Sinaarsi

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Sinaarsi

SinaarsiSesavali....................................................................................................................................................................... 3sakanonmdeblo regulireba .................................................................................................................... 5saqarTvelos regionebis daxasiaTeba......................................................................................... 8vizitorebis Camosvlis tendencia 2000-2005 wlebSi................................................. 13sastumroebi saqarTveloSi.................................................................................................................. 16saqarTvelos turistuli saagentoebi.....................................................................................20momxmarebelTa kvlevis Sedegebis analizi........................................................................ 21turizmis satelituri aRricxvis sistema (TSA)............................................................28turizmis, rogorc ekonomikuri saqmianobis analizi..............................31turizmi da vizitorebi..............................................................................................32warmoebis procesisa da produqciis urTierTkavSiri..............................37turizmis indikatorebi...............................................................................................42turizmis sferoSi arsebuli problemebi da rekomendaciebi........................47damatebiTi masala............................................................................................................................. 51wyaroebi ....................................................................................................................................................................69


SesavalisaqarTvelo evropisa da aziis sazRvarze mdebareobs. dasavleTiT masSavi zRva akravs, CrdiloeTiT ruseTi esazRvreba, aRmosavleTiT –azerbaijani, samxreTiT ki TurqeTi da somxeTi. saqarTvelos bunebriviklimaturi mravalferovnebidan gamomdinare didi turistulipotenciali gaaCnia. qveyanaSi turizmis ganviTarebas xels uwyobs SavizRvis sanapiro zolis arseboba, romelic metad mimzidvel adgilswarmoadgens rogorc adgilobrivi, ise ucxoeli turistebisaTvis.saqarTvelos kargi potenciali gaaCnia samTo-saTxilamuro sportis,alpinizmis, agroturizmis ganviTarebisaTvis, rasac ganapirobebs didi damcire kavkasionis mTagrexilebis arseboba. kavkasionis mravalimwvervalis simaRle 4000 metrs aRemateba, xolo Sxara da yazbegi 5000metrsac ki aWarbebs.Cveni qveyana gamoirCeva, rogorc kurortebis, aseve e.w. sakurortoadgilebis simravliTac. garda imisa, rom kurortebze mimzidveli bunebada garemoa dasvenebisaTvis, maT umravlesobas samkurnalo daniSnulebacgaaCnia. aqve unda aRiniSnos mineraluri samkurnalo wylebic, romelTaricxvi 2000 aRemateba.zemoT xsenebul faqtorebs metad didi mniSvneloba aqvs turizmisganviTarebisaTvis, radgan vizotorTa mogzaurobis mizans mxoloddasveneba ar warmoadgens, xSirad isini miemgzavrebian rekreaciis angamojanmrTelebis mizniT, Sesabamisad SeiZleba iTqvas, rom am kuTxiTsaqarvelo didi mravalferovnebiT gamoirCeva.Cveni qveyana aseve mdidaria kulturuli da istoriuli ZeglebiT,romelTagan zogierTi Cvens welTaRricxvamde ramodenime saukuniT adrecki aris daTariRebuli.miuxedavad zemoT xsenebuli xelsayreli garemoebebis arsebobisa undaaRiniSnos, rom saqarTveloSi turizmi naklebad aris ganviTarebuli.Sesabamisad ar xdeba arsebuli potencialis saTanadod gamoyeneba daikargeba potenciuri Semosavlis didi nawili, romelic SeiZlebamiRebul iqnas turizmis sferodan. amis mizezia qveyanSi da konkretuladam sferoSi arsebuli mravali problema, romelTa srulyofiliCamoTvlac albaT SeuZlebelia.ra aris turizmi?turizmi _ adamianis saqmianoba, romelic gulisxmobs dasvenebis, saqmianian raime sxva mizniT misi Cveuli sacxovrebeli adgilisagangansxvavebul garemoSi gamgzavrebas, gadabmulad araumetes erTi wlisvadiT da misi vizitis mizans ar warmoadgens am qveyanaSi Tavisi Cveulisaqmianobis ganxorcieleba.3


turisti _ piri, romelic nebayoflobiT mogzaurobs mudmivisacxovrebeli adgilis farglebs gareT, dasvenebis, gajansaRebis,saqmiani an sxva mizniT, aranakleb 24 saaTis da ara umetes erTi wlisvadiT da romlis mogzaurobac ar anazRaurdeba droebiTi yofnisadgilis safinanso wyarodan.kurorti – sakurorto adgili, romelzec ganlagebulia samkurnalo dagamajansaRebeli dawesebuleba, nageboba da infrasturqturis sxvaobieqtebi.4


sakanonmdeblo regulirebasaqarTveloSi turizmis sferos Semdegi kanonebi aregulirebs:1. saqarTvelos kanoni `turizmisa da kurortebis Sesaxe~;2. saqarTvelos kanoni `kurortebisa da sakurorto adgilebissanitariuli dacvis zonebis Sesaxeb~;3. turizmis qartia.saqarTvelos kanoni @`turizmisa da kurortebis Sesaxeb~ aregulirebsturizmisa da sakurorto saqmianobis sferoSi arsebul urTierTobebs.mocemuli kanonis Sesabamisad saqarTvelos turistuli da sakurortoresursebi erovnuli simdidrea da mas saxelmwifo icavs. qveynispolitikas turizmisa da kurortebis dargSi gansazRvravs parlamenti,xolo prezidenti uzrunvelyofs erTiani politikis gatarebas daamtkicebs sanitariuli dacvis zonebs.aRsaniSnavia is faqti, rom saqarTvelos kanoniT `turizmisa dakurortebis Sesaxeb~ ucxoeli turistebis miReba, momsaxurebasaqarTvelos teritoriaze ganixileba, rogorc turistuli momsaxurebiseqsporti, amitom saqarTvelos sagadasaxado kodeqsiT turoperatorebismier saqarTvelos teritoriaze ucxoeli turistebis organizebuliSemoyvana da maTTvis turistuli momsaxurebis paketis miwodeba ibegrebadRg-s nulovani ganakveTiT.saqarTvelos kanoni `kurortebisa da sakurorto adglebis sanitariulidacvis zonebis Sesaxeb~ gansazRvravs saqarTvelos kurortisa dasakurorto adgilebSi sawarmoTa ganTavsebis, samewarmeo saqmianobis,bunebrivi samkurnalo resursebiT sargeblobisa da mosaxleobisgansaxlebis aucilebel pirobebs.aRniSnuli kanonis mizania bunebrivi samkurnalo resursebis TvisebebisSenarCuneba da maTi dabinZurebis, gafuWebisa da gamofitvisgan dacvismizniT sanitariuli dacvis zonebis dadgena. mocemuli kanonis mixedviT,saqarTvelos teritoriaze gamoiyofa sanitariuli dacvis sami zona,kerZod mkacri, SezRuduli reJimisa da sameTvalyureo zona.turizmis qartia mowonebul iqna msoflio turizmis organizaciis mier(WTO) 1985 wels. saqarTvelo WTO-s wevria 1993 wlidan, qartia kiaRiarebul iqna saqarTvelos parlamentis 1994 wlis 25 ianvrisdadgenilebiT. aRniSnulidan gamomdinare, saqarTvelom sakuTar TavzeaiRo rigi valdebulebebi, romelic aucilebelia Sesruldes qartiismonawile yvela qveynis mier.msoflioSi aRiarebulia TiToeuli adamianis dasvenebis, Tavisufalidrois gamoyenebisa da samuSao dRis gonivruli SezRudvis ufleba,5


perioduli xelfasiani Svebulebis CaTvliT, aqedan gamomdinare, qartiismonawile TiToeuli saxelwifo, maT Soris saqarTveloc movalea:‣ izrunos rogorc Sidasaqveyno, ise saerTaSoriso turizmismowesrigebuli da harmoniuli ganviTarebisaTvis;‣ Seufardos turizmis politika saerTo ganviTarebis politikas,romelic xorcieldeba adgilobriv, regionul, erovnul dasaerTaSoriso doneze; gaafarTovos TanamSromloba turizmissferoSi rogorc ormxriv, ise mravalmxriv safuZvelze da ammizniT gamoiyenos saerTaSoriso turizmis organizaciisSesaZleblobebic;‣ gansakuTrebuli yuradReba dauTmos axalgazrduli, xandazmulTada fizikuri naklis mqoneTa turizmis ganviTarebas; samuSao daTavisufali drois regulirebiT, xelfasiani Svebulebebis sistemisgaumjobesebiTa da am SvebulebaTa dReebis mTeli wlis manZilzeTanazomieri ganawilebiT xeli Seuwyos TiToeuli adamianisCarTvas Sidasaqveyno da saerTaSoriso turizmSi;‣ turizmis sferoSi erovnuli politikisa da gegmebis SemuSavebisas(sadac mizanSewonilia) gaiTvaliswinos “msoflio turizmisSesaxeb” manilis deklaraciis principebi da akapulkos dokumenti;‣ daicvas dRevandeli da momavali TaobebisaTvis turistuli garemo,romelic kacobriobis kuTvnilebaa;‣ xeli Seuwyos turistuli Segnebis amaRlebas dadamTvalierebelTa kontaqtebs adgilobriv mosaxleobasTanurTierTgagebis gaRrmavebisa da zneobrivi urTierTgamdidrebismizniT;‣ xeli Seuwyos turistebs moiZion sazogadoebrivi monapovrebimogzaurobis adgilebSi da gaiTvaliswinon mogzaurobaTaSezRudvebis gamudmebuli Semcirebis tendencia;‣ uzrunvelyos damTvaliereblebis da maTi qonebis usafrTxoeba;‣ SesaZleblobis farglebSi uzrunvelyos turistebi saukeTesohigienuri pirobebiT da samedicino momsaxurebiT, daicvas isiniinfeqciuri daavadebebisa da ubeduri SemTxvevebisagan;‣ aRkveTos prostituciis mizniT turizmis gamoyenebis yovelgvariSesaZlebloba;‣ turistebisa da adgilobrivi mosaxleobis dacvis mizniTgaaZlieros RonisZiebani narkotikebis aralegaluri gamoyenebisTavidan asacileblad;‣ turistebs mieces qveynis teritoriaze Tavisufali gadaadgilebissaSualeba ise, rom ar dairRves calkeuli raionebis mimarTerovnuli interesebis gaTvaliswinebiT wayenebuli SezRudvebi;‣ ar dauSvas raime diskriminaciuli zomebi turistTa mimarT;‣ turistebs mieces saSualeba Seuferxeblad daukavSirdnenadministraciul, iuridiul samsaxurebs, sakonsuloTawarmomadgenlebs da isargeblon kavSiris adgilobrivi Tu sagareosaSualebebiT;‣ tranzitisa Tu droebiTi gaCerebis adgilebSi xeli SuwyosturistTa informirebulobas mkvidri mosaxleobis adaTwesebisSesaxeb.6


turizmis qartia aseve moicavs turistis kodeqss, romelSicgansazRvrulia turistTa ufleba–movaleobebi; turistebi valdebulniarian:‣ pativi scen tranzitisa da droebiTi gaCerebis adgilebSi arsebulpolitikur, socialur, moralur da religiur wyobilebas dadaemorCilon iq moqmed kanonebsa da wesebs;‣ gagebiT moekidon da pativi scen adgilobrivi mosaxleobisadaTwesebs, rwmenas, bunebriv da kulturul faseulobebs;‣ Tavi Seikavon maTsa da adgilobriv mosaxleobas Soris arsebuliekonomikuri, socialuri Tu kulturuli sxvaobebis xazgasmisagan;‣ gansakuTrebuli gulisyuriT moekidon adgilobrivi mosaxleobiskulturas, romelic kacobriobis saerTo monapovaria;‣ ar dauSvan narkotikebiT da akrZaluli preparatebiT vaWroba dasxva pirTa eqspluatacia prostituciis mizniT.aucilebelia saqarTvelom daicvas turistebis uflebebi, romelicCamoyalibebulia qartiaSi. turistebs ufleba aqvT:‣ isargeblon administraciuli da safinanso kontrolisSemsubuqebiT;‣ isargeblon qveyanaSi arsebuli SesaZleblobis farglebSisaukeTeso momsaxurebiT;‣ Tavisuflad gadaadgildebodnen rogorc sakuTari qveynis, asevemis farglebs gareT dadgenili wesebisa da SezRudvebis dacviT;‣ miiRon zusti da amomwuravi informacia maTTvis SeTavazebulimogzaurobis pirobebis Sesaxeb;‣ uzrunvelyofilni iyvnen piradi xelSeuxeblobisa da sakuTariqonebis usafrTxoebis garantiiT;‣ isargeblon Sesabamisi sazogadoebrivi higieniT, informaciiTinfeqciur daavadebaTa da ubedur SemTxvevaTa Tavidan acilebismizniT gatarebul RonisZiebaTa Sesaxeb, agreTve janmrTelobisdacvis samsaxurTan Seuferxebeli dakavSirebis SesaZleblobiT;‣ swrafad da efeqturad daamyaron kavSiri qveynis SigniT, asevemis farglebs gareT;‣ uzrunvelyofilni iyvnen maTi uflebebis dasacavad aucilebeliadministraciuli da iuridiuli procedurebiT da garantiebiT;‣ uzrunvelyofilni iqnan sakuTari religiuri aRmsareblobisSesaZleblobiT da am miznisaTvis aucilebeli SesabamisipirobebiT.7


saqarTvelos regionebis daxasiaTebasaqarTvelo 11 regionad iyofa: afxazeTi, kaxeTi, aWara, guria,samegrelo-zemo svaneTi, raWa-leCxumi da qvemo svaneTi, samcxe javaxeTi,qvemo qarTli, Sida qarTli, imereTi, mcxeTa-mTianeTi da Tbilisi.saqarTvelos kulturis, ZeglTa dacvisa da sportis saministrodan,uSualod ki kulturuli memkvidreobis departamentidan miRebuliinormaciis safuZvelze dadginda, rom 2005 wlis monacamebiT sulsaqarTvelos teritoriaze aris 2300 Zegli. aqedan mxolod TbilisSi 644Zeglia ganlagebuli, romelTa Soris bevrs istoriuli mniSvneloba aqvs.turizmis departamentidan da saqarTvelos kulturis, ZeglTa dacvisada sportis saministrodan moZiebuli informaciis safuZvelzemovaxdineT saqarTvelos regionebis daxasiaTeba kurortebis Zeglebisada samkurnalo wylebis raodenobis mixedviT. qveyanaSi 102 kurorti dakargi perspeqtivis mqone 182 sakurorto adgilia. saqarTveloSiaRricxuli samkurnalo wylebis debeti daaxloebiT 130 milion litrsSeadgens dReRameSi, maTi ricxvi ki 2000 aRemateba. qveyanaSi asevemravladaa muzeumebi, maTi ricxvi 150 aRwevs.saqarTvelos turistuli potenciali ganisazRvreba misi regionebismimzidvelobiT turistebisa da damsveneblebisaTvis. saqarTvelosfarTobi 69.7 aTasi kvadratuli kilometria, saidanac misi teritoriis1% borjom-xaragaulis erovnul parks uWiravs. igi TiTqmis 68 000hektarzea gadaWimuli da erT-erTi udidesia amierkavkasiasa da evropaSi.TviT borjomis raioni imiTac aris saintereso rom igi ekuTvnis samcxejavaxeTisregions, romelic mdidaria kurortebiTa da samkurnalogamajansaRebeli,minareluri wylebiT. samcxe javaxeTSi 14 kurorti, 291kulturuli Zegli da 40 samkurnalo wyalia. zemoT xsenebul kurortebsSorisaa borjomis, waRveris, abasTumnis balneo da belneo–klimaturikurortebi. aramarto samcxe–javaxeTi, aramed mTeli saqarTvelo sakmaodnoyier niadags warmoadgens, eko da agro turizmis ganviTarebisaTvis.amis mizezi ki Zalian mcire teritoriaze reliefis saocarimravalferovneba, mdidari flora da fauna da pirvelqmnili saxiTSemonaxuli bunebaa.TiTqmis yvela regioni mniSvnelovania Tavisi mravalferovani sakurortoadgilebiT da istoriuli mniSvnelobis mqone ZeglebiT. maT SorisgansakuTrebiT gamoirCeva afxazeTis regioni, sadac 38 Zegli, 19 kurortida 72 samkurnal gamajansaRebeli wyalia. afxazeTis regionis TiToeuliraioni mdidaria potenciurad sakurorto zonebiT. magaliTisaTvisgudauTis raionSi 26 Zegli da ukve cnobili sami kurortia. rac SeexebasaqarTvelos danarCen regionebs, isini arafriT Camouvardeba afxazeTs.qarTuli turistuli potencialis gamdidrebaSi sakmaod did rolsTamaSobs kaxeTi. am regionSi 8 kurorti da 52 samkurnalo wyalia.gansakuTrebul aRniSvnas imsaxurebs gurjaanis raioni, axtalissamkurnalo talaxebiT. regionis yvelaze didi turistuli potencialikulturul da aRmoCeniT turizmSia. kaxeTSi 73 kulturuli Zeglia,romelTa didi nawili Soreul warsulSia agebuli da am mxriv regionisakmaod did dainteresebas iwvevs, rogorc adgilobiv aseve ucxoel8


turistebSi. aRsanisSnavia is faqtic, rom ZiriTadi RirsSesaniSnaobebisdaTvaliereba turistma SeiZleba Tavisuflad moaxerxos erT anramdenime dReSi da kvlav daubrundes dedaqalaqs, rasac regionisTbilisTan, rogorc qveynis mTavar ekonomikur da kulturul centrTansiaxlovec uwyobs xels.aRsaniSnavia, rom saqarTveloSi arsebobs msoflioSi cnobili yvelasamedicino profilis kurorti, rac mas turistebisaTvis kidev ufromimzidvels xdis. garda uiSviaTesi samkurnalo Tvisebebis mqonekurortebisa, stumrebs SesaZlebloba aqvT saqarTvelos yvela regionSinaxon ulamazesi buneba, landSaftebi da msoflio mniSvnelobis mqonekulturuli Zeglebi, romelTagan oTxi 1994 wlidan Sesulia iuneskosmsoflio mniSvnelobis ZeglTa siaSi:1. saqarTvelos uZvelesi dedaqalaqi mcxeTa, rogorc qalaqi muzeumi2. gelaTis samonastro kompleqsi (XI s.)3. bagratis sakaTedro taZari quTaisSi (XI s.)4. uSgulis arqiteqturuli ansamblisaqarTvelos dasavleTiT esazRvreba Savi zRva, sanapiro zoli 318kilometrs Seadgens da igi warmoadgens masobrivi turizmis ganviTarebiserT-erT ZiriTad safuZvels. afxazeTis regionis kurortebis garda SavizRvis sanapiroze gamoirCeva aWara, Tavisi SesaniSnavi sakurortozonebiT da ZeglebiT. turizmis departamentis informaciis safuZvelzedadginda, rom mocemul regionSi 6 kurorti, 44 Zegli da 38 samkurnalowyalia. am regionis TiToeuli nawili RirsSesniSnavia, magram amSemTxvevaSi SeiZleba gamovarCioT qobuleTi, sadac aseT mcireteritoriaze 10 Zegli da 2 kurortia ganlagebuli.zRvispira kurotebidan Tavisi mniSvnelobiT, magnituri qviSebiTa dadasvenebisa da gajansaRebisaTvis SesaniSnavi klimaturi pirobebiTgamoirCeva ureki. igi ozurgeTis raionSia ganTavsebuli da guriisregions miekuTvneba. guria Tavis farglebSi aerTianebs 27 kulturulZegls, 29 samkurnalo wyalsa da iseT cnobil kurortebs, rogorebicaanabeRlavi, baxmaro (zRvis donidan 1500 metri da zeviT) da sxva. sul amregionSi 6 kurortia.sakurorto potencialiT gamoirCeva samegrelo-zemo svaneTis regionic.aq ganlagebulia 7 kurorti, 445 Zegli da 75 samkurnalo wyali. mocemulregionSi SexvdebiT, rogorc zRvispira kurorts (malTayva, foTisraioni) aseve maRalmTiani zonis kurortebs 1500 metri da zeviT(lebarde, martvilis raioni).aseTive kontrastebiT xasiaTdeba qvemo qarTli. am regionSi 7 kurorti,289 Zegli da 59 samkurnalo wyalia. maT Sorisaa kojori, kikeTi, kumisi,wavkisi da a.S. yvela es kurorti gardabnis raionSia ganTavsebuli.analogiuri situacia gvxvdeba Sida qarTlSi, sadac 9 kurorti, 158Zegli da 46 samkurnalo wyalia. maT Soris mniSvnelovania xaSurisraionis ori kurorti: surami da qviSxeTi. surami 700-1000 metrissimaRleze ganlagebul da im ramodeni kurorts Sorisaa, romelTacklimato-balneologiuri Tvisebebi gaaCniaT.9


saqarTvelos sakurorto potencials Sav zRvasTan erTad gansazRvravskavkasionis mTagrexili, romelic gamoirCeva samTo saTxilamurokurortebis mravalferovnebiT da alpinizmis ganviTarebisaTvisSesaniSnavi potencialiT. didi kavkasioni gadaWimulia Savidan kaspiiszRvamde da sigrZiT 1500 kilometrs aRwevs. mrvladaa mwvervalebi,romelTa simaRle 4000 metrs aRemateba. magaliTisaTvis mwveravaliSxaras simaRle zRvis donidan 5060 metria da igi raWa-leCxumisa daqvemo svaneTis regionSi mdebareobs. es regioni gamoirCeva maRalmTianikurortebiTa da kulturuli turizmis ganviTarebis didi potencialiT.mocemul regionSi sul 7 kurorti, 118 kulturuli Zegli da 65samkurnalo Tvisebebis mqone wyalia.onis raionSi mdebare kurorti Sovi maRalmTiani zonis kurortebsganekuTvneba. igi zRvis donidan 1500 metris simaRleze mdebareobs.samkurnalo TvisebebiT gamoirCeva imereTis regionSi mdebare kurortisairme. is zRvis donidan 700-1000 metr simaRlezea da balneologiurikurortis TvisebebiT xasiaTdeba. mocemul regionSi sul 12 kurorti, 87Zegli da 71 samkurnalo wyalia.mcxeTa-mTianeTis regioni gamoirCeva Zeglebis simravliTa da maTiistoriuli mniSvnelobiT. TviT qalaqi mcxeTa, rogorc ukve aRvniSneT,msoflio kulturuli memkvidreobis nusxaSia Setanili. mcxeTis garda amregionSi kidev 87 Zeglia, aseve aq vxvdebiT 5 kurortsa da 64samkurnalo wyals. uZveles dedaqalaqTan erTad SeiZleba ganvixiloTTbilisic, romlis farglebSi 2 kuroti, 644 Zeglia da samnkurnaloTvisebis mqone 1 wyalia Tavmoyrili.yovelive zemoTqmuli cxrilis saxiT SeiZleba Semdegnairad iqnaswarmodgenili:regionebikurortiraodenobakult.ZegliZiriTadisamk.wylebiafxazeTi 19 38 72 -aWara 6 44 38 37guria 6 27 29 4imereTi 12 87 71 22kaxeTi 8 73 52 8mcxeTa-mTianeTi 5 88 64 19raWa-leCx. qvemo svaneTi 7 118 65 3samegrelo zemo svaneTi 7 443 75 14samcxe-javaxeTi 14 291 40 22Sida qarTli 9 158 46 7qvemo qarTli 7 289 59 2Tbilisi 2 644 1 91sul 102 2300 612 229sastumro10


ogorc ukve aRvniSneT mxolod TbilisSi 644 kulturuli Zeglia, gardaamisa aRsaniSnavia qalaqSi arsebuli mravali muzeumi, romelic uamravadgilobriv Tu ucxoel vizitors izidavs, gansakuTrebuli mniSvnelobismqonea saqarTvelos erovnuli muzeumi, romelSic gaerTianebulia:• xelovnebis saxelmwifo muzeumi• s. janaSias saxelobis muzeumi• qarvasla• vanis muzeumimuzeumSi daculi eqsponatebi da oqros fondi vizitorTa gansakuTrebulyuradRebas ipyrobs. erovnuli muzeumidan mowodebuli informaciissafuZvelze SeiZleba iTqvas, rom xelovnebis muzeumSidamTvalierebelTa 40%-ze meti ucxoelia. muzeumis damTvalierebelTaSoris arian Semdegi qveynebis warmomadgenlebi: germania, inglisi,safrangeTi, ruseTi, amerika, ukraina, CineTi, saberZneTi, espaneTi,avstria, italia, iaponia, Sveicaria, ungreTi, irani, TurqeTi.aRsaniSnavia, rom saqarTvelos erovnul muzeums bangladeSidanCamosuli delegaciac ki stumrobda.eqskursiaTa raodenoba xelovnebis muzeumSi# wlebi eqskursiaTa raodenoba1 2001 17732 2002 16103 2003 16054 2004 16775 2005 1418 (pirveli 9 Tvis monacemebi)Tu mocemul cxrils davakvirdebiT vnaxavT, rom 2001 wlidan dawyebulixelovnebis muzeumSi TandaTan izrdeba eqskursiaTa raodenoba, racdadebiT tendenciaze miuTiTebs turizmis ganviTarebis TvalsazrisiT.s. janSias saxelobis saqarTvelos muzeumiwlebi damTvalierebelTaraodenoba2004 9000-100002005 19450s. janaSias saxelobis muzeumidan mopovebul monacemebze dayrdnobiTSeiZleba iTqvas, rom 2004 welTan SedarebiT 2005 wels vizitorTaraodenoba TiTqmis gaormagda. damTvalierebelTa 20% ucxoelebze modis.ZiriTadad muzeums ruseTis, inglisis da safrangeTis delegaciebi11


stumroben. bolo periodSi gaizarda rus damTvalierebelTa ricxvi.jorj buSis vizitis Semdeg ki SeiniSneba amerikel damTvalierebelTaricxvis mniSvnelovani momateba. aRsaniSnavia is faqti, rom vizitorebSigansakuTrebiT did dainteresebas oqros fondi iwvevs.garda zemoT CamoTvlili muzeumebisa, TbilisSi rogorc adgilobrivi,ise ucxoeli vizitorebisaTvis aranakleb saintereso da mimzidvelia Riacis qveS ganTavsebuli arqiteqturul-eTnografiuli muzeumic dagamoCenil moRvaweTa saxl-muzeumebi da panTeonebi.12


vizitorebis Camosvlis tendencia 2000-2005 wlebSiturizmis departamentidan miRebuli informaciis Tanaxmad 2000–2005wlebSi saqarTveloSi Camovida daaxloebiT 2 087 837 vizitori. undaaRiniSnos, rom 2000 wels mTeli msofliodan Camosul stumarTaraodenobam Seadgina 387 285 adamiani. aqedan umetesi wili _ 92.3% (357 798adamiani) evropaze modioda. evropis qveynebidan da regionebidangansakuTrebiT gamoirCeoda centralur-aRmosavleT evropa da dsT-sqveynebi, maTi wili 2000 wels mTlianad evropidan Camosul vizitorTa63.1% Sedgens, rac 226 068 adamiania.vizitorebis Camosvlis tendencia 2000-2005 wlebSiregionebi 2000weli2001weli2002weli2003weli2004weli2005welievropa 357 798 281 691 281 691 288 648 342 602 373 170amerika 10 958 7 719 8 213 8 722 11219 11463aRm. azia dawynari okeane 7 327 5 265 6 872 6 563 4952 2384axloaRmosavleTi 2 167 1 261 1 253 1 835 1563 1563samxreT azia 6 058 5 289 5 838 6 838 6635 4766afrika 326 730 681 586 795 314kvlevis Sedegad gamovlinda, rom centraluri evropis aRmosavleTnawili da dsT liderobas inarCunebs MmTeli 5 wlis ganmavlobaSi. racSeexeba danarCen msoflios, 2000 wels cifrebi daaxloebiT Semdegnairadgadanawilda: amerika - 10 958 vizitori, anu mTliani raodenobis 2.89%;aRmosavleT azia da wynari okeane - 7 327 vizitori (1.8%); axloaRmosavleTi – 2 167 (0.55%); samxreT azia – 6 058 vizitori (1.75%); afrika– 326 (0.08%).zemoT CamoTvlili monacemebis radikaluri cvlileba igrZnoba 2001, 2002,2003, 2004 da 2005 wlebSi. rogorc kvelvis Sedegebidan irkveva 2000 da2001 wels Soris sxvaobam Sedgina 85 040 vizitori, rac saerTo jamSierTi wlis ganmavlobaSi axlo-aRmosavleT evropidan CamosulvizitorTa mTlian raodenobas Sedgens. anu 2000-dan 2001 welsprocentulad ucxoel moqalaqeTa Semosvlis maCvenebeli daeca 22%-iT.analogiurad SegviZlia gamoviTvaloT Semdgom wlebSi turistTaCamosvlis dinamikac. magaliTisaTvis 2002 wels saqarTvelos sazRvarigadmokveTa 298 469 ucxoelma. iseve, rogorc 2000, 2001 wlebSi aqacstumrebis raodenobiT evropa dominirebs, am vizitorTa ricxvma 281 691Seadgina, rac mTlianad, vizitorebis raodenobis 94.3%-ia. iseve rogorc2000, 2001 da Semdgom wlebSic yvelaze dabali maCvenebeli afrikiskontinentze modis. 2002 wlis ganmavlobaSi am regionidan mxolod 681stumari Camovida, rac mTliani maCveneblis mxolod 0.22%. turistTaCamosvlis maCvenebelbi mocemul wels Semdegnairad gadanawilda: amerika– 8 213, rac 2.75%; aRmosavleT azia da wynari okenane – 1 253, rac 0.41%;axlo aRmosavleTi – 1 253, rac 0.41%; samxreT azia – 5 838, 1.95%;13


sastumroebi saqarTveloSiqveyanaSi turizmis ganviTarebisaTvis gansakuTrebiT didi mniSvnelobaeniWeba Sesabamisi turistuli infrastruqturis arsebobas. aucilebeliaarsebobdes TavSesafrebisa da sastumroebis garkveuli raodenoba,romlebic RamisgasaTeviT uzrunvelyofs, rogorc rezident, iseararezident vizitorebs.saqarTvelos statistikis saxelmwifo departamentidan da turizmisdepartamentidan miRebuli informaciis mixedviT mdgomareobaSemdgenairia: 2002 wels saqarTveloSi funqcionirebda 236 sastumro,romelTagan 43 iyo saxelmwifo sakuTreba, 193 ki kerZo. sastumroTaraodenoba 2003 wlisTvis Semcirda da 226 Seadgina. aqedan 42 gaxldaTsaxelmwifo, 184 ki kerZo. am sastumroebSi nomrebis saerTo raodenoba9614-s aRwevda. unda aRiniSnos, rom adgilebis raodenobis mixedviTgvxvdeba erTadgiliani, oradgiliani, sami da metadgiliani nomrebi daluqsi.Tu sastumroebis SesaZleblobebs ganvixilavT im kuTxiT, Tu ramdenituristis datevis saSualeba gaaCnia saqarTvelos mocemul pirobebSi,unda aRiniSnos, rom 2003 wlis monacemebze dayrdnobiT adgilTa saerToraodenoba yvela sastumroSi erTad Seadgenda 19152-s.maCvenebeli 2002 weli 2003 welisastumroebis raodenoba 236 226nomrebis saerTo raodenoba 9550 9614luqsi 847 785erTadgiliani 1482 1450oradgiliani 6442 6657sami da met adgiliani 779 722adgilebis saerTo raodenoba 19757 19152sarTulianobis mixedviT yvelaze mravalricxovania orsarTulianisastumroebi _ 69, mas mosdevs samsarTuliani sastumroebi _ 47,erTsarTuliani _ 36, oTxsarTuliani _ 28, 6-10 sarTuliani _ 25, aTsarTulze zeviT _ 11 da yvelaze cota gvxvdeba xuTsarTulianisastumroebi _ 10 (2003 wlis monacemebi).2002-2003 wlis monacemebiT sastumroebis yvelaze didi raodenobaTbilisSia Tavmoyrili. regionebis mixedviT liderobs aWara, masmohyveba imereTi da samcxe-javaxeTi.sastumroTa ganawileba saqarTvelos regionebSi (2002-2003 w)regionebisastumrobisraodenobaadgilebisraodenoba2002 2003 2002 2003Tbilisi 87 92 7729 7952aWara 36 30 2770 273116


guria 2 3 192 293imereTi 25 23 2651 2606kaxeTi 8 8 724 628mcxeTa-mTianeTi 19 18 767 1050raWa-leCxumi da qvemosvaneTi3 3 241 263samegrelo-zemo svaneTi 14 14 940 862samcxe-javaxeTi 29 25 2638 1812qvemo qarTli 3 2 308 290Sida qrTli 10 8 797 665jami 236 226 19757 191522002-2003 wlis monacemebiT sastumroTa gansakuTrbiT mcire raodenobadafiqsirebulia raWa-leCxumi qvemo svaneTSi, qvemo qarTlSi da guriaSi.Tu SevadarebT 2002-2003 wlis monacemebs 2005 wlis monacemebTan vnaxavT,rom saqarTveloSi registrirebul sastumroTa ricxvi gaizarda 389-mde,aqedan aqtiurad funqcionirebs 229 sastumro. maTi ganawileba regionebismixedviT ki Semdegnairia:saqarTvelos regionebisastumroebisraodenoba (2005)Tbilisi 91aWara 37guria 4imereTi 22kaxeTi 8mcxeTa-mTianeTi 19raWa-leCxumi da qvemosvaneTi3samegrelo-zemo svaneTi 14samcxe-javaxeTi 22qvemo qarTli 2Sida qrTli 7jami 229rac Seexeba sastumroTa momsaxurebis saxeebs, igi didimravalferovnebiT ar gamoirCeva. ZiriTadad gvxvdeba Semdegi saxismomsaxureba: restorani, bari da Ramis klubi, sasadilo, sakonferenciodarbazi, sportuli darbazi, sauna, diskoTeka, avtosadgomi, silamazissaloni, valutis gadacvla, aviasalaro, samedicino punqti, Semnaxvelisakani. amasTanave aRsaniSnavia is faqti, rom CamoTvlil momsaxurebaTanawili Zalian bevr sastumroSi ar gvxvdeba da mxolod ramodenimegaaCnia mraval maTgans.rogorc viciT, vizitorebis erTmaneTisagan gamijvnisas mxedvelobaSiRebuloben maTi vizitis mizans. 2002-2003 wlebSi saqarTveloSi Camosulivizitorebis ganawileba sastumroebSi _ Camosvlis miznis mixedviTSeiZleba Semdegnairad warmovadginoT:17


vizitis mizani2002 weli 2003 welisaqarTvelodanrekreacia da dasveneba 9696 11697saqmiani da profesiuli 15458 16200mkurnaloba 174 646sxva 15813 15196dsT-s qveynebidanrekreacia da dasveneba 183 1071saqmiani da profesiuli 4165 8790mkurnaloba 34 39sxva 640 1115sxva qveynebidanrekreacia da dasveneba 1963 2749saqmiani da profesiuli 20385 22605mkurnaloba 116 7sxva 1883 2515mocemul informaciaze dayrdnobiT SeiZleba iTqvas, rom vizitismiznidan gamomdinare sastumroebze moTxovna gansakuTrebiT izrdebasaqmiani vizitebis dros. aRniSnuli tendencia SeiniSneba rogorc 2002ise 2003 wels, mas ki mosdevs rekreaciis, Semdeg ki dasvenebis mizniTCamosulTa raodenoba.aseve sainteresoa zogadad saqarTvelos regionebSi arsebulsastumroebSi vizitorebis ganawilebis tendencia:stumarTamaT SorissaqarTvelos regionebiraodenoba ararezidenti2002 2003 2002 2003weli weli weli weliq. Tbilisi 33004 43408 18503 26358aWara 12642 12955 3467 4541guria 40 1204 0 0imereTi 2883 2870 638 454kaxeTi 247 293 0 0mcxeTa _ mTianeTi 4079 5898 1845 1679raWa-leCxumi qvemo 522 283 0 0svaneTisamegrelo-zemo 7865 9413 4365 5035svaneTisamcxe-javaxeTi 7533 5126 332 443qvemo qarTli 53 46 24 6Sida qarTli 1642 1134 195 375vizitorebis raodenobidan gamomdinare yvelaze meti datvirTulobiTTbilisis sastumroebi gamoirCeva. 2003 wlis monacemebiT Tbilisis18


sastumroSi gaCerebul vizitorTa umetesoba ucxoelia (26358ararezidenti 43408 vizitorSi), roca magaliTad guris, kaxeTisa da raWaleCxumiqvemo svaneTis sastumroebSi arc erTi vizitori ar yofilaararezidenti. vizitorebiT datvirTulobis mixedviT Tbilisis Semdegmeore adgilzea aWara, romelsac samegrelo-zemo svaneTi mosdevs.vizitorebis mxridan sastumros momsaxurebis gamoyenebaSi raimekanonzomiereba ar SeiniSneba. 2003 wels TbilisSi, aWaraSi, samegrelozemosvaneTSi SeiniSneba moTxovnis zrda sastumros momsaxurebaze.gansakuTrebiT unda gamoiyos guria, sadac 2003 wels vizitorTaraodenoba sastumroSi 40-dan 1204-mde gaizarda, rac sakmaodSTambeWdavia, radgan, rogorc viciT, 2003 wlis 3 sastumrodan maTiricxvi 2005 wels cxramde gaizarda. sapirispiro mdgomareobaa samcxejavaxeTSi,Sida qarTlsa da raWa-leCxumi da qvemo svaneTis regionSi, aq2003 wels 2002 welTan SedarebiT sastumroTa datvirTulobismaCvenebeli daeca.19


saqarTvelos turistuli saagentoebi`Tbilisis biznes megzuris~ Tanaxmad 2004 wels saqrTveloSisaqmianobda 118 turistuli saagento. maTi ricxvi 2005 wlisaTvis 161-mde gaizarda. aRsaniSnavia is faqti, rom mocemuli saagentoebidanmxolod 33 maTganis gamokiTxva moxerxda. am saagentoTagan 16orientirebulia saqarTveloSi ucxoelebis Semoyvanaze, isini aseveewevian adgilobrivi mosaxleobis momsaxurebas. 13 sagentoorientirebulia qarTveli turistebis sazRvargareT gayvanaze.mocemuli 33 saagentodan mxolod 4 saagento aris orientirebulirogorc Sida, ise gamsvlelTa turizmze.zemoT xsenebuli saagentoebi 2005 wlis ganmavlobaSi, moemsaxurnendaaxloebiT 5500 adamians, saidanac 83% (4570) iyo ucxoeli, xolo17% (930) qarTveli.turistuli firmebi, romlebic Sida turizmze arian orientirebulniTavianT momsaxurebaSi klientebs sTavazoben sastumroTiuzrunvelyofas. 21 aseTi saagentos gamokiTxvidan aRmoCnda, rom 10turistuli firma Tavis klientebs konkretul sastumroTaCamonaTvals sTavazobs; 4 maTgans raime specialuri SeTanxmebasastumroebTan ar aqvs da nebismier sastumroSi aTavsebs stumrebs,xolo darCenili 7 ki orive tipis momsaxurebas eweva. maTgaformebuli aqvT kontraqtebi, rogorc konkretul sastumroebTan,aseve SeuZliaT vizitorebi maTi survilisamebr ganaTavson nebismiersastumroSi. rigi saagentoebi, romlebsac aqvT specialuri SeTanxmebasastumroebTan, Tavis klientebs ufro dabal fasebSi sTavazobenmocemuli sastumroebis momsaxurebas.Sida turizmze orientirebuli gamokiTxuli 21 turistulisaagentodan TiTqmis yvelas aqvs gasvliTi turebi saqarTvelosmasStabiT, magram maTi ZiriTadi marSrutebi gadis aRmosavleTsaqarTveloze. 19 maTgans yavs specialurad momzadebuli gidi da 18-sTarjimanic. damatebiT specifiur momsaxurebas, romelsac ramodenimefirma sTavazobs klientebs, warmoadgens: manqanebis gaqiraveba dazafxulSi aragvze navebiT daSveba, xolo zamTarSi saTxilamurokursebi qarTul samTo-saTxilamuro kurortebze.20


momxmarebelTa kvlevis Sedegebis analiziturizmis sferos momxmarebelTa kvlevisas Catarda, rogorcsatelefono, aseve anketebis saSualebiT gamokiTxva. telefoniTgamokiTxul iqna 800-mde respodenti, xolo kiTxvarebis meSveobiT 300.gamokiTxvis Sedegad aRmoCnda, rom respodentTa umravlosobam, kerZod88%-ma daisvena zafxulis ganmavlobaSi. amasTanave aucilbeliaaRiniSnos kavSiri, romelic SeiniSneba damsvenebelTa raodenobasa daasakobriv jgufebs Soris, damsvenebelTa naxevarze meti, kerZod ki 57%25 wlamde asakisaa, 30% _ 20-50 wlis da yvelaze dabali maCvenebeli,mxolod 13% dafiqsirda _ 50 wlis zeviT adamianebSi.zogadad damsvenebelTa umravlesoba (68%) isvenebda ori kvira an meti,gamokiTxulTa 10% erTi kvira, darCenili 22% ki 10 dRe.sainteresod ganawilda maCveneblebi dasvenebis adgilis mixedviT.aSkarad gamoikveTa is faqti, rom dasasvenebel adgilebSi liderobskurorti. Tu mocemul monacemebs ganvazogadebT SeiZleba iTqvas, romsaqarTveloSi am etapze yvelaze didi datvirTva kurortebze modis,kerZod ki gamokiTxulTa 59%. mosaxleobis Zalian mcire nawili axerxebssazRvargareT wasvlas da dasvenebas, amitom es maCvenebeli SeiZlebagamoyenebul iqnas saqarTvelos sasargeblod da xeli SevuwyoTadgilobrivi tuizmis saTanadod ganviTarebas:damsvenebelTa xvedriTi wili respodentebSiara12%diax88%sofeli38%sazRvargareT3%kurorti59%aseve sainteresoa is faqti, rom kurortze damsvenebelTa umravlesoba _72% cxovrobda naqiravebSi, 16% sakuTar saxlSi da mxolod 12%cxovrobda sastumroSi, rac imaze miuTiTbs, rom saqarTveloSisastumroTa momsaxureba arasaTanado donezea ganviTarebuli daSesabamisad momxmarebelic ar yavs. es SeiZleba gamowveuli iyos, rogorcmaRali fasebiT, aseve momsaxurebis saWiro donis ar arsebobiT anufassa da momsaxurebas Soris SeusabamobiT, an ubralod sastumroTasimciriT sakurorto adgilebSi da a.S.Zalian saintereso Sedegebia regionebis datvirTulobasTandakavSirebiT. kvlevis Sedegad gamovlinda, rom mosaxleobisumravlesoba zRvis sanapiroze, kerZod ki aWaraSi isvenebs. Zalian cota,erTi procentia afxazeTSi damsvenebelTa wili da unda iTqvas, rom21


SeiZleba mocemuli erTi procentis ganzogadeba saqarTvelosmosaxleobaze arc iyos miznSewonili afxazeTSi arsebuli, yvelasTviskargad cnobili garemoebebis gamo.gamokiTxulTa mxolod erTma procentma daisvena svaneTis regionSi, racsakmaod dabal maCvenebels warmoadgens Tu ki gaviTvaliswinebT svaneTispotencials turizmis ganviTarebis TvalsazrisiT. respodentebSixvedriTi wilebi met-naklebi proporciulobiT gadanawilda. SeiZlebaiTqvas, rom dRevandeli mdgomareobiT datvirTulobis maCvenebliTaWaras samcxe-javaxeTi da mcxeTa-mTianeTi ar Camouvardeba:regionebis datvirTulobasamegrelo3%svaneTi1%Sida qarTli7%qvemo qarTli3%samcxe-javaxeTi10%raWa6%aWara38%mcxeTa-mTianeTi9%kaxeTi6% imereTi7%guria9%afxazeTi1%SesaZlebelia erTmaneTTan davakavSiroT regionebis arsebulidatvirTuloba da maTze moTxovna, romelic kvlevis procesSigamovlinda. unda aRiniSnos, rom maCveneblebi sakmaod STambeWdavia,radgan magaliTad, rogorc zemoT aRvniSneT svaneTSi gamokiTxulTamxolod 1%-ma daisvena da amave dros respodentTa 18% aqvs survilidaisvenos amave regionSi. Tu ki svaneTis mdgomareobas gadavxedavTvnaxavT, rom vizitorTa dainteresebis mxriv potenciali mas marTlacgaaCnia, radgan raWa-leCxumi qvemo svaneTisa da samegrelo-zemo svaneTisregionSi erTad 14 kurorti, 140 samkurnalo wyali da 561 kulturuliZeglia. amsTanave unda aRiniSnos, rom faqtiurad Cvens SemTxvevaSi origaerTianebuli regionis farglebSi mxolod 17 sastumroa. gansakuTrebiTdidi problema, ris gamoc savaraudod potenciuri vizitorebi veraxerxeben sakuTari survilebis dakmayofilebas da svaneTis monaxulebasgaxlavT is, rom am regionSi mTlianad moSlilia sagzaoinfrastruqtura. igive SeiZleba iTqvas raWasTan dakavSirebiTac, sadacgamokiTxulTa mxolod 6%-ma daisvena, dasvenebis survili ki 24%-magamoTqva.aRsaniSnavia is faqti, rom aWara am kuTxiTac inarCunebs liderobas damiuxedavad imisa, rom gamokiTxulTa 38% swored aWaraSi daisvena 20%kvlav gamoTqvams am regionSi dasvenebis survils. es maCvenebeli arcaris gasakviri, radgan aWaraSi vizitorebs zRva da sakmaod momxibvleli22


garemo izidavs. rogorc viciT mocemul regionSi 6 kurorti, 44 Zeglida 38 samkurnalo wyalia. amasTanave sastumroebis ricxvi normaluria(37), magram Tu gaviTvaliswinebT rogorc adgilobrivi, ise ucxoelivizitorebis raodenobas da regionis potencials turizmis ganviTarebisTvalsazrisiT, SeiZleba iTqvas, rom mocemuli ricxvic sakmarisi araris.regionebis datvirTulobasa da moTxovnas Soris TanafardobamoTxovna40%35%30%25%20%15%10%5%0%38%24%20%18%15%12%9%9%10%7%6%6%3%4%3%1%1% 1%1% 1%aWaraafxazeTiguriaimereTikaxeTimcxeTa-mTianeTiraWasamcxe-javaxeTiregionebisamegrelosvaneTi7%3%1%0%Sida qarTliqvemo qarTlidaisvenessurT dasvenebasakmaod sainteresoa is, rom respodentTa 15%-ma gamoTqva afxazeTSidasvenebis survili. yvelasTvis kargad aris cnobili ramdenad didipotenciali gaaCnia afxazeTs turizmis ganviTarebis TvlaszrisiT (38Zegli, 19 kurorti da 72 samkurnal gamajansaRebeli wyali), garda amisasaqarTvelos sxva zRvispira regionebisgan gansxvavebiT aq sazRvaosezoni ufro didxans _ 5 Tves grZeldeba, magram garkveuli cnobiligaremoebebis gamo aRniSnuli potencialis gamoyeneba ver xerxdeba.rac Seexeba danarCen regionebs, gansakuTrebuli interesi romelimekuTxis mimarT ar dafiqsirebuli, Tumca piriqiT, nulovani maCvenebelidafiqsirda qvemo qarTlis regionSi dasvenebasTan dakavSirebiT. esSeiZleba gamowveuli iyos saqarTvelos mosaxleobisarainformirebulobiT qvemo qarTlis potencialTan dakavSirebiT,kerZod am regionSi aris 7 kurorti, 59 samkurnalo wyali da TbilisisSemdeg yvelaze meti raodenobis _ 289 kulturuli Zegli.kvlevis Sedegebi saSualebas gvaZlevs SevafasoT ramdenad arissaqarTvelos regionebi uzrunvelyofili gasarTobi saSualebebiT daramdenad arian informirebulni amis Sesaxeb damsveneblebi. qvemoTwarmodgenil sqemaze mocemulia respodentTa gamokiTxvis Sedegaddafiqsirebuli maCveneblebi:23


gasarTobi obieqtebis datvirTuloba80%70%60%50%40%30%20%10%0%parki69%42%32%23%kino-TeatridiskoTeka67% 69% 61%38%kafe-bari35%46% 41%25%restoranisport .kompl.komp. TamaSebi55%azartuli TamaSebi45% 51%11% 17% 37%kult. Zeglebiiyo regionSiiyo momxmarebeliaRmoCnda, rom regionebSi yvelaze metad gvxvdeba parkebi, kafe-bari,diskoTeka da restorani, aseve mravladaa kompiuteruli TamaSebi dakulturuli Zeglebi. yvelaze meti momxmarebeli hyavs kafe-barebs, sadacgamokiTxulTa _ 46% dadis, parkebs _ 42% da restornebs _ 41%. asevesaintereso maCvenebelia kulturul ZeglebTan dakavSirebiT,gamokiTxulTa mesamedze metma (37%) aRniSna, rom stumrobda regionSiarsebul kulturul Zeglebs.kvlevis safuZvelze SegviZlia sxvadasxva maCveneblebis mixedviTdavaxasiaToT saqarTvelos kurortebze arsebuli suraTi. gansakuTrebiTcudi mdgomareobaa kurortebis usafrTxoebis TvalsazrisiT.gamokiTxulTa mxolod 37% Tvlis, rom usafrTxoebis done kurortebzekargia, maSvelebis saqmianobas dadebiTad mxolod 15% afasebs, 64%-isazri ki sapirispiroa. 34% kmayofilia kurortebze momsaxurebis doniT.kurortebis maxasiaTeblebis Sefaseba100%80%60%40%20%0%2%10%5%6%17%30%39% 39%43%64%56%46%44%59% 56%21%51%34%37%26%15%momsaxurebis xarisxigarTobis SesaZleblobasakvebis mravalferovnebausafrTxoebamaSvelebis saqmianobasanitariuli mdgomareobaadgilobr. mosaxlobis damokideb.cudisaSualokargi24


SedarebiT ukeTesi mdgomareobaa garTobisa da sakvebismrafalferovnebis TvalsazrisiT, sadac Sesabamisad gamokiTxulTa 2%da 5% -ia ukmayofilo. respodentTa naxevarze meti (51%) aseve kmayofiliaadgilobriv vizitorTa mimarT mosaxleobis damokidebulebiT.gadavideT satransporto saSualebebis analizze. gamokiTxvamdaadastura, rom saqarTvelos mosaxleobis umetesi nawili mgzavrobsavtobusiT da samarSruto taqsiT. unda aRiniSnos, rom gamokiTxulTaumciresobam _ 18%-ma aRniSna rom matarebliT gadaadgilda.satransporto saSualebebis datvirTuloba18%38%44%matarebeliavtobusimanqanaamasTanave sainteresoa is garemoebac, rom mocemuli 18%-danumravlesobac (66%) ukmayofiloa satransporto infrastruqturiT, arcsagzao transportTan dakavSirebiT aris ukeTesi Sedegebi, aqacrespodentTa 67%-s ar akmayofilebs arsebuli momsaxurebis done:momxmarebelTa kmayofileba satransportosaSualebebiTmomxmareblis raodenoba%-Si100%90%80%70%60%50%40%30%20%10%0%66% 67%57%34% 33%43%matarebeli avtobusi manqanaukmayofilokmayofilitransportis saxe25


analizis safuZvelze Cven aseve SegviZlia vTqvaT, gamokiTxulTaumravlesoba ar aris kmayofili satransporto infrastruqturiT, TudavakonkretebT, miviRebT, rom gamokiTxulTa mxolod 39%-s akmayofilebsarsebuli mdgomareoba, 61% ki ukmayofiloa.saintereso iqneba yuradReba gavamaxviloT vizitorebis xarjebzedasvenebis periodSi, aseve sainteresoa maTi SexedulebiT Seesabameba Tuara maT mier gadaxdili Tanxa maTTvis gaweul momsaxurebas da arian Tuara mzad gadaixadon meti ukeTesi momsaxurebisaTvis. kvlevis Sedegadgairkva, rom gamokiTxulTa umetesobam (39%) erTi wlis manZilzedasvenebisaTvis mxolod 200-500 lari daxarja, 17% ki 500-100 lari.turistTa danaxarjebi 1 wlis ganmavlobaSi17%12%32%39%gamokiTxulTa umravlesoba (78%) Tvlis, rom mis mier gadaxdili TanxaSeesabameba misTvis gaweul momsaxurebas da 88% kmayofilia sakuTaridasvenebiT, magram miuxedavad amisa amaTgan 86% mzad aris gadaixadosmeti ukeTesi momsaxurebis pirobebSi. rac SeexebaT dasvenebiTukmayofilo 12%-s, maTgan umravlesoba Tanaxmaa gadaixados meti, Tu kikurortze gaumjobesdeba momsaxurebis done, 9% ki mainc uars acxadebsmetis gadaxdaze.arian Tu ara mzad gadaixadon meti?100%80%60%40%20%0%92%86%14%8%88% 12%gadaixdis metsar gadaixdis metskmayofiliaukmayofiloa26


imisaTvis, rom davadginoT saqarTveloSi turizmis romeli saxeobisganviTarebaze ajobebs orientaciis aReba, mniSvnelovania SeviswavloTrogorc arsebul, ise potenciur vizitorTa moTxovnilebebi. kvlevisSedegad gamovlinda, rom saqarTvelos mosaxleobaSi zRvis kurortebiufro popularulia da maTze datvirTva metia, vidre mTis kurortebze,kerZod gamokiTxul respodentTa 52%-s zRva urCevnia mTaSi davenebas.albaT aqedan gamomdianarea, rom gamokiTxulTa saerTo raodenobis 52%kurortze sastumroSi dasvenebas amjobinebs sofelSi wasvlas,romelsac 11% ergo da saZile tomrebiT bunebaSi dasvenebas. magram vervityviT, rom am ukanasknelze moTxovna mcirea, radgan respodentTa 31%-saqvs survili agroturizms mihyos xeli. miuxedavad mdidaripotencialisa saqarTveloSi aRniSnuli saxeobis turizmi jer kidev araris masobrivad gavrcelebuli da aTvisebuli. aRsaniSnavia isic, rommTaSi dasvenebis msurvelTa (gamokiTxulTa 48%-is) umetesoba, kerZod ki56% swored saZile tomrebiT dasvenebas arCevs yvela sxva danarCens:mTaSi dasvenebis msurvelTa moTxovna dasvenebistipebis mixedviT56%21%18%5%kurortzesastumroSisaZiletomrebiTsofelSisxvaalbaT urigo ar iqneba saqarTvelos maRalmTian regionebSi sastumroTaqselis ganviTarebac, radgan realurad mTaSi dasvenebis msurvelTa 21%-ssurvili aqvs bunebis wiaRSi da amave dros komfortabelur sastumroSigaataros dasvenebis dReebi.27


turizmis satelituri aRricxvis sistema (TSA)turizmis satelituri aRricxvis sistema (Tourism Satellite Account)warmoadgens turizmis sferoSi strategiuli dagegmvis instruments dauzrunvelyofs monacemebis saerTaSoriso Sesadarisobis miRwevas. misSeqmnaze 1995 wlidan erToblivad daiwyes muSaoba msoflio turizmisorganizaciam (WTO), ekonomikuri ganviTarebis da TanamSromlobisorganizaciam (OECD) da evrogaerTianebis statistikurma ofisma(EUROSART) , romelic damtkicebul iqna gaeros mier 2000 wels. proeqtSiaseve monawileobda saerTaSoriso SromiTi organizacia (ILO) dasaerTaSoriso savaluto fondi (IMF). mocemuli aRricxvis sistemadanergilia avstraliaSi, kanadaSi, CileSi, axal zelandiasa daSeerTebul StatebSi.ekonomikuri TvlsazrisiT didi mniSvneloba aqvs turizmis aRricxvas,swored amitom msoflio turizmis organizaciis (WTO) miznebi TSA –sTanmimarTebaSi Semdegia:• turizmis erovnuli statistikuri sistemis ganviTarebisxelSewyoba;• gzamkvlevTa momzadeba gansxvavebuli resursebis, gamocdilebisada moTxovnilebebis mqone qveynebisTvis;• seminarebisa da treiningebis Catareba turistuli terminebisa daklasifikaciis danergvisTvis;• teqnikuri mxardaWera im qveynebisTvis, romlebsac gamiznuli aqvTTSA –s danergva.turizmi aris pirveli sfero, romelSic gamoyenebul iqna satelituriaRricxvis sistema. TSA warmodgenilia ideebis, gansazRvrebebis,klasifikaciebis, cxrilebis saxiT, romlis safuZvelze qveynebsSeuZliaT turizmis sakuTari statistikuri sistemis ganviTareba. TSA –sganviTareba moiTxovs Sesabamisi ekonomikuri resursebis da teqnikuripersonalis mobilizacias da integracias qvenis erovnuli aRricxvissistemasTan.TSA –s momxmareblebis rolSi erovnul doneze gvevlineba:• organoebi, romlebic awarmoeben ZiriTad statistikur informacias,rogoricaa erovnuli statistikuri organizaciebi, turizmisdepartamenti da a.S;• informaciis momwodebeli mxareebi, rogoricaa turistuliorganizaciebi, sastumroebi;• informaciis potenciuri momxmareblebi, rogorebic arianturistuli organizaciebi, turizmis departamenti, statistikuriorganizaciebi, centraluri banki da a.S.erovnuli turizmis administracia (saqarTvelos SemTxvevaSi turizmisdepartamenti)erovnuli turistuli administracia TamaSobs ormag rols:1. aris statistikis departamentisa da centraluri bankis miermomzadebuli informaciis mflobeli;28


2. warmoadgens uflebamosilebis mimniWebel organos turistulimomsaxurebis gamwevi kompaniebisTvis.erovnuli turizmis administracia ver uzrunvelyofs srulyofiliinformaciis mopovebas, saWiro kadrebTan da informaciis pirveladwyaroebTan mimarTebaSi arsebuli problemebis gamo, swored amitom WTOmSeimuSava rekomendacia, romlis mixedviTac miznSewonilia Seiqmnasinstitucionaluri platfora, romelic Camoyalibdeba komitetisformiT. am komitetSi gaerTianebuli iqneba sami saxelmwifo uwyebiswarmomadgeneli (nacionaluri turistuli administaciis, erovnulistatistikuri organosa da centarluri bankis warmomadgenlebi),romelsac uxelmZRvanelebs erT-erTi maTgani. erovnul statistikurofiss didi roli eniWeba TSA–s danergvaSi, aseve gansakuTrebulimniSvneloba aqvs centaralur banks. misi ZiriTadi funqciaa TSA –ssistemaSi erT-erTi mniSvnelovani maCvenebelis _ sagadamxdelo balansismomzadeba.ra aris TSA?satelituri aRricxvis meqanizmis SemuSavebis mizania ekonomikaze imdargebis gavlenis Seswavla, romelbic erovnul saaRricxvo sistemaSiar ganixilebian, rogorc warmoeba. turizmi aris svadasxva dargebiserToblioba, esenia transporti, momsaxureba, sakvebiT uzrunvelyofa,rekreacia, garToba. turizmi erTaderTi fenomenia, romelic vizitoriTan momxmarebliT ganisazRvreba. vizitorebi yiduloben yvelanairi saxisproduqtsa da momsaxurebas. aRricxvis TvalsazrisiT umTavresia maTinavaWri dakavSirebuli (asocirebuli) iqnas mTlianad qveyniswarmoebasTan, momsaxurebisa da saqonlis erTobliv miwodebasTan.TSA miznad isaxavs ganisazRvros swored turizmis gavlena ekonomikaze,saerTaSoriso standartebis Sesabamisad aRricxul iqnas zemoTxsenebuliproduqcia da momsaxureba, rac saSualebas mogvcems SevadaroT isiniwarmoebis sxva sferoebs, an Tundac sxva qveynebis maCveneblebs.turizmis satelituri aRricxvis sistema:• Seiswavlis faqtorebs, romelic gavlenas axdens turizmsa damasTan dakavSirebul dasaqmebis doneze;• aris ZiriTadi sayrdeni turizmis statistikuri monacemebismomzadebisaTvis;• aris axali saerTaSoriso standarti, romelsac mxari dauWiragaeros statistikurma komisiam;• aris turizmTan dakavSirebuli ekonomikuri politikis efeqtianadgatarebis saSualeba;• gansazRvravs turizmis gavlenas saxelmwifos sagadamxdelobalansze.29


aSi gvWirdeba TSA?dRevandel msoflioSi arsebobs informaciis nakleboba turizmis arssada erovnul ekonomikaze misi gavlenis Sesaxeb, aqedan gamomdinare TSA –sganviTareba xels Seuwyobs Semdeg sakiTxebs:• qveyanaSi turizmisa da misi mniSvnelobis Sesaxebinformirebulobis donis gazrda:• turizmis sferoSi efeqturi politikis warmarTvisaTvisinstrumentis SemuSaveba;• turizmis rolis gazrda;TSA saSualebas mogvcems aRvricxoT:• turizmis wili erTobliv Sida produqtSi;• turizmis ranJireba ekonomikis sxva dargebTan SedarebiT;• turizmis mier ekonomikaSi Seqmnili samuSao adgilebis raodenoba;• turizmSi Cadebuli investiciebis moculoba;• turistuli industriis gadasaxadebidan miRebuli amonagebi;• turizmis moxmareba;• turizmis gavlena erovnul sagadamxdelo balansze.30


turizmis, rogorc ekonomikuri saqmianobis analiziTSA-s kavSiri erovnul saaRricxvo sistemasTan (SNA93)SNA 93 – warmoadgens makroekonomikuri aRricxvis sistemas, romelicuzrunvelyofs kompleqsuri ekonomikuri saqmianobebis, bazarze arsebuliekonomikuri agentebis an agentTa jgufebis mravalmxriv da detaluraRricxvas mniSvnelovania vicodeT, rom SNA 93 – ar warmoadgens mxolodideebisa da gansazRvrebebis erTobliobas, igi aseve moicavs cxrilebs,romlis meSveobiTac xdeba aRricxvis unificireba.ZiriTadi punqtebi, romlebic gamoyenebulia TSA_Si:• ganmartebebi;• ideuri gansxvavebebi produqtebsa da mwarmoeblebTan dakvSirebiT;• aRricxvis struqtura;• klasifikaciaTa sqema;TSA-s ganviTarebisaTvis didi mniSvneloba aqvs SNA 93 sistemis qveyanaSiganviTarebas. aRricxvis mizans warmoadgens moTxovnisa da miwodebis,Semosavlisa da gasavalis, faseulobebisa da pasuxismgeblobebiserTmaneTTan dakavSireba, turistuli produqciis moxmarebis ormagianlizi, rogorc vizitorebis ise araviztorebis mxridanproduqciis sazRvrebi SNA 93 – Sierovnul aRricxvaSi Sesulia saqmianobebis nusxa, romlis Sedegadaciwarmoeba produqcia. ekonomikuri produqcia es aris institucionalurierTeulebis mier kapitalis da resursebis gamoyenebis safuZvelzeganxorcielebuli saqmianobis Sedegi. saojaxo meurneobaSi sakuTarisaWiroebisaTvis gaweuli momsaxureba ar Sedis erovnul aRricxvaSi.ojaxisaTvis cxoba-keTeba, gaseirneba, saxlis dasufTaveba, bavSvebismovla, sakuTari angariSebis kontroli ar ganixileba erovnuliaRricxvis produqciis sazRvrebSi, magram meores mxriv aRricxvaSigaiTvaliswineba SidameurneobaSi daqirevebuli pirebis mier gaweulimomsaxureba.turizmis SemTxvevaSi, sainteresoa erTmaneTisagan gaimijnos sawarmoo daarasawarmoo procesi; ismis kiTxva: stumari, romelic sadilobs da araris ojaxis wevri, ganxilul unda iqnas Tu ara, rogorc sawarmoosaqmianobis momxmarebeli? am SemTxvevaSi mxedvelobaSi unda iqnasmiRebuli is damatebiTi produqcia da momsaxureba, romlis gawevacgamowveuli iqneba am admianis ojaxSi darCeniT.31


turizmi da vizitorebiturizmi ganimarteba, rogorc adaminis saqmianoba, romelic gulisxmobsdasvenebis, saqmiani an raime sxva mizniT misi Cveuli sacxovrebeliadgilisagan gansxvavebul garemoSi gamgzavrebas, gadabmulad araumeteserTi wlis vadiT da misi vizitis mizans ar warmoadgens am qveyanaSiTavis Cveuli saqmianobis ganxorcieleba, romelic anazRaurdebamocemuli qveynis finansuri wyaroebidan. turizmi gansxvavdebamogzaurobisagan, calkeul pirs SeuZlia gamoiyenos nebismieri saxistransporti (mas SeuZlia imogzauros fexiTac, mag. momlocveloba),magram yvela mogzauroba ar aris turizmi. erT-erTi mTavari piroba,raTa mogzauroba miekuTvnos turizms, aris is, rom mogzauroba ar undaanazRaurdes vizitis adgilis safinanso wyaroebidan.mogzaurobaSi Semavali ZiriTadi elementebi:mogzaurebi:vizitorebi:• vizitorebi turistebi (erTi Ramis vizitorebi)• sxva mogzaurebi RamisTeviT vizitorebivin aris vizitori?yvela mogzauri ar aris vizitori. imisaTvis rom ganisazRvros adaminiaris Tu ara vizitori, unda Sefasdes Semdegi kriteriumebi:1. Cveuli garemos cvlileba;2. vizitis adgilas darCenis maqsimaluri xangrZlivoba;3. vizitis mizani.Cveuli garemorTulia ganisazRvros Cveuli garemo adgilmdebareobis mixedviT, isdakavSirebulia geografiul sazRvrebTan, individualur cvlilebebTanda calkeul pirTa cxovrebis wesTan. Cveuli garemo ukavSirdebafizikur da geografiul garemoebebs: kveba, Zili, muSaoba, swavla,sayidlebi da yoveldRiuri cxovrebis wesi. cxovrebiseuli garemoscvlilebebi SesaZloa gulisxmobdes:1. minimalur manZilze mogzauroba;2. administraciuli sazRvris gadakveTa;3. Cveuli garemos sxva maxasiaTeblebi da sxva vizitebi.garemos Secvlamogzauroba, Tundac minimalur distanciaze ganixileba, rogorcmogzauroba Cveuli garemodan Sors. aRsaniSnavia, rom yvela qveyanas aqvssxvadasxva farTobi, geografiuli teritoriebi, mosaxleobis simWidroveda a.S. aqedan gamomdinare, saWiroa yvela qveynisTvis SerCeul iqnasSesabamisi, konkretulad misTvis SemuSavebuli kriteriumi, radgangamodis, rom sxvadasxva qveyanaSi mogzaurebis mier gavlili manZilebisakmaod gansxvavebulia.32


garemos cvlilebis ganmsazRvreli garemoebebia: qalaqi, qalaqgareTteritoria, sofeli, mTa, zRvispireTi da a.SWTO rekomendacias aZlevs yvela qveyanas _ SeimuSaon sakuTarikriteriumebi, fizikuri indikatorebi da garemos cvlilebismaCveneblebi, ganixilon sazRvrebis dadgenis sxvadasxva tipebi. saWiroanebismieri viziti ganxilul iqnas, rogorc turizmi, radgan ammogzaurobebis mizania Tavi aarido cxovrebis yoveldRiur wesebs dadatovo Cveuli garemo.Cveuli garemos gansazRvris specifikuri SemTxvevebi• Tu calkeuli piri tovebs sakuTar sacxovrebel adgils im mizniT,rom gadavides sacxovreblad sxva adgilas, am SemTxvevaSi igi arganisazRvreba, rogorc vizitori mocemul teritoriaze;• Tu calkeuli piri rCeba garkveul adgilas 1 welze met xans, maSines adgili warmoadgens misi Cveuli garemos nawils;• Cveuli garemos idea gansxvavdeba erovnulobis ideisagan. Aadgili,sadac calkeuli piri muSaobs aris misi Cveuli garemos nawili,magram ar aris misi sacxovrebeli adgilis nawili;• erTidaigive ojaxis or wevrs SesaZloa hqondeT sxvadasxva Cveuligaremo. magaliTad piris samuSao adgili warmoadgens misi Cveuligaremos nawils, Tumca es ar aris Cveuli garemos nawili misiojaxis wevrebisaTvis (meuRle, Svilebi);• calkeuli pirebi, romlebic saxldebian axal adgilas, cdilobenmoergon siaxleebs da gadaaqcion igi Cveul garemod, TumcaSesaZloa isini arc cxovrobdnen imave adgilas 1 wlisganmavlobaSi;• zemoxsenebuli SemTxveva aseve exeba studentebs, romlebic swavlisgagrZelebis mizniT saxlidan moSorebiT saxledbian. Ees axaliadgili maTTvis Cveul garemos warmodgens mxolod im SemTxvevaSi,Tu studeneti gadawyvitavs darCes imave (an maxlobel) adgilas 1wliT an meti xniT. Tu studenti gadawyvets darCes mokle vadiT,maSin axali adgili ar ganixileba rogorc misi Cveuli garemo dais iTvleba am adgilis vizitorad.vizitorebi• arian calkeuli pirebi, romlebic mogzauroben maTi Cveuligaremosgan gansxvavebul adgilas, gadabmulad ara umetes 12 TvisganmavlobaSi da mogzaurobis ZiriTadi miazani ar aris saqmianobiskompensireba vizitis adgilidan;• turizmi ukavSirdeba vizitorTa saqmianobebs;• vizitorebi SesaZloa iyvnen, rogorc rezidentebi iseararezidentebic.rezidents aqvs sakuTari ekonomikuri interesi Tavis qveyanaSi,ararezidents ki qveynis gareT. calkeuli pirebis ekonomikuri interesiaris im adgilas, sadac misi ojaxi cxovrobs.33


erTi dRis vizitorebi• erTi dRis vizitorebi saerTaSoriso vizitorebis SemTxvevaSiarian isini, vinc ar aTeven Rames qveyanaSi, romelic moinaxules;• erTi dRis vizitorebi Sida vizitorebis SemTxvevaSi arian isini,vinc ar aTeven Rames Cveul garemoSi.• aRniSnulidan gamomdinare, adgilobrivi erTi dRis vizitorebi(moicaven gavliT vizitorebsac) arian vizitorebi, romlebicmogzauroben ise, rom ar iTvaliswineben Ramis Tevas.erTi dRis vizitoris gansazRvrisaTvis yuradReba ar eqcevatransportis saxeobas, romliTac isargebla vizitorma, iqneba es:• mogzauroba sahaero transportiT;• mogzauroba sazRvao transporiT (kruizi, sadac mgzavri aTevsRames xomaldze);• mogzauroba saxmeleTo transportiT.vizitorTa kategoriebi• saerTaSoriso vizitorebi _ romelTa sacxovrebeli qveyanagansxvavdeba samogzauro qveynisgan. saerTaSoriso vizitorebiaseve moicaven qveynis moqalaqeebs, romlebic cxovrobensazRvargareT e.i. ararezidentebi, romlebic stumroben qveyanasan rezidentebi, romlebic stumroben ucxo qveyanas.• adgilobrivi vizitorebi _ romelTa sacxovrebeli qveyanawarmoadgens samogzauro qveyanasac amavdroulad. isini SeiZlebaiyvnen rogorc qveynis moqalaqeebi, aseve ucxoelebi, romlebicam qveyanaSi cxovroben.• Sida vizitorebi _ rezidentebi, romlebic stumroben sakuTarqveyanas da ararezidentebi, romlebic stumroben mocemulqveyanas.sazRvris kontrolis saagentoebs aqvT gansxvavebuli ganmartebebi dasaerTaSoriso vizitorTagan gamoricxaven moqalaqeebs, romlebicbrundebian saxlSi, Mmagram am ganmartebaSi aerTianeben moqalaqeobisarmqone yvela pirs, romlebic brundebian am qveyanaSi da Semdegsaxldebian aqve.saerTaSoriso vizitorebs ar miekuTvnebian:• migrantebi;• pirebi, sazRvriTi muSakebi (mesazRvreebi), romlebic cxovrobensazRvris maxloblad erT qveyanaSi da muSaoben sxva qveyanaSi:diplomatebi, konsulebi da armiis wevrebi;• pirebi, romlebic mogzauroben, rogorc emigrantebi anucxoelebi.saerTaSoriso mogzaurebi ar Sedian saerTaSoriso vizitorebSi:• pirebi, romlebic Sedian an rCebian qveyanaSi (legalurad anaralegalurad);34


• mesazRvreebi: adgili sadac isini muSaoben (Tu es adgili sxvaqveyanaSia) aris maTi Cveuli garemos nawili, isini ar arianvizitorebi da maTi aqtivoba ar aris turizmis nawili;• diplomatebi, konsulebi, armiis wevrebi mogzaurobisas;• pirebi, romlebic mogzauroben rogorc emigrantebi anucxoelebi. maT ar ician ra aris Cveuli garemo da isini Cveulgaremod Tvlian im qveyanas, sadac imyofebian.adgilobriv vizitorebs ar miekuTvnebian:• rezidentebi, romlebic mogzauroben sakuTar qveyanaSi imCanafiqriT, rom dasaxldnen sxvagan;• pirebi, romlebic mogzauroben sakuTar qveyanaSi da maTi saqmianobaanazRaurdeba vizitis adgilidan;• pirebi, romlebic mogzauroben, raTa droebiT imuSaon qveynisSigniT arsebul institutebSi;• pirebi, romlebic mogzauroben regularulad mezobel adgilebSisamuSaod an saswavleblad;• ucxoelebi da pirebi mudmivi sacxovreblis gareSe;• SeiaraRebuli Zalebi.vizitorTa saqmianobavizitorTa ZiriTad aqtivobebs miekuTvneba:• adgilmdebareobis cvlileba• RamisTeva• kveba• sxvadasxva Canafiqrebis da survilebis ganxorcielebaisini unda akmayofilebdnen Semdeg moTxovnebs:• gamoiyenon transportis ZiriTadi saxeobebi, Tumca SesaZloa fexiTan sxva individualuri transportiT (velosipedi da sxva)mogzaurobac. transportis aRniSnuli saxeobebi unda ekuTvnodesmogzaurs an hqondes daqiravebuli. is SesaZloa sargeblobdessaxalxo transportiTac (TviTmfrinavi, navi, avtobusi, matarebeli,taqsi da a.S);• Tu is aTevs Rames, man unda moZebnos TavSesafari. misi TavSesafariSesaZloa uzrunvelyofili iqnas sakuTari sacxovrebliTac(sakuTari sazafxulo saxlebi, darCena ojaxTan an megobrebTan,oTaxis daqiraveba da a.S) an gamoiyenos turistTa saerTosacxovrebeli;• aseve saWiroa ganisazRvros sakvebiT uzrunvelyofis forma.vizitorma SeiZleba sakvebi Seisyidos kerZod, ewvios kvebiTimomsaxurebis dawesebulebas an Tavad moamzados.35


mogzaurobis maxasiaTeblebimogzaurobis saxeebis klasifikaciisas unda gaviTvaliswinoT SemdegimaCveneblebi:• vizitis mizani• mogzaurobis xangrZlivoba• mogzaurobis sawyisi da daniSnulebis adgili• sacxovrebeli teritoria da mogzaurobis garemo• transportis ZiriTadi saxeobebi• TavSesafris tipivizitis mizani1. Tavisufali dro, dasveneba da ardadegebis gatareba2. axloblebisa da megobrebis monaxuleba3. saqmiani Sexvedrebi, profesia da swavleba4. janmrTelobis mdgomareoba5. religia, momlocveloba6. sxvasxvadasxva kategoriis momxmareblisTvis vizitis miznebidan gamomdinaregansxvavebuli teritoriebia mimzidveli. Mmag.: zogi mogzaurobsdasvenebis, momlocvelobis, ganaTlebis miRebis an ubralod saqmianiSexvedrebis gamarTvis mizniT, Sesabamisad TiToeuli maTganismoTxovnilebebi da interesTa sfero sxvadasxvaa. Tumca unda aRiniSnos,rom adamianebs, romlebic saqmian Sexvedrebze mogzauroben, gacilebiTmeti moTxovnebi uCndebaT vidre maT, vinc Camodian ubralodsamogzaurod.turizmis formebiSida turizmi _ adgilobrivisa da SemomsvlelTa turizmis erToblioba.erovnuli turizmi _ adgilobrivisa da gamsvlelTa turizmiserTianoba.saerTaSoriso turizmi _ gamsvlelTa da SemomsvlelTa turizmiserTianoba.36


warmoebis procesisa da produqciis urTierTkavSirimiwodeba turizmis sferoSiturizmis maCveneblebis klasifikaciisas gaTvaliswinebulia, rogorcwarmoebis procesi aseve am procesis Sedegad miRebuli produqcia.turizmi SeiZleba ganisazRvros, rogorc ekonomikis specifiuri dargi,romelic aerTianebs sxvadasxva damoukidebeli dargebis SemadgenelerTeulebs, magaliTad samgzavro infrastruqtura, romelic ganekuTvnebasatransporto dargs. aqedan gamomdinare ar SeiZleba turizmi ganxiluliqnas misi Semadgeneli nawilebidan mxolod erT-erTis magaliTze,radgan TiToeuli maTgans gadamwyveti mniSvneloba eniWeba mTlianadturizmis, rogorc dargSi gaweuli danaxarjebis aRricxvisTvalsazrisiT. magaliTad, ar arsebobs araviTari turizmi vizitorTagadaadgilebis gareSe, Sesabamisad danaxarjebs transportirebazeyovelTvis mniSvnelovani adgili uWiravs turizmis sferoSi gaweulmTlian danaxarjebSi.turizmis maCveneblebs qmnian turistebi da ara TviTon turizmi.vizitori aris, is vinc gansazRvravs im produqtebisa da saqmianobebisCamonaTvals, romelzec unda moxdes turizmis analizis fokusireba,magram es ar niSnavs imas, rom ugulebelyofili unda iqnas sxvanaklebmniSvnelovani produqtebi. mogzaurobisas vizitors uCndebasxvadasxva tipis, specifiuri moTxovnlebebi, romlebic gansazRvraventurizmis sferoSi gansakuTrebuli mniSvnelobis mqone saqonlisa damomsaxurebis arsebobas: transportireba, sacxovrebeli adgili, kveba daa.S. mocemuli specifiuri saqonlisa da momsaxurebis momxmareblebadSeiZleba mogvevlinon, rogorc vizitorbi, ise rezidentebic, magramturizmis Taviseburebas warmoadgens is, rom am sferoSi gaweulixarjebis udidesi wili modis swored vizitorebze:• koleqtiuri sacxovrebeli adgilebi ufro xSirad vizitorebismier gamoiyeneba;• ar arsebobs turizmi taransportirebis gareSe;• umetes SemTxvevaSi vizitorebi restoranSi mirTmevas arCevensakvebis saxlSi momzadebas;• zogadad, uCveulo garemoSi yofnis gamo, vizitorebi ufroaqtiurad moiTxoven gare mimwodeblebis momsaxurebas.amrigad, turizmis analizi koncentrirebulia im saqonelsa damomsaxurebaze, romelic mniSvnelovania vizitorebisaTvis da ara piriqiT.produqciis farTo daxasiaTebakoncefcias produqciis maxasiaTeblebis Sesaxeb mniSvnelovani adgiliuWiravs SNA93-Si da igi aris erT-erTi pirveli nabiji mocemuliaRircxvis sistemis danergvaSi. mocemuli koncefcia saSualebas gvaZlevsmaqsimaluri informacia miviRoT produqciis maxasiaTeblebis Sesaxeb.magaliTad, ra meTodebiT aris nawarmoebi produqti, vin arismwarmoebeli, ra saxis samuSao Zalas da uZrav qonebas iyeneben misiwarmoebisaTvis da a.S.37


saqoneli da momsaxureba, romelic moixmareba Sinameurneobebis miergarkveulwilad SeiZleba CaiTvalos turizmis specifiur moxmarebad,imdenad ramdenadac vizitorebi Zalian xSirad stumrobenSinameurneobebs (rezident ojaxebs), amitomac maT SeiZleba moixmaronnebismieri saxis saqoneli da momsaxureba, romlebic warmodgeniliabazarze.arsebobs momsaxurebis saxeebi, romelic TiTqosda gamoricxuli undaiqnas vizitorTa specifiuri moxmarebis sferodan, magram realurifaqtebi gviCvenebs, rom rig SemTxvevaSi mocemuli momsaxurebismomxmarebelTa rolSi gvevlineba ufro meti vizitori vidre rezidenti.magaliTisaTvis, Cveulebriv pirobebSi samedicino momsaxurebismoxmarebis maCvenebeli ara-vizitorTa Soris ufro maRalia vidrevizitorTa Soris, radgan, rogoc wesi, pirovneba avadmyofobis dros armogzaurobs, magram, rogorc ukve aRvniSneT, arsebobs specifiuriSemTxvevebi, roca mogzaurobis TviTmizani aris saavadmyofoSimoxvedra, specifiuri Terapiis gavla an gankurnebis mizniT piligrimoba.aseT dros am konkretul adgilas samedicino momsaxurebis moxmarebismaCveneblebi vizitorTa da CamomsvlelTa Soris ufro maRalia, vidreadgilobriv macxovreblebs Soris da samedicino momsaxureba mocemuliadgilisaTvis SeiZleba CaiTvalos, rogorc turizmis specifiurimoTxovnis sagani.specifiuri da araspecifiuri turistuli produqtebis gamijvnadidi mniSvneloba aqvs turizmis specifiuri da araspecifiuriproduqciis erTmaneTisagan gamijvnas; magaliTad, eleqtroenergiismoxmareba ar ganixileba rogorc turizmis specifiuri saqonli,radganac eleqtroenergiis moxmareba ar aris gansakuTrebuladdakavSirebuli turzmTan. vizitorebis mier eleqtroenergiis moxmarebazegaweuli xarjebi warmoadgens erTiani turistuli danaxarjebis mcirenawils. miuxedavad amisa eleqtroenergiis danaxrjebze sxvaoba SeiZlebamniSvnelovnad gansazRvros vizitorTa roadenobam qveyanaSi. vizitorebismoxmarebis Sedegad izrdeba eleqtroenergiis moxmareba, amitomsazafxulo saxlebis (agaraki) datvirTulobis Seswavlisas aRniSunlimaCvenebeli SeiZleba gamoyenebul iqnas, rogorc indikatori. igiveSeiZleba iTqvas nagvis mogrovebasa da wylis moxmarebasTandakavSirebiT, romelic mniSvnelovnad icvleba turistebis CamosvliT.turizmis miwodebis analizisas saWiroa yuradReba gamaxvilebul iqnasiseT specifiur produqciasa da momsaxurebaze, romelic turizmismTlian datvirTvas Tavis Tavze iRebs; magaliTad, sahaerotransportireba, sastumroSi dabinaveba, turistuli saagentoebismomsaxureba.moTxovnisa da miwodebis dakavSireba TSA-Siturizmis aRricxvisTvis rekomendirebulia gaizomos erTis mxrivturizmis moxmareba, meores mxriv turizmis miwodeba. pirvel rigSi,turizmis Sida moxmarebisa da Sida miwodebis SedarebisaTvis38


aucilebelia gamoiTvalos turizmis wili Sida miwodebaSi. AaseveSesaZloa ganisazRvros, rogoria produqciisa da momsaxurebis miwodebisTanafardoba calcalke. unda vivaraudoT, rom vizitorebi ufro xSiradmoixmaren sastumroebis mier gaweul momsaxurebas, vidre Cveulebrivimcxovreblebi; magaliTad, isini produqcias Seisyidian savaWrocentrebSi, romlebic ganlagebulia sastumroebSi an mis maxlobelteritoriaze.turistuli saagentoebi da paketuri turebituristuli saagentoebi moqmedeben rogorc Suamavlebi momsaxurebisuzrunvelmyofebsa da vizitorebs Soris (aseve transporti, sastumroebi,manqanis gaqiraveba, dasveneba da a.S.). isini axdenen sxvadasxvaturistuli produqtebis kombinirebas paketuri turebis saxiT. maTifasi gansazRvrulia programis SemfasebelTa mier da isini iyidebianvizitorebze, rogorc erTi mTliani poduqti.ras akeTeben turistuli saagentoebi?• ewevian mravalferovan saqmianobas, romliTac sargeblobenvizitorebi mogzaurobis ganmavlobaSi;• gascemen informacias dagegmili mogzaurobebis, saqmiani frenebis,sastumroTa mravalferovnebis, SesaZlo turebis da a. S. Sesaxeb;• yidian bileTebs da aTanxmeben sxvadasxva turistul produqtebs:transporti, (sahaero, rkinigza, navi, kruizi, manqana), sacxovrebeli,restorani da saerTod yvela tipis saqmianoba, romelsacvizitorebi moiTxoven;• yidian adgilebs, romlebic uzrunvelyofilia maT mier an sxvebismier;• aTanxmeben vizitebs, acileben jgufebs sanaxaobriv turebsa da sxvaufro kompleqsur turistul saqmianobebze.vin ixdis Tanxas saagentoTa momsaxurebaSi?es yovelTvis gaxlavT vizitori, magram aseve SesaZloa iyos Tavadmomsaxurebis gamwevi dawesebulebac, magaliTad, aviaxazebi, romlebicaZleven honorars an procents turistul saagentoebs, maTi bileTebisgayidvis safasurad.rogorc aRvniSneT turistuli saagentoebis ZiriTadi momxmareblebisrolSi gvevlinebian vizitorebi. rodesac saerTaSoriso turizmzevsaubrobT, vizitoris mier gaweuli xarjebi danawilebuli unda iqnas,raTa calcake ganisazRvros misi wilebis gavlena adgilobrivi,gamsvlelTa Tu CamomsvlelTa turizmidan miRebul Semosavlebze.TSA rekomendacias iZleva, SemuSavebul iqnas turistuli saagentoebismomsaxurebis qseli, sadac mogzaurebi miiReben turistuli saagentoebismomsaxurebas sakuTari survilisamebr da garkveuli anazRaurebissafasurad.39


Tu momsaxurebis uzrunvelmyofeli da turistuli saagento ar arianrezidentebi, am SemTxvevaSi turistuli saagentoebis momsaxurebisqselis SemuSaveba qmnis importisa da eqsportis absoluturimniSvnelobebis modifikaciis saWiroebas.ras warmoadgens paketuri turi?paketuri turne aris ori an meti produqtis kombinacia erTobliobaSi,romelic moixmareba vizitorebis mier (transporti, sacxovrebeli,sakvebiT momsaxureba, gaseirneba da a.S.). paketuri turebis SemuSavebawarmoSobs regulirebis Sesabamis tipebs. paketuri turebi SeqmniliaZiriTadad specializirebuli firmebis mier. isini kreben momsaxurebebs`paketSi” , romlebsac yidian piradad an sxva turistuli saagentoebismeSveobiT.TSA rekomendacias iZleva Seiqmnas sitema, sadac vizitoraddaregistrirdeba is, vinc moixmars momsaxurebis pakets mTlianad anTundac mis nawilebs da gadauxdis mis mimwodebels sakomisiosSesrulebuli samuSaosaTvis.magaliTi:vizitor A-s aqvs globaluri turistuli eqspedicia 1000-ad, igi TanxebsSemdegnairad analwilebs:• sacxovrebeli _ 100• transporti _ 200• momsaxurebis paketi _ 500• sxva _ 200vizitor B-s aqvs eqspedicia 1000-ad, romelis xarjebic Semdegnairadnawildeba:• sacxovrebeli _ 150• transporti _ 300• momsaxurebis paketi _ 350• sxva _ 200rogor SevafasoT maTi turistuli eqspediciis struqtura?vizitori A xarjavs naklebs sacxovrebelze da tansportze, vidrevizitori B, magram vizitori A xarjavs 500-s momsaxurebis paketze,vizitori B ki 350-s. gamodis, rom TiToeuli maTgani saerTo jamSi ixdisTanabar Tanxas, magram momsaxurebis paketze A ixdis gacilebiT metsvidre B. aRricxvisaTvis saWiro msgavsi danawevrebuli informaciaSesaZloa pirdapir iqnas miRebuli turistuli saagentoebisagan,aviaxazebisa da sastumroebisagan.SemomsvlelTa turizmis gansakuTrebuli kvlevaSemomsvlelTa turizmis aRricxvisTvis moZiebul unda iqnes saimedoinformacia ararezidenti turistebis mier eqspediciis ganmavlobaSidaxarjuli Tanxebis Sesaxeb, rogoricaa sakvebi, sacxovrebeli da a.S. am40


tipis informacia mniSvnelovania, radgan aucilebelia gvqondesinformacia SemomsvlelTa turizmis moxmarebis Sesaxeb. SemomsvlelTa dagamsvlelTa turizmTan erTad didi mniSvneloba aqvs sastumroTaAgamokvlevas. rogorc wesi, qveynebi fasdeba regularulad (yovelwliuri,kvartaluri, Tviuri) Semdegi kriteriumebiT: CamomsvlelTa ricxvi,damrCenTa ricxvi, oTaxebis raodenoba, sawolebis raodenoba, oTaxisfarTi, darCenis saSualo xangrZlivoba, dasaqmeba da a.S.zogierTma qveyanam aRniSnul maCveneblebs daumata iseTi maCveneblebirogoricaa: oTaxebis saSualo Ffasi da a.S.‣ yuradReba unda mieqces demografiul, kulturul, ekonomikur dasocialur maxasiaTaeblebs. Qqveynis mosaxleobisa da maTisacxovrebeli pirobebis Seswavlas. Sefasebis Sedegebi ganaxlebulunda iqnas yovel 10 weliwadSi.radgan turizmi dakavSirebulia individebis adgilsamyofeliscvlilebasTan, amitom aucilebelia ganisazRvros, rogor daukavSirdebamosaxleobis aRwera individTa Cveul garemos.aRwerisas, sadac individebi aRricxulni arian `de faqto” principiT,aris adgili, sadac individi imyofeboda aRweris dRes. aRniSnulimonacemebi transformirebuli unda iqnes `de iure“ monacemebiT. racSeexeba `sazafxulo saxlebis“ identifikacias da maTi maxasiaTeblebisSetanas dasaxlebaTa aRweraSi, aq warmoiqmneba garkveuli sirTuleebi,radgan maTi umetesoba droebiT adgilsamyofels warmoadgens.41


turizmis indikatorebiturizmis sferoSi dasaqmebul moqlaqeTa raodenobaqveyanaSi turizmis ganviTareba mWidro kavSirSia mocemul sferoSimomuSave adamianebis dasaqmebisa da Semosavlis donesTan. umetesSemTxvevaSi vizitorTa moxmarebis done ar aris Tanabrad ganawilebulimTels weliwadze. Sedegad dasaqmebis donis maCvenebeli turizmissferoSi Seicvleba sezonebis Sesabamisad.aRsaniSnavia, rom qveyanaSi samuSao Zalis dasaqmebis donis maCvenebelierT-erTi yvelaze mniSvnelovani faqtoria imis dasamtkiceblad, Turamdenad mniSvnelovania turizmi ekonomikis ganviTarebisTvis. didimniSvneloba aqvs qveyanaSi ganisazrvros turizmSi, rogorc pirdapiraseve arapirdapir dasaqmebul muSakTa raodenoba.turizmis erTiani kapital-warmoebaturizmis dinamikis gansazRvraSi mniSvnelovani adgili uWiravsturizmis erTian kapital-warmoebas. is turizmis sferoSi moTxovniserT-erTi Semadgeneli komponentia, radganac momavalSi igi asocirdebavizitorTa servisiT da saqonliT momaragebasTan.arasabazro momsaxurebaturizmis mier stimulirebuli moTxovnis kidev erTi elementimniSvnelovani aris ekonomikaSi arasabazro momsaxurebis uzrunvelyofa.es momsaxureba gaweulia ZiriTadad arakomerciuli dawesebulebebismier, romlebic sabinao meurneobebs an mTlianad adgilobrivmosaxleobas emsaxurebian. arakomerciuli gulisxmobs rom servisebismiwodeba xdeba safasuris gadaxdis gareSe, an simboluri safasuriT.SNA 93 is Tanaxmad, ori ZiriTadi tipis arasabazro momsaxureba arsebobs:1. individualuri arasabazro servisi aris sxvadasxva momsaxurebisufasod miwodeba individualuri pirebisaTvis (swavla skolaSi,daswreba koncertze, parkSi Sesvla a.S.) am SemTxvevaSi nawilobrivigadaxda aseve SesaZlebelia (mag. Sesvlis safasuris gadaxda). aseTimomsaxureba SesaZlebelia gaweul iqnas sabazro pirobebzedayrdnobiTac (mag: ganaTleba, jandacva) ;2. koleqtiuri arasabazro momsaxureba (miwodebulia mxolodmTavrobis mier). aseTi momsaxureba SeiZleba gaweul iqnassazogadoebis yvela wevrisaTvis erTdroulad, an mxolodgarkveuli jgufebisaTvis (policia, Tavdacva, kanonmdebloba). misigamoyeneba Cveulebriv pasiuria da ar moiTxovs yvela CarTulipiris Tanxmobas (policia emsaxureba yvelas, gadasaxadebinawildeba mTels sazogadoebaze, a.S). koleqtiuri momsaxurebismiwodeba erTi pirisaTvis ar amcirebas sxvebisaTvis gankuTvnilwils: anu ar aris saWiro brZola am momsaxurebis miRebisaTvis.42


turizmis erTian kapitalwarmoebaSi moazrebuli saqoneli unda iyos imqveynis erTiani kapitalwarmoebis nawili, romelic, ama Tu im gziT,monawileobs vizitorebis momsaxurebaSi. es saqoneli undamiekuTvnebodes ori kategoriidan erT-erTs:• konkretuli saSualebebi, romelic specialurad turizmisaTvisaris Seqmnili; mag: sastumroebis qseli, avtobusebi qalaqisdasaTvarieleblad, specialuri kompiuteruli programebisastumroebisa da samogzauro saagentoebis menejmentisaTvis da a.S.• turizmis industriis mier vizitorebis servisis gasamartivebladda gasaumjobeseblad Seqmnili produqtebi, Tumca isini arwarmoadgenen am saqmianobis atributebs; mag: kompiuterulimomsaxureba sastumroebSi, aveji nomrebSi da sastumros misaRebSi,da sxva.sxva saqmianobebis kavSiri turizmTan ufro Zneli gansasazRvri dagasazomia. es umTavresad Seexeba sazogadoebriv infrastruqturas,romelic sxva sferoebTan erTad, xels uwyobs turizmis ganviTarebasacda SeiZleba iyos an ar iyos pirdapir CarTuli uSualod turizmissferoSi; magaliTd, sportuli moednebi, gzebi, jandacvis obieqtebi.saxelmwifos mier Seqmnili sazogadoebrivi gzebisa da infrastuqturiszogierTi sxva nawilis gamoyeneba, Cveulebriv ufasoa. amgvarad,SeuZlebelia vilaparakoT raime warmoebaze, Tumca es gzebi moiazrebarogorc mTavrobis mier Seqmnili erTiani kapitalwarmoebis nawili. esnawili pirdapir moixmareba vizitorTa mier.infrastruqturis sxva formebis arseboba SeiZleba saWiro iyosvizitorTa mozidvisaTvis, magram isini SeiZleba mxolod iSviaTad iqnanmoxmarebuli vizitorTa mier: magaliTad, ZiriTadi jandacvisinfrastruqtura. mis arsebobaze arsebobs vizitorTa moTxovna, Tumca araris aucilebeli rom isini intensiurad iqnen gamoyenebuli.mTavroba mniSvnelovan rols asrulebs turizmis infrastruqturisganviTarebaSi. xSirad SesaZlebelia aRniSnuli infrastruqturisgamoyneba erTsa da imave dros, an Tanmimdevrulad dakavSirebuli iyosmomavalSi araturistul miznebTanac; magaliTad, uzarmazariinfrastruqturebi Sendeba gansakuTrebuli RonisZiebebisaTvis, romelicizidavs vizitorTa did raodenobas (saerTaSoriso sportuliRonisZiebebi, olimpiuri TamaSebi, a.S). Tumca, misi gamoyeneba RonisZiebisdamTavrebis Semdeg, ZiriTadad araturistuli miznebisaTvis xdeba. Aaqismis kiTxva - am saqmianobis ra procenti SeiZleba CaiTvalos turizmiserTian kapitalwarmoebad?SeniSvnebiturizmis erTiani kapitalwarmoeba TSA-s arsebul rekomendaciebSi iyofaor ZiriTad komponentad:1. turizmisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli specifiuri saqmianobis erTianikapitalwarmoeba;43


2. yvela sxva saqmianobiT Seqmnili konkretuli turistuli saqonliserTiani kapitalwarmoeba (aseTi sawarmoo saqmianobebis nusxa undaiqnas Sedgenili)turizmi da sagadamxdelo balansiturizmis zegavlena qveyanaSi sagadamxdelo balansze didia, esZiriTadad Seexeba finansur transaqciebs (investiciebi, sesxebi) damasTan dakavSirebul nakadebs (procenti, dividendebi). gaerosa (UN) damsoflio savaWro organizaciis (WTO) 1993 wlis rekomendaciebSi,sagadamxdelo balansi Semoifargla SemomsvlelTa turizmidangenerirebuli Semosavlebis da ucxour valutaSi gamavali danaxarjebisSejamebiT.saerTaSoriso turizms aqvs udidesi gavlena turistuli qveynebissagadamxdelo balansze, radganac moxmareba Tan sdevs momxmarebelTagadaadgilebas. zogierTi qveynisaTvis sagadamxdelo balansis punqti -“mogzauroba” erT-erTi umTavresi Senatania saqonlisa da momsaxurebisbalansSi. xSir SemTxvevaSi am punqtis wminda RirebulebaSesaZleblobas iZleva gadawonil iqnas vaWrobaSi importisa daeqsportis uaryofiTi balansi. es efeqtebi ar Semoifargleba mxolodtradiciuli turistuli saqonlis moxmarebis tipebiT (bina, adgilobrivitransporti, kveba, a.S.), aramed moicavs nebismier saqonelsa da serviss,romelic moxmarebulia vizitorTa mier gadaadgilebis dros, Tundac esgadaadgileba iyos qveynis SigniT (ucxouri sakvebi da sasmeli,Semotanili saqoneli).punqti “mogzauroba” sagadamxdelo balansSi da turizmis statistikabevr qveyanaSi turizmis statistika tradiciulad gamoiyeneba rogorc“Semomavali turizmis moxmarebis” an “gamavali turizmis moxmarebis”erTiani Rirebulebis Semadgeneli saerTaSoriso transportisgaTvaliswinebiT an mis gareSe. es maCvenebeli aseve gamoiyeneba, rogorcSemomavali/gamavali vizitorebis ricxvis arapirdapiri indikatori.tradiciulad, punqti “mogzauroba” sagadasaxado balansSi, romelicSeiZleba koreqtirebul iqnas saerTaSoriso transportze danaxarjebismonacemebis safuZvelze, gamoiyeneba rogorc Semomavali an gamavaliturizmis moxmarebis erTiani Rirebulebis miaxloebiTi maCvenebeli dazog SemTxvevaSi, Semomavali an gamavali vizitorebis ricxvis SefasebissafuZvelsac ki warmoadgens.ras gamoricxavs punqti “mogzauroba” da ras moicavs turizmis moxmarebapunqti mogzauroba gamoricxavs magram (Semomavali/gamavali) turizmismoxmareba moicavs Semdeg aspeqtebs:• mogzaurTa saerTaSoriso gadayvana;44


• diplomatTa da aseve ucxo qveyanaSi myofi maTi damxmarepersonalis piradi danaxarjebi saqonelsa da momsaxurebaze,romelic gaweul iqna mogzaurobis dros (Sedis samTavroboservisebSi)aRniSnuli maCvenebeli mTlianad gamoricxulia “mogzaurobis” punqtidan,misi CarTva turizmis moxmarebaSi damokidebulia momsaxurebis gamwevislokaciis adgilze.mogzaurTa saerTaSoriso gadayvana ar aris Setanili sagadamxdelobalansis “mogzaurobis” punqtSi, magram warmodgenilia saTauriT“transportireba” sagadamxdelo balansSi. Semomavali/gamavaliturizmis moxmarebis nawilia saerTaSoriso gadayvana, romlis Seswavlisdrosac yuradReba unda mieqces mogzauris sacxovrebel qveyanasa dagadamyvanis lokaciis adgils, aRsaniSnavia, rom erT - erTi maTgani maincunda iyos im qveynis mkvidri, romelSic xdeba qmedeba.sagadmxdelo balansSi, diplomatTa da maTi personalis piradmoxmarebaze gaweuli danaxarjebi gamoricxulia mogzaurobis punqtidanda Setanilia samTavrobo servisebSi.daskvnaturizmi aris saqmianoba, romlis socialuri da ekonomikuri mniSvnelobagansakuTrebiT gaizarda saukunis ukansaknel meoTxedSi. mis Sesaxebstatistikuri monacemebi ZiriTadad efuZneba CamomsvlelTa da erTiRamis turistTa statistikas, radgan sagadamxdelo balansi mTlianadver aRwers turizmis ekonomikur mniSvnelobas. saxelmwifo, sazogadoebada biznesmenebi ar floben saWiro informacias imisaTvis, romganaxorcielon biznes saqmianoba mocemul sferoSi da SeimuSaonefeqtiani politika. arasakmarisi informaciaa turizmis rolis Sesaxeberovnul ekonomikaSic, amitom realurad arsebobs turizmis moculobisada gradaciis, srulyofili informaciisa da Skalis SemuSavebisaucilebloba.warsulSi turizmis Seswavla gulisxmobda mxolod vizitorTadaxasiaTebas, maTi mogzaurobis pirobebis da miznebis aRweras, magramukansaknel periodSi gaizarda turizmi mniSvnelobisadmidamokidebuleba. yvelam gaaanaliza, rom turizmi rogorc pirdapir, iseiribad gavlenas axdens dasaqmebis doneze, adamianTa pirad dasaxelmwifo Semosavlebze da a.S.Tanamedrove pirobebSi, rogroc saxelmwifo, ise kerZo seqtors sxvasaxisa da spacifikis informacia esaWiroeba. turizmis mniSvnelobidangamomdinare vizitorTa raodenobisa da maTi mogzaurobis pirobebisgarda, isini iTxoven sarwmuno informacias da indikatorebs, romlebicSesaZlblobas miscemT gaafarToon turizmis aRricxvis farglebi. esmonacemebi Semdegi niSnebiT unda xasiaTdebodes:45


• unda iyos statistikuri (ara erTi wlis maCveneblebi), SeqmnilixangrZlivi periodis Sefasebebis safuZvelze da SedarebisaTvisunda Seicavdes Tavdapirvel (sabaziso) monacemebs, raTaSesaZlebeli iyos sxva indikatorebis masTan Sedareba;• Sefaseba unda efuZnebodes sarwmuno statistikur wyaroebs,romlis monacemebic miRebulia vizitorebisa da momsaxurebismimwodebelTa xangrZlivi dakvirvebis safuZvelze;• monacemebis Sedareba SesaZlebli unda iyos, rogorc ekonomikissxva sferoebTan, aseve erTi qveynis farglebSi, qveynebs Sorisda rac mTavaria droSi;• monacemebi Sinaganad unda eTanxmebodes saerTaSorisomakroekonomikur Sexedulebebs da ar unda modiodes masTanwinaaRmdegobaSi.TSA – s SemuSaveba qveyanaSi damokidebulia ara mxolod qveynisstatistikuri sistemis, aramed Sesabamisi infrastruqturisganviTarebaze. misi warmatebiT gamoyeneba saSualebas aZlevs qveyanasSeafasos turizmis ekonomikuri mniSvneloba da gansazRvros sakuTariprioritetebi.46


turizmis sferoSi arsebuli problemebi da rekomendaciebiturizmis sferoSi Catarebuli kvlevis safuZvelze gamovlinda rigiproblemebi, ganvixiloT TiToeuli maTgani:• turizmis saaRricxvo sistemis ararsebobadResdReobiT saqarTveloSi ver xerxdeba turizmidan miRebuliSemosavlebis aRricxva. saWiro infrastruqturisa da saaRricxvosistemis ararsebobis gamo ar xdeba sakurorto adgilebSi sakuTarisaxlebis gamqiravebelTa Semosavlebis aRricxva. yovelive aRniSnuli kiganapiroebebs imas, rom realurad qveynis biujetSi turizmidan SesuliTanxebi Zalian mwiria.mocemuli problema SesaZlebelia mogvardes saqarTveloSi msoflioturizmis organizaciis mier sxva saerTaSoriso organizaciebTan erTadSemuSavebuli turizmis satelituri aRricxvis sistemis SeswavliT,saqarTvelosTvis adaptaciiTa da Semdgom misi qveyanaSi danergviT.• usafrTxoebis aradamakmayofilebeli done qveyanaSiturizmis ganviTarebisaTvis erT-erT mniSvnelovan xelisSemSlelfaqtors warmoadgens saqarTveloSi usafrTxoebis aradamkmayofilebelidone. afxazeTisa da oseTis teritoriaze arsebuli daZabuli situaciafsiqologiur zegavlenas axdens rogorc adgilobriv, ise ucxoelturistebze, ris gamoc maT SeiZleba uari Tqvan saqarTveloSiCamosvlasa da dasvenebaze.amas Tan erTvis qveyanaSi arsebuli kriminogenuli situacia, radganxSiria rogorc adgilobriv, ise ucxoel turistebze Tavdasxmisa dagatacebis SemTxvevebi.• aradamakmayofilebeli usafrTxoebis done kurortebzees gamowveulia regionebSi samaSvelo samsaxuris araqmedunarianobiTa dasimciriT. garda amisa sakurorto adgilebSi, gansakuTrebiT kimaRalmTian regionebSi, problemas warmoadgens samedicino momsaxurebismiReba.aRniSnuli problemis gadasaWrelad mizanSewonili iqneba momzaddes:‣ kvalificiur maSvelTa korpusi, rogorc sazRvao kurortebis, asevemaRalmTiani regionebisaTvis;‣ Seiqmnas pirveladi daxmarebis samedicino momsaxurebis punqtebisqseli qveynis mTel teritoriaze.47


• mZime sanitrul-higienuri mdgomareoba kurortebzeam mxriv metad savalalo mdgomareobaa sanapiro zolSi, radgan TiTqmisar xdeba sanapiros dasufTaveba da saWiro sanitaruli normebis dacva.aseve xSiria zRvis dabinZureba sxvadasxva Camdinare narCenebiT, gemebisnarecxi wylebiTa Tu CaRvrili navTobiT. yovelive es safrTxes uqmnisdamsvenebelTa janmrTelobas.garda zemoaRniSnulisa saqarTveloSi jer kidev ar aris yvela adamianiscnobierebaSi garemos dacvis aucileblobisadmi seriozuli midgoma.yovelive zemoTqmulidan gamomdinare aucilebelia:‣ gaumjobesdes regionebisa da qalaqebis Sesabamisi keTilmowyobissamsaxurebis saqmianoba. mudmivad moxdes sakurorto adgilebisdasufTaveba da sanitaruli normebis dacva;‣ SesaZleblia PPR kampaniis ganxorcieleba adamianebis cnobierebisamaRlebis mizniT.• moSlili sagzao da satransporto sistemasaqarTvelos umetes maRalmTian regionSi mTlianad moSlilia sagzaosistema, am mxriv sakmaod cudi mdgomareobaa samcxe-javaxeTSi. sagzaosistema imdenad gaumarTavia, rom ver xerxdeba transportireba.amasTanave aRsaniSnavia is faqti, rom qveyanaSi ar arsebobs Sidaaviareisebi, rac sakmaod gaaadvilebda gadaadgilebas. saqarTvelos metnaklebaddamakmayofilebeli kavSirebi aqvs ruseTsa da evropasTan,magram samxreT kavkasiis regionSi da axlo aRmosavleTTandamakavSirebeli reisebis raodenoba Zalian mcirea. es ki iwvevs imas, romzogierTi potenciuri bazris mocva garTulebulia da Zneldebakombinirebuli regionaluri turebis mowyoba.Cveni qveyana Savi zRvis sanapiroze mdebareobs da ori navsadguricgagvaCnia, magram miuxedavad amisa dResdReobiT sazRvao transportiTturistTa gadayvana TiTqmis ar xdeba, riTac isev da isev potenciuriSemosavlebi ikargeba transportis sferodan.rekomendaciis saxiT SeiZleba iTqvas Semdegi:‣ aucilebelia gaumjoebesdes sagzao sistema maRalmTian daSedarebiT Znelad misadgom adgilebSi, radgan turizmisganviTarebisaTvis mniSvnelovani potenciali swored maRalmTianregionebSia Tavmoyrili;‣ gzebis gamarTvasTan erTad saerTaSoriso standartebTanSesabamisobis miRwevis mizniT aucilebelia maTi keTilmowyoba,ganaTeba, avtogasamarTi da kavSirgabmulobis punqtebis ganTavseba;‣ transportirebisas usafrTxoebis dacvis mizniT dawesdesstandartebi satransporto saSualebebisaTvis da regularuladxdebodes mZRolTa kvalifikaciis Semowmeba;‣ moxdes samarSruto qselis gafarToeba da maRalmTian regionebSipirdapiri marSrutebis daniSvna;48


‣ mizanSewonili iqneba Sidasaqveyno, regionTaSorisi aviareisebisdaniSvna;‣ aRdges sazRvao reisebi vizitorebis transportirebisa dagaseirnebisaTvis.• sastumroTa da saagentoTa qselis ganuviTareblobasaqarTvelos kurortebi vizotorebs ver uzrunvelyofen TavSesafriTsastumroSi, imdenad ramdenadac regionebSi maTi raodenobaarasakmarisia. amave dros arsebuli kerZo sastumroebis nomenklaturasakmaod mwiria momsaxurebis done ki dabali, rasac ver vityviT maTmier SemoTavazebul tarifebze.aRniSnuli problema SeiZleba gadaWril iqnas:‣ turizmis sferoSi investiciebis mozidviT da saerTaSorisostandartebis sastumroTa qselis ganviTarebiT;‣ aseve mizanSewonilad migvaCnia sastumroTa momsaxurebisasortimentis gazrda.• saqarTvelos turizmis potencialis Sesaxeb srulyofilisainformacio bazis ararsebobaqveyanaSi ar arsebobs sruli sainfomacio baza saqarTvelos turistulipotencialis Sesaxeb, sadac aRwerili iqneba saqraTvelos regionebSiarsebuli kurortebi, Tavisi RirsSesaniSnaobebiT. aseve ar arsebobssastumroTa da saagentoTa baza, romelic Seicavda maTi momsaxurebissaxeebs da saqmianobis srul aRweras. yovelive aRniSnulis arsebobasasikeTod waadgeboda turizms, radgan sruli sainformacio bazadaxmarebas gauwevda, rogorc adgilobriv, aseve ucxoel turistebs.aRniSnuli problemis gadasaWrelad mizanSewonilad migvaCnia:‣ Seiqmnas sastumroebisa da saagentoebis srulyofili sainformacioeleqtronuli baza, romelic internetis saSualebiT xelmisawvdomiiqneba msoflios nebismier mcxovrebisaTvs;‣ Seiqmnas saqarTvelos turistuli potencialis aRweriseleqtronuli baza, romelic aseve SeiZleba gamoyenebul iqnasmsoflios masStabiT saqarTvelos, rogorc turistuli qveynisreklamirebisa da potenciur turistTa yuradRebis mipyrobisaTvis;‣ saWiroa saagentoebis mxridan Sida turizmze orientireba.• turizmis dargSi kompetenturi personalis ararsebobamomavalSi turizmis ganviTarebasTan da turistuli nakadebis zrdasTanerTad gaizrdeba moTxovna kompetentur personalze. unda aRiniSnos, romdRes saqarTveloSi arsebuli umaRlesi saswavleblebis umetesobaamzadebs turizmis specialistebs, magram qveyanaSi ar gvxvdeba turizmzespecializirebuli skola, romelic orientirebuli iqneba saSualo da49


dabali donis personalis momzadebaze, razec realurad moTxovnamarTlac arsebobs.am kuTxiT problemis mogvarebis mizniT saWirod migvaCnia:‣ Seiqmnas specializirebuli saswavleblebi an momzaddes treiningkursebi,romelic CautardebaT turizmis sferoSi dasaqmebulpersonals, raTa isini akmayofilebdnen saerTaSoriso standartebs.50


damatebiTi masala51


ZiriTadi statistikuri monacemebiturizmiturizmi ganimarteba, rogorc adaminis saqmianoba, romelic gulisxmobsdasvenebis, saqmiani an raime sxva mizniT misi Cveuli sacxovrebeliadgilisagan gansxvavebul garemoSi gamgzavrebas, gadabmulad araumeteserTi wlis vadiT da misi vizitis mizans ar warmoadgens am qveyanaSiTavisi Cveuli saqmianobis ganxorcieleba, romelic anazRaurdebamocemuli qveynis finansuri wyaroebidan. es ganmarteba saSualebasgvaZlevs ganisazRvros turizmi, rogorc qveynebs Soris, aseve qveynisSigniT. “turizmi” exeba vizitorTa nebismier saqmianobas, romelicSeicavs, rogorc “turistebs” (RamisTeviT vizitors) ise erTi dRisvizitorebsac.adgilobrivi turizmi es aris adgilobriv moqalaqeTa turizmimocemuli qveynis ekonomikuri teritoriis sazRvrebSi.adgilobrivi turizmis moxmarebis sferoadgilobrivi turizmis moxmarebis sfero, aris rezident vizitorTamoxmareba mocemuli qveynis sazRvrebSi. saboloo daniSnulebis adgilituristisaTvis SeiZleba iyos, rogorc qveynis SigniT aseve mis farglebsgareT, magram moxmareba aucileblad iwyeba mocemuli qveynis sazRvrebsSigniT. es SiZleba iyos saqoneli an momsaxureba _ warmoebulisazRvargareT an sxva qveynis moqalaqeebis mier gayiduli am qveyanaSi.sityva “Sinauri”-s ganmarteba bevrad ufro farToa vidre Cveulebrivturizmis statistikaSi (moicavs rezidentebs, romlebic mogzauroben daamavdroulad rCebian qveynis sazRvrebs SigniT) da rogorc aq arisgansazRvruli, Sida turizmis moxmarebis sfero amavdroulad Seicavstradiciulad gansazRvrul cnebas _ sazRvargareT gamaval turistTamoxmarebis adgilobriv wilsac.turizmis formebi:• adgilobrivi turizmi es aris adgilobriv moqalaqeTa turizmimocemuli qveynis ekonomikuri teritoriis sazRvrebSi;• CamomsvlelTa turizmi aris ucxoel vizitorTa turizmi mocemuliqveynis ekonomikuri teritoriis farglebSi;• gamsvlelTa turizmi aris adgilobriv moqalaqeTa turizmimocemuli qveynis ekonomikuri teritoriis farglebs gareT;• Sida turizmi aris rogorc adgilobriv moqalaqeTa aseve ucxoelvizitorTa turizmi mocemuli qveynis ekonomikuri teritoriisfarglebSi;• erovnuli turizmi aris adgilobriv moqalaqeTa turizmi mocemuliqveynis farglebs SigniT da misi ekonomikuri teritoriis faglebsgareT;52


CamomsvlelTa turizmi aris ucxoel vizitorTa turizmi mocemuliqveynis ekonomikuri teritoriis sazRvrebSi.CamomsvlelTa moxmarebis sfero Seicavs ucxoel turistTa moxmarebasmocemuli qveynis ekonomikuri teritoriis farglebs SigniT, romelicuzrunvelyofilia rezidentebis mxridan.Sida turizmi aris rogorc adgilobriv moqalaqeTa aseve ucxoelvizitorTa turizmi mocemuli qveynis ekonomikuri teritoriis farglebsSigniT.Sida turizmis moxmarebis sfero moicavs, rogorc adgilobrivi iseararezidentebis moxmarebas mocemuli qveynis ekonomikuri teritoriisfarglebSi. Ees aris adgilobrivi da Camomsvlel turistTa moxmarebisjami. is SeiZleba Seicavdes importirebul saqonelsa da momsaxurebas dagayiduls vizitorebze. Ees sidide uzrunvelyofs mocemuli qveynisfarglebs SigniT moxmarebis yvelaze farTo daxasiaTebas.saerTaSoriso turizmi Seicavs orive saxis turizms, rogorcgamsvlelTa, aseve CamomsvlelTa turizms.erovnuli turizmi es aris adgilobriv moqalaqeTa turizmi mocemuliqveynis farglebs SigniT da aseve mis sazRvrebs gareT.erovnuli turizmis moxmarebis sfero moicavs rezidenti vizitorebismoxmarebas, rogorc qveynis ekonomikuri teritoriis farglebs SigniT,ise mis sazRvrebs gareT. es aris adgilobrivi da gamsvlelTa turizmismoxmarebis jami. am SesyidvebSi SeiZleba moxvdes rogorc adgilobriviwarmoebis, ise ucxoeTidan importirebuli saqonelic.gamsvlelTa turizmi aris adgilobriv moqalaqeTa turizmi mocemuliqveynis ekonomikuri teritoriis farglebs gareT.gamsvlel turistTa moxmarebis sfero es aris rezident vizitorTamoxmarebis sfero mocemuli qveynis ekonomikuri teritoriis sazRvrebsgareT. igi ar Seicavs saqonelsa da momsaxurebas, romelic SeZenil iqnamocemuli qveynis ekonomikuri teritoriis sazRvrebSi mogzaurobamde anmogzaurobis Semdeg. es ganmarteba ufro viwroa vidre termini“gamsvlelTa turizmi” turizmis statistikaSi, romelic moicavsmocemuli qveynis moqalaqeTa mogzaurobas sxva qveynebSic. rogorc aqaris ganmartebuli “sazRvargareT mimaval turistTa moTxovnis sfero”gamoricxavs gamsvlelTa turizmis moxmarebis sferos adgilobriv wils.SesyidvebisaTvis drois gansazRvra erT-erT mTavar sakiTxs warmoadgens.momdevno punqtebi warmogvidgens vizitorTa moxmarebis sazRvrebs droismixedviT:53


mogzaurobis (trip) ganmavlobaSiyvela saxis moxmarebas miuxedavad imisa saqonelia Tu momsaxurebaSNA93 ganixilavs, rogorc Sinameurneobebis saboloo moxmarebas; igimoicavs:• momxmarebelTa mier mogzaurobis dros SeZenil xangrZlivimoxmarebis saqonels (komerciuli mizniT SeZenilis gamoklebiT);• turizmis biznesis danaxarjebs, radganac sasaqonlo asortimentiam jgufis danaxarjebisaTvis igivea;mogzaurobis win• nebismieri saxis momsaxureba miRebuli mogzaurobis win andakavSirebuli mogzaurobasTan (mag: samedicino kontroli, acra);• yvela saxis mcire Rirebulebis mqone saqoneli, romelicSeZenilia mogzaurobamde mogzaurobis periodSi moxmarebis ansaCuqrad gadacemis mizniT;• turizmisaTvis specifikuri daniSnulebis mqone xangrZlivimoxmarebis saqoneli;mogzaurobis Semdeg• mogzaurobis Semdeg SeZenili saqonlis da momsaxurebis mTlianimoxmareba, romelic mWidro kavSirSia mogzaurobasTan (mag:fotoebis dabeWdva);konkretuli mogzaurobis konteqstis gareT• turizmisaTvis specifikuri daniSnulebis mqone xangrZlivimoxmarebis saqonlis SeZena.momxmarebelTa moxmarebis sferomiuTiTebs vizitorebis mxridan saerTo moTxovnaze da SeiZleba, saerTojamSi gansazRvrul iqnas rogorc termini “vizitorTa moTxovna.”cnebaSi – vizitorTa moxmarebis sfero, vizitorTa saboloo moxmarebisdanaxarjebi naRdi fulis saxiT (misi mTavari komponenti), Seesabamebatermins “vizitorTa danaxarjebi”, romelic tradiciulad gamoiyenebaturizmis analizis dros.vizitorTa xarjebi aWarbebs vizitorTa Sesyidvebs mogzaurobisganmavlobaSi. es Sesyidvebi vizitorTa saxeliT sruldebainstitucionaluri erTeulebis mier. vizitoris moxmarebis sferoSiCarTulia naRdi fuli an finansuri saSualebebi, romelic gadaricxuliqna vizitorisaTvis misi mogzaurobis dafinansebis mizniT.turizmis Semadgenlebiturizmis Semadgenlobas qmnian is pirebi/meurneobebi, vinc arianturistuli saqmianobis subieqtebi da Sedeged isini SeiZleba Seswavliliqnan, rogorc statistikuri erTeulebi (Semadgeneli nawilebi).54


sacxovrebeli qveyana (qveyana sadac cxovrobT)sacxovrebeli qveyana warmoadgens erT-erT mniSvnelovan kriteriums,rodesac saWiroa ganisazRvros qveyanaSi Casuli pirovneba “vizitoria”Tu “sxva mogzauri”. Tu vizitoria, adgilobrivia Tu ucxoeTismcxovrebi. am koncefciis mixedviT saerTaSoriso vizitoris (rogorcturistis) warmoSobis adgili aris qveyana, romelSic igi cxovrobs daara qveyana misi erovnebis mixedviT. adgilobrivi da gamsvlelTaturizmis aRricxvis dros ucxo erovnebebi, romlebic cxovrobenqveyanaSi gaerTienebuli arian sxva rezidentebTan, xolo mocemuliqveynis erovnebebi, romlebic cxovroben sxva qveyanaSi da droebiTbrundebian mSobliur qveyanaSi, Sedian ararezidenti vizitorebisricxvSi.adgilobrivi mogzauriadgilobrivi mogzauri, ganisazRvreba rogorc nebismieri adamianiromelic gadaadgildeba Tavisi sacxovrebeli qveynis farglebSimogzaurobis mizniT da iyenebs satransporto saSualebebs (TumcaSesaZlebelia gadaadgildebodes fexiTac).adgilobrivi vizitori“adgilobrivi vizitori” gulisxmobs nebismier adamins, romelicmogzaurobs misi sacxovrebeli qveynis farglebSi araumetes 12 TvisganmavlobaSi da misi vizitis mizans ar warmoadgens am (aRniSnul)qveyanaSi anazRaurebadi saqmianobis ganxorcieleba. adgilobrivvizitorebs miekuTvnebian:• turistebi (RamisTeviT vizitorebi): vizitorebi, romlebic erTiRamiT mainc rCebian am qveyanaSi kerZo an saerTo sacxovrebelSi.• erTi dRis vizitori _ vizitori, romelic ar aTevs Rames amqveynis kerZo an saerTo sacxovrebelSi.vizitis xangrZlivaobavizitis (darCenis an mgzavrobis) xangrZlivoba ganisazRvreba SemdegimaCveneblebiT: saaTebis raodenobiT erTi-dRis vizitis (same-day visits)SemTxvevaSi da gaTeuli Rameebis raodenobiT damrCenTa vizitisTvis(staying visits). saerTaSoriso turizmisTvis xangrZlivoba ganisazRvreba anCamomsvlelTa turizmis saSualebiT _ mimReb qveyanaSi gatarebulidrois xangrZlivobiT, an gamsvlelTa turizmis saSualebiT _sacxovrebeli adgilidan gamgzavrebis xangrZlivobiT.saerTaSoriso mogzaurisaerTaSoriso mogzauri ganisazRvreba rogorc nebismieri adamianiromelic gadaadgildeba Tavisi sacxovrebeli qveynis farglebs gareT55


mogzaurobis mizniT da iyenebs satransporto saSualebebs (TumcaSesaZlebelia gadaadgildebodes fexiTac)saerTaSoriso vizitori“serTaSoriso vizitori” gulisxmobs nebismier adamins, romelicmogzaurobs misi sacxovrebeli qveynis gareT ara umetes 12 TvisganmavlobaSi da misi vizitis mizans ar warmoadgens am (aRniSnul)qveyanaSi anazRaurebadi saqmianobis ganxorcieleba.saerTaSoriso vizitorebs miekuTvnebian:• turistebi (RamisTeviT vizitorebi): vizitorebi, romlebic erTiRamiT mainc rCebian am qveyanaSi kerZo an saerTo sacxovrebelSi.• erTi dRis vizitori _ vizitori, romelic ar aTevs Rames amqveynis kerZo an saerTo sacxovrebelSi.gavliTi vizitorebigavliTi vizitorebi specifikuri kategoriaa, romelic dakavSirebulia,rogorc saerTaSoriso da adgilobriv, ise erTi dRis vizitorebTan daturistebTan. gavliTi vizitori aris adamiani, romelic swrafad arubrundeba Tavis warmoSobis adgils da Cerdeba mocemuli qveynismimdebare teritoriaze sxvadasxva daniSnulebis adgilze misasvlelad.amasTanave es adamianebi arian legeluri tranzitis reJimSi am qveyanaSi,amitom isini ar ganixilebian sagadasaxado administrirebis obieqtebad(es ZiriTadad exebaT vizitorebs, romlebic Camodian TviTmfrinaviT,magram aRniSnul kategoriaSi aseve Sedian adamianebic, romlebic kveTenqveynis sazRvrebs sxvadasxva daniSnulebis adgilas misasvlelad (aqZiriTadad igulisxmebian saavtomobilo an sarkinigzo transportiTmogzaurebi). ZiriTadad gavliTi vizitorebi arian erTdRiani vizitorebi,magram ufro mniSvnelovania, roca zogierT SemTxvevaSi isini rCebianRamiT da ukve ganixilebian rogorc RamisTeviT vizitorebi.vizitis mizanivizitis miznis klasifikacia CamomsvlelTa, gamvlelTa da adgilobriviturizmisaTvis:1. gajansaReba, ardadegebi, Tvisufali drois gatareba2. megobrebisa da naTesavebis monaxuleba3. profesiuli da saqmiani miznebi4. mkurnaloba5. religiuri/piligrimoba6. sxvaturizmis akomodacia aris nebismieri saSualeba, romelicregularulad uzrunvelyofs RamisgamTev turistebs TavSesafariT.56


mogzauri (Traveller) mogzauri aris nebismieri pirovneba, romelicmogzaurobs or an met qveyanaSi, an or an met raionSi sakuTarisacxovrebeli qveynis farglebSi.mgzavroba (trip) da viziti (vizit), aRniSnavs nebismieri saxis mogzaurobasCveuli garemosgan gansxvavebul adgilas.Cveuli garemomniSvnelovania gairkves ra igulisxmeba Cveul garemoSi, raTaSesaZlebeli iyos “vizitoris” koncefciidan gamoiricxos adamianebi,romlebic icvlian adgilsamyofels saxlidan samsaxurSi, saswavlebelSian sxva xSiri vizitis adgilebSi wasvlisas. aqedan gamomdinare Cveuligaremos ganmarteba Semdeg kriteriumebs emyareba:1. mogzaurobisas ganvlili minimaluri manZili;2. sacxovrebel adgilas aryofnis minimaluri xangrZlivoba;3. administraciul teritorias an sxva adgilebs Soris gadadgilebisminimaluri sixSiriT monacvleoba.vizitorivizitori gulisxmobs nebismier adamins, romelic mogzaurobs misisacxovrebeli adgilisagan gansxvavebul garemoSi ara umetes 12 TvisganmavlobaSi da misi vizitis mizans ar warmoadgens am (aRniSnul)qveyanaSi anazRaurebadi saqmianobis ganxorcieleba.vizitorebis klasifikacia SeiZleba Semdegnairad moxdes:1. saerTaSoriso vizitori:• turistebi (RamisTeviT vizitorebi)• erTi dRis vizitori2. adgilobrivi vizitorebi• turistebi (RamisTeviT vizitorebi)• erTi dRis vizitoriturizmis warmoebaTSA turizmis warmoebis sferos ganmartavs, rogorc im dawesebulebaTaerTobliobas, romelTa sawarmoo saqmianoba dakavSirebulia turizmisspecifikuri produqciis warmoebasTan, maT ricxvs miekuTvneba aseveturistuli saagentoebi da turneTa organizatorebic.warmoebis faqtorebiturizmis moxmarebis sagnebisa da momsaxurebis sawarmoeblad didimniSvneloba aqvs sam ZiriTad faqtors:57


1. samuSao Zala _ qveyanaSi turizmis ganviTareba mniSvnelovangavlenas axdens dasaqmebis doneze da aqedan gamomdinaremosaxleobis Semosavlebzec.2. kapitali _ (ufro zustad erToblivi kapitalwarmoeba)gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania turizmisaTvis, radgan turistuliinfrastruqturis arseboba satransporto, rekreaciuli, gasarTobida a.S dawesebulebebis saxiT, gansazRvravs vizitorTa SemodinebisxasiaTsa da intensivobas.3. dasaqmeba _ turizmis sferosTan dakavSirebul saqmianobaSidasaqmeba SeiZleba iTqvas, rom dasaqmeba aris sezonuri.sezonuroba, samuSao garemos swrafi cvalaa, moqniloba daformaluri kontraqtebis simcire warmoadgens turizmis sferoSidasaqebulTa aRricxvis damabrkolebel faqtors.pirdapiri dasaqmeba _ pirdapir turizmis specifikur saqmianobaSidasaqmeba.arapirdapiri dasaqmeba _ turizmis araspecifikur sferoSi, magramvizitorTa moTxovnis dasakmayofileblad funqcionirebad dargebSidasaqmeba.samuSao (job) _ pirovnebasa da konkretul Tanamdebobas Soris farul anaSkara kontraqtze dafuZnebuli urTierToba. samuSao gamoxatavs kavSirsadamiansa da mis Tanamdebobas Soris, masSi aseve SedianTviTdasaqmebulebic, romlebic TviTon uzrunvelyofen sakuTar TavssamuSaoTi.samuSaos Semadgenlebi _ adamianebi da pozicia. roca pirovneba da`pozicia” dakavSirebulia erTmaneTTan es imas niSnavs, rom arsebobssamuSao (job) (yoveli poziciisaTvis unda arsebobdes SesasrulebelisamuSao da admiani, romelic am pozicias daikavebs).pozicia _ amocanebis erToblioba, romlebic unda Sesruldes adaminismier.sezonuri dasaqmeba _ wlis erTsa da imave periodSi arsebuli dasaqmeba.droebiTi dasaqmeba _ dasaqmeba mokle droiT, romelic SeiZlebadakavSirebuli iyos garkveuli amocanebis ganxorcielebasTan.kapitaliarsebobs turizmis sferoSi kapitalwarmoebis ramdenime saSualeba,romelic SeiZleba Seswavlil iqnas aRricxvis sirTulis miuxedavad;1. SesaZlebelia Seswavlil iqnas jamuri erToblivi kapitalwarmoebamTlianad turizmis warmoebis sferoSi.2. SesaZlebelia ganisazRvros erToblivi kapitalwarmoeba turizmisspecifikuri produqciidan, romelic dakavSirebuliavizitorebisaTvis sxvadasxva momsaxurebis gawevasTan. eskapitalwarmoeba SeiZleba miRweul iqnas turizmis warmoebis an58


saxelmwifos mxridan da nawilobriv faravdes turizmisinfrastruqturisaTvis regionuli TviTmmarTvelobis mier gaweulxarjebs.turizmis specifikuri produqcia (TSP)turizmis tipiuri produqti: aris iseTi saxis saqoneli, romelzecmsoflios TiTqmis yvela qveyanaSi miaCniaT, rom ar iarsebebs anmniSvnelovnad Semcirdeba moTxovna vizitorebis ar arsebobis dros;turizmTan dakavSirebuli produqti iseTi saqonelia, romelsac zogierTqveyanaSi Tvlian turizmis spacifikur produqtad, Tumca am azrs areTanxmeba msoflios yvela qveyana;turizmis specifikuri produqcia warmoadgens wina ori kategoriisSejamebas. aq Sedis turizmTan dakavSirebuli mxolod is specifikuriproduqcia (saqoneli Tu momsaxureba), romelic piradad momxmareblebismier moixmareba, ar Sedis turizmis warmoebis saSualebebi dasazogadoebrivi produqti. aseve gasaTvaliswinebelia, rom aq ar SedismimwodebelTa mxridan gaweuli momsaxureba, romelic ar iTvlebavizitorTa moxmarebis sferod, magaliTad, gamvlelTaTvis satransporto,kvebasTan dakavSirebuli da sakonsultacio momsaxureba da a.S.momuSavis anazRaurebamomuSavis anazRaureba ganimarteba, rogorc organizaciis miermomuSavisTvis gacemuli anazRaureba naRdi fuliT, an raime sxva formiT,Sesrulebuli samuSaos safasurad. momuSaveTa kompensacia aRiricxebasamuSaos dasrulebisas mTliani TanxiT, rac momuSavem miiRodamqiraveblisgan Sesrulebuli samuSaos paralelurad, an TundacdagvianebiT an winaswar. araviTari anazRaureba ar gaicema imsamuSaosTvis, romelic sruldeba moxaliseobrivad. amaSi SedisSinameurneobebis wevrebis mier Sesrulebuli samuSao da asevearakorporaciuli da meurneobis mflobelobaSi arsebuli sawarmoebismier Sesrulebuli samuSao. masSi ar Sedis gadasaxadebi, romelsacixdis damqiravebeli xelfasebis gacemisas.xangrZlivi moxmarebis sagnebixangrZlivi moxmarebis sagnebs miekuTvneba saqoneli, romelic SeiZlebamoxmarebul iqnas ramdenimejer, an gangrZobiTad erT welze meti vadiT,mxolod im pirobiT, Tu igi am xnis manZilze inarCunebs fizikurTvisebebs. am saqonels gansakuTrebuli midgoma esaWiroeba, masmravalmxrivi mniSvneloba aqvs, radgan xelmisawvdomia nebismier dros,nebismier adgilas, mogzaurobis dros Tu mis Semdeg.TSA-Si xangrZlivi moxmarebis sagnebis ori kategoria gamoiyofa:• turizmisaTvis gansakuTrebuli daniSnulebis mqone xangrZlivimoxarebis sagnebi, romlebic mxolod mogzaurobisas gamoiyeneba,59


magaliTad, bargi, banakis aRWurviloba (karvebi, saZile tomrebi,vagoni), saTxilamuro, myvinTavebis aRWurviloba da a.S.• mravali daniSnulebis xangrZlivi moxmarebis sagnebi, romlebicgamoiyeneba, rogorc mogzaurobisas, aseve CveulebrivSemTxvevebSic: magaliTad, manqana, kamera da a.S.am siaSi gansakuTrebuli daniSnulebis mqone saqoneli Seitanebamiuxedavad imisa, rom isini SeZenilia mogzaurobaSi wasvalmde,mogzaurobisas, Tu mas Semdeg, magram mravalmxrivi daniSnulebis mqonesaqoneli Seitaneba mxolod im SemTxvevaSi, Tu igi moixmarebamogzaurobis dros.samomxmareblo produqciazogadad nebismier saqonels, romelic moixmareba vizitoris mier, SNA93aerTianebs samomxmareblo produqciaSi. realurad aranairi gamonaklisidaSvebuli ar aris, amitom saWiroa garkveuli moTxovnebis wamoyeneba. esSeiZleba moxdes TviTon produqciis limitirebis an garigebebissaxeobebis limitirebis saSualebiT. zogadad Tu produqcia SeZeniliamogzaurobisaTvis mosamzadebel periodSi an mis dros, maSin is SedisaRniSnul siaSi.aucilebelia ori ZiriTadi saxis klasifikacia:1. sxvadasxva gadasaxadebi, romlebic gadaixdeba vizitorTa mier,magram gamoiricxeba am siidan SNA93 mixedviT. es aris iseTi xarji,romelic ar aris gaweuli uSualod momsaxurebis an produqciisSeZenaze, magaliTad:• sabaJo da sxavadasxava gadasaxadebi, romlebic ar gadaixdebauSualod prouqciaze;• procentis gadaxda, romelSic Sedis xarjebi, romelic gaRebuliqna mogzaurobis dros;• finansuri da arafinansuri aqtivebis (saSualebebis) SeZena,romelSic Sedis miwa, xelovnebis nimuSebi da sxva faseulobebi;• transferebi naRdi fuliT, rogoricaa SesawiriqvelmoqmedebisaTvis an konkretuli pirovnebisaTvis.2. saqoneli, romelic vizitoris mier SeZenilia mogzaurobis periodSikomerciuli miznebisaTvis, misi momavali gadayidvis an warmoebisprocesSi gamoyenebis mizniT aucileblad gamoklebuli unda iqnasaRniSnuli siidan. isini Sualeduri momxareba an mTlianikapitalwarmoebaa sawarmoo erTeulze.TavSesafriT uzrunvelyofa sakuTari saSualebebiT yovelgvarigadasaxadis gareSeaq Sedis saxlebi, romlebic SeiZleba gaaCnedeT meurneobebs, anpirovnebebs e.w.Asazafxulo saxlebis saxiT, romlebsac iyenebenturizmisaTvis yovelgvari gadasaxadis moTxovnis gareSe.60


TavSesafriT momsaxureba ganxilul unda iqnas ori kuTxiT, rogorcsawarmoo saqmianoba mflobelis mxridan da rogorc moxmarebavizitoris mxridan. vizitori SeiZleba iyos, rogorc mocemulimeurneobis, aseve mezobeli meurneobis wevri, ris gamoc mas SeiZleba araxdevinebdnen gadasaxads. momsaxureba turizmis miwodebisa damomxmarebelTa moxmarebis nawilia, amasTanave gaTvaliswinebuli undaiqnas is faqti, rom am momsaxurebis miReba unda xdebodes misi Cveuligaremodan gansxvavebul adgilas. Tumca aseve aRniSnulia, rom garkveulimizezebis gamo TavSesafriT uzrunvelyofis piradi SesaZleblobebi undagamoiricxos vizitorTa moxmarebidan.sazafxulo saxlebi da Cveuli garemoaucilebelia gairkves iTvelba Tu ara turistul saqmianobad meurneobiswevris saqmianoba, romelic Cadis sazafxulo saxlSi. ganmartebisTanaxmad, nebismieri ojaxuri meurneobis wevri, romelic Cadissazafxulo saxlSi da es garemo mis Cveul garemos ar warmoadgensiTvleba vizitorad; am adgilidan dadis mudmivad Tavis samsaxurSi, anuam saxlSi Camosvlis mizani ar unda iyos Tavisi Cveuli saqmianobisganxorcieleba.ojaxuri meurneobebis mier sakuTari saxsrebiT gaweuli momsaxurebaSNA93-Si ojaxuri meurneobebis mier sakuTari wevrebisTvis usasyidlodgaweuli momsaxureba ar iTvleba warmoebad ori gamonaklisis garda:mesakuTris mier gaweuli anazRaurebadi Sromis Sedegad warmoebuliproduqacia da ojaxuri meurneobis mier daqiravebuli Sromis Sedegadwarmoebuli produqciisa..TSA eTanxmeba amas da ojaxuri meurneobis mier gaweul satransportomomsaxurebas da sakvebis momzadebas ar Tvlis arc sawarmoo saqmianobadda arc moxmarebad (magaliTad, ojaxis gaseirneba manqaniT, saWmlismomzadeba mgzavrobis periodSi erTad mcxovrebi ojaxuri meurneobiswevrebisTvis).turnes (tour) organizatorebies aris iseTi saxis biznesi, romelic eweva ori an meti saxismomsaxurebas (magaliTad, transportireba, TavSesafari, kveba,gamaspinZleba, RirsSesaniSnaobebis daTvaliereba) da yidis momsaxurebispakets mTliani produqtis saxiT (romelsac paketur turneebsacuwodeben) maRal fasad turistuli saagentoebis saSualebiT, anpirdapir momxmareblebze. paketuri turnes komponentebi SeiZlebawinaswar iyos SeTanxmebuli an daigegmos vizitoris survilisamebr.61


turizmis saqmianobebiturizmi ganimarteba, rogorc adaminis saqmianoba, romelic gulisxmobsdasvenebis, samuSaos an raime sxva mizniT misi Cveuli (sacxovrebeli)adgilisagan gansxvavebul garemoSi gamgzavrebas, gadabmulad araumeteserTi wlis vadiT da misi vizitis mizans ar warmoadgens am qveyanaSianazRaurebadi saqmianobis ganxorcieleba. termini “pirovnebis saqmianoba”aq gamoiyeneba pirdapiri mniSvnelobiT da ara rogorc adamianissawarmoo ekonomikuri saqmianoba. imdenad ramdenadac es saqmianobebiZlier mravalferovania, turizmis gavlena SeiZleba mravalmxriv iyosSeswavlili. magaliTad misi gavlena dasaqmebaze, garemoze, ekonomikursaqmianobaze da a.S.turizmis moTxovna ar aris mxolod vizitorTa moxmareba, is aseve undaSeicavdes im erTeulebs, romelTa gareSec turizmis ganviTarebaSeuZlebeli iqneboda:• ZiriTadi infrastruqturis arseboba (transporti, TavSesafari daa.S)• saxelmwifos mier Sesrulebuli roli, romelic gamoixatebasxadasxva doneze turizmis xelSewyobis mizniT gatarebulmaregulirebel RonisZiebebSiturizmis ekonomikuri analizisaTvis sakmarisi ar aris mxolodvizitorTa moxmarebuli saqonlisa da momsaxurebis analizi, amisaTvisaucilebelia mwarmoebelTa da warmoebuli produqciis Seswavla. mravalmwarmoebels Soris gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania specialuridawesebulebebis arseboba, romlebic ganimarteba, rogorc “sawarmo ansawarmos nawili, romelSic sruldeba ZiriTadi (da ara damxmare)sawarmoo saqmianoba”.turizmis biznes xarjebiaucilebelia moxdes turizmis biznes xarjebis klasifikacia. masSiSedis xarjebi transportze, saqmian mogzaurobebze, momsaxurepersonalis TavSesafarze, aseve biznesis (saxelmwifo da sxvaorganizaciebis, romlebic mogebaze ar arian orientirebulni) xarjebi,romlebsac maspinZlobas uweven meurneobebi vizitisas, rogorcstumrebs. masSi ar gaiTvaliswineba xarjebi, romelsac firma faravssaqmian mogzaurobaSi myofi Tavisi TanamSromlebisTvis, magaliTadxarjebi sakvebze an mTliani Tanxa, romelsac firma erTianad aZlevs maTmogzaurobis xarjebis dasafarad. Sedegad gamodis, rom turizmis biznesxarjebi ar gamoxatavs vizitoris mTlian moxmarebas saqmiani vizitisdros, aseve ar Seicavs saxelmwifosa da im organizaciebis socialurtransferebs, romlebic ar arian mogebaze orientirebulni.turizmis tipiuri sawarmoo saqmianoba _ aris warmoebis is sfero,romelic uSvebs tipiur produqcias turizmisaTvis.62


turizmis socialuri gadasaxadebisazogadoebrivi saqoneli, romelsac mosaxleobas awvdian, rogorcsaxelmwifo struqturebi, aseve organizaciebi, romlebic mogebaze ararian orientirebulni _ moixmareba rogorc beneficiari mosaxleobis,aseve vizitorebis mier. am momsaxurebaSi moiazreba iseTi servisebi,rogoricaa jandacva, muzeumis bileTebi da sxva. aseve unda aRiniSnosis faqtic, rom im momsaxurebis moculobis Sefaseba, romelicmiewodebaT vizitorebs, sakmaod did sirTuleebTan aris dakavSirebuli.turistuli saagentoebimogzaurobasTan dakavSirebul sxvadasxava momsaxurebas (transporti,TavSesafriT uzrunvelyofa, mogzaurobis paketi) garkveulianazRaurebis fasad ewevian turistuli saagentoebi. es Sualedurirgoli momxmareblebsa da uSualo mimwodeblebs Soris qmnis garkvelproblemebs TSA-s aRricxvis sistemaSi.sabiTumo savaWro momsaxurebavizitorTa moxmarebis gansazRvrisas aqcenti keTdeba maT mier SeZenilsaqonelsa da momsaxurebaze, mogzaurobis win, procesSi Tu mas Semdeg,magram rodesac saqoneli ukve Sesyidulia ekonomikuri TvalisazrisiTigi SeiZleba ganvixiloT, rogorc kompleqsuri erTeuli, ara martorogorc Sesyiduli saqoneli, aramed momsaxurebaTa mTel jaWvTan erTad,romlic iqna gaweuli imisaTvis, rom es saqoneli am momentSi, zustad amadgilas aRmoCeniliyo. vizitoris moxmarebis Rirebuleba moicavs aramarto Sesyiduli saqonlis Rirebulebas, aramed produqciis fasSiasaxul gadasaxadebs da masTan dakavSirebuli momsaxurebis xarjebs(sacalo, sabiTumo, transportireba).turizmis erToblivi kapitalwarmoebaturizmis erToblivi kapitalwamoebis gansazRvra metad mniSvnelovania,radgan ZiriTadi infrastruqturis _ transportis, gamajansaRebeliadgilebis, TavSesafris arseboba gansazRvravs vizitorTa nakadebissixSiresa da maxasiaTeblebs. miTumetes warmoebis saSualebebisidentifikacia, romelTa Sesyidva an mopoveba momxmarebelTa moTxovnazeadamokidebuli, metad rTuli saqmea.arsebobs turizmis erToblivi kapitalwarmoebisadmi ramodenime midgoma:1. SesaZlebelia aRricxul iqnas turizmis erToblivikapitalwarmoeba turizmis warmoebaSi.2. igi SeiZleba daiTvalos turizmis specifikur produqciaze,romlebic uSualo kavSirSi arian vizitorebisaTvis gaweulmomsaxurebasTan. es kapitali SeiZleba gamomuSavebul iqnas63


nebismieri mxaris mier (turizmis warmoebis, saxelmwifo da a.S) daZiriTadad faravs adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis mxridanturizmis infrastruqturisaTvis gaRebul xarjebs. saboloodSeiZleba gaangariSebul iqnas erToblivi kapitalwarmoebismTliani moculoba, romelic saWiroa vizitorebis moTxovnisdasakmayofileblad saqonelsa da momsaxurebaze.turizmis mTliani moTxovnaSida turizmis moxmareba umTavresia imisaTvis, rom davaxasiaToTvizitorTa pirdapiri moxmareba mocemul qveyanaSi. SeiZleba iTqvas, romturizmis moxmareba farTo gagebiT SeiZleba Sevsebul iqnas vizitorTasaboloo moxmarebis monacemebiT. amasTanave unda aRiniSnos, rommoTxovnis komponentebis damateba ar unda iqnas aRqmuli, rogorcmoTxovnis komponentebis agregirebuli maCveneblis sinonimi. imisaTvis,rom erTobliv Sida produqtze dayrdnobiT ganisazRvros xarjebisraodenoba, rekomendaciebSi SemoTavazebulia damatebiTi agregirebulimaCvenebeli “turizmis mTliani moTxovna”, romelic Seicavs Sidaturizmis moxmarebas, turizmis erTobliv kapitalwarmoebas da turizmissaerTo moxmarebas.turizmis tipiuri saqmianobebi _ warmoadgens sawarmoo saqmianobas,romlis produqciac tipiuria turizmisTvis.turizmis tipiuri produqcia (TSA/TCP)TCP –s nusxa aris droebiTi da Seesabameba saerTaSoriso standartebs,misi ZiriTadi daniSnulebaa warmoaCinos Tu rogor SeiZleba efeqturadSemuSavebul iqnas nusxebi sxvadasxva saerTaSoriso organizaciebismxridan ise, rom SesaZlebeli iyos maT Soris Sesadarisobisuzrunvelyofa.turizmis dasaqmebis saaRricxvo sistematurizmis dasaqmebis saaRricxvo sistema SemuSavebulia saerTaSorisoSromis organizaciis (ILO) mier meTodologiuri safuZvlebis saxiT.turizmis dasaqmebis saaRricxvo sistema (A Labour Accounting System for Tourism(LAS-T) gamoxatavs dasaqmebulTa statistikas da saSualebas gvaZlevsganisazRvros ramdeni da ra tipis adamianebi arian dasaqmebulniturizmis mrewvelobaSi.LAS-is Sromis bazris mdgomareobis, dinamikis da ekonomikis sxvasferoebTan misi urTierTqmedebis Seswavlis ZiriTadi mizani Semdegia:64


• Seqmnas dasaqmebis sruli suraTi mosaxleobaSi. daaxasiaTosarsebuli Sromis bazari da Seafasos xelsayreli da warmatebulicvlilebebis ganxorcielebis SesaZlebloba;• Seiswavlos adamianuri resursebis sruli raodenoba, maTicvlileba da sxvadasxva saqmianobebis mixedviT ganawileba;• Seiswavlos damokidebuleba erTis mxriv samuSao Zalis fassa dasamuSao Zalaze moTxovnsa, meores mxriv Sromis anazRaurebasa dasamuSao Zalis miwodebas Soris;• Seiswavlos vakansiebis raodenobrivi cvlileba muSaobismsurvelTa raodenobasTan kavSirSi.TSA indikatoriTSA SemuSavebul unda iqnas mimdinare monacemebze dayrdnobiT, magramerovnuli saaRricxvo sistemis SemTxvevaSi ar aris aucilebeli yvelamonacemi uSualod iqnas Seswavlili yovelwliurad. zogierTi monacemifasdeba specialuri indikatoris meSveobiT sabziso wlis monacemebisgamoyenebiT.Sedegad TSA-sTvis gansazRvrul unda iqnas sabaziso weli, radgansaWiroa SemuSavebul iqnas iseTi monacemebi, romlebic dakavSirebuliiqneba erTmaneTTan da SesaZlebeli iqneba maTi yovelwliuri Sejameba.TSA-regionaluriTavisi arsidan gamomdinare turizmi dakavSirebulia geografiulsivrcesTan, radgan vizitorebi Seiswavlebian Cveuli adgilsamyofelidangansxvavebul adgilas gadaadgilebis mixedviT. geografiuliganzomileba upirvelesad gamoiyeneba erovnul doneze, sadac xdebaZiriTadi statistikuri monacemebis Sejameba.imisaTvis, rom SemuSavebul iqnas swori politika da gavigoT realurad,ra surT vizitorebs, raze arsebobs da razea mosalodneli moTxovnisgazrda, didi mniSvneloba aqvs turizmis lokaluri adgilmdebareobismixedviT Seswavlasac.Sedegad gairkva, rom TSA-s SemuSavebas regionul doneze Zalian didimniSvneloba eniWeba, Tumca unda aRiniSnos, rom mis danergvasTandakavSirebuli problemebi kidev ufro meti iqneba, radgan regionebSinaklebia struqturuli dawesebulebebi, romlebic SeZlebdnen saWiroinformaciis miwodebas.65


TSA-zenacionaluri perspeqtivebiSesaZlebelia TSA-s gamoyenebis farglebis gafarToeba, Tu mxedvelobaSimiviRebT turizmis sferosTan dakavSirebul saqmianobas, romelicgaweul iqna ucxo qveynis mxridan mocemuli qveynisaTvis. magaliTad,rodesac pirveli qveyana meore qveyanaSi mgzavrebis gadasayvanad iyenebsmesame qveynis TviTmfrinavs. aRniSnuli momsaxureba mesame qveynisaTvisSeiZleba Seswavlil iqnas, rogorc turizmis sferoSi gaweulisaqmianoba.aseve SeiZleba qveyana awarmoebdes turizmisaTvis specifikurproduqcias, romelic eqsportiT gadis sazRvargareT da sxva qveyanaSiukve importis saxiT Sesuli akmayofilebs vizitorTa moTxovnebs. Cven kiviciT, rom “turizmis xarjebi” moicavs Sida, adgilobrivi daCamomsvlelTa turizmidan gaweul xarjebs, romelic ar aerTianebs TavisTavSi aRniSnuli tipis moxmarebas, amisaTvis ki SemoTavazebul iqnaaxali tipis maCvenebeli.turizmis sagadamxdelo balansiturizmis sagadamxdelo balansis momzadeba mniSvnelovaniagansakuTrebiT im qveynebisaTvis, romlebic ZiriTad turistul qveynebswarmoadgenen da turizmi arsebiT gavlenas axdens qveynis sagadamxdelobalansze.Tourism Satellite Account (TSA) : Recommended Methodological Framework (TSA:RMF)-isaerTaSoriso turizms ganmartavs sami mimarTulebiT:1. igi ganavrcobs da ufro dawvrilebiT ganixilavs vizitorTamoxmarebis arss (Semadgenlobas), radgan erTmaneTisgan gamoyofsturistebsa da erTi dRis vizitorebs, romelic moiTxovsvizitorTa moxmarebis danawevrebas mgzavrobaze (trip) gaweuli daproduqciaze gaweuli xarjebis mixedviT, aseve moicavsararezidentebis mflobelobaSi arsebul sazafxulo saxlebs,socialur gadasaxadebs da sawarmoo erTeulebis mxridanturizmisaTvis gaweul danaxarjebs.2. igi ganavrcobs mis sazRvrebs imgvarad, rom masSi aerTianebsucxour garigebebs, romelic dakavSirebulia SualedurmoxmarebasTan, turizmis erTobliv kapitalwarmoebasTan, turizmiserTobliv moxmarebasTan. es yovelive ki dakavSirebulia axaliagregirebuli maCveneblis SemotanasTan, romelsac “turizmistotalur moxmarebas ” uwodeben.3. igi Seiswavlis “rezidenti vizitorebis xarjebs” (romlebicmogzauroben sxva qveynebSi) gamgzavrebamde an dabrunebis Semdeg,romelic aRricxul unda iqnas, rogorc adgilobrivi turizmisxarjebi, romelic gaweul iqna rezidenti vizitorebis mxridan.66


ZiriTadi maCveneblebiCamomsvlelTa turizmiCasvlaTa ricxvi (arrivals)CamosvlaTa ricxvi ver iqneba vizitorTa raodenobis toli. rocapirovneba Cadis qveyanaSi ramdenimejer erTi wlis ganmavlobaSifiqsirdeba CasvlaTa Sesabamisi raodenoba. xolo roca adamiani erTimogzaurobis farglebSi ACadis sxvadasxva qveyanaSi, misi CasvalaTaricxvi Sesabamisad calcalke fiqsirdeba.CamomsvlelTa turizmTan dakavSirebuli CamosvlaTa ricxvi SeesabamebasaerTaSoriso vizitorTa CamosvlaTa ricxvs mocemuli qveynisekonomikur teritoriaze, romelic Tavis TavSi moicavs turistebs, erTidRis vizitorebsa da ararezident vizitorebs.CamosvlaTa ricxvis Sesaxeb informacia SeiZleba moZiebuli iqnassxvadasxva wyaroebidan. monacemebis nawils SeimuSavebenadministraciuli organoebi (policia, emigraciis, sasazRvro kontrolisda a.S), sasazRvro organoebi, informacia aseve SeiZleba miRebul iqnassxva turistuli dawesebulebebidan (sastumroebi, saagentoebi da yvelatipis turistuli infrastruqturis dawesebulebebi).Ramis gsaTevad darCenaTa ricxvi da darCenis xangrZlivobaRamisTevaTa ricxvis Sesaxeb informacia SeiZleba miRebul iqnassasturmoebis da sxva Sesabamisi tipis RamisTevis dawesebulebebidan,romelic ganisazRvreba sastumroSi Tu Sesabamis sxva tipisdawesebulebaSi ararezidentTa mier gaTenebuli Rameebis raodenobiT,magaliTad, Tu adamiani Cadis qveyanaSi da rCeba iq xuTi dRe, maSin isaRiricxeba, rogorc RamisTevis xuTi dRe.darCenis xangrZlivoba ganisazRvreba ararezidentebis mier mocemulqveyanaSi mTliand (jamurad) darCenili drois xangrZlivobiT.xarjebi mocemul qveyanaSixarjebi mocemul qveyanaSi ganisazRvreba mocemuli qveynis sagadamxdelobalansis “mogzaurobidan Semosavlebis” punqtidan, romelic emTxvevaararezidenti vizitorebis (turistebisa da erTi dRis vizitorebis)xarjebs.adgilobrivi turizmiRamisTevaTa ricxvi aseve SeiZleba dakavSirebuli iyos rezidentituristebis mier sastumroebSi an Sesabamisi, nebismieri tipisdawesebulebebSi gaTenebuli Rameebis raodenobiT.67


gamsvlelTa turizmigamgzavrebaTa ricxvi dakavSirebuli gamsvlelTa turizmTan Seesabamebaadgilobrivi turistebis gamgzavrebas mocemuli qveynis ekonomikuriteritoriidan.turizmis xarjebis monacemebi sxva qveyanaSi miiReba TiToeuli qveynissagadamxdelo balansis mogzaurobis xarjebis” punqtidan da Seesabameba“rezidenti vizitorebis xarjebs” (turistebi da erTi dRis vizitorebi)mocemuli qveynis ekonomikuri teritoriis gareT.turizmis saqmianobebisastumroebi da Sesabamisi tipis dawesebulebebioTaxebisa da Ramis gasaTevi adgilebis raodenoba Seesabameba aseTitipis yvela dawesebulebis SesaZleblobebs erTobliobaSi.datvirTulobis gansazRvra SesaZlebelia mTliani SesaZleblobebisa damisi resursebis gamoyenebis donis SedarebiT. datvirTulobismaCvenebeli dafuZnebulia, rogorc rezidenti ise ararezidentituristebis RamisTevaTa ricxvze.darCenis saSualo xangrZlivoba gaingariSeba turistebis miergaTenebuli Rameebis saSualo raodenobiT turizmTan dakavSirebulinebismieri tipis dawesebulebaSi. masSi Sedis rogorc rezidentebis, aseveararezidentebis mier gaTenebuli Rameebis raodenoba.68


wyaroebi1. sastumroebis katalogi (2005w) _ saqarTvelos statistikissaxelmwifo departamenti;2. sastumroebi saqarTveloSi (2002-2003w) _ saqarTvelos statistikissaxelmwifo departamenti;3. uZravi Zeglis saxelmwifo reestri _ saqarTvelos kulturis,ZeglTa dacvisa da sportis saministro, kulturuli memkvidreobisdepartamenti;4. ekonomikuri ganviTarebis saministros turizmis departamenti;5. saqarTvelos kurortebi da sakurorto resursebi (atlasi) _ 1989w;6. saqarTvelos erovnuli muzeumi;7. www.world_tourism.org69


kvleva ganxorcielda saqarTvelos axalgazrda ekonomistTaasociaciis kvleviTi centris mier.centris administratori: lia papaSvilikoordinatori: sofio deisaZesamuSao jgufis wevrebi: malxaz pertaianino amiranaSviligiorgi mirzikaSvili© saqarTvelos axalgazrda ekonomistTa asociaciasaqarTvelo, Tbilisi 0105v. orbelianis 35; tel.: 92-28-39; 99-04-43www.economists.geE-mail: office@economists.ge70

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