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PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited Pagesdimitri nadiraZemagistraluri milsadenebiT navTobis saerTaSorisostandartebTan misadagebuli parametrebiT transportirebisda Senaxvis monitoringis meTedologiis damuSaveba danavTobis narCenebis samSeneblo saqmeSi gamoyenebawardgenilia doqtoris akademiuri xarisxismosapovebladsaqarTvelos teqnikuri universitetiTbilisi, 0175, saqarTvelodekemberi, 2008 welisaavtoro ufleba © 2008 weli, nadiraZe dimitrii


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited PagessaqarTvelos teqnikuri universitetisaamSeneblo fakultetiCven, qvemoT xelismomwerni vadasturebT, rom gavecaniT dimitrinadiraZis mier Sesrulebul sadisertacio naSroms dasaxelebiT:“magistraluri milsadenebiT navTobis saerTaSorisostandartebTan misadagebuli parametrebiT transportirebis daSenaxvis monitoringis meTedologiis damuSaveba da navTobisnarCenebis samSeneblo saqmeSi gamoyeneba” da vaZlevT rekomendaciassaqarTvelos teqnikuri universitetis saamSeneblo fakultetissadisertacio sabWoSi mis ganxilvas doqtoris akademiuri xarisxismosapoveblad.TariRixelmZRvanelebi: prof. T. Jordaniaprof. n. xundaZerecenzenti: prof. l. maxaraZerecenzenti: prof. g. WoxoneliZeii


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited PagessaqarTvelos teqnikuri universiteti2008 weliavtori:nadiraZe dimitridasaxeleba: magistraluri milsadenebiT navTobis saerTaSorisostandartebTan misadagebuli parametrebiT transportirebis daSenaxvis monitoringis meTedologiis damuSaveba da navTobisnarCenebis samSeneblo saqmeSi gamoyenebafakulteti:xarisxi:saamSeneblodoqtorisxdoma Catarda:individualuri pirovnebebis an institutebis mierzemomoyvanili dasaxelebis disertaciis gacnobis mizniTmoTxovnis SemTxvevaSi misi arakomerciuli miznebiT kopirebisa dagavrcelebis ufleba miniWebuli aqvs saqarTvelos teqnikuruniversitets.avtoris xelmoweraavtori inarCunebs danarCen sagamomcemlo uflebebs da arcmTliani da arc misi calkeuli komponentebis gadabeWdva an sxvaraime meTodiT reproduqcia dauSvebelia avtoris werilobiTinebarTvis gareSe.avtori irwmuneba, rom naSromSi gamoyenebuli saavtorouflebebiT dacul masalebze miRebulia Sesabamisi nebarTva (gardamcire zomis citatebisa, romlebic moiTxoven mxolod specialurmimarTebas literaturis citirebaSi, rogorc es miRebuliasamecniero naSromebis Sesrulebisas) da yvela maTganze iRebspasuxismgeblobas.iii


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited PagesreziumeXX-XXI saukuneebSi warmoebis ganviTarebisa da Sesabamisadenergomoxmarebis dargSi erTerT umniSvnelovanes sakiTxswarmoadgens energomatareblebis transportirebis infrasruqturisada maTi saeqspluatacio meTodologiebis ganviTareba, racgansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania saqarTvelosaTvis, rogorc aziisa daevropis damakavSirebeli da satranzito qveynisaTvis.sadisertacio naSromis pirvel TavSi asaxulia saxmeleToterminalze gamoyenebuli mowyobilobebis testireba, kalibracia.eqsploataciaSi myof terminalebze, rogorc wesi, mimdinareobsyvela arsebuli mowyobiloba-danadgarebis testireba dakalibracia. rac mizanSewonilia terminali-sadguris gamarTuli daSeuferxebeli muSaobisaTvis.rogorc wesi navTobis terminalebze, aucilebel da mTavarsakiTxad rCeba navTobis raodenobis ganmsazRvreli sistemis sworida efeqturi eqspluataciis Catareba-monitoringi, rac saSualebasiZleva ganisazRvros ramdenad sworad muSaobs aRniSnul sistemaSiSemavali TiToeuli danadgari, radganac TiToeul maTganzeadamokidebuli navTobis zusti raodenobis gansazRvra.testirebebisa da kalibraciebisaTvis SemuSavebulia specialuri,Tanamedrove programebi saerTaSorisod aRiarebuli standartebismixedviT, romlebSic Sedis mowyobilobebis da danadgarebissakalibracio monacemebi.standartebis Sesabamisad, Cvens mier Catarebulia“dasavleTis mimarTulebis saeqsporto milsadenis” wnevis saqaC dadamgdeb sadgurebze, sufsis saxmeleTo terminalze arsebulinavTobis raodenobis ganmsazRvreli sistemis Semadgenelimowyobilobebis testireba-kalibracia: temperaturis anu elementistesti, wnevis gadamcemis testi, motorizebuli sarqvelebiskalibracia, turbinisa da masze arsebuli mTvlelis testebi,simkvrivis mzomis kalibracia, siblantis mzomis kalibracia, wylisprocentuli Semcvelobis mzomis kalibracia, navTobisparametrebis ZiriTadi mTvlelis testireba. testirebebi aseveCautarda gafrTxilebebs, dinebis kompiuteris konfiguraciebs,ZiriTadi mTvlelis CamrTvelebs, swrafi moZraobis sadguristumbosa da sodenoids, barometrebs da Termometrebs.Catarebuli kvlevebis Sedegad miRweuli iqna zemoaRniSnuliobieqtebis sruli saerTaSoriso standartebis Sesabamisieqspluatacia, obieqtebze arsebuli xarvezebis aRmofxvra, maTiSeuferxebeli da efeqturi muSaoba.iv


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited PagesMmeore TavSi aRwerilia saxmeleTo terminalze navTobisparametrebisa da raodenobis dadgenisa da gaangariSebis meTodi.eqsploataciaSi myof terminalebze, rogorc wesi mimdinareobsavtomaturi gamoTvla navTobis im parametrebisa, romlebicgansazRvraven navTobis zust raodenobas.rodesac navTobi milsadenis saSualebiT gaivlis wnevis saqaCda damgdeb sadgurebs, romlebic ganawilebulia milsadenis mTelsigrZeze, Sedis saxmeleTo terminalis wnevis maregulirebel anuusafrTxoebis sarqvelSi, romlis saSualebiTac xorcieldebawnevis dagdeba, raTa mdovred wamosulma navTobma Seuferxebladda usafrTxod gaiaros e.w. navTobis mTvleli. terminalzenavTobis mTvlelamde milsadenSi Cayenebulia specialurifiltrebi, raTa ganxorcieldes navTobidan narCenebis sruligafiltvra.navTobis raodenobis mTvleli Seicavs ramdenime nakadiansistemas, romlebzec ganlagebulia Semdegi mowyobilobebi:maregulirebeli sarqveli, wnevis diferencialuri gadamcemi,temperaturis elementi, temperaturis mzomi, Termometri, navTobisspecialuri mTvleli turbina, wnevis gadamcemi, wnevis barometri,nakadidan navTobis parametrebis ZiriTad mTvlelSi navTobisgadamsroleli sarqveli, nakadis saboloo sarqveli, riTacxorcieldeba gazomili navTobis transportireba ZiriTadirezervuarebisaken.mTvlels gaaCnia swrafi moZraobis sadguri, sadacxorcieldeba navTobis parametrebis: simkvrivis, siblantis, wylisada naleqebis raodenobis gansazRvra. am danadgarzedamontaJebulia Semdegi mowyobilobebi: simkvrivis mzomi,siblantis mzomi, wylis da danarCeni sxva minarevebis mzomi, sinjisdanadgari, wnevis eleqtronuli gadamcemi, temperaturismaCvenebeli elementi.mTvlelze agreTve mierTebulia specialuri mowyobiloba,sadac xorcieldeba im fardobiTi koeficientis gaangariSeba,romelic Seadgens erT saaTSi gamavali navTobis raodenobisfardobas im sixSiresTan, ra sixSirec gaaCnia turbinas erT saaTSi,sabolood monacemebi igzavneba agreTve dinebis kompiuterSi.dinebis kompiuteri muSaobs im specialuri programiT,romelic Rebulobs da gadascems signalebs yvela immowyobilobebs, romlebzec zemoT gvqonda saubari.mravladaa saxmeleTo terminalebi, romlebzec aSenebuliaimportirebuli navTobis droebiTi Semnaxavi miwiszedav


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited Pagesrezervuarebi, saidanac drois garkveuli Sualedebis Semdegxorcieldeba navTobis eqsporti.standartebis Sesabamisad, Cvens mier Catarebuli iqnasaeqsportod gamzadebuli navTobis raodenobis gaangariSebismeTodi, sadac gamoyenebuli iqna navTobis Semdegi parametrebi:1) nedli navTobis simkvrive 15 0 C-ze;2) navTobSi wylis Semcveloba %-Si;3) navTobSi sxva danaleqebis Semcveloba %-Si;4) navTobSi Semavali wylis simkvrive 15 0 C-ze;5) rezevruarebis kalibracia mm-Si;6) navTobis temperatura rezervuarSi 0 C-Si;7) rezervuaris kedlis temperatura.zemoaRniSnuli parametrebis gamoyenebiT isazRvreba:1) cxrilebis saSualebiT rezervuaris motivtive saxuraviskoreqcia;2) miRebuli monacemebis safuZvelze saerTo dafiqsirebulimoculoba;3) saerTo standartuli moculoba 15 0 C-ze;4) saerTo masa tonebSi;5) standartuli moculoba 15 0 C-ze (metri kubSi);6) sufTa masa tonebSi;7) saerTo standartuli moculoba 60 0 F-ze (barelebSi);8) sufTa standartuli moculoba 60 0 F-ze (barelebSi).gaangariSebis magaliTi:1. rezervuarSi navTobis simaRle – 14105;rezervuaris kalibraciis cxrilis gamoyenebiT viRebT monacems– 48178.929;2. temperatura – 21.6 O C:1 + (22 * 10 -6 * (T - 15));1 + (22 * 0.000001 * (21.6 - 15)) = 1.00015;3. 1 * 2 = 48178.929 * 1.00015 = 48186.156;4. mocemuli cxrilidan viRebT Semdeg monacems - 510.014;5. 3 – 4 = 48186.156 – 510.014 = 47676.142;6. mocemuli cxrilidan dafiqsirebuli temperaturis mixedviTviRebT Semdeg monacems - 0.9945;7. 5 * 6 = 47676.142 * 0.9945 = 47413.923;8. laboratoriidan miRebuli monacemi - sveli navTobis simkvrive15 o C-ze = 0.8492;amerikis navTobis institutis mier dadgenili saerTaSorisokoeficienti 0.8492 – 0.0011 = 0.8481;9. 7 * 8 = 47413.923 * 0.8481 = 40211.748;vi


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited Pages10. laboratoriidan miRebuli monacemi – wylisa da danaleqebisSemcvelobis Sesaxeb e.i. 0.20%, gamoTvlis Sedegad SeadginaSemdegi monacemi - 94.828;7 – 10 = 47413.923 – 94.828 = 47319.095;11. navTobis simkvrive mSral (gauwylovanebul) mdgomareobaSi15 O C-ze = [(sveli navTobis simkvrive 15 o C-ze * navTobis Semcveliwylis simkvrive 15 o C-ze) * 100 – wylis Semcveloba %-Si *danaleqebis Semcveloba %-Si] / [(navTobis Semcveli wylissimkvrive 15 o C-ze * 100) - (sveli navTobis simkvrive 15 o C-ze *wylis Semcveloba %-Si * danaleqebis Semcveloba %-Si)];es monacemebi mocemuli gvaqvs laboratoriidan, magramgaTvlebis Catarebamde saWiroa wylis Semcvelobisa dadanaleqebis Semcvelobis koreqtireba, anu (navTobis Semcveliwylis simkvrive 15 o C-ze * wylis Semcveloba %-Si * danaleqebisSemcveloba %-Si) / (sveli navTobis simkvrive 15 o C-ze) = 1.0149 *0.20 / 0.8492 = 0.24;zemoaRniSnulis Sesabamisad:[(0.8492 * 1.0149) * 100 – 0.24] / [(1.0149 * 100) – 0.8492 * 0.24] == 85.945 / (101.49 – 0.20381) = 85.945 / 101.28619 = 0.8485;0.8485 – 0.0011 = 0.8474;navTobis sufTa raodenoba tonebSi 0.8474 * 47319.095 = 40098.201;12. navTobis saerTo standartuli moculoba 60 O F-ze (barelebSi)47413.923 * 6.293 = 298375.817;13. navTobis sufTa standartuli moculoba 60 O F-ze (barelebSi)47319.095 * 6.293 = 297779.065.saerTaSoriso standartebis gaTvaliswinebiT, Cvens mierCatarebuli samuSaoebis Sedegad SemuSavebuli da praqtikaSidanergili iqna rezervuarebSi navTobis zusti raodenobisganmsazRvreli meTodi, “dasavleTis mimarTulebis saeqsportomilsadenis” sufsis terminalze.qvemoT naxazebSi 1 da 2 warmodgenilia grafikuli masala,sadac sqematuri da cifrobrivi gamosaxulebiT mocemulia“dasavleTis mimarTulebis saeqsporto milsadeniT” 2005 wlisganmavlobaSi transportirebuli navTobis, sadisertasio naSromSiwarmodgenili meTodiT da kompiuteruli sistemis saSualebiTdadgenili moculobebis Sedarebis Sedegad dafiqsirebulisxvaobebi, agreTve daangariSebulia aRniSnuli sxvaobebis Sedegadtransportirebuli navTobis satranzito gadasaxadebisgaTvlebisas miRebuli sxvaobebi.vii


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited PagesaTasi bareli3000,00 4000,00 5000,001 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 122005 wlis Tveebisadisertacio naSromSi warmodgenili meTodiT dadgenisaskompiuteruli sistemiT dadgenisasdadgenisTriRinaSromSi warmodgenili meTodiT dadgenilinavTobis moculoba (aT.bareli)kompiuteruli meTodis saSualebiT dadgenilinavTobis moculoba (aT.bareli)sxvaoba am meTodebiT dadgenili navTobismoculobebs Soris (procentebSi)31.01.2005 4326,87 4322,93 0,0928.02.2005 4001,62 3996,52 0,1331.03.2005 4358,35 4353,34 0,1130.04.2005 4202,23 4196,23 0,1431.05.2005 4538,58 4532,57 0,1330.06.2005 4382,13 4377,12 0,1130.07.2005 4393,67 4388,67 0,1131.08.2005 3607,12 3602,12 0,1430.09.2005 4376,64 4370,74 0,1331.10.2005 4447,02 4441,22 0,1330.11.2005 4245,79 4239,79 0,1431.12.2005 4644,84 4639,24 0,12naxazi 1. - “dmsm”-is saSualebiT 2005 wlis ganmavlobaSi importirebuli navTobis moculobebi, sadisertasio naSromSiwarmodgenili meTodiT da kompiuteruli sistemis saSualebiT dadgenili navTobis moculobebis SedarebiTviii


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited Pages1000Tanxa, aTasi aSS dolari9509008508007507006506001 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 122005 weli, Tvesadisertacio naSromSi warmodgenili meTodiT dadgenil moculobaze satranzito gadasaxadi kompiuteruli sistemis saSualebiT dadgenil moculobaze gadasaxdeli satranzito RirebulebadadgenisTriRinaSromSi warmodgenili meTodiT dadgeniliimportirebuli navTobis moculobazegadaxdili tranzitis Rirebuleba (USD)kompiuteruli sistemis saSualebiT dadgenilnavTobis moculobaze gadasaxdeli tranzitisRirebuleba (USD)miRebuli sargebeli importirebulinavTobis zusti moculobis dadgenisSedegadTanxobrivad (USD) SedarebiTi (%)31.01.2005 865373,34 864586,57 786,77 0,0928.02.2005 800323,56 799304,87 1018,69 0,1331.03.2005 871669,45 870668,62 1000,83 0,1130.04.2005 840446,26 839245,63 1200,63 0,1431.05.2005 907715,06 906514,29 1200,77 0,1330.06.2005 876425,1 875424,25 1000,85 0,1130.07.2005 878734,89 877734,16 1000,73 0,1131.08.2005 721423,73 720423,55 1000,18 0,1430.09.2005 875328,03 874147,86 1180,17 0,1331.10.2005 933874,78 932656,29 1218,49 0,1330.11.2005 891615,92 890355,28 1260,64 0,1431.12.2005 975417,19 974240,44 1176,75 0,12jami 10438347,31 10425301,82 13045,49ix


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited Pagesnaxazi 2. - “dmsm”-is saSualebiT 2005 wlis ganmavlobaSi transportirebuli navTobis satranzito gadasaxadebi, naSromSiwarmodgenili meTodiT da kompiteruli sistemis saSualebiT dadgenili navTobis moculobebis cdomilebebis gaTvaliswinebiT,satranziro gadasaxadebis gaTvlebisas miRebuli sxvaobebis miTiTebiTx


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited Pagesmesame TavSi asaxulia civi hidrosaizolacio safaris optimaluriSedgenilobebi, maTi Tvisebebi da datana samrewvelo pirobebSi. mastikisZiriTad komponentebs warmoadgenen: bitumi, uaitspiriti da namuSevarimanqanis zeTi. urulono safaris srulyofisaTvis warmoebda misiarmireba minaqsoviliT, ramac sagrZnoblad gaaumjobesa civi asfaltovanimastikis Tvisebebi, saxuravis safaris bzarmedegobis gazrdis safuZvelze.laboratoriuli kvlevis Sedegad sawarmoo pirobebisTvisgamoyenebuli iqna mastikis sami seria, komponentebis masiTi SedgenilobiT%-Si (cxrili 1) da teqnikuri maxasiaTeblebiT (cxrili 2).mastikis Sedgenilobacxrili 1komponentebi,Sedgeniloba%-Si I II IIInavTobisbitumi (bn-V)43 42 40uaitspiriti 43 41 40namuSevarimanqanis zeTi14 17 20mastikis teqnikuri maxasiaTeblebicxrili 2maxasiaTeblebimastikis SedgenilobaI II IIIdarbilebistemperatura,o CD8084 90temperaturamedegoba15 0 kuTxiT daxrisas,o CSelRoba arSeiniSnebaSelRoba arSeiniSnebaSelRoba arSeiniSnebanemsis SeRwevissiRrme, 25 o C-sas60 60 70xi


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited PagesWimvadoba, sm25 o C-ze50 o C-zewyalJonadobahidrostatikuriwnevisas, mgpaZvradoba konusismixedviT, sm6150,4 mgpawnevisaswyalJonadobaar SeiniSneba8160,4 mgpawnevisaswyalJonadobaar SeiniSneba10190,4 mgpawnevisaswyalJonadobaar SeiniSnebaA10,0 10,5 12Sewebebis unari, % 90 92 95gamyarebis dro, sT 50 45 40adhezia betonismimarT, kg/sm 2 10 9 8yinvagamZleoba,cikliD50 ciklis drossimtkicis klebaaris 4-5%D50 ciklis drossimtkicis klebaaris 4-5%D50 ciklis drossimtkicis klebaaris 4-5%bitumis mastikis damzadeba warmoebs CveulebrivDduRabsarevSi, samSebneblo obieqtis teritoriaze. damzadebisprocesi mimdinareobs Semdegi TanmimdevrobiT: duRabsarevSiitvirTeba damsxvreuli bitumis masa da isxmeba namuSevari manqaniszeTi, Semdeg emateba saWiro raodenobis uaitspiriti da iwyebakomponentebis uwyveti areva. erTgvarovani masis miRebis Semdegnarevi gadaitvirTeba specialur WurWelSi, romelic gadaitanebasamSeneblo ubanze.civi asfaltovani mastikis datana betonis an duRabis fuZezexorcieldeba ZiriTadad meqanizebuli xerxiT - dambaCa-mfrqvevanaTi.didi farTobebisas mastikis datana SesaZlebelia ineqciuriduRabsatyorcniT, xolo safaris armireba minaqsoviliT sruldebaspecialuri aparatis saSualebiT. aRsaniSnavia, rom minaqsoviliTarmirebuli safaris xangamZleoba Seadgens 15-20 weliwads.hidrosaizolacio mastikis teqnikuri SesaZleblobis dagamoyenebis arealis gazrdis mizniT, Cvens mier l.miqelaZesTanerTad damzadebuli iqna efeqturi saJRenTi Sedgenilobebi, CvensqveyanaSi arsebuli masalebisa da warmoebis narCenebis gamoyenebiT.warmodgenili saJRenTi Sedgenilobebis komponentebisprocentuli Semcveloba da fizikur-meqanikuri maxasiaTeblebimocemulia cxrilebSi 3-sa da 4-Si.xii


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited PagessaJRenTi Sedgenilobebicxrili 3Kkomponentebi, masiTi % saJRenTi SedgenilobebiI II IIInavTobis bitumi (bn-V) 70 80 90poliuretani 10 7,5 5,0politetraftoreTileni - 4 1,0 0,75 0,5navTobis zeTi 17,5 10,75 4,0stearinis mJavis qromianikompleqsuri marili 1,5 1,0 0,5cxrili 4saJRenTi Sedgenilobebis fizikur-meqanikuri TvisebebiSedgenilobebissaJRenTi SedgeniloebimaxasiaTeblebi I II III cnobilidarbilebistemperatura,o C106-110 106-107 106-108 65-70temperaturamedegoba,o C96 99 95 60-ze naklebiadhezia, kg/sm 2(ss 15140-89)liTonTankeramikasTanbetoninTan3,53,36,73,53,96,03,93,75,7wyalSTanTqmaxangrZlivigamocdisas, %(ss 2477-85)araRiniSnebaaraRiniSnebaaraRiniSneba 7-10yinvagamZleoba –17 o C-ze50 cikligauZlo gauZlo gauZlo -toqsikurobaaratoqsikuriaaratoqsikuriaaratoqsikuria-biologiurimedegobamedegia medegia medegia -xiii


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited Pagessarwyavi betonis arxebis nakerebis hermetizaciisaTvis CvendavamzadeT sahermetizacio specialuri mastika saJRenTiSedgenilobisa da azbestis an sxva bunebrivi qvis masalebisfxvnilis gamoyenebiT 10-15%-is raodenobiT. muSa Sedgenilobisarevis xangrZlivoba ar aWarbebs 12-15 wuTs.aRniSnuli mastikis (hermetikis) danergva ganxorcieldamarneulis melioraciisa da wyalTa meurneobis sammarTvelossofel wereTlis magistraluri sarwyavi arxis 0,3 km. monakveTze1995 wels. (ix. danergvis aqti).garda nakerebis hermetizaciisa saJRenTi Sedgenilobagamoyenebuli iqna liTonis wyalsadeni milebis koroziamedegobisada hidroizolaciis uzrunvelsayofad. saJRenTi Sedgenilobebispecialuri mfrqvevanaTi datanili iqna liTonis milebis mTelzedapirze sisqiT 1,0-1,5 mm.aRniSnuli samuSaoebis danergva ganxorcielda Sps “be endiqss+”-is da Sps “nakadulis” obieqtebze 2005-2006 wlebSi (ix.danergvis aqtebi).sadisertacio naSromis mTavari samecniero siaxlea:1. pirvelad saqarTveloSi dasavleTis mimarTulebissaeqsporto milsadenis saerTaSoriso standartebisSesabamisad transportirebuli navTobis zustiraodenobis gansazRvrisTvis saWiro mowyobilobadanadgarebistestireba da kalibracia;2. milsadeniT transportirebuli navTobis absolutursididesTan miaxloebuli raodenobis gansazRvrawarmoebda gaangariSebis specialuri meTodebisgamoyenebiT;3. minaqsoviliT armirebuli civi bitumovani, wyaluJonadida xangamZle mastikis damzadeba da maTi gamoyenebanagebobis konstruqciuli nawilebis zedapirebishidroizolaciisaTvis.4. saJRenTi Sedgenilobebis damzadeba da maTi gamoyenebasarwyavi arxebis hermetizaciisa da liTonis milebisantikoroziuli safarisaTvis.xiv


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited PagesAbstractIn the XX-XXI centuries, the periode of industry development and incrising energyuse, one of the most important aspects is the development of oil and gas transportationinfrastructure and it’s expluatation methodology, what is even more important forGeorgia, as the bridge and transit country betwin Asia and Europe.In the first chapter is defined testing and calibration processes of equipment used atthe on-land terminal. Usually, as a rule, at all terminals under exploitation all equipmentand machinery undergoes testing and calibration, what is expedient for due and uninterruptedworking of terminal-stations.As the main and necessary principle still remains effective and correct fulfillment ofoil quantity definition system’s exploitation implementation-monitoring, what makespossible definition of correct working of each equipment which is the part of the saidsystem, as each of them influences on definition of exact quantity of oil. For testing andcalibration purposes are worked out special, modern programs according to theacknowledged international standards, which include the calibration data for equipmentand machinery.According to the appropriate standards, we, at Western Route Export Pipelinepressure squeezing and lowering stations of Supsa on-land terminal carried out testingcalibrationfor oil quantity definition system equipment existing: temperature e.g. ElementTest, Pressure Transmitter and Pressure Differential Transmitter Tests, Motorized ValvesCalibration, Tests on Turbine and the Meter thereon, Density Meter Calibration showingexactness of density of oil flow, Thickness meter calibration, Water Percentage MeterCalibration, Oil Parameters Main Meter Testing. Warnings, flow computer configurations,main meter switches, high speed action stations and sodenoids, barometers andthermometers were tested as well.Conclusion: As a result of the implemented investigations were received theexploitation of the above objects in full accordance with the international standards,elimination of defects existing at the objects, their continuous and effective maintenance.In the second chapter is described the method of calculation and definition of oilparameters and quantity at the on land terminal.At the terminals under exploitation usually is undergoing the automatic calculationof oil those parameters, which are defining the exact quantity of the oil.When the oil passes though pipeline’s pressure squeezing and lowering stations,which are distributed along the whole length of the pipeline it is entering into the valveregulating on-land terminal pressure e.g. the security valve, which provides the loweringof the pressure for provision of non-interrupted and secure passing of slowly pouring oilthrough the so called oil meter. At the terminal till the coming to the entrance of the oilmeter in the pipeline are installed the special filters for total clearing of the oil from thewaste.Oil quantity meter includes several flow systems, where are located the followingequipment: Regulative valve, Pressure differential transmitter, Temperature element,Temperature meter, thermometer, Special oil meter turbine, Pressure transmitter, Pressurexv


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited Pagesbarometer, The transmission valve passing oil from the flow to the oil parameters mainmeter, Flow last valve, which fulfills transportation of measured oil to the main reservoirs.Meter has the high speed action station, where is implemented the quantity definitionof the following oil parameters: Density, thickness, water and sediments. On thismachinery are installed the following equipments: Density Meter, Thickness Meter, Waterand other minerals Meter, Sample equipment, Pressure electronic transmitter, temperatureshowing element.On the meter is fixed the special equipment, where is implemented calculation of thatcomparable coefficient, which is received by dividing of oil passing during one hour tothe frequency of turbine in an hour; the final data are transferred to the flow computer aswell.The flow computer is working with special program, which is receiving andtransferring the signals to all equipment mentioned above.The are a lot of on-land terminals, where are built the temporary on-land reservoirsfor the imported oil; from these reservoirs is carried out the export of the oil in a certainperiods of time;In accordance with the appropriate standards, we implemented the method forcalculation of oil ready for export, where were used the following parameters:1. Crude oil density on temperature of 15 degrees of Celsius;2. Water content percentage in the oil;3. Other sediments content in the oil;4. Water density existed in oil on temperature of 15 degrees of Celsius;5. Oil temperature in Reservoir calibration in mm;6. Oil temperature in reservoir in degrees of Celsius scale;7. Reservoir wall temperature;Using the parameters above is defined the following:1. Swimming roof correction using the tables;2. Total fixed volume according to the existing data;3. Total standard volume at the temperature of 15 degrees of Celsius;4. Total weight in tons;5. Standard volume at the temperature of 15 degrees of Celsius (cub. m.);6. Pure weight in tons;7. Total standard volume at the temperature of degrees of Fahrenheit (in Barrels);8. Pure standard volume at the temperature of degrees of Fahrenheit (in Barrels);Example of calculation:1. Oil height in the reservoir – 14105, using the reservoir calibration table we ‘re takingthe following parameter – 48178.929;2. Temperature -21.6 degrees of Celsius:1+ (22*10*(T-15));1+ (22*0,000001*(21.6-15))=1.00015;3. 1*2=48178.929*1.00015=48186.156;4. From the appropriate table we’re taking the following parameter- 510.014;5. 3-4=48186.156-510.014=47676.142;xvi


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited Pages6. From the given table according to the temperature we’re taking the followingparameter -0.9945;7. 5*6=47676.142*0.9945=47413.923;8. The data got from laboratory – wet oil density at 15 degrees of Celsius=0.8492The international coefficient stated by Oil Institute of USA - 0.8492-0.0011=C;9. 7*8=47413.923*0.8481=40211.748;10.The data got from laboratory regarding water and sediments content e.g. 0.20%; as aresult of the calculation was stipulated the following data – 94.828:7-10=47413.923-94.828=47319.095;11. Oil density in dry (water free) condition at the temperature of 15 degrees of Celsius =((Wet oil density at 15 degrees of Celsius *oil included water density at 15 degrees ofCelsius)*100- water content in percentage* sediments contents in percentage))/(( Oilincluded water density at 15 degrees of Celsius * 100) - (Wet oil density at 15 degreesof Celsius *water content in percentage* sediments content in percentage));These data we’ve got from laboratory, but until carrying out the calculation, water andsediments content are to be corrected e.g. ( Oil included water density at 15 degrees ofCelsius *water content in percentage*sediments content in percentage)/ (Wet oildensity at 15 degrees of Celsius)=1.0149*0.2/0.8492=0.24;According to all above((0.8492*1.0149)*100-0.24)/((1.0149*100)-0.8492*0.24)=85.945/()101.49-0.20381)=85.945/101.28619=0.84850.8485-0.0011=0.8474;Oil net quantity in tons is 0.8474*47319.095=40098.201;12.Oil total Standard volume at 60 degrees of Farenheit (in Barrels)47413.923*6.293=298375.817;13.Oil net Standard volume at 60 degrees of Farenheit (in Barrels)47319.095*6.293=297779.065.Taking into the account the international standards and the results of ourinvestigations, we worked out and applied to the practice the method of definition of oilexact quantity in reservoirs at Western Route Export Pipeline Supsa terminal.Here in grafics 1 and 2 is presented difference in volumes of oil imported through“WREP” in 2005, using described method of calculation and computer calculation methodand the difference in transit payments, regarding the different methods of oil volumecalculation.xvii


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited PagesThousand aTasi bareli barrel3000,00 4000,00 5000,001 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 122005 wlis 2005, Tveebi monthBy described method of calculationsadisertacio naSromSi warmodgenili meTodiT dadgenisasBy computer calculation methodkompiuteruli sistemiT dadgenisasDate The volume of oil by described method of The volume of oil by computer calculation method difference in oil volumes (percent)calculation (th. barrel)(th. barrel)31.01.2005 4326,87 4322,93 0,0928.02.2005 4001,62 3996,52 0,1331.03.2005 4358,35 4353,34 0,1130.04.2005 4202,23 4196,23 0,1431.05.2005 4538,58 4532,57 0,1330.06.2005 4382,13 4377,12 0,1130.07.2005 4393,67 4388,67 0,1131.08.2005 3607,12 3602,12 0,1430.09.2005 4376,64 4370,74 0,1331.10.2005 4447,02 4441,22 0,1330.11.2005 4245,79 4239,79 0,1431.12.2005 4644,84 4639,24 0,12Graf. 1. – Difference in volumes of oil imported through “WREP” in 2005, using described method of calculation and computer calculation methodxviii


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited Pages1000950Tanxa, aTasi Thousand aSS dolari USD9008508007507006506001 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 122005 weli, Tve2005, month• Transit payment for oil volume calculated using described method • Transit payment for oil volume calculated using computer methodsadisertacio naSromSi warmodgenili meTidiTdadgenil moculobaze satranzito gadasaxadi kompiuteruli sistemis saSualebiT dadgenil moculobaze gadasaxdeli satranzito RirebulebaDateTransit payment for oil volume calculatedusing described method (USD)Transit payment for oil volume calculated using computermethod (USD)Income grouth using precise method of calculationUSD %31.01.2005 865373,34 864586,57 786,77 0,0928.02.2005 800323,56 799304,87 1018,69 0,1331.03.2005 871669,45 870668,62 1000,83 0,1130.04.2005 840446,26 839245,63 1200,63 0,1431.05.2005 907715,06 906514,29 1200,77 0,1330.06.2005 876425,1 875424,25 1000,85 0,1130.07.2005 878734,89 877734,16 1000,73 0,1131.08.2005 721423,73 720423,55 1000,18 0,1430.09.2005 875328,03 874147,86 1180,17 0,1331.10.2005 933874,78 932656,29 1218,49 0,1330.11.2005 891615,92 890355,28 1260,64 0,1431.12.2005 975417,19 974240,44 1176,75 0,12Total 10438347,31 10425301,82 13045,49Graf 2. - Difference in transit payments, for oil imported through “WREP” in 2005, calculated using described method of calculation and computercalculation methodxix


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited PagesIn the third chapter are stated the optimal contents for cold hydro-isolation surface,it’s characteristics and drifting on during the production process. The main component ofthe mastic are bitumen, white-spirit and used automobile oil. For perfection of unrolledsurface was fulfilled it’s reinforce with glass fiber, what considerably increased thequality of cold asphalt mastic on the basis of increase of roof surface crack-steadiness.According to the laboratory investigations for production process were used threeseries of mastic with the following weight content (shown by percentage in Table 1) andtechnical characteristics (Table 2):Mastic’s contentTable 1Components, %ContentsI II IIIOil bitumen (BN -43 42 40V)White-spirit 43 41 40Used automobile oil 14 17 20Mastic’s Technical CharacteristicTable 2CharacteristicsSoftening temperature,o CTemperature steadinesswhile incline angle of15 o ,o CDeepness of needleentrance at 25 o CMastics ContentsI II III80 84 90Decompositionisn’t noticedDecomposition isn’tnoticedDecomposition isn’tnoticed60 60 70Straining ability at 25 o CScale in centimeters6 8 10Straining ability at 50 o CIn centimetersWater leakage athydrostatic pressure,mgpa15 16 19At pressure of 0,4mgpa water leakageisn’t noticedAt pressure of 0,4mgpa water leakageisn’t noticedAt pressure of 0,4mgpa water leakageisn’t noticedBudge ability accordingto cone in centimeters 10,0 10,5 12xx


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited PagesAdhesion ability, %90 92 95Hardening time, hours50 45 40Adhesion abilitytowards the concrete,10 9 8kg/ cm 2Freezing steadiness,cycleDuring 50 cyclessteadinessdecreased by 4-5%During 50 cyclessteadiness decreased by4-5%During 50 cyclessteadiness decreased by4-5%Bitumen mastic is to be prepared in ordinary lime mixer on the territory ofconstruction object. The preparation process is fulfilled by the following order: in the limemixer is loaded the bulk of broken bitumen and is poured in the used automobile oil,afterwards is added the necessary quantity of white-spirit and the constant mixing of thecomponents starts. After receiving the homogenous mixture, the said mixture is to bepoured in special vessels, which is ready to be transported to the construction plot.Cold asphalt mastic placement on concrete or lime base is implemented mainly bymechanized way e.g. by pistol-sprinkler. Whilst the sprinkling on the big areas the masticmight be placed by injection lime sprinkler, as for the surface enforce by glass fiber, it isto be carried out by special equipment (apparatus).It is notable that the enforced surface validity period makes up 15-20 years.To increase the technical possibilities and using area of hydro-isolation mastic, we,together with L.Mikeladze prepared effective saturation mixtures using the materialsexisting in the country and the production waste.The contents of components shown in percents and physical-mechanicalcharacteristics of the performed saturation mixtures are shown in the Tables 3.3.and 3.4.Saturation MixturesTable 3Components, %Saturation mixturesI II IIIOil bitumen (BN-V) 70 80 90Poly Urethan 10 7,5 5,0Poly tetra fluorineethylene - 41,0 0,75 0,5Petroleum Oil 17,5 10,75 4,0Stearin Acid’sCrome Complex salt1,5 1,0 0,5xxi


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited PagesSaturation Mixtures Physical-mechanical CharacteristicsTable 4Mixture’sSaturation mixture’s ContentsCharacteristics I II III KnownSoftening temperature,o C106-110 106-107 106-108 65-70Temperature steadiness,o C96 99 95 Less then 60Adhesion, kg/sq.cm(ss 15140-89) towardsMetalCeramicConcrete3,53,36,73,53,96,03,93,75,7Water absorbing whilelong lasted testing(ss 15140-89), %Not noticed Not noticed Notnoticed7-10Freezing steadiness at17 o C, 50 cyclesSteady Steady Steady -Toxicity Non-toxic Non-toxic Non-toxic-Biologic Steadiness Steady Steady Steady -For hermetic safety of the sprinkle concrete stitches we prepared the special masticusing saturation mixture and powder of asbestos or of other natural stone materials byquantity of 10-15%. The mixing period for working mixture doesn’t exceed 12-15minutes.The above mentioned mastic (hermetic) was inculcated on 0,3 km. of VillageTsereteli main water line under Marneuli Melioration and Water Economy Department in1995 year. (See attached the appropriate Statement).Besides the stitches hermetic safety, the saturation mixture was used for provisionof metal water-pipes corrosion steadiness. The saturation mixture is placed on metal pipeswhole area by the special sprinkler; the sickness of the layer makes up 1,0-1,5 mm.xxii


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited PagesThe above mentioned works were inculcated on the construction objects of “B andX+” Ltd in 2005-2006 years (See attached the appropriate Statement).The main scientific innovations of the present dissertation work are as follows:1. The first time in Georgia is implemented the testing and calibration of equipmentand machinery necessary for definition of the exact quantity of oil transportedthrough Western Route Direction Export Pipeline according to the internationalstandards;2. Definition of the quantity, close to the absolute measure of the oil transported bythe pipeline, using the special methods of calculation;3. Preparation of cold bitumen enforced by glass fiber and waterproof mastic, withlong period of validity; and their using for buildings construction parts surfacehydro-isolation;4. Saturation mixture preparation and its use for water-line hermetic safety and metalpipes anti-corrosion surface.xxiii


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited PagesSinaarsiSesavali 27Tavi 1. navTobsadeniT navTobis transportirebisa daSenaxvisaTvis gamoyenebuli mowyobiloba-danadgarebiseqspluataciis monitoringi1.1. navTobis transportirebis da Senaxvis monitoringi 361.2. saqarTveloSi navTobis mrewvelobis ganviTarebisistoriuli mimoxilva1.3. "dasavleTis mimarTulebis saeqsporto milsadenis"mSeneblobisa da eqspluataciis zogierTi aspeqti1.3.1. mSeneblobisa da eqspluataciisaTvis gamoyofili miwisfarTobebi1.3.2. navTobsadenis saerTo monacemebi 491.3.3. navTobsadenis monakveTi terminalidan tivtivamde 511.4. garemos dacvis sakiTxebi 521.5. “dasavleTis mimarTulebis saeqsporto milsadenze”gamoyenebuli gamzomi xelsawyoebisa da danadgarebistestirebisa da kalibraciis monitoringis meTodologia1.5.1. kalibraciis sistemebi 541.6. ZiriTadi mTvlelis testireba da kalibracia 561.6.1. dinebis kompiuteri 641.6.2. mowyobilobebis kalibraciis da testirebis monitoringi 641.6.3. swrafi reagirebis sadguris testebi 661.6.4. navTobis transportirebis parametrebis ganmsazRvreliZiriTadi mTvlelis testi1.6.5. dinebis kompiuteris sxva testebi da Semowmebebi 691.6.6. gamzom xelsawyoebze Catarebuli Semowmebebis statistika 701.7. wriuli mricxvelis kalibracia wylis gamoyenebiT 711.8. monitoringis meTodologiis Sesabamisad CatarebulitestirebebiTavi 2. navTobis raodenobis dadgena 872.1. sakontrolo sistemis saerTaSoriso standartebisSesabamisi gazomvis rekomendaciebi2.1.1. nakadebis gazomvisaTvis gamoyenebuli terminebi 882.2. gaJonvis dafiqsirebis sistema 902.3. monacemebis Segroveba 902.4. arazusti aRricxva 922.5. identifikacia 92gv.xxiv3640444853677987


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited Pages2.6. navTobis Senaxva-transportirebis gazomvis elementi 932.7. gazomvis sakontrolo sistemis specifikaciebi 932.7.1. saerTo principebi da Sesabamisi dokumentebi 932.8. daproeqtebisadmi wayenebuli moTxovnebi da eqspluataciispirobebi2.9. oTxmimarTulebiani nakadis gadamrTveli sarqveli 1002.10. aRricxvis sistemisadmi wayenebuli teqnikuri moTxovnebi 1012.11. sazomi sistemis funqciuri moTxovnebi 1042.12. sinjebis amRebi avtomaturi sistema 1052.13. kontrolisa da usafrTxoebis integrirebuli sistema 1072.14. nakadis kompiuteris maxasiaTeblebi 1072.15. nakadis kompiuteruli sistemis funqcia 1102.16. nakadis mricxvelis Semowmeba 1112.17. nakadis mricxveli 1122.18. navTobis raodenobis dadgena 1132.19. navTobis partiis Tanmxlebi dokumentacia, ganrigi daangariSebi2.20. samuSao adgili, pirobebi, inspeqtireba-testirebebi,markireba da transportirebaTavi 3. navTobis narCenebis gamoyeneba mSeneblobaSi 1233.1. hidrosaizolacio safari 1243.2. hidrosaizolacio fuZis kvleva 1273.3. hidrosaizolacio safaris bzarmedegobis kvleva 1283.4. hidrosaizolacio mastikis damzadeba da datanasaizolacio zedapirze3.5. hidrosaizolacio safaris datana 1333.5.1. safaris Sroba da xarisxis kontroli 1363.6. saJRenTi Sedgenilobebi 1373.6.1. saJRenTi Sedgenilobebis gamoyeneba sarwyavi arxebisnakerebis hermetizaciisaTvis3.6.2. saJRenTi Sedgenilobebis gamoyeneba liTonis milebisantikoroziuli safarisaTvis da sxva daniSnulebiTdaskvna 148gamoyenebuli literatura 150danarTi 1, testirebebis Sedegebi 154danarTi 2, testirebebis Sedegebi 176danarTi 3, testirebebis gegmebis nusxa 191danarTi 4, danergvis aqtebi 20195120121131143145xxv


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited Pagescxrilebis nusxacxrili 1.1.importirebuli navTobis gamzom xelsawyoebze2001 wlis ganmavlobaSi Catarebulitestirebebis statistikagv.70cxrili 1.2. eqsportirebuli navTobis gamzomxelsawyoebze 2001 wlis ganmavlobaSiCatarebuli testirebebis statistika71cxrili 3.1. mastikis Sedgeniloba 125cxrili 3.2. mastikis teqnikuri maxasiaTeblebi 126cxrili 3.3.1 m 2 farTobze hidrosaizolacio safarismowyobis ekonomikuri efeqti tradiciulruberoidis safarTan SedarebiT137cxrili 3.4. saJRenTi Sedgenilobebi 138cxrili 3.5.saJRenTi Sedgenilobebis fizikur-meqanikuriTvisebebi141xxvi


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited Pagesnaxazebis nusxagv.naxazi 1.1. “dasavleTis mimarTulebis saeqsportomilsadenis” saqarTvelos monakveTinaxazi 1.2. “dasavleTis mimarTulebis saeqsportomilsadenis” sruli saeqspluatacio sqema4546naxazi 1.3. zRvis zedapirze motivtive platformis sqema 52naxazi 1.4. importirebuli navTobis gamzomi kvanZissqematuri naxazinaxazi 1.5. eqsportirebuli navTobis gamzomi kvanZissqematuri naxazinaxazi 1.6. “dmsm”-ze arsebuli sarqvelebisa da satumbisadgurebis sqematuri naxazinaxazi 2.1. “dmsm”-is saSualebiT 2005 wlis ganmavlobaSiimportirebuli navTobis moculobebi,sadisertasio naSromSi warmodgenili meTodiT dakompiuteruli sistemis saSualebiT dadgenilinavTobis moculobebis SedarebiTnaxazi 2.2. “dmsm”-is saSualebiT 2005 wlis ganmavlobaSitransportirebuli navTobis satranzitogadasaxadebi, naSromSi warmodgenili meTodiTda kompiteruli sistemis saSualebiT dadgenilinavTobis moculobebis cdomilebebisgaTvaliswinebiT, satranziro gadasaxadebisgaTvlebisas miRebuli sxvaobebis miTiTebiT616263118119naxazi 3.1. mastikis damzadebis struqturuli sqema 132xxvii


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited PagesSesavaliadamianis mier aRmoCenil wiaRiseulTagan yvelaze ZvirfassalbaT navTobi warmoadgens, romelsac “dedamiwis sisxls”uwodeben, zogjer ki “Sav oqros”. oqros gareSe cxovrebaSesaZlebelia - misi sxva liToniT Secvla, xolo navTobis gareSever imoZravebs avtotransporti, ver imuSaovebs verc erTi Zrava,Tundac igi orTqlis an atomuri iyos, ver davamzadebThidrosaizolacio da plastikur masalebs, sasuqebs da sxva.kacobriobas ramdenime aTaswleuli dasWirda imisaTvis, romeswavla navTobis mopoveba, damuSaveba, transportireba da misiracionaluri gamoyeneba.navTobi aris energiis wyaro, mxolod 1 sm 3 navTobia saWiro,raTa 10 gradusiT gavaTboT wyliT savse vedro, xolo misasaduReblad sakmarisia naxevari Wiqa.amasTan navTobs gaaCnia SesaniSnavi Tviseba: zedapirzeamosvlis unari gareSe energiis daxarjvis gareSe, e.i. mismosapoveblad saWiro ar aris menavTobeebis yofna miwis qveS,rogorc es saWiroa qvanaxSiris da sxva madneulis SemTxvevaSi.navTobis mopoveba warmoebs WaburRilebiT, cnobilia, romWaburRilebidan dReRamis ganmavlobaSi dedamiwis zedapirzeamosuli navTobis raodenobam SeiZleba 10–20 aTas tonas miaRwios.magaliTad 1977 wels saudis arabeTSi moipoves 458 milioni tonanavTobi 782 WaburRilidan, e.i. TiToeuli maTgani wlisganmavlobaSi 586 aTas tona navTobs iZleoda, anu dReRameSi 1604tonas.unda aRiniSnos, rom navTobi dedamiwis wiaRSi TiTqmisarasdros ar gvxvdeba naxSirwyalbadovani sawvavis - gazis gareSe.Tumca sawvavi gazi navTobis gareSe xSirad gvxvdeba. es Zvirfasisawvavi farTod aris gavrcelebuli udabnoebSi, zRvebisa daokeaneebis fskerze da sxvagan. gazis SedarebiT sruli gamoyeneba27


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited Pagesramdenime aTeuli wlis win daiwyo, radganac misi transportirebada gamoyeneba moiTxovs teqnikur dones da aRWurvilobas.Tanamedrove pirobebSi navTobi da gazi didi warmatebiTgamoiyeneba saxalxo meurneobaSi.navTobi iseTi wiaRiseulia, romlis maragis ganaxleba arxdeba, misi formaciis procesi Zalian nela mimdinareobs, amasTanisic unda aRiniSnos, rom sawvavis moxmareba yovel 18–20 weliwadSiorjer izrdeba, mopovebis dRevandeli tempebis SenarCunebiT,navTobis maragi sakmarisia daaxloebiT 2050–2055 wlamde. magramimeds iZleva is garemoebac, rom grZeldeba axali sabadoebisaRmoCena. cnobilia, rom dReisaTvis msoflioSi gamovlenilinavTobis maragis 65%-ze meti Tavmoyrilia axlo da SuaaRmosavleTis qveynebSi, afrikasa da meqsikaSi 9%-mde, laTinuramerikaSi 6%-mde, aSS – 4%, dasavleT evropaSi – 3.5%, aziaSi – 3%-ze cota meti da kanadaSi – 1% [13].unda aRiniSnos, rom mTeli istoriis manZilze dedamiwiswiaRidan amoRebulia daaxloebiT 100 miliardi tona navTobi,xolo yovelwliurad iReben 3 miliard tona navTobs.navTobis mopoveba uZvelesi droidan warmoebs, magram XIXsaukunis dasawyisSi cnobilia, rom ZiriTadi sabadoebi iyo:azerbaijanSi da pensilvaniaSi (aSS), XX saukunis dasawyisSinavTobs ukve 19 qveyanaSi moipovebdnen. navTobis mopovebisgeografia arsebiTad gafarTovda 50-ian wlebSi; aRwevs 45-s, xolo1975 wlisaTvis 75 qveyanas Seadgenda, xolo dReisaTvis msoflioSiTiTqmis 80 qveyana awarmoebs navTobs.azerbaijani msoflios uZvelesi navTobmompovebeli qveyanaa.XIX saukuneSi ukve moqmedebda ramdenime sabado: balaxani, sabunCi,bibi-eibaTi da sxva. Semdeg ki afSeroni (baqo) udidesi sabadogaxda. XX saukuneSi amuSavda ramani, binagadi, Subani, yara-Cuxoru,kala, zixi da sxva sabadoebi.XX saukunis 30-ian wlebSi baqos raionSi, msoflioSi pirveladnavTobis mopoveba daiwyes sazRvao sarewebidan.28


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited PagesamJamad azerbaijanSi navTobis ZiriTad nawils zRvaSi ipoveben.aq bevri sabadoa aRmoCenili, maT Soris: “neftianie kamni”,giurgiani, sangaCali, karadaRi, bula da sxva.azerbaijanSi amoRebuli navTobis saerTo raodenobam 1.5miliard tonas miaRwia.navTobis amoReba da Semdgom gardaqmna saxalxo meurneobispirveladi moxmarebis produqtebad – benzinad, dizelis sawvavad,zeTad, sinTezur masalad, sapoxad da a.S. sakmaod rTuli daxanrgZlivi procesia.mecnierebi varaudoben, rom dedamiwis wiaRSi arsebulinavTobis potenciuri resursebis mxolod erTi mesamedi arisaRmoCenili.Mmopovebuli navTobis transportireba, Senaxva da gadamuSavebanavTobis mrewvelobaSi ZiriTad problemas warmoadgens.saqarTveloSi navTobis mopoveba da transportireba cnobiliadaviT aRmaSeneblis droidan, saqarTvelos imdroindel saeqsportosaqonlis siaSi navTobic aris moxseniebuli.saqarTveloSi navTobis SedarebiT mcire sabadoebia aRmoCeniliguriaSi: natanebi, sufsa; kaxeTSi; qarTlSi: mirzaani, patara Siraqi,norio da sxva.saqarTveloSi navTobis mrewvelobis ganviTareba daiwyo 1929wlidan, rodesac Camoyalibda “saqnavTobi”.saqarTvelo Tavisi geografiuli mdebareobiT warmoadgensevropisa da aziis damakavSirebel derefans, romelic uxsovaridroidan abreSumis gzad aris cnobili.20-e saukunis miwuruls aSenda navTobis milsadeniazerbaijanidan saqarTvelos gavliT daba sufsamde, saxelwodebiT“dasavleTis mimarTulebis saeqsporto milsadeni”, am milsadeniTnavTobi kaspiis zRvidan saqarTvelos gavliT miewodeba evropisqveynebs.Ggarda amisa, saqarTveloSi funqcionirebs “baqo-Tbilisijeihani”-snavTobsadeni da “baqo-Tbilisi-erzrumi”-s gazsadeni.29


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited Pageswinamdebare naSromSi ganxilulia magistraluri milsadenebiTnavTobis saerTaSoriso standartebTan misadagebuli parametrebiTtransportirebis da Senaxvis monitoringis meTodologia(“dasavleTis mimarTulebis saeqsporto milsadenis” saSualebiTtransportirebuli navTobis raodenobis gaangariSebisaTvis saWiromowyobiloba-danadgarebis saerTaSorisod aRiarebulistandartebis Sesabamisad testireba-kalibraciis meTodika dagaangariSebebi terminalze arsebuli rezervuarebis gamoyenebiT) danavTobis narCenebis samSeneblo saqmeSi gamoyenebis perspeqtivebi.navTobis saxalxo meurneobaSi, TiTqmis sasicocxlodaniSnulebis saWiroebis garda, misi narCenebi: navTobis bitumi,uaitspiriti, navTobis zeTi da sxva, mTel rig saSen masalebTankompoziciaSi warmoqmnian hidrosaizolacio mastikebs da saJRenTSedgenilobebs, romlebic didi warmatebiT gamoiyenebian sxvadasxvadaniSnulebis nagebobebis hidroizolaciisaTvis.rogorc cnobilia, aucilebelia samrewvelo da samoqalaqoSenobebis brtyeli gadaxurvebis, samSeneblo konstruqciebiszedapirebisa da nagebobebis Ria zedapirebis dacva atmosferulimovlenebisgan, rac TavisTavad uzrunvelyofs maT xangrZliv dasaimedo eqspluatacias - warmoadgens erT-erT mniSvnelovanproblemas mSeneblobaSi.Ggarda amisa, wyalSeuRwevadobis problema nagebobebissarTulSua gadaxurvebis, Senobis gadamRobi kedlebis, miwisqveSakonstruqciebis, sxvadasxva daniSnulebis arxebis, auzebis,wyalsacavebis da sxva tipis nagebobebisaTvis aseve aucilebelia.imis gaTvaliswinebiT, rom saqarTvelo zRvis pira qveyanaa,gasakuTrebiT didi mniSvneloba eniWeba nagebobebis sxvadasxva,rogorc miwisqveSa, aseve miwiszeda konstruqciuli elementebishidroizolacias. Mmiwiszeda gadamRobi konstruqciebizRvispireTisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli xSiri iribi mimarTulebiswvimebis gamo mniSvnelovnad teniandeba da kargavs saeqspluatacio30


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited PagesTvisebebs, xolo miwisqveSa nagebobebi da konstruqciebi ganicdiangruntis wylebis zemoqmedebas.unda aRiniSnos, rom adre CvenSi hidroizolacia sruldebodamasalebiT, romelTac ar gaaCndaT xangrZlivoba tenian garemoSi.magaliTisaTvis SeiZleba davasaxeloT Tbilisis sportis sasaxlisgadaxurva sami fena ruberoidiT, rac 5 wlis eqspluataciisSemdeg, rogorc uvargisi Seicvala TunuqiT. aseve SeiZlebaavRniSnoT Tbilisis filarmoniis sakoncerto darbazis Riaverandebis hidroizolacia, romelic sul mokle xanSi gamovidamwyobridan, radganac safars gauCnda mniSvnelovani bzarebi dadaiwyo wylis gaJonva. Bbolo xanebSi am daniSnulebiT iyenebeniseT masalebs, rogoricaa hidroizoli, sxvadasxva saxisplastikatebi, poliizobutalini, penetroni, penekriti, peneplagi dasxva mastikebi, aseve Cvens mier damzadebuli da gamoyenebuliminaqsoviliT armirebuli hidrosaizolacio mastika da saJRenTiSedgenilobebi, romlebic savsebiT akmayofileben maTze wayenebulmoTxovnebs.Hhidrosaizolacio masalebis, maTi damzadebis teqnologiisada gamoyenebis didi interesi imiT aris ganpirobebuli, romhidroizolaciis Rirebuleba zogierT SemTxvevaSi Seadgens saerTosamSeneblo xarjebis 15-20%-s, xolo hidrosaizolacio samuSaoebisSromatevadoba 3-4 jer aWarbebs Sromis danaxarjebs, romlebicsaWiroa damcavi konstruqciebis asagebad.Hhidroizolaciis tipis, konstruqciis an kvanZebis SerCevisas,gaTvaliswinebuli unda iqnes hidroizolaciis warmoebis pirobebi,Rirebuleba da deficituroba, e.i. mSeneblobis adgilmdebareobisklimaturi pirobebi, hidrosaizolacio samuSaoebis warmoebismeqanizaciis SesaZleblobebi, kvalificiuri muSaxeliTuzrunvelyofa da sxva.Yyvela pirobis gaTvaliswinebiT, civ hidrosaizolaciomastikas upiratesoba eniWeba cxelTan SedarebiT, radganac esukanaskneli xasiaTdeba mcireodeni toksikurobiT (garemos31


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited PagesdabinZureba), travmatizmiT (damwvrobis SemTxvevebi), sezonuriSezRudviT misi gamoyenebisas, radganac cxeli bitumi civdebamilsadenSi 20-35 0 C temperaturaze.Ggadaxurvis xangamZleoba bitumovani masaliT mniSvnelovnadaris damokidebuli saxuravis an sxva zedapiris qanobze:xangamZleoba izrdeba daxris SemcirebiT, radganac mcire qanobisaSualebas iZlevagamoviyenoT sicivis mimarT medegi,advildnobadi mastikebi, romlebic rbildebian dadebiTitemperaturis pirobebSi, avseben zedapirs da faraven moWimvazearsebul bzarebsa da defeqtebs.Senobis saxuravis an sxva zedapirebis safarishidroizolaciisas, Sromatevadobisa da masalatevadobisSemcirebis mizniT, xSirad mimarTaven Sefrqveuli mastikis anemulsiis armirebas daWrili minaqsoviliT [6; 11].Bbitumis fuZeze Seqmnil Sedgenilobebs savsebiT SesaZlebeliakonkurencia gauwios polimerulma masalebma, rac bolo xanebSisakmaod xSirad gamoiyeneba mSeneblobis sxvadasxva dargebSi. maTSeqmnasa da Tvisebebis Seswavlis dargSi didi wvlili miuZRvisakad. p. rebinders da mis fizikur-qimiuri meqanikis skolas.Tanamedrove periodSi polimeruli masalebis gamoyenebaSezRudulia maRali Rirebulebisa da deficiturobis gamo.Uunda aRiniSnos, rom civi bitumovani mastikebi mineraluriSemvsebebiT ar SeiZleba gamoyenebuli iqnen qvemoT CamoTvlilSemTxvevebSi:1. Ria zedapirebis hidroizolaciisaTvis, romlebic ganicdianwylis zemoqmedebas xangrZlivi drois manZilze;2. saxuravebis hidroizolaciisaTvis deformirebul an bzarianfuZeze (moWimvaze), radganac civi bitumovani mastikebi argamoirCevian sakmarisi bzarmedegobiT da elastikurobiT;3. roca eqspluatacia mimdinareobs 100 0 C temperaturaze zeviT,xangrZlivi gacxelebisas, bitumis TandaTanobiTi karbonizaciisa32


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited Pagesda polimerizaciis gamo izrdeba simyife, rac iwvevs saboloojamSi saxuravis wyalJonadobas.civi bitumovani mastikis Tvisebebis gaumjobesebisa dagamoyenebis sferos gafarToebisaTvis, saSeni masalebisa danakeTobebis kaTedraze Cemi monawileobiT1995-2001 wlebSigamokvleuli iqna axali Sedgenilobis, minaqsoviliT armirebulicivi hidrosaizolacio mastika. garda amisa, kaTedraze Seiqmnaaxali saJRenTi Sedgenilobebi, romlebic gamoyenebuli iqnamarneulis raionis sof. wereTlis magistraluri sarwyavi arxishermetizaciisaTvis da S.p.s. “be end ikss+”-is mier liTonismilsadenebis antikoroziuli safarisaTvis (ix. Ddanergvis aqtebi).Yyovelive zemoaRniSnulis gamo, winamdebare sadisertacionaSromis Tema warmoadgens aqtualur samecniero-sainJinroproblemas.sadisertacio naSromis mizani. naSromis mizans warmoadgensmagistraluri milsadenebiT navTobis saerTaSoriso standartebTanmisadagebuli parametrebiT transportirebis da Senaxvismonitoringis meTodologiis damuSaveba, kerZod: “dasavleTismimarTulebis saeqsporto milsadenis” saSualebiTtransportirebuli navTobis raodenobis zusti gansazRvrisaTvis,navTobis maragis Semnaxvel sadgurze gamoyenebuli mowyobilobadanadgarebistestireba, kalibracia da navTobis gaangariSebismeTodebis gansazRvra saerTaSoriso standartebis Sesabamisad.garda amisa, samuSaos mizans warmoadgens arsebulihidrosaizolacio masalebisa da saJRenTi Sedgenilobebis saxeebiskvlevisa da analizis safuZvelze maTi Sedgenilobebis srulyofa,iaffasiani sawyisi masalebis gamoyenebisa da warmoebissrulyofili meTodebis damuSaveba. sabolood wyaluJonadi,xangamZle, optimaluri Sedgenilobis mastikisa da koroziamedegisaJRenTi Sedgenilobis miReba.33


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited Pagessadisertacio naSromis mecnieruli siaxle. naSromismecnierul siaxles warmoadgens magistraluri milsadenebiTnavTobis transportirebis da Senaxvis monitoringis meTodologiisdamuSaveba, rac saerTaSoriso standartebis Sesabamisad (API)saqarTveloSi pirvelad ganxorcielda, “dasavleTis mimarTulebissaeqsporto milsadenze” navTobis zusti raodenobisgansazRvrisaTvis saWiro mowyobiloba-danadgarebis testirebakalibraciisda aseve navTobis absolutur raodenobasTanmiaxloebuli gaangariSebis meTodis gamoyenebiT.naSromismecnierul siaxles warmoadgens agreTve wyaluJonadi da xangamZle,minaqsoviliT armirebuli civi bitumovani mastikis damuSaveba dagamoyeneba mTeli rigi nagebobebis konstruqciuli nawilebiszedapirebis hidroizolaciisaTvis. Aaseve axali saJRenTiSedgenilobebis damuSaveba da gamoyeneba sarwyavi arxebis nakerebishermetizaciisaTvis da liTonis milebis antikoroziulisafarisaTvis.sadisertacio naSromis praqtikuli mniSvneloba da miRebuliSedegebis realizacia. 20-e saukunis bolos, saqarTvelom aRadginaabreSumis gzis praqtikuli mniSvneloba da datvirTa satranzitomagistraluri milsadenebiT, aRmosavleTidan dasavleTisaken.zemoaRniSnulidan gamomdinare, aqtualuri gaxda yvelasaerTaSoriso standartebTan Sesabamisad, ganxorcielebuliyomilsadenebis marTva da gaangariSebebi, ris safuZvelzecsaqarTvelosTvis am axal mniSvnelovan dargSi momzadda dadasaqmda ramdenime aTeuli specialisti.rac Seexeba minaqsoviliT armirebul hidrosaizolaciomastikas, igi gamoirCeva wyaluJonadobiT, amasTan didixangamZleobiT (15-20 weliwadi) bitum-ruberoidis safarTanSedarebiT (2-5 weliwadi). garda amisa Seqmnilia aseve yinvagamZle,atmosferomedegi da koroziamedegi saJRenTi SedgenilobebiliTonis milebis antikoroziuli safarisa da rkinabetonis34


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited Pagessarwyavi arxebisa da rkinabetonis milebis nakerebishermetizaciisaTvis. samuSaoebi danergilia mSeneblobis sxvadasxvadargis mTel rig obieqtebze (ix. danergvis aqtebi).naSromis moculoba:sadisertacio naSromi Sedgeba reziumes, Sesavlis, 3 Tavis,saerTo daskvnebis, danarTebisa da gamoyenebuli literaturisagan,rac gadmocemulia 207 gverdze.35


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited PagesTavi InavTobsadeniT navTobis transportirebisa daSenaxvisaTvis gamoyenebuli mowyobiloba-danadgarebiseqspluataciis monitoringi1.1. navTobis transportirebis da Senaxvis monitoringimopovebuli navTobis msoflio saWiroebis mixedviTgamoyenebisaTvis Zalian mniSvnelovani problemaa navTobistransportireba, navTobsadenis eqspluatacia, monitoringi daSenaxva.arcerTi saqoneli Tu nedleuli iseT frTxil mopyrobas armoiTxovs, rogorc navTobi, romelsac xanZrisas wyliTac verCaaqrob. garda amisa, didxans transportirebisas arahermetulsaSualebaSi, SeiZleba nawilobriv Seicvalos Tvisebebi – ufromsubuqi fraqcia aqroldes. mWidrod daxurul WurWelSi ki, mzezegadaxurebisas, SeiZleba afeTqdes.jer kidev arabma mogzaurebma, mogvianebiT ki venecielma markopolom, baqos maxloblad naxes aqlemebis qaravani, romelsac savsetikebiT navTobi gadahqondaT. Sesabamisad, navTobistransportirebas axorcielebdnen specialuri xis kasrebiT dakonteinerebiT. sarkinigzo gadazidvis cisterna moigonesamerikelebma, xolo rusma gamomgoneblebma SeqmnesnavTobCasasxmeli gemebi. 1873 wels Zmebma artiomovebma navTobisCasasxmelad ialqniani gemi “aleqsandre” gamoiyenes. navTobisgadazidvis pirveli instruqcia daamtkica petre pirvelma ruseTSi1725 wels.pirveli samdinaro navTobis Casasxmeli barJa Seqmna v. SuxovmasaratovSi. barJis datvirTva – gantvirTvisTvis man orTqlis tumbogamoiyena.navTobis satransporto gadazidvisas ixarjeboda Zalian didiTanxebi, amitom am daniSnulebiT daiwyes navTobsadenis gamoyeneba.36


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited Pagespirveli navTobsadeni 1878 wels baqoSi gaiyvanes, ramac Savi qalaqibalaxanTan daakavSira, milis sigrZe iyo 9 kilometri, xolodiametri 3 duimi. 1884 wlisaTvis ukve xuTi navTobsadeni muSaobda,romlis gamtarianoba dRe-RameSi 200 aTas fuTs Seadgenda.navTobis gadatana yvelaze ufro efeqturia milsadeniT,milebiT SeiZleba sxva tvirTebis gadatanac. aRsaniSnavia qarTvelimecnierebis (a. sulaZe, p. kaxniaSvili da sxva) gamogonilimilsadeni (diametriT 1200 mm, sigrZe 65 km), romelic awarmoebdavagonetebiT betonis msxvili Semvsebebis transportirebasSulaveris samsxvrev-damxarisxebeli qarxnidan lilo II-Si, riTacmaragdeboda mTeli Tbilisis samSeneblo trestebi.milsadenis gayvana dakavSirebulia mTel rig problemebTan.mSeneblebs uwevT mdinareebis, mTebis da Waobebis gadakveTa, racsakmaod rTulia.msoflioSi erT-erTi udidesi navTobsadeni aris “druJba”,romelic yofili ssrk-s, poloneTis, yofili Cexoslovakiis daungreTis erToblivi RonisZiebiT aris gayvanili maTsaveteritoriebze (L=5000 km, D=1020 mm, 1960 –1964 wlebi), 70-ian wlebSigaiyvanes transatlantikis navTobsadeni (L=1250 km, D=1200 mm).milsadenebis mSeneblobisas zogjer saWiroa moRunuli milebisCawyoba, ramac ganapiroba milsaRuni dazgebis Seqmna.milsadenebze bitumiani izolaciis meqanikuri mowyobilobisgamoyeneba daiwyes 1949 wlidan. adre milebis SeerTeba daxraxniTxorcieldeboda, rac ar iyo efeqturi, amitom SemdgomSi igiSeicvala SeduRebis meTodiT, ramac gadaWra magistralurimilsadenebiT satransporto sistemebis Seqmnis problema.milsadenis mSeneblobis damamTavrebeli etapia misi gamocdasimtkiceze, rac xdeba wyliT, gaziT an haeriT. gamocdis yvelazeusafrTxo meTodia – hidravlikuri, romlis drosac vlindebaSeduRebis defeqtebi, garda amisa, yvela is dazianebebi, romlebicmoxda milebis transportirebisa da samSeneblo-samontaJosamuSaoebis dros.37


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited PagesnavTobisa da gazis transportirebisas erT-erT mniSvnelovanubans warmoadgens sakompresoro da satumbi sadgurebi.kompresorebis saeqspluatacio xarji, transportirebis mTlianixarjis 50 – 70% Seadgens. milsadenSi navTobis transportirebaxdeba sxvadasxva wnevebiT, rac xorcieldeba satumbi sadgurebismeSveobiT, romelic milsadenis yovel 100 – 150 km-Si Sendeba.milsadenis eqspluataciis dros gansakuTrebuli yuradRebaeqceva niadagis koroziuli zemoqmedebisagan misi dacvisRonisZiebebs.20-e saukunis 50-ian wlebSi, pirvelad navTobsadenze gamoiyeneskaToduri da sadrenaJo dacva. 1951 wlidan daiwyo eleqtroqimiuridacvis samrewvelo danergva saratovi – moskovis da varSava –kievis milsadenebze.kidev ufro rTulia milsadenis gayvana zRvis fskerze, racsruldeba daxrili sampira milCamwyobi gemiT, saburRi gemiT,gadabmuli milebis fskerze mizidviT da Tavisufali CaZirviT.pirveli sazRvao navTobsadeni gaiyvanes 1935 wels kaspiiszRvaSi, artiomis kunZulidan afSeronis naxevarkunZulamde. misisigrZe 6.5 km iyo, milsadenis diametri 300 mm.erTi kontinentis farglebSi navTobistransportirebanavTobsadeniT xorcieldeba, xolo kontinentebs SorisnavTobCasasxmeli tankerebiT. amJamad navTobis gatana ZiriTadadxorcieldeba laTinuri amerikidan, afrikidan, indoneziidan,magram navTobis msoflio eqsportis ZiriTadi nawili modis axloda Sua aRmosavleTis qveynebze. aqedan navTobi miewodeba dasavleTevropas (65%) da aSS (17%), agreTve iaponias, avstralias damsoflios sxva qveynebs.navTobis yvelaze didi importiori qveynebia: aSS, iaponia,safrangeTi, italia, germania. eqsportiori ki – saudis arabeTi,erayi, nigeria, quveiTi, libia, venesuela.navTobis eqsportiori didi qveynebis ricxvSi ruseTic Sedis,romelic navTobsa da gazs awvdis dasavleT evropis qveynebs.38


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited PagesnavTobis transportirebisas mniSvnelovani problemaa misiSenaxva, risTvisac aucilebelia garkveuli RonisZiebebisganxorcieleba, radganac am procesSi mosalodnelia xanZari,afeTqeba da sxva gauTvaliswinebeli SemTxvevebi.navTobis mrewvelobis ganviTarebis dasawyisSi, sarewebzenavTobis Sesanaxad iyenebdnenmiwaSi amoTxril ormoebs.dRevandeli SefasebiT, aseTi sacavebi Zalian primitiuli dabarbarosulia, radganac haerze navTobi iJangeba, misgan qroldebaZalze Zvirfasi produqtebi, garda amisa binZurdeba garemo.liTonis konstruqciebSi navTobis Senaxva pirvelad amerikelebmada ingliselebma daiwyes, cilindruli formis rezervuari ki v.Suxovma gamoigona. misi konstruqciis konteinerebi ukve as welzemetia rac gamoiyeneba.amerikis q. riveldeilSi aages cilindruli formis liTonisrezervuari, romlis simaRle 40 metrze metia, misi saxuravi 100tonas iwonis. iyeneben agreTve sferul rezervuarebs, romelTatevadoba 10000 m 3 aRwevs.garda miwiszeda sacavebisa, iyeneben zRvis sacavebsac, asemagaliTad, CaZirulia 80 metri diametris da 60 metri simaRlisfoladis rezervuari, romelic muSaobs “Sampanuris gaxsniliboTlis” principiT, anu tankerebis datvirTvisas maTgan navTobiTviTdinebiT miewodeba tankerebs, xolo Semdeg maTSi kvlavCaitumbeba WaburRilidan mopovebuli navTobi.sainteresoa frangi inJinris Jarlinis betonis nageboba,romelic mdebareobs CrdiloeTis zRvaSi, norvegiis napirebidan 270km-Si da “ekofiskis” sabadodan navTobis misaRebad arisgankuTvnili.rezervuarSi moTavsebuli navTobproduqtebis sakontrologazomva xdeba yovelTviurad. agreTve TiToeuli operaciis (miReba,gatana da a.S.) dawyebis win da damTavrebis Semdeg. garda amisarezervuarSi an milsadenSi uwesrigobis aRmoCenisas.39


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited PagesnavTobis transportirebisa da Senaxvisas aris garkveulidanakargebi, rac gamowveulia aorTqlebis, gaJonvis, daRvris dasxva SemTxvevebiT. kerZod, nagebobebis aradamakmayofilebeliteqnikuri mdgomareobiT, momsaxure personalis daudevrobiT dasxva faqtorebiT.yovel wamSi erTi wveTi navTobis dakargva niSnavs TveSi 130 ldanakargs. saerTod navTobis danakargebi daaxloebiT 2.5% Seadgens.navTobisa da navTobproduqtebis danakargebi milsadenebiTgadatumbvisas 1.5-jer ufro naklebia, vidre sarkinigzotransportze da 1.7-jer – wylis transportze.danakargebTan brZolisas, gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovanifaqtoria rezervuarebis, milsadenebis da Camosasxmeli estakadebisavariebis Tavidan acileba da gaJonvis aRmoCenisas maTi saswrafolikvidacia.liTonis konstruqciebTan erTad mrewveloba amzadebsrkinabetonis rezervuarebs, sadac gamoiyeneba specialuri, maRalisimtkicis betoni.unda aRiniSnos, rom 1998 wels “dasavleTis mimarTulebissaeqsporto milsadeni”-T transportirebuli navTobis SesanaxadsufsaSi aaSenes oTxi rezervuari, TiToeulis tevadoba 48 820 m 3 -ia(300 000 bareli), simaRle 16,25 m, diametri 66 m, maqsimalurisaeqspluatacio temperaturaa 71 0 C. rezervuarSi mkvdari navTobi(navTobis mudmivi done) 3696 tonaa - daaxlobiT 5.6 m.1.2. saqarTveloSi navTobis mrewvelobis ganviTarebisistoriuli mimoxilvasaqarTveloSi navTobis mopovebas sakmao istoria aqvs. igiSeiZleba sam periodad daiyos. pirveli periodi moicavs mopovebisistorias uxsovari droidan 1929 wlamde, rodesac Camoyalibdatresti “saqnavTobi”, meore periodi 1929 wlidan 1974 wlamde, xolomesame 1974 wlidan dRevandlamde.40


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited PagesnavTobis gamonaJoni fenebi saqarTvelos mTel rig regionebSiuxsovari droidan aris SemCneuli, rasac guriaSi da kaxeTSidResac kuprebs uwodeben. Sesabamisad aqedan warmoiSva zemonatanebTan mdebare ubani samxvTo-sakupre, siRnaRisa dadedofliswyaros raionebis navTobiani ubnebis saxelwodebebi:kilakupra, tiuli kitapis kuprebi da sxva. gamonaJoni navTobiakavTisxevis midamoebSi, civ-gomboris da tyibulis raionebSi.berZnuli miTologiis legendis Tanaxmad, berZnebs TurmekolxeTidan gahqondaT navTobi sawvavis dasamzadeblad.cnobilia, rom daviT aRmaSeneblis mefobis xanaSi SesamCnevadganviTarda sagareo vaWroba mezobel qveynebTan. aRsaniSnavia, romsaqarTvelos imdroindeli saeqsporto saqonlis siaSi navTobicaris moxseniebuli. saqarTvelodan navTobis eqsportis SesaxebmigviTiTebs agreTveXII saukunidan Semonaxuli pirveliliteraturuli wyaro, cnobili italieli mogzauris marko polosCineTSi mogzaurobis Sesaxeb. igi aRniSnavs, rom georgiaSi(saqarTveloSi) wyaroebidan moedineba zeTis magvari Txevadipetroliumi (navTobi), romelsac iyeneben gasanaTeblad da mravalidaavadebis samkurnalo saSualebad. xsenebul siTxes mezobeliqveynebidan Camosuli vaWrebi aqlemebiT ezidebian.marko polos Semdeg, ufro gviandel literaturaSi cnobebisaqarTvelos navTobis Sesaxeb gaCnda 1809 wels, roca gamoqveyndamecnieris i. gindelStatis wigni bunebriv resursebze kavkasiaSi.cnobilia, rom rusi mecnieri d. mendeleevi erT-erT naSromSiupiratesobas aniWebs gurias, baqosTan SedarebiT, sadac misiazriT, samrewvelo navTobi “iyo, aris da iqneba”.XIX saukunis pirvel naxevarSi saqarTvelos teritoriazenavTobis mopoveba xdeboda guriaSi, patara SiraqSi da eldarisvelze. Senaxva warmoebda ormoebsa da WebSi, saidanac vaWrebityavis tikebiTa da kasrebiT savse navTobs ezidebodnen urmebiTada aqlemebiT. navTobis mopovebas Tbilisis maxlobel sofelnavTluRSic eweodnen (soflis saxelwodeba navTidan aris41


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited PageswarmoSobili). im dros navTobs isini sacxovrebeli binebisa dasxva nagebobebis gasanaTeblad da gasaTbobad iyenebdnen.im periodSi, adgilobriv mmarTvelobas ar SeeZlo TavisiZalebiT ewarmoebina navTobis mopoveba, amitom daiwyes sabadoebisgayidva-gadacema kerZo mflobelobaSi.1847–1851 wlebSi TbilisSi moRvaweobda cnobili mecnieri g.abixi, romlis mier navTluRis navTobiani raioni perspeqtiuladiqna miCneuli, navTobis mopovebis mxriv. amrigad, zogadigeologiuri agebulebis kvlevasTan erTad navTobisa da gazissabadoebis Seswavla saqarTveloSi am droidan daiwyo.1867 wels Siraqis, mirzaanis da eldaris navTobis kerZomrewvelebma saijaro uflebebi gadasces prusiis moqalaqe valtersimens, romelmac sabadoebidan navTobis amoReba daiwyoWaburRilebis saSualebiT, siRrmiT 38 metramde. am WaburRilebidaniRebdnen 1.5 – 2 tona navTobs d/R-Si, Semdeg es gaizarda 2000tonamde. simensma meore navTobmompovebeli qarxana aagodedofliswyaroSi, romlis mwarmoeblurobam 2000 tonas gadaaWarba.simensis garda saqarTveloSi navTobs awarmoebdnen qarTveli,somexi da rusi mewarmeebi ivrispireTSi (baida, CaTna, kilakupri dasxva), civ-gomboris qedze (ildoyani, xodaSeni, fxoveli), TbilisisSemogarenSi (navTluRi, martyofi, norio), javis raionSi, tyibulisraionSi da sxva.1929 wlidan saqarTvelos navTobgaziani raionebis geologiurSeswavlasTan da navTobis mopovebasTan dakavSirebuli samuSaoebigadavida axlad Camoyalibebul “saqnavTobis” gankargulebaSi.trestis TanamSromelTa muSaobis ZiriTad miRwevad undamiviCnioT mirzaanis, patara Siraqis, norios da sufsis sabadoebisaRmoCena, romlebic 1940 wlidan ramdenime aTeuli wlisganmavlobaSi iyo eqspluataciaSi.es sabadoebi didi raodenobiT navTobiT amaragebdnen frontsdidi samamulo omis dros.42


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited Pagesomis Semdgom periodSi farTod daiwyo navTobis mopoveba.aRsaniSnavia navTobis Sadrevani taribanaSi 1962 wels, 1974 welssamgori-patarZeulis navTobis sabados aRmoCena da sxva.aRsaniSnavia taribanaSi 3300 metr siRrmeze gaburRuli #9WaburRilidan navTobis Sadrevani, romlis debeti dReRameSi 100tonas aWarbebda.1974 wlamde saqarTveloSi mTlianad mopovebuli navTobisraodenoba ar aRemateba 1.5 milion tonas. 1974 wlidan dRemdemoipoves 26 milion tonaze meti navTobi, ramac didi mogebamoutana qveyanas.1986 – 91 wlebSi saqarTveloSi navTobis wliuri mopovebamkveTrad Semcirda, 1992 wels Seadgina 100 aTasi tona, 1994 wels –67 aTasi tona, 1995 wels ki mxolod 45 aTasi tona.amis mizezi ZiriTadad saqarTveloSi arsebuli politikuri,ekonomikuri da samxedro situaciis gamwvaveba iyo. Sewyda“saqnavTobis” dafinanseba da momarageba, gaxSirda sarewebidan dasamgori–baTumis navTobsadenidan SeiaraRebuli bandebisa dakriminalebis mier navTobis datacebis faqtebi.gaCerda mravali moqmedi WaburRili da TiTqmis mTlianadSewyda navTobisa da gazis Zebna-Ziebisa da eqspluataciissamuSaoebi.“saqnavTobis” xelmZRvanelobis sasaxelod unda iTqvas, rom amganukiTxaobis da datacebis periodSi, SeinarCunes warmoeba daucxoel investorTa daxmarebiT dResac agrZeleben muSaobas.rac Seexeba navTobis mrewvelobis ganviTarebis perspeqtivebs,aq mdgomareoba kargadaa. magaliTad, 1996 wels wina welTanSedarebiT navTobis mopoveba 3-jer gaizarda da 128 aTasi tonaSeadgina.xelSekrulebebidan aRsaniSnavia inglisuri firma “ji-pi-kein”-sa da “saqnavTobs” Soris jer kidev 1994 wels gaformebuliSeTanxmeba.43


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited Pages1997 wels Seiqmna kidev ori erToblivi sawarmo: qarTul –britanuli (remko) S.p.s. “kaxeTi-oili” da qarTul – amerikuli S.p.s.“frontera istern jorjia”.aseve ucxoeli firmebis mier aSenda sof. sarTiWalaSimikronavTobgadasamuSavebeli qarxana, romelic 1998 wlidan CadgamwyrobSi, romlis mwarmoebluroba dRe-RameSi Seadgens 260 tonas.garda amisa, mimdinareobs saqmiani molaparakeba axalierToblivi sawarmoebis Seqmnaze amerikis, didi britaneTis dasaberZneTis msxvil kompaniebTan.cnobilia, rom saqarTvelo Tavisi teritoriuli mdebareobisgamo warmoadgens evropisa da aziis damakavSirebel derefans,ramac ganapiroba is, rom ganxorcielda azerbaijanidan baqo-sufsisnavTobsadenis gayvana, romliTac navTobi saqarTvelos gavliTmiewodeba dasavleT evropis qveynebs.swored am navTobsadenis eqspluataciasa da monitorings asaxavsCveni sadisertacio naSromi – “magistraluri milsadenebiTnavTobis saerTaSoriso standartebTan misadagebuli parametrebiTtransportirebis da Senaxvis monitoringis meTedologiisdamuSaveba da navTobis narCenebis samSeneblo saqmeSi gamoyeneba”.1.3. "dasavleTis mimarTulebis saeqsporto milsadenis" (baqo-sufsa)mSeneblobisa da eqspluataciis zogierTi aspeqti“milsadenis mSeneblobisa da eqspluataciis Sesaxeb”xelSekrulebis xelmoweris Semdeg aSenda da eqspluataciaSiSevida 375 km sigrZis 530 mm-iani milsadeni (nax. 1.1, 1.2):saqarTvelos-azebaijanis sazRvridan Sav zRvamde, sufsissaxmeleTo terminali, 2 wnevis damwevi da 3 satumbi sadguri,sazRvao CasatvirTi mowyobiloba (tivtiva-plaTforma).44


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited Pagesnaxazi 1.1. – “dasavleTis mimarTulebis saeqsporto milsadenis” saqarTvelos monakveTi45


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited Pagesnaxazi 1.2. - “dasavleTis mimarTulebis saeqsporto milsadenis” sruli saeqspluatacio sqema46


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited PagesaRsaniSnavia, rom samSeneblo-samontaJo samuSaoebis SesrulebadakavSirebuli iyo mTel rig specifikur problemebTan trasisrTuli reliefis gamo. milsadeni 27 adgilas kveTs did mdinares, 5adgilas – sarkinigzo magistrals, 6 adgilas – respublikurimniSvnelobis gzebs, aTeulobiT mcire wylebs da mdinareebs,arxebs, damewyril da geologiurad aramdgrad zonebs.aRniSnuli proeqtis ganviTarebam saqarTvelos saSualeba miscarealurad daemtkicebina, rom is aris marTlac usafrTxosatranzito qveyana da Sedegad, mogvianebiT ganxorcielda iseTididi proeqtebi, rogoricaa ZiriTadi saeqsperto navTosadeni -“baqo-Tbilisi-jeihani” da gazsadeni - “baqo-Tbilisi-erzrumi”.milsadenis saboloo monakveTze - Savi zRvis operaciebiseqspluatacia sakmaod rTul process warmoadgens da maTiSesabamisoba saerTaSoriso standartebTan mudmiv yuradRebasa dakontrols eqvemdebareba.aRsaniSnavia, rom Cven SevqmeniT specialistebisa da eqspertebisiseTi jgufebi, romlebic proeqtis eqspluataciasTan ucxoelpartniorebTan sistematuri urTierTkavSirebiTmimdinareobs eqspluataciis srulyofili analizi.yovelTviuradproeqtis (milsadenis, wnevis damgdebi da satumbi sadgurebis,sufsis terminalis)kadrebiT.eqspluatacia mimdinareobs adgilobriviproeqtSi gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba eniWeba sufsisterminalis eqspluatacias, radganac terminalSi damontaJebuliauaxlesi sistemebis importirebuli da eqsportirebuli navTobisraodenobis gamzomi xelsawyoebi, romlebiTac realuradisazRvreba saqarTveloSi importirebuli da eqsportirebulinavTobis raodenoba.47


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited Pages1.3.1. mSeneblobisa da eqspluataciisaTvis gamoyofili miwisfarTobebi“dasavleTis mimarTulebis saeqsporto navTobsadenze satumbida wnevis damwevi sadgurebis asaSeneblad saqarTvelos navTobissaerTaSoriso korporaciisaTvis miwis farTobis gamoyofisSesaxeb” saqarTvelos miwis gamoyenebisa da dacvis saxelmwifokomisiis 1998 wlis 19 noembris #96/30 gadawyvetilebiT,saqarTvelos samoqalaqo kodeqsis 233-e muxliT gansazRvruli,aRnagobis uflebiT gamoyofili miwis farTobebi:1. gardabnis raioni, sof. axali samgoris sakrebulo – 3.24 ha;2. mcxeTis raioni, sof. qsovrisis sakrebulo – 3.10 ha;3. xaSuris raioni, sof. flevis sakrebulo – 4.14 ha;4. qalaq WiaTuris meria, sof. mandaeTis sakrebulo – 2.34 ha;5. zestafonis raioni, sof. qveda sazanos sakrebulo – 1.82 ha;6. zestafonis raioni, sof. qveda saqaras sakrebulo – 1.14 ha + 2.96 ha.sul 15.78 heqtari miwis farTobi.“sufsaSi navTobis saxmeleTo terminalis asaSenebladsaqarTvelos navTobis saerTaSoriso korporaciisaTvis miwisfarTobis gamoyofis Sesaxeb” saqarTvelos miwis gamoyenebisa dadacvis saxelmwifo komisiis 1997 wlis 9 maisis #24/30gadawyvetilebiT gamoyofili 52.42 ha miwis farTobi:1. lanCxuTis raionis gamgeobis 1998 wlis 17 ivlisis #69dadgenilebiT – 34.77 ha;2. ozurgeTis raionis gamgeobis 1998 wlis 10 ivnisis #101dadgenilebiT – 17.65 ha.sul 52.42 heqtari miwis farTobi.48


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited Pages1.3.2. navTobsadenis saerTo monacemebi"dasavleTis mimarTulebis saeqsporto milsadeni" saTavesiRebs azerbaijanSi, baqos samxreTiT mdebare sangaCalisterminalidan da gadaWimulia 830 kilometrze, Savi zRvissaqarTvelos sanapiroze arsebul sufsis terminalamde – SavzRvaSi mdebare navTobis CasatvirT tivtiva-plaTformamde.• saqarTvelos teritoriaze gamavali milsadenis sigrZea 375 km,530 mm diametriT;• satransporto sistemis sawyisi warmadoba weliwadSi 5milioni tonaa;• saqarTvelos teritoriaze gamoyenebuli iqna 7000 tonafoladi;• saqarTveloSi mimdinare mSeneblobis procesSi dasaqmda 2000-ze meti adamiani;• saqarTvelos teritoriaze proeqtis damTavrebas dasWirda 9milioni samuSao saaTi."dasavleTis mimarTulebis saeqsporto milsadenis" proeqtisganxorcielebisaTvis gaformebuli iqna “saqarTvelosa daazerbaijanis respublikas Soris zogierTi arsebuli milsadenisaSualebebis srulyofisa da ganaxlebis, axali milsadenisaSualebebis Seqmnisa da am saSualebebiT navTobis saqarTvelosteritoriis gavliT transportirebis Sesaxeb” samTavrobaTSorisoxelSekruleba da “teritoriis mflobeli qveynis saerTaSorisoxelSekruleba” saqarTvelos mTavrobasa da "dasavleTismimarTulebis saeqsporto milsadenis" proeqtis monawileebs Soris.zemoaRniSnuli xelSekrulebebis safuZvelze, saqarTvelosmonakveTze "dasavleTis mimarTulebis saeqsporto milsadenis"proeqtis ganxorcielebisaTvis 1996 wels daarsda saqarTvelosmilsadenis kompania (smk).49


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited PagessaqarTvelos milsadenis kompaniis mflobelebi arian 11ucxouri navTobkompania, romlebic aseve arian (asnk)-s mflobelebi:amoko – 18.9%; unokali - 11.1654%; TurqiS petroliumi – 7.5%;statoili – 9.5148%; ramko – 2.3139%; benzoili – 5.3528%; lukoili –11.1111%; itoCu – 4.3561%; eqsoni – 8.8895%; dnkl – 1.8667%; bi-pi –19.0297%.amerika – 46.1744%;didi britaneTi – 21.3436%;ruseTi – 11.1111%;norvegia – 9.5148%;TurqeTi – 7.5%;iaponia – 4.3561%."dasavleTis mimarTulebis saeqsporto milsadenis" mSenebloba,1996 wlis aprilSi azerbaijansa da saqarTvelos SorissamTavroboTSoriso xelSekrulebis ratificirebidan samweliwadze nakleb droSi dasrulda.sufsis terminalisa da sazRvao operaciebis bazis mSeneblobasaqarTvelos milsadenis kompaniam daiwyo 1997 wels da daasrula1998 wels.samuSaoebis umaRlesi intensiurobis dros proeqtSidasaqmebuli iyo 4000 adamianze meti, romelTa Soris azerbaijanelTu qarTvel TanamSromelTa ricxvi 70%-ze mets Seadgenda.inJinrebi saqarTvelos navTobis saxelmwifo kompaniidanmonawileobas iRebdnen proeqtebSi, xolo qarTveli eqspertebi –damproeqteblebi navTobsadenis proeqtis dasamtkiceblad iyvnenmiwveulni. garda amisa, proeqtSi kontraqtoris safuZvelzemonawileobda kontraqtorTa saerTaSoriso jgufi, romelicazerbaijanis, saqarTvelos, didi britaneTis, safrangeTis,germaniis, axlo aRmosavleTisa da TurqeTis kompaniebiT iyowarmodgenili.saqarTvelos reliefis Taobaze molaparakebebis drosgamoyenebuli iqna mniSvnelovani gamocdileba da iniciativa:50


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited PagesnavTobsadenis zogierTi monakveTi hidrologiuri sistemebis qveSaaCamarxuli, xolo danarCeni nawili 1200 metri simaRlis mTisferdobebzea gayvanili. damproeqtebelTa jgufma bevri sirTulegadalaxa warmatebiT. moaxdina milsadenis mTel sigrZeze samuSaoZalis, teqnikisa da masalebis koordinireba zamTris pirobebSic ki.1.3.3. navTobsadenis monakveTi terminalidan tivtivamdesufsis terminalis teritoria mdebareobs dasavleTsaqarTveloSi sanapiro zolTan, kolxeTis dablobze. igi SeWriliamd. sufsis WalaSi 1 km-iT, mdinaris samxreTi napiridan daaxloebiT400 metrze, da ganTavsebulia sof. sufsis bolodan 2 km-Si, xolosof. grigoleTis samxreT-aRmosavleTiT 2 km-Si.nedli navTobis datvirTvis punqts warmoadgens `saankerosamagriani motivtive misadgomi” (motivtive platforma), romelicSav zRvaSi napiridan 3.0 km-Sia moTavsebuli da damagrebuliaRuzebze. 914 mm (36”) diametris milsadeni, romliTac nedlinavTobi sufsis terminalidan tankerebisken miewodeba, mTavrdebazRvis fskerze ganTavsebuli milsadenis kiduri mravalmxrivigamoyenebis koleqtoriT. aqedan motivtive platformisaken nedlinavTobi miewodeba wyalqveSa 406 mm (16”) diametris mqone oradganStoebuli rezinis ormaggarsacmiani Dunlop-is markis drekadimilsadeniT. motivtive platformidan nedli navTobi gadaedinebaor, TiToeuli 508 mm (20”) diametris rezinis ormaggarsacmian zRviszedapirze motivtive drekad milSi, saidanac uSualod tankerebSimiedineba (nax. 1.3).51


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited PagesmotivtiveplatformaSuawylis tivtiva(haeriT savse)motivtive drekadimilebifskeruli 36”-ianimilsadenis kidurikoleqtoriwyalqveSa qvedadrekadi milebiwyalqveSa zeda drekadimilebizRvis fskerinaxazi 1.3. – zRvis zedapirze motivtive platformis sqema1.4. garemos dacvis sakiTxebinavTobsadenis sistemis daproeqtebisa da mSeneblobis drosgaremos dacvis sakiTxebs yovelTvis gansakuTrebuli prioritetieniWeba. navTobsadenis proeqtis bunebriv da socialur garemozezemoqmedebis Sefasebis (gzS) angariSs saqarTvelos garemosdacvisa da bunebrivi resursebis saministros mier Cautardaekologiuri eqspertiza, ris safuZvelzec gacemuli iqnagaremosdacviTi nebarTva. navTobsadenis sistemis mSeneblobisa dauwyveti funqcionirebisaTvis es naSromi miRebuli iqna, rogorcteqnikuri davaleba.garemos dacvisa da bunebrivi resursebis saministrosTanSeTanxmebulia mWidro TanamSromloba garemosdacviTkanonmdeblobasTan mudmivi Sesabamisobis uzrunvelyofis mizniT.52


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited PagesgansakuTrebuli yuradReba eTmoba navTobis daRvrazereagirebas da hidrologiuri sistemebis dacvas, habitatebisdacvas, arqeologiur ubnebs, narCenebis marTvas da milsadenisgasxvisebis zolis aRdgenas. SemuSavebul iqna garemosdacviTimenejmentis sistemebi da navTobis gauTvaliswinebel daRvrazereagirebis gegmebi, raTa uzrunvelyofiliyo navTobsadenissaproeqto da saeqspluatacio normebis Sesabamisoba saerTaSorisogaremosdacviT standartebTan.1.5. “dasavleTis mimarTulebis saeqsporto milsadenze”gamoyenebuli gamzomi xelsawyoebisa da danadgarebistestirebisa da kalibraciis monitoringis meTodologiaprocedurebis gamoyeneba xdeba amerikis navTobis institutis(API) navTobis standartebis saxelmZRvanelos me-4 Tavis (1998 wlisoqtomberi) debulebaTa safuZvelze, xolo gamoTvlebi CatarebuliaAPI-s standartebis me-12 Tavis da navTobis institutis navTobisgazomvis saxelmZRvanelos me-X nawilis debulebebis mixedviT.[27;30].Cvens SemTxvevaSi, daproeqtebasTan dakavSirebul samuSaoebsasrulebda da asrulebs kompania SGS-si, saxelmwifostruqturebTan da “dasavleTis mimarTulebis saeqsportomilsadenis” warmomadgenlebTan SeTanxmebiT. SGS-is danadgarebiTSesrulebuli kalibraciis dros SesaZlebelia misi Sedegebisgadamowmeba didi britaneTis vaWrobisa da mrewvelobissaministros wonisa da zomebis erovnuli laboratoriiskalibraciis erovnuli standartebis mixedviT [28].rogorc wesi, pirveladi kalibracia damkveTis teritoriazesruldeba. SGS-is aRWurvilobis sakalibracio dokumentaciaklientis CanawerebTan erTad SGS-is saTao ofisSi, elzmerissaporto ganyofilebaSi an aberdinSi inaxeba.53


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited Pages1.5.1. kalibraciis sistemebidakalibrebis samuSaoebi xorcieldeba sami ZiriTadi principisgaTvaliswinebiT:• aRiarebuli saerTaSoriso standartebis mkacrad dacva;• dakalibrebuli da gakontrolebuli ZiriTadi xelsawyoebisgamoyeneba;• samuSaoebis Sesruleba gamocdili operatorebis mier.dakalibrebis sistemis funqcionireba gansazRvruliasaerTaSorisod aRiarebuli, tipiuri API da ISO standartebiT,romelic moicavs meTodologias, kalkulaciis reJims da dasaSvebgamonaklisebs. dakalibrebis ganxorcielebamde, klientebiaTanxmeben saerTaSoriso standartebs, romelTa dacviTac xdebasamuSaoebis ganxorcieleba. zog SemTxvevaSi, klienti Tavis mxrivayenebs damatebiT moTxovnebs im sakiTxebTan dakavSirebiT,romlebic standartebiT aris gansazRvruli. yvela SemTxvevaSixorcieldeba standartebidan nebismieri saxis gadacdomisidentificireba, dadastureba da daregistrireba.dakalibreba SesaZloa ganxorcieldes ori ZiriTadi meTodisgamoyenebiT:• mTavari gamzomis saSualebiT;• mTavari gamzomis mTavari dakalibrebis xelsawyoTi.imis gaTvaliswinebiT, Tu romeli meTodi ufro misaRebiadasaxuli amocanis gansaxorcieleblad, yvela SemTxvevaSi xdebaSeTanxmebuli standartebis Sesabamisad gansazRvruli procedurisgamoyeneba. bevr SemTxvevaSi, dakalibrebis process sxvadasxvastruqturebis warmomadgenlebi eswrebian: mwarmoeblis, saboloomomxmareblisa da erovnuli maregulirebeli struqturebisCaTvliT. bolo wlebis ganmavlobaSi, kompania SGS mierganxorcielebuli dakalibrebis procesi araerTxel dadasturdaqvemoT CamoTvlili maregulirebeli struqturebis mier:54


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited Pages• ONML alJiris wonisa da zomis standartebisdepartamenti;• gaerTianebuli samefos vaWrobisa da mrewvelobisdepartamenti;• gaerTianebuli samefos navTobisa da gazis departamenti;• HMC&Excise gaerTianebuli samefo;• norvegiis navTobis direqtorati;• xorvatiis wonisa da zomis departamenti;• UJCN ruseTi;• nigeriis mineraluri resursebis departamenti.kalibrirebis uzrunvelsayofad yvela gamoyenebuli xelsawyounda iyos dakalibrebuli, magram ufro mniSvnelovania maTierovnul standartTan SesabamisobaSi moyvana. yela xelsawyo,romlis gamoyenebacSGS–is mier xdeba da gavlenas axdensdakalibrebaze, magaliTad, sakontrolo moculoba, temperaturissazomi xelsawyo, wnevis sazomi xelsawyo, Tavis mxriv gadisdakalibrebasUKAS-is akreditirebuli laboratoriis mier,romelic erovnul standartTan SesabamisobaSi muSaobs.dakalibrebis damadasaturebeli serTifikati arisdakalibrebis procesTan dakavSirebuli saboloo daskvnis nawili.dakalibreba unda ganxorcieldes Sesabamisi kompetenciisa dagamocdilebis mqone personalis mier, romelsac Seswevs unarimsgavsi samuSaos Sesrulebisa. gaerTianebul samefos kompania SGS-sgaaCnia dakalibrebis mravalwliani gamocdileba. maTi personalismaRalprofesionalizmi da kvalifikacia araerTxel iqnadadasturebuli mesame mxaris, gansakuTrebiT erovnulimaregulirebeli struqturebis mier.gaerTianebuli samefos kompania SGS xelmZRvanelobs xarisxissistemiT ISO9901:2000-is Sesabamisad.55


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited Pages1.6. ZiriTadi mTvlelis testireba da kalibraciasaxmeleTo terminalze mimdinareobs avtomaturi gamoTvlanavTobis im parametrebisa, romlebic zustad gansazRvravenimportirebuli da Semdeg eqsportirebuli navTobis zustraodenobas.rodesac navTobi milsadenis saSualebiT gaivlis wnevis saqaCda damgdeb sadgurebs, romlebic ganawilebulia milsadenze, SedissaxmeleTo terminalis wnevis maregulirebel sarqvelze (PressureControl Valve), romliTac xdeba wnevis dagdeba, raTa mdovredwamosulma navTobma gaiaros e.w. mTvleli (Metering) (sur. 1.1, 1.2).suraTi 1.1. – importirebuli navTobis moculobis gamzomikvanZi56


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited PagessuraTi 1.2. – sufsis terminalze arsebuli rezervuariimportirebuli navTobis mTvlelamde milsadenSi Cayenebuliaspecialuri filtrebi (Filter) (rom moxdes narCenebis sruligafiltvra) da wnevis usafrTxoebis sarqvelebi (Pressure SafetyValve). maRali wnevis SemoWris SemTxvevaSi wnevis usafrTxoebissarqvelebi (PSV) gaixsneba da navTobs carieli rezervuariskenmimarTavs. amis Semdeg Sedis navTobi mTvlelSi.importirebuli navTobis mTvlels (Import Metering Skid) gaaCnia:1. ramdenime nakadiani sistema (STREAMS), TiToeul maTganzeganlagebulia Semdegi mowyobilobebi:a) xeliT maregulirebeli sarqveli (Manual Inlet Valve),romliTac xdeba nakadis xeliT regulireba;57


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited Pagesb) wnevis diferencialuri gadamcemi (PDT - Pressure DifferencialTransmitter), romliTac ganisazRvreba turbinasa da xeliT momuSavesarqvels Soris arsebuli filtris sisufTave;g) temperaturis elementi (Temperature Element), romelicgviCvenebs nakadSi arsebuli navTobis temperaturas da gadascemsmas mTavari dinebis kompiuters;d) temperaturis sazomi (Temperature Indicator), anu Termometri,romliTac operatori adgilze gansazRvravs Tu ra temperaturisnavTobi gaedineba muSa nakadSi;e) navTobis specialuri mTvleli turbina, romelsac abrunebsnakadSi gamavali navTobis dineba da brunvis Sedegad gamowveulimeqanikuri signali gadadis eleqtrulSi, romelic aseve igzavnebadinebis kompiuterSi (ix. qvemoT) (Turbine Meter) (sur. 1.3.);suraTi 1.3. – sazom kvanZze arsebuli turbinebiv) wnevis gadamcemi (Pressure Transmitter), romelic nakadSiarsebul wnevas gadascems dinebis kompiuters;58


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited Pagesz) wnevis barometri (Pressure Gauge), romliTac operatorssaSualeba eZleva adgilze Seamowmos da gaakontrolos nakadSiarsebuli wneva;T) nakadidan navTobis parametrebis ZiriTad mTvlelSi (ProverLoop) gadamsroli sarqveli, romelzedac qvemoT iqneba saubari(Offtake Valve);i) nakadis saboloo sarqveli, saidanac xdeba gazomilinavTobis miwodeba ZiriTad rezervuarSi (Stream Outlet Valve).2. mTvlels gaaCnia e.w. swrafi moZraobis sadguri (Fast loop),sadac xdeba navTobis parametrebis (simkvrivis, siblantis, wylisda sxva nivTierebebis Semcvelobis dadgena) gansazRvra. amdanadgarze Semdegi mowyobilobebia damontaJebuli:a) simkvrivis sazomi, romelic nakadSi arsebuli navTobissimkvrives gansazRvravs da gadascems dinebis kompiuters(Densitometer);b) siblantis sazomi, romelic gansazRvravs navTobissiblantes da gadascems dinebis kompiuters (Viscometer);g) wylis da danarCeni sxva minarevebis sazomi, romliTac xdebawylis procentuli Semcvelobis dadgena navTobSi da gadaecemadinebis kompiuters (Water Procentage Meter);d) `sinjis~ danadgari, romelic mierTebulia specialurtumbosTan da 24 saaTis ganmavlobaSi gamaval navTobs wveTobiTCamoasxams specialur WurWelSi, ris Semdegac xdeba analizebisaReba am WurWlidan (Grab Sampler) (sur. 1.4);59


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited PagessuraTi 1.4. – navTobis sinjis aRebis kvanZie) wnevis eleqtronuli gadamcemi (Pressure Transmitter), romelicswrafi moZraobis sadgurSi arsebul wnevas gadascems dinebiskompiuters;v) danadgarze agreTve damontaJebulia temperaturismaCvenebeli elementi (Temperature Element), romelic swrafimoZraobis sadgurSi arsebuli navTobis temperaturis mniSvnelobasgadascems simkvrivis sazomebs da xdeba zusti simkvrivis gamoTvla(radgan simkvrive temperaturazecaa damokidebuli).3. mTvlelTan mierTebulia specialuri mowyobiloba (ProverLoop), sadac xdeba gaangariSeba im fardobiTi koeficientisa,romelic Seadgens erT saaTSi gamavali navTobis raodenobisfardobas im sixSiresTan, ra sixSirec gaaCnia turbinas erT saaTSida monacemebi igzavneba agreTve dinebis kompiuterSi, sadacibeWdeba patakis saxiT (nax. 1.4; 1.5; 1.6).60


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited Pagesnaxazi 1.4. – importirebuli navTobis gamzomi kvanZis sqematuri naxazi61


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited Pagesnaxazi 1.5. – eqsportirebuli navTobis gamzomi kvanZis sqematuri naxazi62


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited Pagesnaxazi 1.6. – “dmsm”-ze arsebuli sarqvelebisa da satumbi sadgurebis sqematuri naxazi63


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited Pages1.6.1. dinebis kompiuteridinebis kompiuteri (Flow Computer), aris kompiuteri, imspecialuri programiT, romelic Rebulobs da gadascems signalebsyvela im mowyobilobebs, romlebzec zemoT gvqonda saubari.am kompiuteris SemowmebisaTvis da signalebis gazomvisaTvisSemuSavebulia specialuri, Tanamedrove programa (KIMS - KeltonInstrument Management System), [23], romelSic Sedis yvelamowyobilobis sakalibracio monacemebi. regularulad yovel TveSiCatarebuli testebis da kalibraciebis xarisxis dadgena xdeba amavekompiuteris mier da Sedegebi amoibeWdeba misTvis gankuTvnilprinterze, agreTve Sedis sakalibracio wignebSi (Log. Books), sadacmimdinareobs aRniSnuli sertifikatebis gaformeba inJinris anoperatoris mier.1.6.2. mowyobilobebis kalibraciisa da testirebis monitoringirogorc zemoT aRvniSneT, yovelTviurad xdeba mTvlelzearsebuli mowyobilobebis kalibracia da testireba, mokledganvixiloT, Tu rogor da ratom xorcieldeba es cal-calke.1. temperaturis `Prob"-is anu elementis testi:a) specialuri cifruli TermometriT (Digital Termometer),romelic qarxnuli wesiTaa dakalibrebuli, xdeba adgilze,mTvlelze temperaturis Cvenebis aReba da Sedareba nakadiskompiuteris maCvenebelTan, miaxloebiTma sizustem 0,5 0 C ar undagadaaWarbos;b) winaaRmdegobrivi blokiT (Resistance Box) mimdinareobstemperaturis elementze cvalebadi winaRobebis miwodeba doneebismixedviT, ris Sedegadac sxvadasxva winaRobebiT sxvadasxvatemperaturebi miiReba 0 0 C-dan 100 0 C-mde (winaRobebi winaswar,specialuri cxrilebiTaa SerCeuli).64


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited Pages2. wnevis gadamcemisa (Pressure Transmitter) da wnevisdiferencialuri gadamcemis testebi (Pressure Differencial Transmitter):a) qarxnis mier dakalibrebuli specialuri wnevis cifruliindikatoriT (DPI - Digital Pressure lndicator), xdeba adgilze(mTvlelze) gadamcemebis wnevis zRvris (Pressure Range) miwodebainJinris mier, xolo meore damkvirveblis (inJinris) mier kisignalebis Semowmeba dinebis kompiuteris Sesabamis panelze, imisdamixedviT, Tu rogori signali miewodeba kompiuters xdebagadamcemebis sizustis gansazRvra;b) dinebis kompiuterze agreTve xorcieldeba wnevisgadamcemebis analogiuri da cifruli signalebis Semowmeba, racuzrunvelyofs gadamcems da kompiuters Soris damyarebulikavSiris sizustis Semowmebas.3. motorizebuli sarqvelebis (MOV - Motorized Operating Valve)kalibracia:a) yovel sam TveSi erTxel xdeba kalibracia im sarqvelebis,romlebic uzrunvelyofen erTi nakadidan meoreSi navTobisgadasvlas, agreTve navTobis parametrebis ZiriTad mTvlelSi (ProverLoop) navTobis gadasvlas.specialuri proces-kalibratoriT (Procces Calibrator), signalebimiewodeba sarqvels da masSi arsebuli brZanebebis testirebisSedegebi miewodeba nakadis kompiuters;b) aseve mowmdeba TviTon sarqveli, kerZod misgan xom ar xdebanavTobis gadineba an piriqiT, zedmetad xom ar aris igi CaWedilimilSi. amis Semowmeba xdeba, rogorc vizualurad (navTobis gadena)aseve specialuri mowyobilobiT, romelic adgens, Tu rogor arisdafiqsirebuli sarqveli Ria an daketil mdgomareobaSi.4. turbinisa da masze arsebuli mTvlelis testi.a) rogorc zemoT aRvniSneT, turbinaSi CamontaJebulifirfitebis moZraobiT xdeba nakadSi gamavali navTobis raodenobisgansazRvra eleqtronuli mowyobilobiT, romelicqarxnul65


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited PagespirobebSia dakalibrebuli. winaswar Sedgenili cxrilebissaSualebiT turbinas miewodeba Sesabamisi sixSireebi (am drosnakadSi dineba ara gvaqvs). imisda mixedviT Tu ra dinebaze ( Flow)gvinda SevamowmoT mTvleli, xdeba gamoangariSeba realuri (rocanavTobia xazSi) da eleqtronuli sixSireebis gansazRvra, SemdgomiSedarebiT ki sizustis dadgena;b) turbinaze damontaJebuli meqanikur-eleqtronuli mTvleligamoscems pulsebs, romelic turbinis sixSirezea damokidebuli daakontrolebs mis stabilurobas. amimpulsebis Semowmebaxorcieldeba specialuri dakalibrebuli mowyobilobiT, kerZod,am mowyobilobiT mTvlels miewodeba normalurze erTiT meti daSemdeg erTiT naklebi impulsebi. Tu kompiuterma aRiqva isinirogorc miuRebeli, maSin impulsebis gamocema normaluradmimdinareobs, Tu arada, xdeba pulsatoris (Meterrekalibracia.Simulator)5. aseve mowmdeba, Tu rogor Seesabameba navTobis masa mismoculobas, amisaTvis arsebuli specialuri generatoriT (MeterGenerator), xdeba impulsebis gamocema Sesabamis turbinaze dageneratorze paralelurad mierTebul mowyobilobiT ganisazRvrebamasisa da moculobis fardobiTi sizuste.1.6.3. swrafi reagirebis sadguris testebi1. simkvrivis mzomis (Densytometer) SemowmebisaTvis arsebobstesti, romelic asaxavs nakadSi gamavali navTobis simkvrivissizustes.signalebi, romelsac simkvrivis mzomi gadascems dinebiskompiuters Tavs iyrian procesorSi, romelic kompiuterSiaCamontaJebuli. mas uerTeben signalebis gamzom specialurxelsawyos (Densytometer Syntezister) da ZiriTadi standartebis66


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited PagessafuZvelze akalibreben, e.i. uzrunvelyofen swori sidideebisSerCevas kompiuteris mier.2. analogiuri meTodi gamoiyeneba siblantis mzomis (Viscometer)dakalibrebisas, mxolod im gansxvavebiT, rom navTobis siblanteSeiZleba Seicvalos nakadSi arsebuli wnevis cvalebadobiT.3. wylis procentuli Semcvelobis mzomi (BSW - Water in-OilMonitor Check)dakalibreba xdeba TviTon dinebis kompiuterzearsebuli mowyobilobiT. specialuri kodis akrefiT, mas eZlevabrZaneba, rom mzomi dakalibreba moxdes standartiT dadgenilsazRvrebSi. Sedegebi Caiwereba da gadaecema mTavar kompiuters,romelic sworad dakalibrebuls miiRebs da daimaxsovrebs.1.6.4. navTobis transportirebis parametrebis ganmsazRvreliZiriTadi mTvlelis testi`fruvingi~, ase iwodeba procesi, romelic, rogorc zemoTaRvniSneT, emsaxureba im fardobiTi koeficientis gamoTvlas,romelsac iZleva turbinis sixSirisa da erT saaTSi gamavalinavTobis moculobis fardoba. mas Semdeg, rac inJineri (anoperatori) miscems brZanebas dinebis kompiuters, rom daiwyosfardobiTi koeficientis gamoTvla, kompiuteris mier xdebaramdenime operaciis avtomaturi Sesruleba, kerZod:a) pirvel rigSi xdeba rezervuarSi gamavali sarqvelis (ProverOutlet Valve) avtomaturi gaReba;b) amis Semdeg miiRebs ra kompiuteri brZanebas imis Sesaxeb,rom es sarqveli Riaa, xdeba zemoT xsenebuli nakadidan navTobisparametrebis ZiriTad mTvlelSi navTobis Semsvleli (Prover InletValve) sarqvelis avtomaturi gaReba;g) nebas rTavs nakadis ZiriTad gamsvlel sarqvels (StreamOutlet Valve) bolomde daiketos, raTa navTobi sruli moculobiTmiwodebuli iqnas am danadgarSi.67


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited Pagesmas Semdeg, rac zemoTxsenebuli bolo sarqveli daiketebaiwyeba fardobiTi koeficientis gamoTvla (K-Factor):navTobis garkveuli porcia specialuri, oTxi gzis sarqveliT(4 Way Valve) miwodebuli iqneba im milSi, romelSic devs kauCukis,antifriziT gaJRenTili birTvi. es birTvi miRebul navTobs wneviTgaatarebs am milSi, romelsac elifsis forma aqvs da misi sigrZewinaswar cnobilia. miaRwevs ra birTvi im saboloo wertils, sadacukve ukan dasabrunebeli gzaa, dabrundeba ukan da saboloowertilamde miva (rasac kompiuterze specialuri CamrTvelebiT,swich-ebiT Seityoben). birTvis wasvla da ukan dabruneba iTvlebaerT srul brunad, romelsac kompiuteri aRiqvams. SesabamisigaangariSebebiT, romelSic Sedis danadgarSi arsebuli wneva,temperatura, turbinis sixSire da impulsebi, xdeba pirveli brunisSedegad gamoTvlili fardobiTi koeficientis dadgena. esemeordeba manam, sanam ar Sesruldeba 5 sruli, damakmayofilebelibruni. damakmayofilebli im gagebiT, rom TiToeuli brunis SedegadmiRebuli koeficientebi, erTmaneTs daaxloebiT unda Seedaros.winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi brunebi grZeldeba 10-mde. Tu aTma brunmasaSualo koeficienti ver gamoTvala, maSin xdeba fardobiTikoeficientis gamoTvlis Sewyveta, rac imis mauwyebelia, romromelime parametri (dineba, wneva, temperatura, sixSire), ar arisstabiluri an moiTxovs Semowmebas.fardobiTi koeficientis (K-Factor) saSualo mniSvnelobisgamoTvlis Semdeg kompiuteri amobeWdavs pataks, romelSicgamoTvlebis yvela monacemebi iqneba mocemuli. yovel-wliuradxdeba zemoT aRniSnuli birTvis Semowmeba da sidideebis gazomva.Tuki igi ar Seesabameba standartebs, icvleba axliT. miRebulikoeficientis mniSvneloba inJinris an operatoris mier Seyvaniliiqneba dinebis kompiuterSi nakadis da mixedviT. amasTanspecialurad gamoyofili Stampi (beWedi) dadebuli iqnebaspecialur wignSi, sadac aseve SeaqvT patakis monacemebi.68


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited Pages1.6.5. dinebis kompiuteris sxva testebi da Semowmebebigarda ukve naxsenebi testebisa arsebobs agreTve sxvadasxvasaxis Semowmebebi, magaliTad iseTebi, rogoricaa: gafrTxilebebis(Alarm) Semowmeba, dinebis kompiuteris (Flow computer)konfiguraciebis Semowmeba, turbinis meqanikur-eleqtronulimowyobilobis SezeTva, navTobis parametrebis ZiriTadi mTvlelis(prover) CamrTvelebis Semowmeba, swrafi moZraobis sadguris tumbosa(Fast Loop Pump) da solenoidis (Grab Samler Solenoid) Semowmeba,baromertebisa da Termometrebis Semowmeba-kalibracia.yvelaferi is, razec zemoT iyo saubari, analogiuradvrceldeba gamSveb mTvlelze (Export Metering) da mis kompiuterze.Semomsvlelze mudmivad erTi nakadia mzadyofnaSi (Standby Stream),danarCeni ki xazzea. nakadebis gadarTva xdeba yovelkvireuladoperatoris mier, gamsvlelze ki, roca navTobis tankerSi CatvirTvaiwyeba, nakadebi misiT, dinebis mixedviT, avtomaturad iwyebengaRebas - dinebis sazRvrebis da mixedviT (Flow limits). es procesiCadebulia dinebis kompiuterSi da kompiuteri aZlevs brZanebassarqvelebs imis Sesaxeb Tu romel dinebaze romeli gaiRos anpiriqiT daiketos.eqsportirebuli navTobis mTvlelze (Export Metering) nakadebisboloebSi damontaJebulia dinebis sarqvelebi (Flow Control Valves),romlebic avtomaturad aregulireben dinebas, nakadebSi pirdapirigasvlis an fardobiTi koeficientis gamoTvlis (K-Factor) meSveobiTmTavar xazSi navTobis moZraobis dros.69


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited Pages1.6.6. gamzom xelsawyoebze Catarebuli Semowmebebis statistika.sufsis terminalSi importirebuli da eqsportirebuli navTobisgamzom xelsawyoebze 2001 wlis ganmavlobaSi Catarebuli gegmiuriSemowmebebi (Sedegebi mocemulia cxrilebSi 1.1, 1.2).importirebuli navTobis gamzom xelsawyoebze 2001 wlisganmavlobaSi Catarebuli testirebebis statistikacxrili 1.1.Tve nakadi A nakadi BmTvlelis Cqarisasinji kavi mTvlelijamiianvari 3 4 6 1 14Tebervali 12 12 11 9 44marti 3 - 2 1 6aprili 14 15 5 9 43maisi 11 26 17 10 64ivnisi 10 10 12 18 50ivlisi 14 13 7 7 41agvisto 30 12 23 24 89seqtemberi 16 - 2 8 26oqtomberi 30 33 16 25 104noemberi 14 11 23 21 69dekemberi 15 13 16 18 62jami 172 149 140 151 61270


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited Pageseqsportirebuli navTobis gamzom xelsawyoebze 2001 wlisganmavlobaSi Catarebuli testirebebis statistikacxrili 1.2.Tve nakadi A nakadi B nakadi CmTvlelis Cqarisasinji kavi mTvlelijamiianvari 4 4 1 3 6 18Tebervali 14 9 9 6 12 50marti - 2 3 - 3 8aprili 16 15 6 2 8 47maisi 5 5 18 6 13 47ivnisi 19 16 7 8 11 61ivlisi - 1 - - - 1agvisto 14 27 14 30 - 85seqtemberi 9 11 - 30 11 61oqtomberi 14 10 8 18 9 59noemberi 15 16 7 40 19 97dekemberi 15 16 9 22 10 72jami 125 132 82 165 102 6061.7. wriuli mricxvelis kalibracia wylis gamoyenebiTwriuli mricxvelis kalibraciis ganxorcielebisaTvis saWirodanadgaris aRWurvilobis aRwera, rac aucilebelia srulyofilikalibraciis Casatareblad, saerTaSoriso standartebis Sesabamisad.aRWurviloba warmoadgens satvirTo manqanaze damontaJebuldanadgarebs Semdegi SemadgenlobiT:gamzomi rezervuari _ 500l; G gamzomi rezervuari _ 1000l;simaRle (yeli qvemoT) 2.01 m, 2.01 m;simaRle (yeli zemoT) 2.52 m, 3.10 m;manqanis sruli sigrZe 2.87 m, 3.28 m;71


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited Pagesmanqanis sruli sigrZe (datvirTuli) 3.05 m, 3.60 m;manqanis sruli sigane 1.68 m, 1.90 m;savaraudo wona (baki carielia) 750 kg, 1160 kg.satvirTo manqanebi nivelirebulia paralelogramuli amwevebiT,romlebic ukanaa damontaJebuli, wina damagrebuli erTi meqanikurimeqanizmiT (sur. 1.5).suraTi 1.5. – kalibraciis Casatarebli gamzomi aRWurvilobasatvirTo manqanebze damontaJebulia: moculobiTi mTavari mricxveli Avery Hardoll, romelicaRWurvilia meqanikuri aRmricxveliT, impulsuri generatoriT,filtriT, sakontrolo Camketi sarqvelebiT, siTburianaorTqlebisa da wnevis sazomi danadgarebiT. mTavari mricxveligamzom bakTan dakavSirebulia 3 duimis diametris mokle SlangiT;72


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited Pagesduimi; daaxloebiT 100 futis sigrZis 3 duimis diametris Slangi; miltuCiani Cabmis Slangebis eqvsRruiani adaptori - zoma 2.5-3 ori erTeuli wnevis sazomi danadgari; sxvadasxva saxis Slangebis SemaerTeblebi - zoma 2.5-3 duimi; sxvadasxva kuTxiani WanWikebi, qanCebi, quroebi da miltuCaSlangebis SemaerTeblebi; 1 da 2 duimiani wyalqveSa tumbo da dolura gamzomi bakisdasaclelad.zemoTCamoTvlilis garda aucilebel aRWurvilobaSi Sedis: kontrol-instruments inkorporeiTedis Sewyvilebuliimpulsuri mTvleli testirebis sistemiT, SemaerTebeli yuTebi daamZravebi klientis deteqtorebis misaerTeblad. amZravis sigrZedaaxloebiT 30 m-ia. es aRWurviloba ar aris feTqebadmedegi daamdenad, misi feTqebadsaSiS garemoSi muSaoba regulirdebaklientis mier SemoRebuli samuSaos amkrZalavi wesebis Seabamisad.Semavali kvebis wyaros simZlavrea 240 vt, sixSire 50/60 hc-i; denis sadeni, daaxloebiT 30 m sigrZis, 240 voltze da 16amperze gaTvlili qarxnuli wesiT damzadebuli CamrTveliT; IP39F an IP39C tipis 30-100 F gradus diapazonis an 1-38 C gradusdiapazonis minis oTxi Termometri merkuris svetiT, romelTamaqsimaluri diametria 7.5 mm, an AWR tipis cifruli Termometri.mosamzadebeli samuSaoebi:• mrixcveli da masTan dakavSirebuli milebi sufTa unda iyos daar unda Seicavdes raime ucxo sxeuls, mag. milis nadebs;• sistemaSi navTobis arsebobam SesaZloa gaauaresos gazomvebissizuste, aCvenebs ra arazust Sedegs da saeWvo sawyis odenobas;• aucilebelia sferos Semowmeba, misi gaberva, diametris gazomvada registracia. dasaSvebia, rom sfero umniSvnelod gapoxiliiyos da ise iqnes ganTavsebuli mricxvelSi;73


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited Pages• aucilebelia Sesabamisi diapazonisa da garCevadobis mqonewnevis gamzomi zusti aparatebis damontaJeba mricxvelisSemaval da gamomaval RrusTan;• aucilebelia Sesabamisi diapazonisa da garCevadobis mqonemerkuris svetiani minis Termometrebis damontaJeba mricxvelissiTburi anaorTqlebis Semaval da gamomaval siRruveebTan;• sistema unda aivsos sufTa mtknari wyliT da ar unda Seyveshaeri.mTavari mricxvelis meTodi:aRWurvilobis gamarTulobisaTvis aucilebelia, rommoculobiTi mricxveliganlagebuli iqnes sakalibraciomricxvelis Semdeg da gamzomi rezervuaris win (sur. 1.6.).suraTi 1.6. – eqsportirebuli navTobis mTvlelis Semowmebisprocesi74


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited Pagesadgilze mricxvelis kalibracia xdeba gamzom rezervuarTanmimarTebaSi, xolo Semdgom is gamoiyeneba, rogorc gadasayvanistandarti, romelic adgens mricxvelis sizustes gamzomis sawyismoculobasTan.mTavari mricxvelis kalibracia xdeba dauyovnebliv, rogorcmricxvelis kalibraciamde, ise misi kalibraciis Semdeg, igivewnevisa da nakadis simZlavris pirobebSi.yvela danadgaris SeerTebis Semdeg, xdeba nakadis simZlavrisfiqsacia da iwyeba wylis cirkulacia sistemaSi. am gziT miiRwevastabiluri temperatura da xdeba sistemaSi CarCenili haerisgamoSveba, romelic ramdenimejer auvlis gverds sistemaSi Seyvanilsferos.maRla mdebare arc erT gamosaval xvrelSi ar unda iyos haerisarsebobis raime niSani. am etapze aucilebelia wnevis saerTodonisa da nakadis simZlavris kontroli, da aseve saWiroagaJonvaze Semowmebebis Catareba. am saSualebebiT xdeba imisuzrunvelyofa, rom ar daikargos gasazomi siTxe kalibraciisdawyebis droisaTvis.gazomvamde moqmedi faqtorebi: mricxvelis teqnikurifaqtorebis dasadgenad, mTavari mricxvelis kalibracia xdebagamzom rezervuarTan mimarTebaSi. amisaTvis gamzomi rezervuariunda aivsos mTavar mricxvelSi gatarebuli wyliT, romlis drosackontroldeba rogorc gamzomi rezervuaris Skalisa datemperaturis maCvenebli, ise mTavari mricxvelis impulsurimonacemebi da wneva. es procedura imdenjer unda ganmeordes, vidrear moxdeba zedized xuTi monacemis damTxveva. gansxvavebebi ammonacemTa Soris ar unda aWarbebdes 0.02%-s.amis Semdeg mTavari mricxvelis saSualebiT xdeba mricxvelissizustis gamzomis kalibracia. mricxvelis bolodan gauSvebensferos, rac ormxrivi mricxvelebis gamzomebis SemTxvevaSi xdebaoTxmxrivi gamanawilebeli sarqvelis saSualebiT, xolo calmxrivimricxvelebis sizustis gamzomebis SemTxvevaSi -75


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited PagesurTierTmonacvleobis saSualebiT da mTavari mricxvelis dadgenilwnevasTan da nakadis simZlavresTan SesabamisobaSi moyvaniT.rodesac sfero aamoqmedebs pirvel deteqtors, amoqmeddebamricxvelis impulsuri amTvleli da xdeba mricxvelis impulsebisgeneratoridan momdinare impulsebis aTvla. deteqtorebs Soris,sferos gadaadgilebis dros xdeba mricxvelis sizustis gamzomisda mTavari mricxvelis wnevisa da temperaturis kontroli daaRricxva.amavdroulad mimdinareobs sistemis vizualuri SemowmebebigaJonvaze. rodesac sfero aamoqmedebs meore deteqtors, kvlavCairTveba impulsebis amTvleli, aTvla wydeba da monacemiaRiricxeba.es procedura meordeba sapirispiro mimarTulebiT (ormxrivimricxvelebis sizustis gamzomebis SemTxvevaSi) vidre zedizedxuTjer ar daemTxveva orive mxares gasuli moculobebis monacemebierTmaneTs, romelTa Soris gansxvavebebi ar unda aWarbebdes 0.02%-s,temperaturis da wnevis faqtorebis CaTvliT.gazomvis Semdgom moqmedi faqtorebi - am etapze xdeba mTavarimricxvelis xelaxali kalibracia gamzom rezervuarTan mimarTebaSi,romlis drosac gamoiyeneba wina abzacebSi aRwerili meTodi. amSemTxvevaSic aucilebelia zedized xuTi monacemis damTxveva.gansxvavebebi am monacemTa Soris ar unda aWarbebdes 0.02%-s.mricxvelis sizustis gamzomis rogorc gazomvis wina, isegazomvis Semdgomi faqtorebis kuTri wili aseve ar unda aWarbebdes0.02%-s.gamoTvlebisTvis gamoiyeneba rogorc gazomvis wina, isegazomvis Sermdgomi faqtorebis gaSualedebuli monacemebi.amis Semdeg, API-s standartebis me-12 Tavis debulebaTaSesabamisad, xdeba mricxvelissizustis gamzomis sawyismdgomareobaSi arsebuli sawyisi moculobis gamoTvla. wylistemperaturis gaTvaliswinebiT Sesatani Sesworebebis gamoTvla76


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited Pagesxdeba API-s standartebis me-11 Tavis 11. 2. 3. punqtis debulebaTaSesabamisad.sizustis gamzomis moculobebis kalibraciis dasrulebisSemdeg, aucilebelia arsebuli moculobis damatebiTi kalibarcia,romlis drosac unda Seicvalos nakadis simZlavre (25%-iT anmetiT). aman SesaZloa moicvas gazomviswina sami faqtori, sizustisdamdgeni wredis samgzis gavla, da gazomvis Semdgomi sami faqtori.cdomileba axali simZlavris dinebis dros Catarebuli cdebiszedized 5 monacems Soris ar unda aWarbebdes (temperaturis dawnevis faqtorebis CaTvliT) 0.02%-s. axali simZlavris nakadzeCatarebuli cdebis dros, axali pirobebis mTels sistemazegavrcelebis uzrunvelsayofad SesaZloa saWiro gaxdes ramdenimesacdeli cikli.testireba sizusteze:• ar unda moxdes misaRebi mricxvelebidan gaJonva. nebismierigaJonva maT dawunebas niSnavs;• vargisianobis sademonstraciod mimReb miltuCas korpusis garediametrze unda daesvas Sesabamisi aRniRvna “T” asos saxiT;• miltuCas mwarmoeblis damRaze raime niSnis dasma ar SeiZleba;• dasaSvebia mricxvelebis seriuli Semowmeba;• sizustis testirebis dawyebamde aucilebelia mricxvelebissruli datvirTviT amuSaveba xuTi wuTis ganmavlobaSi;• saWiroa haeris nakadis mimarTva sacdel bugelSi dakalibratoris zeTis avzSi zeTis damateba saWiroebisamebr;• yvela sazomi aparati, romelic aRWurvilia sapoxi paketiT,testirebis dawyebamde aucileblad unda Seivsos gliceriniT;• maqsimaluri simZlavris nakadis dros nuli niSnavs +/- 0,5%-s.77


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited Pagessazomi aparatis testireba:• sazomi aparatis testireba unda moxdes cxrilSi miTiTebulidinebis simZlavreebis Sesabamisad;• yoveli konkretuli simZlavris mqone nakadis testireba orjermainc unda Catardes, romelTa dros mricxvelis maCveneblebsSoris cdomileba ar unda aWarbebdes +/_ 0.2%-s. Tu zedizedganxorcielebuli ori testirebis dros Sedegebi ganxvavebulia,aucilebelia problemis mizezis dadgena da misi gamosworeba.ori erTnairi Sedegis mqone testis monacemebi unda aRiricxostestirebis Sesabamis blankze;• dabali simZlavris nakadebisaTvis gankuTvnili mricxvelis(nakadis simZlavris Sefardeba 10:1-Tan) gamoyenebisas,mricxvelis sizustis sazom Skalaze gansxvaveba maqsimalurisimZlavris nakadsa da dabali simZlavris nakads Soris ar undaiyos 3%-ze (30 danayofi) meti, xolo amave Skalaze arsebuligansxvaveba dabalisimZlavris nakadsa da minimalurisimZlavris nakads Soris ar unda iyos 2,5%-ze (25 danayofi)meti. nebismier SemTxvevaSi mricxvelma ar unda aCvenosganuxreli awevasimZlavris nakadamde;sruli simZlavris nakadidan dabali• maRali temperaturis mqone dabali simZlavris nakadebisaTvisgankuTvnili mricxvelebis (nakadis simZlavris Sefardeba 10:1-Tan) gamoyenebisas, mricxvelis sizustis sazom Skalazegansxvaveba maqsimalurisimZlavris nakadsa da dabalisimZlavris nakads Soris ar unda iyos 6%-ze (60 danayofi) meti,xolo amave Skalaze arsebuli gansxvaveba dabal simZlavrisnakadsa da minimaluri simZlavris nakads Soris ar unda iyos5%-ze (50 danayofi) meti. nebismier SemTxvevaSi mricxvelma arunda uCvenos ganuxreli zrda sruli simZlavris nakadidandabali simZlavris nakadamde.78


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited Pages1.8. monitoringis meTodologiis Sesabamisad Catarebulitestirebebiganxilulia 2006 wels Catarebuli sufsis terminalzesxvadasxva gamzomi xelsawyoebisa da maTi Semadgeneli saSualebebistestirebebis Sedegebi:2006 wlis 31 maiss Cvens mier Catarda sufsis terminalzearsebuli eqsportirebuli navTobis gamzomi kvanZis nakadis kompiuteris(Flow Computer) – Sida platebis Semowmeba, ramac dagvanaxa, rom:- nakadis kompiuteri (S-500) gamoicvala, dasadgeni iyo qonda Tuara dazianeba vizualurad – dazianeba ar dafiqsirebula;- mTliani plata Sedgeba sami dafisagan, ori maTgani afiqsirebsSemaval-gamomaval informacias P077 (nomeracia warmoadgens funqciurdaniSnulebas) P124, xolo mesame warmoadgens fruvingis dafas PP083.dafebze aseve damontaJebulia standartuli porti P011, kompiuterTankavSirisTvis RS232, xolo kompiutersa da platas Soris gacvliTiinformaciisaTvis P125 porti (069) P011 (393).nakadis kompiuteris Sida platebis moxsnamde amoibeWdakonstantebi (mudmiva – K-faqtori, wnevisa da temperaturis limitebida a.S.), romelTa Sedareba moxda Semowmebis dasrulebis SemdegamobeWdil informaciasTan, Semowmebis Sedegad gamoCnda, rom informaciaar Secvlila e.i. aRniSnuli elementi daSvebulia eqspluataciaSi(testirebebis Sedegebi warmodgenilia danarT 1-Si). aRsaniSnavia, romzemoTxsenebuli informacia iZleva aseve siblantisa da simkvrivismonacemebs (Fast Loop), rac ar gamoiyeneba navTobis raodenobiskompiuteruli gamoangariSebis dros – dRemde sufsis terminalismenejmenti, Cveni winadadebis safuZvelze iyenebs laboratoriissaSualebiT miRebul Sedegebs.2006 wlis 1-2 ivniss Catarda sufsis terminalze arsebuliimportirebuli navTobis gamzomi kvanZis analogur-cifruli79


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited Pagesgardamqmnelis Semowmeba-testireba (ANALOGUE TO DIGITALCONVERTER CHECK FCP 27 6M SUOI FY 80A03 - 01).mizani: gamomTvleliS500-is analogur-cifruli gardamqmnelissizustis Semowmeba. testirebebi Catarda Core Procedure FCP 27-ismixedviT.testirebisaTvis gamoyenebuli iqna Semdegi instrumentebi:- voltmetri, hp MULTIMETER 34401A seriis # US36079032miRebuli serTifikati #15547 - UKAS CALIBRATION 24.10.05(1 wliT);- sanimuSo winaRobis koWa (standarti), CROPICOseriis # 058410 serTifikati # 15549 24.10.05 (1 wliT);- sixSiris mzomi EUREMICA Process Multimeter PMM 330Aseriis # 9274 serTifikati # 15550 24.10.05 (1 wliT).Semowmda saaRricxvo kvanZidan Semosuli analoguri signalisSesasvleli:K102 / 27 ADC Semavali informaciis Semowmeba;I nakadi – wnevis gadamwodi PT-80A03-04;IInakadi _ wnevis gadamwodi PT-80A03-05.- filtris diferencialuri wnevis gadamwodi:I nakadi – wnevis gadamwodi PDT-80A03-01;II nakadi _ wnevis gadamwodi PDT-80A03-02;Pr. LOOP fruveris wnevis gadamwodi PT-80A04-01;FAST LOOP swrafi laboratoria.- dabali nakadis diferencialuri wnevis gadamwodi;PT-80A04-09;-simkvrivis sididis sazomidan gamomavali wnevis gadamwodi;PT-80A03-03;- siblantis mzomis analogur-cifruli gardamqmnelis arxi;AT-80A03-03;80


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited Pages- wylis da danaleqebis Semcvelobis mzomis analogur-cifruli;gardamqmnelis arxebi:AT-80A03-01,AT-80A03-02.Sedegi: testirebebis Sedegad dadasturda, rom zemoTCamoTvliliyvela analogur-cifruli gardamqmnelis arxi Seesabameba dasaSvebcdomilebis normebs.2006 wlis 27 seqtembridan 3 oqtombramde Catarda dasavleTismimarTulebis saeqsporto milsadenis (WREP) sufsis saxmeleToterminalze arsebuli importirebuli da eqsportirebuli navTobisraodenobis saaRricxvo kvanZis sakontrolo mricxvelis testireba –kalibracia, aRniSnuli procesis monitorings daeswro standartebis,teqnikuri reglamentebisa da metrologiis erovnuli saagentosspecialisti k. oCerednoi.testirebebisaTvis gamoyenebuli mowyobiloba-danadgarebi:sakontrolo mricxvelis kalibracia Catarda sakontrolosamowmebeli danadgariT.TurqeTis respublikis standartebis instituti adasturebs, romorganizacia AZ METCO-s, romelic SerCeuli iyo operatoriskompaniisa da saqarTvelos mxaris mier, gaaCnia xarisxis marTvissistema, romelic akmayofilebs TS EN ISO 9001 : 2000 standartismoTxovnebs (serTifikatis nomeri KY-2642/03, gacemis TariRi 16/12/2003_ eqspluataciis vada 16/12/2006).mricxvelis samowmebeli mowyobilobis kalibracia SesrulebuliameTodiT, romelic SesabamisobaSia amerikis navTobis institutis (API)standartebTan da rekomendaciebTan.mizani: kalibraciis meTodi iTvaliswinebsnavTobis raodenobis saaRricxvo kvanZis sakontrolo mricxvelSiarsebuli sferoebis daTvaliereba-Semowmebasa (sur. 1.7, 1.8.)81


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited PagessuraTi 1.7. – sferos daTvaliereba-Semowmebis procesisuraTi 1.8. - sferos daTvaliereba-Semowmebis procesi82


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited Pagesda sakontrolo samowmebeli danadgaridan navTobis raodenobissaaRricxvo kvanZis sakontrolo mricxvelSi miwodebuli navTobisnakadis moculobis sidideebis sakontrolo anaTvlebis aRebas.saaRricxvo kvanZze Catarebulia Semdegi samuSaoebi:- importirebuli da eqsportirebuli navTobis raodenobissaaRricxvo kvanZis sakontrolo mricxvelebidan amoRebuli iqnasferoebi, Semowmda maTi gare (ori mimarTulebiT) diametrebi dadaTvalierebuli iqna vizualurad (gare dazianebebis aRmoCenisasaucileblad icvleba sfero), (sur. 1.9.);suraTi 1.9. - sferos daTvaliereba-Semowmebis procesi- importirebuli navTobis sakontrolo mricxvelis sferosdiametrebi: 18.45 da 18.51 duimi (saSualo 18.48 duimi),gaÑäxvavebam miRebul qarxnul diametrTan Seadgina (metobiT)7.02% (dasaSvebia 3-6%-mde), ris safuZvelzec ganxorcieldasferos dafuSva. xelmeored gazomvis Sedegebi: 18.11 da 18.2083


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited Pagesduimi (saSualo 18.16 duimi), gansxvaveba qarxnulTan 5.34%, racmisaRebia.eqsportirebuli navTobis sakontrolo mricxvelis sferosdiametrebi: 31.90 da 31.60 duimi (saSualo 31.75 duimi),gansxvavebam miRebul qarxnul diametrTan Seadgina (metobiT)5.17% (dasaSvebia 3-6%-mde);- sferoebis vizualuri daTvalierebisas ar dafiqsirda garedazianebebi.zemoaRniSnulis gaTvaliswinebiT, sferoebi dabrundaimportirebuli da eqsportirebuli navTobis raodenobissaaRricxvo kvanZis sakontrolo mricxvelebSi;- ganxorcielda sakontrolo samowmebeli danadgaris mierTebamontaJinavTobis raodenobis saaRricxvo kvanZis sakontrolomricxvelebTan;- sakontrolo samowmebeli danadgaris navTobiT Sevseba dasarqvelebis Semowmeba gaJonvaze, deteqtorebis Semowmeba,danadgarebis sacdeli gaSveba kalibrebis wredisa da navTobisdamcleli sarqvelis gamarTulobis Semowmebis mizniT;- oTxmxrivi ormimarTulebiani sarqvelis marTvis sistemismierTeba sakontrolo samowmebeli danadgaris kompiuterulsistemasTan;- sakontrolo samowmebeli danadgaris sistemis navTobiT SevsebisSemdeg sistemis sakontrolo wnevebze gamocda. moculobebigamoiTvleba 1.01325 bar absolutur wnevasa da 15 o Ctemperaturaze;- Semowmebuli iqna navTobis raodenobis saaRricxvo kvanZissakontrolo mricxvelebis Sida diametrebi.Sedegi: Catarebuli testireba-kalibraciis Sesabamisad miRebuliSedegebi (sakontrolo samowmebeli danadgaris saSualebiTSesrulebuli sakontrolo gazomvebis Sedegebis gadaxra ar undaaRematebodes ±0.02%-s):84


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited Pages- importirebuli navTobis raodenobis saaRricxvo kvanZissakontrolo mricxveli moculobiT 3.056345 m 3 (+0.003% kargiSedegi), (sur. 1.10);suraTi 1.10. – monitorze mocemuli kalibraciis Sedegi- eqsportirebuli navTobis raodenobis saaRricxvo kvanZissakontrolo mricxveli moculobiT 9.231546 m 3 (_0.068% cudiSedegi, ris gamoc Catarda ganmeorebiTi kalibracia),(danarTi 2);- eqsportirebuli navTobis raodenobis saaRricxvo kvanZissakontrolo mricxveli moculobiT 9.238839 m 3 (+0.006% kargiSedegi);85


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited PagesCvens mier Catarebuli kalibraciebis Sedegad dazustda, romzemoTCamoTvlili Sedegebi Seesabameba procedurebis mixedviTgansazRvrul dasaSveb cdomilebis normebs.sufsis terminalSi importirebuli da eqsportirebuli navTobisraodenobis mTvleli xelsawyoebis testirebebi da kalibraciebi Cvensmier milsadenis operator kompaniasTan erTad igegmeboda daxorcieldeboda Tviuri da wliuri gegmebis mixedviT, romelicSesasrulebeli da Sesrulebuli samuSaoebis mixedviT aRwerilia me-3danarTSi (testirebebisa da kalibraciebis gegmebi).86


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited PagesTavi IINNnavTobis raodenobis dadgena2.1. sakontrolo sistemis saerTaSoriso standartebisSesabamisi gazomvis rekomendaciebi"dasavleTis mimarTulebis saeqsporto milsadenisaTvis"winamdebare monacemebi Seesabameba saerTaSoriso standartebiTgaTvaliswinebul aRricxvis moTxovnebs. aRricxvis sistemebi damasTan dakavSirebuli aRWurviloba moqmedi unda iyos ara nakleb30 wlisa da akmayofilebdes proeqtis moTxovnebs. dizainiiTvaliswinebs nakadis mTlian moculobas, rogorc miTiTebuliaaRricxvis specifikaciis rekomendaciebSi da aRricxvis sxvadasxvamonacemebSi. sistemis sizuste da sxva moTxovnebi ganxiluliaaRricxvis specifikaciebSi. Senaxva gadazidvis (an fiskaluri)dizaini momzadebulia American Petroleum Institute (API)-is specialuripublikaciis Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards (MPMS)-is mixedviT.A adgilobrivi mTavrobisa da kompaniis standartebi nedlinavTobis aRricxvis Sesaxeb unda Seesabamebodes aRricxvisspecifikaciebSi aRweril standartebs. Ddizaini SesaZloaiTvaliswinebdes aRricxvis uzustobas +/- 0.25% da +/- 0.2%ganmeorebiTobiT.vinaidan navTobsadenis azerbaijanis da saqarTvelosteritoriebze gamavali monakveTebi warmoadgenen "dasavleTismimarTulebis saeqsporto milsadenis" proeqtis nawils, navTobisSenaxva-gadazidvis aRricxvis sistemebi ganTavsebulia Semdegadgilebze:- sangaCalis terminaliA(azerbaijani) - "dasavleTismimarTulebis saeqsporto milsadenis" mTavari satumbi sadguriTnavTobis Senaxva-gadazidvis mizniT;87


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited Pages- saqarTvelos teritoria, sufsis terminali - fiskalurimiznebiT, azerbaijanis da adgilobrivi mTavrobis urTierTSeTanxmebiT.2.1.1. nakadebis gazomvisaTvis gamoyenebuli terminebisaimedoobis done - gazomvis arazust intervalSi realuriRirebulebis raodenobis gansazRvris albaToba.Senaxva - gadazidvis (an fiskaluri) gazomva -transportirebuli da Senaxuli navTobis moculobis gamoTvlastandartebis mixedviT.mTliani masa - mTliani standartuli moculobis masa.Semowmebuli mTliani wona - temperaturisa da wnevis qveSnavTobSi wylisa da naleqis Semcvelobis gazomva.mTliani standartuli moculoba - navTobSi wylisa da naleqisSemcvelobis gamoTvla standartul pirobebSi 15°C ze da 1.01325barze.ganmeorebiToba - identuri maxasiaTeblebis mravalgzis gazomvaerTi instrumentis meSveobiT.standartuli moculoba - navTobis moculobis gamoTvlastandartul pirobebSi 15 °C ze da 1.01325 barze.urTierTSefardeba - nakadis maRali sixSiris mimarTeba ufrodabal sixSiresTan, magaliTad nakadis moculobas 100 da 5erTeuls Soris aqvs 20:1 urTierTSefardeba.Aarazusti gazomva - RirebulebaTa diapazoni, romelSicganisazRvreba gazomvis realuri Rirebulebis sizuste 95%saimedoobiT, rogorc gansazRvrulia kolaboraciis SedegebiT daSesadarebelia identuri gazomvis sistemis uzustobasTan.dizainimilsadenis Senaxva-gadazidvis gazomvis dizaini uzrunvelyofsdaaxloebiT 40 - 100 bar. samuSao wnevas. am etapze nakadismoculobiTi gazomva ganixileba, rogorc SesaZlo moTxovna.88


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited Pagesgazomvis sistema iTvaliswinebs sul mcire erT zedmet saTadarigomricxvels - saerTaSoriso standartebis Sesabamisad, raTadamatebiT gadamowmebuli iyos mricxvelebis mimdinare monacemebissiswore da erT-erTi mricxvelis mwyobridan gamosvlis SemTxvevaSiSesaZlebeli iyos navTobsadenis SeuCerebeli muSaobatransportirebuli da Senaxuli navTobis uwyveti gaangariSebiT.nakadebis gazomvis SerCevis procesi iTvaliswinebs Semdegs:• proeqtiT gaTvaliswinebuli aRWurvilobis muSamdgomareobaSi yofnis savaldebulo 30 wels;• nedli navTobis gasazom parametrebs;• gazomili nakadebis cvlilebebis diapazons;• droebiT mricxvels unda gaaCndes gazomvis igive sizusterogoric mudmivs;• nakadis mricxvels unda gaaCndes damcavi filtrebi, raTaA amgavlenam (parafinireba iwyeba 37 O C-ze nakleb temperaturaze)ar imoqmedos gazomvis sizusteze (sur. 2.1.).suraTi 2.1. - navTobis raodenobis saaRricxvo kvanZi89


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited Pagesnedli navTobis xarisxis gazomva, SerCeva.Senaxvisa da gadazidvis aRricxvis sistema Seicavstransportirebuli nedli navTobis xarisxis avtomaturi analizissistemas. Canawerebi nedli navTobis xarisxis parametrebis gazomvisSesaxeb Senaxuli unda iyos sistemis monacemTa bazaSi, rogorcgadazidvebis Sesaxeb monacemTa nawili. xarisxis monitoringissistema unda iTvaliswinebdes: siblantis (koncentracias),welvadobis, naleqis da wylis (S&W), temperaturis da wnevisgazomvas. xarisxis sistemis dizaini unda akmayofilebdes proeqtismoTxovnebs saimedoobis TvalsazrisiT 99.9%-iT.2.2. gaJonvis dafiqsirebis sistemagaJonvis sistema ukavSirdeba mTliani sistemis dizains, SemdegimoTxovnebis gaTvaliswinebiT:• gaJonvis deteqciis sistema (LDS), rogorc ki adgili aqvsnavTobis gaJonvas, signali momentalurad gadaecema LDS-isalgoriTms;• kontrolisa da usafrTxoebis integrirebuli sistema (ICSS),es informacia gazomvis sistemidan gadaecema sangaCalisa dasufsis terminalebs. informacias gadacemen sakontrolooTaxis operatorebi.2.3. monacemebis Segrovebagazomvis sistema unda iTvaliswinebdes yoveldRiuri dayovelkvireuli angariSebis Sedgenas, rogorc kompaniis, isemTavrobis formatis Sesabamisad.angariSSi Setanili informacia unda Seicavdes mricxvelebidanmiRebul monacemebs nakadebis moculobis Sesaxeb, mricxveliskoreqciis faqtorebs, monacemebs temperaturis, simkvrivis, wylisada danaleqebis Sesaxeb.90


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited PagesangariSebi unda iyos sangaCalisa da sufsis terminalebze.informacias avrceleben sakontrolo oTaxis operatorebi ICSS-ismeSveobiT (sur. 2.2, 2.3).suraTi 2.2. - importirebuli navTobis raodenobis moculobiTi mzomisuraTi 2.3. - importirebuli navTobis raodenobis moculobiTi mzomi91


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited Pages2.4. arazusti aRricxvarodesac adgili aqvs Secdomas nedli navTobis gazomvisas,uzustobis Tavidan acilebis mizniT saWiroa:• ganmeorebiTi sistemis monacemebi an Canacvlebuli meqanizmebida procedurebi;• sadac SesaZlebelia, monacemebi kolaboraciuli testebidan;• im periodebze dafuZnebuli Sefasebebi, rodesac iqmneba msgavsipirobebi;• yvelaze saimedo teqnikur da specifikur mtkicebulebebzedafuZnebuli Sefasebebi.rodesac cnobilia arazusti gazomvis dawyebis vada, kavSiriunda arsebobdes am vadidan arazusti gazomvis dasrulebisvadasTan.rodesac ar aris SesaZlebeli arazusti gazomvis dawyebisvadis gansazRvra, saWiroa Sesabamisi parametrebis sizustisyvelaze bolo TariRis miTiTeba. periodi am TariRsa da arazustigazomvis dasrulebis TariRs Soris SesaZloa ganaxevrdes. amperiodis pirvel nawilSi ver Seva veranairi Sesworeba. SesabamisiSesworebebis Setana SesaZlebelia am periodis meore naxevarSi.2.5. identifikaciakontrolis pirveladi meqanizmi unda iyos navTobis raodenobismoculobiTi mricxveli. nakadis mricxvelebi sizusteze undaSemowmdes pirveladi standartis mixedviT. misi sizuste mowmdebawylis gadatumbviT sistemiT sakontrolo xelsawyodan specialurdakalibrebul WurWelSi, rogorc miTiTebulia API-is MPMS-Si.sferuli deteqtoris ori kompleqti unda damontaJdessakontrolo xelsawyos samagrSi ori dakalibrebuli moculobiTisididis uzrunvelyofis mizniT. kompiuters SesaZlebloba undahqondes gadaerTos or sxva sensorze da ganagrZos kontroli.92


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited Pagesrodesac moxdeba TiToeuli sferuli deteqtorisaTvissakontrolo mowyobilobis moculobis identifikacia, nakadebismricxvelebis Semowmeba SesaZlebeli gaxdeba identificirebulisakontrolo mowyobilobis mixedviT, sistemis muSaobis procesSi.amgvari qseluri Semowmeba saSualebas iZleva miRweuli iqnesmricxvelis sizustis gazrda nakadebis sixSiris mniSvnelovanicvalebadobis dros.2.6. navTobis Senaxva-transportirebis gazomvis elementifiskaluri gazomvis elementi unda iyos navTobis raodenobismoculobiTi mricxvelebi. es damokidebulia nedli navTobisparafinis Semcvelobaze, nakadis temperaturaze da imaze Tu ragavlenis moxdena SeuZlia parafinis Semcvelobas gazomvissizusteze. PD mricxvelebi yovelgvari problemis gareSe muSaobenarsebul milsadenebze. aseve gamoiyeneba turbinuli mricxvelebi,Tumca unda aRiniSnos, rom turbinuli mricxvelebis gamoyenebisprocesSi arsebobs garkveuli sirTuleebi, kerZod: nedl navTobSicvilis Semcveloba iwvevs mis dagrovebas turbinis danebze. asevegamoiyeneba ultrabgeriTi mricxvelebi, magram "dasavleTismimarTulebis saeqsporto milsadenis" proeqtSi maT gamoyenebazeuari iTqva, radgan teqnologia jer ver awarmoebs gadamowmebulCanawers da API standartebi ar vrceldeba ultrabgeriTmowyobilobebze.2.7. gazomvis sakontrolo sistemis specifikaciebi2.7.1. saerTo principebi da Sesabamisi dokumentebixarjsazomebisa da kalibratorebis sistemis momwodebelipasuxismgebelia xarjsazomebis sainJinro SerCevaze, daproeqtebaze,masalebis mowodebaze, awyobaze, gamocdasa da damontaJebazespecifikaciebis Sesabamisad. aRniSnuli sistema unda Sedgebodes93


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited Pagesfiltrebisagan, haeris separatorebisagan, mricxvelebisagan,temperaturisa da wnevis sazomebisagan, xarjis proporciulisinjebis aRebis sistemisagan, simkvrivis sazomisagan,viskozimetrebisagan, minarevebisa da wylis analizitorisagan,oTxmxrivi arinebis sarqvelisagan, ormxrivi kalibratorisagan,sazom-sakontrolo xelsawyoebisagan, milsadenis sistemisagan,amoqmedebuli saqrvelebisagan, romlebic gankuTvnilia TiToeulisazomi Zafis gancalkevebisaTvisa da izolirebisTvis, da sxvaaqsesuarebisagan saWiroebisamebr. yvela damakavSirebeli mili,sarqveli, mowyobiloba (SemaerTeblebi), instrumentebiseleqtrogayvaniloba unda ganxorcieldes sistemis mowyobasTanerTad. sistemas daemateba kidev erTi sazomi Zafi, garda imisa, racsaWiroa specifikaciiT gaTvaliswinebuli maqsimaluri saproeqtoxarjisaTvis, raTa SesaZlebeli iqnes misi normaluri da sizustisgauaresebis gareSe eqspluatacia Cveulebrivi xarjis nakadis 10:1moculobiT gazrdisas. sawyisi xarji, rogorc es monacemTacxrilSia naCvenebi, SesaZloa saproeqto minimalur xarjze naklebiiyos da momwodebelma unda ganacxados is minimaluri xarji,romlis miRweva SesaZlebelia erTi mricxveliT, sizustis xarisxisgauaresebis gareSe. mTliani sistema moTavsebuli unda iqnessayrden CarCoze. yvela masalisa da mowyobilobis saeqspluataciovada 30 wels unda Seadgendes. momwodebeli pasuxismgebliadroulad moipovos yvela nebarTva, romelic saWiroaxarjsazomebisa da kalibratorebis sistemebis mosawyobadSesabamisi saxelmwifo organoebidan, sadac ganTavsebulia sazomidanadgarebi. uzrunvelyos rom TiToeuli sazomi danadgariSeesabamebodes saxelmwifoSi arsebul maregulirebel wesebs.Sesabamisi dokumentebi:• amerikis navTobis instituti (API);• navTobis gazomvis stadartebis praqtikuli saxelmZRvanelo;94


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited Pages• MPMS;• amerikis navTobis institutisa da navTobis Sefasebisstadartebis praqtikuli saxelmZRvaneloTi gaTvaliswinebulimoTxovnebi;• xarjmzomi kompiuteri unda akmayofilebdes amerikis navTobisinstitutis mier miTiTebul gaangariSebebis wesebs, rogorc esmiTiTebulia `navTobis gazomvis stadartebis praqtikulsaxelmZRvaneloSi" da Sesabamis standartebSi;• momwodebelma moTxovnisTanave unda ganaxorcielosprogramuli uzrunvelyofis ganaxleba, raTa dakmayofildesamerikis navTobis institutis da stadartebis praqtikulisaxelmZRvaneloTi gaTvaliswinebul moTxovnebSi cvlilebebi,rasac SesaZloa adgili hqondes xarjmzomi kompiuterebisgamoSvebidan sami wlis Semdeg;• mowyobilobebis daproeqteba unda efuZnebodes misaRebsainJinro praqtikas da akmayofilebdes winamdebarespecifikaciis moTxovnebs da Sesabamis wesebs.2.8. daproeqtebisadmi wayenebuli moTxovnebi daeqspluataciis pirobebidaproeqtebisas gaTvaliswiebuli unda iqnes:• mudmivi gazomvis uzrunvelyofa;• navTobis gazomvis daxuruli sistemis mricxveli;• kalibraciis sistema unda akmayofilebdes TandarTuliteqnikuri monacemebis nusxas.momwodebelma gansakuTrebuli yuradReba unda dauTmosmiwodebul nedl navTobSi parafinis Semcvelobas. saWiroebisSemTxvevaSi momwodebelma unda uzrunvelyos damatebiTimowyobilobis (siTbos deteqtori) warmodgena, raTa garantirebuliyos mocemuli instrumetis sizuste da saimedooba.95


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited Pagesganxilul SemTxvevaSi, milsadenis parafinisa da narCenebisgan(liTonis nawilakebi) gawmendaSi gamoyenebuli iyo sawmendidanadgari - gamwmendi Rori (sur. 2.4, 2.5).nebismieri mowyobiloba-danadgari miTiTebuli klasifikaciismiuxedavad sertificirebuli unda iyos. aRricxvis bloki undaSeesabamebodes P&ID-is moTxovnebs.suraTi 2.4. – milsadenis sawmendi danadgari - gamwmendi RorisuraTi 2.5. - milsadenis sawmendi danadgaris magniti96


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited PagesCamketi sarqvelebi da amZravi meqanizmebi. momwodebelma undawarmoadginos rCeva Tu rogorunda moxdes sarqvelebzemonitoringi gaJonvis adgilebis aRmosaCenad. filtrebi unda iyosvertikaluri, erT mwkrivad ganlagebuli, kalaTis tipis, Semavalida gamomavali miltuCebiT, romelic moTavsebulia mricxvelisdasawyisSi.diferencialuri wnevis maCvenebeli - gadamcemebi kapilarebiTda miltuCis msgavsi qimiuri mamWidroebeli SriT, mowodebul undaiqnes TiToeuli filtrisaTvis.wnevisa da temperaturis xelsawyoebi unda akmayofilebdnenmocemul standartebs.temperaturis sazomimocemul standartebs.xelsawyoebi unda akmayofilebdnenPD-is mricxvelebi ormag garsacmiani, mbrunavi, ventilatoristipis TviTgamwmendi unda iyos parafinis danaleqebis gamo.mbrunavi nawilebis liTonis nawilebi erTmaneTTan SexebaSi arunda modiodes. usafrTxoebisa da saimedoobis miznebisaTvisormagi biZgis gadamcemebi unda iqnes gamoyenebuli, romelebicxarjis (dinebis) proporciuli iqneba.dasrulebuli gamricxvelianebisas, aRricxvis bloki,mricxvelebi saizolacio feniT unda iyos gamoyofili da yvelaxelsawyo Tu SemaerTebeli sadeni xelmisawvdomi unda iyos.dakalibrebis xelsawyos teqnikuri maxasiaTeblebi undaSeesabamebodes navTobis sazomi standartebis saxelmZRvanelomoTxovnebs da gamoTvlebis nawils.xelsawyos dakalibrebuli da sertificirebuli moculobasakmarisi unda iyos imisaTvis, rom deteqtoris gadarTvebs SorismiRebul iqnas, minimum 10000 sazomi impulsi, garda amisa, man undaSeamciros eqsperimentuli gazomvebis dro.dakalibrebis mowyobiloba da misi komponentebi undauzrunvelyofdnen saeqspluatacio maCveneblis dasaSveb 0.02procentian cdomilebas.97


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited Pagesdakalibrebis mowyobilobis yvela nawili, romelic sferoidismier ikveTeba, damzadebuli unda iyos milisagan, romelsacSearCeven simrgvalisa da Tanaswori formebis mixedviT.dakalibrebis mowyobiloba damzadebuli da awyobili unda iqnasise, rom Sida zedapirze ar darCes brtyeli laqebi, daumuSavebelizedapiri, Sverilebi (sferoidis deteqtorebis garda) an kidevwyvetili adgilebi. SeduRebuli zedapiri unda iyos gluvi dauTanabdrdebodes milis Sida zedapirs, raTa Tavidan aviciloT`anabeWdebi~ da `borcvebi", Tanaxmad navTobis sazomistandartebisa.dakalibrebis mowyobilobis Sida SeRebili zedapirisa dadakalibrebuli seqciebis zedapiris vizualuri SemowmebisTvissaWiroa miltuCas gamoyeneba, romelic uzrunvelyofs dakalibrebismowyobilobis kedlebisa da nakadis Semowmebas rogorc aRmavali,ise daRmavali mimarTulebiT (gansakuTrebiT iseT adgilebSi, sadaccveTis albaToba maRalia). dakalibrebis seqciaSi yvela miltuCamanqanis mier iqneba dawyvilebuli, gadatanili da centrSigasworebuli mudmivi maorientirebeli koWis mier. TiToeulidawyvilebuli miltuCisTvis maorientebeli koWi SeiZlebaganTavsdes sxvadasxva adgilas, rac Tavidan agvacilebs miltuCebisaraswor dawyvilebas. TiToeul wyvils eqneba Tavisisaidentifikacio kodi, raTa uzrunvelyofil iqnas maTi saTanadoddawyvileba.dakalibrebul seqciaSi yvela miltuCa damzadebuli iqnebaliToni-liTonze konstruqciis Tanaxmad, rac xelaxali awyobisdros dakalibrebuli moculobis SenarCunebis saSualebas iZleva.miltuCis izolaciad gamoiyeneba erTi, rkalisebri formis sadebi.saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi SeiZleba grZeli sadebis gamoyeneba(akrZalulia gadabmuli da ramdenimenaWriani izolaciisgamoyeneba).gardaqmnis Semamcirebeli mowyobilobebi moTavsebulia gamSvebda mimReb kamerebs Soris. daalibrebuli seqcia ar unda iyos98


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited Pagescentruli tipis da unda uzrunvelyofdes fskeris sibrtyesgadacemis seqciaSi.gadamaadgilebelis gamomvlen CamrTvelebs Sorisdakalibrebul nawilSi ar unda arsebobdes gadabmuli adgilebi andamatebiTi komponentebi. aq igulisxmeba agreTve SesasvelgamosasvleliRiobebi da drenaJi.sferuli formis deteqtorebi unda iyos meqanikuri daganTavsdes iseT adgilas, rom iZleodes gaSvebis win adekvaturimanZilis arsebobis saSualebas 4-mimarTulebiani gadamcemisarqvelis moZraobis dasasruleblad, sferos deteqtorTanmiaxloebamde da dakalibrebul seqciaSi Sesvlamde.dakalibrebis xelsawyos aRricxvis blokis orive boloze,romelic zemoT aRwerili rkalisebri sacobis SigniT mdebareobs,saWiroa gakeTdes wylis SesarCevi mierTebebi. es unda iyos 3"RFmiltuCa romelic damontaJdeba vertikalur sibrtyeze milsadenissistemis dasawyisSi.sruli dakalibrebis xelsawyo da gamtari sarqveli saTanadodunda iyos izolirebuli, xolo maTi komponentebi xelmisawvdomi.dakalibrebis xelsawyos konstruqcia martivi unda iyos daadvili gamosayenebeli webovan siTxesTan muSaobis dros, romelicsqeldeba, Tu temperatura 37.7°C-ze dabla daiwevs.siTxis nakadis maqsimaluri siblante unda Seesabamebodeseroziis SezRudvebs.aRricxvis bloki imgvarad unda iyos agebuli, rom gauZlosteqnikuri dizainis bazebSi gansazRvrul seismur aqtivobas.adgilobrivi (aRricxvis blokze damontaJebuli) Tanmimdevrulisakontrolo gamSvebi unda moicavdes dakalibrebis xelsawyos -statusis maCvenebel indikators,dakalibrebis xelsawyosTanmimdevrobis dawyebis Rilaks, gamomrTvelsa da izolirebulmSral kontaqtebs, dakalibrebis xelsawyos statusis distanciuriindikatoriT.99


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited Pagesdakalibrebis xelsawyos an misi aqsesuarebis gamarTulieqspluataciisa da SekeTebisaTvis saWiroa specialuri xelsawyoda mowyobilobebi.sfero SeiZleba damzaddes elastomeruli masalisagan, romlisSesaxeb rekomendacias iZleva momwodebeli. masalaundaSeesabamebodes nedleulis qimiur Sedgenilobas da aRWurvili iyosqvemoT mocemuli aqsesuarebiT:• gasaberi mili;• gasaberi tumbo milis adaptoriT;• sferuli formis rkalisebri kalibri, romelic utoldebadakalibrebis sferos zomas;• sferos diametris lentebi, sferos zomebSi SemdgomicvlilebebisTvis;• sferuli gabervisaTvis saTanado siTxis maragi;• sferos mosaSorebeli hidravlikuri xelsawyo damxmareaRWurvilobiT (mili da tumbo);• Sesanaxi sivrce gamoRebuli sferosTvis (Tavidan agvacilebsdeformacias).2.9. oTxmimarTulebiani nakadis gadamrTveli sarqvelidakalibrebis dros nakadis mimarTulebis SesacvleladsaWiroa damontaJdes aweulTaviani, miltuCiani, oTxmimarTulebianisarqveli. nakadis mimarTulebis Semcvleli unda aRiWurvoseleqtroZravas operatoriT, oTxi sarqvelis adgilmdebareobisSemzRudavi gadamrTveliT da cecxlgamZle sakontrolo meqanizmiTadgilobrivi eqspluataciisTvis. sarqvels gverdi mimagrebuliunda hqondes borbaliT, romelic damontaJebulia imgvarad, romoperatorma advilad SeZlos misi gamoyeneba platformidan.saWiroa damontaJdes diferencialuri wnevis gadamcemi, romelicCamketis garSemo gaJonvis SemTxvevaSi CarTavs gangaSis indikators(sur. 2.6).100


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited PagessuraTi 2.6. – oTxmimarTulebiani nakadis gadamrTveli sarqveli2.10. aRricxvis sistemisadmi wayenebuli teqnikuri moTxovnebiaRricxvis bloki specifikaciis Sesabamisad unda iqnesdamzadebuli, raTa man operaciebisa da gazomvebis damoukideblad(zedamxedvelobis gareSe) ganxorcieleba SeZlos.mowyobilobebis blokebi specifikaciebis TanxlebiT unda iqnesuzrunvelyofili.damzadebuli unda iyos axali umaRlesi xarisxis masalebisganawyobili da Sesrulebuli umaRlesi xarisxiT, gamoyenebulimdgradobisa da sandoobis damakmayofilebeli komponentebiT,amortizaciis grZeli vadiT da minimaluri saeqspluatacioxarjebiT, awyobili qarxnuli wesiT, transportirebisa dadamontaJebis pirobebis gaTvaliswinebiT. dizainis mixedviT,minimaluri savele meqanikuri da eleqtrosamuSaoebis Catarebagaxdeba saWiro operirebis dawyebis uzrunvelyofisTvis. aRricxvismowyobilobis dasamontaJebeli adgilmdebareobis misawvdomobasTandakavSirebuli problemebis gamo aRricxvis blokis maqsimaluristandartuli zomaa 15mX3mX3m (SesafuTi masalebis CaTvliT). es101


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited Pagesmoculoba kompaniasTan werilobiTi SeTanxmebis safuZvelzeSeiZleba Seicvalos. momwodebeli rekomendaciebs uzrunvelyofsyoveli blokis mizanSewonil sigrZesTan da siganesTandakavSirebiT. unda akmayofilebs transportirebisa da damontaJebisprocesTan dakavSirebiT saWiro struqturul gamZleobasTandakavSirebul moTxovnebs. awyobili unda iqnas damakavSirebelimilebisa da sxva struqturuli kavSirebis gareSe, raTa ar moxdesgadanacvleba da centris gadaadgileba damontaJebis procesSi.aRricxvis blokis milebisa da miltuCebis interfeisi unda iqnasSemowmebuli datvirTvis gamZleobaze.gaTvaliswinebuli unda iyos yvela komponentebis SekeTebasTandakavSirebiT sakmarisi xelmisawvdomoba, kerZod, specialurisavali platformebiT, bilikebiT, kibeebiT da moajirebiT aRWurva.yvela platformaze safexurebisa da moajirebis damontaJeba.aRWurvili unda iyos yvela eleqtrogayvanilobiT, sadrenaJomilebiT, romlebic vertikaluri da horizontaluri mimarTulebiTunda iyos ganlagebuli da iseT adgilas mdebareobdnen, saidanacar SezRudaven aRricxvis blokTan misasvlels da ar SeqmniansafrTxes.daproeqtebuli unda iyos iseTi saxiT, rom sarqvelebis,gamzomebisa da sxva nawilebis moixsna da Secvla SesaZlebeliiyos ise, rom mimdebare mowyobilobaze zemoqmedeba ar iqonios.uzrunvelyofili unda iqnes mzomebis da sarqvelebis wneviT dawylis nakadiT Semowmebis procesi. saTadarigo milsa da yvelablokze, sadac dasaSvebia gaJonvebi, specialuri Semkrebifirfitebi unda damontaJdes, romelTa daxriloba gamonaJoniserTi mimarTulebiT warmarTvas Seuwyobs xels.aRricxvis blokis da dakalibrebis xelsawyos zeda da qvedawertilebSi Semavali da gamomavali Riobebi iqneba Sesrulebuli.sarqvelebi nakads saerTo SemkrebSi warmarTaven, sadac blokiskideze miltuCaa ganTavsebuli. is drenaJebi da Riobebi, romlebicnormaluri operaciebis procesSi ar iqneba gamoyenebuli, Caketili102


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited Pagesan dablokili iqneba. aRricxvis blokze izolirebuli sadrenaJosistema iqneba damontaJebuli, saidanac erTi nakadis mricxvelismdebareobasTan mimarTebaSi aRmavali, xolo meore ki daRmavalimimarTulebiT iqneba ganlagebuli. aRricxvis blokis orive mxaresCamketi sarqvelebiani drenaJebi iqneba damontaJebuli.daproeqtebulia aRricxvis blokis gamomavali da SemavalimiltuCebi, romelic imave zomisaa, rac ZiriTadi xazi, romelTanacblokia SeerTebuli daaxloebiT 150 mm-iani miltuCaTi.SeduRebis Sedegad miRebuli moWerili an ubisebri formisnakerebi ar SeiZleba gamoyenebul iqnas wnevis Semakavebelikomponentebis daniSnulebiT. saavario Riobisa da drenaJisdamontaJeba unda moxdes miltuCas meSveobiT.yvela SemduRebeli an operatori unda iyos standartebisSesabamisad kvalificirebuli.sazomi xelsawyos aRricxvis blokisa da dakalibrebisxelsawyos aRricxvis blokis Semowmeba iTvaliswinebs:• SeduRebis samuSaoebs;• qveda perimetris SeduRebis samuSaoebs;• SeduRebuli Sverilebis Semowmebas;• kuTxis SeduRebuli nakerebis Semowmebas.kompleqts moyveba yvela is instrumenti da aRWurviloba,romelic mocemulia winamdebare teqnikur moTxovnebSikonstruirebis kodeqsebis Tanaxmad, romelic uzrunvelyofssistemis usafrTxo, nayofier, saimedo da zust muSaobas.kabelebi, gamanawilebeli kolofebi, instrumentebi daeleqtronuli aRWurviloba unda Seesabamebodes kompaqturimowyobilobebis saerTaSoriso moTxovnebs.kabelebisa da mavTulebis orive boloze unda damagrdessaidentifikacio quroebi, romelzedac daiwereba nomeri proeqtisaRWurvilobis danomris specifikaciis Tanaxmad.103


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited Pagesgamanawilebeli kolofebi unda damontaJdes aRricxvis blokismoajiris Ziridan daaxloebiT 1.4 metris simaRleze. gamanawilebelikolofis da sayrdenis zoma unda iyos minimum 75 mm.kompleqts moyveba eleqtrokvebis gamTiSveli, romelicmoTavsebulia xanZrisgan damcav garsSi.aucilebelia instrumentebis damontaJeba misladenissaizolacio sarqvelTan, standartuli zomis uJangavi foladismilTan. yvelanairi instrumenti, kalibri da indikatori unda iyosvertikalurad damontaJebuli da vibraciisgan izolaciiT daculi.mimwodebeli valdebulia warmoadginos rekomendaciebi Turamdenad aris SesaZlebeli dakalibrebis xelsawyoseqspluataciaSi mudmivi gamoyeneba, an saWiroa, Tu ara misiizolacia sazomi nakadisgan maSin, rodesac igi ar gamoiyeneba.dakalibrebis xelsawyo da sazomis aRricxvis blokiaRWurvili unda iyos xanZris deteqtirebis Caketili, hermetulisistemiT.saWiroa yvela manualuri borbalis damontaJeba ise, romgaadvildes masTan muSaoba. igi ar unda warmoadgendesdabrkolebas an safrTxes saval bilikze.2.11. sazomi sistemis funqciuri moTxovnebimowodebul sazom sistemebs unda gaaCdeT SemdegiSesaZleblobebi:teqnikuri maxasiaTeblebis Tanaxmad, nakadis pozitiuriCanacvlebis individualuri sazomi unda Seesabamebodes nakadissiswrafis minimalur da maqsimalur maCvenebels, maqsimaluroperatiul wnevas, temperaturis cvalebadobas da gasazomi siTxissaxeobas.sazomis aRricxvis blokze da dakalibrebis xelsawyoze wnevismaqsimaluri dacema Seadgens 2 bars. mimwodebelma undawarmoadginos Tavis sazom sistemaze wnevis maqsimaluri dacemismaCvenebeli dabinZurebuli filtrebis, maRali webovnebis mqone104


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited Pagesnedleulis (romelSic dakalibrebis xelsawyo muSaobs)gaTvaliswinebiT. garda amisa, man unda axsnas wnevis dacemisalbaToba sufTa filtrebisa da pozitiuri Canacvlebis sazomebisSemTxevaSi.meqanikuri Canacvlebis dakalibrebis xelsawyoSi unda moxdessazomi elementis dakalibreba cnobili sidideebis mixedviT.xelsawyos SeuZlia Camoayalibos sazomis gasworebis koeficienti,romelic uzrunvelyofs gazomvis sizustes +/- 0.05%-is cdomilebiT.aqtiuri nakadis gazomvis periodSi SesaZlebeli unda iyosproduqtis nakadis saCvenebeli nimuSis aReba.2.12. sinjebis amRebi avtomaturi sistemasazomis srulyofil sistemaSi saWiroa gadaumuSavebelinavTobis sinjebis amRebi sistemis damontaJeba. sinjebis amRebisistema unda akmayofilebdes im rekomendaciebs, romlebicwarmodgenilia navTobis sazomi standartebis saxelmZRvaneloSi.amorCevis sixSire proporciuli unda iyos mTliani gazomilinakadis siswrafisa.sinjebis amReb sistemas unda SeeZlos nakadTan dakavSirebulisasinji navTobis sinjis aReba, raTa moxdes miwodebuli produqtisxarisxis dadgena.mimwodebelma unda warmoadginos Tavisi gamoTvlebi, romelicdaadasturebs warmomadgenlobiTi sinjis miRebas. TavisSemoTavazebaSi mimwodebelma unda daamtkicos, rom SemoTavazebulisistema Seicavs yvela im saWiro aRWurvilobas, romelicaucilebelia sinjebis amRebi avtomaturi sistemisTvis nebismierinakadis (maT Soris minimaluri da sawyisi nakadis) pirobebSiwarmomadgenlobiTi sinjis asaRebad.kerZod, simkvrivisa da siblantis sazomi, daleqili narCenebisada wylis analizi saerTo unda iyos yvela sakontrolomonakveTisTvis (sur. 2.7).105


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited PagessuraTi 2.7. - sinjebis amRebi avtomaturi sistemanakadis makontrolebeli da dakalibrebis kompiuterulikompania upiratesobas aniWebs momxmarebelTan produqciismiwodebisa da fiskaluri sazomi sistemebis Semadgenel nawiladindividualuri nakadis makontrolebeli "sentineli S500"kompiuterebis gamoyenebas. vinaidan sasurveli ar aris mxoloderTi saxis produqciis SemoTavazeba, yvela mimwodebelma undawarmoadginos "sentineli S500" nakadis makontrolebelikompiuterebisa da maTTvis sasurveli, alternatiuli nakadismakontrolebeli kompiuterebis variantebi. nakadis makontrolebelda dakalibrebis kompiuters unda hqondes nakadis gazomvismonacemTa Sekrebisa da gaangariSebis funqciebi. saerTo teqnikuri106


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited PagesmaxasiaTeblebi unda uzruvelyofdes gazomvis sizustes +/-0.25%cdomilebiT +/-0.02% ganmeorebis pirobebSi.2.13. kontrolisa da usafrTxoebis integrirebuli sistemakontrolisa da usafrTxoebis integrirebuli sistema (ICSS)moicavs procesis kontrolis sistemasa (PCS) da saavariogamorTvis sistemebis imitatorebs (ISS). komunikaciebisTvis, nakadismakontrolebeli kompiuteruli sistema aris daqvemdebarebuli.nakadis kompiuteruli sistema gamoyenebuli iqneba sazomisSerCevis, sarqvelis kontrolis da dakalibrebis mowyobilobissaeqspluatacio funqciebSi, mocemuli savaraudo teqnikurimaCveneblebis Tanaxmad.2.14. nakadis kompiuteris maxasiaTeblebinakadis kompiuterulma sistemam unda ganaxorcielos saWiroprocesebis (rogoricaa, magaliTad: temperatura, wneva, sazomisimpulsebi, simkvrive), gangaSebisa da sakontrolo signalebis(magaliTad, brZanebebis dawyeba da dasruleba, sazomiskalibrirebis dawyeba da dasruleba, nakadis CarTva da gamorTva)monitoringi. garda amisa, man unda gamoTvalos da Semdeggamoiyenos gazomili parametrebi, gazomili moculoba, dabeWdosSedegebis baraTi, uzrunvelyos gangaSis funqciebis moqmedeba dabrZanebebis micemis aRricxva. mas aseve unda SeeZlos diagnostikis,kontrolisa da usafrTxoebis integrirebuli sistemisTvisSerCeuli monacemebis gadagzavna. nakadis makontrolebelkompiuterul sistemas unda hqondes SerCeuli mricxvelebisa dasakontrolo monakveTebisTvis saWiro funqciuri SesaZleblobebi.nakadis makontrolebel kompiuterul sistemas unda gaaCndessazomi xelsawyos dakalibrebis avtomatizaciisTvis da TiToeulsakontrolo monakveTze nakadis kontrolisTvis saWiro funqciuriSesaZleblobebi. igi agreTve unda flobdes dawyebisa da107


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited PagesdamTavrebis swrafad cvalebad funqciebsac, unda SeeZlos zustidrois signalis miReba GPS-is sadgurebidan.kvebis wyaro. sazomi sistema aRWurvili unda iyos erTi 230voltiani, erTfaziani, 50 herciani uwyveti kvebis blokiT (UPS).kvebis ganawileba paketis SigniT warmoadgens mimwodeblispasuxismgeblobas. TiToeuli sistema aRWurvili unda iyos ormagisarezervo 100%-iani kvebis blokiT, romelic iyenebs saTanadozomis diodebs. izolacia unda gakeTdes ise, rom SesaZlebeli iyosdazianebuli kvebis blokebis gamocvla sistemis gaTiSvis gareSe.nakadis kompiuterul sistemas unda SeeZlos savele instrumentebispirdapiri an arapirdapiri uzrunvelyofa 24 saaTiani mudmivi denisZabviT (VDC). aRricxvis blokebze (analizatorebi, gazomvisa dadakalibrebis mowyobilobebi), Zravebze an Zravaze momuSavesarqvelebisTvis saWiroa sami 3-faziani, cvladi denis Zabvianikvebis wyaro. TiToeul aRricxvis blokze kvebis ganawilebawarmoadgens mimwodeblis pasuxismgeblobas.parametrebis ganzomilebis erTeulebi. nakadis kompiuterulsistemas unda SeeZlos ganzomilebis erTeulebis amerikuli an sxvametruli sistemis arCeva, romelic gamoyenebuli iqneba nakadiskompiuteruli sistemis sxvadasxva SetyobinebebisTvis(monitorisaTvis, mricxvelis baraTebisaTvis, cdebisangariSebisaTvis da sxva).magaliTad:- moculoba - m 3 ;- moculobiTi xarji - barelebi 60 O F-ze, an m 3 saaTSi;- masuri xarji - kg/saaTSi;- temperatura - °C;- wneva - bari;- simkvrive - kg/m 3 .108


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited Pageskomunikacia. momsaxure personals Soris komunikacia unda iyosSesaZlebeli master flou kompiuterTan, raTa seriuli monacemebinakadis gadacemis kompiuterebSi gavrceldes.nakadis kompiuteruli sistema gvaZlevs damoukidebelmonacemebs personaluri kompiuterisaTvisise, rom igixelmisawvdomi iyos momxareblisaTvis an dacvisaTvis informaciisgadacemis dros. nakadis kompiuters unda SeeZlos informaciisgaJonvis aRmoCenis sistemasTan mierTeba ICSS-Si.momwodebelma unda mogvces arCevanis saSualeba - anu dabaliRirebulebis samuSao ciklis sistema realur droSi im cvladebisCvenebisaTvis, romlebic informaciis moZraobis (nakadis Canawerebiswigni) pirobebTanaa dakavSirebuli anu moZraobis siCqaresTan,temperaturasTan, wnevasTan da simkvriveeebTan, SemajamebelTan,gangaSis sistemasTan, diagnostikasTan, angariSTan (moxsenebasTan).unda arsebobdes gadasamuSavebel monacemTa paketebis katalogebisredaqtirebis, monacemTa paketebis dasrulebisa da Semowmebebisdawyebis SesaZlebloba. seriuli paroli daculi unda iyos.personaluri kompiuteris (PC) programas unda SeeZlosswrafad moZebnos angariSebi informaciis gadacemis pirobebis,istoriul monacemTa paketebis, Semowmebebis, dRiuri angariSebis,RonisZiebebisa da gangaSis Jurnalebis Sesaxeb. personalurikompiuteris (PC)programas unda SeeZlos agreTve gvaCvenos realurdroSi mimdinare daumuSavebeli procesis signalebi, romlebicmiiReba/gadaicema flou kompiuteruli sistemiT. samuSao ciklissistemas unda hqondes CamontaJebuli redaqtori (editori),romelsac mflobeli gamoiyenebs teqstis displeis ekranebisSesaqmnelad ise, rom ar moTxovs momwodebels an mesame mxares mzaprogramul momsaxurebas.maregistrirebeli meqanizmebi. nakadis kompiuterebs undahqondeT minimum erTi fiqsirebuli mricxveli, romlis danaxvac109


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited PagesSesaZlebeli iqneba nakadis kompiuteris wina mxridan. am ekrans(displeis) unda hqondes minimum 10 cifri. es maregistrirebelimeqanizmi SeiZleba iyos eleqtromeqanikuri an eleqtruli (LCD).2.15. nakadis kompiuteruli sistemis funqciaGnakadis kompiuterul sistemas unda SeeZlos daamuSaosmonacemebi ormagi impulsis yvela sazomis (mricxvelebi)monacemisaTvis.yoveli nakadis kompiuteris konfiguracia unda Sesruldesklaviaturis an displeis meSveobiT, aseTi konfiguraciisCamotvirTva personaluri kompiuteridan unda moxdes momwodebliskonfiguraciis programis meSveobiT. yoveli nakadis kompiuteriunda iyos daculi parolis meSveobiT an konfiguraciis SecvlisSemaCerebeli CamrTvelis luqiT, romelsac eqneba procesebSicvlilebebis kontrolis SesaZlebloba.yovelma nakadis kompiuterma unda Seasrulos TiToeuliSetanili parametrisa da kompiuteris konfiguraciis Semowmeba,raTa gamoavlinos da Segvatyobinos yoveli Seusabamoba, miiRosnominaluri impulsebi TiToeul kubur metrze an barelze.miRebuli gangaSi an RonisZieba SeiZleba Setanil iqnasgangaSis RonisZiebis JurnalSi. TiToeul gangaSze an RonisZiebazeunda iyos aRniSnuli dro da ricxvi. nakadis kompiuters undaSeeZlos Tavis mexsierebaSi minimum bolo 100 RonisZiebis da 100gangaSis Senaxva. gangaSi unda Seiqmnas Semdegi pirobebis dros:• Tu nebismieri nakadis gazomili monacemi miTiTebulparametrebSi ar jdeba (mag. temperatura, wneva, simkvrive,nakadis siswrafe);• nakadis kompiuteris mwyobridan gamosvlis nebismieriSemTxvevis dros;110


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited Pages• rodesac gamzomi mowyobiloba (mricxveli) warmatebiT veramowmebs informacias.RonisZiebebi (cdomilebebi) unda iqnas Setanili gangaSis anRonisZiebis JurnalSi Semdegi faqtorebis gamo:• sazomis faqtoris ganaxleba;• konfiguraciis yvela parametris cvlileba;• Tu Secvlilia (an gauqmebuli) mricxvelis mier naCvenebitemperatura, wneva;• Tu Secvlilia (an gauqmebuli) simkvrive da mricxvelisfaqtori;• Tu Seferxebebia eleqtroenergis miwodebaSi.yoveli kompiuteris konfiguracia TiToeuli mricxvelisaTvisunda Seicavdes Semdegs: iarliys ricxvis miTiTebiT, models dagamoSvebas, seriul nomers, mricxvelis aqtiur zRvars(informaciuli paketis dasawyiss), nakadis misaReb sazRvrebs danominalur impulsebs TiToeuli erTeulis sididisaTvis.mricxvelis faqtoris dinebis (nakadis) siCqaris jgufebi daTiToeuli nakadis kompiuteris konfiguracia unda gvaZlevdesaTsazomian Kfaqtoris nakadis siCqaris jgufebs. SesaZlebeli undaiyos, raTa ganvsazRvroT nakadis diapazoni TiToeuli nakadissiCqaris jgufisaTvis da saerTo '”Caketili diapazoni”' (dead band).TiToeul nakadis siswrafis diapazons unda gaaCndes mricxvelisgansakuTrebuli K faqtori.2.16. nakadis mricxvelis Semowmebanakadis mricxvelis Semowmeba unda daiwyos imis gansazRvriT,Tu romel reJims avirCevT "avtomaturs" Tu "manualurs":• operatoris brZaneba klaviaturis meSveobiT;• seriuli Canaweris mdgomareobis Secvla;• sistemis moTxovna, romelic pasuxobs nakadis kompiuteriskonfiguracias.111


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited Pagesnakadis kompiuteruli sistema SeaCerebs an Sewyvetsmricxvelis Semowmebas, sanam ar iqneba miRweuli konfiguraciisdadgenili pirobebi. mas Semdeg, rac gava drois konkretuliperiodi, sistema gaafrTxilebs operators kontrolis sistemismeSveobiT (Unit Control System), rom procesis cvladebi scildebianwinaswar gansazRvrul zRvrebs:• temperatura stabilurobis zRvrebSia;• temperaturis delta mricxvelsa da Semmowmebels SoriszRvrebSia;• Semowmebuli nakadis koeficienti (siCqare) imyofebamricxvelisaTvis dadgenili nakadis diapazonis sazRvrebSi.mricxvelis faqtoris ganaxleba unda moxdes avtomaturad, Tudaculia konfiguraciis Semdegi pirobebi:• garbenis dros cvalebadoba TvlaSi zRvars dabla imyofeba;• mricxvelis amJamindel da wina faqtorebs Soris gansxvavebadaSvebul zRvrebSi imyofeba;• Tu SesaZlebelia gamoviyenoT mricxvelis faqtorisavtomaturad ganaxlebis funqcia.2.17. nakadis mricxveliinformaciuli monacemebis paketis damuSaveba unda daiwyosmaSin, rodesac mricxvelis sixSiris aqtivobis zRvarigadaWarbebulia (anu gazomilia produqtis minimaluri odenoba).monacemebis paketis damuSavebis dasruleba unda moxdes maSin,rodesac miRweulia paketis dasrulebis piroba. es mdgomareobaSeiZleba miviRoT operatoris brZanebis Sedegad, romelsac igiklaviaturis meSveobiT gadascems, flou kompiuteris mexsierebaSilogikuri droSis mdgomareobis SecvliT (sakomunikacio linkissaSualebiT).nakadis kompiuterul sistemas unda gaaCndes SesaZleblobaSeqmnas droebiTi an momentaluri mricxvelis mowmoba monacemTa112


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited Pagespaketis damuSavebis Sewyvetis gareSe. paketis damuSavebisdasasruls ki, yovelTvis Seiqmneba mricxvelis mowmoba.yoveli nakadis gadamtani kompiuteri unda iyos aRWurviliSida teqnikuri da programuli uzrunvelyofiT, raTa, manifunqcioniros, rogorc minimum, ise, rom daakmayofilos API-smoTxovnebi, nakadis gazomvis impulsebis monacemebis gadamcemisistemebis sizuste-usafrTxoeba.gangaSi warmoiqmneba maSin, rodesac aSkara Secdoma iqnebaaRmoCenili. APorazrovani defeqtebis Secdomebis ricxvi - iseTebis,rogoricaa daklebuli an zedmeti impulsebi - Segrovdeba dagamoCndeba ekranze bolo saaTis ganmavlobaSi.gasaTvaliswinebelia, rom ar aris rekomendirebuli Semajameblisavtomaturi Sesworeba da Senaxva yoveli Semajamebeli ciklisaTviscalke.sabolood ganisazRvra, rom gangaSi warmoiqmneba maSin,rodesac xdeba Secdomis aRmoCena nakadis kompiuteruli sistemismier.2.18. navTobis raodenobis dadgenanavTobis raodenobis dadgena xorcieldeba Semdegi meTodiT:navTobis yoveldRiuri kompiuteruli gazomvis meTodissaSualebiT: yoveli dRis bolos navTobis raodenobis sazomixelsawyo aRricxavs nakad erTsa da nakad orSi (Cvens SemTxvevaSi)importirebuli navTobis mTliani moculobis raodenobas, wnevas,temperaturas, simkvrives, navTobSi wylisa da danaleqebisprocentul Semcvelobas, navTobSi arsebuli wylis simkvrives. amkomponentebisa da damatebiTi koeficientebis gaTvaliswinebiTwarmoebs navTobis raodenobis dadgena.Cvens SemTxvevaSi, zemoaRniSnuli meTodis paraleluradgamoyenebuli iqna navTobis moculobis dadgenis alternatiuligza - rezervuarebis azomviTi meTodis saSualebiT: rezervuarebSiarsebuli navTobis simaRleebis doneebi da temperatura isazRvreba113


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited Pageseleqtro signalebis gadawodebis saSualebiT, aseve vawarmoebTrezervuarebSi navTobis simaRleebis doneebis da temperaturis(rezervuaris sami donis gamoyenebiT) xeliT gazomvis process,risi saSualebiTac vaxorcielebT eleqtro signalebis saSualebiTmopovebuli monacemebis gadamowmebas.naxsenebi gazomvebisxelovnuri gziT miRebuli Sedegebis sizuste, rogorc wesi 1-6 mmiTgansxvavdeba eleqtro sistemiT miRebuli Cvenebebisagan (sur. 2.8).suraTi 2.8. – rezervuarebSi navTobis moculobebi monitorzexolo rezervuarebidan aRebuli navTobis sinjebis safuZvelze,sufsis terminalze arsebuli serTificirebuli specialurilaboratoriidan viRebT navTobis monacemebs.aRniSnuli monacemebis gaTvaliswinebiT gamoiTvleba navTobisraodenoba rezervuarebis gamoyenebiT.zemoaRniSnuli ori meTodis saSualebiT navTobis raodenobisgaangariSebebis Sedegebs Soris cdomileba ar unda aRematebodes0.15%-ian zRvars.N114


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited PagesCvens mier, standartebis Sesabamisad, ganxorcielebuli iqnasaeqsportod gamzadebuli navTobis raodenobis gaangariSebismeTodi, sadac gamoyenebuli iqna navTobis Semdegi parametrebi:1) nedli navTobis simkvrive 15 O C-ze;2) navTobSi wylis Semcveloba, %-Si;3) navTobSi sxva danaleqebis Semcveloba, %-Si;4) navTobSi Semavali wylis simkvrive 15 O C-ze;5) rezevruarebis kalibracia, mm-Si;6) navTobis temperatura rezervuarSi, O C -Si;7) rezervuaris kedlis temperatura, O C -Si.zemoaRniSnuli parametrebis gamoyenebiT isazRvreba:1) rezervuaris motivtive saxuravis koreqcia;2) miRebuli monacemebis safuZvelze saerTo dafiqsirebulimoculoba;3) saerTo standartuli moculoba 15 O C-ze;4) saerTo masa, tonebSi;5) standartuli moculoba 15 O C-ze (m 3 );6) sufTa masa, tonebSi;7) saerTo standartuli moculoba 60 O F-ze (barelebSi);8) sufTa standartuli moculoba 60 O F-ze (barelebSi).gaangariSebis magaliTi:1.rezervuarSi navTobis simaRle – 14105 mm;rezervuaris kalibraciis cxrilis gamoyenebiT viRebT monacems- 48178.929;2. temperatura - 21.6 O C;1 + (22 * 10-6 * (T - 15));1 + (22 * 0.000001 * (21.6 - 15)) = 1.00015;3. 1 * 2 = 48178.929 * 1.00015 = 48186.156;4. mocemuli cxrilidan viRebT Semdeg monacems - 510.014;5. 3 - 4 = 48186.156 - 510.014 = 47676.142;115


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited Pages6. mocemuli cxrilidan dafiqsirebuli temperaturis mixedviTviRebT Semdeg monacems - 0.9945;7. 5 * 6 = 47676.142 * 0.9945 = 47413.923;8. laboratoriidan miRebuli monacemi - nedli navTobissimkvrive 15 O C-ze = 0.8492;amerikis navTobis institutis mier dadgenili saerTaSorisokoeficienti 0.8492 - 0.0011 = 0.8481;9. 7 * 8 = 47413.923 * 0.8481 = 40211.748;10. laboratoriidan miRebuli monacemi - wylisa da danaleqebisSemcvelobis Sesaxeb e.i. 0.20%, gamoTvlis Sedegad Seadgina Semdegimonacemi - 94.828;7 - 10 = 47413.923 - 94.828 = 47319.095;11. navTobis simkvrive mSral (gauwylovanebul) mdgomareobaSi15 O C-ze = [(sveli navTobis simkvrive 15 O C-ze * navTobis Semcveliwylis simkvrive 15 O C-ze) * 100 - wylis Semcveloba %-Si *danaleqebis Semcveloba %-Si] / [(navTobis Semcveli wylissimkvrive 15 O C-ze * 100) - (nedli navTobis simkvrive 15 O C-ze * wylisSemcveloba %-Si * danaleqebis Semcveloba %-Si)].es monacemebi mocemuli gvaqvs laboratoriidan, magramgaTvlebis Catarebamde saWiroa wylis Semcvelobisa da danaleqebisSemcvelobis koreqtireba, anu (navTobis Semcveli wylis simkvrive15 O C-ze * wylis Semcveloba %-Si * danaleqebis Semcveloba %-Si) /(nedli navTobis simkvrive 15 O C-ze) = 1.0149 * 0.20 / 0.8492 = 0.24;zemoaRniSnulis Sesabamisad:[(0.8492 * 1.0149) * 100 - 0.24] / [(1.0149 * 100) - 0.8492 * 0.24] == 85.945 / (101.49 - 0.20381) = 85.945 / 101.28619 = 0.84850.8485 - 0.0011 = 0.8474;navTobis sufTa raodenoba tonebSi 0.8474 * 47319.095 = 40098.201;12. navTobis saerTo standartuli moculoba 60 O F-ze(barelebSi) - 47413.923 * 6.293 = 298375.817;116


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited Pages13. navTobis sufTa standartuli moculoba 60 O F-ze (barelebSi)47319.095 * 6.293 = 297779.065.daskvna: saerTaSoriso standartebis gaTvaliswinebiT,"dasavleTis mimarTulebis saeqsporto milsadenis" sufsisterminalze Cvens mier Catarebuli samuSaoebis Sedegad,saqarTveloSi pirvelad, SemuSavebuli da praqtikaSi danergiliiqna rezervuarebSi navTobis zusti raodenobis ganmsazRvrelizemoaRwerili meTodi.qvemoT naxazebSi 2.1 da 2.2 warmodgenilia grafikuli masala,sadac sqematuri da cifrobrivi gamosaxulebiT mocemulia“dasavleTis mimarTulebis saeqsporto milsadeniT” 2005 wlisganmavlobaSi transportirebuli navTobis, sadisertasio naSromSiwarmodgenili meTodiT da kompiuteruli sistemis saSualebiTdadgenili moculobebis Sedarebis Sedegad dafiqsirebulisxvaobebi.naxazebze warmodgenilia, rogorc navTobis gaangariSebulmoculobebs Soris dafiqsirebuli sxvaobebi, asevedaangariSebulia aRniSnuli sxvaobebis Sedegad transportirebulinavTobis satranzito gadasaxadebis gaTvlebisas miRebulisxvaobebi, ris Sedegadac 2005 wlis ganmavlobaSi saxelmwifomdamatebiTi Semosavali miiRo 13045.49 aSS dolaris (cametiaTasormocdaxuTi aSS dolari da ormocdacxra centi) odenobiT.117


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited PagesaTasi bareli3000,00 4000,00 5000,001 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 122005 wlis Tveebisadisertacio naSromSi warmodgenili meTodiT dadgenisaskompiuteruli sistemiT dadgenisasdadgenisTriRinaSromSi warmodgenili meTodiT dadgenilinavTobis moculoba (aTasi bareli)kompiuteruli meTodis saSualebiT dadgenilinavTobis moculoba (aTasi bareli)sxvaoba am meTodebiT dadgenili navTobismoculobebs Soris (procentebSi)31.01.2005 4326,87 4322,93 0,0928.02.2005 4001,62 3996,52 0,1331.03.2005 4358,35 4353,34 0,1130.04.2005 4202,23 4196,23 0,1431.05.2005 4538,58 4532,57 0,1330.06.2005 4382,13 4377,12 0,1130.07.2005 4393,67 4388,67 0,1131.08.2005 3607,12 3602,12 0,1430.09.2005 4376,64 4370,74 0,1331.10.2005 4447,02 4441,22 0,1330.11.2005 4245,79 4239,79 0,1431.12.2005 4644,84 4639,24 0,12naxazi 2.1. - “dmsm”-is saSualebiT 2005 wlis ganmavlobaSi importirebuli navTobis moculobebi, sadisertasio naSromSiwarmodgenili meTodiT da kompiuteruli sistemis saSualebiT dadgenili navTobis moculobebis SedarebiT118


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited Pages1000950Tanxa, aTasi aSS dolari9008508007507006506001 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 122005 weli, Tvesadisertacio naSromSi warmodgenili meTodiT dadgenil moculobaze satranzito gadasaxadikompiuteruli sistemis saSualebiT dadgenil moculobaze gadasaxdeli satranzito RirebulebadadgenisTriRinaSromSi warmodgenili meTodiT dadgeniliimportirebuli navTobis moculobazegadaxdili tranzitis Rirebuleba (USD)kompiuteruli sistemis saSualebiT dadgenilnavTobis moculobaze gadasaxdeli tranzitisRirebuleba (USD)miRebuli sargebeli importirebulinavTobis zusti moculobis dadgenisSedegadTanxobrivad (USD) SedarebiTi (%)31.01.2005 865373,34 864586,57 786,77 0,0928.02.2005 800323,56 799304,87 1018,69 0,1331.03.2005 871669,45 870668,62 1000,83 0,1130.04.2005 840446,26 839245,63 1200,63 0,1431.05.2005 907715,06 906514,29 1200,77 0,1330.06.2005 876425,1 875424,25 1000,85 0,1130.07.2005 878734,89 877734,16 1000,73 0,1131.08.2005 721423,73 720423,55 1000,18 0,1430.09.2005 875328,03 874147,86 1180,17 0,1331.10.2005 933874,78 932656,29 1218,49 0,1330.11.2005 891615,92 890355,28 1260,64 0,1431.12.2005 975417,19 974240,44 1176,75 0,12jami 10438347,31 10425301,82 13045,49naxazi 2.2. - “dmsm”-is saSualebiT 2005 wlis ganmavlobaSi transportirebuli navTobis satranzito gadasaxadebi, naSromSiwarmodgenili meTodiT da kompiteruli sistemis saSualebiT dadgenili navTobis moculobebis cdomilebebisgaTvaliswinebiT, satranziro gadasaxadebis gaTvlebisas miRebuli sxvaobebis miTiTebiT119


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited Pages2.19. navTobis partiis Tanmxlebi dokumentacia, ganrigi da angariSebinakadis kompiuterul sistemas unda hqondes navTobis ramdenimepartiis Senaxvis sakmarisi moculoba calkeuli gamzomvis funqcionirebisdros. nakadis kompiuterulma sistemam unda SeimuSavos da miakuTvnosyovel partias Tanmimdevruli nomeri. kompiuteruli sistemis miergamomuSavebuli partiis nomeri SeiZleba gadaweril iqnas sakomunikaciosistemebis mier miwodebis dawyebamde. yoveli partia unda iyosbeWeddasmuli drois da TariRis miTiTebiT.nakadis kompiuterul sistemas unda hqondes angariSebis Senaxvissakmarisi moculoba, romlis amobeWdva SesaZlebeli iqneba printerze.yvela amobeWdili angariSi unda iyos beWeddasmuli TariRisa da droismiTiTebiT. procesis yvela sidides Tavisi niSani unda mieniWos. yvelasaxis angariSi unda iyos xelmisawvdomi operatoris moTxovniT. yovelangariSs Tan unda erTvodes mflobelis saxelis da misamarTis Semcveliinformacia.nakadis kompiuteris sistemas unda hqondes iseTi konfiguracia,romlis meSveobiT iwarmoeba amobeWdili sakonfiguracio angariSikonfiguraciis TiToeuli parametris miTiTebiT, kompiuterissaidentifikacio nomris CaTvliT.SesaZlebeli unda iyos gazomvis mowmobis formatireba mflobelismier. gazomvis damadasturebeli mowmoba amobeWdil unda iqnas yoveligazomvis Semdeg. gazomvis mowmoba unda amoibeWdos yoveli partiis an misinawilis Semowmebis dasrulebis Semdeg, moTxovnis Sesabamisad.SesaZlebeli unda iyos yoveldRiuri angariSis formatirebamflobelis mier. yoveldRiuri angariSi amobeWdil unda iqnas yoveldRekompiuteris bazis Seqmnis dadgenil dros an moTxovniT.sagangaSo movlenis Semajamebeli angariSi momzadebuli unda iqnaswina 24 saaTis ganmavlobaSi momxdari sagangaSo movlenis Sesaxeb.sagangaSo movlenis Semajamebeli angariSi amobeWdil unda iqnasmoTxovniT, kompiuteris mexsierebidan.aRricxvis blokis mimdinare mdgomareobis angariSs unda hqondesiseTive formati, rac yoveldRiur angariSs da amobeWdil unda iqnasmoTxovniT kompiuteris mexsierebidan.120


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited Pagesnakadis kompiuterul sistemas unda hqondes sakmarisi RAM mexsiereba,raTa arqivis saxiT Seinaxos mflobelis mier gansazRvruli monacemebi.unda iyos SesaZlebeli aRniSnuli monacemebis xelaxla gamoZaxebakompiuteris gamoyenebiT.2.20. samuSao adgili, pirobebi, inspeqtireba - testirebebi, markirebaaRricxvis blokisa dada transportirebadakalibrebis xelsawyos damontaJeba,testireba da dakalibreba Sesrulebul unda iqnas amindis zemoqmedebisgandacul SenobaSi. samuSao adgili unda iyos sufTa da mowesrigebulixarisxiani produqciis warmoebisaTvis saTanado atmosferosuzrunvelsayofad.daskvniTi inspeqciis Catarebisa da modelirebis daskvniTi testebisdamtkicebis garda, myidveli itovebs uflebas Caataros inspeqtirebatestireba,gasvliTi Semowmebebi warmoebis adgilze. nebismieri masala,romelic ar Seesabameba miTiTebul specifikacias da/an dokumentacias,romelic warmoadgens myidvelsa da mimwodebels Soris gaformebulikontraqtis teqnikur nawils, myidvelis moTxovniT, eqvemdebareba Secvlasmimwodeblis mier usasyidlod. mimwodeblis xarisxis kontrolisganyofilebam, vidre acnobebs myidvels an mis mier daniSnulwarmomadgenels, rom mowyobiloba srulyofilia da mzadaainspeqciisaTvis, unda Caataros yvela saWiro Semowmeba-testireba.testireba warmoadgens ganmeorebiT gamocdas, magram, amjerad,xorcieldeba SerCeul punqtze, gamomvlenis saSualebiT miRebuliSedegebis ratificirebis mizniT. am gziT moxdeba gamomvlenzedafuZnebuli moculobis dadastureba, maSinve, roca stabilur samuSaopirobebSi tardeba ganmeorebiTi graduireba mTavari gamzomisa dagamomvlenis saSulebiT.testireba unda iTvaliswinebdes sistemis mimRebi mxaris mTavrobismoTxovnebs, rac winaswar gansazRvrulia xelSekrulebaSi sistemis mimRebimTavrobis mier.121


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited Pagesgagzavnamde yovel gamzoms, sarqvels, filtrs da instrumentspermanentulad unda miumagrdes uJangavi rkins saidentifikacio iarliyi,romelzec aRniSnuli iqneba Semdegi informacia:- mwarmoebeli;- seriuli nomeri;- modelis nomeri;- zRvari;- gaTvlili wneva;- sxva saWiro informacia Sesabamisi mowyobilobisaTvis.yvela aq aRweril da mowodebul instruments, rogorc gamzomisitemis Semadgenel nawils, unda gaaCndes permanentuli, instrumentisnomris maCvenebeli uJangavi rkinis iarliyi. gansakuTrebuli sifrTxiliTunda ganxorcieldes sazom da gamomvlen saSualebebze iarliyebisdamagreba.kalibraciis xelsawyos markirebis detalebi gadagzavnamde,kalibraciis xelsawyoze unda damagrdes safirmo niSani usafrTxo dadacul adgilas. iarliyze amotvifruli unda iqnas Semdegi informacia:- xelsawyos mwarmoebeli;- gamoSvebis weli;- seriuli nomeri;- dakalibrebuli moculoba amerikul barelebSi 60 O F-ze da kuburmetrebSi 15 O C-ze da atmosferul wnevaze.yvela gasagzavnad gamzadebul konteinerze aRniSnuli unda iyoskonteineris wona da azidvis adgilebi. aseve, specialur sawyobSi undaiqnas daculi samuSao da sxva Tavisufali instrumentebi. isini undaSeifuTos da gaigzavnos gamomvlenTan erTad. gagzavnamde mTeli sistemaunda iyos absoliturad mSrali da daculi daJangvisagan, rac undaganxorcieldes specialuri testirebiT.122


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited PagesTavi IIInavTobis narCenebis gamoyeneba mSeneblobaSinavTobis gadamuSavebis procesSi ZiriTadi msubuqi fraqciebisbenzinisa da navTis gamoyofis Semdeg, miiReba sxvadasxva narCenebi:navTobis bitumi, navTobis zeTi, uaitspiriti da sxva masalebi,romlebic mTel rig saSen masalebTan kompoziciaSi warmoqmnianhidrosaizolacio mastikebs da saJRenT Sedgenilobebs, romlebicdidi warmatebiT gamoiyenebian sxvadasxva daniSnulebis nagebobebiskonstruqciebis zedapirebis hidrosaizolaciod, betonis sarwyaviarxebis, betonis milebis nakerebisa da bzarebis hermetizaciisaTvisda liTonis milebis antikoroziuli safarisaTvis.Uunda aRiniSnos, rom adre CvenTan hidroizolacia sruldebodamasalebiT, romelTac ar gaaCndaT xangamZleoba tenian garemoSi.magaliTisaTvis SeiZleba davasaxeloT Tbilisis sportis sasaxlisgadaxurva sami fena ruberoidiT, rac 5 wlis eqspluataciis Semdegrogorc uvargisi Seicvala TunuqiT. aseve SeiZleba avRniSnoTTbilisis filarmoniis sakoncerto darbazis Ria verandebishidroizolacia, romelic sul mokle xanSi gamovida mwyobridan,radganac safars gauCnda mniSvnelovani bzarebi da daiwyo wylisgaJonva.Bbolo xanebSi am daniSnulebiT iyeneben iseT masalebs,rogoricaa hidroizoli, sxvadasxva saxis plastikatebi,poliizobutaloni, penetroni, penekriti, peneplagi da sxvamastikebi [16, 17].Aaseve SesaZlebelia gamoyenebuli iqnes Cvens mier damzadebuliminaqsoviliT armirebuli hidrosaizolacio mastika da saJRenTiSedgenilobebi, romlebic savsebiT akmayofileben saxelmwifostandartis mier wayenebul moTxovnebs.Bbitumis fuZeze Seqmnil Sedgenilobebs savsebiT SesaZlebeliakonkurencia gauwios polimerulma masalebma, rac bolo xanebSisakmaod xSirad gamoiyeneba mSeneblobis sxvadasxva dargebSi.magram unda aRiniSnos, rom Tanamedrove periodSi polimeruli123


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited Pagesmasalebis gamoyeneba SezRudulia maRali Rirebulebis,deficiturobis, zogierT SemTxvevebSi kancerogenobis gamo.3.1. hidrosaizolacio safariSenobebisa da nagebobebis saxuravebis urulono safarismowyoba uZvelesi droidan aris cnobili da dagrovilia sakmaoddidi gamocdileba. miuxedavad amisa, urulono hidrosaizolaciosafarebi rogorc CvenTan, aseve sazRvargareTis qveynebSi, rogorcSedgenilobiT, aseve dagebis teqnologiiT mTlianad verakmayofilebs erTis mxriv saimedoobis da xangamZleobis erToblivpirobebs, xolo meores mxriv ekonomikurs.yovelive es ganapirobebs kvleviTi samuSaoebis aucileblobas,hidrosaizolacio safaris xarisxis zrdis, misi dagebisteqnologiis srulyofis da damzadebis xarjebis SemcirebismimarTulebiT.hidrosaizolacio safaris muSaobis sirTule ganpirobebuliamaszed sxvadasxva gare da mavne faqtorebis zemoqmedebiT:temperaturis swrafi cvla, mravaljeradi gayinva-galRobis reJimi,mzis radiacia, meqanikuri datvirTvebi da sxva.urulono saxuravis erT-erT mniSvnelovan defeqts warmoadgensbzarebi, rac gamowveulia mkveTri temperaturuli cvalebadobiT.betonis fuZeze datanili Savi safari zafxulSi cxeldeba 70 0 C-mde,xolo zamTarSi civdeba _30 0 C-mde, e.i. wliuri temperaturulisxvaoba saxuravisa meryeobs daaxloebiT 100-130 0 C-mde, xolo dRe-Ramuri cvalebadobiT Seadgens 30-50 0 C-s, rac iwvevs safarisdaskdomas.saqarTveloSi civi asfaltovani mastika pirvelad gamoyenebuliiqna r. tyemalaZis mier saqarTvelos mecnierebaTa akademiisgeofizikis institutis miwisqveSa laboratoriishidroizolaciisaTvis. civi asfaltovani mastika damzadebuli iqnaasfaltovani pastis, portlandcementis, azbestis fxvnilis dawylis gamoyenebiT. [37].124


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited Pagesudaod saintereso hidrosaizolacio masalebi iqnagamoyenebuli mTel rig maRalganviTarebul kapitalisturqveynebSi, kerZod germaniaSi, aSS-sa da iaponiaSi hidrosaizolaciosafarad gamoyenebuli iqna epoqsidur-kuprovani kompoziciebi.avstraliaSi gamoiyenes epoqsiduri fisis safarebi, glicerinovaneTerze da qvanaxSiris fisze, kristalizatorebiT. gamxsneladiyenebdnen aromatul naxSirwyalbadebs, hidrirebul navTobs daeTerebs.unda aRiniSnos, rom yvela zemoT moyvanili saizolacioSedgenilobebi Seicaven didi raodenobiT komponentebs,warmoadgenen ZviradRirebul da deficitur masalebs, amasTan maTidamzadebis teqnologia, rogorc wesi, Zalian Sromatevadia.zemoT moyvanili hidrosaizolacio samuSaoebis ganxilvisa dagaanalizebis Semdeg, Cvens mier l.miqelaZesTan erTad kvlevebissafuZvelze SeirCa hidrosaizolacio mastika, saTanadoteqnologiiT, romelic uzrunvelyofs sxvadasxva nagebobebissaxuravebis xangrZliv, saimedo muSaobas, sagrZnobi ekonomikuriefeqtiT. [2].laboratoriuli kvlevis Sedegad sawarmoo pirobebisaTvisgamoyenebuli iqna civi hidrosaizolacio mastikis sami seria,komponentebis masiTi SedgenilobebiT %-Si, (ix. cxrili 3.1) dateqnikuri maxasiaTeblebi (ix. cxrili 3.2).mastikis Sedgenilobacxrili 3.1komponentebi, %-SiSedgenilobaI II IIInavTobis bitumi bn-V 43 42 40gamxsneli (uaitspiriti) 43 41 40manqanis namuSevari zeTi 14 17 20125


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited Pagesmastikis komponentebidan bitumi da uaitspiriti cnobilia damaTi maxasiaTeblebis warmodgena ar aris saWiro. rac Seexebamanqanis namuSevar zeTs, igi warmoadgens sawarmoo narCens,romelic didi raodenobiT rCeba saavtomobilo, aviaciis da sxvasaxis satransporto saSualebebis muSaobis garkveuli droisSemdeg da sabolood gamoyenebis gareSe iRvreba.garda amisa, unda aRiniSnos, rom manqanis namuSevari zeTi, axalzeTTan SedarebiT xasiaTdeba mTeli rigi saWiro qimiurimaxasiaTeblebiT, romlebic saSualebas iZlevian miRebuli iqnesgaumjobesebuli Tvisebebis mqone hidrosaizolacio mastika.mastikis teqnikuri maxasiaTeblebicxrili 3.2teqnikuri maxasiaTeblebiSedgenilobaI II IIIdarbilebis temperatura,temperaturamedegoba 15 0 daxrisas0 C 80 84 90SemolRoba ar SeimCnevanemsis SeRwevis siRrme, 25 0 C-isas 60.0 60.0 70.0WimvadobawyalJonadobaHhidrostatikuriwnevisas, mgpa25 0 C, sm 6.0 8.0 10.050 0 C, sm 15.0 16.0 19.00.4 mgpa wnevisas wyalJonadobaar SeimCnevaZvradoba konusis mixedviT, sm 10.0 10.5 12.0Sewebebis unari. % 90 92 95yinvagamZleoba, ciklebi50 cilkis dros simtkiciskleba aris 4-5%gamyarebis dro, sT 50 45 40adhezia betonis mimarT, kg/sm 2 10 9 8cdebis analizis Sedegad, SeiZleba avRniSnoT, romhidrosaizolacio mastikis samive Sedgenilobas aqvshidroizolaciisa da Sewebebis saukeTeso Tvisebebi, garda amisa126


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited PagesgamoirCevian yinvagamZleobiT da adheziuri unariT, e.i. mastikebimTlianad Seesabameba samrewvelo da samoqalaqo nagebobebisaTvissaWiro hidrosaizolacio masalebisaTvis wayenebul moTxovnebs.3.2. hidrosaizolacio fuZis kvlevaSenobebisa da nagebobebis saxuravebisa da sxva konstruqciulielementebis hidroizolacia ZiriTadad xorcieldeba betonisfuZeze an cementis moWimvaze, romlis sisqe meryeobs 6-10 sm-isfarglebSi.rogorc betonis, aseve cementis duRabis dasamzadebladgamoyenebuli iqna rusTavis cementi, markiT 350 kgZ/sm 2 , qviSa damarneulis bazaltis RorRi, fraqciiT 5-20 mm, betonisa da duRabissaSualo simtkice 28 d/R asakSi aRwevda 300 kgZ/sm 2 [1, 2].betoni da duRabi damzadebuli iqna imereTis regionissawarmoo narCenebis bazaze miRebuli dabali wyalmomTxovnelobiscementebze superplastifikatoris gamoyenebiT.civi hidrosaizolacio mastikis SeWidebis simtkicis kvlevabetonis an duRabis zedapirTan, sakmaod mniSvnelovani aspeqtiasxvadasxva nagebobebis da Senobebis brtyeli gadaxurvebisa an sxvazedapirebis xangrZlivi eqspluataciisas.civi hidrosaizolacio mastikis adheziuri simtkicis zrdabetonis zedapirTan mniSvnelovnad aris damokidebuli myarizedapiris mikroreliefze. misi gansazRvra SesaZlebelia mTelirigi meTodebiT, maT Soris, aucilebels da Sesasrulebladmartivs warmoadgens hidrosaizolacio zedapiris meqanikuridamuSaveba.amis dasadgenad, betonisa da duRabis sacdeli nimuSebiszedapirebi civi mastikis datanis win, damuSavda liTonisjagrisiT. kvlevis Sedegad miRebuli da dadgenilia, rom mastikisSedgenilobisa da saxeobis miuxedavad, betonis an duRabis moWimvis127


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited Pageszedapiris meqanikuri damuSaveba zrdis hidrosaizolacio safariswyaluJonadobas saSualod 5-10%-iT.garda wyaluJonadobisa, zedapiris meqanikuri damuSavebiTizrdeba civi hidrosaizolacio mastikis SeWidebis simtkicebetonisa da duRabis zedapirTan, rac sagrZnoblad zrdiseqspluataciis vadebs.eqsperimentis Catarebis procesSi hidrosaizolacio safarissisqe yvela SemTxvevaSi miRebuli iyo 3-4 mm.hidrosaizolacio safaris Sris gamocda warmoebdacilindruli formis betonis 150 mm diametris da 40 mm sisqisnimuSebze (nax. 3.1).laboratoriuli cdebis analizis Sedegad unda aRiniSnos, romsamrewvelo gamocdisaTvis ufro mizanSewonilia gamoyenebuliiqnes mastika 20%-iani namuSevari manqanis zeTis SemcvelobiT,bitumis masidan.3.3. hidrosaizolacio safaris bzarmedegobis kvlevacivi hidrosaizolacio mastikis xangrZlivobis mniSvnelovangarants warmoadgens safaris bzarmedegoba.imasTan dakavSirebiT, rom nagebobebi eqspluataciis procesSiganicdian seismur datvirTvebs, rac exeba nagebobis yvelakonstruqciul elements, maT Soris gadaxurvasac, mizanSewoniladmigvaCnia safaris muSaobis saimedoobisa da xangamZleobisaTvisgamokvleuli iqnes civi hidrosaizolacio safaris bzarmedegoba.mastikis nimuSebi gamoicada bzarmedegobaze Runvisas, mSrali,sveli da SenacvlebiT gayinuli da galRobili garkveul droSi.mastikis gamocdiT Runvisas, siCqariT 1 mm/wT, bzarmedegobazemiRebuli iqna Semdegi monacemebi (sur. 3.1):128


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited PagessuraTi 3.1. – gamosacdeli nimuSebi129


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited Pages1. 28 dRe-Ramis Semdeg haerze:CaRunva bzaramde 2,15 mm (100%);simtkicis zRvari Runvisas 36,2 g/sm 2 (100%).2. 28 dReRamis Semdeg wyalSi:CaRunva bzaramde 3,4 mm (155%);simtkicis zRvari Runvisas 47,8 g/sm 2 (132%).3. 50 cikli gayinva-galRobis Semdeg:CaRunva bzaramde 5,3 mm (246%);simtkicis zRvari Runvisas 37,3 g/sm 2 (103%).kvlevis miRebuli Sedegebidan Cans, rom bzarmedegoba civihidrosaizolacio mastikisa mniSvnelovnad izrdeba wyalSidayovnebis Semdeg.bzarmedegobis gazrdis cnobili meTodebia mastikaSi azbestis,widis bambis, lateqsis damateba. garda amisa, hidrosaizolaciosafaris armireba minaqsoviliT, daWrili minis CaliCiT da sxva.bzarmedegobis kargi Sedegebi iqna miRebuli ori fena daWriliminis CaliCisa da minaqsovilis gamoyenebiT. cdebi Catarebuli iqnastu-is saSeni masalebisa da nakeTobebis kaTedraze. moWimvisimitaciisaTvis damzadebuli iqna filebi zomiT 300*200*15 mm,romlebzec datanili iqna hidrosaizolacio mastika SemdegireglamentiT: pirveli seriis sakontrolo nimuSebi (3 cali)damzadda armirebis gareSe 2 fena mastikiT (mTliani sisqe 5 mm).meore da mesame seriis nimuSebze datanili iqna 2 fena mastikadaWrili minis CaliCiT da minaqsoviliT (_90).filebi civi hidrosaizolacio mastikiT gamoicada me-3 dReslaboratoriul vibromagidaze, rxevis amplitudiT 0,37 mm da rxevissixSiriT 3000 rx/wT-Si. vibraciis dro fiqsirdebodahidrosaizolacio safarze pirveli bzaris gaCenisTanave.sakontrolo (armirebis gareSe) nimuSebis gamocdisas bzarebihidrosaizolacio safarSi gaCnda 5-6 wT-is Semdeg, me-2 seriisnimuSebSi (2 fena minis CaliCi) vibraciis xangrZlivobam pirveli130


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited Pagesbzaris gaCenamde Seadgina saSualod 25 wuTi, xolo mesame seriisnimuSebSi vibraciis drom saSualod Seadgina 30 wuTi.amrigad, dadgenili iqna, rom civi hidrosaizolacio mastikisarmireba 2 fena minaqsoviliT, zrdis hidrosaizolacio safarisbzarmedegobas 5-6 jer.amasTan unda aRiniSnos, rom aRniSnuli meTodiT safarismowyoba uzrunvelyofs ara marto bzarmedegobis zrdas, aramedmniSvnelovnad zrdis hidrosaizolacio safaris sxva mniSvnelovanteqnikur maxasiaTeblebs.saboloo jamSi, kompleqsuri teqnologiuri RonisZiebebisgamoyenebiT miRebulia wyaluJonadi, bzarmedegi, xangamZle,efeqturi da ekonomikuri safari.bzarwarmoqmnis SeswavlisaTvis gamoyenebuli iqna agreTveholografiuli interferometriis meTodi [4]. gamocdili iqnamxolod 3 fila, igive zomebiT, 2 fena mastikiT (I seria).holografiuli interferogramebi miRebuli iqna -215lazeriT, simZlavriT 50 mvt, talRis sigrZiT 0,63 mmk. cdebisanaliziT vaskvniT, rom mxolod holografiuli interferometriiTSesaZlebelia dafiqsirdes bzarebis pirveli warmoqmna.3.4. hidrosaizolacio mastikis damzadeba da datanasaizolacio zedapirzehidrosaizolacio mastikis damzadebis ZiriTad mizanswarmoadgens, iseTi danamatebis gamoyeneba, romlebic Seamcirebenbzarwarmoqmnis saSiSroebas da gazrdian eqspluataciis vadebs.rogorc winaswarma laboratoriulma cdebma, aseve brtyelisaxuravis safaris dakvirvebam dagvanaxa, rom komponenti, romeliczrdis mastikis plastikurobas, warmoadgens manqanis namuSevarizeTs 20%-is raodenobiT bitumis masidan, xolo misi armirebaminaqsoviliT aris sruli garantia saxuravis saimedo muSaobisaxangrZlivi drois manZilze.131


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited Pagesbitumis mastikis damzadeba warmoebs Cveulebriv duRabsarevSi,samSeneblo obieqtis teritoriaze. damzadebis procesi Sedgebateqnologiuri operaciebisagan: martivi konstruqciis duRabsarevSiitvirTeba damsxvreuli bitumis masa da isxmeba namuSevari manqaniszeTi, Semdeg emateba saWiro raodenobis uaitspiriti. masalebisdozireba warmoebda receptis Sesabamisad masiTi da moculobiTidozatorebiT. amis Semdeg iwyeba narevis uwyveti areva.erTgvarovani masis miRebis Semdeg igi iRvreba sarezervo sacavebSi,bunkerebSi Sesanaxad an specialur tarebSi, romlebic gadaitanebasamSeneblo obieqtze (nax. 3.1) .samsxvreveladamsxvreulibitumis bunkeriuaitspiritinamuSevarimanqanis zeTibn-IV an bn-Vdozatori dozatori dozatoricikluri moqmedebisduRabsarevimza mastikanax. 3.1. mastikis damzadebis struqturuli sqemamastikis gamoyenebis win misi xarisxi kontrolirdebalaboratoriis mier da mxolod maTi maxasiaTeblebis teqnikur132


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited PagesmoTxovnebTan Sesabamisobis SemTxvevaSi SesaZlebelia misigamoyeneba hidrosaizolacio samuSaoebisaTvis.rogorc mastikis gamoyenebis gamocdilebam dagvanaxa,SesaZlebelia misi xangrZlivi Senaxva xarisxis gauaresebis gareSe,saSualod 6 Tvis ganmavlobaSi.civi asfaltovani mastikis datana betonis an duRabis zedapirzemcire farTobis SemTxvevaSi xorcieldeba xeliT, xolo didifarTobis SemTxvevaSi meqanizebuli xerxiT.HhidrosaizolaciosamuSaoebis warmoebisaTvis gamoiyeneba Semdegi mowyobilobebi:civi mastikis avzi, saidanac duRabtumboebis saSualebiT civiasfaltovani mastika SlangebiT miewodeba aparats, romelsacdaaqvs igi betonis an duRabis zedapirze Tanabrad. mastikis datanahidrosaizolacio zedapirze xorcieldeba specialuri dambaCafrqvevanaTi.dambaCa-frqvevana sxvadasxva tipisaa, aqvs maRalimwarmoebloba. hidrosaizolacio samuSaoebis warmoebisas, mastikisdatana did farTobebze SesaZlebelia duRabsatyorcnebiT, xolosafaris armireba minaqsoviliT sruldeba specialuri aparatissaSualebiT.bolo wlebSi damuSavebulia specialuri dambaCa, romelicminaqsovils Wris da erTdroulad afrqvevs daWril minaqsovilsda civ mastikas. es dambaCa mcire masisa da gabaritisaa, amasTanaqvs maRali mwarmoebluroba - 100 m 2 /saaTSi.hidrosaizolacio samuSaoebis meqanizacias didi mniSvnelobaeniWeba, radganac am SemTxvevaSi sagrZnoblad mcirdebaSromatevadoba da samuSaos Sesrulebis vadebi.3.5. hidrosaizolacio safaris datanahidrosaizolacio safaris sawarmoo gamocdisaTvis daSemowmebisaTvis Sesrulebuli iqna respublikuri sabavSvo baRisbrtyeli saxuravis hidroizolacia kalandaZis quCaze da sxvaobieqtebze q.TbilisSi, saerTo farTobiT 800 m 2 (sur. 3.2 da 3.3).133


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited PagessabavSvo baRis brtyeli gadaxurva Sesrulebuli iyotradiciuli 3 fena ruberoidis gamoyenebiT, magram safarma arimuSava, daiwyo wylis gaJonva da miuxedavad Catarebuli remontisadaisva sakiTxi, safaris mTlianad moxsnis da axali safarisdagebis Sesaxeb Tanamedrove xerxiT. Cveni miTiTebiT safarimTlianad moixsna da Sesrulda gadaxurvis axali moWimva cementisduRabiT.gaTxevadebuli bitumis mastika namuSevari manqanis zeTiT, mcirefarTobis gamo datanili iqna didi zomis funjiT. unda aRiniSnos,rom samuSaos xeliT Sesrulebisas safaris xarisxi ufro dabalia,vidre meqanizebuli xerxis gamoyenebisas. SemdgomSi ufro didimoculobebis samuSaoebisas mastikis miwodeba xorcieldebodarezinis SlangebiT, tumbos saSualebiT, misi Semdgomi gafrqveviT,kompresoruli saqSeniT.Uunda aRiniSnos, rom manqanis namuSevari zeTiT gaTxevadebulibitumis mastika ar saWiroebs mowyobilobebis gaTbobas. samuSaosSesrulebisas gansakuTrebuli yuradReba unda mieqces gadaxurviszedapiris momzadebis xarisxs, e.i. saWiroa gaswordesuswormasworo monakveTebi, Rrmulebi.gadaxurvaze hidrosaizolacio mastikis datanis Semdegwarmoebda momzadebuli minaqsovilis gaSla, misi SemdgomidatkepniT 50 kg-iani masis rezinis sagoraviT.hidrosaizolacio safaris ufro saimedo muSaobisaTvisminaqsovilis pirvel fenaze datanili iqna mastikis meore Sre,xolo mis Semdeg ki ganxorcielda minaqsovilis meore fenisdawebeba, pirveli fenis analogiurad, da bolos vawarmoeTmotkepna rezinis sagoraviT.garda am obieqtisa 1995-2001 wlebSi Cveni monawileobiTSesrulda mTeli rigi gadaxurvebi arayiSvilis Cixi #3 _ 130 m 2 ,abaSiZis q. #10 _ 100 m 2 , mcxeTis q. #31 _ 50 m 2 da mravali sxva.134


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited PagessuraTi 3.2. – brtyeli saxuravis hidroizolaziasuraTi 3.3. – brtyeli saxuravis hidroizolazia135


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited Pages3.5.1. safaris Sroba da xarisxis kontrolihidrosaizolacio samuSaoebis Sesrulebisas mniSvnelovanprocess warmoadgens civi mastikis Srobisa da gamyarebis sakiTxi.kvleviT dadgenilia, rom civi hidrosaizolacio mastikisSrobis optimaluri temperaturaa 40-50 0 C. civi hidrosaizolaciosamuSaoebis warmoebisas, zamTris pirobebSi gadamwyvetimniSvneloba aqvs Srobis xangrZlivobis Semcirebas. daCqarebuliSrobis erT-erT efeqtur meTods warmoadgens cxeli haeris Seberva,romelsac axorcieleben kaloriferebiT. aseve iyeneben SrobisaTvisinfrawiTel sxivebs da sxva meTodebs. daCqarebuli SrobisaTvismastikaSi SehyavT sxvadasxva qimiuri danamatebi da antifrizi.hidroizolaciis Srobis stadiis damTavrebis Semdegsasurvelia Catardes hidrosaizolacio safaris dacvisRonisZiebebi misi meqanikuri dazianebisagan, 10-20 mm sisqis maRalisimtkicis duRabis torkretirebiT.hidrosaizolacio safaris miRebisas gansakuTrebuliyuradReba unda mieqces da safarze aRiniSnos ubnebi, romlebicmoiTxoven Sesworebas. aseve hidrosaizolacio safaris defeqtebisaRmofxvris miTiTebisas, aucileblad unda iqnes gamovlenilidefeqtis xasiaTi (forianoba, adgilobrivi aSreveba, Sreebs Sorisarasakmarisi SeWideba, Seklebisgan gamowveuli bzarebi, bzarebimimxrobis adgilebSi da a.S.) da Sesabamisad dasaxuli unda iqnesRonisZiebebi maT aRmosafxvrelad.cxrilSi 3.3. mocemulia hidrosaizolacio safaris RirebulebisSedareba tradiciul 3 fenian ruberoidis safarTan.136


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited Pagescxrili 3.3.1 m 2 farTobze hidrosaizolacio safaris mowyobis ekonomikuriefeqti tradiciul ruberoidis safarTan SedarebiT# safaris dasaxelebarbili saxuravi sami fena1ruberoidiThidrosaizolacio safari2ori fena minaqsoviliT1 m 2 safarisRirebuleba,lari6.405.77SeniSvnaSesworebuli,samSeneblo normebida wesebi, 8-30-2ekonomikuri efeqti Cvens mier gamoyenebuli hidrosaizolaciosafarisa, tradiciul rbil saxuravTan SedarebiT, SeadgenssaSualod 0,63 lars, radganac manqanis namuSevari zeTi 20%-israodenobiT, warmoebis narCens warmoadgens. amasTan, imisgaTvaliswinebiT, rom tradiciuli ruberoidis saxuravisxangamZleoba Seadgens 3-5 weliwads, xolo aRniSnuli safarisa 15-20 weliwads, ekonomikuri efeqti gaizrdeba 3-5 jer.3.6. saJRenTi Sedgenilobebihidrosaizolacio mastikis teqnikuri SesaZleblobebisa dagamoyenebis arealis gazrdis mizniT, Cvens mier [2, 4, 7]damzadebuli da warmatebiT iqna gamoyenebuli efeqturi saJRenTiSedgenilobebi respublikaSi arsebuli masalebisa da warmoebisnarCenebis gamoyenebiT.miRebuli saJRenTi Sedgenilobebi xasiaTdebian mciredifuziuri SeRwevadobiT, maRali adheziuri TvisebebiT daTermostabilurobiT.warmodgenili saJRenTi Sedgenilobebi komponentebisprocentuli SemcvelobiT mocemulia cxrilSi 3.4.137


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited PagessaJRenTi Sedgenilobebicxrili 3.4.komponentebisaJRenTi SedgenilobebimasiTi, % 1 2 3navTobis bitumi (bn-V) 70 80 90poliuretani 10 7.5 5.0politetraftoreTileni, 4D 1.0 0.75 0.5navTobis zeTi 17.5 10.75 4.0stiarinis mJavis qromianikompleqsuri marili1.5 1.0 0.5saJRenTi Sedgeniloba Seicavs bitums, plastifikatoris saxiTnavTobis zeTs (magaliTad, avtols da sxva), poliuretaniskompaunds, politetraftoreTilens aRebuls 10:1 TanafardobiT dastearinis mJavis qromian marils.komponentebi cxeldebian cal-calke 50-60 0 C temperaturamde,Semdeg xdeba maTi urTierT Sereva, xolo gamyareba warmoebs 100-1100 C temperaturaze 20-30 wuTis ganmavlobaSi.4D markis politetraftoreTileni kompoziciur Sedgenilobas,poliureTanTan 1:10 mudmivi TanafardobiT, bitumis mastikas aniWebsTermoplastikur Tvisebebs, mowesrigebuli sivrculi struqturisgamo.navTobis zeTi gamoiyeneba rogorc maplastificirebelidanamati, saSualod 8,5-12,5 %-is raodenobiT, romelsackatalizatoris saxiT umateben stearinis mJavis qromiankompleqsur marils.138


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited PagessaJRenTi Sedgenilobis damzadebis teqnologia imaSimdgomareobs, rom 180-190 0 C temperaturaze gacxelebul navTobisbitumsa da navTobis zeTis narevSi umateben samanqano zeTisnarCenebs, romelic mcire porciebiT Seicavs zemoT aRniSnulmarils. uwyveti arevisas masSi SehyavT poliuretanis kompaundi,romelic winaswar Sereulia politetraftoreTilenis fxvnilTan,TanafardobiT 1:10-Tan, erTgvarovani masis miRebamde. temperaturada arevis xangrZlivoba icvleba sawyisi narevis SedgenilobismixedviT.unda aRiniSnos, rom bitumebs axasiaTebT poliuretanTanSeTavseba, amasTan SeTavseba ar iwvevs qimiur reaqcias, radganacpoliuretani inertulia bitumTan. garda amisa sagulisxmoa, rompoliuretani politetraftoreTilenTan mudmiv TanafardobaSi 10:1-Tan, bitumis masaSi qmnis mowesrigebul sivrcul struqturas, racgansazRvravs kompoziciis Tvisebebs.maRali temperaturis pirobebSi (180-190 0 C)Serevisaspoliuretani politetraftoreTilenTan imyofeba darbilebulmdgomareobaSi, rac aadvilebs mis Tanabar dispergirebas bitumSi.poliuretanis komponentis Seyvanis Sedegad, mniSvnelovnadizrdeba saJRenTi Sedgenilobis Termostabiluroba. 160 0 Ctemperaturaze Sedgeniloba ar qafdeba da ar icvlebaerTgvarovnoba, amasTan igi maRali temperaturis pirobebSixasiaTdeba maRalplastikuri deformaciis unariT.Ppoliuretaniskompaundis koncentraciis zRvruli mniSvnelobapolitetraftoreTilenTan, bitumis saJRenT SedgenilobaSidakavSirebulia darbilebis temperaturasTan da maTi raodenobisSemdgomi zrdiT, darbilebis temperatura Zalian mcire sididiTicvleba.139


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited PagessaJRenTi Sedgenilobis damzadeba maplastificirebelimasalebis sxvadasxva SemcvelobiT, romelTa Soris warmodgenilkompoziciebSi gamoyenebulia navTobis zeTi, katalizatorstearinis mJavas komplqsur qromian marilTan erTad, saSualebasiZleva mniSvnelovnad gaizardos saJRenTi Sedgenilobis adheziuriTvisebebi, garda amisa ganpirobebulia difuziuri SeRwevadobisSemcireba.navTobis zeTis Semcvelobis 17,5%-ze meti raodenobiT gazrdaiwvevs warmodgenili kompoziciis Tvisebebis gauaresebas, racaixsneba bitumis struqturis warmomqmnelebis fardobis darRveviT,Semkvrelis siblantis miaxlovebis gamo danamatis siblantestan.stearinis mJavis qromiani marilis danamati 0,5-1,5% masis mixedviTsaSualebas iZleva gaizardos navTobis zeTis maplastificirebeliTvisebebi.cxrilSi 3.5 warmodgenilia saJRenTi Sedgenilobebis fizikurmeqanikuriTvisebebi. cxrilidan 3.5 Cans, rom warmodgenilisaJRenTi Sedgenilobebi xasiaTdebian gadidebuli adheziuriTvisebebiT da maRali temperaturamedegobiT 110 0 C. saJRenTiSedgeniloba am temperaturamde biologiurad medegia, aratoqsikuria, amasTan xasiaTdebian gadidebuli adheziuri TvisebebiTda dabali higroskopulobiT, rac ganpirobebulia ara martokomponentebis fardobebis cvalebadobiT, aramed kompoziciissivrculi struqturis da ingredientebs Soris kavSirebisa daurTierTqmedebebis cvlilebiT. sabolood, vRebulobTmowesrigebuli struqturis kompozits, romelic uzrunvelyofiliawinaswar moTxovnili TvisebebiT.140


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited PagessaJRenTi Sedgenilobebis fizikur-meqanikuri Tvisebebicxrili 3.5.SedgenilobebissaJRenTi SedgenilobebimaCveneblebi 1 2 3 cnobilisaJRenTi Sedgenilobisdarbilebistemperatura,0 Ctemperaturamedegoba,0 Cadhezia,kgZ/sm 2106-110 106-107 106-108 65-7096 99 9560-zenaklebiliTonTan 3.5 3.6 3.9 0.6 - 0.9keramikasTan 3.3 3.9 3.7 0.74 - 0.8(ss 15140-79) betonTan 6.7 6.0 5.7 1.0 - 1.7difuziuri SeRwevadoba(higroskopuloba anwyalSTanTqma)ar aRiniSneba 7 - 10xangrZlivi gamocdisas(ss 2477-85)yinvagamZleoba, –17 0 C,50 cikligauZlo _pergamentze datanili 6 mm Reros6 mm Reros 6 mm Reros22 mm sisqis Sris SemTxvevaSimoqniloba, aranaklebi 6 SemTxvevaSi SemTxvevaSibzars armm diametris Rerozear skdeba ar skdebaiZlevamisi moRunvisas_toqsikuroba aratoqsikuri _biologiuri medegoba medegia _saJRenTi Sedgenilobebis maCveneblebis dadgena warmoebda amdargSi arsebuli saxelmwifo standartebis moTxovnebisSesabamisad.saJRenTi Sedgenilobebis xarisxis sakontrolo SemowmebisaTvissinji aiReba 1kg raodenobiT, erTi da igive partiis sxvadasxvaadgilidan, romelic damzadebulia erTi da igive teqnologiiTa dakomponentebiT.141


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited Pagestemperaturamedegobis gansazRvra warmoebda SemdegiTanmimdevrobiT: usafaro tolis nimuSze, zomiT 50X100 mm, 3 mmsisqis Tanabari SriT daitaneba damzadebuli Sedgeniloba, amaszevidan edeba igive zomis usafaro tolis meore nimuSi. Semdegwarmoebs maTi urTierTmiWera 2kgZ tvirTis saSualebiT 1 saaTisganmavlobaSi, wnevis Tanabari ganawilebisaTvis. normalurtemperaturamde (20+/-2 0 C) gacivebis Semdeg dawebebuli nimuSiTavsdeba TermostatSi, romelic gaxurebulia 100+/-2 0 C-mde,qvesadgamze kuTxiT 45 0 .am temperaturaze nimuSs ayovneben 5 saaTis ganmavlobaSi, risSemdegac gamoaqvT igi da warmoebs misi daTvaliereba. Tu nimuSzear aRmoCndeba xiluli cvlilebebi, iTvleba, rom nimuSma gauZlogamocdas.darbilebis temperatura isazRvreboda xelsawyoze “rgolisfero”,Sedegebi mocemulia cxrilSi 3.4. adhezia liTonTan,keramikasTan da betonTan warmoebda ss 15140-79 moTxovnebisSesabamisad.cxrili 3.4-is analiziT vaskvniT, rom adhezia liTonTannacvlad ss gaTvaliswinebulisa 0,6-0,9 aris liTonisaTvis 3,5-3,9kgZ/sm 2 , keramikasTan nacvlad 0,74-0,8 aris 3,3-3,9 kgZ/sm 2 , xolobetonTan (rac Cveni interesia) nacvlad 1,0-1,7 aris 5,7-6,7, kgZ/sm 2 ,rac Cveni saJRenTi Sedgenilobis maRal xarisxze miuTiTebs.Ddifuziuri SeRwevadoba (higroskopuloba an wyalSTanTqma)isazRvreboda xangrZlivi gamocdebiT ss 2477-75 –is moTxovnebisSesabamisad.moqnilobis gansazRvra warmoebda Semdegi TanmimdevrobiT:usafaro tolis nimuSze, zomiT 50X100 mm, daitaneba saJRenTiSedgeniloba 2 mm sisqis Tanabari SriT. saJRenTi Sedgenilobis20+/-2 0 C-mde gacivebis Semdeg, amasTan saJRenTi Sedgenilobisdatanis arauadres 2 saaTisa, nimuSs aTavseben wyalSi,temperaturiT 20+/-2 0 C-ze 15 wuTis ganmavlobaSi. amis Semdeg nimuSi142


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited Pageswylidan amoaqvT da nelnela Runaven 6 mm diametris Rerosirgvliv. Runva unda mimdinareobdes Tanabrad 2 wamis ganmavlobaSi.Tu cdis Semdeg nimuSze ar gaCnda bzari, iTvleba, rom nimuSmagauZlo gamocdas, rac Cvens SemTxvevaSi dadebiTi SedegiTdasrulda.unda aRiniSnos, rom saJRenTi Sedgenilobis gaumjobesebulisaeqspluatacio parametrebi (adhezia, wyaluJonadoba,Termomedegoba, bzarmedegoba da sxva) afarToeben mis teqnikurSesaZleblobebs da gamoyenebis ares. kerZod, maTi gamoyenebaSesaZlebelia mSeneblobaSi gamoyenebuli forovani da boWkovanimasalebisa da nakeTobebis gasaJRenTad, rkinabetonis milebishidroTboizolaciisa da sarwyavi arxebis nakerebishermetizaciisaTvis. garda amisa antikoroziuli safarisaTvis.3.6.1. saJRenTi Sedgenilobebis gamoyeneba sarwyavi arxebisnakerebis hermetizaciisaTvissarwyavi arxebis eqspluataciis dros filtraciissawinaaRmdego dacvis erT-erT RonisZiebas warmoadgens maTinakerebis hermetizacia.rogorc cnobilia, betonis arxebiT wylis transportirebisas 15-20%-mde wyali ikargeba nakerebidan, rac mniSvnelovnad moqmedebsarxis mwarmoeblobaze da nagebobis xangamZleobaze. [20, 21].Tanamedrove periodSi, rogorc CvenSi, aseve sxva qveynebSiarxebis nakerebis hermetizaciis sakiTxis gadawyvetisas, sxvadasxvadaniSnulebis asawyobi da monoliTuri nakeTobebisaTvis didiwarmatebiT iyeneben sxvadasxva saxis civ mastikebs. es savsebiTgamarTlebulia, radganac mastikiT hermetizirebuli nakeriskonstruqcia Zalian martivia da misi Sesruleba ar moiTxovsSromis did danaxarjebsa da siZneleebs, amasTan erTad SemdgomSieqspluataciis procesSi advilia misi SekeTeba.143


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited Pagesbolo wlebSi warmoebaSi aTvisebulia Tiokolis da sxva saxismastikebis saxesxvaobebi, rogoricaa -0,5; -0,5; -0,5,sinTeTikuri kauCukis lateqsi -30, laqis saxesxvaobebi-eTinoli,-1, -4, lateqsi -65 da sxva.es hermetikebi farTod gavrcelebulia aSS-Si, inglisSi,safrangeTSi, ruseTSi, azerbaijanSi da sxva qveynebSi, radganacisini gamoirCevian maRali medegobiT atmosferuli movlenebis,garda amisa Jangbadisa da ultraiisferi sxivebis moqmedebismimarT. magram unda aRiniSnos, rom es hermetikebi Zalian maRaliRirebulebisaa, deficituria maTi komponentebi, amitom maTigamoyeneba mniSvnelovnad aris SezRuduli.Cvens mier damuSavebuli iqna sahermetizacio specialurimastika saJRenTi Sedgenilobisa, azbestis fxvnilis gamoyenebiT[2, 4, 7]. azbestis fxvnili 10-15%-is raodenobiT saJRenTSedgenilobaSi Sereuli unda iqnes porciebad, mSralmdgomareobaSi, minarevebis gareSe. muSa Sedgenilobis arevisxangrZlivoba ar unda aWarbebdes 12-15 wuTs. mza mastika miRebuliiqna erTgvarovani masis saxiT, koStebisa da Sesqelebuli nadebebisgareSe.mastikis dasamzadeblad gamoyenebuli iqna me-7 xarisxisxrizotilazbesti, Semdegi teqnikuri maxasiaTeblebiT: simkvrive2,5 g/sm 3 , Termomedegoba 50 0 C, gardatexis koeficienti 1,5, saSualodiametri 0,05 mm, tenianoba araumetes 3%-isa masis mixedviT.nakerebis hermetizacia rekomendebulia ganxorcieldes haeristemperaturis aranaklebi 5 0 C-isa, amasTan arxis nakerebis tenianimonakveTebi aucileblad unda iyos gamSrali.Nnakeris siRruve dakedlebis zedapirebi guldasmiT unda gasufTavdes qvebis, betonisnatexebis, qviSisa da mtvrisagan specialuri mowyobilobiT dajagrisiT. gawmendis Semdeg siRruveSi Seibereba SekumSuli haerikompresoris SlangiT. nakeris siRruveSi mastikis Casxmis win,144


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited PagesmastikasTan Sexebuli konstruqciis zedapiri unda daifarossaJRenTi SedgenilobiT.hermetiki ivseba ori jeriT, pirvelad nakeris 2/3-ed simaRleze,xolo 3-4 saaTis Semdeg mTel simaRleze.damuSavebuli hermetikis danergva Cvens mier ganxorcieldamarneulis melioraciisa da wyalTa meurneobis sammarTveloSi,sofel wereTlis magistraluri sarwyavi arxis mSeneblobaze 1992-1995 wlebSi, sakmao ekonomikuri efeqtiT. Catarebuli samuSaosxarisxis kontroli Catarda 1995 wels, razedac miRebuli iqnasavsebiT damakmayofilebeli Sedegebi (ixileT danergvis aqti).3.6.2. saJRenTi Sedgenilobebis gamoyeneba liTonis milebisantikoroziuli safarisaTvis da sxva daniSnulebiThidrosaizolacio mastikisa da saJRenTi Sedgenilobismravalmxriv gamoyenebaSi mniSvnelovani adgili ukavia saJRenTiSedgenilobis sasargeblo gamoyenebas liTonis wyalsadeni milebisantikoroziuli safarisaTvis.am mimarTebiT, Cvens mier gamokvleuli iqna saJRenTiSedgenilobebis antikoroziuli Tvisebebi. dadebiTi Sedegebidagvidastura baqos, navTobqimiuri procesebis institutisTanamSromelTa daskvnebma da gamoqveynebulma samuSaoebma [18].garda amisa, saJRenTi Sedgenilobis antikoroziulidaniSnulebiT gamoyeneba laboratoriuli analiziT dagvidasturasaqarTvelos saavtomobilo gzebis samecniero-kvleviTmainstitutma. es safari gamoyenebuli iqna S.p.s. ”be end ikss+”-is mierliTonisa da betonis milsadenebis rogorc hidrosaizolaciod,aseve antikoroziuli safarisaTvis 2005-2006 wlebSi (ixileTdanergvis aqtebi).milsadenSi koroziis gamomwvevi saxeebia: niadagis korozia,eleqtrokorozia, wyalqveSa korozia da atmosferuli korozia.145


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited Pagessafaris teqnologiuri datana liTonis milis zedapirzemizanSewonilia qarxnul pirobebSi. xSirad es procesi sruldebasamSeneblo ubanze, radganac milebis transportirebis procesSi anmaTi Senaxvisas mosalodnelia garkveuli dazianebebi, riTacgamowveulia milsadenis montaJisas safaris dazianebebisaRmofxvra da xelaxali datana zedapirze.koroziamedegi safaris teqnologiuri datana TxelkedlianliTonis milebze warmoebda Semdegi TanmimdevrobiT: liTonismilsadenis zedapiris momzadeba, saJRenTi Sedgenilobis datana dasafaris Sroba.zedapiris momzadeba warmoebs liTonis jagrisebis meqanikurimoqmedebiT, safaris datana 1,5-3,0 mm sisqiT warmoebda meqanikurifrqvevanaTi ( an 2M, gadaadgilebis siCqare 3-10 m/wT-Si). amsamuSaos erT-erT mniSvnelovan teqnologiur process warmoadgenssafaris Sroba, romelic mimdinareobs bunebriv pirobebSi, rocahaeris temperatura aris aranaklebi 5-6 0 C-isa 48 saaTisganmavlobaSi. zafxulis pirobebSi, roca temperatura 20 0 C-zemaRalia (35-40 0 C) Sroba warmoebs 3-5 saaTis ganmavlobaSi. TusamuSao tardeba specialur saamqroebSi, maSin safaris SrobamTavrdeba 2-3 saaTSi TermokamerebSi, sadac temperatura meryeobs55-60 0 C-mde.G garda hidrosaizolacio da antikoroziuli daniSnulebisa,saJRenTi Sedgeniloba sxvadasxva SemvsebebTan erTad, kerZod,azbestis fxvnilTan, aluminis pudrasTan da sxva masalebTan erTadwarmoqmnis sagozav masalas, rac SesaZlebelia warmatebiTgamoyenebuli iqnes, sxvadasxva Tunuqis gadaxurvebis SesakeTeblad,samrewvelo da samoqalaqo Senobebis safanjre Riobebis mowyobis,garda amisa sxvadasxva nagebobebis, rogorc asawyobi, asevemonoliTuri konstruqciebis nakerebisa da pirapirebishermetizaciisaTvis.146


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited Pageses sagozavi masala asve SesaZlebelia gamoyenebuli iqneskeramikul mrewvelobaSi, sxvadasxva daniSnulebis nakeTobebisa dasxva dazianebebis SesakeTeblad.BzemoT moyvanili kvlevebi Catarebuli iqna saqarTvelosteqnikuri universitetis saSeni masalebisa da nakeTobebis kaTedrislaboratoriaSi da saqarTvelos gzaTa samecniero-kvleviT dasawarmoo teqnologiur kompleqsuri institutis laboratoriaSi,Sps “saqgzamecniereba”. LA147


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited PagesZiriTadi daskvnebi_ naSromSi damuSavebulia magistraluri milsadenebiTnavTobis transportirebis da Senaxvis monitoringis meTodologia,rac saerTaSoriso standartebis Sesabamisad (API) saqarTveloSipirvelad ganxorcielda, “dasavleTis mimarTulebis saeqsportomilsadenze” navTobis zusti raodenobis gansazRvrisaTvis saWiromowyobiloba-danadgarebis testireba-kalibraciis da aseve navTobisabsolutur raodenobasTan miaxloebuli gaangariSebis meTodisgamoyenebiT._ 1999 wlidan 2006 wlis CaTvliT, “dasavleTis mimarTulebissaeqsporto milsadenis” saSualebiT transportirebuli navTobisraodenobis zusti gansazRvrisaTvis, Cvens mier saerTaSorisostandartebis Sesabamisad Catarebuli iqna navTobis maragisSemnaxvel sadgurze gamoyenebuli mowyobiloba-danadgarebistestireba da kalibracia, winamdebare sadisertacio naSromSimoyvanili meTodologiebis gamoyenebiT.Cvens mier gamoyenebulia navTobis raodenobis gaangariSebismeTodi da moyvanilia ricxviTi magaliTi sufsis terminalzearsebuli rezervuarebis gamoyenebiT, rogorc eleqtronuligaangariSebis sistemis alternatiuli meTodi._ navTobis narCenebis gamoyenebiT, Cvens mier Seqmnilihidrosaizolacio mastika armirebuli ori fena minaqsoviliTwarmatebiT iqna gamoyenebuli samrewvelo da samoqalaqonagebobebis gadaxurvebisaTvis. safari xasiaTdeba saukeTesosaeqspluatacio TvisebebiT: elastiurobiT, bzarmedegobiT,yinvagamZleobiT, adheziis unariT, wyaluJonadobiT, xangamZleobiT(15-20 weliwadi)._ ekonomikuri efeqti ganxorcielebuli hidrosaizolaciosafarisa, tradiciul rbil saxuravTan SedarebiT Seadgens 63TeTrs (1m 2 -saTvis). amasTan imis gaTvaliswinebiT, rom tradiciuli148


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited Pagesruberoidis (3 fena) saxuravis xagamZleoba Seadgens 3-5 weliwads,xolo Cvens mier SemoTavazebuli hidrosaizolacio safarisa 15-20weliwads, ekonomikuri efeqti gaizrdeba 3-5 jer._ Cvens mier damzadebuli saJRenTi Sedgenilobebi gamoyenebuliiqna betonis sarwyavi arxebis hidroizolaciisa da nakerebishermetizaciisaTvis. samuSao danergili iqna 1995 wels wyalTameurneobis sammarTvelos marneulis raionis sof. wereTlismagistraluri sarwyavi arxis hermetizaciisaTvis.gamoyenebuli iqna aseve rkinabetonis milebis nakerebishermitazaciisaTvis. samuSao danergili iqna 2006 – 2008 wlebSi Sps“nakaduli”-s mier, q. TbilisSi WonqaZis quCis sakanalizaciosaniaRvreqselis mowyobisas (ix. danergvis aqtebi – danarTi 4)._ saJRenTi Sedgeniloba warmatebiT iqna gamoyenebuli liTonismilsadenebis antikoroziuli safarisaTvis. samuSao danergili iqna2008 wels Sps “be end iqss+”-s mier, q. TbilisSi afTauniswyalsadenis qselis mowyobisas (ix. danergvis aqti – danarTi 4).149


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited Pagesgamoyenebuli literatura1. . . . , , , 1991 .2. l. miqelaZe, n. razmaZe, d. nadiraZe. nagebobaTa saxuravebisa dabrtyeli zedapirebis hidroizolacia efeqtiani saJRenTiSedgenilobebis gamoyenebiT. Jurnali “mecniereba dateqnologiebi”, #10-12, Tbilisi, 2000 w.3. d. nadiraZe. navTobis da gazis saxmeleTo terminalzeimportirebuli da eqsportirebuli navTobis an gazisparametrebisa da raodenobis dadgena-gaangariSeba,mowyobilobebis momsaxureba-kalibracia. Jurnali “uaxlesiteqnologiebi-saqarTvelo”, saerTaSoriso samecniero –sainJinro konferencia, Tbilisi, 2003 w.4. d. nadiraZe. saJRenTi Sedgenilobebis gamoyeneba sxvadasxvadaniSnulebis nagebobebis xangrZlivi eqspluataciisaTvis.samecniero-teqnikuri Jurnali “mSenebloba”, #4(11), Tbilisi,2008 w.5. d. nadiraZe. saxmeleTo terminalze gamoyenebulimowyobilobebis testireba – dakalibreba. samecniero-teqnikuriJurnali “energia”, #1(49), Tbilisi, 2009 w.6. d. nadiraZe. saxmeleTo terminalze navTobis parametrebisa daraodenobis dadgenisa da gaangariSebis meTodi. samecnieroteqnikuriJurnali “energia”, #2(50), Tbilisi, 2009 w.150


PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited Pages7. l. miqelaZe. Senobis brtyeli gadaxurvebis hidroizolacia“bitmas 91”-is gamoyenebiT, Jurnali “mecniereba da teqnika”, #4-6, Tbilisi, 2000 w.8. z. mgelaZe, g. liluaSvili. navTobis miRwevebi, problemebi,perspeqtivebi. Tbilisi, 2001 w.9. r. kandelaki, a. maRalaSvili, T. miqiaSvili. navTobisa da gazisinglisur-rusul-qarTuli leqsikoni. Tbilisi, 2005 w.10... . . , ,1975 .11. . , , 2004 .12... . . , , 1978 .13. . , , , 1979 .14... . . ,, 1978 .15.-. . , ,, 2000 .16.. , . , . . . «», , 1990 .151


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PDFDocumentsCompleteClick Here & UpgradeExpanded FeaturesUnlimited Pages30.API - American Petroleum Institute, USA, 1992.31.n. xundaZe. sarewao geofizika. saxelmZRvanelo. gamomc.“saqarTvelos teqnikuri universiteti”, Tbilisi, 2005 weli.32.T. Jordania. navTob da gazsadenebis mSeneblobis Sedegadwarmoqmnili Txrilebis da miwis ferdobebis dacvaeroziisagan. Jurnali “mecniereba da teqnologiebi”, #10-12,Tbilisi, 2002 weli.33.l. maxaraZe, T. goCitaSvili, m. kucia. navTobsadenebis saimedoba.“saqarTvelos navTobi da gazi”, #1, Tbilisi, 2000 weli.34.l. maxaraZe. baqo-sufsis navTobsadenis proeqtis saxelmwifoteqnologiuri eqspertizis ZiriTadi Sedegebi. “saqarTvelosnavTobi da gazi”, #2, Tbilisi, 2000 weli.35.l. maxaraZe, T. goCitaSvili, g. abulaSvili. saqarTvelosmagistraluri gazsadenebis mdgomareobisa da maT reabilitaciasTandakavSirebuli teqnikur-ekonomikuri problemebis analizi.“saqarTvelos navTobi da gazi”, #10, Tbilisi, 2004 weli.36. . , . «», 20, , 2007 .37... . . , 1972 .153


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