saqarTveloSi narCenebiT gamowveuli ... - momxmarebeli.ge

momxmarebeli.ge

saqarTveloSi narCenebiT gamowveuli ... - momxmarebeli.ge

saqarTveloSi narCenebiT gamowveulidabinZurebis analiziTamar guguSvili10.04.07


1 Sesavali .......................................................................................................... 21.1 kvlevis miznebi ................................................................................................ 21.2 kvlevis meTodologia da farglebi ........................................................ 22 narCenebiT gamowveuli dabinZureba saqarTveloSi ..... 32.1 narCenebis warmoqmna saqarTveloSi, ZiriTadi dabinZurebis kerebi .. 3sayofacxovrebo narCenebis nagavsayrelebi ..................................................... 3samrewvelo narCenebi .......................................................................................... 52.2 narCenebis umniSvnelovanesi tipebi da maTi warmoqmnis wyaroebi .... 7sayofacxovrebo narCenebi .................................................................................. 7samrewvelo narCenebi .......................................................................................... 9samedicino narCenebi ......................................................................................... 153 narCenebiT gamowveuli dabinZurebis mizezebi .............. 173.1 narCenebiT gamowveuli dabinZurebis saxeebi ....................................... 17miwisqveSa da zedapiruli wylebis dabinZureba ......................................... 17niadagis dabiZureba ........................................................................................... 18haeris dabinZureba ............................................................................................ 193.2 narCenebiT gamowveuli dabinZurebis regulirebis problemebi ....... 193.2.1 garemos dacviTi dagegmvis problemebi ............................................. 193.2.2 narCenebis marTvis legaluri meqanizmebi ........................................ 203.2.3 barierebi narCenebis minimizaciisa da dabinZurebisSemcirebisaTvis .................................................................................................. 214 saqarTveloSi narCenebiT gamowveuli dabinZurebisaRkveTis an Semsubuqebisaken mimarTuli dagegmili daganxorcielebuli qmedebebi ................................................................... 224.1 2000 wlis erovnuli samoqmedo gegmiT gaTvaliswinebuliRonisZiebebi ............................................................................................................ 224.2 ganxorcielebuli RonisZiebebi .............................................................. 245 gansaxorcielebeli nabijebi narCenebiT gamowveulidabinZurebis SemsubuqebisaTvis ........................................................ 266 gamoyenebuli literatura ............................................................. 291


1 Sesavaliiseve rogorc msoflios mraval qveyanaSi, saqarTveloSi narCenebi erT-erTumniSvnelovanes garemos dacviT problemas warmoadgens. mdgomareobas kidevufro amwvavebs is faqti, rom saqarTveloSi jer-jerobiT ar arisSemuSavebuli narCenebis marTvis politika da narCenebis marTvapraqtikulad ar xorcieldeba. narCenebis gatanis servisiT SegrovebulinarCenebis asi procenti nagavsayrelebze ganTavsdeba. garda amisa, narCenebissagrZnobi raodenoba xvdeba aralegalur nagavsayrelebze. praqtikuladumarTavia samrewvelo da samedicino narCenebi. narCenebis usistemod,yovelgvari gauvneblebis gareSe ganTavseba garemos mudmivi dabinZurebiswyaroa da safrTxes uqmnis adamianis janmrTelobasac. amasTan, undaaRiniSnos, rom narCenebi mzardi problemaa, miT ufro gardamavaliekonomikis tipis qveyanaSi, ramdenadac ekonomikuri zrda, Cveulebriv,mosaxleobisa da moxmarebis gazrdas da mrewvelobis aRmasvlasukavSirdeba, rac Tavis mxriv narCenebis raodenobis matebas ganapirobebs.1.1 kvlevis miznebiaRniSnuli kvlevis mizans warmoadgenda saqarTveloSi narCenebiTgamowveuli dabinZurebis analizi da rekomendaciebis SemuSavebadabinZurebis Semsubuqebis an aRmofxvrisaTvis. amisaTvis kvlevas undagamoevlina:• narCenebis mniSvnelovani dabinZurebis kerebi• dabinZurebis gamomwvevi umniSvnelovanesi narCenebis tipebi• narCenebis warmomqmneli umniSvnelovanesi seqtorebi• narCenebiT gamowveuli dabinZurebis mizezebi• saqarTveloSi dagegmili da ganxorcielebuli qmedebebi narCenebisdabinZurebis Semcirebis an aRmofxvrisaTvis• saWiro gansaxorcielebeli qmedebebi narCenebiT gamowveulidabinZurebis Semsubuqebis mizniT1.2 kvlevis meTodologia da farglebikvlevaSi gamoyenebuli monacemebi ZiriTadad eyrdnoba saqarTveloSisxvadsasxva dros Catarebuli kvelvebisa da saministros angariSebismasalebs. aseve, statistikis departamentidan da oficialuridokumentebidan miRebul informacias da 2006 wels saqarTveloSiCatarebuli narCenebis inventarizaciis Sedegebs. ramdenadac saqarTveloSiar xdeboda narCenebis zusti aRricxva da narCenebis tipebisa dawarmoSobis wyaroebis Seswavla, es monacemebi xSirad mxolod SefasebiTixasiaTisaa. garda amisa, ar arsebobs zusti kvlevebi zedapiruli damiwisqveSa wylebis an niadagis narCenebiT dabinZurebis Sesaxeb, amdenad,rTulia saubari narCenebiT dabinZurebis xarisxze.2


2 narCenebiT gamowveuli dabinZureba saqarTveloSi2.1 narCenebis warmoqmna saqarTveloSi, ZiriTadi dabinZurebis kerebinarCenebis raodenobis Sesaxeb dazustebuli informacia dRemde ararsebobs. Tumca, aris sxvadasxva wlebSi gakeTebuli Sefasebebi. aseve,sabolood jamdeba 2006 wels ganxorcielebuli narCenebis inventarizaciisSedegebi.1988 wlis monacemebiT saqarTveloSi sul 64.5 mln tona narCeniwarmoiqmneboda, rac moicavda yvela tipis narCens sayofacxovrebonarCenebis garda. am raodenobidan 70% wiaRiseuli resusebis mopovebisa dagadamuSavebis narCenebs warmoadgenda, danarCen 30% ki metalurgiuli,saSen masalaTa, manqanaTmSeneblobis, qimiuri da navTobqimiuri mrewvelobisda sxva dargebis narCenebi, aqedan 2%-i ki saxifaTo narCenebia. garda amisa,gasul wlebSi gakeTebuli SefasebiT, saqarTveloSi yovelwliurad 5.5 mlnm 3 myari sayofacxovrebo narCeni warmoiqmneboda 1 . Tumca, axlaxansdasrulebuli narCenebis inventarizaciis Sedegebi ramdenadme gansxvavebulsuraTs iZleva. inventarizaciis monacemebiT saqarTveloSi sayofacxovrebonarCenebis saerTo raodenoba weliwadSi daaxloebiT 3.5 mln m 3 -s Seadgens.sayofacxovrebo narCenebis nagavsayrelebigasuli wlebis monacemebiT, saqarTveloSi 69 nagavsayrelia, romelTasaerTo farTobi 300 ha-s Seadgens. 2006 wlis inventarizaciis mixedviTsaqarTveloSi 63 oficialuri nagavsayrelia, saerTo farTobiT 233 ha.sagrZnobia aralegaluri nagavsayrelebis ricxvic.cxrili 2.1. sayofacxovrebo nagavsayrelebi saqarTveloSi 2saqarTvelos regioninagavsayrelebisraodenobakanonieriukanonokanonierinagavsayrelebissaerTo farTobi(ha)nagavsayrelebzeganTavsebuli narCenebisraodenoba weliwadSi(m 3 )samegrelo/zemo svaneTi6 3 14 203 270raWa-leCxum-qvemosvaneTis 3 - - 1850imereTiguriaaWaris a/rsamcxe-javaxeTiSida qarTliqvemo qarTlimcxeTa-mTianeTi regioni10 1 71.5 191 6503 - 8.65 14 8905 8 24 327 6767 - - 122 5385 10 18.5 161 0909 0 35.8 1791873 0 8.7 14 0521 saqarTvelos garemos dacvisa da bunebrivi resursebis saministro, erovnuli mosxenebagaremos mdgomareobis Sesaxeb 1999-2000; 20042 saqarTvelos teritoriaze narCenebis inventarizaciis monacemebi, 20063


saqarTvelos regionikaxeTiTbilisisulnagavsayrelebisraodenobakanonierinagavsayrelebissaerTo farTobinagavsayrelebzeganTavsebuli narCenebisraodenoba weliwadSi10 1 28 60 5002 - 24 1 095 00063 233.15 2 371 703miuxedavad imisa, rom saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobiT narCenebisganTavseba/gadamuSavebasTan dakavSirebuli saqmianobebi saWiroebs garemozezemoqmedebis nebarTvas da garemoze zemoqmedebis Sefasebas 3 , saqarTveloSiarsebuli oficialuri nagavsayrelebis did umravlesobas aseTi nebarTva argaaCnia. licenziebisa da nebarTvebis Sesaxeb 2005 wlis kanonisamoqmedebamde nebarTvebis gacema regulirdeboda 1996 wlis kanoniTgaremosdacviTi nebarTvis Sesaxeb. am kanonis mixedviT, sayofacxovreboda samrewvelo narCenebis ganTavseba, maTi samarxebis, gadamuSavebisa dadawvis qarxnebis ganTavseba da funqcionireba; toqsikuri, saxifaTo daradiaqtiuri narCenebis ganTavseba, maTi samarxebis ganTavseba-funqcionirebada maTi gauvnebelyofa I kategoriis saqmianobad ganisazRvreboda dasaWiroebda nebarTvas 4 . magram, rogorc cnobilia, saqarTveloSi arsebulinagavsayrelebis umetesoba am kanonis amoqmedebamde, sabWoTa periodSiaSeqmnili. garemosdacviTi nebarTvis Sesaxeb kanonis moqmedeba ki mxolod imsaqmianobebze vrceldeboda, romlis ganxorcielebac dagegmili iyo kanonisZalaSi Sesvlis Semdeg.Tumca, axali kanonmdeblobis mixedviT, garemoze zemoqmedebis Sefasebasdaqvemdebarebuli saqmianoba, romlic ganxorcielebac dawyebuliagaremosdacviTi nebarTvis Sesaxeb kanonis amoqmedebamde, eqvemdebarebagaremoze zemoqmedebis nebarTvis aRebas 2009 wlis 1 ianvramde 5 .Sesabamisad, narCenebis ganTavseba/gadamuSavebasTan dakavSirebuli yvelasaqmianoba, maT Soris moqmedi oficialuri nagavsayrelebi daeqvemdebarebagaremoze zemoqmedebis nebarTvas.arsebuli sayofacxovrebo narCenebis nagavsayrelebi dabinZurebis seriozulsafrTxes warmoadgenen, ramdenadac arc erTi maTgani ar aris mowyobiligaremos dacviTi principebis gaTvaliswinebiT. narCenebi umetesad pirdapiriyreba amisaTvis specialurad gamoyofil adgilebSi, daSrevebisa dasaizolacio feniT gadafarvis gareSe. ar aris uzrunvelyofilinagavsayrelis fskeris gaumtaroba. ar arsebobs sadrenaJo sistema. amdenad,wvimis nawreti wyali narCenebis fenebis gavlis da dabinZurebis Semdeg,miwisqveSa wylebisa da miwis dabinZurebas iwvevs. garda amisa, xSiriaaalebis SemTxvevebi, rac haeris dabinZurebis seriozuli wyaroa.rogorc aRiniSna, moqmedi sayofacxovrebo nagavsayrelebis umetesobasabWoTa periodSia Seqmnili. nagavsayrelebis adgilis SerCeva arganxorcielebula garemoze miyenebuli zianis riskis gaTvaliswinebiT.xSirad nagavsayrelebi dasaSvebze axlos mdebareoben sacxovrebelipunqtebidan, mdinareebidan da zRvidan.3 saqarTvelos kanoni licenziebisa da nebarTvebis Sesaxeb 2005; saqarTvelos mTavrobis2005 wlis 1 seqtembris dadgenileba #154 “garemoze zemoqmedebis nebarTvis gacemiswesisa da pirobebis Sesaxeb debulebis damtkicebis Taobaze”, muxli 34 saqarTvelos kanoni garemosdacviTi nebarTvis Sesaxeb 1996, muxli 45 saqarTvelos mTavrobis 2005 wlis 1 seqtembris dadgenileba #154 “garemozezemoqmedebis nebarTvis gacemis wesisa da pirobebis Sesaxeb debulebis damtkicebisTaobaze”, muxli 154


garda amisa, damatebiTi dabinZurebis wyaroa aralegaluri nagavsayrelebi.Tumca, unda aRiniSnos, rom dabinZurebis saSiSroebis TvalsazrisiT,oficialuri nagavsayrelebi aranakleb risks warmoadgenen garemosa daadamianis janmrTelobisaTvis. aralegaluri nagavsayrelebis raodenobamxolod damatebiTi, ukontrolo dabinZurebis kerebs qmnis da aseve,arTulebs narCenebis aRricxvas.samrewvelo narCenebiramdenadac ar arsebobs specialuri nagavsayrelebi samrewvelonarCenebisaTvis da ar aris danergili am tipis narCenebisgadamuSaveba/gauvneblebis raime alternatiuli meTodebi, savaraudod,samrewvelo narCenebis nawili Cveulebrivi, sayofacxovrebo narCenebisnagavsayrelebze xvdeba, danarCeni ki dasawyobebulia sawarmoebisteritoriaze.1999-2000 wlis monacemebiT, sawarmoebis teritoriaze dasawyobebulinarCenebi Semdegnairad aris gadanawilebuli:cxrili 2.2. saqarTvelos teritoriaze akumulirebuli sawarmoonarCenebi 6qalaqi/raioni sawarmos dasaxeleba narCenis tipi narCenebiTdakavebulibaTumimanqanaTmSenebeli,eleqtromeqanikuri dagemTmSenebeli qarxnebisteritoriagalvanuri warmoebistoqsikuri narCenebiteritorianavTobgadamamuSavebeliqarxanaxis gadamamuSavebelisawarmoebimJave gudroni – 40000tona,aluminis silikaturiadsorbenti – 1500 tonanaxerxi – 450 m 31.6 haxaSurikazreTiminis gadamamuSavebeliqarxanaoqro-spilenZi-baritipolimetalurisabadoplastikis boTlebi 370aTasi tonasamTomopovebiTi narCenebi -22.5 mln tonakvarcitissabadoebiquTaisizestafonirusTavioqrosa da kvarcitis samTomopovebiTi narCenebi -gadamuSaveba88.8 mln m 3sxvadasxva samrewvelo galvanuri narCenebi – 33sawarmoebitonaliTofonisa da bariumis, TuTiis Semcvelisaavtomobilo qarxnebi daTboeleqtrocentralisSlami - 300 aTasi tonaferoSenadnobTa qarxana Termuli damuSavebis daeleqtrolizuri Slami –368 aTasi tonametalurgiulikombinatiwida da rkinis xenji –400 aTasi tona24 ha11 ha6 wyaroebi: saqarTvelos garemos dacvisa da bunebrivi resursebis saministro, erovnulimosxeneba garemos mdgomareobis Sesaxeb 1999-2000; Environmetnal Performance Review ofGeorgia, UNECE, 2003, Chapter 6, Waste Chemicals and Contaminated Sites5


qalaqi/raioni sawarmos dasaxeleba narCenis tipi narCenebiTdakavebuliteritoriawiaRiseulis gadamuSavebisnarCenebi – 11.5 mln tonaWiaTura manganumis gadamuSaveba manganumis Semcveli Slami –9 318 200 tonaraWaqimiuri nivTierebebis dariSxanis Semcveliambrolaurisraionilentexisraionimopovebis narCenebisamTo qimiuri qarxnebiferfli – 1000 tonasamTo qimiuri gadamuSavebisnarCenebi - 100 000 tonasxvadasxva monacemebiT samrewvelo obieqtebze wlebis manZilze dagroviliadaaxloebiT 10 mln tonamde narCeni. sawarmoo narCenebSi toqsikurinaerTebis Semcveloba daaxloebiT 2 mln tonas Seadgens. maT Sorishidridebi – 650 tona, galvanuri Sxamebi – 15800 tona, kobaltSemcvelimtveri – 4,8 tona, dariSxanSemcveli narCenebi – 1829 tona, nikelSemcveli– 22,1 tona, navTobSemcveli – 70 aTasi tona, fosforSemcveli 226 aTasitona, qlorSemcveli – 72,6 tona, cianSemcveli – 410 tona,gadamuSavebuli eleqtrolitebi – 2680 tona, saRebavebisa da emalisSemcveli – 1404 tona, mJave gudroni – 50 aTasi tona da sxv 7 .cxrili 2.3. saqarTveloSi dasawyobebuli samrewvelo narCenebis raodenobamrewvelobis dargebis mixedviTmrewvelobis dargi narCenebis tipi narCenebis raodenoba(aTasi tona)navTobmompovebeliinformacia ar arismrewvelobaqvanaxSiris mrewveloba qvanaxSiris Semcveli qanebi 12 000eleqtroenergetika myari narCenebi 600Savi da feradi metalurgia myari narCenebi 1160qimiuri da navTobqimiuri myari narCenebi >336warmoebasaSen masalaTa warmoeba myari narCenebi 2291transporti daantifrizi, rkinis jarTi, ar aris aRricxulikavSirgabmulobaplastmasi, gogirdmJava,tyvia, kaproni, rezinimanqanaTmSeneblobanarCenebis wamoqmnis wyaroa 2 000samsxmelo da saRebavebisgamomyenebeli sawarmoebi,qarxnebTan arsebuliTboeleqtrocentralebi dasaqvabeebi.kvebis mrewveloba minis tara, plastmasi ar aris aRricxulikomunaluri meurneoba sayofacxovrebo narCenebispoligonebi15227qimiuri da navTobqimiuri narCenebis kerebidan gansakuTrebiT aRsaniSnaviacanis (lentexis raioni) da uravis (ambrolauris raioni) samTo qimiisqarxnebis mitovebuli toqsikuri narCenebis mdgomareoba (100 aTas tonamdesamTo qimiuri gadamuSavebis narCenebi), romlebic mdinaris piras samsamarxSia ganlagebuli, aseve, baTumis navTobgadamamuSavebeli qarxnisteritoriaze ganlagebuli didi raodenobiT mJave gudroni (40 aTasitona).7 saqarTvelos garemos dacvisa da bunebrivi resursebis saministro, erovnuli mosxenebagaremos mdgomareobis Sesaxeb 1999-20006


saqarTvelos sxvadasxva regionSi xSiria niadagis dabinZurebis SemTxvevebiukanonod ganTavsebuli samrewvelo da sayofacxovrebo narCenebiT, aseveyofili sabWoTa armiis samxedro bazebis poligonebze darCenili saSiSinivTierebebiT. magaliTad, garemos mdgomareobis Sesaxeb 2004 wliserovnuli moxsenebis mixedviT, mcxeTis raionSi sof. qsnis teritoriaze 10ha farTobze dayrilia samSeneblo narCenebi, mineraluri sasuqebi daSxamqimikatebi. sul mcxeTis raionis teritoriaze sayofacxovrebonarCenebiT dabinZurebulia 45 ha miwis farTobi, xolo mineralurisasuqebiT da SxamqimikatebiT daaxloebiT 100m 2 . kaxeTSi 2004 wlisaTvissayofacxovrebo narCenebiT dabinZurda 140 ha miwis farTobi. xaSurSidaaxloebiT 15 ha miwis farTobi. Sida qarTlSi daaxloebiT 0.4 ha miwisfarTobia dabinZurebuli vadagasuli pesticidebiTa da agroqimikatebiT.2004 wlis ganmavlobaSi qvemo qarTlSi dafiqsirebulia ori aTeuliadgili (ZiriTadad sasoflo-sameurneo savargulebi da saZovrebi, sul 12.5ha-mde), sadac dayrilia baqo-Tbilisi jeihanis navTobsadenis mSeneblobisperiodSi dagrovili bazaltis lodebi da sxva saxis inertuli narCenebi.ramdenadac navTobsadeni saqarTvelos 6 regionSi gadis, savaraudoa igivesaxis dabinZureba sxva regionebSic.mdgradi organuli damabinZureblebis Sesaxeb erovnuli samoqmedo gegmismomzadebis proeqtis farglebSi 2006 wels Catarebulma kvlevampesticidebis inventarizaciis mizniT, gamoavlina vadagasuli daxmarebisaTvis uvargisi pesticidebis 46 obieqti. sul saqarTveloSiaRricxulia 3037 tona narCeni qimikati, saidanac iaRlujis Sxamqimikatebispoligonze ganTavsebulia 2700 tona. rogorc kvlevis Sedegebma aCvena,sasawyobo meurneobebis umetesi nawili amortizebuli da dangreulia.pesticidebi xSir SemTxvevaSi Ria cis qveS aris dayrili SefuTvis gareSe.Sesabamisad, xdeba atmosferuli naleqebiT maTi niagadagSi Carecxva. 82.2 narCenebis umniSvnelovanesi tipebi da maTi warmoqmnis wyaroebisayofacxovrebo narCenebi2006 wels narCenebis inventarizaciis kvlevis farglebSi inventarizebulisayofacxovrebo narCenebis 45%-i dedaqalaqSi warmoiqmneba. SemdegimniSvnelovani narCenwarmomqmneli regionebia aWaris avtonomiurirespublika, samegrelo-zemo svaneTi, imereTi, qvemo qarTli da SidaqarTli (sur. 2.1).8mdgradi organuli dambinZureblebi – erovnuli samoqmedo gegma 2007-20227


inventarizebuli sayofacxovrebo narCenebiswliuri raodenoba regionebis mixedviT9%45%0%8%1%13%samegrelo/zemo svaneTiraWa-leCxum-qvemo svaneTiimereTiguriaaWaris a/rsamcxe-javaxeTi3%1%8%5%7%Sida qarTliqvemo qarTlimcxeTa-mTianeTi regionikaxeTiTbilisisur. 2.1 9Tumca, unda aRiniSnos, rom narCenebis inventarizaciis monacemebi eydrnobaoficialur informacias narCenebis centralizebuli wesiT SegrovebissistemiT Segrovebuli da nagavsayrelze ganTavsebuli narCenebisraodenobis Sesaxeb. am monacemebis farglebs gareT rCeba narCenebis israodenoba, romelTa Segrovebac ar xdeba.sayofacxovrebo narCenebis fraqciuli Sedgeniloba samwuxarod ar arissaTanadod Seswavlili. 2003 wels germaniis teqnikuri TanamSromlobissazogadoebis (GTZ) iniciativiT Catarda kvleva q. TbilisSi narCenebisSedgenilobis gamosavlenad, romlis Sedegebi 2.4 cxrilSia mocemuli.cxrili 2.4. narCenebis fraqciuli Sedgeniloba q. TbilisSi 101.nivTierebaTafraqciebimoculobawona(m 3 ) % (tona) %qaRaldi/muyao/kartoni 281 065,68 18.87 14 080,13 4.82. sinTezuri masala(plastmasi, SesafuTi 398 734,65 26.76 17 529,11 5.97masalebi)3. inertuli nivTierebebi(Tixa, keramika, faifuri, 42 316,35 2.84 16 086,94 5.48mina da sxv.)4. Sereuli masala (SereuliSefuTvebi, eleqtronuli 17 719,50 1,19 3 308,50 1,12mowyobilobebi)5. liTonebi (feradi da Savi43 769,94 2,294 7 869,36 2,68liTonebi)6. organuli narCenebi(sakvebis narCenebi, mwvane 86 623,19 5,81 7 525,49 2,56narCenebi, xis masalebi7.piradi higienis narCenebi 28 794,85 1,94 5 275,17 1,799 2006 wlis narCenebis inventaricaziis masalebi10 gerhard blumenroteri, TbilisSi warmoqmnili narCenebis analizi, 20038


8.nivTierebaTafraqciebimoculobawona(m 3 ) % (tona) %qsovilebi 84 844,18 5,7 9 386,94 3,29. saxifaTo narCenebi(saRebavebi, gamxsnelebi,batareebi, manqanisakumulatorebi, wamlebi,6 942,43 0,46 2 499,82 0,85qimiuri nivTierebebi dasxv.)10. sacerSi gatarebulifraqcia (ferfli, yavis 109 251,27 7,32 81 565,53 27,8naleqi da sxv.)11. narCeni (yvela narCeni,romelTa gamoyofa vermoxerxda meqanikurad anxeliT (fexsacmelebi,390 034,86 26,17 128 313,07 43,75gauxsneli konservebi dasxv.)sul 1 490 096,90 100 293 440.06 100samrewvelo narCenebirogorc cnobilia, sabWoTa sistemis rRvevis Semdeg saqarTveloSimrewveloba mkveTrad daqveiTda. Tu 1990 wlisaTvis mrewveloba qveynismTliani Sida produqtis 22.9%-s utoldeboda, 1998 wlisaTvismrewvelobis wilma mxolod 9.2% Seadgina. Sesabamisad, Semcirdasamrewvelo narCenebis wili warmoqmnili narCenebis saerTo moculobaSi.saqarTvelos ekonomikuri ganviTarebis saministros statistikisdepartamentis 2005 wlis monacemebiT, amJamad saqarTveloSi 4632sawarmoa. aqedan 192 msxvili, 497 saSualo da 3943 wvrili. aRsaniSnavia,rom 2000 welTan SedarebiT sawarmoebis ricxvi sagrZnoblad gaizarda.cxrili 2.5. mrewvelobis ZiriTadi maCveneblebi 11samrewvelo sawarmoTaraodenoba (sul,erTeuli)maT Soris:msxvilisaSualomcirewarmoebuli samrewveloproduqciis moculoba(mln. lari)2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 20053328 3233 3198 3049 3433 4632} 315143 156 167 192403 371 423 4972436 2918 2652 2522 2843 28431132,4 1154,8 1308,4 1549,9 1754,2 2202,2rogorc 2.5 cxrilidan Cans, sawarmoebis umetesoba saqarTveloSi mciremasStabisaa.11 statistikuri publikacia mrewveloba saqarTveloSi, 20069


mrewvelobis struqtura sawarmoTazomis mixedviT4%11%msxvilisaSualomcire85%sur. 2.2 12Tumca warmoebuli produqciis da Sesabamisad, narCenebis umetesi wilimsxvil sawarmoebze modis.mrewvelobis struqtura warmoebuliproduqciis mixedviT10%7%msxvilisaSualomcire83%sur. 2.3 13Tbilisi, qvemo qarTli, imereTi, Sida qarTli da kaxeTi wamyvan regionebswarmoadgenen samewarmeo sferoSi. am regionebSi ganTavsebulia garemosZiriadi damabinZurebeli sawarmoebi: navTobgadamamuSavebeli, sasargeblowiaRiseulis mompovebeli, sinTezuri amiakis, laq-saRebavebis mwarmoebeli,samSeneblo masalebis gadamamuSavebeli obieqtebi. warmoebuli samrewveloproduqciis mixedviT Tbilisi pirvel adgilzea. Semdeg modis, qvemoqarTli, imereTi da Sida qarTli. iseve rogorc sabWoTa periodSi,ZiriTadi samrewvelo qalaqebia Tbilisi, quTaisi da rusTavi. am qalaqebzemodis mrewvelobaSi dasaqmebulTa daaxloebiT ori mesamedi da warmoebuliproduqciis 66% qveynis masStabiT 14 . quTaisis saavtomobilo qarxana,zestafonis feroSenadnobTa qarxana da WiaTurmanganumi regionSi udidesisawarmoebia. Tumca, maTi mrewvelobis moculoba mkveTrad Semcirda sabWoTa12 statistikuri publikacia mrewveloba saqarTveloSi, 2006 masalebze dayrdnobiT13 statistikuri publikacia mrewveloba saqarTveloSi, 2006 masalebze dayrdnobiT14 Environmetnal Performance Review of Georgia, UNECE, 2003, Chapter 9, Mining, Industry andEnvironment10


periodTan SedarebiT. am mxriv zestafonis feroSenadnobTa qarxanaSedarebiT ukeTes mdgomareobaSia da 50% datvirTviT muSaobs.2003 wels Catarebuli kvlevis mixedviT industriul sawarmoTaumetesoba 5-dan 50%-mde datvirTviT muSaobs. gamonakliss warmoadgens“madneulis” sabado da spilenZisa da baritis gadamamuSavebeli qarxanabolnisSi, romelic sruli datvirTviT muSaobs 15 . garda amisa, qveyanaSixdeba qvanaxSiris, navTobisa da bunebrivi airebis warmoeba. sul orinavTobgadamamuSavebeli qarxanaa, baTumSi da ufro mcire – sarTiWalaSi.qvanaxSiris udides sabados tyibul-Saoris sabado warmoadgens. gardaamisa, qvanaxSiris warmoeba xdeba tyvarCelsa da axalcixeSic.TiToeuli regionis wili warmoebulisamrewvelo produqciis mTel moculobaSi %8.6TbilisiafxazeTis ar1836.54.43.20.32.9 11.63.31.84.61.1aWaris arguriaimereTikaxeTimcxeTa mTianeTiraWa-leCxumi da qvemo svaneTisamegrelo-zemo svaneTisamcxe-javaxeTiqvemo qarTliSida qarTlisur. 2.4 16samrewvelo dargebidan gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovani narCenwarmomqmneliseqtorebia sasargeblo wiaReseulis mopoveba (maT Soris qvanaxSirismopoveba/gadamuSaveba), Savi da feradi metalurgia da navTobismopoveba/gadamuSaveba. Semdeg modis gadamamuSavebeli mrewveloba da sxvadargebi. saqarTveloSi warmoebis umetesi wili gadamamuSavebel warmoebazemodis. samTomopovebiT mrewvelobas SedarebiT mcire wili uWiravs. maSin,roca sabWoTa periodSi samTomopovebiTi narCenebi saqarTveloSiwarmoqmnili narCenebis mTliani moculobis 70%-s Seadgenda da 45.2 mln.tonas utoldeboda 17 . narCenebis inventarizaciis monacemebiT, amJamadsamTomopovebiTi narCenebis raodenoba daaxloebiT 5 262 766 tonasutoldeba. Tumca am tipis narCenebis procentuli wili sawarmoonarCenebis saerTo raodenobaSi kvlav sakamaod maRalia.15 Environmetnal Performance Review of Georgia, UNECE, 2003, Chapter 6, Waste Chemicals andContaminated Sites16 statistikuri publikaca mrewveloba saqarTveloSi, 2006 masalebze dayrdnobiT17 Environmetnal Performance Review of Georgia, UNECE, 2003, Chapter 9, Mining, Industry andEnvironment11


TiToeuli ekonomikuri saqmianobis sawarmoebiswili samrewvelo sawarmoTa mTel raodenobaSi2000-2005 ww100%80%60%40%7.3 5.4 5.4 5.8 5.2 3.890.1 91.8 91.8 91 91.4 9320%0%2.6 2.8 2.8 3.2 3.4 3.22000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005eleqtroenergiis, airis, orTqlisa da cxeli da wylis warmoeba-ganawilebagadamamuSavebeli mrewvelobasamTomopovebiTi mrewvelobasur. 2.5 18TiToeuli ekonomikuri saqmianobis wiliwarmoebuli samrewvelo produqciis mTelmoculobaSi100%80%60%40%20%0%37.1 37.1 34.4 30.5 26.9 22.556.9 56.9 59.8 61.2 65.5 70.56 6 5.8 8.3 7.6 72000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005eleqtroenergiis, airis, orTqlisa da cxeli da wylis warmoeba-ganawilebagadamamuSavebeli mrewvelobasamTomopovebiTi mrewvelobasur. 2.6 19warmoebuli produqciis mixedviT samTomopovebiTi mrewvelobis wili ufrometia saerTo moculobaSi vidre sawarmoebis raodenobis mixedviT. Tumcaam SemTxvevaSic mniSvnelovnad CamorCeba danarCen dargebs.18 statistikuri publikaca mrewveloba saqarTveloSi, 2006 masalebze dayrdnobiT19 statistikuri publikaca mrewveloba saqarTveloSi, 2006 masalebze dayrdnobiT12


miuxedavad imisa, rom samTomopovebiTi mrewveloba dRes qveynis wamyvanseqtors aRar warmoadgens, rogorc aRiniSna, saqarTvelos sxvadasxvaregionSi saSiSi dabinZurebis kerebs qmnis Zveli, dasawyobebulisamTomopovebiTi narCenebi. narCenebis inventarizaciis monacemebiT, dResacsamrewvelo narCenebis udidesi nawili kvlav samTomopovebiT narCenebzemodis. meore adgilzea qimiuri mrewveloba.inventarizebuli samrewvelo narCenebis tipebisaqarTveloSi1%1%0% 0% samTomopovebis da0%0%13%0%gadamuSavebis narCenebinavTobproduqtebis warmoebisada moxmarebis narCenebiqimiuri warmoebisa dagadamuSavebis narCenebiSavi da feradi liTonisjarTipolieTilenisa da plastmasisnarCenebiminis lewi85%samSeneblo masalebiswarmoebis narCenebiualkoholo da alkoholuriwarmoebis narCenebisxva oganuli da araorganulinarCenebisur. 2.7 20Tumca, isic unda iTqvas, rom zemoT mocemul diagramaze samTomopovebiTinarCenebis wili gansazRvrulia aq asaxul samrewvelo narCenebTanmimarTebaSi, ramac ganapiroba misi aseTi maRali maCvenebeli (85%). amasTanam raodenobaSi igulisxmeba Zveli, dasawyobebuli samTomopovebiTinarCenebis kerebic. realurad, saqarTveloSi arsebuli yvela saxissawarmoo narCenebis srul raodenobaSi am tipis narCenebis wili,savaraudod, gacilebiT naklebi iqneba.amasTan, unda aRiniSnos, rom 2000 wlis Semdeg samTomopovebiT seqtorSisagrZnobi zrda SeimCneva.20 2006 wlis narCenebis inventarizaciis monacemebi13


samTomopovebiTi mrewvelobasawarmoebis raodenoba1601401201008060402002000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005sur. 2.8 21amJamad warmoebuli samTomopovebiTi narCenebis umetesi wili qvemoqarTlisa (3 631 400 t) da imereTis (1 631 401 t) regionebze modis. amtipis narCenebi bevrad naklebia kaxeTSi (355 t).navTobproduqtebis warmoebis mixedviT wamyvani regionia aWaris a/r (22353.7 t). Semdeg modis samegrelo zemo-svaneTi (4 514.5 t) da Tbilisi(641.11 t).qimiuri mrewvelobis narCenebis umetesoba imereTSi warmoiqmneba (768007.76 t), Semdegia qvemo qarTli (13 034 t), aWaris a/r (62 t) daTbilisi (14.7 t).samSeneblo masalebis warmoebis narCenebi SedarebiT Tanabrad arisgadanawilebuli saqarTveloSi. pirvel adgilzea qvemo qarTli (19 712.5t), Semdeg kaxeTi (7 503 t), aWaris a/r (5000 t), Sida qarTli (2 457.25t) da sxv.xe-tyis narCenebis umetesi wili grovdeba raWa-leCxum-qvemo-svaneTisregionSi (10 000 m3), Semdeg kaxeTSi (2909 m 3 ), aWaraSi (4202 m 3 ) daimereTSi 952.8 m 3 ).saqarTvelos mrewvelobis 93%-s gadamamuSavebeli mrewveloba Seadgens.aqedan kvebis mrewvelobas wamyvani pozicia uWiravs. Semdeg modis ufrometad narCenintensiuri dargebi - metalurgiuli mrewveloba (14%),qimiuri warmoeba (8%) da araliTonuri nakeTobebis warmoeba (8%).21 statistikuri publikaca mrewveloba saqarTveloSi, 2006 masalebze dayrdnobiT14


Mmrewvelobis dargebi gadamamuSavebel mrewvelobaSi% warmoebis moculobis mixedviT14%0%1%1%1%3%0%1%0%sakvebi produqtebis warmoeba (sasmelebis CaTvliT)Tambaqos nawarmis warmoebateqstilis warmoebatansacmlis warmoebatyavis, tyavis nawarmisa da fexsacmlis warmoebaxe-tyis damuSaveba da xis nawarmis warmoebaqaRaldis, qaRaldisa da muyaos nawarmis warmoebasagamomcemlo da poligrafiuli saqmianoba8%51%navTobproduqtebis warmoebaqimiuri warmoebarezinisa da plastmasis nawarmis warmoeba2%danarCeni araliTonuri mineraluri nakeTobebis warmoebametalurgiuli mrewveloba8%0%3%1%2%0%2%0%1%liTonis mza nawarmis warmoebamanqanebisa da mowyobilobebis warmoebaeleqtromowyobilobebis warmoebaaparaturis warmoeba radios, televiziisa da kavSirgabmulobisaTvissamedicino teqnikis da sxva aparaturiswarmoebasatransporto saSualebebisa da zowyobilobebis warmoebaavejisa da sxva dajgufebebSi CaurTveli danarCeni produqciis warmoebameoradi nedleulis gadamuSavebasur. 2.9 22amrigad, miuxedavad imisa, rom samTomopovebiTi da navTobqimiurimrewvelobis dargebs qveynis saerTo warmoebis moculobis SedarebiTmcire wili uWiravT, narCenebis warmoqmnis TvalsazrisiT yvelazenarCenintensiur seqtorebs warmoadgenen. amasTan, gasaTvaliswinebeliasabWoTa wlebSi industriuli aqtivobis Sedegad dagrovili narCenebi,romlebic amJamad mitovebul mdgomareobaSia. sawarmoTa privatizebisSemdeg am narCenebze pasuxismgeblobis sakiTxi gaurkveveli rCeba. miTufro, rom bevrma sawarmom saerTod Seicvala profili.samedicino narCenebinarCenebis inventarizaciis proeqtis farglebSi samedicino narCenebisgamokvleva ganxorcielda saqarTvelos Sromis, janmrTelobisa dasocialuri dacvis ministris 2001 wlis 16 agvistos #300/n brZanebiTdamtkicebuli “samkurnalo-profilaqtikuri dawesebulebebis narCenebisSegrovebis, Senaxvisa da gauvneblebis sanitariuli wesebiT” gansazRvrulinarCenebis klasebis mixedviT. kerZod, gamokvleuli iyo narCenebis 4 klasi“a”, “b”, “c” da “d”. aRniSnuli dokumentis mixedviT, samedicino narCenebisklasebad dayofa epidemiologiuri, toqsikologiuri da radiaciulisaSiSroebis mixedviT xdeba: 23• “a” klasi – usafrTxo narCenebi• “b” klasi –saSiSi (sarisko) narCenebi• “g” klasi – gansakuTrebiT saSiSi narCenebi• “d” klasi – narCenebi, romlebic Sedgenilobis mixedviT sawarmoonarCenebis utoldeba22 statistikuri publikaca mrewveloba saqarTveloSi, 2006 masalebze dayrdnobiT23 saqarTvelos Sromis, janmrTelobisa da socialuri dacvis ministris 2001 wlis 16agvistos brZaneba #300/n samkurnalo-profilaqtikuri dawesebulebebis narCenebisSegrovebis, Senaxvisa da gauvneblebis sanitariuli wesebis damtkicebis Sesaxeb15


• “e” klasi – radiaqtiuri narCenebisamedicino narCenebis inventarizaciis Sedegebi 2.6 cxrilSia mocemuli.samedicino dawesebulebebidan mowodebuli informacia damuSavda eqspertismier. Sesabamisi koreqtirebuli monacemebi cxrilis bolo rigSiamocemuli.cxrili 2.6 samedicino narCenebi saqarTveloSi 24inventarizebuli samedicino narCenebis raodenobaqalaqi, regioniklasebis mixedviT, kgsul“a” klasi “b” klasi “g” klasi “d”Tbilisi 1292995 785369,8 3079,6 93099,1 2174543,2aWaris a/r 77850 13750 780 246 94626guria 680 425 50 70 1225raWa-leCxumida qvemo450 70 - - 520svaneTisamegrelo-zemo39704,4 3759,6 - 651 44115svaneTiimereTi 16755 4092 117 120,5 21084,5kaxeTi 2603 730 300 306,6 3939,5mcxeTa-mTianeTi - - - - -samcxe-javaxeTi 33960 925 - 204 35089Qqvemo-qarTli 16240 3075 200 23 19538Sida qarTli 33260 3780 - - 37040foTi 1550 115 10 - 1650sul 1516044, 4 818089,4 4526,6 94720,1 2433390,5eqspertisSefasebiT2145 985.24 259335.08 21868.4 566.8 2427755.52iseve rogorc samrewvelo narCenebis SemTxvevaSi, samedicino narCenebicpraqtikulad umarTavia. rogorc narCenebis inventarizaciis procesma aCvena,samkurnalo-profilaqtikuri dawesebulebebs ar gaaCniaT samedicinonarCenebis marTvis gegma. xSirad samedicino da momsaxure personali vererkveva samedicino narCenebis klasifikaciaSi. ar arsebobs narCenebismarTvaze pasuxismgebeli kompetenturi personali. 2524 2006 wlis narCenebis inventarizaciis masalebi25 2006 wlis narCenebis inventarizaciis masalebi (aleko mindoraSvili)16


3 narCenebiT gamowveuli dabinZurebis mizezebinarCenebis marTva erT-erT yvelaze naklebad regulirebul seqtorswarmoadgens saqarTveloSi. narCenebis ganTavseba umetesad gauvneblebisa dausafrTxod ganTavsebis meTodebis sruli ugulvebelyofiT mimdinareobs daam TvalsazrisiT, legaluri da aralegaluri nagavsayrelebi TanabarsafrTxes warmoadgenen garemosa da adamianis janmrTelobisaTvis. rogorcwesi, ar xdeba saxifaTo fraqciis gamocalkeveba sayofacxovrebo dasamrewvelo narCenebidan. ar xdeba narCenebis gauvnebleba. narCenebisganTavsebisas ar aris uzrunvelyofili narCenebis izolireba miwisa damiwisqveSa wylebisagan. Sedegad, narCenebi garemos dabinZurebis erT-erTmniSvnelovan wyaros warmoadgens saqarTveloSi.narCenebis sferos susti regulacia garkveulad sabWoTa warsulsacukavSirdeba. sabWoTa kavSirSi ar arsebobda ‘narCenebis marTva’ am terminisTanamedrove gagebiT. Tumca, SedarebiT mogvarebuli iyo narCenebisSegroveba/gatanis problemebi. aseve, arsebobda meoradi gadamuSavebisa daxelmeored gamoyenebis sqemebi. sabWoTa sistemis rRvevam arsebuli meoradigadamuSavebis sistemebis moSla gamoiwvia. saxifaTo narCenebis Semcvelimravali industriuli da militaruli saiti mitovebul mdgomareobaSiaRmoCnda. narCenebis Sesaxeb teqnikuri informaciis simcire, garemosdacviTidagegmvis gamocdilebis ararseboba, narCenebis marTvis mimarTarastrategiuli midgoma, sazogadoebis arasakmarisi interesi narCenebissakiTxis mimarT, dResac arTulebs narCenebis marTvis politikisganviTarebas saqarTveloSi.3.1 narCenebiT gamowveuli dabinZurebis saxeebirogorc aRiniSna mouwyobeli nagavsayrelebi, ukontrolod ganTavsebulisawarmoo da sayofacxovrebo narCenebi haeris, miwisa da zedapiruli damiwisqveSa wylebis mudmivi dabinZurebis wyaros warmoadgens. TumcadabinZurebis realuri masStabebi Seuswavlelia da amdenad, ucnobiaarsebuli nagavsayrelebis realuri safrTxe da gavlena garemosa daadamianis janmrTelobaze.miwisqveSa da zedapiruli wylebis dabinZurebasaqarTveloSi sayofacxovrebo nagavsayrelebisaTvis teritoriis gamoyofaxdeboda niadagis geo-morfologiuri Taviseburebebis gauTvaliswineblad dariskis faqtorebis Sefasebis gareSe. xSir SemTxvevaSi nagavsayrelebigruntis wylebTan axlos an mdinareebis napirebTan aris ganTavsebuli.magaliTisaTvis aWaraSi q. baTumis nagavsayreli mdebareobs uSualodmdinare Woroxis piras, zRvidan 1,5 km daSorebiT. nagavsayrelidanCamdinare wylebiT binZurdeba mdinare da Semdeg zRva. garda amisa, xdebanarCenebis warecxva zRvis moqcevebis dros.qobuleTis nagavsayreli gansakuTrebiT axlos aris gruntis wylebTan, racdabinZurebis seriozul safrTxes qmnis. aRsaniSnavia, rom qobuleTisnagavsayrelis teritoria potenciur Waobis nakrZals wamoadgens. amdenadsaWiroa misi konservacia da nakrZalis teritoriasTan SeerTeba.xulosa da Suaxevis raionebSi nagavsayrelebi aseve uSualod mdinarispiras, aWariswylis xevebSi aris ganTavsebuli.igive mdgomareobaa foTis nagavsayrelze, romelic am droisaTvisamortizebulia. nagavsayreli mdinare rionis SesarTavTan mdebareobs da17


TuTia 197.0 – 400.0 113.0 – 200.0 28.50 23.0kala 24.0 – 60. 0 7.0 – 18.0 2.5 4.5garda amisa, aRniSnulia niadagis dabinZurebis faqtebi sxvadasxva sameurneosaqmianobis Sedegad. mag. navTobproduqtebis mopoveba-gadamuSavebasTandakavSirebuli saqmianobebiT (mopoveba, transportireba, gamoyeneba,avariuli SemTxvevebi); niadagis dabinZureba mZime metalebiT msxvilisawarmoebisa da mTavari avtomagistralebis mimdebare teritoriebze;yofili sabWoTa armiis samxedro bazebis poligonebze darCenili saSiSinivTierebebiT; aseve, aRniSnulia niadagebis dabinZurebis SemTxvevebiradiaqtiuri nivTierebebiT. 1999-2000 wlebSi mimdinareobda samuSaoebisxvadasxva regionSi radioaqtiuri wyaroebis aRmosaCenad. gamovlenil iqna21-mde upatrono wyaro, maT Soris 4 zemaRali simZlavris, svaneTSi da 17samxedro daniSnulebis saSualo simZlavris wyaro qveynis sxvadasxvaregionSi.haeris dabinZurebamdgradi organuli damabinZureblebis Sesaxeb kvlevam gamoavlinasaqarTveloSi dioqsinebisa da furanebis gamofrqvevebis ZiriTadi wyaroebi.kvlevis monacemebiT saqarTveloSi mTliani gamofrqveva weliwadSidaaxloebiT 100 g teq-s 31 Seadgens haerSi da 120-170 g teq-s mTlianadgaremoSi, rac qveynis masStabisa da mosaxleobis raodenobis, iseve rogorcklimaturi pirobebis gaTvaliswinebiT sakmaod maRal maCveneblad iTvleba.mTliani gamofrqvevebis TiTqmis 80% ki modis ukontrolo wvisprocesebze. maT Soris aris ukontrolo wva iseT adgilebSi, sadacnarCenebis centralizebuli wesiT Segroveba ar xdeba an ar aris saTanadodorganizebuli, nagavsayrelebze narCenebis ukontrolo, spontanuri wva,tyis xanZrebi, energiis warmoeba da gaTboba. 32 miuxedavad imisa, romdioqsinebis gamofrqvevebis maCveneblebi metwilad navaraudevia da uxeSgamoTvlebs efuZneba, aSkaraa saqarTveloSi arsebul nagavsayrelebzemimdinare ukontrolo wvis uaryofiTi gavlena garemoze.3.2 narCenebiT gamowveuli dabinZurebis regulirebis problemebi3.2.1 garemos dacviTi dagegmvis problemebidagegmvis problema saqarTveloSi garemos dacvis sferos ganviTarebis erTerTiyvelaze mTavari Semaferxebeli faqtoria. garemos dacviTi dagegmvisgamocdilebis ararsebobas Tan erTvis adamianuri, teqnikuri da finansuriresursebis simcire da garemos dacviTi problemebis dabali prioriteti,rac mTlianobaSi xels uSlis strategiuli midgomis Camoyalibebas garemosdacvis sakiTxebis mimarT.narCenebis marTvis sferos ganviTarebisaTvis upirvelesi da aucilebelifaqtoria narCenebis marTvis saxelmwifo politikis gansazRvra. Tumca,jer-jerobiT ar aris SemuSavebuli narCenebis marTvis erovnulistrategia, rac imas niSnavs, rom ar aris gansazRvruli prioritetebinarCenebis marTvis meTodebs Soris, ar aris Camoyalibebuli strategiulimiznebi da mokle da grZelvadiani amocanebi, razec SemdgomSi unda aigosnarCenebis marTvis politika.31 dioqsinebis toqsikuri eqvivalenti, romelic gansazRvravs jamur toqsikurobasdioqsinebis narevSi32 mdgradi organuli dambinZureblebi – erovnuli samoqmedo gegma 2007-202219


strategiuli midgomis ararsebobis gamo narCenebis marTva dResdReobiTmxolod sanitariul higienur funqciaze daiyvaneba. calkeuli pozitiuriiniciativebi narCenebis sferoSi fragmentulia da erTiani politikisgatarebas ar emsaxureba, amdenad, araefeqturia da ver iTvaliswinebsnarCenebis araswori marTviT gamowveuli dabinZurebis SorsmimavalSedegebs, risi aRmofxvrac momavalSi SesaZloa ganuxorcielebadiaRmoCndes.3.2.2 narCenebis marTvis legaluri meqanizmebinarCenebis marTvis saxelmwifo politikis ararsebobis pirobebSi, narCenebisSesaxeb kanonmdebloba fragmentulia da erTiani politikis gatarebas veruzrunvelyofs. Tumca, zogad CarCo kanonebSi gaTvaliswinebulia narCenebismdgradi marTvis principebi, rogoricaa “narCenebis minimizaciis principi”,reciklirebis principi”, riskis Semcirebis principi’ da sxv. 33 , esprincipebi Semdgom regulatorul meqanizmebSi ar ganviTarebula, daSesabamisad, verc praqtikaSi dainerga. garda amisa, garemos dacvis kanonSimoxseniebulia unarCeno, garemosdacviTi TvalsazrisiT misaRebi,ekologiurad sufTa da mcirenarCeniani teqnologiisa da teqnikisdamuSavebisa da danergvis, meoradi nedleulis gamoyenebis da efeqturigaremosdacviTi proeqtebis ganxorcielebis xelSewyobis aucilebloba, racxorcieldeba sagadasaxado SeRavaTiTa Tu SeRavaTiani saxelmwifokreditiT 34 . aseve, kanoni awesebs ekomarkirebas, rac momxmareblis ukeTorientirebasa da ekologiurad misaRebi produqciis warmoebisstimulirebas uwyobs xels 35 . garemos dacvis kanonis 34-e muxli kisaqmianobis subieqts avaldebulebs uzrunvelyos samrewvelo,sayofacxovrebo da sxva saxis narCenebis Semcireba, gauvnebelyofa,utilizacia, ganTavseba da damarxva garemos dacvis, saniteriul-higienurida epidemiologiuri normebisa da wesebis dacviT. Tumca mwarmoeblispasuxismgeblobis principis ganviTareba, rac aucilebelia zemoxsenebulipirobebis SesrulebisaTvis, jer-jerobiT ver xorcieldeba.narCenebis mdgradi marTva upirvelesad iTvaliswinebs narCenebis Tavidanacilebas, Semdeg ki Semcirebas, reciklirebas, xelmeored gamoyenebas da,bolos mis usafrTxod ganTavsebas an dawvas. saqarTveloSi praqtikuladar arsebobs legaluri an ekonomikuri meqanizmebi, romlebic narCenebismdgrad marTvas uzrunvelyofda. narCenebis marTvis erTaderT formad misinagavsayrelze ganTavseba rCeba. Tumca, arsebuli maregulirebeli dokumenti- ”Sromis, janmrTelobisa da socialuri dacvis ministris 2003 wlis 24Tebervlis #36/n brZaneba myari sayofacxovrebo gadanayrebis poligonebismowyobisa da eqspluataciis sanitariuli wesebisa da normebis damtkicebisSesaxeb”, ver uzrunvelyofs narCenebis usafrTxo ganTavsebas garemosdacviTi principebis gaTvaliswinebiT. kerZod, ar aris gamaxvilebuliyuradReba sakiTxebze, romlebic Tanamedrove sanitariuli nagavsayrelebismowyobisaTvis aris mniSvnelovani. ar aris garkveviT miTiTebuli narCenebisgauvneblebis da usafrTxod ganTavsebis, sadrenaJo sistemis mowyobis,wylisa da haeris dabinZurebis Tavidan acilebis moTxovnebi dakonkretuli saSualebebi. amasTan, ar aris mkafiod gansazRvrulinagavsayrelis kontrolisa da monitoringis procedurebi.sayofacxovrebo narCenebis gatanisa da ganTavsebis saorganizacio sakiTxebi,gatanaze gaweuli momsaxurebis xarjebi, tarifebi da sxv. Sesabamisikanonqvemdebare aqtebiT regulirdeba. Tumca, aqac aris mTeli rigi33 saqarTvelos kanoni garemos dacvis Sesaxeb, 1997, muxli 534 saqarTvelos kanoni garemos dacvis Sesaxeb, 1997 muxli 1835 saqarTvelos kanoni garemos dacvis Sesaxeb, 1997 muxli 1920


xarvezebisa, magaliTad jer-jerobiT ar aris saTanadod daregulirebulisavaWro obieqtebisa da biznes organizaciebis momsaxurebis sakiTxebi.narCenebis Sesaxeb kanonis ararseboba arTulebs narCenebis sxvadasxvatipebis (samrewvelo, samedicino, biologiuri) marTvis dawyebas.Sesabamisad, am tipis narCenebis bedi gaurkvevelia da praqtikulad areqvemdebareba kontrols.3.2.3 barierebi narCenebis minimizaciisa da dabinZurebisSemcirebisaTvisrogorc aRiniSna, narCenebis mdgradi marTvis danergvisaTvis upirvelesbariers narCenebis marTvis politikis ararseboba warmoadgens. Tumca,narCenebis mdgradi marTvis politikis ganviTareba Tavis mxriv, moiTxovsSesabamisi kvlevebis ganxorcielebas narCenebis teqnikuri monacemebis,meoradi gadamuSavebis perspeqtivebis, sawarmoo procesebis SeswavlismizniT.narCenebis marTva, aRricxva da kontroliminimaluri informacia, rac aucilebelia narCenebis marTvis dagegmvisaTvis,aris narCenebis warmoqmnis dinamika da misi fraqciuli Sedgeniloba. amparametrebis gansazRvra moiTxovs narCenebis mudmivi aRricxvis warmoebasrogorc raodenobis, ise Sedgenilobis mixedviT. narCenebis amgvarregularul aRricxvas unda awarmoebdnen rogorc narCenebis gamtanioperatorebi ise narCenwarmomqmneli organizaciebi. Tumca, dResdReobiTnarCenebis raodenobis zusti monacemebis dadgena ver xerxdeba da arckontrolis meqanizmebi arsebobs amisaTvis.sawarmoo narCenebis marTvis problemebidReisaTvis gansakuTrebiT mougvarebelia sawarmoo narCenebis marTvissakiTxebi. praqtikulad SeuZlebelia sawarmoo narCenebze Tvalyurisdevneba da maTi usafrTxo ganTavsebis kontrolireba. “mwarmoeblispasuxismgeblobis” meqanizmis ararseboba da sawarmoo procesebisgaumWvirvaloba amcirebs sawarmoo narCenebis mdgradi marTvis an “ufrosufTa warmoebis” danergvis perspeqtivebs.narCenebis marTvis politikis ararsebobis pirobebSi, ar aris aranairiwamaxalisebeli an regulatoruli meqanizmi sawarmoo narCenebisSemcirebisaTvis. Tumca, sawarmoo narCenebis Semcirebis politikisganxorcielebas Semdegi potenciuri barierebi SeiZleba gaaCndes:• sawarmoebis TiTqmis absolutur umravlesobas ar gaaCnia garemosdacviTi domeni. Sesabamisad, ar aris garemos dacviT qmedebebzepasuxismgebeli personali. garemos dacviTi problemebi umeteswiladugulvebelyofili rCeba, miT ufro, rom ar arsebobs Sesabamisiregulirebis meqanizmebi.• garda amisa, narCenebis Semcirebis an Tavidan acilebis gzebis ZiebamoiTxovs samrewvelo procesebis detalur codnas. amis gareSe raimealternatiuli, ekologiurad ufro momgebiani procedurisSeTavazeba SeuZlebelia.• eknomikuri barierebi aseve xelisSemSlelia narCenebis SemcirebisdanergvisaTvis. narCenebis Semcirebisaken mimarTuli qmedebebixarjebTan aris dakavSirebuli da mxolod xangrZlivi droisperspeqtivaSi aris momgebiani. amasTan, aRar rCeba wamaxalisebelimeqanizmi narCenebis SemcirebisaTvis regulirebiT gansazRvrulimaCveneblebis miRma.21


4 saqarTveloSi narCenebiT gamowveuli dabinZurebisaRkveTis an Semsubuqebisaken mimarTuli dagegmilida ganxorcielebuli qmedebebi4.1 2000 wlis erovnuli samoqmedo gegmiT gaTvaliswinebuliRonisZiebebisaqarTvelos pirveli garemos dacvis moqmedebaTa programa 2000 welsmomzadda. samoqmedo gegmis momzadebis winapirobas 1993 wels garemosdacvis ministrebis panevropuli konferencize miRebuli centraluri daaRmosavleT evropis qveynebis garemos dacvis programa warmoadgenda,romlis farglebSic qveynebma aiRes valdebuleba periodulad SeimuSaon daganaxorcielon garemos dacvis erovnuli programa. garda amisa,saqarTvelos kanoni garemos dacvis Sesaxeb iTvaliswinebs garemos dacviserovnuli programis regularul SemuSavebas 5 wlis SualediT 36 .sxva garemos dacviT sakiTxebTan erTad, saqarTvelos garemos dacvismoqmedebaTa erovnuli programa narCenebis marTvis sferosac moicavs.Tumca, rogorc aRniSnulia dokumentis winasityvaobaSi, is mopovebuliinformcia, romelsac es programa eyrdnoba, srulad ver asaxavs qveyanaSiarsebul ekologiur mdgomareobas 90-iani wlebis dasawyisSi SeqmnilirTuli politikuri viTarebis, garemos mdgomareobis monitoringissistemis moSlis da sxva obieqturi Tu subieqturi mizezebis gamo.miuxedavad amisa, programaSi gaTvaliswinebulia garemos dacvisumniSvnelovanesi problemebi da gansazRvrulia mokle da saSualovadianimiznebi.erovnul samoqmedo programaSi xazgasmulia rom bevri problemaukavSirdeba ekonomikis daqveiTebas sabWoTa sistemis rRvevis Semdeg.narCenebTan mimarTebaSi xazgasmulia sayofacxovrebo narCenebis Segrovebissistemis moSla, narCenebis marTvis ararseboba, narCenebis ganTavsebadauxarisxeblad, saTanadod mouwyobel nagavsayrelebze, uares SemTxvevaSiki ukanono nagavsayrelebze. aseve aRniSnulia, rom sabWoTa periodSi ararsebobda samrewvelo narCenebis marTvis organizebuli sistema daSesabamisi saxelmwifo organoebi. narCenebis ganTavsebisa xdebodasanitariul-higienuri moTxovnebis gauTvaliswineblad. ar xdebodasamedicino da saxifaTo narCenebis gamocalkeveba. ar arsebobda saxifaTonarCenebis gauvneblebis an usafrTxod ganTavsebis saSualebebi. 90-ianiwlebidan narCenebis Segrovebisa da ganTavsebis sistema kidev ufrogauaresda, gaCnda bevri unebarTvo nagavsayreli 37 .sayofacxovrebo da sawarmoo narCenebis marTvis sferoSi xazgasmuliaSemdegi ZiriTadi problemebi:• sayofacxovrebo narCenebis Segrovebis sistemis arasrulyofileba• nagavsayrelebis savalalo mdgomareoba, informaciis naklebobanagavsayrelebis geologiuri da fizikuri maxasiaTeblebis Sesaxeb,ris gamoc, ver xerxdeba nagavsayrelebidan miwisqveSa da zedapiruliwylebis dabinZurebis masStabebis gansazRvra• radiaqtiuri, toqsikuri da sxva saxis saxifaTo narCenebisgadamuSavebisa da gauvneblebis saSualebebisa da ganTavsebisadgilebis ararseboba• narCenebis klasifikaciis ararseboba36 saqarTvelos kanoni garemos dacvis Sesaxeb, muxli 15, 199737 saqarTvelos garemos dacvis moqmedebaTa erovnuli programa, 2000, Tavi 2.5. narCenebismarTva22


• informaciis ararseboba narCenebis tipis, raodenobisa da ganTavsebisadgilebze• momzadebuli personalis simcire municipalur da adgilobrivdoneebzeam problemebis gadasaWrelad erovnul samoqmedo gegmaSi dasaxuliaSemdegi nabijebi:sainvesticio proeqtebi• sayofacxovrebo narCenebis Segrovebisa da transportirebissaSualebaTa SeZena• sayofacxovrebo narCenebis ganTavsebisaTvis nagavsayrelTa mowyobagaremosdacviTi da sanitariuli normebisa da moTxovnebisgaTvaliswinebiT• radiaqtiuri, toqsikuri da sxva saxis saxifaTo narCenebisgansaTavsebeli adgilebis mowyoba garemosdacviTi normebisa damoTxovnebis Sesabamisadsakanonmdeblo cvlilebebi:• narCenebis Sesaxeb kanonisa da Sesabamisi kanonqvemdebare aqtebisSemuSavebainstituciuri cvlilebebi:• narCenebis marTvis sferoSi ekonomikuri instrumentebis danergva,rac xels Seuwyobs narCenebis Semcirebas, reciklirebas an sxvagvargamoyenebas• narCenebis unebarTvod ganTavsebaze kontrolis gaZliereba• sayofacxovrebo narCenebis Segrovebisa da ganTavsebis sistemissaTanadod funqcionirebisaTvis komunaluri gadasaxadisTandaTanobiTi gazrda. narCenebis gamtani kerZo kompaniebisaTvisxelis Sewyoba• specialistebisa da administraciuli personalis kvalifikaciisamaRleba narCenebis marTvis sferoSicalke gamoyofilia sakiTxi saSiSi qimiuri nivTierebebis marTvis Sesaxeb.ZiriTad problemad dasaxelebulia kontrolis ararseboba saSiS qimiurnivTierebaTa importze. garda amisa, didi raodenobiT vadagasulipesticidebi da sasuqebis ganTavsebis faqtebi avariul sawyobebSi, racseriozul safrTxes uqmnis garemos da adamianis janmrTelobas; garemosmonitoringis ararseboba; mosaxleobis informirebulobis dabali done;personalis moumzadebloba; da mdgradi organuli damabinZureblebisSesaxeb garemosdacviTi kvlevis ararseboba.saSiSi qimiuri nivTierebebis gamoyenebis sferoSi gansaxorcielebelRonisZiebaTa Soris dasaxelebulia sainvesticio proeqtebi: saSiS qimiurnivTierebaTa narCenebis gauvnebleba garemosdacviTi moTxovnebisgaTvaliswinebiT; da saSiS qimiur nivTierebaTa narCenebis meorad resursadan nedleulad gamoyenebis sademonstracio proeqtis ganxorcieleba.instituciuri da sakanonmdeblo cvlilebebidan ki xazgasmuliakanonqvemdebare da normatiuli aqtebis SemuSaveba; saSiSi qimiurnivTierebaTa gamocdis, aRricxvisa da registraciis sistemis srulyofasaerTaSoriso standartebis mixedviT; saSiSi qimiuri nivTierebebiT garemosdabinZurebis monitoringis sistemis Camoyalibeba; saSiS qimiur nivTierebaTanarCenebis gauvnebleba-utilizaciis programis SemuSaveba da am sferoSi23


saxelmwifo politikis gatarebis mizniT uwyebaTaSorisi koordinaciisuzrunvelyofa 38 .TavSi ekonomikuri instrumentebis Sesaxeb naxsenebia ekonomikuriinstrumentebis arsebobis saWiroeba narCenebis sferoSic. kerZod,ekonomikuri instrumentebis ganviTareba, romlebic xels SeuwyobenSxamqimikatebis naklebad gamoyenebas soflis meurneobaSi, narCenebiswarmoSobis Semcirebias warmoebasa da yofa-cxovrebaSi, agreTvewarmoSobili narCenebis gadamuSavebasa da reciklirebas.Semdeg cxrilSi mocemulia erovnuli garemos dacviTi programiTgansazRvruli narCenebis sakiTxebTan dakavSirebuli RonisZiebebi da maTisavaraudo dasrulebis vadebi.cxrili 4.1 garemos dacvis moqmedebaTa erovnuli programiTgaTvaliswinebuli gansaxorcielebeli qmedebebi2000 `narCenebis marTvis Sesaxeb~ kanonisa da kanonqvemdebare aqtebismiReba, romlebic moawesrigeben narCenebis klasifikaciis,daxarisxebis, transportirebis, ganTavsebisa da gadamuSavebissakiTxebs.2000 garemosa da bunebrivi resursebis dacvis saministrosa da samrewvelodargSi momuSave specialistebis momzadeba ekologiurad ufro sufTawarmoebis meTodebSi.2001 sainvesticio proeqtebze winadadebaTa momzadeba ekologiurad ufrosufTa warmoebis sademonstracio programisaTvis; proeqtebis wardgenasaerTaSoriso safinanso organizaciebisa da donorebisaTvis.2002 saqarTvelos teritoriaze arsebuli vadagasuli Sxamqimikatebisa damineraluri sasuqebis ganTavsebis mdgomareobis Seswavla.2002 sayofacxovrebo da sawarmoo narCenebis gadamuSavebis sainvesticioproeqtebis momzadeba da dasafinanseblad wardgena saerTaSorisosafinanso organizaciebSi.2002 kanonis miReba, romelic moawesrigebs samTo-mopovebiTi saqmianobisnarCenebis marTvas; inspeqtorebis saTanadod momzadeba axalikanonis normebis ganxorcielebis mizniT.2004 sademonstracio proeqtis ganxorcieleba organuli myarinarCenebisgan biogazis miRebis gziT saTburis efeqtis mqoneairebis emisiis Semcirebis mizniT.4.2 ganxorcielebuli RonisZiebebi2000 wlis saqarTvelos garemos dacvis erovnuli programis SemuSavebidandRemde saqarTvelos garemos dacvisa da bunebrivi resursebis saministroSiganxorcielda Semdegi RonisZiebebi:• mdgradi organuli damabinZureblebis Sesaxeb stokholmis konvenciisSesrulebis mizniT momzadda erovnuli samoqmedo gegma mdgradiorganuli dabaninZureblebis marTvis gaumjobesebisaTvis. proeqtisfarglebSi Catarda pesticidebisa da poliqlorilebuli bifenilebisinventarizacia saqarTveloSi, Seswavlil iqna Tanauri produqtebis– dioqsinebisa da furanebis gafrqvevis masStabebi da Taviseburebani.• Catarda sawarmoo, sayofacxovrebo, biologiuri da samedicinonarCenebis inventarizacia saqarTvelos masStabiT.Tumca, aRsaniSnavia, rom orive SemTxevevaSi, garkveuli limitebis gamo,kvlevam ver moicva qveyanaSi arsebuli obieqtebis didi nawili da mTlianisuraTis misaRebad rig SemTxvevebSi moxda monacemTa eqstrapolacia.38 saqarTvelos garemos dacvis moqmedebaTa erovnuli programa, 2000, Tavi 5.4. narCenebisada saSiSi qimiuri nivTierebebis marTva24


sayofacxovrebo narCenebis gatanisa da ganTavsebis servisis gaumjobesebisTvalsazrisiT konkretuli RonisZiebebi gatarda q. TbilisSi, ZiriTadad,qalaqis meriis iniciativiT. kerZod,• Seiqmna erTiani makoordinirebeli organo – qalaqis dasufTavebissamsaxuri;• Seiqmna qalaqis zedamxedvelobis samsaxuri, romelmac SeiTavsamanamde arsebuli ramdenime saqalaqo samsaxuris funqcia.• ganxorcielda didi raodenobiT investiciebi specializebuliteqnikisa da konteinerebis Sesyidvis mizniT, ramac mniSvnelovnadgaaumjobesa narCenebis gatanis organizacia TbilisSi.• gamkacrda zomebi narCenebis ukanonod dayrisaTvis. daixurasamSeneblo narCenebis ramdenime ukanono nagavsayreli Tbilisisteritoriaze.• momzadda narCenebis marTvis gegma q. TbilisisaTvis. mimdinareobsmuSaoba narCenebis dazustebuli tarifebis SemuSavebis mizniT, maTSoris organizaciebisaTvis.erovnuli samoqmedo gegmiT gaTvaliswinebuli RonisZiebebidan jer kidevar aris miRebuli kanoni narCenebis marTvis Sesaxeb. aseve ar arisdaregulirebuli samTopovebiTi narCenebis marTva. ar aris dawyebuliRonisZiebebi ufro sufTa warmoebis an meoradi gadamuSavebis danergvisperspeqtivebis Seswavlis mizniT.25


5 gansaxorcielebeli nabijebi narCenebiT gamowveulidabinZurebis SemsubuqebisaTvisrogorc aRiniSna, narCenebis marTvis sistemaSi kompleqsuri cvlilebebisganxorcielebisaTvis da narCenebis mdgradi marTvis principebisdasamkvidreblad aucilebelia narCenebis marTvis saxelmwifo politikisSemuSaveba, romlis farglebSic Seiqmneba narCenebis marTvis regionuli dalokaluri gegmebi da Sesabamisi regulaciis meqanizmebi. sxva SemTxvevaSikonkretuli ganxorcielebuli qmedebebi fragmentuli xasiaTis iqneba daver uzrunvelyofs erTiani narCenebis marTvis sistemis Camoyalibebas.Tumca, amJamindeli, moqmedi regulaciebis pirobebSi narCenebiT gamowveulidabinZurebis problemebis Sesamsubuqeblad SeiZleba yuradReba gamaxvildesSemdeg ramdenime sakiTxze: arsebuli narCenebis gatana/ganTavsebissistemebis gaumjobeseba; dasawyobebuli mitovebuli narCenebis kerebisgauvnebleba; samrewvelo, samedicino da maT Soris saxifaTo narCenebismarTvis uzrunvelyofa; kontrolis meqanizmebis gaZliereba; narCenebiTgamowveuli dabinZurebis SeswavlisaTvis kvlevebis ganxorcieleba.• narCenebis marTvis sistemas gaumjobesebasaqarTveloSi jer kidev problemas warmoadgens garemoSi mimofantulinarCenebi, aralegaluri nagavsayrelebi, narCenebiT zedapiruli wylebisuSualo dabinZureba, rac ZiriTadad narCenebis gatanis sistemisarasrulyofil muSaobas ukavSirdeba. problema gansakuTrebiT mwvavearegionebSi, miT ufro, rom zogierTi raioni ar aris uzrunvelyofilinarCenebis gatanis servisiT. usistemod ganTavsebuli narCenebi kidev ufroamwvavebs narCenebiT gamowveuli dabinZurebis problemebs. amasTan,narCenebis dawva raionebSi sadac ar arsebobs an saTanadod arfunqcionirebs narCenebis gatanis centralizebuli sistema, iwvevs haerisdabinZurebas.mdgomareobis gasaumjobeseblad aucilebelia narCenebis gataniscentralizebuli sistemis arsebobis uzrunvelyofa saqarTvelos mTelteritoriaze. efeqturobisaTvis mizanSewonilia narCenebis marTvisorganizeba regionul doneze, kerZod, municipalitetebis gaerTianeba daerToblivi narCenebis gatanis sistemas Camoyalibeba. am SemTxvevaSiSesaZlebeli gaxdeba arsebuli sayofacxovrebo narCenebis nagavsayrelebisoptimizacia, arasaWiro da ukanono nagavsayrelebis daxurva da maTzenarCenebis ganTavsebis akrZalva. narCenebis gatanis sistemas gaumjobeseba dakontrolis gaZliereba xels Seuwyobs narCenebis ukanono ganTavsebisa danarCenebiT garemos uSualod dabinZurebis aRkveTas. aseve yuradReba undamieqces nagavsayrelebze narCenebis sworad ganTavsebas. rogorc aRiniSna,saqarTveloSi dRes arsebuli sayofacxovrebo narCenebis nagavsayrelebiabsoluturad mouwyobelia da ver uzrunvelyofs garemos dabinZurebisTavidan acilebas. narCenebis ganTavsebisas umetesad ar warmoebs iseTielementaruli samuSaoebic ki rogoricaa narCenebis fenebis miwiTgadafarva. Sedegad ki xSiria narCenebis spontanuri aalebis SemTxvevebi,rac haeris dabinZurebas iwvevs. garda amisa xdeba narCenebis mimofantvaqaris mier mimdebare garemoSi. amis Tavidan asacileblad aucilebeliasayofacxovrebo narCenebis nagavsayrelebis gadafarva da narCenebisganTavsebisaTvis saWiro RonisZiebebis regularuli ganxorcieleba dakontroli.• sawarmoo narCenebis marTvakvlav gaugebaria sad xvdeba samrewvelo narCenebis didi nawili.samrewvelo narCenebis regulirebis ararsebobis pirobebSi advilad xdeba26


mwarmoeblis mier narCenebze pasuxismgeblobis Tavidan acileba. amisaTvisaucilebelia:o mwarmoeblis valdebulebis gansazRvra narCenebis mimarT –mwarmoebeli valdebulia uzrunvelyos mis mier warmoqmnilinarCenebis gatana da usafrTxod ganTavsebao sawarmoo narCenebis ganTavsebisaTvis specialuri poligonismowyobanarCenebis mimarT mwarmoeblis pasuxismgeblobis elementebi mizanSewoniliagaTvaliswinebuli iyos sanebarTvo pirobebSi, raTa SesaZlebeli gaxdesSemdgomi kontrolis ganxorcieleba.• samedicino narCenebis marTvaiseve rogorc samrewvelo narCenebis SemTxvevaSi, aucilebelia samedicinonarCenebis regulirebis dawyeba. samkurnalo-profilaqtikurmadawesebulebebma unda uzrunvelyon samedicino narCenebis daxarisxebamoqmedi regulaciebis mixedviT da SeimuSaon maT mier warmoqmnilinarCenebis marTvis sqemebi. mizanSewonilia samkurnalo-profilaqtikuridawesebulebebis valdebulebebi maT mier warmoqmnili samedicino narCenebismimarT gaTvaliswinebuli iyos salicenzio pirobebSi. amasTan, aucilebeliamkafiod ganisazRvros am tipis narCenebis makontrolebeli organoebisfunqciebi.• saxifaTo narCenebis usafrTxod ganTavsebagaremoze miyenebuli zianis Semcirebis mizniT aucilebelia sxvadasxvatipis narCenebidan saxifaTo fraqciebis gamoyofa da misi specializebuligziT gauvnebleba/ganTavseba.• dasawyobebuli narCenebis gauvneblebagarda amisa, garemoze miyenebuli zianis SemsubuqebisaTvis aucilebeliaZveli, dasawyobebuli samrewvelo narCenebis gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovanikerebis gauvnebleba/sworad ganTavseba. kerZod,o canisa (lentexis raioni) da uravis (ambrolauris raioni)samToqimiuri narCenebi; baTumis navTobgadamamuSavebeli qarxnisteritoriaze ganlagebuli mJave gudroni; manganumis SemcveliSlami WiaTuraSi; dariSxanis Semcveli qimiuri nivTierebebismopovebis narCenebi raWaSi; kazreTis samTomopovebiTinarCenebi;aucilebelia am narCenebis qimiuri Sedgenilobisa da fizikurimaxasiaTeblebis Seswavla da maTi usafrTxo ganTavsebis/gadamuSavebismeTodebis SemuSaveba.garda amisa, aucilebelia vadagasuli pesticidebis gauvnebleba, rac asevegaTvaliswinebulia mdgradi organuli damabinZureblebis Sesaxeb 2007-2022wlebis erovnul samoqmedo gegmaSi.• kontrolis gaZlierebaaucilebelia makontrolebeli organoebis funqciebis makfiod gansazRvrarogorc nagavsayreli poligonebis, ise sawarmoebis SemTxvevaSi. moqmedkanonmdeblobaSi 39 ar aris mkafiod gansazRvruli sayofacxovrebo39 saqarTvelos Sromis, janmrTelobisa da socialuri dacvis ministris 2003 wlis 24Tebervlis #36/n brZaneba myari sayofacxovrebo gadanayrebis poligonebis mowyobisa daeqspluataciis sanitariuli wesebisa da normebis damtkicebis Sesaxeb27


narCenebis nagavsayrelebis kontrolisa da monitoringis procedurebi. asevear aris dakonkretebuli makontrolebeli organoebi da maTi funqciebi.amasTan instituciuri cvlilebebis Sedegad Seicvala arsebuli kontrolisinstitutebis funqciebi da valdebulebebi, kerZod, gauqmda saxelmwifosanitariuli inspeqcia; 2005 wels Camoyalibda garemos dacvis saxelmwifokontrolis ganmaxorcielebeli erTiani organo – garemos dacvis inspeqcia.amdenad, aucilebelia kanonmdeblobaSi Sesabamisi cvlilebebisganxorcieleba da makontrolebeli organoebis valdebulebebis mkafiodgansazRvra.aRsaniSnavia, rom garemos dacvis inspeqciis 2007-2010 wlebis samoqmedostrategiaSi prioritetul saqmianobebs Soris dasaxelebulia dabinZurebisiseTi kerebis kontroli rogoricaa samrewvelo da sayofacxovrebonarCenebis poligonebi da pesticidebis sawyobebi. aseve, narCenebis ukanonopoligonebis identificireba da maTi gafarToebisa da axali ukanonopoligonebis Seqmnis SezRudvis Sesaxeb rekomendaciebis SemuSaveba. 40efeqturi kontrolis ganxorcielebisaTvis aucilebelia inspeqtirebissixSirisa da moTxovnebis dadgena rogorc nagavsayrelebisaTvis isesawarmoebisaTvis. mizanSewonilia sawarmoebis inspeqtirebam moicvasnarCenebis kontrolic, miT ufro, Tu narCenebis marTva sanebarTvopirobebis nawili gaxdeba. aseve, mkafiod unda ganisazRvros samedicinonarCenebis makontrolebeli organoebis funqciebi da kontrolismeqanizmebi.• narCenebis SemcirebagrZelvadian perspeqtivaSi mniSvnelovania narCenebis raodenobis Semcirebada narCenebis gadamuSavebis dawyeba. am TvalsazrisiT, mizanSewonilianarCenebis meoradi gadamuSavebisaTvis kerZo iniciativebis xelSewyoba.aseve, samrewvelo narCenebis Semcirebisa da ufro sufTa warmoebismeTodebis SemuSaveba/danergvis waxaliseba.• kvlevebi narCenebiT gamowveuli dabinZurebis SeswavlisaTvis.rogorc aRiniSna, dResdReobiT saqarTveloSi ar arsebobs kvlevebi,romlebic uSualod narCenebiT gamowveuli garemos dabinZurebis faqtebsgamoavlenda. am TvalsazrisiT, saWiroa niadagis, miwisqveSa wylebis dazedapiruli wylebis sinjebis perioduli gamokvleva nagavsayrelebismimdebare teritoriaze da sawarmoo narCenebiT mniSvnelovani dabinZurebiswertilebSi. amasTan unda moxdes narCenebis monacemTa bazis mudmiviganaxleba, maT Soris dasawyobebuli narCenebis Sesaxeb; da garemozezemoqmedebis inventarizacia.40 garemos dacvis inspeqciis strategiuli samoqmedo koncefcia 2007-2010 (proeqti)28


6 gamoyenebuli literaturagerhard blumenroteri, TbilisSi warmoqmnili narCenebis analizi, 2003mdgradi organuli dambinZureblebi – erovnuli samoqmedo gegma 2007-2022saqarTvelos garemos dacvis inspeqciis strategiuli samoqmedo koncefcia2007-2010 (proeqti)saqarTvelos garemos dacvisa da bunebrivi resursebis saministro,erovnuli mosxeneba garemos mdgomareobis Sesaxeb 1999-2000saqarTvelos garemos dacvisa da bunebrivi resursebis saministro,erovnuli mosxeneba garemos mdgomareobis Sesaxeb 2004saqarTvelos teritoriaze narCenebis inventarizaciis angariSi, 2007saqarTvelos ekonomikuri ganviTarebis saministros statistikisdepartamenti statistikuri publikacia mrewveloba saqarTveloSi, 2006saqarTvelos kanoni garemos dacvis SesaxebsaqarTvelos kanoni garemosdacviTi nebarTvebis Sesaxeb, 1996saqarTvelos kanoni licenziebisa da nebarTvebis Sesaxeb, 2005saqarTvelos mTavrobis 2005 wlis 1 seqtembris dadgenileba #154“garemoze zemoqmedebis nebarTvis gacemis wesisa da pirobebis Sesaxebdebulebis damtkicebis Taobaze”saqarTvelos Sromis, janmrTelobisa da socialuri dacvis ministris 2003wlis 24 Tebervlis #36/n brZaneba myari sayofacxovrebo gadanayrebispoligonebis mowyobisa da eqspluataciis sanitariuli wesebisa da normebisdamtkicebis SesaxebsaqarTvelos Sromis, janmrTelobisa da socialuri dacvis ministris 2001wlis 16 agvistos brZaneba #300/n samkurnalo-profilaqtikuridawesebulebebis narCenebis Segrovebis, Senaxvisa da gauvneblebissanitariuli wesebis damtkicebis SesaxebHandbook of Pollution Control and Waste Minimization, 2002, edited by AbbasGhassemi, Marcel Dekker, IncEnvironmetnal Performance Review of Georgia, UNECE, 2003, Chapter 6, WasteChemicals and Contaminated SitesEnvironmetnal Performance Review of Georgia, UNECE, 2003, Chapter 9, Mining,Industry and Environment29

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