moswavlis wigni qarTuli ena da literatura

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moswavlis wigni qarTuli ena da literatura

Taia cxadaia, darejan kvanWiani, nana kucia,Tamar RonRaZe, nana RonRaZeqarTuli enadaliteratura11moswavlis wignigamomcemloba `meridiani~Tbilisi 2012


qarTuli ena da literaturaXI klasimoswavlis wigniavtorebi:redaqtoriTaia cxadaia, darejan kvanWiani, nana kucia,Tamar RonRaZe, nana RonRaZenino ToduadizaineridaviT kutubiZeISBNgamomcemloba `meridiani~,Tbilisi, al. yazbegis gamz., #47. ( 2 30-96-14; 2 14-77-11599 541 707 kaxaber rusiZeE-mail: davideku1@mail.ru, info@meridianpub.com© gamomcemloba `meridiani~, 2012© T. cxadaia, d. kvanWiani, n. kucia, T. RonRaZe, n. RonRaZeT. Tskhadaia, D. Kvanchiani, N. Kutsia, T. Ghonghadze, N. Ghonghadze„Georgian language and literature~, textbook grade 11, in Georgian„Meridiani~ Publishing, Tbilisi _ 2012


sarCevialeqsandre WavWavaZegogCa................................................................................................................................11Tengiz verulavagogCa (aleqsandre WavWavaZes).............................................................................13grigol orbelianiTamar mefis saxe beTaniis eklesiaSi...............................................................20saRamo gamosalmebisa.............................................................................................22nikoloz baraTaSvilixma idumali..................................................................................................................31sulo boroto.............................................................................................................32nikoloz baraTaSvilis werili grigol orbelianisadmi..................33vpove taZari Sesafari, udabnod mdgari.......................................................35SemoRameba mTawmindazed......................................................................................36merani...............................................................................................................................38jorj gordon baironihgodebdeT.....................................................................................................................43persi biSi Selioda dasavleTis qarisadmi...................................................................................45jibran xalil jibranipetre mezoblis Sesaxeb (nawyveti romanidan „ieso Ze kacisa“).........48ilia WavWavaZemgzavris werilebi....................................................................................................55zogierTi ram (nawyvetebi).....................................................................................73bednieri eri.................................................................................................................76kacia-adamiani?!..........................................................................................................79oTaraanT qvrivi.........................................................................................................137gandegili (legenda).................................................................................................185TaobaTa brZola me-19 saukunis 60-ian_70-ian wlebSi......................................2024


oriode sityva Tavad Salvas Zis erisTaviskazlovidgan `SeSlilis~ Targmnazeda~ (nawyveti).............................................204grigol orbelianipasuxi SvilTa..............................................................................................................205ilia WavWavaZepasuxis pasuxi.............................................................................................................210akaki wereTeliqebaTa-qeba.....................................................................................................................222qebaTa-qeba solomonisa (Tavi pirveli).........................................................226aRmarT- aRmarT..........................................................................................................228gamzrdeli (namdvili ambavi)...............................................................................231aleqsandre yazbegixevisberi goCa.............................................................................................................242nikoloz gogolitaras bulba (amonaridebi)...................................................................................260prosper merimemateo falkone............................................................................................................273akaki baqraZearsebobs maradisobis rRveva, anu Svilis mkvleli mama......................282vaJa-fSavelaaluda qeTelauri.....................................................................................................293stumar maspinZeli....................................................................................................306kosmopolitizmi da patriotizmi (nawyveti)..............................................323baxtrioni......................................................................................................................326kritika b. ip. varTagavasi (nawyveti)................................................................353ram Semqmna adamianad (simRera)..........................................................................3595


daiwyo carizmis mmarTvelobis pirveli umZimesi wlebi saqarTveloSi.~yrma aleqsandreze gansakuTrebuli gavlena hqonda biZas, giorgi avaliSvils.1804 w. aleqsandre kamerpaJad Cairicxa imperatoris karze, rac 18 wlisWabukis ruseTSi gardauval wargzavnas gulisxmobda.1804 welsve farnaoz batoniSvilma mTiuleTis ajanyeba moawyo. mizezi amboxisasaqarTveloSi rusTa Tavgasuloba, erovnuli damoukideblobis gauqmebaiyo.ajanyebulTa taqtikur amocanas warmoadgenda darialis gzis Caketva, raTarusebs maSveli jari ver SemoeyvanaT saqarTveloSi.ajanyeba damarcxda. aleqsandre, farnaoz batoniSvilTan erTad, sparseTSiapirebda gadasvlas, magram, Tamaz orbelianis ZalisxmeviT, ajanyebulni ruseTsgadaasaxles.mTiuleTis ajanyebaSi aleqsandre batoniSvilic monawileobda.sxva ajanyebulebTan erTad, Wabuki aleqsandre WavWavaZec Seipyres, tambovsgadaasaxles.garsevan WavWavaZis ZalisxmeviT aleqsande gaaTavisufles.Tanamedroveni ambobdnen: `mokvda farnaoz batoniSvilis aleqsandreWavWavaZe. mamamisma is tambovis cixidan gamoasvena.~Tavad aleqsandresac mounaniebia `zogierTi gzaabneuli axalgazrdiscudi gavlena.~mere ase warimarTa poetis cxovreba:1806 w. tambovidan peterburgs Casuli, paJTa korpusSi Caricxes.1809 w. leib-gvardiis (samefo gvardiis) husarTa (msubuqi kavaleriis)polkSia;1811 w. sparselebs ebrZvis erevanSi;1812 w. mTavarmarTebel pauluCTan erTad kaxeTis ajanyebas axSobs, fexSiiWreba.1813 w. general barklai-de-tolis adiutantia (ruseT-safrangeTis omi).gamarjvebul rusul armiasTan erTad parizis aRebisaTvis oqros xmliT jildovdeba.1817 w. polkovnikis Cini miiRo da leib-gvardiis husarTa polkidan ni-Jegorodis dragunTa polkSi (qveiTi da cxenosani kavaleria) gadaiyvanes.Semdeg yaraRajSia, winandalTan axlos. iwyebs winandlis mamulis keTilmowyobas,aSenebs zvrebs, araysaxdel qarxnebs, Rvinis sardafebs Tbilissa daCrdiloeT kavkasiaSi.cnobili ingliseli qarTvelologi, oliver uordropi kaxeTs `saqarTvelosbaRs~ uwodebda, alaznis velis xilviT mojadoebuli werda: `zafxuliscxare mze maRla iyo wamosuli lurji cis kamaraze; marcxniv gamwkrivebuliyovaziT morTuli ferdobebi; marjvniv, alaznis iqiT, ayudebuliyvnen TeTrnimTis wverni im mTian kldisa, romelic gaWimuliyo Cemsa da evropas Soris.me aRar maxsovda arc Cemi Camomavloba, arc Cemi qveyana, arc kacobrioba daarc araferi. me da Cemi merani gardaviqmeniT erT arsebad da SeverieniT imdids, cocxal okeaneSi, romelsac hqvia sicocxle! Cemi maja scemda TanaxmadTviT bunebis gulis cemisa, mesmoda gulis pasuxi Cxriala wyaroebisa, mesmodaTviT sityvebi, romelsac CasCurCulebda moZravi haeri xis Sriala foTlebs.me Seviqmen nawili kurTxeul nirvanasi, romelSiac kacs aRar axsovs Tavisi vinaobada hgrZnobs mxolod qveynierebis sulis moZraobas~ (guram SaraZe, iliaWavWavaZe, II, Tb., 1987, gv. 12).1830-iani wlebis dasawyisSi aleqsandre WavWavaZem axali sasaxle aago. `orsarTulianisasaxlis mosarTavad al. WavWavaZem Zvirfasi aveji gamoiwera ru-9


seTidan da dasavleT evropidan. amasTanave, did yuradRebas aqcevda meurneobisgaumjobesebas. 1835 wels didi Tanxa isesxa bankidan oci wlis vadiT. amfuliT gaaSena axali venaxebi, gaxsna Rvinis sardafebi Tbilissa da CrdiloeTkavkasiaSi, pirvelad man moawyo am mxareSi orTqlis araysaxdeli qarxana daSors gauTqva saxeli kaxur vazs.poets upirvelesad ainteresebda Tavisi savanis simSveniere, amitom mamulisSemosavlis did nawils kar-midamos morTva-mokazmvas axmarda. am gulmodginebisada natifi gemovnebis Sedegia winandlis mdidari parki, romelicsayovelTao aRtacebas iwvevda da iwvevs dResac. al. WavWavaZes TavdaviwyebiTuyvarda buneba, mcenareebi. TviTonve iyo dekoratiuli parkis mosawyobaducxoeTidan mowveuli specialistebis saukeTeso mrCeveli da Semwe.aleqsandre WavWavaZis salonSi waukiTxavs pirvelad nikoloz baraTaSvils`bedi qarTlisa~, aq iwereboda, aqve mousmeniaT da daudgamT aleqsandre griboedovis`vai Wkuisagan~.aleqsandre WavWavaZe brwyinvaled flobda rusul, frangul, germanul,Turqul enebs.zafxuls winandalSi, zamTars TbilisSi atarebda.meuRle poetisa iyo salome orbeliani. aleqsandresa da salomes hyavdaToTxi Svili: nino (1812-1857), ekaterine (1816-1882), daviTi (1818-1889) da sofio(1833-1862). aleqsandres umSvenieresi asulebi mwerlebis, mxatvrebisa damusikosebis maradiul STagonebad iqcnen.1832 wlis SeTqmulebis dros al. WavWavaZe SeTqmulTa Tanamoasake ar yofila,magram mainc aRmoCnda eWvmitanilTa siaSi.SeTqmulTa `aqt goniurSi~ sagangebod mieTiTebinaT: `yovelman mpovnelmanwevrman unda ixmaros sifrTxile, raTa ar SemoeparosT kaci vnebuli, znemoSlili,dadedlebuli.~mamisa da sakuTar damsaxurebas amaod axsenebda aleqsandre msjavrmdebelT.iseve, rogorc 1804w. 18 wlisa, 1832w. 46 wlis poeti tambovs gadaasaxles. 1838wlamdis ruseTs imyofeboda.`al. WavWavaZes sjeroda, rom 1832 wlis SeTqmuleba, romelic amboxebaSiunda gadazrdiliyo, daamxobda ucxoTa batonobas da qveyanas erovnul damoukideblobasdaubrunebda.al. WavWavaZe kaxel glexebs Zalian uyvardaT. WavWavaZeni arafriT hgavdnenmaxloblad mosaxle gulqva kozmanaSvilebs. niWieri glexi, grigol maisuraZeal. WavWavaZes mxatvar briulovis saxelosnoSi warugzavnia, peterburgSi.glexebs leqsic gamouTqvamT batonisaTvis:`batonia, Tavadia kaxisa, gamkiTxavi Raribisa, glaxisa,aleqsandre WavWavaZe qebuli, xelmwifisgan saxelgandidebuli.~aleqsandre WavWavaZe 1846w. 6 noembers tragikulad daiRupa. mefisnacvalvoroncovTan sasaxleSi mimavals cxeni daufrTxo sarkmlidan viRac dedakacismier gadmoRvrilma wyalma. poetma meetlis miSveleba scada. Sinelis grZelikalTa etlis Tvalma CaiTria, aleqsandre etlidan gadmovarda, Tavi qvafenilsdahkra. gonsmousvlelad gardaicvala (misi ukanaskneli sityva yofila `araferia~).platon ioseliani werda: `unugeSod mWmunvarebs mTeli saqarTvelo.~aleqsandre WavWavaZe dakrZalulia SuamTaSi.10


aleqsandre WavWavaZegogCagogCa, tba vrceli, xmovanebiT zRvisa mbaZavi,odesme zvirTTa aRqafebiT hRelavs mrisxaned;zogjer, viT broli gul-ubryvilo, wminda, uZravi,Tvis Soris hxatavs cisa laJvards da mTaTa mwvaneT.magram naqcevni misTa kideT ZaZiT mmosvelni,saglovo naSTni SenobaTa kvlav erovanTa,sad hyvavebulan didebulad qalaqni vrcelnida sad dRes vhxedavT oden buTa da natamalTa.WmunvaTa TvisTa mnaxvelTaca aziarebenudabureba, mCumareba, ara-raoba.Tvalsa da gulsa kacisasa sevdiT avseben,da uneblieT warmodgeba oxvriT es grZnoba:aha, palatTa didebulTa ngreuli naSTi.aha, qalaqTa CinebulTa xvedri ucilo,aha, Cvenisa momavlisac namdvili xati;mxolod awmyoze ras dabmulxar, xedvav brmobilo!ese kamara Zliv sacnobo yofil taZarad,sad kvlav mefeni mowiwebiT idrekdnen muxlTa,sad RvTis dideba morwmuneTa esmodaT mtkbarad,da cisa mimarT grgvinvidian xmani fsalmunTa, _dRes es naqcevi, saxierad maCrdilobeli,hxedavs Tvis qveSe damCoqvelad oden pirutyvTa,zogjer nadirTa, zogjer mxecTa, da xan warmvlelimun Seafarebs saqonelTa, SoriT zidulTa!es grova qvaTa saxe Slilis oTxkuTxedisaadgil ars, sada savaWroni mdidrad wyobilan;somexni, mxneni xelovanni momgeblobisa,pirsa qveynisas ama saqmiT adriv cnobilan.maSin maT Soris xSir yofila qururTa mqoneara-Tu vercxliT, ndobiTaca yovlad mdidarni.aw mtvrad aRgvilan igi Zali da igi Rone;maTTa ganTqmulTa SeZlebaTa warSlian kvalni!mixede ama vrcelsa vakes qva-yrilsa bnelad,kvlav asparezsa, sad hqoniaT taiWTa srbola,CogniT taceba Wabuk-mxedarT gamosacdelad,SubTa triali, jiriTT tyorcna da isarT srola.11


erTgzis eseca qvani Savni, dRes daxavsilni,urTierTTana kavSirobiT amaRlebulan;mkuTvnelni maTni, bednierni da kmayofilni,odesme maTSi gancxromilan da ganSvebulan.aqaca mjdara Zali maRals taxtsa amayad,wyalobaTa da risxvis frqveviT mmarTveli erTa;aqac uRrRniaT Sursa, mtrobas gulebi xarbad;trfialni aqac SemsWvalvian kvlav erTmanerTTa.ravdenT banovanT Svenebani axlad mSlilobniWavlis siwmindes miuzidavs napirs am tbisas;vardni, zambaxni da mixakni, da giSris mwyobrniravdengzis turfad garduRia sarkesa wylisas.ravdengzis mTvares, Tav-momwones maTTan STaxedviT,ugrZnvia Tvisi Cagrul-yofa da moRrublvila!magram ra?!. drosa msrvelis celiT, yovlTa warwymediT,ciurTa mjobi mSveneblobac sxvaTebr mosTvlila!naqcevni _ nangrevebi.natamali _ narCeni,ucilo_ udavo.xati _ aq: suraTi.xedvav brmobilo _ dabrmavebulo mzerav.saxierad _ lamazad, mSvenierad.xelovanni momgeblobisa _ savaWro saqmis kargi mcodneni.qururi _ qoneba, materialuri simdidre.ganSvebulan _ SvebiT, molxeniT ucxovriaT.Zali _ aq: Zalaufleba, Zalauflebis mqoneni.SemsWvalvian _ siyvaruliT SeerTebulan.banovani _ qalbatoni, mandilosani.STaxedviT _ mayurebels.mSvenebloba _ mSveniereba.drois msrveli celi _ drois gamanadgurebeli momspobi Zala.mosTvlila _ gaqarvebula, waSlila.gogCis (sevanis) tba(mdebareobs somxeTSi)12


gavigoT, gaviazroT, SevafasoT:• imsjeleT rasTan qmnis gogCis lamazi buneba kontrasts da ris warmosa-Cenad iyenebs am mxatvrul xerxs avtori?• gadmoeciT, rogor cocxldebian al. WavWavaZis poetur warmosaxvaSi warsulissuraTebi.• rogor gesmiT azri striqonisa: `ese kamara Zliv sacnobo yofil taZarad?~• ra fiqrebs aRuZravs poets gogCis dangreuli Semogarenis xilva.• ris simbolod SeiZleba aRviqvaT gogCis iavarqmnili Semogareni?ra ganapirobebspoetis uZiro sevdas?• leqsis mixedviT, ra aris yovlismZleveli da Tavad uZleveli?• Tqveni azriT, riT SeiZleba daupirispirdes adamiani warmavlobis gancdas,rom sasowarkveTilebaSi ar Cavardes?teqstis mxatvruli analizisTvis:• gaixseneT ras ewodeba arqaizmi. moZebneT leqsSi arqauli sityvebi. imsjeleTramdenad gamarTlebulia nawarmoebSi arqaizmTa siWarbe?• ra mxatvruli xerxebia gamoyenebuli striqonebSi: `ravdengzis mTvares,Tav-momwones maTTan STaxedviT, ugrZnvia Tvisi Cagrul-yofa da moRrublvila?~• daasaxeleT metaforebi, romlebiTac qalis silamazea Semkobili. romelinawarmoebi gaxsendebaT, romelSic imave mizniTaa gamoyenebuli msgavsimetaforebi?• romantizmisaTvis damaxasiaTebel ra niSan-Tvisebebs amCnevT leqsSi?imsje leT.gogCa(aleqsandre WavWavaZes)Tengiz verulavamoquruxebul cas talRebad aCnda Rrublebi. mkrTali mze anaTebda SahdaRisqeds zemoT, Zlivs atanda xeobaSi Camowolil nislebs.yarabaRul bedaurze amxedrebuli mxedari miaWenebda mTis ugzo ferdebze.cxenis alRos mihyveboda, midioda, magram ar icoda sad.sadave moqaCa, qarafebs miagdo cxeni, mwvane koromebiT dafarul xevs gadmoxeda.qveviT mdinare moarRvevda ufskrulebs, magram sqeli nisli faravdada misi xmauri Zlivs aRwevda.Sors moCanda kavkasioni, or zRvas Sua goliaTad gawolili, mTaze damdgarimTebis zurgiT mzidveli. yinulovani mwvervalebidan mosqda aTaswlovaniTovlisgan Sekruli zvavi. yinul-lodTa borcvebma daqanebul ferdebze iwyosriali. cas wvdeboda Tovlis mtveri.SavCoxosan mxedars Savi nabadi wamoegdo mxrebze.uwyalo senad gadaeqca axaldroeba. CrdiloeTidan, kavkass gaRma monaqrolmacivma qarebma gaaudabures savaneni, ar datoves eSyis walkotebSi saxemtkbarivardebi. Seuwyalebel cecxlis alSi Cavarda RvTiT boZebuli patara samoTxe.13


yovlT mawyeni gveli Semoepara edemis baRebs, moaSTo msubuqfrTovani vardebi.mTiebTagan daSorebiT sustqmnili bulbulebi aRar ekarebian maradiuli zam-TriT damzral, uSlel vardebs.`wyeul ars is dro, ros samkvidro davkargeT krulni~! _ fiqrobda igi daWirT mwvelTa gansaqarveblad mieltvoda mdeloTa sunsa, mosasurnsa.miagelvebda Sav bedaurs ufskrulebis piras damrecil bilikebze iberielTaZveli, WeSmariti danaSTi. mTiebi miiwevda moRuSul caze, rogorc ciklopuriTvali, mewamuli melnis uZiro tba. avdris sagubeli bneli Rrublebigadafarodnen Saravandis mfen mzes, TiTqos wamwamebia, hindoTa uricxvi jari.aqedan Sors iyo umefo, pativaxdili tfilisi, mTavarmarTeblis svetebianisasaxle, paskeviCis mier monaTluli erevanskis moedani Tu rusebis jariTgaZeZili arsenali. gamoeqca Cabalaxaxdil, daCoqebul, SiSian Jams da “siyvaruliTmtkbari” feeriuli zmanebebis samyaros miaSura. qajTagan Tavisufalivard-bulbuliani edemi aw mxolod ocnebaSi SeiZleba ixilos.Tavi mostaces ferdakargulma landebma da mwir Tvalebs isev moeaxlnendroiT daTrgunvili `Zveli xilvebi~. isev daiqrola warsuli sicocxlis niavmada Wmunvis laxvriT gul-pobils gardasul aCrdilTa xsovniT sitkbo ganuaxla.gza qveviT iwevda. mSvenieri sanaxebi iSleboda Tval-sawierze. farTofoTlovanimuxnari gadaiara da mTebs Soris momwyvdeul gaSlil xeobas miadga.SahdaRis da gegamis qedebs Soris livlivebda gogCis vrceli tba. misi aRqafebulitalRebi zRvasaviT gamoscemdnen xmas. acerebuli kldidan gadmoxedatbis Tavankara zedapirs. uwyinari sivrciT moinusxa, gairinda mefuri didebulebisSemyurem.tbis sarkisebr mkerdze irekleboda cisa laJvardi da mwvaniT mosili xeoba.Seucnobad kaeSans moecva uSfoTvelad gawolili tba.kldis qimze samefo palatTa nangrevebi idgnen. uxorco, ConCxadqceuligvamebiviT gadmohyurebdnen Camuqebul tbas. sevda da didebuleba erTad dastyobodanasasaxlar naSTebs, xavsgadakrul lodebs, ZaZiT mosil naqcevebs,CaSavebul qvebs.sakvirveli arqiteqturis Canda es nageboba. cxadi iyo, Zlierebis Jams aqhyvaoda qalaqi vrceli, cixe-darbazebiTa da mdidrad wyobili savaWroebiT.qaravnebi dadiodnen uSoresi gzebidan. momgeblobis xelovanni araTu vercxliT,ndobiTac iyvnen ganTqmulni didvaWarTa Soris. aq imarTeboda taiWTasrbola, asparezoba, Wabuk mxedrebis gamosacdelad CogniT taceba, SubTa triali,jiriTTa tyorcna da isarT srola.axla ki, yvelaferi es tkbili mogonebaa da gardasuli didebis mowmed mxolodutyvi nangrevebiRa darCnen. JamTa ukuRma svlas gaeudaburebina, odenbuTa TavSesafar adgilad eqcia.taZris morRveul kedlebs Soris xeebs gaewvdinaT totebi. yvavebi SeseodnenCabnelebul xeTa wverokinebs. yrantaliT boinobdnen nangrebebze. maRalibalaxiT dafaruliyo qvis acvenili iataki. suros moecva naxevradCamoSlilisakurTxevlis mxare. daxeTqil kamarebze Ramurebs daedoT bina.iyo droeba, roca aq mefeni mowiwebiT idrekdnen muxlebs da RvTis didebasaRavlendnen. tkbili xmani fsalmunTa grgvinavda cisa mimarT.dRes es naqcevi taZari TavSesafaria mxolod pirutyvTa, nadirTa, mxecTa.zogjer gzadmimavali mejoge aq Seafarebs SoriT moyvanil saqonels.mze dasalierisken iwureboda. Rame Camowva. varskvlavebma iwyes cimcimifermkrTal cis tatnobze. mTaTa mwvervalebidan mTvare amocurda da WirisufaliviTdaadga samyaros, Suqni nelni mohfina midamos. CasTvlima bunebam daam mkvdar Zils tbaze moronine Wavlebis msubuqi rxeva akrTobda mxolod.cicabod daeSva tbisken. cxeni dasalevad miuSva. peSviT aiRo civi wyali,14


saxe gaigrila. sasoebiT Caacqerda vercxlisfrad mocimcime tbis zedapirs.samefo palatTa nangrevni narcisiviT iWvritebodnen wyalSi.isev moeZala sevda. swored axla mTeli sicxadiT igrZno, Tu rogor mieqanebodaufskrulisaken warsuli didebis bolo naSTi. naRvlianad gaaqniaTavi. Tvals ver usworebda nangrevTa mzeras mwuxris iisferi tbis sarkeze.ase eCvena, raRac saSinel saidumlos faravso tbaze gakruli landi CamoqceulpalatTa.Rrublebi grovdebodnen tbis Tavze. agruxunda ca. naTelma gahkveTa bindi.atyda Weqa-quxili.CrdiloeTis veluri tramalebidan movarda msusxavi, cofiani qari da pirsisxlianiZaRliviT eZgera ZvelTuZveles palatebs.TiTqos raRac mZimed Camoiqcao umrumesi cidan, ngrevis xma gaisma. Ramurebigamofrindnen TaRebidan, bnelSi iwyes riali.Setortmanda kamara, Seirynen TavwaWrili svetebi, gaibzara davardnilikedlebi. Camoingra saZirkvelmoSlili gumbaTi.Tavbrudamxvevi SxuiliT tbaSi cviodnen, iZirebodnen nangrevebi.TiTqos koSmaruli sizmridan gamoerkva, damfrTxal cxens dahkivla mxedarmada gvelnakbeniviT gaecala xaxadaRebul, yovelTamylapav tbas.Txemze avarda. Tavi waarTva borgneul qars da ukanasknelad gadmoxedagogCis aquxebul midamos. mSuSxav grigals ukve moetitvlebina nangrevTa adgili,mrume wylis morevs STaenTqa samefo palatTa ukanaskneli naSTi.• ram STaagona avtors am Txzulebis dawera?• rogor fiqrobT, aRwevs avtori, rom al. WavwavaZis fiqrebi, misi gancdebidamajereblad gadmosces?• moZebneT TxzulebaSi adgilebi, romlebSic realuri faqtebia mocemulida waikiTxeT. daakvirdiT riT gansxvavdeba maTi aRwera saistorioTxrobisagan.• ra damatebiT informacias da gancdas itevs Tengiz verulavas TxzulebaleqsTan SedarebiT? imsjeleT.• rogor gaacocxla avtorma erTi leqsis Seqmnis istoria? imsjeleT.davaleba #1Tqven Tengiz verulavas TxzulebaSi SegxvdaT sityvebi (leqsikuri er-Teulebi), romlebsac naklebad vxmarobT metyvelebaSi, magram maTi gamoyenebaamdidrebs mxatvrul literaturas.• amowereT yoveli TqvenTvis ucnobi sityva da SeadgineT leqsikoni (davalebisSesrulebisas gamoiyeneT qarTuli enis ganmartebiTi leqsikoniarnold Ciqobavas redaqciiT. Tb. 1986. qarTuli enis ganmartebiTi leqsikoni,I-II t. Tb. 1990. aseve internetSi ganTavsebuli leqsikonebi).• aRniSnuli Txzulebidan amoiwereT mxatvruli xerxebi. gaixseneT maTiraoba da gansazRvreT maTi funqcia.airCieT Tqveni sayvareli romelime leqsi (SegiZliaT rCevahkiTxoT maswavlebelsac) da dawereT mxatvruli ese `erTi leqsis Seqmnisistoria.~ SegiZliaT SeurCioT sxva saTauri.15


SegaxsenebT:morfologiur-orTografiuli Secdomebia: ama Tu im sityvis fuZisada TavsarT-bolosarTis marTlwerasTan dakavSirebuli, agreTve, sityvebiserTad, cal-calke an defisiT werasTan dakavSirebuli umarTebuloformebi.magaliTad: `rogorc ukve avRniSneT, am sakiTxs male ganvixilavT~.avRniSneT morfologiuri Secdomaa. es forma miuRebelia ara mxolod amwinadadebaSi, aramed nebismier sxva winadadebaSi (an Tundac calke aRebuli),radgan aR- zmniswinia da ar SeiZleba misi gayofa (avR); sxva tipismorfologiur-orTografiuli Secdomebi: mtkvaris, wleebi, utkbilesi,CumaT, grexva, albad, da-Zmoba, me-21, XXI-e da a.S.davaleba#2teqstSi daSvebulia 20 morfologiur-orTografiuli Secdoma. gaasworeTes Secdomebi da gadawereT teqsti ise, rom arc erTi sxva cvlileba ar SeitanoT.mas Semdeg, rac 1801 w-s ruseTma qarTlkaxeTis samefo gaauqma da saqarTvelosdanarCeni kuTxeebis dabyrobas Seudga, qarTvelma xalxma warTmeulisaxelmwifoebriobis dabrunebis mizniT mravaljer wamoiwyo ajanyeba.erT-erTi aseTi mcdeloba iyo 1832 w-is SeTqmuleba, romelic ruseTSi gadasaxlebulbatoniSvilTa wreSi Caisaxa. kerZoT, 1825-26 ww-Si dimitri daoqropir bagrationebma Semoikribes ruseTSi saswavleblad Casuli qarTveliaxalgazrdebi da Seudgen momzadebas SeiaraRebuli ajanyebisaTvis.1827 w-speterburgidan samSobloSi dabrunda didi qarTveli sazogado da politikurimoRvawe solomon dodaSvili da SeTqmulebis centrmac TbiliSi gadmoinacvla.solomon dodaSvili ganaTlebuli pirovneba iyo. mas peterburgisuniversiteti qonda damTavrebuli.ajanyeba mTel kavkasias unda modeboda, raTa sabolood alagmuliyo amierda imierkavkasiaSi rusTa TareSi. magram SeTqmulebs ruseTan politikurikavSiris srulad gawyveta ki ar surdaT, aramed ruseT-saqarTvelos SorissaerTo interesebze dafuZnebuli urTierTobis damyareba. swored amas iTvaliswinebdageorgievskis traqtatic, romelic 1801 w-s ruseTis xelisuflebammzakrulad daarRvia.SeTqmuleba didxans mzaddeboda. 1832 w-s SeTqmulebs, ajanyebis gegmismixedviT, unda moewviaT rusuli biurokratiis moxelebi, ganeiaraRebinaT,Semdeg Tbilisis mosaxleoba aejanyebiaT. saboloo gegmis mixedviT, maT undagamoeyenebinaT Tavad-aznaurobis sagubernio yriloba. ajanyebamde ramdenimedRiT adre SeTqmulebis erTerTma xelmZRvanelma, iese falavandiSvilma,SeTqmulebis Sesaxeb acnoba Tavis Zmas, romelsac ruseTis mefisnacvalisadministraciaSi maRali Tanamdeboba ekava. am ukanasknelma SeTqmulebagasca. SeTqmulebi daapatimres da maTi „antisaxelmwifoebrivi saqmianobis“gamosakvlevaT sagangebo komisia daniSnes, romelmac asormocdaxuTi „damnaSave“gamoamJRavna. ruseTis imperatorma yovel maTTagans sikvdiliT dasjagadauwyvita, magram Semdeg gadawyvetileba Sescvala da isini ruseTisSoreul mxareebSi gadaasaxla.amiT dasrulda qarTvelTa mcTeloba, SeiaraRebuli ajanyebis gziT TavidaexwiaT ruseTis imperiis batonobisagan da Selaxuli erovnuli RirsebaaRedginaT.16

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