axorcielebs aRmasrulebel xelisuflebassatyeo meurneobis sferoSi. departamentis daqvemdebarebaSi Sedian satyeomeurneobebi.saqarTvelos garemos dacvisa da bunebrivi resursebis saministrossaxelmwifo saqveuwyebo dawesebuleba daculi teritoriebis departamenti -departamentis daqvemdebarebaSi Sedian daculi teritoriebi (erovnuli parkebi,nakrZalebi, aRkveTilebi da sxva).saqarTvelos garemos dacvisa da bunebrivi resursebis saministrosgeneraluri inspeqcia - warmoadgens saministros sistemis Sida uwyebrivikontrolis ganmaxorcielebel erTaderT struqturul qvedanayofs, romelicTavisi saqmianobiT uzrunvelyofs saministros sistemis mosamsaxureTa mierCadenili samsaxureobrivi gadacdomisa da sxva saxis samarTaldarRvevaTagamovlenas, xels uwyobs maTi Tavidan acilebisa da kanonSesabamisi reagirebismizniT mimarTul muSaobas.garemos dacvisa da bunebrivi resursebis saministros saxelmwifosaqveuwyebo dawesebuleba garemos dacvis inspeqcia (gdi) - aris garemos dacvissferoSi saxelmwifo kontrolis erTiani centralizebuli organo. misi ZiriTadiamocanebia: saxelmwifo kontrolis gnxorcieleba garemos dacvis sferoSi;bunebrivi resursebiT ukanono sargeblobis faqtebis gamovlena da aRkveTa;saministros mier gacemuli licenziebis /nebarTvebis pirobebis Sesrulebiskontroli. gdi -s mTeli qveynis masStabiT hyavs 7 regionuli biuro. 49


satyeo sferosTan dakavSirebuli kanonmdebloba moicavs saqarTveloskonstitucias, saerTaSoriso SeTanxmebebsa da konvenciebs, saqarTvelos kanonebsada kanonqvemdebare aqtebs. calkeuli sakiTxebi aseve regulirdeba parlamentisdadgenilebebis, prezidentis brZanebulebebis, Sesabamisi ministrisa dadepartamentis Tavmjdomaris brZanebebiT.saqarTvelos garemosdacviTi kanonmdeblobis safuZvels SeadgenssaqarTvelos konstitucia, romlis 37-e muxlis Tanaxmad: `yvelas aqvs uflebacxovrobdes janmrTelobisaTvis uvnebel garemoSi, sargeblobdes bunebrivi dakulturuli garemoTi. yvela valdebulia gaufrTxildes bunebriv da kulturulgaremos~ (punqti 3); `adamianis janmrTelobisaTvis usafrTxo garemosuzrunvelsayofad, sazogadoebis ekologiuri da ekonomikuri interesebisSesabamisad, axlandeli da momavali Taobebis interesebis gaTvaliswinebiTsaxelmwifo uzrunvelyofs garemos dacvas da racionalur bunebaTsargeblobas~(punqti 4).saerTaSoriso SeTanxmebebs, memorandumebs da konvenciebs, eniWebaTprioriteti erovnul kanonmdeblobasTan mimarTebaSi, Tu isini arewinaaRmdegebian saqarTvelos konstitucias. aRsaniSnavia "konvencia biologiurimravalferovnebis Sesaxeb”, romelsac saqarTvelo miuerTda 1994 wels.cxrili 1: satyeo seqtorTan dakavSirebuli ratificirebuli saerTaSorisokonvenciebi# konvenciebi ratificirebis TariRi1. konvencia biologiuri mravalferovnebis Sesaxeb 31 agvisto 19942. klimatis cvlilebis CarCo-konvencia 16 maisi 19943. konvencia safrTxis winaSe myofi veluri fauniTa 1996 wlis 12 agvistoda floriT saerTaSoriso vaWrobis Sesaxeb (CITES)4. konvencia saerTaSoriso mniSvnelobis Warbteniani, 1997 wlis 7 ivnisigansakuTrebiT wylis frinvelTa sabinadrodvargisi teritoriebis Sesaxeb, (ramsaris konvencia)5. konvencia veluri cxovelebis migrirebadi2000 wlis 11 Tebervalisaxeobebis dacvis Sesaxeb6. konvencia gaudabnoebasTan brZolis Sesaxeb 1999 wlis 23 ivnisi7. konvencia garemosdacviT sakiTxebTan2000 wlis 11 TebervalidakavSirebuli informaciis xelmisawvdomobis,gadawyvetilebis miRebis procesSi sazogadoebismonawileobis da am sferoSi marTlmsajulebissakiTxebze xelmisawvdomobis Sesaxeb (orhusiskonvencia)saqarTveloSi tyeebis dacvasa da gamoyenebasTan dakavSirebiT miRebulikanonebidan pirvel rigSi aRsaniSnavia Semdegi: `garemos dacvis Sesaxeb~, `daculiteritoriebis sistemis Sesaxeb~, `cxovelTa samyaros Sesaxeb~, ”saqarTvelos”wiTeli nusxisa” da ”wiTeli wignis” Sesaxeb”, ”saqarTvelos tyis kodeqsi,”saqarTvelos kanoni “licenziebisa da nebarTvebis Sesaxeb.1996 wels saqarTvelos konstituciis zemoT aRniSnuli debulebebisganxorcielebis mizniT miRebuli iqna saqarTvelos kanoni `garemos dacvisSesaxeb~, romelic moicavs Semdeg sakiTxebs: garemos dacva mavne zemoqmedebisagan;garemos xarisxis gaumjobeseba; mdgradi ganviTareba da bunebrivi resursebismdgradi gamoyeneba; biologiuri mravalferovnebisa da ekologiuriwonasworobis SenarCuneba; unikaluri landSaftebisa da ekosistemebis dacva;globaluri garemosdacviTi problemebis gadasaWrelad garkveuli ZalisxmeviswarmarTva; garemos dacvis sferoSi moqalaqeTa uflebebisa da movaleobebisgansazRvra; garemosdacviTi ganaTleba.saqarTvelos kanoni `daculi teritoriebis sistemis Sesaxeb~ (1996 w.)gansazRvravs daculi teritoriebis daarsebis, ganviTarebisa da funqcionirebis50


aspeqtebs; ayalibebs marTvaze pasuxismgebeli organoebis sistemas sxvadasxvadoneze da gansazRvravs sxvadasxva kategoriis daculi teritoriis farglebSidasaSveb saqmianobebs.saqarTvelos kanoni `cxovelTa samyaros Sesaxeb~ (1996 w.) aregulirebssamarTlebriv urTierTobebs cxovelTa samyaros obieqtebis dacvisa dasargeblobis mimarTulebiT. kanoni, uSualod veluri faunis saxeobebis dacvisgarda, iTvaliswinebs maTi habitatebis, samigracio gzebis, gamravlebis adgilebisdacvas, uzrunvelyofs veluri faunis mdgrad gamoyenebas da qmnis samarTlebrivsafuZvels misi in-situ da ex-situ konservaciisTvis.”saqarTvelos tyis kodeqsi” (1999 w.) aregulirebs saqarTvelos tyisfondisa da misi resursebis movlasTan, dacvasTan, aRdgenasa da gamoyenebasTandakavSirebul samarTlebriv urTierTobebs. ”saqarTvelos tyis kodeqsis”mixedviT gansazRvrulia saxelmwifo tyis fondis cneba, romlis qveSac igulisxmebakanonmdeblobis safuZvelze misTvis mikuTvnebuli miwebisa da misi resursebis(tyeebi) erToblioba. kodeqsi aseve aregulirebs tyis fondze sakuTrebis uflebas.aRsaniSnavia, rom daSvebulia kerZo sakuTrebaSi tyis gadacema. kodeqsis miRebismomentSi tyis fondi mTlianad gamocxadebulia saxelmwifo sakuTrebad, xologansaxelmwifoebriobis procesi unda daregulirdes Sesabamisi kanonmdeblobiT,romlis Seqmnis aucileblobasac iTvaliswinebs kodeqsis me-9.2 muxli. kodeqsiserT-erT umniSvnelovanes amocanas warmoadgens saqarTvelos tyis fondis dacva,xeluxlebeli tyeebis TviTmyofadobis SenarCuneba, mcenareTa reliqturi,endemuri da sxva Zvirfasi saxeobebis dacva.aRsaniSnavia saqarTvelos kanoni `garemosdacviTi nebarTvis Sesaxeb~(amoqmedda 1997 wlis 1 ianvridan) da saqarTvelos kanoni `saxelmwifoekologiuri eqspertizis Sesaxeb~ (amoqmedda 1997 wlis 1 ianvridan). am kanonTamixedviT, nebarTva nebismier saqmianobaze gaicema garemoze zemoqmedebisSefasebisa da saxelmwifo ekologiuri eqspertizis Catarebis Semdeg.2003 wlis ivnisSi saqarTvelos parlamentma miiRo kanoni `saqarTvelos`wiTeli nusxisa” da `wiTeli wignis” Sesaxeb”. kanoniT samarTlebrivadganisazRvra gadaSenebis safrTxis winaSe myofi gareuli cxovelebisa da velurimcenareebis saxeobebis saqarTvelos `wiTeli nusxisa~ aseve, `wiTeli wignis~(romelsac eniWeba sarekomendacio da meToduri xasiaTis mniSvneloba) iuridiulidefiniciebi. kanoniT aseve ganisazRvra, ~wiTeli nusxis~ struqtura, nusxaSiSesatani saxeobebis gansazRvris, nusxis proeqtis SemuSavebis, miRebisa daganaxlebis (gadasinjvis) procedurebi. aRniSnuli kanoni aseve aregulirebsgadaSenebis safrTxis winaSe myofi saxeobebis `wiTel wignTan~, safrTxis winaSemyofi saxeobebis dacvasTan, mopovebasTan, maTi aRdgenisa da SenarCunebisRonisZiebaTa dagegmvasa da dafinansebasTan dakavSirebul sakiTxebs.saqarTvelos kanoni “licenziebisa da nebarTvebis Sesaxeb” ZalaSi Sevida2005 wlis 4 agvistodan. am kanonis mixedviT satyeo seqtorTan mimarTebaSiarsebobs: tyeTsargeblobis generaluri licenzia, romelSic Sedis xe-tyisdamzadebisa da samonadireo meurneobis mowyobis specialuri licenziebi; garemozezemoqmedebis nebarTva.am kanonis moTxovnebidan gamomdinare, masTan SesabamisobaSi unda movidnensaqarTvelos sxva normatiuli aqtebi. gardamaval perioSi sakixebi regulirdebamTavrobis dadgenilebebiT.garda zemoT CamoTvlilebisa, satyeo sferosTan dakavSirebli sakiTxebi(mosakreblebi, danaSaulis aRkveTa da prevencia, tyis resursebis dacva,gamoyeneba, kontroli, monitoringi da sxv.) ganisazRvreba/gvardeba SemdegikanonebiTa da sxva normatiuli aqtebiT:• saqarTvelos kanoni "mavne organizmebisagan mcenareTa dacvis Sesaxeb", 1994;• saqarTvelos kanoni ”kolxeTis daculi teritoriebis Seqmnisa da marTvisSesaxeb, 1998”;• saqarTvelos kanoni "wiaRis Sesaxeb", 1996;51


• saqarTvelos kanoni ”q. Tbilisis sazRvrebSi da mimdebare teritoriazearsebuli mwvane nargavebis da saxelmwifo tyis fondis gansakuTrebuli dacvisSesaxeb”, 2000;• saqarTvelos samoqalaqo kodeqsi, 1997;• saqarTvelos kanoni ”wylis Sesaxeb”, 1997;• saqarTvelos kanoni ”saqarTvelos zRvisa da mdinareTa napirebisregulirebisa da sainJinro dacvis Sesaxeb”, 2000;• saqarTvelos sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsi, 1999;• saqarTvelos administraciul samarTaldarRvevaTa kodeqsi, 1984;• saqarTvelos kanoni niadagis Sesaxeb saqarTvelos kanoni, 1994;• saqarTvelos organuli kanoni adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis Sesaxeb, 2005;• saqarTvelos kanoni "garemos dacvis kontrolis Sesaxeb", 2005;• saqarTvelos sabaJo kodeqsi, 2006• saqarTvelos kanoni bunebrivi resursis mosakreblebis Sesaxeb, 2005.garda am kanonebisa, satyeo sferos sakiTxebi regulirdeba saqarTvelosprezidentis brZanebulebebis, saqarTvelos parlamentis dadgenilebebis, garemosdacvisa da bunervivi resursebis ministris, satyeo meurneobis saxelmwifodepartamentis Tavmjdomaris samarTlebrivi aqtebis saSualebiT.52

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