ivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universiteti

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ivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universiteti

edkolegia:Tamar paiWaZe (mTavari redaqtori)konferenciis xelmZRvaneli, organizatori,ivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetishumanitarul mecnierebaTa fakultetis profesori,proeqtis xelmZRvanelikaxaber loria (redaqtori)konferenciis xelmZRvaneli, organizatori,ivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetishumanitarul mecnierebaTa fakultetis profesoriprofesori nino mindiaSvili (koordinatori)soxumis saxelmwifo universitetiprofesorebi: Teimuraz papaskiri, ramaz jorbenaZe,irina mirijanaSvili, lali osefaiSvili, nani maWaraSvili,medea despotaSvili, inga sanikiZe, nana gonjilaSvili, inezagagniZe, SoTa SaburiSvili, Tamar SarabiZe, rusudan burjanaZe(ivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universiteti)profesorebi: elguja qavTaraZe, nana kucia, mamuli beria(soxumis saxelmwifo universiteti)profesori: Tamar gogolaZe (ssip goris universiteti)profesori: frude hermundsgordi (oslos universiteti)


winamdebare krebulSi Tavmoyrilia II studenturi regionTaSorisirespublikuri konferenciis masalebidan SerCeuli Sromebi. SerCevisprincipi dafuZnebuli iyo naSromebSi kvlevisa da analizis komponentebis,individualizmis, TavisTavadobis, mecnieruli da moraluri poziciisxarisxze.samecniero konferenciaze warmodgenili masalebis mravalferovnebis,mravali mimarTulebis sakiTxebze muSaobda sxvadasxva saswavlo-samecnieroseqcia, rac aisaxa kidec studentTa samecniero Sromebis krebulSi.studentTa amgvari samecniero forumebi momavalSic gagrZeldeba,radgan dRevandel akademiur seqtorSi arsebuli samecniero Tu informaciuligamowvevebis safuZvelze. saqarTvelos momavali inteleqtualuriTaobisTvis sityvis micema realuri, aqtualuri da perspeqtiulia, amas-Tan, iqmneba TanamSromlobis, gacnobisa da gaziarebis klasikuri garemo.SeuZlebelia gansakuTrebiT ar aRiniSnos erTi mniSvnelovani faqtic:kanonzomieri da logikuria, rom es samecniero Sekrebebi ivane javaxiSvilissaxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetSi imarTeba, romelicyovelTvis iyo da darCeba Cveni studentobis — momavali samecniero potencialisupirvelesi Tanamdgomi da interesebis damcveli.Tamar paiWaZe© Tbilisis universitetis gamomcemloba, 2011ISBN 878-9941-13-239-1


sarCevisamarTalmcodneoba, konfliqtologiagiorgi amiranaSvilidiskriminaciis akrZalva SromiT urTierTobebSi ............................................... 11salome janeliZesicocxlis ufleba adamianis uflebaTadacvis evropuli konvenciis mixedviT .................................................................... 19giorgi ZiguaSviliwamebis akrZalva Tu sicocxlis ufleba? ............................................................... 26nino qristesiaSviliwarsuli, mZime awmyo, gaurkvevelimomavali — niqozisa da cxinvalis eparqia ............................................................. 32mariam abulaZekonfliqti, rogorc socialur-fsiqologiuri fenomeni ................................. 38oliko ardemanaSvili, xatia tetunaSvili2008 wlis ruseT saqarTvelos konfliqti da gori ............................................. 43qsenia xaCiZe, marika durulikonfliqtis gamomwvevi mizezebi, misi dadebiTi dauaryofiTi mxareebi `nabukos~ gazsadenis magaliTze ........................................ 48qeTevan ServaSiZesazogadoebisa da pirovnebis konfliqti ............................................................... 52mariam gazaSviliqarTul-osuri urTierTobani ................................................................................... 56TaTia CafiCaZeojaxuri konfliqtebi, Zaladoba da genderi21-e saukunis saqarTveloSi ....................................................................................... 61qeTevan CiqvilaZeebraelTa genocidi da faSisturi germania ............................................................ 71elene jirkveliSvili, nino cecxlaZe2008 wlis ruseT-saqarTvelos konfliqti da saxalxo diplomatia ............... 75nino yaClavaSviliruseT-saqarTvelos konfliqtis gavlena Sahdenizissgazsadenis proeqtze ..................................................................................................... 806


socialuri mecnierebani: politologia, Jurnalistikacicino RuRunaZe, Jana xaduri2008 wlis agvistos omi da ekologiuri safrTxeebi ............................................ 83anuki wiwilaSvilivis sasargeblod daido haidi taliavinis daskvna? .............................................. 87qristine bebiaglobalizacia saqarTveloSi ..................................................................................... 94ekaterine RviniaSvilievropuli samezoblo politikis samoqmedo gegmisprioritetebi. istoriuli swrafva evropisakenda intensiuri TanamSromlobis politika .............................................................. 99qeTi beriZefsiqologia xelovnebisa da religiis kvaldakval ............................................. 104xatia kobliaSvili, TaTia Caduneli2008 wlis ruseT-saqarTvelos omi da masmedia .................................................... 112humanitaruli mecnierebani:istoria, kulturologia, xelovnebamixeil qarTveliSvili, eTer bokelavaZesabWoTa xelisufleba da saqarTvelosmarTlmadidebeli eklesia XX s-is 70-ian wlebSi ................................................ 117giorgi cicqiSvilierTiani saqarTvelos mefeTa Tanamecxedreebi ................................................... 122naTia foniavaafxazur-qarTuli urTierTobebi `megruli andazebisa~da `Cveneburebis qarTulis~ mixedviT .................................................................... 127levan dosmiSvilisaqarTvelos samociqulo avtokefaluri marTlmadidebeli eklesiisgansakuTrebuli roli saqarTvelos saxelmwifoebriobaSi ........................... 132ia mWedliZesaqarTvelos da somxeTis urTierTobis zogierTi aspeqtiXIX-XX saukuneebSi ......................................................................................................... 142giorgi cicqiSvilientoni jenkinsonis qarTveli ufliswulis vinaobisaTvis .............................. 150mariam goCelaSviliSobis kompozicia qarTul oqromWedlobaSi ........................................................ 1567


enaTmecniereba, literaturaTmcodneobairina bagauribilingvalizmi da saqarTvelo lokalur da globalur konteqstSi ............ 162elnur alieviГрузинские заимствования в говорах Азербайджанского языка ........................................ 171megi gumberiZefilipes RvTisSoblisadmi miZRvnili sagaloblebi ........................................... 174levan beburiSvili`gandegilis~ saRvTismetyvelo analizisaTvis ................................................... 180nino gabuniagenderuli Tanasworobis sakiTxi qarTul literaturaSi .............................. 186mariam beJitaSvili`vefxistyaosanSi asaxuli patronymobis instituti~ ........................................ 191nino baliaSviliqorwineba da qalis uflebebis rRvevis procesi daviT kldiaSvilispiesebSi (`irines bedniereba~, `darispanis gasaWiri~) ....................................... 199ana doliZeyvavilis daniSnuleba SemoqmedebiT sivrceSi ...................................................... 203sofiko kanTelaSviligiorgi pirvelis sagareo politika (k. gamsaxurdias`didostatis marjvenis` mixedviT) .......................................................................... 211Tea baRaTuriaomisdroindeli safeli me-20 saukunis qarTul prozaSi .................................. 216Teona qurToulioTar CxeiZis postsabWouri romani 2001 weli ...................................................... 221eka ioramaSvili, xatia tetunaSviliwyaro, fibula, siuJeti (a.wereTelis`Tornike erisTavis~ istoriisaTvis) ...................................................................... 227qeTino melaZebedi qarTlisa da nikoloz baraTaSvili ................................................................ 232ana meliSviliWeSmaritebis Secnobis gzebi baraTaSvilis SemoqmedebaSi ............................... 238TinaTin TvalWreliZevaJa-fSavelas poema”uiRblo iRbliani” da misi folkloruli Zirebi ......... 2428


Tamila maxaraSviliqristianuli miTosuri motivebi v.fSavelas `gvelismWamelSi” ...................... 251nino adamiamiTosi, rogorc vaJa-fSavelas Semoqmedebis wyaro ........................................... 257lana grZeliSviliucxo,rogorc Tema, rogorc problema vaJa-fSavelas SemoqmedebaSi ........... 265nino frangiSviliyivCaRis Tema giorgi leoniZis SemoqmedebaSi ...................................................... 271qeTevan samadaSvilipiriqiT (naTia nacvliSvilis sadebiuto krebulis ganxilva) ........................ 276lili metrevelisabWoTa cenzura da mixeil javaxiSvili ................................................................ 283Tamar adamiasabWoTa cenzura da konstantine gamsaxurdia ..................................................... 287nunu balavaZesikvdili,rogorc literaturuli personaJi goderZi Coxelisprozis mixedviT ............................................................................................................ 292Tamuna kvaWantiraZeWabua amirejibis “gora mborgalis” gaazrebisaTvis .......................................... 296skandinavistikasofio rusiSvilikvlevis organizacia norvegiaSi .............................................................................. 300mariam maisaSvili, sofio kukavakorufcia daniaSi .......................................................................................................... 304nino nucubiZenorvegiis qalTa moZraobis istoria ....................................................................... 311nino forCxiZepirovnebis ganviTarebis gza (s. kirkegori) ........................................................... 315irina vardanaSvilireligiur SexedulebaTa ganviTarebis Taviseburebani norvegiaSi ............... 321Tamar Tamlianiskandinaviis qveynebis eTnologia(norvegielebi, danielebi, Svedebi) .......................................................................... 3269


ekonomika, biznesiTinaTin barjaZekonfliqtis daregulirebis ekonomikuri berketebi ........................................ 335amiran lafaCiZekonfliqtis mogvarebis ekonomikuri berketebi ................................................. 347demetre demetraSvili, aleqsandre TarxniSviliruseT-saqarTvelos omi da msoflios ekonomikuri krizisisgavlena qarTul samSeneblo biznesze ..................................................................... 255sofo cecxlaZeruseT-saqarTvelos konfliqti da qarTuli ekonomika ................................... 36810


samarTalmcodneoba, konfliqtologiagiorgi amiranaSviliivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisissaxelmwifo universitetis bakalavriatis studentidiskriminaciis akrZalva SromiT urTierTobebSixelmZRvaneli: profesori irakli yandaSvilidiskriminaciis akrZalvaSromiT urTierTobebSiSromis samarTalSi kerZo samarTlisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli TiTqmisyvela uflebebisa da Tavisuflebebis SenarCuneba xdeba. magaliTad, ucvlelisaxiTaa warmodgenili xelSekrulebis dadebis Tavisuflebisprincipi, radgan iZulebiTi Sroma akrZalulia. Sromis Tavisuflebasganamtkicebs saqarTvelos konstituciis 30-e muxli sakmaod lakoniurifraziT — Sroma Tavisufalia. saqarTvelos sakonstitucio sasamar-Tlom 2009 wlis 7 aprilis ganCinebaSi ganmarta, rom Sromis TavisuflebaSiigulisxmeba ara mxolod Tavisufleba iZulebiTi Sromisagan, aramedsaxelmwifos valdebuleba, izrunos moqalaqeTa dasaqmebaze da daicvasmaTi SromiTi uflebebi. ra Tqma unda, SromiTi uflebebis dacvadiskriminaciis akrZalvasac moicavs. aRniSnuli debulebis gaJRerebasdidi mniSvneloba aqvs uzenaesi kanonis doneze. am mimarTulebiT aRsaniSnaviaamerikis SeerTebuli Statebis konstitucia, romelic dasaqmebulTadacvis mniSvnelovan wyarod moiazreba da warmoadgens kanoniTdadgenili sistemis analitikur kontrasts, romelic iZleva diskriminaciisakrZalvis SefardebiT Sinaarss.dRes saqarTvelos moqmedi Sromis kodeqsis 2.2 muxlis Tanaxmad,SromiTi urTierToba warmoiSoba mxareTa Tanasworuflebianobis safuZvelzenebis Tavisufali gamovlenis Sedegad miRweuli SeTanxmebiT.magram, Tavis mxriv, 2.1 muxlSi aRniSnulia, rom SromiTi urTierTobaaris Sromis organizaciuli mowesrigebis pirobebSi dasaqmebulis mierdamsaqmeblisaTvis samuSaos Sesruleba anazRaurebis sanacvlod. aqedangamodis, Tanasworuflebianobis principi SeuzRudavad moqmedebs mxolodSromiTi urTierTobis warmoSobamde, xolo misi warmoSobis Semdegki aRniSnuli principi garkveul modificirebas ganicdis da mas enacvlebaqvemdebareobis (subordinaciis) principi, romelic gamoixatebadasaqmebulis mxridan damsaqmeblis miTiTebebis Sesrulebis valdebu-11


samarTalmcodneoba, konfliqtologialebaSi, anu dasaqmebuli damokidebuli xdeba damsaqmeblis miTiTebebzeda am ukanasknelis mier gansazRvrul organizaciul pirobebze.rac Seexeba mxareTa Tanasworobas, is Sromis samarTalSi aisaxebadiskriminaciis akrZalvis principis saxiT, romelic uSualod konstituciidanmomdinareobs (Tanasworobis principi). konstituciis 38-emuxlSi laparakia imaze, rom saqarTvelos moqalaqeni Tanasworni ariansocialur, ekonomikur, kulturul da politikur cxovrebaSi ganurCevladmaTi erovnuli, eTnikuri religiuri Tu enobrivi kuTvnilebisa. saqarTvelosSromis kodeqsis 3.3 muxli iwyeba Semdegi sityvebiT: SromiTurTierTobaSi akrZalulia nebismieri saxis diskriminacia... logikuradgamodis, rom diskriminaciis akrZalvas aqvs adgili saxelSekruleboetapze. ismis kiTxva: ratom ar iTvaliswinebs kanoni diskriminaciis akrZalvaswinasaxelSekrulebo periodSi? es SeiZleba aixsnas imiT, romSromiTi urTierTobis warmoSobamde Tanasworuflebianoba, rogorcfuZemdebluri principi, absoluturad SeuzRudavi uflebaa, xoloSromiTi urTierTobis warmoSobis Semdeg, subordinaciis pirobebSi, arsebobssafrTxe imisa, rom moxdes am principis darRveva, radgan dasaqmebulieqceva damsaqmeblis nebis zegavlenis qveS da iRebs samuSaos Sesrulebisvaldebulebas am ukanasknelis mier dadgenil SromiT reJimSi.garda amisa, diskriminaciis akrZalva aseve ukavSirdeba aranakleb mniSvnelovansakiTxs, kerZod masSi igulisxmeba Tanasworoba dasaqmebulebsSoris, anu damsaqmebelma maT Tanabari pirobebi unda Seuqmnas. sworedamitom eniWeba eseodnen didi mniSvneloba diskriminaciis akrZalvasSromiT urTierTobebSi.$ 1. diskriminaciis akrZalvis principi, rogorc socialuriuflebebis mniSvnelovani elementiZiriTadi uflebebi samarTlebrivi sistemis umniSvnelovanesi elementia.saqarTvelos konstituciis preambulaSi saqarTvelos moqalaqeTauryev nebadaa aRiarebuli adamianis sayovelTaod aRiarebuli uflebebisada Tavisuflebebis uzrunvelyofa, xolo konstituciis me-7muxli ZiriTad uflebebs `uSualod moqmed samarTlad~ moixseniebs.Teoria adamianis ZiriTadi uflebebis dajgufebis sxvadasxva principebsgvTavazobs. saxelmwifo xelisuflebaze orientirebis principismoSveliebiT Cven SegviZlia gamovyoT: a) Tavisuflebis uflebebi; b)samoqalaqo uflebebi da g) socialuri uflebebi. am SemTxvevaSi Cvengvainteresebs Tu ras warmoadgens es ukanaskneli.socialuri uflebebis pirveli formulireba moxda XIX saukuneSi12


samarTalmcodneoba, konfliqtologiae.w. Zmobis sulis gavleniT. am uflebebs `pozitiuri statusi~ (statuspositivus) gaaCnia da, Sesabamisad, igi avaldebulebs saxelmwifos, uzrunvelyosRirseuli cxovrebis pirobebi im adamianebisaTvis, romlebsaces sWirdeba.socialuri uflebebi aucilebelia sazogadoebriv cxovrebaSisrulyofili monawileobisaTvis. gaerTianebuli erebis organizaciisgeneraluri asambleis mier 1966 wlis 16 dekembers miRebuli ekonomikuri,socialuri da kulturuli uflebebis Sesaxeb saerTaSoriso paqtiCamoTvlis adamianis ZiriTad ekonomikur da socialur uflebebs,romelTa Soris erT-erTi umniSvnelovanesia diskriminaciisagan dacvisufleba. sainteresoa Tu ra garantiebs sTavazobs saqarTvelo Tavismoqalaqeebs diskriminaciisagan dacvis kuTxiT da aRniSnuliganixileba iseTi urTierTobebis magaliTze, rogoricaa SromiTi ur-TierToba.saqarTvelos konstitucia socialuri uflebebis deklarirebasswored Sromis uflebis konstituciuri ganmtkicebiT iwyebs da, rogorczemoT aRvniSneT, 30-e muxlis pirveli punqtiT gvamcnobs, romSroma Tavisufalia. Sromis konstituciuri uflebis sakanonmdeblomowesrigebas ki uzrunvelyofs 2006 wlis 25 maiss miRebuli saqarTvelosSromis kodeqsi da, Sesabamisad, SromiT urTierTobebSi diskriminaciisakrZalvis garantiis analizi unda movaxdinoT aRniSnuli kodeqsissafuZvelze.$ 2. diskriminaciis amkrZalavi debulebani saqarTvelos SromiskodeqsSi2006 wlis 25 maiss parlamentma miiRo dRes moqmedi saqarTvelosSromis kodeqsi. diskriminaciis amkrZalavi normebi aisaxa kodeqsis zogaddebulebebSi. kerZod, am sakiTxs eTmoba me-2 muxlis me-3, me-4, me-5da, garkveulwilad, me-6 nawili. SeiZleba iTqvas, rom miuxedavad garkveulixarvezebisa mimdinare kodeqsiT ganmtkicebuli diskriminaciisakrZalvis debulebebi progresulobiT gamoirCeva adrindel kanonmdeblobasTanmimarTebaSi. Tumca, zemoaRniSnulidan gamomdinare, sa-Wiroa SedarebiTi analizis safuZvelze davadginoT Cven kanonmdeblobaSiarsebuli diskriminaciis akrZalvis debulebebis Sesabamisoba evropulstandartebTan.sayuradReboa, saqarTveloSi moqmed Sromis kanonmdeblobaSi TandaTanobiTrogor izrdeboda raime upiratesobis miniWebis akrZalvisniSnebis CamonaTvali. ssr Sromis kanonTa kodeqsi iTvaliswinebda aR-13


samarTalmcodneoba, konfliqtologianiSnulis dauSveblobas sqesis, rasis, erovnuli kuTvnilebisa da religiisadmidamokidebulebis mixedviT. ssr kanonmdeblobis samarTalmemkvidreSromis kanonTa kodeqss daemata: kanis feri, ena, politikuri dasxva Sexedulebebi, eTnikuri da socialuri kuTvnileba, warmoSoba, qonebrivida wodebrivi mdgomareoba da sacxovrebeli adgili. `jeplakis~mier momzadebuli proeqtis mixedviT ki am CamonaTvals unda damatebodadiskriminaciis akrZalva profesiuli gaerTianebisadmi kuTvnilebisan sxva niSnis mixedviT.amJamad moqmedi saqarTvelos Sromis kodeqsis 2.3 muxli gvTavazobsCamonaTvals, Tu ra niSniT ar unda moxdes diskriminacia SromiT urTierTobebSi.aRniSnuli normis saqarTvelos konstituciis me-14 muxlsada adamianis uflebaTa evropul konvenciasTan SedarebiT, SevniSnavTerT yuradsaReb faqts: konstituciisa da evrokonvenciisagan gansxvavebiTSromis kodeqsi iTvaliswinebs diskriminaciis akrZalvas asakis,seqsualuri orientaciis, SezRuduli SesaZleblobebis, raime gaerTianebisadmikuTvnilebisa da ojaxuri mdgomareobis gamo. Tavis mxriv, evrokonvenciagvTavazobs iseT niSnebs, romlebic ar aris asaxuli saqar-Tvelos Sromis kodeqssa da konstituciaSi, kerZod: evrokonvenciaSimocemuli uflebebisa da Tavisuflebebis gamoyeneba uzrunvelyofiliayvelasTvis nebismier safuZvelze diskriminaciis gareSe, rogoricaa:gaerTianeba erovnul umciresobebTan, qoneba, dabadeba an sxvagvaristatusi. mizanSewonilia moxdes erTiani poziciis Camoyalibeba aRniSnulniSnebTan dakavSirebiT da mxolod amis Semdeg aisaxos kanonmdeblobaSi,vinaidan rac ufro farTo iqneba aseTi CamonaTvali, miTufro daculi iqneba dasaqmebulis uflebebi. am konteqstSi aseve wingadadgmulinabiji iqneba Tu kodeqsiseul CamonaTvals daasrulebsfraza — `an sxva niSnis gamo~, radgan, jer erTi, SeuZlebelia kodeqsSikriteriumebis amomwuravi CamonaTvalis asaxva, garda amisa, SesaZloapraqtikaSi zogierTi SezRudva ver moeqces ama Tu im kategoriaSi, Sesabamisad,gonivrulobis TvalsazrisiT, aseTi kriteriumis damatebissaWiroeba eWvgareSea. am mxriv sayuradReboa ruseTis federaciisSromis kodeqsis me-3 muxlis fraza: `Никто не может быть ограничен втрудовых правах и свободах или получать какие-либо преимущества независимоот, а также от других обстоятельств~.Sromis kodeqsis 2.4 muxli ganmartavs Tu ra CaiTvleba diskriminaciad.zogadad, diskriminacia aris nebismieri, racionalur dasabuTebasmoklebuli calkeuli pirebis an jgufebis uflebebis SezRudvis, anmaTdami uaryofiTi damokidebulebis forma, romelic fizikur da biologiurniSnebze agebul uflebaTa da uflebamosilebaTa diferencia-14


samarTalmcodneoba, konfliqtologiaSi gamoixateba. kodeqsiseuli ganmartebiT, diskriminaciad CaiTvlebapiris `pirdapir an arapirdapir Seviwroveba~. unda aRiniSnos, rom ssrkda mis Semdeg moqmedi Sromis kanonTa kodeqsi (gansxvavebiT amJamindelikanonmdeblobisa) iTvaliswinebda rogorc uflebaTa raime pirdapiriTu arapirdapiri SezRudvis, ise upiratesobis miniWebis dauSveblobas.mimdinare kanonmdebloba diskriminaciad Tvlis piris Seviwrovebas,radgan erTi piris Seviwroveba avtomaturad meore pirisaTvis upiratesobisminiWebas gulisxmobs. ra Tqma unda, am kuTxiT sakmaod arasakmarisadunda CavTvaloT `jeplakis~ kanonproeqti, romelic zogadadapelirebs diskriminaciis akrZalvaze yovelgvari dakonkretebisgareSe. dRes moqmedi Sromis kodeqsi gansazRvravs, Tu ras unda isaxavdesmiznad an iwvevdes pirisaTvis pirdapiri Tu arapirdapiri Seviwroveba,esenia: pirisaTvis damaSinebeli, mtruli, damamcirebeli, RirsebisSemlaxveli an Seuracxmyofeli garemos Seqmna, anda pirisaTvis ise-Ti pirobebis Seqmna, romlebic pirdapir an arapirdapir auaresebs mismdgomareobas analogiur pirobebSi myof sxva pirTan SedarebiT.sakmaod mniSvnelovania Sromis kodeqsis 2.5 muxli, romelic gansazRvravs,Tu ra ar unda CaiTvalos diskriminaciad. ssrk Sromis kanonTa kodeqsiaseT debulebas ar Seicavda, masSi mxolod saubari iyo imaze, romdauSvebelia ama Tu im uflebaTa SezRudva an raime upiratesobis miniWeba.mis Semdeg moqmed kanonmdeblobaSi ukve Cndeba aseTi Canaweri: SezRudvadar CaiTvleba gansakuTrebuli pirobebi, romlebic gaTvaliswinebuliagarkveuli kategoriis muSakebisaTvis am kodeqsiTa da saqarTvelossxva normatiuli aqtebiT dadgenili wesiT. Tu kargad davukvirdebiTgamodis, rom kanonma gaiTvaliswina zogadi wesidan gamonaklisi, Tumcamxolod SezRudvasTan mimarTebaSi, xolo raime upiratesobis miniWebisakrZalva kvlav absoluturad SeuzRudavi datova. `jeplakis~ miermomzadebuli kanonproeqti sakmaod lakoniuri iyo am sakiTxTan dakavSirebiTda ambobda, rom diskriminaciad ar iTvleba uSualod samuSaos TaviseburebiTganpirobebuli gansxvaveba. aRniSnulis fonze sakmaod progresuladda evropuli standartebis Sesabamisad unda CaiTvalos dResmoqmedi kodeqsis debuleba, romlis mixedviTac diskriminaciad ar CaiTvlebapirTa gansxvavebis aucilebloba, romelic gamomdinareobs samuSaosarsidan, specifikidan an misi Sesrulebis pirobebidan, emsaxureba kanonierimiznis miRwevas da aris misi miRwevis Tanazomieri da aucilebelisaSualeba. erTi SexedviT SeiZleba vifiqroT, rom paradoqsTan gvaqvssaqme, vinaidan ssr kanonmdebloba absoluturad SeuzRudavad Tvlidadiskriminaciis akrZalvas, xolo mis Semdgom samoqmedod SemoRebul samarTalSigaCnda garkveuli saxis gamonaklisi am wesidan. es yovelive Se-15


samarTalmcodneoba, konfliqtologiaiZleba martivad aixsnas, radgan praqtikam moiTxova aseTi cvlilebebisgatarebis aucilebloba. vinaidan praqtika vaxseneT, mizanSewonilia zemoaRniSnulsakiTxebTan dakavSirebiT movixmoT saqarTvelos sakonstituciosasamarTlos 2003 wlis 7 noembris gadawyvetileba, romelSic ganmartebuliamoaxdina `gansxvavebis~ Sesaxeb: `saqarTvelos konstituciisme-14 muxliT gaTvaliswinebuli kanonis winaSe Tanasworobis principi gulisxmobsyvela im adamianis uflebebisa da Tavisuflebebis TanabradaRiarebas da dacvas, romelic imyofeba Tanabar pirobebSi da kanoniT gansazRvrulisakiTxis mimarT aqvs adekvaturi damokidebuleba~. aRniSnuliprincipi moicavs xelisuflebis sakanonmdeblo saqmianobis speqtrs, ra-Ta moxdes Tanabar pirobebsa da garemoebebSi myofi individebisaTvis Tanabariprivilegiebis miniWeba da Tanabari pasuxismgeblobis dakisreba.gansxvavebuli sakanonmdeblo regulireba, ra Tqma unda, yvela SemTxveva-Si ar CaiTvleba kanonis winaSe Tanasworobis principis darRvevad. kanonmdebelsufleba aqvs, kanoniT gansazRvros gansxvavebuli pirobebi, magrames gansxvaveba unda iyos dasabuTebuli, gonivruli da mizanSewonili.amasTan, uzrunvelyofili unda iqnes diferencirebulobis Tanabari doneerTsa da imave pirobebSi myofi subieqtebisaTvis. adamianis uflebaTaevropuli sasamarTlo evropuli konvenciis me-14 muxlis (diskriminaciisakrZalva) darRvevis dadgenisas xelmZRvanelobs Semdegi kriteriumebiT:`me-14 muxlis darRvevas adgili aqvs maSin, roca saxezea: a) diferencirebulidamokidebuleba erTnairi SemTxvevebis mimarT, gonivruli da obieqturisafuZvlebis gareSe da b) ar aris daculi proporciuloba misaRwevmizansa da miznis misaRwevad gamoyenebul saSualebebs Soris~. SeiZlebaiTqvas, rom sakonstitucio sasamarTlos midgoma am sakiTxisadmi aris:1. gonivruloba da obieqturi safuZveli da 2. proporciulobis principi.am TvalsazrisiT aranakleb sainteresoa sakonstitucio sasamarTlos2009 wlis 27 agvistos gadawyvetileba. masSi naTqvamia, rom Tanabari mopyrobisuflebaSi Carevas maSin eqneba adgili, rodesac saxeze iqneba arsebiTadTanaswor mdgomareobaSi myofi pirebisadmi diferencirebulimopyroba. xolo rac Seexeba imis gansazRvras, gansxvavebuli mopyrobawarmoadgens Tu ara diskriminacias, es yovel konkretul SemTxvevaSi undagadawyvitos Sesabamisma sasamarTlom.rac Seexeba Sromis kodeqsis 2.6 muxls, romlis mixedviTac SromiTiurTierTobisas mxareebma unda daicvan saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobiTgansazRvruli adamianis ZiriTadi uflebebi da Tavisuflebebi, misidawvrilebiTi ganxilva ar aris saWiro, Tumca unda aRiniSnos, rom igidamatebiT garantiebs qmnis mxareTa kanonieri interesebis dasacavad.16


samarTalmcodneoba, konfliqtologiadaskvnaSromis ufleba adamianis erT-erT fundamentur uflebaTa ricxvsmiekuTvneba. Sromis uflebisa da SromiTi urTierTobebis TanamedrovesaxiT Camoyalibebas didi Zalisxmeva sWirdeba, vinaidan aucilebeliaSromiTi kanonmdeblobis Secvla da daxvewa mimdinare globaluri ekonomikuriprocesebis kvaldakval.saqarTvelom aRiara Sromis uflebis gansakuTrebuli mniSvnelobada aiRo valdebuleba saqarTvelos TiToeuli moqalaqis Sromis uflebisrealizaciisa da Sromis samarTliani anazRaurebis uzrunvelsayofad.unda aRiniSnos, rom saqarTveloSi 2006 wlamde moqmed1973 wlis Sromis kanonTa kodeqsi, miuxedavad masSi Setanili uamravicvlilebisa, ver pasuxobda Tanamedrove SromiTi urTierTobebisaTvisdamaxasiaTebel moTxovnebs. qveynis ekonomikuri ganviTarebis, stabiluribiznesis da sainvesticio garemos Sesaqmnelad aucilebeli gaxdaaxali Sromis kodeqsis SemuSaveba. marTlac, 2006 wlis ivnisSi ZalaSiSevida saqarTvelos parlamentis mier miRebuli Sromis kodeqsi. miuxedavadimisa, rom Sromis kodeqsis amoqmedebidan mxolod ramdenime weliagasuli, rac sakmaod mcire droa kanonis moqmedebis Sedegebissrulyofili SefasebisTvis, monitoringis Sedegebma daadastura mTelirigi sakanonmdeblo xarvezebis arseboba, romlebic daxvewas daSromis saerTaSoriso normebTan SesabamisobaSi moyvanas moiTxovs. rogorcdavinaxeT, Sromis samarTlis kodeqsis mTeli rigi normebi ar SeesabamebasaerTaSoriso konvenciebsa da xelSekrulebebs adamianis sayovelTaodaRiarebuli Sromis uflebisa da Tavisuflebis Sesaxeb, risgamoc dasaqmebuli SesaZloa aRmoCndes araxelsayrel da araTanabarpirobebSi damsaqmebelTan SedarebiT. Sromis kodeqsis arsebulma versiamar unda Secvalos Sromis kanonmdeblobis mizani da is Tavisi suliskveTebiTmxolod damsaqmeblis interesebs ar unda iTvaliswinebs,rac, TavisTavad, iwvevs dasaqmebulTa SromiTi uflebebisa da garantiebisignorirebas. Sromis kodeqsSi arsebobs mTeli rigi xarvezebi, romlebicdaxvewasa da axali normebiT Canacvlebas moiTxovs. aRniSnuli kidRis wesrigSi ayenebs Sromis kodeqsis axali versiis SemuSavebis aucileblobas.saqarTvelo cdilobs Tavisi kanonmdeblobiT evropul kanonmdeblobasTandaaxloebas. albaT, Sromis samarTlis daaxloeba upirvelesadunda iyos miCneuli im sakanonmdeblo aqtebis WrilSi, romlebicxels Seuwyoben saqarTvelos integrirebas msoflio ekonomikaSi daekonomikur TanamSromlobas evropasTan. saqarTveloSi mimdinare sa-17


samarTalmcodneoba, konfliqtologiamarTlebrivi reformebis konteqstSi Sromis bazris samarTlebrivi reformayvelaze gonivruli da windaxeduli unda iyos, radgan Sromis kanonmdeblobatradiciulad delikatur da adamianis yoveldRiurcxovrebaze didi zegavlenis mqone samarTlis sferos ganekuTneba,romlis dabalansebac aucilebelia rogorc qveynis ekonomikuri zrdisuzrunvelsayofad, aseve socialuri simSvidis SesanarCuneblad. evropulstandartebTan daaxloeba fokusirebas unda axdendes daqiravebulTada damqiravebelTa interesebis balansze.18


samarTalmcodneoba, konfliqtologiasalome janeliZekavkasiis samarTlis skola, bakalavriatis studentisicocxlis ufleba adamianis uflebaTadacvis evropuli konvenciis mixedviTpirveli ufleba, romelic garantirebulia adamianis uflebaTadacvis evropuli konvenciis mier me-2 muxliT, aris sicocxlis ufleba— fundamenturi adamianis uflebebs Soris. mis udides mniSvnelobasxazs usvams is garemoebac, rom es ufleba absoluturi xasiaTisaa dakonvenciis me-15 muxlis Tanaxmad dauSvebelia misgan gadaxveva omis ansxva sagangebo mdgomareobis arsebobisas.sicocxlis ufleba adamianis uflebaTa dacvis nebismieri sistemisamosaval wertils warmoadgens. adamianis uflebaTa dacvis evropulikonvenciis me-2 da me-3 muxlebi (wamebis, araadamianuri da damamcirebelimopyrobisa da dasjis akrZalva) warmoadgens evropuli qveynebisdemokratiul sazogadoebaTa ZiriTad Rirebulebebs.miuxedavad me-2 muxlSi mocemuli uflebis mniSvnelobisa, konvenciaarafers ambobs imaze, Tu rodis iwyeba an sruldeba sicocxle. arsebobsmniSvnelovani kiTxvebi, rogorc Canasaxis uflebebTan aseve, komaSimyof adamianebTan dakavSirebiT, romelTac sicocxles specialuriaparaturis meSveobiT unarCuneben. naSromSi Sevecdebi, safuZvlianadganvixilo sicocxlis ufleba adamianis uflebaTa dacvis evropulikonvenciis WrilSi, riTac pasuxi gaecema zemoT wamoWril sakiTxebs.sicocxlis uflebis samarTlebrivi uzrunvelyofame-2 muxlis pirveli winadadeba adgens, rom yoveli adamianis sicocxlisufleba daculia kanoniT. aqedan gamomdinareobs saxelmwifoebispozitiuri valdebuleba, romelic saxelmwifosagan moiTxovssisxlis samarTlis efeqturi kanonmdeblobis arsebobas, rac individismimarT Zaladobis aRkveTis ZiriTadi faqtori unda iyos. amasTan er-Tad, aucilebelia sisxlis samarTlis kanonmdeblobis moTxovnebis aRsrulebisefeqturi meqanizmis arsebobac. adgilobrivi kanonmdeblobaaseve unda iTvaliswinebdes me-2 muxlis meore nawiliT gaTvaliswinebuldaTqmas: sicocxlis xelyofa ar CaiTvleba am muxlis darRvevadim SemTxvevaSi, rodesac Zalis gamoyeneba absolutur aucileblobas19


samarTalmcodneoba, konfliqtologiawarmoadgens, kerZod:a) nebismieri piris aramarTlzomieri Zaladobisagan dacva;b) kanonieri dakavebisaTvis an kanonierad dakavebuli piris gaqcevisaRsakveTadg) kanonier RonisZiebaTa ganxorcielebisas amboxebis an ajanyebisCasaxSobad.imisaTvis, rom sikvdilis gamomwvevi Zalis gamoyeneba kanonierad CaiTvalos,igi ara mxolod zemoaRniSnuli miznebis gansaxorcielebladunda iyos mimarTuli, aramed unda Sefasdes, ramdenad warmoadgendaZalis gamoyeneba mocemul viTarebaSi ukidures saWiroebas. Tumca iskanonmdebloba, romelic saxelmwifo organoebis mier Zalis gamoyenebasaregulirebs, am ukanasknelT ar unda aZlevdes uflebas, Tavad gadawyvitonTu ra viTarebaSi iqneboda sikvdilis gamomwvevi Zalis gamoyenebaukiduresi saWiroeba, rac gansazRvravs pauxismgeblobisagan ma-Ti gaTavisuflebis sakiTxs.sasikvdilo SemTxvevebis aRkveTisa da efeqtiani gamoZiebis valdebulebavrceldeba im SemTxvevebzec, rodesac xelisuflebis organoebshqondaT informacia sasikvdilo SemTxvevasTan an mis safrTxesTan dakavSirebiT.xelisuflebis organoebs akisriaT pozitiuri valdebuleba,miiRon prevenciuli zomebi im pirTa dasacavad, romlebic imyofebiansxvaTa kriminaluri qmedebebis riskis qveS. Tumca, es valdebuleba imgvaradar unda iyos interpretirebuli, rom xelisuflebas araproporciulan SeuZlebel tvirTad daawves. saxelmwifos pozitiuri valdebulebamiiRos prevenciuli zomebi konkretuli piris Tu pirebis dasacavad,Cndeba, maSin, roca xelisuflebis warmomadgenlebma icodnen an undascodnodaT konkretuli piris sicocxlis mimarT `realuri da myisieririskis arsebobis Sesaxeb, romelic gamomdinareobda mesame pirisgan~.Tuki saxelmwifo ar miiRebs mis kompetenciaSi arsebul zomebs, ra-Ta Tavidan aicilon riski, aman SeiZleba gamoiwvios sicocxlis uflebisdarRveva. ganmcxadebelma unda daamtkicos, rom xelisuflebam ar ganaxorcielasaTanado qmedebebi im realuri da myisieri riskis Tavidanasacileblad, romlis Sesaxebac man icoda an unda scodnoda.negatiuri valdebulebebi dapoliciis mier Catarebuli operaciebierT-erTi pirveli saqme, romelic evropis adamianis uflebaTa sasamarTlomganixila sicocxlis uflebasTan dakavSirebiT, iyo McCann20


samarTalmcodneoba, konfliqtologiaand others v the United Kingdom. aRniSnuli saqme exeboda gaerTianebuli samefosjariskacebis mier irlandiis ganmaTavisuflebeli armiis (IRA)wevrebis sasikvdilod daWras, raTa Tavidan aecilebinaT bombis damontaJebada misi afeTqeba gibraltaris centrSi. aRniSnuli moqmedebisganxorcielebasTan dakavSirebiT gaerTianebuli samefos jariskacebshqondaT operatiuli informacia. sasamarTlom am saqmesTan dakavSirebiTganacxada, rom me-2 muxlis meore punqtSi gansazRvruli gamonaklisebiar vrceldeba ganzrax mkvlelobaze. isini im SemTxvevebs ki aradgenen, roca nebadarTulia piris ganzrax mkvleloba, aramed aRwerengaremoebebs, roca nebadarTulia Zalis gamoyeneba, romelmac SeiZlebagamoiwvios gaufrTxilebeli Sedegi, anu adamianisaTvis sicocxliswarTmeva. aseT dros Zalis gamoyeneba unda iyos absoluturad aucilebeli.termin `absoluturad aucilebelTan~ dakavSirebiT sasamar-Tlom ganmarta, rom gamoyenebuli Zala umkacresad proporciuli undaiyos da Seesabamebodes me-2 muxlSi mocemul kanonier miznebs.makkanis saqmeSi sasamarTlom marTalia dauSva is mosazreba, rombritaneli jariskacebi operatiuli informaciis safuZvelze keTilsindisieradvaraudobdnen, rom absoluturad aucilebeli iyo eWvmitanilTamimarTulebiT cecxlis gaxsna, raTa Tavidan aecilebinaT bombisafeTqeba, magram ramdenime faqtorma mainc moaxdina sasamarTlozegavlena, rom saqmeSi sicocxlis uflebis darRveva daefiqsirebina.kerZod, xelisuflebis organoebma neba misces eWvmitanilebs SesuliyvnengibraltarSi, raTa eTvalTvalaT maTi moqmedebebisaTvis maSin,roca Tavisuflad SeeZloT maTi dakaveba sazRvris gadakveTisas. amas-Tan erTad, xelisuflebis organoebs ar dauSviaT is SesaZlebloba, rommaTi dazvervis mier mopovebuli informacia, SesaZloa, mcdari yofiliyo.jariskacebma aseve avtomaturad gaxsnes sasikvdilo cecxli.yovelive zemoaRniSnulidan gamomdinare, sasamarTlom daadgina, romxelisuflebis organoebma arajerovnad dagegmes da ganaxorcielesoperacia, romlis Sedegadac eWvmitanilebi daxoces.saqmeSi Stewart v the United Kingdom, sadac aRniSnulia, rom britanelijariskacis mier gasrolilma plastmasis tyviam 13 wlis biWi imsxverplaadamianis uflebaTa komisiam imsjela am saqmesTan dakav-SirebiT da daadgina, rom plastmasis tyviebis gamoyeneba gamarTlebuliiyo amboxebis CasaxSobad. jariskacis mier fexebSi nasrolityvia ki waqceuli meamboxisaTvis SemTxveviT sasikvdilo aRmoCnda.yovelive zemoaRniSnulis gaTvaliswinebiT, strasburgis sasamarTlomdaaskvna, rom jariskacis moqmedeba Seesabameboda konvenciis me-2muxlis moTxovnebs.21


samarTalmcodneoba, konfliqtologiamtkicebis tvirTiganmcxadeblebs xSirad uWirT imis damtkiceba, rom saxelmwifo pasuxismgebeliaadamianis sikvdilisaTvis, radgan sasamarTlo moiTxovs,rom momCivanma `gonivrul eWvs miRma~ daamtkicos, rom xelisuflebisorganoebis mier gamoyenebuli Zala aWarbebda `absoluturad aucilebels~.miuxedavad imisa, rom es moTxovna, erTi SexedviT, ganmcxadeblisaTvisZalian rTulad misaRwevi standarti Cans, praqtikaSi ufro moqnilimidgomaa gamoyenebuli. saqmeSi vsar v Turkey sasamarTlom ganacxada:`sisxlis samarTlebrivi pasuxismgebloba gansxvavdeba konvenciismixedviT sajaro samarTlebrivi pasuxismgeblobisgan. aqedan gamomdinare,konvenciis Sesabamisad, saxelmwifos pasuxismgebloba misiorganoebisa da warmomadgenlebis qmedebaTa gamo, ar unda airios erovnulsamarTlebriv sakiTxebTan kerZo pirebis sisxlis samarTlebrivpasuxismgeblobasTan dakavSirebiT, romlebic ganixileba erovnuli sasamarTloebismier. sasamarTlos am gagebiT ar ainteresebs aranairimtkicebuleba damnaSaveobis Tu udanaSaulobis Sesaxeb~.sasamarTlom araerTxel ganacxada, rom individis mkvlelobaSi saxelmwifosbraleulobis sakiTxi SeiZleba dadges maSin, Tu es braleuloba`eWvs ar iwvevs~. saqmeSi Tanrikulu v Turkey sasamarTlom agreTve daadgina,rom braleulobis mtkicebulebis sandoobas Zlieri, mkafio daTanmimdevruli daskvnebi an eWvmiutaneli albaToba unda gansazRvravdes.Tumca, am daskvnebis Tu eWvmiutaneli albaTobis mtkicebulebiTiRirebuleba unda Sefasdes mocemuli saqmis garemoebebidan gamomdinareda imis gaTvaliswinebiT, Tu ramdenad seriozulia braldeba, romelicam garemoebebs eyrdnoba.evTanaziaerT-erTi yvelaze cnobili saqme, romelic Seexeboda TviTmkvlelobissurvilsa da evTanazias, aris Pretty v the United Kingdom. aRniSnulsaqmeSi ganmcxadebeli qalbatoni daavadebuli iyo neirodegeneraciulidaavadebiT (kidurebisa da sasunTqi organoebis sruli paralizeba,rac iwvevs adamianis sikvdils, romelsac win uZRvis Zlieri tkivilebi).igi amtkicebda, rom adamianis uflebaTa dacvis evropuli konvenciisme-2 muxli sicocxlis uflebasTan erTad iTvaliswinebs sikvdilis uflebas.iqidan gamomdinare, rom ganmcxadebels Tavad ar SeeZlo ganexorcielebinaTviTmkvleloba kidurebis damblis gamo, mas surda, rom22


samarTalmcodneoba, konfliqtologiaTviTmkvlelobis ganxorcielebaSi daxmareba gaewia mis meuRles. magramim SemTxvevaSi, Tu meuRle daxmarebas gauwevda, igi pasuxs agebdagaerTianebuli samefos kanonmdeblobiT. sakuTari sicocxlis mospobiTganmcxadebels surda, Tavidan aecilebina is Zlieri tkivilebi dasikvdilis nel-nela dadgoma, rac axasiaTebs am daavadebis ganviTarebas.man ramdenimejer mimarTa kompetentur uwyebebs, raTa ganmcxadeblismeuRlisaTvis ar daekisrebinaT pasuxismgebloba evTanaziis ganxorcielebisaTvis.miuxedavad amisa, gaerTianebuli samefos xelisuflebisorganoebma ar misces mas amis ufleba.ganmcxadebeli amtkicebda, rom Tuki evropuli sasamarTlo ar aRiarebdaim faqts, rom sikvdilis ufleba daculia konvenciis me-2 muxliT,gamovidoda, rom im qveynebis kanonmdebloba, romlebic iZleva evTanaziisnebarTvas, ewinaaRmdegeba evropis konvenciis me-2 muxlis moTxovnebs.evropis adamianis uflebaTa sasamarTlom konvenciis xelSemkvrelsaxelmwifoebs miando imis gadawyveta, unda uSvebdes Tu ara maTi kanonmdeblobaevTanazias da daadgina, rom aseTi qveynebis kanonmdebloba arewinaaRmdegeba evropis konvenciis moTxovnebs. sasamarTlom aseve aRniSna,rom gaerTianebul samefos ar SeiZleboda dakisreboda pasuxismgebloba,radgan me-2 muxli erTmniSvnelovnad uzrunvelyofs sicocxlisuflebas da masSi arsad ar aris miniSnebuli sikvdilis uflebaze.sicocxlis ufleba fetusisaTvismiuxedavad me-2 muxliT gaTvaliswinebuli uflebis mniSvnelobisa,mainc arsebobs garkveuli bundovani aspeqtebi. konvencia dums imis Taobaze,Tu rodis iwyeba sicocxle da SeiZleba Tu ara fexmZimobis Sewyveta.iseve rogorc evTanazia, aseve es sakiTxic moicavs socialurieTikisa da piradi moralis dapirispirebas.evropuli konvenciis me-2 muxlSi mocemulia debuleba `yoveli adamianissicocxlis ufleba daculia~. vin moiazreba sityva yvelaSi? gulisxmobsTu ara es sityva nayofs, daubadel bavSvs? aris Tu ara abortiadamianis uflebaTa dacvis evropuli konvenciis darRveva?sakiTxi — moicavs Tu ara me-2 muxli fetusis sicocxlis uflebas,ganxiluli unda yofiliyo abortis Sesaxeb kanonmdeblobis konteqstSi.konvencia arsad miuTiTebs, Tu rodis iwyeba sicocxlis ufleba,rac ganpirobebulia saerTaSoriso xelSekrulebebis naklebobiT aseveabortisa da fetusis sicocxlis uflebasTan dakavSirebuli — sakiTxebiT,romlebic regulirdeba qveynebis erovnuli kanonmdeblobiTa da`Sefasebis zRvariT~. rogorc sasamarTlom miiCnia saqmeSi Vo v France:23


samarTalmcodneoba, konfliqtologia`mocemul garemoebebSi pasuxis gacema kiTxvaze, aris Tu ara daubadebelibavSvi `piri~ me-2 muxlis miznebisaTvis ara mxolodarasasurvelia, aramed SeuZlebelic~.saqmeSi X v the United Kingdom komisia ar daeTanxma azrs, rom fetuss,me-2 muxlis Tanaxmad, aqvs sicocxlis absoluturi ufleba daganacxada, rom fetusis sicocxle mWidrod aris dakavSirebuliorsuli qalis uflebebTan da ar SeiZleba misi calke ganxilva. Tukidadgindeboda, rom me-2 muxli moicavs fetusis uflebebs da icavs masyovelgvari SezRudvebis gareSe, maSin aborti unda akrZaluliyo imSemTxvevaSic, Tu orsulobis gagrZeleba dedis sicocxles seriozulsafrTxes Seuqmnida. es yovelive ki ganapirobebda imas, rom `daubadebelisicocxle~ ufro maRali Rirebuleba iqneboda, vidre orsuliqalis sicocxle. komisiam miiCnia, rom aseTi interpretacia konvenciismiznebis sawinaaRmdego iqneboda.2004 wels saqmeSi Vo v France sasamarTlom ganacxada, rom daubadebelibavSvi ar aris `piri~, romelic pirdapir sargeblobs konvenciis me-2muxlis dacviT da im SemTxvevaSic ki, Tu daubadebel nayofs aqvs sicocxlisufleba, igi SezRudulia dedis uflebebiTa da interesebiT.daskvnaadamianis uflebaTa dacvis evropuli konvenciis me-2 muxli icavsumniSvnelovanes da fundamentur uflebas — adamianis sicocxlis uflebas.saxelmwifoebs, romlebmac moaxdines konvenciis me-6 damatebiTioqmis ratificireba, ekrZalebaT sikvdiliT dasja mSvidobian periodSi.konvenciis me-13 damatebiTma oqmma ki kidev ufro absoluturi gaxadasicocxlis ufleba da akrZala sikvdiliT dasja omianobis periodSic ki.me-2 muxli adamianis uflebaTa evropulma sasamarTlom ukve araerTsaqmeSi ganixila. sasamarTlom daadgina saxelmwifoTa pozitiurida negatiuri valdebulebebis mniSvneloba, romlebic warmoiSoba me-2muxlidan, magram bevri kiTxva dRemde pasuxgaucemeli rCeba, maT SorisiseTi arsebiTi sakiTxebi, rogoricaa fetusis dacva da evTanazia.evropuli konvenciis me-2 muxlis dacvas udidesi mniSvneloba aqvssazogadoebisTvis, radganac igi icavs demokratiis im fundamentur Rirebulebas,romlis gareSec demokratia da Tavisufali sazogadoebawarmoudgenelia. swored amitom, sicocxlis uflebis sayovelTao dacvada arasaTanado praqtikis dagmoba yvelaze prioritetul sakiTxadunda iqces.24


samarTalmcodneoba, konfliqtologiagamoyenebuli literatura:1. „sicocxlis ufleba~, red. xaTuna yviralaSvili, saia, Tb., 2008.2. „saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobis Sesabamisoba adamianis uflebaTaevropuli konvenciisa da misi oqmebis standartebTan:, k. korkelia,n. mWedliZe, al. nalbandovi, Tb., 2005.3. „adamianis uflebaTa evropuli sasamarTlos precendentulisamarTali“, red. besarion boxaSvili, Tb., 2004.4. sicocxlis ufleba fetusisTvis saqarTveloSi, laSa WeliZe, Tb.,2001.5. Law of European Convention on Human Rights, Harris D. J., London, 1995.6. The Right To Life Under The European Convention On Human Rights (Article2), Interights Manual For Lawyers, (2008).7. Explanatory Report on protocol #.6 to the Convention for the Protection of HumanRights and Fundamental Freedoms Concerning the Abolition of the DeathPenalty, Strasbourg, Council of Europe, 1983.8. Human Rights in Europe: A Study of the European Convention on Human Rights,A.H. Robertson and J.G. Merrills, New York, 1996.9. Akkoc v Turkey (2000) (Appl. No. 22947/93; 22948/93, 10 october 2000).10. Tanrikulu v Turkey (1999) (Appl. No. 23763/94, 8 July 1999).11. Oman v United Kingdom (1998) (Appl. No. 23452/94, 28 october 1998).12. Gongadze v Ukraine (2005) (Appl. No. 4056/02, 8 November 2005).13. McCann and others v United Kingdom (1995) (Appl. No. 18984/91, 27 September1995).14. Kelly and others v United Kingdom (2001) (Appl. No. 30054/96, 4 May 2001).15. Ogur v Turkey (1999) (Appl. No. 21594/93, 20 May 1999).16. Avsar v Turkey (2001) (Appl. No. 25657/94, 10 July 2001).17. Salman v Turkey (2000) (Appl. No. 21986/93, 27 June 2000).18. Keenan v United Kingdom (2001) (Appl. No. 27229/95, 3 April 2001).19. Pretty v United Kingdom (2002) (Appl. No. 2346/02, 29 April 2002).20. Vo v France (2004) (Appl. No. 53924/00, 8 July 2004).25


samarTalmcodneoba, konfliqtologiagiorgi ZiguaSvilikavkasiis universiteti, bakalavriatis studentiwamebis akrZalva Tu sicocxlis ufleba?xelmZRvaneli: samarTlis magistri mariam giorgobianipraqtikaSi wamebis akrZalvisa da sicocxlis uflebis dapirispirebisSemTxveva arc Tu ise xSiria. Tumca, SesaZlebelia maT Soris koliziazemsjeloba evTanaziis WrilSi. evTanazia Tanamedrove msoflioserT-erTi yvelaze problematuri da aqtualuri, Tumca gacveTili Temaa.ukve ramdenime saukunea, rac msoflio sazogadoeba masze kamaTobs,xolo erTiani azri jerac ver Camoyalibda. mis aqtualurobasa daproblemas ganapirobebs ara mxolod evTanaziis legalizaciis sakiTxi,aramed is rom evTanaziis kriminalizacia SesaZlebelia iwvevdes adamianisuflebaTa evropuli konvenciis mesame muxlis (wamebis akrZalva)darRvevas.aRniSnuli sakonferencio naSromi swored imiT aris gamorCeuli,rom masSi evTanazia ganxiluli iqneba ara sicocxlis uflebis, aramedwamebis akrZalvis WrilSi, rac mis siaxles ganapirobebs.yovelive zemoTqmulidan gamomdinare, sakonferencio Temis mTavariTezisi gaxlavT sicocxlis uflebisa da wamebis akrZalvis dapirispirebissakiTxi evTanaziis kuTxiT.saamisod modiT Cveni kvleva daviwyoTevTanaziis fesvebidan.Pros & CosevTanazia ganimarteba rogorc uimedo pacientebisTvis TviTmkvlelobaSixelis Sewyoba missive keTildReobisaTvis sibraluris motiviT.TviTon sityva evTanazia berZnuli warmoSobisaa — “eu~(kargi) da“tha'natos~ (sikvdili).ganasxvaveben aqtiur da pasiur evTanazias. aqtiuria evTanazia,rodesac pacients aZleven preparatebs sasikvdilo doziT, xolopasiuri — mkurnalobis kursis Sewyveta, rac sikvils iwvevs.umravlesoba mxars uWers pasiur evTanazias da kategoriuladewinaaRmdegeba aqtiurs im mizeziT, rom aqtiuri eevTanazia aris`Zaladoba~. Tumca, yuradRebis Rirsia is faqti, rom pasiuri evTanazia26


samarTalmcodneoba, konfliqtologiaiwvevs urTierTwinaaRmdegobas pacientis survilsa da eqimis qmedebasSoris, radgan pasiuri evTanazia niSnavs mkurnalobis Sewyvetas (ramacSeiZleba ufro meti fizikuri tkivili miayenos pacients), razecmomakvdavs Tanxmoba ar ganucxadia, misi erTaderTi survilia amqveynidan rac SeiZleba swrafad da umtkivneulad wasvla. am mosazrebasaqtiurad amtkicebda j. reiCalsi — `aqtiuri evTanazia ufro humanuriiqneba, radgan swrafad da drois mcire monakveTSi mouRebs bolospacientis wamebas~.adamianis uflebaTa da TavisuflebaTa evropuli konvenciis me-2muxliT gaTvaliswinebuli sicocxlis uflebis darRveva gamarTlebuliaSemdeg SemTxvevebSi: kanoniT gaTvaliswinebuli danaSaulisa-Tvis piris msjavrdebis Semdeg sasamarTlos ganaCenis aRsruleba (sikvdiliTdasja), sicocxlis xelyofa Tavdacvis dros, ukanono dakavebisan kanonierad dapatimrebuli piris gaqcevisas, aseve ajanyebisan amboxebis kanonieri CaxSobisas. am SemTxvevebSi sicocxlis uflebisdarRveva ar miiCneva usamarTlobad, rogorc `borotebad~ da gamarTlebulicaris. maSasadame, SesaZlebelia Tu ara evTanazia SeviyvanoTzemoT xsenebul `gamarTlebuli SemTxvevebis~ ricxvSi? moviyvanevTanaziis mxardasaWer ramdenime arguments:pirveli da rac yvelaze mniSvnelovania, zogierTi pacienti iseTmdgomareobaSia, rom aseT sicocxles sikvdili urCevniaT — isini itanjebianautaneli tkivilebisagan, ar SeuZliaT damoukideblad elementaruliTavis movla, mudam damokidebulni arian sxvebze (amiT isiniTavs Zalzed damcirebulad grZnoben, Tavs aRiqvamen zedmet tvirTad).meore argumenti imaSi mdgomareobs, rom adamianisTvis mdgomareobisgaumjobeseba moralurad yovelTvis dasaSvebia da miiCnevadadebiT faqtad. aqedan gamomdinare, samarTliania kiTxva — maSin ratomiTvleba evTanazia moralurad gaskicxad, Tu is aumjobesebs pacientismdgomareobas misive TxovniTa da TanxmobiT?ZiriTadi gansxvaveba evTanaziasa da zemoT xsenebul `gamarTlebulSemTxvevebs~ Soris imaSia, rom mudam xdeba zegavlena sxva pirisuflebebze (Tavdamsxmeli, sikvdilmisjili patimari), xolo evTanaziisSemTxvevaSi zemoqmedebas ganicdis mxolod da mxolod momakavdavipacienti. evTanazias msxverpli, rogorc aseTi ar gaaCnia, is nebayoflobiTiada sxvaTa uflebebze zegavlenas ar axdens.evTanaziaze sapirispiro Sexedulebebma, moraluri da samedicinokuTxiT, Seqmna urTierTdapirispireba iurisprudenciaSi. msofliosrigma qveyenebma moaxdina evTanaziis legalizireba (niderlandebi, belgia).amaze ufro dawvrilebiT niderlandebis magaliTSi visaubrebT.27


samarTalmcodneoba, konfliqtologianiderlandebis magaliTiniderlandebis parlamentma 2000 wlis 29 noembers miiRo kanoniaqtiuri evTanaziis legalizirebis Sesaxeb.The Termination of Life on Request and Assistance with Suicide Act SeicavsSemdeg daTqmebs: pacientis tanjva aris autaneli da ar arsebobs aranairiimedi mdgomareobis gamosworebisa; pacientis Txovna unda iyos nebayoflobiTida araerTjeradi (Txovna ar unda dakmayofildes Tu pacientiimyofeba sxva piris zegavlenis, fsiqologiuri daavadebis annarkotikuli saSaulebebis moqmedebis qveS); pacienti srulad unda aTviTcnobierebdesmis mdgomareobas, samomavlo perspeqtivebsa da alternativebs;eqimma unda gaiaros konsultacia aranakleb erT sxva damoukidebeleqimTan, romelic gasinjavs pacients da romelic uflebamosiliadaadasturos zemoT xsenebuli pirobebis arseboba; sikvdiliunda ganxorcieldes samedicino xerxiT eqimis an pacientis meSveobiT(am ukanasknel SemTxvevaSi, eqimi aucileblad unda eswrebodes). evTanaziaiTvleba danaSaulad Tu is ar akmayofilebs yvela am pirobas.holandiis samedicino asociaciam da iusticiis saministrom 1990wels miiRes `Setyobinebis procedura~: eqimi, romelic gamoiyenebs ev-Tanazias, informacias SemTxvevis Sesaxeb awvdis adgilobriv samedicinodamkvirvebls evTanaziis faqtisTvis gankuTvnili anketis SevsebisgziT. adgilobrivi samedicino damkvirvebeli, Tavis mxriv, awvdis moxsenebasraionul prokurors, xolo is Semdgom gadawyvets aRZras Tuara sisxlis samarTlis saqme.arsebobs garkveuli faqtorebi, romlebic ganasxvavebs sxva qveynebsniderlandebisgan ris gamoc ar unda moxdes am magaliTis `brmadgadaReba~: niderlandebSi aris msoflioSi erT-erTi umaRlesixarisxis samedicino momsaxurebis done. mosaxleobis 95%-ze metisargeblobs samedicino dazRveviT, romelic moicavs samedicinomomsaxurebis farTo spektrs, maT Soris xangrZliv mkurnalobasac.maSasadame, im SemTxvevaSic ki Tu saxelmwifo daakanonebs aqtiurevTanazias, raTa man ar miiRos tragikuli formebi, saWiroa samedicinomomsaxurebis maRali donis arseboba. aseve saWiroa makontrolirebadisistemis SemuSaveba, rogoric aris, magaliTad, niderlnadebSi, raTasaxelmwifos mieces saSualeba aRkveTos eqimis TviTnebobis SemTxvevebi.28


samarTalmcodneoba, konfliqtologiaevTanaziis problema saerTaSoriso donezerodesac vsaubrobT evTanaziaze, mudam arsebobs konfliqtis erT mxaresarsebuli pirovnebis Tavisufleba, avtonomia, piradi cxovrebis gankargvisufleba, wamebis akrZalva, xolo meore mxares ki sicocxlis ufleba.evTanaziis aqtiur momxreebs miaCniaT, rom pacientisTvis uSedegomkurnalobis gagrZeleba iwvevs pacientis `aradamianur mopyrobas~ an`wamebas~, rac dagmobilia evropuli konvenciis me-3 muxlis mier —`aravin SeiZleba gaxdes wamebis, araadamianuri an damamcirebelimopyrobis an dasjis msxverpli~.pirel rigSi gasarkvevia itanjeba Tu ara momakvdavi an grZnobs Tuara Tavs damcirebulad? amasTan dakavSirebiT, modiT ganvixiloTwamebis fenomeni.wameba gancdismieria da ar warmoadgens mxolod fizikur tkivils.mxolod fizikuri tkivilis miyeneba ar aris sakmarisi, raTa faqtidakvalificirdes rogorc wameba. mniSvnelovania, rom adamianis fizikurtkivils Tan axldes ganmeorebiT analogiuri tkivilis gancdismolodini (SiSis molodini). wamebisTvis damaxasiaTebelia rogorc SiSismolodini, tkvilis perioduloba, aseve misi droSi ganvrcobadoba, anugausaZlis pirobebSi didxans yofna. momakvdavi pacientis SemTxvevaSi,rodesac is ganicdis autanel fizikur tkivilebs, is yovelTvis iqnebaganmeorebiTi tkivilebis molodinSi. amas emateba isic, rom TviTonacxvdeba, rom misi mdgomareobis gaumjobeseba arc erT preparats Tumkurnalobas ar SeuZlia. xazgasasmelia is faqti, rom aseT drospacientebi imyofebian travmul mdgomareobaSi da aReniSnebaT mZimestresis niSnebi. aRniSnuli mdgomareoba xasiaTdeba Semdegi niSnebiT:• Seumecnebloba, SeuZlebloba gaiazro misi `ganzomileba~;• kavSirebis da mijaWvulobis rRveva;• gaqcevis SeuZlebloba.travmis pirveli niSanSi pacienti travmatul movlenas/mis mdgomareobasaRiqvams, rogorc uaRresad did da Zlier ubedurebad, romelsacdasasruli ar aqvs.travmis meore niSanSi, pacients uyalibdeba `gariyulobis~ grZnoba.mas aRar ZaluZs sazogadoebasTan iseTive urTierToba da kontaqti,rogoric adre hqonda.travmis mesame niSanSi pacients eufleba gaqcevis SeuZleblobis,umweobis mZafri gancda. am SemTxvevaSi, pacienti sakuTari xeliTangrevs Tavis `mes~ — unariani `me~ transformirdeba negatiur `me-Si~.TviTidenturoba, romelic adamianis fsiqologiur fundaments qmnis,29


samarTalmcodneoba, konfliqtologiaxdeba umweo, ususuri da uunaro.aRniSnuli travmis niSnebi damaxasiaTebelia rogorc momakvdavipacientis mdgomareobisaTvis, ise wamebis msxverplisaTvis. aqve undaaRvniSno, rom am ukanasknelis SemTxvevaSi emateba me-4 niSanic`travmuli mibma, mijaWveba~ (Saporta & can der Kolk, 1998). am dros, piri,romelic ganicdis tanjvas qvecnobierad `ejaWveba~ tanjvis wyaros daganixilavs mas, rogorc imedis naperwkals.amrigad, rogorc vxedavT pacientis mdgomareoba analogiuriawamebis msxverplis mdgomareobisa.aqve moviyvan strasburgis sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebas Ireland v.the United Kingdom, sadac ganmartebulia, rom: `konvenciis me-3muxlidan gamomdinare, akrZalva absoluturi xasiaTisaa da debulebisdamrRvev qmedebaTa gamarTleba dauSvebelia rogorc konvenciiT,aseve saerTaSoriso samarTliT~.maSasadame, Tu zemomoyvanili msjelobidan gamovalT, mivalT imdaskvnavde, rom evTanaziis WrilSi sicocxlis uflebaze maRla undadavayenoT wamebis dauSvebloba.ganvixiloT Tu rogori damokidebuleba aqvs adamianis uflebaTa daTavisuflebaTa evropul konvencias aqtiur evTanaziasTan. saamisod ki gavecnoTstrasburgis sasamarTlos pozicias evTanaziasTan dakavSirebiT.evropuli sasamarTlos pozicia aqtiur evTanaziasTan dakavSirebiTgamoixata saqmeSi Pretty vs UK, romelic iyo yvelaze gaxmaurebulidava saerTaSoriso doneze. sasamarTlom daadgina, rom konvenciis me-2muxli ar Seexeboda im gadawyvetilebas, romelic adamians Tavisi sicocxlismimarT SeiZleboda mieRo da rom me-2 muxli ar SeiZleba ganimartos,rogorc `sikvdilis ufleba~. sasamarTlom aseve daaskvna, romsicocxlis uflebidan ar gamomdinareobda adamianis `TviTgamorkvevisufleba~ - sicocxles amjobinos sikvdili. am gadawyvetilebiT momCivansarapirdapir ~fizikuri da sulieri tanjvis atanis movaleoba~ daekisra.amiT, Cemis azriT, sasamarTlom ar daicva sicocxlis ufleba,romelic umaRles adamianur Rirebulebad miiCneva.momCivanisTvis sicocxle ukve arafers warmoadgenda da metic — isiyo misi `sulieri da fizikuri tanjvis~ winapiroba. mocemul saqmeSisasamarTlom gadawyvetileba miiRo sicocxlis uflebis abstraqtuliganmartebiT, rom es ufleba umaRles Rirebulebas warmoadgens da upirobodunda iyos daculi. sasamarTlom TiTqos mxedvelobaSi ar miiRoam SemTxvevis konkretuli faqtebi. aman ki ganapiroba `sicocxlis uflebis~sasargeblo balansis Camoyalibeba. qalbatoni Pretty-s gasamar-30


samarTalmcodneoba, konfliqtologiaTleblad SeiZleba vTqvaT, rom pirs unda hqondes ufleba TviTon gadawyvitosrodis da rogor mokvdes, radgan es aranairad ar upirispirdebada ar ewinaaRmdegeba sazogadoebis uflebebsa da interesebs — `pirovnebisuflebebi da avtonomia~. amas kargad gamoxatavs peter baumessityvebi: `[...]sxva sakiTxebSi, romlebic gavlenas axdnen mxolod damxolod Cemze, me vinarCuneb uflebas gavakeTo `Cemi gadawyvetileba~damoukideblad [...]~sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebidan gamomdinare, SeiZleba iTqvas, romwevri saxelmwifoebi, romlebic uSvebs aqtiur evTanazias ewinaaRmdegebada arRvevs konvenciis me-2 muxls.daskvnaevTanaziis problema moiTxovs mis gaanalizebas moralur-samar-Tlebrivi, samedicino da bioeTikuri kuTxiT. maT Soris aris erTader-Ti msgavseba — erTiani azri aRniSnul sakiTxze ar arsebobs. naSromSigavecaniT niderlnadebis `aqtiuri evTanaziis kanons~, davrwmundiT,rom aqtiuri evTanaziis legalizirebas saTanado samedicino donesWirdeba. rac mTavaria, evTanaziis problema saerTaSoriso doneze —aseve dapirisipirebaa sicocxlis uflebasa da wamebis akrZalvas Soris.yvelaze mniSvnelovani aris is, rom im SemTxvevaSi, rodesac saxelmwifoakanonebs aqtiur evTanazias, Cemi azriT, is modis konvenciis me-2 muxlTan winaaRmdegobaSi, radgan rogorc strasburgis sasamarTlomTqva dauSvebelia miviCnioT `sicocxlis ufleba~ `sikvdilis uflebad~da `TviTgamorkvevis uflebad~. sicocxlis Rirebuleba unda Sefasdespirovnebis sxva uflebebTan mimarTebaSi. kerZod adamianis uflebaTada TavisuflebaTa evropuli konvenciis me-3 muxliT dadgenil uflebasTandakavSirebiT: iyos araadamianuri da damamcirebeli mopyrobisagan,wamebisgan daculi.aseve vxdebiT ufro did winaaRmdegobas, rodesac saxelmwifo krZalavsaqtiur evTanazias da amiT movales xdis pacients, aitanos fizikurida sulieri tanjva, riTac arapirdapir arRvevs amave konvenciisme-3 muxls. es ukanaskneli ki absoluturi uflebaa sicocxlis uflebisgangansxvavebiT da araviTar SemTxvevaSi ar unda dairRves.gamodis, rom saxelmwifoebi, nebismier SemTxvevaSi pirdapir Tuarapirdapir arRvevs konvencias, gansakuTrebiT (xSir SemTxvevaSi) kikonvenciis me-3 muxls.maSasadame, xom ar iqneba gamarTlebuli, rom `or borotebas~ SorisavirCioT `naklebi boroteba~?!31


samarTalmcodneoba, konfliqtologianino qristesiaSvilissip goris universiteti, magistrantiwarsuli, mZime awmyo,gaurkveveli momavali - niqozisada cxinvalis eparqiaxelmZRvaneli: profesori daviT CoCiSvilidReisaTvis saqarTveloSi yvelaze cxeli zona da mtkivneuli adgiliafxazeTTan erTad Sida qarTlis nawili — niqozisa da cxinvaliseparqiaa. eparqiis mdebareoba ganapirobebda imas, rom Sina Tu gareSemoZalade Sida qarTlis am nawilis flobas danarCeni saqarTvelos kontrolispirobad aRiqvamda da dResac aRiqvams.niqozisa da cxinvalis eparqia Sida qarTlSi, mdinareebis — didi dapatara liaxvis, frones xeobebSi mdebareobs da aseve qsnis xeobis nawilsacmoicavs. eparqiaSi Sedis qalaqebi: cxinvali, axalgori, java,znauri da maTi mimdebare teritoriebi. niqozisa da cxinvalis eparqiasaRmosavleTidan esazRvreba wilknisa da duSeTis, stefanwmindisa daxevis eparqiebi, dasavleTidan — WiaTurisa da saCxeris, Crdilo dasavleTidan— nikorwmindis, samxreTidan — urbnisisa da ruisis, samTavisisgoris eparqiebi, CrdiloeT mxares igi kavkasionis centralur qeds ebjineba.niqozeli mRvdelTmTavaris samwyso sxvadasxva dros Zalzed vrceliiyo. igi ara marto qarTlis, aramed, garkveul dros, `kavkasianTa,dualTa da aw oseTad (Crd. oseTi) wodebulisa~ sakmaod mozrdil regionsacflobda.saeklesio tradiciis Tanaxmad samwysosTan misasvleli gzacmRvdelTmTavris iurisdiqciaSi Sedioda da, amdenad, mTis raWis soflebi`glola-RebiTurT~ da mdinare rionis zemo welis auzis mosaxleobasruliad niqozels eqvemdebareboda. mis morCilebaSi iyo agreTve`niqozis CrdiloT, didi liaxvis kidezed, mcire qalaqi qcxinvali~ dacxinvals gaRma aRmosavleTiT — `mTa tyiani — mSxlebamde~ (msxlebismTa) e.i. kavkasionis qedis aqeTa da iqiTa mxare — maRran-dvaleTi da os-Ta qveyana.niqozisa da cxinvalis eparqia, Tavisi mdebareobis gamo, yovelTvissaqarTvelos saxelmwifoebriobis erT-erT centrs warmoadgenda dawarmoadgens. mis garSemo erTiandeboda qveynis politikur- geografi-32


samarTalmcodneoba, konfliqtologiauli organizmi. niqozel mRvdelTmTavars qveynis winaSe udidesi misiahqonda dakisrebuli. is iyo ara marto maRali ierarqiis RvTismsaxuri,aramed qveynis erTianobis saimedo damcvelic. es mdgomareoba kategoriuladgamoricxavda regionSi raime saxis ucxo politikuri erTeulisTu eTnikuri masis arsebobas (amis dasturia iq arsebuli uZvelesiqarTuli xuroTmoZRvrebis Zeglebi, maTze arsebuli warwerebi da adgilobrivitoponimebi).niqozeli mRvdelTmTavris Zvel samwysoSi (Crdilo kavkasiis teritoriaze)dRemde arsebobs Zveli qarTuli qristianuli kerebis naSTi.qarTul eklesiaTagan SemorCenilia mdinare zrugdonis xeobaSi xozitamariamis anu RvTismSoblis taZari, aseve sofel nuzalis eklesia dasxva Zeglebi. niqozeli mRvdelTmTavarni tradiciulad, osebis qristianulisaqmeebis meTvalyureobis garda, `gamgeni iyvnen ovseTissaeklesio da saero saqmeebisa~. niqozis `taZars aqunda Tavisi saswavlebeli,sadac aswavlidnen ovsTa Svilebs weradkiTxvas qarTul enaze.amzadebdnen drois Sesaferisi swavliT, visac surda eklesiis msaxureba,imaT mRvdelmoqmedebasa da saeklesio saqmeebSi osuris eniTswvrTnidnen, Semdgom swavlisa da gamocdisa niqozeli akurTxebda dahniSnavda amier da imier oseTSi samsaxurod.~saqarTvelos keTilmezobluri gavleniT, imJamad osebis umravlesobamarTlmadidebeli gaxda. maTi gaqristianeba mociqulebma saqar-Tvelos gavliT daiwyes, Semdeg ki qarTvelebi mudam zrunavdnen maTze.niqozis eparqiis istoria V saukunidan iwyeba. oficialuri cnobebieparqiis daarsebaze qarTlis cxovrebaSi mogvepoveba. vaxtang gorgaslisistorikos juanSerTan, romelic gadmogvcems, aRniSnavs Tu rogordaarsda niqoziis eparqia:`da waravlines petre mRdeli da samoel monazoni antioqias. da miuweesantioqiisa patriarqsa mefeman da patriarqman konstantinepolelmanesreT, viTarmed: `pirvelad, dasabamsa qarlis moqcevisasa dedakacisahromaelisa ninos mier, ganivlina aqaT episkoposi, rameTu SorissparsTa da berZenTa SfoTi iyo, da miT ver moawies saqme ese jerisa-ebrsjulisa: rameTu Cuen uwyiT, viTarmed qarTli da aRmosavleTi daCrdilo magis wmidisa saydrisani arian, viTarca ganaweses mociqulTasaxarebasa Sina, romel ars uwinaresoba~. da miuweres yoveli saqmedidisa vaxtang mefisa, viTarmed: `episkoposi igi, romeli maT mier dadginebuliyo, uku-vadgineT, da dRes icodeT axal-nergad WeSmaritadqarTli. aw orni ese maTni Txoilni akurTxen, sxuani Tormetni, vin-cavinSen genebos. igini akurTxen, da Cvenda warmoviden, raTa Cuen niWiTada saxmriTa yovliTa ganutevneT~. da antioqeman patriarqman akurTxna33


samarTalmcodneoba, konfliqtologiaTormetni episkoposni da petre kaTalikosad.da dasua erTi episkoposad klarjeTs, eklesiasa axizisasa; erTi javaxeTs,wundas; erTi mangliss; erTi bolniss; erTi rusTavs; erTi ninowmindas,ujarmis karsa, romeli gorgasalsa aReSena; erTi Werems,missa-ve aRSenebulsa, da mun qmna qalaqi erTi Soris orTa-ve eklesiaTa,romeli-igi man-ve aRaSena; erTi CeleTs, romeli sofelsa da aRaSena,erTi xornabujs da erTi agaraks, romel ars xunans gamarTebiT.Semdgomad missa aRaSena eklesia niqozisa sagzebelsa Tana cecxlisasa.da dasua episkoposi, sada-igi efla guami wmindisa raJdenisi, romeliiwama sparsTa mier wyobasa vaxtangisasa.ese raJden iyo mama-mZuZe vaxtangis colisa, romeli-igi pirvel moiyvanasparsTa mefisa asuli; da moiqca igi qristianed, da iqmna igi didadmorwmune; da iyo igi brZolasa mas Sina Zlier, Seipyres igi sparsTada aiZulebdes, raTa-mca uar-yo qriste. xolo man wmidaman aRirCia waruvaliigi dideba da iwama qristesTvis.~daarsebis dRidan niqozisa da cxinvalis eparqiis ganviTarebazedid gavlenas axdenda saqarTveloSi mimdinare rogorc politikuri,ise socialurdekonomikuri Tu kulturuli procesebi da eparqiiscxovreba fexdafex mihyveboda qveynis cxovrebis ritms.1783 wels qarTldkaxeTis samefosa da ruseTis imperias Soris georgievskSidadebuli mfarvelobiTi xelSekrulebiT marTalia saqar-Tvelos eklesiis avtokefalia xeluxleblad rCeboda, magram mniSvnelovnadizRudeboda misi uflebebi xelSekrulebis merve muxliT.saero xelisuflebasTan erTad eklesiac did imeds amyarebda ruseTze,magram molodini ar gamarTlda. XIX saukunis dasawyisSi qar-TldkaxeTis samefos ukanono gauqmebas male saqarTvelos eklesiis avtokefaliisdakargva mohyva. eklesiis mmarTvelis Tanamdeboba egzarqosiTSeicvala, xolo eparqiebis samarTavad egzarqosis TavmjdomareobiTSeiqmna saqarTvelodimereTis sinodaluri kantora. saqarTveloSirusuli saeklesio politikis gatarebas emsaxureboda `oseTissasuliero komisia~ (1815-1860ww) da `kavkasiaSi marTlmadideblobisaRmdgeneli sazogadoeba~ (1860-1917ww). separatizmis gaRvivebas cdilobdnensvanebSi da megrelebSi. XIX saukunis II naxevarSi carizmma gaaZlieraantiqarTuli politika saqarTvelos ZirZvel kuTxeSi afxazeT-Si da cxinvalis regionSi. qarTul eklesia-monastrebs, romlebic saukuneebisganmavlobaSi kulturis mniSvnelovan kerebs warmoadgendarusi berebi daepartonnen da RvTismsaxureba rusul enaze mimdinareobda.afxazuri anbanis SeqmniT da am enaze RvTismsaxurebis SemoRebiTcdilobdnen liturgia afxazurad waremarTaT, maSin es ver SeZles, mag-34


samarTalmcodneoba, konfliqtologiaram am da sxva rusuli politikis wyalobiT gaucxoebis elementebma mainciCina Tavi, ramac saboloo jamSi XX saukunis 90-ian wlebSi omamdeda dRes arsebul mdgomareobamde migviyvana. rusuli politikis Sedegadigive xdeboda Sida qarTlSi, niqozisa da cxinvalis eparqiaSi. amJamadorive konfliqtur zonaSi RvTismsaxurebas yovelgvari saeklesiokanonebis darRveviT rusi samRvdeloeba warmarTavs.qarTveli sazogadoeba da samRvdeloeba arasodes Serigebia avtokefaliisdakargvas da rusi biurokratiuli samRvdeloebis aRviraxsnilobas.saqarTvelos eklesiis damoukideblobis aRdgenisaTvisbrZolas upirvelesi adgili ekava XIX-XX saukuneebis ganmavlobaSi mimdinareerovnuldganmanTavisuflebel moZraobaSi.1917 wlis 12 (25) marts mcxeTis sveticxovlis taZarSi qarTveli sam-Rvdeloebisa da sazogadoebis monawileobiT aRdgenilad gamocxaddasaqarTvelos eklesiis avtokefalia, rac unmiSvnelovanesi movlena iyoqarTveli xalxis istoriaSi. eklesiur Tavisuflebas 1918 wlis 26 maisssaqarTvelos saxelmwifoebrivi damoukideblobis aRdgenac mohyva.xalxs imedi hqonda saxelmwifo axlad avtokefalia-gamocxadebul eklesiasgverdSi amoudgeboda, magram es imedebi ar gamarTlda.1921 wlis 25 Tebervals, saqarTvelos gasabWoebis Semdeg saqarTveloseklesia da samRvdeloeba mZime wnexis qveS aRmoCnda. eklesia kanongareSdgamocxadda, daixura eklesia-monastrebi, samRvdeloebaidevneboda, aseve iZarcveboda da nadgurdeboda saeklesio siwmindeebi.XX saukunis 50-70-ian wlebSi sasuliero pirTa ricxvi sagrZnobladiyo Semcirebuli, moqmedi eklesiebic umniSvnelo iyo.am periodis niqozis eparqiaSi Semavali taZrebis mdgomareobac savalaloda Seuracxmyofeli iyo. magaliTad, sofel eredvis wmonda giorgiseklesiaSi kolmeurneobis sawyobi iyo da iq xorbals da sxva mosavalsinaxavdnen. am epoqis kvali didxans gahyva Cveni mosaxleobiosazrovnebas, meufe isaias (Wanturia) mosvlamde eklesiebs saqeifo adgiladda xSirad saqonlis sadgomadac iyenebdnen.saqarTvelos eklesiis aRorZineba dakavSirebulia saqarTvelos ka-Tolikos-patriarq ilia II-is (SiolaSvili) saxelTan, romelic 1977wlis 25 dekembridan saqarTvelos eklesiis mRvdelTmTavaria. misimoRvaweobis dros mniSvnelovnad amaRlda saqarTvelos eklesiis saer-TaSoriso avtoriteti. gaizarda eparqiebis da eklesia-monastrebisraodenoba.saqarTvelos eklesiis aRorZinebam niqozisa da cxinvalis eparqiisganviTarebazec dadebiTad imoqmeda, rasac xels uwyobda qveyanaSi ar-35


samarTalmcodneoba, konfliqtologiasebuli politikuri fonic.niqozis eparqiam axali sicocxle daiwyo 1995 wlis 5 oqtombers. saqarTveloseklesiis wminda sinodis umaRlesi krebis gadawyvetilebiT,uwmindesis da unetaresis ilia II-is locva-kurTxeviT aRdga saqarTveloseklesiis erT-erTi uZvelesi niqozis eparqia, romelsac ewoda niqozisada cxinvalis eparqia.rogorc wesi, yvela eparqias Tavisi mRvdelTmTavari ganagebs. gamonaklisi,ra Tqma unda, arc niqozisa da cxinvalis eparqiaa. aRdgenisdRidan mas saTaveSi udgas maRalyovladusamRvdeloesoba niqozisa dacxinvalis mitropoliti isaia (Wanturia).niqozisa da cxinvalis eparqiaSi aRdgenis Semdeg Sedis didi da pataraliaxvis xeoba, ori frones xeoba, goris raionis sami sofeli (zemoda qvemo niqozi da zemo xviTi) da axalgoris raioni.ruseTdsaqarTvelos Soris arsebuli daZabuli urTierTobis gamo,samRvdelTmTavro iurisdiqcia qalaq cxinvalze, javis raionze sruliadda znauris raionis garkveul nawilze ver vrceldeboda, magram2008 wlis ruseTdsaqarTvelos omis Semdeg faqtobrivad mxolod sofelniqozsa da zemo xviTSi Tavisuflad aRevlineba wirva-locva damrevlsac Tavisuflad SeuZlia misvla. axalgoris raionSicaa moqmedimonastrebi: ikoTis Rirsi aleqsi SuSanias saxelobis dedaTa monasteri,samebis mamaTa monasteri (oqroskariani) da largvisis Teodoretironis saxelobis mamaTa monastrebi, aseve axalgorSi moqmedi taZari,magram aravin icis rusi okupantebi rodis inebeben da daketaven e.w.sazRvars.zemoT ukve aRniSnuli monastrebis garda eparqiaSi moqmedebs niqozismamaTa monasteri wminda raJden pirvelmowamis saxelobis. 2004wlamde sabawmindaSic funqcionirebda wminda saba ganwmendilis saxelobismamaTa monasteri, magram iq Seqmnili daZabuli viTarebis gamomonasterSi moRvawe sasuliero pirebi iZulebulebi gaxdnen iqaurobadaetovebinaT.eparqiis aRdgenis pirvel wlebSi, sul oTxi beri iyo mTels eparqia-Si da niqozis amaRlebis saxelobis taZarSi wirvadlocvasac mxolodramdenime bavSvi eswreboda. 1995 wels episkopos isaiasTan (Wanturia)erTad eparqiaSi Camovidnen mama ioane (Tedeevi), mama antoni (CakvetaZe)da mama ioane (samuSia). CamosvlisTanave meufe isaiam mamebTan erTadfexiT Semoiara da moiloca mTeli eparqiis eklesiadmonastrebi da dalocamomavali mrevli.niqozisa da cxinvalis eparqiis sasuliero cxovreba TandaTan winmidioda, xalxma daiwyo taZarSi siaruli, meufe isaia da mamebi cdilob-36


samarTalmcodneoba, konfliqtologiadnen SeZlebisdagvarad yvela sofelSi misuliyvnen da taZrebSi romlebisdaniSnulebac xalxs lamis `daviwyebuli~ hqonda paraklisi maincCaetarebinaT. daiwyo dazianebuli taZrebis aRdgena da moqmedi gaxdaavnevis, axalgoris eklesiebi. yovel kviras paraklisebi tardebodaeredvis, TamaraSenis, qurTis eklesiebSi. xalxSi uflis rwmenam daiwyogamoRviZeba, Sendeboda axali taZrebi da mimdinareobda Zveli eklesiadmonastrebisSekeTeba, magram 2008 wlis agvistos ruseTdsaqarTvelosomma niqozisa da cxinvalis eparqiaSi Semavali soflebis ganviTarebadidi xniT daswia ukan. erT dros ayvavebuli, sicocxliT savsesoflebi nasoflarebad iqca.rogorc zemoTac aRvniSneT, 1995d2007 wlebSi niqozisa da cxinvaliseparqiaSi didi aRmSenebloba da sulieri aRorZineba mimdinareobda.aRsdaga, aSenda da amoqmedda monastrebi (largvisSi, ikoTSi, niqoz-Si, sabawmindaSi...), eklesiebi (qurTaSi, TamaraSenSi, kexvSi...) aseve gamravldasasuliero pirTa ricxvi da mosaxleobaSic gaiRviZa uflisrwmenam.magram 2008 wlis zafxuli katastrofa iyo niqozisa da cxinvaliseparqiis cxovrebaSi... xalxi mSvidad cxovrobda da moulodnelad Tavsdatexili omis Sedegad iZulebuli gaxdnen daetovebinaT mSobliurimxare, sofeli, saxli, taZari, mSoblebis da Svilebis saflavebi da sicocxlisgadasarCenad saqarTvelos sxvadasxva regionebisTvis SeefarebinaTTavi. axla maT mxolod sizmarSi SeuZliaT naxon is, rac CveulebriviyoveldRiuroba iyo da riTac cocxlobdnen da cxovrobdnen.upatronod darCenili eparqiis eklesiadmonastrebis axlandeli mdgomareobacaravin icis. ar viciT kidev arsebobs Tu ara mravali saukunismomswre is didebuli nagebobebi. magram RmerTis wyalobiT, albaT, eklesiebsdaubrundeba Tavisi mrevli, imedia arsebuli saSineli da gausaZlisimdgomareoba male Seicvleba, iq mSvidoba damyardeba da davubrundebiTCvens ganadgurebul, gadamwvar soflebs da saxlebs. iqidanwamosul adamians erTi ocnebaRa aqvs d eklesiebi da sasaflao mainc arSeuracxyon da daangrion momxdurebma. imedia male davubrundebiTCvens saxldkars da Cveni eparqiis eklesiadmonastrebis Sesaxeb ukve,awmyoSi visaubrebT. inebos ufalma niqozisa da cxinvalis eparqiis devnilimosaxleoba male davubrundeT Cvens eklesiadmonastrebs wirvalocvaze da isev aivsos taZrebi mrevliT.37


samarTalmcodneoba, konfliqtologiamariam abulaZesoxumis saxelmwifo universiteti, bakalavriatis studentikonfliqti, rogorcsocialur-fsiqologiuri fenomenixelmZRvaneli: prof. lia svaniZekonfliqti warmoiSoba erTmaneTTan SeuTavsebali, urTierTsawinaaRmdegotendenciebis Sejaxebis Sedegad. sicocxle — konfliqtebisusazRvrod gadawyvetis procesia. adamiani ver SeZlebs Tavidan aicilosigi, mas mxolod misi gadawyveta SeuZlia. yvela Cvengans unda hqondeselementaruli warmodgena konfliqtebis Sesaxeb. arasiRrmiseuladigi martivi, adamianurigancdis Sedegia, rasac mosdevs diskomforti, daZabuloba, stresi,es xels uSlis erTobliv saqmianobas da afuWebs adamianTa Soris urTierTobebs.iq sadac arian adamianebi, romlebsac aqvT sxvadasxva warmodgenacxovrebis miznebsa da maTi miRwevis gzebze aucileblad warmoiSobakonfliqturi situaciebi. magaliTad, Tqven daisaxeT konkretulimizani, romlis miRweva rTuli aRmoCnda. am dros Tqven ganicdiTwarumateblobas da mzad xarT amaSi daadanaSauloT sxvebi, xolo sxvebiTvlian, rom TviTon xarT damnaSave. SeiZleba mizani iyo arasworadformulirebuli an Tqven sworad ver SeafaseT Seqmnili situacia. amdros warmoiqmneba urTierTgaugebroba, romelic TandaTan gadaizrdebaukmayofilebaSi, iqmneba daukmayofileblobis, socialur-fsiqologiuridaZabulobisa da konfliqturi situacia.vinaidan sicocxle aris ganuwyveteli procesi adamianebs Soris ur-TierTobisa, maT Soris xSiria dapirispirebebi, romelTa mizezebia: SeuTanxmeblobamoralur-zneobriv principebSi, poziciebSi, TvisebebSi,moqmedebis miznebsa da meTodebSi. swored aseTi urTierTobebi ganixilebafsiqologiaSi, rogorc konfliqti. is ori saxisaa — funqciuri dadisfunqciuri. pirveli mimarTulia organizaciis efeqturobisken, xolomeore angrevs jgufur TanamSromlobas. man SeiZleba Seasrulosrogorc pozitiuri, ise negatiuri roli.38


samarTalmcodneoba, konfliqtologiaozitiuridaZabulobis ganmuxtva konfliqturmxareebs Soris.axali informaciis miReba oponentze.stumulireba cvlilebebisa da ganviTarebisken.morCilebis sindromis moxsna.oponentTa SesaZleblobebis diagnostikada sxva.egatiurididi materialuri da emociuridanaxarji.TanamSromelTa gaTavisufleba,disciplinis daqveiTeba, socialur-fsiqologiuriklimatisgauareseba koleqtivSi.konfliqturi urTierTobiTzedmetad gataceba.konfliqtis damTavrebis SemdegTanamSromlobis xarisxisSemcireba.saqmiani urTierTobebis ZneladaRdgena da sxva.organizaciuli TvalsazrisiT arsebobs konfliqtis oTxi saxe: pirovnebisSigniT, pirovnebebs Soris, jgufis SigniT da Sidaorganizaciuli.ganvixiloT TiToeuli maTgani. Sigapirovnuli konfliqti z. froidisganmartebiT es aris konfliqti Cvens instiqtur ltolvasa da garemofaqtorebis — ojaxisa da sazogadoebis akrZalvebs Soris. aq monawileobsara adamianebi, aramed pirovnebis sxvadasxva fsiqologiurifaqtorebi, moTxovnebi, motivebi, faseuobebi, grZnobebi da sxva. is SeiZlebaiyos funqcionaluri da arafunqcionaluri, imisda mixedviT Tura gadawyvetilebas miiRebs adamiani. magaliTad, is SeiZleba warmoiSvasadamianis mier gancdili martoobisa da daucvelobis SegrZnebis Sedegad.es grZnoba SeiZleba Camoayalibos bevrma faqtorma, romelTagan aRsaniSnaviagulgriloba, adamianis moTxovnebisadmi upativcemuloba, zedmetiyuradReba da a. S. amiT daTrgunuli adamiani eZebs gzebs, Tu rogor gaumklavdessamyaros, romelic ase upirispirdeba. am dros adamiani gamoimu-Savebs ara marto strategias, aramed xasiaTis niSnebs, romelsac SeiZlebadavarqvaT nervozuli midrekileba. aseT garemoebaSi igi sami ZiriTadigziT moqmedebs: emorCileba sxva adamianebs, winaaRmdegobas uwevs an gaurbismaT.pirovnebebs Soris konfliqtisas adamianebi uSualod ejaxebian er-TmaneTs, avlenen sakuTar pirovnul Tvisebebs, moTxovnilebebs, motivebs,interesebsa da inteleqts. isini gansxvavebulad xedaven ama Tu im situaciasada iqidan gamosvlis gzebs. misi aSkara gamovlinebaa urTier-Tbraldebebi, Cxubi, Tavdasxma, Tavdacva. mizezebi ki adamianTa urTier-TobebTan SesabamisobaSia saZiebeli.39


samarTalmcodneoba, konfliqtologiaSeiZleba gamovyoT konfliqti jgufis SigniT, jgufsa da pironebasSoris, romelic gansakuTrebiT rTulad mimdinareobs xelmZRvanelis avtoritarulimmarTvelobisas. organizacia Sedgeba mravali formalurida arafarmaluri jgufisagan, romelTa Soris SeiZleba warmoiSvas konfliqti.kerZo magaliTs warmoadgens SeuTanxmebloba maRali da dabalimarTvis doneebs Soris, resursebis ganawileba, daukmayofilebeli komunikacia,arazusti, arasruli an saWiro informaciis ararseboba, romelicwarmoadgens ara mxolod mizezs, aramed konfliqtis disfunqciur Sedegs.arsebobs konfliqtis gansazRvris sxvadasxva meTodi. erT-erT maTganswarmoadgens kartografia. pirvel etapze xdeba problemis aRwera,meore etapze gamoiyofa misi mTavari monawileebi, mesame etapi ki mTavarimoTxovnebis aRweraa. konfliqts ganviTarebis sxvadasxva dinamikaaqvs, magram viTardeba erTi sqemiT. yvelaze martivi sqema Semdegnairia:konfliqti mwifdeba TandaTan, monawileebi ukmayofilebas gamoTqvamenviwro wreSi, TiToeuli mxare cdeilobs ara marto Tavis gamarTlebas,aramed Tavis mxareze gadabirebas, amasTan mniSvnelovania situaciis,rogorc konfliqturis aRiareba. aRiarebiTa da Sedegebis SefasebiTSesaZlebelia oponentTa gasvla konfliqtidan. aseve molaparakeba,kompromisebis Zieba misi mogvarebis erT-erTi meTodia. TiToeulimxare nawilobriv kmayofildeba. aseTi strategia irCeva maSin, rodesacoponentTa resursebi Tanabaria, saqmiani konfliqti emociurSi ar gadasulada monawileebi midrekilni ar arian urTierTobis gamwvavebisken.rogor vaiZuloT adamiani miiRos Cveni azri? adamianis darwmunebaraimeSi ar niSnavs masTan kamaTs. SeuTanxmeblobis mogvareba ar SeiZlebaCxubiT, is SeiZleba mogvardes SerigebiTa da meore mxaris darwmunebiT.adamianebma pativi unda scen sxvis azrs. Tu darwmunebuli varToponentis SecdomaSi umjobesia mivmarToT sityvebiT `me Sevcdi,gTxovT gaverkvioT faqtebSi~. es daarwmunebs mas, rom SeiZleba isicSecdes. Tu Cven ar varT marTali unada vaRiaroT swrafad da gabedulad.dialogi ar unda waviyvanoT ise, rom mowinaaRmdeges hqondes SesaZleblobaTqvas `ara~. Tu gvsurs davarwmunoT mowinaaRmdege raime-Si, SevxedoT sagnebs misi TvaliT. am gziT davzogavT drosa da nervebs.udidesi mniSvneloba aqvs Tavis xelSi ayvanas. imisaTvis, rom vmarToTsakuTaro Tavi konfliqtis dros sasurvelia saubrisas pauzis gakeTeba,Rrmad amosunTqva, adgoma am saubris sxva Temaze gadatana.konfliqtis sociologia efuZneba konfliqts, rogorc sazogadoebrivicxovrebis normalur movlenas. sazogadoeba miaRwevs efeqtur40


samarTalmcodneoba, konfliqtologiaSedegs, Tu ar daxuWavs Tvalebs konfliqtze da ixelmZRvanelebs misimogvarebis wesebiT. misi arsi mdgomareobs imaSi, rom ar daiSvas Zaladoba,rogorc mogvarebis meTodi. misgan gamosvla SeiZleba iyos racionalurida iracionaluri. pirveli maTgani iTvaliswinebs Seqmnili situaciisaqtiur Ziebas da dapirispirebuli adamianebis moTxovnebisdakmayofilebas. meore ki moTxovnebze uaris Tqmas. gansakuTrebiTefeqturia integrirebuli meTodi, rodesac gamomuSavdeba gadawyvetilebisaxali varianti, romelic ar emTxveva arc erT pozicias, magramTiToeul mxares SeuZlia CaTvalos Tavisad. miuxedavad konfliqtissxvadasxva saxeebisa, qcevis taqtika erTnairia. gamoyofen qcevis Ziri-Tad strategias: iZuleba, kompromisi da TanamSromloba.konfliqtebis mniSvnelobidan gamomdinare arsebobs specialurimecniereba `konfliqtologia~, romelic ganixilavs konfliqts, rogorccnebas adamianebisa da maTi urTierTobis Sesaxeb. is Seiswavlebaprogesul doneze. specialistebi awarmoeben kvleviT da praqtikulmuSaobas samecniero institutebSi da kvleviT centrebSi. mas Seiswavlianfsiqologebi, sociologebi, Jurnalistebi, iuristebi. is, rogorcmecniereba, moqmedebs codnis yvela sferoSi. Tanamedrove konfliqtologiaaris gamoyenebiTi samecniero disciplina da praqtikulisaqmianobis sfero konfliqtebis mogvarebaSi.nebismier konfliqtur situaciaSi bevria damokidebuli mmarTvelze.mas SeuZlia misi daregulireba, romlis drosac mniSvnelovania aramisi pirovneba, aramed misi damokidebuleba jgufis wevrebis mimarT.misTvis umjobesia analizis dawyeba konfliqtis gamomwvevifaqtobrivi mizezebisgan. kamaTis SedegiT SeiZleba situaciis gadaWraan CixSi moqceva. xelmZRvanelma SeiZleba dauSvas rigi Secdomebis, magaliTad,ganzogadeba, rodesac sxva sakamaTo situacias vaxsenebT, romelsacTemasTan saerTo ar aqvs. Tavis arideba, rodesac erTi mxare arerTveba kamaTSi. araproduqtiuli mimarTva da ignorireba, romelicdidi Secdomaa. xelmZRvanels agreTve unda SeeZlos sakuTari emociuriqcevis marTva, romelSic mas autogenuri varjiSi exmareba. Tu perioduladgamoviyenebT amgvar xerxs avicdenT zedmet daZabulobas. SeiZlebaganisazRvros urTierTSorisi reaqcia dapirispirebul mxareTaSoris, raSic temperamentis codna dagvexmareba. magaliTad, qolerikebTankonfliqtebi Zalian rTulad gvardeba.Cven vejaxebiT konfliqts yoveldRiur cxovrebaSi, magram xSiradver varCevT mas Cveulebrivi urTierTobisgan. maTi umetesi nawili sustiaan dasustebulia monawileobis kompromisisken swrafviT, amotomacar aRiqmeba konfliqtad. meore mxriv, adamianebs amoZravebT survili41


samarTalmcodneoba, konfliqtologiaTavidan aicdinon is. nebismieri maTgani saWiroebs yuradRebas, magrames ar nisnavs imas, rom saWiroa misi ganviTareba.gamoyenebuli literatura:1. sanikiZe, fsiqologia industriul organizaciaSi. 2001w.2. Чарльз Ликсон, Конфликт семь шагов к миру. 1997г.3. Э. А. Уткин, Конфликгологиа. 1998г.4. Ф. М. Бородин Н. М. Коряк, Внимание конфликт . 1983г.42


samarTalmcodneoba, konfliqtologiaoliko ardemanaSvili, xatia tetunaSvilissip goris universiteti, bakalavriatis studenti2008 wlis ruseT-saqarTveloskonfliqti da gorixelmZRvaneli: profesori daviT CoCiSvilikonfliqti es urbilesi terminia imasTan SedarebiT Tu ra moxda saqarTveloSi2008 wlis agvistoSi, kerZod gorSi. zogierTs omi progresissawindrad miaCnia (amis magaliTad mohyavT israeli, romelic sworedkonfliqtebis xarjze progresirdeba), magram CvenTvis omi iyo sa-Sineleba da, amave dros, Semzaravi moulodneloba. Cveni warsuli istoriasavsea omebiT da, amasTan dakavSirebuli, av-kargianobiT, magram esiyo warsulSi, 21-e saukuneSi nuTu omi gamarTlebulia?omi ar moxdeboda Cvens saxelmwifos mezoblad rom hyavdes ufrodemokratiuli saxelmwifo, vidre ruseTia. ruseTi aris imperia, romelTanacmorigeba arc ise advili yofila. ruseTi imperiuli cnobierebismqonea, ruseTs gaaCnia ambiciebi, romelTa Sesasruleblad yvelaxerxsa da Rones xmarobs. mas surs iyos pirveli da igi Tavis poziciebsada gavlenis sferoebs iolad ar daTmobs. samwuxarod ruseTis mmarTveliwreebi jer kidev Tavis gavlenis sferod moiazreben mTel postsab-Wour sivrces.omi ar moxda uceb, amisTvis niadagi aTeuli wlebis winaTac mzaddeboda.ganuwyveteli provokaciebi, romlebsac awyobda osuri mxare, romelTazurgs ukan, ra Tqma unda, ruseTi idga. 2008 wlis agvistos omi kiswored am provokaciebis Sedegia. taliavinis daskvnis erT-erT punqtSiweria: 3 agvistos ruseTis mTavrobam saSualeba misca samxreT ose-Tis mosaxleobas, ruseTSi gaxiznuliyo, xolo agvistos dasawyisSi 58-ebatalioni rokis gvirabis axlos iqna dislocirebuli. osuri Zalebismxridan ramdenime xnis ganmavlobaSi ganuwyvetliv mimdinareobda saartileriosrolebi, ris Sedegadac 7 agvistos, qarTulma mxarem daiwyosamxedro operacia. esec, ra Tqma unda provokaciebis Sedegia. SeiZlebavinmesTvis gadamwyveti mniSvneloba hqonda imas, Tu vin iyo pirveli,magram CvenTvis amas arsebiTi mniSvneloba ar aqvs. mTavari is aris, romes gasrola moxda da moitana qaosi da ubedureba, asobiT daRupuli dadasaxiCrebuli adamiani, sakuTari miwa-wylidan gandevnili mosaxleo-43


samarTalmcodneoba, konfliqtologiaba, gadamwvari saxlebi, miwisagan pirisa aRgvili soflebi...cxinvalTan axlos mdebare qarTuli soflebis mosaxleoba bolo periodSiSiSSi iRviZebda da iZinebda. mosvenebas ar aZlevdaT maT Rameatexili srolebi. amdeni wlebis ganmavlobaSi daRlilebs da SewuxebulebsgaugebrobaSi yofnas, maTi TqmiT, sastiki realoba urCevniaT.8 agvistos ruseTis mxarem, romelsac regionSi samSvidobo kontigentihyavda, qarTvelTa ieriSis sapasuxod cxinvalis regionSi sakuTarijarebis qvedanayofebi da mZime teqnika Seiyvana. ase daiwyo sahaerodartymebi saqarTvelos saxvadsxva regionebze, maT Soris gorsa da missoflebze.albaT yvelas gauCndeba kiTxva, ratom iyo gori konfliqtis epicentri.gori, rogorc viciT, strategiuli mniSvnelobis centria. is aramxolod konfliqtis uSualo siaxloves mdebareobs, aramed masze gadismTavari saavtomobilo da sarkinigzo magistralebi. aq imyofeboda saartirelioda satanko SenaerTebi, rezervistTa didi raodenoba. cxinvalidanTavisuflad SeiZleboda qvemexebis srola, romelic gormademoaRwevda da, piriqiT, goridan SeiZleboda cxinvalis dabombva. ramdenimerus samxedro Cinosans gorSi hqonda namsaxurevi da kargad icnobdnenqalaqs, magram, Cemi azriT, amas gadamwyveti mniSvneloba ar eqneboda.gori, rogorc viciT, Tbilisamde yvelaze didi qalaqia rogorcmosaxleobis raodenobiT, ise farTobiT. Tbilisisken mimaval gzazemters realur winaaRmdegobas gori gauwevda, amitomac gadawyda gorisdakaveba da, faqtobrivad, gawyda kavSiri aRmosavleT da dasavleT saqsSoris, rac did upiratesobas aZlevda mters.roca omi iwyeba savsebiT logikuria, rom mteri pirvel dartymasmoaxdens samxedro bazebze. mteri cdilobs gaanadguros jari, daangriossacavebi, sadac inaxeba tyvia-wamali. amiT moipovos upiratesoba,gatexos mowinaaRmdege da moigos omi. es savsebiT bunebrivia-omi omiada omSi yvela xerxi gamarTlebulia. is, rom erTisTvis wamgebiania dameoresTvis momgebiani, esec omisTvis dauwereli kanonia.samxedro bazebi saq-Si, Cvenda samwuxarod, dasaxlebul punqtebTanaxlos imyofeba, rac, ra Tqma unda, zrdida msxverplTa raodenobissafrTxes. albaT adre vfiqrobdiT, rom safrTxes ar warmoadgendagorSi ganlagebuli samxedro nawilebi, magram am omma Tavisi qna da mosaxleobaSiSiSi danerga. aqve unda aRvniSno erTi daudevroba, romelicgorSi omis dasrulebidan erTi wlis Semdeg moxda. swavlebas gadiodagorSi romeliRac samxedro nawili da mosaxleoba ar iyo gafrTxilebuli.srolebi daiwyo, ubedureba gamomvlil xalxs kvlav omi egonada isini panikam moicva. aucilebeli iyo mosaxleobis saqmis kursSi Ca-44


samarTalmcodneoba, konfliqtologiayeneba. mosaxleobis gafrTxileba (es sxvadasxva gziT SeiZleboda momxdariyo.mag.: gamocxadebiT, anda adgilobrivi televiziis daxmarebiT),magram es ratomRac ver moxerxda. roca sazogadoeba cxovrobsdid stresSi, romelic maT omma daamCnia, yvela msgavsi informaciadroulad unda miewodos sazogadoebas. dagvianebul informacias, umetesSemTxvevaSi, arasaxarbielo Sedegebi moaqvs.aqve ar SemiZlia ar aRvniSnoT telekompania `imedSi~ dadgmuli omisimitacia, romelic specialur reportaJSi vixileT. telekompania imedididi popularobiT sargeblobs da albaT bevri maTgani uyurebs misgadacemebs, maT Soris qalaq gorSic. zogi gadacemas Tavidanve uyurebda,zogmac Semdeg gadarTo da ai ras gadmoscemda specialuri reportaJi— `omia atexili mTels saqarTveloSi. Cveni jaris nawili mtrismxares gadavida, saq-s prezidenti moklulia an daWrili~. ar vici esromel adamianur eTikaSi jdeba, erTi is ki vici, rom aravis ar aqvs uflebaadamianis nervebze iTamaSos, arc telekompaniebs da arc Jurnalistebs,romelTac daviwyebiaT, rom unda emsaxuron sazogadoebis ke-TildReobas da ara piriqiT, maT moSlas da panikaSi Cavardnas. ZalianSeSindnen gorelebi: yvela supermarketi gadatenili iyo, benzingasamarTsadgurebze manqanebis uwyveti jaWvi idga. xalxi panikaSi iyo dagadarCenis gzas eZebda. Znelia yvelaferi sityviT gadmosce, magramimedi maqvs yvela sityva da qmedeba amis Semdeg asjer gazomili da er-Txel gadaWrili iqneba.8 agvistos rusulma moieriSe TviTmfrinavebma 2 bombi Camoagdesgoris maxloblad. miuxedavad amisa, mosaxleoba mainc ar tovebda qalaqsim imediT, rom rusi okupantebi cecxls ar gauxsnidnen dasaxlebulpunqtebs da safrTxes ar Seuqmnidnen mSvidobian mosaxleobas, magram 9agvistos, verxvebis dasaxlebaze, rusebma kidev erTxel gamoiCines daundoblobada daiwyes sacxovrebel korpusebTan mdebare saartileriobazebis damombva.rusulma moieriSe TviTmfrinavebma dabombes sacxovrebeli korpusebi,ganadgurda samoqalaqo da ekonomikuri infrastruqtura. oficialurimonacemebiT, uSualod gorSi, 9 agvistos warmoebuli damombvebisSedegad daiRupa 31 samoqalaqo piri.dabombvis momdevno talRa qalaqs 12 agvistos daatyda Tavs. ruse-Tis TviTmfrinavebma goris centri damombes. bombebi Camogdebuli iqnaqalaq goris municipalitetis gamgeobis win. aRniSnuli qmedebis Sedegad,oficialuri monacemebiT, daiRupa 10 adamiani da maT Soris holandieliJurnalisti.12 agvistos dacxriles s.s.i.p. goris universitetis Senobac, vinai-45


samarTalmcodneoba, konfliqtologiadan maTi mizani iyo yvela mniSvnelovani dawesebulebis ganadgureba.Senobis ganaxlebisas amoRebuli vaznebi da bombis narCenebi amJamadinaxeba s.s.i.p. goris universitetSi.rusTa agresia mxolod gors ar daatyda Tavs 8, 9, 10, 11, 12 da 13 agvistos,rusebma dabombes goris raionSi Semavali soflebic, romlisdrosac daiRupa 29 adamiani, ganadgurda soflis meurneobis mosavlisdidi nawili, dazianda sacxovrebeli saxlebi. dabombvis garda, rusiokupantebi mosaxleobis mokvlasac ar eridebodnen sxvadasxva araadamianurixerxebiT, rogoricaa: dawva, Cacxrilva da a.S. amgvarma sastikmaqmedebebma 8-dan 28-agvistos CaTvliT araerTi adamianis sicocxle Seiwira.oficialuri monacemebiT daiRupa 412 saqarTvelos moqalaqe, aqedan228 samoqalaqo piri, 170 samxedro da 14 policieli ugzo-ukvloddakargulad iTvleba. daiRupa 1 policieli da 2 qarTveli Jurnalisti.gorsa da goris raionSi daRupuli samoqalaqo pirebis ricxvi Seadgens65-s. saomari moqmedebis Sedegad daiRupa 4 adgilobrivi policieli.saqarTvelos Tavdacvis saministros monacemebis mixedviT daiRupagorsa da goris raionSi mcxovrebi daaxloebiT 30-mde samxedro mosamsaxure.goris garda, rogorc zemoT avRniSneT, dazaralda goris municipalitetissoflebic. sayuradReboa, rom goris municipalitetis gamgeobismonacemebSi zogierTi dazaralebuli sofeli ar aris moxseniebuli.erT-erTi maTgania sof. skra, sadac dazianda sacxovrebeli saxlebi,samxedro baza, naTesebi.unda aRiniSnos, rom dabombvis Semdeg qalaqi panikam moicva. mosaxleobacdilobda qalaqidan gasvlas, magram maT gaxizvnas aferxebda daxels uSlida benzingasamarT sadgurebsa da goris gasasvlelbSi Seqmniliavtotransportis sacobebi agreTve Seferxebuli sakomunikacio sa-Sualebebi da, rac mTavaria, araorganizebuli gadaadgileba informaciisuqonlobis gamo, raSic brali sardlobasa da masmedias miuZRvis.garkveuli xnis manZilze qalaqi ukacriel adgils daemsgavsa. gorisyvelaze xalxmravali quCebic ki sruliad dacarielda. qalaqSi ar SeiniSnebodaxalxisa Tu avtotransportis moZraoba.gorSi darCenil mcireoden mosaxleobas ZiriTadad mamakacebi Seadgendnen,romlebic sacxovrebeli korpusebis sardafebs afarebdnenTavs, radgan ar arsebobda sxva raime TavSesafari, romelic, rogorcwesi, yvela qalaqs unda gaaCndes saomari, Tu sxva rTuli movlenebisdros. gansakuTrebiT ki maSin, Tu am qalaqSi ganlagebulia saartileriobazebi da samxedro qalaqad iwodeba. sardafebs TavSefarebuli mo-46


samarTalmcodneoba, konfliqtologiasaxleobis nawili kombinatis dasaxlebasTan Camogdebuli bombis SedegadnangrevebSi moeqca da daiRupa, maT Soris mcirewlovani bavSvic.carieli qalaqis okupacia rusebs ar gaWirvebiaT da axla ukve TbilisisakenaiRes gezi. qarTulma jarma ukan daixia dedaqalaqis dasacavda.rusebma daiwyes maradioroba daclili qalaqis Zarcva. rusi samxedroebiTavisuflad mimodiodnen qalaqis quCebsa da soflebSi mcire winaaRmdegobisSemTxvevaSi sastikad uswordebodnen mosaxleobasa, anadgurebdneninfrastruqturas.2008 wlis agvistos saomari moqmedebisas dazianda mravali saxli,aqedan 9 000 bina. q. gorSi dazianda 105 saxli, maT Soris 17 korpusi, 98sakuTari saxli. 5289 adamians binis mepatrones, gadaeca bina da sxvasamSeneblo masala, 327 bina mTlianad ganadgurebulia da maT mepatroneebzegacemulia 15 000 dolaris ekvivalenti larebSi. dazianebulTagan3067 saxli reabilitirebulia, 352 binaze gacemulia kompensacia. aqveunda aRvniSnoT, rom paralelurad mimdinareobs dazianebuli saxlebisSeswavla, Sefasebis procesi. amitom SesaZlebelia zemoT moyvanilimonacemebi Seicvalos.mniSvnelovnad dazianda saswavlo aRmzrdelobiTi dawesebulebebi.gaiZarcva 26 skola, zaralma daaxloebiT ramdenime milion lars miaRwia.dazianda q. goris municipalitetis, aseve soflebSi 29 skolamdeliaRzrdis municipaluri sabavSvo dawesebuleba, romelTa zaralmac 850lars gadaaWarba. gadaadgilebul pirTa raodenobam 20 000 adamians gadaaWarba.didad dazianda soflis meurneoba, gansakuTrebiT ki mecxoveleobada memcenareoba. TiTqmis mTlianad ganadgurda saSemodgomomosavali. ramac omis Sedegad gaWirvebul mdgomareobaSi Cavardnilimosaxleoba ekonomikurad kidev ufro daaknina.ar SeiZleba ar aRiniSnos is Sedegebi, rac omma xalxis fsiqikazemoaxdina gorsa da goris raionis soflebSi. erTi SexedviT xalxi, romelicCveulebriv pirobebSi agrZelebs cxovrebas fsiqologiurad Zalzedtramvirebuli aRmoCnda. aseT viTarebaSi aucilebelia, sxva qveynebismsgavsad, Camoyalibebuliyo fsiqologTa specialuri jgufi, romelicufaso konsultaciebs gauwevda mosaxleobas omis Semdgomi fsiqikuritramvebis moSuSebaSi.dabolos, saqarTvelos winaaRmdeg omi didi xnis ganmavlobaSi Semu-Savebuli strategiuli gegmis ganxorcieleba iyo.47


samarTalmcodneoba, konfliqtologiaqsenia xaCiZe, marika durulissip goris universiteti, bakalavriatis studentikonfliqtis gamomwvevi mizezebi,misi dadebiTi da uaryofiTi mxareebi`nabukos~ gazsadenis magaliTzexelmZRvaneli: profesori nino lipartelianiTanamedrove globalizaciis pirobebSi xSiria SemTxvevebi, rodesacxdeba azrTa da interesTa dapirispireba, ris Sedegadac warmoiSobakonfliqturi situaciebi. konfliqti (laT. conflictus – Sejaxeba), rogorcsazogadoebriv, aseve saqmian urTierTobebSi cxovrebiseul movlenaswarmoadgens.konfliqti adamianuri arsebobis Tanamxlebi movlenaa. igi erTnairadaxasiaTebs uZveles sazogadoebebs da uaxles istorias. konfliqtursituaciebSi mxareTa dapirispirebisas ikargeba dro, resursebi dairRveva komunikaciebi, rac xels uSlis konstruqciuli nabijebis dagegmvas.naSromSi Cven mier ganxilulia konfliqturi situacia `nabukos~gazsadenTan dakavSirebiT. moyvanilia imis naTeli magaliTi, Tu ra SedegebiSeiZleba mohyves didi saxelmwifos mier konfliqtis dros ganxorcielebulRonisZiebebs bazarze pirvelobis SesanarCuneblad.mogexsenebaT, arc erTi movlena ubralod ar xdeba. yvelas Tavisiwinaistoria da gamomwvevi garemoebebi gaaCnia. movlenis warmoSobismizezi rom gaviazroT, moqmedeba unda SevicnoT; moqmedeba rom SevicnoTsaWiroa mizezi vicodeT. aqedan gamomdinare, ganvixiloT konfliqtisgamomwvevi mizezebi, misi dadebiTi da uaryofiTi mxareebi`nabukos~ gazsadenis magaliTze.`nabukos~ proeqtis ideis Casaxva ruseTsa da evropas Soris arsebulmakonfliqturma situaciam gamoiwvia. ruseTi evropis winaaRmdegiyenebs yvelaze Zlier iaraRs — energoresursebs, vinaidan evropisgazmomaragebas mTlianad rusuli energokompania `gazpromi~ uzrunvelyofs.igi ruseTis energo bazarze mniSvnelovnadaa damokidebuli,ruseTi ki am faqtors evropaze zegavlenis moxdenis politikur instrumentadiyenebs. magaliTad, 2006 wels ukrainaSi gazis krizisma ev-48


samarTalmcodneoba, konfliqtologiaropul bazarze gazis miwodebis Sewyveta gamoiwvia da TiTqmis mTelievropa gazis gareSe darCa. am movlenam gamomafxizlebeli roli iTama-Sa evropisaTvis. man erTiani energetikuli usafrTxoebis politikisCamoyalibeba gadawyvita, ris Sedegadac avtomaturad gaCnda sakiTxebiaxali energowyaroebisa da momaragebis gzebis Sesaxeb, rac uzrunvelyofdaevropisaTvis damatebiT wyaroebs. am droidan mieqca yuradRebakaspiis zRvis resursebisa da savaraudo satranzito gzebis Ziebas. amisSedegad saqarTvelo, rogorc satranzito potencialis mqone qveyana,moeqca gansakuTrebuli yuradRebis qveS.konfliqturi situaciidan saukeTeso gamosavlad `nabukos~ proeqtiiqna miCneuli, romlis Seqmna 2006 wlis ivnisis bolos gadawyda vena-Si, sadac avstriis, TurqeTis, rumineTis, bulgareTisa da ungreTisenergetikis ministrebma da evrokavSiris energokomisarma xeli moaweresgazsaden ~nabukos~ mxardamWer xelSekrulebas. masSi aRiniSna, romgazsadeniT gaTvaliswinebulia kaspiis da iranis gazis miwodeba evropulibazris diversifikaciis mizniT. gazsadenma unda daakavSirostranskavkasiuri gazsadeni (TCGP) erzrumTan, xolo iran-TurqeTis(Tavriz-erzrumis) da `samxreT kavkasiuri~ (BTE) gazsadenebis gadakve-Tis punqti — avstriul qalaq baungartenan-der-maSalTan.`nabukos~ proeqtis ganxorcielebis SemTxvevaSi avstriis qalaqibaungarteni gaxdeba evropis gazmomaragebis e.w `habi~, anu sabiTumovaWrobis centri, rac avstrias kolosalur Semosavlebs moutans.ruseTi, romelic yvelafers akeTebs imisaTvis, raTa mTlianad daipyrosevropis energetikuli bazari da gaaZlieros am qveynebze rogorcekonomikuri, aseve politikuri gavlena `nabukos~ gazsadenisproeqti, am SemTxvevaSi, misi miznebis ganxorcielebis xelSemSlelfaqtors warmoadgens. aqedan gamomdinare, ruseTi `nabukos~ winaaRmdegbrZolaSi aqtiuradaa CarTuli. igi yvela SesaZlo berkets iyenebs,(maT Soris politikursac), rogorc `nabukos~ proeqtSi gazis mimwodebel,satranzito, aseve evrokavSiris calkeuli `sateliti~ qveynebismimarT. aseve `nabukos~ daupirispira `samxreT~ da `CrdiloeTnakadis~ proeqtebi, romliTac gaTvaliswinebulia evropisaTvis isevda isev rusuli gazis miwodeba.`nabukos~ realizacia damokidebulia mraval faqtorze da Zalianproblematuria. es proeqti 2008-2009 wlebSi gamococxlda ruseT-saqarTvelosomisa da ukraina-ruseTis gazis krizisis Semdgom. evropamixvda, rom `nabukos~ realizacia Zalian mniSvnelovani evropulienergousafrTxoebisaTvis. proeqtis ganxorcielebiT TviT evropa dayvela monawile qveyanac did sargebels miiRebs. evropisaTvis es gazsa-49


samarTalmcodneoba, konfliqtologiadeni warmoadgens gazis damatebiT wyaros, bunebrivi airis bazris mcirekoreqcias da axal tendencias, romelmac unda Seasustos rusulimonopolia evropul bazarze.aRmosavleT-dasavleTis energetikuli derefnis proeqti gaxda regionuliTanamSromlobis piroba saqarTvelos, azerbaijansa da TurqeTsSoris. aman aseve moizida investorebi da daarwmuna imaSi, rommcire qveynebsac SeswevT Zala ganaxorcielos da SeiTvisos Tavis teritoriazeSeqmnili grandiozuli infrastruqturebis proeqtebi, romelTamizania kaspiis zRvis energoresursebTan dakavSireba da maTitransportireba samxreT kavkasiis qveynebis tranzitiT evropisaken.saqarTvelos prioritetulma rolma aRmosavleT-dasavleT energoderefanSida qveynis erovnulma miswrafebam dasavleTTan ekonomikurida politikuri integraciisaken ruseTis mxridan gamoiwvia didiagresia, ruseTma gaiazra mniSvnelovan strategiul qveyanaze, saqar-Tvelos saxiT, gavlenis dakargvis SesaZlebloba. eqspertebis azriTswored es gaxda 2008 wlis agvistos omis erT-erTi ZiriTadi mizezi.08.08.08 — pekinis olimpiuri TamaSebis gaxsnis dRes saqarTvelosdemokratiul respublikaSi SeiaraRebuli konfliqti daiwyo, romel-Sic dazaralda am qveynis mosaxleoba sxvadasxva erovnebisa. maT garda,agreTve konfliqtSi monawile samxedroebi da maTi ojaxis wevrebi miuxedavadimisa, romel mxares ibrZodnen isini.sami rviani, samoqmedo gegma, romelmac Seiwira uamravi adamianis sicocxle.saxelmwifoTa brZola, sadac gamarjvebulisa da damarcxebulisgamovlena cota rTulia. ekonomikuri, politikuri, samxedro TugonebaTa orTabrZola, sadac goneba ukana planzea; samxedro artileria— adamianebi gonebis gareSe. politika, romelsac ramdenime adamianimarTavs da sxva yvela Teatris Tojinebad gvevlineba da ekonomika,mogeba Tu zarali?! albaT visTvis rogor.mogexsenebaT omi ar iwyeba mxolod teqnikuri xasiaTis mizezebiT.omi ar iwyeba SemTxveviT. oms aqvs Tavisi Sinaarsi, amitom mTavaria ganvsazRvroTra aris omis dawyebis mTavari mizezi.saqarTvelos mier deklarirebuli sagareo kursi absolutur winaaRmdegobaSimodioda da modis rusuli geopolitikis koncefciasTan.Sesabamisad, saqarTvelosa da ruseTs Soris urTierTobebi arc erT parametrSiar daemTxva erTmaneTs. swored es iqca omis dawyebis mizezadanu, erTi mxriv, ruseTis imperiuli ganwyoba da, meore mxriv, saqarTvelosTavisuflebisaken swrafva.ukve SegviZlia gavceT pasuxi mTavar SekiTxvas, ra moigo ruseTmada ra waago? ruseTma moigo dro da Seaferxa saqarTvelos integracia50


samarTalmcodneoba, konfliqtologianatoSi, mas 2008 w. sxva saSualeba garda omisa amis SesaCereblad namdviladar hqonda; vinaidan 2008 wlis dekemberSi kidev ufro mZafraddadgeboda saqarTvelos natoSi integraciis sakiTxi aseve mwifdebodakonfliqtur regionSi samSvidoboTa Canacvlebis sakiTxic. amis SesaCerebladgarda pirdapiri agresiisa ruseTi sxva saSualebebs moklebuliiyo, xolo rac Seexeba saqarTveloSi iseTi mniSvnelovani proeqtebisada RonisZiebebis ganxorcielebas, rogorsac `nabukos~ proeqtiwarmoadgens ruseTs mniSvnelovan ekonomikur zarals miayenebda.omma saqarTvelos rogorc politikuri, ise ekonomikuri zarali miayena.daiwia satranzito gzis usafrTxoebis donem, teritoria bevradarastabilur da mwvave regionad iqca. magram am tipis saqcielma ruse-Tis mxridan. evropa kidev ufro aqtiuri gaxada saqarTvelos mimarT daufro mimzidvelad warmoaCina `nabukos~ proeqti.aRsaniSnavia isic, rom garda ruseTis mtruli damokidebulebisaarsebobs germaniis SedarebiT negatiuri pozicia, TurqeTis interesebi,aseve xelis SemSlel sakiTxad gvevlineba azerbaijanis gaurkvevelipozicia proeqtTan dakavSirebiT.dabolos daskvnis saxiT SeiZleba iTqvas, rom yvela konfliqtursituacias aqvs Tavisi dasawyisi da dasasruli. nebismieri mizeziT gamowveulikonfliqti da miTumetes omi damangrevelad moqmedebs qveynisekonomikaze, xolo Semdgom am mdgomareobis aRdgenas wlebi damniSvnelovani materialuri mxardaWera sWirdeba. rom ara saerTaSorisosafinanso-sakredito institutebis mniSvnelovani mxardaWera saqarTvelosaTvis,qveynis safinanso-sakredito sistemas da, zogadad,qveynis ekonomikas mniSvnelovnad gauWirdeboda.konfliqtis dasaregulireblad saWiroa didi dro da energia, asevesaWiroa Camoyalibdes garkveuli zomebi da moxdes daTmobebi ara mxoloderTi, aramed orive mxaridan. rodesac mxareebis mier moxdeba Se-Tanxmeba problemis gansazRvraze da agreTve sruli aRricxva im resursebisdakargvisa, rac am konfliqts, politikis danakargisa, ukveSeiZleba daiwyos pozitiuri sakiTxebis wamoyeneba.bolos davamTavrebT goeTes sityvebiT: `ar arsebobs warsuli, saiTkenacdabruneba SeiZleba kacma isurvos, aris mxolod marad axali,rac yalibdeba warsuli elementebisa da siaxlisagan, xolo WeSmaritimiswrafeba unda iyos yovelTvis nayofieri, unda Seiqmnas saukeTeso~.51


samarTalmcodneoba, konfliqtologiaqeTevan ServaSiZea. kuWuxiZis saxelobis ekonomiur-humanitaruliuniversiteti, bakalavriatis studentisazogadoebisa da pirovnebis konfliqtixelmZRvaneli: profesori maka doliZesamyaroSi bevri ram adamianis gonebisaTvis amouxsneli da idumalia.droTa ganmavlobaSi mecnierebas ufro da ufro didi miRwevebi aqvs.mraval kiTxvas pasuxi ukve gaeca, magram nawili kiTxvebisa kvlav kiTxvisniSnis qveSaa moqceuli. samyaros Seqmnidan dRemde bevri ram Seicvalaadamianis gonebrivi ganviTarebis wyalobiT, Tumca aris iseTi sakiTxebi,romlebic isev da isev kvlevis obieqtia. amaze saubari Sorswagviyvans, amitomac yvela kiTxva erT did kiTxvamde unda daviyvanoT,kerZod, rogoria samyaros, mTeli sinamdvilis uzogadesi kanonzomiereba?ra aris is rac yovelgvar arsebuls udevs safuZvlad. es aris siyvrulida sikeTe, romlis gazomvac SeuZlebelia, radgan Tavadaa sazomiyovelivesi. Tuki filosofiis martiv mcnebas gaviTvaliswinebT,kerZod ki dapirispirebulTa erTia nobisa da brZolis kanons, maSin SedegadmiviRebT, rom uaryofa mxolod uayofa ki ar aris, aramed, amavedros, dadgenacaa. magaliTad, sicocxle da sikvdili urTierTdapirispirebulicnebebia, magram Tu kargad davukvirdebiT TiToeuli maTganiara marto uaryofs meores, aramed gulisxmobs mis arsebobas. ra arissikeTis dapirispirebuli mxare? bunebrivia boroteba. es naSromic sikeTisada borotebis Widils Seexeba. dameTanxmebiT, rom konfliqtebi,romlis Sesaxebac Cven vsaubrobT, ar aris erTsaxovani. SeuZlebeliamTlianad am sakiTxis erT konkretul aspeqtSi ganxilva. kargadaa cnobilikonfliqtebi qveynebsa da qalaqebs Soris, ojaxebsa da TviT ojax-Si an sulac or dapirispirebul pirs Soris. Cven gadavwyviteT es yvelaferior sawyisSi mogvesazrebina d keTilsa da borotSi. raSi mdgomareobssikeTisa da borotebis Widili? Tuki gadavxedavT goeTes `fausts~aucileblad gagvaxsendeba boroti sulis, kerZod mefistofelissityvebs:„ramdenic ginda andgure mCqefare sisxli,kvlavindeburad cirkulirebs nakadi misi“es sityvebi zemoaRniSnuli kiTxvis pasuxia. boroteba ver izeimebs52


samarTalmcodneoba, konfliqtologiadedamiwaze, vidre kacTa modgmas gamravlebis unari Seswevs, vidre iarsebebsis kanoni, romlis wyalobiTac yovelive Zvelze axali aRmocendeba.mTavari mamoZravebeli ZarRvi am WidilSi aris sicocxlis maradiuloba.sainteresoa adamiani ibadeba boroti, Tu Semdeg swavlobs borotebas?albaT mainc unda vifiqroT, rom sicocxle uflis saCuqaria da SeuZlebeliamaSi raime borotebis marcvali iyos. maSin ufro swori iqnebaTu kiTxvas ase davsvamT, rodis da ratom borotdeba admianian ariski vinme amaSi damnaSave? usamarTloba iqneba Tu yvelafers erT adamiansmivawerT da yovelgvari ganmartebis gareSe mas borots vuwodebT.ufro swori da samarTliani iqneba Tu vityviT, rom sazogadoeba srulgulgrilobas iCens Tavisi calkeuli wevrebisadmi da amiT faqtobrivadadmians danSaulisaken ubiZgebs. sazogadoeba xels uwyobs, damnaSavisgazrdas, raTa Semdeg gulgrilad dasajos. hiugo sazogadoebasaboboqrebul zRvasTan aigivebs da ambobs rom: „ulmobelia adaminTasazogadoebrivi svla. mraval suls daRupavs gzaSi. zRvaSi iRupeba yvelavisac ki kanoni gadmoagdebs xomaldidan, gadmoagdebs da Svelazeara zrunavs. ai zneobrivi sikvdili. zRva ulmobeli socialuri wyvdiadia,romelSic msjavrdebulT hyris marTlmsajuleba. zRva aris ganusazRvreliubedureba, am ufskrulSi CaZiruli suli SesaZlebelia le-Sad iqces~. es ise ar unda iqnes gagebuli TiTqos adamiani Tavisufaliamoraluri pasuxismgeblobisagan. ra Tqma unda, pirovneba agebs Tavissaqcielze pasuxs maSin, roca mas arCevanis SesaZlebloba aqvs. Tumca,aqve unda iTqvas, rom Zalian xSirad admiani TavgamodebiT `uRrens~imas rac masze bevrad maRla dgas, radgan miwieri yofisagan SeboWili,brmadqceuli da SuriT savse ver eTviseba mSveniersa da RvTaebriv Zalas.goeTes SesaniSnavad aqvs aRwerili sikeTisa da borotebis Widili.`faustSi~ igi mefistofels aTqmevinebs, rom adamins aqvs ciuri naperwkali,romelsac Cven admianebi mas gonebas vuwodebT da romlis ZaliTcpirutyvobaSi qveyanaze ara gvyavs cali. Tumca amvdroulad igiambobs „oRon SegZuldes goneba da mecniereba, eg kacTa ganZi umTavresida Zliereba“. Tuki am sityvebidan amovalT Tamamad SegviZlia vTqvaT,rom adamians gonebiT SeuZlia akeTos kargi da, amavdrolad cudi. gamijnoserTmaneTisgan keTili da boroti. sainteresoa, Tuki arCevanisufleba gvaqvs viaroT swori Tu mrude gziT, ratom virCevT mrudegzas? ratom CavdivarT adaminebi borotebas? ra gviSlis xels rom vake-ToT sikeTe? is xom sanacvlod arafers iTxovs? sokrates TqmiT sikeTesxva araferia Tu ara siamovneba. boroteba- ki tanjva. sagulisxmoa romZalian xSirad kacTa modgma siaves gaucnobiereblad da araswori az-53


samarTalmcodneoba, konfliqtologiarovnebis gamo Cadis, cdilobs samarTlianoba Tavisi xeliT aRasrulos,Tumca imas ki aRar akvirdeba aris Tu ara Tavad misi saqcieli samarTliani,radganac xSirad sapasuxo Zaladoba aWarbebs xolme im Zaladobas,romelsac sZlevs. amasTan dakavSirebiT, lev tolstoi amtkicebda,rom cecxls cecxliT ver Caaqrob, erT borotebas meore borotebiTver mospob. misi rwmeniT Zalas Zala ki ar unda davupirispiroT,aramed morCileba da siyvaruli. es azri exmaureba bibliidan uflissityvebs „rodesac vinme silas marcxena loyaze gagawnavs samgieros nukigadauxdi marjvena loya miuSvire, mas Sercxveba xelebs CamouSvebso“.borotebisadmi ZaliT winaaRmdegobis gauwevlobis es moZRvrebamWidrodaa dakavSirebuli tolstois meore moZRvrebasTan d zneobrivisrulyofis TeoriasTan. misi azriT yovel admianSi arsebobs orisawyisi RvTiuri da eSmakseuli, sulieri da cxoveluri, keTili da boroti.vano Sadurs Tavis narkvevbSi naTqvami aqvs, rom Tu adamiani, rogorcmCagvreli, iseve daCagruli Seignebs am WeSmaritebas, izrunebsTavis zneobriv gakeTilSobilebaze, ganiwmindeba yovelive cudisagan.swored maSin boroteba TavisTavad moispoba da adminTa Soris sayovel-Tao siyvaruli damyardeba, vinaidan yovelive borotebis wyaro TviTadminia. man sakuTar TavSi unda daamarcxos boroti sawyisi da izrunoszneobriv srulyofaze. amis naTeli magaliTi aris tolstois `aRdgoma~,romlidanac gansakuTrebuli simZlavriT gamokrTis borotebisadmimorCilebisa da zneobrivi srulyofis qadageba, romelic nexliudovisada maslovas fonze iSleba. nexliudovi gvevlineba damnaSaved, romelicTavad asamarTlebs Tavisive msxverpls. maslova ki pirveladwarmogvidgeba saTno, gulubryvilo gogonad, romelic Seyvarebuliacxovrebaze, endoba adamianebs, swams sikeTe, magram moatyueben da miatoveben,mfarvelebi ki saxlidan gaaZeveben. sabralo qali cxovrebasada adaminebze Sexedulebas Seicvlis, yvelaferSi sicruesa da borotebasdainaxavs da sasowarkveTilebas miecema. es is mdgomareobaa, rodesacmis moralur sawyisze cxovelurma sawyisma gaimarjva da keTilssZlia borotma. Tumca, gasmarTlebisa da nexliudovTan Sexvedris Semdeg,masSi kvlav keTili sawyisi imarjvebs da TandaTan adamianebisrwmena da siyvaruli ubrundeba. es is SemTxvevaa, rodesac sikeTisa daborotebis Widili admianis gulsa da gonebaSi mimdinareobs. Widilicnobiersa da qvecnobiers Soris, rodesac cxoveluri sawyisi ar gaZlevssaSualebas daemorCilo zneobrivs an piriqiT. es ukve pirovnebissulier simtkicesa da siZlierezea damokidebuli. radgan sityva suliersimtkiceze Camovarda ar SeiZleba ar aRvniSnoT v. hiugos `sabralonis~moqmedi gmiri: „fantini, romelic cdomilebis morevidan amotiv-54


samarTalmcodneoba, konfliqtologiativebuli umankoeba gaxldaT“ miuxedavad cxovrebaSi daSvebuli uamraviSecdomisa, gaWirvebisa, Seuracxyofisa da fizikuri dacemisa igi sicocxlisbolomde inarCunebs sulier sispetakes. SeWirvebuli da usamrTlocxovreba ver axerxebs mis sulSi SeWras da borotebis Tesvas.igive SeiZleba iTqvas episkoposs mirielsa da katorRel Jan valJanze,romelic SemdgomSi mirielis SemweobiT keTilSobil madlenad gardaiqmna.mirielis cxovrebis mTavari motivi admianebTan swori midgoma,mimtevebloba da sikeTis Tesvaa. saTnoebisa da im sinaTlis gansxierebaa,romelic yovelTvis apovninebs bnel gamoqvabulSi dakargul adamiansiqidan gamosasvlel gzas. mirielma gdaarCina Jan valJani kator-RaSi xelaxali dabrunebis safrTxisgan da, rac mTavaria, lmobieri damokidebulebiTmasSi gaaRviZa miZinebuli adaminoba. sikeTisa da borotebisgzajvaredinze sikeTis mxares gdauxvia da cxovrebis axali etapidaiwyo.amqveynad yvelaze didi mteri sikeTisa aris sazrunavi yovldRiuri,romelic yovelgvar diad mizans win udgeba da fuW ocnebad aqcevs, romelicdaufarvi pirdapirobiT gviambobs adminTa gdagvrebisa, mconarobisada sulieri sicarielis istorias. moyvanili konkretuli magaliTebidanTamamd SegviZlia iTqvas, rom borotebisa da siZulvilisdaZleva SeuZlebeli ar aris. borotebas borotebiT ar unda vebrZoloT.Tumca es yvelafeti mglis tavze saxrebis kiTxvas hgavs, radganTiToorola adminis magliTiT da SegnebiT kacobrioba ver gaTvisufldebaborotebisgan. Tavisdauneburad swored am daskvnamde midis hiugo`sabralonSi~. maSin Cndeba kiTxva sadaa xsna? xsnas ki tolstoi poulobssaxarebaSi, sadac weria rom erTaderTi TavdasaRwevi saSualebaim borotebisgan, romlisgnac itanjeba kacobrioba aris SegrZneba„Tavisi maradi danaSaulisa RvTis winaSe“ sikeTisa da borotebis WidilSidausrule lad Seunde, apatie yvelas, radgan ar moipoveba qveynadiseTi admini, romelic TviTon ar iyos damnaSave da amitom uflebahqondes sxva gakicxos da dasajos. TviToeuli adamini unda mimarTavdesara Zalmomreobas sxvisi gamosworebisa da dasjisTvis, aramed sakuTarimankierebisagan ganwmendisa da zneobrivi srulyofisaTvis,mxolod maSin moeReba bolo yovelgvar borotebas da dasruldeba mradiuliWidili keTilsa da borots Soris.55


samarTalmcodneoba, konfliqtologiamariam gazaSviliivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifouniversiteti, bakalavriatis studentiqarTul-osuri urTierTobanixelmZRvaneli: profesori r. TofCiSvilieTnikur stereotipSi asaxulia ama Tu im xalxis emociur-Sefasebi-Ti damokidebuleba, codna, garegnoba, xasiaTi, qcevis Tviseburebebi,Zlieri da susti mxareebi da sxva. aseve gasaTvaliswinebeli faqtia is,rom eTnikuri stereotipi eTnosTaSorisi urTierTobis Sinaars asaxavs,amitomacaa aucilebeli TiToeuli eTnosis Seswavla, risi meSveobiTacSesaZlebeli gaxdeba eTnosTaSorisi daZabulobisa da stabilurobisprognozireba. eTnikuri stereotipi SeiZleba Seicvalos eTnosebsSoris kontaqtebis gazrdiTac.saqarTvelo monoeTnikuri qveyana arasodes yofila. qveyana eTnikuradgansakuTrebiT aWrelda ruseTis koloniad gadaqcevis Semdeg(1801w). aq XX saukuneSi Tavi iCina eTnosTa Soris dapirispirebam, maSinroca qarTul-osuri urTierTobebi ruseTis imperiis mizanmimarTulqmedebamde mxolod da mxolod keTilmezobluri iyo, ra Tqma unda,mxedvelobaSi Tu ar miviRebT CrdilooeT kavkasiidan gadmosaxlebiswinadroindel TareSebs.dReisaTvis erT-erTi yvelaze mwvave problema saqarTveloSi qar-Tul-osuri konfliqtia, am or eTnoss odiTganve araerTgvarovani ur-TierToba akavSirebda. urTierToba, romelic or etapze SeiZleba ganvixiloT,romelsac `gare~-s da `Sida~- s davarqmevT. pirveli es aris ma-Ti urTierToba saqarTvelos gareT da meore — qveynis SigniT mcxovreblebsSoris. es urTierToba me-17 saukunidan modis, mas Semdeg, racosebi saqarTveloSi dasaxldnen. maT Soris iyo SuRli da erTguleba,mtroba da megobroba, magram `Sida~ tipis urTierToba uSualod daukavSirdasaqarTvelos saxelmwifo usafrTxoebis problemas.istoriulad cnobilia, rom osebs bevrjel ubrZoliaT qarTvelTamxardamxar, keTilmezobluri urTierTobis sawindari qorwinebac yofila,romlebic ara marto politikuri, aramed kulturuli komunikaciisxelSemwyobi faqtoric iyo.sadavo ar unda iyos, rom eTnikuri konfliqtebis mosagvareblad istoriasmniSvneloba ar unda hqondes — xalxi, romelic cxovrobs gar-56


samarTalmcodneoba, konfliqtologiakveuli eTnosis teritoriaze, qveynis sruluflebiani wevri unda iyos.Tumca, postsabWoTa sivrceSi warmoqmnili qarTul-osuri dapirispirebasinamdvileSi klasikuri, eTnikuri konfliqti ar yofila da isrom provocirebuli da marTuli iyo imperiuli Zalebis mier kargadCans ruseTis maRali Tanamdebobis pirebis gancxadebebSi: kerZod, samxreTda CrdiloeT oseTi erTad SeierTa ruseTma 1774 wels, anu samxreToseTi saqarTvelos Semadgeneli nawili ar yofila. mizani cxadia,imperiul Zalebs surT saqarTvelos teritoriebis mitaceba daakanonon.am SemTxvevaSi osebi mxolod iaraRad arian gamoyenebulni, arc eTnikuriosisa da arc eTnikuri qarTvelis bedi imperias ar aRelvebs.qarTul-osur urTiorTobaSi mniSvnelovani etapi qarTul saxelmwifoSiosTa saxelmwifoebriv-teritoriuli warmoqmnis formirebaiyo. samxreT oseTis avtonomiuri olqi, saqarTvelos gasabWoebis Semdeg,1922 wlis 20 aprils Seiqmna. sabWoTa periodSi qarTul-osuri ur-TierTobebi TandaTan daregulirda, gasayofi aRaraferi hqondaT, magrames harmonia dairRva rusuli politikis gamo, romelic TavdapirveladCumad, SefarviT xdeboda am or eTnss Soris, Semdgom aSkara dapirispirebisxasiaTi miiRo. 1990-ian wlebSi daiwyo Setakebebi sxvadasxvamizezis gamo, rogoric iyo, magaliTad, osebis survili mieRoT rezoluciaosuri enis regionis oficialur enad gamocxadebis Sesaxeb, xoloramdenime TveSi samxreT oseTis deputatTa sabWom gamoacxada samxreToseTis avtonomiuri respublika. 1991 wlis ianvarSi konfliqtisSeiaraRebuli faza daiwyo, samxreT oseTSi Seyvanili iqna qarTuli jari.am wlebSi mravali adamianis sisxli daiRvara; daiRupa qarTvelic daosic. faqti erTia, konfliqtis Sedegad qarTuli mosaxleobis didmanawilma cxinvalis regioni datova (qarTvelebi sakuTar samSobloSidevnilebad iqcnen), osebis nawilma — saqarTvelo.istorikosTa Soris eWvs ar iwvevs, rom osebi iranulenovani alanebisuSualo STamomavlebi arian, Tumca osTa saboloo formireba moxdaadgilobriv kavkasielebTa Serevis Sedegad. osTa winapari alanebis Sesaxebmonacemebi, rac ki msoflios sxvadasxvaenovan saistorio wyaroebSiarsebobs, Tavmoyrilia katalonieli avtoris augusti elemaniswignSi. masSi kargadaa naCvenebi, rom alanebi IV saukunis 70-ian wlebSihunebma gaanadgures, gadarCenilTa nawili hunebs gahyva dasavleTSi,nawilma ki CrdiloeT kavkasiis velebSi Camoinavla, sadac binadarcxovrebaze gadavida, Seqmna saxelmwifo da swored am droidan alaneb-Tan qarTul saxelmwifos intensiuri urTierToba hqonda. es urTier-Toba keTilmezobluri iyo, xdeboda dinastiuri qorwinebebi da, racmTavaria, saqarTvelos saxelmwifos meTaurebi alan-osebs xSirad qira-57


samarTalmcodneoba, konfliqtologiaobdnen, rodesac qveynis gareSe mterTa Tavdasxmas igeriebdnen.dReisaTvis ar arsebobs arcerTi sabuTi, romelSic nasesxebi iqnebodaraime funqciis matarebeli osuri saxelmwifoebrivi warmonaqmni.miT umetes ar arsebobs ori oseTis erTianobis damadasturebeli sabu-Ti. saerTod ar arsebobda iseTi cnebebi, rogoricaa: `CrdiloeT ose-Ti~ da `samxreT oseTi~. XVIII saukunis bolosaTvis da Semdegac orioseTis, rogorc saxelmwifoebrivi erTeulis arseboba da, miT umetes,erTiani oseTis da Tanac saxelmwifos arseboba sruli surializmia. TuoseTis saxelmwifo arsebobda ruseTis SemadgenlobaSi Sesvlis surviliT,astraxanis gubernators 1774 wels ratom maindamainc osTa `Cenilebi~(xalxis arCeulebi) da ara saxelmwifos meTauri an misi elCi arewvia?garda amisa, dvaleTsa da Sida qarTlis mTianeTSi mcxovrebi osebiqarT-kaxeTis samefos aneqsiis Semdeg ruseTis xelisuflebas didxansuwevdnen winaaRmdegobas. magaliTad, isini ruseTis winaaRmdeg 1830-ianwlebSi ajanydnen.XVIII saukuneSi, rodesac saqarTvelos saxelmwifo moRvaweebi qveynisteritoriul erTeulebs CamoTvlidnen `oseTs~ ar axsenebdnen daverc axsenebdnen, radgan aseTi erTeuli bunebaSi ar arsebobda. mxolodmoixseniebdnen terminiT — `Cveni osebi~. XIX saukuneSi ruseTisimperias kavkasiis araerTi ruka aqvs Sedgenili da verc erT maTganze`samxreT oseTs~ ver naxavT. maTze mxold CrdiloeT kavkasiaSi oseTiaaRniSnuli yovelgvari gansazRvrebis — `CrdiloeTis~ gareSe.garda amisa, arc erT qarTul da rusul wyaroSi ar arsebobs imis dasamtkicebelifaqti, rom samxreT oseTi saqarTveloSi ar Sedioda, piriqiTsabWoTa periodis `samxreT oseTs~ qarTli aweria.XVII-XVIII saukuneebSi mosuli osebi qarTuli saxelmwifos sruluflebianiwevrebi xdebodnen, icodnen qarTuli ena. miuxedavad imisa,rom mejudasxeobis osuri soflebis skolebSi swavleba mxolod osurda rusul enaze iyo, TiToeulma maTganma kargad icoda qarTulad laparakicda wera-kiTxvac, radgan, rogorc TviTon xsnidnen, sameurneoekonomikurikavSirebi ZiriTadad qarTvelebTan hqondaT. magram araerTisamwuxaro faqtis momswre gaxdebiT Tu kargad gamoikvlevT Ti-Toeul ojaxs, magaliTad gengiurebis ojaxis motana SeiZleba. gamomdinareiqidan, rom ojaxis axalgazrda Taobam rusuli skola daamTavra,saqarTvelosadmi damokidebuleba metad samwuxaroa.XIX saukunidan saqarTvelos ruseTis koloniad gadaqcevis SemdegosTa enobrivi viTareba saqarTveloSi erTgvar cvlilebebs iwyebs. ruseTisimperia, garda imisa, rom eTnosebs Soris mtrobas sTesavda, osur58


samarTalmcodneoba, konfliqtologiamosaxleobas aiZulebda meore ena rusuli yofiliyo, sabolood bol-Sevikurma ruseTma moaxerxa osebis qarTvelebisagan gaucxoeba. rusulenaze totaluri swavlebis pirobebSi osuri eTnosis warmomadgenlebismniSvnelovani nawili aRar flobda qarTul enas. amasTan, arsebobda meoreukiduresoba — ganaTlebuli adamianebi flobdnen qarTul enas,kiTxulobdnenqarTul enaze, magram Segnebulad ar saubrobdnen.Tuki 1991 wlis 31 marts Catarebul sayovelTao saxalxo referendumSisaqarTvelos saxelmwifoebriv aRdgenas cxinvalis raionSi xmamisca 99%-ma amomrCevelma, e.i. arc dRes iqneba umravlesoba winaaRmdegi.orive mxarem kargad icis am ori eTnosis mSvidobiani TanacxovrebismniSvneloba, Cem azrs namdvilad exmianeba osi mecnieri vasil abaevi,romelic wers: `pirvel yovlisa saWiroa, damTavrdes saubrebi saqar-Tvelosagan samxreT oseTis Camoglejaze, vinaidan es aRniSnavs saqar-Tvelos teritoriuli mTlianobis darRvevas. visac surs mSvidoba samxreTosebsa da qarTvelebs Soris, samudamod unda ukuagdos samxreToseTis CrdiloeT oseTTan SeerTeba~.e.w. konfliqtis mogvarebis problema, pirvel rigSi, samSvidoboprocess unda daukavSirdes. agvistos omis Semdeg ki urTierToba ufrodaiZaba da am ori eTnosis urTierTobis aRdgena sakmaod rTuligaxda. magram aucilebelia gzebis Zieba konfliqtis mogvarebisaTvis,gamomdinare iqidan, rom qarTvelebi da osebi odiTganve erTad cxovrobdnen,erTmaneTTan naTesauri da megobruli urTierToba akavSirebdaT.am konfliqtis mogvarebisTvis, pirvel rigSi, TiToeulma Cvenganmaunda STaagonos sakuTar Tavs perspeqtivis Zieba megobrobis ganaxlebisaTvis,daiviwyos saSineli warsuli da mzad daxvdes momavals; momavals,romelic xalxma unda Seqmnas, sadac es ori eTnosi mSvidobianTanacxovrebas SeZlebs. Semdeg etapze aucilebel pirobas ganaTlebissistemis, mediis da saxalxo diplomatiis gamoyeneba warmoadgens.saganmanaTleblo sistemebs da saswavlo saxelmZRvaneloebs SeuZliadidi rolis Sesruleba qarTvelebsa da osebs Soris mSvidobianiurTierTobebis CamoyalibebaSi, aseve medias negatiuri stereotipismsxvrevaSi. rogorc amboben, `media rogorc warmoaCens konkretuljgufs, ise aRiqvams mas mayurebeli da mkiTxveli~. Sesabamisad, mediasaqvs SesaZlebloba xeli Seuwyos urTierTobebis Camoyalibebas, aCvenosalternatiuli gzebi da xazi gausvas Serigebis im faqtebze, romlebicmSvidobis procesis mSeneblobas xels Seuwyobs.garda amisa, mniSvnelovania (samSvidobo procesis warmarTvisa danegatiuri stereotipis gadalaxvis TvalsazrisiT) uSualo urTierTobisdamyareba konfliqtis mxareebis warmomadgenlebs Soris saxalxo59


samarTalmcodneoba, konfliqtologiadiplomatiis xelSewyobiT.saxalxo diplomatiaSi didi roli Suamavals ekisreba. man unda gamonaxosgzebi konfliqtis mSvidobiani gadawyvetisaTvis. es samuSaomiznad isaxavs ubralo moqalaqeebs Soris urTierTobebis aRdgenas,xolo diplomatiis arsi ki imaSi mdgomareobs, rom mSvidobis mSeneblobaxdebodes ara marto qvemodan, aramed zemodanac.amgvarad, saganmanaTleblo institutebs, medias da saxalxo diplomatiasmeti SesaZlebloba aqvs urTierTobis mogvarebisa, vidre mravalwlianoficialur molaparakebebsa da Sexvedrebs.gamoyenebuli literatura:1. jalabaZe n.-kavkasiis eTnologiuri krebuli, `qarTul-osuri ur-TierTobebis eTnofsiqologiuri aspeqtebi~, Tb., 2010.2. Toria m.-kavkasiis eTnologiuri krebuli, `qarTul-osuri Tanacxovrebisperspeqtivebi alternatiuli samSvidobo iniciativebiskonteqstSi~. Tb., 2010.3. TofCiSvili r. — `osTa winapari alanebis Tavdapirveli gansaxlebisareali~. Tb., 2008.60


samarTalmcodneoba, konfliqtologiaTaTia CafiCaZesoxumis saxelmwifo universitetisbakalavriatis studentiojaxuri konfliqtebi, Zaladobada genderi 21-e saukunis saqarTveloSixelmZRvaneli: profesori maka doliZesociologiuri sinamdvilis SeswavlisaTvis gansakuTrebuli Rirebulebisaaam sinamdvilis Semadgeneli elementebis Semecneba. sazogadoebaTu makroorganizmia, misi funqciebis da elementebis dasadgenadganmsazRvreli mcire socialur jgufTa Seswavlaa. Cveni dRevandelisaubris Tema ojaxia, ojaxi ki swored mcire jgufTa iseTi formaa, romelicyvela sxva saxis jgufebze ufro kompaqturia. igi ekuTvnis socialurjgufTa rigs da gansazRvravs rogorc `Tanmimdevrul koordinirebulmoRvaweobaSi CarTul adamianTa yovelgvar erTobas, asevecnobierad Tu aracnobierad daqvemdebarebulis saerTo mizans, romlismiRweva monawileebs moutans kmayofilebas~. socialuri jgufi`erTobrivad moqmed adamianTa mTlianobaa~ — es niSnavs, rom `jgufebiganisazRvreba rogorc adamianebisagan Semdgari agregatebi, romlebicTanamSromloben raime saqmeSi da masSi gaerTiandeba rogorc organizebuli,ise araorganizebuli agregatebi, rogorc stabiluri, ise droebiTigaerTianebebi~. ojaxi swored cnobierad organizebuli stabilurisocialuri jgufia da misi saxe mniSvnelovnad gansazRvravs yvelasxva socialur instituts sazogadoebis CaTvliT. erToblivi qmedebebisTvisaucilebeli ori ZiriTadi pirobidan — Sromis gadanawileba damoqnili organizacia — ojaxs orive moWarbebulad axasiaTebs.ojaxi, rogorc erT-erTi socialuri warmonaqmni, romelsac TavisidaniSnuleba da, Sesabamisad, Rirebulebac aqvs mowodebulia, uzrunvelyosadamianTa Soris intimuri kavSiris socializebuli forma. adamianTaSoris ojaxis Seqmnis safuZveli SeiZleba iyos sakuTrebiTi interesebi,martoobisagan Tavis daRwevis survili, modgmis gaCenisadmiltolva, sazogadoebisa da socialuri erTobebis winaSe movaleobisgrZnoba. ojaxis Seqmna dakavSirebulia saerTo interesebTan da RirebulebebTan,sadac es faseulobebi araa, an Zalas kargavs, ojaxebic ingreva.emociur moTxovnaTa kanonieri dakmayofilebis uzrunvelyofaojaxis erT-erTi funqciaa.samwuxaroa magram faqtia, ojaxSi xSiria konfliqtebi da danaSau-61


samarTalmcodneoba, konfliqtologialis faqtebi. ojaxi pirovnebasTan dakavSirebeulia ara mxolod romelimeSezRuduli aspeqtiT, aramed is moicavs mTlianad misi cxovrebisyvela sferos. uTanxmoeba, romelic SeiZleba musikis sxvadasxva mimar-Tulebis gamo kolegebs Soris moxdes, sxvagvar emociur datvirTvas iwvevsojaxSi. col-qmruli cxovrebis Tanmxlebi konfliqtebi, xSir Sem-TxvevaSi, partniorebis gamo xdeba. paradoqsia, rom qalebze Zaladobasswored is mamakacebi Cadian, romlebic, rogorc wesi, maTi siyvaruliswyaros warmoadgenen, emociuri da finansuri mxardamWerni arian.ojaxSi Zaladobis formebia: fizikuri Zaladoba (cema), seqsualuri Zaladoba,muqara, emociuri Zaladoba (sistematuri yvirili, gineba), sazogadoebisganizolacia, raime qmedebis akrZalva muqariT, daSineba da a.S.ojaxSi Zaladobis msxverplni SeiZleba iyvnen qalebi, bavSvebi, invalidebi,moxucebi da, iSviaTad, mamakacebi. saqarTveloSi yvelaze gavrcelebuliformaa qmris Zaladoba colze da mSoblebisa — Svilebze.qarTul sinamdvileSi, qalis an bavSvis sastikad cema quCaSi sazogadoebismxridan aRSfoTebasa da risxvas imsaxurebs, magram Tu igive xdebaojaxSi es, jer erTi, gareSe Tvalisagan dafarulia, meorec, sazogadoebaamas uyurebs, rogorc mis Sinaur saqmes. ojaxi xelSeuxebelia damis saqmeebSi Careva cud tonad iTvleba. colebi TiTqmis ar Civian sasamarTloSi,miT umetes bavSvebi. fizikuri Zaladoba ufro TvalnaTlivCans, emociuri da moraluri Zaladoba ki nakleb SesamCnevia:1. qals, romelsac ori Svili hyavs, cems qmari (nasvam mdgomareobaSieWvianobis niadagze). coli Zalian ganicdis, rom amis mowme xSirad patarebicarian. qmars ver vcildebi, — ambobs igi, ra vuyo bavSvebs umamodxom ver davtoveb, anda rogor varCino, ra vaWamo!2. mSobeli sastikad cems Svils (mizezi mravalnairia— cudi moswreba,qceva da a.S.). es mas aRzrdis karg meTodad miaCnia: meored veRar gabedavsaseT saqciels TavdajerebiT amtkicebs. bavSvi yvela cemis Semdeg,jer erTi, sastikad Seuracxyofilia, meorec, cemam SeiZleba mozardisorganizmis seriozuli dazianeba gamoiwvios. bevrma mSobelma albaTarc ki icis, rom bavSvis sastikad cema kriminalia da isjeba kanoniT.zemoT moyvanili orive magaliTi uaryofiTi garemoa bavSvis harmoniuliganviTarebisTvis. konfliqturi atmosfero ojaxSi — iqneba esdedis cema da gineba, Tu TviTon mozardis cema, misadmi gamovlenilisisastike — Tanabrad zianis momtania. meuRleebs Soris fsiqologiuragresias Tan axlavs iseTi Seuracxyofa, rogoricaa: mudmivi kritika(ra msuqani, Seuxedavi da zarmacia meuRle, anda rogori uunaro dausaqmuria igi). sistemur fsiqiur zewolas am mimarTulebiT ki Tavisididi damajerebeli gavlena aqvs. es mZime fsiqiuri Wrilobaa pirovne-62


samarTalmcodneoba, konfliqtologiabisTvis, xandaxan Seuxorcebelic da aranakleb mtkivneuli, vidre silisgartyma an sxva fizikuri Seuracxyofa. amgvarma qmedebam SeiZlebaadamianSi piradi Rirsebis dakargvac gamoiwvios.miTi imis Sesaxeb, rom qalebi TviTon imsaxureben cemas qmrisadmi daumorCileblobisSemTxvevaSi, TavisTavad Semzaravia. coli adamiania, isar aris nivTi an kuTvnileba. es faqti imaze mianiSnebs, rom ojaxSi Zaladobadidi socialuri problemaa, misi fesvebi genderul stereotipebSiagadgmuli.miTi aseve imis Sesaxeb, rom qalebis umetesoba mazoxistia an mas didsiamovnebas hgvris qmris mier cema da amas aRiqvams siyvarulis gamoxatulebadaseve Semzaravia.ras niSnavs Zaladoba? es aris ara marto fizikuri Zalmomreoba,aramed pirovnebis Seuracxyofa da misi abuCad agdeba. es Zaladoba Sedgebasami komponentisagan: msxverpli, damanSave da TviT qmedeba. TavisixasiaTisa da Sedegebis gaTvaliswinebiT igi xSirad moiazreba kriminalurmoqmedebad. magram ojaxSi Zaladoba sxva saxis Zaladobisagan imiTgansxvavdeba, rom igi ojaxis farglebs saerTod ar scildeba. samar-Taldamcavi organoebisaTvis amgvari Zaradobis mxolod 10%-ia cnobili.Zalze saxifaToa is garemoebac, rom naTesavebi xSirad malaven faqtebs,rac moZalades axali danaSaulebisken ubiZgebs.arsebobs Zaladobis kidev erTi gansakuTrebuli forma — mentaluriZaladoba. amas xSir SemTxvevaSi (saqarTvelos pirobebSi) Cadian mSoblebiSvilebis mimarT. xdeba bavSvis pirovnulobis daTrgunva im ubralomizezis gamo, rom igi maTi Svilia da mSoblebis azri unda gaiTavisos.mSoblebi ar aRiareben adamianis uflebebs Svilebis mimarT. magaliTad,Svili daqorwinda da calke cxovreba surs. rogor aRiqvamen amas mSoblebi?aq TamaSdeba mTeli tragedia: unda daiSalos bina (romelic wvalebiTaaSenes mSoblebma), iwyeba gauTavebeli sayvedurebi — mSoblebsmeuRle arCia da amgvarad uxdis samagieros im amagisTvis, mTeli cxovrebamis aRzrdas rom Sealies. ase grZeldeba usasrulod. arsebobs erTiubralo WeSmariteba: roca adamiani srulwlovani xdeba da damoukidebladarseboba SeuZlia mas aqvs ufleba icxovros ise, rogorc TavadTvlis saWirod. mSoblebis survilis gauTvaliswinebloba sulac ar niSnavsimas, rom igi uars ambobs Svilis wmindaTawminda movaleobaze — izrunvosmaTze, amisTvis erTad cxovreba sulac ar aris aucilebeli.saqarTveloSi, ufro metad periferiebSi, jer kidev arsebobs qalismotacebis tradicia, rac TavisTavad kriminalia da isjeba kanoniT. magramam SemTxvevaSi sazogadoebis azri ambobs Tavis sityvas: — bevrs miaCnia`motacebuli~ qalis ojaxSi mobruneba masac da ojaxsac `Crdils~ ayenebs,63


samarTalmcodneoba, konfliqtologiaadgili aqvs qalze moralur zewolas, rom ar dabrundes Sin da beds daemorCilos.daaxloebiT igive mdgomareobaa maSinac, roca axalgazrdaqals gayra surs.invalidebi is socialuri fenaa, romelic yvelaze daucvelia Zaladobisganmoraluradac da fizikuradac. xSirad im motiviT, rom daicvaspirmSo TanatolTa da TviT mozrdilTa dacinvisagan deda invalidSvils ar uSvebs skolaSi, sazogadoebaSi, amiT is moralurad da emociuradZaladobs Svilze. Zaladobis nebismier formas pirovnebisTvisgamanadgurebeli Sedegebi moaqvs.Zaladobis fsiqologiuri efeqtebia — depresia, dakarguli Rirseba,ubedureba, SiSi, SfoTi, nevrozuloba.problemebi — umizezo sibraze da agresuloba, sruli gulgrilobayvelafrisadmi, alkoholizmi da narkomania.uaryofiTi gavlena cxovrebis Semdeg sferoebze, kerZod seqsualurcxovrebaze, bavSvebis aRrdaze da adamianebis damokidebulebaze.adamianis uflebebi mxolod kanonebis krebuli ar aris, es faseulobaTasistemaa, romelic uzrunvelyofs TiToeuli adamianis Rirsebas,mis erTaderTobas da unikalurobis aRiarebas. adamianis uflebebisdacva mSvidobisa da samarTlianobis safuZvelia. qalis ufleba adamianisuflebis ganuyreli nawilia im ubralo mizezis gamo, rom qalic adamiania.mas aqvs ufleba gadawyvitos visTan icxovros da rogor warmar-Tos ojaxuri cxovreba, gaTxovdes Tu ara, vis gahyves colad, gaaCinosTu ara Svili kanonieri qorwinebis gareSe, ramdeni Svili gaaCinos, gacildesTu ara qmars da ra viTarebaSi, flobdes Tu ara sakuTrebas dagankargos igi Tavisi survilis Sesabamisad.qalis, rogorc adamianis, uflebebia: ufleba sicocxleze, Tanasworobaze,pirad Tavisuflebasa da usafrTxoebaze, ufleba kanonis mxridan Tanaswordacvaze, ufleba yvela saxis diskriminaciisagan dacvaze, uflebaTanasworobaze SromiT urTierTobebSi, ufleba icxovros mis mimarT sastikida damamcirebeli moqmedebis dasjisa da Seuracxyofis gareSe.adamianis da misi uflebis uzenaesoba aRiarebulia mTeli civilizebulisamyaros mier. Zaladoba Zalze mravalmxrivi cnebaa da ramdenimeaspeqts aerTianebs — fsiqologiurs, iuridiuls, socialurs. iurisprudenciaSimiRebuli misi zogadi ganmarteba aseTia: — Zaladoba moicavsukanono qmedebaTa yvela saxes gamoxatuls muqariT an qmedebiT,romelsac Sedegad mohyveba qonebis dazianeba an ganadgureba, anda pirovnebisSeuracxyofa an sikvdili. es definacia did socialur sistemazeagaTvlili. ojaxi saxelmwifos safuZvelia, aris saxelmwifo saxelmwifoSi.64


samarTalmcodneoba, konfliqtologiaojaxSi Zaladobis fsiqologiuri da socialuri Sedegebis gaanalizebisasZalian didi mniSvneloba aqvs religiis, kulturuli tradiciebisada Cveulebebis gaTvaliswinebas. Zaladoba qalze da, saerTod, Zaladobisfenomeni qarTul kurturaSi ramdenadme daculia tradiciiT.qarTul ojaxSi qali aris daqvemdebarebuli da misi socialuri sivrcedadgenilia erTxel da samudamos. amdenad, sazogadoeba xSirad upasuxodtovebs Zaladobis faqtebs, romlebic droTa ganmavlobaSi sxvadasxvaformiT Tavad masve ubrundeba.yvela mamakaci ar aris moZalade, moZaladeebi arian qalebic, amis-Tvis gansakuTrebulad noyieri niadagi Seqmna ekonomikurma krizisma.mamakacis tradiciuli funqcia ojaxis rCena safuZvelgamoclili aRmoCnda.am SemTxvevaSi adgili aqvs fsiqologiuri Zaladobis eskalaciasqalis mxridan. am drosac bavSvebi Zaladobis daviwyebuli msxverplniarian. damcirebuli pirovneba, iqneba es qali Tu mamakaci, agresiulixdeba da es agresia gadadis bavSvebze sxvadasxva gziT — pirdapiriTu arapirdapiriT. Tu ojaxSi Zaladoba da damcireba urTierTobisCveulebrivi formaa, maSin bavSvebs fizikurad sjian, es mZime Sedegebsiwvevs — SiSs, gaborotebas, agresias. platoni ambobda `bavSvebis moqalaqedaRzrda ZuZus wovidan iwyebao~.problema sakmaod mZime da mtkivneulia. misi mxolod erTi wamali arsebobs— sazogadoebis TiToeulma wevrma unda gaacnobieros, rom ZaladobaojaxSi aris ara marto ojaxis, aramed mTeli sazogadoebis problema.konfliqtebis wamowyebis iniciatorebi Tanabrad arian rogorc qalebi(37, 3%) aseve maTi meuRleebi (33, 6%). qalis mxridan konfliqtebiswamowyeba ganpirobebulia qmris saqcieliT (simTvrale, usaqmuroba daa.S.) da, amdenad, pasuxismgebloba Cxubze am ukanasknels unda daekisros.gamokiTxulTa nawili (10, 6%) konfliqtebis wamowyebaSi ojaxissxva wevrebs adanaSaulebs. kerZod, yvelaze xSirad saxeldebian ufrosiTaobis warmomadgenlebi da Svilebi.1. col-qmars Soris konfliqtebisa da agresiis gamovlenis mizezebipirobiTad sam kategoriad SeiZleba dajgufdes: 1. colTan dakavSirebuli,2. qmarTan dakavSirebuli da 3. zogadi xasiaTis an mesame pirebTandakavSirebuli mizezebi.mizezebi, romelic ukavSirdeba uSualod qals an mis mimarT ganxorcilebelqmedebas aris — colis damokidebuleba Tavis Sexedulebebze,sxvebze gabrazebis an gaRizianebis colze gadmotana, qalis urCoba, eWvianobacolze, sxvadasxva saxis akrZalvebi qmris mxridan, qmris uxeSidamokidebeuleba, colis damcireba sxvebis TvalSi, qalis mier gadawyvetilebisdamoukideblad miReba da a.S.65


samarTalmcodneoba, konfliqtologia2. mizezebi, romelic qmars ukavSirdeba esaa: xSiri sma, colis mxridansayvedurebi, qmris usaqmuroba, qmris mier meti yuradRebis daTmobaTavisi samsaxurisa Tu profesiuli winsvlisadmi, vidre colisa daojaxisadmi, narkotikuli nivTierebebis moxmareba, qmris Ralati,qmris sruli damokidebuleba mSoblebis azrze Tu nebaze da a.S.3. zogadi xasiaTis an mesame pirebTan dakavSirebuli mizezebi: finansuriproblemebi, meuRlis mSoblebTan urTierTobis problemebi,SeuTanxmebloba Svilebis aRzrda-ganaTlebaSi, sxvebis Careva, sxvebismxridan waqezeba da grZnobebis gaqroba.rogorc vxedavT konfliqtis warmoSobis sakmaod tradiciuli faqtorebisparalelurad metad gavrcelebul mizezTa kompleqss qmnisuSualod qalis Cagvris gamomxatveli qmedebebi, romelsac miekuTvnebaTiTqmis mTlianad pirvel jgufSi gaerTianebuli mizezebi. aqve gasaTvaliswinebeliaiseTi movlenis gavrcelebis maRali xarisxi, rogoricaaqmris mxridan xSiri sma, simTvlarisa an narkotikebis moxmarebisada maTi zemoqmedebis qveS yofnis gamo konfliqtebis aRmoceneba da agresiisgamovlena. rogorc aRmoCnda, arcTu iSviaTad, amgvari konfliqtebiumniSvnelo an yovelgavri sababis gareSec Cndeba.aqedan gamomdinare, SegviZlia garkevuli daskvnebis gamotanac: materialurixasiaTis da mesame pirebTan dakavSirebuli sirTuleebiszewolis qveS myof col-qmars Soris urTierTobebi xSirad mwvavdebasxvadasxva saxis Sida zewolis gamo, romelTa Soris didi adgili uWiravsuSualod qalis Cagvris gamomxatvel qmedebebs.uSualod qalTan dakavSirebuli konfliqtebis yvelaze gavrcelebulimizezebi, pirobiTad or kategoriad iyofa: erT-erTis SemadgenelibirTvia qalis damokidebuleba an mcdeloba daicvas sakuTari interesebi;meoresi ki qmris mcdeloba ganaxorcielos kontroli. saboloo jamSiorive jgufis mizezebi ukavSirdeba qalis brZolas TavisuflebisTvis.mniSvnelovania, rom swored qalTan dakavSirebuli konfliqturimizezebis mimarTgamovlinda regionaluri gansxvavebebi. yvelaze dididatvirTva (rogorc gavrcelebulobis, aseve intensivobis aspeqtiT) ammxriv modis TbilisSi da yvelaze naklebi regionebSi, gansakuTrebiTaRmosavleT saqarTveloSi. SesaZlebelia es sxvaoba ganpirobebuliiyos regionebSi qalTa Sexedulebebis meti konservatiulobiT da, Sesabamisad,sakuTari Tavis mimarT aseTi damokidebulebis miuReblobiT.aseve savaraudoa, rom qalTan dakavSirebuli mizezebis naklebi wonaregionebSi pasuxismgeblobis acilebis mcdelobaa. arc es varaudia safuZvelsmoklebuli, vinaidan im regionebSi, sadac yvelaferi mkafiodgamovlinda es tendencia ufro pasuxismgeblobas konfliqtebis gamow-66


samarTalmcodneoba, konfliqtologiavevisTvis mamakacs metad akisrebs, gansakuTrebiT sxva regionebisgangansxvavebiT, sadac sawinaaRmdego tendencia dafiqsirda.konfliqtur situaciaSi qmris mier ukmayofilebis gamovlenisformaTa Soris aSkarad Warbobs sxvadasxva saxis sityvieri Seuracxyofa— buzRuni da sayvedurebi (53,2%) yvirili da lanZRva (31,9%). gacilebiTiSviaTad miuTiTeben fizikuri Sexebis SemTxvevaTa Sesaxeb(11.1% cema, xelis kvra, nivTis srola). Tumca verbaluri Zaladobis gamovlenaTaxarisxi sakmaod maRalia. am formis agresia gamokiTxulTadid umravlesobas (85.2%) ganucdia, aqedan mesamdze mets misi ukiduresigamovlinebebi — muqara, yvirili da lanZRva. ukmayofilobis gamoxatvisprioritetul formebs miekuTvneba aseve `saxlidan wasvla dadaTroba~. sakmaod xSiria agreTve iribi agresiis SemTxvevebi, rodesacjavrs iyri nivTebze an ojaxis sxva wevrebze.aRsaniSnavia, rom Tavad qalebic analogiur situaciaSi ukmayofilebisgamovlenis imave prioritetul formebs irCeven, rasac maTi meuRleebiim gansxvavebiT, rom yvelaze gavrcelebuli verbaluri agresiisgamomxatveli qmedebebi maTTan naklebi xasirsiT vlindeba.kvlevis Tanaxmad, yoveli meSvide qalis mimarT qmarma misi fexmZimobisperiodSi ganaxorciela fizikuri da sityvieri Seuracxyofa. amqalTa garkveul nawils Zaladoba araerTxel ganucdia. aseT Seuracxyofasim qalebis nawilisTvis, visac amgvari ram gadaxda Tavs metadmZime Sedegebi mohyva — muclis moSla (3.8%), iZulebiTi aborti (0.7%),fsiqikuri tramva (12.3%), gayra (2.6%).mamakacis mier ukmayofilebis imave prioritetuli saxeebis dafiqsirebiTsxvadasxva asakobriv jgufebSi gamovlinda garkveuli gansxvavebulobebic.kerZod, Tu axalgazrdebis da saSualo asakis warmomadgenlebTanmetad aris aqcentirebuli ukmayofilebis gamoxatvis verbaluriformebi (buzRuni, sayvedurebi) ufros asakobriv jgufebSi SedarebiTmeti xarisxiT aris warmodgenili fizikuri da verbaluri agresiisgamovlenis Semdegi saxeebi: cema, cemiT damuqreba, xmis amouRebladsadme gancalkeveba, sagnebisa da nivTebis mtvreva. rac SeexebaTTavad qalebis mier sakuTari ukmayofilebis gamoxatvis formebs dagavrcelebis xarisxs, am TvalsazrisiT samive jgufSi dafisirebuliqmediTi modelebi srulad erTgvarovani aRmoCnda Tavisi gamovlenissixSiriT.Riad gamovlenili verbaluri da fizikuri Zaladobis SemTxvevebisakmaod STambeWdavia rogorc Tavisi gavrcelebis masStabebiT, aseveformis nairsaxeobiT. qalze uSualod mimarTuli agresiuli qmedebebisada sityvieri Zaladobis paralelurad arcTu mcire adgili uWiravs67


samarTalmcodneoba, konfliqtologiaCagvrisa Tu mZime emociuri diskomfortis Semqneli zewolis sxvadasxvaformebs. amasTan, mniSvnelovania, qalTa ZiriTadi strategia amgvariukiduresad mZime Zaladobis SemTxvevaSic ki, mdgomareobis moTmenasada momxdris reagirebis gareSe datovebaSia.mniSvnelovania imis aRniSvnac, rom ukmayofilebis gamovlenis Ziri-Tad strategias verbalur agresiasTan erTad qalTa arcTu mcire nawili(15.18%) avlens msxverplisTvis Cveul qmedebebsac (pasiuri dalodebavidre situacia TavisiT ar mogvardeba, momxdaris arSemCneva, tirili,sibralulis gamowveva moZaladeSi da a.S.).garkveul regionebSi mamakacis mxridan ukmayofilebis gamoxatvaSesabamisi TaviseburebebiT xasiaTdeba, rac Zaladobis ama Tu im formisromelime regionSi meti xasiaTiT gavrcelebaSi gamoixateba.aseve yuradRebas iqcevs Semdegi regionaluri Taviseburebebi: dasavleTsaqarTvelos warmomadgenlebi cdiloben, rac SeiZleba naklebidartymis qveS moaqcion mamakacebi da am mcdelobaSi iviwyeben sakuTariTavis Selamazebis saWiroebas. aRmosavleT saqarTvelos respondentebTansapirispiro tendencia SeiniSneba, isini TbiliselebTan SedarebiTacki ufro usvamen xazs fizikur Zaladobasa da mZime situacias maTmimarT. isini cdiloben gamokveTon is mZime viTareba, rac vlindeba maTmimarT mamakacebis mxridan.qalebis mier ukmayofilebis gamoxatva ar xasiaTdeba raime assakobrivispecifikiT da ZiriTadad verbaluri agresiis saxeebis an pasiuristrategiebis mcdari arsenalis gamoyenebiT xdeba. pasiuri strategiisTvisnawili tipuria Zaladobis msxverplisTvis.miuxedavad imisa, rom ufrosi Taobis respondentebi sxva jgufebiswarmomadgenlebTan SedarebiT naklebad miuTiTeben maT mimarT mamakacismxridan verbaluri agresiis gamoyenebis Sesaxeb, isini sxvebze metadxdebian mZime fizikuri Seuracxyofis obieqtebi.Zaladoba ojaxSi damangrevel da yovlismomcvel socialur problemaswarmoadgens. rogorc kvlevam cxadyo, ojaxuri Zaladoba msofliosnebismier wertilSi arsebobs da scildeba klasis, Semosavlis, ganaTlebisada kulturis sazRvrebs. radgan ojaxur Zaladoba ojaxursivrceSi xdeba, amitom xSirad amis Sesaxeb Setyobineba ar keTdeba.msxverplisTvis, ojaxisa da sazogadoeba miyenebuli ziani saTanadodSefasebuli ar aris. sazogadoebebi am epidemiasTan saTanadod gamklavebasver axerxeben, radgan mezoblebi, samarTaldamcavebi da xelisuflebaTavs ikavebs CaerTos imaSi, rac, maTi ganmartebiT, okaxis piradisaqmea. gaerTianebuli erebis organizaciam mravaljer dagmo ojaxuriZaladoba, rogorc adamianis uflebebis xelyofa da mouwoda mTavro-68


samarTalmcodneoba, konfliqtologiabebs am problemis mogvarebisken sakanonmdeblo reformebis, socialurimomsaxurebisa da sazogadoebrivi ganaTlebis saSualebiT.saqarTvelos respublikam mniSvnelovani nabiji gadadga ojaxuriZaladobis problemebis gadaWris saqmeSi. 2006 wlis maisSi saqarTvelosparlamentma miiRo saqarTvelos kanoni ojaxSi Zaladobis aRkveTis,msxverplTa dacvisa da daxmarebis Sesaxeb.miuxedavad imisa, rom xandazmulebi, unarSezRudulebi da zrdasrulimamakacebi SeiZleba Sediodnen ojaxuri Zaladobis msxverplTakategoriaSi, am Sefasebis miznebisTvis ojaxuri Zaladoba ganisazRvrebarogorc fizikuri, seqsualuri, fsiqologiuri da ekonomikuriZaladoba, romelic xdeba ojaxSi da mimarTulia qalebisa da bavSvebisken.es moicavs sastik mopyrobas, gaupatiurebas qorwinebSi yofnisdros, daSinebas, Seuracxyofas, izolacias da sxva gavrcelebul praqtikas,romelic zians ayenebs qalebsa da bavSvebs. es Sefaseba cal-calkeganixilavs ojaxur Zaladobas qalis, aseve bavSvTa mimarT.bavSvis Zaladobisa da ugulebelyofis problema saqarTveloSi naklebadSeswavlil sakiTxs warmoadgens. arsebobs Zalian mwiri informaciabavSvTa mimarT fizikuri Zaladobis gavrcelebis Sesaxeb da kidevufro naklebebi informacia moipoveba bavSvTa mimarT seqsulaur ZaladobasTandakavSirebiT.genderuli Tanasworoba, romelic warmoaCens qalisa da kacis moRvaweobasTanabrad sazogadoebis yvela sferoSi, damtkicebulia saqar-Tvelos parlamentis mier 2006 wels, romelic xazgasmiT miuTiTebs qalisada kacis Tanabari uflebebis uzrunvelyofas, aseve qveynis politikur,ekonomikur da socialur procesebSi qalTa monawileobis gaumjobesebisaucileblobas.genderuli statistika — es aris statistika qalisa da kacis mdgomareobisSesaxeb sazogadoebrivi da ekonomikuri saqmianobis yvelasferoSi. is warmoadgens erT-erT umniSvnelovaness instruments romelicsaSualebas iZleva gaTvaliswinebul iqnes qalisa da kacis, rogorcspecifikuri socialur-demografiuli jgufis TaviseburebaniTanabari uflebebisa da SesaZleblobebis principebis optimaluri politikisSemuSavebaSi.genderuli statistikis mizania Sedarebisa da Sefasebebis gziT uzrunvelyosmiukerZoebeli monacemebi qalisa da kacis statusis, genderuliTanasworobis realuri viTarebis Sesaxeb.ras gulisxmobs genderuli sakiTxi? ras gulisxmobs Tanasworobis sakiTxi?es ori kiTxva udevs safuZvlad Tanasworobis principis genderulsakiTxebze gavrcelebas, magram maTi gaxmovaeba iSviaTad xdeba. aseTi vi-69


samarTalmcodneoba, konfliqtologiaTareba aaSkaravebs azrovnebisa da aRqmaze genderis imgvar gavlenas, romelicsamarTlisa da moralis gabatonebuli Teoria am orive kiTxviT pasuxobs.es sakiTxebi msgavsebasa da gansxvavebas exeba. Sedegad ki gvaqvs,samarTlis sqesis niSniT diskriminaciis gamomwvevi, gabatonebuli doqtrina,romlis gamoc sqesTa Soris Tanasworobis kanoni sruliad araefeqturiaRmoCnda qalebisTvisimis misaniWeblad, rac Cven gvesaWiroebada razec socialur sinamdvileSi dabadebidanve ar migviwvdeba xeli — esaris Sansi nayofieri cxovrebisa, aseve TviT gamoxatvis, individad Camoyalibebis,minimaluri pativiscemisa da Rirsebis qonis SesaZlebloba.sqesTa Tanasworobis Sesaxeb politikaSi, samarTalsa da socialursinamdvileSi gabatonebuli midgomis mixedviT, Tanasworoba igiveobaada ara samarTlebrivi mandati, romelic erTdroulad sistemuri normacaada specifikuri samarTlis doqtrinac, kerZod msgavsebis mimar-TulebiT analogiuri da gansxvavebulobis TvalsazrisiT — gansxvavebulmopyrobas gulisxmobs.mieciT qalebs Tanaswori Zalaufleba socialur cxovrebaSi. hqondesCvens naTqvams mniSvneloba da Semdeg CavebmebiT moralis SesaxebsakiTxebze gamarTul msjelobaSi. manmade vidre sqesTa TanasworobasqesTa Soris arsebuli gansxvavebiT (Semoifargleba mogwonT es Tuara, afasebT Tu gmobT, iyenebT amas feminizmis Tu mizoginiis wyarod)qalebi daibadebian, degradirdebian da gardaicvlebian. kanonmdeblobiTmxolod iseTi Tanaswori dacvaa misaRebi, romelic adamians dabadebis,cxovrebisa da sikvdilis SesaZleblobebs miscems qveyanaSi, sadac`dacva~ salanZRavi sityva ar aris, xolo Tanasworoba — gansakuTrebuliprivilegia.gamoyenebuli literatura:1. eduard kodua, `sociologia~, meore nawili `ojaxisa da qorwinebissociologia~.2. organizacia qalebi demokratiisTvis, `Zaladoba ojaxSi da adamianisuflebebi~, qali da kaci saqarTveloSi, `ojaxuri Zaladobaqalze~ cwn iccn. mravalkomponentiani kvleva, Tbilisi, 2006 weli.3. `ojaxuri Zaladoba da bavSvebis mimarT Zaladoba saqarTveloSi~.Tbilisi, saqarTvelo, 2006 weli.4. qeTrin maqkinoni. genderi, kultura, Tanamedroveoba `gansxvavebada dominireba~ `sqesis niSniT diskriminaciis Sesaxeb~.70


samarTalmcodneoba, konfliqtologiaqeTevan CiqvilaZeivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifouniversitetis bakalavriatis studentiebraelTa genocidi da faSisturi germaniaxelmZRvaneli: profesori ak. geTiaSvilissrk-s teritoriaze ebraelTa holkostis Tavisebureba gamowveuliiyo imiT, rom sabWoTa kavSirSi ebraelTa gansakuTrebiT didi raodenobacxovrobda. 1941 wlis 22 ivniss, germanelTa mier sabWoTa teritoriazeTavdasxmis momentisTvis, sabWoTa ebraelebi warmoadgendnenyvelaze did Tems evropis teritoriaze (5 ml). swored aman ganapirobais faqti, rom nacistebis mier ganadgurebul ebraelTa Soris, yvelazemeti sabWoTa ebraeli iyo. okupirebul teritoriaze aRmoCnda 3 ml. ebraeli.rogori reagireba hqonda sabWoTa mTavrobas am faqtTan?sabWoTa mTavrobas omis pirvelive dReebidan gaaCnda informaciafaSistTa mxridan ebraelebis, rogorc eris mimarT gansakuTrebul. si-Zulvilis Sesaxeb da amitom survilis SemTxvevaSi SeiZleboda ebrael-Ta msxverplis Semcireba, Tuki sabWoTa mTavroba miiRebda Sesabamiszomebs, magram es ar gakeTda da Tu ratom amis mravali versia arsebobs.kerZod oficialur gancxadebaSi sabWoTa xelisuflebas informaciaebraelTa msxverplis Sesaxeb minimumamde dahyavda. ukve 1941wlis zafxulis TveebSi, moskovSi midioda cnobebi ebraelTa masobrivganadgurebebze. pirveli aseTi cnoba, romelic mivida stalinTan, TariRdeboda1941 wlis 25 ivnisiT da misuli iyo belorusiis pirvelimdivnis panomarenkosgan. panomarenko am wlebSi ebraelebs moixseniebslaCrebad, romlebic mzad iyvnen gasaqcevad. agvistoSi gagzavnil werilSiki igi gadmoscems faqtebs, Tu rogor uswordebodnen nacistebiebraelebs belorusiis respublikaSi. aqedan gamomdinare, 1941 wlisagvistosTvis, sabWoTa mTavrobas ukve hqonda zusti informacia ebraulimosaxleobis masobrivi ganadgurebis Sesaxeb. ukve swored am periodSi— 1941 wlis 24 agvistos, mTavrobam neba darTo ebrauli kulturiswarmomadgenlebs CaetarebinaT radiomitingi. informacia mitingisSesaxeb ganTavsda centralur presaSi. igi mouwodebda yvelas, ebrZolaTokupantebis winaaRmdeg, aseve isini saubrobdnen nacistebis gegmaze,romelic iTvaliswinebda mTeli ebraeli eris ganadgurebas. sworedam periodSi Caisaxa idea antifaSisturi komitetis Seqmnisa, romelic71


samarTalmcodneoba, konfliqtologiamTels saerTaSoriso sazogadoebas miawodebda informacias sisastikisSesaxeb ebraelTa winaaRmdeg (Seiqmna 1942 w. Teberval).aRsaniSnavia, rom ssrk-s ebraelebis ganadgurebis pirvel masobrivetapze sabWoTa mTavroba didi sifrTxiliT laparakobda ebraelTa masobrivganadgurebaze. mTavroba laparakobda, rom TiTqosda nacistebisxva eris warmomadgenlebsac ase anadgurebdnen. 1941 w. 7 noembersmoskovSi stalinma pirvelad da ukanasknelad isaubra am faqtze — aRniSnaebraelTa uzarmazari msxverpli da daadanaSaula germanelebiSua saukuneebis ebraelTa darbevebSi. mTavrobis mier aranairi zomebiar iqna miRebuli, aseve raTa daxmareba aRmoeCinaT getos ebraelebisaTvis,aseve ar iyo miRebuli araviTari zomebi ebraelTa evakuaciisgansaxorcieleblad.aRsaniSnavia, rom omis pirvelive dReebidan baltiispireTis qveynebisokupirebul teritoriaze adgilobrivi mosaxleobisagan iqmnebodaantiebrauli da antisabWoTa razmebi, romlebic TavianTi sisatikiTnacistebsac ki aocebdnen. mag., q. kaunasSi moqmedebdnen e.w. ~partizanebi~litvuri aqtivisturi frontidan. isini qalaqebSi awyobdnen darbevebs,wamebiT klavdnen ebrauli mosaxleobas, avrcelebdnen proklamaciebs,sadac iwereboda, rom litva unda gaTavisuflebuliyo bolSevizmisda ebraul monobisagan. `partizanebi~ ukan ar ixevdnen sasulieropirebis winaSec. yvelaze saSineli sajaro mkvlelobebidan gamoir-Ceva kaunasSi sajaro mkvleloba 1941 wlis 25 ivniss, rodesac ebraelebidaxoces lietukis kooperativis garaJSi.mTels okupirebul sabWoTa teritoriaze amoqmedda umZlavresi nacisturipropagandisturi manqanqana. didi tiraJebiT vrceldebodaantisabWoTa da gansakuTrebiT antisemituri presa. omis Semdeg arqivebSiaRmoCenda 400-ze meti gazeTi, romelic gamodioda dapyrobil teritoriaze.es gazeTebi ZiriTadad iyo rusul, ukrainul, belorusiul,litvur enebze da gaTvlili iyo msxvili qalaqebis da regionebismosaxleobaze.`Белорусская газета~. gazeTebi gamodioda kviraSi orjer da lamazadiyo gaformebuli.aRsaniSnavia, rom gazeTis TanamSromlebs irCevda vermaxti da presacmaT mier kontroldeboda. presis propagandis mTavari sakiTxi iyoantisemitizmi. gazeTebSi mkveTrad iyo xazgasmuli, rom ebraelebi warmoadgenenbolSevizmis mTavar sayrdens da amitom saWiro iyo maTi racSeiZleba male ganadgureba. mag., gazeTSi `Украинское слово~-Si, iwereboda,rom ebraelebi, romlebic cxovroben kievSi ixdidnen aTasobiTrubls, raTa SeniRbuliyvnen somxebad da berZnebad, rusebad da ukrai-72


samarTalmcodneoba, konfliqtologianelebad. ukraineli patriotebi ki ocnebobdnen, rom Tavisi mSvenierisamSoblo gaewmindaT wiTeli komisrebisgan da ebraelebisgan, es patriotebiyoveldRe midiodnen SevCenkos 48-Si, patara saxlSi, raTa moexsenebinaTim mtrebis Sesaxeb, romlebic imalebodnen sxvisi saxlebisqveS~. am publikaciebis mTavari mizani iyo minimumamde daeyvanaT ebraelebismimarT mosaxleobis daxmareba 1941 wlis 28 seqtembridan 3oqtombramde kievSi moklul iqna 120 aTasi adamiani, raSic faSistebTanerTad didi roli iTamaSa adgilobrivma mosaxleobam. mokluli iyouamravi boSa da sabWoTa tyve, magram umetesoba ebraeli iyo. babi-iariiqca ebraelTa samsxverplod, Tumca sabWoTa xelisuflebis mier esfaqti aranairad ar iqna aRniSnuli. iuwyebodnen, rom mokluli iyo sab-WoTa xalxi. aRsaniSnavia isic, rom daRupulTa memoriali babi-iarTanmxolod 1974 wels daidga sazogadoebis zewoliT.1942 wlis gazafxulze ssrk-s teritoriaze amoqmedda ebrauli antifaSisturikomiteti, romelsac saTaveSi Caudga samuel miprelsi —ebrauli Teatris mxatvruli xelmZRvaneli. mis SemadgenlobaSi Sediodnenebraeli eqimebi, mwerlebi, mecnierebi. omis ganmavlobaSi eak-mCaatara sami mitingi, dabeWdvisTvis moamzada masalebi, sadac aRweriliiyo antisemitizmis faqtebi, mTavari Tema iyo polokostis Tema dabrZola nacizmis winaaRmdeg. eak-i omis wlebSi ewvia aSS-s did qalaqebsda milionobiT dolari moagrova sabWoTa armiis sasargeblod. agreTvedaamyara kontaqtebi msoflios wamyvan ebraul organizaciebTan. gamomcemloba`der-em-es~ ar undoda gamosuliyo cnobili `Savi wigni~(grosmani) — saerTasoriso msxvili proeqtis nawili — aSS-s da palestinisebrauli organizaciebis monawileobiT. 1947 wlis Semodgomaze gamovidabrZaneba wignis akrZalvaze. ase rom, wigni ar gamosula. 1947wels mipoelsi mokles TanamSromlebma. 1948 wels ki eak-i daxures.dRemde yofil ssrk-s teritoriaze naklebadaa Seswavlili eklesiisroli holkostis periodSi. mxolod isaa cnobili, rom rigi sasulieropirebi sicocxlis fasad mfarvelobdnen ebraelebs - aZlevdnen TavSesafarsda naTlobis yalb sabuTebsac ki.aRsaniSnavia, rom nacisturi mTavroba germaniis teritoriebze arqmnida getoebs. getoebi iqmneboda ZiriTadad poloneTis da ssrk-sokupirebul teritoriaze. aq germanelebi ebraelebs did xans ar aCerebdnen,maT maleve anadgurebdnen. ssrk-s teritoriaze yvelaze xangrZliviaRmoCnda ori udidesi geto minsksa da kaunasSi. aq ori wlisganmavlobaSi ebraelebs iyenebdnen sxvadasxva mZime samuSaoebis Sesasruleblad.Tavisebureba imaSi mdgomareobda, rom getoebSi Tavmoyrilniiyvnen rogorc sabWoTa, aseve raixis ebraelebic. miuxedavad er-73


samarTalmcodneoba, konfliqtologiaTi warmoSobisa, maT Soris aranairi urTierToba ar arsebobda. raixisebraelebi Tavs sabWoTa ebraelebze maRla ayenebdnen da maTgan gansxvavebiTuars ambobdnen yovelgvar brZolaze.omis Semdeg aqtiurad vrceldeboda xmebi ebraelebis simxdalis Sesaxeb,rasac uaryofs umaravi faqti. omis pirvelive dReebidan ebraelebi,iseve rogorc ssrk-s teritoriaze sxva xalxebi, aqtiurad monawileobdnenbrZolebSi. okupirebul teritoriebze iqmneboda ebraulipartizanuli razmebi, romlebic eweodnen aqtiur antifaSistur moqmedebebs.sakoncentracio banakebSi ebraelTa TaosnobiT moewyo uamravimasobrivi amboxeba da ramdenime maTgani gaqceviT dasrulda. kaunasissakoncentracio banakidan (IX fortidan). 1943 wlis dekemberSi gaiqca64 tyve ebraeli. gaqceva organizebuli iyo 20 wlis aleqs faitelonismier. misi mizani iyo ara marto Tavisi Tavis, aramed 63 nacisturi sisastikismowme tyveebis gadarCena. aRsaniSnavia, rom naxevar milionamdeebraeli ebrZoda faSizms sabWoTa armiis rigebSi da maTi udidesi nawiliSeewira am oms. 131 ebraeli mebrZoli dajildovda ssrk-s gmiris ordeniT.am maCveneblebiT ebrael xalxs sabWoTa xalxebs Soris me-5 adgiliuWiravs.74


samarTalmcodneoba, konfliqtologiaelene jirkveliSvili, nino cecxlaZessip goris universiteti, bakalavriatis studenti2008 wlis ruseT-saqarTveloskonfliqti da saxalxo diplomatiaxelmZRvaneli: profesori daviT CoCiSvili2008 wlis ruseT — saqarTvelos konfliqtma qarTuli sazogadoebaor nawilad gayo. erTni amtkiceben, rom ruseTTan mxolod molaparakebissaSualebiT SeiZleba warTmeul da damoukidebel saxelmwifoebadaRiarebuli regionebis dabruneba, xolo meore nawili gamoricxavs ruseTTanyovelgvar urTierTobas da saxavs mas mtris xatad.ruseT-saqarTvelos komfliqtma udidesi ziani miayena qveyanas, ruseTmafaqtobrivad miitaca Cveni teritoriis mniSvnelovani nawili,daiRupa da dasaxiCrda asobiT adamiani, pirisagan miwisa aRigava istoriulisoflebi, aTasobiT adamiani sakuTar qveyanaSi devnilad iqca,mniSvnelovani ziani miadga ekologias. gaizarda ukontrolo teritoriisfarTobi da qveynis gaerTianebis vadamac gaurkveveli droiT gadaiwia.realoba aseTia: Cveni Crdiloeli mezobeli, didi saxelmwiforuseTi yovelTvis cdilobs daCagros, daipyros an sxvagvarad daumtkicosupiratesoba da miuCinos im subieqts, romelic misi gavlenissferodan gasvlas cdilobs (am SemTxvevaSi saqarTvelos) `saTanado~adgili.komfliqtebidan ukve 2 weli gavida, magram aranairi winsvla ar aRiniSnebasaxelmwifoebriv urTierTobebSi, Tu ar CavTliT larsis sazRvrisgaxsnas, romelic mezobel somxeTs akavSirebs ruseTTan. ruseTisxelisufleba cdilobs, rom saqarTvelo da postsabWouri sivrce amyofosTavisi gavlenis sferoSi, saqarTvelo ki ruseTs sTavazobs dasavlurRirebulebebze damyarebul, Tanasworuflebian da keTilmezoblururTierTobebs, sadac gaTvaliswinebuli iqneba orive qveynis interesebi.Cveni azriT, Zalaze damyarebuli urTierToba ruseTTan CveniqveynisTvis SeuZlebelic aris da miuRebelic. vfiqrobT, mxolodmolaparakebis saSualebiT mivaRwevT ruseTTan keTilmezobluri ur-TierTobis damyarebas. ojaxi yvelaze dabali socialuri organizaciaada masac sWirdeba mezobeli, xolo qveynebs, romlebic erT geografiularealSi imyofeba aucileblad unda hqondes civiluri urTierTobebi.es ruseTTan SedarebiT Zneli misaRwevia, magram politikosis niWiswored imaSi gamoixateba, rom moZebnos sakuTari qveynisTvis sasurve-75


samarTalmcodneoba, konfliqtologiali gamosavali nebismieri konfliqturi situaciidan. amis magaliTebiCveni qveynis istoriaSi sakmaod mravladaa. ruseTs ar eTmoba postsab-Wouri sivrce, mas ar SeuZlia samxreT kavkasia datovos Tavisi gavlenismiRma da amisTvis mimarTavs aTasgvar xerxs. magaliTad, qarTuli Rvinisada mineraluri wylis Setana aikrZala ruseTis mTel teritoriaze,rac ekonomikuri wnexi aseve yvelanairad cdilobda saqarTvelos saer-TaSoriso avtoritetis Selaxvas, rac xSir SemTxvevaSi gamosdioda kidec,amas yvelafers ki daerTo agvistos tragediac, rodesac ruseTmafaqtobrivad miitaca Cveni qveynis teritoriis nawili. es gansakuTrebuladmtkivneuli aRmoCnda qarTlis mosaxleobisaTvis, romelmac dakargaara mxolod teritoriuli mTlianoba, aramed sasoflo-sameurneoproduqtebis realizaciis adgili.miuxedavad omis saSinelebebisa, adamianebs Soris SeiZleba omisdrosac arsebobdes Cveulebrivi damokidebuleba. TviTmxilvelebi yvebianim saSineli omis deatlebs, rodesac urTierToba hqondaT rus jariskacebTan.magaliTisTvis momyavs respodentis (goris raionis sofelqereSi mcxovrebi gulo ZabaxiZis) naambobi. is dRemde SeZrwunebuliaim sanaxaobiT, rac omis dros gadaxda miuxedavad amisa igi ambobs,rom rusis jariskacebi Zalian naRvlianebi iyvnen, isinic xom adamianebiarian da maTac ar surdaT xalxis xocva. isini cdilobdnen urTierTobadaemyarebinaT adgilobriv mcxovreblebTan.or mezobel saxelmwifos Soris amJamad urTierTobis vakuumia.jerjerobiT yvela diplomatiuri saqaRalde Cakecilia da arc perspeqtivaSiarame ukeTesi. diplomatia da molaparakebis magidasTandajdoma aucilebelia da es yvelaze kargi saSualebaa problemebismogvarebisTvis, radgandazaralda ekonomikuri sistema. aman gamoiwviaCveni xalxis Seviwroveba ruseTSi da migraciis procesebis zrda.omi ise aravis azaralebs, rogorc Cveulebriv, rigiT moqalaqeebs,romlebmacdakarges axloblebi da iZulebuli gaxdnen wamosuliyvnenesaxlebidan da maTi umravlesoba ver brundeba okupirebul teritoriebze.imisaTvis, rom Cvenma qveyanam, rogorc saxelmwifom mtrulad ganwyobilqveyanasTan SeinarCunos urTierTobis berketebi, amisaTvis sa-Wiroa qveynebs Soris dialogi, romelic raRac doneze iarsebebs. saqarTvelo-ruseTisurTierTobebi erT-erTi rTuli kvanZia TanamedrovesaerTaSoriso urTierTobebSi. saerTaSoriso Tanamegobrobas damaT Soris evrokavSirs SeuZlia (ase Tu ise) daareguliros mtruladganwyobili qveynebis urTierTobebi, magram es ar aris martivi. jerjerobiTam mxriv ar ganxorcieleula mniSvnelovani molaparakeba da win-76


samarTalmcodneoba, konfliqtologiasvla, amisaTvis aucilebelia xalxis moqmedeba, raTa daicvan sakuTariqveynis interesebi. Cven unda gavacnobieroT, rom dro mtris mxarezemuSaobs, rac meti dro gava miT metad davSordebiT afxazeTisa da cxinvalisregionis dabrunebas qarTul saxelmwifoebriv sivrceSi.Cveni azriT, amisaTvis saWiroa ganxorcieldes gacvliTi programebi,telexidebi, raTa ruseTis mosaxleobam gaigos sinamdvile, rac moxdasaqarTveloSi da ara is, Tu ras gadascemen rusuli masmediis saSualebebiam konfliqtis Sesaxeb. `mTavaria dialogi xalxebs da ara politikosebsSoris~.TiToeulma adamianma gonebiT unda gaiziaros Tu ra didi mniSvnelobaaqvs qarTul-rusul diplomatiur urTierTobebis damyarebas.amaSi unda CaerTos inteligencia, kulturisa da sportis moRvaweni,romelTac SeuZliaT Seqmnan ndobis faqtori rogorc qarTuli, aseverusuli sazogadoebisaTvis. unda Seecadon, rom uwindeburad SeinaCunonTbili da megobruli urTierToba, ise rom dacul iqnes sakuTriqveynis inetresebi. Tu ar iarsebebs saxalxo diplomatia, qveyanas udidesisafrTxe emuqreba imitom, rom saqarTvelo isedac mZime politikurviTarebaSia da molaparakebis gareSe ufro metad damZimdeba rogorcekonomikuri mdgomareoba, aseve ufro metad gaWirdeba dakarguliteritoriebis aRdgena. TaobaTa cvla mtkivneulad aisaxeba samSvidoboprocesebze, vinaidan adamianebi, romlebic icnobdnen erTmaneTs,iyvnen erTmaneTis naTesavebi, megobrebi, saqmiani partniorebi es yvelaferiTandaTan ucxovdeba da maTi urTierTobebisa da ndobis aRdgenasmeti dro dasWirdeba.unda mogaxsenoT, rom Sedegi eqneba nebismier mcdelobas, romelickonkretul Sedegze iqneba orientirebuli da sadac uzenaesi iqneba saqarTvelossaxelmwifoebriobis interesebi. mravali wlis manZilze, ma-Sinac ki, rodesac konfliqti mZvinvarebda, goris raionisa da cxivnalisregions Soris mainc arsebobda urTierTobebi. es urTierTobasxvadasxva aspeqtSi gamoixateboda, iyo es ekonomikuri interesi da saqmianiurTierTobebi, mosaxleoba rogorc erTi, ise meore mxridan gadadiodaerTmaneTis Wirsa da lxinSi, gansakuTrebiT gacxovelebuli iyosavaWro saqmianob. qarTlis mosaxleoba Tavisi xilisa da sasoflo-sameurneoproduqciis realizebas swored cxinvalis regionSi axerxebda,am ukanasknelT ki igi gadahqondaT CrdiloeT kavkasiaSi. es urTier-Tobebi ar Semwydara maSinac ki, rodesac sazRvars akontrolebdnensamSvidoboebi.mas Semdeg, rac ruseTma moaxdina aRniSnuli regionis sruli okupaciada gamoacxada ZirZvel qarTul miwebze damoukidebeli saxelmwi-77


samarTalmcodneoba, konfliqtologiafoebis arseboba, es urTierTobebi Sewyda, Sewyda saerTod. ufro metic,erTi qveynis mosaxleoba gaiyo orad. ruseTma, romelic avtoriaberlinis kedlis mSeneblobisa, misi realizeba saqarTveloSic scada.Sewyda yovelgvari urTierToba qarTvelebsa da osebs Soris. es kideverTxel cxadyofs imas, rom rodesac mesame Zala, anu ruseTi srul kontrolsiRebs sazRvris monitoringze, maSin yovelgvari urTierTobebiwydeba adamianebs Soris. politika — gaTiSe da ibatone kvlav ZalaSia daTavisi Sedegebi moaqvs. es imis damadasturebelia, rom dampyrobelsswored saxalxo diplomatiis, xalxis erTmaneTTan urTierTobis eSinia,vinaidan amdeni wlis manZilze ver moaxerxa am ori eris ise gaTiSva, romisini erTmaneTis dauZinebeli mtrebi gamxdariyvnen. sakmarisia, mesameZalis gverdze gadgoma da maSinve moZebnian isev erTmaneTs Zveli nacnobebi,saqmiani partniorebi, naTesavebi..rogorc Cemi mSoblebi gadmogvcemen, 90-iani wlebis konfliqtisdros bevri osi SeufarebiaT Cvensa da mezoblebis ojaxebs maradiorebisrisxvisgan. es adamianebi Semdeg maTi kargi nacnobebi gamxdaran daZalian nanobdene imas, rom arc erT ers ar eyo moTmineba, raTa ar gaewyvitaTsaukunovani kulturuli da keTilmezobluri erTierTobebi, vinaidan,albaT, Znelad moipoveba sxva ori eris ufro mWidro naTesaurikavSirebi, vidre es qarTvelebsa da osebs, qarTvelebsa da afxazebs Sorisarsebobda.Cven vfiqrobT, rom aucilebelia dialogis dawyeba. manamde urTierTobebiunda daiwyos arasamTavroebis, Jurnalistebis, kulturismoRvaweebis dialogiT da gamosavlis Zebna am Cixuri situacidan. SeiZlebaiTqvas, am kuTxiT mxolod umniSvnelo nabijebia gadadgmuli.erT-erT am pozitiur nabijad SeiZleba CaiTvalos cnobili rusi politologebisvaleria novodvorskaias, pamfilovisa da konstantin borovoisCamosvla saqarTveloSi, raTa Tavisi sakuTari TvaliT enaxaTis, rasac rusuli sainformacio saSualebebi ase uzneod gadascemen sakuTarmosaxleobas.2010 wlis 27 Tebervals isini goris universitets estumrnen. maT saqarTveloSisul sami Sexvedra hqondaT, aqedan erTi Cvens universitetSi.Sexvedra sakmaod warmomadgenlobiTi iyo, eswrebodnen rogorcuniversitetis profesura da studentebi, aseve dainteresebuli pirebi.Sexvedraze ganxilul iqna 2008 wlis agvistos omi, ruseT-saqarTvelosurTierTobebi warsulSi da dRes. aseve saubari iyo urTierTobebisaRdgenis perspeqtivebze. valeria novodvorskaiam aRniSna: `Tu Cveniidiotebi, sxvanairad ver davarqmev ruseTis Zalovani struqturebiszogierT warmomadgenels, dafrinavdnen afxazeTsa da oseTSi axla78


samarTalmcodneoba, konfliqtologiaamboben, rom ar icodnen vin dafrinavda, maSin ruseTi yovelTvis aRmoCndebauxerxul situaciaSi. saqarTvelo ara CeCneTi. mas aqvs saerTa-Soriso Tanadgoma. unda veZeboT gzebi xalxebis araa gaTiSvis, arameddaaxlovebis~. aRsaniSnavia isic, rom am uSiSarma qalbatonma igivesityvebi gaimeora sakuTar samSobloSi, satelevizio gadacema `exomoskvisTvis~ micemul interviuSi, sadac aRniSna ruseTis TviTmpyrobeluripolitikuri azrovneba da gaaanaliza, Tu ra uaryofiTi Sedegebimoaqvs aseT nabijebs TviTon rusi xalxisaTvis. Cven mivesalmebiTmsgavsi adamianebis siTamames, obieqturobas da gvaqvs imedi, rom ruseT-saqarTvelosurTierTobebi mainc aRdgeba.miuxedavad im xelovnuri barierebisa, kedlisa, romelic ruseTisxelisuflebam aRmarTa qarTvelebsa da afxazebs, qarTvelebsa da osebsSoris, mainc gaimarjvebs saRi azri, radgan imdeni ram aqvT saerTo amxalxebs, rom maTi saukunod gaTiSva SeuZlebelia. TviToeulma CvenTaganmaunda veZeboT am xalxebs Soris dasaaxlovebeli Tundac mcirediZafi, yvelam unda gavixsenoT urTierTobebis Tundac mciredi momenti,raTa movamzadoT niadagi im undoblobis dasaZlevad, romelicCvens Soris mesame Zalam gaaRviva. amis Semdeg unda vecadoT davibrunoTteritoria mosaxleobiTurT. dRes ruseTSi uamravi qarTvelicxovrobs, amasTan dauSvebelia, maTi aseTi Seviwroveba, agresiis gamovlenaCveulebriv rigiT moqalaqeebze, romlebsac yvelaferze metadqveynebs Soris mSvidoba surT. sasurvelia, kargi urTierTobahqondeT aseve (ganurCevlad eTnikurobisa) rusebs, qarTvelebs, afxazebsda osebs. amiTi isini Seecdebian amoavson gaCenili bzari maT ur-TerTobebSi, amisaTvis ki mTavaria hqondeT usafrTxoebis garantia,rom sxva teritoriaze iqnebian daculebi.79


samarTalmcodneoba, konfliqtologianino yaClavaSvilissip. goris universiteti, bakalavriatis studentiruseT-saqarTvelos konfliqtisgavlena Sahdeniziss gazsadenis proeqtzexelmZRvaneli: profesori nino lipartelianisamecniero literaturaSi konfliqti araerTmniSvnelovnad ganixileba.laTinurad – conflictus — sityvasityviT Sejaxebas niSnavs. yoveldRiurazrovnebaSi sityva konfliqti uaryofiTi mniSvnelobiT aRiqmeba.aseTi datvirTviT is yovelTvis winaaRmdegoba, dapirispirebaa daasocirdeba ZaladobasTan. konfliqti, funqciuri TvalsazrisiT, sapirispiromimarTulebebs asaxavs. rodesac mxareebi (adamianebi, jgufebi,saxelmwifoebi da a.S.) dapirispirebulni arian, maSin isini miiswrafiansakuTari miznis dauyovnebliv miRwevisaken, magram ra Sedegi eqnebaaseT dapirispirebas winaswar Zneli gansasazRvria.amgvarad, konfliqti SeiZleba ganimartos, rogorc dapirispirebulmxareTa Soris interesebis ganxilviT warmoSobili uTanxmoeba daSejaxeba, romelic mimdinareobs droiT da sivrciT ganzomilebebSi,sxvadasxva qceviTi strategiebis da taqtikebis gamoyenebiT, romlisdrosac dapirispirebis xarjze mxareebi cdiloben daikmayofilon sakuTarimoTxovnilebebi. igi socialuri fenomenia, romlis ganviTarebaxangrZlivi procesia.konfliqti aris dapirispireba or mxares Soris, romelic negatiuradaisaxeba da erTnairad arasasurvelia konfliqtis orive monawilisaTvis.Tumca, es midgoma ar vrceldeba ruseT-saqarTvelos konfliqtze.am SemTxvevaSi ruseTi gamodis agresoris rolSi, saqarTvelo kiamis gamo mniSvnelovan ekonomikur zarals ganicdis.istorikosebi bolo ori saukunis ganmavlobaSi ruseT-saqarTvelosSoris aTamde sisxlian dapirispirebas iTvlian. marto bolo ori aTeuliwlis ganmavlobaSi, 2008 wlis agvistos omi rigiT mesamea afxazeTisada Sida qarTlis, e.w. `cxinvalis omTan~ erTad. moyolebuli XIX saukunidansaqarTvelo ruseTis 200 wliani imperialisturi politikis gavlenasganicdida da koloniuri Cagvris qveS imyofeboda. ruseTis mizaniyovelTvis iyo saqarTvelos imperialistur marwuxebSi moqceva, saxelmwifoebriobisada erovnuli TviTSegnebis CaxSoba, rasac yovel-Tvis sastiki meTodebis gamoyenebiT cdilobda.Tanamedrove etapzec ruseTis miznebi igive rCeba. misi interesebis80


samarTalmcodneoba, konfliqtologiapolitikuri gaanalizeba `qarTuli saxelmwifosaTvis~ sasicocxlomniSvnelobis mqonea. es agresori qveyana yvelanairad cdilobs xeliSeuSalos saqarTvelos ekonomikur ganviTarebas. ruseTi saqarTvelosaRiqvams, rogorc `Sav xvrels~ ekonomikuri TvalsazrisiT, vinaidanCveni qveynis teritoriaze dagegmili da ganxorcielebuli proeqtebiamis sababs aZlevs: 1) azerbaijanidan `azeri-Ciragi-giunaSlis~ sabadodanmopovebuli navTobis eqsportireba baqo-Tbilisi-jeihanis navTobsadenissaSualebiT xorcieldeba; 2) dasavleT marSrutis saeqsportomilsadeni (WREP) baqo-sufsis milsadenis saxeliTaa cnobili. es milsadeni-is mier ganxorcielebuli pirveli investiciaa saqarTveloSida 1999 wlidan funqcionirebs.ruseTis saxelmwifos gansakuTrebuli yuradReba mipyrobilia Sahdenizisgazsadenis proeqtze. Sahdenizis gazsadeni (aseve samxreT kavkasiisan baqo-Tbilisi erzrumis gazsadeni) aris bunebrivi airis satransportomilsadeni Sahdenizis gazis baqnis azerbaijanis seqtoridansaqarTvelos gavliT TurqeTSi. am gazsadenis meSveobiT TurqeTi miawodebsgazs saberZneTs, saberZneTi ki italias. gazsadenis pirveladidaniSnuleba TurqeTisa da saqarTvelosaTvis gazis miwodebaa. SeTanxmebissafuZvelze, saqarTvelos teritoriaze weliwadSi 2.2 milionikuburi metri gazi gaivlis. rogorc satranzito qveyana, saqarTvelowliuri gazis gamtarobidan 5%-s itovebs tarifis saxiT da aseve SeuZlia0.5 miliardi kuburi metri SeiZinos yovelwliuri fasdaklebiT.misi ekonomikuri da strategiuli mniSvnelobidan gamomdinare da imisgamo, rom Sahdenizis gazsadenis proeqtis ganxorcielebiT saqarTveloenergetikul damoukideblobas moipovebs, ruseTis saxelmwifo aqtiuradereva am gazsadenis sakiTxSi da yvela Rones xmarobs bazarze monopoliurimdgomareobis dasamkvidreblad, riTac saSualeba miecema maqsimaluradmoaxdinos Cvens qveyanaze zemoqmedeba bunebrivi airis gadaketviT,romelic erTxel ukve moxda uaxloes warsulSi, kerZod 2006 wels.am gazsadens saqarTvelosTvis didi politikuri da ekonomikurimniSvneloba aqvs. Sahdenizis amoqmedebiT Cveni qveyana aRar iqneba damokidebulirusuli bunebrivi airis monopolist `gazpromze~. aseveSesaZlebeli iqneba gazis miwodeba evropisaTvis, rac TavisTavad gulisxmobsimas, rom ruseTs gamouCndeba konkurenti bunebrivi airiTmomaragebis TvalsazrisiT.yovelive amis gaTvaliswinebiT, ruseTis mTavrobam evropas samxreTinakadis proeqtis sanacvlod CrdiloeTis nakadis proeqti SesTavaza.aman gamoiwvia Sahdenizis gazsadenis proeqtze muSaobis SeCereba, rackidev erTi imis dasturia, rom ruseTi cdilobs saqarTvelos ekonomi-81


samarTalmcodneoba, konfliqtologiakis aRmavlobis SeCerebas, mis politikur da ekonomikur izolacias.aRsaniSnavia is faqti, rom, roca baqo-Tbilisi-erzrumis gazsadenisproeqtis amoqmedeba igegmeboda, saqarTvelo sulac ar apirebda rusulenergetikul wyaroebze uaris Tqmas, magram ruseTis saxelmwifosmier gatarebulma antiqarTulma ekonomikurma politikam da iseTmaRonisZiebebma, rogoricaa bunebrivi airis gadaketva 2006 wels, rusuliembargo qarTul produqtebze, masobrivi deportacia da, bolos,2008 wlis agvistos omi naTlad dagvanaxva, rom ruseTi arasaimedo partnioriarogorc politikuri, ise ekonomikuri TvalsazrisiT. sworedamitom daiwyo Cvenma qveyanam alternatiuli gzebis Zieba.miuxedavad evrokavSiris an mTlianad evropis mier gadadgmuli nabijebisaruseT-saqarTvelos omSi, mas ar ucdia ekonomikur aspeqtSi Carevada Sahdenizis sakiTxis saqarTvelosaTvis sasargeblod gadawyveta. amismizezi is aris, rom evrokavSiris umetesi, Tanac wamyvani qveynebi ruseTisenergoresursebzea damokidebuli anu es Caurevloba energoresursebismoTxovna-miwodebiTaa ganpirobebuli. oficialuri monacemebiT 2015wlisaTvis ruseTidan evropaSi gazis importi 2005 welTan SedarebiT59%-dan 75%-mde gaizrdeba. cxadia, am SemTxvevaSi, sakuTari interesebidangamomdinare, evropis damokidebulebebi saqarTveloSi da mTlianadkavkasiaSi mimdinare procesebze isev `TavSekavebuli~ iqneba.ruseTi aris ekonomikurad Zlieri qveyana. igi mdidaria bunebrivida energoresursebiT. swored amis saSualebiT axdens igi evropaze manipulirebasda TavisTavad cxadia mniSvnelovani gavlenac aqvs evrokavSirisada mTlianad evropis gadawyvetilebaze. mas unda `vumadlodeT»,rom jerjerobiT Sahdenizis gazsadenis proeqti SeCerebulia damisi amoqmedebis sakiTxic eWvqveS dgas.ruseT-saqarTvelos konfliqti naTeli magaliTia imisa, Tu rogoruSlis xels agresori qveyana teritoriulad mcire qveynebis saxelmwifoebrivda ekonomikur ganviTarebas. konfliqtis Zalze negatiuri Sedegebiaisaxeba sxvadasxva ekonomikur proeqtebze (magaliTad, nabuqosproeqtze) da maT Soris Sahdenizis gazsadenis proeqtze.Cveni azriT, imisaTvis rom mogvardes ruseT-saqarTvelos konfliqti,Semcirdes ruseTis gavlenis sfero, aRar moaxdinos man zewola evropiswamyvan saxelmwifoebze gadawyvetilebebis miRebis dros saWiroasaqarTvelos msgavsad evropamac ruseTis gverdis avliT moZebnosalternatiuli energoresursebi. amis Sedegad ruseTi moeqceva ekonomikurblokadaSi da uars ityvis Tavis imperialistur gegmebze, veRarSeZlebs iseTi mniSvnelovani ekonomikuri proeqtebis dablokvas da Se-Cerebas, rogoric Cveni qveynisTvis Sahdenizis gazsadenia.82


socialuri mecnierebani: politologia, Jurnalistikacicino RuRunaZe, Jana xadurissip goris universitetis bakalavriatis studenti2008 wlis agvistos omi da ekologiuri safrTxeebixelmZRvaneli: profesori daviT CoCiSvili2008 wlis agvisto saqarTvelos istoriis erT-erTi umniSvnelovanesietapia. aTwleulebis manZilze warmoebuli Sefaruli agresia ruseTissaxelmwifom aSkara agresiad aqcia, miitaca Cveni qveynis mniSvnelovaniteritoria, daiRupa da dasaxiCrda asobiT adamiani, pirisaganmiwisa aRigava istoriuli soflebi, aTasobiT adamiani sakuTar qveyana-Si devnilad iqca. oms, saerTod, saSineli saxe aqvs. igi Rrma, mouSuSebeliarebs tovebs ara mxolod adamianebis sulSi, aramed gamousworebelzians ayenebs dedabunebas.2008 wlis saomari moqmedebebi ara marto samxedro obieqtebs, mSvidobianmosaxleobas, qalaqebs da soflebs Seexo, aramed bunebasac. swored,2008 wlis agvistos omis Sedegad arnaxulad dazaralda saqarTvelosekologia.ekosistema warmoadgens jansaR tyes, tbas, nakaduls... yvelaferamas Tavisi wvlili Seaqvs haeris gasufTavebasa da JangbadiT mis momaragebaSi.ekosistemis biomravalferovneba amaragebs kacobriobas aucilebelisakvebiT, medikamentebiTa da sxva masaliT. bunebas azaralebsara marto industrializacia da urbanuli zrdis maStabebi, aramedSeiaraRebuli komfliqtebic.2008 wlis agvistos omis dros, rusulma samxedro TviTmfrinavebmaqarTuli qalaqebisa da soflebis dabombvis paralelurad borjom-xaragaulistye-parks da atenis tyeebs morigeobiT waukides cecxli. aRniSnulityeebi ibombeboda specialuri xanZris gamomwvevi yumbarebiT.tyeebi 25 dRis ganmavlobaSi iwvoda da mTlianad 1100 heqtarze meti ganadgurda.miuxedavad imisa, rom es saqarTvelos tyeebis mxolod0,04%-ia regionis ekosistemisaTvis udidesi zaralia. tyis gaxmobamarto xis sikvdils ki ar niSnavs, aramed Seicvleba haeri, klimati,funqcia ekargeba sakurorto zonas.amitom zarali rogorc, zogadad, ekosistemisTvis, aseve mcenareTada cxovelTa jiSebis mravalferovnebisaTvis mniSvnelovania. xanZrisdros ara marto tye ganadgurda, ganadgurda aseve unikaluri florada fauna. wiTel wignSi Setanili saxeobebi, uamravi frinveli da cxovelidaiRupa, gansakuTrebiT irmebi. xmaurze moxda cxovelTa da frin-83


socialuri mecnierebani: politologia, JurnalistikavelTa sacxovrebeli adgilidan gadaadgileba sakmaod did manZilze.maT Soris gareuli Roris, mglis, irmis da a.S.borjomis, atenis, suramis, kojris, xaragaulis, xaiSis tyeebSi xan-Zarma gaanadgura iSviaTi mcenareebi, romlebsac lokaluri klimatisformirebisaTvis gansakuTrebuli funqcia aqvs. borjom-xaragauliserovnuli parki, romelic or welze metia msoflio mniSvnelobis parkebisqselis nawilia, yvelaze metad dazaralda. xanZris sami kera nakrZalisteritoriaze imdenad Zlieri iyo, rom aRdgenas naxevar saukunezemeti dasWirdeba. dasaxelebul punqtebTan tyis ganadgurebasSeiZleba niaRvrebisa da zvavebis gaxSireba mohyves. gansakuTrebiT sa-SiSia waRveris monakveTi.atenis xeoba aris mTiani zoli da tyis masivis ganadgureba zvavsaSi-Si da RvarcofsaSiSia. agvistos omis dros tyis xanZari mZvinvarebdaSida qarTlSic. 2008 wlis 13 agvistos xanZarma moicva atenis xeobaSi,kerZod qvemo qarTlis regionaluri satyeo sammarTvelos marTvas daqvemdebarebuligoris satyeo ubnis atenisa da ormocis satyeomeurneobebSi 120.0ha da xaSuri-qarelis satyeos 11,0 ha farTobi. sulSida qarTlis regionalur satyeo saqarTveloSi 135,0 ha farTobi. regionalurisammarTvelodan warmodgenili winaswari SefasebiT garemozemiyenebulma zianma Seadgina aseul aTasobiT lari. es mxolod savaraudoSefasebiT. samwuxarod ar arsebobs zaralis zusti daangariSebismeqanizmi. garda amisa, atenis xeobis Caketiloba da misi mcenareulisafaris gansakuTrebuloba warmoSobs im mikro klimats, romelic gan-Tqmuli atenuri RvinisTvisaa aucilebeli. atenis xeobaSi kldovanimTis kalTebze niadagi saukuneebis manZilze ikidebda fexs, romelsacSemdeg mcenareTa fesvebi amagrebda. mcenareuli safaris ganadgurebamgamoiwvia niadagis Camorecxva, romelic ukve imdenad SesamCnevia, romramdenime wyaldidoba ukve moxda. mdinare tana, romelic mTis mdinarea,saTaves iRebs TrialeTis ganStoebaze da gzadagza ierTebs patara nakadulebs,romlebsac wvimebis dros Tan Camoaqvs niadagi da kldovanimasa. gasuli saukunis dasawyisSi, rodesac tyis movlas didi yuradRebaar eqceoda, swored aseTi movardnili Rvarcofis msxverpli SeiqmnaganTqmuli veres RvTismSoblis eklesia, romelic aTwleulebi miwiTiyo dafaruli. mogvianebiT es masivi tyiT daifara, xolo agvistos omisdros isev gadaiwva.rac Seexeba borjomis xeobas, es xeoba Tavisi unikaluri mcenareulisafariTa da mikroklimatiT kidev ufro metad dazaralda. mtermaicoda, rom es xeoba ganTqmuli borjomis wylis samSobloa da Seecadamaqsimalurad daezianebina. borjomis tyeebs specialuri xanZris gam-84


socialuri mecnierebani: politologia, JurnalistikaCeni Wurvebi dauSines, romlis gamoyeneba saerTaSoriso SeTanxmebebiTakrZalulia. borjomis tyeebis xanZris meore dRes Sinagan saqmeTa saministrosxanZarsawinaaRmdego sammarTvelos ufrosi, zurab Talakva-Ze ase aRwers: `—11 agvistodan aq varT, rom CamovediT, es xeoba sulcecxlSi iyo gaxveuli. erTdroulad uamrav adgilze vaqrobdiT xan-Zars: arjevaniZis ubanSi, nasoflarSi, tbebis dasaxlebaSi. vicavdiT dabasac,sadac 70 komli cxovrobs. Zalze saSiSi mdgomareoba iyo `bipisbazasTan~. es miudgomeli teritoriaa, verc teqnika da verc adamianiadis, iqidan wamosuli cecxli sasaflaos zolamde Camovida...~dRes damwvari tyis masivebi, gansakuTrebiT rTul ubnebSi, xeluxlebelia,radgan ar arsebobs kvalificiuri rekomendaciebi reabilitaciisprocesis dasawyebad.aseve aRsaniSnavia is garemoeba, rom Cvens samSoblos safuZvlianidaxmareba mezobelma saxelmwifoebma ver aRmouCines. Tumca am SemTxvevaSiar unda daviviwyoT Turqebis didsulovneba, romelTa daxmarebiTmoxexrxda gamZvinvarebuli cecxlis Caneleba mcire monakveTze. yovelivezRvaSi wveTi iyo im farTobisa rac daiwva. Turqebis daxmarebasgaremos dacvisa da bunebrivi resursebis ministri irakli RvalaZe asegadmoscems: `rusebs rom ar daefiqsirebinaT TavianTi safreni aparati,yvela kavSiris saSualebas TiSavdnen da ise Semodiodnen sazRvarzewyliT savse avzebiT. ase grZeldeboda manam, sanam panika ar atyda, romborjomSi Semodioda rusi~.Tumca, ar unda davadanaSauloT Cveni gulSematkivari qveynebi, romver dagvexmarnen. Cven darwmunebulebi varT, rom maT surdaT daxmareba,sul mcirediT mainc, magram rusi samxedroebi amis saSualebas ar aZlevdnen.yvela mfrinavi obieqti, romelic saqarTvelos sahaero sivrceSiimyofeboda, safrTxis qveS iyo. am omma dagvanaxa, rom Cvens qveyanaSirogorc mosaxleobis, aseve ekologiis prevenciisTvis kidev bevriramea gasakeTebeli. saqarTveloSi ar arsebobs (an Tu arsebobs Zalianmwired) gansakuTrebul geografiul raionebSi specialuri teqnika,romelic msgavsi SemTxvevebis dros iqneba gamoyenebuli. xanZari SeiZlebamoxdes nebismier zafxuls, qarian amindSi. amitom, sasurveli iqnebatyis masivebis maxloblad yovelTvis mobilizebuli iyos aRniSnuliteqnika.unda aRvniSnoT is faqti, rom atenis xeobaSi cecxlis gamCenebad saxeldebodnenTviT qarTvelebi. Tumca unda aRiniSnos, rom msgavsi Sem-Txveva marTlac dafiqsirda. omis saSineleba marto imaSi ki ar gamoixateba,rom nadgurdeba qalaqebi, soflebi, aramed imaSic, rom zogierTiadamiani cdilobs isargeblos sxvebis ubedurebiT da moiTbos xeli,85


socialuri mecnierebani: politologia, Jurnalistikavinaidan, samarTaldamcav organoebs am dros kontrolis saSualeba argaaCniaT.am da sxva ekologiuri agresiis obieqtebis Seswavlis da garemozemiyenebuli zianis Sefasebis uzrunvelsayofad saqarTvelos premierministrisbrZanebiT Seqmnilma komisiam 1 Tvis vadaSi warmoadgina Sesabamisidaskvna, romelic aseTi saxisaa: zoologiis, botanikis, samTometyevelebis da wyalTa meurneobis istitutebis erToblivi muSaobisSedegad moxda savaraudo xanZris Sedegad miyenebuli zianis gaangari-Seba da zianma miliard lars gadaWarba, esec mxolod miaxloebiTi gaangariSebiT.ara mxolod tyis masivebi ganadgurda, aramed aRsaniSnavia is faqtic,rom rusi jariskacebi specialurad ukidebdnen cecxls Tbilisi-senakissagzao magistralis mwvane qarsacav zols. cecxlis farTo maStabebsisic uwyobda xels, rom zafxulis cxeli da mSrali amindebi iyo. dResacgzis napirebze aris am saSineli dRebis kvali.. . . cxovreba Cevul kalapotSi Cadgeba, dro isev midis swrafad. gadamwvarityeebis aRdgena nelnela mimdinareobs. albaT, momavalSi yvelaferiCveul saxes miiRebs, Tumca, Cven, qarTvelebs yoveli damwvarixis an ubralo patara cecxlis danaxvisas gagvaxsendeba is didi tkivili,rac omma mogvayena; gagvaxsendeba suraTebi, sadac damwvari tyis safariSemzaravad Canda.omidan orma welma ganvlo, gadamwvari xeebis nawili jer kidev dgas,Tumca Tbilisi-leseliZis sagzao magistralze xanZrisgan gamxmari xeebiukve moWres, magram imedi gvaqvs es suraTi male Seicvleba da sazogadoeba,romelmac sakuTar Tavze gamoscada is qartexili, rac 2008 wlisagvistos omis Sedegad mZvinvarebda saqarTveloSi, momavals isev imedisTvaliT dauwyebs cqeras.TiToeuli Cvenganis valia vizrunoT mwvane safaris gafarToebaze,xeebis dargvaze. patriarqma mogvca SesaniSnavi iniciativa weliwadSi 12xis dargvis Taobaze. goris universiteti aqtiuradaa Cabmuli gamwvanebisprogramaSi. Cveni universitetis studentebma da profesuram aramxolod universitetis teritoriaze gavaSeneT nargavebi, aramed vcdilobT,sadac ki amis saSualeba arsebobs, davrgoT xeebi. TiToeuli undavecadoT, rom msgavsi saSineleba aRar ganmeordes da davamTavrebsayovelTaod cnobili andaziT `tye Seunaxe Svilebsa mama xar Seni valia~.86


socialuri mecnierebani: politologia, Jurnalistikaanuki wiwilaSvilisoxumis saxelmwifo universiteti, bakalavriatis studentivis sasargeblod daido haidi taliavinis daskvna?xelmZRvaneli: profesori maka doliZe2008 wlis ruseT-saqarTvelos 5 dRiani omi, romelic Cveni qveynis-Tvis fataluri Sedegebis momtani aRmoCnda, mTeli msoflios yuradRebiscentrSi moeqca da sayovelTao ganxilvis sagnad iqca. marTlia gayinulikonfliqtebi tyviebis cecxliT galRva, magram es sulac ar yofilakargi etapis dasawyisi saqarTvelosa da mis or konfliqtur regionsSoris. piriqiT, daiwyo gacilebiT mZime gza prolemis mogvarebis-Tvis, romelsac jer dasasruli ar uCans da isev diplomatiis bewvisxidze gviwevs siaruli. adrec yvela Tanxmdeboda, rom konfliqtismogvarebis mSvidobiani gza ualternativo iyo, Tumca omi gardauvalisinamdvile aRmoCnda da imis miuxedavad, rom safrangeTis prezidentma(rogorc Tavad acxadebs) mTeli Zalisxmeva Sealia ruseT-saqarTvelosdapirispirebis operatiulad mogvarebas, diplomatiuri bataliebikvlav grZeldeba.axlac yvelas miaCnia, rom saqarTvelos teritoriuli konfliqtebimainc mSvidobiani gziT unda mogvardes, Tumca vis rodis umtyunebsnervebi aravin icis. aseT viTarebaSi gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba eni-Weba, ra Tqma unda, informacias, romelic rogorc saqarTvelodan, aseveruseTidan, afxazeTidan da samxreT oseTidan danarCen msoflioSigaedineba. es zegavlenas axdens ucxoeli gavleniani politikuri figurebis,diplomatebis Sexedulebebsa da gadawyvetilebebze, romelTacSeuZliaT realuri zegavlenis moxdena regionSi ganviTarebul procesebzeCvens sasargeblod.2008 wlis omis dasrulebis Semdeg eqspertebi erTmniSvnelovnadusvamdnen xazs sainformacio omis mniSvnelobas, romelic gardauvaliiyo da warmatebuli nabijebis gadadgmis SemTxvevaSi msoflio simpaTiada TanagrZnoba Cvens mxares gadmoixreboda, rogorc okupirebuliqveynisa da usamarTlobis msxverplis. am TvalsazrisiT, omis SemdgomperiodSi, gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba mieniWa haidi taliavinis komisiisdaskvnas ruseT-saqarTvelos omze. es komisia omis Semdeg erTi welimuSaobda da saboloo daskvna 2009 wlis 1 oqtombers dado. manamdeki haidi taliavinis sagamoZiebo komisia da savaraudo daskvna oriveqveynis sajildao qvad iqca. daskvnas win uZRvoda afxazeTisa da sam-87


socialuri mecnierebani: politologia, JurnalistikaxreT oseTis aRiarebebi sxvadasxva qveynis mier, mniSvnelovani diplomatiurimisiebi, saerTaSoriso organizaciebis muSaobis Sewyveta konfliqtiszonebSi... erTi wlis ganmavlobaSi ganviTarebuli movlenebikomisiis daskvnaSi ar asaxula da amas arc aranairi mniSvneloba hqonda.bevri fiqrobda, rom taliavinis daskvna gardamtexi iqneboda movlenebisTvissakuTari saxelebis darqmevis procesSi, Tumca, rogorc aRmoCnda,am daskvnam gacilebiT meti kiTxva da Tavsatexi gaaCina ara martosaqarTvelosTvis, aramed ruseTisTvisac.miTqma-moTqma erTi-ori Tve gagrZelda da Semdeg Cacxra. TiTqostaliavinis komisiis daskvna daiwera movaleobis moxdis mizniT evropis,ruseTisa da saqarTvelos winaSe, TiTqos moixsnes danaSaulis SegrZneba,valdebuleba, xarki gadauxades didi mezoblis mier daCagrulpatara qveyanas, radgan realurad am daskvnas arc saqarTvelos SidapolitikaSi da arc sagareo asparezze mniSvnelobani cvlilebebi ar gamouwvevia.varaudi, rom Tundac qveynis prezidents, rogorc omis gam-CaRebels, haagis sasamarTlos gadascemdnen kacobriobis winaSe CadenilidanaSaulis gamo ar gamarTlda.gazeT `saqarTvelos respublikis~ 2009 wlis 13 oqtombris nomerSivkiTxulobT werils saTauriT `gamoZieba damTavrebulia, iwyeba sasamarTlo!~.aq gansakuTrebul yuradRebas iqcevs amonaridi ucxouripresidan: `omis damnaSavis sasamarTlosTvis gadacemis moTxovna ukvedasavleTis presaSic gamoCnda. belgiuri niderlandenovani gazeTi `demorgeni~, magaliTad pirveli oqtombris statiaSi `omi saqarTvelom gaaCaRaruseTTan~, werda: `moxseneba Tumca miznad ar isaxavs xelaxlacecxlze navTis dasxmas, magram unda gamoyenebul iqnas, rogorc safuZvelisasamarTlo ZiebisTvis~. ufro mogvianebiT, aseve gazeT `saqarTvelosrespublikis~ 2009 wlis 22 oqtombris nomerSi, politologhamlet WipaSvilis werilSi vkiTxulobT: `sazogadoebis msjelobissagnad isev rCeba taliavinis komisiis daskvna. opozicionerebi ukveimazec msjeloben, sad ajobebs saakaSvilis gasamarTleba haagasa TuTbilisSi da im daskvnamde midian, rom TbilisSi jobs, vinaidan amiT saqarTvelogadaurCeba msoflio risxvas. raRac ar maxsovs miloSeviCisgamo serbeTi daesajaT. is haagis sasamarTlomde adre daisaja aSS-sa danatos bombebiT. saqarTvelo xelisufalTa wyalobiT isedac dasjilia.metad maSin daisjeba, Tu 7-8 agvistos gaimeorebs. iseTi aurzauria atexili,TiTqos haagas verdiqtic gamoetanos~. avtori amave werilSi aRniSnavs— `im qveynebis garda, romlebmac ruseTs dauWires mxari, taliaviniskomisiis daskvnaSi axali da sagangaSo araferia. taliavinis daskvnascalybad ixilaven aSS-sa da inglisSi, rac ar aris gasakviri, vinai-88


socialuri mecnierebani: politologia, Jurnalistikadan swored maT mier dagegmili piariT didi ruseTi iyo patara saqar-Tvelos mCagvreli~.sinamdvileSi es marTlac ase iyo, radgan patara saqarTvelos didisurvilic rom hqondes, ruseTs ver daCagravs am sityvis swori da mar-Tebuli gagebiT. politologis mier gamoTqmuli mosazreba am SemTxvevaSiaris calmxrivi, romelsac, ra Tqma unda, komisiis daskvnis gamoqveynebisSemdeg mowinaaRmdegeebi gamouCndnen. arc aravin eloda romdaskvnis dadebis Semdeg yvela erTi azri eqneboda.taliavinis komisiis 900 gverdiani dokumenti, romelic aTi TvisganmavlobaSi iwreboda, 1, 600 000evro dajda. am sqeltanian naSromSisaTaviso kozirebi yvela dainteresebuli mxarisTvis uxvad aRmoCnda.ai es iyo mTavari pretenzia, rasac am dokuments da mis avtorebs uyenebdnen.saboloo jamSi man verafers mohfina naTeli, diplomatiurobabolomde daicva — `arc mwvadi dawva da arc Samfuri~. faqtobrivad axalicaraferi uTqvams, ubralod mravaljer mosmenili gaaoficialura.ramdenime mniSvnelovani amonaridi daskvnidan, romelic sayovel-Tao msjelobis da kamaTis sababi gaxda:1) `es moxseneba Seecdeba gadmosces samarTliani da miukerZoebuliSexeduleba konfliqtis mxareTa qmedebebze, mizezebsa da maT Sedegebze.bevri maTgani kritikulad Sefasdeba, Tumca veraferi Secvlis Cvenspativiscemas romelime regionSi — iqneba es didi Tu mcire mcxovrebixalxis bedisa da maTi miswrafebebis mimarT. maTi miswrafebani ar yofilagadamwyveti mizezi mtrobis, radgan msgavsi problemebi mSvidobianadgadawyvetila.5) `ase, rom samx. oseTs, iseve, rogorc afxazeTs, ufleba ar hqondaTcalmxrivad gamoyofodnen saqarTvelos. samx. oseTisa da afxazeTiscnoba mesame saxelmwifoebis mier ewinaagmdegeba saerTaSoriso samar-Tals da arRvevs dazaralebuli saxelmwifos, rogoricaa saqarTvelo,suverenitetsa da teritoriul mTlianobas. es ewinaaRmdegeba helsinkisaqtis pirvel princips~.6) `manam, sanam saqarTvelo da ruseTi imyofebodnen urTierTobaTagauaresebis pirobebSi, romlis drosac aRiniSneboda aramegobruli daxSirad saomari ritorikac, amerikis SeerTebulma Statebma daikavapirveli adgili saqarTvelos sagareo partniorebs Soris. aSS gamoxatavdasrul mxardaWeras saqarTvelosa da piradad mixeil saakaSvilismimarT, romlis kulminacia iyo prezident buSis e.w. `Tavisuflebis Suquris~sityviT gamosvla 2005 wlis 10 maiss TbilisSi. aSS saqarTvelosuwevda farTo ekonomikur mxardaWerasac. saqarTvelo gaxda aSS-is yvelazemniSvnelovani daxmarebis intensiuri mimRebi, uwevda samxedro89


socialuri mecnierebani: politologia, Jurnalistikadaxmarebasac, rogorc wvrTnis programebiT, aseve SeiaraRebiTa da finansebiT~.Tumca, bolos moyvanil citatas, mTlianad, rogorc Cans, ar dae-Tanxma `german marSal fundis~ ufrosi mecnieri TanamSromeli iorg himelraixiTavis statiaSi, sadac wers, rom evrokavSiris moxsenebaSi ruseT-saqarTvelosomis Sesaxeb ar aris gaanalizebuli aSS-s gadamwyvetiroli konfliqtamde, konfliqtis drosa da mis Semdeg. misi azriT, buSmaSeqmna seriozuli strategiuli problemebi, radgan ver SeZlo sajaroddaecva saakaSvili Zalis gamoyenebisgan ruseTTan damokidebulebaSi.haidi taliavinis komisiis daskvnas dauyovnebliv mohyva gamoxmaurebebieqspertebsa da politikosebs Soris...imis miuxedavad, rom daskvna sqeltaniania mas gverdebis raodenobadamajereblobas ar matebs. rasakvirvelia misia rTuli amocanis winaSeidga, magram iyo molodini, rom is SeZlebda yvela movlenisTvis saxelisdarqmevas. marTlia, misiis saxelwodeba faqtebis moZiebas iTvaliswinebda,magram faqtebis moZiebis Semdeg, roca misia movlenaTa Sefasebazegadavida misiis wevrebs meti gabeduleba da pasuxismgeblobasWirdebodaT, rac maT rbilad rom vTqvaT ar aRmoaCndaT. aseTia mravaligncxadebis saerTo Sinaarsi. amerikul the wall street jurnal-SivkiTxulobT `pasuxismgeblobis lomis wili am konfliqtze moskovs daekisra~,xolo britanuli the lndependent-i wers — `rusul-qarTul omSisaqarTvelos ruseTze aranaklebi da ufro meti pasuxismgeblobacekisreba~. am SemTxvevaSi yuradReba avtors unda mivaqcioT (`saqarTvelosrespublika~, #203, 6 oqtomberi).sainteresoa Tavad komisiis xelmZRvanelis damokidebuleba daskvnasTandakavSirebiT. kiTxvaze, rogor gadaanawilebdiT 2008 wliszafxulis konfliqtSi pasuxismgeblobas saqarTvelosa da ruseTs Soris?haidi taliavini pasuxobs: `orive mxares Tavisi pasuxismgeblobaekisreba. Tu saqarTvelom 2008 wlis 7 agvistos RamiT cxinvalze saartilerioSeteviTi konfliqti daiwyo, ruseTma am situaciisTvis SesaniSnaviniadagi moamzada, ramac saboolod is saqarTvelosTan Seiara-Rebul dapirispirebamde miiyvana. amasTanave, ruseTma daarRvia saer-TaSoriso samarTlis normebi, rodesac samxedro operaciebi samxreToseTis administraciul sazRvrebis miRma, saqarTvelos danarCen teritoriazeawarmoa, damatebiT afxazeTisa da samxreT oseTis damoukideblobacaRiara, miuxedavad imisa, rom saqarTvelo da saerTaSorisogaerTianebis didi nawili amas ewinaaRmdegeba. amave dros, konfliqtiskonteqstSi rogorc erTi, aseve meore mxridan braldebebi ismoda. gan-90


socialuri mecnierebani: politologia, JurnalistikasakuTrebiT es exeba rusebis da osebis mxridan saqarTvelos dadanaSaulebassamxreT oseTis mosaxleobis genocidSi~.daskvnis saxiT, uxouri presis mcire mimoxilvas moviyvan, romelicsrul suraTs qmnis taliavinis komisiis daskvnaze, mis amocanebze dadadebul Sedegebze. aq gamoTqmulia sxvadasxva mosazrebebi, romelicnamdvilad iZleva sakmaod dasabuTebuli daskvnis gamotanis saSualebas.masobrivi informaciis saSualebebi komentars ukeTeben evrosabWosdidi xnis nalodinar moxsenebas ruseTisa da saqarTvelos omTan dakav-SirebiT. ar SeiZleba iTqvas, rom komisiis daskvnebi Seesabameba inglisurgamoTqmas `eqvsi erTs da naxevari duJini — meores: bralis udidesinawili saqarTvelos ekisreba. moskovi pasuxismgebelia `provokaciis-Tvis~ da `araproporciuli pasuxisTvis~. afxazeTisa da samxreTi ose-Tis bedi politikosebma unda gadawyviton.`orive mxare, ruseTic da saqarTveloc, evrosabWos moxsenebas 2008wlis agvistos samxedro konfliqtis Sesaxeb ukeTeben iseT interpretacias,rom SeinarCunon saxe — aRniSnavs Tavis komentarebSi `di presis~mudmivi avtori burkgard biSofi. evrosabWo mivida daskvnamde,rom xuTdRiani omi kavkasiaSi daiwyo saqarTvelom da ruseTis moqmedebaTavisi moqalaqeebis dasacavad gamarTlebuli iyo, — da ai moskovizeimobs. am dros moxsenebaSi naTqvamia, rom `2008 wlis agvistomde didixniT adre, moskovma moaxdina Tbilisis provocireba — da aq ukve triumfatoradTavs qarTvelebi grZnoben. saqarTvelos prezidentis Secdomaiyo brZaneba sabrZolo moqmedebaTa dawyebis Sesaxeb, moskovma kigulgrilad gamoiyena SesaZlebloba saqarTvelos teritoriebis okupaciisTvisdava imis Sesaxeb, Tu vis ekisreba pasuxismgebloba am ugunuri omis-Tvis, rac asobiT adamianis sicocxled da dangreul soflebad dajda,gagrZeldeba aRniSnavs biSofi, magram evrosabWos verdiqtma saakaSvilsda mis ambiciebs miayena gamanadgurebeli dartyma. evrosabWosmoxsenebam ruseTisa da saqarTvelos omTan dakavSirebiT gamoitana savsebiTgarkveuli verdiqti wers `independenti~. dokumentSi aris daskvnaimis Sesaxeb, rom omi daiwyo saqarTvelos soflebze SeteviT, riTac dairRvasaerTaSoriso samarTali, magram mas win uZRoda ruseTis mraval-Tviani provokaciebi. ruseTis mxridan araproporciulad gamoyenebuliZalebi aseve miCneulia saerTaSoriso samarTlis darRvevad.saqarTvelos xelmZRvaneloba eWvobda, rom igi ver miaRwevda yofiliyosaboloo moxsenebaSi warmodgenili kristalurad sufTa, amitomqarTveli diplomatebi mTeli zafxulis ganmavlobaSi cdilobdnen Ta-91


socialuri mecnierebani: politologia, Jurnalistikavidanve SeerbilebinaT reputaciis ziani. wina dRiT maTi kampania kidevufro aqtiuri gaxda: isini akeTebdnen moxsenebis bevri daskvnis komentarebs,magram upiratesobas aniWebdnen — ar SeemCniaT sakiTxi imis Sesaxeb,Tu vin daiwyo omi.imas, rom ruseTic da saqarTveloc SeZleben monaxon dokumentSiTavianTTvis gamarTleba, aqvs plusebic da minusebic: orive mTavrobamonaxavs, Tu rogor wardges sazogadoebrivi azris winaSe, magram Ti-Toeul mxares SeuZlia Tavidan aicilos pasuxismgebloba. Tumca moxsenebisSedegebs yuri unda ugdos ara mxolod orma meomarma mxarem mouwodebs`independenti~. omis dawyebis Semdeg didi britaneTis mTavrobada sxva dasavleli qveynebis mTavrobebi aCqardnen, daesaxelebinaT ruseTi`borotmoqmedad~, saqarTvelo ki — `udanaSaulo msxverplad~.stereotipebze damyarebuli aseTi reaqcia xelsayreli gamodga ruse-TisTvis gabrazebuliyo dasavleTze. amJamad, rodesac obamam ganacxadapoloneTsa da CexeTSi raketsawinaaRmdego Tavdacvis ganTavsebisgegmis uaryofis Sesaxeb, evrosabWos moxsenebam ki ruseTs mouxsna pasuxismgeblobasaqarTvelosTan omis dawyebaze, SeiZleba igi aCvenebsmTels msoflios ufro megobrul saxes — gamoTqvams imeds britanuligamocema.Sveicarieli diplomatis haidi taliavinis mier gakeTebuli moxsenebaar adasturebs ruseTis mtkicebas saqarTvelos genocidis SesaxebsamxreT oseTis mcxovrebTa winaaRmdeg 8 agvistos Rames, aRniSnavs `diuolstrit jorneli~. samxreT oseTis farglebs gareT ruseTis samxedroebimoqmedebdnen gacilebiT ufro mkacrad.Sveicaruli `le tempsi~ aqveynebs eqskluziur intervius haidi taliavinisTansaqarTveloSi konfliqtis mizezebis Sesaxeb.`konfliqti saqarTveloSi ar iyo adgilobrivi an regionaluri mas-Stabis problema. man safrTxis qveS daayena urTierToba aRmosavleTsada dasavleTs Soris, agreTve uSiSroebis mTeli sistema evropaSi, romelicyalibdeboda 1970-iani wlebidan~. taliavinis sityvebiT, moxsenebismzadebis dros `erTaderTi problema iyo monacemTa uzarmazariraodenoba, romlebic erTmaneTs ewinaaRmdegebodnen~. rac Seexeba konfliqtismonawileebs, isini siamovnebiT TanamSromlobdnen komisiiswarmomadgenlebTan, aRniSna man. taliavinma agreTve aRniSna, rom afxazeTisada samxreT oseTis perspeqtivebis Sefaseba ar Sedioda misi komisiiskompetenciaSi. moxsenebaSi aris dakvirvebani, romlebic SeiZlebagamodges, raTa ukeT gavigoT konfliqtis arsi da TandaTanobiT SevudgeTmis mSvidobian mowesrigebas. magram moxsenebis daskvnebis Sefasebada krizisidan gamosvlis gzebis Zebna mouwevT politikosebs.92


socialuri mecnierebani: politologia, Jurnalistikarogorc `frankfurter rundSaus~ mimomxilveli torsten krufimiiCnevs, evrosabWos moxsenebis Sedegebis mixedviT polonelebi dabaltiispirelebi Zveleburad daiwyeben imis mtkicebas, rom rusebisndoba ar SeiZleba, germanelebi da frangebi ki — daiwyeben mtkicebasruseTis dasavlur struqturebSi integraciis sasargeblod da, amdros, miuTiTeben amisTvis saqarTvelos moumzadeblobas.komentaris avtoris azriT `evropelebi, uwinares yovlisa, unda CaufiqrdnenTavianT damokidebulebas saqarTvelosa da misi prezidentismixeil saakaSvilisadmi. misi xelmZRvanelobiT qveyana warmoadgensrisks CrdiloeTi atlantikis aliansisTvis, sadac Sesvla mas aRuTqves2008 wlis aprilSi buqarestSi. momavalSi, wers knufi, saakaSvils undamovepyraT, rogorc avRanel hamid karzais, romelic partnioria molaparakebebSimxolod manamde, sanam ar Cans vinme ufro Sesaferisi~.rac Seexeba ruseTs, aq yvelaferi gacilebiT rTuladaa, aRniSnavsavtori: `moskovis dauxmareblad dasavleTi ver gadaWris verc erT saarsebosakiTxs msoflio politikaSi. amaSia swored arsebiTi sxvaoba —dasavleTi damokidebulia ruseTze da ara saqarTveloze~.93


socialuri mecnierebani: politologia, Jurnalistikaqristine bebiailias saxelmwifo, universiteti magistraturis studentiglobalizacia saqarTveloSisaqarTvelo dReisaTvis Zireuli cvlilebebis periodSia. xdeba sazogadoebrivicnobierebis gardaqmna da dasavluri faseulobebis danergva.tradiciulTan erTad gvxvdeba dasavluri `nawarmi~. medalsori mxare aqvs: globalur proeqtSi monawileoba qveynis gaZlierebissaSualebaa, magram, amasTan, msoflio ekonomikasTan integracia, globalurprocesSi monawileoba erovnuli individualobis SesustebissafrTxis winaSe gvayenebs. globalizacias dadebiTi da uaryofiTi mxareerTdroulad gaaCnia.sityva `globalizacia~ niSnavs sayovelTaos. globalizaciaSi moiazreba:Cven vcxovrobT msoflio sazogadoebaSi, sadac Caketili sivrceebisSesaxeb warmodgena fiqciad iqca. verc erTi qveyana an qveyana-Ta jgufi ver SeZlebs erTmaneTisagan izolirebas. globalizaciam minimumamdedaiyvana centrsa da periferias Soris gansxvaveba. SeiZlebagaCndes kiTxva: qveynebs Soris kavSiri saaukunebis winadac xom iyo? maS,globalizacia — ratom axla, XXI saukuneSi da ara gasul saukuneebSi?gasul saukuneebSic! ubralod, mas ar erqva globalizacia. magaliTad,karl iaspersma (XIX—XXss.) Semoitana cneba `RerZuli dro~, romelsacis Zv.w. 800—200 wlebs Soris avlebs da romelic, Cemi azriT, sxva araferia,Tu ara globalizacia... axla kavSirebi da urTierTmimosvla qveynebsSoris uwindelTan SedarebiT iolia. mravladaa mimosvlis saSualeba,es iqneba matarebeli, TviTmfrinavi Tu sxva. amas garda, mimosvlisgareSec Tavisuflad SeuZliaT qveynebs erTmaneTTan kontaqti.magaliTad, internetiT, fiWuri kavSirebiT... magram mxolod amaSic ardevs globalizaciis `saidumlo~. mniSvnelovania is, Tu ramdenad eqcevaqveyana sxva qveynebTan urTierTobisas maTi zegavlenis qveS da ramdenadaamaTze damokidebuli. sxva qveynebSi igulisxmeba gavlenianiqveynebi, romlebic, ase Tu ise, urTierTdamokidebulebaSi arian er-TmaneTis mimarT. globalizacia ZiriTadad teqnologiuri miRwevebiTsazrdoobs. globalizacia adamianebisTvis maqsimaluri komfortisSeqmnas gulisxmobs.Znelad Tu moiZebneba qveyana, romelSic globalizacias ar SeuRwevia.globalizaciis procesSi gamoiyofa subieqtebi da obieqtebi. Tana-94


socialuri mecnierebani: politologia, Jurnalistikamedrove msoflioSi globalizaciur procesebs ZiriTadad dasavlurisamyaro marTavs. ufro konkretulad, — aSS da sxvadasxva qveyanaSiglobalizacia SeiZleba gansxvavebuli gziT dainergos, gansxvavebuliiyos TiToeuli qveynis sapasuxo reaqcia globalizaciis Semotevaze.zogi qveyana advilad emorCileba mas, zogic uZaliandeba, zogic `sjabnis~... globalizaciis gavlena yvelgan erTnairi ZaliT ar aris warmodgenili,zogan Zlieria, zogan — susti. aris qveynebi, sadac globalizaciismxolod calkeuli niSnebi Tu moipoveba an sulac araferi globalizaciismagvari, magram, vfiqrob, momavlisTvis Tanamedroveobis es`seni~ msoflios yovel kuTxe-kunWulSi SeaRwevs. samyaro win miiwevs,ar kmayofildeba monapovriT, surs ufro da ufro meti informaciismiReba, teqnologiebi. msoflioSi erTmaneTs ebrZvian konkurentebi,gigantebi. adamianebi simdidrisken miiswrafvian.marTalia, XXI saukunes globalizaciis epoqas bevri uaryofiTi mxareaqvs, magram dadebiTi mxareebic gaaCnia. globalizacia Sobs kavSirebs.Cven bevr saxelmwifosTan vurTierTobT. gvaqvs saqmiani molaparakebebi.sul ufro da ufro verTvebiT msoflio ekonomikur procesebSi.globalizaciis erTian procesSi CarTuli qveynebi orientirebuliaurTierTdaxmarebaze. saqarTvelosac araerTxel miuRia sxva qveynebidansesxebi Tu grantebi, rac Cveni qveynis gaZlierebisTvis iyo gamiznuli.sainteresoa, ra doziT mogvitana gigant saxelmwifoebTan megobrobamglobalizacia da xom ar wagvarTva tradiciebi? yvela `globalizebul~qveyanaSi (da maT Soris arc saqarTveloa gamonaklisi) popularulia`koka-kola~, `makdonaldsi~ — msoflio brendebi... Cvenc`SemovuSviT~ saqarTvelos sazRvrebs SigniT interneti, fiWuri kavSirebi...davamkvidreT amerikuli repi, pop-musika, breiqdansi... gemodificirebulsakvebsac gavusinjeT gemo. Cvenc avlaparakdiT `vesternizaciuli~sityvebiT: ellow, bye-bye, ok globalizacias Tan SemohyvaSidsi, narkomania... gamoiwvevs ki es yovelive Cveni erovnuli tradiciebisdaviwyebas? mjera, es ar gvemuqreba. dRevandel saqarTveloSi mimdinaremovlenebi ar maZlevs imis Tqmis uflebas, rom tradiciebi uaryofilida ugulebelyofilia. xSirad imarTeba erovnuli saRamoebi,msvlelobebi, inteletualuri, kulturuli, sportuli RonisZiebebi.axalgazrdaTa umravlesoba mowodebulia qarTuli folkloris SeswavliT.am bolo dros religiuradac ganmtkicda qarTveli eri. igeba axalieklesiebi, Zvel taZrebsa da istoriul Zeglebs restavracia ukeTdeba.sazogadoebaSi iyo mtkice mosazreba, rom mecnierebis gverdiTreligia dasustdeboda an, saerTadac, gaqreboda adamianTa cxovrebidan:`ganaTlebuli~ xalxi religias crurwmenad Seracxavda da is da-95


socialuri mecnierebani: politologia, Jurnalistikakargavda mniSvnelobas, ar iqneboda sazogadoebrivi cxovrebis mamoZravebeliZala. minda vTqva, rom es winaswarmetyveleba ar gamarTldada, metic, religia dRes imdenad mniSvnelovan Zalas warmoadgens, romxSirad is xalxis dasarazmad aris gamoyenebuli sxvadasxva kampaniebis-Tvis da mas gadamwyveti sityva eTqmis.qarTvelebis erTi didi tkivili dakarguli teritoriebia: afxaze-Ti, oseTi. konfliqti afxazeTTan! konfliqti oseTTan! konfliqtiruseTTan! am ukanasknelTan konfliqtis gadaWra rTuli sakiTxia. ruseTiCvenTan SedarebiT ufro did Zalas warmoadgens. swored amitomaadaxmarebisaTvis sxvebs rom mivmarTavT. aseT mTavar damxmare Zalad kinato — erT-erTi saerTaSoriso (igive globalizaciuri) organizacia —migvaCnia. SeiZleba natoSi gawevrianebam marTlac mogvigvaros urTierTobaafxazebTan da osebTan, Tumca, SesaZloa, piriqiTac moxdes: natoSiSesvlam afxazeTisa da oseTis gaRizianeba gamoiwvios.globalizaciis procesi saqarTveloSi calmxrivad ar mimdinareobs.ara marto ucxo qveyanaTa kultura, maT mier warmoebuli samomxmarebloproduqcia Semodis CvenTan, aramed Cvenic gadis sazRvrebs gareT.magaliTad, bevr qveyanaSi icnoben qarTul wylebs, Rvinos, xil-bostneuls,rZis nawarms... Tumca am mxriv kidev bevri ramaa gasakeTebeli. saqarTvelosdid sargeblobas moutans eqsportze gasvla.qarTuli kulturis moRvaweebi miemgzavrebian sazRvargareT, acnobensaqarTvelos sxvebs da aRtacebasac iwveven maTSi. kargi ganaTlebismiRebis mizniT, qarTveli axalgazrdebi msoflio qveynebis prestiJulsaswavleblebSi swavloben. swavlis dasrulebis Semdeg isini samSoblosubrundebian. ganaTlebuli da progresulad moazrovne moqalaqeebiqveynis progress ganapirobebs. amasTan, davsZen, rom bevri sazRvargareTrCeba da iq ikeTebs karieras. migraciis procesi uaryofiT zegavlenasaxdens qveynis ganviTarebaze, gansakuTrebiT maSin, roca masniWieri adamianebi toveben. saqarTveloSi jer kidev aris umuSevrobisproblema. am problemis mosagvareblad mniSvnelovani RonisZiebebiagasatarebeli. qveynis aRmSeneblobis erT-erTi umTavresi faqtorimcire da saSualo biznesisaTvis xelSemwyobi pirobebis Seqmnaa. didiyuradReba unda daeTmos ganaTlebas. am mxriv ar aris sagangaSo mdgomareoba.saqarTveloSi dRes bevri sasikeTo ram keTdeba ganaTlebissferoSi: Sendeba da remontdeba saganmanaTlebo centrebi. wignebTanerTad swavlis sxva saSualebebic gaCnda, magaliTad, interneti da sxv.saSualo Tu umaRles saswavleblebSi gaxsnilia ufaso resurscentrebi,sadac SesaZlebelia internetiT sargebloba. interneti, magram, arawignis magivrad, aramed mis gverdiT, rac globalizaciis dadebiTi mxa-96


socialuri mecnierebani: politologia, Jurnalistikares warmoadgens. ganaTlebis done saqarTveloSi dRiTidRe izrdeba daakmayofilebs maRal moTxovnebs, rac xels uwyobs msoflio donis ganaTlebismiRebas. aseve ufro TvalSisacemi xdeba teqnikuri progresi,viTardeba samecniero sfero. dRes sazogadoeba ufro gamococxlebulida aqtiuria uwindelTan SedarebiT. qveynis progresulobis doneganisazRvreba imisda mixedviT, Tu ramdenad Seesabameba da pasuxobs misimdgomareoba aRiarebul msoflio standartebs ekonomikis, sayofacxovrebo,satransporto, janmrTelobis, ganaTlebis da sxva saxismomsaxurebis dargebSi. amdenad, saqarTvelo met-naklebad pasuxobsmsoflio standartebs. marTalia, ekonomikuri TvalsazrisiT, maRalsafexurze ar vimyofebiT, magram imedia, uaxloes momavalSi, zeda safexurebzecaRmovCndebiT.saqarTveloSi xdeba ucxouri investiciebis dabandeba, rac gamowveuliaCveni qveynis geopolitikuri mdgomareobiT. es, ra Tqma unda, kargia,magram ar mivesalmebi im faqts, rom `iyideba saqarTvelo mindorveliT~.saqarTvelo bunebrivi simdidriT gamorCeuli qveyanaa, racturistebis mozidvis efeqturi saSualebaa. Cven Tavad unda gamoviyenoTgonivrulad es simdidre. kargia, rom saqarTveloSi dRiTidRe vi-Tardeba turistuli infrastruqtura. didi yuradReba eTmoba nakrZalebismovla-patronobas. daiwyo gamwvanebis programa, romelic xeebisdargvas da tyeebis movla-patronobas iTvaliswinebs. saqarTvelos-Tvis mniSvnelovania, moeqces samyaros yuradRebis centrSi da iyosmsoflio masStabis movlenebis mamoZravebeli Zala. Cven gvaqvs Sansi,mowinave adgili davikavoT Tanamedrove msoflioSi. amas Rirseuladunda mivaRwioT. rogorc mwerali k. folkneri aRniSnavs, `kacobriobisvalia, rom ubralod ki ar gadarCes, aramed Rirseulad gamarjvebuligamovides im brZolidan, romelsac is mudmivad eweva TviTdamkvidrebisaTvis~.kacobriobis mier am misiis SesrulebaSi yvela qveyanam da maTSoris saqarTvelomac unda Seitanos wvlili. amisaTvis ki saWiroa, bevriram viswavloT da gadmoviRoT im samyarosagan, rasac `dasavluricivilizacia~ hqvia da romelic globalizaciis mSobelia. amaSi sulacar igulisxmeba is, rom dasavluri tendenciebi TvaldaxuWulad davamkvidroTCvens qveyanaSi. es bunebrivi gziT unda moxdes da, amasTan, gonivrulad.globalizaciisagan Tavis aridebas araviTari azri ara aqvsda misgan gandgoma qveynis izolacias, CamorCenas moaswavebs. magram yuradRebaunda mivaqcioT, rom globalizaciam ar Segvilaxos sxva, aranaklebmniSvnelovani inrteresebi, ar Segviryios is TviTmyofadierovnuli tradiciebi, kulturuli fundameturi faseulobebi, rasacefuZneba Cveni eri. globalizaciam rom Cveni erovnuli tradiciebisa97


socialuri mecnierebani: politologia, Jurnalistikada kulturis `Caylapva~ ar gamoiwvios, saWiroa yuradRebis mobilizeba.arasodes unda daviviwyoT is, rac memkvidreobiT gvergo Cveni winaprebisagan;is, ris gamoc qarTveli yovelTvis siamayes ganicdida da pativsimsaxurebda sxvaTa mxridan. teqnikuri miRweva, rogori didic arunda iyos igi, ar aris erovnuli, radgan is ar aris sulis gamoZaxili.kultura miT ufro maRali da Rirebulia, rac ufro erovnulia is. misigaqroba iwvevs mravalferovnebis Secvlas erTferovnebiT. ar unda davuSvaTsasicocxlo safuZvlebis ryeva. amisTvis sulac araa saWirosxvaTa interesebis ugulebelyofa. Cven unda SevZloT kargisa da cudiserTmaneTisagan garCeva.daskvnis saxiT: saqarTvelo globalizirebuli qveyanaa, magram,amasTan — tradiciulic. saqarTvelo evropisa da aziis gasayarze mdebareobs.Cveni mentaliteti uaxlovdeba rogorc aziurs, aseve evropulsda, mainc, g. asaTianis swori SeniSvniT, `saqarTvelo arc aRmosavleTiada arc dasavleTi, arc maTi sinTezi, is sakuTar TavSi Seicavsyvelafer imas da mainc gansxvavebuli fenomenia samyaroSi~.98


socialuri mecnierebani: politologia, Jurnalistikaekaterine RviniaSvilissip goris universiteti, magistraturis studentievropuli samezoblo politikis samoqmedo gegmisprioritetebi. istoriuli swrafva evropisaken daintensiuri TanamSromlobis politikaxelmZRvaneli: profesori Tamar gogolaZesaukuneTa manZilze erT kontinentze mdebare saxelmwifoTa istoriulurTierTobebSi winaaRmdegobis, omebisa da sxvadasxva militaristuligaerTianebebis paralelurad Cndeboda swrafva erTiani savaWro-ekonomikuri,kulturul-saganmanaTleblo sivrcis Camoyalibebisaken.es swrafva Cvens qveyanaSi jvarosnuli moZraobidan iwyeba da grZeldebame-17, me-18 saukuneebidan. samefo-samTavroebad daSlili qveyana,romelsac mahmadianuri aRmosavleTi walekviT emuqreboda, swored evropisakeniSvers xels. amisi udavo gamoxatuleba iyo me-18 saukunis dasawyisSisaqarTvelos mefis vaxtang VI-is mier gadadgmuli nabiji, gaegzavnasaidumlo diplomatiuri misiiT Tavis aRmzrdel-maswavlebeli,qarTvelTa didi gulSematkivari mwerali da sasuliero piri, sulxan-sabaorbeliani (1658-1725 w.w.) evropaSi samogzaurod. igi axerxebda safrangeTisada italiis saxelmwifoebriv, Tu umaRles religiur instancieb-Tan kavSiris damyarebas da saqarTvelos swrafvas mieRo politikur-TavdacviTidaxmareba evropis saxelmwifoebisagan.bizantiis damxobis Semdeg, kulturul centrebs daSorebuli saqar-Tvelo, miuxedavad sparseT-osmaleTisagan saSineli izolaciisa da depresiisa,mainc amtkicebda kavSirs evropasTan, romelic `tfilisis~ mmar-Tveli wreebisaTvis TandaTan messianistur saxes iRebda.`gansakuTrebiT didi mniSvneloba hqonda am kavSirs me-18 saukuneSi,magram geografiuli siSore da amave dros evropis saxelmwifoebisaTviswina aziasa da kerZod, saqarTveloSi am dros realuri interesebis uqonloba,SeuZleblad xdida, jerjerobiT uSualo kavSiris gabmas tfilisidandasavleT evropis centrebisaken da amitomac, qarTvel mowinave pir-Ta midrekileba, evropis kulturisaken ver poulobda am dros Sesaferpirobebs, Tavis gansaviTareblad da verc Sesafer gamoZaxils, adgilobrivsaqarTveloSi~ (3, cv).bizantiis imperatori konstantine ase werda izabela kastiliels:`gvgonia da kidevac vxedavT, rom amieridan dasavleTis mze ukve iwyebsdedamiwis mTeli danarCeni nawilis mofenas, Tavisi damabrmavebeli99


socialuri mecnierebani: politologia, JurnalistikabrwyinvalebiTo~ (3, cv).s.s. orbelianmac Tavisi Sexvedrisas safrangeTis mefe ludoviko XIVsTan(1712 wels) ase gamokveTa qarTvelTa survili:`didebulo meufeo, Tqveni xelmwifoba Seiqmna mefeTa Semwe da sarwmunoebismfarveli, TviT im daSorebul adgilebSi, rogoric aris Cveni qveyana~(3, cv).s.s. orbelianma, gaacno safrangeTis mefes saqarTvelos mZime mdgomareobada sTxova vaxtang mefis ganTavisufleba sparseTis tyveobidan,risTvisac saWiro iyo 300 000 ekius gaReba sparseTis gavlenian pirTa dasasaCuqreblad,sanacvlod saqarTvelos elCi hpirdeboda frang komersantebssavaWro gzas saqarTveloze... [2, IX].am droisaTvis safrangeTi ukve agoniaSi iyo. amitom, Zveli, daSlilimanqana inerciiTRa moZraobda. espaneTis sabatonosaTvis atexili omebida inglisis gabatonebis safrTxe zRvaze SeuZlebels xdida saqarTvelosTvisrealuri daxmarebis aRmoCenas. asec moxda, s.s. orbelianis misiauSedego aRmoCnda.zemoT aRniSnulidan gamomdinare, gamoikveTa evropasTan samezoblodpirveli da aucilebeli miznebi:• qveynis dacva mahmadianuri samyaros integraciisagan anu politikur-TavdacviTi(sarwmunoebrivi damoukideblobis SenarCunebasTan er-Tad) da savaWro-ekonomikuri kavSirebis damyarebis perspeqtiva.• saqarTvelos damoukideblobis dakargvam XIX saukuneSi da misma Semdgommaintegraciam sabWoTa kavSiris farglebSi XX saukuneSi evropasTansamezoblo politika ZiriTadad gansazRvra saganmanaTleblo-kulturulkavSirebSi.ssr kavSiris daSlis Semdgom, damoukidebeli saqarTvelos miznebigacxadda: strategia mWidrod daukavSirda evropasTan intensiuri Tanam-Sromlobis politikas, romelic Tavad evrokavSirmac SesTavaza saqar-Tvelos.1950 wels safrangeTis sagareo saqmeTa ministrma, robert Sumanma wamoayenaidea dasavleT evropis naxSirisa da foladis sabadoebis gaerTianebisaken.Sumanis gegma miznad isaxavda evropaSi omebis Tavidan acilebasanu ori umTavresi saxelmwifos — germaniisa da safrangeTis mSvidobianiTanacxovrebisa da Semdgomi ekonomikuri urTierTobebis gaRrmavebas.Sumanis gegmaSi idealisturi miznebis miuxedavad gaTvaliswinebuli iyoeqvsi qveynis erovnul interesebze kontrolis SenarCunebis meqanizmi e.w.ministrTa sabWos saxiT. magram winaaRmdegobebis mixuedavad Sumanis gegmamgaamarTla da safuZveli Caeyara axali ideis xorcSesxmas — `evropisTavdacvis gaerTianebis Seqmnas~ (1952 w.).100


socialuri mecnierebani: politologia, Jurnalistika`daiwyo politikuri kavSiris mosamzadebel xelSekrulebaze muSaoba,romelic iTvaliswinebda sagareo urTierTobebis ekonomikuri da monitarulipolitikis koordinaciasa da gaerTianebas. aRsaniSnavia, rom amxelSekrulebis mowyobis moweris SemTxvevaSi miviRebdiT ufro metad integrirebulevropas, vidre es miviReT 1991 wels, maastrixtSi mowerilixelSekrulebis Semdeg~ [1, 5].60-70-80-ian wlebSi evropis qveynebs Soris integraciis procesebisdaCqareba-Senelebisaken swrafvisa, evrokavSiris ganviTarebisaTvis axalietapi dadga 1991 wels. es swored maastrixtis xelSekrulebis xelmowerisSemdgom, rodesac gamoikveTa is sami sayrdeni (evropis ekonomikurigaerTianebebi, marTlmsajuleba da saSinao saqmeebi, saerTo sagareo dausafrTxoebis politika), romelsac efuZneba evrokavSiri. maastrixtisxelSekrulebiT evropis politikuri TanamSromloba gadaizarda ufroTanmimdevrul da mravlismomcvel saerTo sagareo da TavdacviT politikaSi.am xelSekrulebam ekonomikuri integracia kidev ufro win waswia.SemuSavda ekonomikuri da fuladi erTianobis struqtura, rasac 2001 w.erTiani evropuli fuladi erTeulis, evros SemoReba mohyva.garda amisa, Camoyalibda specialuri saagentoebi garkveuli teqnikuri,samecniero, Tu mmarTvelobiTi amocanebis Sesasruleblad [2, 4].maRalganviTarebuli qveynebis integraciis procesi swrafad warimarTada ukve bevr saxelmwifos gauCnda survili SeerTeboda evrokav-Sirs. process faruli interesiT adevnebda Tvals saqarTvelo, jer kidevsabWoTa kavSiris wevri respublika.evrokavSiris istoriulma gafarToebam saSualeba misca saxelmwifo-Ta am did gaerTianebas gadaedga mniSvnelovani nabiji evropis kontinentzeusafrTxoebis da stabilurobis xelSewyobis saqmeSi.2003 wlis martSi, evrokavSiris mier warmodgenil iqna dokumenti —`gafarToebuli evropa-mezobloba; axali CarCo aRmosavleTiT da samxre-TiT mdebare Cvens mezoblebTan urTierTobis~, romelic evrokavSirissabWom moiwona da gzas uxsnida saqarTvelosac.2005 wlis martSi, evrokomisiam warmoadgina angariSebi azerbaijanis,somxeTisa da saqarTvelos Sesaxeb, sadac rekomendacia gauwia molaparakebebisdawyebas am qveynebisaTvis samoqmedo gegmis SemuSavebis mizniT.stabiluri samezoblos arseboba evrokavSiris sasicocxlo interesebSicSedis. amdenad, is mezoblebTan urTierTobis gaZlierebas cdilobsda swored am mizni, SemuSavda `evropis samezoblo politika~.evrokavSiris gafarToebis Sedegad, samxreTi kavkasia evropas dauaxlovdada saqarTveloSi demokratiis damyareba evrokavSiris strategiuliinteresebis sagania sabazro ekonomikis warmatebasTan erTad.101


socialuri mecnierebani: politologia, Jurnalistika2004 wlis 14 ivniss evrokavSirma miiRo gadawyvetileba saqarTvelos,azerbaijanisa da somxeTis `evropis samezoblo politikaSi~ gawevrianebisSesaxeb. amiT man daadastura ufro aqtiuri CarTva regionis ganviTarebaSi.`evropis samezoblo politika~ samxreTi kavkasiis qveynebs sTavazobsgarormavebul politikur urTierTobebs da ekonomikur integracias,romelic efuZneba saerTo Rirebulebebs, sagareo politikis Ziri-Tad prioritetebs da politikur, ekonomikur da instituciur reformebs[3, 5].evrokavSiri sTavazobs saqarTvelos intensiur TanamSromblobas politikis,usafrTxoebis, ekonomikis da kulturis sakiTxebSi, rac istoriuladmomdinareobs me-18 me-20-sa Tavad saqarTvelos miznebidan.evrokavSiri iTvaliswinebs ra saqarTvelos aSkara swrafvas evropisakenmiesalmeba mis mzadyofas, gaaRrmavos TanamSromloba samoqmedo gegmisyvela sferoSi.samoqmedo gegma, romelzedac SeTanxmdnen evrokomisia, evrokavSirisTavmjdomare, sagareo usafrTxoebis umaRles warmomadgenelTan konsultaciisgziT, ZalaSi Sevida 2004 wlis 14 noembers. samoqmedo gegmaxuTwliania da misi ganxorcieleba daexmareba `partniorobisa da Tanam-Sromlobis Sesaxeb SeTanxmebis~ debulebebis srtulyofas. igi mniSvnelovnaddaemxareba saqarTvelos Tavisi kanonmdeblobis evrokavSirisnormebTan da standartebTan daaxloebis saqmeSi.evropis samezoblo politika xels uwyobs axali tipis sapartniorourTierTobebis Seqmnas, rac qmnis perspeqtivas evrokavSirsa da saqar-Tvelos Soris TanamSromlobidan ufro Rrma integraciaze gadasasvlelad,raTa saqarTveloSic TandaTanobi gavrceldes `oTxi Tavisufleba~da SesaZlebeli gaxdes, Tavis mxriv, saqarTvelos monawileoba evrokavSirismier ganxorcielebul sxvadasxva politikasa Tu programaSi.samoqmedo gegmaSi dasaxulia 8 prioritetuli sfero, romelTaganacgamovyofdiT evropis mimarT saqarTvelos samezoblo politikisaTvismetad mnivnelovan me-6 da me-7 prioritetebs, romlebSic CamoyalibebuliaSida konfliqtebis mSvidobiani gziT mogvarebis xelSewyoba (prioritetulisfero 6) da TanamSromloba sagareo da usafrTxoebis politikissferoSi (prioritetuli sfero 7).evrokavSiris interesebi, Tavis mxriv, saqarTveloSi miznad isaxavs`vardebis revoluciis~ Semdgom saqarTvelos mimarT gamaxvilebul interess.saqarTvelo warmoadgens erTgvar laboratorias evrokavSirisaTvis,sadac SeiZleba postsabWoTa sivrceSi arsebul tendenciebze dakvirveba,transatlantikuri kavSirebis simtkicis Semowmeba, evrokavSiri-ruseTisurTierTobebis gamocda. amdenad, evrokavSiri dainteresebulia102


socialuri mecnierebani: politologia, JurnalistikaagreTve afxazeTisa da cxnivalis konfliqtebis mogvarebiT, winaaRmdegSemTxvevaSi regioni blokadebis da konfrontaciis arenad iqceva.axali omi SesaZloa Savi zRvis regionzec gavrceldes da daemuqrosevrokavSiris wevri Tu kandidati qveynebis usafrTxoebas pirdapir aniribad.evrokavSiris samezoblo politikis prioritetebis xorcSesxmis procesiukve didi xania dawyebulia da srulyofilad mimdinareobs.evrokavSiris roli da daxmareba gansakuTrebulad gamoikveTa 2008wlis agvistos movlenebis dros.gamoyenebuli literatura1. sergi kapanaZe, ~evrokavSiris politika~. Tb., 2006, gv. 5.2. `sibrZne-sicruisa~, g. leoniZis winasityvaobiT, Tb., 1948, `Sroma,gv. CV, CIX~.3. `evropis samezoblo politika~, gv. 5.103


socialuri mecnierebani: politologia, JurnalistikaqeTi beriZesoxumis saxelmwifo universiteti, bakalavriatis studentifsiqologia xelovnebisa da religiis kvaldakvalxelmZRvaneli: profesori kaxi kopalianiadamianis sulieri cxovrebis mimarT profesiuli interesi mxolodfsiqologias ar gaaCnia. am kuTxiT sainteresoa fsiqologiis kavSirisazogadoebrivi cnobierebisa da adamianuri moRvaweobis iseT saxeeb-Tan, rogoricaa xelovneba da religia.xelovneba. fsiqologias, romelic orientirebulia realur cxovrebiseulpirobebSi mimdinare fsiqikur moqmedebaze, SeuZlia moicvasindividisa da samyaros urTierTobaTa mravalferovneba. amiT arsebi-Tad farTovdeba fsiqologiis sfero. masSi Sedis ara mxolod cnobierebisSinaarsebi, aramed fsiqikis individualuri gamovlinebebic. amgvarad,is xdeba myari safuZveli fsiqologiis iseTi dargebisTvis, rogoricaabavSvisa da pedagogiuri, diferencialuri, xelovnebis, iuridiulida sxva fsiqologia.Znelia Semoqmedebis niSnis gareSe moviazroT adamianis namdvilibuneba. Semoqmedeba Cveni maradiuli moswrafebebisa da umaRlesi Rirsebebissaqmea. adamianisa da sazogadoebis ideali, misi Tavisufleba SemoqmedebiTicxovrebis damkvidrebasTanaa dakavSirebuli.xelovnebasTan fsiqologias bevri ram akavSirebs, magram arsebobsseriozuli ganmasxvavebeli niSnebic. fsiqologia mecnierebaa WeSmaritebazeda codnis mopovebazea mimarTuli, xelovneba ki garegani da Sinaganisamyaros esTetikur gadamuSavebasa da gadmocemas cdilobs. xelovnebisganmecnierebas isic ganasxvavebs, rom igi, rogorc wesi, miiswrafvismaqsimalurad gaupirovnebeli codnisken, xolo xelovnebis-Tvis mTavaria orientacia Semoqmedis unikalur pirovnebaze, mis miersamyaros subieqtur xedvaze. xelovnebis nawarmoebSi, ufro xSirad,swored esaa yvelaze saintereso. sayovelTaod cnobilia, rom xelovnebaSiimarjvebs is nawarmoebi, romelic Seicavs fsiqologiur simar-Tles, romlis gmirebi sruli fsiqologiuri simarTliT moqmedeben.fsiqologiuri simarTlis cnebaSi igulisxmeba nawarmoebis gmiris gancdebis,xasiaTis, mTeli misi fsiqologiuri samyaros Sesatyvisoba nawarmoebisideur SinaarsTan da im situaciebTan, romelSic iSleba personaJismoRvaweoba. cxovrebaSi yovel adamians aqvs xasiaTi da tempe-104


socialuri mecnierebani: politologia, Jurnalistikaramenti, amitom mxatvrul nawarmoebSi asaxuli admiaanis tipi SeuZlebeliamoklebuli iyos xasiaTsa da temperaments. amitom mxatvruli nawarmoebi,romlis gmirebs ar gaaCniaT gamokveTili xasiaTi da temperamenti,mdare xarisxisaa da adamianis bunebis ucodinrobazea agebuli.rac Seexeba mecnierebas, misi idealia obieqturoba, TvalsazrisebisgansxvavebulobaTa minimizacia da sayovelTaod misaRebi codnis miRweva.uZvelesi droidanve arsebobda sinamdvilis Semecnebis ori gza- filosofiis(mecnierebis) da xelovnebis. maT Soris xSirad warmoebda metoqeobac.Tavidanve rogorc xelovnebas, ise filosofias, samyarosasaxvis pretenzia hqonda. aristoteles mixedviT, xelovnebis Semecnebazogadis wvdomaa; filosofia zogads wvdeba cnebebiT, xelovneba-SemoqmedebiTifantaziiT. mecnierebisagan gansxvavebiT, xelovnebis daniSnulebasSeadgens sinamdvilis mxatvruli asaxvis gziT esTetikuritkboba. mravalferovani sinamdvilis SemecnebaSi xelovnebis roli filosofiisTanafasovania.fsiqologias esaWiroeba imis cxadyofa, rom saerTosTan erTad sa-Wiroa SesaZlebeli Taviseburis kvleva, rom zogadis konkretuli ganxorcielebayovelTvis Seicavs individualobis moments, rom individualurgansxvavebebSi vlindeba adamianis fsiqikuri moqmedebis yvelazezogadi kanonzomierebebi, rom individualuri Tu jgufuri variaciulobauniversaluri fenomeni da adamianuri qcevis arsebiTi Tvisebaa.adamianis diferencialur-fsiqologiuri maxasiaTeblebi realurimovlenebia, romlebic stabilurad iCenen Tavs. magaliTad, maTmatikurian mxatvruli inteleqtis tipis adamiani individualur Taviseburebebsmravali wlis ganmavlobaSi da sxvadasxva situaciaSi avlens.adamianTa individualur TaviseburebaTa gamovlena Tavidanve stimulirebuliiyo sazogadoebrivi praqtikis amocanebiT.rogorc xelovneba, ise fsiqologia, cdilobs adamianis xasiaTis bunebis,xasiaTis mixedviT adamianTa Soris gansxvavebulobis dadgenas.xelovneba amas aRwevs tipizaciis meoxebiT. tipi yovelTvis gamoxatavsadamianis daxasiaTebas Warbi, misTvis damaxasiaTbeli niSnebiT. fsiqologiaSitipologiuri sistemebi emyareba xasiaTis erTi an ramdenimeniSnis siWarbis princips. mag.: gamoyofen grZnobis, gonebis adamianistipebs an harmoniul da konfliqtur adamianebs. xelovnebaSi ki erTiWarbi sulieri niSnis (siZunwe, eWvi, pativmoyvareoba) win wamowevis safuZvelzedaxatulia mTlianad adamianis xasiaTi, misi sakuTar TavTan,sxva adamianebTan damokidebulebis yvela mxare. xelovnebisa da mecnierebisaucilebeli kavSiri da, amave dros, maT Soris metoqeoba naTlad105


socialuri mecnierebani: politologia, JurnalistikaCans adamianis xasiaTis tipis arsis Seswavlisas. am garemoebam gansakuTrebiTiCina Tavi XIX-XX saukuneebSi, rodesac erTi mxriv, mecnierulmafsiqologiam Tavis erT-erT amocanad adamianis xasiaTis mecnieruliSeswavla daisaxa da meore mxriv, xelovnebaSi ganmtkicda realizmi.swored realisturi xelovneba miiCnies progresuli kacobriobismowinave mimarTulebad. mxatvrul SemoqmedebaSi personaJebis xasiaTistipebis mTeli sisruliT mocema realisturi xelovnebis erT-erTumniSvnelovanes amocanas warmoadgens. xelovnebisa da mwerlobis didmawarmomadgenlebma marTlac Seqnes xasiaTis mravali gansxvavebulitipi.xelovnebis mier Seqmnili xasiaTis brwyinvale galereaSi asaxuliaadamianis mravalferovani sulieri samyaro.mecniereba ZiriTdad zogadi kanonzomierebis dadgenazea orientirebuli,xelovneba ki piriqiT, individualobis gamovlenaze, aseve adamianis,rogorc socialuri individis, zogadadamianuri da ganmasxvavebeliTvisebebis arsis Semecnebiskenaa mimarTuli, Tumca ganzogadebas,cxadia, isic mimarTavs. es gansxvaveba ar aris universaluri gansakuTrebiTsazogadoebriv mecnierebebTan dakavSirebiT. fsiqologiaccdilobs zogadi kanonzomierebebis dadgenas, magram Tavisi humanitarulobisgamo ver Semoifargleba abstraqtuli, ganzogadebuli adamianurifsiqikis SeswavliT. konkretuli da gansakuTrebuli SeTxvevebimisi kvlevis pirdapiri sagania. fsiqologia pretenzias gamoTqvams pirovnebisSeswavlaze; pirovnebis gamorCeuli niSani ki misi unikalurobaa.igi yovelTvis erTeul da individualur formaSia mocemuli anuise, rogorc mas xelovneba aSuqbs. adamianis xasiaTis Semecnebas cdilobsxelovnebac da mecnierebac, orive erTsa da imave movlenas ikvlevs,oRond gansxvavebuli gzebiT, meTodebiT, Taviseburi midgomiT.pirovnebis daxasiaTebis TvalsazrisiT fsiqologiasa da xelovnebas,kerZod literaturas, konkurentebadac ki miiCneven.pirovnebis daxasiaTebis mxriv axalgazrda fsiqologiuri mecnierebaxSirad ver utoldeboda uZvelesi tradiciebis mqone literaturas,rac aRmaSfoTebel Sefasebebs iwvevda, kerZod rom xelovnebis nimuSeb-Si meti fsiqologiaa, vidre yvela fsiqologiur saxelmZRvaneloSi. xelovnebasibrZnis wyaroa. didma rusTavelma poezia sibrZnis erT-erTdargad aRiara: `Sairoba pirveladve sibrZnisaa erTi dargi, saRmrTo,saRmrTod gasagoni, msmenelTaTvis didi margi~. 1 rusTavelma poeziasumaRlesi WeSmaritebis wvdomis SesaZlebloba mianiWa. xelovnebas SeuZliacxovrebis azris SemecnebasTan, cxovrebis wvdomasTan erTadumaRlesi esTtikuri siamovnebis miniWeba. rusTavelma kkvefxistyaosanSi~aCvena kidevac, rom didi xelovneba iqmneba sinamdvilis Rrma ana-106


socialuri mecnierebani: politologia, Jurnalistikalizis, misi Semecnebis, fsiqologiis, mecnierebis didi codnis safuZvelze.xelovnebis bevri warmomadgeneli im azrisaa, rom xelovans mecnierebisdaxmarebis gareSec SeuZlia zemodan momadlebuli STagonebiTCawvdes, ganWvritos adamianis Sinagani buneba, misi sulieri samyarossaidumloeba. xelovnebis zogierTi msaxuri amJamadac adamianisbunebis SemecnebaSi maRla ayenebs xelovnebas da sruliad ugulebelyofsfsiqologiis did miRwevebs. zogierTebis azriT, ambobs cnobiliamerikeli fsiqologi gordon olporti — `fsiqologia naklebisrulyofilebiTa da siRrmiT mxolod imeorebs imas, rasac filosofiada poezia yovelTvis ukeT ityoda~ 2 . erTxel lord dunsaum SeniSna:`fsiqologebi, ise, rogorc gzis SemkeTbeli muSebi, mxolod ori diumiTCadian miwaSi, maSin, rodesac poetebi amas akeTeben rogorc memaRaroelni,romelnic mTeli miliT midian wiaRis siRrmeSi~ 3 . zogs kidevpiriqiT, xelovnebaSi didi miRwevebi ver warmoudgenia mecnierebisdaxmarebis gareSe. mag.: cnobili germaneli Teatrmcodne b. brexti ambobs:`rodesac me mivuTiTebdi, rom Tanamedrove mecnierebas SeuZliadidi samsaxuri gauwios xelovnebas, rom me ar SemiZlia SemoqmedebazogierTi mecnierebis gareSe, zogierTebSi es azri iwvevda SeWvebasCems mxatvrul niWSi~ 4 .aseTi dapirispireba umarTebuloa. marTalia, fsiqologiac da literaturacpirovnebas axasiaTebs, magram erTi mecnierebis meTodiTsargeblobs, meore xelovnebis. es garemoeba sxvadasxva suraTs gvaZlevsgansakuTrebiT maSin, roca saqme realurad arsebul pirovnebebsexeba. mag.: literaturasa da mecnierebaSi Seqmnili gamoCenili adamianebisportretebi. fsiqologiuri daxasiaTeba nakleb mxatvrulia, naklebmetaforuli da saxaliso. samagierod is ufro zusti da mkacria immxriv, rom logikurad gamomdinareobs mecnieruli safuZvlidan. isicaRsaniSnavia, rom Tanamedrove fsiqologia TandaTan srulyofs fsiqodiagnostikurmeTodebs, romelTa saSualebiTac SesaZlebelia gamovlindesda sakmarisi sizustiT Sefasdes yoveli pirovnebis fsiqikuriTaviseburebani.aqedan gamomdinare, SegviZlia davaskvnaT, rom xelovnebac da fsiqologiacadamianis sulieri samyaros warmoCenisTvis ibrZvis, magramgansxvavebuli kuTxiT. xelovneba pirovnebis Sinagan mdgomareobasa TugrZnoba-gancdebs esTetikuri silamaziT gadmogvcems, fsiqologia kinakleb mxatvruli, Tumca mecnieruli safuZvlebidan gamomdinare.religia. religias, fsiqologiis msgavsad, aqvs pretenzia, romflobs codnas adamianis fsiqikis anu sulis Taviseburebebis Sesaxeb-,magram es codna sxva gziT miiRweva, radgan mecniereba da religia sam-107


socialuri mecnierebani: politologia, Jurnalistikayaros Secnobis sxvadasxva formebs warmoadgenen.mecniereba ikvlevs qveyniur sinamdviles, empiriul samyaros, yovelivexiluls, wuTisofelsR igi ifargleba samyaros, pirovnebisa da sazogadoebisanaliziT, dedamiwaze moqmed kanonebSi mizezSedegobriobisjaWvis gamovleniT.amgvari Ziebis gzaze igi awydeba urTierTsapirispiro mravalmxrivobas.mokvdavis TvaliT danaxul samyaroSi xan keTili zeobs, xan boroti,mze xan siTboTi avsebs dedamiwas, xan mcxunvarebiT averanebs.wvimebi mcenareTa zrdaze keTilad moqmedebs, xSirad ki nayofis damwifebasuSlian xels. am SeusabamobaTa gamo mecnierebas uWirs movlenaTasimravleSi marTlzomierebisa da mizanSewonilobis dadgena, amitomTavs aridebs arsebobas. mizezisa da miznis gansazRvras, samyaros sawyisisada sasrulis garkvevas. igi ifargleba mxolod bunebis fenomenTakavSirebisa da Tanmimdevrulobis SeswavliT.mecnierebas religiisgan ganasxvavebs misi mzaoba, uaryos TavisiTundac sabaziso principebi da debulebebi, Tu isini kvleviT`gamocdas~ ver gauZlebs. rac Seexeba religiur codnas, igi mimarTuliaamosavali dogmatebis, rwmenis simboloebis dadasturebisken.mniSvnelovania isic, rom religiur codnaSi samyaro mocemulia RvTiuriCanafiqrebisa da Zalebis gamovlinebad, xolo mecnierebaSi, Tu mecnierireligiuria, samyaro ganixileba SedarebiT damoukidebel realobad,romelic TavisTavad unda iyos Seswavlis sagani.aseTivea fsiqologiuri mecnierebebisa da religiis urTierTmimar-Tebac. religiebSi mocemulia doqtrinebi adamianuri bunebis sworianu RvTiuri wyobis, misi sulieri samyaros, fsiqikis Sesaxeb. fsiqologiaki cdilobs Seiswavlos adamiani da misi fsiqika raime zebunebriviZalebisagan ganyenebiT da yovelgvari winaswari daSvebis gareSe daadginos,Tu rogoria an rogori unda iyo misi buneba. magaliTisTvis vnaxoT,Tu rogor xsnis erTsa da imave qcevas religia (qristianoba) dafsiqologia. davuSvaT, rom viRac konkretulma pirma iqurda. religiiswarmomadgeneli ityoda, rom igi ganudga RvTis mcnebas `ara iparo~ daCaidina codva, daeca, damdablda. man Tavisi danaSauli imiT unda gamoisyidos,rom moinanios da daubrundes RmerTs anu Tavis WeSmarit bunebas.fsiqologi daiwyebda Ziebas, Tu ra pirobebSi (gareSe situacia),vin (pirovnebis istoria da tipi) da ratom (motivacia) Caidina mocemuliqmedeba da am cnobebis Sejerebis gziT gamoavlenda mis ganmapirobebelfaqtors an faqtorebis erTobliobas (socialuri gavlena an iZuleba,provnuli gadaxra, an dausrulebeli socializacia da a.S.). amas-Tan, fsiqologia cxadia ar ityoda, rom adamianis `WeSmariti sulieri108


socialuri mecnierebani: politologia, Jurnalistikabunebis~ etalonad is unda CiTvalos, visac arasdros Caudenia es qmedeba.gansxvaveba religiasa da fsiqologias Soris swored etalonismocemulobaa. religiisTvis arsebobs etaloni d RvTis mier gansazRvruliWeSmariti adamianuri buneba. fsiqologiisaTvis ar arsebobsetaloni da, Sesabamisad, misTvis adamianis yvela qceva misi sulieribunebis demonstrirebaa.fsiqoanalizi erT-erTi yvelaze farToa zogadfsiqologiur sistemebsSoris. igi sulieri da qceviTi sferos uamrav gamovlinebas moicavs:cnobiereba da aracnobiereba, xasiaTis tipebi da pirovnebis ganviTareba,ojaxi, rwmena, Semoqmedeba da a.S. fsiqoanalizs gansakuTrebuliufleba aqvs sityva Tqvas mecnieruli msoflmxedvelobis Taobaze,vinaidan mas ver usayvedureben, rom is ugulebelyofs samyaros suraT-Si suliers. misi wvlili mecnierebaSi swored kvleva-Ziebis gafarToebaasulieris sferoSi. aseTi fsiqoanalogiis gareSe, ra Tqma unda, mecnierebaZalze arasrulyofili iqneboda. Seuwynarebelia vTqvaT, rommecniereba adamianis gonis moqmedebis sferoa, xolo religia sxva ram,odnav misi tolfasi da yoveli adamianis winaSe Tavisufali arCevani.Zalebidan, romlebic mecnierebas edaveba, sabolood martoreligiaa misi seriozuli `mteri~, radgan religia uzarmazari Zalaa,romlis gankargulebaSia adamianTa uZlieresi emociebi. cnobilia, romis adre yvelafers moicavda, rac adamianis cxovrebaSi raime rols TamaSobdasulierebis saxiT da mecnierebis adgils iWerda, roca jer kidevar iyo mecniereba. man Seudarebeli TanmimdevrulobiTa Tu SekrulobiTSeqmna msoflmxedveloba, romelic dResac ganagrZobs arsebobas.Tu gvinda gavacnobieroT religiis arsi, sakmarisi unda iyos imisCveneba, Tu riT ipyrobs igi adamianebs. religia maT ganumartavs samyaroswarmoSobasa da aRmocenebas, cxovrebis cvalebedobis SemTxvevaSiarwmunebs mfarvelobasa da saboloo bednierebaSi, warmarTavs maT Sexedulebebsada moqmedebebs miTiTebaTa gziT, romelic mTeli avtoritetiTwarudgeba maT. maSasadame, religia asrulebs sam funqcias: pirvelifunqciiT is akmayofilebs adamianuri codnis wyurvils (igivesakeTebs, rasac sakuTari saSualebebiT gaakeTebda mecniereba da aqamasTan metoqeobaSia). meore funqcia misi udidesi zegavlenaa, rocais cxovrebiseul saSiSroebaTa winaSe adamianTa SiSs aSoSminebs, anuge-Sebs. mecnierebas ki es ar SeuZlia. marTalia, mecniereba gvaswavlis rogorunda aviridoT saSiSroebani, rogor vibrZoloT da am mxriv is adamianisdamxmarea, magram xSir SemTxvevaSi man adamians mxolod avadmyofobisadmidaqvemdebareba unda urCios. religiis mesame funqciiT,109


socialuri mecnierebani: politologia, Jurnalistikaroca is miTiTebebs iZleva, akrZalvebsa da SezRudvebs gamoscems, yvelazeufro Sordeba mecnierebas, vinaidan mecniereba mxolod kvleva--dadgeniTac kmayofildeba. aqedan gamomdinare, SegviZlia davaskvnaT,rom mecnierebis wesebi da rCevebi igivea, rasac religia gvTavazobs,magram sxva dasabuTebiT.religiuri msoflmxedvelobis Sesaxeb mecnierebis msjeloba aseTia:maSin, roca calkeuli religiebi erTmaneTTan daoben imaze, Tu romeliaWeSmariti, vfiqrobT, ufleba gvaqvs religiis WeSmaritebis ugulebelyofisa.mecniereba iswrafvis miaRwios realobasTan damTxvevas, e.i. imas,rac Cvengan damoukidebladaa da mniSvnelovanwilad Cveni survilebisasrulebis an ganxorcielebisTvisaa. miuxedavad amisa, saWiroa iTqvas,rom adamianis Sesaxeb mecnierebebisTvis, kerZod fsiqologiisTvis, religiurZiebebs gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba eniWeba. rwmenis, religiuricnobierebis problemebs didi adgili ukavia araerTi gamoCenilifsiqologis Semoqmedebasa da pirad cxovrebaSi. rac Seexeba konkretuladamianebs, maT, erih fromis TqmiT, qcevis balansisa da bedniericxovrebisTvis Tanabrad esaWiroebaT religiac da fsiqologiac. amitom,Tanamedrove civilizebul qveynebSi ar aris iSviaToba, roca pirovnebaenTuziazmiT dadis eklesiaSic da fsiqoTerapiul kabinetSic.aRsaniSnavia, rom zogierTi fsiqoTerapiul sistemas iTvaliswinebs,zogi ki aqtiuradac iyenebs sulier sferosTan muSaobis religiuri ZiebiTSeZenil gamocdilebas. magaliTisTvis sxvsdasxva meditaciuri me-Todic gamodgeba. qristianuli aRsareba, magaliTad, pirdapir iZlevaSvebis momgvrel, damamSvidebel efeqts.da mainc, miuxedavd imisa, rom kacobriobis umravlesoba kidevactyvea siameTa ama qveynisa, didsa Tu mcires, nebiT Tu uneburad, ase Tuise mainc zecisken miuwevs guli; sikeTe urCevnia borotebas, mSveniereba-simaxinjes,rwmena-urwmunoebas, RvTiuri-uRvTosRRmerTis siyvaruls da imis cnobierebas, rom RmerTsac vuyvarvarT,efuZneba imedi, riTac SeiaraRebulni varT rogorc garesamyaros, iseadamianTa garemos saSiSroebaTa winaaRmdeg. bolos, locvaSi vicavTpirdapir gavlenas RvTiur nebaze da amiT RvTiur yovlisSemZleobaSivmonawileobT.gamoyenebuli literatura:1. imedaZe i. `fsiqologiis istoria~, Tbilisi, 2008w.2. imedaZe i. `fsiqologiis safuZvlebi~, gamomc. `mwignobari~, 2008w.110


socialuri mecnierebani: politologia, Jurnalistika3. norakiZe v. `xasiaTis fsiqologia da xeloivneba~, gamomc. `xelovneba~,1962w.4. zigmund froidi. `fsiqoanalizi~, Tbilisi, 2005w.5. SoTa rusTaveli. `vefxistyaosani~, gamomc. `ganaTleba~, Tbilisi,1968w.6. tabiZe o. `adamiani, Tavisufleba, Semoqmedeba~, gamomc. `mecniereba~,Tbilisi, 1991w.7. papuaSvili n. `religiis istoria~, gamomc. `rubikoni~, Tbilisi,1996w.111


socialuri mecnierebani: politologia, Jurnalistikaxatia kobliaSvili, TaTia Cadunelissip goris universitetis bakalavriatis studenti2008 wlis ruseT-saqarTvelos omi da masmediaxelmZRvaneli: profesori daviT CoCiSvilikacobriobis istoria sikeTesa da borotebas Soris brZolis istoriaasisxliT gaJRenTili, Semzaravi TavgadasavlebiT, Tumca sad iwyebada sad mTavrdeba erTic da meorec sfinqsiseul gamocanad rCebakvlavac.TiTqos banalur movlenad iqca, roca ZvelTagan sapatiod miCneuliwarmodgenebi Tu Sexedulebani drodadro irRveva da iwyeba sastiki,daundobeli omebi, terori, romelTac Tan sdevs adamianTa masobriviganadgureba, qalaqebisa da soflebis miwasTan gasworeba, dRemde gamocxadebulRirebulebaTa gadafaseba, adamianis modgmisaTvis samarcxvinoaTasgvari saSinelebaniR.swored aseTi faqtebiTa da movlenebiT iyo aRsavse ruseT-saqar-Tvelos Soris 2008 wlis agvistoSi momxdari omi. omis dros didi yuradRebaeqceva TiToeul detals, maT Soris, masmediis saSualebebs. ismniSvnelovan rols asrulebs konfliqtebis gaSuqebisa da maTi obieqturianalizis dros. cnobili konfliqtologi iohan galtungi ambobs,rom arsebobs mSvidobis Jurnalistika, romelic konfliqtebs ganixilavs,rogorc medicinas, sadac moZiebulia konfliqtis mizezebi. es arunda hgavdes sportul Jurnalistikas, sadac aucileblad unda gamoavlinogamarjvebuli da damarcxebuli. mTavari mizani aseT SemTxvevaSiunda iyos konfliqtebis mizezebis Zieba.Cveni azriT, masmediis daniSnulebaa, pirvel rigSi, uzrunvelyosobieqturi informaciis miwodeba. Jurnalisti, romelic konfliqtzemuSaobs, aucileblad unda erkveodes konfliqtis geografiul areal-Si, erkveodes im ekonomikur Tu politikur aspeqtebSi, riTac ganpirobebuliakonfliqi. Jurnalisti unda iyos profesionali, man unda daicvasobieqturoba, eTika da a.S. samwuxarod, CvenTan xSiria SemTxvevebi,rodesac konfliqtebs calmxrivad aSuqeben.2008 wlis agvistos omis dros, iyo faqtebi obieqturobis darRvevisa.Cven gavesaubreT goris universitetis profesors eldar mamisTvalaSvils,romelic mTeli omis periodSi qalaqSi imyofeboda. man Cven-Tan saubarSi aRniSna, rom xSirad acxadebdnen, TiTqos iwvoda goris112


socialuri mecnierebani: politologia, Jurnalistikafosta da universitetis I korpusi, Tumca es ar Seesabameboda sinamdviles.batoni eldari xSirad midioda universitetTan da amowmebda mar-Tali iyo Tu ara informacia, rasac telekompaniebi gadmoscemdnen. rodesacSevZeliT qalaqSi dabruneba sakuTari TvaliT vixileT, rom gorisuniversiteti damwvari ki ara mxolod mcired dazianebuli iyo. savaldebuloa,rom aseTi isteriis gamomwvevi masalebi Jurnalistebismier ar unda iyos gamoyenebuli. masmedias ar vakritikebT, ubralodvakeTebT analizs im reportaJebisas, romelic keTdeboda omis period-Si da zogjer iwvevda zedmet panikas. daZabulobis Setana am dros araris gamarTlebuli.konfliqtebis gaSuqebisas, gansakuTrebiT, rodesac monawile mxareebierTi da imave qveynis moqalaqeebi arian, aucileblad unda iyosdaculi sruli obieqturoba. saomari mdgomareobis dros unda iyossamxedro cenzura, raTa uneblieT ar moxdes samxedro saidumloebisgamJRavneba. isev moviyvanT magaliTs, rodesac sazogadoebrivma televiziamgamoacxada, rom gorSi mobilizebulia rezevistebis didi raodenoba.es gavida rogorc informacia, Tumca es iyo informaciis gadacema,romelsac dainteresebuli mxare gamoiyenebda. unda daoweros is,rac saqarTvelos saxelmwifos gaaZlierebs, araviTar SemTxvevaSi arunda gavides subieqturi informacia, rac SeiZleba mterma gamoiyenos.soxumisa da goris universitetebs bevri saerTo aqvT,. Tundac is,rom saqarTvelos danarCen mosaxleobaze ufro meti kavSiri gvqondaamJamad qveynis iurisdiqciis miRma darCenil mosaxleobasTan, romel-Ta Cveni saxelmwifoebriobis sivrcisadmi dabruneba TiToeuli Cvenimoqalaqis upirvelesi valia. marTalia, Cveni reportaJebiT am regionebissruli dafarva ar xerxdeba, magram am informacias ismenen rogorcJurnalistebi iqiTa mxridan, aseve specsamsaxurebis warmomadgenlebi,romlebsac SeuZliaT TiToeuli gaufrTxilebeli frazis sakuTarimiznebisaTvis interpretireba.Jurnalistis Tundac erTi gauazrebeli sityva SesaZloa qveynisaTvissavalalo aRmoCndes. didi albaTobaa imisa, rom Cvenma mowinaaRmdegemxarem Juralistis mier daSvebuli Secdoma Tavis sakeTildReodgamoiyenos da daanaxvos yvelas, Tu rogori sastikebi arian qarTvelebi.zemoT aRniSnuli omis dros Jurnalistebis mier gamovlenil iqnabevri sagmiro magaliTi. aRsaniSnavia is faqti, rom erT-erTi telekompaniisJurnalisti Tamar uruSaZe pirdapir eTerSi CarTvis dros daiWraokupanti snaiperis tyviiT. cxinvalTan Setakebisas ki samsaxureobrivimovaleobis Sesrulebis dros daiRupa ori qarTveli Jurnalisti.113


socialuri mecnierebani: politologia, Jurnalistikaaqedan gamomdinare, Jurnalistoba sarisko profesiaa.rusuli agresiis gamo, Sida qarTlis TiTqmis mTeli raioni damTlianad cxinvalis regioni informaciul vakuumSi aRmoCnda. adgilobrivitele-radio kompania TrialeTis Jurnalistebs, sanam saSualebaiyo, pirdapiri CarTvebi hqondaT konfliqtis adgilidan, gorisdakavebis Semedeg ki maTi sainformacio mauwyebloba Sewyda. rTul pirobebSiuwevda muSaoba adgilobriv masmedias. amasTan, 10 agvistos rusulmasaokupacio jarebma SturmiT aiRes goris satelevizio anZa, sadacsxvadasxva tele da radio kompaniis gadamcemi aparatura iyo damontaJebuli.anZis sami TanamSromeli daWres, erTi ki manqanaSi Cacxriles.profesionaluri reportaJebis gverdiT SeiZleba gamovyoT movlenebisaraobieqturi da xSirad moarul xmebze dayrdnobili informaciisgavrcelebac. Cven ganvixilavT rogorc qarTul, ise ucxour presasda vakeTebT Sedarebebs: zogjer ucxouri media ufro adre gadmoscemdaim obieqtur informacias, romlis codnac aucilebeli iyo mosaxleobisaTvis,vidre qarTuli telearxebi. magaliTisTvis moviyvanT gorismosaxleobis evakuaciis aucileblobas, romelic droze ar iqna miwodebulimasmediis saSualebiT. samwuxarod, ar arsebobda gegma qalaqidanmosaxleobis organizebulad gayvanisa, ramac gamoiwvia uzarmazarisacobebi qalaqis gasasvlelebSi. erT-erTi samxedro teqnikisafeTqebis Semdeg daiwva universitetis yofili TanamSromlis manqana,TviTon mgzavrebi ki bewvze gadaurCnen sikvdils, Tumca TveobiT mkurnalobdnendamwvrobis centrSi.ruseT-aqarTvelos omis dawyebisTanave msoflio presa da eleqtronulimedia operatiulad gamoexmaura saqarTveloSi mimdinaremovlenebs. dasafasebelia holandieli Jurnalistis stan storimansismondomeba, raTa momxdari realurad gaeSuqebina da goris dabombvisdros Wurvis Camovardnis Sedegad daiRupa qalaqis centrSi. aseve aRsaniSnaviais faqti, rom TviT rusul Jurnalistebis im kategorias,romlebsac yvelaze maRla Jurnalisturi eTika miaCniaT ainteresebdaTrealuri viTareba, Tu ra xdeboda saqarTveloSi. erT-erTi rusiJurnalisti nekrasovi da misi meuRle swored aseTi adamianebis ricxvsmiekuTvnebian. maT TavianTi profesiuli movaleobis Sesruleba sworedfrontis velze gadawyvites, raTa gaego rusul sazogadoebas omismTeli mware simarTle. igi Tbilisidan gorisaken miemarTeboda, misimeuRle ki cxinvalis regionidan modioda gorisaken, isini erTmaneTssofel karaleTis saguSagosTan Sexvdnen. agvistos omis dros gardaicvalanekrasovis meuRle da am movlenebs miuZRvna Jurnalistma filmi114


socialuri mecnierebani: politologia, Jurnalistika`rusulis gakveTilebi~, romelmac msoflioSi didi gamoxmaureba pova.garda amisa, saqarTveloSi muSaobda aTobiT ucxoeli Jurnalisti,romelebic, rusuli mediisagan gansxvavebiT, obieqtur informacias awvdidnenmsoflios da qmnidnen rusuli agresiis winaaRmdeg saerTaSorisosazogadoebriv azrs.TiTqmis yvela rusuli arxi saqarTvelos winaaRmdeg sainformacioomSi iyo CarTuli. isini uaryofdnen foTisa da senakis dabombvisfaqts, sadac mSvidobiani mosaxleoba daiRupa. qarTulma mxarem rusebisaTamde TviTmfrinavi rom Camoagdo, rusuli sainformacio arxebismeSveobiT vrceldeboda informacia ori TviTmfrinavis Camogdebis Sesaxeb.aseve acxadebdnen TiTqos qarTvelebi daWril mowinaaRmdegeebssadac naxulobdnen iqve xocavdnen. rusebi qarTvelebs imasac abralebdnen,rom maT mier kaspis raionSi afeTqebuli sarkinigzo xidi TiTqosqarTvelebma aafeTqes. paralelurad rusuli arxebi aCvenebdnen siuJetebsda guls uCuyebdnen sakuTar xalxs, Tu rogor gadmohyavdaT konfliqtiszonidan daWrili bavSvebi, rogor arigebdnen rusi samxedroebiproduqts, rogor exmarebodnen mosaxleobas da ase Semdeg.aqedan gamomdinare, Cven vemxrobiT im azrs, rom masmedia aucilebladunda idges obieqturobis, Jurnalisturi eTikis sadarajoze da arviziarebT 2010 wlis 13 martis telekompania `imedis~ mier imitirebulreportaJs, romelsac aranair gamarTlebas ara aqvs, gansakuTrebiTadamianebis mimarT, romlebmac sakuTar Tavze gadavitaneT omis mTelisaSineleba, davkargeT axloblebi da sakuTari saxl-kari. CvenTvis omisSesaxeb TiToeuli sityva, fraza gansakuTrebuli emociebiTaa datvir-Tuli da gvaxsenebs im saSinel dReebs.msgavsi SemTxveva gorSi, omidan erTi wlis Semdeg moxda. goris bazazedaiwyo samxedro wvrTnebi, romlis Sesaxebac mosaxleobas aranairiinformacia ar gaaCnda. moulodnelad, Ramis 9 saaTisTvis daiwyo masiurisrolebi samxedro swavlebis mizniT qalaqidan 2-3 kilometrisdaSorebiT, ris Sedegadac qalaqis mosaxleoba panikam moicva, radganegonaT, rom kvlav omi iwyeboda. CvenTvis es faqti imiTaa mniSvnelovani,rom arc adgilobrivma televiziam da arc sxva organom es informaciamosaxleobas ar miawoda. marTalia meore dRes mosaxleobas bodiSimouxades, magram SiSi da fsiqologiuri tramva faqtobrivad mTelmaqalaqma miiRo.aRsaniSnavia is faqti, rom saqarTveloSi Camosulebi iyvnen rusiJurnalistebi: valeria novodvorskaia, konstantin borovoi da olegpanfilovi. maT sul sami Sexvedra hqondaT dagegmili da aqedan erT-er-Ti iyo goris universitetSi. Sexvedraze ganixiles 2008 wlis agvistos115


socialuri mecnierebani: politologia, Jurnalistikaomis movlenebi, ruseT-saqarTvelos urTierToba warsulSi da dRes.isini arian cnobili disidentebi da yvelgan Tamamad akritikeben ruse-Tis xelisuflebas. Camovidnen, raTa sakuTari TvaliT enaxaT realoba,radgan isini ar endobian rusul masmedias. mniSvnelovania es faqtiimiT, rom Cvens qveynebs Soris gawyvetilia diplomatiuri urTierToba,amitom aucilebelia saxalxo dipolomatiis CarTva.Jurnalistebis TiToeuli sityva gansakuTrebiT mgrZnobiaredaRiqmneba iseT regionebSi, rogoricaa konfliqtis zonasTan axlosmyofi raionebi. mediis roli swored unda iyos mimarTuli konfliqtismogvarebis, adamianebis daaxloebis, erTmaneTis mimarT ndobis Canergvisadmi,vinaidan Taobebis cvla kidev ufro zrdis im gaucxovebas,romelic bunebrivi procesia adamianebis gansxvavebul socialur, politikurda kulturul garemoSi cxovrebisas. swored amis gamo uwodebenmasmedias meoTxe xelisuflebasac, vinaidan udidesia misi roliqveynis stabilurobasa da mosaxleobis konsolidaciaSi. Jurnalistebmaunda gaaSuqon obieturi informacia, amave dros aqcenti udna gakeTdesrusul presaze, romelsac aklia Tavisufleba da imyofeba saxelmwifownexis qveS. Tumca, arc imis momxreni varT, rom masmediam Seqmnasmtris xati ruseTis saxiT; jurnalistebma unda asaxon is, rac realoba-Sia da ar iyvnen subieqturebi. masmediis roli konfliqtebis daregulirebaSiCven ase gvesaxeba, rom Jurnalistebma unda asaxon sinamdvile, arunda gadmoscen iseTi frazebi, romliTac gaaRizianeben mowinaaRmdegemxares, raTa maT ar mieceT sababi saomari moqmedebis dawyebisa.Cveni didi survilia rusebma Secvalon damokidebuuleba Cveni qveynismimarT da moaxdinon saqarTvelos deokupacia. mxolod amis Semdegiqneba SesaZlebeli aRdges Cveni mravalsaukunovani urTierToba, TundactkivilebiTa da koliziebiT aRsavse da STamomavlobas mogvecesgza farTo, momavali keTilmezoblobisa, megobruli, civiluri urTierTobisdasamkvirdeblad.... dabolos, erT qarTul sibrZnes SegaxsenebT — `rac mtrobasdaungrevia, siyvaruls uSenebia~.116


humanitaruli mecnierebani: istoria, kulturologia, xelovnebamixeil qarTveliSvili, eTer bokelavaZeivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifouniversitetis doqtoranti magistrantisabWoTa xelisufleba da saqarTvelosmarTlmadidebeli eklesia XX s—is 70—ian wlebSixelmZRvaneli: profesori qeTevan pavliaSviliTanamedrove etapze didi Teoriuli da praqtikuli mniSvnelobaeniWeba sabWoTa periodis saqarTvelos istoriis Seswavlas aRniSnuliTvelsazrisiT ki gansakuTrebul interess iwvevs sabWoTa epoqaSi saqarTvelosmarTlmadidebeli eklesiis ganviTarebis ZiriTadi tendenciebismecnieruli Seswavla. am kuTxiT metad saintereso da Taviseburperiods warmoadgens XX saukunis 70-iani wlebi, radgan ikveTeba mTelirigi uaRresad saintereso tendenciebisa, romelTac didi roli iTama-Ses qveynis Semdgom ganviTarebaSi.XX saukunis 70-iani wlebis dasawyisi saqarTvelos marTlmadidebelieklesiis cxovrebaSi mniSvnelovani cvlilebiT aRiniSna, kerZod1972 wlis 8 aprils gardaicvala saqarTvelos kaTolikos-patriarqiefrem II, imave wlis 1 ivniss ki XI saeklesio krebam saqarTvelos eklesiismwyemsmTavrad urbneli mitropoliti daviTi (devdariani) airCia.patriarq daviT V-is moRvaweobis dasawyisi saqarTveloSi politikurixelmZRvanelobis cvlilebebs daemTxva: 1972 wlis seqtemberSi saqarTveloskomunisturi partiis centraluri komitetis generalurimdivani vasil mJavanaZe gaTavisuflda dakavebuli Tanamdebobdan damisi adgili eduard SevardnaZem daikava (8, 198).axalma xelisuflebam centraluri sakavSiro xelisuflebis kursisSesabamisad, qveyanaSi arsebuli probleblemebis (socialuri, ekonomikuri,sazogadoebriv-kulturuli) gadaWris gzad masebSi komunisturipartiis gaZliereba miiCnia. gaizarda partiuli organizaciebis ricxvi,romlebic adgilebze komunisturi partiis politikis uSualo gamtareblebadiTvleboda (8, 198).aRniSnulis mizezi iyo centraluri xelisuflebis dadgenileba,romelic miznad isaxavda mokavSire respublikebSi partiuli muSaobisgaZlierebas da sazogadoebis ukeT darazmvas sabWoTa ideologiis gar-Semo (10, 508).bunebrivia, aRniSnulSi igulisxmeboda sabWoTa aTeisturi politi-117


humanitaruli mecnierebani: istoria, kulturologia, xelovnebakac, romelic mTel rig mokavSire respublikebSi Zalian Sesustebuliiyo da saWiro gaxda misi gaZliereba. swored amitom saqarTvelos axalmaxelisuflebam gaagrZela da gaaRrmava mis winamorbedTa saeklesio politika,kerZod 1972-77 wlebSi oficialurma xelisuflebam loialuridamokidebulebis safarqveS Tanmimdevrulad ganagrZo brZola qarTulisamociqulo eklesiis winaaRmdeg (6, 39). 1975 wlis oqtomberSi saqarTveloskomunisturi partiis centralurma komitetma miiRo dadgenileba`mavne tradiciebis da wes-Cveulebebis winaaRmdeg brZolis gaZlierebisSesaxeb~ (4, 198-216). dadgenilebaSi gansakuTrebuli yuradReba eqceodareligiuri dResaswaulebis `mavne xasiaTs da SeuTavseblobas sabWoTasazogadoebasTan~. dadgenileba moiTxovda religiuri dResaswaulebisnacvlad adgilebze dawesebuliyo saxalxo dResaswaulebi: `Sromis zeimi~,`mosavlis dRe~, `SoTaoba~, iliaoba~, `iakoboba~ da a.S. (7, 323).`mavne tradiciebis~ winaaRmdeg brZola realurad erovnuli tradiciebis,erovnuli eklesiisa da TviTmyofadobis winaaRmdeg brZolasniSnavda; saqarTvelos xelisuflebas ar SeeZlo gadaexvia centralurixelisuflebis direqtivebisa da moTxovnebisgan. igi Segnebulad Tu Seugnebladmxars uWerda sabWoTa kavSiris xelmZRvanelobis Sors gamiznulpolitikas, romelic miznad isaxavda erebs Soris gansxvavebis gaqrobas,erovnuli TviTmyofadobis mospobas, erTiani `sabWoTa xalxis~Camoyalibebas, rac sinamdvileSi rus erTan sxva erebisa da xalxebisSerwymas niSnavda~ (8, 200). imJamindeli sabWoTa kavSiris politikurida ideologiuri strategia ar iTvaliswinebda `burJuaziuli elementebis~gamravlebas sazogadoebaSi (5, 81).sabWoTa ideologia miiCnevda, rom im konkretul istoriul momentSigaanalizebuli yofiliyo ideologiuri brZolis mTeli rigi Taviseburebebida am brZolaSi religiis adgili da roli (1, 3-4). mavne tradiciebiswinaaRmdeg brZolisas, propagandistul muSaobasTan erTad,xelisufleba Zalismier meTodebsac xSirad mimarTavda. magaliTad,Cveul movlenad iqca xalxmraval qelexebSi, qorwilebsa da religiurdResaswaulebSi monawileTa darbeva da dasja. wirva-locvis dros eklesiebidanaxalgazrdebis gamodevna da a.S. saqarTvelos kaTolikospatriarqidaviT V mravalgzis gamoTqvamda protests amgvari ukanonobisada uzneobis gamo, magram uSedegod(6). morwmuneTa daSinebisa da ma-Ti religiuri grZnobebis Seuracxyofis mizniT, profesor sergo vardosaniZisdamowmebiT, 1975 wels, aRdgomis brwyinvale dResswaulzemoxda afeTqebebi sionisa da sveticxovlis taZrebis ezoSi (3, 85).sabWoTa xelisufleba gansakuTrebiT gaaqtiurda mas Semdeg, rac1977 wlis 9 noembers gardaicvala patriarqi daviTi da dadga sakiTxi118


humanitaruli mecnierebani: istoria, kulturologia, xelovnebasaqarTvelos marTlmadidebeli eklesiis axali mwyemsmTavris arCevisa.wminda sinodis gadawyvetilebiT, patriarqis mosaydred dasaxeldacxum-afxazeTis mitopoliti ilia. mitropoliti ilia (eriskacobaSiirakli RuduSaur-SiolaSvili) qarTvel samRvdeloTa dasSi 1960 wlidanimyofeboda. moskovis sasuliero akademiis dasrulebis Semdeg igisamSobloSi dabrunda da baTumis sakaTedro taZarSi daiwyo msaxureba.1961 wels igi jer iRumenis, Semdeg ki arqimandritis xarisxSi aiyvanes.1963 wels kaTolikos-patriarq efrem II-is mier xeldasxmul iqna Semoqmedisepiskoposad da daniSna patriarqis qorepiskoposad. 1963 wlidan1972 wlamde xelmZRvanelobda mcxeTis sasuliero seminarias. 1967wels igi gadaiyvanes afxazeTis eparqiaSi, sadac 1969 wels aRyvanil iqnamitropolitis xarisxSi (9, 214). 17 wliani aqtiuri moRvaweobis man-Zilze mitopolitma iliam farTod gaiTqva saxeli, rogorc qarTulisamociqulo eklesiis da saqarTvelos erovnuli interesebis dacvisaTvismebrZolma.mitropolit ilias qarTuli eklesiis saWeTmpyroblad arCeva imTaviTvemoaswavebda sabWoTa ideologiis Sesusutebas da erovnul-sarwmunoebrivicnobierebis aRmavlobas qarTul sazogadoebaSi. sworedam `safrTxiT~ iyo gamowveuli xelisuflebis aqtiuri mecadineoba mitropolitilias kandidaturis `tabuirebisaTvis~. aRniSnuli miznismiRwevisaTvis centralurma xelisuflebam yvelanairi gzis gamoyenebascada, Tumca sabolood mitropolit ilias kandidaturis moxsnismcdelobam Sedegi ver gamoiRo da 1977 wlis 23 dekembers XII saeklesiokrebam (romelsac ruseTis patriarqi pimenic ki eswreboda) igi saqar-Tvelos patriarqad airCia (9, 214).sabWoTa xelisuflebis SiSi gamarTlda mas Semdeg, rac axlad aRsaydrebulmapatriarqma aqtiurad daiwyo qmediTi RonisZiebebis gatarebaqarTvelTa Soris erovnul-sarwmunoebrivi TviTSegnebis amaRlebisaTvis.es ar jdeboda centraluri xelisuflebis miznebsa da amocanebSi.komunisturi xelisufleba Tavisi arsiT internacionalizmis medroSedgamodioda, mas momwifebulad miaCnda erovnuli barierebis moSla,sabWoTa imperiis sivrceSi mcxovrebi erebis urTierTSerwyma daerTi saerTo eTnosis — `sabWoTa xalxis~ Camoyalibeba. am miznis miRwevisaTviserT-erT yvelaze rTul da xelSemSlel bariers erovnulienebis arseboba warmoadgenda. amitom 1978 wels sabWoTa xelisuflebisuSualo miTiTebiT saqarTvelos konstituciis proeqtis 75-e muxliformalurad cnobda qarTuli enis saWiroebas, magram faqtobrivadsafrTxes uqmnida rogorc qarTul enas, ise qveynis teritoriul mTlianobas.erovnuli umciresobebiT kompaqturad dasaxlebul raionebSi119


humanitaruli mecnierebani: istoria, kulturologia, xelovnebaumciresobebis enas qarTulTan gaTanabrebulis statusi eniWeboda darealurad maT srul Tanasworuflebianobas aRiarebda. aseT pirobebSierTaderTi realuri upiratesobiT isargeblebda rusuli ena, romelicara marto komunisturi partiisa da saxelmwifo aparatis, aramedrespublikaTa da Sidarespublikuri erovnebaTaSorisi urTierTobebisena iyo (8, 212). aSkaraa, rom sabWoTa xelisufleba konstituciurbilingvizms ganixilivda, rogorc gardamaval etaps sayovelTao erTenobriobisken,roca rusuli SeaRwevda sabWoTa xalxebis yoveldRiurcxovrebaSi (2, 38; 11, 123).sakonstitucio cvlilebis mizans swrafad auRo alRo qarTulma sazogadoebam,rac 12-14 aprilis saprotesto demostraciebsa da mitingebSigamoixata. saprotesto moZraobaSi wamyvan rols qarTveli studentebida disidentebi asrulebdnen. maT sajarod dauWira mxari saqarTvelosmarTlmadideblurma eklesiam. sabWoTa kavSiris politikurixelmZRvaneloba iZulebuli gaxda kompromisze wasuliyo.obieqturoba moiTxovs aRiniSnos, rom am periodSi sabWoTa xelisuflebammniSvnelovnad Seasusta ideologiuri brZola eklesiis winaaRmdeg,rac calsaxad imiT iyo gamowveuli, rom saerTaSoriso asparezzeSeqmnili sirTuleebis fonze xelisuflebas ar surda qveynis SigniTgarTuleboda mdgomareoba. amgvari SedarebiT daTmobiTi politikiTisargebles rogorc eklesiam, aseve disidenturma jgufebma.aRniSnuliT unda aixsnas is faqti, rom saqarTvelos eklesiis kaTolikos-patriarqiaqtiurad Seudga mosaxleobis erovnul-sarwmunoebrivigamoRviZebis process. am kuTxiT ki udidesi mniSvneloba hqondasazogaoebisaTvis sasuliero Sinaarsis masobrivi sainformacio organosSeqmnas. 1978 wels patriarqis iniciativiT daarsda sapatriarqossaeklesio Jurnali `jvari vazisa~, romelsac sainformacios garda didiSemecnebiTi datvirTvac gaaCnda: Jurnalis meSveobiT qarTuli sazogadoebaecnoboda patriarqis epistoleebs, saeklesio dResaswaul-Ta mniSvnelobasa da tradiciebs, qarTvel sasuliero moRvaweTa rolsqveynis istoriaSi da a.S.eris sulierebisken Semobrunebis sakiTxSi gansakuTrebuli mniSvnelobahqonda agreTve patriarqis dauRalav da aqtiur mcdelobas sab-WoTa mmarTvelobis periodSi gauqmebuli da saxecvlili eklesia-monastrebisdabruneba-aRdgenisaTvis.zemoT Cven mier naxsenebi SedarebiTi liberalizacia srulebiTacar niSnavda imas, rom xeliuflebam Tavisi aTeisturi politikis gatarebazeuari Tqva, kvlavac mimdinareobda aqtiuri represiebi taZarSimisuli adamianebis misamarTiT, vrceldeboda muqarebi samsaxuridan120


humanitaruli mecnierebani: istoria, kulturologia, xelovnebaganTavisuflebis Sesaxeb, xolo studentebis SemTxvevaSi ki saswavleblebidangaricxvis faqtebi. Tumca miuxedavad aRniSnulisa qarTvelieris eklesiisaken Semobrunebis procesi ukve Seuqcevadi iyo.1985 wels skkp centraluri komitetis generaluri mdivani gaxda mixeilgorbaCovi, romlis mmarTvelobis periodic istoriaSi `gardaqmnis~saxelwodebiTaa cnobili (10, 643). `gardaqmna~ ZiriTadad saxelisuflebostruqturebis demokratizacias da liberalizacias gulisxmobdasazogadoebrivi azrovnebis TiTqmis yvela mimarTulebiT (12,702-703). bunebrivia, igi Seexo eklesiis saerTo mdgomareobasac, TumcaaRniSnuli periodi calke kvlevis sagans warmoadgens da mas amjeradar SevexebiT.dasasruls daskvnis saxiT SeiZleba iTqvas, rom XX saukunis 70-ianiwlebi uRresad saintereso periods warmoadgens Cveni qveynisa da eklesiisganviTarebis TvalsazrisiT, am periodSi dawyebuli tendenciebiTanamedrove etapzec inarCunebs aqtualobas.gamoyenebuli literatura:1. belovi a. Tanamedrove ideologiuri brZola da religia, Tb., 1984.2. bolqvaZe T. ideologizirebuli Rirebulebebi, Tb., 2005.3. vardosaniZe s. sruliad saqarTvelos kaTolikos-patriarqi uwmindesida unetaresi ilia II, Tb., 2008.4. ideologiuri muSaobis sakiTxebi saqarTvelos kp ck-s dokumentebSi(1972-1982), Tb., 1982.5. kveselava i. saqarTvelos istoriis qronikebi (1970-1990), Tb., 2004.6. Jvania z, saqarTvelos kaTolikos-patriarqni da mRvdelmTavarni1917 wlidan, quTaisi, 1996.7. rogava g, saqarTvelos eklesiis istoria, Tb., 1996.8. saqarTvelos istoria XX saukune, Tb., 2003.9. saqarTvelos kaTolikos-patriarqebi (rion metrevelis redaqciiT),Tb., 2000.10. Барсенков А. С.,. Вдовин А. И, История России. 1917–2004: Учеб. пособиедля студентов М., 2005 (wignis eleqtronuli versia ix. veb-gverdzewww.aspectpress.ru).11. Grenoble L, Language Policy in Soviet Union, New-York, 2003.12. The Cambridge History of Russia, Volume III - The Twentieth Century,Cambridge University Press, 2006.121


humanitaruli mecnierebani: istoria, kulturologia, xelovnebagiorgi cicqiSvilissip goris universitetis bakalavriatis studentierTiani saqarTvelos mefeTa TanamecxedreebixelmZRvaneli: profesori mamuka jolbordiistoriul wyaroebSi mravladaa cnobebi qarTveli qalebis da, maTSoris, samefo ojaxis wevrebis — saqarTvelos dedoflebis Sesaxeb,romlebic aqtiurad monawileobdnen qveynis politikur da kulturulcxovrebaSi. CvenTvis saintereso periodSi (X-XII ss) mniSvnelovan daenergiul diplomatad gvevlineba giorgi I-is (1014-1027 ww.) Tanamecxedremariami. sanam konkretulad mariam dedoflis diplomatiur saqmianobasSevexebodeT, manam mokled mimovixilavT X-XI saukuneebis saqar-Tvelos politikur mdgomareobas. rogorc cnobilia, giorgi I-is samefokari Tavidanve antibizantiuri kursis gamtarebeli iyo. giorgi I gauTavebelbrZolebs awarmoebda bizantiis winaaRmdeg qarTuli miwebisSemosaerTeblad. aRniSnulma moqmedebebma qveynisaTvis sasurveli Sedegebiar gamoiRo, rac misi gardacvalebis Semdeg saqarTvelos politikurmdgomareobaze mkveTrad aisaxa. iahia antioqeli aRniSnavs, romsaqarTvelo-bizantiis urTierTobebis gamwvaveba qarTuli mxaris mizeziTmoxda(9.118). bagrat IV-s gamefebisTanave qarTulma samefo karmabizantias giorgi I-is dros dakarguli samxedro punqtebis dabrunebamosTxova. bagratma am mimarTulebiT sapasuxo RonisZiebebi gaatara,ramac saqarTvelosaTvis uryofiTi Sedegebi gamoiRo da bizantiasTanurTierToba kidev ufro daZaba. mefes ganudgnen vaCe kariWis Ze baneli,episkoposi iovane da sxva taoeli aznaurebi. maT daxmarebisaTvis imperatorkostantine VIII mimarTes. romelmac saqarTveloSi axali sadamsjeloRonisZiebebs mimarTa da saqarTvelos teritoriebi moaoxra(8.179; 14.137). ase rom, bizantia-saqarTvelos Soris urTierToba ukiduresaddaiZaba.aqedan gamomdinare,Zalian mniSvnelovani iyo bizantiisimperiasTan urTierTobebis mowesrigeba. Tavis mxriv bizantiac dainteresebuliiyo am kavSirebis aRdgeniT, radgan saerTaSoriso asparezzebizantiis gavlena sagrZnoblad Sesustebuliyo. bizantia-saqar-Tvelos Soris urTierTobebis mowesrigeba 1030-1031 wlibSi droebiTmoxerxda, rodesac gaigzavna bagratis dedis mariam dedoflis inicirebulielCoba bizantiaSi. misi mTavari mizani iyo saqaTvelo-bizantiasSoris sazavo pirobebze molaparakeba, rac warmatebiT ganxorciel-122


humanitaruli mecnierebani: istoria, kulturologia, xelovnebada da mariam dedoflis elCobas bizantiaSi sasurveli mSvidoba mohyva.bizantiis imperatorma `miscna ficni da simtkiceni erTobisa da siyvarulisaTvis,dauwerna oqro-beWedni, mosca pativi kurapalatobisa, damosca colad bagratisaTvis elene dedofali~ (11.294.). amasTan, ZalianmniSvnelovani iyo bagratisaTvis kurapalatobis miniWeba, radgan igi1023 wlidan ukve atarebda magistrosis tituls(14.139), kurapalatobisminiWeba ki niSnavda bizantiis mxridan bagratis samefo uflebebis aRiarebassaqarTvelos teritoriaze. garda amisa, sagareo-politikur asparezzepoziciebSeryeuli bizantia qarTul samefo kars daemoyvra.bagrat IV daaqorwines imperator romanoz III-is Zmis, basilis asul eleneze.amrigad, mariam dedofalma SeZlo bizantiasTan iseTi diplomatiuriurTierTobis damyareba, romlis winaaRmdegac aqtiurad ibrZodamefeT-mefe giorgi I. ra Tqma unda, am politikuri nabijebis gadadgmasaqarTveloSi Seqmnili mZime viTarebiT iyo gamowveuli. mariam dedoflises elCoba qarTuli politikuri elitis axali politikurikursis maCvenebeli iyo da saxelmwifo saTaveSi probizantiuri ZalebismosvliT aixsneba. aqedan gamondinare, politikuri kursis aseTi radikaluricvlileba probizantiuri Zalebis gamarjvebas ufro warmoadgenda,vidre saqarTvelos diplomatiur warmatebebs saerTaSoriso asparezze(12.238-239).samwuxarod, elene dedofals didxans ar ucocxlia, ris SemdegacsaqarTvelo-bizantiis droebiTma damoyvrebam kraxi ganicada. amis Semdegbagrat IV-m colad SeirTo osTa mefis urdures asuli borena, `daidorRolelisi~. romelic SemdgomSi aseve mefis titulis matarebelia(11. 294-295; 12. 239-240).borena dedoflis moRvaweoba qarTul saistorio wyaroebSi XI s-is30-iani wlebiT TariRdeba. mematianis mixedviT, swored borena dedofaliixsenieba giorgi ufliswulis dedad.rogorc cnobilia XI s-is 50-ian wlebSi Sida dapirispireba bagratIV-sa da kldekaris erisTav liparits baRvaSs Soris ukiduresad daiZaba,ramac bagrat IV-is samefo poziciebi sagrZnoblad Searyia. am sakiTxismosagvareblad bagrati bizantiis saimperatoro karze gaemgzavramosalaparakeblad. xolo saxelmwifos gamgeblad datova meuRle borenadedofali da mcirewlovani vaJi giorgi. rogorc Cans, swored bagratisbizantaSi yofnis dros gaaqtiura liparitma Tavisi politika. `matianeqarTlisas~ miTiTebiT~ `iTxova liparit Ze bagratisi, giorgi mefed,raTa mosces igi dedaman misman da didebulTa misTa qveyanisaTa. o-iyvanes saydarsa ruisisa da akurTxes mefed. da moiyvanes mzrdelad misaliparit da patronad dai bagratisi guranduxt dedofali~ (11. 304:123


humanitaruli mecnierebani: istoria, kulturologia, xelovneba7. 30.). gorgi II-is mefed kurTxeva ruisis taZarSi borena dedoflis neba-surviliTunda momxdariyo.aRsaniSnavia borena dedoflis wvlili saqarTvelo-oseTis keTilmezoblururTierTobaSi, gansakuTrebiT borenas Zmis dorRolelismarTvelobis dros, rodesac dorRolelma Tavisi samxedro nawilebiTmonawileoba miiRo ganZis saamiros darbevaSi. mogvianebiT igi sapatiovizitiT ewvia barat IV quTaisSi da moinaxula Tavisi da borena dedofali.amgvarad, saqarTvelom osTa mefis saxiT SeiZina Zlieri mokavSireda maTi megobruli urTierToba SemdgomSic gagrZelda. eWvgareSeaborena dedoflis damsaxureba am urTierTobebis damyarebaSi (7.30: 11.313).qarTvel mecnierTa varaudiT, bagrat IV-is meuRles borena dedofalsunda ekeTvnodes svaneTSi, sof. nesguneSi (linjeris Temi), macxovriseklesiis RvTismSoblis oqroWedil xatze moTavsebuli iambiko.sagalobeli teqsti aseTi Sinaarsisaa:`romelman, ege evas miuzRe vali,hrqvi ra gabriels: ` var uflis mkevalime, Seni samstuvre, qveynad mavali,~ —daemxo Zali, pirveli sisxliTa mTvraliqalwulo, miksen borena Wirmravali~. (5. 593: 7. 31.)iambikoSi miTiTebuli araa avtoris vinaoba. igi mxolod saxeliT ixseniebada mkvlevari mas dedoflad ixseniebs. mkvlevarTa Soris davissagnd kvlav borena dedoflis vinaoba rCeba. p. ingoroyva sof. nesgunisxats XIII saukuniT aTariRebs. aseve eqvTime TayaiSvilsac eWvi Seaqvs sagalobelSimoxseniebul borenasa da bagrat IV-is meuRlis borena dedoflisigiveobaSi (2. 315-316: 4. 686-687: 7.32). silogavas mosazrebiT kixati da masze gakeTebuli warwera unda TariRdebodes XIII s-is II naxevriTada XIV s-is I naxevriT. saerTod, saxeli borena XIII s-is II naxevrissvaneTSi sakmaod gavrcelebuli unda yofiliyo. amitom sagalobelSimoxseniebul borenasa da borena dedoflis gaigiveba Wirs. (10. 6: 7. 32).savaraudoa rom sofel nesgunis xatze Semonaxuli sagalobelis avtorsaraviTari kavSiri ar aqavs borena dedofalTan.wyaroTa cnobiT borena dedofali did interess iCenda saeklesiocxovrebisadmi. amis damadasturebelia Tundac is,rom sinas mTaze Semonaxulixelnaweris minawerSi borena dedofali qaliSvilTan mariam(marTa) dedofalTan erTad moxseniebulia ierusalimis `kappaTis~ monastrismSeneblad (5. 104: 7. 32).aqedan gamomdinare, zemoT moyvanili argumentebis gaTvaliswinebiTqarTveli monarqis qorwineba osTa mefis asulTan sruliad safuZ-124


humanitaruli mecnierebani: istoria, kulturologia, xelovnebavliani da gamarTlebuli iyo, radgan osTa mefis saxiT bagratma SeiZinaZlieri mokavSire, romelic exmareboda mas rogorc bizantiasTan dapirispirebisas,ise saqarTvelos sxva mowinaRmdegeebTan brZolis dros.Tundac gavixsenoT bagrat IV-is naxevarZma demetre, romelic bizantieliistorikosis kedrenes cnobiT, giorgi I-s osTa mefis asul aldesaganSeeZina. savaraudoa, rom es qowinebac politikuri motivebiT iyonakarnaxevi (7. 295; 11. 140). swored bagragtis naxevarZmas demetresekuTvnoda anakofiis cixe. ra Tqma unda, bagrats surda am strategulipunqtis xelSi Cagdeba da saqarTvelos Crdilo teritoriebis Semomtkiceba.garda amisa, bagrati gamefebis yvelanair gzas uWrida demetres,romelsac SesaZlo saxelmwifo gadatrialebis SemTxvevaSi osebisagandaxmareba mieRo. aseTma diplomatiurma nabijebma saSvaleba miscasaqarTvelos samefo kars ufro aqtiuri politikuri kursi gaetarebinada bizantiis mier mitacebuli teritoriebis dabrunebaze ezruna.yvela zemoT moyvanili argumentis gaTvaliswinebiT, oseTis mefisasul aldesTan qorwineba bagratis mier mopovebuli mniSvnelovanidiplomatiuri warmateba iyo (3.132-135. 12. 239-240.).rac Seexeba bagratis Svilis giorgi II-is Tanamecxedres, mis SesaxebwerilobiT wyaroebSi cnobebi TiTqmis ar moipoveba. Cvenamde dedoflismxolod saxelma moaRwia. arsebobs mxolod erTi arapirdapiricnoba, romelic XI saukunis miwuruls wyarosTavis saxarebis xelnawerSimis gadamwer egnate xucesmonazons gaukeTebia: `ese wigni Seiqmnasadideblad da salocvelad RmrTiv gvrgvnosanTa mefeTa CvenTa. suliTaganaTlebulisa dedoflisa mariamisa da Zisa maTisa elene dedoflisaTvis“.am xelnawerSi moxseniebuli elene dedofali, mkvlevarTamosazrebiT, giorgi II-is Tanamecxedre da SemdgomSi erTiani saqarTvelosmefis daviT IV aRmaSeneblis deda unda yofiliyo.T. Jordaniam SiomRvimis wignsacavSi miakvlia 1270 wels gadawerilerT-erT xelnawers, sadac CamoTvlilia qarTveli dedoflebis nusxa.xelnawerSi me-4 adgilze moxseniebulia borena dedofali-bagrat IV-ismeuRle, xolo mexuTe adgilze elene dedofali. mkvlevris mtkicebiT,es elene unda iyos giorgi II-is Tanamecxedre (igulisxmeba elene dedofali,romanoz III-is ZmisSvili).rogorc Cans, qarTvel mefeTa ojaxuri kavSirebi politikur-diplomatiurimosazrebiT iyo nakarnaxevi, rac, xSir SemTxvevaSi, mtruladganwyobil saxelmwifoebTan Tundac droebiTi stabiluri urTierTobebisCamoyalibebas emsaxureboda.125


humanitaruli mecnierebani: istoria, kulturologia, xelovnebagamoyenebuli wyaroebi da literatura:1. kedrene g. qronografia, — `georgika~, bizantieli mwerlebis cnobebisaqarTvelos Sesaxeb. qarTuli TargamanebiTurT gamosca daganmartebebi daurTo s. yauxCiSvilma, t.V, Tb., 1963.2. TayaiSvili e. arqeologiuli eqspedicia leCxum-svaneTSi 1910wels, parizi, 1937.3. TogoSvili g. saqarTvelo-oseTis urTierTobis istoriidan (uZvelesidroidan XIV s-mde).4. ingoroyva p. TxzulebaTa krebuli, t. I, Tb., 1963.5. kekeliZe k. qarTuli literaturis istoria, t. I, Tb., 1980.6. kopaliani `saqarTvelo-bizantiis urTierToba~.7. metreveli r, samuSia j, mefeT-mefe giorgi II. Tb., 2003.8. saqarTvelos istoriis narkvevebi, t. III.Tb., 1979.9. silagaZe b. iahia antioqelis cnobebi saqarTvelo-bizantiis ur-TierTobis Sesaxeb X s-is bolo meoTxedsa da XI s-is pirvel meoTxedSi,— `qarTuli wyaroTmcodneoba~, t.VI, Tb., 1986.10. silogava v. borenas warwera-leqsis garSemo, gaz. literaturulisaqarTvelo, 15-22 ianvari, 1999.11. qarTlis cxovreba. t. II, Tb., 1973.12. qarTuli diplomatiis istoriis narkvevbi, Tb., 1998.13. qoriZe d. qarTveli qalebi, Tb., 1976.14. javaxiSvili iv. qarTveli eris istoria, t. II Tb., 1967.126


humanitaruli mecnierebani: istoria, kulturologia, xelovnebanaTia foniavaivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisissaxelmwifo universiteti, magistrantiafxazur-qarTuli urTierTobebi`megruli andazebisa~ da`Cveneburebis qarTulis~ mixedviTxelmZRvaneli: profesori Teimuraz gvancelaZeistoriulad qarTvelebs sxva xalxebTan, miT ufro monaTesaveerebTan, keTilmegobruli damokidebuleba hqondaT. es gansakuTrebiTiTqmis afxazebze, radganac isini ramdenime saukunea qarTvelebTan er-Tad erT qveyanaSi Tanacxovroben. maT erTmaneTTan akavSirebT, naTesaoba,kultura da adaT-wesebi.qarTvelTagan yvelaze mWidro urTierToba afxazebs megrelebTanhqondaT. swored amgvari urTierToba unda dasdeboda safuZvlad immegrul andazebs, romlebSic asaxulia afxazebis yofis amsaxveli detalebi,maTi Tviseba-midrekilebebi.afxazebis ZiriTadi saqmianoba ZvelTaganve mesaqonleoba iyo. amisdasturia afxazuri folklori, kerZod narTuli eposi. `yvela narTipirutyvis movliTa da gamravlebiTaa dakavebuli. arqaul teqstebSimaT msxvilfexa saqoneli da cxenebic hyavT~ (baxia, 2010: 20).andazebidan kargad Cans, rom qarTvelebi araCveulebrivad icnobdnenafxazTa sameurneo yofas, maT damokidebulebas meurneobis aRniSnulidargisadmi:• `koCq (afxazaq) xoji gotyabarua do kudels xamu qekataxua~;• `kacma (afxazma) xari gaatyava da kudze dana miatexao~;• Sdr. qarT. `Zroxis kudze dana gatydao~ (xalxuri sibrZne,1994:15);• `afxazas cxeniSi saxelq gaWyordua~;• `afxazs cxenis saxeli daaviwydao~;Sdr. qarT. imerels (megrels) mWadis saxeli daaviwydao~ (xalxurisibrZne, 1994:15).raki qarTvelebi ZiriTadad miwaTmoqmedebas misdevdnen, ar SeiZlebodamWadis saxeli daviwynodaT. aseve warmoudgeneli iyo afxazebscxenis saxeli daviwynodaT, radgan maTTvis damaxasiaTebeli iyo mesaqonleoba.127


humanitaruli mecnierebani: istoria, kulturologia, xelovnebaaris iseTi SemTxvevebic, roca sxva xalxis naTqvamic afxazs miewereba:• `uriaq Tqua: sqani vaiCqudasia do SxvaSi vagaigonebudasia~;`ebraelma Tqvao: Seni ar icodeo da sxvisi ar gcodnodeso (gagegonoso)(xalxuri sibrZne, 1994:16).am andazis sxva variantSi ki amis mTqmelad afxazia warmoCenili:`afxazaSi naWya renia: varTi sqaniT rCqinudasia do varTi SxvaSa daijerebudasia~;`afxazis danawyevli ariso: arc SeniT gcodnodeso da arc sxvisi dagejerebinoso~(xalxuri sibrZne, 1994:16);qarTvelTa cnobierebaSi afxazi brZeni da dasafasebelia, misi naTqvamiki angariSgasawevi. amis dasturia Semdegi andaza:• `RoronTi misiT gaWyoruni, Wkuas miduRansia~;`RmerTi visac gauwyreba, Wkuas waarTmevso~ (xalxuri sibrZne,1994:15).dasaxelebuli andazis paralelur variantSi esec afxazis naTqvamadaawarmoCenili:`afxazaq Tqua: RoronTi kos gaWyoruni, Wkuas miduRansia~;`afxazma Tqva: RmerTi kacs rom gauwyreba, Wkuas waarTmevso~ (xalxurisibrZne, 1994:15).wminda mRvdelmTavari gabriel qiqoZe afxazebs axasiaTebda, rogorccqvit, mousvenar xalxs, romlebic erTnairad arian midrekilnisikeTisa da borotebisaken, xSirad icvlian ganwyobilebas (gamaxaria,2000:95). afxazebis swored es Tviseba da moxerxebulobaa danaxuli er-T-erT andazaSi:• `afxazebi kowias ifuCuandesia do mixas uxujuandesia~;`afxazebi kowias ificebdneno da mixas emxrobodneno (mxars uWerdneno)(xalxuri sibrZne, 1994:16)~.Zmuri da mWidro urTierToba ara marto saqarTveloSi mcxovrebafxazebsa da qarTvelebs hqondaT, aramed samSoblodan iZulebiT gadasaxlebulqarTvel da afxaz muhajirebsac. maT Soreul TurqeTSic ardaukargavT erTmaneTi. CveneburTa monayolSi Cans, rom isini sakmaodkargad icnobdnen afxazebis tradiciebs, yofa-cxovrebas. Tanamedroveafxazebis aRmniSvnelad CveneburTa metyvelebaSi qarTuli terminis(afxazi) paralelurad ixmareba Turqulidan nasesxebi abaza.CveneburTa warmodgenaSi afxazi imdenad axlobelia, rom mas TiTqmisqarTvels uwodeben: abazebi hamanqi (spars. Hemenki ~TiTqmis, daaxloebiT)gurjebi arian (futk. 1989:101).TurqeTSi mcxovrebi `gurjebisTvis~ afxazebi misabaZebi gamxdaran128


humanitaruli mecnierebani: istoria, kulturologia, xelovnebaenisa da TviTmyofadobis SenarCunebis TvalsazrisiT:`abazebma imfo (ufro) Seinaxes abazuri ena. isini ojaRSi duniada ardeilaparakeben. abazebma Zalian ar deipantnen, ar geerien TurqebSi. meemuri(arab. Memur `Tanamdebobis piri~) naklebaT gaxTnen, samsaxuraiar daiwyes. soflebSi darCen~ (futk. 1989: 59).Cveneburebsa da afxazebs imdenad axlo urTierToba hqoniaT, rom,zog SemTxvevaSi, erT sofelSi ucxovriaT da odnav damaxinjebiT afxazurisityvebic SeuTvisebiaT:`TufeqCiyonaRSi muhajiri abazebi iyuen, arevli viyaviT. viswavleTabazuri: bafsi — ulamazo, aZi — wyali, bzi — kargi~ (futk. 1989:101).TurqeTSi mcxovreb qarTvelebs afxazeTSic hqoniaT misvla-mosvlaZiriTadad savaWrod. erT-erTi Cveneburi igonebs:`-en (Turq. En `yvelaze~) kai soxumis TuTunia. babai ityoda, rahmeTli(Turq. Rahmetli `cxonebuli~) soxumSi TuTuni iyo bevri, wevdodiTiqa da TuTun vsxemdiTo~ (futk. 1989:331).Cveneburebi afxazTa simamacesac usvamen xazs. maT zogadad kavkasielTaTvisdamaxasiaTebeli mebrZoli suli TurqeTSic SeunarCunebiaT:`am ojaxis saabi( arab. Sahip ~patroni, mflobeli) baSTan (Turq. Bashtan`Tavidan~) abazai yofila. muuklan Jorugeb (Turq. Yoruk `momTabaretomi), Turqeb. abazebi Ror-Rori yofilan (CveneburTa metyvelebaSiRori niSnavs `gambedavs, utexs, mtkices). mokles, daniT daweles~(futk. 1989:92).Cveneburebs afxazTa sxva Tvisebebic ar darCeniaT yuradRebis miRma.maTi monaTxrobidan Cans, rom afxazebi patiosani xalxia, Tumc uxerxulsituaciaSi Tavis gamarTleba da gamoZvrena kargad exerxebaT:`or abaza baRvsa, afxazas, racxa muuparvian biCxSi (spars. Bicki `xissaxerxi~). biCxebsa karebi ara aq Sekiduli. misula igirim (iger im) baRvebisbabosTan. uTxromian qi, Tquen baRvebsa Cuen biCxidan racxa muuparvian.babos uTquams qi, mivdeT, devnaxoT biCxio, ra uuweviano. afxazebiduniada suC (Turq. Such `danaSauli~) ar eiReben, ar iyabuleben (arab.Kabul `Sesruleba~). afxazsa Suuxedia, Samuuxedia, ra mevgonovo,duufiSmania (spars. Pishman `dafiqreba~): kac am sisxo biCxi guukeTebia,erTi-ori kari ver Suukidiao. kari qonoda, Cemi baRvebi ver Sevdodeno.geimarTla Tavi...~ (futk. 1989:64).muhajiri qarTvelebi da afxazebi Tav-TavianT mSobliur kulturasTurqeTSic ar iviwyebdnen, pativs scemdnen erTmaneTis tradiciebs,sulier monapovars. rogorc Cans, xalxur cekvebsa da simRerebSi bevrsaerTo elements poulobdnen. erT-erTi Cveneburi igonebs:129


humanitaruli mecnierebani: istoria, kulturologia, xelovneba`abazurai sama (cekva) genjebsa (Turq. Genj `axalgazrda~) Zaluangviyuarda, nametvari imiTvin, rome gogvebis erTaT vsamobdiT, gvixarioda~(futk. 1989:373).`afxazur yofaSi bunebis calkeuli obieqtebis — mTebis, mdinareebis,Walebisa da xeebisadmi sakraluri Tvisebebis miniWeba uZvelesi periodidandRemde afxazuri eTnikuri kulturis Taviseburebaa. yvelaaseT obieqts isini nJ xas, e.i. salocavs uwodeben. afxazebis RvTaebebissakulto centrad sxvadasxva epoqaSi bunebrivi obieqtebi gvevlineboda— mTa, tyis pirebi, Walebi da calkeuli xeebi~ (baxia, 2010:62).rogorc Cans, aRniSnul tradicias afxazebi TurqeTSic misdevdnen.ama Tu im rituals asrulebdnen TavianTi RvTaebebis mimarT, SesTxovdnenmaT Semweobas. msgavs Cveulebas gakvirvebaSi mouyvania muhajiriqarTvelebi. erT-erTi maTgani igonebs:`kavkasiaSi momkdara afxazebis didi kaci. moyrilan afxazebi. Civian:-Cueni didi rom mokda, Cuenc demaqina (Turq. Demak ~varaudi~) movkvdeTianio (Turq. yani `ese igi, maSasadame~). ra vuSveloT amaso, -deifiSmanes.moyrilan afxazebi, asulan did serze, mesela (Turq. esela`magaliTad~) uludaRze. RmerTsa kekeroz hqvia afxazura.-kekeroz, kekeroz, -yvirian afxazebi, -gadagvarCine sikvdilsao.serze imiTvin evden, RmerTna gaagonon. afxazebTan yvelgan RmerTiar ari... serze RmerT rato ezef? RmerTi yuelgan ari yuelasTvin.imaTTvin RmerTi serze yofila~ (futk.1989:128).afxazurad RmerTs ancva hqvia. mas samecniero literaturaSi poli-Teizmidan momdinared miiCneven. afxazebis yvelaze mTavar RvTaebebsSoris kekerozi ar ixsenieba. Zneli saTqmelia, ras ukavSirdeba es sityva.SesaZloa, Cveneburebis mexsierebas sxva afxazuri frazebis msgavsadesec damaxinjebiT SemorCa.Cveneburebs sakmaod dadebiTi damokidebuleba aqvT afxazebisadmi.maT patiosan xalxad axasiaTeben, Tumca iseve rogorc ekali yvela yana-Sia, nebismier ers urevia cudi Cvevebis mqone adamianebic. am mxriv gamonaklisiafxazebic ar arian. es kargad Cans CveneburTa Semdegi mogonebidan:`abazebi Ceicmiden, deixurviden, wevdoden soflobaSi meger da gaqucevden(gaZarcvavdnen) xalxsa. ielli kudianebi yofilan, mulaimi (arab.Mulayim `mSvidi, wynari~) xalxi~ (futk. 1989:67).Cveneburebi Zalian Seuwuxebia qarTvelebsa da afxazebs Soris CamovardniluTanxmoebas:`gveyureba, gurjistanSi savaSiao (Turq. Savash `omi~). Zaluan gveb-130


humanitaruli mecnierebani: istoria, kulturologia, xelovnebaralvis gurjistani~ (futk.1989:229).`abazebi utydebian Cuen gurjebsao, mesmis da aqedam vhersianob (arab.Hirs `brazi, risxva), ver gadavsulvarT...~ (futk. 1989:279).imedia, qarTvelebsa da afxazebs Soris mesame Zalis mier Catexilixidi male aRdgeba da kvlav Zmuri urTierToba damkvidreba. amaSi didiroli warsulis gamocdilebam unda Seasrulos, rac, vfiqrobT, keTilimomavlisa da erTa Soris mSvidobiani Tanacxovrebis sawindari iqneba.gamoyenebuli literatura:1. baxia s. afxazeTis eTnikuri istoriis problemebi, Tb., 2010.2. gamaxaria j. wminda mRvdelmTavari gabrieli da afxazeTi, Tb,2000.3. xalxuri sibrZne, I, megruli da lazuri andazebi, Tb., 1994.131


humanitaruli mecnierebani: istoria, kulturologia, xelovnebalevan dosmiSvilisoxumis saxelmwifo universitetisbakalavriatis studentisaqarTvelos samociqulo avtokefalurimarTlmadidebeli eklesiis gansakuTrebuli rolisaqarTvelos saxelmwifoebriobaSixelmZRvaneli: profesori lali gabisonia• religiis roli sazogadoebaSisazogadoeba warmoadgens adamianTa Tanacxovrebis erT-erT iseTiveformas, rogoricaa, magaliTad: ojaxi, gvari, tomi da sxva. Cveulebrivadamians ar SeuZlia gancalkevebiT, izolirebulad cxovreba. amitom,pirveli Temuri wyobilebidan moyolebuli, isini koleqtiuradTanaarseboben.rogorc vxedavT, sazogadoebis calkeul elements warmoadgensadamiani. misi bunebisa da SesaZleblobebis sirTulidan gamomdinare,ar arsebobs adamianis erTiani, sayovelTaod miRebuli cneba, magram„cnobilia adamianurobis xuTi ZiriTadi niSani, romelTa gareSe orfexa,vertikalurad mavali da metyveli arseba adamianad ver CaiTvleba.isini qmnian adamians — adamianad da sazogadoebas — sazogadoebad, suldgmuls— pirovnebad da jogs — koleqtivad. adamiani cxovelisagangansxxvavdeba imiT, rom igi aris: 1. iaraRis mkeTebeli (homo faber), 2.gonieri (homo sapiens), 3. moraluri (homo moralis), 4. sazogadoebrivi(homo politicus), 5. religiuri anu morwmune (homo religious).“ 1 maTganpirovnebisaTvis zogi metadaa mniSvnelovani, zogi naklebad, magramar arsebobs adamiani, miT ufro, sazogadoeba, rom am niSnebidan erTimainc akldes.adamiani WeSmaritad religiuri arsebaa, vinaidan religia, TavisTavSi, raRacisadmi rwmenasa da imeds gulisxmobs. xolo rwmena adamianisyoveli qmedebis (moqmedebis Tu umoqmedobis) motivacias ganapirobebsanu ubiZgebs mas iswrafos dasaxuli miznisaken. „amitom adamianissicocxlisaTvis azris micema — religiis erT-erT umTavres funqcias1 religiis istoria. karipWe. Tb., 1996, gv. 17.132


humanitaruli mecnierebani: istoria, kulturologia, xelovnebawarmoadgens.“ 1kacobriobis istoriac xom amis naTeli, magaliTia? arqeologiurgaTxrebsa da uZveles werilobiT wyaroebze dayrdnobiT, Cven-Tvis kargadaa cnobili, rom uZvelesi civilizaciebis centrebs religiuridaniSnulebis Senoba — nagebobebi warmoadgenda, romelTagarSemoc mTeli qalaqebi iyo gaSenebuli (magaliTad: amerikaSi — inkebi,maia. afrikaSi — Zveli egvipte). adamani ver egueba sikvdils. igi yovelTvisise cxovrobs, rogorc maradiuli arseba da iswrafvis maradisobisaken.da mainc ra igulisxmeba sityvaSi „religia?“ amasTan dakavSirebiTmraval mecniers gamouTqvams Tavisi mosazreba. „magaliTad kanti religiasakavSirebda zneobrivi valis grZnobasTan. germaneli RvTismetyveliSleiermaxeri — damokidebulebis grZnobasTan. frangi istorikosireinaki — „sindisismieri SegrZnebebis nayofTan“. ingliseli mweraliraseli religias ganmartavda, rogorc SiSs uxilavis winaSe, germanelifilosofosi paulseni ki — rogorc Sinagan ganwyobas.“ 2 aseveZalze sainteresoa termin „religiis“ etimologia. igi „momdinareobslaTinuri sityvidan — religio, rac niSnavs xelaxal kavSirs anu kavSirisganaxlebas, aRdgenas, kvaladgebas.“ 3 aqedan gamomdinare, Tu davakvirdebiT,davinaxavT, rom terminis Sinaarss kavSiri aqvs qristianuli religiisbibliur swavlebasTan imis Sesaxeb, rom adamiani Seqmnilia, rogorcmaradiuli arseba samoTxeSi sacxovreblad, magram codviT dacemisSemdeg man dakarga samoTxeSi yofnis unari. religia ki exmareba adamianskavSiris aRdgenaSi maradisobasTan, samoTxesTan, RmerTTan.rogorc vxedavT, religia did gavlenas axdens sazogadoebaze damis erT-erT umTavres institutze — saxelmwofoze. kacobriobis istoriisaraerTi furceli aqvs daTmobili saxelmwifosa da eklesiis, rogorcreligiuri organizciis erT-erTi saxis, urTierTobebs. istoriismanZilze saxelmwifosa da eklesias Soris urTierTobebi, maTi er-TmaneTTan damokidebuleba icvleboda, da, amasTan araerTxel. amgvariclileba msoflios istoriaSi Sesula, rogorc axali epoqis dasawyisi.amis uamravi magaliTia istoriaSi da erT-erTi yvelaze TvalsaCino,maT Soris, iyo safrangeTis revolucia (1789 w.), romelmac daamxo ka-Tolikuri eklesia, romelsac, im periodSi, seriozuli gavlena hqondasaxelmwifoze. aseve aristokratia, monarqia da mTeli evropa daayena1 religiis Tavisufleba. Tavisulebis instituti. Tb. 2004. ixileT: gv. 21.2 Александр Менъ. История религии. В поисках пути, истины и жизни. I том. моск.1991. ixileT: gv. 28 (Targmnili).3 religiis istoria. karibWe. Tb. 1996. gv. 15.133


humanitaruli mecnierebani: istoria, kulturologia, xelovnebaindustriuli revoluciis, kapitalizmisa da burJuaziisaken mimavalgzaze. aRsaniSnavia is faqtic, rom saxelmwifosa da eklesias Soris ur-TierTobaTa cvlilebis procesi XVIII saukunis bolos ar dawyebula. igiaqtiur fazaSi Sevida XIV saukunidan, rodesac ukve Cndeba sityvaT-SeTanxmeba — „saero saxelmwifo“. am ideis „erT-erT arqiteqtorad moiazrebaromaeli kaTolike moazrovne marselius padueli, romelmac1324 wels gamoqveynebul naSromSi — defensor pacis, sadac mkacrad gaakritikasaxelmwifoze eklesiis uzenaesobis mtkicebulebani.“ 1momdevno periodSi, saero saxelmwifos ideis realurad damkvidrebisTvisbrZola kidev ufro gaaqtiurda. „ganmanaTleblobis periodSiam ideam didi gavlena iqonia inglissa da safrangeTze, magram amerikisSeerTebuli Statebi iqca pirvel saxelmwifod msoflios istoriaSi,romelmac konstituciurad aRiara saero saxelmwifos sistema, sadacxelisuflebas ar gaaCnia iurisdiqcia religiur sferoze da yvela religiurigaerTianeba ganixileba kerZo da nebayoflobiT gaerTianebad.“2 aman ki Tanamedrove epoqaSi mogvca saerTaSoriso doneze aRiarebuli— „religiis Tavisufleba“ da am principis dacviT mowesrigebuliurTierToba saxelmwifosa da maT teritoriaze moqmed religiurorganizaciebs Soris.ase viTardeboda da icvleboda sazogadoeba saukuneebis manZilze,magram religias Tavisi roli da mniSvneloba ar daukargavs arcerTepoqaSi.2. marTlmadidebeli eklesiis roli qarTul saxelmwifoSizogadad rom arc gvesaubra, Tu ra zegavlenas axdens religia amaTu im sazogadoebaze, mxolod saqarTvelos magaliTic ikmarebda imisdasamtkiceblad, rom swored rwmenaa sulisCamdgmeli adamianis, eris,civilizaciis progresisa.saqarTvelos da qarTveli eris istoriuli fesvebi Zv. w. pirvelaTaswleulSi ikargeba. Zv. w. periodSi qarTveli eri warmarTi iyo, magrammaT hqondaT rwmena — isini kerpTayvanismcemlebi iyvnen (gaci, gaimi).es imaze metyvelebs, rom Cveni qristianobamdeli winaparic religiursazogadoebas warmoadgenda. ax. w. pirvelive saukuneSi macxovrismowafeebma: andria pirvelwodebulma, svimon kananelma da mataTamqristes moZRvreba saqarTveloSic iqadages, magram I-III saukuneebSi,1 religiis Tavisufleba. Tavisulebis instituti. Tb. 2004. gv. 51.2 religiis Tavisufleba. Tavisulebis instituti. Tb. 2004. gv. 54.134


humanitaruli mecnierebani: istoria, kulturologia, xelovnebaqristianoba, iseve rogorc romis imperiaSi, mTeli eris kuTvnilebadda saxelmwifo religiad jer ar iyo qceuli. saqarTveloSi qristianobissaxelmwifo religiad gamocxadeba moxda mirianis mefobis dros(326 w.) wm. ninos ZalisxmeviTa da meoxebiT. aqedan moyolebuli, qar-Tvel ers arasdros uRalatia „wm. ninos RmerTisaTvis.~ droTaganmavlobaSi,qristianulma rwmenam Rrmad gaidga fesvebi qarTul cnobierebaSida ukve VII d VIII saukuneebisaTvis sarwmunoeba erovnulobisanu „qarTvelobis“ sinonimad iyo qceuli.arabTa batonobam sulierad da fizikurad TiTqmis gaanadgura qar-Tveli eri. maTi batonobis Semdeg Seryeuli sarwmunoebisa da qarTulisaxelmwifos aRmSeneblobisaTvis (rac tao-klarjeTSi daiwyo), udidesimniSvneloba hqonda Zlier samonastro moZraobas VIII saukunis bolosda IX saukunis dasawyisSi. am moZraobis saTaveSi didi qarTvelisaeklesio moRvawe grigol xanZTeli (759-861) idga. IX saukunidan moyolebulikidev ufro gaizarda qarTuli avtokefaluri eklesiis rolisaqarTvelos saxelmwifoebriobaSi. igi gansazRvravda, Tu rogori undayofiliyo qristianuli saxelwifos sulieri cxovreba da kultura.„mefeni did angariSs uwevdnen eklesias, mis mwyemsmTavars da saero xelisuflebisgadawyvetilebani xSirad damokidebuli iyo eklesiis pirvelipiris Tanxmoba-arTanxmobaze.“ 1saxelmwifosa da eklesiis SeTanxmebulurTierTobas mohyva oqrosxana saqarTvelos istoriaSi — XII saukune, daviT aRmaSeneblisa da Tamarisepoqa. aRsaniSnavia is faqtic, rom daviT aRmaSenebeli da Tamar mefewmindanebad arian Seracxulni qarTuli eklesiis mier. es ar iyo maTimxolod eris winaSe damsaxurebis Sedegi, aramed, pirvl rigSi, es gamomdinareobdamaTi Rrma, sulieri cxovrebidan. maT msgavsad, saqarTvelosistoriaSi, mravlad arian wmindanebad Seracxuli mamuliSvilebi,romlebmac SeZles TavanTi wvlilis Setana saqarTvelos saxelmwifosmSeneblobaSi. aq xazi unda gavusvaT imas, rom Cven didebul winprebsgaaCndaT, eklesiis wiaRSi SeZenili, myari zneobrivi sayrdeni, romelicmaT ubiZgebda samSoblosa da qarTveli eris TavganwirvisTvis.momdevno saukuneebSi qarTelebs permanentulad uxdebidaT Tavian-Ti samSoblos dacva gareSe mtrebisagan. eklesia ki SeZlebisdagvaradgverdSi edga saxelmwifos da iRwvoda qarTvelebSi rwmenisa da erovnulisuliskveTebis SenarCunebisaTvis.rogorc vxedavT, saqarTvelos istiria mowmobs imas, rom „marTlmadidebelieklesia udides rols asrulebs saqarTvelsos, rogorc damoukidebelisaxelmwifos, Camoyalibebasa da qarTveli eris fizikuri1 ixileT: http://ambioni.archangels.ge/saxelmwifo-da-eklesia/ 30.05.10.135


humanitaruli mecnierebani: istoria, kulturologia, xelovnebada sulieri gadarCenisTvis brZolis istoriul procesSi. amitom SeiZlebagadauWarbeblad iTqvas, rom qarTuli civilizaciis mTavarisafuZveli, swored rom marTlmadidebloba iyo.“ 1 amis dasturia isic,rom qarTvelebis zneobrivi da sulieri mdgomareoba pirdapirproporciuladpovebda xolme asaxvas saqarTvelos saxelmwifo sazRvrebismdebareobasa da, Sesabamisad, qveynis ekonomikuri Tu kulturuli ganviTarebisdoneze.amgvarad, SeiZleba iTqvas, rom marTlmadidebeli qristianobaaris qarTuli civilizaciis ganviTarebisa da TviTmyofadobis Senar-Cunebis safuZvelTa-safuZveli, vinaidan, saukuneebis manZilze, sworedqristianuli rwmena aZlevda qarTvelebs SemarTebas, rom ebrZolaTerovnuli TviTmyofadobis SenarCunebisa da damoukideblobisaTvis.3. saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiisurTierTobis formebi saqarTvelos saxelmwifosTanXIX saukunidan, rusuli politikis „wyalobiT“, urTierTobebi saqarTvelossamociqulo eklesiasa da saxelmwifos Soris Zalze gar-Tulda. XX saukuneSi ki qarTulma aTeisturma mTavrobam, romlis saTaveSicnoe Jordania idga, faqtobrivad, gawyvita urTierToba Cven dedaeklesiasTan. „Jordanisa xelisuflebam 1921 wlis 15 aprils avtokefaliadakarguliqarTuli eklesia kanongareSe, iuridiuli statusis armqoneorganizaciad gamoacxada da, faqtobrivad, realuri statusi saqarTveloseklesias 2002 wlis konstituciur SeTanxmebamde ar hqonda.“2 1991 wlis 9 aprils saqarTvelos respublikis uzenaesma sabWom,referendumze (amave wlis 31 marti) gamoxatuli xalxis nebis gaTvaliswinebiT,gamoacxada demokratiuli qarTuli saxelmwifosaRdgena.saxelmwifosa da eklesiis harmoniul urTierTobas odiTganve udidesiwvlili Sehqonda qveynis momavlis SenebaSi. amitom damoukideblobisaRdgenis Semdeg, kerZod 1995 wlidan, qarTvelebma daiwyes fiqrieklesiasTan gawyvetili urTierTobebis aRdgenasa da Semdgom ganvi-Tarebaze. Tumca vidre uSualod am sakiTxze gadavalT, SevexoT imas,Tu eklesiasa da saxelmwifos urTierTobaTa ra Tanamedrove modelebiarsebobs dRes, demokratiul sazogadoebebSi. „saerTaSoriso praq-1 Tengiz liluaSvili. „saiubileo krebuli.“ joni xecurianis naSromi. gv 63.2 ixileT: http://ambioni.archangels.ge/saxelmwifo-da-eklesia/ 30.05.10.136


humanitaruli mecnierebani: istoria, kulturologia, xelovnebatikis analizis safuZvelze, saxelmwifosa da religiis anu eklesiisurTierTobis ramodenime modeli SeiZleba gamovyoT:• saxelmwifosa da religiis sruli gamijvna (saero saxelmwifo). —aSS.• saxelmwifosa da religiis korporaciuli gamijvna — germania.• religiuri prioriteti — italia, espaneTi, luqsemburgi.• saxelmwifo religia.“ 1 — didi britaneTi, dania.saqarTveloSo, Cveni istoriidan gamomdinare, TavisTavad cxadia,rom saxelmwifosa da eklesiis urTierTobebi unda mowesrigebuliyo anreligiuri prioritetis modeliT, an saxelmwifo reliigiis modeliT.gasaRebs am sakiTxze vpoulobT saqarTvelos konstituciis me-9 muxlSi.kerZod, 2001 wlis 30 marts saqarTvelos konstituciaSi Sevidacvlilebebi, ris Semdegac me-9 muxlSi „xuTi umniSvnelovanesi debulebagamoikveTa: 1. saxelmwifo acxadebs rwmenisa da aRmsareblobissrul Tavisuflebas. 2. saxelmwifo aRiarebs saqarTvelos samociquloavtkefaluri marTlmadidebeli eklesiis gansakuTrebul rols saqarTvelosistoriaSi. 3. eklesia damoukidebelia saxelmwifosgan. 4.saqarTvelos saxelmwifosa da saqarTvelos samociqulo avtkefalurimarTlmadidebeli eklesiis urTierToba ganisazRvreba konstituciuriSeTanxmebiT. 5. konstituciuri SeTanxmeba srulad unda SeesabamebodessaerTaSoriso samarTlis sayovelTaod aRiarebul principebsada normebs, kerZod adamianis uflebaTa da ZiriTad TavisuflebaTasferoSi.rogorc vxdedavT, saqarTvelos saxelmwifom eklesiasTan urTier-TobisaTvis religiuri prioritetis modeli airCia. xolo urTierTobebior damoukidebel subieqts — saxelmwifosa da eklesias Sorismowesrigda konstituciuri SeTanxmebiT. es sruliad axali institutiaqarTul samarTalSi. am SeTanxmebas konstituciuri ewodeba imitom,rom misi dadebis SesaZlebloba, procedurebi da subieqtTa wremxolod saxellmwifos ZiriTadi kanoniT aris gansazRvruli. konstituciuriSeTanxmeba miiRes 2002 wlis 14 oqtombers. igi Sedgeba 12 muxlisagan.konstituciuri SeTanxmebis pirvel muxlSi saubaria saxelmwifosada eklesiis urTierTTanamSromlobaze Cveni qveynis mosaxleobis sakeTildReod.gansazRvrulia marTlmadidebeli eklesiis statusi saqarTveloSi(sruluflebiani sajaro samarTlis iuridiuli piri). gansazRvrulia,Tu vin aris eklesiis, specialuri uflebamosilebis gare-Se, warmomadgeneli (saeklesio kreba, kaTalikos-patriarqi, wminda si-1 mariam cacanaSvili „saxelmwifo da religia“ Tb. 2001. ix. gv. 29.137


humanitaruli mecnierebani: istoria, kulturologia, xelovnebanodi da sapatriarqo. xolo samarTlebriv urTierTobebSi uflebamosilebasaniWebs kaTalikos-patriarqi. mux 1.4). pirveli muxlis Tanaxmad„eklesia Tavis saqmeebs warmarTavs saeklesio (kanonikuri) samar-Tlis safuZvelze, saqarTvelos konstituciis, konstituciuri SeTanxmebisada kanonmdeblobis Sesabamisad. davamateb imas, rom kanonikursamarTalSi moiazreba:• wminda werili da wminda gardamocema.• mociqulTa kanonebi.• msoflio saeklesio krebaTa kanonebi.• adgilobrivi saeklesio krebaTa kanonebi.“ 1prezidentisa da sxva maRali rangis saxelmwifo xelisuflebis warmomadgenelTamsgavsad, kaTalikos-patriarqi sargeblobs xelSeuvalobisuflebiT anu imunitetiT. am muxlis bolo punqti did saeklesiodgesaswaulebsa da kvira dRes dasvenebis dReebad acxadebs.konstituciuri SeTanxmebis meore muxlSi daculia im informaciissaidumloeba, romelic sasuliero pirma gaigo rogorc suliermamoZRvarma. es debuleba aseve gatarebulia saqarTvelos sixlis samar-Tlis saproceso kodeqsSi (2010w. maisi), sadac aRniSnulia, rom sasulieropiri ar SeiZleba sasamarTli proceze daikoTxos mowmis saxiT, Tukimas esa Tu is informacia gaandes, rogorc sulier moZRvars (mux. 95„e“ punqti). SeTanxmebis mesame muxliT saxelmwifom aRiara eklesiismier Sesrulebuli jvriswera im pirobis gaTvaliswinebiT, rom iuridiulurTierTobebSi gamoyenebul unda iqnes mxolod saxelmwifo registraciismonacemebi. es muxli naTeli magaliTia imisa, rom saqarTvelo-Si gaTvaliswinebulia sxva religiuri konfesiebis interesebi da daculiamaTi uflebebi. swored amis dasturia me-3 muxlis bolo winadadeba:„samarTlebriv urTierTobebSi gamoyenebuli unda iyos mxolod saxelmwiforegistraciis monacemebi.SeTanxmebis meoTxe muxli sasuliero pirebs aTavisuflebs samxedrovaldebulebisagan da mxars uWers kapelanis 2 institutis ganviTarebassaqarTveloSi. sxvaTa Soris es instituti bevr evropul saxelmwifoSisargeblobs didi mxardaWeriT, maT Soris: italiasa da did britaneTSi.xolo mexuTe muxlis Tanaxmad, saxelmwifo saswavlo dawese-1 daviT CikvaiZe. „konstituciuri SeTanxmeba saqarTvelos saxelmwifosa dasaqarTvelos samociqulo avtokefalur marTlmadidebel eklesias Soris.“komentarebi. Tb. 2005. gv 12.2 ucxo sityvaTa leqsikoni. Tb. 1989. ixileT: gv. 217. (samefo karis mRvdeli,armiis mRvdeli).138


humanitaruli mecnierebani: istoria, kulturologia, xelovnebabulebebSi unda iswavlebodes marTlmadidebluri sarwmunoeba, oRondnebayoflobiT (esec religiis Tavisuflebis saerTaSoriso normisgaTvaliswinebiT). programis Sedgana da pedagogTa SerCeva xdeba eklesiiswarmomadgenelTa wardginebiT. Cemi azriT, qarTveli mozardebiaucileblad unda swavlobdnen calke sagnad marTlmadideblobas damis rols saqarTveloSi, vinaidan saqarTvelos arsebobis safuZvelTasafuZveli marTlmadidebluri sarwmunoebaa. mas qarTveli erisTvisreligiur mniSvnelobasTan erTad didi erovnuli mniSvnelobac gaaCnia.konstituciuri SeTanxmebis meeqvse, meSvide da merve muxlebSi saubariaeklesiis qonebaze, sakuTrebiT urTierTobebsa da eklesiis ufleba-movaleobebzeam sferoSi. saeklesio produqcia, araekonomikurimizniT arsebuli qoneba da miwa gaTavisuflebulia saxelmwifo gadasaxadebisagan.es privilegia, savsebiT marTebulad, ekuTvnis mxolodmarTlmadidebel eklesias da igi gamomdinareobs am sarwmunoebis gansakuTrebuliistoriuli rolidan saqarTveloSi.konstituciuri SeTanxmebis mecxre muxli saxelmwifosa da eklesiasTanabrad avaldebulebs, raTa maT izrunon saqarTvelos istriul-kulturulida arqeologiur-arqiteqturuli faseulobebsada saeklesio daniSnulebis Senoba-nagebobebze. Cemi azriT, es turistuliTvalsazrisiTac Zalze momgebiani iqneba qveynis ekonomikisaTvis.SeTanxmebis meaTe muxliT saxelmwifo iRebs valdebulebas awarmoosmolaparakebebi Sesabamis saxelmwifoebTan, maT teritoriaze arsebuliyvela qarTuli, marTlmadidebluri taZris, monastris da sxvaeklesiuri faseulobebes movla-patronobisa da sakuTrebis Taobaze.am mimarTulebiT, Cemi azriT, yvelaze aqtiuri molaparakebebis warmoebasaWiroa TurqeTTan, raTa aRdges da amoqmeddes Zveli taoklarje-Tis teritoriaze arsebuli didebuli qarTuli taZrebi.SeTanxmebis meTerTmete muxlSi saxelmwifo aRiarebs, rom qarTuleklesias miadga mniSvnelovani materialuri da moraluri ziani rusebisbatonobis periodSi (gansakuTrebiT komunisturi reJimis dros1921-1990 ww.). saxelmwifo Tanaxmaa am zaralis nawilobriv kompensirebaze.saxelmwifi Seqmnis komisiebs aRniSnuli sakiTxebis SeswavlisaTvis.aRsaniSnavia, rom saqarTvelos prezidentis 2003 wlis 7 ianvris -1brZanebulebiT, saxelmwifosa da eklesias Soris dadebuli konstituciuriSeTanxmebiT gaTvaliswinebuli RonisZiebebis momzadebis mizniTSeiqmna komisiebi. SeTanxmebis bolo muxlSi ki gansazrvrulia misiamoqmedebis, masSi cvlilebebis Setanisa da ZalaSi Sesvlis sakiTxebi.rogorc aRvniSneT, konstituciuri SeTanxmeba aris saxelmwifosa139


humanitaruli mecnierebani: istoria, kulturologia, xelovnebada eklesiis saprogramo normatiuli aqti, romlis Sesabamisad undamoxdes sxvadasxva normatiuli aqtebis miReba sazogadoebrivi cxovrebisama Tu im sferoSi. amitom logikuria is, rom konstituciuri SeTanxmebisSesabamisad arsebobs Semdegi SeTanxmebebi saxelmwifosa da eklesiasSoris: 1. SeTanxmeba — saqarTvelos samociquli avtokefalurmarTlmadidebel eklesiasa da saqarTvelos mTavrobas Soris msjavrdebulismier sasjelis saxiT sazogadoebisaTvis sasargeblo Sromismoxdis mizniT gasatarebel RonisZiebaTa Sesaxeb (probaciis biuros-Tan). 2. saqarTvelos iusticiis saministrosa da saqarTvelos samociquliavtokefalur marTlmadidebel eklesiis xelSekruleba(20.04.2001). saqarTvelos marTlmadidebel eklesias aseve aqvs gaformebulixelSekruleba ganaTlebis saministrosTan da turizmis departamentTan.4. daskvnadaskvnis saxiT Cemi azri minda gamovTqva saxelmwifos mier eklesiasTanurTierTobisaTvis arCeul modelTan dakavSirebiT (religiuriprioriteti).me momwons is gza, romelic saqarTvelos saxelmwifom airCia Cvendeda eklesiasTan urTierTibisaTvis. ar minda iseTi STabeWdileba Segveqmnas,TiTqos marTlmadidebel eklesias saxelmwifosgan raime gansakuTrebulidacva Wirdebodes da amitom daTanxmda konstituciuri Se-Tanxmebis miRebaze. es ase araa, radgan kargad viciT, rom marTlmadideblobas70 wliani aTeizmis periodSic vraferi mouxerxes miuxedavadimisa, rom aSkarad da mizanmimarTulad ibrZodnen misi sruli ganadgurebisaTvis.Cven SemTxvevaSi, ubralod, saxelmwifo grZnobs eklesiisrealur Zalas da saWiroebas eris zneobrivi ganviTarebisa da srulyofissaqmeSi. amitomac saxelmwofom konstituciuri SeTanxmebiT daamyaramasTan urTierToba da erToblivi ZalebiT iRwvis eris zneobriviganviTarebisaTvis. bolo wlebSi am gziT marTlac mniSvnelovani nabijebigadaidga: Sendeba axal-axlai taZrebi, funqcionirebs sapatriarqosradio da televizia, formdeba axali SeTanxmebebi saxelmwifosa daeklesias Soris sxvadasxva sazogadoebriv sferoebSi, eklesia saxelmwifobiujetidan iRebs yovelwliurad Tanxebs eris zneobrivi ganviTarebisaTvisda sxva. mTavaria, rom ar Sewydes da gagrZeldes saxelmwifosada eklesiis urTierTTanamSromloba qveynis da qarTveli eris sakeTildReod.140


humanitaruli mecnierebani: istoria, kulturologia, xelovnebagamoyenebuli literatura:1. religiis istoria. karibWe. Tb., 1996.2. religiis Tavisufleba. Tavisulebis instituti. Tb., 2004.3. Александр Менъ. История религии. В поисках пути, истины и жизни. Iтом. моск. 1991.4. qristinuli eklesiis istoria. gvanca koplitaZe. Tb., 2007.5. ixileT: http://ambioni.archangels.ge/saxelmwifo-da-eklesia/ 30.05.10.6. Tengiz liluaSvili. „saiubileo krebuli“.7. mariam cacanaSvili „saxelmwifo da religia“ Tb., 2001.8. saqarTvelos moqmedi konstitucia 2010.9. daviT CikvaiZe. „konstituciuri SeTanxmeba saqarTvelos saxelmwifosada saqarTvelos samociqulo avtokefalur marTlmadidebeleklesias Soris. komentarebi. Tb., 2005.10. ucxo sityvaTa leqsikoni. Tb., 1989.141


humanitaruli mecnierebani: istoria, kulturologia, xelovnebaia mWedliZessip goris universitetis bakalavriatis studentisaqarTvelos da somxeTis urTierTobiszogierTi aspeqti XIX-XX saukuneebSixelmZRvaneli: profesori daviT CoCiSviliganxeTqileba somxur da qarTul eklesiebs Soris saukuneTa siRrmidaniwyeba da es sakiTxi yovelTvis did aqtualobas iZenda.erTiani religiuri platforma qarTulma da somxurma eklesiebmapirvelad dvinis saeklesio krebaze (506 wels) aRiares. krebam, rogorccnobilia, mxari dauWira bizantiis keisarTa diofizit-monofizitTaSemrigeblur politikas. garkveuli drois Semdeg bizantiam mxari dau-Wira qalkedonobas, xolo iranma — monofizitobas. am dros da am viTarebaSiqarTvelebs da somxebs cxadia unda gaerkviaT TavianTi politikuriorientacia da religiuri mrwamsi.uTanxmoeba oficialurad VI saukunidan daiwyo, roca somxurma eklesiamiranis uzenaesoba aRiara da monifizitobas dauWira mxari, xoloqarTlis samefoSi diofizitoba aRiares.604-609 wlebSi qarTlis da somxeTis eklesiebis meTaurTa Sorisgacxovelebuli mimowera mimdinareobda religiur sakiTxebze, magramSeTanxmebas ver miaRwies. somxurma eklesiam urTierToba gawyvita qar-Tul eklesiasTan. VIII saukunis 20-ian wlebSi sabolood gaformda 2ideologiuri banaki — monofizitebis (somxebi) da qalkedonuri (qar-Tli).VII saukunis damdegs kavkasiaSi momxdari saeklesio ganxeTqilebisSesaxeb arsebul mravalricxovan wyaroebs Soris yvelaze sando da obieqturiwyaroa `epistoleTa wigni~, igi oficialuri dokumentebis krebulia,romelmac Cvenamde moaRwia mTliani saxiT 1298 wliT daTariRebulixelnaweriT, romlis teqsti 1901 wels daibeWda TbilisSi. es xelnaweri3 nawilisagan Sedgeba, romelTagan CvenTvis sainteresoa xelnawerisme-3 nawili. igi asaxavs VII saukuneSi qarTvelTa da somexTa Sorismomxdar saeklesio ganxeTqilebas, Sedgeba 25 epistolesagan, romlebicdaiwera 605-610 wlebSi. misi erT-erTi ZiriTadi avtori aris qarTlisepiskoposi kirion I.ase daiwyo ganxeTqileba somxur da qarTul eklesiebs Soris, romlisfinali iyo somxuri eklesiis mier qarTul eklesiasTan yovelgva-142


humanitaruli mecnierebani: istoria, kulturologia, xelovnebari kavSiris gawyveta.VIII saukunidan moyolebuli, mTeli saukuneebis ganmavlobaSi, qar-Tuli eklesia da qristianuli religia somexTa mier yovelTvis idevneboda.dampyroblebis mier dapyrobil saqarTveloSi qarTveli iZulebulixdeboda uareyo qristianoba da mikedleboda da eRiarebina araqarTulireligia. gasuli saukunis 70-ian wlebSi cnobili gaxda gamoTqma:`tertera abazad naTlavda, mRvdeli or abazadao~. arsebobs somexiterteras mier monaTluli qarTuli gvarebi: termakozaSvili, terteraSvili.somxeTis eklesiis survili, rom saqarTvelos eklesia daqvemdebarebodasomxeTs jer kidev IV saukunidan (wm. ninos mosvla) iwyeba. somxebiTavianT Sexedulebebs ayalibebdnen sxvadasxva faqtebze da TavisdasasikeTod xsnidnen ama Tu im movlenas. somxuri eklesia gavlenis gasamtkicebladaSkara intervenciasac ar erideboda: daaxloebiT 699wels albaneTis qalkedoni kaTalikosis dasajelad arabTa jariT CavidasomxeTis kaTalikosi. albaneTis kaTalikosi qalkedonuri mrwamsisgamo sikvdiliT dasajes. arabTa jariT daSinebuli albaneTis saeklesiokrebam somxeTis eklesias aRuTqva samudamo morCileba. amiT dasruldaalbaneTis eklesiis isedac meryevi avtokefalia. albaneTis eklesiasomxeTis eklesiis nawilad iqca.somxuri istoriografia ar erideboda faqtebis gayalbebasac rogorcalbaneTis, aseve qarTuli saeklesio istoriisa: faqtia, rom wmindaninos moixsenieben IV-VI saukunisa (qarTuli da ucxouri) da IX-X saukuneTaqarTuli wyaroebi. VI-VII saukuneebSi qarTuli wyaroebi TiTqmiseridebian an mcired ixsenieben wminda ninos. berZen — laTini istorikosebidawvrilebiT aRweren wminda ninos moRvaweobas, magram arasdrosaxseneben mas wminda grigolTan, somxeTis ganmanaTlebelTan. aseve IV-Vsaukunis wminda ninos qarTuli cxovreba ninos ar uwodebs wminda grigolismowafes. wminda nino iyo qarTlis damoukidebeli ganmanaTlebeli,mosuli ierusalimidan. aseTi iyo sazogado azri IV da V saukunis Inaxevrisa.V saukunidanve somxur eklesiaSi mkvidrdeba Tvalsazrisi, romwminda nino wminda grigolis mowafe iyo da man grigolis davalebiT gaanaTlaqarTli.am ideam Tavisi praqtikuli ganxorcieleba pova VI saukunis Semdeg.VI saukuneSi sparsTagan qarTlis dapyrobam da aq somxuri eklesiis gavleniszrdam saSualeba misca somxur eklesias, Tavis sasargeblod gamoeyenebinaTeoria am ori wmindanis kavSiris Sesaxeb.Tu somxuri eklesiis ganmanaTlebeli wminda grigoli iyo maswavle-143


humanitaruli mecnierebani: istoria, kulturologia, xelovnebabeli da xelmZRvaneli qarTuli eklesiis ganmanaTlebel wminda ninosi,maSin somxur eklesias garkveuli zedamxedvelobis uflebac eqnebodaqarTul eklesiaze.am TeoriiT qarTuli eklesia somxurs eqvemdebareboda, am mizezisgamo VI-VII saukuneebSi qarTvelebi (qalkedonebi) eridebodnen wmindaninos xsenebas. Tu aucilebeli iyo, isev wminda grigols axsenebdnen,radganac wminda nino qarTul-somxuri eklesiebis damakavSirebeli gamodiodaise, rogorc eliSa — somxur-albanuri eklesiebisa VII saukunisbolos.mas Semdeg, rac qarTulma eklesiam VIII saukunis dasawyisSi, (726wels) mowveuli somxuri eklesiis krebis Semdeg sabolood gawyvitakavSiri somxur eklesiasTan, wminda ninom qarTul eklesiaSi daiWiraTavisi kuTvnili adgili.v. gurgeniZe simon janaSiaze dayrdnobiT werda, rom VI-VII saukuneebSisparselTa nebiT qarTul werilobiT wyaroebSi moispo anda srulebiTgadakeTda istoriuli faqtebi. am dros sruliad SesaZlebeliiyo wminda ninos Sesaxeb arsebuli istoriuli faqtebis damaxinjeba.`saqarTveloSi sparseTis ideologiuri politika miznad isaxavda(`somxeTis religiaze~) monofizitobaze dayrdnobiT qarTvel xalxSimoespo Zveli marTlmadidebluri (diofizituri) sarwmunoeba da iqmacxovreblebi TandaTanobiT gadaeyvana TavianT mxareze~. aseTi mdgomareobaiyo VI saukuneSi.VII saukunis dasawyisSi ki `sparselebma, rogorc 506 wels q. dvinSiCatarebul saeklesio krebaze, kvlav ufro mkacrad daakanones TavisgamgeblobaSi Semavali yvela xalxisaTvis erTiani ideologia — somxuri(monofizituri) religia. maTi mtkicebiT es erTiani religia yvelganganavrco sparselebis naTesavma ganmanaTlebelma grigorim. am aucilebeliidologiis miRebis mizniT yvelgan, maT Soris qarTlSic,`ganwmendil iqna~ da axali masalebiT Seivso qarTvelTa, albanelTa dasomexTa saistorio mwerloba. swored amitom, rogorc samarTlianadmiuTiTebda s. janaSia, werilobiT wyaroebSi Seubraleblad mospes anZireulad gadaakeTes sxvadasxva istoriuli faqtebi, amasTan maTTvismisaRebi enebidan — somxuridan da asurulidan xelaxla aTargmninesberZnulidan gadmoTargmnili wignebi, `Seudares~, `Seaswores~, zogiram ki axlad daawerines. yvelaze samwuxarod s. janaSias miaCnia is faqti,rom am `gasufTavebis~ dros, faqtobrivad, `ganadgurda~ Zveli qar-Tuli saistorio mwerloba da `qarTlis moqcevis~, `juanSeris~ da sxvamatianeebSi am mwerlobidan SemorCenilia mxolod damaxinjebulifragmentebi~. ai, saidan iRebs saTaves iranofiluri da somxofiluri144


humanitaruli mecnierebani: istoria, kulturologia, xelovnebatendenciebi rogorc qarTul, ise somxur istoriul wyaroebSi. `...romdaepirispirebina erTmaneTisaTvis somxeTi da saqarTvelo, sparseTidroebiT dapyrobil, Tu romael-bizantielTagan xelSekrulebiT `mi-Rebul~ saqarTvelos teritoriebs calke administraciul qarTul er-Teulebad ki ar acxadebda, aramed miawerda mas mis mier dapyrobil somxeTs,romlebic TavianT mxriv Tvlidnen, rogorc somxur teritoriebsda yvelafers akeTebdnen aq mcxovrebi qarTvelebis asimilaciisaTvis...“am dros mimdinareobda gugarqis, mesxeTisa da hereTis qarTvelebisasimilcia. qarTuli da berZnuli enebi idevneboda RvTismsaxurebidan,eklesiebidan da inergeboda somxuri. swored aseT dros SeiZlebodaqarTuli ena miCneuliyo `mdabal da dawunebul enad~. am devnis gamoCven, faqtobrivad, ara gvaqvs VII saukuneSi Seqmnili arc erTi qarTulinawarmoebi (zogierTi gamonaklisis, polemikuri Txzulebis garda) ma-Sin, roca VIII saukunidan Cndeba qarTuli Txzulebebi.726 wels manaskertis krebaze somxurma eklesiam sabolood da gadaWriTerTaderT swor sarwmunoebad aRiara monofizitoba da uaryoqalkedonoba, dagmo kavSiri bizantiur eklesiasTan (da herakle keisrisSemdeg arsebuli `unia~). qarTulma eklesiam, rogorc qalkedonizmiserTgulma damcvelma, amis Semdeg yovelgvari kavSiri gawyvita somxurTan.VIII saukunis Semdeg wminda ninom daiWira Tavisi Rirseuli adgili,ise rogorc asurelma mamebma.rac Seexeba asurel mamebs, isini monofizitebi rom yofiliyvnen, VIIIsaukunis Semdeg, roca qarTul eklesiaSi nadgurdeboda yvelaferi,rac ki monofizitobis saxelTan iyo dakavSirebuli, asurel mamebsacaravin moixseniebda da maT saxelsac mTlianad aRxocavdnen literaturidan,magram swored VIII saukunis Semdeg maTi saxelebi xSirad ixsenieba.saqarTveloSi asureli mamebis SemosvlisTanave qarTulma eklesiam,arseni safarelis Tanaxmad, dvinis 551 wlis krebis Semdeg polemikadaiwyo somxur eklesiasTan, rasac maleve, 570-580-ian wlebSi mohyvaqarTlis antimonofizituri ajanyeba. am ajanyebas didi warmatebahqonda — qveyana qalkedonobisaken gadaixara. savaraudoa, rom ajanyebissulis Camdgmelni asureli mamebi iyvnen. monofizitobis momxresparseTl-arabTa batonobisas da agreTve bizantiasTan somxuri eklesiis`uniis~ dros somxur eklesias gavlena da zemoqmedeba hqonda qar-Tulze, amitom VI-VII saukuneebSi asureli mamebis Rvawli warmoCeniliar iyo, xolo VIII saukunis Semdeg qarTuli eklesiis gaTavisuflebam145


humanitaruli mecnierebani: istoria, kulturologia, xelovnebaasureli mamebi ixsna yovelgvari zegavlenisagan.unda iTqvas, rom CvenSi ratomRac Seurcxyofad miiReba qarTul eklesiazemonofizitTa zegavlenis Sesaxeb saubari. unda aRvniSnoT, romsaukuneTa manZilze, maT Soris V, VI da VII saukuneSi, monofizitoba bizantiisimperiasa da mis dedaqalq konstantinopolSi TiTqmis iseve iyomiRebuli, rogorc qalkedonoba. bizantiaSi am saukuneebSi monofizit-Ta da qalkedonTa Soris daucxromeli brZola da dapirispireba iyo.aRsaniSnavia, rom am brZolaSi arc monofizitebi damarcxebulan daarc qalkedonistebs gaumarjviaT. amitomac imperiis damSvidebis mizniT,bizantiis imperatorebi iZulebulni gaxdnen V saukunis bolos wasuliyvnenkompromisze da gamoecaT `henitikoni~, romelic erTmaneT-Tan aTanxmebda monifizitebsa da qalkedonistebs. ase rom, aRiarebdnenorive sarwmunoebriv mimarTulebas. TviT imperatori iustiniane erTperiodSi monofizitobisken ixreboda da mas uWerda mxars. monofizit-Ta siZlieris gamo VII saukunis dasawyisisaTvis imperatorma heraklemmonofizitTa da diofizitTa Tanaarsebobis Teoriac ki moifiqra. Camoyalibda`monoTelitoba~, romelmac saukunis bolomde iarseba. mxolod681 wlis msoflio krebis Semdeg bizantiis imperiaSi sabolooddamarcxdnen monofizistebi da monoTelistebi, gaimarjva qalkedonobam.amas gadmogvcems cnobili istorikosi kartaSevi Tavis wignSi`msoflio krebebi~. marTalia, bizantiaSi Tanaarsebobdnen monofizitebida qalkedonitebi da xandaxan eklesiisa aseve saxelmwifos mar-Tvis sadaveebi xelT epyraT, magram mainc, cxadia, bizantia erTguliiyo, zogadi TvalsazrisiT, qalkedonis krebis anu diofizitobisa.aRniSnulis gamo, CvenSi arsebuli mtkiceba, rom arasodes, maT Sorisarc VI da arc VII saukuneebSi, Cvens eklesiaze gavlena ar hqonia monofizitobasada monoTelistobas, amasTan saqarTveloSi ar cxovrobdnenqarTveli monofizitebi da monoTelitebi seriozulad ar undaCaiTvalos. CvenSi, ise rogorc bizantiaSi, Tanaarsebobdnen monofizitebida qalkedonebi, magram maT sxvadasxva mrwamsi hqondaT. amis gamoisini mudam ebrZodnen erTmaneTs. mxolod VIII saukunis Semdeg saqar-TveloSi damarcxdnen monofizitebi da monoTelitebi, rasac xeli imanSeuwyo, rom msgavsi ambavi bizantiaSi ufro adre, meeqvse (681 wlis)msoflio krebis Semdeg daiwyo. am krebis sapasuxod 726 wels somxeTSimowveulma krebam dagmo qalkedonoba da miiRo monofizitoba. qar-Tulma eklesiam isargebla amiT da sabolood miemxro qalkedonobas.VIII saukunis Semdeg qarTul eklesiaSi daiwyo qalkedonobis zeimi damonofizitobis damarcxeba.VIII saukunis Semdeg Tavisi Rirseuli adgili daiWires wminda ninom146


humanitaruli mecnierebani: istoria, kulturologia, xelovnebada wina saukuneebSi moRvawe qarTvelma qalkedonelma wmindanebma.VIII-X saukuneebi qarTuli eklesiis istoriaSi mniSvnelovani yofilaimiT, rom am dros Turme mimdinareobda qalkedonuri sarwmunoebismqone somxebis gaqarTveleba. gaqarTvelebula somexTa didi raodenoba,amasTan imdenad didi, rom amas uzarmazari danaklisi miucia somexixalxisaTvis da am procesis Sedegad somxeTs daukargavs erovnuli teritoriebisnawili. saqarTvelo ki gamdidrebula miwebiT, romelzedacmosaxle gaqarTvelebuli somxebi saqarTvelos kulturul cxovrebaSibrwyinavdnen TavianTi umaRlesi xarisxis mwarmoeblurobis Sedegad (n.mari).qarTuli eklesia uSualo kavSirSi aRmoCenila somxeTis am tragediasTan,radganac gaqarTvelebulan qalkedoni somxebi, qarTuli eklesiaki, sazogadod, am mimarTulebisaa. ufro metic, qarTuli eklesia TurmeiWreboda somxeTis miwa-wyalze da somexi samRvdeloebis namoRvaw danamuSakev adgilebze qarTul eklesia-monastrebs awesebda (i. abulaZe).zogierTi mecnieris azriT, mesxeTi (tao-klarjeTi) da, saerTod,saqarTvelos samxreTi nawili istoriuli somxeTia, romelic saqarTvelosSemouerTda aq mosaxle `somxebis gaqarTvelebis~ Sedegad gardaamisa, qvemo qarTlic somxeTis nawili yofila, romelic aseve `gaqar-Tvelebula~.ufro metic, zogierTi somexi mkvlevris azriT X saukunemde `araqarTuli~iyo hereTi da dasavleT saqarTveloc. mesxeTis msgavsad XsaukuneSi hereTi gaqalkedonebula, xolo amave droisaTvis dasavleTsaqarTveloSi qarTulenovani wirva-locvis SemoRebis Sedegad es mxarecgaqarTvelebula.`sazogadod somxuri eklesiis didi pretenziebi mecnierebisaTviskargadaa cnobili. marTalia somxuri eklesiis mesveurTa miswrafebebs,ierarqiulad somxurisadmi daeqvemdebarebinaT qarTuli eklesiac,praqtikulad TiTqmis araviTari Sedegi ar mohyolia, magram Sexla-Semoxlasaukuneebis manZilze grZeldeboda da dResac grZeldeba. drodadroqarTul-somxuri eklesiebis urTierToba metismetad mwvavdeboda.qarTlis mimarT somxuri eklesiis pretenziebis `dasasabuTeblad~somxur garemoSi araerTi legenda warmoiqmna....somxuri eklesiebis didi petenziebi dasturdeba mas Semdeg, rac VIIs-is damdegs qarTul-somxur eklesiebs Soris ganxeTqileba moxda. qar-Tuli eklesia TandaTan mWidrod daukavSirda bizantias, berZnul eklesias,xolo somxuri eklesia kvlavindeburad da kidev ufro mkveTraddapirispirebuli aRmoCnda bizantiis eklesiasTan.Sida da qvemo qarTlisaTvis brZolisas qarTvel xelisufalTa da147


humanitaruli mecnierebani: istoria, kulturologia, xelovnebasomex mefeebs Soris, cxadia, qarTuli eklesia qarTvel xelisufalTamxares iyo, radgan somexi mefeebis gabatonebas qarTlSi Sedegad mohyvebodaqarTuli eklesiis an ganadgureba, an somxurisadmi daqvemdebareba.qvemo qarTlSi somex mefeTa gabatonebis Semdeg adgilobrivmkvidri qarTveli mosaxleoba somxuri eklesiis mrevlad iqca~.eTnikuri da religiuri migracia arc XX saukuneSi Sewyvetila.1950-1990-ian wlebSi daiwyo faruli migraciuli procesebi kaTalikosvazgenis mier, kerZod somxebis saqarTvelos SavizRvispireTSi CasaxlebiT.misi gardacvalebis Semdgomac anu dResac ar wydeba imis mtkicebarom TiTqos qarTul eklesias mitacebuli aqvs 650 somxuri eklesia,rac simarTles ar Seesabameba, aseve somxeTis eklesia moiTxovs ise-Tive konstituciuri SeTanxmebis dadebas saqarTvelos saxelmwifosada maT Soris, rogoric es arsebobs qarTul marTlmadideblur eklesiasTan,esec, ra Tqma unda, SeuZlebelia, radgan maTi saeklesio centrieCmiaZinSi mdebareobs, qarTuli ki saqarTveloSi.saqarTvelos marTlmadidebeli eklesia yovelTvis Tavis Rirseulsityvas ambobda msoflio qristianuli samyaros winaSe da sxebisagangansxvavebiT politikuri situaciidan gamomdinare arasdros icvlidareligiur mrwamss. qarTuli eklesia da misi Rirseuli winamZRvaridResac uryevad da erTgulebiT ganagrZnoben im saeklesio samarTliswesebis dacvas, romlebic wminda mamebma 15 saukunis winaT dagvitovessaxelmZRvanelod.mravali faqti gvarwmunebs imaSi rom somxeTis eklesiis moTxovnebiarasamarTlebrivia. es aris mxolod maTi ambicia miiTvison mezobeliqveynis eklesiis qoneba da saxeli. imedia, Seiqmneba erToblivi komisiakompetenturi pirebis SemadgenlobiT orive mxridan, romelic gamoikvlevsam sadavo sakiTxebs da erTxel da samudamod Sewydeba provokaciuliqmedebebis eklesiis misamarTiT.gamoyenebuli literatura:1. episkoposi anania jafariZe. `saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiisistoria~, t. II.2. movses kalankatuaci. `alvanTa qveynis istoria~, 1985w.3. abdalaZe a., `amierkavkasiis politikur erTeulTa urTierTobaIX-XI saukuneebSi~, 1988w.4. `qarTuli sabWoTa enciklopedia~. t. 8. 1984w.5. `qarTlis cxovreba~, t. I, 1955 w.6. bondo arvelaZe, ~somxuri Tu qarTuli eklesiebi saqarTvelo-148


humanitaruli mecnierebani: istoria, kulturologia, xelovnebaSi?!~ Tb., 1996w.7. mTavarepiskoposi anania jafariZe. `qarTl-kaxeTi qarTvelTa gasomxeba~1999 w. saq. sap. manglis-walkis eparqia.8. episkoposi aleqsandre. `marTlmadidebluri katexizmo~. saq.sap.gamomcemloba, 2004 w.9. `msoflio saeklesio krebebi. dogmaturi RmrTismetyveleba~,ssg. 2004.10. `didisjuliskanoni~. 2004 w.11. uxtanesi, istoria gamoyofisa qarTvelTa somexTagan, Tb., 1975.149


humanitaruli mecnierebani: istoria, kulturologia, xelovnebagiorgi cicqiSvilissip goris universiteti, bakalavriatis studentientoni jenkinsonis qarTveliufliswulis vinaobisaTvisxelmZRvaneli: profesori eldar mamisTvaliSvilientoni jenkinsoni XVI saukunis meore naxevris cnobili mogzauri,komersanti da inglisis savaWro kapitalis erT-erTi mniSvnelovaniwarmomadgeneli iyo. man 1557-1571 wlebSi oTxgzis imogzaura aRmosavleTSi,romlis drosac entoni jenkinsonis mTavar mizans warmoadgendainglisis savaWro-ekonomikiuri urTierTobebis damyareba iranTan daruseTTan.TavisTavad sainteresoa entoni jenkinsonis oTxive mogzauroba. amjeradCvenTvis yvelaze mniSvnelovania misi mesame mogzauroba, romelicdaiwyo 1561 wlis 14 maiss da damTavrda 1564 wlis 28 seqtembers.1562 wlis 2 noembers jenkinsoni Cavida yazvinSi, Sahis rezidencia-Si. 20 noembers igi miiwvies Sah-Tamazis (1524-1576) karze. sadac entonijenkinsonma Sah-TamazTan isaubra inglisisa da iranis savaWro-ekonomikururTierTobebsa da perspeqtivebze. maTi saubris erT-erTi Temaexeboda sarwmunoebas. `CemTan bevrs saubrobda religiaze-gadmogvcemsjenkinsoni — mekiTxeboda giauri var Tu ara~, — e.i. urwmuno varTu muslimani. vupasuxe, rom arc urwmuno var da arc muslimani, aramedme var morwmune qristiani. `eg ra aris?~ ukiTxavs Sah-Tamazs iqve mjdomiqarTveli ufliswulisaTvis, romelmac Sahs upasuxa: `qristiania isvisac swams qristes sjulis, aRiarebs mas uzenaesad da RvTis Svilad~(1. 200-209). amgvarad, rogorc entoni jekinsoni gadmogvcems, im droisaTvisSahis karze imyofeboda qarTveli ufliswuli, romelsac raRacmizezebis gamo samSoblo miutovebia.sainteresoa vin aris es qarTveli ufliswuli da ratom imyofebodaigi Sah-Tamazis karze. amsakiTxiT dainteresdnen mkvlevarebi da gamoiTqvasxvadasxva mosazreba. amasTan dakavSirebiT mec minda gamovTqvaazri. pirvel rigSi, Tvali gadavavloT XVI s-is 60-ian 70-iani wlebis saqarTvelossaSinao politikur situacias.XVI saukuneSi saqarTvelos samefo, rogorc cnobilia, dayofilia —samTavroebad. TiToeuls, ra Tqma unda, hyavs Tavisi mefe Tu mTavari (7.85; 225-229). aseT pirobebSi ki qarTveli ufliswulis vinaobis dadgena150


humanitaruli mecnierebani: istoria, kulturologia, xelovnebametad problematuria. ismeba kiTxva, romeli kuTxidan unda iyos isqarTveli ufliswuli, romelzec e.jekensoni laparakobs.pirvel rigSi viziareb j. stefnaZis mosazrebas, romlis TqmiTacufliswuli ar SeiZleba yofiliyo dasavleT saqarTvelodan (8. 204).radgan imereTis mefe bagrat III-s (1510-1565) sparseTis karze Svili arhyolia (7. 103-113), vinaidan 1555 wlis amasiis zavis pirobebis TanaxmadimereTi TurqeTis gavlenis sferod gamocxadda da imereTis ufliswulissparseTis karze yofna amasiis zavis pirobebs ewinaaRmdegeboda (7.113).maSasadame, ufliswuli unda iyos qarTlis an kaxeTis samefodan. esunda iyos an qarTlis mefis luarsabis (1527-1556) Ze da svimon I-s (1556-1569; 1578-1600) Zma daviT XI, SemdgomSi gamahmadianebuli dauT-xani. anlevan kaxTa mefis (1518-1574) Svili iese batoniSvili, SemdgomSi gamahmadianebuliisa-xani.pirvel rigSi daviwyoT dauT-xaniT, SeiZleba Tu ara, rom e. jekensonismier moxseniebuli ucnobi qarTveli ufliswuli yofiliyo dauTxani,anu daviT XI. upirveles yovlisa, unda aRvniSnoT, rom 1555 wlis 29maiss q. amasiaSi iran-osmaleTs Soris dadebuli sazavo xelSekrulebiTaRmosavleT saqarTvelo, kerZod — qarTli, kaxeTi da aRmosavleT samcxe-saaTabago(mtkvris auzi), iranis gavlenis sferod gamocxadda (7.113). magram yovelive amas ar urigdeboda qarTlis mefe luarsab I (1527-1556) da ganuwyvetliv brZolebs awarmoebda yizilbaSebis winaaRmdeg.is gansakuTrebiT aviwrovebda Tbilisis yizilbaSur garnizons, ris gamocam ukanasknelma daxmarebisaTvis mimarTa yarabaRis mmarTvels SahverdziadRols, romelsac Tbilisis yizilbaSuri garnizonis dacvaTviT Sahisgan hqonda davalebuli. amrigad, 1556 wels Sahverdi didZalijariT gamoemarTa saqarTvelosken. brZola garisTan (qciis xeobaSi)gaimarTa. qarTlis laSqars luarsabis 19 wlis vaJi svimoni meTaurobda.am brZolaSi mteri damarcxda da gaiqca, Tumca miyenebuli WrilobiTluarsab I 1556 wels gardaicvala. gamefda svimon I, magram luarsabshyavda meore vaJi daviTic. rogorc saistorio wyaroebidan Cans, ZmebsSoris Tavidanve uTanxmoeba iyo taxtis gamo. magram sruliad samar-Tlianad taxti svimons ergo da ara daviTs (7. 114-116; 11. 251-256).amis gamo Zmebs Soris Tavi iCina uTanxmoebam. 1561 wlis 6 aprils muxaTgverdTanbrZolis Semdeg, romelSic svimon I-ma yizilbaSebTan marcxiganicada damoukideblobisaTvis mebrZol qarTvelTa erTi nawilissulier ganwyobilebaze didi gavlena moaxdina. mravalma maTganma svimonisagangandgoma daiwyo, maT Soris iyo misi Zma daviTi da sabaraTianoszogierTi warmomadgeneli. daviTi Seecada ZaliT dasakuTreboda151


humanitaruli mecnierebani: istoria, kulturologia, xelovnebaimas, rac mamisagan memkvidreobiT ver miiRo. man amisaTvis daxmarebaSah-Tamazs sTxova, romelsac svimonisagan problemebi ar aklda da amisgamo qarTl-kaxeTSi mtkiced damkvidrebas ver axerxebda. axla ki TviTluarsab mefis Svili da svimon I-is Zma daviTi gamocxadda SahTan,aRuTqva morCileba da miiRo mahmadianoba. amis Semdeg man Sahis Sviliswodeba, Tbilisis da qvemo qarTlis gamgebloba miiRo. magram samSoblosada sarwmunoebis moRalates aRniSnul teritoriebze gabatonebisaraviTari niadagi ar hqonda. amitom mis erTaderT dasayrdens kvlavyizilbaSebi warmoadgendnen (7. 117-118; 11. 258-259).farsadan gorgijaniZis TqmiT, Zmebs Soris ganxeTqileba da daviTisSahTan gaqceva `qarTvelTa qoronikons oras ormocs momxdara~ anu1552 wels (4. 10). magram es mosazreba naklebad sarwmunoa, radgan amdros qarTlis mefea ara svimon I, aramed mamamisi luarsab I-ia. saistoriowyaroebidan ki mama-Svils Soris ganxeTqilebis faqti ar dasturdeba.is ki namdvilad dasturdeba, rom 1561 wlis 6 aprils cixedidTansvimonma marcxi ganicada. savaraudod, swored amis Semdeg unda momxdariyoganxeTqileba Zmebs Soris da daviTis yizilbaSebis mxareze gadasvla.1561 wliT aTariRebs yovelive amas akad. iv. javaxiSvili (11.258), rac SeiZleba sarwmuno faqtad CavTvaloT. magram dauzustebelirCeba dauT-xanis saqarTveloSi dabrunebis sakiTxi. savsebiT SesaZlebelia,rom saqarTveloSi daviTi dabrunebuliyo 1562 wlis 20 noembramdean 20 noembris Semdeg. udavoa saqarTveloSi dauT-xanis Camosvlisfaqti, amis damadasturebelia Tundac is, rom 1567-1568 wlebSidiRomTan da samadlosTan brZolebSi svimonma mware marcxi agema dauT-xans,magram Tbilisis dakaveba ver SeZlo, vinaidan dauTs mezobelisaxanoebi umagrebdnen zurgs. amasve adasturebs qarTlis cxovreba daakad. iv. javaxiSvili (10. 407-408; 11. 259-260).erT-erT sigelSi, romelic simon mefes gaucia urbnisis mTavarepiskoposisvlases saxelze, 1566w., dgindeba, rom am periodisaTvis daviTsfexi mtkiced hqonia mokidebuli somxeT-sabaraTianos teritoriaze (6.407). maSasadame, 1566 wlisaTvis daviTi ukve imyofeboda saqarTveloSida misi Camosvla ufro adreul periodSia savaraudebeli.j. stefnaZis mier dauT-xanis saqarTveloSi Camosvlis TariRad dasaxelebulia1564 weli (8. 210-211), rac piradad me naklebad sarwmunodmimaCnia. marTebuli iqneba Tu dauT-xanis saqarTveloSi dabrunebis TariRad1562 wels davasaxelebT, radgan Seref-xan biTlisis gadmocemiTSah-Tamazs gamahmadianebuli dauTi saqarTveloSi 1562 wlisTvis daubrunebia,xolo Tbilisi da misi midamoebi samarTavad gadaucia (9. 172-173). aseve, farsadan gorgijaniZec gadmogvcems, rom daviTi saqarTve-152


humanitaruli mecnierebani: istoria, kulturologia, xelovnebaloSi 1562 wels saswrafod dabrunebula. amave wels svimonsa da dauTxansSoris brZolac momxdara (4. 10). danamdvilebiT ver vityviT iyo Tuara brZola svimonsa da dauT-xans Soris 1562 w., magram amave wels dauT-xanissaqarTveloSi dabruneba, arsebuli situaciidan gamomdinare,Sah-Tamazs namdvilad awyobda. miTumetes, rom svimoni kvlav SeurigebelbrZolas awarmoebda yizilbaSebis winaaRmdeg. daviTis TbilisSidamtkiceba, erTis mxriv, gaamtkicebda Sahis poziciebs, xolo meoresmxriv, es xelsayreli iyo daviTisTvisac, radgan yizilbaSebiT gaZlierebuldaviTs SeeZlo svimonisaTvis Seetia da qarTlSi gabatonebuliyo.vinaidan es iyo daviTis yvelaze didi survili da gamahmadianebis mizezic.aqedan gamomdinare, marTebuli iqneba Tu vityviT, rom daviTi saqarTveloSidabrunebula 1562 wlisaTvis, aseTive varaudi gamoTqvesbatonma e. mamisTvaliSvilma da r. kiknaZem. aq gaTvaliswinebulia hasanrumlus erT-erTi cnoba, romelSic vkiTxulob: `am wels (1561-1562) rabios-sanis Tvis Cvidmets, daviT-begi, luarsabis Svili, radenime aznauriTurTsaqarTvelodan yazvins mivida da muslimani gaxda. rjulissafarvelma Sahma Tbilisis gamgebloba mas uwyaloba~. am cnobaze dayrdnobiTr. kiknaZem gamoikvlia, rom daviTi saqarTveloSi unda dabrunebuliyo1562 wlis 30 agvistos (5. 165; 12. 37). Tu yovelive asea, maSin e.jenkinsonis mier moxseniebuli qarTveli ufliswuli daviT XI-ar undaiyos.axla rac Seexeba iese batoniSvils, aris Tu ara igi jenkinsonis mierdasaxelebuli ucnobi qarTveli ufliswuli?rogorc zemoT avRniSneT, 1561 wlis 6 aprils cixedidTan brZolaSisvimonma yizilbaSebTan marcxi ganicada,magram am brZolaSi igi martoar yofila. mas exmareboda kaxeTis jari giorgi kaxTa ufliswulis sardlobiT,romelic cixedidTan Tavisi mamis levan kaxTa mefis davalebiTimyofeboda svimonis dasaxmareblad. am xelCarTul brZolaSimokles giorgi ufliswuli, rasac kaxTa jaris brZolidan gamoTiSva dadauZlurebuli qarTlis jaris damarcxeba mohyva (7. 117; 11. 257-258).Sah-Tamazi saSinlad ganarisxa ufliswulis iranis winaaRmdeg omSimonawileobam. amitom Sahma levani kaxeTis sausrvel marTvelad aRarmiiCnia. cxadia, es yvelaferi levan mefis sawinaaRmdegod moqmedebda,amitom man mdgomareobis ganeitralebisa da gaumjobesebis mizniT Sah-TamazTan Tavisi Ze iese mZevlad an despanad gagzavna (9. 169; 11. 233).rogorc vaxuSti bagrationi gadmogvcems `leon mefem waravlina ZeTvisi iese winaSe yeenisa, ZRuniTa da tyviTa qal-yrmiTa da auwya Tavisiara risa Secodeba~. vaxuSti ieses iranSi gamgzavrebis faqts 1558 wliT153


humanitaruli mecnierebani: istoria, kulturologia, xelovnebaaTariRebs (10. 575). es savsebiT SesaZlebelia, radgan, rogorc zemoTavRniSneT, cixedidis brZola 1561 wels moxda, anu am dros iese ukveiranSi imyofeboda. SesaZlebelia igi Sahma aRar gamouSva da TavisTanmZevlad daitova. xolo 1561 wels momxdari ambebiT ganrisxebulma Sahmaiese daatusaRa da alamuTis cixeSi gamoketa, sadac 1569 wlidan datusaRebuliiyo svimon I, xolo 1577 w. oriveni Sah-ismail II-em gaanTavisufla.ufro marTebulad mimaCnia is, rom 1561w. cixedidTan gamarTulibrZolis Semdeg iese levan mefem gagzavna Sah-TamazTan mZevlad, er-Tgulebis dasamtkiceblad da Sahis risxvis Tavidan acilebis mizniT.SesaZlebelia swored 1561-1562 wlebSi daatusaRa Sah-Tamazma iese daalamuTis cixeSi gamoketa. hasan rumlus cnobiT igi alamuTSi aRmoCnda1562 wlisTvis (2. 413). analogiurad aTariRebs momxdar faqts Seref-xanbiTlisic (9.170-171). maSasadame igi tyveobaSi imyofeboda 1562-1577 wlebSi. magram ar moipoveba imis damadasturebeli cnoba, Tu rodisdaatusaRes igi — 1562 wlis 20 noembramde Tu 20 noembris Semdeg.magram SeiZleba vivaraudoT, rom aRniSnuli faqti 20 noembris Semdegunda momxdariyo. rogorc cnobilia jenkinsoni Sah-Tamazis karidan1563 wlis 20 marts wamvida, xolo SemaxaSi 10 aprils Cavida da scadakavSiri daemyarebina kaxeTis samefosTan; aseve, Tavis mxriv, levan kax-Ta mefec dainteresebuli yofila jenkinsoniT, amitom masTan elCebisgagzavna gadawyvita (1. 210-212; 3. 71-72). sainteresoa ra iyo am ormxrividainteresebis mizezi.saqme isaa, rom levan kaxTa mefis mTavari mizani iyo jenkinsonis meSveobiTruseTis samefos dakavSireboda. rom levan mefis elCebi jenkinsonTanSexvedrisas ganumartavdnen mas, Tu rogor iyvnen Seviwroebulniosmalebisa da iranelebisgan, amitom sTxovdnen jenkinsons, romSuamavloba gaewia maTTvis ruseTis mefesTan Sexvedrisas. Tavis mxrivjenkinsonic dainteresebuli iyo kaxeTiT. mas, pirvel rigSi, surda kaxeTisekonomikuri dazverva, radgan am periodSi kaxeTSi abreSumis warmoebamaRal donezea ayvanili. kaxeTs esazRvreboda yaWiT mdidari ara-Si. swored yaWis SeZeniT iyo dainteresebuli inglisis safeiqro warmoeba(3. 71-72).yvelaze saintereso da mniSvnelovani isaa, rom jenkinsoni iranSimisvlamde ar iyo informirebuli saqarTvelos Sesaxeb da arc kaxeTissamefo karma icoda raime inglisis savaWro kampaniisa da, kerZod, jenkinsonisSesaxeb. yovel SemTxvevaSi es saistorio wyaroebidan ar dasturdeba.magram, rom scodnodaT, SesaZlebelia ufro adrec daemyarebinaTmasTan kavSiri, Tundac moskovSi yofnis dros.154


humanitaruli mecnierebani: istoria, kulturologia, xelovnebaSeiZleba davaskvnaT, rom levan kaxTa mefes Sahis karze hyavda informatori,romelic awvdida cnobebs jenkinsonisa da ~moskovis savaWrokompaniis Sesaxeb~. savaraudoa, rom is ucnobi informatori, romelmaclevan kaxTa mefes jenkinsonisa da misi savaWro kompaniis Sesaxeb informaciamiawoda unda iyos iese batoniSvili. amgvarad, viTvaliswinebe. mamisTvaliSvilisa da r. kiknaZis mosazrebas, romelTa varaudiT ucnobiqarTveli ufliswuli iese btoniSvili unda iyos. SemiZlia vTqva,rom iese batoniSvili 1562 wlis 20 noembers, e. jenkinsonisa da Sah-TamazisSexvedrisas, Sahis karze imyofeboda. es ki miuTiTebs imaze, romentoni jenkinsonis mier dasaxelebuli qarTveli ufliswuli iese batoniSvilia.gamoyenebuli literatura:1. Английские путушественики в Московском государстве в XVI веке. Переводс Английского Ю.В. Готье. 1937.2. 2 . A chronicle of early safawis being the Ahasnu’-tawarkikh of hasani rumlu, ed.By C. N. seddon. Baroda, 1931.3. gabaSvli v., qarTuli diplomatiis istoriidan (saqarTvelo daantiosmaluri koaliciebi XVI-XVII ss.), `masalebi saqarTvelosada kavkasiis istoriisaTvis~, nakv. 31. Tb., 1954.4. gorgijaniZe f. saqarTvelos istoria, s.kakbaZis gamocema. `saistoriomoambe~, t. II, Tb., 1925.5. mamisTvaliSvili e., saqarTvelos sagareo politikuri urTier-Tobani XV s-is meore naxevarsa da XVI saukuneSi (evropuli wayroebismixedviT). Tb., 1981.6. Jordania T., qronikebi, t II, Tb., 1967.7. saqarTvelos istoriis narkvevebi, t. IV, Tb., 1973.8. stefnaZe j., enton jenkinsonis mier moseniebuli qarTveli ufliswulisvinaobisTvis. `saqarTvelos, kavkasiis da maxlobeliaRmosavleTis istoriis sakiTxebi~, Tb., 1968.9. tabataZe k. Seref-xan biTlisis cnobebi sqarTvelos Sesaxeb. `kavkasiur-axloaRmosavlurikrebuli~, t. II, Tb., 1962.10. qarTlis cxovreba. t. IV, Tb., 1973.11. javaxiSvili iv. qarTveli eris istoria, t. IV, Tb., 1967.12. hasan rumlus cnobebi saqarTvelos Sesaxeb. sparsuli teqstiqarTuli TargmaniTa da SesavliT gamosca v. fuTuriZem. Seni-Svnebi daurTo r. kiknaZem, Tb., 1966.155


humanitaruli mecnierebani: istoria, kulturologia, xelovnebamariam goCelaSviliivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisissaxelmwifo universiteti bakalavriatis studentiSobis kompozicia qarTul oqromWedlobaSixelmZRvaneli: profesori naTela jabuaaTormet sauflo dResaswauls Soris qristeSoba erT-erTi gamor-Ceulia, romelic yvela qristians udides sixaruls aniWebs. igi aRiniSneba25 dekembers [ax,st. 7ianvars]. macxovris Sobis TariRi saxarebaSimiTiTebuli ar aris. klimenti aleqsandrielis cnoba, romelic SobisTariRad 6 ianvars moixseniebs uZvelesia.macxovris Sobas udidesi mniSvneloba aqvs, radgan swored amiT dasabuTdaZe RvTisas gankacebis dogmati, anu qristes adamianuri bunebaSeerwya RvTiurs. sainteresoa ratom ineba RmerTma, rom kacobriobaswarsdgomoda kacis saxiT? amas ganmartavs TviT iesoc: “ esreT SeiyvaraRmerTman sofeli ese, viTarca Zeca Tvisi mxolod Sobili misca mas’’[ioane-3;16].ieso gankacda ebrael erSi. araerTgzis iyo nawinaswarmetyvelebi,rom swored aq daibadeboda Ze RvTisa, abraamisa da daviTis STamomavali.marTlac, aRsrulda winaswarmetyveleba da nazareTSi mcxovrebqalwuls mariams RvTis angelozma axara, rom mas SeeZineboda RvTis Ze,romlisTvisac unda ewodebinaT ieso. am dros mariami daniSnuli iyodaviTis STamomaval iosebze. Semdgom ganviTarebuli movlenebi farTosazogadoebisaTvis cnobilia, Tumca Tqveni yuradReba minda SevaCerouSualod qristes Sobis adgilze da damswre pirebze.rogorc cnobilia, im dros aRwera tardeboda qveyanaSi, amitom iosebiojaxiT beTlemSi Cavida, radgan iq iyo Cawerili. swored am drosdaemTxva iesos Sobis Jamic. qalaqSi Ramis gasaTevi adgili ver moZebnesda iZulebuli gaxdnen gamoqvabulSi mowyobili bagisTvis SeefarebinaTTavi. swored amgvar garemoSi daibada qriste, riTac RmerTma mogvcapirveli magaliTi Tavmdablobisa da ubraloebisa. sainteresoaisic, rom, marTalia, Cveulebrivi mokvdavebisaTvis SeumCneveli darCaiesos Soba, magram zeciuri samyaro didi zeimiT Sexvda am movlenas daangelozebma ubralo mwyemsebs axares pirvelad es dResaswauli da maT-Tan erTad mogvebmac Tayvani sces momaval mesias.amrigad, macxovris Soba iyo udidesi mniSvnelobis movlena, romel-156


humanitaruli mecnierebani: istoria, kulturologia, xelovnebamac SeZlo kacobriobis gadarCena da dRemde moyvana. swored amitomaa,rom aTormet sauflo dResaswauls Soris Sobas gansakuTrebuli sixaruliTxvdeba yvela morwmune adamiani, rac Seexeba am dResaswaulisaRvniSvnis wess uZvelesi droidan saqarTvelos yvela kuTxeSi misi aRniSvnissxvadasxva ritualia Semonaxuli. sayuradReboa TviT saSobaoalilo, romelSic kargadaa gadmocemuli qristeSobis ambavi. bunebrivia,Sobas mniSvnelovani adgili ekava qristianul xelovnebaSi. saqar-TveloSi qristianobis gavrcelebis Semdeg gansakuTrebuli yuradRebaeTmoboda aTormet sauflo dResaswauls, upirvelesad ki qristeSobas.aRsaniSnavia, rom Sobis ori redaqciaa miRebuli: vrceli, roca SobisscenasTan erTad kompoziciaSi CarTulia mogvebis Tayvaniscemisscena, xolo mokle redaqciaSi mogvebis Tayvaniscemis scena amoRebuliada mxolod Sobis scenaa mocemuli. qarTul ikonografiaSi oriveredaqciaa miRebuli, amave dros Sobis kompozicia mocemulia rogorcsauflo dResaswaulebs Soris, ise igi warmodgenilia RvismSobliscxovrebis apokrifuli ciklis scenebTan erTad. monumenturi ferwerisZeglebidan aRsaniSnavia atenis sionis, yinwvisis, svaneTis taZrebis dasxvaTa moxatulobebi. maT gverdiT aucilebelia movixsenioT miniaturada qvaze kveTis xelovneba. miniaturebidan sainteresoa xelnawerTa institutis74-e xelnaweri, xolo reliefebidan safaris kankelis filaSobis kompoziciiT, romelic dRes Zlier dazianebulia, amitom maszemsjeloba rTulia. Sobis kompozicia gamosaxulia agreTve oqromWedlobisnimuSebze.saqarTveloSi liTonmqandakeblobas uZvelesi tradiciebi gaaCnia.jer kidev Zv.w. III aTaswleuls iqmneboda maRalmxatvruli Rirsebis nimuSebi.es tradiciebi gagrZelda Sua saukuneebSic da ufro daixvewa.VIII-XVIII saukuneebis oqromWedlobis Zeglebi g. CubinaSvilma monografiuladSeiswavla, man detalurad aRwera calkeuli nimuSebi da isiniganixila ganviTarebis kuTxiT.Cveni naSromis ZiriTad gansaxilvel Temas warmoadgens X-XIss. WeduriZeglebi. amitom vidre uSualod konkretul masalaze gadavidodeT,sainteresoa, zogadad, davaxasiaToT am epoqis oqromWedlobis niSnebi.X-XIss. qarTuli Weduri xelovnebis istoriaSi daZabuli da SemoqmedebiTadnayofieri epoqaa. am periodSi gagrZelda da daixvewa winareperiodis, kerZod zarzmis feriscvalebis xatidan momdinare mxatvrulitradiciebi. aq gamosaxulebebi qandakebisgan Sorsaa, maTi zedapiriodnavaa amoziduli erTiani sibrtyidan da grafikuladaa gadawyvetili.swored am xatma da amave wris sxva Zeglebma mtkice safuZveli SeqmnesqarTuli Weduri xelovnebis Sedgomi ganviTarebisaTvis. ukve X-XI157


humanitaruli mecnierebani: istoria, kulturologia, xelovnebass. Wedurobis ZiriTadi problema iyo skulpturuli formebis Zieba dagamovlena. miuxedavad imisa, rom kompoziciis agebisas dekoratiulielementebi gamoiyeneba TandaTan maTi mniSvneloba mcirdeba, radgan amperiodis ZiriTadi tendencia aris figuris skulpturul-plastikuridamuSaveba, xolo meorexarisxovani elementebi umetesad uaryofilia.X-XIss. qarTuli oqromWedlobis Zeglebidan gansakuTrebiT sainteresoanawarmoebTa erTi jgufi, romlebic, rogorc Cans, warmoadgensromeliRac did da rTul Wedur nawarmoebTa nawils. am Zeglebs SorisaRsaniSnavia vercxlis lorfinebi saRolaSenidan, mowameTidan da sxva.lorfinebi, Cveulebriv, erTi zomis vercxlis mcire ficrebia, romlebicoqroTia daferili, xolo masze warmodgenilia scenebi qristescxovrebidan. TiToeuli lorfini ornamentul CarCoSia Casmuli, magramCarCo da zedapiri erT sibrtyezea damuSavebuli. maTi funqciuri datvirTvajerjerobiT bolomde garkveuli ar aris. rogorc Cans, isini aRsavliskaris moWedilobaSi iyo CarTuli an trapezis wina kalTis Wedurimokazmulobis nawils warmoadgenda.pirvelad n. kondakovma aRmoaCina zogierTi lorfini da daaTariRaufro mogviano periodiT, vidre es realuradaa. mag., mowameTis lorfinsigi XIII-XIV ss akuTvnebda. Semdgom g. CubinaSvilma detalurad gamoikvliaes Zeglebi erTmaneTTan da saerTo mxatvrul niSnebTandakavSirebiT da isini X-XI ss miakuTvna.amjerad CvenTvis sainteresoa mowameTis lorfini, romelzec qristeSobisscenaa warmodgenili. Tumca sanam uSualod am namuSevars aRvwerdeT,manam zogadad mimovixiloT im lorfinebis stili, romlebicqronologiurad win uswrebda mowameTisas da stilisturadac misi winamorbediiyo. am lorfinebs Soris aucileblad unda movixsenioT sa-RolaSenisa da Semoqmedis lorfinebi, romlebic SeiZleba CaiTvalos amepoqis sawyisi etapis nimuSebad, radgan maTi Sesrulebis procesSi bevriiseTi amocanaa dasaxuli, romlebic momdevno periodis ZeglebSiagadawyvetili da axleburad gaazrebuli. rac Seexeba uSualod saRola-Senisa da Semoqmedis lorfinebs, maTSi X-XIss sawyisi etapis Zeglebismsgavsad, aSkarad igrZnoba oqromWedlobis Zveli tradiciebis gavlena.amave dros, ostatis mTavari mizania moculobiT-plastikuri formebisSeqmna. saxasiaToa Tavebis gaZlierebuli simrgvale, ostati agreTvedekoratiulad amkobs personaJTa samoselsa da sagnebis calkeulnawilebs, amasTan, meti miswrafebaa dekoratiulobisken. yoveliveamis gamo, aRniSnuli Zeglebi iTvleba mowameTis lorfinis winamorbedebad,vinaidan maTSi dasaxuli amocanebi met-naklebad gadawyda mowameTislorfinSi.158


humanitaruli mecnierebani: istoria, kulturologia, xelovnebamowameTis lorfini vercxlisaa, xolo zedapiri mooqrovilia daornamentuli CarCo Semortymia garSemo. masze warmodgenilia qriste-Sobis kompozicia vrceli redaqciiT, kompoziciis zeda nawili fuZisgangamoyofilia gamoqvabulis kidis moxazulobiT, romelsac erTgvarikamaris forma aqvs. gamoqvabulis siRrmeSi kamaris moxazulobisqveS moTavsebulia baga CviliTurT. baga formiT Zalian hgavs akvans,romlidanac gadmokidulia naoWebiani farduli, xolo zeda kididan yarauliiyureba, bagis marjvniv moTavsebulia naalze wamomjdariRvTismSobeli, mis qveviT ki marjvena kuTxeSi skamze xelze nikapis dayrdnobiTzis iosebi. mis win muxlmoyrilia angelozi. Sua nawilSi gamosaxuliayrmis gabanebisaTvis momzadeba: warmodgenilia moaxle, romelicsuridan wyals asxams da salome, romelsac muxlebze yrma uzis daxeli embazSi Cauyvia. kompoziciis marcxena nawilSi erTmaneTis zemoTfigurebis ori jgufia, romlebic 3-3 figurisganaa Semdgari; zemoTarigSi mogvebia gamosaxuli ZRveniT. maT acviaT muxlamde dasuli sartylianisamosi, maRalyeliani uquslo waRebi da axuravT wop-wopa qudebi.aRsaniSnavia, rom mogvebis win bagasTan gamosaxulia rvaqimianivarskvlavi. mogvebis qvemoT ki gamosaxulia sami mwyemsi, romelTa winiosebsia maT Soris cxvrebi da culia gamosaxuli. rogorc aRwerilobidanCans, miuxedavad kompoziciuri mTlianobisa, ostatis mTavari yuradRebagadatanilia siuJetis calkeuli nawilebis gadmocemaze. amisnaTeli magaliTia iosebisa da angelozebis figurebis gverdigverd mo-Tavseba, riTac iosebis tradiciuli poza gansxvavebul iers iZens. ostaticalkeuli detalebis gadmocemiT axdens personaJebis miniSnebadazustebas.magaliTad, iosebis durglobis aRsaniSnavad mis win culiagamosaxuli, xolo mwyemsebis win cxvari. aseve es patara detalebi sibrtyezeplastikur aqcentebad aRiqmeba anu xdeba Sinaarsisa da formisostaturi gaazreba. sainteresoa aseve mogvebis figurebis gadmocemisxerxi. marTalia, ostats ainteresebs figurebis plastikuri formebisgadmocema, Tumca isic kargad esmis, rom umjobesia gadmosces 3 mogvis6 fexis nacvlad 5, radgan eqvsis gadmocemiT ostati iZulebuli gaxdebodaSeekavSirebina isini erTmaneTTan, rac xels SeuSlida TiToeulidetalis calkeul gamosaxvas. ostati didi mondomebiT amuSavebs kompoziciisTiToeul elements da skulpturul moculobebs dasrulebulisaxiT warmogvidgens. am mxriv, sainteresoa RvTismSoblis figura,romelic zomiT yvelaze didia personaJebs Soris da dagrZelebuliproporciebi aqvs. zedmiwevniTaa damuSavebuli figuris calkeuli nawilebi,rac umetesad kidurebis damuSevebaSi mJRavndeba, radgan calcalkeamodelirebuli TiToeuli fexi, agreTve muxlebze irCeva xelis159


humanitaruli mecnierebani: istoria, kulturologia, xelovnebamoculobac.mowameTis lorfini plastikurobis aTvisebis xarisxiT ufro maRalsafexurze dgas, rac mJRavndeba ara mxolod imaSi, rom kompoziciis Ti-Toeuli saxe da sagani Sesrulebulia maRali reliefiT da plastikurimodelirebiT, aramed figuraSi erTi moculiba gabeduladaa amozidulimeoreze, magaliTad: xelebi-tanze, Tavebi- Saravandedebze anu Seqmniliamoculobis damatebiTi safexurebi. saxasiaToa agreTve cxovelebisada kompoziciis sxva elementebis gadmocemis xerxi, rac saSualebasaZlevs ostats gadmosces samyaros plastikurad aTvisebis Taviseburiunari.mowameTis lorfinis ganxilvisas aucilebelia aRvniSnoT dekoratiuligaformebis xasiaTi; ZiriTadad mTavari elementebia morTuli,risTvisac umetesad gamoyenebulia paralelur xazebs Soris punsonebiTnaWdevi wriadebi. sayuradReboa agreTve kamarac, romelic SeiZlebagaviazroT gorakis aRmniSvnelad, TiTqos igi mijnavs kompoziciisSemadgenel pirebs amqveyniurobisgan da aniWebs maT RvTiur mniSvnelobas.rac Seexeba Sesrulebis maneras, amiT mowameTis lorfini uaxlovdebaCven mier zemoT dasaxelebul saRolaSenur da Semoqmedis lorfinebs.Tumca, maTgan gansxvavebiT, mowameTis lorfinis ostati qmnis aramxolod plastikur formebs, aramed cdilobs Seqmnas STabeWdilebajgufebis sxvadasxva sibrtyeSi figurulad gadmocemisa. dekoratiulmorTulobas ki meorexarisxovani mniSvneloba aqvs. amitomaa mowameTislorfini ganviTarebis momdevno safexuri, vidre zemoT moyvanili sxvalorfinebi.Sesrulebis maneris mxriv, mowameTis lorfinTan did msgavsebas am-JRavnebs XI-is zarzmis anu laklakiZeTa RvTismSoblis xati, romelicyovelmxriv gamorCeuli Zeglia. pirvel rigSi, igi warmoadgens eleusasanu moalerse RvTismSoblis tipis uZveles nimuSs da, meorec, igi adreulinimuSia CarCoze aTormet sauflo dResaswaulebisa da RvTismSobliscxovrebis apokrifuli ciklis scenebis Serwymisa. Cven ar SevudgebiTdetalurad xatis ganxilvas, magram Tqvens yuradRebas SevaCerebCaCoze warmodgenil Sobis kompoziciaze, romelic stiliT Zalian uaxlovdebamowameTis lorfinze gamosaxul Sobas. orive ostati TavisufladmuSaobs miuxedavad imisa, rom ainteresebT plastikuri formebisgadmocema, axerxeben imasac, rom calkeuli figuruli jgufebi gluvzedapirze gadmoscen sxvadasxva sibrtyeSi. yovelive amis gaTvaliswinebiT,zemoT moyvanili orive nawarmoebi X-XIss oqromWedlobis gardamavalZeglebad iTvleba, radgan maTSi dasaxuli bevri amocana Semdgomiperiodis ZeglebSi gadawyda.160


humanitaruli mecnierebani: istoria, kulturologia, xelovnebaamrigad, rogorc vxedavT, qarTul xelovnebaSi Sobis scenas gamor-Ceuli adgili uWiravs. igi warmodgenilia xelovnebis TiTqmis yveladargSi, Tumca, amjerad, Cven ganvixileT oqromWedlobis nimuSi — mowameTislorfini. masSi Tavmoyrili da axleburad gaazrebulia liTonzeplastikis adreuli tradiciebi, riTac safuZveli moumzada Semdgomiperiodis oqromWedlobis nimuSebs. swored amitomaa mniSvnelovani mowameTislorfinisa da misi msgavsi sxva Zeglebis Seswavla am epoqismxatvruli tradiciebisa da zogadi suraTis dasadgenad.gamoyenebuli literatura:1. mTavarepiskoposi anania jafariZe. Soba, jvarcma, aRdgoma daamaRleba uflisa da macxovrisa Cvenisa ieso qristesi, Tb., 1995w.2. qristeSobis sadResaswaulo saxarebis ganmarteba. Tb., 2004w.3. CubinaSvili g. X-XI ss-is mijnaze qarTuli Weduri xelovnebis xasiaTissakiTxisaTvis. qarTuli xelovneba, xelovnebis istoriisinstitutis Sromebi, t. 2, 1948w.4. U8 Xe,byfidbkb8 Uhepbycrjt xtrfyyjt bcreccndj7 N,., 1959.5. sayvareliZe T., alibegaSvili g. qarTuli Weduri da ferwerulixatebi. Tb., 1980w.161


enaTmecniereba, literaturaTmcodneobairina bagauriivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisissaxelmwifo universiteti, magistrantibilingvalizmi da saqarTvelolokalur da globalur konteqstSi“He who knows no foreign language,does not truly know his own.~ Goeth“Tu erTi ucxo ena mainc ar ici,ese igi sakuTar enasac ver flobsaTanadod.~ goeTeTanamedrove globalurma epoqam mravali ganviTarebuli qveyana daayenaaxali gamowvevebis winaSe. amis sapasuxod ki Tanamedrove sazogadoebamaqtiurad daiwyo ganaTlebis sistemis reformireba, romlis ZiriTadmimarTulebas da Sinaars globalizacia ganapirobebs. TanamedroveganaTlebis sistema moiTxovs moqnilobas, siaxleTa mimarT ke-Tilganwyobas da cxovrebis gamowvevebze adekvatur reagirebas. aseTpirobebSi gansakuTrebul mniSvnelobas iZens saganmanaTleblo dawesebulebebisefeqturi funqcionirebis sakiTxebi da ganaTlebisaTvis gamoyofilifinansuri resursebis swored ganawileba.saqarTveloSi arsebuli realobidan gamomdinare, me naTlad vxedavbilingvuri ganaTlebis saWiroebas, sadac, Tu ar CavTvliT eTnikurmravalferovnebas da qarTulis, rogorc saxelmwifo enis codnisproblemas, mTlianad saqarvelo ara lokalur, aramed globalur konteqstSiganicdis biligvuri ganaTlebis saWiroebas. amitom gadavwyviteaRniSnuli sakiTxis ganxilva im kuTxiT, rom qarTuli ena ganvixiloe.w. `lingua frankebTan~ dakavSirebiT, garda amisa, eTnikur umciresobebTanerTad eTnikuri qarTvelebisTvisac warmovaCino bilingvuriganaTlebisa da zogadad enobrivi kompetenciebis sworad dagegmvis sa-Wiroeba. statiaSi ganvixilav bilingvuri ganaTlebis arss, miznebs arsebulsakiTxTan dakavSirebul cnebebs agreTve Zalian mniSvnelovaniakognituri ganviTarebisa da bilingvuri ganaTlebis kavSiri da am kuTxiTbilingvizmis pozitiuri da negatiuri mxareebis warmoCena. saWirodCavTvale, rom aRniSnul statiaSi ganaTlebis sistema da SromiTi bazaridamekavSirebina enobrivi kompetenciebis TvalsazrisiT. aseve mcirekvleva Cametarebina qarTul SromiT bazarze da gamomevlina qarTveli162


enaTmecniereba, literaturaTmcodneobadamsaqmeblebis moTxovnebi enobriv konteqstSi. Sedegebis safuZvelzeki visaubreb qarTul realobaze, Tu ra moTxovnebia kadrebis mimarT dara mdgomareba gvaqvs qveyanaSi am TvalsazrisiT.vis SegviZlia vuwodoT bilingvali?adamiani,romelsac SeuZlia urTierToba or enaze. bilingvali arispirovneba, romelsac yoveldRiur cxovrebaSi uwevs ori an meti enis,an dialeqtis gamoyeneba. (Fabbro, 1999). msoflios mosaxleobis didi nawiliaris bilingvali an multilingvali. bilingvizmi warmodgeniliafaqtobrivad yvela qveyanaSi, yvela socialur klasSi da asakobrivjgufebSi. amis warmosadgenad sakmarisia is faqtic, rom msoflioSi arsebobsdaaxloebiT 200 qveyana da 6800 gansxvavebuli ena. daskvnis gamotanamartivia, mosaxleobis didi nawili aris bilingvali (rosjean,1982).ra faqtorebi iwvevs bilingvalizms?am TvalsazrisiT SegviZlia gamovyoT ramdenime aspeqti. adamianebibilingvalebi xdebian im SemTxvevaSi, Tu ori enis daufleba xdeba bav-Svobidanve paralelur reJimSi (simultaneous bilingualism), xolo meoreena Semodis pirveli enis saTanadoT dauflebis Semdeg (saccessive bilingualizm).arsebobs sxvadasxva socialuri da personaluri mizezebi imisaTvis,rompirovneba Camoyalibdes bilingvalad. mag: migracia erTiqveynidan meoreSi, garkveuli droiT sxva enobriv garemoSi cxovreba,ori qveynis sazRvarze cxovreba (meqsika-Statebi). mniSvnelovan faqtorswarmoadgens aseve iseTi mSoblebi, romlebic gasxvavebul enazesaubroben. globaluri moTxovnebis fonze pirovneba xSirad TavadiRebs gadawyvetilebas meore enis SeswavlasTan dakavSirebiT,radgandgeba faqtis winaSe samsaxurSi, saswavlo procesis Tu elementaruladurTierTobebis TvalsazrisiT. im SemTxvevaSi,rodesac bavSvs sxvadasxvaenebze mosaubre mSoblebi hyavs, aseTi bavSvi potenciuri bilingvaliada orive enas srulyofilad flobs. garda mSoblebisa, gavlena SeiZlebaiqonios ZiZam, bebia-babuam. meore enis Seswavla SesaZlebeliamozrdil asakSic, Tumca mravali lingvisti saubrobs imasTan dakavSirebiT,rom meore enis srulyofilad daufleba gacilebiT advilia bav-SvobaSi, vidre zrdasrul asakSi. (ennenberg, 1967).bilingvalizmi warmoadgens Tanamedrove msoflios mniSvnelovanfenomens. misi gansazRvra mravali aspeqtis gaTvaliswinebas moiTxovs.163


enaTmecniereba, literaturaTmcodneobaaseve sxvadasxva qveynebs gansxvavebuli damokidebuleba aqvs bilingvalizmTan.evrokavSiris qveynebis enobrivi politika calsaxad mimarTuliamultilingvizmisken. evropuli skolebi mSobliuri enis garda evrokavSiris23 enidan irCevs damatebiT 2 enas, rac mimarTulia moswavleTaintegraciisaken maT Soris multikulturuli urTierTobebisxelSewyobis mizniT. agreTve mniSvelovania erTmaneTisgan gavmijnoTiseTi cnebebi, rogoric aris `susti~ bilingvizmi da `Zlieri~ bilingvizmi.susti bilingvuri ganaTleba aerTianebs iseT bilingvalebs,romelTaTvisac meore ena pragmatuli moTxovnebis sapasuxod gamoiyeneba.magaliTad, mogzauroba, vaWroba, xelovneba. xolo Zlieri bilingvuriganaTleba uzrunvelyofs ori enis srulyofilad flobas (werakiTxva-saubari),bikulturizms. aseTi forma aqvs kanadur imersias, evropulskolebs.dReisaTvis ganaTlebis specialistebi emxrobian aRniSnul`Zlier~ bilingvur ganaTlebas. iseTi qveynebi,rogoric arisskandinavia, iaponia samxreT amerikis elituri qveynebi kargad acnobierebenmeore enis mniSvnelobis gazrdas. magaliTad, iaponiis saswavlokurikulumSi 2011 wlisaTvis daigegma cvlilebebi im kuTxiT, rom Tuinglisuri am etapze iaponur skolebSi sabazo safexuridan iwyeba, axalisaswavlo gegmiT ukve dawyebiT safexurze Sevides sagnad.ra upiratesobiT xasiaTdeba bilingvuri ganaTleba?1) biligvizmi interkulturul urTierTobis xelSemwyobia, es kiTavisTavad adamians exmareba, rom man ukeTesad moaxdinos gansxvavebuliidentobebis aRqma. (frankis da reineri, 2002). amasTan, Tu multikulturuligakveTilebi bavSvebs zedapirulad acnobs gansxvavebebs,biligvuri ganaTleba saSualebas iZleva bavSvma ufro kargad dainaxonkulturuli safuZveli da gansxvavebebi, daZlion rasizmi.2) bilingvuri ganaTleba xels uwyobs orenovan srulyofil ganaTlebas.is uviTarebs moswavleebs or enaze wera-kiTxvisa da saubrisunars.es ki TavisTavad moswavles, bavSvs arCevanis saSualebas aZlevs,wignis kiTxvis Tu musikis mosmenis TvalsazrisiT.3) kvlevebis safuZvelze mecnierebma gamoitanes daskvna, warmatebulibilingvuri ganaTleba kognitur ganviTarebas uwyobs xels (Bialystok, 2001).4) bilingvali adamianebisTvis dasaqmebis Sansebi ufro maRalia,vidre monolingvalebisTvis. iseT qveynebSi, rogoric aris kanada, uelsibilingvalizmi mniSvnelovani faqtoria dasaqmebis TvalsazrisiT(Tse, 2001, Dutcher,1995).164


enaTmecniereba, literaturaTmcodneobamiTebi da Teoriebi bilingvuri ganaTlebis Sesaxebbilingvuri ganaTleba xSirad iwvevs debatebs, sazogadoebaSi gavrcelebuliasxvadasxva Sexedulebebi bilingvur swavlebasTan dakav-SirebiT, arsebobs erTgvari miTebi, romlebic bilingvuri swavlebisnegatiur Sedegebze miuTiTebs, Tumca ukanaskneli kvlevebis safuZvelzebilingvuri swavleba dadebiT gavlenas axdens adamianis kogniturganviTarebaze. yvelaze mwvave ganxilvis Temas swored kognituriganviTarebisa da bilingvuri ganaTlebis urTierTkavSiri warmoadgens.negatiuri frTis warmomadgenlebi amtkiceben, rom bilingvalebi CamorCebianmonolingvalebs enis codnis TvalsazrisiT. am sakiTxTan dakavSirebiTarsebobs e.w. `sasworis Teoria~. ori sxvadasxva ena SedarebuliasasworTan da mis TefSebTan. Tu erTi TefSi damZimdeba, meorezeviT aiwevs, aqedan gamomdinare meore enis Seswavla da SeTviseba xdebapirveli enis xarjze. arsebobs alternatiuli Teoria — e.w. `rezervuarebisTeoria~. warmoidgineT rom, adamians TavSi moTavsebuli aqvsori rezervuari, monolingvalis TavSi aris erTi, magram kargad Sevsebulirezervuari, xolo bilingvalis TavSi — ori, naxevrad carieli.Tu erTi rezervuari mTlianad gaivseba, maSin meore carieldeba. aseTiwarmodgenebi bilingvuri ganaTlebis Sesaxeb adamianebSi intuitiuradarsebobs. bevri mSobeli da maswavlebeli eqceva aseTi Sexedulebis gavlenisqveS. aq igulisxmeba is azri, rom yvela enas Tavisi sivrce aqvs,orive ena funqcionirebs cal-calke da maT Soris ar arsebobs kavSiri.agreTve tvinSi enebisTvis gamoyofili moculoba aris SezRuduli.Tumca, aRniSnuli mosazrebebi da Teoriebi cdebiT da kvlevebiT ardadsturebula. piriqiT, harmoniuli bilingvuri ganaTlebis SemTxvevaSibavSvebi avlenen saukeTeso Sedegebs monolingvalebTan SedarebiT.Tanamedrove kvlevebze dayrdnobiT arasworia imis mtkiceba, TiTqostvini SezRudulia moculobiTi TvalsazrisiT. adamianis tvins imdeniujredi gaaCnia, rom ori da meti enisTvisac moiZebneba adgili.amitom sasworis da rezervuarebis Teoriebi ver uZlebs krititikas.arsebobs kidev erTi mizezi, ris gamoc es Teoriebi gaumarTlebelia.aRniSnuli Teoriis momxreebs miaCniaT, rom enebi tvinSi mkacrad arisgancalkevebuli. magram es mcdari mosazrebaa. enobrivi niSnebi dakav-Sirebulia kognitur sistemasTan da erTi enidan codna swrafad transformirdebameore enaze. magaliTad, Tu skolaSi swavla mimdinareobsinglisurad, es imas ar niSnavs rom bavSvi viTardeba mxolod am enaze daam enaSi. Tu bavSvi ariTmetikul operacias asrulebs inglisur enaze,mas SeuZlia igive operacia sxva enazec Seasrulos.165


enaTmecniereba, literaturaTmcodneobaam daskvnebidan gamomdinare, Seiqmna alternatiuli Teoria (“Modelof separate basic skills~..Cummins 1980,1981 ).es Teoria vizualurad SesaZlebeliaSevadaroT or aisbergs. wylis zemoT Cven vxedavT or aibergsanu or sxvadasxva enas, Tumca wylis qveS maT aqvT saerTo Ziri,safuZveli. analogiurad xdeba enebis SemTxvevaSi, adamianis gonebaSi esenebi Sezrdilia erTmaneTTan, amdenad maTi dacalkeveba SeuZlebelia.orive enis funqcionirebas uzrunvelyofs saerTo, centraluri kogniturisistema. aRniSnuli Teoriidan SegviZlia gamovitanoT daskvnebi:1) miuxedavad imisa, Tu romel enas gamoiyenebs adamiani konkretulSemTxvevaSi, SemecnebiT da azrovnebis process uzrunvelyofs erTisaerTo sitema2) codnis dagroveba da misi gamoyeneba SesaZlebelia rogorc erTenaze, aseve ramdenimeze.3) moswavle kargad unda flobdes im enas, romelic gamoiyeneba saswavloprocesSi, raTa moswavlem moaxerxos masalis aTviseba.4) saubari, mosmena, wera-kiTxva pirvel da meore enaze stimulirebasuwevs kognitur ganviTarebas. Tumca, im SemTxvevaSi, rodesac moswavlever flobs im enas, romelzec swavlobs, aseT SemTxvevaSi kogniturganviTarebas adgili naklebad aqvs. (Skutnabb-Kangas & Toukomaa,1976).5) aseve didi mniSvneloba aqvs bavSvis damokidebulebas enebis mimarT.Tu moswavle negatiurad aris ganwyobili romelime enis mimarT,es faqtic Seaferxebs kognitur ganviTarebas.mkvlevarebi garkveul daskvnamde mividnen, kerZod rac ufro maRalixarisxiT flobs bilingvali orive enas, miT ufro izrdeba kognituriganviTarebis xarisxi. amasTan dakavSirebiT, niSandobliavia e.w.`zRurblis~ Teoriis ganxilva, romelic akavSirebs kognitur funqciebsda bilingvalizmis xarisxs. aRniSnuli Teoria SegviZlia samsarTulianisaxlis models SevadaroT. pirveli sarTuli ukaviaT iseT bav-Svebs, romlebic arc erT enaSi ar arian Zlierebi. maTi kognituri ganviTarebaSezRudulia. meore sarTulze imyofebian iseTi bavSvebi, romlebicerT enaSi arian kompetenturebi, xolo meore enaSi CamorCebiansaswavlo process anu maT skolaSi SeuZliaT Tavis enaze swavla da meoreenaSi sustebi arian. am sarTulze moswavleTa kognituri ganviTarebaar gasxvavdeba monoligvalebisgan. mesame sarTulze imyofebian TiTqmissrulyofili bilingvalebi, romelTac SeuZliaT saswavlo masalisaTviseba orive enaze. mxolod am sarTulze SegviZlia visaubroT bilingvalizmisdadebiT, pozitiur aspeqtebze kognituri TvalsazrisiT166


enaTmecniereba, literaturaTmcodneoba(Bialystok 1988, Clarkson).lev vigodskis azriT, swored ena warmoadgens mTavar instrumentskognitur procesebSi da ori sxvadasxva enis gamoyenebis SesaZleblobagazrdis individis kognitur SesaZleblobebs (vigodski, 1962).kvleva qarTul SromiT bazarze lingvisturi TvalsazrisiTswori enobrivi politikis gatareba vfiqrob ara mxolod eTnikuriumciresobebis mimarT unda ganxorcieldes. enobrivi TvalsazrisiTxSirad umravlesobis warmomadgenlebic ver axdenen sakuTari SesaZleblobebisrealizacias.sayovelTaod aRiarebuli anbanuri WeSmaritebaa,rom kargad organizebuli ganaTlebis sistema aris socialur-ekonomikuriganviTarebis aucilebeli piroba. am sistemis warmatebebisSemowmebis erT-erTi gzaa SromiTi bazari. misi segmentis gamokvlevaswavlebis daxvewis aucilebeli pirobaa.lingvisturi kuTxiT sainteresoa qarTveli damsaqmbelebis moTxovnebida kursdamTavrebulTa enobrivi SesaZleblobebi. am sakiTxTandakavSirebiT ganvixile saqarTveloSi lideri vebportalebi, romlebicuzrunvelyofs qarTul SromiT bazarze arsebuli vakansiebis gavrcelebas.jobs.ge -ze da www.hr.com.ge-ze ganTavsebuli aqtiuri vakansiebisganxilvisas gamoikveTa saerTo tipis moTxovnebi yvela kategoriisvakansiis SemTxvevaSi. kerZod, sxvadasxva sferos damsaqmeblebi (momsaxurebissfero, sabanko seqtori, marketingi) umaRlesi ganaTlebis SemdegmTavar kriteriumad calsaxad moiTxoven qarTulis, rusulis dainglisuri enis srulyofil codnas. xSir SemTxvevaSi Tavad gancxadebisteqstis gacnobac ki SeuZlebelia qarTul enaze. kvlevis fargleb-Si sxvadasxva seqtorSi dasaqmebulTan gasaubrebisas gairkva is faqti,Tu ramdenad realurad arian damsaqmeblebi dainteresebulebi aRniSnulilingvisturi moTxovnebiT muSaobis procesSi. sxvadasxva dargismomsaxure personalTan gasaubrebis Sedegad maT aRniSnes, rom muSaobisprocesSi maT yoveldRiurad uxdebaT inglisuris da rusulis gamoyeneba,maTi samsaxurSi ayvanac didwilad ganapiroba enebis codnam,radgan adamianebi, romelTa momsaxurebac personals uxdeba barSi,restoransa Tu bankSi xSirad ucxoelebi arian.saqarTvelos ganaTlebis sistemis socialuri pasuxismgebloba,diskusia da samomavlo perspeqtivebi saqarTvelosTvis uSualodenobrivi kompetenciebis kuTxiT mtkivneul sakiTxs warmoadgens eTnikuriumciresobebis problema maTi integraciis uzrunvelyofis TvalsazrisiT.aRniSnuli integraciis mTavari mizani unda gaxdes CarTu-167


enaTmecniereba, literaturaTmcodneobaloba. aq igulisxmeba iseTi moqalaqis Camoyalibeba, romelic sruladmoaxerxebs sakuTari Tavis realizebas da adaptacias, Tumca integraciaunda gavmijnoT asimilaciisagan. zogadad samoqalaqo integraciismodeli erovnuli umciresobaTa mimarTebaSi 2 komponentisgan Sedgeba:1) saxelmwifo enis swavlebis uzrunvelyofa da samoqalaqo cnobierebisCamoyalibeba, 2) eTnikuri jgufebis kulturuli TviTmyofadobisSenarCuneba da dacva.bilingvaliizmTan dakavSirebuli sakiTxebis ganxilviT mindoda gamomekveTaTavad sakiTxis mravalmxrivoba da misi mniSvneloba TanamedrovesazogadoebisaTvis. saqarTveloSi bilingvuri ganaTleba da misisaWiroeba, zogadad, asocirdeba eTnikur umciresobebTan. swored amkuTxiT aqtiurad muSaobs saganmanaTleblo sfero. faqtia, rom saxelwifocxovrebaSi moqalaqeebis sruluflebiani CarTva qveynis mniSvnelovanamocanad unda gadaiqces. erovnuli umciresobebis TvalsazrisiTpirveli nabiji ukve gadaidga, rac gamoixateba mravalenovani ganaTlebisdanergvis iniciativaSi. mravalenovani anu bilingvuri ganaTlebisSemoReba win gadadgmuli nabiji iqneba am TvalsazrisiT, radganes seriozuli da dasavleTSi aprobirebuli gzaa, romelic xels Seuwyobslingvisturi TvalsazrisiT SezRuduli sazogadoebis integracias.qarTul realobaSi bilingvuri ganaTlebis danergva da misi ganxorcielebarogorc araqarTulenovan, ise qarTulenovan skolebSi garkveulproblemebTan aris dakavSirebuli. kerZod: 1) finansuri resursebi2) adamianuri, sakadro resursi 3) saswavlo programebi da saxelmZRvaneloebi.am sami faqtoridan gamovyofdi adamianur sakadro resursebs.vfiqrob, rom realuri deficiti qveyanas swored am kuTxiTgaaCnia da mTliani Zalisxmeva unda warimarTos.kadrebis TvalsazrisiT saWiroa sistemuri moqmedeba, kerZod arsebulikadrebis gadamzadeba da agreTve sauniversiteto programebSimultilingvuri kadrebis momzadebis organizeba. mkvlevarebi miiCneven,rom enis aTviseba bavSvs bunebriv garemoSi SeuZlia, Sesabamisad u-kiduresad mniSvnelovania bavSvis CarTva TamaSzedafuZnebul aqtivobebSi(xromski, 1965, lenenbergi, 1967). erTaderTi adamiani, romelsacmoswavleebisaTvis bunebrivi garemos Seqmna SeuZlia,maswavlebelia.amitom kadrebis deficiti SeiZleba seriozul dabrkolebad iqces mravalenovaniganaTlebis danergvisas.minda Sevexo ara marto erovnuli umciresobebis problemebs lingvisturiTvalsazrisiT, aramed umravlesobasTan dakavSirebiTac.faqti erTia, damsaqmebelTa moTxovnebis gaTvaliswinebiT, SromiT bazarzeenobrivi SezRudva eTnikur qarTvelebsac eqmnebaT. rogorc vna-168


enaTmecniereba, literaturaTmcodneobaxeT, damsaqmebelTa kriteriumebSi sami ena dominirebs — qarTuli, rusulida inglisuri. Tu umciresobebs zRudavs saxelmwifo enis, kerZodqarTulis arcodna, analogiur bariers qmnis eTnikuri qarTvelebis-Tis rusulisa da inglisuris saTanado doneze ar codna. sabWoTa gavlenisfonze, ufros TaobaSi SedarebiT SenarCunebulia rusuli eniscodna, Tumca maT asakobrivi zRvari zRudavT dasaqmebaSi. inglisuriena ki qarTul skolebSi iswavleba, rogorc sagani da Tu ara repetitori,moswavles skolaSi ar aqvs imis saSualeba, rom srulyofilad daeuflosam enas.sauniversiteto doneze SeimCneva gaaqtiureba. ivane javaxiSvilissaxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetSi ucxouri enebis swavlebisdaregulirebis mizniT akademiurma sabWom miiRo dadgenileba,romlis Tanaxmadac umaRlesi ganaTlebis pirvel da meore safexurzeucxo enis swavleba savaldebulo gaxda da konkretuli sakredito datvirTvacdadginda. garda amisa, bakalavrisa da magistris xarisxis mopovebiswinapirobad ganisazRvra ucxo enaSi gamocdis Cabareba da ser-Tifikatis mopoveba bakalavriatSi B1 da magistraturaSi B2 donis Sesabamisad.enebis centrs daevala dadgenilebis Tanaxmad programebismodernizeba — `ena specialuri miznebisaTvis~. gamococxleba SeimCnevalingvisturi TvalsazrisiT politikur asparezzec, amis dasturia meriisiniciativa, romlis farglebSi moqalaqeebs saSualeba eZlevaT inglisurissam Tviani kursebi gaiaron. Tumca, ramdenad aris SesaZlebeli3 TveSi enis safuZvlianad daufleba, es calke Temaa. erTi ram cxadia,ganaTlebis sistema mibmuli unda iyos SromiT bazarze, es ki moiTxovsurTierTkavSiris damyarebas damsaqmeblebs, ganaTlebis dawesebulebebsada xelisuflebas Soris. erTi SexedviTac cxadia, rom qar-Tul SromiT bazarze lingvisturi kompetenciebi maRali mniSvnelobiTsargeblobs, xolo saerTaSoriso SromiT bazarze Tavis damkvidrebismizniT enobrivi kompetenciebis roli ufro mniSvnelovani xdeba. amitomenobrivi politikis danergvisas maqsimalurad unda moxdes SeZenilicodnisa da masze moTxovnas Soris Seusabamobis aRmofxvra.gamoyenebuli literatura:1. Alfredo Ardila, Elian Ramos (2007) “Speech and Language Disorders in Bilinguals.~Maiami, Florida, U.2. Andrea Marini and Franco Fabbro,~ Psycholinguistic Models oF SpeeCh Prodactioninbilingualizm and multilingualizm.~, University of Unide, Italy.3. A Meta-Analysis of the Effectiveness of Bilingual Education, Jay P. Greene169


enaTmecniereba, literaturaTmcodneoba4. Assistant Professor of GovernmentUniversity of Texas at AustinMarch 2, 1998.5. Processes and Outcomes in the European SchoolsModel of MultilingualEducation.6. Alex HousenVrije Universiteit Brussel and Fund for Scientific Research-Flanders7. Ина Друвиете Професор ЛУ, социолингвист Что такое билингвальное образованиеи билингвизм?8. Baker C., Foundations of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism.9. “Билингвизм и когнитивные теорииhttp://www.tsu.ge/ge/juridical/axad–council–resolutions/237.10. www.tbilisi.gov.ge.11. n. kvaracxelia adamiani da msoflmxedveloba. soxumi, 2001.12. www.hr.com.ge.13. www.jobs.ge.14. asaTiani a. umaRlesi skolis pedagogika. Tb., 2008.170


enaTmecniereba, literaturaTmcodneobaelnur alieviivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisissaxelmwifo universiteti, bakalavriatis studentiГРУЗИНСКИЕ ЗАИМСТВОВАНИЯВ ГОВОРАХ АЗЕРБАЙДЖАНСКОГО ЯЗЫКАxelmZRvaneli: profesori cira baramiZeГрузинский язык является государственным языком Грузинской Республики.Широко пользуются этим языком также азербайджанцы, русские, курды, осетины,абхазцы, ассирийцы, греки, евреи, армяне и представители других народов,проживающие в Грузии.В результате многовековых политических, культурных и других контактовгрузин и азербайджанцев, регулярно контактировали и их языки, вследствие чегонаблюдается взаимное обогащение языков лексико-грамматическими элементами.Из исследований грузинских лингвистов (С.С. Джикия, В.Т. Джангидзе) иазербайджанских языковедов (М.Ш. Ширалиев, А.М. Курбанов, А.Г. Нуриев, Л.Г.Ворошил) явствует, что в лексическом составе азербайджанских диалектов иговоров имеются многочисленные грузинские лексические заимствования. Вговорах азербайджанского языка, представленных на территории Грузии и впограничной зоне Азербайджана лексические заимствования из грузинского языказначительно больше.Ярким примером является Соганлугский говор Азербайджанского языка. СелоСоганлуги находится между двумя самыми большими городами Грузии – междустолицей Тбилиси и городом Рустави. По восточной части села протекает рекаКура. Западная же часть села расположена вдоль автомагистрали Баку-Тбилиси ичастично до Гигантского посёлка Гардабанского района. По приказу ВерховногоСовета Грузинской ССР в 1978 году название села Соганлуги было изменено наПоничала, но старое имя до сих пор широко используется как азербайджанским,так же и грузинским населением. В настоящее время село переросло в поселокгородского типа в составе Исани-Самгорского района города Тбилиси.Исследовав говор Соганлугских этнических азербайджанцев, В. Вугарлиотмечает: «Население села Соганлуги отличается от Борчалинских и Гараязинскихазербайджанцев более тесными и дружескими взаимоотношениями с грузинами. Врезультате этого в лексике говора Соганлугского села встречаются многиегрузинские заимствования. Этот процесс продолжается и сегодня».Продолжая исследования В. Вугарли, мы нашли новые грузинскиезаимствования в Соганлугском говоре. Представляем вам некоторые примеры:171


enaTmecniereba, literaturaTmcodneobaBERZAN – грек (yunan). Греки, живущие в Грузии, говорящие на турецкомязыке. Компактными общинами проживают в Цалском, Тетрицкаройском и Цинцкарскомрайонах. Несколько изменившаяся форма грузинского “berZeni”[berdzeni].BİDNƏ – мята (nanə). От грузинского слова “pitna” [p*it*na].BİCOY– мальчик (oğlan uşağı). Форма обращения от грузинского слова “biWi”[biki]. В прошлом так называли придворную слугу подростка во дворцах беков иаристократов в Шемкирском и Казахском районах.QEVA – жевательная резина (saqqız). От грузинского слова “kevi”[k*evi].QONA – пучок зелени (göyərti dəstəsi, qoma). Во многих местных говорахАзербайджана широкое распространение получило слово “dəstəçin”, заимствованноеот персидского языка.DIĞAMALI – кислая алча (turş alça növü, göyəm). От грузинского слова “tyemali”[t*ğ*emali].ZEDAZED – продолжающийся действия (dalbadal, bir-birinin ardınca dilindəntəkrarlanan hərəkəti bildirmək üçün deyilir). От грузинского слова“zedazed”[zedazed].ZET – растительное масло (bitki yağı). От грузинского слова “zeTi” [zeti].KONDAR – кондари (kətlikotu). От грузинского слова “qondari” [k 1 ondari].MAĞARIC – muştuluq, müjdə. От грузинского слова “maRariCi” [mağariki].MÜŞƏ– рабочий (fəhlə). От грузинского слова “muSa” [muşa].POTUL – листья (yarpaq). От грузинского слова “foToli” [potoli].TANXA – var-dövlət. От грузинского слова “Tanxa” [tanxa].TELİ – вес (день), (bütün). От грузинского слова “mTeli” [mteli]. Təklikdəişlənmir, özündən sonra müddət bildirən söz tələb edir. Məsəslən: teli günü, teli saatı və s.XARAXURA – бытовой мусор (zir-zibil; şey-şüy). “Köhnə, cır-cındır deməkdir.”От грузинского слова “.xaraxura” [xaraxura].XIRXI – пила (mişar). От грузинского слова “xerxi” [xerxi].ÇUMAT – тихо, бесшумно (sakit, asta, qışqırıqsız, səssiz). Gürcü dilindən alınmasözdür, “ dinləmək, susmaq” mənasındadır. От грузинского слова “Cumad” [kumad].CACA– домашняя водка (ev şəraitində üzümdən hazırlanan araq). От грузинскогослова “WaWa” [kaka].В этой статье мы довольствовались лишь несколькими примерами.Лексическое взаимоотношение азербайджанского и грузинского языковявляется актуальной темой для ученых языковедов. Это еще раз доказываютисследования С.С. Джикия, В.Т. Джангидзе, Г. Имнайшвили, М.Ш. Ширалиева,А.М. Курбанова, А.Г. Нуриева, Л.Г. Ворошил, И. Мамедли, М. Байдарйалли и172


enaTmecniereba, literaturaTmcodneobaдругих ученых языковедов. Но, очень жаль, что сравнительная грамматикаазербайджанского и грузинского языков не исследована.В заключении выражаю искреннюю благодарность доц. Э. Шукюрову, доц. Ш.Гусейнову и другим сотрудникам Учебно-Культурного Центра «Азербайджановедение»в Бакинском Славянском Университете за поддержку в проведении лингвистическихисследований в названном центре. Искренне благодарю также профессораЦ. Барамидзе за полезные советы и прочтение рукописи статьи.Использованная литература:1. Л.Г. Ворошил Об азербайджанско-грузинских языковых контактах. - Советскаятюркология, 1980, № 4, с.222. А.Г. Нуриев. Лексическое взаимоотношение азербайджанского и грузинскогоязыков. Диссертация на соискание ученой степени кандидата филологическихнаук. Баку, 1963.3. В. Вугарли. Словарь Соганлугского говора. Баку, 1999.4. М. Ширалиев. Основы азербайджанской диалектологии. Баку, 1967.5. М. Ширалиев. Словарь диалектов азербайджанского языка. Баку, 1964.6. Толковый словарь азербайджанского языка. I-IV тт. Баку, 2006.7. qarTuli enis ganmartebiTi leqsikoni, I-VIII tomebi, Tbilisi,1950-1964.8. qarTuli enis orTografiuli leqsikoni, Tbilisi.173


enaTmecniereba, literaturaTmcodneobamegi gumberiZeivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisissaxelmwifo universiteti bakalavriatis studentifilipes RvTisSoblisadmi miZRvnili sagaloblebixelmZRvaneli: profesori nestan sulavasaxeobrivi sistema, rogorc cnobilia, bibliidan momdinareobs,rac gansazRvravs mis bunebasa da Tematur-msoflmxedvelobriv safuZvels.himnografiis Tematika mravalmxrivia, iqmneba RmerTisadmi miZRvnili,saRvTo da saRvTismSoblo dResaswaulebTan, wmindanebTan dakavSirebulisagaloblebi. himnografiis ganviTarebis adreul etapze, qristianulsagalobelTa Seqmnamde, galobis funqcias fsalmuni asrulebda.yoveli sagaloblis xat-axe gamoirCeva sisadaviT, srulqmnilebisakenswrafviT, sulieri sisavsiT, idumalebiT, amaRlebulobiT, amaRlebulismSvenierad aRqmiT. sagalobeli Tavisi bunebiT drosa da sivrce-Si dasazRvrulia, igi mdidaria sametyvelo eniT, bibliuri miniSnebebiT,aluziebiT, misi semantikuri veli Zalze farToa. wmindanTa saxeebiswarmoCenisas iyenebs bibliur personaliaTa aluziebs, rac liturgiulicnobierebis mqone adamians ukeT Seamecnebinebs RvTisaken svlisaucileblobas. sagalobeli amkvidrebs, erTi mxriv, zeaweul ganwyobilebas,rodesac RmerTs ganadidebs da `didebismetyvelebs~, wmindanebsaqebs da meore mxriv, sinanulis marxvis, glaxakTmowyalebis, RvTis Si-Sis, codvis Segnebis, locvis ganwyobas aRZravs, rac adamianis sulierganwyobebs zneobriv-Tikuri mrwamsiT aRavsebs da RmrTisaken, uzenaesinaTlisaken warmarTavs.sasuliero mwerloba mdidaria saRvTismSoblo simboloebiT, romelTasafuZvelsac bibliuri saxismetyveleba gvTavazobs. Zveli aR-Tqmiseulia RvTismSoblis simboloebi: mayvali, takuki, Rrubeli, mTa,bWe, daxSuli, kidobani... seni uxvadaa gamoyenebuli himnografTa mier.mose winaswarmetyvelma qorebis mTaze ixila sawaulebrivad warmosaxulimacxovrisa da yovladwmida RvTismSoblis paradigma mayvlovanicecxlis alis ipodigmiT, magram igi ar iwvoda. rogorc cecxlmodebulimayvali ar iwvoda, aseve wminda qalwuli Sobis Semdegac qalwuladdarCa. Seuwvel mayvals adarebs RvTismSobels ioane damaskelic:`gixaroden,mayualo cecxlmgzebareo sakvirvelebiT aRgzebulo da ara Se-174


enaTmecniereba, literaturaTmcodneobauwvelo~ (7;108).`ZlispirSi~ RvTismSoblis simbolo sulieri mayvalia: `mayuali sulieri,romeli eCuena moses mTasa sinasa, motyinare Seuwvelad saxedSenda gamoCnda, RvTismSobelo qalwulo~. himnografiaSi xSiria RvTismSoblistakukad moxseneba: `gixaroden siwmindisa takuko~... mimarTavsmas ioane mtbevari.TeologiaSi damkvidrebuli zogierTi simbolo RmerTsac miemerTebada RvTismSobelsac. Zvel aRTqmaSi `Rrubeli malavs TvalisTvisimas, ris xilvasac adamianis Tvalebi ver uZleben, maT SesaZleblobebsaRemateba~. `Rrubeli, umetesad Rrubeli sulmcire~ aris saxe RvTismSoblisa,sulmcire niSnavs `msubuqs~, `mCates~ sulmcire Rrubeli (mariami)aris simarTlis mzis Semwynarebeli (l.xaCiZe).ioane mtbevari da miqael modrekili ase mimarTaven yovladwmidaRvTismSobels:`mzeman man brwyinvaleman ganisvena RrubliTa sulmciriTa,romel ars qalwuli ubiwoi~.RvTismSobels aseve moixsenieben `ubiwo mTad~. RmerTi, rogorcsityva dausabamo, xorcSesxmul iqna qalwul mariamisagan, amitomacuaRmatebules iqna dedaTa da qalwulTa Soris. mariam RvTismSobeli`dedaTa Soris qalwuli da qalwulTa Soris deda~, — rogorc mas ugalobsioane damaskelic.himnografebi cdiloben Rirseulad Seamkon samyaros mxsnelis deda,srulyofilad daxaton misi saxe. amitomac xotbas asxamen qristesada mis mSobels TeologiaSi damkvidrebuli saxe-simboloebis moxmobiT.ioane mtbevari mariam RvTismSobels kibes uwodebs, kibis saSualebiTgadmovida RmerTi dedamiwaze.himnografiaSi xSiria agreTve RvTismSoblis taZrad, sadgurad, kidobnadwarmosaxva.yovladwmida qalwuls Zvirfasi samosliT Semosilad xataven himnografebi,riTac amkoben mis didebulebasa da gamorCeulobas dedaTaSoris.asevea Semkobili yovladwmida deda filipes `beTlemis sagalobel-Si~. filipes sagaloblis saxismetyvelebiTi aspeqtebi ganixila n.sulavam.Cveni gansakuTrebuli yuradRebis sagania filipe beTlemis sagalobeli.sinis mTis or qarTul xelnawerSi, iadgarebSi (SI—59, SIN–64) – SemonaxuliaX saukunis qarTveli himnografis filipe beTlemis RvTismSoblismier qristes Sobisadmi miZRvnili sagalobeli, romelic pirveladgamoaqveyna n.marma. meore gamocema ganaxorciela p.ingoroyvam. sagalobelisxvadasxva kuTxiT ganixiles. n.marma, p.ingoroyvam, k.kekeli-175


enaTmecniereba, literaturaTmcodneobaZem, p.beraZem, g.wereTelma, s.caiSvilma, i.lolaSvilma, a.uruSaZem, a.silagaZem.igi, rogorc damoukidebeli himnografiuli Txzuleba, Seswavlilian.sulavas naSromSi.n. maris SexedulebiT, sagalobeli sainteresoa formiT, radgan igiSesrulebulia Teqvsmetmarcvliani SairiT, aqvs Raribi erTmarcvlianiriTma da akrostiqi.sagaloblis akrostiqSi miTiTebuli cnobis garda, avtoris Sesaxebaraferi mogvepoveba. igi ar moixenieba sinuri da ierusalimuri xelnawerebisanderZ-minawerebSi.filipe Tavis sagalobels RvTismSoblis qebiT iwyebs da misadmivedrebiT amTavrebs. mis zogad ganwyobas azrisa da gancdis TandaTanobiTiaRmavloba warmarTavs. avtoris ZiriTadi saTqmeli Tematuri, azrobrivida emociuri ganviTareba pirvelive striqoniT iwyeba da bolotaepiT mTavrdeba. mTeli sagaloblis orientiri RvTismSobelia, romelsacxotbas Seasxams himnografi da yovel taeps misadmi mimarTviTamTavrebs, xolo, Tavis mxriv, mimarTva RvTismSobels warmoaCens simboloebiT,imgvari epiTetebiT, romliTac Cveulebriv xasiaTdeba igisaRvTismetyvelo literaturaSi zogadad da himnografiaSi kerZod.filipes sagalobelSi qristianul simboloTa, saxeTa da ferTa ganawilebamkacrad mowesrigebulia da mimarTulia erTis, umaRlesis gamoxatvisaken,kerZod RvTismSoblis mier qristeSobis misteriis sityviTgamoxatvisaken. sagalobeli didadaa davalebuli bibliuri, gansakuTrebiTfsalmunuri poeturi metyvelebisagan da Rrma simboluriazrovnebiT gamoirCeva.mariam RvTismSoblisadmi miZRvnil sagaloblebSixSiria fsalmuniseuli sityvebis perifrazi, sagaloblis pirvelisityva `fesu~, fsalmunSi `fesuedi~, simbolur funqcias atarebs.sabas ganmartebis mixedviT`fesuedi~ uflis mcnebaTa dacvis simboloa.n.sulavas dakvirvebiT, freskebsa da xatebze igi gansakuTrebuli sifaqiziTgamoisaxeba, sadac RvTismSoblis samoslis `fesu~, `fesuidi~,mewamuliferis samoselze Semovlebuli oqrosferi oqrovani foCia. esferi mas ucodvelobis niSnad gasdevs. oqrosferi sulierebis, zeciurobissimboloa, sisxlisferi, mewamuli miwierebisa. RvTismSoblis samoslismewamuloba misi miwierebis mimaniSnebelia, masze Semovlebulioqrosferi foCi ki zeciuri dedoflobisa.sagaloblis meore taepi RvTismSoblis madlmosilebasa da naTliTSemkobas gvauwyebs: `iakinTe Zoweuli samoslad gaqus, RmrTismSobelo~,ganmartebas moiTxovs rogorc iakinTe da Zoweuli, ise samoseli.samoslis Rrma simbolika bibliis pirvelsave wignSia miniSnebuli,rodesac ganrisxebulma RmerTma codviT dacemuli adami da eva gamoa-176


enaTmecniereba, literaturaTmcodneobaZeva samoTxidan: `uqmna ufalman RmerTman adams da colsa missa samoselnityavisani da Sehmosna maT~. tyavis samoseli codvis simboloa.tansacmeli aris sxeulis damakavSirebeli amqveyniur sinamdvilesTan,realobasTan.amqveyniuri samoslis sxvadasxva saxeobis gamoyeneba RvTismSoblissaxis srulyofilebis, misi xatis warmoCenaSi exmareba mis Semsxmels.misi samoseli sulierebiTaa datvirTuli. rodesac filipe beTlemi ambobs,rom RvTismSoblis samoseli Semkulia oqrovani foCebiT, iakinTi-Ta da ZoweuliT, faqtobrivad, mis sulierebas xsnis da gadaSlis mkiTxvelisaTu msmenelis winaSe. gamorCeuli samoseli RvTismSobels gansakuTrebulifunqciiT warmoaCens. RvTismSobels oqrovani foCiT SemkobazecasTan kavSirSi warmoaCens, iakinTiTa da ZoweuliT Semosva—amqveyniurobasTan.n. sulavas ganmartebiT, RvTismSoblis samoslad iakinTisa da Zoweulisgamoyenebas RvTismetyvelebaSi Zalze mniSvnelovani da sainteresoaxsna aqvs. ioanes `gamocxadebaSi~ Zoweuli wmidaTa simarTlesTanaadakavSirebuli: `da mieca mas, raiTa Seimosos Zoweuli wmidai da brwyinvale,rameTu Zoweuli simarTleni wmidaTani arian~.epifane kviprelma specialuri Teologiuri Sroma miuZRvna Zvirfasqvebs da TiToeulis simboluri mniSvneloba gansazRvra, TormetiZvirfasi da naxevradZvirfasi qvis simboluroba axsnilia iakobis TormetiZisagan RvTis rCeuli eris, ebraelTa Tormeti tomis dayofisa daTiToeuli Zis samkvidros dadgeniT. filipes sagalobelSi ori ebraulitomis safuZveldamdebi bibliuri personaJis simboluri qviT Semkobiladda Semosiladaa RvTismSobeli warmosaxuliTu ratomaa sagalobelSi RvTismSobeli iakinTiTa da ZoweuliT Semosilida Semkuli, saWiroa TviT am Tvlebis simboluri mniSvnelobisdazusteba, risTvisac bibliur monacemTa safuZvelze epifane kviprelismier Sedgenili `TualTai~ aris saukeTeso wyaro. aqve unda aRiniSnos,rom iakinTisa da Zoweulis simboloebSi geografiul mxareTa simbolurigaazrebacaa sagulisxmebeli. epifanes Txzuleba amis safuZvelsaciZleva.iakinTis Tvali, romelic aris `mbrwyinvale cecxlis msgavs, fanakismsgavs, fanakis msgavs simewamuliTa~ moipoveba afrikaSi, libiaSi, `maxlobladmzis aRmosavalisa, adgilTa maT eTiopiaisaTa, romeli mivalssamxrad mimarT~ (Satberdis krebuli, 143).misi brwyinvaleba Tavidanve izidavs adamians, igi dRisiT da RamiTsanTeliviT anaTebs, nakvercxaliviT gamoscems alisfer naTels, racaadvilebs mis povnas. mas garedan atareben da ara `samoselsa Sigan~. ia-177


enaTmecniereba, literaturaTmcodneobakinTis Tvalis naless Tu vinme dalevs, mas suls gauRviZebs `samarTalsasityuaTa mimarT~ (14;132)iakinTis Tvali, rogorc nestan sulavam SeniSna, simbolurad arisiudas naTesavis, STamomavlis aRmniSvneli, aseTadaa cnobili iesoqriste; igi aris xsnisa da risxvis gamomxatveli, xsnisa RirsTaTvis darisxvisa, tanjvisa, uRirsTa da SeuracxmyofelTaTvis. iakinTis TvalimanaTobelia Ramisa, romelSic qristes Sobamde imyofeboda kacobrioba,man naTliT Semosa yoveli, vinc qriste WeSmaritad irwmuna. amitommiiCneva iakinTis Tvali RvTismSoblis Sesamkobad. rac Seexeba iakinTisTvalis mxareTa simbolurobis gamosaxatavad gamoyenebas, aq gasaTvaliswinebeliaqristianuli saxismetyveleba, romlis mixedviT aRmosavleTisinaTlis wyarodaa miCneuli, xolo samxreTi im adgilad, sadacmaradiuli sinaTlea.Zoweulis Tvlis xsenebas da misiT RvTismSoblis Semkobas sakralurobaaxlavs, igi wmidaTa simarTles moaswavebs. ZoweuliT sagalobelSiRvTismSobelTan dakavSirebul wmida adgilebis simbolur miniSnebasvxvdebiT. iakinTisa da Zoweulis samkurnalo Tvisebebis warmoCeniT iesoqristesa da RvTismSoblis saxeebia mowodebuli, viTarca sulierida fizikuri mkurnalisa.epifane kvipreli Zoweulis Tvals miCnevs zabilonis modgmis saxeldebulad;Zoweulis Tvali zogjer mwvanea, zogjer oqrosferi, mas bivrilsacuwodeben. epifane kvipreli aRniSnavs, rom Tu mkurnali misgannaless asmeven avadmyofs, muclis tkivils kurnavs.sayuradReboa ferTametyveleba sagaloblis am or taepSi, radganiakinTisa da Zoweulis Tvlebi oqrosfer-cecxlisferia, naTelia,brwyinvalea, rac Tavis mxriv, isev qristes RvTaebriobasa da RvTismSoblisgansakuTrebulobas, gamorCeulobas moaswavebs. oqrosfer—cecxlisferoba qristes orbunebovnebis simboluri gamoxatvaa.rogorc n. sulavas naSromSia aRniSnuli da dadgenili, iakinTiTa daZoweuliT Semosva-Semkoba RvTismSoblisa, misi da iosebis genealogiasacgulisxmobs, e.i. qronotopul funqciasac atarebs. iakinTi iudasCamomavalTa Tvalia, zabiloni iyo nazareTis da zRvis kideT mflobeli,nazareTisa,sadac gabriel mTavarangelozma axara mariams misi gamorCeulobada momavali RvTismSoblobis tarebis adgili da qristesSobis adgili, xolo radgan isini RvTismSoblis Sesamkobi Tvlebia,xoloRvTismSobeli maradiuli dedofalia, amitom zedrouli funqciacakisriaT, viTarca marad qalwulis samkaulsa da samosels.Sobis dResaswaulisa da RvTismSoblisadmi miZRvnili filipes sagalobelihimnografiisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli maRali stiliT, saRvTis-178


enaTmecniereba, literaturaTmcodneobametyvelo azrovnebiTa da Rrma saxismetyvelebiT gamorCeuli nawarmoebia,romelSic asaxulia Sobis misteria da sidiade. xatovnad da simboluradwarmoCenilia RvTismSoblis saxe. sagalobeli aris avtoris lirikuliaRsareba, RvTismSobelTan dialogi, romelSic mTeli sisruliTwarmoCinda, gamovlinda filipes Teologiuri ganaTlebis siRrme,mxatvruli azrovneba da poeturi kultura.gamoyenebuli literatura:1. n. ulava, filipe beTlemi, kreb; literaturuli Ziebani, XIX, 1998,gv. 90-105.2. Satberdis krebuli, gamosacemad moamzades da gamokvleva daur-Tes baqar gigineiSvilma da elguja giunaSvilma Tb., 1979.3. Zlispirni, gamosacemad moamzada, gamokvleva da saZieblebi daurToelene metrevelma, Tb., 1971.179


enaTmecniereba, literaturaTmcodneobalevan beburiSviliivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisissaxelmwifo universiteti bakalavriatis studenti`gandegilis~ saRvTismetyvelo analizisaTvisxelmZRvaneli: profesori lela xaCiZeilia WavWavaZis `gandegilis~ mTavari gmiris Sesaxeb mravali mosazrebagamoiTqva. mkvlevarebi sxvadasxvagvarad afasebdnen berisRvawls, mis sulier mdgomareobas. iyo mcdelobebi wminda saRvTismetyveloplanSi gaeazrebinaT gandegilis dacema. aqedan gamomdinare, sainteresoaTu ramdenad realisturia beris saxe, SeiZleba Tu ara aseTiasketi Segvxvdes sinamdvileSi. amis gasarkvevad aucilebelia Rrma analiziberis samoRvaweo principebisa da Sexedulebebisa.saintersoa, sulierebis romel safexurze imyofeba mwiri.avtoriseuli daxasiaTebis mixedviT aSkaraa, rom beri srulyofilebasTanaamiaxloebuli:`ar iyo xnier, magram viT wmindanssulis simaRle zed dasCneodazed etyoboda, rom suli misisul sxva msoflios Sehxizneboda.saxe gamxdari, kuSti da mwyralisiwmindis madliT dahSvenebodada maRals Sublsa naoWad SekrulsSaravandedi gadahfenoda.~beri wmindania, mas daumarxavs xorcieli gulisTqmani, moupovebiaganuwyveteli locvisa da codvaTa zeda glovis niWi:`dRe-da-Ram sulTqma da RaRadebamohfenia kldes yinulisasada ar Semwydara mun locvis cremliviTa Relesa mas glovisasa.ganyenebuli wuTisoflisganaq suli misi aRyvavebulada xorcieli gulisTqma yveladamarxula da gansvenebula.~gandegilis wmindnobis utyuari sabuTia is saswauli, romelsacufali yoveldRe ugzavnida mas `xorcTusxmeli~ mzis sxivis saxiT.180


enaTmecniereba, literaturaTmcodneobaa. baqraZe miiCnevda, rom gandegili sulierebis pirvel safexurzeimyofeboda, rom igi `jer kidev gaorebuli iyo~(2, 78). am mosazrebissimcdares mowmobs, erTi mxriv, TviT avtoris aRweriloba berisa, dameore mxriv, madlmosileba, romelsac cxadia RmerTi sulierebaSi axladfexadgmuls ar mouvlens.gamoiTqva mosazreba, rom `yoveldRiur saswaulebs gaSinaurebuliberi xiblSia Cavardnili~(10, 9). es Sexeduleba yovlad usafuZvlo daSeusabamoa. wminda egnate brianCaninovi xiblis Sesaxeb brZanebs: `xibliadamianuri bunebis sicruiT dazianebaa. ampartavnebiTa da ganusjelobiTaaaRvsili gulis survili da swrafva — datkbes wminda, sulieri,RvTaebrivi grZnobebiT, roca igi jer sruliadac ar aris mzad aseTitkbobisaTvis. rogorc ganuwmendeli goneba, romelsac RvTaebrivixilvebis naxva surs, magram amis saSualeba ara aqvs, xilvebs TviTonigonebs da maTiT ityuebs Tavs, asev gulic — roca RvTaebrivi sitkboebisada sxva RvTaebrivi grZnobebis gancdas cdilobs da ver poulobsmaT sakuTar TavSi, maSin TviTon igonebs maT. maTiT icTunebs da iRupavsTavs, rameTu Sedis sicruis areSi, eSmakebTan erTobaSi, emorCilebamaT zemoqmedebas da maT Zalauflebas emoneba~(6. 48). sulis amgvarmdgomareobas ewodeba xibli. `xibli aris WeSmariti sulieri orientirebisdakargva, adamianisa da satanis codvis gameoreba, rodesac adamianssulieri cxovrebis, marTlmadidebluri askezis gareSe surs maRalisulieri sazomis miRweva~ (5, 52). xiblis mSobeli ampartavnebaa. poemidanki Cans, rom gandegils Cabarebuli aqvs gamocda simdableSi. masxilvebi eSmakisgan ar egzavneba. igi RvTis madlis mflobelia: `wamebamisi RmerTs Seuwiravs, vedreba misi RmerTs usmenia.~ `vervis xel-ewifebisorTa ufalTa monebad. ver xel-ewifebis RmrTisa monebad damamonaisa~ (maTe 6, 24). SeuZlebelia adamians RvTis madli hqondes daamavdroulad xiblSi iyos Cavardnili. `ampartavanTa Sehmusravs Rmer-Ti, xolo mdabalTa moscis madli~ (iakobi 4, 6). absurdia imis gancxadeba,rom gandegili xiblSia.unda iTqvas isic, rom sulier planSi Tu ganvixilavT `gandegils~,seriozul Seusabamobas aRmovaCenT. marTalia, mxatvruli nawarmoebisaRvTismetyvelo traqtati ar aris, magram rodesac mwerali religiurTematikas exeba, mas Rrma sasuliero ganaTleba da didi sifrTxilemoeTxoveba. miT umetes, Tu realistur nawarmoebTan gvaqvs saqme.beris saqcieli da Sexedulebebi sruliad ar Seefereba madlmosilimoRvawisas. igi gulis siRrmeSi Tavs ubedurad miiCnevs! aseT adamians,SeuZlebelia, RvTisgan sulieri niWi hqondes mimadlebuli. wmindanisaTvissruliad ucxoa is SiSi, romelic gandegils qalis xmis gagonebis181


enaTmecniereba, literaturaTmcodneobaSemdeg eufleba. `ufali Zal Cemda, visa meSinodes? ufali SesavedrebelCemda, visagan SevZrwunde?~ — brZanebs daviT mefsalmune. gandegiliki:`SekrTa, SeSinda ama xmisagan,nuTu aw bedma qalis saxiTagansacdeli ram mas mouvlina?da viTa elvam amisma fiqrma,gulSi zarcemiT mwirs gaurbina.~mkvlevarTa nawili fiqrobs, rom bers uyvars qveyana, rom `berismoRvaweobis mizani iyo mTeli qveynisaTvis locva~(8, 55). amis dasturadmoaqvT ori taepi poemidan. roca saSineli Weqa-quxili atyda gandegiliRvTismSobels `...xelapyrobiT evedreboda warwymedisagan qveynisaxsnasa~.aucilebelia gavarkvioT beris damokidebuleba sazogadoebis, qveynis,moyvasisadmi. Tu mas marTlac uyvars qveyana, avtori xuT strofsimis Cvenebas ar dauTmobda, Tu rad miiCnevs beri sofels. `codvis sadguri~,`samefo borotisa~ — am epiTetebiT axasiaTebs gandegili (da arailia WavWavaZe) qveyanas. Tu bers marTlac uyvars igi, ilia amas sagangebodaRniSnavda da ara gakvriT. maS ratom evedreba gandegili RvTismSobelsqveynis xsnas? unda aRiniSnos, rom ilia WavWavaZis enas, am poemismixedviT, axasiaTebs arqauloba. es imiT aris gamowveuli, rom religiurileqsika arqaulia. sityva `warwymeda — niSnavs daRupvas, ammniSvnelobiT aris igi naxmari saxarebaSi, sasuliero mwerlobaSi. gansakuTrebiTxSirad ixmareba es sityva warRvnasTan mimarTebaSi: `moiwiawyliT-rRunai da warwymidna yovelni~ (luka, 17,27). beri locvas iwyebssaSineli stiqiis dros. igi adamianTa sulebis gadarCenisaTvis ki arloculobs, aramed RmerTs qveynis saSineli warRvinagan gadarCenasevedreba. berSi TviTgadarCenis instiqti locviT gamoixata, rac sruliadbunebrivia.beris damokidebuleba moyvasisadmi SesaniSnavad Cans misi da mwyemsiqalis dialogSi, qali mas ekiTxeba:`nuTu Tvistomi, toli da sworiyvela gulidan amogiRia?nuTu naRveli, dardi da javriTan aravisi wamogiRia?ar gagondeba arc mama, deda,an Zma, anu da, an saxli, kari?~WeSmariteba qristianma asketma cxadia unda upasuxos, rom diaxacuyvars isini, maTi siyvarulis gamo wamovida samoRvaweod da am gziT182


enaTmecniereba, literaturaTmcodneobaufro SeuZlia maTi Sewevna. ras pasuxobs beri?`. . . yvelaze ufro suli tkbiliaigi tyve aris wuTisoflisada eg yoveli mis borkilia.~amis Semdeg uazrobaa visaubroT imaze, rom gandegils uyvars moyvasi.`Tvistomi, toli da swori~ misTvis borkilia, usargeblo da arasa-Wiro. aseT Sexedulebas qristianobasTan SeuZlebelia raime kavSirihqondes. aseTi mrwamsis adamiani namdvil qristianad ver CaiTvleba.amrigad, miuxedavad avtoris aRwerilobisa, beris saqcieli da Sexedulebebicxadyofs, rom igi namdvilad ar aris WeSmariti asketi.safiqrebelia, rom es Seusabamoba ilias mier ori mizeziT, Segnebuladaris daSvebuli. jer erTi, mzis sxivi, madli RvTisa, aucilebeliasiuJeturi ganviTarebisaTvis. es umTavresi elementia siuJetisa, romlisgareSe moqmedeba ver dasruldeba da meore, iliam gandegili aseTsulier simaRleze imitom aiyvana, rom gaemZafrebina misi dacemiT gamowveulitragizmi. ilia Tvlida, rom namdvil qristians SeuZlebeliaar uyvardes moyvasi, samSoblo. ar gvgonia, es vinmesaTvis sadavo iyos.amdenad, poeti iZulebulia aseTi uzustoba dauSvas.zogierT kritikoss miaCnia, rom mwiris moduneba, misi RvTiuri madlisaganganZarcva iwyeba mis mier Camavali mzis suraTis xilvis Sedegad.`bers ar axsovda RvTis gafrTxileba . . . frTxilad iyavi, rom ciskenaxedvisas da mzisa da mTvarisa da varskvlavebis, ciseuli mxedrobisdanaxvisas iq Secde da Tayvani ar sce maT. aqedan iwyeba misi daRmasvla~(8,56). am epizodSi avtoris saTqmeli sruliad sxvaa. beri aRtacebuliucqers bunebis umSvenieres suraTs:`mze, gadaxrili jer kidev sruladmTisa gadaRma ar dasuliyoda mTis wverzed, viT cecxlis borbaliirgvliv sxivgaSliT anTebuliyo.cisa laJvardi, viT nakverCxali,wiTlad da yviTlad mzisgan hRuvodada ganmsWvaluli misiT RrubeliSors aTas-ferad sxivebSi hTrToda.ama ubiwo diadis xilviTwartyvevnil iqna ganyenebulida viT cxovels xats RvTis didebisasSescqerda mzesa gancvifrebuli~.beri ucqers `ubiwo diads~. igi mzes ki ar scems Tayvans, aramed misisaSualebiT, mis magaliTze xedavs uflis didebulebas. bunebis mSvenie-183


enaTmecniereba, literaturaTmcodneobarebis, harmoniulobis meSveobiT Seimecnebs adamiani RvTis yovlisSem-Zleobasa da sidiades. `cani uTxroben didebasa RmrTisasa da qmnulsaxelTa misTasa miuTxrobs samyaro~ — brZanebs daviT mefsalmune (fs 18).zustad aseTivea beris mimarTeba bunebis, Tvalwarmtaci suraTisadmi.igi mas ucqers `viT cxovel xats RvTis didebisas~. TavisTavadarc erTi sagnis cqera ar aris codva, mTavaria, rogoria midgoma am sagnisadmi.wm. ioane sinelis `saTnoebaTa kibeSi~ moaqvs erTi aseTi magali-Ti: erTma berma umSvenieresi qali ixla da gulisTqma ki ar gauCnda mismimarT, aramed adida Semoqmedi, romelmac aseTi mSveniereba dabada.iliasagan ar gvaqvs arc erTi miniSneba imaze, rom Camavali mzis cqeragandegils RvTis madls arTmevs.rac Seexeba gandegilis aRsasruls, aqac SeusabamobasTan gvaqvs saqme.meoce saukunis udidesi qarTveli saeklesio moRvawe beri gabrieli(urgebaZe) miuTiTebda: `ilia WavWavaZe eriskaci iyo da ar esmoda,rom bers, romelsac aseT sulier simaRleze aiyvans RmerTi, ase adviladar dascems. gabriel episkoposmac (qiqoZe) icoda es, magram aramxila da ar miuTiTa megobrobis gamo~(7, 35).imis uaryofa ar SeiZleba, rom madlmosilic SeiZleba daeces, magrammis daRupvas ufali arasodes dauSvebs misi uwindeli Rvawlis gamo.amis magaliTebi mravlad SeiZleba moviyvanoT mamaTa cxovrebidan.wminda iakobs RvTivsaTno cxovrebis sanacvlod uflisagan saswaulTmoqmedebisniWi hqonda mimadlebuli. misi locva sneulebs kurnavdada davrdomilebs aRadgenda. erT dRes didi gansacdeli SeemTxva.mas gansakurnad axalgazrda qaliSvili miuyvanes, iakobs sZlia gulis-Tqmam da qalTan Sescoda, Semdeg ki mokla igi. beri saSinelma sasowarkveTammoicva da monazvnobis datoveba ganizraxa, magram ufalma ar daukargauwindeli Rvawli da erTi RvTismsaxuris piriT amxila igi. iakobigons moego da did sinanulSi Cavarda. oci wlis ganmavlobaSi is umkacresmoRvaweobas eweoda ganmartoebuli. bers daubrunda RvTaebriviniWi da mxolod misma locvam SeZlo saSineli gvalvis Jams wvimismoyvana.msgavsi magaliTebis moyvana mravlad SeiZleba.gandegili SeiZleba dacemuliyo, magram misi saboloo warwymeda SeuZlebeliiqneboda. miT umetes berma gaacnobiera Tavisi uRirsi saqcieli.misi dacemac ar aris didi. igi mxolod gulSi gaivlebs qalis kocnissurvils da droulad moaxerxebs Tavis damorCilebas. xorciel dacemasada gulisTqmas Soris ki namdvilad aris didi gansxvaveba.amrigad, hagiografiul nawarmoebebsa da paterikebSi SeuZlebeliaSegvxvdes msgavsi drama beris decemisa. amdenad, gamoricxulia gande-184


enaTmecniereba, literaturaTmcodneobagilis tragediis swori saRvTismetyvelo analizi. rac Seexeba poemismxatvrul Rirebulebas, igi udavod didia da `gandegils~ samarTlianadmiiCneven ilias poeturi memkvidreobis gvirgvinad.gamoyenebuli literatura:1. axali aRTqumai, Tbilisi, 2003.2. a. baqraZe. ilia da akaki, Tbilisi, 1992.3. ilia WavWavaZe. TxzulebaTa akademiuri gamocema XX tomad. t. I,Tbilisi, 1987.4. Rirsi ioane sineli, klemaqsi anu kibe, Tbilisi, 2000.5. arqimandriti rafaeli (karelini), saubrebi marTlmadideblobaze.II, Tbilisi, 1994.6. mamaTa swavlani sulieri cxovrebis Sesaxeb, Tbilisi, 2005.7. d. mSvenieraZe. beris diadema, Tbilisi, 2006.8. m. niniZe. dacarielebuli beTlemi, Tbilisi, 2000.9. Jurnali `karibWe~ N 7, 2005.10. Jurnali `karibWe~ N 28, 2007.185


enaTmecniereba, literaturaTmcodneobanino gabuniasoxumis saxelmwifo universiteti, magistrantigenderuli TanasworobissakiTxi qarTul literaturaSixelmZRvaneli: profesori nino mindiaSvilime-XX saukunis 80-iani wlebidan iwyeba genderis Teoriis, rogorcaxali mecnieruli dargis ganviTareba. mecnierebaTa qseli, romelicCarTulia genderul kvlevebSi metad farToa: filosofia, sociologia,fsiqologia, anTropologia, geografia, istoria, ekonomika, demografia,politologia, filologia, socialuri lingvistika, eTnografia,kulturologia da sxva. Tanamedrove sazogadoebis winaSe aqtualuraddgas genderuli Tanasworobis sakiTxi. sqesis, rasis, religiur da kulturulTaviseburebaTa TanasworobasTan erTad genderuli Tanasworobademokratiis ganviTarebis erT-erTi aucilebeli pirobaa. saqar-Tvelo, romelic adgas demokratiis ganviTarebis gzas, Sesabamisad, asrulebsmis moTxovnebs da axorcielebs genderuli Tanasworobis politikas.magramunda vaRiaroT, rom rogorc warsulSi, aseve axlacaqtualuria es problema. rasac adasturebs Cveni kultura.yvela kulturas aqvs Tavisi warmodgenebi samyroze, bedze, istoriazeda maT Soris sqesTa Soris urTierTobze. es warmodgenebi yalbdebodamTeli misi arsebobis ganmavlobaSi mentalitetis saxiT. mentalitetisCamoyalbebaSi gansakuTrebul rols asrulebs is religiuriwarmodgenebi, romlebsac aRiarebs da misdevs mocemuli kultura; religiurimsofxedveloba warmoadgens erTgvar zneobriv normas, zneobriviprincipebis erTianobas, romelic safuZvlad edeba sazogadoebisarsebobis sxvadasxva sferos da gansazRvravs cxovrebis wess, dawyebulisamarTlebrivi sferoTi da damTavrebuli yoveldRiurobiT. magramkulturuli mentaliteti Seicavs garkveul crurwmenebs da stereotipebs,romlebic damaxasiaTebelia ama Tu im kulturis xalxisaTvis. sworedes arasawori stereotipebi arRvevs genderul balanss sqesTa Soris.genderuli Tanasworoba warmoaCens qalisa da kacis moRvaweobisTanabar xelmisawvdomobas sazogadoebrivi cxovrebis yvela sferoSi,`agram Tu qalis xasiaTs davakvirdebiT davinaxavT, rom RmerTma gangebmisca mas gansxvavebuli Tvisebebi, radgan mdgomareoba da Tviseba qa-186


enaTmecniereba, literaturaTmcodneobalisa sxvaa, vidre mniSvneloba da saqme mamakacTa — aRniSnavda gabrielepiskoposi, Tumca qalis rolis gansakuTrebuloba asaxulia qarTuleTnografiul sinamdvileSic, moviyvanoT randenime magaliTi: saqar-Tvelos mTianeTSi dResac SemorCenilia uZveles tradiciaTa gadmonaSTebi,erT-erTi aseTia `dgilis dedis~ rwmena. xalxis rwmeniT TiToeuladgils, mTas, gors, xevs hyavs Tavisi `deda~ Rrma azria CaqsoviliqarTul sityvebSi `edamiwa~, `guTnisdeda~, `dedaboZi~, `dedaarsi~.`dedaazri~, qristianul TeologiaSi miRebulia eklesiis daxasiaTeba,viTarca dedisa. Tumca, es warsulidan Semonaxuli sityvebia, Tanamedroveterminebi qalis mimarT gamoTqmuli warmoaCens Cvens warmodgenasgenderze mag: `kacis tvini aqvso~ niS. Wkviania: `Zlivs kacurad ar movkalaTdi~niS. gemrielad, gabatonebulad damikvidrebas, xolo `bati~,Wuki~, Steruka~ — ~qalia ra unda mosTxovo?!~ es termini ki miuTiTebsnaklebi avtoritetisa da ganviTarebis individze. sainteresoa, ram miiyvanaqali aseTi didebidan amgvar damcirebamde, albaT arasworad gadarCeulmafaseulobebma. qarTuli ena, sxva enebis msgavsad, bevrs saubrobssazogadoebaSi arsebul genderul stereotipebze. nebismieriteqsti, samarTlebrivi aqti, istoriuli wyaro Tu literaturuli ZegliSeiZleba atarebdes, genderuli TvalsazrisiT, Zalian mniSnelovaninformacias.ar arsebobs qveynis cxovrebis arc erTi sfero, sadac Tavi ar gamouCeniaTqarTvel qalebs — politika, diplomatia, xelovneba, religiuricxovreba. gavixsenoT Cveni istoriuli warsulidan zogierTi faqti.mag., qarTvelTa moqceva, maTi gaqristianebac qalTan aris dakavSirebuli.qarTvelebs qristianobis mqadageblad, qveynis ganmanaTleblad,axali rwmenis gamavrceleblad kabadokieli nino moevlinaT. istoriamgviCvena, rom qarTveli qalebi gansakuTrebuli diplomatiuri niWiTiyvnen dajildoebulebi. Cvenamde moaRwia qalTa mier warmartebiT SesrulebulmaaraerTi misiis ambavma.me-11 saukunis dasawyisSi, bizantiis momZlavrebuli agresiis drosmefe bagrat IV-is dedam mariam dedofalma mosalaparakeblad konstantinepolSigaemgzavra. bizantiis dedaqallaqSi igi Sexvda cnobilqarTvl moRvawes giorgi mTawmindels. bizantiis keisarTan samSvidobomolaparakeba warmatebiT daasrula,saqarTvelom sasurveli mSvidobamoipova. bizantiidan mariamma Tavis Zes sacole Camouyvana — imperatorisZmis basilis asuli elene da keisris naboZvari kurapalatis tituli.qalTa diplomatiuri moRvaweobis iSviTi magaliTia Tamar mefisdros ajanyebul feodalebTan ori didgvarovani mandilosanis — kra-187


enaTmecniereba, literaturaTmcodneobavai jayelisa da xvaSaq coqalis misia. maT warmatebiT gaarTves Tavi dakisrebulsaqmes da saqarTveloSo SinaaSliloba daamSvides. msoflioistoriaSi gansakiTrebul adgils ikavebs Tamar mefis pirovneba. warmatebuliiyo misi sagareo politika da diplomatia,Tamar mefes RmerTad aRiarebda pirdapiri gagebiT S rusTaveli,rac aSkaraa vefxistyaosnis prologSic, sadac poeti Tamaris saxiTmovlenil RmerTs evedreba enis, gulisa da xelovnebis momadlebaze,Tanac aRniSnavs rom misgan aqvs goneba:“aw ena minda gamoTqmad, guli da xelovaneba,Zali momec da Sewevna, SengniT maqvs, mivsce goneba.~yovelive es gansakuTrebiT gamovlinda Tamariansa da vefxistyaosanSi,rasac xazgasmiT aRniSnavdnen akad k. kekeliZe, akad. al. baramiZeda sxva mkvlevarni. vefxistyaosani aris alegoriuli poema suliwmidadTamarisda mis mier kacobriobis xsnis Sesaxeb, xolo Tamariani uSualod,alegoriis gareSe exeba imave Temas. magram amjerad Cveni mizaniaaraa zogadad imis mtkiceba, rom am or poemaSi Tamari gaRmerTebulia(rac aRiarebuli faqtia), aramed is, rom yevela qalSia raRac didebuliTamarisgan.sarwmunoebisaTvis, erisaTvis Tavdadebis, mamulisa da rwmenis er-Tgulebis simboloa yoveli qarTvelisaTvis qeTvean dedoflis naTelisaxe. “gautexeli~ uwoda dadofalis Tavganwirvas germanelma mwerlamaa. rifiuma.saqarTvelos istoriam niWier poet qalTa saxeebic Semogvinaxa, maTSoris arian: mefe bagrat IV-is meuRle borena dedofali, mefe ereklesasuli mariami, qeTevan da Tekle batoniSvilebi. yvelaze umcrosi. asuliTekla ki aqtiurad iyo CarTuli qveynis politikur cxovrebaSi. saqarTvelosganTavisuflebisTvis mebrZolTa Tanadgomisa da daxmarebisaTvis,igi Tavis or vaJTan erTad kalugaSi gadaasaxles (1832wlisSTqmuleba).saqarTvelos istoriaSi qalis rolis dasadastureblad kidev mravalimagaliTis moyvana SeiZleba, Tumca qalTa umetesi nawili veraxerxebs sakuTari Tavis realizebas. qarTuli mentalitetisaTvis qali,upirveles yovlisa, dedaa.misi daniSnuleba eris gamravleba daSvilebis aRzrdaa samSoblos erTgul patriotebad. amasTan, unda vaRiaroTqali. am metad Znel RvTisgan boZebul `wodebas~ naTlad asrulebda.ojaxSi Zaladobis fsiqologiuri da socialuri Sedegebis gaanalizebisasZalze didi mniSvneloba eniWeba sazogadoebriv damokidebulobas.Zaladoba qalze da saerTod Zaladobis fenomeni qarTul kultu-188


enaTmecniereba, literaturaTmcodneobaraSi tradiciiT ramdenadme daculia. qarTul ojaxSi qali daqvemdebarebuliada misi socialuri sivrce erTxel da samudamod dadgenilia.amdenad, sazogadoeba xSirad upasuxuxod tovebs Zaladobis faqtebs,romlic droTa ganmavlobaSi sxvadasxva formiT Tavad sazogadoebasubrundeba. uZveles literaturul ZeglSi (`SuSanikis wameba~) vxedavTmoZalade qmars, romelic Tavis wodebas da Zalauflebas iyenebs — qalis,meuRlis, Tavisi Svilebis dedis da dadoflis winaaRmdeg isev daisev sakuTari Zalauflebis SesanarCuneblad da gasamyareblad.`grigol xanZTelis cxovrebaSi~ ki Cans qalze zegavlenis ufro didimagaliTi, magram ara Zaladobrivi, ufro fsiqologiuri, religiuradda zneobrivad gamraTlebuli. qarTveli eklesiisaTvis qristianulidogmebi ufro mniSvnelovania, vidre konkretuli adamiani, Tundacmefe. aSot kurapalati iseTi Tavzardacemulia sayvarael qalTangaSorebiT, rom ambobs `netar mas kacsa vin arRara cocxal ars!~ vasilbarnovis~ trfoba wamebulSi~ ki `xorcielsa Zliersa xelmwifesasuliTa ZlierT kacT sZlies~. k. gamsaxurdias `didiostatis marjvena-Sic~ mZmimedaa qalis bedi gadawyvetili. Sorena Zlieri qalia, magrammisi saboloo samyofeli dedaTa monasteri aRmoCndeba, rasac ver Seegua.adamians mxolod ori ramis eSinia: eSinia rom Tavis cxovrebas Secvlis99%-iT an eSinia, rom saerTod verasdros verefers Secvlis. Sorenasorive SiSTan mouwia martos darCena, man amas ver gauZlo. sicocxletragikulad daasrula, Tumca amaSi marto mas ar miuZRvis brali. . .me-12 saukuneSi S. rusTavelma ukvdavi fraziT — `lekvi lomisa sworiaZu iyos Tunda xvadia~ pasuxi gasca warsulSi qalisadmi damokidebulebas,xolo momavalSi ki mis rols xazi gausva, odiTgan ase yofila,yvelaze mniSvnelivan da problemur sakiTxebs brZeni mwerlebi mokledda lakonurad pasuxobdnen. S. rusTavelma am sityvebiT erTxel da samudamodgadaWra genderuli sakiTxi, qali da kaci erT safexurze aiyvanagaimeora ra saxarebaSi gatarebuli xazi. is qalze, rogorc sust`arsebaze~ Sexedulebas amsxvrevs.n. lorTqifaniZis nawarmoebSi `tragedia ugmirod~ vkiTxulobT,mama Tvalze momdgar cremls Zlivs ikavebs da aRiarebs, rom deda amasarasdros izamda, damSeul Svilebs mcire mWads deda arasdros SeuWamda.am nawarmoebSi kaci ufro susti nebisyofis aRmoCnda, vidre romelimeqali. Tanamedrove duxWirma cxovrebam qals garda qaluri funqciebisa,rac mas bunebam mianiWa, aseve daakisra `Zlieri sqesis~ funqciebicetvirTva. is iqca Cveni drois `oTaranT qvrivivad~. `Serekilebs~,rom davesesxoT: `qalic is aris da kacic~. iliam wlebis win189


enaTmecniereba, literaturaTmcodneobaiwinaswarmetyvela, rom qali imaze met funqciebs ikisrebs, vidre misganadre iTxovdnen. dRes qals oTaranT qvrivis mZime uReli adevsmxarze da vin icis momavali mas ras uqadis...daCagrulia qali kldiaSvilis `samaniSvilis dedinacvalSi~. ismorCilia, eweva cxovrebis Wapans, magram uceb xdeba fizikuri agresiismsxverpli da ai Tvalwin gvidgeba Zaladobis saukeTeso magaliTi. ojaxiswevrebis uflebebi ar ari Tanabari, saqme iqamde midis, rom platon-Si adamini Cakvdeba da is gagiJebuli urtuyams fexmZime qals, ojaxisgayofisas ki qali is ufro Seuwevaria, ganyenebuli axloblebisgan dasazogadoebisganac. pataram `jer arc ki icoda, rasakvirvelia, ramdeniusiamovneba moitana misma gaCenam da amitomac ase xalisianadicqereboda aqeT-iqiT da siamovnebiT Seyurebda mofusfuse xalxs,romelsac bekina Tavis gaWirvebas uyveboda momrigebeli mosamarTlissaxlidan gamobrunebuli~.genderuli darRvevebi SeiZleba moviZioT TiTqmis qarTuli literaturesumetes nawarmoebebSi, magram zeviT, erTgan vaxseneT, rom S.rusTavelma gaimeora saxarebis xazi. modiT mokled visaubroT imaze,rac saxarebaSi weria, Tu ra damokidebulebaa am or gansxvavebul sqes-Ta Soris. erTaderTi ukvdavi wigni, romelsac saxareba hqvia naTladCans genderuli sakiTxisadmi damokidebuleba: saxarebaSi vkiTxulobT`ukve aRar arsebobs arc iudeveli da berZeni, arc mona da arc Tvaisufali,arc mamri, arc mdedri, vinaidan Tqven yvelani erTni xarT~(galileelTa mimarT epist., 3.28), (mag., samariteli dedakaci, keTrovanidedakacis igavi da mruSi qalis dacvis epizodi.......). aqedan naTladCans, rom erTianoba ufalSi rogorc erovnul, ise genderul Tanasworobasmoisazrebs, magram TanamedroveobiT es tradicia ikargeba,rogorc bevri sxva rame da kvlav Tavs iCens qalis daknineba, misi daTrgunva-damoneba,Cagvra da uufleboba. droa erTxel da samudamod gadavarCioTWirnaxuli, yvelafers Tavisi adgili mivuCinoT, amisTvis kisaceria saWiro qristianuli oqros ZafebiT gawyobili. mZime da xangrZlivprocess mxolod ase Tu movereviT.190


enaTmecniereba, literaturaTmcodneobamariam beJitaSviliivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisissaxelmwifo universiteti, magistranti`vefxistyaosanSi asaxuli patronymobis instituti~xelmZRvaneli: profesori Tamar SarabiZeroca renesanss erTi Ramec ar gaeTia Sua saukuneebis evropaSi, rus-Tveli maSin `vefxistyaosans~ qmnida, epopeas, romelic qarTuli wyobilsityvaobismwvervalad da, bibliasTan erTad, xelixelsagogmanebelwignad miaCndaT saqarTveloSi. miuxedavad amisa, giliotina da eSafoticar ascda, kaTolikos antonis gadawyvetilebiT uZvelesi, vaxtangiseuligamocemis uamravi cali cecxls misces da wyals gaatanes.mizezi — rusTvels swamebdnen sensualizms, misi siyvarulis obieqtimiwieri asuli iyo da imitom. aseve swamebdnen meZavobis apologias, xedavdnenmasSi `soflis zRapars~, `sparsTa zRaprobas da gogo-biWobas~— zneobis gamryvnels. dRevandeli gadasaxedidan ukve cxadad Cans, romarc `vefxistyaosania~ mxolod poezia da arc misi avtori — martoodenlirikosi, `misi mizani gacilebiT ufro aRzevebulia da mravalmniSvnelovani,vidre aRmosavlur literaturaSi gavrcelebuli da kliSeebadqceuli, zRapruli elementebis Semcveli samijnuro motivebis leqsadTxroba~ [1.5-6].rusTvelis memkvidreobas Tanabari interesiT ikvleven literatorebic,samarTalmcodneebic da istorikosebic. erTi mkvlevari 1991wels werda: `...momavalSic albaT iqneba ori rusTveli, erTi specialistebisaTvis,romelTaTvis mecnierulad iqneba garkveuli poemistropuli metyvelebis specifika da daniSnuleba, misi simboloebisa daalegoriebis mniSvneloba, xolo meore rusTveli iqneba massisTvis, romelicmasSi dainaxavs mxolod lamaz zRapars, mxolod miwieri siyvarulisada bednierebis apologias~ [1.110].Cveni mcire narkvevi emsaxureba mizans, rom istoriis TeoretizebisSedegad miRebuli codna davakavSiroT konkretuli sakiTxiskvlevis praqtikasTan da saqarTveloSi feodaluri sazogadoebrivekonomikuriformacia — patronymobis instituti ganvixiloT misiTanadrouli wyaros, `vefxistyaosnis~ monacemTa Suqze. guram mamuliasmiaCnia, rom `Tamar mefis istorikosebmac ki ver Seqmnes patronymobissazogadoebrivi da eTikuri sazogadoebis amsaxveli rusTvelisdari naTelsaxieri suraTi~ [2.3]. arada, es Tema Zalian mniSvnelovania.191


enaTmecniereba, literaturaTmcodneobarogorc simon janaSia wers, `patronymobis problemis gamokvlevis gareSeSeuZlebelia saerTod feodaluri sazogadoebis aRnagobis yvelasxva mxaris gaazreba~ [3.223]. imis gaTvaliswinebiT, rom `yvelaze kargadSeswavlili da istoriul rekonstruqciaSi yvelaze xSirad gamoyenebuliwyarodanac ki SesaZlebelia, miviRoT Tvisobrivad axali informaciakiTxvebis axleburad dasmis SemTxvevaSi~ [4.9], mosalodneli Sedegidamakmayofileblad, Tumca mokrZalerbulad warmogvidgenia. saer-Tod, mxatvruli nawarmoebis gamoyeneba istoriuli kvlevisTvis saxifaToada arc SeiZleba, magram zogierT SemTxvevaSi genialuri mxatvruliqmnileba ufro met saSualebas iZleva epoqis Sesaswavlad, vidreistorikosebisa da ekonomistebis, an samarTalmcodneTa naSromebi. magaliTad,balzakma mogvca safrangeTis sazogadoebis yvelaze SesaniSnavirealuri istoria, agviwera ra es sazogadoeba qronikebis saxiT1816 wlidan 1848 wlamde. inglisis XIX saukunis romanistebmac (dikensi,gaskeli...) TavianT nawarmoebebSi gamoamJRavnes ufro meti politikurida socialuri WeSmaritebani, vidre yvela politikosma, publicistmada moralistma erTad aRebulma. l. tolstoimac saocari reliefurobiTganasaxiera ruseTis I revoluciis istoriuli Taviseburebani, misiZala da sisuste. qarTul sinamdvileSi erT-erT yvelaze monumenturZeglad miCneuli rusTvelis poemac da misi poeturi istorizmi warsulepizodebs warmogvidgens cocxal suraTebsa da saxeebSi da, miuxedavadimisa, rom saxelmwifosa da samarTlis sakiTxebi poeziisagan Zalian da-Sorebulia, am institutebis Seswavla `vefxistyaosnis~ mixedviT patronymobisepoqis istoriis rekonstruqciisaTvis bevr saintereso detalsgamokveTs. saerTod, eposi Tavisi daniSnulebiT Sua saukuneebSi(da ara marto am dros) istoriuli faqtis xsovnas inaxavs. medievistebisgarda, antikosebsac didi saSualebebi aqvT, klasikuri eposis fonzeaRadginon istoriuli faqtebi da movlenebi. magaliTad, homerosisda hesiodes poemebi protoistoriis erTgvar wyaroebad gvevlinebianda alegoriuli eniT mogviTxroben kacobriobis cxovrebaze im epoqaSi,romelic win uswrebda damwerlobisa da qronikebis epoqebs. sxva sakiTxia,Tu rogor aris transformirebuli poet rusTvelis warmodgenebSisinamdvile. zogi cneba da instituti ar iwvevs avtoris Sexedulebis,misi simpaTia-antipaTiis gamovlenis saWiroebas, zogi sakiTxi kiswored misi Sexedulebebis gamovlenis saWiroebisTvisaa dasmuli, anuZveli epoqis avtorebisTvis niSandoblivi individualizmi (avtoriseulisawyisi) TvalsaCinoa. magram CvenTvis mTavaria, rom poema epoqisdokumentia da reprezentatuli wyaro istoriis rekonstruqciis-Tvis, romelic bzaravs prokofi kesarielis (VI saukunis bizantieli is-192


enaTmecniereba, literaturaTmcodneobatorikosi) maqsimas, mkacrad rom gamijnavs dargebis SesaZleblobebs:~ritorikas axasiaTebs mWevrmetyveleba, poezias — gamonagoni, istorias— WeSmariteba~ [4.27].`vefxistyaosnis~ sakiTxebis kvleva feodalur-patronymuri sazogadoebisreligiur-filosofiuri ideologiidan mowyvetiT ar SeiZleba.saerTod, mxatvruli nawarmoebis marTebuli wakiTxva mxolodmis istoriul konteqstSi gaanalizebis Semdeg miiRweva. literatorebiaRadgenen yvela kodis, yvela xatis Tu simbolos avtoriseul semantikas,raTa mkiTxvels swori dekodirebis procesi SesTavazon.`vefxistyaosani~ istoriis rekonstruqciis mizniT rom gamoviyenoT,aucilebelia, SeviswavloT misi saxismetyveleba, rac, z. gamsaxurdiassityvebiT rom vTqvaT, `gulisxmobs poemis fabulisa da siuJetis,misi mxatvruli struqturis simbolur da alegoriul interpretacias,misi tropikis, gmirTa saxeebis funqciaTa Seswavlas, poemis miTosuriarqetipebis kvlevas...~ [1.5.]. amis saWiroeba imitom Cndeba, rom poetimetyvelebs alegoriuli, enigmaturi eniT da, rogorc m. brose ambobs,`is, rac warmosaxva gvgonia, sinamdvileSi samaxsovro Canawerebia istoriuladcnobil pirovnebaTa Sesaxeb~ [1.8]. istoriuli alegoriebis (ammimarTulebas evhemerizmi ewodeba) kvleva `vefxistyaosanSi~ mravalmecniers ucdia (d. CubinaSvili, d. baqraZe, m. janaSvili, iv. javaxiSvili,n. Jordania, k. kekeliZe, a. baramiZe, p. ingoroyva, s. qvariani, g. soselia,g. mamulia, i. surgulaZe, a. kikviZe...). maTi narkvevebi exeba taxtismemkvidreobis, saxelmwifoebrivi Tu samoxeleo wyobilebis da samar-Tlis institutebis sakiTxebs, rac istoriuli realiebis amsaxvelia daniSandoblivi mxolod gaerTianebuli feodaluri saqarTvelosTvis.ivane surgulaZis azriT, `vefxistyaosnis~ mefe XII saukunis saqarTvelosmefea sazogadod, didebulebic da moxeleebic TavianTi niSnebiTerTianobis periodis saqarTvelos saxeebs warmoadgenen [5.7]. miuxedavadamisa, rogorc g. soselia miiCnevs, ~vefxistyaosani~ ar aris arc politikuritraqtati da arc vinmes personaluri istoria~ [6.4], n. berZeniSvilisazriT ki, es aris `qarTuli cxovrebis gamomxatveli ideali,feodaluri sazogadoebis `saxareba~ ufro, vidre qristianuli oTxTavi...es qarTvelTa cxovrebaa, misi idealuri gamoxatulebaa~ [7.254].rusTvelologiaSi aRiarebul WeSmaritebad iTvleba, rom poemisgmiri qalebi, nestani da TinaTini, mefe Tamaris alegoriuli saxeebia.orive siuzerenia TavianTi mijnurebisa iseve, rogorc Tamari iyo TavadrusTvelis siuzereni. es SemTxveva, rodesac Seyvarebuli poeti vasaliaTavisi siuzerenisa (domina/omina), paralels povebs aRmosavle-Tis sufistur da espaneTis arabulenovan poeziasTan, dasavleTSi193


enaTmecniereba, literaturaTmcodneobaprovansel trubadurTa da `mines~ mgosanTa SemoqmedebasTan, italiur`dolCe stil nuovos~ da Sartris skolis filosofiur poezias-Tan da, yvelaze metad, kurtuaziul raindul literaturasTan. es yovelivemocemuli iyo feodalizmis epoqisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli siuzerenisada vasalis urTierTobis formiT yvela SemTxvevaSi. mizeziidenturobisa, rogorc elguja xinTibiZe wers, aris is, rom `XII-XIII saukuneebissaqarTvelos da dasavleT evropis qveynebis socialur-politikuriwyoba da politikuri warmateba arsebiTad msgavsi iyo, iseverogorc saqarTvelos da dasavleT evropis progresuli qristianuliazrovneba~ [8.371]. swored feodaluri urTierTobebisa da mis wiaRSiCasaxuli `samsaxurisa~ da `ymoba/vasalobis~ identuri faqtorebiTganpirobebulad miaCnia es analogiebi nodar naTaZesac. aleqsandre baramiZecgamokveTs sapatronymo urTierTobaTa wesebisa da formebisSesatyvisobebs dasavleT evropis romanebsa da rusTvelis poemaSi(`vefxistyaosanTan Sesapirispireblad mkvlevarma aiRo `parcifali~,lanseloti~, `tristan da izolda~, `simRera nibelungebze~, `simRerarolandze~ da `simRera sidze~). `aRsaniSnavia am mxriT samsaxureobrivivaldebulebani, samsaxureobriv movaleoba-valdebulebaTa gadaxlar-Tva Tu Serwyma samijnuro grZnobebTan...~ — wers igi [9.265], Tumca, absoluturadgamoricxavs nasesxobis, gavlenisa an raime zemoqmedebismomentebs: `aRniSnuli momentebi Casaxulia da ganviTarebuli orivemxareSi socialur-politikuri wyobis Sesabamisobis Sedegad, iqac daaqac ganviTarebuli feodaluri sazogadoebrivi sistema da sakarocxovrebis viTareba Semsgavsebuli materialuri da sulieri movlenebiswarmoSobas apirobebs~ [9.266]. piter dronkes azriTac, `damoukidebladda xalasad, Tavisi mSvenieri da didad Tayvansacemi dedoflisirgvliv, saqarTvelo Tavad qmnis Tavis `provansul poezias~ da Taviskurtuaziul siyvaruls~ [10.11].rusTvelologi maka elbaqiZe komparativistuli meTodiT ganixilavsvefxistyaosnis ZiriTad motivTa da kompoziciur elementTa tipologiurmimarTebebs dasavleT evropis raindul romanTan, konkretuladki, kurtuaziuli romanis ganviTarebis mwvervalad miCneulkretien de truas or romans (`iveni, anu lomis raindi~ da `kliJesi~)adarebs `vefxistyaosans~ (garkveulwilad sargeblobs volfram foneSenbaxis `parcifaliTac~). misi daskvniT, kretien de truac, iseve rogorcrusTaveli, mefis mxatvrul saxes vasaluri institutisaTvis damaxasiaTebeliprincipebis kvalobaze agebs da mrgvali magidis raindTasakaro cxovrebas aRniSnuli institutis normebs uqvemdebarebs [10.17].am sakiTxis istoriografiis gacnobis Semdeg SegviZlia gavakeToT pir-194


enaTmecniereba, literaturaTmcodneobaveli daskvna: XII-XIII ss-is feodaluri evropis da saqarTvelos sazogadoebriviurTierTobebi msgavs ucilobel atributebs gviCveneben.ganxiluli nawarmoebebis mixedviT es msgavseba yvelaze kargadTvalsaCinovdeba sasaxlis karis, maRali sazogadoebis cxovrebisaRwerilobaSi. evropuli vasaliteti da qarTuli patronymobis institutebiswored erTnairad da, Tanac, urTierTdamoukidebladaxdenen `siyvarulis feodalizacias~.cxadia, mxolod mijnurTa urTierTdamokidebuleba ar aris patronymobisistitutis Sesaswavlad gansaxilveli. `vefxistyaosnis~ arasatrfialoepizodebSi seniorul-vasaluri damokidebulebis sxva eskizebsacvxvdebiT mTeli siuJetis sigrZeze. swored amis Tezisur ganxilvasgTavazobT Cveni narkvevis meore nawilSi, rac im daskvnis gake-Tebis saSualebas mogvcems, rom poemis konstruqciuli RerZi patronymurisazogadoebrivi realobaa `klasikur xanad~ saxeldebulisaqarTvelos istoriisa. yuradRebas vamaxvilebT im faqtze, rom rus-Tveli xatavs mxolod mefesa da mis uSualo ymebs Soris urTierTdamokidebulebissuraTs. Tu rogori iyo, saerTod, memamule-ymaTa Sorisuflebrivi damokidebuleba, poemis mixedviT amis gansazRvra ver xerxdeba.patronymuli sazogadoebis Seswavlas saxelmwifosa da samarTlissakiTxebis Seswavlamde mivyavarT, rac `vefxistyaosanSi~ mocemuliapoemis siuJetTan dakavSirebiT, moqmed pirTa xasiaTis, urTierTobebisada, aqedan gamomdinare, maTi moqmedebis mixedviT. ivane surgulaZewers: `araferia ise prozauli~, civi da sapirispiro `vefxistyaosnis~amaRlebuli poeziisaTvis, rogorc kanoni, samarTali Tavisi kazuistikiT~[5.5]. poemaSi aRwerili feodaluri sazogadoeba ierarqiulia. arabeTissamefoSi es ierarqia rostevan-avTandil-Sermadinis magaliTzeTvalsaCinovdeba. arabeTis garda, poemaSi moqmedeba viTardeba indoeTSi,gulanSaroSi, mulRazanzarSi da qajeTSi, xolo xataeTi da xvarazmi(sparseTi) gmirTa moqmedebis uSualo asparezss ar warmoadgens,magram Cven mier dasmuli sakiTxis Sesaswalad sayuradReboa. am saxelwifoTasociumSi seniorul-vasaluri damokidebulebis sami safexuriawarmodgenili. umaRlesi siuzereni `mefeTa zedan mflobeli~ monarqia(umaRlesi seniori), romelsac hyavs vasalebi (mefe an didebuli), amukanasknelT ki — Tavisi vasalebi. amis Semdegi safexurebi subvasalebissaxiT poemaSi aRar gvxvdeba. rusTveli seniors `patrons~ uwodebs,ymas ki — `vasals~:`pirvel yma var wasvla minda patronisa samsaxurad,—xams mefeTa erTguloba, yofa gvmarTebs ymasa ymurad...~ [11.38].195


enaTmecniereba, literaturaTmcodneobasaerTod yma `vefxistyaosanSi~ niSnavs: 1) axalgazrdas/moxucis antonims; 2) axalgazrdas maRali wridan ; 3) vaJs/qaliSvilis antonims; 4)vasals ; 5) monas, romelic samxedro Tu arasamxedro-administraciulsamsaxurs asrulebs, ymasaviT samxedro samsaxuris movale Tavisufalikacia (mag., fatmanis `mona grZneuli~, aseve Sermadinis, rostevanis dafridonis monebi — `umxnesi sxvaTa mxneTasa~). patroni niSnavs: 1) mefis-/xelmwifis aRmniSvnel politikur termins; 2) ufals/patrons/mesakuTres(`uapelacio, Seuvali mqonebeli~). rusTvels patronymoba`zrdilobis~ institutze agebul socialur institudad warmoudgenia(istoriul sabuTebSic patroni xSirad `gamzrdelad~ aris wodebuli,patron-ymani `TanaaRzrdil-Sezrdilni~ arian). avTandili mimarTavsTavis ymebs: `Cemno ymano, gamzrdelno da zogno zrdilno...~ [11.40]ivane surgulaZe SeniSnavs: `arcerTi SemTxveva ar aris, rom `vefxistyaosnis~yma batonobis uRelSi Sebmul glexs niSnavdes. yvela SemTxveva-Si `vefxistyaosnis~ `yma~ gabatonebuli klasis warmomadgenelia~ [5.21].es imas niSnavs, rom mTeli sazogadoeba ar aris Cabmuli patronymobisuRelSi~, rogorc amas iv. javaxiSvili askvnis. aRsaniSnavia, rom patronymobisinstituti `vefxistyaosnis~ mixedviT keTilSobilur urTierTobebsgulisxmobs da ara eqspluatatorul damokidebulebas (uflisada monis msgavsad) an klasTa brZolas. calsaxad Cans, rom patronymobissamarTali ar aris daTrgunvis samarTali, mas jer kidev armiuRia batonymuri xasiaTi. g. soselia wers: `yma patronis `brZanebas~`morCilobs~, magram aq srulebiT ar igulisxmeba sityvaSeubrunebelimorCileba... patronis brZanebis Sesruleba ymis sircxvil-sindisis, mi-Rebuli zne-Cveulebis sakiTxia. brZaneba-morCilebis safuZveli ymiserTguleba-Tavdadebulebaa~ [6.13].`patronisa samsaxuri arasodes ar waxdebis~anda`vis asmia patronisa Wirsa Sina ymisa ridi?~ [11.162].an`gamzrdelsa Cemsa viT vkadro me saqme samuxTalia!...viT moixmaros monaman patronsa zedan xrmalia~ [11.300].`vefxistyaosnis~ mixedviT patron-ymas Soris mamaSvilur, da-ZmururTierTsiyvaruls ganmsazRvreli mniSvneloba aqvs am institutis kodeqsSi:`sjoban yovlTa moyvarulTa patron-ymani moyvarlni~ [11.293].aRsaniSnavia, rom `vefxistyaosanSi~ daculi es istoriuli realiebiSesaniSnavad Seesabameba qarTuli istoriuli Zeglebis cnobebs (`istorianida azmani SaravandedTani~, `xelmwifis karis garigeba~). patronymaTaurTierTdamkidebulebis mTel istoriaSi da, kerZod, XI-XII ss-is196


enaTmecniereba, literaturaTmcodneobaistoriul wyaroebSi TvalsaCinoa mefesa da feodalebs Soris sworediseTi mimarTeba, rogorc es `vefxistyaosanSia~ asaxuli. farsadan mefisdamokidebuleba urCi ymis, xataeTis mefe ramazisadmi tipuri magaliTiabagrat IV-is mier kldekaris erisTavT-ersTav liparitis, andagiorgi II-is mier niania quabulaisZis, ivane liparitis Zis da vardan suanTaerisTavis, viTarca `Secodebulis mindobiT gamoyvanisa~ da `Sewyalebisa~,risTvisac araerTxel miumarTavT qarTvel mefeebs feodalebTanbrZolaSi. bagrationebis saxlis mefeTa mxatvruli anarekliafarsadanisa da saridanis `kontraqtic~, rac SarvanSa aRsarTanis, darubandelTa,RunZTa, ovsTa, qaSagTa, karnu-qalaqelTa da trapizonel-Ta damokidebulebis prototipia mefe Tamaris mimarT. paraleli SeiZlebadavinaxoT juanSeris mier daxatul afxazTa mTavar leonisa daarCil mefis `kontraqtSic~ VIII s-is sinamdvileSi, rasac Tavisi tradiciaaqvs Soreul warsulSi egrisis mTavar qujisa da farnavaz mefis saxiT.daskvnebi:• Tavisi epoqis Sesaxeb SoTa rusTaveli flobs mniSvnelovan informacias,SearCevs sayuradRebo istoriul faqtebs da gvaZlevs mismxatvrul fiqsirebas. maSasadame, ara mxolod Tavis filosofiur-eTikurikoncefciebis asaxvas, aramed cxovrebis realisturi, `socialuritiloebis~ Seqmnasac isaxavs miznad;• `vefxistyaosnis~ konstruqciuli RerZi patronymuri sazogadoebrivirealobaa. seniorul-vasalur damokidebulebas `vefxistyaosanSi~patronymuri damokidebuleba hqvia, romelic TvalsaCinovdeba mefesa damis uSualo ymebs Soris urTierTdamokidebulebis magaliTebze;• tipologiuri kavSirebis dadgena msoflio literaturis sxvadasxvaZeglebTan iZleva analogiebs rusTvelis periodis evropul civilizacia-Si — evropuli vasaliteti da qarTuli patronymobis institutebi sworederTnairi kodeqsiT gansazRvravs sazogadoebriv urTierTobebs;• `vefxistyaosnis~ mixedviT patronymobis samarTali ufleba-movaleobaTaormxrivobaSi mdgomareobs (ymas marTebs patronis pativi, SiSi,erTguleba, krZalva; patroni/gamzrdeli ki unda iyos maloliavebeli,mzrunveli, urvis mqone) da ar aris daTrgunvis samarTali gansxvavebiT batonymurisgan.197


enaTmecniereba, literaturaTmcodneobagamoyenebuli literatura:1. z. gamsaxurdia. vefxistyaosnis saxismetyveleba, Tb. 1991.2. g. mamulia. patronymoba, Tb. 1987.3. s. janaSia. qarTuli patronymobis bunebisa da warmoSobis sakiTxisaTvis(istoriografiuli mimoxilva), Tb., universitetis Sromebi,165, istoria, xelovnebaTmcodneoba, eTnografia, 1975.4. m. CxartiSvili. istoriuli mecnierebis Sesavali, Tb., 2009.5. i. surgulaZe. saxelmwifosa da samarTlis sakiTxebi `vefxistyaosnis~mixedviT, Tb., 1977.6. g. soselia. saqarTvelos sazogadoebrivi da saxelmwifoebriviwyobileba `vefxistyaosnis~ mixedviT, afxazeTis saxelgami, soxumi,1956.7. n. berZeniSvili. saqarTvelos istoriis sakiTxebi, wigni VII, Tb.,1974.8. e. xinTibiZe. msoflmxedvelobiTi problemebi `vefxistyaosanSi~,Tb., 1975.9. baramiZe. SoTa rusTveli, Tb., 1975.10. m. elbaqiZe. vefxistyaosnis poetikis zogierTi sakiTxi Suasaukuneebisfrangul raindul romanTan tipologiur mimarTebaSi, Tb.,2007.11. SoTa rusTaveli. vefxistyaosani, Tbilisis universitetis gamomcemloba,redaqtori dali germaniSvili (teqsti Sedarebulia1957 wels al. baramiZis, k. kekeliZisa da a. SaniZis redaqtorobiTgamocemul `vefxistyaosanTan~), Tb., 2009.198


enaTmecniereba, literaturaTmcodneobanino baliaSvilissip goris universiteti, bakalavriatis studentiqorwineba da qalis uflebebisrRvevis procesi daviT kldiaSvilis piesebSi(`irines bedniereba~ `darispanis gasaWiri~)xelmZRvaneli: profesori zaza cotniaSviliodiTganve cnobilia, rom qarTveli xalxis zneobrivi siwmnidis,Sromismoyvareobis, vaJkacuri suliskveTebisa da qarTuli xasiaTisCamoyalibebaSi qali TvalsaCino rols asrulebda. miuxedavad amisa,qalebi arc ise ganebivrebulni iyvnen am upiratesobiT da sazogadoeba-Si qalis mdgomareoba yovelTvis gansjis sagani xdeboda.saqarTveloSi zogadad, qalTa sakiTxi Zlierad ejaWveboda xolmeerovnul sakiTxs maSinac ki, roca qalis saojaxo rolze iyo saubari.cnobilia, rom qalebisaTvis ojaxi centralur Rirebulebad miiCneva.qalTa emansipaciis sakiTxi ar iyo mxolod qalTaTvis mniSvnelovaniTema, is sakmaod didi kulturuli da socialuri mniSvnelobis sakiTxadCans mTeli imdroindeli qarTuli sazogadoebisaTvis [1;8].qarTveli qalis daniSnulebaze araerTi mwerali amaxvilebs yuradRebas`Cveni qalebi am ukanasknel droebaSi mxolod siyvarulze,gaTxovebaze, cekva-TamaSze da tanisamosze fiqroben~ [1;7] wers sergimesxi, Tumca aSkaraa, rom igi ar gulisxmobs im qalebs romlebic daviTkldiaSvilma piesebSi dagvixata.ilia eTanxmeba am sityvebs, rogorc udavo WeSmaritebas qalis rolisRirseulad dafasebisaTvis da energiulad ibrZvis qalis farTomecnieruli da teqnikuri ganaTlebis uzrunvelyofisa da sazogadoebriviaqtiurobisaTvis [2;83].swored am mizezebis gamo iyo, rom iliam udidesi ufleba-movaleobanidaakisra qarTvel qalebs.mniSvnelovania agreTve mkvlevar akaki faRavas TvaliT danaxuliqarTveli qali. am sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT igi wers: `Cveni saukunis gariJraJzeqali umweo mdgomareobaSi iyo, qaliSvilobaSi is mSoblebismorCili da gamgone unda yofiliyo, xolo gaTxovebis Semdeg qmrisa,kerZo sakuTrebis pirobebSi qalic kerZo sakuTrebas warmoadgenda,jer mamisa da Semdeg qmris xelSi, sakuTari bedis gamge da mWedeli isar yofila~ [3;7].qalis uflebrivi mdgomareoba XIX saukunis meore naxevarSi arc ise199


enaTmecniereba, literaturaTmcodneobasaxarbieloa. am periodidan iwyeba qalTa brZola uflebebis mosapovebladprogresul evropul sazogadoebaSi.Cemi kvlevis mizani ZiriTadad emsaxureba qorwinebisa da qalis uflebrivirRvevis Cvenebas daviT kldiaSvilis Semoqmedebis magaliTze.miuxedavad imisa, rom aRniSnul sakiTxebze mkvlevarTa naazrevSiTiTqmis ar gvxvdeba qalis uflebrivi mdgomareobis rRvevis gamokve-Tis faqtebi daviT kldiaSvilis SemoqmedebaSi, magram aq ufro socialurproblematikaze gamaxvilda yuradReba. amitom vecade warmome-Cina Tu rogor axerxebs aRniSnuli sakiTxebis mxatvrul xorcSesxmasdaviT kldiaSvili piesebSi. (`irines bedniereba~, `darispanis gasaWiri~).daviT kldiaSvilis SemoqmedebiTi memkvidreoba or ZiriTad nawiladiyofa: pirvelSi mweralma reformis Semdgomi drois qarTulisoflis, kerZod glexobis duxWiri cxovreba warmosaxa. meore da umniSvnelovanesnawilSi daviT kldiaSvilis qmnilebebi Seicavs Tavad-aznaurulisamyaros kvdomis, misi sulieri dakninebis, ukiduresi nivTierida sulieri gaRatakebis amsaxvel moTxrobebsa da piesebs [4;17].`irines bedniereba` da `darispanis gasaWiri~ is piesebia, sadac daviTkldiaSvilma cxadyo momakvdinebeli gavlena qalis bedze, rac imdroindelisazogadoebrivi azris meoxebiT xdeba.mivyveT `irines bednierebas~ . . . moqeife Tavneba aznaur abesalomsalamTaZes TvalSi mouvida soflis erT-erTi ulamazesi da saTno qaliSviliirine, romelsac pavle rodamiSvili uyvars. irine aznaurobiTdabrmavebuli mamis msxverpli xdeba. man mamis gavleniT daTmoTavisi bedi, magram mamamisi male darwmunda, Tu ra `bedniereba~ SeaxvedraTavis sayvarel qaliSvils. filipes tradiculma rwmenam Cahklaaxalgazrda qalis bedi, adamianuri miswrafeba. rogorc yvela imepoqis qarTveli qali, irinec Seurigda Tavis beds da axal ojaxs patiosnadesmaxureboda, rac misma dedamTilmac dadastura, magram rodesacmoTminebis fiala aivso, irines eyo gambedaoba pirSi miexalebinamoZalade qmrisaTvis mware simarTle. piesaSi yvelanairad daCagruliairine, mas mxolod morCileba da pativiscema moeTxoveboda, rasacpirnaTlad asrulebda.samudamod ubeduri gaxda irine. Cveulebrivi ambavia, amgvari irineebibevri hyavda wina saukunes. daCagrul, uflebaaxdil qalSi adamiansaravin xedavda. rogorc yvela sxva usamarTlobaze, ise qalis damonebulmdgomareobaze guli stkioda adamianis moyvrul mwerals damisTvis damaxasiaTebeli mxatvruli sisadaviT da damajereblobiT ampatara, sul mcire or moqmedebiani dramiT daviT kldiaSvilma cxadyo200


enaTmecniereba, literaturaTmcodneobais momakvdinebeli gavlena qalis bedze, rac imdroindeli xedvis Sedegiiyo [5;131].`ai Cemi bedniereba mama. . . xom xedav~ . . . mimarTavs igi mamas da es aramarto irines mimarTvaa filipesadmi, aramed monobaSi myof uflebaaxdilqalTa gulSemzaravi sayveduria.qalisagan morCileba kanoni iyo, tradiciuli wesi, sazogadoebrivikodeqsi. irinem scada am wesis darRveva, scada TxovniT, cremlebiT,kvnesiT, magram uSedegod. ara marto irine ewinaaRmdegeboda am wess,aramed daviT kldiaSvilis moTxrobebisa da piesebis TiTqmis yvelapersonaJi qali cdilobs dagmos is tradiciebi, romelic maT uflebebszRudavs.daviT kldiaSvilis dramaturgiuli Semoqmedebis namdvil mSvenebaskomedia `darispanis gasaWiri~ warmoadgens.Tu `samaniSvilis dedinacvalSi~ ojaxis axali wevris Semosvla samwuxaromovlena iyo, `darispanis gasaWirSi~ Semodgomis aznauris mTavarproblemad qaliSvilis gaTxoveba qceula. `ojaxs ver naxav, rom samida oTxi qaliSvili ar hyavdes gasaTxvari da mTxovneli ki arsadaa.. . raRac ubedurobam guli Seucvala axlandel ymawvilebs . . . aRarekidebian ojaxebs. gogoebi ki gviyrian saxlSi da gvaberdebian salocavadxelSi~ (darispani) [6;61].osikos Tvalwin gaimarTa natalias da karoJnas sapatarZlo maskaradi.sam-sami qaliSviliT Sewuxebuli marTa da darispani yovel Ronesxmaroben, rom osikos qaliSvili moawonon. zis osiko Tavisi upiratesobissruli SegnebiT. xolo darispani ki nemsis yunwSi Zvreba.guli kinaRam gauskda, roca mis marjve da xelsaqmian karoJnas Wiqagautyda. rogorc ki `sapatarZlo~ Tvals miefareba, sasiZo onisimeserTsad da imaev kiTxvas aZlevs: `aqvs rame?~ bolos, raki sasiZos arcerTi `TvalSi ar mouvida~, ZiriTadad maTi siRaribis gamo, osikomtyuils mimarTa da gamoucxada marTas, rom daniSnulia, Torem mis`rCevas~ usaTuod miiRebda.rogorc Cans, yvela ojaxisaTvis da maT Soris komediis gmirebisaTvisTavsatex da sabediswero saqmed qceula qaliSvilis gaTxoveba.qal-vaJTa Soris siyvarulsa da bunebrivi urTierTmiswrafebisgrZnobis nacvlad gabatonebuli mdgomareoba mziTevs daukavebia.mziTevisagan aris damokidebuli gasaTxovari qalis bedi. colqmruliurTierToba vaWrobisa da morigebis saqmed qceula. gauTxovari qalisSenaxva kidev ufro mZime tvirTia ojaxebisaTvis.metad damaxasiaTebeli da tipuri saxe Seqmna daviT kldiaSvilmaSin daberebuli, mravalgzis `gadanaxuli~, Seurawyofili kardakar na-201


enaTmecniereba, literaturaTmcodneobatarebi qaliSvilisa, romelsac saxelic moxdenili uwoda~ — karoJna.`ravarc vinmes gareSes Tvals mohkravs, igi qec damunjdeba, qec dayruvdeba,qec dakutdeba... dajdoma Tu erTi moaswro aayeneb zeze? isedeekoseba erT adgils, rom veras gziT ver aaglej zemoT~. normalurida saRi gaCnda karoJna, magram cxovrbis pirobebma ise gmocvalada daCagra, rom maxinji Seiqmna. mudam imis SiSma — `movewonebi Tu arasaqmros, zedmeti da uwesrigo araferi vTqva da movimoqmedo, mSobeliar gavajavro, daayrua, daakuta da damunja igi~ [5;151].yvela da yvelaferi mis winaaRmdeg amxedrebuliyo, raTa daeCagrasawyali arseba. Cemi ra braliao erTs ki wamoiZaxebs, magram Cqara, TiTqosdanaSauli Seignoo daatans: `me ar gTxov gaTxovebas: viqnebi CemTvis~.sxvadasxva xerxebiTa da gzebiT erTi interesis irgvliv aamoZravapiesis personaJebi, sxvadasxva hangebze erTi simRera aTqmevina, SeajibraerTmaneTs, waaCxuba kidevac, bolos amaod daSvriTo uTxra.mwerali qalTa ubedurebis mizezebs, sazogadoebrivi tradiciebissimaxinjes advilad gasagebs xdis. is ebrZvis sinamdviles, qalTa uuflebomdgomareobas.sayovelTao godeba gaismis daviT kldiaSvilis piesebidan; adamianebiiTxoven Svelas, sibraluls, TanagrZnobas, siyvaruls, ndobasa dasamarTals.gamoyenebuli literatura:1. qalTa sazogadoebrivi saqmianoba saqarTveloSi. Tbilisi, 2005 w.2. T. kiknaZe, n. donaZe. genderi — socialuri da politikuriswavlebani, Tbilisi, 2006 w.3. a. faRava. d. kldiaSvili. Tbilisi, 1962 w.4. b. JRenti, d. kldiaSvili. Tbilisi, 1962 w.5. n. dumbaZe. daviT kldiaSvili, Tbilisi 1949 w.6. r. miSvelaZe. uaxlesi qarTuli literaturis istoria, Tbilisi, 1998 w.7. uaxlesi qarTuli literaturis istoria nawili I, Tbilisi, 1984 w.8. m. wereTeli. genderi — kulturuli da socialuri konstruqti,Tbilisi, 2006 w.9. g. natroSvili. daviT kldiaSvilis Semoqmedeba, salemwifogamomcemloba, Tbilisi, 1935 w.10. T. kiknaZe, n. donaZe. genderi — socialuri da politikuriswavlebani, Tbilisi, 2006 w.11. d. kldiaSvili. Txzulebani tomi II, Tbilisi, 1952 w.202


enaTmecniereba, literaturaTmcodneobaana doliZeivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisissaxelmwifo universiteti, bakalavriatis studentiyvavilis daniSnuleba SemoqmedebiT sivrceSixelmZRvaneli: profesori Tamar paiWaZeqarTul mwerlobaSi yvavili, rogorc mxatvruli saxe, Cvenamde moRweulpirvelive nawarmoebSi gvxvdeba. SuSanik dedofali Tavissilamazes, romelic varsqenma naadrevad mouspo, yvavils uwodebs:`miagos mas ufalman, viTar man uJamod nayofni Cemni moisTulna dasanTeli Cemi daSrita da yuavili Cemi daaWkno...~ sicocxlis bolos kidedofali adamianis cxovrebas velis yvavils adarebs, raTa misisimokle warmoaCinos: `ese yoveli cxovrebai, viTarca yuavili velTai,warmaval ars da daudgromel, da vin sTesa, moimko, da vin ganabniaglaxakTaTvis, Seikriba, da romelman wariwymindos Tavi Tvisi, manpovos igi, romelman adida igi.~`SuSanikis wamebidan~ moyolebuli yvavilis mxatvruli saxe TiTqmisyvela nawarmoebSi gvxvdeba rogorc poeturSi, aseve prozaulSi.gavixsenoT abo Tbileli, romelic ekalTa Soris amosuli vardia. aqyvavili saxarebiseuli simbolikiT unda ganvmartoT: abo yvavilia,radgan is emsgavseba ufals, romelsac `yvavil ewoda, rameTu ZirisaganieseisiTa yvavilad aRmoscenda eklesiasa wmidisa qalwulisamariamisgan xorcielad, xolo sulnelebiTa miT RmrTeebisaiTa suliigi madlisai mohfina Cven zeda~ (`habos wameba~).yvavilis saxe ufro meti mravalferovnebiT poeziaSi warmoCndeba.Tu iakob xucesi yvavils SuSanikis silamazed aRiqvamda, aleqsandreWavWavaZe TviT banovnebs aRiqvams yvavilebad da maT vards, zambaxsa damixaks uwodebs. poeti ganicdis droTa cvalebadobas, romelsac,samwuxarod, verc qalebi es mSvenieri arsebani gadaurCebian:`ravden banovanT Svenebani, axlad mSlilobni,Wavlis siwmindes miuzidavs napirs am tbisas,vardni, zambaxni da mixakni da giSris mwyobrniravdengzis turfad garduRia sarkesa wylisas.~miuxedavad amisa, `drosa msvrelis cels~ adamianis mSveniereba vergadaurCa.ori, erTmaneTisagan gansxvavebuli gagebiT warmoCndeba yvavilinikoloz baraTaSvilis SemoqmedebaSi. leqsSi `rad hyvedri kacsa~203


enaTmecniereba, literaturaTmcodneobapoeti yvavils xorciel silamazes adarebs, romelic warmavalia:`silamazea niWi mxolod xorcielebisda, viT yvavili, Tavis droze mwraflad daWknebis~.sul sxva gagebiT warmoCndeba yvavili nikoloz baraTaSvilis leqSi`damqrola qarman sastikman~. aq mas sulierebis gageba eZleva. poetimogviTxrobs, rom Zlierma da sastikma qarma `Tan waritana yvavili~.TiTqos gasakviri araferia, magram zmna `damqrola~ gvimxels, romyvavili mindors ki ar mostaca qarma, aramed adamians, poets da misdakargvas baraTaSvili mtkivneulad ganicdis. mainc ra dakarga poetmayvavilis saxiT? amas leqsis bolo strofi gvimxels:`ra fiqrTa warmoudgebaT dakargva sixarulisa.~amitomac gauxSirda poets `mwareni Wirni gulisa.~ aRsaniSnavia, romdakarguli yvavili poetisaTvis iyo `macxovnebeli sicocxlis~ daciuri cvariT danamuli, anu es yvavili sulierad amaRlebda, misidakargva ki poetisaTvis igive dacemaa.yvavilis mxatvruli saxis mravlmxrivoba realistur literatura-Sic mTeli simZafriT warmoCndeba. vaJa bunebis samyaros erwymis da isewarmogvidgens realobasTan Sezavebul Tavis poetur samyaros. vaJa isvaJa ar iqneboda, rom mas Tavis SemoqmedebaSi yvavilebTan Sexeba arhqonoda. yvavili TiTqos afaqizebs xelovans, yuradRebas amaxvilebsmis poetur bunebaze. werilSi `sad aris poezia?~ vaJa miwis muSazesaubrobs, romelic mowiwebiT uyurebs ias. icis, rom mas ver SeWams,verc sxva rameSi gamoiyenebs, mxolod tkbeba misiT da aq aris sworedpoeziac. `visac buneba uyvars, leqsebsac rom ar werdes, maincpoetiao~, — wers vaJa. mas uyvars yvavilebi. magaliTad, pirimze. mas`mTis sasaxelo qals eZaxis~ da gamoarCevs rogorc sikeTes, borotebasrom zemodan dascqeris:`da ufskruls dascqers pirimzemoRerebulis yeliTa~.magram yvelaze metad vaJas ia uyvars. ia, romelic nazia, ususuria,xSirad mgloviare, `Talxkabiani~, magram mainc yvela yvavilze lamazi.leqsSi `ias uTxariT turfasa~ kargad Cans, rom vaJas marTlac gaTavisebuliaqvs ias buneba, amitomac urCevs, am qveynad ar movides, mas anvinme daCagravs, an umzeobiT daitanjeba:`ias uTxariT turfasa:mova da SegWams Wiao,magre moxdeniT, lamazo,Tavi Tavi rom agiRiao!~rogorc cnobilia, es leqsi vaJam Tavis gardacvlil meuRles204


enaTmecniereba, literaturaTmcodneobamiuZRvna, amitamac miabara silamaze miwas:miwav, Sen gebarebodeses Cemi turfa iao,Sen upatrone, emSoble,rogoric Seni zneao.~vaJa Tavis prozaSic warmoaCens ias. is gacocxlebulia daametyvelebuli, igive Tvisebebi gaaCnia, rac leqsSi: sustia, nazi daturfa, amitomac yvelas uyvars da ufrTxildeba mas. iac Sehxarissamyaros da madlobas uxdis Tavis gamCens. erTi sadardebeli aqvs:`Tu gamaCine, ufalo,didi dRe rad ar mameo?~ias awuxebs usamarTloba, ratomaa kaci aseTi Seubralebeli dagulcivi. TviTon xom iseTi keTilia, rom cudis fiqric ki ar gauvlisTavSi. vaJas ia me samgvari saxiT warmomidgeba. 1. adamianis saxiT,romelic TiTqos axlad dabadebuli, nazi da ususuria. mas yvela uvlisda civ niavs ar akarebs. 2. ia marTlac yvavilia, romelic saocradmSvenieria. 3. ia umweo adamiania, romelic sikvdils elodeba:`vahme, ra sabralo ariia, mosuli mTazeda!beCavs daazrobs sicive,an elvas dahkravs mTazeda.RmerTs miucia sawylisadmokle sicocxlis Jamia,qveynisa misgan SvenebaerTi beCavi wamia.ia daiwyebs kvdomasa,daiqviTinebs: `vahmeo!Tu gamaCine, ufalo,didi dRe rad ar mameo?! ~vaJas Semoqmedeba poliTematikuria, amitomac SesaZleblobas gva-Zlevs sxvadasxvagvari aRqmisas. vaJa xom geniosi mweralia da misigeniosobac swored amaSi mdgomareobs. aseTi didi mwerali ki TavisSvils yovelTvis abarebda iebis mokrefas; iebi misTvis STagonebiswyaro iyo.yvavili sxvaTagan gansxvavebuli datvirTviT aisaxeba galaktiontabiZis SemoqmedebaSi. zogadad yvavilis simbolo TiTqos Sors aristkivilisgan, imedgacruebisgan, riTac savse iyo galaktionis cxovreba,magram miuxedavad amisa, galaktionTan yvavilma es datvirTvac SeiZina.amas adasturebs poetis leqsi — ` silaJvarde anu vardi silaSi.~205


enaTmecniereba, literaturaTmcodneoba`rogorc nawvimar silaSi vardi,Cemi cxovrebis gza sizmaria,~— wers poeti da silaSi Cavardnil vards Tavisi cxovrebis gzasadarebs; rogorc vardisTvis aris Seuferebeli `nawvimar silaSi~ yofna,aseve poetsaTvis — es qveyana, radgan cxovrebam imedebi gaucrua,datanja da gansacdelSi datova. leqsis gagrZeleba swored amasasaxavs:`Sexede! dastkbi! Cemi Tvalebi,winaT rom feTqdnen cvrebiT, iebiT,—RamenaTevi da namTvralevisavsea cremlTa SurisZiebiT!~`Sexede! dastkbi!~ — amas poeti ironiiT ambobs, radgan veravinigemebs siamovnebas ganadgurebuli adamianis xilviT, romelic amas arimsaxurebda. misi Tvalebidan cremli da SurisZieba gamosWvivis, rocaadre, siymawvileSi, `cvrebiT~ da `iebiT~ iyo savse. es orive sityva —`iebi~ da `cvrebi~ — imeds unda niSnavdes, raime kargis molodins, racgixalisebs cxovrebas, magram SurisZiebiT aRgznebul adamians esimedic ecleba xelidan:`da roca bediT dawyevlil gzazesikvdilis landi momeCveneba,gansasvenebel ziarebazeCemTan ar mova Seni xseneba!~ukanasknel wamebSi arc satrfo da arc RvTismSobeli ar edgebapoets gverdSi (mariamis da meris saxe am leqsSi gaigivebulia):`me jojoxeTiT var dafaruli!~— swored amgvar gzas eZaxis galaktioni nawvimar silaSi Caflulivardis yofas. is `jojoxeTiTaa dafaruli~ da amitomacaa misTvis ocnebaSoreuli cis silaJvarde.yvavilis kidev erTi saintereso mxatvruli saxe — Sedareba —gvxvdeba galaktionis leqsSi `mTawmindis mTvare~:`mTvare TiTqos zambaxia SuqTa mkrTali mZiviT,~mTel leqss gasdevs mTvaris xateba; aqcenti mTvareze saTaurSicwarmoCndeba — `mTawmindis mTvare.~ es imitom, rom swored mTvarem miscapoets STagoneba. mTvare ki poetisTvis yvavilia — zambaxi — siwmindeda mSveniereba erTad.mTawmindaze dasaflavebuli udidesi pirovnebebis gverdiT, maTdamipativis niSnad mxolod yvavilebis adgilia:`aq Cems axlo akakis lands sZinavs mefur ZiliT,aq mwuxare sasaflaos, vardiT da gviriliT...~206


enaTmecniereba, literaturaTmcodneobaleqsSi vardi kidev erTxel figurirebs:`Tu sikvdilis siaxlove rogor asxvaferebsmomakvdavi gedis hangTa vardebs da CanCqerebs...~momakvdavi gedi Tavad poetia, hangebi — misi Semoqmedeba, vardebi daCanCqerebi ki misi SemoqmedebiTi fantazia, ocneba unda iyos, romelicpoetis aRsasrulis moaxloebisas icvleba da SesaZlebeli xdeba imisTqma, rac TiTqos SeuZlebelia:`oRond vTqva Tu Ramem sulSi rogor Caixeda.~poeti imis Tqmasac SeZlebs, Tu rogoria zeca:`Tu sizmarma viT Seisxa cidan camde frTebi~da, ra Tqma unda, imasac aRgviwers, Tu rogoria ocnebaTa samyaro:`da gaSala ocnebaTa lurji ialqnebi.~amis Semdeg poetisTvis sikvdili araferia, mas, ra Tqma unda, SiSicdaZleuli aqvs, radgan `simReriT~ kvdeba. simRera ki leqsia, romelicmefed xdis poets da akakisa da baraTaSvilis gverdiT umkvidrebs adgils,didi poetebis gverdiT, mTawmindis mTvaris qveS, realur dazRaprul adgilas.galaktionis kidev erT ukvdav leqsSi `usiyvarulod~ figurirebsyvavilis simbolo. mis gareSe albaT am leqssac ar eqneboda aseTizemoqmedebis Zala; poeti yvavils amjerad ornair siyvaruls adarebs —pirvels da ukanasknels. poeti ambobs, rom Semodgomis yvavili sjobnisgazafxulisas da akonkretebs kidevac ratom. pirveli siyvaruli,poetis TqmiT, vnebazea dafuZvnebuli, Tu is gamonaklisi araa. ukanasknelisiyvaruli ki gazafxulis yvavilebs ar emsgavseba, igi velurixmebiT aRtacebuli araa da mas sio ki ara, qarisxali dastrialebs Tavs.galaktioni Semodgomis yvavils aniWebs upiratesobas, radgan pirvelisiyvarulisgan gansxvavebiT umizno siyvaruli ar aris. vneba maleqreba, vnebasTan erTad ki siyvarulic, amitom magonebs me gazafxulisyvavilebis ufro mowonebas, vidre siyvaruls, xolo Semodgomis yvavili,romelsac qariSxali verafers aklebs, Zlier siyvaruls, sikvdilisbolomde rom mihyveba adamians. uxmo alersic ufro myaria,vidre vnebis dros uazrod wamosrolili sityvebis korianteli. leqsisbolos galaktioni ambobs, rom yvela kvdeba, amitom ukanaskneli siyvarulicileva imaTTan erTad, visac uyvardaT erTmaneTi ukanasknelad;magram Tu sicocxle kidev grZeldeba, maSin ukanaskneli siyvarulicinavardebs `TviT ukvdavebis~ ZaliT da saxeliT:`usiyvarulodmze ar sufevs cis kamaraze,207


enaTmecniereba, literaturaTmcodneobasio ar dahqris, tye ar krTebasasixarulod...usiyvarulod ar arsebobsarc silamaze,arc ukvdaveba ar arsebobsusiyvarulod.magram sul sxvaa siyvaruliukanasknelirogorc yvavili SemodgomisxSirad pirvels sjobs,igi ar uxmobs qariSxlianumizno vnebebs,arc ymawvilur Jins, arc velur xmebsigi ar uxmobs...da Semodgomis siciveSivelad gazrdili,is gazafxulis naz yvavilebssulac ara hgavs...sios magivrad qariSxaliealersebada vnebis nacvlad uxmo alerssgaremoucavs,da Wkneba, Wkneba siyvaruliukanaskneli,Wkneba mwuxared,nazad magramusixarulod.da ar arsebobs qveyanazeTviT ukvdaveba,TviT ukvdavebac ar arsebobsusiyvarulod!~yvavilebi silamazesTan erTad asocirdeba sikvdilTanac, radgansaflavebs yovelTvis maTi meSveobiT vamkobT. es SegrZneba aisaxa ladoasaTianis leqsSi — `krwanisis yayaCoebi~, romelSiac yvavilebi — yayaCoebiTavisiT amosulan gmirTa saflavebze. poets es yayaCoebi sisxladelandeba, radgan swored aq ganuteves suli marTlac omiT da brZoliTgaumaZRarma aragvelebma; amitomac svams kiTxvas poeti:`SavCoxiano vaJkaco, Wriloba xom ar Segxsnia?~leqsSi lado asaTiani mxolod kiTxvebs svams, pasuxs ar scems,208


enaTmecniereba, literaturaTmcodneobaradgan is mxolod Tavisi Sinagani samyarodan gvesaubreba, gardasulsulTa magivrad pasuxis gacemas ki Cven — mkiTxvelebs mogvandobs.`Tu arc yayaCos cecxlia da arc axali iara,ma es beberi krwanisi ra Zalam aabriala?~leqsSi yvavils patriotuli datvirTva aqvs. aragvelebis gmirobisgarda amaze migvaniSnebs mxatvruli saxe `yayaCos cecxli~, romelSiacasociaciiT gmiruli suliskveTeba unda vigulisxmoT, is suliskveTeba,romelic poets aTqmevinebs:`Tavs ar moiklavs qarTveli, ara,is SeiZleba brZolaSi mokvdeserTi imediT: sicocxle maradgagrZeldes qveynad da ganmeordes~(`saqarTveloSi~, gv.114).sicocxle didi ganZia da swored am ganZisTvis wiravdnen Tavs, romsakuTar Tavze ufro sanukvars — samSoblos darCenoda es ganZi. isiniswored samSoblos gulisTvis debdnen Tavs, rom is erTiani da Zlieriyofiliyo, rom Semdgom Taobas swored aseT saqarTveloSi ecxovra.leqsSi naxsenebi iara axali namdvilad ar aris, es iara saukuneebisganmalobaSi modis da mamisgan Svils gadaecema memkvidreobiT, sanamsaqarTvelo Zlieri, lamazi da erTiani ar gaxdeba. lado asaTianisSemoqmedeba xom mTlianad samSoblos siyvaruliTaa gaJRenTili da amleqsSic samSoblosadmi tkivilia gadmocemuli. `beberi krwanisi~ gulidanwamosulma didma grZnobam aabriala, poetis grZnobam, romelmacSeigrZno Tavisi winapris danatovari didi gasaWiri da is Zveli iaraaxlad gaRvivda mis gulSi, romelmac survili gauCina aragvelebissaflavTan misvlis da am wminda adgilas daCoqebis. es grZnoba yvelaCvenganSi devs, yvela qarTvelSi, ubralod gaRviZebas elodeba... esaris yvaviliT gamoxatuli grZnoba.bolos Cveni Tanamedrove poetis — SoTa iaTaSvilis poezia da, ker-Zod, erTi leqsi — `benzinis yvavilebi~ minda vaxseno, romlis saTauricTavisi krebulis saTaurad aurCevia avtors. ras niSnavs es saTauri?vfiqrobT, is aris grZnobidan gamomdinare moqmedebis erTi niuansissaxeldeba, romelic am grZnobas afiqsirebs da gamokveTs. `benzinisyvavilebi~ qalis profilis moulodneli danaxviT gamowveuli xiblia,saqmes rom gaviwyebs. benzinis avzi ivseba da gadmoRvrili sawvaviferad yvavilebad iSleba asfaltze... magram male Sreba benzini.ver vityvi, rom zogadad SoTa iaTaSvilis leqsebSi gamSralgrZnobebzea saubari, Tundac imitom, rom es grZnobebi (gind codvebi,rogorc avtori erTgan gveubneba) Tundac am konkretul leqsSi ferad209


enaTmecniereba, literaturaTmcodneobayvavilebad gaiSala da dafiqsirda.am Temis gagrZeleba usasrulod SeiZleba, radgan ar arsebobspoeti, romelsac yvavilis simbolo ar gamouyenebia; miuxedavad amisa,mxolod zogierTi mxatvruli saxea gulSi Camwvdomi da samudamod dasamaxsovrebeli.Cven swored amgvar saxeebs SevexeT da daskvnis saxiTSegviZlia vTqvaT, rom yvavilis simbolos qarTul poeziaSi mxoloddadebiTi muxti aqvs. is ganasaxierebs warmaval mSvenierebasac(`SuSanikis wameba~) da suliersac (`abos tfilelis wameba~), amqveyniursilamazesac (`rad hyvedri kacsa~) da maradiul xsovnasac (`krwanisisyayaCoebi~), qalTa saxeebsac da qalis mowonebiT aRZruli grZnobis simoklesac(`benzinis yvavilebi~), pirvel siyvarulsac da ukanasknelsac.saerTod, Zalian saintereso procesia am simbolosa da misgangamomdinare mxatvrul saxeebze dakvirveba.gamoyenebuli literatura:1. l. asaTiani. erTtomeuli, gamomcemloba `sabWoTa saqarTvelo~,Tb., 1979.2. n. baraTaSvili. Txzulebani, saiubileo krebuli — 150, gamomcemloba`sabWoTa saqarTvelo~, Tb., 1968.3. g. tabiZe rCeuli, `sabWoTa saqarTvelo~, 1973.4. vaJa-fSavela. TxzulebaTa sruli krebuli aT tomad, t. I, `sab-WoTa saqarTvelo~, Tb., 19642;5. S. iaTaSvili. `benzinis yvavilebi~, Tb., 2001.6. Zveli qarTuli literaturis qrestomaTia, I, Sedgenili sol. yubaneiSvilismier, stalinis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetisgamomcemloba, Tb., 1946.7. al. WavWavaZe. Txzulebani simfonia-leqsikoniTurT, Tbilisisuniversitetis gamomcemloba, Tb., 1996.210


enaTmecniereba, literaturaTmcodneobasofiko kanTelaSvilissip goris universiteti, bakalavriatis studentigiorgi pirvelis sagareo politika(k. gamsaxurdias `didostatis marjvenis~ mixedviT)xelmZRvaneli: profesori Tamar gogolaZesamwuxaro faqtia, rom saqarTvelos yvela Taobam icis Tu ra arisgareSe mtris wnexi, maT Soris Cvenma Taobamac. Cveni Temac konfliqtsexeba, oRond cota Soreuli warsulis, Cveni mefeebisdroindel konfliqts,romelic aseve sainteresodaa asaxuli qarTul literatura-Sic, kerZod konstantine gamsaxurdias istoriul romanSi `didostatismarjvena~.Tavisi arsebobis manZilze qarTuli saxelmwifo da misi mefeebi gamudmebiTibrZodnen Sinaur Tu gareSe mtrebis winaaRmdeg. am procesiserTi monakveTia meTerTmete saukunis saqarTvelos sagareo politikurimdgomareoba, rodesac mefe giorgi pirvels sakmaod daZabuli ur-TierToba hqonda bizantiasa da sarkinozebTan, miuxedavad imisa, romyovel Rones xmarobda mis mosaxsnelad. mefis ufleba- movaleobani uZvelesidroidanve mkacrad reglamitirebuli iyo saxelmwifos marTvisprocesSi, rac kargad Cans qarTuli samarTlis ZeglebSic: `xelmwifiskaris garigebaSi~ warmodgenilia feodaluri monarqia, romlis saTave-Si dgas mefe. sayuradReboa, rom Zeglis mixedviT mefe zebunebrivi arsebisniSnebiT aris dajildovebuli. igi RvTis sworia (1.21).meaTe saukunis meore naxevari da meTerTmete saukunis pirveli naxevarifriad mniSvnelovani xanaa Cveni qveynis istoriaSi. mefe bagratmesamem pirvelad SeZlo saqarTvelos gaerTianeba (garda Tbilisisa,romelic imxnad jer kidev sarkinozebs epyraT). `bagrat mefis mtkicexasiaTma, brZnulma da windaxedulma mmarTvelobam, vaJkacurma guladobamda SorsmWvretelma politikam saqarTvelo gaaerTiana da misZlierebas mkvidri safuZveli daudva~(2.242). bagrat mesame rom miicvala,giorgi pirveli sruliad axalgazrda iyo, man `TiTqmis Tavis mefobada ZalRone... bizantiis keisris winaaRmdeg brZolas Sealia~(2.422).giorgi mefe TavdadebiT ebrZoda bizantielebs da icavda Tavisiqveynisw damoukudeblobasa da mTlianobas. saistorio wyaroebi giorgimefes axasiaTebs, rogorc `savses yovliTa sikeTiTa, axovans da uSi-Sars’’(3.197). marTalia, giorgi pirvelis mefoba ar yofila xangrZli-211


enaTmecniereba, literaturaTmcodneobavi(1014—1027), magram mis moRvaweobas mainc gansakuTrebuli mniSvnelobahqonda saqarTvelos damoukideblobis SenarCunebasa da ganmtkicebisaTvis.istoriuli mxatvruli literatura sakmao adgils uTmobs mefeTacxovreba-moRvaweobas. Cven vcadeT aRniSnuli sakiTxis analizi,romelicvrceli naSromis erT nawils warmoadgens k. gamsaxurdias istoriuliromanis `didostatis marjvenis~ magaliTze.`didostatis marjvenis~ irgvliv Cven SeviswavleT istorikosTa dalitereturaTmcodneTa (iv. javaxiSvilis, s. siguas, d. benaSvilis, S. radianisda sxvaTa) naazrevi. literaturaTmcodneni yuradRebas ZiriTadadtiranul qveyanaSi xelovanis bedze ufro amaxvilebdnen amitom SedarebiTufro sayuradReboa im kritikosTa naazrevi, romlebic swavlobenaRniSnul epoqas politikur problemebsa da mis mxatvrul retrospeqciaze.saxelmwifos xelmZRvanlis swori saSinao da sagareo politikagansazRvravs mis beds. aRniSnuli sakiTxi dResac aqtualuria.`rogor gamoxata gamsaxurdiam gardasuli dro Tavis istoriul romanSi?WeSmaritad istoriul romanSi tipebi unda cxovrobdnen konkretulpirobebSi, winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi, romanSi Cven gveqneba epoqisyalbi anarekli.moqmedebis zusti aRniSvna warmoadgens istoriuli romanisdamaxasiaTebel Tvisebas.Tu am gagebiT SevxedavT konstantine gamsaxurdias `didostatismarjvenas~, im daskvnamde mivalT, rom avtori, xSir SemTxvevaSi,emijneba mogonil faqtebs, magram yovelive es ostaturad SexamebuliaromanSi aRweril drosTan. k. gamsaxurdias aqvs mizezi amgvari moqmedebisa.romanSi aRwerili epoqis Seswavlis dros mas hqonda Zalian Zliermcire istoriuli sabuTebi. mag., `qarTlis cxovraba, romelic didimowmea saqarTvelos warsulisa Zunwad iZleva cnobebs zemodaRniSnulepoqaze. qarTveli cnobili istorikosi, akademikosi ivane javaxiSvilimxolod zogierT cnobas gvawvdis imave epoqaze. amrigad, arabul daberZnul sqematur masalebTan erTad mwerlis xelT iyo mxolod fantaziiscxovelmyofeli Zala.ase Seiqmna k. gamsaxurdias — `erT-erTi umSvenieresi Zegli qarTuliistoriuli prozisa~(4.308).albaT, gaCndeba kiTxva, Tu ratom mohkida xeli k. gamsaxurdiam aRniSnuliepoqis aRweras? am kitxvaze pasuxs Tavad avtori iZleva: `didostatismarjveniT~ didi saqaeTvelos Cveneba ganvacxade Tanadrouliromanis mixedviT.`vinc daaxloebiT mainc warmoadgens, Tu ra didi mxeci iyo basili212


enaTmecniereba, literaturaTmcodneobameore, bulgarT mmusvreli, romlis imperia ganfenili iyo apeninis naxevarkunZulidan basianamdis, balkaneTis ukiduresi samanebidan arabeTisudabnos kidemdis, misTvis gasagebi iqneba, Tu ra kolosaluri Zalismatarebeli yofila imJamindeli saqarTvelos mefe giorgi pirveli,romelmac erTxel magram mainc daamarcxa keisari bizantiisa, da amubadlo vaJkacs, romelsac mateane uwodebs `uSiSars viTarca uxorcos,~qarTul qronikaSi oriode gverdi aqvs miZRvnili. me SemZra amusamarTlobam da miCqmaluli gmiris apologias vuZRveni didi mduRarebaCemi sulisa’’(5.373).`gareSe mters mosisxle da duSmani imitomac hqvia, rom igi yvelaxerxiTa da yvela saSualebiT gvebrZvis da kacma rom Tqvas, es kacobriobissisixliani istoriis kanonzomierebac kia~(6.450).am faqtis naTeli magaliTia bizantiis cbieri saqcieli, romelicerTmorwmuneobis niRbiT modioda saqarTvelos winaaRmdeg.sabednierod, giorgi pirveli sworad miuxvda basili keisars niRbisqveS ras malavda. saqarTvelos mefe am azrs erT-erT dialogSi ambobskidec, rom `basili keisars es unda: erTmorwmune saqarTveloc somxe-Tis darad gadasanslos rogorme. sanamde pirSi suli midgams ver moeswrebaam dRes basili keisari,~ ver iTmens dedoflisa da kaTalikosisibrma erTgulebas bizantiis mimarT. mefe ar cxreba. usazRvroa misi si-Zulvili bizantiisadmi: `me yvelaferi mezizreba bizantiuri~. ubralokerZo saubarSic mJRavndeba giorgis Tvalsazrisi, mas TviT berZnulienac sZags, Tumca berZnulic icoda da arabulic, magram sasaxleSi mxolodqarTulad metyvelebda. mefis Rrma rwmeniT `saerTod qurdebiabizantielebi, sjuli ebraelebs mopares, ena- ZvelberZnebs, bulgarelebs— cetiniumi, somxebs-anisi, basianis gadaRma qveynebi-qarTvelebs,xolo sindisi veravis waglijes, radgan aseTi ram ara sWiriaT jerac~(7,416).bizantia xom swored qristes saxeliT lamobs Cagvris uReli daadgassaqarTvelos, Tavis satelitad aqcios.(7.421)`yvelaze globaluri da mwvave Tanadrouli idea, rasac`didostatismarjvenaSi~ amoikiTxavT, es aris erTi ideologiis safarqveS didiqveynisgan mcirericxovani saxelmwifos dapyrobis cda. roca qristianulsaxelmwifos araqristianuli qveynebi ebrZodnen eri rjulsa daqveyanas erTnairi TavgametebiT icavda momxdurTagan~(6.447).kulturaSi daiwyo da politikaSi gadmovida bizantiasTan nacionalurigajibrebis idea. giorgis antibizantiuri ganwyoba pipasTan dialogSigamoikveTa: `mudam bizantielebs egebodnen fexqveS Cveni suleliaznaurebi da Rormucela episkoposebi, mefeebi mwvane etlebs miet-213


enaTmecniereba, literaturaTmcodneobarfodnen da bizantiur xarisxebs, amitomac ar miyvarda papaCemi — gurgenmagistrosi, mamaCemi — bagrat kurapalati da mcxeTdan gaqcevis gamoCems vaJs wavekide, bagrats.Cveni ubedureba egaa: sxvis fandurze buqnaoba gviyvars amitomacmusrs avlebda saqarTvelos sxvis qveynebSi atexili Wiri~(5.355).miuxedavad mefis antibizantiuri ganwyobisa, stumrad mobrZanebulibizantieli didebulebi: katepani nikifore kasavila, patriciusqristefore delfos, sevastis Teosore lamparos amireli, mitropolitikamaxa...) sruliadac ar grZnobdnen arastumarTmoyvareobas, piriqiTbizantiis jaris sardali — katepani dokiani gakvirvebuli iyo CvenikulturiT.miuxedavad imisa, rom `katepans, movlili hqonda mTelimsoflio, xataeTidan irlamdiamdis. mainc gaocebuli Sescqeroda oqrosada vercxlis WaRebs, didi darbazis kuTxeebSi dadgmuls, bagrateulsamwdeurebs, oqros langarebs, azarfeSebs da fialebs xataur dairanul WurWels.uTvalTvalebda ucnaur ceremoniebs `giorgi abazgis~ brwyinvalesasaxlisas.saqarTvelo mas warmodgenili hqonda rogorc naxevrad warmarTulisamefo.sarkinozis xalifebis karze elCad namyofs ukvirda: muslimebis daradxeliT rom ar sWamdnen, arc yayanebdnen purobis dros, piriqiT savsebiTmdumared Seeqceoda didi da mcire sadils~(5.336).maTi konfliqti saeklesio kalendris irgvliv mimdinareobda. bizantieliepiskoposebi mefis sufrazec ki ganagrZobdnen kamaTs amsakiTxTan dakavSiebiT.Cvenis azriT, k. gamsaxurdiam Tavis romanSi erTmorwmune mtris magaliTiimitom moiyvana, rom mwerlis epoqaSic msgavsi mdgomareobaiyo, oRond bizantia Secvala erTmorwmune ruseTma.`iseve, rogorc istoriuli wyaroebi `didostatis marjvenaSic~ k.gamsaxurdia mTeli simwvaviT gvagrZnobinebs samxreT saqarTvelostragikul xvedrs. mkiTxvels moexseneba jer bizantiam Semdeg otoman-Ta imperiam deda samSoblos moswyvita lazeTi, SavSeTuruSeTi, tao--klarjeTi, basianis mxare, arc arabebs daukliaT, arc sparselebs, arcmonRolebs amdeni vneba ar moutaniaT qarTvelebisTvis. momTabareTurqma yaCaRebma motaces saqarTvelos teritoriis TiTqmis naxevari,waarTves rjuli, ena da erovneba am miwaze mcxovreb qarTvelebs’’97.413).romanSi erovnuli idealebis jvarismtvirTveli aris giorgi mefe,igi eomeba erTi mxriv gandgomil feodalebs, meore mxriv bizantiasa da214


enaTmecniereba, literaturaTmcodneobasarkinozebs. gareSe da Sinaur mtrebTan erTdrouli brZola xom qar-Tuli sinamdvilis mudmivi paradigmaa. giorgi rTuli da winaaRmdegobrivibunebisaa. igi gviCvenebs gardatexas qarTul xasiaTSi, axali aqtiurisulis STanergvas, mis formirebas, ZvelTan dapirispirebas (7.414).igi erTdroulad aris keTilic da borotic, arsebiTad am mcnebaTamiRma mdgari viTarca dionisuri bunebis adamiani, Tanabrad daundobeliarogorc ucxoTa, ise Sinaur mterTa mimarT, umaRlesi miznisken fanatikuradmswrafi. TviTonac ase aRiarebs `me mravali codva mimiZRvisam qveynad, rogorc mefes ise rogorc kacs, TiTqmis yvela nakli Cemixalxisa mitarebia: vaJkacic viyavi da mSiSarac, gulzviadic viyavi daloTic, magram Cemi xalxisTvis arasodes miRalatnia~ (5.355).giorgi pirvelma scada sakuTari qveynis dasacavad yvelanairi Roneexmara, qveyanam icoda: ~swored giorgis xmalma gahkveTa is sabeli, romliTacbizantiis eklesia boWavda qarTuls.romanSi naklebadaa yuradReba gamaxvilebuli sxva sagareo mtreb-Tan dakavSirebiT, magaliTad iranTan da osmalebTan. im periodSi mweralmasagareo politikaze gaamaxvila yuradReba, radgan surdadaenaxvebina konfliqti erTmorwmune qveyanasTan.giorgi pirveli xedavs mTavars da ara detalebs, es `detalebi~ xSiradadamianebia, xolo mTavari saqarTvelos mTlianobis da Zlierebisideaa.215


enaTmecniereba, literaturaTmcodneobaTea baRaTuriasoxumis saxelmwifo universiteti, magistrantiomisdroindeli sofeli XX saukunis qarTul prozaSixelmZRvaneli: profesori nino mindiaSvilisamamulo omis Tema, rogorc mwerlebisa da poetebis mxatvruliSTagonebis wyaro, ar gamqrala omTan erTad. omis Semdgom qarTul literaturaSiaRniSnul Temaze qarTveli prozaikosebis mier SeqmniliaSesaniSnavi Txzulebani, romelTa Soris Rirseuli adgili ukavia nodardumbaZis Semoqmedebas.nodar dumbaZe qarTveli mwerlebis im pleadas ekuTvnis, romlebicexmarebian adamians axali samyaros Seswavlasa da SecnobaSi. misma prozampopularoba moipova Cvens qveyanaSi da Cveni qveynis gareTac. mTelimisi Semoqmedeba da cxovreba qarTveli erisa da qveynis siyvarulSiadaxarjuli. es erovnuli tradiciebis mxatvari erTnairad axlobelia,rogorc mSobliuri, ise sxva xalxebisaTvisac. iumoris daxelovnebulmaostatma nodar dumbaZem erTbaSad, pirvelive romaniT `me, bebia,iliko da ilarioniT~ daipyro mkiTxvelTa gulebi. me ukve sayovelTaodaRiarebuli mwerali viyavi, roca mweralTa kavSirSi mimiReso, —ityoda xolme. misi nawarmoebebi wakiTxvisTanave iumoris grZnobiTgvaTbobs. laRi, Tbili iumori mkiTxvelis mZime emociebis Sesamsubuqebladaris moxmobili, radgan dumbaZis prozas samamulo omiT damZimebulisoflis cxovrebis maCvenebeli suraTebic Zabavs. mwerlis personaJebiwignis furclebidan gadmodian cocxlad, xorcSesxmulad daTanagrZnobisa da sinanulis grZnobiT gvavseben. sabrZolo epizodebsTavis frontul nawarmoebebSi mwerali saerTod ar gviCvenebs; igi gvixatavsomis ulmoblobisagan dazaralebuli, damwuxrebuli adamianebiscxovrebas soflad, maT miznebsa da miswrafebebs.nodar dumbaZem araerTi nawarmoebi uZRvna omisdroindeli sofliscxovrebis asaxvas, riTacomis saSineleba didi STambeWdaobiT gangvacdevina.maT Soris aRniSvnis Rirsia samamulo omisdroindel cxovrebazedawerili romani `me, bebia, iliko da ilarioni~. igi mwerlis pirvelididi wignia TvalsaCino mxatvrul-esTetikuri RirsebebiT, gamoirCevakomikuri elementebis maqsimaluri gamoyenebiT, mdidaria satiriul-iumoristuliasaxvis formebiT, amasTan erTad avtori nawarmoebSi SemaZrwunebladgviCvenebs samamulo omis susxian dReebs. omis gamo216


enaTmecniereba, literaturaTmcodneobauWirdaT romanis moqmed gmirebs, romlebic xumrobebiT erTmaneTs amxnevebdnen.nawarmoebis gmiris axalgazrda zurikela vaSalomiZis bavSvobis xanaomiT aris daRdasmuli. mas sakuTar Tavze metad uyvars aRmzrdeli bebiaolRa da moxuci megobrebi iliko da ilarioni, axarebs maTi xSiri stumrobamis ojaxSi, magram yovelive sixaruls amZimebs omis saSineleba.ai, iliko estumra zurikelas da bebia olRas ojaxSi. zurikela mxiaruladSexvda stumars, bebia olRamac gulTbilad miiRo, saWmel-sasmeliTgaumaspinZlda, magram sixaruls uceb cvlis samwuxaro ambavi,romelic ilarionma moitana. avtori aseTi striqonebiT agebinebsmkiTxvels am Semzarav cnobas: `dRes Cveni fostalioni iyo CvenTan, gerasimesbiWis daRupvis cnoba moitana. me ver vetyvi, Sen uTxario, miTxrailarionma~. nawarmoebidan vgebulobT, rom es ukve meSvide cnoba yofilasofelSi. gerasimesaTvis ilarions Svilis daRupvis ambavia ar Seutyobinebia.fostalionis mier mocemuli qaRaldi buxarSi Seagdo dadawva. gerasime yovel dRes eloda Svils da es lodini mas sicocxlisbolomde mouwevda (n. dumbaZe, t. 1, Tb. 1982 w., gv. 41).soflis erTsulovneba, WirTaTmena, udreki nebisyofa, romanis gmirebisusazRvro siyvaruli da erTguleba samSoblosadmi, TavdadebisSinagani mzadyofna naTelia mkiTxvelisaTvis. amis sarwmunod Tundacis erTi epizodic ikmarebs romanidan, roca sofeli frontelTaTvissaCuqrebis gasagzavnad afusfusda. nawarmoebSi avtors ostaturad Semohyavssoflis agitatori giorgi vaSakiZe. misi mosvla olRas ojaxSida frontis ambebis gamokiTxva erTi iyo. frontis ambebi pirvelad ilarionmagamokiTxa agitators. vaSakiZem Semdegi pasuxi gasca maT: “amxanagebo!samSoblo gasaWirSia, veragi mteri Tavisi sisxliani xelebiTepotineba Cvens qveyanas, Cveni saxelovani wiTeli armia gmirulad ebrZvisfaSistur xrovas! wiTelarmielTaTvis saCuqrebs vagrovebT,Tqvenc xom ar SegveweviT rames?~, — Tqva agitatorma. `mainc, ra saCuqrebigindaT, gaugzavnoT?~ — ikiTxa ilikom.`yvelaferi: xili, Tbili tansacmeli, xelTaTmani, winda; visac raSeuZlia! Tu rames moagrovebT, aq moitaneT, olRasTan~, — Tqva agitatormada wavida. misi gasvlis Semdeg oTaxSi siCume daisadgurebs.yvelasa Tvalwin warmoudgeba frontis xazze mebrZoli Svili, Zma, megobari.mebrZolebs zurgis gamagreba sWirdebodaT da yvela imis fiqrSiiyo, Tu vis ra gaegzavna samSoblos erTguli SvilebisaTvis saCuqrad.ilikom Tavisi erTaderTi nabadi Semoatanina zurikos frontzegasagzavnad. es is nabadi iyo, romelic ilikos sabnad exura da sicocxleserCia (iqve, gv. 43).217


enaTmecniereba, literaturaTmcodneobailikos saqcielSi vlindeba qarTveli kacis buneba, erTsulovnebada sialale, romelic yovel adamians unda axasiaTebdes. bebia olRa TavisisasTumlis mxridan leibs gaarRvevs, siTbos moiklebs da Tavisimoxuci sxeuliT gamTbari matyliT windis qsovas Seudgeba zamTris civRameSi. misi saxiT avtori acocxlebs qarTveli dedis SesaniSnav saxes,romelic samSoblos sadarajoze mdgari vaJkacebisaTvis arafers iSurebs.omisdroindeli cxovrebis mxatvrul gaSuqebas iZleva nodar dumbaZemeore romanSi `me vxedav mzes~. masSi yvelaferi omiTaa damuxtuli.suliskveTeba, ganwyobileba, mizani, adamianTa cxovrebis stili omsemorCileba. avtori aRgviwers sofleli vaJkacebis jarSi wayvanis suraTs.Semzaravi ferebiTaa daxatuli mTeli arsi adamianTa dacilebisa.Txroba lirikuli iumoriT aris gamTbari, iumoriT, romelic gvagrZnobinebs,rom xalxs umZimes viTarebaSic ar daukargavs sicocxliswyurvili da imedi, brZolis Jini da rwmena mis gamarjvebaSi. gamarjvebismosapoveblad saWiro iyo mebrZoli jariskacebis zurgis gamagreba.yvela TavgamodebiT Sromobda. SromaSi gamoirCeoda usinaTlo xatiaSalikaSvili. mas kargad esmoda, rom axla Sroma orjer meti iyo saWiro.Segnebuli hqonda, rom mxolod zurgisa da frontis erTianoba warmoadgendagamarjvebis sawindars. romanSi saTnoebiTa da kdemamosilebiTgamoirCeva maswavlebeli qali qeTevani. sainteresoa misi saxe, rogorcWeSmariti patriotisa. samSoblos dRevandeli dRis realurigrZnoba, Seqmnil viTarebaSi pasuxismgeblobis amaRleba, ganuzomelisikeTe, sikeTiT borotebis damarcxeba, Tavisi xalxisa da saxelmwifosadmirwmena da siamaye — yovelive amis gansaxierebas warmoadgens misiroli romanSi. nawarmoebSi sosoia mamalaZe avtors gamohyavs, rogorcdadebiTi pirovneba, magram mis mier daSvebulma Secdomam naklovanimxarec gamoavlina. igi mizezi xdeba beJanas mkvlelobisa da amas Tvi-Tonve aRiarebs: “me movkali beJana, me, rom ar gamexelebina, arafers arizamda~. beJanas sikvdili tragikuli faqtia mkiTxvelisaTvis, radganigi nawarmoebSi gamoCenisTanave keTili bunebiT, maRali zneobrivi suliskveTebiT,keTilSobilebiT mkiTxvelis siyvaruls imsaxurebs.nawarmoebSi mZafri ferebiTaa daxatuli omisdroindeli cxovrebada siRaribe. amis dasadastureblad im epizodis gaxsenebac ikmarebsromanidan, roca sosos mamis qurqi da Ceqmebi miaqvs gasacvlelad xatiasTanerTad. nawarmoebSi xatias mier simindze mzis danaxva gadarCenis,gamarjvebis rwmenis simboloa.meore msoflio omisdroindel literaturaSi siyvarulis sakiTxisgaSuqebas gansakuTrebuli adgili eTmoboda. gmir mebrZolebs siyvaru-218


enaTmecniereba, literaturaTmcodneobali sikvdilis SiSs aviwyebda. siyvarulis sakiTxs met-naklebad exebanodar dumbaZe SesaniSnav romanSi “me vxedav mzes~. miuxedavad imisa,rom am nawarmoebSi yvelaferi omiTaadamuxtuli, gakvriTaa aRwerilidaTiko brigadirisa da qeTo maswavleblis dramatuli romani, romelictragikulad mTavrdeba. frontis gzidan ukan mobrunebuli daTikoSeiZula qeTevanma, igi mTelma sazogadoebam gariya. daTiko uaryofiTpirovnebad gvevlineba. mwerali mas zneobrivad gamarjvebuladTvlis mas Semdeg, roca daTikom sicocxle gawira da mdinares gamostacaxatias sicocxle. xatia fizikurad gadarCa, daTikom zneobrivad gaimarjva.nawarmoebSi mwerali SesaniSnavad aRgviwers sosoiasa da xatiaswrfel grZnobas. besarion SalikaSvilis xatia dabadebidan brma iyo.rodesac meore msoflio omi daiwyo, xatia sxvebTan erTad Sromobdasoflad, fronteli megobrebisaTvis zurgis gasamagreblad. igi Sinaganadxedavs mzes da sosoias. isini uerTmaneTod ver Zleben, erTad iziarebencxovrebis Wir-varams da erTnairad iSuSeben omis mier miyenebulWrilobebs. ase SesaniSnavad ixilavs mwerali nodar dumbaZe siyvarulissakiTxs Tavis romanSi. es nawarmoebi erT-erTi unikaluri qmnilebaaTanamedrove qarTuli prozisa.omisdroindeli soflis cxovrebaa gadmocemuli nodar dumbaZisSesaniSnav moTxrobaSi `nu gaaRviZeb~. gaWirveba da siRatake ganuyofeliTanamgzavria moTxrobis gmirebisa. yvelas uWirda, magram ara er-Tnairad. saerTo gasaWiri sisxliani omi iyo. omma auracxeli gaWirvebadaatexa Tavze xalxs. frontis xazze myofi jariskaci sisxlis zRvaSimicuravda, Sin darCenilebi SimSiliT ixocebodnen. titanuri Sromismiuxedavad, sofeli mainc damSeuli iyo. zogi ojaxi ZaZebSi gaaxvia omma,zogs arc Savi sudara akmara da arc SimSili. xalxi iZulebuli iyo,ukanaskneli rac gaaCndaT, is gaeyidaT lukma purisaTvis. gaWirvebamkukuras da mis das naTelas marCeneli Zroxa gasayidad bazarze gaayvanina.kukuras didi survili aqvs gayidos Zroxa, raTa droebiT aicilosSimSili, magram igive Zroxis dakvlis winaaRmdegia. roca gaigebs, romananias Zroxa nadisTvis unda dasaklavad, aviwydeba siRaribe, ubrunebsfuls da Zroxa ukan mihyavs saxlSi. kukurasa da ananias saxiT dapirispirebuliasiRaribe da simdidre erTmaneTTan. xalxis siRaribisa da ga-Wirvebis mizezi ki omi iyo, romelic qariSxaliviT mZvinvarebda imdros.mniSvnelovania nodar dumbaZis moTxroba `ZaRli~. am nawarmoebSimoTxrobili ambavi meore msoflio omis dros moxda. masSi mTeli sim-ZafriTaa naCvenebi omis susxis miRweva sofelSi, amasTanave SesaniSnavadaamoTxrobili cxovreba upatrono ZaRlisa, romelic mebufetem dam-219


enaTmecniereba, literaturaTmcodneobaduRra, xolo moxucma upatrona da moarCina. sikvdilsac moxucma gadaarCina,win aRudga sofels, ZaRli rom exsna. moxucis sikvdilis dResZaRli saxlSi Sedis da taxtze dasvenebul kubos miadgeba, sadac moxuciesvena. aqac iseve, rogorc mis umetes nawarmoebebSi, sicocxlis mudmivTanamgzavrad Cans sikvdili. moTxrobis finalSi oboli gogita sulmarto rCeba babuac ukvdeba, magram finali mainc imediT aris aRsavse,radgan sicocxle maradiulia da amas mwerali misTvis Cveuli ZaliT dataqtiT axerxebs.`sofels gavxede, odebidan kvamli amodioda TeTr bolqvebad, mamlebiyiodnen, Zroxebi bRaodnen, Txebi petelobdnen, qaTmebi kriaxobdnen,koncxualze uzarmazari mze Semomdgariyo. uceb sxeuli siTboTiamevso da yurebSi sasiamovno zarma dareka~.mwerlis yovel romansa da moTxrobas, raoden mZime gancdebsac arunda gviziarebdes igi, mudam imediani finali aqvs, radgan avtorisRrma rwmeniT, adamiani, mze, sicocxle maradiulia.meore msoflio omi, romelmac aTeuli milionobiT adamianis sicocxleSeiwira, erT-erT yvelaze did da tragikul movlenad rCeba kacobriobisistoriaSi. miuxedavad imisa, rom omis wlebSi saqarTvelozefrontis xazi ar gadioda da arc mtris zurgSi aRmoCenila misi teritoria,yvela qarTuli ojaxis ubedurebad iqca. vinaidan rodesac mteriveragulad dagvesxa Tavs, saqarTvelo sxvebTan erTad Seeba mas. asegaxda saqarTvelo omis monawile da didi samSoblos miwa-wylis damcveli.samamulo omze da mis saSinelebaze bevri ram dawerila. nodar dumbaZemaxleburi TvalTaxedviT dagvanaxa, gangvacdevina da waruSleladaRbeWda Cvens cnobierebaSi is udidesi ubedureba, rac omma moutana kacobriobas.gamoyenebuli literatura:1. n. dumbaZe, t. 1. Tb. 1982 w.2. a. nikoleiSvili, `XX saukunis qarTuli mwerloba~, quTaisi, 2002 w.3. T. Tordia, `omisdroindeli sofeli Tanamedrove qarTul prozaSi~.sadisertacio naSromi (06. 03. 1998 w.).220


enaTmecniereba, literaturaTmcodneobaTeona qurToulissip — goris universiteti, bakalavriatis studentioTar CxeiZis postsabWouri romani `2001 weli~xelmZRvaneli: profesori zaza cotniaSviliXX saukunis 90-ian wlebSi qarTuli literatura kidev erTxel dadgaarCevnis winaSe. es kvlavac gaxldaT orientaciis arCevis aucilebloba,anu qarTul mwerlobas da TiToeul qarTvel mwerals unda gadaewyvita,Tu saiT, romeli kulturuli Tu cnobieri sivrcisken mimar-Tavda Tavis sulier, SemoqmedebiT Tu msoflmxedvelobriv Ziebas.erTaderT misaReb kulturul sivrced gamocxadda sabWouri dax-Suli sivrce da erTaderT WeSmarit cnobierad - sabWouri, ideologizirebuli,materialuri cnobiereba, romlis fonzec xelovnebis saarseboareali unda gamxdariyo mxolod socialisturi realizmi, anufsevdo-realizmi, rogorc mas dRes SeiZleba vuwodoT. kulturis, iseve,rogorc cnobierebis, procesebze Zalmomreoba sakmaod efeqturiaRmoCnda, Tu gaviTvaliswinebT, rom gansakuTrebiT pirvel aTwleulSiis xorcieldeboda ara mxolod SemoqmedebiTi an moraluri, aramedTviT fizikuri Zaladobis saxiTac. magram radganac xelovnebis ZalmomreobiTimarTva ramdenime aTwleuls gagrZelda da meTodebic ufrocivilizebuli gaxda, sruli saxiT ver moxerxda kontroli calkeulmwerlebze, romlebic amjerad ara dajgufebis an, Tundac, TaobissaxeliT, aramed individualurad, sakuTari Tavis winaSe, anu sakuTariSemoqmedebis farglebSi axorcielebdnen kulturul da cnobier arCevans,raSic, bunebrivia, igulisxmeboda sabWouri kulturis daxSulisazRvrebidan gaRweva da ama Tu im formiT Tanadrouli Tu klasikurikulturuli sivrceebisken gzis gakvleva. Tuki kulturis sivrced miviCnevTim areals, romelic iqmneba adamianis mxatvrul-SemoqmedebiTiTu Semoqmedebisadmi azrovnebiT-analitikuri moRvaweobis Sedegad,xolo cnobierebis sivrced — im areals, romelsac individi an sazogadoebaqmnis realobis, gare sinamdvilis aRqma-gacnobierebebisa da sinamdvileSisakuTari adgilis gamokveTis Sedegad, maSin cxadi iqneba,rom nebismier kulturul ares Sesabamisi cnobieri poziciac gansazRvravs.am TvalsazrisiT xelovanTa mcdelobaa, TavianTi saqmianoba isemoeqciaT ama Tu im sabWour kulturul sivrceSi, rom maTi cnobieripoziciac arasabWouri yofiliyo. meore mxriv, Tu ki xelovani SeimuSa-221


enaTmecniereba, literaturaTmcodneobavebda sabWouri ideologiisadmi dauqvemdebarebel cnobier pozicias,misi SemoqmedebiTi Ziebebic, cxadia, sabWouri kulturisaTvis ideologiismier moxazul sazRvrebs Soris gascdeboda. aravisTvis ar iyodafaruli, rom sabWoTa periodSi gabatonebuli Zalebis mier kulturis,xelovnebis procesebis marTvis survili gulisxmobda kidec rogorcxelovnis, aseve aRmqmeli sazogadoebis cnobierebis marTvas.XX saukunis 50-ian wlebSi komunisturi ideologia cdilobda zegavlenacqveynis kulturis mowyvetas modernizmis arealisagan, romlissaukunis dasawyisSi dawyebuli mZlavri procesebis gamo sakmaod didimsxverplis fasad daZlia. XX saukunis 50 -iani wlebidan ki socialisturireJimi ufro met sifrTxiles iCenda, rom sabWour kulturaSiZneli SemosaRwevi yofiliyo Tanadrouli kulturuli procesebis gamoZaxili,rac `rkinis fardis wyalobiT~ xorcieldeboda kidec. amdenad,meoce saukunis komunistur sivrceSi sabWouri kulturuli orientaciebisdanergva da SenarCuneba sakmao ZalisxmeviT xorcieldebodada, meore mxriv, xelovanTa mxridan aranakleb Zalisxmevas moiTxovdaam orientaciebisagan ganTavisufleba, Tavisufali kulturuli arCevnisgakeTeba.90-iani wlebis dasawyisSi qveyanaSi viTareba Seicvala. politikurcvlilebebs, cxadia, cnobieri da kulturuli cvlilebebi mohyva; ideologiuriCareva kulturul procesSi gauqmda. orientacia sabWouricnobierebidan zogadadamianuri cnobierebisaken, sabWouri kulturidanmsoflio kulturuli sivrcisken (rac calkeul individTa mierSinaganad ganxorcielebuli iyo kidec), nebadarTuli da savaldebulocki gaxda yvelasaTvis, yoveli mwerlisa da yoveli mkiTxvelisaTvis,mTeli postsabWouri kulturisaTvis.yvelasaTvis cnobili socialuri Zvrebi, cxadia, cnobierebis tipebisurTierTdapirispirebis fonze unda iqnas gaazrebuli, magram amdapirispirebis simwvave qarTul literaturasac gadaswvda. garkveuliTvalsazrisiT qarTul mwerlobas bralad daedo sabWouri cnobierebiserTguleba. im mweralTa mimarT, vinc Tavisi SemoqmedebiT sworedam cnobierebas ewinaaRmdegeboda da Tavisi nawarmoebebiT qmnida kidecsabWouri cnobierebisagan Tavisufal sivrces, msgavsi braldebebis wayenebaTavisTavad ironiuli faqtia. amave xanebSi gamwvavda kidev erTiTema - erovnuli ideebis erTguleba literaturaSi, rac Tavisi arsiTcnobieri problemaa, magram SeiZleba iqces kulturul problemad, Turadikalurad iqneba gagebuli da gadaizrdeba kulturuli sivrcisdaxSvis moTxovnaSi. postsabWouri periodis dasawyisSi qarTul mwerlobasantierovnulobaSic ki daedo brali, rac aseve aranakleb ironi-222


enaTmecniereba, literaturaTmcodneobauli faqtia, radgan SeiZleba iTqvas, rom sabWoTa periodis qarTul literaturaSiswored erovnuli idea moeqca faseulobaTa sistemis saTaveSi.qarTvel mweralTa umTavres mxatvrul-gamomsaxvelobiT amocanadiqca im Sefaruli, alegoriuli formebis Zieba, romelTa meSveobi-Tac erovnuli Tavisuflebis idea mkiTxvelamde unda misuliyo. SeiZlebaiTqvas, rom im periodis qarTulma mwerlobam umTavres misiadaRiara erovnuli ideis gamozrda, romlis safuZvelzec unda momxdariyoqarTvel mkiTxvelSi sulieri da cnobieri Tavisuflebis aRzrda.antierovnulobis braldebebi, romlebic 90-iani wlebis dasawyisSi qar-Tvel mweralTa misamarTiT gaisma, Tavisi xasiaTiT socialuri rigismovlenaa, magram erovnuli problemebis aRqmis speqtris cvlileba amwlebis literaturaSi wminda mxatvruli TvalsazrisiT aRibeWda.oTar CxeiZis romans `2001 wels~ avtoris aseTi winasityvaoba aqvs,romliTac faqtiurad nawarmoebis mTeli siuJeti ixsneba: `2001 weli.axali aTaswleuli. imedebis axali msxvreva... igive tlapo, igive talaxi,igive Wiri mouSorebeli: garedan Wiri, Signidan Wiri. vaglax, imedTaaRusrulebelTa! vaglax, sikeTeo Zleulo da atalaxebulo!~ [3;3].swored rom Semacbunebladaa asaxuli romanSi epoqa, sadac gausaZlisixdeba yofa da Zneldeba darCena optimistad.`sazogadoebrivi Tu politikuri moRvaweobis ufleba rom waerTmiamwerlisaTvis bolSevikur xelisuflebas, aRarc zneobrivi, moralurizemoqmedebis Zalasa da saSualebas utovebda da TiTqos.. TiTqos xalxsaRarc SerCenoda mokrZaleba mwerlobis winaSe, da gamqraliyo idumaliurTierTobis Zafi xalxsa da mwerals Soris.raRac mainc unda darCeniliyoo, — imedovnebiT imedovnebda.` es rabedenaa Sromai Cveni, jaxiri Cveni, imedi Cveni?! ise riRasTvis gadavikideTxelisufleba, riRasTvis CavbmulvarT am uTanasworo, am gaugonarbrZolaSia, riRasTvisa ha, Tu aravis esmis, Tu veravis gulsa da gonebasmivwvdomilvarT, risTvisa ha?! mwerlobas waerTva zemoqmedebis Zalada saSvalebani, sul waerTva, Tu xalxs waerTva unari erovnuli TviT-Segnebisa?! dae isev mwerlobas warTmeodes, xalxs Tu waerTva, davRupulvarTgarduvalada, dae isev mwerlobas warTmeodes, mwerloba isevmoicavs Zalasa, eri veRara ,eri ZuZua, ZuZu Tu daSra, viRas gamokvebavs,viRas gamozrdis?! veRaravisa, veRararasa..!TiTqos xelisuflebas ukve mieRwia Tavisi miznisaTvis — gamoefitaadamiani, gadaeqcia manqanis danamatad... magram `: kvlav igrZnoba Cumidrtvinva, raRac uCveulod Cumi da uCveulod mZvinvari, magram Tu armieca saSvaleba gadmoxeTqvisa, Cakvdeba drtvinva, Cakvdeba, Caikargeba.simcire rom Rupavda Cvens ers? maS isev rusi unda gamofxizlebuliyo,223


enaTmecniereba, literaturaTmcodneobaunda mimxvdariyo: viRupebi da egaa, Tu kidev didxans gastans komunisturimmarTveloba da bolo ar moeReba am totalur sicrueso. is TudaiRupeboda, Cven raRa gvixsnida, Tan gadavyvebodiT da egaa. - ehei, TavisuflebisnaTelo dReebo Tu daviwyebulo ocnebebo!.. da mowodebadaagvirgvinebda im dRis Canawers: - romi unda daangrios romma... aki er-Txel ukve daangria romma romi anu ruseTma ruseTi: 10-iani wlebis miwurulsda gvboZebda 117 wlis naocnebari damoukidebloba. kvlav isJami unda ganmeorebuliyo. TviTon Tu moeswreboda, es ar sjeroda, Toremam Jams isev rom ewera dadgoma, am ocnebaSi danTqmuli mihyvebodaTavis gzasavals da emsubuqeboda gawamebuli yofac da mematianistvirTic~ (2; 607).oTar CxeiZis mTeli Semoqmedebidan kargad Cans, rom mTeli misi gonebada fiqri qarTvels dastiroda. es fiqri ufro gamZafrebula, radganTu `qarTveli qarTveliT iZliveba, Svelac qarTvelidan unda movides.swored Cveni memkvidridan, Taobidan Taobas samagaliTod vusaxavT.saqarTveloSic gmiris dambadi didi sagani spobila da warwymendila,swored rom gmirebis naklebobas ar ganicdis, veRar gagvigia, visunda vuwodoT gmiri? swored amitom da gmirebis saasparezod qceulasaqarTvelo da qarTvelebi. yvela im ubedurobebTan erTad uSuqoba,ugazoba, umuSevroba, ufulobasTan erTad saxelmwifoebrivobis azridakargula. rom miCqmalula xedva saxelmwifosi. damoukideblobis Si-Si ro STanergila, umweobis gancda ro STaTesila~ (8; 90).misustebuli saqarTvelos dasangrevad or saukuneze meti iRvwvisruseTi. romelsac Tavisi sidide qcevia tragizmad.`vinc Tu raman Seawuxos, mouaros yvelam Tvisso~ — es rusTveluristriqoni wamZRvareboda epigrafad `2001 wels~ da ioli amosacnobia,rasac gulisxmobs romanis fonze es miniSneba.aras argebda saqarTvelos sulierxorcianad SeTavazeba sakuTariTavisa amerikis SeerTebuli StatebisaTvis. ruseTs xom aucilebladunda gamovxsnodiT, es udao gaxldaT da qarTvelebis sayovelTaomrwamsisa da ganwyobilebis gamomxatveli, magram nurc amerikisTvis gavimetebdiTsakuTar meobas, erovnul TviTmyofadobasa da istoriulfesvebs. mgeli STanmTqavda Tu mglisferi ZaRli, — didi ram gansxvavebaar iqneboda.cxovreba talaxia. sulic amoTxvrila talaxSi. amaoa cdai yoveli,ver gadarCeba sufTad veravina. yvela moTxvrila da yvelasa Txvris;yvela Sebilwula da bilwavs yovelsa, TviT amaRlebis survilsacaTxvris. ganwmendils SebRalavs, yvela SebRalavs da yvelas SebRalavs.vai wmindaTa anu mosurneTa siwmindisa!~ (2; 709).224


enaTmecniereba, literaturaTmcodneobaoTar CxeiZisTvis ruseTi yovelTvis iyo ngrevis qveyana, borotebissaxelmwifo, TeTri daTvi, ukidegano stepebidan kavkasionis nebiT ga-Rebul karebidan Semosuls, miengr-moengria. qarTuli sulis landSaftisCaTvliT simaRleebi moesworebina da ganegrZo gza konstantinepolisaken.Tavisi idea-fiqsis, mesianuri ideis, romad gaxdomis Sesasruleblad.ganuxorcielebeli ideisa, radgan misi uzarmazari energia TavisukeTes, moazrovne Svilebis, humanur SexedulebebSi gamovlenilicki atarebda damangrevel Zalas, ris gamoc Spenglerma ruseTs uwodaapokalipsuri bunti antikurobis winaaRmdeg.2001 wlis saqarTvelo dauZlurebula, dacemula da suls Rafavs.TiTqmis mTlad gayinula da guls uklavs uZlur Wirisufals. sworedes tkivilebi da gancdebia gadmocemuli oTar CxeiZis nawarmoebSi.romanis personaJad Tavis aRmqmel da daZabul gulaCqarebul garindebulmkiTxvels TiTqos daWimul - gaficxebul dolis Semosakravadxeli SeumarTavs, Tumca jer mweralma qveynis sxeuls modebulisisxliani iarebisa unda Tqvas: qveynis damokidebuleba rom gatanilabazarzeda. saxelmwifos Cuqnian sxvebsa da xelqveiTebs, miuCneviaT xelisuflebada Camjdaran ro Cingizni engurzeda. gadalajulan liaxvzeda,Ruza CaugdiaT WoroxTana; kaxeTi ro buybuyebda SfoTavda samgrelo.imuqreboda aWarai. aqezebdnen samcxe-samTavrosa. qvemo qar-Tlic. raRa Tqma undoda... oTar CxeiZis SemoqmedebisaTvis mTavari mamoZravebeliZala da iaraRi simarTle da uSiSroeba. yvelafrisTvisTavisi saxeli daurqmevia.oTar CxeiZe Tavis saTqmels mwvave sarkazmiT, ironiiT, magram araRvarZliani dacinviT gamoxatavs. sarkazmiT, romelic misTvis Sinaganitragizmis nawilicaa. radgan misi yvela personaJis bedi isea gadaja-Wvuli qveynis bedad, rom maTi yoveli uneblie Tu winaswar ganzraxuliboroteba qveynis yofna-aryofnas bevrad gansazRvravs.oTar CxeiZisaTvis yvelaze didi danakargi TviTmyrobelobisaganqarTvelebis gamotvinebaa: xalxisTvis `xalxobis~ dakargvineba romelicswored amis gamo bevri rasis Sembedav-Semkadrebelma, mtrad qceulmasakuTarma uRirsebo Svilebma Seuguebels Seagules. aRSfoTebisunari daakargvines, Zlivs `Semokrebili~ cxovrebis autaneli pirobebiTisev gaaTiTokaces. adamianebi ki moZraobdnen, moqmedebdnen, saqmianobdnen— wers lia kuxianiZe. magram `yvelas Tavisi gasWirvebia. Tudalxenila. Tavisi anjRrevs, Tavisi aryevs. Tavisi ayanyalebs, fusfusebs(8; 111).samSoblosadmi, rogorc satrfosadmi, maradiuli, gaunelebelisiyvarulis gamo maka joxaZem oTar CxeiZe akakis Seadara, masTan yvel-225


enaTmecniereba, literaturaTmcodneobagan da yvelaferSi qarTveli da saqarTvelo ilandeba.„romani xelovnebaa. romani siamovnebaa. eSxi TqmaSia, Tqmis kiloSia“, —aRniSnavs oTar CxeiZe da amis nimuSi `2001 welia“. „ar darCenila metnaklebadproblematuri sakiTxi qveynis bedidan dawyebuli, globalizaciiTda saerTod wignis, romanis xvalindeli dRiT damTavrebuli,romelzec mwerals azri ar gamouTqvams. ase rom exmareba da sWirdebamkiTxvels~ (1; 5).rogorc vxedavT, naSromSi warmodgenilia 21-e saukuneSi gadasuliimedgacruebuli saqarTvelo da, saerTod, imedgacruebuli adamiani,`TviTonve ro ganiZarcva zeaRmat warmosaxvisagan. ganiZarcva da sasowarkveTilebadahkarga, dakarga gzani sulierebisa da talaxis binadradigula Tavi“ (8; 220).gamoyenebuli literatura:1. dvaliSvili l. — `fiqrebi oTar CxeiZis romanze~, gazeTi `Cvenimwerloba~, z3, 2002.2. kuxianiZe l. — `saqarTvelo aris ese, anu momavali Cvenia?!“, gaze-Ti `Cveni mwerloba~, — z19, 2003.3. kuxianiZe l. — `mwerali da sazogadoeba~, quTaisi, 2005.4. kuxianiZe l. — `2001 weli~ anu Cven unda vsdioT isev im varskvlavs~,gazeTi `Cveni mwerloba~, z 13, 2003.5. kuxianiZe l. — `saukunis mematiane `2001 weli~, gazeTi `Cveni mwerloba~,z 15, 2003.6. sigua s. — `tragikuli aTwleuli~, gazeTi `Cveni mwerloba~, z 10,2001.7. sigua s. — `1793, 1984, 2001~, gazeTi `Cveni mwerloba~, z 40, 2003.8. CxeiZe o. — `2001 weli~. Tb. 2003.226


enaTmecniereba, literaturaTmcodneobaeka ioramaSvili, xatia tetunaSvilissip goris universiteti, bakalavriatis studenti.wyaro, fabula, siuJeti(a.wereTelis `Tornike erisTavis~ istoriisaTvis)xelmZRvaneli: profesori Tamar gogolaZeakaki wereTeli (1840—1915) iyo samocianelTa erT-erTi lideri, romelsaceris gamoRviZebis erT-erT komponentad miaCnda warsulis gacocxlebaawmyosTan dapirispirebiT. amisaTvis akaki Tavisi mowinaveidealebis gamosaxatavad xSirad mimarTavda istoriul Tematikas, qar-Tveli xalxis istoriul cxovrebas. poeti Rrmad swavlobda Cveni xalxiswarsuls, mis mdidar literaturas, xalxur Semoqmedebas, mematianeTa,JamTaaRmwerelTa da istorikosTa wyaroebs da, saerTod, qveyniswarsuli istoriuli cxovrebis amsaxvel masalebs. maTi gamoyenebiT Semoqmedixatavda warsulis realistur saxeebs.akaki istoriul movlenebs, mematianeTa mier moTxrobil ambebs,warsuli cxovrebis epizodebs, istoriuli wyaroebidan aRebul masalebsdidi poeturi STagonebiTa da didi SemoqmedebebiTi ZaliT amuSavebda,amdidrebda istoriul cnobebs mxatvruli gamocdilebiT, avsebdamaT poeturi gamonagoniT, mxatvruli SevsebiT. am mizniT igi xelskidebs istoriuli poemebisa da moTxrobebis weras.1884 wels akakim dawera poema `Tornike erisTavi~, sadac asaxulia Xsaukunis saqarTvelos istoriis erTi epizodi. rogorc mkvlevari g.abzianiZe wers: ..akaki wereTelma, romelic mSobliuri istoriis SesaniSnavimcodne iyo, Tavisi qveynis warsulidan swored es saxelovanifurceli SearCia poemisaTvis. mweralma SeZlo gadmoeca epoqis suli,mxatvruli ganzogadebis simaRleze aeyvana matianis mSrali qronika daistoriidan nasesxebi siuJeti mZafri dinamikiT ganeviTarebina. yovelivees maRal mxatvrul Rirebulebebs aniWebs am did poetur tilos,romlis calkeuli detalebi harmoniul mTlianobaSia poemis saerToideasTan.poemis yovel Tavs poeti garkveul mizans usaxavs — es aris qarTvelieris sulieri simtkicisa da sulieri kulturis sidiadis Cveneba.samSoblosaTvis Tavdadeba, gmiruli suraTebis daxatva, rac mwerlisTanamedrove qarTveli sazogadoebis zneobrivi aRzrdisa da erovnuliTviTSegnebis Zlieri stimuli iyo~ [1].227


enaTmecniereba, literaturaTmcodneobasaqarTvelos gaerTianebisaTvis brZola X saukunis 70—ian wlebSidaiwyo, dawinaurda tao-klarjeTis qarTlis samefo da misma mmar-Tvelma, daviT mesamem kurapalatoba bizantiisagan, miiRo rac niSnavdabizantiis samefo karisagan saqarTveloSi daqvemdebarebul pirs, romelmacaRmosavleTSi didi saxeli moipova. mas afasebdnen somxeTsa dabizantiaSic. 973 wels, roca barda skliarosi aujanyda bizantias, masdaexmara daviT kurapalati. swored es epizodia asaxuli akaki wereTlisistoriul poemaSi `Tornike erisTavi~. avtors am poemis wyarodunda aeRo giorgi mTawmindelis agiografiuli Txzuleba `cxovrebainetarisa mamisa Cvenisa ioanesi da eqvTimesi da uwyebai Rirsisa mis moqalaqeobisamaTisai`. akakis dros es Txzuleba mTlianad gamocemuliar yofila, magram misi mTavari nawili Setanili hqonda prof. d. CubinaSvilsTavis cnobil qrestomaTiSi (1846 wlisa da 1863 wlis gamocema, Inawili). aseve akakis poemis wyarod unda gamoeyenebina timoTe gabaSvilis`mogzauroba~.Cveni azriT, ar SeiZleboda mxolod es wyaroebi gamoeyenebina Tavisipoemis siuJetisaTvis. igi aseve unda eyrdnobodes leonti mrovelis`qarTlis cxovrebas~, romelic me-12 saukuniT dawyebuli da me-18 sakuniTdamTavrebuli axldeboda da swordeboda.`matiane qarTlisaSi~ aris epizodi daviT kurapalatis cxovrebidan,sadac aRwerilia Tu rogor daexmara igi bizantiis dedofals bardaskliarosis gandevnaSi, sadac naxsenebia Tornike erisTavis Rvawli ambrZolaSi, magram didi albaTobaa imisa, rom TviT `qarTlis cxovreba“eyrdnobodes g. mTawmindelis naSroms. amitom Cven migvaCnia, rom erTaderTiwyaro, romelic SeiZleboda akaki wereTels gamoeyenebina `TornikeerisTavis~ dawerisas iyo` cxovrebai netarisa mamisa Cvenisa ioanesida eqvTimesi da uwyebai Rirsisa mis moqalaqeobisa maTisa~. Cveni Temismizania, mogveZebna da erTmaneTTan Segvejerebina g. mTawmindelisagiografiuli Txzuleba da akaki wereTlis `Tornike erisTavi~ dagveCvenebina rogor aris warmodgenili saqarTvelos istoriis erTiepizodi sasuliero da saero nawarmoebebSi.nawarmoebis fabuliT gadmocemlia ambavi bizantiisadmi daviT kurapalatisdaxmarebisa da masSi Tornike erisTavis monawileoba, xoloTu rogor ganviTarda siuJeti agiografiul nawarmoebebSi an akaki wereTelTan,amaze qvemoT gveqneba saubari.giorgi mTawmindelis naSromisagan gansxvavebiT akaki wereTels`Tornike erisTavSi~ ufro vrclad aqvs gadmocemuli Tornikes, rogorcsamxedro piris, sardlis cxovreba-moRvaweoba. poema akakis, gadmocemuliaqvs mxatvrulad. saero kuTxiT, amas isic mowmobs, rom poe-228


enaTmecniereba, literaturaTmcodneobamis Sesavali iwyeba warsuli gmirebis moxseniebiT da grZeldeba daviTkurapalatis samefo karze nadimiT.amave dros, moqmedebis centrSi Tornike erisTavis SemoyvanisaTvisgamoyenebulia siujeturi xerxi — zmaT tyorcna orbeliZesa da xumarasSoris. gansxvaveba am or nawarmoebs Soris personaJebSic SeiniSneba,radgan giorgi mTawmindelis naSromSi es personaJebi ar arseboben,agreTve ar aris naxsenebi daviT kurapalatis winaSe Tornike erisTavissamsjavroze wardgena. Tumca, unda aRvniSnoT, rom akakisTan am epizodssakmaod vrceli monakveTi eTmoba, sadac saubaria im mizezebze,ris gamoc Tornike erisTavi berad aRikveca.swored am periodSi (X saukunis meore naxevarSi) bizantiis imperiamZime mdgomareobaSi aRmoCnda, radgan barda skliarosi ajanyda dadaipyro didi teritoria. saqarTvelo am dros politikurad da ekonomikuradgaZlierebuli qveyana iyo. amitom gasaWirSi Cacvenili berZnebierTaderT mxsnelad saqarTvelos miiCnevdnen. ase rom, bizantiis dedofalmadaxmarebisTvis saqarTvelos mimarTa. man werili gaugzavnadaviT kurapalats, razec mefisgan Tanxmoba miiRo. daviT mesamem gadawyvita12 aTasi mxedari gaegzavna dasaxmareblad, romlis sardalicTornike erisTvi iqneboda, magram ukve berad aRkvecilma Tornikem uariganacxada am brZolaSi monawileobaze. misi darwmunebis epizodebisxvadasxvagvarad aqvT aRwerili akakis da giorgi mTswmindels. akakiTornikes dasarwmuneblad iyenebs arsen kaTalikosTan saubris epizods.giorgi mTawmindeli ki mokled aRwers ioanes da aTanases meSveobiTTornike erisTavis darwmunebas. arsad ar hyavs naxsenebi arsen ka-Talikosi, romelic am periodisaTvis sakamaod gavleniani piri iyo.Tumca, unda aRiniSnos, rom orive nawarmoebis personaJebma, rogorcarsenma, aseve ioanem da aTanase berma moaxerxes Tornikes darwmuneba ambrZolaSi monawileobis miRebaze. akakisTan ki Tornikesa da bizantiisdedofals Soris dialogi ar imarTeba, radgan mas Semdeg, rac moaxerxesmisi darwmuneba, igi pirdapir saqarTveloSi gamoemgzavra.Semdgom epizodebSi akakis vrceli bataluri scenebi aqvs warmodgenili.igi dawvrilebiT gadmogvcems brZolis suraTs da gviCvenebs qar-Tveli meomrebis gmirobas, xolo mTawmindelis agiografiul naSromSiar aris mocemuli arc brZolis scenebi da arc is gmirebi, romelTa TavisgamoCenasc akakim sakmaod vrceli monakveTi dauTmo.es brZola barda skliarosis damarcxebiT dasrulda da amis sanacvlodbizantiis imperiis dedofali did ZRvens uboZebs qarTvelebs.Tumca, bizantiis ZRvenis ganawileba gansxvavebulad aris aRwerili amor nawarmoebSi. giorgi mTawmindelTan Tornike miRebuli ganZis na-229


enaTmecniereba, literaturaTmcodneobawils laSqars unawilebs, nawils TviTon iRebs: `da monagebi maTi iavaryoda romelime laSqarTn ganuyo da romelime TviT daiWra natyvenavididZali friad: oqroda vercxli da stavra da sxva eseviTari da ukunicada moikiTxa kurapalati da qmna mefeTave winaSe movida...’’akaki wereTelTan sxvagvari viTarebaa. Tornike erisTavi uars ambobsZRvenis miRebaze da mefes sTxovs:— `nu marguneb, mefev, ZRvenso:ver miviReb me simdidres,ver viqm saqmes RvTis sawyenso!jvaria da saxarebamxolod beris simdidreo;~mimdinareobs msjeloba imasTan dakavSirebiT, Tu vis unda gadascesmopovebuli ZRveni. amis Semdgom akakis poemaSi Semohyavs axali personaJi— gabriel salosis saxeliT da swored mas aTqmevinebs, rom es qonebamoxmardes monastris aSenebas mTawmindaze, romelic iqneba daRupulgmirTa mosaxseniebeli. misi azri yvelasaTvis misaRebi aRmoCnda.giorgi mTawmindels Tavis agiografiul TxzulebaSi gabrieli gansxvavebuladhyavs moxseniebuli. mas es personaJi maSin Semohyavs rocaioanes TxoniT Tornike amieridan mxolod gabriels esaubreba. giorgimTawmindeli Semdegnairad axasiaTebs: `xolo xucesi igi eseviTari kaciiyo, romel pirsa missa msioflio sityva ara gamovidoda, aramed yovelivesaRmrTo da sulieri~.akaki wereTlis poemaSi gabriel xucesTan dakavSirebiT moxda didisaswauli:`moscura axlos RvRismSoblis xatmada daiyena Tavs naTelio.gamosveneba gvindoda, magramar moikida Cveni xelio~.erTma berma naxa sizmari, gamoecxada dedaRvTisa da uTxra: `iverielebsCems sadideblad taZari, rom augiaT, iq cxovrobs erTi moxuci beri,gabrieli da Cems xats mxolod man Seaxos xeli. moitanos da taZarSiSesavlel karTan daasvenoso da im dRidan saswaulmoqmeds daerqvas:`karis RvTiSobelio~!.g. mTawmindelis TxzulebaSi RvTiSoblis xatis saswauli ar aris aRwerili,Tumca ioanes SvilTan, eqvTimesTan dakavSirebiTac moxdamsgavsi saswauli. igi avad gaxda, ioanes misi gadarCenis imedi gadawurulihqonda, wavida taZarSi da muxlmodrekili RvTiSoblis xatsevedreboda avadmyofi Svilis gadarCenas, roca dabrunda da Svilis senakSiSevida man naxa Tavisi Svili janmrTeli da uvnebeli. patara eq-230


enaTmecniereba, literaturaTmcodneobavTimes gamoscxadebia RvmTismSobeli da qarTulad uTqvams: `araraiars vneba SenTana. aRdeg, nugeSinin da qarTulad xsnilad ubnobdi~. amisSemdeg eqvTimes aRaraferi awuxebda.akaki wereTlisa da g. mTawmindelis garda Tornike erisTavi moxseniebulihyavs timoTe gabaSvils Tavis nawarmoebSi `mimosvla~.mas mogzaurobisas mounaxulebia mTawmindis monasteri, sadac Tornikeioanesa da aTanase berTan erTad imyofeboda. mas es movlena aRweriliaqvs zemoT aRniSnul nawarmoebebSi. es nawarmoebi CvenTvis sainteresoaim kuTxiT, rom timoTe gabaSvils naxsenebi aqvs qarTvelebismier bizantiis daxmareba da masSi Tornike erisTavis monawileoba.Cven vfiqrobT, rom akaki wereTels `Tornike erisTavis~ dawerisdros erT-erT wyarod SeiZleba gamoeyenebina timoTe gabaSvilis `mimosvla~.amasTan, vinaidan giorgi mTawmindelis `cxovrebai netarisamamisa Cvenisa ioanesi da eqvTimesi da uwyebai Rirsisa mis moqalaqeobisamaTisai~ agiografiuli xasiaTisaa, swored amitom, Tornike erisTaviscxovrebis epizodebi. SedarebiT mwiradaa gadmocemuli. ZiriTadades naSromi ioanes da eqvTimes cxovrebas, maT Rvawls gadmogvcems, amitomacakakim igi Seavso rogorc mxatvruli aseve poeturi gamonagonebiT,waiyvana igi saero xaziT da dagvitova araCveulebrivi istoriuliZegli.231


enaTmecniereba, literaturaTmcodneobaqeTino melaZessip — goris universiteti, bakalavriatis studentibedi qarTlisa da nikoloz baraTaSvili (?!)xelmZRvaneli: profesori zaza cotniaSvili`qarTlis bedi~ ar gadawyetila 1832 wlis Tavadaznauruli SeTqmulebiT,romelic qveynis damoukideblobis aRdgenasa da monarqiuli(Tu parlamenturi) mmarTvelobis aRdgenas isaxavda miznad. es iyoqveynis sazogadoebis saukeTeso nawilis erTgvari ukanaskneli gabrZoleba,rasac kraxi mohyva. qveynad daisadgura monobis beds damor-Cilebuli eris uilajobam. 30 weli dasWirda qveyanas, rom movlenodamamuliSvili, romelic mis bedze izrunebda sityviT Tu saqmiT; es adamianiiyo ilia WavWavaZe (1837 — 1907 ww). igi centralur figuras warmoadgendame-19 saukunis 60-iani wlebis qarTul mwerlobasa da sazogadoebrivcxovrebaSi.jer kidev axalgazrda da gamoucdeli ilia, nikolozis Semoqmedebisgacnobis Semdeg, xvdeba, Tu raze unda gaamaxvilon yuradReba, ragziT unda iaros da ra unda gaakeTos qarTvelma xalxma imisaTvis, rommSobliur ers Rirseba aRudginos; Tumca manamdec mwifdeboda raRacmomavali mwerlis sulSi.qveynis bediT Sewuxebuli Wabuki ilia peterburgSi wasvlamde wersleqss `yvarlis mTebs~. am leqsidan irkveva, rom mas mtkiced aqvs gadawyvetiliwavides ucxo mxareSi saswavleblad, raTa ukan dabrunebulmasamSoblos ukeTesi momavlisaTvis ibrZolos: `...momavlis bedigayras iTxovs Cemgan msxverplada...~. aq ikveTeba misi mamuliSvilurivali qveynis bedisadmi.swored amitom xdeba ilia WavWavaZis Semoqmedebis erT-erTi Ziri-Tadi sakiTxi erovnuli problematika. `es sakiTxi dgas awmyos TvalsazrisiT— rani varT, ras warmovadgenT, raSia Cveni sicocxlis Zalebi; amisgaTvaliswinebas mwerali warsulis gaazrebis niadagze axdens — rani viyaviT,rogor gamoviareT saukuneebi, raSi mdgomareobs Cveni xalxis sasicocxloenergia, xolo yvelaferi ki mimarTulia momavlis gansaWvretad— Tu ra mogvelis~, wers mkvlevari lado minaSvili (1; 108).rogorc ukve aRvniSneT, ilia studentobis periodSi yalibdeba saboloodmwerlad. peterburgSi yofnisas ecnoba sxvadasxva qveyniskulturas, literaturas. sainteresoa is faqtic, rom 1860 wels, car-232


enaTmecniereba, literaturaTmcodneobaskoe seloSi stumrad ewvia ekaterine iyo aleqsandre dadianis ojaxs.ekaterine WavWavaZis asuli. es is qalia, romelic erT dros nikolozbaraTaSvilis trfobis obieqts warmoadgenda. miuxedavad imisa, romTavis droze baraTaSvilis siyvaruli ekaterinesadmi ganwiruli aRmoCnda,samagierod, am stumrobis dros, imave ekaterines ojaxma bara-TaSvilis poeziisadmi siyvaruli gadasca ilia WavWavaZes da amiT momavalididi moRvawis gulSi daanTo cecxli udrood daRupuli mgosnissaxelis samaradisod gasacocxleblad.koxta afxazis cnobiT, dadianis ojaxSi stumrobis Semdeg, iliamTeli erTi kviris ganmavlobaSi `hbodavda baraTaSviliT~. da leqsicuZRvna mas `nikoloz baraTaSvilzed~. mweralma nikolozis gardacvalebisfaqts mTeli qarTveli eris daobleba uwoda, xolo udrood dauTvistomod daRupul mgosans `mkvdreTiT aRdgoma uwinaswarmetyvela“(2; 23).nikoloz baraTaSvilis Semoqmedebis gavlena igrZnoba ilia WavWava-Zis leqsebSi `simRera“ da `dakarguli edemi“. am leqsebSi wuTisoflissamduravi sityvebi ismis:`sad migyavar, mdinarev,mowyenil sicocxlisav!Cems mcire navs ras arxev,zvirTo wuTisoflisav!..~ (3; 39, `simRera“).`dakargul edemSi~ ki Tavisuflebadakargul qveynis gamo gamoTqvamsmwuxarebas mwerali.saerTod, ilias peterburgSi gatarebuli wlebi arsebiTi mniSvnelobisxanaa mTel mis cxovrebaSi. misi ideuri Camoyalibeba ruseTSimoxda. iq myofi mowinave sazogadoebis azrovnebaze aRizarda adamiani,romelic mefis ruseTis sawinaaRmdegod saqarTvelos erovnul-ganma-Tavisuflebeli moZraobis medroSe gaxda.igi studentobis periodSi Seudga iseTi leqsebis weras, romelTaZiriTadi motivi aris nacionaluri Tavisuflebisa. didi erovnulimoRvawis poeturi niWi pirvelad swored samSoblos Temaze dawerilleqsebSi gamoCnda.qveynis damoukideblobis dakargvis Semdeg, ilia xedavs, rom `qar-Tlis bedi~ ufro da ufro gaurkveveli xdeba, lafSi iZireba da mSveleliarsad Cans. TiTqos, qarTveloba Seegua am mdgomareobas da yuri moiyrua,amitom uZRvna iliam im periodis sazogadoebriv mdgomareobisasaxvas leqsi `bednieri eri~. sadac amotivtivebulia yvela mankierimxare qarTuli sazogadoebisa, romelic xels uSlida qveynis keTildReobas.igi erTnairad daundoblad ebrZoda, rogorc gareSe Zalas233


enaTmecniereba, literaturaTmcodneoba(mefis TviTmpyrobelobas), romelic qarTvelebs `moyvrulad~ mtrobs,ise im qarTvelobas, romelsac sakuTar erovnul Tavmoyvareobaze xeliauRia da rus xelmwifes exveweba `ÍÀïëåeîÌÃba gvaswavleo~ (4; 124).1832 wlis erovnuli ajanyebis CaxSobis Semdeg gamowveulma represiebmaxalxi SeaSina da sabrZolo ganwyoba Caukla. aRar Canda adamiani,romelsac qveynis bedi Seawuxebda da kvlav Seecdeboda xalxis masebisgamoyvanas Tavisuflebis dasabruneblad. mdumarebam da Zilma daisadguraqveynad. momakvdinebeli siCume iyo Camovardnili, yvela sakuTariinteresebisa da mefis ruseTis sasargeblod moqmedebda. qveyana kidevufro kritikul mdgomareobamde midioda, mSveleli arsad iyo.amis gamo Sewuxebuli ilia gulistkiviliT wers: `Sen miwaze amdenxalxSi kaci ar aris, rom grZnoba vando, fiqri Cemi ganvuziaro ...~ (`masaqeT raki...~ 5; 33).saqarTvelos bedis am mdgomareobamde miyvanas igi erTxel daSinebulimamebis Taobas abralebda da sayvedurobda:`qveynisa bedida xsnis imediTqvenebr xelSi mCvrad ar gagvxdomia,kacis mxneoba,kacis zneoba,Tqvenebr CinebiT ar gvizomia~(9; 36, `pasuxis pasuxi“).mwerlis Tanamedroveobis mZafri kritikaa mocemuli leqsSi `ra vakeTeT,ras vSvrebodiT, anu saqarTvelos istoria mecxrametis saukunisa~.nawarmoebSi gadmocemulia qarTveli Tavadaznaurobis mdgomareobada saqmeebi, wina epoqidan moyolebuli; is, rac qveynis erovnul sxeulszians ayenebda. aq mxilebulia veraguli buneba Tavadaznauruliwodebisa. avtoris mier mxatvrulad da sruli damajereblobiT naCvenebiaam wodebis muxanaTuri moqmedebani mSobliuri qveynisa da xalxiswinaSe.ilias mier samSoblo qveynis mdgomareoba mZimed aris warmodgenili:bezRoba, gautanloba. minavlda erovnuli suli da Zils mieca:`arsaidan xma, arsiT Zaxili!..mSobeli Sobils arras metyoda,zogjer ki tanjviT amoZaxiliqarTvlis ZilSia kvnesa ismoda!~ (9; 20).am mdgomareobiT Sewuxebuli poeti iqve didi mwuxarebiT da gulistkiviliTdasZens:234


enaTmecniereba, literaturaTmcodneoba`ox, RmerTo Cemo! sul Zili, Zili,rosRa gveRirsos Cven gaRviZeba?!“ (9; 20, `elegia“).Tavisi epoqis qarTvelobas ilia mkacrad akritikebs. mas akvirvebsaseTi umoqmedoba da zizRs aRuZravs gulSi. igi aRniSnavs, rom amqveynadadamiani mxolod Wama-smisa da garTobisTvis ar dabadebula.poema `aCrdilSi~ gamoyvanili moxuci mkacrad akritikebs axalidrois, e. i. poetis epoqis qarTvelobas. igi aSkara mamxilebeli toniTacxadebs:`aq arvis — didsa, Tu patarasa, -qveynis tkiviliT ar stkiva guli,dahviwyebia, rom qveynad casaRvTad moucia marto mamuli~ (9; 54, `aCrdili~).misTvis samSoblo RmerTs edreba, RvTiuri cnebaa, romelsac undaemsaxuro, rogorc ufals. qarTvel xalxs, romelic adre Rirseuladcxovrobda, saukuneebis Semdeg ukve dakarguli hqonda eris winaSe imRvTiuri movaleobis grZnoba, romelic samSoblosaTvis uangaro, muxlCauxrelSromas moiTxovda misgan.leqsebidan gamosWvivis avtoris mtkice Segneba, rom am damRupveliZilisa da umoqmedobisgan qveynis gadasarCenad saWiroa xalxis masebisgamoRviZeba, maTSi moZraobis suliskveTebis Setana. agreTve, garkveviTismis mowodeba, rom qveynisa da xalxis amoZraveba Tavisuflebismosapoveblad yoveli patiosani moqalaqis valia. am saqmes saTaveSi undaCaudgnen eris saukeTeso Svilebi da niadagi Seumzadon qveynis saxelmwifoebrivdamoukideblobas: `Cven unda Cveni vSvaT myoobadi, Cvenunda mivceT momavali xalxs~ (`qarTlis dedas~ 6; 12).`qarTlis bedis~ momgvareblad ilias momavali Taobis warmomadgenelimiaCnia. saerTod misTvis damaxasiaTebeli iyo is, rom aramartomis droindel sinamdviles xatavda, aramed masTan erTad momavlis er-Tgvar perspeqtivasac iZleoda. mwerali amxels Tavisi epoqis mkacr sinamdvilesda amave dros STaagonebs kidec, rom es samarTliani brZolaaucileblad gamarjvebiT damTavrdeba:`Cemo kargo qveyanav, razed mogiwyenia!...awmyo Tu ara gvwyalobs, momavali Cvenia,Tumca Zvelni dagSordnen, axali xom Senia...maT axalT aRgidginon Sen didebis dRenia,Cemi Tvalis sinaTlev, razed mogiwyenia?~(9; 42, `Cemo kargo qveyanav~).`qarTveli xalxi, — ambobs zurab baRaSvili — im mxrivac aris gamor-Ceuli sxva erTa Soris, rom gamudmebuli brZolebis Semdeg mtvrad ki235


enaTmecniereba, literaturaTmcodneobaar qceula, aramed `amayi Tavi~ aravis winaSe ar mouxria da dRemde arsebobs~.momavlis rwmeniT aris ganmsWvaluli ilias leqsi `nana~, sadac dedaumReris yrmas da STaagonebs samSoblos vals, samSoblos siyvaruls damamulisaTvis Tavdadebas.Tumca, axal Taobas gmiri sWirdeba. eris gadamrCeni gmiris Zieba erTerTimTavari sakiTxia ilias SemoqmedebaSi. eris `dacema da gaTaxsireba~maSin iwyeba, rodesac mas uqreba erovnuli gmiris dabadebis rwmena,radgan gmiris xilvis survili imas niSnavs, rom ginda gamofxizleba,aRdgoma da monobis uRlis gadagdebis Sedegad Rirseulad cxovreba.nebismieri xalxis brZola erovnuli TviTmyofadobis SesanarCuneblad,saxelmwifoebrivi damoukideblobis mosapoveblad yovelTvisRvTivkurTxeulad iTvleba. magram realobaSi es gmiri ar Cans, amitomwuxs poeti:`magram, qarTvelno, sad aris gmiri,romelsac veZeb, romlisTvisc vstiri?igi aRar gyavT ... mis moedanijagiT aRvsila, vernad qmnila,gmiris dambadi didi saganiTqvenSi spobila da warwymedila~ (9; 55, `aCrdili~).Tumca ara, `bazaleTis tbis~ legenda gvarwmunebs, rom Tavisuflebisakvans gamouCndeba mxsneli da poeti Sestrfis im vaJkacs, romlisxelic pirvelad Seexeba mas da tbis napirze gamoiyvans Sig mwoliareyrmas:`Tu ese aris, neta mas,vaJkacsa saxelovansa,visica xeli pirveladdaswvdeba ima akvansa!~(9; 44, `bazaleTis tba~).ilias ramdenime nawarmoebis mixedviT varkvevT, rom rogorc poets,rogorc moqalaqes, warsuli istoriis saukeTeso tradiciebze gazrdilqarTvels unda axsovdes: mas awevs didi vali qveynis bedis gadawyvetaSi.iqneba is ukeTesi, Tu damRupveli momavali. amitomaa, romilia, rogorc mamuliSvili, Tumca gulistkiviliT, magram mainc optimizmiT,aanalizebs ra erovnul wylulebs, ukeTes mermiss eris gamofxizlebaSi,mis sabrZolo ganwyobilebaSi xedavs. swored aseT qarTvelsSeuZlia qveynis bedis gadawyveta.236


enaTmecniereba, literaturaTmcodneobagamoyenebuli literatura:1. minaSvili l., `ilia WavWavaZe“, Tsu, Tb., 1995.2. jiblaZe j., `ilia WavWavaZe — proza da msoflmxedveloba“, t.`sabWoTa saqarTvelo“, Tb., 1984.3. baqraZe a., `ilia WavWavaZe — gamoCenil adamianTa cxovreba“, nakaduli“,Tb., 1984.4. asaTiani g., `vefxistyaosnidan baxtrionamde“, `merani“, Tb., 1974.5. baRaSvili z., `ilia WavWavaZis poemebisa `aCrdilisa“ da `gandegilis“literaturul-esTetikuri analizi skolaSi“, Tb., 2005.6. ingoroyva p., `TxzulebaTa krebuli“, t. 1, `sabWoTa saqarTvelo“,Tb. 1963.7. maxaraZe a., `narkvevebi qarTuli literaturis istoriidan“, t. 1,samecniero meToduri kabinetis gamomcemloba, Tb., 1957.8. Ciqovani s., `rCeuli nawerebi“, Tb., 1963.9. avt. koleqtivi, `ilia WavWavaZe — rCeuli wigni“, t1, `sabWoTa saqarTvelo“,Tb., 1975.237


enaTmecniereba, literaturaTmcodneobaana meliSviliivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisissaxelmwifo universiteti, magistrantiWeSmaritebis wvdomis gzebinikoloz baraTaSvilis SemoqmedebaSixelmZRvaneli: profesori Tamar SarabiZenikoloz baraTaSvili ar hgavda im poetebs, romelTac bohemurisardafis an revoluciuri quCis mowoneba da taSi ainteresebdaT. isTavdapirvelad veraviTar auditorias ver xedavda da TiTqos TavisTavTan, Tavis sulTan marTavda dialogs. SeiZleba, am mxriv poeti daviTguramiSvilis memkvidred CaiTvalos. es sada, magram amave drosmravlis mTqmeli, Sefaseba Cveni genialuri romantikosisa geronti qiqoZesekuTvnis. marTlac, n. baraTaSvili iCens gasaocar Tavmdablobasda sakuTar poezias sruliadac ar miiCnevs Rirsad, gaacnos xalxisfarTo masebs. poetis sicocxleSi, rogorc viciT, erTi leqsic ki ardabeWdila. am patara niuansidanac Cans misi qristianuli msoflSegrZnebiTganpirobebuli Tavmdabloba. rogorc poetis da — barbaregadmogvcems, nikolozi kargad icnobda saRvTo werils. es arc undagagvikvirdes, radgan im- droindeli qarTveli aristokratia, sulieradZveli da axali aRTqmis wignebiT sazrdoobda.bibliuri wignebis gacnobam asaxva pova n. baraTaSvilis SemoqmedebaSi.poetis mxatvruli azrovneba mimarTulia RvTaebrivis wvdomisaken.misi survilia gasces pasuxi im maradiul kiTxvebs, romelic odiTganveawuxebda kacobriobas: ra aris WeSmariteba?, rogor miiRweva maradiuloba?,raSi mdgomareobs adamianis arsebobis azri da rogor miiRwevaRvTaebrivi? rodesac vsaubrobT WeSmaritebis wvdomaze, ar daviviwyoT,rom am SemTxvevaSi `WeSmariti~ RvTiuris gagebas Seicavs.erT-erT saSualebad poets RvTaebrivis anu WeSmaritebis Semecnebisaadamianis yrmoba warmoudgenia. gavixsenoT leqsi: `Cvili~, sadacpoeti xazgasmiT aRniSnavs, rom sasufevlis enaze ualersebs mSoblebsSvili. igi `yovelsave Seupovrad mWvretelobs~. `yovelsaveSi~ poetiRvTaebrivsac gulisxmobs. e. i. Cvili wilnayaria ufalTan, RvTaebrivsamyarosTan. magram es unari droebiTia: mas Semdeg, rac Cvili zrdasrulasaks miaRwevs da cxovreba codvaTa morevSi CaiTrevs, uflis enazelaparakisa da misi Secnobis unarsac dakargavs.238


enaTmecniereba, literaturaTmcodneobayrmoba ar aris erTaderTi saSualeba RvTaebrivis wvdomisa. igisxvadasxva gzebiTac SeiZleba ganxorcieldes, kerZod, bunebis meSveobiT,siyvaruliT da mistikuri ganWvretiT.RvTaebrivis Secnoba SesaZlebelia RmerTis mier Seqmnili harmoniulisamyaros wvdomiT, anu bunebis wiaRiT. baraTaSvils miaCnia, rombuneba RvTaebrivi arsis matarebelia. amitomac bunebasTan uSualokontaqtiT adamiani eziareba RvTaebrivs.leqsSi `SemoRameba mTawmidazed~ lirikuli gmiri sulier simSvidesbunebis wiaRSi, kerZod ki mTawmindaze asvliT poulobs. mTa erTgvarimediumia poetsa da cas Soris, romelic `zenaarT samyofia:~me, Sensa mWvretels, maviwydebis sawuTroeba,gulis-Tqma Cemi Sens iqiTa... eZiebs sadgurs,zenaarT samyofT, rom daSTos aq amaoeba...magram ver scnoben, glax, mokvdavni gangebas ciurs.qarTuli enis ganmartebiT leqsikonSi sityva `zena~ Semdegnairadaaganmartebuli:1. zeviT, zeda. 2. (poet.) zeciuri Zala, RmerTi. baraTaSvilic `zena-Si~ zeciur ZalTa samyofels anu sasufevels moiazrebs. zeciur ZalaSiki RmerTi da angelozTa dasi unda vigulisxmoT. buneba iZleva impulss,rom gulSi gagviCndes survili RvTaebrivis Semecnebisa, gonebaki xels uSlis mis ganxorcielebas: `magram ver scnoben, glax, mokvdavnigangebas ciurs!~ gonebiT rom RmerTis Secnoba SeuZlebelia, ioane damaskelicgvamcnobs: `maszed, rom RmerTi miuwvdomelia (adamianis gonebisTvis)da Warbi cnobiswadiliT ar unda gamoviZiebdeT imas, racwminda winaswarmetyvelT, mociqulebsa da maxarebelT ar gadmouciaTCvenTvis~.baraTaSvilisTvisac upirvelesia ara miznis saboloo miRweva, aramedbrZola am miznis misaRwevad. leqsSi `SemoRameba mTawmidazed~ xilulica simbolurad ganasaxierebs RvTiurs, xolo cas gadakruli bindiWeSmaritebis dafarvas cdilobs.melanqoliuri suliskveTeba, romelic mTlianad gasdevs leqs, boloSiicvleba optimisturiT; poeti imeds itovebs, rom:`...gaTendeba dila mziani da yovels bindsa is gananaTlebs!~bunebis saSualebiT RvTaebrivis wvdoma dagvixata poetma leqsSi`fiqrni mtkvris pirzed~, sadac igi miiltvis cisken, romelic modudunemtkvars aureklavs. mtkvari ganasaxierebs drois dinebas da amqveyniurcxovrebas, ca ki RvTaebriobis, maradiulobis xatebaa — aRniSnavs T.SarabiZe. misive azriT, mtkvarSi areklili cis kamara ki simboluradgamoxatavs azrs, rom adamianma amqveyniurobaSi unda eZios maradiulo-239


enaTmecniereba, literaturaTmcodneobaba. marTlac, maradiulobis mopovebis erTaderTi garanti xorcielicxovrebis Rirseulad gavlaa, xolo zneobrivad amaRlebuli adamianimoipovebs `cis dasavals~. sulxan-sabas ganmartebiT `cis dasavali~ sasufevelia.mas Semdeg, rac adamiani moixdis vals, romelic gamoixatebasoflisTvis zrunvaSi, igi `sxva sofelSi~ daimkvidrebs adgils. mocemulleqsSic naTlad vxedavT, rom RvTaebrivis Secnoba SesaZlebeliaRmerTis mier Seqmnili, harmoniuli samyaros anu bunebis wvdomiT. poetiakvirdeba xilul bunebas da misi simboluri enis saSualebiT iRebspasuxs misTvis mtkivneul, amoucnob sakiTxebze.n. baraTaSvilis lirika ufaqizesi stiliTaa Seqmnili, amis naTelilustracias satrfialo Temaze dawerili leqsebi iZleva, romlebic savsebiTganTavisuflebulni arian `xorcielebisagan~ da es grZnobebi amaRlebulsulier sferoSia ganfenili. satrfialo Temaze Seqmnil leqsebSiyvelaze ufro mkveTrad gviCvena poetma RvTaebrivis wvdomis gza. poetisazriT, maradiulis Secnoba adamians mxolod siyvaruliT SeuZlia, ris magaliTsacbuneba sTavazobs — mSveniers sulTa kavSirs. am kavSiris dar-Rveva xdeba harmoniis disharmoniiT Secvlis mizezi, rogorc bunebaSi,aseve adamianis sulSi. es mosazreba gatarebulia leqsSi `vpove taZari~.mas Semdeg, rac udabnod mdgari taZari qreba, sadac siyvaruls swiravdagundrukis magier poeti, mis sulSi sevdam da wyvdiadma daisadgura. usiyvarulobasulier aSlilobas iwvevs poetSi. taZari iyo saSualeba, riTaclirikuli gmiri uaxlovdeboda RvTaebrivs:mun enTo marad uqrobeli wmida lampariangelosTagan ikroda mun daviTis qnari,da ganismoda ciurT dasTa galobis zari!leqsSi `vpove taZari~ siyvaruli farTo mniSvnelobiT moiazreba.igi Tavis TavSi aerTianebs qalis, moyvasis, mtris da, upirveles yovlisa,uflis siyvaruls. amis maniSnebelia angelozTagan daviTis qnarisdakvra da `ciurT dasTa galobis zari~. taZari sulierebis simboloa,udabno ki — misgan daclili qveynisa. n. baraTaSvilis mier satrfosadmigamoyenebuli mimarTvebi gvagonebs daviT winaswarmetyvelis mierfsalmunebSi uflisadmi gamoyenebul mimarTvebs. mSvenier sulTa kav-Siri iseTive mudmivia, rogorc cis cvrisa da mzis sxivis Tanaarseboba.siyvaruliT adamiani moipovebs umaRles bednierebas — sasufevelsa daukvdavebas. winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi adamiani sulier oblobas da didsevdas ganicdis.baraTaSvilTan satrfos siyvaruli RvTaebrivi siyvarulis simbolurigamoxatulebaa. satrfo mis leqsebSi aris simbolo uflisa: igiar hgavs xorciels (`satrfov, maxsovs~), gars ciuri cecxli akravs240


enaTmecniereba, literaturaTmcodneoba(`Cems varskvlavs~), anaTebs cas da aqvs ciuri xma (`aRmoxda mnaTi~), cisieria,uxrwneli (`ar ukiJino, satrfoo~), mis TvalebSi moCans samoTxe,xan am sofels hyveba, xan cad mifrinavs (`ros bednieri var~), sikvdilSiTviT ukvdavebas SeagrZnobinebs mgosans (`miyvars Tvalebi~).satrfos dakargva baraTaSvilis SemoqmedebaSi gaigivebulia rwmenisdarRvevasTan, magram ar iRebs rwmenis dakargvis saxes.rac Seexeba gonebis saSualebiT RvTaebrivis wvdomas, poetma gamoxata`meranSi~. rogorc T. SarabiZe aRniSnavs, mernis Weneba `uval gzaze~warmoadgens RvTaebrivi arsis ganWvretis mcdelobas, romelic undaganxorcieldes TandaTanobiTi amaRlebiT, yofierebis daTmobiT,Tavisuflebis mopovebiT da TavganwirviT, rasac WeSmaritebis Semecnebamohyveba. yovelive amis ganxorcielebis saSualebas goneba ar iZleva.mistikuri RvTismetyvelebis mixedviT, SesaZlebelia, leqsi `Cemilocva~ yvelaze ukeTesad gamoxatavs poetis qristianul msoflxedvas.poeti uSualod mimarTavs mama RmerTs da sTxovs, rom miutevos SecTomilZes. n. baraTaSvils RvTisadmi mimarTuli sityvebi zedmetad eCveneba,radgan uflisTvis yoveli adamianis gulis siRrmeSi wvdoma aranairsiZneles ar warmoadgens. ufalTan urTierTobis yvelaze ukeTes gamoxatulebadbaraTaSvils dumili esaxeba: — `maSa dumilic mimiTvaleSendami locvad!~rogorc davinaxeT, n. baraTaSvili mudmiv ZiebaSia, Seicnos sakuTariTavi, aqedan gamomdinare — samyaro da WeSmariteba. qristianul saxismetyvelebazedafuZnebuli msoflxedvis damsaxurebaa is siRrme,romelic poetur warmosaxvaSi `wmida locvas~ badebs.gamoyenebuli literatura:1. i. damaskeli, marTlmadidebluri sarwmunoebis zusti gadmocema,krebulidan `sityva marTlisa sarwmunoebisa~, wigni II, gamomcemloba`kidevac daizrdebian~, Tb., 1991.2. g. kiknaZe, Txzulebani, Tbilisis universitetis gamomcemloba,tomi IV; Tb., 2003.3. g. kiknaZe, Txzulebani, Tbilisis universitetis gamomcemloba,tomi V; Tb., 2003.4. qarTuli mwerloba, tomi IX, gamomcemloba `nakaduli~, Tb., 1992.5. g. qiqoZe, werilebi, eseebi, narkvevebi, Tb., gamomcemloba `merani~,1992.6. T. SarabiZe, `qristianuli motivebi XIX saukunis qarTvel klasikosTalirikaSi~, Tbilisis universitetis gamomcemloba, 2009.241


enaTmecniereba, literaturaTmcodneobaTinaTin TvalWreliZeivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisissaxelmwifo universiteti, magistrantivaJa-fSavelas poema`uiRblo iRbliani~da misi folkloruli ZirebixelmZRvaneli: profesori Tamar SarabiZevaJa-fSavelas SemoqmedebaSi gansakuTrebuli siZlieriT gamovlindafolklorul-miTosuri diskursi. vaJas mxatvruli sityvis masazrdoebeliZala fSav-xevsureTia. bunebisa da xalxis sulTan Serwymamaqcia albaT luka razikaSvilis talanti vaJa-fSavelas fenomenad.fSav-xevsureTi misTvis msoflio mikromodeli iyo, romelic Taviseburadasaxavda rogorc Zveli, ise axali epoqis majiscemas. am samyarosasagebad sazrdo uxvad iZieboda fSav-xevsuruli legendebis, Tqmuleba-gadmocemebisaTu leqsebis saxiT. magram am Zvirfasi ganZis dapatronebamxolod vaJam SeZlo. mwerlis `sulier quraSi~ gadadnobis Semdegiqca igi gansakuTrebul faseulobad.qristianuli azrovnebiTa da moraliT gamoirCeva vaJas poema `iuRbloiRbliani~. mas vaJa Tavad zRapars uwodebs. termin zRaparSi undagulisxmobdes gamogonil ambavs an, rogorc poeti aRniSnavs, nawarmoebispirvel TavSi, `sicruv-simarTles~, Torem es termini poemis Temasda ideas, siuJetis xasiaTs da misi realizaaciis saSualebebs scildebaim klasikuri gagebiT, rogorc mas vxmarobT xalxuri moTxrobis mimarT.zRapari mxolod da mxolod nawarmoebis qargaa, ideurad ki poemabevrad Sordeba zRaprisTvis damaxasiaTebel sikeTe-borotebis Widilisproblemas. zRapris qargac poetis azrovnebisdagvarad Secvlilia,Tumca vaJa iyenebs sazRapro eposSi farTod gavrcelebul kompoziciurxerxebs da, rac mTavaria, icavs gmiris `winaswari~ da `ZiriTadi~gadmocemis yvela zRaprisTvis aucilebel princips.poema `uiRblo iRblianis~ Seqmnisas vaJa-fSavela sargeblobs sazRaproeposis, kerZod qrTuli jadosnuri zRapris`mzis qalis~ motivebiT,magram scildeba rogorc am konkretuli zRapris, ise sazRaproeposis problematikas da originalur nawarmoebs qmnis.`uiRblo iRbliani~ rTuli, mravalplaniani poemaa. aq warmoCeniliasami Zma, romelTac `sameba wyalobda~. mTeli poemis manZilze Cans, rommTavari moqmedi gmiri — umcrosi Zma — ara marto RvTis morwmune da242


enaTmecniereba, literaturaTmcodneobamorCilia, aramed eklesiurad moazrovne adamianic. uZvelesi qarTulizRaprebisgan gansxvavebiT, am zRaparis RmerTi samebaa, romelic ganagebsadamianis beds, mkvdarTa sulebs da amqveynad gatarebuli cxovrebismixedviT wyvets maT momavals. vaJas poema ar mihyveba qarTuli tradiciulizRapris RvTaebaTa ufros-umcrosobis tradiciebs. poemismTavari gmiris mogzauroba `bedis saZieblad~, misi urTierToba gansxvavebulibunebisa da mdgomareobis adamianebTan, poets SesaZleblobasuqmnis aCvenos gmiris rTuli cxovreba, usamarTlo Cagvra, tanjva.vaJa-fSavelas, rogorc Tavad acxadebs, ainteresebs: `usamarTlobasimarTles risTvisa sjobnis ZalaTa?~ an ratom xdeba, rom`zogs amohSxamda Tvis lukmaalali ofliT naRvarisxvas SerCa, kidec SaergosarCo naqurdal-napari.~(vaJa-fSavela,1961: 187)poetis mier dasmuli kiTxvebi axalic aris da Zvelic. es,SeiZlebaiTqvas, maradiuli sakiTxia zogadad gamoxatuli keTilisa da borotisdapirispirebiT da igi kacobriobis winaSe mudam idga.vaJa-fSavelas poemaSi Semoaqvs bedisweris Tema da cxovrebis avkargisadmiTavisi damokidebulebis gamJRavnebis, ambebis mxatvrulixorcSesxmisaTvis nawarmoebis gmirebad irCevs sam Zmas. sazRapro eposidanpoeti sesxulobs farTod gavcelebul tradicias umcrosi Zmisidealizaciis Sesaxeb, upirispirebs umcross ufrosebs, gmobs ufrosiZmebis cxovrebis wessa da bunebas.poeti ZmaTa bunebis dapirispirebisaTvis Seqmnil striqonebSi undaeyrdnobodes cnobil qristianul legendas (`moxuci stumari~), romlismixedviT glaxis tansacmelSi gadacmuli RmerTi uqonel, stumar-Tmoyvare umcros Zmas asaCuqrebs, xolo ufrosebs, stumari romsZulT, sjis.poetis mTavar gmirs sabralo hqvia, zRapris siuJetisagan gansxvavebiT,is Tavisi Zmebisgan marto uiRblobiT ar gamoirCeva:`glaxakic mravali mosdiT,erTxel gaZRomis mTxovneli.ori Zma bevrs yurs ar ugdebsglaxakebs, imaT xarebsa,mxolod sabralo maspinZlobs,puriT da RviniT sawylebsa~.(vaJa-fSavela, 1961: 188)sabralo Tavisi Zmebisgan gamoirCeva sxvisi Sebralebis grZnobiT da243


enaTmecniereba, literaturaTmcodneobaalalmarTlobiT. amas mTeli sofeli amCnevs da mas `alals~ eZaxis. rocaojaxs uWirs, sabralo `simdidrenaxuli~ Zmebisagan gansxvavebiTglaxakur xelobas ar Takilobs. `Zmebi ki naorgularsa hmalaven colebisskivrSia~. alal-marTals Zmebis Ralati fiqradac ar mosdis.vaJa-fSavela xalxuri zRapridan `mzis qali~ sesxulobs dasawyisepizods:`mzis qali “iyo sami Zma kaci. moxnes sami dRis miwa da daTeses. erTma iqiT, erTmaaqeT da erTma Suaze. movida mSvenieri jejili. erT mSvenier dRes moiquruSacam piri, dauSva setyva da Suala yana sul miwaSi Caitana. is orinapirisa ki gadarCa. movida patroni, daxeda yanas da Caswyda guli. namgaligadaido mxarze da gaudga gzas bedis saZebnelad.(qurdovaniZe, 1991: 88)`uiRblo iRbliani“`....sami dRis udgas fetvia gaiyves Tu ram ebadaT, samad gaiyves fetvia...fetvis momkasac Tavis wils yvela apirebs diliTa magram im Ramesgaavdrda Tavs setyvac wamouria; ca javrobs, swyreba friada, Tqvensmtrebs, rom meores dilas umcross ukvdeba gulia: fetv-nawili imisa,gavlili, dakargulia, sdgas, Tavdaxrili dascqeris gul-xeleb dakrefilia.mainc RmerTs madlobas swiravs, marTali, marTlis Svilia... adga,wavida iqidan, dastova saxli, Zmebia, miendo bedisweras,gardaiaramTebia.(vaJa-fSavela, 1961:189)Zmebis gadawyvetilebiT qoneba samad gaiyo.ufros Zmebs meti SexvdaT,umcross-naklebi. Tumca isic ZmebisTvis emeteboda. umcrosiZmis daxasiaTeba naTlad warmoaCens misi qristianuli cxovrebis wess,romlis mixedviTac moyvasi unda giyvardes ise, rogorc sakuTari Tavi.zRapris mixedviT, umcros Zmas setyva yanas gaunadgurebs.bedis sa-Zebrad wasuli sabralo, zRaprisa da poemis mixedviT, mecxvares daudgebamwyemsad im pirobiT, rom faras oTxi wlis ganmavlobaSi erTi cxvaricar unda moakldes.. mecxvaris Semdeg sxva moxucTan debs pirobas.60 kacis saTibi yana erT dReSi martom unda moTibos da Znebad Sekonosmzis Casvlamde. rogorc zRaparSi, poemaSic gmiri ver asrulebs pirobebs.faris gayofis dros mgeli moitacebs cxvars da bolo Znis Sekvri-244


enaTmecniereba, literaturaTmcodneobasas Cadis mze. amis gamo sabralo gulSic ki ar gmobs gangebas. umcrosiZma bunebis Zalebisagan Tavs damarcxebulad Tvlis da uars ambobs Taviswilze.vaJa-fSavela ar Ralatobs im princips, romelic Tavidan daudo safuZvladsabralos xasiaTs. gmiri patiosnad da sityvis kacad rCebayvela situaciaSi. man cxovrebaze sakuTari Tvalsazrisi SeimuSava, romelsacpoeti ase ayalibebs:`marTals nugeSad esa aqvsgulSi Seudrek burjada,rom RmerTi kai kacobasmas ar CauTvlis fuWada.SemdegisaTis mas fiqrobs,ar uRalatos simarTles:eridos mwikvlsa yovelsa,daumegobrdes sinaTles.~(vaJa-fSavela, 1961. 192)sabralom icis, rom am qveyanaSi SeiZleba bednierebas ver moeswros,magram amas misTvis arsebiTi mniSvneloba ara aqvs, mis saxels xom maincmoixsenieben, rogorc `alalad lukmis mWamelsa~.gmiris axali kuTxiT warmoCenis mizniT vaJa sabralos saTaTreTSimoaxvedrebs. ocma welma ganvlo bedis ZiebaSi. am xnis ganmavlobaSi sabraloserTxelac ar gaumarTla gangebam. poemis X TavSi Semodis patriotulimotivi. qristianuli siyvarulis Tema, romelic mTeli poemismanZilze viTardeba, Tavisi gamovlenis umaRlesi formiT unda dagvirvindes,rac qristianobisaTvis TavganwirvaSi mdgomareobs.saTaTreTSi sabralos win gadaeSleba wiTeli tba, romelic sababigaxdeba. tbis gaCenis Sesaxeb Tqmulebis gaxsenebis. vaJas mier motanilipoeturi gadmocemis mixedviT, saqarTvelodan sparseTSi gandevnil,qristes rjulze mtkiced dgomis gamo daxocil qarTvelTa sisxlmawarmoqmna tba — `iveriis karg ZeTa grZnobis da fiqris mtvirTveli~.sisxlis tbaSi, gadmocemiT, `RvTiuris xelT qsovili~ yvavilebi cocxloben.isini mxolod maSin Cndebian, roca qarTvels dainaxaven — “mar-Tals, simarTliT mkobilsa~ — da tkbil qarTuliT esaubrebian. yvavil-Ta xilviT SeZruli sabralo, romelmac tbasTan ipova `samoTxe — nav-Tsayudeli sulisa~, aq moisurvebs samudamod darCenas. sabralos surviliaerTi yvavili mainc mowyvitos, magram ver axerebs. yvavilebiqristes rjulisTvis wamebul mkvdarTa sulebia, isini sxva realiebSiimyofebian da mokvdavis xeli maT ver Seexeba. sabralo gaecno odesRacsaqarTvelodan motacebul, samSoblos danatrebul qals, romelsac,245


enaTmecniereba, literaturaTmcodneobamarTalia, saqveynob mahmadi uRiarebia, magram qristes loculobs `Cumada,da dedis RvTisa isevac Casaxuli maqvs gulada~. rjulSecvlilqalTan sabralos Sexvedris vaJaseuli pozicia mJRandeba gmiri qalisadmimmarTul sityvebSi:`didad Semcdarxar, dedilo,ro rjuli gadagigdia,dRes Sens suls aqa vnaxavdi,sisxlis tba ro dga didia,da Tavis netarebasaiqidan damiTvlidia~.(vaJa-fSavela, 1961. 201)qristesadmi erTgulebis gamoxatvas tanjva-wameba ganapirobebs. qalimoaklda ufalTan miaxlebis bednerebas. uzomoa misi sinanuli. isSesawiravs da baraTs atans samSobloSi `qristes msaxur mamebTan~,sTxovs evedron misTvis ufals. qalis sabooo bedi poemaSi ar Cans. qalisbedis gadauWrelad datoveba vaJas qristianul azrovnebaze migvaniSnebs:`naTaTrali salias~gadarCena mxolod uflis mowyalebas SeuZlia.vaJa-fSavela Semdgom epizodSi isev ubrundeba `mzis qalis~ zRaparsda mis safuZvelze qmnis gmiris mowinaaRmdege bunebis ZalTa dasjisscenebs. poemis dasawyisSi gmiris vedreba ar Seismina mzem, xolosabralos eliam da mgelma piroba daarRvevines. es tkivili isev cocxlobsumcrosi Zmis gulSi da raki realur cxovrebaSi ver gadauxadamaT samagiero, sizmarSi dasaja. zRapris siuJets mxolod sizmari agrZelebs.sabralo xan mgels, xan elias, xan mzes urtyams gamwarebuli.sizmriseul angariSworebas vaJa-fSavela Segnebulad mimarTavs.Tavisi idealuri gmiris xasiaTis Camoyalibebisas poeti ar dauSvebsraime aravaJkacur saqciels, maT Soris SurisZiebas, samagieros gadaxdas.amitom qmnis vaJa iseT epizods, romelic sizmridan gamoRviZebulisabralos fsiqologiur mdgomareobas gadmogvcems da warmoaCens gmirisnamdvil bunebas:`RmerT sTxovs, sizmrebis muriar CauTvalos codvada.xelebi apyrobili qvs,isev damdgari locvadaRvTis saxels eZebs haerSi,elamuneba kocnada~.(vaJa-fSavela, 1961. 206)sicocxles samSobloSi daasrulebs sabralo. arwivi moitacebs da246


enaTmecniereba, literaturaTmcodneobaTavis sofelSi dasvams, gamdidrebuli Zmebisagan unugeSod dalevssuls. mainc ar gaiyolebs imqveynad Zmebze cud fiqrs. sakuTar sofel-Sic aravis Seawuxebs, arc wyals moiTxovs, arc purs. Zmebi sagvareulosaflavsac ar aRirseben sabralos da mwir serze damarxaven.poemis XIII TavSi vaJa-fSavela xalxSi darCenil ambavs hyveba imis Sesaxeb,rom sabralos saflavTan gamoxeTqa wyarom, romelic yvela senskurnavs, ufrosi Zmebis saflavi ki, Turme, Waobad qceula. Ram-RamobiTWaobidan oxvra da tirili ismis, Tan gesliani sicili. deda Svilebs iqgavlas ukrZalavs. sabralos saflavTan ki sanTels atans dasanTebad.sabralos Tavgadasavals Taobidan Taobas gadascemen:`rom yvelam misi suraTiguls Caisaxos, Casvas,da trfialeba keTilisTvalTa wamwamze daisvas~.(vaJa-fSavela, 1961, 207)sabralos epiTeti mTeli poemis manZilze `marTalia~. am wodebas eklesiaaniWebs saero pirs, romelic Tavisi cxovrebiT qristianuli siuyvarulisada Tavdadebis magaliTs iZleva.sagulisxmoa arwivis Tema. vaJa-fSavela arwivs or aspeqtSi warmogvidgens.erTi mxriv, igi amiranis miTis cnobil borot Zalas asaxierebsda cnobili funqciiT warmogvidgeba, meore mxriv, vaJa jadosnurizRapris tradicias iTvaliswinebs da arwivs zRaprul-miTuri faskunjismovaleobas akisrebs. sainteresoa TviT poetis pozocia. arwiv-faskunjisTemis SemotaniT vaJa optimistur ganwyobilebas amkvidrebs nawarmoebSi.poemis mixedviT, arwivi amiranis TxovniT sabralos TavismxareSi Camosayvanad midis. Tumca arwivi amiranis:`gul-mkerdsa swiwknis Smagada,verc is gatexa, arc TviTonmoswyinda qceva avada,ver gauTava gul-RviZli,verc xorcSi sisxli gauSro...~(vaJa-fSavela, 1961, 209)vaJa-fSavela arwivis sasikeTod moqcevaSi momavals Wvrets. poetseCvenaba, rom umal arwivis neba daimsxvreva, vidre gatydeba amirani — -sikeTe. arwivs`ramdenic siSmage mosdissisxlis smis, xorcis glejisa,imdnad sabrazod uxdebasali klde gmiris Tmenisa.247


enaTmecniereba, literaturaTmcodneobaver gaugia, saidannaWami leSi ivseba?~(vaJa-fSavela, 1961, 209).amiranis xateba poemis bolos SemTxveviTi ar aris. vaJa qarTulifolkloris magaliTze amdidrebs poemis ideas. Tu sabralo daCagrulsimarTles hgavs, romlis dafaseba adamianis gonebas uWirs, amiranistanjva qarTuli sulis tyveobaa, romelic TvalisTvis uxilavia damxolod gonebiT unda ganiWvritos. poemaSi dasmuli zneobrivi idealebi,romelic avtoris qristianuli TvalTaxedviT aris nasazrdoebi, va-Jas misTvis Cveul miTosur planSi gadaaaqvs. Tu sabralom simarTliTada moTminebiT moipova WeSmriteba, amiranis tanjvis gonebis TvaliTganWvreta imis mauwyebelia, rom suli tanjviT, sikeTis qmniT da moTminebiTmoipovebs Tavisuflebas. uiRblo iRbliani gaxdeba.`mzis qalis~ zRapridan vaJas ar ainteresebs mravali motivi, magramerTi garemoeba mainc yuradRebs iqcevs. vaJa ugulebelyofs realurcxovrebaSi xelmocaruli gmiris zRapriseuli jadosnobiT warmatebismiRwevis Temas, rac Zalze mniSvnelovania da faqtobrivad erTaderTigzaa gmiris cxovrebis Semdgomi warmatebuli ganviTarebisaTis. poetsmiznad dausaxavs sikvdilamde tanjuli datovos Tavisi gmiri, arc erTsaqmeSi ar gaumarTos xeli, awamos da, rogorc RvTismetyveleba gvaswavlis,am tanjvaSi moupovos bedniereba rarig mZimed misaRwevic arunda iyos igi.vaJa-fSavela poemaSi mTavari gmiris mxatvrul saxes qristes moTminebasada zneobriv sispetakes aniWebs. nawarmoebis yvela epizodSi moqmedebaim logikiT aris warmarTuli, rom cxovrebasTan WidilSi gmirimudam marcxdeba, Tumca inarCunebs sulier wonasworobas, siwmindes,radgan, rogorc poemis dasawyisSi gviTxra vaJam, `sabralo, Tavi mas CaebaraRvTisada~.sabralos araCveulebrivi simtkice da saocari keTilSobileba poemismravali epizodis mixedviT irkveva. am mxriv sainteresoa sakuTari fetvisyanis setyvisagan ganadgureba, oTxi wlis unaklo samsaxuris Semdegmglisagan cxvris ganadgurebis, yanis mkisas mzis mizeziT pirobis Seusruleblobis,mwiris mier mRvimidan gamogdebis epizodi. poeti yvelganSeucdomeli taqtikiT Zerwavs gmiris xasiaTs. pirveli marcxisas:`sdgas Tavdaxrili, dascqerisgul-xeleb dakrefilia.mainc RmerTs madlobas swiravs,marTali, marTlis Svilia~(vaJa-fSavela, 1961, 192)248


enaTmecniereba, literaturaTmcodneobamecxvarisaTvis micemuli pirobis Seusruleblobisas:`muxlT moekveTa sabralos,amoikvnesa mZimeda.Camojda, Tavi dahkida,mieyrdno sisxlis dilesa.~(vaJa-fSavela, 1961, 193).vaJa Tavisi mrwamsis gamosaxatavad poemis finalSi qmnis suraTs,romelSic absoluturad cvlis sabralos beds. realuri cxovrebisgzis gavlisas zneobrivi principebis mtkiced damcveli sabralo undadajildovdes. poeti cnobil models iyenebs da saaqao cxovrebaSi tanjuligmiris aRzevebas SesaZleblad sikvdilis Semdeg miiCnevs. isevupirispirdeba erTmaneTs ori sawyisi — keTili da boroti, realuri dairealuri. tanjvis gzaze gavla, cnobili modelis moxedviT, aucilebeliasulieri amaRlebisaTvis, sxvaTaTvis sikeTis mosatanad.rogorc ukve aRvniSneT, Zmebisgan uaryofili sabralo `erT mwirsda xriok serzed damarxes, rogorc `gaTaTrebuli~. aq boroti jer kidevgamarjvebulia, magram gamoxdeba xani da Seicvleba realur cxovrebaSidamkvidrebuli mdgomareoba. dapirispirebulma Zalebma uTuodunda gacvalon rolebi. amas moiTxovs borotisa da keTilis orTabrZolissayovelTaod cnobili Sedegi:`Turme mis saflavis TaviserTi wyaroa momdeni,da xSirad saflavis stumradRam-Ram iciT mTvaris odenisxivi Camodis da adisqveynad sinaTlis momfenivinac ki dahlevs im wyalsa,rac unda WiriT pyrobili iyos, morCeba im wamsve,wyaro isea cnobili~.(vaJa-fSavela, 1961, 208).vaJa-fSavela bolos isev ubrundeba zRaprisa da poemis Temas daisev zRapris tradiciis gaTvaliswinebiT amkvidrebs sikeTes da sjisborotebas.vaJa-fSavelas damokidebuleba poema “uiRblo iRblianSi~ folklorulimasalisadmi SemoqmedebiTia. poeti gardaqmnis zepirsityvier motivebs,tradiciul Temebs axlebul interpretacias aZlevs da originalurgaazrebamde amaRlebs.249


enaTmecniereba, literaturaTmcodneobagamoyenebuli lirteratura:1. T. qurdovaniZe. vaJa-fSavela da xalxuri poeturi sityva. Tb.,1991.2. vaJa-fSavelas xsovnisadmi miZRvnili krebuli. m. zandukeli,`sizmari~, Tb., 1966.3. v. kotetiSvili, qarTuli literaturis istoria, XIXs. Tb., 1959.4. vaJa-fSavela. TxzulebaTa sruli krebuli xuT tomad, t. 2, Tb.,1961.250


enaTmecniereba, literaturaTmcodneobaTamila maxaraSviliivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisissaxelmwifo universiteti, magistrantiqristianul-miTosuri motivebivaJa-fSavelas ~gvelismWamelSi~xelmZRvaneli: profesori Tamar SarabiZevaJas gamoCenam qarTul literaturaSi Secvala XIX saukunis qarTulipoeziis saerTo foni da zed aRibeWda, rogorc mimzidveli da idumali`Sori TeTri mwvervali~. mkvlevarTa interesis sagani Tavidanvegamxdara vaJaseuli samyaros aRqmis specifika. am TvalsazrisiT igi individualurida gansxvavebuli xelweris xelovania.gansakuTrebiT mkafiod vlindeba vaJas poeturi geniis TviTmyofadobamis poemebSi. `gvelis mWameli~, romelic amJamad Cveni yuradRebisobieqts warmoadgens, 1901 wliT TariRdeba.`garkveuli TvalsazrisiTes aris Semajamebeli nawarmoebi, romelSic mocemulia vaJas msoflmxedvelobrivimrwamsis gasaRebi, oRond es ukanaskneli imdenadRrmad devs, rom `gvelis mWamelis~ koncefcia dRemde rCeba principuliliteraturuli polemikis, azrTa diametruli sxvadasxvaobis sagnad~(asaTiani 1982:433). roca es nawarmoebi daibeWda vaJa-fSavela kargadcnobili da aRiarebuli mwerali iyo, magram mis axal poemas aravingamoxmaurebia. literaturuli sazogadoeba, Jurnalebi, gazeTebi didxansdumdnen, arc avi uTqvamT, arc kargi, arc imis cnoba SemorCenila,rom poemis Sesaxeb Tundac zepiri msjeloba sadme gamarTula.`gvelis mWamelis~ kritikuli Sefasebis pirveli cda aleqsandre xaxanaSvilisrusulad gamocemul `narkvevebSi~ gvxvdeba. mkvlevari ampoemas simbolisturs uwodebs. mogvianebiT, 1909 wels, kita abaSiZem miaqciayuradReba TematikiTa da personaJTa saxeebiT gamorCeul amTxzulebas. kritikosi mindias `axali cxovrebis maxarobels~ uwodebsda ambobs, rom “igi msxverplia Tavisive nebis sisustisa da amitomaciRupeba~ (abaSiZe, 1909, 8). aqedan moyolebuli, `gvelis mWamelis Sesaxebuamravi gamokvleva daiwera. samarTlianad aRniSnavs gr. kiknaZe, rom`vaJa-fSavela didi xelovania da kvleva-Ziebis erT doneze namdviladdauZlevelia~ (kiknaZe 1975, 6). amas adasturebs gamokvlevebis siuxve,romlebic konkretulad “gvelis mWamelis~ problemas exeba.`gvelis mWamelis~ pirvel nawilSi mindia gvevlineba rogorc bune-251


enaTmecniereba, literaturaTmcodneobabis saidumlosTan wilnayari mogvi.buneba `vaSas~ ZaxiliT egebeba mindiasgamoCenas. mindiasa da bunebis yovel arss Soris Sinagani, siyvarulismieri,sxvaTaTvis Seucnobeli da SeumCneveli kavSiria damyarebuli.momdevno Tavebidan irkveva, rom bunebas ara marto xeebi, yvavilebi,puris yana da frinvelebi asaxiereben, aramed uflis mier gaCenili yvelasulieri Tu usulo arsi. mkvlevarebma yuradReba miaqcies mindiasmier bunebis ganmasaxierebeli mcenareulis mimarT gansxvavebul damokidebulebas.yvavilebida puris TavTavebi mindias wamlad mowyvetasada saCqarod momkas evedrebian, maSin rodesac xeebi eubnebian `nu momklavCemo mindiav, nu damibneleb mzesao~. gaugebrobas badebs is, rom`xe-qva-balaxi-cxoveli~ rogorc Calxia ambobs ebraleba mindias, xoloyvavilebsa da gansakuTrebiT yanas mindia maTive TxovniT wyvets damkis. winaaRmdegoba marTlac aSkaraa da am erTi SexedviT bundovan sakiTxssakmaod argumentirebulad da naTlad gamnartavs Tamaz CxenkeliTavis `tragikul niRbebSi~.mkvlevari gansakuTrebul yuradRebas aqcevs III Tavis brwyinvalemiTosur pasaJs, romelSic mindias vaSas ZaxiliT egebeba buneba, masxelnamglian RmerTad saxaven oqrisferi TavTavebi`xel-namgliani roca var,msaxaven Tavis RmerTada:-`ara, me momWer, mindiav,nu mtoveb, Seni kvnesame!~`ara, me, -sxva gaiZaxis:-ufro maSinebs zeca me.patara nislic rom vnaxo,CamoviSlebi taniTa.vai Tu setyva movides,yeli gamomWras daniTa~ (vaJa-fSavela, 1986, 223).`gvelis mWamelis~ am marTlac miTosuri pasaJis mixedviT, mindiamarcvleulis mfarveli, oqrosTavTuxebiani yanis RvTaebaa: mwife marcvalimisi ganmasaxierebeli da misive mkvdreTiT aRdgomis sawindaria.am azriT marcvlis `gawirva~, e.i. moumkeloba misTvis `yelis gamoWraa~,radgan mas araTu setyva, patara nislic ki daSlis da, maSasadame, momavalgazafxuls kvlav veRar aRorZindeba. magram, rogor Tamaz CxenkeliaRniSnavs `poemis saerTo mizandasaxulobis kvalad, am pasaJis miTosurmaSinaarsma profanireba ganicada. unda aRiniSnos, rom vaJa aSkaradmiTosuri Sinaarsis ganeitralebas cdilobs, roca ganmartavs:yanasa setyva aSinebs,-kacT usazrdood darCena,252


enaTmecniereba, literaturaTmcodneobaTorem viT namgals, setyvasasiT SeuZlia waxdena?!..kacT sargod Tavsa hzogavenTavTavni oqros ferani~ (vaJa-fSavela, 1986, 223).cxadia, rom vaJa aq mizans unacvlebs TavTavis `zrunvas~, magram miznisSenacvlebis miuxedavad, am epizodis pirvandeli, miTosuri modelimainc Zalumad Wvivis.poetis intuicia swored mas asaxierebs, magram poetisrefleqsia am pasaJis aSkarad nagulisxmev sakralur azrs sxva sadinelzeuSvebs: `TavTavebs kacT usazrdood darCena afiqrebso~, ri-Tac sakralur azrs utilitarul ganmartebas aZlevs. amrigad, poetisdagvianebuli refleqsia poeturi intuiciis safuZvelze ukve ganxorcielebulimiTosuri pasaJis mxatvrul sinamdviles Sinagan winaaRmdegobasrom uwevs~ (Cxenkeli 2009:179-180).poemis daswyisSivea naTqvami, rom gvelis xorcis WamiT bunebis saidumloebasTanwilnayaroba RvTiur codnasTan, zecasTan kavSiris badalia.mindias am codnisagan `dacarielebis~ Semdeg wina planze sworedes ukanaskneli aspeqti gamodis: poemaSi ukve mindias piriT araer-Tgzis cnaurdeba, rom man uflis winaSe scoda, RmerTTan laparakisunari dahkarga, rom igi rwmenisa, wminda rjulisa da ciuri niWisaganganiZarcva. amrigad, mindias bunebasTan wilnayaroba RmerTTan Tanaziarobasgulisxmobs. miTosuri gvelis Wama da qristianuli zecis wyalobaTanabari cnebebia.miTosuri qveskneli da qristianuli zeca poemaSi gaigivebulia. mindiaRamRamobiT banze zis da cas aSterdeba:`loculobs Tval-cremliani.azri ar ismis locvisa...ufro tanjvaa glovisa,vidre guldawynarebuliwyalobis gamoTxovisa.cremli sdis, Cumi qviTiniabjris JRarunSi ereva,loculobs daCoqilia,xanic mravali ereva~(vaJa-fSavela, 1986, 238)ase mxolod qristianuli RmerTis winaSe loculobs qristiani.magrames qristiani mindiaa da xaxmatis xatSia daCoqili, sadac warmarTulixvTaebis saxelze daklul kuratTan `xanjal-sisxliani~ xevisberidgas. xevsurTa salocavSi gvelismWamelis aseTi locva iseve Zneladwarmosadgenia, rogorc mis mier cxovelTa xocvis gamo dakarguli sib-253


enaTmecniereba, literaturaTmcodneobarZnis gamosaTxovrad Zroxebis dakvla, radgan Tu pirvel SemTxvevaSieTniuri koloritia darRveuli, meoregan danaSaulis monanieba imavedanaSaulis sazRaurad xdeba. magram, rogorc vxedavT, poemaSi caTa mimarTqristianul locvas swored kuratis warmarTuli msxverplSewirvaSeesabameba.`gvelis-mWamelis~ pirvelsave TavSia naxsenebi fSav-xevsuruli eTnologiisaTvisSeusabamo pirwmindad qristianuli `aRdgoma~, `Soba~ da`samoTxe~. Tumca poemis mxatvruli namdviloba mxolod xatobasascnobs religiur dResaswaulad. am sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT sainteresodaskvnas aketebs Tamaz Cxenkeli: `mindias garegnul-aqtiuri moqmedebapoemaSi miTosuri elementebiT cnaurdeba, misi Sinagan-spiritualurigansja ki — qristianuliT. pirvelis safuZveli mindias qvecnobierebaa,meorisa cnobieri azri refleqsia.mxolod intuiciurad moxve-Wili codnis dakargvis Semdeg icnobierebs mindia am faqts da bunebas-Tan da RmerTTan gawyvetil kavSirs “Zvir saunjed~ naTlavs~ (Cxenkeli2009, 181).mindia qajTa araadamianur yvela saidumlos eziara, Tumca is, racqajebs qajad, e.i. borot sulebad aqcevda, demonur Tvisebas sZenda,mindias pirovnebisaTvis ucxo darCa. mindiam `sxva yvelaferi iswavlaxerxia~, `mxolod borotma mis gulSi ver moikida fexia~.amitomac mindiabolomde adamianurobis erTguli rCeba. igi cdilobs qajebTan, anuborotebis simbolosTan dapirispirebas.mindia maRali ocnebiT cocxlobs: `netavi imas visac ki madlierihyavs qveyana~ — esaa amqveyniuri bednierebis maZiebeli am didi adamianisideali da amis gansaxorcieleblad ucnauri unari moimarjva, ucnaurobaski danaxva da gageba sWirdeba. `ojaxi da sazogadoeba sargeblobsmindias RvTaebrivi monacemebiT, magram roca yofiT, adamianururTierTobebze midgeba saqme ar SeuZliaT gaugon mas. ojaxi da Temiswevrebi odnavadac ar fiqroben, rom mindias gansxvavebul Tvisebebs,romelic swored maT sasikeTodaa mimarTuli movla sWirdeba. sazogadoebaayovlad egoisti iseTi pirovnebisadmi, romelic Zalasa da energiasar zogavs, rom qveyanas `argos~ (evgeniZe 1989:401).mindia TavisTavad tragikuli bedis adamiania. man, grZneuli niWispatronma, ver SeZlo es niWi adamianTa sakeTildReod gamoeyenebina (esZalian cota xniT SeZlo). sazogadoebas sWirdeba brZeni, TundacgrZneuli winamZRoli, lideri da Tumca ojaxi sazogadoebis burjia,swored am kerZo SemTxvevaSi sazogadoeba upirispirdeba liderisojaxs.yoveli sazogadoeba, Temi cdilobs winamZRolis erTaderTi sazrunaviiyos. bunebrivia, rom adamiani, romelsac sxvaTa bedi abaria254


enaTmecniereba, literaturaTmcodneobagarkveul daTmobebze unda wavides. rogorc zaza abzianiZe aRniSnavs,“mindias rwmenas ar mouTxovia misgan ojaxi gaewira. vaJam kvlav araCveulebrivisituacia Seqmna.mindias ojaxi sicivesa da SimSils unda Seeguos,imisaTvis, rom am ojaxis meTaurma Temis gaZRolac SeZlos.mindias saxe vaJas msoflmxedvelobrivi interesebis ZiriTad sferos,mis gulisTqmasa da misi maZiebeli azris mTavar mimarTulebas emsaxureba.amsTan erTad, es unikaluri saxe SeiZleba gavigoT, rogorcsimboluri ganzogadeba vaJas poeturi geniis erTi arsebiTi niSan-Tvisebisa.SeiZleba iTqvas, rom qarTvel poetTa Soris vaJa-fSavela iyo pirvelida erTaderTi, romelmac SeZlo mindiasaviT Rrmad Cawvdomoda bunebissaidumloebas da `usuloTa da uasakoTa~ metyvelebis saidumloebagaego.kacobriobis did maswavlebelTagan mxolod ramdenimem iwinaswarmetyvela,rom buneba odesme samagieros gadauxdis Tavis yovlisSem-ZleobiT gaampartevnebul adamians da martodmartos datovebs cxovrebisdamSrali mdinaris usicosxlo, uxmo da uCrdilo napirze... qar-Tveli kacisTvis aseTi maswavlebli vaJa-fSavela iyo. bunebis pirispirampartavnad mdgar adamians vaJam muxli moadrekina am maradiuli saswauliswinaSe, xolo cxovrebisagan dajabnilsa da daCoqil moZmes xeliSeaSvela, fexze wamoayena, Rirsebis grZnoba da momavlis rwmena STaunerga.igi TviTon iyo am bunebis RviZli Svili, mis kalTaSi gazrdilida masTan erTad Tavisuflebis gemos naCvevi.mindiasaTvis bunebis yoveli arseba aris subieqti, meore `me~, romelTanacigi iseT urTierTobas amyarebs, rogorc toli tolTan. mindiasdamokidebulebas usulo bunebisadmi poeti simboluri mniSvnelobiTxatavs. vaJa iyo poeti, romelic simboloebs xazgasmiT ar gamoxatavda,Tumca maT Sinaganad yovelTvis atarebda. simbolo is gza daxidia, romelsac am qveynidan im qveyanaSi gadavyavarT. igi mistikurisamyaros gasaRebia, sarkmelia uxilavi sinamdvilis dasanaxavad. vaJasusazRvro fantaziam SeZlo mindias saxiT daemyarebina kavSiri am qveynebsSoris. `mindias TviTmkvlelobis gadawyvetileba ar unda gavigoT piradapirimniSvnelobiT, iseve rogorc gvelis xorcis Wama. TviTmkvlelobaspoemaSi TviTSemecnebis mniSvneloba aqvs, romelmac adamians xsnis gza undaaCvenos. mindias gadawyvetileba aris arCevanis gakeTeba amqveyniursada suliers Soris. am arCevaniT mindia meored ibadeba, rogorc pirovnebaam sityvis WeSmariti qristianuli mniSvnelobiT. dabadeba xdeba TviTadamianis mier da ara misgan damoukideblad~ (SarabiZe 2005:207). am nawarmebSierTamneT erwymis miTosi da qristianoiba. Tu pirveli masalaa az-255


enaTmecniereba, literaturaTmcodneobarovnebisTvis, meore msoflmxedvelobrivi azrovnebis Sedegia. sworedamitom mimarTavs vaJa miTis qristianizacias.realisturi epoqis warmomadgenelma Seqmna epoqisaTvis sruliadSeusabamo poema, romelsac simbolisturi datvirTva aqvs.am poemiT manwin gauswro Tavis epoqas da kidev erTxel dagvanaxa, rom is WeSmaritinovatoria. mxolod aseTi genialuri niWis patrons SeeZlo daewera`gvelis mWameli~, romelsac saukuneze metia sulganabuli CavcqeriTda bolomde ver amogvixsnia mis fskerze daleqili idumali qaragma.gamoyenebuli literatura:1. abaSiZe k. Juenali `faskunji~, 1909.2. asaTiani g. saTaveebTan. Tb., gamomcemloba `sabWoTa saqarTvelo~,1982.3. evgeniZe i. vaJa-fSavela. Tb., `Tbilisis universitetis gamomcemloba~,1989.4. vaJa-fSavela, Txzulebani, gamomcemloba `sabWoTa saqarTvelo~,1986.5. kiknaZe g. vaJa-fSavelas Semoqmedeba, Tb., `Tbilisis universitetisgamomcemloba~, 1957.6. SarabiZe T. qristianuli motivebi vaJa-fSavelas SemoqmedebaSi,Tbilisi, 2005.7. Cxenkeli T. tragikuli niRbebi. Tb., gamomcemloba `memkvidreoba~,2009.256


enaTmecniereba, literaturaTmcodneobanino adamiaivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisissaxelmwifo universiteti, magistrantimiTosi, rogorc vaJa-fSavelas Semoqmedebis wyaroxelmZRvaneli: profesori Tamar SarabiZemiTosi — xalxuri Semoqmedeba — ama Tu im eris ganviTarebis donismaCvenebelia. mdidaria is eri, romelsac Zveli memkvidreoba gaaCnia damisgan araerTi faseuli faqtis moxmoba SeuZlia. qarTuli erovnulimiTosic, cxadia, Rirebulia CvenTvis da mravalmxriv ganxilvas saWiroebs.sainteresia igi im kuTxiTac, rom misi gamoyeneba xdeba qarTuliliteraturis ganviTarebis TiTqmis yvela etapze da, rac dro gadis, esprocesi ufro da ufro aqtualuria. asea, albaT, yoveli eris istoria-Si, roca Tanamedrove epoqa isev da isev siZveleebisaken cdilobs mibrunebas,yoveli axali xom kargad daviwyebuli Zvelia...zogadad, miTosiT iwyeba TiTqmis yvela gonieri eris literaturaigi erTi SexedviT martivi da gasarTobi Janria, bavSvT gasarTobad SeqmnilizRapari, romelic mxolod fantaziis nayofia da irealur, zogjerararsebul samyaroSi mimdinareobs. Tumca, am pirveladi STabeWdilebismiRma ixilveba didi sibrZne, romelic xalxSi arsebobda, romli-Tac eri ikvebeboda da azrovnebda... rogorc vxedavT, miToss mravalmxrivifunqcia aqvs da sulac ar aris iseTi martivi, rogoric SeiZlebaCandes.xalxuri Semoqmedebis gamoyenebis, `gaTanamedrovebis~ araerTi Sem-Txveva dadasturda rogorc msoflio literaturis istoriaSi, aseveqarTulSic, rogorc mTelis erT nawilSi... aseve mniSvnelovania, rodesacam sakiTxze iwyeben saubars pirveli magaliTebi, Zalian xSirad, va-Ja-fSavelas Semoqmedebidan mohyavT. igi, ra Tqma unda, araa erTaderTimwerali am SemTxvevaSi (ak. wereTeli, v. barnovi, k. gamsaxurdia, gr. robaqiZe,g. doCanaSvili...), magram erT-erTia visTanac ase Warbobs miTologiuriwarmodgenebi, saxeebi... aseve, sainteresoa, rogori kuTxiTudgeba mwerali aseT motivebs, ra ainteresebs da sakuTar nawarmoebeb-Si maT rogor interpretacias aZlevs.vaJa-fSavelas pirvel rigSi, albaT, TvalSi sacemia iseTi miTosuripersonaJebis simravle SemoqmedebaSi, rogorebic arian: devebi, qajebi,alebi, RvTisSvilebi — amirani, kopala... metad maniSnebelia agreTve257


enaTmecniereba, literaturaTmcodneobaxalxuri `eTerianis~ axleburi gaazreba, eTeris `axali~ xasiaTi da misimimarTeba nawarmoebis sxva personaJebTan...mwerlis SemoqmedebaSi devebi, al-qajebi, avi sulebi mudam borotsawyiss gamoxataven — adamianTa mtrebi, sisxlismsmelebi, yovelive adamianurisdamangreveli Zalebi arian. aseT saxeebs vaJas uamrav poemaSi,moTxrobasa Tu leqsSi vxvdebiT (`gvelismWameli~, `stumar-maspinZeli,~`devebis qorwili,~ `sizmari amiranisa,~ `moCveneba,~ `eTeri...~). devebi,avi sulebi, rogorc ukve iTqva, mudam cudis — uaryofiTis gansaxierebaniarian, isini yvelafris STanTqmas lamoben, Tumca sikeTe maTmudam amarcxebs. iSviaTia xalxur Semoqmedebasa Tu vaJas nawarmoebebSiiseTi SemTxveva, roca aseTi Zala gamarjvebuli gamodis. miTosSic xomkeTili yovelTvis amarcxebs borots, dasasruli yovelTvis imediani,naTelia. asevea es mweralTan, romlis Semoqmedebac udavod optimizmiTaris savse da SeuZlebelia masTan gamarjvebulad uaryofiTi mxarevigulvoT.mniSvnelovania aseve isic, rom vaJas ara marto motivebi Tu personaJebi`usesxebia~ miTosidan, aramed ambebi, mTeli epizodebi... erT-er-Ti amis magaliTia leqsi`devebis qorwili,~ romelic zustad amave saTauriTdasturdeba qarTul zepirsityvierebaSi, Tumca SinaarsiT mwerlisleqsi zustad ar mihyveba Tavis xalxur variants, gansxvavebebsa Tumsgavsebebze dakvirvebiT garkveuli daskvnebis gamotanac SeiZleba,Tu ras xedavs avtori aq sainteresos da rogor qmnis Tavad sakuTarTxzulebas. xalxuri `devebis qorwili~ moculobiT bevrad ufro didia,vidre vaJaseuli, masSi aRwerilia, Tu rogor xvdeba Cveulebrivi adamianidevebis lxinSi, romelic male Cxubad gadaiqceva, devebi erTmaneTsdaereveian da am saerTo areulobas adamiani Zlivs aRwevs Tavs,Cumad ipareba. rac Seexeba am mxriv vaJas leqss, is mogviTxrobs, rom devebsqorwili gaumarTavT, sadac xvdeba adamiani, moqeifeni mas umaspin-Zldebian adamianis xorcisgan damzadebuli saWmelebiT, yursukan esmis,Tu rogor kvnesis sxva adamiani, rom moZmis xorcs ver SeWams. esaris absoluturad humanuri gadaazreba Zveli ambisa, sadac gaiJRerebsadamianis mier adamianisave xorcis Wamis motivi, mwerlis saTqmeliukve naTeli xdeba: cxovreba borotebiT aris savse, usamarTlobaganukiTxavad daTareSobs adamianTa Soris da am yvelafris mizezi kisakuTari moZmis Ralati, zurgSeqceva gamxdara. adamiani kargavs mTavars,rac mas sxva arsebebisgan ganasxvavebs — adamianobas. is RvTiurisawyisi, rac RvTis yovel dabadebulSi arsebobs, waSlila da amitomxdeba kaci kacisave xorcis mWameli. vfiqrob, simboluria, rom adamianiTavdapirvelad Tanaziari xdeba borotebisa, romelsac leqsSi devebi258


enaTmecniereba, literaturaTmcodneobaganasaxiereben, Tumca mniSvnelovania isic, rom kaci, romelic devebislxinis Tanamonawilea ganicdis Tavis mdgomareobas da erTgvarad uarsambobs adamianis xorcis miRebaze. sinanuli erT-erTi pirveli sarwmunoebrivisaTnoebaa, romelic WeSmarit monanies aTavisuflebs sakuTaricodvebisgan. vaJas leqsSi aSkarad Cans es grZnoba, risi meSveobiTacdevTa qorwilSi moxvedrili adamiani sabolood ar xdeba im borotisawyisis mimRebi da gamziarebeli.devebze saubris dros aucileblad unda vaxsenoT qarTuli miTologiuripanTeonis erT-erTi warmomadgeneli kopala, romelic vaJa--fSavelas SemoqmedebaSic araerTxel gvxvdeba. folkloristikaSi aRniSnulia,rom kopala da, masTan erTad, iaxsari devebTan, zogadad, borotZalebTan mebrZoli gmirebi arian. kopala, ZiriTadad, fSaur, xevsurulda TuSur leqsebsa da gadmocemebSi gvxvdeba, misi ZiriTadi epi-Tetebia:`mSvenieri,~`laxtiani,~`mxar-TeTri,~`gmiri~ (4, I, gv.134). kopalasasakze, warmoSobaze mwiri cnobebia, Tumca, rogorc zemoCamoTvlilisityvebidanac Cans, igi axalgazrda, axovan Wabukad warmoeginaT,romelsac aravis da arafris SiSi ar hqonda:`memrinas gmiri kopaladev-qajTa piris mSlelia~(4, I, gv. 60)an:`...gmiri kopala cxenze zis,midis da miuxaria,mxarze hkidia maTraxisamocdasami mxaria.gmiri kopalas SiSiTadevebs ver gauxariaT,misi marjvena mZlavria,misi dakruli mwarea.~(4, I, gv. 131)asea igi daxasiaTebuli zepirsityvierebaSi, rac Seexeba am gmirissaxes vaJas SemoqmedebaSi gansakuTrebul yuradRebas iqcevs poema `kopala.~Txzuleba iwyeba bunebis aRweriT, rac metad damaxasiaTebeliamwerlis nawarmoebebisaTvis. Semdeg Txroba gadadis tyis binadrebze,romlebic RamiT Cumad miiparebian wyaros wyalTan, raTa dalion igi.yuradRebas iqcevs sakuTriv irmis swrafva wyaros wylisken, esaa cnobilibibliuri motivi: wyaro — rogorc macocxlebeli movlena, romelicqristinobaSi uzenaesisaken, umaRlesisaken swrafvas gulisxmobs.wyarosTan misul cxovels boroti Zala devnis, tyiT gamosuli uzarma-259


enaTmecniereba, literaturaTmcodneobazari devebi aremares afrTxoben, yovelive es metad mZafrad da cxadadaris aRwerili. aq mCagvreli Zala zeobaSia da swored am dros Cndebavinme moxuci, TeTri wveriTa da jvriT xelSi, es aris yvelas imedi dasaso — beri kopala. msgavseba naTeli da udavoa. miTologiuri gmiri,romelic xalxur SemoqmedebaSi devebTan mebrZolis saxeliT SemorCa,vaJasTan darbaisel moxucad iqca, Tumca gansxvavebac aSkaraa: poemaSikopala moxucis saxiT, grZeli TeTri wveriT Semodis, igi saydarTandgas da aqedan jvris ZaliT amarcxebs mters. folkloruli gmiris saxesaq erovnul-religiuri Strixebi emateba, mteri ki, romelic cxovrebiswyaros uSritavs sxvebs, zogadi mteria da ara mxolod konkretulidevi Tu avsuli, kopala ki — xalxis Semwe, gadamrCeni. amitomac elismas xalxi ase imedianad, amitom uxmoben mas devebis dasamarcxeblad.moxuci beri, romelic miTosSic `dev-qajTa piris mSlelia,~ vaJas poemaSisaydris binadaria, misi mfarveli da Semnaxveli da misi mTavari atributiaq jvaria, xolo xalxur poeziaSi ki misi erT-erTi epiTeti. rogorciTqva, aris `laxtiani,~ romliTac igi amarcxebda mtrebs. rogorcvxedavT, vaJa-fSavelam kopalas SeunarCuna mTavari Tviseba — dev-qaj-Ta mtroba, Tumca bevri ram Secvala. axalgazrda, laxtiani da mSvenierikopala saydris berad iqca, romelic mters ukve jvriT amarcxebs.saTqmeli naTeli xdeba: yovelgvari boroteba, romelic, pirvel rigSi,suls uqmnis safrTxes, marcxdeba rwmeniTa da misi umTavresi simbolo-Ti — jvriT.vaJa-fSavelas yuradRebas mamaci da mtkice rwmenis xasiaTebi yovelTvisiqcevda, swored amitom aris mis SemoqmedebaSi xSiri e.w. `kaiymis~ motivi aseTi yovlismomcveli.. am mxriv, yvelaze naTeli magali-Tia poetis leqsi `kai yma~, romelic aseve, xalxur motivebzea agebuli.misi msgavsi leqsebi xalxur poeziaSi metad gavrcelebuli iyo. gmiris,vaJaseuli idealis warmosadgenad saintereso masalas gvaZlevs rogorcmisi mxatvruli, aseve publicisturi memkvidreobac, rom araferivTqvaT zemoT xsenebul konkretul leqsze. mwerlis mTeli SemoqmedebayovelTvis adidebs mamac, rwmenaSeuryevel adamians, romelic pirveladgilze jer sxvis keTildReobas ayenebs da Semdeg Tavisas. mTeliTavisi sicocxle Temisa da eris samsaxurSi gahyavs, amis sanacvlodgmirs mxolod saxeli rCeba, aranairi materialuri simdidre da avladideba,namdvil mamakacs maTken swrafva arc unda hqondes, swored amasambobs vaJa Tavis erT werilSi: `gmiris ideali fSauri poeziis gamoxatulebiT~.am naSroms, romelsac avtori Tvisi kuTxis poeziaze wers,Tavisuflad SeiZleba daerqvas samecniero naSromis saxeli. im niSan-Tvisebebs, romliTac fSaveli mTqmelebi axasiaTebdnen karg ymebs,260


enaTmecniereba, literaturaTmcodneobaTiTqmis yvelaferSi eTanxmeba vaJac. mis SemoqmedebaSi`kai yma~ mudamubralo, TavSekavebuli, Tavmdabali da sxvaze Tavgadakluli piria. misiidealuri saxis ufro kargad warmosaCenad, emociaTa gasamZafrebladavtors antigmiric Semohyavs TxrobaSi da maTi Sedareba-SepirispirebisxerxiT mkveTrad usvams xazs Tavis saTqmels.vaJaseuli `kai yma~ moculobiT ufro didia, vidre xalxuri. folklorSiramdenime mokle varianti arsebobs am leqsisa. kargi yma,zogadad Cvens mweralTanac da xalxur mTqmelebTan urTierTmsgavsiTvisebebiT xasiaTdeba da gansxvaveba mcirea, Tumca vaJa saubrobs imqveyniurcxovrebazec, sadac saxelmoxveWil gmirs winaprebi egebebian,maT Soris, TviT erekle mefe da Tamaric. aseTi motivebi ki zepirsityvierebisnimuSebSi `kai ymasTan~ dakavSirebiT ar gvxvdeba.gmiris idealuri saxis warmosadgenad ara marto zemoT ganxilulileqsis, aramed vaJa-fSavelas poemebis mixedviTac bevri ramis Tqma SeiZleba.aluda, joyola, zviadauri da sxvebi TavianTi srulyofili xasiaTebiTsavsebiT miesadagebian`kai ymis~ xalxur Tu mwerliseul daxasiaTebas.zogadad, aseTi pirovnebebis Tvisebebs rom avtorebi Camova-SoroT, miviRebT ara ubralod gmiris —mebrZolis ideals, aramed namdvilqristian adamians. Tavmdabloba, moTmineba, sxvisTvis Tavganwirva,ubraloeba da sisadave xom namdvili, WeSmariti morwmunis Tvisebebia,igi ara mxolod calkeul pirebs aramed adamianTa modgmas moeTxovebazogadad. swored amiT aris xalxuri Semoqmedebac da vaJac didebulida mravlismTqmeli am memkvidreobaSi ar Cans ubralo gadmocemagasarTobi ambebisa miToss qmnida xalxi da xalxis erT-erTi wevria va-Jac, amitom arian misi personaJebi aseTi srulfasovnebi da, amave dros,mravalferovanni. marTlia, miTosi garkveulwilad warmarTuli warmonaqmnicaa,magram aranaklebi mniSnveloba aqvs misTvis qristianobasacrogorc viciT, sarwmunoebis Secvlam qarTveli xalxis cnobierebaSiuamravi winaaRmdegoba warmoSva, qristianobam morwmuneebs bevri ramisSecvla mosTxova da am cvlilebebs man Tavisi siaxleebis Zvelze danergviTmiaRwia amitom SeiZina uamravma miTologiurma pasaJma Tu gmirmaqristianuli idealis Tvisebebi da ase gansaxierda isini qristianulipaTosiT gamsWvaluli mwerlis SemoqmedebaSic.qarTuli warmarTuli panTeonis erT-erTi mwvervalia amirani, romelicTamamad SeiZleba miviCnioT qarTuli kulturis yvelaze popularulgmirad. man moicva mTeli saqarTvelo ZvelTagan — dRemde. misixasiaTi sxvadasxva avtorma Taviseburad gardaqmna da gadaamuSava, magram,ZiriTadad, amirani aris tanjvis, usamarTlo dasjis simbolo. sakuTrivamiranis TqmulebaSi igi sulac ar isjeba daumsaxureblad, ami-261


enaTmecniereba, literaturaTmcodneobarani Tavis naTlias, qriste RmerTs (an wminda giorgis) upirispirdebada igi isjeba sakuTari codvebis gamo. marTalia, amirani xalxuri TqmulebismTavari gmiria, saswaulebrivad aris movlenili qveyanas, TviTnadirTRvTaeba dalis Svilia, magram ar aris idealuri gmiri, ramdenadacigi sakuTari zeobis periodSi gadis e.w. `gabudayebis~ safexurs daver iqceva ise, rogorc idealuri gmirisgan iqneboda mosalodneli.rogorc mkvlevari z. kiknaZe aRniSnavs, amirani aris tanjuli, Semcdarikacobriobis simbolo, uamrav TqmulebaSi mijaWvul gmirs uCndeba SansigaTavisuflebisa, raSic mas zogjer ubralo adamianebi unda daexmaron,magram es verasdros xerxdeba, radgan ubralo mokvdavT ar ZaluZTim saidumlos Senaxva, romelic saWiroa amiranis gamosaxsnelad.aqedan gamomdinare, amirans — tanjul gmirs, romelic isjeba damsaxurebuladda iqneba ase manam, sanam igi sinanulamde ar miva, sWirdeba kacobriobisdaxmareba, magram es kacobrioba ar aris amisTvis mzad. asegardaisaxa `gabudayebuli~ amiranis saxe daCagruli, simarTlis mcveligmiris saxed, ase gaxda igi mijaWvuli Tavisuflebis simbolo da uamravimwerlis nawarmoebTa wyaroc. asea igi warmoCenili vaJas SemoqmedebaSic.unda iTqvas, rom mwerali gmirs ixseniebs Zalian xSirad, zogjeriseT adgilebSic, sadac misi xseneba arc aris mosalodneli (`dausrulebelikvnesa~, `klde mtirali,~ `amiranis xmali~...). vaJas amirani mudamTavisuflebis molodinSia. igi samarTlianobisTvis ibrZvis, xalxis-Tvis zrunavs, magram aris erTi leqsi, sadac amirani RvTis sayvedursambobs da amis gamo isjeba kidec, kerZod. `sizmari amiranisa~ metadmniSvnelovania am kuTxiT. amirani sizmarSi RvTis “gmobis~ codvaSivardeba. devebTan moxvedrili igi sayvedurobs ufals, TiTqos pasuxssTxovs, rom ase gawira gmiri, am dros Cndeba TeTrwvera moxuci, romelicwarmoTqmuli samduravis gamo sjis mas. gamofxizlebuli ki ukveaRmoaCens, rom mijaWvulia da masTan mxolod patara finiaRa rCeba...amiranis miTis vaJaseul gadaazrebas aSkarad etyoba qristianuli kvalic.mag., gmiri isjeba, rogorc ukve iTqva, sakuTari codvebis gamo,magram mas mainc aqvs imedi, is elis xsnas, risTvisac saWiroa sinanuli,gacnobiereba sakuTari saqcielisa...miTosuri wyaroebis sakvlevad mniSvnelovania agreTve vaJa-fSavelaskidev erTi poema `eTeri.~ zepirsityvierebis gavlena aq iseve utyuaria,rogor amiranis miTis SemTxvevaSi. es aris xalxuli `eTerianis~ va-Jaseuli interpretacia, romelic Tavis folklorul `pirvelwyaros-Tan~ bevr saerTosac amJRavnebs da bevr gansxvavebasac avlens. yuradRebamivaqcioT poema `eTeris~ personaJebs: centraluri gmiria, obolieTeri, misi obloba da geroba xalxur variantSic saxeldeba da axali262


enaTmecniereba, literaturaTmcodneobaar aris, magram axalia is momenti, roca vaJa asaxelebs mis mamasa da da--Zmebs; eTeris mijnuri xalxurSi abesalomia, vaJasTan ki goderZi, xalxurimurmani vaJasTan Serea...xalxur`eTerians~ Tu gavixsenebT, masSi socialuri dapirispirebaar gvxdeba, abesalomi qorwindeba obol eTerze. nawarmoebSi am uTanasworobazemxolod sakuTriv eTeri laparakobs da aravin sxva, vaJas poemaSiki goderZis mama sdevnis sasaxlidan glexis colad SerTvis gamoda mamave xdeba mizezi, moTave col-qmris daSorebisa. aqedan iwyebatragediac. gurgen mefe daxmarebas sTxovs Seres (murmans), romelicsuls gacvlis jadoze. misi suli axla bneleTis Zalebs — avsul dedabersda devebs ekuTvniT. aq erT momentze unda SevCerdeT: Seres aseTsaqciels mudam Tan axlavs sinanulis gancda, igi Tan mxiarulia da Tanmgloviare, mis cnobierebaSi sindisis xma mainc ismis da, sabolood, amxmas igi mihyavs kidec sinanulamde, Sere Tavs sakuTari xelebiT isjisCadenilis gamo, rac namdvilad ar xdeba xalxuri `eTerianis~ murmanissulSi. igi Tavs iklavs mxolod imitom, rom saflavSic ki xeli SeuSalosabesalomisa da eTeris erTad yofnas. vaJas Sere sakuTari codvisgacnobierebis gamo, cxadia, mainc ver xdeba sabolood dadebiTi gmiri,magram murmanisgan gansxvavebiT igi mkiTxvels amaxsovrdeba rogorcmonanie, gaxelebuli personaJi, romelic mistiris Tavis aw ukve dakargulsuls da acnobierebs, rac Caidina.saintereso xasiaTia aseve goderZi, romelic ar ambobs uars (abesalomisgangansxvavebiT) sakuTar siyvarulze, tanjviT kvdeba, magram arTmobs avadmyof satrfos. misi siyvaruli aq mtkice da uryevia, is fici,romelic man Tavidanve misca eTers. bolomde Seasrula, gauZlo mamisganuaryofas (mxolod deda TanaugrZnobda Svils), gauZlo sasaxlidangagdebas, yvelasgan zurgSeqcevas da bolomde eTeris erTguli darCa.goderZim Seasrula adamianuri movaleoba: ar Secvala Tavisi sityva, aruRalata Tavis fics da eTerisadmi siyvarulis mona iyo bolomde. ase-Ti cvlilebebi avtors xalxurTan SedarebiT, vfiqrob, imisTvis das-Wirda, rom zogadi adamianuri problemebi wamoewia win, daesaxa, Tu rogormidis udidesi codvis Semdeg adamiani pirvel qristianul saTnoebamde— sananulamde... rogor erTgulobs goderZi Tavis siyvaruls daewireba kidec mas...vaJa-fSavelas kidev uamravi Txzuleba aqvs, sadac miTosuri elementebimetad Warbobs (`uiRblo iRbliani,~`moCveneba,~`ocneba...~), Tumcaisic unda aRiniSnos, rom yovelTvis, roca mwerali cdilobs gaacocxlosZveli Tqmuleba-warmodgenani, pirvel rigSi, igi usadagebs maT TanamedrovesakiTxebs, zogad adamianur problemebs: Zalian xSirad av-263


enaTmecniereba, literaturaTmcodneobatori maT religiur saburvelSi xvevs, riTac ufro TvalsaCinos xdismTavar saTqmels. vaJas genia amouwuravi fenomenia da amas adasturebsis Tanxvedra Zvelisa da axlisa, warmarTulisa da qristianulisa, racmis nawarmoebebSi ase naTlad Cans da sruliad bunebrivad ikiTxeba yovelgvariwinaaRmdegobisa da bundovanebis gareSe.dasasrul, vaJasTan warmarTuli motivebis arsebobaze uamravi ramTqmula, sakuTriv mweralic miuTiTebs Tavis werilebSi, rom xalxuripoezia yovelTvis iyo misTvis Semoqmedebis wyaro, rom am memkvidreobasmudam hqonda masze gavlena, am sityvis kargi gagebiT, radgan vaJaliteraturul gavlenas uaryofiT movlenad arasdros aRiqvamda damis gareSe mwerlis moRvaweobas uSinaarsod, unayofodac ki miiCnevda.gamoyenebuli literatura:1. vaJa-fSavela. TxzulebaTa sruli krebuli, I-II-III-IV-IXt., Tbilisi,1964w.2. kiknaZe z. qarTuli folklori. Tbilisi, 2008w.3. qarTuli proza, XIIt., Tbilisi, 1986w.4. qarTuli xalxuri poezia, I-IItomebi, Tbilisi, 1973w.264


enaTmecniereba, literaturaTmcodneobalana grZeliSviliivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisissaxelmwifo universiteti, magistrantiucxo, rogorc Tema, rogorcproblema vaJa-fSavelas SemoqmedebaSixelmZRvaneli: profesori Tamar SarabiZeqarTuli enis ganmartebiT leqsikonSi termin ucxos ramdenimedefinicias vxvdebiT:`ucxo d 1) visac ar icnoben, ucnobi, gareSe piri.2) sadac ar yofilan, rac ar gaucvniaT, vinmesTvis ucnobi(mxare, adgili), ucxo qveynebi // aramSobliuri, sxva xalxis kuTvnili,ucxouri, ucxo ena, ucxo zne-Cveulebebi.3) (wign.) gare, zedmeti, miuRebeli, ucxo elementi, ucxoideologia, ucxo sxeuli.4) igivea, rac saucxoo (qarTuli . . ., 1986:437).CvenTvis aseve sainteresoa, ucnauris ganmarteba. `ucnauri da ara-Cveulebrivi, gasaocari, sakvirveli. ucnaurad iqceva~ (qarTuli...,1986:437).Sesabamisad, literaturaSic ramdengvari `ucxo“ SeiZlebaganvixiloT. kerZod, vaJadfSavelas SemoqmedebaSi ucxod SeiZlebamiviCnioT qistebi da sazogadod ra Tqma unda, mucali poemidan `aludaqeTelauri~, zviadauri, poemidan `stumardmaspinZeli~; ucxo da ucxoniarian `gvelismWameliseuli~ qajebi da mTlianad is samyaro, romlis`mecnieric~ xdeba mindia.vaJa-fSavelas Semoqmedebaze Seqmnil erT-erT yvelaze sayurad-Rebo gamokvlevaSi aRniSnulia: `Temur sazogadoebaSi ucxo tomis kaciiseTive mtruli da TiTqmis gausulierebeli, anda borotebisganmasaxierebeli Zalaa, rogorc bunebis stiqiuri Zalebi.~ (Cxenkeli2009.103). am SemTxvevaSi, Cveni ganxilvis sagans ar warmoadgens ucxosgamovlinebis es aspeqti. vaJa-fSavelasTan gvainteresebs sxva, ufrosiRrmiseuli da pirovnebis egzistenciasTan axlo myofi problema,kerZod adamianis gaucxoebisa da misi gamovlenis mxatvruli mxare. zemoTdasaxelebul poemaTa mTavari gmirebi, Sinagani transformaciisaTu situaciis gamo, gaucxoebulni aRmoCndebian im sazogadoebaSi,romelSic cxovroben.265


enaTmecniereba, literaturaTmcodneobaucxo, gaucxoebuli, Tema sazogadoebisaTvis, axla ukve ucnauripersonaJebi garda imisa, rom gansxvavebulni arian garSemomyofTaganZiriTadad meamboxe da, gnebavT, revoluciuri TvisebebiTac gamoir-Cevian. am kategoriis ucxoTa arseboba, progresistuli filosofiiTTu vimsjelebT, aucilebelic kia sazogadoebis winsvlisaTvis, raTamisi socialuri dvrita ar Seyovndes da ar gaiyinos. cxadia, es argulisxmobs maT simravles da raime rigis socialur Zvrebs, piriqiTucxo, es aris individualurobiTa da erTaderTobiT aRbeWdili adamiani,romlis saqcielic did STamagonebel Zalas moicavs.vaJa-fSavelas personaJebi uneburad aRmoCndebiangareSemyofTaTvis ucxoni an mxolod TviTon aRiqvamen Tavs amgvaradda veRar eguebian Cveulebrivi dinebiT maval, sadagi cxovrebis wess.maTi ucxooba sulac ar aris gamowveuli TviTdamkvidrebis umartivesisurviliT da, miTumetes, es ar aris kaprizi da ambicia. ubralodSemTxvevaa, situacia, romelSic aRmoCnda gmiri da swored es viTarebaaimpulsis mimcemi individis ganpirovnebis gzaze Sedgomisa. es aris gza,romlis momxrobisTanave cnobagaRviZebuli gmiri ukanmouxedavad dadaueWveblad mieSureba; am gzis bolo tragikulia gmirisaTvis,rogorc kerZo kacisaTvis, magram misi simaRlis sazomic swored estragizmia.vaJa-fSavelas poemebSi ganviTarebuli movlenebi miTosurisaburveliTaa mosili. miTi, TavisTavad, gulisxmobs imas, rom droismocemul, konkretul momentSi momxdari ambavi mudmiv struqturasqmnis, precedentad inergeba da msWvalavs sazogadoebis warsulsa damomavals.rogorc Tamaz Cxenkeli aRniSnavs, `miTs ormagi struqtura aqvsistoriuli da zeistoriuli, anu droiTi da zedrouli. vaJa-fSavelas`miTosuri warmosaxva arRvevs istoriulad da socialuraddasazRvrul garemocvas da maT aqtualobas Sinagani swrafvis SuqzeWvrets. miTis msoflSegrZnebidan modis vaJas poeturi samyaros zedrouloba,pirveladoba, Tu pirvelqmniloba.uZvelesi saweso adaTebis, dionisuri orgiazmis arqetipebidan(pirvelsaxeebidan) iRebs saTaves vaJas gmirTa gardaqmna-feriscvalebisaRmniSvneli pasaJebis miTosuri paTosi~. (Cxenkeli 2009:17d18).aluda qeTelauri etapobrivad midis im saboloo wertilamde,romlis miRmac igi ucxod warmoudgeba Tems da sazogadoebas, magram ametapobriobaSi ar unda vigulisxmoT misi TandaTanobiTi evolucia da,Sesabamisad, gaucxoeba. SeiZleba es ase Candes Temisa da sazogadoebis-Tvis, magram Sinagani arsiT aluda imTaviTve iyo amgvari paTosis mata-266


enaTmecniereba, literaturaTmcodneobarebeli da SemTxvevam, sxvisi Rirseuli saqcielis Tvalismokvram,mtris vaJkacobam, mxolod xeli Seuwyo aludas pirovnebaSi arsebulipotenciis gamovlenas. am azriT, poema adamianis TviTgamorkvevismxatvruli gansaxovnebaa.vaJa-fSavela Tavidanve usvams xazs aludas Tvisebebs. is aris davlaTiani,mter-moyvris mcnobi, mWevrmetyveli, saxelmoxveWili meomari,SatilionTa Tavkaci da gudanis jvris kai yma. miuxedavad gamor-Ceulobisa, igi sworferi, Tanabaria TanamoZmeebisa. berdiasTan gasaubrebisasigi ambobs:` — zRvensa nu gamimsubuqeb,madli Tu gwyalobs RvTisao,yma var mec gudanis jvrisa,xevsuri Tqvenis wylisao;miTom erTni varT, berdiav,mcxovrebni erTis mTisaoR~ (vaJadfSavela, 1961.36)mters dadevnebuli aluda mucalTan SebrZolebisas Cveulebrivimeomaria, romelic misTvis tomiT ucxos, qists, mosisxles ebrZvis.aginebs rjuls da wamiTac ar gaielvebs mis gonebaSi momxduris dandoba,magram aludas feriscvaleba mucalis gmirulma sikvdilma ganapiroba;misma vaJkacobam, sicocxlis mZafrma wyurvilma aludasxvagvarad Caafiqra. igi sruliad sxva adamianad iqca da amitom aRarsurs misgan mokluli mtris iaraRi, amitom tiris qaliviT. am etapzealuda tradicias ar upirispirdeba. es rom asea, amas metyvelebs mucalisZmisaTvis mklavis moWra da, amis gamo, aluda, cxadia, sindisisaraviTar qenjnas ar ganicdis. aludas „qaliviT“ atirebac piradi emociiTaris ganpirobebuli.`aluda kargi yma, anu meomaria, da gasagebia, rom misi Sinaganiferiscvalebis impulss meomruli qmedebis aqtSi hqondes dasabami.vaJa Seumcdari gumaniT grZnobs amas: poemis pirvelive TavSi aludagardauvali saSiSroebis Semcveli sastiki orTabrZolis situaciaSiaCayenebuli. mxolod Rirseul sworferTan brZolas SeeZlo gamoevlinebinasrulad aluda qeTelauris temperamentis siRrme. mxolodgansakuTrebulad mZvinvare SerkinabaSi, romelic Sinagani Zalebis ukiduresiintensivobiT daZabvas moiTxovs, SeiZleboda ganTavisuflebuliyopirovnebis faruli Sinagani energia, rac, iSviaTad, upiratesadmwvave, krizisul situaciaSi iCens Tavs. swored, am momentSiunda amoqmedebuliyo aludas gulSi potenciurad mTvlemareqvecnobierebis uRrmesi Sreebi, romlis drosac misTvis misawvdomigaxdeboda iseTi ram, rac gamoricxuli iqneboda sxva situaciaSi267


enaTmecniereba, literaturaTmcodneobaaludas cxovlad CarCa gulSi saxe Tavganwiruli SemarTebiT mebrZolimucalisa, imitom, rom brZolis am kulminaciur momentTan arisdakavSirebuli qeTelaurSi momxdari didi feriscvalebis aqti.~(Cxenkeli 2009:110d111).gaucxoebis Semdeg etaps warmoadgens aludas sizmari. miTosisTanaxmad, adamianurobis sazRvari kacis an gvelis xorcis WamiTgadailaxeba. Tu mindia uSualod Wams gvelis xorcs da es ganapirobebsmis saxecvalebas anu gaucxoebas, aluda am sazRvars sizmris meSveobiTgadalaxavs. misi sizmari ziarebis aqts warmoadgens. is adamianisxorcis WamiT axal RmerTs eziareba da amitom xdeba ucxo xevisberisTvis.ziarebulobis gamo moiTxovs berdiasgan warmoudgenelqmedebas.`mucalTan SebrZolebamde TemisTvis cnobili aluda mokvda daxatobaze Satilionebma ixiles maTTvis gaucxoebuli pirovneba, romelic,xevisberis TvalsazrisiT, Savbneli da qviSis sadilis mWameli,xolo poemis magistraluri ideis TvalsazrisiT, qvesknelis gadalaxviTmeored Sobili, kacobriobis`pirvelyofili codvis~ SemecnebiTvnebuli, srulyofili RmerTis Semcnobi adamiania.~ (Cxenkeli 2009:155).sazogadoebisgan aludas ucxod aRqmis kulminaciur wertils misixatobaze Cadenili saqcieli warmoadgens. xalxs, TiTqos, daviwyebuliaqvs qeTelauris mier mtrisTvis mklavis ar moWris ambavi, misicxonebulad moxsenieba, magram mounaTlavis kuratiT damwyalobneba,gaurjuloebulis morjuleba, ukve metismetia da warmoudgenli.` — gaurjulebuls arjuleb,Sen eg ar Sagixdebisa,qistisad saklavis dakvlakargad ar mogixdebisa.mamiT ar modis anderZi,papiTad, papisdpapiTa,gonT modi, qristiani xar,urjulovdebi magiTa;eSmaks nu misdev eg sityvarogor amogcda bagiTa?!...Rrogor vaxvewo ufalsaZaRli, ZaRlebis jiSisa?manam sjobs, cani dameqcnen,zurgi gamiskdes miwisad~ (vaJa-fSavela,1961:36)arc es aRmoCnda sakmarisi sababi aludas gaucxoebisaTvis da Teisgansaboloo ganapirebisaTvis, magram is xevisberis funqcias iTav-268


enaTmecniereba, literaturaTmcodneobasebs da kurats gaagdebinebs Tavs. aman ki sabolood gawyvita yvela kav-Siri Temsa da aludas Soris da amouvsebeli ufskrulic aq gaCnda.aludas sinanulis natamalic ar emCneva, RvTis gangebad miiCnevsTavs gadamxdars da beds Seguebuli tovebs Tems, sofels, budedsacxovriss,moZmeTa samyofels, romlisadmic amieridan igi ukve saboloodgaucxovda.rac Seexeba mindias, is gvelis xorcis WamiT xdeba qajebis msgavsi,anu ucxo im sazogadoebisTvis, romlis sruluflebiani wevric amaqtamde iyo. magram igi qajebisganac gansxvavdeba, radgan mis gulsboroteba ar ekareba. es ki imas niSnavs, rom mindia qajebisTvisac ucxoa— yvelasagan gansxvavebuli adamiania, romlis gagebac aravisSeuZlia. TemSi dabrunebuls arc ujereben, rom marTals ambobs sakuTariSesaZleblobebis Sesaxeb. ratom ar riyavs xalxi mindias misiucxoobis gamo, is xom sruliad gansxvavebulia? mas iyenebs Temi, WirdebaTavisi`mecnierebis~ gamo, endobian mis sityvas yovelgvar gasa-WirSi myofni.`mindia sikvdilgamovlilia. akaki gawerelias SeniSvniT, mindiac daaludac qvesknelSi anu SaveTSi arian, roca pirveli gvelis xorcs Wams,xolo meore — kacisas. akaki baqraZis azriT`,uZveles qarTul miTologiurpanTeonSi qajeTi saiqios, SaveTs, suleTs, qvesknelsgulisxmobda da amitom`vaJas mindias qajeTSi tyveobac — gvelismWamelisqvesknelSi yofnas gulisxmobs.~ ( Cxenkeli 2009:163 ).swored amitom ganicdis mindia ase mtkivneulad bunebis SvilTa damokidebulebassikvdilisadmi. mas Tavad aqvs gancdili es saSineleba,gamocdili aqvs sikvdilis satanjveli.mindiam TviTmkvlelobis mcdelobisas Seicno sikvdilis arsi,SeiZina sibrZne.rogorc Tamaz Cxenkeli aRniSnavs, `mindiam qajTa tyveobaSi gvelisWamiT moixveWa mokvdavTaTvis uCveulo:• `sibrZne~ (9) ;• `grZneuleba~ (10) ;• `mtris dasamarcxebeli fandi~ da daWrilis gankurnebis niWi (10) ;• `mecniereba~ (10) ;• `codna~ (17,21), `didi codna da Zali~ (31) ;• yovlis Sesmenisa (9) da SegrZnebis (20) niWi`,mRilidan dayvavilebidan~ (11) `varskvlavebamde (31) ;• `gulisa da Tvalebis xedva~ (9) ;• `RmerTTan laparakis~ madli (26) ;269


enaTmecniereba, literaturaTmcodneoba• `goneba~ (22) ;• `rwmena (20) ;• `wminda rjuli~ (22) ;• `davlaTi~ (26) (Cxenkeli 2009:169).miuxedavad aseTi gansxvavebulobisa, mindias mainc ar dapirispirebiasazogadoeba. igi ucxoa, magram misi ucxoobac sxvagvaria,ufro globaluri da, rogorc Cans, imdenad farTo, rom tradiciuliadamianis goneba mis arsobriv siucxoves ver aRiqvams. protestisgrZnoba ar warmoSobs iseT winaaRmdegobas, rogorsac `aluda qeTelaurSi~.igi ar upirispirdeba Tems da ar iqceva TemisaTvis saSiS dazedmet adamianad, romelsac Temi moikveTs. igi uxcoa, romelsac endobianda ver Tmoben.tragedia iwyeba maSin, rodesac mindia kargavs moniWebul unars. isxdeba Cveulebrivi, magram sakuTar Tavs ver egueba, misTvis Zveleburimindia miuRebelia da swored es Seusabamoba survilsa da SesaZleblobasSoris ganapirobebs mis sikvdils.zemoT aRniSnulidan gamomdinare, SeiZleba iTqvas, rom vaJafSavelsam or poemaSi vxvdebiT ucxos fenomenis gamovlinebis ormxatvrul interpretacias, or aspeqts. vfiqrobT, Cveni mokrZalebulidakvirvebebis gagrZelebis SemTxvevaSi, ucxos fenomeni vaJasTan da,zogadad, literaturaSi Tavisebur, sagulisxmo nairsaxeobebad warmogvidgeba.gamoyenebuli literatura:1. vaJa-fSavela, TxzulebaTa sruli krebuli xuT tomad, II tomi,poemebi, `sabWoTa saqarTvelo~, 1961.2. Cxenkeli T. `tragikuli niRbebi~, gamomcemloba `memkvidreoba~,Tb., 2009.270


enaTmecniereba, literaturaTmcodneobanino frangiSvilissip goris universiteti, magistrantiyivCaRis Tema giorgi leoniZis SemoqmedebaSixelmZRvaneli: profesori zaza cotniaSvili„yivCaRis paemani“ erT-erTi saukeTeso leqsia giorgi leoniZis SemoqmedebaSi.am leqsis Sesaxeb bevri daiwera da kvlav daiwereba momavalSic.Cven SevecadeT gagveziarebina zogierTi kritikosis azri, TumcavecdebiT Cveneuli xedvis dafiqsirebas.k. iungis azriT, xelovnebis qmnilebaze marTebuli msjelobisaTvisunda gaviTvaliswinoT ori saxis SemoqmedebiTi procesis arseboba: erTimaTganis Sedegad vRebulobT nawarmoebs, romelic zustad emTxveva poetisCanafiqrs, aRwevs im efeqts, risi miRwevac poets surda, magram, misiazriT, arsebobs sxva yaidis SemoqmedebiTi procesic, ris Sedegadac avtorisxelidan nawarmoebi met-naklebad dasrulebuli formiT gamodis.„is TiTqos Cndeba, rogorc aTina — palada zevsis Tavidan“ [1; 75].aseTi nawarmoebi ki TviT eufleba avtors, misi kalami wers raRaciseTs, rasac TviTonac gaocebuli Sehyurebs. am ucnaur nawarmoebSi avtorisSinagani buneba iseT rames ambobs, risi Tqmac arasodes ufiqria.nawarmoebi emorCileba ucxo Sinagan impulsebs da aRWurvilia ZaliT,romelic avtors ar ekuTvnis da ar emorCileba. aq avtori daiqvemdebaraTavisive naSromma, romlis SeqmnaSic TiTqos viRac sxva monawileobda.giorgi leoniZem kargad icis, raze wers da misi Canafiqri emTxvevanawarmoebis zemoqmedebis Zalas mkiTxvelze. Cven mainc migvaCnia, iseverogorc e. javeliZes, rom „leqsis analizi da misi „saidumlos“ warmo-Cena ar aris sasiamovno procesi“ [2; 283].vfiqrobT, „yivCaRis paemani“ miekuTvneba im nawarmoebTa ricxvs, romelicSinagani impulsiT iwereba da TviT avtorsac aocebs. amasTan, Tufsevdolonginesac moviSveliebT, amaRlebuli ki ar aRelvebs mkiTxvels,aramed aRafrTovanebs mas.giorgi leoniZis leqsi Sinagani impulsebiTaa dawerili da sworedac„aRafrTovanebs“ mis mkiTxvels. miuxedavad am Sesavlisa Cven maincgviwevs leqsis analizi da masze msjeloba.poetis mier sityva yivCaRis SinaariT datvirTva, unda veZeboT Cveniistoriuli warsulis sinamdvileSi. rogorc cnobilia, didma daviT aRmaSenebelmaCamoasaxla yivCaRebi saqarTveloSi, magram isini qveynis271


enaTmecniereba, literaturaTmcodneobapolitikur Tu sazogadoebriv cxovrebaSi rodi TamaSobdnen erTgvarovanrols da maTdami qarTvelTa damokidebulebac, rogorc Cans,sxvadasxvagvari iyo. amaze „qarTlis cxovrebac“ metyvelebs.elizbar javeliZes miaCnia, rom yivCaRTa damkvidreba saqarTveloSiukonfliqtod ar moxdeboda. konfliqtis mizezi arcTu iSviaTad qalicyofila. ucxo elementis Tavxeduri da kadnieri saqcieli, sxvissaxlSi gabatonebis survili da moZaladeoba Zalze aRizianebda qar-Tvel kacs. xalxuri poeziis erT-erTi saukeTso Sedevri „SemomeyarayivCaRi“ erTgvarad asaxavs am istoriulad realur viTarebas. ufromarTebulad, qarTvelis didbunebovnebasa da stumarTmoyvareobas,yivCaRis Tavxedobasa da Zaladmacxoneobas.leqsis saTauri — „yivCaRis paemani“ — ukve TavisTavad mravlismetyvelia.aqve xazgasmulia, rom es paemani ordinaluri ar aris, aramed Sexvedraaswored yivCaRTan, romlisganac yvelafers unda moelode. amitomac,saTaurSi ukve ganviTarebulia jerac auxsneli iseTi saidumlo,romelic efuZneba garkveuli logokiT agebul pirobiTobas. ramac undaaRZras mkiTxvelis interesi da, rac mTavaria, igi fsiqologiuradSemzadebuli moulodnelobis efeqtiT ganacvifros.movixmoT erTi adgili „qarTlis cxovrebidan“: „aramed mefesa maseneba gazafxuls udidesi laSqroba, garna mas zedamca moiwia bunebisaigi vali, rameTu raodenTa brZolaTa, gansacdeliTa da WirTa da RalatTayivCaRTagan da sxuaTa ganera, viTarca odes muxrans nadirobasaSina iremsa zeda morbedisa cxeni daeca, da sam dRe idva, vidre ara waoanTxiasisxli Sebinebuli nakueT — nakueTni da ganera misgan.kualad cixisa romlisame momdgari idga perangiT karvisa da styorcesisari cixidam, romeli gangebiT motyda xatsa zeda mkidaresa missada ganera uvnebelad madliTa RvTisiTa yovelsave esodenTa da umravlesTasxuaTa...“ (q. c. IV. 165), [2; 284].qarTvelTaTvis am Zalze Semzarav istoriul furcelSi erTadaaxsenebuli: Ralati, nadiroba, muxrani, marcxi da sikvdili didi davi-Tisa. am reals SeeZlo gavlena moexdina xalxur Tu klasikur poeziazeda garkveulad saxecvlili asaxuliyo masSi.giorgi leoniZis poeturi xilvebisaTvis yvelaze ufro damaxasia-Tebelia miseuli intimuri Sedevri „yivCaRis paemani“.„yivCaRis paemanis“ upirvelesi paTosi gmirul sawyisebze aRmocenebulimaradiuli siyvarulis gancdaa. dro da samanebi aq isea darRveuli,rogorc nisliani mzera sasikvdilod daWrili raindisa. TviTon mo-Zalade yivCaRis Temac, romelic gamoZaxils qarTul erovnul balada-Si povebs, usazRvrod afarToebs moqmedebis ares da saukuneTa siRrme-272


enaTmecniereba, literaturaTmcodneobaSi iZireba. tragikulis gancda fiqsirebulia poeturi fraziT: „magramTviTonac daileweba, dabadebula vinc ki yivCaRad“, xolo dauZlevelimetoqeobis grZnoba sasurveli qalisaken Tavawyvetili ltolviTaa gamoxatuli:„tramal da tramal gamogedevne, Semovamtvere gzebi triali,mcxeTas vumtvrie saketurebi, vlewe taZrebi kelaptriani!“ [2; 270].sargis caiSvili miiCnevs, rom poetur suraTebs acxovelebs, mar-Tlac, mxolod da mxolod leoniZisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli moulodnelisaxeebi gaJRenTili miwieri surneliT: „rogorc saZroxe qvabs oSxivari,qarTlis xeobebs asdiT nislebi “ [2; 271].grandiozuli poeturi suraTis fonze xelSesaxebad ogrZnoba sisxlisagandaclili raindis ukanaskneli amosunTqva da ganSorebis didigulis tkivili.leqsSi organuladaa moxmobili rusTveluri frazebi, magram maTifunqcia metia, vidre samkauli an mxolod stilisturi xerxi. igi zustasociaciebs aRZravs da aZlierebs gancdas siyvarulis ukvdavebaze,romelic rusTveluri siyvaruliTaa aRbeWdili Cvens cnobierebaSi dasaukuneebs swvdeba. amis gamo aseT grZnobaTa apoTeozad aRiqmeba leqsisfinaluri striqonebic:„modi! geZaxi aTas wlis mere,damnacros elvam Seni tanisa;vardis furclobis niSani arida dro axali paemanisa!...“ [2; 272].„axali paemanis“ molodini, leqsSi Caqsovili cocxali gancda TanamedroveobissuliTaa aRbeWdili, rac „yivCaRis paemanis“ maradi siWabukisgarantiaa.giorgi leoniZis leqsi „yivCaRis paemani“ siyvarulis maradiulobazea.poets mTel am ambavSi xiblavs TviTon yivCaRi, oRond ara rogorcmoZalade, aramed, upoirveles yovlisa, rogorc Tavgametebuli siyvarulisTvis.moswons misi zRvargadasuli swrafva survilis asaxdenad,dasaxulis misaRwevad. moswons siyvarulis uecari afeTqeba da gaSla.poetisTvis siyvarulis grZnoba yvelaferze maRla dgas. mas uyoymanodda daunaneblad unda Seewiros TviT sicocxlec ki.giorgi leoniZe poeziis maskaradze xSirad yivCaRis niRbiT cxaddeboda.saukuneTa siRrmidan gamoxmobili gadamTielis saxe ucnauri ZaliTizidavda, xiblavda, atyvevebda, ajadoebda. es niRabi uxdeboda kidec,saukeTesod gamoxatavda mis arsebaSi Cabudebul, vermoxelTebulZalas.swored yivCaRis saxis qveS vlindeboda misi „sxva me“, Cveulebisa-273


enaTmecniereba, literaturaTmcodneobamebr dafaruli, miyuCebuli, minavlebuli. SeiZleba iTqvas, rom yivCaRiTviTon ar asvenebda, miixmobda da manam ar moeSveboda, sanam masTanSerwymas ar dasTanxmdeboda, sanam ar miscemda saSualebas gacocxlebuliyomisi gziT. am SemTxvevaSi poeti mediumiviT atarebda Tavis arsebaSiyivCaRs da leqsSi Semohyavda cocxali, atexili, vnebadauokebeli.poeti axalgazrdobidan moyolebuli siberemde ver Seelia am saxesda asakovanic iseve ergeboda am niRabs, rogorc ymawvilobisas, radganyivCaRi misi sulis oreuli iyo, sulisa, romlisTvisac ucxoa droiscvalebadoba. poetma Tavisi portretic swored am niRbiT warmoaCina.jer uzarmazari mTebi gamohkveTa, rogorc „bumberazTa saSineli mxedroba“(„mTebSi“), mere sakuTari saxec daxata, romelic „yivCaRureb Cahyurebda“gapobil napralebs.`yivCaRureb yureba~ misTvis imgvari xati iyo, romelsac veranairisxva sinonimi ver Caenacvleboda. amgvari mzera itevda Tavisufali adamianisyovelgvar gancdas, upirvelesad ki daumorCileblobas. “Tu xarmona, aq aravin gendoba~ [4; 75].xalxuri leqsis yivCaRi aRar daexsna poets, tyved gaixada, mis alteregod iqca da `aiZula~ axali sicocxle Caebera misTvis. `isev aRvsdeqi~— ityvis giorgi leoniZis xeliT ganaxlebuli yivCaRi da `yur-Ranebidan~ gafrenil gnols gaayolebs sivrces mowyurebul Tvalebs.mere ki dahyveba ayvavebuli TavTuxebis xodabunebSi Cakargul gzas daTavis sisxls yayaCoebisas Seurevs.yivCaRis morigi movlenisa da `gacocxlebisas~ Sedga gamorCeulipaemani. პoetma igi TviT karmens Seaxvedra, siyvarulisTvis sabediswerodTavzexelaRebuls. poetisaTvis karmeni `qali da xmali~ iyo (`karmen~),qariSxals Camotexili cecxlis natexi. `warbqamandebiT nacnobisaxe~ mosvenebas ukargavda da sadRac gulis siRrmeSi afiqrebinebda:`Seni xanjluri sevdac xom amxels, karmen, baski xar, vgoneb, qarTveli~.da radgan es `versia~ karmenis bask-qarTvelobisa ase umtkivneulod SeiTxzawarmosaxvaSi, aqedan mwvelis ocnebamac gaSala frTebi da `logikurad~gaido xidi muxranisken. poetma yivCaRis nacnobi niRabi kvlavmoirgo:`da Tu asea... gaxsovs muxranidanayul xmalze sisxlis kurcxali...mTvrali yivCaRi gzad mobuRrave,mtverSi RrialiT danamuxrali~ [4; 75].`karmenis toli da swori xom mxolod yivCaRi SeiZleba iyos, radgan274


enaTmecniereba, literaturaTmcodneobaorivesTvis siyvaruli sikvdils niSnavda~ [4;75]. amitomac maTi avismomaswavebeliSexvedra Tan izidavs da Tan aSorebs poets:`vai, Tu avi sizmari axda,loreadori daeces mxolod,vah, Tu Tavidan iwyeba axlad,is, rac gaTavda muxranis bolos~ [4; 75].ase Sehyara erTmaneTs poetma Tavisi gulisa da poeziis uzado scenazeyivCaRi da karmeni.dasawyisSic aRvniSneT, rom `yivCaRis paemani~ saukeTesoa giorgileoniZis SemoqmedebaSi. amitom Cven ver gaviziarebT soso siguas azrs:`yvela `cisferyanwelma~, giorgi leniZemac ki, Tavisi saukeTeso leqsebidawera simbolistobis periodSi~ [3; 18]. es leqsi ki dawerilia 1928wels, roca simbolisturi periodi mwerlis SemoqmedebaSi TiTqmis dasrulebulia.Tu gavixsenebT mis simbolistur leqsebs (`ekloga~, `litania~),romlebic, s. Wilaias azriT, simbolisturi xelweris maRalikulturiTaa dawerili, isini didad gansxvavdebian `yivCaRis paemnisagan~,romelSic giorgi leoniZe Segnebulad mimarTavs `poeturi xatebisTu leqsikuri erTeulebis sesxebas~ [2; 280] da “sesxulobs~ xalxuripoeziidan, kerZod leqsidan `Semomeyara yivCaRi~, Tumca reminescenciebssul sxva Sinaarsobrivi datvirTva aqvs da savsebiT originaluria.dasasrul, gvinda moviSvelioT elizbar javeliZis azri, rom qar-Tul suls asazrdoebda da asazrdoebs siyvarulis amaRlebuli grZnoba,romelic amarcxebs borotebas. am sulis masazrdoebeli esTetikuriamaRlebulis fenomeni ki amaRlebulis kategoriaa, amitomac ipyrobsda itacebs mkiTxvels leqsi `yivCaRis paemani~.275


enaTmecniereba, literaturaTmcodneobaqeTevan samadaSviliivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisissaxelmwifo universiteti, bakalavriatis studentipiriqiT (naTia nacvliSvilissadebiuto krebulis ganxilva)xelmZRvaneli: profesori Tamar paiWaZenaTia nacvliSvilis leqsebis krebuli `piriqiT~ 2007 welsaagamocemuli. TiTqos SemTxveviTi araa, rom masSi Setanili leqsebisqoronikoni 2001 wlidan iwyeba, is XXI saukunis poetia, miseuli, mkveTradgamorCeuli saTqmeliT da saxeebiT.krebulSi Semavali lirika TeTri leqsebia, xSir SemTxvevaSi — usa-Tauro, magram, vfiqrob, mTavari warmosaxvisa da gamosaxvis Zalaa misSemoqmedebas rom asazrdoebs.misTvis `aqauroba TiTqos sizmrebiT Sekerili ucnauri samosia,~poezia ki, upirveles yovlisa, RvTiT momadlebuli niWi:`sxvebma gansxvavebuli tvirTebi zides.dardia aseTi,calkeuli dReebis dardi.~igi sruliad axalgazrdaa da mainc — “mwuxriviT erTgulia,~`gzasaviT erTgulia,~ `casaviT erTgulia~...`mwyurvaliviT erTguli var wylis,oRond sul cota Zala mWirdeba,ukanaskneli peSvi wyaliTiTebSua rom ar gameparos.~iqneb swored es striqonebi naTelyofen misi xasiaTis umTavresStrixebs — moTminebas da simtkices.igi TiTqos sakuTari sulis sarkis win loculobs “yovelTvis~...mainc ra saocari datvirTva aqvs am sityvas naTia nacvliSvilispoeziaSi!`aq yovelTvis mxolod Cven varT...~an:`saxuravebze mere yovelTvisgaqceuli sizmris sveli nabiji rCeba.~misi Semoqmedeba mSvidi da upretenzioa ezosaviT, “romelsac yvelazemetad uxdeba noemberi~... mas uyvars ocneba, droisa da sivrcis276


enaTmecniereba, literaturaTmcodneobamiRma xetiali, irealuri samyaros nislisferi idumaleba:`Turme yovelTvisis dakarguli aqlemi var,udabnoSi rom mipovesmSierma kacebma dadamkles.~naTiaseuli peizaJi muq tonebSia Sesrulebuli, `sayovelTao sim-Svidis margalitebiT~ Semkobili. leqsSi `venezia~, igi mTeli arsebiTSeigrZnobs `cisfer venecias~, sadac `uZravia ca da Rrublebi...~ samagierod,TiTqos misi leqsi irweva lurj talRebs mindobili, rogorcveneciuri gondola.misi samyaro ufro sizmareulia, vidre cxadi. Tavad naTiac, misiveSefasebisa ar iyos, SoTa iaTaSvils rom uTxra, `sizmridan molaparakes~hgavs:`me — karlsoni var,Seni erTguli, uCinari,Seni sizmrebis, Rameebisda saxuravebisbinadari da modarajezRaprebis karlsoni.~leqsebSi xan mTebs miRma Casawurad gamzadebuli, limonisferi mzeirekleba, xan — babuawverebis vrceli mindori... zogjer maT simSvideszRvis aqafebuli, mariliani talRebis Zalumi sunTqva arRvevs...es ZiriTadad `Savze TeTrad amokawruli~ misive bavSvobis mogonebebia.leqsebis lirikuli gmiric Tavad naTiaa, xan — saocrad dinji,xan — vnebiani, emociuri... magram yvelgan — ubralo, qalur bednierebasmowyurebuli...leqsSi `Seni gramofoni~ igi wers:`Seni Tvalebiararsebuli buxris siTbos mimeoreben.movdivar SenTan,frTxilad gadeb muxlebze Tavs...~ocnebiseulia `samyurebis saxli~, mTvaris Suqze aSenebuli,natifi... yrmobisdroindeli mogonebebiT gasxivosnebuli. Zneliagarkveva. es marTlac bavSvobis uRrublo dReebis gaxsenebaa Tu ararsebuli,warmosaxviTi samyaros xibli. leqsi TiTqos balaxis surneliTda sulSi Cauteveli bednierebiT sunTqavs.naTia wers:`zafxulobiT vamzeurebdi277


enaTmecniereba, literaturaTmcodneobababuawverebis oTaxebs...~Tumca es iluzoruli samyaroc iseve myifea, rogorc realuriingreva pirvelive uxeSi SexebiT.naTia ocnebiT tbasTanac ki axerxebs gaigivebas:`frTxilad mexeba Seni xma dapatar-patara wreebi iSlebianCems zedapirze...~mas `fiqrisTvis kedlebze buxridan gamoqceuli sinaTlis aTama-Sebuli Crdilebic~ hyofnis.erT-erT umSvenieres leqsSi poets nacrisferi kaba acvia dausazRvrod uyvars Tavisi mebaduri qmari, xelisgulebze Tevzis, marilis,zRvis suni rom asdis... swored am adamianiT iwyeba da mTavrdebaleqsis lirikuli gmiris ubralo, magram bednierebiTa da simSvidiTsavse samyaro, cecxlis SuqiT sustad ganaTebuli da `yvelaze Soreulinapirebis suniT~ gaJRenTili:`yovelRame vkiTxulob-meTqiCemi qmris Tvalebs,Cemi qmris xelebs,xelisgulebze gadmoweril zRvis suns,Tevzis suns,da yvelaze Soreuli napirebis suns...~naTias samyaro sulismieria, kacobriobis mier mravaljer nagr-Znobi da gadaxarSuli... misi faqizi fiqri klebaSi Sesul mTvaresac mistirisda Seciebul, Tavgzaareul baWiebsac:`miambe, rogor iTbobenvelze gamosuli baWiebiRamRamobiT mTvaris Suqze pawia TaTebs.~misi siyvaruli `tbis zedapiriviT mSvidi~ da saocrad Tavganwirulia,Tumca naTia Cveuli TavdaWerilobiT cdilobs tkivilamde gulwrfeligrZnobis damalvas:`Senc gamomiSale xelisguli,Torem SeiZlebayvela gzam erTad daxuWos Tvalida sakuTari Tavis gareT aRmovCnde,rogorc qaravans CamorCeniliavadmyofi wero.~leqsSi `Tovli~ igi wers, rom Tavisi lamazi, ganumeorebeli grZnobiTTiTqos `Tvalebi sadRac wamRebi, Cumi siTeTris nawilia,~ dedamiwaze`mxolod misTvis mosuli fifqi~:278


enaTmecniereba, literaturaTmcodneoba`Tu gesizmrebi, rom fexSiSveli,Cemi farfara saRamuriT movdivar Senken,xolo quCebSi muxlamde Tovli da sicivea,ese igi,ufro miyvarxar...~(`Tovli~)naTia yovelTvis aseTia: yviTel, gvirilebiT mofenil sevdianvelze moaruli, Tovlis da sizmrebis siCumes miyuradebuli, meocnebe:`vis davajereb fanjaraSi gaSlili frTebiTrom me davfrinav.~misi Semoqmedeba bavSvobis uRrublo bednierebis nostalgiiTsunTqavs:`raRac dakargeda ocdaoTxjer ocdaoTxi weliwadia,im dakargulis irgvliv trialeb.zogjer zedmiwevniT hgavxarSeni megobris saTamaSos,faifuris gatexil Tojinas...~poeti ocnebiT Tavisuflad danavardobs drosa da sivrceSi. is xanCineli bavSvia, xan — biliksacdenili dakarguli aqlemi, xan — iaponeligogonebis megobari, Wrel abreSumSi gamowyobili gaocebiT romahyurebs mTvares...mkiTxvelis yuradRebas ipyrobs iaponeli qaliSvilis portreti`yvelaze didi da mwvane TvalebiT~:`misi kani yvelaze TeTria da nazi,misi Rimili — yvelaze Tbili dasxvanairi.misi Calisferi TmebiniavTan moTamaSe jadosnur bambukzefafuki da rbilia.~iaponuri tradiciisamebr Seyvarebuli raindebi:`Calis dawnuli fanjrebis ukanayvavebuli alublis totebsda baraTebs utoveben kunikos.~cocxali ferebiT xatavs avtori saocnebo iaponiasac, iqaurcisartyelas, kunikos mwvane TvalebSi areklils. TiTqos leqsisritmSi Camjdari bambukis wvrilad dawnul fardebSi gabmuli ZvelisaaTis wikwikis xmac ismis...saocrad faqizi da daxvewilia dedisadmi miZRvnili leqsi:279


enaTmecniereba, literaturaTmcodneoba`SenTan ar xmaurobs araferi.ici, RmerTs uyvarxar aseTi.~— ase mimarTavs naTia mSobels.mas usityvod esmis dedis, uyvars misi warsuli da awmyo, stkiva misibavSvoba da yoveldRiuroba:`Txeli mklavebiT mTeli ZaliT,sasowarkveTiT ixuteb gulSiTiTqmis Sens sigrZe ...Tojinas.~da... naTia darwmunebulia imaSi, rom “dedamiwis yvela kuTxeSi~ esTojina yovelTvis Tavadaa...aseTive sulisSemZvrelia leqsi: `wigni~, sadac `garemo arsebobissijiutiT yvelaze mtkivneul xsovnamdea gawelili,~ sadac gangaSiszarebs arisxebs sabediswero sityva — `talaxisferi~:`da Cem qveviT aris mdinare,talaxisferi, mSvidi mdinare,sadac Senukanasknelad iyavi cocxali.~es leqsi man tragikulad daRupul megobars miuZRvna, romlissaflavic ar unaxavs...saocrad gulwrfeli, tkiviliani leqsebiT naTia TiTqos fexakrefiTmigviZRvis Tavis iluzorul samyaroSi, raTa erTxel kidevgvaziaros qarTuli sityvis madls:`me metros vagonebisgan asxmulimZivebi da samajurebi mikeTiada roca vcekvav,vagonebi Cxrialeben.~zogjer sruliad moulodnelia axalgazrda poetis daskvnebi:`gazafxuli kimarTla movida:sanapiroze gamaval fanjarasCemi mezobeli RamRamobiTukve Rias tovebs.~originaluria miseuli samSoblos aRqmac: “sasurvelis suliT dasakuTari suliT gaJRenTili kedlebi,~ — ai, qveynis kiri da simtkice!naTia wuxs, rom aseTi iyo mudam misi samSoblo:`askinkiliT Semosarbeni,frTebiT dasafari...~qveynad `yvelaze martivi Tvalebi~ ki mxolod misTvisaa maradamoucnobi...280


enaTmecniereba, literaturaTmcodneobaSTabeWdilebis gasaZliereblad naTia zogan imeorebs sityvebs,frazebs:`sadac yvelaferi carielia,sadac yvelaferi carielia,sadac yvelaferi carielia-meTqi.~an:`ar SeiZleba,ar SeiZleba,ar SeiZlebavinmem mainc ar gamixsenos...~igi XXI saukunis poetia — grZnobadi, martis TvesaviT Wirveuli dalotosis yvaviliviT nazi...naTia nacvliSvilis poezia mkiTxvels sakuTari sulis siRrmeebSiaxedebs:`man Tqva, rom Tovli.TovlSi vcxovrobT Cven daviRaceebi fifqebiviT gvigzavnian werilebs.~igi mistiris `mtredebisagan daclil cas~ da uRrublo, mSvidobianTanaarsebobaze ocnebobs.misi grZnobebi Rrmad religiuria (`colebis sakiTxavi~). naTia bevrsakacobrio sakiTxzea Cafiqrebuli. Tundac imaze, rom:`Cven arasodes gviswavlia skolaSi, sadacerTmaneTi mxolod uyvarT.sadac Tvalebis sworad gaxelasda erTmaneTis sworad danaxvas aswavlian.~raRac saocrad didze da umniSvnelovanesze gvafiqrebs misi TiTqosdasasxvaTa Soris naTqvami:`rogor itevs Cvens erTnair Tvalebs erTi, saerTo cadarogor ar gvyofnis Cven erTi, saerTo ca.~leqsSi `Citi~ naTia wers:`romelime horizonti unda avirCio,Citebs samare aq, miwaze mainc ara aqvT-meTqi.~da, igi, raRaciT Soreuli planetidan movlenil patara ufliswulsemsgavseba, mTeli Tavisi ZalisxmeviT rom cdilobda adamianebisTvismaTive wilxvedri bednierebis dabrunebas:`Seni Tbili TiTebiTsaxli unda movqsovo dagavTbe.~281


enaTmecniereba, literaturaTmcodneoba— wers naTia amqveyniuri arsebobis, urTierTSendobisa da siyvarulisdasturad.igi TiTqos kacobriobis gzagasayarTan dgas da gatacebiT kiTxulobs`samyaros amouxsnel ieroglifebs~.Tumca, mainc, ratomRac `marto da ubraloa~ samyurasaviT — naTianacvliSvili, Tanamedroveobis sruluflebiani Semoqmedi.282


enaTmecniereba, literaturaTmcodneobalili metreveliivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisissaxelmwifo universiteti, bakalavriatis studentisabWoTa cenzura da mixeil javaxiSvilixelmZRvaneli: profesori rusudan niSnianiZeXX saukunis 30-iani wlebi gansakuTrebiT mZime iyo saqarTvelos istoriisaTvis.sisxliani represiebisa da bolSevikuri teroris msxverpliaRmoCndnen erovnulad moazrovneni. amgvar politikas erTi motivihqonda — daenerga sayovelTao SiSi, sabolood daeTrguna protestissurvili, Seeqmna totaluri morCilebis atmosfero. ufro metic,sabWoTa epoqam ara mxolod Camoayaliba axali ideologiuri azrovneba,aramed sakuTari miznebis ganxorcielebaSi umTavresi funqcia mwerlobasdaakisra.im dros, vinc Segnebulad uari Tqva sabWoTa reJimis am `diadi~ misiisaRsrulebaze, xalxis mtrad da jaSuSad gamoacxades da mixeil javaxiSvilisubis wignakSi Cndeba Canaweri: `me mwerali, dRes sasaflaozevcxovrob. irgvliv — vaeba da kaeSania. meubnebian gmiruli ram dawereo.Tu sxvebTan erTad viglove — TavSi Camiraxuneben, Tu avtlikindebi —sircxviliT daviwvebi~ (1,219).bunebrivia, sabWoTa ideologia gaafTrebuli ebrZoda gansxvavebuladmoazrovneebs, am SemTxvevaSi brZolis optimalur iaraRad araobieqturida yalbi literaturuli kritika iqca. bevri mwerali Tu sazogadomoRvawe aRmoCnda absurduli braldebebis msxverpli. Tumca, amjerad,Cven yuradRebas m. javaxiSvilsa da misi moTxrobebis kritikazeSevaCerebT. aRsaniSnavia, rom konfliqtma mweralsa da kritikosebs Sorisyvelaze mwvave forma 20-30-ian wlebSi miiRo. amave periodSi m. javaxiSvilsakritikebdnen ara mxolod presis furclebidan, aramed mweralTasasaxleSi gamarTul araerT TaTbirze wakiTxuli moxsenebebidanac,rac cxadad miuTiTebs, rom Tavdasxmebi ara SemTxveviT, aramedmizanmimarTuli da organizebuli xasiaTisa iyo.1932 wlis aprilSi kritikosi karlo melaZe aRniSnavda: `javaxiSviliar sdgas Cvens msoflmxedvelobaze, amitom is ar aris Cveni mwerali~(1,215). Tumca, es reaqcia bunebrivia, m. javaxiSvili ar iyo da verc verasdrosgaxdeboda mSeneblobebiTa da revoluciis aRtkinebuli ideebiTSTagonebuli mwerali, verasdros dawerda striqonebs:`moxeTqila lava Senebis rkiniT,283


enaTmecniereba, literaturaTmcodneobafoladiT, RorRiT, cementiT...~rac araerTxel SeuniSnavT kidec imedgacruebul kritikosebs: `iRebTxelSi m. javaxiSvilis nawerebis I toms da imedi gaqvT, rom Sig gadaSliliiqneba qarTveli xalxis aboboqrebuli cxovreba, rom mxatvari dagvixatavda1930-iani wlebis revolucionur suraTebs... magram amis nacvladvis vxedavT? CanCuras~... (T. begiaSvili, gazeTi, komunisti, 1925113) (5,7).azri ucvleli da gasagebia, magram Cndeba kiTxva: Tuki mwerlobaadamians zneobriv Rirebulebas mxolod revoluciaSi monawileobiT,samSeneblo warmatebiTa Tu didi mosavlis miRebiT Semofarglavs SeZlebsadamianis sulis gamSvenierebasa da amaRlebas? cxadia, vera. adamianiszneobrivi Rirebuleba, roca yoveldRiuri praqtikuli saqmianobiTfasdeba, da adamiani ar fiqrobs sicocxlis, sikvdilis, gonierebis,silamazis da sxva amgvar problemaze, bunebrivia, igi uzneobis WaobSiefloba. ase rom, ar SeiZleba, mwerlis Sefasebis obieqtur kriteriumadrevoluciuri gmirebis asaxva an arasaxva iqces.sabWour presaSi xSiria cneba `axali adamiani~. komunisturi `axaliadamiani~ koleqtivis mojamagirea. am koleqtivis sasargeblod igi daufiqrebladmzad unda iyos mkvlelobisa da mZarcvelobisaTvis. dakarguliunda hqondes sindisis qenjnis unaric.`oTxfexs tkipa SeuCndeba, futkars winwkali Caujdeba, xes xavsi dafiTri moekideba, kldesac ki faTalo Caeqsoveba da ase scxovrobensxvisi wveniT. neta adamianic ase xom ar aris mowyobili?~ (8,303) fiqrobsmixeil javaxiSvilis moTxrobis `dampatiJes~ mTavari gmiri — Tevdore.is, rac Tevdorem ver gaarkvia, vfiqrob, sruliad gasagebia. sworedkomunisturi `axali adamiania~ is tkipa, winwkali, xavsi, fiTri dadaTalo, romelic patiosani muSakis naSrom-naoflariT ikvebeba. ammoTxrobis gamo mwvaved gaakritikes m. javaxiSvili. 1929 wlis gazeT`komunistSi~ gamoqveynebul vrcel werilSi kritikosi valia baxtaZewers: `dampatiJe~ ar aris kritika. is ciliswamebaa anda kritika mtris.javaxiSvilma unda daimsaxuros revoluciis kritikis ufleba~ (1,94).werilis bolos gazeTis mTel sigrZeze mwerals miuweria `dampatiJes~mowodeba partiis Ralats udris~ (1.94).kidev erTi Sefaseba: 1928 wlis 11 ivniss saqarTvelos kompartiisplenumze m. kaxianma aRniSna: `dampatiJe... ra aris es Tu ara abuCad agdebaCveni xazis, soflis koleqtivizaciis? ratom? — imis nacvlad, romiseirnos aq, rusTavelis prospeqtze, am javaxiSvilma ver moicala gamgzavrebuliyosadme sofelSi. iq is dainaxavda ara Tavis dampatiJes,aramed axali sabWoTa cxovrebis namdvil SemoqmedT~ (1.84).284


enaTmecniereba, literaturaTmcodneobarogorc Cans, kritikosebi imdenad gaaRiziana `dampatiJem~, rom SemdeguaryofiTi damokidebuleba mixeil javaxiSvilis mTel Semoqmedebazegaavrceles; `javaxiSvili cdilobs mkiTxvelis yuradReba miipyrosiaffasiani xerxebiT, sensacebiT SemTxveviTi siuJetebiT javaxiSvilisSemoqmedeba aris `bulvarSCina~ (g. natroSvili — mweralTa sasaxleSiTaTbirze wakiTxuli moxseneba (1,214). kritikos ali arseniSvilski gazviadebulad miaCnia mwerlis mimarT yuradReba; `is exlac immeSCanur wumpeSi curavs, romelic gabatonebuli iyo mis pirvel moTxrobebSi~(mweralTa sasaxleSi TaTbirze wakiTxuli moxseneba) (1,215).amgvari Sefasebebi arcaa gasakviri im adamianebisagan, romelTa um-Tavres amocanas, maTive sityvebiT, `mweralTa rigebSi muSaTa gamravleba~warmoadgenda. am iniciativaSi naTladaa gamoxatuli sabWoTaideologiuri mrwamsi: mwerloba ar aris niWiereba, ar aris azrovneba,igi propagandaa. propaganda ki SeuZlia yvelas vinc icis wera-kiTxva daesmis mocemuli direqtivis azri da mizani.1929 wlis Jurnal `mnaTobis~ 7 nomerSi daibeWda mixeil kaxianis werili`ideologiuri fronti~, sadac literaturis kritikosi askvnisda, vfiqrob, sruliad samarTlianadac, rom javaxiSvils `revolucias-Tan saerTo gza ar aqvs~ (2,49). da TiTqos mwerals `ar surs, rom literaturaSiSeiWras muSa da glexi~. Tumca, cxadia, rom kaxianis daskvnagamomdinareobs ara mwerlis Semoqmedebis samarTliani ganxilvidan(`kurka~, `meCeqme gabo~, `tyis kaci~ da mravali sxva swored ubraloadamianebi arian), aramed subieqturi mosazrebidan.miT umetes, rom kaxians ar moswonda arc ~arifonis~ saxeliT gaer-Tianebuli mweralTa jgufi: `gatacenuli arian ra ~arifobiT~, maT arsurT axali cxovrebis gageba da Seswavla~. es is axali cxovrebaa, kritikosTedo begiaSvilis TqmiT, `TviT `CanCurebic~ ki samoqmedoT romgamoiyvana~ (5,7). ~aseTi literatura Cven ar gvWirdeba~ — askvnis kaxiani,xolo m. javaxiSvils pirdapir emuqreboda `Cven nebas ar mivcemT javaxiSvilsdascinos Cvens aRmSeneblobas~ (4,125).mwvave kritika igrZnoba 1929 wels Jurnal ~mnaTobSi~ (1) gamoqveynebulwerilSi `angariSi da kritika 1928 wlis literaturuli produqciisSesaxeb~. kritikosma p. qiqoZem m. javaxiSvili `yofil adamianTa dauqiravebelveqilad~ miiCnia. igi mwerlis moTxrobebs (`CanCura~, `tyiskaci~, `upatrono~, `meCeqme gabo~, `kurkas qorwili~, `eSmakis qva~) aramxolod ideuri, aramed mxatvruli TvalsazrisiTac iwunebs; `rogorcfsiqologi, m. javaxiSvili sul ususuria, xelovnurad Tu moaTrevs raimebanalur gancdas...~ (3,48-49) da es maSin, roca mwerlisTvis mTavariswored adamianis sulieri tkivilisa da sixarulis Cvenebaa. Rrmaa mis285


enaTmecniereba, literaturaTmcodneobamier danaxuli adamianis fsiqologiuri portreti.es, ra Tqma unda, mcire nawilia im recenziebisa, romelic ibeWdeboda20-30-iani wlebis qarTul presaSi da ikiTxeboda mweralTa kavSirSimoxsenebebis saxiT. m. javaxiSvilma kidev bevrjer iwvnia kritikosebisgesliani sityvebi da arcaa gasakviri Tavdasxmebi im mwerlis mimarT,romelic `ver moarjules~, `ver moaTvinieres~, ver aswavles Temebis`sworad~ SerCeva.aRsaniSnavia, rom mixeil javaxiSvili Rirseulad xvdeboda kritikas.ai, ra Cauweria ubis wignakSi: `isini ver momerevian. me msxvili Zvalimaqvs, ver gadamylapaven, yelze davadgebi~ (7,109).Cveni mizani iyo 30-iani wlebis qarTul presaSi mixeil javaxiSvilsada kritikosebs Soris ganviTarebuli literaturuli da ideologiurikonfliqti kidev erTxel Segveswavla. dakvirvebis Sedegad aSkaraa, nawilikritikosebisa Tavs esxmis mwerals da cdilobs daamtkicos, rom m.javaxiSvili miuRebelia ideuradac da sustia mxatvruladac. Tumca,maTi daskvnebi, rasakvirvelia, gamomdinareobs ara mwerlis Semoqmedebisobieqturi ganxilvidan, aramed winaswar ganzraxuli negatiuriTvalsazrisidan. is kritikosebic ki, romlebic winaT dadebiTad afasebdnenmwerlis Semoqmedebas, am periodSi agresiulni xdebian, racgvavaraudebinebs, rom xelisuflebis miTiTebiT werdnen, iTvaliswinebdnenepoqis politikur da ideologiur konteqsts. SesaZloa, mar-Tlac moeZebnebodes logikuri axsna maT qmedebas, Tumca faqtia: 20-30-iani wlebis qarTulma literaturulma kritikam udidesi gavlena moaxdinamixeil javaxiSvilis biografiaze, mis tragikul sikvdilze, mizanmimarTulmaTavdasxmebma xelisuflebas mniSvnelovnad gauiola mwerlisdaxvreta. sazogadoeba ki darCa movlenebis obieqtur Semfasebladda samarTlianad ukvdavyo didi mwerlis saxeli.gamoyenebuli literatura:1. q. javaxiSvili. m. javaxiSvilis cxovreba. Tb., 1991.2. q. javaxiSvili. mixeil javaxiSvilis cxovreba da moRvaweoba. Tb.,1948.3. t. kvanWilaSvili. mixeil javaxiSvilis Semoqmedeba. Tb., 1966.4. a. baqraZe. mwerlobis moTviniereba. Tb., 1990.5. gazeTi `komunisti~ — Tb., 1925 113.6. gazeTi `komunisti~ — Tb., 1937 106.7. Jurnali `ciskari~ Tb., 1962. 1.8. m. javaxiSvili. `TeTri sayelo~. moTxrobebi, Tb., 2010.286


enaTmecniereba, literaturaTmcodneobaTamar adamiaivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisissaxelmwifo universiteti, bakalavriatis studentisabWoTa cenzura da konstantine gamsaxurdiaxelmZRvaneli: profesori rusudan niSnianiZeXX saukuneSi, axali xelisuflebis mosvlasTan erTad, qveyanaSi dam-Zimda ara mxolod politikuri, aramed literaturuli fonic. `vensrespublikaSi gansakuTrebiT yvelaze ufro susti mxare literaturulifronti aris,—werda v. baxtaze gazeT `omunistSi~ 1923 wels. da ramdenadaces asea, Cven miT ufro meti yuradRebiT, meti energiis daxarjviTda CvenTvis Cveuli gamarjvebis meti surviliT vekveToT amfronts.~ rogorc vxedavT, xelisufleba acnobierebda mxatvrulisityvis Zalas da cdilobda mis gamoyenebas, rogorc erT-erTi politikuriiaraRisa, rasac, bunebrivia, mwerlebi advilad ver Seeguebodnen.ase warmoiSva konfliqti xelisuflebasa da literaturas Soris, magramCvens moxsenebaSi visaubrebT, Tu rogor gadaizarda es uTanxmoebamweralTa da kritikosTa konfliqtSi, kerZod ki konstantine gamsaxurdiasada 30-iani wlebis qarTul kritikaze.`ven unda vuTxraT mweral k. gamsaxurdias, rom swored dRes, gansakuTrebulistoriul pirobebSi saWiroa mwerlisTvis, mTeli 180 gradusiTmobruneba~ im poziciebisaken, romelsac Cven vuwodebT sabWoTaliteraturis magistralur gzas,~— werda S. radiani gazeT `iteraturulsaqarTveloSi~ 1936 wels. sainteresoa, ras warmoadgenda `abWoTaliteraturis magistraluri gza~? xom ar gadioda is partiul interesebsada, zogadad, politikur ideologiasTan xom ar ikveTeboda?! samwuxarod,pasuxi dadebiTia. `enini Seurigebeli iyo imisadmi, vinc literaturisada xelovnebis sakiTxSi principulobas uxvevda, vinc ideuriSecdomebisadmi damokidebulebaSi liberalur poziciebze eSveboda.~(1,136)ideuri Secdoma, literaturis socialistur reJimiTan damokidebulebiTganisazRvreboda, xolo amis gakontroleba da `iberalurpoziciebze ardaSveba~ ki vis moeTxiveboda, Tu ara kritikoss. akakibaqraZe werda — kritikas daevala ara sxadasxva literaturul nawarmoebTaganxilva-analizi, aramed kompartiis cekas dadgenilebaTa ZaldatanebiT(ketiT) danergva da urCi mwerlebis dasja.~(1,139)SemoqmedebiTi cxovrebis dasawyisSi k. gamsaxurdias nawarmoebebi287


enaTmecniereba, literaturaTmcodneobaradikalurad emijneboda yovelgvar `interesebs~ da kinaRam didi xa-TabalaSi gaxvia am garemoebam avtori.1923 wels, saqarTveloSi dabrunebisas, konstantine gamsaxurdiamzustad icoda, rac moeloda (gamomgzavrebis win uTxres kidevac`asvlisTanave dagapatimreben da dagxvreteno~). magram emigrantoba mancar isurva da saqarTveloSi dabrunda. misi es nabiji marTlacaboboqrebul morevSi gadaSvebas hgavda, magram konstantine `imgvarisa iyo, visac ukandaxeva ara sCvevia!~“misi adrindeli novelebi — `porcelani~, `mkvdarTan Sexvedra,~`zarebi grigalSi,~ `lil,~ `tabu,~ `qalis rZe,~ `qosa gaxu~ da `jamu~ —warmogvidgenen avadmyof da amoralur individualistebs da mistikosebs,kacTmoZuleebsa da cinikosebs. igi qadagebda xelovnebis apolitikurobasada uideobas, aidealebda aristokratiul esTetizmsa d literaturisTviTmiznobas... am novelebis gmirebs Soris mkiTxveli verSexvdeba dadebiTi, jansaRi adamianuri meobis matarebels~ besarionJRentis kritikul werilSi vkiTxulobT (3,8) — werda besarion JRentida imasac ar dagidevdaT, rom yvela es novela adrindeli ar yofila,rom TiToeuli maTganis saTqmelic sakmaod gansxvavebuli iyo. kritikosisTvismTeli Semoqmedeba mxolod erT WrilSi, erTaderTi, politikuriniSniT iyo saintereso da es erTi SexedviTac cxadia.`Tavisi SemoqmedebiTi biografiis am etapze mwerali jer kidev TavisisimpaTiebiT da sulieri naTesaobiT warsulis dasaRupavad ganwirulgadmonaSTebTan ufro iyo dakavSirebuli, vidre axali cxovrebisZlevamosil qrolvasTan,~ (4,22). sainteresoa, ra igulisxmeba am ukanasknelfrazaSi? `axali cxovrebis Zlevamosili qrolva~ xom ar aris gamoxatulibambis plantaciebisadmi miZRvnil leqsebSi an simindis ciklSi,romliTac aWrelebulia am epoqis yvela Jurnali Tu gazeTi?! iqnebbeladis sadidebeli sagaloblebi igulisxmeba? beladis, romelicSemoqmedia am axali, `diadi~ epoqis...`individualisturi msoflSegnebiT, naRvliani da melanqoliuriganwyobilebiT ganmsWvaluls nawarmoebebSi mwerali mTels Tavismxatvrul Zalasa da energias sasikvdilod ganwiruli warsulis narCenebiswarmosaxvas andomebs. yvelaze tipuri damaxasiaTebeli am periodisnovelebs Soris aris `zarebi grigalSi~, sadac naTlad aris gamoTqmuli`sibneleSi dabrmavebuli~ `uimedo glaxakis~ mnaTe oqropiris daam mxatvruli saxis Semqmnelis negatiuri damokidebuleba im Rrmacvlilebebisa da reformebisadmi, romlebiTac aRsavse iyo Cveni saukunisociani wlebis sazodgadoebrivi sinamdvile~ — es isev besarionJRentis sityvebia.(4,21)288


enaTmecniereba, literaturaTmcodneoba`zarebi grigalSi~ gansakuTrebiT ar moswonT kritikosebs, is xomnaTeli xatia socialuri realobis. sagulisxmoa, rom arc erTi kritikosiar ufiqrdeba, ratom arian gamsaxurdias gmirebi aseTebi, `sibneleSidabrmavebulni~, `uimedo glaxakni~ — maT sworad esmiT da naTladxedaven, Tu rogorebi arian isini, magram ar ufiqrdebian ratom? ram gaxadaes personaJebi aseTebad?! ar moswonT `am mxatvruli saxis Semqmnelisnegatiuri damokidebuleba im Rrma cvlilebebisa da gardaqmnebisadmi,~arada nawarmoebis saTqmelic esaa da swored am cvlilebebma Tugardaqmnebma moitana es mZime realoba. magram aris meore garemoebac,kritikosebi yovelive amas ar ufiqrdebian Tu saerTod ara aqvT fiqrisufleba, magram aqvT davaleba, romelic avad Tu kargad unda Seasrulon.asec iqcevian.`Cven yvelas, visac oqtombris revoluciamde mogvixda samwerlo asparezzegamosvla, — wers Salva radiani — ucilod dagvemCna erTgvaridaRi dekadantobisa. ai, swored am seniT aris aRbeWdili k. gamsaxurdiasociani wlebis novelebi~. (4,20) marTalia, amis paralelurad arsebobdnenjansaRi azris matarebeli, sul sxvagvarad, erovnilad moazrovnenic,magram Zala aRmarTs xanavs, naTqvamia da kritikosTa didi nawili20-30-iani wlebis qarTul presasa Tu publicistikaSi erTxmad ganikiTxavdamwerals obieqturobisa da pirdapirobisTvis, sinamdvilisSeulamazeblobisTvis da xSirad direqtivebsac aZlevda, rom man undagaiTvaliswinos amx. berias SeniSvna, — `Tu k. gamsaxurdias surs iyossabWoTa mwerali, igi unda gaTavisufldes Tavisi burJuaziul-nacionalisturiideebisa da ganwyobebisagan.~ weli.(10,5)1958 wels Salva radiani novelaze— `zarebi grigalSi~ dawers — `esnawarmoebi qariSxlis mier damxobili samreklos nangrevebSi daRupulimnaTe oqropiris Tavganwirulebis sadidebel himnad JRers~ (4,22).ai, mTavari dilema, gamsaxurdiasgan axali droebis Tayvaniscemas moiTxovenda gana raime yuradRebis Rirsia revoluciis gaubedurebulida `sibneleSi dabrmavebuli~ adamianebi, mTavaria proporcia: erTiamnaTe, romelic Seewira, sanacvlod bednierebi iqnebian aTasebi... iqnebianki?!mivyveT isev Salva radianis kritikas: `igi naZiralebis gamoxatvasandomebda Tavis mxatvrul niWierebasa da energias, amasTan mas arhyofnida paTosi, raTa mkiTxvelTa SegnebaSi protestisa da guliswyromisgrZnoba gaeRvivebina amgvari `gmirebis~ mimarT~ (4,25). sworedaseTi rangis ciliswamebebis amokiTxva SeiZleba am epoqis kritikaSi. imdenadabsurdulia zogierTi maTgani, rom bunebrivad ibadeba siyalbisgancda, gancda imisa, rom es xelovnuri uTanxmoebaa, ZaliT organize-289


enaTmecniereba, literaturaTmcodneobabuli, romlis miRmac namdvili, realuri komfliqti imaleba, konfliqtijansaR azrsa da politikur direqtivas Soris.30-in wlebSi ukve aseTi werilebi Cndeba: 1937 w. max. literaturulsaqarTveloSi `man warmatebiT gadalaxa mtkivneuli Ziebebis, samanTamosinjvis etapi, Tavi daaRwia aTasgvari macdunebeli demoniT gatacebas.~romel macdunebel demonzea saubari? — `da ocdaaTiani wlebisdamdegisTvis sabolood daadga sakuTar saimedo gzas~ — saimedo?! raimedi igulisxmeba? imedi imisa, rom ar gaanadgureben, ar awameben, argadaasaxleben... es politika xom mTeli sabWoTa kavSiris masStabiT iyoaqtualuri! rasac araerTi niWieri adamiani Seewira; magram konstantinegamsaxurdia, a. baqraZis sityvebiT rom vTqvaT, `hgavda im adamians,romelsac saxlSi puri miaqvs da ukan kbildaRrWenili ZaRli misdevs.puri rom Sin miitanos da Tavad ZaRlis dakbenas gadaurCes, iZulebuliadrodadro nagazs puris natexi gadaugdos, droebiT SeaCeros dasaxlSi Seaswros. mTeli cxovrebis manZilze ase gaurboda mwerali ukandadevnebul sabWoTa xelisuflebas. xandaxan uyrida mwerluri purisnatexebs— `belads~, `vazis yvavilobas~, narkvevebs, rom bunebriv sikvdilamdemieRwia da qarTveli xalxisTvis daetovebina `dionisos Rimili~,`mTvaris motaceba~, `didostatis marjvena~, `daviT aRmaSenebeli~.konstantine gamsaxurdias rTuli da mravalferovani SemoqmedebisSesaxeb XX saukunis 20-30-iani wlebSi daiwera araerTi mcdari Tu mar-Tebuli kritikuli statia, mecnieruli gamokvleva. Cveni Temis mizaniiyo kidev erTxel gadagvexeda, gangvesaja, gagveanalizebina Cveni istoriiserTi, sakmaod mniSvnelovani periodi, epoqa, roca kritikosebi damwerlebi dapirispirebul, mtrulad ganwyobil banakebSi aRmoCdnen,risi mizezic mxolod politikuri direqtiva iyo.yovelive zemoTqmulis miuxedavad, mainc ver vityviT, rom XX saukunis20-30-iani wlebis qarTul sinamdvileSi ar arsebobda kritika,rogorc literaturuli Janri; marTalia, zogierTi kritikosis gamoigi xSirad iyo morCili politikuri direqtivebis, rogorc erT-erTipolitikuri iaraRi, magram iyvnen iseTebic, vinc bolomde SeuvalnidarCnen. faqti erTia, Seqmnilma garemoebam ganapiroba is, rom kritikamliteraturis donis amaRlebis, mkiTxvelTa gemovnebis daxvewis nacvladZalian didi Zalisxmeva daxarja yovlad absurduli braldebebisSeTxzvaze, xSir SemTxvevaSi ki jalaTadac gadaiqca da uamravi adamianissicocxle Seiwira.290


enaTmecniereba, literaturaTmcodneobagamoyenebuli literatura:1. baqraZe a. mwerlobis moTviniereba, 1990.2. sigua s. martvili da alamdari, t.1, 1997.3. JRenti b. konstantine gamsaxurdia, 1997.4. radiani S. konstantine gamsaxurdia, 1958.5. gazeTi `literaturuli saqarTvelo~, 25 Tebervali, 1936.6. gazeTi `literaturuli saqarTvelo~, 20 aprili, 1936.7. gazeTi `literaturuli saqarTvelo~, 2 ivnisi, 1936.8. gazeTi `literaturuli saqarTvelo~, 31 ivlisi, 1936.9. gazeTi `literaturuli saqarTvelo~, 31 ivlisi, 1937.10. gazeTi `komunisti~, 5 maisi, 1923.291


enaTmecniereba, literaturaTmcodneobanunu balavaZeivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisissaxelmwifo universiteti, magistrantisikvdili, rogorc literaturulipersonaJi goderZi Coxelis prozis mixedviTxelmZRvaneli: profesori kaxaber loria`amaoebaTa amaoeba! yovelive amaoebaa.... magram saqmes, rac RmerTma moimoqmeda,Tavidan bolomde ver xvdeba adamiani~— ambobs `eklesiaste~ (1-1,2).adamiani ver xvdeba, magram misi goneba maradiul ZiebaSia. kacma dainaxada irwmuna Tavisi arseboba. amasTanave, isic gaigo, rom odesRac aucilebladgaxdeboda `ararsebuli~, gardaicvleboda. adamians ainteresebs,ra iqneba Semdeg am gardacvalebSi, uCndeba aTasgvari kiTxva yofna-aryofnisSesaxeb. iwyeba mis sulSi Zieba, romelic bunebrivad warmoSobs Sinagankonfliqts.sxvadasxva epoqam, sxvadasxva konteqstSi nawilobriv moitana pasuxgacemulikiTxvebi adamianis arsebobaze. es mudmivi fiqri xelovnebis erTerTdargSi, kerZod literaturaSi gamoikveTa.arseboba, igive egzistencializmi, rogorc filosofiuri da literaturulimimdinareoba, Caisaxa I msoflio omis bolos, germaniaSi. igi samyaroscentrSi ayenebs adamianis arseboba-ararsebobis siRrmiseul problemebs.egzistencializmis Casaxva filosofiaSi sorin kirkegoris saxelTanaadakavSirebuli. es inacvlebs martin haidegerTan, Jan-pol sartrTan,karl easpersTan, kafkasTan, kamiusTan, rilkesTan...XX s-is 80-iani wlebis mwerlobaSi adamianis yofna-aryofnis Temas TaviseburixedviT warmoaCens mwerali goderZi Coxeli.`xelovnebaTmcodneobiTi etiudebis~ erT-erT statiaSi — `egzistencializmisgavlena Tanamedrove kinematografze~ naSromis avtori ingaxalvaSi SeniSnavs, rom goderZi Coxeli pirvelTagani iyo, romelmac egzistencialuriproblema Semoitana XX saukunis 80-iani wlebis qarTulkinoSi. am xazs g. Coxeli, rogorc mwerali, Tavis prozaSic aviTarebs.unda aRiniSnos, rom mwerlebi: f. kafka, J.p. sartri, a. kamiu, romlebicliteraturaSi egzistencialuri xedvis Semomtanebad arian aRiarebulni,SeiZleba iTqvas, `Segnebulad weren~ nawarmoebebs am Tematikaze, radganmaT filosofiuri ganaTleba aqvT miRebuli da SesaZloa esec iyos292


enaTmecniereba, literaturaTmcodneobamaT SemoqmedebaSi ganmsazRvreli faqtori. rac Seexeba goderZi Coxelisprozas, igi ufro TviTmyofadia da TviTmiznurobisa STabeWdilebas artovebs. mweralTan fiqri, adamianis yofna-aryofnis Sesaxeb, bunebrivadmidis mkiTxvelamde da masTan erTadve iqceva msjelobis sagnad, rasac saocradoriginaluri xedviT warmoaCens goderZi Coxeli.romani `adamianTa sevda~ iwyeba fiqriT yofna-aryofnaze da Semdeg ukvesxva moTxrobebSi grZeldeba. romani ucnauri siuJetiT iwyeba. avtorisaubrobs gudamayris xeobis mcxovreblebze, romelTac gadauwyvetiaTSeaerTon mTis soflebi da adamianebma erTad icxovron. e.w. brZolis gegmaostaturad aris mofiqrebuli. vin iqneba mebrZolTa meTauri, mzveravi,vin darCeba saxlSi, vin saWmeliT moamaragebs xalxs — yvela sakuTarrols iTavsebs. am moqmedebis paralelurad, romanSi CarTulia mwerlisada filosofosis dRiurebi. mwerali mTis xalxze moTxrobebs wers, filosofosiki filosofiur problematikas dastrialebs da imave adamianebisgansurs Caswvdes yofna-aryofnis problemas. TiToeul adamiansgansxvavebuli pasuxi aqvs sikvdil-sicocxleze. saubari dialogis meSveobiTxorcieldeba.`rogoria suli~ — kiTxulobs filosofosis piriT mwerali da martiabubunauric pasuxobs: `suli namgalsa hgavs, CaJangeba icis advilad.suls ekideba Seni warsuli.... xorcma JangiviT icis mokideba da CaiClungebssulsa~ (2-63). Tu davakvirdebiT kiTxvas: ra aris xorci? mweraliromanSi ar svams, magram nawarmoebis gmiri sulTan erTad xorcsacganmartavs, anu ukve iwyeba konfliqti realursa da irealurs Soris.meore personaJi vasil kotoraSvili ki ase msjelobs:`— adamians roca suli gaeyreba, sad midis?— arsad daikargeba.— maS, uazro yofila Cveni aq yofna. ra azri aqvs erTi weli viqnebiT,Tu asi?— sad erTi weli da sad asi?~ (2-56). nawarmoebSi adamianis ara martoSinagani Widilia sikvdilsa da sicocxles Soris, aramed Tavad dialog-Sic vxedavT winaaRmdegobas.goderZi Coxeli metafizikurs, aramaterialur sakiTxebs utrialebs.aqedan gamomdinare, romanSi Cndeba kiTxvebi:`ra aris siyvaruli?ra ufro Zlieria — siyvaruli Tu sicocxle?~ amgvari msjelobiT, weraliamzadebs mkiTxvels imisTvis, rom aucileblad unda daisvas ori ZiriTadiSekiTxva: erTi, `ra aris sicocxle? ~ da meore: `ra aris sikvdili?~....`ra aris sicocxle an saidan movida?~ — vkiTxulobT filosofosis293


enaTmecniereba, literaturaTmcodneobarveulidan da wiklauri solomonic pasuxobs:` — viTom sicocxle RvTisgan aris, me ege vici~` — ra azri aqvs adamianis xangrZliv sicocxles?— sicocxle giyvars, meti araferi~... (2-57).meore mTavar kiTxvaze:`ra aris sikvdili?~ pasuxoben:`sikvdili dasasrulia...dasawyisicaa~. sikvdili mweralTan moiazreba, rogorc axalimdgomareobis, axali cxovrebis dawyeba.maia wiklauri wignSi`goderZi Coxeli — erisa da mTis Svili~ wers:`ratom uTmobs goderZi Coxeli sikvdilis Temas amden yuradRebas? iqnebes fSav-xevsuruli folkloruli poeziis gavlenaa... mTaSi gazrdilikacisTvis.... es Tema axlobeli iqneboda~. — am kuTxiT Tu SevxedavTg. Coxelis damokidebulebas adamianis yofna-aryofnaze, aSkarad CansxmiT natirebis gavlena mis prozaze. mwerali Tavis nawarmoebebs iseTkonteqstSi gvaTavazobs, rasac fSav-xevsurul xmiT natirebsa da wuTisofelzegamoTqmul leqsebSi vxvdebiT:fSav-xevsuruli folklori sikvdilze ambobs:`sad waxval, sad daemalvimand caT gagiRon kario,sikvdili yvelgan daZvrebasadac sicocxle ario.~aqac vxedavT Widils sikvdil-sicocxlisa. erT-erT xmiT natirebSideda Svilis tirilze aseT frazas ambobs:`sikvdilo, Tuki advili xar,erTxel Sen Tavad rad ar mahkvdi~... — (3)am striqonebis Semdeg ki sagulisxmo paraleli iqneba is, rom goderZiCoxelis romanis`adamianTa sevda~ finalSi xalxi adamianad qceul,gankacebul sikvdils klavs. sikvdili aRsarebas etyvis adamianebs:`meara gklavT. TviTon vkvdebi TqvenSi. TviTon vitanjebi sulisgayrisas. me vasruleb imas, rac unda moxdes da yovelTvis xdeba is, racmosaxdenia~ — anu konfliqti sikvdilsa da adamianebs Soris ufromwvavdeba romanis dasasruls. gardacvlil sikvdils ki isev Svilmkvdarideda daitirebs:`CvenTan ra gindoda, Cemo Svilo,CvenTan Sennairebs ver ixdenen,agremc Sen siyrmes Semovevle,miwaSi rogorRa moisveneb.Savad CageSleba asooba,Tvalebs gvelebi wagiReben,nuRar moigoneb aqaobas294


enaTmecniereba, literaturaTmcodneobaaq Sennairebs ver ixdenen.ara, Cemo Svilo, ar gviwyino,wadi, Cem SvilebTan daisvene~... (2-86)rogorc filosofosi matrin haidegeri ambobs, `adamianis amocanaaCaxedos Tavis gardauval xvedrs TvalebSi da gaxdes Tavisi sikvdilisgmiri~ (6). Sesabamisad, goderZi Coxelic, personaJad aqcevs sikvdilsromanSi, romelic kvdeba da fSavur folklorSi dasmuli kiTxvis:`sikvdilo,Tuki advili xar, erTxel Sen Tavad rad ar mahkvdi?..~ ganvrcobaswored romanis amgvari dasasruliT SemogvTavaza da amiT Tqva, romsikvdili advilia...romani `adamianTa sevda~ isev ori kiTxviT mTavrdeba, romlebzecmweralive scems pasuxs:`sicocxle sevda aris, adamianad yofnis tkbilisevda... sikvdilic sevda aris, adamianad aryofnis sevda~...mkiTxvelSi Cndeba gancda: amiT Widili, igiv Sinagani konfliqti, gadaiWreba?magram miuxedavad am pasuxgacemuli kiTxvebisa vxvdebiT,rom es pasuxebive iwveven cnobismoyvareobasa da kvlav maradiul Ziebas.aqedan SegviZlia davaskvnaT, rom goderZi Coxelis prozaSi, fiqriyofna-aryofnis Sesaxeb, TviTmyofadi, mwerliseuli xedviT aris mitanilimkiTxvelamde, rac mWidrod ukavSirdeba qarTul folklors.meores mxriv, Tu adamianis arseboba anu egziscencia ararealursada realurs Soris monacvleobs, individma unda SeZlos pirvelidan meoremdeamaRleba. Sesabamisad, goderZi Coxelis prozis mixedviT vxvdebiT,rom esaa swored egzistencialuri damokidebuleba. SesaZloa, esar iyos calsaxa da TviTmiznuri, rogorc sxvadasxva avtorTan gvxvdeba,magram Tavad problematika yofna-aryofnaze mogvaniSnebs imas, rommwerali moviazroT ara ganyenebulad, aramed erT mTlian literaturulprocesSi.gamoyenebuli literatura:1. ` biblia~. 2002.2. Coxeli g. `adamianTa sevda~. 1986.3. `qarTuli xalxuri poezia~. 1992 w.4. wiklauri m. `,goderZi Coxeli - erisa da mTis Svili~. 2006.5. `xelovnebaTmcodneobiTi etiudebi~. t I, 2008.6. http:/ka. Wikipedia. org.295


enaTmecniereba, literaturaTmcodneobaTamuna kvaWantiraZesoxumis saxelmwifo universiteti, magistrantiWabua amirejibis `gora mborgalis~ gaazrebisaTvisxelmZRvaneli: profesori nino mindiaSvili`gora mborgalze~ Wabua amirejibs aTi weli umuSavia. aTi weli arcTu ise cota droa, magram iseTi didi wignisaTvis, rogoric `goramborgalia~ SeiZleba cotac iyos. am aTi wlis ganmavlobaSi did mweralsalbaT kidev eraTxel mouxda im rTuli wlebis gaxseneba, im eklianigzebis gadalaxva, romelic man gaiara Tavisi cxovrebis ganmavloba-Si. amas gvafiqrebinebs is faqti, rom nawarmoebSi cxadad ikveTeba avtorisbiografiuli pasaJebi.`wignis kiTxva xom araferia, Tu ara mixvedriT gamowveuli sixaruli~(1). amitom sanam romelime avtoris nawarmoebs gavecnobodeT aucilebeliamis biografias, cxovrebis gzebs da im epoqas vicnobdeT, romelSicis cxovrobda da mxolod amis Semdeg unda gavecnoT mis nawarmoebs,raTa dagveuflos `mixvedriT gamowveuli~ wrfeli sixaruli.vkiTxulobT `gora mborgals~ da gvaxsendeba Wabua amirejibis biorafia.man cixeebsa da sapatimro banakebSi 16 weliwadi gaatara, patimrobidaneqvsjer gaiqca, orjer daxvretac hqonda misjili, magram sabednierodgadarCa da SesaniSnavi nawaromebebic aCuqa qarTul literaturas.`gora mborgali~ sicocxlis, Tavisuflebisa da simarTlisaTvisbrZolis himnia. simarTle da Tavisufleba ki yovlad amaRlebuli zneobiriobismaxasiaTebeli Tvisebebia. adamianuri simarTlea, cxovrebisWuWyiani gzebis manaTobeli Zala, rogorc didi berZeni filosofosikonfuciusi ambobda: `simarTle dasawyisi da dasasrulia yoveli arsisa.simarTle rom ar yofiliyo, ar iqneboda araferi. simarTle ara martoTavisTavad arsebobs, aramed Seqmna yvela sagani imitom, rom esaasibrZne, bunebrivi qvelmoqmedeba da tao, gareganisa da Sinaganis SemaerTebeli.Tumca bevrni simarTles uyuradRebod eqcevian, magram isarasodes dakargavs Tavis mniSvnelobas~. Wabua amirejibTan simarTlesar ekargeba mniSvneloba. is Tavis didebul romanSi gulwrfel simar-Tles RaRadebs sabWoTa reJimis represiebis Sesaxeb.rogorc avTandil nikoleiSvili samarTlianad SeniSnavs: `Wabuaamirejibi am movlenebis deideologizebuli mxatvruli warmosaxvis296


enaTmecniereba, literaturaTmcodneobasaqmeSi erT-erTi pirveli xnulis gamvlebia CvenSi~.`gora mborgali~ Tavisufalia yovelgvari cenzuruli SeboWilobisagan.romanis winasityvaobaSi revaz TvaraZe ambobs: `romani imgavradaris Cafiqrebuli, misi mTavari personaJebis cxovreba simbolurad gaiazrebamTeli eris cxovrebad, misi xvedri da bedi, eris xvedrad da bedad~.misi xvedri da bedi ki iseTive `Selewili da miwasTan gasworebulicixe-simagreebis qva-RorRiT~ nagebi iyo, rogorc Tavad gora kargareTeli.`wvaraTani yofnaTa, aRsrulebaTa da miqcevisaTvis~, es sityvebiaris Wabua amirejibis romanis meore saxeli. risi aRsrulebisTvis ibrZvisromanis mTavari gmiri, ratom garbis ganuwyvetliv, TiTqosdauperspeqtivo sicocxlis fasad?`nuTu marTla imitom garbis, rom liandagze Camojdes? fiqrobs mitileniCi~liandagi usasrulobis niSania, Tavi da bolo ar uCans, ariwyeba, ar mTavrdeba, Tavisuflebis simboloa da gorac TavgadaklulieZebs Tavisuflebas~. rogorc Tamar paiWaZe aRniSnvs, `mis saxelmwifo-Si ar arsebobs zeciuri sasjelis SiSi, radgan ar arsebobs RmerTi,. (2).`ufali sulia da sadac ars suli uflisa, iqvea Tavisufleba~. (3). iqnebgorac RmerTs daeZebs?revaz TvaraZe wignis winasityvaobaSi ambobs: `sicocxlisaken, TavisuflebisakenTavgadakluli swarafva ambavTa mTxrobelis ganuSorebeliidealia,romelic arsebuli reJimis pirobebSi asruleba ar uweria,yoveli gaqceva, yoveli Zalisxmeva faqtiurad marcxiT mTavrdeba.mborgalis xvedric es iyo-sakuTari sulis siRrmeSi daemkvidrebina nanatriTavisufleba.~vcdilobT CavwvdeT gora kargareTelis bunebas da gvaxsendebafridrix nicSes `ese ityoda zaratustras~ erTi epizodi: `miyvars, romeliTavisufalia suliT da Tavisi guliT; Tavi misi gulis Signeulia,xolo guli mas warxdomad izidavs~. goras gulic maradis iltvis warxdomisaken,Tavisuflebisaken. `erTTavad davrbodi da vcdilobdi davweodiras? cxadia rasac-Tavisuflebas~ ambobs Tavad gora.gora mborgalis cnobierebaSi waruSleli kvali datova ojaxze revoluciisSemdeg Tavs datexilma qaosma. yvela im wigns, sadac bolSevizmissisastikea gadmocemuli, `gora mborgalis~ is erTi pasaJi gadaswonis,roca axlad gaRviZebulma bavSma `naTuris mrume Suqze Cumadmtirali deda~, sami ucnobi da leibidan gadmofafxuli raRac dakurkumelavebuli,daklaknili~ dainaxa.— `dediko, muceli gamiCres! daiyvira goram. is mofuTfuTe matyli297


enaTmecniereba, literaturaTmcodneobasakuTar nawlavebad Tu miiCnia~...am droidan moyolebuli Zaladoba, usamarTloba, devna-Seviwroebada pirovnuli TavisuflebisaTvis Tavgadakluli brZola goras sicocxlismaradiulad Tanamdev movlenebad iqca.`gora mborgali~ is wignia, romlis kiTxvisas mkiTxveli Tavad romaRmoCndeba movlenebis epicentrSi. mkiTxvelic gorasTan erTad ifiqrebsgaqcevis urTules gzebze da gorasTan erTad daforTxavs imierpolareTisybadaRebul purgaSi.`mborgali papaCemma Semarqva... amaod mborgali Seerqmia, iqneb sjobda~— ambobs mTavari gmiri, magram gora ar aris amaod mborgali, SeiZlebais bolo gaqcevisas mitileniCis msxverpli xdeba, magram TavisisirbiliT. is ara marto sakuTar sulSi amkvidrebs `nanatr Tavisuflebas~aramed Cven, mkiTxvelsac amaRlebul sulier mdgomareobas gvani-Webs.rogorc avTandil nikoleiSvili SeniSnavs: `gora sabWour-epoqalursinamdvileSi gardasaxuli daTaa~.marTlac daTa TuTaSxias mgavsad gora mborgali marTalia samar-Tlis kanonebis mixedviT damnaSavea, magram adamianuri simarTlis kanonebiTcamde marTali.nawarmoebis srulyofilad gasaazreblad mniSvnelovania finaluriepizodi romelSiac espanuri koridis ambavia moTxrobili. mkiTxveliam epizods xedavs, rogorc sikeTesa da borotebas Soris mimdinarebrZolas. Tavad gmiri am brZolas ase ganmartavs: `me Tu mkiTxavs vinme,koridis dedaazri swored eg aris — amaoeba amaoebaTa. visganac gindaiyos, qveynierebis dawiokeba, erebis damarcxeba, saxelmwifos ganadgureba,gana uTavbolo sirbili da gamokideba ar aris? uzogadesad rommivudgeT, romel dampyrobels ra SerCa da misi danapyrobidan ra dar-Ca?!~`gana mZleca Semdgom sxivisgan iZlevis,Tvisgan qmnili Tvisadve mieqcevis,yvela kai waruvals, ganelevis,raca hqonda povnilmdabalT CagvriT mtaceblobiT da xveWiT~gora mborgalic am maradiuli koridis erT-erTi mTavari gmiria,`Selewili da miwasTan gasworebuli cixe-simagreebis qva-RorRiT nagebi~kaci.`vina xar Sen gora mborgalo, xari Tu espada?~Tu Tavisuflebis simbolo da uRmerToebis epoqaSi RmerTis maZiebelikaci...298


enaTmecniereba, literaturaTmcodneobagamoyenebuli literatura:1. jguburia m. `Wabua amirejibi~, Tb; 2007 w.2. paiWaZe T. `vina xar gora mborgalo~. literaturuli werilebi,Tb., 2003w.3. pavle mociquli II korinTelTa mimarT. Tavi II, 17.4. nikoleiSvili a. `Wabua amirejobi~. quTaisi, 2001 w.299


skandinavistikasofiko rusiSviliivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisissaxelmwifo universitetis bakalavriatis studentikvlevis organizacia norvegiaSixelmZRvaneli: profesori kaxaber loriamiuxedavad imisa, rom norvegia ar aris evrogaerTianebis wevri, 1987wlidan is monawileobs evrokavSiris farglebSi ganxorcielebulkvlevebSi da ixdis wliur Sesatans — 40 mln. dolars. ნorvegia CrdiloeTissxva qveynebTan erTad monawileobs erToblivi kvleviT da saganmanaTlebloRonisZiebebSi. norvegieli mecnierebi daexmarnen litvelkolegebs qveynis mier damoukideblobis miRebis Semdeg mecnierulikvlevis SefasebaSi. norvegiel mkvlevarebs didi xnis nayofieri Tanam-Sromloba akavSirebT TavianT kolegebTan amerikis SeerTebul Stateb-Si, sadac bevri maTgani swavlobda.norvegiaSi daaxloebiT 40000 adamiania dakavebuli kvleviTi dasaganmanaTleblo saqmianobiT (maT Soris 5600 doqtori (DPh)2).mrewvelobaSi dasaqmebulia daaxloebiT 12600 adamiani (maTgan 650-saqvs doqtoris xarisxi), institutebSi 10000 (1300 doqtori) da umaRlesiganaTlebis sferoSi 18100 (370 doqtori). norvegia mTlianad kvlevasa daganviTarebaze weliwadSi daaxloebiT 2,1 miliard dolars xarjavs.აqedan, mrewveloba afinansebs 50%-s, saxelmwifo 43%-s, ucxouri wyaroebiswili ki 7%-ia. es Tanxa Seadgens norvegiis mTliani Sida produqtismxolod 1.7%-s, rac gacilebiT mcirea SvedeTsa da fineTSi kvlevasa daganviTarebaze daxarjuli Tanxis procentul maCveneblebze. amasTanodnav naklebia daniis Sesabamis maCveneblebze. kvleviTi saqmianobisSedarebiT mwiri dafinanseba ganpirobebulia rogorc kvlevis Sedegebisnaklebi efeqturobiT, aseve mTavrobis strategiuli gadawyvetilebiT argazardos biujetis es nawili im dros, rodesac mas didi Semosavali aqvsnavTobisa da gazis mrewvelobidan. kvleviTi saqmianobis dafinanseba1995-1997 wlebSi 5%-iT Semcirda. aseTi fiskaluri politika vrceldebamrewvelobis dafinansebazec. 1993-95 wlebSi samrewvelo kvleva daganviTareba 1%-iT Semcirda. amave periodSi, institutebis seqtorisdafinanseba Semcirda 8%-iT, Tumca universitetebma moaxerxesSeenarCunebinaT kvlevisa da ganviTarebis dafinansebis Zveli done.300


skandinavistikakvleviTi saqmianobis ZiriTadi nawili (mTliani xarjebis 57%) oslosa damis maxlobel qalaqebSi xorcieldeba.norvegiaSi oTxi ZiriTadi universiteti, 26 regionaluri da 8specializebuli kolejia, sadac swavlobs 185000 studenti. maTgan yvelazemniSvnelovani aris oslos universiteti da trondeimis mecnierebisada teqnologiis norvegiuli universiteti, romelic specializebuliasainJinro saqmesa da teqnologiebSi. universitetebSi tardebafundamenturi kvlevebi. umaRlesi ganaTlebis seqtori mecnierulikvlevebisaTvis yovelwliurad saxelmwifosagan daaxloebiT 400milion dolars iRebs, norvegiis samecniero sabWo (Research Council) ki —120 milions.norvegiaSi aseve maRalganviTarebuli `sainstituto seqtoria~, masSiSedis daaxloebiT asi kvleviTi instituti da amdenive dawesebuleba,romlebSic kvleva erT-erTi ZiriTadi mimarTulebaa. am institutebSiteqnologiuri xasiaTis gamoyenebiTi kvlevebi ZiriTadad kontraqtissafuZvelze xorcieldeba. sainstituto seqtoris mTliani xarjebi wliuradSeadgens daaxloebiT 600 milion dolars, aqedan 240 milionssaxelmwifo gaiRebs, xolo 120 milionamde — norvegiis samecniero sabWo.Tumca, mTavroba amcirebs am seqtoris subsidirebas da institutebsTviTdafinansebaze gadasvlas aiZulebs.norvegiis kvlevis sabWo.1993 wels norvegiaSi arsebuli kvleviTi sabWoebi gaerTiandastortingis (norvegiis parlamenti) mier Catarebuli kvlevis safuZvelze.axali gaerTianebuli sabWo, romelsac norvegiis kvlevis sabWo daerqva,anawilebs kvlevisaTvis saWiro saxsrebs da rekomendaciebs uwevs mTavrobassamecniero da teqnikur sakiTxebSi. sabWo eqvemdebareba ganaTlebis,kvlevisa da saeklesio saqmeebis saministros, romelic mis erT-erT ZiriTaddamfinansebels warmoadgens. kvlevis sabWo dafinansebas Rebulobsaseve sxva saministroebisgan, rogoricaa, magaliTad, mrewvelobisa davaWrobis, Tevzis mrewvelobis, soflis meurneobis, janmrTelobisa dagaremos dacvis. mTlianad sabWos biujeti (360 milioni dolari) SeadgensmTavrobis mier mecnieruli kvlevisaTvis gamoyofili Tanxis meoTxeds.norvegiis kvlevis sabWoSi gaqra disciplinebis mkveTri gamijnva, magramara e.w. disciplinaTaSorisi struqturebis xarjze. gamoiyofa mizansa daamocanaze orientirebuli eqvsi ganyofileba:• mrewveloba da energetika (navTobi, zRvaosnoba, momsaxureba)88 mln dolari (mTliani Tanxis 25%);301


skandinavistika• mecniereba da teqnologia. 75 mln dolari (21%);• biomrewveloba da damuSaveba (TevzWera, soflis meurneoba,veterinaruli medicina, satyeo mrewveloba da kvebis mrewveloba).59 mln dolari (17%);• kultura da sazogadoeba (humanitaruli, socialuri mecnierebebi,saxelmwifo marTva da momsaxureba). 45 mln dolari (12%);• garemo da ganviTareba (mdgradi ganviTareba da ganviTarebadisazogadoebebisaTvis daxmarebis gaweva). 36 mln dolari (10%);• medicina da janmrTeloba, 22 mln dolari (6%).administraciisa da sxva xarjebi mTliani Tanxis 9%-s Seadgens.kvlevis sabWos TiToeul ganyofilebas sakuTari xelmZRvanelobahyavs. yovel ganyofilebas aqvs qveganyofilebebi, romlebic muSaobenstrategiul programebze, individualur proeqtebze, infrastruqturebze.tardeba aseve erToblivi RonisZiebebi. magaliTad, 1998 welsinformaciisa da komunikaciis teqnologiis 33 mln-iani biujetidafinansda: mecnierebisa da teqnologiis ganyofilebidan (ZiriTadikvlevis CatarebisaTvis), aseve mrewvelobisa da energiis (gamoyenebiTikvlevebisaTvis), kulturisa da sazogadoebis (sazogadoebaze zemoqmedebisaTvis)da medicinisa da janmrTelobis ganyofilebebidan (amsferoebSi Catarebuli saqmianobisTvis).norvegiaSi fundamenturi mecnierebis dafinansebas ZiriTadadganaTlebis, kvlevisa da saeklesio saqmeebis saministro axorcielebs.fundamentur kvlevas, gamoyenebiT kvlevebsa da teqnologiebisganviTarebasTan erTad, didi yuradReba eqceva. metad mniSvnelovnadiTvleba zRvis resursebis kvleva, maRali xarisxis samecniero teqnikisganviTareba, sakvebis xarisxisa da usafrTxoebis Sefaseba, sainformacioda sakomunikacio teqnologiis daxvewa, demokratiuli mmarTvelobisganviTareba da fundamenturi kvleva. sabWos TiToeul ganyofilebassakuTari ZiriTadi prioritetuli mimarTulebebi gaaCnia.norvegiis kvlevis sabWo, rogorc saxelmwifo dawesebuleba, warmarTavsiseT mniSvnelovan saqmianobebs, rogoricaa: kvlevisa da ganvi-Tarebis saerTaSoriso TanamSromloba, arqtikasa da antarqtikaSikvlevis Catareba (5 mln dolari weliwadSi) da sxva. TanamSromlobsevrokavSirsa da evropis sxva qveynebTan, iseve rogorc amerikis SeerTebulStatebTan. sagareo saqmeTa saministro afinansebs kvlevissabWos centraluri da aRmosavleT evropis, afrikisa da aziis zogierTqveyanasTan TanamSromlobisaTvis.302


skandinavistika1997 wlis bolos norvegiis kvlevis sabWom Caatara qveyanaSi qimiisdargis ganviTarebis Sefaseba, romelmac mravali problema warmoaCina.moxsenebaSi aRniSnulia, rom Zalian mcirea gamorCeulad ganviTarebulidargebis ricxvi, kvleva saWiroze metad eyrdnoba tradiciebs,struqturebi Zalian mouqnelia, `kvlevis atmosfero stimulis momcemiar aris~, personali TiTqmis ar aris mobiluri da ugulvebelyofiliaqimiasa da biologiaSi erToblivi kvlevebis mniSvneloba. esdaskvnebi Sokis momgvreli aRmoCnda, vinaidan tradiciulad qimia norvegiaSimecnierebis erT-erT wamyvan dargs warmoadgenda. am detalurmaSefasebam udidesi gavlena iqonia ara mxolod qimiis, aramed sxvamecnierebebis ganviTarebazec.norvegia cdilobs samecniero kvlevisaTvis SeimuSaos Sesaferisipolitika — swrafad cvalebad msoflioSi konkurentunarianobis SenarCunebisaucileblobisa da qveynis simciris gaTvaliswinebiT. Ziri-Tad damabrkolebel faqtorebs warmoebasTan dakavSirebuli kvlevissisuste da samecniero kvlevebis dafinansebis simwire warmoadgens. Sedegad,norvegia skandinaviaSi bolo adgilze aRmoCnda kvlevasa da ganviTarebazegamoyofili Tanxis raodenobiT (mTlian Sida produqtzegadaangariSebiT). norvegiis mrewvelobis stabiluri ganviTarebismizniT, xelisufleba kvlevis saWiroebisaTvis gankuTvnili finansebisdid nawils mimarTavs gamoyenebiTi strategiuli programebis dafinansebaze,arapirdapiri individualuri kvlevebis Catarebaze. kvleviTiteqnikis modernizaciis xarjebic umniSvneloa; iTvleba, rom amisaTvissaWiroa wliurad 13 mln dolari, magram gamoiyofa mxolod am TanxismeoTxedi. dabolos, profesorTa wliuri xelfasi (daaxloebiT 45aTasi dolari) Zalian dabalia imisaTvis, rom moizidos saukeTesoaxalgazrda mkvlevarebi. am da sxva faqtorebis gaTvaliswinebiT,norvegiis mecniereba niSvnelovani problemebis winaSe dgas.norvegiaSi qimiis mecnierebis ganviTarebis Sefasebam (1998 wels)naTlad mianiSna arsebuli viTarebis Secvlis aucileblobaze. imisgamo, rom norvegiis profesorTa daaxloebiT naxevari momdevno aTiwlis ganmavlobaSi, albaT, pensiaze gava, aucilebeli xdeba sistemuricvlilebis ganxorcieleba universitetebSi niWieri axalgazrdebismosazidad. norvegiis kvlevis sabWom aRiara, rom `qveyana ganicdis regressmniSvnelovan dargebSi~ da rom momavlis amocanaa `norvegiiskvlevis sistemis gaaxalgazrdaveba~, fundamenturi kvlevebis Catareba,`axali samecniero codnis Seqmna da disciplinebis ganviTareba~.norvegias, rogorc ayvavebulsa da maRali inteleqtualuri SesaZleblobebismqone qveyanas, amis potenciali namdvilad gaaCnia.303


skandinavistikamariam maisaSvili, sofio kukavaivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisissaxelmwifo universiteti, bakalavriatis studentikorufcia daniaSixelmZRvaneli: profesori kaxaber loria`korufcia aris miniWebuli Zalauflebis borotad gamoyenebapiradi sargeblis miRebis mizniT~es aris korufciis definicia, romelic aRiarebuli da gavrcelebuliasaerTaSoriso masStabiT. is kacobriobis ganviTarebis ganuyofelnawils warmoadgens da masze damRupvelad moqmedebs. Tumca, miuxedavadamisa, korufciis mecnieruli Seswavla mxolod 1950-1960-iani wlebidandaiwyo, xolo farTo masStabebs man 70-80-ian wlebSi miaRwia. 1korufcias ebrZvis TiTqmis yvela saxelmwifo, romelic dRes arsebobssaerTaSoriso sistemaSi, magram brZolis Sedegebi gansxvavebulia.yuradRebas gavamaxvileb daniaze da mis mier gatarebul reformebze,romelTa wyalobiTac igi dResdReisobiT msoflioSi yvelaze arakorumpirebulqveynad iTvleba, xolo 1995 wlidan moyolebuli pirvelxuTeulSi wamyvan poziciebs ikavebs “Transperency International~-is monacemebismixedviT. 2dania CrdiloeT evropaSi mdebareobs. teritoriis mixedviT igiskandinaviis naxevarkunZulis yvelaze patara qveyanaa (43.094kv.km).Tumca, industriul-agraruli TvalsazrisiT erT-erTi yvelaze ganvi-Tarebulia, romlis ekonomikis wamyvan dargebs gemTmSenebloba, eleqtroteqnikuri,qimiuri da kvebis mrewveloba Seadgens. qveynis mosaxleoba5.5 milionia, xolo wliuri Semosavali erT sul mosaxleze 37.000amerikuli dolaria. politikuri sistemis mixedviT dania konstituciurimonarqiaa, romelsac sakmaod Zlieri saxelmwifo institutebi gaaCnia.marTalia, Tanamedrove skandinaviis qveynebi da, maT Soris, upirvelesaddania arakorumpirebul qveyanaTa ricxvs miekuTvneba, magram is-1 qeTevan rostiaSvili: `politikuri korufcia msoflios kontinentebze”,Tbilisi, 2007 weli, gv. 15.2 Transparency International, Global Corruption Report 1995-2008. www.transperancy.org304


skandinavistikatoriulad, es mudam ase ar iyo. jer kidev XVIII saukunesa da XIX-e saukunisSuaxanebSi mmarTvelobis absolituri sistemis gamo usazRvrod gaizardabiurokratTa uflebebi da daniaSi sayovelTaod gavrcelda nepotizmi,Tumca ara marto maRal fenebSi. es Cveulebriv yofiT donezecxdeboda, msaxurebis ayvanasTan dakavSirebiTac ki. miuxedavad daniisxelisuflebis mcdelobebisa, korufcia kvlav gadauWrel problemadrCeboda im martivi mizezis gamo, rom ar arsebobda kargad Camoyalibebulikanonebi da normatiuli aqtebi kanondamrRvevTa da korumpirebulTawinaaRmdeg. nel-nela korufcia ufro gaizarda da XIX saukunisTvisarnaxul masStabebs miaRwia. meqrTameobam da TaRliTobamekonomikuri krizisi gamoiwvia, Tumca nel-nela situacia Seicvala.mkvlevarTa azriT, daniaSi korufciis aRmofxvra, istoriul doneze,orma faqtorma ganapiroba: erTi mxriv, es iyo mmarTvelobis absoliturisistemis likvidacia, Tavisufali bazris principebis damkvidrebarogorc ekonomikaSi, ise mosaxleobis doneze da, meores mxriv, mentaluriTvisebebis cvlileba, rac sakmaod rTuli procesebis Semdeg moxerxda.es tendencia gagrZelda momdevno saukunis ganmavlobaSic, risSedegadac dania yvelaze naklebad korumpirebul qveynad gadaiqca.yuradRebas gavamaxvileb daniis dRevandel situaciaze da im problemebze,romlebic mas axla awuxebs. marTalia, dania SedarebiT`patiosani~qveyanaa da rogorc Tavad danielebi acxadeben`korufcia mxoloddaniis sazRvrebs gareT arsebobs~, 1 magram, ra Tqma unda, igi korufciisaganbolomde Tavisufali araa. zogierTi mkvlevaris azriT,danielebi Zalian arian Tavdajerebulni sakuTari qveynis arakorufciulobaSi,es xedva safrTxis Semcvelia, radganac am Tavdajerebulobisgamo maT SesaZloa droze ver aRmofxvran momavalSi warmoqmnilikorufcia.daniaSi Zalian did yuradRebas uTmoben meqrTameobis problemas damis aRmosafxvrelad aqtiurad TanamSromloben saerTaSoriso da regionulTanamegobrobasTan. TanamSromlobis farglebSi, daniam pirvelad2000 wels moaxdina evrokavSiris konvenciis ratificireba, romelicTaRliTobis winaaRmdeg iyo mimarTuli. misi mizani iyo aRmoefxvrarogorc kerZo, aseve sajaro seqtorSi arsebuli meqrTameoba.2002 wels daniam xeli moawera OECD-is (`ekonomikuri TanamSromlobisada ganviTarebis organizacia~) konvencias, romlis mixedviTac ikrZalebodaqrTamis micema ucxoeli sajaro pirebisaTvis. daniam momdevnowlebSic gaagrZela am mxriv TanamSromloba da 2003 wels xeli moaweragaeros konvencias, romelic iTvaliswinebda rogorc aqtiur, ise1 www.coe.int/t/dghl/monitoring/greco/evaluations/round1/GrecoRC1(2004)10–Add–Denmark–EN.pdf305


skandinavistikapasiur korufciaSi (am SemTxveveSi nagulisxmebia meqrTameoba) braldebulipirebis dasjas. Sedegad is sajaro moxele, romelic aiRebdaqrTams, Seefardeboda patimroba 6 wlis vadiT, xolo Tavad im pirs, romelicmas qrTams SesTavazebda 18 Tvemde Tavisuflebis aRkveTas ufardebdnen.1zemoT ganxiluli konvenciebi, mxolod erTi sakiTxis garSemokoncentrirdeba, Tumca, ra Tqma unda, daniis antikorufciulipolitika mxolod amiT ar Semoifargleba. korufcias aqtiurad dasakmaod Sedegianad ebrZvis daniis sagareo saqmeTa saministros SigniTSeqmnili `daniuri saerTaSoriso ganviTarebis saagento~-danida (DanishInternational Development Agency -DANIDA), romelmac 2003 wels SeimuSavada 2004 wels aamoqmeda korufciasTan brZolis samoqmedo gegma dagamoacxada Seuwynarebeli politika (Zero Tolerance Policy) mis mimarT.aseve, danidam Seqmna antikorufciuli cxeli xazi, romlis meSveobiTacadamianebs SeuZliaT maT acnobon korufciuli qmedebis Sesaxeb. 2samoqmedo gegma moicavs antikorufciul politikas yvela imstruqturis mimarT, romelic daniis ganviTarebas uSlis xels,rogorc ekonomikur, ise socialur da politikur doneze. danidawlebis ganmavlobaSi mxars uWerda antikorufciul qmedebebs da nebismiermcdelobas, romelic mimarTuli iyo mTavrobis gasaumjobeseblad.miCneulia, rom am samoqmedo gegmis meSveobiT, daniis mTavrobaufro gaaZlierebs antikorufciul saqmianobas da ganaxorcielebs sistematurmonitorings sxvadasxva struqturebze.samoqmedo gegmis mixedviT, daniaSi korufciul saqmianobad iTvlebameqrTameoba, razec naSromis dasawyisSi gavamaxvile yuradReba.korufciul saqmianobas miekuTvneba aseve fulis xelze micemac, sxvisiqonebis miTviseba da gaflangva, TaRliToba, gamoZalva, klientelisturiurTierTobebi da nepotizmi. aqve aRsaniSnavia erTi faqti, romdanielebi sakuTari antikorufciuli politikis ganxilvisas ar asaxelebensakuTar qveyanaSi momxdar faqtebs. zemoT CamoTvlilidanaSaulebis axsnisas isini sxva qveynebis magaliTebs eyrdnobian. esor rameze metyvelebs: daniaSi an marTla ar xdeba korufciuliqmedebebi, rac naklebad sarwmunoa, an xdeba, magram Zalian umniSvnelodoneze da isini ar aRwevs farTo masStabebs. Sesabamisad, Cems naSromSiyuradRebas gavamaxvileb ara faqtebze, aramed im saSualebebze, romlismeSveobiTac SeiZleba korufciis Tavidan acileba.1 Anti-corruption Policy For The Trade Council of Demark. www.um.dk2 http://www.um.dk/en/menu/DevelopmentPolicy/AntiCorruption/306


skandinavistikasamoqmedo gegma gansakuTrebul yuradRebas amaxvilebs imaze, romkorufcia, erTi mxriv, safrTxes uqmnis sainvesticio garemos, riTaczaraldeba qveynis ekonomika da, Sesabamisad, ferxdeba misi ganviTareba.korufcia moqmedebs globalur ekonomikaSi integraciis xarisxzec,igi arRvevs instituciur stabilurobas. es aris korufciis Sedegebimakro doneze, xolo mikro doneze zaraldeba qveynis mosaxleoba; warmoiqmnebamcirericxovani mdidari da mravalricxovani Raribi fena, eski sabolood warmoSobs kriziss saxelmwifos yvela struqturaSi. 1korufcias uamravi negatiuri efeqtis motana SeuZlia daniaSi, ker-Zod ki es iqneba Semcirebuli investiciebi da ucxouri kapitalis nakleboba.korufcia gamoiwvevs imasac, rom daniaSi ekonomikuri saqmianobaformaluri seqtoridan araformaluris daqvemdebarebaSi gadavada, Sesabamisad, gaizrdeba Crdilovani ekonomikis xvedriTi wili. yovelivees ki Sedegad moitans fulis gaufasurebas da ekonomikuri arastabilurobisSeqmnas. meore mxriv, korufcia daazianebs socialur seqtors:Sesustdeba socialuri da sajaro sfero, gauaresdeba infrastruqtura,Semcirdeba samuSao adgilebis raodenoba. sabolood ki korufciisgamo safrTxe Seeqmneba qveynis arsebobas, radganac kanonisadmidaumorCilebloba, ekonomikuri da socialuri sferos arastabilurobagamoiwvevs politikuri legitimurobis kriziss da SesaZloa,Cemi azriT, saqme politikur gadatrialebamde mivides.rogorc vnaxeT, daniaSi korufciis donis gazrda avtomaturadiwvevs qveynis dasustebas yvelanairi TvalsazrisiT, amitom gasakviriaraa, rom danielebisaTvis yvelaze prioritetuli korufciasTanbrZolaa da es Rrmad aris gamjdari da gaTviTcnobierebuli maT fsiqologiaSi.samoqmedo gegmis mixedviT, yvelafris Tavidan acileba SesaZlebeliaTu krizisis dadgomisTanave ganxorcieldeba Sesabamisi reformebi:• instituciuri reformebi, romlebic gamoiwvevs kanonebisa daprocedurebis gamartivebas, sisufTaves; gazrdis gamWvirvalobas dagaaumjobesebs angariSvaldebulebisa da pasuxismgeblobis sakiTxs.• reformebi, romlebic miznad daisaxavs Seiqmnas ufro kritikulisub-sistemebi, vTqvaT, iuridiul sferoSi, romlis Sedegadac kanonebida regulaciebi gamkacrdeba, xolo arakanonier saqcielze sistematuridakvirveba da reagireba moxdeba.1 Annual Anti-Corruption Report 2004. Implementation of the Danida Anti-Corruption ActionPlan 2003-2008.307


skandinavistika• reformebi, romlebic ufro met Tavisuflebasa da ukeTes pirobebsmianiWebs masmedias, iseve rogorc samoqalaqo sazogadoebas far-To gagebiT, rac umTavresi pirobaa, gaumjobesdes mTavrobis da korufciisSemcirebis. aseve samoqalaqo sazogadoebas Zalian didi mniSvnelobaeniWeba, radganac igi, erTgvarad, saxelmwifos makontrolebelfunqcias flobs.• politikuri valdebulebebi, romlebic mTavrobis maRali eSelonebidanmomdinareobs. kerZod, aq moiazreba parlamenti da parlamentarebi,romlebic mniSvnelovan rols TamaSoben gamWvirvalobisdamkvidrebaSi da partiul doneze ebrZvian korufcias.• reformebi, romlis mixedviTac kerZo seqtori iTamaSebs mniSvnelovanrols korufciis winaaRmdeg brZolaSi.mokled rom vTqvaT, Cemi azriT, daniaSi korufciis winaaRmdegbrZola sam ZiriTad aspeqtzea damokidebuli: karg mTavrobaze, romelicadamianis uflebebs icavs, demokratizaciaze da aqtiur monawileobazeanu qmediT samoqalaqo sazogadoebaze.samoqmedo gegmaSi yuradReba gamaxvilebulia siRaribeze. masSi xazgasmiTaanaTqvami, rom maTi ZiriTadi mizania daniaSi korufciis da, Sesabamisad,siRaribis Semcireba, radganac pirdapiri kavSiria korufciasada siRaribes Soris. siRaribis armofxvra ki Tavismxriv saxelmwifosmxridan gamoyofili TanxebiT, daxmarebebiTa da investiciebiTaaSesaZlebeli. swored aqedan gamomdinareobs samoqmedo gegmisstruqturac.samoqmedo gegma sami donisgan Sedgeba: pirveli done moicavs rekomendaciebsada regulaciebs Tavad daniis mier gamoyofilidaxmarebis miwodebis Sesaxeb. anu am doneze mniSvnelovania, rom aRikveToskorufcia Tavad daxmarebis gamoyofis sistemaSi. aq yuradRebagamaxvilebulia profesionalur eTikaze da eTikur kodebze, radganacswored misi meSveobiT xdeba antikorufciuli msoflmxedvelobis Camoyalibeba.danidasa da mis mier dafuZnebuli programebis farglebSimomuSave pirebs utardebaT specialuri treningebi, sadac xdeba antikorufciuliunar-Cvevebis aTviseba.meore doneze ganxilulia danidas partniorTa sistema da maTi menejmentianu is Tu rogor anawileben isini danidas mier gamoyofildaxmarebas. es gulisxmobs maT monitorings, raTa aRkveTon korufciaTanxebis ganawilebis sferoSi. am donis farglebSi xdeba auditoruliprocedurebisa da garkveuli sanqciebis SemoReba ara marto qveynisSigniT, aramed im qveynebisTvisac, romlebic am Tanxebs iRebs. yovelive308


skandinavistikaamis gakontroleba ki xdeba Riaobis principis damkvidrebiT. maTisaqmianobaze dakvirveba Tavisuflad SeuZlia masmedias, samoqalaqosazogadoebas da sxva institutebs.mesame doneSi ganxilulia farTo masStabebis moqmedebebi, kerZodigi exeba partnior qveynebsa da sazogadoebebs, romlebic iReben danidasdaxmarebas, raTa aRkveTon korufcia sakuTar qveyanaSi. amdoneze maqsimalurad iTvaliswineben am qveynebis mdgomareobas, maTinteresebs da antikorufciuli qmedebebi xSirad politikuri mxardaWeriTacsargeblobs. aseve, partnior qveynebs saSualeba eZlevamTlianad CaerTos am saqmianobaSi. amasTan, aRsaniSnavia isic, romucvleli rCeba gamWvirvalobis principis dacva.es gaxlavT is principebi, romelsac eyrdnobian danielebi, raTaSeamciron korufcia sakuTar qveyanaSi da, rogorc vxedavT, maTi moRvaweobasakmaod Sedegiania. TiTqos samoqmedo gegmaSi ganxiluli miznebiarc ise rTuli Sesasrulebelia da arc saSualebebi moicavs raimesirTules, magram es ase araa. marTalia, am principebis damkvidrebas isuwyobs xels, rom daniaSi arsebobda sakmaod kargi niadagi imisaTvis,raTa sazogadoebas mTavrobis mier arCeuli kursi uproblemod mieRo,rac wlebis ganmavlobaSi nel-nela yalibdeboda ukve arsebuli mwaregamocdilebis safuZvelze, kerZod ki XIX saukuneSi arsebuli sayovel-Tao ganukiTxaobis fonze. daniis upiratesoba swored imaSia, rom maskorufciasTan brZolis sakmaod didi istoria aqvs. gasaTvaliswinebeliaisic, rom korufcia TavisTavad ramdenime welSi ar aRmofxvrila.mas dasWirda sakmaod didi dro, mTavrobis keTili neba, sakuTar qveyanazezrunva da swori ideologiuri da politikuri kursis gatareba. esaris is saSualebebi, rac mTavrobis doneze arsebobs, xolo sazogadoebisdoneze es aris eTnofsiqologia da tradiciebi. daniaSic arsebobdafarTod gavrcelebuli nepotizmi, meqrTameoba, magram wlebis Semdegdanielebi darwmundnen, rom amas ufro meti uaryofiTi Sedegi mohqonda,vidre dadebiTi. swored es daexmara maT antikorufciuli msoflmxedvelobisCamoyalibebaSi.dania ar iZleva pirdapir rekomendaciebs im qveynebisTvis, romel-Sic korufciis maRali done arsebobs. maTi umTavresi rekomendaciaaris Riaobis principis dacva, gamWvirvaloba, qveynis siyvaruli da imazezrunva, rom nel-nela sazogadoebis fsiqologia Seicvalos da, rogorcvxedavT, es SesaZlebelia, Tumca ara danakargebisa da gansacdelisgareSe. yovelive es ki imis patara imeds mainc iZleva, rom odesmesaqarTveloSic Seicvleba am kuTxiT mdgomareoba saTanado politikisgatarebis Sedegad.309


skandinavistikagamoyenebuli literatura:1. qeTevan rostiaSvili:`politikuri korufcia msoflios kontinentebze~,Tbilisi, 2007 weli, gv. 15.2. Transparency International, Global Corruption Reports.http://www.transparency.org3. Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Denmark, http://www.um.dk4. http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/DANIDA5. www.coe.int/t/dghl/monitoring/greco/evaluations/round1/GrecoRC1(2004)10–Add–Denmark–EN.pdf6. Anti-Corruption Policy for the Trade Council of Denmarkwww.um.dk/en/menu/DevelopmentPolicy/AntiCorruption/7. Ministry of Foreign Affirs of Denmark - Annual Anti-corruption Report 2004 –Implementation of the Danida Anti Corruption Action Plan 2003-2008 .310


skandinavistikanino nucubiZeivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisissaxelmwifo universiteti, bakalavriatis studentinorvegiis qalTa moZraobis istoriaxelmZRvaneli: Tamar kviJinaZenorvegiel qalTa moZraoba mravalferovania Tavisi araerTgvarovanimobilizaciiT, strategiiTa da problemebiT . qalebi ibrZvian ra-Ta gaumklavdnen moZraobis SigniT arsebul daZabulobasa da gaurkvevlobas,romelic araorganizebul qmedebebsa da moZraobis SigniT arsebuliqalTa jgufebis cvalebad, xSirad urTierTgamomricxav moTxovnebSigamoixateba .norvegiel qalTa moZraobis istoriaSi or gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovantalRas gamoyofen, romelic 1970 da 1980 wlebSi piks aRwevs.norvegiaSi feminizmis pirveli talRis yvelaze mniSvnelovani sakiTxebis(rogoricaa seqsualuri morali, saarCevno xma, ganaTleba da samu-Sao) rakursi icvleboda klasisa da samoqalaqo mdgomareobis mixedviT.saSualo klasis gauTxovarma qalebma TandaTan legaluri umravlesobaSeadgines da 1845 wlidan vaWrobis ufleba moiopoves, xoloSemdeg ganaTlebis ufleba moiTxoves, raTa Sesaferisi samuSao da SemosavalihqonodaT. universitetis kari qalebisTvis gaiRo 1845 wlidan,xolo ofisSi muSaobis ufleba 1912 wlidan miecaT. saSualo klasisqalebma qorwinebaSi yofna gaaprotestes qalurobis is viwro gageba,romlis msxverpladac Tavad grZnobdnen Tavs da qorwineba prostituciiserT-erT saxed gamoacxades. muSaTa klasis qalebs uwevdaT iseTproblemebTan gamklaveba, rogoric iyo grZeli samuSao dRe, dabalixelfasi da mZime sacxovrebeli pirobebi. bevri maTgani iZulebuli iyoprostituciiT erCina Tavi. seqsualuri gziT gadamdebi daavadebebiyvelasTvis, miuxedavad klasobrivi kuTvnilebisa, erTnairad seriozulproblemas warmoadgenda. norvegia iyo meoTxe qveyana, sadac qalebs1913 wels universaluri franCaizi (mTavrobis mier miniWebuliarCevnebSi monawileobis formaluri ufleba) mieniWaT. es SesaZlebeligaxda mas Semdeg, rac 1905 wels TiTqmis naxevarma milionma qalma moaweraxeli norvegiis SvedeTisgan damoukideblobis peticias, rac imavdrouladmaTi referendumidan gamoricxvis winaaRmdeg mimarTuliprotestic iyo.311


skandinavistikaamila koleti, romelsac norvegiel qalTa moZraobis dedad miiCneven,Tavis naSromebSi mwvaved akritikebs qalis rols siyvarulsa daqorwinebaSi. asTa hansTeeni, romelic cnobilia, rogorc didi feministiSeubraleblad amaTraxebda eklesias, Tumca TviTon qristiani gaxldaT.kati anker moleri icavda qalTa socialur uflebebs da iyomSromel qalTa moZraobis mTavari figura. 1915 wels misi ZalisxmeviTbavSvebma, maTi mSoblebis klasobrivi mdgomareobisagan damoukideblad,Tanaswori uflebebi moipoves. man aseve sajarod dasva abortissakiTxi Semdegi gancxadebis safuZvelze: `Cven gvsurs dedoba, magramsrul Tavisuflebasa da sakuTari pasuxismgeblobis qveS.~ 1924 welsmolerma Seqmna pirveli dedaTa janmrTelobis centri, sadac isini informaciaskontracefciisa da sxva reproduqciuli sakiTxebis irgvliviRebdnen.1920 ian wlebSi klasobrivi konfliqti gamwvavda. muSaTa klasiswarmomadgenelma qalebma Camoayalibes diasaxlisTa sazogadoebebisfederacia, romelic ZiriTadad TavianTi mamakacebis mxardaWeras gulisxmobdada qalTa uflebebis sakiTxebi ar dausvamT. miuxedavad amisa,1918-sa da 1927 wels, skandinaviuri saojaxo komisiis muSaobis SedegadkanonSi qorwinebis Sesaxeb liberaluri reformebi gatarda.1940-45 wlebi norvegiis istoriis bneli furclebia. 1940 wels germanelinacistebi norvegias warmatebiT ipyroben. gaognebuli xalxiTandaTan qmnis winaaRmdegobis moZraobas, romelic tradiciul genderulstruqturad efuZneba. qalebi ZiriTadad kurierebisa da aralegaluripresis gamanawileblebis da asistentebsi rolebs asruleben gardaamisa, xalxs nacistebisgan gaqcevaSi exmarebian.omis Semdegi periodi ganaxlebisa da optimisturi aRmSeneblobisxana iyo. es ganwyoba qalTa sakiTxebsac Seexo. 1948 wels qalTa saerTa-Soriso demokratiul federaciasTan Seiqmna norvegiel qalTa asociacia,aseve daarsda axali feministuri Jurnali.1950-iani wlebi aRiniSna, rogorc diasaxlisebis periodi. Seiqmnasxvadasxva ideologiuri meqanizmebi, raTa qalebisTvis `SeexsenebinaT“TavianTi WeSmariti adgili. 1950-iani wlebi aRmavlobis periodad iTvleba,radgan moZraobam Rirseuli winaaRmdegoba gauwia `qalis adgilis“cnebas. es periodi materialuri gamarjvebiTac aRiniSna: 1958 welsmiiRes Tanabari anazRaurebis principi, xolo sagadasaxado sistemaSidaqorwinebul wyvilTaTvis Sesustda mamakac marCenalTa sistema.feminizmis axali talRa ori mniSvnelovani movleniT aRiniSna: pirveliiyo saerTo erovnuli da zepartiuli kampania politikaSi qalTawarmomadgenlobis gazrdis Sesaxeb. kampaniam mniSvnelovani roli Seas-312


skandinavistikarula. amJamad umetes politikur institutebSi qalTa proporciuliraodenoba kritikul masas (30 %) aRemateba. feminizmis axali talRismeore mniSvnelovani movlenaa ZuZuTi kvebis mxardamWeri jgufi, romelic1968 wels elizabet helsinma Camoayaliba, raTa SeeCerebina dedebismier xelovnuri kvebisTvis upiratesobis miniWebis tendencia.1970-iani wlebi norvegiaSi aRsaniSnavia imiT, rom sagrZnoblad gaizardaim jgufebis, qselebisa da organizaciebis raodenoba, romlebicaxleburad gamoxatavdnen feministur ideebs. mocemul periodSi, qal-Ta moZraobisTvis damaxasiaTebeli iyo gacxovelebuli ideologiuridisputebi qalTa Cagvrisa da mis winaaRmdeg brZolis gzebis Sesaxeb.ufro praqtikul doneze, qalTa sakiTxebi ar iyo klasebis mixedviT imdenaddayofili, rogorc wina talRis dros. diasaxlisTa ideologiamgza gauxsna axal, genderuli Tanasworobis idealebs. qalebi moiTxovdnensabavSvo dawesebulebebiT uzrunvelyofas, eqvssaaTian samuSaodRes, Tanaswor anazRaurebas da reproduqciul uflebebs. im periodSiCasaxvis sawinaaRmdego abebis gamoyenebam seqsualuri revoluciis gancdadabada; qalebma daarRvies siCume, romelic maTi seqsualobis irgvlivsufevda miuxedavad imisa, rogoric ar unda yofiliyo igi — heteroTu homo. am dros, SeZlebuli qalebi abortis gasakeTebladsazRvargareT dadiodnen. miuxedavad Zlieri winaaRmdegobisa, 1978wels dauSves aborti moTxovnisda mixedviT. rac Seexeba sabavSvo dawesebulebs,am mxriv norvegiis mTavroba mniSvnelovnad CamorCeboda SvedeTsada danias. ase rom, qalebs uwevdaT Tavad epovaT gamosavali, racsamuSao drois naxevar ganakveTsa da bavSvebisTvis kerZo momvlelisdaqiravebaSi mdgomareobda. eqvssaTiani samuSao dRis moTxovna ar Sesrulda,samagierod 1990-iani wlebisTvis SemoieRes reforma, romlismixedviT mSoblebs miecaT Semoklebuli grafikis ufleba, TormetiTvis dekretuli Svebuleba anazRaurebis 80 %-iT da qmediTi zewolamamebze bavSvis aRzrdaSi monawileobis TvalsazrisiT.90-ian wlebSi dRis wesrigSi dadga qalis sxeulis seqsualizacias-Tan dakavSirebuli problemebi. qalaqebSi momravlda Ramis saxlebi,ufro Riad vrceldeboda msubuqi pornografia da qalis sxeuli gasar-Tobi industriis obieqtad iqca. am viTarebaSi aseve mniSvnelovan rolsasrulebda saerTaSoriso movlenebi: sabWoTa imperiis daSlam da ekonomikurmaliberalizma kidev ufro gaadvila qalTa trefikingi da ma-Ti, rogorc iafi muSaxelis gamoyeneba.norvegiis qalTa moZraoba da qalTa kvleva erTi da igive socialurisituaciebidan warmoiSva 1970-iani wlebis dasawyisSi. isini SeiZlebaganvixiloT, rogorc feministuri protestis gamoxatvis msgavsi for-313


skandinavistikamebi. orive maTganisTvis Tavisufleba da sajarooba erT miznad erTiandeba.qalTa kvlevebma mravali siZnele gadaitana. ZiriTadad maT gasaqanieZleoda mediaSi da, zogadad, sazogadoebaSi, vidre akademiur dawesebulebebSi.saxelmwifo xalisiT afinansebda kvlevas, radgan qal politikosebsada demokratebs esaWiroebodaT feministuri kvleva genderuliTanasworobis politikis sawarmoeblad.TandaTan qalTa moZraoba da qalTa kvlevebi gaimijna rogorc personalur,aseve institucionalur doneze. norvegiuli feminizmi, kargiaes Tu cudi, ganviTarda qalTa masirebuli ZalisxmeviT, romlebmacyvela sferoSi avtonomiuri moZraoba Seqmnes.314


skandinavistikanino forCxiZeivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisissaxelmwifo universiteti, bakalavriatis studentipirovnebis ganviTarebis gza (s. kirkegori)xelmZRvaneli: profesori frude hermudsgordigamoCenili danieli filosfosi, Teologi da moralisti soren kirkegori(1813-1855) TiTqmis erTi saukuniTaris daSorebuli XX saukunisegzistencializmisagan, magram Tavisi sulieri wyobiT da filosofiuribroblematikiT imdenad axlos dgas masTan, rom dRes mas egzistencializmissulier mamad miiCneven.XX saukuneSi, atomis, teqnikisa da civilizaciis epoqaSi, adamianisyofis specifikis Seswavla udides problemad iqca. aqtualuri gaxdasokrates fraza: `Seican Tavi Seni!~ da Sesabamisad popularuli egzistencializmi.adamianis problema mTeli simZafriTa da interesiT dasvasoren kirkegorma. mis Sexedulebebze didi zegavlena moaxdina Tvi-Ton misma pirovnebam. igi gaJRenTili iyo ukiduresi pesimizmiT, martoobisada sasowarkveTilebis mZafri gancdiT. cxovrebis araraobisdasasabuTeblad igi ambobs: `sikvdilis ubedureba ar unda gvaSinebdes,vinaidan CvenTvis ukve nacnobia masze didi ubedureba — cxovrebis ubedureba.~mis amgvar pesimizms xSirad imasac miaweren, rom igi morwmune mamismkacri reJimiT aRizarda da misi atmosfero gaJRenTili iyo codvis,danaSaulisa da RvTis SiSiT.kirkegoris mizani iyo erTeuli adamianis gadarCena romelime zogadobaSidakargvisagan. misi azriT, erTeuli adamiani, individi, misi yofierebada Rirebuleba unda dadges filosofiis kvelevis centrSi.kirkegori mkveTrad ganasxvavebs adamianTa sulieri ganviTarebissam ZiriTad safexurs: esTetikurs, eTikurs da religiurs. igi sayvedurobsTavisi epoqis adamienebs, rom ver miaRwies namdvil yofierebas daver gascdnen cxovrebis esTetikur wess, rom individebs jer kidev araaqvT napovni sakuTari Tavi da ar cxovroben Tavisi arsebis Sesabamisad.kirkegori Tavis naSromSi `an-an~ (sadac ganxilulia esTetikuri daeTikuri safexurebi) saubrobs imis Sesaxeb, rom adamianis WeSmaritiyofierebisa da bednierebisaTvis udidesi mniSvneloba aqvs `arCevanis~moxdenas. is mTeli Tavisi filosofiuri sistemiT cdilobs daarwmunosadamianebi, rom gaakeTon arCevani — `an erTi, an meore~. adamianma315


skandinavistikaunda moaxdinos arCeva or rames Soris: cxovrebis esTetikur da eTikurwess Soris. misi azriT mazea damokidebuli adamianis WeSmariti bedniereba:`Sen SesaZloa moipovo mTeli qveyana, magram dakargav sakuTar Tavsada suls, Tu mxedvelobidan gamogrCeba umTavresi — sakuTari Tavis ar-Ceva.~adamianTa cxovrebis esTetikuri wesi, kirkegoris azriT, imiT xasiaTdeba,rom misi gavlenis qveS myofi adamianebi emorCilebian mxoloderTaderT mizans — siamovnebis miRebas, xolo siamovnebis sagani mudmivadadamianis gareTaa, e.i. adamiani eyrdnoba mis gareT raime ararsebuls.aseTi adamiani eqscentriulia, mas jer kidev ar aqvs Tavisi TaviSeZenili, xolo cxovrebis eTikur wess damorCilebuli adamiani eyrdnobaara raime gareSe sagan, aramed mas Tavisi safuZveli sakuTar TavSiveaqvs. eTikuri sawyisi qmnis swored adamians imad, rac aris. eTikuri cxovrebiswesis mqone adamiani Tavissave pirovnebaSi Seicavs sayrden wertilsda amis meSveobiT igi sruliad gawonasworebulia.esTetikurisagan gansxvavebiT eTikuri cxovrebis wesis mqone adamianisiamovnebis mona ki araa, aramed arCevanis moxdenis ZaliT igi am siamovnebiswuTebze maRla dgas. swored arCevani aqcevs adamians Tavisiganwyobilebis da vnebis batonad. kirkegori Sorsaa im azrisgan, rom siamovnebasasketurad ki ar CavuketoT kari, aramed arCevaniT unda avir-CioT ufro maRali mdgomareoba. aseTi arCevani amSvidebs da amaRlebssuls, zrdis sakuTari Rirsebis Segnebas. aseT dros adamiani Wvrets Tavismaradiul Zalas, aseT wuTebSi adamiani iRebs zevidan raRac keTil-Sobilur biZgs, romlis meSveobiTac igi maradiulobis Rirsi xdeba.adamianTa cxovrebis esTetikur wess damorCilebuli pirovnebisyofna, ra saxiTac unda iyos igi, Tavisi arsebis mixedviT sasowarkveTilebaSiyofnaa fiqrobs kirkegori. yoveli adamianis cxovrebaSi dgebamomenti, rodesac cxovrebisadmi misi damokidebulebis uSualoba, kargavsTavis cxovrebiseul mniSvnelobas. am dros adamianis suli cdilobsTavis Tavis gamomJRavnebas, Segnebuli, gacnobierebuli yofnisumaRlesi formiT igi eswrafvis Semecnebas Tavis maradiul mniSvnelobaSida ara mxolod miwierSi. aseT dros adamiani xSirad aRmoCndebaxolme melanqoliaSi, xolo melanqoliiT Sepyroblima admianma ar icismizezi Tavis melanqoliisa da swored am amouxsnelobaSia melanqoliisZala da dausrulebloba. aseT dros adgili ar aqvs Segnebul nebas. igiadvilad imorCilebs axalgazrda Taobebs, romlebmac jer kidev ar ician`arCevanis~ fasi da mniSvneloba, romelTac jer kidev ar upovniaTsakuTari Tavi. visac gavlili ar aqvs WeSmariti sasowarkveTilebis sim-316


skandinavistikaware, ar SeuZlia Cawvdes cxovrebis WeSmarit azrs da arss.adamiani WeSmaritebas, rom Cawvdes sasowarkveTisa da daeWvebisetapebi unda gadalaxos: sasowarkveTileba ipyrobs adamianur pirovnebas,xolo eWvi — mxolod azrovnebis sferos.kirkegoris Tanaxmad, esTetikuri cxovrebis wesis mimdevarma undamoaxdinos `arCevani~. es asarCevi aris TviTon adamiani, misi `me~, romelicabsoluturia imdenad, ramdenadac arCeva absoluturia. mainc raaris adamianis es`me~, adamianis `TviTonoba~? aq kirkegori iZleva debulebas,romelic erT-erT fundamentur debulbad iqca saerTod egzistencializmSi.igi aris yvelaze abstraqtuli da, amasTanave, yvelazekonkretuli — Tavisufleba.`me~, `TviTonoba~ adamianisTvis usakuTresia. erTi individi SeiZlebanatrobdes meore idividis raime Tvisebas, magaliTad: Wkuas, talants,nebisyofas da a.S. magram igi arasodes ifiqrebs sxva admianad iqces,dakargos da daTmos Tavisi `me~. arCevis dros arCeuli `me~ yvelazekonkretulia. oRond arCevanis Semdeg adamiani ar unda SeCerdes, arunda gaerTos sakuTari Tavis aRmoCenis siamovnebiT da ar unda daemar-Tos narcicizmi, aramed arCevis Sedegad samyarodan adamianis sruliTviTgamoyofa unda mivides isev samyaromde, rogorc adamianis igiveobrivamde.swored aRniSnuli garemoebis gamo, kirkegori gamoTqmas:`Seican Tavi Seni!~ amjobinebs gamoTqmas: `adamiano, airCie Tavi Seni!~rogorc vnaxeT `an-anSi~ kirkegori cxovrebaze esTetikur da eTikurTvalsazrisebs Soris alternatiul arCevanze idga; religiuriTavlsazrisi calke safexurad ar gamoiyofoda. sasowarkveTilebisa damonaniebis saxiT kirkegors religiuroba warmoudgeboda, rogorceTikuri arCevanis aucilebeli piroba. eTikuri safexuri mas esmodaara rogorc mxolod individualurisa da `zogadadamianuris~ erTianoba,aaramed rogorc agreTve individualuris erTianoba RmerTTan,absolutTan.RmerTisagan individis gamoyofa, izolacia kiregors esmis rogorccodviT dacema. `RmerTo, amao soflis saganTa xilvis unari vinZlowagvarTva da mogvca Tavlni naTlad mxedvelni, WeSmaritebis SenismWvretelni~ — wers kirkegori.codviT dacema, pirveli codva, misi azriT, aris individis mier ganxorcielebuliTvisebrivi naxtomi sikeTidan borotebisaken, esaa nabijiRmerTidan eSmakisaken. codviT dacema, kirkegoris mixedviT, adamianisTavisuflebis produqtia, misi pirveli da uSualo gamovlinebaa imTavisuflebisa, romelic Tavad RmerTma uboZa adamians, romliTacRmerTma daajildova kacTa modgma. magram amis gamo RmerTs ki ar unda317


skandinavistikadavemduroT, aramed — sakuTar Tavs. Cevn mxolod madloba gveTqmisRmerTisadmi, rom Tvisufal arsad Segvqmna, rom gadagviSala usasruloSesaZleblobani, perspeqtivebi... da Cevn Tavs unda davemduroT imis gamo,rom borotad gamoviyeneT Tavisufleba da vcodeT. codviT dacemiT adamianigamoeyo da daupirispida RmerTs.kirkegoris mixedviT, yoveli adamiani, individi tvirTulobs pasuxismgeblobasara marto sakuTari codvisaTvis, aramed Tavisi winaprebisa dasablood am pirvelcodvisaTvis, romelSic igi nebiT, Tu uneblied monawileobsTavisi arsebobis faqtiT, Tavisi RmerTisagan mowyvetili yofniT.damiani, kikegoris Tanaxmad, aris sulisa da sxeulis sinTezi. am oriserTianoba, sinTezi xorcieldeba mesameSi — gonSi, rac adamianis arsobriviganmasxvavebeli niSania yvela sxva arsebulTagan. magram ucodveloba-Si, adamiani araa gansazRvruli, rogorc goni. am dros adamianSi goniTvlems. adamianisTvis ucnobia gansxvaveba sikeTesa da borotebas Soris.esaa mSvidobisa da simSvidis xana, kacobriobis bavSvobis periodi, warmar-Toba. magram es mSvidoba mainc araa myari, adamiani araa bunebasTan, garesamyarosTansrul harmoniaSi, rogorc axasiaTeben Cveulebriv warmar-Tobas, antikurobas. upiveles yovlisa, kirkegoris azriT, adamiani araaTavis TavTan TanxmobaSi, warmarTuli adamiani araa harmoniuli. adamian-Si mTvlemare goni Tavis zmanebebSi qmnis sakuTar sinamdviles, magram esjer kidev araa namdvili sinamdvile, igi araraa; am araras ucodvelobamudam Tavis garSemo xedavs da igi masSi iwvevs Zrwolas. SiSisagan gansxvavebiT,romelsac Tavisi mizezi mudam raRac gansazRvrulSi aqvs, gaurkvevliararasadmi Zrwolas kirkegori specifikurad adamianisaTvis damaxasiaTebelTvisebad miiCnevs, adamianisa, rogorc goniT gansazRvruliarsebisa.kirkegoris azriT, Zrwolis gamomwvevi araras saxeli warmarTobaSisxva arferia, Tu ara bediswera. bedisweras is axasiaTebs gareganobisada gardauvalobis niSnebiT. bedisweris TvaliT mzirali warmarTisaTvisucnobia pirovnuli braleuloba, pirovnuli codva. warmaTobisaTvissaerTod ucnobia absoluturi gansxvaveba sikeTesa da borotebasSoris. maT Soris am gansxvavebas pirvelad adgens qristianoba. kirkegoriTvlis, rom qristianobas codva esmis ara gvarovnulad, interindividualurad,aramed pirovnulad, individualurad. codavs ara gvari,ara zogadi, aramed — individi, pirovneba da Tavisi am saqcielisaTvispasuxismgeblobasac individi, calkeuli pirovneba kisrulobs. da, rogorciTqva, individi kisrulobs pasuxismgeblobas ara marto Tavisipiradi danaSaulisaTvis, aramed Tavisi winaprebis codvisTvisac im318


skandinavistikapirvelcodvis CaTvliT.kirkegoris mixedviT, swored codvis gvarovnul gagebas, individualuricodvis ararsebobas, Tu gaucnobiereblobas Seesatyviseba sxeuliskulti warmarTobaSi. sxeuli, grZnobadoba warmarTobaSi esTetikurifenomenia, sruli dadebiTobaa maSin, rodesac qristianobaSi igiRmerTis sapirispiro demonur sawyisadaa miCneuli. sulisa da sxeuliswarmarTuli harmonia icvleba disharmoniiT. warmarTul da qristianulgrZnobaadobas Soris gansxvaveba naTlad Cans erosisa da don-JuanissaxeSi. warmarTuli erosi RmerTia, codviT dacemis Semdgomdroindelidon-Juani ki eSmaki. warmarTobisaTvis erotiuli RvTaebrivia,qristianobisTvis ki — eSmakeuli. erosi ganasaxierebs sulier siyvaruls,don-Juani ki — xorciels. erosi upirovno Zalaa, zogadi kosmiurisawyisia, don-Juani ki personaluri Zalaa da misi erotika mxolodpiradulia.erosisa da don-Juanis am gansxvavebas Seesatyviseba msxverplTa gansxvavebulimdgomareobac. Tu erosis msxverpl antigones sulierimdgomareobis gamoxatuleba wuxilia, don-Juanis msxverpl elvirastanjavs tkivili. warmarT antigoneebs mTeli sazogadoeba TanaugrZnobs;Tanamedrove antigones — elviras ki tanjvas veravin Seumsubuqebs,radgan aq codva pirovnulia da igi Tavad tvirTulobs pasuxismgeblobasTavis bralze. aqedanve gamomdinareobs gansxvaveba Zrwolisor saxes Soris. warmarTs aZrwunebs ucnobi, arara, bediswera, qristianski — Tavisi sakuTari codva. warmareTuli Zrwola codvis wanamZRvaria,codviT dacemis momamzadebeli, qristianuli Zrwola ki codvis Sedegi.codvis cnobierebis gamo qristianoba SviZleba ganvixiloT rogorccxovrebaze eTikuri Tvalsazrisi, sapirispirod warmarTobisa, rogorcesTetikuri safexurisa. eTikuri, rogorc codva da eTikuricnobiereba, rogorc codvis cnobiereba (igulisxmeba adamianis codva,danaSauli RmerTis mimarT da ara sxva adamianis, moyvasis mimarT, kacobriobismimarT) kirkegors am etapze esmis, rogorc sruli negatiurobada miznad isaxavs mis daZlevas religiur safexurze asamaRleblad.eTikuri axla ukve ara Tu ar erwymis, ar uigivdeba religiurs,aramed pirdapir misi sawinaaRmdegoa. codviT dacemis Sedegad, rogorciTqva, adamiani midis sikeTesa da borotebas Soris absoluturgansxvavebis aRiarebamde, RmerTisagan, rogorc sikeTisagan mowyvetisada borotebaSi, codvaSi arsebobis aRiarebamde. eTikuri kirkegors esmis,rogorc RmerTisagan adamianis mowyvetilobis cnobiereba, rogorccodvis cnobiereba, xolo ramdenadac religiuroba, rwmena gu-319


skandinavistikalisxmobs RmerTTan garkveul kavSirs, amdenad eTikuri, rogorc Rmer-Tisagan adamianis mowyvetilobis cnobiereba, rogorc codvis cnobierebareligiuris pirdapir sapirispiroa.eTikurisa da religiuris erTmaneTisgan mowyveta da maTi urTier-Tdapirispireba, ueWvelia, axali sityvaa hegelisSemdgom idealisturfilosofiaSi, magram ueWveli unda iyos isic, rom igi ar SeiZleba Sefasdes,rogorc am filosofiuri mimdinareobis mier win gadadgmulinabiji, progresi. piriqiT, maTi urTierTmowyveta da urTierTdapirispirebamoaswavebs hegelisSemdgomi filosofiisa da kulturis Rrmakrizisze, ramac RirebulebaTa gaufasurebis saxeliT — nihilizmis saxeliTiCina Tavi.gamoyenebuli literatura:1. a. popiaSvili. individis problema s. kirkegorisa da f. nicSes filosofiaSi.1988w.2. r. gordeziani. egzistencializmi da `sakuTari Tavis arCeva~ (s.kirkegori) 1972w.3. saqarTvelos mecnierebaTa akademia filosofiis instituti — XXsaukunis burJuaziuli filosofia 1970w.4. www.wikipedia.org — Soren Kierkegaard.320


skandinavistikairina vardanaSviliivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisissaxelmwifo universiteti, bakalavriatis studentireligiur SexedulebaTa ganviTarebisTaviseburebani norvegiaSixelmZRvaneli: profesori kaxaber loriareligiuri Taviseburebebi skandinaviaSi da kerZod norvegiaSi didinteress iwvevs. religiurma Sexedulebebma norvegiaSi mravali cvlilebaganicada. Zveli norvegielebis religia ganviTarda germanikulitomebis miTologiis safuZvelze. SemorCenili wyaroebi Crdilogermanikulitomebis warmarTuli Sexedulebebis Sesaxeb daiwera ukve masSemdeg, rac qristianoba gavrcelda skandinaviaSi. wyaroTa absoluturiumravlesoba XIII s-is islandiidan modis, sadac qristianobas yvelazemetad gauWirda fexis mokideba. ZiriTadi cnobebi Semonaxulia XIIIsaukuneSi Caweril poetur `ufros edaSi~, romelic Seicavs simRerebsRmerTebsa da gmirebze da prozaul `umcros edaSi~, romelic warmoadgensskalduri xelovnebis saxelmZRvanelos.samyaros modeli skandinaviur miTologiaSi Seicavs `horizontalur~da `vertikalur~ proeqciebs. horizontaluri proeqcia aris an-Tropocentruli da agebulia adamianebiT dasaxlebul aTvisebul dedamiwisSua nawils midgardsa da goliaTi iutunebiT dasaxlebul dedamiwisudabno, qvian da civ ganapira nawils Soris dapirispirebaze. eswinaaRmdegoba warmodgenilia, rogorc dapirispireba centrsa da periferias,Sidas da gares, `Tavisis~ da `sxvisis~, kulturis da bunebis dapirispirebissaxiT. amasTan, goliaTebis qveyana mdebareobs aRmosavleTSida CrdiloeTSi. skandinaviur miTologiaSi CrdiloeTi gansakuTrebiTdemonizirebulia. CrdiloeTiTaa ganTavsebuli asevemkvdarTa samefo — xeli. orive proeqciaSi figurirebs oTxi juja, romlebicatareben qveynis oTxi kuTxis saxelebs da cis kuTxeebs iWeren.edebi gvTavazoben udides informacias RmerTebis Sesaxeb. aseve maTurTierTobaze goliaTebTan, jujebTan da adamianebTan. yvelaze ZlevamosiliRmerTi iyo calTvala odini — omis, samarTlianobis, sikvdilis,sibrZnis da poeziis RmerTi. is Zalian moxerxebuli da eSmakia, magramyvelaze gonebamaxvil RmerTad cecxlis RvTaeba loki iTvleboda,romelsac bevr sargebelTan erTad RmerTebisTvis didi zianic mohqonda.yvelaze popularuli albaT mainc iyo Tori — suleli, magram amas-321


skandinavistikaTan Zalian Zlieri RmerTi. Tavisi CaquCiT, romelic jujebma gamouWedes,is icavda RmerTebs goliaTebisgan. is iyo Weqa-quxilis RmerTi daamitom mas mezRvaurebi da mogzaurebi eTayvanebodnen. aseve ZalianmniSvnelovani RvTaebani arian nayofierebis RmerTi frei da qalRmer-Ti freia.Zveli skandinavielebis rwmeniT, samyaros aRsasruli dadgebodaRmerTebsa da goliaTebs Soris ukanaskneli brZols Semdeg. cecxlSigaexveoda mTeli samyaro ganadgurdebodnen RmerTebic da adamianebic.Tumca, orive rasidan gadarCeboda sakmarisi raodenoba, romlebic dasabamsmiscemdnen axal samyaros.skandinaviis gaqristianebis procesi sakmaod didi dabrkolebebiTmimdinareobda. calkeuli adamianebis qadagebebi da maT mier moxdenilisaswaulebi ar iyo sakmarisi xalxis axali religiis WeSmaritebaSidasarwmuneblad, xalxis, romelTac Zval-rbilSi hqondaT gamjdariwarmarTuli Sexedulebebi. qriatianuli ideologia skandinavielebis-Tvis Zalian Soreuli ucxo da gaugebari iyo. aq Zalian didi roli iTamaSaxelisuflebis politikam, romelic yvela gziT cdilobda, rom aRmoefxvrada amoeZirkva warmarTuli wes-Cveulebebi. isini xocavdnen imglexebs, romlrbic uars ambobdnen monaTvlaze. eklesia yvela meTodiTcdilobda daerwmunebina axladmonaTlulebi, rom qriste ufroZlevamosili RmerTi iyo, vidre Tori da odini. maT moaxdines ZveliRmerTebis demonizacia, gadaaqcies isini arawminda Zalebad. odesRacyovlisSemZle RmerTebi iqcnen demonebad. magaliTad, odini iqca demonuriveluri nadirobis winamZRolad. eposis gmirebi gadavidnen baladebSi.RmerTebis mrisxane mowinaaRmdegeebi iotunebi iqcnen suleltrolebad zRaprebidan, daxelovnebuli cvergebi ki, Zunw gnomebad.Zveli RmerTebis zogierTi Tviseba eklesiam wmindanebs miawera da amiTmianiWa am wmindanebs is funqciebi, romlebsac adre warmarTuli Rmer-Tebi asrulebdnen. magram maSinac ki, rodesac qristianoba skandinaviurqveynebSi oficialurad aRiarebul religiad iqca da Zvelma Rmer-Tebma odinis TaosnobiT es samyaro datoves, xalxSi Semonaxul iqna Zvelitradiciebi da rwmena-warmodgenebi. aRiniSneboda nayofierebisdResaswaulebi da sruldeboda warmarTuli ritualebi an saidumlod,an qristianuli dResaswaulebiT SeniRbuli da oficialuri religiaamas verafers uxerxebda.norvegiis qristianul religiaze moqceva Cv. w. aR-iT XI s-Si daiwyo.vikingebi gaecnen qristianobas britaneTis kunZulebze da frankul samofoebzeTavdasxmebis dros. mefe haakon I, romelic inglisSi iyo aRzrdili,cdilobda norvegiaSi qristianobis damkvidrebas X s-is Sua xa-322


skandinavistikanebSi, magram is did winaaRmdegobas waawyda adgilobrivi warmarTi liderebismxridan, ramac xeli aaRebina am gadawyvetilebaze. ufro warmatebuliaRmoCnda am saqmeSi mefe olav I. man miznad daisaxa norvegiisgaqristianeba nebismier fasad. is angrevda warmarTul taZrebs, awamebdada xocavda warmarT mowinaaRmdegeebs. amiT man miaRwia, rom norvegiagaxda qristianuli, nominalurad mainc. Tumca, norvegiis gaqriastianebamainc miewereba mefe olav II-s, SemdgomSi wminda olavs. sworedmisi mefobis dros sabolood iqna norvegiaSi paganizmi damarcxebuli.qristianoba farTod gavrcelda norvegiaSi XI s-is Sua xanebSi, xolodominanturi religia gaxda XII s-is Sua xanebidan.rac Seexeba skandinaviis gaqristianebis mizezebs, aq ramdenime sakiTxsunda gaesvas xazi. yuradReba unda gavamaxviloT imaze, rom pirvelebi,vinc skandinaviaSi qristianoba miiRo iyvnen vaWrebi da meomrebi.am nabijis mizezi, savaraudoa, rom ekonomikur da politikur faqtorebSiunda veZioT. vaWrebi iRebdnen qristianobas, radgan es exmarebodaTmaT klientebTan urTierTobis damyarebaSi. sayuradReboa is faqti,rom zogierTi vaWari ramdenjerme inaTleboda. es taqtika Zalianiyo gavrcelebuli vikingebSi — isini ecnobodnen qristian vaWrebs, rogorcwarmarTebi; bunebrivia es ukanasknelni cdilobdnen maTi sulisdaxsnas da WeSmarit sarwmunoebze moqcevas. qadagebis Semdeg warmarTivaWari moinaTleboda, xolo bednieri qristiani vaWari aformebda mas-Tan saqmian xelSekrulebas da TiTqmis muqTad aZlevda sakuTar saqonels.XVI saukunemde norvegia iyo kaTolikuri da romis papis daqvemdebarebisqveS. 1536 wels daniis mefem qristian III-m gasca luTeranuli sarwmunoebismiRebis brZaneba. iqidan gamomdinare, rom im dros norvegiadaniis mmarTvelobis qveS iyo, norvegiis eklesiamac miiRo luTeranoba1539 wels. kaTolike episkoposebi da sasuliero pirebi, romlebmac uariTqves protestantizmis miRebaze, idevnebodnen. momdevno ramdenimedekadis ganmavlobaSi norvegiis zogierTma nawilma SeinarCuna kaTolikoba,magram sabolood darCenilma kaTolikeebma an protestantobamiiRes, an datoves qveyana da niderlandebSi gadaixvewnen. norvegielipastorebi ganaTlebas kopenhagenis universitetSi iRebdnen, radgannorvegiaSi im dros universiteti ar arsebobda. gavrcelebuli iyo bibliisdaniuri Targmani, daniur enaze sruldeboda sasuliero msaxurebebic.religiur ceremoniebSi daniuri enis gamoyenebam didi gavlenamoaxdina Semdeg norvegiuli enis ganviTarebaze.norvegiaSi 1814 wels miRebuli konstituaciiT ar iyo daSvebulireligiuri Tavisufleba. ebraelebs da iezuitebs ekrZalebodaT qveya-323


skandinavistikanaSi Sesvla, yvelasTvis savaldebuli iyo qristianobis luTeranulimimdinareobis aRiareba da saeklesio msaxurebebze daswreba. XIX-XX ss-Si es SezRudvebi etapobrivad moixsna. 1851 wels oficialurad moixsnaakrZalva iudaizmze da aseve daSvebuli gaxda aTeizmi. Sesabamisad 1897da 1956 wlebSi moixsna akrZalvebi ber-monazvnobasa da iezuitebze.1964 wels konstituciaSi Sevida Sesworeba, romelic religiuri Tavisuflebisgarantias iZleva qveyanaSi. gamonakliss mxolod samefo ojaxiswevrebi warmoadgenen, romlebic aucileblad luTeranuli eklesiiswevrebi unda iyvnen. amasTan, mTavrobis wevrTa naxevari mainc undaiyon oficialuri eklesiis wevrebi.rac SeexebaT sxva religiebis warmomadgenlebs norvegiaSi, isini Tavisufladmoqmedeben. eseni arian iudaistebi, musulmanebi, kaTolikebi,induistebi, budistebi, siqhebi. maTgan SegviZlia SevexoT iudaistebsda musulmanebs.sxvadasxva mizezis gamo norvegiaSi arasodes yofila bevri ebraeli.rogorc ukve vTqviT, 1951 wlamde ebraelebs ekrZalebodaT qveyanaSiSesvla. 741 norvegieli ebraeli daiRupa II msoflio omis dros nacisturiokupaciis periodSi. amJamad norvegiaSi daaxloebiT 1500 ebraeliimyofeba da maTi umravlesoba osloSi cxovrobs.islami norvegiaSi religiur umciresobebSi pirvel adgilzea mimdevarTaraodenobiT. mas aRiarebs mosaxleobis 2%. 2005 wlis monacemebiTmosaxleobis raodenoba musulmanuri beqgraundiT 120000-dan150000-mde varirebs.dRes norvegia erT-erTi yvelaze naklebad religiuri qveyanaa evropaSi.miuxedavad imisa, rom mosaxleobis 80.7% ekuTvnis saxelmwifoeklesias, mosaxleobis mxolod 3% eswreba saeklesio msaxurebas. daaxloebiT9-10% ar ekuTvnis arc erT oficialur religias, xolo 9% romelimesxva religiis wevria. 2005 wlis monacemebiT mosaxleobis mxolod36% Tvlis Tavs religiurad, rac yvelaze mcire maCvenebelia dasavlursamyaroSi.amrigad, SeiZleba iTqvas, rom religiurma Sexedulebebma norvegia-Si ganviTarebis sakmaod didi da rTuli gza gaiara. mis istoriaSi mravladaa,ra Tqma unda, warmarTuli barbarosuli wes-Cveulebebi, magramaseve misTvis ucxo araa qristianobis saxeliT Cadenili Zaladoba dabarbarosoba. Tumca, sxvadasxva mizezebis gamo, rogorc ukve aRvniSneTdRes norvegia erT-erTi yvelaze arareligiuri da erT-erTi yvelazeliberaluri qveyanaa msoflioSi.324


skandinavistikagamoyenebuli literatura:1. Andy Orchard. Dictionary of Norse Myth and Legend. Cassell, 1997.2. Ellis Davidson. Gods and Myths of Northern Europe Viking Press, 19903. http://www.ssb.no/english/subjects/07/02/10/trosamf–en/4. http://www.zum.de/whkmla/period/reformation/norref.html325


skandinavistikaTamar Tamlianiivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisissaxelmwifo universiteti, bakalavriatis studentiskandinaviis qveynebis eTnologia(norvegielebi, danielebi, Svedebi)xelmZRvaneli: profesori kaxaber lorianorvegielebinorvegielebis TviTsaxelwodebaa nordmen. isini norvegiis mosaxleobisZiriTad nawils Seadgenen. ukanaskneli monacemebiT norvegielebi5,142 mil. kacs iTvlian, romelTagan norvegiaSi 4 mil. 299 aTasicxovrobs. am eTnosis warmomadgenlebi cxovroben agreTve SvedeTSi(38 aTasi), daniasa (aTasi) da evropis sxva qveynebSi. didi raodenobiTarian norvegielebi gansaxlebulni amerikis kontinentze (aSS-Si — 620aTasamde, kanadaSi — 160 aTasze meti). 1825 wlis Semdeg aSS-sa da kanadaSiemigraciaSi erT milionamde norvegieli wavida. TviT norvegia-Si norvegielTa procentuli raodenobaa 98,5%. norvegielebis garda,qveynis CrdiloeTSi cxovroben: saamebi (loparebi) — 21 aTasi da kvenebi(norvegieli finelebi) — 20 aTasamde kaci, romlebic XVI-XVII saukuneeb-Si fineTidan migrirebulTa STamomavlebi arian. XX saukuneSi kvenebisdidi nawili norvegielTa mier asimilirebul iqnen. norvegiis samxreTaRmosavleTSiumniSvnelo raodenobiT cxovroben Svedebi.norvegias `SuaRamis mzis qveyanas~ uwodeben, radganac Crdiloe-TiT, polaruli dReebis periodSi, maisidan ivlisis bolomde mze horizontsiqiT ar Cadis. zamTarSi ki aq xangrZlivad polaruli Rameebiagabatonebuli. norvegia mTiani qveyanaa. mxolod misi mexuTedia zRvisdonidan 150 metrze dabla. qveynis miwis 72% kldovan (moSiSvlebul)da myinvar adgilebs ukavia. ixvneba miwis mxolod 4%, xolo aqamde 24%— tyea.ucnobia ra droidan movidnen germanulenovani tomebi norvegiaSi.arc isaa cnobili ax.w. I aTaswleulis bolomde norvegiel tomebs hqondaTTu ara saerTo TviTsaxelwodeba, Tumca evropel xalxebSi, magali-Tad, IX saukunis inglisur werilobiT ZeglebSi, isini aRiniSnebodnensaerTo saxelwodebiT — normanebi, e.i. `CrdiloeTis xalxebi~. maT qveyanaski uwodebdnen normanalan. saxelwodeba `normanebi~, upirveles326


skandinavistikayovlisa, norvegielTa winaprebs miekuTvnebaT, rac dasturdeba, magaliTad,Zveli rusuli "Повесть временных лет"Û-iT, romelSic `urmanebis~(e.i. normanebis — norvegielebis) gverdiT moxseniebulni arian`sviebi~ (e.i. Svedebi). am dros norvegiis mosaxleobis umetesoba SedgebodaTavisufali meTemeebisagan. isini cxovrobdnen did patriarqalurojaxebad. VIII-IX saukuneebSi norvegiis miwaze Temis SigniT qonebrividiferenciacia daiwyo. tomTa Soris omebis paralelurad sanapirozolSi mcxovrebi norvegielTa winaprebi nadavlis mosapovebladawyobdnen Tavdasxmebs jer axlo, xolo Semdeg ufro moSorebiT mcxovrebtomebsa da qveynebze, TiTqmis xmelTaSua zRvamde. xSirad aseTiTavdasxmebi teritoriuli dapyrobebiT mTavrdeboda. TavdamsxmelebsTan mihyavdaT tyveebi, romlebzedac xSirad qorwindebodnen. isini didipatriarqaluri ojaxis Tavisufal wevrebad iqceodnen. monebis didinawili kelturi warmoSobisa iyo — Sotlandiidan an irlandiidan.maT Soris iyvnen slavebi da romanuli qveynebis mcxovrebnic. norvegiisdasavleTi sanapiro raionebidan xdeboda vikingebis sazRvao laSqrobebikeltur-romaul qveynebze, ramac gamoiwvia TeTri da SavgvremanianTropologiuri tipebis Sereva. sxvaTa Soris, norvegielebi didievropeiduli rasis atlantur-baltiuri rasis baltiur tips miekuTvnebianda gamoirCevian simaRliT (gansakuTrebiT dasavleTSi).pirveli norvegiuli saxelmwifo IX saukuneSi warmoiqmna, rodesacerT-erTi tomis konungma (winamZRolma) harald I horfagrem (890-940ww.) iaraRis saSualebiT moaxdina tomTa Soris centralizebulikavSiris Seqmna. 1537 wlidan norvegia daniis provinciad iqca. 1814wels norvegielebma damfuZnebeli kreba moiwvies, damoukidebloba gamoacxadesda konstitucia miiRes. amis gamo SvedeTma norvegiasTan omigaaCaRa. es omi SvedeT-norvegiis uniiT dasrulda. norvegiam sruli damoukideblobamxolod 1905 wels moipova. norvegiidan gadmosaxlebulixalxiT dasaxlda fareris kunZulebi da islandia, romlebmac dasabamimisces adgilobriv mosaxleobas: islandiaSi — islaniel xalxs dafareris kunZulebze — farerel xalxs. maTi enisa da kulturis safuZvelswarmoadgens Zvelnorvegiuli ena da kultura.iseve rogorc mTel skandinaviaSi, norvegiaSic — vikingebis qveyana-Si mniSvnelovnad gaumjobesda samiwaTmoqmedo teqnika. sasoflosameurneokulturebidan maSin mohyavdaT qeri, Talgami, kombosto. qveyanaSiiTvisebdnen axal miwebs. did ojaxebs patara ojaxebi gamoeyofodnen,rac maT gadasaxlebas iwvevda. norvegiaSi es gadasaxlebebi mimdinareobdabaris raionebidan. axalgadasaxlebulebi iyvnen Raribi glexebi.qristianoba ZaliT gavrcelda. XI-XIII saukuneebi norvegiaSi iyo fe-327


skandinavistikaodalur urTierTobaTa damkvidrebis procesi. norvegieli glexebiarasdros ar iyvnen batonymur damokidebulebaSi, saTemo tradiciebiki norvegiulma sofelma Cvens dromdec Semoinaxa. qristianobis Semo-RebiT qveyanaSi saRvTismetyvelo (saeklesio) enad laTinuri iqca. XIIsaukuneSi damwerlobis enad gabatonebuli iyo laTinuri. XV saukuneSigaZlierda daniis kulturuli gavlena. 1536 wels, rodesac daniam ZaladobisgziT Caatara saeklesio reforma luTeranizmis formiT, daniurmaenam Secvala laTinuri da igi iqca jer oficialur saeklesio,Semdeg ki administraciul da saliteraturo enad. ekonomikurad dawinaurebulraionebSi, ufro sworad oslos olqSi, TandaTan CamoyalibdaSereuli daniur-norvegiuli metyveleba, romlis bazaze axali saliteraturonorvegiuli ena bukmoli (saxelmwifo ena) warmoiqmna, romelicsamecniero da mxatvruli literaturis enad iqna aRiarebuli.bukmoli, faqtobrivad, daniuria, gansxvaveba sakmaod mcirea am or enasSoris, kerZod gamoTqmaSi. arsebobs aseve ninoSkis ena romelic Seqmnanorvegielma sazogado moRvawem da mweralma ivar osenma. ninoSki efuZnebanorvegiis sxvadasxva kuTxeebis dialeqtebs. igi icis norvegielTaumravlesobam da saskolo saxelmZRvaneloebis nawilic am enazea dawerili.norvegiuli miekuTvneba indoevropuli ojaxis germanuli jgufisskandinaviur enaTa qvejgufs. mas aqvs 5 aRmosavlur-norvegiulida 26 dasavlur-norvegiuli dialeqti. norvegielTa damwerloba la-Tinur anbans efuZnebanorvegiaSi eklesia araa saxelmwifosagan konstituciiT gamoyofili.oficialur saxelmwifo religiad aRiarebulia evangelistur-lu-Teranuli sarwmunoeba. eklesiis umaRles xelisuflad iTvleba mefe,romelic konstituciiT evangelistur-luTeranul religias unda aRiarebdes,mxars uWerdes da mfarvelobdes mas. norvegiis luTeranimRvdeli — pastori saxelmwifo moxelea. skolebSi RvTismetyveleba aucilebelisagania. norvegiaSi arian kaTolikeebic. moqmedebs agreTveormocdaaTianelTa, baptistebisa da advendistebis mimdinareobani, arsebobsaseve humanur-eTikuri gaerTianeba, romelic sakamod Zlieria.norvegiis meurneobisaTvis damaxasiaTebelia maRalganviTarebulisazRvao transporti (XIX s-dan `sazRvao meetleebi~). norvegielTa savaWrofloti Tavisi sididiT msoflioSi meeqvse adgilzea.msoflios cnobil mogzaurTa Soris ramdenime norvegielia, romel-Ta Soris fritof nansenis (1861-1930), rual amundsenis (1872-1928) datur heierdalis saxelebac ikmarebs. farTodaa cnobili norvegielidramaturgis henrik ibsenis (1829-1906) Semoqmedeba. didi kompozitoriiyo edvard grigi(1843-1907).328


skandinavistikaSvedebiSvedebis TviTsaxelwodebaa svenskar, romelic ukavSirdeba ZvelgermanuleTnonims `svei~. SvedebiTaa dasaxlebuli SvedeTi. SvedebissaerTo raodenoba 9 milionia: maT Sorisi SvedeTSi 8,5 milionia. isinicxovroben agreTve aSS-Si (820 aTasi), kanadaSi (105 aTasi), fineTSi (300aTasi), daniaSi, norvegiaSi. Svedebi norvegielebis, danielebis, islandielebisada farelelebis monaTesaveni arian. anTropologiuradmiekuTvnebian didi evropeiduli rasis atlantur-baltiuri rasisbaltiur tips. Svedebi laparakoben Svedur enaze, romelic miekuTvnebaindoevropul enaTa ojaxis germanuli jgufis Crdilour qvejgufs.Svedur enaSi ramdenime dialeqts gamohyofen. damwerloba laTinurigrafikis safuZvelze aqvT Sedgenili. religiiT Svedebi ZiriTadad(95%) luTeranebi arian. gvxvdebian agreTve kaTolikeebi, baptistebi,ormocdaaTianelebi da sxv.SvedeTis mosaxleobis 98% Svedia. Svedi xalxis eTnikur safuZvelswarmoadgenen germanuli tomebi: svionebi (sveebi), gerulebi, goTebi,gautebi da sxv., romlebic SvedeTSi Zv.w. II da I aTaswleulebSi gadmosaxldnen.maT adgilobrivi loparebi CrdiloeTisaken gandevnes. SvedebiseTnogenezsSi mniSvnelovani roli iTamaSes finelebma da loparebma.Sveduri enis formireba IX-X saukuneeSi moxda. Sveduri enis uZvelesiZeglebi (runuli warwerebi) IX saukunes miekuTvniba.axali welTaRricxvis I aTaswleulSi SvedeTis mosaxleobis sazogadoebriviwyoba Temur-gvarovnulidan klasobrivze gardamavali iyo.SvedeTSi dasaxlebuli germanuli tomebi gvarovnuli Temidan samezobloTemze gadadiodnen. VI-VII saukuneebSi Sua SvedeTSi warmoiqmna pirvelisaxelmwifo — sveisis saxelmwifo, romelSic gabatonebuli mdgomareobasvionebs ekavaT (inligebis dinastiiT). am periodSi farTodgavrcelda patriarqaluri monoba. VII-IX saukuneebSi SvedeTs gacxovelebulivaWroba hqonda ruseTTan, bizantiasTan, arabul aRmosavleT-Tan, frankebis saxelmwifosTan. IX-X saukuneebSi gacxovelebuli vaWrobada Svedi vikingebis laSqrobebi Tavisufal meTemeebs Soris socialurda qonebriv diferenciacias mowmobs.XII saukuneSi feodalizmis ganviTarebam qveyanaSi SvedTa gaqristianebaganapiroba. Svedebi kaTolikeebi iyvnen, magram reformaciis Semdeg,1527-1532 wlebSi maTi umetesoba luTeraneli gaxda. SvedeTSi eklesiasaxelmwifos arcTu ise didi xnis win gamoeyo.germanelTa batonobisagan Tavis daRwevis mizniT, 1397 wels Svede-Tis, daniisa da norvegiis kavSiriT Seiqmna kalmaris unia, rac daniis329


skandinavistikagavlenis gaZlierebas niSnavda. XIV-XVI saukuneebSi jer germanelebTan,Semdeg ki danielebTan brZolam gaaZliera SvedTa nacionaluri TviT-Segneba. SvedebisaTvis didi mniSvneloba hqonda 1477 w. upsalaSi universitetisgaxsnas. amave qalaqis RirSesaniSnaobas warmoadgens skandinaviaSiyvelaze grandiozuli goTuri taZari, romelic XIV saukune-Sia agebuli. maT mxareTmcodneobis, eTnografiuli da samxatvro muzeumebi.aqvT upsala XII s-dan iyo arqiepiskoposis rezidencia da 1719wlamde SvedeTis mefeebis koronaciis adgili.Svedebis nacionaluri TviTSegnebisa da kulturis ganviTarebisaTvisdidi mniSvneloba hqonda 1523 wlis didi ajanyebis Semdeg daniasTankavSiris gawyvetas. ajanyebas gustav vazi xelmZRvanelobda romelicSemdeg mefed iqna arCeuli. ase dairRva kalmaris unia.Svedi xalxis eTnikuri konsolidaciisaTvis didi mniSvneloba hqondaSveduri enis ganviTarebas. is XVI-XVII saukuneebSi Camoyalibda dadaefuZna sveis (centralurSvedur) kilosa da nawilobriv esteretisdialeqts. 1648 wels e. auriviliusma Sveduri enis pirveli gramatikaSeadgina, ramac Sveduri enis Seswavla da gavrceleba gaaadvila. magramman mainc ver SeZlo mravalricxovani dialeqtebisa da kiloebis aRmofxvra,romlebic glexTa yofaSi dRemdea Semonaxuli.Svedebis aSS-Si emigracia XIX saukunis meore naxevarSi daiwyo. migrantTaSedarebiTi raodenobiT SvedeTs am saukunis 60-80-ian wlebSievropaSi, irlandiis Semdeg, meore adgili ekava.dRes SvedeTi konstituciuri monarqiuli saxelmwifoa. saxelmwifosmeTaurobs mefe. umaRlesi sakanonmdeblo organoa erTpalatianiparlamenti — riksdagi. mefe saxelmwifos meTaurad iTvleba, Tumca misixelisufleba simbooluria. SvedeTi neitraluri qveyanaa. neitralitetssafuZveli dRevandeli monarqiis dinastiis safuZvlis Camyrelmakarlos XIV-em daudo. dinastia warmoSobiT frangulia.SvedeTi msoflioSi mowinave `satyeo~ qveyanaa. tyis produqciiswarmoebiT erT sul mosaxleze mas pirveli adgili ukavia.1870 wlamde SvedeTSi samoqalaqo uflebebi mxolod luTeranebshqondaT. saeklesio-administraciuli TvalsazrisiT qveyana dayofilia12 eparqiad.Svedebis mTavari saxalxo dResaswaulia Soba, romlisTvisac mzadeba2-3 kviriT adre iwyeba. xarSaven luds, acxoben purs, sadResaswaulonamcxvrebs (Roris, Txisa da varskvlavebis formebiT). studentebsa damoswavleebs Soris didi popularobiT sargeblobs liusais dRe (13dekemberi). am dros awyoben gogonebis mejliss da irCeven yvelazelamaz gogos. SvedebSi Semonaxulia folklori: zRaprebi, legendebi,330


skandinavistikabaladebi, simRerebi, cekvebi, Svedebi xalxur kostiums dResaswaulebisdros icvamen.SvedeTSi mecnierebis ganviTarebaze didi gavlena moaxdina bunebismetyvelmakarl lineim (1707-1778), romelmac 1739 wels samefo akademiaCamoayaliba. man safuZveli Cauyara mcenareTa da cxovelTa mecnierulsistematikas. lineim aRwera da saxelwodeba miakuTvna mcenareTada cxovelTa 10.000-ze met saxeobas. misi Tanamedrove iyo anderS celsiusi(1701-1774), romelmac 1742 w. Tavisi saxeli ukvdavyo 100-gradusianitemperaturuli skalis gamogonebiT. mecnierebis ganviTarebaSimniSvnelovani wvlili Seitana agreTve dinamitis gamomgonebelma alfredbernardnobelma (1833-1896), romelmac daawesa mTel msoflioSicnobili nobelis premia. msoflioSi aRiarebuli reJisoria ingmarbergmani (daib. 1918), msaxiobebidan ki SeiZleba ingrid bergmani (1915-1982) davasaxeloT. saxelganTqmulia mwerali selma lagerliofi(1858-1940). mTeli msoflios bavSvebis sayvareli mweralia astrid lindgreni(1907-1999).Svedebma msoflioSi pirvelebma dabeWdes qaRaldis fuli. 1661wels stokholmis bankma vercxlis fulis gamoSveba Sewyvita da qaRaldisfulis `daleris~ gamoSveba daiwyo.SvedeTis dedaqalaqi stokholmi ToTxmet kunZulzea ganlagebuli(daarsda 1252 wels), romlebic erTmaneTTan oci xidiTaa dakavSirebuli.Svedebi TavianT dedaqalaqs `CrdiloeTis venecias~ uwodeben. SvedeTSiskolebis umetesoba saxelmwifoa. Svedebma msoflioSi pirvelebmaSemoiRes sayovelTao ufaso swavleba 7-14 wlis asakis bavSvebisaTvis.sayovelTao swavleba ki 1842 wels daaweses.danielebidanielebi iutlandiis naxevarkunZulisa da daniis kunZulebis mosaxleobisZiriTadi mkvidrebi arian. dania 500-mde kunZulis erTobliobaswarmoadgens, romelTa Soris 450 umciresia. danielTa TviTsaxelwodebaadanskere. isini ZiriTadad gansaxlebulni arian daniaSi. maTiraodenoba 5,7 milionia, romelTagan daniaSi 5,1 milionze meti cxovrobs.isini cxovroben agreTve SveciaSi (38 aTasi), norvegiaSi (18 aTasi),germaniaSi (100 aTasi Slezving-golSteinis miwebze). daniel emigrantTaSTamomavalni cxovroben aSS-Si (320 aTasi), kanadaSi (90 aTasi)da avstraliaSi (6 aTasi). danielebi emigrirebulni arian ZiriTadadXIX-XX saukuneebis mijnaze. mkvidroben agreTve danielTa samflobeloSi— grenlandiaSi (2 aTasi) da fareris kunZulebze (2 aTasi).331


skandinavistikadanielebi laparakoben indoevropul enaTa ojaxis germanuli jgufisskandinaviuri qvejgufis daniur enaze. daniuri ena sam dialeqtsmoicavs. daniuri damwerlobis uZvelesi Zeglebi IX-XI saukuneebs miekuTvneba(`runuli~ damwerloba), romlebic amokveTilia konungebissaflavis qvebze. XIII-XIV saukuneebs ekuTvnis laTinuri grafikis safuZvelzeSesrulebuli xelnawerebi (Zveldaniuri saolqo kanonebi). 1495w. daniur enaze daibeWda pirveli nabeWdi wigni.dania sazRvao qveyanaa. misi saxmeleTo sazRvari mxolod 68 km-s Seadgens,sazRvaosi ki — 7.438 km. qveynis napirebs ekvris baltiisa daCrdiloeTis zRvebi. reliefiT iutlandia da yvela kunZuli (bornxolmisgamoklebiT) vakea. mag., daniis umaRlesi wertili — indingsukiZlivs aRwevs zRvis donidan 173 metrs. naleqebis saerTo raodenobaxelsayrelia memindvreobisaTvis. dania evropaSi yvelaze utyeo qveynadiTvleba. tyeebi aq adamianTa mravalsaukunovani sameurneo saqmianobisSedegad ganadgurda.daniiis teritoriaze adamianis pirveli nakvalevi Cndeba 12 aTasiwlis win — mezoliTis xanaSi. Tanamedrove daniisa da samxreT Sveciisteritoriaze mcxovrebi tomebi skandinaviis danarCen mosaxleobasTanSedarebiT ganviTarebis ufro maRali doniT gamoirCeodnen. ucnobia,ra droidan movidnen aq is tomebi, romelTa enas SeiZleba germanuli anprogermanuli vuwodoT. fiqroben, rom germanulenovani tomebi aq dasaxldnenbrinjaos xanis dasawyisSi. Zveli w. aR. dasasrulsa da axali w.aR. dasawyisSi daniis teritoriaze cxovrobdnen tevtonebi (iutlandiisCrdiloeTiT), maTgan samxreTiT — kimvrebi; iutlandiis samxreT-dasavleTsanapiroze — ambronebi, angelis naxevarkunZulze, romelic Tanamedrovegermanul SlezvingTanaa, cxovrobdnen anglebi. axali wel-TaRricxvis V saukuneSi iutebi da anglebi britaneTSi gadasaxldnen.maTgan warmoiSva geografiuli saxelwodebebi — iutlandia da inglisi.gvian, X saukuneSi iutlandiis samxreT nawilSi Svedi vikingebis mierdaaarsebuli samefo arsebobda. iutlandiidan iyvnen gamosuli agreTvevandalebi, romlebic jer kidev Cvens eramde samxreTiT, sileziaSi,pireneis naxevarkunZulze da Semdeg CrdiloeT afrikaSi wavidnen.danebis tomobrivi saxelwodeba cnobilia bizantieli istorikosisprokofisa (danoi) da guTebis istorikos iordanisaTvis (dani). Zvelinglisuriforma am sityvisa `dane~ gvxvdeba anglosaqsur eposSi `beovulfi~.iordanis mixedviT, danebi SvedeTidan gamovidnen, romlebmacaqedan gerulebi gayares. danebidan warmoiqmna maT mier dakavebuli miwebissaxelwodeba — `danmark~ (sityvasityviT: danebis miwa anu dania).danebi da zemoT dasaxelebuli tomebis nawili danieli xalxis for-332


skandinavistikamirebis eTnikur safuZvlad iqcnen. danielebis SemadgenlobaSi nawilobrivSevidnen iutlandiis samxreT-dasavleTiT mcxovrebi frizebicda baltiispireli slavebi.axali welTaRricxvis I aTaswleulis Sua xanebSi iutlandiisa dakunZulebis mosaxleoba jer kidev Temuri wyobilebiT cxovrobda. maTimTavari saqmianoba miwaTmoqmedeba da mecxoveleoba iyo. VI-IX saukuneebSiaq Temis SigniT qonebrivi diferenciacia daiwyo. I aTaswleulisbolos patara tomebi erTmaneTs Seerwynen da warmoiqmna saxelmwifo,romlis saTaveSi idga konungi. IX saukunis dasawyisSi danieli konungigodfredi (+810 w.) ukve flobda mTel danias, Sveciis samxreT nawilsa(skone) da Slezvingis did nawils.skandinaviis istoriaSi pirvelyofili wyobilebidan feodalizmzegadasvlis epoqa esaa e.w. vikingebis epoqa (daaxl. 800 wlidan 1050wlamde). vikingebis laSqrobebma da dapyrobebma daniaSi feodalizaciisprocesi daaCqares. maT safuZveli Cauyares qveynis politikur gaer-Tianebas. 866 wels danieli vikingi gutrumi gadavida aRmosavleT inglisSi,miwebis mniSvnelovani nawili daipyro da Tavi mefed gamoacxada.911 wels danielma da norvegielma vikingebma md. senis SesarTavTannormandiis sahercogo daarses. dRes safrangeTis am provincias normandiasuwodeben (kontinentur evropaSi yvela skandinavieli vikingieTnonim `normanis~ saxeliT iyo cnobili). vikingebis periodSi aRmosavleTinglisisa da normandiis axalmosaxleebi laparakobdnen maTmSobliur skandinaviur enebze, ZiriTadad daniurze, rasac aRmosavleTinglisis istoriuli olqis anelaw-is saxelwodebac adasturebs.daniuri saliteraturo enis safuZvlad iqca saxelmwifos yvelazedasaxlebuli kunZulis — zelandiis dialeqti, upiratesad, kopenhagenismetyveleba. am dros daniuri ena gavrcelda agreTve CrdiloeTSi,norvegiul miwebze, sadac is administraciul da saeklesio enad iqca.danielebma qristianoba miiRes mefe harald lurjkbilas dros(940-985), romelmac eklesias miwebi misca da feodaluri privilegiebimianiWa. dRes danielebi ZiriTadad luTeranebi, aseve sxvadasxvaprotestantuli mimdinareobis mimdevarni da kaTolikeebi arian. dania-Si kaTolikuri sarwmunoeba XVI saukuneSi Seicvala luTeranizmiT, romelicsaxelmwifo religiad iqca; es imas niSnavda, rom eklesiis meTaursmefe warmoadgenda. danielebSi Zalian popularulia wminda hansisada wminda lusias dResaswaulebi. wminda hansis dRes daniis mTel sanapirozekoconebs anTeben. wminda lusias dRes koleqtiurad aRniSnavenskolebSi, universitetebsa da dawesebulebebSi. reformaciis SemdeglaTinuri, romelic eklesiis ena iyo, daniuriT Seicvala da aqedan mo-333


skandinavistikakidebuli saeklesio litaratura mxolod daniur enaze gamodioda.magram daniur samecniero literaturaSi XVIII saukunis bolomde laTinuriena iyo gabatonebuli. jer kidev XIX saukunis I naxevarSi daniisuZveles — kopenhagenis universitetSi (daarsda 1479 wels) yvela dResaswaulisaRsaniSnavad laTinur enas iyenebdnen.1874 wels danias CamoSorda norvegia.dania iyofa 25 administraciul olqad (amtebad). saxelmwifoebrivimowyobis formiT dania sakonstitucio monarqiaa. danielTa 62% qalaqebSicxovrobs. daniaSi 78 qalaqia da amaTgan 100 aTasze meti mcxovrebimxolod sam qalaqSia (kopenhageni, orxusi, odense).danielTa umniSvnelovanesi saxelmwifo dResaswaulia mefis dabadebisdRe, religiuri dResaswaulebidan ki Soba da aRdgoma.daniurma nacionalurma kulturam Tavisi wvlili Seitana msofliokulturis saganZurSi. am TvalsazrisiT hans qristian andersenis(1805-1875) saxelis dasaxelebac ikmarebs, romlis zRaprebic planetisyvela kuTxeSi uyvarT. sayovelTao evropuli aRiareba aqvs mopovebulimweral ludvig holbergs (1684-1754). is iyo daniuri Teatris fu-Zemdebeli da avtori wignisa `daniis saxelmwifos istoria~.XVI saukunemde danieli xalxis anTroponimiuli modeli iseTiveiyo, rogoric dRes islandielebs aqvT — is individualuri saxelisa damamis saxelisagan Sedgeboda. modelis meore wevri, mamis saxeli bolovdeboda— sen-iT. Zalian xSirad aq mamis saxels sacxovrebeli adgilissaxelwodeba cvlida. Tavdapirvelad gvarovnuli memkvidreobiTi saxelebiTavadaznaurobas gauCnda. 1526 wels daniis mefis miwerilobiTaznaurebs urCies gvarovnuli saxelebis oficialurad gaformeba.glexTa Soris memkvidreobiTi saxelebis damkvidreba XIX saukuneSidasrulda — mamis saxelebi pidapir gvarsaxelebad gardaiqmna. daniaSimemkvidreobiTi saxelebis daaxloebiT 40%-isen sufiqsiT bolovdeba.rac Seexeba toponimiuri tipis gvarebs, isini (l)iing formants irTaven.daniis dedaqalaq kopenhagens `CrdiloeTis parizs~ uwodeben. aqaabevri taZari, cixe-simagre, muzeumi.gamoyenebuli literatura:1. r. TofCiSvili, `evropis xalxTa eTnologia.2. www.wikipedia.com334


ekonomika, biznesiTinaTin barjaZessip goris universiteti, bakalavriatis studentikonfliqtis daregulirebis ekonomikuri berketebixelmZRvaneli: profesori giuli giguaSvilikonfliqtebi Cveni cxovrebis realobas warmoadgens. igi aris situacia,romelSic mxareebis miznebi SeuTavsebadia an mxareebi aRiqvamenmaT SeuTavsebadad.kavkasiis regioni saukuneebis ganmavlobaSi warmoadgenda sxvadasxvadidi saxelmwifoebis interesis sagans da maTi geopolitikuri miswrafebebisbrZolis vels. sabWoTa kavSirsa da, zogadad, ruseTs am regionSiyovelTvis lideris pozicia eWira da aq arsebuli patara erebisbeds xSirad Tavisi survilisamebr ganagebda. samxreT kavkasiis kontroliyovelTvis warmoadgenda rusuli politikis erT-erT prioritets,xolo 1992-93 wlebSi regionSi warmoqmnili konfliqtebis jaWvma,kidev ufro gazarda ruseTis roli da yuradReba.sabWoTa kavSiris da, zogadad, ruseTis ZiriTadi dasayrdeni yovel-Tvis iyo samxedro Zala, rac misi `warmatebis~ umTavres garants warmoadgenda,gansakuTrebiT ki roca saqme exeboda eTnikur da separatistulkonfliqtebs. modave qveynebisTvis samxedro daxmarebis aRmoCenasruseTi amarTlebda, rogorc arsebuli konfliqtebis gadaWris er-TaderT gzad, Tumca sinamdvileSi ruseTis samxedro daxmareba, rogorcmediatoris, ufro aRrmavebda arsebul konfliqts. amis saukeTesomagaliTad ki mTiani yarabaRis konfliqti SeiZleba davasaxeloT.15 wlis win, 1992 wlis 14 agvistos kavkasiis teritoriaze erT-erTiyvelaze ufro mwvave eTnikuri konfliqti — qarTul-afxazuri — far-TomasStabian, 14 Tvis an omSi gadaizarda. qarTul-afxazuri samxedrodapirispirebis Sedegad: 8 aTasi adamianis daRupva (orive mxares); ekonomikurzaralma Seadgina 11,3 mlrd aSS dolari;afxazeTSi eTnodemografiuli situaciis Secvla da qarTuli umravlesobiseTnikur umciresobad gadaqceva gamoiwvia.amJamad TviTgamocxadebuli afxazeTis respublika, SeiZleba gadau-Warbeblad iTqvas, udides gavlenas axdens kavkasiis regionSi didi geopolitikuriTamaSebis msvlelobaze. `afxazeTis sakiTxi~ saqarTvelosada ruseTs Soris mTavari `ganxeTqilebaa~. ruseTis politikuri dasamxedro istebliSmentis erTi nawilis proafxazuri simpaTiebi uaRresaduwyobs xels saqarTvelos prodasavlur kurss, rac, Tavis mxriv,335


ekonomika, biznesigavlenas axdens somxeTze - ruseTis federaciis ZiriTad mokavSirezekavkasiaSi.formalur-iuridiulad afxazeTi saqarTvelos nawils warmoadgens,faqtobrivad ki mdinare fsoudan mdinare enguramde arsebul teritoriazesaqarTvelos suvereniteti ar vrceldeba. afxazeTis xelmZRvanelobaver akontrolebs mxolod patara nawils mdinare kodorissaTaveebTan. kontroli 2006 wlis ivlisamde Tbilisis mxridanac ararsebobda. amJamad ki saqarTvelos xelmZRvaneloba afxazeTis Zneladmisadgom raionSi dafuZnebas da mis placdarmad qcevas cdilobs.1993 wels saqarTvelos samxedro damarcxebas afxazeTTan konfliqtSiara marto geopolitikuri Sedegebi hqonda (saqarTvelom teritoriis12,5% da Savi zRvis sanapiro zolis 200 km dakarga), aramed afxaze-Tidan qarTuli mosaxleobis masiuri gadasaxlebac gamoiwvia. samxreToseTisgan gansxvavebiT, eTnikuri konfliqtis samxedro faza `damarcxebuli~eTnikuri jgufis warmomadgenlebis gaZevebiT dasrulda.sxvadasxva monacemebiT, afxazeTi 200 aTasze metma qarTvelma datova.afxazi liderebi mzad iyvnen qarTuli mxarisTvis yvelaze ufro mwvaveproblema — `ltolvilTa~ sakiTxi ganexilaT. amisTvis erTaderT pirobadasaxelebdnen qarTuli mosaxleobis Semowmebis Catarebas da 1992-1993 wlebSi sabrZolo moqmedebebis monawileTa `gacxrilvas~.afxazurma mxarem araerTxel gamoTqva SiSi imasTan dakavSirebiT,rom `ltolvilebis~ dabrunebam da qarTvelebis sasargeblod eTnodemografiulibalansis Secvlam SeiZleba gamoiwvios axali eTnikuriwmenda, amjerad qarTvelTa mxridan.afxazeTis liderebi `gansakuTrebuli SemTxvevis~ saxiT ganixilavdnenqarTveli (megreli) ltolvilebis dabrunebas eTnikuri SemadgenlobiTyvelaze ufro `qarTul~ galis raionSi. 1989 wlis monacemebiT,am raionSi qarTvelebi mosaxleobis 93%-s Seadgendnen. afxazi liderebismier araerTxel iqna ugulebelyofili saqarTvelos Semadgenloba-Si `yvelaze farTo avtonomiis~ idea.afxazeTsa da samxreT oseTSi ruseTis mier ukanasknel periodSi gadadgmulinabijebi iZleva safuZvels davaskvnaT, rom moskovi saqar-Tvelos konfliqtur regionebSi putinis mier gansazRvruli politikisSecvlas ar apirebs.faqtia, rom ruseTi cdilobs rogorme aicilos saqarTvelos teritoriisaneqsatoris saxeli, darCes konfliqtebis mogvarebaSi Suamavalian provocireba gaukeTos saqarTveloSi arsebul viTarebas da ariossituacia.ruseTis mier saqarTvelos gandgomili regionebis aRiarebis Sem-336


ekonomika, biznesideg, afxazeTis politikuri da ekonomikuri eqspansia gaZlierebulitempebiT mimdinareobs — kerZod, samxedro, ekonomikur, saganmanaTleblo,kulturis da sxva sferoebSi `ormxrivi xelSekrulebebis~ gaformebissaSualebiT uSualod rusebis xelSi gadadis `afxazeTissazRvrebis~ gakontrolebis, strategiuli obieqtebis — rkinigzisa daaeroportis marTvis, afxazeTis kontinentur Sleifze navTobisa da gazissaZiebo da dazverviTi samuSaoebis warmarTvis berketebi. gardaamisa, soWis olimpiadis infrastruqturis mosawyobad afxazeTis zRvissanapirodan intensiurad mimdinareobs inertuli masalebis gatana,rac mxares ekologiur katastrofas uqadis. ekonomikuri eqspansiis paralelurad,ruseTis mier aseve mizanmimarTulad xorcieldeba afxazieris asimilireba-STanTqmisa da afxazis, rogorc eris gaqrobis procesi,romelsac Tan sdevs afxazuri enis funqciebis daqveiTeba da misifaqtobrivad amovardna saxelmwifoebriobis konteqstidan.ruseTma nikaraguas mier afxazeTis damoukideblobis aRiarebiTniSni mougo mTel msoflios, maT liderebs, saerTaSoriso organizaciebsda mianiSna, rom ruseTisTvis dabrkolebebi da xelis SemSleli faqtorebiar arsebobs, saWiro SemTxvevaSi is damoukideblad da erTpirovnulad,saerTaSoriso samarTlis fexqveS gaTelviT wyvets iseTrTul sakiTxebs, rogoricaa suverenuli saxelmwifosaTvis teritoriebisCamoWra da mere maTi damoukideblobis deklarireba. ase aris Tuise, afxazma separatistebma ambiciebi daikmayofiles, Tumca am aqts Tanamdeviprocesebi axlavs, romlebic rusul-afxazuri `siyvarulis istorias~usiamovno elfers aZlevs. es usiamovnebani ki swored im `megobruli~xelSekrulebebidan momdinareobs, romlTa saSualebiT ruseTismier saqarTvelos winaaRmdeg 1992-93 wlebSi omis Sedegad waglejiliZirZveli teritoriis misakuTrebis gaformeba xdeba. es procesixels uwyobs afxazeTis `xaverdovan~ STanTqmas ruseTis mier. daviwyoTTundac imiT, rom afxazeTis separatistulma reJimma amas winaT kompania`rosneftTan~ navTobze da gazis sabadoebis moZiebis da damuSavebisafxazeTis SelfSi xelSekruleba gaaforma. es moxda ramdenime dRe-Si mas Semdeg, rac afxazeTis opoziciam ruseTis prezidents TxovniTmimarTa, gaiTvaliswinos afxazeTis interesebi da ar waarTvas uflebaTavad akontrolos satransporto da energetikuli sistemebi. saqar-Tvelos sagareo saqmeTa saministrom umalve gaaprotesta ruseTis mierafxazeTis kontinentur Selfze navTobisa da gazis sabadoebze dazverviT-saZiebosamuSaoebis warmoeba da am sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT specialurigancxadebac gaavrcela, romelSic aRniSnulia, rom ruseTissaxelmwifo kompania `rosneftsa~ da afxazeTis marionetul reJims So-337


ekonomika, biznesiris gaformebuli SeTanxmeba TanamSromlobis Sesaxeb, romelic dazverviTida saZiebo samuSaoebis warmoebas iTvaliswinebs, saerTaSorisosamarTlisa da saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobis normebs uxeSad ar-Rvevs. Tumca, rasakvirvelia am protests adekvaturi reagireba ar mohyoliarogorc separatistebis, aseve arc ruseTis federaciis mxridan,romelmac saqarTvelos separatistuli regionebis aRiarebis Semdegaxali xelSekrulebebiT gaamyara am regionebis faqtobrivi eqspansia.cotaTi adre ki, rogorc cnobilia, ruseTma separatistul mTavrobas-Tan `afxazeTis sazRvris erTobliv gakontrolebas~ moawera xeli.Tumca, rogorc gamoirkva, xelSekrulebis gaformebidan mcire xanSirusma samxedroebma afxazi mebaJeebi sazRvris mTeli perimetridan dasaguSagoebidan gaaZeves da regionis administraciul sazRvrebis gakontrolebasTavad Seudgnen. am samuSaoebis Catarebis Semdeg okupantebmaufro intensiur reJimSi ganagrZes gandgomili regionis ekonomikuriaTviseba. amis dasturad afxazeTis separatistuli xelisuflebismier kompania `rosneftTan~ dadebuli ukanono xelSekrulebac kmara,romelsac specialuri publikacia miuZRvna rusulma gazeTma `rosiiskaiagazetam,~ romelic mkiTxvels dabejiTebiT arwmunebs imaSi,rom afxazeTis Sesabamisi profilis uwyebebisa da `rosneftis~ federalurisaagentos winaswari gaTvlebiT respublikaSi Savi oqros saerTomaragi 200-220 milioni toniT ganisazRvreba. sabado, ZiriTadad, SavizRvis sanapiroze mdebareobs. am maragis aTvisebis Semdeg, aRniSnavs gazeTi,afxazeTi, SesaZloa, navTobis erT-erTi yvelaze msxvili eqsportiorigaxdes ara marto kavkasiaSi, aramed yofili sabWoTa kavSirismTel teritoriaze da navTobis eqsportis TvalsazrisiT azerbaijansacki gauswros.`Tu afxazeTis sanapiroze navTobgadammuSavebeli qarxana aSendeba,maSin Savi zRvis regionSi warmoiqmneba axali, msxvili navTobgadammu-Savebeli, navTobsaeqsporto terminali tuafse (ruseTi), baTumi (saqarTvelo),konstanca (rumineTi), odesa, xersoni (ukraina) terminalebiskvaldakval.~ aRniSnavs gazeTi da cdilobs, afxazeTis `navTobisrespublikad~ gadaqcevisaTvis xelis SeSlaSi gasuli saukunis 70 -ianiwlebis sabWoTa saqarTvelos xelisufalni daadanaSaulos. statiis avtorisTqmiT, afxazeTis navTobresursebis winaistoria `TiTqmis deteqtiuria~.gasuli saukunis 70-iani wlebis dasawyisSi, rodesac afxazeTSiaRmoCnda da winaswar dazverva navTobis pirveli sabadoebi, saqarTvelosxelisuflebam xeli SeuSala afxazeTis knavTobis respublikad~gadaqcevas, radgan SeeSinda, rom ekonomikuri gaZlierebis SedegadafxazeTi mokavSire respublikis statuss moiTxovda rsfsr-s Se-338


ekonomika, biznesimadgenlobaSi da saqarTveloze damokidebuli ar iqneboda.~ publikaciisavtori aseve aRniSnavs, rom Tbilisis xelisufalni moiTxovdnen,rom am resursebis aTvisebis SemTxvevaSi, gaTvaliswinebuli yofiliyodanarCeni saqarTvelos prioritetuli moTxovnebi navTobze da misigadamuSavebis saqmeSi upiratesad qarTveli CaerToTda ara afxazi specialistebi.magram, Turme, rogorc gazeTi miuTiTebs, 1950-ian wlebSissr kavSiris yvela respublikisaTvis, maT Soris kavkasiis respublikebisaTvis,arsebobda mkacrad gansazRvruli ekonomikuri CarCoebi. magaliTad,azerbaijans ekisreboda yofiliyo regionis energetikulibaza, saqarTvelos — ZiriTadi sasoflo sameurneo produqtebis, marganecisda zogierTo feradi liTonis mwarmoebel-mimwodebeli da, racmTavaria, amierkavkasiis sakurorto baza. aqedan gamomdinare, askvnisgazeTi, azerbaijanis imdroindelma xelmZRvanelobam gadaafiqrebinamoskovs afxazeTSi navTobis mopoveba, radgan Tvlidnen, rom es SeaferxebdakavkasiaSi azerbaijanis liderobas navTob-gazis sakiTxSi.somxe-Tis xelisufleba da eqspertebi ki mxars uWerdnen afxazeTSi navTobismopovebas, raTa Tavi daeRwiaT navTobisa da gazis mxriv azerbaijanzeTiTqmis asprocentiani damokidebulebisagan. publikaciis avtorisTqmiT, 1980-ian wlebSi afxazuri gazisadmi interesi TurqeTmac gamoavlina,afxazuri diasporis waqezebiT. dRes misi raodenoba TurqeTSi500000 adamians Seadgens, rac gacilebiT metia Tavad afxazeTis mosaxleobaze.zogierTi Turquli firma afxazebs winadadebas sTavazobs,rom aaSenebdnen trans — Savi zRvis navTobgamtars afxazeTis sanapirodanTurqeTamde. magram amaod. statiis avtoris TqmiT, amgvari realobisgamo sabWoTa xelmZRvanelobam gadawyvita, rom yvelaferi ise daetoebinaT,rogorc iyo. ar daerRviaT amierkavkasiis respublikebis winandeliekonomikuri specializacia da ar mosvlodaT uTanxmoeba arcTbilisTan, arc baqosTan da arc sxvebTan. `im droidan afxazuri navTobismaragis Sesaxeb cnoba gasaidumlda, xolo misi Semdgomi dazvervadaakonserves.~-wers gazeTi, romelic, rogorc Cans, saqarTvelos imdroindelxelisuflebas adanaSaulebs afxazeTis bunebrivi simdidreebis,navTobisa da gazis potencialis miCqmalvasa da afxazeTis SemdgomiganviTarebisa da gafurCqvnis gzebis dablokvaSi.rogorc gazeTi imedovnebs, dRes swored SeiZleba navTobi iqcesafxazeTis swrafi, kompleqsuri socialur-ekonomikuri ganviTarebisamsoflio ekonomikasa da politikaSi misi rolis amaRlebis aTvlis wertilad.`swored navTobidan daiwyes ganviTareba da saxelmwifos mSenebloba1960-ian wlebSi kuveitma, baxreinma, bruneim, katarim. dResisini msoflioSi patara, magram maRalganviTarebul qveynebs warmoad-339


ekonomika, biznesigenen~ aRniSnavs gazeTi da cdilobs mkiTxvelic daarwmunos imaSi, romafxazeTic uaxloes momavalSi im qveynebis gzas daadgeba, romlebmacSavi oqros aRmoCeniT, damuSavebiTa da eqsportiT, ayvavebasa da gafurCqvnasmiaRwies. Tumca, aqve gvinda aRvniSnoT, rom miuxedavad amgvariimedebisa da optimisturi wiaRsvlebisa, eqspertebis umetesobaskeptikurad aris ganwyobili afxazeTSi navTobsaZiebo samuSaoebis mimarT.bevri fiqrobs, rom sanapiros gadaTxra afxazeTs sasurvel miznamdever miiyvans.ruseTis ekonomikis ministris SefasebiT, umsxviles rusul sanav-Tobo kompaniasTan SeTanxmeba dakavSirebulia ara mxolod respublika-Si sainvesticio nakadebis ganviTarebasTan, aramed es elementaruliaucileblobiTac aixsneba. `afxazeTis ekonomikis zrdas mivyavarTenergomatareblebis zrdad moTxovnebTan~ — acxadebs is.ekonomikis ministris sapirispirod, eqspertebis azri iyofa rusul-afxazururTierTobebTan dakavSirebiT nedleulis sakiTxSi. er-Tni did momavals winaswarmetyveleben, sxvebi ki bunebrivi resursebismopovebas uperspeqtivod miiCneven.navTobisa da gazis problemebis institutis direqtoris anatolidmitrievskis TqmiT, naxSiris maragi afxazeTSi jer kidev sabWoTa geologebmaaRmoaCines, xolo zRvis qanebSi navTobis maragi Seadgens 350-dan 500 mln tonamde. `amas garda, aq mzad aris yvelanairi infrastruqtura-portebi, milsadenebi, iqve potenciuri momxmarebelicaa~ — acxadebseqsperti.energetikisa da finansebis institutis direqtoris vladimir feiginisSefasebiT ki afxazeTSi resursebis mopoveba flangva iqneba imdenad,ramdenadac navTobi Sav zRvaSi Zalian Rmrad mdebareobs. situacias,eqspertis azriT, afxazeTis statusic arTulebs, radganac ruseTsmouwevs navTobisa da gazis sabadoebis damuSaveba mxolod nikaraguas-Tan erTad, radganac am ukanasknelis garda afxazeTis damoukideblobaarc erTma qvyanam ar scno. rusebisgan gansxvavebiT, eqsperti mamukaareSiZe im aJiotaJs, romelic am bolo dros afxazeTis sabadoebze atyda,piarkampaniad miiCnevs. `oCamCiris sabado miudgomel adgilasaa damisi eqspluatireba uaxloes momavalSi mainc SeuZlebeli mgonia. im adgilas,sadac navTobi unda moipovon, rusebis gegmiT, Savi zRvis flotiunda ganlagdes. garda amisa, rogor fiqrobT, afxazeTis gaZlierebaruseTs xels aZlevs? aseT SemTxvevaSi ar aris gamoricxuli, afxazeTmamarTlac moiTxovos damoukidebloba. ruseTi asjer awonis, sanam am nabijsgadadgams~ — acxadebs eqsperti. afxazeTSi navTobis arseboba saeWvodmiaCniaT analitikosebs, romlebic Tvlian, rom es sakiTxi daax-340


ekonomika, biznesiloebiT im kategorias ganekuTvneba, rogoricaa kiTxva `aris Tu ara sicocxlemarsze~, rasac SeiZleba aseTi pasuxi moyves— es jerjerobiTmecnierebis mier aRmoCenili ar aris.`Tu imis mixedviT vimsjelebT, rogor aubedurebs dRes afxazeTisunikalur landSafts ruseTSi xe-tyis, mdinaris inertuli masalebisda sxva nedleulis gatana, Zneli warmosadgeni ar aris, ra moxdeba, Tuaq marTlac moiZieben navTobs. es namdvilad `gaaSavebs~ afxazeTismTel sanapiros, da Tanac saeWvoa, rom afxazeTis ekonomikas “oqrosmTebi~ moutanos. ruseTi ipovis xerxs, rogor amoqaCos es navTobi ufasod,dagrovili valis an uprecedento samxedro daxmarebis sanacvlod— miiCnevs sainformacio-analitikuri portali `rakurs. ge~ romelicmiuTiTebs, rom marTalia, afxazuri sainformacio saSualebebi iuwyebian,rom navTobis maragi Selfze 300-500 milion tonas Seadgens, magramamis Sesaxeb didi eWvebi arsebobs. sabWoTa kavSiris drosac ki, romlisTvisacenergomatareblebis eqsporti politikuri sakiTxi iyo,radganac amiT ikvebeboda da imarTeboda mTeli qveyana, afxazuri nav-Tobis Sesaxeb araferi iyi cnobili. maS saidan gaCnda es sensaciuri informacia?nuTu ruseTs gauCnda Tanamedrove saZiebo mowyobilobebi,miT umetes, rom saubaria zRvis fskerze?`albaT, saqme mainc sxva rameSi gaxlavT, Tvlis `rakurs. ge~-. ruse-Tis navTobmompovebel kompaniebs axla gauCndaT mSvenieri sababi, romgadaTxaron afxazeTis mTeli sanapiro. navTobi ki sakmaod xuSturianiqalbatonia da Zneli iqneba vinme daadanaSaulo Tu is xelidan gausxltebaT.magram afxazeTi, rom sabolood daemSvidobeba sakuTari ekonomikismTavar da yvelaze perspeqtiul dargs — turizms, aranair eWvebsar tovebs. aba aq ra damoukideblobazea saubari?~`maS ra aris ase mniSvnelovani maTTvis, vinc dRes afxazeTSi musikasukveTavs?~ — svams kiTxvas statiis avtori da iqve pasuxic mzada aqvs:albaT is aris mniSvnelovani, rom rusebi waugebel TamaSs TamaSoben.navTobi iqneba Tu ara TviTaRiarebuli respublika ruseTze kidev ufrodamokidebuli aRmoCndeba. mis unikalur korortebs globaluripolitikuri TamaSebis gamo isedac ar moaqvs didi mogeba. aq, ZiriTadad,mamaci rusi turistebi Camodian dabali fasebis gamo. Tu saWirogaxda, `rosnefti~ maTac mixedavs.~ askvnis statiis avtori.eqspertebis azriT, ekonomikuri eqspansiis aSkara niSnebi da reliefiikveTeba agreTve im mxrivac, rom afxazeTSi rusi biznesmenebi gamalebiTiZenen uZrav-moZrav qonebas. amas aadvilebs is, rom afxazeTSiruseTma xelovnurad aswia fasebi uZrav qonebaze imdenad, rom misi Se-Zena adgilobriv mcxovreblebs ar SeuZliaT, samagierod aTjer gaz-341


ekonomika, biznesirdili fasebis farglebSi rusi investorebi yiduloben yvelafers —kerZo saxlebs, Senoba — dawesebulebebs, miwebs, mdinareebsa d tyeebs.marTalia, afxazeTis kanonmdebloba krZalavs ucxoelebze uZravi qonebismiyidvas, magram rusebma aqac ipoves gamosavali — nayid kapitalsda bizness isini adgilobriv, saimedo afxazebze aformeben. Tumca, afxazeTSiqonebis yidva- SeZenis saqmes separatistuli mTavroba uaxloesxanebSi rusebs gacilebiT gauadvilebs.cota xnis win baRafSma ganacxada, rom uZrav qonebasTan dakavSirebiTkanonSi cvlilebebs parlamenti uaxloes momavalSi ganixilavs,rac ucxo qveynis moqalaqeebs afxazeTSi binebis SeZenis saSualebasacmiscems.baRafSis am gancxadebam opoziciur partiebSi mwvave kritika gamoiwvia.maTi TqmiT, am nabijiT afxazeTis xelisufleba xels uwyobs asimilaciasda afxazuri eTnosis TandaTanobiT gaqrobas. `Cven amis gamoar vibrZodiT TavisuflebisTvis ukanaskneli 15 weli~ — amboben opozicionerebi.rogorc sainformacio saSualebebi weren, afxazuri uZravi qonebismimarT interesi soWis olimpiadam gaaRviva: fasebi sacxovrebelzesoWSi katastrofulad maRalia da axla rusebi cdiloben fuli mezobelafxazeTSi daabandon, sanam iq jer kidev siiafea. Tumca, rogorczemoT aRvniSneT, es siiafe moCvenebiTia, radgan adgilobriv afxazebsar gaaCniaT imis SesaZlebloba, rom uZravi qoneba SeiZinon.`afxazebs ar SeuZliaT TavianTTvis amgvari ZviradRirebuli qonebisSeZena, — guldawyvetili ambobs gazeT ”Чегемская правда”-s mTavariredaqtori inal xaSigi.rusul gazeTTan ”komersantTan~ interviuSi —jer kidev erTi wlis win Cven sxva fasebi gvqonda. magram rusi investorebigvkarnaxoben TavianT pirobebs. jer kidev 5 wlis win Cven mxolodvocnebobdiT investiciebze. magram axla yvela xvdeba: investiciacaada investiciac. olimpiadis moaxlovebasTan dakavSirebiT 90-ani wlebismsgavsi epoqis safrTxe brundeba: sakuTrebis gadakeTeba, Tavdasxma,dacxrilvebi. Cven ki mcire eri varT da unda vifiqroT erovnul interesebze.xaSigis TqmiT afxazebi madlierebi arian rusebis, magram kargad esmiT,rom ruseTma misi interesebis sasargeblod aRiara afxazeTi.. `damamcirebelimdgomareoba, romelSic mudmivad varT, roca Cveni prezidentiputins sTxovs fuls da ruseTs Cvens strategiul obieqtebs abarebs,bevrs ar moswons~ ambobs xaSigi da interviuSi pirdapir acxadebs,rom putini maT afxazeTSi samxedro bazebis ganTavsebis sanacvlod aZ-342


ekonomika, biznesilevs fuls. Tumca imasac ar uaryofs, rom afxazebma realuri damoukideblobaver miiRes. `Cvens sazRvrebTan rusi samxedroebi dganan. sazRvrissaguSagoebi mTlianad rusi mesazRvreebis xelSia da afxazeTisiurisdiqcia am sazRvrebze ar vrceldeba. Cvens prezidents am saguSagoebisinspeqtirebac ki ar SeuZlia.~opoziciis liderebi afxazeTis xelisuflebas ruseTisTvis strategiuliobieqtebis gadacemis gamo akritikeben da acxadeben, rom `xelisuflebisnaCqarev, daufiqrebel moqmedebebs antirusuli ganwyobilebebisgamovlenisken mivyavarT ~. magram, rogorc Cans, ruseTs es araSinebs.— sami miliardis krediti, romelic afxazeTma ruseTisgan aiRo daromlis dabrunebasac is albaT ver SeZlebs — aris girao ruseTze Cvenidamokidebulebis, — Tvlis inal haSigi. ubralod, Cven maSinve ver mivxvdiT,Tu ra safasuris gadaxda mogviwevda damoukideblobis aRiarebisTvis.inalis mosazrebiT afxazeTis ruseTTan mierTebis sakiTxi adreTu gvian dadgeba: sakmaod didia rusuli biznes-struqturebis ekonomikuriinteresebi am regionSi. es rom ar moxdes, ukve dRes unda gaewioswinaaRmdegoba ruseTis ekonomikur eqspansias.afxazebSi osebisgan gansxvavebiT ruseTTan integraciis sakiTxi sulacar aris popularuli. isini Tvlian, rom dReisaTvis afxazeTSi arsebobsimis winapirobebi, rom `qveyanam~ damoukideblad iarsebos, Tumcaafxazebs Soris ufro SorsmWvretelni kargad xedaven, rom afxaze-Tis damoukidebloba fiqciaa, ruseTma es satyuara kargad gamoiyenaafxazebis gasacureblad da mavanTa separatistuli ambiciebis gamosakvebad.axla bevri xvdeba, rom afxazebs ara marto ekonomikuri eqspansia,aramed asimilireba da sabolood gaqroba emuqreba. amis niSnebi ukvesaxezea. swored aqeTken miiswrafvian rusi okupantebi, romlebic sxvadasxvaxerxiT cdiloben miaRwion dasaxul mizans da xelovnurad SecvalonafxazeTSi demografiuli situacia. ruseTma, Tavdapirvelad,qarTvelebiT daiwyo da afxazeTSi momxdari konfliqtis Semdeg adgilobriviqarTuli mosaxleobis mimarT genocidi da eTnowmenda ganaxorciela.Sedegad regionSi demografiuli suraTi Zirfesvianad Seicvalada afxazeTis farglebs gareT aRmoCnda 300000 qarTveli. im periodSiafxazebi fiqrobdnen, rom ruseTi amas maTi siyvaruliTa da simpatiebiTakeTebda da `damoukideblobiT~ tkbobas miecnen, magram gavidawlebi da dRes ukve aSkaraa, rom ruseTs iseve ainteresebs afxazebi damaTi erovnuli interesebi, rogorc sxva danarCeni. saqme imaSia, romdRes ruseTi, romelmac nikaraguasTan erTad afxazeTis damoukideblobaaRiara, ver iTmens da Tavisi Sorsmimavali miznebis ganxorciele-343


ekonomika, biznesibas ukve daCqarebuli tempebiT ganagrZobs. afxazeTSi, garda adgilobrivirusi macxovreblebisa, am droisaTvis ukve Camoyvanilia da dasaqmebulia5 aTasi rusi samxedro mosamsaxure, romlebic afxazeTis saqarTvelosagan`dacvis~ sababiT imyofebian am teritoriaze da uaxloesxanebSi sakuTari ojaxis wevrebis Camosaxlebasac apireben. vrceldebainformacia aseve imis Taobazec, rom galis raionSi mudmiv sacxovrebladCamovlen rusi eqimebi, damxmare smedicino personali da maTiojaxis wevrebi, romlebic~ kvalificiurad moemsaxurebian~ adgilobrivmacxovreblebs. igegmeba aseve galis raionis rusuli skolebis sa-Tanadod aRWurva da keTilmowyoba imisaTvis, rom am skolebSi SemdeggalSi Camosaxlebuli rusi samxedroebis da medpersonalis bavSvebmaiswavlon. garda amisa, gavrcelebuli informaciiT, soWis olimpiadisaTvismzadebis farglebSi, rusebi 100 000 daqiravebuli muSis Camoyvanasacgegmaven, romelTac maTi TqmiT, `droebiT~ daasaxleben afxazeT-Si. amis Sesaxeb ruseTis federaciis dumis spikerma grizlovma soxumSiCasvlisas Riad ganacxada da damswre sazogadoebas iqve Seaxsena, rom`ruseTis mier afxazeTSi Cadebuli saxsrebis gastumrebas afxazeTi saolimpiadomSeneblobiT SeZlebs.~`daaxloebiT 100000-mde muSas, romlebic olimpiuri obieqtebis mSeneblobisprocesSi unda dakavdnen, ruseTis xelisufleba afxazeTSiganaTavsebs: soWSi Tavisufali sacxovrebeli adgilebi ar aris, arcasaSenebeli adgilia, Tan Zalian Zviri dajdeba, xolo afxazeTSi kidevaris didi, jer kidv aRudgeneli sabWoTa drois sastumro kompleqsebi,romelTa gamoyenebac savsebiT SesaZlebelia~ — ganacxada grizlovmasoxumSi vizitisas. esec Seni demografiuli situacia! Tu ase gagrZelda,afxazeTSi rusebis umravlesoba iqneba. afxazi eri ki TavisTavadumciresobaSi aRmoCndeba, riTac ruseTi Tavisi gegmebis ganxorcielebispirvel etaps daasrulebs. amis Semdeg ki eqspertebis azriT, afxazieris asimilacia-STanTqmis procesi imdenad swrafad ganxorcieldeba,rom isini Tvalisdaxamaxamebasac verc ki moaswreben, rom sakuTar mxareSistumris statusSi aRmoCndebian. amas xels Seuwyobs isic, rom didixania afxazuri ena rusuliTaa Canacvlebuli. isedac mcire saurTierToboareali, romelic afxazur enas gaaCnia, rusuli enis Semotevebisgamo kidev ufro viwrovdeba, rasac SeuZlebelia mtkivneulad araRiqvamdes afxazTa is nawili, romelic kargad xedavs, rom ruseTisadmizedmetma mimdoblobam maT didi Tavsatexi gauCina. dRes ukve aSkaraa— afxazebi TviTmyofadobas kargaven. TviTmyofadobis upirvelesi gamovlinebaenaa da roca moyvared mosuli mteri enas garTmevs, es imasniSnavs, rom Sen amiT garTmevs sakuTari identurobis gacnobierebis344


ekonomika, biznesisaSualebas. afxazuri ena ki dReisaTvis didi saSiSroebis winaSe dgas —mas gaqroba emuqreba, razec miniSneba araerTxel gaakeTes ara martoqarTvelma mecnierebma, sazogado da politikurma moRvaweebma, aramedrusi xalxis im progresulad ganwyobilma nawilmac, romelma kargadicis, saiT ukakunebs imperiuli manqana. am mxriv sainteresoa Jurnal`vlastSi~ dabeWdili ruseTSi moRvawe Turquli warmoSobis afxazimwerlis fazil iskanderis intervius Sexseneba mkiTxvelisaTvis, sadacmwerali rusi korespondentis SekiTxvaze, Tu ra enaze laparakobendRes afxazebi, Semdegnairad pasuxobs: ~mTeli afxazeTi rusulad laparakobs.Cemi axalgazrdobis wlebSi, Cems bavSvobaSic ase iyo. Tumca60—70 wlis ukan sakmaod didi zegavlena hqonda Turqul enas. sxvadasxvaerovnebis adamianebi erTmaneTSi xSirad Turqulad an rusulad laparakobdnen.me odesRac cotaTi mesmoda kidec Turquli, magram moskovSididi xnis cxovrebam es ena damaviwya — iunesko afxazur enasmkvdar enaTa ricxvs miakuTvnebs. — Znelia Seedavo iuneskos, es mecnieruliTemaa. me ver vgrZnob aseT saSiSroebas, ar mesmis ramdenad realuriaes. imedi maqvs es ar moxdeba.~ fazil iskanderis msgavsad afxaziseparatistebis erT nawilsac surs daijeros, rom `es ase ar moxdeba,~magram garemoebebi da Seqmnili viTareba movlenebs sul sxvagvaradwarmoaCens. afxazuri ena didi saSiSroebis winaSe dgas, dRes dgeba Jami,rom engursgaRmac da gamoRmac yvelam erTad xma avimaRloT afxazurienis genocidis winaaRmdeg da misi gadarCenisaTvis mTel msofliosdaxmareba vTxovoT. Tumca, es upirveles yovlisa, afxazebma unda iTaonda TavianT problemas realurad Sexedon, sxvagvarad xval SeuZlebeliiqneba am enis gadarCena. am fonze aranakleb sagangaSoa isic, romafxazeTSi demografiuli situaciis Sesacvlelad gaaqtiurebuli ruseTisxelisufleba, uaxloes xanebSi msoflio bankis xelSewyobiT mosaxleobisaRwerasac gegmavs. am mizniT Tavisi fondidan 40 milioni maneTisgamoyofas apirebs, romelsac msoflio bankis mier gamoyofil 50milion dolarsac daamatebs da misi mcdelobiT 2011 wlisaTvis afxazeTSiSeqmnili Scvlili demografiuli situaciac dafiqsirdeba. sainteresoa,ruseTis garda kidev vis sWirdeba okupirebul teritoriazearsebuli demografiuli suraTis warmoCena da ratom ainteresebs xelovnuradSecvlili demografiuli suraTis dafiqsireba msofliobanks, romelic, wesis da rigis mixedviT, aseTi saeWvo proeqtebis ganxorcielebaSiar unda ereodes.am kiTxvaze, rasakvirvelia pasuxi ar arsebobs, magram arsebobs realoba,romelic afxazeTSi yalibdeba — dRes afxazTa Segnebulma nawilmakargad unda gaicnobieros, rom ruseTi misTvis sulac ar aris is ke-345


ekonomika, biznesiTili gadia, romelic mxolod imiT dakmayofildeba, rom afxazebma TavianTisaxelmwifo Seqmnan, damoukidebloba miiRon da msoflio TanamegobrobasSeuerTdnen. aseTi ram ruseTis interesebSi, cxadia, ar Sedis.ufro metic, dRes ukve yvelasaTvis aSkaraa, rom afxazebi, rogorcinstrumenti, rusebma sakuTari imperiuli ambiciebis gansaxorcielebladgamoiyenes. Tvdapirvelad mtroba da SuRli Camoagdes or, erTmaneTismonaTesave da moZme ers Soris, Semdeg ki afxazebis ~dacvis~ sababiTqarTvelebi sakuTari saxl-karidan gamoaZeves da damnaSave eradgamoacxades, dRes ki ukve masiurad da daCqarebuli tempebiT daiwyesafxazeTis politikuri da ekonomikuri aTviseba, romelic samwuxarodimiT dasruldeba, rom afxazi eric am Teqvsmeti wlis win afxazeTidangamodevnili qarTvelebis beds gaiziarebs. Tumca, aqac iqneba mcireodenigansxvaveba— qarTvelebs okupantebma imitom daatovebines mSobliurikuTxe da saxl-kari, radgan maT uari Tqves monis statusze, sakuTarienisa da identurobis dakargvaze, rasac ver vityviT im adamianebisSesaxeb, vinc sakuTari identuroba da ena, fiqtiuri damoukideblobisgamo, ruseTis sasargeblod gawira.346


ekonomika, biznesiamiran lafaCiZesoxumis saxelmwifo universiteti, magistrantikonfliqtis mogvarebis ekonomikuri berketebixelmZRvaneli: profesori elguja qavTaraZe1. istoriis mimoxilvaistoria gansazRvravs rogor unda vimoqmedoT awmyosa da momaval-Si, amisTvis gavixsenoT is mTavari aspeqtebi ris gamoc dRes aseTirTuli konfliqtebi gvaqvs.osebis, rogorc xalxis Camoyalibeba Zv. w. VIII-IX saukuneebidandaiwyo, roca kavkasiaSi gamoCnda skviTur-sarmatul-alanuri tomebi,romlebic Seerivnen kavkasiis abigenur mosaxleobas da moaxdines maTienobrivi asimilacia. X-XIII saukuneebSi Crdilo kavkasiis centralurnawilSi Seiqmna osebis Zlieri feodaluri saxelmwifo. XIII-XIV saukuneebSiTaTar-monRolTa da Temurlengis SemosevaTa Sedegad baris mosaxleobamkavkasionis qedis xeobebSi gadainacvla da Camoyalibda Tagauris,qurTaTis, alagiris da digoris sazogadoebebi. imave xanebSidaiwyo osebis damkvidreba kavkasionis samxreT kalTebze da gamoiyoosi xalxis samxreTi Sto. osebi emorCilebodnen qarTlis samefo xelisuflebasda calkeul saTavado saxlebs.osebis Sida qarTlSi dasaxleba umniSvnelovanesi iyo maTi mudmivisacxovreblis CamoyalibebisTvis. maT amiT uzrunvelyves dovlaTi daSeqmnes sazogadoeba, romelic qmnida nayofs, romelsac hqonda urTierTobebida gaaCnda faseulobebi. maTi Casaxleba Sida qarTlSi, saqar-Tvelos yvelaze qarTul regionSi, ganpirobebuli iyo sxvadasxva politikuri,ekonomikuri da saerTaSoriso faqtorebiT.termini `samxreT oseTi~ gamoqveynebuli werilebis seriaSi pirvelad1830 wels `tfiliski vedomostSi~ (72 - 88) gamoCnda. es iyo samxreTda CrdiloeT oseTis pirveli gamoyofa mTeli istoriis manZilze.urTierToba garTulda, rodesac 1922 wels ruseTis mier saqarTvelosokupaciis Semdeg bolSevikebma samxreT oseTi avtonomiur olqadgamoacxades.qarTul-osuri konfliqtis regionSi 1989 wlis omi yvelas gvaxsovs.omidan daaxloebiT 8 weli dasWirda imas, rom Camoyalibebuliyo ergneTisbazari, rac gamowveuli iyo cxinvalis maxloblad arsebuli347


ekonomika, biznesisoflebis mosaxleobis da cxinvalis mosaxleobisa moTxovniT. mandamdemWidro kavSiri iyo gorTan, magram goramde sakmaod didi manZiliaimisTvis, rom produqti SeiZino ojaxisTvis. amitom am regionis mosaxleobapirdapirproporciulad damokidebuli gaxda am bazarze. aq dasaqmebuliiyo 2000ze meti adamiani da 1000 mde arapirdapir. faqtobrivadmosaxleoba am bazriT cxovrobda.msgavsi situacia iyo galSi, rodesac Seiqmna erToblivi Tevzis meurneobaSedarebiT patara masStabebiT, magram masac igive efeqti hqonda,rogoric ergneTis bazars daiwyo iq dasaxlebuli xalxis daojaxeba,saerTo saqmem iq myof sazogadoebas Seuqmna saerTo interesebi, faseulobebi.2. konfliqtis gamomwvevi mizezebi,saerTo kompleqsi da ekonomikis adgili masSikonfliqtis gamomwvev mizezebze saubris dawyebamde saWiroa gamovyoTori aspeqti: mizezebi, romlebmac gamoiwvia konfliqti da mizezi,romelmac gamoiwvia uSualod omi, SeiaraRebuli Setakeba. saerTodlogikuria, rom jer or mxares Soris warmoiSveba garkveuli mizezebi,romlebic iwveves konfliqtur situacias, xolo Semdeg garaSe an sxvaraime Zalebis gavleniT aseTi dapirispireba izrdeba omSi.gareSe mizezebi SeiZleba iyos, dafinansebis wyaro da a.S.saWiroa SevadaroT erTmaneTs, romeli ufro jobda — ekonomikurisaqmianoba, romelic mimdinareobda ergneTSi, Tu misi daxurva?amis dasadgenad saWiroa gamovyoT ergneTis bazris dadebiTi dauaryofiTi mxareebi da Semdeg gavaanalizoT Tu rogor ganviTardebodamovlenebi misi datovebis SemTxvevaSi da daxurvis Semdeg. aris Tuara ergneTis daxurva erT-erTi motivatori cxinvalis mosaxleobis-Tvis ruseTis SemadgenlobaSi Sesvlisa?348


ekonomika, biznesiergneTis bazris funqcionirebis dadebiTi dauaryofiTi mxareebidadebiT mxareebiuaryofili mxareebi1. 3000 samuSao adgili1. kontrabanda2. naTesauri kavSirebismotivacia regionSi2. korumpirebuli sistema3. saerTo interesebibazarze4. aranairi kofliqti orerovnebas Soris5. Zalovani struqturebisTanamSromloba6. mosaxleobis mudmivimimosvla kofliqturregionSi3. baJis problema4. zarali yovelwliuradkontrabandulisaqonliT 120 000 000$(zaralSi igulisxmeba is,rom ubralod ar Sediodiis, rac am bazridan undaSesuliyo, magramdaxurvis Semdeg, xommainc ar Sevida)7. wili samxreT oseTisbiujetSi 80%aqedan gamomdinare, vxedavT regionSi saerTo problemas warmoadgenssagadasaxado sistema da misi regulirebis gzebi. kofliqturi situaciidangamomdinare, regionSi isedac unda arsebobdes garkveulidaTmobebi da gamartivebuli sagadasaxado sistema, raTa biznesis dakanonmdeblobis ar mcodne xalxma SeZlos biznesis ganviTareba (soflismeurneobis dargebidan) ekonomikuri dovlaTis Seqmna, sakuTariojaxisTvis da, aqedan gamomdinare, mTeli regionisTvis. miTumetes,rom aTeulobiT qarTuli da osuri sofeli iyo damokidebuli am bazrobisproduqciaze, saWiro iyo sursaTi, Sxam-qimikatebi, sawvavi, gazi,tansacmeli da sxva mravali. mTeli es regioni ergneTidan maragdebodagaziT. es logikuria, radganac manZili am soflebisaTvis gorsa dacxinvals Soris saqmaod didia. suraTi 1349


ekonomika, biznesisuraTi 1ergneTis bazris daxurvis dadebiTi da uaryofiTi mxareebidadebiT mxareebiuaryofili mxareebi1. sabaJo Semosavlebi 01.2004-08.2004 gaiazrda 107%-iT2. amoRebuli jarimebi 08.2004500 000 lari1. ekonomikuriurTierTobebis Sewyvetaregionis mcxovreblebsSoris2. cxinvalis biujetisdartyma3. sazogadoebisuaryofiTi ganwyobara Tqma unda, ganviTarebadi qveynisTvis mniSvnelovania korufciasada kontrabandasTan brZola, magram aseve gaasaTvaliswinebelia, romelijobia aukrefavi gadasaxadebi biznesidan, romlis gaqrobis Semdegam bazridan mainc araferi Semova, rasac daemateba konfliqtis gamwvaveba,Tu ergneTis bazris funqcionireba da mSvidi cxovreba. sruliadrealuri iyo bazris nel-nela reformireba, da misi Tavisufalekonomikur zonad gamocxadeba.350


ekonomika, biznesiruseTis dazverva da ra Tqma unda didi xania muSobda konfliqturisituaciebis Seqmnaze, Tanac sakmaod nayofierad. erT-erT magaliTswarmoadgens moZraoba `adamon nxasi~ (xalxis sityva).osuri mosaxleobis motivaciebisaqarTveloSi darCenismotivaciebiruseTisken ltolvismotivaciebi1. farTo avtonomia1. Zlieri ekonomika2. qalaqis rekonstruqcia2. maRali pensiebi3. xarisxiani da dabalifasis produqtimotivaciebi dRes osur mosaxleobas ruseTisken ltolvisa ekonomikissferoSi gacilebiT ufro didi aqvs, vidre kulturul an sxva sakiTxebisadmi.Tu gadavxedavT maslous an alderferis adamianis moTxovnilebaTapiramidas351


ekonomika, biznesiadamianis moTxovnilebebidan gamomdinare, ruseTSi isini xedavenpiramidis pirvel nawils. swored es aris xalxis motivaciis erT-erTimizezi. is rac Cven SeiZleba davpirdeT, ruseTSi ukve aris.bazris Camoyalibeba swored arsebobis saSualebebis alternativasSeqmnis konfiqtur regionSi.3. konfliqtis mogvarebis ekonomikuri berketebikonfliqtebis mogvarebis umniSvnelovanes berkets warmoadgensekonomika, ekonomikuri urTierTobebi. TviT ekonomikur urTierTobebSigamovyoT is aspeqtebi, romliTac SeiZleba urTierTobis awyobaor konfliqtur mxares Soris:• sasursaTo produqtiT vaWroba;• wvrilfexa da msxvilfexa saqonliT vaWroba;• soflis meurneobis dargebSi TanamSromloba;• teqnologiebi;• momsaxureba;• sabanko seqtori (paketebi);• sawarmoebi da Tavisufali ekonomikuri zona.ganvixiloT saTiTaod. produqtiT vaWrobaSi vgulisxmob yvela saxisproduqts. magaliTad, fqvili, Saqari, tkbileuli, zeTi da a.S. sworedes iyo mTavari berketi ergneTis bazris funqcionirebaSi. aseveara erTi SemTxveva iyo produqciis distribuciisa TbilisSi da gorSi.amisaTvis unda SeirCes adgili, sadac xeli miuwvdeba mosaxleobas orivemxridan.cxinvalis, qarTul soflebSi da osur soflebSi uamravi dResaswa-352


ekonomika, biznesiulia, romelsac yovelTvis erTad an calcake aRniSnavdnen. qarTulsoflebSi, gansakuTrebiT sofel eredvSi, saqonlis yvelaze didi myidvelebiiyvnen cxinvalelebi. mudvimad modiodnen da yidulobdnen saqonelsama Tu im dResaswaulisTvis. esec erT-erTi sakvanZo sakiTxiaqarTul osur urTierTobebSi.Tanamedrove samyaroSi adamianis yvelaze didi moTxovnileba saarsebosaSualebebis Semdeg aris teqnologiebi, iqneba es soflis meurneobisTvisganviTarebuli, Tu ubralod kompiuteri. saWiroa arsebulikonfliqturi regionebis maqsimalurad kompiuterizireba, rac iqnebasafuZveli momdevno informaciuli zemoqmedebisa.Cven viciT Tu, rogori mniSvnelovania sabanko seqtori biznesisganviTarebisTvis. amisTvis unda Camoyalibdes, paketebi da pirobebi,romelic rentabeluri iqneba bankebisTvis da aseve mimzidveli mosaxleobisTvisiafi sesxebi aris aseve erT-erTi mniSvnelovani berketiekonomikuri damokidebulebis SeqmnaSi.Tavisufali ekonomikuri zona aris idealuri gamosavali konfliqturregionSi, miT umetes, rom aseTi zoniT interesdeba bevri ucxourikompania, romelic konfliqtis daregulirebaSi did rols iTamaSebs.4. ekonomikuri proeqtebis implementirebisstrategia konfliqtur regionSiekonomikuri urTierTobebi romelic mimdinareobda or konfliqturzonaSi ar iyo inicirebuli saxelmwifos mier. arsebuli bazrebiwarmoiSva TavisTavad, TviTregulirebiT. is warmoSva adamianurmamoTxovnilebebma.Tu gadavxedavT 1989 wels dawyebul oms saqarTvelosa da samxreToseTs Soris aranaklebi sisastikiT da daRupulTa raodenobiT gamoirCeoda,adgili hqonda Sovinistur afeTqebebs. Zalian xSiri iyo wamebisfaqtebi orive mxridan, rasac xSirad mohyveboda garTulebebi. magramgavida daaxloebiT aTi weli da es yvelaferi qarTvelebs da osebsaRar axsendebodaT erTmaneTis danaxvisas da gverdigverd vaWrobisas,isini erTad muSaobdnen maRazziebSi da erTad dadiodnen savaWrod rogorccxinvalSi, aseve qarTul soflebSic. uproblemod gadaadgildebodayvela, amuSavda sazogadoebrivi transporti, ramac aseve xeli Seuwyomimosvlis aRdgenas. arsebobda ekonomikuri damokidebulebaorive mxares Soris.dRes erT-erTi umTavresi aspeqti konfliqtebis mogvarebaSi unda353


ekonomika, biznesiiyos ekonomikuri berketebi.strategiis mTavar sakvanZo sakiTxs warmoadgens ekonomikuri damokidebulebisSeqmna konfliqtur regionSi. wina magaliTebidan gamomdinare.arsebuli proeqtis nayofi saSualod 8 - dan 12 wlis Semdegaris SesaZlebeli.arsebobs ra Tqma unda sakiTxebi, romlebic maSin ar idga dRis wesrigSi.magaliTad, ruseTis jari ar idga im masStabiT, romlebzec exlaa,magram exla aseve Cven dadebiT da motivator mxared SeiZleba CaiTvalosis, rom am saxis proeqti SeuZlia gaakeTos TviTon xelisuflebam.umTavresi roli konfliqtis mogvarebaSi ekisreba xelisuflebisstrategiis. magram, miuxedavad amisa arsebuli saqme aris grZelvadiani,magram Cndeba realuri Sansi imisa, rom amxela drois ganmavlobaSior dapirispul mxares gauCndeba saerTo saqme.pirveli etapi strategiis SemuSavebisa iqneba im proeqtis an produqciismoZebda romelzec damokidebuli iqneba ojaxis an pirovnebisfunqcionireba. am saxis produqtis povnis Semdeg, saWiroa masze moTxovnisda damokidebulebis Camoyalibeba im regionSi, romlis mogvarebasacvcdilobT anu regions unda Seuwydes arsebuli produqtis wyarosxva adgilebidan, raTa xalxi gaxdes iZulebuli mimarTos adgilssadac vaxdenT mis realizacias strategiulad.erT-erTi Smaferxebeli am SemTxvevaSi rusi samxedroebia, magramTu Cven daukvirdebiT maT fsiqologias da pirobebs, anu Tu kargad SeviswavliTmaT, SeiZleba davuSvaT is, rom, ubralod, Tundac maTi Car-TviT, Sesabamisi benefitiT kavSiri or mxares Soris.arsebuli proeqtis implementireba kofliqtur regionSi, arisstrategiulad mniSvnelovani.daskvnara Tqma unda, 12 gverdSi Znelia CavtioT ekonomikuri berketebismniSvneloba da maTi implementirebis strategia. saWiroa sakmaod detaluri,daxvewili, kargi makrogaremos analiziT Seqmnili grZelvadianistrategia. gare politikuri urTierTobiT, erTi SexedviT, SeuZlebeliCans kofliqtis mogvareba, aucilebelia, rom konfliqtis mogvarebisprocesSi CarTuli iyos TiTieuli moqalaqe, TiToeuls unda hqondesgaTvicnobierebuli urTierTobis da TanamSromlobis aucilebloba, xoloamis miRweva ki yvelaze realuri mxolod ekonomikuri damokidebulebiTda adamianis saarsebo wyaroebis manipulirebiT aris SesaZlebeli.354


ekonomika, biznesidemetre demetraSvili, aleqsandre TarxniSvilissip goris universiteti, bakalavriatis studentiruseT-saqarTvelos omi da msoflios ekonomikurikrizisis gavlena qarTul samSeneblo bizneszexelmZRvaneli: profesori giuli giguaSvilistabilur ekonomikaSi cxovreba yvela adamianis sanukvari ocnebaa,radgan igi uzrunvelyofs warmatebis SesaZleblobas da sazogadoebasicavs arasasurveli moulodnelobebisagan. Znelia am ocnebis axdenadRevandel saqarTveloSi, sadac mimdinareobs erTi ekonomikuri sistemidanmeoreze gadasvla. Tumca, bevr iseT qveyanaSic ki, sadac demokratiada sabazro ekonomika didi xania arsebobs, mudmivi ekonomikuristabiluroba aseve rCeba miuwvdomel miznad.2008 weli gardamtexi aRmoCnda saqarTvelosvis. qveyanaSi ganviTarebulmamovlenebma, ruseTis agresiam da msoflio finansurma krizismasaqarTvelos ekonomikaze seriozuli zegavlena moaxdina.ekonomikuri krizisi yvelaze ufro metad safinanso da samSenebloseqtorebs Seexo. faqtobrivad, 2008 wlis dasawyisisTvis sabanko sistemisaqtivebma 8 miliards gadaaWarba, rac qveynis mTliani Sida produqtis40%-ze metia. swored aman gamoiwvia is aJiotaJi, rac sabanko sferoSiSeqmnil mdgomareobas mohyva, radgan sabanko sferoSi arsebulmdgomareobaze mniSvnelovnadaa damokidebuli qveynis ekonomikurimdgomareoba. garkveulwilad aRsaniSnavia, 2008 wlis erovnuli bankispolitika, romelmac qveyanas sabanko krizisi mniSvnelovnad aacila.2008 wlamde erT-erTi warmatebuli sfero qarTul ekonomikaSi sam-Seneblo seqtori iyo. iseve rogorc sabanko sferoSi, aqac rTuli viTarebaSeiqmna. problemebi samSeneblo bazarze pirdapir kavSirSia bankebismier ipoTekur sesxebze saprocento ganakveTebis zrdasTan, radganmyidvelebis umetesoba saqarTveloSi swored ipoTekuri sesxebiT sargeblobda.finansuri krizisis pararelurad mTel msoflioSi uZravqonebaze moTxovna mcirdeba, saqarTveloSic moTxovna Semcirda, gansakuTrebiTomis Semdeg.ruseT-saqarTvelos omisa da msoflio ekonomikuri krizisis Sedegad,saqarTveloSi ucxouri investiciebis Semodineba Senelda. investiciebiSewyda TiTqmis yvela mimarTulebiT. yvela molaparakeba am sakiTxTandakavSirebiT gaurkveveli vadiT gadaido. oficialuri statistikisTanaxmad, 2008 wels saqarTveloSi Semosulma investiciebma355


ekonomika, biznesi1,1 mlrd dolari Seadgina, rac 2007 welTan SedarebiT, 600 mln-iT naklebia.erovnuli bankis mier Catarebuli kvlevis SedegebiT, 2009 wels saqarTveloskerZo seqtorSi 1,74 miliardi aSS dolaris wminda Semodinebaiyo. wels Cvens qveyanaSi mTliani pirdapiri ucxouri investiciebissaxiT daaxloebiT 815 milioni, xolo portfeluri investiciebissaxiT, 33 mln aSS dolari Semovida, xolo, rac Seexeba erTobliv sesxebsada sxva saxsrebs, erovnulma bankma 1 miliardi aSS dolari moizida.eqspertebi miiCneven, rom pirdapiri investiciebis moculoba Zalianmcirea da mis gasazrdelad saWiroa ekonomikis saministros mier damatebiTiRonisZiebebis gatareba. amasTan, rac SeiZleba meti kapitaliunda iqnes moziduli da unda moxdes qveynis sazRvrebs gareT qarTulibiznesis lobirebis gaZliereba.2008 wlis agvistomde saqarTvelo biznesis iolad wamowyebis TvalsazrisiT181 qveyanas Soris 15 adgilze imyofeboda. es monacemebi dakvlevebi Doing Business ekuTvnis. magram es mxolod biznesis iolad wamowyebisTvalsazrisiT mieniWa saqarTvelos me-15 adgili da ara misidaculobisa da xelSeuxeblobis. magram ruseT-saqarTvelos konfliqtmaes viTarebac Secvala da axal monacemebSi, SesaZloa, 2005 wlismdgomareobas davubrundeT da isev me-100 adgili davikavoT, radganbolo periodSi ganviTarebulma movlenebma — omma e.w. samxreT oseTSi,es situacia sagrZnoblad Secvala da investorisTvis momxiblavi qveyanaisev saSiS da biznesis wamowyebisaTvis riskis Semcvel zonad aqcia.Tumca, Cveni `moxerxebulobisa~ da `swori politikis~ meSveobiT,`prestiJuli~ me-15 adgili SesaZloa isev SevinarCunoT da investorsam poziciidan movawonoT Tavi.agvistos daZabuli dReebis Semdeg saqarTvelom saerTaSoriso organizaciebisaTu dasavleTis saxelmwifoebisagan araerTi daxmarebamiiRo. Cveni qveynis mxardasaWerad saqarTveloSi sxvadasxva biznesjgufebic Camodiodnen da investiciis Cadebaze mzadyofnas gamoTqvamdnen,Tumca aseTi vizitebi mxolod sityvieri mxardaWera ufro iyo,vidre realuri qmedeba. seqtembris dasawyisSi saqarTvelos jer amerikuli`dohen jgufis~ direqtori ewvia da parlamentis sagareo urTierTobaTakomitetis TavmjdomaresTan laSa JvaniasTan Sexvedraze saqarTvelosadmimxardaWera gamoxata. is saqarTvelos mTavrobas dahpirda,rom saqarTveloSi investiciebs ganaxorcielebda. es jgufi sam-Seneblo biznesiTaa dakavebuli, magram Cvens qveyanaSi ra tipis investirebasganaxorcielebs, es jer gaurkvevelia. Tumca mTavari ara martomxardaWeris gamoxatva, aramed biznessaqmianobis wamowyebaa, rac356


ekonomika, biznesiqarTuli ekonomikis ganviTarebisaTvis am etapze gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania.amitom ucxoeli biznesmenebis Camosvla da dapireba biznesiswamowyebaze, mxolod dapirebad ar unda darCes da saqmed unda gadaiqces.saqarTvelosTan mimarTebaSi evropuli interesebis zrdaze agvistosmovlenebma katalizatoriviT imoqmeda. bolo xanebSi, saqarTvelosgansakuTrebiT bevri evropeli lideri da sagareo uwyebis warmomadgeneliestumra. isini qveynis teritoriul mTlinobasa da suverenitetserTxmad uWeren mxars. politikur garantiebTan erTad saqarTvelomevropisgan finansuri mxardaWerac miiRo. 2008 wlis bolos briuselSigaimarTa donorTa konferencia, saidanac saqarTvelom 4,5 miliardidolaris odenobis daxmareba miiRo. evropelTa moTxovnaa, rom esTanxa saqarTvelos ekonomikis reaminirebas moxmardes da miznobrivadgaixarjos.Cveni xelisuflebis warmomadgenlebi aqtiurad amtkiceben da acxadeben,rom saomari viTarebis miuxedavad investiciebis Cadeba biznesseqtorSi isev aqtiurad mimdinareobs. amis erT-erT magaliTad ebraulinvesticiebs asaxeleben, romelTac, Seqmnili situaciis gamoc, erTiwamiTac ar SeuCerebiaT biznessaqmianoba. amasTanave, saxeldebian is investorebic,romlebsac ukve wamowyebuli hqondaT biznessaqmianoba saqarTveloSida arc maT uTqvamT uari mis gagrZelebaze.omis Semdeg saqarTvelo sayovelTao yuradRebis centrSia. Cveniqveynis mdgomareobis Sesaxeb ucxoeli politikosebi da analitikosebibevrs saubroben. saqarTvelos Temas sakmao adgili eTmoba ucxourpresaSi. gavleniani ucxouri Jurnal-gazeTebis mTavari Tema, ra Tqmaunda, ruseT-saqarTvelos urTierTobebia. erTi SexedviTac kargadCans, rom saqarTvelos farglebs gareT Cvens qveyanaSi mimdinare movlenebsufro naklebi emociiTa da civi gonebiT ukeTeben analizs, vidrees CvenTan xdeba. aseTive ganwyobaa ucxour presaSi.saqarTvelosa da ukrainis natoSi gawevrianebasTan dakavSirebiTbritaneTis strategiuli kvlevebis saerTaSoriso institutis poziciauaRresad sainteresoa, romelic Financial Time‐ma da The Independent‐magaavrcela. britaneli mkvlevarebi natos urCeven, rom saqarTvelosada ukrainis aliansSi miRebiT ruseTi ufro metad ar gaaRizianos.strategiuli kvlevebis saerTaSoriso institutis yovelwliur angariSSiaRniSnulia, rom saqarTvelos xelisuflebis upasuxismgebloqmedebam, roca man Zalis gamoyenebiT moindoma separatistul regionzekontrolis aRdgena, qveynis natoSi gawevrianebis Sansi Seamcira. racSeexeba ukrainas, misi aliansSi miRebis mizanSeuwonlobis argumentad,357


ekonomika, biznesibritanelebs qveynis SigniT mosaxleobis natosadmi araerTsulovanidamokidebuleba miaCniaT. angariSSi aseve saubaria natos gafarToebas-Tan dakavSirebiT gaerTianebuli samefosa da amerikis SeerTebuli StatebisazrTa sxvadasxvaobaze. aliansSi gawevrianeba uaRresad did zegavlenasmoaxdens qarTul ekonomikis simyaresa da ganviTarebaze, aqedangamomdinare saqarTvelom yvelaferi unda gaakeTos am kuTxiT.dRes saqarTveloSi ara mxolod finansuri krizisi, aramed saqar-TveloSi aris aSkarad recesia anu ekonomikuri zrdis dacema. msofliofinansuri krizisi, romelic ukve gadazrdilia ekonomikur recesiaSi,uTuod gavlenas moaxdens saqarTvelos ekonomikaze imdenad, ramdenadacsaqarTvelos ekonomika ukve aris integrirebuli msoflio ekonomikaSi.Cven Zalian cota produqcia gagvaqvs eqsportze, samagierod saqarTvelosSemoaqvs 4-5-jer ufro meti produqcia, vidre gaaqvT. produqciisSemotana da gatana aris niSani saqarTvelos msoflio ekonomikaSiintegraciisa. msoflio ekonomikaSi mimdinare prognozebi gavlenasaxdens im qveynebis ekonomikebze, saidanac produqcia Semogvaqvs.bunebrivia, rom es krizisuli procesi saqarTvelos ekonomikaze pirdapirproporciulgavlenas moaxdens.bolodroindeli movlenebi — msoflio ekonomikuri krizisi, ruseT-saqarTvelosomi, sainvesticio garemos gauareseba, umuSevrobiszrda kidev ufro gausaZlisi gaxada ekonokmiurad isedac SeWirvebuliadamianebis bedi. sanugeSo verc is mravalTviani programebia, sadac xelisuflebaxalxs dasaqmebas hpirdeba.miuxedavad yvelafrisa, qarTveli eqspertebi da diplomatebi miiCneven,rom evropam saqarTvelosken kargi TvaliT gamoixeda da es isSansia, romelic qveyanam TavisTvis sasikeTod unda gamoiyenos. axlamTavaria, rogor upasuxebs saqarTvelo evropis mzaobas, daexmaros masmZime krizisidan gamosvlaSi.agvistos Semdeg, momxmarebelma Tavi Seikava uZravi qonebis SeZenisgan.erTi Tvis ganmavlobaSi gayidvebi, faqtobrivad, ar mimdinareobda.aseve Seferxda mSeneblobebi, Sewyda bankebis mier sesxebis gacema. esrTuli procesi, zogadad, yvela samSeneblo kompaniam gamoscada. sazogadoebismxridan kompaniebis ndoba kritikul sakiTxad iqca. es ZiriTadadsamSeneblo kompaniebis mogebis Semcirebis xarjze moxda. kompaniebismogeba TiTqmis miuaxlovda TviTRirebulebis zRvars. fasebis jerjerobiTamaze metad Semcireba ar aris mosalodneli da arc gamarTlebuliiqneba, radgan am SemTxvevaSi dausrulebeli darCeba mSeneblobebi.samSeneblo kompaniebi fasebs im SemTxvevaSi, Seamcirebs. Tu samSeneblomasalebis fasebi daiwevs.358


ekonomika, biznesimsoflio ekonomikurma krizisma da agvistoSi ganviTarebulma movlenebmamniSvnelovnad imoqmeda samSeneblo biznesze, romelic qarTuliekonomikis yvelaze warmatebul seqtorad iTvleboda. dReisTvismSeneblobebis 90% droebiT SeCerebulia da erT dros dinamikuradganviTarebadi dargi krizisis periodSia. uZravi qonebis pirvelad dameorad bazarze gayidvebis raodenoba mniSvnelovnad Semcirda da viTarebaaraprognozirebadia.ekonomikuri krizisis Sedegad dazaralebul developerul kompaniaTaricxvs miekuTvnebian: `kala kapitali~, `aqsisi~, `centr pointi jgufi~,`iberia~, `kalasi~, `bagebi siTi jgufi~, `magi stili~, `sasko~, `arsi~,`moduli~ da a.S.ukanaskneli erTi wlis ganmavlobaSi mkveTrad gaizarda yvela imkomponentis fasi, risganac uZravi qonebis Rirebuleba Sedgeba. pirvelrigSi es aris samSeneblo masalebi, miwa, romelzec mSenebloba undaganxorcieldes, am faqtorebma uZravi qonebis TviTRirebulebis zrdaganapiroba, ramac gasayid faszec imoqmeda.im pirobebSi, rodesac potenciuri myidvelis Semosavali ar imatebs,is, Sesabamisad, veRar axerxebs ufro maRali fasis gadaxdas. es kiar aZlevs kompaniebs SesaZleblobas gazardon uZravi qonebis fasi. esan mogebas amcirebs, an imis mixedviT, ramdenad izrdeba TviTRirebulebamogebis miRebas saerTod SeuZlebels xdis.samSeneblo seqtori erT-erTi yvelaze realurad momgebiani segmentiasabanko seqtoris Semdeg. es is dargebia, sadac mogebis marJa 300%-dan 400%-mde adis, rac imas niSnavs, rom es seqtorebi Zalian did zemogebasRebuloben, vinaidan maT mier Seqmnil produqcias myidveli hyavs.swored es ganapirobebs mogebis maRal marJas. samSeneblo seqtori dReisaTvissaqarTveloSi krizisul mdgomareobaSia, es aSkarad unda iTqvas.mTlianadsaqarTvelos ekonomikaSi da, maT Soris samSeneblo seqtorSickrizisia. saqarTvelos ekonomikaSi krizisis gamomwvevad samimizezi gamoiyofa: msoflio finansuri krizisis zegavlena, ruseT-saqarTvelosSoris ganviTarebuli agvistos cnobili movlenebi da sustisaxelmwifo ekonomikuri menejmenti. saxelmwifo saTanado doniT daxarisxiT ver uzrunvelyofs qveynis ekonomikis marTvas da regulirebas.Zalian bevrma samSeneblo kompaniam aRiara, rom maT problemebi SeeqmnaT.aseTebia iseTi msxvili kompaniebi rogoreebicaa: `arsi~, `aqsisi~,`centr-pointi~. krizisi imaSi mdgomareobs, rom, jer erTi, binebisgayidva ukve problemis winaSe dadga, meore problema aris is, rom maTaxali mSeneblobebis dasawyebad sabrunavi saxsrebi ar aqvT, xolo saxsrebiimitom ar aqvT, rom warmoebul produqts anu binebs ver hyidian,359


ekonomika, biznesididi problemaa sabanko sesxebis miRebac.biznesze 2008 wlis agvistos movlenebis gavlenis Sesafasebladaxalgazrda ekonomistTa asociaciis mier Catarebuli kvlevis farglebSigamokiTxuli 1000 biznesmenidan 700-ma aRniSna, rom omis Semdgomgayidvebis procesi garTulda. sainteresoa, rom krizisulimdgomareoba did kompaniebze kidev ufro metad aisaxa, vidre mcire zomiskompaniebze. gamokiTxulTa 71%-i miiCnevs, rom gayidvebis moculobamomxmareblis moTxovnis naklebobis gamo Semcirda.uZravi qonebis pirvelad da meorad bazarze gayidvebis raodenobamniSvnelovnad Semcirda da viTareba araprognozirebadia. aseve cnobilia,rom problemebi samSeneblo biznesSi jer kidev omamde daiwyo. racSeexeba biznesSi fasis klebas, TiTqmis yvela kompania ambobs, rom fasebisklebis tendencia mkveTrad SeiniSneba.2008 wlis seqtembridan moyolebuli dRemde (yofili sabWoTa kavSirisqveynebs Soris) saqarTvelo uZravi qonebis gaiafebis TvalsazrisiTerT-erTi lideri qveyanaa, sadac fasebi 42%-iT Semcirda. am mxrivgviswrebs mxolod riga, sadac krizisis gamo 53%-iani vardna dafiqsirda,xolo rac Seexeba kievs aq fasebis Sekvecam 39%s miaRwia.analitikosebis TqmiT, yofil sabWoTa dedaqalaqebSi binebis fasebiscvlilebebis sxvadasxva dinamika ara mxolod globaluri krizisisgavleniT, aramed lokaluri politikuri da ekonomikuri mizezebiTaagamowveuli. specialistebis azriT TbilisSi fasebis Semcirebis maRalitempi ruseT-saqarTvelos SeiaraRebul konfliqtsa da ruseTisekonomikur blokadas ukavSirdeba. ukrainis SemTxvevaSi ki es ekonomikisarasakmarisma simyarem gamoiwvia, romelic globaluri krizisis-Tvis yvelaze moumzadebeli aRmoCnda da qveynis mSp 20%-iT Semcirda.yvelaze naklebad binebze fasebis kleba yirgizeTis, somxeTisa damoldovas dedaqalaqebSi dafiqsirda. aq gaiafebis masStabma 16-dan 21procentis farglebs miaRwia. eqspertTa SefasebiT krizisamde bazarzefasebis xelovnurad gazrdis ararsebobiT aixsna. rac Seexeba fasebsdReisaTvis kvadratuli metri sacxovrebeli talinSi 1200 dolariRirs, minskSi 1350, baqoSi 1300, moskovSi 4500, erevanSi ki 850 dolari.saqarTveloSi ki es fasi 500 dolaridan iwyeba da 750 dolars aRwevs.dasaxelebuli mizezebis da aseve Cven qveyanaSi arsebuli developerebismier ganxorcielebuli araswori menejmentis bralia is, rom dResTbilisSi TiTqmis arc erTi dasrulebuli mSenebloba ar arsebobs.dResdReobiT arsebuli statistikis Tanaxmad, uZrav qonebaze klientebisgamococxleba SeiniSneba, Tumca bazari am dromde sustia dalaparaki mis gaZlierebaze naadrevia. amitomac developerebi Tanxmde-360


ekonomika, biznesibian, rom 5 an 8 milionad Sefasebuli proeqtebis ganxorcielebam SesaZloakompanias seriozuli xarji da problema moutanos, amitomac isiniaseTi proeqtebis dawyebas ar apireben. fasebis zrdas samSenebloseqtori ama wlis oqtombridan elodeba, optimizmis safuZvels kimsoflio bazris gamococxleba iZleva, sadac zrda neli, Tumca ukvemkafiod gamoxatulia.im fonze roca statistikis departamenti da samSeneblo kompaniebibiznesis gamococxlebis Sesaxeb saubroben, eqspertebi am seqtorSi regulirebiszomebis gamkacrebaze laparakoben. maTi TqmiT, saxelmwifomxeli unda Seuwyos samSeneblo seqtoris gamWvirvaleobis donis amaRlebas;unda arsebobdes saxelmwifo zedamxedeelobis samsaxuri, romelicmiiRebs da yovelkvartalurad gamoaqveynebs informacias samSeneblokompaniebis saqmianobis Sesaxeb. es iqneba mtkivneuli, magramdargis civilurobis done amaRldeba.developerebis nawili iniciatviT gamodis, rom erovnulma bankmagauwios kontroli samSeneblo kompaniebs. radganac erovnuli banki zedamxedvelobasuwevs komerciul bankebs, komerciuli bankebi ki afinansebendeveloperebs. garda amisa, developeruli kompaniebi finansuriinstitutebia da, rogorc sxva finansur institutebs, mis zedamxedvelobasacerovnuli banki unda axorcielebdes. ra gadawyvetilebas mii-Rebs erovnuli banki, es dReisTvis ucnobia.fasebi samSeneblo produqciaze uTuod daecemoda, vinaidan jererTi, is, rom moTxovna mosaxleobaSi fulis arqonis gamo dabali iyo,miwodeba anu produqcia ukve Seqmnili, amitom garkveuli drois gasvlisSemdeg, roca kompaniis warmomadgenlebi, rom maT mier dasaxelebulfasad ver yidian produqcias, iZulebulni xdebian dawion fasebi.samSeneblo produqciaze fasebis dawevis meore faqtori is aris, romsamSeneblo produqciaze fasebi daeca, rac msoflio bazarze metalis,cementis da sxva samSeneblo konstruqciaze fasebis SemcirebiT iyo gamowveuli;es, Tavis mxriv, msoflio krizisis gavlenaa. yovelive aman,bunebrivia, adgilobrivi samSeneblo kompaniebis mier warmoebuli produqciisfasze imoqmeda da fasebi Semcirda.ruseT-saqarTvelos omamde saqarTvelos samSeneblo bazarze sxvasituacia SeiniSneboda. mkveTrad gaizarda yvela im komponentis fasi,risganac uZravi qonebis Rirebuleba Sedgeba. pirvel rigSi es aris sam-Seneblo masalebi, miwa, romelzec mSenebloba unda ganxorcieldes,aseve gaizarda mSeneblobaze dasaqmebulTa anazRaurebac. yvela am faqtormauZravi qonebis TviTRirebulebis zrda ganapiroba, ramac gasayidfaszec imoqmeda. kompaniebs, romlebsac uZravi qonebis gasayidi361


ekonomika, biznesifasi ar gauzrdiaT, mogeba mkveTrad SeumcirdaT. im pirobebSi, rodesacpotenciuri myidvelis Semosavali ar imatebs, is, Sesabamisad, ve-Rar axerxebs ufro maRali fasis gadaxdas. es ki ar aZlevs kompaniebsSesaZleblobas gazardos uZravi qonebis fasi, rac an mogebas amcirebs,an imis mixedviT, ramdenad izrdeba TviTRirebuleba mogebis miRebassaerTod SeuZlebels xdis.samSeneblo kompaniebs realizaciis problema daudgaT da, aqedangamomdinare, axali mSeneblobis dawyebis SesaZlebloba umcirdebaT.mSeneblobis moculobis Semcirebas TavisTavad samuSao adgilebis Semcirebamohyveba. amgvar viTarebaSi mcire menaSeneebs eqmnebaT seriozuliproblemebi da SeiZleba gakotrebis pirasac ki mividnen. SedarebiTmsxvil samSeneblo kompaniebs aqvT saimiso resursi, raTa arseboba ganagrZon,Tundac mkveTrad Semcirebuli moculobiT. magram kompaniebs,romlebic, magaliTad, mxolod erT saxls aSenebdnen, bunebrivia, maTkvlavwarmoebis problemebi gauCndebaT. Tveebis ganmavlobaSi mniSvnelovnadgaizarda sabanko kreditis procenti, rac aseve aZvirebs aSenebuliuZravi qonebis Rirebulebas. mcire sawarmoebs ki ar hyofniT sakuTariresursebi axali mSeneblobis ganxorcielebisaTvis.ipoTekuri sesxis xelmisawvdomoba, 2008 welTan SedarebiT, TiTqmis9 procentiT Semcirda. 2009 wels aseTi saxis krediti mxolod 62 aTasmamoqalaqem miiRo. amis miuxedavad, uZravi qonebis bazarze 2009 wels dafiqsirebulimonacemebi saqarTvelos ekonomikis zrdaze miuTiTebs.uZravi qonebis bazarze zrdis maCvenebeli ZiriTadad wlis meore naxevarSiSeimCneva da mTavrobaSi miaCniaT, rom dafiqsirebuli indikatorebi2010 wels ekonomikis zrdaze mianiSnebs. uZravi qonebis saagentoebSiarsebuli statistikiT, 2009 wlis meore naxevridan erT da oroTaxianibinebis gayidvebma 10-15%-iT moimata. yvelaze kargad erT daoroTaxiani binebi iyideba. gayidvebis maCvenebliT rogori iqneba 2010weli, prognozireba rTulia. rac Seexeba fasebs, erToTaxiani binebisRirebuleba centralur raionebSi 35-dan 40 aTas, 2-oTaxianis ki 50-dan80 aTas dolaramde meryeobs. gareubnebSi erToTaxiani binebis Rirebuleba20-dan 25 aTas, 2-oTaxianis ki 25-dan 35 aTas dolaramdea. gayidvebiszrdaze saubrobs developerebis nawilic.eqspertebis SefasebiT, am droisTvis uZrav qonebaze fasebi ucvlelia,Tumca SemodgomisTvis, dasrulebuli binebis deficitis gamo, SesaZlebeliabinebze fasma daaxloebiT 10%-iT moimatos. saqstatis cnobiT,samSeneblo seqtorSi gamococxleba SeiniSneba. uZravi qonebis bazarzeaqtivoba gacilebiT dabalia, vidre 2007-2008 wlebSi. Tumca 2009wlis pirvel kvartalTan SedarebiT rogorc brunvis, ise nawarmoebi362


ekonomika, biznesiproduqciis da muSaTa dasaqmebis TvalsazrisiT zrda saxezea. 2009wlis meore kvartalSi samSeneblo seqtorSi 27 040 adamiani iyo dasaqmebuli.es maCvenebeli pirveli kvartlis Sedegs daaxloebiT 4 aTasiTaRemateba.eqspertebis nawilis azriT, samSeneblo biznesis gamococxleba da10-procentiani zrda mosalodnelia gazafxuli-zafxulis sezonze.samSeneblo kompaniebi ZiriTadad sakuTari saxsrebis moZiebis xarjzegaaqtiurdnen. vinaidan zafxulSi samSeneblo samuSaoebis warmoeba ufroadvilia. amasTan, samSeneblo kompaniebi cdiloben, mSeneblobebidaasrulon, amitom isini fasebis Semcirebis gziT midian. am etapze uZraviqonebis bazarze TeTri karkasis fasis qveda zRvari 450-500 dolaria.es fasi ZiriTadad e.w. araprestiJul ubnebSi, ekonomklasis binebzefiqsirdeba. prestiJul ubnebSi ki fasebi faqtobrivad xeluxlebeliada 1 kvadratuli metris fasi 1800 dan 3000 dolaramde meryeobs.bolo wlebSi samSeneblo dargSi Seqmnili problemebis didi nawili agvistosomisa da msoflio finansuri krizisis dadgomamdec ki iyo mosalodneli.im finansuri sistemis logikur dasasruls, romlis mixedvi-Tac dargi muSaobda, gardauvali kraxi warmoadgenda.dargis muSaobis finansuri meqanizmi ZiriTadad winaswari gayidvebidanmiRebul Semosavals eyrdnoboda anu bankidan an investorebidanmisaRebi saxsrebis masStabebi logikurad SemosazRvruli iyo miwis RirebulebiT,xolo Semdgomi mSenebloba absoluturad damokidebuliiyo winaswar gayidvebze. bazarze gaZlierebulma konkurenciam da produqtisbunebrivma mxarem (fiuCersulma kontraqtebma) menaSeneebi ai-Zula, winaswari gayidvebi moexdinaT ganvadebebiT. Tavidan ganvadebebiproeqtis xangrZlivobiT (2-3 weli) Semoifargleboda, SemdegSi ki maTixangrZlivoba 10-15 weliwadze avida. finansuri modelidan gamomdinare,menaSeneebi mSeneblobis tempebis SesanarCuneblad iZulebulebi iyvnenmTeli proeqtis 80% mainc gaeyidaT, rom mimdinare SemosavlebidaefinansebinaT. sxva SemTxvevaSi ganvadebis grafikebi mSeneblobistempebs ver uzrunvelyofda. saqme is aris, rom gayidvebisa da mSeneblobistempebis aseTi urTierTmimarTebis SemTxvevaSi, nebismier proeqtSidgeba momenti, roca winaswari gayidvebiT gaformebuli kontraqtebismasStabebi gacilebiT uswrebs mSeneblobis biujetis Sesrulebas,rac avtomaturad ganapirobebs finansuri riskebis maRal dones.konkretul proeqtebSi Semosavlebis 80% winaswargansazRvrulia momdevnosami wlis ganmavlobaSi, xarjebis 80% ki — ganusazRvreli (metnaklebadprognozirebadi, magram mainc ganusazRvreli). aseT SemTxvevaSi,Tu proeqtis msvlelobisas aRmoCndeba, rom biujetis prognizi-363


ekonomika, biznesirebuli xarjviTi nawili 10%-iT gaizrdeba, darCenil gasayid farTebzefasebi 50%-iT mainc unda gaizardos, rom proqeti igive (dagegmil)mogebaze gavides.~swored es momenti daedo safuZvlad finansuri piramidebis mSeneblobasdargSi. erTprocentiani inflacia xarjviT nawilSi avtomaturadiwvevda 2-5-jer da met zrdas fasebSi, ramac dargi bevri `biznesmenisaTvis~mimzidveli gaxada. vinaidan seqtorSi Sesasvlelad praqtikuladaraviTari barierebi ar arsebobda, dargi ormag wnexs ganicdida —fasebis zrdis aucileblobas da sul ufro da ufro mzard konkurencias.SoTa modebaZis azriT, fasebis mudmivad zrda, Tan im tempebiT,rac mogebis SenarCunebisaTvis iyo aucilebeli, SeuZlebeli iyo.amitomac bevri samSeneblo proeqti wamgebiani aRmoCnda. Tumca axladgamoCenili konkurentebis mozRvavebam da gasayidi fasebis mudmivadzrdam miwebze fasebis aweva gamoiwvia, ramac sul ufro da ufro araprognozirebulida savalalo gaxada dargis momavali.saxelmwifom xeli unda Seuwyos samSeneblo seqtoris gamWvirvalobisdonis amaRlebas. unda Camoyalibdes saxelmwifo zedamxedvelobissamsaxuri, romelic miiRebs da yovelkvartalurad gamoaqveynebs informaciassamSeneblo kompaniebis saqmianobis Sesaxeb. es mtkivneuliprocesi iqneba, magram dargis civilurobis donis amaRleba momavlisefeqtianobasTan aris dakavSirebuli da es nabiji, adre Tu gvian, gadasadgmelia.eqspertebis azriT, unda dawesdes licenzirebis principi,upirvelesad sawesdebo kapitalis minimaluri donis gansazRvriT. bevrigamoucdeli kompania, romelic araviTar kapitals ar flobs, nelnelaunda gamoeyos bazars — Seerwyas sxvas.eqspertebis azriT, bolo etapze unda Camoyalibdes finansuri normativebi,romlis mixedviTac moxdeba developeruli seqtoris marTva.aseTi normativebidan yvelaze mniSvnelovania winaswari gayidvebisa dasaerTo biujetis urTierTTanafardobis koeficientis dadgena, asevesavaluto poziciebTan dakavSirebuli koeficientebi. unda SeizRudosgrZelvadiani ganvadebebi da fulis winaswar miRebis praqtika, rac avtomaturadsabanko produqtebiT maT Canacvlebas gamoiwvevs.Cveni azriT, Tu qveyanam investorTa ndoba ver aRidgina, krizisiuZravi qonebis bazarze gardauvalia. menaSeneTa umetesoba winaswarigayidvebiTa da, Sesabamisad, nakisri valdebulebebiT axorcielebdayoveli axali proeqtis mSeneblobas. amitom Tu qveyanaSi ekonomikurisituacia ar gaumjobesda, menaSeneebTan erTad momxmareblebic dazaraldebian.finansurma krizisma bankebi da samSeneblo biznesi erTmaneTs ga-364


ekonomika, biznesidahkida. samSeneblo kompaniebi, romlebic bankebis umsxvilesi klientebiiyvnen gayidvebis Cavardnis gamo sesxebis gadaxda gauWirdaT dagakotrebis safrTxec daemuqraT. aqedan gamomdinare, samSeneblo kompaniebmadaxmarebisaTvis, erTis mxriv, bankebs, meores mxriv, mTavrobasmimarTes. am ukanasknelma maT finansur mxardaWeraze kategoriuli uariganacxada. qveyanaSi ganviTarebul krizisul situaciaSi mizanSewoniladmigvaCnia saxelmwifo regulirebis gaZliereba. mxolod sworadgansazRvruli prevenciuli RonisZiebebiT aris SesaZlebeli krizisismwvave Sedegebis Serbileba.mTlianad Cveni qveynis ekonomikis marTva da regulireba xdeba e.w.impulsuri meTodiT. antikrizisuli gegmis SemuSaveba Zalian Sromatevadimecnieruli da SemoqmedebiTi samuSaoa. upirveles yovlisa, mTavrobamunda SeimuSaos RonisZiebaTa iseTi nusxa, romelic Sida danazogebisbiznesseqtorSi Cadebas uzrunvelyofs anu Cven mxolod da mxoloducxour investiciebze ar unda viyoT damokidebulni. amasTan,mTavrobam unda SeimuSaos iseTi RonisZiebaTa kompleqsi, romelic stimulsmiscems ucxour investiciebs, magram momavali ori wlis ganmavlobaSies Zalian rTuli iqneba.Tu kreditebze aseTi maRali ganakveTebi iqna, ra Tqma unda, sabankoseqtoris gavlena ekonomikis stimulirebaze mniSvnelovnad daecema daes ekonomikur kriziss kidev ufro gaaRrmavebs. bankebi did mogebazemuSaoben. sabazo ganakveTi aris 10%, romelic erovnuli bankis mieraadawesebuli. bankebi ki kreditebs 30%-dan 40%-mde hyidis.qveynis gamoyvana ekonomikuri krizisidan, romelSic dRes saqar-Tvelo imyofeba aris upirvelesi amocana. Cveni azriT, minimaluri socialur-ekonomikuridanakargebiT (da rac SeiZleba mokle droSi) aucilebeliasazogadoebis, biznesisa da saxelmwifos erToblivi da Se-Tanxmebuli moqmedeba am krizisidan gamosasvlelead. sazogadoebis,biznesis da saxelmwifos, erToblivi da SeTanxmebuli moqmedeba erTaderTiSansia daiZlios krizisi minimaluri uaryofiTi SedegebiT.xelisuflebis valdebuleba gamoiyvanos qveyana krizisidan yvelazemZime da rTulia. maT imis garda, rom evalebaT am periodSi gansakuTrebiTizrunon mSvidobaze, samuSao da cxovrebis teqnikuri pirobebisSenarCunebaze, aseve maT aqvT valdebuleba yvelaferi gaakeTonsami mTavari mimarTulebiT:1. pirvel rigSi Zalisxmeva maqsimalurad unda warimarTos mcire dasaSualo biznesis xelSewyobisaken;2. meore prioriteti xelisuflebisaTvis es aris investiciebis mozidvaqveyanaSi. Semosuli investiciebi yvelaze swrafad arbilebs365


ekonomika, biznesifons da iZleva amosunTqvis saSualebas;3. eqsportis maqsimaluri xelSewyoba. xelisufleba unda iyos Suamavali,maorganizebeli, damxmare, gamyidveli da damakavSirebeli garesamyarosTan.bizness aranaklebi mniSvnelobis valdebulebebi akisria qveyniskrizisidan gamosayvanad. kompaniebis roli am brZolaSi rTuli da sapasuxismgebloa.maTi upirvelesi amocanebi am procesSi Semdegia:1. yvelaferi gaakeTon imisaTvis, rom gaxdnen ufro efeqturebi yoveldRiurmoqmedebaSi, daxvewon saqmianobis strategia, ufro cxadida efeqturi gaxadon saqmianobis biznesmodeli. biznesisaTvis am drosaraferia imaze metad mniSvnelovani, vidre misi TiToeuli rgolis gamarTulida efeqturi funqcionireba;2. biznesisaTvis am periodSi meore mniSvnelovani amocana aris mismier warmoebuli produqtis da momsaxurebis xarisxis gazrda misTvisprioritetuli momxmareblebis moTxovnilebebis gaTvaliswinebiT;3. yvela organizacia unda cdilobdes gaafarToos kontaqtebisazRvargareT. SesTavazos da daainteresos sakuTari produqciiT, racSeiZleba meti gansxvavebuli kontragenti sxvadasva qveyanaSi. aseve qveyanaunda cdilobdes gayidos meti produqti da momsaxureba qveynisgareT, vinaidan meti produqtis SeqmniT, da ufro meti investiciisSemosvliT naklebia krizisis uaryofiTi Sedegebi biznesze, mis TiToeulsubieqtsa da sazogadoebaze.bankebs krizisidan qveynis gamoyvanaSi gansakuTrebulad mniSvnelovaniroli ekisreba. maTi upirvelesi movaleobaa ise daxvewos riskismarTvis sistemebi, rom krizisis da uzrunvelyofis gaufasurebis miuxedavadar Sewyvitos dakreditebis procesi, radgan yvela danarCeniZalisxmeva SesaZloa uSedego aRmoCndes. bankebma erTad da cal-calkeyvelaferi unda gaakeTos imisTvis, rom SeinarCunos mosaxleobis dabiznesis ndoba.sazogadoebis roli, romelic dRes yvelaze meti riskis qveSaa am krizisisgamo, Zalian cxadia da mniSvnelovani misi mogvarebisTvis. samimTavari pasuxismgebloba romelic mas am saerTo brZolaSi eniWeba yvelazearsebiTia mdgomareobis gamosworebisaTvis. sazogadoebis TiToeuliwevri da, Sesabamisad, mTlianad sazogadoeba dRes valdebulia:1. maqsimalurad loialuri da aqtiuri iyos qarTuli produqtis damomsaxurebis mimarT. yvela unda cdilobdes iyidos rac SeiZleba metiqarTuli produqcia, rasac is unda akeTebdes ara marto samomxmareblomotivaciiT, aramed imis Rrma SegnebiT, rom TiToeuli aseTi transaqciaaris qveynis krizisidan gamoyvanaSi Setanili piradi wvlili;366


ekonomika, biznesi2. sazogadoebis damokidebuleba bankebis mimarT. adamianebma ar undagamoitanon fuli bankebidan. dRes es erT-erTi didi safrTxea, romelicekonomikas mniSvnelovnad daumZimebs mdgomareobas. adamianebmaunda aarCion bankebi, romlebsac metad endobian da gadaitanon Tanxebiiq, magram araviTar SemTxvevaSi ar unda amoiRo fuli sabanko sistemidan,vinaidan es Seamcirebs fulad masas qveyanaSi da kidev ufro daam-Zimebs ekonomikur mdgomareobas;3. sazogadoebis da misi TiToeuli wevris mxridan saqmis keTeba,sxvebis samsaxuri da maqsimaluri aqtiuroba am mimarTulebiT.amrigad, qveynis gamoyvana ekonomikuri krizisidan minimaluri socialur-ekonomikuridanakargebiT da rac SeiZleba mokle droSi arisupirvelesi amocana, risTvisac aucilebelia, erTi mxriv, saerTaSorisosazogadoebis mier 2008-2010 wlebSi Cveni qveynisaTvis gamoyofili4,5 miliardi dolaris daxmarebis miznobrivad gamoyeneba da, meoremxriv, sazogadoebis, biznesisa da saxelmwifos erToblivi, SeTanxmebulimoqmedeba.gamoyenebuli literatura:1) `biznes niusi~ — Jurnali.2) `ekonomikuri palitra~ — gazeTi.3) www.banksandfinance.ge .4) www.mof.ge .5) www.nbg.ge .6) www.gbc.ge .7) www.bizzone.info .8) www.commersant.ge .9) www.24saati.ge .10) www.tavisufleba.org .11) www.ambebi.ge .12) www.forum.ge .13) n. orjonikiZe; l. yifiani; v. bagdasariani. `mcire biznesi~.14) n. orjonikiZe; l. yifiani; v. bagdasariani. `biznesis safuZvlebi~15) `gamoyenebiTi ekonomika~. Junior Achievement.367


ekonomika, biznesisofo cecxlaZessip goris universiteti bakalavriatiruseT-saqarTvelos konfliqti da qarTuli ekonomikaxelmZRvaneli: profesori xaTuna bebnaZeruseT-saqarTvelos konfliqtma udidesi ziani miayena Cvens qevyanas:daikarga teritoriis mniSvnelovani nawili, daiRupa da dasaxiCrdaaTasobiT adamiani, daingra da ganadgurda uamravi sacxovrebeli saxlida istoriuli Zegli, aTasobiT adamiani Tavis qveyanaSi devniladiqca, mniSvnelovnad dazaralda ekonomika.saqarTveloSi ekonomikuri problemebis mTavar mizezad omi saxeldeba,magram problemebi omamde gacilebiT adre daiwyo, SeiZleba iTqvas,saqarTveloSi damoukideblad Camoyalibda ekonomikuri krizisi.2005 wlidan 2008 wlis maisamde Cveni ekonomikis zrda ganpirobebuliiyo sabanko sistemis aqtiurobiT, Tumca komerciuli bankebis sakreditoaqtiurobam, SemoTvazebuli kreditebis Sinaarsidan gamomdinare,xeli ver Seuwyo warmoebis zrdas da realuri ekonomikis Seqmnas, racmomavalSi uzrunvelyofda ekonomikuri zrdis tempis SenarCunebis damdgradi ekonomikis Camoyalibebas. kreditebiT, ZiriTadad, importiwaxalisda, ramac qveynidan fulis gasvla ganapiroba da 2008 wlis gazafxulidanqveynis ekonomikas finansuri resursis problema daudga.rogorc eqspertebi aRniSnaven, ruseT-saqarTvelos omma qarTulekonomikaze moaxdina rogorc uryofiTi, aseve dadebiTi gavlena. 2008wlis ivnisSi Cvens qveyanaSi moqmedma TiTqmis yvela bankma kreditebzeprocentebi gazarda. sesxebis gaZvireba, pirvel rigSi, ipoTekur da samomxmareblokreditebs Seexo, ramac seriozuli problemebi Seuqmnarogorc samSeneblo da developerul kompaniebs, aseve mTlian adgilobrivwarmoebas. bankebis warmomadgenlebma es movlena msoflio finansurkriziss da qveyanaSi arsebul maRal inflacias miaweres.ekonomikis eqspertis gia xuxaSvilis azriT, sabanko seqtorsa daqveynis ekonomikis zogierT seqtorSi ivlisSi krizisi ukve damdgariiyo. omma garkveuli daxmarebebi moitana. es finansuri resursebi ekonomikisstabilizaciisTvis iqna gamoyenebuli es cudi araa, Tumca, romar yofiliyo saerTaSoriso daxmarebebi Cveni sabanko da samSenebloseqtori bevrad ufro Rrma krizisSi iqneboda, vidre dRes aris.saerTaSoriso safinanso krizisi Cvens ekonomikaze imdenad aisaxa,368


ekonomika, biznesiramdenadac iyo igi damokidebuli saerTaSoriso impulsebze. Semcirdamoxmareba, daeca gayidvebi da moxda fasebis mkveTri vardna. am yvelafermaSezRuda biznesis aqtivoba. ekonomikaSi gaCnda undoblobis momenti,SeizRuda finansuri resursebis xelmisawvdomoba – daeca sainvesticioaqtivoba.2008 wlis 23 oqtombers briuselSi gamarTul donorTa konferenciazegadawyda, rom saqarTvelosaTvis ruseTidan saomari konfliqtisSedegebis aRmosafxvrelad 4,5 miliardi dolari gamoeyoT. kerZod,msoflio bankidan – 530 milioni dolari, evropis rekonstruqciisa daganviTarebis bankidan – 927 milioni dolari, aziis ganviTarebis bankidan– 300 milioni dolari, saerTaSoriso safinanso korporaciidan –350 milioni dolari, evropis sainvesticio bankidan – 30 milioni dolari,amerikis SeerTebuli Statebidan – 1 miliardi dolari, evrokomisiisagan– 638 milini dolari, evrokavSiris wevri saxelmwifoebisagan –174 milioni dolari, iaponiisagan – 200 milioni dolari da kidev ramdenimesaxelmwifom, saerTo jamSi, 88 milioni dolari gamoyo.briuselis konferenciis Semdeg saqarTvelos mTavrobis winaSedadga ori sakiTxi: pirveli – ramdenad efeqtianad gankargavda finansurresursebs da, meore – ramdenad uzrunvelyofda kanonis dacviT amTanxis xarjvas.konferenciaze finansuri resursebis ZiriTadi nawili ekonomikisreabilitaciisaTvis gamoiyo. daxmarebebi seqtorebis mixedviT sxvadasxvagvaradgadanawilda. qarTuli krizisis dasaZlevad saqarTvelosmTvarobas 4 miliardze meti dolaris resursi gadaeca.msoflio krizisebis istoria gviCvenebs, rom aseTi periodis gadalaxvamxolod erovnuli produqciis da warmoebis xelSewyobiT arisSesaZlebeli. briuselis konferenciis Semdeg, saqarTvelos mTavrobashqonda Sansi Seecvala qveynis ekonomikis ganviTarebis prioritetebida warmoebis realuri zrdaze orientirebuli proeqtebi ganexorcielebina.msgavsi rekomendaciebi saerTaSoriso safinanso institutidanacmodioda.aRsaniSnavia, rom ruseT-saqarTvelos konfliqtis Sedegad mniSvnelovnaddazaralda saqarTvelos soflis meurneoba. qarTveli glexiproduqciis relizacias cxinvalis regionSi an ruseTis sxvadasxva qalaqebSiaxdenda. dRes ki es saSualeba saerTod Sewyvetilia, rac, TavisTavad,soflis meurneobis ganviTarebaze uaryofiTad aisaxeba.aRsaniSnavia, rom 2008 wlis agvistos konfliqtis Semdeg amoqmeddaevrokavSiris samoqalaqo dacvis meqanizmi, ramac gaaadvila evrokavSi-369


ekonomika, biznesiris wevri saxelmwifoebidan daxmarebis Semosvla da misi gamoyeneba.konfliqtis Semdeg evrokavSirma mniSvnelovani finansuri da praqtikulidaxmareba gauwia saqarTvelos. iZulebiT gadaadgilebuli pirebismxardasaWerad gadaudebeli humanitaruli daxmarebis saxiT evrokomisiam9 milioni evro gamoyo. 2008 wlis 22 oqtombers msofliobankTan erTad evrokomisiam organizeba gauwia donorTa saerTaSorisokonferencias, romelzec ganacxada 2008d2010 wlebisTvis saqarTvelosTvis500 milioni evros gamoyofis Sesaxeb da saerTaSoriso donorebisgan3.44 miliardi evros mobilizeba moaxdina. ganxorcielda proeqtebi;humanitaruli daxmareba (8 milioni evro), daxmareba iZulebiTgadaadgilebuli pirebisTvis (61.5 milioni evro evrokavSiris samezoblopolitikis instrumentidan da 15 milioni evro stabilurobis instrumentidan)da evropel damkvirvebelTa misia evropis usafrTxoebisda Tavdacvis politikis farglebSi.konfliqtebis mogvarebis dargSi, qarTuli sazogadoeba or nawiladaris gayofili: erTni amtkiceben, rom konfliqtis mogvareba ruseTTanmxolod molaparakebebis saSualebiT SeiZleba, xolo meorenisaerTod gamoricxaven ruseTTan yovelgvar urTierTobas.agvistos omidan ori weli gavida, magram saxelmwifoebriv urTier-TobebSi aranairi winsvla ar aRiniSneba, Tu ar CavTvliT larsis sazRvrisgaxsnas, romelic ruseTs akavSirebs somxeTTan. aseve zogierTiqarTveli opozicioneri politikosis vizits, romelsac xelisufleba`Ralatad~ afasebs.omma mkveTrad Selaxa Cveni qveynis imiji investiciebis mozidvismxriv, Tumca am bolo dros mdgomareoba nawilobriv gaumjobesda. diplomatiada molaparakebis magidasTan dajdoma aucilebelia konfliqtebismosagvareblad da or mezobel saxelmwifos Soris kulturulida ekonomikuri urTierTobebis aRsadgenad.gamoyenebuli literatura:1. http://cipdd.org/files/35–318–748517–AfterAugust2008-geo[1].pdf2. http://experti.ge/sheidzleboda–tu–aar–omis–tavidan22222.htm3. http://tbiliselebi.ge/?mas–id=1706&rubr–id=1&jurn–id=504. http://banksandfinance.ge/world/262-baumani.html5. http://pbo.parliament.ge/index.php?lang–id=GEO&sec–id=1&info–id=4076. http://www.commersant.ge/index.php?pg=nt&id=12547&ct=14370


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