d i s e r t a c i a

press.tsu.ge

d i s e r t a c i a

avtoris stili daculiaivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetihumanitarul mecnierebaTa fakultetiromanuli filologianino qavTaraZerealuri da irealuri Jerar de nervalis SemoqmedebaSiivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetisfilologiis doqtoris (Ph.D.) akademiuri xarisxis mosapovebladwarmodgenilid i s e r t a c i asamecniero xelmZRvaneli: filologiis mecnierebaTa doqtori,profesori lia loriaTbilisi2010


2# Tavebisa da qveTavebis saTaurebi gverdi1. kvlevis mizani da amocanebi 32 kvlevis meTodi 53. I TaviI. I. franguli romantizmis Tavisebureba 104.I. II. Jerar de nervali da Jerar labruni 225. II TaviII. I. fantastikuri Janris istoriidan6. II. II. JanrTaA mravalferovneba Jerar de nervalisSemoqmedebaSi2930427. II. III. moTxrobis _ ,,orelia’’, kompoziciis Taviseburebani 468. II. IV. TxrobiTi instanciebis cvla Jerar de nervalSi _,,anJeliki’’9. II. V. ornamentuli prozis raoba da misi mniSvneloba Jerarde nervalis SemoqmedebaSiD10. III TaviIII. I. naratiuli drois problema11. III. II. Txrobis momenti Jerar de nervalis novelaSi _,,oqtavi’’5977869412. III. III. realuri da irealuri moTxrobaSi _ ,,orelia’’ 10013. III. IV. qronotopis problema moTxrobaSi _ ,,orelia’’ 11714. III. V. intermedialobis sakiTxisTvis Jerar de nervalismoTxrobaSi _ ,,orelia’’13215. III. VI. interteqstualuri urTierTobebis roli nervalis 138SemoqmedebaSi16. III. VII. qalis saxe-xati Jerar de nervalis SemoqmedebaSi 17817. III. VIII. parateqstis funqcia da mniSvneloba 19018. naSromis ZiriTadi Sedegebi 19319. gamoyenebuli literaturis nusxa 195


3kvlevis mizani da amocanebiwinamdebare disertaciis mizans warmoadgens frangi mwerlis –Jerar de nervalis Semoqmedebis analizi, saxeldobr: realuris dairealuris mniSvnelobis dadgena mis prozaul nawarmoebebSi.Jerar de nervalis (Jerar labruni) Semoqmedeba gviandel frangulromantizms ganekuTvneba. mwerali rogorc franguli, aseve germanuliromantizmis gavlenas ganicdida. mniSvnelovnad migvaCnia, franguliromantizmis Taviseburebis warmoCena, rac, erTi mxriv, am mimdinareobisinternacionaluri xasiaTis fonze, franguli romantizmisgansakuTrebuli niSan-Tvisebebis dadgenaSi dagvexmareba, meore mxriv,gansazRvravs Jerar de nervalis Semoqmedebis adgils da xasiaTsfranguli literaturis istoriaSi.kvlevis warmarTvisa da konkretuli daskvnebis gamotanis mizniT,ramdenime sakiTxis gamoyofa miviCnieT saWirod:1) franguli romantizmis Taviseburebis warmoCena, imisTvis romdagvedgina Jerar de nervalis Semoqmedebis adgili franguliromantizmis istoriaSi.2) realuris da irealuris urTierTobis warmosaCenad, kvlevis obieqtisarCevas gansakuTrebuli yuradRebiT movekideT. nervalis Semoqmedebamravalferovania: nervalma literaturuli moRvaweoba TargmniT daiwyo:ocdaori wlis Wabuki i.v. goeTes fausts SeeWida. nervali avtoria:poeturi nawarmoebebis (sonetebis krebuli _ ,,qimerebi’’, ,,saxalxoelegiebi’’ ,,oqros leqsebi’’, ,,gasxivosnebulni’’), dramatulinawarmoebebis _ (,,briyvTa mefe’’, ,,leo bukari’’, ,,pikiio’’, ,,alqimikosi’’),publicisturi xasiaTis qmnilebebis (,,gaseirnebani da mogonebani’’,,,mogzauroba aRmosavleTSi’’) da prozauli, literaturul-mxatvruliteqstebis (,,cecxlis qaliSvilebi’’, ,,orelia’’). nervalis SemoqmedebaSirealuris da irealuris ukeT warmosaCenad da maTi funqciebisa dabunebis ukeT dadgenisTvis, frangi mwerlis ori ZiriTadi nawarmoebiTSemovifargleT: novelebis krebuliT _ ,,cecxlis qaliSvilebi’’da vrceli moTxrobiT _ ,,orelia’’. es nawarmoebebi erTmaneTTan ideur-Tematurad arian dakavSirebulni, rac maTi erTi, saerTo analizis


4sagnad qcevis safuZvels iZleva. am nawarmoebebSi,yvelaze ukeT aris warmodgenili realuris da irealurisurTierTkavSiri, rac Jerar de nervalis SemoqmedebiTmiznebs emsaxureba.3) nebismieri literaturuli nawarmoebi formis da SinaarsiserTianobas warmoadgens, amitom realuris da irealuris kvlevisTvis,mizanSewonilad migvaCnia, rogorc nawarmoebis formis, aseve misiSinaarsis analizi. Sesabamisad, kvlevis Semdgomi etapi, zemoxsenebulinawarmoebebis Janruli identifikaciis sakiTxiT dainteresebaa, rac,Cveni azriT, saSualebas mogvcems gamovavlinoT romantizmisesTetikisTvis damaxasiaTebeli Tvisebebi JanrTa mravalferovnebisarsebobis fonze da ganvsazRvroT, ramdenad exmianeba nervalisnawarmoebebis poetika romantizmis esTetikas.analizis sagania novelebis krebulSi _ ,,cecxlis qaliSvilebi’’ _Semavali novelebisa da vrceli moTxrobis _ ,,orelia’’, Janrobriviidentifikacia. romantikosi mwerlebis esTetikidan gamomdinare,sinkretuli Janris Seqmna nervalis nawarmoebebis JanrobrivikuTvnilebis sirTuleSic aisaxa. Jerar de nervalis nawarmoebebs(,,cecxlis qaliSvilebi’’) ,,novelebi’’ pirobiTad ewodeba. maTliteraturuli zRapris, mcire zomis epikuri Janris, fantastikurinovelebisTvis damaxasiaTebeli Tvisebebi axasiaTebT. swored amitom,novelebis krebulSi da, gansakuTrebiT, moTxrobaSi _ ,,orelia’’,ikveTeba realuris da irealuris urTierTkavSiris magaliTebi.ganxilvis sagans warmoadgens novelebisa da moTxrobebis kompoziciisTaviseburebani, rac erT siuJetur invarianze agebul sxvadasxvanawarmoebebis arsebobaSi vlindeba da qmnis metaTxrobis precendents.4) realuris da irealuris Sepirispireba, nervalis zemoxsenebulinawarmoebebis magaliTze da maTi Janruli kuTvnilebis fonze _ kvlevissawyisi etapia. realursa da irealurs Soris urTierTkavSirisdasadgenad, marTebulad migvaCnia, mcired mimovixiloT fantastikuriJanris ganviTarebis istoria, rac saSualebas mogvcems nervalismxatvrul-literaturuli teqstebis da fantastikuri Janris nimuSebsSoris msgavseba amovicnoT.


55) disertaciis aqtualoba Yyvelaze naklebad Seswavlili moTxrobis,,,orelias’’, analizis mcdelobaSi mdgomareobs. nawarmoebebis Janruliidentifikaciis sirTulidan gamomdinare, sadisertacio naSromSizemoxsenebul nawarmoebs ,,moTxrobad’’ movisxeniebT. ANALanaliziwarmoaCens romantizmis esTetikisadmi mwerlis erTgulebas dagamoavlens im gansakuTrebul, nervalis SemoqmedebisTvis damaxasiTebelniSan-Tvisebebs, romlebmac esoden momxibvleli gaxada nervalisSemoqmedeba, misi supernaturalizmi, momavali TaobebisTvis, kerZod,modernistuli literaturisTvis.kvlevis meTodimecniereba literaturis Sesaxeb iseTive cvlilebebsa da Zvrebsganicdis rogorc Tavad literatura. iSleba zRvari literaturiskvlevis meTodebs Soris. nebismieri meTodis upiratesoba am Tu imqveynis an epoqis istoriul-politikuri da socialur-kulturuliTaviseburebebiTaa ganpirobebuli (Todorov 2007 :37).literaturuli nawarmoebebis kvlevis meTodebSi gamoiyofa oriTvalsazrisi da midgoma: erTis mixedviT, literaturuli nawarmoebiRirebulia imiT, rasac igi Tavad warmoadgens da xelovnebis arsi Tavadteqstis saSualebiT vlindeba; meore midgoma, literaturulnawarmoebSi teqstis miRma da teqstze ufro Rirebulis amocnobasa dagaazrebas gulisxmobs (mwerlis pirovnebis, fsiqologiuri Tusazogadoebrivi aspeqtebis, rac teqstis garda mkvlevaris sxvaRirebulebebiT dainteresebas utoldeba).kvlevis naratologiuri meTodi, romelsac safuZveli CauyaresTxrobis Sesaxeb Teoriis, anu naratologiis skolis warmomadgenlebma(J, Jeneti, v. Smidi . . .), mxatvrul nawarmoebs ganixilavs rogorcnaratorsa (mTxrobeli) da recipients (narateri) Soris arsebulesTetikur komunikacias, amitom kvlevis naratologiul meTodsSualeduri adgili ukavia struqturalistur da recefciul-esTetikurmeTodologiebs Soris.


6naratologia Txrobis Teoriaa. igi rusuli formalizmis(v. Sklovski, b. tomaSevski), v. propis, m. baxtinis, tartus skoliswarmomadgenelTa (i. lotmani, b. uspenski) gavleniT Camoyalibda(literaturis...2008:194). gasuli saukunis samocian wlebSi, naratologiastruqturalizmis wiaRSi aRmocenda da nebismieri saxis narativis(literaturuli nawarmoebi, konofilmi, Teatraluri warmodgena . . )saerTo struqturebis gansazRvras emsaxureba, anu nebismieri TxrobiTisaxis nawarmoebis (Косиков 2009:159). naratiulad mxolod is teqstimiiCneva, romlis fiqcionalur samyaroSi mTxrobelis Sualeduriinstanciaa warmodgenili. es instancia _ mTxrobelia.naratiuli teqstebSi ganarCeven:1) prozaul teqsts, romelsac mTxrobeli (naratori) gviyveba;2) TxrobiTi saxis mimesur teqsts, romelsac mTxrobeli ar hyavs(kinofilmi, warmodgena . . );3) calke mdgom, aranaratiuli bunebis mqone, aRwerilobiTi saxisteqsts (magaliTad _ publicisturi teqstebi), romelsacmTxrobeli ar hyavs, magram ikveTeba naratoris instanciisSeqmnis tendencia.naratologiuri kvlevis sagans mxatvrul-literaturulinawarmoebis siRrmiseuli struqtura warmoadgens. naratologiurianalizis ZiriTadi etapebia:1) literaturuli nawarmoebis komunikaciuri bunebis dadgena;2) SemoqmedebiTi procesis mravalSrian TxrobiT procesTangaigiveba;3) sxvadasxva diskursebis gamovlena;TxrobiTi instanciebis Teoriuli kvleva gulisxmobs:a) mxatvrul teqstSi komunikaciuri jaWvis (informaciisgamcemis da mimRebis) dadgena;b) komunikatis (teqsti) niSanTa sistemad ganxilva, romliskodireba informaciis gamcemis mier winaswar xdeba;gansakuTrebul mniSvnelobas iZens komunikatis (teqsti) dagareliteraturuli realobis (garefiqcionaluri samyaro) urTierToba,rac TxrobiTi komunikaciis doneebis ierarqiul sistemasTan arisdakavSirebuli.


7naratologiis mimdevrebs formaluri skolis warmomadgenelTakoncefciasTan msgavsi mosazreba aqvT siuJetsa Tu fabulis arsze. Tufabula aris is, rasac mxatvruli nawarmoebi mogviTxrobs, siuJetadunda CaiTvalos is, Tu rogori saxiT aris moTxrobili yovelive, Tumcamxatvruli nawarmoebis, kerZod _ naratiuli teqstis amocnobisas,siuJeti ganmsazRvrel faqtors ar warmoadgens.fabula movlenaTa erTobliobaa, (b. tomaSevski) fabulissapirispirod, siuJeti (revoluciuri elementi – i. lotmani) movlenaTaTanmimdevrobaa, is kavSiria, romelic sxvadasxva movlenebs da motivebserTmaneTTan akavSirebs (Лотман 1970:161).movlena siuJeturi qargis (motivi _ f. veselovski) umciresierTeulia. v. Sklovski siuJets iseTive formad miiCnevs rogoric riTmaa.erTi da igive invariantulma konstruqtivma sxvadasxva siuJeturi rigissaxiT SeiZleba hpovos ganviTareba. erT siuJetur rgolSi SeiZlebaramdenime qvergoli gaerTiandes. lotmanis azriT, swored aseTi saxiTxdeba siuJeturi qargis konstruireba (Шкловский 1925: 56).i. lotmani ganarCevs siuJetian da usuJeto teqstebs, ,,moZravsa’’ da,,uZrav’’ personaJebs. uZravi personaJi usiuJeto tipis struqturisnawilia, radgan dadgenili sazRvris garRveva (literaturuli fiqciisfarglebSi intrigis sawyisi elementi) misTvis akrZalulia. moZravipersonaJs aqvs am akrZaluli sazRvris gadalaxvis ,,ufleba’’. siuJetisganviTareba ki akrZalulis garRvevas ukavSirdeba. Sesabamisad, gmirismisTvis Cveul viTarebaSi gadaadgileba movlenas ar warmoadgens(Лотман 1970:171).siuJetian teqstSi sami done gamoiyofa: 1) usiuJeto semantikuristruqturis done; 2) tipiuri qmedebis (mocemul struqturaSi);3) konkretuli moqmedebis done. j. prinsis naratologiis leqsikonSigamoiyofa Semdegi siuJetebi: bednieri dasasruliT, gare situaciazedamokidebuli, Sinagani, martivi, rTuli, epikuri (erTmaneTTan naklebaddakavSirebuli epizodebisgan Semdgari) da dramatuli (mWidroddakavSirebuli, SeduRabebuli epizodebi).Cven gvainteresebs, rogor xdeba siuJeturi qargis ganviTareba iseTmxatvrul-literaturul teqstSi, rogoricaa J. de neralis moTxroba _,,orelia’’, siuJetebis makonstruirebeli elementebis simciris fonze.


8naratologia komunikatis siuJeturobis or maxasiTebelsgamohyofs:1) mxatvrul nawarmoebSi Txrobis struqtura (ra saxiT arismowodebuli informacia (naratiuli done);2) dialogizmis (interteqstis) aspeqti (diskursis done);naratologiis meTodilogiis gamoyeneba mizanSewonilad miviCnieTiseTi kategoriebis kvlevisas rogoricaa dro da sivrce, parateqsti,mTxrobelis (naratori) instancia, fokalizaciis, TxrobiTikomunikaciuri doneebis modelebis....nawarmoebSi asaxuli fiqcionaluri samyaro TxrobiTi komunikaciisdoneebadaa dayofili (Smidi 2003:39). TxrobiT komunikaciis doneebismodelebs Soris naratologia ganarCevs:1) literaturuli nawarmoebis fiqcionalur samyaros2) asaxul samyaros3) moTxrobil samyaros4) citirebul samyarosTxrobiTi komunikaciis doneebis modelebs Sesabamisi TxrobiTiinstanciebi gaaCniaT:1) konkretuli avtori /konkretuli mkiTxveli;2) abstraqtuli avtori / abstraqtuli mkiTxveli (idealurirecipienti an savaraudo adresati);3) fiqtiuri mTxrobeli da fiqtiuri adresati (narrateur/narratair) ;4) personaJebi.swored naratoris, mTxroblis instancia xdeba ganmsazRvrelinaratiuli teqtebis amocnobis dros: Tu teqsti naratiulia, igimTxrobelis instancias Seicavs, Tumca struqturalistebi naratiuladyvela saxis teqsts miiCneven, romelSic ambavia gadmocemuli (Шмид203 :19).fokalizacia (TvalTaxedva) gulisxmobs imas, Tu visi TvalTaxedviTmogviTxrobs mTxrobeli ambavs. igi SeiZleba iyos nulovani (focalisationzéro), anu movlenebi yovlismcodne naratoris mier Sefasdes, Sida (interne),rodesac movlenebi romelime personaJis mier aris Sefasebuli da gare(externe), romelic movlenebis obieqtur Txrobas gulisxmobs. aseT


9SemTxvevaSi, movlenebs arc mTxrobelis da arc ambis sxva monawile arafasebs: xdeba mxolod dakvirveba da aRwera (Raimond 2000: 127).naratologiaSi, naratiuli dro da sivrce erTmaneTisgan arisgamijnuli. naratiuli dro teqstis struqturis nawilia, sivrce ki _kompoziciis. naratiuli dro ganixileba rogorc Txrobisa da ambisdroTa Tanafardoba. am kombinaciaSi, ganmsazRvreli ambis droisa daTxrobis drois urTierTSefardeba xdeba, anu irkveva Tu ramdeni droeTmoba ama Tu im ambis, an misi Semadgeneli kompoziciuri elementebisTxrobas. Txrobis dro SeiZleba ambis droze meti (Td>ad), ambis droistoli (Td=d) an naklebi iyos (Td


10parateqstinawarmoebis saTauriepiteqstinawarmoebis danamatiinkipitimetalefsisianalefsisiprolefsisimetamoTxrobanawarmoebis dasawyisinawarmoebis fiqcionaluri sazRvris garRvevaretrospeqtulad moTxrobili ambaviwinaswar moTxrobili ambavimoTxroba moTxrobaSikvlevis procesSi, saWiroebis da mixedviT, gamoviyeneT kvlevisinterteqstualuri da intermedialuri meTodebi. fsiqokritikis Tufsiqoanalizis obieqtad vaqcieT nawarmoebis (,,orelia’’) calkeuliepizodebi. bunebrivia, literaturis istoriis WrilSi ganxilul iqnanaSromis mniSvnelovani nawili.yovelive zemoxsenebuli, Cveni azriT, Jerar de nervalisnawarmoebebSi (novelebis krebuli _ ,,cecxlis qaliSvilebi’’ damoTxroba _ ,,orelia’’) realuris da irealuris bunebis da mniSvnelobisdadgenaSi dagvexmareba.ITaviI. I. franguli romantizmis Taviseburebafranguli sityva _ ,,romantisme’’, Sua saukuneebis sityvidan _,,roman’’ iRebs saTaves. Sua saukuneebSi espanelebi ase uwodebdnensaTavgadasavlo da saraindo romanebs, ingliselebi ki – XVIIIsaukuneSi, ,,romantic’’-s _ yovelgvar gasaocars, warmoudgenelsa dasaidumloebiT moculs.romantizmi rogorc klasicizmis sapirispiro literaturulimimdinareoba, germaniaSi XVIII saukunis bolosa da XIX saukunisdasawyisSi Camoyalibda, xolo iqidan mTels dasavleT evropasa daCrdiloeT amerikaSi gavrcelda. am mimdinareobam ganviTarebis umaRleswertils XIX saukunis pirvel naxevarSi miaRwia. romantizmiklasizicmisaTvis damaxasiTebel kanonzomierebebs uaryofda, rac


11Tavisuflebisken swrafvis, pirovnuli sawyisis primatis Sesaxeb ideisklasicizmis esTetikasTan dapirispirebas gulisxmobda.socialur-politikuri situacia, romelic imxanad evropaSisufevda, franguli revoluciis Sedegebi romantizmis winapirobad undaCaiTvalos. adreuli romantizmis Teoriuli safuZvlebis Camoyalibebagermanel mweralsa da mecniers _ fridrix Slegels ekuTvnis (1772-1829ww.). misi Tezisebi 1797-98 wlebSi gamoqveynebul Teoriul naSromSi _,,fragmentebi’’, aisaxa. f.Slegelis azriT, romantizmis warmoqmniswinapirobebia:1) safrangeTis 1789 wlis revolucia2) emanuel herman fon fixtes (1776-1879ww.) idealisturifilosofia3) iohan volfgang fon goeTes (1749-1832ww.) vilhelm maisteri(Slegeli 1955 :19).fridrix Slegelma Tanamedrove Semoqmedisa da xelovnebis,romantikuli universalizmis koncefcia Seqmna. manve ganaxorcielaTeoriuli kvleva xelovnebaSi ironiis daniSnulebaze, rac mwerlobismisiis gadafasebas emsaxureboda (Хрестоматия ...955:21). XVIII saukunisgermaneli publicistisa da mecnieris _ georg forsteris SesaxebkvlevaSi, Slegeli igive mosazrebas anviTarebs evropis istoriasa dakulturaSi safrangeTis revoluciis gadamwyveti rolis Sesaxeb(Зарубежная ...1990:40). misi azriT, safrangeTis revolucia politikurisamyaros yovlismomcveli miwisZvra, warRvna iyo, romelmac frangi eriserovnuli TviTmyofadoba warmoaCina. f.FSlegeli iqve dasZens, romrevolucia, amave dros, epoqis groteski, qaosad qceuli kacobriobisgrandiozuli tragikomediaa (Зарубежная ...1990:45).XVIII saukuneSi, ganmanaTlebloba axali da samarTlianisazogadoebis Seqmnas qadagebda, romelic adamianis gonierebasdaeyrdnoboda, magram realoba mxolod logikis kanonebs areqvemdebareba. XIX saukunis dasawyisSi momavali aRiqmeboda rogorciracionaluri da amoucnobi. sazogadoeba adamianis pirovnulTavisuflebas zRudavda da mis bunebasTan harmoniul TanaarsebobasuSlida xels (История немецкой литературы 1986: 121). romantizmis mxatvrulesTetikurikoncefcia pirovnebisa da sazogadoebis konfliqts emyareba.


12sulierebas moklebul da ,,egoistur’’ sazogadoebasTan dapirispirebajer kidev sentimentalizmsa da preromantizmis epoqisTvis iyodamaxasiaTebeli. es dapirispireba yvelaze mZafrad romantizmis epoqaSigamovlinda. SeiZleba iTqvas, safrangeTSi man gansakuTrebulisimZlieriT iCina Tavi, radgan es dapirispireba ara marto socialur(germaniaSi) da ekonomikur (inglisSi), aramed politikur aspeqtebsefuZneboda.romantizmis epoqis literatura maRalfardovanebas uaryofda daklasicizmisTvis damaxasiaTebel ,,amaRlebul’’ TematikasewinaaRmdegeboda. romantizmis warmomadgenelTa azriT, samyaropirvelsawyis qaoss daubrunda da masSi boroteba ganmgeblobda.romantizmis epoqis wiaRSi gamZafrda egzistenciuri SiSi, samyarosdasasrulis esqatologiuri gancda. ,,SiSismomgvreli samyaros suraTi’’mTels romantizms gasdevs Tan. amasTan erTad Cndeba am ,,saSinelsamyarosTan’’ Serkinebis ideac: sasowarkveTa awmyos ukavSirdeba,civilizaciisa da progresis koncefcia _ momavals. es idealiskenswrafvis, absolutis Ziebis ideas exmianeba, ramac unda gadalaxosarsebuli dapirispireba realobasa da ocnebas Soris da adamianiscxovreba mTlianad Secvalos. ,,es srulqmnis erTaderTi saSualebaa’’ _werda a. de vinii romantizmze (Хрестоматия ...1955:384).realobis uaryofa ara mxolod idealisken swrafvaSi iyogamoxatuli. romantikosTa SemoqmedebaSi mefoben jadosnuri,Seucnobadi Zalebi, iqmneba paraleluri samyaro, romelic, xSirSemTxvevaSi, met mniSvnelobas iZens vidre Tavad realoba (Историянемецкой литературы 1986: 76). swored realobasTan dapirispirebamganapiroba romantikosTa ezoTeruli Ziebebis, kabalas,naturfilosofiis da neo-paltonizmis mimarT esoden didi interesi(Milner, Pichois1985:139). samyaroSi gabatonebuli boroteba romantizmiswarmomadgenlebs an sasowarkveTaSi agdebda, an protestis grZnobasbadebda maTSi, magram yvela romantikoss erTi ram aerTianebda: isiniadamians yofiTi sakiTxebis gadawyvetas miznad ar usaxavdnen. bunebiskanonebis, religiuri Sexedulebebis da SemoqmedebiTi gamocdilebisgaTvaliswinebiT, romantikosebi adamianis arsis wvdomasa da misibunebis saidumloebis amoxsnas cdilobdnen. romantizma adamianis


13arsebobis amsaxveli universaluri Teoriis Seqmna da universumiskosmogoniuri problemebis gadaWra daisaxa miznad (История немецкойлитературы 1986: 53). Sarl bodlerma sami sityviT daaxasiaTa romantizmi:,,maradiulobisken swrafvis, individualizmis da sulierebis sauflo’’(Milner, Pichois1985:137).romantizmis literaturuli koncefcia kantisa da fixtesidealistur filosofias efuZneba, romelic samyaros gardaqmnasSemoqmedebis meoxebiT sTavazobs. yvelaze metad am koncefciam germanulromantizmSi iCina Tavi (Milner, Pichois1985:136). romantizmis Teoretikosi _fridrix Slegeli, klasikur literaturas aRweris obieqturobasdaesesxa da istorizmis principi ganavrco. misi mosazrebiT, nebismierimovlena mis ganviTarebaSi unda yofiliyo Seswavlili, literaturulinawarmoebi realobasTan mimarTebaSi unda ganxiluliyo. amanromantizmis epoqis literaturaSi ironiis koncefcia warmoSva,romelic subieqturisa da obieqturis, maradiulisa da wuTieriskonfliqts efuZneboda. romantikosTa mosazrebiT, SemoqmedebisusazRvro ESesaZlebloba empiriul realobas unda dapirispireboda dagardaeqmna (Хрестоматия... 1955:20).romantikosTa interesTaA sferos adamianuri vnebebi warmoadgenda,romelTa Soris ganirCeoda: maRali (siyvaruli) da mdabali(pativmoyvareoba, qedmaRloba, Suri). yovelgvar materialurRirebulebebs romantikosebma sulieri daupirispires: religia,xelovneba da filosofia (Milner, Pichois1985:143). romantizmisliteraturas damaxasiaTebeli romantikuli gmiri hyavs. Tavisi arsiT,igi rTuli da mravalwaxnagovania. romantikuli gmiri grZnobebiTSepyrobili adamiania, romlis diadi miswrafebebi yoveldRiurobisrutinas ar exmianeba. igi unikaluria, Tavisuflebisken iswrafvis daistoriis bedukuRmarTobas upirispirdeba. romantizmis epoqisnawarmoebebis gmirebi Semoqmedni arian, romlebsac, niWisa da energiismeoxebiT, realobis gardaqmnis unari SeswevT. romantizmis epoqaSiSemoqmedi RmerTs gautolda: adamians SeeZlo is, rac RmerTs ZaluZsmxolod (sakmarisia gavixsenoT meri uolstonkrafti Selis cnobili


14nawarmoebi ,,frankenSteini, anu axali promeTe’’, romlis protagonistiaxal adamians qmnis) (Encyclopédie libre-Shelley).romantikosebs xiblavT fantastika, xalxuri Semoqmedeba, anuyvelaferi is, rac saukunenaxevris manZilze yuradRebis miRma iyodarCenili. klasicizmisTvis damaxasiaTebel ,,bunebis mibaZvas’’,romantikosebi xelovanis SemoqmedebiT energias upirispireben,romelic, empiriul samyarosTan SedarebiT, bevrad mSvenier samyarosqmnis (Milner, Pichois1985:114). romantikosebi sxadasxva istoriuli epoqebiT,egzotikuri qveynebiT da saidumloebiT moculi movlenebiTinteresdebodnen. swored romantizmis wiaRSi warmoiSva istoriuliromani, romelsac istoriuli sinamdvilis da adamianis fsiqikissaidumloebis axsna hqonda miznad dasaxuli (Milner, Pichois1985:67).romantikosebi Sua saukuneebiT da antikuri epoqiTac xelaxladainteresdnen. maTi azriT, samyaros mSvenierebas sxvadasxva,erTmaneTisgan gansxvavebuli kulturaTa erTianoba qmnida, TumcaromantikosTa yuradRebis miRma arc im periodis istoriul-politikurirealoba rCeboda. samyaroSi adamianis misiis amosacnobad, romantikosebikonkretulobis, sizustisa da damajereblobisken miiswrafodnen,miuxedavad imisa, rom maT nawarmoebebSi moqmedeba xSirad egzotikur,ucnob qveynebsa da warmosaxiT samyaroSi xdeba.bunebasa da mis Zlevamosilebas didi roli ukavia romantizmisepoqis mwerlebis SemoqmedebaSi: peizaJis aRwera iqneba es, romantizmisgmiris bunebasTan dapirispireba Tu masTan harmoniuli Tanaarseboba(История немецкой литературы 1986: 58).romantikosTa azriT, samyaros mTavar Rirebulebas sworedSemoqmedeba, Semoqmedebis rTuli procesi warmoadgens. maT swamT, romSemoqmedis Tavisufleba da misi fantazia xelovnebis kanonebs ki aremorCileba, aramed Tavad qmnis maT. rogorc literaturaTmcodne v. maniaRniSnavs: ,,romantizma uaryo kanonebi da bevrad rTul kanonebsdaemorCila’’ (Ю. Манн). amiT SeiZleba aixsnas is JanrTamravalferovneba, romelic romantizmis epoqas axasiaTebs. romantizmisperiodSi bevr axal Janrs Caeyara safuZveli, bevrmac _ saxecvaganicada: istoriuli romani iqneba es Tu fantastikuri moTxroba,


15deteqtiuri novela, zRapari, lirikul-epikuri poema, drama.romantizmisTvis damaxasiaTebelia JanrTaA sinTezi, rogorc xelovnebissxvadasxva sferoSi, aseve sxvadasxva sferoebis erTmaneTTanmimarTebaSi. aseT sinkretul JanrSi Sereulia fantastika da groteski,maRali da mdabali stili, tragikuli da komikuri (Mitterand 1988 :176).romantizmis epoqas mecnierebis ganviTarebac daemTxva:filosofiis, sociologiis, istoriis, politologiis, qimiisa dabiologiis. yvela am mecnierebam romantikosTa Semoqmedebaze didigavlena iqonia.internacionaluri xasiaTis miuxedavad, romantizmi yvela qveyanaSigansxvavebuli TvisebebiT xasiaTdeba. germania romantizmis TeoriulisafuZvlebis samSoblod iTvleba, sadac istoriul-politikuri viTarebafilosofiis, eTikisa da esTetikis WrilSi ganixileboda(v. vakenroderi, novalisi, Zmebi Slegelebi, l. tiki). romantizmispirveli koncefcia Camoyalibda germaniaSi da erT-erTi pirveliliteraturuli nawarmoebic ienis skolis warmomadgenlebs ekuTvniT (l.tikis ,,Ceqmebiani kata’’-1797, novalisis ,,hainrix fon oftendingeni’’-1802).romantikosTa meore Taobis warmomadgenlebi gaerTianebuli iyvnenhaidelbergis skolaSi (k. brentano, i. arnimi, Zmebi grimebi). am skoliswarmomadgenlebi religiiT, germaniis istoriiTa da folkloriT iyvnendainteresebulni (,,biWis jadosnuri sayviri’’-1806-08). amave skoliswiaRSi Camoyalibda folkloris Seswavlis miTologiuri koncefcia,romelic Zmebi Slegelebisa da Selingis Sromebs efuZneboda. germanuligviandeli ronmantizmisTvis realobisa da ocnebis mkveTri gamijvna (e.hofmani, a. klaisti), sasowarkveTisa da uimedobis motivebi, socialurigroteskia damaxasiaTebelia (a. Samiso, h.haine) (История немецкой литературы1986: 63).TavianT SemoqmedebaSi, inglisuri romantizmis warmomadgenlebiudides adgils pirovnebisa da sazogadoebis urTierTobas uTmobdnen.maT mier istoriuli procesi katastrofis moaxloebad ganixileboda.e. w. ,,tbis skolis’’ warmomadgenlebi (u. vordsuorTi, s. kolriji,r. sauTi) warsuls aidialebdnen, patriarqalur, martiv, piruTvnelobazedamyarebul adamianTa urTierTobebs asxamdnen xotbas. inglisurenovaniromantizmis warmomadgenlebis Semoqmedeba qristianuli morCilebiTaa


16ganmsWvaluli ( u. vordsuorTis Semoqmedeba). romantikosebi adamianisqvecnobieriT erT-erTi pirvelebi dainteresdnen. iseTimwerlebis Semoqmedeba, rogorebic arian j. baironi da p. Seli,politikuri paTosiT, CagrulTa TanagrZnobiT, pirovnuliTavisuflebisken swrafviTaa ganmsWvaluli. tragikuli ganwirulobisSegrZnebiT Sepyrobili meamboxe-gmiris saxem evropul literaturazedidi gavlena moaxdina da ,,baironizmad’’ iwodeba (Словарь литературныхтерминов- Байронизм).safrangeTSi romantizmi XIX saukunis ocian wlebSi damkvidrda daTeoriuli koncefciac mogvianebiT Camoyalibda. amis mizezi safrangeTisrevolucia da misi ganmanadgurebeli Sedegebia. safrangeTSiklasicizmis gavlena jer isev mZlavrobda, magram axlis Seqmnisdauokebelma survilma mwerlebs Tamami nabijebisken ubiZga:literaturuli brZola salonis farglebs gascilda da scenazegadainacvla (Bénichou 2004 :347). madam de stali, germanuli romantizmisfrangulze gavlenis Sesaxeb werda da aRniSnavda, rom franguliromantizmi, Tundac Tavisi damkvidrebisa da ganviTarebis periodiTaagansakuTrebuli. im dros, rodesac realizmma inglisur literaturasada xelovnebaSi Tamamad Semoabija, xolo germanulma literaturamdroebiT ,,miiZina’’, frangul literaturasa da xelovnebaSi isevboboqrobda revoluciiT Sobili kulturis gamoZaxili. sakmarisiagavixsenoT v. hiugos piesis _ ,,ernanis’’ dagmis Semdgomi movlenebi, racsafrangeTSi romantizmis klasicizmze gamarjvebis mauwyebeli gaxda. espiesa srulad gamoxatavda 1827 wels dramis _ ,,kromveli’’,winasityvaobaSi warmodgenil v. hiugos esTetikur koncefcias (Bénichou2004 :369). swored man ubiZga mwerlebs tradiciuli kanonebis rRvevisada avtoritetebis uaryofisken. dramis winasityvaoba franguliromantizmis manifestad iqca (Зарубежная ...1990 :70).v. hiugos azriT, mwerals bunebisa da sakuTari xmisTvis undaegdo yuri, WeSmariteba STagonebSi eZebna, nawarmoebebis personaJebadCveulebrivi adamiani gaexada, romelSic erTmaneTTan dapirispirebuliRirebulebebi Tanaarsebobs: tragikuli da komikuri, mSvenieri damaxinji. nawarmoebSi asaxuli samyaro empiriulTan maqsimalurad unda


17yofiliyo miaxlovebuli. v. hiugo WeSmaritebas realizmiswarmomadgenelTa mosazrebebis msgavsad ar moiazrebda: misTvisWeSmariteba nawarmoebSi empiriuli WeSmaritebis identuri ar aris,radgan ,,xelovneba arsdros ar gaxdeba absuluturad realuri’’(Зарубежная...1990 :72). manifesti klasicizmis SemzRudav kanonebsamsxvrevda: saubaria sami erTianobis kanonis Sesaxeb, romlismixedviTac nawarmoebi da misi personaJebi, Zalian tragikulsituaciebSic ki komikurad gamoiyurebodnen. hiugo konkretizaciisken daara _ abstragirebisken mouwodebda. misi azriT, ambis sicxade da misimayurebelze zemoqmedeba (saubaria Tavad dramaze _ ,,kromveli’’)istorizmis principze iyo damokidebuli. mwerali bualosSexedulebebs uaryofda da magaliTis saxiT Seqspiris SemoqmedebisZala mohyavda (Зарубежная...1990 :73).saerTo erovnuli xasiaTi frangulma romantizmma XIX saukunisocdaaTian wlebSi miiRo, Tumca franguli romantizmis esTetikuriprincipi mainc pirovnebis sociumTan dapirispirebas gulisxmobda.individi geniaa, romelsac Tavisi ZalisxmeviT samyaros ukeTesobiskenSecvla ZaluZs. romantikosebis esTetikur xedvSi religia udides rolsTamaSobs. romantikosTa mxatvrul-literaturul teqstebSi,qristianuli sarwmunoebisken mobruneba da qristianuli moraliTyvelasa da yvelafris gansjis survili realur da warmosaxviTsamyaroTa dapirispirebaSi vlindeba (Зарубежная...1990 :43).Tu safrangeTSi romantizmis aRmocenebis winapiroba Seiqmna,safrangeTSive individis Tavisuflebis SeboWvis meqanizmic yvelazemZafrad iqna gamoxatuli. is socialur-politikuri viTareba, romelicsafrangeTSi sufevda, individis Tavisuflebasa da yovlisSemZleobisideas akninebda. Semoqmedi ganwirulobisa da bedis ukuRmarTobis ideiTiyo Sepyrobili (r. Satobriani, e. piver de senankuri, al. de lamartinisadreuli Semoqmedeba). napoleonis magaliTic am mosazrebas amyarebda:naxevari samyaros mbrZanebelma, wminda elenes kunZulze, tyveobaSidaasrula Tavisi sicocxle (Brassel 2004 :355). g. hegeli franguliromantizmis Taviseburebad pirovnebis ,,sayovelTao realobasa damiwierTan dapirispirebas’’ miiCnevs (filosofiis ...1987 : 704). frangiromantikosebisTvis burJuaziuli revolucia da misi Sedegebi rTulad


18misaRebi aRmoCnda: yofiTis winaaRmdeg buntSi ganwirulobis intuiciuriSegrZneba moiazreboda, rac sazogadoebriv-politikuri ganviTarebistendenciebTan iyo dakavSirebuli. igi erTgvar antiburJuaziul utopiaswaagavda (Mitterand 1988 :174). burJuazia ara konkretul-politikuraspeqtSi (rogorc realizmis warmomadgenlebisTvis), aramed _ zogadsakacobrioaspeqtSi. burJuaziuli Rirebulebebi materialurTan iyodakavSirebuli. simandvilis aRqmis es koncefcia franguli romantizmiskatalizatorad iqca. safrangeTis burJuaziuli revoluciis lozungebi_ Tavisuflebis, Tanasworobisa da Zmobis Sesaxeb, erTi mxriv imedssaxavda, meore mxriv ki _ imedgacruebas. germanulsa da inglisurromantizms realobis uaryofis naklebad radikaluri gamomsaxvelobiTiformebi gaaCndaT, radgan igive inglisSi, burJuaziam klasikuriCamoyalibebuli forma ukve SeiZina. germaniis sinamdvileSi ki,burJuaziuli weswyoba nabij-nabij, yovelgvari paTosis gareSe ikidebdafexs. germanuli da inglisuri romantizmisgan gansxvavebiT, franguliromantizmi metad ganicdida Tanamedroveobis, kerZod, socialurpolitikuriprocesebis wnexs (Карельский 1992: II).franguli romantizmis wiaRSi, meamboxe pirovnebis iseTi tipiskonstruireba xdeba, romelic sazogadoebaSi mimdinare aRmSeneblobiTida misi Tanmxlebi destruqciuli procesebis momswrea. franguliromantizmis ,,saukunis Svilis’’ fsiqologiuri portreti germanuli,hofmaniseuli Semoqmedi-enTuziastisgan da ingliseli meamboxeheroikuli,titanuri gmiris tipisgan gansvavdeba (Brassel 2004 :360).franguli romantizmi qmnis daxvewil, mgrZnobiare gmirs, romelicuferul samyarosTan Widilsa da sulieri tanjvisTvisaa ganwiruli(Mitterand 1988 :268). XIX saukunis ocian wlebSi, germanuli da inglisuriromantizmis gavleniT (e.a. fon hofmani, j.g. baironi), frangulromantikul gmirTa palitras titanis tipis gmirebi Seemata, magaliTadJan sbogari S. nodies da mose al. de viniis SemoqmedebaSi, Tumca esgamonakliss warmoadgens.frangul romantizmSi, Semoqmedisa da xelovnebis rolma da maTisazogadoebasTan urTierTobis sakiTxma, wina planze amave periodSiwamoiwia. frangulma romantizma politikuri xasiaTi SeiZina. XIX


19saukunis dasawyisSi, ganmanaTleblobis gavleniT, jer isev iwerebodatraqtatebi politikas, sazogadoebrivi moralisa da literaturissazogadoebasTan urTierTobis Sesaxeb (madam de stali, r. deSatobriani, b. konstani, et. senankuri) (Mitterand 1988 :177). politikuricxovrebis mimarT interesi qveyanaSi socialur-politikuri procesebisgamovlena iyo. am procesebma restavraciis dros yvelaze mkafiod TaviiCina. socialuri usamarTlobis uRelze jer kidev Satobriani wuxda.madam de stalic naSromSi _ ,,safrangeTis revoluciis mniSvnelovanimovlenebi’’ (1818 w. ), adamianis zoon politicon -is statusis Sesaxeb saubrobs.igive sakiTxebs exeba alfred de vinii Tavis nawarmoebSi _ ,,sen-mari’’(Зарубежная...1990 : 15). XIX saukunis ocian wlebSi, mweralTa erTi nawili_ v. hiugo, J. sandi, arsebuli realobis gardaqmnis gzebs eZiebdnen.SemoqmedTa nawili ki _ sulierebasa da xelovnebis politikisgandamoukideblobas qadagebda. frangi romantikosebis am,,apolitikurobis’’ miRma, motyuebuli Taobis uimedoba, poetissocialuri misiis warumatebuloba da imedgacrueba imaleboda. esSesaniSnavad warmoCinda alfred de miuses SemoqmedebaSi (Mitterand1988 :205).franguli romantizmis warmomadgenelTa msoflmxedvelobisTvisdamaxasiaTebeli iyo angaJirebul da ,,wminda xelovnebas’’ Sorisarsebuli dialeqtikuri dapirispireba. swored romantizmis epoqaSiCaisaxa ,,wminda xelovnebis’’ idea, romelmac asaxva hpova Sarlbodleris, lekon de lilis da giustav floberis SemoqmedebaSi. TviTteofil goties uSfoTveli esTetizmi gaugebaria moqalaqeobrivipoziciiT ganmsWvaluli miuses lorencaCos gareSe, romelic,gansxvavebuli Sexedulebebis miuxedavad, yvela mrwamsis romantikoss arstovebs gulgrils (Mitterand 1988:334).didi xnis ganmavlobaSi, franguli romantizmi mWidro kavSirsinarCunebda klasicizmTan, ganmanaTleblobasa da realizmTan. imismiuxedavad, rom es mimdinareobebi racionalistur, realobis obieqturasaxvaze dafuZnebuli mimdinareobebi iyo, maTi gavlena frangulromantizmze germanul romantizmze idealisturi filosofiis gavlenasutoldeboda. XIX saukunis ocdaaTiani wlebSi, safrangeTis


20literaturuli cxovrebis mZlavr komponents realizmi wamoadgenda(al. de miuse, J. sandi, v. hiugo). amasTanaa dakavSirebuli is faqtic, romyovelive fantastikuri da irealuri mcired rols TamaSobda frangiromantikosebis SemoqmedebaSi. mogvianebiT, fantastikuri S. nodies,t. gotiesa da J. de nervalis nawarmoebebSi hpovebs ganviTarebas(Mitterand 1988 :281). fantastikuri da warmosaxviTi, genetikurad, germanulromantizms ukavSirdeba da frangul literaturaSi xSirad ironiulxasiaTs iZenes. franguli romantizmisTvis religiur simbolikasTandakavSirebuli miTosurobac naklebadaa gamoxatuli. Ffranguliromantizmis wiaRSi, qristianobis apologetad Tavidanve r. deSatobriani iyo miCneuli. religia did rols TamaSobs lamartinispoeziaSic, magram religiuroba, orive SemTxvevaSi, gandegilobasa daTavganwirvas rodi gulisxmobs: igi ufro esTetikuri an politikurimiznebisTvis gamoiyeneba, rogorc filosofiuri da sazogadoebrpolitikurixatovani forma (al. de lamartinis ,,angelozis dacema’’)(Mitterand 1988:183).rogorc avRniSneT, XIX saukunis ocdaaTiani wlebi, franguliromantizmis mwvervalad aris miCneuli. frang romantikosTa Semoqmedebaromantizmis qristianuli religiis Sesaxeb doqtrinas exmianeba dasasowarkveTilTa da miusafarTa religiad iqceva. sakmarisia gavixsenoTqristianuli motivebis mniSvneloba v. hiugos, J. sandis da al. delamartinis SemoqmedebaSi. amave dros, franguli romantizmi interesdebaaRmosavluri religiebiT, ezoTerizmiT, spiritualizmiTa dailuminizmiT. Jerar de nervalis SemoqmedebaSi Tavs iCenskosmopolitikuri da qristianuli orTodoqsiisgan SorsmdgomiesTetikuri koncefcia.romantizmis xangrZlivoba sadavo sakiTxs warmoadgens. amisSesaxeb mecnerTa gansxvavebuli mosazrebebi arsebobs. Zneli dasadgenia,rodis uTmobs adgils romantizmi realizms, gansakuTrebiT _ franguliromantizmis SemTxevvaSi. es sadavo sakiTxia iseve, rogorc romantizmisgavlenis sakiTxi realizmsa da simbolizmze. hainrix haine werda, romyvela eri davalebulia franguli revoluciiT, kerZod _ germaneli,magram Tavad frangebs ,,ar ecalaT’’, radgan axali safangeTisaRmSeneblobiT iyvnen dakavebulni (Зарубужная ...1990:129). bevri Tvlis,


21rom saman viqtor hiugo cocxali iyo, safrangeTSi romantizmi iyogamefebuli (Карельский 1992:II). erTi ram cxadia, romantizmis aRzevebasafrangeTSi XIX saukunis ocian wlebSi iwyeba, im dros samoRvaweoasparezze e.w. ,,umcrosi romantikosebi’’ gamovidnen (t. gotie, J. denervali). romantizmis gamoZaxili udaod didia XIX da XX saukuneebisgasayarze warmoqmnil neorealizmsa da siurrealizmzec.franguli romantizmis Taviseburebebs SesaniSnavi ortomeulimiuZrvna literaturis istoriis specialistma _ pol beniSum (1908-2001ww). franguli romantizmis ganviTarebis Taviseburebas igi imperiods ukavSirebs, romelic frangulma sazogadoebam ganvlo dagansakuTrebul mniSvnelobas aniWebs iluminizms _ religiur-mistikurixasiaTis filosofiur mimdinareobas, romlis warmomadgenlebi iyvnenlui-klod de sen-marteni (1743-1804ww), martines de paskali (1727-1774ww)da emanuel svedenborgi (1688-1772ww). mecnieri kontrrevoluciisromantizmze gavlenis Sesaxeb saubrobs, romelic brumeriT ( 22/X-20 XI)iwyeba da restavraciis bolo wlebiT mTavrdeba (Bénichou 1996 :93).xelovnebisa da xelovanis damiSnuleba, romelic exmianeba im periodisliberalur tendenciebs, religiis da misi rolis axleburi gaazreba,neokaTolicizmi, romelic S. furies socialur utopiasTanTanaarsebobs da moicavs gzas, romelic sazogadoebam mecnieruliutopiidan demokratiamde ganvlo _ yvelaferma aman ,,diadi Taobis’’Camoyalibebas Seuwyo xeli (Bénichou 1996 : 751). frangebisTvis, mtkivneuliSedegebis miuxedavad, revolucia optimizmis simbolo iyo (Bénichou 1996 :445). romantizmi im qartexilebiT aRsavse epoqas asaxavs. pol beniSusazriT, aman gansakuTrebiT 1830-1848 wlebSi iCena Tavi (Bénichou 1996 : 446).romantizmis yvela zemoxsenebuli tendencia aisaxa frangimwerlisa da publicistis _ Jerar de nervalis SemoqmedebaSi.


22I. II. Jerar de nervali da Jerar labrunix.l. borxesi wers: ,,mweralma marto SemoqmedebiT ki ara, TavisicxovrebiTac unda mogxiblos’’. es sityvebi namdvilad esadageba Jerarde nervals, romlisTvis Semoqmedeba cxovrebisgan ganuyofeli iyo,xolo cxovreba – Semoqmedebisgan.Jerar labruni 1808 wlis 22 maiss parizSi daibada, mamamisisamxedro eqimi gaxldaT. mwerlis deda _ mari-antuaneta-margeritlorani, parizeli komersantis _ linger loranis qaliSvili, romelicparizis erT-erT uZveles quCaze (kokieris quCa _ rue de Coquillère)cxovrobda. dedis gardacvalebis Semdeg, ori wlis Jerari biZamisTan,valuas uZveles mxareSi izrdeboda. mama pirvelad Svidi wlis asakSinaxa. Tavis mogonebebSi, aleqsandre diuma momavali mwerlis mamasTanSexvedras aRwers: udardeli, sofelSi gazrdili biWuna masTanmiaxlovebulma samma samxedrom daafrTxo. erT-erTma magra CaikragulSi. ,,mama, mtken’’ _ uTxra biWma, misi mklavebidan ganTavisuflda dagaiqca (Dumas 1990 :46). A1814 wlidan moyolebuli Jerari mamasTan, etien labrunisTan erTadparizSi cxovrobda da zafxulobiT xan montefontenSi, xanacdeduleTs, valuas stumrobda. sazRvargareT mogzaurobis msgavsad,mwerali parizSic xSirad icvlida binas. monmartrze 1846 welsdasaxlda, Sato bruialSi, Jirardonis quCis dasawyisSi. JorJ sandis,viqtor hugos, alfons de lamartinis da alfred de viniisgangansxvavebiT nervals arasdros hqonia sakuTari saxli. igi daibada senmartenis quCis 96 nomerSi. mas Semdeg, rac misi mSoblebi napoleonisjarTan erTad germaniaSi gaemgzavrnen, Jerari luaziSi, biZasTangaamweses. Sarl bodleris msgavsad, nervali parizSi daibada dagardaicvala, magram guli safrangeTis CrdiloeTisken miuwevda (Milner,Pichois 1989: 371). dedis sikvdilis Semdeg (1810 wels), nervali biZamisTan,antuan buSes saxlSi gadavida sacxovreblad, romelic montefontenSi,ermenonvilTan axlos mdebareobda. Wabukobisas, nervali ermenonvilSi,Jan-Jak rusos saflavze xSirad midioda. swored mSobliuri kuTxissiyvarulSi unda veZioT nervalis ,,magiuri georafiis’’ fesvebi(Jean1989:18). dRes biZis saxli da mis siaxloves mdebare anri IV -is


23droindeli sasaxle, romelic nervalis nawarmoebebSi xSirad arisasaxuli, aRar arsebobs. 1834 wels, nervali arsen usesTan erTadparizSi, dRevandeli karuselis moedanze cxovrobda (1835 bozari quCa#5); 1840-1841 wlebSi, teofil gotieTan erTad navarinis quCis #14 (Jean1989 : 19).mamas Svilis momavali saeqimo saqmesTan dakavSirebuli esaxeboda.nervali samedicino saqmianobas eufleboda, bakalavris statusicmieniWa da eqimi labrunis asistentadac muSaobda. momavali mweralisaeqimo saqmianobas mamis gverdiT maSinac agrZelebda, rodesac parizSiqoleris epidemiam ifeTqa, magram, sabolood, GJerar labrunim mwerlobaarCia (Milner, Pichois1985:372).1841 wels nervals pirveli nervuli krizi daemarTa. igi emilblanSis klinikaSi mkurnalobda, romelic gi de mopasanis eqimicgaxldaT. Semdeg mkurnaloba eqimis vaJiSvilis klinikaSi gaagrZela.mkurnaloba xSirad xangrZlivi iyo da nervals didi xniT eqimebiszedamxedvelobis qveS uwevda yofna. mama-Svili blanSebis klinikaSinervali 1841-1855 wlamde, anu sikvdilamde mkurnalobda, norvinis quCa#22-Si. monmartrze, blanSebis klinikaSi, romelic nervals TavisnawarmoebSi xSirad aqvs aRwerili, dRes kerZo sastumroa ganlagebuli.m. fuko werda: ,,sigiJe aris gaSiSvlebuli simarTle adamianisSesaxeb, sakuTari Tavis meore mxridan danaxvis da SecnobissaSualeba’’ (M.Foucault 1964 : 11-12). Jerar labrunic Tavis mdgomareobasrogorc eqimi akvirdeboda da ikvlevda (Dumas 1990 : 260).nervalis avadmyofobam mwerlis cxovrebas daRi daasva: Semoqmedisada realobis dapirispirebas avadmyofobiT gamowveuli pirovnebisgaorebac daemata: megobrebis wreSi nervali mourideblad acxadebdaTavisi oreulis arsebobis Sesaxeb (Dumas 1990 : 267). Jerar labruni Jerarde nervalad gardaisaxa da parizSi, XIX saukunebSi, ori sxvadasxvapirovneba daiareboda.rodesac nervals avadmyofobis pirvelma simptomma iCina Tavi,mwerali sazogadoebas Tavs ar aridebda, piriqiT, megobrebissiyvarulisa da pativicemis damsaxurebas cdilobda. igi iZulebuli iyoeTamaSa, gaxleCiliyo Tavis ubedurebasa da misTvis naklebad Rirebul


24da mniSvnelobis mqone, magram esoden aucilebel sazogadoebrivcxovrebas Soris. es gaoreba romantikosTa esTetikisTvis ucxo araris. igi nervalis nawarmoebebSi aisaxa, magram iq, sadac nervalisgmirebi gamarjvebas zeimoben, mwerali marcxdeba.nervalis megobarTa Soris im epoqis bevri gamoCenili adamiani iyo:diuma-mama, arsen use _ Comedie francaise-is direqtori, teofil gotie,JorJ sandi da misi vaJi, mxatvari selesten nantei, aselino . . .kritikosma da mweralma _ Jul Janenma (Jules Janin -1804-1874) SesaniSnavaddaaxasiaTaAnervali: ,,gamoRviZebuli mTvlemare’’ (Le rêveur éveillé).nervals Tavis avadmyofobaze saubari ar uyvarda. amis Sesaxeb TaviskeTilismsurvelebsac ekamaTeboda, magaliTad krebulis _ ,,cecxlisqaliSvilebi’’, winasityvaobaSi, man Tavis megobarze _ aleqsandrediumaze gabrazeba ver damala (Nerval 1994 :71). nervalis Tavisiavadmyofobis ugulebelyofa da amiT misi damarcxeba hqonda mizanaddasaxuli. mwerlis nawarmoebebis mkvlevarebi misi Semoqmedebis meoreperiodis Taviseburebebis Sesaxeb saubroben, kamaToben da cdilobenerT kiTxvas upasuxon: nervalis moTxroba _ ,,orelia’’, ra aris es? eseiSeSlilobis Sesaxeb, Tu SeSlilis esei.1853 wlis 27 noembers, Jan-batist diublanisadmi miwerili werilSi,nervali Tavis avadmyofobas kritikul asaks abralebs da misi daZlevisimeds ar hkargavs. avadmyofobis Sesaxeb gulaxdil saubars, nervaliganuyrel megobrebTanac aridebda Tavs. mis megobarTa Soris iyvnenartistuli wris, ,,galanturi bohemis’’ warmomadgenlebi: teofil gotie,arsen use, Jan de senieri, kamil roJie, Jozef buSari . . . swored amperiodis udardel cxovrebas eZRvneba poeturi krebuli _ ,,galanturibohema’’. yvelaze gulwrfeli labruni teofil gotiesTan iyo,romelTanac jer kidev liceumis droidan megobrobda. egviptedannervali mas werlebs ugzavnis da amSvidebs, radgan Tavis janmrTelobismdgomareobas dadebiTad afasebs (1843 wlis maisi). amave dros, madam deJirardenisadmi miweril werilSi, momaval mkurnalobas zizRiTa daSiSiT moixseniebs (1843 wlis aprili).megobarTaA Soris aleqsandre diumac iyo, romelTan erTad nervalipiesebs werda. 1837 wels dramis, ,,pikiios’’, warumatebeli dadgmisa dagermaniaSi erTad gatarebuli dros Semdeg, nervalma, amave wlis


25dekemberSi, diumas axalgazrda istoriis maswavlebeli _ ogiust make(Auguste Maquet-1813-1888), warudgina. swored makesTan TanamSromlobagaxdeba, manamde Teatraluri piesebiT cnobili diumas, popularobiserT-erTi mizezi: make diumas momavali roman-felietonebis ZiriTadqargas sTavazobda, romelsac diuma ostaturad aSalaSinebda. 1858 welsmakem saCivari Seitana diumas saxelze: igi misi saxelis dafiqsirebasmoiTxovda saqveynod cnobili romanebis garekanze, magram makem procesiwaago (Encyclopédie libre-Maquet).nervali, romelic qalebis mimarT gansakuTrebulad faqizidamokidebulebiT gamoirCeoda, msaxiobi ida ferieTi iyo gatarebuli.gamWriaxma msaxiobma xelmocarul literators sami muSketerisavtori anacvala. SesaZloa, nervali nawarmoebebSi qalis Ralatis,kerZod, msaxiobi qalisadmi uimedo siyvarulis Tema aramarto Jenikolonis siyvaruls, aramed madam diumasadmi mwerlis gauziarebelgrZnobasac ukavSirdeba. mogvianebiT, samkurnalo dawesebulebaSi yofnisdros, nervali werilebs swored idas werda da Tavs sruliadgamojansaRebulad aCvenebda. diumam da nervalma ida feriesTvis Seqmnespiesa saxelwodebiT _ ,,alqimikosi’’, romelic 1839 wels daidga.nervals arsen uses meuRlesTanac hqonda mimowera. 1852 wels,megobris meuRlis gardacvaleba mwerliTvis tragediad iqca. nervaliscxovrebis es epizodi aseve aisaxa mis moTxrobaSi _ ,,orelia’’(saqorwino beWdis epizodi).erTxel, morigi krizis dros, nervalma Seityo, rom literaturulwreebSi misi gardacvalebis Sesaxeb alaparakdnen. ganawyenebuli daimedgacruebuli, igi klinikidan Tavis megobrebsa da nacnobebs WorisSesaxeb werilebs swerda da periodul presaSic ki gamoaqveyna Tavisiguliswyroma (Dumas1990 : 238). arsen usesadmi miweril werilSi, mweraliJ. Janenis statiaze gabrazebiT saubrobs. Janenma, nervalis fsiqiatriulklinikaSi mkurnalobis dros gamoaqveyna statia, sadac nervali,,gardacvlilad’’ moixsenia. amas ,,Revue Francaise’’-is redaqtorTan _feliqs bonerTan, miwerili werili mohyva, sadac nervali yvelamsurvels Tavis dakrZalvaze epatiJeba. yvelaferi imiT dasrulda, rom


26mweralma Tavi unikalur pirovnebad CaTvala, romelsac sakuTardakrZalvaze daswrebis saSualeba mieca (Jean 1989:95).XIX saukuneSi, fsiqiatriul klinikebSi, eqsperimentulifsiqologiis gamoyeneba avadmyofebSi SemoqmedebiTi potencialisgamomJRavnebiT xdeboda. blanSebis klinikaSi nervals werisa da xatvissaSualebas aZlevdnen, magram mwerali mainc mkurnalTa tyveobaSiimyofeboda da maTi nebarTvis gareSe klinikis datoveba ar SeeZlo.mwerali nebarTvas sazRvargareT gamgzavrebisTvisac iRebda. nervalibevrs mogzaurobda: germaniaSi, belgiasa da avstriaSi, italiaSi daaRmosavleTSi mogzaurobas samwerlobo da Jurnalistur saqmianobasuTavsebda. Tavisi aRmosavluri STabeWdilebebis Sesaxeb nervaliortomeulSi _ ,,mogzauroba aRmosavleTSi’’ _ mogviTxrobs (Nerval 1980).ormocdaaTian wlebSic mwerali bevrs mogzaurobda da janmrTelobismdgomareobis gamo ferenc lists xSirad ewuwuneboda. 1854 wlis 23ivniss miweril werilSi, igi ferenc lists Tavisi samSoblos geniasuwodebs, romlisTvis siSmage geniosis ganuyreli Tanamgzavria. aseTigulRiaoba imiTac iyo ganpirobebuli, rom kompozitori im seniTitanjeboda, ramac nervals sicocxle mouswrafa.nervali baron osmanis rekonstuqciamdeli parizis erTguliamsaxvelia. Jurnalisturi moRvaweobis garda, nervali literaturulqmnilebebSic iyenebda epizodebs Tavisi cxovrebidan. mas parizi da misigareubnebi ise hqonda gaTavisebuli, rom Tavis mxatvrulliteraturulteqstebSi gaseirnebebis STabeWdilebebs didi adgilimiuCina. misi sicocxlis ukanaskneli wuTebic Semoqmedis artistulqmnilebas, dadgmul warmodgenas waagavs: simboluria, rom TavisCamoxrCoba mweralma im quCaze gadawyvita, saidanac iwyeba moqmedeba miscnobil nawarmoebSi _ ,,orelia’’ (Nerval 1984:9).Jerar de nervali literaturuli saqmianobidan aRebulihonorarebiT irCenda Tavs. klinikebSi mkurnaloba Zviri ujdeboda,amitom mwerali bevrs muSaobda da Tavisi nawerebis gamoqveynebasCqarobda. 1853 wels, nervali iZulebuli Seiqna swrafad gamoeqveynebinanovelebis krebuli _ ,,cecxlis qaliSvilebi’’. bevri mkvlevari krebuliskompoziciur Taviseburebas am siCqariT xsnis (Milner, Pichois1985:143). amavewlis oqtombris TveSi, eJen standlerisadmi miweril werilSi, nervali,


27dafarvis gareSe, Tavis fizikur gadaRlilobas da uunarobas uCivis,magram Tavis gamomcemels, ferdinand sartoriuss, 1854 wlis 14oqomberis weriliT mZime krizis daZlevas axarebs: gamomcemelze didadiyo damokidebuli narkvevis _ ,,gaseirnebebi da mogonebebi’’, damoTxrobis _ ,,orelia’’, bedi.fsiqikur aSlilobas nervali ,,mistikur gons’’ uwodebda. erT-erTTavis werilSi nervali aRiarebs: ,,rogorc ki gamovjanmrTeldi,yvelaferi gauferulda da xibli dakarga; yvela genialuri ideagauCinarda da gaqra poeziac, romelic amden xans CemSi budobda’’ (Nerval1994: 71).Jerari mkurnalobiT ukmayofilo iyo da eqimebs policielebsadarebda, romlebic adamianis sulis nacvlad mis sxeuls mkurnaloben.policielebisa da eqimebis Sedarebamac Tavi iCina nervalis bolonawarmoebSi (samxedroebis mier mTxrobelis dakaveba da misisaavadmyofoSi gadayvana). Tanamedrove fsiqiatriisgan gansxvavebiT, XIXsaukuneSi eqimebi pacientebis dakvirvebebiT Semoifarglebodnen, maTmoTminebiT epyrobodnenAda, didsulovnebis niSnad, xelovnebiTgatacebis uflebas aZlevdnen. naxatebisa da nawerebis saSualebiT,eqimebi pacientis mdgomareobas akvirdebodnen. es epizodi asaxulianervalis moTxrobaSi _ ,,orelia’’. zogierT fsiqiatriuldawesebulebaSi, samkurnalo saSualebad narkotikul nivTierebebsiyenebdnen. es nivTierebebi halucinaciebs iwvevda. moTxrobis,,,orelias’’, TiTqmis naxevari mTxrobelis halucinaciebs ukavia.mkurnalobis es meTodic asaxulia nawarmoebis bolos.1852 wels, nervali Tavis cnobil novelas _ ,,silvis’’, aqveynebs,romlis Sesaxebac italieli mecnieri da mwerali _ umberto eko wers:,,ukve oci welia, rac am novelas vikvlev da misi yoveli wakiTxvisSemdeg ufro mets vigeb, vidre manamde vicodi’’ (Эко 2002: 48). amaveperiodSi nervali muSaobas asrulebs beletristul naSromze _P,,bohemispatara sasaxleebi’’ (,,Petits Château de Bohême’’), romelic erTi wlis Semdegqveyndeba.droebiT warmatebas mciredi finansuri anazRaurebac mohyva, Tumca,janmrTelobis gauaresebis gamo, nervali iZulebuli Seiqna Tanxa eqimblanSis kerZo klinikaSi daetovebina, sadac sami Tve (1854 wlis


28agvisto, seqtemberi da oqtomberi) gaatara. iqidan gamosuls aRaraferiebada. swored es periodi aqvs asaxuli nervals Tavis mSveniermoTxrobaSi _ ,,orelia’’1852 wlis ianvarSi, nervalma dubuas municipalur saavadmyofoSiganagrZo mkurnaloba, radgan kerZo klinikis mkurnalobis safasursveRar ixdida. avadmyofoba mas Tavis saqmianobaSi xels ar uSlida.eqimebisgan waxalisebuli nervali jer asrulebs da Semdeg aqveynebsmogonebebs, saxelwodebiT _ ,,gaseirnebebi da mogonebebi’’ (,,Promenades etSouvenis’’), Semdeg narkvevs _ ,,oqtombris Rameebi’’ (,,Les nuits d’octobre’’).1854 wels mwerali gamoscems Tavis yvelaze cnobil novelaTakrebuls _ ,,cecxlis qaliSvilebi’’. masSi gaerTianebulia novelebi dazRaprebi. krebuli nervalis yvelaze axlo megobris, aleqsandre diumasdaxmarebiT gamoica.erT dRes, Lla libertes (La Liberté) redaqtori cnobil fotografs,etien Sarli gaspar-feliqs turnaSons (1820-1910), igive nadars ewvia.nervalis skvdilidan oc welze meti iyo gasuli. redaqtormafotografiis patriarqs nervalze hkiTxa. misi interviu Mercure de Franceis1908 wlis pirveli aprilis nomerSi gamoqveynda, nadaris sikvdilamdeori wliT adre (Mercure # 256, T. LXXII). nadarma upasuxa, rom nervalibavSviviT gulubryvilo, Zalian saTno da keTilmosurne adamiani iyo,romelmac siamayis gamo moikla Tavi; siamayis, radgan yvelas igi ukvegardacvlili egona.nadaris sitvebiT, nervali sicocxlis ukanasknel periodSi Zaliannerviulobda, rom veRafers qmnida. Ggardacvalebamde ramdenime saaTiTadre, nervali aselinosTan imitom mivida, rom samkiTxvelos bileTisfuli esesxa. rodesac samkiTxveloSi, romelSic mwerali manamdeyoveldRe dadioda, veraferi dawera, mSierma, kostumis amaram, zamTrissusxSi, parizis bnel da ukacriel quCaze CamoixrCo Tavi (Jean 1989:185).sicocxlis bolos nervali deidasTan, parizSi saxlobda.xelmokleobisa da avadmyofobis miuxedavad igi ,,kargad’’ iqceoda dazedmetad aravis awuxebda. rodesac wera veRar SesZlo, nervalmasicocxle TviTmkvlelobiT daasrula. aleqsandre diuma igonebs imdRes, rodesac arsen usesgan nervalis gardacvalebis ambavi Seityo. mas


29policielma miakiTxa da ganyofilebaSi gvamis amosacnobad waiyvana.sabralo megobris danaxvaze diumam fizikuri tkivili SeigrZno (Dumas1990: 125). Tavdapirvelad, policiaSi nervalze parizis bnel quCaSiTavdasxmis versiac arsebobda. es mosazreba naklebad sarwmunoa, radganSilifad Cacmuli adamiani TavdamsxmelebisTvis arc Tu iseTimomxibvleli msxverpli iqneboda. nervalis literaturuli saqmianobawarmatebiT (man goeTes fausti Targmna), TviT goeTes aRiarebiT daiwyoda usaxelod damTavrda.nervalisa da misi naTesavebis usaxsrobis gamo, misi dakrZalvisxarjebi megobrebma Tavis Tavze aiRes. teofil gotiem da marsel usemnervalis piesebis Tanaavtors _ Jozf meris, finansur daxmarebaze uariuTxres da mTeli xarji Tavad gaiRes. dakrZalvis ceremoniis win notrdamSiparaklisis gadaxda da per la Sezze dakZalva 400 franki dajda.marto arsen usem 380 franki gadaixada.Jerar de nervalis Semoqmedebas Zalian mWidro kavSiri aqvs Jerarlabrunis cxobrebasTan, igive _ Jerar de nervalis biografiasTan. amaSiigi aleqsandre diumasac gamoutyda Tavisi cnobili novelebiskrebulis _ ,,cecxlis qaliSvilebi’’ _ winasityvaobaSi. mwerlis azriT,arseboben mwerlebi, romelTa nawarmoebebi mwerlisa da personaJisigiveobas asaxaven. nervali Tavs maT ricxvs miakuTvnebda (Nerval 1994:72).


30II TaviJerar de nervalis nawarmoebebis Janruli identifikaciissakiTxisTvisZveli droidan dRemde, literaturuli nawarmoebis Janruliidiferenciaciis sakiTxi erT-erT umniSvnelovanes sakiTxad rCeba.istoriis sxvadasxva etapze, igi gansxvavebulad ganixileba da yovelkonkretul SemTxvevaSi, sasurveli Sedegis misaRebad, Taviseburimidgoma da meTodologia iZebneba, Tumca aristoteles Teorialiteraturis sami Janris Sesaxeb _ lirikuli, epikuri da dramatuliJanrebi _ dResac ar hkargavs Tavis aqtualobas (Wilaia 1984: 253).m. baxtini werda, rom literaturuli Janri literaturisganviTarebis procesis SemoqmedebiTi maxsovrobaa, amitom Janrs amganviTarebis erTianobis da uwyvetobis uzrunvelyofis unari Seswevs(Бахтин 1975:25).bevri mkvlevari Tvlis, rom, meTodologiuri TvalsazrisiT,upriania Janris poetikis sakiTxebis Seswavla istorizmis poziciidan,radgan nebismier JanrSi ,,maradiuli’’ ,,axlisgan’’ ganuyofelia, iseverogorc tradiciuli – novatorulisgan.Janrebis sazRvrebis dadgenasTan erTad, literaturaTmcodneebi e.w.qveJanrebis sazRvrebsa da farglebs ganixilaven (romani, balada,tragedia). qveJanrebsac, Cveulebriv, Janrebad moixsenieben da maTramdenime saxeobas ganarCeven.nebismieri Janri ganixileba rogorc Sinaarobriv-formalurikategoria. nawarmoebis struqtura istoriulad Camoyalibebul ideuresTetikurerTianobas warmoadgens, romlis formireba nawarmoebisJanruli kuTvnilebiTaa ganpirobebuli. Janrebis konstruirebiskanonzimierebebis codnis gareSe SeuZlebelia nawarmoebebisindividualuri mxatvruli Rirebulebebis dadgena.arsebobs erTmaneTisgan gansxavebuli da axlosmdgoni JanrisTeoriebi. Janruli identifikaciis sakiTxiT daintereseba Tavadnervalis Semoqmedebis Taviseburebam ganapiroba. erTi mxriv, nervalisnawarmoebebi tradiciuli novelis CarCoebs inarCunebs (mcire zoma,Txrobis lakonuri stili, ZiriTadi siuJeturi qargis sworxazovneba),


31magram nawarmoebebSi arsebuli ,,Senakadebi’’ mas moTxrobis, vrcelimoTxrobis, Tundac mcire zomis romanis Tvisebebs aniWebs.nervalis Semoqmedebas gansakuTrebul xibls mis nawarmoebebTanliteraturuli da jadosnuri zRaprebis Serwymis mcdelobaEsZens. amavedros, Jerar de nervalis SemoqmedebaSi mniSvnelovani adgili ukaviafantastikur Janrs da mis mravalsaxeobas.II. I. fantastikuri Janris istoriidan,,fantastikuri’’ franguli sityvidan _ ,,fantastique’’_ aris nawarmoebi,rac uCveulos niSnavs. etimologiurad es sityva laTinur sityvas _,,fantasticus’’, ukavSirdeba, romelic berZnuli sityvidan – phantasticos, ariswarmoqmnili; es ukanaskneli ki _ sityvisgan _ ,,phantasma’’, anu,,moCvenebebi’’. fantastika mxatvruli literaturis, kinematografiisaA dasaxviTi xelovnebis Janria, romlis esTetikur dominantasfantastikuris, anu uCveulos kategoria warmoadgens, rac Cvens garSemoarsebuli realobis CarCoebis da sazRvrebis reprezentaciis wesebisugulebelyofaSi gamoixateba. Tanamedrove, XXI saukunis xelovnebaSiarsebobs fantastikis sami ZiriTadi Janri: samecniero fantastika,fentezi da saSinelebaTa Janri.fantastikuri Janris sawyisebi jer kidev post-miTosur dafolklorul cnobierebaSi unda veZioT, rac jadosnuri zRaprebisarsebobas ukavSirdeba. fantastikis mxatvruli Semoqmedebisdamoukidebel saxeobad Camoyalibeba misi folklorisgan gamoyofiT,adamianis garSemo arsebuli empiriuli realobis miTosuri SemecnebisuaryofiT iwyeba. samyaros pirvelyofiliEaRqma, uZvelesikosmologiuri miTebiT misi axsna realobis axlebur gagebas aRarakmayofilebda. saWiro gaxda realobis gansxvavebuli ganmarteba, mismimarT damokidebulebis Secvla, amitomac uwodebs olga fraidenbergifantastikas ,,realizmis pirvel pirmSos’’ (Фрeиденберг1997: 3).fantastikuri literaturis Camoyalibebis pirvel etapze, miTSi damiTosur azrovnebaSi realizmi fantastikuri arsebebis SetaniTimkvidrebs Tavs. mxatvrul SemoqmedebaSi igi aisaxa iseTi RvaTebrivi


32warmomavlobis arsebebis SeqmniT, romlebsac adamianisa dacxovelisTvis damaxasiaTebeli niSnebi gaaCndaT (kentavrebi, sfinqsebi..)mogvianebiT, werilobiTi literaturuli tradiciis damkvidrebaganviTarebasTanerTad, safuZveli eyreba fantastikis iseT Janrebs,rogoricaa utopia, Semdeg ki _ fantastikuri mogzauroba. SeiZlebaiTqvas, rom homerosis odisea dasavleT-evropuli fantastikis pirveliliteraturuli nimuSia, Tumca miTosuri da mimesuri formebis pirvelgacnobierebul nazavs aristofanes SemoqmedebaSi vxvdebiT, sadacfantastikuri mogzauroba da utopia erTmaneTTan harmoniulad arisSekavSirebuli da Sezavebuli.elinistur-romaul epoqaSi, fantastika ganviTarebis axal, ufromaRal safexurze gadadis. elinistur epoqaSi iqmneboda e.w.fsevromogzauroba. nawarmobebis gmirebi dedamiwis sxvadasxava kuTxeSimogzaurobdnen da saucxoo Tavgadasavlebis monawileni xdebodnen(antonius diogenes ,,saocari Tavgadasavlebi tules meore mxares’’).zogjer, nawarmoebis personaJebi dedamiwis farglebs scildebodnen damis gareT mogzaurobdnen, magaliTad _ mTvareze. elinistur-romaulepoqaSi Seqmnili fantastikuri Janris nawarmoebebSi fantastikurixSirad fonad gasdevs sinamdvilis socialur-pilitikur asaxvas dasasiyvarulo ambebs. gamogonili personaJebis garda, avtorebinawarmoebebs istoriul pirebzec qmnidnen. sakmarisia gavixsnoT fsevdokalisfenes ambavi aleqsandre didisa, sadac kacobriobis udidesimxedarTmTavari goliaTebiT, jujebiTa da kaciWamiebiT dasaxlebulgasaocari florisa da faunis mqone qveynebSi mogzaurobs, ebrZvis maTda amarcxebs kidec (Dictionnaire...2001 :434).fantastikis qveJanrebidan aucileblad unda gamovyoT romanebi,sadac gardasaxva, personaJebis ierisa da maT mier sakuTari bunebissaxecvla aris asaxuli, magaliTad apuleusis metamorfozebi, anu oqrosviri. es nawarmoebi literaturis istoriaSi damkvidrda rogorcpirveli fantastikuri xasiaTis mxatvruli qmnileba adamianis sulisada sxeulis Sesaxeb. im epiqos erT-erTi pirveli utopiuri xasiaTisnawarmoebia petroniusis satirikoni, sadac uSvilZirod darCenilTaqalaqis _ kronosis, ambavia gadmocemuli. es nawarmoebi, fantastikurisgarda satirul xasiaTsac atarebs, rac SemdgomSi fransua rables


33epopeaSi _ ,,gargantua da pantagrueli’’, da jonaTan sviftis ,,huliverismogzauroba’’-Sia gamoyenebuli da ganvrcobili. am qmnilebebSi,satiruli fantastika naturalistur grotesks erwymis. fantastikuriJanris istoriaSi komikuri elementi Semoaqvs lukianes sarwmuno ambavs,romelSic, komikuri elferis gasamZafreblad, avtori ucnaur florasda faunas aRwers.II saukunis adreqristianul literaturaSi uxvadaa fantastikuritipis literaturuli nawarmoebebi, magaliTad klimentinebi.nawarmoebis saxelwodeba mTavari personaJis _ klimnetis, saxelsukavSirdeba. sxva moqmedi personaJebi realurad arsebuli istoriuliTu religiuri pirebi arian: petre mociquli, mogvi simeoni, Tumca maTgverdiT, gamogonili, legendaruli gmirebic figurireben: umSvenieresielene. amave nawarmoebSi pirvelad Cndeba faustis saxe, romelicSemdgom goeTes ukvdavi qmnilebiT imkvidrebs Tavs (Климентины 2002 :1).V saukunidan moyolobuli, avtorTa yuradRebas yovelive uCveulo,jadosnuri ipyrobs. amave periodSi safuZveli eyreba iseT Janrsrogoricaa paradoqsografia. am Janris pirvel nimuSad iTvlebatralieli flegontis gasaocari ambebi, sadac pirvelad gamoCndapersonaJi-moCveneba. Sua saukuneebSi (V_XI), fantastikuri literaturaukana planze gadadis. fantastikis elementebi im epoqisTavisdamaxasiaTebel literaturul formebs erwymis. xdeba fantastikis,,gamecnireba’’ _ ase axasiaTebs fantastikuri Janris Semdgmom etapsfrangi istorikosi, medievisti, totaluri istoriis koncefciiserTguli, XIII saukunis dasavleT-evropis istoriis specialisti, wmindalui IX da francisk asizelis biografiebis avtori _ Jak le gofi(Jeacque Le Goff). am periodSi iqmneba wignebi, romlebSic gasaocari,daujerebeli ambebia moTxrobili, e.w. ,,saocrebaTa wignebi’’: markopolos mogzauroba, ser jon mandevilis Tavgadasavali. es ukanaskneliimiT aris saintereso, rom misma avtorma (1357-1371) fsevdonimad Tavisiwignis mTavari personaJis saxeli airCia (Jean de Mandeville).gansakuTrebuli adgili ukavia raimon luliusis (Raymundus Lullius, Lulio _1235-1315), katalonieli poetis, filosofosisa da misioneris, qaRaldiswreebis meqanikuri logikuri manqanis Semqmnelis nawarmoebebs da


34mosazrebebs (magaliTad, Ars Magna), romlebsac Semdgom hegelma mimarTaTavis SromebSi.paradoqsografiac axal realobas moergo. paradoqsografiarogorc damoukidebeli Janri, jer kidev Zvel saberZneTSi arsebobda,Tumca misi saxelwodeba literaturis istoriaSi mogvianebiT, germanelifilolog-elinistis, anton vestermanis saSualebis damkvidrda. am JanrsganekuTvneba saocrebebis Sesaxeb ambebi, romelic aristotelesmiewereba; aseve varonis da ciceronis nawarmoebebi, romlebsac,samwuxarod, Cvenamde ar mouRwevia da maT Sesaxeb mxolod gadmocemiTviciT. paradoqsografias profesoris, mwerlisa da ekonomistis, parizisparlamentis wevris, politikis Sesaxeb mecnierebis fuZemdeblis _ Janbodenis (Jean Bodin-1529-1596) demonomania SeiZleba mivakuTvnoT, romelicbodenis saxelmwifoebrivi suverenitetis Sesaxeb Teoriaze aranaklebpopularuli iyo (Schneider 1985 :136). bodeni saxelmwifos mowyobisoptimalur formad absolutur monarqias miiCnevda, uaryofdaaristoteles mosazrebas imis Sesaxeb, rom saxelmwifo adamianisbednierebisTvisaa Seqmnili, Tumca Tavis literaturuleqsperimentrebSi igi ufro Tamami aRmoCnda: jadoqrebis demonomaniaSiman demonebis uRelqveS myofi adamianebis cxovreba aRwera. demonebisan demonebiT Sepyrobili adamianebis Sesaxeb ambebi calke mdgarqveJanrad aris gamoyofili. paradoqsografiis Janrs K nikola remisDemonolatria-c miekuTvneba.barokosa epoqaSi iqmneba avgustianeli beris _ hans ulrix megerpes((1644-1709) _ abraham a santa-klaras HHeilsames Gemisch Gemasch. nawarmoebisqolastikis, mistikis da kaTolicizmis nazavia. nawarmoebSiklerikalebi gaqilikebulni arian. abraham a santa-klaras mosazrebebif. Silerma gamoiyena Tavis valenStainis banakSi. imave epoqaSi, didipopularobiT sargeblobda Jan-pier kamius sisxliani amfiTeatri(L’Amphithéâtre sanglant), simon gelaris saucxoo ambebi (Histoires admirables),antonio torkvemadas heqsameroni, fransua roses Theatrum tragicum.paradoqsografiuli tradicia aisaxa fransua rables gargantuasa dapantagruelSi, grimelshauzenis simplicisimusSi da jonaTan sviftisguliveris mogzaurobaSi.


35XII saukuneSi warmoiqmna e.w. jadosnuri zRaprebi, romlebSickelturi miTebi sagmiro eposis tradiciebs harmoniulad Seerwya.sagmiro eposSi bevri jadosnuri personaJia, magaliTad, oberoni –juja, iulius keisrisa da feria morganas Svili, romelic ciklis, guenbordoselis personaJia (XII_XIV ss). oberonis saxe figurirebs uiliamSeqspiris komediaSi _ ,,zafxulis Ramis sizmari’’. bevr fantastikurelements vxvdebiT tristansa da izoldaSi. SeiZleba iTqvas, romfantastikuri elementebis arseboba Sua saukuneebis saraindo romanisaucilebeli maxasiaTebelia (kretien de truas ,,parcifali’’ (1182)).aRniSvnis Rirsia ingliseli gamomcemlisa da mwerlis, raindis, TeTrida wiTeli vardebis omis monawilis, parlamentaris _ tomas meloris(1417-1471) mefe arturze Seqmnili cikli. melorma cxovrebis bolo ociweli cixeSi gaatara, sadac Seqmna kidec Tavisi literaturuliqmnilebebi, maT Soris _ arturis sikvdili (1469).saraindo romanSi jadosnuri realur samyarosTan Tanaarsebobs, igigasaocrad erwymis yofiTs. saraindo romani adamianis fantaziisukideganobaze, mis saucxoo masStabebze miuTiTebs. igi axalifsiqotipis da zneobrivi kriteriumebis Camoyalibebis mcdelobaswarmoadgens, rac samyaros mowyobis Taobaze da am samyaroSi adamianisdaniSnulebaze eklesiis kanonikur warmodgenebs ewinaaRmdegeba.fantastikuri literaturis ganviTarebis Semdgomi etapiukavSirdeba monumentur-fantastikur tiloebs, romlebic istoriulepikurwanaZRvrebs moklebulni arian. sakmarisia davasaxeloT cnobilihumanistis, tito stocis naTesavis, gubernatoris, mateo-mariaboiardos (1441-1494) Seyvarebuli rolandi (Orlando innamorato), romelSicavtorma mTlianad Secvala warmodgena sagmiro eposis gmiris, mamacimeomris _ rolandis Sesaxeb: mis nawarmoebSi igi Seyvarebulia. erTianisiuJeturi qargis ugulebelyofis miuxedavad, igi didi popularobiTsargeblobda, radgan mkiTxvels karolingebis samefo karis raindebisdaujerebeli, gasaocari Tavgadasavlebi xiblavda. aqve unda gamovyoTbrwyinvale italieli poetis da dramaturgis, ludoviko ariostos(Ludoviko Arioso, 1474-1533) ocdaxuTi wlis Sromis nayofi _ (1507-1532).nawarmoebi warmoadgens tradiciuli, saraindo romanisa da sagmiroeposis sinTezs. ariostom Seyvarebuli rolandis siuJeti ganavrco. mis


36nawarmoebSi raindebi ara marto sarkinozebs, aramed urCxulebsacebrZvian. es Tema sxva sagmiro romanebSic damuSavda. ariostos asaxulimovlenebis mimarT ironiul damoklidebulebas nawarmoebSi komikurielferi Seaqvs da wigns mkiTxvelisTvis momxibvlels xdis. SeSlilirolandi didaqtikur xasiaTs ar atarebs da mas zneobrivi magaliTismaCveneblis funqcia ar akisria.aqve unda vaxsenoT XVI saukunis udidesi italieli poetis,melanqolikis, Tavisi Tanamedroveebis mier daufasebeli mwerlistorkvato tasos (Torquato Tasso – 1544-1595) ganTavisuflebuli ierusalimi(1575), romelSic qristianebisa da mahmadianebis brZolaa aRwerilipirveli jvarosnuli omis bolos. am nawarmoebSi fantastikuriwarmodgenilia eSmakis mociquli domaskos mefis saxiT, romelsacalqaji aleqto da sxva boroti Zala da Winkebi exmarebian, amitomeSmakis mier mojadovebuli saracini rainduli orTabrZolis wesebisver icavs. aRwerili egzotikuri peizaJi mxolod warmosaxvis nayofia:taso aRwers tyes, romelic, axlo aRmosavleTis klimaturiTaviseburebidan gamomdinare, realobaSi ar arsebobda.aRniSvnis Rirsia ingliseli poetis, Seqspiris Tanamedroves, edmundspenseris (Edmund Spenser -1552-1599) feriebis dedofali (1596). esnawarmoebi adamianis Tormeti siqvelis alegoriuli gamoxatulebaa.feriebis jadosnur qveyanaSi dedafali gloriana mbrZaneblobs,romelic aravis unaxavs. dResaswaulze, romelic Tormeti dReEgrZeldeba, gloriana Tavis erTgul raindebs rTul da saxifaTodavalebebis Sesrulebas sTxovs. edmund spenserma mxolod eqvsi wignisdawera moaswro, sadac xotba Seasxa siwmindes, zomierebas, umwiklobas,megobrobas, raindobas, simtkices. nawarmoebis personaJebi feriebi daelfebi arian. SesaxedaobiT elfi raindisgan arafriT gamoirCeva.feriebis dedofali saraido da sagmiro eposis mdidar tradiciebseyrdnoba. personaJebs Soris arian tristami (tristani), ufliswuliarturi. nawarmoebSi uxvadaa jadosnuris atributic: jadoqarimerlinis sarke, romelSic meomari-qalwuli britomarTa Tavismomaval satrfos _ artegals ixilavs. poemaSi istoriul aliuziebsacvxvdebiT: sakmarisia vaxsenoT mariam stuarti, didi armada, anri


37navareli; gakvriT aris miniSnebuli dedofali elisabedis da uolterrailis daSorebac.franguli fantastikis SesaniSnav nimuSs warmodgens XII saukuniscnobili alegoriuli poema, giom de lorisis da Jan de menis vadisromani (Roman de la Rose). romanis 22 817 leqsidan pirveli 4669 XIIsaukunis pirvel naxevarSi aris dawerili. ormoci wlis Semdeg, 1279wels, Jan de menma igi gaagrZela da ganavrco. giom de loriss Tavisiqmnileba siyvarulis xotbad hqonda Cafiqrebuli. SeyvarebulTaAeskodeqsi aristokratTa samagido wigni gaxldaT. mwerlis Semoqmedebazeovidiusma da kretien de truas romanebma didi gavlena iqonia.MpoemispersonaJebi sxvadasxva abstraqtul cnebebs alegoriuladganasaxiereben: zrdiloba, safrTxe, SiSi, eWvi . . . Jan klopinelma, Jande menma sqolastikis ubadlo mcodnem, giom de lorisis nawarmoebsenciklopediuri xasiaTi SesZina. misi kalmis qveS nawarmoebiromantikuli xasiaTis intrigis da alegoriis nazavadD iqca.klopinelma bunebis sxvadasxva movlenaze, adamianis grZnobebze saubariscada, Seecada halucinaciebze yvelaferi moeTxro. romanSigaqilikebuli iyo mamakacis mxridan qalis mimarT platonuri siyvarulida morCileba. nawarmoebica da avtoric italiuri warmomavlobisfrangma poetma qalma, erT-erTma pirvelma feminisma _ qristin pizanelma(Cristine de Pizane _ 1364-1430) kritikis qarcecxlSi gaatara, Tumca maTdasacavad bevma humanisma aRimaRla xma. MmaT Soris iyo erT-erTipirveli humanisti _ Jan de montreili. yvelafris miuxedavad, romanididi popularobiT sargeblobda rogorc TanamedroveTa, aseve Semdgomiepoqebis mkiTxvelTa Soris. amis dasturia romanis inglisur enazejefri Coseriseuli Targmani da kleman maros redaqtirebuli daganaxlebuli gamocema. orive nawili, maTi Tvisobrivi gansxvavebismiuxedavad, jadosnuri alegoriis saxiTaa warmodgenli.renesansis epoqaSi fantastika da jadosnuri adgils realisturromans uTmobs. don kixotesa da gargantua da pantagruelSigaqilikebulia saraindo romanebi da Sua saukuneebis mxatvrulliteraturuligamosaxviTi saSulebebi. utopiis Janris ganviTarebismniSvnelovani etapic amave epoqas ukavSirdeba, rodesac utopiafantastikuris CarCoebSi eqceva. amis magaliTad SeiZleba davasaxeloT


38Telemis saabatos epizodi gargantua da pantagruelSi: ironiiTa daiumoriT daxatuli miwieri samoTxe irealuria, warmoudgeneli da,aqedan gamomdinare _ fantastikuri.utopiuri Janris erT-erTi fuZemdebelia romaul-kaTolikurieklesiis mier wmindanad aRiarebuli Tomas mori (Tomas More – 1478-1535),inglisis mefis henri VIII – es kancleri. misi nawarmoebia oqros wigni.tomas mori idealuri saxelmwifos da adamianTa Soris idealuriurTierTobis models gvixatavs (1516). sityva _ ,,utopia’’, (kunZulissaxelwodeba) idealuri saxelmwifos da sazogadoebis sinonimadixmara ingliselma mRvdelma _ samoel petCesma Tavis nawarmoebSi _momlocveloba (Piligrimage).cnobilma ingliselma mweral-fantastma da biologma, herbertuelsma (1866-1946) kiTxvaze, Tu ras warmoadgens utopia, upasuxa: ,,utopiaes aris ocneba, saukeTeso momavlis imedi, adamianis ukeTesobiskenswrafva’’. nebismieri utopia imdenad aris fantastikuri, ramdenadacmasSi didia ukeTesobisken swrafva da ocneba. iqneba es eko Tuteqnoutipia, antiutopia (anti-utopia an dystopia), romelic totalitarulisaxelmwifos saSiSroebaze mogviTxrobs, an amerikeli sociologisa dafuturistis _ elvin tofleris (Alvin Toffler) zeindustriuli praqtopia.aRniSvnis Rirsia italieli mweralis, tomaso kampanelas (TomasoCampanella 1568-1639 utopiuri socializmis koncefcia. kampanelam 27weli cixeSi gaatara da ganTavisufleba mxolod kardinal riSeliesdaxmarebiT SesZlo, romelmac kampanelas miRwevebis aRiarebis niSnad,mas pensia dauniSna. kampanelas nawarmoebSi Civitas Solis (1602)fantastikuri da realuri erTmaneTs erwymis. mwerali iseTsazogadoebas gvixatavs, romelSic mbrZaneblobs metafizikosi. amukanasknels saxelmwifos samarTlian marTvelobaSi exmarebaZalauflebis, sibrZnisa da siyvarulisgan Semdgari triumvirati.utopiur saxelmwifoSi oTxsaaTiani samuSao dRea, romelic, komunizmisdamkvidrebasTan erTad, SeiZleba kidev Semcirdes. saxelmwifoSimsuqanni da amxdarni uRldebian, rom qorwineba ufro harmoniuligamodges. utopiis qveJanrs miekuTvneba ingliseli filosofosis,istorikosis da parlamentaris, empirizmis fuZemdeblis, adamianis


39Zlevamosilebis mexotbis _ frensis bekonis (Francis Bacon – 1561-1626),axali atlantida. nawarmoebi mkiTxvels socialur gardaqmnebs arsTavazobs, radgan kunZul benselemze arsebuli saxelmwifos wyoba imperiodis inglisis saxelmwifoebrivi mowyobisgan TiTqmis argansxvavdeba, Tumca mecnierebi TavianTi SromisTvis guluxvi,ganaTlebuli mmarTvelis mier arian dafasebulni da TavianTimiRwevebis gamo jildovdebian. axali atlantida teqnokratiuliutopiaa: bekonma ukve XVI saukuneSi iwinaswarmetyvela teqnikisimxanad daujerebeli iseTi miRwevebi rogoricaa wyalqveSa navi,mikrofoni da telefoni.miTologia da folklori yovelTvis iyo fantastikis uSretiwyaro, Tumca arc bibliuri teqstebi axdendnen masze nakleb gavlenas.ingliseli mwerlisa da sazogado moRvawis _ jon miltonis (JohnMilton _ 1608-1674) dakarguli samoTxe (Paradise Lost-1667), erTi SexedviTtradiciul fantastikad ar SeiZleba CaiTvalos, Tumca masSi bevriauCveulo da saocari. nawarmoebis pirvel nawilSi moTxrobiliadamarcxebuli angelozis Sesaxeb, romelic Tavis pandemoniums qmnis dazecas emuqreba. swored demonis aseTi saxe iqca baironis demonizmis dabevri romantikosis STagonebis wyarod. dakarguli samoTxe apokrifulidemonologiis stilSia Seqmnili. misi personaJebi zebunebrivi arsebebiarian. nawarmoebi alegoriul xasiaTs atarebs. bibliur siuJetebsa datradiciebze aRmocenebuli erovnuli motivebiT gajerebuli teqsti,qristianuli fantastikis nimuSia. miltonis religiuri gamocxadebispoetikam uiliam bleikis vizioneruli fantastikis Camoyalibeba daganviTareba ganapiroba.XVII-XVIII saukuneebSi, barokosa da manierizmis epoqaSifantastikuri mxolod fonis rols asrulebda: mis mimarT interesidaikarga, moxda fantastikuris esTetizacia, ramac jadosnuris,zebunebrivis mniSvneloba daaknina. manierizms da barokos klasicizmiCaenacvla. klasicizmisTvis ucxo iyo yovelive fantastikuri. XVIIsaukunis bolos fantastikurma racionaluri xasiaTi SeiZina. imperiodis nawarmoebebSi iseT ambebis aRweren, romelTa axsnaSesaZlebeli iyo. am periods ganekuTvneba e.w. ,,tragikuli ambebi’’. aseTisaxis nawarmoebSi aRwerilia Zaladoba, mkvlelobebi, demonebiT


40Sepyrobili adamianebi. swored am epoqSi Caeyara safuZveli evropuliliteraturis erT-erT umniSvelovanes Janrs _ e.w. ,,Sav romans’’,romelSic paradoqsografiis tradicia gamonagonTan aris Sezavebuli(Schneider 1985 :120). ,,tragikuli ambebi’’ pier boetios saxels ukavSirdeba.boetiom italiuridan Targmna italieli novelistis, domenikanelTaordenis wevris, mateo bandelos (Matteo Bandello-1185-1561) ramdenimenovela. safrangeTis mefis, anri II-is mefobis dros, bandelo aJanisepiskoposi iyo. samefo karTan mWidro kavSiris gamo, man didi roliiTamaSa franguli renesansis ganviTarebaSi. bandelos 214 novelaCikviCentos epoqis sazogadoebas asaxavs. mwerali sentimentalurixasiaTis mqone siuJetebis didostati iyo, magram upiratesobas e.w.,,sisxlian Janrs’’ aniWebda. bandelos erT-erTi novelis siuJeti uiliamSeqspirma gamoiyena Tavisi romeo da julieta-sTvis: saswaulmoqmedisasmisi julietas ise daaZinebs, rom yvelas mkvdari hgonia. esmniSvnelovani fantastikuri elementia realistur stilSi dawerilnovelaSi. bandelos CanafiqriT, Seyvarebulebis TviTmkvlelobanawarmoebs e.w. ,,sisxlian Janrs’’ miakuTvnebs. marteo bandelostradiciis gamgrZleblad safrangeTSi gvevlineba margarita navarelisaRsazrdeli _ fransua de belfore (Francois de Belleforest) (Schneider1985 :107). Seqspiri daniis ufliswulis ambavs swored misiinterpretaciiT gaecno.imave periodSi, fransua de rose da Jan pier kamiu, episkoposi diubele (Du Belley) TavianTi nawarmoebebis Sesaqmnelad da maTTvisdamajereblobis misacemad kriminalur qronikas iyenebdnen. frangulenaze servantesis samoZRvrebo novelebis mTargmneli, fransua deroses (François de Rosset) Cveni drois tragikuli ambebi da novela _ ,,da-Zmis tragikulisiYsiyvarulis uCveulo ambavi’’ (1614), mwerlis mfarvelis,dedofali margos gardacvalebis Semdeg gamoqveynda.romantizmis epoqaSi fantastika adamianis gaorebas ukavSirdeba.,,wminda siSmage’’ yvela romantikosis STagonebis wyarod iqca. ienisskolis warmomadgenlebisTvis fantastikuri legendebis da miTebissamyaroSi SeRwevis tolfasi iyo. uCveulo, jadosnuri da fantastikuriWeSmaritebis Ziebis sawindari gaxda, rac l. tikisa da novalisis


41SemoqmedebaSi aisaxa. romantikosTa haidelbergis skola fantastikurielementebiT avsebda siuJets, radgan mkiTxvels yovelive saidumlo daamoucnobi ufro izidavda. romantikuli fantastika transformaciasa dasinTezs e.a. hofmanis SemoqmedebaSi ganicdis: goTikuri romani (,,eSmakiseleqsiri’’), zRapari (,,rwyilTa mbrZanebeli’’), feeriuli fantasmagoria(,,princesa brambila’’) da realisturi vrceli moTxroba _ SesaniSnavadTanaarseboben germaneli romantikosis SemoqmedebiT palitraze (Schneider1985 :151). inglisur romantizmSi goTikuri romanis tradiciebsagrZelebs edgar alan po (,,eSerTa saxlis dacema’’).franguli fantastikis fuZemdebelad aRiarebulia rokokos epoqisfrangi mwerali _ Jak kazoti (1715-1792). man dasavleT indoeTSi msaxuriTsakmao dovlaTi daagrova imisTvis, rom parizis maxloblad udardeladecxovra da literaturul saqmianobas miscemoda. aRmosavlurizRaprebiT monusxuli niWieri diletanti, kazoti pirvel frangulliteraturul-fantastikur zRaprebs qmnis (,,katis TaTi’’, ,,La patte deChat’’). manamde man ariostos nawarmoebebze Seqmnili parodiebiT gaiTqvasaxeli (1772 w.). kazoti misticizma da martinizma ise gaitaca, rom misicnobili mistikuri mimowera mwerlis dapatimrebis da, Semdeg,sikvdiliT dasjis mizezi gaxda (1792 w. ). kazotis nawarmoebebs nervaliSarl nodies saSualebiT gaecno: es ukanaslkneli, imxanad popularulmwerals piradad icnobda. nervalis winasityvaobiT gamoqveynda kazotiscnobili ,,Seyvarebuli eSmaki » (1845 w). SesaZloa es nawarmobi gaxdanervalis fantastikuri novelis pirvelwyaro da axalgazrda mwerlisiluminizmiT (svedenborgi, martinistebi) gatacebis mizezi (Искусство ихудожник...1985:464).Jerar de nervalis nawarmoebebSi fantastikuri sinkretuli JanriskonstruirebisTvis gamoiyeneba. mis SemoqmedebaSi fantastika aris fonida ara mizani. nervalis prozaSi erTmaneTs Seerwya yvela is Tviseba,rac fantastikuri JanrisTvis aris damaxasiaTebeli: fantastikuri,jadosnuri, utopisturi, demonur-apokrifuli. fantastikuri misnovelebSi transformacias ganicdis, rac nawarmoebebis kompoziciis daarqiteqtonikis mravalferovnebaSi vlindeba, amitom nervalis novelebiskompoziciis Taviseburebebis Seswavla mizanSewonilad CavTvaleT.


42II.II. JanrTa maravalferovneba Jerar de nervalisSemoqmedebaSiXIX saukunis dasawyisisTvis, novelam, iseve rogorc sxva Janrma,ganviTarebis didi da gangrZlivi gza ganvlo. v. tolmaCovis daer. karelskis mosazrebiT, romantizmis epoqaSi warmoqmnilmaSemoqmedebiTma impulsebma XX saukuneSi evropuli kulturisganviTareba ganapirobes. es, garkveul wilad, ukavSirdebamiToSemoqmedebas, axal miTologiis warmoqmnis mcdelobas, romelic finde sciècle da modernizmis epoqaSi iqna jerovnad dafasebuli.romantizmis epoqis Janruli mravalferovneba epikuri JanrisganviTarebas efuZneba. literaturuli zRaprebi Tu fantastikurinovelebi romantizmis epoqis siuJeturi konstantebis (invariani)SesaZlo variantebis mravalferovnebiT xasiaTdeba. saavtoro(literaturuli) zRapris da fantastikuri novelis Janri momxibvleliiyo romantikuli msoflmxedvelobisTvis, pirvel rigSi, pirobiTobisada reglamentirebis ugulebelyofiT da Semecnebis procesisdialeqtikuri ganviTarebis asaxvis SesaZleblobiT; Tu sxvamimdinareobebisTvis damaxasiaTebelia individis socializacia,romantizmis esTetika TviTSemecnebas da TviTidentifikacias efuZneba.es procesi romantikuli gmiris saxes qmnis, rasac yvelaze didimniSvneloba eniWeba romantizmis esTetikaSi.novelis evoluciaze gansakuTrebuli gavlena iqonia aRorZinebam daganmanaTleblobis epoqam. aRorZinebis epoqaSi Camoyalibda humanizmismsoflmxedveloba, romelmac Searyia saeklesio-feodaluri ierarqia,gaanTavisufla adamiani Sua saukuneebis dogmatikis klanWebidan,daamsxvria arsebuli, saukuneebis manZilze CamoyalibebuliRirebulebaTa sistema da adamiani samyaros centrad aqcia. estendenciebi, rasakvirvelia, literaturaSic aisaxa. meore epoqa,romelmac aseve didi gavlena iqonia novelis rogorc JanrisganviTarebaze – ganmanaTleblobaa, romelmac adamianis gons Seasxaxotba (Dictionnaire... 2001 :522).adamianis da bunebis kavSiri, misi bedi, saqmianoba, cnobiereba,sazodagoebasTan misi damokidebuleba, socialur-politikuri,


43filosofiuri, zneobrivi sakiTxebi mxatvrul-literaturuli teqstissagnad iqca, rac, istoriis calkeul etapze, Janruli tradiciebisgardaqmnas iwvevda. XIX saukunis dasawyisis novela, misi Janrulimravalferovnebis miuxedavad, am Janris sxva, adreuli nimuSebisganTvisobrivad gansxvavdeba. man lakonuroba da siuJetis dinamikacdakarga. XIX saukunis novelebSi movlenebze mniSvnelovani Tavadadamiani da pirovneba gaxda (Исскуство...1985:9). swored amitom,romantizmis epoqis novelaSi adamianis cxovrebis fsiqologiuraspeqtebs eniWeba upiratesoba: personaJi, moqmedi gmiri movlenazemniSvnelovani xdeba. nawarmoebis gmirmac ganicada transformacia:moazrovne da mgrZnobiare, igi mSrali faqtebis samyaroSi aRarcxovrobda, radgan misTvis sulieri samyaro gaxda mniSvnelovani.adamianis msoflmxedveloba, cnobiereba da grZnobebi romantizmisepoqis da mis warmomadgenelTa yuradRebis centSi moeqca (Dictionnaire2001:737).Jerar de nervalis nawarmoebebs novelis, aseve mcire zomis romanisniSnebic aqvs. es tendencia SeimCneva iseT nawarmoebebSi rogoricaa:,,orelia’’, ,,anJeliki’’, ,,emili’’. rogorc novelaSi, yovel maTganSipersonaJTa raodenoba mcirea, yuradRebis centrSi erTi ZiriTadiambavia moqceuli, Tumca kvanZis gaxsna moulodnel xasiaTs ar atarebs.patar-patara ambebi, romlebsac Sua saukuneebSi novelas uwodebdnen,ori saxiT arsebobda: samoZRvrebo novelebis (exemplum) da canari, anu _,,ixvis’’ saxiT. Sua saukuneebSi, kanaris, romelic sxvadasxva TavSesaqcevambavs gadmoscemda, mosaxleobas quCebSi usasyidlod urigdeboda.nervali orive saxis noveliT iyo dainteresebuli: novela _ ,,anJeliki’’,da masSi gadmocemuli ambavi axalgazrdebis Wkuis dasarigebladgamodgeba; rac Seexeba meore saxis novelebs (canari), mas nervali calkeTavs uZRvnis krebulSi _ ,,cecxlis qaliSvilebi’’ (Нерваль 1985 : 87).Jerer de nervalis novelebis krebulSi, novelebTan erTadzRaprebic aris gaerTianebuli. TiToeul maTganSi homogenurisamyaroebia asaxuli. sxvagvarad rom vTqvaT, nervalis novelebSi,SesaZloa erT konkretul ambavs ar gviTxroben, magram nawarmoebebisfiqcionalur samyaroSi SesaZleblobaTa erTiani sistema moqmedebs.


44krebulSi _ ,,cecxlis qaliSvilebi’’, Semavali novelebi Tu zRaprebical-calke, erTi Janris farglebSi ganicdian cvlilebas. krebulSimravali Janris nimuSia Tavmoyrili. krebulisgan gansxvavebiT,mxatvrul-literaturuli teqsti saxelwodebiT _ ,,orelia”, metTavsatexs gviCens: igi moTxrobad, zogan novelad moixsenieba.literaturul kritikaSi bevri mas literaturul zRaparsac uwodebs(Jean 1964 :111). romanis zoma ganmsazRvrel faqtors ar warmoadgens,amave dros nervalis nawarmoebi unda ganvasxvavoT biografiulixasiaTis naratiuli teqstisgan, iseve rogorc _ zRaprisgan, romelSicjadosnuri ambavia gadmocemuli (Dictionnaire.. 2001:522). nervaliSesaniSnavad flobda literaturuli zRapris Seqmnis teqnikas.sakmarisia gavixsenoT iseTi nawarmoebi rogoricaa _ ,,ganTiadisdedoflis da sulTa mbrZaneblis, solomonis ambavi’’ (Nerval 1980:233).Tavis mogonebebSi, aleqandre diuma wers, rom nervali, Wabukobidanmoyolebuli, sabas dedofalis saxiT iyo gatacebuli. mwerli iqvedasZens, rom nervalis uiRblo siyvaruli sxva araferia, Tu arasakuTari cxovrebis zRaprad qcevis mcdeloba (Dumas1990:59).nervalis novelebze, mis fantastikur JanrTan siaxlovezesaubrisas, mniSvnelovnad migvaCnia gamovyoT is faqti, rom novalisisgangansxvavebiT, romelsac erT nawarmoebSi aqvs gaerTianebuli realuricada irealuric, rac fiqcionaluri samyaros kuTvnilebad aqcevsistoriulad arsebuli sazogadoebis, konkretuli epoqis socialurekonomikurwyobas da jadosnur samyaros, nervali gansvavebuladqmedebs: dasawyisSi igi am or cnebas mijnavs (,,cecxlis qaliSvilebi’’),Semdeg ki _ Slis realursa da irealurs Soris arsebul sazRvrebs(,,orelia’’). germaneli mwerlis gadawyvetilebas mis SemoqmedebaSigroteskis elementebi Semoaqvs. nervalTan groteski minimumandeadayvanili: mis mizans ar warmoadgens mkiTxvelis winaSe realobisgaqilikeba. nervals surs gaakvirvos mkiTxveli, aCvenos da daarwmunos,rom sulisSemxuTvel realobasTan erTad, warmosaxviTi, ocnebebismSvenieri samyaroc arsebobs, metic, mxolod es ukanasknelia Rirebuli.nervali erT krebulad gamoscems sakuTriv novelebs (,,oqtavi’’,anJeliki’’, ,,silvi’’, ,,emili’’), literaturul zRaprebs (,,mwvane urCxuli’’,,,mojadovebuli xeli’’), jadosnur zRaprebs (,,Tevzebis dedofali’’),


45fantastikur novelebs (,,eSmakis portreti’’), publicistur narkvevebs(,,ixvis damajerebeli ambavi’’) da mogzauris Canaxatebs (,,oqtombrisRameebi’’, ,,venis Tavgadasavlebi’’). igi cdilobs, erTmaneTisgan gamijnosmcire epikuri teqstebi, rac Janrul aberacias ar iwvevs. Sesabamisad,novelebis krebulSi _ ,,cecxlis qaliSvilebi’’, literaturul zRaprebsTavisi adgili ukavia, sakuTriv novelebs ki _ Tavisi, Tumca maTi erTkrebulad gamocema eqperimentad unda aRviqvad. mogvianebiT, nervalirealursa da irealursac erT mxatvrul-literaturul teqstSimoaqcevs. saubaria mis ukanasknel nawarmoebze, moTxrobaze _ ,,orelia’’.novelebis krebulSi _ ,,cecxlis qaliSvilebi’’, gaerTianebuliazRapari _ ,,Tevzis dedofali’’. teqsti literaturuli zRaparis JanrsganekuTvneba. xismWreli Zmiswuls totebis mosatanad tyeSi gzavnida.tyeSi biWuna meTevzis qaliSvils xvdeboda. patara gogona saaTobiTidga wyalSi. mas gvelTevzebi ise ecodeboda, rom daWerisTanaveuSvebda. gogona yovel DdRe saxlSi xelcarieli brundeboda daufrosebis risxvas imsaxurebda. bavSvebi mxolod erT DdRes arxvdebodnen, rodesac meluzina Tevzad iqceoda da edas dedofali _gedad. orives erTi da igive sizmari esizmreboda. boroti xismWrelisdamarcxebis Semdeg, gogona Tevzebis dedoflad, biWi ki _ tyis mefediqca (Nerval 1980:219). am ambavs, rogorc yvela zRapars, keTilidasasruli aqvs. miTisgan gansxvavebiT, masSi ugulebelyofiliasakraluri profanulis sasargeblod, mas ar gaaCnia ezoTerulixasiaTi, Tumca empiriuli sinamdvilis realisturi asaxvadamajereblobis efeqts qmnis da nawarmoebs arazRaprul prozasTanaaxlovebs. literaturuli zRapariviT, nervalis teqsti didaqtikurixasiaTis matarebelia. igi novelistur zRaparsac uaxlovdeba, radganborotis damarcxeba istoriulad determinirebul droSi xdeba.zRaprisTvis Cveuli keTili dasasrulis TvalsazrisiT, yuradRebasipyrobs nervalis kidev erTi qmnileba _ ,,mwvane urCxuli’’. es nawarmoebiTavisi ironiuli xasiaTiT gamoirCeva. sardafSi sanaZleoze Casulijariskaci ubadlo Rvinos daigemovnebs. uecrad, sardafSi boTlebiscekva-TamaSi atydeba. am gansacdels jariskaci fulis Sovnis mizniT kigauZlebs, magram qorwilisTvis naSovn fuls misTvis bedniereba armoaqvs: axalgazrda col-qmars saSineli urCxuli SeeZineba. ironia kidev


46ufro mZafrdeba, rodesac mwerali urCxulis dabadebis mizezs arxsnis da mkiTxvels upasuxod tovebs. erTxelac, mwvane urCxuli qrebada misi gaCenis, misi mSoblebis dawyevlis mizezic samudamodamouxsneli rCeba. am nawarmoebSi, nervali sakuTriv zRapris CarCoebsarRvevs da qmnis legendas mwvane saSineli arsebis Sesaxeb. nawarmoebSiasaxuli istoriuli periodi, zRaprisTvis uCveulo dasasruli teqstszRaprisgan mijnavs, magram ambis racionaluri axsnis SesaZlebloba,nawarmoebs uCveulos qveJanrs miakuTvnebs (Todorov: 1970:42).ironia da satirac SesaniSnavad warmoCindeba narkvevSi _ ,,ixvisdamajerebeli ambavi’’. nawarmoebis inkipitidan moyolebuli, mweralisagonebelSi agdebs mkiTxvels: igi uecrad aRmoaCens, rom mas jadosnurzRapars, miTs an legendas sulac ar sTavazoben. mkiTxvels molodinishorizonti gaucruvdeba da swored amaSi mJRavndeba mwerlis ironia:Jurnalistebi ,,ixvs’’ gasocar axal ambavs uwodeben (canari). rogorczemoT ukve avRniSneT, es tradicia Sua saukunebidan momdinareobs.uecari aRmoCena mkiTxvels Soks hgvris. gasaocari, Zneladdasajerebeli ambis WeSmaritebis dasadgenad Jurnalisti Tavs ariwuxebs: nervali dascinis 1850 wlis cenzuris kanons, romelic romanfelietonebis(roman feuilleton) gamocemas krZalavda (Boyer 2001 : 34).rac Seexeba moTxrobas _ ,,orelia’’, igi nervalis SemoqmedebiTieqsperimentebis mwvervalia. mweralma masSi Tavi mouyara Tavis yvelanaazrevs, esTetikur koncefcias da msoflmxedvelobis Taviseburebas.II. III. moTxrobis _ ,,orelia’’, kompoziciis Taviseburebaninebismieri Janri ganixileba rogorc nawarmoebis formalurkompoziciuriorganizacia, amitom Txrobis principebi Janriskanonzomierebebs unda emorCilebodes. romanze msjelobisas, m. baxtinimas urTuless, mravalferovan mxatvrul-literaturul teqsts uwodebsda imasac dasZens, rom romanis Camoyalibebis procesi dasrulebuli araris. misi azriT, avtors romanSi priviligirebiuli pozicia ar ukavia,igi diskursTa ierarqiazea mTlianad damokidebuli (Бахтин 1970: 112).g. kosikovi eTanxmeba baxtinis mosazrebas, rom romani mxatvrul-


47literaturuli samyaros ,,epikuri’’ erTianobis rRvevis Sedegad gaCnda,rac ,,idealur Rirebulebebze’’ orientirebuli gmiris da amRirebulebebis uarmyofel yofierebas Soris konfliqts efuZneba(Косиков 1976:65). romanSi WeSmariteba gmiris pirovnul simarTleze,samyaros aRqmis subieqturobazea agebuli. romani epikur JanrsganekuTvneba. tragediisgan gansxvavebiT, sadac aRweris sagnad iqcevamxolod is, rac misi personaJebisTvis aris Rirebuli, romanSi piriqiT,yuradRebas iqcevs is rac, TiTqos personaJis yuradRebis miRma rCeba,amitom romanSi WeSmariteba ori rakursiT aris danaxuli: erTipersonaJi-gmiris, da meore _ avtoris, romelic pirvelis mcdelobasiluzorulad miiCnevs. R. yaralaSvili aRniSnavs im faqts, romTanamedrove dasavlur romanSi mZlavrobs subieqturi sawyisi da masSilirikuli potencialis momZlavreba SeimCneva. aseTi saxis romaniasaxavs samyaros mTxrobelis cnobierebaSi da ara samyaros TavisTavad.Tanamedrove romanebSi introversiis midrekileba iCens Tavs, rac erTipersonaJis cxovrebaze koncentrirebaSi gamoixateba. aseTi tipisromanebi ara socialur-panoramuli xasiTisaa, aramed _,,centriskenuli’’. ar. Sopenhaueris azriT, romani xelovnebis formaada miT ufro maRali da keTilSobiluria igi, rac ufro metad iWrebaSinagan cxovrebaSi da rac ufro naklebad warmoaCens gare realobas(dasavleT evropis . . .1985 :125).romanis mxatvrul-literaturuli teqstis arakanonikuri forma,romelic mudmiv cvlilebas ganicdis, SesaZlebels qmnis nervalisnawarmoebi _ ,,orelia’’, mcire zomis romanad CavTvaloT. amis garda,nawarmoebi daumTavrebelia (,,orelias’’ meore nawili mwerlisgardacvalebis Semdeg gamoqveynda), amitom sakmaod rTulia imazemsjeloba, Tu ra saxes miiRebda nawarmoebi mwerals misi dasrulba romdascloda. aqedan gamomdinare, mizanSewonili iqneboda, Txzulebiskompoziciis Taviseburebis gansazRvra misi Janrobrivi identifikaciisfonze, romelic orelias Sinaarsisa da formis TaviseburebebswarmoaCenda.nervalis mcire zomis romans Tu moTxrobas (,,orelia’’) axasiaTebs,,daxuruloba’’, igi emijneba gare realobas (misi siuJetidangamomdinare), socialur-ekonomikur da istoriul sinamdviles, Tumca


48masSi aisaxeba yvela is miRweva Tu mosazreba, romliTac esodenmdidari iyo XIX saukune. nervalis nawarmoebs mcire zomis romans anrusuli literaturis specifikur Janrs _ повесть (vrceli moTxroba)mivamsgavsebdiT. mas epikuri struqturis gaxsniloba (erT invarianzeagebuli erTi mwerlis sxvadasxva nawarmoebi), romanul movlenaTa,mxatvruli ssistemis elementebis Tavisebureba axasiaTebs.arqiteqtonikis TvalsazrisiT, nawarmoebi or nawils moicavs. amavedros, naratul teqsts axlavs epiteqsti _ ,,Memorables” da e.w.,,nawyvetebi oreliadan”. nawarmoebi nervalis sxva prozauliqmnilebebisgan gansxavdeba, Tundac sayovelTaod cnobili novelebiskrebulisgan _ ,,cecxlis qaliSvilebi”. nervalma krebuli ise aago, rommasSi prozauli da lirikuli nawarmoebebi gaaerTiana (sonetebi _,,qimerebi’’). Tu novelebis krebulSi Sedis sxvadasxva saxisa da Janrisprozauli qmnilebebi: jadosnuri zRaprebi, sakuTriv novelebi(miuxedavad imisa, rom nervali arRvevs Janris Cveul sazRvrebs),moTxroba _ ,,orelia’’, yvela zemoxsenebuli Janris erTobliobaswarmoadgens.moTxrobis siuJeturi qarga sworxazovan Txrobas efuZneba, anuambavi Txrobis momentTan mimarTebaSi retrospeqtulia daqronologiuradaa gadmocemuli. Txrobis momenti mTeli nawarmoebismanZilze mxolod erTxel icvleba: nawarmoebis meore nawilSi. teqstispirvel nawilSi Txrobis momenti ucvleli rCeba. ambavs samyaros dasakuTari ,,me’’-s SecnobiT STagonebuli mTxrobeli gviambobs, romelicambis diegesisSi Tavad monawileobs. igi homodiegesuri mTxrobelia daTxrobis dasrulebamde erTaderT naratorad rCeba, Tumca igi ambavsara rogorc yovlismcodne aramed, rogorc ubralo aRmwereli damovlenebis amsaxveli gadmoscems (aq vlindeba nervalis mxatvrulliteraturuliteqstebis aRwerilobiT teqstebTan miaxloebistendencia). Sesabamisad, saqme gvaqvs gare fokalizaciasTan (la focalisation(Jouve 1997 : 181)). niSandoblivia, rom nawarmoebSi damajereblobis efeqtimTxrobelis gaorebiT iqmneba: implicituri avtori Tavis SegrZnebebsada xilvebs afiqsirebs da, gaorebuli protagonistis arsebobis fonze,subieqturi gancdebis maqsimalur obieqturobas aRwevs. nawarmoebSiSTambeWdavad aris warmoCenili mwerlis xedvis subieqturoba, rac


49teqstSi homodiegesuri mTxrobelis arsebobas ukavSirdeba; meore mxriv,gare fokalizaciis pirobebSi, igi realobisa da protagonistisSegrZnebebisE mimarT distanciurobas inarCunebs da obieqturobisiluzias qmnis.nawarmoebSi, Txrobisas erTamaneTs realuri cxovrebis epizodebisizmrebs, zmanebebs da halucinaciebs enacvleba. nervalis nawarmoebebi,kerZod _ ,,orelia’’, xSirad aris fsiqoanalizis obieqti. gastonbaSlari nervalis orelias labirinTs adarebs da dasZens, rom isTavgadasavali, romelsac mwerali asaxavs, misi mogzaurobaqvecnobieris labirinTSi, sxva araferia, Tu ara mtanjvelikoSmarebisgan mwerlis daRwevis mcdeloba: ,,nervalTan erTad CvencTavs sizmrisgan davixsniT da sicocxles davubrundebiT’’ _ askvnisbaSliari (Башляр 1990 : 39).Tavad nervali, realurs da irealurs erTmaneTisgan ar ganarCevda:,,vfiqrob, adamianis warmosaxvas iseTi araferi Seuqmnia, racSeuZlebelia’’ _ werda igi. moTxroba _,,orelia’’, nervalis cxovrebisurTules periodSi iqmneboda: daavadebuli mwerali fsiqiatriulklinikaSi mkurnalobda. realuri da irealuris monacvleoba, erTimxriv, romantizmis esTetikis erTgulebiT aixsneba: mxatvrulnawarmoebSi paraleluri samyaroebis asaxva, realobis da warmosaxviTisurTierTdapirispireba romantizmis esTetikisTvisaa damaxasiaTebeli;meore mxriv, nervalis nawarmoebSi asaxuli movlenebi da moTxrobisstruqtura mwerlis avadmyofobis mimdinareobas hgavs. Sesabamisad,orelia avadmyofobis amsaxvel Canawerebad SeiZleba miviCnioT da esganvixiloT rogorc mxatvruli teqstis kompoziciis Tavisebureba. TugavixsenebT Jerar de nervalis samedicino praqtikas, bunebrivadmiviCnevT, rom mwerlis sakuTar Tavze dakvirveba profesiulimiswrafebebiTac iyo ganpirobebuli.Sizofrenia _ termini, romelic e. bleierma 1908 wels daamkvidra,fsiqikur disfunqcias gulisxmobs, romlis drosac adamianebs realurisaRqmis gauareseba aReniSnebaT, rac halucinaciebSi, iluziebis,fsevdohalucinaciebsa da depersonalizaciaSi gamoixateba (Schizophrénie).adamianebs eCvenebaT, rom nebismieri qmedeba avtomatur xasiaTs atarebsda sxvaTa an maT mierve, sakuTari survilis winaaRmdeg sruldeba.


50yovelive amas emociuri disfunqcia da ipoqondriuli TviTanaliziaxlavs. Znelia, u. ekos ar daeTanxmo: mwerali nervali aRwerslabrunis avadmyofobas da Tavis dakvirvebebs literaturul formasaZlevs (Эко 2006 : 68).TiTqmis yvela niSani, romelic axasiaTebs SizofreniiTdaavadebuls, analogiuria imisa, rac nervalma moTxrobaSi _ ,,orelia’’,aRwera, magaliTad: naTesavebis mimarT Semcirebuli yuradReba. amasuCivis misi gamzrdeli, rodesac mTxrobeli mas sizmarSi xedavs.gamzrdeli sayvedurobs, rom igi Tavis mSoblebs naklebad dastiris,vidre Tavis satrfos: ,,ase gulmxurvaled Seni mSoblebic ardagitiria’’ (,,Tu n’as pleuré tes vieux parents ausssi vivement’’ (Nerval 1985 :61)).logikuria, rom am sityvebis Semdeg, mTxrobeli jer bavSvobas ixsenebs,Semde ki _ mamis sanaxavad midis. danaSaulis grZnoba mTxrobelssizmarSic ar tovebs: mTxrobelis winaSe winaprebis saxeebi erT wamSigaielveben. TiToeuli maTgani ferkmTaldeba da qreba: ,,isini xannaTdebodnen, xanac _ ferkmTaldebodnen. gaielvebdnen da ukuniT RameSiqrebodnen, rogorc gawyvetili krialosanis Tvlebi’’ (,,Elles défilaient,s’éclairant, pâlissant et retombant dans la nuit comme les grains d’un chapelet dont le lien s’estbrisé’’ (Nerval 1985 :61)).mTxrobeli Tavs damnaSaved satrfos winaSec grZnobs da Tvlis,rom misi Rirsi ar aris. igi RmerTis winaSec damnaSavea, radgan gabedada samyaros saidumloebis wvdoma moisurva, amitomaa igi dawyevlili:,,ra Cavidine? jadosnuri samyaros harmonia davarRvie . . . SeiZlebaamitomac damwyevles . . ‘’ (,,Qu’avais-je fait ? J’avais troublé l’harmonie de l’universmagique où mon âme puisait la certitude d’une existence immortelle. J’étais maudit peut-êtrepour avoir voulu percer un mystère redoutable en offensant la loi divine’’(Nerval 1985 : 48)).sulierad avadmyofebis damaxasiaTebeli Tviseba codvebis gamudmebulimonaniebis survili da moTxovnilebaa. orelias gaxsenebaze mTxrobelimuxlebze ecema da RmerTs patiebas sTxovs: ,,RmerTo Cemo, mapatieT!Sevhyvire da muxlebze daveci’’ (,,Mon Dieu, Pardonnez ! écriai-je en me jettant àgenoux’’( Nerval 1985 :59)).SizofreniiT davadebulebs, maTi rwmeniT, sakuTari azrebisteleportacia SeuZliaT. isini grZnoben TiTqos viRac an raRac maTazrebs akontrolebs (kandinski-klerambos simptomi). nervalis


51nawarmoebSi aRwerilia erTi epizodi, rodesac mTxrobeli Tavismomakvdav megobars saavadmyofoSi esaubreba: ,,Cven erTad vfiqrobT davocnebobT’’ (,,Nous pensons et rêvons ensemble’’ (Nerval 1985 :54)). nervali bevrganimeorebs: ,,megona, rom meubneboda’’, ,,momeCvena, rom miTxra’’, ,,misisityvebis azrs, mgoni, ver Cavwvdi’’ (,,Il me sempla qu’elle me disait – (Nerval1985 :61)); ,,Je ne puis citer autre chose de cette conversation que j’ai peut-être mal entendueou mal comprise ‘’(Nerval 1985 :54)).Tavisi gansakuTrebulobis dasamtkiceblad, avadmyofi wignebSi,Jurnal-gazeTebSi eZiebs gzebs, niSnebs, romlebis mas saidumlo codnasgaumxelen, radgan WeSmaritebis Secmobis maniakaluri survilisakraluri codnis SeZenaSi gamoixateba da misticizmSi vlindeba:,,kabalas ramdenime wigni Sevkribe da davewafe’’ (,,J’ai réuni quelques livres decabale. Je me plongeai dans cette études, et j’arrivai à me persuader que tout était vrai dans cequ’avais accumulé là-dessus l’esprit humain pendant des siècles’’(Nerval 1985 :52)).suliT avadmyofebi sakuTar Tavs samyaros centrad miiCneven,hgoniaT, rom samyaro maT garSemo brunavs. isini darwmunebulni arian,rom samyaroSi, qaosis gamefebamde, adamiani iyo RmerTi, massaviTSemoqmedi. moTxrobis mTxrobelis mtkicebiT, harmoniis damkvidrebisSemTxvevaSi, adamians Tavisi RvTaebrivi warmomavlobac daubrundeba (,,Letype commun des âmes humaines, dont chacune était à la fois homme et Dieu’’ (Nerval1985 :53)).moTxrobis _ ,,orelia’’, mTxrobels, iseve rogorc klinikismkvidrebs, esmis xmebi. fsevdohalucinaciis dros, realurisa daararsebuli xmebis garCevaa SesaZlebeli. moTxrobis _ ,,orelia’’,protagonists gamoafxizlebs qalis yvirili. igi darwmunebulia, romxma cxadSi Caesma. mTxrobeli eWvobs, rom intonaciisa da tembrismixedviT, xma gardacvlil satrfos ekuTvnis: ,,es cocxali adamianis xmaiyo, Tumca me masSi orelias xma amovicani’’ (orelia nawarmoebis amepizodSi ukve gardacvlilia-n.q.) (,,C’était la voix d’une personne vivante, etpourtant c’était pour moi la voix et l’accent d’Aurélia’’ (Nerval 1985 : 47)).SizofreniiT daavdebulebs garSemo mtrebi elandebaT daeCvenebaT, rom viRacas unda SeebrZolon. moTxrobis _ ,,orelia’’,protagonisti uwyveti brZolisTvisaa mzad. pirveli misi mteri isoreulia, romelic ,,motyuebiT’’ oreliaze daqorwinda: ,,Cems oreuls


52elodnen, oreliasTan rom SeuRlebuliyo’’ (,,On enttendait mon double qui devaitépouser Aurélia’’ (Nerval 1985 :46)). megobrebma swored mTxrobelis oreulida ara Tavad mTxrobeli daixsnes cixidan: ,,Secdnen! Cems wasayvanadmovidnen da sxva gaanTavisufles’’ (,,Mais on se trompe! m’écriais-je, c’est moiqu’ils sont venus chercher et c ‘est un autre qui sort !’’ Nerval 1985 :14)). nawarmoebis erTepizodSi, protagonisti aRmosavleli ufliswuliviT Cacmulaxalgazrdas ebrZvis, romelic mas Zalian hgavs. sinamdvileSi,ufliswuli misi aslia (Nerval 1985 :40). mTxrobels xSirad iaraRiTemuqrebian. igive aRmosavleli ufliswuli tanisamosis qveS iaraRsmalavs, romelsac protagonistri mainc SeamCnevs: ,,xelSi gaurkveveliiaraRi ekava’’ (,,Il portait à la main une arme dont je distinguais mal la forme’’ (Nerval1985 :43)).mTxrobeli ara marto halucinaciebsa da sizmrebSi ibrZvis. masrealobaSic uwevs Cxubi: igi kliSis midamoebSi moCxubare muSebs dapolicias aSvelebs. erT-erTi xilvis dros, mTxrobels eCveneba, TiTqos,wminda estates eklesiasTan, armaniakebisa da burginionebis Cxubseswreba. (,,Je croyais s’élevaient autour de moi des fantômes des combattants . . ‘’ (Nerval1985 :72.)).sainteresoa erTi epizodi, sadac mTxrobeli sakuTar TavsnapoleonTan aigivebs. fuas kafeSi igi acxadebs: Secdoma davuSvio.mTxrobelis es gancxadeba yvelasTvis gaugebaria (,,J’ai fait une faute’’ (Nerval1985 : 75)). sakuTar Tavze Seqmnil STabeWdilebas igi Tanxisgadauxdelobis aRiarebiT gamoasworebs. sinamdvileSi, nervalinapoleonis Secdomebze miuTiTebs da ara fulis gadauxdelobaze.a. diumas mogonebebis erTi epizodi imas mogviTxrobs, rom nervalisakuTar Tavs napoleonTan aigivebda (Dumas1990 :162). napoleonis saxemudidesi gavlena moaxdina XIX saukunis axalgazrdebis cnobierebaze.nervalisTvis napoleoni iyo mesia, samyaros gadamrCeneli. JiulJanenisadmi miweril werils nervali awers: ,,G.Nap.’’, e. i. _ Jerarnapoleoni. nervalma napoleons oTxi sonetic miuZRvna (Benichou 2004 :1760).NSemoqmedebiTi potencialis mateba suliT daavadebulTa kideverTi damaxasiaTebeli niSania, siTamame (imis Tqma, rasac sxva ver bedavs)


53da gadametebuli religiurobac. survilis nawilobrivi dakargva(hipobulia) da sruli dakargva (abulia), nervalis TviTmkvlelobismizezi SeiZleba gamxdariyo. nervalma Tavisive avadmyofobis aRwerasZalzed kargad gaarTva YTavi: misi halucinaciebi, zmanebebi, sizmrebi darealoba urTierTkavSirSia. realurs da irealurs Soris kavSirimxolod nawarmoebis fiqcionalur samyaroSi iZens mniSvnelobas.mkiTxvels survili uCndeba CaeZios, gamoikvlios es kavSiri da erTihalucinaciis saSualebiT meore axsnas.J. delozis ganmartebiT ,,veluri gamocdileba’’ (sigiJe),subieqturi qaosis suraTi, romelic yovelgvar struqturasugulebelyofs da amave dros, potenciur kreatiulobas gamoxatavs.merlo-pontis azriT, huserlis fenomenologiisa da haidegerisegzistencializmTan genetikurad dakavSirebuli cnobierebisTanamedrove koncefcia is Tanamedrove ,,metafizikaa’’, romelicadamianis cxovrebis axsnas cdilobs. spinozas Tezisis mixedviT,adamiani Tavis cxovrebas sxva sagnebTan da adamianebTan urTierTobisasayalibebs, radgan arseboba win uswrebs ars, rac merlo-pontisintersubieqtur cnobierebaSi (arseboba-sxvisTvis) gamoixateba. jeimshilmani yvelafris ,,bavSvobis wlebTan dakavSirebas’’ fsiqikisterorizirebas uwodebs da adamianisadmi damokibulebaspostfreidistebsac uwunebs. misi azriT, imis nacvlad, romarqeologiviT, adamianis bavSvobis wlebSi yvela kiTxvaze veZioTpasuxi, Cveni yuradReba imaze unda gavamaxviloT, Tu rogor dakargaadamianma bavSvobasTan erTad warmosaxvis unaric. (Хиллман...on-laindok). swored warmosaxvas unda mieces absoluturi Tvisufleba da,iungis analitikuri fsiqologiisgan gansxavebiT, aRiarebul iqnas araerTi monoTeisturi fsiqologia, romelic individualizaciisuniversalur models miuaxlovdeba, aramed ,,poliTeisturifsiqologia’’, romelic aRiarebs warmosaxvisa da fantaziis unikalur,TviTganviTarebad xasiaTs. nervalis cxovreba da misi moRvaweobamWidro urTierTkavSirSia: misi pirovnuli tragediis sawyis, nervalisurwmunoebis fesvebi dedis adreul gardacvalebis faqts undadavukavSiroT. nervalis bavSvobis wlebi misi Semoqmedebis, misi uSretifantaziis wyarod iqveva.


54Jak deridas dekonstruqcia, romelic exmianeba haidegerisdestruqcias, rac teqstis siRrmiseul aRqmas, mis xelaxal gadakiTxvas,stereotipis rRvevas da axal konteqstSi teqstis wakiTxvas gulisxmobs,amitom nervalis nawarmoebi sxvadasxvagvarad SeiZleba iqnasinterpretirebuli. masSi furies socialuri utopiis gamoZaxiliSeiZleba amovikiTxod, SizofreniiT daavadebulis dRiurebad aRviqvadan, Tundac, taros kartebis saidumloebac amovicnoT. moTxrobis _,,orelia’’, protagonistis azrebi klinikaSi mkurnalobis dros misicxovrebis mogonebaa da ara aTi wlis Sromis nayofi. sabolood,yvelaferi mainc uTqmeli rCeba, miniSnebis usasruloba Seucnobadyofierebas sruliad faravs.umberto eko, Tavis vrcel kvlevaSi _ ,,valuas nisli’’, romelicnervalis novelis _ ,,silvi’’, kompoziciur Taviseburebebis kvlevaseZRvneba, nervalsa da labrunize, rogorc or gansvavebul pirovnebazesaubrobs da dasZens, rom Tu universitetis profesuras novelaSi _,,silvi’’, labrunis biografiis nakvalevis amocnoba surT _ es maTinebaa, magram nawarmoebis swor interpretacias aseTi msjeloba arwaadgeba (Эко 2006 45). eko im mosazrebas anviTarebs, rom labrunimarTlac fsiqikurad iyo daavadebuli, magram amas mweral nervalTan damis SemoqmedebasTan saerTo araferi aqvs. SesaZloa, silvi-sTanmimarTebaSi es marTlac momgebiani mosazreba iyos, magram moTxroba _,,orelia’’, nawarmoebi, romelSic ara marto biografiiT, aramednervalis sxva nawarmoebebiTacaa nasazrdoebi, nervalis biografiasTanparalelebis gavlebas aucileblad saWiroebs.Tavis cnobil werilSi, nervali madam diumas gamoutyda: ,,guSinTqvens meuRles Sevxvdi. …albaT getyodaT, rom Tavs ukeT vgrZnob, romgoneba gadamewminda, Tumca CemTvis araferi Secvlila: rogoric viyavi,iseTive var”. xolo moTxrobaSi _ ,,orelia”, Tavis mdgomareobasmwerali ase axasiaTebs: ,,Tavi ase kargad jer arasdros migrZvnia”(Nerval 1985:23).romantizmis epoqisTvis damaxasiaTebeli eqsperimentebi mxatvrulinawarmoebis formasTan mimarTebaSi, ucxo ar iyo e.w. ,,mcireromantikosTa” jgufis warmomadgenlis _ nervalisTvis. germaneliromantikosebis kvaldakval, nervalis mier sinkretuli Janris Seqmnis


55mcdeloba poeturi da prozauli teqstebis harmoniul SerwymaSi aisaxa.rogorc ukve avRniSneT, moTxroba _ ,,orelia’’ ideur-Tematurad arisdakavSirebuli novelebTan _ ,,cecxlis qaliSvilebi” da lirikulkrebulTan _ ,,qimerebi”. yuradsaRebia am nawarmoebebis fabulaTamsgavseba. am TvalsazrisiT, moTxroba _ ,,orelia” _ saintereso xdebaara marto rogorc damoukidebeli mxatvruli teqsti, aramed rogorcnervalis mxatvrul-stilistikuri xerxTa Tviseburebis gamovlineba:mwerlis ocneba, Seeqmna erTi diadi qmnileba, swored am saminawarmoebis erTian konteqstiT gaazrebaSi hpovebs asaxvas daromantikosTa eqsperimentebs exmianeba. nervalis samive zemoxsenebulnawarmoebs erTi, saerTo fabula aqvs: satrfos Zieba. rasakvirvelia,satrfoSi ara marto realuri pirovneba SeiZleba moiazrebodes.mwerali ,,oreliaSi” monaTxrobs ,,jojoxeTs STasvlas’’ adarebs,Txrobas ki satrfos dakargvis mogonebiT iwyebs. samive nawarmoebisfabulaTa msgavsebis fonze SeiZleba vivaraudoT, rom ,,orelia’’ iseve,rogorc cecxlis qaliSvilebi da qimerebi, orfevsis Sesaxeb miTissiuJeturi invariantis sxvadasxva versiaa, anu igi am miTis Taviseburkompilacias warmoadgens. es ki nawarmoebis _ ,,orelia ‘’ _ kompoziciiskidev erTi Taviseburebaa.fabulaTa msgavsebas, xSir SemTxvevaSi, siuJetis warmomqmnelielementebis, motivebis identurobac emateba. magaliTad: italiaSimogzaurobis epizodi, dabruneba valuas mxareSi, sadac Tavad mweralmagaatara bavSvoba ramdenjerme aris gameorebuli. es msgavsebalaitmotivis arsebobad unda miviCnevT erTi avtoris sami nawarmoebisfarglebSi rogorc erTi hipoteqsti da ramdenime hiperteqti. swored aqCans nervalis rogorc mwerlisa da Semoqmedis novatoroba, radgannawarmoebis kompoziciis safuZvlad laitmotivebis gamoyenebadamaxasiaTebeli xdeba ufro mogvianebiT, neoromantizmis, miTosurazrovnebaze dafuZnebul mimdinareobebis, simbolizmisa da XX saukunismiTolosuri romanisTvis. nervali, sakuTari Semoqmedebis farglebSic,erTi siuJeturi invariantis sxvadasxva, damoukidebel nawarmoebebadtransformirebas ostaturad axerxebs. misi eqsperimenti warmatebuliaRmoCnda: TiToeuli nawarmoebi damoukidebel mxatvrul-literaturulformas inarCunebs, maTi wakiTxva mkiTxvels siamovnebas hgvris. ufro


56gaTviTcnobierebuli mkiTxveli (mkiTxveli-modeli, idealurirecipienti), nervalis novatorobas iwonebs da Semoqmedebis procesissrulqmnis survilad aRiqvams. nervalis Semoqmedebis magaliTzeSeiZleba aRiniSnos, rom romantizmis SemoqmedebiTma impulsebmamniSvnelovan wilad ganapirobes evropuli kulturis ganviTareba XXsaukuneSi: axali miTologiis Seqmna, rac gamoarCevs fin de sсiècle dapostmodernizms.laitmotivi rogorc literaturaSi gamoyenebuli musikaluritermini, asaxavs dominantas, mwerlis erTi romelime nawarmoebis, anmTeli Semoqmedebis farglebSi. Tavisuflad SeiZleba iTqvas, romdakarguli satrfos Zieba, laitmotivad gasdevs nervalis mTelsSemoqmedebas. laitmotivi Tematuri elementis saxes iZens dawarmoadgens mudmiv, SeiZleba iTqvas ,,kanonikur” gamomsaxvelobiTsaSualebas, romelic nervalis stilis Taviseburebas gansazRvravs(Wilaia 1985:163). laitmotivi xSirad Tematurad erTmaneTTandaukavSirebeli, an sxvadasxva Janrebis erTiani emociuri aRqmissawindari xdeba. bunebrivia, rom moTxrobis analizi nervalis sxvanawarmoebis gareSe SeuZlebelia. iqmneba epikuri da lirikulinawarmoebebis jaWvi, romelSiac erTiandeba novelebi, leqsebi da mcirezomis, Tundac daumTavrebeli epikuri Janris teqsti (,,orelia’’).moTxrobas _ ,,orelia‘’, axasiaTebs unilinearuli ganviTarebissiuJeturi qarga (Tu mwerlis mxatvrul amocanad realuris dairealuris urTierTmonacvleobas CavTvliT), magram fabulisganviTarebis sworxazovneba nawarmoebis pirveli nawilis II TavSivewydeba. moTxrobis pirveli ori Tavi SeiZleba winasityvaobad,eqspoziciad, CavTvaloT, romelic mkiTxvels mTeli nawarmoebismniSvnelobas da ideas acnobs (l’incipit in medias res) Tanmimdevroba _/qmedeba_reacia/ _ nawarmoebis dasawyisSi, realuri da irealurisamsaxveli epizodebis urTierTCanacvlebazea agebuli, magaliTad:Sexvedra _ halucinaciebi, saavadmyofo _ sizmari. e. i. siuJeturikogezia realuri da irealuris daqvemdebarebul TanmimdevrobaSivlindeba.


57miTi orfevsze moTxrobis _ ,,orelia‘’, siuJetur-semantikurisafuZvelia. siuJetis warmomqmneli elementi, riTac Txrobis inicirebaxdeba, es realobaa, romelsac nervali gvixatavs: gaseirneba parizSi damis gareubnebSi, megobrebTan mxiarulad gatarebuli dro an TundacsaavadmyofoSi mkurnaloba. nawarmoebis I nawilSi, romelic Tavebissimciris miuxedavad iseTive zomisaa rac meore, homodiegesurimTxrobeli, vrceli Sesavlis Semdeg, aRiarebs, rom sizmari ,,meorecxovrebaa’’ (,,Le rêve est une segonde vie’’(Nerval 1985:3)). igi xvdeba qals,romelic satrfos agonebs. am moments, meyseulad, xilva enacvleba.pirveladi amplifikacia xdeba korelaciuri elementis damatebiT.qmedeba – protagonistis Sexvedra ucnob qalTan, romelsac igisatrfos amsgavsebs. am TvalsazrisiT, xilva sapasuxo reaqciadmoiazreba. e. i. siuJetis konsruirebisas, amplifikacia zmanebebis,sizmrebis da halucinaciebis xarjze xdeba. SemaerTebelikonstruqciuli elementebis roli akisria reminiscenciebs daavtoaluziebs, nervalis sxva nawarmobebTan (,,qimerebi’’ da ,,cecxlisqaliSvilebi’’) moTxrobis transteqstualuri urTierTkavSirebisxarjze.arsebobs bevri mosazreba nervalis poetur krebulTan _ ,,qimerebi’’_ mimarTebaSi. zogi mas taros kartebs da magias ukavSirebs, zogi kifuries socialur utopias (Jean 1989:131). imazec ki msjeloben, aris Tuara es leqsebi erTi ideiT gaerTianebuli, Tu maTi erT krebulSiTavmoyra SemTxveviTia. Cveni mosazrebiT, es leqsebi mTlianobaswarmoadgens. leqsebis krebuli nervalis poeturi samyaros suraTia. igigzaa qaosidan harmoniamde. TiToeuli soneti erT romelime epoqas anreligias warmoaCens. magaliTad, meeqvse soneti _ ,,artemide’’, oqrossaukunes asaxavs (oqros saukunis miTologema orelias saTaurSiamoikiTxeba-n.q.). leqsis bolos, bunebis saidumloebas farda aexsneba daadamianebi samyaroSi TavianT adgils daimkvidreben. soneti exmianebaS. furies da misi mimdevrebis mosazrebas, romlis mixedviT samyarodid transformacias manam ganicdis, sanam adamianebi dakargulharmonias daamkvidreben (es motivi oreliaSic JRers). taros kartSi 12arkania, rac adamianis 12 vnebas Seesabameba. krebulSi QTormeti sonetia.S. furies mixedviT, adamianis codvebs mecametec emateba _ harmonizmi


58anu uniTeizmi. sainteresoa, rom nervalis krebulSi _ ,,cecxlisqaliSvilebi’’, cameti nawarmoebia gaerTianebuli. Tu qimerebissaidumlos axsnas taros kartis mixedviT SesaZleblad miviCnevT,romelic JorJ le bretonma Camoayaliba Tavis naSromSi, an maT Sarlfuries da furierizms mivusadagebT, aseve SeiZleba taros karti anfuries socialuri utopizmi gaxdes moTxrobis _ ,,orelia’’, analizissawindaric (Jerar de nervali moTxrobaSic _ ,,orelia’’ _ amoicnobataros kartis didi arkanebi (CamoxrCobili, dedofali . . . ) (LeBreton...on-lain dok).krebuli _ ,,cecxlis qaliSvilebi’’, aerTianebs rogorc sakuTrivnovelebs, aseve literaturul zRaprebs. moTxrobaSi _ ,,orelia’’nervalis sxva nawarmoebze miniSnebebi, SeiZleba ganvixiloT rogorcgameorebadi, CarTuli _ kumulaciuri elementi. es teqstis frontalurianalizis dros SeiZleba ar Candes, magram siRrmiseuli analizisas,isini elifsisis an reziumirebis saxiT mainc vlindeba. analizis Sedegiki imis aRiareba iqneba, rom moTxroba _ ,,orelia’’, jadosnurizRaparis, miTis da mcire zomis epikuri JanrisTvis damaxasiaTebelelementebs Seicavs. esec nawarmoebis kompoziciis TaviseburebismaCvenebelia.fantastikuri novelisgan gansxvavebiT, moTxrobas _ ,,orelia”,mZafri fabula, movlenebis dramatuli ganviTreba ar axasiaTebs:moTxroba asaxavs ara ,,SemTxvevas”, adamed – ,,process”, Tumca masSimoqmedebis ganviTarebis Tanmimdevroba daculia (movlenebisTanmimdevrobaSi mTxrobelis gancdebis da SegrZnebebis Tanmimdevrobacigulisxmeba). moTxrobaSi _ ,,orelia‘’, moqmedebis (movlenebi) mkveTradgamoxatuli upiratesoba ar SeiniSneba (le récit d’événement); igi ufroaRwerilobiT principzea agebuli (le récit de pensées - Jouve 1997: 31). teqstSisiuJeturi ,,Senakadebis’’ arseboba minimumamdea dayvanili, iseve rogorcsxvaoba siuJetsa da fabulas Soris, magram ukve is, rom moTxrobaSimiTosuri CarCo ar aris ugulebelyofili (pirovnuli miTis Seqmnismcdeloba), es faqti nawarmoebs literaturuli zRaprisgan mijnavs,magram nawarmoebSi arsebuli kumulaciuri struqturuli elementebi


59(erTi da igive movlenisa Tu qmedebis ramdenjerme gameoreba), zRaprisJanrTan mis siaxloveze metyvelebs.maSasadame, Jerar de nervalis orelias, kompoziciis Taviseburebagamoixateba:1) daumTavrebeli nawarmoebis arqiteqtonikaSi;2) pirovnuli miTis CamoyalibebaSi;3) moTxrobis _ ,,orelia”, novelebis krebulis _ ,,cecxlisqaliSvilebi” da leqsebis _ ,,qimerebi” _ fabulaTa msgavsebaSi, racsamives erT siuJetur invariantze agebul sxvadasxva nawarmoebadganixilavs;4) avtobiografiulobaSi;5) mxatvrul-literaturuli teqstis samecniero kvlevad qcevismcdelobaSi;6) Janrobrivi identifikaciis sirTuleSi: ,,orelia’’ rogorcfantastikuri novelis, jadosnuri zRapris da moTxrobismakonstruirebeli elementebis matarebelia. Txrobis mSvidi,neitraluri stiliT, fsiqologiuri, subieqtur-Semfasebluri xasiaTiTorelia mcire zomis romans uaxlovdeba.II. IV. TxrobiTi instanciebis cvla Jerar de neralis novelaSi _,,anJeliki’’krebulSi _ ,,cecxlis qaliSvilebi’’, novelebidan yvelazedidtaniania ,,anJeliki’’. igi Tormeti nawilisgan Sedgeba. sainteresoa,rom nervali TiToeuli Tavis periteqstSi sakmaod dawvrilebiTgvacnobs novelis Tavebis Sinaars. rogorc moTxrobaSi _ ,,orelia’’,novelaSic Tavebad dayofa pirobiT xasiaTs atarebs: nawarmoebisTormeti Tavi Tormet werils ar gulisxmobs. faqrobrivad, nawarmoebSioTxi werilia, romlis mixedviT mkiTxveli xvdeba, rom werilebisavtori SekveTiT istoriuli Sinaarsis nawarmoebis daweras cdilobs.novelaSi arc konkretuli adresatia miTiTebuli da arc werilebisavtori, Tumca periteqstSi miwerilia: ,,À M.L.D.’’(,,baton direqtors’’(Nerval 1994 : 380); erTxel, Jerar de nervalic aris naxsenebi (Nerval


601994 :145). avtobiografiuli cnobebi, mogzauroba nervalis mSobliurmxaresa da germaniaSi (nervalma 1938 da 1850 wlebSi germaniaSiimogzaura), saSualebas gvaZlevs mTxrobelSi Tavad mweralivigulisxmod, Tumca es sakmaod gulubryvilo da araseriozulidamokidebuleba iqneba. nervalis nawarmoebebs biografiuli xasiaTiaqvs, magram mwerlis cxovrebis realuri epizodebi mis SemoqmedebiT daesTetikur koncefciebs exmianeba. nervalis nawarmoebebis fiqcionalurisamyaro imdenad asaxavs empiriul realobas, ramdenadac igi mxatvrulliteraturuliteqstis daniSnulebas exmianeba da mwerlis miznebsemsaxureba. v. tiupas sqemis mixedviT Tu vimsjelebT, avtobiografiuliromani, an nebismieri naratiuli teqsti, avtobiografiisa dabiografiisgan gansxvavebiT, fiqciurobisken miiltvis. emociuri daracionaluri sawyisi masSi naklebia, vidre dRiursa Tu mogonebeSi,iseve rogorc _ naratiuloba (Тюпа-on-lain dok.). andre Jidimogonebebze agebul avtobiografiuli xasiaTis teqstebs naxevradgulrwfels uwodebs (,,Les mémoires ne sont qu’à demi sincères, si grand que soit lesouci de vérié’’). sapirispiro mosazreba aqvs f. moriaks, romelic dasZens,rom fiqcia ar cruobs (,,La fiction ne ment pas’’) (Baudelle 1005 :231).nervalis novela, romlis erT-erT damaxasiaTebel niSansmoulodneli kvanZis gaxsna unda warmoadgendes, mkiTxvels siuJetiskonstruirebiT da kompoziciiT xiblavs, vidre SinaarsiT. frankfurtisbukinistTan mTxrobeli vinme abat bukuas Sesaxeb germanul-frangulwigns waawydeba. wignis SeZenis nacvlad, safrangeTSi dabrunebulimTxrobeli biblioTekebSi mis moZiebas iwyebs. kvlevisTvis saWiroistoriuli wyaroebis sapovnelad mTxrobels didi Zalisxmeva sWirdeba.nacnobobis miuxedavad, igi wigns samkiTxvelo darbazebis sacavebSi veripovis. bukuas sagvareulos istoriiT dainteresebuli, anaznad, abatisSoreuli naTesavis, anJelikis dRiurebs aRmoaCens. mkiTxvels, samuSaosSemkveTsa da werilebis adresats (savaraudod, gazeTis redaqtori),rom ,,ar moswyindes’’, mTxrobeli, anJelikis dRiurebis mixedviT,axalgazrda qalis Tavgadasavals hyveba.erTi SexedviT, sasacilod gamoiyureba is faqti, rom erTi ambissanacvlod, avtori meores mogviTxrobs. nawarmoebis dasawyisSi,


61patareqstiT SecdomaSi Seyvanil mkiTxvels, SesaZloa cotaodengabrazebulsac, mwerali ,,miwaze daabrunebs’’. marTalia, mTxrobeli abatbukuas Sesaxeb wigns eZebs, magram nawarmoebs ,,abat bukua’’ ki ara _,,anJeliki’’ hqvia. Tavad mTxrobeli acxadebs, rom dainteresebulmkiTxvels (,,samagaliTo mkiTxveli’’ _ umberto ekos gansazRvrebiT)abat bukuas Tavgadasavlebis Sesaxeb imave avtoris (,,anJelikis’’protagonisti) sxva nawarmoebSic SeuZlia waikiTxoso (Nerval 1994 : 171).mTxrobelis es aRiareba novelis boloSia miwerili da novelisironiuli dasasruli, kidev ufro aRizianebs istoriuli da deteqtiuriTavgadasavlebis moyvarulT, romlebsac abatis Soreuli naTesavissasiyvarulo ambavi mouyves. Tu ironia, romelic nawarmoebis boloscxaddeba, novelis moulodneli kvanZis gaxsnad CaiTvleba, maSasadame,swored aseTi saxiT mJRavndeba mwerlis novelis konstruirebis teqnikada amaSi imaleba mwerlis mizanic.novelis -_ ,,anJeliki’’, ZiriTad siuJetur qargas _ wignis Ziebas,nervali kidev sxva ambiTac avsebs. anJelikis sasiyvaruloTavgadasavali abat bukuasTanaa dakavSirebuli: anJeliki bukuasnaTesavia, magram nawarmoebis II werilSi moTxrobili le pileristragikuli ambavi bukuas ojaxis istoriasTan araviTar kavSirSi araris. ubralod, wignis Ziebis dros, mTxrobeli biblioTekaSi policiissammarTvelos Canawerebs waawydeba da ojaxuri dramis ambavsmogviTxrobs. le pileris ambavma, novelis -_ ,,anJeliki’’, mTxrobelimxolod imiT daainteresa, rom mis Tvalwin ,,sazareli dramagaTamaSda’’ (,,Tout une drame se déroula devant mes yeux’’ (Nerval 1994 : 95)). nervalisironiuli toni nawarmoebis am nawilSic aris SenarCunebuli, radgan,kanonmorCili burJuasaviT, mwerali mkiTxvels imas uyveba, rasacistoriuli xasiaTi aqvs da faqtebiTacaa dasabuTebuli. zemoxsenebulidrama, rac ar unda tragikuli iyos siZisa da colisZmebis SuRli,romelic mkvlelobiT dasrulda, srulebiTac ar hgavs romans (,,Ce n’estpas un roman’’(Nerval 1994 :95)), anu sasiyvarulo Tavgadasavals. Txrobapoliciuri gamoZiebis masalebs eyrdnoba da fiqciis Saravandedshkargavs. es aRiareba mTxrobels (implicitur avtors) mniSvnelovanmovlenad miaCnia: romani rom daewera, anu sasiyvarulo ambavi, misTxzulebas eWvis TvaliT Sexedavdnen da ar gamoscemdnen, amitom


62nawarmoebis dasawyisSive mTxrobeli acxadebs, rom romanebs ar wers:cenzuris Sesaxeb axali kanonis masac eSinia da im jarimisac, romelic,romanis dabeWvdis SemTxvevaSi, avtors da gamomcemels daekisrebaT.jarima ki, mTxrobelis gamoTvliT, nawarmoebis gasamrjelos aRemateba:,,Jurnal-gazeTebis Sesaxeb kanons mec SevuSindi’’ (,,Mais je commence àm’effrayer aujourd’hui des condamnations suspendues sur les journaux pour la moindreinfraction au texte de la loi nouvelle’’(Nerval 1994 : 85)).siuJeturi qargidan uCveulo gadaxvevas mTxrobeli imiT xsnis, romcenzuris kanonebs emorCileba. nervali 1850 wlis 16 ivlisis kanonzemianiSnebs, romlis mixedviTac literaturul gazeTebsa da Jurnalebsroman-felietonebis beWvda aekrZalaT (Nerval 1994 :380). eJen siu, viqtorhiugo, onore de balzaki, nervalis megobari _ aleqsandre diuma,swored aseTi romanebis didostatebi iyvnen. im droisTvis (1849),nervals gamosaqveynebeli hqonda erTi aseTi saxis romani _ ,,markiz defaioli’’. am tipis romani (roman-felietonebi) romantikosebis Janrulmravalferovnebis moTxovnas akmayofilebda da XIX saukuneSidamkvidrda kidec rogorc calke Janruli modifikaciareferenciulobisa da fiqcionalobis, dokumentalobisa da warmosaxvisgasayarze. ar unda daviviwyoT, rom romanis rogorc literaturuliJanris istoria, im mxatvrul- literaturuli teqtebis, romlebsacromanebs vuwodebT, swored XIX saukunidan ikidebs fexs. romanzesaubrisas, m. baxtini am Janaris gansazRvis sirTuleebzec miuTiTebs. igiaRniSnavs, rom romani erTaderTi Janria, romlis Camoyalibeba ar arisdasrulebuli. misi azriT, romani axali epoqis pirmSoa, igi ,,Tavisiadgilis damkvidrebisTvis ibrZvis’’. Tu sxva epoqebSi (klasicizmi,antikuri epoqa) sxvadasxva Janri harmoniulad Tanaarsebobs daerTmaneTs avsebs, romani maTgan gancalkevebiT dgas (literaturuli.....2008 :30). m. baxtini aRniSnavs, rom epoqaSi, rodesac Tanamedrove romanmapopularobiT yvelas gauswro, sxva Janrebma ar dahkarges TavianTikanonikuri forma, magram moxda maTi ,,romanizacia’’, JanrTatrasnsponireba (sakmarisia gavixsenoT j. baironis galeqsili donJuani). mravalplaniani Tu erTplaniani romani, sxva JanrisgangansxvavebiT, ufro ,,moqnili’’ epikuri nawarmoebia, amitom misipopularobac metia (literaturuli... .2008 :33).


63nervalis novelebi da moTxrobebi, iseve rogorc literaturulizRaprebi, ar icaven Janris kanonikur formebs. nervali mkiTxvelsnovelis kanonikuri Janris nacvlad, imxanad tabudadebul romans, anusasiyvarulo Tavgadasavals sTavazobs. nervalis mizani arakanonmorCilebaSi unda veZioT, aramed _ mis amboxSi.XIX saukunis safrangeTSi, mwerals Tavisi mwiri honorarebiT Zlivsgahqonda Tavi. roman-felietonebis periodul presaSi gamoqveynebaavtorisTvis wignis gamocemis maRali tarifis Jurnal-gazeTebis dabalitarifiT Secvlis SesaniSnav saSualebas warmoadgenda ise, rommkiTxvelis didi raodenobis mozidva yofiliyo ESesaZlebeli. novelis(,,anJeliki’’) mTxrobelis wuxili da cezuris SiSi imdenad didi iyo,rom momaval nawarmoebs mxolod ,,abat bukua’’ da ara ,,abat bukuasdaujerebeli Tavgadasavali’’ (sawyisi varianti) uwoda da dasZina:,,arc me var romanisti’’ (,,Moi-même, qui ne suis pas un romancier’’ (Nerval 1994 :85)). axla gasagebia, nervalma mkiTxveli ,,SecdomaSi’’ ratom Seiyvana:rogorc literatori da Jurnalisti, igi ewinaaRmdegeboda cenzurisuazro kanons da novelaSi _ ,,anJeliki’’, misi gaqilikeba scada: erTiambis nacvlad mkiTxvels sxva ambavi (ara sasiyvarulo) SesTavaza da,TiTqos ucabedad, sasiyvarulo Tavgadasavalic ,,Seapara’’. nervali damisi novelis mTxrobelic, ise eSmakurad moiqcnen, rogorc Seherazada,romelic sikvdiliT dasjis SiSiT, yovel Rame, sulTan Sahriars axalzRaprebs uambobda. Jerar de nervalis novela _ ,,anJeliki’’, wignisZebniT iwyeba da misi povniT mTavrdeba. mesame werilSi naratoribiblioTekaris gasaocar ambavs mogviTxrobs. biblioTekaris sulisgamocxadebis, iseve rogorc iadoniT movaWre qalis an oribibliofilis ambavi, novelis ZiriTad siuJetur qargas ar ukavSirdeba(Nerval1994 :108,101). nerval-mweralSi nervali-Jurnalisti iRviZebs damkiTxveli (novelis savaraudo adresatad cenzurac moiazreba), sanamgons moegebodes, novelis didostatis eSmakobis msxverpli xdeba.novela _ ,,anJeliki’’, sxva, ufro vrceli nawarmoebis _ ,,yalbimariliT movaWreni’’ _ Semadgeneli nawili iyo (Nerval 1994 :380). esukanaskneli, 1850 wlis oqtomber-dekemberSi, literaturul JurnalSi _,,Le National’’-Si gamoqveynda. Semdeg nervalma nawarmoebi daanawevra da,


641853 wels, erTi nawili sxva krebulSi _ ,,cecxlis qaliSvilebi’’_gamosca. literaturul kritikaSi, anJeliki moixsenieba rogorc novela.maSasadame, am mcire formis TxrobiT nawarmoebs originaluri mZafrifabula da logikuri kvanZis gaxsna (puanti) unda axasiaTebdes(Wilaia 1984 :226); magram nervalis novelaSi _ ,,anJeliki’’, mTxrobelismier sasurveli wignis povna Zalzed logikurad gamoiyureba: alogikurida paradoqsuli, swored, am wignis moZiebis SeuZlebloba iqneboda: amasmwerali, novelis bolos, elifsisis klasikuri magaliTis saxiTgvawvdis (Neravl 1994 :171). sawyis etapze, nawarmoebi gaSlil anegdoturambavs marTlac waagavs (Wilaia : 1984 :226). formis simciresa da mZafrfabulasTan erTad (anJelikis ambavi), novelas asaxuli mxatvrulimovlenis erTianoba ar axasiaTebs (Rey 1992 : 114). nervalis ,,anJeliki’’ amprincips ewinaaRmdegeba: masSi, Senakadebis saxiT, ramdenime, ZiriTadsiuJetTan daukavSirebel ambavTan erTad, mwerali sami mTxrobelisSemoyvanas axerxebs: pirveli es aris mTxrobeli, romelic abat bukuasSesaxeb wigns eZebs, meore _ anJeliki, romelic Tavis ambavsmogviTxrobs da mesame _ anJelikis biZaSvili (kuzeni), romelicnaTesavis ambis gansxvavebul, SeiZleba iTqvas _ dramatul versiassTavazobs mkiTxvels (Nerval 1994: 142). miuxedavad imisa, rom kulturulistoriuliviTareba novelis mravalferovnebas ganapirobebs, nervalisnovelis mcire forma, anegdoturi ambis gadmocema da genetikurisafuZvlebi mas zRapars, an igavsac amsgavsebs. SesaZloa, amiT aixsnebanawarmoebis parateqstic _ ,,anJeliki’’: axalgazrda qalis sevdianiambavi, im samoZRvrebo novelas mogvagonebs, romlebsac momaval Taobasdarideba-gafrTxilebisTvis uyvebian. nervali novelis am uZvelesJanrsac (samoZRvrebo novelebi) miagebs pativs.anegdotisgan novela gadmocemuli ambis ara komikuri, aramedtragikuli an sentimentaluri xasiaTiT gansxvavdeba. novelaSi _,,anJeliki’’, ambavi, romelic ZiriTad siuJetur qargas gadmoscems,sasacilod Tavad mTxrobelsac ki eCveneba: man frankfurtSi nanaxifranguli wignis safrangeTSi moZieba ver SesZlo. cenzuris mesveurebmamwerlis faruli ganzrazva rom ar amoicnon, aRiarebs _ weriTac veRarvwero, da amas istoriuli xasiaTis narkvevis dasawerad masalissimciriTa da uqonlobiT xsnis (Nerval 1994:103). marTlac sasaciloa,


65frangi Tavadis Tavgadasavali germaniaSi rom ipova da safrangeTSi _ver (Nerval 1985 :173). mwerali mkiTxvels TavSesaqcevad sxva ambavssTavazobs: xan axalgazrda qalis sasiyvaruli Tavgadasavals, xanrealisturi xasiaTis Canaxats (,,Le canari’’- 102); xan Zvelfrangulbaladebs imis Sesaxeb, Tu rogor gamoketa mefe luim Tavisi urCiqaliSvili dilegSi, magram satrfoze uari ver aTqmevina (,,Le roi Loys’’(Nerval 1984:121), xan ki, Txrobas CrdiloeT safrangeTis da TavisibavSvobis mogonebebiT avsebs. VI, IX,XII XII TavSi mTxrobeli sanlisis,suasonis, Sanlisis, ermenonvilis Sesaxeb mogviTxrobs. safrangeTisCrdilo-dasavleTiT mdebare mxaris aRwera realobis iluzias qmnis,mTxrobelis codnas warmoaCens, istoriul atmosferos gadmoscems damkiTxvels safrangeTis istoriiT xiblavs. amave dros, mweralscenzurac SecdomaSi Sehyavs: mTxrobeli Tavis bavSvobis wlebs ixsenebs,Zvel romaulsa da druidul wes-Cveulebebis Sesaxeb mogviTxrobs, risfonzec subiequri ,,me’’-s wina planze wamoweva xdeba. istoriulwarsulSi wiaRsvla novelas dramatul elfers sZens, rac mkiTxveliswarsuliT _ realobisgan gansxavebuli fenomeniT _ dainteresebas kidevufro metad ganapirobebs.nawarmoebSi, realoba homodiegesuri mTxrobelis fsiqologiurqronotops ukavSirdeba. moqmedeba germaniasa da safrangeTSi xdeba,oqtombris dasasruls iwyeba da noemberis TveSi mTavrdeba, anugamoqveynebis Tanadroulia. Cveni azriT, nervalis mxridan, erTnawarmoebSi epistolaruli, publicisturi da naratiuli Janrebisgamoyeneba empiriuli sinamdvilis iluziis Seqmnas, ambisdamajereblobas emsaxureba. MmTxrobeli topografiul qronotopsmaqsimalurad akonkretebs: 11 noemberi (121), 20 noemberi (122), 30 noemberi(173), yvela wmindanis dRe, anu 1 noemberi (II werili), ,,SabaTs, dilisSvid saaTze’’ (175). damajereblobis gasaZlireblad, mwerali werilebSi,romelsac protagonisti, savaraudod, Tavis gamomcemels swers,akonkretebs drosac da adgilsac; swored am misamarTze unda Catardesauqcioni, sadac saZiebeli wigni gaiyideba (,,5 dekemberi, bruseli,puasenis quCa #5’’ (Nerval 1994 :157)). nervalis cenzuras kidev erTxeluxdis xarks: prolefsisis es magaliTi mxolod abnevs mkiTxvels,


66radgan sabolood, mTxrobeli sasurvel wigns _ ,,abat bukuasTavgadasavals’’ safrangeTSi ki ara _ bruselSi SeiZens (Nerval 1994 :171).novelis dasawyisSi, frankfurtidan dabrunebuli mTxrobeli wignsparizis biblioTekebSi ver moiZiebs: igi arc mazarinis (Nerval 1994 :117),arc arsenalis da arc nacionalur biblioTekebSi ar Semonaxula (Nerval1994 :109). mTxrobels erTaderTi gamosavali rCeba: protagonistma igibukinistebTan unda daZebnos. nervali, TiTqos, mwerlis funqciaze uarsambobs da, JamTaaRmwerlis sizustiT, XIX saukunis pirveli naxevrisparizis biblioTekebisa da bukinistebis samyaros gviRweres: mismateqstma im epoqis cnobili frangi bukinistebis saxelebi Semogvinaxa:fransi, merleni, teSneri. saubedurod, wigni arc fransTan arcmerlenTan ar aRmoCnda (Nerval 1994 :120). mTxrobelma es wigniteSnerTanac ver naxa. moxuci wignebiT movaWre protagonistssaidumlod gaandobs, rom kerZo koleqcioneris sakuTrebis auqcionzewigni gasayid nivTebs Soris iqneba (Nerval 1994 :121). kerZo koleqcionerissavaraudo saxels nawarmoebis boloSi vigebT _ batoni motli (Nerval1994:170), Tumca mTxrobeli didxans ar gvimxels mis vinaobas, romelicteSnerisgan gaigo (Nerval 1994 :166). novelis protagonisti TiTqosmkiTxvels eTamaSeba, intrigas agebs, cdilobs koleqcionerismniSvnelobas moklebuli vinaoba damalos, magram is, rom mTxrobelimis povnis imeds ar hkargavs, Tavgadasavals avanturistul elferssZens. nervali ostaturad Jonglirebs empiriuli realobis (XIXsaukunis parizuli cxovreba) epizodebiTaA da mxatvruli nawarmoebisfiqcionaluri samyaroTi. igi publicistikasa da literaturul fiqciaserTmaneTs uxamebs, amitom novela _ ,,anJeliki’’, Jerar de nervalismxatvruli samyaros konstruirebis, mis mxatvrul-literaturulteqstebSi, realurisa da irealuris monacvleobis TvalsazrisiTacaris saintereso. nervali agebs metadiegesur samyaros, qmnismetaTxrobis precendens (Женетт 1998 :411). Tu moTxrobaSi _ ,,orelia’’,realuri da irealuri erTmaneTs upirispirdeba da enacvleba erTiwarmosaxviTi, fiqcionaluri samyaros farglebSi, amjerad nervali,mcire zomis nawarmoebSi, qmnis fiqcionalur da garefiqcionalursamyaroTa Tanaarsebobis iluzias, garRvevas, metalefsiss: erTi mxriv _


67abat bukuas Sesaxeb wignis Zieba, romelic mkiTxvelis mier empiriulrealobasTan igivdeba, meore mxriv _ anJelikis dRiurebi, romelic,wignis moZiebasTan mimarTebaSi, literaturul fiqciad aRiqmeba.mTxrobels cenzuris ganawyenebis imdenad eSinia, rom TviT abat bukuaspirovnebis arsebobis faqts eWvis qveS ayenebs: ,,am pirovnebis arsebobisdamadasturebeli sabuTebi ar arsebobs. . . samsjavroze Tu wamomaZaxesra mivugo _ grafi bukua wignis gamogonili personaJi, avtoriswarmosaxvis nayofia-meTqi? ’’ ,,Il n’y a pas un légiste qui ne fût fondé même àl’existence matérielle de l’individu . . . Que répondre à un substitut qui s’écrierait devant letribunal: le compte de Bucquoy est le personnage fictif, créé par la romanesque imagination del’auteur ?’’ (Nerval 1994 :93). novelaSi damajereblobis efeqtis Seqmnaimdenad mniSvnelovania, rom mwerali, keTilsindisieri redaqtoriviT,nawarmoebis bolos, Txrobis procesSi daSvebul uzustobebs asworebs(Nerval 1994 :171). es miTiTebebic nervalis novelas metadiegesur xasiaTssZens: erT mxriv, publicisturi nawarmoebis Seqmnis procesi,redaqtorTan mimowera da wignis Ziebis procesis dawvrilebiT aRwerada, meore mxriv, sabralo anJelikis ambavi (SenakadebiT). amave dros,xdeba savaraudo adresatis Tu idealuri recipientis konkretizacia(metalefsisis magaliTi), am ukanaskneliT da fiqtiuri mkiTxvelisinstanciebiT manipulireba.novelaSi kvanZis gaxsna deteqtiuri nawarmoebis dasasrulsmogvagonebs. bolos vigebT, rom abat bukuas Tavgadasavlis SesyidvaTavad bukinist teSnersac da nacionaluri biblioTekiswarmomadgenelsac (romelsac mTxrobelma Tavis droze igive wignismoZieba sTxova) hqoniaT ganzraxuli (Nerval 1994: 166). maTi dainteresebisSesaxeb mkiTxveli da mTxrobelic erTad Seityoben: orivesTvis esmoulodneli aRmoCndeba. protagonistTan erTad, mkiTxvelic, erTimxriv, wignis ZiebiT aris dakavebuli, meore mxriv _ mTxrobelTanerTad, am wignis da Tavad graf bukuas warmomavlobazec eWvobs. aseTmoulodnel dasasruls, vfiqrobT, ori mizezi SeiZleba hqondes:1) Tu grafis warmomavloba istoriulad ar iqnebadadasturebuli mTxrobels, momavali istoriuli Txzulebisavtors, axali kanonis mixedviT romanebis weraSi dasdeben


68brals da mas da literaturuli Jurnalis mflobelsacdaajarimeben;2) Tu aqamde, mkiTxveli mTxrobels (abat bukuas ambis)konkretul avtorTan aigivebda (metadiegesisis farglebSi),axla mTxrobeli yovlismcodne rodi Cans: igi nawarmoebisfiqcionalur samyaroSia ,,gamomwyvdeuli’’. manac imdeniveicis, rac novelis mkiTxvelma. es ki, nervalis Canafiqrs xdisfardas: winamdebare Txzuleba publicistikas an istoriulixasiaTis narkvevs hgavs: mweralma faqtualuri masalismosapoveblad Zalisxmeva ar daiSura, magram publicisturisnacvlad mxatvruli nawarmoebi Seqmna da mkiTxvelsmxatvrul-literaturuli teqstis fiqcionaluri samyaroSesTavaza.novelaSi Tavad bukuas pirovneba idumalebiTaa moculi. mTxrobeliambobs: ,,bukuas Zebna ganvagrZe’’ (,,Je continue à faire chercher le prétendu conte duBuquoy’’ (Nerval 1985 : 92)). esec nervalis novelas deteqtiur JanrTanaaxlovebs. nervalis novelas _ ,,anJeliki’’, klasikur deteqtiurinawarmoebis Tvisebebi gaaCnia: masSi mTxrobeli abat bukuas wignismoZiebis Sesaxeb Tanmimdevrulad mogviTxrobs. Tavad graf bukuas ambavssaidumlod tovebs, rom istoriuli pirovnebis vinaobaSi eWvi ESeitanos.mkiTxvels TandaTan miewodeba kvlevisTis saWiro informacia, amitom,ambis dasasruls, mas sakuTari marTebuli daskvnis gamotana ar uWirs.nervalis mier realuri, empiriuli samyaro maqsimalurad obieqturobiTaris daxatuli (moTxrobisgan _ ,,orelia’’ gansxvavebiT). mkiTxveli didiZalisxmevis gareSec ikvlevs gzas da sazRvras, ra aris Cveuli dapiriqiT – uCveulo. personaJebis qceva stereotipulia, maTifsiqologiuri portretebi gamWvirvalobiT gamoirCeva. maTi saqcielicadvilad amosacnobia.nervalis novelaSi siuJetis aprioruli agebis wesi XIX saukunistradicias Seesabameba, magram klasikuri deteqtivi faqtobrivadgamoricxavs Secdomas, romelic anaznad SeiZleba iqnas daSvebuli:deteqtivSi xom yovel Secdomas Tavisi mizezi aqvs (SecdomaSi erTiambis sanacvlod meoris Txrobas vgulisxmobT –n.q.). deteqtiuri Janrispirveli nawarmoebebad edgar alan pos novelebia miCneuli, magram


69deteqtiuri elementebi, romlebic fantastikuris qveJanrs axasiaTebs,adrec iyo gamoyenebuli sxva cnobili mwerlebis mier (,,Savi romani’’,tragikuli ambebi’’).deteqtivis centralur figuras warmoadgens maZiebeli, igi SeiZlebaiyos profesionali an moyvaruli. nervalis nawarmoebis mTxrobeliprofesionali Jurnalistia. avtori ar ayovnebs da meti damajereblobisda sarwmunoebisTvis, mkiTxvels sakuTar saxelsa da gvars axsenebs: ,, esdokumenti mkiTxvelisTvis, sasiamovno batoni Jerar de nervalisTvis,moviZie’’ (,,Lecteur sympatique de M.Gérard de Nerval et désirant lui être agréable, je luicommunique le document ci-joint . . .’’(Nerval1985 :145)). am konkretul SemTxvevSic,saqme gvaqvs iseT movlenasTan, romelsac metalefsisi ewodeba.ritorikaSi metalefsisi metonimiis nairsaxeobas aRniSnavs, ormagmetonimias. Jerar Jenetma am cnebas sxva datvirTva SesZina: manfiqcionaluri samyaros garRvevas metalefsisi uwoda, rac mTxrobelisan eqstradiegesuri adresatis diegesur samyaroSi, an diegesuripersonaJebis metadiegesur samyaroSi SeWras gulisxmobs. Jenetmametalefsisis transgresiul bunebas gausva xazi (Genette 1972: 285) daaRniSna, rom aseTi saxis transgresiuli movlena axasiaTebs rogorcklasikur teqstebs (deni didro), aseve _ Tanamedrove nawarmoebebsac(m. prusti, Jak rulo, klod klotzi).metalefsisi TxrobiTi komunikaciis doneebis Canacvlebazeaagebuli. naratiul teqstebSi TxrobiTi komunikaciis TamaSis (le jeu surles niveaux) sami SemTxveva gamoiyofa: CarCoiani moTxrobebi, teqstiteqstSi (mise en abime) da metalefsisi. swored metalefsisi Txrobisada fiqciis urTierTCanacvlebiT xorcieldeba, romelic moulodnelixasiaTisaa da mkiTxvelis gakvirvebas an ironias iwvevs (Reuter 2005 :57).rogorc zemoT avRniSneT, metalefsisi novelis (,,anJeliki’’) bolosacfiqsirdeba. nawarmoebi ironiul xasiaTs atarebs. mTxrobeli aRiarebs,rom nawarmoebis erT-erT werliSi, naxsenebia vinme Jerar de nervali.erT-erTi werili misi Ziebis Sesaxeb mogviTxrobs. novelis _,,anJeliki’’, konkretuli avtori gviyveba im ambavs, romlis personaJiTavadaa. am SemTxvevaSi xorcieldeba metalefsisi da xdebaontologiuri samyaros sazRvrebis garRveva: xdeba abstraqtuli


70avtoris konkretizacia, sxvagvarad rom vTqvaT, implicituri daeqsplicituri avtorebis Tanxvedra. sawyisi ambis mTxrobelieqtradiegesuria, radgan igi moTxrobili ambis diegesisSi armonawileobs (anJelikis werilebi) da amavdroulad _heterodiegesuric, radagan ambis nawils (bukuas Sesaxeb wignis moZieba)gviyveba, romelSic igi wigns daeZebs. novelis mTxrobeli pirveladimTxrobelia: igi gviyveba frankfurtSi wignebis gayidvis Sesaxeb da immizanzec, ramac germaniaSi Caiyvana. Sesabamisad, novelis mTxrobelieqstradiegesuria (pirveladi) nawaroebis im nawilSi, romelic,TiTqosda, publicistur xasiaTs atarebs. dRiurebis Sinaarsidangamomdinare, igive mTxrobeli intradiegesuria, anu _ meoreuli. esmosazreba nawarmoebis parateqstis _ ,,anJeliki’’ _ literalurixasiaTis gaTvaliswinebis SemTxvevaSia SesaZlebeli da, rasakvirvelia,Tu mkiTxveli nervalis Canafiqrs Caswvdeba: sasiyvaruli ambisSeparviT moyola; Tumca, pirvelis wakiTxvisas (le récit premier), ambismTxrobeli, romelic novelis avtorTan igiveobis iluzias qmnis, arispirveladi da, aqedan gamomdinare, anJeliki _ meoreuli(eqstradiegesuri), qalis naTesavi ki _ mesame (intra/heterodiegesuri).am TvalsazrisiT, parateqsti rematuli xasiaTis iqneba (Rhématique), anunawarmoebis meorexarisxovan personaJebTan dakavSirebuli. rogorcvxedavT, nervali Tavis novelaSi xSirad mimarTavs TxrobiTikomunikaciis doneebis TamaSs, rac parateqstis aRqmis mravalSesaZleblobaSic vlindeba.nervalis nawarmoebi _ ,,anJeliki’’, mkvlelobis Tu qurdobisgamoZieba araa. Sesabamisad, masSi arc dazaralebuli an msxverpliavinme. am TvalsazrisiT, novela klasikur deteqtiur Janrs ar hgavs.nawarmoebSi gamomZiebels (maZebeli) marto erTi damxmare ar hyavs,rogorc bevr deteqtiuri Janris novelaSia xolme: wignis mopovebaSi masbevri adamini exmareba, rogorc zRapris protagonisti, romelicsiZneleebis gadalaxvas sxvaTa daxmarebiT axerxebs. damxmarepersonaJebis cvla siuJetis cvlazea damokidebuli: jer mTxrobelsnacionaluri biblioTekis TanamSromeli aRmouCens daxmarebas, Semdeg _teSneri, bibliofili. mogzaurobis dros, mTxrobels bavSvobismegobari _ silveni axlavs (mTxrobelis bavSvobisdroindeli megobari


71silveni, krebulis _ ,,cecxlis qaliSvilebis’’, kidev erT novelaSi _,,silvi’’, aris naxsenebi). novelis _ ,,anJeliki’’, eWvmitanili – Tavadbukuaa, radgan mTxrobels (da masaTan erTad mkiTxvelsac) ara martomis Sesaxeb wignis povna, aramed – misi vinaobis dazustebac ainteresebs.mokled rom vTqvaT, nervalis novelebi a. greimas aqtanturi sistemis(personaJebis semiotikuri modeli) sailustraciod gamodgeba (Jouve1997:52).nawarmoebSi ori sxvadasxva, ZiriTadi ambavia aRwerili: erTi XIXsaukuneSi xdeba, meore XVII-Si. marTalia anJelikis Tavgadasavalisasiyvarulo ufroa, magram kuzenis mier Tavisi naTesavis Sesaxebnaambobi monaTxrobs yovelive romantikuls akargvinebs. anJelikisvreceli dRiuris wakiTxvis Semdeg, mkiTxveli qaliSvilis miermovlenebis araadekvaturad aRqmaSi darwmundeba. mkiTxveli anJelikisTavgadasavals aRar ganixilavs rogorc sasiyvarulo ambavs. monaTxrobiaxalgaxrda qalis winaSe qmris danaSaulebrivi da Seuracxmyofelisaqcielis aRwerad iqceva, Tavad ,,dRiurebi’’ Kki _ deteqtivis siuJetad.nervalma erT novelaSi orze meti ambis gadmocema moaxerxa, romelicsxvadasxva saukuneSi viTardeba da, cenzuris sapasuxod, faqtebiTacdaadastura.rogorc avRniSneT, novelaSi sami mTxrobelia. Txrobis momentinovelis dasasruls aris mowodebuli. ori ambavi, bukuas wignis Ziebada anJelikis sasiyvarulo istoriac, retrospeqtulia TxrobismomentTan mimarTebaSi. novelSi orive ambavi erTmaneTis paraleluradviTardeba: erTi axlo warsulSi, meore _ SoreulSi. yvela SemTxevaSiTxroba retrospeqtulia, anaqroniuli. ganarCeven gare, Sida da Sereulanalefsisebs. gasarkvevi rCeba, Tu ramdenad emTxveva erTi moTxrobiliambis xangrZlivoba ZiriTadi ambis ganviTarebas. gare analefsisisSemTxevavSi (analepses externe), meore ambavi pirvelisgan damoukidebladviTardeba. Sida analefsisis dros (analepses interne), erTi ambavi meoreSiaris SeWrili. Sereuli analefsisis dros (analepces mixte), distanciameore ambis pirvelTan mimarTebaSi didia, nawarmoebis bolos igiZiriTadi ambis drosa da sivrceSi ganviTarebas emTxveva. arsebobsheterodiegesuri analefsisi, rodesac meore ambis diegesisi arutoldeba ZiriTadisas, da homodiegesuri analefsisi, rodesac pirveli


72ambisa da ZiriTadi ambis Tanxvedra xdeba. nervalis novelaSi _,,anJeliki’’, gare analefsisi figurirebs (Женет 1998 :397).novelaSi CarTul ambebTan mimarTebaSi (iadonis ambavi,biblioTekaris sulis gamocxadeba, ori bibliofilis ambavi), abatbukuas ambis mTxrobeli homodiegesuria: igi mowme xdeba rogor uTxramoxuc qals Citebis gamyidvelma iadonis yidvaze uari (Nerval1994 :83).heterodiegesuria mTxrobeli, rodesac mojadovebuli zaris ambavsixsenebs, radgan es ambavi sxvisgan moismina. novelaSi intradiegesurinaratoric figurirebs (Nerval 1997 : :25). anJelikis ambavis komentirebisdros, abat bukuas mTxrobeli meoreuli mTxrobelia igi anJelikisambavs mkiTxvels uyveba da is, rac am axalgazrda qals gadaxda, amukanasknelis dRiuridan icis. Sesabamisad, nervali novelaSi _,,anJeliki’’, metadiegesur samyaros qmnis, romelic sxvadasxva diegesisis,mTxrobelis statusis, TxrobiTi komunikaciis doneebis instaciebiscvlaSi vlindeba. nervali cdilobs Tavis novelas maqsimaluridamajerobloba SesZinos. es arCevani mwerlis mxatvrul mizansemsxureba: man, mkiTxevlis winaSe, iseTi ambavi unda waradginos, romlisutyuarobaSi aravis epareba eWvi da didZali jarimac aicdinos. amavemizans emsaxureba mwerlis mier arCeuli epistolaruli Janric,romelic faqtobriv masalazea agebuli, magram werilebi, rogorcpirveli ambis (abatis) ESesaxeb, romelic mTxrobels ekuTvnis, aseve _anJelikis, epistolaruli urTierTobis klasikur magaliTs arwarmoadgenen. arc werilebi da arc intimuri dRiurebi erTmaneTanmimarTebaSi polisubieqturi araa. isini arc dialogis modelia, radganpirvelis (abat bukuas ambavi) adresati savaraudod gamomcemelia, meore_ dRiurebis saxes atarebs da inspirirebulia anJelikisTayvanismcemlis mier. Tayvanimcemlis pirveli sasiyvarulobaraTi anJelikis dRiurebs ,,qanqaras principiT’’ ar agebs. erTi werili(Tayvanismcemlis) anJelikis Tavgadasavlebis mizezi ki gaxdeba, magramanJelikis adresati arc misi Tayvanismcemeli da arc naTesavia, romelicmxolod anJelikis ambis boloSi gamoCndeba. anJelikis werilebiklasikuri ,,epistolaruli monodiebis’’ magaliTs mxolod imiTuaxlovdeba, rom mimoweraSi udidesi mniSvneloba pirveli(Tayvanimcemlis werili) da bolo _ naTesavis werils eniWeba (Женетт


731998 :413). orive mimowera (mTxrobelis savaraudod gamomcemelTan daanJelikis) kreatiul komunikaciur strategias emsaxureba. abat bukuaswignis Ziebis SemTxevaSi, mTxrobelis werilebi dialogis, replikisfunqcias iTavseben nawarmoebis mxolod erT nawilSi, rodesac xdebaimplicituri da eqsplicituri avtoris Tanxvedra. X werilSimTxrobeli adresatisgan (romelic kvlav ucnobi rCeba) or miRebulwerils pasuxobs. mTxrobeli mkiTxvels am werilebis Sinaarsis SesaxebZalian mokled, reziumes saxiT, sapasuxo werilSi mouTxrobs.belgiidan mosul werilSi ki Tavad nervalic aris moxseniebuli,rogorc abat bukuas ambis mkvlevari, Tumca werilis avtori kvlavucnobi rCeba. mxolod varaudi SeiZleba gamovTqvaT, rom werlebisavtori, saZiebeli nawarmoebis konkretuli avtoria (abstraqtuliavtoris konkretizirebuli instancia). mTxrobelis sapasuxoT,belgiidan biblioTekaris pasuxSi vkiTxulobT: ,, . . . .minda rameSigamovadge iseT sasiamovno pirovnebas rogoric Jerar de nervalia’’(,,Lecteur sympatique de M. Gérard de Nerval et désirant lui être agréable, je lui communiquele document ci-joint . . .’’(Nerval 1994 :145)). epistolaruli da sakuTrivnaratiuli Janrebis erT novelaSi gamoyeneba droTa TamaSzecmiuTiTebs: werili ambis da Txrobis droTa Tanafardobis efeqts qmnis(scena _ ad=Td), rasac emateba analefsisiT gamoxatuli movlenaTaretrospeqtiva. swored amitomaa saintereso novelaSi droTa Tanxvedra.nervali, asociciaciis wyalobiT, warsulis (anJelikis ambavi _ XVIIsaukune) da awmyos (abat bukuas wignis Zieba _ XIX saukune) erTnovelaSi gaerTianebas ostaturad axerxebs (wignis Ziebis drosmTxrobeli abatis didedas werilebs waawydeba) (Nerval 1994 :109).anJeliki Tavis bolo werils biZaSvils swers. anJelikis naTesaviaris intredegesuri narateri (Nerval 1994 :26) axalgazrda qalis danarCeniwerilebis konkretuli adresati dasaxelebuli ar aris, anu igieqstradiegesur naraterzea gaTvlili, magram bukuas ambis mkvlevari,uneblied, anJelikis adresati xdeba, e.w. narateri da Tavis statuss aricvlis: igi estradiegesur naraterad rCeba.radgan anJeliki Tavis Tavgadasavalsa da SegrZnebebs Zalzesubieqturad aRiqvams da gadmoscems, ambavi misi TvalTaxedviT aris


74gadmocemuli, Sesabamisad saqme Sida, anu romelime personaJzemorgebul fokalizaciasTan gvaqvs (La focalisation interne (Jouve1999 :33)),rodesac igive ambis gansxvavebul versias anJelikis naTesavi hyveba,mTxrobelis SecvlasTan erTad fokalizacia ar icvleba: igi aseveSidaa, radgan erTsa da imave ambavis sakuTar xedvas anJelikis naTesavi,gesankuri gvTavazobs (Нерваль 1985155). abat bukuas ambavs wignismaZiebeli mkiTxvels (an naraters) sakuTari konemtarebiT awvdis, magramigi amas gulsgareT, samagaliTo JunalistiviT akeTebs. axalgazrdaqalis mier dRiurebis Sesaxebac uinteresod hyveba iseve, rogorc misinaTesavis mier, sruliad saporispirod danaxul igive ambavs, amitomsaqme gare fokalizaciasTan gvaqvs (Le focalisation externe).abat bukuas wignis Zieba erTxel aris moyolili, ambis TxrobaTanamimdevrulia: wignis Ziebis dasawyisidan misi SeZeniT damTavrebuli(erTjeradi Txroba). anJelikis ambavi samjer aris moTxrobili(mravaljeradi Txroba): pirvelad abatis ambis maZiebeli (novelisZiriTadi mTxrobeli, nawarmoebis eqsplicituri da implicituriavtori) mas reziumirebis saxiT hyveba, qalis sasiyvarulo gancdasa damis uiRblo siyvarulis istorias ramdenime striqonSi atevs. Semdegigive ambavs hyveba Tavad anJeliki, da bolos _ anJelikis biZaSvili.Txrobis momentis ambavTan mimarTeba intimur dRiurebSi Tu werilebSiSereul xasiTs iZens. erTi mxriv, dRiurebisa da werilebis dialoguriformidan gamomdinare, ambis Txrobis dro Txrobis momentisTanadrouli unda iyos (La narration intercalée (Jouve 1999 :36)) da Txrobismometis momdevno (La narration ultérieure ( Jouve 1999 :36)). anJelikis werilebi,Tu maT dialogis formad miviCnevT ucnob, igi homodiegesur naraterzeunda iyos gaTvlili, magram hetero da intradiegesur naratateris(mkiTxvelis) xelSi aRmoCndeba, Tumca, orive SemTxvevaSi, TxrobismomentTan mimarTebaSi, novelaSi momxdarzea saubari (La narration ultérieure).abat bukuas wignis Ziebis dros, saqme Sereul SemTxevasTan gvaqs (Lanarration intercalée): novelis mTxrobelis sxva personaJebTan Sexvedrebisdros (dialogis SemTxvevaSi) Txrobis droisa da momentis Tanxvedraxdeba (La narration simultanée ( Jouve 1999:36), rac sinamdviles ar Seesabameba,magram logikurad SesaZlebalia. anJelikis werlebis SemTxvevaSi,


75novelis igive mTxrobelis mier warsuli ambis (wignis Ziebis procesida bukuasTan dakavSirebuli ambebi, maT Soris anJelikis werilebic)moyolisas, Txrobis moments ambavi uswrebs win (La narration ultérieure).mxolod erT epizodSi, rodesac novelis mTxrobeli mosalodnelauqcionze da Tavis gegmebze saubrobs, Txrobis momenti win uswrebsTavad ambavs (La narration antérieure (Jouve 1999 :36)).Sesabamisad, novelaSi damajereblobis efeqti (effet de réel) iqmneba,ambis gadmocemis gameorebiT, metalefsisiT (transgresiiT) da TxrobiTi,naratiuli instanciebis (naratori) cvliT, gare da Sida fokalizaciismonacvleobiT. amave dros, nervali qmnis metamoTxrobas (métarécit),moTxrobas moTxrobaSi (Genette 1972 :239), romelsac hyavs TavisimTxrobeli da mkiTxvels literaturuli nawarmoebis Seqmnis Sesaxebuyveba.damajereblobis efeqtis Seqmnis sailustraciod gamodgebanervalis kidev erTi novela _ ,,emili’’. novelaSi mogviTxrobenaxalgazrda samxedros sevdiani ambis Sesaxeb. oTaxSi Tavmoyriliadamianebi deroSis TviTmkvlelobis Sesaxeb bWoben da surT gaigon, ramaiZula aseTi vaJkaci qristianisTvis Seuferebeli da miuRebelisaqcieli Caedina.nervali novelaSi ramdenjerme cvlis mTxrobels:I. Tavdapirvelad ambavs eqstra/homodiegesuri mTxrobeli gviyveba,romelic mkiTxvels deroSis TviTmkvlelobas amcnobs da eWvi Seaqvsmis saqcielSi (Nerval 1994 :291);II. Txrobas agrZelebs intradiegesuri mTxrobeli (mRvdeli).sainteresoa, rom mis moTxrobil ambavSi, igi yvela epizodis mowme aryofila, magaliTad: deroSis mier axalgazrda germaneli memaqmanisgacnoba. maT Sexvedras yovelTvis sxva eswreba (qaliSvilis deida).meoreuli mTxrobeli axalgazrdebis siyvarulis Sesaxeb TavadderoSisgan igebs da germaniaSi maT dasaqorwineblad Cadis (Nerval1994 :293);III. ambis damajereblobis efeqtis gasaZliereblad, nervali bevrimwerlis nacad xerxs mimarTavs: Txrobis procesSi mas abstraqtuliavtori Semohyavs. am epizodSi xorcieldeba metalefsisi, rac


76abstraqtuli avtoris konkretizaciaSi, intra/heterodiegesurimTxrobelis yovlismcodne mTxrobelad gardaqmnaSi vlindeba (Nerval1994 :296);IV. adamianis Sinagani buneba, misi samyaro amoucnobi dasaidumloebiT moculia. yvelaze ukeT pirovnebis Sesaxeb Tavad igimoyveba, amitom nervali novelis nawils, sadac deroSis ucnaursaqciels exdeba farda _ deroSi brZolis sacolis mamas dros hklavs_ Tavad deroSs ayolebs (Nerval 1994 :300);V. nervalis amas ar sjerdeba da kidev erTxel cvlis mTxrobels.ambavs meoreuli mTxrobeli _ mRvdeli, agrZelebs. amjerad igi ambismowmea, anu intra/homodiegesuri mTxrobelia. am ukanasknelis sityvebiTsruldeba novelac da msmenelebs deroSis saqcielis marTebulobaSieWvi aRar eparebaT (Nerval 1994 :301);rogorc vxedavT, nervali, damajereblobis efeqtis misaRwevad,cvlis TxrobiTi komunikaciis doneebs da instanciebs. novelaSi _,,anJeliki’’, igi ,,CarCoiani novelebis’’ agebis xerxs iyenebs: erTi pataranawarmoebis farglebSi sxvadasxva ambavs sxvadasxva mTxrobelimogviTxrobs (Le récit emboîté généralisé). ironiis miRma imaleba mxatvrulliteraturuliteqstis metadiegesuri konstruqciis Seqmnis survili.igive xdeba novelaSi _ ,,emili’’, amjerad, damajereblobis efeqti erTiambis danawevrebis, sxvadasxva mTxrobelis Semoyvanis xarjze iqmneba.novela _ ,,oqtavi’’ aseve ,,CarCoian novelebs’’ SeiZleba mivakuTvnoT,magram novelisgan _ ,,anJeliki’’, igi imiT gansxvavdeba, rom mTxrobeliswerili novelis farglebSi calke ambis saxiT ar aris Setanili.yovelive es awmyosa da warsulis, realuri da warmosaxviTi samyarosSoris sazRvrebis waSlas emsaxureba (Le récit emboîté ponctuel (Reuter 2005: 57)).


77II. V. ornamentuli prozis raoba da misi mniSvneloba Jerar denervalis SemoqmedebaSiornamentuli prozis cneba farTea da fundamentuli.ornamentalizmi teqstSi mxolod sityvaTa TamaSi rodia (Baudelle 2005 :30).ornamentuloba efuZneba simbolizmisa da modernizmisTvisdamaxasiTebel azrovnebasa da msoflmxedvelobas, romelic TavisiarsiT miTopoeturia. ornamentul prozaSi (discours orné) iseTi saxisteqstebi moiazreba, romlebic poeziis gavlenas ganicdian, racmiTosuri azrovnebisTvisaa damaxasiaTebeli. miTosuri azrovnebakulturis sxvadasxva sferoSi vlindeba: filosofiasa da poetikaSi,fsiqologiaSi... ornamentul prozaze saubrisas erTmaneTisgan undagavmijnoT sakuTriv naratiuli teqtebi da iseTebi, romlebic poeziasuaxlovdeba, anu naratiuli proza ornamentuls SevadaroTdaEdavupirispiroT.naratiul teqstSi Txrobis dros umniSvnelovanesi, ganmsazRvreliroli ara komunikaciur struqturebs ekisreba, aramed TavadmTxrobelis instanciis arsebobas. termini ,,naratiuli’’ upirispirdeba,,deskripciuls’’ anu ,,aRwerilobiTs’’. naratiuli teqsti ambavsgadmogvcems da axdens mis temporalizacias, anu ambavs droisa dasivrcismier sazRvrebSi aqcevs. naratiulobis cneba axlos dgas,,fabulobasTan’’. ambavi movlenis cnebas ukavSirdeba, rac arsebuli,sawyisi situaciis cvlilebas gulisxmobs. es cvlileba moTxrobil,fiqcionalur samyaroSi xorcieldeba. Tavisi bunebiT, movlena SeiZlebaiyos bunebrivi, aqciuri (dakavSirebuli moqmedebasTan, qmediTi) dainteraqciuri, Sinagani (mentaluri). maSasadame, naratiuli teqtebisamocnoba movleniTobas, xdomilobas ukavSirdeba. lotmanisgansazRvrebiT, movlena TxrobiTi teqstis xerxemals warmoadgens da,,personaJis semantikuri velis sazRvis miRma gadaadgilebas’’gulisxmobs; sxvagvarad rom vTqvaT _ ,,akrZaluli sazRvrisgadalaxvas’’ (Лотман 1970 :282). Tavisi arsiT, xdomiloba transgresiulibunebisaa: xdomilobis, movlenad aRiarebuli qmedebis dros, xdebatopografiuli, pragmatuli, eTikuri, fsiqologiuri an SemecnebiTisazRvris garRveva, anu personaJis mier iseTi qmedebis realizeba,


78romelic normisgan gansxvavdeba. rac mTavaria, dakanonebulisgangadaxveva mkiTxvelisa da fiqcionaluri samyaros instanciebis miererTnairad unda aRiqmebodes (Шмид 2003 : 20).n. tamarCenko movlenad subieqtis miznisken swrafvas aRiqvams,personaJis empiriul Tu mentalur samyaroebSi gadaadgilebas.xdomiloba realobis iluziis Seqmnas efuZneba. xdomiloba movlenad araRiqmeba, Tu personaJi mxolod ocnebobs da miznis misaRwevad arafersakeTebs (Шмид 2003:20). aseT SemTxevaSi, movlenad aRiqmeba Tavadocnebis, zmanebis, warmosaxvis, halucinaciis procesi. aqedangamomdinare, nervalis nawarmoebebSi, kerZod, moTxrobaSi _ ,,orelia’’,ocneba da zmaneba SeiZleba xdomilobas gautoldes, radgan mTxrobelirealobasa da sizmriseul samyaros Soris sazRvris garRvevas Seecada.naratologiur analizs ornamentuli prozis nimuSebic eqvemdebareba:amis erTi mizezi xdomilobisa da warmosaxviTis tolfasobaa; meoremizezi, ornamentuli Tu aRwerilobiTi saxis teqstebisnaratiulobisken swrafvaa.rogorc zemod avRniSneT, moTxrobil ambavSi xdomilobarealobasTan unda iyos daaxlovebuli (effet de réel), personaJma damkiTxvelma moyolili ambavi SesaZleblobaTa erTiani sistemiT undaSeafason. nebismier movlenas Sedegi unda mosdevdes, anu qmedebamovlenad im SemTxvevaSi iqceva, Tu mas Sedegi mohyva. Sedegi naraciisdasrulebamde unda gamJRavndes. amas Smidti moqmedebis Sedegzeorientirebul qmedebas uwodebs (Шмид 2003 : 22). aseTi saxis moqmedebaupirispirdeba inqoatiur movlenas, anu iseTs, sadac moqmedebis mxolodsawyis etapzea saubari, gmiris mxridan moqmedebis martoodenmcdelobaze (moqmedebis konatiuri xerxi), an qmedebaze, romelicganxorcielebis stadiaSia (moqmedebis duratiuli xerxi).funqciebis garda, xdomilobas ganxorcielebis stadiebic aqvs.sruli xdomilobis SemTxvevaSi, naratiul teqsts xuTi kriteriumi undaaxasiaTebdes:I. pirveli relevantobaa, rac movlenis mniSvnelobasgulisxmobs, asaxuli movlenis mniSvnelobas, mis gadamwyvetfunqcias personaJis cxovrebisTvis. movlena STambeWdavimkiTxvelisTvisac unda gaxdes.


79II. meore Tviseba _ gauTvaliswineblobaa. naratiuli teqstisTvis,gauTvaliswineblobas, moulodnelobis efeqts udidesi mniSvnelobaeniWeba. mizez-Sedegobriv kavSirurTierTobis saSualebiTmoulodnelobis efeqti mkiTxvelisTvis logikuric SeiZleba aRmoCndes,rac mkiTxvelis dainteresebas da misi molodinis horizontisgamarTlebas emsaxureba.III. naratiuli teqstis mesame niSanTviseba _ konsekuciurobaa, anura kvali datova ama Tu im movlenam personaJis cxovrebasa Tu mismsoflmxedvelobaze.IV. meoTxe niSanTviseba movlenis Seuqcevadobaa: ramdenadac didiamovlenis Seuqcevadobis albaToba, miT ufro metia Tavad movlenismniSvneloba personaJebisa Tu mkiTxvelisTvis. naratiul teqstebSi,movlenebis ganviTarebas personaJis gamorkveva, gons mogeba unda mohyves.es ki personaJis zneobriv amaRlebas, pirovnebis Camoyalibebasgulisxmobs. Sesabamisad, Seuqcevadi movlenis Sedegad moqmedi piri arda ver ubrundeba Tavis pirvandel mdgomareobas, mentalursa Tusuliers.V. movlenis mexuTe niSania _ ganumeorebloba. es ukanaskneli, imazemiuTiTebs, rom cvlileba, romelzedac nawarmoebSia saubari, erTjeradxasiaTs unda atarebdes. gameorebadi cvlileba xdomilobas ar qmnis,Tundac Seuqcevadi iyos. movlenebis gameoreba aRwerilobiTi teqstisniSanTvisebaa.naratiul teqtebs yovelTvis ar axasiaTebT xdomilobisdamaxasiaTebeli xuTive niSani da Tu axasiTebT, yvela erT doneze araris gamovlenili.v. tiupa gamohyofs naratiuli teqstisTvis damaxasiaTebelixdomilobis sam ZiriTad kriteriums: heterogenuloba, qronotopuloba,intelihibeloba (Smidi2003 :295). naratiuli teqstebis sami niSniTdaxasiaTebas mkvlevari naratologiis da misi mimdevrebisa dawarmomadgenlebis mier xdomilobis cnebis gansazRvris garTulebiTasabuTebs. misi azriT, gansxvavebuli bunebis mqone diskursuliprocesebis, magaliTad komunikaciuri xdomilobisa da istoriuli(kvaziistoriuli, fiqcionaluri) procesis referenciuli xdomilobiserTi niSniT gaerTianebis mcdelobas, Sedegad movleniTobis


80gansazRvrebis sirTule mohyveba. Tu lotmanisTvis xdomiloba, movlena,,normisgan mniSvnelovan gadaxvevas’’ niSnavs, ganmsazRvrels, amSemTxvevaSi, Tavad normis farglebis gadgena warmoadgens: epoqis,socialur-kulturuli gamocdilebis, eris istoriis . . . g. hegelierTmaneTisgan mijnavda imas, rac ubralod xdeba da imas, rac epikurnawarmoebSi movlenad iqceva. hegeli garegan cvlilebas movlenisyvelaze mniSvnelovan maxasiaTeblad miiCnevda. am TvalsazrisisgaziarebiT imis aRiareba mogviwevs, rom subieqturi xasiaTismatarebeli mxatvrul-literaturuli teqsti narativs ar warmoadgens.n. tomarCenkos azriT, xdomiloba erTi mdgomareobidan meorezegadasvlaa: personaJis qmedebis, mogzaurobis, an garemoebaTazemoqmedebiT (biologiuri cvlilebebi, antagonistebis moqmedeba,bunebis movlenebi istoriuli perepitiebi . . .). mxatvrul narativSiumniSvnelo elementi ar arsebobs (v. tiupa). rogorc i. tinianoviambobda, movlenis arsi misi niSan-Tvisebebis maqsimalur raodenobaSi kiara, aramed maT aucilebel minimumSi vlindeba. lotmani wers: ,,movlenadunda aRviqvad is, rac moxda, magram SeiZleba arc momxdariyo’’.realisturi prozisTvis damaxasiaTebelia samyaros aRqmissamecniero-empiriuli modeli da Txrobis fiqcionalur-naratiuliprincipi, romelic xdomilobazea orientirebuli. aseTi saxis naratiulteqstebSi, gansakuTrebul mniSvnelobas iZens mimesuroba, mentaluri dagaregani qmedebebis fsiqologiuri damajerebloba; modernistulprozaSi ki piriqiT _ am principebis ganzogadeba xdeba, racaranaratiuli arsis mqone poezias prozasTan aaxlovebs. amasTandakavSirebiT, upriania gavixsenoT romantizmis Teoretikosis _f. Slegelis, sityvebi, romantikuli poeziis daniSnulebis Sesaxeb:,,romantikuli poezia eposs hgavs da SeiZleba gaxdes samyaros amsaxvelisarke. poeturi refleqsiis frTebma igi caSi unda aitacon, nebismierisaxis realuri Tu idealuri interesebisgan gaanTavisuflon’’(Хрестоматия 1955 : 21).naratiuli prozisgan gansxavebviT, ornamentuli proza istoriulkanonzomierebebs ar eqvemdebareba. igi poeziis gavlenis qveS eqceva.literaturis istoriaSi naratiuli teqstis poeturTan miaxlovebismagaliTebi mravlad moipoveba da, yvela SemTxvevaSi, saubaria im poetur


81sawyisebze, romlebic miTosur azrovnebas gulisxmobs. saukuneze metixnis win novalisi werda, rom romantikuli bunebis mqone moTxrobebSimovlenaTa Soris kavSiri mcirea, magram asociacia _ meti. moTxrobebisizmrebs hgvanan. novalisi iqve dasZens, rom leqsebi mSvenieri sityvebiswyebaa, yovelgvari Sinagani kavSirisa da Sinaarsis garaSe, sadacmxolod calkeuli strofebia gasagebi da mniSvnelovani(Зарубежная...1991 :72). am TvalsazrisiT, nervalis orelia poeziisgan argansxvavdeba.poeturobidan gamomdinare, ornamentuli proza miTis struqturulsaxed aRiqmeba. ornamentul prozaSi, miTosuri azrovnebamxatvrul-literaturuli teqstis motivirebis, mizez-Sedegobriobiskanonebis rRvevaSi vlindeba.realistur prozaSi sityva pirobiTi simboloa, miTosurazrovnebaSi, am azrovnebis models daqvemdebarebul mxatvrulliteraturulteqstebSi ki _ xatia. miTSi sityva ar warmoadgensniSans, romelic saganze moiuTiTebs. sityva Tavad sagnisekvivalenturia, amitom miTosuri azrovnebisTvis ar arisdamaxasiaTebeli idealurisa da realuris gamijvna. am mosaxrebasiziarebs germaneli filosofosi _ erns kesireri, romelsac miaCnda,rom eris istoria ki ar gansazRvravs mis miTologias, aramedmiTologia _ naciis istorias. miTi transcedentul processgamoxatavs. miTosuri samyaro warmosaxviTia, Sesabamisad, ornamentuliprozis saSualebiT sityva da sagani igivdeba (Кесcирер –on-lain wigni).siuJetebisa da Temebis gameoreba rogorc miTosuri samyaros, aseveornamentuli prozis kidev erTi maxasiaTebelia. mxatvrulliteraturulnawarmoebSi laitmotivebis jaWvi amoicnoba, iqmnebacalkeuli niSnebis ekvivalentoba. swored am ekvivalentobaseqvemdebareba naratiuli teqstis enobrivi sintagma da moTxrobiliambis Tematuri sintagmac. ornametul prozaSi ritmuloba, JReradiekvivalentoba Tu laitmotivze dafuZnebuli iteraciuli xerxebisgamoyeneba SeiniSneba. gameorebadi faqtorebi teqstis kompoziciurerTianobas uzrunvelyofen, anu siuJetis Sesusteba laitmotivebisarsebobis xarjze xdeba da amiT siuJeturi qargisTvis damaxasiaTebelimizez-Sedegobrivi kavSirebis simcirec kompensirdeba.


82gameorebis principi laitmotivebs da yvela sxva saxis formalurTu Tematur ekvivalentobas gulisxmobs, romlebic mxatvrul teqstSiZiriTadi ambis paralelurad Tanaarseboben da am ambis droSikonstruirebas agvareben. laitmotivebi da ekvivalentoba realisturprozaSic arsebobs. realisturi prozisgan ornamentuli gameorebebisprincipiT gamoirCeva, magram Yyvelaze mniSvnelovani teqstSi Sesabamisimxatvruli Tu stilistikuri xerxebis gamoyenebaa, rac moTxrobiliambis Tu diskursis doneze vlindeba. Tu realistur prozaSilaitmotivi da ekvivalentoba mxolod Tematur doneze Cans, ornamentulprozaSi, naraciis prezentaciis dros, orive Tematur da siuJeturTanafardobaSi vlindeba. Sesabamisad, gadmocemuli ambavi da movlenaTaSoris urTierTkavSiris ageba semantikur, leqsikur da formalurdoneze xdeba.ornamentuloba komunikaciis princips eyrdnoba. ornamentul prozasSinaarssa da gamoxatvas Soris sazRvris waSla, gare da Sinagan,meorexarisxovan da mniSvnelovan, JReradi motivebis Tematur motivebad,metaforis da stilistikuri xerxebis siuJetis nawilad qcevaaxasiaTebs.rogorc avRniSneT, ornamentuli proza siuJetis SesustebiTgamoirCeva. moTxrobili ambavi SeiZleba iyos gabneuli nawarmoebissxvadasxva nawilSi, romelTa Soris kavSiri mocemulia ara naratiulsintagmnatikurplanSi, aramed _ poeturi paradigmis planSi, maTmsgavsebasa da kontrastSi.ornamentuli proza teqstis naratiul safuZvels bolomde arugulebelyofs. rogorc v.Smidti ganmartavs, es maSin xdeba, rodesacparadigmatizacia da siuJeti erTmaneTs upirispirdeba, magram maSinac,sityvisa da Txrobis xelovnebas azrobrivi datvirTvisa da aRqmisgamZafrebisken mivyavarT. prozisa da poeziis naerTi poeturi danaratiuli SesaZleblobebis rTul interferencias, hibridul prozasqmnis (Шмид 2003.263).swored aseTi saxis teqstebTan gvaqvs saqme Jerar de nervalisSemTxvevaSi. misi prozauli nawarmoebebi ornamentul prozasganekuTvneba. amis dasturad, sakmarisia avRniSnoT realurisa dairealurs Soris sazRvris waSla, siuJeturi qargis Sesusteba, rac


83laitmotivebiT, aluziebiTa da avtoaluziebiT kompensirdeba(motivebisa da xdomilobis simciris xarjze). gansakuTrebulmniSvnelobas iZens mwerlis msoflmxedvelobis miTosur azrovnebasTansiaxlove.Cvvi azriT, nervali wminda saxis naratiuli teqstebis Seqmnasgamiznulad gaurbis, rac mis nawarmoebebs poeziasTan aaxlovebs.SesaZloa amiT avxsnaT nervalis novelebis da sonetebis (,,qimerebi’’)erT krebulad (,,cecxlis qaliSvilebi’’) gaerTianeba. ufro met interessiwvevs nervalis teqstSi stilistikuri xerxebis simcire: nervalisesTetika miTopoeturia, amitom mxatvruli gamomsaxvelobiTisaSualebebis simcire simboloebiT aris Canacvlebuli; amitom gaxdanervalis Semoqmedeba momdevno TaobebisTvis ufro saintereso; amitomacar unda gagvikvirdes misi Semoqmedebisadmi interesi arc simbolistebis,arc siurealistebis mxridan (Conty 1988 :280). aseTi saxis miTopoeturi,ornamentuli teqsti franguli romantizmisTvis, kerZod frangiadamianis kartezianuli gonebisTvis ucxoa. miT ufro gasagebi xdeba,nervalis germanel romantikosebis esTetikasTan siaxlove. nervalisproza ornamentulia da hibridulic, radgan nawarmoebebSi arcnaratiuli da arc poeturi sawyisebi ar iSleba.yovelive zemoTqmulidan gamomdinare, SegviZlia davaskvnaT, romJerar de nervalis moTxrobaSi _ ,,orelia’’, misi esTetikisa daformidan gamomdinare, yvelaze metad vlindeba ornamentuli prozisniSan-Tvisebebi. movlenis damaxasiaTebeli xuTi niSnidan, nervalismoTxrobaSi warmodgenil movlenebs mxolod oTxi axasiaTebT:relevantoba, gauTvaliswinebloba, konsekuciuroba da Seuqcevadoba.amave dros, misTvis (movlenisTvis) naratiul teqstebTan axlosmdgomiaRwerilobiTi teqtebis Tvisebebic ar aris ucxo, anu im teqtstebis,romlebSic statikuri mdgomareobaa aRwerili, aRwerilia portreti,iqmneba klasebad dayofili sazogadoebis suraTi, xdeba gameorebadixasiaTis mqone movlenebis, cikluri procesebis Sejameba. v. SmidisazriT, aRwerilobiTi xasiTis teqstebsa da naratiul teqstebs SoriszRvari yovelTvis gamokveTili ar aris: yovel TxrobaSi aRweracfigurirebs, rac Txrobis procesis Seyovnebas iwvevs da nawarmoebsgarkveul statikurobas sZens. aRwerilobiTi saxis teqstebSic moipoveba


84dinamikuri elementebi, xdomilobis Semcveli struqturebi. mkiTxvelzebevrad aris damokidebuli rogor aRiqvams igi nawarmoebs, rogor avsebsigi e.w. ganusazRvrel adgilebs (literaturis. . . 2008: 186).mxatvrul nawarmoebSi nebismieri moqmedeba mxolod peizaJebisaRwera rodia. teqstSi asaxuli samyaro qmnis toposs da yovelTviskonkretul aRqmas exmianeba, romelic empiriuli realobis SemecnebasukavSirdeba. es toposi mwerlisa da mkiTxvelis Cveul samyarosTanmaqsimaluradaa miaxlovebuli. aqedan gamomdinare, ra saxisac ar undaiyos mxatvruli nawarmoebi (realisturi Tu fantastikuri), igi ama Tuim epoqis Taviseburebis gaTvaliswinebiT aRiqmeba, amitom ,,mkiTxvelisagnis (literaturuli nawarmoebis _ n.q.) pasiuri momxmarebeli ki ara,aramed SemoqmedebiTi procesis aqtiuri monawilea. aqtiuria igi Tundacimitom, rom . . . nawarmoebis gasaRebi aRmoCenas moiTxovs’’ (yaralaSvili1977: 34). mkiTxvelis mier teqstis konkretizacia, aqtualizacia darekonstruqcia amarTlebs an, piriqiT, _ awbilebs mkiTxvelismolodinis horizonts da nawarmoebis gansxvavebulad wakiTxvissaSualebas iZleva (literaturis . . . 2008: 187).nervalis nawarmoebis (,,orelia’’) SemTxvevaSi, realurisa dairealuris analizis dros, mniSvnelovani xdeba imis garCeva arisnervalis teqsti aRwerilobiTi, statikuri Tavisi bunebiT, Tuiteraqciuli, radgan, pirvel SemTxvevaSi, movlenebs naklebimniSvneloba mieniWeba, vidre _ meoreSi, rac kumulaciuri elementebisarsebobis gaTvaliswinebas moiTxovs da nawarmoebs jadosnur zRaparTangaaigivebs. naratiuli da aRwerilobiTi teqstebi ara statikuri Tudinamikuri elementebis raodenobiT ganisazRvreba, aramed amelementebis saboloo funqciiT, Tumca es ukanaskneli Sereuli xasiaTisSeiZleba iyos (Шмид 2003: 20). mxatvrul nawarmoebSi erTi an meorefunqcia dominirebs. b. tomaSevski droismier da mizez-SedegobrivikavSirebis arsebobas, nawarmoebis fabulis agebis ganmsazRvrelfaqtorad miiCnevs (tomaSevski fabulas nawarmoebSi moTxrobil anaRweril movlenaTa erTobliobas, xolo siuJets _ am movlenebisgadmocemis Tanamimdevrobas uwodebs-n.q). (Томашевский 1925: 137)). mkvlevarimogzaurobasac ,,ufabulo Txrobad’’ moiazrebs. b. tomaSevskis ammosazrebas ver gaviziarebT, radgan mogzaurobac SemecnebiTi procesia


85da Tu masSi mcire raodenobiTaa movlenebi, STabeWdilebebismniSvneloba da gavlena adamianis cnobierebaze yovelTvis didia daxSirad ufro gadamwyveti, vidre Tavad movlena. Cven vemxrobiT fabulisSmidiseul gansazRvrebas, romelic ,,fabulas’’ ,,moTxrobil ambavs’’, anubralod ,,ambavs’’ uwodebs (Шмид 2003:24).nervalis moTxroba _ ,,orelia’’, da novelebis krebulSi _ ,,cecxlisqaliSvilebi’’, Semavali zogierTi nawarmoebi (,,venis Tavgadasavlebi’’),aRwerilobiTi saxis teqstebTan aris miaxlovebuli. mTlianadaRwerilobiTi xasiaTisaa Jerar de nervalis ,,mogzaurobaaRmosavleTSi’’, ,,oqtombris Rameebi’’, ,,gaseirnebani da mogonebani’’,Tumca,. yovel maTganSi, mTxrobelis Sualeduri instancia figurirebs(Шмид 2003:25). nawarmoebSi moTxrobili ambebi (,,mogzaurobaaRmosavleTSi’’, ,,oqtombris Rameebi’’, ,,gaseirnebani’’) Tavisi arsiT,diegesuri ar aris, anu moTxrobil samyaros ar ganekuTvneba. igimimesuria, Sesabamisad, aRweras utoldeba. yoveli aseTi saxis teqsti(nervalis zemoxsenebuli nawarmoebebic) Sualeduri instanciis cvlasasaxavs. swored, mTxrobelis Sualeduri instancia nervalispublicistur nawarmoebebs mxatvrul-literaturul, naratiulteqstebad aqcevs.


86III Tavirealuri da irealuri Jerar de nervalis SemoqmedebaSiIII.I. naratiurli drois problemaJerar de nervals gansakuTrebuli adgili ukavia franguliromantizmis istoriaSi. es ganpirobebulia, erTi mxriv, franguliromantizmis ganviTarebis TaviseburebiT, meore mxriv _ germanuliromantizmis gavleniT nervalis Semoqmedebaze. romantizmis esTetika danervalis Semoqmedeba imis safuZvels iZleva, rom nervalisnawarmoebebis (,,orelia’’, ,,cecxlis qaliSvilebi’’) analizisasnaratologiis meTodologia gamoviyenoT. amas gvkarnaxobs romantizmiswarmomadgenelTa nawarmoebebSi iseTi samyaroebis arseboba, romelicmxatvruli teqstis fiqcionalur samyaroSi moqmedebis SesaZleblobaTaramdenime sistemiT gamoixateba, romlebic erTmaneTs upirispirdeba anenacvleba. movlenebisgan Semdgari ambavi, drosa da sivrceSi viTardeba,amitom kvlevis sagani naratiuli dro unda gaxdes.rogorc zemod avRniSneT, meoce saukuneSi, naraciis Sesaxebuamravi Teoria Seiqmna: rusi formalistebis Teoriebi (v. propi, v.Sklovski), m. baxtinis narativis dialoguri Teoria,neoaristotelianuli Teoriebi (Cikagos skola, u. buti),fsiqoanalitikuri Teoriebi (z. froidi, J. lakani), hermenevtikuli dafenomenologiuri Teoriebi (r. ingardeni, p. rikiori),struqturalisturi, semiotikuri, topologiuri (k. levi-strosi, al.greimasi, J. Jeneti), marqsistuli da sociologiuri Teoriebi (f.jeimsoni), recefciuli esTetika (r. ingardeni), poststruqturalisturida dekonstruqtivistuli (J. derida, p. de mani). naratologia XXsaukunis samocian wlebSi struqturalizmis wiaRSi aRmocenda. misfuZemdeblebad miiCneven algirdas greimass, cvetan todorovs, JerarJenets da klod bremons. Txrobis Teorias Sualeduri adgili ukaviastruqturalizmsa da recefciul esTetikas Soris. rogorcliteraturaTmcodneobis disciplina, igi Seiswavlis xelovnebiskomunikaciur aspeqtebs, naratiul teqstebs da gamohyofs kvlevisZiriTad kategoriebs: avtoris da mTxrobelis, naratiuli droisa da


87sivrcis, mkiTxvelis, TxrobiTi komunikaciis doneebis, TvalTaxedvis(fokalizacia) . . .Jerar de nervalis pirovnebis, misi nawarmoebis aRqmissirTulidan gamomdinare, saWirod migvaCnia zemoxsenebulinawarmoebebis (,,cecxlis qaliSvilebi’’, ,,orelia’’) analizisasnaratologiuri meTodologiis gamoyeneba, rac mwerlis SemoqmedebisukeT aRqmisa da Cveni kvlevis ukeT warmaTvisTvisaa mizanSewonili.literaturuli nawarmoebis analizisas didi adgili droisa dasivrcis problemas eTmoba. nebismieri ambavi drosa da sivrceSi xdeba.mniSvneloba ara aqvs, saubari gvaqvs realizmis kuTvnil mxatvrulliteraturulteqstze, romelic Cvens garSemo arsebul, empiriulirealobis msgavs realobas asaxavs, Tu _ fantastikurze. yvelaSemTxvevaSi, literaturuli nawarmoebis fiqcionaluri samyaro, homoTu heterogenuli, ambavs mogviTxrobs, romelic drosa da sivrceSiaganfenili.pol rikioris ganmartebiT, samyaro, romelic TxrobiTnawarmoebSi iqmneba, es droiTi samyaroa: ,,dro iqceva adamianur drodimdenad, ramdenadac igi naratiuli xerxebiT artikulirdeba, dapiriqiT, Txroba imdenadaa mniSvnelovani, ramdenadac masSi ikveTebadroiTi gamocdilebis Tavdapirveli naratiuloba (literaturisTeoria :2008 200).drois naratologiuri analizi erTmaneTisgan mkveTrad mijnavsambis dros (saukuneebi, wlebi, dReebi . . ) da sakuTriv Txrobis dros(striqonebi da gverdis, furcelTa raodenoba): magaliTad, erTi Taobisambavs SeiZleba mTeli romani, erTi gverdi, an Tundac erTi striqonidaeTmos (Jouve 1997 :44).naratologia naratiul dros ganixilavs rogorc nawarmoebisstruqturul elements. igi striqonebisa da wignis gverdebiTganisazRvreba. naratologia sivrces mxatvruli teqstis kompoziciisSemadgenel nawilad miiCnevs. frangi mecnieris _ Jerar JenetisTvalsazrisiT, sivrcis kvlevis sakiTxi klasikuri naratologiisCarCoebs scildeba (Jouve 1997 : 35).J. Jenets naratologiaSi Semohyavs Txrobis drois logikis cneba,romelic aerTianebs anaqroniis literaturul teqnikas, movlenaTa


88xangrZlivobis modifikacias, sixSirisa da Txrobis tempis SesaZlovariaciebs (Genette 1977 : 36).anaqronia prolefsiss da analefsiss gulisxmobs. sixSiremTxrobelis mier momxdaris mravaljer gameorebaa, an piriqiT _mravaljeradis erTxel moxsenieba. J. Jeneti xazs usvams reziumes,deskrifciuli pauzis (Txrobis Seyovneba, atmosfero, peizaJis,garegnobisa an romelime sagnis zedmiwevniT aRwera), scenis (dialogi)da elifsisis (Txrobis xazis mTliani ugulebelyofa) mniSvnelobas.Sesabamisad, naratiuli drois problemis analizisas naratologiaganarCevs Txrobis moments, temps, sixSiresa da Tanamimdevrobas.swored aseTi kuTxiT SevecdebiT ganvixiloT Jerar de nervalisnovelebis krebuli _ ,,cecxlis qaliSvilebi’’ da warmovaCinoT frangimwerlis msofmxedvelobis siaxlove romantizmis esTetikasTan, xoloromantizmi – rogorc eqsperimentuli mimdinareoba, romelmac didigavlena iqonia modernistul literaturaze.nervalis Semoqmedebis erT-erTi mkvlevaris, filip destruelisazriT, drois problema mis nawarmoebSi udides rols TamaSobs. misimniSvneloba imdenad didia, rom cecxlis qaliSvilebs ,,droisqaliSvilebi’’ SeiZleboda rqmeoda (Нерваль1985 :55).romantizmis Teoretikosis, fridrix Slegelis TvalsazrisiT,literaturis universaluroba swored imaSi mdgomareobs, rom Caswvdesda gadmosces adamianis, bunebisa da mTeli samyaros arsi. universumisZiriTadi kanonzomierebis wvdoma SemoqmedebiTi intuiciis MmeoxebiTxdeba da sinkretuli Janris nawarmoebebSi aisaxeba, anu iseTnawarmoebebSi, romelic yvela literaturul Janrs moicavs (Шлегель1955 : 20).rogorc zemoT avRniSneT, novelebis krebuli _ ,,cecxlisqaliSvilebi’’_ mravali novelisa da maTTan ideur-TematuradgaerTianebuli leqsebisgan Sedgeba. lirikuli da epikuri Janrebis erTisaTauriT gaerTianeba, SesaZloa, leqsebisa da novelebis zomis simcirisgamo moxda, an, romantikosTa kvaldakval, mxatvruli nawarmoebisformis srulqmnis xelsayrel da Sedegian cdad SeiZleba miviCnioT.Tavad mwerali, 1854 wels, anu im dros, rodesac krebuli _ ,,cecxlisqaliSvilebi’’, gamoaqveyna, literaturul salonebSi mniSvnelovani


89nawarmoebis Seqmnaze xmamaRla saubrobda (Нерваль 1985 :17). SesaZloa, masleqsebisa da novelebis erT krebulSi moqceva surda ise, rom leqsebinovelebis erTgvar reziumed qceuliyo. sabolood, leqsebisa danovelebis erT krebulad gaerTianeba aleqsandre diumas daxmarebiTa daZalisxmeviT moxda, radgan nervalis poetur Sedevrs swored igigamoexmaura pirveli (arsebobs nervalis leqsis _ ,,El Deschirado’’-sdiumaseuli manuskripti-n.q.). Tu yurad viRebT im faqts, rom nawarmoebissaboloo saxis miRwevamde nervalma krebuls _ ,,cecxlis qaliSvilebi’’,mravaljer ucvala forma da gaviTvaliswinebT romantikosTaeqsperimentebs, damajereblad migvaCnia am krebulSi Semavali oTxinovelis gamorCeva, romlebic qalTa saxelebs atarebs: ,,anJeliki’’,,,silvi’’, ,,oqtavi’’ da ,,emili’’.sixSiris (La fréquence) naratologiuri cneba nervalTan ara martoromelime calkeul novelasTan mimarTebaSi, aramed cecxlisqaliSvilebis, orelias da qimerebis erTian konteqstSi unda iqnasganxiluli. novelis martivsiuJetiani JanrisTvis sixSiriserTjeradobis xerxis (Le mode singulatif) gamoyenebaa damaxasiaTebeli,rodesac erTxel momxdars erTxelve hyvebian. nervalis calkeulnovelaSi ZiriTadi ambavi erTxelaa warmodgenili. ar unda dagvaviwydes,rom nervalis nawarmoebebi erTian qmnilebad moiazreba, amitom erTi daigive, an masTan miaxlovebuli ambavi, sxva novelebSic meordeba. amSemTxvevaSi, gamoiyeneba sixSiris mravaljeradi xerxi (Le mode répétitif) :mTxrobeli erTxel momxdars mravaljer imeorebs: siuJeti msgavsi,xSirad avtobiografiuli xasiaTis, magram saxecvlili movlenebiTivseba, magaliTad saanlisis, mSobliuri mxaris monaxuleba, satrfosdakargva, italiaSi gamgzavreba . . .novelebis dasawyisSive mTxrobeli Tavisi adgilsamyofelis, xSirSemTxvevaSi _ parizis, datoveba uwevs: zogjer, gauziarebelisiyvarulis gamo (,,silvi’’, ,,oqtavi’’ _ mTxrobeli dedaqalaqs msaxiobiqalis gamo tovebs), zogjer _ idumali xelnaweris saZiebladmiemgzavreba (,,anJeliki’’), an saidumloebiT moculi sikvdilis mizezisasaxsnelad Zalas ar iSurebs (,,emili’’). novelebSi siuJetis Semdgomi


90ganviTareba mogzaurobebsa da warmosaxviT Tavgadasavlebs ukavSirdeba,an kidev _ Soreuli warsulis mogonebebs.novelaSi _ ,,silvi’’, sanatreli adgilebis monaxulebis survilsmTxrobeli valuas sagrafoSi Cahyavs, sadac bavSvobis wlebi aqvsgatarebuli. aRsaniSnavia, rom valua parizis CrdiloeTSi mdebareobs.novelis _ ,,oqtavi’’, mTxrobeli ki _ evropis samxreTiT miemgzavreba:jer marselSi da Semdeg _ italiaSi. novelaSi _ ,,anJeliki’’, moqmedebabelgiasa da safrangeTSi viTardeba, safrangeTis aRmosavleTiT _germaniaSi momxdars novelis _ ,,emili’’, mTxrobeli hyveba. mogzaurobisTema, romelsac didi adgili ekava romantikosTa SemoqmedebaSi, asevemniSvnelovania nervalisTvis. mwerali mogzaurobis Temas ubrundebaTavis ortomeulSi _ ,,mogzauroba aRmosavleTSi’’, ,,gaseirnebebsa damogonebebSi’’. nervalis SemoqmedebaSi, mogzauroba simbolur datvirTvasiZens da novalisis sityvebs exmianeba: ,,Cven samyaroSi mogzaurobazevocnebobT: magram samyaro Cvens sulSia! Cvens sulSi unda viswavloTwiaRsvla. swored iq mivyavarT saidumloebiT mocul gzas. maradisobaswored Cvens sulSi unda veZioT. gare samyaro aCrdilTa saufloamxolod . . .’’ (Зарубежная...1991 :72)mTxrobeli mogzaurobebis gezs dawvrilebiT miuTiTebs (,,oqtavi’’,,,anJeliki’’) da samaxsovro adgilebis aRweras sakmod bevr dros uTmobs(,,silvi’’). deskrifciuli pauza, xSir SemTxvevaSi, Txrobis erTiani xazisSeyovnebas iwvevs da teqstis diegesisSi (ambis dro da sivrce)mTxrobelis mewyvilis (narateri) dainteresebas emsaxureba (désignation parencrage) (Jouve 1997 :49). sivrcis aRwera realobis iluziis Seqmnas damTxrobelis mier samyaros Sesaxeb Sexedulebis naraterisTvisgaziarebas emsaxureba. igi esTetikuri datvirTvis matarebelia. aRweramoTxrobili ambis dramatizirebas ar axdens da arc ambis gagrZelebismcdelobas warmoadgens. nervali sivrcis aRweras personaJis gunebaganwyobilebisgadmosacemad iyenebs, magram nervalis novelebSideskrifcias ambis drosTan mimaTebaSi upiratesoba ar eniWebaJerar de nervalis yvela zemoxsenebuli novelebis siuJeturiqargis ganviTarebad gmiris imedgacrueba SeiZleba miviCnioT. silvicada oqtavic mTxrobelisTvis miuwvdomel idealTan miaxlovebissaSualebebia, Tumca arc erTTan naratori sabolood ar rCeba.


91novelebis dasasruls, silvica da oqtavic qorwindebian: pirveliusiyvarulod Txovdeba da misi erTaderTi nugeSi qmrisa da mTxrobelisfizikuri msgavsebaa, meore ki _ sarecelTan mijaWvul meuRles uvlis.qorwils novelaSi _ ,,emili’’, mniSvnelovani adgili ukavia, magram amambavsac bednieri dasasruli araa aqvs: emilis meuRle kvdeba, Tavad ki_ monasterSi monazvnad aRikveceba. Tu krebulSi _ ,,cecxlisqaliSvilebi’’, miwier qorwinebazea saubari, moTxrobaSi _ ,,orelia’’, igiRvTaebriv saxes iZens (mistikuri qorwineba). gamomdinare iqidan, rommoTxrobis (,,orelia’’), Seqmnas novelebis gamocema uZRvoda win, SeiZlebadavinaxoT, rogor iZens sakralur mniSvnelobas yofiTi movlena(qorwineba) nervalis Semoqmedebis bolo periodSi. es mwerlisSemoqmedebiTi eqsperimentis Sedegia, rac amarTlebs moTxrobilambavTa msgavsebis aucileblobas da gameorebis princips usvams xazs.moTxrobis am safexurze (novelebis calkeul epizodebSi), drosworxazovania da movlenaTa Tanamimdevroba maT mizez-SedegobriobasefuZneba.E novelebis saboloo epizodebSi, kvanZis gaxsna mTxrobelisreziumirebiT sruldeba. or novelaSi (,,oqtavi’’, ,,anJeliki’’) sabolookomentari pirvel narators (mTxrobels) ekuTvnis, novelaSi _ ,,emili’’,reziumirebas meoreuli, intra-homodiegesuri naratori axdens. amavenovelaSi, anaqronia analefsisiT gamoixateba da Txrobis momenti ambisdros ukan mosdevs. nervalis novelebSi (,,oqtavi’’, ,,anJeliki’’, ,,emili’’)Txrobis dro ramdenjerme wydeba, rac meoreuli mTxrobelis SemoyvanasukavSirdeba (naratiuli instanciebis cvla), deskrifciul pauzas anCarTul struqturul elements (magaliTad _ werili) komunikaciisdoneebis cvlas.naratologiaSi, Tanamimdevrobis cneba movlenaTa logikurprezentacias eyrdnoba. nervalis zog novelaSi, Txrobis qronologiaambis gadmocemis arasworxazovnebiT irRveva (im SemTxevebis garda,rodesac erTi konkretuli ambavi Tavisi ,,siuJeturi SenakadebiT’’ arismoTxrobili). naratiuli anaqroniis ori saxeobidan, prolefsisisraodenoba novelebSi Zalian mcirea (,,oqtavi’’). novelebSiretrospeqtuli subieqturi anaqroniaa warmodgenili. analefsisi kixSiriAmovlenaa.LENAA


92novela _ ,,silvi’’, Txrobis drois araTanmimdevrulobiTgansxvavdeba novelisgan _ ,,oqtavi’’, romelSiac Txrobis droisTanamimdevroba daculia da mxolod erTxel irRveva (werilis epizodi).naratiuli drois araTanmimdevruloba realurisa da irealurisasociaciur monacvleobas ukavSirdeba, rac Jerar de nervalisSemoqmedebisTvis esoden niSandoblivia da romantizmis esTetikisTvisaadamaxasiaTebeli.drois danawevrebas novelaSi _ ,,emili’’ vxvdebiT, sadac warsulisgaxseneba yofili samxedro piris _ deroSis, sikvdilis saidumlosaxsnasa da axali mTxrobelis SemoyvanasTanaa dakavSirebuli. Txrobisdro novelaSi _ ,,anJeliki’’, mTlianad danawevrebulia, radgan mravali,patar-patara ambisgan Sedgeba, Tumca ZiriTadi ambavi (récit premier) _ abatbukuas Sesaxeb wignis Zieba _ linearulad aris gadmocemuli.novelis tradiciuli forma nervals saSualebas aZlevs ambaviramdenime sityviTa Tu striqoniT gadmosces, amitom ritmi, Txrobistempi, daCqarebas efuZneba (accélération). Txrobisa da novelaSigadmocemuli ambis droebis Sesatyvisobis oTxi SesaZlebelivariantidan, anu rodesac Txrobis tempi ambisas emTxveva (dialogi),masze didia (daCqareba), an kidev _ mcire (pauza), an maqsimaluradSekvecili (elifsisi) (ad=Td, Td


93epizodis (werili) Txrobas ufro met dros andomebs, vidre danarCeniepizodebis moyolas.rogorc avRniSneT, novela _ ,,anJeliki’’, sxvebisgan imiTacgamoirCeva, rom werilebis forma aqvs. werili am nawarmoebSi sul sxvadatvirTvis matarebelia: igi drois Seyovnebas ar emsaxureba, rogorc,magaliTad novelaSi _ ,,oqtavi’’. werilebi Txrobas ar anawevreben,radgan saqme sxvadasxva ambavTan, sxva naraterTan da naratorTan gvaqvs,amitom Txrobis dro novelaSi _ ,,anJeliki’’, arasworxazovania.novelaSi _ ,,emili’’, naratiuli drois danawevreba naratorisSecvlasTan aris dakavSirebuli. sami mosaubris kamaTis mizezis axsnismizniT, meoreuli mTxrobeli warsulis ambebs ixsenebs, romlismomswrec iyo. novelis dasawyisSi, ambis dro Txrobis Tanadroulia (lanarration simultanée). momdevno epizodSi, Txrobis moments ambis drouswrebs win (la narration ultérieure). meoreuli mTxrobelis aRsareba ambavswyvets. saqme CarTul drosTan gvaqvs (la narration intercalée). novelaSi _,,oqtavi’’, ambavi Txrobis moments win uswrebs, TxrobaSi CarTuliwerili Txrobis xazs wyvets da ambisa da Txrobis Tanadroulobisefeqts qmnis. Sesabamisad, novelaSi e.w. CarTuli dro figurirebs (Jouve1997 : 43).novelis _ ,,silvi’’, dasawyisSi, ambis dro Txrobis momentisTanadroulia. naratoris ymawvilkacobis mogonebebi Txrobis xazswyvets da Txrobis momentamde momxdars gadmogvcems. Txroba isev sawyisaTvlis wertils ubrundeba. Txrobisa da ambis droTa xangrZlivobismonacvleoba mTeli novelis ganmavlobaSi grZeldeba.nervalis novelebSi, elifsisi xSiradaa gamoyenebuli. novelaSi _,,silvi’’, mTxrobeli bavSvobisdroindeli gatacebis _ emilis bedisSesaxeb mravali wlis Semdeg igebs, iseve rogorc _ mTxrobelis wamierigatacebis, monazonis sikvdils.msaxiobi qalisa da adrienis (monazonis) gaigivebas bolos uRebsmemaqmanis (silvi) komentari adrienis adreuli sikvdilis Sesaxeb. mTelinovelis ganmavlobaSi, naratersa da naratorsac am ori qalis msgavsebamosvenebas ar aZlevs. elifsisis meoxebiT, romelic novelaSi puantisfunqcias asrulebs, konkretuli avtori xatovnad da ostaturad


94gadmogvcems am epizods, riTac realurisa da irealurisurTierTCanacvlebas da monacvleobas aRwevs.III.II. Txrobis momenti Jerar de nervalis novelaSi _ ,,oqtavi’’Jerar de nervalis novelis _ ,,oqtavi’’ _ saboloo varianti Jurnal,,le muSketerSi’’ (,,Le Musquetaire’’) 1853 wlis 17 dekembers daibeWda. zomiTigi yvelaze mcirea novelebis krebulSi _ ,,cecxlis qaliSvilebi’’ (1854)_ Semaval nawarmoebTa Soris. simciris miuxedavad, yuradRebas noveliskompozicia iqcevs. novelaSi _ ,,oqtavi’’, homodiegesuri mTxrobeli imgauziarebeli siyvarulis Sesaxeb mogviTxrobs, romelic mas parizismitovebas aiZulebs da gezs samxreT-aRmosavleTisken, kerZod,italiisken aaRebinebs.italiis Tavgadasavals mTxrobeli qronologiuri TanmimdevrobiTki gviyveba, Tumca mas sxvadasxva dros ixsenebs. pol larivai,,,moTxrobis morfo-logikur analizSi”, siuJetur qargas xuT etapadanawilebs (Jouve 1997 :47):I. sawyisi etapi (wonasworobis mdgomareoba)II. provocirebaIII. qmedebaIV. SedegiV. wonasworobis aRdgenaTu nervalis novelas _ ,,oqtavi”, ganvixilavT rogorc novelas,romelSic ambavs anaqroniulad gviTxroben da nawarmoebis kompoziciisTaviseburebad masSi Semaval elements _ werils _ gamovyofT, novelisyvela struqturuli elementis damoukideblad gaanalizeba gaxdebamizanSewonili. maSin, rodesac werili (struqruli elementi), calkeanalizis sqemas unda daeqvemdebaros, parizidan gamgzavrebisa da ukandabrunebis ambavic erTian konteqstSi saWiroebs ganxilvas (Todorov 1970:22).sruqturis TvalsazrisiT, novelaSi moTxrobili ambavi, romelsac,pirobiTad, ,,neapolis Tavgadasavals’’ vuwodebT, werilis (struqturulielementi) saSualebiT orad aris dayofili: werili da mogoneba.


95kompoziciis TvalsazrisiT ki, ambavi Osam nawilad SeiZleba daiyos:werilamde, werili da werilis Semdeg (mogoneba), Tumca novelaSigadmocemuli ambavi protagonistis cxovrebis oTx epizods ukavSirdeba:oqtavis Sexvedra, oqros ZafebiT mqargvelis gacnoba (RamisTavgadasavali _ werilis epizodi), oqtavisTan daSoreba da masTanSexvedra aTi wlis Semdeg. es dayofa pirobiTia, radgan ,,neapolisTavgadasavlis” Txrobisas ganmsazRvreli ara novelis arqiteqtonika,aramed nawarmoebis drois Sreebis mixedviT danawevrebaa, romlebicerTmaneTisgan Txrobis momentiT gansxvavdeba, im distanciiT, romelicmonayolsa da mTxrobelis mier mis gadmocemas aSorebs. maT, pirobiTad,laTinuri asoebiT aRvniSnavT da larivais sqemas mivusadagebT:sqema # 1 @A (werilamde monaTxrobi}I. gauziarebeli siyvaruliII. safrangeTidan gamgzavrebaIII. ingliseli qaliSvilis _ oqtavis gacnobaIV. markiz gargalos dis literaturuli saloni.V. sastumroSi dabrunebaB werili (werlis pirveli nawili)I. gauziarebel siyvarulze dardiII. Ramis neapolSi gaseirnebaIII. ucnob qaliSvilTan _ mqargvelTan, stumrobaIV.TviTmkvlelobis uSedego mcdelobaV. sasowarkveTawerilis Semdeg ambavi or nawilad iyofa:CI. gaucnobierebeli dardiII. vezuvis monaxulebaIII. oqtavisTan SexvedraIV. gaziarebuli siyvaruliV. uecari bednierebis SegrZnebaDI. 10 wlis Semdeg neapolSi dabrunebaII. sastumro ,,romSi’’ dabinaveba


96II. oqtavisTan SexvedraIV. gaziarebuli siyvaruliV. marselSi dabrunebaamave sqemis mixedviT, nervalis novelis _ ,,oqtavi” _ siuJeturiqarga ase gamoiyureba: gauziarebeli siyvaruli (I), safrangeTidangamgzavreba (II), neapolis Tavgadasavali (III), oqtavis siyvaruli (IV),safrangeTSi dabruneba (V) (Нерваль 1985:214).sqema # 2 @I wonasworobis mdgomareoba gauziarebeli siyvaruli AII provocireba safrangeTidan gamgzavreba AIII qmedeba neapolis Tavgadasavali BIV Sedegi oqtavis siyvaruli CV wonasworobis aRdgena safrangeTSi dabruneba Dsqemidan #2 Cans, rom mTeli novelis mniSvenlovani nawili,romelic personaJis qmedebas ukavSirdeba, nawarmoebSi werilSiaRwerili ambis saxiTa warmodgenili (B /III).nervalis novela mTlianad, xolo misi Semadgeneli nawilebidamoukidebeli siuJetis mqonea. novelis arqiteqtonikis yvela elementisiuJetur erTianobas ki qmnis, magram TiToeuls sxvadasxva Txrobismomenti aqvs da neapolis Tavgadasavals sxvadasxva rakursiTgvTavazobs. dasawyisSi vigebT, rom 1835 wlis gazafxulze, mTxrobelsitaliis naxvis gausaZlisi survili eufleba (Nerval 1994:248). alpuriwablis surneli da mTis CanCqerebis macocxlebeli Sxefebi, xelovnebisukvdavi nimuSebi da saTno, axalgazrda inglisel qaliSvilTanSexvedra, ,,sanimuSo mkiTxvels’’ (mkiTxveli modeli _ u. eko (Эко 2002:67))romantikuli ambis molodinSi amyofebs. aq mwerali Txrobas uecradwyvets da im werils gvTavazobs, romelSic homodiegesuri mTxrobeli,mkiTxvelisTvis neapolis jer kidev ucnobi Tavgadasavlis SesaxebmogviTxrobs. es werili im qalisTvisaa gankuTvnili, romelicnaratoris parizidan gamgzavrebis mizezi gaxda: ,,im Ramis Sexvedram eswerili damawerina, romelic Semdeg swored im qals gavugzavne, parizisdatoveba rom maiZula’’ (,,La rencontre que je fis cette nuit-là est le sujet de la lettresuivante, que j’adraissai plus tard à celle dont j’avais cru fuir l’amour fatal en m’éloignant de


97Paris’’) (Nerval 1994 : 250)) novelis am or monakveTSi (A,B) movlenaTaqronologia darRveulia. erTi mxriv, ,,im Ramis Sexvedris‘’ SesaxebmkiTxvelma jer araferi icis, mTxrobeli mxolod gvamcnobs, rom igiSedgeba. Sesabamisad, werilamde gadmocemul TavgadasavalTanmimarTebaSi, Sexvedra prolefsisis funqcias asrulebs. meore mxriv,werili isev im Ramis neapolSi gvabrunebs, rodesac mTxrobeli markizgargalos dis literaturuli salonidan gamovida (A,V) (Nerval 1994 :250).rom ara konkretuli avtoris mier werilis, rogorc arqiteqtonikiselementis gamoyeneba, masSi aRwerili ,,Ramis Tavgadasavali’’ novelissiuJetis ganviTebas logikurad Seerwymeboda: werilamde da werilisdasawyisSi erTsa da imave Ramezea saubari _ neapoli, 1835 wlisgazafxuli, Tumca werilis SuaSi mTxrobeli gvimxels, rom neapolisTavgadasavali sami wlis win gadaxdomia: ,,kidev sad gamomecxadasikvdilis saxe? oh, amis Sesaxeb ukve movyevi, es neapolSi moxda, samiwlis win’’ (M,,Mais où donc cette image s’est-elle déjà offerte à moi ? Ah, je vous l’ai dit,c’était à Naples, il y a trois ans’’) (Nerval 1994 : 251)). naxsenebma samma welmaSeiZleba dagvabnios da gvafiqrebinos, rom erTiani siuJeturi qargisfonze (1835 wlis gazafxulis neapolis Tavgadasavali), nawarmoebisTxrobis momenti, romelTan mimarTebaSi mTeli ambavi retrospeqtulxasiaTs Seicavs da savaraudod, 1838 wels emTxveva, narateris miersworad araa aRqmuli. nervali anaqronias ar sjerdeba. Ramis jadosnuriTavgadasavlebis, vezuvis midamoebis, oqtavisTan sasiyvarulo paemanisaRweriT monusxul mkiTxvels aRwerili movlenebisgan aTi wliTaSorebs. mkiTxvelisTvis ucnobi rCeba ra moxda am aTi wlis manZilze,ratom daSordnen erTmaneTs oqtavi da mTxrobeli, mas Semdeg, racorivem erTad yofnis bedniereba ganicada. am SemTxevaSi, saqme gvaqvsgamiznulad, mkiTxvelis dasaintereseblad gamotovebul ambavTanparalifsisTan. novelis am monakveTSi ambis dro ganusazRvrelia,Txrobis dro ki nulis toli. es elifsisis nimuSia.erT patara novelaSi, romelic sul xuTiode gverds itevs, nervaliTxrobis moments ostaturad samjer cvlis: erTi novelis dasawyisSi,rodesac afiqsirebs TariRs _ 1835 wlis gazafxuli. meored, ukvewerilSi _ savaraudod, 1838 weli, xolo mesamed _ novelis dasasruls,


98romelic adasturebs, rom manamde moTxrobili ambavi mTxrobels, sulmcire, aTi wlis win mainc gadaxda _ daaxloebiT 1845 wels.sami TariRi da sami Txrobis momenti novelisarqiteqtonikasTanaa dakavSirebuli. neapolis Tavgadasavali werilis,novelis struqturuli da kompoziciuri elementis saSualebiT, samadaris dayofili: werilamde, werili da werilis Semdeg, Tumca werilisSemdeg, movlenebi mkiTxvelisTvis moulodnelad viTardeba. frazamde _,,ra Sors aris axla es yvelaferi! aTi wlis win aRmosavleTidan romvbrundebodi . . . im axalgazrda inglisel qaliSvils isev Sevxvdi’’(,,Hélas ! que tout est loin de nous ! Il y a dix ans, je repassais à Naples, venant d’Orient. J’allaidescendre à l’hôtel de Rome, et j’y retrouvé la jeune Anglaise’’-(Nerval 1994 : 255)).mkiTxvels SenarCunebuli aqvs iluzia, rom Txrobis momentsa dagadmocemul ambavs Soris sami welia gasuli, e. i. homodiegesurimTxrobeli am ambavs 1838 wels gviyveba, magram zemoxsenebuli fraza(,,ra Sors aris axla es yvelaferi! aTi wlis win . . ’’), sruliad cvlismkiTxvelis damokidebulebas: oqtavisa da mTxrobelis grZnobebi masromantikul Tavgadasavlad aRar eCveneba, aramed mas sabedisweroSexvedrad aRiqvams, ganSorebas ki – ubedurebad. amas novelis daskvniTi,bolo winadadebac mowmobs: ,,am bednierebis saidumlo oqtavis gavande,man ki igi Seinaxa’’ (,, . . .et je me dit que peut-être j’avait laissé là le bonheur. Octavie engardé près d’elle le secret’’ (Nerval 1994 : 256)). elifsisis es magaliTimkiTxvels umalavs rodis, sad da ra saxiT gaando mTxrobelmainglisel qaliSvils Tavisi bednierebis Sesaxeb. amaze konkretuliavtorica da fiqtiuric, orive dums. am TvalsazrisiT, nawarmoebSi araromantikuli Tavgadasavali, aramed mTxrobelis mogonebebi dagrZnobebi xdeba yuradsaRebi. asociaciuri azrovneba da erTmaneTisTvisucxo, ucnobi da Soreuli sagnebisa Tu adamianebis uxilavi ZafebiTdakavSireba nervalis mxatvrul-esTetikur da stilistikurTaviseburebad SeiZleba miviCnioT.Txrobis momentiT manipulireba werilis pirvelsave frazaSi Cans:,,ver visveneb. ukve oTxi dRea, rac ar minaxixarT, an sxvebTan erTad TugxvdebiT’’. werilis Sesavali mkiTxvels, romelsac novela bolomdewakiTxuli ara aqvs, isev sagonebelSi agdebs: oTx dRes igi manamdenaxseneb 1835 wlis gazafxuls ukavSirebs (A) da gaocebas ver malavs.


99drois ase mcire SualedSi (oTxi dRe – B,I), im mogzaurobisganxorcieleba, romelsac naratori werilamde dawvrilebiTmogviTxrobs, SeuZleblad miaCnia: parizi, marseli, nica, genua,florencia, romi, Civitavekia, neapoli . . . mkiTxvels sxva araferidarCenia, garda imisa, rom es fiqcia realobad miiRos.am mxriv, saintereso xdeba, erTi da imave ambis TxrobissixSirec. mogzauroba marselidan iwyeba da marselSive mTavrdeba,Tumca es sxvadasxva wels xdeba. erTi da igive ambavi mkiTxvelssxvadasxva saxiT da drois gansvavebuli SualediT miewodeba: racwerilSia monaTxrobi (Ramis ucnauri Tavgadasavli da ucnob lamazqaliSvilTan saxlSi stumroba _ B,III) werilis miRma darCenil novelisnawilSi gamotovebulia. werilSi aRwerils mTxrobeli novelis sxvakompoziciur elementebSi Tavs aridebs, magaliTad: werilis epizodSioqtavi saerTod ar aris moxseniebuli. SesaZloa, Txrobis aseTi saxiTwarmarTva, erTi da imave movlenis mniSvnelobisa da damajereblobisxazgasasmeladaa gamoyenebuli, miT ufro, rom neapolis Tavgadasavalsara ramdenime, aramed erTi homodiegesuri mTxrobeli hyavs. yovelSemTxvevaSi, neapolis Tavgadasavlisadmi mTxrobelis esoden didinteress, mkiTxvelic avtoris Canafiqris Tanaziari unda gaexada: racnervalisTvis da mTxrobelisTvisaa mniSvnelovani, mkiTxvelisTvis asevesaintereso unda gamxdariyo.Tu novelis moculobas gaviTvaliswinebT, Jerar de nervalisostatobiT movixiblebiT. erTiani siuJeturi qargis fonze, igisworxazovan Txrobas Tavs aridebs da gvTavazobs siuJets Tavisi,,SenakadebiT’’. aseTi konstruqcia ,,CarCoiani novelebisTvis’’ an intimuridRiurebisTvisaa damaxasiaTebeli: rodesac warsulSi momxdarimovlenis Txroba awmyo droSi retrospeqtuli komentariT perioduladwydeba. nervalis novelaSi _ ,,oqtavi ‘’, xan Txrobis momentis (1835, 1838,1843 wlebi), xanac erTi mTxrobelis mier neapolis Tavgadasavalissamjer TxrobiTa da am Tavgadasavlis gansxvavebul momentebzeyuradRebis gamaxvilebiT, droTa sxvadasxva Sre iSleba. nawarmoebiskompoziciuri elementebi isea gadanawilebuli, rom anaqronuli Txroba,erTi mxriv, movlenaTa qronologiur Tanmimdevrobas inarCunebs.calkeuli struqturuli elementi ki gansxvavebul siuJets sTavazobs


100mkiTxvels, romlebic erTmaneTTan mimarTebaSi xan analefsisis, xanacprolefsisis saxiT vlindeba.III. III. realuri da irealuri moTxrobaSi _ ,,orelia’’moTxrobaSi _ ,,orelia’’, rTulia realurisa da irealuriserTmaneTisgan gamijvna. saqme ara marto nawarmoebis Sinaarsis plans,aramed nawarmoebis arqiteqtonikasac exeba.imisTvis, rom visaubroT realursa da irealuris iurTierTobebze,unda ganvmartoT, Tu ras vgulisxmobT am cnebebSi. realurs vuwodebTlogikurad dasaSveb da fizikurad SesaZlebel movlenas, irealurs _fizikurad SeuZlebels an logikurad dauSvebels.kvlevis sirTules nawarmoebSi (,,orelia’’) xdomilobis, movlenebisTanamimdevrobis, maT Soris arsebuli mizez-Sedegobrivi kavSirisdadgenac warmoadgens.Mmovlenebi xSirad meordeba: erT TavSi dawyebuliambavi, romelic SeiZleba realur an irealur samyaroTa asaxvasemsaxurebodes, wydeba da Semdeg, nawarmoebis sxva nawilSi grZeldeba.xSirad mTxrobeli erT movlenas mravalmxriv warmogvidgens,ganurCevlad imisa, Tu romel samyaros, realursa Tu irealurs,ganekuTvneba igi. nervali ambis Txrobis gameorebis xerxs iyenebs(le mode répétitif), romelic xSirad figurirebs epistolaruli tipisnawarmoebebSi an Tanamedrove romanebSi, sadac Sexeduleba movlenaze,misgan momavali emocia Tavad movlenaze saintereso da mniSvnelovanixdeba. movleneTa gameoreba nervalis teqsts zRaparTanac akavSirebs:mcireodeni cvlilebebiT gameorebuli qmedebebi zRaprisTvisdamaxasiaTebel rekursiul struqturul elementad SeiZleba iyosaRqmuli.Cven ukve vimsjeleT nervalis nawarmoebebis ornamentulobisSesaxeb, Tumca nawarmoebebSi movlenaTa gameorebas sxva gamarTlebacSeiZleba moeZebnos: erTi da igive ambis mravaljer aRwera,damajereblobis efeqts qmnis. es gansakuTrebul mniSvnelobas iZens,radgan saubaria ambavze, romlis damajereblobac saTuoa.


101Jerer de nervalis moTxrobaSi _ ,,orelia’’, realurisa dairealuris dapirispireba nawarmoebis pirveli nawilis II Tavidan iwyeba.pirveli nawilis I da II Tavebis fiqcionalur samyaroSi protagonistis(aqtioris) realuri cxovrebis amsaxveli epizodebis xvedriTi wilimetia, vidre irealuri samyaros aRweris.Cven SevecadeT realuri da irealuri epizodebi sqemis saxiTdagvelagebina. es realurisa da irealuri samyaroebis gamijvnis daxdomilobis gamovlenis survilma ganapiroba (simciris miuxedavad,natariuli teqsti movleneTa minimalur raodenobaze maincaa agebuli).pirveli Tavis siuJeti Semdegnairad gamoiyureba:sqema #3I dReA. megobrebTanganSorebaB. gaseirnebaC. xilvaRIR.IRII dReA 1 . megobrebTanganSorebaB 1 . gaseirnebaC 1 . xilvaRIRIRD sizmarisqemaSi laTinuri asobiT (A, B, C, D, A 1, B 1, C 1 ) I TavSi momxdarimovlenebia aRniSnuli. laTinuri asoebiT _ R da IR _ realur (R) dairealurs (IR) avRniSnavT.rogorc vxedavT, moqmedebebi, romlis Sesaxebac mTxrobelimogviTxrobs, oTx ZiriTad punqtamde SeiZleba daviyvanoT. amSemTxvevaSi, pirveli da meore dRis movlenebi, romlebic logikuradarian erTmaneTTan dakavSirebulni, D punqtiT _ ,,sizmari’’ _gansxvavdeba.nawarmoebis pirveli nawilis II Tavamde, romelic inkipitsa daramdenime gverds moicavs, realuri da irealuri samyaro erTmaneTisgan


102jer isev mkveTrad aris gamijnuli. inkipiti sruli saxiT ariswarmodgenili: masSi miTiTebulia protagonisti (topos de l’inconnu),mosayoli ambis savaraudo dro (topos du nouveau) da sivrcec (topos dudévoilement (Jouve 1997: 21)). teqstis am monakveTSi, movlenebisTanamimdevrobac da mizez-Sedegobrivi kavSiricaa daculi: satrfosuaris Semdeg mTxrobeli parizidan miemgzavreba (moTxrobis inkipitinovelis _ ,,oqtavi’’, dasawyisis msgavsia – n.q.). sxva qveyanaSi Casulsmeore qali xiblavs da es-esaa satrfos daviwyebas iwyebs, rom,moulodnelad, orive qals erT nadimze xvdeba. mTxrobeli sasiyvaruloproblemis gadaWras Tavs aridebs da parizSi brundeba. dardisgaqarvebas verc megobrebis wreSi axerxebs. mTxrobeli maT Sordeba,Semdeg saseirnod midis, amas ki _ xilva mohyveba.pirvel dRes, movlenebs Soris mizez-Sedegobrivi kavSiri ikveTebada es rogorc realurs, aseve irealur epizodebs exeba. igive SeiZlebaiTqvas meore dReze. ori dRis ganmavlobaSi, erTmaneTis msgavsimovlenebis gameoreba alogikurad gamoiyureba. iseTi STabeWdilebarCeba, rom nervali wris Sekvras cdilobs: erTi mxriv, amiT ammovlenebis mimarT mkiTxvelis yuradRebis mipyroba surs, meore mxriv,imas usvams xazs, rac pirvel da meore dReebs erTmaneTisganganasxvavebs: am SemTxvevaSi _ sizmars (sqema #3). isic SeiZlebavivaraudoT, rom nervali rekursiuli elementebis arsebobiT Tavisqmnilebas, gamiznulad, zRapars amsgavsebs.nawarmoebis Sinaarsidan gamomdinare, moTxrobis meore Tavidanmoyolebuli, rasac mis danarCen nawilSi vkiTxulobT, halucinaciebad,sizmrebad da zmanebebad unda aRviqvaT. amis Sesaxebac nervali Tavadsaubrobs pirveli nawilis II Tavis dasawyisSi (Nerval 1984:7), Tumcanawarmoebis II nawilSic aris realobis amsaxveli epizodebi, anufigurirebs fizikurad SesaZlebeli da logikurad dasaSvebimovlenebis garkveuli raodenoba: mamasTan, poetTan, megobarTanvizitebi, eklesiaSi wasvla . . . maTi rekonstruireba aluziebis,avtoaluziebis, mwerlis biografiis saSualebiT xdeba SesaZlebeli.nervalis azriT, xiluls da uxilav samyaros erTmaneTisgan spilosZvlis karebi gamohyofs: ,,TrTolvis gareSe ver SevaRe uxilavi


103samyaros spilos Zvlis karebi’’ (,,Je n’ai pu percer sans frémir ces portes d’ivoire oude corne qui nous séparent du monde invisible’’(Nerval 1985 :3)). sqemaSi #3@miTiTebuli movlenebis, realuridan irealur samyaroSi mTxrobelisgadasvlis gansakuTrebuli niSnebi ar aris aRniSnuli, TumcamoTxrobaSi, realuris irealuri samyaroTi Canacvleba, transgresiisniSaniT aris gamoxatuli, romelic SeiZleba erTi an ramdenime iyos.moTxrobaSi _ ,,orelia’’, nervali or paralelur samyarosTanaarsebobas asaxvas, romelTa Soris arsebobs zRvari da igigadalaxvas saWiroebs. transgresia SesaZlebelsa da SeuZlebels SoriszRvris gadalaxvas gulisxmobs (m. fuko). am fenomenma gansakuTrebulimniSvneloba postmodernistul filosofiaSi moipova (m. fuko, J.deliozi, f. gvatari, m. blanSo). transgresia postmodernistulimxatvruli azrovnebis aRqmis erTgvar gasaRebs warmoadgens (Bataille,Encylophédie philosophique, on-lain dok).transgresiis koncefciis mixedviT, arsebobs yofierebis oriSesaZlebeli ganzomileba (dasaSvebi SesaZlebeli da dasaSvebiSeuZlebeli) da aseve ori Sesabamisi faseulobaTa sistema, romelicTaviseburad xsnis aqtualuris da SesaZlebelis cnebas. adamianisgarSemo arsebuli empiriuli samyaro pirovnebas dasaSvebiSesaZleblobis tyveobaSi aqcevs, mis mier axlis Secnobis saSualebaszRudavs, SeuZlebels xdis, magram transgresiis saSualebiT dasaSvebiSesaZleblobis sazRvari irRveva.m. fukos azriT, transgresiis postmodernistuli koncefciaevoluciis procesis siRrmiseul, magram arasworxazovan meqanizmswarmoadgens (fuko 2004:75).Ftransgresiis fenomenis sawyisebi adreulSua saukuneebSi, barokos epoqasa Tu modernizmSi unda veZioT, anu igiyvela im mxatvrul-esTetikuri sistemisTvis aris damaxasiaTebeli,romelsac Semoqmedebisadmi romantikuli midgoma axasiaTebs. aseTisistemebis konceftualuri modeli efuZneba binarul opozicias _dasaSvebi SesaZlebeli da dauSvebeli SesaZlebeli. realisturi tipismxatvruli sistemebi (antikuri epoqa, ganmanaTlebloba, realizmi)samyaros da adamianis arsis Sesaxeb koncefciis Camoyalibebisas


104xelmZRvaneloben antiTeziT: dasaSvebi SesaZlbeli da dasaSvebiSeuZlebeli, romelic transgresiis SesaZleblobas gamoricxavs.Semoqmedebis romantikuli tipis mxatvruli sistemebis jaWviwarmoaCens transgresiis fenomens, mis evolucias (misi elementebisevolucias), Sua saukuneebis epoqis misticizmidan dawyebulipostmodernizmiT damTavrebuli. am evoluciaSi dominants warmoadgensromantizmis` da modernizmis epoqebis xelovneba, romelic romantikulmiTologiur tradicias efuZneba da simbolisturi miToSemoqmedebiswarmmarTvelia.swored dauSvebeli SesaZlebelis gadalaxvas cdilobs nervalismoTxrobis _ ,,orelia’’ _ protagonisti. amiT aixsneba nawarmoebisornamentuli xasiaTi da mentaluri movlenebis siuxvec. realurisa dairealuris dapirispirebidan gamomdinare, nawarmoebis nawilebad daTavebad dayofac pirobiTia, radgan moTxrobis _ ,,orelia’’, I da II Taviswignis danarCeni nawilisgan gamijvnulia transgresiiT _ akrZalulisazRvris gadalaxvis surviliT. sxva sakiTxia, ramdenad xorcieldebatransgresia: is rac literaturuli nawamoebis fiqcionalur samyaroSiaSesaZlebeli, dauSvebelia empiriul samyaroSi, amitomaa nervalismoTxroba _,,orelia’’, ocnebac da transgresiac.pirvel dRes, realur samyaros _ gaseirneba _ mkiTxveliprotagonisTan erTad mas Semdeg ,,tovebs’’, rac mTxrobeli, parizisquCaSi seirnobisas, saxlis nomers SeniSnavs. nomeri mis asaks emTxveva.saxli naratoris yuradRebas imiTac miiqcevs, rom mis gverdiTganaTebuli lampionia. saxlis nomeri, lampioni transgresiis niSanebia.mesame niSani, SeiZleba vTqvaT, transgresiis (ontologiuri samyarosgarRvevis) utyuari niSani, es Tvalebis daxraa. Tvalebis daxra sxvasamyaroSi gadasvlis mauwyebelia: ,,Tvalebi davxare Tu ara, CemsTvalwin qali davinaxe, romelic orelias magonebda. sakuTar Tavsgamovutydi: es Cemi an misi sikvdili meuwya-meTqi’’ (,,En baissant mes yeux, jevis devant moi une femme, qui me semblait avoir les traits d’Aurélia. Je me dis: ,,c’est sa mortou la mienne qui m’est annoncée ! ’’ (Nerval 1985 :8)). xilvebis meore dRes niSnebiicvleba. TuU pirvel SemTvevaSi, mauwyeblis rols saxlis nomeriTamaSobs, meore dRes, parizis gareubnis quCa (pirveli niSani) sami quCisgasayariT icvleba (,,Arrivé cependant au confluent de troi rues . . .’’-10), lampioni


105(,,Le numéro d’une maison éclairé par un réverbère’’ (Nerval 1985 : 8)) ki _ varskvlaviT(,,Je me miis à chercher dans le ciel une étoile’’ (Nerval 1985 : 9)).mwerali TiTqos mkiTxvelis dabnevas cdilobs, misi msjelobislogikis Secvlas; surs daafiqros igi da nawarmoebSi SemTxveviTobis,ucabedobis gancda Semoitanos, Tumca moTxrobis _ ,,orelia’’, avtorimkiTxvels bolomde ar ,,swiravs’’. c. todorovis azriT, sworedmkiTxvelis meryeoba _ irwmunos Tu uaryos avtoris mier asaxulisamyaros realuroba, fantastikuri Janris nawarmoebs danarCeniJanrebisgan gamoarCevs. fantastikuri Janris ramdenime qveJanrsgamoyofs, romlis saSualebiTac Janruli mravalferovnebisklasifikacias cdilobs. misi azriT, arsebobs uCveulo, uCveulofantastikuri,jadosnuri-fantastikuri da jadosnuri (Todorov 1970 :42).I. uCveulo saxis mxatvrul-literaturul teqstebSi, moTxrobilambavs SeiZleba racionaluri axsna moenaxos, Tumca SedegiSokismomgvrelia (ed. alan pos ,,eSerTa saxlis dacema’’);II. uCveulo-fantastikuri saxis mxatvrul-literaturuliteqstisTvis mkiTxvelis moTxrobili movlenebis realurobisiluziis qveS yofnaa damaxasiaTebelia. saboloo jamSi, ambisdasasruli racionalur axsnas eqvemdebareba (ian potockis,,saragosaSi napovni xelnaweri’’);III. jadosnur-fantastikuri mxatvrul-literaturuliteqstebisTvis moTxrobili movlenebis racionaluri axsna araris damaxasiaTebeli. aseTi saxis teqstebis analizisas,mkiTxveli zebunebrivi Zalebis moqmedebaSi rwmundeba(,,teofil goties ,,Seyvarebuli micvalebuli qali’’);IV. jadosnuri saxis mxatvrul-literaturuli teqtebimovlenebisTvis racionaluri axsnis moZebnas aRar saWiroebs:maT jadosnurobaSi eWvi arc nawarmoebis gmirebs da arcimplicitur mkiTxvels ar eparebaT.nervalis mcdeloba ki imiskenaa mimarTuli, rom mkiTxveli TavissimarTleSi, Tavisi mosazrebis WeSmaritebaSi daarwmunos. winaaRmdegSemTxvevSi, misi (mwerlis, personaJis, mTxrobelis) piradi gamocdilebaRirebuli ver iqneba, subieqturi gancdis gaziareba ar moxedxdeba daambavic da movlenac mniSvnelobas dakargavs. zmoxsenebuli


106klasifikaciidan gamomdinare, nervalis moTxroba _ ,,orelia’’,fantastikuri Janris momijnave Janrs _ jadosnur-fantastikurs undamivaweroT; magram, Tu gaviTvaliswinebT imas, rom nervalis nawarmoebSirealuri da irealuri samyaroebi erTmaneTTan ar aris dapirispirebuli,aramed erT mTlianobas qmnis, moTxrobaSi aRwerili movlenebilogikurad ki ar unda avxsnad da, gancvifrebis miuxedavad, mTxrobeliskvaldakval, maTi damajereblobac virwmunoT, aramed TavidanvevaRiaroT moTxrobili ambis sarwmunoeba.jadosnuri elementebis, faruli Tu gancxadebuli niSnebis siuxvegansakuTrebiT amZafrebs movlenaTa msvlelobas da mkiTxvelsdaZabulobaSi amyofebs. jadosnuri, siuJetis zebunebrivi movlenebismravalferovnebasTan erTad, kiTxvis procesi ufro da ufro rTuldeba:erTsa da imave elements, realuri iqneba es Tu irealuri, nervalimartividan rTulisken anviTarebs. ferkmTali qalis aCrdilis xilva(I dRe _ C, sqema # 3), romelic mTxrobels satrfos agonebs, mkiTxvelisgakvirvebas naklebad iwvevs, vidre, jer Tanmxlebi megobris, Semdeg ki _Tavad mTxrobelis metamorfoza (II dRe _ C 1 , sqema # 3). megobrebismitoveba da parizis quCebSi marto gaseirneba naklebad metyveli damniSvnelovania (I dRe _A), vidre erT-erT maTganTan _ polTan, erTadgaseirneba (IIdRe _A 1 ). swored polTan yofnis dros, mTxrobels aramarto xilva ewveva, aramed Tavad ganicdis metamorfozas. mTxrobelismartoobaSi orelias xilva mkiTxvelisTvis nakleb damajerebladJRers. megobris _ polis, mTxrobelTan erTad yofna yovelive momxdarseWvis qveS aRar ayenebs. Sesabamisad, simetriuli konstruqciis pirobebSi(xilva/gamocxadeba _ C da xilva/metamorfoza _ C 1).), meore monaTxrobiufro damajereblad gamoiyureba. es faqtic, nervalis mxatvrulliteraturulteqstSi, erTi da igive movlenis gameorebismizanSewonilobas amarTlebs.moTxrobis or samyaroSi, realursa da irealurSi, personaJisgadaadgilebaa saintereso: Tu rogor viTardeba siuJeturi qargarealurs da irealur samyaroebSi movlenebis gadanawilebis fonze. amor samyaros Soris sazRvrebis garRveva transgresiuli xasiaTisaa.moTxrobaSi _ ,,orelia’’, transgresiis niSnebi erTmaneTs ar emTxveva da


107simbolur datvirTvas iZens: erTgan _ oTaxSi Sesvla, sxva samyaroSiaRmoCena, waqceva. nawarmoebis dasawyisSi (I da II Tavi), erTi niSani sxvaniSniT ise icvleba, rom maTi mimsgavseba, saerTo TvisebiT erTmaneTTandakavSireba xdeba SesaZlebeli, Tanac meore dRis niSnebi Tvisobrivadufro rTuli da mravlismTqmelia iseve, rogorc Tavad meore movlena.Tu pirvel dRes, parizis quCa mkiTxvelSi gansakuTrebul grZnobas ariwvevs, meore dRes, am niSnis ,,sami quCis gasayariT’’ Secla mTrobels(da masTan erTad mkiTxvels) arCevanis gancdas uqmnis (Nerval 1985 : 10).anaznad gvagondeba Zveli, jadosnuri zRaprebi da gzis gasayarTanmdgari zRapris personaJi.analogiuria danarCeni niSnebis _ lampionisa da varskvlavis _urTierTkavSiric: Tu lampioni miwier cxovrebas, yofiTobas,ontologiur realobas ukavSirdeba, varskvlavi _ yovelive zeciurs,miuwvdomels da idumals, Tumca orives _ lamparsa da varsvlavsac,saerTo Tviseba aerTianebs _ Suqi, romelic gansakuTrebulmniSvnelobas da datvirTvas iZens nervalis moTxrobaSi _ ,,orelia’’.varskvlavi, mze, mTvare, Suqi, lampioni, sanTeli _ es saganTa isjaWvia, romlebsac saerTo sema akavSirebs da mwerlis saTqmelssimbolurad gamoxatavs: realuri samyarodan irealurSi gadasvla,samyaroSi, romlisken mnaTobi, lampioni an Suqi miuTiTebs, ukeTesimomavlis, bednierebis mopovebis iluzias qmnis. simboloshermenevtikuli potenciali teqstis aRqmis, avtoriseuli Canafiqris damkiTxvelis adekvaturi an originaluri interpretaciis meqanizmswarmoadgens. igi esTetikis universaluri kategoriaa. rogorcs. averincevi werda, simbolos arsis wvdoma, misi mniSvnelobis axsnamartooden gonebis saSualebiT SeuZlebelia. simbolo unda gaiTaviso,Seisisxlxorco (Аверинцев ,,Cимвол’’). simbolos semantikuri struqturaaRmqmelisgan did Zalisxmevas moiTxovs.erTdaderTi niSani, romliTac realurisa da irealuris gamijvnaSeiZleba _ mzea. nervalis moTxrobis _ ,,orelia’’, mTxrobeli irwmuneba,rom sizmarSi mzes veravin xedavs: ,,yvelam icis, rom sizmarSi mze armzeobs’’ (,,Chacun sait que dans les rêves on ne voit jamais le soleil’’ (Nerval 1985 :28)).kacobriobis istoriis manZilze, mze ganixileboda rogorc RvTaebriviarsis mqone ciuri sxeuli. Zvel romSi nebismier sakanonmdeblo aqts


108mzis dros iRebdnen. wertiliani wre mzis simbolikas odiTganvegamoxatavda. Zveli berZnebis warmodgeniT, mze zevsis Tvali iyo (TvalimnaTobi).Zvel egviptelebs hyavdaT amomavali mzis RmerTi herpi, daCamavali mzis RmerTi tumi, romelic gvelis saxiT gamoisaxeboda.neoliTis epoqaSi mze qalur sawyiss ukavSirdeboda. ikveTebaasociaciaTa jaWvi: mze _> cexli _> qimerebi _ cecxlis qaliSvilebi,rac nervalis SemoqmedebisTvis mnaTobis miTologemis mniSvnelobasusvams xazs. evropuli tradiciis mixedviT, mze kvirasTan asocirdeba.sayuradReboa, rom nervalis moTxrobaSi _ ,,orelia’’, (meore nawili)moqmedeba kviras xdeba. imas Tu gaviTvaliswinebT, rom nawarmoebSikviris sxva romelime dRe saerTod ar figurirebs, SeiZleba davaskvnaTra did mniSvnelobas iZens kvira da misi simbolika, Sesabamisad _ mzec,nawarmoebis interpretaciis, teqstis da misi calkeuli epizodebisrekonstruirebis, misi konkretizacia-aqtualizaciis procesSi.mwerlis sityebidan gamomdinare, mze, Suqi realuri cxovrebisatributia. mze uZvelesi astraluri simboloa, romelsac yovelTvisTayvans scemdnen, magram nervalis nawarmoebSi (,,orelia’’), mze rogorcsizmarSi aseve xcadSi figurirebs. es kidev erTi utyuari miniSnebaa,rom realuri da irealuri nervalis teqstSi erTmaneTisgan gamijnuliar aris. yvelaferi, rasac mTxrobeli yveba, erTian, warmosaxviTsamyaroSi xdeba: sizmaric, zmanebac, realuri cxovrebis epizodebic.sizmarSi nebismieri sagani RvTaebrivi SuqiT aris gasxivosnebuli:,,sagnebi da sxeulebi sakuTari SuqiT iyvnen gasxivosnebulni’’ (,,Les objetset les corps sont lumineux par eux-mêmes’’( Nerval 1985 : 28)). erT-erT sizmarSi,rodesac mTxrobels sami mrTveli esizmreba, dRe samjer metadbrwyinavs, vidre Cveulebrivi, bunebrivi dRe (,,Un jour trois fois plus brillant quele jour naturel’’(Nerval 1985 :27)). es epizodi apokalifsisis erT frazasexmianeba: ,,naTeli bnelSi naTobs’’ (biblia 1989: 1197/1:5). erT-erTizmanebis dros, romelic VIII TavSia aRwerili, planetas naTeli efineba,rodesac sabolood, uTvalavi gardasaxvis Semdeg, masze harmoniamkvidrdeba: ,,uecrad, saocarma harmoniam daisadgura . . planetac nelnelaganaTda’’ (,,Tout à coup une singulière Harmonie résona dans notre solitude . . .laplanète s’éclairait peu à peu’’(Nerval 1985 : 33)).


109mzis miTologema moTxrobaSi _ ,,orelia’’, ganaxlebis simboloa:iseve rogorc cecxli, mze ganaxlebis mauwyebelicaa. xilvebSimTxrobeli axali mzis sxivebqveS momuSave noes vaJebs xedavs: masSemdeg, rac noes kidobani aRTqmuli miwis napirs miadga, warRvnasgadarCenil samyaros RmerTisgan axali mze eboZa: ,,noes vaJiSvilebiaxali mzis sxivebqveS dauRalavad Sromobdnen’’. (,,Les fils de Noé travaillaientpéniblement aux rayons d’un soleil nouveau’’( Nerval 1985 : 37)). es epizodic nervalismoTxrobis fiqcionaluri samyaros irealuri movlenebis nawilSi xdeba.nawarmoebis meore nawilSi (IV Tavi), mTxrobels, parizSi seirnobisdros, warRvnis suraTi warmoudgeba: mze Savdeba, tuilris baRebs Tavzesisxlis sfero dahyurebs: ,,tiulris baRebs Tavze dahyurebda Savi mzeda sisxlis sfero’’ (,,Je croyais voir un soleil noir dans le ciel et un globe rouge de sangau-dessus des Tuileries’’(Nerval 1985 : 70)). protagonists eCveneba, rom yvelaferipirvandel qaoss daubrunda. am epizodSi mze saerTod ar Cans: misnaclad, caze mosalodneli wyvdiadis mauwuebeli sisxlis sferoaCamokidebuli: ,,usasrulo Rame dadgeba. igi sazareli iqneba. netav ramoxdeba, adamianebi mzis gaqrobas rom SeamCneven ?’’ (,,La nuit éternellecommence, et elle va être terrible. Que va-t-il arriver quand les hommes s’aperecevront qu’iln’y a plus de soleil ?’’ (Nerval 1985 :70)).nawarmoebSi mze, mzis Suqi, mzis amosvla ganaxlebis, sicocxlissimboloa, mzis Casvla ki _ dacemisa da sikvdils mauwyebeli. moTxrobis_ ,,orelia’’, IX TavSi, mTxrobeli bavSvobis wlebs igonebs da mkiTxvelsim mxaris (luazi) monaxulebis Sesaxeb mouTxrobs. mzis Casvlis fonze,Tvalwarmtaci bunebis cqerisas, mTxrobeli waborZikdeba da daecema.katabasisis amsaxvel am epizodSi, mzis Casvla dacemis, sikvdilissimboloa. protagonisti iqve dasZens, rom daisis Jams sikvdilze didibedniereba mainc araferia: ,,bednierebis SegrZneba dameufla, rodesacvifiqre, rom aseT Jams movkvdebodi’’ (,,Je me sentais heureux de mourir ainssi, àcette heure . . ‘’( Nerval 1985 : 39)).Camavali mze aseve figurirebs nawarmoebis meore nawilis II TavSi. amSemTxvevaSi, Camavali mzis mSveniereba bavSvobis udardel cxovrebasTanasocirdeba: ,,patara qalaqSi, Cemi naTesavebis saxlSi, sadac Cemiaxalgazrdobis ramdenime bednieri dRe gavatare . . . xSirad davdiodi


110Camavali mzis sacqerlad’’ (,,Dans une petite ville où j’avais passé quelques joursheureux de ma jeunesse, chez les vieux parents . . . J’avais aimé souvent à y venir voir coucherle soleil’’ (Nerval 1985 : 57)). mze saavadmyofos gisosebian sarkmelSic aRwevs:,,Camavali mzis sxivebis aTinaTi moxatul kedels anaTebda’’ (,,Sur le mur,situé au couchant étaient tracées des figures . ..’’ – (Nerval 1985 : 77)). mze moxatulkedels anaTebs, rac mkurnalobiTa da Tavisi sneulebiT gaTangulprotagonists imeds usaxavs.mzis amosvla esTetikuri siamovnebis momgvrelicaa. mTxrobeliklinikaSi gatarebuli dReebis, ori Tvis mkurnalobis arasasiamovnoprocesis daviwyebas cdilobs da parizSi gaseirnebebs mihyofs xels:,,parizis garSemo momlocvelobas mivhyavi xeli’’ (,,Je repris mes pélégrinageautour de Paris’’ (Nerval 1985 :71)). protagonisti monmartrze xSirad dadis,rom aisis cqeriT datkbes. mzis amosvlasTan erTad, igi axalicxovrebis dawyebas imedovnebs: ,,RamiT monmartris maRlobze saseirnodda amomavali mzis sacqerlad mivdiodi’’ (,,J’allais me promener toute la nuit sur lacolline de Montmartre et y voir le lever du soleil’’(Nerval 1985 :72)). Sesabamisad,nervalis nawarmoebSi, mze imedis simbolocaa. kidev erTi epizodi igivesdasamtkiceblad gamodgeba. moTxrobis _ ,,orelia’’, meore nawilis VTavSi, botanikuri baRisa da osteologiuri galereis monaxulebisdros, mTxrobels mosalodneli warRvnis SegrZneba daeufleba.sasowarkveTili, igi uamravi qalisa da bavSvis daRupvis SesaZleblobamSeaZrwuna da SiSma Seipyro. sakuTari ususurobiT mTxrobeli kidevufro metad itanjeba, radgan safrTxis Sesaxeb maT gafrTxilebas veraswrebs, magram uecrad naTdeba da mTxrobels imedi isev Caesaxeba:,,rogorc ki Weqa-quxili Sewyda, mzis sxivma naTeba daiwyo da Cems sulsimedi daubrunda’’ (,,Vers le même orage s’apaisa, et un rayon du soleil commença àbriller. L’espoir rentra dans mon âme’’ (Nerval 1985 :73)).ciuri sxeulis saxiT mze nawarmoebis meore nawilis VI TavSiawarmodgenili. tusaRebi, (mTxrobeli ase moixseniebs klinikis mkvidrT)baRSi seirnoben. maT ciuri sxeulebze magiuri zegavlena aqvT. baRSiwriuli moZraobiT isini varskvlavebis traeqtorias imeoreben da mzismoZraobas awesrigeben: ,,am baRSi Tavmoyrili adamianebi ciurisxeulebis moZraobas ganagebdnen . . . is ki, vinc wreSi uwyvetad


111trialebda, Tavad mzis moZraobas awesrigebda’’ (,,Les personnes réunies dans cejardin avaient quelque influence sur des astres . . . celui qui tournait sans cesse dans le mêmecercle y réglait la marche du soleil’’( Nerval 1985 :77)).zogjer, mwerali mzes yvavils adarebs da xazs usmavs mis formas,magaliTad: samyaros gardaqmnisa da metamorfozis aRweris dros,nervali evoluciis erT moments ukavSirebs mzes, romelic mcenareshgavs. am epizodSi mze sicocxlis wyaroa: ,,yvavilis msgavsi mze . . .dedamiwaze mcenareebisa da cxovelebis nayofier Canasaxs yrida’’ (Lesoleil pareil à la plante . . .de sa tête inclinée suit la révolution de sa marche céleste, semait surla terre les germes féconds des plantes et des animaux’’ (Nerval 1985 :53)). SeiZlebavivaraudoT, rom romantikosebis simbolo _ cisferi yvavili, nervalisnawarmoebSi mnaTobad transformirdeba. ,,RmerTi mzea’’ –bavSvobaSigamzrdelma biZam ase upasuxa patara bavSvis gulubryvilo SekiTxvas _,,ra aris RmerTi’’M (,,Dieu, c’est le soleil’’). am frazaSi qristianobamdeliepoqis mimarT nervalis didi interesi igrZnoba, rac exmianeba samyarosusasrulobis uZveles ideas, romlis simbolur gamoxatulebas mzisdiskos wriuli forma warmoadgens.Cveulebriv, saxecvala, metamorfoza fantastikuri nawarmoebisSemadgeneli elementia. nervalis personaJi mogvad gardaisaxeba (C 1_ sqema # 3),@ rac amZafrebs asociaciur jaWvs _ varskvlavi mogvi.es ki mkiTxvelSi bibliur reminiscenciebs iwvevs, rac nervalisnawarmoebis interpretaciis kidev erT saSualebas iZleva. TavadmTxrobeli qristesTan asocirdeba, rac kibidan Camovardnis (katabasisismiTologema, jojoxeTSi STasvlis metafora) epizodiTac mtkicdeba(Nerval 1985:65).rogorc vxedavT, Jerer de nervalis moTxroba _ ,,orelia’’, rogorcTavisi SinaarsiT, aseve formiTacaa saintereso. nawarmoebSi realuri dairealuri samyaroebia asaxuli. fiqcionaluri samyaro homogenuria, racrealurisa da irealuris dapirispirebiT ki ara, aramed _urTierTCanaclebiTa da monacvleobiT dasturdeba da irealur darealur epizidebSi asaxuli movlenebis msgavsebaSi vlindeba (sqema # 3).realuri samyarodan irealurSi gadasvlas (transgresia) Tavisi niSnebiaxlavs, romelic simbolur datvirTvas iZenen. rogorc sqemidan Cans,


112pirveli da meore dRis movlenebi -_ realurica da irealuric, erTfunqcias asrulebs da saerTo mizans emsaxureba: mkiTxvelis yuradRebasizmarze gaamaxvilos da imazec, rac sizmarSia moTxrobili.sqemaSi # 3 miTiTebuli movlenebi ori dRis moqmedebas asaxavs.orive dRes moqmedeba dRis miwuruls xdeba: ,,erT saRamos, SuaRamisken...’’(C) (,,Un soir vers minuit...’’(Nerval 1985 :7)), da (C 1 ) ,,saRamos, rodesacsabediswero Jami dgeboda... ’’ (,,Le soir, lorsque l’heure fatale semblait s’approcher...’’Nerval 1985 :9)). orive movlena irealur epizods gvixatavs, Tumca nervali,rac ar unda gasakviri iyos, topografiul qronotops gvizustebs:moqmedeba saRamos da, orive SemTxvevaSi, parizSi xdeba. dazustebulitopografiuli qronotopi gansakuTrebul datviTvas ar iZens: sizmars,romelic I dRis xilvis Semdeg naxa mTxrobelma, Zilis bunebrivmovlenasTan aris dakavSirebuli, Sesabamisad, Rames ukavSirdeba daTavis mniSvnelobas, rogorc zebunebrivi movlena, hkargavs. igimauwyebelad, dasaSvebi SeuZlebelis zRurblis gadalaxvad ar aRiqmeba.SeiZleba iTqvas, rom nervali, adamianuri cxovrebis Cveul ritmTanSesabamisobaSi, movlenebis ganviTarebis logikis SenarCunebas cdilobs.es kidev erTxel amtkicebs im faqts, rom nervalis moTxroba (,,orelia’’)jadosnuris magaliTia (c. todorovi).nawarmoebis I nawilis I da II Tavi SeiZleba ganvixilod, rogorcrealuri Tavgadasavali (satrfos uari, mogzauroba da sxva qaliTgataceba, ori qalis Sexvedra, parizSi dabruneba, megobrebTan Sexvedra,parizis quCaSi xetiali, cudad gaxdoma da mTxrobelis saavadmofoSimoTavseba). rac amis Semdeg xdeba, scildeba realuri droisa dasivrcis CarCoebs, radgan nebismieri, Tundac momxdari realuri faqti(Tavad mwerlis cxovrebaSi momxdari da nawarmoebSi gadmotanili),irealuris statuss iZens. ar unda daviviwyoT, rom ambavs araTavisufali, janmrTeli adamiani gviambobs, aramed saavadmyofos oTxkedelSi gamomwyvdeuli, fsiqiatriuli klinikis pacienti. amas TavadmTxrobeli aRiarebs: ,,Sevecdebi, im xangrZlivi avadmyofobis SesaxebCemi SegrZnebebi gadmovce, romelic Cems sulSi iyo miCqmaluli’’ (,,Jevais essayer de transcrire les impressions d’une longue maladie qui s’est passée tout entièredans les mystères de mon esprit’’ (Nerval 1985 :4)). igi Tavis avadmyofobas ki


113aRiarebs, magram imasac dasZens, rom ase kargad Tavi arasdros ugrZnia(,,Je ne me suis senti mieux portant’’(Nerval 1985 :4)). swored am gaorebaSi undaveZioT nervalis nawarmoebebis hierofania (Eliade 1974 : 5).sqemaSi (# 3) warmodgenili yvela etapi simbolur xasiaTs atarebs.pirvel dRes, qalis ferkmTali aCrdilis gamoCena mTxrobelsafiqrebinebs, rom misi an misi satrfos sikvdili gamoecxada (,,C’est samort ou la mienne qui m’est annoncé (Nerval 1985 :8)). meore dRes, jer mTxrobelismegobris mogvad gardasaxva da Tavad mTxrobelis metamorfozasatrfosTan dakavSirebis niSnad aRiqmeba: ,,neba momeci maT SevuerTde,(serafimebs-n.q.), radgan is vinc miyvarda, axla maT Soris aris’’ (,,Laissemoiles rejoindre, car celle que j’aime leur appartient, et c’est là que nous devons nousretrouver!’’Nerval1985 :10)). miuxedavad imisa, rom II Tavidan moyolebuli,saavadmyofoSi moxvedridan dawyebuli, realuri da irealuri,nawarmoebis danarCen nawilSi warmodgenili movlenebisgan Tvisobrivadgansxvavdeba (frTosani angelozis xilvis Semdeg, mkiTxveli movlenaTadamajereblobaSi unda daeWvdes), orive SemTxvevaSi, rogorc I da IInawilSi, figurirebs realuri, sizmari, ocneba, xilva, zmaneba dahalucinacia; oRond, pirvel SemTxvevaSi, realuri mogonebaa, meoreSi _warmosaxvis nawili. mogoneba warsulis atributia, magram realurmovlenebs asaxavs (realurs fiqcionalur samyaroSi), sizmaris, ocnebis,xilvis, zmanebis da halucinaciebis dros, yoveli movlena awmyo droSixdeba (Txrobis momentis da movlenis Tanxvedris pirobebSi, rac scenismagaliTia da Sinagani monologiTaa gamoxatuli (monologue rapporté) (Jouve1997 : 32/36)).III TavSi, rodesac mTxrobeli sakaceze wevs, aRmosavleTis cismsgavsi ca ixsneba (,,les mystiques splandeurs du ciel d’Asie’’ (Nerval 1985 :13)) dauamravi wre Cans (,,D’immenses cercles se traçaient dans l’infinie’’ (Nerval 1985 :13)).nervali maT wyalSi Cavardnili sxeulis garSemo gaCenil wreebsadarebs (,,comme les orbes que forme l’eau troublée par la chute d’uncorps’’Nerval1985 :13)). e.i. cas igi wyals adarebs. ca da wyalisimetriulad asaxavs imas, rac xmeleTze xdeba, anu sarkis funqciasasrulebs. miwieris da zecieris dapirispireba movlenebis simetriuli


114ganlagebasa da moqmedebis simetriaSic aisaxeba. es kargad Cens qvemodmoyvanil sqemaSi:sqema # 4I tanisamosis gaxda / I. kaSnis yelze moxvevaII. xelebis gaSla (frena) / II. loginze wolaIII. mistikuli himni /III. yviriliteqstis am nawilSi protagonsti Zvel germanul tradiciasixsenebs, romlis mixedviT sikvdilis win adamians oreuli ecxadeba:,,germaniaSi, tradiciis mixedviT, Tvlian rom yvela adamians oreulihyavs . . rodesac mas dainaxav, sikvdilic maleve gewveva’’. (,,une tradition bienconnue en Allemagne, qui dit que chaque homme a un double . . lorsqu’il le voit, la mort estproche’’ ( Nerval 1985 :13)). nervali germaneli romantikosebis nawarmoebebzemianiSnebs. protagonisti gaorebulia, movlenebi ormag saxes iRebs,nebismieri moqmedeba ki asaxvas sapirispiro qmedebaSi hpovebs. sworedaseT gaorebas ukavSirebs c. todorovi nervalis moTxrobis (,,orelia’’)fantastikuri diskursis orazrovnebas (Todorov 1970 : 32).avadmyofi megobris monaxulebac mxatvruli alegoriaa (VI Tavi).mTxrobeli avadmyofSi sakuTar Tavs xedavs; avadmyofi misi anarekliasarkeSi. sarke samyaros, WeSmaritebis Secnobis simboloa. kosmogoniasada kosmologiaSi igi RvTaebriv, qalur sawyiss, wyals, mTvaresukavSirdeba sarkeSi mxolod saganTa zedapiri aisaxeba da ara sagnisarsi. sarke mTvares waagavs, romelic mzis Suqs aireklavs da sakuTariar gaaCnia. sarke, amavdroulad, universumis Secnobis simbolocaa. bevrieris warmodgeniT, sarke adamianis suls aireklavs da imqveyniurisamyaros karibWes warmoadgens. zogierTi tradiciis mixedviT, sarkisanarekls da mis obieqts Soris magiuri kavSiri arsebobs, amitom igisulebTan urTierTobis dasamyareblad gamoiyeneba. iudevelebTan,egviptesa da iaponur-budistur tradiciebSi sarkes gardacvlilisTavTan dgamdnen (metalisgan damzadebul sarkesac), ojaxi rom borotiZalebisgan daecvaT, radgan sarkeSi enegiis koncentrireba datransformireba xdeba. indielebis tradiciis mixedviT, sarkeWeSmaritebis simbolaa. Zvel CineTSi sarkes ukavSirdeba cifri _8, RvTaebrivi srulqmnilebis simbolo. Sua saukuneebis evropaSi


115sarke iyo fufunebis sagani da SemecnebisE simboloc. sarke RmerTissityvis gamoxatulebaa. ikonografiaSi igi mariam RvTismSobelTangamoisaxeba, rogorc siwmindis, qristes RvTaebrivi Suqis simbolo.mTvarisken mimarTuli sarkiT winaswarmetyvelebda Sua saukunisalqimikosi _ albert didi. igi yvelas Cveulebrivi sarkis yidvas damasze magiuri sityvebis daweras sTavazobda: ,,S.Solam S.TattlerS.Echogordner’’. amiT, yoveli Tavs ubedurebisgan daixsnida (Encyclopédie dessymbles 1996).movlenebis ormag axsnas, moTxrobis pirveli nawilis IV TavSicvxdebiT, sadac irealuri zmanebis saxiT aris warmodgenili. erTi mxriv,es aris realur mogonebebze dafuZnebuli bavSvobis mogonebebi,romelic Semdeg samyaros warmoqmnis suraTad gardaiqmneba. III TavSi,mkiTxvelma protagonisti klinikaSi, sawolze mwoliare datova. sawoliakavSirebs mTxrobels mis bavSvobasTan, im saxlTan sadac igi gaizarda.mas warmoudgenia, rom parizTan axlos, luazis mxareSi, montefontenSibiZis saxlSia da msaxuri _ margereti sawols ulagebs. nervalisnawarmoebSi saavadmyofos sawolidan biZis saxlis sawolamde _ erTinabijia: protagonistis warmosaxviT samyaroSi dro da sivrcecmniSvnelobas hkargavs. lamaz, mxiarul saxls (,,la maison riante’’), mwvanedarabebze ayolil usurvazs Camavali mzis sxivi anaTebs. satrfozemogonebebi mTxrobels aqac ar asvenebs. marTalia, orelia mas arecxadeba, magram mTxrobeli mis portrets xedavs. droSi mogzaurobissaSualebiT, mogoneba materializirdeba: mTxrobeli, saavadmyofoSi(rogorc sakanSi), igonebs bavSvobas (bednier dros), warsulSi kimomavals igonebs (orelias da portretze gamosaxuli qalis msgavseba).Tu nervalis nawarmoebi kvlevas warmoadgens, avtoris Ziebas,mkiTxvelic, mTxrobelis kvaldakval, nel-nela samyaros aRqmisurTules fsiqikur procesebs uRrmavdeba. teqstis aRqma SeuZlebelixdeba misi konkretuli, eqsplicituri avtoris _ Jerar de nervalis,biografiis codnis gareSe. metic, moTxrobis _ ,,orelia’’ _ teqstinervalis sxva nawarmoebebTan ideur-Tematurad aris dakavSirebuli,amitom, xSir SemTxvevaSi, mwerlis sxva nawarmoebi misi ukanaskneliqmnilebis gasaRebad gamoiyeneba. moTxrobaSi _ ,,orelia’’, uxvadaaavtoaluzia, rac nawarmoebis swori interpretaciis sawindaria. es


116ukanasknelic, Tavis mxriv, mwerlis sxva nawarmoebis sworiinterpretaciis saSualebaa.realuri da irealuri samyaroebis warmosaCenad, saWirod migvaCniaganvixilod moTxrobis _ ,,orelia’’, iseTi epizodebi, romelSic naTladgamoCndeba gansxvaveba realur da irealur samyaroebs Soris, da iseTic,rodesac maTi gansxvaveba da erTmaneTisgan gamijvna rTulia.rogorc zemoT avRniSneT, nervalis nawarmoebSi, realuri dairealuri samyaroebi ara imdenad movlenebiT, aramed erTi samyarodanmeoreSi gadasvlis, transgresiis niSnebiT arian mniSvnelovanni, magrames niSnebi vizualuri da smeniTicaa. moTxrobis erT-erT epizodSi,gons mosvlis, gaRviZebis, transidan gamosvlis win, mTxrobels yviriliafxizlebs. sizmarSi a. diureris cnobil graviuraze _ ,,melanqolia’’,gamosaxuli angelozis msgavsi dacemuli serafimis xilvis Semdeg,mTxrobeli sizmarSi yviris da mexdacemuliviT iRviZebs: ,,sazareliyvirili Camesma da umal gamomeRviZa’’ (,,Je ne pus m’empêcher des cris d’effroi, quime réveillèrent en sursaut’’(Nerval 1985 :9)).saxelosnos monaxulebis dros (X Tavi), protagonists qalisgamWoli kivili Caesmis da afxizlebs: ,,qalma sazarlad Sehkivla dawamovxti’’ (,,Le cri d’une femme, distinct et vibrant, empreint d’une douleur déchirante, meréveilla en sursaut !’’ (Nerval 1985 :47)). halucinaciebis dasrulebas, mTxrobeliserTi mdgomareobidan meoreSi gadasvlasac, smeniTi halucinaciebiaxlavs. pirveli nawilis VII TavSi, iluzoruli samyaros usasrulocvalebadobas primitiuli arsebebis yvirili, Rmuili da wioki ayovnebs(Nerval 1985 :33). protagonists orelias portrets molaparake Citiapovninebs. mTxrobels igive xmiT miwadmoqmedi esaubreba: ,,igi(miwadmoqmedi-n.q.) igive xmiT melaparakeboda, riTac _ Citi’’ (,,Je le reconnuspour le même qui m’avait parlé par la voix de l’oiseau’’(Nerval 1985 :17)). zmanebasa dahalucinaciebSi, orivegan figurirebs Citi. erTxel adamianis xmiTmolaparake saaTis gugulis saxiT (,,Sur cette horloge rustique un oiseau qui me mità parler comme une personne’’(Nerval 1985 :16)), meorejer, igive xmiTmiwadmoqmedi saubrobs. mTxrobeli askvnis, rom gardacvlili adamianebicxovelebis da frinvelebis sxeulSi agrZeleben sicocxles (Nerval1985 :17). amitom xdeba mniSvnelovani, mTxrobelis mier sizmarSi dedis


117portretis xilva: TiTqos, naxatis saSualebiT igi cocxldeba. nervalisSemoqmedeba miTosuri xasiaTisaa, amitom sakraluri azri SeiZlebanebismier, ,,profanul’’ saganSi iyos amokiTxuli, rasac mirCe eliadehierofanias uwodebs (Eliade 1972 : 43).mxatvruli TvalsazrisiT, realuris da irealuris Canacvlebisfonze, sizmars (D) didi mniSvneloba eniWeba da mis SemdegdaniSnulebaze metyvelebs:1) sruqturis TvalsazrisiT igi gamyofis rols asrulebs;2) avtori epizodebs imeorebs;3) mniSvnelovani irealuri movlena – sizmari xdeba;4) sizmris damajereblobas da momxdaris zebunebrivobas abaTilebsZilis bunebrivi procesi.Sesabamisad, movlenaTa simciris da maTi ciklurobis fonze,moTxrobili ambavi SeiZleba realurad momxdari movleniT daiwyos(realuri fiqcionalur samyaroSi) da irealuriT gagrZeldes(halucinaciebSi, sizmrebSi . . ). es kidev erTxel mianiSnebs, romnervalis nawarmoebSi asaxulia erTiani homogenuri warmosaxviTisamyaro, romelSic realuri da irealuri erTmaneTs ki ar emijneba,aramed – enacvleba. aseTi saxis homogenur warmosaxviT samyaroSi,nebismieri movlena mwerlis saTqmels simbolurad gamoxatavs.III. IV. qronotopis sakiTxisTvis moTxrobaSi _ ,,orelia’’mxatvrul nawarmoebSi moqmedeba drosa da sivrceSi viTardeba: masgaaCnia qronotopi. sabunebismetyvelo mecnierebaSi xmarebuli es termini(ainStainis ,,fardobiTobis Teoria’’), mxatvrul literaturasTan damxatvrul nawarmoebTan mimarTebaSi pirvelad m. baxtinma gamoiyena. misiazriT, qronotopi nawarmoebis Janrul kuTvnilebas gansazRvravs,radgan sxvadasxva JanrisTvis gansxvavebuli qronotopiadamaxasiaTebeli (М.Бахтин, 234-407). saTavgadasavlo romanebzemsjelobisas el. meletinski igive azrs anviTarebs (Мелетинский 1986:302).r. enuqiZe warmoadgens qronotops rogorc subieqtis, droisa da sivrcissamganzomilebian sistemas (subieqti + dro + sivrce). l. karanceva am


118sistemas kidev erT komponents umatebs _ ,,moqmedebis algoriTms’’(Леонтьева.on-lain dok.).tartus semiotikuri skolis warmomadgeneli _ p. toropi, epikurnawarmoebSi, kerZod romanSi, sami tipis qronotops ganasxvavebs:topografiuls, fsiqologiurs da metafizikurs (Баршт/Тороп.1983 :133).topografiuli qronotopi dakavSirebulia nawarmoebSi konkretuldrosa da sivrcesTan, romelic istoriul droisa da sivrces emTxveva.topografiuli qronotopi siuJetis ganviTarebas ukavSirdeba. xSiraderT nawarmoebSi ramdenime topografiuli qronotopia. meore tipisqronotopi – fsiqologiuria, igi personaJebis mier droisa da sivrcisaRqmis subieqturobis gamomxatvelia. mesame tipis qronotopia _metafizikuri. igi asaxuli movlenebis avtoriseul xedvas warmoaCens,nawarmoebis metaenas. Sesabamisad, moTxrobil samyaros topografiuliqronotopi Seesabameba, asaxul samyaros _ fsiqologiuri, avtorisas _metafizikuri.f. dostoevskis xelnawerebze muSaobisas k. barSti da p. toropiaskvnian, rom teqstis aRqma misi Seqmnis procesis codnas (masaliskodirebis procesi) da mis wakiTxvas, an interpretacias (masalisdekodirebis procesi) gulisxmobs (Баршт/Тороп.1983 :135). Sesabamisad,teqstis swori aRqma da misi gageba samive tipis qronotopis SeswavlassaWiroebs.Jerar de nervalis moTxrobaSi _ ,,orelia’’, xdeba mwerlispirovnuli gamocdilebis mxatvruli metamorfoza. topografiuliqronotopis gansazRvra mwerlis biografiaze dayrdnobiT anavtoaluziebis saSualebiT aris SesaZlebeli. fsiqologiuriqronotopis Seswavlis dros, erTmaneTisgan unda gaimijnosimplicituri da eqsplicituri avtori (teqstis avtobiografiulobidangamomdenare) da gaTvaliswinebuli unda iyos protagonistis gaoreba,gansakuTrebiT, realuri samyaros amsaxvel epizodebSi.Jerar de nervalis moTxroba _ ,,orelia’’, warmosaxviTi samyarosasaxvaa. qronotopi rogorc realur, aseve irealur samyaroebsaxasiaTebT (fiqcionalur samyaroSi). topografiuli qronotopi,romelic realur samyaros Tundac halucinaciebisa da xilvebisganunda ganasxvavebdes, sakmaod mwired aris warmodgenili. moTxrobaSi


119ramdenjerme aris dasaxelebuli dRis monakveTi (dRe, Rame, mzis Casvla,mzis amosvla). miTiTebulia weliwadis dro _ gazafxuli da Semodgoma.zogjer aRniSnulia konkretuli saaTi (,,oTx saaTze’’, ,,ori saaTisSemdeg’’, ,,erT TveSi’’, ,,ori Tvis ganmavlobaSi’’). dasaxelebuliaramdenime qalaqi: parizi, reimsi, parizis gareubani. konkretulepizodebSi, ganurCevlad imisa realur samyaros exeba es TuwarmosaxviTs, miTiTebulia adgili: saavadmyofo, saxli, mamis saxli,kazino, saxelosno, megobris saxli, saxli, romelSic bavSvobis wlebigaatara, sofeli, kafe, botanikuri baRi . . . zogjer, adgili, sadacmoqmedeba viTardeba saxes icvlis, erTi adgili meores enacvleba.nawarmoebSi iseTi samyaroc aris daxatuli, romelic mxolodwarmosaxvaSi arsebobs, Tumca isic transformirdeba, magaliTad Zvelisamyaro, romelSic sruli harmonia sufevda, Zveli rasebisadgilsamyofeli (Nerval 1985 : 56).zemoxsenebuli meoreDdRis epizodis Semdeg (sqema #3), nawarmoebSiasaxuli movlenebis interpretaciisas, maTi winaswarmetyveluridaniSnulebac mxedvelobaSi unda miviRod. 1855 wlis 26 ianvars, Satlesmaxloblad, parizis erT-erTi quCis CixSi, nervali lampionzeCamoxrCobili ipoves. es sazareli TviTmkvleloba ganTiadze, dRisumSvenieres Jams moxda. ganTiadi asociaciurad nervalis ukanasknelnawarmoebis saxelTan gvakavSirebs, romelsac orelia ewodeba,etimologiurad momdinareobs laTinuri sityvidan _ OR, da iTargmnebarogorc oqro. moTxrobaSi _ ,,orelia’’ nervalma Tavisi aRsasruliiwinaswarmetyvela. man parizis quCis boloSi, eulad mdgarilampionisken mimavali gza aRwera, Tavisi bolo miwieri gaseirneba:,,gareubans mivaSure (avedi-n.q.), sadac Cemi sacxovrisi meguleboda.avixede da, anaznad, lampioniT ganaTebuli saxlis nomeri SevamCnie’’(,,Je remontais un faubourg où se trouvait ma demeure, lorsques, levant les yeux par hasard, jeremarquai le numéro d’une maison éclairé par un réverbère’’(Nerval 1985 :8)). es epizodiimiTaa mniSvnelovani, rom SeiZleba igi winaswarmetyvelebad CavTvloT,nervalis mier pirovnuli miTis konstruirebis mcdelobad, romelicSlis zRvars realurs (empiriuli, faqtualuri samyaro) da irealurs(nawarmoebis ficionaluri samyaro) Soris. nawarmoebis am epizodSi,mwerlis mier xmarebuli gramatikuli dro _ dausrulebeli warsuli


120(l’imparfait), moqmedebis gameorebis STabeWdilebas tovebs da mkiTxvelssagonebelSi agdebs. igi xazs usvams nawarmoebis siubieqtur,avtobiografiul da piradul xasiaTs: nervalma Tavi CamoixrCo Zvelilampionis quCaze, im quCasTan axlos, sadac daibada. (La rue de la VielleLantèrne). quCis saxelwodebac (lantèrne - lampioni) mwerlis teqstTangvakavSirebs.saavadmyofoSi moxvedrili mTxrobelis monayoli (II Tavis bolo)mkiTxvelisTvis ukve iZens irealur xasiaTs, amitom realurica dairealuric sakuTriv realurisgan (dasaSvebi SesaZlebelisganfiqcionalur samyaroSi) imijneba principiT realuri / mogoneba,zmaneba da iZens dasaSvebi SeuZlebelis statuss, romelSic rogorcrealuri aseve irealuris elementebia gaerTianebuli (Todorov 1970 : 64).nawarmoebSi (,,orelia’’), realurisa da irealuris dapirispirebavlindeba Txrobis subieqturobaSi, konkretuli avtoris biografiuliepizodebis mxatvrul-literaturul teqstSi gadatanaSi, racmetafizikuri da fsiqologiuri qronotopebis Tanxvedras iwvevs.realuris da irealuri cxovrebis diqotomiis magaliTad SeiZlebaCaiTvalos xilvebisa da maTi mauwyebeli niSnebis urTierTkavSiri,magaliTad: FferkmTali qalis aCrdili, mTxrobels orelias romagonebs, ukavSirdeba konkretuli avtoris realur cxovrebas,realurad arsebul faqts: msaxiob Jeni kolonisadmi nervalissiyvaruls, romelic nawarmoebSi mTxrobelis oreliasadmi siyvarulSiaisaxa. mTxrobelis gauziarebeli siyvaruli sarwmuno xasiaTs iZens damasSi daeWvebis mizezi mkiTxvels aRar aqvs. am epizodSi xdebametafizikuri (avtoris qronotopi) da fsiqologiuri (personJis)qronotopebis Tanxvedra da, mwerlis biografiaze dayrdnobiT,topografiuli qronotopis aRdgena.msgavsi meqanizmi moTxobis _ ,,orelia’’, sxva nawilSic moqmedebs.nawarmoebis pirveli nawilis III TavSi, mTxrobeli gviyveba jariskacebismier misi dapatimrebis komikur ambavs: ,,iyo raRac komikuri imaSi Turogor zrunavdnen Cemze jariskacebi’’ (,,Il y avait quelque chose de comique dansle soin que je prenais de ménager les forces et la vie des soldats qui m’avaient recueilli’’(Nerval1985 :12)). SesaZloa, es cnobili movlenebis gamoZaxilia, romelsac


121adgili hqonda ernanis premieris Semdeg. 1829 wlis 30 seqtembers notrdamde-Sampis cnobil salonSi, romelsac ,,oqros SroSanis oTaxs’’uwodebdnen, 27 wlis viqtor hiugom Tavisi axali piesa _ ,,ernani’’waikiTxa. es saloni Zalian popularuli iyo da mas xSiradstumrobdnen: o. de balzaki, e. delakrua, a. de vinii, a. de miuse . . . 1830wlis 25 Tebervals, piesis premiera komedi-fransezSi Sedga. viqtorhiugos drama _ ,,ernani’’, madam de stalis xmamaRali gancxadebebisSemdeg, klasicizmisTvis kidev erTi seriozuli silis gawvna iyo.premieras axalgazrda frangi mwerlebic eswrebodnen, e.w. ,,axalgazrdasafrangeTi’’ (Jeunes-France) (Bénichou 1996 : 398), maT Soris, teofil gotie daJerar de nervali. isini klasicizmis dromoWmul esTetikas xmamaRlaaprotestebdnen (Bénichou 1996 :398). am movlenebis dros, nervalimegobrebTan erTad ramdenjerme daakaves. politikuri sarCeliT nervali1831 wels iqna dapatimrebuli (zogierTi monacemebiT, 1832 wlisTebervalSi). mwerali pruveres quCze mdebare wminda palagias cixeSiCasves (Jean1989 :25)Tavisi patimrobis Sesaxeb nervali ,,parizelis mogonebebSi’’mogviTxrobs, Tanac dasZens, rom es mogonebebi mas silvio pelikod veraqcevs (mogonebebi . .1999 :10). pelikom (1789-1854ww) cxra weli cixeSigaatara, sadac wigni _ ,,Cemi patimrobis ambavi’’ _ dawera (Pelico).nervali yveba, rom Tavadac ,,bevri jaWvi aCxriala’’ da ixila ,,rogoriWreboda gisosebSi dRis sinaTle’’ (,,mogonebani’’ 1999 :11). nervaliaWarbebs: igi dapatimrebuli ki iyo, magram sul mcire xniT; Tu missaavadmyofoSi yofnas (sazRvargareT mogzaurobebis miuxedavad)patimrobad miviCnevT, maSin mwerlis es fraza azrs moklebulinamdvilad ar iqneba.sapatimros Temam mwerali ise gaitaca, rom 1839 wels JurnalSi, ,,LaPresse’’, 17-18 seqtembris nomerSi, saTavgadasavlo moTxroba gamoaqveynasaxelwodebiT _ ,,raul spifamis, senior de granJis gasaocaribiografia’’. nawarmoebi, romelSic mefis oreulis ambavia moTxrobili,mkiTxvelma daafasa da igi, 1845 wels, xelaxla gamoica saTauriT –,,safrangeTis saukeTeso mefe’’. es nawarmoebi Cvens yuradRebassapatimros scenis aRweriT ipyrobs, romelic asociaciur jaWvs qmnis


122moTxrobis _ ,,orelia’’ (dapatimrebis da saavadmyofosurTierTCanacvlebis epizodebi), leqsTan _ ,,wminda palagia’’, da kideverT saTavgadasavlo nawarmoebTan _ ,,abat bukuas Bambavi’’. am vrcelimoTxrobis beWvda Jurnal ,,Le National’’-Si 1850 wlis 22 oqtombers daiwyoda imave wlis 22 dekembers dasrulda. Tavdapirvelad, erTi ambis saxiT,igi moTxrobis _ ,,mariliT ukanono movaWreebi’’, Semadgeneli nawili iyo.Semdeg nervalma nawarmoebi Secvala: nawili calke moTxrobad gamosca,nawili ki novelebis krebulis SemadgenlobaSi Seitana (,,anJeliki’’).novelaSi _ ,,abat bukuas ambavi’’, mwerali dapatimrebis epizods aseveimeorebs. cixeSi abatis yofna isevea asaxuli, rogorc Cemi patimrobismogonebebSi, ubralod pirvel nawarmoebSi mTxrobeli homodiegesuria,meoreSi _ heterodiegesuri. nawarmoebebSi wminda pelagias cixeSipatimrebis diskriminacia (privilegirebul da naklebad privilegirebulpatimrebad dayofa), saknebisa da tusaRTa cxovrebis aRwera meordeba:,,abat bukuas ambavi’’, ,,raul spifami’’ da ,,parizelis mogonebebi’’, racTavis gamoZaxils hpovebs leqsSi _ ,,wminda pelagia’’ da moTxrobis _,,orelia’’, mesame TavSi. nervali wminda palageas cixeSi wers: ,,cixeSimoxvedras aravis vusurveb’’ (mogonenebi . . 1999 :13). ivlisis movlenebTandakavSirebiT (1832 weli) igi isev daapatimres, rac mweralma asaxakidec Tavis leqsSi (,,politika’’ – 1832). SeiZleba vivaraudoT, rommoTxrobaSi (,,orelia’’) aRwerili mTxrobelis dapatimrebis epizodinervalis or dapatimrebas ukavSirdeba da Tvalyuri mivadevnoT, rogoriqceva mwerlis biografiis epizodi Semoqmedis pirovnul miTad, rogoriZens igi nawarmoebSi mxatvrul Rirebulebas. amave dros, Znelia imazesaubari, ramdenad eqstravertuli Tu intravertuli xasiaTisaamoTxrobaSi amosacnobi avtoaluziebi.avadmyofobis pirveli krizi, romlis gamoc mwerali klinikaSimoaTavses, mwerals 1841 wels daemarTa, e.i. ivlisis revoluciidan aTiwlis Semdeg. rogorc Jeni kolonis SemTxvevaSi (I Tavi), aTi wliTdaSorebuli ambebi nawarmoebSi erTmaneTze aris daleqili. orivemovlenas nervalis cxovrebaSi erTnairi adgili ukavia. a. diuma ixsenebsnervalis sityvebs: ,,Tu Jeni mokvdeba, me gavgiJdebi’’ – ,,da danapirebicSeasrula’’ _ dasZens diuma (Dumas 1990 : 159). III TavSi dapatimrebisepizods saavadmyofoSi ganTavsebis epizodi mohyveba. SeiZleba


123vivaraudoT, rom moTxrobis _ ,,orelia’’, pirveli nawilis II da III TavSiasaxuli realoba da halucinaciebi, (rogorc nawilis I TavSi)erTmaneTTan aTi wliTaa daSorebuli da cnobierebaSi erTmaneTzedaleqil, sxvadasxva, magram msgavs, sxvadasxva dros momxdarmovlenebze mouTiTebs (Le mode itératif). am SemTxvevaSi, nawarmoebistopografiuli qronotopi fsiqologiuri qronotopiT ivseba.nawarmoebis avtobiografiuli xasiaTidan gamomdinare, implicituri daeqsplicituri avtoris igiveobis iluziis fonze, metafizikuriqronotopis doneze, es epizodi (II, III Tavi) erTianad aRiqmeba. iginawarmoebis mxolod sam gverds ikavebs, e.i. realuri cxovrebisamsaxveli epizodebis (I, II Tavi) da irealuris (II, III Tavi)topografiuli qronotopi (mwerlis biografiidan gamomdinare) aTiwliT ganisazRvreba. es movlena teqstSi (,,orelia’’) reziumirebissaxiTaa warmodgenili, topografiuli qronotopi dazustebuli ar aris,moTxroba atarebs avtobiografiul xasiaTs, rac mwerlis mxatvrulmizans emsaxureba: iseTi movlenis iluziis Seqmnas, romelSicgaerTianebuli iqneba realurica da irealuric. nervali axerxebskidec amas, radgan sxvadasxava dros momxdars (ivlisis revoluciisSemdgomi periodi, 1831 weli), sxvadasxva ambavs erTad gviambobs:nervalis gonebaSi, mis qvecnobierSi dapatimreba da saavadmyofoSi misidawvena (orive SemTxvevaSi Tavisuflebis aRkveTa) erTmaneTzeadaleqili, amitom moTxrobaSi topografiuli qronotopis dadgenamxolod avtoaluziebis saSualebiT, mwerlis biografiuli monacemebiTgaxda SesaZlebeli.mwerlis biografiis codna saSualebas gvaZlevs nawarmoebSiamovicnoT da avxsnaT, erTi SexedviT gaugebari, sacnauri ambebi.moTxrobis _ ,,orelia’’, pirveli nawilis III TavSi, megobarTanganSorebis Semdeg, mTxrobeli Tavisi halucinaciis Sesaxeb gviyveba:misi metamorfoza tanisamosisgan ganTavisuflebiT iwyeba, radgan samosi,misi rwmeniT, sulisa da sxeulis gancalkevebas uSlis xels: ,,Cemimiwieri samosi moviSore da mivagde. im wuTs velodi, rodesac sulisxeuls gamoeyofoda.’’ (,, . . j’ai quitté mes habits terrestres et je les dispersais,attendant le mement où l’âme allait se séparere le corps . . .’’(Nerval1985 :12)).


124aleqsandre diumas mogonebebma erTi saintereso ambavi Semogvinaxa.rogorc ,,gvirgvinosani mwerali’’ (klod Sopis SefasebiT) igonebs, romerTxel, Ramis or saaTze, saxlSi mas Jandarma nervalis werilimiutana. nervali megobars sapatimroSi misvlas da qurTukis mitanassTxovda. Jandarmebma franguli mwerlobis patriarqs SewuxebisTvispatieba sTxoves da auxsnes, rom dakavebuli, ianvris susxian Rames,parizis quCebSi dediSobila daiareboda da igi sazogadoebriviwesrigis darRvevisTvis daakaves. diumam Jandarmebs nervalis fsiqikuriavadmyofobis Sesaxeb uambo (rac samarTaldamcavTaTvis isedac naTeliiqneboda), megobars mitanili palto miafara da saxlSi waiyvana (Dumas1990 :64). gzad, nervalma Tavisi saqcielis mizezad is varskvlavidaasaxela, romelic mas esoden izidavda, da sadac misi satrfoimyofeboda (im droisTvis nervalis satrfo ukve gardacvlili iyo-n.q.)nervals bunebrivad miaCnda, rom tanisamosiT, romelic mas amZimebda,varskvlavze gafrenas ver moaxerxebda. uSedego mcdelobis miuxedavad,amas sxva Rames Seecdeboda da warmatebaSic darwmunebuli iyo.nervalis cxovrebis es epizodi, romelic mwerlis SeSlilobazemetyvelebs, aseve aris asaxuli nawarmoebSi _ ,,orelia’’: mTxrobelitanisamoss ixdis, rom Tavisi sxeulis uwonadobas Seeguos (Nerval 1984 :12).Cven SevecadeT gagveanalizebina nawarmoebSi _ ,,orelia’’, movlenebi,romelic xilvebSi (halucinaciebSi) aris asaxuli. aRwerili movlenebi(realurica da irealuric) ramdenime etapad davyaviT, rom aRwerismeqanizmis Tavisebureba gveCvenebina, romelic realurs irealurisganganasxvavebs. TiToeuli etapi ramdenime nawilisgan Sedgeba. II Tavisbolosa da III TavSi realobas halucinaciebi cvlis. nawarmoebis amnawilSi, siuJeturi qarga arasworxazovani xdeba. imisaTvis romgavarkvioT Tu razea saubari da risi gadmocema surs avtors, movlenebiTanmimdevrulad ar unda wavikiTxod. Cven isini sqemis saxiTwarmovadgineT:


125sqema # 5I reloba _ megobrebTan vaxSami, polTan erTad quCaSi xetiali, varskvlavismimarTulebiT svla;xilva _ polis (megobris) metamorfoza, mTxrobelis metamorfoza;II realoba _ megobarTan ganSoreba (le soir, lorsque l’heure fatale semblait s’approcher- 9),varskvlavis mimarTulebiT svla, mistikuri himnis Sesruleba;halucinacia – varskvlavis gadideba, cieba, varskvlavis miziduloba,mTxrobelis metamorfoza (gadideba), yvelafris daeleqtroveba;III realoba _ jariskacebis mier dapatimreba (quelque chose de comique -12);halucinacia – sakace, cis gaxsna;IV realoba – sakaceze mwoliare mTxrobeli, jariskacebis dakavebulTansaubari, ori megobris mosvla;halucinacia _ or megobars gahyavs sxva (oreuli) ;V realoba _ yviris. daparimreba;VI realoba _ ori megobari akiTxavs, sadili, mTxrobeli arTmevs megobarsbeWeds, kaSnes kisris garSemo ikeTebs, xeli stkiva;VII realoba _ gonebis dakargva, awvenen loginze, ramdenime dReSisaavadmyofoSi modis gons;erTi SexedviT, realur epizodebs topografiuli qronotopi aqvsda moqmedeba saRamos, quCaSi xdeba. epizods, romelic realur movlenasasaxavs, konkretul drosa da sivrceSi viTardeba, magram, rogorcnawarmoebis pirvelsa da meore TavSi, mis danarCen nawilSicmniSvnelovani realuris da irealuris (am SemTxvevaSi _ halucineciebi)urTierTkavSiria, is momentia, rodesac erTidan meoreSi gadasvlaxorcieldeba. am SemTxvevaSi, realuri epizodebis qronotopi irRveva:irealuri ambis Txrobidan gadaxvevaa. aseTi daskvna im SemTxvevaSiiqneboda marTebuli, realurobis amsaxveli epizodebi warmmarTveli,upiratesobis mqone rom yofiliyo, magram nervalis moTxrobaSirealuri iseve mniSvnelovania rogorc _ irealuri. arc erTi da arcmeore ,,gadaxvevas’’ ar warmoadgens, Sesabamisad, orive (realurica dairealuric) movlenaTa erTobliobaa, romelic erTian drosa dasivrceSi xdeba. v. tiupas mixedviT xom qronotopuloba movlenis erTerTiZiriTadi maxasiaTebelia (Smidi 2003 :295). erTi SexedviT


126ekleqtikuri, realurisa da irealuris dapirispirebuli cnebebi erTmTlianobas qmnian, rac xdomilobis, moqmedebis erTianobas efuZneba.dapatimreba da saavadmyofoSi dawvenac nawarmoebSi orjermeordeba: megobrebTan sadili (vaxSami, sadili), wola (sakaceze,loginSi), varskvlavis mimarTulebiT svla, jariskacebis mier dakaveba(erTxel mTxrobelis, meored _ misi oreulis). zemoxsenebulimovlenebi, ganurCevlad imisa, realur Tu warmosaxviT samyaroSi xdeba,erTmaneTisgan damatebiTi detalebiTaa gansxvavebuli, magram teqstSiyvela erT daniSnulebas asrulebs: sakaceze wola cis qveS (,,étendu sur lelit du camp’’ (Nerval 1985 :12)) da klinikaSi sawolze dawvena (,,On me mitsur un lit (Nerval 1985 :15)) orive sxvadasxva moqmedebaa, magramnawarmoebisTvis, mwerlis CanafiqriT, saerTo mniSvneloba aqvs _uZlureba.nervalis moTxroba _ ,,orelia’’, fsiqobiografiis nimuSia (Jouve1997 : 90). fsiqoanalizisgan gansxvavebiT, Sarl moronis fsiqokritikamxatvrul-literaturuli teqstis literaturul Rirebulebebsprioritetulad miiCnevs. moronis Tanaxmad, literaturuli nawarmoebimecnieruli kvlevis sailustraciod ki ar gamoiyeneba, aramed masSiliteraturuli nawarmoebis konstruirebis meqanizmebi ikveTeba. moroniam procesis oTx ZiriTad etaps gamohyofs:1) saerTo niSnebis amocnoba, rac erTi avtoris ramdenimeteqstSi movlenebis erTmaneTze daleqviT, maTiciklurobiT gamoixateba (superposition);2) mniSvnelovani movlenebis gamoyofa da fsiqikissiRrmeebSi wvdomis mcdeloba (situation dramatique);3) pirovnuli miTis konstruireba (mythe personnel);4) mwerlis biografiiT sakvlevi masalis damowmeba(vérification par l’étude biographique) (Jouve 1997 :90).marTalia, morons nawarmoebisa da misi avtoris gaigiveba dasdesbralad, rac sauniversiteto tradiciebis gagrZelebad miiCnies, magramneralis SemTxvevSi, vfiqrobT, SeuZlebelia avtoris fenomenis uaryofa(Mitterand1988 :403). Tu manamde, Cven visaubreT nervalis nawarmoebisornamentulobis Sesaxeb, rac movlenaTa gameorebas, miTosur azrovnebas


127efuZneba, moronis mosazreba pirovnuli miTis konstruirebis da saerTosaxe-xatebis simravlis Sesaxeb, aseve emsaxureba nervalis teqstebiskvlevis procesis ukeT warmarTvas.Tu vivaraudebT, rom nervali mis cnobierebaSi erTmaneTzedaleqil sxvadasxva movlenebs erT, yvelaze mniSvnelovan movlenaSiaerTianebs (saavadmyofoSi moTavseba, dapatimreba), III Tavis siuJeturiqargis mixedviT, erT movlenaze erTxel aris saubari (Le mode singulatif),magram Tu CavTvliT, rom erTi movlena (Ria cis qveS wola)saavadmyofoSi logins mijaWvuli avadmyofis retrospeqtuliwarmosaxvaa, saqme erTi movlenis metaforul asaxvasTan gveqneba. amSemTxevavaSi, saqme erTi ambis ramdenjerme TxrobasTan gvaqvs (Le moderépétitif). e.i. moTxrobis avtobiografiuli safuZvlidan gamomdinare,sxvadasxva realur movlenazea saubari, romelsac realur samyaroSihqonda adgili. teqstis irealur samyaroSi ki, yvela msgavsi moqmedebaerT movlenamde daiyvaneba, riTac, nawarmoebis fiqcionalur samyaroSi,pirovnuli miTi konstruirdeba.moTxrobis _ ,,orelia’’ _ pirveli nawilis I da II TavSi,mTxrobeli Tavis gauziarebeli siyvarulis Sesaxeb mogviTxrobs, ramacigi Tavgadasavlebis maZieblad aqcia. sabediswero Secdomis daviwyebissurvilma, romlis patiebis imedi amoewura, protagonists sxva qalaqSida sxva qalis siyvarulSi apovnina Sveba, magram, sakmarisi iyowarCinebul qalbatons (,,une femme d’une grande renomée’’ (Nerval 1985 :5)) daiuRblo siyvaruliT tanjul mamakacs Soris mimowera wamowyebuliyo,rom sxva qalaqSi, mTxrobelis Zveli da axali satrfo erTmaneTsSexvedroda (,,Un hasard les fit connaître l’une à l’autre’’- (Nereval 1985 :7)). erTiSexedviT, ori qalis Sexvedra mTxrobels uxerxulobas uqmnis, igisaswrafo saqmes moimizezebs da orives miatovebs. es SexvedramkiTxvels sasiyvarulo samkuTxedis ambis Txrobas ar uqadis. igi ufrometad, warsulis da awmyos Tanxvedris gamoxatulebaa da alegoriuladgadmoscems nervalis survils Seqmnas ori drois, ori paralelurisamyaros Tanaarsebobis precendenti. mkiTxvelis sasiyvarulo intrigebsda avantiurebis molodini maleve gaqarwyldeba, radgan nervalismizans, arc don Juanis Tavgadasvlebis da arc tragikuli siyvarulis


128ambis Txroba ar warmoadgens. parizSi saxelmwifoebrivi davalebisSesasrulebad gamgzavrebuli protagonisti nawarmoebis danarCennawilSi arc ki axsenebs Tavis ,,mwvalebels’’ Tu ,,mSvelels’’, amitom,,,orelias’’ pirveli nawilis I da II TavSi, yovelive momxdars avtoriZalian mokled gvixatavs. moTxrobils reziumirebis saxe aqvs: CvenTvisucnobia, rodis an sad moxda es ambavi. mwerali qalaqis (,,Il arriva dans laville’’ (Nerval 1985 :5)) da sxva qalaqis (,,dans une autre ville’’ Nerval 1985 :7))xsenebiT Semoifargleba. moxda yovelive es protagonistisaxalgazrdobaSi, Tu Txrobis momentidan sul cota xnis win –mkiTxvelisTvis ucnobia.bevri mkvlevari (Jani, piSua, briqsi) TavianT kvlevebSi miiCnevs, romorelias STagonebis wyaro msaxiobi qali Jeni koloni (Jenny Collon -1808-1941) iyo. nervalma igi 1834 wels gaicno da qalis uaris da oriqorwinebis miuxedavad, masze platonurad iyo Seyvarebuli (H.-P.Blottier1992 :6). yovel SemTxvevaSi, cnobebi maTi ufro axlo urTierTobisSesaxeb ar moipoveba, magram mwerlis grZnoba imdenad didi iyo, romnervalma saSualo donis msaxiobis popularizaciisTvis Jurnalic kidaarsa. misma gamocemam _ ,,Le Monde Dramatique’’ (1834),L biZis anderZiTdatovebuli memkvidreoba Seiwira, magram nervalsa da msaxiobisurTierTobas, iseve rogorc mwerlis karieras, ver uSvela. nervalisnawarmoebis meore personaJi qalis saxe mari pleidens undaukavSirdebodes (Jean 1989 :38).J. nervalis axlo megobars _ teofil goties, Jeni koloni Jimnazis,varieteebisa da opera-komikis usaxur momRelad eCveneboda da didiSTabeWdileba arc mis garegnobaze hqonda (Jean1964 :28). vfiqrobT,nervalis gataceba misi personaluri miTis warmatebuli konstruirebiskidev erTi magaliTia: cota xniT adre (1853 wels) nervalma xom baronifoSeris meuRle novelebis krebulSi _ ,,cecxlis qaliSvilebSi’’ukvdavyo.iqidan gamomdinare, rom moTxroba _ ,,orelia’’, avtobiografiulxasiaTs atarebs, pirveli nawilis I da II TavSi asaxuli Tavgadasavali1834 wels unda mivakuTvnoT. Tavisi Jurnalis warumateblobis, mwerlisgakotrebis Semdeg, nervali italiaSi miemgzavreba. nawarmoebis


129dasawyisSi, mTxrobelic daaxloebiT igive ambavs gviyveba. nawarmoebis amepizodSi nervals mis cxovrebaSi momxdari realuri faqti gadaaqvs.moTxrobis pirveli nawili 1855 wlis ianvarSi gamoqveynda. meore nawilimwerlis gardacvalebis Semdeg _ 1855 wlis TebervalSi. e.i. nawarmoebisSeqmnasa da im movlenebs Soris, romelmac mwerals misi dawera ubiZga,ocdaerTi weli aSorebs. moTxrobis _ ,,orelia’’, meore nawilSimTxrobeli gvauwyebs, rom pirveli da meore nawilis Seqmnas Soris aTiwelia gasuli. Tu orelia 1855 wliT TariRdeba, pirveli nawili 1841wels unda daweriliyo. es faqti moTxrobis _ ,,orelia’’avtobiografiuli sizustiT Seqmnas gamoricxavs.nawarmoebs da mwerlis cxovrebas Soris mWidro urTierTkavSirzenervalis avadmyofobis pirveli krizi (1841) da msaxiobi qalisgardacvalebis TariRi metyvelebs (1842). Jeni koloni 1842 welsgardaicvala. Tu vivaraudebT, rom Jeni koloni orelias poeturi saxexatissafuZvelia, moTxrobis _ ,,orelia’’, pirvel nawilSi, kerZod, I daII TavSi protagonistis realuri cxovrebis amsaxveli epizodi mwerlisbiografiis erT etaps unda asaxavdes _ 1834 – 1842 wlebs.nawarmoebis dasawyisSi, mTxrobeli, angelozis xilvas sakuTari ansatrfos sikvdilis mauwyebel niSnad miiRebs. xilva simboluradgamoxatavs da erTmaneTTan akavSirebs or movlenas nervaliscxovrebidan: Jeni kolonis sikvdils da avadmyofobis pirvel krizss.realuri cxovrebis epizodebis nawarmoebSi gadatana axali cxovrebisdawyebis surviliTaa nakarnaxevi, rac axali nawarmoebis SeqmniTgamovlinda. es kidev erTxel metyvelebs imaze, rom nervalis cxovrebada Semoqmedeba erTmaneTisgan ganuyofelia.saWirod migvaCnia, diumas mogonebebiT vixelZRvaneloT, romaRmovaCinoT nawarmoebSi (,,orelia’’) is epizodebi, rac mwerliscxovrebidan aris nasesxebi da topografiul uzustobebs naTelsmohfens. erTxel diumam da nervalis megobarma _ antoni deSamma (dantealigieris RvTaebrivi komediis galeqsili versiis avtori), nervaliklinikaSi moinaxules. ciebisgan anTebulTvalebiani nervali gisosebsmiRma idga da megobrebs dauyvira: ,,evrika, SeTqmuleba gavxseni da axlasolomonis beWedi me mekuTvnis. aTasi da erTi Ramis ganZic Cvenia!’’rodesac diuma nervalis oTaxSi Sevida, magidaze uamravi furclis


130nagleji dainaxa. nervalis swored aseT furclebze werda da mere maTjibeSi inaxavda (Dumas 1990 : 179). rac diumam nervalisgan moismina,nebismier adamians sagonebelSi Caagdebda da megobris SeuracxadobaSidaarwmunebda: nervali amtkicebda, rom ramos diswuli iyo. nervalmadiumas Tavis gasaocari da yvelaze popularuli leqsi waukiTxa. esleqsi usaTauroa, magram diumasTan saubrisas, nervalma mas ,,sxvacxovrebis mogonebebi’’ uwoda. leqsi ki musikazea. nervalis avadmyofurigoneba gasaocari siswrafiT muSaobda. asociaciurma jaWvma Jan-filipramos, klasikuri harmoniis pirveli Teoretikosis ZmiswulTan,orRanist _ Jan-fransua ramosTan daakavSira, Semdeg musikasTan daamitom, gasagebi xdeba nervalis sulis ukvdavebis da xelaxalidabadebis Sesaxeb mosazrebis am mxriv warmarTva (Dumas 1990 :177). amepizodSive nervali mianiSnebs mefe solomonis beWedze, romelicdaviTis varskvlavis saxeliTac aris cnobili. Jervem nervalisportreti daxata. graviuris kuTxeSi nervalma waawera: ,,me meore var !’’da iqve daviTis varskvlavic miaxata (Nerval. image, on-lain dok.).legendis Tanaxmad, mefe solomonis beWdis mflobels Zlevamosiljinebze mbrZanebloba SeeZlo, sxvadasxva rjulis cxovelebTan TufrinvelebTan saubari (moTxrobaSi _ ,,orelia’’ mTxrobels Citielaparakeba (Dumas 1990 : 182)). nervalis moTxrobaSi _,,orelia’’,mTxrobeli beWeds dakargavs, romelzedac arabuli sityvebiaamotvifruli. eklesiaSi meores iyidis, rac codvebis monaniebissimbolur datvirTvas iZens (Nerval 1984 :73). SesaZlebelia, beWdis epizodiukavSirdebodes arsen uses da stefani burJuas qorwinebas, romelicwminda Toma akvinelis saxelobis eklesiaSi, 1842 wlis 5 aprils Sedga:nefem beWedi dakarga da nervals axlis SeZena sTxova. nervali madamusesTan megobrobda da misi gardacvalebac mtkivneulad ganicada.mwerlis mier didi xnis movlenebis aRwera I da II Tavebis aRwerisreziumirebis xasiaTs naTels hfens: mTxrobelis da realurad arsebuliqalis (Jei koloni, mari pleideni, sofi burJua) platonur urTierTobanawarmoebSi motivis funqcias asxulebs, romelic mwerlis pirovnulimiTis konstruirebas emsaxureba da emociur zegavlenas aZlierebs. amavedros, realobis amsaxvel epizodSi dauzustebeli topografiuli


131qronotopis arseboba, zogadad, mTels nawarmoebSi realobismniSvnelobaze, ufro ukeT, mis umniSvnelo rolze, metyvelebs: realuriepizodebis raodenoba (sakuTriv realuris) minimumamdea dayvanili.mTxrobels (avtorsac) Tavisi cxovrebis realuri faqtebi ki arainteresebs, aramed warmosaxviTi, iluzoruli samyaro, romelicnebismieri realuri, cxovrebiseuli movleniT, faqtiT SeiZlebayofiliyo inspirirebuli, amitom aRiarebs nervalis personaJinawarmoebis pirvelsave TavSi, rom misTvis im qalTan, romelsacorelias arqmevs, urTierTobis detalebs mniSvneloba ara aqvs, radganyoveli adamianis cxovrebaSi moiZebneba STambeWdavi mogoneba, romelmaccxovrebaze moaxdina gavlena da Secvala kidec igi: ,,yvelas cxovrebaSimoiZebneba gulisgangmiravi ambavi, romelmac adamianis sulzegamanadgureblad imoqmeda’’ (,,Chacun peut chercher dans ses souvenirs l’émotion laplus navrante, le coup le plus terrible frappé sur l’âme par le destin’’(Nerval _1984 :4)) .nervalis cxovrebis epizodebi, xSirad cvlilebebis gareSe, misinawarmoebis nawili xdeba. realobis amsaxveli epizodebis Semdeg (I,IITavi), mkiTxveli mwerlis Canafiqrs xvdeba: nervals Tavisi xilvebisaRwera surs. amas Tavis mwerlur movaleobadac ki miiCnevs: ,,mxolodmwerlis daniSnulebaze vfiqrobdi da vcdilobdi gulrwfeladameRwera cxovrebis is mniSvnelovabi movlenebi, rac gadamxda. ase romar mefiqra, daveWvdeboda da aRac ki Sevecdebodi momeyola is, rac,SesaZloa, mxolod Cemi avadmyofuri warmosaxvis Sedegia’’. (,,Je ne pensaisque la misssion d’un écrivain et d’analyser sincèrement ce qu’il éprouve dans les gravescirconstences de la vie . . je m’arrêterais ici et je n’essayerais pas de décrire ce que j’éprouvaiensuite dans une série de visions insensées peut-être, ou vulgairement maladives . . ‘’ (Nerval1985 12)). nervali aRweras did dros uTmobs, amitom moTxrobaSi -,,orelia’’, Txrobis dro ambis droze naklebia (Td


132qronotopi konkretuli avtoris biografiis, avtoaluziebis xarjzerekonstruirdeba.III.V. intermedialobis sakiTxisTvis Jerar de nervalismoTxrobaSi _ ,,orelia’’mniSvnelovnad migvaCnia, ganvixiloT Jerar de nervalis nawarmoebi(,,orelia’’) intermedialuri da interteqstualuri TvalsazrisiT.intermedialuri urTierTobebze saubrisas, nervalis SemoqmedebazeaRorZinebis epoqis germaneli mxatvris _ albrext diurerisSemoqmedebis gavlenas vgulisxmobT. imisTvis, rom ukeT warmovaCinoTliteraturuli nawarmoebisa da saxviTi xelovnebis urTierTkavSiri,SevecdebiT, gamovikvlioT moTxrobis _ ,,orelia’’ erTi epizodi.intermedialoba xelovnebis sxvadasxva dargs SorisurTierTkavSirs gulisxmobs. gansxvavebuli gamomsaxvelobiTisaSualebebis da erTiani esTetikuri principebis arsebobis fonze,intermedialoba saerTo Temebis, saxe-xatebis, simboloebis Sedareba-Sepirispirebisa Tu Janruli modifikaciis saxiT vlindeba.intermedialuri analizi kvlevis saerTo donisa da kriteriumisarsebobas eyrdnoba (Карасаева on-lain dok.).intermedialoba rogorc termini, literaturaTmcodneobaSi gasulisaukunis bolo aTwleulSi damkvidrda interteqtualobis kvaldakval,Tumca, rogorc SedarebiTi literaturaTmcodneobis wiaRSiaRmocenebuli Teoria da meTodi, igi XX saukunis 50-60-iani wlebidanaris cnobili. intermedialoba xelovnebis sxvadasxva dargs SorisurTierTkavSirs gulisxmobs. rasakvirvelia, es kavSiri SeiZlebamravalmxrivi iyos da mravalSriani literaturuli teqstis kvlevissaSualebad iqces.xelovnebis sxvadasxva dargs mxatvruli gamomsaxvelobisgansxvavebuli saSualebebi gaaCnia, Tumca maT saerTo esTetikuriprincipebi aerTianebT. literatura, SesaZloa, saxviT xelovnebas anmusikas mxatvrul gamomsaxvelobiT saSualebebs daesesxos. amiT teqsti


133gamdidrdeba da mkiTxvelze teqstis emociuri zemoqmedebac moimatebs.xelovnebis sxvadasxva dargis urTierTkavSiris STambeWdav magaliTsfranguli simbolizmi warmoadgens, romelic warmatebiT iyenebdasaxviTi xelovnebisa Tu muskisTvis damaxasiaTebel mxatvrulgamomsaxvelobiT saSualebebs.saxviTi xelovnebisa da literaturuli nawarmoebisintermedialuri urTierToba SeiZleba gamovlindes: 1) citirebiT,literaturul nawarmoebSi msgavsi Temebis, siuJetebis, saxe-xatebisgamoyenebiT; 2) mxatvruli literaturisa da saxviTi xelovnebismeTodebisa da saSualebebis Sedareba-SepirispirebiT; 3) ferTasimbolikis, gamomsaxvelobiTi saSualebebis vizualizaciis saxiT; 5)Janruli modifikaciis xarjze; 6) ilustraciebis SeqmniT.rogoric ar unda iyos kavSiri literaturul nawarmoebsa damxatvrul tilos Soris, intermedialuri analizi moicavs:1) analizis saerTo kategoriis an kriteriumis arCevas (saerTomxatvruli saxe, sivrce da dro, mxatvruli stili da forma)2) analizis saerTo donis kvlevas, mTliani kompoziciis andetalis doneze (Чуканцова on-lain dok.).frang mweralsa da Jurnalists, Jerar de nervals, albrextdiureri Tavisi moTxrobis _ ,,orelia’’ _ pirvel nawilSi hyavsmoxseniebuli. nawarmoebis dasawyisSi, mTxrobeli Tavis sizmarsaRwers. sizmarSi mas veeba RvTaebrivi arseba gamoecxadeba. uecrad,angelozi bnel alags miwaze enarcxeba da caxaxs iwyebs. masTanmiaxloebuli mTxrobeli uTvalavi ferebiT gasxivosnebuliangeloziTaa mojadoebuli. serafimi mTxrobels Tavisi antikurisamosiT xiblavs, rac protagonists diureris graviuras _,,melanqolias’’, agonebs (Nerval 1984:9).qartexilebiT aRsavse epoqaSi, albrext diureri, xelovanis CveuliSemarTebiTa da guladobiT, Tavis personaJebs aRorZinebis xanistanisamosiT mosavda. amiT, mis graviurebze gamosaxuli figurebiwmindanobis Saravandeds hkargaven. diureris SemoqmedebaSi religiurmaTematikam socialur-kulturuli elferi SeiZina da politikurpamfletTan gaigivda. diureris graviurebze legenda realobad


134iqceoda, miTi ki aRorZinebis epoqis problemebs asaxavda. diureris amnovatorulma nabijma germaniaSi didi gamoxmaureba hpova da saxviTixelovnebis istoriac Secvala.rodesac nervali Tavis teqstSi angelozis samosze amaxvilebsyuradRebas, qveSecneulad sam epoqas akavSirebs: antikurs, renesanssa daXIX saukunes. igi mkiTxvels sayovelTao WeSmaritebebsa daRirebulebebze miuTiTebs, romlebsac veras aklebs dro.didi humanisti, erazm roterdameli, diureris ,,melanqoliaze’’werda: ,,diurerma feradi saRebavebis gareSe, mxolod Savi feriT, imisgamosaxva moaxerxa, risi daxatvac TiTqmis SeuZlebelia, man adamianissuli aametyvela’’ (Несельштраус 1961: 186).nervalis teqstis mixedviT Tu vimsjelebT, naTeli gaxdeba, romavtori saxviTi xelovnebis yvelaze mniSvnelovan atributs _ fers _ugulebelyofs da diureris Canafiqrs ar iziarebs: mis nawarmoebSiangelozi feradia, diureris graviuraze ki _ Sav-TeTri. diurermamelanqolia Sav-TerT graviuaze gamosaxa, rac graviuris Sinaarsexmianeba: melanqolia xom Savs gulisxmobs. melanqolikebis mfarveliplanetac _ saturni _ Sav planetad iwodeba. nervalisgadawyvetilebas, teqstSi feradi angelozi dagvixatos, TavisigamarTleba moeZebneba. feradi sizmris aRweriT nervali irealursamyaros ufro xelSesaxebad da cxadad warmogvidgens. sizmrisferadovneba empiriuli samyaros erTferovnebas upirispirdeba dairealuris mniSvnelobas usvams xazs.jer kidev antikur epoqaSi arsebobda moZRvreba oTxi temperamentisSesaxeb. Sua saukuneebSi, sqolastikis zewoliT, yvelaze met augsmelanqoliur temperamentze ambobdnen. gamxdar, ugergilo, mowyenilsada ugunebo, uunaro adamians melanqoliks uwodebdnen. mas sizarmacesada siZunwesac swamebdnen. renesansis epoqaSi, platonis akademiiswinamZRvarma, florencielma marselio fiCinom, melanqoliuritemperamentis mqone adamianis Sesaxeb warmodgena Secvala. misimoZRvrebis meoxebiT, melanqoliki filosofiuri azrovnebis unariTada SemoqmedebiTi niWiT dajildoebul adamianad iqca. SemdgomepoqebSi, melanqoliki geniosis sinonimad aRiqmeboda da misTvis Cveul


135martosulobas bevri mimbaZvelic gamouCnda. romantikosebma diureris,,melanqoliaSi’’ Semoqmedis bedukuRmarToba amoicnes. rogoric undaiyos melanqolikis mimarT damokidebuleba, yvela epoqaSi,melanqolikTa Soris suliT avadmyofTa ricxvi Warbobs. melanqolikebsidumalebiT moculi mnaTobi _ saturni mfarvelobs, romelic maTavadmyofobasa da naadrev sikvdils uqadis. zogierTi mkvlevarisazriT, diureris graviuraze, angelozis ferxTiT gawolili ZaRliswored SeSlilis simboluri gamoxatuleba unda iyos.nervalis mier diureris ,,melanqoliis’’ moxseniebam mkiTxvels undaSeaxsenos, rom orelias avtori fsiqikuri daavadebiT itanjeboda.SemoqmedebiT krizisSi gadazrdilma fizikurma Tu fsiqikurmauunarobam mwerali TviTmkvlelobamde miiyvana (Bonnet 1996:93).nervalis nawarmoebis germaneli mxatvris cnobil graviurasTankavSiri amiT ar amoiwureba. graviuraze daxatuli ramdenime detaliliteraturul teqstSi aris mimobneuli (kibe, varskvlavi _ (Nerval 1984:8),romelTa erTmaneTTan dakavSirebiT diureris tilo rekonstruirdeba.teqstSi arsebuli miniSnebebis garda, iseTic arsebobs, romelsacgamocanasaviT gvTavazobs avtori.germaneli mxatvris ,,melanqoliam’’ ,,msoflio gaaogna’’ (Несельшраус1961: 152) da bevri Tavsatexic gauCina maT, vinc graviuriT monusxva arikmara da urTulesi simboloebiT gajerebuli xelovnebis am nimuSisaxsna ganizraxa. saubaria diureris magiur kvadratze. CrdiloeTisrenesansis udidesma warmomadgenelma evropaSi pirvelma Seqmna magiurikvadrati, romlis mniSvneloba dResac kamaTs iwvevs.diureris graviuraze gamosaxuli magiuri kvadratis bolo xazzeganlagebul cifrebSi diureris graviuris Seqmnis TariRi amoikiTxeba_ 1514 weli. am sayovelTaod cnobili faqtis msgavsad, nervalicmkiTxvlisgan calkeul detalebze dafiqrebas moiTxovs.RvTaebrivi frTosani arsebis xilvis Semdeg, sizmris Semzaravisicxade mTxrobels afxizlebs. imave saRamos igi megobrebTan ferebisada cifrebis magiur mniSvnelovaze msjelobs (Nerval 1984:9). cifrismagiuri Zalis Sesaxeb nervalis teqstSi cota adrec vkiTxulobT.zemoxsenebuli sizmris xilvamde, gzaabneuli mTxrobeli lampioniT


136ganaTebul saxls miadgeba. saxlis nomeri mTxrobelis asakis identuria(Nerval1984:8). saxlis nomrisa da mTxrobelis asakis Tanxvedra, diurerismagiur kvadratSi graviuris Seqmnis ganzrax miTiTebul TariRsSeiZleba davukavSiroT.diureris graviuraze gamosaxuli magiuri kvadrati 16 ujredisganSedgeba. kvadratis horizontalur da vertikalur xazebze ganlagebulrixvTa jami 34-is tolia. ras SeiZleba niSnavdes nervalisTvis esricxvi, an niSnavs ki igi, saerTod, rames?miTi orfevsis Sesaxeb laitmotivad gasdevs nervalis Semoqmedebas.miTi frangi mwerlis ideur-Tematurad dakavSirebuli ramdenimenawarmoebis siuJetur invariants warmoadgens. orfevsisa da evridikesSesaxeb ambis mimarT mwerlis esoden didi interesi Tavad nervalisgauziarebel siyvarulsa da sayvareli arsebis dakargvas ukavSirdeba.nawarmoebSi es angelozis gamocxadebis epizodSi aisaxeba, romelsacmTxrobeli Tavisi an satrfos sikvdilis mauwyeblad moiazrebs (Nerval1984 :10).nervalis Semoqmedebis bevri mkvlevari miiCnevs, rom msaxiobi Jenikoloni nervalis muzad iqca da orelias prototipic gaxda(Nerval1985:24). meorexarisxovani, arafriT gamorCeuli msaxiobi qaliskariera 1842 wels, misi moulodneli gardaicvalebiT Sewyda. 1842 welsnervali 34 wlisa iyo. vfiqrobT, es ubralo danTxveva ar aris. nervali,TanamedroveTa Soris ezoTeruli ZiebebiT, kabalas codniTa danaturfilosofiuri mosazrebebiT iyo cnobili (Nerval1985:12). gasakviriar unda iyos, rom mwerals yoveli Rone exmara da miusafari, yvelasganmiviwyebuli sakuTari xvedri, romelic nebismieri literaturulinawarmoebis siuJetad SeiZleba qceuliyo, Tundac Tavsatexis saxiTmiewodebina mkiTxvelisTvis.diureri ara marto mxatvari da saxviTi xelovnebis SesaxebTeoriuli kvlevebis avtoria, aramed morwmune, renesansuli epoqispirmSo, romelmac qristianuli religiis sakuTari koncefiis Seqmascada. 1480-1510 wlebSi, cnobili graviuris _ ,,melanqolia’’ _ Seqmnamde,diureri graviuraTa serias xatavs, romelTa siuJetebi kanonikur Tuapokriful teqstebs efuZneba. SeiZleba iTqvas, rom es graviurebi am


137teqstebis ilustraciebs wamoadgenen. 1498 wels germaneli mxatvari qmnis15 graviuras apokalifsis Temaze.moTxrobis _ ,,orelia’’ _ meore nawilSi, dakarguli satrfosZiebis Temas uZRebi Svilis dabrunebis, codvebis monaniebisa daWeSmariti morwmuneobis Temebic emateba. teqstSi mravladaa bibliurireminiscencia swored ,,ioane naTlimscemlis gamocxadebidan’’.amave periodSi diureri asuraTebs Sua saukuneebSi, bibliis Semdegyvelaze cnobili nawarmoebis, dominekaneli beris _ iakob voraginelis(Jacobo da Vorazze) ,,oqros legendis’’ ramdenime epizods. magaliTad,,,wminda qristefore Cvil qritesTan erTad’’ , ,,wminda ekaterine dajalaTi’’, ,,wminda giorgi’’, ,,wminda estate’’.oqros legendisa da orelias Soris kavSiri imdenadmniSvnelovania, rom Cveni azriT, nervalis ukanaskneli nawarmoebissaTauric _ ,,orelia’’ , romelic, amavdroulad, sityvas ,,or’’, anu,,oqros’’ ukavSirdeba, iakob voraginelis teqsts exmianeba, romaRaraferi vTqvaT wminda qristefores, qminda ekaterinesa Tu wmindagiorgize, romlebic aluziebis saxiT figurireben nervalis teqstSi(Nerval 1984: 98).amgvarad, Jerar de nervalis moTxrobasa da diureris graviurebsSoris intermedialuri kavSiri vlindeba detalebis doneze, saerTomxatvruli saxis modelirebis, msgavsi siuJetisa da Temis xarjze.mwerlis mier ostaturadaa gamoyenebuli saxviTi xelovnebisumniSvnelovanesi atributi _ feri, romelic literaturul nawarmoebSiam ukanasknelis kanonebiT moqmedebs, amitom vizualizacia srulebiTacar xdeba saxviTi xelovnebis nimuSis saSualebiT. diureris,,melanqolia’’, iseve rogorc mxatvris sxva graviurebi, nervalisfilosofiuri koncefciis warmoCenas emsaxureba.intermedialuri urTierTkavSiris dadgena (zogadisa Tufragmentulis) saxviTi xelovnebis nimuSsa da literaturulnawarmoebs Soris saerTo wyaroebis dadgeniT xdeba SesaZlebeli.nervalis moTxroba _ ,,orelia’’, erTgvar hiperteqsts warmoadgens iakobvoraginelis nawarmoebTan _ ,,oqros legenda‘’ _ mimarTebaSi. am orteqsts Soris intereqstualuri urTierTkavSiri arsebobs. amave dros,


138dominikaneli beris zemoxsenebuli nawarmoebi albrext diurerisgraviurebis literaturuli wyarocaa. orive Semoqmedis nawarmoebSiuxvadaa bibliuri reminiscencia, kerZod ki _ Temebi ioanenaTlismcemlis gamocxadebidan.Jerar de nervali iyenebs diureris graviuras _ ,,melanqolia’’ _imisTvis, rom xazi gausvas Tavis Canafiqrs: mis nawarmoebSi sizmrissamyaro feradia da igi diureris Sav-TeTr graviurasTanaadapirispirebuli. es ki irealuri samyaros mniSvnelobas usvams xazs.frangi mwerlis teqstSi germaneli mxatvris tilos moxseniebiT samiepoqa ukavSirdeba erTmaneTs. graviuris simboluri datvirTvanervalis Semoqmedebasa da biografiaze migvaniSnebs.III.VI. interteqstualuri urTierTobebis roli nervalisSemoqmedebaSiJerar de nervalis nawarmoebSi (,,orelia’’) gansakuTrebulmniSvnelobas iZens interteqstualuri urTierTobebi.interteqstualobis da interteqstualuri urTierTobebis Sesaxebgasuli saukunis meore naxevarSi alaparakdnen. es terminipoststruqturalizmis Teoretikosis, Julia kristevas saxelsukavSirdeba (Словарь литературных терминовon-lain dok).J. kristevas mosazreba m. baxtinis koncefcias exmianeba, romlismixedviT, nebismieri teqti sxva teqstebTan mWidro urTierTkavSirSia.Tavisi arsiT, interteqstualuri urTierTobebi teqstebs Sorisarsebul aluziebs da reminiscenciebsac gulisxmobs, rac esodenmniSvnelovania teqstis ukeT gagebisTvis, radgan ,,yvelaze mZafraqtualizacias iwvevs ara dasrulebuli, yovlismomcveli suraTi anaRwera, aramed _ swored fragmentebi an sxvaTaSoris, ucabedadnaTqvami’’ (Tanamedrove . . .2002:213) Jerar de nervalis nawarmoebebi ammxrivadac sainteresoa: avtoaluziebi da aluziebi nervalis nebismeiriteqstis ukeT wakiTxvas uwyobs xels. maTi wyalobiT rekonstruirdebamwerlis mxatvrul-literaturuli teqstebis fiqcionaluri samyaro.


139mxatvrul teqstSi transteqstualoba (J. Jeneti) Semdegi saxiTSeiZleba iyos warmodgenili:1) parateqstualoba _ ramdenime teqstis saTaurs daqvesaTaurs Soris kavSiri da msgavseba;2) metateqstualoba _ teqstebs Soris iseTi saxisinterteqstualuri urTierToba, rodesac erTi teqsSimeores komentaris saxiT moixsenieben;3) arqiteqstualobis SemTxvevaSi yuradReba nawarmoebebisarqiteqtonikis, maTi agebulebisa da struqturebs Sorismsgavsebas efuZneba;4) hiperteqstualoba gulisxmobs erTi teqstis nebismierSesamCnev kavSirs sxva teqstTan. am SemTxvevaSi, teqsti-wyarohipoteqstad iwodeba, interteqstualuri kavSiris Sedegi ki_ hiperteqstad;5) interteqstualoba _ teqstebis erTmaneTTan siaxlovea,romelic aluziebis da reminiscenciebis saxiT vlindeba(Jouve1997: 81).nervalis moTxrobaSi (,,orelia’’) arqiteqstualoba ar SeimCneva:moTxroba struturis msgavsebas romelime sxva mxatvrul teqstTan aravlens: arc sxva mwerlis da arc Tavad nervalis, maTi ideur_Tematurisiaxlovis miuxedavad. interteqstualoba nervalis moTxrobaSiminimumandea dayvanili: Cven, SeiZleba, arazusti citirebebi moviZioT(magaliTad, ioane RvTismetyvelis gamocxadebidan), magram es kavSiriufro Soreuli gamoZaxili iqneba. Cveni azriT, parateqstualuradnervalis moTxroba _ ,,orelia’’, ukavSirdeba iakob voraginelisoqros legendas. am msgavsebaSive vlindeba nervalis nawarmoebishiperteqstualuri kavSiri igive oqros legendasTan. hiperteqstualurikavSiri aRiniSneba nervalis moTxrobas (,,orelia’’) da publicisturnarkvevebs _ ,,gaseirnebani da mogonebani’’, ,,mogzauroba aRmosavleTSi’’,novelebs (,,cecxlis qaliSvilebi’’) Soris, rac avtoaluziebis saxiTvlindeba. metateqstualobis magaliTic SeiZleba moviyvanoT(avtokomentari), rodesac novelaSi _ ,,anJeliki’’, mwerali mkiTxvelsamave Temaze Seqmnil mis sxva nawarmoebis wakiTxvas sTavazobs.


140rogorc zemoT avRniSneT, Jerar de nervalis teqsti movlenebismcire raodenobiT xasiaTdeba. mwired warmodgenili xdomiloba argamoricxavs ambis arsebobas, winaaRmdeg SemTxevaSi, arc mxatvrulliteraturulan naratiul teqstze iqneboda saubari. nawarmoebSimovlenaTa Txrobis simetriuloba SeimCneva. erTi da igive movlenebisgameoreba nervalis nawarmoebis kompoziciur Taviseburebas warmoadgens,gamohyofs imas, rac mniSvnelovani da yuradRebis Rirsia da amukanasknelis simbolur datvirTvas usvams xazs.naratologia struqturalizmsa da recefciuli esTetikas Sorismdgari meTodologiaa, amitom analizi rogorc erTis, iseve meorisSemfaseblur damokidebulebas gulisxmobs. sityvis xelovneba yvelazeabstraqtulia xelovnebebs Soris da warmosaxvas efuZneba(literaturis . . 2008: 185). nebismier teqstSi arsebobs e. w. ganusazvreliadgilebi (literaturis . . 2008: 185), romelTa konktretizacia darekonstruireba mravalmxrivia da mkiTxvelis aRqmazea damokidebuli.teqstis aRqma, kiTxvis procesSi mkiTxvelisa da avtoris Sexvedra,nawarmoebis Tavisufal interpretacias ar gulisxmobs. Tu J. deridasdavevsesxebiT, samyaro _ teqstia. samyaro usasrulo interprtetaciissaSualebas iZleva, magram aRqmis procesi ,,Ria teqstis’’ koncefciasunda daeqvemdebaros (Эко.У). Sesabamisad, teqstSi mxolod imganusazRvreli adgilebis Sevseba SeiZleba, riskenac Tavad teqstigvibiZgebs, ris saSualebasac igi iZleva. Cven SevecadeT warmogvedginais aluziebi, reminiscenciebi, avtoaluziebi, romelic nawarmoebisaRqmas, kompoziciis Taviseburebas warmoCenas da ambis rekonstruirebasuwyobs xels.nawarmoebis _ ,,orelia’’ _ meore nawilis IV da V TavSi, mweraliprotagonistis parizSi da mis gareubanSi gaseirnebebis ambavsmogviTxrobs. mTxrobeli germanel poetTan wasvlas apirebs, Semdeggadaifiqrebs, ziarebisTvis eklesiaSi Sedis da iqidan gamosulseCveneba, rom tuilris baRebTan qveynis dasasruli dgeba.esqatologiuri SiSiT Sepyrobili protagonisti brundeba, germanelpoetTan misuli, cudad xdeba da igi TavSesafarSi gadahyavT.nawarmoebis meore nawilis IV Tavi erTmaneTis mimarT simetriulimovlenebisgan aris konstruirebuli. isini Cven sqemis saxiT SeiZleba


141gamovxatoT ise, rom IV da V Tavebis siuJeturi erTianoba ar dairRves,radgan sqemaSi aRniSnuli movlenebis garda, sxvac xdeba, magaliTad:mamasTan viziti, megobrebTan stumroba, megobar JorJTan erTadgaseirneba, mRvdelTan Sexvedra, halucinaciebi, orelias gamocxadeba.sqema # 6A SimSili F eklesiaB monmartris sasaflao G namcxvaris dagemovnebaC germanel poetTan viziti H germanel poetTan vizitiD eklesia J TavSesafariE apokalifsisinervalis xSirad imeorebs movlenebs, rogorc sxvadasxvanawarmoebis, aseve erTis farglebSi.YsqemaSi # 6 miTiTebuli movlenebisamyaros dasasrulis suraTis aRweriT aris erTmaneTisgan gamijnuli(E). orive mwkrivSi warmodgenili movlenebi erTmaneTs Seesabameba daavsebs, Tumca, zemoT moyvanili sqemisgan gansxvavebiT (ix. sqema # 3),movlenebi simetriulobasa da wriulobas hkargaven. nervali, amSemTxvevaSic, igive principiT qmedebs: mniSvnelobas im movlenas aniWebs,romelic ar meordeba: apokalifsisis, mamasTan vizits, megobarJorJTan gaseirnebas (ix. wina sqemebSi _n.q.) movlenebis gameoreba,nervalis nawarmoebs natariuli teqstebis ornamentul prozissaxeobasTan aigivebs. movlenaTa gameorebebis da mniSvnelovanisgamoyofis xarjze xdeba calkeuli movlenebis simboluri datvirTvisgaZliereba, es ki nawarmoebSi aluziebis da reminiscenciebis ZiebasmoiTxovs.rogorc vxedavT, eklesia sqemis orive mwkrivSi figurirebs.mTxrobeli IV TavSi aRsarebis survilis Sesaxeb saubrobs: ,,aRsarebamindoda’’ (,,Je voulais me confesser’’ (Nerval 1985:68)). aRsarebis win, qristianmapatieba unda sTxovos yvelas, vis winaSe igi Tavs damnaSaved grZnobs(maTe 6:14-15) da masac, visac boroti ganzraxviT ar awyenina (luka 19:8).sasurvelia, rom aRsarebis win qristianma imarxulos da efiTemiisSesrulebisTvis iyos mzad (Zilze unda Tqvas uari). sqemaSi #6 sworedamitomaa warmodgenili protagonistis uWmeloba (A). sakvebis miReba


142marxvis metaforuli gamoxatuleba xdeba da yofiTi situacia (nervalisusaxsroba) nawarmoebSi sakralur xasiaTs iZens. mTxrobeli megobarTansadilze da sasiamovno drois gatarebaze ambobs uars: ,,quCaSi megobarsSevxvdi. sadilad mimipatiJa. gasarTobad Cemi TavisTan wayvana surda.uari vuTxari da uWmeli, monmartris gzas Sevudeqi’’ (,,Je rencontrer dans lesrues un ami qui voulait m’emmener diner chez lui pour me distraire un peu. Je refusai, et sansrien manger, le me dirigeai vers Montmartre’’ (Nerval 1985 :67)). am SemTxvevaSic,profanulis sakralizacia (hierofania) xdeba. logikuria, rom samyarosdasasrulis saSiSroeba mTxrobelis eklesiaSi misvlis Semdeggadaivlis (Nerval 1985 :73), ris Semdegac, germanel poetTan meorevizitamde, gulrwfeli aRsarebis da codvebis mitevebis niSnad,mTxrobeli namcxvars daigemovnebs: ,,germanel poetTan wasasvleladZala rom momcemoda, namcxviris patara naWriT SiSili davioke’’(,,J’apaisai ma faim avec un petit gâteau pour me donner la force d’aller jusqu’à la maison dupoète allemend’’(Nerval 1985 :71)).monmartrze mTxrobeli sasaflaoze midis, romelic daketilidaxvdeba. monmartri, sadac ganlagebuli iyo espri blanSis klinika,romleSic nervali mkurnalobda, mowameTa mTasTan asocirdeba.sasaflaoze misvlas igi manamdec, nawarmoebis meore nawilis II TavSimogviTxrobs. sasaflaoze misi naTesavebi ganisveneben: ,,am sasaflozeCemi sami naTesavi iyo dakrZaluli’’ (,,Trois parents de ma famille maternelle yavaient été ensevelis’’(Nerval 1985 :56)). iqve misi satrfo ganisvenebda, romlissaflavis monaxulebis religiuri ufleba mTxrobels ar hqonda da esuufleboba mas awuxebda: ,,mcvelebs misi saxeli ver gavumxile, radganmasze araviTari ufleba ar mqonda’’ (,,Je n’osai pas dire aux gardiens le nom d’unemorte sur laquelle je n’avais religieusement aucun droit . . ‘’ (Nerval 1985 :56)).sainteresoa, rom nawarmoebis dasawyisSi, mTxrobeli satrfoze rogorccocxalze ise saubrobs da arc Semdeg aqvs naxsenebi, rodisgardaicvala igi. es epizodi kidev erTxel gvarwmunebs, rom nervalisnawarmoebi ornamentuli prozis nimuSia: movlena masSi arc ki arisgadmocemuli. mwerlisTvis mniSvnelovania is, Tu ra funqciismatarebelia, ra simboluri datvirTvaa aqvs ama Tu im movlenasa TupersonaJs. naratologiuri TvalsazrisiT, es epizodi elifsisis


143klasikuri magaliTia. niSandoblivia, rom nawarmoebSi, romelicsatrfos Ziebas asaxavs, satrfos gardacvaleba arc ki arismoTxrobili, anu realuri da mniSvnelovani faqti moxseniebuliamxolod.sasaflaoze orive wasvla uSedego aRmoCndeba: erTxel, mTxrobelssatrfos saflavis adgilmdebareoba ar axsovs, meorejer _ sasaflaodaketili daxvdeba (Nerval 1985 :56). aseve uSedegoa germanel poetTanvizitic: erTxel mTxrobeli gadaifiqrebs da germanel poetTan misvlasmonmartrze wasvlas amjobinebs (Nerval 1985 :680), meorejer _ Tavs cudadigrZnobs da TavSesafarSi waiyvanen (Nerval 1985 :71).sqemaze #-6, IV da V Tavis paralelurad ganlagebul movlenebsaerTianebs apokalifsisis epizodi. IV TavSi mas avtori erTxelmoixseniebs: ,,gavifiqre, samyaros dasasruli dadga-meTqi da ioaneRvTismetyvelis gamocxadebaSi nawinaswarmetyvelevis mowmeni viyaviT’’(,,Je crus que les temps étaient accomplis, et que nous touchions à la fin du monde annoncéedans Apocalypse de Saint- Jean’’(Nerval1985 :70)). nawarmoebis swored am nawilSiCans inter/para/metateqstualoba. momdevno TavSi am epizods tuilrisbaRebTan mzis dabnelebisa da warRvnis aRwera mosdevs. mze Suqismetaforaa, Suqi ki _ RvTaebrivs gamoxatavs. mzis metafora oqrocaa.nervalis moTxrobis _ ,,orelia’’ _ meore nawilSi, rodesac mTxrobeliapokalifsiss tuilris baRebTan xedavs, igi kafes daxlze oqrosa davercxlis monetebs agdebs. es epizodi oiane RvTismetyvelisgamocxadebis gamoZaxilia: ,,girCev iyido Cemgan oqro, vercxliTgawmendili’’ (,,apokalifsisi’’, III.18).ioane RvTismetyvelis gamocxadebis sxva reminiscenciebizemoxsenebul TavebSia mimobneuli. mTxrobeli eklesiaSi locvis drosxelidan vercxlis beWeds moiZrobs, romelzedac arabuli sityvebiaamotvifruli: ,,Allah ! Mohamed ! Ali !’’. es moZraoba mTxrobelis miercodvebis monaniebas gamoxatavs: igi sxva mrwams uaryofs da amiT codvismonaniebisTvis mzadyofnas aRiarebs. eklesiidan gamosuli, igi sxvabeWeds yidulobs, rac RmerTis mier codvebis mitevebis maniSnebelia:,,eklesiidan gamosulma, vercxlis beWedi viyide’’ (,,En sortant de l’église, j’aiachetai un anneau d’argent’’(Nerval 1985 :73)). amave beWeds, ukve V TavSi, warRvnis


144Tavidan asacileblad gadaagdebs: ,,megona warRvna gviaxlovdeboda dawminda estates eklesiaSi nayidi beWedi Zalian Sors movisrole’’ (,,Jecroyais l’inondation universelle, je jetai à l’endroit le plus profond l’anneau que j’avais acheté àSaint-Eustache’’ (Nerval 1985:73)). ioane RvTismetyvelis gamocxadebis VI TavSi(1-17) kravis mier Svidi beWdis axsnis Sesaxebaa saubari (,,da vixile, romkravma axsna erTi Svidi beWedTagani . . . (ap. 6:1). nervalis teqstSi cifriSvidi beWdebTan mimarTebaSi ar figurirebs. apokalifsisSi am cifrsbeWdebis, varskvlavTa raodenoba ukavSirdeba. nervals igi locvasTandakavSirebiT aqvs naxsenebi: notr-dam de loretis eklesiaSimTxrobelis aRsarebisas mRvdeli locvas Svidjer wyvets: ,,mRvdelmalocva Sewyvita da Svidjer wamoiwyo. me ki misi sityvebis gagebamiWirda’’ (,,Le prêtre s’interromprit au milieu de l’oraison et recommença sept fois sans queje puisse retrouver dans ma mémoire les paroles suivantes’’(Nerval 1985 :59)). moTxrobis_ ,,orelia’’, amave TavebSi eklesiebia naxsenebi. maTi raodenoba aseveSvidia: monmartris (68), notr-damis (68), notr-dam de loretis (69), notrdamde viqtuaris (70), reimsis kaTedrali (71) da eklesia sent-onoresquCaze (72). ioane RvTismetyvelis gamocxadebaSi weria: ,,Svidivarskvlavi Svidi eklesiis angelosni arian, xolo Svidi sasanTleeklesiaa Svidi’’ (1:20). nervalis fraza, romelic nawarmoebSi samyarosdasasrulis suraTs win uZRvis, exmianeba frazas apokalifsisidan: ,,ciskamaraze varskvlavebi anaTebdnen. uecrad, momeCvena, rom Caqrnen rogorcis sanTlebi, eklesiaSi rom vnaxe’’ (,,Les étoiles brillaient dans le firmament. Tout àcoup il me sembla qu’elles venaient de s’éteindre à la fois comme les bougies que j’avais vues àl’église’’ (Nerval 1985 :69)). es ukanaskneli, moTxrobaSi _ ,,orelia’’,ineterteqstualobis (citireba, arasruli citireba), hiperteqstualobis(hopo/hiperteqsti) madasturebelia. Lmeore nawilis IX TavSi mTxrobeli Tavis bavSvobis mxareSimogzaurobs. igi bavSvobis megobars saxlSi estumra, kibidan Camosvlisdros waborZikda, Zveli avejis kuTxes daenarcxa da dagorda. didiZalisxmevis Semdeg adga da baRSi gavida. es epizodi ioaneRvTismetyvelis gamocxadebas asociaciurad ukavSirdeba: ,,gaixsenesaidan daeci, da Seinanie’’ (2 :5). mTxrobeli Tavis urwmonoebas bavSvobiswlebis Tavisufal aRzrdas abralebs: ,,Cemi Tavisufali aRzrda-


145ganaTleba’’ (,,mon éducation . . trop libre’’(Nerval 1985 : 63)). misi ,,dacemac’’ daanabasisic, rac mTxrobelis baRSi gasvliT gamoixateba, mSobliurkuTxeSi xdeba. Tu waborZikeba da waqceva, metaforulad, codvebisaRiarebas gamoxatavs, baRSi gasvla samoTxisken mimavali gzis simboloa.nervalis nawarmoebisa da diureris namuSevrebis intermedialururTierTobebze saubrisas avRniSneT, rom diurers bibliuri epizodebiaqvs dasuraTebuli. erT-erT graviuraze kibis safexurebTanmuxlmodrekili qristea asaxuli. albaT, aseTad esaxeboda nervalsmTxrobelis katabasisi: Zveleburi saxlis kibis safexurTanwaborZikebuli protagonisti (Дюрер, A-Сошествие во ад). es epizdi exmianebanervalis cnobil sonets _ ,,qriste zeTisxilis baRSi’’ (Nerval 1994 :323).IV da V TavSi mTxrobels Caesmis galoba. igi amas patiebis niSnadaRiqvams da or eklesiaSi midis, radgan apokalifsisSi naTqvamia: ,,visacyuri aqvs, isminos, ras eubneba suli eklesiebs’’ (ap. 2 :7).nawarmoebis X TavSi, rodesac mTxrobeli saxelosnos stumrobs, iqgavarvarebul rkals xedavs: ,,erT-erT xelosans xelT epyra rkinisgrZeli naWeri, romlis boloSi cecxlisgan gavarvarebuli sferoiyo’’(,,Un des ouvriers de l’atelier . . tenant une longue barre dont l’extrémité se composaitd’une boule rougie au feu’’ (Nerval 1985 :47). es frazac ioane RvTismetyvelisgamocxadebas inerteqstualurad SeiZleba davukavSirod: ,,cecxlSigavarvarebuli elvare rkali’’ (ap. 2 :1).am epizodSi aluziebi martooden ioane RvTismetyvelisgamocxadebiT ar Semoifargleba. saxelosnoSi mTxrobeli ucnaur,Tixisgan gamoZerwil arsebas dainaxavs: ,,vixile rogor ZerwavdnenTixisgan xelosnebi uzarmazar frTosan lamas’’ (,,Je vis des ouvriers quimodelaient en glase un aminal enorme de la forme d’un lama, mais qui paraissait devoir êtremuni de grandes ailes’’(Nerval1985 :45)). Cveni azriT, es praReli kabalistismier Tixisgan gamoZerwil xelovnur adamianze _ golemzea miniSneba,romelic yovel ocdacamet weliwadSi erTxel cocxldeba (Golem-onlaindok.). marTalia, Jerar de neralis teqstSi frTosan arsebazeasaubari, magram mwerlis mizans adamianis RvTiuri warmomavlobis, misiSemoqmedTan gatolebis xazgasma warmoadgens.


146mistikuri qorwineba tradiciuli Temaa xmelTaSuazRvispireTisa daantaliis esqatologiuri tradiciuli miTologiisTvis. es tradiciawminda ekaterine aleqsandrielis saxels ukavSirdeba, romelicsizmarSi iesoze saRvTo kavSiriT dainiSna (Voragine 1967 :44).gaRviZebisTanave ekaterinem marjvena xelze beWedi dainaxa. am beWedsmxolod TviTon xedavda. ekaterine Cv.w.aR.de IV saukuneSi sikvdiliTdasajes, radgan man imperator maqsimilianes warmarTobaSi dasdobrali. ekaterinem rwmenas ar uRalata, amiT imperatorsac daaristokratiasac daupirispida. igi sawamebel borbalze gaakres.mxolod VI saukuneSi, imperator iustinianes marTvelobis dros, misiZvlebi ipoves (wminda ekaterine beWdiT icnes) da sinas mTis ZirSiagebul monasterSi daasvenes. monasterSi momlocvelebs vercxlisbeWeds dResac Cuqnian, romelzedac gulia gamosaxuli da sityvebic _aria aikatepina (Святая Екатерина Александрийская on-lain.dok). zogadad, beWedierTianobis simboloa. CineTSi kurtizani qali imperatorTan yofnamdevercxlis beWeds marcxena xelze ikeTebda, masTan daSorebis Semdeg,radgan, CinelTa warmodgeniT, igi RvTaebrivi warmomavlobis pirs Seexoda naxa, beWeds ukve marjvena xelze atarebda. CineTSive, nebismieriqalisTvis, fexZimobis mecxre Tves, savaldebulo iyo beWdis tareba.beWedi, mrgvali formis samkauli, yelsabami, samajuri mzis diskosZveli simboloa. mas faraonebi, umaRlesi qurumebi, mefeebi daimperatorebi atarebdnen. bibliuri gadmocemis mixedviT, faraonmandobis niSnad iosebs beWedi gadasca, romelic Tavisi xelidan moiZro.,,meTevzis beWeds’’ romis papi atarebs (Enciclopédie des symboles 2002). wmindaekaterines beWedi saRvTo kavSiris garda, wamebluri aRsrulebissimbolocaa.moTxrobis _ ,,orelia,’’ pirveli nawilis VII TavSi, mTxrobeliZvelebur beWeds axsenebs, romelsac gulis formis opali amSvenebs. TugavixsenebT, rom wminda ekaterines beWedze gulia gamosaxuli, esnervalis teqstSi mistikuri qonwinebis miniSnebad unda CavTvaloT.Cvens mosazrebas isic amyarebs, rom, cota xanSi, mTxrobels sisxliwaskdeba: ,,momeCvena rom sisxli mdioda’’ (,,Il me sembla couler le sang . . .’’(Nerval 1985 :30)). wminda ekaterine aleqsandrielis Semdeg, ekaterine


147sienels, romelic aseve wmindanad aris aRiarebuli, qristesTanmistikuri qorwinebis Semdeg, stigmatebi gauCnda (Sainte Catherine on-laindok). XIV saukuneSi ekaterine sienelma (q. siena italiaSi) ganacxada,rom igi qristem daniSna da, amis aRsaniSnad, mas oTxi margalitiTgawyobili almasis beWedi gadasca (Святая Екатерина Cиенская). miuxedavadimisa, rom nervals teqstSi ,,mistikuri qorwinebis’’ (Nerval 1985 :58), gulisformis opalisTvliani beWdis (Nerval 1985 :30), garda araferi aqvsnaxsenebi, asociaciurad, wminda ekaterine aleqsandrielisa da ekaterinesienelze aqvs miniSneba. Cveni mosazreba imave TavSi naxsenebi freskebismoxseniebiT kidev ufro myardeba. saavadmyofoSi gamoketil mTxrobelskedlebze xatvis dauokebeli survili gauCnda. igi aguris nafSvnetis danaxSiris saSualebiT xatavda: ,,kedlebi maleve freskebiT movxate’’ (,,Jecouvris bientôt les murs d’une série de fresques’’ (Nerval 1985 :31)). erTi gamosaxulebayovel jerze meordeboda: es orelias saxe iyo: ,,erTi saxe yvelasgangamoirCeoda. igi orelias ekuTvnoda. mas RvTiuri Saravandedi mosavda.iseTi iyo, rogorc Cems sizmarSi’’ (,,Une figure dominait toujours les autres: c’étaitcelle d’Aurélia, peinte sous les traits d’une divinité, telle qu’elle m’était aparue dans mon rêve’’(Nerval 1985 :31)). freskebze orelias ferxTiT mTxrobeli borbalsxatavs, rac kidev erTxel gvakavSirebs wminda ekaterine aleqsandrielissaxesTan, radgan, rogorc wmindanis cxovrebis istoriidan viciT, wmindaekaterine aleqsandrieli borbalze iqna gakruli da ise aResrula.iakob voraginelis teqstSi, romelic wminda ekaterines wamebas aRwers,vkiTxulobT: ,,ori borbali erTi mimarTulebiT unda amoZravebuliyo,ori sxva ki _ sapirispiro, raTa sxeuli gaexliCaT’’ (,,On disposa deux rouxqui devaient tourner dans un sens, en même temps que daux autres roux seraient mises enmouvement dans un sens contraire, de manière que celles . . .devaient déchirer les chairs’’(Voragine1967 :391). nervalis moTxrobaSi es epizodi voraginelis frazisgamoZaxilia: ,,mis ferxTiT bobrali trialebda da RmerTebi masaxldnen’’ (,,Sous ses pieds tournait une roue, et les dieux lui faisaient cortège’’ (Nerval1985 :31)). nervali ori wmindanis saerTo, gaerTianebul saxe-xatsgvixatavs, erT miTologemas qmnis. es ki imaze metyvelebs, rom nervalispersonaJi- qali krebiT xasiaTs atarebs. nawarmoebSi nervals saxeli _,,ekaterine’’ arsad ara aqvs naxsenebi. moTxrobis epiteqstSi igi ruseTis


148ori imperatoris meuRleze, or ekaterinaze gviyveba. moTxrobis _,,orelia’’, xelnawerebSi, romelic nacionaluri biblioTekisxelnawerTa ganyofilebaSi inaxeba da mxolod 1962 wlis 18 ianvars,,literaturul siaxleebSi’’ (,,Les Nouvelles Littéraires’’) gamoqveynda, mweralior ekaterines axsenebs: ,,RmerTis msgavs arsebebs Soris ori ekaterinegamoirCeoda’’ (,,De figures radieuses et divines, parmi lesquelles on distinguait les deuxCatherine’’(Nerval 1985 :95)). nawarmoebis ZiriTad nawilSi ekaterinesaerTod ar aris moxseniebuli (mxolod mistikuri qorwineba), magramwmindanebi, mwerlis warmosaxvaSi, ruseTis saimperatoro karis or didmmarTvelad gardaisaxebian. Sesabamisad, mTxrobelis sizmari istoriulkonteqstSic moiazreba. protagonisti mSvidobis molodiniT iRviZebs:,,sizmris bolos, simSvidis tkbili SegrZneba dameufla’’ (,,Mon rêve setermina par le doux espoir que la paix nous serait enfin donnée’’ (Nerval 1985 :95)).xelnaweris es nawyveti, nawilobriv xsnis moTxrobis _ ,,orelia’’, imepizods, rodesac napoleonTan gaigivebis Semdeg (Nerval 1985 :75),mTxrobeli Tavis Secdomebze saubrobs: nervali Tavis bavSvobas igonebsda mSoblebis araswor gadawyvetilebaze miuTiTebs, radgan sworedruseTis kompaniis dros daiRupa dedamisi, xolo mama _ tyved Cavarda(Jean 1989 :19).teqstSi erTi asosiaciuri kavSiri meores ebmis. wminda ekaterinesda mistikuri qorwinebis epizods, sisifes Sesaxeb miTTankavSiriEmohyveeba. saavadmyofos oTx kedelSi gamomwydeuli mTxrobelikedlebis moxatviT inugeSebs Tavs, magram mTxrobelis bednierebismoSurne giJebi freskebs yovel dilas Slian: ,,yovel diliT, saqmeTavidan mqonda gasakeTebeli, radgan Cemi bednierebis moSurne giJebi,naxatebis waSliT irTobdnen Tavs’’ (,,Tous les matins, mon travail était à refairecar les fous, jaloux de mon bonheur, se plaisaient à en reduire l’image’’ (Nerval 1985 : -32)).SeSlilni mTxrobelis freskebs afuWeben da mas yovel dRe axlisSeqmna uwevs. es epizodi sisifes miTTan kavSirze metyvelebs(Мифологический словарь 1989 :454). korinTes aRmSenebelisa dadamaarseblis, sisifes saxiT esqile, sofokle da evripideinteresdebodnen. miTis mixedviT, sisife tanatos, Zilis RmerTis _gipnosis tyupiscal Zmas moatyuebs da, sikvdilis Semdeg, qvesknelSi ar


149darCeba. qvesknelis RmerTi da persefona mas zesknelSi im pirobiTdaabruneben, rom cols dakrZalvis tradiciis ugulebelyofisTvisdasjis da qvesknels daubrundeba. sisife RmerTebs amjeradac atyuebs,ris Semdeg mas hermesi mas olimpos gadawyvetilebas auwyebs: sisifesmudmivi, fuWi Sroma miesaja: igi mTis wverze mZine tvirTis sazidadaaganwiruli. RvTaebrivi Zalis meSveobiT, atanili lodi isev pirvandeladgils ubrundeba. nervali miTs sisifes Sesaxeb, erTi mxriv,qvesknelSi Casuli da ukan dabrunebuli mokvdavis saxis warmosaCenadiyenebs da RmerTebisgan tanjvisTvis ganwiruli adamianis simbolod;meore mxriv, sisifes mier qvesknelis, Zilis RmerTis motyuebaasociaciurad Tavad mwerlis avadmyofobas ukavSirdeba: bolo periodSinervalisTvis Zilica da RviZilic gaigivebuli iyo.is, rom nervalis nawarmoebi oqros legendis hiperteqstswarmoadgens, amas kidev erTi epizodi amtkicebs: quCaSi gamarTuliCxubis Semdeg, mTxrobeli tanovan kacs dainaxavs, romelsac xelSigiacintis feris samosiani Cvili hyavs atatebuli. baSvis kabis feriasociaciurad ukavSirdeba mSvidobas, radgan giacinti simboluradmSvidobas da Zlierebas gamoxatavs (Hiacinte on-lan dok). ferissimboluri datvirTva gasagebia, radgan mTxrobeli SeWidebis SeCerebasaxerxebs. mxarbeWgaSlil muSas mTxrobeli wminda qristeforesamsgavsebs: ,,moCxubarTa gaSvelebas Sevecade. am dros, iqve zorba muSamCaiara. marcxena mxarze giacintisferkabiani bavSvi ejda. warmovidgine,rom es wminda qristefore iyo, romelic qristes atarebda mxrebiT’’(J’essayai de séparer les combattants . . en ce moment, un ouvrier de grande taille passa sur laplace même où le combat venait d’avoir lieu, portant sur l’épaule gauche un enfant vêtu d’unrobe d’hyacinthe. Je m’imaginait que c’était saint Cristophe portant le Christ’’ (Nerval1985 :68)). oqros legendaSi moTxrobilia ambavi, Tu rogor gadaiyvanaqristeforem Cvili ieso mdinaris meore napiras (Voragine 1967 :9).cnobilia albrext diureris graviura, romelzedac wmindaqristefores Cvili qriste mxrebze uzis. es ukanaskneli odnav marcnivaris gadaxrili. vfiqrobT, es nervalis teqstis da diureris graviurasSoris arsebul kavSirs kidev erTxel avlens (Durer/Saint- Christophe).


150oqros legendaSi aRwerilia wminda qristefores, wminda egides,wminda dionises, wminda ekaterines, wminda pavles, wminda giorgiscxovreba. yvela es wmindani nervalis moTxrobaSia warmodgenili.nawarmoebis meore nawilSi, avtori im sakiTxebis gansazRvras, imkiTxvebze pasuxis gacemas cdilobs, romlebic nawarmoebis pirvelnawilSi aris dasmuli. am TvalsazrisiT, aluziebis arsebobaasaintereso. erTi mxriv, es aris sxvadasxva mxatvrul-literaturulnawarmobebTan (dante, apuleusi, hofmani, novalisi) aluziebi, bibliurireminiscenciebi; rogorc wina TavebSi, aseve _ meoTxeSic, mTxrobelsTavisi megzuri hyavs. mTxrobelis megzuri jer megobaria, Semdeg – orimegobari, bolos megzurobas, jer biZamisis msaxuri _ margareti uwevs(mis saxels mTxrobeli zustad verc ki ixsenebs, magram isicvoraginelis nawarmoebSi moxseniebul wmindans ukavSirdeb), Semdeg ki –miwadmoqmedi. nervalis nawarmoebSi megzuris arseboba, avtoris miervirgiliusis, dante alegieris xseneba (Nerval 1985 :9), moTxrobaze _,,orelia’’, ,,RvTaebrivi komediis’’ gavlenaze metyvelebs. meore mxriv,nervali avtoaluziebsac aqtiurad iyenebs, romelTa arseboba misukanasknel qmnilebaSi gansakuTrebul mniSvnelobas iZens (Jean 1989 :90).gasaTvaliswineblia avtoaluziebic nervalis sxva nawarmoebebTan(,,oqtombris Rameebi’’, ,,silvi’’, ,,qimerebi’’, ,,mogzauroba aRmosavleTSi’’).am nawarmoebSi erTi da igive Temebi, msgavsi movlenebi erTi siuJeturiinvariantis irgvliv meordeba, TiTqos mwerali mniSvnelovani sakiTxis,problemis gadawyvetis ramdenime saSualebas eZiebs da maT TavispersonaJebsa da mkiTxvels sTavazebs.teqstis IV TavSi, mTxrobeli seirnobs parizis quCebSi, monmartrze,kliSize, gamarjvebis quCaze, SeTanxmebis moedanze, senis sanapiroze daeliseis mindvrebze. igive marSruts imeorebs oqtombris RameebismTxrobelic; metic, Tu moTxrobaSi _ ,,orelia’’, iseTi kompoziciurielementebi rogoricaa personaJi _ megzuri, parizis ubnebisa da quCebisdasaxeleba, sizmari, kopernaumi, jujebi, sizmari _ nawarmoebissxvavdasxva epizodSi iCens Tavs, narkvevSi _ ,,oqtombris Rameebi’’, maTcalke Tavi eZRvneba. es ki imaze miuTiTebs, Tu ra did mniSvnelobasaniWebs nervali TiToeul maTgans (nervali 2002 :26).


151moTxrobis _ ,,orelia’’, homodiegesuri mTxrobeli, imis fonze, romnawarmoebSi Zalzed Znelia dadgena Tu ra aris realurad momxdari dara _ warmosaxvis nayofi, xazgasmiT asaxelebs parizis quCissaxelwodebebs, mis gareubnebs da sxva qalaqebsac: monmartri, kliSi,strasburgi . . . monmartri, kliSi _ swored am mimarTulebiT moZraobsnaratori. moTxrobaSi _ ,,orelia’’, mis yuradRebas ipyrobs sasaflaomonmartrTan, eseebSi _ ,,oqtombris Rameebi”’ _ gauqmebuli qvissamtexlo.eseebSi _ ,,oqtombris Rameebi’’, mTxrobeli policiisa da monmartristeritoriaze gauqmebuli qvis samtexloebis muSebis dapirispirebazemogviTxrobs. moTxrobaSi _ ,,orelia’’ ki, igive kliSis midamoebSi,mTxrobeli Tavad xdeba Sexla-Semoxlis mowmec da gamSvelebelic.Cxubis monawile erT-erTi mxare _ muSebia, meoreze _ araferia Tqmuli,Tumca Tu gavixsenebT epizods narkvevidan _ ,,oqtombris Rameebi’’,SegviZlia vivaraudoT, rom istoriulad arsebuli qvis samtexlosmuSebisa da mTavrobis warmomadgenelTa UuTanxmoebis TaviseburinterpretaciasTan gvaqvs saqme. am epizodsac religiuri qveteqsti aqvs:galo-romaul periodSi, monmartrze arsebuli qvis samtexloebipirveli qristianTa TavSesafrad iqca (Нерваль 1985 :85).nervalis nawarmoebSi erTi simbolo meores ukavSirdeba dadausrulebeli interpretaciis da varaudis saSulebas iZleva,magaliTad mTis miTologema. mTis simbolika Zalzed mniSvnelovanianervalis moTxrobaSi _ ,,orelia’’. nawarmoebis sqemaSi (#6) monmartris(B) paralelurad TavSesafaria (L’hospice de la Charité (Nerval 1985 :75)) _ (J)ganlagebuli, radgan TavSesafari Tavisuflebis xelyofasTan, muSaobisSezRudvasTan, mTxrobelis ocnebebis dasamarebasTan asocirdeba, amitomsasaflao da TavSesafari IV da V Tavis simetriul sqemaSi erTmaneTsenacvleba da msgavs datvirTvas iZens. meore nawilis IV TavisdasawyisSi, parizis quCebSi seirnobis dros, moxseniebulia marsi (,,uncertain Mars . . .’’ (Nerval 1985 : 63)). es mTxrobelis monmartrze gaseirnebisdros xdeba. erTi versiiT, monmartris saxelwodeba berZnul RmerTs _mars ukavSirdeba (Mons Martis on-lain dok). meore versiiT, parizisCrdiloeTiT mdebare 130 metris simaRlis mTas wmnida mowame dionise


152parizelis sapativcemulod uwodes _ ,,monmartri’’, rac ,,mowamis mTas’’niSnavs (Mons Martyrium) (Montmartre on-lain dok). dionise parizeli (III Cv.w.)parizis pirveli episkoposi iyo. igi qristianobas dasavlaT evropaSi,safrangeTsa da germaniaSi qadagebda. wminda dionise da misi orimxlebeli, rustiki da elevferiemi, galebma Seipyres da TavebimohkveTes. gadmocemis mixedviT, dionisem mokveTili Tavi xelSi aiRo,ganbana igi, eqvsi kilometri gaiara daEmxolod maSin ganuteva suli,rodesac mTis wverze avida. mas Semdeg, daaxloebiT 272 wlidanmoyolebuli, im adgils sen-deni (Saint-Denis on-lain dok), wminda dioniseSearqves. es teritoria momlocvelebis wminda adgilad iqca, im gzis,romelsac wminda iakobis gza ewodeba (Sant-Jacques-de-Compostel). iakobvoraginelis oqros legendaSi vkiTxulobT: ,,Aussitôt le corps de sait Denys seleva, et sous la conduite d’un ange, et précédé par une lumière céleste, il porta sa tête entre lesbras, l’espace de deux milles, depuis l’endrois qu’on appelle le Mont des Martyres’’(Voragine 1967 277)) (,,uecrad, wminda dionises sxeuli wamodga daangeloziT da zeciuri SuqiT marTulma, TavmokveTilma ori aTasi miligaiara da wminda mowameTa mTamde mivida’’. am epizodSi mTis simbolikanervalis nawarmoebis da oqros legendis interteqstualuri kavSirisgasaRebi xdeba. nervalisTvis monmartris gza es misi personaluriwminda iakobis gzaa da im gzis simboluri gamoxatulebaa, romelicyovelma WeSmaritma qristianma unda gaiaros. mogzauroba, gaseirnebanervalis nawarmoebebSi sakralur datvirTvas iZens. nawarmoebisprotagonisti xSirad seirnobs monmartrze, amitom migvaCnia, romnawarmoebis meore nawilis qristianul-simboluri gaazreba nervalisCanafiqris amocnobisTvisaa aucilebeli da ganmsazRvreli: TavisiezoTeruli ZiebebiT cnobili, naturfilosofiiT gatacebuli dailuminizmiT STagonebuli frangi mwerali samyaros saidumloebisqristianul gaazrebas Tavis saboloo daniSnulebad, misiad miiCnevs.kidev erTi saintereso faqti, romelsac SeuZlia naTeli mohfinosnervalis orelias. XII saukuneSi, wmnida benediqtes ordenma sen-denismTaze monasteri daarsa. igi lui VII-is braZanebiT iqna agebuli yofilimarsis taZris (V saukune) adgilas. monastris kurTxeva 1147 wels,aRdgomis wminda dResaswauls, anu kviras moxda. es dRe didi zarzeimiTaRiniSna. nervali istoriuli sinamdvilisa da qristianuli


153gadmocemebis Tavisebur interpretacias gvTavazobs, rasac teqstis ammonakveTis topografiul qronotopTan pirdapiri kavSiri aqvs:nawarmoebis meore nawilis V da VI TavSi moqmedeba kviras xdeba.XIX saukunis ocian wlebSi, gauqmebuli qvis samtexloebis adgilasgaSenebuli monmartris sasaflao literaturul nekropolis saxeliTaacnobili. (aleqsandre diuma-Svili da misi STagonebis wyaro, cnobilikurtizaneli qali _ alfonsina diuplesi, stendali, zola (panTeonSimaT gadasvenebamde), dega . . teofil gotie). iqvea dasaflavebuli didigermaneli romantikosi poeti hainrix haine. nawarmoebSi, (,,orelia’’)sasaflaoze wasvla or epizods ukavSirdeba. orive wasvla uSedegoaRmoCndeba: erTxel mTxrobels satrfos saflavis adgilmdebareoba araxsovs (Nerval 1985 :56), meorejer, mas sasaflao daketili daxvdeba (Nerval1985 :58). nawarmoebis amave nawilSi, mTxrobeli germanel poetTansturobis Sesaxeb gviambobs, romelic aseve uSedegoa: erTxel poetTanmisvlas monmartrze misvlas amjobinebs (Nerval 1985 :68), meorejer – Tavscudad igrZnobs da TavSesafarSi waiyvanen (Nerval 1985 :71).1830 wels, nervalma da teofil gotiem, imxanad emigraciaSi myofihainrix haines SesaniSnavi poeziis Sesaxeb erToblivi statia daweres.haine germanel poetebs Soris ,,yvelze ufro frang poetad’’ iTvleboda,nervali ki frang mwerlebidan ,,yvelaze metad germaneli’’ iyo, TiTqoshaine nervalis sarkiseburi anarekli yofiliyos. 1848 wels, rodesachaine Zalian avad gaxda, nervali kidev ufro dauaxlovda mas da miscols, romelsac SesaniSnavi leqsi miuZRvna kidec (Нерваль1985 :399).nervalma am periodSi frangulad Targmna haines cnobili leqsebi:,,lirikuli intermeco’’ da ,,CrdiloeTis zRva’’.is, rom nervali icnobda haines da mis cols, moTxrobaSi ,,orelia’’,dafarulad aris miniSnebuli: swored h. haine gaxlavT is germanelipoeti, romelmac, moTxrobis mTxrobelis sityvebiT, mas TargmaniSeukveTa da Tanxis nawilic winaswar gadauxada (Nerval 1985 :68-71). hainem,nervalis TviTmkvlelobis Semdeg, kidev erTi weli icocxla, magrampoeziis es ,,mefistofeli”, rogorc mas nervali uwodebda, sicocxlisbolo 10 weli sawols iyo mijaWvuli da mis gardacvalebas poetisaxloblebi yovelwuTs elodnen (avadmyof megobarTan stumrobis


154epizodi-nq). maSasadame, moTxrobis _ ,,orelia’’, mTxrobeli sworedhainesTan miemarTebida, sanam monmartrs, kliSis da monmartrissasaflaos moinaxulebda.h. haine Tavis politikuri mosazrebebiTa da xmamaRaligancxadebebiT iyo cnobili. gasakviri araa, rom nervalisTvis(Sesabamisad, mTxrobelisTvis) germanel poetTan Sexvedra, politikurSexedulebeze saubrebis biZgad qceuliyo. nawarmoebis meore nawilis IVTavi sainteresoa nervalis gulaxdili msjelobebiT safrangeTisistoriis, revoluciebis (1789 da 1830 wlis ivlisis revoluciebi) damaTi mniSvnelobis Sesaxeb. rogorc Tavad mTxrobeli ambobs, parizSimcxovreb germanel poets misTvis saTargmni leqsebi da Tanxis nawilicmiucia. mTxrobeli masTan SexvedrasBCqarobs, uaris Tqma surs, radgansamuSaos Sesruleba ar SeuZlia (miniSneba konkretuli avtorisuunarobaze-n.q.). sainteresoa, rom amis mizezad, pirvel rigSi,politikur movlenebs asaxelebs. am TavSi orjer aris gameorebulisafrangeTis revolucia da is Sedeebi, ramac, avtoris TqmiT, misTaobaze moaxdina gavlena (Nerval 1985 :57). safrangeTis politikur Tuistoriul koliziebis mniSvnelobas da adamianTa xvedrze maT gavlenas,avtori napoleonis cxedris Camosvenebis moxseniebiT amyarebs (Nerval1985 :60). Tu mTxrobelis uZlureba qveynis bedukuRmarTobas ukavSirdeba,mwerlis imedegacrueba, misi TviTmkvlelobis mizezi nervalisjangatexiloba gaxda. nawarmoebis es epizodi teqstis subieqturxasiaTs usvams xazs.amave TavSi, moTxrobis _ ,,orelia’’, mTxrobeli abat diubuasdaeZebs. am epizodSi ufro farul aluziasTan gvaqvs saqme: abatidiubua, Jan-antuan diubua (1766-1848) frangi misioneri gaxldaT, romelicsafrangeTis revoluciis dros inglisSi gadasaxlda. misi wigni _,,Letters on the State of Christianity in India’’, 1823 wels, londonSi gamoqveynda dauaryofiTi gamoxmaureba hpova inglisel mkiTxvelTa Soris. 1825 wels,abat diubua ukve safrangeTSi aqveynebs Tavis naSroms saxelwodebiT _,,Moeurs, instituitions et cérémonies des peuples de L’Inde’’, (,,indoelebiszne_Cveulebani’’) (Dubois on-lain dok), romelic indoeTis, indoelixalxis zne-Cveulebebis Sesaxeb im periodis saukeTeso naSromad


155iTvleboda. cnobilia romantikosebis, kerZod nervalis, didi interesiSoreuli aRmosavleTis mimarT (,,mogzauroba aRmosavleTSi’’). abatdiubuas wigni imdenad popularuli iyo, rom nervalis teqstSi igiTaviseburad amotivtivda jer abat diubuas saxelis xsenebiT, Semdeg ki_ indoelis samosiani mamakaciT, romelic mTxrobels ecxadeba erT-erTzmanebaSi (VI Tavi).wminda dionises sulis mosaxseniebeli dRe 3, axali stiliT _ 16oqtomberia. es kidev ufro metad amyarebs Cvens mosazrebas imis Sesaxeb,rom nervali ganzrax imeorebs monmartrs, qvissatexs, Cxubis epizods,rogorc moTxrobaSi _ ,,orelia’’, aseve Jurnalistur CanaxatSi _,,oqtombris Rameebi’’. pirvel nawarmoebSi igi azustebs topografiulqronotops _ moqmedeba savaraudod oqtomberSi xdeba; meore SemTxvevaSi,anu narkvevSi _ ,,oqtombris Rameebi’’, romelic ufro realisturstilSia dawerili (sakmarisia gavixsenoT am nawarmoebis pirveli Tavisdasaxeleba _ ,,realizmi’’ (nervali 2000 :23)), nervali cdilobsmonmartrze ubralo gaseirnebas sakraluri mniSvneloba mianiWos, riTacJurnalisturi Canaxati literaturuli nawarmoebis fiqcionalursamyarod gardaiqmneba da mas jadosnuri elferi Seemateba. monmartrisepizodi SesaniSnavi magaliTia, Tu rogor xdeba erTi teqsti meorisgasaRebi avtoaluziis wyalobiT da rogor transformirdeba erTi daigive movlena profanulidan sakraluramde.movlenebis gameorebiT avtori romelime epizodis, faqtismniSvnelobis gasaZliereblad iyenebs, Tundac eklesiaSi locvisepizodi. jer mTxrobeli notr-dam de loretis eklesiaSi Sedis, Semdeg_ notr-dam de viqtuarSi. orive SemTxvevaSi, eklesiaSi misvlas erTisaerTo mizani aerTianebs: locva da aRsarebis Tqma. oreves win uZRvissaeklesio galoba. pirvel ESemTxvevaSi _ biWebis gundi Ave Maria – smReris (Nerval 1985 :69), meoreSi _ mTxrobels Caesmis ,,Christ, Christ’’ (Nerval1985 :71). mTxrobeli aRsarebisTvis jer abat dubuas kiTxulobs (aluziadiubuaze-n.q.)). rogorc vxedavT, erTi da imave epizodi, eklesiaSiwasvla, sxvadasxva saxiT aris aRwerili. am SemTxvevaSi nervaliimeorebs igive mxatvrul xerxs, rac nawarmoebis pirvel nawilSi _movlenaTa Txrobis gameorebis xerxs (Le mode répétitif).


156IV TavSi, xilvebis Semdeg mTxrobeli Tavs dakargulad miiCnevs. masaRsareba surs; surs codvebi moinanios, radgan, manamde, sarwmunobisdogmatur sakiTxs Tavisebur filosofiur interpretacias aZlevda(Nerval 1985 :63). rogorc Tavad aRiarebs, am daskvnamde igi safrangeTisrevoluciis Sedegebma miiyvana. nawarmoebis IV TavSi, nervalsbiografiuli cnobebi Semohyavs: igi udedod gaizarda da mTelisicocxlis manZilze mamas Tavis erTgulebas umtkicebda. niSandoblivia,rom avadmyof mamasTan vizitis epizodi IV TavSia aRwerili. mTxrobelisbavSvobis wlebi germanias ukavSirdeba _ legendebisa da zRaprebisqveyanas. mwerlisTvis germaniiis Soreuli saxe yovelive jadosnurisada magiuris simbolo iyo (Nerval 1985 :63). udedmamod darCenil bavSvsbiZamisma antikuri xanis xelovneba da literatura, kelturi miTologiagaacno da Seayvara. ymawvili nervalis cnobierebaSi erTmaneTTan iyoSeduRabebuli qristianuli, aRmosavluri (zoroastrizmi), antikurixanis, galTa religiebi da mrwamsi. axla ki, safrangeTis 1789 wlisburJuaziuli da ivlisis revoluciebis Semdeg, gzaabneuli daWeSmarit gzas acdenili (,, . . éloigné longtemps de la vraie route’’ (Nerval 1985 :65))igi megobrebTanac veRar poulobda saerTos, Tumca WeSmarit gzas massiyvaruli, oreliasadmi grnoba unaTebda (Nerval 1985 :68). parizis erTerTgareubanSi, megobrebTan erTad garTobis dros, duqanSi, mTxrobelimomReral qals daakvirdeba da am ukanasknelis mis gardacvlilsatrfosTan – oreliasTan, msgavseba gaaocebs. mTxrobeli sakuTar TavskiTxvas usvams: ,,iqneb swored masSia misi (oreliaSi-n.q.) suligansxeulebuli?’’ (,,Qui sait, si son esprit n’est pas dans cette femme ?’’ (Nerval 1985 :66)). swored es siyvaruli da imis rwmena, rom sayvareli arsebasabolood ar aris misTvis dakarguli protagonistis cnobierebaSigardatexas axdens, miuxedavad imisa, rom mas azrovneba uWirs: ,,Cemisulieri mdgomareobis gamo, saqmes guls ver vudebdi’’ (,,La situation de monesprit me rendait impossible l’exécution de travaux convenus’’ (Nerval 1985 :67)).mTxrobeli uecari sikvdilis SiSiTaa Sepyrobili, magram WeSmaritigzis Ziebas mainc ganagrZobs. teqstis am nawilSi, erTi miTologema(satrfos Zieba) meoreTi _ WeSmaritebis Zieba _ icvleba. nervalisSemoqmedebaSi mogzaurobasa da gaseirnebas ara marto ucnobi qveynebis


157da adgilebis naxvis wyurvili, egzotikasTan ziarebis survili udevssafuZvlad, aramed WeSmariti gzis Ziebisa da povnis, rac rwmenismetaforuli gamoxatulebaa.moTxrobis _ ,,orelia’’, meore nawilis IV TavSi topografiuliqronotopi aris miTiTebuli _ kvira (Nerval 1985 :67). kvira yvelareligiaSi gansakuTrebuli mniSvnelobis dRea. Tu gaviTvaliswinebTimas, rom nervali, Tavs aridebs topografiul qronotops da misnawarmoebSi ufro mniSvnelovani xdeba fsiqologiuri da matafizikuriqronotopebi (ix. zemoT-nq.), kviris moxsenieba ufro alegoriul,simbolur datviTvas iZens. kvira – qristianul reliagiaSi aris locvisdRe. ebraul taradiciiT, kvira dRe ukavSirdeba paseks, rac ebraulidanniSnavs ,,man gaiara’’, ebraelebis egviptedan gamosvlis aRsaniSnavad.qristianul tradiciaSi kvira qristes wamebidan mesame dRes, mismkvdreTiT aRdgomas aRniSnavs (Encyclopédie des symboles 1996 :34).cifrebidan nervali mxolod samsa da Svids imeorebs. es faqtiSemTxveviTi Tanxvedra rodia. sami da Svidi sakraluri cifrebia,nervali ki dasZens, rom cifrebisa da ferebis saSualebiT samyarossaidumloebaTa wvdomas cdilobs. IV TavSi, bibliuri reminiscenciebiamiT ar Semoifargleba. biZamisis aCrdilis sityvebiT, mTxrobelisojaxis wevrTa ricxvi Svidia. Svidi noes ojaxis wevrTa ricxvia,romlebic sayovelTao warRvnas gadaurCnen (Nerval 1985 :52). nervalisteqstSi, ricxvi sami saaTis aRsaniSnavad gamoiyneba: sami saaTisganmavlobaSi mTxrobeli seirnobs parizis quCebSi, nawarmoebisdasawyisSi mTxrobeli sami quCis gasayarze dgas, sami qali mTxrobelisbeds wyvets. amave dros, orealias saxe-xatis interpretaciaRvTismSobels, mwerlis gardacvlil dedas da satrfos ukavSirdeba.moTxrobis _ ,,orelia’’, meore nawilis IV Tavi mTlianad bibliurreminiscenciebs efuZneba, Tumca nervali Tavisi mxatvrulistilis erTguli rCeba: erTsa da imave movlenas igi ramdenjernmeimeores da mis danaxvas sxvadasxva kuTxiT cdilobs. TiTqos esmovlenebi erTis sarkiseburi anareklia. aluziebi, romlebicwmindanebsa da wminda adgilebTan asociaciurad gvakavSirebs, erTis kiara _ ramdenime SesaZlebel axsnas moiTxovs: magaliTad, abat dubuassaxeli, monmartris saxelwodebis ori SesaZlo axsna, wminda ekaterine...


158parizSi mTxrobelis gaseirnebac ciklur xasiaTs atarebs. erTTavSi or gaseirnebazea saubari: erTi _ monmartri, sasaflao, kliSi,notr dam de loreti, da meore _ pale ruaiali, Tanxmobis moedani,notr dam de viqtuari. orive gaseirnebis saboloo mizani erTia –germaneli poetis monaxuleba, romelTan mTxrobeli Targmnaze uarissaTmelad midis. nawarmoebis am monakveTSi mTxrobelis pirovnulitragedia ikveTeba: satrfosTan ganSoreba mTxrobelis SemoqmedebiTikrizisis, misi ,,varskvlavis Casvenebis’’ simboluri gamoxatulebaa.naSromis wina TavSi, Cven qronotopis problemis Sesaxeb visaubreT:nervalis nawarmoebSi arasrulad warmodgenil topografiulqronotopze da metafizikuri Tu fsiqologiuri qronotopebismniSvnelobaze. axla gvsurs gamovyoT, Tu rogor rekonstruirdebatopografiuli qronotopi avtoaluziebis saxiT. qronotopisrekontruireba nawarmoebis mwerlis biografiasTan dakavSirebiTvcadeT. moTxroba _ ,,orelia’’, Tavad saWiroebs ganusazRvreliadgilebis aqtualizacias, amitom aqtualizaciac da rekonsruirebacerTdroulad unda ganvaxorcieloT.V Tavi realisturad iwyeba: ori Tvis xangrZlivi avadmyofobisSemdeg, mTxrobeli gamojanmrTelda da isev daiwyo Tavisimomlocveloba parizis midamoebSi (Nerval 1985 :71). Tavdapirvelad igireims ewveva. reimsSi mogzauroba misi SemoqmedebisTvis sakmaodnayofieri gamodga, radgan, rogorc Tavad gvimxels, swored iq SeqmnaTavisi saukeTeso nawarmoebi. furclebis nalejebze, fanqriT igiSTabeWdilebebsa da xilvebs aRbeWdavs: saubaria Jerar de nervaliscnobil novelaze _ ,,silvi’’, romelic mis saukeTeso qmnilebadiTvleba da romlis analizss ramdenime samecniero kvleva miuZRvnaumberto ekom (Эко 2006:72). am epizodis saSualebiT, moTxrobis _,,orelia’’, V Tavis qronotopi ikveTeba. Tu movlenebis TanmimdevrobiTdalagebas SevecdebiT vnaxavT, rom mTxrobeli moinaxulebs reimsistaZars, mecxramete saukunis monmartrs da xedavs XV saukunisistoriul movlenebs. nervali kidev erTxel iyenebs Tavis mravalnacadxerxs: erTi movlena ramdenime sxva movlenis gaxsenebis sawindari xdeba,ganurCevlad imisa, pirveladi realuri movlena, zmaneba Tu sizmaria.yovelive zemoxsenebuli nawarmoebis topografiuli qronotopis


159amosacnobad, miniSnebad, gasaRebad SeiZleba gamoviyenoT. IV TavSialuziebi, maT Soris avtoaluziebic, teqstis irealur nawilSirealuri movlenebis gasaRebi xdeba. nervalis cnobili nawarmoebi _,,oqtombris Rameebi’’, ramdenime wlis manZilze ibeWdebodaliteraturul Jurnal ,,iluminasion’’-Si (L’Illumination). teqsti am Jurnali9, 23 da 30 oqtombris nomrebSi gamoqveynda. masSi 1852 wlis oqtombrisTvis gaseirneba da Tavgadasavlebia aRwerili. nawarmoebi ramdenimeTavisgan Sedgeba, romelTa Soris moTxrobis _ ,,orelia’’, siuJetTanideur-Tematurad yvelaze axloa Semdegi Tavebi: ,,relizmi’’, ,,Cemimegobari’’, ,,Rame monmartrze’’, ,,kapernaumi’’, ,,jujebis gundi’’, ,,meviRviZeb’’, ,,azrebi’’, ,,mogzaurobis mizani’’. am nawarmoebis yvela esmotivi da Tema avsebs moTxrobis siuJets, teqstis rekonstruirebissaSualebas gvaZlevs da ufro gasagebs xdis nervalis ukanasknel daurTules qmnilebas. Tu orive nawarmoebSi erTsa da imave movlenebzeasaubari da narkvevis (,,oqtombris Rameebi’’) moqmedeba, rogorcsaTauridan Cans oqtomberSi xdeba, maSasadame ,,orelias’’ II nawilis IVTavSi aRwerili movlenebic Semodgomaze, kerZod ki _ oqtomberSi undaxdebodes. Cveni varaudi, TiTqos, nawarmoebis IV TavSi, moqmedebaoqtomberSi xdeba, amjerad dasturdeba avtoaluziebiT, romlebicarsebobs moTxrobas (,,orelia’’) da narkvevs _ ,,oqtombris Rameebi’’,Soris.samuSaos dasrulebidan ramdenime dReSi (saukeTeso moTxrobisSeqmnis Semdeg-n.q.), mTxrobels isev xilva ewveva. nawarmobSi pirveladCndeba istoriuli xasiTis xilva. mTxrobels Tavidan hgonia, rommonmartrzea da muSebsa da glexebs esaubreba. Semdeg, igi Zvel bazarsstumrobs (Les Halles). sent-estaSis (wminda estates) samreklos zars,,realuri’’ samyarodan, anu XIX saukunis parizidan igi Zvel droSigadahyavs. mTxrobeli armaniakebisa da burginionebis brZolis mowmexdeba, sakuTar Tavs ki vercxlisabjrian Jan de burbonTan aigivebs.armaniakebisa da burginionebis dapirispireba safrangeTis istoriisumniSvnelovanesi furcelia. armaniakebi Zveli safrangeTis, misiagraluri ganviTarebis momxreni iyvnen, burginionebi ki _ franguliburJuaziis, inglisis samefosa da romis papis, urban VI mxardaWeriTsargeblobdnen. Qqveynis SigniT dapirispireba aswlian omSi gadaizarda,


160romelsac 1407 wlis 23 noembers, parizis erT-erT quCaSi, viei dutamplze (La rue du Vieille Temlpe) lui orleanelis mkvleloba uZRoda win.lui orleaneli Tavisi biwierebis gamo daisaja: misi sasiyvaruliTavgadasavlebi imdenad cnobili iyo, rom eJen delakruam igi tilozeasaxa (,,Louis D’Orlean dévoile la maîtresse’’). tamplis quCa dResac arsebobs lamares (La Marais) ubanSi, parizis III da IV ubnebis gasayarze mdebarebs.igi emijneba Zveli bazrobis (Le Halles) baRs (История Франции1972:137).moTxrobis _ ,,orelia’,’ meore nawilis V TavSi mTxrobeliavadmyofobas axsenebs, ambobs rom avad gaxda da gamosajansaRebladdaaxloebiT ori Tve dasWirda. imave TavSi naxsenebia istoriulifaqtic _ burginionebisa da armaniakebis brZola, romelicasociaciurad jer aswlian oms, Semdeg ki am omis sababTan, luiburbonis mkvlelobasTan gvakavSirebs. lui burboniaxladmomSobiarebuli sayvarlis saxlTan 23 noembers mohkles. aqedangamomdinare, SeiZleba gamovTqvaT varaudi, rom nervali miniSnebasgvaZlevs rodis ewvia mas es xilva (nagulisxmevia armaniakebisa daburginionebis Cxubi). nervalis faruli miniSnebis Sesaxeb varauds isicamyarebs, rom nawarmoebis meore nawilis IV TavSi moqmedeba, CvenimosazrebiT da avtoaluziebze dayrdnobiT, oqtomberSi xdeboda. e.i.nervali, burusiTmoculi da qaragmebiT aRsavse nawarmoebis miuxedavad,Tavis mkiTxvels movlenebs garkveuli TanmimdevrobiT mouTxrobs. amisgarda, abjriani lui de burboni, wminda giorgis saxesTan (Saint Georges)asocirdeba, romelic nawarmoebSi mTxrobelis megobrisa da megzuris _JorJis, saxels ukavSirdeba. saeklesio kalendriT wminda giorgismosaxseniebeli dRe _ 3 noemberia. esec amyarebs Cvens mosazrebasnawarmoebSi asaxuli movlenebis noemberSi ganviTarebasTandakavSirebiT.mkiTxvelis yuradRebas mTxrobelis daniSnulebis kidev erTi punqtiiwvevs _ viei de tamplis quCa (La rue du Vieille Temlpe) da sent-estaSi, wmindaestates saxelobis eklesia. am eklesiis mSenebloba 1532 wels daiwyo da1624 dasrulda. es Zegli Tavisi arqiteqturiT araerTgvarovania: masSirogorc gviandeli goTikuri, adreuli renesansis da klasicisturistilia Serwymuli. wminda estate imperatori traianes dros asisTavi


161iyo. igi da misi coli Teofiste da maTi ori vaJi wamebluri sikvdiliTaResrulnen. is faqti, rom estate samxedro iyo, asociaciuradukavSirdeba armaniakebisa da burginionebis brZolas da Jan deburginionis, simamaciT cnobili frangi warCinebuli gvaris _burginionebis warmomadgenlis vercxlis abjars. asisTavi da samxedrokidev erT asociaciur kavSirs iwvevs: nervalis mama samxedro eqimi iyo.armaniakebisa da burginionebis Cxubi nawarmoebis meore nawilsacukavSirdeba, sadac mTxrobeli mamas orjer moinaxulebs.zemoxsenebuli epizodebi asociaciebis jaWvze dafuZnebul moqmedebebiserTian, mizez-Sedegobriv kavSirs qmnian.nervali xSirad aRwers sazogadoebis Seyris Tu parizis Zaliancnobil da xalxmraval adgilebs:L botanikuri da zoologiuri baRi.zogjer es adgilebi misi personaJisTvis miuRweveli xdeba, rogorctuilris baRi V TavSi, an sasaflao _ nawarmoebis II nawilis IV TavSida I nawilis II TavSi. Semdeg, mTxrobeli gaseirnebas agrZelebs. igijer senis sanapiros miuyveba, luqsemburgis baRs stumrobs, megobarTansauzmobs da wminda estates eklesiis midamoebs ubrubdeba. mTxrobeliganuwyvetliv dedaze fiqrobs. eklesiidan gamosuli vercxlis beWedsyidulobs, yvavilebis TaiguliT xeldamSvenebuli mamasTan midis.mamamisi ar xvdeba, botanikur baRisa da iSviTi cxovelebis galereismonaxulebis Semdeg eCveneba, rom iwyeba warRvna. es epizodi exmianebafrazas apokalifsisidan: ,,vai, vai didi qalaqi’’ (ap. 18.19). mzis gamoCenawarRvnas aCerebs da mTxrobels isev imeds usaxavs. es gancdac ioaneRvTismetyvelis gamocxadebas ukavSirdeba: ,,da vixile gaxsnili ca . .’’(ap.19. 11).nawarmoebis am nawilSi, igulisxmeba meore nawilis V Tavi,qronotopi dazustebulia. mkiTxvelma icis, rom gaseirnebis SemdegmTxrobels oTxi saaTze Tavis megobar GJorJTan aqvs SexvedradaniSnuli. igi pon dezarze gadadis (Le pont des Arts). pon dezari,,,xelovnebis xidi’’, romlis ageba 1804 wels, pirveli imperiis drosdaiwyo, asociaciurad mas napoleonTan akavSirebs. sworad am droseCveneba mTxrobels, rom napoleonis suli mis sxeulSi gancxadda:,,meCvena, rom am saRamos napoleonis suli Camesaxa da diadi saqmeebiskenmomiwodebda’’ (,,Il me semble que ce soir, j’ai en moi l’âme de Napoléon qui m’inspire et


162qui me commande de grandes choses’’ (Nerval 1985:74)). am epizodis Semdeggasagebia, ratom yidulobs kokis quCaze (mamlis quCa) mTxrobeli qudsda am movlenas ratom usvams xazs.Tavis mogonebebSi aleqsandre diuma nervalis monaxulebas aRwers.rodesac cnobili mwerali saavadmyofoSi mivida, nervalma gasaocariambavi mouyva: TiTqos napoleonis suli mis sxeuls daufleboda.a. diumas mosazreba nervalis Seuracxadobaze metyvvelebs, racmoqmedebis yovelgvar logikas gamoricxavs. nawarmoebSi ki, marTaliauxilavi ZafebiT, mainc SeiZleba asociaciaTaA jaWvis rekonstruireba.aseve logikuria mTxrobelis kafe fuaSi vizitic, romelic imperiisdros Tavisi politikuri debatebiT iyo cnobili (Nerval 1985:75). am kafemjer kidev safrangeTis revoluciis dros gaiTqva saxeli: xalxisdidZal masas swored iqidan mouwodes bastiliisken, 1789 wlis 13ivliss. XIX saukunis ocdaaTian wlebSi, kafe konservatorTanavsayudeli iyo, xolo ormocian wlebSi – ultra-ruaialistebis.nervali safrangeTis istoriis da parizis gareubnebis ubadlo mcodneiyo. teqstSi kafe fuas gamoCena metyvelebs nervalis survilze erTfrazaSi moaqcios, erT sagans daukavSiros safrangeTis bolo periodismSfoTvare istoria.erTmaneTze daleqili asociaciebis wyalobiT, moTxrobis(,,orelia’’) teqsti maqsimalur hermetulobas iZens. kafe fuaSi SesvlanapoleonTan dakavSirebul epizods mosdevs, romelic safrangeTisistoriul koliziebs axsenebs mTxrobels, magram napoleonis sulisgardasaxva da kafe fuasTan dakavSirebuli asociaciebi mxolodmTxrobelis gonebaSi arsebobs. imisTvis, rom mkiTxveli gaxdesmTxrobelis grZnobebis Tanaziari, kafedan gamosuli, igi iseTiraodenobis adamianebs Soris aRmoCndeba, rom maTi simravlisgan suliexuTeba: ,,imdeni xalxi iyo, rom suli kinaRam damexuTa ‘’ (,, . . .la foule étaitsi compacte que je faillis être étouffé’ (Nerval 1985:75)). kafe fua da xalxissimravle mkiTxvels safrangeTis axlo warsulTanaa dakavSirebuli(revoluciebi, napoleonis omebi), rac nervalis Canafiqrs ufro gasagebsxdis: erTi adamianis mogonebebi sxvisTvis (adresatisTvis) damajerebeligaxados. SesaZloa, swored amitom, nawarmoebis an monakveTSi (IV da VTavi), yvelaze dawvrilebiT aris CamoTvlili sad gaiara protagonistma


163da sad ra gaakeTa: mamlis quCa, pale-ruaiali, fouas kafe, sent-onoreda TavSesafari. yvelaferi senis sanapiros mimdebare teritoriaa.mTxrobeli sauzmobs, midis megobar JorJTan, yidulobs sigaras (75),quds (74) da suraTs (Nerval 1985:73), romelzec ieroglifebia gamoxatuliimis niSnad, rom adamianTa bedi winaswar aris gansazRvruli dagawerili.V TavSi, istoriuli xasiaTis xilvis garda (armaniakebis daburginionebis brZola), kidev erTi xilvac ipyrobs Cvens yuradRebas:mTxrobels qalRmerTiYgamoecxadeba: ,,momeCvena, rom qalRmerTigamomecxada’’ (,,Il me semblais que la déesse m’apparaissait…’’ (Nerval 1985 :74)).qalRmerTis saxe aerTianebs dedamiss, mis sayvarel yvela arsebas,mariam RvTismSobels: ,,me igive var, rac mariami, dedaSeni da yvela isarseba, romelic odesme gyvarebia’’ (,,Je suis la même que Marie, la même que tamère, la même que toutes les formes que tu as toujours aimées’’ (Nerval 1985 :74)).qalRmerTi protagonists anugeSebs da male Tavisi WeSmariti saxiTgamocxadebas hpirdeba: ,,niRabs movixsni . . Cems WeSmarit saxes maleixilav’’ (,,J’ai quitté l’un des masques . . et bientôt tu verras telle que je suis . .’’ (Nerval1985 :74)). nawarmoebis am monakveTSic realuri da irealuri epizodebierTmaneTs enacvleba ise, rom maTi garCeva rTulia, magram erTianilogikuri xazis gavleba mainc SesaZlebelia. JorJis saxlSiqalRmerTis gamocxadebas gaseirneba da xelovnebis xidze gadasvlamohyveba, napoleonis sulis Casaxva, kafe fua da TavSesafari. yovelirealur moments (gamocxadeba, halucinacia) paraleluri realurimovlena axlavs, romelic konkretuli droiTa da sivrciT arisdeterminebuli (gaseirneba, kafeSi Sesvla). uecrad Txroba wydeba daminiSnebis gareSe, mTxrobeli eqimebis garemocvaSi aRmoCndeba, kedlebiTgarSemortymul iseT adgilas, sadac mzis Suqi Zlivs aRwevs (Nerval1985 :77). nervals imis miniSneba surs, rom saavadmyofo sulisSemxuTvelirealobaa, romelic adamianis gonebas ver daakavebs. mTxrobelis yvelamoqmedeba (IV da V Tavebi) davajgufeT, gamovyaviT realuri dairealuri da erTi movlenis rekonstruirebis mizniT, sqemis saxiTwarmovadgineT:


164sqema # 7IRRqalRmerTis gamocxadeba 1 JorJis saxlinapoleonis sulis mTxrobelissxeulSi CasaxvasafrangeTisrevoluciisretrospeqtiva2 gaseirneba (xelovnebis xidi)3 kafe fua4 klinikaSi transportirebasqemaSi #7, movlenebi ganviTarebis da Tanamimdevrobis mixedviT arganvalageT: SevecadeT moqmedebebi funqciisa Tu mniSvnelobisTvalsazrisiT gamogveyo da realuri (R) da irealuri (IR) gagvemijna,rac nawarmoebis bolos sul ufro rTuldeba.amave TavSi, erTi Zalzed saintereso ram xdeba: mTxrobels eCveneba,rom sneulTa gankurneba ZaluZs: ,,vifiqre, rom RmerTis msgavsad,adamianTa gankurnebis unari Semwevda’’ (,,L’idée que j’étais devenu semblable à undieu et que j’avais le pouvoir de guérir me fit imposer les mains à quelques malades . . .’’(Nerval 1985 :75)). gankurnebis Zala mTxrobels RmerTs utolebs.,,gankurneba’’ asociaciurad Tavad nervalis gamojansaRebas ukavSirdeba.mTxrobelis gankurnebis imedi ki sul mcirea: ,,eqimebi kidev movidnen. meki maTi xelobis (xelovnebis-n.q.) uZlurebaze gavagrZele saubari’’ (,,Desmédecins vinvrent alors, et je continuai mes discours sur l’impuissance de leur art’’ (Nerval1985 :76)). mTxrobeli Tvlis, rom adamianebi martooden eqimis codniswyalobiT ar inkurnebian. mTxrobelis Rrma rwmeniT, eqimebi scodaven,rodesac RvTaebriv daxmarebis da saswaulebrivi gankurnebis ar swamT:,,visac swams rom, gankurneba mxolod codniTaa SesaZlebeli _ uvicia’’(,,… . . .l’ignorance des hommes qui croyaient pouvoir guérir avec le science seule . . ‘’ (Nerval1985 :75)). sainteresoa, rom sxvaTa gankurnebis surviliT SepyrobilimTxrobeli Tavis oTaxSi Sedis (saavadmyofoSi) da iq eTeriani boTlixvdeba. eTeri mexuTe elementad aris miCneuli, romelsac, gadmocemisTanaxmad, samyaros gadarCena SeuZlia (Cinq éléments on-lai dok).moTxrobis (,,orelia’’) bolo, VI Tavi yvelaze didia. miuxedavadimisa, rom Zalzed rTulia teqstSi imis garkveva Tu ra aris realobaanu, ras aqvs realuri safuZveli da ra aris saxecvli,


165transformirebuli Tavad mwerlis mier da misi fantaziis nayofswarmoadgens, am TavSi mainc ikveTeba realurisa da irealurisamyaros diferenciaciis SesaZlebloba. Tema, romelic mravalivariantis saxiT nawarmoebis bolos dominirebs _ uzarmazari darbazismotivia, romelSic mTxrobels nacnobi saxeebi an adamianis msgasiarsebebi xvdebian. VI Tavi, faqtobrivad, V Tavis siuJetis gagrZelebaa.wris formis mqone baRi sivrcis dagegmarebis gviandel goTikur,renesansul da klasicistur stilebs aerTianebs, rogorc wmindaestates eklesia, romelSic mTxrobeli manamde midis. baRSi adamianebiwreze arian ganlagebulni. es suraTi saavadmyofos da sapyrobilesasociacias tovebs, sadac adamianebi Tavis survilisa da nebis gareSeimyofebian (Nerval 1985 :76). wreze gauCerebliv gadaadgilebiTa daTavianTi moZraobiT isini ciur sxeulebze axdenen gavlenas da maTmoZraobas awesrigeben: ,,warmovidgine, rom am baRSi Tavmoyriliadamianebi ciur sxeulebis moZraobaze axdendnen gavlenas. is, romelicwreze Seuwyvetliv moZraobda, mzis moZraobas awesrigebda’’ (,,Jem’imaginai que les personnes réunies dans ce jardin avaient toute quelques influence sur lesastres, et que celui qui tournait sans cesse dans le même cercle y réglait la marche du soleil’’(Nerval 1985 : 77)). wreSi periodulad erTi moxucebulic Semodis, yovelmosvlaze TiToO naskvs akeTebs da wres tovebs. ase gadis dro. TavadmTxrobelsac magiuri gavlena aqvs mTvaris moZraobaze: ,,mTvarismoZraobaze gavlena SemeZlo’’ (,,Je m’attribuai à moi-même une influence sur lamarche de la lune’’ (Nerval 1985 :78)). saerTo ZalisxmeviT, dRis xangrZlivobaori saaTiT gaizarda (,,Le temps de chaque journée semblait augmenté de deuxheures’’’’ (Nerval 1985 :79)). mTxrobelisTvis cxadi gaxda, rom samyaroSiokulturi mecnerebiT, kabalaTi da sxvadasxva religiebis erTianiZalisxmeviT, harmoniis uzrunvelyofa misi saqme da daniSnulebacaa:,,Cemi daniSnuleba sayovelTao harmoniis damkvidreba megona’’ (,,Mon rôleme semblais être de retablir l’harmonie universelle’’ (Nerval 1985 :78)). nawarmoebis esnawili imedgacruebuli mTxrobelis triumfis wamia: man Tavisi codniTdaamarcxa dro: dRe ori saaTiT gazarda. mTxrobels dedamiwazedakarguli harmoniis damkvidreblis funqcia daekisra. man saavadmyofo-


166satusaRos oTaxis kedlis garRveva moaxerxa da droisa da sivrcisganmgebeli Seiqna.mas Semdeg, rac mTxrobelisTvis misi mizani gancxadda,mkiTxvelisTvis advili xdeba realuri da iluzoruli samyaroebiserTmaneTisgan gamijvna. SeiZleba iTqvas, rom moTxrobaSi _ ,,orelia’’, eserTdaderTi Tavia, sadac irealurSi realuri movlenebis simbolurigamoxatuleba, datvirTva mwerlis mier pirdapiraa miTiTebuli.Tanamedrove struqturalisturi fsiqologiis fuZemdebelma, Jaklakanma Camoayaliba adamianis fsiqoanalizis meTodologia, romlismixedviT, realuri, warmosaxviTi da simboluri adamianis arsebobisumniSvnelovanesi koordinatebia, romlebic adamians warsulisa daawmyos sinTezis saSualebas aZleven. misi azriT, adamianis arsirealobasTan gawyvetis dros warmoiqmneba da realobasTandistancirebis procesSi yalibdeba. adamianis mier samyaros Secnobis,individis Camoyalibebis procesSi igi qaotur Sinagan samyaros emijnebada mas, am ukanasknelis sarkiseburi anarekliT cvlis. adamianisCamoyalibeba sarkisebur anareklTan misi asociaciis saSualebiT xdeba.adamianis fsiqikuri ganviTarebis am stadias, J. lakani warmosaxviTsuwodebs da realuris kompensacias, mis ukmarisobas, arasrulfasovnebasukavSirebs.SevecdebiT VI Tavi sqemis saxiT warmovadginoT da, amjerad,gavmijnoT realuri, warmosaxviTi da simboluri:sqema # 8realuri warmosaxviTi simboluriklinikauzarmazari kolonebiani eklesiadarbazioTaxi klinikaSi aRmosavlur yaidaze samyaromowyobili oTaxioTaxis gisosebiani vitraJebiani fanjara eklesiis vitraJebifanjaraderefani, romlis bolos koSki, romlis bolosac RvTaebrivi SuqisinaTleasinaTleamomvleli qali da bavSvi bavSvoba RvTismSobeli iesosTanerTad


167saavadmyofos ezo baRi samoTxemomvleli qalebimironmcxebeli qalebi mkvdreTiT aRdgomamariam magdalineli,mariami, iona (luka23:23:55)dabana ganbana maradiuli sicocxlerogorc vxedavT, nebismieri movlena, romelic realur samyarosganekuTvneba, warmosaxviTSi transformirdeba da simbolur datvirTvasiZens. am mxriv, nervalis meore nawilis VI Tavi nawarmoebis danarCeninawilisgan Tvisobrvad gansxvavdeba. moTxrobis bolo realuris,warmosaxviTisa da simboluris triqotomias efuZneba da, ara marto,realurisa da irealuris simetrias emyareba (ix. zemoT-n.q.).nervalis moTxrobaSi _ ,,oreliaSi’’, simertia konstruqciisdonezec vlindeba:sqema # 9ciebaciebagaseirnebagaseirnebasofelisofelisqema #9 nawarmoebis pirveli nawilis simetriul konstruqciasasaxavs. moTxrobas _ ,,orelia’’, pirveli nawilis III TavSi, ciebasgaseirnebis survili mohyveba, mas ki _ soflis peizaJis aRwera damogonebebi, romelic protagonistis bavSvobas ukavSirdeba. (Nerval1985:11). pirveli nawilis IX TavSi movlenebi meordeba: mTxrobeli jerSeciebas grZnobs, Semdeg gaseirnebiT klavs dros da Tavis bavSvobasigonebs. ar SeiZleba imis dabejiTebiT mtkiceba, rom nebismieri movlenaTu sagani, romelic realuri cxovrebis atributia, irealursamyarosTan pirdapir asocirdeba. igive pirvel nawilSi, III da IX TavebsSoris sizmrebis, zmanebebisa da halucinaciebis vrceli wyebaamoTxrobili. maT aRweras nervali TiTqmis mTel IV, V, VI da VII Tavebsandomebs, magram mesame da mecxre Tavi nawarmoebis erTi monakveTisCaketil, Sekrul konsruqcias qmnis. nawarmoebSi realur da irealursamyaroTa asaxvis Tanmimdebrobac araa daculi: sizmars realuri


168cxovrebis amsaxveli movlenebi pirdapir ar mosdevs; magaliTaddarbazi, romelic TiTqmis yvela sizmarsa da halucinaciaSia, klinikisoTaxTan pirdapir ar asocirdeba. sizmars SeiZleba halucinacia anmogoneba Caenacvlos. miuxedavad amisa, nawarmoebis yvela movlenaerTmaneTzea damokidebuli da erTan suraTs qmnis. maTi kavSiri,SeiZleba, momdevno TavSi gamovlindes, amitom, nawarmoebis analizisas,Cven ganzrax ar mivyeviT siuJetis Tanmimdevrobas. IV, V da VI Tavebisanalizis Semdeg, marTebulad migvaCnia, meore nawilis I, II da II TavebsmivubrundeT.moTxrobis _ ,,orelia’’, I nawili satrfos dakargviT gamowveulisazareli gancdiT mTavrdeba. meore nawili, romelsac wamZRvarebuliaqvs epigrafi _ ,,Eurydice! EEurydice!’’ _ avtoris Canafiqrze mianiSnebs.satrfos dakargvis Tema MOmoTxrobaSi _ ,,orelia’’, miTis orfevsisSesaxeb Taviseburi interpretaciaa: rogorc orfevsma orjer dakargaevridike, mTxrobelsac igive emarTeba, an Tavad ganicdis amas dadanakargiT gamowveuli avbediTobis SegrZneba eufleba. satrfossamudamo dakargvis SiSiT Sepyrobil mTxrobels isRa darCenia, romRmerTs patieba SesTxovos: mTxrobeli xom sxva RmerTebs emsaxurebodada amitomac daisaja: ,,imitom damwyevles, rom RvTis kanoniSevuracxyavi’’ (,,J’étais maudit peut-être pour avoir voulu percer un mystère redoutable enoffansant la loi divine’’’’ (Nerval 1985:48)). mTxrobeli sxva RmerTebs msaxurebda,magaliTad _ lukreciusis RmerTs.Eam epizodSi, nervali mkiTxvelsmiuTiTebs titus lukrecius karusze (Titus Lucrecius Carus, 99-55 Cv.w.- mde),epikureizmis mimdevarze, romael poetsa da filosofosze. konkretuladki _ mis nawarmoebze _ ,,saganTa bunebisTvis’’ (,,De rerum natura’’) (Lucrèce-onlaindok.). Tavis filosofiur traqtatSi, lukreciusi adamianisbednierebis gzebis poeturi formiT gamoxatvas Seecada. nervali iyenebslukreciusis mosazrebebs, romelic adamianis Tavisuflebas, RmerTis,sikvdilis SiSis daZlevas qadagebs. lukreciusis azriT, ataraqsiiT, anusulieri simSvidiT, adamiani gare samyarosTan harmonulad Tanaarsebobaxdeba SesaZlebeli. ataraqsia samyaros Secnobis sawindaria demokrites,epikures da lukreciusis mixedviT. skeptikosebis TvalsazrisiT,ataraqsia miirweva Sefasebis binaruli kriteriumebis (kargi-cudi) da


169nebismieri Teoriebisa da filosofiuri mosazrebebis mimarT zomieridamokidebulebiT, rac daurwmuneblobis fsiqologiuri mdgomareobiTgamoixateba. swored aseT binarul dapirispirebaze, realur da irealursamyaroebis Tanaarsebobaze mogviTxrobs moTxrobis naratori damkiTxvelis darwmunebas cdilobs. nervali, moTxrobis meore nawilis ITavSi, mosalodneli sikvdilis gardauvlobaze saubrobs, iqvelukreciuss moixseniebs, romelic argumentirebulad uaryofdasikvdilis SiSs, Tavad sikvdils da cxovrebas sikvdilis Semdeg.lukreciusis TvasazrisiT materia, mudmivia da adamianis sikvdilisSemdeg misi sxeuli sxva formas iZens. man ganavrco naturfilosofiurimoZRvreba (atomizmi), romlis mixedviTac materialuria atonebisganSemdgari yvela is sagani, romlis SegrZneba aris SesaZlebeli.moTxrobaSi _ ,,orelia’’, lukreciusis mosazrebas kosmologiur,religiur miTebis samyaros warmoSobis Sesaxeb, mis esqatologiurwarmodgenebs, ioane RvTismetyvelis gamocxadeba mohyveba, romelsacnervali nawarmoebis meore nawilis IV da V Tavs uZRvnis (filosofiuri. . 1987:403).halucinaciebSi yvelaferi transformirdeba: mTxrobels iseTiSTabeWdileba eufleba, TiTqos yvelaferi cocxal molekulebaddaSliliyos: ,,yvelaferi, rac cocxali molekulebisgan Sedgeboda_moZraobda’’ (,,Tout circulait, composés d’âmes vivantes à l’état moléculaire’’’’ (Nerval1985:17)). nawarmoebis am nawilSi nervalis lukreciusisnaturfilosofiiT da atomuri materializmiT gataceba yvelaze naTladCans.rogorc zemoT avRniSneT, moTxrobis mTxrobeli eqimebismkurnalobiT imdenad iyo ukmayofilo, rom mkurnalobas Tavad mohkidaxeli. igi cudi mkurnalobis Sedegs, axlo aRsasruls, miwiericxovrebis bolos eloda. mosalodneli aRsasrulis SiSi im epizodSiaisaxa, rodesac saavadmyofoSi myofi xalxi ciuri sxeulebis moZraobasawesrigeben, riTac droze ganmgebloben. nawarmoebis meore nawilis ITavSi, nervals Semohyavs kidev erTi personaJi _ mTxrobelis avadmyofimegobri. mTxrobeli masTan TavSesafarSi midis, romelic italieliberis senaks ufro hgavs, vidre saavadmyofos oTaxs. megobari imdenadaris Secvlili, rom mTxrobeli Zlivs cnobs sasiamovno wuTebis Zvel


170kompanions: ,,sakuTari TavisTvis ver mipatiebia, rom Cems Zvirfasavadmyof megobars iSviaTad vakiTxavdi’’ (,,J’avait mis quelque négligence à visiterun des mes amis les plus chers, qu’on m’avait dit malade’’ (Nerval 1985:54)).protagonistze did zemoqmedebas axdens megobris avadmyofuri ieri:Savi wveri spilosZvlisfer saxesTan mkveTr konrtasts qmnis. misTvalebs cieb-cxelebis kvali amCnevia. kapiuSoniani mosasxamiTa da misisacxovrisis italiel gandegilis senakTan SedarebiT, nervali kideverTxel usvams xazs teqstis bibliuri interpretaciis SesaZleblobas.am epizodis interpretacia J. lakanis naSromis _ ,,sarkis stadia’’,mixedviTac aris SesZlebeli. lakanis adamiani Tavis warmosaxvaSi qmnisoreuls, romelTan gaigiveba misi individualizmis, pirovnulobisCamoyalibebis ekvivalenturia. kidev erTxel gavixsenebT, fotosuraTzeneralis minawers: ,,me var meore!’’. megobris avadmyofoba mTxrobelismomavalis proecirebaa: igi sarkeSi sakuTari Tavis anarekls, Tavismomavals gvixatavs. am epizodis meore SesaZlo interpretacianaratologiis meTodologias efuZneba. saubaria naratiuli, TxrobiTikomunikaciis doneebis cvalze, romelsac mise en abyme, anu ,,teqstiteqstSi’’ ewodeba. am dros xdeba, personaJis da mTxrobelisinstanciebis, anu asaxuli da moTxrobili samyaroebis doneebis cvala,amitom mTxrobeli sarkeSi Tavis anarekls xedavs. mesame SesZlointerpretacia, bibliuri xasiaTs atarebs. gandegilis saxiT SeiZlebaamovicnoT italieli gandegili wminda egide (650-710). swored misisaxelobis eklesias asaxelebs mTxrobeli manamde. wminda egidedavrdomilebs da avadmyofebs mfarvelobda. igi cxovrobda provansSida septimaniaSi, safrangeTis samxreT sanapiroze, romlis Zvelisaxelwodeba iulius keisris meSvide legions ukavSirdeba (Saint Gilles onlaindok). septimia Sedioda akvitaniis sahercogoSi, romelic hercogisasul alionors lui VII qorwinebis Semdeg, jer safrangeTsSemouerTda, Semdeg ki – alionoris inglisis mefesTan,A henriplantagenetTan misi qorwinebis Semdeg – ingliss. sabolood igisafrangeTis SemadgenlobaSi 1454 wels, aswliani omis Semdeg, SeuerTda.am omze nervali IV TavSi miuTiTebs (armaniakebisa da burginionebisbrZola). wminda egides saxels ukavSirdeba benediqtianelTa monasteri,sen-Jil-diu-gari, romelic wminda iakobis cnobil gzaze mdebareobs.


171sainteresoa, rom wminda egides mosaxseniebeli dRea 1 seqtemberia.SeiZleba vivaraudoT, rom nervali topografiul qronotops azustebsda nawarmoebis II nawilis I TavSi moqmedeba seqtemberSi xdeba. wmindaegide im wmindanebs Sorisaa, romlebsac iakob voraginelma miuZRvnaTvisi wigni (Voragine 1967:169).amave TavSi moixsenieba morwmune qali, romelmac avadmyofissasTumalTan yvalilebiani larnaki dadga. am morwmune qalis saxe biZismoaxles margaretsac ukavSirdeba, romelic mTxrobels sawolis gaSlassTavazobs. amave dros, morwmune qalis saxe SeiZleba davukavSiroTwminda Jils. wminda Jili (egide) ToTxmet damxmare wmindanTa ricxvSiSedis. laTinuri eklesia am wmindanebs 1346-1349 Savi Wiris epidemiisSemdeg erTad moixseniebs da ganadidebs. maTi saerTo dResaswauli 8agvistoa. am wmindanebis ricxvs aseve is wmindanebi ganekuTvnebian,romlebsac nervali moTxrobis _ ,,orelias’’, meore nawilSi moixseniebsan mkiTxvels asociaciurad romelimes saxesTan akavSirebinebs: egide (1seqtemberi), wminda estate (20 seqtremberi), dionise parizeli (9oqtromberi), wminda ekaterine aleqsandrieli (24 noemberi), wminda pavleda wminda iakobi (10 ianvari), is dReebi, romlebic kaTolikuri eklesiazemoxsenebul wmindanebs moixseniebs, SeiZleba gamoyenebul iqnasmoTxrobis _ ,,orelia’’, zogierTi epizodis topografiuli qronotopisdasadgenad. saknariasia mkiTxvelma TiToeuli wmindanis sadidebelidRe nervalis teqsts daukavSiros, rom gasagebi xdeba ara martoteqstSi arsebuli topografiuli qronotopi, aramed realur saxesiRebs TviT irealuri epizodebic.nervalis moTxrobis _ ,,orelia’’, bibliuri reminiscenciebi Tuapokriful teqstebTan kavSiri nawarmoebis qristianul xasiaTs usvamsxazs da asabuTebs Cvens varauds avtoris momlocvelTa gziskonstruirebis mcdelobis Taobaze.nervalis teqstSi yuradRebas ipyrobs erTi fraza: ,,codnis xe araris cxovrebis xe’’. (,,L’arbre de science n’est l’arbre de la vie!’’(Nerval 1985 :50)). igiioane RvTismetyvelis gamocxadebas exmianeba: ,,visac yuri aqvs isminos,ras eubneba suli eklesiebs: mZlevels vagemebineb sicocxlis xisagan,romelic aris RmerTis samoTxeSi’’ (ap.@2.7). es winadadeba teqstis arcwina da arc Semdeg nawils azrobrivad ar ukavSirdeba. ramdenime


172furclis Semdeg, mTxrobelis mamasTan misvlis epizods vkiTxulobT,romelic zemoxsenebul gamoTqmuls azrs sZens da mwerlis CanafiqrsaaSkaravebs (Nerval 1985:67). nikodemosis apokrifuli teqstis mixedviT,adami avad rom gaxda, misi Svili _ SeTi, samoTxis karisken gaemarTa,iqidan avadmyofi mamisTvis samkurnalod mironi rom moetana, magramarqangelozma miqaelma mironis nacvlad codnis xis toti gadasca. SeTirom dabrunda, mama mkvdari daxvda. erTi gadmocemiT, man mamis TavTanCaarWo toti; meore versiis mixedviT – gvirgvini gaakeTa da Tavzedaado (Nicodème). nikodemosis apokrifuli evangeles mixedviT, totisganis xe gaizarda, romelic jvarcmisTvis jvris gasakeTeblad gamoiyenes.xe ierusalimis taZris asaSeneblad mefe solomonma moWra. sididis gamoigi ar gamoadga, amitom msxverplad Sesawiri cxovelebis auzisTvismoixmares. xis RvTaebriv daniSnulebas sabas dedofali mixvda, rodesacigi mefe solomons ewvia. codnis xe _> toti _> gvirgvini _> jvari –moTxrobis _ ,,orelia’’, im epizodebTan gvakavSirebs, sadac mTxrobelimamis mosanaxuleblad midis. nawarmoebis IV TavSi, mTxrobeli Taviscxovrebas, bavSvobasa da ymawvilkacobas igonebs, romelic saocarisizustiT axsendeba: ,,Cems mexsierebaSi didi xnis movlenebi saocarisicxadiT amotivtivda’’ (,,Le mémoire me présentait les faits les plus anciens avec unenetteté singulière’’ (Nerval 1985: 62)). am aRiarebis Semdeg, mTxrobeli mamasTanmidis. mamamisis msaxuri avad aris, amitom erTaderTi risi gakeTebacSvils mamisTvis SeuZlia – sxvenidan SeSis Camotanaa, romelic moxucsase sWirdeba: ,,mxolod sxvenidan SeSa Camovutane, meti ra SemeZlo?’’(,,Je ne pus lui rendre que le service de lui tender une bûche dont il avait besoin’’ (Nerval1985 :67)). Tu gavixsenebT, rom amave TavSi mTxrobeli daoblebasixsenebs, hyveba im istoriul koliziebze, romlebmac qveynis bedsa Tumis cxovrebaze iqonies gavlena, Tavis aRzrdaze, romelmacmTxrobelis WeSmariti rwmena Searyia, wakiTxul literaturaze,keltebis da golebis miTologiaze, adamis gardacvalebasTandakavSirebuli sakmaod popularuli ambavic unda gavixsenoT. nervalisnawarmoebis es patara monakveTi kacobriobis mTels istoriazemogviTxrobs; mTxrobelis sityvebSi msoflios istoria cxaddeba,adamidan moyolebuli XIX saukunemde. niSandoblivia, rom nikodemosis


173apokrifuli teqsti bevri literaturuli nawarmoebis wyarod iqca:rober de boronis XII saukunis nawarmoebis _ ,,romani graalisSesaxeb’’, oqros legendis da qristes vnebebis. es ukanskneli, a.diureris STagonebis wyaroc gaxda, ramac mxatvars am Temaze ramdenimegraviura Seaqmnevina. nervalma siuJeti pirovnuli miTiskonsruirebisTvis gamoiyena.oqros legenda, (,,Legenda Aurea’’) geniueli arqiepiskoposis,dominikaneli beris da sasuliero mwerlobobis warmomadgenlis _ iakobvoragelis (Jakobus de Voragine, Jacopo da Vorazzo 1230-1298) mier daaxlovebiT1260 wels daiwera. Sua saukunebis evropaSi es wigni Zalian popularuliiyo. bibliis Semdeg, igi mkiTxvelis usayvarles wignad iTvleboda.swored oqros legendidan momdinareobs mariam magdalinelisSecdomilebis, wminda giorgis gveleSapTan brZolis da mogvebis _balTazaris, melqiorisa da gasparis aRmosavlel mefeebad moxseniebistradicia. oqros legendis 180 ambavSi 200-mde wmindanis cxovrebaaaRwerili. wigns popularoba imanac moutana, rom qristianobis istoriagasagebi, martivi eniT iyo dawerili, legendebi wmindanebis SesaxebzRapariviT ikiTxeboda da, rac maTavaria, es wigni Sua saukuneebisadamianis cnobierebisTvis iyo axlobeli. Sua saukuneebSi adamianebiTvlidnen, rom realuri da jadosnuri erTmaneTisgan gamijnuli ar iyo,rom jadosnuri yoveldRiur cxovrebaSi Seimecneboda (Ле Гофф 1985: 5).oqros legendam reformaciaze didi gavlena moaxdina. misi gavlenaSesamCnevia erazm roterdamelis sisulelis qebas da volterisSemoqmedebis gviandel periodze. wminda giorgi, qristefore daymawvili qristes ambavi, ekaterine aleqsandrieli _ wmindanebi,romelTa Sesaxeb pizis arqiepiskoposis naSromi mogviTxrobs, nervalismoTxrobaSi _ ,,oreliaSi’’, arian moxseniebulni. nervalis da iakobvoraginelis teqstebis hipo/interteqstualuri kavSiri mwerlis SesaZlosurvilze mianiSnebs: Tavisi nawarmoebi Sua saukuneebis zRapariviTmoeTxro da axlobeli gaexada mkiTxvelisTvis ise, rom misi ambisdamajerebloba aranaklebi yofiliyo. religiur Temebze filosofiurimsjelobisas, mTxrobeli uecrad Cerdeba: mas sakuTari pativmoyvareobaaocebs: gana yvelaferi rac Caidina, marto siyvaruliT gaakeTa? TavissimarTleSi daurwmunebeli, igi ganvlil cxovrebas aanalizebs,


174cxovrebas, romelSiac gzaacdenili bevr Secdomas sCadioda da Tavisaraswor gadawyvetilebebs Tavsdatexili ubedurebebiT iwvnevda (Nerval1985 : 61). axla ki, rodesac misi satrfo gardaicvala (,,meorejerdakarga’’ (Nerval 1985 :49)), gakadnierda da sikvdilis Semdegac ar asvenebsmis suls. mTxrobels satrfos patiebis imedia mainc aqvs ( Nerval 1985 :61).moTxrobis _ ,,orelia’’, dasasruls, daRlili da miusafari, xilvebisgangaTanguli protagonisti, Tavisi warmosaxvis realurobis dasabuTebaseZiebs da ipovis kidec kedelze miwerili sityvebis saxiT: ,,Sen dResCemTan iyavi’’ (Nerval 1985 :95). Tu manamde mTxrobels satrfo mxolodecxadeba (sizmarSi, zmanebis saxiT), Semdeg masTan saubrobs da Tavisnamdvili saxis, arsis Cvenebas hpirdeba, Semdeg, mTxrobels Tavisirealuri arsebobis Sesaxeb utyuar dasturs sTavazobs. ambavi,romelic mxolod erTi adamianis warmosaxvis aRweriT daiwyo,nawarmoebis bolos, mkiTxvelisTvis damajereblad iqca. ,,realuribiografiis’’ fiqcionaluri samyaro, romelic personaJis TxrobisTanadrouli monologiT aris gadmocemuli (discours rapporé (Jouve 1997 : 32)),sarwmuno gaxda (effet de réel).patieba teqstis am nawilSi ormag datvirTvas iZens: satrfospatieba da RmerTis patieba exmianeba nawarmobSi ufro mogvianebiTnaxseneb mamis patiebas. Sesabamisad, nervalis moTxrobaSi _ ,,orelia’’,miTologiuri da qristianuli motivebi erTmaneTs erwymis: miTiorfevsze, miTi sisifes Sesaxeb, uZRebi Svilis dabrunebisa da codvebismonaniebis, katabasis da anabasisis motivebi; metic, nawarmoebSi,romelic orfevsze miTis miTologemiT iwyeba, qristianuli motiviTsruldeba.Jerar de nervalis moTxrobaSi _ ,,orelia’’, romelic bibliurreminiscenciebze, apokriful teqstebTan aluziebzea agebuli, ikveTebakavSiri utopistur da katastrofebis TeoriebTan. frangi mecnieri dabiologi, katastrofebis Teoriis fuZemdebeli _ JorJ kuvie (1769-1832),werda: ,,dedamiwa xSirad gamxara katasrofebis mowme. xmeleTzemacxovrebeli uTvalavi cocxali arseba gadaSenda. zRvis donisawevesTan erTad, misi binadarnic xmeleTze gadasaxldnen. bevri ailigmamiwisagan pirisa, mxolod mcire nawiliRa gadarCa’’ (Cuvier on-lain dok.).


175m. kuviem dedamiwis evoluciis Teoria ganaviTara, romlis mixedviTacbiologiuri evolucia ufro globaluri _ geologiuri evoluciisnawilia. misi katastrofizmis winaaRmdeg e.w. uniformistebigamodiodnen, romelTa Sexedulebebi geologiuri evolucispirveladobis Sesaxeb, emTxveoda kuvies Teorias, magram uniformistebievoluciaze zeciuri meqanikis, galaqtikuri astronimiis, bunebismaradiulobisa da ukideganobis gavlenaze saubrobdnen. isini bunebiskanonebis erTianobas amtkicebdnen, drosa da sivrceSi am kanonebisucvlelobis Sesaxeb msjelobdnen. XVII saukunis bolosa da XIXsaukunis dasawyisSi kreacionizmis Teorias, anu RmerTis mier samyarosSeqmnis Sesaxeb Teorias, evoluciis Teoriebi Caenacvla (lemarki).evolucis idea, katastofebis Teoria, Tu kreacionizmi erTmaneTsexameba nervalis ,,oreliaSi’’. I nawilis VII _VIII TavSi igi samyarosevoluciis suraTs gvixatavs. es suraTi, erTi mxriv, katastrofebisTeorias exmianeba, meore mxriv _ kreacionistulia da uniformistulic.nervalis teqstSi ucnauri arsebebi Cndebian, sxva ufro lamaz damSvenier arsebebad gardaisaxebian da yvela erTxmad RmerTebsganadidebs: ,,yovel jerze, erTi arseba kvdeboda da saxecvlili,galamazebuli meored evlineboda samyaros da RmerTebs ganadidebda’’(,,Chaque fois qu’un de ces êtres mourait il renaissait ausitôt sous une forme plus belle etchantait la gloire des dieux’’ (Nerval 1985:33)). Tavis nawarmoebSi nervalikacobriobis istorias, rasebis warmoSobas, maT gadaSenebas da SemdegmaT xelaxal dabadebas mogviTxrobs. mwerali yovelives ,,kacobriobisswraf evolucias’’ uwodebs (,,L’évolution rapide des humains’’ (Nerval 1985:34)) damas teqstis mcire nawils uTmobs. es is SemTxvevaa, rodesac ramdenjermemomxdars, anu kacobriobis evoluciis etapebis cvlis SesaxebmTxrobeli mxolod erTxel hyveba (Le mode itératif). es epizodireziumirebis saxiTaa warmodgenili.moTxrobis (,,orelia’’), amave nawilSi nervali rasebis warmoqmnissuraTsac xatavs (,,Il s’établit alors une distinction de races qui, partant de l’ordre desoiseaux, les poissons et les riptiles …’’ (Nerval 1985 :34)). erTi rasa meores cvlida,da erTi saxeobis cocxali arseba – meores (,,Chaque fois qu’un de ces êtres


176mourait, il renaissait aussitôt sous un autre forme plus belle et chantait la gloire desdieux’’(Nerval1985 :34)).arsebobs mravali Teoria rasebis warmomavlobis Sesaxeb, romelicaerTianebs warmodgenas rasebis gaCenis, maTi simbolikis, rasis feris,varskvlavis, maTi monapovaris da codvebis Sesaxeb. ase magaliTad,avestas astrologiuri skolis xelmZRvaneli, p. globa Tavis wignSiwers, rom dedamiwis mkvidri rasa, iyo cisferi. igi saxlobdaantarqtidaze, ikvlevda ricxvTa sistemas da bunebis yvela movlenasmecnierulad aanlizebda. am rasis warmomadgenlebi RmerTisa da satanismsaxurebisTvis daisajnen kidec. am rasas ganekuTvnebian babilonelebi,Sumerebi, semituri warmomavlobis ebraelebi da arabebi. rigiT meore _yviTeli rasaa. isini wynari okeanis sanapiroze saxlobdnen. am rasissimbolo gedisa da liras Tanavarskvlavedebia. yviTeli rasa droisa dasivrcis harmoniul urTierTkavSirs ikvlevda, SemTxeviTobas uaryofda,im miwieri kanonebiT xelmZRvanelobda, romlebic zeciuri kanonebisasaxvas warmoadgenda. yviTeli rasa, romlis STamomavlebimonRoloiduri rasis warmomadgenlebi arian, Tavisi qedmaRlobismsxverpli gaxda. Savi rasa (simbolo – orionis Tanavarsklavedi)saxlobda lemuriaSi, indoeTis okeaneSi. man magiiT gaiTqva saxeli.rasa, romlis STamomavlebi afrikuli xalxebi arian, Savi magiiTgatacebam da kaciWamiobam darupa. wiTeli rasa, TanavarskvlavedkasiopeasTan aris dakavSirebuli. igi atlantidaze cxovrobda dasxvadasxva nivTierebebis tranformaciis SeswavliT iyo dakavebuli. amrasas alqimiiT ukvdavebis miRweva surda. man codna sakuTari Tavissazianod gamoiyena da avadmyofobebma igi gadaaSena. TeTri rasa (dididaTvis Tanavarskvlavedi) yvelaze bolos warmoiqmna da arqtikaSisaxlobda. igi zeciuri kanonebis SeswavliTa da samedicino codniaTiyo ganTqmuli. evropelTa winaprebi siamayem daRupa. am TeoriismixedviT, samomavlod iarsebebs mxolod erTi rasa – Jolosferi,romelic yvela wanapari rasis codnasa da gamocdilebas gaaerTianebs.swored mexuTe rasis Seqmas auwyebs moTxrobis _ ,,orelias’’, mTxrobelserT-erTi RmerTi: ,,erT-erTs, miwisgan mexuTe rasis Seqmna gadaewyvita,romelsac afritebs uwodebda’’ (,,Cependant l’un des Eloïm eut la pensé de créer une


177ciquième race, composée des éléments de la terre, et qu’on appela les Afrites’’’’ (Nerval 1985 :34)).romantikosi mwerlisTvis, adamianis sulieri samyaro ufromniSvnelovania, vidre materialuri. alegoriis, mistikuri simbolizmis,vizioneruli fantastikis meoxebiT RvTaebrivi niWiT dajildovebuliWeSmariti Semoqmedi saganTa arss wvdeba. mas qviSis erT marcvalSimTeli samyaro SeuZlia dainaxos, usasruloba – xelis gulze daatiosda maradiuloba erT wamSi ganicados. (,,To see a World in grain of Sand, And aHeaven in Wild Flower, Hold Infinity in the palm of hand and Eternity in an hour . . .(W. Blake)).Jerar de nervali sizmrisa da mis gavlenaze adamianis cxovrebaSinawarmoebi dasawyisSive saubrobs. sizmari meore cxovrebaa (,,Le rêve estune seconde vie’’(Nerval 1984:3)). nervalis azriT uxilavi samyrossaidumloebis fardis axda sizmrebiT da maTi aRweriT Tu arisSesaZlebeli. nervals magaliTad emanuil svedenborgi (1688-1772)mohyavs, Svedi mecnieri da bunebismetyveli, romelmac bevri gamogonebaiwinaswarmetyvela (TviTmfrinavi, wyalqveSa navi). ormocdaTeqvsmetiwlis svedenborgs, qriste gamoecxada da aman misi cxovreba mTliandSecvala. svedenborgi irwmuneboda, rom saiqioSi gardacvlilTasulebis imqveyniuri cxovrebis Tvalyurisdevna SeeZlo. ,,me ar vcruob,yovelTvis marTals vambob’’ _ werda svedenborgi. r. dekartes,j. lokisa da i. niutonis gavleniT, e. svedenborgi jer materiis atomuragebulebaze muSaobda, xilvebis Semged ki _ spiritualistur danaturfilosofiur Teorias anviTarebda. Svedi mecnieris kalamsbibliis komentarebis ocdaaT tomze meti ekuTvnis. e. svedengorgi Tavisxilvebs ,,Memorabilia’’-s uwodebda. nervalis orelias bolos darTuliaqvs teqsti igive saxelwodebiT (Nerval 1984:95). e. svedenborgmaromantizmis warmomadgenlebze didi gavlena iqonia, gansakuTrebiT – u.bleiksa da r. emersonze. u. bleiki, Tavis samoTxis da jojoxeTisqorwinebaSi wers: ,,maradisoba siyvarulia, romelmac dros gauZlo’’.SesaZloa, nervali, u. bleikis msgavsad, satrfos ZiebaSi maradisobispovnas cdilobda da Tavisi ,,literaturuli kaTarsisiT’’ ki _ukvdavebis mopovebas. nervalis Semoqmedebaze bleikis gavlenis Sesaxebvrceli kvleva aqvs dawerili anri lemetrs. bleikis naxatebi, jon


178miltonis dakarguli samoTxis (1808) misi ilustraciebi,Enervalisorelias dasasuraTebladac gamodgeboda.yovelive zemoTqmulidan gamomdinare, SegviZlia davaskvnaT, romnervalis moTxrobaSi _ ,,orelia’’, interteqstualuri kavSirebi(transteqstualoba) amoicnoba:1) patrateqstis doneze (patrateqstualoba oqros legendasTan,svedenborgis SromebTan mimarTebaSi”;2) hiperteqstualobis saxiT, romlis mixedviTac oqros legendaaris moTxrobis _ ,,orelia’’, hipoteqsti, nervalis nawarmoebi kiapokalifsisTan mimarTebaSi _ hiperteqstia (bolo nawili);3) interteqstualuri kavSirebis saxiT, romelic nervalismoTxrobas kanonikur Tu apokriful teqstebTan aaxlovebs;4) cnobili nawarmoebis moxseniebiT metateqstualobisgamovlinebad SeiZleba miviCnioT. nervali civilizaciisJamTaaRmwerlia, kacobriobis istoriis mematianea da gviyvebasamyaros warmoqmnis istorias da periods qristeSobidanarabebis Semosevebis CaTvliT. teqstSi igrZnoba lukreciusisatomizmis, furies socialuri utopiis da kuvies evoluciisSesaxeb koncefciis gavlena.III. VII. qalis saxe-xati nervalis SemoqmedebaSiTavis naSromSi _ ,,personaJis semiologiuri modeli’’, filip amoni,tradiciuli literaturaTmcodneobis meTodTan erTad, mxatvrulteqstSi personaJis meTodologiur analizs gvTavazobs. is ganixilavspersonaJs rogorc lingvistur niSans da analizis sam parametrsganarCevs: garegnul iers, (saxeli, garegnoba, portreti), moqmedebisareals (funqcia da roli) da ierarqiul mniSvnelobas (statusi damniSvneloba) (Jouve 1997:57). rasakvirvelia, nervalis prozaulinawarmoebebis miTopoeturoba TviT personaJis saxelis, Cacmulobis dagaregnobis simbolur gaazrebaSi hpovebs asaxvas.novelebis krebulSi _ ,,cecxlis qaliSvilebi’’, 13 novela TuzRaparia gaerTianebuli. nervali ar SeuSinda ricxvi ,,13’’-is


179avismomaswavebel idumalebas. novelebisgan oTxi erTmaneTTan arisdakavSirebuli. maTi saTaurebi qalTa saxelebia: anJeliki, silvi,oqtavi da emili.nervalis krebulSi _ ,,cecxlis qaliSvilebi’’, mravladaapersonaJi-qali (anJeliki, isida, koriia, silvi, emili, Jeni). rogorczemoT ukve avRniSneT, novelebi ideur-Tematurad dakavSirebuliadaumTavrebel nawarmoebTan _ ,,orelia’’, da poetur ciklTan _,,qimerebi’’, sadac nervalis rTuli da winaaRmdegobrivi samyaronaratiuli da saleqso formiT gamoixateba.nervalis SemoqmedebaSi aRmosavluri kulturisTvisdamaxasiaTebeli sinkretuli msoflmxedveloba oTxi stiqiis SesaxebmoZRvrebaSi aisaxa – miwis, wylis, haerisa da cecxlis (Нерваль 1985 :18).Jerar de nervalis yvelaze cnobil krebulSi cxaddeba cecxlis,rogorc ganmwmendi stiqiis, yovlismomcveli siyvarulis simbolosroli.novelaSi _ ,,silvi’’, mTxrobeli Tavis uimedo siyvarulma dagawbilebam parizis datroveba aiZula. es nawarmoebi zustad iseveiwyeba, rogorc novela _ ,,oqtavi’’ , an moTxroba _ ,,orelia’’. SaaliSiCasuli mTxrobeli aRmoaCens, rom drois ulmobelma svlam misisanukvari mxarec Secvala: is saxli, romelSic cota xnis win sicocxleCqefda, velur vazs daufaravs. es epizodi aseve exmianeba moTxrobaSi _,,orelia’’, asaxul ,,momRimare saxls’’ (Nerval 1985 :15) da saxlis darabebsayolili usurvazian fanjris epizods sonetSi _ ,,EEl Desdichado’’. axlasaxli nangrevebs damsgavsebia, adre ki _ mTxrobels mis maxlobladbevrjer uTamaSia da dauviwyari Tavgadasavlebic gadaxdomia (Nerval1994 :317). mSobliuri mxaris monaxulebiT aRelvebul mTxrobelsgasaocari Rame axsendeba, rodesac ucnobi, aristokratiuliwarmomavlobis qaliSvili, adrieni gaicno da Seuyvarda. protagonistisbavSvobis megobari, silvi eWvianobs, cdilobs naratori moxiblos, masparizeli msaxiobis daviwyebaSi daexmaros, magram mTxrobels amukanasknelisa da efemeruli adrienis (aristokrati) msgavseba ufroadardebs, vidre silvis (bavSvobis megobari) miwieri da gulrwfeligrZnoba.


180nervalis novela romantizmisTvis damaxasiaTebel siuJetzeaagebuli. Tavad Txroba asociaciuria, rac Slis zRvars realobasa dairealurs, awmyos, momavalsa da warsuls Soris.parizSi mTxrobeli luazis yvavilebis dResaswaulis SesaxebgazeTidan igebs. nervali amave dResaswaulze novelaSi _ ,,anJeliki’’,saubrobs. igi umal iviwyebs msaxiobs (oreli) da valuas mxareSimiemgzavreba, rom warsuls daubrundes (Nerval 1994:175).novelis (,,silvi’’) sami personaJi qalidan, samive sxvadasxvasocialuri fenis warmomadgenelia: silvi SesaniSnavi memaqmanea, adrieni_ Zveli aristokratiuli gvaris warmomadgeneli, oreli ki _ msaxiobi.miuxedavad imisa, rom novelas ,,silvi’’ ewodeba, erTi SexedviT,mTxrobeli silvis sxva personaJi-qalisgan ar gamoarCevs, mas araviTarupiratesobas ar aniWebs, piriqiT: silvis mTxrobeli uimedod uyvars,mTxrobelis goneba _ adriens, xolo guli orelis ekuTvnis.valuas mxareSi gavrcelebuli saxeli _ ,,silvi’’ saxelidan _,,silveni’’, aris warmoqmnili da Jerar de nervalis mSobliur mxaresukavSirdeba – valuas. il-de-fransis es patara kuTxe monastrebiTa daZveli cixe-simagreebiTaa mdidari. es sityva etimologiurad tyesTan, anuyovelive pirvelyofilTan, idumalTanaa dakavSirebuli. krebulSi _,,cecxlis qaliSvilebi’’, silveni naratoris ZuZumtes (,,silvi’’)megobarsa da megzurs hqvia (,,anJeliki’’). ,,silvi’’ (Silvi) yvavilissaxelicaa (anémon-sylvie). miTologiaSi silveni tyeebis da mindvrebisRmerTs, pans Seesatyviseba. fsiqoanalizSi, tye yovelive daviwyebulsukavSirdeba da warsulSi dabrunebas simbolurad gamoxatavs. nervaliserT-erTi mkvelvaris _ Pp.J. kateqsis azriT, silvi edemis baRSidabrunebas, ocnebis asrulebas ganasaxierebs (Jourdan 2007:7). novelismTxrobelic bavSvobis wlebs ixsenebs da mSobliur mxareSi brundeba.novelaSi aRwerili mogzauroba geografiul sivrcesa da droSi ki ara,aramed warsulSi mogzaurobaa. J-i. tadies azriT, romantikosTaesTetikaSi mogonebebi afeqtur xasiaTs atarebs. maTi funqcionirebawarsulSi momxdaris xelaxal gancdas ukavSirdeba da ara gaxsnebas(Tadié 1999:168).A Tu personaJi-qali _ silvi, sxvaze metad, mTxrobelisTvalSi upiratesobiT ar sargeblobs, misi saxelis simboloka


181sawinaaRmdegoze metyvelebs: igi nawarmoebis parateqstia da mTxrobelismier adre gancdilis xelaxla SegrZnebis survilze migvaniSnebs.mTxrobeli adrieniT SexvedrisTanave ixibleba. isini mTvarisSuqze, Zveli warmarTuli ritualis Catarebis dros Sexvdnen erTmaneTs.am personaJis saxeli simboluri datvirTvis matarebeli ar aris.nawarmoebSi adriens erTgvari mediatoris roli akisria: igi realur dairealur samyaroTa da personaJebis (silvi da oreli) damakavSirebelirgolia. mTxrobels orelis (msaxiobi) da adrienis (aristikrati/monazoni) msgavseba mosvenebas ar aZlevs, rac ori qaliSvilis fizikurmsgavsebas efuZneba. mTxrobels eWvi RrRnis, rom axalgazrdobaSimxolod erTxel nanaxi qaliSvili, SesaZloa msaxiobi gamxdariyo.protagonists Tavadac ukvirs, rogor moxda, rom monazoni msaxiobadiqca (Nerval l994:180). adrieni Wabukuri siyvarulis simboloa. msaxiobiqalis mimarT trfoba qalis msaxioburi niWierebis aRiarebiTSemoifargleba. adrieni da mTxrobeli erTmaneTs Teatralur scenasaviTmowyobil mindorze xvdebian, anri IV-is cixe-simagris nangrevebTan.orelisadmi siyvarulic TeatrTan aris dakavSirebuli: Teatri am oripersonaJi qalis msgavsebis damadasturebelia. orelis erT-erT SesaZloprototipad _ Jeni kolons miiCneven, romelmac mwerali meorexarisxovanmusikoss anacvala. novelaSi _ ,,silvi’’, oreli niWieri msaxiobia. Jenikoloni frangul scenaze ar brwyinavda, magram, novelis gmirismsgavsad, masac sxva mamakaci xiblavda.silvi adrienzec da orelizec eWvianobs. igi arc Wabukuriocnebis da arc miuwvdomeli trfobis sagania. qaliSvili, romelicmaqmans ostaturad qsovs, miTologiur moirasTan asocirdeba. umziTvod,siyvarulis gareSe, silvi mTxrobelis ZuZumtes misTxovdeba, romelmacbavSvobaSi megobari (mTxrobeli) sikvdilisgan ixsna, Tumca silvis,,bednierebis sawindari’’ mTxrobelisa da Tavisi meore naxevrisfizikuri msgavseba xdeba. silvis bedniereba miwieria, warmavali.naratoris danarCeni ori satrfo _ miuwvdomeli ocneba, qimeraa. silvicmiuwvdomeli xdeba: igi sxvas mihyveba colad. mTxrobeli xvdeba, romigi samudamod dakarga, ver daafasa da ver gaiazra TuUra ganZs flobda.gansxvavebuli bedis da warmomavlobis sam personaJ-qals erTi mamakaci(mTxrobeli) akavSirebs. silvi, memaqmane, soflis mkvidrze Txovdeba;


182oreli, mTxrobelis platonur grZnobas, realur qorwinebas amjobinebs(rogorc Jeni koloni, an madam diuma-n.q.); adrienic mistikuriqorwinebiT RmerTs ukavSirebs Tavis beds: igi monasterSi monazvnadaRikveceba (Nerval 1994:208).mTxrobeli am sami qalis msgavsebis amokiTxvas umniSvnelodetalebiT cdilobs: silvica da orelic mindorze mihyavs, sadacpirvelad adrieni ixila (Nerval 1994:192). rodesac silvi mReris,mTxrobeli mas adriens amsgavsebs. narators orelis garegnobisadrienTan msgavseba ukvirs: orive maRali, tanadi, SavTvalebaa; orivemTxrobels Tavisi keTilSobilebiT xiblavs: naratori Tavad aRiarebs,rom monazoni komediantis saxiT uyvars (Nerval 1994:177).silvisTan ganSoreba mTxrobels Zvirad daujda: anderZiTdatovebuli Tanxa gaflanga da orelis gauziarebel grZnobas daaxarja.Tavad nervalma, biZis datovebuli qoneba Jeni kolonis gansadidebladdaarsebul Teatralur Jurnalis gamocemas Sealia. silvisTanganSoreba novelis protagonistis marcxia. realuri, masze Seyvarebulimemaqmanec fiqciad da mxolod mogonebadRa iqca, magram misi saxemTxrobels xSirad esaxeba: ,,vardebiTa da veluri vaziT morTulfanjaraSi’’. nacionalur samosSi Cacmuli qalis saxe, usurvaziTmorTul mSobliur keriasTan _ es epizodi meordeba moTxrobaSi _,,orelia’’. saxeli oreli, zemoxsenebul moTxrobaSi transformirdebaoreliad, iseve rogorc _ silveni (silvis meuRle da novelismTxrobelis ZuZumte), romelic figurirebs novelSi _ ,,anJeliki’’.orelis Jeni kolons ukavSireben, adriens _ sofi douss (Jean1989 20).sainteresoa, rom novelis Seqmnis periodSi, orive qali gardacvliliiyo. sanam baronesa de foSeri gaxdeboda, sofi dousic msaxiobobda.orelisa da adrienisgan gansxvavebiT, silvis realuri prototipi arhyavs. igi nervalis mier Seqmnili poeturi, valuas mxaris gamrje dakeTilsindisieri, keTilgonieri qaliSvilebis krebiTi saxea. igi Zalzedmogvagonebs, nervalisa da fransua viionis usayvarlesi poetis _teofil de viiosAmrTvels (Нерваль1985:156).Eqalis poeturi ideali ,,cvalebadi aldebarania’’. misi orferovaniciagi xiblavs da xan silvis, xan ki _ adriens Seesatyviseba. cisferi


183idealisken swrafvis, poeturi ocnebis simboloa, vardisferi _sicocxliT tkbobis. silvisa da adrienis msgavsebas, romlebsacyvavilebis dResaswauli akavSirebs, mTxrobeli ferTa palitrismsgavsebiT usvams xazs. nervali adriens mwvane balaxze amosulvardisfer yvavils adarebs. silvi xSirad icvams vardisfer an mwvanesamoss. am or personaJSi erTi siyvarulis ori mxare erTiandeba:miwieri (silvi) da RvTaebrivi (adrieni), warsuli (adrieni) da awmyo(silvi). erTmaneTisgan gansxvavebuli uxilavi ZafebiT dakavSirebulisami personaJi qali qmnis nervalis triadas, anu qimeras. qimera,cecxlismfrqveveli teramorfuli miTologiuri arsebaa. mas sami Taviaqvs: lomis, Txisa da gvelis. lomi gazafxulis simboloa, Txa _zafxulis da gveli _ zamTris (Encyclopédie . ..1996:87). poeturi krebulissaTauris, misi simboluri mniSvnelobisa da personaJi-qalebis furqciasSoris paralelebis gavlebiT SeiZleba avtoris Canafiqri amovicnoT:sami qali mTxrobelis cxovrebis sam etapTan asocirdeba: silvibavSvobas ukavSirdeba. henri IV-is droindel cixe-simagris baRSi,adrienTan Sexvedrisas, MmTxrobeli pirveli amboriT Wabukur siyvarulseziara (sainteresoa, rom Hhenri IV-s xalxma meqalTane Searqva-n.q.).rodesac naratori Wabukuri aRtkinebiT adriens kocnis, TiTqoscxovrebis Semdeg etapze gadadis, amitom adrieni naratorisymawvilkacobasTan asocirdeba. msaxiobi oreli ki _ mTxrobeliszrdasrulobis periods ukavSirdeba. Tu oreli mTxrobelis parizulcxovebas simbolurad ganasaxierebs, silvi _ mSobliuri mxarissinonimia: masTan Sexvedra droSi mogzaurobaa, Secdomebis gamosworebismcdelobaa, anu SeuZleblis SeZlebaa, uZRebi Svilis dabrunebaa, racedemis baRSi dabrunebis tolfasia.silvi xelsaqmiT (Zafis rTviT) aris gatacebuli: Zafi adamianissicocxlesTan asocirdeba. berZnul miTologiaSi sami moira adamianisbedisweras ansaxierebs. es SesaniSnavad warmoCinda moTxrobaSi _,,orelia’’. oqros ZafebiT mqargvelia emili (,,emili’’), da neapoletaneliqalic novelaSi _ ,,oqtavi’’. novelaSi _ ,,silvi’’, sami personaJi qali samgraciasTanac asocirdeba, romlebic simbolurad gamoxataven silamazes,siyvarulsa da siamovnebas. samive siyvarulis qalRmerTs emsaxureba,neoplatonizmSi ki _ siyvarulis sami aspeqtis mniSvnelobas iZens


184(Мифологический 1990 : 366). Sua saukuneebSi, sami gracia, romelTaatributebia vardi, vaSli da saTamaSo kamaTeli, mniSvnelobas icvlis,isini mowyalebas, mSvenierebas da siyvaruls ganasaxiereben. aseTivedatvirTva aqvT nervalis novelis personaJ-qalebs. maTi meoxebiT,mwerali novelaSi gansakuTrebul droisa da sivrcismier samyarosacqmnis. es imdenad aris mniSvnelovani, ramdenadac mwerali am novelaSictopografiuli qronotopis dazustebas aridebs Tavs.sami qalis erT mxatvrul saxeSi gaerTianebis SesaniSnavi magaliTianawarmoebis _ ,,orelia’’, pirveli nawilis VI Tavis sizmari. Jerar denervali, amjeradac Zvel berZnul miTs iyenebs _ miTs sami moirasSesaxeb. es RvTaebebi _ atrofosi, kloTosi da laqesisi (parkebi) _zevsisa da femides qaliSvilebi, adamianis bedis Zafs rTaven.moTxrobaSi _ ,,orelia’’, mTxrobeli sizmarSi nanaxs hyveba: winaprebissaxlSi, momuSave sam qals lamfis mkrTali Suqi anaTebs. sami qalisasociaciurad moirebTan dakavSireba Semdeg abzacSi xdeba: mTxrobelisakuTar bavSvobas igonebs da sizmarSi naqsov tanisamosian bavSvsxedavs: ,,Cemi Tavi Zvelebul samosSi gamowyobili davinaxe, romelicobobas qselis darad iyo darTuli’’ (,,Je me vis vêtu d’un petit habit brin deforme ancienne, entièrement tissu à l’aguille de fils ténus comme ceux des toiles d’araigée’’(Nerval 1985:27)). sainteresoa, rom nervalis deda iyo komersantisqaliSvili: mamamisi TeTreuliT vaWrobda, amitom teqstSi moxseniebuliZafis rTvis epizodi, romelic dedis saxis gaxsenebas mohyveba anRvTismSoblis saxelobis eklesiis monaxulebas uZRvis win, kidev erTiasociaciuri jaWvis wyaro xdeba.moTxrobaSi _,,orelia’’, samive qali erTmaneTs hgavs. maT saerTonakvTebi, moZraobebi da xma aqvT, TiTqos mxatvrebs srulqmnilisilamazis Sesaqmnelad sxvadasxva modeli gamoeyenebinoT: (,,Elles eussentvécu de la même vie, et chacune était ainsi un composé de toutes . . ‘’ ’’ (Nerval 1985:27)).sami qalis msgavseba portretebze gamosaxuli qalebis gaigivebissaSualebasac iZleva. saubaria biZis saxlSi nanax portretebze. es kideverTi SemTxvevaa, rodesac sxvadasxva saxe erT mxatvrul saxe-xatadiqceva da erTi epizodi (portreti) meores (moirebi) uxilavi ZafebiTukavSirdeba.


185novelaSi sivrce, moqmedebis adgilic personaJ qalebTanasocirdeba. mTxrobelisTvis, silvi mxiaruli da udardeli bavSvia.vardebiTa da usurvaziT daburul fanjarasTan igi realuri, miwieriqalis simboluri gamoxatulebacaa. adrieniviT, silvic is zRurblia,romelic warsulsa da momavals, realursa da warmosaxviTs akavSirebs.silvi _ valuas sagrafosTan, nervalis da novelis mTxrobelis biZissaxlTan, keriasTan asocirdeba, oreli _ parizTan, sadac cxovrebascenaze gaTamaSebul warmodgenas hgavs. adrieni Teatris Zvelidekoraciebis msgavs, Zveli sasaxlis nangrevebTan da monasterTanasocirdeba: swored iq xdeba adrienis da mTxrobelis siyvarulisgamJRavneba. Zveli sasaxle ki luaziSia, amitom adrieni TiTqosmakavSireblis rols asrulebs or qals Soris: erTs protagonistiuyvars (silvi), da meores mTxrobeli etrfis (oreli).rogorc vxedavT, nervalis novelis personaJebi drosTan dasivrcesTan arian dakavSirebulni, mTxrobelis cxovrebis etapebTan dasiyvarulis miwieri da RvTiuri sawyisis ipostasebi arian.novelaSi _ ,,silvi’’, drois analizs u. ekom vrceli samecnierokvleva dauTmo. nawarmoebSi dros rom udidesi mniSvneloba aqvs, amassaaTis uqonlobac amtkicebs. am SemTxvevaSic, dRisa da Ramismonacvleoba ama Tu im qalis gamoCenas Seesabameba. dRe rom miileva,mTxrobeli silvis iviwyebs. jadosnuri Rame adriens ukavSirdeba, xolosaRamo _ orelis, Tumca Tavad naratori am saRamoebs dakargulsuwodebs. ganTiadi kvlav silvis sauflod iqceva.Sesabamisad, qali-personaJebi nervalis novelaSi _ ,,silvi’’, erTiromelime funqciiTY ar arian determinirebulni. zogjer, maT realuriprototipi hyavT (oreli, adrieni), isini realur samyaros ganasaxiereben(oreli-msaxiobi da silvi), an warmosaxviTs (oreli-qali da adrieni).isini yovlismomcveli grZnobis or mxares warmoadgenen (adrieni dasilvi), xorciel sawyisTan asocirdebian (oreli da silvi) dasulierTan (adrieni, silvi). samive Jerer de nervalis triadas, qimerispoetur xats qmnis.erTmaneTTan msgavsebiTa Tu gansxvavebiT, urTierTmonacvleobiT,personaJi qalebi movlenaTa ara Tanamimdevrul, qronologiur, aramedasociaciur jaWvs qmnian. swored aRqmis asociaciurobaSi gamoixateba


186nervalis esTetikis siaxlove romantizmis esTetikasTan, rac esodenxiblavda siurealizmis warmomadgenlebs.novelis bolos nervali aRiarebs: ,,swored aseTi qimerebia Tavsrom dagvtrialeben da gvnusxaven Cveni cxovrebis gariJraJze. me ki maTCaxatvas Sevecade’’. amis Sesaxeb marsel prusti Tavis kritikulnaSromSi, ,,sen-bevis winaaRmdeg’’ wers: ,,nervalis Canaxati zeTissaRebavebiT daxatul tilod iqca. nervalma Tavisi ocneba gaaferada’’(Proust 2006:101).nervalis SemoqmedebisTvis damaxasiaTebeli miTosuri azrovneba,yvelaze naTlad, qalTa saxeebis SeqmnaSi vlindeba. novelebis krebulSi_ ,,cecxlis qaliSvilebi’’, gaerTianebuli nawarmoebebi qalTa saxelebsatareben, magram maTi dakavSireba erTmaneTTan ar xerxdeba, Tumca erTnovelaSi _ ,,silvi’’ _ yvela qali-personaJi erTmaneTTan arisdakavSirebuli. moTxrobaSi _ ,,orelia’’, dakarguli satrfos povnagardacvlili dedis portretis povniT mTavrdeba. nervalis nawarmoebSidakargul satrfos saxe-xatSi moiazreba deda (qalis RvTaebrivi arsi)da miwieri satrfoc. igi realurad arsebuli pirovnebebis (antuanetlorani, sofi dousi, Jeni koloni) miTologemaa. bedma ise isurva daJerar de nervalis cxovrebaSi qalis poeturi saxe-xati realuriadamianebis saxelebTan iyo dakavSirebuli. asociaciaTa wyeba amiT aramoiwureba. moTxrobaSi _ ,,orelia’’, mTxrobeli or portretzeamaxvilebs mkiTxvelis yuradRebas: rainis sanapiros cnobili feriis dagermanul nacionalur tanisamosSi gamowyobili qalis portretze (Nerval1984 : 16). oriveze qalia gamosaxuli: RvaTebrivi (feria) da miwieri(germaneli qali). dedis da germaneli qalis asociaciuri kavSirimoTxrobis -_ ,,orelia’’, meore nawilis IV TavSic Cans. mweralisaubrobs frang qalze, romelic qmars, germaneli qalisTvis CveulierTgulebiT, qalaqidan qalaqSi dahyveboda da samxedro eqimis mZimexvedrs iziarebda: ,,dedam mamaCemis gayola isurva, rogorc Zveligermaneli qalebi iqceodnen xolme’’ (,,Ma mère avait voulu suivre mon père auxarmées, comme les femmes des anciens Germains’’ (Nerval 1985:63)). nervali iqveaxsenebs germanias _ uZvelesi legendebis da Tqmulebebis qveyanas.cxadia, rom moTxrobis _ ,,orelia’’, pirvel nawilSi, rainis sanapiros


187feriisa da germanul samosSi gamowyobili qalbatonis portretimwerlis dedaze miuTiTebs. Tavis warmosaxvaSi, mwerali dedaspriudonis da fragonaris mier Sesrulebul graviurebze gamosaxulqalebs adarebda (Nerval1984:82). narkvevSi _ ,,gaseirnebebi da mogonebebi’’,nervali dedis dakargul portretze saubrobs (,,portretic daikarga anmoipares’’ (Nerval 1984:83). Sesabamisad, dedis portretis dakargvis faqtimoTxrobaSi dedis, germaneli qalisa da feriis msgavsebSi hpovebsasaxvas. es msgavseba ocnebis asrulebaa: saSualebaa warmoidginos deda,romelic arc ki axsovs. Jerar de nervali nawarmoebis (,,orelia’’) IITavSi adamianis gaorebaze saubrobs, IV TavSi ki, iseTi qalismxatvrul saxes gvixatavs, romelSic RvTaebri da miwier sawyisiagaerTianebuli. portretze gamosaxuli qali cocxali aRaraa, magramswored naxatis saSualebiT igi isev cocxalTa Soris imyofeba.mTxrobelis gadia mas eubneba: ,,biZaSenma Tadarigi daiWira da dedaSenisportreti SeukveTa . . .axla igi Cvens gverdiTaa’’A (,,Ton oncle avait eu soin defaire son portrait d’avance . . .maintenant elle est avec nous’’ (Nerval1985:16)). nervalidedamisis gardacvalebis Sesaxeb mianiSnebs da im SesaZleblobaze, romgardacvlilTa sulebi sxvadasxva sagansa da sxeulSi agrZelebenarsebobas.IV TavSi miTiTebulia flamandieli mxatvari. mas mTxrobelisaukuneze metxans gardacvlil biZasTan aigivebs (,,Un oncle maternel, peintreflamand, mort depuis plus d’un sciècle’’(Nerval1985:16)). teqstSi nervaliportretze saubrobs, romelzedac germanul nacionalur tanisamosSigamowyobili qalia daxatuli, romelic kesaneebs dahyurebs: ,,misiTvalebi kesaneebis Taiguls dahyurebda’’ (,, . . les yeux attirés vers une touffe demyosotis’’(Nerval1985:16)). SesaZloa, mwerals mxedvelobaSi hqonda cnobiliflamandieli mxatvris, peter paul rubensis ,,RvTismSobeli kesaneebiT’’,romelic man, aseve flamandiel mxatvarTan, Jan breigel ufrosTanerTad daxata (tilo belgiis nacionalur galereaSia daculi - n.q.).gadmocemis mixedviT, yvavilebi breigels Seusrulebia, magram kesanesnacvlad, tiloze daxatulia aseve cisferyvavilebiani miwis suro,romelic keTili mogonebebis simboloa. nebismier SemTxvevaSi, IV Tavises epizodi (sizmarSi nanaxi biZis saxlSi germanul nacinalur


188tanisamosSi gamowyobili qalis portreti) mwerlis dedaze mogonebebismetaforas warmoadgens. kesane lamazi cisferi yvavilia. igi erTgulisiyvarulis simboloa. legendis Tanaxmad, raindi mdinaris sanapirozemis satrfosTan erTad seirnobda. mSvenieri yvavilis mowyvetisas,wylisken gadaiwia, rkinis abjarma gadawona, raindi mdinareSi Cavardada daixrCo. sikvdilis win, man gulis swors yvavili gadaugdo damiaZaxa ,,ar damiviwyo’’. frangul enaSi kesanes xalxuri saxelwodebaSemorCa _ ,,une oreille de souris’’ (Tagvis yuri). yvavilis germanulsaxelwodebaSi Semonaxulia legendaSi asaxuli lamazi ambavi:Vergissmeinnicht _ ar damiviwyo. ,,orelias’’ gamouqveynebel fragmentebSimwerali lurji mTis mwvervalze gaSlili yvavilis mSvenierebasaRwers: ,,mocisfro mTis wverze gaCnda patara yvavili _ ar damiviwyo!’’(,,Sur la cime d’un mont bleuâtre une petite fleur est née. – Ne m’oubliezpas !’’(Nerval1985:93)). am yvavils varskvlavi dahyurebs. varskvlavi mwerliszeciur satrfosTan asocirdeba _ RvTismSobelTan, rac nervalisdedisadmi didi siyvarulis metaforuli gamoxatulebaa.Cevni azriT, cisferi yvavilis miTologema akavSirebs nervalisteqsts novalisis cnobil nawarmoebTan _ ,,cisferi yvavili, anu hainrixfon oftendingeni’’. es ukanaskneli, novalisis gardacvalebis Semdeg,1802 wels gamoqveynda. cisferi yvavili adamianis ocnebis simbolod,romantizmis epoqis sulis gamoxatulebad iqca. nervalma Tanamokalmisxvedri gaiziara: misi oreliac, nervalis ,,cisferi yvavili’’, megobrebmamwerlis sikvdilis Semdeg gamosces.orelias amave TavSi nervals naxsenebi aqvs undine. undine germanulmiTologiaSi igive mniSvnelobis mqonea, rac ,,русалка’’ _ slavurSi. orivewylis qalRmerTs ganasaxierebs. undine, anu niqse, wyalSi, mdinareebsaTu zRvebSi binadrobs. mas alisgan gansxvavebiT Tevzis bolo ara aqvs.tiloebze igi CanCqerTan, oqros an spilosZvlis savarcxliT ivarcxnisTavis grZel Tmas. undines xorciel vnebas ukavSireben, Tumca,gadmocemis mixedviT, igi Tavad aris adamianis Ralatis msxverpli.undines Tma jadosnuri Zalis mqonea da saidumlos inaxavs, romelsacigi arivis andobs. niqses, anu undines cremlebs aseve aqvs jadosnureiZala: Tu adamianma, gazafxulis buniobis dros, undines cremlebiT


189ganbana moaxerxa, igi aucileblad gaaxalgaxzrdavdeba da ukvdavebasacmoipovebs.odiTganve, cecxlica da wyalic qalur sawyisTan iyodakavSirebuli. nervalis nawarmoebebSi qalis saxe-xati sicocxlissawyisis gamomxatvelia da wylis miTologemas ukavSirdeba (,,oqtavi’’).nervalis nawarmoebis personaJi qalis, orelias, cecxlaTan dakavSirebamisi saxeliT xdeba (orelia _> oqro _> cecxli), Tumca nervalispersonaJi erTi konkretuli qalis xats ar warmoadgens. dakargulisatrfo mwerlis gardacvlil dedas, satrfos ukavSirdeba, amave dros,igi dakarguli bednierebis, dakarguli samoTxis alegoriuligamoxatulebaa.nawarmoebSi (,,orelia’’) aRweril bolo Rames, mTxrobeli kidev erTsizmars xedavs. mas is qali ecxadeba, romelic masze bavSvobaSizrunavda, Tumca es qali sizmarSi bevrad ufro daberebulia.mTxrobeli sinanuliT aRiarebs, rom gamzrdelis sikvilis win, misimonaxuleba ar moisurva (Nerval 1985:61). sizmarSi mTxrobels eCveneba, romqali mas sayvedurobs da uCivis, rom Tavisi mSoblebi ise ar dautiria,rogorc ,,im qals dastiris’’ (,,que tu as pleuré cette femme . . . ‘’). rogor undaiTxovos mTxrobelma patieba? protagonistis win uamravigardacvlilis aCrdili gaielvebs. yoveli maTgani simboluridatvirTvis mqone xatebad iqceva, romelTa mniSvneloba da azrimTxrobelma ver amoicno, amitom mTavrdeba nawarmobis meore nawilis IITavi imedgacruebiT: mTxrobelma verc wminda wignebidan, verc poetebisqmnilebebidan, verc zRaprebidan Seimecna ra. WeSmariteba isev gausxltamas xelidan da ,,axla ukve Zlier gvianaa!’’ (,,Maintenent, il est trop tard !’’(Nerval 1985 :62)).


190III. VIII. patareqtsis funqcia da mniSvnelobanervalis nawarmoebebis patareqtebic qalis saxe-xats ukavSirdeba.Jerar Jenetma nawarmoebis saTauris (parateqsti) saxeobaTa sqemaSeimuSava da saTauris Tematuri da formaluri funqciebi gamohyo:Tematuri funqciebidan ZiriTad siuJetTan SesatyvisobaSi myofi saTauri(littéral), metonimiuri, anu erT romelime personaJze an teqstis erTnawilze morgebuli (métonimique), metaforuli, anu simboluri(métaphorique) ironiuli (antiphrastique). amave dros, iseTi saTaurebicdaajgufa, romlebic nawarmoebis formis gamomxatvelia (rhématique) danawarmoebis formas zustad asaxavs (générique), an formaze saerTod armouTiTebs ( paragénérique) (Jouve 1997 15).saTauri nawarmoebis savizito baraTia. mkiTxvelis daintereseba,misi yuradRebis mipyroba _ swored saTauris saSulebiT xdeba.saTauris ,,momnusxavi’’ funqcia mkiTxvelisa da mwerlis urTierTobaSiudides rols TamaSobs, romlis meoxebiTac xdeba mkiTxvelismolodinis horizontis gamarTleba an gacrueba.Jerar de nervalis zemoxsenebuli nawarmoebebis _ ,,cecxlisqaliSvilebis’’, ,,orelias‘’ da ,,qimerebis’’ saTauri metaforul xasiaTsatarebs. mis SemoqmedebaSi saTauri im ideis simboluri gamoxatulebaa,risi gadmocemac mwerals surda.nervali ezoTeruli ZiebebiT iyo gatacebuli. metafizikaSi misiganswavluloba mwerlis nawarmoebis saTaurSive hpovebs asaxvas. bevrmkvlevars miaCnia, rom saTauri nervalis aRmosavleTSi mogzaurobebsukavSirdeba. mwerali samyaros saidumloebebis amoxsnas sinkretulinaturfilosofiis meoxebiT cdilobda, amitom nervalis SemoqmedebaSi,rogorc aRmosavluri, aseve dasavlur kulturaTa gavlena igrZnoba.frangi mwerali alqimiiTac interesdeboda. sakmarisia gavixsenoTaleqsandre diumasTan erTad dawerili drama _ ,,alqimikosi’’ (1839 wlis10 aprili), romelic warmatebiT idgmeboda TeatrSi _ renesansi. asaxavsra XVI saukunis italieli fasios cxovrebas, romlis pirvelwyarosingliseli dramaturgis _ henri hart milmanis piesa _ ,,fasio’’ _ iyo.alqimikosis sulieri maswavleblis, nikola flamelis biografia daedosafuZvlad diumasa da nervalis kidev erT erTobliv piesas _ ,,wminda


191iakobis koSki’’, romelic diumam megobris gardacvalebis erTi wlisSemdeg dadga. swored alqimikosTa swavlebas ukavSirdeba moZRvrebaoTxi elementis Sesaxeb: miwis, wylis, haeris, cecxlisa da mexuTeelementis _ eTeris. niSandoblivia, rom moTxrobis _ ,,orelia’’,mTxrobeli, nawarmoebis bolo TavSi, swored eTeris saSualebiTaxerxebs avadmyofebis gankurnebas (Nerval 1985 :98).novela _ ,,silvi’’, SeiZleba miwaTmoqmedebas davukavSiroT, radganes sityva laTinuridan TargmanSi ,,tyes’’ niSnavs. Sesabamisad, novelissaTauri metaforul xasiaTs atarebs.novelaSi _ ,,oqtavi’’, MmTxrobeli italiaSi, TvalwarmtaciCanCqeris monaxulebis dros, zRvaSi mobanave oqtavis xvdeba. gemzemTxrobeli inglisel qaliSvils siyvaruls uxsnis. oqtavi berZnulisityisgan _ ,,oktô’’- dan momdinareobs, rac merveds miSnavs. alqimiaSi ki,meore elements _ wyals, platonis mravalkuTxedebis geometriismixedviT, oqtaedrs, anu rvakuTxa formis wesier mravalkuTxedsSeesabameba. aqedan gamomdinare, nervalis novelis _ ,,oqtavi’’,saxelwodebac metaforulia, radgan avtoris Canafiqrs simboluradxsnis. zemoxsenebuli ori novelis parateqsti SeiZleba davukavSiroTmoZRvrebas oTxi elementis Sesaxeb: silvi _> miwa, oqtavi _> wyali,Tumca danarCeni novelebis saTaurebi nervalis ezoTeruli Ziebebisdasturad ar gamodgeba.rac Seexeba novelas _ ,,anJeliki ’’, misi Sinaarsidan gamomdinare,igi ironiuli datvirTvis matarebelia (le titre thématique/ métaphorique),radgan mwerlis Canafiqri cenzuris motyuebasa da jarimis TavidanacilebaSia. novelis _ ,,emili’’, saTauri meorexarisxovani personaJissaxelis matarebelia (le titre thématique/métonimique): emili leitenantderoSic meuRles hqvia. sainteresod migvaCnia, rom es laTinuriwarmomavlobis saxeli sityvas _ ,,aemulus’’_ ukavSirdeba, rac mebrZols,Tanaswor mowinaaRmdeges niSnavs. Tu imas gavixsenebT, rom nervalis amnovelaSi deroSi samxedroa da misi bedniereba orTabrZolis Sedegadimsxvreva, maSin nawarmoebis patareqsti simboluri datvirTvismatarebeli iqneba.


192nervalis alqimiisadmi interesi, misi ezoTeruli Ziebebi mwerlissaTaurebis xasiaTze aisaxeba (,,silvi’’, ,,oqtavi’’). Cveni varaudiT, vrcelimoTxrobis _ ,,orelia’’ _ parateqsti aseve dakavSirebulia sityvasTan_ ,,oqro’’ (Or →Aurea→Aurélia). rogorc zemoT avRniSneT, moTxrobissaTaurs parateqstualoba unda akavSirebdes iakob voraginelisnawarmoebTan _ ,,oqros legenda’’. vfiqrobT, nervalis parateqstSioqros saukunis miTologemac amoikiTxeba. cnobili mkvlevaris _ mirCeeliades azriT, oqros saukune es is droa, rodesac adamiani bunebasTanharmoniulad Tanaarsebobda. msgavsi miTologema yvela erismiTologiaSi arsebobs. m. eliades gamoTvliT, ,,gancxromis’’ es periodineoliTs ukavSirdeba da miwadmoqmedebis ganviTarebas emTxveva. ammiTologemas keTilSobili veluris da dakarguli samoTxis arqetipebiTiTqmis yovelTvis axlavs. nervalis moTxrobaSi _ ,,orelia’’,dakarguli samoTxis, miwadmoqmedis (I nawilis IV Tavi) da keTilSobiliarabulsamosiani ufliswulis saxe-xatebi ikveTeba (II nawilis IX Tavi).amave dros, nawarmoebis parateqtis simbolur mniSvnelobaze kidev isicmetyvelebs, rom oqros saukunis cneba ukavSirdeba virgiliusis,,eneides’’. Tavis sonetSi _ ,,El Desdichado’’, nervali posiliposis mTasmoixseniebs, romlis ZirSi dakrZalulia virgiliusi. posiliposis mTasnovelis _ ,,oqtavi’’, mTxrobelic moinaxulebs.cecxlis simbolos udidesi mniSvneloba eniWeba nervalis poeturkrebulSic _ ,,qimerebi’’. am nawarmoebis parateqsti aseve simbolurixasiaTis matarebelia, exmianeba nervalis novelebs _ ,,cecxlisqaliSvilebi’’, da moTxrobas _ ,,orelia’’. avtoris CanafiqrisaTaurebSive Cans. qimerebic cecxlismfrqveveli izomorfuli arsebebia,xolo, moTxrobis saTauri -_ ,,orelia’’, oqros, ganTiads simboluradgamoxatavs da aseve ukavSirdeba cecxls. cecxli zeciurTan arisdakavSirebuli da, amavdroulad _ kacobriobis istoriis dasawyisTan.cecxli mzis simboluri gamoxatulebacaa. mze, realurisa da irealurisganmasxvavebeli niSania nervalis moTxrobaSi _ ,,orelia’’ (ix.zemoT).amave dros, cecxli qalur sawyisTan asocirdeba: odidganve, cecxlismopovebiT da misi SenaxviT, swored qalebi iyvnen dakavebulni. nervalmaTavis krebuls ,,cecxlis qaliSvilebi’’ uwoda da amiT metaforulad


193gamoxata Tavisi saTqmeli: satrfos, zeciuris Tu miwieris, Ziebissurvili.naSromis ZiriTadi Sedegebiwinamdebare naSromis ZiriTad mizans realurisa da irealurisurTierTkavSiris dadgena warmoadgenda, nervalis mniSvnelovanprozaul nawarmoebebSi, rogoricaa: novelebis krebuli _ ,,cecxlisqaliSvilebi’’ da moTxroba _ ,,orelia’’. kvlevis Sedegad dadginda, rom:1. Jerar de nervalis ESemoqmedebaSi, romantizmis esTetikis gavlenasinkretuli Janris nawarmoebebis Seqmnis saxiT vlindeba, racnovelaTa krebulSi (,,cecxlis qaliSvilebi’’) gaerTianebulinawarmoebebis da moTxrobis _ ,,orelia’’, Janrul identifikaciasarTulebs. Jerar de nervalis nawarmoebebs rogorc mcire zomisepikuri Janris (moTxroba, novela), jadosnuri zRapris, asevemcire zomis romanisTvis damaxasiaTebeli niSan-TvisebebiaxasiaTebT. J. de nervalis prozauli qmnilebebis Taviseburebametanaracias efuZneba. nervali qmnis metamoTxrobebs(metanawarmoebi), romlebic TxrobiTi komunikaciis doneebis(naratiuli doneebi) Canacvlebazea agebuli (metalefsisi,CarCoiani novelebi, teqsti teqstSi).2. nervalis nawarmoebs (,,orelia’’) axasiaTebs fantastikis JanrisTvisdamaxasiaTebeli elementebi: rogorc fantasmagoriaSi, masSicasaxulia irealuri, avadmyofuri warmosaxvis Sedagad Seqmnilisamyaro; nawarmoebi feeriasac waagavs (qalis saxe-xatebi). nervalismoTxrobaSi _ ,,orelia’’, fantastikur mogzaurobasTan msgavsebacaRiniSneba: mogzauroba gamogonil (warmosaxviTi) samyaroSi,mogzauroba droSi (,,orelia’’, ,,silvi’’ ,,oqtavi’’), samyaroswarsulis da momavlis xilva (,,orelia’’).3. nervalis ukanaskneli nawarmoebi _ ,,orelia’’, qristianulkanonikur da apokriful teqstebs efuZneba, rac abaTilebsmosazrebas imis Taobaze, TiTqos nervalis mTeli Semoqmedebamwerlis ezoTeruli Ziebebis, misi naturfilosofiiT gatacebisamsaxvelia.


1944. Jerar de nervalis nawarmoebebSi realuris da irealurisurTierTkavSiri naratiuli drois kategoriis, TxrobiTikomunikaciis doneebis cvlis, naratiuli instanciebisTaviseburebaSi, transteqstualur urTierTkavSirebSi iCens Tavs.realuris da irealuris urTierTCanacvlebidan gamomdinare,drois da sivrcis, mimobneuli movlenebis erT ambad gaerTianebis,rekonstruirebis sakiTxi umniSvnelovanesi da urTulesi procesia.Jerar de nervalis zemoxsenebul nawarmoebebSi amocnobilialuziebis, avtoaluziebisa da reminiscenciebis saSualebiTteqstSi arsebuli e.w. ganusazRvreli adgilebis rekonsruireba(topografiuli qronotopi) dadgena gaxda SesaZlebeli.5. Jerar de nervalis proza e. w. ornamentul prozas ganekuTvneba.mis moTxrobas _ ,,orelia’’, axasiaTebs ornamentuli prozisZiriTadi niSnebi: xdomilobis simcire, movlenaTa gameoreba,miTopoeturoba.6. Jerar de nervalis nawarmoebebSi realuri da irealuri samyaroTanaarsebobs. amaSi Jerar de nervalis romantizmis esTetikisadmierTguleba vlindeba (gansakuTrebiT, germanuli romantizmis),Tumca realuri da irealuri erTmaneTTan dapirispirebuli araris: isini erTmaneTs enacvleba. aqedan gamomdinare, nervalismxatvrul-literaturul teqstebSi, (,,orelia’’), konstruirdeba araheterogenuli, aramed homogenuri, warmosaxviTi samyaro.realurisa da irealuri samyaroTa urTierTCanacvleba,homogenuri warmosaxviTi samyaros Seqmna, warmoaCens Jerar denervalis novatorobas da misi Semoqmedebis modernistulmimdinareobasTan siaxloveze metyvelebs.


195gamoyenebuli literaturis nusxa# avtori saTauri1. averincevi (onlainАверинцев, С., Символ, Электронная библиотека русскойwigni) культуры, on-lain wigni:www.gumer.info/.../simv.php.2. aniksti.. 1955 Аникст А. Хрестоматия по зарубежной литературе XIXвека.Москва: Мин. Прос., 1955.3. barti 1970 Bartes R. Mythologie.Paris : Seuil, 1970.4. baSlari 2001 Башляр Г. Земля и грезы.Москва: Издательствогуманитарной литературы, 2001.5. baxtini 1975 Бахтин М. Вопросы литературы и эстетики. Москва:Худ. лит., 1975. on-lain wigni: Philologos. narod. ru/bakhtin/...hronmain. html/.6. baxtini 1975 Бахтин М. Автор и герой в эстетической деятельности.on-lain wigni: infoliolib. info/ ....bahtin/indexa. html/.1975.7. beniSu 1992 Bénichou P. Romantisme français Les Magesromantiques.Paris : Gallimard, 1992.8. beniSu 1996 Bénichou P. Romantisme français. Le sacré de l’écrivain.Paris : Gallimard, 1996.9. bergsoni 1998 Bergsson H. Durée et simultanéité. Paris : Presse Universitairede France, 1998.10. biotxer... 1983 Бетхер А....История немецкой литературы. Москва:,,Радуга’’, 1986.11. blotie 1992 Blottier H.-P. Nerval .Sylvie. Paris: BORDAS, 1992.12. boguta Богута И. История философии. Москва: Издательство,,Мысль’’, 1995.13. bonfeua 1988 Bonnefoy Y. La Vérité de parole.Paris : Édition du Mercure deFrance, 1988.14. bone 1996 Bonnet H. Sylvie de Nerval. Paris : Hschette, 1996.15. bordasi.. 2002 Bordas É...L’analyse littéraire. Paris : NATHAN, 2002.16. borxesi 1999 Борхес Х.Л. Класики XX века. Ростов -на-Дону: 1999.


19617. buaie 2008 Boyer A.-M. Paralittératures. Paris : Armand Colin, 2008.18. braseli 2004 Brassel D. Manuel de littérature française. Paris :Bréal/Gallimard, 2004.19. bremoni 1973 Bremond C. La logique du récit.Paris : Seuil, 1973.20. bretoni 1964 Breton A. Essais sur les modernes. Paris : Gallimard, 1964.21. bruneli 2005 Brunel Pat. Littérature française du XX siècle. Paris : ArmandColin, 2005.22 bruneli 2007 Brunel P. Littérature française des origines à nos jours. Paris :Vuibest, 2007.23. dasavleT... 1988 dasavleT evropis literatura. Tbilisi :Tbilisis universitetis gamomcemloba, 1988.24. delozi 2004 Делез Ж. Перегаворы. Санкт-Петербург: Наука, 2004.25. destrueli 2001 Destruel Ph. Les filles du feu.Paris : Gallimard, 2001.26. dimitrevi... 1990 Димитрьев А....Зарубежная литература XIX векаРомантизм.Москва.,,Высшая школа’’, 1990.27. dormesoni 1997 D’ormesson J. Une autre littérature française.Paris : Gallimard,1997.D 28. diuma 1990 Dumas A. Sur Gérard de Nerval.Paris : ÉditionComplexe,1990.29. eko 2002 Эко У. Шесть прогулок в литературных лесах.Москва.Симпозиум, 2002.28 30. eliade 1972 Eliade M. Mythes, rêves et mystères.Paris: Gallimard, 1972.31. enciklopedia Encyclopédie de Philosophie. Paris : Alben Miclel, 2006.(filosofiis)200632. encilopedia filosofiis enciklopadia. on-lain wigni,filosofiis velikanov.ru /... /transgression. asp.33. enciklopedia Encyclopédie de Symboles. Pochothèque, 1989.(simboloebis)198934. enciklopedia Словарь литературных терминов, on-lain wigni:(literaturuli www.feb-web.ru/feb/slt/...lt/-083/htmterminebis)35. voragineli 1967 Voragine J. La legende dorée. I volume.Paris : Garnier-


197Flammarion, 1967.36. voragineli 1967 Voragine J. La legende dorée II volume. Paris : Garnier-Flammarion, 1967.37. karasiova 2009 Карасева М., К определению понятияИНТЕРМЕДИАЛЬНОСТЬ, on-lain dok:conference.kemsu.ru/GetDockFile?id=1284&table38. karelski 1989 Карельский А. Основные тенденции развитияромантизма.on-lain wigni: feb.web.ru ?fe/inl/...v16.1433.htm.1989.39. kesireri onlainКессирер Э.Техника современных политических мифов.on-wigni lain wigni: sosyety. nolbu. ru/...? ch.65 i. intml.40. klimentinebi 2002 Климентины.on-lainwigni:krotov.info/.../klimenti.htm/.2002.41. konti 1988 Conty D. Histoire de la littérature framçaise . XIX siècle.Paris : BORDAS, 1988.42. kosikovi 1976 Косиков Г. О принципах поветствования в романе.onlainwigni: libif.ru/mimesis/method. php.43. kosikovi 1987 Косиков Г. К теории романа. on-lain wigni:libif.ru/mimesis/method. php.44. lagardi ... 2003 Lagarde A., Michard L. Histoire de lalittérature framçaise.Paris : BORDAS, 2003.45. lakani 2006 Лакан Ж. Имена отца.Москва: Гнозис/логос. 2006.46. lakani 2006 Лакан Ж. Семинары..Москва: Гнозис/логос. 2004.47. lakani 2000 Lacan J. Les belles lettres.Paris : Seuil, 2000.48. lakrua 1994 Lacroix J.-Y. L’utopie. Paris : BORDAS, 1994.49. le bretoni ..... Le Breton G., Nerval le ténébreux,on-lain dokumenti:plinius.org/spip.php ?article18.50. le gofi 1980 Ле гофф Ж. Средневековый мир воображаемого.Москва:Прогресс, 1980.51. leontieva 2008 Леонтьева Е. Некоторые замечания о взглядахсовременных авторов. frsf.utmn.ru/vfg/21/30.52. leqsikoniDictionnaire des genres et des notions littéraires.Paris : Albin(Janrebis) 2001 Michel, 2001.


19853. literaturis...2008 literaturis Teoria. Tbilisi: literaturisinstitutis gamomcemloba, 2008.54. lotmani 1998 Лотман Ю. Структура художественного текста.onlainwigni: gumer. info/Llotman/..index.php. 1998.55. lotmani 1992 Лотман Ю. Избранные статьи. on-lain wigni : yamko.lib. ru/ add.lotman-all.htm.56. leqsikoniСловарь тартусско-московской семиотической школы. onlain(semiotikuriwigni: slovar.lib.ru/.../hronotop.htv.terminologiis)57. mase 2004 Macé M. Les genres littéraires. Paris : GF-Flammarion, 2004.58. mani (om-lain Манн.Ю., Романтизм. on-lain wigni: www.wigni)krugosvet.ru/...ROMANTIZM. htm59. meletinski... 1990 Мелетинский Е. Мифологический словарь.Москва :Советская энциклопедия, 1990.60. milneri 1996 Milner M., Pichois C. De Chatobriand à Baudelaire. Paris :GF-Flammarion, 1996.61. miterani 1988 MIttrand H. Histoire de la littérature française. Paris :NATHAN, 1988.62. nervali 2000 nervali J. mogonebebi. Tbilisi. gamomcemloba :Tbilisi, 2000.63. nervali 1985 Нерваль Ж. Дочери огня. Ленинград: ,,Художественнаялитература’’, 1985.64. nervali 1994 Nerval G. Les Filles du feu.PAris : Gallimard, 1994.65. nervali 1994 Nerval G. La main enchantée. Paris : Librairie GénéraleFrançaise, 1994.66. nervali 1980 Nerval G. Voyage en Orient. I volume.Paris : Garnier-Flammarion, 1980.67. nervali 1980 Nerval G. Voyage en Orient. II volume.Paris : Garnier-Flammarion, 1980.68. nervali 1984 Nerval G. Aurélia. Paris : Sreuil, 1984.69. neselStrausi1961 Нессельштраус Ц. Дюрер.Ленинград. Исскуство. 1961.70. prusti 1997 Proust M. Contre Saint-Beuve Paris : Seuil, 1997..71. pule 2006 Poulet G. Études sur le temps.Paris : Pocket, 2006.


19972. Jani 1989 Jean R. Nerval. Paris : Seuil, 198973. Jareti 2001 Jarerety M. Lexique du termes littéraires. Paris : Gallimard,2001.74. Jeneti 1976 Genette G. Figures I. Paris : Seuil, 1976.75. Jeneti 1966 Genette G. Figures II. Paris : Seuil, 1979.76. Jeneti 1966 Genette G. Figures III. Paris : Seuil, 1972.77. Jeneti 1982 Genette G. Palimpsestes III. Paris : Seuil, 1982.78. Juvi 1997 Jouve V. La poétique du roman.Paris : SEDES, 199780. Jurdeni 2007 Jourdain P-A. Gérard de Nerval.Paris : Aïgui, 2007.81. rei 1997 Rey P-L. Le roman. Paris : HACHETTE, 1997.82. reimoni 2000 Raimond M. Le roman.Paris : Armand Colin, 2000.83. rikiori 1984 Ricœur P. Temps et récit. Paris : Seuil, 1984.84. rikiori 2004 Ricœur P. Sur la traduction.Paris : Bayard, 2004.85. rioter 2005 Reuter Y. L’analyse du récit. Paris : Armand Colin. 2005.86. soloviova.... 1990 Соловьева Н.... Зарубежная литература XIX векаРеализм.Москва.,,Высшая школа’’, 1990.87. tiupa... 2009 Тюпа И., Нарратология как аналитикаповетствовательного дискурса, on-lain wigni:zipistes.ru/psy/info.php?p...89. todorovi 1971 Todorov Z. Poétique de la prose.Paris : Seuil, 1971.90. todorovi 2007 Todorov Z. La littérature en péril.Paris : Flammarion, 2007.91. todorovi 1970 Todorov Z. Introduction à la littérature fantastique.Paris :Seuil, 1970.92. tomaSevksi 2008 Томашевский Б. Теория литературы.on-lain wigni:reader. boom. ru / tomash /tema 2htm.93. toropi 2005 Тороп П. Reviuws. on-lain statia :openstarts.units.it/dspace/bitstream/100077/2266/1/10.pdf.94. fuko 2004 fuko m. sityvebi da sagnebi. Tbilisi: diogene,2004.95. fontanili 1999 Fontanille J. Sémiotique et la littérature.Paris : PressesUniversitaires de France, 1999.96. freidenbergi 1997 Фрейденберг О. Поэтика сюжета и жанра.on-lainwigni: Москва :Лабиринт, 1997. lib.ru/CULTURE/


200...poetika.txt.97. yaralaSvili1980 yaralaSvili r. herman heses Semoqmedebisproblemebi. Tbilisi : ,,Tbilisis universitetisgamomcemloba’’, 1980.98. Sene 2000 Chenet F. Le Temps. Paris : Armand Colin, 2000.99. Smidi 2003 Шмид В. Нарратология. Москва: Языки словянскойкультуры..2003.100. Snaideri 1985 Scneider M. La littérature fantastique en France Paris :Librairie Arthème Fayard, 1985.101. Sodene 1990 Chaudenay R. Les plagiaires.Paris: Perrin, 1990.102. Cukancova 2009 Чуканцова В., Интермедиальный анализ в системеисследования,on-laindok:flp://lib:herzen.sph.ru/text/chukacheva_108_140_145phf103. Wilaia 1985 Wilaia a., Wilaia r. literaturaTmcodneobiscnebebi. Tbilisi: ,,Tsu-s gamomcemloba’’, 1985.104. xelovneba da Искусство и художник в зарубежной новелле XIX века,Semoqmedi... 1985 Ленинград: Издательство Ленинградского университета,1985.105. hilmani.... 2009 Хиллман,on-lain dokumenti: jungland.ru/../

More magazines by this user
Similar magazines