Tavi 11. miwis resursebi da niadagebi - momxmarebeli.ge

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Tavi 11. miwis resursebi da niadagebi - momxmarebeli.ge

• II zona (250-5000m) _ mebaReoba-mebostneobis, mevenaxeobis, intensiurimemindvreobis (ZiriTadad simindis) gavrcelebis areali.• III zona (500-1000m) _ Warbobs TavTaviani kulturebi, bunebrivi sakvebisavargulebi, mecxoveleoba.• IV zona (1000-1500m) _ ZiriTadad saTib-saZovrebia, memindvreoba sustadaris ganviTarebuli.• V zona_(1500-2000m) _ ZiriTadad saTib-saZovrebia.• VI zona (2000m-is zemoT) _ miwaTmoqmedeba ar arsebobs.saxelmwifo regulireba1992-1998 ww-Si Catarebuli miwis reformis Sedegad saqarTvelos sasoflosameurneomiwebis 55% soflis mosaxleobas usasyidlod gadaeca. miwis reformaSesaZloa or etapad davyoT: 1991 wlidan 1998 wlamde ganxorcielda sasoflosameurneomiwis reforma, 1999-dan 2003 wlamde _ arasasoflo-sameurneodaniSnulebis miwebis reforma.dResdReobiT privatizebas eqvemdebareba mxolod sasoflo-sameurneodaniSnulebis miwebi (garda saZovrebisa) da arasasoflo-sameurneo daniSnulebisis miwebi, romlebic ar ganekuTvneba tyis fonds, wylis fonds, daculteritoriebs, agreTve rekreaciuli daniSnulebis, istoriis, kulturis, bunebisada sakulto-religiuri ZeglebisaTvis gankuTvnil miwebs.privatizebuli sasoflo-sameurneo miwebis sxva daniSnulebiT gamoyenebaikrZaleba, rac imas niSnavs, rom am miwebze akrZalulia mSenebloba (gamonaklisswarmoadgens miwis mesakuTris piradi sacxovrebeli saxli an sameurneo nageboba_ maTi ageba sasoflo-sameurneo miwebze daiSveba), samrewvelo sawarmoebis agebafunqcionirebada sxva. Tuki samrewvelo an sxva urbanuli miznebisTvis sasoflosameurneomiwis gamoyeneba mainc aucilebelia, dainteresebulma pirma undamoiTxovos miwis daniSnulebis Secvla da saamisod saTanado kompensaciagadaixados (rac miwebis adgilmdebareobazea damokidebuli da heqtarze 15-dan 100aTas laramde Tanxas Seadgens). miwis miznobrivi daniSnulebis Secvlasaxorcielebs saqarTvelos iusticiis saministros mmarTvelobis sferoSiSemavali sajaro samarTlis iuridiuli piri – sajaro reestris erovnulisaagento, xolo sarekreacio teritoriebis sazRvrebSi moqceuli sasoflosameurneodaniSnulebis miwebisa da q. Tbilisisa da q. baTumis administraciulsazRvrebSi moqceuli sasoflo-sameurneo daniSnulebis miwebis SemTxvevebSi -saqarTvelos garemos dacvisa da bunebrivi resursebis saministro.miuxedavad miwis miznobrivi daniSnulebisa, masze arasasoflo-sameurneoxasiaTis saqmianobis dawyebamde aucilebelia niadagis nayofieri fenis moxsna dadasawyobeba/dakonserveba. niadagis moxsnili nayofieri fenis gadazidva angasxviseba ikrZaleba. Tuki saqmianoba droebiTi xasiaTisaa (magaliTad,mineraluri resursebis mopoveba an nagavsayreli poligonis mowyoba dafunqcionireba), misi dasrulebis Semdeg aucilebelia teritoriis aRdgenarekultivaciadakonservebuli niadagis saSualebiT.aqve aRsaniSnavia, rom yvela niadagi, miuxedavad miwis sakuTrebis formisa,saxelmwifo dacvis obieqts warmoadgens. kerZod, ikrZaleba:• niadagis yovelgvari gaWuWyianeba da danagvianeba;• ferdobebis dateraseba niadagis SerCevisa da saTanado daproeqtebis gareSe;• saZovrebis gamwireba uwesrigo ZovebiT; gansakuTrebiT dadgenil normazegadaWarbebuli raodenobiT naxirisa da faris Zoveba maRalmTiansaZovrebze;• tyiT sargeblobis dros niadagis safaris dazianeba;• mindorsacavi tyis zolebis gakafva-gadakeTeba, niadagdamcav nagebobaTadazianeba;


• sasuqebis, qimiuri meliorintebis da sxva saSualebebis gamoyeneba, romlebicar aris gamocdili saqarTvelos pirobebSi, ara aqvs gavlili Sesabamisiniadagur-ekologiuri eqspertiza da ar aris Semowmebuli, registrirebulida nebadarTuli Sesabamisi saxelmwifo uwyebis mier;• sxva yovelgvari qmedeba, romelic gaauaresebs niadagis Tvisebebs.samwuxarod, am moTxovnaTa dacvis kontroli dRevandel realobaSi verxorcieldeba.2. miwebisa da niadagebis mdgomareobasaqarTvelos klimatur-reliefuri Taviseburebebisa da geodinamikuriprocesebis gamo saqarTveloSi miwebisa da niadagebis erozias sakmaod farTomasStabebi aqvs. niadagis erozia rig SemTxvevebSi aris bunebrivi movlena, Tumcadegradaciis procesis simwvave Rrmavdeba adamianis mier niadagis aramdgradigamoyenebiT. gavrcelebulia miwebisa da niadagebis rogorc wylismieri daqarismieri erozia, aseve damlaSebisa da daWaobebis procesebi (ix. rukebi 11.2-11.5).sasoflo-sameurneo niadagebis 33% (1 mln ha) erozirebulia. Aaqedan 380 aTasi hasaxnavi miwebia, 570 aTasi ha _ saZovrebi da saTibebi, 87 aTasi ha _ Savi zRvissanapiro zoli.aRmosavleT saqarTvelos aridul da naxevrad aridul zonebSi qarismiererozias ganicdis 105 aTasi ha saxnav-saTesi savarguli 18 administraciulraionSi. Zlier damlaSebulia niadagebis 59 aTasi ha, saSualod damlaSebuli _54 aTasi ha. neSompala-sulfaturi niadagebis saerTo farTobi, romelsacmelioracia esaWiroeba 15 aTas ha-s Seadens. sasoflo-sameurneo savargulebisdaaxloebiT 10 aTasi ha darRveuli da dazianebulia mineraluri resursebis Riakarieruli wesiT damuSavebis gamo.miwebisa da niadagebis eroziuli procesebi gansakuTrebiT gaZlierda bolowlebSi, globaluri klimaturi cvlilebebis gamo gaxSirebuli stiqiurimovlenebis Sedegad. aRiniSneba sasoflo-sameurneo niadagis gaRaribebamcenarisaTvis saWiro sakvebi nivTierebebiT da nayofierebis ZiriTadi maCveneblis_ humusis _ Semcirebis tendencia TiTqmis yvela saxis niadagSi. niadagisnayofierebis kargvas aCqarebs Seusabamo sasoflo-sameurneo praqtika.gansakuTrebiT aRsaniSnavia niadagis zeda nayofieri fenis kargva, gamowveulibolo wlebSi infrastruqturuli proeqtebis ganxorcielebiT da mSeneblobiT(soflis meurneobis saministros 2006 wlis monacemebiT, saqarTvelos sasoflosameurneomiwis 60% saSualo an dabali nayofierebisaa). niadagis gabicobebas daniadagis damJavianebas xels uwyobs da aCqarebs mJavawarmomqmneli azotovanisasuqebis gamoyeneba. miwebis degradacias aZlierebs tyeebis ukontrolo Wra,araswori sasoflo-sameurneo praqtika (gadaWarbebuli Zoveba, intensiurimiwaTmoqmedeba, damrec ferdobebze xvna), Ria karieruli wesiT sasargeblowiaRiseulis mopoveba da sxva.ruka 11.3: wylismier erozias daqvemdebarebuli miwebi (wyaro: soflis meurneobissaministro) ჩაისმება პუბლიკაციაშიruka 11.4: qarismieri eroziiT dazianebuli miwebi (wyaro: soflis meurneobissaministro) ჩაისმება პუბლიკაციაში


uka 11.5: damJavianebuli niadagebi (wyaro: soflis meurneobis saministro) ჩაისმებაპუბლიკაციაშიruka 11.6: damlaSebuli niadagebi (wyaro: soflis meurneobis saministro) ჩაისმებაპუბლიკაციაშიgaudabnoebasTan brZolis erovnuli strategiamiwis degradaciis erT-erTi, msoflioSi cnobili saxea miwebis gaudabnoeba,rac mSrali stepebisa da naxevarudabnoebis mcenareuli safaris TandaTanobiTdakargvaSi mdgomareobs. gaudabnoebis procesebis gaaqtiureba miwis resursebisaramdgradi gamoyenebiTa (araswori irigacia, gadaWarbebuli Zoveba, kultivacia,tyis safaris kargva) da klimaturi faqtorebiT ganisazRvreba. gaudabnoebisprocesebi saqarTveloSic mimdinareobs. am mxriv yvelaze mgrZnobiare raionebiaSida da qvemo qarTli, kaxeTis nawili (dedofliswyaros, siRnaRis, sagarejosraionebi). Ggaudabnoebis process ganicdis daaxloebiT 3000km 2 , romelic moicavsSiraqis, eldaris, ivris, taribanas, naomaris, oles, jeiran-Colis velebs, maTgamyof qedebs, zegnebs da kaxeTis qedis ferdobis umetes nawils. Ggaudabnoebiszona saqarTveloSi iwyeba zRvis donidan 300-400 m-dan da mWidrod esazRvrebameCxerebs _ `CrdiloeTis savaneebs~. gaudabnoebis procesi moicavsdedofliswyaros raionis 119 aTas ha-s, siRnaRis raionis 46 aTas ha-s, sagarejosraionis 47 aTas ha-s, gardabnis raionis 32 aTas ha-s da marneulis raionis 30 aTasha-s. gaudabnoebis procesis gaaqtiureba SeimCneva agreTve samxreT saqarTveloSic(axalcixis qvabuli) da Sida qarTlSic (kaspis raioni), sadac bolo aTwleulisganmavlobaSi qarsacavi zolebis TiTqmis mTlianad ganadgurebis, gvalvebissixSiris gazrdis da naleqebis deficitis pirobebSi momatebuli temperaturisfonze gaZlierda qarismieri eroziis procesi.saqarTveloSi gaudabnoebis procesebs klimaturi, geologiuri daniadaguri Taviseburebebis garda, eroziuli procesebic ganapirobebs _ rogorcbunebrivi erozia, aseve adamianis saqmianobis Sedegad gaZlierebuli eroziuliprocesebi. eroziis gamaZlierebeli saqmianobebidan aRsaniSnavia:- naTeli da Walis tyeebis ukontrolo Cexva. es tyeebi gansakuTrebiTdazianda 1993-2003 ww-Si, roca mimdebare teritoriis mosaxleobas saTbobadsxva masala praqtikulad ar gaaCnda.- saxnav-saTesi miwebis araracionaluri gamoyeneba. sabWoTa periodSiixvneboda miwis yvela monakveTi, sadac ki traqtori gavlas SeZlebda;ixvneboda Zalze dabali nayofierebis miwebic ki. ekonomikuriTvalsazrisiT am miwebis damuSaveba srulebiT uSedego (an zaraliani) iyoda amave dros igi iwvevda arsebuli mcenareuli safaris Zlier dazianebas.aseTi gadaxnuli da degradirebuli miwebis moSiSvlebul zedapirze stepismcenareuloba aRar aRdga da sanacvlod naxevarudabnosa da udabnosekosistemebi Camoyalibda.- xelovnuri xanZrebi. saZovrebis gaumjobesebis mizniT gazafxulze mwyemsebiregularulad awyoben xelovnur xanZrebs. es agreTve iwvevs balaxismravalferovnebis Semcirebas.- melioraciuli sistemebis dausabuTebeli mSenebloba. mTagorian adgilebSiniadagebis rwyva yovelTvis sasargeblo ar aris. xSiria niadagebisgadarecxva da kargva, TabaSiris da Tixis gamotana daqanebis mimarulebiTda vake adgilebze akumulireba, TabaSiris gamokristaleba. aseT dazianebuladgilebze mcenareuli safari praqtikulad aRar aRdgeba. problemuria,agreTve, sarwyavi sistemebi, romlebSic wyali eleqtroenergiis gamoyenebiT


500-600 m simaRleze itumbeboda. ekonomikuri TvalsazrisiT es saqmianobasruliad gaumarTlebeli iyo da sabWoTa kavSiris daSlis Semdeg Sewydakidec. zedmeti rwyviT dazianebuli miwebi ki eroziis procesebma moicva.- Warbi Zoveba. saqarTvelos semiariduli zona (ivris zegani da misimimdebare teritoriebi) istoriulad saqarTvelos zamTris saZovarswarmoadgenda. saqarTvelos gasabWoebamde saZovrebis marTvanakveTmorigeobis da saZovarTbrunvis tradiciuli sistemebis gamoyenebissaSualebiT xorcieldeboda, romelic saukuneebis ganmavlobaSiCamoyalibda da saZovrebis mdgrad gamoyenebas uzrunvelyofda. es sistemaTemur miwaTsargeblobas efuZneboda, rac mecxvares saZovrebismdgomareobis adekvaturad Sefasebis stimuls uqmnida. saZovrebis marTvises sistema SeuTavsebeli aRmoCnda sabWoTa ekonomikasTan. sabWoTa periodSigauqmda rogorc miwis kerZo sakuTreba, aseve Temuri miwaTsargebloba.swored am periods ukavSirdeba ariduli da semiariduli saZovrebisdegradaciis procesebis dawyeba. miuxedavad imisa, rom cxvris migraciazafxulisa da zamTris saZovrebs Soris dResac xdeba, igi ar arissrulyofili. kerZod, sazafxulo saZovrebze cxvari Zalze didxans, 8-9 Tve,Cerdeba da mis srul degradacias iwvevs. am saZovrebze Raribdeba damcirdeba balaxovani safari, Txeldeba da ufro iolad dazianebadi xdebaniadagi.gaudabnoebis procesTan brZolisTvis 1994 wels CamoyalibdagaudabnoebasTan brZolis konvencia. 1999 wlidan saqarTvelo am konvenciis mxarea.2003 wels damtkicda saqarTvelos gaudabnoebasTan brZolis moqmedebaTaerovnuli programa, sadac gamoyofilia gaudabneobis safrTxis winaSe myofiprioritetuli farTobebi, am farTobebis farglebSi gansazRvrulia gaudabnoebisgamomwvevi ZiriTadi faqtorebi da dasaxulia gaudabnoebis winaaRmdeg brZolismokle da saSualovadiani (2003-2007) RonisZiebebi, mosalodneli SedegebiTa daSesrulebis vadebiT. programa iTvaliswinebs rogorc problemis ukeT Seswavlasada gaanalizebas, konkretuli samoqmedo gegmebis momzadebaze mimarTulsaqmianobebs (gvalviani raionebis gamovlena, mravalwliuri maxasiaTeblebisSeswavla, niadegebis mdgomareobisa da wylis resursebis defcitis Sefaseba,maTematikuri modelebis Sedgena, mowyvladi adgilebis gamovlena da maTi aRdenissamoqmedo gegmebis SemuSaveba da sxva), aseve gvTavazobs gaudabnoebis fonzebiomravalferovnebis SenarCunebis RonisZiebebs (konkretuli saxeobebiskonservaciis programebis SemuSaveba, Walis tyeebis konservaciis RonisZiebebisgegmis Sedgena da ganxorcieleba. gaTvaliswinebulia agreTve soflismeurneobaSi gasatarebeli RonisZiebebi: saZovrebis pasportizacia da datvirTvisnormebis dadgena, tradiciuli codnisa da gamocdilebis gamoyenebis xelSewyoba,saxnav-saTesi miwebis marTvis principebisa da gegmis SemuSaveba, soflismeurneobis mdgradi gamoyenebis programis momzadeba.dafinansebis simciris gamo saqarTvelos gaudabnoebasTan brZolismoqmedebaTa erovnuli programa sruli formatiT ar ganxorcielebula, Tumcacalkeuli proeqtebi SeZlebisdagvarad mimdinareobs. magaliTad, amJamaddedofliswyaros raionSi, romelic miCneulia klimatis cvlilebisadmi da miwisdegradaciis TvalsazrisiT erT-erT yvelaze mgrZnobiare teritoriadsaqarTveloSi, xorcieldeba germaniis teqnikuri TanamSromlobis sazogadoebisdafinansebuli proeqti, romelic degradirebuli miwebis aRdgenas iTvaliswinebs.kerZod, mimdinareobs gaCexili qarsacavi zolebis da naTeli tyeebis aRdgena,dagegmilia am regionSi saZovrebis mdgradi marTvis danergvac.3. ZiriTadi gamowvevebiniadagebis Seswavlisa da eroziisgan dacvis mizniT soflis meurneobissaministro regularulad axorcielebs sxvadasxva RonisZiebas. 1998-2003 ww-Si ammimarTulebiT muSaobda saxelmwifo programebi: `damlaSebuli da mJave


niadagebis nayofierebis gaumjobesebis RonisZiebebis~ da `niadagis dacvaeroziuli procesebisagan~. samwuxarod, rogorc programebis gansaxorcieleblifinansebi, aseve maTi geografiuli areali sakmaod mokrZalebuli iyo, kerZod:1. 19 raionSi sasoflo-sameurneo miwis farTobebze ganxorcielda SerCeviTiniadagis agroqimiuri Seswavla da maTi xarisxobrivi Sefaseba (3262 ha).ZiriTadi maCveneblebi iyo humusi, mcenarisaTvis aucilebeli sakvebielementebi (azoti, fosfori, kaliumi). sakvlevi teritoriebi ganekuTvnakategorias `Zalian Raribi~.2. 2004 wels saxelmwifo programiT 80 aTasi lari gamoyofili iyo eroziissawinaaRmdego RonisZiebebis gansaxorcieleblad. niadagis eroziisagandasacavad aWaris avtonomiur respublikaSi 24 ha farTobze dairgo xeebi.3. sazogadoebis cnobierebis amaRlebis mizniT gamoica broSura`rekomendaciebi eroziis winaaRmdeg~.2003 wels SemuSavda `saqarTvelos niadagebis dacvisa da nayofierebisamaRlebis 2003-2010 wlebis saxelmwifo programa~, romelic gulisxmobdaniadagebis Semdgom gamokvlevebs da bicobi da mJave niadagebis qimiurimelioraciisa da eroziis RonisZiebebs. samwuxarod, saTanado dafinansebisuqonlobis gamo es programa ar ganxorcielda.amJamad:• Sewyvetilia niadagebis gamokvlevebi da nayofierebis monitoringi, saTanadorekomendaciebis SemuSaveba, sasuqebis gamoyeneba praqtikulad yovelgvaridasabuTebis gareSe stiqiurad xdeba, ramac TiTqmis yvela tipis niadagSimcenarisaTvis saWiro sakvebi elementebis deficiti gamoiwvia.• gaZlierda niadagSi mimdinare iseTi uaryofiTi procesebi, rogoricaa:gabicobeba da damlaSeba, meoradi daWaobeba, gamJavianeba, rac aTasobiT hafarTobis sasoflo-sameurneo brunvidan amovardnis da niadagebis maRalikategoriidan dabal kategoriaSi gadasvlis realur pirobebs qmnis.• seriozulad gaZlierda eroziuli procesebi, ramac gamoiwvia aTasobiTtona niadagis nayofieri fenis dakargva, mewyerebis, xramebis warmoqmnisprovocireba.saqarTvelos garemos dacvisa da bunebrivi resursebis saministros garemoserovnuli saagentos mier 2010 wlidan dawyebulia niadagis sinjebSi mZimeliTonebisa da navTobproduqtebis gansazRvra. dagegmilia niadagis dabinZurebisregularuli monitoringis qselis Camoyalibeba.aucilebelia SemuSavdes `saqarTvelos niadagebis dacvisa da SenarCunebissaxelmwifo programa 2012-2016 wlebisa da perspeqtiuli periodisaTvis”, romlissafuZvelzec Semdgom momzaddeba da ganxorcieldeba yovelwliuri miznobriviprogramebi niadagebis nayofierebis SenarCuneba-amaRlebis uzrunvelsayofad.გამოყენებული ლიტერატურა:1. saqarTvelos niadagebis atlasi bunebrivi mosavlianobis SefasebisaTvis da bunebriviresursebis dacvisaTvis, KfW-is mier Tanadafinansebuli kadastrisa da miwis registraciisproeqtis `miwaTmowyobis~(LCC) komponenti, 2006 w.2. saqarTvelos gaudabnoebis winaaRmdeg brZolis erovnuli programa.3. z. oqrocvariZe, sasoflo-sameurneo daniSnulebis miwis gamoyenebis efeqtianobis amaRlebisgzebi sameurneo meqanizmis srulyofis pirobebSi, disertacia, Tbilisi, 2006.

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