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kari 2. haeris dabinZureba Tavi 3. atmosferuli ... - momxmarebeli.ge

kari 2. haeris dabinZurebaTavi 3. atmosferuli haeris xarisxireziumedReisvis saqarTveloSi haeris dabinZurebaze dakvirveba warmoebs xuT qalaqSi:TbilisSi, quTaisSi, baTumSi, zestafonsa da rusTavSi ganTavsebuli Svidisadamkvirveblo sadguris saSualebiT, romelTagan 3 maTgani (ori _ TbilisSi,erTi _ rusTavSi) haeris xarisxis monitoringis qsels mxolod 2009 wlis bolosdaemata da, Sesabamisad, erovnul moxsenebaSi warmodgenilia mxolod TbilisSi,quTaisSi, baTumsa da zestafonSi ganTavsebuli 4 sadguris monacemebi. oTxiveqalaqSi haeris xarisxi dasaSveb doneze dabalia. sadamkvirveblo sadgurebissimcire ar iZleva saSualebas haeris xarisxi srulyofilad Sefasdes Tundac amoTxi qalaqis mTel teritoriaze, amitom qveyanaSi haeris xarisxis Sesaxebrealuri suraTis Sesaqmnelad aucilebelia dakvirvebis qselis gafarToeba damodernizacia, raTa sakmarisi sizustiT dadgindes, Tu mosaxleobis ra nawiliimyofeba dabinZurebuli haeris zemoqmedebis qveS da miRebul iqnes Sesabamisizomebi maT dasacavad.saqarTveloSi atmosferuli haeris ZiriTadi dabinZurebli avtotransportisgamonabolqvia, xolo samrewvelo gafrqvevebis TvalsazrisiT dRevandelimdgomareobiT dabinZurebis ZiriTad wyaros q. zestafonSi _ feroSenadnobTaqarxana warmoadgens. qveyanaSi satransporto gafrqvevebis didi raodenobamravali faqtoriTaa ganpirobebuli da maT Sesamcireblad sxvadasxva uwyebebismier kompleqsur midgomas saWiroebs, kerZod, iseTi RonisZiebebis gatarebas,rogoricaa: satransporto nakadebis marTvis optimizacia, importirebulisatransporto saSualebebis dasaSvebi asakobrivi zRvaris daweseba da misiTandaTanobiT Semcireba, saavtomobilo sawvavis xarisxis da avtomobilebisgamonabolqvis normebis etapobrivi gamkacreba da maTi kontroli,eleqtrotransportis ganviTareba da a.S. rac Seexeba q. zestafonSi gafrqveulmavne nivTierebebis, kerZod, ZiriTadi damabinZureblis _ manganumis orJangisgafrqvevebis Semcirebas, aucilebelia feroSenadnobTa qarxanaSi uzrunvelyofiliqnas airmtverdamWeri mowyobilobebis sruli reabilitacia da ganaxleba.1.SesavalimTel msoflioSi didi yuradReba eTmoba atmosferuli haeris dacvasanTropogenuri saqmianobiT dabinZurebisgan, radgan haeri adamianisTvis umTavresisasicocxlo resursia. adamiani dRe-RameSi 16 kg haers CaisunTqavs, racmoxmarebul sakvebze xuTjer metia. amasTan, SesaZlebelia sakvebis vargisianobisSemowmeba, dabinZurebuli wylis gawmenda, magram haers adamiani iRebs iseTs,rogoric garemoSia da amdenad, naTelia, ramdenad mniSvnelovania atmosferulihaeris dacva mavne nivTierebebiT dabinZurebisagan.aRsaniSnavia, rom kacobriobam me-20 saukunis ganmavlobaSi ufro meti raodenobiTwiaRiseuli sawvavi moixmara (qvanaxSiri, torfi, bunebrivi airi, navTobi


sxvadasxva navTobproduqtis saxiT), vidre mTeli istoriis manZilze. wvisprocesebi atmosferuli haeris erT-erTi umTavresi dambinZurebelia iseTi mavnenivTierebebiT, rogoricaa: naxSirJangi, azotis da gogirdis Jangeulebi, myarinawilakebi, arameTanuri aqroladi organuli naerTebi, benz(a)pireni,dioqsin/furanebi da a.S. isini haerSi dagrovebisas cvlian mis bunebriv fizikurqimiurSemadgenlobas. aRweven ra atmosferul haerSi koncentraciis garkveulzRvars, es nivTierebebi uaryofiTad moqmedeben adamianis janmrTelobaze,ekosistemebsa da materialur faseulobebze.cnobilia, rom mravali daavadebis matebasa da ekologiuri mdgomareobisgauaresebas Soris arsebobs uSualo kavSiri. toqsikuri nivTierebebi, romlebicgamonabolqv airTan erTad xvdeba atmosferoSi, realur safrTxes uqmnisadamianis janmrTelobas.normatiuli bazaatmosferuli haeris dacvis sakiTxebi regulirdeba `atmosferuli haeris dacvisSesaxeb~ saqarTvelos kanoniT da misi moTxovnebidan gamomdinare miRebuli 15kanonqvemdebare normatiuli aqtiT.atmosferuli haeris dabinZurebisgan dacvis mizniT saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobiTdadgenilia mavne nivTierebebis zRvrulad dasaSvebi koncentracia (zdk), romelTamniSvnelobebi jandacvis msoflio organizaciis da evrogaerTianebis Sesabamisnormebis mniSvnelobebTan erTad warmodgenilia 3.1 cxrilSi. iTvleba, rom TukihaerSi dambinZurebeli nivTierebis koncentracia miTiTebul normebze dabalia,dabinZureba ar warmoadgens saSiSroebas adamianis janmrTelobisTvis xangrZlivi(Tundac mTeli sicocxlis manZilze) zemoqmedebis periodSic ki.atmosferul haerSi mavne nivTierebaTa zRvrulad dasaSvebi koncentraciebissafuZvelze xdeba atmosferos dambinZurebeli sawarmoebisTvis gafrqvevaTanormebis gaangariSeba da dadgena. sanebarTvo saqmianobas daqvemdebarebuldambinZurebel sawarmoebs aseTi normebi udgindebaT individualuradgaremosdacviTi nebarTvis aRebisas, xolo danarCeni sawarmoebisTvis, aseveavtomobilebisTvis gafrqvevebis normireba dgindeba Sesabamisi teqnikurireglamentebis saSualebiT. benzinisa da dizelis sawvavSi sxvadasxva mavneminarevis Semcveloba (magaliTad, tyviis Semcveloba benzinSi, gogirdisSemcveloba dizelSi da a.S.) regulirdeba saqarTvelos mTavrobis dadgenilebiT.cxrili 3.1 atmosferul haerSi mavne nivTierebaTa zRvrulad dasaSvebikoncentraciebimavnenivTierebisdasaxeleba2.5 mikronzemcire myarinawilakebi10 mikronzemcire myarizRvrulad dasaSvebi koncentracia (zdk) mg/m 3jandacviserovnulievrogaerTianebismsofliokanonmdeblobiskanonmdeblobisorganizaciismixedviTmixedviTrekomendaciakoncentraciisgasaSualoebisperiodi- 0,01 0,025 weliwadi- 0,025 - dRe-Rame- 0,02 0,04 weliwadi- 0,05 0,05 dRe-Rame


nawilakebimyarinawilakebi(saerTo)azotisorJangigogirdisorJanginaxSirJangityviisnaerTebimiwispiraozoni0,5 - - 30 wT0,15 0,12 - dRe-Rame- 0,2 0,2 1 sT- 0,04 0,04 weliwadi0,04 - - dRe-Rame0,085 - - 30 wT- 0,5 - 10 wT- - 0,35 1 sT- 0,05 - weliwadi0,05 0,02 0,125 dRe-Rame0,5 - - 30 wT- 100 - 10 wT- 10 10 8 sT- 30 - 1 sT5 60 - 30 wT3 - - dRe-Rame- 0,0005 0,0005 weliwadi0,0003 - - dRe-Rame0,001 - - 30 wT- 0,12 0,12 8 sT0,03 - - dRe-Rame0,16 - - 30 wTatmosferul haerSi mavne nivTierebaTa zRvrulad dasaSvebi koncentraciisnorma (zdk) warmoadgens atmosferul haerSi mavne nivTierebaTa maqsimalurkoncentracias drois garkveuli gasaSualoebuli periodisTvis, romelicperioduli zemoqmedebisas an adamianis mTeli cxovrebis manZilze ar axdensmasze mavne zemoqmedebas. zdk-s mniSvnelobebi, saxeobebi da CamonaTvaliganisazRvreba saqarTvelos Sromis, janmrTelobisa da socialuri dacvisministris 2003 wlis 24 Tebervlis #38/n brZanebiT `garemos xarisxobrivimdgomareobis normebis damtkicebis Sesaxeb~ da saqarTvelos Sromis,janmrTelobisa da socialuri dacvis ministris 2001 wlis 16 agvistos #297/nbrZanebaSi damatebebis Setanis Taobaze. aRsaniSnavia, rom es normatiulidokumenti praqtikulad imeorebs yofili sabWoTa kavSiris amave Sinaarsisdokumentis ZiriTad debulebebsa da mavne nivTierebaTa koncentraciebisraodenobriv maxasiaTeblebs. Sesabamisad, erovnuli kanonmdeblobiT dadgenilizdk-ebi zogierTi nivTierebisTvis TanxvedraSi ar modis evrokavSirisa dajandacvis msoflio organizaciis mier rekomendebul xarisxobriv normebTan,amitom dReisTvis arsebuli garemos xarisxobrivi mdgomareobis normebisaWiroebs ganaxlebas evrokavSiris kanonmdeblobasTan harmonizaciisgaTvaliswinebiT.2. haeris xarisxi saqarTveloSisabWoTa periodidan moyolebuli saqarTveloSi atmosferuli haerisxarisxze dakvirvebisas ZiriTadi dambinZurebeli nivTierebebis SemdegimaCveneblebi izomeba:


• maqsimaluri erTjeradi koncentracia (gazomili 20-30 wT-ianixangrZlivobiT, mg/m 3 );• saSualo koncentraciebi dRe-Ramuri da wliuri (mg/m 3 ).haeris xarisxi gazomili koncentraciebis dadgenil normebTan SedarebiTfasdeba. kerZod, saSualo Tviuri da saSualo wliuri koncentraciebismniSvnelobebi, dadgenili faqtobrivi gazomvebis Sedegad, Cveulebriv saSualodRe-Ramuri zdk-s edreba, xolo 20-30 wT-iani xangrZlivobiT gazomilikoncentraciebi _ 30-wuTian saSualo zdk-s (e.w. maqsimalur erTjerad zdk-s).haeris xarisxis saxelmwifo monitorings awarmoebs saministros garemoserovnuli saagento. dReisaTvis saqarTveloSi haeris dabinZurebaze dakvirveba warmoebsxuT qalaqSi: TbilisSi, quTaisSi, baTumSi, zestafonsa da rusTavSi ganTavsebuli Svidisadamkvirveblo jixuris saSualebiT, rac ar iZleva dasaxlebul punqtebSi arsebulihaeris dabinZurebis donis Sesaxeb realur suraTs. amaTgan 3 axali sadguri (ori _TbilisSi, erTi _ rusTavSi) haeris xarisxis monitoringis qsels mxolod 2009 wlisbolos daemata da, Sesabamisad, erovnul moxsenebaSi warmodgenilia mxolod 4 sadgurismonacemebi.haeris xarisxis gazomva warmoebs dRe-RameSi samjer, samuSao dReebSi (sinjisaReba ar aris avtomatizirebuli). TbilisSi ganisazRvreba SemdegidamabinZurebeli nivTierebebi: mtveri, naxSirJangi, gogirdisa da azotisJangeulebi, tyvia; quTaisSi _ mtveri, gogirdis orJangi, azotis Jangi daorJangi; baTumSi _ mtveri, gogirdisa da azotis orJangebi, xolo zestafonSi _mtveri, gogirdis, azotisa da manganumis orJangebi. 2010 wlidan q. TbilisSidaiwyo miwispira ozonis koncentraciis gazomva, xolo quTaissa da baTumSi -naxSirJangis.;3.1-3.6 diagramebze warmodgenilia atmosferuli haeris mavne nivTierebebiTdabinZurebis cvlilebis dinamika bolo 5 wlis ganmavlobaSi saqarTvelosqalaqebSi (Tbilisi, quTaisi, zestafoni, baTumi) ganTavsebuli sadamkvirveblosadgurebis monacemebis safuZvelze. aqve SevniSnavT, rom vinaidan yovel qalaqSihaeris gamzomi mxolod erTi sadguri funqcionirebs, aq moyvanili monacemebiasaxavs ara mTlianad qalaqis, aramed misi erTi konkretuli ubnis haeris xarisxs,kerZod, TbilisSi es aris aRmaSeneblis gamziri, zestafonSi _ kvaliTisdasaxleba, quTaisSi _ nikeas ubani, baTumSi _ portis mimdebare tertoria.


10.8myari nawilakebi, rasac xSiradubralod mtvers veZaxiT, haerSisawvavis wvis da sxva procesebisSedegad xvdeba. am procesebSiZiriTadad monawileobsavtotransporti, cementis qarxnebida qvanaxSiris wva.3/mmg0.60.40.202005 2006 2007 2008 2009weliTbilisiquTaisizestafonibaTumizRvrulad dasaSvebikoncentracia saqarTveloSiSesunTqvisas haerSi Sewonilmamyarma nawilakebma SeiZlebagamoiwvios sasunTqi gzebis(bronqebi, filtvebi) gaRizianeba.mtveri sxvadasxva zomisnawilakebisgan Sedgeba. mtvrisuwvrilesi nawilakebia : e.w. PM 10 _nawilakebi 10 mikrometrze naklebiaerodinamikuri diametriT da e.w.PM 2.5 _ nawilakebi 2,5 mikrometrzenaklebi aerodinamikuri diametriT.rac ufro mcirea myari nawilakiszoma, miT ufro Rrmad aRwevs igiadamianis organizmSi da Sesabamisadufro mavnea.diagrama 3.1 saerTo mtvris saSualo wliuri koncentracia saqarTvelosqalaqebSigogirdis orJangi atmosferoSixvdeba gogirdis Semcvelisawvavis wvisas. ZiriTadi wyaroamazuTze an qvanaxSirze momuSaveeleqtrosadgurebi, saqvabeebi,metalurgiuli sawarmoebi,agreTve dizelis sawvavzemomuSave avtomobilebi.daSvebulze maRalikoncentraciiT haerSiarsebobisas gogirdis orJangiaRizianebs zemo sasunTq gzebs.aRiniSneba mavne zemoqmedebacxvir-xaxis, traqeis lorwovangarsze.3/mmg0.160.140.120.10.080.060.040.02TbilisibaTumizestafoniquTaisizRvrulad dasaSvebikoncentracia saqarTveloSizRvrulad dasaSvebikoncentracia evropaSi02005 2006 2007 2008 2009welidiagrama 3.2 gogirdis orJangis saSualo wliuri koncentracia saqarTvelosqalaqebSi


123/mmg10864202005 2006 2007 2008 2009zRvrulad dasaSvebikoncentracia evropaSizRvrulad dasaSvebikoncentracia saqarTveloSinaxSirJangi arasruli wvisproduqtia. ZiriTadi wyaroaavtomobilebis gamonabolqvi(warmoiqmneba sawvavisarasruli wvisas, rasacganapirobebs arasakmarisitemperatura an Sida wvisZravaSi mouwesrigebeli haerismimwodebeli sistema),navTobisa da qvanaxSiris wva,metalurgiuli warmoeba. igiaqveiTebs Jangbadis sisxliTgadatanis unars.welidiagrama 3.3 naxSirJangis saSualo wliuri koncentracia TbilisSiazotis Jangeulebiwarmoiqmneba Zalian maRaltemperaturaze da JangbadissiWarbis pirobebSi sawvaviswvis dros. ZiriTadi wyaroaavtomobilebisgamonabolqvi, bunebriviairis namwvi,Tboeleqtrosadgurebisgamonabolqvi, uxeSinarCenebis wvis droswarmoqmnili kvamli. haerSiarsebuli azotis orJangiaRizianebs sasunTqisistemis qveda nawils,gansakuTrebiT _ filtvebisqsovils.0.120.10.083/m0.06mg0.040.02TbilisiquTaisizestafonibaTumizRvrulad dasaSvebikoncentracia saqarTveloSizRvrulad dasaSvebikoncentracia evropaSi02005 2006 2007 2008 2009welidiagrama 3.4 azotis orJangis wliuri koncentracia saqarTvelos qalaqebSi


manganumis orJangi arisZlieri momwamlavinivTiereba, romlisgafrqvevis ZiriTadi wyaroametalurgiuli warmoeba.manganumis orJangi moqmdebscentralur nervulsistemaze da iwvevs miscvlilebas.3/mmg0.010.0080.0060.0040.002zRvrulad dasaSvebikoncentraciasaqarTveloSi02005 2006 2007 2008 2009welidiagrama 3.5 manganumis orJangis saSualo wliuri koncentracia zestafonSityviisa da misi naerTebisatmosferoSi moxvedriswyaros warmoadgensavtotransportisgamonabolqvi (eTilirebulibenzinis gamoyenebisas),metalurgiuli warmoeba dasxv. tyviis toqsikurizemoqmedeba vlindebamolekulur da ujreduldoneze, aferxebs nervulfsiqikurda fizikurganviTarebas.diagrama 3.6 tyviis saSualo wliuri koncentracia TbilisSidiagramebidan Cans, rom bolo 5 wlis ganmavlobaSi atmosferul haerSi mavnenivTierebaTa koncentracia aWarbebs zRvrulad dasaSveb normebs, Tumca bolo 2-3 wlis ganmavlobaSi zrdis tendencia aRar SeimCneva.Tbilissa da quTaisSi daSvebulze maRalia mtvris, azotis da gogirdisorJangebis koncentraciebi. am qalaqebis atmosferuli haeris ZiriTadidambinZurebelia avtotransporti da mSenebloba.


zestafonis ZiriTad dambinZurebel nivTierebas warmoadgens manganumisorJangi, romelic warmoiqmneba zestafonSi ganTavsebuli Sps `jorjianmanganezis~ feroSenadnobTa qarxnis funqcionirebiT. atmosferuli haerisdabinZurebis regularuli monitoringis Sedegad irkveva, rom manganumisorJangis saSualo wliuri koncentracia mniSvnelovnad aWarbebs miszRvrulad dasaSveb normas (diagrama 3.5).3. gamomwvevi mizezebiatmosferuli haeri binZurdeba avtotransportidan, energetikuli seqtoridan dasamrewvelo obieqtebidan warmoebuli atmosferuli gafrqvevebiT.urbanuli garemos ZiriTadi dambinZurebelia avtotransporti. aRsaniSnavia, rombolo wlebSi izrdeba avtotransportiT moxmarebuli sawvavis raodenoba daSesabamisad izrdeba am seqtorebidan mavne nivTierebaTa atmosferoSi gafrqveva.samrewvelo seqtorisaqarTvelos samrewvelo seqtorSi haeris ZiriTad dambinZurebel wyarodyovelTvis iTvleboda cementis warmoeba rusTavsa da kaspSi, feroSenadnobTawarmoeba zestafonSi, metalurgiuli kompleqsebi rusTavsa da quTaisSi.aRsaniSnavia, rom dReisaTvis rusTavis da kaspis cementis qarxnebSidamontaJebulia mtvris gamwmendi maRalefeqturi sistemebi, romlebicuzrunvelyofen emisiis dasaSveb doneebs, aseve zestafonis feroSenadnobTaqarxanaSi mimdinareobs mtverdamWeri sistemebis proeqtirebisa da montaJissareabilitacio samuSaoebi, Tumca dRevandeli mdgomareobiT feroSenadnobTaqarxana dabinZurebis mniSvnelovani wyaroa am regionSi manganumis mtvrisemisiis doniT, razedac metyvelebs garemos monitoringis sadamkvirveblo qselisukanaskneli periodis monacemebi.energoseqtorisaqarTveloSi eleqtroenergiisa da siTbos warmoeba warmodgenilia gardabanSiganTavsebuli sami msxvili TboeleqtrosadguriT, romlTa ZiriTad sawvavswarmoadgens bunebrivi airi. es sawarmoebia: ss `enerji investi~, Sps `mtkvarienergetika~ da ss `Tbilsresi~. municipaluri Tbomeurneobebis daSlis Semdeg (90-iani wlebidan moyolebuli) msxvil qalaqebsa da dasaxlebul punqtebSipraqtikulad gauqmda Tbomomaragebis centraluri sistemebi da mosaxleobagadasulia individualur, ZiriTadad bunebriv airsa da SeSaze momuSave gaTbobissaSualebebze.energetikis seqtoridan atmosferos dabinZurebis didi wili modisnaxSirwyalbadebze, anu aqrolad organul naerTebze (aon), naxSirJangze, azotisJangeulebsa da myar nawilakebze (mtverze). am seqtoridan atmosferulgafrqvevaTa raodenobrivi cvlileba ganpirobebulia moxmarebulienergoresursebis (qvanaxSiri, navTi, mazuTi, bunebrivi da Txevadi airi da a.S)saxeobiT: magaliTad, mazuTis da qvanaxSiris wvisas haerSi meti dambinZurebelinivTiereba gaifrqveva, vidre bunebrivi an Txevadi airis wvisas.avtotransportis seqtori


saqarTveloSi atmosferuli haeris ZiriTadi dambinZurebelia avtotransporti.avtotransportidan atmosferuli haeri ZiriTadad binZurdeba naxSirJangiT,naxSirwyalbadebiT (aqroladi organuli naerTebi (aon) da mcire raodenobiTmeTani), azotis JangeulebiT, gogirdis orJangiT, WvartliT, benz(a)pireniT danaxSirorJangiT.qveynis mTlian gafrqvevebSi azotis Jangeulebisa (NOx) da gogirdis orJangis(SO 2 ) emisiis ZiriTadi wyaro avtotransportia, Sesabamisad, es dambinZureblebigaifrqveva iq, sadac didia satransporto moZraoba _ msxvil qalaqebSi,satranzito trasaze. yvelaze mwvave mdgomareoba am mxriv TbilisSia, sadacqveynis mTliani satransporto saSualebebis erT mesamedze metia Tavmoyrili.haeris xarisxze transportis zemoqmedeba da am zemoqmedebis gamomwvevi mizezebidawvrilebiT ix. me-19 TavSi. aq mxolod ramdenime ZiriTad aspeqtze gavamaxvilebTyuradRebas. avtotransportis gamonabolqvis intensivoba damokidebulia:• avtomobilebis saSualo asakze da maTi gafrqvevebis normebze;• avtomobilebis teqnikur gamarTulobaze da maT gafrqvevaTa regularulSemowmebaze;• sawvavis xarisxis normebze (magaliTad gogirdis daSvebul SemcvelobazesawvavSi), sxvadasxva sawvavze momuSave avtomanqanebis wilze (benzinzemomuSave avtomobilebi metia Tu dizelze momuSave avtomobilebi);• satransporto nakadebis marTvaze, anu ramdenad xSiria sacobebi dasatransporto nakadis sxva Seferxebebi;• adamianTa cnobierebaze, magaliTad: mZRolebisa da fexiT mosiaruleTaCvevebze, ramdenad bevri adamiani moixmars sazogadoebriv transports, dasxva.saqarTveloSi sazogadoebrivi transporti jer kidev arasakmarisad arisganviTarebuli, ris gamoc mosaxleobis didi nawili msubuqi avtomobilebiTgadaadgildeba. Sesabamisad Zalian swrafad izrdeba avtomobilebis raodenoba(ix. diagrama 3.8), Tumca maTi umravlesoba meoradi manqanebia _ avtomobilebissaSualo asaki saqarTveloSi 10-15 welia. Zalzed popularulia dizelis sawvavzemomuSave manqanebi (3.7 diagramaze kargad Cans dizelis sawvavis moxmarebis swrafizrdis dinamika); avtomobilebis teqnikuri gamarTulobis Semowmeba qveyanaSi ametapze SeCerebulia, amitom gzebze bevri gaumarTavi manqana moZraobs.SeCerebulia avtomobilebis gamonabolqvis perioduli Semowmebac; qveyanaSidReisaTvis arsebuli sawvavis pirobebSi gamonabolqvis gamwmendi mowyobiloba(konverteri) swrafad gamodis mwyobridan da amis gamo mZRoli saerTod aSorebsmas avtomobils. jer-jerobiT bolomde mowesrigebuli ar aris satransportomoZraobis marTva: xSiria satransporto sacobebi; yovelive es saqarTveloSiavtotransportis seqtoridan maRal gafrqvevebs ganapirobebs.Tumca aRsanisnavia, rom bolo wlebSi saqarTveloSi gatarda garkveuli zomebisazogadoebrivi transportis gasaumjobeseblad. magaliTad, Tbilisis mTavrobamqalaqisTvis SeiZina 1000 avtobusi. dainerga fasdaklebaTa sistemebisazogadoebriv transportSi mgzavrebis mosazidad (mag. metrosa da avtobusiserToblivi fasdaklebis baraTebi). q. TbilisSi satransporto nakadebisoptimizaciis mizniT mimdinareobs alternatiuli gzebis mowyobis samuSaoebi.


dainerga gzajvaredinebis axleburi gadawyveta, ramac mniSvnelovnad Seamcirasatransporto sacobebi qalaqSi.a800noti700asaT600500400300dizelibenzini20010002000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008diagrama 3.7 saavtomobilo sawvavis moxmarebis dinamika wlebis mixedviTialciasaT70060050040030020010002000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008diagrama 3.8 avtomanqanaTa raodenobis cvlileba wlebis mixedviT


a50noti 45asaT403530252015mrewvelobaenergetikatransporti10502000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008welidiagrama 3.9 atmosferul haerSi ekonomikis ZiriTadi seqtorebidan mtvrisgafrqvevebia300noti 250asaT20015010050mrewvelobaenergetikatransporti02000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008welidiagrama 3.10 atmosferul haerSi ekonomikis ZiriTadi seqtorebidan naxSirJangisgafrqvevebi


a18not16iasaT141210864mrewvelobaenergetikatransporti202000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008welidiagrama 3.11 atmosferul haerSi ekonomikis ZiriTadi seqtorebidan gogirdisorJangis gafrqvevebia35noti 30asaT252015mrewvelobaenergetika10transporti502000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008welidiagrama 3.12 atmosferul haerSi ekonomikis ZiriTadi seqtorebidan azotisJangeulebis gafrqvevebi


a160noti 140asaT120100806040mrewvelobaenergetikatransporti2002000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008welidiagrama 3.13 atmosferul haerSi ekonomikis ZiriTadi seqtorebidan aqroladiorganuli naerTebis gafrqvevebi9-13 diagramebidan Cans, rom 2008 wlis CaTvliT saqarTveloSi atmosferul haerSimtvris gafrqvevis mTavar wyaros mrewvelobis seqtori warmoadgenda, rasacZiriTadad kaspisa da rusTavis cementis qarxnebidan gafrqvevbi ganapirobebda,aRniSnul sawarmoebSi 2009 wlidan axali, Tanamedrome airmtverdamWerimowyobilobebi amoqmedda, rac dReisaTvis emisiis misaReb doneebs uzrunvelyofsamitom 2010 wlidan es suraTi Seicvleba; aqroladi organuli naerTebis ZiriTadwyaros energetikis seqtori, kerZod ki gazmomaragebis sistemidan meTanisdanakargebi warmoadgenda; naxSirJangi, gogirdis orJangi da azotis Jangeulebiki haerSi ZiriTadad satransporto seqtoridan, kerZod ki avtomobilebisgamonabolqvidan xvdeba. avtomobilebis raodenobis zrdasTan erTad esgafrqvevebic gaizrdeba, Tumca sawvavis xarisxis gaumjobesebiT, gamonabolqvisnormebis evropul standartebTan miaxloebiT da maTi kontroliTavtotransportis raodenobis zrdis pirobebSic ki jamuri gafrqvevis ara martostabilur doneze SenarCuneba aramed Semcirebac ki SesaZlebelia.mavne airebis urTierTqmedebaaRsaniSnavia, rom atmosferos miwispira fenaSi (troposferoSi) gafrqveulidambinZurebeli nivTierebebi ara marto uSualod zemoqmedeben adamianebsa daekosistemebze, aramed isini erTmaneTTan urTierTqmedeben da adamianTajanmrTelobisa da ekosistemebisTvis kidev ufro mavne nivTierebebs warmoqmnian.am gziT warmoqmnili e.w. meoradi dambinZureblebidan aRsaniSnavia miwispiraozoni da mtvris umciresi nawilakebi (10 mikrometrze mcire zomis myarinawilakebi, e.w. PM 10 ).


miwispira ozoninaxSirwyalbadebis azotisJangeulebsa da JangbadTanfotoqimiuri reaqciis Sedegadwarmoiqmneba. igi didi qalaqebisTanmdevi didi problemis _smogis _ erT-erTi ZiriTadiSemadgeneli airia. miwispiraozoni uaryofiTad moqmedebsadamianis janmrTelobaze,naTesebsa da vegetaciisprocesze. misi maRalikoncentracia iwvevs sasunTqisistemis dazianebas.250anotias200aT,iten150valeqvinao10050mrewvelobaenergetikatransporti02000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008welidiagrama 3.14 ozonis warmoqmnis potencialis mqone airebis gafrqvevebis dinamikasaqarTveloSi10 mikrometrze mcire zomismtvris umciresi nawilakebi (PM 10 )warmoadgenssxvadasxvawarmomavlobis organuli daaraorganuli naerTebis narevs.igi atmosferuli haerisdambinZureblebs Soris erT-erTiyvelaze mavne nivTierebaa,romelic sasunTqi gzebisdaavadebebis gamomwvevi mizezixdeba. CasunTqvisas igi RrmadaRwevs filtvebSi da ileqeba.anotias, aTitenvaleqvi-sM 10P70605040302010mrewvelobaenergetikatransporti02000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008welidiagrama 3.15 10 mikrometrze mcire Sewonili nawilakebis formirebispotencialis mqone airebis gafrqvevebis dnamika saqarTveloSi4. ZiriTadi gamowvevebihaeris xarisxis maCvenebeli diagramebis mixedviT oTxive qalaqSi, sadac haerismonitoringi xorcieldeboda, aRiniSneba ZiriTadi dambinZureblebiskoncentraciis gadaWarbeba maT dasaSveb mniSvnelobebze. amave drossadamkvirveblo sadgurebis simcire ar iZleva saSualebas haeris xarisxisrulyofilad Sefasdes Tundac am oTxi qalaqis mTel teritoriaze. qveyanaSi


haeris xarisxis Sesaxeb realuri suraTis Sesaqmnelad mizanSewoniliaurbanuldasaxlebebSi, haeris dabinZurebis donis gaTvaliswinebiT, yovel 100 aTasmosaxleze haeris xarisxis gamzomi, sul mcire, erTi punqti maincfunqcionirebdes. garda amisa, mosaxleobis janmrTelobis dacvis mizniTaucilebelia msxvil qalaqebSi, sadac satransporto saSualebebis moZraobaintensiuria, ganxorcieldesPM 10 -is monitoringi.2009 wlis bolos Tbilissa da rusTavSi ganTavsda haeris xarisxis monitoringis3 axali sadguri, Tumca es sakmarisi ar aris. atmosferuli haeris dabinZurebismonitoringis sferoSi saqmianoba unda ganxorcieldes saerTaSorisomoTxovnebisa da standartebis Sesabamisad, ris Sedegadac miRebuli iqneba ufrodetaluri da saimedo informacia atmosferuli haeris dabinZurebis Sesaxeb, racgadawyvetilebebis mimReb pirebs saSualebas miscems ukeT dagegmongansaxorcielebeli qmedebebi arsebuli mdgomareobis gaumjobesebis mizniT.miuxedavad monitoringiT miRebuli mwiri monacemebisa, aSkaraa, romsaqarTveloSi haeris ZiriTadi dambinZurebeli seqtori avtotransportia. amseqtoridan yovelwliurad matulobs dambinZurebelTa emisia haerSi da axlomomavalSic mosalodnelia am tendenciis gagrZeleba. qveyanaSi saavtomobilosawvavisa da avtomobilebis gamonabolqvis kanonmdeblobiT dadgenil normebs,evrokavSiris normebTan SedarebiT, dabali moTxovnebi aqvs. samwuxarod, qveyanaSiarsebuli socialuri mdgomareobis gamo Tanamedrove dasavluri moTxovnebiserTbaSad daweseba am sferoSi SeuZlebelia, amitom gaTvaliswinebuliaetapobrivi, Tanmimdevruli gamkacreba da miaxloeba evropul normebTan. saWiroaes zomebi rac SeiZleba mokle vadebSi ganxorcieldes. garda amisa,mniSvnelovania satransporto nakadebis marTvis gaumjobeseba, raTaSeZlebisdagvarad Tavidan iqnes acilebuli satransporto sacobebi, romelichaeris dabinZurebis Zalzed mniSvnelovani wyaroa. unda moxdes importirebulisatransporto saSualebebis dasaSvebi asakobrivi zRvaris daweseba da misietapobrivi Semcireba. sasurvelia xeli Seewyos eleqtrotransportisganviTarebas. msubuqi avtomobilebis raodenobis zrdis tempis SesamcirebladukeT unda ganviTardes sazogadoebrivi transporti. aucilebelia am kuTxiTsazogadoebis cnobierebis amaRleba.rac Seexeba q. zestafonSi gafrqveul mavne nivTierebebis, kerZod, ZiriTadidamabinZureblis _ manganumis orJangis koncentraciis gadaWarbebas mis zRvruladdasaSveb normaze, rogorc zemoT aRiniSna, es mdgomareoba droebiTia, vinaidanzestafonis feroSenadnobTa qarxanaSi mimdinareobs airmtverdamWerimowyobilobebis sareabilitacio samuSaoebi.gamoyenebuli literatura:• WHO Air quality guidelines for particulate matter, ozone, nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide. WHO/SDE/PHE/OEH/06.02.• EMEP/CORINAIR Emission Inventory Guidebook – 2007.• The IPCC Guidelines on National Greenhouse Gas Inventories.

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